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Full text of "Italian conversation-grammar"

IN MEMORIAM- 
BERNARD MOSES 





(/ -J -^ 




ITALIAN 



L I 
> • 



CONVERSATION-GRAMMAR.. 



y[jj^./r kAMAJUlL ^'^S^-^-iMLU>^^ 



By L. B, CUORE. -^-a' -^ -. 



FIFTH EDITION, REVISED 




BOSTON: 
8. R. URBINO, 14 BROMFIELD STREET. 

NEW YORK: 
LEYPOLDT & HOLT ; F. W. CIIRISTERN. 

1870. 




B€RNARD MOSES 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 

S. R. URBINO, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



Presswork by John Wilson and Son. 






' ) 



rJ 



PREFACE. 



This Grammar, based on that of Robello and others, 
claims to be all that is necessary for the study of the 
elements of the Italian lano^uas^e. 

Great pains have been taken to present the verbs in a 
clear, concise manner ; and though, for the sake of easy 
comparison, they are placed at the end of the book, the 
student is requested to study a part of them with every 
lesson. 

It is hoped that this little work will fill the place for 
which it is intended. 

THE AUTHOR. 



7749M 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Paob 

Italian Gramimar 1 

CHAPTER I. 

Pronunciation 1 

Etyimology 15 

CHAPTER n. 
The Article c . . 16 

CHAPTER m. 
Union of the Articles and Prepositions 21 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Noun 26 

CHAPTER V. 
The Plural of ITouns and Adjectives 32 

CHAPTER VI. 
The Cases of Nouns 40 

CHAPTER Vn. 
Pronouns 46 

CHAPTER Vin. 
Pronouns: Personal and Conjunctive 65 

[y] 



Vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. PAOB 

The Adjective 61 

CHAPTER X. 
Adjectives : their Compahatives » • 67 

CHAPTER XI. 
The Adjectives : Superlatives • 72 

CHAPTER Xn. 

AUGMENTATIVES AND DiMHSfUTIVES 76 

CHAPTER Xm. 
The Numeral Adjectives • • • • 82 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Relatr^e Pronouns 89 

CHAPTER XV. 
Possessive Adjective Pronouns . • • 96 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Demonstrative Adjective Pronouns 103 

CHAPTER XVII. • 
Indefinite Adjective Pronouns •"•••109 

CHAPTER XVHL 
Indefinite Adjective Pronouns (continued) 115 

CHAPTER XIX. 
The Prepositions, Bi, A, Da 121 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. viJ 

CHAPTER XX. r^oH 

The Prepositions Con, In, Per 129 

CHAPTER XXI. 

The PREPOgiTiONS (continued) 135 

CHAPTER XXn. 

The Verbs Essere and Avtre 141 

CHAPTER XXm. 

The Verbs aj^td their Syntax 146 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

The Verb: The Subjunctive Mood 153 

CHAPTER XXV. 

The Infinitive, Gerund, Present and Past Participles 159 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

The Verbs Anddre, Bare, Fare, and Stare 166 

CHAPTER XXVn. 

Adverbs 171 

CHAPTER XXVm. 

Conjunctions and Interjections 179 

VERBS. 

Auxiliary Verbs 186 

Regular Verbs 188 

Irregular Verbs 214 

Defective Verbs 246 

Proverbs 259 

Idioms » 263 

voc^vbulary 266 

Index 275 






• • t •■ • 






ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



Italian Gramihar teaches the principles of the ItaHan 
language. These relate, — 

1. To its written characters ; 

2. To its pronunciation ; 

3. To the classification and derivation of its words ; 

4. To the construction of its sentences ; 

5. To its versification. 

The first part is called Orthography ; the second, 
Orthoepy ; the third, Etymology ; the fourth. Syntax ; 
and the fifth. Prosody. 



CHAPTER I. 

PEONUNCIATION. 

The Italian alphabet consists of twenty-two letters : — 

A, a ; B, b ; C, c ; D, d ; E, e ; F, f ; G, g ; H, h ; I, i ; J, j ; 
L, 1; M, m; N, n ; O, o; P, p; Q, q; R, r; S, s ; T, t; U, u ; 
V, V ; Z, z. 

The letters Jc, iv, x, and y, sometimes occur, but only 
in words derived from foreign sources. 

SOUNDS OF THE ITALIAN LETTERS. 

In Italian, every vowel must be distinctly sounded. 
The five vowels, a, e, i, o, 7i, are thus pronounced : — 

1 



2 



IT^O^IAN GKAIVIMAR. 



SOUNDS OF THE VOWELS. 



A, as 

E, as 

I, as 

O, as 

U, as 



a 

ee 

o 

ou 



in father ; 
in made ; 
in eel; 
in Rome ; 
in sowp. 



REMAllKS. 



E has two different sounds, — open and close : 

E close, as in grey, pain : 
Tema, fear. 
Venti, twenty. 
Mela, apple. 



E open, as in mate, name : 
T'ema, subject. 
Venti, winds. 
Avena, oats. 



O has likewise two sounds, — open and close : 



open, as in cord : 
Botta, blow. 
Rosa, rose. 



close, as in bone : 
Botte, cask. 
Ora. hour. 



To become thoroughly acquainted with the open and 
close sounds of E and O, three things are especially 
necessary: 1. Practice ; 2. Peactice ; 3. PRACTICE. 



sounds of the consonants. 



The greater portion of the consonants in the Italian 
language are pronounced as in English, 
are the exceptions : — 



The following 



c and ff before e 
of speech. It is 



C, which takes the sound of ch before i or e: otherwise it 

sounds like k. 
H, which is used only to harden the sound of 

and ^, and to distinguish different parts 

never sounded. 
J sounds like ee. 
Q is never used without u, and is sounded like q in the English 

word quire. 
R, which is sounded as if rolled on the point of 
Z, which is sounded like ts and ds. 
L, M, N, and R are liquids, or semivowels. 



the tongue. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



COMPOUND SOUNDS. 



Ch i 


sounds 


Gh 


» 


Gn 


jj 


Gli 


5) 


Sci 


)) 


SCE 


J) 


SCH 


?) 



like k in English. 

hard as in English. 

like 71 in the word onion. 

like // in the word William. 

like SHE. 

like SHA. 

like SK. 

Cc, followed by the vowels e, i, is pronounced like tch in the 
English word match. 

Gg, followed by e, «', sounds like dg in the word lodge. 



The exact sound of the letters can be obtained only by 
hearing good pronunciation, and by repeating after the 
teacher, as almost every language has some sounds which 
can only be learned by practising with an experienced 
teacher. 

But, as an Italian teacher is not always to be found, we 
shall endeavor to give a few concise and practical rules, 
by which the student may make himself familiar with the 
language of Dante, Alfieri, Boccaccio, Ariosto, Tasso, 
Petrarca, MafFei, Manz6ni, and a host of other writers, 
whose works will never cease to form part of the belles 
lettres of every country. 

Diphthongs, as we understand them in English, do not 
exist in Italian. Dr. Bachi, in his excellent Grammar, 
speaks gf diphthongs and triphthongs, by which he means 
such a blending of the vowels that each is but faintly 
lieard. 

The apostrophe (') indicates that a vowel is omitted ; 
as, Voro, instead of lo dro, the gold ; deW dnhna, instead 
of della dnima, of the soul ; &c. 

The_^ra\'e_accent (') i^s jused on the last vowels of 
some words ; as, cittd (formerly cittade) : or as a termina- 
tion which must be pronounced sharply; as, avrd, amoy 
resso. 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION. 

A Casa, musica, danza. 

A Felicita, dara, sara. 

E (close) Bene, pedone. 

E (open) Tema, pena, erba. 

J Principj, proverbj, compendj. 

I Inimico, clbo, ripieno. 

O (close) Corso, amore, fonte. 

O (open) Povero, tolto, popolo. 

U Duo, tiio, siio. 

Ce Cento, cece, fellce. 

Ci Pacifico, dieci, cibo. 

Ch Chiodo, chi, che. 

Ga, Go, Gu .... Gamba, pago, gusto. 

Ge, Gi Germano, digito, legione. 

Gn Campagna, magnetico. 

Gli (liquid) .... Figlio, figlia, gli, meglio. 

S (strong) Santo, studio, senso. 

S (soft) Guisa, casa, cosa. 

ScA, Sco, Scu . . . Scabro, scolare, scuola. 

ScE, Sci Scena, scinto, fascia. 

Zz {z like ts) ... Nozze, fazzoletto. 

Zz {z like ds) . . . Azzurro, mezzo. 

REMARKS. 

Double consonants must be very flistinctly pronounced, 
thus: im?nenso, im-ynen-so ; innocente, in-7io-cente ; &Q.. 

Jivery syllable must contain a vowel, and cannQt^cceiye 
more than one consonant afler it in the same syllable, 
but may be preceded by one, two, or three. All Italian 
words end with a vowel, except z'Z, the ; con^ witli ; non, 
not ; per^ for ; and a few others. The final vowel is, 
however, very often dropped for euphony. 

READING EXERCISE IN PRONUNCIATION. 

To impress the following exercise on the memory of k 
the pupil, many English words are omitted. The pupil 
is required to fill them up : this can be done with the help 
of the dictionary. 



PEONUNCIATION. 5 

LA FANCIULLA DI BUON i'nDOLE. 
THE GIP.L OF GOOD DISPOSITION. 

La Marchesa Giulia andava in carrettella a far visita alia 
The went little carriage to make to the 

sorella die stiiva in villa, e aveva con se solamente una 
sister who was country, and had with her only a 

cameriera e uno staffiere. Una ruota della carrettella si riippe, 
chambermaid and a footman. wheel of the ^^ '' :^ broke, 

e benche per budna sorte non rimanesse ferito nessuno, 
although by good fortune remained wounded no one, 

bisogno scendere, e adattarsi di andare a piedi ad un 

it was necessary to descend (adapt) prepare to go on foot 

villaggio lontano di li quasi tre miglia. La Marchesa 

distant from there almost three miles. 

mando innanzi il servitore per fare avvisare un carrozziere 
sent before the servant for to make to give notice carriage-maker 

clie venisse ad accomodare la carrettella ; il cocchiere rimase 
which should come mend coachman stayed 

con i cavc411i, e la signora prese a braccio la cameriera, e si 

with the horses lady took arm 



avvio. 



set forward. 

Era sul mezzogiorno, e il sole dava lore molta noja ; 

It was mid-day sun gave to them much inconvenience; 

dimodoche la signora, non avvezza a camminare a piedi, presto 
so that accustomed walk on foot vciy soon 

presto si stracco, e per riposarsi ebbe ad uscir di stnida, ed 
was tired for to repose had leave street 

entnire in un prato dove erano delle querce. La si mise a 
enter meadow where there were of the oaks. There she put herself 

sedere all' ombra sotto uno di quegli alberi, e guardo con 
sit to the shade under one of those trees observed 

piacere il bel prospetto die le era dinanzi. A un tratto clla 
pleasure fine prospect which her was before. all at once she 

vide passar pel prato una ragazzina con un fjistt'llo di legna 
saw to pass through little girl faggot of wood 



m capo, 
ou head. 



1» 



6 ITALIAN GRAMIVIAR. 

Ragazzina piu bella di quella non era mai passata sott' 
Girl more beautiful than that was ever before 

occhio alia Marchesa. Le sue carni parevano latte e r6se, i suoi 
eye her cheeks appeared milk roses her 

grand' occhi celesti erano pieni di dolcezza, e sotto una pezzuola 
great eyes blue were full sweetness under handkerchief 

di cotone giallo, annodata intorno al capo, venivan fuori le 
cambric yellow, tied about the head, came out 

ciocche de' suoi biondi capelli, e davan grazia vieppiu a quella 
tufts fair hair gave grace much more that 

bella fisonomia. La signora non aveva figli, e se ne 

had children herself of it 

addolorava. A veder dunque quella cara fanciullina, non pote 
grieved. see then dear girl was able 

a meno d'invidiarelamadresiia; e disse alia cameriera di andare 
at least to envy said * go 

a chiamar la bambina e condurgliela. Questa si avvicino con un 
call child conduct her to her. advanced 

contegno modesto ma franco, poso il suo fastello, fece un 
countenance but put down made 

inchino alia Marchesa, e le domando se avea qualcosa da 
bow to her asked if she had something to 

comandarle. Niente, rispose la dama ; voglio soltanto parlare 
command of her. Nothing, answered lady ; I wish only to speak 

un po' con te : mettiti a sedere qui sulF erba, e prima di tutto 
little thee : put thyself sit here grass before all 

dimmi come tu ti chiami ? Rosa Liici, al comando suo. 
tell me how thou thyself callest? at 3^our. 

II babbo e la mamma li hai vivi ? II mio babbo e morto ch' e 
papa them hast thou alive ? my is dead 

un pezzo ; la mia mamma ha me sola e si sta qui in un villaggio 

has alone is here 

vicino. M' immagino che non siate molto feli'ci. Oh, perche ? 
near. I imagine maybe very happy. why? 

Noi ci vogliamo bene, e siamo contente. Ma mi pare 
We ourselves wish well are to me it seems 

che voi siete molto povere ! 

you are very poor! 

Noi ci guadagniamo il pane con le nostre fatiche: 
We to ourselves gain the bread the our labors: 



PRONUNCIATION. 7 

abbiamo delle galline che ci fanno le uova ; e la mia mamma 

we have some hens which make eggs 

oggi e andata al paese a venderle, ed i quattrini si serbano 
to-day is gone to the country to sell them the money serves 

per la pigione di casa. E in che lavorate voi per guadagnarvi 
rent house. work you gain 

da mangiare ? Nell' estate noi andiamo a sarchiare, e dopo la 
to eat ? In the summer we go to weed after 

mietitiira andiamo a spigolare. Ma se durate tanta fatica, 
harvest glean. But if endure so much fatigue, 

mangiate male e andate mal vestite, come potete voi essere 
you eat badly go ill dressed, how can you be 

contente ? Noi a tutte queste cose non ci pensiamo 
We (of all these things not ourselves think 

nemmeno ; quando s' ha fame si ringrazia Iddio di avere di 
at all ; when one has hunger one thanks God to have of 

che satollarsi, e ogni cosa par buona. Se noi non abbiamo 
what satisfy every thing seems good. If we not have 

vestiti belli, siarao pure coperte e decenti ; sono solamente i 
clothes fine we are yet covered are only 

})igri che vanno sempre strappati e siidici ; la mamma pensa a 
lazy who go always ragged dirty thinks 

rassettare le nostre robicciole, ed io gia comincio ad aiutarla. 
to repair our clothes I already begin to help her. 

Rosa, vuoi venir meco a quel villaggio ? Volontieri : tanto la 
wilt come with me to that Willingly whilst 

mia mamma fino a stassera non torna; ma bisogna che 
until this evening returns it is necessary 

intanto io porti a casa mia questo fastello. E se lo comprassi 
meanwhile carry house my if it should buy 

.0 ? Allora poi ! ma costa sei soldi, veh ! Eccoti sei soldi 
I? Then but costs six cents, hum! Behold 

(I'ispose la Marchesa alzandosi), posa li il tuo fastello, e vieni 

rising, put there como 

con noi. Ma s' ella 1' ha comprato, bisogna ch' io gliclo porti 
But if you have it bought, it is necessary tliat I it carry 

(e voleva ripigliarlo), ma la Marchesa glielo impedi, e prcse 

she wished to take it again prevented took 

ia via del villaggio, dove arrivata, entro in un albergo {hotel) 
way where entered 

d' apparenza assai decente. 
appearance enough 



8 ITALI^^ GKAJiOIAR. 

Lo staffiere venne a dirle clie per accomodare la sua 
The footman came to tell her mend 

carrozza gli bisognavano cinque ore. La Marchesa ordino il 
needed five hours. - ordered 

pranzo, V ostessa la condiisse in una stanza pulita ove essa entro 
dinner hostess conducted room clean where she entered 

insieme con le altre due; diede poi segretamente degll ordini 
together other two; gave then secretly of the orders 

alia cameriera che usci per eseguirli. In questo frattempo la 

went out execute. meanwhile 

Marchesa continuo a parlare con Rosina, e si trovo contenta 

to speak found 

sempre piu del candore delle sue risposte, e sopratiitto della sua 
always more candor her answers above all 

tenerezza per la propria madre. 
tenderness own 

La cameriera torno carica de' vestiti che aveva comprati nel 
returned laden clothes she had bought 

villaggio; spoglio, per drdine della padrona, la picclna, e le 
imdressed, by order mistress little one 

mlse indosso una camicia di cotone, un sottanino ricaraato, e 
put upon her shirt cambric petticoat embroidered 

una vestina di seta color verde chiaro, con un ornamento di 
govra silk green light ornament 

merletti color di rosa ; poi le acconcio i capelli, colle trecce le 
lace then dressed hair braids 

formo una specie di corona sul capo, e vi pose una ghirlanda di 
formed sort crown head put garland 

fiori. Rosa dapprima faceva la ritrosa, e si vergognava a 
flowers. at first made shy was ashamed 

vedersi vestire da signora ; ma poi, siccome era di naturale 
to see to dress ' then, as she was by 

molto compiacente, si sottomise a tutto. Quando fu assettata 
very complaisant submitted all. When she was fitted out 

per bene, la Marchesa la condiisse davanti alio specchio, e le 

fully her conducted before her mirror and to her 

disse che si guardasse. La picclna si guardo sott' occhio 
said that herself she should look at. little one regarded 

n^llo specchio, sorrise ed arrosi. 

smiled and blushed. 



PRONUNCIATION. 9 



V 



Che ne dici eh! disse la Marchesa ; non ci a^resti 
What to it sayest thou -would have 

gusto di star sempre vestita in questo modo? Si; ma come si 
taste to be always dressed manner? Yes how 

pu6 con questi abiti andar a tagliar 1' erba e sarchiare ? Vedi, se 
can clothes to go cut grass to weed ? See if 

tu fossi la mia figliuola, com' io lo desidererei, tu non faticheresti 
thou wert daughter as I it should desire fatigue thyself 

piu in questo modo ; tu impareresti a leggere, scrivere, e 
more shouldst learn to read write 

cantare ; e ti rimarrebbe anche tempo per divertirti ; io ti 
to sing to thee would remain even time to amuse 

menerei a spasso in carrozza, e ti farei giocare in tante 

would lead would make to amuse so many 

maniere. A me, la mia mamma ha detto sempre che Dio sa 
manners (ways). To me has said always that God knows 

quel che fa. Dio ha voluto che ella fosse Marchesa, ed io 
what he does. wished you should be 

lina contadina, ma io preghero Dio di darle una figliolina, ed 

will pray to give you 

ella e tanto buona che il signore la fara contenta. 
vou are so lord you will make 

La signora Giulia non si saziava di accarezzare Rosina: 

satisfied to caress 

faceva ammirare alia cameriera la gentilezza dei suoi modi, le 
she made admire gentleness 

grazie della persona ; e questa, per far la corte alia padrona la 

she to please the her 

lodava anche piii di lei, e la Rosina ascoltava queste Iddi tutta 
praise than she heard 

confusa. Vennero ad avvisare che il pranzo era all' ordine: 
They came inform dinner was ready 

la Marchesa passo in una piccola sala con Rosa per mano, e la 
passed into a little parlor hand he 

fece mettere a sedere a tavola accanto a se. La povera 
caused to put sit table at the side 

fanciuUina si vergognava talmente, che quasi piangeva ma 

bashful so almost to weep 

vedendosi trattatta con tanta bonta, comincio a rassiciirarsi un 
seeing herself treated kindness began re-assure 

poco. 



10 ITALIAN GllAIUMAR. 

La minestra le parve si buona, che ne maiigio assai; 
soup to her seemed of it she eat enough 

e il lesso c.lie venne dopo, le parve una vivanda sqnisita ; e si 
boiled meat came after to her seemed food exquisite 

sazio afFatto ; dimodoche, quando vennero in tavola gli altri 
satiated so that when came the other 

piatti per quanto la Signora la pregasse, non pote piu mangiare. 

dishes begged was able to eat. 

11 Vino poi non vi fu modo di farglielo bere ; appena Y ebbe 
wine then there was to make to drink; hardly had 

ella assaggiato si riscosse, e chiese che per carita le dessero 
she tasted shuddered asked for charity her should give 

deir acqua. Allorche ella vide venire le frutta e i dolci, mando 
When saw to come fruit sweets uttered 

un grido di sorpresa. Un altro pranzo ! eh ! Ella poteva 
cry surprise. dinner could 

chiamare tiitti i ragazzi del villaggio, v' era da sfaraarli tiitti 
call children there was to satisfy 

Ebbene Rosa, se tu viioi venire a star con me, tu sarai 
Well if thou wishest to come to be shalt be 

trattata tutti i giorni come oggi, e anche meglio. Per me, 

treated days as to-day even better. 

Signora mia, farei tutto per compiacerla; ma egli e 
I would do to please j'ou 

impossibile ch' io lasci la mia mamma, che non ha altro che 
should leave has other than 

me per ajutarla e vegliarla quand' e malata. Io paghero una 
to help her to care for her when sick. will pay 

donna perche la serva. Si, ma qu^sta donna non le vorra 
woman for her serve (that she may serve her). would wish 

bene come io gliene voglio e la servira solamente per 
well as to her wish her would serve only 

guadagnare. La mia mamma ha preso ciira di me quand' io 
to gain. taken care 

era piccina; ora ch' io sono grande, non voglio abbandonarla ; 

I wish 

quando ella sara vecchia, io lavorero per darle da mangiare 
will be old will work to give her to eat 

edme ella faceva per me quando io non mi poteva guadagnare il 
as did was able to gain the 



PRONUNCIATION. 11 

pdne. La Marchesa era intenerita dai sentimenti di questa 
bread. affected by the 

fanciulla, e non ebbe piu il coraggio d' insistere : le permise di 

had permitted 

riprendere la sua vesticciola, e tornar dalla mamma, die doveva 
to take again dress return ought 

cominciare ad essere in pensiero per l^i. Innanzi di lasciarla 
to begin to be thought for her. Before allowing her 

partire, 1' abbraccio, ed empi le sue tasche di quei pasticcini 
to depart, she embraced her filled pockets cakes 

e di quelle pastine che essa non aveva neppure assaggiate. 
that pastry had not even tasted. 

La Rosina pareva un uccelletto scappato dalle mani di un 
appeared like a bird escaped hands 

ragdzzo che lo volesse ingabbiare : aveva pr^so i suoi zoccoli 
boy who it wished • to cage : she had taken wooden shoes 

in mano, e cosi scalza correva tanto lesta, che la cameriera, a 
hand so barefooted ran so quickly to 

cui la marchesa aveva comandato di tenerle dietro, duro fatica 
whom keep found it difficult 

a non la perder di vista. Essa nonostante arrive al casolare 
her to lose from sight. notwithstanding arrived house 

quasi subito dopo Rosa, la trovo nelle braccie della sua 
soon after her she found in the arms 

mamma, alia quale ella raccontava che una bella signora la 

related 

Toleva condurre con se, promettendole vestiti belli e tre 
wished to take her with her, promising her clothes fine three 

pranzi ogni giorno. lo nondimeno son venuta via (aggiungeva 
dinners every day. nevertheless am come added 

^lla), perche sebbene io voglia bene a quella signora, la* non e 
although wish well 

poi la mia mamma, 
then 

La cameriera disse a quella contadina che dlla sua padr6na 

told 

era piaciuto tanto il buon cuore della Rosina, che voleva 
pleased wished 

• La for eWa, she. 



12 ITALIAN GRAMMAE. 

assicurarle una pensione di dugento franchi, e al suo ritorno 

to secure to her two hundred francs return 

dlla citta ne avr^bbe segnato il contratto : le lascio 1' indirlzzo, 

would have to sign she left her direction 

e le raccomando di venirla a vedere la domenica prossima, e 
advised to come to see Sunday next 

menar con se la Rosina. La donna glielo promise, 
to bring with her it to her promised. 

La Marchesa Giiilia, benche non fosse avvezza a sentirsi 

although accustomed to hear herself 

contradire, sicc6me d' altra parte 411a era generosa e di cuor 
contradicted, on other hand heart 

buono riconobbe che non avea potesta di disporre di Rosa contro 
recognized power dispose against 

il suo volere, ne di obbligarla a preferir lei alia propria madre ; 
will, nor oblige her to prefer her to her own 

percio si determino a farle in altro modo tiitto quel bene ch' 
therefore determined another manner all the good 

ella poteva. Accolse dunque le contadine con m61ta alFabilita, 
she could. She approached then 

e ddpo cb' ella ebbe parlato con la madre, non si maraviglio piu 

after had spoken was astonished 

delle qualita buone della figliudla. Quella donna in fatti 4ra 

daughter. That lady fact was 

tutta probita e delicatezza : contenta del suo state, non invidiava 
all delicacy state . envy 

niente i riccbi, i quali diceva essa, son pur sottop(5sti, come tutti 
any one rich who said she are exposed 

gli altri uomini, dlle malattie ed ai dispiaceri, e dovrdnno rendere 

diseases and to misfortunes ought to render 

un gran conto delle loro ricchezze, dove non se ne servano in 

account riches where serve (use) for 

bene. 

good. 

La Marcbesa fece alia Rosina il regalo che le aveva 
made present for her she had 

destindto, ed erano ire vaccherelle, le quali ella fece consegndre 

three young cows which she made to consign 

jlUa madre perche le conducesse con se : ed aggiunse, essere 

should conduct added to be (it was) 



PRONUNCLVTION. 13 

6U0 desidei'io che la piccina non antlasse piu a lavorare alia 
her desire should go work 

campagna, ma badasse soltanto a vendere il latte e le uova. 
country should care only to sell milk eggs. 

Siccome poi, diss' ella, non deve Rosina star mai disoccupata, 
But then, said ought to he ever unoccupied, 

andra alia scuola del vostro villaggio, il restante dclla giornata 
shall go school day 

lo passera da una maestra che le insegnera a far la trina : alle 
pass teacher her will teach to make lace 

spese che occorreranno per la sua istruzione pensero io. Rosa 
expense shall incur I will think. 

e la sua md,dre volevano ringraziare la Signora, ma vinte dalle 

wished to thank 

lacrime non poterono articolare parola. 

tears were able word. 

Questo 'benefizio non poteva essere fatto a persone piu degne : 

was able made any one more worthy 

r educazione sviluppo nella fanciullina tutte le buone qualita 
developed 

che tralucevano in lei fin dall' infanzia. Un anno dopo ella 
shone her from A year after 

porto in regalo alia Marchesa una trIna lavorata con somma 
carried present lace made 

finezza ed era tanta da guarnire un vestito. La Marchesa seppe 
enough to trim dress. knew 

che quella famiglia, resa da lei agiata, risparmiava per 

rendered saved 

• 

soccorrere i bisogndsi, e spiava tutte le occasioni per beneficare. 
succor needy spied (watched) 

Rosa era entrata appena ne' quindici anni, quando la 

entered scarcely fifteenth year 

Marchesa cadde in una gravissima malattia: suo marito era 
fell in very serious sickness husband 

in viaggio : e non aveva altro che la sua gente di servizio che 

absent she had no others than people service who 

r assistesse. Lo seppe Rosina, e subito, lasciando una sua vicina 
her could assist. knew left neighbor 

a giuirdia della casa e delle vaccherelle, parti per la citta 
guard cows, she set out 

2 



14 ITALIAN GRAlVniAR. 

insi^me colla mamma. Arrivate che furono, andarono alia 
together with Arrived they were, they went 

camera della Marchesa. Essa era fuori di se, ne riconosc^va 
chamber She was out of her mind, neither recognized 

alcuno ; e da quelle stato di delirio, cadeva poi in un profondo 

no one fell 

letargo che pareva morta. Tiitta la gente di casa era costernata, 
appeared dead. people confounded 

la cameriera, sommamente affeziooata alia sua padrdna, non 

greatly attached 

sapeva far altro che piangere, e non era buona a nulla. La 
knew to do than to weep she was for nothing. 

buona Liici fece rizfare accanto al letto della signora un 
made to be placed by the side bed 

letticciuolo : ed ella e Rosina vegliavano la signora dna notte 
little bed watched 

per una. 

I medici s' intendevano con loro per la ciira dell' ammalata ; 

depended upon them care sick (lady) 

e tutto era adempito con la massima puntualita. In capo a nove 
fulfilled greatest At the end of nine 

giorni la malattia piglio buona piega : la Marchesa ritorno in se e 
days took turn recovered 

conobbe. quanto doveva alio zelo e all' affetto delle sue amorose 
knew owed loving 

assistenti. La povera Rosina era scolorita dalle inquietezze e 

pale 

ddlle nottate perdute ; ma i suoi occhi abbattuti ripigliarono 

nights lost (sleepless nights) languid took again 

la loro vivacita appena ella comincio a sperare nella guarigione 
as soon as began hope cure 

della sua benefattrice. Ella con le sue premure rese meno 

cares rendered 

spiacevole alia signora il tempo della convalescenza ; ora le 

disagreeable now 

legg(^va un bel libro, ora le raccontava qualche fatto interessante 
read then related fact 

accaduto nel suo villaggio : voleva anche pensare a vegliarla, 
happened wished-— also - to take care of her 



ETOIOLOGY. 15 

ne permetteva che altri le facesse i brodi e preparasse le 

others should make broths 

medicine. In questo tempo il marito della Marchesa torno, 

returned 

ed essa, ritornata in perfetta salute, gli mostro quanto doveva a 
returned health showed she owed 

Roslna ed alia madre di lei, e gli disse clie oramai non le dava 

now gave (had) 

piu il cuore di separarsi da loro. Concertarono dimque di 
heart They agreed then 

mettere la Liici alia direzione della casa, sicuri che non 

put sure 

potevano affidarla meglio: la figlia poi non doveva aver altro 
were able should have 

titolo che di compagna ed arnica della Marchesa. Voi vi potete 

can 

figurdre, figliuoli miei, quanto volontieri accettarono esse tale 
children they accepted 

proposizione. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

PARTS OF SPEECH. 

There are nine parts of speech in the Italian language : 
— 1. The Article; 2. The Noun; 3. The Adjec- 
tive; 4. The Pronoun ; 5. The Verb ; 6. The Ad- 
verb ; 7. The Preposition; 8. The Conjunction; 
9. The Interjection. 

The fir st five are variable ; the four last, invariable. 

The change which the first four undergo by means of 
terminations is called declension : it refers to gender, 
number, and case. 

There are two genders in Italian , — the^ masculine and 
t he feminine. 

The re are also two numbers, — the singular and the 
plural : and five cases, expressing the different relations 
of words to each other ; namely, the nomina tive, genitive , 
cjative, accusative, and ablative. 



16 ITALIAN GEAMMAR. 

The nominative case, or the subject, answers to the 
question who? or what? as. Who is reading? The hoy. 

The genitive or possessive case answers to the question 
whose? QY of which? as, Whose book? The hoifs book. 

The dative answers to the question to whom? as, To 
whom shall I give it? To the hoy. 

The accusative or objective case marks the object of 
an action, and answers to the question wliom ? or what ? 
as. Whom or what do you see? I see the hoy, the 
house. 

The ablative answers to the question from or by whom ? 
as, From whom did you receive it? From my father? 



CHAPTER n. 

THE ARTICLE— L' ARTICOLO. 
MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

La domenica sento la messa . On Sunday I attend (the) mass.* 
Il lunedl spmdo IL dandro . On Monday I spend the money. 
Il martedl viene la serva . The servant comes on Tuesday. 
Il mercoledi stiro la hiancheria On Wednesday I iron the linen. 
Il giovedX pdgo il cameriere . On Thursday I pay the domestic. 
Il venerdi riscuoto l' entrdte . On Friday I receive the rent. 
It. sdbato aspetto il sdrto . . I expect ^/ie tailor on (the) Sat- 

urday.f 

The article is used much more frequ ently in _ Italian 
tha n m iiinglisJi. 

There are tw o articles, — Definite and Indefinite. J 
The Definite has several variations for the sake of 



eu 



iphony . 



* In the translation of the Italian examples, -words which cannot be expressed are 
inserted within marks of parenthesis. 

t The pupil is requested to commit to memory the Italian words occurring in Rules 
or Examples, as their meaning will be seldom repeated. The conjugation of the verbs 
will be found at the end of the book. 

X The indefinite article, tot, loio, ^tna^ a or an, will be treated of in a subsequent 
."■bapter. (See chapter on Nximeral Adjectives.) 



THE ARTICLE. 17 



DEFINITE ARTICLE. 



Singular, ^7, lo^ * masculine ; Ig^ feminine. 

Plural, e, gli (/^'),t masculine ; J^ feminine. 

REMARKS. 

I. The article ii, plural i, is most gener ally used 



as, 



II tempermo, i temperini ; il sigillo, i sigilU. 
The penknife, the penknives ; the seal, the seals.J 

II. The article lo, plural gli, is 2)laced, — 1st, Before 
' nouns beginning with s followed by another consonant ; 
as, — 

Lo specchio, gli specchi ; lo spirito, gli spiriti. 

The mirror, the mirrors ; the spirit, the spirits. 

2d, Before nouns commencing with a vow^el, eliding 
the 0, ari a replacing it by an apostrophe ; as, — 

X' occhio, gli bcchi ; V amico, gli amici. 
The ej^e, the eyes ; the friend, the friends. 

in. Thejvord del, g ods, takes the article ^li . We 
say, II Dio di Ahrdnio, gli del del paganesimo ; the God 
of Abraham, the gods of the heathen. 

lY. Xo, or ^7, is written before m asculine nouns com- 
mencing with _g^; as, Lo zio, or il zio, the uncle ; and after 
the'preposition pe ?- : Per lo ai6re, or per il cu6re, for the 
heart. But, in speakin g, il is generally used , excej^t in 
the phrases ^jer lo piu, at most ; per lo meno, at least. 

V. La before a feminine noun takes le in the plural ; 
as, — "^ 

La fenna, le penne ; la stanza, le stdnze. 
The pen, the pens ; the room, the rooms. 

* The Italians haye taken the articles il and lo from the first and last syllable of thq 
ablative La tin lil'o . In their use, euphony alone is consulted : lo I'lbro, lo ■padre^ il tihro\ 

ilpadre. 

t We find //, plural of 77, in classical works, especially in poetry ; but modoni writers 
Qse i in preference. 

t The article is given with every noun, so that the pupil may learn the gender of the 
noun. 

2* 



18 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

The a of la is elide d before a vowel, and replaced by 
an aj[)Ostrophe. It, however, takes le in the plural ; as, — 

X' isola, le isole ; V dnima, le dnime. 

The island, the islands ; the soul, the souls. 

VI. The ai^ticle il m ay ioseJt]le_^ if p rece ded by the 
words cAe7^r<z, fra^ e; as^ TraH si e Hno, between yes and 
n^ Such eli sion is mostly confined to poetr y. 

VII. The article ^li loses the i before a noun commenc- 
in ^with i; as, 67' infermi, the infirm. 

VIII. The article Ic loses the e befo re a noun be^'in- 
nm^jwitli_£/as, Z/' elemdsine, the alms ; /' erbe, the herbs. 
The above rules are purely euphonic. 

IX. As there are only two o-enders in Italian, Ensrlish 
neuter nouns take the gender of the noun into Avhich they 
arej translated ; and the article naturally takes the gende r 

of the nou n to which it b elongs. '^ 

« — — — — ■ ' ^ — &— 

X. They say in Italian, Vddo in ch iesa^ i n strdda ^ etc., 
I go to church, into the street, etc. ; and do not use the 
article, because tlie church or street is not designated. 
Eut, in Vddo nel la chiesa di San Carlo ^ vddo iieJla strdda 
dove std te di casa^ — I go into St. Charles' Church, I am 
going into the street where you dwell, — the article is used 
because the church and stree t are defined . 

XL ^, likewise, they say, Vddo in cdsa^ in cdm crn, a 
letto^ in cncina; because it is understood that the perso n 
s peaks ot Ins own house, room, bed, kitehpT^ ; which 
nouns ar e defined by the circ umstances. 

/ XII. It is necessary to use the article in such sentences 
ks the following, where the signification of the noun is 
limited : — 

Vddo — I am going — 

nella cdsa di mia mddre . . , into my mother's house. 

(nella camera di mw padre . . into my father's chamber. 

nel lelto di sua fratello ... in liis brother's bed. 

neUa cucina del vicino ... in the neighbor's kitchen. 



THE ARTICLE. 19 

XIII. There a re cases in which the article ma^be used 
or not : as, — 

Auddcia, fortuna, e virtv, gli Boldness, fortune, and merit 
d'ettem trono e ipotenza ; or, gave him the sceptre and 
U auddcia^ la fortiina, e la the power. 
virtu, gli dettero it trono e la 
'potenza. 

In the first case, the nouns are considered independently, 
without any subsequent idea : in the second case, the 
article limits the signification of the noun by something 
relative to each noun understood ; thus : — 

i' auddcia che spiego in bgni The boldness which he mani- 
impresa^ la fortuna che lo fested in all his enterprises, 
secondo, la virtu che lo dis- the fortune wliich favored 
tmse, gli dettero il trono della him, the merit which dis- 
nazione e la potenza sovrdna,* tinguished him, gave him the 

throne of the nation and the 
sovereign power. 

XIV. The nou ns Mr., Mrs., Miss, take the article , thus : 
il &ign6re^ il Signdr dottore^ la iSig-rK^ra, let SigiK^ra 
principessa, la Slgnorina. These words do not take 
an article when they are addressed to the person to whom 
t^e are speaking. The word Si gne^rn los es tlie final e 
before a mas culine noun. 

XY. Pro^ijcr nouns do not take th e article ; f as, 

* "When several nouns come together before or after the verb, and the article is used 
)r omitted before the first of them, this article must be repeated or omitted before evory 
3ther noun in the sentence. 

t Names of kingdoms, provinces, mountains, and rivers, take the article or not, 
according to the extent of their signification ; as, Z,' Italia c bclla, Italy is beautiful ; 
Stdva in Italia, he was in Italy. 

Names of cities and villages, vmless qualified by an adjective, are used without the 
article. The same rule applies to the names of a few islands: Malta, Cipro, CnHn, etc. 

The names of abstract substances, and those of gems, metals, etc., when used in a ge- 
neric sense, require the article before them : as, U oro e le pdrle, e i Jior vermigli e bidnchi, 
;he gold and the pearls, and the red and white flowers. 

A noun preceded by an adjective takes the article before the adjective ; as, II gran 
'nile, the great evil ; Il gran pt-ccdto, the great sin. 

All words used as nouns require the article before them ; as, II helln, il biiono, the 
beautiful, the good; Soti ccrta del si, 1 am certain of the affirmative ; Ciascunn rispdse 
li no. every one answered in the negative ; II suo parldre mi pidce, his conversation 
ileases me. 

When a noun is used in an Indeterminate .sense, the article is omitted ; as, Nan u6m. 
i/imo gid fill, now I am not a man, formerly I was a man. 



20 ITALIAN GRAMMAE. 

Michelangelo, Raffaello. But it is generally placed before 
family names, particularly of illustrious or renowned per- 
sons, both male and female; as, II Buojiardtti, il Sdnzio, 
la Mardtti (the poetess). 

XYI. Possessive adjectives generally take the article ; 
as, II mio, il tuo, il sao^ lanSstra., la vostra^ etc., my, thy, 
his, our, your, etc. Possessive pronouns always do. 

XVII. Verbs in the infinitive mood, and adverbs, take 
the article when they are used substantively ; as, — 

II halldre mi secca ; Non so ne il quando ne il come. 
It tires me to dance ; I know neither when nor bow. 

READING LESSON. 

L' araore e la morte fdnno eguali i re ed i pastori. 
Love and deatli make equal kings and shepherds. 

La gloria e il solo bene cbe possa tentare gli upmini. 

Glory is only good which is able (can) to tempt men. 

II tempo, cbe fortifica 1' amicizia, indebolisce 1' amore. 
Time fortifies friendship, weakens 

Le calunnie sono come le ferite cbe lasciano sempre la margmu. 
Calumnies are like wounds leave always scar. 

La paura governa il mondo. , 

Fear governs world- 

La prudenza e la guida e la padr6na della vita umana. 

Prudence guide mistress life 2 human.i 

EXERCISE UPON THE ARTICLES. 

(The) fortune loves (the) youth. 
^ fortuna(f.) ama . gioventu (f.). 

The scholar cnltivates (the) memory. 

scolare(m.) coltiva memoria (f.). 

Tbe servant (f ) puts out the light. 

serva smorza liime (m.). 

Tbe evening I study the lesson. 

sdra(f.) studio lezione (f.). 

The shoemaker brings the shoes, 
jtj calzolaio(m.) porta scarpe (f.). 



UNION OF ARTICLES AND PREPOSITIONS. 



21 



WORDS. 



II pane, 
La came, 
II vino, 
Le friitta, 
Le mele. 
II fratello, 
La pera. 
La pesca, 
11 fico, 
II padre, 
Lihro, 



the bread, 
the meat, 
the Avine. 
the fruits, 
the apples, 
the brother, 
the pear, 
the peach, 
the fig. 
tlie father, 
book. aS?, yes. 



lo ho, 
Til lidi, 
Egli ha, 
Ella ha, 
Non ho. 
Ho io ? 
Hdi tu ? 
Ha egW? 
Ha ella ? 
Non ho io 
Che, wliat. 



I have, 
thou hast, 
he has. 
she has. 
I liave not. 
have I? 
hast tliou ? 
has he ? 
has she? 
have I not? 
CJd, who. 



CONVERSATION. 



Ho io la penna ? 

Hdi tu il temperino ? 

Che hd mio Jratello? 
^ Ha lo zio del Signore il lihro ? 
" Che spendi tu ? . , 

Chi ha c o7}iprdfo la cdsa ? /rcicucc II Signor dottore. 

Che cdsa ha egli comprdto ? ■ La cdsa di tmo pddre. 

Che ha la Signbra ? Ella ha lo specchio, 

Chi aspetto il Lunedi ? Asp'etto il sdrto. 

Che camera hai ? Ho la cucina. 



Si, tu hdi la penna. 
No, non ho il temperino. 
II fratello vostro ha la cdrta. 
No, egli non ha il libra. 
Spendo il dandro. 



CHAPTER III. 

UNION OF THE ARTICLES AND PREPOSITIONS. 



K 



MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



T gibrni dell A settimdna 
Le sfagibni dell' dnno . 
Nelle strdde della citta . 
II lapis e SULLA tdvola, . 
Sidmo nel cubr della stdte 
La penna e i^el calamdio 
B(dldt£ CON li: ragdzze . 
Lcggo corjLi occhidli 



The clays of the week. 
The seasons of the year. 
In the streets of the city. 
The pencil is upon the table. 
We are in midsummer. 
The pen is in the inkstand. 
Dance witlt. the girls. 
I read with {the) spectacles. 



22 



ITALIAN" GEAMMAR. 



UNION OF THE ARTICLES AND PREPOSITIONS. 

§ I. IfjLhe _ article is used with one of the prepositions, 
di, of or for; a, to or at; da, from or by; in, in; 
CG7l,^Yith.; sii, upon, — t he two monosyllables are joine d 
for euphon^ 



Remark. — In connecting the preposition with the ar- 
ticle, di is changed into de, in into ne, cun into co. 

§ II. 1st, Contraction of the article lo, and its plural 
gli, with a noun : — 

SINGULAR. 



XjO , , 




. sperpero, 
sperpero, 


the havoc. 


Dilo . 


. DELLO 


of the havoc. 


Alo . 


. ALLO 


sperpero, 


to the havoc. 


Da lo . 


. DALLO 


sperpero, 


by the havoc. 


In lo 


. NELLO 


sperpero. 


in the havoc. 


Con'lo . 


. COLLO 


sperpero. 


with the havoc. 


Su lo . 


. SULLO 


sperpero. 


upon the havoc. 






plural. 


Gli . . 


• • • • 


sperperi, 


the havocs. 


Di gli . 


. DEGLI 


sperperi, 


of the havocs. 


A gli . 


. AGLI 


sperperi, 


to the havocs. 


Da gli . 


. DAGLI 


sperperi. 


from or by the havocs. 


In gli . 


. NEGLI 


sperperi, 


in the havocs. 


Con gli 


. COGLI 


sperperi. 


with the havocs. 


Su gli . 


. SUGLI 


sperperi, 


upon the havocs. 


This i 


irticle, before a vowel 


, is written delV, alV 


delV dmic 


:o, of the friend. 




Lo . . 


. . x> . 


amico. 


the friend. 


Di lo . 


. dell' 


amico. 


of the friend. 


Alo . 


. all' 


amico. 


to the friend. 


Da lo . 


. dale' 


amico, 


from the friend. 


In lo 


. nell' 


amico. 


in the friend. 


Con lo . 


. coll' 


amico. 


with the friend. 


Su lo . 


. sull' 


amico, 


upon the friend. 



Before nouns in the plural commencing with an i, we 
write degV, cugV, dagV , etc. ; as, CogV infelici, with the 
unhappy. 



UNION OF ARTICLES AND riiErOSIilOXS. 



23 



§ III. 2d, Contraction of the article il, and its plural i 



11 . . 

Dl il . 
A il . 
Da il , 
In il . 
Con il 
Sit il . 



DEL 

AL 

DAL 

NEL 
COL 
SUL 



SINGULAR. 

fazsolkto, the pocket-handkerchief. 

fazzolkto, of the pocket-handkerchief 

fazzolkto, to the pocket-handkerchief. 

fazzoJetto, from or by the pocket-handk. 

fazzolkto, in the pocket-handkerchief. 

fazzolkto, with the pocket-handkerchief. 

fazzolkto, upon the pocket-handkerchief. 



Di i . 

A i , 
Da i . 

In i . 
Con i . 
Su i . 



DEI or DE 

Ai or a' 
DAI or da' 

NEI or ne' 
COI or CO' 
sui or su' 



fazzolkti, 
fazzolkti, 
fazzolkti, 
fazzolkti, 
fazzolkti, 
fazzolkti, 
fazzolkti. 



PLURAL. 

the handkerchiefs, 
of the handkerchiefs, 
to the handkerchiefs, 
from the handkerchiefs, 
in the handkerchiefs, 
with the handkerchiefs, 
upon the handkerchiefs. 



§ IV. 3d, Contraction of the article la, and its plural It 

SINGULAR. 



La, 

Di la 

A la 
Da la 
In la 

Con la 
Su la 



DELLA 

ALLA 

DALLA 

NELLA 
COLLA 
SULLA 



saccoccia, 
saccoccia, 
saccoccia, 
saccoccia, 
saccoccia, 
saccoccia, 
saccoccia, 



the pocket, 
of the pocket, 
to the pocket, 
from the pocket, 
in the pocket, 
with the pocket, 
upon the pocket. 



Before a vowel, write delV, aW, dalP, neU\ etc. 

PLURAL. 



Le . 

Dile 
Ale 
Da le 
In le 

Con le 
Su^le 



DELLE 

ALLE 

DALLE 

NELLE 

COLLE 

SULLE 



saccbcce, the pockets. 

saccbcce, of the pockets. 

saccbcce, to the pockets. 

saccbcce, from or by the pockets. 

saccbcce, in the pockets. 

saccbcce, with the pockets. 

saccbcce, upon the })Ockets. 



Before nouns commencing with e, write dcW , alV , daU\ 
etc. 



24 



ITALIAN GRA3IMAR. 



§ V. The contraction of co7i and of su with t he ar ticles 
loo gli-, la-, and Ze. is used at discretion. We can say, Con 
lo studio^ con la j)e7ina, or cdllo studio, colla penna, — with 
the study, with the pen, — according to the harmony of 
the phrase. Instead of su, we can say sopra with all the 
articles , writing them separately ; as, Sul tetto, or sopra 
il tetto ; sulla tdvola, or sop'a la tdvola, — upon the roof, 
upon the table. 

§ VI. The prepos it ion pei' may be united with the a rti;:- 
cles _z7 and i, thus; pel, plural pei^ or pe[ . In speaking, 
we say, ordinarily, per il, to avoid affectation. 

The pupil is required to supply the prepositions and 
articles in the following declensions : — 



// giardmo, the garden. 

„ of the garden. 

„ to the garden. 

from the garden. 



» 



I giardmi, the gardens. 



» 






of the gardens, 
to the gardens, 
from the gardens. 



Lo sptrito, 






the spirit, 
of the spirit, 
to the spirit, 
from the spirit. 



Gil spiriti, the spirits. 

of the spirits, 
to the spirits, 
from the spirits. 






X' dlbero, 



99 

n 

9} 



the tree, 
of the tree, 
to the tree, 
from the tree. 



Gli dlberi, 






the trees, 
of the trees, 
to the trees, 
from the trees. 



La rosa, 






the rose, 
of the rose, 
to the rose, 
from the rose. 



Le rose, 






the roses, 
of the roses, 
to the roses, 
from the roses. 



X' anima, 



n 

J) 



the soul, 
of the soul, 
to the soul, 
from the soul. 



Le dnime, 



» 



the souls. 
of the souls, 
to the souls, 
from the souls. 



UNION OF ARTICLES AND rilEPOSITIONS. 25 



READING LESSON. 

Andiamo nolle stracle della citta. La donna e partita. Non 
Let us go streets city. woman is departed. Not 2 

andate colla cameriera. Prendo la chiave della camera. La 
go 1 chambermaid. I take key room. 

primavera della vita. Ella mori nel fior degli anni. Non dormite 

spring-time life. Slie died flower years. Not 2 sleep i 

air aria aperta. II gdtto e nella camera del padrone. II 
air open. cat master. 

lapis non e siilla tavola. Leggo con le ragazze. II calam{iio 
pencil not is table. I read girls. inkstand 

e sulla tavola. La cliiave e nell' iiscio. Si va alia caccia nell' 

door. One goes chase 

autunno. La penna e nel calamaio siilla tavola. La vita e 
autumn. 

breve, e 1' arte e liinga. La moderazione genera la felicita. L' oro 

short long. generates happiness. gold 

governa il mondo. La verita produce 1' odio. L' udmo propone, 
governs world. truth produces hatred. man proposes 

6 Dio dispone. La voce, gli occlii, il cdrpo, 1' anima delF uomo. 
God disposes. voice eyes body soul 

La voce del popolo e la voce di Dio. 1/^^ */v|ui((,\ l^.w 'x^^ 
people 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

Italy is the garden of Europe. The passions are the 

Italia i/ /C giardino ? Europa. 6--£o passioni sono ^ '-^ 

elements of life. The voice of the people is the voice of God. 
element! vita. -\:< , voce cUJ^ popolo L j'jl, uirCe^ /^. Dfo. 

The whip (is) for the horse, the halter for the ass, and the stick 

frusta (f.) <LtJ^' cavallo cav^zza asino c ; bastone 

for the shoulders of the insolent (one). (The) pride is the 

spalle impertinonte. supcrbia 

daughter of (the) ignorance. An ancient phiIoso|)her said, that 
ffglia ignoranza. Un anti'co^ fihjsoCoi iisse, che 

(the) pride breakfasts with (the) abundance, dines with (the) 

orgoglio fa colazione abbondanza, pranza 

poverty, and sups with (tlie) shame, 
poverta cena vergogna. 

3 



26 



ITALIAN GRA^kOIAIt. 



lo sono, 


I am. 


Til sei, 


thou art. 


Egli e, 


lie is. 



Noi sidmo, we are. 
Voi sicte, you are. 

Eglino sono, they are. 



CONVERSATION. 



Che £qsa avete ? 

Dov' e ? 

Son' 10 jpovero (poor) ? 

Cosa e r Italia ? 

Hdi tu la, penna del vicino ? 

Qual lihro (book) hdi ? 

Ha SIM padre un cavdllo ? , , 

Che cosa ho 10 '^ '^^'^' 

Sei tu jilosofo ? 

Hdi tu il mio tempermo ? 

Siete il mio ainico ? 

Nan liai un (a) giardmo ? 



;,. /«'t«1 <l *<^X.^ 



Ho il fazzoletto. . 

Nella mia s accocci a. ^^^<="-tXr 
Tu non sei povero, sei ricco. 
U Italia e il giardino delV Europa 
No, Signbre, mwfratello I* ha. 
Ho il libra del sdrto. 
Non ha un cavdllo, ha un dsino. 
Tu hdi il hasione di mio fratello. V-o^ 
Non sono Jilosofo. ^ 

No, e sopra la tdvola. 
Sono il vostro (your) amico. 
Si, ho un giardino ed (and) un 
cavdllo. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE NOUN* — IL NOME. 



< 



MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



n TIMORE di Dio . . . 
La CUPOLA di San Pietro 

II DUOMO di FiRENZE 

/fiori della primavera . 
// COLORE della ROSA . . 

// CAMMINETTO della CAMERA 



The fear of God. 
The cupola of St. Peter. 
The cathedral of Florence. 
The flowers of spring. 
The color of the rose. 
The small mantelpiece of the 
chamber. 



* There are some words in the Italian language which paint so well the character cf the 
nation, that it is impossible to reproduce them in any other language by words strictly 
analogous. For example, the words sfogo^ smdnia^ piint'iglio^ faria, orgasmo, cstro^ sbuf- 
fdre, etc., representing ideas which are conceived only under a burning sky, cannot be 
exactly rendered in the calm and misty Northern languages. Being purel}' euphonic, 
the rules, on the article maj' be utterly disregarded whenever euphony requires it. The 
same may also be said respecting the elision and contraction of words. 



THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 



27 



La CARTA e nel cassetting 
11 pozzo e nel corti'le . . 
Lo STUDIO e un gqdimentq 
Gli ANNI fiiggono rdpidi . . 
La MiNESTRA e fredda . . 
L'qzio e il padre di ogni vizio, 



The paper is in the drawer. 
The well is in the yard. 
Study is a pleasure. 
Years fly rapidly. 
The soup is cold. 
Idleness is the father of all 
vices. 



THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 



There are only two ge nders in the Italian lanffua<ye , — 
t he masculine and the feminine . 

I. All nouns belono; ei ther to the masculine or feminine 
ge nder. 

II. youns endino' in a are feminine. Those express- 
i nty dignity, and professions of men, such as il papa, the 



pope, 



and the 



S 



followmg, 



derived from the Greek, are 



m asculine : — 

Anagrdmma, 

Andiema, 

Assioma, 

Glhna, 

Diadema^ 

Dilemma, 

Diploma, 

Dogma, 

Drdmma, 

DmUema, 

Enigma, 

Dpigrdmma, 

Fantdsma^ 



anagram. 

anathema. 

axiom. 

climate. 

diadem. 

dilemma. 

diploma. 

dogma. 

drachm. 

emblem. 

enigma. 

epigram. 

spectre. 



Idioma, 


idiom. 


Pianeta, 


planet. 


Po'ema, 


poem. 


Prisma, 


prism. 


Prohlema, 


problem. 


Frogrdm7na, 


j)rogramme. 


Scisma, 


schism. 


Sistema, 


system. 


Sofisma, 


sophism. 


iStemma, 


coat of arras. 


Strataghnma 


, stratagem. 


Tema, 


theme. 


Teorema. 


theorem. 



III. Of the nouns ending in e, some are masculine, and 
others feminine . As no positive rules can be given to 
indicate their gender, recourse must be had to the diction- 
ary. 

IV. Amono; the nouns ending in c, some are of both 
genders;* as, — 



* Snpie m asculine nouns ending in e take a different termin ation for the feniiuiue 
as, re^resmn.' " ' ~ 



28 ITALl:^ GRAJVOIAn. 



Il or LA carcere, the prison. 

Il or LA ceiiere,^ the cinders. 

Il or LA fine, the end. 

Il or LA folgore, the thunder. 

Il or LA fonte, the fountain. 

Il or LA fr67ite,'\ the forehead. 



Il or LA gregge, the flock. 
Il or LA fiine, the cord. 
Il or LA lepre, the hare. 
Il or LA mdrgine, the margin. 
Il or LA serpe, the serpent. 
Il or LA tigre, the tiger. 



Y. Ther e are some nouns endin o; in a which can_end 
in e, without c hano'ino: the jj^ender ; as, Z/' drina or Z' dnne, 
arms (heraldic) ; la sorta, or la sdrte, destiny. 

VI. Very few nouns terminate in i, as this letter is 
generally the characteristic sia^n of the pluraj . Of these 
few, some are masculine, and some are feminine ; as, — 



MASCULINE. 



77 cavadenti, the dentist. 
// lai'ctceci, the dunce. 
II Tamigi, the Thames. 



FEMININE. 



La metropoU, the metropolis. 
La sintdssi, the syntax. 
La tesi, the thesis. 



Remark. — The noun dl, day, and its compound^ ; as, 
Buondi, good-day; mezzodi, noon; oggidi, now-a-days; 
Lu7iedl, Monday; Martedi, Tuesday, etc., — are all mas - 
culine. So are likewise nouns of dignity ; as, Ball, 
bailiff; pdri, peer; guardasigiUi, keeper of the seals. 

YII. Nouns endino' jn o are of the m asculine gender, 
except fa mdno, hand; and the words whose ending 
dgine is contracted to dgo ; as, imyndgo for immdgine. 

Eco, echo, is of either gender. 

Remark. — Several nouns of animate heino's. endijQg in 
o, change o into a for_the feminine ; as, II randcchio, m., la 



rakdcc/na, i\ , frog ; il gdtto, m., la gdtta, f. , cat ; cavdllo, 
horse ; cavdlla, mare ; colomho, coldmha, dove, etc. 

VIII. The following nouns ending^ in o become fem i- 
nine b y changing the o into a: t — 

* I I ccnere is used only in poetry . « 

t La fronte is more usea than il fronte. 
I % Fanr.iiMn. or ragazzo^ is said ot a cliild who has not yet reached the age of adoles-j 
Icence. Fanciidla and ragazza, on the contrary, are used for a person of marriageable age ;> 
(the fii'st particularly being employed to indicate unmarried women in general, if young, f 

Obs. — Lapis, pencil ; rlbes, currants ; chermes, cochineal, and a few foreign uouns, 
end with a consonant. 



THE GENDEll OF iNOUNS. 29 



II casdto, the family name. 
// canestro, the basket. 
II cioccoldto, the chocolate. 
II frutto,* the fruit. 
// leg7io,^ the wood. 
11 mattino, the mornino;. 



// nuvolo, tlie cloud. 

X' omhrello, the umbrella. 

X' orecchio^ the ear. 

// ranbcchio, the frosf. 

i>o scritto^ the writinn;. 

// soffitto, the ceiling. 



Feminine : La casdta, la canestra, la fruUa, la legna, etc. 

IX. The names of fruit-t rees, ending in o, become femi - 
nine by changino- o into a : and then they serve to express 
the fruit. Ex. : — 

II pesco, the peach-tree ; La pesca, the peach. 
// melo, the apple-tree ; La mela, the apple. 

The words fico, p6mo, ardncio, fig-tree and fig, apple- 
tree and apple, orange-tree and orange, are an exception. 

X. Very few nouns end in u. These are alwjvys 
marked with a <j,'rave accent, and are of the feminine o-en- 

p . , 2 _ -Q 

der; as. La gioventu, the youth; la grit, the crane,- — 
except Peril, m., Peru, Behebu, Belzebub. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

All words ending in ore, of which there are a great num 
ber, arc masculine without a ny exception. Those endino^ 
i n zione or sione are feminine without any exception. 

] Nouns ending; in ^e, le, me, re, se, a re s^enerally mascu- 
line ; as, — 



Rege, king. 

Vidle, path. 

Fiiime, river. 



Cuore, heart. 
Arnesej utensil. 



* Of the words friitlo^ legno, and scntto, which are masculine, and become feminine 
by changing: the o into a, it must be observed tlaat il friitto is the fruit in general, properly 
and figuratively ; while la friuta or Le friuta means the dessert. L'-i^no means tlie wooda, 
and la Irgna is the wood to burn. Scr'Uto is a writing ; aud la scr'itla, a contract. 

Some names of animate beings denote the femininc.l/y u, dilfereut word ; as, Udmo, man • 
ddnna, woman ; loro, bull ; vdcca, cow. 

3* 



30 ITALIAN GKAMJVIAR. 

Nouns eiidino' in he, ce, ^e, te, ve, ie, ine, one, nte, are 
generally feminine ; as, -^ 



Plehe, people. 

Siepe, hedge. 

Chiave, key. 

Foce, entry. 

Immdgine, image. 

Ragiorie, reason. 

Pace, peace. 



Arte, art. 

Mente, mind. 

fSerie, series. 

Incudine, anvil. 

Cicatrice, scar. 

Legione, lesson. 

Crbce, cross. 



Nouns ending in ^^ if not of Greek derivation, are 
masculine. Those of Greek derivation are feminine , ex- 
cepl ^ Genesi and Apocalissi, which may be masculin e 
whenineaning the sacred books bearing' that title. 



Analisi, analysis. 
Genesi, Genesis. 
Crisi, crisis. 



Enfasi, emphasis. 
Tesi, thesis. 

Sintdssi, syntax. 



READING LESSON. 

11 rispetto per le donne e 1' indizio piu siciiro dell' incivilimento 

respect women indication most sure civilization 

di un popolo. La schiavitu e la vergogna degli uomini. L' eta 

slavery shame men. age 

e il sonno insegnano all' uomo la stnida della morte. Bisogna 
sleep teach death. It is necessary 

veder V Italia nella prhnp^vera e n^Ua state per poter meglio 
to see ^*V*^^ smumer to be able better 

ffiudicare della serenita del suo cielo e della calma del mare che 
to judge sky sea 

la circonda. L' arte di regnare e la massima di tutte le arti. 

it 2 surrounds.i art to reign greatest all 

La memoria dei benefizij e il debito della gratitiidine. Noi 
memor}- benefits debt We 

vediamo il lam])o prima di sentire lo scoppio del fiilmine. II 

see lightning before to hear burst thunder. 

filosofo cerca la sua felicita nello studio della natura. 
seeks 



THE GENDER OF NOUNS. 



•' 1 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 



(The) Study is useful to tjie health of the body. (The) 

jj, studio vantaggioso >/{ 4- salute corpo. 

Hatred is the want of vengeance. The loss of liberty is the 



£. odio i- bisogno ^ vend(^'tta. -6*/ pdrdita .' liberta 

greatest of misfortunes. The philosopher seeks his happiness 
prfma disgrazie. /tc filosofo c^rca r- felicita 

In the study of (the) nature. (The) Innocence of life 

->t<X> ciUvCtvv -;.X.v'~^' natiira. innocenza > vfta 

takes away the fear of death. (The) Tears are tl>e tacit 

toglie spav(?nto . 



lagrime 



tacito 2 



language of grief, 
linguaggioi dolore. 

Datemi dell' oro e dell' argento. L' aria della mattina e un 
Give me gold silver. air morning 

balsamo nella primavera. Non e arrivato oggi il padre del 
balm spring. Not 

Signor Duca? 



arrived to-day 



Noi ahhiamo, we have. 
Voi avete, you have. 

J^glino hdnno, m., they have. 
Elleno hdnno, f., they have. 



Abhidmo noi ? 
Avete voi ? 
Hdnno eglino ? 
Hdnno elleno'^ 



have we ? 
have you ? 
have they ? 
have they? 



CONVERSATION. 



Ohe avke nel canestro ? Ho deW uova net mio canestro. 

QuaV e ilnome della lavanddia^ H suo nbme e Gatarma. 
ivke veduto (seen) il cavdllo ? lo V (it) ho veduto. 



2 

Dove ? 

Ahbldmo noi sigilli ? SxoJii 

Dove sono inerti gli uomini ? 

A vete veduto la carta ? 

(yJd e quesC (this) Italidno'^ 

Chi e nel giardino ? 

Chi e questa ragdzza'^ 

Avete veduta la mia cdsa ? 

La cdsa nella strdda del Re ? 



Nella strdda. 
Voi 71071 avete sigilli, avete cdrta, 
Dove il siiolo e molto feriile. 
St, e nel cassettino. 
E il cameriere del medico. 
II cavadenti. 
E mia sorella. 
Qiidle cdsa ? 
No, Slg7i6ra, non V ho veduta. 



Avete frutta nel vostro giardino'^ No, ma (but) ahhidmo un pesco 

ed un 7?ielo die 7ie dardnno 
r d)ino ventiu'o 



32 ITALIAN GRAIOIAK. 



/ CHAPTER V. 

THE PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 

t 

Adjectives ag ree in g^end er and number with th e nouns 
tliey qualify. 

After having learned the rules upon the formation of 
the plural , the scholar will do well to change all the plural 
nouns of the following exercise into the singular. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

I ciechi hdnno hiioiiY. orecchi^, The blind have good ears. 

Le lenzuolA sono piditE, The sheets are clean. 

Le bellE antichit\ di Roma, The beautiful antiquities of Rome. 

Le hotteglm sono sotto ai-porlici, The shops are under the porticos. 

X' ardtro fa i solchi jjrofondi, The plough makes deep furrows. 

J^cco due pdiA. di stivah, Here are two pairs of boots. 

I fungln ndscono nei hoschi, Mushrooms grow in the woods. 

Mi dolgono le calcdgnx,^* My heels pain me. 

Benejici sono i rdggi del sole, The rays of the sun are beneficent. 

3Iipidce il giuoco d'egli scdcchi, I like the play of chess. 

Le pioggE ristorano la terra, The rains refresh the earth. 

Altri tempi, dltri costumi, Other times, other manners. 

Imalvdgi non sono felici, The wicked are not happy. 

GENERAL RULES. 

I. The greater proportion of nouns and adjectives in 
Italian, whatever be their gender, form their plural by 
changing tiie last letter into i; as, — 

MASC. SINGULAR. MASC. PLURAL. 

// poeta celehre, the celebrated poet. I poeti celehj^i. 

II letto morhido, the soft bed. Il'etti morhidi. 

II mdre hurrascoso, the stormy sea. Imdri hurrascbsi. 

FEM. FEM. 

Lapassione infelice, the unhappy passion. Le piassibni infelici. 
La mdno debole, the feeble hand. Le mdni d'eboli. 

* The letter % indicates an idiomatic phrase. 



PLLTvAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 33 

The following are exceptions : — 

n. Feminine nouns and adjectives endinp- in the singu - 
l ar in tf, m ak e their plural in ef as, — 

La Scarpa stretta, the narrow shoe. Le scdrpe strette. 

La bella donna, the handsome woman. Le belle dbnne, 

m. The nouns ending in 2, in ie, in an accented vowel, 
and the monosyllables, do not changejtheir termination in 
the plutali ^^•> ^^ crisi, the crisis ; le crisi, the crises : la 
citld, the city ; le cittd, the cities : il re, the king ; i re, 
the kings ; etc. 

IV. Nouns are also invariable when they immediately 
follow the ordinal numbers twenty-one, thirty-one, etc. ; 
as, Ventuno sciido, twenty-one crowns ; trcntimo dolldro, 
thirty- one dollars. But the noun takes the plural when 
placed before the number ; as, ScUdi ventuno, dolldri 
trentimo. 

Y. The words addio , adieu ; Idro^ their, are invariable ; 
as, Gli addio, i Idro amici. 



EUPHONIC RULES. 

YI. All the nouns, masculine or feminine, ending in 
m or ga, insert an h in the plural to preserve the hard 
sound of th e c or a: as, — 

II mondrca, the monarch ; i monarchi, the monarchs. 
La mdnica, the sleeve ; le mdniche, the sleeves. 

La Strega, the sorcerer ; le streghe, the sorcerers. 

YII. Nouns of two syllables, ending in co or go, tal^ 
a n h in t he plural ; as, — 

II bosco, the wood ; ^ bdscki, tlie woods. 

// Idgo, the lake ; i Idghi, the lakes. 

Except pdrco, greco, mdgo, — pig, Greek, magician, 
— which make, in the plural, 2^drci, greci, mdgi. / 



34 



ITALIAN GR.\j\niAR. 



VIII. Nouns of more than two syllables, ending in cc 
or go, also take an h, when these terniiii-itions are preceded 
by one or more consonants ; as, — 

U albergo, the hotel. - Gil alheryhi. 

n rinfresco, the refreshment. I rinfreschi. 

IX. Nouns ending in co or go, preceded by a vowejj* 
form their plural in ci ov^gij as, — 

11 medico, the physician ; i medici, the physicians. 
Lo spdrago, the asparagus ; gli sparagi, the asparagus. 

X. Exception. — Several nouns talve an lb in the plu- 
ral, though preceded by a vowel ; as. Audio go, analogous ; 
antico, ancient ; decdlogo, decalogue ; demagdgo, dema- 
gogue ; etc. 

XI. Nouns ending in io l o se the final o in all ca ses 
where this termination is j)receded_by a vowel, or by two 
or three consonants forming a syllable with io ; as, — 



Fornaio, 

Gnoio, 

Fascia, 

Mdschio, 

Artiglio, 

Astuccio, 

Vidggio, 



baker ; 
leather ; 
bundle ; 
boy ; 
claw ; 
case ; 
voyage ; 



forndi, 

ciioi, 

fdsci, 

nidscM, 

artigli, 

astucci, 

vidggi, 



bakers. 

leathers. 

bundles. 

boys. 

claws. 

cases. 

voyages. 



XII. The following nouns, although comprehended m 
the above class, form an excepti on ^ by changing the io fin al 
into j : — 



will. 

vestibule. 

doubt. 

scratch. 
Improprio, improper. 
Pdtrio, of the country. 



Arhitrio, 
Atrio, 
Duhhio, 
Grd fjio ^ 



Oerchio, 

Doppio, 

Prajprio, 

Secchio, 

So^, ^ 

Spicchio, 



circle. 

double. 

proper. 

milk-pail. 

a blow. 

a clove of garlic. 



* Mend'ico, beggar; eqii'ivoco, eqiiivoke; dialogo, dmlogne; apdZogo, apologue, — are 
written with or witliout the h: as, Mendici or ynendicln. beggars. 

Obs. — Some nouns in the singular in ere also end in ero ; as, II pensicre, the 
thought ; il pensiero : il destricre, the steed ; il destricro : lo scolire. the scholar ; lo scolaro : 
it cdnsole, the consul; il cdnsolo. When said of bones cleared from the table, osso, 
bone, makes dssi ; when of a skeleton, it makes ossa. File, thread, makes /"j/a, threads 
Fill is used when speaking of the edge of cutting instruments. 



PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 



Si 



These nouns make, in the plural, arbitrj, dtrj, cerchjf 
doppj, etc. 

XIII. This same termination, io, is changed into j 
when ever it is preceded by a sing le con.-^oiiaut, or two 
c onsonants not formino; one syllable ; as, — 

Giudicio^ judgment; giudicj, judgments. 
Principio, beginning; principj, beginnings. 
Proverhio^ proverb ; proverbj, proverbs. 

XIV. Except the following nouns , which make their 
plural by dropping the final o, because the i is used in the 
singular only to soften the sound of the c or g : — 

Pi^egio, 
Grigio, 
Indugio, 



ease. 



orange, 
kiss. 



Agio, _ 
Ardncio, 
JBdcio, 

Barhogio, dotard. 
' ^g{o, gray. 

Cctcio, cheese. 

Cencioj rag. 
Disdgio, disquiet. 



Malvagio, 

Paldgio, 

Pertugio, 

Pregio, 

Soi^cio, 



ornament. 

gray. 

delay. 

wicked. 

palace. 

hole. 

merit. 

mouse. 



Plural : Agi, ardnci, bdci, cenci, etc. 

XV. The terminatio n io, in the syllable quio, changes 
int^_£; as, — 

Ossequio, respect; osseqiij, respects. 

Deliquio, fainting-fit; deliqvj, fainting-fits. 

XVI. If. however, th e a^lient falls on the i of the sylla- 
ble zo, then JO jj changed into ii for th e plural, aj id the 
soun d is a little longer tlian ;' ; as, — 

-rj. .' ,.' ..' /.' y pious, uncle, native, brook. 
Ptt, zti, naht, rii, ) ^ 

XVII. Pro per nouns ending in io likew ise take ii iq 
the ] )lural ; * as, — 

IDdrii imhii IGdudii h Darius, Tiberius, Claudius. 



* 

as proper 



In Thilian, lis in otlier liingn.a{i;cs, some nouns are vised only in the sin.i^ular number; 
per names; and the words ^sro/e, offspring; ??zane, morning ; ro6a, luggage ; rosol'ia^ 



36 ITALIAN GRAMIMAR. 

XVIII. The terminatio ns cia and gia drop the i of the 
plural in the words in which this letter is but slightly pro- 
nounced.; as, — 

Z,a coscia, the thigh ; le cosce, the thighs. 
La spidggia, the shore ; le spidgge, the shores. 
La cdccia, the chase ; le cdcce, the chases. 

XIX. But in the words proviJicia, ciri eo^ia , franchigia , 
province, cherries, immunities, and some others, the i is 
retained in the plural, b ecause, being disti nctly pronounced 
in the sin gular, it is nece ssary that it should Ije heard in 
the plural ; as, Proftncic, ciriegie, franchigie, etc. 

XX. We must also preserve the i of cia and of gia 
when i t is accented, and the accent must be strongly 
marked HB y the voice ; as, — 

La hugia, the lie ; le hugie, the lies. 

La farmacia, the pharmacy ; le farmacie, the pharmacies. 



IRREGULAR PLURALS. 

XXI. The few nouns which have irregular plurals are : 



man ; uomini, men. 



oxen. 



Womo, 

LBue, ox ; buoi 

y\I6glie, wife; mogli, wives. 

vRfille, thousand ; onila^ thousands. 

^L)io, God ; dei, gods. 

XXH. The possessive adjective pronouns mio. tuo, s^ . 
my, thy, his, make miei, tudi, su6i, in the plural ; and tlie 
adjectives tale or cotdle, such, and qudle, which, are in 
the plural ta li or tdi^ cotcili, or cotdi, qudli or qtiai, 

XXIII. The following nouns form their plur al in a , 
and become feminine : — 



measles. And some are used only in the plural; as, Icalzoni, the trowsers; le rent, the 
kidnej'S ; i dolci, the sweetmeats ; le forbid, the scissors ; i invert, the victuals ; le tenebre, 
darkness. Some nouns have a different signification in the plural ; as, II ccppo, the trunk 
c-f a tree ; i c&ppi, the fetters : il fcrro, the iron ; i firri, the fetters : la gcnte, the people ; 
le gcnti, the nations • la grcizia, the favor ; le grdzie, the thanks. 



PLUR^VL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 



37 



Un miglidio, 
Tin centinaio, 
Un uovo, 
Un miglio, 
Un pdio, 
Uno stdio, 
j Un moggio, 



a thousand. 
a hundred. 
an e^:":. 
a mile, 
a pair, 
a bushel. 
a bushel. 



Le miglidia. 
Le centindia, 
Le uova. 
Le miglia. 
Le pdia. 
Le stdia. 
Le moggia. 



XXIV. The followino^ masculine nouns have a mascU" 
l ine plura l in ?*, and a feminine plural in a . The last is 
more frequently used. 



\V anello, 
II hrdccio, 
^11 hudello, 
' LI ccdcdgno, 
LI castello, 
)Ll ciglio, 
LI coltello, 
LI corno, 
LI dito, 
LI filo^ 
\Ll memhro, 
LI 7nuro, 
L' osso, 
II porno, 
II quadreUo, 



the ring, 
the arm. 
the intestine, 
the heel, 
the castle, 
the eyebrow, 
the knife, 
the horn, 
the finger, 
the thread, 
the member, 
the wall, 
the bone, 
the apple, 
the dart. 



LI fondamento, 
II fridtOj 
II fuso, 
LI gesfo, 
LI ginocchiOf 
LI gomito, 
LI grido, 
II Idhhro, 
II legno, 
LI lenzuolo, 
II riso, 
LI sdcco, 
Lo strido, 
LI vesiigio, 
LI vestimento, 



the base, 
the fruit, 
the spindle, 
the gesture, 
the knee, 
the elbow, 
the cry. 
the lip. 
the wood, 
the sheet, 
the laugjh. 
the sack, 
the cry. 
the vestige, 
the garment. 



Remark. — Coma, in the plural, sio^nifies horns ; cdr - 
m, instruments i^esta, exploits ; ^esti, gestures ; gdmiia, 
elbows; gomiti^GwhiU'. mem6ra, members of the body ; 
memhri, members of an assembly ^ mtiray rampar tsx JMil> 
walls . 



READING LESSON. 

Presso i Romani, i soldati erano agricoltori, e le casiite 
Among houses -J 

illustri conservavano sempre i cognomi dei friitti e dei legumi 
illustrious! preserved always surnames pulse 

che venivano, a preferenza, coltivati dai loro anten;iti ; t^i 
came (were) ancestors 



38 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

furono i Lentuli, i Fabii, i Pisoni. I regdli pMcano non solo gli 

presents appease only 

uomini ma pur anco gli dei. I pittori antichi non usavano nelle 

even painters 2 ancient i used 

lore pittnre che quattro colori. Le dohne sono fatte per essere 
pictures four colors. women rnade to be 

le compagne e non le schiave degli uomini. Un parroco disse 
companions slaves curate said 

alia predica, la Domenica delle palme : lo vi avverto, fratelli, die 
sermon Palm: I you 2 inform 1 

per isfuggire la calca, confessero Lunedi i bugiardi, Martedi 
to avoid confusion, I shall confess liars 

gli avari, Mercoledi i mormoratori, Giovedi i ladri, Venerdi 
avaricious slanderers thieves 

i discoli, e Sabato gli ubbriaclii. Non si sa s'egli ebbe molti 
libertines ' drunkards. "We do not know had 

penitenti. I fanciulli ed i pazzi si figurano che venti franchi e 

fools imagine francs 

venti anni abbiano a durar sempre. Ho veduto le dssa di tre 
years have last always. 

giovani elefanti. 

EXERCISE 
ON THE FORMATION OP THE PLURAL OF NOUNS. 

\_Tlie singular only is given.'] 

The face comprehends the forehead, the eyebrows, the eyelids 
volte eompr^nde palp^bre 

the nose, the lips, the mouth, the cheeks, the chin, and the ears. 

f. mdnto 

X 

(The) childi'en ought to obey their parents, scholars their 

fanciullo d^bbono ubbidire genitore 

teachers, and citizens (to) the laws. When we read certain 
maestro cittacfefno l<^gge. Quando si l(^ggono c^rti 

historians, we may say that the human species is composed 

stdrico, si dir^bbe h umana specie (consists of) consfste 

of only two or three hundreds of individuals decorated with 
soltanto di due o tre individuo decorato 

the title of emperors, kings, popes, generals, and ministers. Men 
tltolo imperatore ministro. 



PLURAI. OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 39 

are generally idle in countries where the soil is very lertile. 

sono per lo piu in^rte pa^se dove suolo molto fertile. 

(The) stars, (the) animals, and even plants were (enumerated) 
astro animale anche fiirono annoverate 

among the Egyptian divinities. The walls of Thebes were 

fra le egiziane Tebe 

raised by the simple sound of the harp ; the walls of the city 
fabbricate semplice suono c^tra 

of Jericho fell down, on the contrary, at the sound of (the) 
J^rico caddero, in v^ce 

trumpet. The large sacks are filled with grain. My sisters 
corno. empiuto grano. 

have some silver spoons, 
alcuno arg^nto 

JVoi sidmo, we are. 
Voi slete, you are. 

J^glino sono, they are. 

CONVERSATION. 

Chi e questa donna ? ±jla madre del poeta celebre, 

Avete veduto il re ? Abhidmo veduto il re. 

E egli Fr anche ? No, e Tedesco (German). 

Sono i poeti felwi (happy) ? Generalmente non sono felwi. 

Che hdnno i ciechi'^ I ciechi hdnno huone orecchie 

Dove ndscono i funahi ? '^fUiUot'tfKXtj I funghi ndscono nei hoschi. 

Qiidnti cineJl i avete ? /vmU*^^ Ne ho due. 

Mangidte friitti ? Si, qudndo sono maturi. 

Qudnti (how many) gibrni fa 
una settimdna ? Sette. 

Come si chidmano ? (How are Domenica, Lunedl, Ifartedi^ 
they called ?) Mercoledl, Giovedi, Venerdi, 

Sdhato. 

Ed i mesi qudnti sono ? Dodici. 

Come si chidmano ? Genndjo, Fehhrdjo, Mdrzo, 

Apiile, Mdggio, Giugno, 
LugJio, Agosto, Setteuthre, 
Ottohre, Novembre, Decern- 
hre. 

E le stagioni (seasons) ? Sono qudttro : Primavevd, Es- 

tdte (or) Stdte, Antunno, 
Inverno o Verno. 



40 ITALIAN GRAIklMAR. 



/ 

tL CHAPTER yi. 



THE CASES OF NOUNS. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE UPON THE USE OF DI, A^ DA. 

VI pidce la citta di Parigi ? Does the city of Paris please you ? 

II fitto DELLE case e cdro, The rent of the houses is dear. 

VI dico die non ho dandri, I tell you that I have no money. 

Spoleto non e lontdno da Roma, Spoleto is not far from Rome. 

Voglio scrivere delle Uttere, I wish to write some letters. 

lo non voglio hrj£he^ I do not wish cares. 

Voi non avete fratelU, You have no brothers. 

Z' uo7no Vive delle sue fatiche, Man lives by (of) his labors. 

lo non temo puntp di voi, I do not fear you at all. 

Ecco un diziondrio da tdsca, Here is a pocket dictionary. 

UAribsto e ilpittore dell A na- Ariosto is the painter of nature. 

tura, 

Z' occhio del padrone inqrdss g' The eye of the master fattens 

il cavdllo, ^ the horse. 

Mi e, sorella dal Igip del pddre, She is a sister on my father's 

e non dal cqMq della md- side, but not on the side of 

dre, my mother. 

Egli ha posto della polvere da He has put (some) gunpowder 
f^UiAJkJ^scjnoppo in una scdtola da in a tobacco-box. 

tobacco, 

The several relations of the Italian nmiTia ^ rp expressed 
by the prepositions di, of; a^ tox da. from, or by . The 
nominative and obiective are distinguished by the pla ce 
they occupy in the sentence . 

1. The nominative denotes the relation of a subject to 
a finite verb ; as, Maria dma, Mary loves. 

2. The genitive denotes origin, possession, and other re- 
lations, which in English are expressed by the preposition 
of, or by the possessive case ; as, I libri di "into fratello, 
my brother's books. 



THE CASES OF NOUNS. 41 

3. The dative denotes that to or for which any thing is, 
oris done; as, JEgli mi ddva il libro, he gave me the 
book. 

4. The accusative is either the object of an active verb 
or of certain prepositions, or the subject of an infinitive. 

5. The vocative is the form applied to the name of any 
object addressed. 

6. The ablative denotes privation and other relations, 
expressed in English by the prepositions with, from, in^ 
or by. 

Prop er_no uns are varied with the prepositions only ; 
common nouns, with the preposition and article^. 

Variation of the proper noun Boston : — 

Nominative Boston, Boston. 

Relation of Possession . Di Boston, of Boston. 

„ „ Attribution . A Boston, to Boston. 

„ „ Derivation . Da Boston, from (or by) Boston. 

Accusative Boston, Boston. 

Variation of a common noun in the plural : — 

Nominative Ilihri, the books. 

Relation of Possession . Dei libri, of the books. 

„ „ Attribution . Ai libri, to the books. 

„ „ Derivation . Dai lihri, from (or by) the books. 

Accusative I libri, the books. 

I. Di, the sign of the genitive, is used , — 

1st, When it denotes possession ; as, La cctsa di mio 
pddre, my father's house ; di chi e questo cappello ? 
whose hat is this? e del servitSre, it is the servant's. 

2d, W hg^n the noun or verb that follows di expresses a 
quality, limitation, or modification of the noun that pre - 
cedes_ it ; as, Qucchidio d' argento, a silver spoon; e 
tempo di pranzdre, it is dinner-time. 

II. The pr eposition d i, with or without the definite 
article, translates the words some ^nSTany when they do 
not_express a determinate quantity^ of a certain thing ; 
as, — / 



42 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

Dcitemi del pane, Give me some bread. 

Non hevete di quel vino. Do not drink any of that wine. 

III. If some and any have the signification of a .f&w, 
various, certain, a little, &>q.., they are rendered in Italian 
h^qualche before a singular noun ;„ by tin poco di^ or tin 
po' di, before a collective noun ; and by certi, divcrsij, 
alcuni, and vdrii, or their feminine form, before pjui'al 
nouns, according to their gender; as, — 

Ho pranzato con qualche amico, I have dined with some friend 

or con alcuni amici, or friends. 

Prendete un poco di vmo. Take some wine. 

IV. ^^en ther e is only a simple designatio n of the 
object, without any idea o f quantity , — that Fs to say, 
when the word some or any is omitted in English, — 
generally no art icle is used in It al ian . 

Bevete vino o hirra'^ Do you drink wine or beer? 

Chi ha dandri ha amici. He who has money has friends. 

V. The preposition di is often used after w ords requir- 
ing a diit'erent preposition, and after verbs requiring a 
direct object. In such cases, the word that governs di is 
understood, and the phrase is elliptica l, as may be seen in 
tlie following sentences : — 

Temere del popolo, for temere To fear the anger of the peo- 

LO SDEGNO del popolo, pie. 

Saper di musica, di algebra, etc., To know a little music, alge- 

for sap ere UN Poco di, etc. bra, etc. 

YI. Sometimes, especially in familiar conversation, the 
preposition di takes the place of the article il or lo before 
an infinitive, which, being the subject of a sentence, does 
not com e at the b eginnino; of it ; as, — 

E facile DI studidre, di parldre. It is easy to study, to speak, 
for e fdcile lo studidre, IL 
parldre. 

When the preposition di is thus substituted for the arti- 
cle, the phrase is elliptical, and stands for JS fdcile 
l'azione di studidre. ~~~ 



4 



THE CASES OF NOUNS. 43 

YII. It is verj comm on in It alian to use di instead of 
da whenever euphony requires it, particularly if the defi- 
nite article can be omitted after the preposition^ This, 
however, is never done unless fu6ri, via, or some such 
word requh'ing di, is easily understood. Thus they say : — 

Venire di casa ; that is, fuori To come out of the house. 
or via di casa for ddlla casa, 
or da casa. 

VIII. The preposition di is also frequently translated 
after verbs l 3y/b/% meaning on account of', by in, when 
it does not signify within ; by icith^ not expressing the 
idea of company or union / and occasionally by on . 

Ella vesfe di nero, She dresses in black. 

JVon mi biasi7ndte di questo, ' Do not blame me for this. 

Furono provveduti di tutto, or They were provided luith every 

d' ogni cosa, thing. 

Tl bambino fu nutrito di Idtte, The child was fed on milk. 

IX. ^, or ad, the sign of the dative, expresses direc- 
tion or aspiration towards some object, a nd correspo nds 
to the preposi tionT to , 

Andidmo a Ndpoli, Let us go to Naples. 

Scinvete ad un amico. Write to a friend. 

X. The preposition A is also translated in, for, from, 
and of after a verb, when it represents an action done 
against, towards, or to the damage of a person ; the direct 
object of such a verb being easily understood ; * as, — 

Non pdsso credere a quel che I cannot believe in what you 

dite, say. 

Pensdte a lui e provvedete ai suoi Think of him, and provide for 

bisogni, his wants. 

XI. JDa, the sign ofjhe_ablative, expresses derivation, 
separation, or dependence, and corresponds principally to 
the preposition from, which In most cases is translated; 
as, — 

* Remark. —The expressions, little BT little^ two BY two, etc., are rendered in Ital 
ian, poco A poco^ due A due, etc. 



44 ITALIAN GRAMVIAE. 

Da un giorno alV ctltro, From one day to another. 

Noji dipendo da nessuno, I do not depend on any one. 

XII. Z)a is used before a noun which indicates use, 
employment , or the destinat ion of a thing; ; as , — 

Cavdllo da sella, saddle-horse. 
Carta da Uttere, letter-paper. 

Xm. The English p r epositions a t and with, meaning 
" at the house of;" and by, either expressing the relation 
between a passive verb and its subject, or conveying the 
idea of solitude and exclusion, — are translated by da, 

Sta DA mio padre. He lives at my father's. 

Lo fara da se, He will do it by himself. 

XIV. Li]c e_ and as^ when thev signify ^ in the manner 
of," "as it becomes," and followed by a noun used in an 
indefinite sense, are generally rendered by da; as, — 

Portdtevi da udmo, Bear yourself like a man. 

Fdtela da padrone, Act as a master. 

Xz^e, followed by the pronouns himself, herself, our- 
setves, etc., is thus translated in Italian: Like himself, DA 
quel che e, or DA queW u6mo cK egli e, etc. 

READING LESSON. 

Molte commediole, compdste dall' Ariosto che le recitava in 

Many little comedies, composed • them recited 

compagnia de' sudi fratelli e delle siie sorelle, fiirono il preludio 

brothers his sisters, were prelude 

delle immortali sue dpere. Finalmente V elegante orazidne, che 

his works. 

pronuncio intdrno alle regole che si deggiono seguire, ed 
he pronounced concerning rules one ought to follow 

intdrno alio scdpo che ogniin propdrre si debbe nei prdpri stiidi, 
scope every one proposes ought own 

fece condscere alia citta di Ferrara, sua patria, ch' essa allevava 
made to know country reared 



THE CASES OF NOUNS. 15 

un genio, il quale avrcbbela illustmta; ed il padre siio god(';va 

genius who -would have (her) enjoyed 

in segreto della consolazidne d' iidire da' suoi coiicittadini 

hearing fellow-citizens 

proporre il pioprio figliuolo ai loro, come un modello da imitarsi. 
to propose own son as model imitate. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Ill Italy there are immense plains, majestic rivers, very 
high mountains, lakes, cascades, forests, volcanoes, and beauty in 
all varieties. 

2. A lady, speaking of a preacher whom she had heard from 
a great distance, said, " He spoke to me with* his hand, and. 1 
listened with^ my eyes." 

3. It is difficult to satisfy every one's desire in (the) great 
enterprises. 

4. May God send us good princes, and may the devil not give 
them the fancy of wishing to be heroes ! 

5. (The) hypocrites cover themselves with the mask of (the) 
devotion. 

6. Never leave flowers in a sleeping-chamber. 

7. The greater part of (the) men live like crazy people, and 
die like fools. 

8. One of the miseries of the rich is to be always deceived. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. There are, vi sono ; immense \Aams, pianura stermindta; 
majestic rivers, Jiume maestoso. 

2. A lady, una Signora ; speaking, parldndo ; a preacher 
whom she had heard, un predicatbre cli ella avea inteso ; far off, 
inolto distdnte ; said, disse ; he has spoken to me, egli mi ha 
parldto (with the hands) ; I have listened to him, lo V ho aS' 
coUdto (with the eyes). 

3. Great enterprises, grdnd^ impresa ; it is difficult, e cb&a 
difficile ; to satisfy, secondare ; desire, desiderio ; all, tutti. 

4. May God send us, Dio ci mdndi ; good prince, huono 
principe ; devil, didvolo ; not give them, non d'la loro, 

6. Cover themselves, si c6p7^ono. 

6. Never leave, non lascidte jndi. 

7. Live, vivono ; die, mubiono. 

8. Always deceived, sempre inganndti. 



46 



ITALIAN GRAMaiAR. 



Dove ? where ? 
Che ? what ? 



a^? 



who? 



Sovente, often. 



CONVERSATION. 



Dove era la Signora ? 



Molto distdnte dal predicatore. 



Con che si coprono gV ipocriti ? Colla mdschera delta divozione. /hO: 



Qudnti sensi avete ? 

Come si ckidmano ? 

Ahhidmo del vino ? 

E tempo di pranzdre ? 

Che cdne e quesfo?' 

Che 7'ecitdva Aribsto in com- 

pagn'ia cZe' suoi frateUi e delle 

sue sorelle 2 
Dove sono maraviglie in bgni 

genere f 
Che sono esse (tjiey) ? 



Cinque. 

Udito, vista, odordto, gusto, tdtto. 

Avete una hotte di vino. 

lo ho pranzdto con alciini amici, 

E un cdne da cdccia. 

Mblte commedible, che furono il 

preliidio delle immortdli sue 

op ere. 
In Itdlia. 

Fiumi maestbsi, cascdte, selves 

volcdni, etc. 
Egli mi ha parldto cblla mdno. 



Che disse una Sigtibra dJ un 

predicatore ? 
Qiidli 'persbne sbno sovente in- 

ganndte ? 
Qudli ubmini vivono come La maggibr parte degli ubmini. 



Le persbne ricche. 



pazzi 



r? 



CHxiPTER yil. 

PRONOUNS. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE NOMINATIVE. 

lo, tu, egli, esso, ella, essa, nrji, voi, eglino an d essi, cUeno and ess e. 



I, thou, he, he o;- it, she, she or it, we, you. they, m., 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



they, f. 



Chi hdtte ? Son lO, 



Who knocks ? It is I. 



Se non voictc cantdr vox, can- If you do not wish to sing, / 

tero lO, will sing. 

Non duUtdte : pejiseremo Noi ad Do not fear : we will think of 



ogni cosa, 



every thing. 



PRONOUNS. 



47 



Cost diceva ancbr lO, 
Vol farete quel die vorro lO, 
lo voylio fare come fate voi, 
Non ci va egli, e non ci andrete 

nemmeno voi, 
Avete voi roha'^ Avete quat- 

trini ? 
Che bella cosa il poter dire, 

Co7iidndo lO ! 
Gli farete conoscere chi sono lO 

e 'chi siete voi, 
Siete vol il padrone di questo 

albergo ? 
Pqiche volete che dica lO, diro 

10, 

Vol avete miglior vista che non 
ho 10, 



/ also said so. 

Tou will do what / wish. 

/ wish to do as you do. 

He will not go ; and you will 
not go either. 

Have you pro[)erty ? Have you 
money ? 

How beautiful it is to say, / 
command ! 

Let him know Avho / am, and 
who you are. 

Are you the master of this ho- 
tel? 

As you wish that / say it, / 
will say it. 

You have better sight than L 



PEONOUNS IN THE OBJECTIVE (CLASS I.). 

Me, te, Kii, lei, noi, vol, Idro ; se.* 

iie, thee, him, her, us, you, tiiem ; "himself, herself, itself, themselves. 



MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



Che cosa volete da me ? 

Ella, e fiiQri di se ddlla rdbbia, 

Or ora sono a vox, 

Fdtemi la jinezza di pranzdr 

MECO, 

lo dmo il mio amico quanta me 

STESSO, 

Si, fate voi, io mi rimetto in 

VOI, mi confido in voi, 
Egli non sa far niilla da SE, 

Lascidte fare a me, non dubi- 

tdte, 
Degnate far colazibne con N(5i, 



What do you wish of me ? 
She is beside hei'self with anger. 
I am with you in a moment. 
Do me the pleasure to dine 

with me. 
I love my friend as much as 

myself. 
Yes, do what you will, I agree 

with you, I confide in you. 
He does not know how to do 

any thing by himself 
Let me do it: never fear (do 

not doubt). 
Have the kindness to breakfas; 

with us. 



* These pronouns are called disjunctive. 



48 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



jEgli non domanda voi, 
Non dlco a voi, Signor mio, 
Verrd co7i voi se volete, 
To non voglio partire da VOI, 
Qudnto avete sj^eso per lei, 



He does not ask for you. 
I do not speak to you, deai' sir. 
I will go with you, if yon w^ish. 
I do not wish to leave you. 
How much have you spent for 
her. 



PRONOUNS* m THE OBJECTIVE (CLASS II.). 

Mi. ti , gli. lo 

Me, thee, him, xncl.^ hii 



la. 



Li, 

Them, m.. 



CI w ne, VI, 
you, 



him or it, her, ind., her or it, us^ 

le, loro : si. 

them, f., them, ind. ; himself, herself, itself, themselves. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



Voi VI siete dimenticdto di me, 
Non MI dimenticherb DI VOI, 
Gli e nolo un jiglio , 
Che male vi lio jdtio io ? 
Davvero, io non vi capiscOy 
Mi place la 7nia libertd,'\ 
Fate pur quel che vi pare, 
La fortuna (yi_vu6l bene, 
Vi raccomdndo di far questo, 
Che cosa yi ha egli detto Di me ? 
Potete dir loro che entrino, 
Io VI Idscio, perche ho fretta, 
Ho scritto una lettera che mi 



prenu 



comdnda il Signor 
Aiutaii che ti aiu- 



Chc mi 

Tizio"^ 
Dio dice 

tero, 
Domdni gli daro da prdnzo 



Mi ricordo cid che mi avete detto, 
Amico, CI rivedremo stasera, 
Ti accerto che non le diro nidla, 



You have forgotten me. 

I will not forget you. 

A son is born to him. 

What ill have I done you ? 

Truly, I do not understand yow. 

I love my liberty. 

Do as seems good to you. 

Fortune wishes us well. 

1 recommend you to do this. 

What has he said to yon of rne f 

You can tell them to come in. 

I leave you, for I am in a hurry. 

I have written a letter which 

is important to me. 
What does Mr. Tizio wish of 

me? 
God says, Help thyself, and I 

will help thee. 
T will give hifn dinner to-mor- 

ro^\\ 
I remember what you have 

said to me. 
Friend, we shall see each other 

this evening. 
I assure you that I shall say 

nothing to her. 



* These pronouns are called coDJunctive. 
t Mi place, it pleases me. 



PRONOUNS. 



49 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE NOMINATIVE. 



I. 



lo, 
Til, 

JEgli, esso 



a. essa. 



N6U 
Vol, 

£!c/lino, essi, 
Elleiio, esse, 




lo dor mo, 
Tii prdnzi, 
Egli balla, 
Ella ride, 
Noi cantidmo, 
Voi pens cite, 
Essi scrivono, 
Esse pdrlano, 



I sleep. 
Thou dinest. 
He dances. 
She laughs. 
We sing. 



You think. 
They write. 
/ ±JUeno, esse, j 'i'hey, f. ; Esse pdjiano, They speak. 

Remark, — Of these pr onouns only Esso in all its 
forms, Ndi and ^di, can be used as o1)jcctive. 

II. jSj^-Zz, with its feminine and plural forms, can only 
be used for persons. It translat es the subiecti ve pronoun 
U before verljs used impersonally ; and it is often, for 
euphony, contracted to di, or e'. Very seldom it is ex- 
pressed with really impersonal verbs. Ex. : Egli e difficile, 
it is difficult ; Pidve e tudna, it rains and thunders. 

III. Ella mayjbe used to translate it before the verb s 
essere, jpdfere, e semhrdre when followed by a feminine 
n^urT; as, Ella mi sembra disgrdzia inaudita, it seems 
to me a misfortune unheard of. In every other case, 
Esso and Essa with their plural must be used.^as they 
can represent both persons and things, whilst Egli and 
Ella only represent persons. 

lY. The use of gli for egli, of gli diW^ egli for e^l ino^ 
and of ia or le for ella or elleno^ is jusftfiedbj the_ex- 
ample of good writers, ancient and modern, and by the 
])ractice of good society. In addressing persons, the 
Tuscans employ the contractions la and le for dlla and 
elleno in the sense of you : as, La 7ni perddni, I beg 
your pardon; Le mi dicano, (ladies or gentlemen), 
tell me. 

v. If _the num be r of the person is sufficiently indicated, 
cither by the termmation ot the verb, or by any othcr_cir- 
cumstance, tlie subjoctivc pronou n is gcncrally^ omittcd. 

5 



50 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

But when there is antithesis or contrast implied between 
two or more verbs in different persons, then the pronouns 
representing the various subjec ts c annot be suppressed. 
Ex. : JEssa uscird e voi sta?'ete in cdsa, she will go out 
and you will stay at home. 

VI. The preceding rule must be observed when the 
stress of the voice is to belaid on the subjec t of a ver b, 
iiT which c ase the~i3 ronoun is often put after j/t. Ex. : 
J^ssa sola pud dir queste cose, or qiicste cose le pud dir 
essa, she alone can say such things. 

VII. Tlic eni})liasis often expressed in English hy do 
or did, and the exclusive meaning given to a pronouja Jjy 
the word self, are rendered in Italian, either by merely 
placing the subject after the verb, or by the adjectives 
stesso and medesimo,^ Ex. : Dite ora cid che pensdte v6i, 
or dite cid che voi stesso pensdte, say now what you do 
tliink ; Lo fard egli, or egli medesimo lo fard, he will 
do it himself. This rule applies also to nouns, as may be 
seen in the following examples : Aspettdte che venga il 
padrSne, or che il padrone stesso venga, wait until the 
master comes himself. 

VIII. The words himself^ herself, itself, and themselves ^ 
can always be translated by stesso and medesimol after a 
n oun or a pronoun, and must agree with it in 8;ende r and 
number . JbJx. : iSuo pddre stesso lo dice, his father him- 
self says so. After the verbs essere and par ere , the same 
pronouns can be translated by desso, dessa, dessi, aiid 
desse, according to the gender of the noun to which they 
are put in apposition. Ex. : Non e piil desso, he is no 
longer himself ; Mi par dessa, it seems to me it is she, 
or she herself. 

IX. In interrogative phrases, implying the desire ainl 
purpose of obtaining information about any thing, the 
subjective pronoun is either placed after the verb; as, 
Anderd egli domdni ? shall he go to-morrow ? — or it is 
suppressed altogether, and the question marked by the 
inflection of the voice, which is always very distinct in 
Italian. But if the question is put by persons acquainted 
already with tlie fact inquired about, the pronoun sliould 



PRONOUNS. 51 

be expressed and placed before the verb. Ex. : EHi 
anderci domdni ? Tutti lo aspettano, he will go to-mor- 
row ? Every one expects him. 

X. The subjective pronouiis are replaced l)y the o23- 
jectiye^ in the following cases: 1. After t lie adverbs 
covie, siccdme, and qndnto^ when no verb follows them : 
as, Erano maliziosi come lai, they were malicious as he 
was ; Se cg-Ii fosse come te, if lie were like thee. 2. 
VVhen they govern an infniitive: as, Sapendo me dmar lei, 
knowing that I love her ; Udendo lui con gli dltri esser 
morto, hearing that he died with the otliers. 3. After 
the verb esse re preceded by its su bject : as, S' io fossi l{d, 
if I were he ; Credeva che Pietro fosse te, I thought 
Peter was you. 

XI. In addressing, the Italians employ either the second 
perso n'or the t hird' Tlie second person singular, repre-i 
sented by Tu, Thou, denotes affection and familiarity, 
and always implies that the speaker is equal or superior 
to tlie individual thus addressed. Great love can only 
justify an inferior in using it towards a superior, — 
children, for instance, towards their parents and grand- 
parents. The second person plural corresponds to it 
when several persons are spoken to ; and it is also used 
generally with any class of society, correcting its apparent 
familiarity with some expression of respect when address-, 
ing a person entitled to some consideration, as, foi' in- 
stance : Cchne state, Signore? How do you do, sir? 
Che mi commanddte, Signdra ? What can I do for youJ 
my lady ?" In poetry and elevated prose the rules are the' 
same as in Enoiish. 

o 

s 

XII. Thejhird person sin gular is used in addressing 
any one that doe's not TjcTon g to the low classes ; and it is 
expressed by the feminine pronoun J5^/fe, repres-enting the 
words Vdstra Signoria, or their contraction A^ossignorfa 
(V.S.), which would sound too formal if used very fre- 
quently in conversation. The same feminine pronoun 
precedes the verb in the third person when the individual 
addi'cssed is entitled to be treated as Eccellcnza, Altrzza, 
Grand^zza, or witli some other feminine word. IT many 



52 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

are to be addressed in this way, the third person plural 
iis substituted for the singular. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE OBJECTIVE. 

XIII. The pronouns of the first class may be used as 
direct or indirect regimen ; that is, they may be governed 
by the verb, or by a preposition, as the following exam- 
ples will show : — 

CerccHe me ? Are you looking; for me ? 

PenscHe a 7ne ? Do you think of rae ? 

When the prono uns me, te, a nd se are governed by tjie 
preposition con, they may be prefixed and joined to it, 
tTmsjijrriicQy teco, seco. JSfosco and vdsco, for con ndi and 
con vol, are now entirely left to poetry. 

XLY. The pronouns of the second class are employed 
either as direct or indn-ect regimen of the verb ; but they 
can never be governed by a preposition. They serve to 
conjugate pronominal or reflective verbs, and in such case 
mi, ti si, ci, vi, si, mean respectively myself, thyself, him- 
self; or, herself, ourselves, yourself ; or, yourselves and 
themselves. Ex. : — 

lo mi ricordo, I remember. 

Mi mando dei fori, He sent me some flowers. 

TliS-Ii ronoun l6ro belono: s to b oth classes ; it can there- 
fore be us ed for the direct or the indirect objec t, with 
a pre position or witEbut, as the case may require. 

XY. When the objective pronoun is emphatic, when 
the preposition cannot be suppressed, and when the re is 
antithesis between two pronouns, a proiiomi of the first 
class must be used ; in other cases, one of the sec.ond 
class is to be preferred. 



READING LESSON. 



L' uomo scioperato e 1' uomo piu affaceendato. Egli ha 

idle most occupied. 

cinquanta amiei che si crede in obbligo di coltivare. 

fifty friends whose (friendship) '^ believes obliged 



PRONOUNS. 53 

Vi dira il iiome di tiitti i ricamatori, di tutti gli spcziuli dclla 
will give (tell) embroiderers apothecaries 

citta. Egli vi provvedera il sarto, il calzolaio, la lavandaia ; se 

will procure 

siete ammalato, condurra da voi un medico ; siete addolorato, 
sick, will conduct afflicted 

egli non vi lascia, fintantoche non vi abbia veduto ridere. 
leaves, until have seen to laugh. 

S' incaricliera di tutte le vostre compre, e finira coll' andare a 

will take charge purchases will finish going 

letto stracco di aver lavorato tanto. L' allegrezza ci consola e 
bed tired worked so much. joy 

ci tiene in sanita ; le cure vane ci opprimono, distiirbano 1' animo 
keeps health cares oppress 

nostro e ci traggono tosto nella tomba. 
drag quickly 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. When Paulus Emilius repudiated Papiria, his wife, some 
persons were astonished that he should separate himself from so 
modest and so handsome a w^oman ; but Emilius, showing them 
his shoe, said, " You see that it is well made, but none of you 
know where it hurts me." 

2. It was reported to Frederick the Great, that some one had 
spoken ill of him. He asked if this person had a hundred 
thousand men. He was answered, "No." — "Ah! well," added 
the kino-, " I can do nothinsj with him : if he had a hundred 
thousand men, I would declare war against him." 

3. A young man who passed for rich, but who was laden with 
debts, sat very pensive, the evening before his betrothal, in his fu- 
ture mother-in-law's parlor. Several times she said to him, " CJie 
cosa avete ? " " What have you ? " (meaning, " What is the matter 
with you ? ") To which he continually answered, " No7i ho nienfe" 
" I have nothing, " (meaning, " Nothing is the matter with me.") 
Eight days after his marriage, his mother-in-law, seeing a crowd 
of creditors, said to him, " Sir, you have deceived me." — " Mad- 
am," added he, "I well informed you that I had notliing; and T 
repeated the same thing to you more than ten times in your 
parlor before my betrothal." 

5* 



54 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



VOCABULARY. 

1. Repudiated, ripudio ; some persons, alcuni ; were aston- 
ished, si maraviglidvano ; should separate himself, si separasse ; 
so pretty a woman, una donna cost vezzosa ; modest, modesta ; 
showing, mostrcindo ; his, la sua ; said, disse ; you see, voi 
vedke ; well made, hen fdtta ; however, ^e;'o ; no one, nessuno ; 
knows where, sa dove ; hurts, offenda. 

2. It was reported, yi6 riferito ; Frederick the Great, Fede/ico 
i! Grande ; had spoken ill, sparldto ; if this person, se costiii ; a 
hundred thousand, cento mila ; he was, gli fu ; no, di no ; well, 
bene ; added, soggiunse ; I cannot, non posso ; nothing, nulla ; 
had, avesse ; would declare war, inuoverei guerra. 

3. A young man, un giovinotto ; who passed for, tenuto per ; 
laden, cdrico ; debt, debito ; was pensive, stdva tutto pensieroso ; 
evening before, vigilia ; of his betrothal, dei suoi spojisdli ; par- 
lor, salotto ; of his future mother-in-law, della sua futura suocera ; 
many times, parecchie volte ; sir,, signore ; always, sempre ; eight 
tlays after, otto giorni dopo ; seeing arrive, vedendo capitdre ; 
a crowd, una turba ; deceived, inganndta ; I well informed you, 
vi feci pur avvertita ; repeated, ripetei ; more than, j^mrfi; ten, 
died ; in your, nel vostro ; before, prima de\ 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

CM bdtte ? Son io. 

Che cdsa volete da me ? Voglio far colazione con voi, 

Che cbsa mi avete detto ? Non me ne ricordo. 

Pa gate voi il prdnzo ? Si, lo pdgo io. 

3Ii aspettdte ? Non vi aspetto. 

Di chi pdrla egli? Egli pdrla di noi. 

Come si chidma questa ragdzza ? Ella si chidma Carolina, 

A chi scrivero io? Al pddre di 3£aria. 

Ti penti tu ? • Io mi pento. 

Ci divertidmo noi ? Noi non ci divertidmo. 

Chi vi dira il nome di tutti gli X' uomo scioperdto vi dira il 

spezidli della cittd ? nome di tutti. 

Siete voi il padrone di questa Sono il padrone di questo at- 

cdsa ? bergo. 

Avete il bastone di mio fratel- Io non ho il suo bastone, voi 

lo ? V avete. 

Volete ddrmi un anello ? Non voglio ddrvi un anello^ vi 

darb (will give) un libra. 



PRONOUNS, PERSONAL AND CONJUNCTIVE. 



55 



CHAPTER VIII. 



PRONOUNS, PERSONAL AND CONJUNCTIVE. 

[ Continuation of Preceding Lesson.'] 

To avoid several monosyllables, and for the sake of 
e \ iphony, tlie Italians unite several words togethe r. This 
union constitutes one of the chief beauties of the Ian2;ua2:e. 
For exainple : th e imperative ddteinelo is composed of 
date 'iiie loj^ give it to me ; and, because the accent falls 
on the first syllable, the word has all the strength of the 
imperative, the desire of prompt obedience. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



La riverisco divotamente^ 
In die pbsso servirLA ? 
Come VE LA passdte ? 
To ME LA pdsso benone, 
Vi do la huona notte, 
Non VI voglio incomoddre, 
IhrudtevENK indietro, 
Glielo posso dir lO, 
AnddteQ.\.\YA.O a dir VOI, 
L'evawi'^i dindnzi, temerdrio^ 
Non MI comparke piu dindnzi, 
Ohe VE NE pdre ? 
RagionidmoLA. qui fra di NOI, 
Faccidmo'LA da hubni amici, 
Foi non me la darete ad in- 
tendere, 



I have the honor to salute you. 

How can I serve you ? 

How do you do ? 

I am very well. 

I wish you good night. 

I do not wisli to trouble you. 

Turn back. 

I can tell it to him myself. 

Go tell it to him yourself. 

Go out of my sight, insolent one. 

Never appear before me again. 

How does it seem to vou ? 

Let us reason here together. 

Let us act like good friends. 

You will not make me believe it 



I. A pronoun stands for a person or thing 



Lo or iV, 

Le, 

Ne. 



him, it; To lo ret/o, 

her, it ; Tu la conosci, 

them m. ; JVoi li vedidmo, 

them, /. ; lo le aspelto, 

of it ; Voi N E riderete, 



I see it or him. 
Thou kiiowest her. 
We see them. 
I expect them. 
You will Uiu^h about 



Oi or vi^ of it 



it. 
To CI or VI penso,l think of it. 



r- ft 



b ITALIAN GRAMMAR. • 

II. Tliej)ronoun il or lo may be contracted and blouded 
with the negative non into the monosyllable nol: as, JVol 
so, I do not know it ; Nol vedo, I do not see him. When 
not thus contracted, lo is used, as it always is before verbs 
beginning with s impure, or a vowel. Before other verbs 
lo is generally preferred to z7, unless euphony should 
otherwise require. Ex. : Lo riconobbi siibito die 7 vidi, 
I recognized him as soon as I saw him ; Nol vidi e per 
conseguenza non lo salutdi, I did not see him, and conse- 
quently I saluted him not ; 11 chiese e lo spedi a suo 
fratello^ he asked for him and sent him to his brother. 

III. It is also by euphony that we should be guided i n 
the elision of pro nouns before verbs, whenever t h e niea ii- 
ing allows it. The rules that govern the elision of the 
article apply also to pronouns, with the exceptions__that 
may result from the verbs having no gender. Lo vide e 
V amo is properly said, because the gender of the pronoun 
elided is already determined by the object of vide. U amo 
qudnto una mddre pud amdr-e would not be correct, owing 
to the double meaning that the pronoun thus elided as- 
sumes ; vfz., She loved him or her as much as a mother 
can love. 

lY. Though the pronoun gli signifies to jiini^ it is als o 
u sed for ^ie feminine le w hen prefixed to an d blende d 
with lo, la, lih ,J§: ^^' In sucli case, the letter e is in- 
serted between the two pronouns ; thus : — 

Glieio ; V6i glielo darete, You will give it to him or her. 

Giiela ; lo (jU^U manderb, I will send them to her or him. 

Glie'le; Glie'le vendera, He will sell them to liim or her. 

Gliem; Vdi gliene comprerele, You will buy her or him some. 

Lene ^nstQSid of gliene is o ccasi onally used forjth e 
feminine. 

Y. In a grea,t number of Italian phrases, the pronoun 
la refers to a feminine noun which is not expressed, but 
it is easily supplied bjjhe reade r or listener . Ex. : — 

lo ve LA dico schietta, I tell it to you frankly (the truth). 
Voi ve LA godete, ITou enjoy it (life). 

lo me LA bdtto, I beat it (retreat) ; I run away. 

Tlie words veritd, vita, and ritirdta are understood. 



PROJSOUNS, PERSONAL AND CONJUNCTIVE. o7 

VI. Eii]jh oiiy r equ ires th at the i of tlie^ pronouns mi, 
tij^si, tu',_iii,_jihould -GhangeL the i into e when they are 
followed by the pronouns /o, l a, li, ne; as, — 

Jlfe Zo, it to me ; Tu me lo ddi, Thou givest it to me. 

Te la, it to thee ; lo te la do^ I give it to thee. 

Se li, them to him ; Egli se li fard dare, lie will cause them to be given to himself. 

Ce lie, us of it ; Noi ce ne occupidnio, We occupy ourselves with it. 

Vele, them to you ; lo ve le presto, I lend them to you. 

VII. M d, tel, selj^cel ,jvely are written befbrea word 
which commences Avith a conso nant , instead of me lo, teloj^ 
etc. ; as, EgTTTe I figura , "oY^seTo Jig ura , he iigures it to 
himself; io vel diceva, or ve lo diceva, I said it to you. 

VIII. Some ancient authors have often pl acgd_the pro- 
nouns lo, la, li, le, before 7ni, ti, si, ci, vi^\\Q,u. euphony 
permitted. Tlius7~instead of "saymg, Uio te lo perduni, 
may God pardon you ; they have said, Dio il ti perdoni. 

IX. All th e_pron() u ns mi, ti, si, ci, vi, lo, la, gli, le^ 
ne, me To^ telo^ se lo Tetc., whe ther simple^ or compoun d, 
are generally pla ced before the ve r b, except when used 
with an infiniti ve, a gerund, the second person singular , 
and the first and seco nd plural of the imperative : in w liich 
cases they are placed after the verb to which they ara 
joined, so as to make o ne word ; thw s, — 



Parldr'n.i., To speak to me. 

ParZdrMENE, To speak to me of it. 

ScriveteL^, Writ« to her. 

KicordidmoCl, Let us remember. 

CotnprdteG'LlEL.O, Buy it for him. 

GuarddteLO, Loolc at him. 



Cercdndo'LO, Seeking him. 

VendcndoGX,lBljA, Selling it to him. 
ilfosiraZeCENE, Show us some. 
DdfeMELO, Give it to me. 

I-cmieGLlELA, Take it from her. 
PensidMOCl, Let us think of it. 



Observe that the infinitive loses the final e when the 
pronoun is joinedjto^it ; ahd^TTlTie'infinitrve terminates in 
ri'e, as cond'Orre, it loses the syllable_rej and we say, 
Condurmi, conduct me. 

X. To express " give it to me," "give it to us," etc., the 
conjunctive pronoun is placed after the personal in this 
way ; Ddte^iFJjk ddteCVA^O. 



58 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

XI. The pronoun is likewise placed after the word ecco, 
to which it is joined; ixs,' Eccomi, eccolo, behold me, 
behold him. 

XII. Withjthejie.2:ation non, these p ronouns are^ plagad 
before the verb, except when the verb is in the infi nitive ; 
as, — 

Non GLiELO domdndate, Do not ask it of him. 

Non ME NE date, Do not give me any. 

Non LO faccidmo, Let us not make it. 

Non LO facendoj or non faceiidoh, Not making it. 

Xm. These pronouns are also jo ined to the past par- 
ti ciple when' th e auxiliary is understood; as, MaUegrdtosi^ 
having rejoiced! 

Remark. — These pronouns admit of other transposi- 
tions, and very much assist in expressing an energetic, 
rapid, or gentle sentiment. For example, the phrase 
" I say it " may be constructed thus : — 

Lo dico, to express a grave sentiment. 

11 dicOf to give a mild form to the phrase. 

Dicolo, to impress with the rapidity of the thought. 

Dicol, to join rapidity with sweetness. 

The learner should, however, be careful not to place 
the ^^ronoun after any other than the imp erative, in fixiitiye, 
and o^erund.. 

XIY. The first con sonant of the pronoun should b e 
doubled whenever it is joined to a verb of one syllable, or 
one_which li as the grave accent upon the fin al vo \yel ; 
as, Dillo, ddmini, fdllo, tell it, give me, do it^ 

XY. The posi tion of the pronoun can be changed f or 
the sake of eup hony ; as, — 

To lo voglio vedere, or io vbglio I wish to see him. 

ved'erlo, 
lo gliene posso parldre, or to I can speak to him of it. 

posso parldrgliene, 



PRONOUNS, PERSONAL AND CONJUNCTIVE. 50 

XVI. In certa in cases, the personal pronoun is chang ed 
into the possessive ; as, Mio *wxilqrddo , in spite of me : 
and, on the contrary, the possessive is sometimes changed 
into the personal; as, Cavdtevi il vestito, take off your 
coat. 

READING LESSON. 

Tra le varie nazloni del mondo la pulltezza lia introdotto 

politeness introduced 

infiniti iisi di salutare. Plauto parla di popoli che si salutavano 

modes salutation. Plautus speaks 

tirandosi forte 1' orecchia. I Franchi si strappavano un 
pulling strong (hard) ear. pulled out 

capello, e lo presentavano alia persona che volevano salutare. 
hair presented they wished 

Al Giappone un conoscente vi saliita togliendosi dal piede lina 

Japan acquaintance taking foot 

pantofola ; e nelle Indie, egli viene a prendervi per la barba ; 
slipper comes to take beard ; 

altri si salutano voltandosi la scliiena. Gl' isol;ini del grande 
others turning back. islanders 

oceano fregano il lore naso con quelle della persona salutata, 
rub ~ ' nose that 

oppiire gli soffiano nell' orecchio. GU abitanti di Horn si 

or blow inhabitants 

coricano col ventre a terra, e la maggior parte dei negri si 
lie down belly greater negroes 

prendouo a vicenda ledlta e le fanno schricchiolare. L' Inglese 
take turn make crack. Englislnnan 



■t)' 



in un eccesso d' amicizia vi afferra per la mano e ve la scuote 
fit friendship seizes shalces 

vigorosaraente come se volesse strapparvi il braccio. Questa 

if he wished to pull out arm. This 

gentilezza fa la veci degli abbracci dei Frances! e degl' Italiani. 
courtesy takes the place embraces 

EXERCISE. 

1. A thoughtless wag saw three blind peoj)lo in the street, 
wliOj keeping together, went begging. " Stop," said lie to thcni ; 
"take this crown, divide it between you, and [)ray God for me." 



60 ITALIAN GllAJVIMAR. 

As to the crown, he gave it to neither of them. The blind men 
all thanked him at once, and ran quickly into a tavern, where 
they ordered a breakfast. When they were well satisfied, one 
said to the others, " Let him who has the crown pay the fare ; '* 
but each one answered, "I have it not: thou hast it." From 
hard words they came to blows ; and gave so many blows with 
their sticks, that they broke every thing that was on the table, to 
tJie great detriment of the host. 

2. The authors of the century of Louis XIV. have expressed 
great thoughts in simple words. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Humorist, hurlone ; thoughtless, spensierato ; saw in, vide 
per; keeping together, stretti insieme ; went begging, se ne 
anddvano accattdndo ; stop, fermatevi ; take, togliete ; divide it, 
spartitelo ; neither of them, nessuno ; thanked, ringraziarono ; all 
at once, concordemente ; they ran, corsero ; a breakfast, da cola- 
zione ; well satisfied, ben satolli ; let him who, dii ; pay, pdghi ; 
but each one answered, al die ciascuno risjyondeudo ; thou hast 
it. tu V hai ; they came, vennero ; they gave, diedero ; so many, 
tcinte ; blows with a stick, bastoncHe ; everything that was, futto 
cio die si trovdva ; to the great detriment, etc., con gran ddnno 
deir oste. 

2. Have expressed, hdnno espresso. 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Che e V Italia ? H giardmo d* Europa. 

Che avete ? Ho una rbsa, 

Avke il libro ? Non ho il libro, ho la penna. 

E giovane la sorella del Signbre ? Si, ella e giovane. 

Che fdnno gV isoldni del grdiide J^glino fregano il loro ndso con 
oceano qudndo salutano ? quello della persona^ salutdta. 

E gli ahitdnti di Horn ? Si coricano ventre a terra. 

Che vide un burlone ? J^gli vide tre ciedii. 

Che dfisse il burlone ? Pregdte D'lo per me. 

A dii diede egli uno scudo ? Egli non lo diede a iiessuno. 

Come saliitano gli Inglesi ? Vi afferrano per la mdno e ve 

la scuotano. 

QudV e la prima legge ? La legge di Dio e la prima 

legge. 

Tribnfa essa sempre ? Si, tosto o tdrdi. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 61 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE ADJECTIVE — L' " ADDIETTIVO. 
MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Godo di vedervi in hiiona salute, I am glad to see you well. 
Passeremo per la piu corta, We will take the shortest. 

Parlidinoci schietto, Let us speak clearly. 

Perche avete tanta premura'^ Why are you so hurried? 

Quanti rinni avete ? How old are you ? 

I rtcchi hdnno molti amici, The rich have many friends. 

II hello pidce a tutti, The beautiful pleases all. 

3I6lfi pochi fdnno un assdi^ * A little repeated makes much. 
GV ingrdti hdnno poca memoria, Ungrateful people have short 

memories. 
Chi perdona ai catiwi, nubce ai He who pardons the wicked, 

huoni, injures the good. 

Buon dl, hiiona sera, felice notte, Good day, good evening, good 

night. 
Per molti lafatica e poco sdna, Labor is not healthy for many 
^ people. 

E uno che ha pocJii pari, He is a man who has few 

equals. 

ADJECTIVES : THEIR NIBIBER, GEXDEE, ETC. 

I. Italian adjectives a ll end in o or e. Those ending 
in o ch ange the o into a for t h e Feminine : those in_g 
preserve the same form in both genders. " The plural of 
adjectives is formed like that of iiouns ; as, — 

SINGULAR. 

Popolo libero ed indipendente, Free and independent people. 
Nazione libera ed indipendente, Free and independent nation. 

PLURAL. 

Pbpoli liberi ed indipendenti, Free and independent peoples. 
Nazibni lihere ed i7idipendenti , Free and independent nations. 

* Idioms and proverbs are marked i 



62 ITALIAN GRA31MAR. 

II. Some adjectives end either in e or in o ; as, Via- 
lente oFmoIenfo. In this case one might say, Uu uo'ino 
violente, una ddnna viole7ite^ or un uomo violento, una 
d6nna violSnta^ a violent man, a violent woman. 

III. The only adjectives terminating in i are pdri^ 
equal, and disp dri or iini :)dri^ unequ al. These are inva- 
.'i'iable, whatever be the gender or the number of the noun 
(to which they belong. 

IV. The word 'pdi^i is^ often used as a noun . It then 
has a possessive adjective aft er i t ; as, Tin pdri mio^ un 
l^dri vostro, del j)dri nostri, a man like me, like you, 
persons like us; cosi si trdtta cdn un pdri mio? is it 
thus that one acts with a person of my rank ? 

V. Substantives used as adjectives, ending i n t(^re , 
change tpt'e i nto trice forme fem inine ; as, A.ut6re, au- 
thor ; autince, authoress, — except dottdre, fattore, doc- 
tor, farmer ; which make dottoressa^ fattoressa. Other 
substantives used as adjectives form their feminine in essa. 
Such are, Poeta, poet ; poetessa^ poetess ; bar one, baron ; 
baronessa, etc. 

YI. Adjectives of q ri ant ity, — as, Qudnto, how much; 
tdnto, so much; altrettdnto, as much; tr6j)po, too 
much; pdco, little; tnolto, much, — ag ree with thei r 
TTpun s ; as, — 

Tdnto orgoglio ; tdnta paura, So much pride; so much fear. 
Tanti sciocchi ; tdnte volte, So many fools ; so many times. 

Poco sdngue ; poca came, Little blood ; little meat. 

Molti disgusti., Much (or many) chagrins. 

Altrettanti solddti ; altrettdnte As many soldiers ; as many 

donne, women. 

Trdppo vento ; troppe ceremdme, Too much wind ; too many 

ceremonies. 
Qudnto vino ? qucinte honta ? How much wine ? how much 

kindness ? 

VII. ' ^e word " such " is sonietime s translated hj ^^si 
fdtto, a; si fdtto, a; as, — 



TPIE ADJECTIVE. 



63 



Guardatevi da cosi fdtta rihal- Guard yourself against such a 
ddglia, rabblti. 

VIII. The adjective alqudnto ( ^m^ul^r) signifies a lit- 
Jle_; alqudnti (plural), some . ~ Parecchi , jKirecchieJ^f^ 
m^y_ahojiULUJ^ ami c^\ be replaced by tlie word piu, 
more; as, Vi erano pakecchie hallerine, or Piu bai- 
ler ine, there were many dancers. 

IX. Tl ie adjective mezzo always precedes and ap^ee s 
w ith tlic no un which it limits ; but it may be invariable 
wlien tiie Tioun is understood : as, ^Tna mezza bottisrHa, 
half a bottle ; ilna botifg-lia e mezza or mezzo, a bottle 
and a half. If the noun is not „£xpresscd, the adjective 
mezzo takes no article . 

X. The last syllable of the words hello ^ ^^jj:^£^gl^^j^« 
must be suppressed before niasculine nouns commencing_ 
with a consonant. The adjective grdnde, great, is written 
gran before masculine and feminine nou ns, both in the 
singular and plural ; as7 

SINGULAR. 

Bel giardhio, 
Quel pcddzzo, 
San Pietro, 



fine garden, 
this palace. 
Saint Peter. 



Gran hirhone, 
Gran regma, 



great villain. 



PLUKAL. 

JBei or he'' giardini. 
Quel or que' paldzzi, 
Sdnti Pietri. 
Gran birboni. 
Gran regine. 



great queen. 

XL Biiono^ g^Qo d, loses the o before a consonaj it ; as, 
II huoh vino fcTTudn sdiigue, good wine makes good 
blood. 

XII. To avoid the union of too many consonants, the 
last syllable of these adjectives is not retrenched before 
(nouns commencing with 5, when followed by another con- 
sonant; as, — 



SINGULAR. 

Bello sposo, 
Quello straniero, 
Grande strepito, 
Grande spdda, 
Son to Stefano, 
Bnnno snolare. 



handsome spouse, 
that stranger, 
great noise, 
great sword. 
Saint Stephen, 
good scliolar. 



PLURAL. 

Begli sposi. 
Quelli stranieri. 
Grdndi strep'iii. 
Grdndi spade. 
Sd?iti Stefau'L 
Budni scoldri. 



64 



ITALIAN GllAMMAR. 



XIII. T he final vowel o.f the preceding: adjectiv es ia 
retrenclied be fore a vowel, and replaced by a n apostroph e ; 
as, BelV ucchio, fine eye ; quelV dsino, that ass ; grdnd' 
^w^^9(??'c>, great emph-e ; etc. 

/ XIV. No fixed rules can be given to determine the 
place of the adjective, the Italians being guided by the 
ear. Usage generally places the adjectives expressive of 
form, color, and savor, after the noun; as, — 

Tavola quadrdta, 
Ahito turchmo, 
Color giallo, 



Un Signore italidno, 
Acqua inzuccherata, 
Una rosa hidnca, 



square table. 

blue coat. 

yellow color. 

an Italian gentleman. 

sugared water. 

a white rose. 



REMARKS. 

The following observations will assist the student : — 
The Italian adjective can be pl aced before or after the 
noun, andmust^ a ^ree with it in gender and nuiniBer : 
euphony determines its pos itipirr~' Adjectives de noting 
materials, nations, dignity, color, taste, et c., are placed 
afteFlhe nouns ; as, (Jajppello bianco, white hat ; un 
udmo cieco, a blind man. 

Parti ciples and adjectives, preceded by an adverb, may 
be ])lace d after the noun ; as, Una cdsa trdppo piccola, 
too sniiill a house. 

The position of some adjectives alters their signification ; 
as, — 

a certain (that is any) thing. 

a certain (sure) thing. 

something important. 

a great thing. 

an honest man. 

a polite man. 

my only daughter. 

my daughter alone. 



Una certa cosa, 
Una cosa certa, 
Gran cosa, 
Una cdsa grdnde, 
Un galantudmo, 
Un udmo galdnte, 
La sola mia ftglia, 
Mia figlia sola, 
Un jier udmo, 
Un udmo Jiero, 
Un pdvero udmo, 
Un uomo povero, 



a savage man. 
a proud man. 
an unhappy man. 
a poor man. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 65 

READING LESSON. 

Giambattista Pigna, scrittore celebre del fortunato secolo 

writer century 

decimo sesto ci ha tramandato il ritratto seguente dell' Ariosto. 
sixteenth transmitted portrait following 

L' Ariosto,* in quanto alia forma e all' aspetto del corpo avea la 

had 

statura alta, la testa calva, i capelli neri e crespi, la fronte 
tall bald black ciu-ly 

spaziosa, le ciglia alte e sottili, gli occlii in dentro, neri, vivaci, 



thin 



e giocondi, il naso aquilino grande e curvo, le labbra raccolte, 
lively lips contracted 

i denti bianchi ed equali, le guance scarne e di colore quasi 

cheeks hollow almost 

olivastro, la barba un pdco rara cbe non cingea il mento iuf ino 
olive-colored thin covered chin 

alle orecchie, il collo ben proporzionato, le spalle larghe e 

neck well shoulders 

alquanto piegate, quali sdgliono avere quasi tutti quelli che, 
somewhat curved, as are accustomed to have those 

da fanciulli, hanno cominciato a stare inchiodati in sui libri : Le 

nailed 

mdni asciutte, i fianchi stretti. Egli dipinto dalla mano dell' 
thin hips narrow. painted 

eccellente Tiziano, pare che ancor sia vivo. Un popolo fanatico 

seems still alive. 

e superstizioso e un arma terribile nelle mani d' un ddspota. 

Ove la pdlle del leone non basta bisogna aggiiingervi quella 
When skin sufficient to add 

della volpe. 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. Osley, a famous beggar of London, made a fortune by using 
the following stratagem. He placed himself in streets -where 
there was the greatest concourse of fashionable people ; and, when 
he saw elegant ladies, he asked charity of them. If they refused, 



* A few proper nouns of very remarkable people take the definite article in Italian ; 
as, II Dante, VAridstOj etc. 

6* 



Q6 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

" Madam," said he to one, " in the name of your beautiful black 
eyes ; " to another, " in the name of your fine hair ; " to this one, 
" in the name of your rosy lips ; " and, to that one, " in the name 
of your admirable figure." Finally came the divine legs, the 
charming feet, the majestic carriage : nothing was forgotten, and 
he returned home with his purse well filled. 

2. A drunkard, who wished to excuse himself to his confessor 
for his too great love of wine, reasoned thus singularly : " My 
father, good wine makes good blood, good blood produces good 
humor, good humor creates good thoughts, good thoughts produce 
good works, and good works conduct man to heaven : then (the) 
good wine leads man to heaven." 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Made, fece ; following, seguente ; he placed himself, egli si 
appostava ; where there was, ove era; fashionable people, hel 
mondo ; when he saw, allorche vedeva ; refused, ricusavano ; 
admirable, mirdbile ; came, venivano ; forgotten, dimenticato. 

2. Drunkard, hevitore ; wished, voUa ; too great love of wine, 
troppo grdnde amore del vino ; reasoned thus singularly, facea 
questo curioso arg omenta ; makes, fa; produces, produce; 
creates, y*a ndscere ; conduct, menano. 

C ON VERS AZI6nE. 

Sono gli Americdni Viberi ? Si sono liheri ed indipendenti. 

Che proclamazione e quella di Si parla molto deW eniancipa' 

cid si pariah zione dei poveri* neri. 

Che predicatore avete ? Ahhidmo un hrdvo predicatore. 

Come si chidma (called) ? Z' amico dei pbveri. 

Dov* e la rostra Signora mddre'? E nella chiesa di San Paolo, ' 

Cosa e il V astro Signor pddre'^ E autdre. 

E sua mdglie (wife) ? E dottaressa. 

Qudnti dnni ha Maria? Ha ndve dnni. 

Che statura ha ella ? Ha la statura piccola. 

Di che colore e il sua dhito ? H sua nudvo dbito e turchino. 

Che hudna cdsa ha egli fdtto f Nan pdsso (I cannot) dtrvelo 

(tell you). 

Chi € questa cdra Janciidlina? Luisina. Ella e mia nipdte. 

Che dcchi celesti / Si, ella ha V ciria d' un angio- 

letta. 



* The repetition of the objective strengthens its expression ; as, Povero^ poor ; pdverc 
pdvero, very poor 



ADJECTIVES : THEIR COMPARATIVES. 67 

CHAPTER X. 

ADJECTIVES: THEIR COMPARATIVES. 
MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Vi sono piu poveri die ricchi^ There are more poor than rich. 

Le donne sono piii compassio- Women are more compassion- 

nevoli degli uommi, ate than men. 

E meglio morire die temer sem- It is better to die than always 

pi'e, to fear. 

Quanto piit vi 2)6)iso, tdnto piii The more I think of it, the 

mi vien rdhhia, more I am enraged. 

Tali dohhidmo essere qudli vo- We ought to be such as we 

glidmo comparire, wish to appear. 

11 sole e piii grdnde della terra,, The sun is larger than the earth. 

La terra non e cost piccola The earth is not as small as the 

come la lima, moon. 

La fdma di sua hellezza e mi- The renown of her beauty is 

nore assdi della verifd, much below the truth. 

/ creditori m.iglior 7nem6ria Creditors have a better memo- 

hdnno die i debitori, ry than debtors. 

E meglio fare invidia die pieta, It is better to cause envy than 

pity- 

V usurdio e peggiore del Iddro, The usurer is worse than the 

thief. 
II vmo e il mio maggior ne- Wine is my greatest enemy. 
mico, 

THE COMPARISONS OF ADJECTIVES. 

I. A comparison can only be made between two objects. 
An object may be more beautiful, less beautiful, and as 

j beautiful as another. There are, therefore, tlu-ec degrees 
': of comparison, — the degrees of superiority, of inferiority, 
I and of equality. 

II. The comparative^ of_superiority is indicated by the 
'Words pill, more; molto piit or assdi piii ov vie piii, 

much more"; miglidre, better (a.) ; maggidre, greater; 
\ meglio, better (ad.). 



QS ITiy:.IAN GRAJNOIAR. 

III. The comparative of inferiority is expressed by the 
words mefio or mdnco^ less ; molto meno or assdi 7neno 
or vie meno, much less ; pe^^zore, worse (a.) ; mindre^ 
smaller; peggio, worse (ad.). 

lY. The conj unction than, which joins the two term s 
of comparison, is jbranslated by di when it is followed by 
a pronoun or a possessive or dernonstratis^Ljadjeiitiv 

He is much happier than you, E molto piii felice di voi. 

Your sister is prettier than Vostra sorella e piu hella delhi 

mine, mta. 

There are no people more cred- No7i v' e gente piii creduJe di 

ulous than those who have an quella die ha interesse di es- 

interest in being deceived, sere inganndta. 

V. Than is_sometimes translated by che, especially 
if the pTirase is elliptical. Di, however, may always b e 
used. 

YI. If thayi is followed by any other word, and there 
is a complement of the phrase understood, it can be trans- 
lated by di or .by che; as in the following examples : — 

Is man more happy than wo- E V uomo piiu felice della don- 

man (is happy ) ? na'^ or che la donna ? 

The stomach digests water more Lo stomaco diger'isce piii facil- 

easily than wine, mente V dcqua che il vino. 

YII. It is better to use che for than, when the compari - 
son is made between two verbs, twoadiecti yes. or tw o 
adverbs ; as, — ""'^ 

There are more poor than rich, Y^' sono piib poveri che ricchi. 

It is better late than never, E meglio tdrdi che mai^ 

It is better to save a culpable E meglio salvdre un colpevole, 

person, than to condemn an che condanndre un Innocent e 

innocent one, 

YIIL. If the natural order of the words is inverted,— 
that is to say, if the verb is placed before the subjec t. 
— it^ is better to use che. This rule may be applied to 
phrases where than is~Tollowed by a demonstrative ad- 
jective ; as, — 



ADJECTIVES : THEIR COMrAIlATIVES. 69 

He who attacks, always has Piu cinimo ha scmpre colui ^he 
more courage than he who assdlta, che coliti che si di- 
delends himself, fende, 

IX. To translate " more than three years," " more than 
j twenty thousand men," etc., we say, Three years and 
I more, tw enty thousand men and more, t7'e dnni e pin; 

' venti mila udmini e piit, or j^'^u di tre anni, qIq., piil 
che tre anni. 

X. The comparative of equality is indicated by cosi o r 
tdnto: and the conjunction than is translated by cdme^ i 
cosi has b een used; and by qudnto, if ja2?/_Q_has been 
used r~as, — 

The eye of the domestic never Z' occhio del servitore non vede 
sees as well as the eye of the mdi cosi bene come V occhio 
master, del padrone; or, non vede 7nui 

tdtito bene qudnto V occhio, etc. 

XL Sometimes the word cosz or tdnto is suppressed; 
as, — ~ 

A skin as white as snow, Una p'elle bidnca come or qudn- 

to la neve. 

XII. When the words as many and as refer to a noun, 
as many mustl5e rendered by tdnto, and as by qudnto^ 
makin o' them agree in gender and number with the noun ; 
as, — 

He has as many debts as there £gli ha tdnti ; or, altrettanti 
are stars in the sky, debiti qudnte sdno le stelle 

net cielo. 

See_ the strawberries. Take as Ecco delle frdgole. Prendetene 
many as you wdsli, qudnte volete. 

XIII. In English we say (with the complement under- 
stood) , — 

I have as much money as you Naples is not as populous as 
(have). Paris (is). 

In Italian, the complement is generally expressed in 
similar phrases ; as, — 

lo ho tdnti danciri qudnti ne Ndpoli non ha tdnta jmpola- 
avete voi, zione qudnta ne ha Par'iyi. 



70 ITALIAN GRA^BLiR. 

XIV. Sometimes tdnto or qudnto is placed before 
moi'c or less, so as to gi\Q more ene ro\y to the expression ; 
as in the fo llowino- phra ses : — 

Qudnto j^/w uno e ignordnte, The more ignorant a person 

tdnto piu egli e pronto nel is, the more ready he is to 

giudicdre, " judge. 

X' aria e tdnto piu densa qudn- The air is much more dense as 

to e piii propinqua dlla terra, it is nearer the earth. 

XV. As well as, and as much as, signifying as, are 
t ranslated by co s i, cdtne, or qudnto, and are invariab le ; 
as, I know him as well as you, io lo condsco cdme or 
qudnto vdi. One can say, also, lo lo condsco al 'par di 
vdi, 

READING LESSON. 

I Romani, nei loro stravizzi, bevevano tanti bicchieri di vino 

banquets, drank 

quante erano le lettere del nome dei loro amici ai quali face- 

they 

vano brindisi. Catone, il censore, che vedea (sorgere) 

made (drank) honor (health). saw to come 

la pompa della mensa, disse, che era assai malagevole il salvare 

difficult save 

una citta dove un pesce si vendeva piu caro di un bue. Di 

fish was sold 

due negoziatori in polltica vince sempre il piu scaltro ; cioe chi 

conquers alwaj^s sharp ; that is 

sa meglio ingannare 1' altro. II diavolo non e cosi briitto come 

to cheat 

si dipinge. Non e cosa nel mondo piu preziosa del tempo. La 

painted. 

noja e forse il maggior male che sia uscito dal vasello di Pan- 
ennui went 

dora. I sogni sono le immagini del di, gUc4ste e corrotte. L' dro, 

spoiled corrupted. 

come il fuoco, e buon servitore ma cattivo padrone. Gli deste una 

gave 

llbbra, datemene altrettanto. 



ADJECTIVES : THEIK COMPARATIVES. 71 

EXERCISE FOR TRA*NSLATION. 

1. It is difficult to decide if irresolution renders man more 
unhappy than despicable, and if it is more inconvenient to take a 
bad part than not to take any. 

2. Usage is always introduced by the ignorant, who form the 
greatest number (in society). 

3. Two consolations solace the heart of the unhappy : one is, 
to recall the time when he lived more happily ; and the other, to 
see that there are some in the world more unhappy than he. 

4. The city of Naples is more beautiful in darkness than 
London is when the sun shines. 

5. The fatter the kitchen, the leaner the testament. 

6. Since we cannot make men what we would have them, it 
is necessary to bear with them as they are, and make the best of 
them. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Man, se; renders, ya; unhappy, infelice ; despicable, dis- 
jpregevole; if there are, se vi sono ; to take a bad part, appigli- 
drsi ad un cattivo -partito ; not to take any, non appiglidrsi ad 
alcimo. 

2. Usage, iiso ; introduced by, introdotto da. 

o. Solace, sollevano ; is to recall, il rimemh-arsi ; when (in 
which), in cm ; he lived, visse ; to see (to think), i^e/isc^re; more 
unhappy, con ynaggior doglia. 

6. Since, poiche ; we can, possidmo ; we would, vorremmo ; 
we must, conviene ; bear with, tollerdre. 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Chi e pill feltce, V udmo o la 1/ uno non e piii felice che V 

donna ? dltra. 

Qudl e meglio per lo stdmaco, Per i giovani V dcqua e 7neglio 

V dcqua o il vmo ? che il vino. 

Vi sono molti ricclii in Lon- Si^ ma vi sono piii poveri che 

dra ? ricchi. 

Pensdte (do you think) che io Siete molto piii infelice di me. 
^ sono infelice? 
E hella la Signorina Rosa ? Si, ma vdsfra sorella e piii 

hella ancora. 
E hrutta la Ibro zia ? Non e cdsi hrutta come si dice 

(they say). 



72 ITALIAN GRAMMAK. 

Hdnno i creditori huona memO' JEssi hdnno mvglior memoria 
ria'^ die % dehitori. 

Avete nemici ? II vino e il m'lo maggior nemtco. 

Qucd e la cosa piil preziosa net Nel mondo non e cosa piu pre- 
mondo ? ziosa del tempo. 

Qudnte hrdccia (yards) di ques- Ne ho quante ne voglio (I W'ish). 
to pdnno volete ? 

Luigi, siete studioso ? ' Si, ma qudnto piil studio (I 

study) tdnto meno impdro 
(I learn). 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE ADJECTnrES: SUPERLATIVES. 
MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Parigi e una bellissirna cittd, Paris is a most beautiful city. 

Avete pochissimi rigudrdi, You have very little regard. 

Fu ubmo integerrimo, He was an upright man. 

Di cattivo egli diventb pessimo, From bad he has become worse. 

Godo mH ottima salute, I enjoy excellent health. 

E uomo di pochissime parole, He is a man of very few words. 

Ho veduto una helVissima ragdz- I have seen a very beautiful 
za, girl. 

Vi serviro puntualissimamen- I will serve you most punctu- 
re, ally. 

Infelicissimo e V uomo die non Very unhappy is the man who 
ha amici, has no friends. 

Mi rincresce assaissimo dH egli I am very sorry that he is 
porta, goiiig away. 

Quella gente e di ottimo cuore, These people have an excel- 
lent heart. 

Notdte dgni minima cosa, Take notice of the smallest 

thing. 

A tutti il riso e gratissimo, A smile is very agreeable to 

everybody. 

Venne una dirottissima pidg- There was a pouring rain. 



THE ADJECTIVES : SUrEKLATIVES. 



7a 



THE SUPERLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 



1. Cattivissi?no, 

2. Savissimo, 

3. Fresclmsimo, 

4. Larghissimo, 



7n6lto cattivo, 
molto sdvio, 
7n6Ito fresco, 
molto Icirgo, 



asscd caitivOf 
asscH sdvio, 
assdi fresco, 
assdi Idrgo, 



very bad. 
very wise, 
very fresh, 
very large. 



I. We see, by the above examples, that the superla- 
tive is formed by issimo, molto, or assdi. Issimo, taken 
from the Latin, is united to the adjective, the final vowel 
of which is retrenched. When the adjective ends in to, 
both vowels are dropped. If the adjective ends in co or 
go, the letter h is placed after the c or g, to preserve the 
hard sound of these letters. The words amwo and nemico, 
friend and enemy, are exceptions : they make ainicissi' 
tno, nemicissimo. 

II. Verii, before a past par ticiple, is rendered by mdlt o 
or assdij as. He is very much esteemed by every one, 
egli e nidlto stimdto da tfdti. We cannot say, Egli e 
stiniaf issimo da tutti. But, if the past participle is used 
simply as a qualificative adjective, then it receives the 
superlative issimo; and we say, Mlo sti')natissi7no si- 
giidre, 

III. The following words express the superlative of 
themselves : — 

Ottimo, very good. Infimo, 

Pessimo, very bad. Egregio, 

Sommo, highest. Mdssimo, 

Estremo, extreme. Miserrimo, 

Acerrimo, 

Integerrimo, 



Stupendo. 
Insigae, 



very good. 

very bad. 

highest. 

extreme. 

wonderful. 

renowned. 



very low. 
very noble, 
supreme, 
very unhappy, 
very bitter, 
entirely honest. 



rV. The particle s^ra (extra) is prefixed to a few- 
words, giving them a superlative signification ; as, Stra- 
i'icco, very rich ; stincdtto, very much cooked. 

Y. The adverbs terminating in meiite (corresponding 
to ly in English), from tlie Latin mens, which is femi- 
nine, form their superlative missima; as, grandissima- 

Mirnte. 



74 ITALIAN GRAjVOIAR. 

Remark. — The termination issmio serves in Italian 
for the superlative absolute, and can never be translated in 
English by those superlatives ending in st or est, which 
are of the relative kind. The latter must be rendered 
by the adjective, preceded by il pih, la piii, etc. ; as, H 
jnu cdrto p)oema (not cortissimo poe'ma), the shortest 
poem. 

THE SUPERLATIVE RELATIVE. 

VI. This superlative is formed by the words il piil 
or il nieno, suppressing the article when jdiu or me no 
comes after the noun ; as, Demdstene fu V oratdre jnil 
eloquhite della Grecia, Demosthenes was the most elo- 
quent orator of Greece. But, if the adjective is placed 
before the noun, then the article is used ; as, Demdstene 
fu il pih eloquente oratore della Grecia. 

The words mdssimo, injimo, are also superlative rela- 
tives, and signify the gi^eatest, the lowest; as, — 

To lo vedro col mdssimo pia- I shall see him with the great- 
cere, est pleasure. 

READING LESSON. 

D Duca d' Epernon, prima di morire, scrisse al cardinale di 

before dying, wrote 

Richelieu, e termino la lettera col " vostro umilissimo ed obbidi- 

entissimo servo," ma ricordandosi che il cardinale non gli avea 

remembermg 

dato die dell' affezionatissimo, mando lino apposta per 

given sent on purpose (an express) 

trattenere la lettera che era gia partita, la principio da 6apo, 
to retain recommenced 

sottoscrisse affezionatissimo, e mori contento. 
subscribed died 

Un cattivissimo autore diede in luce un libro, che avea 

gave (brought) light 

per titolo, " dell' anima delle bestie : " Voltaire, avendolo letto, 

disse ad un amico che gliene chiedeva il suo parere, 1' autore e un 

asked 



t. 



THE ADJECTIVES : SUPEIILATIVES. 75 

ottimo cittadino, ma non e abbastanza informtito della storia del 

sufficiently informed 

siio paese. 

lo non conosco miglior preservativo contro la noja che di 
know against ennui 

adempire esattissimamente i proprj doveri. 
to fulfil own duties. 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. Louis XI. and Ferdinand of Arragon were both cruel and 
perfidious, notwithstanding the first took the title of Very Chris- 
tian, and the second that of Catholic. 

2. The study of languages is very useful and very agreeable. 

3. It has been said, that a nation of wise men would be the 
most foolish people in the world, as an army of captains would 
be the worst army. 

4. When there was an eclipse of the moon, the Romans were 
accustomed to recall its light by beating upon copper vases in a 
very noisy manner, and by raising towards heaven a great num- 
ber of fiambeaus and lighted firebrands. 

5. A three days' ftist would make a coward of the bravest 
man on earth. 

6. The language of a people is the most important monument 
of its history. 



VOCABULARY. 

1. Louis XL, Ludovico undecimo ; Ferdinand of Arragon, 
Ferdindndo d' Arragona ; notwithstanding, nonostdnte ; took, 
prese ; that, qiiello. 

2. Agreeable, piacevole. 

3. It has been smd, fit detto ; foolish, pdzzo ; as, come; worst, 
il jnu cattivo. 

4. There was, succedeva (succeeded) ; were accustomed, sole- 
vano ; recall, richiamdre ; light, cldarbre ; by beating, col hat- 
fere; very noisy, strepitosamente ; copper, 7'dme; to raise, sollevdre; 
flambeau, face ; lighted, acceso. 

5. Three, <re ; would make, /«/-eZ»ie ; co\v ri\\, polfrdne ; brave, 

valor o so. 



n 



G ITALIA^^ GKAM31AR. 



CONVERSAZIONE. 



Come avete dormito ? Ho dormito saporitissimamerUe, 

E il Sig. D. huon cittadino ? E un ottimo cittadmo. 

I! avete veduto ? .SV, sptssissime volte. 

Fu crudele Ludovico XL ? Si, crudele e perjido. 

Prese egli un titolo ? Prese il titolo di cristiamssimo, 

Siete contento ? Sono contentissimo. 

Non e quest elefdnte mblto Egli e grandissimo e fortissi- 

grande ? mo. 

Qiialmese e il piu freddo (cold) // mese di Fehhrdio e ordinari' 

dell anno ? amente freddissimo. 

Ghe studio e utilissimo ? Lo studio delle lingue e utilis- 

sijno e piacevolissimo. 
E il vostro generdle valoroso ? Si, e V ubmo piu valorbso della 

terra. 
Qudli sono i metdlli piit pesdnti? Il pldtino e V oro sbno i piu 

pesdnti metdlli. 
Qual animdle e il piii crudele ? La tigre e un animdle crudelis 

simo ; e piii crudele di tutti 

gli altri animdli. 



CHAPTER Xn. 

AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 

The signification of many words, both nouns and ad- 
jectives, may be either increased or diminished by the 
addition of certain syllables to their termination. 

I. The augmentatives, reducible to rules, are formed 
in 6ne (m.), 6na (f. ), <jtto (ni.), 6tta (f.), to signify 
bigness and stoutness, in a good sense. 

Likewise in dccio (m.), dccia (f. ), to signify some- 
thing of a disii'usting or contemptible bulk. 

The addition dme expresses a great abundance of any I 
thing of the same species, but diifering in form and 
qualities ; sometimes for things not very agreeable. 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 77 

EXAMPLES. 

JAhro^ book ; librone, a very large book. 

Ragdzza, a girl ; ragazzona, a stout jolly girl. 

Casa, a house ; casotto, casotta, a good roomy house. 

Sdla, a hall ; salone, a large hall. 

Cavdllo, a horse ; cavalldccio, a great ugly horse. 

Cdsa, a house ; casdccia, an ugly large house. 

Bestia, beast ; hestidme, cattle. 

Observe that many nouns have a natural ending in 
dccia, dccio, and dme, without being augmentatives. Ob- 
serve, also, that masculine augmentatives often come from 
feminine nouns, as cdsone (m.), from cdsa (f.). 

II. The diminutives reducible to rules are formed in ino, 
ello, efto, with the variations incident to adjectives and 
substantives in o; as, — 

Carmo (ra. s.), carina (f. s.), carini (m. p.), carme (f. p.), dear 

pretty little creature, or creatures ; from cdro. 
Poverello, poverella, poverelli, poverelle, poor little creature, or 

creatures ; from pdvero. 
Libretto, a pretty little book ; from libra. Acquetta, a clear small 

stream ; from dcqua. Such diminutives generally denote eii' 

dearment and smallness. 

Other diminutives, ending chiefly in Hccio, -dccia^ and 
Hzzo, Hzza., indicate something small or contemptible; as, 

Casuccia, a small mean-looking house ; from cdsa, house. 
Uomuzzo, a puny little fellow ; from udmo, man. 

Yet all these rules are liable to exceptions, which nothing 
but practice can teach ; for, besides the terminations which 
we have just given for augmentatives and diminutives, 
many others are freely used in familiar conversation, and 
in books on trivial subjects. Thus, from dunna, a woman, 
cdsa, house, libro, a book, may be formed the following 
augmentatives and diminutives : — 

Donnone, a tall, stout, masculine woman . . . from donna. 

JDonnona, a tall, strong, healthful woman . . . „ „ 

Donndccia, an impudent, shameful virago . . . „ „ 

7* 



78 ITALIAN GRAJVOIAR. 

Donnetta, a pretty little, smart woman .... from donna. 

Donniciuola, a mean-looking woman „ „ 

Donnina^ a pretty little woman „ „ 

Donnckcia, a vulgar woman ........"„ „ 

Donnaccione, a bold, impudent, stout woman . . „ „ 

Casone, a very large house ; a mansion .... from cdsa. 

Casdccia, a large, ill-contrived house „ „ 

CasamentOy a well-built, roomy house „ „ 

Casvpola and casupoJa, a small, despicable house . „ „ 

Casuccidccia, a small, wretched house .... „ „ 

Castle, a poor, thatched cottage „ „ 

Casella, a small, low-built house „ ,, 

Casotta, a snug, comfortable house „ „ 

Casetta, a snug house ; also, a neat kennel . . . „ „ 

Casellina, a very little but genteel house . . . . „ „ 

Casettmo (m.), casettina (f.), a neat, pretty cottage, „ „ 

Casina, a very small house „ „ 

Casino, a small, neat, summer house „ „ 

Librone, a bulky, heavy book from libro, 

Lihrdccio, an ugly, large book „ j^ 

Lihricolo and lihercolo, a small^ contemptible book . „ ,, 

Lih^etto, a pretty, neat, little book „ „ 

Lihrettino, a very little and pretty book .... „ ,, 

Libriccino, a very small pamphlet „ ,, 

And so on, with thousands of other words, In all the range 
of humoi' and wdiiras. But few augmentatives and dimin- 
utives are admitted in a style strictly correct, beyond those 
in one, dine, dccio, for increasing ; and those in ino, ettOy 
ello, for diminishing. 



« 



The termination dglia indicates an indeterminate num- 
ber, and can be applied only to individuals, and ahvays in 
a bad sense ; as, Ragdzza, child ; ragazzdglia, a great 
number of wicked children ; i^lehdglia, gentdglia, from 
'plehe, gente, meaning a great number of low people, vul- 
gar persons. This termination Is feminine. 

Astro gives a bad qualification, and is applicable only 
to professions; as, Medico, a physician; medicdstro, a bad 
physician ; filosofdstro, i:)oetdstro, a bad philosopher, 
a bad poet. However, we can say giovindstro, for a 



AUG3IENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 79 

naughty boy; verddstro, olivdstro, hiancdstvo^ etc., of 
a greeniyh, olive, whitish color, etc. 

Besides this quantity of augmentatives and diminutives 
which modify the nouns in so many different ways, there 
are still several others which are called irregular, because 
they only belong to a few words. Such are — 

Mediconzolo, a bad physician ; from inedico and onzolo, 
Lepratto, small hare ; from lepre and cHto. 
Cagmiolino, little dog ; from cane, nolo, mo. 
Omicidtto, poor little man ; from uomo, iccio, dtto. 
TristoMzuoJo, unwholesome ; from tristo and anzuolo. 

A diminutive syllable may also be added to some verbs, 
such as vivacchidre, to live poorly; from vivere: leggi- 
chidre, to read carelessly; from leggere: innamoracchi- 
drsi, to be slightly in love ; from innamordrsi. 

We can join together the augmentative terminations, 
and thus form a double augmentative; as, Omdccio, bad 
man ; omaccidne, a very bad man : from iidmo, dccio, 
6ne. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Mangidte un hocconcino di pane, Eat a little mouthful of bread. 

Dckegli un' occhiatina. Give him a slight glance. 

E una fanciidletta semplicina, She is a very simple little girl. 

fjffli ha un poco del goffotto, He is a little foolish. 

Slke un cattiveUo, You are a naughty little one. 

Che ventareUo che trde ! What a pleasant little wind ! 

jihhidte un tantino di giudizio, Have a little sense. 

E un pezzo di volpone,^ He is a sly-boots. 

^gli e un hello zerUiidtto, He is an elegant young man. 

Co7n 'e hellina e leggiadretta ! How pretty she is ! how grace- 
ful ! 

Vorrei dirvi due paroUne, I wish to say two brief words 

to you. 

Fla una hriitta lingudccia, He has a very wicked tongue. 

j^gli ha cera d'' uno scimiottino, ^ He has the face of* a little mon- 

E un ragazzciccio ignorantone. He is a very ignorant ugly 

child. 



80 



ITAJLIAN GEAJiI:MAR. 



State zitta, sfacciatella I 
Che visino graziosetto ! 
Intrattenetevi un momentmo, 
Vol state henone, 
Fa con tutti il dottorello^^ 
Ma guardate die amormo ! 
Quel gonnellino e gentile, 
Dov' e il mio herrettino da notte ? 
E nel cassettino della tdvola, 

Ml rispose con una scroUatma 

di cdpo^ 
Qicella vostra nipotina e un 

angioletta, 
Bella facciotta ha questa ra- 

gdzza ! 
Va vi'a, asi7idccw, senza cre- 

dnza I 
Quel pasticcetti mi consolano il 

cuore, 
In Lbndra le case nan hdnno 

portoni^ 
Ddtemi una spazzolatina al 

tahdrro, 
Ho gid fdtto un migliarelloy 

E ricciiito, biondetto, e bassotto, 

Mi vuoi tufdre un servigetto ? 

Ho fdtto alcime speserelle^ 

Aspettdtemi un quarticello d'dra, 

Quel hirhantello me V ha fdtta, 

Le serdte d' inverno son limghette, 

Ha un hocchmo che innamora, 

Guarddtevi da quella rihaldd- 
glia, 



Be quiet, impudent little one ! 

What a pretty little face ! 

Stop only a little moment. 

You are very well. 

He plays the wise man. 

See the little darling ! 

That little skirt is very nice. 

Where is my small night-cap ? 

It is in the little drawer of the 
table. 

He answered me by a little 
shake of the head. 

Your little niece is a little an- 
gel- 

What a beautiful face this girl 
has! 

Go away, great ass, without 
education ! 

These little cakes rejoice my 
heart. 

In London the houses have not 
coach-doors. 

Give a little stroke of the brush 
to my cloak. 

I have already gone a short 
mile. 

He is little curly-headed, pret- 
ty blonde, and rather small. 

Will you do me a little ser- 
vice ? 

I have made some trifling ex- 
penses. 

Wait for me a brief quarter of 
an hour. 

This little rogue has tricked 
me. 

Winter evenings are rather 
long. 

She has a ravishing small 
mouth. 

Mistrust that rabble. 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES. 



81 



Gli ho tirdto una sassdta, 
Le mattindte son freschette. 
Si e fdtta una corpaccidta, 
Siete nn hel rlhaldonaccio^ 
11 poveretto e magricciublo, 
Venite nel mio salottino, 
Ella ha un bel bracciotto, 
Che tempdccio fa quest' oggi ! 
Che spalldcce da facchino ! 

Oh ! cdra la mia gioietta I 



I have tlirowii a stone at him 
The mornings are a little cool. 
He has eaten to satiety. 
You are a p-eat villain. 
The poor fellow is rather thin. 
Come into my little parlor. 
She has a plump fine arm. 
What bad weatlier it is to-day ! 
What great shoulders for a 

porter ! 
O my dear little jewel of a 

ivoman I 



E.EMAEK. — It will be seen by the above examples, that 
the Italian language admits of the frequent use of augmen- 
tative and diminutive terminations. These last modify the 
signification of words in much the same way as the ter- 
minations Icin^ ling, ing, oclc, en, el, in English; as, 
lamh-hin, duck-ling, hill-ocZ;, chick-e??-, cock-ereZ, etc. 
Augmentative terminations have no corresponding meaning 
in Enolish. 

Augmentatives and diminutives form one of the striking 
beauties of the Italian language ; but, as no strict rules can 
be given concerning them, the student is caiitioned not to 
venture upon their use until familiar with the language. 



CONVERSAZIONE. 



Clii e fanciidlino f 

Dove dimbra (fives) egli'i 

Che avete ? 

])i che colore ? 

(Jie uomo e egli? 

Chi e questo cattivello'^ 



Mio fratello e fanciidlino. 

In un casino. 

Ho un canino. 

Biancdstro. 

E una cattwa Ungudccia, 

E figlio del medicbnzolo. 



Avete veduto (seen) mm cugina? Si I ConH e hellhia e leggiadret- 

ta! 
Ddtemi una canzbne, se vi pidce. Non ho che questa ca^izoncina, 

prendetela (take it). 
AhUdte un tantino di giudizio V ho, non vi pdre, qudndo vi 
nelparldre'? dico (I say) che siete un 

hel zerhinotto ? 



82 ITALIAN GKAMMAR. 



CHAPTER Xm. 

THE NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Vo a letto dlle undid in punto, I go to bed precisely at eleven. 

Mi dlzo dlle dieci precise, I rise precisely at ten. 

Vi andremo una volta per uno. We will each go there once. 

Vi son torti d^ dmho le pdrti. There are wrongs on both sides. 

Gli ho detto a qudttr'' occhi le I told him my way of thinking, 

mie ragioni,^ face to face. 

II capitdle mi frutta il sei per The capital yields me six per 

cento, cent. 

Qudnto impbrtano due dnni di What is the interest of one 

frutti, at cinque per cento, di thousand seven hundred and 

un capitdle di mille sette cento ninety - two francs for two 

novdnta due frdnchi ? years, at five per cent ? 

Cdrlo ottdvo scese iri Itdlia nel Charles VIII. went into Italy 

mille qudttro cento novdnta in one thousand four hun- 

qudttro, dred and ninety-four. 

Mi par iiiille dnni di rivedere I am impatient to see my coun- 

la mia pdtria,^ try again. 

Egli non sa nemmeno che dice He does not even know that 

via due fan qudttro, twice two make four. 

NIBIERAL ADJECTIVES. 

The numeral adjectives * are divided into cardinal and 
ordinal. 

I. CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



Uno, 


one. 


Cinque, 


five. 


Due, 


two. 


Sei, 


six. 


Tre, 


three. 


Sette, 


seven. 


Qudttro, 


four. 


Otto, 


eight. 



* Numbers may be divided into cardinal, ordinal, collective, distributive, and propot- 
tional. 



THE NmiERAL ADJECTIVES. 



83 



Nove, 

Died, 

XJndici^ 

Do did, 

Tredid, 

Quattordid, 

Qmndidy 

Sedici, 

Didassette, 

Didotto, 

Didannove, 

Venti, 

Ve^it'imo, or ) 

Ventuno,* ) 

Ventidue, 

Ventitre, 

Ventiqudttro, 

Venticinque, 

Ventisei, 

Ventisette, 

Venfotto, or 

Veritotto, 

Ventinove, 

Trenta, 

Treniujio,* 



■} 



nine. 

ten. 

eleven. 

twelve. 

thirteen. 

fourteen. 

fifteen. 

sixteen. 

seventeen. 

eisrhteen. 

nineteen. 

twenty. 

twenty-one. 

twenty-two. 

twenty-three. 

twenty-four. 

twenty-five. 

twenty-six. 

twenty-seven. 

twenty-eight. 

twenty-nine. 

thirty. 

thirty-one. 



Trentotto, thirty-eight. 
Quardnta, forty. 



Oinqudnta, 


fifty. 


Sessdnta, 


sixty. 


Settdnta, 


seventy. 


Ottdnta, 


eighty. 


Novdnta, 


ninety. 



Cento,^ 

Duecento, 

Ducento, or 

Dugento, 

Tj'ccento, 

Quattrocento, 



hundred. 

two hundred. 

three hundred, 
four hundred. 



Duemila, or 

Dumila, 

Tremila, 



thousand, 
two thousand, 
three thousand. 



Millecento, or ) , , , , 

i\m '\ r eleven hundred. 
Mule e cento, \ 



Diecimila, 
Centomila, 
Milibne, 



ten thousand, 
hundred thousand 
million. \ 



* Wlien a noun follows the numbers twentA'-one, thirty-one, forty-one, etc., it remains 
In the singular ; as, Ycnt' iuio I'tbro, twenty-one books. But, when the noun precedes the 
uumber, it is put in the plural ; as, L'tbri trcnV uno. 

t The numerals cr7ito and m'llle are never accompanied by the indefinite article as in 
English, — a hundred, or a thousand. Cento is invariable. 

t When the numerals are used to indicate the hour of the day, they are preceded by 
the feminine article la, le: but then the word ora, hour, ore, hours, is not expressed. 



ITALIANISMS. 



Verso le set, at about six o'clock. 

iSuona tin'' ora, it has struck one. 

E P una^ or c iin ora, it is one o'clock. 

Ad un' 6ra ,0V al tocco 1 at one o'clock. 



Bi due ffiorni V I'tnn. every other day. 
Q,rhulicigionii_fa, or j. .^ f^.t^, j^t q. 
Sono quindici gioriii, \ -^ '' 

Domdni a quindici, to-morrow fortnight. 



84 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



II. ORDINAL NUMBERS. 

Primo first. 

Secondo _ second. 

Terzo third. 

Quarto fourth. 

Qmnto fifth. 

Sesto sixth. 

Sktimo seventh. 

Oticwo eighth. 

Nbno ninth. 

Decimo . tenth. 

Undecimo, or decimo primo . . eleventh. 

Duodecimo, or decimo secondo . twelfth. 

Tvedecimo, or decimo terzo . ; thirteenth. 

Decimo quarto fourteenth. 

Decimo quinto fifteenth. 

Decimo sesto sixteenth. 

Decimo s'ettimo seventeenth. 

Decimo ottdvo eighteenth. 

Decimo nbno nineteenth. 

Ventesimo, or vigesimo . . . twentieth. 

Ventesimo prwio, etc twenty-first. 

Trentesimo thirtieth. 

Quarantesimo fortieth. 

Cinquantesimo fiftieth. 

, Sessantesimo sixtieth. 

Settantesimo seventieth. 

Ottantesimo eightieth. 

Novantesimo ninetieth. 

Centesimo one hundredth. 

Millesimo one thousandth. 

These adjectives agree with their nouns. (See Chap- 
ter IX.) 

III. Fractional and collective numbers are — 



Mezzo, half 

Una meta, a half (moiety). 

Thi terzo, a third. 

Un quarto, a fourth. 

Una decima, a ten (half-score). 



Una dozzma, a dozen. 

Una quindicina, a fifteenth. 

Una ventina, a score. 

Un centindio, a hundred. 

Un miglidio, a thousand. 



THE NUIklERAL ADJECTIVES. 85 

IV. ^20, numeral adjective, like the indefinite article 
un, agrees with its noun; but the final o is suppressed, 
unless the noun begins with s followed by another conso- 
nant ; as, JJn c/dllo, one or a cock ; 2m autoi^e, one or 
an author; uno spillo, a pin. The feminine is una; as, 
^na donna, a woman. We write un^ before a feminine 
noun beginning with a vowel; as, Ui'C dnitra, a duck. 

Y. There are a great many phrases in Italian in which 
the noun after ixno is suppressed ; as, ^ mio die dice 
mdle di tdtti, he is a man (one) wdio speaks ill of 
everybody. 

YI. On the contrary, uno is often suppressed before 
nouns which express an indefinite sense; as, _£^ uomo di 
huona fdma, he is a man of good repute. 

YII. Pel' uno signifies per head ; as, II prdiizo ci e 
costdto cinque frdnchi per Uno, the dinner cost us five 
francs per head. 

YIII. The expression ^?^ U7i, often employed by the 
poets, is an abridgment, signifying in un solo moinento, 
in un medesimo tempo, in a single moment, in an even 
time ; and the expression ad una voce, signifies unani- 
mously. 

IX. To translate "one by one," "tw^o by two," "three 
by three," etc., the preposition is repeated; and we say, 
ad uno ad uno, a due a due, a tre a tre. "Both," " all 
three," etc., are translated tutti e due, tidti e tre, 

X. "Firstly" and "secondly" are expressed \yj premier a- 
mente, secondariamente : afterwards Ave say, iii terzo 
luSgo, in qudrto ludgo, for "in the third place," "in the 
fourth place," etc. 

XI. In multiplication, via expresses times; as, Twice 
or two times two are four, due via due fan qudttro ; or, 
by abbreviation, due via dUe qudttro. 

8 



86 ITALIAN GR.\JMMAK. 

XII,. In dating letters, the article may be used either in 
the singular or plural; as, The 21st May, li 21 Mdg- 
gio, or ai 21 di Mdggio^ or il 21^ Mdggio, etc. 

XIII. In speaking of years,* in Italian we use in the; 
as, mi 1500, nel 1862. 

XIV. For the knowledge of epochs, it Is important to 
know that the Italians sometimes call the thirteenth cen- 
tury il 200, because it goes from 1200 to 1299 ; and, for 
the same reason, tliey say il 300, il 400, il 500, etc., 
for the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth centuries : hence 
the words un trecentista, cinqiiecentista, un seicentista, 
etc., for "an author of the fourteenth, sixteenth, seven- 
teenth centuries." Generally, however, they say, as in 
English, il dSchno terzo secolo, il decimo ndno secolo, 
the thirteenth century, the nineteenth century. 

XV. "Both" is translated by dmho or ambedue; as, 
Amho i piedi, dr}ibe le gdmhe, ambedue le famiglie, 
Both feet, both legs, both families. 

XVI. In speaking of sovereigns, the ordinal number 
is used, as in English ; as, Enrico qudrto, Henry the 
Fourth ; Gregorio decimo sesto, Gregory the Sixteenth. 

READING LESSON. 

Ludovico Ariosto nacque addi otto di Settembre, dell' anno 
mille quattrocento settanta quattro. 

Dante nacque in Firenze nel Marzo dell' anno mille ducento 
sessanta cinque da Alighiero e da Bella. II siio primiero nome 
di Durante fu cangiato per vezzo in quelle di Dante. Nell' anno 
mille trecento ventuno, nel mese di Settembre, raori il grande e 
valente poeta Dante Alighieri nella citta di Ravenna. 

Petrarca nacque addi venti di Liiglio nelF anno mille trecento 
quattro nella citta d'Arezzo. Mori d' apo])lessia nella notte del 
diciotto di Liiglio dell' anno mille trecento settanta tre. 



* I am twenty, thirty, fifty years old, cannot be rendered literally ; but is expressed 
thus : I have twenty, thirty, fifty years, lo ho venf dnni, trent^ dnni, cinquanV dnni. 



THE NUMEEAL ADJECTIVES. 87 

Torquato Tasso nacqiie in Sorrento agli undici Marzo dell' 
anno raille cinquecento qiuininta quattro. Spiro ai venticinque 
d'Aprile mille cinquecento novanta cinque. 

Giovanni Boccaccio nacque nell' anno 1313 ; e mori add! 21 
di Dicembre, 1374. 

Machiavello venne alia luce in Firenze ai 3 di Maofgio delF 
anno 1467, e mori ai 22 di Giugno 1527. 

Leonardo Salviati il piii illustre grammdtico di Firenze vide 
il gidruo nel 1540. 

Leonardo da Vinci nacque nel 1452. 

Michelagnolo Buonarroti ebbe vita nel 1475 ; e mori in eta di 
qnasi 89 anni. 

Benveniito Cellini venne al mondo il di d' ognissanti 1500. 

Nacque il Galileo nel 1564, nello stesso gidrno e quasi alia 
stessa ora, in ciii mori Michelangelo. 

Francesco Soave, autore delle " Novelle Morali," vide la luce 
nel 1743 e mori in eta di 63. 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. It is more difficult to make five francs with six sous than 
to gain a million with ten thousand francs. 

2. An inhabitant of Padua invented paper in the twelfth cen- 
tury, and a Florentine invented spectacles at the commence- 
ment of the fourteenth. 

3. Man has commonly but twenty-two years to live : during 
these twenty-two years, he is subject to twenty-two sicknesses, 
of which many are incurable. In this horrible state, man still 
struts : he loves (makes love), he v^-ars (makes war), he forms 
projects, as if he would live a thousand centuries in his delights. 

4. A regimen to be followed by every man who wishes to live 
a hundred years : first repast, — a glass of pure water at nine 
o'clock in the morning ; second repast, — soup, roast meat, 
stewed fruit, a glass of old wine, at two o'clock in the afternoon ; 
third repast, — a walk, without fatigue, at four o'clock; fourth 
repast, — a glass of sugared water at nine o'clock at night, on 
going to bed. 

5. A very brave soldier had lost both liis arms in battle. His 
colonel offered him a crown. " You think, without doubt," said 
tlie grenadier, with vivacity, " that I have lost only a pair of 
gloves." 



88 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



VOCABULARY. 

1. Sou, soldo ; franc, franco. 

2. Padua, Pddova ; Florentine, Fiorentino ; at the com- 
mencement, nel principio. 

3. During these, nel decorso di questi ; is subject, va soggetto; 
would, dovesse. 

4. To follow by every one who would wish, da tenersi da 
chiunque vorra ; stewed fruits, conserva ; afternoon, dopo mezzo- 
giorno ; walk, passeggicda ; i'atigiii^, stancarsi ; sugared, zucche- 
rdto ; on going to bed, nelV anddre a Utto. 

5. Lost, perduto ; offered him, gli offerse ; you think, credeie. 



CONVERSAZIONE. 



Qudnti dnni avete ? 

E vostro fratello f 

Avete dandro in tdsca ? 

In che cldsse e Luigi ? 

In che anno ndcque Galileo ? 

Qiumti djini visse Adchno ? 

Che ora e ? 

A che ora pranzidmo dggi? 

Qudnti ne ahhidmo del mese ? 

Qudnti occhi hdi ? 



Adesso (now) ho trenfotto dnni. 

Diciotto dnni. 

Si, ho cento cinqudnta scudi, 

E nella seconda cldsse. 

Ml 1564. 

Egli visse ndve cento trenta. 

E un quarto dopo mezzodl, 

Pranzeremo cdle due. 

Ne ahhidmo venticinque. 

Due. 



Qudnte dita (fingers) ahhidmo Ne ahhidmo cinque. 



a ciascuna mano i 



E le dita dei piedi (feet) qudnte Died. 



S0710 



E le dita delle mdni e dei piedi Sbno venti. 

qudnte sono ? 
Qudnti ahitdnti ha la citta di Londra ha tre millioni dH obi- 

Londra ? 
Che eta ha il Signor S ? 



Qudnti sensi avete ? 
Qudndo mori Napoleone ? 
In che pdsso servirvi ? 



tcmti. 
E nel suo sessantesimo secondo 

dnno. 
Ginque : udito, vista, odordto, 

gusto, tdtto. 
Nel mdggio del mille ottocento 

ventuno. 
Nel prestdnni cinquemila frcin- 

chi. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 



SJ 



CHAPTER XIV. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 



MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



CM e che hdtte ? or chi hdtte ? 

Chi e ? CM chiouma ? 

Che cosa e successo ? 

Ohe nuove ahhidmo ? 

Sapete voi chi sono ? 

Che rdzza di pensdre ? 

Non so che dire, davvero, 

Che male vi ho fdtto to? 

Che (jibrno e bggi ? 

Di chi e la colpa ? 

Che eta avete ? 

Che cosa siete venuto a fdre ? 

Che vdle avere ricchezze senza 

salute ? 
Che hella cosa e il girdre il 

mondo 1 
Che cosa mi darete da man- 

gidre ? 
Qudl e la minestra che piu vi 

pidce ? 
Che cosa sento ? che cosa vedo ? 

Che cosa fate di hello, amico ? 

Che? Comef Che dite? 

In qudl concetto mdi mi tenete ? 

Sapete qudl sia V ammo suo ? 

Qudnti pdzzi vi sono nel mbndo ! 

E un ubmo cui niuno pidce, 



Who knocks ? 

Who is it? Who calls? 

What has happened ? 

What news have we ? 

Do you know who I am? 

What manner of thinking; ? 

Truly, I know not what to say. 

What harm have I done you ? 

What day is it to-day ? 

Whose fault is it ? 

How old are you ? 

What are you come to do ? 

What are riches worth without 

health ? 
What a pleasure to travel over 

the world ! 
What will you give me to eat ? 

What soup do you like best ? 

What do I hear? what do I 
see? 

What good thing are you do- 
ing, friend ? 

What? How? What do you 
say? 

What opinion have you, then, 
of me? 

Do you know what is his in- 
tention ? 

How many fools there are in 
the world ! 

He is a man who likes no one. 



8* 



90 ITALIAN GRAaijVIAR. 



EELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

I. These pronouns are cA^, cAe, quale, cin, who, which, 
what.* 

II . " Who," chi, when it has no antecedent expressed ; 
as, — 

Who loves, fears, CM dma, feme. 

Of whom do you speak ? Z^i chi parldte f 

See who knocks, Guarddte chi picchia. 

III. "He who," "some one who," "no one who," 
"those who," or "the one," "the other," may be trans- 
lated by chi, whenever they do not relate to an antecedent; 
as, — 

Distrust those who flatter you, Dirffiddtevi di chi vi adula. 

Those who live on hope will Chi vive di spei'dnza morrd di 

die of hunger, fdme. 

In the world, some are rich, Nel mondo, chi e ricco, chi e 

others poor, povero. 

The word chi,'\ used only for persons, and representing 
an individual in the singular, requires the A-erb of which it 
is the subject to agree with it in the singular. 

IV. "Who," relating to an antecedent expressed, is trans- 
lated by che when it is the subject, and by c i when it is 
the object ; :j: as-, — 

The woman to whom I speak, La donna a cui pdrlo. 

The master for whom I labor, // padrone § per cui lavoro. 

Man is the only animal who L' ubmo e il solo animdle che 
weeps and who laughs, pidnge e che ride. 



* Oii, not interrogative, is always singular ; clie^ cid, which, singular and plural ; 
iiudle, who, which, singular ; qudli, plural. 

t Chi refers to persons only : che, cui, quale, refi^'" both to persons and things. 

4. Che is chiefly used in the uomiuative ; ciii, in all other relations ; chi, quale, are used 
in all their relations. Che, when it relates to a jierson, must be translated in English by 
who or ivhom ; when it relates to an animal, by which. In English, the relative pronouns, 
though understood, are often left out after the noun. In Italian, they must always be 
expressed: as, Chi si ininlia, si esalta, who humbles himself, etc. ; qw'i giovani che vol i-t- 
dete, those young men whom you see ; il cane die ved-He, the dog which \ ou see : la IcWra 
che avcte scntta, the letter you have written ; il ragdzzo cii' io ho vediUo, the boy I have 
seen. 

§ The master who teaches Ls maestro ; the master who commands is padrdne. 



RELATIVE PEOXOUNS. 01 

V. The preposition a, to, can be understood before ciii; 
and we may say, La donna ciii pdrlo, 

yi. "I who write," "thou who writest," etc., are 
translated, lo che scrivo, tu che scrtvl, etc. In similar 
phrases, the verb agrees with the personal pronoun, as in 
English. 

yil. " Which," as the regimen of a verb, is translated by 
che or by ciii; as, — 

The bread which you eat, II pane che ^nangidte. 

The wall which the house con- II muro ciii nasconde la cdsa. 
ceals, 

In the last phrase, cut (nasconde) is better than che, 
because che serves either for subject or object. Petrarch 
says, Quella ddnna gentil cui pidnge anidre. 

Vni. Che, ov qudle (qudli, qudi, in the plural), is 
used in exclamatory phrases ; as, — 

What a misfortune ! Che disgrdzia ! 

What a pity ! Che peccdto ! 

What beauties ! Qudi (or die) helUzze ! 

IX. Qudle is used in doubtful phrases, or when fol- 
lowed by a verb ; as. Which of these two books do you 
wish? qudl volete di questi due Uhri? 

X. Che is generally used in interrogative phrases ; 
as, — 

What book is this ? Ohe Uhro e ? 

What man is that ? Che ubmo e ? 

What house is that ? iJhe cdsa e ? 

What business have you ? Che affdri avete ? 

XI. "Which "in the genitive, signifying "of which," 
"for which," is rendered in Italian by di cui, or del 
qudle, etc. ; as, It is a favor for which I thank you, e 
un favdre di cui, or del qudle io vi ringrdzio. 



02 ITALIAN GEA3^IMAR. 

XII. When the noun following which designates some- 
thin o- belonging to that which precedes it, then cid 
(whose) is used with the article ; as, The hero whose 
exploits have astonished the world, V eroe le cui gesta 
hdnno fdtto maraviglidre il mdndo, 

Xin. The word "which" in the ablative case, signify- 
ing "by which," "from which," indicating the origin, the 
derivation, the point of departure of an action or thing, is 
rendered in Italian by da cui, or dal qudle, etc. ; as, — 

There is no evil from which N'on c' e male da cui non ndsca 

good does not arise, un bene, 

The army by which the city is L' armata da cid e assedidta la 

besieged, cittci. 

XrV. "What," interrogative, is translated by che or che 
c6sa; as, — 

Upon what shall we dine ? Con che pranzeremo ? 

"What is the use of merit with- A che giova il merito senza 
out fortune ? fortuna ? 

XY. "To which," relating to an entire phrase, is trans- 
lated by al che; relating to a single word, by a cui, or 
al qudle, or dlla qudle; as, — 

To which I answered, Al che rispdsi. 

That of which the miser thinks La cosa a cid meno pensa V avd- 
the least is to succor the poor, ro, e il sovvemre i miseri, 

XYI. We translate such phrases as the following, 
thus : — 

What are politics ? Che cosa e, or cos' e la politica ? 

What do you say ? Che cosa dite ? che dite ? 

What is it? Che cos' e? 

What is there ? Che cosa d ef che d e? 

What do I hear ? Che cosa sento ? che sento ? 

What are you doing ? Che cosa fate ? che fate ? 

Who is going? Chi parte "^ 

In what manner ? In che modo ? in qudl inbdo ? 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 93 



OBSERVATIONS. 



XYII. The word onde is often used in Italian poetry 
in lien of di ciii, or del quale, dal quale, either in the 
singular or plural, masculine or feminine ; as, Di quel 
sospivi oiuV io nudriva il c6re (Petrarca) , those sighs 
with which I nourished my heart. In this line the word 
6nde is in place of c6i qudli, with which. 

XVIII. In poetry particularly, the word die, relative, 
is sometimes employed as an indirect object, in place of 
cin or qudli ; as, Qli dcchi di ch^ io parldi si calda- 
tnente (Petrarca), the eyes of which I spoke so warmly. 
Here the word che is in place of cid. 

XIX. In using che as an indirect object, the Italian 
authors sometimes omit the preposition which ought to 
precede it, and which is the sign of the regimen ; as, Ed 
io s6n un di quei cheH 'pidnger giova (Petrarca), and 
I am one of those to whom weeping helps. Here the 
preposition a (to) before die is understood. 

XX. It often happens that die is used in Italian in 
place of nCdla, nothing ; as, j& un duro peso il non aver 
die fare, it is a heavy burden to have nothing to do. 

XXI. Non die is elegantly used for "not only." But, 
in this case, the non die is placed in the second part 
of the phrase ; as in the line from Petrarca, — Spero 
trovdr pietd, non die perdono, I hope to find, not only 
pardon, but pity. 

XXII. Finally, de is often connected with other words ; 
thus forming adverl^s and conjunctions at pleasure. In 
these cases, the final letter is accented, which renders the 
sound more striking, as in the v^ords j)Timadie , hendie^ 
fuordie, perciocdie , avvegnache , contuttodie , etc. 

XXIII. In the subjunctive mood of the verb, die may 
be understood; as, Vogiio mi diddle, I wish that you 
would say it to me. 



94 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



READING LESSON. 

I Roinani avendo scelti per mandcdre in Bitinia tre ambascia- 

chosen to send 

t(5ri, uno dei qiiali pativa di podagra, 1- altro era stato trapanato 

suffered trapanned 

6 r ultimo era teniito per uomo scempio, Catone disse ridendo, 

laughing 

che i Romani maiidavano un' ambasceria che non aveva ne 

sent neither 

piedi, ne capo, ne mente. Dio ci dia buoni principi, perche, 

nor May God send us 

una volta cbe s' lianno, e forza soifrirli tali quali sono. L* 

to bear with them 

egolsta e un uomo che appicclierebbe fuoco ad una casa per far 

would set to make 

cuocere un novo. Ogni lingua e piacevole all orecchio del 
to cook 

popolo per cui e fatta. Cicerone fu assassinato da Popelio Lena, 

made. 

a cui aveva gia salvato la vita in una causa in cui era accusato 

saved 

d' aver ucclso il proprio padre. Sibari era una citta della 
killed 

Magna Grecia, i cui abitanti erano mdlto dati all' effeminatezza ; 

given 

donde viene il nome di sibarlta per dinotare un uomo efFeminato. 
comes denote 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. I have seen this Italy which Corinne calls "the empire of 
the sun." What a fertile soil ! What a delightful climate ! What 
superb cities ! What noble antiquities ! AVhat more sublime than 
the genius of the man who emulates nature, and erects eternal 
monuments everywliere (in all parts) ! 

2. Who can love repose before having experienced the pain 
of weariness ? Who is he that finds pleasure in eating, drinking, 
and sleeping, before having suffered from hunger, thirst, and 
sleepiness ? 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Of) 

3. '' I have three sorts of friends," said Voltaire ; " the friends 
who love me, the friends to whom I am indifferent, and the 
friends wdio detest me." 

4. It is a very glorious thing for Italy, that the three powers 
between whom almost all America was divided, owed their first 
conquests to the Italians : the Spaniards, to Christopher Colum- 
bus ; the English, to the two Cabots of Venice ; and the French, 
to Florentine Verazzani. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Calls, chidma ; what, die dltro v' ha ; genius, ingegno ; 
erects, innalza; in all parts, da ogni parte. 

2. Can love, pud aver caro ; before, etc., se prima non ha sen- 
tito. 

3. Detest, detestano. 

4. Divided, diviso ; almost, quasi : owed, dovessero ; their first 
conquests, le prime Ibro conquiste ; Spagnuoli ; Cristbforo Go}67n- 
bo ; Inglesi ; Cahbtti Venezidni, 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Che avete veduto ? Ho veduto la hella Italia. 

Gome e ella chiamdta'^ E chiamdta V impero del sole, 

E del clima die dite ? Che e delizioso / 

JE die ? Siete vbi ? lo, in persona. 

Che cercdte ? II mio lihro. 

Dov' era ? Sopra la tdvola. 

Che diceva Voltaire d'ei subi Egli diceva, " io ho tre specie 

amici ? d^ amici." 

Qiidl differenza v* e fra dggi e Oggi non e tdnto cdldo. 

ieri ? 

A dii pidce una lingua qua- Al pbpolo per cui e fdtta. 

lunque ? 

Che si (one) dice delle citta Che son superhe. 

d^ Itcdia ? 

Che abbidmo per prdnzo ? Avremo (we shall have) ubva e 

frutti. 

Che disse Catdne dei tre amba- Che era uiH ambasceria die non 

sciatori mandcdi in Bitinia ? aveva ne piedi, ne capo, 7ie 

mente. 

Cdsa t assdi gloridso per Vltci- Che le potenza d' Eurdpa deb' 

lia? bono dgl' Italidni le Idro 

prhne conquiste in America. 



96 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTEE Xy. 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 



MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



Che intenzione e la vostra ? 

Voglio la roha mia,^ 

Partirete con vostro coinodo, 

Mio padre ha da v'lvere^ 

jEgli e un pd' scdrso del suo, 

Ai^ddtemi lontdno ddgli occhi, 

Ho gettdto via il mio dandro, 

Non ho dandri in tdsca, 

Ho qudlche cosetta del mio^ 

Vi son servo, 

So che mi siete aimco, 

Ogni mia cdsa e vostra, 

Anddtevi in mia vece, 

lo attendo di fdtti miei, 

Voglio far a modo mio, 

Egli ha posto in sicuro la vita, 

Voi siete del mio par ere, 

Sentiamo il suo parere, 

lo aspettero il vostro padrone, 

Ognitno vuol hene di siioi, 

lo non ci voglio anddr di mezzo 

per causa vostra, 
Vi riiigrcizio di tdnte vostre 

hontci, 
Oggi mettero il mio hel vestito, 

Se siete cieco, vostro ddnno, 

Che vi dice il cuore di tiitto cid ? 

Ognuno amdr dee la p atria, 



What is your intention ? 

I wish my property. 

You will depart at your ease. 

My father has enough to live upon. 

He is a little short of money. 

Go far from my sight, 

I have thrown my money away. 

I have no money in my pocket. 

I possess soruething. 

I am your servant. 

I know that you are my friend. 

All I have is yours. 

Go in my stead. 

I attend to my affairs. 

I wish to do as I please. 

He has put his life in security. 

You are of my opinion. 

Let us listen to his advice. 

I expect your master. 

Every one loves his own. 

I do not wish to be compro- 
mised on your account, 

I thank you for so much kind- 
ness. - 

To-day I shall put on my best 
coat. 

If you are blind, so much the 
worse for you. 

What says your heart to all 
that? 

Every man should love his 
country. 



POSSESSIVi: ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 97 

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 

I. The possessive pronouns* are — 



M'lo, 
Tuo, 
Suo, 


mia, 

tua, 

sua. 


my or mme. 
thy or thine, 
his, her or hers, its. 


Nostra, 


nostra, 


our or ours. 


Vostro, 
Loro, 


vostra, 
loro, 


your or yours, 
their or theirs. 



Mio, tuo, suo, ndsti'o, vSstro, are masculine ; and are 
changed in the plural into — 



Miei, 


my or mine. 


Tubi, 


thy or thine. 


Suoi, 


his, her or hers, its. 


Nostri, 


our or ours. 


Vostri, 


your or yours. 



Mia, tua, s{ia, ndsti^a, vSsira, are feminine ; and form 
their plural thus : — 



Mie, 
Tue, 
Sue, 


my or mine, 
thy or thine, 
his, her or hers, its. 


Nostre, 


our or ours. 


Vostre, 


your or yours. 



n. Ldro, their or theirs, is of both genders, and of 
both numbers, and takes the article agreeing with the 
noun to which it belongs. 

III. Possessive pronouns are generally varied with the 
prepositions and articles. 



* Remark. — Galignani divides the possessive pronouns into th:Be classes; viz., con- 
junctive, disjunctive, and relative. 

The conjunctive are those which are united to nouns; as, 11 m'lo libra, my book; 
t miei parentis my relations. 

The disjunctive are those v/hich are not united to nouns ; as, Im, vostra ccisa, e la in'ia^ 
your house and mine; i inici cavdlli, e i vostri, mj' horses and yours. La m'la and t 
vdstri are disjunctive, as they stand in place of the noun. 

The relative are those which have relation to a person or a thing already spoken of ; 
as. ii mio or mm, it is mine ; sono tuoi or /we, they are thine. 

9 



98 ITALL\N GRA31:M.^II. 

Yariation of a masculine possessive i ronoun : — 





SINGULAR. 




Subjective 


II mio, 


mj or mine. 


Relation of Possession . 


Del mio, 


X)f my or mine. 


„ „ Attribution 


, Al mio, 


to my or mine. 


„ „ Derivation 


Dal mio. 


from or by my or mine. 


Objective .... 


. II mio. 


my or mine, etc. 



IV. ilffo, ttio, si(0, 7i6stro, vdstro, and loro are some- 
times used with the article substantively, — il mio, il tuo, 
suo, etc. In this case, the word avere, property, is under- 
stood ; and the pronouns are equivalent to "my property," 
"thy property," etc. ; as, — 

3Idngi del suo. Let him eat of his own [property], 

Non mangerd del nostro. He will not eat of ours. 

V. Miei, tu6i, ndstri, and loro, are also used sub- 
stantively, — i miei, i tuoi, i su6i, i ndstri, i l6ro. 
Then the word jjarenti, relations, amici, friends, com- 
pdgni, comj^anions, familidri, domestics, solddti, sol- 
diers, or segudci, followers, is understood; and these 
pronouns are equivalent to " my relations," "thy friends," 
"his companions," "our domestics," "your soldiers," "their 
followers ; " as , — 

Incontra a! miei. Against my relations. 

Pregdto da' suoi, Requested by his friends. 

YI. To avoid the ambiguity which in many instances 
would arise, in Italian,* from the indiscriminate use of 



* Remark. — The English language, for want of a sufficient variety of personal pro- 
nouns of the third person and their possessives, often labors under an ambiguity which is 
unknown in Italian. Obsei-Te the example, "He sent him to kill his own father." 
Nothing but the sense of that which precedes can determine whose father is meant ; 
whereas, in Italian, the pronouns siia and di h'li mark the sense. 

Observation. — Propria adds emphasis to the possessive pronoun, as own in Eng- 
lish : it is considered by some grammarians a real possessive pronoun. 

In Italian, the possessive pronoun agrees in gender and number with the thinff 
possessed, and not with the possessor as in English ; as, — 

POSSESSOR (sing.). POSSESSED OBJECT (/. sing.). 

II padre ama (loves) si'ia Jiglia (h ts daughter). 
La madre ama (loves) sua figlin (lier daughter). 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE rEONOU:f^S. 99 

the possessive pronouns suo, sua, suoi, sue, when these 
pronouns do not rehite to the subject of the proposition, 
they are changed for the personal pronouns di Ifii, di lei, 
of him, of her. Thus, in the phrase "John loves Peter 
and his chiklren," if the pronoun " his" relates to "John," 
the subject of the proposition, it is expressed by i sxioi; 
as, Giovanni dma Ptetro ed i sttoi Jigliuoli, Jolm loves 
Peter and liis [Jolni's] children ; but if " liis " does not 
relate to "John," but to "Peter," the object of the proposi- 
tion, then it is expressed by i di lid ; as, Giovdiini dma 
Pietro ed i di ltd Jigliuoli, John loves Peter and his 
[Peter's] children. 

Mandb ad uccidere suo padre, He sent to kill his father [the 

father of him who sent]. 

Sua sorella e i f'lgli di I'd, Her sister and her cliildren [the 

children of her sister]. 

Vn. The article is used, first, when titles, or the names 
of relationship, are in the plural ; as. My brothers, i 
miei fratelli ; your majesties, le vdstre Maestd : second, 
when the possessive is placed after them ; as, // fratello 
tnio, la Maestd sita: third, when they are accompanied 
by another adjective ; as, II mio cdro j)ddre, or il cdro 
pddre mio, my dear father : fourth, when the name of 
the relation is a diminutive ; as. My little sister, la mia 
sor^ellina, or la sorelllna mia, 

YTII. There are a number of expressions where the 
possessive pronoun does not receive an article ; as, Ij mio 
parere, a suo seniio, di sua testa, etc., it is my advice, 
at his pleasure, of his head. Such phrases are easily 
learned by practice. 

IX. Politeness requires the Italians to say, II vSstro 
Signur pddre, la vostra iSigiidra zia, your father, your 
aunt, etc. 

X. To translate "it is one of my cousins," "there are 
three of our domestics," " there are many of our friends," 
the Italians say, witliout the article, IJ un mio ciigino, 



100 ITALIAN GRAMMAR." 

sdno tre nostri servitori, s6no parecchi nostri amici, 
or e un del miei cugini, son tre del 7i6stri servitdin, sSno 
parecchi dei ndsti^i amici. The same is the case in such 
phi-ases as, It is my fault, e ^m mioerrore. 

XI. To translate " these are my children," "these are 
my sisters," "these are my parents," etc., we say, SSno 
miei f^gli^ sdno onie sorelle, s6no miei parenti, 

XII. The possessive forms an Italianism in many 
phrases ; as, — 

Mio ddnno, So much the worse for me. 

Ogni mio pensiere, My every thought. 

XIII. The possessive pronouns, referring to parts of 
the body or dress, are rendered by the pronouns mi, ti, 
si, gli, ci, and vi, particularly when they follow the 
verb. 

Take off your hat, Levatevi il cappeUo. 

"We shall put it in our pocket, Oe lo metteremo in tdsca. 

He put it upon his knees, Se lo pose sidle ginocchia, 

I put it upon his head, lo glielo post in capo, 

XIV. We say in the same manner, — 

He is not my father, Egli non mi e padre, 

I am not his friend, lo non gli sono amico. 

Remember that he is thy son, Ricbrdati cK egli ti e figlio. 

Call my domestic, Ghiamdtemi il cameriere. 



READING LESSON. 

IL CAViLLO RUbItO. 
STOLEN. 

II piu bel cavallo d' un contadino venne di notte rubato nella 

came 

sua stalla. Alcuni giorni dopo il paesano si reco al mercato de* 

went 

cavalli che si tenne nella citta vicina, per comprarne un altro. 
one held to buy 



POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.' 101 

Quale fu la sua sorpresa allorche tra i cavalli in vendita egli 

when sale 

riconobbe il siio. Subito lo prese per la briglia, sclamando : 
recognized Immediately took bridle 

" Questo cavallo e mio. Sono tre giorni die mi fu rubcito." — 

" Voi v' ingannate, galantuomo," rispose tranquillamente il 
You deceive, gentleman, replied 

padrone del cavallo, " e piu d' un anno che questo cavallo mi 

appartiene ; diinque non e il vostro : puo essere, pero, che gli 

belongs ; then it may be 

rassomigli qualche poco." 

resembles 

II contadino coperse subito gli occhi del cavallo colle sue mani, 
covered quickly 

6 disse : " Ebbene, se 1' animale vi appartiene da tanto tempo, 

said: Well, if to you 

ditemi un poco, di qual occhio egli e cieco ? " 
tell me 

L' altro, il quale infatti aveva rubato il cavallo senza esami- 

in fact examin- 

narlo da presso, rimase sbigottito un memento. Dovendo 
ing him closely, i-emained frightened Having 

pero dire qualche c(5sa, egli rispose all' avventura : " Dell' 
however to say at a venture : 

(Scchio sinistro ! " 

left! 

" V ingannate," rispose il contadino, " il cavallo non e cieco 

deir occhio sinistro !" — " Eh ! " sclamo il furbo, "ho fatto lino 

rogue 

sbaglio di lingua ; il cavallo e cieco dell' occhio destro." 
slip right. 

Allora il contadino scoperse gli occhi del cavallo e disse : " E 
Then imcovered 

evidente ora che sei ladro e bugiardo. Guardate tutti ! II 
now thou art thief liar. Look all ! 

cavallo non e cieco ne poco ne punto. Gli ho fatto le domande 

(not at all.) To him made 

Boltanto per iscoprire il furto." 
oulv discover theft. 

9* 



102 • ' ' ■ ^ • ' ITALIAJ^ GRAMMAR. 

Tiitti gli astanti si misero a ridere ed a battere le maaii, 
bystanders put laugh clap 

gridando : " E colto, il fiirbo, e colto." 
crying: caught 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. If the best man was oblI<2;ed to wear his fa.ults written on 
his forehead, he would never dare to raise his hat. 

2. A woman of Sparta said to her son, who had returned lame 
from battle, " At every step which you take, you will now 
remember your valor and your glory." 

3. A man, who had dissipated his property, complained of the 
injury the hail had caused to his farms. A person, who knew 
the boaster well, said, " It is your own fault ; for, if you had had 
the precaution to open your umbrella when it hailed, your farms 
would not have been injured. 

4. The great Conde — tired of hearing a certain fop continually 
speak of monsieur, his father ; madam, his mother ; misses, his 
sisters — called one of his servants, and said to him, " Mister, my 
lackey, tell mister my coachman to harness messrs. my horses 
to madam my carriage." 

5. A superstitious prince once dreamed that he saw three 
mice, — a fat one, a poor one, and a blind one. The prince 
consulted a sibyl, who said to him, " My prince, the fat mouse 
is your minister, the poor mouse is your people, and the blind 
mouse is your portrait." 



VOCABULARY. 

1. If he was obliged, se dovesse ; written, scritti ; upon, in ; 
to dare, ardire. 

2. Of Sparta, Spartdna ; return from, torndre da ; at every 
step, ad ogni pdsso ; you will remember, rammenterete. 

3. A man (a spendthrift), uno spiantdto ; complained, lag- 
ndvasi ; caused, fdtto ; farms, podere ; boaster, millantatore ; it 
is }'our own fault, la coJpa e vostra ; it hailed, si mise a grandi- 
ndre ; irjured, danneggidti. 

4. Tired of hearing, annojdto d' intendere ; fop, scidcco vana- 
rello ; Miss, Signorina ; called, chiamava ; lackey, staffiere ; tell, 
iite ; harness, attaccdre. 

5. Once, una volta ; that he saw, che vide; consulted, consulto. 



DEMONSTrtATIVE ADJECTIVE PKONOUNS. 



103 



CONVERSAZIONE. 



CM e questa donna'^ 

Dov^ e ilcUUiriti'iitio (picture) ? 

Chi avefe veduto ? 

A chi scrivete (write) voi'^ 

Di chi e queslo cavdllo ? 

Come vidggia il Conte ? 

Maria dorme ancora'^ 

Perche tiene ella gli occhi chi- 



usi 



Si dice cliG il Sigjior E., e mor- 
to, ha fdtto un testamenio ? 

Avete veduto le mie sorelle ? 

Che volete da me ? 

Signdr Maestro, desidererei (I 
should like) di avere da lei 
qudlche lezione di hallo, 



Una certa mia arnica. 

To lo posi nella sua camera. 

Ho veduto la sorellma vdsfra. 

A.lla mia ccira figlia. 

Del mm staffiere. 

Colla propria carrozza. 

Non dorme, no. 

Tien (she keeps) gli occhi chiusi 
(closed) per c'elia (sport). 

Si , ha fdtto di gran Idsciti alio 
spedale ; resta per 6 al figlio 
un hel pafrimonio. 

No Signore, ho veduto sola- 
mente (only) vostro fratello. 

Non voglio (wish) niente (no- 
thing) da voi. 

Sono pronto a servirla. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 



MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



Servo di questi, Signori, 
E capitdto quest'' dggi, 
Dite qiidnto vi pare, 
Che maniere son queste f 
Non e tiut" bro quel che luce, 
Comprdte questo mio cavdllo, 
Questo ])dnno e troppo euro, 
II mko dehole parere e questo, 
Che vuol dir questo ?' 
Questo si sa da tutti, 



Your servant, gentlemen. 
He has arrived to-day. 
Say all that you please. 
What manners are these ? 
All is not gold that glitters. 
Buy my horse. 
This cloth is too dear. 
Tliat is my weak advice. 
What does this mean ? 
Everybody knows that. 



104 ITAI.IAN GE^ijMMAR. 

E un seccatore costui, This man is importunate. 

Mandate via coldro, Send those people away. 

Scuotetevi da cotesta tristezza, Shake off this sadness. 
Questo e qudnto mi disse, This is all he said to me. 

CM e costui ? Who is he ? 

Z' u6?no ascolta volentieri quel A man willingly listens to 'what 

che gli pidce, pleases him. 

Questo e quello che piii di tutto This is what afflicts me the 

m' affitgge, most. 

Mi renderete ragione di cotesti You shall account for having 

ingdnnij thus deceived me. 

Qudnti vivono in questo viondo How many people in this Avorld 

dlle spese di questo e di quel- live at the expense of this 

lol one and that! 

N^oji mi parldte j)iu di colui, Speak no more to me of this 

man. 
Costui v' ingannera di certo^ This man will certainly cheat 

you. 
Stasera vi aspettero a cdsa, This evening I shall expect 

you. 
Maladetta sia questa mia curi- Cursed be my curiosity ! 

osita ! 
Questa cdsa non e piii vdstra, This house no longer belongs 

to you. 



DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 

I. Questo and questa, with their plurals questi and 
queste, signify this and these, or this here and these here, 
and indicate an object near to the person who speaks. 

Cotesto, cotesta, with their plurals cotesti, coteste, this, 
these, are used to point out an object near the person to 
whom we speak. 

Quello, quella, with their plurals quelli, quelle, that, 
those, that there, those there, indicate an object distant 
from the person who speaks;* as, — 



* In English, we use the personal pronoun before the relative "who," "whom," or 
" that ; " and, in Italian, we use tlie demonstrative instead ; as, Quella die mi pidcque 
tdnlo, she whom I so much admired ; coliii che ar.catdva pclle stride, he that begged in 
the streets. Questo, cotesto, quello, are frequently represented by cid ; as, Cid e vera. 
that is true. 



DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 105 

Take this book, and give me Piglidte qiiesto Uhro, e ddtemi 

that, quello, 

I iee that thief who has stolen Vedo quel Iddro che nrC ha ru- 

from me, huto. 

This dress becomes you very Gotesto vestito vi sta henone. 

well, 

I prefer this room to that, Preferisco questa camera a 

quella. 

n. Questo refers to the object last named in a phrase, 
and quello to that first mentioned ; as, — 

Riches and poverty are alike La ricchezza e la poverfa son 

injurious: the former creates del pari nocevoli : quella fa 

too many wants ; the latter ndscere troppi bisogni ; ques- 

hardly permits the knowledge ta non permette di conoscerne 

of them, quasi alcuno. 

III. "In the mean while," "dming this time," is expressed 
by in questo mentre, in questo mezzo, or, abridged, in 
questo, in questa; and in the same sense, but referring 
to a more distant epoch, the Italians say, in quel mezzo, 
in quel mentre, or in quello, 

IV. " That which " is translated by cid che or quel che; 

i as, — 

I He will do what (that which) I Egli fara quel che gli dirb io 

tell him, or cib che gli dirb io. 

\ All that (that which) pleases Tutto cib che pidce, or qudnto 
\ the eyes pleases the heart, pidce dgli occhi, pidce al 

cuoi^e, 

V. The demonstrative adjective may be added to the 
possessive pronoun in Italian ; as, Lascidte stdre questa 
mia pcnna, e scrivete con cotesta vdsti^a. This, literally 
translated, signifies, " Leave this pen which is near me, 
and which belonos to me, and write with that which is 
near you, and which belongs to you." 

VI. Instead of saying questa mattina, questa sera, 
questa ndtte, this morning, this evening, this night, the 
Italians say, for abbreviation, stamattina or stamdne, sta^ 
sera, standtte. 



106 ITALIAN GilAMMAF.. 

VI. Tale, such, often replaces the demonstrative pro- 
noun questo or quello. Thus we can say, tale consider- 
azidne, instead of questa consiclerazidiie, provided that 
the idea has been specified in the anterior phrase. 

VIII. Speaking of persons in an absolute sense, the 
Italians say, — 

Costui, this man here ; Golm, that man there. 

Gostei, this woman here ; Colei, that woman there. 

Gostoro, these men or women here ; Goloro, those women there. 

Sometimes these pronouns are transposed, and the 
preposition omitted. 

Per lo coUd consiglio. By the advice of that man. 

Per la costui dappocdggine, By the stupidity of this man. 

Instead of Pel consiglio di colui, per la dappocdggine 
di costiii. 

IX. Questi, quegli, qiiei, cotesti, are also used in 
speaking of a man; as, Questi fu ddtto; quegli, ignordn- 
te, this man was learned ; that, ignorant. These words are 
used only in the singular, and may likewise be applied to 
animals and inanimate things personified ; as in this quo- 
tation from Boccaccio : DdlV una parte mi trde V am6re, 
e ddlV dltra, mi trde giustissimo sdegno; quegli vu6le 
dC io ti p)erd6ni, e questi vuole, che cSntro a mia natura 
in te incrudelisca. On one side, love influences me ; and, 
on the other, a just anger : that wishes that I would par- 
don thee ; and this, that I, contrary to my nature, should f 
be cruel to thee. 

READING LESSON. 

La politica di un prIncipe e 1' arte di conservare quello che ha, 
di usurpare quello che non ha. 

Diogene un giorno vide un giovinetto che arrosiva : " animo, 

youth blushed : 

figliuolo mio," diss'egh, " cotesto e il colore della viUiu.'* 

Non v' e popolo colto che creda di cedere agli altri in genere 

cultivated to cede 



DEMONSTKATIVE ADJECTIVE TilONOUNS. 107 

di lingua, benche tutti convengano nelle qualita clie ne fdrmano 
although ■ agree- 

la perfezidne, il che e iin segno che ognuno ha quel che gli 

basta, ne sente quel che gli manca. 
is sufficient feels is wanting. 

Un contadino tagliava un albero alia riva cl' un fiurae ; per 
was cutting margin river 

mala sorte la scure gli cadde nell' acqua, ne pote ritrovarla. 
ill luck axe fell could he 

Merciirio gli apparve : " E questa la tua scure, galantuomo ? " 
appeared 

mostrandosliene una d' oro. " No, cotesta scure non e la mia." — 

showing him 

" E forse questa," porgendogliene una d' argento. " No, cotesta 

presenting 

non e ancora quella che mi appartiene." — " E questa dunque ? " 

belongs. 

mostrandogliene una di ferro, che era veramente quella che avea 

iron 

perduta. " Ecco veramente quella scure la cui perdita mi affiig- 

ge." — " Prendi questa e ancora le due prime che ti ho mostrate ; 
take 

ricevile in premio della tua sincerita. La probita e la migliore 
receive them honesty 



politica.' 

policy. 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 



1. Merit depends on neither titles nor manners : these depend 
on ourselves ; those, on chance. 

2< An English banker was accused of having plotted a con- 
spiracy to cany off George III., and conduct him to Philadel- 
phia. " I know very well," said he to the judges, " what a king 
can make of a banker ; but I do not know Avhat a banker can 
[ make of a king." 

3. A considerable sum of money had been stolen from a lord. 
, ije, suspecting tliat it was one of his domestics, called them all 
j one morning, and said to them, " My friends, the Angel Gabriel 
I appeared to me la.<t night, and told me that the tliief should 
[ have a parrot's feather on the end of his nose." At these words, 



108 ITALIiiN GEAJNEMAR. 

the guilty man immediately put his hand to his nose. " It is 
"■ you, villain, who have stolen from me ! " said the master : " the 
Ano;el Gabriel came to tell me of it." In this manner he re- 
covered his money. 

4. Lent is never long to him who is obliged to pay at Easter. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Depends on, dipende da. 

2. Was accused, z;ew?2e accusdto; plotted, tramdto ; to carry 
off, rapire ; Giorgio ; a Filadeljia ; I know, so ; can, pud ; I do 
not know, 7ion so. 

3. Considerable, ragguardevole ; suspecting, sospettdndo ; do- 
mestic, servitdre ; called, chiamo ; end, punta ; guilty, reo ; put 
his hand on his nose, s^ tbcca il ndso ; villain, mariudlo ; re- 
covered, riebhe. 

4. Is obliged (has) to pay, ha da pagcire ; Easter, pdsqua. 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Che vide Didgene un gidrno ? Un giovinetto che arrosiva. 
Cdsa diss' egli ? " Ammo, Jigliudlo mio." 

Ddve taglidva un contadmo un Alia riva d' un jiume. 

dlhero ? 
Avea egli due scuri ? ^o, non ne avea che una. 

Che gli accddde ? Per mcda sdrte gli ccidde la 

scure nelV dcqua. 
La ritrovo ? Non poteva ritrovcirla. 

Chi gli appdrve ? Me/r curio. 

Che disse egli? " ^ questa la tua?" mostrcindo- 

gli una scure d' dro. 
Che rispdse il contadmo ? " No, cotesta scure non e la 7ma." 

" Forse e questa d' argento ? " " No, cotesta non e ancdra quella 

che mi appartiene." 
" E dunque questa di ferro ? " " Ve7-amente, questa e la mia." 
Che disse Mercurio alldra ? " La prohita e la miglidre poll- 

tica." 
QuaV e la poUtica di un prin- E V arte di conservdre quello che 
cipe? ha, di usurp are quello che 

non ha. 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PEONOUNS. 109 

CHAPTER XVII. 

. INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 
MNEMONIC EXERCISE. . 

Ogni rosa ha la sua spina, Every rose has its thorns. 

Andcite con tutta fretta, Go with all haste. 

La fortima governa oGNi cosa, Fortune governs every thing. 

Vengo da parte di tutti loro, I come from them all. 

QuALUNQUE fatica merita pre- Every exertion deserves re- 

mio, ward. 

La posta parte ogni dl per V The mail leaves every day for 

Italia, Italy. 

Mi VI trattenni alcune setti- I stopped there some weeks. 

mane, 

Spendete il tempo in quXlche Spend your time in some useful 

utile occiqjazione, occupation. 

La morte e il fine di tutte le Death is the end of all our 

sciagure, misfortunes. 

QuALUNQUE siano le mie ra- Whatsoever be my reasons. 

gioni, 

Staro in cdsa per tutto quesf I shall be at home all day. 

f99h , , , 

TuTTO ilmdle non vienpernuo- All is for the best. 

cere, 

E pazzta il voler sapere TUTTO, It is a folly to wish to knov7 

(^all) every thing. 

La saprete in tutt' Iltra guisa, You will know it in a very dif- 

ferent way. 

I. Of indefinite pronouns, the following are used only 
in the singular, and cannot be put before nouns in the plu- 
ral number : — 

Qudlche, m. and f. some, any. 

Ogni^ m. and f. all, every. 

Chiunque, m. and f. whoever, whosoever. 



* With dgni are formed the words ognidi, every day ; ognora, always ; ogm'ino, evory 
one. Ogni, before numeral adjectives, as in the phrases, ogni di'ie 7?iesi, evei-y two months ; 
6gni sci pdgijie, every six pages ; ogni died soiddti, every ten soldiers ; and in the word 
ognissdnti, the day of All-saints, — is used with nouns in the plural. 

10 



no 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



Ghisivoglia, m. and f. 
Chi che^ m. and f. . 
Chicchessia, m. and f. 
Che che, m. and f. . 
CJiecchessia^ m. and f. 
Qualunque^ m. and f. 
Quahivoglia, m. and f. 
Qualsisia, m. and f. 
NiiUa, in. and f. . . 
Niente, m. and f. . 



ima, f. 



Uno, m. 

Uii'altro, m. un'dltra, f. 

QiLolcuno, m. qualcuna, f. 

Qiialchediino^ m. qualcheduna, f. 

Ognuno, m. ognuna, f. , 

Ciascuno, m. ciascuna^ f. 

Ciascheduno^ m. ciascheduna, f. 

Veruno, m. veruna, f. . 

Nessmio, m. nessuna, f. . 

or Nissuno, m. nissima, f. . 



Neimo, m. 
or Niuno, m. 
Niillo, m. 



neuna, f. 
niuna, f. 



whoever, whosoever. 



)> 



w 



whatever, whatsoever. 



7) 



5> 



whosoever, whatsoever. 



nothing. 






one. 

another. 

some, some one, somebody. 

every one, everybody. 
j> J) » 

no one, nobody. 



J) 

3J 



J) 
3> 



II. The following are used in both numbers : — 



SINGULAR. 



Tale, m. and f. 
Gotdle, m. and f. 
Alcuno, m. 
Taluno, m. 
Oer^o, m. 
Stesso, m. 
Medesimo, m. 
Altro, m. 
Tutto^ m. 
Alqudnto, m. 
Tdnto, m. 
Cotcmto, m. 
Altrettdnto, m. 

Molto, m. 
Troppo, m. 



alcwia, f. 
taluna, f. 
certo, f. 
stessa, f. 
medesima, f. 
a^i^ra, f, . 
<w^to, f. . 
alqudnta, f. 
tdnta, f. 
cotdnta, f. 
altrettdnta, f. 
poca, f. 
molta, f. 
troppa, f. 



such. 

such, such a one. 

some, some one, somebody. 

certain, 
same. 

other. 

all. 

a little, somewhat. 

so much. 

as much, as much more, 
a little, a few. 
much, 
too much. 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 



Ill 



PLURAL 



Tali, m. and f. . . . 

Cotali, m. and f. . . . 

Alcmii, in. alcune, f. 

Tdlum, m. taUme, f. 

Certi, m. cer^e, f. . 

Stessi, m. stesse, f. 

Medesimi, m. medesime, f. 

Altri, m. <://^re, f. . 

7'ii/i'?*, m. ^ii^ife, f. . 

Alqudnti, m. alquante, f. 

Tanti, m. ^a?z^e, f. 

Cotcmti, m. cotante, f. 

Altrettdnti, m. aUrettdnte, 

Pochi, m. poche, f. 



Molti, m. 



molte, f. 



f. 



such. 

such, such ones. 

some, some ones. 

certain, 
same. 

others. 

all, every one, everybody. 

a few, not many. 

as many. 

as many, as many more. 

few. 

many. 

too many. 



Troppi, m. troppe, f. 

.m. Ohiunque, chisivdglia, chi die, chicchessia^ 
qualcuno, qualcheduno , ognitno, taluno, are applied to 
persons only : the others may be applied both to persona 
and things. 

IV. "Every," and the word "all" meaning "every," are 
translated by 6gni or qualunque, which are always in the 
singular, and serve for the masculine and feminine ; as, — 



! Every king, every queen. 
Every merit, every pain. 



Ogni re, ogni regma, 
Ogni merito, ogni pena. 



Or qualunque re, qualunque regina, qualunque merito, 
qualunque pena, etc. We can also say, ciascimo re, 
ciasciina regina, etc. ; ciascuno agreeing in gender with 
I its noun. 

i 

I y. "All," and "the whole," expressing a collective sense, 
I are rendered by tutto, and agree with the noun ; as, — 

All the people, the whole city, Tutto il popoJo, tutta la cittd. 
All hearts, all nations, Tutti i cuori, tiitte le nazionL 

The inversion, il popdlo tutto, la cittd tiitta, etc., is 
I much used, and is very pretty. 



112 ITALIAN GliAMMAR. 

VI. The Itallanisms tiitto qudnto^ tutta quanta, with 
their plurals, express collectively all the parts of a whole ; 
as, — 

La ccha e hruccidta tiitta quanta, The entire house is burned. 
Og<ii VI asjjetto a 2?rdnzo tutti To-day I expect you all (a< 
qudnti, many as you are) to dinnei-. 

Trenio tutto qudnto, I tremble all over (from head 

to foot). 

VII. "All," when it means "every thing," may be 
translated by tiitto, or by ogni cdsa, according to eupho- 
ny ; as, — 

Idleness renders all (everything) La pignzia fa parer cliff tcih 
difficult, dgni cdsa, or fa par it- tdtto 

difficile. 

VIII. "All," used as an adverb, and sionifvino- "en- 
tirely," is often rendered thus : La faccenda. e hella e 
Jinita, la cdsa e hella e fdtta, le ndvi sdno belle e ap- 
pavecchidte, the affiiir is entirely finished, the thing is all 
done, the vessels are all ready. 

IX. "No," "no one," is translated by nessuiio, niuno, 
'Verdno, or by alcuno employed only as the object {alcdno 

as the subject signifies "someone"). Any of these Ita- 
lian words, when put after the verb, requires non before 
it ; as, — 

No country is more beautiful Verun paese e piu hello della 

than Tuscany, Toscdna. 

I never saw that anywhere, Non ho.veduto questo in alcuna 

pdrte. 

X. " Some " is translated by qudlche or alcdno (plural 
alcuni or alqudnti^, and not by qitdlchi; as, — 

He has been gone some time, Epartitogia da qudlche tempo, j 

We have some books, Abhicmio alcuni Ubri. 

I have some of them, JSfe ho alqucinti. 

XL " Such " is rendered by idle or cotdle; as, — 

I have seen such a person, Lfo veduto quel idle. 

He has such a face as does not LJgli ha una tdl cera che non 
please me, mi picice. 



1 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 113 



READING- LESSON. 

Ogni secolo, 6gm epoca, ogni eta, dgni paese, divien celebre 

becomes 

per qualche nuova scoperta ; e il tempo presente aggiunge 

discovery adds 

sempre qualche cosa al tempo passato. 

Se la pazzia fosse un dolore, si sentirebbero lament! in tutte 
were should hear 

le case. 

Ogni lingua, per se stessa, e intraducibile, per motivo del siio 

untranslatable 

carattere particolare, die e il friitto del clima, del governo, del 
genio, degli studj e delle occupazioni dei popoli.. 

Pope asserisce francamente che dopo la lingua greca, veruna 

declares 

lingua ha un' armonia cosi imitativa cdme la lingua inglese : 

comunque sia, nessuno e obbligato a credergli. 
however that may be 

L' educazione varia quasi in ogni paese ; ogni uomo assennato 

procura di adattarsi alle usanze esistenti nel site in cui si 
endeavors adapt existuig 

trdva. 

finds himself. 

Senza una buona educazione, il dotto non e altri che un pe- 

dante, il filosofo un cinico, il soldato un bruto, e ogni uomo 

qualsisia sara spiacevolissimo. 

Non v' e pazzia la quale, per quanto stravagante essere possa, 

it may be 
non sia c6rsa per la mente a qualche filosofo. 
may be passed 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION, 

1. No farmer is pleased to have grain cheap, no soldier is 
pleased with peace in his country, nor an architect with the 
solidity of houses, nor a doctor with the health of his friends. 

10* 



114 ITALIAN GRAMMAll. 

2. After the defeat of Perseus, king of Macedon, Paiilus 
Emilius poured such a quantity of silver into the public treasury, 
that the people were not obliged to pay any tribute during the 
space of a hundred and five years. Useful and glorious vic- 
tories ! 

3. Newton was born on the same day that Galileo died ; as if 
Nature had not wished to have any interval between these two 
philosophers. 

4. A jDhilosopher, who had the misfortune to live under a 
tyrant, was in the habit of feeling his neck every morning on 
awaking, to see if his body was still attached to it. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Is pleased, si compidce di; nor, ne. 

2. Perseo ; Macedonia ; Pablo Emilio ; poured, verso ; such, 
tdnta ; during, per. 

3. As if, quasi ; had not wished to have, non avesse voluto 
lascidre. 

4. To live, vivere ; under, sotto ; was in the habit, soleva ; 
of feeling, di tastdrsi ; on awaking, destdndosi ; was still at- 
tached, VI stdva ancora attaccdto. 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

E ogni lingua traducibile '. No, per se stessa e intraducibile, 

Che disse Pope della lingua in- Veruna lingua ha un' armonia 

glese ? cosl imitativa. 

Come i diversi paesi diventano Diventdno celehri per qudlche 

celehri ? nuova scoperta. 

Aggiunge il tempo presente at II tempo presente vi aggiunge 

tempo passdto ? senipre qudlche cdsa. 

Che e il dotto senza una budna Egli non e dltro che un pedcinte. 

educazidne ? ^ 

Cosa e il Jilosofo senza educa- E un cinico. 



zione i 



Perche ? Per che. ha un cardttere partico- 

Idre. 
In che gidrno ndcque Newton ? Nello stesso 'gibrno in cui mori 

il Galileo. 
Di che efrutto il cardttere d' una E il friitto del cVima., del go- 
lingua ? verno, degli stiidj e delle occn^ 

fazioni dei pbpoli. 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 115 



CHAPTER XYIII. 

INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 

( Continued.) 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Non bisogna rubdre C altrui, We must not rob the property 

of others. 

NiENTE facendo, s' impura a Doing nothing, one learns to 

far male, do evil. 

Dopo il fcitto, OGNUNO e huon After the deed, every one is a 

consigliere, good adviser. 

Schidvo ALTRUi si fa chi dice il He who reveals his secret be- 

suo segreto, comes the slave of others. 

Ha da esser privo di ogni dif- He Avho wishes to criticise the 

fetto chi vuol censurdre gli defects of others should him- 

^ ALTRUi, self be free from them. 

E padrone delta vHa altrui He is master of the lives of 

chi sprezza la sua, others who despises his own. 

Gli faro parldre da qualche- I will have him spoken to by 

DUNO, some one. 

Ognuno e V amico deW uomo Every one is the friend of the 

che regdla, man who makes presents. 

V e in CIASCUN di ndi qualche In eveiy one of us there is some 

seme di pazzia, germ of folly. 

NiUNO e prof eta nella sua pa- No one is a prophet in his own 

tria, country. 

Un malvdgio feJice non fa in- Nobody envies a happy wicked 

. vidia a NESSUNO, person. 

// peggio che pdssa fdrsi e il The worst thing that one can 

non far nulla, do, is to do nothing. 

II pane d' ^ltri sempre sa di The bread of others is always 

sdle,^ bitter. 

Non mi sento niente affdtto I do not feel well at all.- 

bene, 

Non conviene beffdrsi di nessu- We should make fun of no one, 

NO, 

Nonfdte tngiurie a chicciies- Injure no one whosoever, 

SIA, 



116 ITALI^iJs^ GRAimVlAR. 

I. Altr{ii, with the article, signifies "the property of 
others ; " as, — 

E un ladroneccio V usurp are V It is a theft to usurp the goods 
altrui, of others. 

II. " One " and "another" are transLated hy gli uni, gli 
dltri;- as. Fortune humbles one, and exalts another, la 
fortuna ahhdssa gli uni, e inndlza gli dltri. 

III. The above sentence may be differently constructed ; 
as. Some ascend, others descend : thus go the wheels of 
fortune, Glii sdle, chi scende, or dltri sdle, dltri scende, 
or qudl sdle, qudl scende, or questi sdle, quegli scende: 
cost va la ru6ta della fortuna. 

IV. For the correct use of all these forms, the choice 
of which depends on taste guided by the ear, we must 
remember, first, that chi, and sometimes quale, may be 
repeated many times; second, that the word dltri^ and 
quegli, without an article, are pronouns in tlie singular, 
indicating a person. 

Y. " Nothing " is rendered by niente or nUlla. The 
negation non is used when one of these words comes after 
the verb ; as, — 

It is better to labor without an E 7neglio lavordre senza scopo 
object than to do nothing, che il non far nidla. 

He who observes nothing, learns Chi nidla osserva, nidla impd- 
nothing, ra ; or, chi non osshva nulla, 

non impdra nidla. 

YI. Niente or ml Z/^j without 7^07^,' expressed or under- 
stood, means " something," " any thing : " in which case 
it is generally placed after the verb, if governed by it ; as, 

aS^ io posso far nidla per vdi, If I can do any thing for you, 
cojnanddtemi, command me. 

* Altri is a word verj' much used in elegant style, and must not be confounded with 
gli altri, which means " the others." 

This word, as well as chi, belongs to persons : quale refers to persons and things ; as in 
this verse of Petrarca: " Qudl si posava in terra, e qudl su V onde,'''' some (tiowers) were 
■>n the earth, others upon the waves. These words all require the verb in the singular. 



INDEFIJSITE ADJECTIVE PliONOUNS. 117 

VII. The word " nothing," employed negatively, may 
sometimes be translated by che; the verb being preceded 
by non, and sometimes by c6sa. 

The idle have nothing to do, I pigri non hdnno che fare. 

He who is innocent has nothing Chi e innocente non ha che 
to fear, temere. 

VIII. Nulla and niente are sometimes used with an 
article ; as, Sempronio rose from nothing, Seawprdnio ^ 
sdrto dal nulla. The following phrases are thus trans-* 
lated : — 

He is a man of nothing, E un iiomo di niente. 

A man good for nothing, Un uomo da niente. 

He has quarrelled with us for a S^e corrucciato con noi perim 

trifle, mdla, or per una hngatteUa. 

This man is nothing to me, Non ho alcana ajjinita, or re- 

lazione con lid. 

IX. Si is generally considered as an indefinite pro- 
noun, and is used both for the masculine and feminine 
gender, singular and plural : it is equivalent to the Eng- 
lish words " one," " we," " people," " they ; " as, — 

Come si e detto, As we have said. 

Si parldva di guerra^ People talked of war. 

Si loderd molto il suo co7^dggio, They will praise his courage 

very much. 

Si vede che'siete un galantuomo, One sees that you are a gentle- 
man. 

But, in these and similar phrases, si holds the place of a 
passive proposition, and may be equally well rendered in 
English by " it is," " it was," " it will be ; " as, — 

Si cred'evi cosi general nieiite. It was genei-ally so believed. 
Si dice che la pace e gia fer- It is said that the peace is 
mdta, already (oncluded. 

X. JSFon, when need in a sentence expressing an in- 
definite meaning, is always placed at the commencement ; 
as, Non si jmo far mdla, one can do nothing. 



118 ITALIAN GkAJ^LMzVR. 

XI. "To US," "to you," is rendered by c^, vi, and is 
placed before the indefinite pronoun si; but "of it," 
"of him," "of her," ^*of them," is translated by we, and 
is placed after si, which is changed into se; as, — 

They do not speak to you, Non vi si p aria. 

They do not speak of it, Non se ne pdrla. 

Xn. The indefinite pronoun cannot be translated by 
si when it is followed by the reflective pronoun si, as si si 
would not be euphonious. It is then necessary to adopt 
another form, according to the sense of the phrase. Thus, 
to translate "Man believes himself happy when he lives 
in opulence, but he deceives himself," we can say, Uno 
or tale or dltri or V u6mo si crede felice qudndo vive 
nelV opulenza, ma s^ ingdnna; or gli udmini, or alcimi 
si credono felici qudndo essi vivono nelV opidenza; or 
n6i ci credidmo felici qudndo vividmo nelV opidenza, 
inia g' ingannidmo. 

READING LESSON. 

voi, chiunque slate, poveri o ricchi, pdpoli o principi, 

you may be 

ricordatevi che la falce della morte miete nell' iimile capanna 
remember harvests 

come nei superbi palagi. 

Un gentiluomo era travagliato dalla podagra. Tutti gli 

tormented 

consigliavano di lasciar 1' uso delle carni salate, ma egli rispon- 
advised leave off salted 

deva che nei dolori della sua malattia era assai contento di 

potersela pigliare con qiialche cosa, e che arrabbiandosi quando 
to be able to blame getting angry 

col presciutto e quando col salame si sentiva bello e confortato. 

felt 

Nei paesi dispotici si sofFre m61to e si grida poco ; nei paesi 

suffers complains 

liberi, si softre poco e si grida molto. 



INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. 119 

I grandl sono cdme quel mullni eretti siille montagne, i quali 

erected 

non danno farina se non quando si da loro del vento. 
give gives 

Alcuni si divertivano in casa di una sigiiora a troviire delle 
differenze ingegnose da un oggetto ad un altro. " Qual difFe- 

renza," disse la Signora, " si potrebbe fare fra me ed un oriuolo." — 

could make 

" Signora," egli le rispose, " un oriu61o indica le ore, e appresso 

near 
di v6i, si dimenticano." 
forgets. 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. There is not a man who can say, I have need of no one. 

2. There is nothing more dangerous than to have for enemies 
those whom we have laden with benefits. 

3. Every man may presume with reason, that no one can ever 
attain to a perfect knowledge of all the secrets and all the riches 
of nature. 

4. The same deed, the same word, awakens remembrances 
agreeable to some, and sad to others. Whosoever looked at Ca- 
ligula's forehead, excited in him sudden anger, because this action 
reminded him of his baldness, which he wished to conceal from 
everybody ; but he who looked at the forehead of Scipio Afri- 
canus, gave him great pleasure, because he had a warlike wound 
there, — a witness of liis valor and his glory. 

5. Some one, in speaking of a tyrant who enjoyed the reputa- 
tion of liberality, said, "Judge how much liberality dominates 
in this man ; Avho gives not only his own spoils, but even those of 
others." 

6. Envy is certainly the basest and the most cruel of all the 
passions, since there is hardly any person who may not have in 
himself something to excite the passion of the envious. 

7. Never do to others that which you would not wisli others 
should do to you. 

8. One day a lady wrote to her husband this letter, which 
may serve for a perfect model of laconism : " Having nothing to 
do, I write to you : leaving nothing to say to you, I finish." 



120 ITALTAN GRAMMAR. 



VOCABULARY. 

1. There is not, non v* e ; can, possa ; need, hisogno. 

2. Laden with benefits, henejicdto. 

3. May, puo ; presume, presumere ; attain, pervemre. 

4. Same deed, stesso,fdtto ; awakens, svecjUa ; looked at, guar- 
ddva ; excited in him sudden anger, suscitdva in lui suhito 
sdegno ; reminded him of, gli rammentdva ; to conceal, nas- 
condere ; Scipione V Africdno ; great pleasure, inagndnimo pia- 
cere ; warlike, marzidle. 

5. Judge, pensdte ; dominsites, regna ; not on\j, non solamente ; 
gives, dona ; his own spoils, la roba sua ; even, a7ic6ra. 

6. There is hardly, v' e quasi ; to excite, da suscitdre ; envious, 
invidioso. 

7. Never do, non fdte ; wish, vorreste, 

8. Wrote, scrisse ; may serve, pud servire ; I write, scrwo. 



CONVERSAZIONE. 

Con cM siete venuto ? Con nessuno. 

Avete dltre amiche ? Non ne ho dltre. 

Chi ha detto cid ? Ognuno lo dice. 

Sdno le vdstt^e dice sorelle ricche ? U ima e ricca, V dltra e pdvera. 

Come sdno i commanddnti ? Geldsi gli uni degli dltri. 

Volete (will you) aver qudlche No, vi ringrdzio (thank you), 
cdsa ? ^ non vdglio niente. 

Qualcuno picchia, anddte a ve- E la Signora K. 
dere chi e ? 

Non credesi die avremo (shall Non e prohdhile, 
have) la pdce'^ 

Avete ritrovdtolelettere per dute? Ne ho ritrovdte alcHne, ma la 

maggidr parte sd7io perdute. 

Sdno fratelli que sti due uomini'^ Non so (I do not know); si 

rassoraigliano (resemble) V 
uno air dltro. 

Che si dice (say) di nudvo ? Non ho letto (read) nessun 

giorndle dggi, ma si dice che 
ci sdno cattive nuove. 

Dove V avete inteso ? In cdsa d' un amico e per via 

d' una lettera privdta. 



PREPOSITIONS. 121 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE PREPOSITIONS DI, A, DA. 

A thorough acquaintance with these prepositions is abso- 
lutely necessary, and therefore requires the attention of the 
pupil : first, because the English and Italians differ some- 
what in the use of them ; and, second, because they are the 
signs which establish the connection between our ideas, 
and the slightest error in their interpretation would en- 
tirely change the sense of a phrase/ 



* 



MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

10 son DEL vostro parere, I am of your opinion. 

• Vol J7ii pagdte Bi cattiva^noneta/ You pay me with ingratitude. 

11 mondo va da se stesso, The world goes by itself. 
Si e caccidto a ridere^ He burst out laughing. 

Le Alpi sepdrano V Italia dIl- The Alps separate Italy from 

LA Frmicia, France. 

Lapolvere da ccinnone fu inven- Gunpowder was invented by a 

tdta DA un frdte, friar. 

Voi non avete ragione da far You have no good reason to 

valere, give. 

Anddte A vedere die cosa c' e, Go, see what it is. 

Voi mi trattdte per da piu die You do me more honor than I 

sono., deserve. 

lo ho ditto da scherzo e voi fdte I said it in joke, and you took 

davvero, it in earnest. 

Dutemi la mia veste da camera Give me my night-gown and 

e il herrettmo da notte^ night-cap. 

D All.' opera si condsce il tnaes- We know the master by the 

tro, work. 

Sieie voi maritdta o da mari- Are you married, or to be 

tdre ? married ? 

E venuto nessuno a domanddre Has no one come to ask for me ? 

di me ? 

* Observe that some of the prepositions govern one, two, or three cases. 

11 



122 



ITALIAN GEAMIklAR. 



PKEPOSITIONS IN COMMON USE. 



Di,* 


of. 






Accdnto, 


aside, about, near, by. 


A,\ 


to, in, at. 






Alldto, 


5' 55 JJ J> 


Da,X 


from, by, on. 


at. 




Attorno, 


about, around. 


I^h^ 


in, on, upon. 






Dattorno, 


55 55 


Oo?i, 


with. 






Addosso, 


on, upon, about. 


Per, 


through, by. 


on 


ac- 


Presso, 


near, almost. 




count of, 


in 


rder 


Appresso, 


55 55 




to, for. 






Vic (no. 


55 55 


Su, 


on, upon. 






Lungi, 


far, from. 


Sopra, 


JJ 55 






Lontdno, 


55 55 


Sotto, 


under. 






Appo, 


at, with, in compari 


Fra, 


amongst, within. 






son with. 


Tra, 


55 5 


5 




Verso, ^ 


towards. 


Infra, 


in, in about. 






Oltra, 


beyond, besides. 


Intra, 


55 55 55 






Oltre, 


55 W 


Prima, 


before. 






Lungo, 


along. 


Dopp, 


after. 






Fino, 


till, until, as far as. 


Anzi, 


before, in presence of. 


Sino, 


55 55 55 V 55 


Inncmzi, 


55 55 


55 


55 


Infino, 


55 55 55 55 » 


Dindnzi 


5 55 55 


55 


55 


Insino, 


55 55 55 J> » 


Avdnti, 


55 55 


55 


55 


Contra,** 


against. 


Davdnti 


5 55^ 55 


55 


55 


Contro, 


55 


Dikro, 


behind. 






A-frbnte,^\ 


■ opposite. 


Didietro 


' . " . 






Rimpetto, 


55 


Entro, 


in, within. 






Dlrimpetto, „ 


Dentro, 


55 55 






Senza, ' \ 


without. 


Fuora, 


out of, without, besides. 


^dlvo. 


except, excepted. 


Fuori, 


55 55 55 




55 


Fccetto, 


55 55 


Infuori, 


except, excepted. 




Tranne, 


55 J5 



The pupil is requested to commit to memory the phrases 
given under the various prepositions. 



* From the Celtic rfe, a sign of qualification. 

t Prom the Celtic a, near, joining with. 

i From the Celtic da, at. 

§ From tlie Celtic en, in. 

II From the Latin apud, Celtic ap, joint, attached. 

IT From the Latin versus, Celtic gicero, to turn. 
** From the Celtic con, a sign of opposition ; and track, side. 
tt From the Latin frons, Celtic fron, hefore. 

%% And sanza and san (used by old writers). From the Latin st»e, Celtic sy, "want 
priyation. — Bac/ii. 



PREPOSITIONS. 123 

DI.* 

I. Domanddre di iino, donianddi'e la presenza di 
iino, to ask the presence of some one ; fdr d' occhio, fare 
un cenno d^ occhio, to make a sign of the eye ; far di 
cajopello, fare un saldto di capj)ello, to salute with the 
liat ; dare di penna^ dare un colpo di penna^ to eiface 
with the pen ; dare del hriccdne, ddre il titolo di bric- 
cone, to treat as a viHain ; pimire di mdi^te, punire cdlla 
pena di mSrte, to punish with penalty of death ; accu- 
mre di furto, accusdre per delitto di fdrto^ to accuse 
of theft. 

n. Many adverbial phrases are formed with the prepo- 
sition di; such as di rdro^ rarely; di soppidtto, di nas- 
c<jsto, in secret; di certo, certainly ; di fresco, di nudvo, 
newly; etc. 

A. 

III. The preposition a, in Italian, is a sign of the da- 
tive : it is used to mark the object towards which the action 
or the intention of the subject is directed. It expresses 
the idea of tendency of action, of attribution, or of prox- 
imity to a place or person ; as, — 

£gli venne A trovdrmi, He came to me. 

Manddre A vedere, a cercdre, To send to see, to find. 

Avvicindrsi ad uno, To approach some one. 

Appoggidrsi ad uno, To lean upon some one. 

Appoggidrsi al inuro^ To lean against the wall. 

Vic'ino AL fuoco^ AL Utto, Near the fire, the bed. 

Al tempo di Noe, At the time of Noah. 

Voltdrsi AD uno^ To turn to a person. 

Anddre iLLA volta di Mildno, To go towards Milan. 

Porre inente ad ogni cosa, To pay attention to every thing. 

Passdi^e all' ditra parte della To go on the other side of thf> 
strdda, street. 

It w^ill be seen that all the verbs of motion, which ex- 
press a direction towards some object, are followed by the 
preposition a, 

* The preposition di may express a relation of possession, of extraction, or of qxialifl- 
cation, as in English. 



124 ITALIAN GRAiMMAU. 

IV. There are many other expressions in Italian in 
which the preposition a is likewise employed ; such as — 

Taglidre a fette, To cut in slices. 

Anddre A due a due, To go two by two. 

Morivano A miglidia, They died by thousands. 

Impardre A mente, To learn by heart. 

Stare all' erta,* To be upon one's guard. 

Anddre, parldre AL huio, To walk, to speak in the dark. 

Tenete le rndni a voi, Keep your hands off. 

Stare A capo chino, A hocca To be with the head down, 

aperta, and mouth open. 

V. The Italians say, adverbially, dlla sfuggita, by 
stealth ; alV impyazzdta, foolishly ; alV hnjjensdta, sud- 
denly ; dlla rinfusa, pell-mell ; dlla pteggio, at the worst ; 
dlla meglio, at the best ; dlla grSssa, nearly. 

DA. 

YI. Da is the sign of the ablative : it is used to express 
the point from which persons or things depart ; as, — 

Allontandrsi da Parigi, To go from Paris. 

Liherdrsi da un impegno, To get out of a difficulty. 

I piaceri ndscono dai bi'sogm, Pleasures spring from wants. 
Separdrsi d^lla fam'iglia, To separate from one's family. 

Astenersi dal rulere, dal par- To abstain from laughing, from 

Idre, talking. 

Ripardrsi dal vento, d^lla To shelter one's self from the 

piioggia, wind and from the rain. 

Dall' anno or sin dXll' dnno Since last year. 

scorso, 
La carita comincia da se me- Charity begins at home. 

desimo, 
La moglie dipende dal marito, The wife depends on her hus- 
band. 
Staccdre una cosa da un dltra, To detach one thing from 

another. 
Venire dal tedtro, da cdsa, To come from the theatre, 

from the house. 

* AlP erta. This aW erta has given rise tn the English word " alert." 



! 



PEEPOSITIONS. 125 

Essere incalzato dal nemico, To be pursued by the enemy. 

Giudicdre dXlle cqyparenze, To judge by appearances. 

Anddte da quella parte, Go on that side. 

Che voUte da me ? What do you wish of me ? 

Fare una cosa da se, or da per To do a thing aloue, or by one's 
se, self. 

Guarddrsi da uno, To be on one's guard against 

one. 

Distinguere il vero dal fdlso, To distinguish the true from 

the false. 

Cader da cavdllo, dIll' dlbero, To fall from a horse, from a 

tree. 

Difendersi Dj(gli ipocriti, Dii To defend one's self against 
Iddri, DAL nemico, hypocrites, thieves, and ene- 

mies. 

VII. The verbs usctre, venire, nntovere, levdrsi, to 
go out, to come, to move, to rise, etc., sometimes take di 
for the sake of euphony, particularly when the article is 
not used ; as, Esgo di chiesa, si leva di tdvola, I go 
out of church, he rose from the table. With the verb ca- 
der e, the Italians say, Cader di mdno,* di bdcca, to fall 
from the hand, from the mouth ; but with the article, and, 
above all, in the plural, they say, Uscir ddlla chiesa, 
cader ddlle Tndni, to go out of the church, to let fall 
from the hands. 

VIII. "Out of" is translated \>j fuor di, because it 
sounds better than fuor da; as, Fuori di pericolo, out 
of danger. 

IX. Da is likewise used before words marking the use, 
employment, or distinction of a thing ; as, — 

Carta DA scrivere, writing-paper. 

Carta da lettere, letter-paper. 

A.cqua DA here, water to drink. 

Casa DA vendere, house to sell. 

Sotte DA olio, oil-cask. 

Camera da letto, bed-chamber. 

Ragdzza da maritdre, a marriageable girl. 

* Mano admits of various significations in idiomatic phrases. (See list of idiomfl.) 

11* 



J26 



ITALIAN GRAJVOIAR. 



X. Da is employed to express the idea of aptitude, 
etc. J as ) — 

A.r7ni da difendersi, Arms proper for defence. 

Non sono cose da dirsi, They are not things to be said. 

Z/' err are e da uomo, It is human to err. 

U6}7io DA molto, DA pdco, DA A man fit for many things, for 

few things, for nothing, for 

fatigue. 
They are things to cause laugh- 



7iiente, da stento, 
Son cose da ridere, 
Non e cosa da un pari vostro, 
E una ragdzza da marito, 



ter. 

It is not proper for such a man 

as you. 
A young lady of marriageable 

age. 



XI. Da may be used in various other ways ; as, — 



Avke DA fare ? 
Datemi da lavordre, 
Venite qua da me, 
Dite DA hurla ? 
Dtte DA vero, or DAVi^ero ? 
Uomo DA bene, or DABbene, 
Anddte dal fornaio, 
Andrb da mia madre, 
Vive DA Signore, 
Ha trattdto DA birhdnte, 
Egli fa da dottdre, da medi- 
co, 
Vi giuro da galantuomo, 



Have you something to do ? 

Give me something to do. 

Come here near me. 

Do you say it in jest ? 

Do you speak seriously ? 

An honest man. 

Go to the baker's. 

I shall go to my mother's. 

He lives like a lord. 

He has behaved like a rogue. 

He plays the doctor, the phy- 
sician. 

I swear to you upon the faith 
of a gentleman. 



READING LESSON. 

Napoleone andato a Milano a farsi iucoronare re d' Italia, 

goiae 

visito r Universita di Pavia. Egli si fece presentare i professori. 

made 

e domando di Scarpa. Gli fu detto che era state depdsto 

was said was (had) been deposed 

dalla sua cdttedra per non aver voliito prestare giuramento 

to have wished to take 



PREPOSITIONS. 127 

al nuovo governo. Eh ! clie importa, riprese Buonaparte, il 

replied 

giuramento e le opinidni politlche ! Scarpa onora 1' Universita 
ed il mio stato. 

II nome solo di Roma e una storia di maraviglie che scalda il 

warms 
petto ad ogni mortale. Terra degli eroi, capo del mondo ; 

innanzi a lei sparlrono nazioni, popoli e citta famose, ed ella 
l)efore disappeared 

stette e sta onore e gloria d' Italia, aspettando che suoni 1' dra 
stood stands aAvaiting may sound 

d' una nuova grandezza. 

Un gidrno Brasidas trovo tra alcuni f ichi secchi un sdrcio, cho 

found 

lo mdrse si fattamente che lo lascio andar via. Voi vedete, 
bit let see 

disse a chi gli stava intorno, che non v' e animaletto, il quale, 

stood 

per piccolo che sia, non possa scampar la vita dve abbia il 
may be can save may have 

cudre di difendersi da chi I'assale. 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. If you wish to have a faithful servant, serve yourself. 

2. " Deliver me from my friends," said a philosopher ; " be- 
cause I can defend myself against my enemies." 

3. We should abstain from such truths as have the appearance 
of falsehood. 

4. Amerigo Vespucci, of Florence, made many discoveries in 
the New World in the year one thousand four hundred ninety- 
seven. Hence it was called America, from this navigator. 

5. Princes ought to punish as princes, and not as executioners. 

6. The knowledge of foreign languages serves to correct and 
perfect our own. 

7. The changes of states, far from injuring, often aid in the 
rapid progress of civilization and the arts. 

8. " Fi'om the evils which the barbarians brought into Italy," 
said Varchi, " two good things have come forth, — our Italian 
language, and the c;ity of Venice." 



128 



ITALIAN GllAAIMAK. 



VOCABULARY. 



1. If you wish, se volete ; serve yourself, servitevi da voi. 

2. Deliver me, liheratemi ; I can (shall) defend, difenderb. 

3. We should abstain, conviene astenersi ; appearance, fdccia. 

4. Made, fece ; hence it was called, che venne qutndi chiamdto, 

5. Ought, dehhono. 

6. Our own, la propria. 

7. Injuring (to injure), nuocere ; aid, giovano. 

8. Brought, j)ortdti ; have come fortli, ndcquero. 



CONVERSAZIONE. 



Vddo al tecitro. 

Con mio marito (husband). 

Non ho niente da fdre. 

jEgli va in campdgna. 

Ho del caffe e una focdccia. 

Sara dedicdto a Mozart. 



Dove andcite ? 

Con chi anddte ? 

Che avete da fdre, 

Dove va il Dottore ? > 

Che avete"} 

A chi sara dedicdto quesfo mon' 

umento ? 
Dove trovdste voi (did you find) lo li trovdi sulla tdvola. 

i lihri ? 
Come anddvano (went) i fanci- A due a due. 

ulli? 
Sdno le tdvole e le sedie nella Si, sdno nella camera, 

cdmera ? 



Venite da me oggi ? 
Che cdsa avete ? 
Ddtemi di grdzia due ubva. 
Ha egli delpepe'^ 
Che volete fdre% 



Non pdsso ; non esco (go out) 

di cdsa. 
Una huona cdsa a tre pidni 

(floors). ^ 

Non ne ahbidmo, ma dbhidmo 

pane e hutirro. 
Si, Signore, ha del pepe, e del 

sale. 
Ho intenzibne di anddre al haJ~ 

lo, ma andrb prima da m/i/i 

mddre. 



PKEPOSITIONS. 129 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE PKEPOSITIONS CON, IN, PER. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

lo lo vidi co' miei proprj occhi, I saw him with my own eyes, 

Assistetemi coi vdsiri consigli, Assist me with your counsels. 

La Senna mette foce in mare, The Seine flows into the sea. 

Leggo per divertirmi, I read (for) to amuse myself. 

lo appu7ito ho manddto per voi, I have just sent for you. 

Egll ha ddto in luce uiH opera, He has published a work. 

E famoso PER le sue i7nprese, _ He is famous b^ his exploits. 

Tutti parldvano in una vdlta, They all spoke at once. 

Diede urC occhidta in giro, He cast a glance around him. 

lo vengo a bella posta per vbi, I come expressly for you. 

Lo farete con vdstro cdmodo, You will do it at your leisure. 

E virtiX il dir molto IN pdchi It is a talent to say much in 

detti, few words. 

E cdsa che non gli pud capir in It is something which he can- 

testa, not understand. 

Le selle non son fdtte per gli Saddles are not made /or asses. 



dsi7ii. 



Vice qu'ello che gliviene in hocca, He says what comes into his 

head. 
Quella donna si adira CON tutti, This woman gets angry loith 

everybody. 
VY.'2i caritd, non mi precipitate! For pity's sake, do not ruin 



me ! 



E un ubmo chidro per nohilita. He is a man illustrious hy his 

nobility. 

Vddo ad aspettdrvi in giardino, I shall wait for you in the gar- 
den. 

Voi cercdfe d' ingarhuglidrmi You try to confuse me ivith 
COIS! parole che non intendo, words which I do not under- 

stand. 

Ognun per se e Dio per tutti. Every one for himself, and God 

for us all. 



180 



ITAI.IAN GRAMMAR. 



CON {with). 

I. Oon is used as in English in such sentences as the 
followino' : — 



Strignere amicizia CON alcuno, 
Egli pcirla cogli occhi chiusi, 
Donne c6lla hbcca aperta, 
Parldrsi Cogli occhi, 
Percuotere col piede, 
Far cenno cox la memo, COL 

capo, 
Dire CON voce hdssa, CON voce 

sonora, 
Lavordre COL pennello, collo 

scalpeUo, 
Fare {ma cosa CON piacere, CON 

facilitd, CON dffficoltd, con 

destrezza, 
Parldre col ciiore in mdno, 



k 



uscito COL servitor e, 



To make friends with some one. 

He speaks with his eyes shut. 

He sleeps ivith his mouth open. 

To speak ivith the eyes. 

To stamp witli the feet. 

To make a sign with the hand, 

with the head. 
To speak in a low voice, in a 

sonorous voice. 
To work with pincers, with a 

chisel. 
To do a thing tvith pleasure, 

with facility, with difficulty, 

ivith dexterity. 
To speak in an open-hearted 

manner. 
He has gone out with his ser- 
vant. 



II. In some phrases, the Italians use con where the 
English use by ; as, Illustrdrsi COL suo merito^ to make 
himself illustrious hy his merit. 

EST {in). 

III. In follows a verb when it expresses the existence 
of an object in or upon another ; as will be seen by the 
followino- : — 



II prdnzo e in tdvola, 

Ponete vino in tdvola, 

Anddre in villeggiatura, 

Essere in mcire, 

Gadere in terra. 

Nan ho dendri mdosso,* 

lo non entro nei fdtti vostri, 

Alzdrsi IN punta di piede. 



The dinner is upon the table. 
Put the wine upon the table. 
To go iiito the country. 
To be 2ipon the sea. 
To fall to the earth. 
I have no money about me. 
I do not meddle in your affairs. 
To stand on tiptoe. 



* Indosso is from in and dosso, back. 



PREPOSITIONS. 131 

In mia^ in sua vece, In my, in his place. 

Essere in potere di, essere nel- To be at the power of, to be in 

LA cuna, the cradle. 

Stare in piedi in mezzo alia To stand up in the middle of 

piazza, the place. 

Tutti gli sguardi erano fissi in Every look was fixed upon him. 

lid. 



Stare in cittd, in ^;^Z/cf, in cdsa, To live ^?^ the city, in the town, 

in the house. 

To Z' ho gettdto in mare, I have thrown him «?ito the 

sea. 

Morire in e^a c/i cento dnni, To die <2^ the age of one hun- 

dred. 

IV. In elegant style, in is sometimes used instead of 
cdntro (against) ; as, Vendicdrsi in uno, to avenge one's 
self against another ; incrudelire ne' sHoi schidvi^ to be 
cruel to (against) his slaves. 

V. It is difficult to know when to use the article with 
in, and when to suppress it ; and there can be no positive 
rules given on this point. We must, however, observe 
that in is generally used without an article for any thing 
which is, or seems to be, on the surface; as, II vascello 
che era IN tndre si e rotto negli scogli, the vessel which 
was upon the sea is broken on the rocks ; i pesci vivono 
NEL mare, fish live in the sea. 

PER {for, by, through, etc.). 

YI. The preposition per indicates two distinct connec- 
tions : — 

1. It denotes the idea of passage ; as, — 

Scrivere per la posta. To write hy post. 

.Essere crudele per natura, To be cruel by nature. 

Operdre per interesse, To work for interest. 

Prendere pel h^dccio. To take hy the arm. 

Pagdi^e cmque frdnchi VY.^ gior- To pay five francs a day. 

no, 

Per padre egli e nohile, Tlirough his fatlier, he is of no- 
ble birth. 



132 ITALIAN GKA^IMAR. 

Per un secolo, per un anno, During (for) a year, a century. 

Una voce corre per la citta, A rumor runs through the city. 

Viaggidre per la Frdncia, To travel through France. 

Passdre per la Frdncia, per la To pass through France, through 

camera, per la porta, the chamber, through the 

door. 

2. Per serves also to mark the aim or object of a per- 
son ; as, — 

Egli e morto per la p atria, He died for his country. 

lo lavoro per ^ miei scoldri, I work for my pupils. 

Fiirono lascidti per morti. They were left ybr dead. 

VII. We can also say, nella cittd, nella strdda, in 
Frdncia; but the idea of motion is better expressed by 
the word ^jer, rendering the phrase more forcible. 

VIII. We also say, — 

Per veritd, io non lo credo. In truth, I do not believe it. 

Egli e venuto per pdrte di uno. He came from some one. 
Essere per, or stdre per, To be about to. 

Per me vi assicuro che, As for me, I assure you that. 

Io ho quel che dite piii che per I perfectly believe all that you 

vero, say. 

Anddte T'E.' fdtti vdstri,* Let me alone ; or, mind your 

business. 
Per qudnto si affatichi, tutto git He may tire himself as much 

va a voto, as he will, nothing succeeds 

with him. 

reading lesson. 

Un giovindtto avdva i capelli neri e la barba bianca. Tiitti 

domandavano la causa di un tal fenomeno. Un motteggiatore 

rispose : " Perche forse quel Signore ha lavorato piii colla ma- 
labored 
scella che col cervello. 

Giulio secondo, in eta di 70 anni, con un elmo in capo monto, 

air assalto della mirandola. Si dice che un giorno questo papa 

guerriero buttasse nel Tevere le chiavi di San Pietro, per non 

threw 

aver piii ad usare, diceva egli, che la spada di San Paolo. 



PREPOSITIONS. 133 

Un buoii veccliio pcirroco di villa, die era debole di vista, e 
avea le dita poco elastiche, stava leggendo in pulpito an capo 

"was reading 

della genesi. A queste parole: "II Signore diede ad Adamo 

gave 

una moglie," volto due pagine in una volta, e senza abbadarvi 

he turned perceiving it 

lesse tuttavia con voce forte e cliiara : " Ed ella era incatramata 
read pitched 

per di dentro e per di fudri." Quel bu6n piovano si era 

without. parson 

diso;riizIatamente imbattuto nella descrizione dell' area di Noe. 
unfortunately lighted upon 

Bisogna che 1' udmo abbia tanto senno da sapersi accomodare 

alle costumanze delle nazioni nelle quali si trova. Per mancanza 

is. want 

di un chiddo si pdrde il ferro ad un cavallo ; per mancanza di 

lost shoe (iron) 

un ferro si perde il cavallo, e per mancanza di un cavallo, anche 

il cavaliere e perduto, perche il nemico lo sopraggivinge, 1' 

succeeded 

ammazza, e tutto questo per non aver pdsto mente ad un chiodo 
killed put 

d' un fdrro del suo cavallo. 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. It is a great misfortune not to have wit enough to speak 
well, nor judgment enough to keep silent. 

2. In this world, we ought to be born either a king or a fool : 
a king, to be able to avenge injuries, and punish the vices of 

;i men ; a fool, so as not to perceive injuries, or be troubled by any 
j thing. 

j 3. A caricature represented George III. with a very large 
, sleeve, from which Napoleon wished to come out ; but, as soon as 
, he put out his nose, George gave him a push to force him back 
' into the sleeve. 

4. We shall be measured by the same measure as we measure 
others. 



12 



134 ITALIAN GEAMMAR 



^ti • 



5. We should be careful not to lose time and words in refuting 
things evidently false. Zeno denied motion, and Diogenes began 
to walk without saying a word : Zeno persisted in his paradox, 
and Diogenes continued to w^alk. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. To speak, joarMre ; to keep silent, stare zttto. 

2. We ought to be born, converrehhe nascere ; to be able, po- 
tere ; to avenge, vendicdre ; to punish, castigcire ; to perceive 
(to know), conoscere ; or to be troubled, ne ddrsi pensi&ro. 

3. Represented, Jigurdva ; Giorgio ; wished to come out, voU- 
va uscire ; put out, sporgeva ; gave, ddva ; to force him back, 
per fdrlo torndr dentro. 

4. Measured, misui'dti ; we measure, minvriamo. 

0. We should be, etc., hisogna guarddrsi dal perdere ; in re- 
futing, nel confutdre ; denied, negdva ; began to walk, si mise a 
passeggidre ; persisted, persistette ; continued, continub. 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Che fa il vostro servo ? JEgli fa un cenno col capo. 

Che vuol (wishes) dire'^ Che il prdnzo e in tdvola. 

Dov' e la vostra arnica ? E uscita col servitore. 

Glie e cadibto in terra ? Lo scalpello con cwi lavoro. 

Per die e il Signor M. famoso'^ Per le sue dpere letter drie. 

Che cdsa ha egli fdtto ? Ha ddto in luce mdlte dpere. 

H avete lette ? Si^ le ho lette con piacere. 

Come ha egli parldto ? Ha parldto col cudre. 

Dove stdte bra ? Sto in cittd. 

Prestdtemi un dbllaro. Non ne ho in ddsso. 

Che si dice delfii Capitdno'^ Che egli e mortoper la p atria. 

Perche, lavdra il Signor B. ? Lavdra pei sudi scoldri. 

Volete andcire in vece' mia ? Si, andrd in vece vostra. 

Qhe chiedete (demand) voi ? Chiedo dandro in jJrestito. 

E criidele quest^ animdle ? Per natura non e crudele. 

Ha egli comprdto una carrozza ? No, e troppo avdro per far queS' 

ta spesa. 



PREPOSITIONS. 135 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE PREPOSITIONS. 

C Continued.) 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Cid sia ditto era di not, That may be said among us. 

Egli verra era dieci giorni, He will arrive in ten days. 

Che c' e qui dentro ? What is that within ? 

Facciamocegli incontro Let us go to meet him. 

lo le sedeva acc^nto, I was seated beside her. 

J^gli stette alquanto sopra di se,^ He stopped some time to reflect. 

Noe ndcque prima del diluvlo, Noali was born before the flood, 

e mori dopo il diluvio, and died after it. 

Venni questa mcme a cdsa vds- This morning I went to your 

tra, house. 

N^on v' e cosa nudva S(5tto il There is nothing new under the 

sole, sun. 

J^lla ha trovdto un marito se- She has fovind a husband ac- 

CONDO il suo genio, cording to her taste. 

Neir inverno si sta bene ACCiN- In winter, one is well near the 

TO alfuoco. fireside. 

Bisdgna vivere second o le leggi We ought to live according to 

della natura, the laws of Nature. 

Non vo mdi a letto prkia deW I never go to bed before day- 

dlha, • break. 

// sdnno in stjl mattmo e salute- Sleep in the morning is healthy. 

^ vole, 

Animo^ Signorma ; vien tdrdi : Come, miss ; it is late : get up. 



levatevi su, 



Che avete fcdto infino ad dra'^ What have you doi.u up to the 

present moment ? 

Ciascuno e padrdne in cdsa sua, Every one is master in his own 

house. 

Qudndo avrb cisA mia, invitero When I have a house of my 
tiuti i miei amici, own, I will invito all my 

friends 



13(3 ITALIAN GRAMJVIAH. 

UPON. 

I. "Upon" is often translated by in; as, — 

1 will wait for you on the piazza, Vi aspettero in piazza. 

Ungrateful people write benefits GV ingrdti scrivono i henefizi 

upon the sand, nell' arena. 

To have no money upon (or Non avere dandri IN dosso. 

about) you, 

BETWEEN, AMONiG. 

II. These prepositions are rendered by fra or tra, and 
occasionally by infra or intra; as, — 

Among the people, Fra (or tra) il popolo. 

Among men, Fra (or tra) gli uomini. 

Between these two cities you Fra queste diie cittd s' incon- 

find three villages, trano tre paesetti. 

III. Fra (or tra) soiftetimes expresses " in " or " with- 
in ; " as, — 

I said within myself, To diceva fra me. 

God has created the world in Dio ha credto il mondo in sei 

six days, giorni. 

He will arrive within two Bgli arrivera fra due mesi. 

months. 

To live in pleasure, in pain, Vivere fra i piaceri, fra le 

pene. 

UNTIL. 

IV. "Until" is translated hj fino or sino; also insino 
or infino. 

TO or AT. 

V. " To " or " at " is rendered by da when it signifies 
going to some one ; as, — 

I go to my banker's, lo vo dal mio hanchiere. 

You go to your uncle's, Voi anddte da vostro zio. 

He will send to the baker, Mandera dal forndio. 

Yesterday I went to your house leri venni da vol per pregdrvi 

to beg you to call upon me di passdre dggi da me. 

to-day. 



PREPOSITIONS. 



137 



A cdsa di, a cdsa rnia, a cdsa vdstra^ etc., are also 
used wlien we refer more particularly to the house ; as, 
Vdi anddte a cdsa di vdsti^o zio ; ieri venni a cdsa v6s- 
tra per pregdrvi di passdre oggi a cdsa mia. 

VI. The following examples illustrate the use of va- 
rious prepositions : — 



At the fireside, 
After dinner, 
After me, 
About the table. 
Against me, him, 
Against the enemy, 
About 3,000 francs. 
About three feet high. 
Along the river, 



AcCjCnto al fiioco. 

Dopo iwdnzo. 

Dopo di me. 

Intorno alia tdvola. 

CoNTRO di me, di lui. 

CoNTRO al nemico. 

Circa a tre mila frdnchi. 

A.Uo circa, or alto intorno a trepiedi. 

LuNGO il jiume. 



According to youropinion, Secondo, or giusta il vostro parere. 



Before all, before me, 

Before speaking, 

Before daylight, 

Beyond the sea. 

Behind the door, 

Before the chimney, 

Beyond the Rhine, 

Beside that. 

Far from the truth. 

In the middle of the street, 

In fiice of, or opposite to. 

Near the bed, 

Near the sea, 

Outside, 

Out of the house, 

Towards me, thee, 

Towards spring, 

Without money. 

Within him. 



Prima di tiitto, prima di me. 

Prima di, or av^nti di pdrlare. 

InnInzi V dlha, or prima deW alba. 

Al di lX dal mare. 

DiETRO la porta, or cdla porta. 

Dav^nti ^7, or al cammino. 

Di la dal Reno. 

Oltre a cib. 

LuNGi, or lontXno dal vera. 

In mezzo alia, or della strdda. 

DiRIMPETTO A, or IN FiOCIA A. 

AccXnto, or viciNO al Utto. 

ViciNO, or PRESSO al or del mare. 

Per di fuori, or al di fuori. 

FuoRi or FUORA di cdsa. 

Verso or inverso a me, a te, or di me. 

Verso primavera. 

Senza dandro. 

Dentro, or PER di dentro, di lui- 



VII. When the above prepositions are followed by a 
personal pronoun, the pronoun is often placed before the 
verb, and the preposition terminates the phrase ; as, JSTon 
mi comparite pih dindnzi^ appear no more before me. 

12* 



188 ITALIAN GKAJMMAK. 



READING LESSON. 
Tasso^s last Letter 

Che dira il mio Signor Antonio, quando udira la mdrte del 

will say will hear 

sue Tasso ? e per mio avviso non tardera molto la novella, perclie 

will not delay 

io mi sento al fine della mia vita, non ess^ndosi potuto trovar 
feel being able 

mai rimedio a qu(^sta mia fastidiosa indisposizione sopravvenuta 

alle molte altre mie solite, quasi rapido torr(^nte, dal quale senza 

accustomed 

pot^re aver alciin ritegno vedo chiarara^nte ^sser rapito. Non e 

defence taken away. 

tempo che io parli della mia ostinata fortuna, per non dire dell 

speak 

ingratitudine del mondo, la quale ha pur voluto aver la vittoria 

di condurmi alia sepoltura mendico ; quand'io pensava, che quella 

gloria, che, mal grade di chi non vuole, avra qu^sto secolo da mi^i 

scritti, non fosse per lasciarmi in alcun modo s^nza guiderdone. 

Mi son fatto condurre in questo Monastero di Sant' Onofrio, non 
to conduct 

solo perche T aria e lodata da' m^dici, piu che d' alcun' dltra 

praised 

parte di Roma, ma quasi per cominciare da questo luogo emi- 
n^nte, e colla conversazione di questi div6ti Padri, la mia con- 
versazione in Cielo. Pregate Iddio per me : e siate sicuro che 
siccome vi ho amato, ed onorato sempre nella presente vita, cosi 

faro per voi nell' altra piu v^ra, cio che alia non f inta, ma ve- 
wilf do feigned 

race carita s' appartiene ; ed alia Divina grazia raccomando v6i 

^ belongs 

e me stesso. Di Roma in Sant' Onofrio. 



PREPOSITIONS. 139 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. The tears of an inheritor are smiles concealed under a mask. 

2. Distrust those wlio love you very much on short acquaint- 
ance. 

3. Private thieves spend their lives in chains and prisons; 
public thieves, in the midst of purple and gold. 

4. With many people, love of country is none other than to 
kill and despoil other men. 

0. There are some country towns in France where societies 
meet at six o'clock in the evening, in winter. They seat them- 
selves around the fireplace ; and, after the usual compliments, 
each one goes to sleep. At eight o'clock, one of them sneezes. 
Then, there is a general movement of surprise. " What is it ? " 
— " Nothing." One of the company takes out his watch, and 
announces that it is eight o'clock. " Ah ! it is not late : we can 
amuse ourselves a little longer." They sleep again till nine 
o'clock, when the mistress of the house gives a signal. They 
rise ; they congratulate each other at having been much amused ^ 
and each one goes to his own home. 

6. " Wit and judgment," says Pope, " are always in opposition 
to each other, as the husband and wife ; although made to live 
together, and mutually help each other." 

7. A preacher displayed all his eloquence in a panegyric upon 
St. Antonio ; and, among the figures of rhetoric with which he 
embellished his style, there was one wherein he said, " Among 
what inhabitants of heaven shall I place our saint ? Shall it be 

I with angels or archangels ? shall it be with cherubims or sera- 
phims ? No ! Shall T place him among patriarchs, among prophets ? 

] No ! Neither shall I place him among apostles, nor doctors, nor 
evangelists." One of his auditors, who was tired of this long 
declamation, said to him, in rising, " My father, if you do not 

'' know where to place your saint, you can put him here ; because 
I am going away." 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Concealed, nascosti. 

2. Distrust, dijidotevi ; love very much, vogliono gran bene. 

3. Private, /jm-a^o ; spend (pass), />«5S(:m<9. 

4. Is none other than, non e dltro che ; kill, ammazzdre ; 
despoil, spoglidre. 

5. There are, vi sono ; societies meet, siva in conversazione; 
at six o'clock, p.m., dlle sei pomerididne ; usual, sbliti ; there is 



140 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

a general movement, i7is6rge un mbto generale ; takes out, cava ; 
it is not late, 7i07i e tm^di ; to amuse, trattenere ; they sleep 
again, ognuno torna ad adormentarsi ; they rise tiitti si dlzaiio ; 
they congratulate each other, si rallegrano. 

6. Although made, henche fdtti; to live together, tenersi coni- 
pagma ; to help, ajutdre. 

7. Displayed, sfoggidva ; to embellish, orndre ; to place, col- 
locdre ; neither, neppure ; declamation, jilastrocca ; if you do not 
know, se non sap'ete ; you can put him here, ponetelo pur qui ; 
because, che ; I am going away, io vddo via. 



CONVERSAZIONE. 

Che cdsa avete ? una hottiglia di vino. 

Dite da vero, o dite da hicrla ? Da vero ; non ischerzo. 

Dov' e il mio pdne (roll) imhu- Non so, vddo nella cucina per 

tirrdto (buttered) ? cerccirlo. 

Che fecero (do) quel povermi Chiesero aiuto col pidnto e cblle 

colle Idgrime in sugli dcchi? strida. 

Fra qiidli dei celesti abitatori fa Amico mio, non e importdnte 

collocdto Sanf Antonio f di saperlo. 

Ho io lascidto (left) il mio has- Voi lo lascidste da mia sorella. 

tone qui ? 
Chi e felice ? Voi ed io, per che non ci mdnca 

^ (fails) un amico sincero. 
Qual e qu'elV animdle, che va E- V ubmo, che da bambino va 
(goes) con qucdtro piedi, poi carponi con le mdni e cdi 
con diie, ed in ultimo con tre ? piedi, e cbsi con qucittro pie- 

di, pbi ritto su due piedi, ed 
in ■ vecchidja con tre, perche 
va col bastone. 



VEEBS. 141 



CHj^PTER XXII. 

THE VERBS ESSERE AM) AV^RE. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Non c' e tempo da jyerdere^ There is no time to lose. 

Non c' e came sen£ ossa, There is no meat without bones. 

Avete voi m proiifo la jnoneta? Have you tlie money ready? 

No7i hisogna aversela a male^ You must not take it ill. 

lo v' ho cara qudnto sorella, I cherish you as a sister. 

Perche avete cosi fretta'^ Why are you in such a hurry? 

Comprdte dellaUgna; perchein Buy more wood; for there is 

cantina non ce rC e piu, no more in the cellar. 

Se non avete die fare, venite If you have nothing to do, come 

meco, with me. 

Tocca a voi a coprire i miei It is for you to conceal my 

difettiy faults. 

Ora toccherd a me a raccon- Now it is my turn to adjust the 

ciarla^ affair. 

Non ho piacere di viaggidre di I feel no pleasure travelling by 

notte,' night. 

Con chi V avete'? lo non V ho With whom are you displeased? 

con nessuno, I am displeased with no one. 

Vi sdno gran rihdldi in questo There are great villains in this 

moiido, world. 

Non si pud dare un cuore piu There cannot be a more per- 

perfido, fidious heart. 

Ahhidmo a discdrrere a qudttro We must speak of that to- 

occhi^ gether tete-a-tete. 

Ho incontrdto due giorni fa Two days ago I met your cous- 

vostro cugino, in. 

Theni del mbndo sono in mdno The riches of tliis woi'ld are in 

delJa sdrtcj the hands of fate. 

A voi tocca il dir prima il vds- It is for you to give your ad- 

tro jyarere,^ vice first. 

Egli non e in grddo di fur questa He is not in a position to iu- 

spesa^ cur this expense. 



142 ITALIAN GRAl>OIAR. 



ESSERE, TO BE. 

I. This verb is very much used in Italian, by its form-" 
ing the passive, which predominates in that language. 1st, 
It is its own auxiliary in compound tenses ; as, /o s6no 
stdto, I have been: 2d, The past participle ^.s^a^o agrees 
in gender and number with its subject ; as, Ella e STATA, 
she has been ; ndi sidmo stati, we have been. 

II. When essere is used impersonally, it agrees with 
the subject which follows it ; as, JE un 6ra, it is one 
o'clock ; s6no le {mdici, it is eleven o'clock. 

III. The verb ve7iire is very often used for essere, 

IV. The Italian expression essere per, or stdre per, 
signifies "to be upon the point of;" as, /o sdiio, or io 
sto per ammoglidrmi, I am about to marry. 

V. In the phrases "there is," "there are," "there was," 
etc., the Italians use ci and vi (there), abridged from 
qmnci and quivi. Oi denotes proximity, and vi a more 
distant place ; as, — 

There is, was, etc., V e, or c' e ; v' era, or c' era, etc. 

There are many people who Vi sono mold die vorrebhero 

wish to learn much without impardre molto senza studi- 

study, are. 

VI. Ci and vi are chano-ed into ce and ve when it is 
necessary to use the indefinite pronoun 7ie (of it, of them), 

J^on ce n^ e piii, or 7ion ve n^ epm, There are no more of them. 
Non ce n' e piii, etc., There is no more of it. 

VII. To express "it is ten years since," etc., the Ital- 
ians say, ^^Dieci dnni fa, or dieci dnni s6no ; and for 
"it is an hour," " a week," "a month," "two centuries," 
etc., they say ui-C 6ra fa, una settimdna fa, un tnese fa, 
due secoli fa. "There is," "there are," is occasionally 
rendered by vi ha, or lidvvi. 



VERBS. 



143 



VIII. Avere (to have), 
active verbs as in English, 
lowing phrases : — 

To be judicious, 
To be ready, 
To be thirsty, 



To be hunsfr 



Jj 



To be hot, 

To be satisfied with. 

To cherish some one, 

To remember. 

To be in a hurry, 

To be cold. 

To be ill, 

To be ashamed. 

To take a thing ill, 

To be afraid, 

To be charmed. 

To be in possession of. 

To have knowledge of, 



besides being the auxiliary of 
is used idiomatically in the fol- 

Ave?' giudtzio ; aver cervello. 

Avere in pronto ; avere a mdno. 

Aver sete. 

Aver fame. 

Aver cdldo. 

Aver cdro di. 

Aver cdro una, 

Avere a mmte. 

Aver fretta. 

Aver freddo. 

Aver mdle. 

Aver vergdgna. 

Aver per 7ndle. 

Aver paura. 

Aver gusto ; aver piacere, 

Avere in memo. 

Avere conoscenza. 



READING- LESSON. 

Seduta un po' in disparte, coUa fronte bassa e le mani intrecci^- 
te sulle ginocchia, stava piangendo cheta, la povera Laudomia. 
Le sue guance in questi mesi s' eran affilate e ftitte pallide, che 
quel viver sempre in agitazione, quel dover ad ogni ora temere 
le giungesse 1' avviso che Lamberto era rimasto ucciso, esauriva 
in lei a poco a poco la vita. Ed ora, dopo questa rotta, della 
quale s' ignoravano i particolari, ed in cui si sapeva pero quasi 
3,000 persone aver perduta la vita, rimaner col tremendo dubbio 
s' egli fosse vivo o morto ! Non aver mode di uscirne, non sapere 
a chi domandarne ! " Oh ! pensiamo," diceva, " s' egli non si 
sara gettato nel maggior pericolo ! s' ^gli avra voluto staccarsi 
dal fianco del Ferruccio ! Oime ! Oime ! ch' io non abbia pro- 
prio a vederlo raai pi u ? " 

Le cognate, le nipoti e gli altri tutti di quelle tre case che 
forma vano una sola famiglia, la veneriivano piu che sorella e zia, 
e la chiamavano V Ameda, nome antico, venuto dal latino Amita 
I'che viiol dir zia), e tuttora vivo nel contado della Brianza. 



144 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 



1. There was in Athens a very opulent miser, who troubled 
himself very little about being the talk of his fellow-citizens. 
" People may hiss me," said he ; " but I am not angry : for, when 
I am at home, I rejoice at the sight of my crowns." 

2. Whei-ever there are tears to be dried up, you w^ill be sure 
to meet a woman.' 

3. There are men on whom is imprinted the whole character 
of their nation. 

4. Unhappily, it is but too true, that no nation can flourish 
without vices. If it were not for ambition or cupidity, there 
would not be a single man who w^ould wish to take charge of the 
government of others. Take vanity away from women, and 
the fine manufactures of silk and lace, which furnish labor (cause 
to live) to so many thousands of artisans, would cease (would be 
no more). If there were no thieves, lock-makers would die of 
huno-er. Thus sood and evil are always found together. 

5. Always live as if you were old, in order that you may 
never repent having been young. 

6. There are men who know neither how to speak nor to be 
silent. 

7. An old woman asked Mahomet what it was necessary to do 
so as to go to Paradise. " My dear," said he, " Paradise is not 
for old women." The good woman began to weep ; and the 
prophet said, to console her, " There are no old w^omen there, 
because they all become young again." 

8. Dolabella said to Cicero, " Do you know that I am only 
thirty years old ? " — "I ought to know it," said Cicero ; " because 
you have been telling it to me these ten years." 

9. If princes were obliged to combat hand to hand, there would 
be no more wars. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Atene ; who troubled himself very little, che si ddva poca 
briga; hiss, fa le fschidte ; I rejoice, nn r allegro. 

2. Wherever, dovunque ; to dry, asciugdre. 

3. Imprinted, i7npresso. 

4. Unhappily, etc., e cosa disgraziatamente pur vera ; can 
flourish, pud esser Jiorida ; if it were not, se non fosse ; would 
wish, avesse voglia di ; to take charge, incaricarsi ; take away, 
togUete via; manufacture, fdhhica ; cause to live, danno da 
vwere a ; would die, morirebbero. 



VERBS. 145 

5. If you were, se foste ; may never repent, ?^o^^ vi ahhiute a 
jientire mdi. 

6. To be silent, stch^e zitti, 

7. Old woman, vecchia ; asked, domanddva ; Maometto ; it 
was necessary, convenisse ; to go, per anddre ; paradiso ; my 
dear, c«rrt 7nia ; began to weep, si caccio a 'pidngere ; to console, 
racconsoh'ire ; become young, ritornercmno giovani. 

8. DolabeUa ; Cicerone ; only, solamente ; I ought to know it, 
lo debho sapere ; because, perche ; telling, anddte dicendo. 

9. Were obliged to, dovessero ; combat, pugndre ; hand to 
hand, cdrpo a cdrpo, 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Dov^ e la Luisa ? £J rimdsta a casa. 

Perche ? Perche e un poco infredddtcu 

Louisa, che hai ? La mamma stu (is) mdle, 

Che cosa ha% Ha una grossa febhre, 

Bevete (drink). E dolce abhas- Si, e buonissimo. 

tdjiza ? 
Che cos' e questa nostra vita! Un sogno, sognidmo in pace. 
Qadnti dnni sono che siete fuori Sono ormdi qumdici dnni? 

di pdtria ? 
Figliuoli miei, avete appetite ? No, cdra mddre. 
Volete (will you) bere (di'ink) ? Prenderemo (we will take) una 

limondta. 
E morta la Signora ? Si, la Signora Maria e mdrta. 

E la Giulietta f E desoldta. II suo vivo dolore 

mi Idcera (pierces) V dnimo. 
Avete studidto la vdstra lezidne Mi son levcito questa mattina 

di musical X' avete prati- dlle sette, e nan mi sono jjiii 

cdta perbene ? mbssa (moved) dot piano- 

forte. 
Potrei (could I) vederla ? Si; se volete entrdre un mo- 

mento, ma non le dite (say) 



nulla. 



13 



146 ITALIAN GKAJVIIVIAE. 



CHAPTER XXm. 

THE VEEBS AND THEIR SYNTAX. 
MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Gome ve la passdte, carina ? ' How goes it with you, dear ? 

lo sto ascoltdndo: non mimuovo, I listen : I do not move. 

Amico^ gettdte via la fatica, Friend, you lose your labor. 

Venite pure avdnti, You can likewise enter. 

CUie cosa dite ? What do you say ? 

Tirdte via, gocciolone ! Go away, great fool ! 

lo stdva scriv'endo una lettera, I was writins: a letter. 

Gomportdtevi bene, e sarete ben Behave well, and everybody 

voluto da tutti, will love you. 

Da alcuni jilbsoji si crede che Some philosophers believe that 

la vita sta un sdgno, life is a dream. 

Vi sbno taliini che vdnno sempre There are people who are al- 

macchindndo delle novita^ ways thinking of something 

new. 

Ghe cbsa impedisce aW uomo di What prevents man from being 

esser felice ? l^appy ? 

Piove^ tuona, e balma, in un It rains, thunders, and lightens, 

punto, nil at once. 

Mentre state pranzdndo scrivero While you dine, I will write to 

alio zio, my uncle. 

Ghe anddte facendo cost per What are you doing so early ? 

tempo ? 

Non parldr mdi senza aver Never speak without reflection. 

^ pensdto, 

E cosa che si dice da alcuni, There are some persons who 

speak of it. 

Mubve piu V interesse propria One's own interest is always 
che V altrui, jpore touching than that of 

others. 

Non ho goduto un' ora di bene, I have never enjoyed a mo- 
ment's happiness. 

Appena mi vide tiro via subito^ He no sooner saw me than he 

ran away. 



VERBS AND THElll SYNTAX. 147 

The verbs in the infinitive are easily recognized in Ital- 
ian by their terminations, namely, in aee, eee, ire ; as, 
amdre* to love ; vedere, to see ; jinire^ to finish. Many 
verbs have two terminations for the infinitive : some end in 
ere or ire. 

In Italian, the infinitive, when preceded by the definite 
article, has the nature of a noun ; as, ^ proibito il far 
male, it is forbidden to do evil. 

GENERAL RULES. 

I. The word via (which signifies " way," " street " ) is 
placed after certain verbs of motion ; as, — 

Levdr via, to take away. 

Portdr via, to carry away. 

A7iddr via, to go away, etc. 

II. The passive form of the verb, as we have already 
stated, is much used in Italian ; particularly in didactic, 
poetic, and historic styles. The active form becomes pas- 
sive by changing the construction of the phrase : the 
subject becomes the regimen, and takes the preposition 
da : the verb takes the addition of si, which is a sio-n of 
the passive ; or it is conjugated through all its tenses with 
the verbs essere or venire; as, Everybody says, si dice 
da Udti, e detto da iutti, or vien detto da tidti ; the 
people fear war, la giierra e temida dal ]j6j)oIo. 

III. There are many impersonal verbs | in Italian ; 
amono* which are the followinof : — 



Alheggia, the clay appears. 
RaggiSrna, ,,^ „ ^ „ 
Annotta, it is growing dark. 



Pioviggina, ^ it drizzles: it 
Ldmica, > rains in small 
Sjjruzzola, ) drops. 



* The verbs of the first conjugation^ which ends in ARE — amount to more than four 
thousand: among them, only about tliirty are irregular. 

t The impersonal verbs may be divided into proper and improper. The proper are 
those which have only the third person singular throughout all their moods and tenses ; 
as, Si fa osriiro, it grows dark ; tempiJsta^ it hails. The improper arc those wliich are not 
impersonal by themselves, but only occasionally used in an impersonal siguilication ; as, 
Convicnf. it is proper ; hisdgna, it must. 



148 



ITALIAN GRAJVOIAR. 



Balena, 


it lightens. 


Accdde, 


it happens. 


Lampeggia, 


" . " 


Avvietie, 


5) J) 


Piove^ 


it rains. 


Interviene, 


?5 ?J 


N^evica, 


it snows. 


Pare, 


it appears. 


Tuona, 


it thunders. 


Semhra, 


it seems. 


Graudina, 


it liails. 


Disdice, 


it does not become. 


Gela, 


it freezes. 


Bisogna, 


it is necessary. 



lY. Impersonal A'erbs are used in the plural when the 
noun which follows them is plural ; as, — 



Accddono strdne cose, 
Sono le set, 



Strange things happen. 
It is six o'clock. 



V. All the impersonal verbs are conjugated in their 
compound tenses with essere; as, tl tondto, e pioviito. 

VI. Many of these verbs are conjugated with the per- 
sonal pronouns ; as. Mi pare, it seems to me ; mi dis- 
place, I am sorry. 

Remaek. — In most languages, many verbs are used 
with an idiomatic turn very different from their proper 
signification. 

VII. The verbs venire and volere, for instance, do not 
always answer to the English verbs " to come " and " to be 
willing : " but the former is sometimes used instead of the 
verb essere (to be) ; and the latter, being preceded by 
the particles ci, vi, and unipersonally employed, has the 
same meaning as the verb bisogndre (must or to be 
necessary) ; as, — 

Mi vihi detto cosi, I am told so. 

Gi vuol pazienza, We must have patience. 

VIII. The verb dovere is expressed in English by the 
verb '^' to owe " when it means to be a debtor, and by 
the verb " to be obliged " when it signifies duty or the 
necessity of doing an action. It is also used instead of 
the verb bisogndre, in the signification of "must;" as 
^' gli doveva trecento fiorini, he owed him three hun- 
dred florins. 



VERBS AND THE[R SYNTAX. 149 

IX. The English verb " to be," used in the sense of 
"to be one's turn," "business," or "duty," is rendered in 
Italian by the verb toccdre^ in the signification of " to 
belong ; " as, — 

Tocca a me a giuocdre, It is for me to play. 

Tocca a lui a leggere, It is for him to read. 

X. The verb " to think," used in English in the sense 
of "to believe "i)r "to suppose," is translated into Italian 
by the verb credere; and, when in the sense of "to re- 
flect" or "meditate," by the YQvh pensdre. 

XL The verb "to know" is translated by the verb 
sapere when intellectual knowledge is meant, and by the 
verb condscere when personal knowledge derived from 
the evidence of one of our senses is intended. 

XII. The pronouns ?7^^, ti, ci, ne, etc., are often use^* 
as expletives* with certain verbs ; as, ib mi son pre sa la 
lihertd di scrivervi, 1 have taken the liberty to write to 
you. 

XIII. The verbs dovei^e, potere^ sapere, volere, 
sometimes form their compound tenses with essere when 
followed by an infinitive ; as, io non son potuto venire. 

XIV. The verb suondre, or sondre, is used in the sense 
of to play on an instrument; as, Sudna il violino, suoyia 
il c6rno da cdccia. 

XV. The verbs avvertire and haddre (to take care) are 
followed by a negation ; as, Avvertite or haddte di non 
inganndrvi, take care not to deceive yourself. 

XVI. The verb may be placed before or after the sub- 
ject, according to the dominant idea of either verb or 



* Expletives are particles which give strength and energy. They are bene, si bdne, 
pure, tutto, mi, ti, poi, altrimenti, ci, gid, via, vi, mai, cgli, si, bello, non, ne ; as, — 

Il vdstro vest'ito e bcW e fcitto, Your suit of clothes is finished. 

Son tiUto stnnco, I am quite tired. 

Oie tempo fa, rgli ? What is the weather ? 

ti^gli (■ pill ddtto c/P 'w non crecleva, Ue is more learned than I thought. 

13* 



150 ITALIAj^ geaimjmak. 

subject. This inversion sometimes gives great effect, 
particularly to poetry. We may see it in Tasso : — 

GilCE. r aha Cartdgo; appena i segni 
DeW alte sice ruine il lido serha, 
MuoiONO le citta ; muoiono i regni, etc. 

REMARKS. 

1. The verbs ending in care and gare, as predicdre, 
Hpiegdre, take h in those tenses in which c and g would 
precede e or i, so as to preserve the hard sound of the 
infinitive. (See conjugation of cercdre.^ 

2. Students should be careful to notice the difference 
between the imperfect and perfect-definite tenses of Ital- 
ian ^verbs. The mipey^fect expresses an action not accom- 
plished during the time of another past action, or the 
repetition of an action, and may be known by its making 
sense with the auxiliary was. The perfect-definite ex- 
presses an action entirely past; as, I was going to your 
sister when I sato you, %o me ne (imp.) andava da v6s- 
tra sorella^ qudndo lo vi (perfect) viDi ; I went almost 
every night to pay a visit to the famous Schiller, io an- 
dava qudsi 6gni sera a far visita al celehre Schiller, 

•READING LESSON. 

Era intanto comparsa la Caterina con qualche cosarella per 
cena*: e chi non avesse saputo che la casa era andata a sacco, 1' 
avrebbe indovinato vedendo quell' imbandigione, che tutta con- 
feisteva in un' iiisalata, un pezzo di cacio, e due pan neri, che 1' 
lino neppiir era intero. La povera donna, sciira e macilenta in 
viso, cogli ocehi sonfi e rossi, apparecchiava senza parlare, e 
metteva ogni tanto, Mnghi sospiri ; e dopo quelle prime e brevi 
j)ar61e, nessuno apri piu bocca, e rimaser pensosi, sedendo su una 
panca che era tiitt' in giro conf itta nel muro : e questo silenzio 
parea tanto piu mesto, che nessuna voce, nessvino strepito s' udiva 
neppure, al di fuori, benche fossero nel cuor della terra, pdco 
lontani di piazza. II canto d' un gallo o F abbaiar d' un cane 
avrebber almeno dato segno di cosa viva ; ma quel desolate borgo 
aveva- aspetto di cimitero. — D'Azelio. 



VERBS AND THEIK SYNTAX. 151 

t 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

The Stranger and the Guide {seated on the top of the Coliseum). 

1. S. — As I just now observed, as we climbed up here, the 
name of Rome awakens the most agreeable sensations. 

2. G. — It is because you have read so much, sir : besides, 
you know Latin, and then you have travelled much. 

3. S. — Two years of travel have profited me much more 
than eight years of Latin. I have studied nature : I have 
freed myself from my prejudices, and from the false national love 
which makes us so unjust towards our fellow-creatures. 

4. G. — What think you, then, of Italy ? 

5. S. — Italy has conquered the world by her arms ; she has 
enlightened it by her sciences ; civilized us by her fine arts ; 
governed by her genius ; and, far from succumbing under the 
redoubtable blows of barbarians, she has triumphed over them, 
forcing them to lay down their ensanguined arms at her feet. 

6. G. — Very true ; and you cannot mention another nation 
which has held its conquests so long as Italy. 

VOCABULARY. 

1. We climbed, salivdmo ; awakens, desta. 

2. Read, letto ; travelled, viaggidto. 

3. Profited, giovdto ; studied, studidto ; have (am) freed, sono 
spoglidto ; fellow-creatures, simile. 

4. Think, pensate. 

5. Conquered, conqidstato ; enlightened, illumindto ; civilized, 
ingentilito ; governed, governdto ; far from succumbing, non che 
soggiacere ; triumphed, trionfdto ; foi'cing (constraining them), 
costringendoli ; ensanguined, insanguindti. 

6. You cannot mention {Qxtei)^vossignoria non pud citdre. 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Avke cdmere da affiUdt^e (to Si, Signore, ne ho vdrie. 

let)? 

Vorrei un appartamento. Con tnohili o senza mobili ? 

Lo vorrei (should like) smohig- Pensdte di trattenervi (to re- 

lidto. main) mdlto'^ 

Non pill che r inverno. E al pcirtire'^ 

Al partire rivenderb (I will sell Non ne caverete un terzo del 

again) la moMglia, cdsto. • 



152 



ITALIAN GRA:MMAR. 



Allora e meglio trovdre una 
huona padrona ed un helV 
appartamento. 

Andidmo a vedere. 

Che mohili ha ella ? 

II letfo e la cosa principalissi- 

ma. - 
La camera risponde sidla strd- 

da'^ 
Desidera vedere urC dltra stdn- 

za'^ 

Che si dice delV ostinazione ? 

Che ci vuole in tutte le cose ? 

Qudndo e il sole piu risplen- 

dente ? 
Che volete amico mio f 

Che hisogna fare per godere 

budna salute ? 
Che sta facendo quesf udmo ? 

Che cdsa e pazzia ? 



Vi condurrb io ddlla Signora 
Bidnca ; ella e persona gen- 
tilissi7na e discrefa. 

La situazidne e hellissima. 

Ha mohili di 7ndgano (mahog- 
any), e tapjpeti di lusso. 

Nonpotete desiderdrne un migli- 
bre. 

No Signdre, da nel giardino. 

No, credo che il letto sia hudno. 

Non si trdtta adesso che del 

prezzo. 
Si dice che V ostinazidne e peg- 

gibr di tutti i peccdti. 
In tutte le cdse ci vuole la mo- 

derazidne. 
Ddpo una burrdsca e sempre 

piu risplendente il sdle. 
Vdglio pile che vdi potete dcir- 

mi. 
Sisdgna vivere parcamente. 

Sta ragiondndo per passdre il 

tempo. 
Lo sperdr sempve nelV avvenrre 

e pazzia. 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 153 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE VERB: THE SUBJmTCTIVE MOOD. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Gil comandd che parldsse, He ordered liim to speak. 

Dicbito che V ora sia tarda, I fear that it is late. 

DiteglicH egli fdcciacbmevuole. Tell him to do as he likes. 

Non so se to debha dir di si o I do not know if I ought to 

di no, say yes or no. 

Qudnd^ dnche to lo sapessi, non Even if I knew it, I would not 

ve lo direi, tell you. 

Si da per siciiro che la pace sia We are assured that peace is 

fdtta, made. 

Bisogna che gli scrividte voi It is necessary that you write 

stesso, to him yourself. 

JS il piu bravo uomo cK to dbbia He is the most honest man that 

mdi co7iosciuto, I have ever known. 

Benche sia difficile, bisogncLpero Although it is difficult, we 

vincere se stesso, must conquer ourselves. 

JEgli lo dice perche non didte a He says it that you may not 

me la colpa, blame me. 

To gli dtssi che come gli piacesse I told him that he might an- 

le rispondesse, swer her as he pleased. 

Pcire cli ella si fdccia ognor She seems to be continually 

pill bella, growing handsomer. 

Gli dtssi che facesse come vo- 1 told him to do as he pleased. 

lesse, 

Se to avessi studidto, sarei ddtto, If I had studied, I should be 

learned. 

Ptcd essere cli' to porta domdni, It is possible that I may leave 

to-morrow. 

Se tu sapessi qudnto to fdmo I If thou knewest how much I 

love thee ! 

Venne da me e mi domandb chi He came to me, and asked me 

fossi, e dove anddssi, who I was, and where I was 

going. 



154 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Every proposition is either positive or doubtful. 

I. The positive indicates that the thing positively exists ; 
that the action is done in an absolute manner. This propo- 
sition is expressed by the indicative mood ; as, Jo pdrlo, 
I speak ; io par^ldva, I was speaking. 

II. The doubtful proposition, on the contrary, is ex- 
pressed by the subjunctive mood, and serves to indicate 
the possibility or doubt of a thing existing : it shows that 
the existence of the action is conditional and relative, be- 
cause it depends on an antecedent proposition, expressed 
or understood ; as, I wish to write, io voglio scrivere, is 
positive, and in the indicative mood ; I wish that you 
would write, io vSglio die v6i scrividte^ is doubtful, de- 
pending on the will of another, and therefore put in the 
subjunctive. 

III. The verb is used in the subjunctive after all verbs 
that signify ashing, entreating , suspecting , wondering, 
rejoicing , grudging, supposing, hoping, imagining, 
conjecturing, intimating; after all verbs expressive of 
desire, will, command, permission, prohibition, fear, 
belief; after all verbs implying doubt, ignorance, uncer- 
tainty, or future action; and after all verbs used with a 
negative ; as, — 

Per amor di te ti prego (eke) For your sake, I beseech you 

te ne rimdnghi, to desist. 

Che vuoi tu chU lo sdppia ? What do you tliink that I 

know ? 

TV. Some of these verbs, however, appear sometimes 
to be used indiscriminately, either in the indicative or in 
the subjunctive mood : but it is not so in fact ; for, when 
they are so used, each mood expresses the action in a 
diiferent manner, as may be seen in tlie following exam- 
ples : — 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 155 

Voglio sposare una donna die I wish to marry a woman whom 

mi pi dee, I Hke. 

Voglio sposch'e una donna die I wish to marry a woman whom 

mi pidccia, I may hke. 

Vddo cercdndo uno die mi vuol I am seeking one who is fond 

bene, of me. 

Vddo cercdndo uno die mi vo- I am seeking one who may be 

glia bene. fond of me. 

In which, in the first instance, being certain of the exist- 
ence of the action expressed, we use the indicative ; and, 
in the second, we use the subjunctive, because the existence 
of the action is not certain, but doubted or desired. 

V. After semlyi'di'e, jparere^ hisogndre, or any other 
impersonal verb, the subjunctive is always used; as, — 

Bisbgna die voi jpartidte domdni, You must go away to-morrow. 

Mi sembrdva die avesse voglia He appeared as if he had a 

di ridere, wish to laugh. 

Parevami die ella fosse piu hi- She appeared to me to be 

dnca die la neiie, whiter than snow. 

VI. The verb is also used in the subjunctive after the 
relative pronoun che, following a comparative or a super- 
lative ; as, — 

Bella quant'' dltra donna {che) As handsome as any other lady 
^ fosse mdi in Firenze, in Florence ever was. 

E la miglibre opera che sia com- It is the best work which ever 
pdrsa, appeared. 

VII. And after the relative quale, not used in an inter- 
rogative manner ; as, — 

una parte qudle volesse ne reg- He might govern such a part 
gerehhe, as he should wish. 

OF THE TENSES OF THE DEPENDENT VERBS IN A COM- 
POUND SENTENCE. 

VIII. T\'hcn, in a compound sentence, the principal 
verb is in the present of the indicative, or in the future, 
the dependent verb must be put in the irresent of the 



156 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 

subjunctive, if we mean to imply the present or future 
time ; and in the hrfperfect of the subjunctive, if we 
mean to imply the past ; as, — ' 

Qredo mi portdsse amore, I believe that he loved me. 

£) credo omdi die 7n6nti e pidg- I believe, that, by this time, 
ge sdppian di die tempra sia mountains and plains know 
la mia vita, what is the condition of my 

life. 

IX. When the dependent verb expresses an action 
which may be done at all times, it may be put either in 
the imperfect or the prese?2^ of the subjunctive, although 
the principal verb be in the perfect-indefinite of the indica- 
tive ; as, — 

Iddio ci a ddto la ragione qffin- God gave us reason in order 
die ci distinguidmo, OY ci dis- that we might distinguish 
tinguessimo, ddgli animdli, ourselves from animals. 

X. In suppositive or conditional phrases, the hnperfect 
of the indicative in English — had, %uas, or %i^ere — is 
rendered in Italian by the imperfect of the subjunctive ; 
as, — 

Se io avessi qiiesti dendri, glieli If I had this money, I would 

presterei iiicontanente, lend it to you immediately. 

Chi starehhe meglio di me, se Who would be more happy than 

quei dendri fosser miei ? I, if that money was mine ? 

Remark. — Some conjunctions require the subjunctive 
mood; as, Affinche, in order that; benche, though; 
senza che, without ; d!'ato che, suppose. 

READING LESSON. 

E cosa rara che s' incontri un giureconsulto che litighi, un 
medico che prenda medicina, e un teologo die sia buon cristiano. 

Flechier era figlio d' un droghiere. DIcono che in un momento 
di malavoglia, un vescovo gh rimproverasse la vilta dei suoi na- 
tali, e che Flechier gli rispondesse : Monsignore, v' e questa 
differenza fra vdi e me, che se voi foste nato nella bottega di mlo 
padre vi sareste ancora. 

Tre giorni dopo la morte di Caterina di Frc4ncia, il predica- 
tore Lini^estre cosi dalF alto del pergamo la raccomandava agh 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 157 

astanti : " La Regina mddre e mdrta, la quale, vivendo, fece 
molto male, e per me credo molto piii mjile clie bene. In quest' 
oggi si presenta una difficolta, che consiste in sapere se la chiesa 
cattolica deva pregare j^er lei che visse tanto male, e cosi spesso 
sostenne la eresia, quantunque si dica die in I'lltimo sia stata con 
noi, e non abbia acconsentito alia morte dei nostri prlncipi. Su 
di che io devo dirvi, che se volete recitarle un pater ed ave cosi 
a casaccio, fate vdi ; varra per qudllo che puo valere : e lo rimet- 
to alia vostra liberta." 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. As a countryman was one day walking in the streets of 
Paris, he passed by a broker's shop ; and, not seeing any thing but 
a man occupied in writing, he was anxious to know what busi- 
ness he did. He entered, and asked what they sold. " Asses' 
heads," answered the money-changer. " You must do good busi- 
ness," immediately replied the countryman, " since you have only 
your own left." ^ 

2. Semiramis ordered the following inscription to be engraved 
upon her tomb : " Let the king who has need of money demol- 
ish this tomb, and he will find a treasure." Darius caused the 
tomb to be opened : instead of money, he found this other in- 
scription : " If thou hadst not been a bad man, and of insatiable 
avarice, thou wouldst not have disturbed tlie ashes of the dead." 

3. A Turkish ambassador asked Lore'nzo de Medecis why they 
did not see as many fools in Florence as in Cairo. Lorenzo 
pointed to a monastery, and said, " See where we shut them up." 

4. A man having consulted the philosopher Bias, to knov\^ if 
he should marry, or lead a life of celibacy, he answered, " The 
woman you marry will be pretty or homely : if she is pretty, you 
will marry a Helen ; if she is homely, you will marry a Fury : 
so you would do better not to marry. 

VOCABULARY. 

L As a countryman was walking in, girando un paesdno per ; 
was anxious to know, ebbe voglia di, etc.; did, /"wcesse ; entered, 
entro ; sold, vendesse ; you must do, etc., ne abhidte un gran con- 
sumo ; you have left, rimdne. 

2. Demolish (make to demolish), y«ma demoJire ; will find, 
trovera. 

3. Did see, vedessero ; pointed, addito ; we shut, rincJiiudidmo. 

4. Should marry (if he had to take a wife) ; will marry, mene-^ 
rete. 

14 



158 ITALIAN GEAlVmAR. 



CONVERSAZIONE. 



Che cosa domando egW^ Se w avevo hen studidto, 

Che diceste voi ? Non so s' io dehha dir di si o di no, 

Che voUte sapere ? Voglio sapere clii ella sia. 

Qudndo ritornerete ? Pud essere ch' io ritorni domdni, 

Chi sarehhe stdto genei'oso se fos- II povero die si mostra riconos- 

se ndto ricco ? cente di un benefizio. 

Che disse Maria ? Se w fossi ricca^ so hen lo quel 

che avrei a fare. 
Ghe cosa e rdra ? J^ cosa vara che s' incbntri un 

medico che prenda medicina. 
Perche vi maraviglidte voi? Perche voi avete venduto quel 

cavdllo. 
Eseioavessihisdgnodidandro? Se sajjeste qudnt' to v' dmo, nC 

avreste domanddto di prestdr- 

vene. 



THE INFINITIVE, GERUND, ETC. 159 



^ CHAPTER XXV. 

THE INFINITIVE, GEEUND, PRESENT AND PAST PAR- 
TICIPLES. 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Spesso la veritd sta occidta, Truth is often concealed. 

Che cosa avete sentito dire ? What have you heard said ? 

Ho sempre odidto V adidazione, I have always hated flattery. 

II fuoco e spcirso in tuttalana- Fire is spread throughout all 

tura^ nature. 

Bisogna anddre cduto nel par- It is necessary to be careful in 

Idre, speaking. 

Giunto alia porta, la frdvai "When I arrived at the door, I 

chiusa, found it shut. 

/ Toscdni sono acutissimi nel The Tuscans are very sharp at 

motteggidre, raillery. 

Al primo vederla la sorpresa mi Surprise betrayed me when I 

ha tradito, first saw her. 

Lo sperdre nelV avvenire e paz- It is foolish to place one's hopes 

zia, on the future. 

La folia crescente shoccdva da The sweUing crowd poured in 

ogni parte, from all parts. 

II farldr poco, il fare assdi, e 7 To speak little, to do much, 

non lauddre se stesso, sono and not to praise one's self, 

virtii rare, are rare virtues. 

Guarddti dal vantdre le cose Abstain from praising what be- 

tiie, longs to thee. 

Una hurla per essere detta fiiori An untimely joke may become 

di tempo pub diventdre un an offence. 

offesa, 

Si 'pud dire quella essere vera It may be said, that true art is 

arte che non appdrc essere arte, that which does not appear 

to be so. 

Non il comincidre, ma il perse- It is not the commencing, but 

verdre, e degno di lode, the persevering, which mer- 
its praise. 



](iO ITALIAN GKAMIVIAR. 

I. The infinitive takes the place of the third person 
when the phrase is composed of a principal proposition 
and a subordinate one, connected by the conjunction 
"that;" as, He said that the people ought not to be de- 
ceived, egli dice il 'p6'polo non dover essere ingayi- 
Qidto; it is said that time is the father of all truth, dicono 
il tem'po ESSERE padre di ogni veritd. This style, 
though very elegant and much used, is not adapted for 
common conversation. The above phrases may be trans- 
lated word for word ; as, tlgli dice che il j^dpolo non dee 
essere inganndto, 

II. The pronouns lui and lei are used instead of egli 
and ella with the infinitive ; as, Sa ogniino ltd essere 
stdto maestro di hel dire, everybody knows that he was a 
model of eloquence. 

III. The infinitive is used for the second person singu- 
lar of the imperative mood, when preceded by the negative 
particle 710 ?i; as, — 

Non fare strepito, Do not make a noise. 

Non ti lusingdre, Do not flatter thyself. 

Cid 7ion temere, Do not fear that. 

Non mi toccdre, rihdldo I Do not touch me, rascal ! 

IV. The infinitive may be used as a noun in the nomi- 
native case, or as regimen of the verb ; as, — 

Mi pidce mblto il siw fare, His manners please me much. 

Nel danzdre, ella non ha pari In dancing, she has no equal 

nel mondo, anywhere. 

Dal parldre si conosce V interno We know the hearts of men by 

degli uomini, their speech. 

V. The infinitive is used as follows by an able his- 
torian, in describing the movements of a camp preparing 
for an assault : Quindi era nel cdinpo un anddre,* un 



* The Italians make ft-equent use of andare^ venire, and stare: the first two conyey an 
idea of movement ; the latter, that of rest. 



PARTICIPLES. 161 

venire, un urtdrsi c?' uSmini e di cdrri un jorhir cU 
drmi, un apparecchidre di mdcchine murdli, die V dere 
ne era a 7ii6lta distdnza introndto. 

VI. Many English phrases may be translated literally ; 



as, 



It is a great folly to live poor, E gran pazzia il viver povero, 

in order to die rich, ^ per morir ricco. 

It is a virtue to say much in JE virtu di dir molto in pdchi 

few words, detii. 

THE PARTICIPLES. 

VII. When the past participle * is joined to the verb 
Sssere (to be), or to such verbs as venire, restdre or rima- 
nere, vedersi, etc., used in the signification of "to be," it 
should agree with the subject of the verb with which it is 
joined, in gender and number; as, — 

JEssi eran di frondi di quercia They were garlanded with oak- 

ingJdrlanddti, leaves. 

Ne erano le fdlte de* Vitellidni Nor w^ere the faults of Vitel- 

punite, ma ben pagdle, lius' troops punished, but 

well paid. 

VIII. But when the past participle is joined to the verb 
avere (to have), — if this verb is used, instead of essere, 
in the sis^nification of "to be," or is used in the sionifica- 
tion of "to hold," "to possess," etc., as an active and not 
an auxiliary verb, — the participle agrees with the object 
of the verb in gender and number ; as, — 

aS* avea (for s' era) messe alcune He had put some small stones 
petruzze in hocca, in his mouth. 

Per non poterti vedere f avresti Thou wouldst have torn out 
(for ti saresti) cavciti gli occhi, thy eyes, not to see thyself. 

Uno che fordta avea (for tenea, One who had his throat pierced. 
possedea) la gdia, 

* There are many participles ia dto, dta, which are contracted by suppressing the at: 
these are — 

Accetto — a for accettdto — a, accepted. 
Addtto — a for adattdto — a, adapted. 
Cdrico — a for caricdto — a, loaded, etc. 

14* 



162 ITALIAN GRAMi\L4R. 

IX. If the verb avere^ to which the past participle is 
joined, is used as an auxiliary verb in order to represent 
the idea of past time, which could be equally expressed by 
a single form of the verb to which the participle belongs, 
then this participle remains invariable ; as, — 

Come iq avrb dcito (or daro) As soon as I shall have given 
loro ogni cosa, every thing to them. 

Cercdto ho (or cercdi) sempre I have always sought a solitary 
solitdria via., way. 

Chi queste cose ha manifestato "Who has told these things to 
(or manifesto) al ?naestro ? the master ? 

X. When the past participle is preceded by one of the 
pronouns mi, ti, ci, vi, si, il, lo, la, li, gli, le, ne, che, 
aui, qudle, qudli, qudnti, as objects of the verb, the 
participle agrees with the pronouns, or the objects repre- 
sented by them, in gender and number ; as, — 

JElla medcsima me le ha dette She herself has told them to 

(or mi ha dette queste cose), me. 

II liherto diceva averla esso uc- The freedman said that he had 

cisa (or avere esso uccisa la killed her himself. 

dojina), 

XI. The English present participle may be expressed 
in Italian, — 

1. By the gerund of the corresponding verb ; as, — 

Veggendolo consumdre come la Seeing him waste away like 
neve al sole, snow in the sun. 

Dormendo gli pdrve di vedere la (Sleeping, or) whilst he was 
donna sua, asleep, it seemed to him that 

he saw his lady. 

2. By the conjunction che, or the adverb qudndo, and 
a tense of the indicative mood ; as, — 

Poi cK ebhi riposdto il cojpo Having rested my weary body. 

lc(SSO, 

Qudnd' ebbe detto cid, riprese il Having said this, he took up 
teschio misero c6' denti, once more that miserable 

skull with his teeth. 



PARTICIPLES. 163 

3. By a preposition and the verb in the infinitive ; as, — 

Consiuno quella mattina in cer- He spent that morning in look- 
ccirli, ing after them. 

Credo die le snore sien tutte a I beheve that the nuns are all 
dormire^ (sleeping or^ asleep. 

XII. When the English present participle has before it 
a preposition, such as "of," "from," "on," "in," etc., it is 
always rendered in Italian by the corresponding verb in 
the infinitive with a preposition. 

XIII. If the participle is preceded by the prepositions 
"of," "from," "with," they are expressed in Italian^by the 
preposition di^ attended by the infinitive; as, l^hhi il 
piacere di vederlo, I had the pleasure of seeing him. 

Xiy. The preposition " on," before the participle, may 
be expressed by the prepositions di or in; as, - — 

Si vdnta d^ aver la loro cono- He values himself on being ac- 

scenza, quainted with them. 

Nel partire gli sovvenne di lei. On his leaving, he recollected 

her. 

The preposition " in " is relidered by a or in; as, — 

Avea nel quetdr popolo autorita In appeasing the people, he had 

ed arte, both authority and art. 

Che a far cid volesse aitdrlo, That he would assist him in 

doing that. 

XV. The prepositions "for," "without," "before," 
"after," etc., are literally translated. 

XVI. If the participle is preceded by the preposition 
" by," this preposition is generally omitted in Italian, and 
the participle rendered by the gerund of the correspond- 
ing verb ; as, — 

Gli scoldri impdrano le regole Scholars learn the rules of a 
di una lingua studiundole^ language by studying them» 



164 ITALIAN GKAJNIMAR. 

XVII. But if we wish to express the preposition, then 
the verb must be put in the infinitive, and "by" rendered 
by con; as, — 

II divino Giulio rintuzzb la se- The divine JuHus checked the 
dizione del suo esercito col dir sedition of his army by only 
solo, " Ah, Quiriti 1 " saying, " Ah, Romans ! " 

READING LESSON. 

Dio mi creo per aniare ; io mi ricordo di un fanciiillo sensitive, 
vago di solitudine, abbandonare il trambusto deha citta, e lontano 
nei campi voharsi indietro a contemphirla, come I'Alghieri des- 
crive il naufrago che uscito fiiori dal pelago alia riva, si volgc all' 
acqua perigliosa, e guata ; egli si avvolgeva pei boschi, udiva la 
voce arcana che par che mandi la natura al siio Creatore, ascol- 
tava commosso 1' armonia degli uccelli, ed invidiava la voce loro 
per cantare anch' egli un inno di gloria, e le ali per accostarsi al 
firmamento, perche gli avevano detto il Padre del creato abitfire 
nei cieli : quanto tesoro di affetto era nell' anima di quel fan- 
ciullo ! Appena la campana della sera indicava 1' ora dei morti, 
prosternato davanti alia immagine di Gesu Cristo non senza 
lacrime la supplicava per le anime dei suoi defiinti . . . per tutti 
quelli che purgandosi aspettano di sollevarsi alle gioie divine: egli 
aveva una parola di conforto per qualunque sconsohito. Ah! 
quel fanciiillo fui io. — GuerrXzzi. 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. The ancients pretended that the greatest happiness was not 
to be born ; and the next, to die young. 

2. The Epicureans denied the existence of the soul, and rec- 
ognized only physical principles : they said the gods did not en- 
ter into worldly things. 

8. The philosopher Cleante earned his living by drawing 
water during the night, so that he might study by day (to attend 
to study). 

4. Apelles painted a bunch of grapes so natural, that several 
birds, seeing it, came to peck at it. 

5. At Rome, a father emancipated his son by giving him a box 
on the ear. 

6. In Paris, various academies are seen aiming at very differ- 
ent ends. There is the Academy of Music, which excites (moves) 



PARTICIPLES. 165 

the passions ; and the School of Philosophy, to quiet them : the 
Fencing Academy, which teaches how to kill men ; and the Medi- 
cal Academy, to preserve life. 

7. The painter Caracci, having been despoiled by certain 
thieves, knew^ so well hoAv to delineate their physiognomy, and 
paint their faces, that they were discovered and arrested, 

VOCABULARY. 

1. Pretended, pretendevano ; to be born, ndscere ; to die, 
mo7^ire. 

2. To deny, negdre ; recognized, riconohhero ; they said, dice' 
vaiio. 

3. Earned, guadagnava. 

4. Painted, dipinse ; came, vennero. 

5. To emancipate, emancipare ; box on the ear, schidffo. 

6. Are seen, vedonsi ; moves, muove ; to quiet, acchetdre ; to 
teach, insegndre ; to kill, cwijnazzdre. 

7. To despoil, spoglidre ; to designate, disegndre ; discovered, 
scoperti, 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Che negd7'ono gli epicurei ? X' esistenza deW dnima. 

Che riconohhero essi ? Soltdnio i prmcipj fisici. 

Che dicevano ? Dicevano gli dei non entrdre 

nelle cose di questo mbndo. 

Di chi era Bellini r^iaestro ? Di Tizidno. 

Che fece il pittdre Bellmi per JEgli dipinse la decollazidne di 
Maonietto secondo ? San Giovdnni Battista. 

Ne fu coniento il sidtdno ? Loddndo la pittura, avverti V 

artista d' un errore. 

Come giiadagndva la vita il Col cavcir dcqua in tempo di 
jilbsofo Clednte ? notte per attendei^e dllo studio 

di gidrno. 

A chi somigliano gli udmini in A un miserdhile prmcipe do- 
generate ? mindnte sidle cdste delta Gui- 

nea. 

Perche ? Perche, diceva ad alcuni Fran- 

cesi : " Si parla mblto di me 
in Frdncia ? " 

Che fretendevano gli antichi ? Pretetidevano, la prima felicita 

essere il non ndscere, la, se- 
cdnda, il morir presto. 



166 ITALIAN GEAMMAR. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE VERBS AND ARE, DARE, FARE, AND STARE* 

MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 

Mi rincresce di ddrvi disturbo, I am soriy to disturb you. 

Fece vista di non intendere, He pretended not to hear. 

Venite a stare con noi, Come to live with us. 

Gome state c?' appetito ? How is your appetite ? 

A che bra siete sblito far colazio- At what hour do you generally 

ne ? breakfast ? 

jcJ un ragdzzo che non puo star He is a child who cannot keep 

fermo, still. 

Sidmo cosi stdnche che non pos- We are so tired that we can no 

sidmo piii stare in piedi, longer stand. 

Ditegli cK egli fdccia come vuo- Tell him that he may do as he 

Ze, likes. 

II gusto degli ubmini va sogget- The taste of men is liable to 

to a mblte vicende, many changes. 

JSgli non pose gran fcitto cura He did not \my much attention 

a quello ch' w dtssi, to what I said. 

To scelsi una moglie secbndo il I took a wife after my own 

cubr mio^ heart. 

Non fate capitdle della sua pa- Do not depend upon his word. 

Da ndi si da in tdvola dlle cm- We dine at five at our house. 

qnCy 
Vi darb contezza del suo stdto, I will inform you of his situa* 

tion. 
To r inddco qiidnto so e pbsso, a I will induce him, as much as I 
stare allegro e a fdrsi dniino, can, to drive away melan- 
choly, and take courage. 



* Andare, diirr, stare, are the only irregular verbs of the first conjugation. In some 
of their compoundf5, they become regular; asria7iddre, trasandctre, etc., Avhich are varied 
like amare. FJre is a "contraction of faccre (now obsolete), of which it retains many 
forms. It is considered by some grammarians as belonging to the second conjugation, and 
is irregular in its compounds. 



VERBS. 



167 



ITALIANISMS WITH AND ARE (TO GO). 



kjuesta cosa non va fdtta, 

Anddr dietro ad uno, 

Andai'e a voto, in vdno, 

Anddre alia ventura, 

Anddre in collera, 

Andch- sicuj'o, 

Lascidmo anddre questo, 

A Idtigo anddre, 

Anddre altera, 

To so quel che va detto, 

II sole va sotto, 

Anddre bene, 

Anddrne la vita, 

II merito va congiunto colla mo- 

destia, 
Le ddnne vdnno trattdte con 

gentilezza. 



This thing ought not to be done. 

To follow some one. 

Not to succeed. 

To go at random. 

To get angry. 

To be sure. 

Do not speak of that. 

In the long-run. 

To be proud. 

I know what I must say. 

The sun sets. 

To succeed. 

To have one's life at stake. 

Merit is accompanied by mod- 
esty. 

Women ought to be treated 
with courtesy. 



WITH DARE (TO GIVE). 



Dare a cdmhio, 
Ddre cojnpiniento, 
Dar da dormire, 
Dar da ridere, 
Ddre de' cdlci, 
Dar fede, 
Dar luogo, 
Dar le vele a^ venti, 
Dar il huon dnno, 
Ddre il motto, 
Dar la mdno, 
Avere a ddre, 
Ddrsi budn tempo, 
Ddrsi V acqiia ai piedi, 
Ddrsi a gdinhe, 
Ddrsi pejisiere, 
Dar che dire, 
Dar giu, 

Ddre una voce ad uno, 
Ddre in tdvola, 
Ddre voce. 



To put out money at interest. 

To finish. 

To lodge. 

To give cause for laughter. 

To kick. 

To believe. 

To give an opportunity. 

To set sail. 

To wish a merry new-year. 

To give the word. 

To marry, to shake hands. 

To be in debt. 

To live a merry life. 

To praise one's self. 

To run away. 

To care for. 

To give occasion to talk. 

To subside, to decline. 

To call some one. 

To serve the dinner. 

To spread a report. 



168 



ITALIAN GRAjVIMAR. 



WITH FARE (TO DO), 



Fate che venga da me. 
Fare le carte, 
Questo non fa per me, 
Aver molto a fare, 
Non ne ho a fare, 
Fatevi a me, 
Far si alia finestra, 
Tre me si fa, 
Una settimdna fa, 
Al far del giorno, 
Far hello, 
Non fa forza. 
Far certo, 
Fatevi indietro, 
Far capo ad una, 
Far del grdnde. 
Far stare uno. 
Fare una predica, 
Far vita stretta, 
Far sua vbglia, 

Che vi fa egli che venga o non 
venga 9 



Bid him come to ma. 
To deal at cards. 
This will not do for me. 
To be very busy. 
I have no need of it. 
Come near me. 
To look out of the window. 
Three months ago. 
A week ago. 
At the break of day. 
To set off. 
It is no matter. 
To assure. 
Go back. 

To address some one. 
To be self-important. 
To restrain some one. 
To admonish. 
To live niggardly. 
To do as one pleases. 
What is it to you if he cornea 
or not? 



WITH STARE (TO BE). 



Sto per partire. 

Qui sta il punto, 

State qudnto vi pidce, 

Dove state di cdsa ? 

H tutto sta, s' egli sia hudno a no, 

La cdsa sta come vi dico, 

Stare a pane ed dcqua, 

Gome state vpi ? 

Egli sta bene, 

Star cheto, 

Stdndo alia finestra lo vidi pas- 

sdre, 
Sta come una stdtua di mdrmo 

senza parldre, 
Ditemi in che inddo sta che egli 

sia vostro fratelW^ 



I am on the point of leaving. 

This is the question. 

Stay as long as you please. 

Where do you live ? 

The point is, if it be good or not. 

The thing is as I tell you. 

To live upon bread and water. 

How do you do ? 

He is well. 

To be quiet. 

Whilst I was at the window, I 

saw him going by. 
He stands like a marble statue, 

without speaking. 
Tell me, how comes it that he 

is your brother ? 



VEKBS. 169 

READING LESSON. 
II fuoco, V dcqua e V ondre. 

II fuoco, r acqua e 1' onore, fecero un tempo comunella insieme. 
II fuoco non puo mai stare in un luogo, e 1' acqua anche sempre 
si muove ; onde tratti dalla loro inclinazione, indussero 1' ondre a 
far viaggio in compagnia. Prima dunque di partirsi, tutti e tre 
dissero cbe bisognava darsi fra loro un segno da potersi ritrovare, 
se mai si fdssero scostati e smarriti 1' uno dalF altro. DIsse ii 
fuoco : " E se mi avvenlsse mai questo caso che io mi segre- 
gassi da voi, ponete ben mente cola dove voi vedete fumo ; 
questo e il mio segnale e quivi mi troverete certamente." — " E 
me,'-' disse 1' acqua," se voi non mi vedete, non mi cercate cola 
dove vedrete secciira o spaccature di terra, ma dove vedrete 
salci, ontani, canmicce o erba molto alta e verde ; andate costa in 
traccia di me, e quivi saro io." — " Quanto a me," disse 1' onore, 
" spalancate ben gli occlii, e ficcatemegli bene addosso e tenetemi 
saldo, perche se la mala ventiira ini guida fuori di cammino, 
fliccbe io mi perda una volta, non mi trovereste piu." 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. A drop of water complained of remaining unknown in the 
ocean. Moved to compassion, a genius caused an oyster to 
swallow it. It became the most beautiful pearl of the East, and 
was the most splendid ornament of the Great Mogul's throne. 

2. Milton, after he became blind, married, for his third wife, a 
woman who was very beautiful, but of a furious temper. A 
friend once said to him, tliat his wife w\as like a rose. "I can- 
not judge so by its color," he replied. " but I do by the thorns." 

3. Who would believe that smoking tobacco was in fashion 
with the English ladies in the sixteenth century ? Every day, 
when Queen Elizabeth rose, there were (one saw) thirty ladies 
seated in a circle around her, smoking pi])es. The queen set 
(gave) them the example ; but one day she broke the pipe, say- 
ing, " We will renounce a pleasure that evaporates in smoke." 

4. A doctor was translating a work. They came to tell him 
that his wife was very sick, and desired to speak with him. " 1 
have only one page to translate," said he ; ." when I will come im- 
mediately." A second messenger came, and informed him that 
she was dying. " Two words more, and I have done," said the 
translator. " Go, return to her." A moment after, they came to 
tell him that she was dead. " I am very sorry for it," said he ; 
" she was a good woman : " and he continued his work. 

15 



170 ITALIAN GKAMINIAE. 



VOCABULARY. 



1. Complained, si dolse ; moved, mdsso ; causeil, fece che ; 
became, divenne. 

2. Become, divenuto ; furious, furibbndo ; can, 'pbsso ; judge, 
giudicdre. 

3. Would believe, crederehhe ; one saw, si vedevano ; seated, 
seduto ; smoking pipes, pipdvano ; gave, dciva ; broke, spezzo ; 
we will renounce, rinunzieremo ; evaporates, svapora. 

4. Was translating, stdva traducendo ; they came, vennero ; 
will come, verro ; came, venne ; she was dying, era dgli estremi ; 
go, anddte ; return, torndte ; I am sorry, me ne rincresce ; con- 
tinued, continuo. 



C ON VERS AZIONE. 



A chi sono cdri i ndmi del Sdr- Son tdnto cdri alV Eurdpa 

pi, del Paruta e delV AlgardUi? qudnto alV Italia. 
Che hisdgna fare per V infortu- Bisdgna compidngerlo e soccor- 

nio ? rerlo se si pud. 

Per reggere aW ingiustizia degli Un gran cordggio. 

udmini che e necessdrio ? 
Chi fu Aldo Manuzio ? H primo celehre stampatore che 

sia stdto in Europa. 
E il Zeno ed il Goldoni f Sdno i pcidri del drdmma e 

della commedia iialidna. 
Chi fu Bemho ? II primo legislatdre della lin- 

gua italidna. 
Cdme si chiamdva anticamenfe Partenope, nome di una Sirena 
Ndpoli ? che credesi dhhia fonddia la 



citta. 



Che si dice della potenza Vene- Ella ha arricchita V Italia e V 
zidna? ha difesa gran tempo ddi 

Bdrbari, 



ADVEEBS. 



171 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



ADVERBS. 



aiNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



Vi raccontero la cosa per minuto, 
Osservate minutamente ognicosa, 
Per ora non posso dirvi di piu, 
Dove andate cost per tempo ? 
Dite da vero, oppure hurlcite ? 
Dove si va cost in fretta ? 
Cattiva erha ndsce dappertuttOy 
II tempo pdssa presto, 
Mi preme assdi di parldrgli, 
Venke qiianto piii presto potete, 
l^ ing anil ate di gran lung a* 
Questa non e gia colpa vostra, 
Gli uomini imitano molto, e ri- 

jlettono poco, 
Chi ohhedisce alia cieca, spesso 

si pente, 
Cki sempre ride, spesso ingdn- 

na, 
Le sue cose vdnno di bene in 

meglio, 
lo non vi voglio neppur guar- 

ddre 1 
Gli ho reso cbnto appimtino di 

ogni cosa, 
Di rdro il medico piglia medi- 
cine^ 
Non hisbgna mdi parldre a ca- 
se, 
Me ne ricorderb per un pezzo, 

Donde venite ? Dove andate ? 



I will relate the affair minutely. 

Observe every thing minutely. 

I cannot tell you any more now. 

Where do you go so early ? 

Are you in earnest, or joking? 

Where are you going so quickly ? 

Weeds grow everywhere. 

Time passes quickly. 

I much need to speak to him. 

Come as soon as possible. 

You are greatly mistaken. 

This is not your fault. 

Men imitate much, and reflect 
little. 

He who obeys blindly, often 
repents. 

He who always laughs, often 
deceives. 

His affairs become better and 
better. 

I do not wish even to look at 
you! 

I have rendered an exact ac- 
count of every thing. 

The physician rarely takes 
medicine. 

We should never speak at ran- 
dom. 

I shall remember it for a long 
time. 

Whence do you come ? Where 



are you going 



•?. 



172 



ITALIAN GRAilMAR. 



ADVERBS. 

I. The greater portion of the Italian adverbs are formed 
of a feminine adjective and the noun onente, manner (from 
the Latin me7is) ; as, .Dotta, learned ; dotta-mente, learn- 
edly ; sdvia^ wise ; savia-mente, wisely ; dolce, sweet ; 
dolce-mente, sweetly. 

If the adjective ends in le or re, the final e is dropped^ 
for the sake of euphony, in the formation of the adverb : 
as, Fedele, faithful; fedel-mente, faithfully; maggidre, 
greater ; niaggior-mente, greatly. 

II. These adverbs have their comparatives and super- 
latives formed from the comparatives and superlatives of 
the adjectives ; as, Piil sincera, more sincere ; ^9Z2> sincer- 
amente, more sincerely ; 'nieno felice, less happy ; nieno 
felicemente, less happily; j^'^'udentisshjia, very prudent; 
prudentissrniamente, very prudently. 

III. Some adverbs are mere adjectives, and are used 
also in their comparatives and superlatives ; as, Chidro 
{chiaramente) , clearly; piu chidro, more clearly; schi- 
etta (^schiettamente) , candidly; ineno schietta, less 
candidly; trlste (tristameiite) , sadly; tristissimo, very 
sadly. 

IV. The followino- are the other adverbs most in use 
in Italian : — 



Adesso, 


now. 


m, 


yy 


Ora, 


}3 


Alldra, 


then. 


Ancdra, 


still. 


Tuttdraj 


}) 


Taldra, 


sometimes, {ta 


Ogndra, 


always. 


Sempre, 


» 


Sove'nte, 


often, {spesso, ) 


Tesfeso, 


just now. 


TesU, 


J J 


leri, 


yesferday. 



ADVERBS OF TIME. 

Avanti€n, 
l€r V dltro, 
U altrieri, 
lermattina, 
lers&a, 

Oggidi, 

Stamdne, 

Stascra, 

Standtte, 

Domattina, 

Dimdni, 

Donidne, 



the day before yester- 
the other day. [day. 

}f yt jj 

yesterday morning. 

last evening. 

to-day. 

in our days. 

this morning. 

this evening. 

to-night. 

to-morrow morning 

to-morrow. 





i\DVEKBS. 


1 


Posdimdni 


, the day after to-morrow. 


Non mai. 


never. 


Posdomdne 


) )> » }> >y 


Omdi, 


now. 


Inndnzi, 


before. 


Oramdi, 


a 


Didnzi, 


» 


Oggimdi, 


j> 


Prima, 


yj 


Qudsi, 


almost. 


Didro, 


afterward. 


Circa, 


about. 


Ddpo, 


» 


Incirca, 


» 


Pdi, 


then, smce, afterward. 


Intdrno, 


>, 


Dipdi, 


» >y )t 


Tdrdi, 


late. 


Dappdi, 


» » »> 


Pertempo, 


soon. 


Pdscia, 


>> j> » 


Presto, 


quick. 


Indi, 


then, afterward. 


Addgio, 


slow. 


Quindi, 


)) >f 


Mentre, 


whilst. 


Apprdsso, 


}y f> 


Intdnto, 


in the mean time. 


Infine, 


in fine. 


Fraitdnto, 


)> » » i* 


Da cdpo. 


once more. 


Trattdnto, 


" )> )i »* 


Gia, 


ahready. 


Dacche, 


since. 


Di gia. 


>> 


Finche, 


until. 


Mdi, 


never. 


Qudndo, 


when. 


Giammdi, 


>f 


Tuttavia, 


still. 




OF PL 


ACE. 




Qui, 


here, hither. 


Ovunque, 


wherever. 


Qua, 


j> » 


Dovunque, 


>) 


Li, 


there, thither. 


6gni ddve. 


everywhere. 


La, 


yy >y 


Altrdve, 


elsewhere. 


Costi, 


there near you. 


Altrdnde, 


>j 


Costa, 


>> j> j> 


Avdnti, 


before. 


Coh, 


there, thither. 


Davdnli, 


jj 


Cola, 


jy yy 


Dietro, 


behind. 


Sh, 


up. 


Didietro, 


yy 


Gill, 


down. 


Indietro, 


back. 


Qnivi, 


there. 


Addidtro, 


j> 


GCi, 


>> 


Sdpra, 


upon, above. 


Ivi, 


y9 


Sdtto, 


under, below. 


Indi, 


thence. 


Abbdsso, 


below. 


Quinci, 


from hence. 


JEntro, 


within. 


Quindi, 


from thence. 


Dentro, 


>> 


Quassu, 


here above. 


Fudri, . 


without. 


Quaqqiu, 


here below. 


Fudra, 


yy 


Insu, 


upward. 


Difudri, 


from without. 


Ingiu, 


downward. 


Difu6ra, 


j> »> 


Lassu, 


tliere above. 


Alldto, 


aside. 


Laggiu, 


there below. 


Accdnto, 


yy 


Colasm, 


there above. 


Attdrno, 


around. 


Colaggiu, 


there below. 


Dattdrno, 


j> 


Costa ggiu. 


there below near you. 


Rimpetto, 


opposite. 


Costinci, 


from thence. 


Dirimpetto, 


jj 


6ve, 


where. 


Lungi, 


far. 


Ddae, 


yy 


Oltre, 


beyond. 


Ddnde, 


whence. 







173 



15* 



174 



ITALIAN GKAMMAR. 



OP ORDER. 



Prima, 
DipcH, 
Quindiy 
Infine, 
In giro, 
Alia fila, 



first, 
then. 

afterward, 
finally, 
by turns. 
in a row. 



Assi^me, 
Insi€me, 
A vic€nda, 
Al tutto, 
Al rov€scio, 
Sossdpra, 



together. 

>> 
by turns, 
altogether, 
the reverse, 
topsy-turvy. 



OF QUANTITY. 



Piu, 

M^no, 

Mdnco, 

Assdi, 

Abbastdnza, enough, 

A suffici€nza, 



more, 
less. 

much. 



» 



Ni^nte, 

Non giidri, 

Davantdggio, 

Alpiu, 

Ahn^no, 

Almdnco, 



nothing, 
not much, 
more. 

at the most, 
at least. 
» » 



OF QUALITY. 



B€ne, 
Mdle, 
App€na, 
Appdsta, 
A gdra, 
A cdso, 
A tdrto, 



well. 

badly. 

hardly. 

purposely. 

emulously. 

by chance. 

wrongly. 



Brancoldne, 

Inginocchidne, 

Carpdne, 

A cavalcidne, 

Tentdne, 

Boccdne, 



crawlingly. 
on one's knees, 
upon all fours, 
astride over, 
gropingly, 
with one's face 
downward. 



OF AFFIRMATION. 



SI, 

Gih, 

Bene, 

Invdro, 

Davvdro, 

Da dovdro, 

In verita, 



yes. 

yes, certainly. 

well. 

indeed, truly, in truth. 






» 



» 



» 



Maisl, 
Si, bdne, 
AffK 
Appunto, 
Volenti eri, 
Benvolentidri, 



yes, indeed, 
yes, truly, 
in faith, 
just. 

willingly, 
very willingly. 



Malvolentidri, unwillingly. 



OF NEGATION. 



No, 
Mai, 
Mainh, 
Cdrto no, 
Nongia, 



no, not. 
never, 
no, indeed, 
certainly not. 
not, not at all. 



Nonmdi, 
Mica, 
Nonmica, 
Per nulla. 



never. 

not. 

not at all. 

by no means. 



Nidnte affdtto, nothing at all. 



F<5rse, 
Forseche, 
Pub dssere. 
Pub ddrsi, 



perhaps, 
may be. 



OF DOUBT, 



Per acciddnte, perchance. 
Per sdrte, „ 

Per avventura, 



y> 



AD\TflRBS. 



175 



OF COMPARISON. 



SI, BO, thus. 
Cost, „ „ 

Cdme, as. 

Siccdme, so, as. 

Piu, more. 

Meno, less. 

Assdi, much. 



Viappiu, a great deal more. 

Vieppiu, „ „ „ „ 

Viainm€no, a great deal less. 

Viemm^no, „ „ „ „ 

A ginsa, like. 
A mddo, „ 
Al pari, „ 



OF INTERROGATION. 



Ove 9 where 1 
Ddve? where'? whither 1 
Ddmle 7 whence ? 
Qudndo? when 7 



Che? 
Cdme? 
Perche ? 
Quanta ? 



how ? 
how? 
why"? 
how much ? 



OF CHOICE. 



Anzi, rather, sooner. 
Prima, 



» 



Piuprdisto, rather, sooner. 
Piuitdsto, „ 



I) 



OF DEMONSTRATION. 



Ecco, here o?* there is ; lo ! behold ! 
Eccoqui, here is, here are. 
Eccoqua, „ „ „ „ 



there is, there are. 



EccoTi, 
Eccola, 
Qudnd ecco, when, lo ! 



V. A list of the adjectives which are used in Italian as 
adverbs : — 



Fdrte, 

Spesso, 

Sddo, 

Alto, 

Certo, 

Tnste, 

Ddlce, 

Cliidro, 

S'hie'tto, 

Piano, 

Tarda, 

Lenta, 

Presto, 

Prdnta, 

Tdsto, 

lldtto, 

Tdnta, 



very much. 

often. 

fast, hard. 

softly. 

certainly. 

sadly. 

sweetly. 

clearly. 

candidly. 

low, softly. 

late. 

slowly. 

soon. 

readily. 

speedily. 

j> 
so much. 



Rdra, 


rarely. 


Sdlo, 


only. 


Tut.to, 


aU. 


Pdco, 


little. 


Mdlta, 


much. 


Trdppo, 


too much. 


Bella, 


handsomely. 


Budno, 


very well. 


M€ylio, 


better. 


P^gyio, 


worse. 


Aperto, 


openly. 


Suhito, 


immediately 


Sicura, 


surely. 


Dim€ssa, 


lowly. 


Sammdssa, 


humbly. 


Victno, 


near. 


Lontdno, 


far. 



In order to know when these words are adjectives, and 
when adverbs, it is sufficient to observe, whether the^ 



no 



ITALIAN GRAMIVIAR. 



stand by themselves, or are added to or used for a noun : 
for, in the former case, they are always adverbs; and, in 
the latter, adjectives. 

VI. Besides the above adverbs, there are some expres- 
sions called adverbial phrases; chiefly the following : — ■ 



Di siihito, 

li bdtto, 

In un baleno, 

In un hatter d' dcchio, 

P6co fa, 
Fra pdco, 
Un pezzo fa, 
De/le v6lte, 
AW improvviso, 
AW avvenire, 
A minuto, 
Di fresco, 
Di budn grdclo, 
Mio malgrddo, 
Senza meno, 
Qiidnto pr(ma, 
A bello stiidio, 
A bella pdsta, 
A meno che, 
Da per tutto, 
Per dgni ddve. 
Ad un trdtto, 



suddenly, 
presently, 
in an instant, 
in the twinkling 

of an eye. 
a little while ago. 
in a short time, 
some time ago. 
at times, 
miexpectedly. 
in futm-e. 
in detail, 
newly, 
willingly, 
against my will, 
positively, 
very soon, 
designedly. 

miles s. 
everywhere. 

at once. 



Di rddo, 

Di rdro, 

Infdtti, 

Difdtti, 

Di gran lunga, 

A lungo anddre, 

A pill pote're, 

Di India vdglia, 
A un di pre'sso, 
D' alldra in qua, 
D' dra inndnzi, 
In quel me'ntre. 



seldom, rarely. 

j> » 

in fact. 

jj >> 

by far. 

in the long-run, 

in time, 
with all one's 

might, 
unwillingly, 
almost. 

since that time, 
henceforth, 
in or at that 

time, 
exactly, 
point-blank. 



Di punto in punto, 
Di punto in bianco, 
Di qudndo in qudndo, now and then. 
Di trdtto in trdtto, ,, „ „ 

Di tdnto in tdnto, „ „ „ 

11 jnu, the utmost. 

Per lo piu, for the most part, 

generally. 



READING LESSON. 

La P6vera Cieca. 

E brvina 1' aria — per le contrade, 
A fiocche a fiocche la neve cade ; 
E la in ginocchio presso la chiesa, 
Geme una vecchia donna prostesa: 
6rba degli occhi, la poveretta 
Attende il pane, che a lei si getta . 
Fate limosina, pietosa gente, 
Fate limosina alia dolente ! 



Y6i non sapete die quella donna, 
Macero il viso, lorda la g6nna, 
De' suoi concenti coll' armonia 
Di cento popoli 1' dime rapla ; 



ADVERBS. 177 

Oh quanta invldia ai fortunati 
Che d' uii sorrlso rendea beati ! 
Fate limdsina, pietosa gente, 
Fate limosina alia dolente ! 

Oh quante volte fuor de' teatri 
L' immensa folia degl' idolatri 
Fra mille plaiisi le fea codazzo 
Fine alia porta del siio palazzo, 
E riverente stendea il ginocchio 
Perche scendesse dall' aureo cocchio I 
Fate limosina, pietosa gente, 
Fate limosina alia dolente ! 

Quante dovizie spandeva intorno 
II suo magnifico vasto soggiorno ! 
Bronzi, colonne, vasi, cristalli, 
Argento ed oro, cocchi e cavalli . . . 
Di fiori e gemme da tiitte bande, 
Sovra i suoi passi piovean ghirlande . . . 
Fate limosina, pietosa gente, 
Fate limosina alia dolente ! 

Ma un di fra 1' dnsie d' un duolo atroce 
Perde la vista, perde la voce — 
Ahi sventurata ! or per le strade 
Va mendicando 1' altriii pietade, 
Ella che un giorno per chi gemea 
De' suoi tesori 1' arche schiudea ! 
Fate limosina, pietosa gente, 
Fate limosina alia dolente ! 

Ma il freddo addoppia — gelida e sp^ssa 
La n^ve cdpre la genufldssa, 
Che, pur pregando, intirizzita 
Stringe il Rosario fra le sue dita — 
Perche la misera conf idi ancora 
Nella pietade del ciel, che impldra, 
Fate limdsina, pietdsa gdnte, 
Fate limosina alia dolente ! 

A. FUSINATO. 



178 ITALIAN GKAJVOIAR. 

EXERCISE FOR TRANSLATION. 

1. A truly courageous man is he who has a knowledge of 
danger. We often see men who neither fear nor are afraid 
of death: yet we cannot call them courageous; because (being), 
ignorant of danger, they rush forward foolishly. 

2. Francis I., going out from the council which had determined 
upon war with Italy, met his buffoon, who said to him, " Sire, it 
seems to me that your councillors are fools." — "Why?" asked 
the king. " Because," he replied, " they have been so long dis- 
cussing what part of Italy they intend to enter, and have never 
said a word about the part to go out. Therefore, sire ! take 
care not to go there at all." A month after this, Francis was a 
prisoner in Pavia. 

3. There are many people who think that they can learn the 
Italian language in three months ; and (these people), after six 
months' study, do not know how to say, " I have just written ; 
the clock has just struck ten ; I sliould like to know it for cer- 
tain." 

VOCABULARY. 

1. We see, si vedono ; they rush, spiiigono. 

2. Going, uscendo ; met, incontrd ; have (been discussing) 
discussed, hdnno discusso ; said, detto ; take care, avvertite. 

3. Think, stimano ; do know, sdnno ; I should like, vorreu 

CONVERSAZIONE. 

Che cosa dimando egW^ II perche, 

Che ora e ? Soiio appena hattute le diecL 

I^erche non siete venuto ? Perche sono stdto alia villa. 

E quella dunque la vostra aimca ? E hen lei. 

Av'ete vino., pane^ forma g,gio, Non ho proprio nulla da ddr- 

qualche cosa ? vi ? 

JVon avete neppure una scodella Non ho 7iidla in verita, 

di Idtte ? 

E dunque un dnno e mezzo ch'' No, non sbno ancora qumdici 

eUa e partita'^ mesi? 

Dove dimora il suo Signbr pd- Dimora qui vicmo. 

dre'^ 

Che effetto fa la medichia ? Guarisce talvolta e consbla spes- 

so. 
Qudndo condsce uno il valor e Qudndo e asciutto (dry) il poz- 

deir dcqua ? zo. 



CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS. 



179 



CHAPTER XXYin. 



CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS. 



MNEMONIC EXERCISE. 



Vza, via ; meno cicirle ! 

Oime / che vedo men ? 

Deh ! non lo fdte^ 

Oh bella ! son venuto per questo, 

Qudnclo e cost, vddo via, 

Cost dico ; ancor lo, 

La CQsa ando pur cost, 

JEM, quel giovine ! 

A.nimo, ammo hdsta cosi ! 

JEhi, quella giovine^ 

Mvviva, il n ostro Sempronio ! 

To ve V ho pur defto, 

Non ha pure most r a to di conos- 

cermi, 
Oh! se potessi ridere, rider ei 

pur di cuore, 
Al can che fugge, ognun grida, 

ddgli, dcigli, 
Per Bdcco, piii ci penso, e 

meno so comprendere il 7no- 

tivo, 
Questo partito e il migliore ; 

d.nzi, il solo cui dehha appi- 

glidrmi, 
E cosi, che cdsa faccidmo ? 

Addio, cdro : dove si va ? 

Via, non lo sgriddte : povermo ! 

To m dmo, per che lo meritdte, 



Come, come ; less talk ! 
Alas ! what do I see ? _ 
Do not do it, I beg of you. 
Indeed ! I came on purpose. 
Since it is so, I shall go. 
I say so ; even I. 
It certainly went off so. 
Here, young man ! 
Courage ! that will do. 
Well, miss. 

Bravo, our Sempronio ! 
I have, however, told you. 
He did not even appear to know 

me. 
Oh ! if I could laugh, I would 

laugh willingly. 
When a dog runs, people cry 

after him, after him. 
Truly, the more I think of it, 

the less I understand the 

motive. 
Tliis part is the best ; nay, the 

only one which I ought to 

take. 
Well, what are we going to 

do? 
Adieu, my dear: where are 

vou ffoino;? 
There, don't scold him : poor 

boy! 
I love you, because you deserve 

it. 



180 



ITALIAN GRA]^IMAR. 



CONJUNCTIONS IN COMMON USE. 



E, 




and. 


Nonostdnte, 




0, or, either. 


Nondimeno, 




Ne, nor, neither. 


Nientedime'no, 




Se, if, whether. 


Con tulto cib. 


still, nevertheless, 


Ma, but. 


Non per tdnto, 


■ notwithstanding, 


Perb, 


Non per questo. 


for all that. 


Che, that. 


Cib non ostdnte. 




Pure, yet, nevertheless. 


Cib non di meno, 




Gm, yet, already. 


Tuttavia, 




Anzi, nay, rather, on the 


Non gia. 


not at all, not in- 


contrary. 




deed. 


Anche, also, even. 


Non sdlo, ) 
Non che, 


not only, not mere- 


Anco, „ „ 


ly- 


Eziandio, „ „ 


Purche, 


provided. 


Altresi, „ „ 


-4 77ieno che. 


unless. 


Anc6ra, also, even, again. 


Anzi che. 


rather, sooner. 


Eppiire, yet, nevertheless. 


Anzi che no. 


rather than not. 


Ossia, or, either. 




rather so thn,n 


Ovve'ro, „ „ 




otherwise. 


0/?/)M/-e, „ „ 


Si, 


so, thus. 


Nemmeno, neither, not even. 


Cost, 


>j j> 


Nemmdnco, „ „ „ 


Cdme, 


as, like. 


Neppure, „ „ „ 


Siccdme, 


» j> 


Nednche, „ „ „ 


Sicche, 


so, thus, wherefore. 


Tampdco, „ „ „ 


Cost che. 


>> >> » 


Se mdi, if ever, if indeed. 


Talche,^ 


so, so that. 


Se pure, „ „ 


Giacche, 


since. 


Se perb, if however. 


Cioe, 


that is. 


Se non, unless, except, but. 


Cioe a dire. 


that is to say. 


Se non che, „ „ „ 


Vale a dire. 


jj j> 


Accib, 1 




Ahn^no, 


at least. 


Acciocche, 


in order that, to the 


Ahndnco, 


» 


Affine, 


end that. 


Di pill. 


moreover. 


Affinche, J 




Indltre, 


besides,besides this. 


Ancorche, even that. 


Oltrecche, 


i> yy y> 


Contuttoche, „ „ 


Oltraccib, 


)) }} )> 


Che, for, why, because. 


D' aUrdnde, 


)) }) }> 


Perche, „ „ „ 


Ddnque, 


then, therefore. 


Poiche, ) because, since, as. 


Adiinque, 


» )> 


Posciache, J 
Perocdte, 


after. 


dnde, ) 
Ladnde, > 


wherefore, where- 


Imperocche, 
Ptrciocche, 
hnperciocche. 


because, whereas, 
as, since. 


Quindi, ) 
Percib, 


upon. 

therefore, for which 
reason. 


Conciosiacche, J 




In sdmma, ) 
In fine, J 


in short, in conclu- 


Qnantjcnque, although. 


sion. 


Sebbe'ne, „ 


Sia che. 


whether, or, either. 


Benche, „ 


Vudi, 


3) }■) >> 


Comeche, „ 


Dei re'sto. 


otherwise, besides. 


Avvegnache, 




1 


Per ditto, 


i> »» 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



181 



Tdnto, 
Qudnto, 
Qudndo, 
Qudnd' dnche, 
In guisa die, 
In mddo che, 
In maniera che, 
Di viddo che, 
Di maniera che. 



as. 

}} 

when, 
even when. 

so that, in such a 
manner. 



Intdnto, \ 

Frattdnto, ) 

Me'ntre, 

Mentrecche, 

Salvo, 

Ecce'tto, 

Trdnne, 

Fuorche, 

Fdrse, 

6ra, 



in the mean time, mean* 

while, whilst, 
whilst, whilst that. 

j> >> >} 

save, saving, except. 



perhaps, 
now. 






» 



I. JP{ire is often used In the sense of ancdra (even), 
and s(^lo (only) . 

II. Per che has four significations : 1. In an interroga- 
tive phrase, it has the meaning of "why;" as. Per che 
anddte via? why do you go away? 2. Followed by a 
verb in the subjunctive, it signifies "in order that;" as, 
JSfon vi ho dcito il dendro -perche lo spendidte suhito, 
I did not give you the money that (in order that) you 
should immediately spend it. 3. It is used for "though ;" 
as in the phrase of Dante, JSfon lascidvam V anddr, 
perche e' dicesse^ We did not cease walking, although he 
spoke. 4. It also signifies "because;" as, Perche ri- 
dete? Perche ho v6glia di rider e, Why do you laugh? 
Because I wish to lauijh. 

III. Anzi is sometimes used for "before;" as, Anzi 
tempo, dnzi V 6ra, anzi la rtiia niSrte, before the time, 
before the hour, before my death. 

IV. Mentre, nel mentre che or mentre che, in tempo 
che, signifies "whilst" or "whilst that;" as, Mintr' egli 
cantdvcc, io balldva, whilst he sung, I danced. 

V. Many conjunctions, as nondim^eno, cid non os- 
tdnte, etc., contain in themselves a pronoun, a prepo- 
sition, an adverb, etc. ; but, from their office of joining 
sentences together, they are commonly reckoned amongst 
conjunctions, though in fact they are but conjunctive 
phrases, 

16 



182 



ITALIAN GKAMMA.K. 



mTERJECTIONS IN COMMON USE. 



Ah! 

Eh! e! 
Ih! 

Oh! o! 
Uh! 
Jhi! 
Ehi! 
6hi! di! 
Uhi ! 
Deh! 

Doh! 
Ah, ah ! 
Eh, eh ! 
Oh, oh! 
Poh! 
Puh! pu! 
Eia ! 
Ola! 
Cost ! 
Si! 
Gia! 
Pure ! 
Cdme ! 

Su!^ 

Orsu ! 

Su, sii ! 

Via! 

Via, via! 

Eh via ! 

Verqdqna ! 

Oiho ! 

Animo ! 

Cordggio ! 

Fate cudre! 

Bene ! 

Bravo ! 

Budno ! 

Viva ! 

Eh viva ! evviva ! 

Cdpperi ! 

Cdppita ! 

Poffdre! 



Ohbdlla! 
Ecco ! 



ah! ba! alas! 

eh! 

ih! 

oh.! ho! 

uh! 

ah! alas! [there! 

here ! ho hey ! ho 

ah! oh! 

ah ! alas ! 

ah ! alas ! pray ! 

prithee ! 
oh ! pshaw ! 
ah, ah ! 
eh, eh ! 
oh, oh ! 
poll! 

pu ! pooh ! 
halloo ! 

holla ! ho there ! 
so ! thus ! 
yes, certainly ! 

yet! 

how ! how then ! 
why ! why so ! 

up, up ! come ! 
come then! 

away ! 

fie ! fie upon ! 

for shame ! 

oh, fie ! oh, fough ! 

courage! cheer up! 
)> >) 

)) >> 

well! 

bravo ! very well ! 

good ! 

long live ! 

huzza ! 

ay ! heyday ! mar- 
ry! 

fine ! 

lo! behold! 



Ahime ! aime! 
Ehime! eime! 
Ohime! oime! 
Ome ! 
Oite! 
Oise ! 
Gudi ! 
A into ! 
Dio ! 
Ldsso ! 
Ldsso me! 
Ahi ldsso ! 

Pdvero me ! 
Miser me ! 
Meschino me ! 
Dolente me ! 

me bedto ! 
me felice ! 
Bedto me ! 
Felice me! 
Alto! 
Sta! 
Ohe! 
Gudrda ! 
Ldrgo ! 
Pidno, 



alas (me) ! 



alas (thee) ! 

alas (him or her)! 

woe ! 

help ! 

Heavens ! 

alas ! 



wretched that I 
am ! unfortu- 
nate that I am ! 
wretched me ! 



poor me 



1 



happy that I am 1 
happy me ! 

halt! 
Btop ! 

take care ! hare 
, . care ! beware ! 

>, ) softly ! gently! 

io, ) slowly ! 



Addgio 
Zi! zUto! 
Cheto ! 
Non piu! 
Bdsta ! 
Silenzio ! 
Tacdte ! 
Anddte ! 
Baddte ! 
Air e'rta ! 
Stdte air drta ! 
Di grdzia ! 
Per carita ! 
Per amdr delcidlo 
Merce, \ 

Misericdrdia, ) 
Possihile ! 
Appwito ! 
Pensdte ! 



siowiy : 
whist! hush! 
quiet ! stiU ! 
enough ! 

silence ! 

■ away ! 

mind ! have care ! 
beware ! 

pray! 

for charity's sake ! 

.' for heaven's sake ! 

mercy ! mercy 

ui)on us ! 
is it possible ! 
exactly ! just ! 
just think ! * 



* It is important to observe, that, as some of these interjections are used to express 
different and even contrary emotions or affections of the mind, their exact signification 
can only be determined by the sense of the words which accompany them, or give rist> to 
the exclamation. 



INTERJECTIONS. 183 

The interjections Idsso, pdvero, mzsei'o, meschino, 
hedto {me I), are mere adjectives; and, when used by a 
female, take the feminine termination, — Idssa, p(>vercf, 
misera (??ie/), etc. ; and in the plural make Idssi, p6v- 
eri (ndif), etc., for the masculine; and Jdsse, ^9(5've7'e 
( 7i (^2*/), etc., for the feminine ; as, — 

Ldssa 7ne / in che maV ora ndc- Alas ! in what evil hour was I 

qui ? born ? 

Miseri noi ! che sidm, se Iddio Miserable that we are ! what 

ci Idscia ? becomes of us, if God for- 

sakes us ? 

Brdvo, zUto, che to, are also adjectives ; and when 
used in speaking to a female, or to more than one male or 
female, follow the same rule ; as, — 

Brdva ! come qudndo ? Bravo ! as when ? 

Zittij un po' I Hush, a little ! 

Brdvo is also used in its superlative, and makes 
hravissimo^ bravissima, bravtssiini, bravissime, "bravis- 
simo." 

READING LESSON. 
La Rondinella. 

Rondinella pellegrina 
Che ti posi in sul verdne 
Ricantando ogni mattina 
Quella flebile canzone, 
Che vuoi dirmi in tua favella 
Pelleo;rina rondinella ? 

Sohtaria nell' oblio, 
Dal tuo sposo abbandonata, 
Piangi forse al pianto mio 
Vedovella sconsolata ? 
Piangi, piangi in tua favella, 
Pellegrina rondinella. 

Pur di me manco infelice 
Tu alle penne almen t' affidi, 



184 ITALIAN GRAJMMAR. 

Scorri il lago e la pendice, 
Empi r aria cle' tiioi gridi, 
Tutto il giorno in tua favella, 
Lui chiamando, o rondinella ! 

Oh, se ancli' io ! Ma lo contende 
Questa bassa angusta volta, 
Dove sole non risplende, 
Dove r aria ancor m' e tolta, 
D' onde a te la mia favella 
Giunge appena, o rondinella ! 

H settembre innanzi viene, 
E a lasciarmi ti pre pari : 
Tu vedrai lontane arene, . 
Nuovi monti, nuovi mari, 
Salutando in tua favella, 
Pellegrina rondinella. 



■'&' 



Ed io tutte le mattine 
E.iaprendo gli occlii al pianto 
Era le nevi e fra le brine 
Credero d' udir quel canto, 
Onde par che in tua favella 
Mi compianga, o rondinella. 

Una croce a prima vera 
Troverai su questo suolo ; 
Rondinella in su la sera 
Sdvra a lei raccogli il volo : 
Dille pace in tiia favella, 
Pellegrina rondinella ! 

EXERCISE FOE, TRANSLATION. 

1. Lycurgus prohibited those who returned from a feast taking 
a light, in order that the fear of not being able to find their 
homes might prevent their becoming intoxicated. 

2. There is nothing meaner than to see hypocrites launching 
their thunders against the weaknesses of humanity, whilst their 
heart is the sink of every vice. 

3. Vespasian incurred the danger of being condemned to death, 
because he gaped while the fool Nero was singing on the stage 
in Rome. 



CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS. 1S5 

4. During summer evenings, Dante was accustomed to sit 
upon a stone, which is still religiously preserved in Florence. 
One evening, a man unknown to him passed before him, and 
said, " Sir, I have promised to give an answer, and know not 
how to get myself out of the difficulty : you, who are so learned, 
can suggest it to me. What is the best mouthful ? " Dante imme- 
diately answered, " An egg." A year after, at the same hour, 
Dante being seated on the same stone, the same man, whom he 
bad not since seen, returned, and asked, " With what ? " Dante, 
without hesitation, answered, " With salt." 



VOCABULARY. 

1. Prohibited, i^ze^o ; returned, torndvano ; might prevent, ^m- 
pedisse ; intoxicated, uhhriacdte. 

2. Launching thunders, scaglidre i fulmini ; sink, sentina. 

3. Incurred (ran), corse; gaped, shadiglidva. 

4. Was accustomed, soUva ; unknown, sconosciuto ; to get out, 
etc., trdrmi d' affdre ; can suggest, potreste suggerire ; mouthful, 
boccdne ; without hesitation, senza metier tempo in mezzo. 



CONVERSAZIONE. 

Qiidl fu it regdlo che fece tin Ujio scudo, credendo forse con 

colonnello ad iino de sudi gra- cid di ricompen&ctrlo di tdnta 

natieri che pugndndo valoro- perdita. 

sissimamente aveva perdute 

cmihe le hrdccia ? 

Tdle meschinitd non eccito essa CertatJienfe, e con ragidne dtsse 

lo sdegno del brdvo solddto ? al suo Colonnello — Credete 

fdrse cJi' lo non dhhia perduto 
che un pdio di gudnti ? 

Qiidle fdma hdnno lascidta Lu- una tristissima fdma, perche 

dovico XL e Ferdindndo d' fiirono entrdmhicrudelieper- 
Arragona ? fidi. 
Non si chiamdrono, il primo Si, e cid prdva che V dmhra del 

cristianissimo e Z' cdtro cattd- trdno pud coprire immensi 

lico ? delitti. 

Che rispdse Ddnte a chi gli do- Tin ubvo con sale. 

manddva qualfdsse il miglibr 

boccdne ? 

16* 



186 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



^n^xlxKx-Q & txhB* 



A.vere^ to have. 



ESTFINITIVE 



MOOD. — Ave're, to have. 





INDICATIVE MOOD. 






PKESENT TENSE. 




hoar d, 

Mi or di, 
haoT d (ace), 


I hare, 
thou hast, 
he has. 


abbidmo (avemo)^ 

avcte, 

hdnno or anno, 


we have, 
j'ou have, 
they have. 




IMPERFECT TENSE. 




to nveva or avea^ 

tu avevi, 

igli aveva or avca, 


I had. 
thou hadst. 
he had. 


avevdmo, 
avevdte, 
avevano {avieno), 


we had. 
you had. 
they had 




PERFECT TENSE. 




&>bi, 

avestij 

ebbe, 


I had. 
thou hadst. 
he had. 


ave?}itno, 

avcste, 

ebbero, 


we had. 
you had. 
they had. 




FUTURE TENSE. 


• 


avrdi 

avrai, 
avrdy 


I shall have, 
thou wilt have, 
he -mU. have. 


avremo, 

avrete, 

avrdnno, 


we shall have. 

you will have. 

■ they will have. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



avrei (avna), 
avrdsti, 
avribbe (avria), 



the 10 abbia, 

che tu dbbia or ahbi, 

che egli dbbia, 



die w avessi, 
die tu avessi, 
die egli avesse, 



abbl tu, 
abbia egli, 



I should have, 
thou wouldst have, 
he would have. 



uvrcmmo, we could have. 

avrcste, you should have. 

avrcbbero (avriano), they would have. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



if I may have. 

if thou mayst have. 

if he may have. 



die abbidmo, 
che abbidte, 
che dbbiano, 



if we may have, 
if you may have, 
if they may have. 



UrPERFECT TENSE. 



if I might have. 

if thou couldst have. 

if he would have. 



che avessimo, 

che avcste, 

che avessero {-ino), 



have thou, 
let him have. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



abbidmo ndi, 
abbidte voi, 



dbbiano cglino. 



if we should have, 
if you might have, 
if they might havft 



let us have. 

have ye. 

let them have. 



GERUND. 
avdndo, having. 

PARTICIPLES. 

having. 



avente, 
aviito,avuta (s.), \ 
aviiti, aviite (p.), | 
avendo aviito, 



had. 
having had. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



w ho aviito, 
10 avcvn nviUo, 
10 cbbi aviito, 
io avro aviito, 
to avrei aviito, 
che 10 abbia aviito, 



I have had. 

I had had. 

I had had. 

I shal! have had. 

I should have had. 

if I may have had. 



che io avessi aviito, if 1 might have had. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 



IS"/ 



]£ssere^ to be. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. — Asere, to be. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



to s6no^ 
seii or «e', 


lam. 
thou art. 
he is. 




sidmo (semo), 
sicte (sale), 
sono, 


we are. 
you are. 
they are. 






IMPERFECT TENSE. 




to era, 


I was. 
thou wast, 
he was. 




eravuino (6ramo), 

travdte, 

crano, 


we were, 
you were, 
they were. 






PERFECT TENSE. 




fosti, 
fu (file). 


I was. 
thou wast, 
he was. 




fuynmo, 

foste, 

furono (funno), 


we were. 
30U were, 
they were. 






FUTURE TENSE. 




sard (fin), 

sardi, 

sard (fia,fie), 


I shall be. 
thou \vilt be. 
he will be. 




saremo, 

aarete, 

sardnno (fiano). 


we shall be. 
you \sill be. 
they will be 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



sarii (sar'ia, fira), I should be. 
sarcsti, thou wouldst be. 

sarebbe (saria,/6ra), he would be. 



sarcTnmo. 



sarcste, 

sarebbero (sariano), 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT TENSE. 



che 10 sm, 

eke tu s'la, or sit, 

die egli sia, 



che 10 fissi {fiissi), 
che tu fossi, 
die egli fdsse, 



t'za, or sU'tu, 
a'la egli. 



if I maybe. 

if thou mayst be. 

if lie may be. 



che sidmo, 

die sidte, 

che s'latw, or s'leno, 



we should be. 
you should be. 
they should be 



if we may be. 
if you may be. 
if they may be. 



IMPERFECT TENSE. 

if I were, or should be 
if thou Mert. 
if he were. 



che fossimo, if we were. 

che foste, if you were. 

chefossero (fossino), if they were. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



be thou, 
let him be. 



stamo noi, 

sidte v6i, 

siano, or sieno dglino, 



let us be. 

be ye. 

let them be. 



(ssindo, 



GERUND. 

* 

being. 



stdti, state' (■[).), 
essendo stdto, 



PARTICIPLES 

I 



been, 
having been. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



10 sono stdto, 
20 era stdto, 
10 sard stdto, 
to sarci stdto, 
che io s'la stdto, 
che io fdssi stdto. 



I have been. 

T had been. 

I shall have been. 

I should have been. 

if I ni.iy have been. 

if 1 might have been. 



* Tlie past participle of the verb dssere always agrees with the subject in gender and 
number : thus we say, 10 s6no stdto. if the subject is masculine sin^^ular ; w sono stdta, 
If feminine singular; noi sidmo stdti, if masculine plural; iioi s'lamo state, if feminine 
plural ; and so on. 



188 



ITAI.IAK GRAMMAR. 



^tgxxlixx W !^xhB. 



VARIATION OF ACTIVE VERBS. 

Active verbs, in the compound tenses, are varied with the 
auxiliary verb avere, to have. 



am'ure. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 
A.7ndre, to love. 

PARADIGM OF THE VERBS ENDING IN dre, 
INFINITIVE MOOD. 

to love. 



Present. 



Present. 



amr&ndo, 



loving. 



Past, 
avere amato, to have loved. 

GERUND. 

Past, 
avendo amalo^ having loved. 



Present, 
am-dnte (s.), am-dnti (p.),* losing. 



PARTICIPLE. 



Past. 



ani-dto (m. s.), am-dti (p.), loved. 
am-dia (f s.), a?«-d/e(p.),* loved. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
Present. 



dm-o, 


I love, or do love. 


am-idmoy 


•we love. 


dm-i, 


thou lovest. 


am-dle, 


you love. 


dm-a, 


he loves. 


dm-anOf 


they love. 




Imperfect. 




io am-dva^ 


I loved, or did love. 


am-avdvio, 


we loved. 


am-dvi, 


thou lovedst. 


a??i-ai-dte, 


you loved. 


igli am-dva^ 


he loved. 


a?n-dvano, 


they loved. 




Perfect. 




am-di, 


I loved, or did love. 


am-dmmo, 


we loved. 


am-dsti. 


tbou lovedst. 


am-dste, 


you loved. 


am-o, 


he loved. 


am-drono (am 


■dro), they loved. 




Future. 




am-ero,^ 


I shall or uill love. 


am-ernno, 


we shall or wull love. 


am-erdi, 


thou wilt love. 


am^ercte., 


you will love. 


arn-erd. 


he will love. 


a7T2-erdnno, 


they will love. 



I 



* The present participle of active verbs, like that of avere, agrees with the subject of tho 
proposition in gender and number. The past participle agrees^ sometimes, with the object 
in gender and number. 

t The verbs of this conjugation in the future and the conditional change the a of their 
terminationH for e, and make lan-'id^ instead of ATW-aro, etc. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



189 



ho amdto, 
hdi at7idto, 
ha amato, 



I have Icved. 

thou hast loved. 

he, she, or it has loved 



COMPOUND TENSES. 
Second Perfect. 

ahbiamo amdto, 
avcte anidto^ 
hdnno amdto. 



lo aveva amdto, I had loved. 



PlujJerfect. 

I avevdmo amdto, 



we have loved, 
you have loved, 
they have loved. 



we had loved. 



Second Pluperfect, 
ibbi amdto, I had loved. 



Future Anterior, 
avrd amdto, I shall have loved 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 



Present. 



che 10 dm-i (dw-e), that T love, or may love. 
che tu dm-i, that thou lovest. 

che cgli dm-i{dm-e\ that he loves. 



che am-idmo, 
che am-idte, 
che dm-ino, 



Imperfect. 



che to am-dssi, 
che tu a7)i-dssi, 
eke egli am-dsse, 



if I loved, or should love, 
il thou lovedst. 
if he loved. 



che am-'lssimo, 

che am-dste, 

che am-dssero {-ino), 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



Perfect. 

che to abbia amdto, that I have loved, or 
may have loved. 



Pluperfect, 
the 10 avessi amdto. 



that we love, 
that you love, 
that they love. 



if Tve loved, 
if you loved, 
if they loved. 



if I had loved. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSE. 

Present. 



am'erei (am-er'ta), I should love. 
am-eresti, thou wouldst love. 

am-er6bbe{am-eria), he would love. 



am-ercTumo, we should love. 

am-ereste, you would love. 

am-erebbero (amer'iano), they would love. 



COMPOUND TENSE. 

Past. 

avrei amdto, I should, would, or could have loved, or might have loved. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



dm.-a tu, 
dm-i egli, 



love thou, 
let him love. 



am-idmo ndi, 
am-dte v6i, 
dm-ino eglino. 



let us love. 

love ye. 

let them love. 



Besides the foregoing changes of termination, there are some verbs of the first 
conjugation wliich undergo in some persons and tenses a change of orthography. 

Verbs ending in cidre, (/tare, drop the ?', which follows c, (/, whenever cl, (/i, 
precede e, i; as, Bacldre, to kiss; fref/idre, to adorn. 

Verbs ending in idre, in Avhich ia form one syllable, drop the ^ whenever it is 
followed by another i; as, Noidre^ to annoy. 

Verbs ending in idre, in which ia form two syllables, drop the i only when it 
would be followed by the vowels ia; as, Invldre, to send. 



100 



IT.VT.IAN GKAMM/\.Il. 



Variation of the Verb Cerciire. 



PARADIGM OF THE VERBS ENDING IN cdre. 



cerc-o, 

cercH-if 

cerc-a. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



I search, or do search, 
thou Bearchest. 
he searches. 



cercH-tamo, 

cere-ate, 

cerc-ano. 



we search, 
you search, 
they search. 



cercH-cro, 

cercE-erdi, 

cercH-erd, 



Future. 



1 siiall (;/ will search, 
thou wilt search. 
he will search. 



cercn-eremo, 

ceim-ercte, 

cercR-erdnno, 



we shall .search, 
you will search, 
they will search. 



che 10 cercn-i (-«), 

ehe tu cercu-ii 

die cgli cercll-i (-e), 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that I search, 
that thou search, 
that he search. 



che cercn^dmo, 
che cercn-idtey 
che ccrcu-ino, 



that we search, 
that you search 
that they search. 



cercn-erei {-eria), 

cercn-frcsti, 

cercu-crcbbe, 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 
Present. 



I should .'?earch. 
thou wouldst search, 
he would search. 



cercn-erdmmo, 

ce.rcn-ercste, 

cercH-erehbero, 



we should search, 
you would search, 
they would search 



cerc-a tu, 
cercH-i egli, 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



search thou, 
let him search. 



cercTi^idmo ndi, 
cere-ate v6i, 
cercH.-ino egliiio, 



let us search. 

search ye. 

let them search. 



Tenses conjugated like those of the regular verb are omitted. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



191 



Variation of the Verb Pregdre. 

PARADIGM OF THE VERBS ENDING IN gdve. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



preg-o, 
pregn-i, 
pr^g-a, ■ 


I entreat, or do entreat, 
thou entreatest. 
he entreats. 


pregn-idino, 

preg-dte, 

prcg-ano, 


we entreat, 
you entreat, 
they entreat. 




FuV 


xre. 




pregn-erd, 

pregu-erdi, 

pregB.-erdy 


I shall or will entreat, 
thou wilt entreat, 
he will entreat. 


pregn-erdmo, 

pregn-ercte, 

pregu-erdnno, 


we shall entreat, 
you will entreat 
they will entreat 



eke to pregH-i (-e), 

c/i€ tu prcgH-i, 

che dgli prcgu-i (-e), 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that I entreat, 
that thou entreat, 
that he entreat. 



che pregn-idmo, 
eke pregH-idte, 
che prcgu-ino, 



that we entreat. 
that you entreat, 
that they entreat. 



pregn-erei, 

pregn-eresti, 
pregu-erebbe, 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 



I should entreat, 
thou wouldst entreat. 
he would entreat. 



pregn-eremmo, 

pregn-ereste^ 

pregn-erebbcro, 



we should entreat, 
you would entreat, 
they would entreat 



BIPERATIVE MOOD. 



preg-a tu, 
pregn-i igli^ 



entreat thou, 
tet him entreat. 



pregn-idmo ndi, 
preg-dte v6i, 
prcgn-tno cglinoy 



let us entreat. 

entreat ye. 

let them entreat 



192 



ITALIAN GllAIVIMAR. 



SECOND CONJUGATIOK - 

The verbs of this conjugation are commonly divided into two 
classes, — those ending in ere (long), accented, and those ending 
in ere (short), unaccented: both of tliese in the perfect have two 
terminations, ei and etti, except a few which have the termination 
ei only. 



Variation of the Verb Tem^re. 

PARADIGM OF THE VERBS ENDING IN Ire (lONG), ACCENTED, ANr 
OF THOSE WHICH, IN THE PERFECT, END IN ti AND etU. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present 
tem-dre, to fear 



Past, 
avere temuto, to have feared. 



Present, 
tem-indo^ fearing. 



GERUND. 

I Past. 

I avendo temuto, having feared. 



PARTICIPLE. 



Present. 
Um-6nte (s.), tem-enti (p.), fearing. 



Past. 



tem-uto (m. s.), temuti (p.), feared. 
tem-iUa (f. s.), temiite (p.), feared. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SBIPLE TENSES. 



Present. 



tem-o^ 
tem-e. 



I fear, or do fear, 
thou fearest. 
he fears. 



te?n-idnio^ 

tem-ete, 

tem-ono. 



Imperfect. 



to tem-eva or tem-6a, I feared, or did fear. 
tem-evi, thou fearedst. 

4gli tem-eva, he feared. 



tetn-evdmo, 

teni'evate, 

tem-evano, 



Perfect. 



tem-m or few-liTTl, I feared, or did fear. 
tem-esti, thou fearedst. 

tem-ii or ^cw-rtte, he feared. 



tem-emmo, 

te7fj-este, 

«e?n-ER0NO, 



we fear, 
you fear, 
they fear. 



we feared, 
you feared, 
they feared. 



we feared, 
you feared, 
they feared. 



KEGULAR VERBS. 



193 



tem-erd, 

tem-erdi, 

tem-erd, 



Future. 



I shall or will fear, 
thou wilt fear. 
he will fear. 



tem-cremo^ 

tetn-erete, 

terrt'erunno, 



we shall or will fear, 
you will fear, 
they will fear. 



ho temuto^ 



COMPOUND TENSES. 
Second Perfect. ) 

I have ffeared. | abbiamo temuto, 



we have fbared. 



Pluperfect 
io aveva temuto, I had feared, etc. 



che io tem-a, 

die tu tcm-a or -i, 

che cgli tem-a, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
Present. 



that I fear, 
that thou Ibar 
that he fear. 



che tem-idmo, 
che tem-idte, 
che tem-ano, 



that we fear, 
that you fear, 
that they fear. 



che 10 tetn-essij 
che tu tem-essi, 
die dgli tem-esse, 



Imperfect. 



if I feared. 

if thou fearedst. 

if he feared. 



che tem-essimo, 
che tem-este^ 
che tem-essero, 



if we feared, 
if you feared, 
if they feared. 



Perfect, 
die io abbia temuto, that I have feared 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

Pluperfect. 
che io avessi temuto, if I had feared. 



tem-erei (-ena), 
iem-eresti, 
tem-erebbe {-eria), 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSE. 
Present. 



I should fear, 
thou wouldst fear, 
he would fear. 



tem-eremmo, 

tem-ercste, 

tem-errbhero, 



we should fear, 
you would fear, 
they would fear. 



COMPOUND TENSE. 

Past. 

avrei temuto, I should, would, or could have feared, or might have feared. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



tdm-i tu, 
iem-a egli, 



fear thou, 
let him fear. 



tem-idmo ndi, 
tem-ete v6i, 
titn-ano eglino. 



let us fear. 

fear ye 

let them fear. 



17 



194 



ITALIAN GKAMMAK. 



Variation of the Verb Tessere. 

PAHADIGM OF THE VERBS ENDING IN hx (SHORT) , UNACCENTED j 
AND OE THOSE WHICH, IN THE PERFECT, END IN H ONI.Y. 



rNEINITlVE MOOD. 



Present, 
tiss-ere, to weave. 



Past 
av&re tessuto, to have ■woven. 



GERTJOT). 



Present, 
tess-endo, weaving. 



Past, 
avendo tessuto, having woven. 



PARTICIPLE. 



Present, 
uss-ente {8.)ytess-enti (p.), weaving. 



Past. 



tessuto (m. s.), tess-uti (p.), woven. 
tess-uta (f. s.), tess-ute (p.), woven. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
Present, 
tiss-o, I weave, or do weave, or am weaving. | tess-idmo (tess-emo), we weave. 

LnperJ'ect. 
lo t€ss-6va or tess-ea^ I wove, or did weave, or was weaving. 



Perfect. 



tess-iilj I wove, or did weave. 

tess-esti, thou wovest. 

tess-i {tess-eo)f he wove. 



tess-emmo, we wove. 

tess-dste^ you wove. 

fess-iiRONO, they wove. 



Future, 
tess-ero, I shall or will weave. 



REGULAR VERBS. 195 

COMPOUND TENSES. 
Second Perfect. Pluperfect. 

ho tessiito, I have ■woven to aveva tessiito^ I had woven, etc 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSE. 
Present. Imperfect. 

the to tess-a^ that I weave. che lo tess-essi, that I wove. 

COMPOUND TENSES. 
Perfect. Pluperfect. 

ehf to abhia tessuto, that I may have woven, che lo avessi tessuto, if I might have woven. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSE. 

P7'esent. 

tess-erei {tess-er'ia), I should, would, or could weave, or might weave. 

COMPOUND TENSE. 

Past. 

avrH tessxito, I should, would, or could have woven, or might have woven. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

tess-i tUf weave thou. 



Verbs ending in cere (long), accented, in order to preserve the soft sound of o 
in all their inflections, take an i after that consonant, whenever it is followed by 
o, 0, u ; as, Tacere, to be silent. 
^ Verbs ending in iere drop the t whenever it is followed by another i; as 
Empiere, to fill. 



196 



lT^y:.IAN GRMOIAR. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 

The verbs of this conjugation are divided into three classes, 
— those which, in the present of the indicative, end in o ; those 
wliich end in isco ; and those which have both of these termina- 
tions. 



Ya7Hatio7i of the Fer5 Sentire. 

P^\JIADIGM OF THE VERBS OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION, WHICH, IN 
THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE, END IN ONLY. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. I Past. 

sent-irCf to hear. | avere sent'tto, to have heard. 



■ Present. 
sent-endOy hearing. 



GERUND. 

I Past. 

I avendo sentito^ having heard. 



Present. 



PARTICIPLE. 



sent-ente (s.), sent-enti (p.), hearing. 



Past. 



sent-'ito (m. s.), sent-'iti (p.), heard. 
sent-'ita (f. s.), sent-'ite (p.), heard. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 





SIMPLE 


TENSES. 






Present. 




sent-o^ 
sent-j, 
sent-iSj 


I hear, or do hear, 
thou hearest. 
he hears. 


sent-idr7io, 

sent-ite, 

sent-O'SO, 


we hear 
you hear, 
they hear. 




Imperfect. 


• 


ic sent-wa or sent-ia 

tent-'ivi, 

egli sent'iva or sent-ia 


1 heard, or did hear, 
thou heardst. 
,, he heard. 


sent-ivamo, 

sent-ivate, 

sent-ivano, 


we heard, 
you heard, 
they heard 




Perfect. 




sent-ii, 
sent-'isti, 
sent-i (sent-io), 


I heard, or did hear, 
thou heardst. 
he heard. 


sent-itnmo, 

sent-iste, 

sent-irono, 


we heard, 
you heard, 
they heard 



REGULAR VERBS. 



197 



sent-ird, 

sent-ir at, 
sent-ird, 



Future. 



I shall or will hear, 
thou wilt hear, 
he will hear. 



sent-iremo, 

sent-ircte, 

sent-irdnno. 



we will hear, 
you will hear, 
they will hear. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



Second Perfect, 
he sentito, I have heard. 



Pluperfect. 
10 aveva sent'ito. I had heard, etc. 



che 10 sent-A, 
che til sent-A or 
che egli scnt-A, 



che 10 sent-'issi, 
che tu sent-'issi, 
che sent-isse, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 



Present. 



that I hear, 
that thou hear, 
that he hear. 



che seiit-ianiOy 
che sent-idte, 
che sent-A^O, 



Imperfect. 



that I heard, 
that thou heardst. 
that he heard. 



che sent-'issimo, 
che sent-'iste, 
che sent-tsserOf 



that we hear, 
that you hear, 
that they hear. 



if we heard, 
if you heard, 
if they heard. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



Perfect, 
io dbbia sent'ito^ that I may have heard. 



Pluperfect. 
10 avdssi sent'ito, if I had heard. 



sent-irci {-iria), 

sent-ircsti, 
sent-ircbbe {-ir'ia), 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

SBIPLE TENSE. 



Present. 



I should hear, 
thou wouldst hear, 
he would hear. 



sent-iremmo, 

sent-ircste, 
sent-irebbero, 



we should hear, 
you would hear, 
they would hear. 



COMPOUND TENSE. 

Past. 

avr6i sent'ito, I should, would, or could have heard, or might have heard. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



s6nt-i tu, 
sent-A cgli. 



hear thou, 
let him hear. 



sent^amo ndi, 
sent-'ite v6i, 
sent-Amo eglino, 



17* 



let us hear. 

hear ye. 

lot them hear. 



198 



ITALIAN GEAJVIMAR. 



Variation of the Verb Esibire. 



PARADIGM OF THOSE VERBS OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION, WHICH, 

IN THE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE, HAVE THE 

TERMINATION tSCO ONLY. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Esib-ire, 



esib-dndoj 



Present. 




Past. 


to offer. 




avere esibito, to have offered 




GEEUND. • 


Present. 


Past. 


offering. 




avendo esibitOj ha-ving offered. 



PARTICIPLE. 



Present, 
esib-dnte (s.), esibdnti (p.), offering. 



Past. 



esib-ito {m. s.), esib-iti (p.), offered. 
esib'ita {f. s.), esib-ite (p.), offered. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
Present. 



esib-isCO, 
esib-tsci, 
cst6-lSCK, 


I offer, or do offer, 
thou offerest. 
he offers. 


esib-idmo, 

esib-ite, 

esib-tsCOTHOf 


•we offer, 
you offer, 
they offer. 




Imperfect. 




to esib-iva or -la, 
esib-ivi., 
esib-iva or -ia, 


I offered, or did offer, 
thou offeredst. 
he offered. 


esib-ivdmo, 

esib-ivdte, 

esib-ivano, 


•we offered, 
you offered, 
they offered. 




Perfect. 




esib<i, 
esib-isti, 
esib-i {esib-to), 


I offered, or did offer, 
thou offeredst. 
he offered. 


esib-immo, 
esib-iste, 
esib-irono {esib- 


we offered, 
you offered. 
iro), they offered. 




Fviure. 




esib^rd, 

esib^rdi, 

esib-ird. 


I shall or -will offer, 
thou wilt offer, 
he -will offer. 


esib-iremo, 

esib-irete, 

esib^rdnno, 


•we will offer, 
you will offer, 
they •will offer 



REGULAR VERBS. 



199 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



ko esUntOf 



Second Perfect. 

I have oSered, etc. 



Pluperfect. 
10 aveva esii'ito^ I had o£fered, etc. 



c/if to esib-isOA, 
die tu esib-isCA, 
die cgli esib-tsCAf 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
Present. 



che esib'iamo^ 
che esib-idte, 
che esib-tsOAmo, 



that I offer, 
that thou offer, 
that he offer. 



that we offer, 
that you offer, 
that they offer. 



che to esib-'isst, 
che tu esib-issi, 
che cgli esib-issej 



Imperfect. 



if I offered. 

if thou offeredst. 

if he offered. 



che esib-issimo, 
che esib-iste, 
che esib-'issero, 



if we offered, 
if you offered, 
if they offered. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



Perfect, 
che 10 abbia esibito^ that I have offered. 



Pluperfect, 
che 10 avessi esibito, if I had offered. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSE. 



Present. 



esib-ir&i (««6-zna), I should offer. 
esib-ircsti, thou wouldst offer. 

esib4rcbbe {esib-dria\ he would offer. 



esib-iremmo, 

esib-ireste, 

esib-irebberOf 



we should offer, 
you would offer, 
they would offer. 



COMPOUND TENSE. 

Past. 
avrH esib'tlOf I should, would, or could have offered, or might have offered. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 







esib-idmo, 


»/6-fS0I, 


*<fer thou. 


esib-ite, 


tib-tsOAf 


I'it him offer. 


esib-teOAHOf 



let us offer. 

offer ye. 

let them offer. 



200 



ITALIAN QRi 



Cucire, to sew. 

Verbs ending in cire, in order to preserve the soft sound of the 
c in all their inflections, take an i after that consonant, whenever 
it is followed by a, o ; as, Gucire, to sew. 

PAKADIGM OF THE VEEBS Ein)IKG IN cive. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



cticl-o, 


I sew, or do sew. 


cuc-iamo {-imo), 


we gew. 


cuc-iy 


thou Bewest. 


cuc-ite, 


you sew. 


CUC-Cf 


he sews. 


cucl-ono, 


they sew. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



the io c«ci-a, that I sew or may sew. 

che tu cuci-a or ciic-i, that thou sew. 
cTu igli dci-a, that he sew. 



che cuc-'idmo, 
che cuc-'iate, 
che cucl-ano, 



that we sew. 
that you sew. 
that they sew. 



IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 







cuc'idmo-noi, 


let us sew. 


cAci tu, 


sew thou. 


cuc-ite voi, 


sew ye. 


cucia dgli. 


let him sew 


cuciano eglino, 


let them sew. 



REGULAR VERBS. 



201 



Ahhorrire^ to abhor. 



PARADIGM OF THOSE VERBS OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION, WHICH, 
IN TELE PRESENT OF THE INDICATIVE, END BOTH 

IN AND ISCO. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



ahb6rr-0 orabborr-tsco, I abhor, or do abhor. 
abbdrr-X or aborr-tsci, thou abhorrest. 
abbdrr-^ or abborr-isc:E, he or she abhors. 



abborr-idmo, we abhor. 

abborr-'tte, you abhor. 

abbdrr-o:so or -ISCONO, they abhor. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



the dbbdrr-A or -f SCA, that I abhor. 
eAea66(5n--A,-i,or-fscA, that thou abhor. 
che abborr-A or f SOA, that he abhor. 



che abborr-idmo^ 
eke abborr-idte, 
che abborr-A^O or -f S- 
CANO, 



that we abhor, 
that you abhor, 
that they abhor. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



abborr-l or abbdrr-tsci, abhor thou. 
abbdrr-A or -f 80A, let him abhor. 



ahborr-idmo^ let us abhor. 

abborr-'ite, abhor ye. 

abbdrr-ANO or -f SCANO, let them abhor. 



202 



ITALIAN GRAMIVIAR. 



% Si)it0ptkal ^aW^ 



OF THE 

VARIATIONS OF THE REGULAR VERBS, 

Showing their different Terininations in their Simple Tenses. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



[Am-] dre. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. THIKD CONJUGATION. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT. 

[Tem-] ere. [Cred-] ere. [Abborr-] ire. 





GERUND. 






PRESENT. 




[Am-] Indo. 


[Tem-] endo. 
PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT. 


[Abborr-] endo. 


[Am-] dnte. 


[Tem-] ente. 
PAST. 


[Abborr-] ente. 


[Am-] dto, -a, 
dti, -€. 


[Tem-] lito, -a, 
liti, -e. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PRESENT. 


[Abborr-] ito, -a, 
iti, -e. 


[Am-] 0, 

a; 

iimo, 

dte, 

ano. 


[Tem-] 0, 

e; 

idmo, 

ete, 

ono. 

IMPERFECT. 


[Abborr-] o, isco, 
i, isci, 
e, isce ; . 
idmo, 
ite, 
ono, iscono. 


[Am-] dva, 
dvi, 
dva; 
avdmo, 
avdte, 
dvano. 


[Tem] eva, ea (ia), 
evi, 

cTa, ea; 
evdmo, 
evdte, 
evano, eano. 

PERFECT DEFINITE. 


[Abborr-] iva, ia, 

iva, ia; 
ivamo, 
ivate, 
ivano, iano 


[Am-] di, [Tem-] ei, etti, 
dsti, esti, 
6 ; e, ette (eo) ; 
Ammo, emmo, 
dste, este, 
drono (dro, dr). erono, ettero (ero). 


[Abborr-] ii, 
isti, 
i (io); 
immo, 
iste, 
irono. 



VARIATIONS OF THE REGULAR VERBS. 



203 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 
FUTUHE INDEFINITE. 



TUIKD CONJUGATION. 



[Am-] eroj 
erii, 

eremo, 

erete, 

erinno. 



[Tern-] ero, 


[Abborr-] iro. 


er&i, 


irdi, 


eri; 


iri; 


eremo, 


iremo, 


erete, 


irete. 


era.nno. 


ir^nno. 



COKDITIONAL MOOD. 



lAm-] erei (eria), 
eresti, 

erebbe (eria) ; 
eremmo, 
ereste, 
erebbero (eriano) 



PRESENT. 

[Tern-] erei (eria), 
eresti, 

erebbe (eria) ; 
eremmo, 
ereste, 
erebbero (eriano). 



[Abborr-] irei (iria), 
iresti, 

irebbe (iria) ; 
iremmo, 
ireste, 
irebbero (iriano) 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



[Am-] a, 

iimo, 

^te, 

inc. 



[Tem-] i. 


[Abborr-] i, isci. 


a; 


a, isca ; 


iumo, 


idmo, 


ete, 


ite. 


ano. 


ano, iscano 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



PRESENT. 



..Am-] i (e), 

i'(e); 
idmo, 
lite, 
Inc. 



[Tem-] a, 

a, i, 

a; 

iSxQO, 

iite, 

ano. 



[Abborr 


-]a,. 
a, 1, 
a, 


isca, 

isca, ischi, 
isca ; 




i&vao, 
idte, 








ano, 


iscano. 





IMPERFECT. 



[AiJ-] 4ssi, 
Assi, 
4sso; 
dssinlo, 
dste, 
^issero. 



[Tem-] essi, 
essi, 
esse ; 
essimo, 
este, 
4ssero. 



[Abborr-] issi, 
issi, 
isse; 
issimo, 
istc, 
issero. 



204 



ITALIAN GRAJtIMAR. 



VARIATION OF PASSIVE VERBS. 

Passive verbs are formed by joining the verb essere, to be, to 
the past participle of active verbs. They are, therefore, through 
all their tenses, varied with the auxiliary verb essere. 



Variation of the Verb Essere amato. 

PARADIGM OF THE PASSIVE VERBS. 

INPINITIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
issere amdto (m. s.), amdti (p.), to be loved. 
essere anictta (f. s.), amdte (p.), to be loved. 

Past. 
4ssere stato amdto (m. s.), stdti amdti * (p.), to have been loved. 
essere stdta a7ndta ({. 8.), stdte amdte (p.), to have been loved. 

PARTICIPLE. 

Present, 
esscndo amdto (m. s.), amdti (p.), being loved. 
esscndo amdta (f. s.), atndte (p.), being loved. 

Past, 
essendo stdto amdto (m. s.), stdti amdti (p.), having been loved. 
essendo stdta amdta (f. s.), stdte amdte (p ), having been loved. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 
SBIPLE TENSES. 



Present. 



5os(5noamdfo(m.),-a{f.), I am loved. 
tei amdto, -a, thou art loved, 

e oTndto, -a, he is loved. 



to era amdto, -a, 
eri amdto, -a, 
era amdto, -a, 



fid amdto, -a, 
fosti amdto, -a, 
fu amdto, -a, 



sard amdto, -a, 
sardi amdto, -a, 
sard a7?idto, -a, 



sidmo amdti (m.),-e {f.),vfe are loved. 
sicte amdti, -e, you are loved. 

cgliiio sono amdti, they are loved. 



Imperfect. 



I was loved, 
thou -wast loved, 
he was loved. 



eravdmo amdti, -e, 
eravdte a^ndti, -e, 
erano amdti, -e, 



Perfect. 



I was loved, 
thou wast loved 
he was loved. 



fdmmo amdti, -e, 
foste amdti, -e, 
fiirono amdti, -e. 

Future. 



I shall be loved, 
thou wilt be loved, 
he will be loved. 



saremo ayndti, -e, 
sarcte amdti, -e, 
sardnno amdti, -e, 



we were loved, 
you were loved, 
they were loved 



we were loved, 
you were loved, 
they were loved. 



we shall be loved. 
3'ou will be loved, 
they will be loved. 



* The past participle of passive verbs, like that of essere, agrees with the subject of the 
verb in gender and number. 



PASSIVE VERBS. 



205 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

Second Perfect. 

to s6no stato amato, stdta amdta, I have been loved. 
sidmo stdti amdti, stdte amdte, we have been loved. 

Pluiierfect. 
10 era stdto atnato, stdta anidta, I had been loved. 

Future Anterior, 
sard stdto amdtOy stdta amdta, I shall or will have been loved. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 



Present. 



io sm amato, -a, 
tu s'la amuto, -a, 
egli s'la a?ndto, -a, 



iofossi amdto, -a, 
tufossi amdto ^ -a, 
fdsse amdto, -a, 



that I be loved, 
that thou be loved, 
that he be loved. 



sidmo amdti, -e, 
sidte anidti, -e, 
s'lano amdti, -e. 



Imperfect. 



if I were loved, 
if ■'■jhou wert loved. 
if he were loved. 



fossimo amdti, -e, 
foste amdti, -e, 
fossero amdti, -e, 



that we be loved, 
that you be loved, 
that they be loved. 



if we were loved, 
if you were loved, 
if they were loved. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

Perfect. 
10 *za stdto a?ndto, stdta amdta, that I have been loved. 

Plui^erfect. 
iofdssi stdto amdto, stdta amdta, if I had been loved. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 



SIMPLE TENSE. 
Present. 



sarei amdto, -a, 
saresti amdto, -a, 
sarebbe ajndto, -a, 



I should be loved, 
thou wouldst be loved. 
he would be loved. 



saremmo amdti, -e, 
sarcste amdti, -e, 
sarebbero amdti, -e, 



we should be loved, 
you would beloved, 
they would be loved 



COMPOUND TENSE. 

Past, 
sarii stdto amdto, stdta amdta, I should, would, or could have been loved. 



sii amato, amata, 
s'la amdto, egli. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



be thou loved, 
let him be loved. 



sidmo amdti, amdte, 
sidte am,dti, amdte, 
s'lano amdti eglino, 



let us be loved. 

be ye loved. 

let them be loved. 



Many active verbs become passive by taking the particle si , 
as, Domanddr?>i, to be asked : but then they are used in the 
tliird person only ; as, Si domdndA, it is asked : si e domanddto 
it has been asked ; etc. 

18 



206 



ITALIAN GRAJyOIAR. 



VARIATION OF NEUTER VERBS. 



Neuter verbs are generally varied with the auxiliary verb 
essere, to be, according to the conjugation to which they belong. 



Variation of the Verb Partire. 

PARADIGM OF THE NEUTER VERBS. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
partire, to depart. 

Past, 
issere partita (m. s.), partiti (p.), partita (f s.), partite (p.),* to hare departed 



Present, 
partendo, 


departing. 


GERUND. 

essendo partite 


Past. 
), having departed 








PARTICIPLE. 




partdnie (m. s.), 




departing. 


Present. 

1 partenti{T^.), 


departing. 


partito (m. s.), 
partita (f. s.), 




departed, 
departed. 


Pi 


ISt. 

partiti (p.), 
partite (p.), 


departed, 
departed. 






INDICATIVE MOOD. 




pdrto, 
partti. 


Present. 

I depart. 

Perfect. 

I departed. 


SIMPT<-R 


TENSES. 
10 partiva, 

partird, 


Impel feet. 
I departed. 

Future. 

I shall or will depart 



* The past participle of the neuter verbs that are varied with essere, agrees with tb« 
subject of the verb in gender and number. 



NEUTER VERBS. 207 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

Second Perfect. | Pluperfect. 

io sdno partita, -a, I haye departed. | io era partita, -a, I had departed. 



Second Pluperfect. 
fHi partita, -a, I had departed. 



Future Anterior, 
sard partita, -a, I shall have departed 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



SIMPLE TENSES. 



Present, 
che io p&rta^ that I depart. 



Imperfect, 
che io partissi, if I departed. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

Perfect. I Pluperfect, 

the io sia partita, -a, that I have departed. | che iafdssi partita, -a, if I had departed 



CONDITIONAL MOOD., 

SIMPLE TENSE. 

Past. 

pcurtirH, I should, would, or could depart, or might depart. 

COMPOUND TENSE. 

Present. 

sarii partita, I should, would, or could have departed, or might hare departed. 



IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 
p&rti tu, depart then. 



208 ITALIAN GRAMaiAR. 



VARIATION OF PRONOMINAL VERBS. 

Pronominal verbs are varied with the auxiliary essere, to be, 
according to the conjugation to which their termination belongs. 



Variation of the Reflective Verb Pentirsi. 

PAKADIGM OF THE PRONOMINAL VERBS. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present, 
pentirsi, to repent one's self. 



Past. 



isser-si pent'itOf to have repented one's 
self. 



GERUND. 



Present, 
pentdndo-si, repenting one's self. 



Past. 



essendo-si pent'ito, having repented one's 
self. 



PARTICIPLE. 

Present, 
pentcnte-si (s.), repenting one's self. 

Past. 

pent'ito-si (m. s.), pentiti-si (p.), having repented one's self. 
pent'ita-si (f. s.), pentite-si (p.), having repented one's self. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
Present. 



io mi pdnto, I repent myself. 

ti penti, thou repentest thyself. 

si pente, he repents himself. 



noi cipentidmo, we repent ourselves. 
vipent'ite, you repent yourselves. 

si pentono, they repent themselves. 



Imperfect, 
mi pentiva, I repented myself. 



Perfect, 
mi pen tii, I repented myself. 



Future. 
mi pentird, I shall repent myself. 



PRONOMINAL VERBS. 209 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



Second Perfect. 



mivdno pent'Uo, -a, I have repented my- 
self. 

Second Pluperfect, 
mifiiipent'ito, -a, I had repented myself. 



Pluperfect, 
mi era pent'ito^ -a, I had repented myself. 

Future Anterior. 

mi sard pentito, -a, I shall or will have re- 
pented myself. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SBIPLE TENSES. 
Present. Imperfect. 

che mi penta, that I repent myself. che mi pentissi, if I repented myselt 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



Perfect. 

ehe mi s'lapent'ito^ -a, that I have repented 

myself. 



Pluperfect. 



che mi fossi pent'i- if I had repented my 
io, -a, self. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSE. 

Present. 

mi pentirei, I should, would, or could repent myself. 

COMPOUND TENSE. 

Past. 

mi sarei pentito, -a, I should, would, or could have repented myself. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



penti-tt, repent thyself. 

sipenta or penta-si, let him repent himself. 



pentidm.o-ci^ let us repent ourselves. 

pent'ite-vi, repent yourselves. 

St pentano, or let them repent them- 
pcntan-si, selves. 



A great number of active and neuter verbs may become pro- 
nominal by the addition of the conjunctive pronouns mi, ti, si, 
&c., either in the objective or in the relation of attribution : and 
then these verbs are varied with the auxiliary essere, to be ; as, 
Loddre, to praise ; dare, to give ; tacere, to keep silent : — 

mi sdno data un cdlpo, I have given [to] myself a blow. 

ti sei ddto per vinto, thou hast given thyself up as conquered. 

si e loddto, he has praised himself. 

ci sidmo taciuti, we have kept ourselves silent. 

Usage, however, in some instances, allows us also to employ 
the auxiliary avere, to have : but then the conjunctive pronouns 
mi, ti, si, are always in the relation of attribution ; as, — 

m^/o sdno or ?»e/' ho goduio, I have enjoyed it. 

telo se'i or tel' hai creduto, thou hast believed it. 

set' e or seV ha bevuto, he has drunk it. 

18* 



210 



IT^iLIAN GRAMMAR. 



VAEIATION OF UNIPERSONAL VERBS. 

Unipersonal verbs are generally varied with the auxiliaij' 
avere, to have, according to' the conjugation to which they belong. 



Variation of the Verb Pi6vere. 



PARADIGM OF THE UNIPERSONAL VERBS. 



pidvere^ 



INEINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. I Past. 

to rain. 1 av6re piovuto, to have Huned. 







GERUND. 




piovindo, 


Present. 
raining. 


Past, 
avindo ptoviito, having rained. 






• 

PARTICIPLE. 








Past, 
piovuto, rained. 






INDICATIVE MOOD. 








SIMPLE TENSES. 




fidve, 


Present. 
it raina. 




piov^vOf 


Imperfect. 
it rained. 


piovi^ jnovette^ 


Perfect. 
it rained. 




pioverd, 


Future. 

it will rain. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 

. Second Perfect. I Pluperfect. 

ha piovuto, it has rained. . | avcva piovuto, it had rained. 



Second Pluperfect. 
Abe piovuto, it had rained. 



Future Anterior, 
avrd piovuto, it will have rained 



UNIPERSONAL VERBS. 



211 



ehe pi6 va^ 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SEVIPLE TENSES. 



Present. 

that it rains. 



Imperfect, 
che piovisse^ if it rained. 



COMPOUND TENSES. 



Perfect. 



the abbla piovuto, that it has rained. che avesse piovuto, if it had rained. 



Plujierfect. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSE. 

Present. 

pioverebbe (piover'ia), it woiild or could rain, or might rain. 

COMPOUND TENSE. 

Past, 
avrebbe piovuto, it would or could have rained, or might have rained. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

pidva, let it rain. . 



The following are the uniperscnal verbs most in use : — 



aycjiornare^ 

annottdre^ 

balendre, 

lampeggidre, 

tuondre, 

nenicdre, 

gramlindre, 

tempestdre, 

piovere, 

diluvidrej 



to be day. 


geldre, 


to freeze. 


to grow night. 


ghiaccidre, 


»» 11 


to lighten. 


dighiaccidre, 


to thaw. 


» »? 


farfrklxk)^ 


to be cold. 


to thunder. 


far chidro, 


to be light. 


to snow. 


far buio, 


to be dark. 


to hail. 


far cdldo, 


to be hot. 


?? 9? 


far vento, 


to be windy. 


to rain. 


far huon tempo, 


to be good weather 


to rain very hard, 


far cattivo tempo, 


to be bad weather. 


to deluge. 







jEssere, to be, is also used unipersonally, both in the singular and 
plural, when it is joined to the particles ci or vi ; as, JEsserci or 
esservi, to be here, or to be there. It is varied as follows : — 



212 ITALIAN GRA^EVIAR. 



Variation of the Verb Essere, unipersonally used. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
isser-ci or ^sser-vi, to be here, or to be there. 

Past, 
isser-ci or esser-vi stato (m. s.), (stati (p.), stdta (f. s.), state (p.), to have been there 

GERUND. 

Present, 
essendo-ci, or essendo-vi, there being. 

Past, 
essdndo-ci or ess&ndo-vi stato (m. s.), stati (p.), stata (f. s.), state (p.), there having been. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
Present. 
s' i or V' if here is, or there is. | ci sdno or vi sdno, there are. 

Imperfect. 
c' ^o or ■»' ^a, there was. | c' erano or v^ erano, there were. 

Perfect. 
eifuotvifUf there was. | ci furono or vi ft'irono, there were. 

Future. 
d sard or vi sard, there shall be. | ci saranno or vi sardnno, there shall be. 

COMPOUND TENSES. 

Second Perfect. 

c' e or «' ^ s«d<o (m.), -a (f.), there has been. 

ci s6no or vi sdno, stdti (m.), -e (f.), there have been. 

Pluperfect. 
c' era or ^•' era sJdZo, -a, there had been. 

c^drano or v^ erano stdti -e, there had been. 

Future Anterior. 
ei sard or vi sard state, -a, there will have been. 

ci sard7ino or vi sardnno stdti, -e, there will have been. 



UNIPERSONAL VERBS. 213 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

SIMPLE TENSES. 
Present. 

the ci sia or vi sm, that there be or may be. 

che ci siano, vi s'lano or ci s'leno, vi s'teno, that there he or may be. 

Iinperfect. 

ci fdsse or vi fosse, if there were or should be. 

ci fdssero or vi fdssero, if there were or should be. 

COMPOUND TENSES. 
FerJ'ect. 

ci s'la or vi s'la stdto, -a, that there has been. 

ci s'lano or vi s'lano stdti, -e, that there have been or may have been. 

Plu])erfect. 

ci fdsse or vi fdsse stdto, -a, if there had been. 

ci fdssero or vi fdssero stdti, -e, if there had been. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

SDIPLE TENSE. 
Present. 

ci sarcbbe or vi sarclbe, there should, would, or could be, or might be 

ci sarebbero or vi sarcbbero, there should, would, or could be, or might be 

COMPOUND TENSE. 
Past. 

ci sarebbe or vi sarcbbe stdto, -a, there should, would, or could have been. 

d sarebbero or vi sarebbero sldti, -e, there should, would, or could have been. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

ci s'la, vi s'la, or s'm-ci, s'la-vi, let there be. 

ci siano, vi s'leno, or s'lan-ci, s'len-vi, let there be. 



The verb avere, to have, is often substituted for the verb essere 
when unipersonally used, and then it is varied after the same 
manner ; as, Averci or avervi, to be here or to be there ; ci ha or 
vi ha, here is or there is ; ci hdnno or vi hcmno, there are ; etc. 

The verb avere not only may be used with propriety for the 
verb essere, but it is also elegantly used in the singular, although 
the noun to which it is joined is in the plural ; as, Qiiante mujlia 
ci HA? how many miles is it? ebbkvi molti uomini, there were 
a great many men there ; etc. 

To express in Italian " here or there is some of it," " here or 
there are some of them," we join the particle ne, of it, of them, 
to ci or vi, and say, essercene or esservene. 



214 



ITALIAN GRAjNOIAE. 



f rr^gxtlar B txh^. 



The irregularities of Italian Verbs are chiefly confined to the 
perfect tense of the indicative mood, and to the past participle. 

Some verbs, however, are also irregular in the present of the 
indicative ; and then they are irregular likewise in the present of 
the subjunctive and in the imperative. 

When verbs are contracted in the infinitive mood, they are 
contracted also in the future tense and in the conditional mood. 

In those tenses in which verbs are irregular, the irregularity, 
generally, does not extend to all the persons. Thus, with very 
few exceptions, in the perfect of the indicative, the second person 
singular, and the first and second persons plural ; and in the 
present of the indicative and subjunctive, and in the imperative, 
the first and second persons plural, — are regular. 

In the variation of these verbs, we will give only those tenses 
in which they depart from the paradigms already given, to which 
we must refer for the formation of the other tenses. The per- 
sons which are irregular are here printed in small capitals. 

For the assistance of learners, we have added to each verb 
the auxiliary with which it is varied in its compound tenses. 



VARIATION OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS OF 
THE FIRST CONJUGATION. 

There are but four simple verbs in the first conjugation, which 
are not varied like amare ; viz. : — 



anddre, 


to go. 


fare, 


to do, or to make. 


dare, 


to give 


stare. 


to be, to dwell, to 
stand, or to stay. 



ERKEGULAR VERBS. 



215 



Anddre (varied with Essere). 
IKFINITIVE MOOD. 

anddre, to go. 

GERUM). 

anddndo, going. 

PARTICIPLE. 
anddto, gone. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



vo or VlDO,* 


I go or am going. 


andidmo, 


we go. 


vAi, 


thou goest. 


anddte, 


you go. 


VA. 


he goes. 


vAnno, 


they go 



Future, 
andro (by contraction for andero)^ I shall or will go. 



lo vAda, 

tu vAt)A (t'drft), 

egli vAda, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that I go or may go. 
that thou go. 
that he go. 



andidmo, 

andiute, 

vAdano, 



that we go. 
that you go. 
that they go. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 
andrdi {andria), by contraction for anderei (anderm), I should, would, or could go. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



VA (rd') tu, 
vAda egli, 



go thou, 
let him go. 



andidino ndi, 
atiddte vdi, 
vAdano cglino, 



let us go. 

go ye. 

let them go. 



Anddre is sometimes varied with the conjunctive pronouns 
mi, ti, St., ci, vi, and the particle ne ; thus, me ne vo, I go hence ; 
TE NE vdi, thou goest hence ; etc. Me, te, etc., are then mere 
expletives. 

JRianddre, signifying to examine, or to go over again ; and 
trasanddre, to go beyond, — are regular and varied like amdre. 



* Ajiddre is also a defective verb, and borrows these forms from the Latin verb vddere. 



216 



ITALIAN GRA3HMAR. 



Ddre (varied with Avere), 
IKFINITIVE MOOD. 

dare, to give. 

GERUND. 

ddndo, giving. 

PARTICIPLE. 

ddto, given. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



do, 

DAI, 

dd. 


I give or am giving, 
thou givest. 
he gives. 


didmo, 

date, 

dAnno, 


we give, 
you give, 
they give. 


DisTTi or di:6di, 

DlfcSTI, 

d:&tte or de&de, 


Per 

I gave or did give, 
thou gavest. 
he gave. 


fed. 

d:emmo, we gave. 
DESTE, you gave. 
DETTERO or Di^DERO, they gave. 




Future. 






DARd, I shall or -will give 






SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 






Present. 




io Df A, 

tu Df A or Df I, 

igli Df A, 


that I give, 
that thou give, 
that he give. 


diamo^ 

diate, 

Df ANO or Df ENO, 


that we give, 
that you give, 
that they give 



ImjJerfect. 
io d£ssi, if I gave or should give. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 
•n A-R-fc T [daria), I should, woiild, or could give, or might give. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



dd (da'>) tu, 
Df A egli, 



give thou, 
let him give. 



diamo ndi, 
date v6i, 
DfANO, 



let us give. 

give ye. 

let them give. 



The compounds of ddre — as, riddre, to give again ; adddrsi, 
to devote one's self ; etc. — have the same irregularities. 



IKKEGULAR VEKBS. 



217 



fo (fdccio), 
fAi ifdci), 
fa {face), 



Vkci ifei), 
PACESTI (jcsti), 
FJ&CE {fe\fco), 



to fAcoia, 
tu fIccia, 
egli fAccIA, 



Fare (^varied with Avdre). 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 
fAke {fdcere)^* to do, or to make. 

GERUND. 

facendo, doing. 

PARTICIPLE. 

fAtto, done. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



I do or am doing, 
thou doest. 
he does. 



facciAmo, 

fate, 

fAnno {fan), 



Imperfect, 
io faccva or facca {fea), I did or was doing 

Perfect. 

T did. ' facemmo {feinmo), 

thou didst. faceste (feste), 

he did. fecero {ferono), 

Future. 
FARo, I shall or will do. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that T do or may do. 
that thou do. 
that he do. 



facciAmo, 
facciAte, 
fAcciano, 



Imperfect. 
10 facessi {fcssi), if I did or should do. 



we do, 
you do. 
they do. 



we did. 
you did. 
they did 



that we do. 
that you do. 
that they do. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 
FAR:6i {faria,fare''), I should, would, or could do, or might do. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



fa {fa?) tu, 
fAccia pigli, 



do thou, 
let him do. 



facciAmo, 

fate, 

fAcciano, 



let us do 

do ye. 

let them do. 



The compounds of fare — as, assuefdre, to accustom ; confdre, 
to suit, to agree ; coritrajfdre, to mimic, to imitate ; disfdre, to 
undo ; misfdre, to do wrong ; etc. — have the same irregularities. 
Sodisfdre, or soddisfdre. to satisfy, is both regular and irregular. 

* This verb belongs properly to the second conjugation ; it being but a contraction of 
fdcere, now become obsolete, of which it retains many of the forms. 

19 



218 



ITALIAN GRAMIMAK. 



Stdre {varied with Essere). 

INriNITIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
Stdre, to stand, to stay, to dwell, or to be. 







GEKIIND. 








stando, standing'. 








PARTICIPLE. 








stdto, stood. 








IKDICATIVE MOOD. 








Present. 




sto, 
btAi, 

StUf 




I stand, 
thou standest. 
he stands. 


stidmo. 
state, 
ST Anno, 


■we stand, 
you stand, 
they stand 






Perfect. 




BTfiTTI (Stdi), 
BTJ&STI, 
BTJETTE {Sti), 


I stood, 
thou stoodst. 
he stood. 


STIJMMO, 
STi:STE, 
STETTERO (s«<*ro). 


■we stood, 
you stood, 
they stood. 






Future. 








STAKo, I shall 


or -will stand. 





to STf A, 

tu STf A or STf I, 

4gH STf A, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that I stand, 
that thou stand, 
that he stand. 



stidmo, that we stand 

stidte, that you stand 

STf AND or STf END, that they stand 



Imperfect. 
h.0 BT^SSI, if I stood or should stand. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 
BTAKfel {star\a), I should, -would, or could stand, or might stand. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



vta (5fd') <M, 
BTf A cgli. 



stand thou, 
let him stand. 



stiamo, let us stand. 

state, stand ye. 

STf AND or STf END egUno, let them stand. 



jr 



X 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



219 



Stare is sometimes varied with the conjunctive pronouns, mi, 
ti, SI, etc., and the particle ne : thus, me ne sto, I remain here ; 
TE NE stdi, thou remainest here ; etc. Me, te, etc., are then mere 
expletives. 

Gontrastare, signifying to deny, to dispute ; soprastdre or so- 
i^rastdre, signifying to stand over, to threaten ; ostdre, to oppose ; 
r( sfr-re., to remain, — are regular^ and are varied hke amdre. 

The foregoing verbs, anddre, dare, fdre, and stdre, in all those 
forms in wliich, when they are simple, they make but one sylla- 
ble, have, in their compounds, the grave accent on the last 
by liable ; as, vo, da, fe\ sta : Rivo, I go again ; rida, he gives 
back again ; disfe\ he destroyed ; itistd, entreat thou ; etc. 



VARIATION OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE 
SECOND CONJUGATION. 

Var{atio7i of the Irregulai^ Verbs hi ere (long). 
The simple irregular verbs in ere (long) are the following, 



VIZ. : 



cad&e, 

dissuad&e, 

dol^re, 

dov&e, 

giac&e, 

par&e, 

persnad^re, 

piac&e, 

pot&e, 



to fall. 


rimanere, 


to remain. 


to dissuade. 


sap€re, 


to know. 


to grieve. 


sed&e, 


to sit down. 


to owe. 


tac€re, 


to be or keep silent. 


to lie down. 


tenere, 


to hold. 


to seem. 


val€re, 


to be worth. 


to persuade. 


vedere, 


to see. 


to please. 


voUrCy 


to wish, to will, or 


to be able . 




to be wilhng. 



220 



ITALIA:^ GRAJUMAil. 



tado (cag^io), 

tadi^ 

tdde, 



Cadere {yai^ied with Essere). 
INFmiTIVE MOOD. 



I fall. 

thou faUest 
he falls. 



cAddi {cadci,cad^tti), I fell. 
cadesti, thou fellest 

cAdde {cadeo), he fell. 



cadere, to fall. 

PARTICIPLE. 

cadiito, fallen. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

cadiamo [caggidmv), 

cadcte, 

cddono {cdggiono). 

Perfect. 

cadcmmo, 

cadcste, 

cAdder© {cadero, cader), they fell. 

Futwe. 
cadero {cadro), I shall or will fall. 



we fall, 
you faU 
they ML 



we fell, 
you fell. 



lo cdda, 
tu cdda, 
4sli cdda, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that I fall or may fall, 
that thou fall, 
that he fall. 



cadiamo {caggidmo), 
cadidte (caggidte), 
cddano {cdggiano), 



that we fall, 
that you fall, 
that they fall. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

^ Present. 
caderei {cadrdi, cader'ia, cadr'ia), T should, would, or could fall, or exiight fJEill. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
. cadi tu, fall thou. 



Dissuaddre (varied with either Av^re or Essere). 



DissuAsi, 

dissiindcsti, 

dissttAse, 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

dissuadere, to dissuade 

PARTICIPLE. 

DISSTjAso, dissuaded. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Perfect. 

dissuadcmmo, 



I dissuaded, 
thou dissuadest 
he dissuaded. 



dissundcstei 
DISSUASERO, 



we dissuaded, 
you dissuaded, 
they dissuaded. 



Dissuad'^re, properly speaking, is a compound of the Latin verb suad^re, as 
well as persuadere, to persuade, which has the same irregularities. 



IllREGULAli VERBS. 



221 



Dol^re {varied ^vith Essere, mid the Conjunctive Pro- 

nouns, mi, ti, si, etc.). 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

(loler-si, to grieve. 

PARTICIPLE. 

doluto-sif grieved. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



mi D(5lgo {ddglio)^ I grieve. 

ti DU(3li, thou grievest. 

si DU(3le {ddle), he grieves. 



ci doqliAmo {dolemo), we grieve. 
vi delete, you grieve. 

si D(5lgono {ddgliono), they grieve. 



mi d6lsi, 
ti dolesti, 
si D(3l.S£, 



Perfect. 



I grieved, 
thou grievedst. 
he grieved. 



ci dolcmmo, 
vi doleste, 
si d6lsero, 



we grieved, 
you grieved, 
they grieved. 



Future, 
dorrd (by contraction for dolerd *), I shall or will grieve. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



mi d6lga {ddgUa), that I grieve. 
ti D(5lga (doglia), that thou grieve. 
si DCiLGA {ddglia), that he grieve. 



ci dogliAmo, that we grieve. 

vi dogliAte, that you grieve 

si D(5lgako (ddgliano), that they grieve. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 
dorrH (dorr'ia), by contraction for dolerei (dolena),f I should, would, or could grieve. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Dv6l,l-ti, grieve thou. 

si D(5lgA (ddglia), let him grieve. 



dogliAmg-ci, let us grieve. 

dolcte-vi, grieve ye. 

si DOLGANO (ddgliano), let them grieve 



The compounds of doUre — as, condoUre, to condole, etc. — 



have the same irregularities. 



* To distinguish it from dolerd, future of the verb doldre, to defraud, 
t To distin,!,niish thum from dokrci (dolerm), forms of the couditioual of the verb 
dolare^ to defraud. 



222 



IT.VLIAN GRAMMAR. 



Dov^re (varied with Avere). 



INEINITIVE MOOD. 

dovere {devere *), to owe. 

PARTICIPLE 
dovutOf owed. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



aevo or D^BBO {dcggio), I owe. 
dcvi {del), thou owest. 

deve or DBBBE {dee de'), he owes. 



dobbiAmo {debbidmo), we owe. 
dovcte, you owe. 

dcvono or debbono, they owe. 



Perfect, 
dovei or dovetti, I owed. 

Future, 
doverd or dovrd^ I shall or will owe. 



io d:6bba {deggia), 
tu DEBBA (deggia), 
egli D£BBA {deggia), 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



that I owe. 
that thou owe. 
that he owe. 



PreseHi. 

dobbiAmo (deggiumo), that we owe. 

dobbiAte {deggidte), that you owe. 

debbano (deggiano), that they owe. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present, 
doverei or dovrei {doveria or dovria), I should, would, or could owe, or might owe. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD (wanting). 



* The Latin debere, from which dovere derives some of its forms. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



223 



Giac^re (varied with either Avere or Essere). 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

giacere, to lie down. 

PARTICIPLE. 



giaciuto, lain down. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



GI.^OCIO, 


I lie down. 




giacciAmo, 


we lie douTi. 


giaci, 
glare, 


thou liest down, 
he lies down. 




giaccte, 
GIACCIONO, 


you lie down, 
they lie down. 






Perfect. 




GlACQUI, 

giaccsti, 

GlACQUE, 


I laj' down, 
thou layest down 
he lay down. 




giachnmo, 

giaccste, 

GlACQUERO, 


we lay down, 
you lay down, 
they lay down 



10 GlACCIA, 
tu GIACCIA, 
egli GlAcciA, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



that I lie down, 
that thou lie down, 
that he he down. 



giacciAmo, 

giacctdte, 
GlACCIANO, 



that we lie down, 
that you lie down, 
that they he down. 



giaci tu, 
GiAcciA ^gli, 



IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 



He thon down, 
let him lie down. 



giacciAmo ndi, 
giacete voi, 
GlAcciANO eglino, 



let us lie down. 

lie ye down. 

let them he down. 



The compounds of giacere (as, soggiacere, to be subject, etc.), 
as well as piacere and its compounds {compiacere^ to please ; 
dispiacere^ to displease ; etc.), have the same irregularities. 

Piacere^ and its compounds compiacere, etc., in the second per- 
son plural of the t)resent of the subjunctive, and in the second 
person plural of the imperative mood, make PiACCiiTt:, etc. 



224 



1T.\XIAK GliAJil^lAE. 



pAio, 

pan, 
pare {par). 



tAkvi (pdrsi)f 
paresti, 
pAkve {parse), 



Parere (varied with Essere). 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

parere, to seem. 

PARTICIPLE. 

paruto {pa so), seemed. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



I seem, 
thou seemest. 
he seems. 



I seemed, 
thou seemedst. 
he seemed. 



pariamo, 

parete, 

pdrono, or pAiONO, 



Perfect. 



parcmmo, 

pareste, 

pArvero {pdrsero), 



Tve seem, 
you seem, 
they seem. 



we seemed, 
you seemed, 
they seemed. 



Future. 



parrd (by contraction for parero *), I shall or will seem. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



io pAia, 


that I seem. 


pariamo, 


that we seem. 


tu pAia, 


that thou seem 


jmridte. 


that you seem. 


^li pAia, 


that he seem. 


pAiano, 


that they seem. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present, 
parrdi {parr'ia), by contraction for parerei {parerta\), I should, would, or could seem. 



pari tu, 
pAia egli. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



seem thou, 
let him seem. 



paridmo n6i, 
parcte voi, 
pAiano eglino, 



Persuad^re. 

{See " Dissuadere," p. 220.) 

Piacere. 

(See "Giacere," p. 223.) 



let us seem. 

seem je. 

let them seem. 



* To distinguish it from parero, future of the verb pardre, to parrj^, to adorn. 
t To distinguish them from parerei {parer'ia), corresponding forms of the verb pardro 
to parry,- etc. 



IRREGULAPw VERBS. 225 



Pot^re (varied with either Av^re or Essere) 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

PoterCf to be able. 

PARTICIPLE. 

potiito, been able. 

. INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

P(5fSO. I am able. I possiAmo, we are able. 

PTJ(5l (piid''), thou art able. potcte, you are able. 

-pvo {pu6te,pdte), he is able. | P(3ssoxo (p(5nno), they are able 

Future, 
potro (by contraction for poterd\* I shall or will be able. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
p6ssa, that I be able, or may be able. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 



potrH (potr'ia)^ by contraction for poterei 
{poter'ia,^ poria), 



I should, would, or could be able, or might 
be able. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD (wanting). 



* To disting\iish it from poterd, future of the verb potdre, to prune, 
t To distinguish them from poterei {poter'ia), corresponding forms of the verb potare^ 
to prune. 



22Q 



IT^yLIAN GRAMMAR. 



Riinan^re (^varied with Essere). 



INEINITIVE MOOD. 

rimanere, to remain. 

PARTICIPLE. 

KImAsto (ri7ndso), remained. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



rimAngo (rimdgno), I remain. 
rimdni^ thou remainest. 

rinidne, he remains. 



rijnanidmo^ 

rimancte, 

kimAagono, 



Perfect. 



rimAsi, 

rimancsti^ 

rimAse. 



I remained, 
thou remainedst. 
ho remained. 



nmancmmo^ 

rimaiicste^ 

rimAseko, 



we remain, 
you remain, 
they remain. 



we remained, 
you remained, 
they remained 



Future, 
rimarro (by contraction for rimanerd)^ I shall or will remain. 



SUEJUNCTIYE MOOD 



Present. 



to rimAnga {rimagna), that T remain. 
tu rimAnga (rhndgna), that thou remain. 
egli rimAnga, that he remain. 



rttnaniamo, 

rlmanidte. 

rimAkgano, 



that we remain, 
that you remain, 
that they remain. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 



Present. 



nniarrei {rimama), by contraction for ri- 
manerei [nmanena), 



I should, would, or could remain, or might 
remain. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



rimdni tu, 
rimAnga cgliy 



remain thou, 
let him remain. 



rhnanidmo nOt, let us remain 

rhnanrte v6i, remain ye. 

rijiAngano c'g-Zmo, let them remain 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



227 



so, 

sAi, 

SA (sape), 



sapesttf 



Sap^re (^varied with Av^re). 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

sapdre, to know. 

PARTICIPLE. 

saputo, known. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



I know, 
thou knowest. 
he knows. 



I knew, 
thou knewest 
he knew. 



8APP1AMO, 
saj/cle, 
6 An NO, 



Perfect. 



sapcmmo, 

sapcste, 

8:£PPERO, 



we know, 
you know, 
they know. 



we knew, 
you knew, 
they knew. 



Ftiture. 
sapro (by contraction for sapero), I shall or will know. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
to sAppia, that I know, or may know. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 



saprei (sapria), by contraction for saperci 
(saperia), 



I should, would, or could know, or miffht 
know. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



pAppi tu, 
bAppia egli, 



know thou 
let him know. 



SAPPiA.'Nro nd/, let us know. 
SAPPiAte voi, know ye. 
sappiAno cglinoj let them know. 



The compounds of sapere — as risapere, to learn, or to come 
to know — follo^it' the same irrejxiilarities. 



228 



ITALIAN GKAMINLIR. 



Seddre (^varied with Avere). 
INEINITIVE MOOD. 

sedere {seggere *), to sit down. 

GERUND. 

%edendo (seggcndo), sitting. 





PARTICIPLE. 






seduto, seated. 






INDICATI\'E MOOD. 






Present. 




BIEDO or 8i:GGO, 

8IEDI, 

BIEDE {sede), 


I sit. 

thou sittest. 

he sits. 


sedidmo^ 

sedcte, 

SIEDONO, 


we sit. 
you sit. 
they sit. 




Peiifect. 
sedei or sedctti, I sat. 






Future. 






sedero {sedro), I shall or will sit. 





SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



io SIEDA or si&GGA, that I sit, or may sit. 
tu 8IEDA or SEGGA, that thou sit. 
^gli siEDAor sI:gga, that he sit. 



sediamo or seggiAmo, that we sit. 
sediute {seggidte), that you sit. 

siEDAJfO or 8EGGANO, that they sit 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present, 
sederei {sedrei, seder'ia), I should, would, or could sit, or might sit. 

BIPERATIVE MOOD. 



SIEDI tu, sit thou. 

SIEDA or 8EGGA egli, let him sit. 



sediamo or (seggidmo) noi, let us sit. 
sedcte vol, sit ye. 

SIEDAXO cglino, let them sit. 



Sedere is sometimes varied with the pronouns mi, ti, si, etc., 
and then it requires the auxiliary essere ; as, mi siedo, I sit (my- 
self) ; ti set seduto, thou hast sat (thyself) ; etc. 

The compounds of sedere — as, possedere, to possess ; risedere, 
to reside ; soprassedere, to supersede — have the same irregulari- 
ties. 



* This verb, now become obsolete, is still used in many*of the forms of the modem 
verb sedere. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



229 



Tac^re {vanned with Av^re). 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

tacere^ to be or keep silent. 

PAETICIPLE. 

taciuto, been silent. 



rACQTJi, 

tacesti, 

tAcque, 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Pj^esent. 
tacio (tdccio), I am silent. 



Perfect. 



I was silent, 
thou wast silent, 
he was silent. 



taccmmo, 

taccste, 

tAcquero, 



we were silent, 
you were silent, 
they were silent. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
io tac'ia (tdccia), that I be silent or may be silent. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

tacereii I should, would, or could be silent. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

tad tu, be thou silent. 



Tacere is sometimes varied with the pronouns, mi, ti, si, etc., 
and then it requires the auxiliary essere : mi tdcio, I keep silent ; 
si e taciuto, he has kept silent ; &c. 

The compound of tacere — ritacere, to become once more silent 



— follows the same irregularities. 

20 



230 



IT.iLIAN GRAMMAR. 



TfiNGO (tcgno)j 
TXENi (tegni), 



TIKNE 



t:6nni, 
tenesti, 
t:6nne, 



Tenure (^varied with Avere). 

INEINITIVE MOOD. 

tenere, to hold. 

PARTICIPLE. 

tenuto, holden. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



I hold, 
thou boldest. 
he holds. 



I held, 
thou heldest. 
he held. 



tenidmo (tegndmo), 
tencte, 

TEKGONO, 



Perfect. 



tenemmOj 

tencste^ 

TEKNERO, 



we hold, 
you hold, 
they hold. 



•we held, 
you held, 
they held. 



FutU7'e. 
tend (by contraction for tenero)^ I shall or will hold. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



\o TifiNGA (tigna), that I hold. 
tu TENGA, that thou hold. 

^li TEKGA (tegna)^ that he hold. 



tenidmo {tegndmo), that we hold. 
tenidie {tegndte), that you hold. 

t:&ngano {tegnano), that they hold. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 

terr&i (tenia), by contraction for tenerei I I should, would, or could hold, or might 
(teneria), \ hold. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



TIi&Nl (fe') tu. hold thou. 

TENGA {tegna) cgU, let him hold. 



tenidmo (tegndmo) ndi, let us hold. 
tenete v6i, hold ye. 

T:feNGANO cglino, let them hold. 



Tenere is sometimes varied with the pronouns mi, ti, si, etc., 
and then it requires the auxiliary essere ; as, mi sono teniito, I 
have holden or restrained myself; etc. 



IIIREGULAR VERBS. 



231 



Val^re (varied icith either Avere or Essere). 



vAlgo {vaglio), 

vdli, 

vale (vdl)f 



vAlsi, 

valesti^ 
vAlse, 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

valere, to be worth or to avail. 

PAETICIPLE. 

valuta {vdlso), been worth. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Pj-esent 



I am worth, 
thou art worth. 
he is worth. 



I was worth, 
thou wast worth, 
he was worth. 



validrno^ 

valcte, 

vAlgono, 



Perfect. 



valemmo, 

valeste, 

vAlsero, 



we are worth, 
you are worth, 
they are worth 



we were worth, 
you were worth, 
they were worth 



Futwe. 
varrd (by contraction for valero), I shall or will be worth. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



to vAlga or vIglia, that T be worth. 
tu vAlga or vAglia, that thou be worth. 
egli vALGAor vAglia, that he be worth. 



validmo, 

validte. 

vAlgano. 



that we be worth, 
that you be worth, 
that they be worth. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 



Present. 



varrdi {varria), by contraction for valerci 
{Valeria). 



I should, would, or could be worth, or 
might be worth. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



vdli tu, be thou worth. 

vAlga {vdglia) cgli, let him be worth. 



validmo ndi, let us be worth 

valcte voi, be ye worth. 

vAlgano eglino, let them be worth. 



232 ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



Ved^re (varied with Av^re). 

INEINITIVE MOOD. 

vedere, to see. 

GERUND. 

vedindo or VEGG:fiNDO, seeing. 

PABTICIPLE. 

veduto (v'lsto), seen. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

sest. 
vcde, ' he sees 



vMo, VJ&GOO, I see. 

vedi (t»e'), thou seest. 



vediamo or VEGGlAiro, we see. 
vedete, you see. 

vcdono or v:fiGGONO, they see. 



Vf DI, I saw. 

vedesti, thou sawest. 



Perfect. 

vedemmOy we saw. 

vedeste, you saw. 

vf DERO, (vider), they saw. 



VfDE, he saw 

Future, 
vedrd (by contraction for vederd), I shall or will see 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



to v^da or v:feGOA, that I see or may see. 
tu veda or V^GGA, that thou see. 
6gli veda or vilGGA, that he see. 



Present. 

vediamo or veggiAmo, that we see. 

vediate or veggiAte, that you see. 

vcdano or VEGGANO, that they see. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 



Present. 



vedrdi {vedrm), by contraction for vederei 
{vederia), 



I should, would, or could see, or might 
see. 



t)6di («e') tu, see thou. 

vida 01 y^GGA egli, let him see 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

vediamo ndi, 

vedcte vol, 

vcdano cglino, let them soo. 



vediamo ndi, let us see. 

vedcte t'oi, see ye. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 233 



Voldre {varied with Avdre). 

INTINITIVE MOOD. 

voUre^ to wish, to will, or to be willing. 

PARTICIPLE. 

voluto, been willing. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

V(5glio or y(5', I am willing. I vogliAmo {volemo), we are willing. 

VUOi (vu6U, vud^), thou art willing. volete, you are willing. 

VU(5le (vdle), he is willing. | v(5gliono (vdnno), they are wilhng. 

Peiifect. 

V(5lli, I was willing. j volemmo, we were willing. 

volesti, thou wast willing. I voleste, you were willing. 

VCJllb, • he was willing. | ydLLEKO, they were willing. 

Futur^e. 
vorrd (by contraction for volero *), I shall or will be willing 

SUBJinSTCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
to V(5glia, that I be willing or may be willing. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 



vorrii [vorrta), by contraction for volerei 
{Valeria t), 



I should, would, or could be willing, or 
might be willing. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD (wanting). 



The compounds of volere — as, disvolere, to desire the contrary 
of what one has wished ; rivolere, to wish again, or to be once 
more wilhng — have the same irregularities. 

* To distinguish it from the future of the verb voldre, to fly. 

t To distinguish them from the corresponding forms of voldre, to fly. 



234 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



VAEIATIO:^r OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE 
THIED CONJUGATION. 



The following are the simple irregular verbs of the third 
conjugation ; viz., — 



dire, 
mortre, 
salire, 
gcguire. 



to say or to tell, 
to die. 
to ascend, 
to follow. 


udire, 
uscire, 
venire 



to hear, 
to go out. 
to come. 



Dire {varied with Avdre), 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Df RE, to say. 

GERUND. 

dicdndo, saying. 

PARTICIPLE. 
d:6tto (ditto), said. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



rfico, 

did or Df ,' 

rfice, 


I say. 

thou sayest. 
he says. 


dicidmo, 

DfTK, 

dicono, 


•we say. 
you say. 
they say. 




Imperfect. 






io diccva or dicea, I said. 






Perfect. 




BfSSI, 

dicestif 

DfSSE, 


I said, 
thou saidst. 
he said. 


dicemmo, 

diceste, 

DfSSERO, 


•we said, 
you said, 
they said. 



Future. 
DiBo (by contraction for dicero), I shall or ■will say. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



235 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
io dica^ that I say or may say. 

Imperfect, 
io dicessi, if I said or should say. 



CONDITIONAI. MOOD. 

Present. 



DIRiil (dirm), 
(diceria)^ 


by 


contraction for dicer di 


I should, would, 
say, 


or could say; or might 






IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 




dica igli. 




Bay thou, 
let him say. 


diciamo n6i, 
Df TE v6i, 
dicano cglino, 


let us say. 

say ye. 

let them say. 



The compounds of dtre — as, ridire, to say again ; contradire 
or contraddire^ to contradict ; interdire^ to forbid ; hendire, to speak 
well of; maldire, to speak ill of — have the same irregulari- 
ties. 

Benedire, to bless, and maledire, to curse, in the perfect, are 
both regular and irregular, and make henedii or benedissi, I 
blessed; maledii or maledissi, I cursed. 



236 



ITALIAN GRAMMAK. 



mu6ro (m(5to), 
m:u(5ri, 
m;u(5ke (wM<Jr), 



Morire {varied with Essere).' 



IKFINITIVE MOOD. 

monre^ to die. 

PARTICIPLE. 

M(3kto, dead. 



INDICATIVE MOOD 

Present. 

morictmo. 



I die. 

thou diest. 
he dies. 



•we die. 

mor'He, you die. 

mu(5koko (mudiono), they die. 



Fviiire. 
morird or mono, I shall or will die 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



io MU6rA [mdia), that I die or may die. 
tu mu<5ra {vi6ra), that thou die. 
egli mu(3ra (wdm), that he die. 



moriamo. 



that we die. 
moridte, that you die. 

mu6rano {mdrano), that they die. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present, 
morird or morrH [moriria or viorna), I should, would, or could die, or might die. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



Mu(5ri tu, die thou. 

MU(5ra {m6ra) egli^ let him die. 



moriamo n6i. 
mor'ite v6i, 
MU(5rano eglino, 



let us die. 

die ye. 

let them die. 



The compounds of morire — as, premorire, to die before, etc. 
have the same irregularities. 



* Morire may be varied also with avcre ; but it then takes the nature of an actiw 
verb, and signifies " to kill," and not " to die. " 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



237 



Salire (varied ivith either Avere or Essere). 



INEmiTIVE MOOD. 

sal'ire {sagl'ire *), to ascend. 

PARTICIPLE. 

salilo^ ascended. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



sAlgO [saglio]^ I ascend. 

sctli or saVisci {sdgli), thou ascendest. 

sale or sal'isce (^sciglie), he ascends. 



saliamo or sagliAmo, vie ascend. 
sal'ite, you ascend. 

sAlgono {sdgliono), they ascend. 



sal'ii (salsi), 

salisti, 

sail {sdlse, sal'to), 



Perfect. 



I ascended, 
thou ascendedst. 
he ascended. 



sal'immo, 

snlistp^ 

salirotio (saliro, salir), 



we ascended, 
you ascended, 
they ascended. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



to sAlga {saglia), that T ascend, 
tu sAlga (sdlghi). that thou ascend. 
cgli sAlqaot sal'isca, that he ascend. 



snlirhno or SAG LI A MO, that we ascend 
salldte or sagliAte, that j'ou ascen* 
sAlgano (sdgliano), that they ascea 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



sdli or salisci tu, ascend thou. 

bAlga or sal'isca egli, let him ascend. 



salidmo ?i6i\ 
sal'ite vol, 
sAlgano eglino, 



let us ascend. 

ascend ye. 

let them ascend. 



The compounds of scdire — a?, risaltre, to re-ascend ; assalire^ 
to assail; etc. — have tlie same irregularities. 



* From this verb, now become obsolete, are derived many of the forms of the mjdern 
verb sal'ire 



238 



ITALIAJ^ GRAI^OIAK. 



Seguire (varied with either Avere or Essere) 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

seguire, to follow. 

PARTICIPLE. 

seguito, followed. 



srguo or SlfeGUO, 
scgifi or SIKGUI, 
segue or siegue, 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



I follow, 
thou followest. 
he follows. 



seguidmo, we follow. 

sf^nite, you follow. 

scguono or SIEGUONO,' they follow. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



io scgua or si:&GUA, that 1 follow. 

tu scgua or sikgua, that thou followest. 

igli segua or si^GUA, that he follow. 



seguid}no, 

seguidte, 

scguano or siEGUANO, 



that we follow, 
that you follow, 
that they follow. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



sigui or SIEGUI iw, follow thou. 
aegua or sii:GUA cgU, let him follow. 



seguiamo ndi, 
segu'ite vdi, 
seguano eglino 



let us follow. 

follow ye. 

let them follo'jr. 



The compounds of seguire have the same irregularities. 



mKEGULAR VERBS. 239 



Udire {varied ivith Avere). 

LNEINITIVE MOOD, 

ud'ire {od'ire), to hear. 

PARTICIPLE. 

zid'iio, heard. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



6do, 


I hear. 


udidmo, 


■we hear. 


<5di, 


thou hearesfc. 


udite, 


you hear. 


6VE. 


he hears. 


6dono, 


they hear. 



Future. 
udird or udro^ I shall or will hear. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present 



to <5da, that I hear or may hear. 

tu 6da {6di)^ that thou hear. 

^gli <5da, that he hear. 



udiamo^ that we hear. 

udidte, that you hear. 

<5dano, that they hear. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 
udrlHoTMrei {udir'ia or udria), I should, would, or could hear, or might hea» 



«5di tu, hear thou. 

(Sda ^gli, let him hear. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

udiamo n6i, 

ud'ite v6i, 

6dano dglino^ let them hear. 



udiamo wdt, let us hear. 

itd'ile v6i, hear ye. 



The compounds of vcf^re — as, riudire, to hear again, etc. — 
have the same irregularities. 

Esaudire, to grant, is regular, and varied like esihire. 



240 



ITALIAN GR.i]VIMAK. 



Uscire {varied with Essere). 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

uscire {esc'ire), to go out. 

PAETICIPLE. 

uscito^ gone out. 



INDICATIVE MOOD 

Present. 



fisoo, 


I go out. 


uscidmo, 


■we go out. 


£sci, 


thou goest out. 


usc'ite, 


you go out. 


JSSOB, 


he goes out. 


liSCONO, 


they go out. 



io l&SOA, 

tu i;scA, 
6gli :&80A, 



fisoi tu, 
ll^SOA dgli, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that I go out or may go out. 
that thou go out. 
that he go out. 



usciamo, 

uscidte, 

ilSCANO, 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



go thou out. 
let hun go out. 



uscidmo ndi, 
usc'ite vdi, 
:&soANO 4glino, 



that we go out. 
that you go out. 
that they go out. 



let us go out. 

go ye out. 

let them go out. 



The compound of uscire — riuscire, to succeed — has the 
same irregularities. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



241 



Venire (^varied with Essere) . 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 



venire, to come. 



PARTICIPLE. 

VENtlTOj come. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



VSlNGO (I'cg'Ho), I come. 

VIKNI, 



VIENE 



VENN!, 

ven'isti, 

VENNE, 



thou comest. 
he comes. 



I came, 
thou camest, 
he came. 



venimno {vegnamo\ 

vtn'ile, 

VENGONO (vegnono), 



Perfect. 



venimmo. 



ven'isle, 
VENNERO {veniro), 



we come, 
you come, 
they come. 



we came, 
you came, 
they came. 



Future. 
verrd (by contraction for i^enird], I shall or will come. 



io V:fcNGA, 
tU VENGA," 
egli VENGA, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that I come or may come. 
that thou come, 
that he come. 



venidmo [vegndmo), that we come. 
venidte (vegndte). that you come. 

VENGANO (^•cg'»^a?io), that they come. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present. 



verrei [verr'ia), by contraction for venirei 
(veniria), 



I should, would, or could come, or might 
come. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



VliiNI tU, 
TfiNGA Cgli, 



come thou, 
let him come. 



■veniamo not, 
ven'ite v6i, 
viiNGANO eglino, 



let us come. 

come ye. 

let them come. 



Ventre is sometimes varied with the conjunctive pronouns mi, 
ti, si, etc., and tlio particle ne : thus, me ne vengo, I am coming 
thence ; te ne vieni, thou art coming thence, etc. Me, te, etc., 
are then mere expletives. 

The compounds of ven-ire — as, convenire, to agree ; divenire^ 
to become ; etc. — have the same irregularities. 

21 



242 



ITALIAN GEAJMjNIAR. 



TABLE OF IRREGULAR VERBS. 



IITPIIOTIVE. 

Accendere. to light 
Accorgersi, to perceive 
Addiirre, to allege 
(Addiicere), to allege 
Affliggere, to afflict 
Aucidere, to kill 
An dire, to go 
Apparire, to appear 
(Apparere), to appear 

Appartenere, to belong 

Applaudire, to applaud 
(Applaiidere), to applaud 
Aprire, to open 
Ardere, to burn 
Ascendere, to ascend 



Ascondere, to conceal 
Aspergere, to sprinkle 
Assidere, \ . , , 
(Assedere), f '° ^'' ^°""^ 
Assistere, to assist 
Assolvere, to absolve 
Assorbire, to absorb 
(Assorbere), to absorb 
Assiimere, to assume 
Astriugere, to compel 
(Astrignere), to compel 
Altendere, to icait 
Avere, to have 
Avvellere, to root up 
Bevere, to drink 
(Bere), to drink 
Bollire, to boil 
Cadere, to fall 
Calere, to care for 
Capere, to comprehend 
(Capire), to co7nprehend 
Cedere, to submit 
Chiedere, to ask 
Chiiidere, to shut 
Cignere, to gird 
(Cingere), to gird 
Cogliere, ) 
(Corre), | 
Compiere, to accomplish 
(Compirej, to accojnplish 
Concepire, to conceive 
"oncepere), to conceive 
i!nnettere, to connect 



to gather 



^Xidscere, to know 

Consumire,* ? . 
(Con?umere), S " 
Coprire, to cover 



consume 



PRESENT. 


PERFECT. 


rUTURE. 


PAETICrPLB. 


accendo 


accesi 


accendero 


acc6so 


m' accorgo 


m' accorsi 


m' accorgero 


accorto 


adduco 


addiissi 


addurro 


addotto 






(adducero) 


(addiitto) 


affliggo 


afaissi 


affliggero 


afflitto 


ancido 


ancisi 


anciderd 


anciso 


vado (vo) 


andai 


andro 


andAto 


apparisco 


apparii 


appariro 


apparito 


(appiro) 


appirvi 


apparero 


app4i-so 


(appajo) 


(apparsi) 




(appariito) 


appartengo 


appartermi 


apparterro 


apparteniito 




(apparteaetti) 


apparteuero 




applaudisco 


applaudii 


applaudiro 


applaudito 


applaudo 


(applaiisi) 


applaudero 


(applaiiso) 


4pro 


aprii, apersi 


apriro 


aperto 


4rdo 


Arsi 


ardero 


cirso 


ascendo 


ascesi 

asceadei 

ascendetti 


ascenderd 


asceso 


ascondo 


ascosi 


ascondero 


ascoso, asc6sto 


asp ergo 


aspersi 


aspergero 


asperso 


assido 


aR,sisi 


assidero 


assise 


assisto 


assistei 


assisterft 


assistito 


assolvo 


assolvei 


assolvero 


assoluto 


assorbisco 


assorbii 


assorbero 


assorbito 


(assorbo) 


(assorsi?) 


* 




assume 


assiinsi 


assumero 


assiinto 


astringo 


astrinsi 


astriugei-6 


astretto 


(astriguo) 




(astrignei-6) 




atteudo 


attesi 


attendero 


attento 


ho 


ebbi 


avro 


avuto 


avvello 


avvelsi 


avvellero 


avrelto 


bero 


bevvi, bevei 


bevero. bevro 


bevuto, beuto 


(bibo), beo 


(bebbi) 


(bero) ' 




bollo 


belli 


boliro 


bolito 


cado (ciiggio) 


caddi, cadei 


cadero, cadro 


cadiito 


Cale 


calse 


caleri (carr.V) 


caliito 


capo 


capei (capetti) 


capero, capiro 


cap u to, capito 


(capisco) 


capii 






codo 


cedei, cessi 


cedero 


ceduto, cesso 


chiedo 


chiesi 


cliiedero 


chiesto 


chiiido 


chiusi 


chiudero 


chiiiso 


cingo 


cinsi 


cingero 


cinto 


(ciguo) 








coglio, colgo 


colsi 


cogliero, corro 


colto 


compio 


compiei 
compii 


compiero 


compiiito 


concepisco 


concepii 


concepero 


concepito 


(concipio) 


(concepetti) 


(concepero) 


conceputo 


counetto 


connettei 


conuettero 


connesso 




(connessi) 




(connettuto) 


conosco 


conobbi 
(conoscetti) 


conoscero 


conosciiito 


consumo 


consiinsi 


consumero 


consunto 


copro 


coprii,copersi 


copriro 


coperto 



♦ This verb is regular. 



TABLE OF IllllEGULAK VEllBS. 



243 



I^'F^^'ITIVK. 

Correre, to riai 

Costringei'e, to constrain 
(Costrignere), to constrahi 
Crescere, to grow 

Cuocere, to cook 
Dai'e, to give 
Dccidcre, to decide 
Duliidcre, to delude 
Deprimere. to depress 
Dil'endere, to defend 
Dire, to say 
Itirigere, to direct 
Discendere, to descend 
Dispergere, to disperse 
Distiuguere, to distinguish 

Divedere, to 

Divellerc, to root out 

Dolere, to grieve 
Dovere, lo owe 
(Devere), to owe 
Eiuergere, to emerge 
Erigere, ergere, to erect 
P^sigere, to exact 
Espellere, to expel 
Esponere, to expose 
(Esporre), to expose 
Esprimere, to express 
Essere, to be 
Estendere, to extend 

Estinguere, to extinguish 
Facere or fire, to do 
Eendere, to cleave 
Figero or figgcre, tojix 
Fiugere o?-fignero, to feign 
Fondere, to melt 
FrAugere, I ^ 7 , 
(Fragnere), } '° ^''^^^ 
Friggere, to fry 
Gonuflettere. to kneel 
Giaccre, to lie down 

Giro, to go 
Gii'ingcrc, to arrive 
Giugiiere, to arrive 
Godere (gaudere), to enjoy 
Illudei-e, to delude 
Inimergefe, to iminerge 
Impellere, to impel 
linprimere, I o print 
lucidere, to grave 
Incorrere, to incur 
Tncrescere, to be sorry 

Intendere, to understand 
Intessere, to iveave 
Tntridere, to temper 
Intrudere, to intrude 
Inv.'idere, to invade 
Involgerc, to wrap up 
Jnvolvere, to wrap up 
fre, to go 
Trridcrc, to deride 



PKESEKT. 

corro 
co.stringo 
costrigno 
cresco 

cuoco 

do 

decide 

deludo 

deprimo 

difendo 

dico 

dirigo 

disfeudo 

dlspergo 

distinguo 

divedo 

divello 

dolgo, doglio 

diibbo, devo 

(deo) 

em ergo 

erigo, ergo 

esigo 

espello 

espongo 

(espouo) 

esprimo 

souo 

esteudo 

estinguo 
fo (ficcio) 
fendo 
figo, figgo 
fingo (figuo) 
fondo 

fringo 

friggo 

geuufletto 

giaccio 



giungo 

godo 

11 111 so 

iuimergo 

impello 

imprimo 

incido 

incorro 

incresco 

intendo 

intesso 

intrido 

intTLido 

invado 

involgo 

involve 

irrido 



TERFECT. 

corsi 
costrinsi 

crebbi 

(ci'escetti) 

cossl (cocei) 

diedl, diei 

decisl (?) 

del lis! 

depress! 

dlfesi 

dissi 

diressi 

disccsi 

dispersi 

distills! 

(distlnguett!) 

divid! 

(divide!) 

dlvels! 

dols! 

dovei, dovett! 

(devei) 

euiersi 

eressi, ers! 

esige! 

espulsi 

espos! 

(espuos!) 

es press! 

estes! 

(estendett!) 

estins! 

feci (fei) 

fendei (fess!) 

fiss! (fisi) 

fins! 

fi'isi (fonde!) 

frans! 

friss! 

genuflessi 

giacciu! 

(giacett!) 

gii 

giiins! 

godettl, gode! 

illusi 

immers! 

impiils! 

impress! 

incis! 

incorsi 

increbb! 

(increscetti) 

intes! 

intessei 

intris! 

iiitn'is! 

invas! 

ill vols! 



irnsi 



FUTURE. 

correro 
costringero 
(costriguei'o) 
crescero 

cocero 

daro 

decidero 

deliidero 

deprimoro 

difendero 

diro 

dirigero 

discendero 

dispergero 

distinguero 

divedro 

divellero 

(diverro) 

dorro 

dovro 

(dovero) 

emergero 

erigero, ergero 

esigero 

espellero 

esporro 

(esponero) 

esprlmero 

saro 

estendero 

cstingnero 

faro 

fendero 

figero, figgero 

fingero 

foudero 

fi-aiigero 

friggero 

geuuflettero 

giacero 

giro 
giungero 

godero 

illudero 

immergero 

impeilero 

imprimero 

incidero 

incorrero 

increscero 

intcndero 

intcssero 

Intridero 

iiitrudero 

invadcro 

involgcro 

involvero 

in') 

irridero 



PARTICIPLE. 

corso 

costretto 



crescinto 

cotto 

duto 

deciso 

deluso 

depresso 

dlfesso 

detto 

diretto 

disceso 

disperse 

distinto 

diveduto 

(diviso) 

divelto 

doluto (dolto) 
doviito 

emerso 

eretto (erto) 

esatto 

espiilso 

esposto 

(esposito) 

espresso 

stAto 

esteso 

estinto 
fatto 

feSSO 

fitto, flSSO, fiso 
finto (fitto) 
fiiso, fondiito 

franto 

fritto 

genuflesso 

giaciuto 

(gito) 
giiinto 

god u to 

illiiso 

immerso 

Impi'ilso 

impresso 

Inciso 

incorso 

increscliito 

inteso, Intento 

intcssuto 

intriso 

intn'iso 

invaso 

involiito 

ito 
irrisft 



244 



rNFINlTlVE. 

Iscrivere, to inscribe 
Istruire, to instruct 
Ledere, to offend 
Leggere, to read 

Maledicere, \ 
Maledire, | to curse 
(Maladire), ) 
Mergere, to dive 
Mesceie, to mix 
Mettere, to put 

Molcere^ to assuage 

Mordere, to bite 

Morire. to die 



to 7nilk 



Mugnere, ) 
Wungere, j 
Muovere, to move 
Niscere, to be born 
Nascondere, to conceal 
Negligere, to Jieglect 
Nuocere j / 
(^ocere), j 
Oifendere, to offend 
Offerire, to offer 
Offrirc, to offer 
(Offerere), to offer 
Opprimere, to oppress 
Parere, to appear 
Pascere, to feed 
Percuotere, to strike 
Perdere, to lose 
Persuadere, to persuade 

Piai^ere, to please 

Piangere, ) . 

•n- " ' } to toeep 

Piagnere, ) ^ 

Pingere, pignere, to paint 

Piovere, to rain 

(Pouere) or porre, to put 

Porgere, to offer 

Potere, to be able 

Precidere, to shorten 
Preinere, to press 
Prendei-e, to take 
Presiiniere, to presume 
Proteggere, to protect 
Piingere, pugnere, toprick 
R4dere, to shave 
Recidere, to retrench 
Redimere, to redeem. 
Reggere, to govern 
Rendere, to render 
Repellere, to repel 
Reprimere, to repress 
Ridere. to laugh 
Riliicere, to shine 
Riuianere. to remain 
Pv^olvere, to resolve 
Rispondere, to answer 
RistAre, to desist 

Ristrignere; } ^° ''^^^'"'^'^ 
Rodere, to gnaw 



italia:x 


GRA^IMVr 


L. • 




PEESEKT. 


PERFECT. 


FUTURE. 


PARTICIPLE. 


iscrivo 


iscrissi 


iscrivero 


iscritto 


istruisco 


istruii 


istruiro 


istriitto 


ledo 


(lesi) (ledei) 


ledero 


leso 


leggo 


lessi (leggei) 


leggero 


letto 


lice, lece 






(licito) lecito 


maledico 


maledessi 


malediro 


maledetto 


mergo 


rD6rsi 


mergero 


merso 


mesco 


mescei 


mescero 


(mesciuto) 


metto 


misi, (messi) 


mettero 


messo (misso^ 


2d pers. molci 


(mulse) 






3d pers. moke 








mordo 


morsi 


mordero 


morso 


( muoro, moro 
( muojo, mojo 


morii 


moriro, morrj 


morto 








muDgo 


munsi 


mugnero 


munto 


muovo 


mossi (movei) 


movero 


mosso 


nisco 


nacqui 


nascero 


nito 


na^coudo 


nasco^i 


nascondero 


nascoso 


negligo 


uegligei 


negligero 


negletto 


nuoce, noccio 


nocqui 


nocero 


nosciiito 


ofifendo 


offessi 


offendero 


offeso 


offerisco 


offerii 


offeriro.offriro 




offero 


oEfersi 


(olTerro) 


offerto 


offro 








opprimo 


oppressi 


opprimero 


oppresso 


pajo (piro) 


parvi (p.'irsi) 


par r6( pare ro) 


paruto(p4r80) 


pisco 


pa?cei 


pascero 


pasciuto 


percuoto 


percossi 


percuotero 


percosso 


perdo 


perdei 


perdero 


perduto 


persuado 


persuAsi 


pei-suadero 


persuaso 




(persuadei) 




(persuadiito) 


piiccio, piacio 


piicqui 


pLaccro 


piaciuto 


piango, piagno 


piansi 


piangero 


pi4nto 


piugo 


pinsi 


pingero 


pinto (pitto) 


piovo 


pioTvi, piovei 


piovero 


piovuto 


pongo (pono) 


posi (puosi) 


porro 


posto 


porgo 


porsi 


porgero 


porto 


posso 


potei, potetti 


potro (potero) 


potiito 




( posse tti) 


(poro) 




precido 


precisi 


precidero 


precise 


premo 


premei 


preniero 


premiito 


preudo 


presi 


prendero 


preso 


presiimo 


presunsi 


presumero 


presiinto 


proteggo 


protessi(?) 


proteggero 


protetto 


pungo 


piinsi 


pungero 


punto 


rAdo 


rasi (radei) 


radero 


raso* 


recido 


recisi 


recidero 


reciso 


redimo 


redimei 


redimero 


redento 


reggio 


res si 


reggero 


retto 


rendo 


rendei 


reudero 


renduto (resoj 


repello 


repiilsi 


repellero 


repulso 


reprimo 


repress! 


reprimero 


represso 


rido 


risi (ridei) 


ridero 


riso 


riliico 


riliissi 


rilucero 




rimuDgo 


iim4si 


riniarro 


rim&so 


risolvo 


risolsi, risolvei 


risolvero 


risolto 


rispondo 


lisposi 


rispondero 


risposto 


risto 


ristetti 


ristaro 


ristito 


ristringo 


ristrinsi 


ristringero 


ristretto 


rodo 


rosi 


rodero 


roso 



I 



TABLE OF IRREGULAR VERBS. 



245 



INFINITIVE. 


PPvKSENT. 


PERFECT. 


FUTURE. 


PARTICIPLE. 


Romperc, to break 


rompo 


riippi (roppi) 


rompcro 


rotto 


Salire, to ascend 


sAlgo, salisco 


salii (salsi) 


saliro (sarro) 


salito 


Sapere, to know 


so (8ippo) 


seppi (sapei) 


sapro (sapero) 


saputo 


Scegliei-e(seerre), to choose 


scelgo, sceglio 


sceisi 


seegliei'6 


seel to 


Scundere, to descend 


scendo 


scesi (scendei) 


scendero 


sceso 


Scindere, to cleave 


sciudo 


scinsi 


scindero 


scisso 


^^Sk]"""'^'" 


scigno, scingo 


scinsi 


scignero 


scinto 


sciS'r !""""'■" 


scioglio 


sciolsi . 


scioglero 


sciolto 


Scoi-gere, to perceive 


sciirgo 


scorsi 


scorgero 


scorto 


Scorrere, to lay waste 


scorro 


scorsi 


scorrero 


scorto 


Scrjvere, to write 


scrivo (.«cribo) 


scrissi 


scrivero 


scritto 


Scuotere, to shake 


scuoto (scoto) 


sccjssi (scotei) 


scotero 


seosso 


Sedere, to sit down 


siedo, seggo 


sedei, sedetti 


sedero (sedro) 


sediito 


Seguire, to follow 


seguo, sieguo 


seguii 


seguiro 


seguito 


Scrpere, to creep 


stirpo 


Serpeva 




serpeute 


Soffrire, J , ^ 
(Sofferi^-e), } '" '"ff'' 


sofifro 


sofErii 


soffriro 


sofiferto 


Solere, to be ivont 


S()glio 


sono, solito 




solito 


iSdlvere, t.o solve 


solvo 


solvei 


solvere 


soliito 


Soi-gere (siirgere), to arise 


sorgo (surgo). 


sorsi (siirsi) 


sorgero 


sorto (surtt ) 


Sospeudere, to suspend 


sospendo 


sospesi 


sospendero 


sospeso 


Spindere. to pour out 


span do 


spandei 


spandero 


spanduto 


Spirgere, to spread 


spargo 


spirsi 


spargero 


sparso 


i^g":r«; }'»«•»=-"* 


speugo 


spensi 


spegnero 


spento 


Spendere, to spend 


spendo 


spesi 


spendero 


speso 


Spergei-e, to disperse 


spergo 


spersi 


spergero 


sperso 


Spingere, ) , 
(Spignere),r°^'"^ 


spingo 


spinsi 


spingero 


spinto 


Stiire, to stand 


sto 


stetti (stei) 


star 6 (stero) 


state 


Stendere, to extend 


stendo 


stesi (stendei) 


stendero 


steso 


Stridere, to cry out 


strido 


stride! 


stridero 




Stigaere, 1 • 
Stiugere, ) ^° ^^'^'^ 


stingo (stigno) 


stinsi 


(stignero) 


stinto 


Stringere, | . l- .1 ^ . 
Striguere, r'' *"^^/«^^ 


stringo 


strinsi 


stringero 


stretto 


.Struggere, to dissolve 


straggo, 


striissi 


struggero 


striitto 


Svelli'.re, ) , 

Q„. ,. ' > to root up 


svello, svelgo 


svelsi 


svellero 


svelto 


Saggere, to suck 


SliggO 


Piiggei (sussi) 


suggero 




Tacere, to je silent 


tacio (taccio) 


tacqui (tacei) 


tacero 


taciiito 


Tendere, to tend 


teudo 


tesi (tendiii) 


tendero 


teso 


Teuere, to hold 


teugo (tegno) 


tenui (tenei) 


terro (tenero) 


tenia to 


Tessere, to xveave 


tesso 


tessei 


tessero 


tessuto 


Tignere, tingere, to dye 


tingo (tigno) 


tinsi 


tignero 


tinto 


Togliere, ) , . 7 


toglio, tolgo 


tolsi 


torro 


tolto 


Tondere, to shear 


toudo 


toudei 


toudero 


tondiito 


Torcere, to tioist 


torco 


torsi 


torcero 


tdrto 


Torpere, to 6? benumbed 


torpo 






torpento 


Trarre, \ 










(TrAere), [ to draw 


traggo (trao) 


trlssi 


trarro 


tratto 


(TrAggore), ) 










Uocid«re, to kill 


uccido 


uccisi 


uccidero 


ucciso 


Udire, to hear 


odo 


udii 


udiro (udro) 


udito 


Ugnere, lingere, to anoint 


ungo (ligno) 


linsi 


ungero 


linto 


Use ire, to go out 


esco 


uscii (eseii) 


usciro 


uscito (escito) 


Valere, to be loorth 


ValgO (vilglio) 


valsi (valoi) 


varro (valero) 


valato (Viilso) 


Vedere, to see 


vedo, veggo 


vidi (vuddi) 


vcdro 


veduto (visto) 


Venire, to com.e 


Tengo 


Tenni (vcuii) 


verro (veniro) 


venuto (vcnto) 


Vinecre, to conquer 


vinco 


vinsi 


vincero 


vinto (vitto) 


V.vere, to live 


vivo 


vissi (vivei) 


vivero 


vivuto 


Volcre, to ivill 


voglio, v6' 


volli (volsi) 


vorro 


volli to 


V61vere,_«o turn 


volgo 


volsi 


volgero 


volto 


Volgere,' to turn 


volvo 




volvero 





21* 



24.6 



ITALIAN GRAMMAK. 



i^ii^tixbt ©'-erirs* 



Defective Verbs ending in ere (long), accented. 



calere, 

co/ere or cdlere, 
lece're and licere, 1 
lecere and licere, ) 



to care for. 
to adore. 

to be lawful. 



pavere, 
silere, 
sole're, 
stupe're, 



to fear. 

to be or keep silent 

to be wont. 

to be astonished. 



Defective Vei'hs ending in ere {sliort). 



dlgere, 


to be chill. 


rie'dere, 


to return. 


dngere, 


to afflict. 


scrj>ere, 


to creep. 


arrdgere, 
cdpere, 


to add. 
to contain. 


soffdlcere, ) 
soffdlgere, ) 


to support. 


cherere. 


to ask. 


tdnqere. 


to touch. 


coiwe'Here, 


to convulse. 


tdllere, 


to take away. 


fie'dere, 


to wound. 


tdrpere, 


to be benumbed 


Incere, 


to shine. 


lirgere, 


to urge. 


mdlcere, 


to assuage. 


vigere. 


to be vigorous. 



I 



Defective Ver'bs eliding in ire. 



ire, to go. 

gire, to go._ 

o/tre, to smell. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 247 



VARIATION OF DEFECTIVE VERBS. 

(These verbs are used only in the tenses and persons which are here given.) 

Calere. 
INFESriTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 
ealire, to care for. 



Past, 
essere caluto, to have cared for. 



GERUND. 

calaido, caring for. 

PARTICIPLE. 

cah'Uo, cared for. 



INDICATIVE MOOD 

Present, 
edle or cdl, he cares for. 



Imjjerfect. 
caleva or calea, he cared for. 



Pe7]fect. 
cAlse, he cared for. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Present. 
cXglia, that he care for. 



Imperfect. 
caMsse, if he cared for. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

cAglia dglii let him care for. 



Calere is generally used with the conjunctive pronouns mi, tiy 
ct, VI, gli : thus, tni cak, I care for ; ci caleva, we cared for ; 
etc. 



248 ITALIAN GRAIUMAR. 



Colere or Colere. 

INEINITIVE MOOD. 

colere or colere^ to adore. 

INDICATR^ MOOD. 

Present. 



!e6lo\ I adore. 

cdle), he adores. 



Lec^re and Lic^re, or Lecere and Licere. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

leeere and licere^ to be lawful. | essere lecito or I'lcito* to be lawfoL 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
Icce or lice, it is lawful. 



Pav^re. 

INEINITIVE MOOD. 

pavere, to fear. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
pave, he fears. 



Silere. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

silere, to be or keep silent. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



$Ui, thou art or keepest silent.- 

sile, he is or keeps silent. 



• • • 



* From this form are derived e Irdto, it is lawful ; era or fit lecito, it was lawful ; 
sard lecito, it will be lawful ; etc., which are used to supply the tenses in which lecere Ls 
defective. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



249 



$ol6re, 



BdGLIO, 

bu(5li, 
bu(3le (idle), 



Soldre. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

to be wont. | essere solito^ 

GERUND. 

solendo, being wont. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



I am wont, 
thou art wont. 
he is wont. 



sogliAmo (soldmo), 

solete, 

S(5gliono, 



Imperfect. 
\o soleva or solea, I was wont. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
io S(5glia, that I am wont or may be wont. 

Imperfect. 
ko solessi, if I were wont or should be wont. 



Stupdre. 

INEmiTIVE MOOD. 

stupere, to be astonished. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
stupe, he is astonished. 



Algere. 



to be wont. 



we are wont, 
you are wont, 
they are wont. 



dlsi, 

eUgdsttf 

dlsCf 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

algere, to be chill. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Perfect. 



I was chill. 


algemmo, 


thou wast chill. 


algcste, 


he was chill. 


dlsero, 



we were chill, 
you were chill, 
they were chill. 



250 



ITALIiVN GEAjM]V£4R. 



Angere. 



IKFINITIVE MOOD. 

angere, to afflict. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. j Imperfect, 

ingCf it afflicts. j angeva, it afflicted. 



Arrogere. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

arrogere, to add. 



arrdge. 



ARU681, 
arrogesti, 
AIlli6SE, 



GERUND. 

arr agendo, adding. 

PARTICIPLE. 
AEr6to or arr6so, added. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



he adds. 



arrogiamo, 
arrogono, 



Imperfect. 



to arrogeva or arrogca, I added 



Perfect. 



I added, 
thou addedst. 
he added. 



arrogemtno, 

arrogeste, 

AJiR(5SEKO, 



we add. 
they add. 



we added, 
you added, 
they added. 



Capere. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

capere, to contain. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. I Iniperfect. 

cape, it contains. | capcva, it contained 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 



251 



Chdrere. 



chero, 
chere. 



rNTINITIVE MOOD. 

chererey to ask, 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



I ask. 
he asks. 



Conv^llere. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

convcllere, to convulse. 

GEKUND. 

convellendo, convulsing. 

PARTICIPLE. 

CONVtrLSO, convulsed. 



conveUe. 

eonveUcva or -/e'a, 
eonvellerdy 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 
he convulses. | convcllono, they convulse. 

Imperfect. 
he convulsed. ] convellevano or -Icano, they convulsed- 

Future. 
he shall convulse. | convellerdnno, they shall convulse 



convellesse. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Imperfect. 

I convelldsserOf 



if he convulsed. 



if they convulsed. 



eonveUerebbe, 



CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

P^'esent. 
he should convulse. | convellercbbero, 



they should convulse. 



252 



ITALIAI^ GRAMMAS. 



Jiedi, 
fiide^ 



Fi^dere. 
INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Jicdere^ to wound. 

GERUND. 

Jiedendo^ wounding. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, 



I wound, 
thou woundest. 
he wounds. 



fiedono, 



Imperfect. 
to fiedeva or fiedea^ I wounded. 

Perfect, 
fied&i^ I wounded. 



they wound. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
Preient. 



\o fiida ifi^ggia)^ that I wound. 
iglijiedia ifeggia), that he wound. 



Jiddano, 



Imperfect. 
io fedessi, If I wounded. 



that they wound. 



DEFECTIVE VEEBS. 



253 



Lucere. 

INEINITIVE MOOD 

lucere^ to shine. 





GEEIIND. 






lucendo, shining. 






INDICATIVE MOOD. 






Present. 




• • 


• • • • 


lucidme. 


•we shine. 


w«, 


thou shinest. 


Incite, 


you shine. 


Uiu, 


he shines. 


« • • 


• • • • 




Imperfect. 






io luceva, I shone. 






Perfect. 




• • • 


lucemmoy 


we shone. 


luUsti^ 


thou shinest. luceste, 
Future. 


you shone 




lucerd, I shal 


[ or will shtne. 





igH (/tfca), 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that he shine. 



luc'idmo, 

luc'idte, 
(lucano), 



that we shine, 
that you shine, 
that they shine. 



Imperfect. 
io lucissi, if I shone or should shine. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

Present 
lueer&i {J,ucer\,a\ if I should, would, or could shine, or might shine. 



M6lcere. 
IKFINITIVE MOOD. 

mdlcere, to assuage. 



mdlci, 
tndlce. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 



thou assuagest. 
he assuages. 



Imperfect. 

io molcdva, I assuaged. 

molcevi, thou assuagedst. 

dgli molcdva^ ho assuaged. 



22 



254 



ITALIAN GEAJyilHAIl. 



Kinder e. 
ESTFINITIVE MOOD. 

riedere, to return. 





INDICATIVE MOOD. 




P?'esen<. 


riedo, 
riedi, 
riede. 


I return, 
thou retumest. 
he returns. 


• « • 

riedono. 




Imperfect. 


io riedeva or nedia^ 

riedevi, 

egli riedevaj 


I returned, 
thou returnedst. 
he returned. 


• • « • 

• ■ • • 

riedevano, 



io riida, 
tu rieda, 
igli rieda^ 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preserit. 



that I return, 
that thou return, 
that he return. 



riedano, 



they return. 



they returned. 



• • 



that they return. 



S^rpere. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

sirpere, to creep. 







GERUND. 






serpendo, creeping. 






INDICATIVE MOOD. 








Present. 




serpo, 
Scrpi, 
serpe, 


I creep, 
thou creepest. 
he creeps. 




• • • 

• • • 

serpono^ 


m • 
• • 

they ci 






Imperfect. 




to serp6va, 
serpevi, 
egli serpiva, 


I crept, 
thou creptest. 
he crept. 




• • • • 

• « • • 
serpevano, 


• • • 

• • 
they 01 



U> serpa, 
tu sirpa, 
igli serpa, 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



that I creep, 
that thou creep, 
that he creep. 



serpano, 



that they creep. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 255 



SofFolcere or Soffolgere. 
IKFINITIVE MOOD. 

soffdlcere or soffolgere-, to support. 

PARTICIPLE. 

soffolto, supported. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. . Perfect, 

toffdlce or soffdlge^ he supports. 1 soffdlse, he supported. 



Tdngere. 



INPINITIVE MOOD. 

tdngere, to touch. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
tange, he touches. 



T6Uere. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

tdllere, to take away. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



tdUi, thou takest away. 

tdllcy he takes away. 



• • 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

tu tdlla, that thou take away. I • • • . • 

igli tdlla. that he take away. | ....• ••!.• 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

tdlla egli, let him take away. 

Estdlhre (to lift), compound of tdllere, is defective only in the participle, 
and in all the persons of the perfect of the indicative. 



256 ITAI.IAN GRAMMAE. 



T(5rpere. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

t6rpere, to become numb. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, 

tdrpo, I become numb. ' 

tdrpcj he becomes numb. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present, 



to tdrpa, that I become numb. 

tu tdrpa, that thou become numb. 

igli tdrpa^ that he become numb. 



IJrgere. 

INEINITIVE MOOD. 

^rgere, to urge. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
urge, he urges. 
Imperfect. 

igli urgiva or urgia, he urged. | urg&vano, they urged. 



Vlgere. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Vlgere, to be vigorous. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
v'tge, he is vigorous. 

Future, 
vtgerd, it will be vigorouB. 



DEFECTIVE VERBS. 257 



Gire. 
rNTINITIVE MOOD. 

g-irg, to go. 

PARTICIPLE. 

gito, gone. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 



'.'.'.'.'. 


giamo, 
gitey 

• • • 


we go. 
you go. * 

• * « 


Imperfect. • 




giva or gia, I went. 




Perfect. 




io git, I went. 




Future. 




giro, I shall or will go. 




SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 


• 


Present. 




• • • • 

• « • 

• • • 


g'iamOj 
gidte, 

• • m 


that we go or may go. 

that you go. 



Imperfect. 
io gissi, if I went or should go. 

CONDITIONAL MOOD. 

girdt, gtria, I should, would, or could go, or might go. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



g'iamOj let us go. 

gite, go ye. 



22* 



258 



ITALIAN GRAMaiAR. 



Ire. 



INTINITIVE MOOD. 

ire, to go. 

PARTICIPLE. 

ito, gone. 



to im^ 
igli ivUf 



isiif 



I went 
he went. 



thou wentest. 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present, 
ite, you go. 

Imperfect. 

ivano, 



Perfect. 



(iro, Ir), 



Future. 



tremo, 

ircte, 

ircino. 



we went 



they went. 



we shall or will go 
you will go. 
they will go. 



CONDITIONAL MOOD, 
(triano), they should, would, or oould go, or might go. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

tte, go ye. 



Olfre. 



io oViva, 


I smelled. 


olivi, 


thou smelledst 


igli oliva, 


he smelled. 



INFINITIVE MOOD. 

olire, to smell. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 
Imperfect. 



ol'ivano, 



th«y smelled. 



PROVERBS. 



259 



PEOYERBS. 



A word to the wise is enough, 

All tliat is fair must fade, 

A ragged coat finds little credit. 



good 



Any thing for a quiet life, 
A great liar has need of a 

memory, 
An old horse for a young soldier, 
A buttered Tuoutli cannot say no, 
A good appetite needs no sauce, 
A good beginning makes a good 

ending, 
A barking dog does not bite, 
A vokmtaiy burden is no burden, 
A gold key opens every door, 
A fat kitclien, a lean testament, 
A new broom sweeps clean, 
Aught is better than naught. 
All is not gold that glitters, 
A sin confessed is half forgiven, 

A little spark kindles a great fire, 
A rolling stone gathers no moss, 
A little gall makes a great deal of 

honey bitter. 
As you would have a daughter, 

choose a wife, 
Anger increases love, 
All's well that ends well, 
A married man is a caged bird, 
An ounce of discretion is worth 

more than a pound of knowl- 
edge, 
A lasting stomach has no ears, 
After the horse is stolen, shut the 

barn-door, 
A bird in the hand is worth two in 

the bush, 
T5end the tree while it is young. 
Better late than never, 
Better a happy heart than a full 

purse. 
Better bend than break. 
Better give the wool than the sheep, 
Big head and little wit, 



A buon intenditdr pdche parole. 

Bella cdsa tdsto e rapita. 

A veste logorata pdca fdde vien pres- 

tata. 
Alia pace si puo sacrificar tiitto. 
A un gran bugiardo ci vudl budna 

memuria. 
A gidvane soldato ve'cchio cavallo. 
Bocca unta non puo dir di no. 
Budn appetito non vudl salsa. 
Budn principio fa buon fine. 

Can che abbaia non mdrde. 
Carica volontiiria non carica. 
Chiave d'dro apre ogni porta. 
Grassa cucina, magro testamento. 
Granata nudva spazza ben la casa. 
Meglio e pdco che nie'nte. 
Oro non e tutto quel che risplende. 
Peccato confessato e mezzo perdo- 

nato. 
Piccdla favilla accende gran fudco. 
Pietra mdssa non fa mvischio. 
Pdco fiele fa amaro mdlto miele. 

Qual figlia viioi, tal mdglie piglia. 

Sdegno aumenta amdre. 
Tutto e bene die riesce bene. 
Udmo ammogliato, uccello in gabbia. 
Val pill un' dncia di discrezidne che 
una libbra di sapere, 

Ventre digiiino non ode nessiino. 
Ddpo die i cavalli sdno presi, serrar 

la stalla. 
E meglio un uccello in gabbia die 

ce'nto fudri. 
Picga I'albero quando e gidvane. 
Meglio tardi che mai. 
E meglio il cudr fehce che la bdrsa 

plena, 
E meglio piegare che rdmpere. 
E meglio dar la lana che la pecora. 
Capo grasso, cervello magro. 



260 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR. 



Bad news travels fast, 
Counsel is nothing against love, 
Comparisons are odious, 
Christmas comes but once in a 

year, 
Do what you ought, come what 

may. 
Do not count your chickens before 

they are hatched, 
Delays are dangerous. 
Different times, different manners. 
Drop by drop wears away a stone, 
Do not look a gift horse in the 

mouth, 
Every thing is good in its season. 
Every dog is a lion at home, 
Every truth is not good to be told. 
Every body knows where his shoe 

pinches. 
Every one for himself, and God for 

us all, 
Every body praises his own saint. 
Every body 's friend, nobody 's friend. 
Every one thinks his own cross the 

heaviest, 
Extreme ills, extreme remedies, 
Friends in need are friends indeed. 
For a web begun, God sends thread. 
Fair words, but look to your purse, 
Four eyes see more than two, 
Fortune comes to him who seeks 

her. 
Forbidden fruit is sweet. 
Father Modest never was a prior, 
From those I trust, God guard me ; 

from those I mistrust, I will 

guard myself, 
God helps him who helps himself, 
Give to him that has. 
Give time, time, 
God sends meat, and the devil sends 

cooks, 
Great griefs are mute. 
Great smoke, little fire. 
Gold does not buy every thing, 
Good wine makes good blood. 
He who succeeds is reputed wise, 

He who knows nothing, knows 
enough if he knows how to be 
silent. 
He is blind who cannot see the sun. 
He who sings drives away sorrow, 



Le cattive nuove volano. 

Cdntro amore non e consiglio. 

I paragdni son tiltti odidsi. 

Natale non viene die una vdlta I'an- 

no. 
Fa quel che devi, n' arrivi cib che 

potra. 
Non far cdnto dell' udvo non ancdr 

nato. 
L' indugiare e pericdloso. 
Altri tempi, alti'i costumi. 
A g(jccia a gdccia si trafdra la pietra. 
A caval donato, non guardar in bdc- 

ca. 
Da stagidne tiitto e budno. 
6gni cane e ledne a casa sua. 
6gni vero non e budno a dire. 
Ognuno sa dove la scarpa lo stringe. 

Ognun per se, e Dio per tiitti. 

Ognuno Idda il prdprio santo. 
Amico d' ognuno, amico di nessiino. 
Ad ognuno par piii grave la crdv.'e 

siia. 
Ai mali estremi, estremi rimedi. 
A bisdgni si condscon gli amici. 
A tela ordita Dio raanda il filo. 
Belle pardle, ma guarda la bdrsa. 
Veddn pill quattr' dcchi che due. 
Vien la fortiina a chi la procura. 

I frutti proibiti sdno ddlci. 
Fra modesto non fu mai pridre. 
Da chi mi f ido, mi guardi Iddio ; da 
chi non mi f ido mi guardero io. 

Chi s'aiiita, Dio I'aiuta. 

Da del tiio a chi ha del siio. 

Da te'mpo al te'mpo. 

Dio ci manda la carne, ma il diavolo 

1 cudclii. 
I gran doldri sdno muti. 
Gran fumo, pdco arrdsto. 
L'dro non cdmpra tiitto. 
Budn vino fa budn sangue. 
A chi la riesce bene, e teniito pe* 

savio. 
Assai sa, chi non sa, se tacer sa. 



Ben e cieco chi non vede il sdle 
Chi canta, i sudi mali spaventa 



PROVERBS. 



261 



He who buys in time, buys cheap, 

He lauglis well who laughs last. 
Hear, see, and say nothing, if you 

would live in peace, 
He is master of another man's hfe 

who is indifterent to his own. 
He gives twice who gives in a trice. 
He who stands may tali, 
He that reckons without his host 

must reckon again. 
Hell is full of good intentions, 
Habit is a second nature. 
In at one ear, and out at the other, 

HI weeds grow apace. 

Look before you leap. 

Like master, like man, 

Live, and let live. 

Love me, love my dog. 

Love rules without law, 

Love me little, and love me long, 

Love knows not labor. 

Let him who is well oflf stay where 

he is. 
Long tongue, short hand. 
Marry in haste, repent at leisure. 
Many a true word spoken in jest, 

Much smoke and little fire. 

Make me a prophet, and I will make 

you rich. 
Nothing venture, nothing have. 
Nothing is difficult to a willing mind, 
Near the church, far from God. 
Old reckonings, new disputes, 
One enemy is too many, and a hun- 
dred friends are too few, 
One hand waslies the other, and 

both hands wash the face. 
One word brings another, 
One swallow does not make a sum- 
mer. 
One man warned is as good as two, 
Out of sight, out of mind, 

Poor as a church mouse. 

Poverty has no kin. 

Physician, heal th^^self, 

Pluck tlie rose and leave the thorns, 

Rather hat in liand than hand in 

purse, 
Roses grow among thorns, 



Chi cdmpra a tempo, cdmpra a budn 

mercato. 
Ride bene chi ride I'ultimo. 
6di, ve'di e taci se vudi viver in 

pace. 
E padrone della vita altriii chi la sua 

sprezza. 
Chi da presto, del il ddppio. 
Chi e ritto puo cadere. 
Chi fa il cdnto senza I'dste, gli con- 

vie'n farlo due vdlte. 
Di budna volonta e pieno I'inferno. 
L' abito e lina secdnda natura. 
De'ntro da un orecchio e fudri dall' 

altro. 
La mal erba cresce presto. 
Guarda innanzi che tu salti. 
Tal padrone, tal servitdre. 
Vivi, e lascia vivere. 
Chi ama me, ama il mio cane. 
Amdr re'gge senza legge. 
Amami pdco, ma continua. 
Amdr non condsce travaglio. 
Chi sta bene non si mudva. 

Lunga lingua, cdrta mano. 

Chi si marita in fre'tta, stenta adagio. 

Quel che pare burla, ben sovente h 

vero. 
Mdlto fumo e pdco fudco. 
Fammi indovino, e ti faro ricco. 

Chi non s'arrischi non guadagna. 
A chi vudle, non e cdsa difficile. 
Vicino alia chie'sa lontan di Di'o. 
A cdnti vecchi, contese nudve. 
E trdppo un nemico, e cento amici 

non bastano. 
tJna mano lava I'altra e tutt' e due 

lavano il viso. 
Una pardla tira I'altra. 
Un fidre non fa Primavera. 

Un avvertito ne val due. 

Lontano dagli dcchi, lontano del 

cudre. 
Povero cdme un tdpo in chiesa. 
Poverta non ha parenti. 
Medico, ciira te stesso. 
Cdgli la rdsa, e lascia le spine. 
Piutt()sto cappello in mano, che 

mano alia bdrsa. 
Anco tra le spine nascono le rdse. 



2G2 



ITALIAN GEAMMAE. 



Saying is one thing, and doing is 

another, 
Silence gives consent, 
Strike wliile the iron is hot, 
See Naples, and then die. 
Savings are the first gain, 
Seeing is beheving, 
Second thoughts are best. 
The full belly does not believe in 

hunger, 
To pay one in his own coin. 
Think much, speak little, and write 

less, 
Translators, traitors. 
The weakest goes to the wall, 
They say, is a liar. 
The people's voice, God's voice, 
To fall out of the frying-pan into 

the fire, 
The biter is sometimes bit. 
The world is governed with little 

brains, 
True love never grows old. 
The liar is not believed when he 

speaks the truth, 
The workman is known by his 

work. 
There is always a calm before a 

storm. 
The beard does not make the phi- 
losopher, 
There is no love without jealousy. 
There is no smoke without fire. 
The steed is starving whilst the 

grass is growing, 
The devil is not so ugly as he is 

painted. 

The best is the cheapest, 

Teacliing we learn. 

To cast pearls before swine. 

The earth covers the errors of the 

physician, 
There is no disputing about tastes, 
The doctor seldom takes medicine, 
The world was not made in one day, 
'J ell me the company you keep, and 

I will tell you what you are, 
Whoever brings, finds the door open 

for him, 
Where there is a will, there's a 

way. 
Well begun is half done, 



Altra cdsa e il dire, altra il fare. 

Chi face, acconsente. 

Batti il ferro quand' e caldo. 

Vedi Napoli e poi muori. 

Lo sparagno e il prirao guadagno. 

Chi con I'dcchio vede, di cudr credo. 

II secdndo pensie'ro e il miglidre. 

Cdrpo satdllo uon crede al digiiino. 

Pagar uno della sua prdpria moneta. 
Pensa mdlto, parla pdco, scrivi meno. 

Traduttdri, traditdri. 
Se'mpre ha tdrto il piu debole. 
Si dice, e mentitdre. 
Vdce di pdpolo, voce di Die. 
Cader della padella nelle bragie. 

Chi burla, vien burlato. 

Con pdco cervello si governa il 

mdndo. 
Amdr vero non diventa canuto. 
Al bugiardo non si crede la verita. 

All dpera si condsce il maestro. 

La bonaccia burrasca minaccia. 

La barba non fa il fildsofo. 

Non c'e amdr senza gelosiia. 

Non c'e f urn o senza fudco. 

Me'ntre I'e'rba cre'sce il cavallo mucJre 

di fame. 
II diavolo non e cdsi brutto come si 

dipinge. 

II miglidre e men caro. 

Lisegnando s'impara. 

Gettar le margherite ai pdrci. 

Gli errdri del me'dico gli cdpre la 

terra. 
Dei giisti non se ne disputa. 
Di rado il medico piglia medicina. 
In un gidrno non si fe' Rdma. 
Dimmi con chi tratti, e ti dir6 chi seL 

Aperta ha la pdrta chiunque appdrta. 

A chi vudle, non mancano mddi. 

Budn principio e la meta dell' dpra. 



IDIOMS. 



263 



Wlio does too much often does little, 
Who knows most believes least, 
Who comes seldom is welcome. 
While there is lite, there is hope, 
Who knows nothing never doubts, 
What's done can't be undone, 
What costs little is little valued. 
Who judges others condemns him- 
self, 



Spesso chi trdppo fa, pdco fa. 
Chi pill sa, mena crede. 
Chi raro viene, vien bene. 
Finche v'e fisito, v'e speranza. 
Chi niente sa, di niente dubita. 
Quel che e fatto non si pub disfare. 
Que'llo che cdsta pdco, si stima pdco. 
Chi altri giildica se condanna. 



IDIOMS. 



Non vale un dcca, 

A beir agio, 

Mangiar carne d' allddola, 

Fare alto e basso, 

Amico da bonaccia, 

E air articolo di mdrte, 

Dar la bdia, 

Da bdsto e sella, 

In un batter d' dcchio, 

Dirizzare il becco agli sparvieri, 

Andare di bene in raeglio, 

Un udmo da bene, 

Dir del be'ne, 

Mi convien berla, 

Teller 1' anima co' denti, 

Dal de'tto al fatto v' e un gran tratto, 

Chi ddrme non pi'glia pe'sci, 
Questa cdsa non m' e'ntra, 
Non e e'rba del vdstro drto, 
Mangiarsi 1' e'rba sdtto, 
Ascdnder 1' amo nell' ^sca, 

Le cdse sdno in budn essere, 

Kssere all' estremo della vita, 

Stare all' erta, 

Esser di budna bocca, 

Favellare con le inani, 

Non nverjieie, 

Yax fildre lino, 

Pagar '\\fio, 

Dare ad uno carta bianca. 

Fia tre gidrni. 



It is not worth a pin. 

Leisurely. 

To take pleasure in being praised. 

To do as one pleases. 

A table friend. 

He is at the point of death. 

To laugh at. 

Fit for any thing. 

In an instant. 

To attempt impossibilities. 

To grow better and better. 

A good honest man. 

To speak well of a person. 

I must bear it. 

To be almost dead. 

To say and to do are two diflferent 

things. 
Idleness begets poverty. 
I do not comprehend this. 
This is not of your own making. 
To spend what one has. 
To deceive one under the color of 

friendship. 
Things are in a good way. * 

To be at the point of death. 
To be upon one's guard. 
To be a great eater. 
To strike. 

To be good-natured. 
To make one do what you please. 
To pay dear for. 
To give one full power. 
In three days. 



264 



ITALIAN GKAMMAR. 



Dolersi di gdmha sana, 
Darla a gdmbe, 
Vincere ta gdra, 
Con bel gdrbo, 
Fare la gdtta morta, 
Come m^glio vi aggrdda, 
Imbarcdrsi senza biscdtto, 

i!i impost at di vizj, 
Vendere all' incdnto, 
Dar r incenso a' mdrti, 
11 tiio inchidstro ndn tigne, 
Mostrare altrui lucciole per lanteme, 

In casa sua v' e il Idtte di gaUina, 

Uno mano Idva V altra, 

Legdrsela al dito, 

Tenere in Zt&ra, 

Dare in luce, 

Venire mdnco, 

Uscir del mdnico, 

Far un viarrdne, 

Mettere alia vela, 

Mirdre con la coda ^ell' dcchio, 

Ti faro mdrdere le unghie, 

Mutdr verso, 

Dar r ultima mano, 

Fudr di mano, 

Essere alia mano, 

Avere la mano, 

]\Ietter mano ad una cdsa, 

Imbottar nd)bia, 

Testa di pollastra. 

Fare il becco all' dca, 

(5cchio mio. 

In un batter d' dcchio, 

A quattr' dcchi, 

Va in budn dra, 

Far orecchie di mercante, 

Tutto' 1 mdndo e jm^se, 

Col tempo e cdlla pdglia maturano 
le nespole, 

Star si ne' prdpii pdnni, 

Cavar le penne maestre, 

La vdstra opinidne non mi quddra, 

Qiidsto e il qudnto, 

Di qudndo in quando, 

Dar nella ragnatela, 

Menar tutti a rastrdllo, 

Render I'anima, 

Ridere agli angeli. 

Ha pdco sdle in zucca, 



: f-c u 



To complain without reason. 

To run away. 

To carry the prize. 

In a civil manner. 

To dissemble. 

As you think fit. 

To undertake a thing without 
means. 

He is very vicious. 

To sell by auction. 

To make almanacs for the last year. 

Your credit is not good. 

To make one believe that the moon 
is made of green cheese. 

In his house they always eat of the 
best. 

To help one another. 

To owe one a spite. 

To keep in suspense. 

To pubUsh. 

To faint. 

To be extravagant. 

To make a mistake. 

To set sail. n f A 

To cast sheeps' eyes. 6c^/<:»J,«^<'^r**^ 

I'U make you repent it. ^^a-^A" 

To alter the course of one's life. 9^^ ' 

To finish. ^ 

Out of the way. 

To be ready. 

To have the advantage. 

To begin a thing. 

To lose time. 

Giddy brained. 

To finish any work. 

My darling. 

In an instant. 

Face to face. 

God speed you. 

To give no ear. 

One may live everywhere. 

Time brings every thing to matu- 
rity. 

To be contented with what one has. 

To take away the best one has. 

I am not of your opinion. 

This is the point. 

Now and then. 

To fall into a snare. 

To use all ahke. 

To give up the ghost. 

To laugh at nothing. 

He has not a great deal of judgment. 



IDIOMS. 



265 



J a gallina che canta e quella che ha 

fatto I'udvo, 
Venir la schhima alia bocca, 
Levarsi all' alba de' tafani, 
Chi tdrdi arriva male allijggia, 

Ten&e il piede in due stafFe, 

Piglidr gli ucceUiui, 

Ucc€l da valle, 

Ugner le mani, 

Far venir I'acqua all' ugola, 

Vedere il pel nell' u6vo, 

Dar le vele a' venti, 

A vela e remo, 

Venflemmia mentra hai tempo, 

La candela e al v&de, 

La verita sta sempre a gala, 

I miei afFari hanno preso budna 

piega, 
Nascer vestito, 
Zdra a chi tdcca, 
Far d'una lancia un zipolo, 
Cantare ad lino la zdlfa, 



The man who is too earnest in jus- 
tifying himself is guilty. 

To be in a great passion. 

To rise late. 

Those who come too late must kiss 
the cook. 

To have two strings to one's bow. 

To play the fool. 

A sly man. 

To bribe one with money. 

To make the mouth water. 

To be clear-sighted. 

To set sail. 

With all speed. 

Get money while you can. « 

The candle is almost out. 

Truth always prevails at last. 

My affairs are going on successfully. 

To be born lucky. 

Let every one care for himself. 

To make a little out of a great deal 

To chide. 



266 



ITALIAN GRAMMAK. 



I 



ITALIAN AND ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ahhdglio, mistake. 
accdnto, aside. 
dcqua, water. 
adddsso, on, upon. 
off anno, grief. 
affdtto, entirely. 
afft'lto, good-will, kind- 
~~" ness. 
dgo, needle. 
alba, dawn. 
dlhero, tree. 
alldra, then. 
alldro, laurel. 
dlma, soul. 
nJmdno, at least. 
al par, equal, alike. 
alte'ro, proud. 
ditro, other. 
amardzza, bitterness. 
diaho, both. 
amicizia, friendship. 
amico, friend. 
amistdde, friendship. 
dmo, fish-hook. 
amdre, iove. 
ancdlla, waiting-maid. 
andlito, panting. 
anello, a ring. 
dnima, soul. 
dnimo, courage, mind. 
aiimnti, panting. 
antico, ancient. 
apertvra, hole, gap. 
dqidla, eagle. 
ardtro, plough. 
arcdno, secret. 
ardente, hot, burning. 
arena, sand, gravel. 
arc/enfo, silver. 
ascdso, hidden. 
aspetto, aspect. 
assenndto, sensible. 
astdnte, by-stander. 
astro, star. 
augeJIetto, small bird. 



dura, gale, breeze. 
aveilo, grave, tomb. 
avvendnza, comeliness. 
avvemre, future. 
avvertenza, precaution. 
avviso, advice. 

Bdcio, a kiss. 
halena, whale. 
bdllo, ball. 

bambino, child, infant. 
bandito, an outlaw. 
beUezza, beauty. 
belta, beauty. 
benche, although. 
5/ccA/^/'e,drinking-glass. 
bde, anger, passion. 
bidndo, fair, light. 
birbdnte, vagabond. 
bisdgno, need, want. 
bizzdrro, whimsical. 
bdrgo, suburb. 
bdrsa, a purse, bag. 
bdsco, a wood. 
bottdga, shop. 
brdccio, an arm. 
brdndo, sword. 
brezza, cold, breeze. 
brina, frost. 
bruno, brown, dark. 
brutto, ugly. 
bugia, a lie. 
budi, oxen. 
burrdsca, tempest. 
burro, butter. 

Cdccia, hunting. 
cdgna, dog. 
cdlca, confusion. 
calvezza, baldness. 
cdlvo, bald. 
cdlza, stocking. 
cambiavalute, broker. 
cammino, way, road. 
cdinpo, field 



canto, song. 
canzdne, song. 
capdnna, cottage. 
capelli, pan. 
cdro, dear. 
cdrne, meat. 
carabina, carbine. 
carezza, caress. 
carnejice, executioner, 
cdrta, paper. 
cascdta, cascade. 
cdso, case. 
catena, chain. 
cdttedrale, cathedral. 
caftivo, bad. 
cdido, wary, cautious. 
cdvo, hollow. 
ce'na, supper. 
cdnere, ashes, cinders. 
ce'ppo, stump, log. 
cdra, wax. 
ce'rto, certain, sure. 
cetra, cithem. 
cervdlo, brain. 
c.he'io, quiet, still. 
chidro, clear, fair. 
chidve, key. 
chiardre, brightness, 

clearness. 
china, declivity. 
chiddo, nail. 
chitdn-a, guitar. 
ciabbaftmo, cobbler. 
cibo, food. 
cieco, blind, 
cie1o, sky, heaven. 
cima, top, summit. 
cinghidle, a wild boar. 
cittadino, citizen. 
cdda, tail. 

cognizidne, knowledge. 
cogndto, brother in-law. 
colazidne, br(iakfast. 
cdJle, hill. 
cd/lera, anger. 



ITALIAN iVND ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



267 



Tohivatdre, farmer. 

cuucorre'nza, competi- 
tion. 

coniadino, peasant. 

(•onto, account. 

contrdda, country. 

roncito, banquet, feast. 

ccippa, cup. 

vartuui, curtain. 

ajstilme, custom, man- 
ner. 

cniccio, anguish. 

cHcina, kitchen. 

culla, cradle. 

cadre, lieart. 

citpidigia, covetousness. 

ciipo, deep. 

Dahbene, good, honest. 
ddndro, money. 
dditto, crime. 
dc'l'ole, weak. 
defto, word. 
iti, day. 
dife'tto, fault. 
disgrdzia, misfortune. 
ddrjlia, grief, pain. 
dSlce, sweet. 
dolcezza, sweetness. 
ddno, gift. 
donzkda, damsel. 
ddtto, skilful, learned. 
droghiere, druggist. 
dnfto, right, straight. 
diio/o, grief, pain. 

Ehbre'zza, drunkenness. 

e'lmo, helmet. 

e'lsa, the hilt of a sword. 

entrduihi, both. 

erdrio, the treasury. 

erba, grass. 

erbdso, grassy. 

e7-('de, the heir. 

e7-de, hero. 

etrdnte, wandering. 

e'lio, steep, ascent. 

estdte, summer season. 

eta, age. 

etdde, age. 

ct&ee, ethereal. 

Fdccia, face. 



/dice, scythe. 

fdilo, fault. 

fdme, hunger. 

farfdlla, butterfly. 

fata, fairy. 

fatica, fatigue. 

fato, fate, destiny. 

Javella, discourse, 
speech. 

f<fde, faith. 

ferro, iron. 

Jidinma, flame. 

Jidnco, side. 

Jidto, breath. 

fico, fig. 

Jiddnza, trust, hope, 

ficjura, figure, shape. 

Jiyliuolo, son. 

Jie'ro, cruel, savage. 

Jieuole, feeble, weak. 

Jidre, flower. 

Jidcco, tassel, flake of 
snow. 

JiscJu'dta, whistling. 

Jidrido, flowery. 

fdlla, crowd. 

fdrte, strong. 

frettoldso, hasty. 

fuhjido, bright. 

fumo, smoke. 

fune, a rope. 

ftidco, fire. 

faribdndo, like a mad- 
man. 

GdlJo, a cock. 
(jelo, ice. 
geiido, frozen. 
geiiu'to, groan. 
gemcbdndo, groaning, 
genere, gender, kind. 
genitdre, father. 
g€nte, people. 
gindcchio, a knee. 
gidja, joy, a jewel. 
gidvno, day. 
gidvane, young, 
gioventu, youth. 
giuhilo, rejoicing. 
giitbild/tte, merry-mak- 
ing. 
giiidfzio, judgment. 
giurame'nto, oath. 



giustizia, justice. 
gdbbo, hunch-backed. 
gdla, the throat. 
gdta, clieek. 
graddsso, a boaster. 
gragnudki, hail. 
grdsso, fat. 
gi-dta, grate, an iron 

grate. 
grido, cry. 
grifdgno, rapacious. 
gudi, woe. 
gudncia, cheek. 
gudrdo, look, sight. 
gudsto, spoiled, havoc. 
gueiriero, warrior. 
guiderddne, reward. 

Igndto, unknown. 
imbandigidne, setting of 

dishes on the table 

at a feast. 
ingdiiuo, deceit, fraud. 
indovina, fortune-teller. 
inge'gno, wit, art, skill. 
intdrno, about. 
inverno, winter. 
invidia, envy. 

La, there. 
Idbbro, lip, 
Idcrima, a tear. 
Iddro, thief. 
laggiu, below. 
larva, ghost. 
Idto, side. 
lavdro, work. 
li'gge, law. 
legume, pulse. 
le'nto, slow. 
lettdre, reader. 
le've, light. 
libbra, pound. 
lido, bank, shore. 
lie'to, merry, cheerful. 
Ue've, lightly. 
lingua, tongue, lan- 
guage. 
lite, strife. 
Idgoro, worn out. 
Idrdo, dirty. 
luccnte, shining. 
lume, light. 



268 



ITALIAN GRA3IMAR. 



liingo, long. 
ludgo, place. 
lusinyhiero, flattering. 
liistro, lustre. 

Macilente, tliin. 

magia, magic. 

vidglia, mail, armor, a 

net. 
mdgro, lean. 
male, ill. 

vialattia, sickness. 
tnalo'ri, ills. 
vialdra, ruin. 
mdnto, cloak. 
vwre, sea. 
marito, husband. 
viariudlo, a clieat. 
masceUa, jaw-bone. 
7nasndda, a crowd of 

soldiers. 
mciio, less. 
me'nte, mind. 
ine'nsa, table. 
mentre, whilst. 
mercanzia, goods. 
merlettl, lace. 
viesdiinello, poor. 
mestizia, melancholy. 
mdsto, sad. 
vieta, moiety. 
mezzo, middle, midst. 
miglidia, thousands. 
mlnestra, soup. 
viiserki, misery. 
mddo, manner. 
mdglie, wife. 
mdlle, tender. 
mone'ta, money. 
mdndo, world. 
mdrso, bit. 

monidgna, mountain. 
md7ie, death. 
77tdlo, motion. 
motteggiatdre, a jester. 
mulino, mill. 

Ndno, a dwarf. 
ndso, nose. 
nutdle, nativity. 
ndto, son, child. 
nave, ship. 
ne, of it, of them. 



iiebhia, mist, fog. 
nemico, enemy. 
nequizia, wickedness. 
ndve, snow. 
niente, nothing. 
ndja, weariness. 
ndce, walnut-tree. 
ndtte, night. 
ndzze, marriage. 
niibe, cloud. 
nuvda, cloud. 

Occulto, hidden. 

olezzo, odor. 

dltre, besides. 

dmbra, shadow. 

diida, wave. 

dra, an hour, now, at 

present. 
orgdglio, haughtiness. 
drdine, order. 
orie'ide, east. 
dnna, track, trace. 
oriudlo, watch. 
dro, gold. 
drso, bear. 

oscuro, obscure, dark. 
dsso, bone. 
ostello, tavern. 

Pace, peace. 
jxtese, country. 
paldgio, palace. 
pdhna, palm. 
palude, marsh. 
pd7ica. bench. 
paragdne, comparison, 
pnre're, opinion. 
pd7'i, equal. 
pardla, word. 
pdrroco, pastor. 
pdsco, pasture. 
pdsqxia, easter, pass- 
over. 
passcggio, a walk. 
pdsto, food. 
pdtto, bargain. 
pazzia, folly. 
pdzzo, mad. 
peggio, worse. 
pd>m, punishment. 
pendso, painful. 
pensie'ro, thought. 



pe'ntola, pot. 
perche, why, because. 
pericolo, danger. 
perdnne, perennial. 
pesce, fish. 
pe'ssimo, worst. 
petto, breast. 
pezzo, piece. 
pio, pious. 
piano, plain. 
pidnto, tears. 
piazza, square. 
piccino, little one. 
pie'tra, stone. 
pigidne, house-rent. 
pidggia, rain. 
pittdi'e, painter. 
piihnn, down, feathers. 
pdco, little. 
podagra, the gout. 
podere, farm, power. 
podesta, power, domin- 
ion. 
pdggio, hill. 
pdi, then. 
poiche, since. 
pdlvere, dust. 

po7iierididne, post-meri* 
dian. 

pdrco, hog. 

pdrpora, purple. 

portame'/ito, carriage. 

pote'nza, power. 

pote're, power. 

poltrd7ie, poltroon. 

pdzzo, a well. 

prdto, meadow. 

pre'dica, sermon. 

premio, recompense. 

pre7)mra, importance. 

p7-esciutto, ham. 

pi^esso, near. 

p7'e7ice, prince. 

pri7naveia, spring. 

progetto, project. 

prodezza,ipTowess,ya.\oT 

p7'dp7-io, proper. 

piigTidle, poniard. 

pTire, yet. 

Qua, here. 
quaggiu, down here. 
qudlche, some. 



ITALIAN AND ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



269 



qualunqne, whoever. 
qiiaresinia, lent. 
quasi, almost. 
quassu, here above. 

Rddo, rare, scarce. 
rd(/t/io, beam, ray. 
ra(//dne, reason, faculty. 
rumo, branch. 
rdme, copper. 
7'e, king. 
red/lie, kingdom. 
r^dina, rein of a bridle. 
regdlo, present, gift. 
regina, queen. 
re'gola, rule, regimen. 
ricchezza, riches. 
ride''}te, smiling. 
rii,r inbrdnza, remem- 

i) ranee. 
rfij, crook, wicked. 
ripieno, full. 
riso, laughter. 
ritrdfto, portrait. 
riva, shore. 
r6zzo, rough. 
romita, hermitess. 
rugidda, dew. 
ruggine, rust. 

Sdggio, sage, wise. 
sd!a, a hall. 
sal dine, sftusage. 
sdlice, willow-tree. 
sdngae, blood. 
saj)u'nte, learned. 
sdsso, stone. 
scd'c, stairs. 
scdpolo, not married. 
scdr/ia, a shoe. 
scdrso, rare. 
sceinpio, simple. 
sche'nio, raillery. 
schidffo, a box or cutf 

on the ear. 
schicra, a troop. 
sconfitta, defeat. 
scop^rta, discovery. 
sciido, a sliield. 
scuro, dark. 
sdegno, anger. 
$h, himself, herself. 
se'colo, a century. 



secco, dry. 
sega, saw. 
segno, sign. 
segrAo, secret. 
selva, wood. 
seinbidnza, face, look. 
seinprc, always. 
se'iino, judgment. 
senso, sense. 
sentiero, path. 
seta, silk. 
simile, equal. 
sito, situ;ition, seat. 
scdve, sweet, agreeable. 
sdgno, a dream. 
sdlito, accustomed. 
sdmmo, top, height. 
sdnno, sleep. 
sdrcio, a mouse. 
sorriso, smile. 
sdrte, destiny. 
sospiro, a sigh. 
sdtto, under. 
spdda, a sword. 
spdsso, amusement. 
specie, sort. 
spe'ine, hope. 
sperdnza, hope. 
spe'sso, often. 
spina, a thorn. 
sp&jlia, clothes. 
spdnda, shore. 
spdrco, dirty. 
squall dre, paleness. 
stancltezza, weariness. 
Stella, star. 
stivdie, boot. 
strep ito, noise. 
Strega, witch. 
subito, quick. 
succo, juice, sap. 
sudlo, earth, grovmd. 
sudno, sound, noise. 

Tale, such, like. 
tdrdi, late. 
tdzza, a cup. 
tedffsco, a German. 
te'nia, fear. 
te'nebre, darkness. 
terra, earth. 
te'sta, the head. 
tdro, bull. 

23* 



tdrtora, a turtle-dove. 
tdsto, quick. 
tra, between. 
tr^cce, tress of hair. 
tribolo, sorrow, a tliistle. 
trdno, throne. 
tutto, all. 

Uccdlo, bird. 
uffizio, office. 
udmini, men. 
usdo, passage. 

Vdcca, cow. 
vdgo, fine, handsome. 
vdmpo, a flame, flush. 
vdno, vain, empty. 
vdso, vessel, pot. 
v^cchio, an old man. 
ve'ce, (in), instead. 
vdo, veil. 

veitro, a grayhound. 
ve'nto, wind. 
Ventura, fortune, luck. 
vergdgna, shame. 
ve'rno, winter. 
ve'ro, truth. 

verdne, gallery, balcony. 
vestito, clothes. 
vezzo, pastime, pleasure 
via, way, road. 
vicino, near. 
villdggio, village. 
vilta, cowardice. 
vinte, vanquished, per- 
suaded. 
vista, sight. 
viso, face. 
vita, life. 
vittdria, victory. 
vivdnda, victuals. 
vdglia, mind, desire. 
vdio, flight. 
vdlpe, fox. 
volpino, cunning. 
vdlta, turn, revolution, 
vdlto, face. 

Zingara, gypsy. 
zimbeilo, allurement. 
zifto, hush, silence. 
zdlla, clod, lump. 
zdppo, lame. 



270 



ITALIAN GKA3IMAR. 



ENGLISH AND ITALIAN VOCABULARY. 



Accident, accid^nte. 
acquaintance, conosc^- 

za. 
fict (action), dtto. 
ai nil irable, ammirdbile. 
ailvantage, vantdggio. 
adversity, avversita. 
advocate, avvocdto. 
age, eta, secolo. 
ago, a while ago, long 

ago, qxidlche tempo fa, 

iiidlto tempo fa. 
agreeable, piace'vole. 
ainiiglity, onnipot^nte. 
aioud, fdrte. 
although, benche. 
always, sempre. 
ambition, ambizidne. 
ancient, anzidno. 
anger, sd^gno. 
answer, rispdsta. 
apjiearance, appar€nza, 

fdccia. 
apple, pdmo or inela. 
architect, archite'tto. 
army, ese'rcito. 
art, arte. 

assiduous, assiduo. 
astonishment, stiipdre. 
auditors, ascoltatdri. 
author, autdre. 
away, via. 

Back, ddsso. 
baker, forndio- 
lialdness, calvdzza. 
\ mWooxi, palldne. 
! anker, banchiere. 
bargain, contrdtto. 
base, vile. 
battle, battdglia. 
beard, bdrba. 
beautiful, bdlo. 
beauty, belta. 
because, perche. 



bed, iMo. 

beggar, mendicdnte. 

behind, per di die'tro. 

behold, dcco. 

bell, campdna. 

benefit, beneficio. 

better, miglidi'e. 

birth, nativita. 

bishop, vdscovo. 

black, 7i(fro. 

body, cdrpo. 

bold, ardito. 

bouquet, mdzso di fidri. 

breakfast, coluzidne. 

broth, brddo. 

burst (of laughter), 

scoppidre d^le risa. 
business, affdre. 

Cabbage, cdvolo. 
cabinet-maker, ebanista. 
calm, cdhna. 
candle, candela. 
caricature, caricatura. 
carriage, carrdzza. 
cause, cdusa. 
certainly, ce'rto. 
chance, ventiirn. 
change, matazidne. 
charming, ajfafscindnte. 
chimney, cammino. 
chair, se'dia. 
character, cardttere. 
charitable, cnritatdvole. 
child, fanciuUo. 
chin, me'nto. 
circle, circolo. 
civil, civile. 
clear, chid.ro. 
clever, dbile. 
climate, clima. 
cloak, manteilo. 
coast, cdsta. 
coat, vestito. 
conducive, profttevole. 



confessor, confessdre. 
consequence, consegu^- 

za. 
contrary, contrdrio. 
conquest, conquista. 
copper, rdme. 
correct, corretto. 
country, pae'se or pdtric. 
coward, poltrdne. 
crazy, pdzzo. 
crime, delitto. 
crowd, turba. 
cruel, crudeie. 
cup, cdppa, tdzza. 
cupidity, cupidigia. 
custom, costume. 

Dangerous, pericoldsa 
day, gidrno. 
debt, debito. 
decay, declinazidne. 
decent, decdnte. 
defeat, sconfitta. 
defiance, disfida. 
desire, desiddrio. 
despite, di^spe'tto. 
despotic, dispdtico. 
diflerence, differe'nza. 
difficult, difficile. 
discovery, scope'rta 
disease, malattia. 
distance, distdnza. 
doctor, dottdre. 
dress, gdnna. 
dry, secco. 

Early, mattutino. 
eclipse, ecclissi. 
effect, effe'tto. 
eloquence, eloqudnza. 
employment, iinpiego. 
empire, impe'ro. 
end, fine. 

endurance, sofferdnza. 
enemy, nemico. 



ENGLISH AND IT^y:.IAN VOCABULAEY. 



271 



ensuing, segu€nte. 
enterprise, intraprisa. 
entirely, inieraviente. 
envy, invidia. 
a-ternal, ete'rno. 
ev idently , palpahilmente. 
ever, senipre, tuttdvia. 
executioner, carnefice. 
eye, dcchio. 
eyebrows, ciglia. 
eyelids, palpebre. 

Face, fdccia. 
tiilse, fd/so. 
falsehood, menzdgna. 
tiincy, fantasia. 
farmer, fattdre. 
tat, (jrdsso. 
tault, fdllo. 
favor, favdre. 
fear, timdre. 
feather, piuma. 
feature, faUezza. 
tellow, ugudle, compdgno. 
fellow-citizen, concitta- 

dino. 
few, pdco. 
fine, fino, 
finger, dito, 
fire, fudco. 
firebrand, tizzdne. 
fleet, fldtta. 
flock, gregge. 
flower, Jidre. 
fog, nehbia. 
hhA, motto. 
forehead, frdnte. 
foreigner, forestiero. 
folk, fdrca. 
tox, vdlpe. 
fruit, frutto. 
fury, fur [a. 

Oeneral, generdle. 
genius, g^nio. 
j^entle, gentile. 
•.'entleman, gentiludmo. 
girl, fanciuUa. 
glass, vetro. 
glory, gldria. 
gloves, gudnti. 
goodness, JKntta 
grandchild, nipotino. 



grandfather, ivo or 

ndnno. 
grandmother, dva or 

ndnna. 
grain, grdno. 
grateful, grdto. 
grief, doldre. 
grocer, droghi&e, botte- 

gdjo. 
gross, grdsso. 
guide, guida. 
guilty, colpe'vole. 
guinea, ghinea. 

Hail, gragnudla. 
hair, cope'Uo. 
happiness, felicita. 
hare, lep-e. 
haste, premura. 
head, te'sta, capo. 
heaven, cie'lo. 
health, salute. 
heart, cudre or cdre. 
heavy, pesdnte. 
heel, calcdgno. 
here, qua, qui. 
hero, erde. 
high, dlto. 
hip, dnca. 
historian, istdrico or 

star ICO. 
hither, qui o qua. 
\\oxne, dimdra. 
homely, rdzzo. 
hope, sperdnza. 
how, cdme. 
human, xandno. 
humble, livnle. 
hunger, fame. 

Idea, idea. 
idle, pigro. 
ill, mule. 

immediate, immcdidto. 
indolence, indolenza. 
infinite, infinita. 
influence, influenza. 
ingenious, ingegndso. 
inhabitant, abitdnte. 
inheritor, ere'de. 
injury, tdrto. 
inn, a I her go. 
inquisitive, curidso. 



instrument, istrum€nto. 

Joke, burla. 
journey, vidggio. 
joy, gidia. 
judge, giudice. 
judgment, giudizio. 
just, giiisto. 

Key, chidve. 
kingdom, r^gno. 
kitchen, cucina. 
knife, colte'llo. 
knowledge, cognizidne. 

Labor, lavdro. 

lace, merletto. 

lame, zdppo. 

language, lingua. 

large, grdnde* 

laughter, riso. 

law, legge. 

lawyer, legista. 

leaf, fdglia. 

least, minimo. 

leg, gdmba. 

lie, menzdgna. 

life, vita. 

hght, lume. 

lightning, Idmpo. 

lion, ledrie. 

lip, Idbbro. 

lock-maker, chiavajudlo 

loss, perdita. 

loud, dlto. 

love, amdre. 

Maid, fanciulla. 
majesty, maesta. 
manner, maniera. 
marriage, sposalizio. 
marvelous, maravigli- 

oso. 
mask, mdschera. 
master, maestro. 
meal, farina. 
meat, cdme. 
medicine, medicina. 
merriment, allegria. 
midst, viezzo. 
mind, spirito, m€nte. 
mindful, diligente. 
minister, ministro. 



272 



ITALIAN GRAM^VIAR. 



miserable, miserdbile. 
miser, avdro. 
misery, vus€ria. 
misfortune, sventura. 
mistake, en'dre. 
money, dendro. 
motion, mdto. 
mouthful, una boccdta. 
moon, lu)ia. 
much, mdlto. 

Nail, chiddo. 
name, 7idine. 
napkin, salvi€tta. 
natural, naturdle. 
naughty, cattiveilo. 
navigator, navigatdre. 
near, vicino. 
necessary, necessdrio. 
neck, cdllo. 
need, hisdgno. 
neighbor, vicino. 
neither, ne. 
new, nudvo. 
next, seguente, 
night, ndtte. 
no, no, non. 
noble, nobile. 
north, settentridne. 
nose, ndso. 
notice, notizia. 

Oats, av€na. 
object, ogg€lto. 
obstinate, ostindto. 
occupation, occupazidne. 
odd, impdri. 
often, spe'sso. 
opinion, opinidne. 
order, drdine. 
ostrich, struzzo. 



overseer, soprainten- 
de'nte. 

Page, pdggio. 
panegyric, panegirico. 
painter, pittdre. 
patriarch, patridrca. 
paper, carta. 
paradox, paraddsso. 
parrot, pappagdllo. 
peace, pdce. 
perfidious, p^rjido. 
perhaps, fdrse. 
person, persdna. 
picture, pittura. 
piece, pe'zzo. 
pike, picca. 
pity, piefa. 
plate, pidtto. 
pleasure, piacere. 
plenty, abbonddnte. 
portrait, ritrdtto. 
poverty, poverta. 
power, potenza. 
precipitately, precipita- 

tatnente. 
pretty, leggiddro. 
price, valdre. 
pride, orgdglio. 
prisoner, prigioni&o. 
prompt, prdnto. 
promise, promessa. 
purple, pdrpora. • 
purse, bdrsa. 

Quarrel, quer€la. 
queer, strdno. 
quick, VIVO. 
quite, tutt' affdtto. 

Eemembrance, memd- 
ria* 



rich, ricco. 

Secret, segrdo, 
signal, s^gno. 
sink, sentina. 
sleeve, mdnica. 
sleepiness, 9<fnno. 
smile, riso. 
soil, sudlo. 
soldier, solddto. 
solidity, solidezza. 
spectacles, occhidli. 
step, pdsso. 
strife, lite. 
superstitious, supersti' 

zidso. 
surprise, maraviglia. 

Tear, Idgrima, 
thief, lddi-o. 
thirst, sde. 
title, titolo. 
treasury, erdrio. 
truth, verita. 
tyrant, tirdnno. 

Umbrella, ombrdlo. 

Vase, vdso. 
vice, vizio. 
victory, vittdria. 

Walk, pass^ggio. 
weariness, stanch€zza. 
wit, ingegiio. 
witness, testimdnio, mo- 

numento. 
work, dpera. 
word, pardla, d^o. 
wound, cicatrice 



INDEX. 



INDEX. 



THS NUMBERB REFEK TO THB FAGBS. 



A, 22, 4k\ 44, 91, 123, 163. 

Accent, t^rave, 3, 2\), 219. 

Active verbs, 188 ; variation of, 188 ; agree- 
ment of participles of, 188 ; change in 
tenses of, 188 ; become passive, 20-3 ; be- 
come pronominal, 209. (See *' Verbs.") 

Ndjectives, 61 ; remarks on, 64 ; agreement 
of, 32, 64, 69, 84 ; termination of, 61 ; 
plural of, 32, 61 ; number, gender, 
etc., of, 32, 61 ; used a.s nouns, 19, 62 ; 
nouns used as, 62 ; invariable, 62, 70 ; 
signification of, altered, (M ; suppression 
of syllables in, 63 ; elision of, 64 : place of, 
64 ; comparatives of, 67 ; superlatives 
of, 73 ; formation of superlatives, 73 ; of 
quantity, 62; numeral, 82; possessive 
pronouns, 97 ; demonstrative pronouns, 
103; indefinite pronouns, 109, 115; 
past participles and. 73: adverbs and 
(see "Adverbs'") interjections and. 183. 

Wverbs, 171 ; formation of, 123, 172 ; the 
comparisons of, 172 ; termination in 
mcnt"^ 73 ; of time, 172 ; place, 173 ; 
order, quantity, quality, affirmation, 
negation, doubt, 174; compaiist.n, in- 
terrogation, choice, demonstration, 175; 
adjectives and, 172. 175 ; adjectives ussd 
as. 175 ; article and, 20 ; elision of, 172. 

Adverbial phrases, 12o, 321, 176. 

"All,'- 111, 112; ur-^ -.i.s adverb, 112. 

Alphabet, Italian. 1. 

Alqnanto^ 63. 

AUrn, 110, 111 ; allrai^ 116 ; 



noun, 116. 



altri^ as a 
its passive 



AmiiTt^ conjugation of, 188 ; 
form, 204. (See " Verbs.") 

Aii'ldre, IGO, 166; its compounds. 166; 
Italianisms with, 167 ; conjugation of. 
215 ; conjunctive pronouns and, 215. 
(See "Verbs.") 

Apostrophe, 3. 

Article, 16 ; agreement of. 18 ; indefinite, 
16, 43, 83 ; definite, 17 ; variations of 
definite, 17 ; use of, 18, 19, 20 ; omission 
of, 18, 19 ; elision of, 17, 18 ; exercise 
upon, 20; union with i>r('i)ositions, '21, 
41, 126; suppression of, 74; partitive, 



41-43 ; numerals and, 83, 86 ; possessive 

pronouns and, 20, 98, 99 ; transposition 

of, 106 ; preposition in and, 131 ; verbs 

and, 20 : adverbs and, 20. 
As . . . a5, 69, 175. 
Augmentatives, 76, 81 ; formation of, 76 ; 

double, 79 ; irregular 79 ; frequent use 

of, 81. 
Auxiliary verbs, 141, 186. (See " Verbs.") 
Ai-cre, 98, 141, 161, 209, 213; conjugation 

of, 186; used idiomatically, 143. (See 

" Verbs.") 



B. 

" Be," auxiliary verb. (See " J&sserc") 

Bcllo, 63. 

" Better," as adjective and adverb, 67. 

Bisoandrey 148. 

" Both," 85, 86. 

Buojio, 63. 

c. 

Cardinal numbers, 82. 

Cases, 15, 16 ; of nouns, 40 ; governed by 
prepositions, 121. 

Cnr. 68, 90-93. 110. 162; interrogative, 91, 
92; the subj-.mctive and, 93, 155; con- 
nection with other words, 93 ; the present 
particijile and, 162. 

Chi. 90-93, 110, 116. 

a, r/, etc., 48, 61, 56, 100, 118, 142, 148, 
149, 162, 211, 213, 215, 247. 

Od, 104. 

Cd?)ifi, 69, 70. 

Ccmparison of adjectives, 67 ; of adverba, 
172. 

Compound sounds, 3. 

Con (with article, 22. 24). 129, "l-SO, 1(>4. 

Conjugation of verbs. (See "Verbs.") 

Conjunctions, 179; in common u.'^e, 180; 
phrases, 181 ; the subjunctive mood aad, 
156. 

Conjunctive pronouns, 48, 55, 57, 97, 209; 
with fuidare, 215 ; Stdre^ 219 ; ifolcre, 
221 • scdrre, 228 ; taccre, 229 ; te77iere 
230^; calcre. 247. 



[2761 



276 



INDEX. 



Consonants, sounds of, 2 ; double, 4 ; when 

doubled, 58. 
Contraction of lo, gli, etc., 22 (see " Union 

of Articles and Prepositions," 22) ; of 

participles, 161- 
Conversazione, 21, 26, 31, 39, 46, 54, 60, 

66, 71, 76, 81, 88, 95, 103, l08, 114, 120, 

128, 134, 140, 145, 151, 158, 165, 170, 

178, 185. _ 
Costiii, cohii, 106. 
Cosi, 69, 70. 
Cotdle. (See "TdZe.") 
Cotdnto. (See 'Tdnio.") 
Cotcsto, 104. 
Oil, 90, 91, 162 ; the article and, 92 



D. 

Da, 22, 40-44, 121-126, 136, 147. 

Dare, 166; conjugation of, 216; its com- 
pounds, 166, 216. (See " Verbs.") 

Days of the week, 39. 

Declension, 15 ; of articles, 22-24 ; of 
nouns, 22-24, 41 ; of possessive pro- 
nouns, 98. 

Defective verbs, 246 ; list of, 246 ; variation 
of, 247. (See " Verbs.") 

Definite article. (See "Article." ) 

Demonstrative adjective pronouns, 103 ; 
added to possessive, 105. 

Di, 22, 40-44, 121-126, 163; when used 
for " than," 68. DU 28. 

Diminutives, 76 ; formation of, 77 ; irregu- 
lar, 79; added to verbs, 79; frequent 
use of, 81. 

Diphthongs, 8. 

Disjunctive possessive pronouns, 97. 

Dovere, 148, 149, 222. 



E. 

E, sounds of, 2. 

Elision, 3 ; of articles, 17, 18, 22, 23, 85 ; 
of pronouns. 52, 56 ; of adjectives, 64 ; 
of adverbs, 172 ; of verbs, 189, 195. 

£Ua, use of, 56 ; its inflections, 11, 56- 

Elliptical phrases, 42. 

Epochs, 86. 

EquaUty, comparative of, 69. 

P^ssere, 141, 142, 161 ; conjugation of, 187 ; 
its own auxiliary, 142 ; its formation of 
the passive, 142, 204 ; past participle, 
187 ; used impersonally, 142, 147, 212 ; 
infinitive and, 161 ; neuter verbs and, 
206; pronominal verbs and, 208. (See 
"Verbs.") 

Etymology, 1, 15. 

Euphonv, 17, 26, 33, 43, 49, 52, 55, 57, 64, 
118, 125. 

Exercises, mnemonic, 16, 21, 26, 32, 40, 
46. 47, 48, 55, 61, 67, 72, 79, 82. 89, 96, 
103, 109, 115, 121, 129, 135, 141, 146, 153, 
159, 166, 171, 179 

Exercise in pronunciation, 4, 5-15. 



Exercises for translation, 20, 25. 31, 38, 45, 
53, 59, 65, 71, 75, 87,, 94, 102, 107, 113, 
119, 127, 133, 139, 144, 151, 157, 164, 
169, 178, 184. 

Expletives, 149. 

F. 

Fare, 166; conjugation of, 217; its com- 
pounds, 217 ; Italianisms with, 168. 
(See "yerbs.") 

Filo, 34. 

First conjugation, 147, 166, 188 ; irregular 
verbs, 166, 214. (See " Verbs.") 

Future tense, 155, 188 ; contraction of, 214. 



G. 

Gender, 15, 18 ; of nouns, 27, of adjectives, 
32, 61; of augmentatives, etc., 76; of 
possessive pronouns, 97 ; of demonstra- 
tive pronouns, 104 ; participles, 161. 

Gerund, 159, 162. (See "Verbs "). 

G/?, as article, 17 ; elision of, 18 ; contrac- 
tion of, 22 ; as pronoun, 48, 51, 55, 100, 
162, 247 ; joined to lo, etc., 56. 

Gli, adverb. 173. 

Gliclo, etc., 56. 

Grammar, Italian, 1. ^ 

H. 

H used with c before e and i, 2, 73, 150 ; 

in the formation of plurals, 33, 34. 
" Have," auxiliary verb. (See ".k-uere.") 



I (the sign of plural), 28, 32 ; exceptions, 
33 ; elision of, 18, 189, 195 ; addition of, 
200. (See " JL") 

Idioms, Italian, 263. 

II, i, 17 ; contraction of, 23 ; as pronouns, 
55, 98, 162 ; suppression of, 74 ; used for 
prepositions, 42. 

Imperative mood, 160, 214 ; pronouns after, 
51 ; irregular verbs and, 214. 

Imperfect tense, 150. 156. 

Impersonal verbs, 147, 155, 210, 212 ; how 
varied, 210 ; list of, l47, 211 ; essere and, 
147, 212 ; pronouns and, 49, 148. (See 
"Verbs.") 

In, 129, 136, 163 ; where placed, 130 ; union 
with article, 22, 131 ; becomes we, 22. 

Indefinite adjective pronouns, 109, 115. 
(See "Pronouns.") 

Indefinite article. (See "Article.") 

Indicative mood, 154, 156, 162, 196, 198, 
201 ; irregular verbs and, 214. 

Inferiority, comparative of. 68. 

Infinitive mood, 1.59 ; article and, 20, 147 ; 
pronouns and, 57 ; terminations of, 147 ; 
used as a noun, 147, 160 ; as third per- 
son, 160; present participle and, 163; 
essere and, 161 ; lui, Ui, and, 160 ; ira« 
perative and, 160 ; contraction of, 214. 



INDEX. 



277 



Interjections, 182 ; in common use, 182 ; 

derivation of some, 183 ; agreement of, 

183. 
Interrogative pronouns, 50, 91 ; phrases, 

50,91. 
Irregular plurals, 36. 
Irregular verbs, 166, 214 ; how varied, 214 ; 

jfirst conjugation, 214 ; second, 219-233 ; 

third, 234-241; table of, 242. (See 

" Verbs.") 
Issimo, 73, 74. 
Italian alphabet, 1 ; grammar, 1 ; idioms, 

263; proverbs, 259. 
Italianisms, with possessive pronouns, 100 ; 

with tutto, etc., 112 ; with anddre, dare, 

167 ; stare, fare, 168. 



L. 

JLa, 17 ; its plural, 17 ; contraction of, 23 ; 
as pronoun, 55, 162 ; as inflection of 
ilia, 11, 56 ; before verbs, 56 ; its place, 
57 ; before numerals, 83 ; elision of, 18, 
56, Ld, adverb, 173. 

Le, 17, 18; contraction of, 23; as pronoun, 
48, 51, 55, 162; before verbs, 56; its 
place, 57 ; before numerals, 83 ; eUsion 
of, 18. 

Letters, 1 ; sounds of, 1. 

Li, article, 17 ; as pronoun, 55 ; before 
verbs, 56; its place, 57. Li, adverb, 
173. 

Lo, 17 ; its plural, 17 ; contraction of, 22 
as pronoun, 55, 162 ; before verbs, 56 
its place, 57 ; used for preposition, 42 
elision of, 17, 22, 56. 

Ldro, 48, 52, 97. 

M. 

Mdno, 125. 

Meco, teco, scco, etc., 51. 

Mcno or mdnco, 17, 68, 70, 74, 172, 174. 

Mezzo, 63. 

Monosyllables, union of, 55, 57. 

Months of the year, 39. 



N. 

Names, proper, 19, 35, 41, 65. 

Ne, 51, 55, 118, 142, 149, 162, 213, 215,219. 
(See "Jn.") 

Neuter verbs, 206 ; how varied, 208 ; be- 
come pronominal, 209. (See "Verbs.") 

Non, 56, 58, 117. 149, 160. 171. 

" Nothing," 93, 110, 116, 117, 174. 

Kouns, 26; general remarks on, 29; gen- 
der of, 27 ; plural of, 32 ; double plu- 
rals, 37 ; irregular plurals, 36 ; cases of, 
40 ; terminations of, 27-36 ; proper, 19, 
35, 41, 65 ; abstract, 19 ; invariable, 33 ; 
relation expressed by di, a, da, 40 ; vari- 
ation of nouns, 41 ; words used as, 19 ; 
possessive pronouns used as, 98 ; infini- 
tive used as, 20, 147, 160 ; numeral 
adjectives and, 83; nouns used as ad- 



jectives, 62; suppression of the noun 

after imo, 85 ; exercise upon the noun, 

38. 
Number, 15 ; of articles, 17 ; of nouns, 32; 

of adjectives, 32, 61 ; pronouns, 36, 97. 
Numeral adjectives, 82 ; how divided, 82 ; 

cardinal numbers, 82 ; ordinal, 84 ; 

fractional and collective, 84. 

0. 

O, sounds of, 2. 
Objective, repetition of, 66. 
"Of," rendered by il or lo, 42. 
Ogni, 109-111 ; og7iidi, 109. 
Onde, 93 ; donde, 173, 175. 
Ora. 83, 172 ; ogndra, 109, 172. 
Ordinal numbers, 84. 
Orthoepy, 1. 
Orthography, 1. 
0550, 34. 

P. 

Paradigms of verbs. (See " Verbs.") 

Pari, 62. 

Participles, 161 ; agreement of, 161 ; place 
of 64. Present, 162 ; how expressed, 
162 ; of active verbs, 188 ; prepositions 
and, 163; infinitive and, 163; che and, 
162. Past, 161; of active verbs, 188; 
of passive, 204 ; of neuter, 206 ; avere, 
161; cssere, 142, 161, 187. Pronouns 
and, 58, 162 ; irregular verbs and, 214 ; 
as qualificative adjectives, 73 ; contrac- 
tion of, 161. 

Particles, 41, 43, 211 ; expletive, 149. 

Parts of speech, 15. 

Passive verbs, 147, 204 ; much used, 147 ; 
formation of, 142, 204 ; how active verbs 
become passive, 147, 205 ; past participle 
of, 204. 

Per, with the article, 24; contraction of, 
24 ; as preposition, 122, 129, 131. 

PercM, 175, 181. 

Perfect definite, 150, 192, 194, 214. 

Personal pronouns. (See " Pronouns.") 

Phrases, adverbial, 123, 124, 176; con- 
junctive, 181 ; idiomatical, 143, 263 ; in- 
terrogative, 50, 91. 

Pin, 17, 67, 70, 74, 172, 174. 

Plural of articles, 17 ; nouns and adjec- 
tives, 32, 61 ; pronouns, 36, 97 ; irregu- 
lar, 36. 

Poetical pieces, 176, 183. 

Possessive pronouns. (See " Pronouns.") 

Prepositions, 121, 129, 135 ; in commoD 
use, 122 ; union of articles and, 22, 41, 
125 ; use of various, 137 ; after persona/ 
pronouns, 137 ; present participles and, 
163 ; repetition of prepositions, 85. 

Pronominal verbs, 208 ; variation of, 208 
(see " Verbs ") ; pronouns and, 51. 

Pronouns, 46; place of, 49, 57; suppres- 
sion of, 49 ; transposition of, 58 ; appo- 
sition of, 49 ; elision of, 52, .56 ; imper 
sonal verbs and, 49 ; pronominal verbs 
and, 61; infinitive and, 57; past parti 



24 



278 



INDEX. 



ciples and, 58 ; euphonic rules, 57 ; 
doubling of consonants, 58. Personal 
pronouns in the nominative, 46, 49 ; in 
the objective, 47, 50, 55 ; verbs and, 
148 ; past participles and, 162 ; preposi- 
tions and, 137. Possessive adjective, 20, 
97; plural of, 36, 97; division of, 97; 
Tariation of, 98 ; agreement of, 98 ; per- 
sonal pronouns and, 99 ; as nouns, 98 ; 
as Italianisms, 100 ; as expletives, 149 ; 
use of, with article, 20, 98, 99 ; demon- 
stratives added to, 105. Indefinite, 109, 
115 ; used in singular, 109 , in plural, 
110. Relative, 89, 97. Demonstrative, 
103 ; added to possijssive, 105. Interrog- 
ative, 50, 91. Conjunctive, 48, 55, 97, 
209, 215, 219. Disjunctive, 97. Reflec- 
tive, 51. 

Pronunciation, 1 ; exercise in, 4 ; reading- 
exercise in, 5-15. 

Proprio, 98. 

Prosody, 1. 

Proverbs, Italian, 259. 

Ptire, 181. 

Q. 

Quale, 36, 90, 116, 155, 162 ; use of, 91. 

Qudnto, 62, 69, 70. 
Quello, 104. 
Questo, 104-106. 



E. 

Reading-lessons, 5, 20, 25, 30, 87, 44, 52, 
59, 65, 70, 74, 86, 94, 100, 106, 113, 118, 
126, 132, 138, 143, 150, 156, 164, 169, 
176, 183. 

Reflective verbs, 208. (See " Pronominal 
Verbs.") 

Regular verbs, 188 ; synoptical table of the 
variations of, 202. (See " Verbs.") 

Relative pronouns, 89, 97. 



s. 

Se* 47, 50, 51, 118. 

Second conjugation, 192 ; division of, 192 ; 
first class, 192 ; second class, 194 ; irreg- 
ular verbs, 219-233. (See " Verbs.") 

" Self," 49. 

Si, 51, 57. 100, 117. 147, 149. 162, 205, 209, 
219, 221, 228, 229. 230, 247. 

Signdre, Signdra, etc. y 19 , 56, 99; elision 
of, 19. 

" Some." 43, 110, 112. 

Sdmyno, 73. 

Sopra, used for su, 24. 

Sounds of vowels, 2 ; of consonants, 2 ; of 
e, 2 ; of 0, 2 ; compound, 3. 

Speech, parts of, 15. 

Sia, abbreviation of questa, 105. 



Stare, 160, 166; conjugation of, 218; its 

compounds, 166, 219 ; Italianisms with, 

167 ; conjunctive pronouns and, 219. 
Stra, as particle, 73. 
Su, with article, 22, 24 ; contraction of, 24 ; 

preposition, 122 ; sopra used for, 24. 
Subjunctive mood, 153 ; when used, 154 ; 

tenses of, 156 ; irregular verbs and, 214 ; 

conjunctions and, 156. 
Substantives. (See "Nouns.") 
'• Such," 62, 106, 110, 112. 
Superiority, comparative of, 67. 
Superlatives of adjectives, 73 ; of adverbs, 

172 ; of interjections, 183. 
Syllables, 4 ; termination of, 4 ; exceptions, 

4 ; union of, 55, 57 ; suppression of, 63. 
Synoptical table of regular verbs, 202. 
Syntax, 1 ; of verbs, 146. 



Table, synoptical, of regular verbs, 202; 

of irregular verbs, 242. (See " Verbs ") 
Tale, 36, 62, 106, 110, 112. 
Tdnto, 69, 110. 
Tenses of dependent verbs in a compound 

sentence, 155. 
" Than," rendered by di and che, etc., 68; 

by come and cosi, 69. 
Third conjugation, 196 ; division into three 

classes, 196 ; first class, 196 ; second, 

198; third, 201; irregular verbs, 234- 

241 ; list of, 234. 
Titles, 19, 56, 99. 

" To be hungry," " thirsty," etc., 143. 
Tt'ttlo. 110, 149 ; its agreement with the 

noun. 111 ; as an Italianism, 112. 



u. 

Uomini, 36. 

TJnipersonal verbs, 210. (See " Impersonal 
Verbs.") 

tino, un, una, 16, 43, 85, 110; when sup- 
pressed, 85 ; elision of, 85. 

Usc'ire, 42, 125 ; conjugation of, 240 

V. 

Variations of regular verbs, 202. 

Venire, 125, 142, 148, 160 ; conjugation of, 
241. 

Verbs, 141 ; syntax of, 146 ; general rules, 
147 ; irregularities of, 214 ; moods of 
(sec "Infinitive," "Indicative," "Im- 
perative," and " Subjunctive Moods"); 
tenses of (see "Imperfect," "Perfect 
Definite," and " Future Tenses "); par- 
ticiples of ( see " Participles " ). Place 
of the verb, 149, 160 ; terminations of, 
147 Article and verbs, 20, 147. Noun<» 



* Se (himself) was formerly written with an accent, — se. 



INDEX. 



279 



and verbs, 20, 147, 159, 160. Pro- 
nouns and verbs, 49, 51, 57, 91, 148. 
Union with diminutives, 79. Auxiliary 
verbs, 141, 186 ; conjugation of avcre, 
186 (see "^rere"); of cssere, 187 (see 
JEssere " ). Regular verbs. 188. Active 
verbs, 188 (see " Active Verbs " ). First 
conjugation, 188 ; conjugation of amdre, 
188 ; of cercdrey 190 ; of prepare, 191. 
Second conjugation, 192 ; conjugation of 
temere, 192 ; of tdssere, 194. Third con- 
jugation, 196 ; conjugation of .sent'tre, 
196; of esib'ire, 198; of cudre, 200; of 
abborr'ire, 201. Synopsis of the varia- 
tions of regular verbs, 202. Passive 
verbs, 204 (see *' Passive Verbs ") ; con- 
jugation of essere amdto, 204. Neuter 
verbs, 206 (see "Neuter Verbs"); con- 
jugation of partire, 206. Pronominal or 
rellective verbs, 208 (see " Pronominal 
Verbs) ; conjugation of pent'irsi, 208. 
Unipersonal verbs, 210 (see " Imperson- 
al Verbs) ; conjugation of pidvere, 210 ; 
of essere (unipersonally used), 212. Ir- 
regular verbs, 214 (see " Irregular 
Verbs "). First conjugation, 214 ; con- 
jugation of anddrCy 215 ; of dare, 216 ; 
of fare, 217; otstdre, 218 (see "ylnf/dre," 
^'Ddre,^^ "Fare," "<S/dre"). Second con- 
jugation, 219 ; conjugation of cadth-e, 220; 
of cZwswade're, 220 ; of c/o^cre, 221; ofdo- 
vere, 222 (see '■^Dovcre^''); of giacrre, 
223 ; oiparere, persuadcre, piacere, 224 ; 
of potere, 225 ; of rimancre, 226 ; of 
sapere, 227 ; of sedere, 228 ; of taccre, 
229 ; of fen^e, 230 ; of valere, 231 ; of 



vedire, 232 ; of voUre ( see " Yolere " ), 
233. Third conjugation, 234; conjuga- 
tion of dtre, 234; of mor'ire, 236; of 
salire, 237 ; of segmre, 238 ; of ud'ire. 
239 ; of uscire (see " Vscirs "), 240 ; of 
venire (see " Venire "), 241. Table of 
irregular verbs, 242. Defective verbs, 
246 ; conjugation of calcre, 2A7 ; of 
colere or colere^ leccre and licere or Iccere 
and licere^ pavcre, silere, 248 ; of soicrCy 
Stupere, dlgere, 249 ; of anger e, arrogere, 
capers, 250; of cherere, conrellcre, 251; 
of Jicdere, 252; of Ulcere , molcere, 253; 
of ricdere, serpere, 254 ; of snffdlcere or 
soffolgerey tdngere, toller e, 255 ; of tor- 
perey urgerCy v'lgere, 256 ; of g'lre, 257 ; 
of ire and ol'ire, 258. 

"Very," before participles, 73. 

Vi,ci. (See"yi-.") 

Via, 85, 147, 149. 

Vocabulary, Italian-English, 266 ; English- 
Italian, 270 ; of exercises, 45, 54, 60, 66, 
71, 75, 88, 95, 102, 108, 114, 120, 128, 
131, 139, 144, 151, 157, 165, 170, 178, 
185. 

Yolere, 148; with ci and vi, 148; conjuga- 
gation of, 233. 

Vosigndria, 56. 

Vowels, 1, 4 ; sounds of, 2. 



w. 

"Who." " which," " what," etc., 90, 91 
Words, union of, 21, 65, 67. 



EXERCISES 



ADAPTED TO 



CUORE'S ITALIAN COURSE, 



AND OTHER GRAMMARS. 




BOSTON: 

S. R. URBINO, 14 BRGMFIELD STREET. 

NEW YORK: 
LEYPOLDT & HOLT ; F. W. CHRISTERN. 

1870. 



\ 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 



Exercise I. 

T}ie Article. 

The father and mother. The uncle and his son. The brother 

has the pens. I have the books. Who has the house ? What 

has he ? He has the wine. She has not the book. The servant 

has the apples. What has the shoemaker ? The shoemaker has 

the shoes. Hast thou the penknife? Which seal has she? 

Who has the peach ? I have not the peach. I have the bread 

and the meat. He has the herbs. The man has a fio". The 

scholar has a book. Thou hast a pear. Have I a mirror ? 

Who has a house ? Has he a record ? She has a guide. The 

tailor has money. What has the domestic ? The domestic has 

the linen. Who has a friend ? My uncle has a friend. The 

mistress has no time. 

1. There are seven primitive colors, — red, orange, yellow, 

green, blue, indigo, and violet. 2. See the churches, the palaces, 

the amphitheatres, and the arches, which have outlived so many 

generations of men ! 3. Annina looked at her weeping sister, at 

her dear old father, and then expired. 4. Vasco di Gama pre- 

S(;nted to the King of Malabar the gifts, and the letters written, 

one in Arabic, and the other in Portuguese. 5. The ant is the 

emblem of industry. 6. Exercise and temperance strengthen 

the constitution. 7. Iron and steel are more useful than gold 

and silver. 8. Secrecy is the key of prudence. 9. Avarice 

is despicable. 10. The end crowns the work. 11. Walking 

1* [5] 



6 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

increases the appetite. 12. The gentle answer appeases ^nger. 
13. Errors and wickednesses draw ridicule upon us. 14. Na- 
tions ought to love peace, and avoid war. 15. Employ your 
time well ; cultivate your mind ; love order. 1 6. Reading forms 
the heart, and enlightens the mind. 17. Health is the first 
condition of a happy life. 18. Gratitude produces all the other 
virtues. 19. At the age of eighteen, Romulus laid the founda- 
tion of a city which gave laws to the world. 

Exercise XL 
Union of the Articles and Prepositions. 

The gardens of the brother. We are in the room. The knife 
is upon the table. The friends are in the garden. I have the 
handkerchiefs in ray pocket. You are his friend. The voice of 
the man. The shoes are in the room. The wine is upon the 
table. I am not in the house. They are not in the city. The 
girl has no spectacles. She has no gold. Who is in the street? 
Has he the neighbor's book (the book of the neighbor) ? Who 
has the father's stick ? Is she in the house ? No ; she is in the 
garden, under a tree. Has the tailor my brother's horse? Who 
has your mother's pocket-handkerchief? I have it in the packet 
of my coat. Is the key in the door, or under the table ? Tlie 
man has bread and wine for his dinner. In the streets of 
the city. He has the roses from his friend. He writes with 
a pen. 

1. Give me some bread, wine, butter, cheese, boiled meat, 
mutton, veal, pie, mustard, and salt. 2. The power of speech is 
a faculty peculiar to man. 3. The bird is known by his song. 
4. Flowers are the ornament of gardens. 5. Riches are oft(?n 
the tarifF of esteem. 6. They say that our honor is in the opin- 
ion of others. 7. The eyes are the mirror of the soul. 8. The 
value of things is founded upon wants. 9. Climate influences 
the character of men. 10. We prove gold and silver with the 
touchstone, and the heart of men with gold and silver. 11. The 



EXEKCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 7 

law of necessity is always the first law. 12. The miser allows 
himself to die of hunger in the lap of plenty. 13. Poverty and 
misfortune bring about equality. 14. Best is the enemy of 
good. 15. Fortune has the first place in the things of the world. 
16. Abundance of words is not always an (the) indication of the 
perfection of language. 17. History is the picture of times and 
of men. 18. The lamb and the dove are the emblems of meek- 
ness and humility. 19. True merit is always accompanied by 
modesty. 20. Clouds and fogs are formed by the vapors which 
come out of the earth. 21. He who opens his heart to ambition 
shuts it to repose. 22. The wise man prefers the useful to the 
agreeable, and the necessary to the useful. 23. Poverty and 
ignorance are the followers of negligence and slotli. 24. The 
road from virtue to vice is much shorter than from vice to virtue. 
25. Health is the daughter of exercise and temperance. 26. A 
salutation, a word of love to the unhappy, is a great kindness. 

Exercise III. 

TJie Noun. 

My brother is a dentist. Your father is my neighbor. My 
mother is your neighbor. We have a horse and a mare. They 
have a peach-tree and an apple-tree in their garden. This 
woman has flowers in her garden. Have you seen the king? 
Is the soup cold ? This is a hare. Is study a pleasure ? They 
have seen the Pope of Rome. I have an apple in my hand. 
Have you a fig and an orange ? Give some fruit to my brother. 
The man has a cow and an ox. Iron is a metal. Silver is 
also a metal. We are in the path. My uncle has a crane. 
Is this your daughter ? Am I your friend (f) ? Who is a 
philosopher? Is your neighbor poor or rich? Who has gold? 
This man has gold ; but he has no heart. The cathedral of this 
city is rich ; but the people are poor. I am a neighbor to a poor 
woman. The frog is in the hedge. In the morning. The 
basket of fruit is on the table. Eggs are good for breakfast. 



8 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

Give me some bread and butter with my good eggs. M^ 
brother has a basket of good fruit. The cat is in the yard. 
Is the meat in the kitchen? The child has a dove. This 
woman has some currants. 

1. Paper, pencils, inkstand, ink, slate, chalk, sand, &c., are 
used in school. 2. The bench, chair, desk, stool, cupboard, and 
sofa, are articles of furniture. 3. Among instruments, we have 
the hammer, the awl, the axe, the mallet, the saw, the needle, 
the file, and the gimlet. 4. For table-ware, there are the table- 
cloth, the napkin, the carving-knife, the plate, the salt-cellar, the 
porringer, the knife, the fork, the fruit-dish, &c. 5. The mason, 
the smith, the tailor, the shoemaker, the weaver, the baker, the 
carpenter, the farrier, the knife-grinder, the barber, the butcher, 
the hatter, are all artisans. 6. Affected behavior is the mask 
of ignorance. 7. We should never judge of the good or bad 
character of persons by the expression of their face. 8. The rose 
without thorns only grows on the highest Alps. 9. Tobacco is an 
American plant. 10. A good conscience is a good pillow. 

11. The moth which flies about the lamp finally burns his wings. 

12. We obtain love and friendship by modesty and humility. 

13. The eye delights in the verdure of the earth and the beauty 
of the sky. 14. In that valley, I saw a little village, an old 
castle in ruins, and a convent. 

Exercise. IV. 

The Plural of Nouns and Adjectives. 

The good sisters. Celebrated men. Gray coats. The men 
are good, and the women are good. The girl has handsome 
hands. My shoes are narrow. The kings are in the city. 
You are not unhappy. The tailor has a pair of boots. Her 
sleeves are narrow. This baker has good bread. Give me some 
of his bread and cheese. Is the king in his palace. I have a 
cow and two oxen. The physicians are in a hotel. We have 
asparagus upon the table. I have seen mice upon the tabh\ 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 9 

She has rings on her fingers. Give me two bushels of oranges. 
Who has two wives ? The Romans have good oxen. We have 
good horses and cows. Children are not fools. Your sisters 
have no sweetmeats for supper. I have seen the bones and the 
claws of the crane. Has your sister seen the beautiful houses 
of the rich ladies ? No ; but she has seen their beautiful lakes 
and woods. 

1. The merchants sell tea and chocolate. 2. The shoemaker 
makes boots and shoes. 3. There are many ancient temples in 
Italy. 4. The scholars have neither ink, writing-paper, nor 
pens. 5. The stone urns in the garden came from Naples. 

6. I have sent a dozen handkerchiefs to the w^asherwoman. 

7. The tailor makes cloaks and overcoats. 8. Oxen and horses 
are useful animals. 9. There are birds upon the flowers and 
upon the trees. 10. The strangers have bought coats. 11. There 
are diamonds, pearls, emeralds, and other precious stones. 
12. The streets of B. are narrow. 13. The country bakers are 
not friends of the city bakers. 14. All workmen and work- 
women are employed at this season. 15. God is the father of 
man, and the preserver of all creatures. 16. The inhabitants 
of Gadara honored poverty with a peculiar worship ; they consid- 
ered it as the mother of industry and the arts. 17. The man 
who does not see good in others is not good himself. 18. Misers 
resemble the horses who carry wine and drink water, and the 
asses who carry gold and eat thistles. 19. The rivers of 
Nigrizia and Guinea do not flow through plains and valleys, but 
rush from cataract to cataract. 20. It has been said, that a fine 
city without monuments is like a beautiful woman without a 
soul. 21. Ribbons, flowers, and lights make incredible meta- 
morphosis. 22. The variety of trees and precious shrubs of 
landscape gardening were things unknown to the ancients. 
23. The verdant, rich, and luxurious plains which are found in 
Piedmont are the best-cultivated lands of all Europe. 24. The 
order and beauty of the world are manifest proofs of the exist- 
ence of a Supreme Being. 25. We know good fountains in dry 



^ 



10 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

weather, and friends in adversity. 26. The gi^ss grows to the 
height of twelve feet in the vast plains of Africa ; and, under this 
gigantic grass, wander panthers, lions, and the enormous reptile 
boa. 27. When Orpheus was playing on the lyre, tigers, bears, 
and lions came to fawn upon him and lick his feet. 28. The 
muses were goddesses of science and art. 29. Men kill oxen, 
sheep, deer, and even birds and fish, to feed upon them. 

Exercise. V. 
Cases of Nouns. 

I have no good letter-paper. I wish to write letters to Pans. 
Have you a pocket-dictionary ? Is it not time to dine ? Give 
me the silver spoons. My brother has a cask of good wine. 
The children are in the yard. Have you not seen the flowers 
on the walls ? Here are your father's books. We see with 
our eyes, and hear with our ears. The cows are in the water. 
The eggs are in the nests of the birds. My father has a saddle- 
horse and two hunting-dogs. Have you my brother's pens? 
Who gave me this book? Have you seen the gunpowder? 
Have you dined to-day ? Yes ; I have dined with some rela- 
tions. What have you for breakfast ? I have bread alone for 
breakfast. What does he sell? He sells tobacco and gun- 
powder. Let us go to buy some ink. Send Luigi to the post. 
Whose hat is this ? It is not my friend's hat. To whom do 
you write ? Write to your sister. I write to my friends. 
Whom do you see ? I see some girls in the street. Have you 
money ? No ; but I have good friends. Is this a hunting-dog ? 

1. In the city, there are tailors for men and women, and shoe- 
makers for men and women. 2. The sun shines by day, and the 
moon by night. 3. No one is sheltered from calumny. 4. The 
language of a modest man gives lustre to truth. 5. A babbler 
is troublesome to society. 6. A foolish man doubts nothing. 
7. Abundance of riches do not make us happy. 8. Adonis was 
a youth of extreme beauty. 9. Hope leads us by an agreeable 



EXEliCISES FOR TKANSLATIOX. 11 

road to the end of life. 10. The goods which the merchant 
consif>:ned to his sons have arrived. 11. The soldiers have 
come from Georgia. 12. The rules of this Grammar are easy. 
13. Patriarchs are monarchs of the Church. 14. Mr. A. has 
received the catalogues from the bookseller. 15. Success is for 
him who seizes upon it. 16. Fanaticism is, to superstition, 
what excitement is to fever; what rage is to anger. 17. Woe 
to the man whose only ambition is to please mean men ! 18. The 
religious fanaticism of the Puritans was the promoter and the 
support of the revolution in England. 

Exercise VI and VII. 
Pronoims. 

Who are you ? I am your friend. What do you wish of me ? 
Have you money ? I have need of money. He has written a 
letter. What have you said to me? A daughter is born to 
him. Does it rain ? No ; it snows. They are with her in my 
father's house. Tell him and her that I love them. I wrote a 
letter to her. They are 'writing to you. I shall go to the post 
myself. Do you think of me ? I think of you. Give me a 
good stick. Think no more of them. What has he said to you 
of them? Let him do it. I do not wish to do as you do. 
Wlio is there ? It is I. It is he. He speaks of us. I give 
you this ring because I love you. Will you send this letter 
to him ? He loves his friend. I love you, and you love 
me. I will go with you. She speaks of you. Think no more 
of him. Go with them. I wish to see you. She can speak to 
him of it. Do not ask it of her. Behold him. Behold her. 
Behold us. He gives it to us. We lend them to you. He will 
give the flowers to her. I will give them to him. She does 
not deny it. Give it to her. She gives it to her neighbor. 
I do not wish to see them. Tell them so (it). 

1. Silvio Pellico says, " We read, or meditate in silence, a great 
part of the day." 2. " I wrote the tragedy of * Leoniero da 



12 EXERCISES FOR TEANSLATIOK. 

Dertona/ and many other things." 3. " From my heart, 1 pardon 
my enemies." 4. " Although Mr. M. was in a deplorable state, 
he sang, he conversed, and did every thing to conceal a part of 
his sufferings from me." 5. If you do not embrace fortune when 
she presents herself, you may hope for her in vain when she has 
turned her shoulders upon you. 6. Do not disturb opinions 
which render a man happy, unless you can give him better ones. 
7. If we wish to know what any one says of us when we are 
absent, let us only observe what they say of others in our pres- 
ence. 8. Some one asked Diogenes what was the best method 
of revenging himself on his enemy. " You will succeed," .-^aid 
Diogenes, " by showing yourself an honest man." 9. A vag- 
abond dog went into a forest, and, finding a lion, he said to him, 
'' You go wandering through the woods ; you suffer from hunger 
and the inclemencies of the season. See me : I live, and enjoy 
much, without any trouble. Does my life please you ? Will you 
come with me ? You know it will be for your good." The 
proud and generous lion answered, " You eat ; you are sheltered ; 
you take pleasure, and have no trouble, it is true : but you are a 
servant, and I am free, and will never serve upon any terms." 
10. It is not the abundance of riches we possess which can 
make us happy, but the use we make of them. 1 1 . Behold ! it 
is Rome which presents herself to your view ; it is Rome, the 
eternal city, the city of wonders. 12. Misfortunes shake hands; 
they seldom come alone. 13. The joys of friendship make us 
almost forget our misfortunes. 14. The prisoner said to the 
chief keeper, "What is your name?" To which he answered. 
" Fortune, sir, made fun of me, giving me the name of a greaJ 
man. My name is Schiller." 15. All the most amiable gifts oi 
mind and heart are united in Raphael to render him dear to me 
16. Every one complains of his memory, and no one of his 
judgment. 17. The soul of Bice was worthy of the heaven 
which now possesses it ; and her example sustains me in the 
fear which often oppresses me since her death. 18. I heard 
Ellen praying ; and, kneeling down without interrupting her, I 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 13 

followed her words, with my eyes filled with tears. 19. A bad 
poet had a satire printed against Benedict XIV. The pontiff 
examined, corrected, and returned it to the author ; assuring 
him, that it would sell better thus corrected. 20. Great men 
recognize, fraternize, and embrace each other, through the lapse 
of ages. 21. A crow dressed himself with the fallen feathers of 
a peacock, and, despising his companions, went among the pea- 
cocks, who, recognizing him, stripped him of his false plumes, and 
drove him away. Then he returned in confusion to his com- 
panions, seeking to unite with them again ; but they made fun of 
and refused to receive him. Let the misfortune of the crow be 
a lesson to us. 

Exercise VIII. 

Adjectives. 

The honest man. The diligent scholar. A sweet apple. 
Good books. Are you idle ? She is generous. They are obe- 
dient. We are merry. Who are weak? He is not strong. 
I am tired. Life is short. Who is ready ? That boy is a good 
scholar. The little girl has a new dress. We are poor. Mrs. 
S. is modest and amiable. Your friend (f ) is generous. I am 
not strong. Give him half a bottle of good wine. Have you 
seen the beautiful flowers in the king's garden ? Those strangers 
are not innocent of the great crime. We are in a small house. 
There are beautiful trees in this garden. Tiiat lady has fine 
eyes. I have many apples and few pears. Have you many 
friends ? Is he deaf, or is he dumb ? My dog is faithful. 
Tlie poor woman was lame. Your coat is not blue ; it is black. 
Her hat is white, and mine is yellow. That girl is not ill ; she 
is obstinate and ungrateful. Who is that proud young mtin? 
The lady is very polite. The streets of Boston are not large. 
What useless work! Is she inquisitive? This writing-paper is 
not good. They are imprudent. The men who are in that 
large white house are honest and wise. 

2 



11 EXERCISES rOK TRANSLATION. 

1. Milton's "Paradise Lost" is a fine poem. 2. The Queen 
of England is a kind lady ; she loves the good and industrious. 
3. The German lady is very generous ; she always thinks of the 
poor, and takes care of many orphans. 4. There are large 
forests in France and Germany. 5. A constant, sincere, and 
disinterested friend is rare. 6. The short dress, the close black- 
velvet waist, and the coarse red handkerchief which partly covered 
her face, clearly showed her to be an Alpine girl (to have come 
from, the Alps). 7. Doctor S. had great love for justice, great 
tolerance, great faith in human virtue and in the help of Provi- 
dence, and a vivid sentiment of the beautiful in art. 8. All 
social posts can be occupied by honest men. 9. The moral and 
political vicissitudes of nations transform a people of heroes into 
a horde of slaves. 10. Why are there upon the earth so much 
beauty and so many imperfections ? why, in man, so much gran- 
deur and so much misery? 11. Aosta, a Roman city, is full of 
beautiful ruins of the time of Augustus. 12. Columbus said, 
" My thoughts are such as please few (persons) : they are, as I 
think, wise, certain, reasonable, meditative ; but yet, to most 
men, they would appear vain, foolish, adventufous, and frivo- 
lous." 13. I love Torino : I love its beautiful squares, its large 
and clean streets ; and I love, more than all, its slow, but indus- 
trious, silent, and progressive life. 14. Crescenzio, of illustrious 
birth and fine person, was rich, and brave in arms. 15. The 
Dutch are generally a patient, laborious, neat, sober, frugal, and 
industrious people. 16. Death spares neither rich nor poor. 
17. The diligent hand conquers want ; and prosperity and suc- 
cess accompany the industrious. 18. The tongue is a little 
member; but it says great things. 19. A mild, polite, and 
affable person is esteemed by everybody. 



EXEUCISES FOll TRANSLATION. 15 



Exercise IX. 
Adjectives in the Comparative. 

Charles is more inquisitive than his sister. Maria is hand- 
somer than her mother. These pears are sweet ; but the plums 
are sweeter. The dog is more faithful than the cat. We are 
more tired than unhappy. He is happier than his brothers. 
You are more wicked than I. He is as dexterous as generous. 
You are happy ; but we are happier. Mr. L. is richer than his 
neighbor. In summer the days are longer than in winter. Gold 
is more valuable than silver. Tlie girls are more discreet than 
the boys. Rafaello is handsomer than his brothers. Her 
cheeks are red as roses. White as milk. 

1. The richer man is, the more avaricious he is. 2. The 
more Napoleon conquered, the more he wished to conquer. 

3. The term of life is short; that of beauty is still shorter. 

4. The stork has a longer neck than the goose. 5. In summer 
the days are longer than they are in winter. 6. Brass is more 
useful than lead. 7. The General was less successful than 
skilful. 8. Charles fell into an indifference, which was worse than 
doubt. 9. There is more true glory in forgiveness than in re- 
venge. 10. Antonio was perhaps as great a man as Augustus ; 
but he was less fortunate. 11. The Savoyards have more active 
blood than we have : they have more of the impetuous temper 
of the French ; we, more of the blessed " far niente " of the Ital- 
ians. 12. Nothing is so contagious as example. 13. Generally, 
the ,more populous a country, the richer it is. 14. Few peo- 
ple liave a more celebrated, and, at the same time, a more mis- 
erable country. 15. It is in thy own power, O man! to be less 
unhappy. Arm thyself with firmness against present ills, and 
forget the happier days which are passed. 16. Women ])roduce 
much stronger sentiments in the heart of man by their wit than 
by their beauty. 17. A philosopher said, that it was better to 
consult women than learned men in doubts concerning language ; 



IG EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

because the latter do not speak so well or so easily as the 
former, who study less. 18. There are as many kinds of hypoc- 
risy as there are virtues. 19. Alphonso, King of Spain, said, 
" I am more afraid of the tears of my people, than the strength 
of my enemies." 

Exercise X. 

Adjectives : their Superlatives. 

How do you feel to-day ? I feel very well ; I have no pain 
m my head ; I am very strong. They have little bread, and less 
meat. Your liouse is convenient, ours is more so ; but that of 
Mrs. S. is the most convenient of all. That is the finest tree in 
the country. We have the best water in town. Your well is 
the deepest I ever saw. Her hat is more fashionable than hand- 
some, and very large. It is better to have too much than too little. 
Maria is more industrious than Sarah ; she is the most industrious 
person in the house. 

1. The Campidoglio was the most celebrated edifice of Rome. 
2. Nestor was the oldest and the wisest of all the Greeks who 
were at the siege of Troy. 3. It is a most bitter thing to be 
forever separated from our friends. 4. There are very valiant 
men upon the American battle-field. 5. Princes are often more 
unhappy than the greatest part of their subjects. 6. Self-love 
is the most cunning of all flatterers. 7. The most pernicious of all 
sins is calumny : it very often ruins the reputation of the most 
honest people, makes discord among the most intimate friends ; 
in fact, it is the most abominable sin in the world. 8. The most 
ngreeable quality that a man can have, is to be civil and courteous. 
0. He who is difficult in selectins^, often chooses the worst. 
10. A philosopher says, that the grandest object in the world is 
a good man struggling against adversity. 11. Intemperance 
and idleness are our most dangerous enemies. 12. It is said 
that there was a very happy and a very rare exuberance of loy- 
alty in C. Balbo, Avhich commanded love and respect. 13. " The 
Life of Dante" is a work about which history and literai^u^e 



EXERCISES FOR TRxVNSLATION. 17 

dispute, as to which shall enumerate it among the best in their 
respective categories. 14. Naples and Florence are among the 
most ancient and most beautiful cities. 15. We call that medium 
distance, which holds the middle place between the longest and 
the shortest. 16. The most noted States are not those which 
possess the most fertile country, but those which give themselves 
up with the greatest activity to arts and trade. 17. The dis- 
covery by Columbus was the fruit of a most vivid intellect, 
exalted by a very warm imagination, and sustained by an iron 
and indomitable nature. 18. Fidelity, which comprehends in 
itself almost all virtues, has no merit, is almost no virtue, when 
it can be inculcated by fear ; but it is one of the sublimest vir- 
tues when it is inspired by love. 

Exercise XL 

Numerals. 

My sister has five books, and I have but two. Your brother 
has a new cane. The farmer has 54 apple and 10 pear-trees in 
his little orchard. I have two horses, three cows, one dog, and 
50 hens. There are four weeks in a month. February has 28 
days. A year has 12 months, 52 weeks, or 365 days. He is 25 
years old ; he was born in the year 1840. Is your father 60 years 
old? No, he was born in 1810. I have bought three bottles of 
wine, and six bottles of cider. Give me 22 rolls for 20 cents. 
In Boston there are 104 churches, 19,500 houses, and nearly 
185,000 inhabitants. How much is 5 times 25? 9 times 72? 
40 and 50 make 90. 65 and 70 make 135. We sailed for 
Europe on 1st of June, 1820, and returned Oct. 17, 1827. 
The first day of the week. The third month of the year. 
We have had sixteen bottles of wine, and this is the seventeenth. 
My son is three years and a half old. Lula is the third in lier 
class. Give me five different kinds of fruit. We are in the 
nineteenth century. This is the sixth bird I have seen to-day. 
He has spent three dollars and three-quarters for trifles. Tell 

2* 



18 -EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

us what o'clock it is. It is a quarter past five, And almost 
time for supper. Fifteen gentlemen and ten ladies. Twenty 
boys and three girls. Twenty-one dollars and seventy-five cents. 
The poor old woman said she was eighty-one years old. 

1. In our times, it is not rare to see decrepit people of twenty- 
five years. 2. Caesar conquered more than eight hundred cities 
in less than ten years. 3. Sophocles and Euripides, two famous 
tragedians, were both Athenians. 4. The exhibition which 
Titus gave to the Roman people, at one time, cost him eighty 
millions. 5. Lewis Fourteenth was said to be one of the greatest 
kings in the world. 6. Where do we see men of the stamp of 
those depicted by Dante in the fifteenth and sixteenth canto 
of his Paradise ? 7. Herodotus relates of the ancient Persians, 
that, from the age of five years to twenty, they taught their chil- 
dren only three things, — to manage a horse, to use the bow, and 
to tell the truth. 8. About the year one thousand, St. Bernard, 
a Savoyard, founded the useful and famous monastery on one of 
the highest summits of the Alps, which still flourishes. 9. A fool- 
ish young man asked an old lady how old she was. " I do not 
know exactly," she replied ; " but I have always heard, that an 
ass is older at twenty years than a woman at seventy." 10. Ma- 
sinissa. King of Numidia, died at the age of ninety-seven years, 
leaving forty -four children ; he had been an ally of Rome 
nearly seventy years. 11. Hospitality is one of the first duties 
of man. 12. The Venetians imposed a singular tribute upon the 
Patriarch of Aquila, in the year one thousand one hundred and 
seventy-three : every year, on Shrove-Tuesday, he was obliged 
to send a bull and a dozen pigs to Venice ; they represented the 
Patriarch and his twelve canons. They were led through the 
city in pomp, and then killed. 13. Henry Dandolo, whose eyes 
had been put out by order of the Emperor Manuel Comnene, 
was, however, elected Doge of Venice, in the year one thousand 
one hundred ninety-two, at the age of eighty-four years. Soon 
after, he took command of the Venetian fleet of five hundred 
vessels, and succeeded in taking possession of Constantinople in 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 19 

the year one thousand two hundred and four. After this con- 
quest, he added to his other titles that of Lord of the Fourth and 
Eighth of the Roman Empire. 14. The activity of the Savoyards 
is shown on both sides of the Alps : it not only sends street- 
sweeps and servants into France, but soldiers also, fifteen or 
eighteen Savoyard generals having been in the French army. 
15. Count Caesar Balbo expired on the evening of the third of 
June, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three, after a few 
days of acute suffering. 

Exercise XII. 

Relative Pronouns. 

Who are you? What is that? Which is it? What have 
you for me ? To whom did you give the chocolate ? Whose 
coat is that ? What does he say ? Whose children are they ? 
Which of these oranges is the sweetest ? A man eats what he 
likes. He will give this book to her whom he likes best. The 
shoes which you bought are not good. Which flowers are the 
handsomest? Of whom have you bought this linen? What 
have you given for it ? To whom does she write ? For what 
do you study ? What is good for you ? What have you seen ? 
Tiiat is the lady of whom I spoke. He who is rich is not always 
happy. Upon what does he live ? What a beautiful tree ! 
What beautiful flowers ! He who is speaking is the teacher. 
The lady for whom she works has much business. Which of 
these two pears do you wish? What is the (f) domestic doing? 
Who is going with you ? The boy whom you have seen with 
me. Whose horse is that? It is mine; I bought it of your 
father's friend. What is the use of appetite without food ? 
That of which you think the least is to amuse yourself. 

1. Cleopatra wore two pearls in her ears, each of which cost 
more than a million. 2. Tell me whose company you keep, and 
I will tell you who you are. 3. There are faces in which the 
character of goodness is well expressed. 4. He who acts con- 
scientiously may err ; but he is pure in the sight of God. 5. What 



20 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

is learned in youth is easily impressed upon the mind. 6. Happy 
are those who can content themselves with the necessaries of 
life. 7. He who does not love his brother does not deserve to 
live. 8. Modesty is to merit what a gauze veil is to beauty : it 
diminishes its splendor, but augments its value. 9. That which 
is most delicate in a work is lost by translating it into another 
language. 10. There is a certain art in conversation whicli 
gives grace to the simplest thing. 11. Contact with other men 
is necessary for him who has to write history. 12. The cocoa- 
nut-tree is of medium size ; the leaves of which fall and shoot 
forth alternately, so that it is always covered with foliage. 

13. Venice is a city unique in the world by its situation; it is 
precisely like an immense ship, which tranquilly reposes upon the 
water, and which no one can reach, but by means of boats. 

14. There is nothing, however mean it may be, that is not useful 
for something. 15. Charles Bonnet, who was almost perfect in 
heart and mind, tells us that after death all the species mount 
one round of the ladder which leads to perfection. IG. At the 
commencement of a feast, the Romans used to present a list of 
the viands which were to appear upon the table to the guests, 
in order that each one might reserve his appetite for that which 
most pleased him. 17. A preacher had annoyed all his audience 
preaching upon the beatitudes. After the sermon, a lady told 
him that he had forgotten one. " Which ? " asked the preacher. 
" That," answered the lady, " blessed is he who did not hear 
your sermon;" 18. Listlessness is a disease, the only remedy 
for which is labor. 19. That which is called Eldorado is only 
a sandy desert, which will not offer you a drop of water if you 
are thirsty, nor the shade of a tree if you are weary. 

Exercise XHI. 

Possessive Adjective Pronouns. 

Is this your bi-other's pen ? No, it is mine. All that I have 
is hers. His book is very good. Our relations are not poor. 



EXERCISES FOR TRAJS\SLATION. 21 

The daughter loves her father and mother. The son loves his 
mother and sister. I love you and your children. Do not speak 
against my relations. It is one of my sisters. She is in the 
kitchen with her aunt. To-day she will put on her best white 
hat, and her new shoes. Go in her stead. He spoke continually 
of his father, mother, and sister. Their female friends are not 
in the city. Is that your glove? No, it is not mine ; it is yours. 
Their good dog is not in our yard. Look at your watch. Give 
me my property. Go to his store. These are your apples, his 
pears, and my cherries. Who has her nice ribbons ? Where is 
my lace ? Give my aunt her money. My dear friend, I have 
nothing to give him. They were her people. Her neighbor 
was left to guard her house and her cows. She and her mother. 
My dear children. Put it in your pocket. She put it upon her 
head. He did it with his hands. 

1. England owes her wealth to the protection which she 
accords to her commerce. 2. Oh, what a longing a prisoner 
has to see his fellow-creatures ! o. There is no doubt, that 
every human condition has its peculiar duties. 4. Nothing 
serves better to confound our enemies, than not to notice their 
offence. 5. Every condition has its pleasures and its pains. 

6. The great wisdom of man consists in knowing his folly. 

7. Our friends foi'sake us when fortune ceases to favor us. 

8. A wise man often doubts : a foolish man never ; he knows 
every thing but his own ignorance. 9. Euripides complained to 
one of his friends, that he had been three days making a few 
verses. 10. Conscience is a just judge of our actions. 11. A 
sick man almost always says to his physician, My head and all 
my body pains me. 12. Hannibal distinguished himself from his 
equals not by the magnificence of his dress, but by the beauty of 
his horse and his arms. 13. Self-love is our prime mover. 
14. "And he also, when he saw me, arose, and, throwing his 

•arms about my neck, embraced me." 15. A sim[)leton joked a 
man of wit about his large ears. " I acknowledge having them 
too large for a man," he answered ; " but you must at the same 



22 EXERCISES FOR TRiVNSLATION. 

time agree, that yours are too small for an ass." 16. If you at- 
tempt to enter into conversation with an Englishman who does 
not know you, he will certainly take you for a knave. He will 
button up his vest, put his handkerchief well into his pocket, see 
that his watch is safe, and look crabbedly at you. Notice his 
face : it says to you, " Leave me alone." Yet this same person 
is perhaps the most friendly of mortals ; he only wishes to protect 
his own independence. 17. A fox seeing a crow, which had a 
piece of cheese in her beak, upon a tree, began to praise her 
very much. " What fine feathers ! " he said ; " what a beautiful 
body ! If you knew how to sing, upon my word there could bo 
no finer bird." The foolish bird, to allow her voice to be heard, 
opened her beak, and let the cheese fall ; and the fox, seizing it, 
carried it away. But the fox soon paid for his fraud ; for the 
shepherd came, and killed him for his skin. 

Exercise XIV. 

Demonstrative Adjective Pronouns. 

This is my penknife ; that is yours. These are her pens. 
Is that ink good ? Who is he ? Who is she ? Who are they ? 
This house no longer belongs to me. What have you in that 
trunk ? Who are those men ? What did your father buy to 
day ? AVho has given me this beautiful bouquet ? What is in 
that closet ? She will do what the master tells her. We shall 
go and take a little walk this evening. In the meantime you 
can go to our neighbors. Take this inkstand, and give me that. 
That is the lady of whom I was speaking. This rich man is 
sick. Those poor women are well. That poor child is hand- 
some and good. Give those gloves to that man. To this or to 
that? This man was learned, that was ignorant. That axe 
was lost. I have found this gold axe. Is this your axe, sir? 
This morning I worked in the garden. He planted those seeds 
which you gave him. This book is incorrect. That grammar 
is much used. He loves those dear children. Where have 1 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 23 

seen those faces? To whom have you given those plums ^ 
Have you written to that lady? What did she say to that 
news ? I prefer this table to that. This hat is very becoming 
to your daughter. She likes these red ribbons, not those yellow 
ones. Give me that small piece of cheese. 

1. Happy are those who love to read. 2. We love those 
who admire us ; but we do not always love those whom we 
admire. 3. Those who believe that happiness consists in riches 
deceive themselves. 4. We often forgive those who annoy us, 
but rarely those whom we annoy. 5. Ariosto is the poet of the 
ima";ination, Tasso that of the intellect. 6. James I. was one 
of those men who are discontented with their condition, and 
envious of others' glory. 7. Plato banished music from his 
republic. 8. All the works of nature merit our admiration. 9. 
The words of a sincere man are the thoughts of his heart. 10. 
" His eyes were closed by his physician, his friend from infancy, 
and a man all religion and charity." 11. "I have never known 
a more noble spirit than his, and few similar to his." 12. True 
grief weeps little ; the tear of the soul is much more bitter than 
that shed from the eye. 13. Those who flatter the great, ruin 
them. 14. We must do what God sets us to do, and take what he 
sends us. 15. There are human beings to whom nature shows 
herself a real step-mother ; poor Joanne was one of these 
unhappy creatures. 16. The hour of twilight exercises a 
mysterious influence upon gentle spirits ; that light and those 
shadows which seem to meet only to take leave of each other 
(to give an adieu) awaken a thousand delicate and affectionate 
thoughts. 17. From time to time, conscience wars against 
pride, and attempts to conquer its bad reasonings (the bad 
reasonings of this) by bearing witness to the truth. 18. That 
sky, that country, that distant motion of creatures in the valley, 
those voices of the country girls, those laughs, those songs, ex- 
hilarated us very much. 19. The wounds of the body are 
nothing in comparison to those of the mind. 



24 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 



Exercise XV. 
Indefinite Adjective Pronouns. 

They have spoken of nobody. She gave it to somebody. I 
had nothins: for dinner. The children love each other. One 
goes, and another comes. Both are in the city. Give him all 
you have. Tell me all you know. The woman knows every- 
body. The good man loves everybody. Has any one been 
here ? It is said that Celia will go to France. No one is with- 
out faults. Some are good, others are bad. I hear somebody's 
voice. They are not going into Washington Street. They sny 
it was a long procession. Is there any thing new to-day ? 

1. Every man is exposed to criticism. 2. All men are 
subject to death. 3. Every one has his faults. 4. Take those 
books, and put them each in its place. 5. Justice includes all 
other virtues. 6. Scipio displayed grandeur in all his actions. 
7. All nations appear to desire to obtain merit from the 
splendor of their origin. 8. We must have patience, and every 
thing will come right in time. 9. People judge others' things 
in a different manner from that in which they would judge their 
own. 10. People drink good wine in France, and eat good 
meat in England. 11. Every period of life has pleasures 
proper and natural to it. 12. Whatever reasons one may have 
for being absent from his country, there can be none sufficiently 
strong to make him forget it. 13. Vice disunites men, keeping 
them on guard, one against the other. 14. That which thou 
desirest others to keep silent, keep thou silent. 15. Other 
times, other customs. 16. It is foolish not to wish to know 
any thing. 17. No language is perfect in itself. 18. It is 
easier to be wise for others than for ourselves. 16. Every 
body seeks happiness, few find it. 20. A preacher, who had 
not been invited to dine with any one through Lent, said, in his 
last sermon,, that he had preached against all sins except that of 
gluttony, because it had not appeared to him that such a vice 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 2o 

ruled in the country. 21. Some one asked an American, why 
there had not been a monument erected to Christopher Colum- 
bus. 22. Every beginning is difficult. 

Exercise XVI. 
Iridejinite Adjective Pronouns Continued. 

What is the best news? What is the talk about town? 
Tliere is no news. I have read no paper to-day. Do they still 
speak of war? No, they speak only of peace. Every flower 
has its beauty. Every man has his virtues. Our friends will 
remain in France some weeks. She spends her time in some 
useful occupation. They have some good books. One sees that 
he is only a child. No servant was ever more faithful. We 
shall remain in the city all summer. He goes somewhere every 
season. Every one is her friend, because she is good. One can 
do much. Every little helps. It is not well to do nothing. 
Some make money, others lose it. The girls were jealous of 
j one another. One has a fine face, the other a handsome hand. 
Both mother and child were here. 

1. Any loss is more honorable than to lie. 5. All the 
laws and the prophets, all the collection of sacred books, is 
reduced to the precept of loving God and man. 3. The pleas- 
ure derived from things, in appearance almost nothing, when we 
wish well to some one, is indescribable. 4. Speaking with one 
and another is a pleasant recreation for every one. 5. No 
friendship, however intimate it may be, can authorize the vio- 
lation of a secret. 6. God knows how much more pleasant the 
name of Naples, the city of my fathers, is to me than that of any 
other name of Italian country. 7. Nothing is durable here 
below. 8. Every thing has its time; and the usages of war, 
perhaps, more than any other thing. 9. In plains we wish for 
hills, and on hills we naturally wish to walk on plains. 10. 
There is almost no great capital in Europe where they do not 



9(5 JiXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

seek servants from some remote, hidden province, and for the 
most part from the mountains. 

Exercise XVII. 
Prepositions di, a, da. 

Have you come to find me ? Do not go near the bed. That 
boy has fallen from the tree. Give the boy milk to drink, and 
some bread to eat. Have you good writing-paper ? My sister 
ha>s a good saddlehorse to sell. They say that our enemy is out 
of danger. Whilst the child is starving at home, the mother 
goes to church to pray. Give that man something to do. Do 
not say it in jest. That domestic is not fit for many things. 
The little boy plays the teacher, and the little girl the mistress 
of the house. He lives out of the town, and keeps arms for 
defence in his house. Why have you not something to do ? I 
have been sick since last year. Those girls depend upon their 
aunt. Have you learned your lesson by heart ? 

1. We must be careful not to expose ourselves to danger. 2. 
Caesar said to some one who was reading in his presence, " Are 
you reading, or are you singing ? If you are singing, you sing 
very badly." 3. When the gods love princes, says an ancient 
philosopher, they pour a mixture of good and evil into their cup 
of fate, so that they may never forget that they are men. 4. 
There is no true friendship without virtue. 5. Riches and 
poverty have great influence upon men. 6. The city of Florence 
enjoyed tranquillity and abundance under the government of the 
Medici. 7. Have three things open to your friend, — your face, 
your purse, and your heart. 8. Charlemagne sealed treaties 
with the hilt of his sword. 9. " Dying, we find an asylum against 
the misfortunes of life," said Seneca. 10. We ought to learn 
more from observation than from books. 11. "The eternal God 
has poured out happiness ; and I, I alone, am without help, with- 
out friends, without company." 12. God save you from living 
alone, by force (being forced to live alone) ! 13. It was ordered 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 27 

by Providence, that, when man is struck with calamity, woman 
shall be his support and consolation. 14. The last of the Vallesa 
was one of the best and most noble — noble in actions — among 
the ministers of our good and popular king. 15. It is not pos- 
sible not to find some enchantment in the presence, in the looks, 
and in the conversation, of a good, vivacious, and affectionate old 
lady. 16. It is said that the suffering of man upon earth is for 
the good of mankind. 

Exercise XVIII. 

Prepositions in, con, per. 

From this time forward. From that time forward. My house 
is in one of the principal streets of the city. Are you angry ? 
Where is the bunch of grapes which your uncle had for me? 
Go to the tailor's for your father's coat. With whom do you study 
music? We study with the schoolmaster. Are you going to 
Mrs. G.'s to-day ? How did the boys go into the church ? They 
went four-by-four. The lady saw a little girl pass over (through) 
the meadow with a faggot of wood upon her head. I only wish 
to speak with you. We earn our bread by labor. Money is to 
pay the house- rent. What do you do to earn your food ? Will 
you come with me ? The hostess led us into a clean room. The 
father returned with the clothes which he had bought in the 
village. A dog was sleeping at his ease in a manger full of hay. 
An ox came to the manger to eat. The envious dog barked, and 
would not allow the ox to approach the hay. The poor hungry 
animal was angry at such an overbearing act, and said to the 
ribald dog, " May God reward you according to your deserts, 
uncharitable villain ! You do not eat the hay yourself, nor per- 
mit others to enjoy it. Make use of the good things given you 
by Heaven, and permit others to enjoy theirs." 



28 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 



Exercise XIX. 
Prepositions. 

She will be here in ten days. It is said there is nothing new 
under the sun. We will go together after dinner. They praise 
her to the skies. Until now I have been your friend. He is 
beloved even by his enemies. Do not hesitate. I shall have 
finished this book shortly. He has been in France nearly three 
years. There are nearly one thousand souls in this town. I 
can do nothing without you. Poor w^omen ! They appear to be 
friendless. The good man cannot see my husband without 
speaking to him. There is no entrance for any one. Mary set 
out for the city with her mamma. She had a little bed at the 
side of the lady's bed. 

1. Before pubHshing his poem, Tasso wished to submit it to 
the criticisms of the bravest men of his times. 2. The poet was 
presented to the king by the generous duke. 3. To that unfor- 
tunate woman, Rome alone appeared to be a secure asylum. 
4. The soldier has every proof of esteem from the most cele- 
brated men who live here. 5. Mrs. U. presents her compli- 
ments to Mr. M. She cannot have the pleasure of seeing him 
to-day, and begs him to excuse her. 6. Mrs. U. presents her 
compliments to Mrs. M., and requests the favor of her company 
on Tuesday evening next. 7. If you do not call upon me in the 
morning, I shall certainly wait on you in the evening. 8. The 
country is submerged from time to time, and once Charles was 
up to his head in water. 9. Who lives according to the laws of 
nature, in this city ? 10. Caroline has found some strawberries 
between the two stones at the side of the wall. 11. Mr. L. was 
silent ; and sadly he fixed his eyes upon Peter, who cast his 
down to the earth. 12. Captain S. yields to civil orders, is a 
sincere lover of peace, and aspires to no other dignity than that 
of being able to be useful to his beloved country. 13. The cap- 
tain was named Schiller ; he was a Swiss, of a peasant family ; 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION". 29 

he had served asrainst the Turks under General Landon in the 
times of Joseph 11. ; then in all the wars of Austria against 
France, until the fall of Napoleon. 14. The hospitality of the 
French is the most complete in the actual state of society. 
15. Among the Sybarites, women invited to feasts and public 
dinners were notified a year previous, that they might have time 
to appear with all the pomp of beauty and dress. 

Exercise XX. 
The Verbs essere and avere. 

We are poor and sick. Are you not rich enough? Were 
they all here ? Have you had time to go to Rome ? I shall be 
at home next week. There is no time to lose. Why are you in 
such a hurry ? Be quiet, and you shall have some figs. Be so 
kind as to to give that old man a glass of wine. There are 
many people who do not love to work. We have no meat for 
dinner. I am ill, and have no appetite. The physician is 
charmed with the progress of his patient. They have a cold. 
The parents of those children have been too indulgent. He has 
been to the tailor's ; but the coat was not finished. I shall be 
happy to see her in my new house. They have been very polite 
to us. She is about to marry. I will come to your house 
to-morrow. It may be that I shall not be at home. Her things 
are all in a good way now. I look upon thee as a good friend. 
There is no hope left. Mr. R. is a rich man, or a man of great 
wealth. The rich are not always happy. Good health is bet- 
ter than wealth. What is the matter with you ? I am no 
longer hungry. That would be useless. Is his bird tame? 
Have they green worsted ? Give her needle, thread, and cotton. 

1. The city of Briinn is the capital of Moravia. 2. To be a 

slave to the judgment of others, when you are persuaded that it 

is false is the height of baseness. 3. Happy are those who hate 

violent pleasures, and know how to be contented with an innocent 

life. 4. Whoever is capable of lying, is unworthy of being enu- 

3* 



30 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION". 

merated among men. 5. It was a sweet pleasure to hear those 
songs and the organ which accompanied them. 6. It is easy to 
give advice, but very difficult to follow it. 7. Albert R. had 
changed his hope of being one of the great of Europe, into that 
of being one of the first of his own little province. 8. Arduino, 
Marquis of Ivrea, was the last Italian king of Italy. 9. It is 
curious that Piedmont, one of the most picturesque countries 
perhaps in the world, was nevertheless one of the last to admit 
picturesque gardening. 10. The city of Tyre is refreshed by the 
north wind which comes from the sea. 11. The greater the 
number of men there are in a country, provided they are indus- 
trious, the more abundance they enjoy. 12. The ambition and 
avarice of men are the sole origin of all their misfortunes. 
13. The most unhappy of all men is he who believes himself 
to be so. 14. The most free of all men, is he who can be free 
even in slavery. 15. Misfortune is the school of great intellects. 
16. Friendship and religion are two inestimable advantages 
(goods). 17. Not to remember happy days is a great diminu- 
tion of misery, particularly when we are young. 18. General 
B. said, " I have always believed that the education of war is the 
best education that a man can have." 

Exercise XXI. 

The Verbs aiid their ■ Syntax, 

Have you seen the violets ? There are beautiful tulips in 
your cousin's garden. How fresh every thing looks ! Every 
thing looks alive. The rain has done a great deal of good. 
This is the warmest summer I can remember. I think we shall 
have more rain. I have a little business to do. I have had a 
very pleasant journey. You never will do like others. You 
wait for nobody. I will not stay a moment longer. I wish for 
a steel pen and a sheet of paper. Tell me to whom you write. 
I write to the dear friend whom you have seen at my house. 
What noise do I hear ? You said it. I thought you were mis- 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 31 

taken. Come home before it grows dark. Take away those 
things. Never speak without thinking. They say that he has 
never enjoyed a moment's happiness. Do not go out ; it rains. 
She was about writing a letter when you entered. It is Henry's 
turn to go to the city. To-morrow I shall play the cook : will 
you come to dine with me? We shall have maccaroni with 
cheese for dinner. Now they ring the bell for supper, and we 
are not all ready to go. Let us wait a little. See, my suit of 
clothes is finished. How well he plays the violin ! it is a pleas- 
ure to hear him. 

1. The music of Bellini says sadly, as he who hopes for noth- 
ing here below, " Weep and pray." 2. Let us remember that 
suffering is the common heritage of the sons of man ; that earth 
without heaven would be too hard an exile ; and that life without 
God is an insoluble enigma ! 3. " Heaven be thanked, that I 
can remember my good mother without the least remorse ! " 
said R. 4. The will of God be done. 5. It is a shame to the 
human race, that war is inevitable at certain times, or on certain 
occasions. 6. Labor and cares do not frighten the wise man ; 
they are the exercise of his mind, which they keep in vigor and 
health. 7. Those disasters which cast down, discourage, and 
mortify the spirits of a man, seem to rouse up the energies of 
the softer sex. 8. We should foresee danger, and fear it ; but, 
when it comes upon us, we have only to despise it. 9. In war, 
fortune is capricious and inconstant. 10. Men wish to have every 
thing, and make themselves miserable with the desire for super- 
fluity. 11. Great conquerors, like those rivers which overflow 
their banks, appear majestic, but lay waste all those fertile coun- 
tries- which they should only water. 12. Everybody says what 
comes into his mind. 13. When the heart of a man is exercised 
and strengthened in virtue, he ought easily to console himself for 
the wrinkles which come upon his face. 14. Justice, modera- 
tion, and good faith are the securest defence of a State. 15. Mis- 
fortune fraternizes souls, stifles bad passions, and binds around 
us ties of love. 16. St. Cecilia is a popular institution which 



32 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

appears to be transmitted from the middle ages. 17. Letters ! 
are they not the children of heaven, descended to earth to 
console us in grief? 18. Ah! there is much comfort in the 
alternations of care and hope for a person who is all that is left 
to us. 19. Who, in the noise of our streets, with railways, the 
smoke of the engines, and the monotonous rolling of the omni- 
buses, would not sometimes sigh for the quiet of a country life ? 

Exercise XXII. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

The mistress of the house ordered her to go. I fear that you 
will be late to school. Tell her that she cannot do as she likes. 
He does not know if he ought to buy it of him. If he knew it, 
he would not tell it to me. We are assured that your friend (f ) 
has come. If you had studied, you would be more learned. It 
seems that she will not give the cake to her son. It is possible 
that she may give it to him to-morrow. I want to be home in 
good time. I am afraid the roads are very dusty. I think we 
shall have some rain. Do you not think that it is very warm 
for the season ? I want something good to eat. Here is a piece 
of toast, which I think will please you. Make yourself at home. 
What fruit do you like best? It does not appear to me that 
there is much difference. You say so, that you may not blame 
me. She seems to be growing homelier. The master asked me 
who I was, and where I went to school. What does he think 
that I know ? I wish to give her the flowers which please her. 
She appeared to me more beautiful than ever. More beautiful 
than any other lady in Boston. If I had such a house. He 
wishes to know who she is. I wish that yor would write to my 
mother. Let me feel your pulse. Is there any thing I can do 
for you ? It seems to me to be very late. Now I must see 
your flower-garden and your kitchen-garden. Although it is 
difficult, I will do it. If he knew how much he was beloved ! 
I must go. I am afraid that I shall not be able to go tliere. I 



EXERCISES Foil TRANSLATION. 33 

cannot believe any such thing. What is it to you if he comes 
or not? 

1. The preacher said to his hearers, "If I offered you only 
promises, you would be excused for not believing me ; but I 
offer you certain and present things." 2 " Let us see if you now 
have the courage to do better, and to allow yourself to be humil- 
iated by the truth which condemns your weakness." 3. Do not 
say things which are not true. 4. Do not go in search of perils, 
when necessity does not require it. 5. We must found public 
schools, where we can teach our youth to prefer honor to pleas- 
ure. 6. Very soon James and Charles had the same confidence 
as if they had passed their lives together, athough they had 
never seen each other before. 7. People generally pray that 
God would reward them for every good action. 8. If we do 
not flatter ourselves, the flattery of others will never hurt us. 
9. " Alas ! " cried Mrs. P., " I fear that my son is dead ; and I 
know not what I shall do." 10. Whatever may have been 
Louisa's intentions, she has not done as well as she might. 

11. The larger a kingdom is, the more ofiicers are required to 
do what the chief magistrate could not accomplish by himself. 

12. What a shame it is, that the most elevated men make their 
grandeur consist in their money-bags. 13. Who has not need 
of a friend who loves the truth only, and who will tell you the 
truth in spite of yourself? 14. The statue of Zenobia was in so 
life like a posture, that one could almost believe that she would 
walk. 15. How many exiles have exclaimed, " Would to God 
that I had never left my country!" 16. When a good general 
is killed, all the camp is like a disconsolate family which has 
lost the father, who was the cherished hope of his tender little 
ones. 17. It was only with the good parent, that the discreet 
child did not use circumspection in manifesting all the secrets of 
his heart. 



34 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 



Exercise XXm. 
Infinitive and Participles. 

"We are beloved by all our friends. I have been out of town 
all winter. They have arrived in England. "When he arrived 
at the church door, he found it shut. She is very acute at rail- 
lery. They have not found the dog which was lost. I have 
seen a orreeu worm on the rose-bush. It is not all in commenc- 
ing. The fire is spread throughout the city. Do not fear that 
I go away ; your manners please me too much. She has had 
time to repent of it. "Who can say much in few words ? Seeing 
her going away. It seemed to him that he saw his lady. "When 
I had said thus. "Who can have done that ? She must go very 
soon. I have always loved good old people. He has been very 
kind to us. She has given two dresses to her servant. Having 
rested his weary body, he got up. On his departure, he gave 
each child a dollar. I believe that you are all asleep. "Who has 
told all these things to our father ? Where has he bought that 
fine horse ? I have paid more for my feathers than they are 
worth. If I could have some pretty ribbon to trim my dress. 
That man has gained much money. Your son has spent more 
than you can ever earn. He has not rendered an exact ac- 
count of every thing. Never speak at random. "When the 
night was spent. He is oppressed by cares. To be master of a 
thing. He has been the Lord Mayor of London. They have 
spent about twenty crowns. I walked about ten miles. To 
condemn one without hearing. My friend is about to marry a rich 
woman. Have you fed that little white dog of yours ? Mr. S. 
has brought you a gold ring from the city. I have eaten so 
much that I cannot go. "Who would have believed it? How 
can that be ? It looks so very nice. "Will you have the good- 
ness to ring the bell ? My brother has taken three cups of tea, 
and asks for more. 

\. The providence of God keeps us from perishing ; the power 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 35 

of God prevents us doing those things which displease him ; and 
the goodness of God preserves us from auffering. 2. There are 
but few people who are satisfied with their lot. 3. It is easy 
to give advice, but difficult to follow it. 4. Signor Domenico, 
believing himself a learned and wise man, but not knowing 
what to with his knowledge, made a physician of himself, 
without ever having studied medicine. 5. Even in prison, there 
are persons afflicted to console, sick to cure, weak to comfort, 
and strono- to confirm. 6. We are oblio;ed to confess that our 
soul, mind, heart, and all our affections, have too restricted limits, 
7. Many cities have desired to become the capital of a great 
empire. 8. The lack of maritime power is a great injury to a 
nation. 9. We are machines moved by habit. 10. Let us write 
from the dictation of our heart, provided it is free and uncorrupt. 
11. We see ruined churches, castles, and convents of the middle 
ages throughout all Europe ; the surface of Italy is covered with 
them. 12. "I stood at that window palpitating, shuddering, and 
staring about until morning, when I descended oppressed with a 
mortal sadness, and imagining myself much more injured than I 
really was." 13. It is always sad to be obliged to leave one's 
country through misfortune ; but to leave it in chains, and be 
carried into horrible climates, is so afflicting that no terms can 
express it! 14. Saint Nilo, moved to pity by the cruel treat- 
ment inflicted on his countryman Filigato, went to the young 
emperor Otto, and, supplicating and weeping, demanded mercy 
for the prisoner. 15. The twins Romulus and Remus, being 
exposed by order of the king, were found and secretly educated 
by a shepherd named Faustolo. 

Exercise XXIV. 

The Verbs andare, fare, stare, and dare. 

The sun sets. I have much to do. Three months ago. I 
have never harmed any one. He will go at daybreak. He did 
his best. He will set sail at three o'clock. We live a regular 



36 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

life. He did not know how to wish a happy new year. He has 
just published my new work. That parrot has disturbed me 
very much. She pretended not to hear what the beggar said. 
I beg you to come to live with us. We are accustomed to take 
breakfast at seven o'clock. Can you not keep still ? Tell her, 
that I say she may do as she likes. How she stands like a 
marble statue ! How is it that this man is your husband ? Go 
for the doctor. Mr. Lewis has given me a beautiful white hen. 
I am on the point of leaving for Europe. Where do you live ? 
How do you do ? How is your mother ? Are your sisters well ? 
When I was standing at the window, I saw the soldiers pass by. 
Be quiet, child ! This is the question. Stay as long as you 
please. Where does she live ? This city stands in a plain. 
He is obliofed to live on bread and water. These clothes cost 
me twenty crowns. Why are you so thoughtful ? I am read- 
ing. I love to live friendly with everybody. When the worst 
comes to the worst, he will sell the house. You must welcome 
him. Give me good fruit, bread, and wine, and I shall be 
satisfied. 

1. True dignity is not in pride. 2. So goes the world. 
3. Minerva gave the olive, fruit of a tree planted by her, to the 
inhabitants of proud Athens. 4. Wild beasts are not so cruel as 
men : lions do not wage war upon lions, nor tigers upon tigers : 
yet man alone, despite his reason, does that which animals without 
reason never do. 5. Is there not land enough to give to all men 
more than they can cultivate ? 6. If we eat more food than is 
necessary, it poisons instead of nourishing us. 7. Hasten, O 
young man ! to go where destiny calls : go unhesitatingly to the 
field of battle. 8. As represented, the frightful Pluto was seated 
upon a throne of ebony. 9. Virtue is the greatest gift which 
the good God can give us. 10. We must not take the life of one 
man into account, when the safety of the nation is at stake. 

11. " Go, good mother, go to heaven, and find your child." 

12. When misfortunes commence in a house, it often happens 
that even indifferent people fear for themselves. 13. " Then I 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 37 

saw how things came, how they went, and how they would go." 
14. "This silence is not to my taste," said the captain; "it pre- 
sages no good." 15. The country of Phcenecia is at the foot of 
the Lebanon Mountains, whose tops pierce the clouds, and go to 
touch the stars. , 16. The unhappy father does not know where 
he is, what he is doing, or what he ought to do, and goes calling 
his lost son. 17. True praise is that which is given in the 
absence of the person praised. 18. Whilst we are in the midst 
of delights, we do not wish to see or hear any thing which can 
interrupt their enjoyment. 

Exercise XXV. 

Adverbs. 

Where are you going? Where is your stick? They are 
often unhappy. My aunt is seldom satisfied. Henceforth I 
shall do nothing for that family. They have treated me most 
ungenerously. Bravo my friend ! you have spoken very well. I 
am afraid it will be too late to do good. We will go directly. 
Have you finished already? You read newspapers continually. 
I shall finish in the twinkling of an eye. The young man came 
unexpectedly. We seldom go out. I am always in a hurry. 
How quickly he moves ! They must go very soon. I heard of 
it a short time ago. They were seen near the house. The men 
whom you wish to see are not here. The good general is wel- 
come everywhere. I am better to-day than I was yesterday. 
Now-a-days she is seldom at home. They are constantly coming 
here. I am almost asleep. I have waited a long time, and she 
does not come. In general, he is very proud to his inferiors. 
When he leaves, I shall leave also. You are advised to go 
immediately. At what o'clock does the packet start? Let us 
walk faster. Write to me immediately. Without fail. They 
can sleep here. Your rooms are ready. How much are we 
indebted to you ? It is very disagreeable to travel alone. T 

4 



38 EXEKCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

have travelled this way several times. With best wishes, yours 
truly. Do not vrait longer. 

1. Sextus v., when he was cardinal, pretended to be extenu- 
ated by years and infirmities, and went very stooping. 2. It 
often happens that men reap more advantage from their mistakes, 
than from the good deeds they have done. 3. Happy are those 
who have never wandered from the straight road of virtue ! 
4. People are continually talking of virtue and of merit, without 
knowing what they are. 5. The wise man loves truth, and never 
tells a lie. 6. We seldom repent of speaking too little, but often 
of speaking too much. 7. Cato the censor never ceased to repre- 
sent to the Senate the sad consequences of luxury. 8. Perhaps 
there is no greater absurdity than that so often repeated, of the 
peace of mind of the just. 9. At any rate. Napoleon was cer- 
tainly, in a military point of view, greater than Charlemagne, or 
any other ; and particularly so in the conception of the wonderful 
campaign of 1800. 10. Good-luck, like ill-luck, never comes 
alone. 11. Behold me, then, in a sort of society, when 1 was 
prepared for a greater soUtude than before. 12. The secretary 
was very humane, and spoke of religion with affection and dignity. 

13. In Germany, priests are accustomed to dress like laymen. 

14. True dignity consists in being ashamed only of mean actions. 

Exercise XXVI. 
Promiscuous Exercises. 

Go ! what nonsense (childishness) ! And so ! What is it ? 
Speak, then. The man is never satisfied. Will you never have 
done ? The sky is as fine now as it ever was. He was near his 
end. Oh, how happy I am ! He is so-so. Such like. Whilst 
you read, I write. Come with me, and show me where I may 
go. He goes so well. I am very well. It would go ill with 
me if I had nothing else to live upon. 

1. Alas, how full of contradictions is man ! 2. Oh, how 
pleasant is the sympathy of our fellow-creatures ! 3. Oh, how 



EXEKCISES FOR TRANSLATION. . 39 

unjust are men, judging by appearances, and according to their 
owu superb prejudices ! 4. O Italy, Italy ! when shall I have 
the pleasure of seeing you again ? 5. Oh ! if I could do it, 
I would do it willingly. 6. He loves me because I merit it. 
7. Oh, so ! let us speak of something else. 8. There is no honor- 
able retreat for a gotH|;id wise man, except in company of the 
Muses. 9. We should never be prejudiced against a man 
because he has a fierce aspect. 10. The rich, who have never 
experienced want nor the necessity of considering or paying for 
the comforts of life, know nothing of the pleasure of economy. 

11. Have you made all your preparations for departure? 
12. Every thing is ready. 13. Send for a porter to carry my 
luggage. 14. I shall take the railway omnibus, and start in five 
minutes. 15. It seems to me to be very late. 16. How soon 
shall we be at the terminus? 17. I am afraid of being too late 
for the nine o'clock train. 18. Here we are at the terminus : we 
are never too late. 19. The train will start in five minutes. 
20. Make haste and take your ticket. 21. What luggage have 
you ? 22. I have two trunks, three carpet-bags, and one hat-box. 
23. Here is the locomotive engine that is to draw us. 24. Have 
we two engines ? 25. It requires a very great force to draw a 
train of twenty-five carriages. 26. What is the power of those 
engines ? 27. They are each of twenty-horse power. 28. Are 
you going by the express train? 29. No, this is the accommo- 
dation train. 30. At what o'clock does the baorsrao-e train start ? 
3 1 . There are two a day : one starts at ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and the other at three in the afternoon. 32. Does your 
father come with us? 33. No: he goes in the express train. 
34. Make haste : the train is just going to start. 35. That is the 
signal for starting. We are off. 36. We are already far from 
the terminus. 37. We have already gone four or five leagues. 
38. We have gone just six miles. 39. We went the last mile 
in two minutes. 40. We go a mile and a half in a minute. 
41. This is quick travelling. 42. But for your assistance, I 
Bliould have lost all. 43. Should you have undertaken it, if you 



40 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

had thought it so difficult ? 44. Persevere, and you will succeed. 
45. I heard them firinf]j all the mornino;. 46. I felt her hand 
trembling in mine. 47. He saw his dog torn in pieces at his 
feet. 48. It would be necessary for him to see her. 49. I 
want some sealing-wax. 50. Do you want any thing else? 
51. We often lose more time in idly J(|?etting an evil than 
would be necessary to remedy it. 52. I would certainly do it, 
if it were necessary. 53. You might have broken your neck. 

54. You might have forwarded your letter by his servant. 

55. He would answer though he had been advised not to speak. 

56. It must not be told to any one. 57. I would not liave acted 
thus. 58. They would have neither roast beef nor pie. 59. His 

sister is ill : he must go and see her. 60. The fact must 
have taken place an hour after nightfall. 61. He owes me 
now a thousand pounds ; last year he owed me twelve hundred. 
62. Always carry an umbrella when it is fine. 63. Is not 
friendship the greatest of earthly blessings? 64. Have you 
not been to see the crater of Mount Vesuvius ? 65. Did you 
not go as far as Turin by the railroad ? QQ. Is your uncle's 
agent yet arrived ? 67. Should you be displeased, if I gave you 
any more examples ? 68. Do you write to her sister to-day ? 

69. He is so silly and so tiresome that I cannot bear him. 

70. He has so much wealth that he does not know what to do 
with it. 71. I like neither his person, his family, nor his 
fortune. 72. In the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread till 
thou return to the ground from whence thou wast taken ; for 
dust thou art, and to dust thou shalt return. 73. You shall not 
speak English : you shall speak Italian, nothing but Italian, with 
your teacher. 74. Do not go into the current : you will be 
drowned, as you cannot swim. 75. I shall die in a land of 
strangers, and not a tear will be shed upon my grave. 76. Yes ; 
and your death will be just as much felt in the world as that of 
a worm or a fly. 77. True ; but it will not be the less a matter 
of infinite moment to me. 78. Speak well of your friend; of 
your enemy, neither well nor ill. 79. The truly virtuous man 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 41 

fears neither poverty, afflictions, nor death. 80. The poor man 
has neither relatives, acquaintances, nor friends. 81. Either say 
nothing of the absent, or speak like a friend. 82. The good man 
possesses a happiness which the world can neither give nor take 
away. 83. On the fifteenth of next month, when I have won 
tlie capital prize. 84. Chaucer, the father of English poetry, was 
horn in thirteen hundred and twenty-eight, and died in fourteen 
hundred, in the seventy-second year of his age. He had thus 
lived in the reigns of Edward the Third, Richard the Second, 
and Henry the Fourth. 85. Swans are an ornament to lakes 
and rivers. The swans of Australia are black. 86. Knowledge 
is the eye of youth, and the staff of age. 87. I flatter my- 
self you will be satisfied with your daughter's pronunciation. 
88. One should avail one's self of every opportunity to acquire 
knowledge. 89. Mr. B. thinks himself a great man ; but he 
deceives himself 90. The horseman and horse that fell down 
the precipice are both dead. 91. Is this the lady from whom 
you received the letter which you mentioned? 92. That is the 
goldsmith by whom this ring was made. 93. The fruit of that 
forbidden tree, whose mortal taste brought death into the world. 
94. The lishtnina: has blasted that beautiful tree, the fruit of 
which was so delicious. 95. Never defer till to-morrow what 
you can do to-day. 96. Shun poverty: whatever be your in- 
come, spend less. 97. This is bad ; that is worse : these are so-so ; 
those are the worst of all. 98. There is but one lasting afflic- 
tion, — that which is caused by the loss of self-esteem. 99. Share 
this melon with your play-fellows; give each of them a slice. 
1 00, My brothers are both returned from college; each has 
obtained a prize. 101. All fools are not knaves ; but all knaves 
are fools. 102. Mr. A. has failed: shall you lose the money he 
owes you? 103. I shall have published the second edition of 
my Dictionary before the end of the year. 104. When you have 
studied Italian two years, you will understand what you read. 
105. He will have spent half his fortune before inheriting it. 
lOG. He who listens through a hole may hear what will not 



42 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

please him. 107. " Doctor, may ma eat oysters for. supper?" 
" Yes : she may eat shells and all, if she likes." 108. My brother 
might have made a fortune by his trade. 109. Before you say 
or do any thing, reflect what the consequences may be. 110. If 
I went by the steamer, I should be sea-sick. 111. You would 
arrive sooner if you went by the mail. 112. While you are 
passing through the Tunnel under the Thames, hundreds of large 
ships are sailing over your head. 113. Since habit is a second 
nature, let us early form good ones. 114. The universe is com- 
posed of two things only, — mind and matter. 115. In educating 
the mind, we should not forget to educate the heart. 116. In 
Italy the eye sees much, but the memory more. 117. Victoria 
the First, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, is the grand-daughter of George the Third, and the 
neice of King William the Fourth. 118. The Arabs call the 
camel the ship of the desert. 119. Egypt was the cradle of 
arts and sciences. 120. There are, in your exercise, as many 
errors as words. 121. The prospect brightens as you ascend. 
122. Beauty is potent, but money is omnipotent. 123. Though 
I had written the letter, I had not forwarded it. 124. He is still 
rich, notwithstanding his losses. 125. He has acted an unworthy 
part: nevertheless I will assist him. 126. I forgive him, on con- 
dition that I never see him more. 127. Tell the truth: other- 
wise you will be despised by every one. 128. She was both 
young and lovely, and rich also. 129. The earth is divided into 
five parts; namely, Europe, Asia, etc. 130. You might learn a 
great many things: as, for instance, music, painting, etc. 131. It 
has happened just as I expected. 132. Whence comes it that 
you are so melancholy? 133. You are young and inexperi- 
enced : therefore you ought to be guided by the advice of your 
elders. 134. You have promised: then you must perform. 
135. Since she has written to you, you must reply. 



i 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 43 

The pagan gods chose various trees. The oak pleased Jupiter ; 
the ash, IMars ; the pine, Cybele ; the poplar-tree, Hercules ; and 
the laurel, Apollo. Minerva and Pallas asked why they took 
unfruitful trees. Jupiter replied, " On account of the honor." 
" Say what you will," added Pallas, '' I like the olive on account 
of its fruit." " You are right, dear daughter," replied Jupiter ; 
and immediately they all called her the Goddess of Wisdom, 
because, if what we do is useless, the honor is vain. 



The celebrated Venetian painter, Titian, let his pencil fall 
whilst painting the Emperor Charles V. The emperor picked 
it up immediately, saying, " A Titian merits to be served by an 
emperor." There are few fine galleries where pictures of 
Titian and CoiTeggio are not to be found. 



Aspasia of Miletus was celebrated in Athens for her wit and 
her beauty. She was so skilful in eloquence and politics, that 
Socrates himself took lessons of her. She was the teacher and 
wife of Pericles, and lived 428 years before the Christian era. 



Count Mansfield, one of the greatest captains of the age, had 
certain proofs that an apothecary had received a considerable 
sum to poison him. He sent for him ; and, when he appeared 
before him, he said, " My friend, I cannot believe that a person 
whom I have never injured should wish to take my life. If 
necessity induces you to commit such a crime, here is money : be 
honest." 

Whilst a countryman was sowing his field, a young man 
passed by, who, trying to be witty, said with rather an insolent 
air, " Good man, you have to sow, and ive reap the fruits of your 
labors." To which the countryman replied, " It is very prob- 
able, sir; for I am sowing hemp." 



44 EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION. 

A young man of distinction, having just returned from mak- 
ing the tour of Europe, and using the privilege of travellers 
to embellish things with the flowers of invention, was telling an 
officer, one day, of the magnificent presents which he had 
received from different reigning princes ; among others, he men- 
tioned a very superb bridle, which had been given to him by the 
King of France. " It is so elegantly ornamented with gold and 
precious stones," said he, " that I cannot persuade myself to put 
it into my horse's mouth ; what can I do with it ? " — " Put it into 
your own " (mouth), replied the officer with whom the traveller 
was speaking. 



Printed by John Wilson & Son. 



I 



TESTIMONIALS. 



New York, February, J 866. 

I have used " Otto's French Grammar " since its publication, and 
consider it the best book on the subject. It is based on the most 
modern grammars pubHshed in Paris ; it is thorough, and full of 
idiomatical expressions that can be found in no other work. 

LUCIEN OUDIN, A.M. 
Instructor of the French Langitage, N. Y, Free Academy. 



I have used " Otto's German Grammar." I consider it a very 
good book ; its abundant vocabularies, and its fulness in idioms, 
are especially useful. The appendix, also, is very valuable, con- 
taining, as it does, some of the most popular and characteristic 
German poems, which may be turned to many uses. 
Feb. 1, 1865. ADOLPH WERNER, 

Professor of German, New -York Free Acade7ny. 



Washington University St. Louis, Jan. 2, 1865. 

Mr. S. R. Urbino, 

Dear Sir, — It gives me great pleasure to inform you that I 
have introduced your edition of "Otto's German Grammar" in 
my classes in this University, and that I regard it as the very best 
German grammar, for school purposes, that has thus far come to 
my notice. Your Grerman editions of the "Immensee," " Vergiss- 
meinnicht," and " Irrlichter," are great favorites among my pupils ; 
»nd your " College Series of Modern French Plays," edited by 
Mr. Ferdinand Bocher of Harvard College, I regard as very useful 
for the recitation-room, and for private reading. 

Yours very truly, 

B. L. TAFEL, Ph. D. 
*rofe$sor of Modern Languages and Comparative Philology in Washingtom 
University. 



I use " Otto's French and German Grammar " at our College 
and the Collegiate School, and can confidently recommend it to all 
similar institutions. 

October, 1864. H. STIEFELHAGEN, 

Frofessor Modern Languages at Eing^s College, Windsor^ Nova Scotia. 

1 have examined many works designed for pupils studying the 
French Language, and among them consider " Otto's French Con- 
Tersation Grammar," revised by Bocher, superior to any other. 
I use it in my classes, and take pleasure in recommending it as 
admirably adapted for the purpose. 

A. WERTHEIM, 
Fro/essor of Modern Languages at the University ^ Louisville, Kentucky. 

Among many works designed for pupils studying the German 
language, I consider " Otto's German Conversation Grammar " 
superior to any other. I use it in my classes, and take great 
pleasure in recommending it as the best work which has yet been 
pubHshed for the use of schools. 

A. WERTHEIM, 
I^o/essor of Modem Languages, Louisville, Ky. 

Boston, March, 1865. 
Mr. Uebino, Boston. 

My dear Sir, — " Otto's French Grammar " revised by Prof. 
F. Bocher, is the best Instructor ever pubUshed ; at present, it sur- 
passes Fasquelle and the Ollendorf System, by its simphcity. It 
has the advantage of teUing, in one page, what the others require 
three or four to express. The rules for the pronunciation do honor 
to the reviser ; besides, the lessons are so well placed, and so pro- 
gressive, that they bring the student into the difficulties of our 
language with very little exertion. At last, permit me to thank 
you for taking, by this pubhcation, the most tedious part of our 
labor as teacher. It is so clear, tliat any one could teach the 
Vrench Language without difficulty. 

I remain, Sir, yours, 

P. J. BORIS, 

Professor of French Language, 

ld« Boylston Place, Boston. 



Marlbobo', Mass , April 9, 1866 
S. R. Urbino, Esq. 

Dear Sir, — I used Otto's Grammar in two classes at Edgar- 
town High School, — one class quite advanced. The testimonial 
of Mr. Hunt and others expresses my sentiments, and you may 
use my name if you choose. 

Yours truly, 

A. H. WENZEL, 
I^rincipal qf Marlboro'' High School, late Principal of 
Edgarlovm High School. 



WoBURN, April 12, 1866. 
Mr. Uebino. 

Dear Sir, — The opinion of Messrs. Hunt and others with 

respect to the merits of Otto's French Grammar, I indorse in 

fiiU. 

Yours truly, 

THOMAS EMERSON. 

Master of Woburn High School. 



^. R. Urbino, Esq. 

My Dear Sir, — I am now using Otto's French Grammar, 
revised by Prof. Bocher ; and, so far as we have advanced, I am 
better pleased with it than with any other work of the kind which 
I have previously used. 

Yours truly, 

GEORGE N. BIGELOW, 

Principat. 
State Nor>iAl School, Framinoham, 

April 16, 1866. 

Boston, April 16. 
Mr. Urbino. 

Dear Sir, — I have used Otto's French Grammar for several 

years in all my schools, -and find it much superior to all those which 

I have as yet seen, for the simplicity and clearness with wliich the 

rules are explained. 

I am happy to say, also, that your series of French Comedies 

and your other French books can be highly recommended for school 

and private reading : they are well selected. 

Yours truly, 

O. BESSAU. 



Kew Haven, Conn., April, 1866 

S. R. Urbino, Esq. 

Dear Sir, — I thank yotl for the specimens of your French 
and German series, which you have been kind enougli to send me 
from time to time. You are doing, as it appears to me, a leal 
service to the study of these two languages, especially of thp 
German, in our country, by putting at reasonable prices so excel- 
lent editions of classical and unexceptionable texts witliin the easy 
reach of teachers and scholars. I have used several of them in 
my classes, and can heartily recommend them to instructors of 
pupils of every grade. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM D. WHITNEY, 
Prqf, of Sanscrit and Instructor in Modern Languages at Yale College. 



Otto's French Conversation Grammar. Revised by Ferdi- 
nand Bocher. Boston : S. R. Urbino. 

It is with great pleasure that we direct the attention of all lovers 
of the French language to this pubUcation. ... It is particularly 
fit for a text-book in our schools, for the following reasons : 1, It 
is short, without being superficial. 2, It is logically arranged. 
3, Its course of instruction is a progress, in a natural gradation, 
from the easy to the diflBcult. 4, Theory and practice go hand in 
hand. 5, Its outside appearance does credit to the publishers. — 
Michigan Teacher, May, 1866. 



Bates College, June 9, 1866. 
S. R. Urbino, Esq. 

Dear Sir, — Will you allow me to thank you for calling my 

attention to Otto's French Grammar, edited by Prof Boclier'? 

We have used it thus far this year with entire satisfaction. It 

will be but simple justice to award it the first place as a text-book 

for mature students, at least among all with which I am acquainted, 

whether published in this country or in Europe. Its chapter on 

Pronunciation is surpassingly complete and practical. 

Gratefully yours, 

B. F. HAYES. 



Enolish High School, 

Boston, March 31, 1866. 
Mr. Ubbino. 

Dear Sir, — After a six months* trial, we conclude that Otto's 

French Grammar, revised by Bocher, is superior in all respects 

to any other of which we have knowledge. 

Very respectfully yours, 

E. HUNT, 

WILLIAM NICHOLS, Jr., 
ROBERT EDWARD BABSON, 
THOMAS SHERWIN, Jr., 

Teachers in Enylish High School. 

I fully and emphatically indorse the above opinion respecting 

Otto's Erench Grammar. 

JOHN D. PHILBRICK, 

Superintendent of Public Schools 



State Normal School. 

Salem, Mass, April 3, 1866. 
S. R. Urbino, Esq. 

My Dear Sir, — We are using in our school several of your 

publications with much satisfaction. This is especially the case 

with Otto's French Grammar. As a class text-book, this grammar 

is, in my opinion, the best in the market. 

For the excellence of your school-books, both as to matter and 

typographical beauty, you richly merit the gratitude of teachers 

and pupils. 

Yours truly, 

D. B. HAGAR. 



Cambridge, April 6, 1866. 
Mr. S. R. Urbino. 

Dear Sir, — Otto's French Grammar, revised by Bocher, which 
we have been trying with a class in our "shorter course of study," 
has been adopted for all our French classes, in place of Fasquelle's 
book. We can heartily indorse the testimonial from the teachers 
in t^e Boston High School. 

Yours truly, 

W. J. ROLFE, 
Mailer of iMmbridtje High SchooL 



Vassar Female College, 
PouGHKEEPSiE, N.Y., April 19, 1866. 
Mr Urrino. 

Dear Sir, — I am now using many of your publications in 
this college, of which I am particulariy pleased with the German 
and Italian Grammars, and with Bocher's College Series of French 
Plays. Otto's German Grammar, I regard as a model of scholarly 
thoroughness and practical utility ; and the other works of your 
list, as far as I have examined them, recommend themselves, not 
only by the beauty of their mechanical execution, but also by the 
intrinsic merit of their redaction. 

Very truly yours, 

W. I. KNAPP, 
Professor of Ancient and Modern Languages and Literature. 



State University of Michigaw, 

April 20, 1866. 

I have adopted Otto's German Conversation Grammar as a text- 
book in this University, and have no hesitation in recommending it 
as by far the best grammar of the German language published in 
this country. No other work with which I am acquainted pre- 
sents such a happy combination of what are called the Analytic 
and Synthetic methods of instruction. The statement of princi- 
ples is clear and philosophical ; and the examples which illustrate 
the niceties of their application are all that could be desired. 
The French Grammar, by the same author, is similar in plan, and 
possesses equal excellences. 

I have examined the standard educational works for the study of 
foreign languages, published by S. R. Urbino, and take pleasure in 
recommending them to all students of the languages and litera- 
tures of Europe. They are well selected, amply elucidated by 
English notes, and, in convenience of form and excellence of 

typographTj are all that could be desired. 

E. P. EVAl^S, 

Professor of Modern Languages and Literature. 



S. R. URBINO, Publisher, 

14 Bromfidd Street, Boston- 



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