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IT/VLIA 




ENT &WILKINS 



&' 



^language 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



C/H? GRANDGENT 

in 
Harvard University 

E<HfWILKINS 

Oberlin College 




Revised Edition 




D. C. HEATH AND COMPANY 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON 
ATLANTA DALLAS SAN FRANCISCO 



PC 
(Ml 



S" 
Coia, 



GOPTRIOHT, 1887 AND 1904 
BY C. H. GRANDGENT 

COPYRIGHT, 1915 
BY D. C. HEATH & CO. 



Printed in U- S. A, 



PREFACE 

THIS volume is the result of an attempt to put into con- 
venient form and the smallest possible compass all the gram- 
mar needed by ordinary students of Italian. Short as the 
book is, it contains some paragraphs which beginners will 
probably skip: the longer lists of words and endings and a 
great part of the chapters on suffixes and irregular verbs 
will be useful mainly for reference. While endeavoring to 
make my work represent primarily the language as it is 
spoken and written at the present day, I have tried to give 
also as many obsolete forms as readers of the poets will 
require. 

It has been my aim throughout to make the rules clear 
for all classes of pupils, even for those ignorant of other 
foreign languages, provided they understand the technical 
words commonly used in grammars. With this object in 
view, I have ascribed to the Italian vowels the pronuncia- 
tion of the English ones that are nearest to them; an accurate 
description of the Italian sounds would,- 1 fear, prove con- 
fusing to beginners who have had no training in phonetics. 
It will be easy for the instructor to explain not only the 
vowels, but some of the consonants, and the division of 
words into syllables, much better than can be done in a 
book like this. 

The authorities I have consulted most are the dictionaries^ 
of Fanfani, Rigutini and Fanfani, Fornari (Nuovo Bazzarini), 
and Tommaseo and Bellini. I have made but little use of 
other grammars; I am, however, indebted to Toscani for 
some ideas and a few of my examples. The chapters on 

iii 



V PREFACE 

syntax, and the treatment of irregular verbs, pronouns, suf- 
fixes, and the plural of words in -co and -go are almost 
entirely the result of original work. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my gratitude to Professor 
Nash, of Harvard, to my friend and teacher, Cav. Filippo 
Orlando, of Florence, and to the gentlemen who assisted 
me in correcting the proof-sheets; and I wish above all to 
thank Professor Sheldon, of Harvard, and Professor Bende- 
lari, of Yale, without whose aid and encouragement I should 
scarcely have ventured to offer this book to the public. 

CAMBRIDGE, September, 1887. 

NOTE TO THE REVISED EDITION 

So thoroughly has the old Grammar been overhauled by 
Professor Wilkins and me that it now presents itself almost 
as a new book. The original Italian texts and bits of Eng- 
lish prose for translation have disappeared; and in place of 
the set of Lessons and Exercises added to the book in 1904, 
Professor Wilkins has furnished a fresh series, better and 
more abundant than the matter it supplants. A careful 
revision of the rules and examples has resulted in some im- 
provement of the former and many additions to the latter. 
Use has been made of the system of grammatical nomen- 
clature recently recommended by the American commit- 
tee entrusted with the study of that subject. Not least 
among the advantages of this edition is the marked gain in 
typographical clearness. 

CAMBRIDGE, March, 1915. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PBONUNCIATION 1 

Sounds, Spelling, Accent, Syllabication, 1. Additional 
Notes. 6. Inflections of the Voice, 9. 

ARTICLES 11 

The Definite Article, 11. The Indefinite Article, 14. 

NOUNS 15 

Gender, 15. Number, 17. 

ADJECTIVES 20 

Gender and Number, 20. Comparison, 22. 

AUGMENTATIVES; DIMINUTIVES ; NUMERALS 24 

Augmentatives and Diminutives, 24. Numerals, 26. 

DEMONSTRATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, RELATIVE, POSSESSIVE PRO- 
NOUNS 29 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS 35 

Conjunctive Forms, 35. Disjunctive Forms, 40. Forms 
of Address, 43. 

AUXILIARY VERBS 45 

Auxiliaries of Voice and Tense (essere, avere), 45. Modal 
Auxiliaries, 51. 

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS 52 

The Regular Verb, 53. The Irregular Verb, 57. 

MOODS AND TENSES 61 

Infinitive and Participle, 61. Past, Present, and Future, 
63. Past Future or Conditional, 65. Subjunctive, 65. 

CONJUNCTIONS; PREPOSITIONS; ADVERBS 68 

Conjunctions, 68. Prepositions, 70. Adverbs, 73. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 79 

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 80 

First Conjugation, 81. Second Conjugation, 82. Third 
Conjugation, 85. Fourth Conjugation, 90. 
v 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGB 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS . 92 

LESSONS AND EXERCISES 97 

ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 155 

ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 171 

INDEX , 181 



ITALIAN GKAMMAR 



PRONUNCIATION 

1. The Italian alphabet has the same letters as the Eng- 
lish, except that k, w, x, and y do not occur in native words 
in modern Italian. 

2. The Italians distinguish seven vowels: a, close e, open 
e, i, close o, open o, u; to these may be added an interme- 
diate e and o, used in unaccented syllables. Every vowel 
has a clear sound, no matter what may be its position in the 
word. It is never obscured; and it never tends, as do the 
English long vowels, to become a diphthong. 

Italian vowels are all pronounced rather quickly; hence 
there is but little difference in quantity between accented 
and unaccented sounds. English-speaking students must 
carefully avoid drawling the accented and slighting the un- 
accented syllables; they should try to give to every Italian 
vowel about the length of i in 'bitter/ 

a is nearly like a in 'father': as fava, canna, cassa, palla. 
e close is nearly like a in ' fate ' : as beve, vere, stelle, messe. 
e open may be formed by trying to pronounce e in 'bell' with 

the mouth very wide open: as bella, amena, fera, pensa. 
i is nearly like ee in 'feet': as miri, vini, fissi, spilli. 
O close is nearly like o in 'mope': as dopo, dove, bollo, sotto. 
O open is nearly like aw in 'saw' pronounced with the mouth 

wide open: as no, odi, poi, donna. 
U is nearly like oo in 'boot': as una, cura, nulla, ruppi. 

(a) The letters i and u are sometimes used to represent conso- 
nant sounds (see 4); but in formulating rules they are always 
counted as vowels. 

1 



2 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

3. As close and open vowels are not distinguished in 
spelling, some rules are necessary: 

1. Unaccented e and o are intermediate between close and open: 
as mare, sea; amo, I love. 

2. e and o are close in all monosyllables 1 ending in a consonant: 
as con, with; non, not; per, for. 

3. In monosyllables 1 and oxytones 2 ending in a vowel, final e is 
close, final o is open: as che, what; me, me; re, king; crede, he be- 
lieved; perche, why; do, I give; Po, Po; sard, / shall be; ando, he 
went. 

EXCEPTIONS: (o) Final e is open in e = is, re=re, interjections (as 
aime, alas; che, nonsense], proper names (as Noe, Noah), and foreign 
words (as caffe, coffee). (6) Final o is close in lo and o. 

4. Accented e and o are always open in the groups ie and uo : as 
piede, foot; fuoco, fire, e and o standing for ie and uo are open: 
as ven=viene, he comes; cor=cuore, heart. 

5. In words that have always formed a part of the spoken lan- 
guage, accented e is nearly always close when it represents Latin e 
or t, open when it represents Latin e or ae;> accented p is nearly 
always close when it represents Latin o or u, open when it repre- 
sents Latin o or au. In book words accented e and o are usually 
open. 

In all cases not covered by the first three rules, the quality 
of e and o will be marked in this book, an acute accent (') 
denoting the close, a circumflex O the open sound : as avere, 
to have; meno, less; tiene, he holds; lieto, happy; poeta, poet; 
ora, hour; molto, much; buono, good; poco, little; moto, 
motion. 

4. B, f, m, p, q, v are pronounced as hi English. 

C, before e or i, sounds like ch in ' chin ' ; elsewhere it is always 
like English k: as cima, top; c6me, how; d61ce, sweet. 

1 Not including shortened forms of words that regularly have more than one 
syllable. * Words accented on the last syllable. 



PRONUNCIATION O 

g, before e or i, sounds like g in 'gem'; elsewhere it is always 

like g in 'go': as gatto, cat; gente, people; spingi, push. 
(a) A cc or a gg before e or i has merely the sound of ch in 
'chin' or g in 'gem' prolonged: as facce, faces; legge, law. 

d, 1, n, t are pronounced further forward in the mouth than in 
English; the tip of the tongue should touch the back of the 
upper front teeth: as alto, high; dato, given; luna, moon; 
nudo, naked; tuono, thunder. 

h is always silent: as ahi, oh! ha, he has. 

i, unaccented, before a vowel, sounds like English y: as ieri, yes- 
terday; paio, pair; piu, more. In the groups cia, cio, ciu, 
gia, gio, giu, an unaccented i serves only to show that the 
c or g is soft: as faccia, face; guancia, cheek; cid, that; giu, 
down; mangia, eat; raggio, ray. 

j is merely another way of writing i. 

n before a q or a hard c or g has the sound of English ng: as 
banca (bang-ka), bank; dunque (dung-kwe), therefore; 
lungo (lung-go), long. 

T is always rolled, the point of the tongue vibrating against the 
teeth: as caro, dear; rosso, red; per, for. When r is double 
or followed by a consonant, the trill is prolonged: as carro, 
cart; burro, butter; marrone, chestnut; carne, meat; porta, 
door. 

S is generally pronounced nearly like English s in 'see,' but with 
a somewhat sharper sound: as so, / know; spillo, pin. 

Initial s before a sonant (b, d, g, 1, m, n, r, v) has a 
sound intermediate between s and English z: as sdruccio- 
lare, to slip; slitta, sleigh* 

A single s between vowels has, in most words, the sound 
of English z: as caso, case; causa, cause; viso, face. But 
in the following cases it is pronounced like s in 



(a) In annusare, asino, casa, Chiusi, cosa, cosi, desiderio, naso, 
parasite, peso, Pisa, pisello, posa, riposo, riso, susina, and their 
derivatives, and in some uncommon words. 



4 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

(6) After the prefixes de-, di-, 1 pre-, pro-, re-, ri-, tra- 1 : as 
desistere, disegno, presumere, proseguire, reservare, risolvere, tra- 
sudare. 

(c) In the adjective ending -6so and the adjective and substan- 
tive ending -ese : as noioso, troublesome; inglese, English; mese, 
month. But in cortese, francese, lucchese, marchese, paese, 
palese, the s is Like English z. 

(d) In the past absolute and past participle of chiedere, chiu- 
dere, nascondere, porre, radere, ridere, rimanere, rispondere. 
r6dere, and all verbs in -endere ; and in their compounds and de- 
rivatives: as chiesi, socchiuso, nascose, risposero, rasoio, rimase, 
corrisp6si, rosero, accesi, reso, sc^sa. 

EXCEPTIONS to this rule are deridere, verbs in -cludere, and deriva- 
tives of rodere. 

U, unaccented, before a vowel, sounds like English w: as buono, 
good; guardare, to look; pu6, he can. 

Z and zz are generally pronounced like a long and vigorous ts: 
as alzare, to lift; azi6ne, action; prezzo, price; zio, uncle. 

In the following cases, however, z and zz sound like a 
prolonged dz: 

(a) In azzurro, dozzina, mezzo, pranzo, ribrezzo, romanzo, zelo, 
and many less common words. 

(6) In verbs in -izzare (as utilizzare, to utilize) ; except attizzare, 
dirizzare, guizzare, rizzare, stizzare, and their compounds, and a 
few uncommon words. 

5. The following combinations are to be noted: 

ch (used only before e and i) is always like English k: as fichi 
(plural of fico, fig), sch is like sk: as scheVzo, sport. 

gh (used only before e and i) is always like English g in 'go': 
as aghi (plural of ago, needle). 

* Not to be confounded with dis-, tras-: disondre, trasandare. 



PRONUNCIATION O 

gli (written gl if the following vowel be i) is nearly like English 

Hi in 'million': as figlio, son; figli, sons. 

But in Anglia, geroglifico, glicerina, negligere and its derivatives, 
and a few uncommon words borrowed from the Greek or Latin, gl is 
like English gl. 

gn is nearly like ni in 'onion': as ogni, every. 

qu is always like kw: as questo, this. 

SC before e and i is nearly like sh in 'ship': as uscire, to go out. 

Before all other letters it is pronounced sk: as scuola, school; 

scherno, contempt. 

6. Every letter in Italian is distinctly and separately 
sounded; the only exceptions are h, silent i (see 4), and the 
combinations mentioned in 5. 

arte, art. andai, I went. paura, fear. 

firma, signature. aura, breeze. sentii, I felt. 

furto, theft. bugie, lies. noi, we. 

gi6rno, day. EurSpa, Europe. poi, then. 

verso, toward. miei, my. sudi, his. 

Where a double consonant is written, both letters must 
be sounded, the first at the end of the preceding, the second 
at the beginning of the following syllable: 

anno, year. babbo, father. fatto, done. 

me"sso, put. quello, that. bocca, mouth. 

For rr, zz, and soft cc and gg, see 4. 

1, m, n, and r, when preceded by an accented vowel and 
followed by another consonant, are prolonged: 

alto (ail-to), high. tanto (tann-to), so much. 

sempre (se"mm-pre), always. parte (parr-te), part. 

7. The accent is nearly always the same as in Latin. In 
this book it will always be noted. Of the signs written 
here, students need use only the grave f), which is placeft 
on the last syllable of oxytones and on some monosyllables: 
Italian writers do not agree as to the use of the other marks; 
many now use the acute, and not the grave, on final e. 



6 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

8. Italian words are divided in such a way that, if pos- 
sible, every syllable shall begin with a consonant : 

ta-vo-li-no, table. mez-zo, half. 

frat-tan-to, meanwhile. cac-cia, hunt. 

al-1' uo-mo, to the man. 6g-gi, to-day. 

nar-rd,-re, to relate. po-e-ta, poet. 

In the groups S+ consonant, consonant +r, those men- 
tioned in 5, and cl, fl, gl, pi, both consonants belong to the 
following syllable. i = y and u = w go with the following 
vowel; ai, au, ei, eu, oi are not separated. 

6-sta ca-sti-ghi ri-flet-te-re 

te--tro del-P ac-qua miei 

a-vrd in-chio-stro al-P au-ra 

bi-s6-gno mi-glio-re tudi 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON PRONUNCIATION 

[The numbers prefixed to the following notes refer to the paragraphs of the fore- 
going chapter.] 

1. The Tuscan names of the letters are: 

a e i Inne erre vu or vi 

bi efife je or i lungo 6 esse zeta (with z pro- 

ci gi elle pi ti nounced dz) 

di acca emme cu u 

They do not change in the plural. Their gender is not fixed; in 
general those ending in -a or -e are considered as feminine, the 
others as masculine. K, x, y are cdppa, fccase, ipsilon, all masculine. 

2. (a) The sounds &, 6, 6, followed by a single consonant, are 
somewhat longer than the other vowels: for instance, in dato, fero, 
6vo the accented a, e, o are longer than in dattero, vero, 6ve. 
Final accented vowels sound particularly short: as in am6, belta, 
caffe. 

(6) In forming i the mouth should be made as broad as possible 
from side to side. For u and 6 the lips should be puckered. For 
a and e the mouth should be opened very wide. 



PRONUNCIATION 7 

3. (a) If an adverb in -mente is formed from an adjective con- 
taining e or 6, this vowel has, in the adverb, a secondary accent, 
and retains its open sound: as (breve) brevemente, briefly; (nobile) 
ndbilmente, nobly. Furthermore, e and 6 retain their quality in 
seeming compounds that consist, in reality, of two or more sepa- 
rate words: as tostoche =tostoche =t6sto che, as soon as. 

(6) Past absolute forms and past participles in -esi, -eso, -osi, 
-oso have a close e or o; except chiesi (also chiesi), esp!6si, es- 
pldso, leso. 

(c) In the suffixes -eccio (-a), -esco (-a), -ese, -essa, -etto 
(-a), -ezzo (-a), -mente, and -mento the e is always close; while 
in the diminutive suffix -ello (-a), and in the endings -ente, -enza, 
-erio (or -ero), and -esimo (-a) it is open: as inglese, English; 
probabilmente, probably; prudente, prudent; ventesimo, twentieth. 

(d) In the endings -oio, -one, -ore, and in the suffix -oso (-a) 
the o is close; while in the ending -orio, and in -occio (-a), -otto 
(-a), and -ozzo (-a), used as suffixes to nouns or adjectives, it is 
open: as vassoio, tray; amore, love; romitdrio, hermitage; casdtta, 
good-sized home. 

(e) In the following cases accented e or o may have either the 
close or the open sound: in Giorgio, maestra, maestro, nego (from 
neg&re), neve, organo, scendere, senza, siete and sono (from es- 
sere), spegnere, Stefano, vendere; and in the past future endings 
-esti, -emmo, -este. The present subjunctive forms dleno, sieno, 
stieno are pronounced also dieno, sieno, stieno. 

(/) In poetry we often find e for ie, 6 for ud: as ven=viene, he 
comes; cor = cudre, heart. Simple 6 for u6 is very common in mod- 
ern spoken Tuscan: as bono = buono, good; novo = nuovo, new. 

4. c. (a] Between two vowels, of which the second is e or i, 
single c and single g are, in ordinary Tuscan speech, pronounced 
respectively like sh in 'ship' and si in 'vision': as pdce, peace; 
stagione, season. 9 

(b) Between two vowels, of which the second is a, o, or u, a 
single c or a q is, in popular Tuscan speech, sounded nearly like 
English h: as poco (p6ho), little; di questa cosa (di hwe*sta hosa), 
of this thing. This pronunciation is regarded as inelegant. 



8 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

j. Some writers use j, except after a consonant, for the i that is 
pronounced y: as jeri for ieri, yesterday; pajo for paio, pair. It is 
sometimes used also for final i in the plural of words in unaccented 
-io : as speech] (also speech! and occasionally specchii) for specchi, 
mirrors, plural of specchio. 

z. Aside from verbs in -izzare, z and zz have the value dz in 
the following words and their derivatives: 



arzfllo 


frizzo 


magazzino 


romanzo 


zelo 


azzurro 


garzone 


manzo 


ronzio 


zenit 


barzelletta 


gazzella 


mezzo 


rozzo 


zero 


bizza 


gazzetta 


orizzonte 


zaffiro 


zeta 


brezza 


gdnzo 


6rzo 


zaffrone 


zinco 


bronzo 


Lazzaro 


penzolo 


zanzara 


zodiaco 


donzella 


lazzeretto 


pranzo 


zebra 


zolla 


dozzina 


lazzo 


ribrezzo 


zeffiro 


zona 



also in all derivatives of the Greek zoos, and in many uncommon 
words. 

5. In pronouncing gli and gn the point of the tongue should 
remain behind the lower teeth : as figlio, son; 6gni, every. 

6. If one of the words mentioned below, or any oxytone ending 
in a vowel, is closely followed by a word beginning with a conso- 
nant, this consonant is, in Tuscany, generally pronounced double. 
The words are: 1 



a 


dl, day 


giu 


o 4 


sopra 


che 


di', say 


ha 


piu 


sta 2 


chi 


e 


ho 


qua 


sto 


ci6 


e 


infra 


qualche 


su 


come 


fa 2 


intra 


qui 


te 3 


contra 


fe% faith 


la 


re 


tra 


da 


fe'=fece 


B 


sa 


tre 


di, gives 


fo 


ma 


e, tf 


tu 


da', give 


fra 


me 3 


se 


va 2 


do 


fu 


mo'=modo 


si 


vo=vado 


dove 


gia 


ne 


so 


vo'=v6glio 



1 The materials for this list were taken from D'Ovidio's article in Grober's Grundr 
riB der romanischen Philologie, I, p. 496 (2d ed., p. 644). 
8 Both the imperative sing, and the pres. ind. third sing. 
1 The disjunctive form. 
4 Both the conjunction or and the interrogative particle. 



PRONUNCIATION 



verra. da me domdni (verraddamme'ddomani), he will come to 
my house to-morrow. In such cases c is, of course, never pro- 
nounced like h (see 4, c, (6). 



INFLECTIONS OF THE VOICE 

1. Italian speech is at once smoother and less monotonous than 
American: it is less interrupted by breathings, and it has far 
greater variations of pitch. In order to speak or read Italian well, 
an American must learn to breathe in speaking as he does in sing- 
ing; he must inhale deeply at the beginning of the clause, and not 
stop again until he reaches the end of it. The following directions 
may be of use; they are based on the Tuscan pronunciation, and 
particularly on that of Siena. 

2. (a) The simplest inflection in a declarative sentence is as fol- 
lows: at the beginning the voice is pitched low; it rises in the 
middle (in earnest conversation often to a falsetto), and falls again 
at the end. The most emphatic word generally receives the high- 
est tone; if there are no words after it to complete the cadence, the 
first words of the phrase are often repeated at the end: as me lo 
dicono tutti me lo dicono, they all tell me so, where the u of tutti is 
an octave higher than the beginning and the close of the sentence. 

(6) When there is a pause on some not particularly emphatic 
word before the main verb, that word has a slight circumflex ac- 
cent, the voice rising about one semitone and falling about three: 
as fudri di citta A c' e una bellissima vflla\, outside the city there's a 
beautiful villa, where bellissima has the high pitch, and the a of 
citta has the circumflex. This accent is generally heard whenever 
modifying clauses or phrases precede the main clause. 

(c) Almost all declarative sentences are made up chiefly of these 
two inflections, the long rise and fall and the short circumflex* 
Americans must avoid breaking up their sentences by meaningless 
falling tones. The fall occurs in Italian, as in English, on a very 
emphatic word, and at the end of a sentence. It is used, also, 
with a verb of saying or thinking, followed by a direct quotation; 



10 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

and with any word or phrase used as a vocative, except in loud 
calling (see 4, b): as allora chiama Alfredo e gli dice\: Bambino\, 
dfmmi la verita\, where the syllables fre, bam, and dim have the 
highest pitch. 

3. (a) Questions to which the answer may be 'yes' or 'no* 
have either one of two circumflex accents: in the first the voice 
rises about five semitones and falls one; in the second, which is 
sometimes used in reading and in polite phrases, the voice rises 
and falls about an octave. Ex.: Thai visto? have you seen him? 
where the pitches of P hai, vi, and sto may be represented by the 
notes do, fa, mi; ha ben donnito? did you sleep well f where mi is 
an octave higher than dor and to. The former accent may be 
heard in the Irish pronunciation of English. 

(b) These inflections are nearly always confined to the last few 
syllables of the sentence. In some questions, however, they ap- 
pear twice, generally occurring first on the verb; and occasionally 
the circumflex on the verb is the only one. 

(c) Questions that cannot be answered by 'yes' or 'no' usually 
begin high, the pitch depending on the emphasis. The voice then 
falls, but generally rises again at the last syllable, going up about 
three semitones: as o come\ hai fatto/? how did you do it? This 
accent is common among the Irish, and may be heard in England. 
The final rise is, however, often omitted, especially in very short 
sentences and in polite phrases: as come sta\? how do you do? 

4. (a) Exclamations of surprise begin very high, and sink rap- 
idly: as senti\! no! un affar di niente\! you don't say so! 1 where un 
has the main stress; per mio bacco! / want to know! 1 with the ac- 
cent on per. 

(6) In calling to persons at a distance, the Tuscans sing rather 
than speak; the usual tune is do, la, sol, the accented syllable being 
highest: as Agostinal Augustine! partenza! all aboard! 

1 Popular New England equivalents. 



ARTICLES 11 



ARTICLES 

9. The article is not declined, but it agrees with its noun 
in gender and number. 

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 

10. Masculine : 

(a) Sing, il, pi. i, before a word beginning with any consonant 
except s impure l and z. 

(6) Sing, lo, pi. gli, before a vowel or s impure or z. 2 

Before a vowel lo becomes 1*; gli becomes gP before i. 

il padre, the father. i padri, the fathers. 

lo stesso padre, the same father, gli stessi pddri, the same fathers 

lo sciame, the swarm. gli sciami, the swarms. 

lo zio, the uncle. gli zii, the uncles. 

V u6mo, the man. gli uomini, the men. 

V insetto, the insect. gl' insetti, the insects. 

11. Feminine: 
Sing, la, pi. le. 

Before a vowel la becomes P; le becomes P before e. 

la mddre, the mother. le mddri, the mothers. 

P 6ra, the hour. le 6re, the hours. 

V erba, the herb. P erbe, the herbs. 

12. When the definite article is preceded by one of the 
prepositions di, da, a, in, con, su, per, the article and prep6- 

1 That is, s followed by another consonant. 

8 Li is sometimes used for gli. Some writers use il, i before z and before see- or 
sci-. In poetry lo is often used for il. 



12 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



sition are generally contracted into one word, as shown in 
the following table (con, per are often uncontracted 1 ): 





il 


i 


lo 


gli 


la 


le 


1 


di, of 


del 


dei or de' 


dello 


degli 


della 


delle 


dell' 


da, by 


dal 


dai or da' 


dallo 


dagli 


dalla 


dalle 


dall' 


a, to 


al 


ai or a' 


allo 


agli 


alia 


alle 


aU' 


in, in 


nel 


nei or ne* 


nello 


negli 


nella 


nelle 


nell' 


con, with 


col 


coi or co' 


collo 


cogli 


colla 


colle 


coll' 


su, on 


sul 


sui or su' 


sullo 


sugli 


sulla 


sulle 


sull' 


per, for 


pel 


pel or pe' 


per lo 


per gli 


per la 


per le 


perl' 



del pddre, of the father. 
illo specchio, to the mirror. 
colla mddre, with the mother. 
sull' uomo, on the man. 



dai pddri, by the fathers. 
negli specchi, in the mirrors. 
colle mddri, with the mothers. 
per gli uomini, for the men. 



(a) The word some is frequently rendered in Italian by di with 
the definite article. This is called the partitive construction. 

Give me some wine. 
Some fine things. 



Dtemi del vino. 
Delle belle cose. 



13. In the following cases the definite article is used in 
Italian, though not in English : 

(a) Before the possessive adjectives: 



H n6stro giardino. 
I su6i fratelli. 



Our garden. 
His brothers. 



When, however, the possessive qualifies an otherwise unmodified 
noun in the singular expressing relationship, the article is generally 
omitted: as mia mdre, my mother. For a fuller statement, see 
45, a. 

1 Some writers, especially poets, prefer to keep other prepositions separate from 
th article. 



ARTICLES 13 

(6) Before an abstract noun or one denoting a whole class; but 
not before one designating a part of a class: 

L' uomo prop6ne. Man proposes (i.e., all mankind). 

I fi6ri n,scono dal seme. Flowers spring from the seed (i.e., 

all flowers). 

La morte e il peggi6re dei Death is the worst of evils (i.e., 
mali. death in general, and all evils). 

BUT 

II mio giardino e ttitto fio- My garden is all in flower; roses, 
rito ; rose, gigli, viole man- lilies, violets send forth a sweet 
dano un od6re sodve. fragrance (i.e., some roses, etc.). 

(c) Before a noun and adjective used either in a specific or in a 
general (but not in a partitive) sense: 

L* a"nno sc6rso. Last year (i.e., the last year). 

H povero Luigi non vi6ne. {The) poor Lewis doesn't come. 

Gli uomini buoni. Good men (i.e., all good men). 

BUT 

Ho trova"to dappertutto uo- 7 have found (some) good men 
mini bu6ni. everywhere. 

(d) Before a title followed by a proper name: 

La regina Vittoria. Queen Victoria. 

H sign6r Briini. Mr. Brown. 

It is not used, however, before Don, Messer, and Ser. 

(e) Before family names; often before familiar given names of 
women; occasionally before familiar given names of men: 

H Bidnchi e morto. White is dead. 

La Pdtti cdnta. Patti sings. 

Con6sco V Olivia. 7 know Olivia. 

Vie"ne il Tonio. Tony is coming. 

(/) Before names of provinces, countries, and continents: 

la Tosc^na, Tuscany. all' Italia, to Italy. 

la Svizzera, Switzerland. per P Europa, for Europe. 

But the article is omitted after in in phrases that denote going 
to or dwelling in a country; and often after di or in when the 



14 ITALIAN GKAMMAR 

preposition with the name of a country is equivalent to an adjective 
of nationality: 

Vddo in Germania. / go to Germany. 

Rimango in Francia. / remain in France. 

La regina d' Inghilterra. The queen of England (i.e., the 

English queen). 

II vino di Spdgna. The wine of Spain (i.e., Spanish 

wine). 

II teairo in Italia. The drama in Italy (i.e., the Ital- 

ian drama). 

The article is not used regularly with names of cities: as ve- 
dre"mo Roma, we shall see Rome. La Spezia, however, has the 
article; and so have a few others. 

In all the above cases (beginning with 13, a) the article, 
unless it would be employed in English, is omitted when 
the noun is used as a vocative or is modified by a numeral 
or a pronominal adjective. It is often omitted in lists. 

Sign6ra M6nti, c6me sta? Mrs. Monti, how do you do? 

Italia, ti rivedo. Italy, I see thee again. 

Vieni, amico mio. Come, my friend. 

Due bellissimi cdni. Two very fine dogs. 

Qusta sua opera. This work of his. 

Ha pare"cchi vizi. He has several bad habits. 

F6de, speranza, carita. Faith, hope, and charity. 



THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE 
14. Masculine : 

(a) Un before a vowel or any consonant except s impure and 2. 
(6) Uno before s impure or z. 1 

un pddre, a father. un uomo, a man. 

un anello, a ring. uno specchio, a mirror. 

tino scime, a swarm. fino zio, an uncle. 

Note that masculine un before a vowel has no apostrophe. 

1 Some writers use tin before z and before see- or sci-. 



NOUNS 15 

16. Feminine: 

tJna, which becomes un* before a vowel, 
fina mddre, a mother. un' 6ra, an hour. 

16. In the following cases the indefinite article, though 
expressed in English, is omitted in Italian: 

(a) Before a predicate noun expressing occupation, condition, 
rank, or nationality, and not accompanied by an adjective. 

figli po6ta, he is a poet. S6no marchese, I am a marquis. 

Sieteitaliano, you are an Italian. E mMico, he is a doctor. 

(6) Generally before an antecedent (of a relative clause) used in 
apposition to a preceding noun modified by a definite article or a 
demonstrative pronoun. 

L' Arno, fiiime che tra versa The Arno, a river which traverses 
Firenze. Florence. 

(c) After da meaning as, like, or for. See 79, g. 
Da u6mo. Like a man. 



NOUNS 

17. Italian nouns are not declined. Possession is denoted 
by the preposition di : 

Lo sp^cchio di mio padre. My father's looking-glass. 

GENDER 

18. There are no neuter nouns in Italian. 1 . 
Nouns denoting males and females keep their natural 

gender; except creatura, creature; guida, guide; guardia, 

1 Latin neuters become masculine in Italian; masculines and feminines retain theii 
Latin gender. This rule has very few exceptions. 



16 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

guard; persona, person; sentinella, sentinel; spia, spy; staf- 
fetta, courier; vedetta, scout; which are feminine. 

il fratello, the brother. mia sorella, my sister. 

il po6ta, the poet. la poetessa, the poetess. 

una spia, a spy. la nostra guida, our guide. 

19. Of nouns denoting objects without sex some are 
masculine, some feminine. Their gender can often be de- 
termined by the final letter. All Italian nouns end in -a, -e, 
-i, -o, or -u: 1 

(a) Those ending in -a are feminine; except colera, cholera; qual- 
cosa, something; Greek neuters in -ma, 2 many geographical names, 
and a few other words, mostly foreign. 

un' 6ra, an hour. un telegramma, a telegram. 

il Canada, Canada. il sofa, the sofa. 

(6) Of those ending in -e and -i some are masculine, some femi- 
nine. All ending in -zione, -gione, or -tidine are feminine. 
il fiume, the river. la pace, peace. 

tin di, a day. una metropoli, a metropolis. 

la ragi6ne, the reason. la servitiidine, service. 

(c) Those ending in -o are masculine; except mano, hand. 
il ginocchio, the knee. la mano, the hand. 

(d) Those ending in -u are feminine; except soprappiu, surplus, 
and a few foreign words. 

la virtu, virtue. il bambu, bamboo. 

20. Any other part of speech (except an adjective 3 ) used 
as a noun must be masculine : as il viaggiare, traveling. 

21. Masculine names of trees hi -o or -e have a feminine 
form in -a or -e respectively, denoting their fruit; but il dat- 

1 A few foreign nouns used in Italian end in a consonant: as lapis, pencil (i lapis, 
the pencils). Nouns in -o or -e often drop that vowel if the preceding consonant is 
1, n, or r: as cane =can, dog. 2 Mostly scientific terms. 

1 Adjectives of course have the gender of the nouns they represent. An adjective 
used as an abstract noun is masculine: il bello, the beautiful = beauty. 



NOUNS 17 

tero, date, il fico, fig, il limone, lemon, il porno, apple, are 
always the same, whether denoting the tree or the fruit. 

un susino, a plum tree. una susina, a plum. 

il n6ce, the walnut tree. la n6ce, the walnut. 

quest! fichi, these fig trees, these figs. 

NUMBER 

22. Feminines in unaccented a form their plural by 
changing a into e. 

la strada, the street. le strade, the streets. 

una bugia, a lie. le bugle, lies. 

(a) Feminines in -ca and -ga form their plural in -che and -ghe 
respectively (the h being inserted merely to indicate that the c 
and g keep their hard sound). 

un' 6ca, a goose. m61te oche, many geese. 

la bottega, the shop. parecchie botteghe, several shops. 

(b) Nouns in unaccented -cia and -gia form their plural in -ce 
and -ge respectively. 1 

la gudncia, the cheek. le guance, the cheeks. 

una ciliegia, a cherry. taiite ciliege, so many cherries. 

23. Masculines hi unaccented -a and all nouns in unac- 
cented -o and -e (not -ie) form their plural in -i. 2 

un poeta, a poet. due poeti, two poets. 

10 zio, the uncle. gli ztt, the uncles. 

la mano, the hand. le mie mani, my hands. 

un mese, a month. tre mesi, three months. 

la cornice, the frame. quattro cornici, four frames. 

(a) Masculines in -ca and -ga form their plural in -chi and -ghi 
respectively. 

11 mondrca, the monarch. i mondrchi, the monarchs. * 
il collega, the colleague. i colleghi, the colleagues. 

1 Provincia has provincie. In general borrowed words and words whose plural is 
necessarily very rare keep the i: audacia, audacie. 

* In old Italian and in poetry words in.-ello and -ale often form their plural in 
-egli or -ei, -agli or -ai: capello, capegli; animale, animai. 



18 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

(6) Nouns in unaccented -io form their plural by changing -io 
to -i (often written i, j, or ii). 

10 specchio, the mirror. gli specchi, the mirrors. 

11 cili^gio, the cherry tree. i ciliegi, the cherry trees. 

(c) Nouns in -go form their plural in -ghi. Nouns in -co form 
their plural in -chi if the penult is accented, otherwise in -ci. 

il castigo, the punishment. i castighi, the punishments. 

un catalogo, a catalogue. due cataUoghi, two catalogues. 

il fico, the fig. cinque fichi, five figs. 

antico, ancient. gli antichi, the ancients. 

un medico, a doctor. sei medici, six doctors. 

This rule has a number of exceptions. In the following lists, 
words whose irregular plural is rare are omitted. 

1. Compound nouns in -logo denoting persons engaged in the 
sciences, and all compound nouns in -fago form their plural in -gi. 1 

il fisiologo, the physiologist. i fisiologi, physiologists. 

antropofago, cannibal. antropofagi, cannibals. 

2. The following words form their plural in -ci, although the 
penult is accented: 

amico greco inimico nemico porco* 

Greco has a regular plural in the expression vim grechi. 

3. The following words form their plural in -chi, although the 
penult is unaccented: 

abbaco farmaco lastrico rammarico strascico 

acrostico indaco manico risico tossico 

carico 3 intonaco parroco sciatico traffico 

dimentico 3 intrinseco pizzico st6maco valico 4 

Acrostico and farmaco have also regular plurals. 

1 Likewise the rare or obsolete words: flemmagogo, idragogo, metalltkgo, sargo 
(also reg. plur.), sortilege. Magicians = maghi; Magi = magi. 

2 Likewise the rare words: aprico, lombrico (also reg.), uvamico, vico. 
* Likewise its compounds. 

4 Likewise the rare or obsolete words: filaccico. mantaco (also reg.), ostatico, sfilac- 
oico, statico (noun), uncico. 



NOUNS 19 

(d) The following masculines in -o have an irregular plural in 
-a which is feminine : 

centinaio, hundred. miglio, mile. uovo, egg. 

migliaio, thousand. paio, pair. 

Many masculines in -o have this irregular feminine plural in -a 
besides the regular masculine plural in -i. The most common are; 

braccio, arm. grido, shout. muro, wall. 

dito, finger. labbro, lip. orecchio, ear. 

frutto, fruit. legno, wood. dsso, bone. 

ginocchio, knee. membro, member. 

un paio, a pair. sette paia, seven pairs. 

il mio braccio, my arm. le tue braccia, thy arms. 

il labbro, the lip. le labbra or i labbri, the lips. 

un osso, a bone. le 6ssa or gli ossi, the bones. 

Braccio, ginocchio, labbro, and orecchio nearly always have the 
irregular plural when denoting the two arms, knees, lips, or ears 
belonging to the same body. 

24. All monosyllables, and all nouns ending in -i, -ie, -u ; 
an accented vowel, or a consonant, are invariable. 

il re, the king. i re, the kings. 

il brindisi, the toast. i brindisi, the toasts. 

una specie, a kind. otto specie, eight kinds 

la virtu, virtue. le virtu, the virtues. 

una citta, a city. dieci citta, ten cities. 

F omnibus, the omnibus. gli omnibus, the omnibusses* 

25. The following nouns have irregular plurals: 

bue, ox, pi. buoi. moglie, "wife, pi. mogli. 

dio, god, pi. dei. 1 uomo, man, pi. udmini. 

* The article used with dei is gli: gli dei. 



20 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



ADJECTIVES 

26. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender and 
number. An adjective modifying two nouns of different 
genders is generally put in the masculine plural. 

II gatto e pulfto. The cat is neat. 

Stanze pulite. Neat rooms. 

Una casa e un giardino bellini. A pretty house and garden. 

La ragazza e bellina. The girl is pretty. 

27. Numeral and pronominal adjectives, bello, bravo, 
buono, and the commonest adjectives of size and quantity, 
precede their nouns. Adjectives of nationality, shape, and 
material follow. 

Adjectives whose use is prompted by emotion, and adjec- 
tives used in a figurative sense, generally precede. 

Otherwise, of the noun and adjective, the one that con- 
tains the chief idea comes last. 

Due cani. Two dogs. 

Troppo pane. Too much bread. 

La budna madre. The good mother. 

Le grand! citta. Great cities. 

Un libro francese. A French book. 

Questa palla rotonda. This round ball. 

Pover' uomo! Poor man! 

Una nera menz6gna. A black falsehood. 
La vostra gentilissima lettera. Your kind letter. 

un uomo gentilissimo. He is a kind man, 

GENDER AND NUMBER 

28. Adjectives ending in -o are masculine, and form their 
feminine in -a. Adjectives in -e are invariable in the singu- 
lar. 

buono stivaletto, good boot. buona scdrpa, good shoe. 
ragazzo felice, happy boy. ragazza felice, happy girl. 



ADJECTIVES 21 

29. Adjectives form their plural in the same way as nouns 
(see 22, 23) : -o, pi. -i; -a, pi. -e; -e, pi. always -i. 

sei buoni cassett6ni, six good 6tto buone seggiole, eight good 

bureaus. chairs. 

due uomini f elici, two happy tre donne f elici, three happy women. 

men. 

(a) Parecchi, several, has for its feminine parecchie. 

(6) Qualche, some, is used only in the singular, even when the 
meaning is plural: as qualche volta, sometimes. 

(c) When preceding a noun, bello, beautiful, has forms similar to 
those of the definite article; and Santo, Saint, and grande, great, 
have corresponding forms in the singular. 1 Buono, good, when 
preceding its noun, has a singular similar to the indefinite article. 
The masculine of these words (which is the only irregular part) is, 
therefore, as follows: 

Before any consonant except s impure or z : bel, San, gran, buon ; 

pi. bei, Santi, grandi, buoni. 
Before s impure or z: bello, Santo, grande, bu6no;pl. begli, Santi, 

grandi, buoni. 
Before a vowel: bell', Sant', grand', buon; pi. begli, Santi, grandi, 

buoni. 

When used after a noun or in the predicate these adjectives have 
their full forms (bello, belli, Santo, Santi, grande, grandi, buono, 
buoni). 

Un bel quddro. A fine picture. 

Due bei letti. Two fine beds. 

Un bello scaffale. A fine bookcase. 

Quattro begli stivali. Four fine boots. 

Un bell' andito. A fine hall. 

M61ti begli orologi. Many fine clocks. 

Una bella stufa. A fine stove. 

Parecchie belle tende. Several fine curtains. 

II palazzo e bello. The palace is fine. $ 

1 Gran is, moreover, often used in the fern. sing, (for grande), and sometimes in 
the plur. (for grandi) ; it is regularly used before fern. sing, nouns in -e, and in the 
expression una gran bella (gr te&ta) Qga, Grande, on the other hand, is occasionally 
vised for gran. 



22 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



Le sedie son belle. 

San Pietro, Santo Stefano e 

Sant' Antonio. 
Un gran fuoco. 
Grand! camini. 
II grande scaldino. 
Dieci grand! spill! . 
Un grande scikme. 
II grande zipolo. 
Un grand' armadio. 
Ve"nti grand! alberi. 
Una grande camera. 
Cinque grand! finestre. 
II salotto e m61to grande. 
Un bu6n lume. 
Buoni fiammiferi. 
II budno sgabello. 
Nove budni scolari. 
II bu6n olio. 
Parecchi buoni aghi. 
tJna bu6na cucina. 
Le buone candele. 
II bambino e budno. 



The chairs are beautiful. 
St. Peter, St. Stephen, and St. An- 
thony. 
A big fire. 
Big fireplaces. 
The big foot-warmer. 
Ten big pins. 
A great swarm. 
The large bung. 
A big wardrobe. 
Twenty big trees. 
A large bedroom. 
Five big windows. 
The parlor is very large. 
A good lamp. 
Good matches. 
The good stool. 
Nine good pupils. 
The good oil. 
Several good needles. 
A good kitchen. 
The good candles. 
The child is good. 



30. Any adjective of either gender or either number may 
be used as a noun. 



I budni, the good. 



la bella, the beautiful woman. 



COMPARISON 

31. All Italian adjectives form their comparative by pre- 
fixing piu, more, and their superlative by prefixing the 
definite article to the comparative. 

bello, beautiful; piu bello, more beautiful; il piu bello, the most beau- 
tiful. 
lungo, long; piu lungo, longer; il piu lungo, the longest. 

When the superlative immediately follows the noun, this 
article is omitted. 

La via piu c6rta. The shortest way. 



ADJECTIVES 23 

(a) The following adjectives have an irregular comparison in 
addition to the regular one: 

alto, high; pift alto or superiore; il pift alto or il superiore. 
bdsso, low; pill basso or inf eriore ; il pift Msso or V inf eriore. 
buono, good; piil buono or migliore 1 ; il phi buono or il migli6re. 
cattivo, bad; pit! cattivo or peggiore 1 ; il piil cattivo or il peggi6re. 
gr&nde, big; piil grande or maggiore; il piil grande or il maggiore. 
piccolo, small; piil piccolo or minore ; il piil piccolo or il minore. 

Higher and lower are commonly rendered by piu alto and piil 
b&sso; superiore and inf eriore generally mean superior and in- 
ferior. Migliore and peggiore are more used than piu buono and 
phi cattivo, which have the same sense. Larger and smaller are gen- 
erally piu grande and piu piccolo ; maggiore and minore usually 
signify older and younger. 

Noi simo migliori di 16ro. We are better than they. 

Questa sdla da pranzo la This dining room is the biggest. 

piil grdnde. 
Pietro e il fratello minore. Peter is the youngest brother. 

32. The adverb less is expressed by meno, least by il 
meno. As ... as, so ... as are tanto . . . quanto, tanto . . . 
come, cosi . . . come, or simply quanto. 

Qu611a stdnza & la meno That room is the least pretty. 

bellina. 
Pdolo non e tanto buono come Paul isn't so good as Robert. 

Roberto. 
Giovanni edlto quanto Filippo. John is as tall as Philip. 

33. Than is che. 

L' albergo e piti grande che The hotel is bigger than it is beau- 
bello. tiful 

But before a noun, a pronoun, or a numeral than is ren- 
dered by the preposition di (see 12). ^ 

Riccdrdo e peggi6re di me. Richard is worse than I. 

V6i siete pi(i ricchi del re. You are richer than the king. 

Me"no di cinque. Less than five. 

1 The adverbs better and worse are meglio and peggio. 



24 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

If, however, this than is preceded by a word meaning 
rather, it is translated che. 

Piutt6sto la morte che il diso- Rather death than dishonor. 
n6re. 

Before an inflected verb than is che non or di quel che t 
If the verb has a negative subject, than is che. 

Abbdia piu che non morde. He barks more than he bites. 

Prometto meno di quel che do. / promise less than I give. 

Pill lieto che nessiin figlio lo Happier than any son had been. 
era stato. 

34. The more . . . the more, the less . . . the less, are piu . . . 
piu, meno . . . meno. More and less after a number are di 
piu, di meno. In speaking of time, longer after a negative 
is piu. 

Pift studio, pill imparo. The more I study, the more I learn e 

Tre"nta gi6rni di meno. Thirty days less. 

Non lo vediamo pift. We see him no longer. 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES; 

NUMERALS 
AUGMENTATIVE AND DIMINUTIVE ENDINGS 

35. Instead of a word expressing size or quality, the Ital- 
ians often use a suffix. This suffix may be added to a noun, 
an adjective, or an adverb. When added to an adjective, 
and generally when added to a noun, it takes the gender of 
the word to which it is affixed : occasionally, however, a suf- 
fix with masculine termination is added to a feminine noun, 
which thereby becomes masculine. A word loses its final 
vowel before a suffix; but the preceding consonant, if it be 
c or g, must keep its former quality: as Ca>lo+ino = Car- 
lino, voce+6ne = vocione, pocoH-ino = pochino, ad^gio+ino 
= adagino. 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES; NUMERALS 25 

(a) The commonest ending is -issimo (fern, -issima), very, 
which in general is added only to adjectives and adverbs. Adverbs 
in -mente add the -issima before the -mente (see 85). Any adjec- 
tive may take it, and it is very often used in cases where it would 
be entirely superfluous in English. 

largo, wide. larghissimo, very wide. 

bne, well. benissimo, very well. 

grande, big. grandissimo, very big. 

fa un tempo bellissimo, it's bellissimamente, very beautifully, 
beautiful weather. 

(b) The principal suffix denoting bigness is -6ne; it is always 
masculine, but has a rare feminine form, -6na. 

libro, book. un librone, a big book. 

cdsa, house. un casone, a large house. 

b6ccia, decanter. una bocciona, a big decanter. 

(c) The most important Ssuffixes denoting smallness are -ino, 
-cino, -icino, -iccino, -etto, -ello, -cello, -icello, -arello, -erello, 
-6tto, -uccio, -uzzo, -u61o, with their fern, -ina, etc. These end- 
ings, especially -uccio, are often used to express affection; some of 
them may be used to express pity or contempt. Otto sometimes 
means somewhat large instead of small. 

sorella, sister. sorellina, little sister. 

bello, beautiful. bellino, pretty. 

brtitto, ugly. bruttino, rather ugly. 

piazza, square. piazzetta, little square. 

Giorgio, George. Giorgetto, Georgie. 

campana, bell. campanello, little bell. 

aquila, eagle. aquilotto, eaglet. 

casa, house. casfitta, rather large house. 

Giovanni, John. Giovannuccio, dear little Johnny. 

pazzo, mad. pazzarella, poor mad woman. 

p6vero, poor. poverini, poor things ! 

(d) The ending -ficcio denotes worthlessness. 

r6ba, stuff, goods. robaccia, trash. 

t&npo, weather. tempdccio, nasty weather. 

Alfredo, Alfred. Alfredaccio, naughty Alfred. 



26 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



36. Of the endings added to nouns -ino is by far the 
most common; the only ones that are freely used to form 
new compounds are -ino, little, -one, great, -uccio, dear, 
and -accio, bad. In very many cases, endings lose their 
character of independent suffixes, and become inseparable 
parts of certain words, whose meanings they often change: 
as scala, stairway; scalino, stair; scaletto, ladder. So brother, 
sister are always fratello, sorella. Some suffixes (as -uolo) 
are rarely used except hi this way. Others (as -cino, -icino, 
-ello, -cello, -icello, -arello, -erello) cannot be attached to 
any word at pleasure, their use being determined by pre- 
cedent or euphony. 

37. Sometimes several suffixes are added at once to the 
same word: as ladro, thief; ladrone, terrible thief; ladroncello, 
terrible little thief. 

NUMERALS 

38. The cardinal numerals are: 



1, uno. 


15, quindici. 


28, ventotto or 


101, centuno or 


2, due. 


16, sedici. 


vent' otto. 


cent' uno. 


3, tre. 


17, diciassette. 


29, ventindve. 


105, centocinque. 


4, quattro. 


18, diciotto. 


30, trenta. 


115, centoquindici. 


5, cinque. 


19, diciannove. 


31, trentuno or 


125, cento venti- 


6, sei. 


20, venti. 


trent' uno. 


cinque. 


7, sette. 


21, ventuno or 


32, trentadue. 


200, dugento or 


8, 6tto. 


vent' uno. 


40, quaranta. 


duecento. 


9, n6ve. 


22, ventidue. 


50, cinquanta. 


250, dugento cin- 


10, died. 


23, ventitre. 


60, sessanta. 


quanta. 


11, undid. 


24, ventiquattro. 


70, settanta. 


300, trecento. 


12, d6dici. 


25, venticinque. 


80, ottanta. 


400, quattrocento. 


13, tredici. 


26, ventisei. 


90, novanta. 


1000, mflle. 


14, quatt6rdid. 


27, ventisette. 


100, cento. 


2000, due mila. 



Uno has a feminine una; when used adjectively it has the 
same forms as the indefinite article; so also ventuno, etc. 



AUGMENTATIVES AND DIMINUTIVES; NUMERALS 27 

The plural of mille is mila. A million is un milione or mil- 
lione, of which the plural is milioni or million!. 

1. No conjunction is used between the different parts of a num- 
ber: as dugento quaranta, two hundred and forty. No indefinite 
article is used before cento and mille: as cento libri, a hundred 
books. 

2. Cento, dugento, etc., when followed by another numeral of 
more than two syllables may lose the final syllable -to : as seicento 
cinquanta or seicencinquanta, six hundred and fifty. 

3. Eleven hundred, twelve hundred, etc., must be rendered mille- 
cento, mille dugento, etc. : as mille ottocento ottantasStte, 1887. 

4. Both, all three, etc., are tutti (fern, tutte) e due, tutti (fern. 
tutte) e tre, etc. 

(a) If the noun modified by ventuno, trentuno, etc., follows this 
numeral, it is regularly in the singular; as trentun giorno, thirty- 
one days. Sometimes, however, the noun precedes the numeral, 
and then it is in the plural. 

Sessantuna lira, or lire sessan- Sixty-one francs. 
ttina. 

(&) In dates the definite article is prefixed to the number repre- 
senting the year, if that number does not follow the name of a 
month. For instance, 1915 is il 1915. 

Nel mille ottocento ottanta- In 1887. 
sette. 

(c) What time is it f is che ora e? or che ore sono? It is six, etc., 
is s6no le sei, etc., ore being understood. One o'clock is il tocco. 

S6no le due e mezzo. It's half past two. 

S6no le tre e dieci. It's ten minutes past three. 

Ci mancano venti minuti alle It's twenty minutes to four. 

quattro. 

S6no le cinque meno uu quarto. It's a quarter to five. 



28 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



39. The ordinal numerals are: 



1st, prime. 

2d, secondo. 

3d, terzo. 

4th, quarto. 

5th, quinto. 

6th, sesto. 

7th, settimo. 

8th, ottavo. 

9th, nono. 
10th, decimo. 
llth, undecimo or 
decimo primo. 



12th, duodecimo or 20th, 

decimo secondo. 21st, 
13th, tredicesimo or 

decimo terzo. 22d, 
14th, quattordicesimo or 

decimo quarto. 30th, 

15th, quindicesimo or 100th, 

decimo quinto. 101st, 

16th, decimo sesto. 115th, 

17th, decimo settimo. 200th, 

18th, decimo ottavo. 1000th, 

19th, decimo ndno. 2000th, 



ventesimo. 
ventesimo primo or 

ventunesimo. 

ventesimo secondo 

or ventiduesimo. 

trentesimo. 

centesimo. 

centesimo primo. 

centoquindicesimo. 

dugentesimo. 

millesimo. 

duemilesimo. 



All of them form their feminines and plurals like other 
adjectives in -o. 

Le settantesime quinte cose. The 75th things. 

(a) Ordinal numerals are used after the words book, chapter, 
and the names of rulers; but no article intervenes. 

Carlo secondo. Charles the Second. 

Pio nono. Pius IX. 

Libro terzo. Book the Third. 

Capitolo qu&rto. Chapter four. 

(b) For the day of the month, except the first, a cardinal num- 
ber is used. 

II di cinque d' aprile or il The fifth of April. 

cinque aprile. 
II primo di mdggio. The first of May. 

(c) The fourteenth century is il secolo decimo quarto or il Tre- 
cento (i. e. mille trecento). H Dugento, il Quattrocento, il Cin- 
quecento are often used for the 13th, 15th, and 16th centuries, 
and the later century names may be similarly abbreviated. 

(d) A third, a fourth, a fifth, etc., are un terzo, un quarto, un 
quinto, etc. Half is la meta; the adjective half is mezzo. 



PRONOUNS 29 

40. A couple or a pair is un paio. A dozen is una doz- 
zina. The expressions una decina, una ventina, una tren- 
tina, etc., un centinaio, un migliaio, mean about ten, about 
twenty, etc. (see 23, d). Once, twice, etc., are una volta, due 
volte, etc. 

tin paio di scdrpe. A pair of shoes. 

Una cinquantina di pers6ne. Some fifty persons. 

L' ho visto parecchie vdlte. I've seen it several times. 



DEMONSTRATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, RELATIVE, 
AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

41. For the indefinite pronouns, see 86-91. 

42. 1. The demonstratives used adjectively are questo, 1 
this, and quello or cotesto, that. Cotesto (also codesto) is 
used of objects associated with the person addressed. 
Questo and cotesto are inflected like other adjectives; but 
they generally drop o before a vowel. Quello is inflected 
like bello (see 29, c). 

quest' uomo, this man. queste ragdzze, these girls. 

quel bambino, that infant. quei fanciiilli, those children. 

quell' zmico^that friend. quegli sposi, that couple. 

quello zio, that uncle. quelle sign6re, those ladies. 

Questo and quello are also used substantively for this, 
that, this one, that one: as fate questo, non fate quello, do 
this, don't do that. 

2. This man is translated by questi; that man by queglL 

,quei, or cotesti (rare); these words are invariable, refer only 

to persons, and are used only in the nominative singular. 

Costui and colui mean respectively the same as questi and 

1 In archaic or literary Italian esso is sometimes used for questo. 



30 ITALIAN GEAMMAB 

quegli, but are not defective, having a feminine singular 
costei, colei, and a plural (both genders alike) cost6ro,coloro. 
Costui is often used in a depreciative sense. 

Quest! e francese e quegli e This man is French and that one 

tedesco. is German. 

Chi e costui? Who is this fellow ? 

Pdrlo di colui. / speak of that man. 

3. Cio, this, that, is invariable, and represents a whole 
idea, not a single word: 

Cid e vero. That's so. 

(a) Quello and questo, quegli and questi mean also the former, 
the latter. 

(b) He who is colui che, or simply chi. The one who, whom, 
which, that which, what, is quello che or quel che. 

Chi Iav6ra or colui che Iav6ra. He who works. 
Quel che dico io. The one I mean. 

A quel che sento. From what I hear. 

43. The interrogative who, whom, is chi. What? used 
substantively is che, che cosa, or cosa. 1 What? used adjeo 
tively is che or quale. Which? is quale. 

Quale has a plural quali ; chi and che are invariable. 

How much? is quanto (-a); how many? is quanti (-e). 

Chi v6do? Whom do I see ? 

Di chi parldte? Of whom do you speak ? 

Ditemi chi viene. Tell me who is coming. 

Che vogliono? What do they want ? 

Che c6sa dice? What does he say f 

Che or quali libri ave"te com- What books did you buy f 

prto? 

Quale di que"sti voliimi e il Which of these volumes is the first ? 

prfmo? 

Quante volte te Tho de"tto! How many times I have told you! 

1 C&sa (#s cdsa dice?) is generally avoided in written Italian. Note that chi is 
used in indirect as well as in direct questions. 



PRONOUNS 31 

(a) The interrogative whose is di chi. 
Di chi e questo biglietto? Whose card is this ? 

(fc) In exclamations what a, what are rendered by che or quale 
without any article. 

Che bel pae"se! What a beautiful country! 

44. The principal relative pronouns are che, cui, il quale : 
they are all applied to both persons and things, and mean 
who, whom, which, or that. II quale is inflected (la qudle, i 
quali, le quali). Che and cui are invariable: in general che 
is used only as subject and direct object, cui only after 
prepositions or as indirect object. In poetry onde is often 
used to signify of which or from which. 

La lingua che si pdrla. The language which we speak. 

L' uomo del quale si tratta. The man of whom we are speaking. 

Le pers6ne a cui or alle quali The persons to whom I speak. 

parlo. 

Lo scritto di cui parlo. The work I am speaking of. 

1. As subject or direct object che is preferred to il quale, unless 
clearness requires the latter. 

Le figlie che studiano. The daughters who are studying. 

Le figlie degli Americdni, le The Americans' daughters, who are 
quali studiano. studying. 

2. The relative whose is il cui or del quale. 

Una sign6ra, il cui n6me e A lady whose name is Lucy. 

Lucia. 
Un uomo, le cui figlie con6- A man whose daughters I know. 

SCO. 

L' aut6re, del cui libro si The author whose book we are 

pdrla. speaking of. 

Le chiese delle quali si vedono The churches whose domes we seo 

le cupole. 

3. The relative cannot be omitted in Italian. 

Le case che ho comprate. The houses I have bought. 



32 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

(a) Such ... as is tale . . . quale; in poetry tale, quale have a 
plural tai, quai instead of tali, quali. As much as is tanto quanto; 
as many as is tanti quanti. 

Quale e il pddre tale e il figlio. As is the father, so is the son. 

(b) He who, him who is chi or colui che (see 42, 6). 

Chi ha la sanit^, e rfcco. He who has health is rich. 

Colui che Iav6ra e contento. He who works is satisfied. 
Ami&mo chi ci ma. We love him who loves us. 

(c) Whoever is chiunque ; whatever as a pronoun is tutto quel che 
or checche, as an adjective quale che, qualunque che, qualunque, 
per quanto. These words, excepting tutto quel che, all take the 
subjunctive. Checche is now but little used. 

Chiunque sidte. Whoever you may be. 

Checche faccidte, fdtelo bene. Whatever you do, do it well. 

Tutto quel che volete. Whatever you wish. 

Quali che siano i vostri motivi. Whatever your motives may be. 

Qualunque siano i suoi talenti. Whatever his talents may be. 

In qualunque stto che io mi In whatever condition I may find 

trovi. myself. 

Per quante ricche'zze egli dbbia. Whatever riches he may have. 

45. The possessive pronouns and adjectives are: 

SINGULAR PLURAL 





MA8C. 


FEM. 


MA8C. 


FEM. 


my, mine: 


il mio 


la mia 


i miei 


le mie 


thy, thine: 


iltuo 


latua 


i tuoi 


letue 


his, her, hers, its: 


il suo 


la sua 


i suoi 


le sue 


our, ours: 


il nostro 


la nostra 


i nostri 


le nostre 


your, yours: 


il v6stro 


la vostra 


i v6stri 


le vostre 


their, theirs: 


illoro 


la loro 


iloro 


le loro 



Loro is invariable; the others agree with the object pos- 
led: 

il mio nso, my nose. i vdstri 6cchi, your eyes. 

la sua b6cca, his, her mouth. le loro labbra, their lips. 

When the possessive stands alone in the predicate, the 
article is omitted if the possessive is used adjectively. To 



PRONOUNS 33 

determine whether the possessive is used adjectively, con- 
sider the sentence as the answer to a question. If the sen- 
tence answers a question beginning with whose, there is no 
article; if it answers a question beginning with which, the 
article is used. 

Questo cappello e mio. This hat is mine. Whose hat f 

Mine. 
Questo cappello e il mio. This hat is mine. Which hat ? 

This one. 

(a) The article (unless it might be used in English) is omitted 
before the possessive: 

1. When a numeral, an adjective of quantity, or a demonstra- 
tive or interrogative adjective precedes it: 

Due cdni suoi. Two dogs of his. 

BUT I diie cdni suoi. The two dogs of his or his two dogs. 

M61ti miei amici. Many friends of mine. 

BUT I m61ti miei amici. The many friends of mine or my 

many friends. 

Questo tiio difetto. This fault of thine. 

2. When the possessive forms part of a title: 

V6stra Maesta. Your Majesty. 

Sua Alte"zza. His Highness. 

3. When the possessive modifies a noun used in the vocative (in 
this case the possessive generally follows its noun) : as amico mio, 
my friend! 

4. The article is generally omitted also when the possessive pre- 
cedes a noun in the singular expressing relationship : as nostra m&- 
dre, our mother; compare le mie figlie, my daughters. But if the 
noun has a diminutive ending, or another adjective accompanied 
the noun, the article is not omitted: 

H trio fratellino. Thy little brother. 

La vdstra gentilissima sore"lla. Your kind sister. 



34 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

Sometimes it is omitted before a predicate noun that does not 
express relationship: 

Questo sign6re e suo maestro. This gentleman is his teacher. 

10 lo credeva mio amico. / thought him my friend. 

5. The article is omitted also in certain standing phrases, such 
as: 

da pa"rte mia, for me. a modo suo, in his own way. 

per am6r mio, for my sake. e colpa vostra, it's your fault. 

in cdsa n6stra, in our house. a ca"sa sua, to his house. 

(b) The possessive, when not necessary for clearness, is usually 
replaced by a definite article. 

C6me sta la md,mma? How is your mother? 

Ha perdiito il giudizio. He has lost his senses. 

Battono i piedi. They stamp their feet. 

(c) When the name of the thing possessed is direct object of a 
verb, the Italians often use instead of the possessive a conjunctive 
personal pronoun (see 47) and a definite article. 

Si strappa i cape" Hi. He tears his hair (lit., he tears to 

himself the hairs). 

Mi tdglio il dito. I cut my finger (I cut to myself the 

finger). 

11 cne gli agguanto la gdmba. The dog seized his leg (seized to 

him the leg). 

If the thing possessed be a part of the body or clothing, this 
construction is frequent, even when the name of the thing is not 
object of a verb. 

Mi duole il ca"po. My head aches (to me aches the 

head). 

(d) When the possessor is not the subject of the sentence, his, 
her are, for the sake of clearness, often rendered di lui, di lei : 

figli non con6sce il di lei cuore. He does not know her heart. 

(e) A ... of mine, of thine, etc., is un mio, un tuo, etc.: 
tJna ndstra cugfna. A cousin of ours. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 35 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 

46. Personal pronouns are divided into two classes, con- 
junctive and disjunctive: the conjunctive forms are those 
used as direct object of a verb, and as indirect object with- 
out a preposition; the disjunctive forms are those used as 
subject of a verb, and as object of a preposition. 
fioLi ve lo da per ME. 

He to you it gives for me. 



CONJUNCTIVE FORMS 

47. Conjunctive pronouns are always unaccented, and 
cannot be separated from the verb, which they sometimes 
follow but oftener precede, as will be explained in 48. 

They are used only as direct object of a verb or as indirect 
object without a preposition. The forms are: 

mi, me, to me. ^ ti, thee, to thee. 

ci, us, to us. 1 vi, you, to you. 

si (reflexive), himself, to himself; herself, to herself; itself, to itself. 

si (reflexive), themselves, to themselves. 

10, him 1 : gli, to him. 2 la, her; le, to her. 

11, them (masc.); loro, to them. 2 le, them (fern.); loro, to them. 

It must be rendered by a masculine or feminine form, 
according to the' gender of the noun it represents. It rep- 
resenting not a word, but a whole clause, is lo. 3 

Mi con6sce. He knows me. 

Ti do i libri. / give thee the books. 

Ci vedete. You see us. 

Vi dico ttitto. / tell you everything. 

1 In old Italian and in poetry ne is often used for ci, and il for lo. 
a In conversation li is often used for gli, and gli or li for loro. 

* In certain idiomatic phrases la represents an indefinite object: as pagarla cara, 
to pay dearly for it. 



36 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

Si vste. He dresses himself. 

Si divertono. They amuse themselves. 

Ecco 1' oro: ve lo do. Here's the gold: I give it to you. 

Ecco la palla: la v6do. Here's the ball: I see it. 

C6me pot6va sap6re se io How could he tell whether I was 

veniva o no? Lo ha indo- coming or not? He guessed it. 

vinato. 

1. It will be seen that the third person (not reflexive) has differ- 
ent forms for the direct and the indirect object. 

Lo trovai. / found him. 

Gli feci un regalo. 7 made him a present. 

La lascia. He leaves her. 

Le scrive. He writes to her. 

Li cerc^te. You seek them (masc.). 

Le salutate. You greet them (fern.). 

Mandiamo 16ro mille saltiti. We send them (masc. or fern.) a 

thousand greetings. 

2. The reflexive pronouns of the first and second persons are mi, 
ci; ti, vi. All plural reflexive pronouns are used also as reciprocal 
pronouns. A verb is called reflexive when it has as direct or indirect 
object a conjunctive pronoun representing the same person as its 
subject. 

Mi defendo. 7 defend myself. 

Vi lavate. You wash yourselves. 

Si fa on6re. She does herself credit. 

Si odiano. They hate each other. 

Ci amiamo. We love one another. 

3. Another conjunctive pronoun is ne, 1 of it, of them; it corre- 
sponds also to any, some when these words mean any, some of it, 
any, some of them. It is often used pleonastically in Italian. 

Ne parla. He speaks of it. 

Ne ho. 7 have some. 

Non ne abbi&mo. We haven't any. 

Ne volute? Do you want any f 

Tu ne approfitti di qusta You make good use of this liberty. 
liberta. 

Cf. French en. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 37 

(a) Vi, you, and ci and ne, us, are not distinguished by form 
nor position from the adverbs vi, ci, meaning there, here, to it, to 
them, 1 and the adverb ne, thence (see 84) : 2 

Ci vado. / go there. 

Vi stato. He has been there. 

Ne vengono. They come from there. 

The adverb ci or vi is used to express to it, to them, in speak- 
ing of things. 

Ci pensero. / shall attend to it. 

Mi fa de"i gesti, ma non He makes signs to me, but I do not 

vi risp6ndo. reply to them. 

48. The conjunctive pronouns, except loro, immediately 
precede the verb : 

Mi vedete. You see me. 

Non lo capisco. / don't understand him. 

But when the verb is an infinitive, 3 a positive imperative, 4 
a present participle, or a past participle used without an 
auxiliary, the pronoun follows the verb, and is written as 
one word with it: 5 

per ved^rlo, to see him. di av6rlo vediito, to have seen him. 

ved^teli, see them. vedendoci, seeing us. 

avendoci vediito, having seen us. vediitoti, having seen thee. 

The addition of the pronoun does not change the place of 
the accent. 

Loro always follows the verb, but is never united to it. 

Egli da 16ro del vino. He gives them some wine. 

Parlate 16ro. Speak to them. 

1 Cf. French y. * Cf. French en. 

J Not the infinitive used with a negative as imperative (see 72) : as non lo 
fare, do not do it (second pers. sing.). 

4 Not the negative imperative, nor the subjunctive used imperatively (see 77, a)p 
as non li guardate, do not look at them; si regoli, let him moderate himself (third pers. 
sing. pres. subj.). 

* Students should follow strictly all of these rules; but they will find that the first 
is, in certain cases, not always observed by good Italian writers. In literary style a 
pronoun often follows a verb that begins a sentence: as vedolo venire, I see him coming 



38 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

(a) When an infinitive depends immediately (without an inter- 
vening preposition) on another verb, a conjunctive pronoun be- 
longing to the infinitive may go with either verb: 

Posso vederti or ti posso / can see thee. 
vedere. 

(NEVER: posso ti vedere) 

A reflexive pronoun oftenest goes with the main verb. 
Si deve correggere. He must correct himself. 

If both verbs have objects, the main verb regularly takes all 
conjunctive pronouns: 

Ve lo sento dire. I hear you say it. 

Me lo fa capire. He makes me understand it. 

If, however, the main verb is impersonal, it cannot take the 
object of the infinitive: 

Bis6gna farlo. It is necessary to do it. 

If the main verb is fare, lasciare, sentire, udire, or vedere, it 
must take the pronoun: 

Lo fa chiamare. He has him called. 

(b) If the main verb is fare, and the dependent infinitive has 
a direct object, the object of fire, if it has one, must be indirect: 

Le fa avere la lettera. He lets her have the letter. 

Fateli vedere a quel sign6re. Let that gentleman see them. 
Dovrei farglielo accettdre. / ought to make him accept it. 

This construction is generally used also with lasciare, to let, and 
often with sentfre and udire, to hear, and vedere, to see. Note 
that the main verb takes all conjunctive pronouns. 
Glielo ve"do da>e. / see it given him. 

(c) When a conjunctive pronoun is joined to an infinitive, that 
infinitive drops its final e; if it ends in -rre, it drops -re: 

farlo (fare), to do it. condtirvi (condurre), to conduct you 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 39 

(d) The final vowel of mi, ti, si is often, and that of lo, la is 
nearly always elided before a verb beginning with a vowel: 

T* dmo. / love thee. 

L' ho visto. I've seen him. 

(e) All conjunctive pronouns except gli and glie (see 50) double 
their initial consonant when added to any form of a verb that ends 
in an accented vowel: 

D&mmi (imper. da 1 from dare). Give me. 

Parlerdlle (antique, for le par- / shall speak to her. 

Ier6). 

Dillo (imper. di' from dire). Say it. 

(/) Pronouns are joined to the interjection ecco, see here f just 
as they are joined to the imperative of a verb: 
Eccomi. Here I am. 

Eccotelo pr6nto. Here it is ready for thee. 

49. When two conjunctive pronouns come together, the 
indirect object precedes the direct: 

Mi vi presenta. He introduces you to me. 

Non vuol presenta'rvimi. He will not introduce me to you. 

Gli si presento un uomo. A man presented himself to him, 

But see 55, end. 

Loro, however, always comes last: 
Present&tela loro. Introduce her to them. 

Ne follows all forms except loro : 

Me ne da. He gives me some. 

Ddtene 16ro. Give them some. 

50. Mi, ti, ci, vi, si change their i to e before lo, la, li, le y 
ne (pronoun or adverb); and if the two words follow the 
verb, they are joined together: 1 

Me lo dice. He tells me it. t 

Ve ne doma^ndo. / ask you for some. 

Mandatecelo. Send it to us. 

1 In poetry me lo, me ne, etc., often become mel, men, etc.: as tel dico, J tell thee 
so; gen torna, he returns thence. Non lo often = nol. 



40 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

Gli and le (to her) become glie before lo, la, li, le, ne, and 
unite with them: 

GliSli mando. / send them to him, to her. 

Voglio (Mrglielo. / wish to give it to him, to her. 



DISJUNCTIVE FORMS 

51. These forms are so called because they do not neces- 
sarily stand next to the verb. 

Disjunctive pronouns have two cases, nominative and 
objective (or accusative). The objective case is used only 
after prepositions (for exceptions, see 51, a, 6). 

The disjunctive forms are these: 

io, /; me, me. tu, thou; te, thee. 

noi, we; noi, us. v6i, you; voi, you. 

egli, lui, esso, he; lui, esso, him. 

ella, lei, essa, she; lei, essa, her. 

e"ssi, 16ro, they (masc.); 16ro, essi, them (masc.). 

esse, 16ro, they (fern.); 16ro, esse, them (fern.). 

It must be rendered by a masculine or feminine form, ac- 
cording to the gender of the noun it represents. It as sub- 
ject of an impersonal verb is regularly not expressed (see, 
however, 51, h). 

La casa e grandissima, e in- The house is very large, and around 
t6rno ad essa c' e un giar- it there is a garden. 
dino. 

Non e ve*ro. It isn't true. 

Pi6ve. It rains. 

1. The various pronouns of the third person are used as follows: 
In speaking of things the different forms of esso are generally 

employed. 

In speaking of persons egli (or esso), ella (or essa), pi. essi, esse, 

are used for the nominative in written Italian, 1 but in the spoken 

Italian formerly possessed also masc. eglino, fern, elleno, they, for persons ; like- 
wise pi. egli (or ei) and elle. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 41 

language they are replaced by lui, lei, 16ro. For the objective, 
lui, lei, loro (sometimes esso, essa, essi, esse) are used both in 
conversation and in writing. 
For he who, etc., see 42, b. 

(Jue'stecdse s6no v6re anch' esse. These things are true, too. 

Ella p&rla con loro. She speaks with them. 

Lei e gi6vane ma lui e vecchio. She is young, but he is old. 

Ve"nnero da n6i anch' essi. They came to us, too. 

2. As the Italian verb denotes by its endings the person and 
number of its subject, the personal pronouns of the nominative 
case are generally omitted. When expressed (for clearness, em- 
phasis, or euphony), they may precede or follow the verb; in 
dependent clauses they nearly always follow. The subject of an 
interrogative verb usually comes after it, as in English. 

Parlidmo di lui. We speak of him. 

Non vddo. / don't go. 

S' io f6ssi ricco c6me e egli. // / were rich as he is. 

V6ngono essi? Are they coming f 

3. The disjunctive reflexive pronoun of the third person is se, 
which is masculine and feminine, singular and plural. 

Lo fe"cero da sd. They did it by themselves. 

In the other persons me, n6i, te, voi are used. 

(a) Use the objective case and not, as in English, the nominative: 

(1) When a pronoun of the third person may be regarded as the 
subject of an unexpressed verb: 

Bedto lui ! Happy he ! 

Tnto i genit6ri che lui s6no His parents as well as he are rich. 
ricchi. 

(2) When the pronoun stands in the predicate after the verb 
essere : 

Credendo ch' io f6ssi te. Thinking I was you. 

But note carefully that it is I, etc., are sono io, sei tu, e Itii, e* 
lei, siamo noi, siete voi, sono 16ro. 



42 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

(&) (1) When the pronoun is at all emphatic, the disjunctive 
form must be used. In this case the conjunctive form is often in- 
serted also. 

Prlo a voi sign6re. I speak to you, sir. 

Mi pice aiiche a me. It pleases me too. 

BUT 

Vi prlo. / speak to you. 

Mi place. It pleases me. 

(2) The disjunctive form must therefore always be used when the 
verb has two direct or two indirect objects. 

Vedo lui e lei. / see him and her. 

Lo do a mio padre e a te. / give it to my father and to thee. 

(c) In speaking of a company, a class, or a people noi altri, voi 
altri (which are also written as one word) are used for noi, voi. 

N6i altri italiani. We Italians. 

Voi altri pitt6ri. You painters. 

(d) With me, with thee, with himself, herself, themselves are either 
con me, etc., or meco, teco, seco. 

(e) Myself, thyself, etc., used for emphasis with a pronoun or 
noun, are rendered by the adjective stesso. 

N6i stessi la vedemmo. We saw her ourselves. 

(/) One another, each other is 1' un 1' altro. 
Ci amia^no P un 1' altro. We love one another. 

(g) In Florence ella is often shortened into la (plural le), which 
is used of both persons and things. In poetry egli becomes ei. 

La non viene. She doesn't come. 

Pre che la si possa tene"r in It looks as if it might be held in the 

mdno. hand. 

li tdce. He is silent. 

(h) In impersonal phrases like it is the subject, it, is occasionally 
expressed in Italian; it is then translated egli, which in the spoken 
language is shortened into gli. 

Gli e che. It is because. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS 43 

52. 1. The usual form of address in Italy is Ella 1 (or ella), 
objective Lei (or lei); in conversation Ella is replaced by 
Lei (or lei). This word really means it, and takes the verb 
in the third person; but an adjective or past participle 
modifying it agrees in gender with the person it represents. 

The plural of Ella is Loro (or loro), which takes the verb 
in the third person plural. 

The use of the capital initial in all these words is optional. 
It marks respect, and is sometimes useful to distinguish 
you from she. 

Lei or Ella e tedesco, sign6re. You are German, sir. 

Signorina Neri, Lei or Ella fu Miss Neri, you were left alone. 

lasciata s61a. 

Sono lieto che La stia bene I'm glad you are well. 

(see 61, 0) . 

E Loro, d6ve vanno? And you, where are you going t 

Loro erano gia partiti. You were already gone. 

Signorine, 16ro sono molto Young ladies, you are very stu- 

studiose. dious. 

Like other personal pronouns, Ella and Loro are very 
often omitted in the nominative. 

Lei e troppo gentile or e You are too kind. 

troppo gentile. 
C6me stdnno? How do you (pi.) do? 

The conjunctive forms of Ella are La, Le (or la, le), those 
of Loro are Li, Le, Loro (or li, le, loro); they occupy the 
same positions and undergo the same modifications as the 
corresponding pronouns of the third person (see 48, 49, 50). 

Note that regularly in the singular the same pronoun is 
used, whether one is addressing a man or a woman; although* 
occasionally lo, gli are substituted for la, le in speaking to a 



1 Standing for Vdstra, gigiioria, your lordship, or ladyship, or some other title of 
the feminine gender. 



44 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

male. In the plural, however, if the pronoun be a direct 
object, the sexes are regularly distinguished. 
The reflexive pronoun of Ella and Loro is si. 

Le prometto di visitarla. 7 promise (you) to visit you. 

Glielo do. / give it to you. 

La prego d' accomodarsi. 7 beg you to seat yourself. 

Vidi Lei e il babbo. 7 saw you and your father (see 

51, b, 2). 

Dico 16ro. 7 tell you (pi.). 

Le cercaVa. 7 was looking for you (fern. pi.). 

Non posso vederli. 7 can't see you (masc. pi.). 

Si divertono, signorini? Are you enjoying yourselves, young 

gentlemen ? 

The possessive of Ella is Suo (or suo) ; that of Loro is Loro 
(or loro). See 45. 

La Sua gradita lettera. Your welcome letter. 

2. Voi is the form of address oftenest found in books; it is 
used sometimes in conversation also, but only toward in- 
feriors or toward equals with whom one is on familiar terms. 1 
It is employed for both plural and singular (like English 
you), although its verb is always plural; an adjective or 
participle modifying it agrees in gender and number with 
the person or persons it represents. 

V6i qui, Pietro? You here, Peter f 

V6i fiiete alti ttitti e dtie. You are tall, both of you. 

3. In speaking to an intimate friend, a near relative, a 
child, or an animal, the only form of address is tu. Tu is 
used also, like English thou, in poetry and poetic prose. 
The plural of tu is vol. 

Ti chiamo Enrico. 7 call you Henry. 

D6veseitu? Where art thou? 

Voglio vede"rvi, figliuoli miei. My children, I wish to see you. 

1 Though advocated by some of the best writers and speakers of Italian, the use 
of v6i instead of Lei and Loro has not become general. In Southern Italy, however, 
v6i is the form popularly used. 



AUXILIARY VERBS 



45 



AUXILIARY VERBS 

53. The irregular verbs essere, to be, and avere, to have, 
are the ones most used as auxiliaries in Italian. They are 
conjugated as follows: 

(a) INFINITIVES: essere, to be; essere stato, to have been. 

PARTICIPLES: essendo, being; essendo stato, having been; stato, 
been. 



INDICATIVE 



PRESENT 


PAST DESCRIPTIVE 


PAST ABSOLUTE 


FUTURE 


I am, etc. 


/ was, etc. 


/ was, etc. 


/ shall be, etc. 


sono 


era 


fti 


sard 


sei 


Sri 


fosti 


sarai 


e 


era 


fu 


sara 


siamo 


eravamo 


fummo 


saremo 


siete 


eravate 


f6ste 


sarete 


sono 


erano 


furono 


saranno 



PRESENT 




SECOND PAST 


FUTURE 




PAST PERFECT 






PERFECT 




PERFECT 


PERFECT 


/ have been, etc. 


/ had been, etc. I 


had been, etc. 


I shall have been, 








etc. 


sono stato 


era stato 


fui stato 


sard stato 


(stata) 


(stata) 


(stata) 


(stata) 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


siamo stati 


eravamo stati 


fummo stati 


saremo stati 


(state) 


(state) 


(state) 


(state) 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


IMPERATIVE 


SUBJUNCTIVE 




PAST FUTURE 


Be, etc. 


PRESENT 


PAST 


/ should be, 




/ be, etc. I 


were, etc. 


etc. 




sia 


fossi 


sarei 


sii or sia 


sia 


fossi 


saresti 




sia 


fosse 


sarebbe 


siamo 


siamo 


fossimo 


saremmo 


siate 


siate 


foste 


sareste 




siano or sieno 


fossero 


sarebbero 



46 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



SUBJUNCTIVE 

PRESENT PAST 

PERFECT PERFECT 

/ have been, etc. I had been, etc. 



sia stato (stata) 



etc. 



fossi stato (stata) 



etc. 



PAST FUTURE 
PERFECT 

/ should have 
been, etc. 

sarei stato 

(stata) 
etc. 



(b) INFINITIVES: avere, to have; avere avuto, to have had. 

PARTICIPLES: avendo, having; avendo avuto, having had; avuto, 
had. 

INDICATIVE 



PRESENT PAST DESCRIPTIVE 


PAST ABSOLUTE 


FUTURE 


/ have, etc. 


I had, etc. 


/ had, etc. 


7 shall have, etc. 


ho 


aveva 


ebbi 


avro 


hai 


avevi 


avesti 


avrai 


ha 


aveva 


ebbe 


avra 


abbiamo 


avevamo 


avemmo 


avremo 


avte 


avevate 


aveste 


avrete 


hanno 


avevano 


ebbero 


avranno 


PRESENT 


PAST 


SECOND PAST 


FUTURE 


PERFECT 


PERFECT 


PERFECT 


PERFECT 


1 have had, etc. 


7 had had, etc. 


/ had had, etc. 


7 shall have had, 








etc. 


ho avuto 


aveva avuto 


ebbi avuto 


avro avuto 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


etc. 


IMPERATIVE 


SUBJUNCTIVE 


PAST FUTURE 


Have, etc. 


PRESENT 


PAST 


7 should have, 




/ have, etc. 


I had, etc. 


etc. 




abbia 


avessi 


avrei - 


abbi 


abbi or abbia 


avessi 


avresti 




abbia 


avesse 


avrebbe 


abbiamo 


abbiamo 


avessimo 


avremmo 


abbiate 


abbiate 


aveste 


avrSste 




abbiano 


avessero 


avrebbero 




PRESENT 


PAST 


PAST FUTURE 




PERFECT 


PERFECT 


PERFECT 




/ have had, etc. 


7 had had, etc. 


7 should have 








had, etc. 




abbia avuto 


avessi avuto 


avrei avuto 




etc. 


etc. 


etc. 



AUXILIARY VERBS 47 

54. 1. The auxiliary of the passive is essere, to be. 

L' ese*rcito fu sconfitto. The army was defeated. 

2. The future (shall, will) and the past future or condi- 
tional (should, would) are formed in Italian without any 
auxiliary. 

Io andrd ed egli verra. I shall go, and he will come. 

Vorrel vederlo. / should like to see him. 

3. The auxiliary of the perfect, past perfect, second past 
perfect, and future perfect tenses is avere, to have, if the 
verb be active and transitive. 

If the verb be passive, reflexive, or reciprocal, the auxiliary 
is always essere. For the definition of a reflexive verb, see 
47, 2, on p. 36. 

If the verb be intransitive, the auxiliary is generally es- 
sere, but sometimes avere. 1 

Ho parlato. / have spoken. 

Avevano fatto queste cose. They had done these things. 

Mi sono fatto male. / have hurt myself. 

Le donne si erano sbagliate. The women had made a mistake. 

Sard veniito. / shall have come. 

E nevicato. It has snowed. 

Aveva viaggiato. He had traveled. 

(a) A past participle used with the auxiliary Sssere must agree 
with its subject in gender and number. 

La ragazza torna'ta. The girl has returned. 

Le donne si s6no disputate. The women have disputed. 

But when the verb has a reflexive pronoun as indirect object, and 
some other word as direct object, the past participle may agree with 
the subject, or with the direct object, or remain invariable. 

La sorella si & fatta male. Our sister has hurt herself. 

Ci siamo fatti on6re. We have done ourselves credit. 

Ci siamo data (or dato) parola We have pledged our word of honor. 
d' on6re. 

1 The use of avSre with intransitive verbs must be learned by practice. 



48 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

(b) A past participle used with avere may or may not agree 
with its direct object, according to the choice of the writer. It 
usually does not agree when the object follows; and it nearly al- 
ways does agree when the object is a personal pronoun preceding 
the verb. 

La bfrra che aveVa beviito (or The beer he had drunk. 

bevuta). 

Ho vediito m61te c6se. 7 have seen many things. 

Li ho trovati. I have found them. 

(c) To be, expressing a state or condition, is often rendered by 
stare (92, 4), instead of essere. Stare per or essere per (followed 
by the infinitive) means to be on the point of. 

Sto bene. I'm well. 

C6me sta? How are you ? 

Stava per uscire. 7 was just going out. 

(d) English am (or was)+the present participle, when express- 
ing duration, is rendered either by the simple present (or past de- 
scriptive) or by the same tense of stare x + the present participle; 
when denoting futurity, it is translated by the future (or past 
future), sometimes by the present (or past descriptive). 

CamminaVa. He was walking. 

State lavorando. You are working. 

Leggvano or stavano leggendo. They were reading. 

Medito or sto meditando. 7 am meditating. 

Dice che verra (or viene). He says he is coming. 

Disse che verrebbe. He said he was coming. 

(e) A verb with the auxiliary used to (or would = used to) is 
translated either by the simple past descriptive, or by the infini- 
tive with solere, to be accustomed (92, 14). 

Vi andava (or soleva andare) He used to go (or would go) there 
6gni se"ra. every evening. 

(f) Venire, to come (92, 166), and rimanere, to remain (92, 16), 
are sometimes used as auxiliaries in the simple tenses of the passive, 

1 Andare (92, 1) and venire (92, 166) are sometimes used instead of stare. 



AUXILIARY VERBS 49 

instead of Issere. And6re, to go (92, 1), is similarly used, but 
always implying duty or obligation. 

I Iddri vennero arrest^ti. The thieves were arrested. 
Rimase sorpresa. She was surprised. 

II fucile non va toccdto. The gun mustn't be touched. 

(g) The English auxiliary do is not expressed in Italian. 
Non vi&ne. He does not come. 

(h) To have a thing done is far fre una cosa (92, 2). 
II re lo fece ammazzare. The king had him killed. 

65. The third person of the passive is very often replaced 
by the reflexive construction with si: 

Si racc6nta. It is related. 

Questo libro si legge. This book is read. 

La spdda che mi si diede. The sword that was given me. 

Quelle cose si facevano. Those things were done. 

Many writers always make the verb agree with its sub- 
ject in number; but in popular speech the verb is nearly 
always in the singular when its subject follows (as if si were 
the subject of the verb, and the original subject were the 
object) : 

Si vedono (or vede) moltis- Many things are seen. 

sime cdse. 
Non si pud (or possono) le"g- These books can't be read. 

gere questi libri. 

Si belonging to a dependent infinitive regularly goes with 
the main verb (see 48, a). 

The construction with si is generally used also to render 
the English indefinite they followed by a verb: as si dice, 
they say. In this sense it is employed with neuter as well Us 
with transitive verbs: as si va spesso, people often go. See 
also 63, a. In this construction an object pronoun may 
precede si: as lo si fa, it is done. 



50 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



56. Following are synopses of the compound tenses of 
transitive, neuter, reflexive, and passive verbs. In the para- 
digms given henceforth these forms will be omitted. 

(a) Following is a synopsis of the compound tenses of trovare, 
to find, and venire, to come: 



avere trovato, to have found. 
avendo trovato, having found. 
ho trovdto, 7 have found. 
aveva trovato, 7 had found. 
ebbi trovato, I had found. 
avro trovdto, / shall have found. 
avrei trovato, / should have found. 
abbia trovato, 7 have found. 
avessi trovato, 7 had found. 



essere venuto, to have come. 
essendo venuto, having come. 
sono venuto, 7 have come. 
era venuto, 7 had come. 
fui venuto, 7 had come. 
saro venuto, 7 shall have come. 
sarei venuto, 7 should have come. 
sia venuto, 7 have come. 
fossi venuto, 7 had come. 



(b) Following is a synopsis of the compound tenses of alzarsi, 
(to raise one's self], to get up, and andarsene, 1 to go away. 



INFINITIVE: PAST 
PARTICIPLE: PAST 
INDICATIVE: PRES. PERF. 
PAST PERFECT 

SECOND PAST PERFECT 
FUTURE PERFECT 

PAST FUTURE : PERFECT 
SUBJUNCTIVE : PRES. PERF. 

PAST PERFECT 



essersi alz^to 
essendosi alzato 
mi s6no alzato 
mi era alzato 
mi Mi alzato 
mi saro alzato 
mi sarei alzdto 
mi sia alzato 
mi f6ssi alzato 



essersene andato 
essendosene andato 
me ne s6no andato 
me ne era anddto 
me ne fui andato 
me ne saro andato 
me ne sarei andato 
me ne sia andato 
me ne f 6ssi andato 



(c) Following is a synopsis of the entire passive of amare, to love: 



INFINITIVE: PRESENT 

PAST 
PARTICIPLE: PRESENT 

PAST 
INDICATIVE: PRESENT 

PRESENT PERFECT 
PAST DESCRIPTIVE 
PAST PERFECT 
PAST ABSOLUTE 
SECOND PAST PERFECT 



essere amato, to be loved. 

essere stato amato, to have been loved. 

essendo amato, being loved. 

essendo st&to amdto, having been loved. 

s6no amato, 7 am loved. 

s6no stdto amdto, 7 have been loved. 

era amdto, 7 was loved. 

era stato amato, 7 had been loved. 

fui amd,to, 7 was loved. 

fui stato amato, 7 had been loved. 



1 Andarsene is composed of the verb andare, to go, the reflexive si, and the adverb 
ne, thence (see 47, o). 



AUXILIARY VERBS 51 

FUTURE saro amato, / shall be loved. 

FUTURE PERFECT saro stto amato, / shall have been loved. 

PAST FUTURE sarei amdto, 7 should be loved. 

PERFECT sarei stato amato, / should have been loved. 

IMPERATIVE sii amato, be loved. 
SUBJUNCTIVE : PRESENT sia amato, 7 be loved. 

PRESENT PERFECT sia stato amato, 7 have been loved. 

PAST f6ssi amato, 7 were loved. 

PAST PERFECT f6ssi stato amato, 7 had been loved. 

57. May, might, can, could are generally rendered by the 
proper tense of potere 1 ; must, ought, shall = must, should = 
ought, by dovere 1 ; will and would expressing volition, by 
volere. 1 

Pu6 essere vero. It may be true. 

Non poteva parla>e. He couldn't speak. 

Deve pagarlo. He must pay him., he shall pay him. 

Dovrebbe farlo. He ought to do it, he should do it. 

Voglio sapere. 7 will know. 

Non vorrei and^re. 7 wouldn't go. 

Note that ought must be expressed by the past future (or con- 
ditional) of dovere. 

Dovremmo parlare. We ought to speak. 

Avrei dovuto farlo. 7 ought to have done it. 

No preposition intervenes between these verbs and the 
dependent infinitive. 

Hdnno potuto dormire. They have been able to sleep. 

Potremo partire. We shall be able to start. 

Dovemmo venire. We had to come. 

Dovrete trov&rla. You will have to find her. 

Vorra torn&re. He will want to return. 

Vorrei sapere. 7 should like to know. 

These verbs are not defective, like the English modal 
auxiliaries; hence hi Italian the tense is expressed by the 

1 See 92, 21, 8, 19. The auxiliary of these verbs is regularly avere; but some writers 
use with them the auxiliary that belongs to the dependent infinitive: as hanno potuto 
venire or sono potuti venire, they have been able to come. 



52 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

auxiliary itself, and not by the dependent infinitive. To 
find the proper form of potere, dovere, or volere, replace 
may, etc., by the correct tense of to be able; must, etc., by 
to be obliged; will, etc., by to want or to like: as I could have 
said it=I should have (avrei) been able (potuto) to say it 
(dirlo)=avrei potuto dirlo. 

Avrebbe dovuto tace*re. He ought to have kept still. 

Avremmo voluto restore. We would have stayed. 

(a) Must is also expressed by the impersonal verb bisognare, to 
be necessary, followed by the infinitive or by che, that, with the 
subjunctive. To have to is avere da. 

Bisogna farlo. It must be done. 

Bisdgna che andiamo. We must go. 

Ho da scrivere lina lettera. I have to write a letter. 

(b) To be able meaning to know how is sapere (see 92, 6). Not 
to be able to help doing a thing is non poter a meno di non (with 
infinitive) or non poter fdre a meno di (with infinitive). 

Non seppe farlo. He couldn't do it. 

Sa leggere e scrivere. He can read and write. 

Non pote a meno di non ridere. He couldn't help laughing. 



REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS 

68. Italian verbs are divided into four conjugations, ac- 
cording as the infinitive ending is -are, accented -ere, un- 
accented -ere (or -rre), or -ire. Regular verbs of the second 
and third conjugations are, however, inflected just alike. 

(a) The final e of the infinitive may be dropped before any word 
except one beginning with s impure. 1 

1 Cf. 10, 6; 14, b. Italians find it hard to pronounce three consecutive consonants 
of which the middle one ia s. 



REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS 53 

THE REGULAR VERB 

59. Parlare, to speak, will serve as a model for the first 
conjugation. All compound tenses are omitted (see 56) : 

INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLES 
parlare parlando parlato 

INDICATIVE 

PRESENT PAST DESCRIPTIVE PAST ABSOLUTE FUTURE 

parlo parlay^x? parl|i parlerd 

parli parlavi parla sti parlerai 

parla parlava . parlo parlera 

parliamo parlavamo parlammo parleremo 

parlate parlavate parlaste parlerete 

parlano parlavano parlarono parleranno 

IMPERATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE PAST FUTURE 

PRESENT PAST 

parli parlassi parlerei 

parla parli parlassi parleresti 

parli parlasse parlerebbe 

parliamo parliamo parlassimo parleremmo 

parlate parliite parlaste parlereste 

parlino parlassero parlerebbero 

(a) Verbs whose infinitives end in -care or -gare insert h after 
the c or g in all forms where those letters precede e or i: 

Pghi (pagdre) . Let him pay. 

Cerchero (cercare). / shall search. 

Verbs in -ciare and -glare drop the i before e or i: 

Mangi (mangiare). Thou eatest. 

Comincera 1 (cominciare) . He will begin. 

But all other verbs in -iare drop the i only before another i: 

Picchi (picchiare). Let him strike. ^ 

Pigli (pigliare). Thou takest. 

BUT 

Plcchier&, piglierei. He will strike, I should take. 

1 Some writers retain the i before e : as cominciera. 



54 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



(6) The verbs giocare, rotare, sonare generally change o of the 
stem into uo in all forms where that vowel is accented: 



Sudni. 
Giuocano. 



Let him play. 
They play. 



Rinnovare and tonare may make the same change. ~"\e u is 
sometimes used throughout. 



60. Verbs of the second and third conjugations 1 are in- 
flected like credere, to believe: 

INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLES 
credere credendo creduto 



INDICATIVE 

PRESENT PAST DESCRIPTIVE PAST ABSOLUTE 



credo 
credi 

crede 

crediamo 

credete 

credono 

IMPERATIVE 



credi 

crediamo 
cred^te 



crjedeva 

credevi 

credeva 

credevamo 

credevate 

credevano 



credei (credetti) 

credesti 

crede (credette) 

credemmo 

credeste 

crederono (credettero) 



SUBJUNCTIVE 


PRESENT 


PAST 


creda 


credessi 


creda 


credessi 


creda 


credesse 


crediamo 


credessimo 


crediate 


credeste 


credano 


credessero 



FUTURE 

credero 

crederai 

credera 

crederemo 

crederete 

crederanno 

PAST FUTURE 

crederei 

crederesti 

crederebbe 

crederemmo 

credereste 

crederebbero 



The following verbs and their compounds do not have in 
the past absolute the forms in parentheses: 



battere 

competere 

convergere 

divergere 

lucere 



mescere 

mietere 

pascere 

prudere 

ripetere 



stridere 
tessere 
tondere 



1 Many grammars and dictionaries class these two together as the "second con- 
jugation." 



REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS 



55 



Verbs in -cere and -gere insert after the c or g an i before 
the u of the past participle, but not before the o or a of the 
singular or third person plural of the present indicative or 
subjunctive: 

mesce-e; mesco, mesci, mesce, mesciamo, mescete, mescono; 
mesca, etc , mescano ; mesciuto. 



61. Most verbs of the fourth conjugation 1 are inflected 
like finite, to finish: 

INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLES 
finire finendo finite 



PRESENT 

finisco 

finisci 

finis ce 

finiamo 

finite 

finiscono 

IMPERATIVE 



finisci 

finiamo 
finite 



INDICATIVE 

PAST DESCRIPTIVE PAST ABSOLUTE 

finlva finii 

finivi finisti 

finiva fini 

finivamo finimmo 

finivate finiste 

finivano finirono 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

PRESENT PAST 

finisca finissi 

finisca finissi 



finisca 

finiamo 

finiate 

finiscano 



finisse 
finis simo 
finiste 

finis sero 



FUTURE 

finird 

finirai 

finira 

finiremo 

finirete 

finiranno 

PAST FUTURE 

finirei 
finire sti 
finirebbe 
finire mmo 
finireste 
finirebbero 



Though inflected like finire in all other parts, dormire, 
fuggire, 2 pentire, sentire, servire, vestire are always, abor- 
rire, bollire, and verbs in -vertire are generally, and assor- 
bire, inghiottire, mentire, nutrire, tossire are often, in the 
present indicative, imperative, and subjunctive, conjugated 

1 Many grammars and dictionaries call this the "third conjugation." 

2 Fuggire inserts no extra i (see last sentence of 60). 



56 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

after the model below. Partire and sortire are, when tran- 
sitive, inflected like finire, when intransitive, like sentire. 1 



INDICATIVE 


IMPERATIVE 


SUBJUNCTIVE 


sento 




senta 


senti 


senti 


senta 


sente 




senta 


sentiamo 


sentiamo 


sentiamo 


sentite 


sentite 


sentiate 


sentono 




sentano 



62. The present participle of all verbs is invariable. 
Stavamo parl^ndo. We were speaking. 

63. In all conjugations a form of the first person singular 
of the past descriptive ending in -o instead of -a is nearly 
always used in conversation, and occurs often in the works 
of modern authors : 

Leggevo. I was reading. 

(a) In popular speech the first person plural of all tenses is 
generally replaced by the third person singular preceded by si: 

N6i altri si crede. We believe. 

N6i si era ventiti. We had come. 

Ci si decise. We decided (ourselves). 

(b) Final o of the third person plural is frequently omitted: 
Parian di liii. . They speak of him. 

Forms in -anno sometimes drop -no : 
Diran ttitto. They will tell everything. 

(c) The past descriptive endings -avamo, -avfite, -evamo, 
-evdte, -ivamo, -iv&te are often pronounced -avamo, -avate, etc. 

(d) Occasionally, especially in poetry, -at- is omitted from the 
ending of the past participle of the first conjugation: d estate = 
desto. 

1 Compounds are conjugated like their simple verbs. 



EEGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS 57 



THE IRREGULAR VERB 

64. Certain parts of Italian irregular verbs are always 
regular: the example given below will show which they are. 
Essere (see 53, a) is an exception to all rules. 

65. Many irregular verbs that belong or once belonged 
to the third conjugation have the infinitive contracted (fare 
for f acere, dire for dicere, condurre for conducere) : in this 
case the future and past future are formed from this con- 
tracted infinitive (faro, direi, condurrebbe) , while the pres- 
ent participle, the past descriptive and past subjunctive, 
and certain persons of the present and past absolute are 
formed from the uncontr acted stem (facendo, diceva, con- 
duciamo) . 

66. Porre (for ponere), to put, a verb of the third conju- 
gation, will serve to show which are the regular and which 
the irregular parts of irregular verbs: the forms printed in 
boldface are regular in all verbs except dare, dire, essere, 
fare, stare ; those in Roman type may be irregular. 

INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLES 
p6rre ponendo p6sto 

INDICATIVE 
PRESENT PAST DESCRIPTIVE PAST ABSOLUTE FUTURE 

pongo poneva posi porro 

poni ponevi ponesti 2 porrdi 

pone poneva pose porr& , 

ponidmo . ponevamo ponemmo 2 porremo 

ponete 1 ponevate poneste 2 porrete 

pongono ponevano posero porr&nno 

i See 66, 4. 2 See 66, 3. 



58 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

IMPERATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE PAST FUTURE 

PRESENT PAST 

p6nga ponessi 1 porr6i 

poni ponga ponessi porresti 

ponga ponesse porrebbe 

poniamo poniamo ponessimo porremmo 

ponete poniate poneste porreste 

pongano ponessero porrebbero 

It will be seen that the present participle, the past de- 
scriptive and past subjunctive, and certain persons of the 
present and past absolute are always regular. 

1. Dare and stare have in the future and past future dard, 
darei; staro, starei. Otherwise the only irregularity in the future 
and past future is that they are contracted in many verbs even 
when the infinitive is uncontracted : as vedere, to see, vedro; 
venire, to come, verrei. 

2. From the first person singular of the past absolute the other 
irregular persons can be constructed, the third person singular by 
changing the ending -i to -e, the third person plural by adding 
-ro to the third person singular. 2 

3. The regular persons of the past absolute and the whole past 
subjunctive are slightly irregular in dare and stare, which substi- 
tute e for a in those forms (desti, demmo, deste, dessi; stesti, 
stemmo, steste, stessi). 

4. Dire (for dicere) and fare (for facere) have dite and fate in 
the second person plural of the present indicative. 

(a) Verbs whose stem ends in -1, -n, or -r often drop final e or 
i in the singular of the present indicative and imperative: 

Non vu61 andare. He will not go. 

Vien qui. Come here. 

See also 63, a, b, c. 

See 66, 3. 

8 This rule applies only to an irregular past absolute. 



REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS 59 

(6) The three forms of the imperative are exactly like the cor- 
responding persons of the present indicative, except in avere, sa- 
pere, and volere, where they follow the subjunctive: 

abbi abbiamo abbiate 

sappi sappiamo sappiate 

v6gli vogliamo vogliate 

and in andare, dare, dire, fare, and stare, which have in the 
singular va', da', di', fa', sta'. 

(c) The third person plural of the present indicative can always 
be constructed from the first person singular, from which can be 
formed also the whole present subjunctive except the first and 
second persons plural: these can be made from the first person 
plural of the present indicative. 

EXCEPTIONS to this rule are andare, avere, dare, fare, sap6re, and 
stare, which have in the third person plural of the present indicative 
vanno, hanno, danno, fanno, sanno, stanno; while avere, dare, sapere, 
and stare have in the present subjunctive abbia, dia, sappia, stia. 

67. With the aid of the above notes any verb except 
essere can be constructed from the infinitive, the partici- 
ples (the present participle often being necessary to show 
the uncontracted form of the infinitive), the present indica- 
tive, and the first person singular of the past absolute and 
future. A list of irregular verbs begins on page 80. 

(a) In general, compound verbs not differing in conjugation 
from their simple verbs will be omitted from this list. All com- 
pounds of dare and fare are accented on the same syllable as the 
simple verbs.: 

Fa. He does. Disfa. He undoes. 

The compounds of stare demand special mention: ristare, so- 
prastare, sottostare, sovrastare are inflected like stare (rista, so- 
prastetti, sottostiano) ; distare has no present participle, is regular 
in the present of all moods (disto, etc.), but otherwise is inflected 



60 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

like stare (distetti, etc.); constare, contrastare, instare, ostare, 
prestare, restare, sostare are regular throughout (consta, contr- 
stano, instai, ostarono, prestero, resti, sostassi). 

68. In old Italian and in poetry both regular and irreg- 
ular verbs differ in many ways from the normal types: 
some of the commonest variations are given below. 

(a) In the first and third persons singular and the third person 
plural of the past descriptive v is often dropped, but never in 
the first conjugation: voleva=volea (also volia); finivano=finiano. 
Some of these forms are not uncommon in modern prose. 

(6) The past future endings -ei, -ebbe, -ebbero are generally 
replaced in poetry by -ia, -ia, -iano: crederei=crederia. 

(c) The future endings -6, -a"nno are sometimes replaced by 
-figgio or -abbo, Higgiono or -abbono: amer6=ameraggio; ame- 
ranno = amerdbbono. 

(d) In the third person plural of the past absolute -no or -ono 
is often dropped: amarono=amtro or amar (also amorno, amonno). 
In the third person singular we find am&o, credeo, sentio. 

(e) Final -ero is often replaced by -ono: avrebbero=avrebbono. 

(/) In the first person plural final o is often dropped, and then 
the m sometimes becomes n: andiamo = andiam or andian. 

(0) In the first person plural of the present indicative of the 
second and third conjugations -i&mo may be replaced by -emo. 

(h) Final -iano, wherever it occurs (also -eano in the imperfect), 
may be replaced by -ieno or -ieno: avevano=avieno. 

(1) At the end of a word we often find e for i, sometimes i f or e : 
pnsi = pense ; ascoltdte = ascoltati. 

(j) E is sometimes added to a word ending in an accented vowel: 
am6e. 



MOODS AND TENSES 61 



MOODS AND TENSES 

69. The English gerund in -4ng used as subject, predicate 
nominative, or direct object of a verb must be rendered in 
Italian by the infinitive, nearly always preceded by the def- 
inite article. 

Mi pidce il viaggiare. I like traveling. 

Rifarsela c6gli animdli e da Taking vengeance on animals is 

sci6cchi. folly. 

La nostra prima ciira fu il Our first care was hunting up a 

cercire una pensione. boarding house. 

Odio lo studiare. / hate studying. 



70. The English gerund preceded by a preposition is 
translated as follows : 

1. If the preposition is a necessary part of the thought, it is 
expressed in Italian, and the English gerund is rendered by the 
infinitive with the definite article. This article is, however, omitted 
(unless it would be used in English) after the following preposi- 
tions: 

di, of. invece di, instead of. senza, without. 

d6po di, afteq. prima di, before. 

<5ltre il fire scarabocchi scrive Besides making blots he writes 

male. badly. 

Parlai contra il trarre utile di quel- / spoke against utilizing that mis- 
la disgr&zia. fortune. 

II vizio di fumare. The habit of smoking. 

Ho 1' abitudine di coricarmi ta>di. / am in the habit of going to bed 

late. 

Invece di dirmi tutto. Instead of telling me everything. 

Prima di morire. Before dying. 

Parliamo senza riflettere. We speak without thinking. 

2. If in English the omission of the preposition, although it 
made the construction awkward, would not essentially change the 



62 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

meaning, the phrase is rendered in Italian by the present participle 
without any preposition. 

Studiando si impara. (Through] studying we learn. 

Dovrei corrisp6ndere alia sua / ought to acknowledge her courtesy 

cortesia ascoltandola. (by) listening to her. 

Partendo incontro un amico. (On) going away he met a friend. 

Copiando non fa err6ri. (In) copying he makes no mistakes. 

3. To amuse one's self by . . . and to weary one's self by . . . are 
divertirsi a ... and affannarsi a ... with the infinitive: 
Si diverte a tirar sassi. He amuses himself throwing stones. 

Some other verbs often take this construction. 

71. Following are some other rules for the use of the in- 
finitive and participles: 

(a) When any verb is used as an auxiliary, the mood and tense 
are expressed in that verb, and not in the dependent infinitive 
(see 57). 

Avrei potuto farlo. I could have done it. 

(b) After fare, to make or to have (=to cause), sentire and udire, 
to hear, and vedere, to see, the Italian present infinitive is used to 
render an English past participle. After lasciare, to let, and often 
after the preposition da an Italian active infinitive is used to trans- 
late a passive one in English. 

Si fa capire. He makes himself understood. 

Faro fare un paio di scarpe. / shall have a pair of shoes made. 

L' ho sentito dire. / have heard it said. 

Lo vide ammazzare. He saw him killed. 

Si lascia ingannare. He lets himself be deceived. 

Non c' e niente da fare. There is nothing to be done. 

(c) The Italian past participle is inflected like any other adjec- 
tive. The present participle (which was originally an ablative 
gerund) is invariable. 

When in English the present participle is used adjectively, 
without any verbal force whatsoever, it is translated, not by the 



MOODS AND TENSES 63 

form we have called the participle, but by a verbal adjective, 
which can be formed from almost any Italian verb by changing 
the infinitive ending into -ante for the first conjugation, and into 
-ente for the others. This adjective may be used substantively. 
It was originally a present participle, and some Italian writers 
have used it as such. 

Questi vasi s6no rotti. These vases are broken. 

La donna sta cucendo. The woman is sewing. 

Stavano parlando. They were speaking. 

Un animale parlante. A speaking animal. 

Acqua bollente. Boiling water. 

Due amanti. Two lovers. 

(d) A whole conditional clause (or protasis) is often replaced in 
Italian by a present participle, or by an infinitive with a. 

Andandovi lo vedrebbe. // he went there, he would see it. 

A bucarsi esce il sangue. // you prick yourself, blood comes. 

(e) Writers sometimes use, instead of a clause in indirect dis- 
course, an infinitive followed by the word that would have been 
subject of the clause. 

Disse essere questo 1' uomo He said this was the man we were 
che cercavdmo. looking for. 

72. In negative commands the infmitivejs always used 
instead of the second person singular, of the imperative. 

Trovalo. Find it. 

Non lo trovare. Do not find it. 

But the negative of trovatelo is non lo trovate. 

73. When an action is represented as having taken place 
and still continuing, the English uses the present perfect, 
or past perfect tense, the Italian the present or the past 
descriptive. 

Studio Titaliano da 6tto / have studied Italian for eight 
me" si. months. 



64 ITALIAN GKAMMAR 

74. In subordinate clauses referring to the future and in- 
troduced by a conjunction of time, where the present is 
often used in English, the future tense must be employed in 
Italian. 

Qudndo vi andrd, glielo diro. When I go there, I'll tell him. 

(a) The future is often used, without any idea of future time, to 
express probability. 

Sarei uscito. He has probably gone out. 

Avra m61to denaro. He probably has a great deal of 

money. 

75. The difference between the past descriptive (or im- 
perfect) and the past absolute (or preterit) is this: the 
latter is used of an event that occurred at a definite date in 
the past, the former is used in a description or in speaking 
of an accessory circumstance or an habitual action in past 
time the preterit is a narrative, the imperfect a descrip- 
tive tense. 

The second past perfect (or preterit perfect) is used 
instead of the past perfect (or pluperfect) only after con- 
junctions meaning as soon as (appena che, subito che, tosto 
che), and sometimes after quando, when, or dopo che, after, 
when immediate sequence is denoted. 1 

Entrd mentre dormivamo. He came in while we slept. 

Facevo cosi 6gni mattina. I did so every morning. 

Lo fece 1' anno scorso. He did it last year. 

T6sto che T ebbe visto, usci. As soon as he had seen it, he went. 

(a) In conversation the present perfect is often used instead of 
the past absolute, when the event is not remote. This use is, 
however, far more restricted than it is in French. 

Vi sono andato ieri. / went there yesterday. 

1 It is used also in phrases like: in cinque minuti ebbe finita la lettera, in five min- 
utes he had the letter finished. 



MOODS AND TENSES 65 

76. The past future (or conditional), like the English 
should and would, has two uses: in indirect discourse after a 
principal verb in a past tense it expresses the tense which in 
direct discourse would be future 1 ; in the conclusion of a 
conditional sentence it is used when the conditional clause 
is (or, if expressed, would be) hi the past subjunctive (see 
77). 

Disse che lo farebbe. He said he would do it. 

Se f6sse vero lo crederei. // it were true, I should believe it. 

Questa casa mi converrebbe. This house would suit me. 

77. When a condition is contrary to present fact, or con- 
sists of a more or less unlikely supposition referring to future 
time, 2 the conditional clause has the past (or imperfect) 
subjunctive, the conclusional clause has the past future (or 
conditional) . 

If the unreal condition refers to past time, the conditional 
clause has the past perfect subjunctive, the conclusional 
clause has the past future perfect. 3 

Otherwise both condition and conclusion are in the in- 
dicative. 

Q> 

Se P avessi te lo darei. // I had it, I should give it thee. 

Sef6sse tomato 1'avreiveduto. // he had returned, I should have 

seen him. 

Se venisse n6i ce ne andremmo. // he came, we should go. 
Se vi andassi morrei. // / should go there, I should die. 

Se non e vero e ben trovato. "" Tf it isn't true, it's a good invention. 
Se lo fece sara punito. // he did it, he will be punished. 

1 The perfect of the future or the conditional is sometimes used where the simple 
tense would be expected: disse che non 1' avrebbe fatto piu, he said he would do it no ^ 
more. 

1 Rendered in English by the past, or by the auxiliary should. 

3 The imperfect indicative is occasionally used to replace the past or past perfect 
subjunctive of the condition (or protasis) and the past future or past future perfect 
of the conclusion (or apodosis) : as se veniva, mi diceva tutto, if he had come, he would 
have told me everything. 



66 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

(a) The missing persons of the imperative are supplied from 
the present subjunctive. The past subjunctive is used to express 
a wish that is not likely to be realized. 

Si accdmodi. Be seated (sing.). 

Stiano zitti. Be quiet (plur.). 

Sia pure. Be it so. 

Vengano siibito. Let them come at once. 

Fosse pure! Would it were so ! 

(6) When a relative clause restricts its antecedent to one of all 
its possible conditions or actions, the verb of that relative clause 
is in the subjunctive, the present subjunctive if the verb on 
which it depends be present or future, the past if it be past or past 
future. 

Non c' e animate piu bellfno There is no animal prettier than a 

d' un gatto gi6vane che fac- kitten that is at play. 

cia il chiasso. 

Dove troverete un giovine che Where will you find a young man 

spdsi voi? who will marry you ? 

Vorrei vedere un bel quadro I should like to see a fine picture 

che non fosse antico. that is not old. 

(c) The verb of a subordinate clause depending on an imper- 
sonal verb, on a superlative, or on one of the words first, last, and 
only, is in the subjunctive. This rule does not apply to reflexive 
verbs, nor to affirmative phrases meaning it is true or it is because. 

Bisogno ch' lo vi andassi. / had to go there. 

E giusto che siano puniti. It's right they should be punished. 

II piu bello ch' io conosca. The finest that I know. 

Si vede che non e cosl. You see it isn't so. 

E vero che ci s6no stato. It's true that I've been there. 

(d) The subjunctive is used after all conjunctions meaning al- 
though, as if, unless, provided that, in order that, in such a way that 
(denoting purpose), before, until (referring to future), whenever, 
wherever, without. 

Benche stia nasc6sto, lo tro- Although he be hidden, I shall find 
vero, dovunque sia. him, wherever he is. 

Partird a m6no che egli non / shall go unless he comes. 
venga. 



MOODS AND TENSES 67 

Lo fece perche io venissi. He did it that I might come. 

La divise in modo che le due He divided it in such a way that 

parti fossero uguali. the two parts should be equal. 

Aspetta finche io torni. Wait until I return. 

Parti senza che ti veda. Go without his seeing you. 

(e) The subjunctive is used after the indefinite words and 
phrases quale che, qualunque, chiunque, checche, per quanto. 

Chiunque venga. Whoever comes. 

Qualunque disgrazia che sue- Whatever misfortune happens. 

ceda. 

Per quante volte ci vada. However many times I go there. 

Per quanto ricco egli sia. However rich he may be. 

(/) The verb of an indirect question is nearly always in the 
subjunctive when it depends on a main verb in a past tense. 1 

Domandano se il re e morto. They ask whether the king is dead. 
Domando se il padre fosse He asked whether his father was 
uscito. out. 

(g) In a clause dependent on a verb of saying the subjunctive 
is used if the main verb is negative, or interrogative, or in a 
past tense. 1 

It is generally not used, however, after an affirmative verb in a 
past tense when the author himself wishes to imply that the indi- 
rect statement is true. 

Dice che la cosa e chiarissima. He says the thing is perfectly clear. 

Non dico che questo sia vero. I don't say this is true. 

Dissero che Io zio fosse amma- They said their uncle was ill. 

lato. 

Gli dissi che mi chiamava En- / told him my name was Henry. 

rico. 

(h) The subjunctive is used after verbs expressing causation, 
concession, desire, emotion, prevention, and uncertainty: i.e., after 
verbs of bringing about; granting, permitting; commanding, hop- 
ing, requesting, wishing; fearing, regretting, rejoicing; forbidding, 
hindering; being ignorant, denying, disbelieving, doubting, expect- 

1 The term past tense includes the past future. 



68 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



ing, pretending, supposing, suspecting, thinking. But sperdre, to 
hope, very often does not take the subjunctive. 

Non so chi siano. I don't know who they are. 

Vorrei che non fosse accaduto. / wish it had not happened. 

Supponiamo che sia provato. Let us suppose that it is proved. 

Spero che verra. / hope he will come. 

(i) Se, if, is occasionally omitted before a past subjunctive; in 
this case the subject, if expressed, must follow the verb. 

Sarei felice venisse egli. I should be happy, should he come. 



CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, AND ADVERBS 

CONJUNCTIONS 
78. The principal conjunctions are: 



after, d6po che. 

also, anche, pure. 

although, benche, sebbene, non 

ostante che. 
and, e. 

as, come, quanta (after tanto). 
as ( = since), siccome, poiche. 
as fast as, via via che. 
as if, c6me se, quasi, 
as long as, finch e. 
as well as, come anco. 
because, perche. 
before, prima che, avanti che. 
both . . . and, e . . . e. 
but, ma. 

either ... or, o ... o. 
even if, anche se, ancorche. 
except that, se non che. 
for, che\ 

granting that, dato che. 
however (= nevertheless), pero, 

pure. 



however (before an adj.), qualun- 

que, per quanto. 

if, se (occasionally quando, ove). 
in case, caso. 
in order that, perche, accioche, 

affinche. 

much less, non che. 
neither . . . nor, ne . . . ne. 
nevertheless, tuttavia, nondimeno, 

perd. 

nor, ne, nemmeno, neppure. 
nor . . . either, nemmeno, neppure. 
nor even, neanche, neppure. 
not to say . . . but even, non che . . . 

ma. 

or, o, owero, ossfa. 
or else, ossia. 
provided that, purche. 
rather, anzi. 

since (temporal), dacche. 
since (causal), poiche, siccome. 
so, dunque, adunque. 



CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, AND ADVERBS 69 

so that (result), di modo che, sic- too, pure, anche. 

che. unless, a meno che non, eccetto 
so that ( = in order that), perche. che non, senza che. 

than, che. until, finche non. 

that, che. when, quando. 

that ( = in order that], perche. whence, donde. 

then, dunque. where, d6ve, 6ve, la d6ve. 

therefore, dunque, per6, percid, wherever, dovunque. 

adunque (at the beginning of a whether, se. 

clause). while, mentre, mentre che. 

The final vowel of anche, che, dove, neppure, and ove is 
generally elided before e or i. 

(a) Of the above conjunctions the following require the sub- 
junctive: 

accioche come se prima che 

affinche dato che purche 

a meno che non dovunque qualunque 

ancorche eccetto che non quasi 

avanti che non ostante che sebbene 

benche perche meaning in order that senza che 

caso per quanta 

For the use of che, that, with the subjunctive, see 77, c, g, h. 
Come is occasionally used for come se, and then it takes the sub- 
junctive. Finche when referring to the future sometimes has the 
sense of finche non, and then it generally takes the subjunctive. 
Se is followed by the subjunctive when it introduces an indirect 
question or statement dependent on a verb in a past tense, or a 
condition contrary to fact. Quando and ove, meaning if, fre- 
quently take the subjunctive when se would not. For examples, 
see 77, c, d, f, g, h. 

(b) Che cannot be omitted in Italian as that is in English: 1 
Disse che fosse ve"ro. He said it was true. 

Se can be omitted before an imperfect subjunctive (see 77, i). 

1 It is omitted, however, in the following peculiarly Italian construction: il ragazzo 
pareva fosse felice, the boy seemed to be happy; that is, between a verb of seeming and 
the subjunctive dependent on it, when in English the construction would be a verb 
of seeming with a dependent infinitive. It is occasionally omitted also after verbs of 
wishing, hoping, and fearing; ag spero mi scriva presto, I hope you will write to me soon. 



70 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



(c) E and o are often written ed and od before a vowel. 
Mio padre ed io. My father and I. 

(d) Between a verb of motion and an infinitive and is rendered 
by the preposition a. 

Andrd a cercarlo. I'll go and look for it. 

(e) When anche, also or too, relates to a personal pronoun, the 
disjunctive form of that pronoun must follow anche, even if some 
form of the same pronoun has already been expressed. 

We shall go too. 
He goes away too. 
I found him too. 
They came too. 
He gave it to me too. 



Andremo anche noi. 

Parte anch' egli. 

Trovai anche lui. 

Vennero anch' essi. 

Lo or me lo diede anche a me. 

Ti piace anche a te. 



You like it too. 



PREPOSITIONS 
79. The principal prepositions are : 



about ( = approximately), circa. 
about (= around), intorno a, at- 

torno a. 
above, sopra. 
according to, secondo. 
after, dopo, dopo di. 
against, contra, c6ntro. 
along, lungo. 
among, fra, tra. 
around, int6rno a, attorno a. 
as far as, fino a, sino a. 
as for, per, quanta a, in quanto a. 
as to, rispetto a. 
at, a. 

because of, per motive di. 
before (time), prima di, innanzi. 
before (place), davanti a, innanzi. 
behind, dietro. 
below, s6tto. 



beside (place), accanto a. 

besides, beside (=in addition to), 

61tre. 

between, fra, tra. 
beyond, 61tre, al di la di. 
by, da, accanto a ( = beside). 
by means of, per mezzo di. 
during, durante. 
except, tranne, eccetto, fudri di. 
from, da, fin da. 
in, in. 

in front of, davanti a, innanzi. 
inside of, dentro di. 
instead of, invece di. 
in the midst of, in mezzo a, 
into, in. 
near, vicino a. 
of, di. 
on, su (before a vowel, sur), s6pra. 



CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, AND ADVERBS 71 

on this side of, al di qua di. through, per. 

on to, su (before vowels, sur), so- under, sotto. 

pra. upon, su (before vowels, sur), so- 
opposite, dirimpetto a. pra. 

out of, da, di, fudri di. up to, fino a, sino a. 

outside of, fudri di with, con. 

over, s6pra. within, fra, tra. 

nrand and round, torno torno a. within ( = inside of), dentro di. 

since, da. without, senza. 

to, a. without ( = outside of), fuori di. 
toward, verso. 

When governing a personal pronoun contra, dietro, dopo, 
senza, sopra, sotto, and often fra and verso take di after 
them: 

senza di me, without me. fra di 16ro, among themselves. 

After con, in, per, a word beginning with s impure gen- 
erally prefixes i: 1 

la strada, the street. in istrada, in the street. 

(a) To before the name of a country, after a verb of motion, 
is in. 

Andiamo in Francia. Let us go to France. 

(b) To before an infinitive is rendered in Italian as follows: 

1. After the verbs 

bastare, suffice fare, make sentire, hear, feel 

bisognare, need lasciare, let solere, be accustomed 

convenire, suit parere, seem udire, hear 

desiderare, desire potere, can, be able vedere, see 

dovere, must, ought sapere, know volere, wish 

to before a following infinitive is omitted. It is omitted also in 
exclamations and indirect questions consisting only of an interrog- 
ative and an infinitive. 

Dovrei caplre. 7 ought to understand. 

Bis6gna pensdrci. It is necessary to look out for it. 9 

Potremo venire. We shall be able to come. 

Non sa che fare ne d6ve awol- He doesn't know what to do nor 
gersi. where to turn. 

i Cf. 58, a. 



72 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

2. A fter verbs of accustoming, attaining, beginning, compelling, 
continuing, hastening, helping, inviting, learning, preparing, teach- 
ing, and after verbs of motion, to before a following infinitive is a. 

Andranno a vederla. They ivill go to see her. 

Si affretto a rispondere. He hastened to reply. 

3. After all other verbs it is di; but to denoting purpose or result 
is per, and to indicating duty or necessity is da. 

Gli dissi di scrivere. I told him to write. 

Mi e grato di dirlo. / am happy to say so. 

Legge per divertirsi. He reads to amuse himself. 

E troppo basso per arrivarci. He's too short to reach it. 

Ho qualchecosa da fare. I have something to do. 

(c) By denoting the agent is da. 

Fu fatto da liii. It was done by him. 

(d) In is in; but when expressing future time it is fra. 

Fra tre gi6rni sar& finite. In three days it will be finished. 

(e) For is per : as P ha f&tto per me, he has done it for me. But, 
hi the sense of since, in speaking of past time, for is da. For 
meaning during is omitted or translated durnte. Sentences like 
it is right for him to do it must be translated by che with the sub- 
junctive: e giusto che lo faccia. 

Dimora da m<51ti dnni a Firenze. He has lived for many years at 

Florence (see 73). 

Resterd cinque settimane. 7 shall stay for five weeks. 

Piowe durante im mese. It rained for a month. 

Bis6gna ch' io vada. It is necessary for me to go. 

(/) From is da; but before adverbs and sometimes after verbs 
of departing it is di. In speaking of time it is generally fin da. 

Arrlva da Parigi. He arrives from Paris. 

1C lontano di qua. It is far from here. 

Esco di casa. 7 go out of the house. 

Fin dal principle. From the beginning. 

(g) Da has, in addition to the meanings by, from, since, another 
sense hard to render in English: it may be translated as, charac- 



CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, AND ADVERBS 73 

teristic of, destined for, such as to, or suited to, according to the 
context. Da means also at the house of or to the house of. Da 
corresponds to English on, at, or to before the word side, parte, 
used in its literal sense. 

Prometto da uomo d' on6re. / promise as a man of honor. 

II Salvini da Otello. Salvini as Othello. 

Sareste tanto buono da venire? Would you be so good as to come ? 

Que"sto e da sciocchi. This is acting like a fool. 

II bambino ha un giudizio da The child has the judgment of a 

grande. grown person. 

La sala da pr&nzo. The dining-room. 

tJna tazza da caffe. A coffee-cup. 

L' ho veduto dal Sign6r Neri. / saw him at Mr. Neri's. 

Viene da me. He comes to my house. 

Da questa pdrte. On this side. 

(h) A is often used before a noun not indicating material 
(which is expressed by di) nor purpose (expressed by da) that 
describes another noun, when in English these two substantives 
would form a compound word. 

Una mdcchina a vap6re. A steam-engine. 

Una sedia a d6ndolo. A rocking-chair. 

Uno sgabello a tre piedi. A three-legged stool. 

(i) fessere per or stare per means to be about to. 
StaVa per parlare. He was on the point of speaking. 

(f) In some idiomatic phrases di is used in Italian when another 
preposition would be employed in English. 

Di gi6rno, di notte. By day, by night. 

Essere contento di iina cosa. To be satisfied with a thing. 

Vivo di pane. 7 live on bread. 

Che faceva delle forbici? What did he do with the scissors f 



ADVERBS 

80. 1. Adverbs, unless they begin the clause, are gen- 
erally placed immediately after the verb; non, however, 
always precedes the verb. When a compound tense is 



74 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

used, the adverb nearly always follows the past participle, 
but gia, mai, piu, and sempre usually precede it. See also 84. 
Non precedes a conjunctive and follows a disjunctive 
pronoun. 

Non ci vado mai. I never go there. 

Ho parlato spesso. I have often spoken. 

Non ha sempre parldto cosi. He hasn't always talked so. 

lo non lo v6do. / don't see him. 

2. Adverbs are compared like adjectives (see 31); but 
better, worse, more, less are respectively meglio, peggio, piu, 
meno. 

81. Yes is si or gia : si when it expresses real affirmation, 
gia when it denotes passive assent. No is no. Not is non, 
after which a word beginning with s impure generally pre- 
fixes i. Or not at the end of a clause is o no : 

Le piace? Si. Do you like it ? Yes. 

Che tempaccio! Gia. What nasty weather! Yes. 

Sta bene? No. 7s he well fNo. 

Non ista bene. He isn't well. 

Sia vero o no. Whether it be true or not. 

(a) What? meaning what do you say? is come? Che and the 
interjection o are often used to introduce questions. 

perche non risponde'te? Why don't you answer? What? 
C6me? Che siete s6rdo, i, Are you deaf, sir? 
sign6re? 

(6) Very is molto (see, however, 35, a). Instead of using a 
word or suffix for very, the Italians often repeat the emphasized 
adjective or adverb. 

E m61to bello or & bellissimo. It is very beautiful. 

1 suoi genit6ri erano pdveri His parents were very poor. 
p6veri. 

82. Only may be translated by the adverb solo, soltanto, 
or solamente; or by the adjective solo. When it modifies 



CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, AND ADVERBS 75 

anything but a verb, it is often rendered by non . . . che, 
with the whole verb intervening, and with the word modi- 
fied by only immediately after che. 

Non ne ho comprato che due. / have bought only two of them. 

83. Never is non . . . mai, with the inflected part of the 
verb intervening. Just, as an adverb of time, is or ora. 
Early is presto, per tempo, or di buon' ora. This morning is 
stamane; last night is stand tte. The day after to-morrow and 
the day before yesterday are respectively doman P altro and 
ier P altro. A week, a fortnight from to-day are oggi a otto, 
a quindici. Ago is translated by fa, which follows the sub- 
stantive of tune; if this substantive is plural, ago may be 
rendered also by sono (erano or saranno if the date from 
which time is counted be past or future) . 

Non ti ha mai veduto. He has never seen thee. 

Son arrivati or 6ra. They have just arrived. 

Tre dnni fa. Three years ago. 

Qu^ttro gi6rni s6no. Four days ago. 

Lunedl Srano due settimane. Two weeks ago Monday. 

Domani saranno cinque mesi. Five months ago to-morrow. 

84. Here and there, when they denote a place already 
mentioned, and no particular stress is laid upon them, are 
ci and vi, which are often used hi Italian when they would 
be superfluous in English; there is, there are, etc., are c' e or 
vi e, ci sono or vi sono, etc. (sometimes vi ha). Ci, vi, and 
also ne, thence, occupy the same positions with regard to 
the verb, and undergo the same changes, as the pronouns 
ci, vi, ne (48, 50); they precede conjunctive pronouns be- 
ginning with 1 or n, and follow all others : ce lo manda, ti A 
mando. 

When emphasized, here is qui or qua, there indicating a 
place near the person addressed is costi or costa, and there 



76 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

denoting a point remote from both speaker and hearer is li 
or la. 

Carlo vi e tomato. Charles has gone back there. 

Alia scuola non ci vado. / don't go to school. 

V6i rimarrete costa, egli You will remain where you are, he 

restera laggiu, ed io non will stay down there, and I shall 

partiro di qui. not move from here. 

(a) Here I am, here it is, etc., are eccomi, eccolo, etc. 

85. Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding 
-mente to the feminine singular of the corresponding adjec- 
tive. Adjectives in -le and -re drop their final e in forming 
the adverb. See 35, a. 

franco, frank. francamente, frankly. 

felice, happy. felicemente, happily. 

piacevole, pleasant. piacevolmente, pleasantly. 

(a) So meaning it is translated lo : 

Lo faccio. I do so. 

Lo crede. He thinks so. 

Lo dicono. They say so. 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

86. One, people, we, you, they, used in an indefinite sense, 
are rendered in Italian by the reflexive construction with 
si (see 55). 

Si canta bene in Italia. They sing well in Italy. 

Si fa cosl. You do this way. 

Se ne parla. People speak of it. 

Si fanno spSsso qu4ste cose. One often does these thing*. 

87. All as a substantive is tutto (tutti, etc.) : 
Tac4vano ttitti. All were silent. 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 77 

The adjective all, the whole is tutto followed by the def- 
inite article. 

Tfitta la terra. The whole earth. 

Tutto il giorno. All day. 

Tutte le romane son belle. All Roman ladies are beautiful. 

88. Any, when it really adds nothing to the sense, is 
omitted : 

Non ha Ifbri. He hasn't (any) books. 

Volute vino? Do you want (any) wine ? 

When, however, this redundant any might be replaced by 
any of the, it is translated by the partitive construction 
(see 12, a) : 

Volute del vino? Do you want any (of the) wine ? 

Any used substantively in the sense of any of it, any of 
them is ne (see 47, 3) : 

Non ne ho. I haven't any. 

Non ne ha piu. He hasn't any more. 

Ne ave"te? Have you any ? 

Any used adjectively and meaning any whatsoever is qua- 
lunque : 

Lo fa meglio di qualunque He does it better than any other 
altra persona. person. 



89. Some, when it adds nothing to the sense, is omitted 
or rendered by the partitive construction: 

Volute burro or volete del Will you have some butter f 
burro? 

Some meaning some of it, some of them is ne : 
Ne ha. He has some. 



78 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

Otherwise some is alcuno or qualche. Qualche is always 
singular (even when the meaning is plural), and is never 
used substantively. 

Alcune pers6ne or qualche Some persons. 

pers6na. 
Alcuni lo dicono. Some say so. 

90. Some . . . others, the one . . . the other, one . . . another 
are translated by chi . . . chi, altri . . . altri, P uno . . . 
P altro, or alcuni . . . alcuni. 

Alcuni used in this way is always plural. A verb whose 
subject is chi or altri (used in this sense) is always singular; 
altri is not used after prepositions. But V uno and P altro 
can be used hi any case or number. 

Ttitti, chi piu t6sto, e chi All died, some sooner, some later. 
^ meno, morivano. 

Altri cade, altri fugge. Some fall, others flee. 

Gli uni son buoni, gli altri Some are good, others bad. 
cattivi. 

91. Following is a list of some other indefinite pronouns 
and adjectives: 

anybody, qualcuno, qualcheduno, everything, tutto, pron. 

chicchessia, pronouns. few, a few, pochi (pi.), pron. or adj. 

any more, piu, ne . . . piu, pron. however much (or many), per 

anything, qualchecdsa, pron. quanto (-ti), adj. 

anything else, altro, pron. little, p6co, pron. or adj. 

both, tutti e due, P uno e P altro, less, meno, pron. or adj. 1 

ambedue, pron. or adj. many, molti, pron. or adj. 2 

certain, certo, adj. more, piu, pron. or adj. 

each, ogni, ciascuno, ognuno, adj. much, m61to, pron. or adj. 

either, P uno o P altro, pron. or neither, non . . . P uno ne P altro, 

adj. ne P uno ne P altro, pron. or 

every, 6gni, ciascuno, ognuno, cia- adj. 

scheduno, adj. no, non . . . nessuno, non . . . al- 

everybody, tutti (pi.), ciascheduno, cuno, adj. 

ciascuno, ognuno, pron. nobody, non . . . nessuno, pron. 

1 Less= smaller is pift piccolo. 2 A great many is moltissimi. 



INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 79 

no more, non ne . . . piu, pron., somebody, qualcheduno, qualcuno, 

non . . . piu, adj. pron. 

none, non ne . . ., pron. something, qualchecosa, pron. 

nothing, non . . . niente, non . . . something else, altro, pron. 

nulla, pron. such, tale, adj. 

nothing else, non . . . piu niente, such a, un tale, adj. (but also pron. 

non . . . piu nulla, pron. in Ital., meaning so-and-so), 

others, altrui (see 91, d), pron. whatever, qualunque (invariable), 

several, parecchi (fern, parecchie), adj. 

pron. or adj. 

(a) The verb used with nessuno, alcuno, niente, nulla (mean- 
ing no, nobody, nothing) must be preceded by non, not, unless this 
pronoun or adjective precedes the verb. 

Non ho visto nessuno. I have seen nobody. 

Nessun popolo lo possiede. No people possesses it. 

(b) Nothing, followed by an adjective, is niente di. . 
Non avete niente di buono. You have nothing good. 

(c) Ciascuno, ciascheduno, ognuno, nessuno, and alcuno when 
used adjectively are inflected like uno (see 14, 15). 

(d) Altrui, another, others, our neighbor, is invariable, and is not 
used as subject of a verb: 

Con altrui. With other people. 

Chi ama altrui ama se stesso. He who loves his neighbor loves 

himself. 

The prepositions di and a are sometimes omitted before it: 

La m6stro altrui. / point her out to others. 

La voglia altrui. The will of another. 



80 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 

Arranged according to Conjugation. 1 

92. This list contains no compound verbs except those 
which differ hi conjugation from their simple verbs and 
those for which no simple verb exists hi Italian. With every 
verb its irregular forms are given: in the same line with the 
infinitive are the present participle (if it be needed to show 
the original form of the infinitive), the first person singu- 
lar of the past absolute indicative, the past participle, and 
the first person singular of the future indicative (if the future 
be contracted); immediately below are the present indica- 
tive, the imperative, and the present subjunctive, if these 
parts be peculiar. For dare and stare the whole past abso- 
lute and the first person singular of the past subjunctive 
are given also. Essere is irregular throughout. All tenses 
not mentioned are regular. For peculiar endings, see 63, 68. 
Note the following rules : 

(a) If the present participle is given, the following forms, unless 
expressly mentioned, are to be constructed from its stem: all past 
absolute forms with accented endings, and the whole past descriptive 
and past subjunctive. E.g., fare, pres. part, facendo: hence past 
abs. 2d sing, and 1st and 2d pi., face*sti, facemmo, face*ste; past 
descr., faceVa, etc.; past subj., facessi, etc. 

If the present participle is not given, these forms, unless they 
be mentioned, are to be constructed from the stem of the infini- 
tive. E.g. , venire : past abs. , venlsti, venimmo, venlste ; past descr. , 
venfva; past subj., venlssi. 

(fc) A past absolute whose 1st pers. sing, ends in -ai, -ei, -ii, or 
-6tti (except detti and stetti) is regular throughout. In any other 
past absolute the third person singular can be formed from the 

1 Reference to these tables is facilitated by an Alphabetical List of Irregular and 
Defective Verbs (see page 92). Students are advised not to learn forms in paren- 
theses nor any verbs or forms marked rare or poetical. 



LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 81 

first person by changing final i to e, and the third person plural by 
adding -TO to the third person singular. E.g., fare, p. abs. fe*ci: 3d 
sing., fece; 3d pi., fecero. 

(c) If the future is not given, it is to be constructed from the 
infinitive. The past future always has the same stem as the future. 
See 65, p. 57. 



(rf) The imperative, when not given, is like the corresponding 
forms of the present indicative. See 66, 6. 



FIRST CONJUGATION 

1. Andare, go, and&i, anddto; andro (anderd). 

PRES. IND. IMPER. PRE8. 8UBJ. 

vado or vo andiamo va' vada andiamo 

vai andate andiamo vada andiate 

va vanno andate vada vadano 

2. Fare, do, facendo, f^ci, 1 fdtto; fard. Fare (formerly also facere) 

was originally a verb of the third conjugation (see 92, a). 

PRES. IND. IMPER. PRES. SUBJ. 

faccio or fd facciamo fa' faccia facciamo 

fai 2 fate facciamo faccia facciate 

fa 2 fanno fate faccia facciano 

3. Dare, give, diedi or de"tti, ddto; dard. Past subj. dessi. 

PRES. IND. PAST. ABS. IMPER. PRES. SUBJ. 



do 


diedi or detti 




dia 


dai 


desti 


da' 


dfa 


da 


diede or dette 3 




dia 


diamo 


demmo 


diamo 


diamo 


date 


deste 


date 


diate 


danno 


diedero or dettero 3 




diano or dieno 



1 In poetry we sometimes find a past abs. fei, festi, fe or feo, f emmo, feste, f erono 
or fero or f enno; and past descr. fea, etc. 
> Also faci face. 
1 Also did, sing.; dier or diero or dierono, pi. 



82 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

4. Stare (67, a), stand, stetti, stato; staro. Past subj. stessi. 

PRES. IND. PAST. ABS. IMPER. PRES. SUBJ. 



sto 


stetti 




stia 


stai 


stesti 


sta' 


stia 


sta 


stette 




stia 


stiamo 


stemmo 


stiamo 


stiamo 


state 


steste 


state 


stiate 


stanno 


stettero 




stiano or stieno 



SECOND CONJUGATION 

5. Avere, have, ebbi, avrito; avro. See 63, 6. 1 

6. Sapere, know, seppi, sapiito; sapro. 

PRES. IND. IMPER. PRES. SUBJ. 

s6 sappiamo sappi sappia sappiamo 

sai sapete sappiamo sappia sappiate 

sa sanno sappiate sappia sappiano 

7. Cadere, fall, caddi, caduto; cadro. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

cado (caggio) cadiamo (caggiamo) cada (caggia) cadiamo (caggiamo) 
cadi cadete cada (caggia) cadiate (caggiate) 

cade cadono (caggiono) cada (caggia) cadano (caggiano) 

8. Dovere, owe, dovei (dovetti), doviito; dovro. Imperative lacking. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

devo (debbo or deggio) debba (deva or deggia) 

devi (debbi) debba (deva or deggia) 

deve (debbe) debba (deva or deggia) 

dobbiamo (deggiamo) dobbiamo 

dovete dobbiate 

devono (debbono or deggiono) 2 debbano (devano or deggiano) 

9. Sedere, sit, sedei or sedetti, seduto. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

siedo or seggo sediamo (seggiamo) sieda or segga sediamo (seggiamo) 

siedi sedete sieda or segga sediate 

siede siedono or seggono sieda or segga siedano or seggano 

1 In poetry we find: aggio, abbo, or aio for ho; ave for ha; aggia or aia for abbia; ei 
for ebbi; a future ar6, etc., or aver6, etc., and similar forms in the past future. 
* Also deo, dei, dee, dovemo, dovete, deono or denno. 



LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 83 

10. Vedere, see, vidi, veduto or visto; vedro. Prowedere has a 

future prowedero; prevedere has prevedero or prevedro. All 
other compounds are like vedere. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

vedo (veggo or veggio) veda (vegga or veggia) 

vedi veda (vegga or veggia) 

vede veda (vegga or veggia) 

vediamo (veggiamo) vediamo (veggiamo) 

vedete vediate (veggiate) 

vedono (veggono or veggiono) vedano (veggano or veggiano) 

11. Giacere, lie, gi^cqui, giaciiito. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

giaccio giacciamo giaccia giacciamo 

giaci giacete giaccia giacciate 

giace giacciono giaccia giacciano 

12. Piacere, please: like giacere (11). 

13. Tacere, be silent: like giacere (11). 

14. Solere, be wont, solito. No past, abs., fut., past fut., nor im- 
perative. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

soglio sogliamo soglia sogliamo 

suoli solete soglia sogliate 

suole sogliono soglia sdgliano 

15. Dolere, grieve, dolsi, doliito; dorro. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

ddlgo (doglio) dogliamo 1 dolga (doglia) dogliamo 1 

duoli delete dolga (doglia) dogliate 

du61e dolgono (dogliono) dolga (doglia) dolgano (ddgliano) 

16. Rimanere, remain, rimsi, rim^sto or rimaso; rimarro. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

rimango rimaniamo 2 rimanga rimaniamo 2 

rimani rimanete rimanga rimaniate * 

rimane rimangono rimanga rimangano 

1 Also dolghiamo: a popular form. 

2 Also rimanghiamo: a popular form. 



84 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

17. Tenere, hold, tnni, temito; terrd. 

PRES. IND. PRES. 8UBJ. 

tengo teniamo 1 tenga teniamo 1 

tieni tenete tenga teniate 

tiene tengono tenga tengano 

18. ValSre, be worth, vdlsi, valiito or valso; varrd. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

valgo (vaglio) vagliamo valga (vaglia) vagliamo 1 

vali valete valga (vaglia) vagliate 

vale valgono (vagliono) valga (vaglia) valgano (vagliano) 

19. Volere, wish, v611i, 2 voliito; vorr6. 

PRES. IND. IMPER. PRES. SUBJ. 

voglio (vo 1 ) vogliamo vogli v6glia vogliamo 

vu6i 3 volete vogliamo voglia vogliate 

vuole vogliono vogliate voglia vogliano 

20. Parere, seem, pdrvi, pariito or pdrso; parro. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

paio paiarao or pariamo paia paiamo or pariamo 

pari parete paia paiate 

pare paiono paia paiano 

21. Potere, be able, pot6i, potiito; potro. 4 No imperative. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

posso possiamo possa possiamo 

pu6i potete pdssa possiate 

pud 5 pdssono 5 pdssa pdssano 

22. Persuadere, persuade, persuasi, persudso. Pres. persuddo, etc. 

23. Calere, matter, clse, caluto. Impersonal. No fut., past fut. f 

nor imperative. Not modern. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

cale caglia 

Also tenghiamo; valghiamo: popular forms. 
* Also volsi. 3 Also vuogli or vuoli. 

4 In poetry we find a fut. por6 and a past fut. poria. 
Also pufite; ponno. 



LIST OF IKREGULAR VERBS 85 

THIRD CONJUGATION 

(e) All irregular verbs of the third conjugation are accented, in 
the singular and third person plural of the present indicative and 
subjunctive, on the same syllable as in the infinitive. 

( /) Verbs in -cere and -gere insert no i between the c or g and 
the o or a of the present indicative and subjunctive endings, 
except in the first person plural of both moods and the second 
person plural of the subjunctive. Cf. 60, last paragraph. 

(g) See chapter on Pronunciation, 4, s, d. 

Present Regular 

24. Accendere, light, accesi, acceso. 

25. Affliggere, afflict, afflissi, afflitto. 

26. Algere, be cold, alsi. Defective. Rare. 

27. Alludere, allude, alliisi (alludei), alliiso. 

28. Ardere, burn, arsi, arso. 

29. Arrdgere, add, arrosi, arroso or arroto. Defective. Rare. 

30. Assidere, besiege, assisi, assiso. Rare. 

31. AssSlvere, absolve, assolvetti or assolve"! or assolsi, assolto or 

assoluto. So risolvere (determine). For sdlvere, dissdlvere, 
and risdlvere (dissolve), see 107. 

32. Assdrbere, absorb, assorsi (not in use), ass6rto. Rare* 

33. Avellere, uproot, avulse, aviilso. Defective. Rare. 

34. Chiudere, shut, chiusi, chiuso. So all verbs in -chiudere or 

-cludere. See, however, 4, s, d. 

35. Cdlere, revere, c61to or culto. Defective. Rare. 

36. Connettere, connect, connessi (connettei), connesso (connettiito). 

Rare. 

37. Condscere, know, con6bbi, conosciiito. 

38. Conquidere, conquer, conquisi, conquiso. Rare. 

39. Consumere, consume, consiinsi, consunto. Rare. Presumere 

has also presumei. 

40. Contundere, bruise, contiisi, contiiso. 

41. C6rrere, run, c6rsi, c6rso. 

42. Crescere, grow, cr^bbi, cresciuto. ^ 

43. Cudcere, cook, cocendo, cossi, cotto. Pres. cuocio or cuoco, etc. 1 

1 In the 1st and 2d persons plural of the pres. ind., subj., and imperative, uo is 
generally replaced by o: cociamo, etc. The uo occurs in those parts of the verb where 
the accent falls on that syllable. 



86 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

44. Decidere, decide, decisi, deciso. 

45. Difendere, defend, difesi (difendei), difeso. 

46. Dirigere, direct, diressi, diretto. 

47. Discutere, discuss, discussi (discutei), disciisso. 

48. Distinguere, distinguish, distinsi, distinto. 

49. Dividere, divide, divisi, diviso. 

50. Elidere, elide, elisi (elidei), eliso. 

51. Eludere, elude, elusi (eludei or eludetti), elriso. 

52. Ergere, erect, ersi, erto. Rare. 

53. Esigere, exact, esigei (esigetti), esatto. 

54. Esistere, exist, esistei (esistetti), esistito. 

55. Espellere, expel, espulsi, espiilso. Rare. 

56. Esplddere, explode, esplosi, esp!6so. 

57. Esprimere, express, espressi, espresso. So all other verbs in 

primere. Premere and its compounds with e are regular. 

58. Fendere, split, fendei (fendetti or fessi), fendiito or fesso. 

59. Figgere (figere), fix, fissi, fitto. 

60. Fingere, feign, flnsi, finto. 

61. F6ndere, melt, fusi (fondei), fiiso (fondtito). 

62. Frangere, break, fransi, franto. 

63. Friggere, fry, frissi, fritto. 

64. Genuflettere, kneel, genuflessi, genuflesso. Rare. 

65. Intridere, dilute, intrisi, intriso. 

66. Intrudere, intrude, intrusi, intruso. 

67. Invidere, invade, invasi, invaso. 

68. Ledere, offend, lesi (not in use), leso. Rare. 

69. Leggere, read, lessi, letto. 

70. Licere or lecere, be lawful, le"cito or licito. Impersonal. Defec- 

tive. Poetical. 

71. Ludere, play, lusi, liiso. Rare. 

72. Mergere, plunge, mersi, merso. Rare. 

73. Mettere, put, messi or Qjigi, messo. 

74. Mdlcere, soothe, miilse. Defective. Rare. 

75. Mordere, bite, morsi, morso. 

76. Muovere, move, movendo, mossi, mosso. 1 

77. Nascere, be born, nacqui, nato. 

78. Nasc6ndere, hide, nascosi, nascosto. 

79. Negligere (see 5, gli), neglect, neglessi, negletto. 

80. Offendere, offend, offesi, offeso. 

81. Ostendere, show. Defective. Rare. 

82. Percipere, perceive, percetto. Defective. Rare. 

83. Perdere, lose, perdei or perdetti or perei, perduto or perso. 

84. Pidvere, rain, piowe (piove), piovuto. Impersonal. 

1 See page 85, footnote. 



LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 87 

85. Pdrgere, present, porsi, porto. 

86. Prediligere, prefer, predilessi, prediletto. 

87. Prendere, take, presi, preso. 

88. Proteggere, protect, protessi, protetto. 

89. Radere, shave, rasi (radei), raso. 

90. Redimere, redeem, redensi (redimei), redento. 

91. Reggere, support, ressi, retto. 

92. Rendere, render, resi (rendei or rendetti), reso (rendiito). 

93. Ridere, laugh, risi, riso. 

94. Riflettere, reflect, riflettei or riflessi, riflettiito or riflesso. Riflet- 

tere, reflect light, is generally irregular; riflettere, meditate, is 
usually regular. 

95. Rifulgere, shine, rifulsi. Past part, lacking. Poetical. 

96. Rilucere, shine, riliissi or rilucei. Past part, lacking. 

97. Rispondere, answer, risp6si, risp6sto. 

98. R6dere, gnaw, r6si, r6so. 

99. Rompere, break, riippi, r6tto. 

100. Scendere, descend, scesi, sceso. 

101. Scindere, sever, scindei or scissi, scisso. 

102. Sciolvere, breakfast, sciolsi or sciolvetti, sciolto. Rare. 

103. Scorgere, perceive, scorsi, scorto. 

104. Scrivere, write, scrissi, scritto. 

105. Scuotere, shake, scotendo, scossi, scosso. 1 

106. Soffolcere, support, soffolse, soffolto. Defective. Rare. 

107. Sdlvere, undo, solve! (solvetti), soliito. Poetical. So dissol- 

vere;/or assolvere and risolvere (determine}, see 31. 

108. Sorgere, rise, s6rsi, s6rto. 

109. Sospendere, suspend, sospesi, sospeso. So appendere, impen- 

dere. Pendere is reg.; dipendere either reg. or irreg. 

110. Spandere, spill, spandei or spandetti, spanto. 

111. Spargere, scatter, sparsi, sparso or sparto. 

112. Spendere, spend, spesi, speso. 

113. Spergere, disperse, spersi, sperso. Rare. 

114. Sporgere, project, sporsi, sporto. 

115. Struggere, melt, striissi, stnitto. 

116. Succedere, happen, success! or succedei, successo or succediito. 

So concedere, which has also concedetti; cedere and its other 
compounds are generally regular. 

117. Suggere, suck, suggei or siissi. Past part, lacking. Rare. 

118. Tendere (transitive), extend, tesi, teso. The intrans. verb is reg* 

but has no past participle. 

119. Tergere, wipe, tersi or tergei, terso. Rare. 

120. TSrcere, twist, torsi, torto. 

1 See page 85, footnote. 



88 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

121. Uccidere, kill, uccisi, uccfso. 

122. Vincere, conquer, vinsi, vinto. 

123. Vivere, live, vissi, vissuto or viviito; viverd or vivr6. 

124. Volgere, turn, volsi, volto. 

125. Vdlvere, turn, volsi, volto. Rare. Dev61vere has a past part. 

devoluto. 

Present Irregular 

126. fessere, be, Mi, stato; sard. See 63, a. 1 

127. Bere or bevere, drink, bevendo, bewi (bevetti or bevel), be- 

viito (betito) ; bero or bevero. 

PBES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

bevo or beo beviamo or beiamo beva or bea beviamo or beiamo 

bevi or bei bevete or beete beva or bea beviate or beiate 

beve or bee bevono or beono beva or bea bevano or beano 

128. Chiedere, ask, chiesi (chi^si or chied^i), chiesto. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

chiedo (chieggo) 2 chieda (chiegga) 2 

chiedi chieda (chiegga) 

chiede chieda (chiegga) 

chiediamo chiediamo 

chiedete chiediate 

chiedono (chieggono) 2 chiedano (chieggano) 2 

129. Condurre, conduct, conducendo, condiissi, cond6tto; condurrd. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

conduce conduciamo conduca conduciamo 

conduci conducete conduca conduciate 

conduce conducono conduca conducano 

130. NuScere, harm, nocendo, n6cqui, nociuto. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

nuoco or noccio nociamo nuoca or noccia nociamo 

nuoci nocete nuoca or noccia nociate 

nudce nu6cono or nocciono nuoca or noccia nuocano or n6c- 

ciano 

1 In the past descriptive eramo is often used for eravamo. We find in poetry: 
sete for siete; enno or en for sono (third pi.); sie for sia; eramo, erate for eravamo, 
eravate; u f or o in the past absolute and past subjunctive; ffiro for furono; fia, fiano 
or fieno for sara, saranno; fora, forano for sarei, sarebbe, sarebbero; sendo for es- 
sendo; suto, essuto, or issuto for stato. 

2 Also chieggio, chieggiono, chieggia, chieggiano. 



LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS OV 

131. Porre, put, ponendo, p6si, p6sto; pond. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

pdngo poniamo (ponghiamo) ponga poniamo (ponghiamo) 

pdni ponete ponga poniate 

pone pongono ponga pongano 

132. Trdrre (triere), drag, traendo, tr&ssi, trdtto; trarr6. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

traggo traiamo or traggiamo 1 tragga traiamo or traggiamo 1 

trai (traggi) traete tragga traiate 

trie (tragge) traggono tragga traggano 

133. Vellere (verre), tear up, v&si, velto; veller6 (verrd or velger6). 

Vellere, which is rare, has not all the forms given here; but its 
compound, svellere, has them all. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

vello or velgo velliamo (velgiamo) vella or velga velliamo (velgiamo) 
velli (velgi) vellete v611a or velga velliate (velgiate) 

velle (velge) vlllono or velgono vella or velga vellano or velgano 

134. Cdgliere (corre), gather, colsi, colto; cogliero or corrd. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

cdlgo (cdglio) cogliamo (colghiamo) ccjiga (coglia) cogliamo (colghiamo) 

cogli cogliete cdlga (coglia) cogliate 

c6glie colgono (c6gliono) cdlga (coglia) colgano (cogliano) 

135. Scegliere (scerre), choose: like cogliere (134). 

136. Scidgliere (scidrre), untie: like cogliere (134). 
vJ37. T6gliere (tdrre), take: like cogliere (134). 

138. Giungere (giugnere), to arrive, giunsi, giunto; giunger6 (giu- 

gnero). 

FRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

giungo (giugno) giunga (giugna) 

giungi (giugni) giunga (giugna) 

giunge (giugne) giunga (giugna) 

giungiamo (giugniamo) giungiamo (giugniamo) 

giungete (giugnete) giungiate (giugniate) 

giungono (giugnono) giungano (giugnano) ^ 

139. Cingere (cignere), gird: like giiingere (138). 

140. Mugnere (mungere), milk: like giiingere (138). 

1 Also tragghiamo. 



90 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

141. Pidngere (piagnere), weep: like giungere (138). 

142. Pingere (pignere), paint: like giiingere (138). 

143. Pungere (pugnere), prick: like giungere (138). 

144. Spegnere (spSngere), extinguish: like giungere (138), except 

that the forms with gn are far commoner than those with ng. 

145. Spingere (spignere), push: like giungere (138). 

146. Stringere (strignere), bind: like giungere (138), except that the 

past part, is stretto or stiinto. Costringere, compel, has for 
past part, only costretto. 

147. Tingere (tignere), dye: like giungere (138). 

148. Ungere (ugnere), anoint: like giungere (138). 

FOURTH CONJUGATION 
Present Regular 

149. Aprire, open, aprii or apersi, aperto. Pres. d,pro, etc. 

150. Coprire (cuoprire), cover, coprii or copersi, copgrto. Pres. 

copro (cuopro), etc. 

151. Offrire (offerire), offer, offrii (offerii) or offersi, offerto. Pres. 

offro (offerfsco), etc. 

152. Soffrire, suffer: like offrire (151). 

153. Convertire, convert, convertii or conversi, convertito or con- 

v&rso. Pres. converto or conyertisco, etc. All other verbs in 
-verttre are reg. 

154. Costruire (construire), construct, co(n)strussi or co(n)struii, 

co(n)struito or co(n)strutto. Pres. co(n)strulsco, etc. 

155. Digerire, digest, digerii, digerito (digesto). Pres. digerisco, etc. 

156. Esaurire, exhaust, esaurii, esaurito or esausto. Pres. esaurisco, 

etc. 

157. Seppellire or sepellire, bury, sep(p)ellii, seppellito or sep61to. 

Pres. sep(p)ellisco, etc. 

Present Irregular 

158. Cucire, sew, cucii, cucito. Pres. cucio or cucisco. This verb 

inserts i before o and a, but not before e and i. 

159. Sdrucire or sdruscire, rip: like cucire (158). 

160. Empire or empiere, fill, empiendo, empii, empito. All but the 

present from the stem of empire. So compire or compiere, 
which has also a past part, compiuto. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

empio (empisco) empiamo empia empiamo 

empi (empisci) empite empia empiate 

empie (empisce) empiono (empiscono) empia empiano 



LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS 91 

161. Morire, die, morii, morto; morro or morird. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

mudio (mu6ro) moriamo or muoia- mudia (muora) moriamo or muoi- 

mo amo 

muori or muoi morite muoia (muora) muoiate 

mudre muoiono (muoro- muoia (mudra) muoiano (muora- 

no) no) 1 

162. Seguire, follow, seguii, seguito. Pres. seguo, etc. The verb is 

generally regular; but the e may be changed to ie in all forms 
where it is accented. Proseguire has -seguo or -seguisco. 

163. Sparire, disappear, sparii or sparvi, sparito. Pres. (regular) 

sparisco, etc. Apparire has apparvi or -si or -ii, apparito or 
apparso; comparire has comparvi or -si or -ii, comparso; 
otherwise they are like sparire, but they have in the present the 
additional forms: -pdio, -pare, -paiono; -p&ia, -paiano. 

164. Dire, say, dicendo, dissi. detto; dird. Dire (formerly dicere) 

belongs really to the third conjugation: dicesti, -eva, -essi. 

PRES. IND. IMPER. PRES. SUBJ. 

dico diciamo di' dica diciamo 

dfci dite diciamo dica diciate 

dice dicono dite dica dicano 

165. Salire, ascend, salii or salsi, salito. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

salgo (salisco) saliamo or sagliamo - saiga (salisca) saliamo or sagliamo- 

sali (salisci) salfte saiga (salisca) sagliate 

sale (salisce) salgono (saliscono) saiga (salisca) salgano (saliscano) 

166. Venire, come, venni, veniito; verro. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

vSngo (vegno) veniamo 2 venga (vegna) veniamo 2 

rieni venite venga (vegna) veniate 

viene vengono (vegnono) venga (vegna) vengano (vegnano) 

167. Udire, hear, udii, udito; udird (udro). 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

6do udiamo oda udiamo 

odi udite oda udiate 

ode odono oda odano 

1 In all forms where uo occurs, it may be replaced by o. 

2 Also salghiamo; venghiamo: popular forms. 



92 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

168. Uscire (escire), go out, uscii, uscito. 

PRES. IND. PRES. SUBJ. 

esco usciamo esca usciam* 

esci uscite esca usciate 

6sce escono esca escano 

169. Orire, be born, orto. Defective. Rare. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF IRREGULAR AND DE- 
FECTIVE VERBS 

93. Every irregular verb in this list is followed by a num- 
ber referring to the table of Irregular Verbs arranged ac- 
cording to Conjugation. Obsolete defective verbs that 
present no irregularity have not been mentioned. 

(a) Compound verbs have, in general, been excluded from this 
list, unless they differ in conjugation from the simple verbs from 
which they come (see 67, a). The commonest prefixes are: a- (cor- 
responding in meaning to the preposition a) ; as- ( = Latin abs-) ; 
co-, com-, con-, cor- ( =prep. con); contra- ( =prep. contra); de-, 
di- (=Lat. de-}', dis- (=Lat. dis-); e-, es- (=Lat. ex}; i-, im-, 
in-, ir- (=prep. in); o- (=Lat. 06); per- (=prep. per); pre- 
(=Lat. prae-}; pro- (=Lat. pro-}-, r-, re-, ri- (=Lat. re-}; s- 
(=Lat. ex- or dis-}; so-, sos-, su- (=Lat. sub}; sopra-, sopr-, 
sor- (=prep. s6pra); sott-, sotto- (=prep. s6tto); stra- (=Lat. 
extra}; tra- ( =prep. trd). After several of these prefixes the initial 
consonant of the simple verb is generally found doubled: a+ca- 
dere = accadere. S- is sometimes combined with con-, r- with SL- 
OT in-: scosce"ndere, raccogliere, rincorrere. 

Accad^re, see cad6re, 7. Affliggere, 25. 

Accendere, 24. Algere, 26. 

Accltidere, see chiiidere, 34. Alliidere, 27. 

Accorgere, see scorgere, 103. Ancidere, see uccidere, 121. 

Acquisire has only acquisito. Andare, 1. 

Addiirre, see condurre, 129. Annettere, see connettere, 36. 



IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS 



93 



Antep6rre, see p6rre, 131. 
Antivedere, p. p. only antiveduto, 

otherwise like vedere, 10. 
Apparire, see sparire, 163. 
Appartenere, see tenere, 17. 
Appendere, see sospendere, 109. 
Aprire, 149. 
Ardere, 28. 
Arr6gere, 29. 

Ascendere, see scendere, 100. 
Asciolvere, see sciolvere, 102. 
Ascondere, see nasc6ndere, 78. 
Aspergere, see spergere, 113. 
Assalire, see salire, 165. 
Assidere, 30. 

Assistere, see esistere, 54. 
Assolvere, 31. 
Assorbere, 32. 

Assiimere, see consumere, 39. 
Avellere, 33. 
Avere, 5. 
Bere, 127. 

Be>ere, see bere, 127. 
Cadere, 7. 
Calere, 23. 
Cedere, generally reg., sometimes 

has p. abs. cessi, p. p. cesso. 
ChiMere, 128. 
Chiudere, 34. 
Cignere, see cingere, 139. 
Cingere, 139. 

Circoncidere, see decidere, 44. 
Cogliere, 134. 

Coincidere, reg. verb, has no p. p. 
Colere, 35. 

Colltidere, see liidere, 71. 
Comparire, see sparire, 163. 
Competere, reg. verb, has no p. p. 
C6mpiere, see empire, 160. 
Compire, see empire, 160. 
Comprim^re, see esprimere, 57. 
Concedere, see succedere, 116. 
Concludere, see chiudere, 34. 
Concutere, see discutere, 47. 



Condurre, 129. 
Connettere, 36. 
Con6scere, 37. 
Conquidere, 38. 
Consistere, see esistere, 54. 
Constare is reg. 
Construire, see costruire, 154. 
Consumere, 39. 
Contendere, see tendere, 118. 
Contrastare is reg. 
Controvertere, see vertere. 
Contundere, 40. 

Convergere, reg. verb, has no p. p. 
Convertire, 153. 
Coprire, 150. 
Corre, see cogliere, 134. 
C6rrere, 41. 

Corrisp6ndere, see risp6ndere, 97. 
Cospargere, see spargere, 111. 
Cospergere, see spergere, 113. 
Costruire, 154. 
Cre"scere, 42. 
Cucire, 158. 
Cuocere, 43. 

Cuoprire, see coprire, 150. 
Dare, 3. 
Decidere, 44. 

Dediirre, see condurre, 129. 
Delinquere, reg. verb, has no p. p.* 
and its p. abs., delinquetti, is rare. 
Deprimere, see esprimere, 57. 
Desistere, see esistere, 54. 
Devolvere, see volvere, 125. 
Difendere, 45. 
Digerire, 155. 

Dipendere, see sospendere, 109. 
Dire, 164. 
Dirigere, 46. 

Dirimere, reg. verb, has no p. p. 
Discendere, see scendere, 100. 
Discutere, 47. 

Dispergere, see spergere, 113. 
Dissolvere, see solvere, 107. 
Dissuadere, see persuadere, 22. 



94 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



Distdre, reg. in pres. of all moods, 
no pres. p., otherwise like stdre, 
4. 

Distinguere, 48. 

Distniggere, see struggere, 115. 

Divedere has nothing but infin. 

Divergere, reg. verb, has no p. p. 

Dividers, 49. 

Dolere, 15. 

Dovere, 8. 

Eleggere, see leggere, 69. 

Elidere, 50. 

Eludere, 51. 

Empiere, see empire, 160. 

Empire, 160. 

Ergere, 52. 

Erigere, see dirigere, 46. 

Esaurire, 156. 

Escire, see uscire, 168. 

Escludere, see chiudere, 34. 

Esigere, 53. 

Esimere, reg. verb, has no p. p. 

Esistere, 54. 

Espellere, 55. 

Esplodere, 56. 

Esprimere, 57. 

Essere, 126. 

Estinguere, see distinguere, 48. 

Ev&dere, see invadere, 67. 

Fare, 2. 

Fendere, 58. 

Fervere, reg. verb, has no p. p., and 
is rare except in the third pers. of 
the pres. ind. and past descr. 

Figere, see figgere, 59. 

Figgere, 59. 

Fingere, 60. 

F6ndere, 61. 

Frangere, 62. 

Friggere, 63. 

Genuflettere, 64. 

Giace"re, 11. 

Gire, defect.: pres. giamo, gite; past 
descr. giva or gia, etc.; imper. 



gimo, gite; pres. subj. gidmo, 
giate; no pres. p.; rest reg. 

Giugnere, see giungere, 138. 

Giiingere, 138. 

Illudere, see liidere, 71. 

Impellere, see espellere, 55. 

Impendere, see sospendere, 109. 

Imprimere, see esprimere, 57. 

Incidere, see decidere, 44. 

Incliidere, see chiudere, 34. 

Inciitere, see discutere, 47. 

Indiirre, see condurre, 129. 

Insistere, see esistere, 54. 

Instare is reg. 

Instruire, see construire, 154. 

Intendere, see tendere, 118. 

Intercedere, see succedere, 116. 

Intridere, 65. 

Introdurre, see condurre, 129. 

Intriidere, 66. 

Invadere, 67. 

Invalere, p. p. only invdlso, other- 
wise like valere, 18. 

Ire, defect.: pres. ite; p. des. iva, etc.; 
p. abs. isti, iste, iro; fut. iremo, 
irete, iranno; imper. ite; past 
subj. isse, iste, issero; p. p. ito. 

Istruire, see costruire, 154. 

Lecere, see licere, 70. 

Ledere, 68. 

Leggere, 69. 

Licere, 70. 

Liicere, reg. verb, has no p. p. 

Liidere, 71. 

Mantenere, see tenure, 17. 

Mergere, 72. 

Mettere, 73. 

Molcere, 74. 

Mordere, 75. 

Morire, 161. 

Mugnere, 140. 

Miingere, see mugnere, 140. 

Muovere, 76. 

Nascere, 77. 



IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS 



95 



Nasc6ndere, 78. 

Negligere, 79. 

Nuocere, 130. 

Offendere, 80. 

Offerire, see offrire, 151. 

Offrire, 151. 

Opprimere, see esprfmere, 57. 

Orire, 169. 

Ostare is reg. 

Ostendere, 81. 

Parere, 20. 

Percipere, 82. 

Percudtere, see scuotere, 105. 

Perdere, 83. 

Permane"re, see rimanere, 16. 

Persistere, see esistere, 54. 

Persuadere, 22. 

Piacere, 12. 

Piagnere, see piangere, 141. 

Piangere, 141. 

Pignere, see pingere, 142. 

Pingere, 142. 

Piovere, 84. 

Porgere, 85. 

P6rre, 131. 

Posp6rre, see p6rre, 131. 

Possedere, see sedere, 9. 

Pote*re, 21.- 

Precidere, see decidere, 44. 

Precludere, see chiudere, 34. 

Prediligere, 86. 

Premere is reg. 

Prendere, 87. 

Prestare is reg. 

Presumere, see consumers, 39. 

Prevedere, see vedere, 10. 

Produrre, see condurre, 129. 

Proteggere, 88. 

Prowedere, fut. and past fut. un- 

contracted, otherwise like vedere, 

10. 
Priidere, reg. verb, has no p. p., and 

is used only in the third pers. 
Pugnere, see piingere, 143. 



Pungere, 143. 

Raccogliere, see cogliere, 134. 

Radere, 89. 

Raggiungere, see giungere, 138. 

Recidere, see decidere, 44. 

Redimere, 90. 

Reggere, 91. 

Rendere, 92. 

Repellere, see espellere, 55. 

Reprimere, see esprirnere, 57. 

Resistere, see esistere, 54. 

Restare is reg. 

Ridere, 93. 

Ridurre, see condurre, 129. 

Riflettere, 94. 

Rifulgere, 95. 

Rilucere, 96. 

Rimanere, 16. 

Risolvere (dissolve}, see solvere, 

107. 
Risolvere (determine}, see assol- 

vere, 31. 
Risp6ndere, 97. 
Ristare, see stare, 4. 
Risumere, see consumere, 39. 
Rodere, 98. 
R6mpere, 99. 
Salire, 165. 
Sapere, 6. 
Scegliere, 135. 
Scendere, 100. 
Scerre, see scegliere, 135. 
Scindere, 101. 
Sciogliere, 136. 
Sciolvere, 102. 
Sciorre, see sciogliere, 136. 
Scommettere, see mettere, 73. 
Scoprire, see coprire, 150. 
Scorgere, 103. 
Scrivere, 104. 
Scuotere, 105. 
Sdrucire, 159. 

Sdruscire, see sdrucire, 159. 
Sedere, 9. 



96 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



Sedurre, see condiirre, 129. 

Seguire, 162. 

Sepellire, see seppellire, 157. 

Seppellire, 157. 

Sofferlre, see soffrire, 152. 

Soff61cere, 106. 

Soffrire, 152. 

Solere, 14. 

Sdlvere, 107. 

Sopprimere, see esprimere, 57. 

Soprastare, see stare, 4. 

S6rgere, 108. 

Sospendere, 109. 

Sostare is reg. 

Sottostare, see stare, 4. 

Sovrastare see stare, 4. 

Spandere, 110. 

Spargere, 111. 

Sparlre, 163. 

Spegnere, 144. 

Spendere, 112. 

Spengere, see spegnere, 144. 

Spergere, 113. 

Spignere, see spingere, 145. 

Spingere, 145. 

Spdrgere, 114. 

Stare, 4. 

Stridere, reg. verb, has no p. p. 

Strignere, see stringere, 146. 

Stringere, 146. 

Struggere, 115. 

Subire is reg. : pres. subisco. 

Succedere, 116. 

Suggere, 117. 

Sussistere, see esistere, 54. 



Svellere, see vellere, 133. 

Tacere, 13. 

Tendere (trans.}, 118. 

Tendere (intrans.), reg. verb, has 

no p. p. 
Tenere, 17. 
T^rgere, 119. 
Tignere, see tingere, 147. 
Tingere, 147. 
Togliere, 137. 
Torcere, 120. 
Torre, see togliere, 137. 
Tradurre, see condurre, 129. 
-*Traere, see trarre, 132. 
Transigere, see esigere, 53. 
Trarre, 132. 
Uccidere, 121. 
Udire, 167. 

Ugnere, see tingere, 148. 
Ungere, 148. 
Uscire, 168. 
Valere, 18. 
Vedere, 10. 
Vellere, 133. 
Venire, 166. 
Verre, see vellere, 133. 
Vertere, reg. verb, is used only in 

the pres. and past descr. 
Vilipendere, see sospendere, 109. 
Vincere, 122. 
Vivere, 123. 
Volere, 19. ^ 
Volgere, 124. 
Volvere, 125. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 

LESSON 1. PRONUNCIATION 
Study sections 1, 2, 3. 

NOTE. In this and in all other lessons the assignment of a section 
number means that the whole section, including all subdivisions, is to 
be studied, unless special directions to the contrary are given. 

EXERCISE 1 

1. State the quality of the e (close or open) in each of these words, 
and pronounce each word: te, tre, ne, se, pote, e, diedi, fieno, Siena, 
desti, debito, Alfredo, presto, merito, Valerio. 

2. State the quality of the o in each of these words, and pronounce 
each word: fo, no, cantero, pero, muore, suona, noi, ricoveri, Roma, 
bove, opera, Modena. 

3. Pronounce: abitudine, alfabeto, Alfieri, altrui, America, Am- 
leto, andatevene, animato, augurerai, balenio, benedirono, benevolo, 
bibliofilo, cavaliere, colui, conservatorio, contadino, Costantinopoli, 
costui, credulo, cui, demolirete, Demostene, Domenico, dove, ei, 
Emanuele, eroe, esprimereste, Faraone, formidabile, fui, Galileo, 
Goldoni, idea, impermalito, impero, insubordinate, io, linea, Lom- 
bardia, lui, lunedi, maestro, miei, mio, Napoli, naufrago, neutro, 
nobilta, nuora, ode, oibo, onorevole, ortografia, Orvieto, ovest, 
Panama, Paolo, patata, paura, perde, perpendicolo, personalita, poi, 
p6vero, responsabilita, restituiti, rimanevate, Rimini, Romolo, 
R6vere, Serao, Severino, suoi, Taormina, umile, uno, vende, voi, 
volonta, vuoto. , 



ITALIAN GRAMMAR 



LESSON 2. PRONUNCIATION (continued) 



Study 4 [omitting (a), (b), (c), (d) under s], 5, 6, 7. Read (a), (6), 
(c) under s in 4, and 8. 

EXERCISE 2 

1. Pronounce: cane, panca, tasca, come, Pascoli, cura, alcuni, 
scudo, classe, Tecla, credo, sacro, ascrivere, che, chetare, oche, 
panche, maschera, chi, chino, bachi, parchi, boschi, chiudo, richiamo, 
manchiamo, schiavo, Ischia, Peschiera, cena, celare, voce, vivace, 
Nocera, elce, incendio, ci, civile, Cimabue, died, tad, Lucia, 
Medici, porci, Pulci, Vinci, ciarla, diciannove, oncia, marcia, cielo, 
specie, cio, bacio, commercio, Pincio, ciurma, fanciullo, accendere, 
uccello, accidente, piccino, faccia, boccia, taccio, piccione, Duccio, 
acciuffo, ricciuto, scena, nasce, discepolo, scibile, lasci, disciplinai, 
sciame, poscia, lascio, mesciuto. 

2. Pronounce : gala, targa, sgarbato, pago, valgo, sgombro, gusto, 
augurare, guardia, Guido, sangue, gloria, anglomania, magro, sgri- 
dare, ghetto, paghero, alghe, sghembo, ghirlanda, ghinea, Ghiberti, 
sughi, Inghilterra, ghianda, ghiotto, paghiamo, Alighieri, ringhiera, 
gelare, genere, Genova, agevole, Eugenio, stringendo, Angelico, 
sgelare, giro, agitato, antologia, Perugino, piangi, cangia, Borgia, 
giorno, giovedi, Giovanni, adagio, mangio, giu, giusto, Giulio, digiuno, 
ingiuria, friggere, piagge, oggi, fuggire, piaggia, foggiare, leggiero, 
maggiore, solfeggio, Reggio, aggiunta, raggiustare, magli, begli, tigli, 
moglina, medaglia, pigliare, Cagliari, moglie, cogliendo, taglio, 
luglio, pagliucola, figliuolo, gli, pugnare, Campagna, Bologna, spugne, 
mugnere, compagnia, Mascagni, stagno, sogno, Foligno, ognuno, 
piagnucolare. 

3. Pronounce the words in (a) under s on p. 3; then pronounce 
these words, in which the s has the sound of English z: basilico, 
brindisi, caso, causa, confusione, deserto, desinare, elemosina, enfasi. 

4. Pronounce these words, in which the z (or zz) is pronounced like 
ts: grazie, ozio, Venezia, Abruzzi, altezza, Arezzo, mazzo, pozzo, 
alzo, calzoni, anzi, denunzia, Firenze, Monza, senza, forza, marzo, 
zampa, zio, zolfo; then pronounce the words in (a) under z on p. 4. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 99 

5. Pronounce: debbo, gabbare, Lecco, pacco, addio, freddo, 
affare, goffo, bello, Donatello, commedia, somma, fanno, Ravenna, 
appena, troppo, arrive, terra, essa, Messina, metto, otto, avvenire. 

LESSON 3. ARTICLES 
Study 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15. 

EXERCISE 3 

1. State the gender and number of each of these combinations, 
as indicated by the form of the definite article: gli abiti, il balcone, 
i bambini, la barba, le immagini, gP impeti, le scarpe, lo scherzo, 
gli zecchini; cogli affari, del campo, sulla faccia, ai ladri, dallo 
scoglio, negli stati, delle unioni. 

2. Place the proper form of the definite article before each of these 
nouns [those in (a) are masculine singular, those in (b) masculine 
plural, those in (c) feminine singular, those in (d) feminine plural}: 

(a) albero, dente, fatto, impero, sguardo, spedale, uccello, zingaro. 

(b) alberi, denti, fatti, imperi, sguardi, spedali, uccelli, zingari. 

(c) aria, campana, evoluzione, mente, ombra, scena, zampa. 

(d) arie, campane, evoluzioni, menti, ombre, scene, zampe. 

3. Translate into Italian the prepositions and articles in these 
combinations [the nouns in (a) are masculine singular, those in (b) 
masculine plural, those in (c} feminine singular, those in (d) femi- 
nine plural]: (a) of the anno, by the effetto, to the gatto, in the 
gesto, with the idolo, on the leone, with the quadro, in the scudo, to 
the spirito, by the umore, of the zappatore. (b) of the anni, by the 
effetti, to the gatti, in the gesti, with the idoli, on the leoni, with 
the quadri, in the scudi, to the spiriti, by the umori, of the zap- 
patori. (c) of the acqua, by the estate, to the notte, in the opera, 
with the scala, on the tavola. (d) of the acque, by the estati, to 
the notti, in the opere, with the scale, on the tavole. 

4. Place the proper form of the indefinite article before each of 
these ncum [those in (a) are masculine, those in (b} are feminine}: 

(a) idilio, n6me, oceano, specchio, stride, teatro, uovo, zoccolo. 

(b) eta, maestra, 6nda, spina, uva, valle. 



100 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

LESSON 4. NOUNS 

Study 17-25 inclusive [omitting (a), (b) under 22, and (a), (ft), (c), 
(d) under 23]. 

EXERCISE 4 

1. State the gender and number of each of these combinations: gli 
animali, nei caffe, la canzone, colla fede, del fucile, gP ingegni, i 
lupi, dagli onori, le parole, il poeta, sulle questioni, lo scherzo, allo 
schioppo. 

2. Give the plural of each of these nouns [those in (a) are masculine, 
those in (b) are feminine] : (a) brindisi, cane, castello, despota, dolore, 
libro, lume, maestro, padrone, pericolo, podesta, problema, uomo. 
(b) bellezza, bonta, capitale, fonte, luna, moglie, origine, polvere, 
serie, sintesi, terra, vittoria. 

3. Give the plural of each of these combinations: F acqua, 
1* artista (masculine}, 1' anno, 1' azione (feminine), la barbaric, la 
bestia, il bue, il cavallo, la chiave, il cuore r la dama, il dono, 
T errore (m.}, V estasi (/.), 1' eta, la fanciulla, la felicita, la 
festa, il frate, la gente, il giuri, la gravita, 1' idea, F inchiostro, 
1' istante (w.), il lavoro, la lira, la mano, il mare, la metropoli, 
il ministro, la morale, della nazione, all' oggetto, nell' opinione 
(/.), della padrona, dal palazzo, sulla pelle, col prete, dal prof eta, 
della ragazza, al re, dal santo, sullo scaffale, della sete, nel 
sistema, nello stato, sulla superficie, dell' umore (w.), nella valle, 
sul vapore, della verita, colla virtu. 

LESSON 6. bSSERE 
Study 53 (a) [omitting the compound tenses} . 
EXERCISE 5 

1. Identify (that is, state the person, number, and tense of] and 
translate these forms: erano, sarete, fummo, siamo, essendo, sarebbe. 
saremo, fu, sei, sareste, era, stato, sara, siete, saremmo, eravate, 
saranno, sono, foste, sarebbero, furono. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 101 

2. Translate into Italian: we 1 are, he will be, they were (past 
descriptive] , they were (past absolute], I should be, she is, we were 
(desc.), they would be, I was (abs.), we shall be, we should be, being, 
it was (abs.), they will be, thou art, you are,2 thou wast (desc.), you 
were (desc.), thou wast (abs.), you were (abs.), you will be, you would 
be, to be, been, let us be, be. 3 

1 English subject pronouns are to be omitted in translation, until other 
directions are given. 

2 English verbs which have 'you' as subject are to be translated by 
second person plural forms, until other directions are given. 

3 English imperatives without an expressed subject are to be translated 
by second person plural forms, until other directions are given. 

VOCABULARY 

giornale, m., newspaper. ragazza, girl. 

Giovanni, John. Roma, Rome. 

libro, book. scrivania, desk. 

padre, m., father. signdra, lady. 

ragazzo, boy. tavola, table. 
sign6re, m., gentleman. 

udmo, man. * \ at : ln ' 

domani, tomorrow. 

casa, house, home. d6ve, where. 

citta, city. gia, already. 

donna, woman. ieri, yesterday. 

Firenze, f., Florence. la, there. 

madre, f., mother. 6ggi, today. 

Maria, Mary. 6ra, now. 

Napoli, f., Naples. quando, when. 

porta, door. qui, here. 

1 English 'in' is ordinarily to be translated by in, but before the 
name of a city it is to be translated by a. 

3. Study these sentences: 1 i. II signore e il padre di Giovanni. 2, 
Dove siete ora? Sono qui. 3. Quando sara coi signori? 4. I librfr 

1 The student should enable himself to translate the sentences, 
to read them aloud in Italian accurately and intelligently, and to trans- 
late them without reference to the book when they are read aloud 
by the instructor. 



102 ITALIAN GKAMMAR 

del ragazzi erano sulla tavola. 5. Domani saremo nella citta. 6. 
Sara qui oggi? 7. La donna e gia alia porta della casa. 8. 6ra e 
qui: domani dove sara? 9. II giornale e la, sulla scrivania. 10. 
leri le signore erano a Napoli, oggi sono a Roma, domani saranno a 
Firenze. 

4. Translate into Italian: i. The lady is Mary's mother. 2. The 
girls will be here tomorrow. 3. The newspapers were 1 on the tables. 
4. Where are the boy's books? Are they on the desk? 5. 1 shall be 
there with the men. 6. Were 1 you already at the door? 7. Would he 
be in the house now? 8. John's father is in the city. 9. When will 
you be in Naples? 10. Today they are here, tomorrow they'll be 
there. 

1 Use the past descriptive. 

LESSON 6. ADJECTIVES 

Study 26-34 inclusive. Learn the first twelve cardinal numerals, as 
given in 38. 

EXERCISE 6 

1. Give the feminine singular and the masculine and feminine 
plural of each of these adjectives: cattivo, fedele, forte, rosso, 
semplice, vero. 

2. Insert the proper form of bello in each of these phrases: 
il albero, il cappello, il fanciullo, il ingegno, il stato; 
i alberi, i cappelli, i fanciulli, i ingegni, i stati. 

3. Place the proper form of Santo before each of these names: 
Agostlno, Carlo, Elmo, Giovanni, Lorenzo. 

4. Insert the proper form of grande in each of these phrases: 
un cappello, un errore, un fuoco, un ingegno, un 
stato. 

5. Insert the proper form of buono in each of these phrases: 
un amico, un cuore, un fanciullo, un ingegno, un -^ 
schioppo. 



LESSONS AND EXEKCISES 103 



VOCABULARY 

cdntro, centre. francese, French. 

fi6re, m., flower. gentile, gentle, polite, kind, 

fratello, brother. gi6vane, young. 

giardino, garden. grande, great, large, big. 

tempo, time, weather. interessante, interesting. 

italiano, Italian. 

chiesa, church. molto, much; as adverb, 

lezione, f., lesson. much, very. 

sorella, sister. piccolo, little, small. 

stanza, room. pdvero, poor. 

via, street. r6sso, red. 

rotondo, round. 
alto, high, tall. 

bello, beautiful, pretty, handsome, ci, here, there. 1 

fine. dopo, after, afterward. 

facile, easy. f6rse, perhaps. 

felice, happy. non, 2 not. 

1 Ci is used when the ' here ' or ' there ' is quite unemphatic, qui 
and Id when the 'here' or 'there' bears some emphasis. Ci is called 
a conjunctive adverb, and its position is governed by special rules. 
Until other directions are given, it should be placed directly before 
the verb. 

2 Placed before the verb. 

6. Study these sentences: l i. Ci sono dei bei fiori nel piccolo 
giardino. 2. Per i poveri non e facile essere felici. 3. La tavola 
rotonda era nel centre della stanza. 4. C' e qualche giornale 
francese sulla scrivania. 5. Le vie di Napoli sono molto inte- 
ressanti. 6. Oggi siete piu felice che ieri. 7. Le tre signore 
francesi erano molto gentili. 8. La chiesa e piu alta della casa. 
9. II ragazzo piu giovane e il fratello di Maria. 10. Domani 
forse il tSmpo sara migliore. 

1 See the statement on p. 155. 

7. Translate into Italian: * i . The big red book is for John's brother. 
2. He is the happiest of the boys. 3. The lesson for tomorrow will 

1 See the statement on p. 171. 



104 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

be very easy. 4. The Italian newspaper was 1 on the round table. 
5. The largest house is as high as the church. 6. Mary's four sisters 
will not be here after tomorrow. 7. The boys were 1 more polite 
when they were younger. 8. Yesterday the weather was fine. 9. 
The prettiest flowers are in the garden. 10. There are some interest- 
ing streets in the centre of the city. 2 

1 Use the past descriptive. 

1 Write this sentence in two ways, first using the partitive con- 
struction, then using qudlche. 



LESSON 7. AVERE 

Study 63 (b) [omitting the compound tenses] . 
EXERCISE 7 

1. Identify and translate: aveste, hanno, avreste, avremo, ebbi, 
avevi, avendo, avra, avuto, avrebbero, avevano, avrete, abbiamo, 
ebbero, hai, avranno. 

2. Translate into Italian: they will have, she had (past abs.), we 
should have, I had (past desc.), having, we have, thou wilt have, they 
have, let us have, you will have, we had (abs.), I should have. 

3. Translate: furono, ha, foste, avevate, sara, avete, essendo, 
ebbe, siate, avremmo, sarei, avemmo, sareste, aveva. 

4. Translate into Italian: I am, I have, you are, you have, he is, 
he has, we were (desc.}, we had (desc.), they were (desc.), they had 
(desc.), I was (abs.), I had (abs.), you were (abs.), you had (abs.), 
he was (abs.), he had (abs.), we shall be, we shall have, they would be, 
they would have. 

VOCABULARY 

albero, tree. pranzo, dinner. 

anno, year. quadro, picture. 

giorno, day. saldtto, parlor. 

inverno, winter. s61e, m., sun, sunlight. 

mese, m., month. teatro, theatre. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 105 

matita, pencil. scuro, dark. 

pazienza, patience. stretto, narrow. 

penna, pen. vero, true. 
r6sa, rose. 

settimana, week. benche, although. 1 

storia, history. e, and. 

ma, but. 

caldo, hot, warm. o, or. 

freddo, cold. p6i, then. 

importante, important. presto, soon, early. 

nuovo, new. sempre, always. 

pieno, full. soltanto, only. 

1 The verb of the clause introduced by benche is always in the 
subjunctive. 

5. Study these sentences: i. Avranno soltanto tre o quattro giorni 
a Firenze. 2. La chiesa piu interessante era in una via stretta e 
scura. 3. II giovane aveva sempre qualche libro italiano sulla scri- 
vania. 4. Benche le stanze non siano grandi, sono calde e piene di 
sole. 5. Abbiamo per domani delle lezioni molto facili. 6. Non ho 
una penna, ma Giovanni ha delle matite. 7. Dopo pranzo le signore 
sarebbero nel salotto. 8. Poi avra delle tavole nuove. 9. II libro 
e una storia importante dei teatri di Napoli. 10. Oggi avro dei 
giornali francesi e italiani. 

6. Translate into Italian: i. The trees are much higher than the 
houses. 2. A year has twelve months, a month has four weeks, and 
a week has seven days. 3. They have a large house with a beautiful 
garden. 4. Have patience, they will be here soon. 5. Although the 
room is small, it will not be cold in the winter. 6. The most beautiful 
flowers were large red roses. 7. He had ten books on the desk, and 
seven or eight on the round table. 8. Have you a pen or a good 
pencil? 9. It is a pretty theatre, it's true, but it isn't very large. 
10. The churches of the city were very beautiful; they had many 
interesting pictures. 



106 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

LESSON 8. DEMONSTRATIVES AND INTERROGATORS 

Study 42, 43. 

EXERCISE 8 

1. Place the proper form of quello before each of these nouns: albero, 
cappello, fanciullo, ingegno, stato, uccello; alberi, cappelli, fanciulli, 
ingegni, stati, uccelli. 

2. Translate into Italian: who is it? whom have you there? of 
whom are-you-speaking (parldte)? what is it? what have you? of 
what are you speaking? what book is that? which book is that? 
whose book is that? what a beautiful book! 

VOCABULARY 

biglietto, ticket. certo, certain. 

cappello, hat. c6rto, short. 

denaro, money. difficile, difficult. 

fanciullo, child. fortunate, fortunate. 

lavoro, work. necessario, necessary. 

numero, number. 6gni, 2 every. 

occhiali, m. pi., glasses. possibile, possible. 

studente, m., student. pronto, ready. 

verde, green. 
f6glia, leaf. 

gita, trip, excursion. come, as, like. 

mano, f., hand. finalmente, finally, at last. 

mattina, morning. lunedi, Monday. 

Milano, f., 1 Milan. se, if. 3 

poesia, poem, poetry. si, yes. 

Venezia, Venice. trdppo, too, too much. 

1 Names of cities are regarded as feminine, whatever the ending. 

2 Invariable. 

3 The verb of the clause introduced by se is present indicative if 
the tense is present, past subjunctive if the tense is past. 

3. Study these sentences: i. Queste foglie sono piu belle di quei 
fiori. 2. Ho dei giornali e dei libri: questi sono per le signore, quelli 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 107 

per i signori. 3. Cio e possibile, ma non e certo. 4. Chi ha un padre 
come quello e molto fortunate. 5. Chi e? quello studente fran- 
cese. 6. Che cosa avete in quella mano? Dei biglietti per una gita 
a Venezia. 7. Quale e il numero della casa di quel signore? 8. 
Quale lezione era la piu difficile? 9. Quanti quadri in quel salotto! 
10. Di chi e quel cappello verde? 

4. Translate into Italian: i. What handsome children! Who are 
they? 2. Those poems are shorter than this one. 3. How much 
money would he have then? 4. At last he has what is necessary 
for the work. 5. These boys are here every morning. 6. Are 
you ready? Have you those tickets? 7. Which churches are more 
interesting, those of Venice or those of Milan? 8. That red is 
pretty. Yes, if it isn't too dark for the room. 9. How many 
will be here Monday? More than ten or twelve? 10. Whose 
glasses are these? Are they John's? 

LESSON 9. THE FIRST CONJUGATION 

Study 58, 59 [omitting (a), (6)], 62,63 [omitting (a)-(d)], the first 
sentence of 75, and the first sentence of 77 (a). 

EXERCISE 9 

1. Identify and translate: parlo, parlerete, parli, parlaste, parlate, 
parliamo, parlerei, parlerai, parlino, parlera, parlai, parlavano. 

2. Translate into Italian: I spoke, she would speak, we were 
speaking, I shall speak, they spoke, speak, let us speak, let hiro 
speak, speaking, they speak, we should speak, he spoke. 

VOCABULARY 

baule, m., trunk. paniere, m., basket. 

esame, m., examination. poeta, m., poet. 
forestiSre, m., foreigner. 

guanto, glove. chiave, f., key. 

momento, moment. galleria, gallery. 

palazzo, palace. stazi6ne, f., station. 

pane, m., bread. universita, university. 



108 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

amare, to love. guardare, to look, look at, watch. 

aspettare, to wait, wait for. lavorare, to work. 

cantare, to sing. passare, to pass. 

comprare, to buy. telefonare, to telephone. 

costare, to cost. tornare, to come back, return. 

desiderare, to desire. trovare, to find. 

entrare, to enter, go in, come In. visitare, to visit. 

3. Translate: compriamo, costerebbe, entrava, tornera, deside- 
rate, trovaste, entreranno, amerebbero, torni, trovato, trovati, 
comprammo, guarda, guardai, amarono, trovando, telefono, 
lavorereste, aspettano, cantino. 

4. Translate into Italian: it will cost, I waited, buying, they 
would watch, she came in, they returned, I should telephone, 
he loved, sing, we found, let him work. 

5. Study these sentences: i. Comprero un baule, se non costa 
troppo. 2. Quando ci entrammo, guarda vano quel bel quadro 
degli alberi. 3. Quanto costano questi guanti? 4. Se non 
lavorasse, non passerebbe gli esami. 5. Parlava delle poesie di 
quel poeta francese. 6. Lunedi visitammo V universita di Napoli. 
7. Che cosa cantavano quei ragazzi nella via? 8. Aspetti un 
momento: non sono pronto. 9. Non entrd nel palazzo, benche 
avesse le chiavi. 10. Chi piu ha, piu desidera. 

6. Translate into Italian: i. Look at 1 that girl with the basket 
full of roses. 2. They were waiting for 'that foreigner. 3. You 
will find some 2 interesting pictures in that gallery. 4. Did you 
telephone to that French gentleman? 5. With whom did you 
come back from the station? 6. I went in, although he was 
working. 7. Let's wait for 1 John: he will be here soon. 8. Let 
him buy the bread, and then come back. 9. Where did she find 
those keys? 10. If I find the money, I'll telephone. 

1 Do not use a preposition after an Italian verb which may be in 
itself equivalent to an English verb and preposition. 

2 Use qudlche. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 109 

LESSON 10. RELATIVES AND POSSESSIVES 

Study 44 [omitting (a), (b), (c)], 45 [omitting (a)-(e)], 59 (a). Read 
44 (a), (6), (c) 59 (6), 63 (a), (6), (c). 

EXERCISE 10 

1. Insert the proper relative pronoun in each of these phrases: il 
ragazzo e qui, i libri trovai, i ragazzi con tornai, il libro 
di parlo, i libri sono sulla tavola, il ragazzo cercavamo. 

2. Translate into Italian: my garden, his house, our books, your 
pencils, their garden, my house, her books, our pencils, your 
garden, their house, my books, his pencils, our garden, your 
house, their books. 

VOCABULARY 

cugino, cousin. arrivare, to arrive. 

mercato, market. bisognare, 1 to be necessary. 

ombrello, umbrella. cercare, to seek, search, look for, try. 

pittore, m., painter. cominciare, to begin. 

romanzo, novel. mangiare, to eat. 

menare, to lead, take. 

finestra, window. pagare, to pay. 

fotografia, photograph. portare, to carry, bring. 

mela, apple. studiare, to study. 

pera, pear. 

testa, head. . bene, well. 

ecco, here is, here are, there is, 
giallo, yellow. there are. 2 

moderno, modern. perche, why, because. 

tutto, all. stamane, this morning. 

ultimo, last, latest. subito, at once. 

1 Impersonal. 

2 When 'there is,' 'there are,' are quite unemphatic (as in 'There 
are some pretty flowers in the garden'), or when the 'is' or 'are' is 
emphatic (as in 'There are men who don't believe it'), they are t* 
be translated by c' e or ci sono. When the ' there ' is emphatic (as 
in ' There is John') they are to be translated by ecco. ' Here is,' 
' here are,' are always to be translated by ecco. C' e and ci sono 
correspond to the French il y a; ecco to the French voici and voila. 



110 ITALIAN GEAMMAR 

3. Give all the forms of pagare in which an h is inserted. 

4. Translate into Italian: I search, we search, let him search, I 
shall search; I pay, we pay, let him pay, I shall pay; I begin, we 
begin, let him begin, I shall begin; I eat, we eat, let him eat, I 
shall eat; I study, we study, let him study, I shall study. 

5. Study these sentences: i. un uomo che trova subito quel che 
cerca. 2. C' erano all' ultima fmestra due signori, uno dei quali 
era quel forestiere con cui parlai ieri. 3. II palazzo che visitammo 
stamane e uno dei piu interessanti della citta. 4. La loro sorella 
portava sulla testa un gran paniere giallo pieno di mele e di pere. 
5. Mangeremo quel che troveremo, e pagheremo bene. 6. II quadro 
che guardavano nel salotto e di uno dei nostri migliori pittori italiani 
moderni. 7. Ecco quel signore. Perche desidera parlare ai vostri 
fratelli? 8. Che bei fiori! Sono tutti del vostro giardino? 9. La 
via piu stretta e quella che mena dalla chiesa di San Giovanni aJ 
mercato. 10. Bisognava aspettare Maria, che cercava 1' ombrello. 

6. Translate into Italian: i. Who is the tall gentleman who arrived 
this morning? 2. Which of the lessons that you studied yesterday 
is the easiest? 3. This novel is more interesting than the one that 
he brought from the city. 4. My glasses are larger and rounder 
than his. 5. What are you looking for? Those tickets that I 
bought this morning. 6. Here is the umbrella I found at the door 
the day that you were here. Is it yours? 7. Whose is that poem 
of which they were speaking? 8. There are the men they were 
waiting for: why don't they begin? 9. Which of those three 
trunks is yours? This one, the largest. 10. Here is what he 
brought, what is it? It's the latest photograph of my 
cousin. 

LESSON 11. THE SECOND AND THIRD CONJUGATIONS 

Study 60. 

EXERCISE 11 

1. Identify and translate: crede, crederete, creda, credero, credeste, 
credete, credetti, crediamo, crederei, credettero, crederai, credei, 
credera, credevano, crederemo. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 111 

2. Translate into Italian: I believed, she would believe, we were 
believing, believe, they believed, let us believe, let him believe, be- 
lieving, they believe, we should believe, he believed, you believe. 

VOCABULARY 

bottone, m., button. godere, to enjoy. 

caffe, m., co/ee. temere, to fear, be afraid. 

ferro, iron. 

lume, m., light. battere, to beat, strike. 

onore, m., honor. cedere, to yield. 

servitdre, m., servant. combattere, to fight. 

credere, to believe, think. 

battaglia, battle. perdere, to lose. 

c6sa, thing. premere, to press. 

frase, f., sentence. ricevere, to receive, get. 

preghiera, prayer, entreaty. ripetere, to repeat. 
salute, f., health. 

t6rre, f., tower. ancora, yet, still, again, even. 

villa, villa. che, conjunction, that. 

vista, sight, view. fuorche, except. 

vita, life. meglio, better. 

volta, time. 1 mentre, while. 

1 ' Time ' is ordinarily to be translated by tempo; but when it has 
the sense of ' occasion ' (as in ' three or four times ') it is to be trans- 
lated by volta. 

3. Translate: battiamo, temeva, perdera, godete, ricevei, cedet- 
tero, combatte, premendo, ripeta, cederebbe, riceveste, goderanno, 
perderebbero, temano, perduto, perduti, tememmo, combatte, 
perderono, ricevono. 

4. Translate into Italian: he will lose, I enjoyed, feamig, they 
would beat, she received, let them yield, they fought, repeat, 
they are pressing. 

5. Study these sentences: i. Oggi e felice: ricevera il denaro per quel 
quadro della signora coi guanti. 2. Benche combattessero bene, per- 
dettero la battaglia, e molti perdettero la vita. 3. Avremo quel che 
bisogna, non temete. 4. Non ho ricevuto ancora le mie fotografie. 



112 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

5. Ripetevano ancora quel che avevano gia ripetuto molte volte. 6. 
Nonhostudiatolalezione: ieri perdei i miei libri. 7. Se non tornasse, 
perderebbe ogni cosa. 8. Credeva che fosse meglio essere temuto 
che amato. 9. Tutto e perduto fuorche 1' onore. 10. Bisogna 
battere il ferro mentre e caldo. 

6. Translate into Italian: i . She pressed a button, and the servant 
came in with the coffee. 2. The students had to (a) repeat the sentence 
three or four times. 3. The trees were losing the last red and yellow 
leaves. 4. If I receive the money, I'll telephone at once to my 
father. 5. Finally she came back and repeated that dria from the 
Trovatore (m.). 6. Although she is still young, she does not enjoy 
good health. 7. That room has only one small window, but it gets 
light from the parlor. 8. From their villa they enjoy a beautiful 
view of the towers of the city. 9. If he doesn't yield to their 
entreaties, he won't yield to mine. 10. They think that he is 1 
even poorer than his cousin. 

1 Use the subjunctive. 



LESSON 12. CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS 

Study 46, 47 [omitting 3 and (a)], 48 {omitting (a), (6), (d), (e), 
and (/), but including (c)] . 

EXERCISE 12 

1. Translate into Italian: he finds me, he finds thee, he finds him, 
he finds her, he finds it (m.), he finds it (/.), he finds us, he finds you, 
he finds them (m.), he finds them (/.) ; I find myself, thou findest thy- 
self, he finds himself, she finds herself, we find ourselves, you find 
yourself, you find yourselves, they (m.) find themselves, they (/.) 
find themselves; we find each other, you find each other, they find 
each other; to find him, finding him, let us find him, find him, do not 
find him, finding himself. 

2. Translate into Italian: he speaks to me, he speaks to thee, he 
speaks to him, he speaks to her, he speaks to us, he speaks to you, he 
speaks to them (w.), he speaks to them (/.); I speak to myself, thou 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 113 

speakest to thyself, he speaks to himself, she speaks to herself, we 
speak to ourselves, you speak to yourself, you speak to yourselves, 
they (m.) speak to themselves, they (/.) speak to themselves; we 
speak to each other, you speak to each other, they speak to each 
other; to speak to him, speaking to him, let us speak to him, let's not 
speak to him, speak to him, speaking to himself. 

3. Translate: lo trovai, le parlano, mi parlerebbe, ripetetelo, vi 
aspettavano, li compraste?, cediamo loro, la guardavano?, gli tele- 
fonero, si trovo, lo perdemmo, cercatela, le riceverono, lo perdette, 
trovarvi, ci visiteranno, ci visiteremo, temendoli, non le parlate, 
ci ceda, vi telefono, studiamolo, si cercano, compratolo, li 
portate. 

4. Study these sentences: i. Se non mi trovate qui, aspettatemi coi 
biglietti alia porta della stazione. 2. Che cosa cerca? Le chiavi di 
quel baule. Le trovo ieri, poi le perdette ancora. 3. Si ripetevano 
le frasi della lezione. 4. Che ragazzo! Comprare cinque mele, e 
mangiarle subito! 5. Quanto gli costerebbe un cappello come quello? 
6. Parlava come se ci fosse stato. 7. Quando ricevero il denaro, vi 
paghero. 8. Di che cosa le parlava nel salotto? 9. Dove ci mena? 
Alia chiesa di cui vi parlo quel pittore. 10. Ecco quell' ombrello: 
temeva che lo avesse perduto. 

5. Translate into Italian: i. When he came back from the 
market, he brought me some 1 apples. 2. When will she begin to 
(a) sing to them? 3. If you study the lesson, you will find it 
easy. 4. If he had them, he would bring them to my father. 
5. When they came in, he was beginning to (a) eat it. 6. Here 
are the books I lost yesterday. Who found them? 7. We were 
here this morning, but she did not receive us. 8. I waited for 
them three days in Naples. 9. Now that you have it again, 
don't lose it. 10. Whose photograph is this? It's of my cousin. 
I received it yesterday. 9 

1 Use the partitive construction. 



114 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

LESSON 13. CONJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS (continued) 

Study 46-50 inclusive. 

EXERCISE 13 

1. Translate each of these phrases in two ways: glielo porto, gliela 
porto, glieli porto, gliele porto, gliene parlo, portateglielo, 
parlategliene. 

2. Translate into Italian: he leads him to me, he leads him to thee, 
he leads him to him, he leads him to her, he leads him to us, he leads 
him to you, he leads him to them; he leads her to me, he leads her to 
thee, he leads her to him, he leads her to her, he leads her to us, he 
leads her to you, he leads her to them; he leads them (w.) to me, 
he leads them to thee, he leads them to him, he leads them to 
her, he leads them to us, he leads them to you, he leads them to 
them; he leads them (/.) to me, he leads them to thee, he leads them 
to him, he leads them to her, he leads them to us, he leads them 
to you, he leads them to them. 

3. Translate into Italian: he speaks of it to me, he speaks of it to 
thee, he speaks of it to him, he speaks of it to her, he speaks of it to 
us, he speaks of it to you, he speaks of it to them. 

4. Translate into Italian: I repeat it to myself, thou repeatest 
it to thyself, he repeats it to himself, she repeats it to herself, we 
repeat it to ourselves, you repeat it to yourself, you repeat it to 
yourselves, they repeat it to themselves; we repeat it to each other, 
you repeat it to each other, they repeat it to each other. 

VOCABULARY 

automobile, m., automobile. ndtte, f., night. 

complimento, compliment. occasione, f., occasion. 

ritardo, delay; in ritardo, late. 6ra, hour. 
treno, train. 

altro, other. 

cortesia, courtesy. stesso, same. 

lira, lira, coin worth about 20 cents. venti, twenty. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 115 

chiamSre, to call; cdme si chiama? mostrare, to show. 

what is the name of? presentare, to present. 

domandare, to ask. 1 prestare, to lend. 

incontrare, to meet. raccontare, to narrate, tell, tell 
insegnire, to teach. about. 1 

lasciare, to leave, let? ringraziare, to thank. 

nandare, to send. spiegare, to explain. 

1 The personal object of domandare or raccontare is indirect: gli 
domanddi, 'I asked him'; le raccontdi, 'l told her.' 

2 Lascidre is to be used in translating ' let ' only when the idea is 
one of permission rather than one of command. For example, if 
'let him speak' really means 'I command that he speak,' it is to be 
translated pdrli; if it really means ' allow him to speak,' it is to 
be translated lascidtelo parldre. 

6. Translate: vi aspetto, ne cercava, ce lo cantarono, ne parlaste, 
non ne avrebbe, eccoli, portandoglielo, ripeteteglielo, gliene parlero, 
bisogna portarglielo, eccola, ce li cedette, portiamogliene, me le 
mando?, glielo prestai, ve lo spiegheranno, mandatemeli, glielo 
prestino, mi si presenta, gli si presentano, se lo presentano, lo 
mostrai loro, ve ne mandarono?, me lo spieghi, glielo presterete? 

6. Study these sentences: i. Quell' ombrello era il suo, e stamane 
glielo mandai. 2. Se non credesse quel che gli raccontammo, non 
glielo ripeterebbe. 3. Cominciava a domandargli perche ne avesse 
parlato agli altri. 4. Ve lo spieghera quando gli si presentera una 
buona occasione. 5. Lo ringraziai della cortesia, e gli raccontai 
tutto. 6. Ogni volta che s' incontrano, si ripetono gli stessi compli- 
menti. 7. Come si chiama quel giovane che v' insegna il francese? 
8. II treno era in ritardo, e 1' aspettarono un' ora e piu. 9. Ora 
lasciateli studiare; parleremo dopo. 10. Ho a pagare subito, e non 
ho una lira: Giovanni ha ricevuto oggi venti lire, non e vero? 1 Me 
ne presterebbe dieci? 

1 non e vero ? ' hasn't he ? ' 

7. Translate into Italian: i. He is in the garden. Call him 
they are looking for him. 2. He presented himself to me yesterday. 
I believe him even younger than the others. 3. Where are my 
pencils? didn't I leave them on the desk? 4. If he loses it, it will 



116 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

cost him twenty lire. 5. It is necessary to x watch them day and 
night. 6. He has a French automobile, and he'll show it to us 
Monday. 7. Whose tickets are those? Are they your cousin's? 
Why don't you send them to him? 8. If I didn't believe what she 
told me, I wouldn't repeat it to you. 9. If he receives that money, 
he will pay me at once. 10. If she finds this lesson too difficult, he 
will explain it to her tomorrow. 

1 No preposition is used between bisogndre and a dependent infinitive. 

LESSON 14. THE FOURTH CONJUGATION 

Study 61. 

EXERCISE 14 

1. Identify and translate: fini, finirete, finiscono, finiro, finfste, 
finivano, finii, finiranno, finirei, finisci, finirono, finirai, finite, finiremo, 
finisca, finivo. 

2. Translate into Italian: I finished, she would finish, we were 
finishing, he is finishing, finish, they finished, let us finish, finishing, 
they finish, we should finish, he finished, you finish, let him finish. 

VOCABULARY 

autunno, autumn. applaudire, to applaud. 

colore, m., color. awertire, to warn. 

pericolo, danger. capire, to understand. 

^spedale, m., hospital. divertire, to amuse. 

vento, wind. dormire, to sleep. 

vestito, dress. ferire, to wound. 

fuggire, to flee. 

cura, care. garantire, to guarantee. 

stdffa, stuff, goods. partire, to depart, leave* 

preferire, to prefer. 

cattivo, bad. restituire, to give back. 

chiaro, clear, bright. sentire, to feel, hear. 

tanto, so much. 1 servire, to serve. 

1 ' So much ' is to be translated by tdnto; not by the separate words 
for 'so' and 'much.' 

2 When 'leave' is transitive, it is to be translated by lascidre; when 
intransitive, by partire. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 117 

almeno, at least. senza, without. 

invece, instead. stanotte, last night. 

nondimeno, nevertheless. stasera, this evening. 

prima di, before. subito che, as soon as. 1 

1 'As soon as' is to be translated by subito che; not by the sepa- 
rate words for 'as' and 'soon.' 

3. Give the present indicative of each of these verbs: capire, divertire, 
dormire, fuggire, garantire, preferire. 

4. Translate: dormiamo, capirebbe, serviva, awertira, applau- 
dite, garantiscano, diverte, fuggirono, ferisce, servendo, preferimmo, 
fuggii, avvertito, ferite, preferirebbero, divertono, sentiste, servi- 
ranno, senta, capiscono. 

5. Translate into Italian: he will amuse, I was sleeping, fleeing, 
they prefer, we understood, she served, they will applaud, you fled, 
I should guarantee, sleep. 

6. Study these sentences: i. Subito che me ne parlo, capii che 
1' aveva perduto. 2. Se ci serve bene, le pagheremo vend lire la set- 
timana. 3. Glielo restituiranno subito che torna. 4. L' avvertii 
che c' era pericolo, ma parti nondimeno. 5. Se si divertono ora 
invece di lavorare, domani avranno a lavorare invece di divertirsi. 
6. Aveva cantato molto bene, e tutti T applaudivano. 7. Che vento 
stanotte! Lo sentiste? 'Si, non dormii un' ora in tutta la notte. 
8. II ferito fu portato allo spedale. 9. Partirono senza ringraziarci, 
benche avessimo cercato tanto di divertirli. 10. II mese comincio 
con una settimana di bel tempo giorni chiari e caldi ma fini 
con died giorni freddi e scuri. 

7. Translate into Italian: i. If he doesn't guarantee it for a year 
at least, we won't buy it. 2. Although he heard them speak, he 
fled like the wind. 3. I explained it to him with much care, 
but he doesn't understand it yet. 4. If he is still sleeping, he 
won't finish that lesson. 5. The trees are losing the last leaves: the 
autumn is ending, and the winter is beginning. 6. Did you hear 
what he told them?, 7. This room is warm, but in the parlor we 
felt the cold. 8. We shall leave this evening if the weather isn't 



118 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

too bad. 9. What goods and what color does she prefer for the 
dress? 10. When will you finish that work? I shall not have the 
time to (di) finish it before Monday. 



LESSON 16. DISJUNCTIVE PRONOUNS 
Study 51. 

EXERCISE 16 

1. Translate into Italian, expressing the subject pronouns (use 
lui, lei, and loro for the third person) : I am, thou hast, he speaks, 
she fears, we finish, you feel, they are, I had, thou didst enter, he 
yielded, she understood, we slept, you were, they had, I shall pay r 
thou wilt receive, he will guarantee, she will depart, we shall be, 
you will have, they will enter. 

VOCABULARY 

awocato, lawyer. accanto a, beside. 

bicchiere, m., glass. contro, contro di, 1 against. 

f acchino, porter. davanti a, in front of. 

latte, m., milk. dietro, dietro a, 1 behind. 

mezzogiorno, noon. secondo, according to. 

aria, air. avanti, forward; come in? 

lettera, letter. cosi, so. 

liberta, liberty, freedom. eh, eh. 

moglie, f., wife. mai, ever, never; non . . . mai, 3 

seggiola, chair. never. 

valigia, valise, bag. nemmeno, non ... nemmeno, 3 

not even. 

aiutare, to help. perfettamente, perfectly. 

restare, to stay. prima, first. 

1 The compound form is used before a disjunctive pronoun, the 
simple form in other cases. 

2 As an exclamation. 

* When mdi (meaning ' never ') or nemmeno follows the verb, non is 
placed before the verb. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 

2. Study these sentences: i. Portate a questo signore un caffe, e a 
me un bicchiere di latte. 2. Se loro ce P hanno raccontato a noi, 
perche non glielo racconteremmo noi a lui? 3. Felici voi, che godete 
quell' aria e quella liberta, mentre io resto qui in citta a lavorare 
come un facchino! 4. Chi e? Sono io. Chi, io? lo, Giovanni. 
Siete voi, eh? avanti. 5. Se non glielo spiega bene, gli e che non lo 
capisce bene nemmeno lui. 6. A quel teatro me non mi ci troverete 
mai piu. 7. Porta sempre con se una valigia tutta piena di libri, ma 
poi non ne guarda nemmeno uno. 8. Lui le parlava contro di me 
e io avevo lavorato tanto per lui! 9. Quando entrai, lei era qui; 
accanto a lei, Giovanni, che ie parlava di se stesso, come sempre; e 
davanti a lui, in questa seggiola, la piccola sorella di lei, che guardava 
ora P uno ora P altra. io. Quando lo perdei, loro mi aiutarono a 
cercarlo. 

3. Translate into Italian: i. They spoke of it to us, to you, and to 
him. 2. If it's he, call him, and show him that letter. 3. I myself 
telephoned to you, and asked you if he would arrive there before 
noon. 4. / think that you will receive it tomorrow. 5. If you were 
here with them, they would be perfectly happy. 6. If he stays, 
they will leave. 7. He was speaking to us, but we thought that he 
was speaking to them. 8. He and his cousin left before us, but we 
arrived there an hour before them. 9. According to him, she was 
staying at home because the weather was so bad. io. The lawyer's 
wife came in first; then, behind her, the two girls; behind 
them, three porters with the trunks; and finally the lawyer himself. 

LESSON 16. COMPOUND TENSES 

Study the compound tenses in 53 (a) and 53 (b), 54 [omitting (c)-(h)] 
65, 56, and the second sentence in 75. 

EXERCISE 16 

1. Identify and translate: ho trovato, aveva trovato, ebbe trovato, f 
avremo trovato, avreste trovato; sono trovato, era trovato, fu tro- 
vato, saremo trovati, sarebbero trovati; sono stato trovato, era stato 
trovato, saremo stati trovati, sareste stato trovato; sono tomato, era 



120 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

tomato, fu tomato, saremo tornati, sareste tornati; mi sono divertito, 
si era divertito, ci saremo divertiti, si sarebbero divertiti. 

2. Translate each of these phrases in six ways (as true reflexive, mas- 
culine and feminine; as substitute for the passive, masculine, feminine, 
and neuter; and as indefinite] : si presenta, si trova, si servi, si perdera. 

3. Translate each of these phrases in three ways: (as true reflexive, 
as reciprocal, and as substitute for the passive) : si capiscono, si chia- 
mano, si trovarono. 

4. Translate: F hanno avuto, c' era stato, F avro cominciato, mi 
avrebbe telefonato, siete ferito, vi siete ferito, vi furono trovati, gli 
saranno restituiti, gli si restituiranno, saremmo presentati loro, gli 
e spiegato, gli si spiega, gli e stato spiegato, gli si e spiegato, ci siamo 
spiegati, ce lo siamo spiegati, si erano incontrati, siamo arrivati, vi 
fu mostrato, gli si presentera, le era stato raccontato, le si era rac- 
contato, si e presentata, si sono presentate, li avrebbe aspettati, 
ci ha capito, ci avevano ringraziati, si era perduto, erano fuggiti, 
si e ferito, vi sono arrivati, ci erano stati mandati, ci si erano man- 
dati, vi aveva aiutato, essendo temuto, ci si spiega, glielo avevano 
raccontato, vi avremmo ringraziato. 

6. Translate into Italian: we have found you, we have been there, 
they had had it, he will have eaten it, we should have sent it to 
you, he had 1 arrived, they are received, 2 they would have presented 
themselves to us, you would have found each other, they had 1 
come in, he had left them, they would have l fled, it has been told 
to me. 2 

1 Translate by the proper form of tssere. 

2 Translate this phrase in two ways. 

6. Study these sentences: i. Sono certo che se ci fosse stato cogli 
altri, ce ne avrebbe parlato. 2. Perche non ha cominciato a cercare 
quel che perdette? 3. Quando loro saranno tornati, noi saremo gia 
partiti. 4. Non li avra finiti prima di domani. 5. Non ha mai 
visitato quel giardino? Gliene abbiamo parlato tante volte. 6. Le 
seggiole che mi si mostravano erano molto belle, e le avrei corn- 
prate se avessi avuto il denaro. 7. Mi si era raccontato che lui ci 
fosse stato, ma non F avevo creduto. 8. Se hanno ricevuto la sua 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 121 

lttera, saranno gia partiti per la citta. 9. Lui aveva temuto che 
cedessero alle nostre preghiere. 10. Si mangia a mezzogiorno, e 
un' ora dopo si torna al lavoro. 

7. Translate into Italian: i. If he had had any, he would have sent 
us some. 2. Being called, I entered, and found myself where I had 
been the day before. 3. That bag that he had lost has been given 
back to him. 4 . Let him explain to her why they hadn't telephoned 
to her. 5. I would have sent it to you if I had found it. 6. As soon 
as he had called them, he came back into the house. 7. When I 
arrived, they had l already left. 8. If they had begun them, they 
would have finished two or three of them. 9. He told me that he 
had * arrived there before the others. 10. I should have preferred 
a room with at least two windows. 

1 Translate by the proper form of essere. 

LESSON 17. REVIEW 

EXERCISE 17 

1. Pronounce Exercise A on p. 150. 

2. Give the plural of each of these combinations: all' awocato 
gentile, che bel salotto!, col loro fratello, dalla sua bella mano, 
dell' uomo felice, il gran baule, il mio cugino, il poeta francese, il 
suo belP ombrello, la citta moderna, la giovane moglie, 1' altra fi- 
nestra, lo stesso ragazzo, nelF universita nuova, quale stanza?, quel 
buon padre, quello studente italia.no, quel piccolo cafle, quel ser- 
vitore fedele, questa lezione difficile, sulla torre alta. 

3. Translate: se lui ci aiutasse, erano stati amati, aspettandole, 
1* avevamo, ne avrai, li hanno battuti, si capisce, lo cedemmo loro, 
lo comprano, si erano divertiti, ci entrarono, se loro non ci fossero, 
s' incontrarono, glielo mandai, lui lo mangera, ve ne avevo parlato, 
chi li perdette?, che cosa preferirebbe lei?, se lo premesse, ci sarei 
restato, le telefonavo, lasciatolo, benche ci capisca, ve lo restituira, 
non 1' hanno ricevuta, ripeteteglielo, vi sareste, glielo restituii, non 
gli cedano, siete chiamato, se lo spiegheranno, sono stati ricevuti, gli 
si e restituito, le sara spiegato, si e perduto, ve lo manderanno, 






122 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

glieli avrebbero mostrati, se vi avessero sentito, la servano, benche 
lo temano, lui li avverti, non gliene parlate, ce lo spiegarono, gli si 
erano presentati. 

4. Translate into Italian: there they are, we shall be there, if 
they should buy it, they would carry it to him, he will applaud 
them, I feared it, are they fighting there?, they are not fleeing, we 
should have gone in, they would have had it, did he have any?, 
although they had lost it, will they .pay me?, I should prefer it, 
what has he received?, wait for us. 

5. Study these proverbs: 1 i. A ogni uccello suo nido e bello. 2. 
Buona compagnia, mezza la via. 3. Chi cerca, trova. 4. Chi 
dorme non piglia pesci. 5. Chi ha fiorini trova cugini. 6. Chi non 
lavora non mangia. 7. Chi s' aiuta, il del 1' aiuta. 8. Chi tardi 
arriva, male alloggia. 9. Gli assenti han sempre torto. 10. II buon 
vino non ha bisogno di frasca. n. II passo piu duro e quello del- 
T uscio. 12. La fame non ha legge. 13. La fine corona 1' opera. 
14. La notte porta consiglio. 15. L' aurora indora. 16. L' eta porta 
senno. 17. Meglio tardi che mai. 18. Non v' e rosa senza spine. 
19. Oggi a me, domani a te. 20. Scopa nuova scopa bene. 

1 Many of the sentences from this point on contain words not given 
in the preceding vocabularies. See the statements on pp. 155 and 171. 

6. Translate into Italian: i. Whose ideas are those? They are 
not yours, I hope. 2. If you hadn't told it to me yourself, I shouldn't 
have believed it. 3. If you haven't the money, I'll lend it to you 
with pleasure. 4. I was afraid that you were l wrong, but according 
to my cousin's letter you are right. 5. How many times has he 
repeated it to you? 6. Whom are they calling? I thought that they 
were 1 all here. 7. He was studying there at the desk, and didn't 
even look at them when they came in. 8. Although there are not so 
many churches here, they are more interesting than those we visited 
yesterday, g. Why didn't he let us go in? Probably because it 
was too early. 10. Who was it that telephoned to you? That 
gentleman to whom I telephoned this morning. He is going back 
tomorrow to Venice. 

1 Use the subjunctive. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 123 

LESSON 18. THE MODERN POLITE FORM OF DIRECT 
ADDRESS 

Study 52. 

EXERCISE 18 

1. Translate in two ways (as third person feminine, and as used in 
direct address} : lei e qui, con lei, la chiamavano, chiamo lei, le par- 
lerd, e certa, e restata, lei cantava, dopo di lei, la ringrazio, guar- 
davano lei, le telefonerei, sara fortunata, si e divertita. 

2. Translate in three ways (as third person masculine, as third 
person feminine, and as used in direct address) : era la, 1' aiutero, 
glielo mandai, si trova, se lo ripete, parli, mi parli, e gentile, il suo 
libro, studiava, 1' incontrai, gliene ha parlato, si diverte, ceda, si 
spieghi, era giovane, i suoi occhiali. 

3. Translate in two ways (as third person, and as used in direct 
address): sono qui, loro erano pronti, contro di loro, li chiamava, 
le incontrai, ricevero loro, parlero loro, si trovano, se lo ripetono, 
parlino, mi parlino, sono certi, erano entrate, il loro treno. 

4. Replace these phrases by the corresponding phrases in modern 
polite usage, supposing one person to be addressed: sarete qui, voi ci 
capite, secondo voi, vi trovero, cercavo voi, vi applaudivano, ve lo 
presto, vi siete ferito, ve lo ripeteste, guardate, sentitemi, il vostro 
ombrello. 

5. Replace the phrases in section 4 by the corresponding phrases 
in modern polite usage, supposing two men to be addressed. 

NOTE. In the remainder of this exercise, and in all the following 
exercises, use only the modern polite form of direct address, and sup- 
pose the English ' you ' to be singular, unless there is some indication 
that it refers to more than one person. 

6. Translate into Italian: you are working, you will sing, for you, 
I'm waiting for you, I will serve you, he will telephone to you, I wa? 
speaking to you, did he send it to you?, you were explaining yourself, 
did you repeat it to yourself?, stay, thank him, you are happy, you 
have returned, your brother. 



124 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

7. Translate the first five sentences in Ex. 14, section 6, and the 
first five in Ex. 16, section 6, supposing them to be used in direct 
address. 

8. Translate into Italian the first five sentences in Ex. 15, section 3, 
and the first five in Ex. 17, section 6, using the modern polite form of 
direct address. 



LESSON 19. ANDARE AND FARE 

Study 92 through 2 (Fare); also8(a), (6), (g), 64 (A), 56(6), 78 (d). 

EXERCISE 19 

1. Translate: ando, andrete, vanno, andaste, va', era andato, ci 
andrei, vada, andavano, sono andati, vi andai, andavo, sarebbe 
andata, vattene, si va. 

2. Translate into Italian: we went, you 1 go, they will go, you went 
there, he will go, he has gone there, they are going away, it goes, we 
should have gone, go, she went away, let them go. 

1 Remember the directions given in the NOTE on p. 123. 

3. Translate: faccia, faceste, fatto, facciamo, fecero, aveva fatto, 
faresti, fo, li fece, fara, lo facciano, si fa, e fatto, lo si fa, fateli entrare, 
la fa leggere, 1 le fa leggere la lettera, gliela fa leggere, me lo fece trovare. 

1 Translate this phrase in two ways. 

4. Translate into Italian: I did, he will do, they are making, doing, 
they would make, make, you made, we have made, let them make, 
they will do it, we made them, they are made, I'll have him sing, I'll 
have it sung, I'll have him sing it. 

6. Study these sentences: i . Mi faccia il favore di chiamarlo subito. 
2. Chi va piano va sano 1 e va lonta.no. 3. Facciamo una partita al 
biliardo? Oggi no, ho troppo da fare, io. 4. Se lo perde, glielo fa- 
ranno cercare. 5. I suoi affari andrebbero meglio se non amasse 
tanto il dolce far niente. 6. Quando lui torno da fare il soldato, lei 

1 sano, 'safely/ Predicate adjectives are often adverbial in force. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 125 

si era fatta sposa con un altro. 7. "Ah si?" fece lui, "lasci fare a 
me." 8. Fafreddo: perche non fanno un po' di fuoco qui? 9. Dopo 
faranno molte nuove conoscenze, che si chiameranno anche amicizie, 
ma le piu vere saranno sempre le amicizie fatte in giovinezza. 10. Se 
n' ando in America, e subito si fece ricco, ma poi perdette ogni cosa, 
e se ne torno povero povero 1 com' era andato. 

1 The repetition of a word serves to emphasize it. 

6. Translate into Italian: i. He goes to the city every day. 2. Go 
and see if they are here. 3. I had him make it so because the other 
one was made so. 4. If they had gone there yesterday, they would 
have found him there. 5. We had him carry it to the village. 6. 
If they do as he has done, they will do more honor to him than to 
themselves. 7. We make more of it than they, and ours is better 
than theirs. 8. He went away this morning, but he'll come back 
soon. 9. Let him go and find it and bring it to me here. 10. It's 
a pretty place: we go there every Sunday. 



LESSON 20. DARE AND STARE 
Study 92, 3 and 4; also 54 (c), (d). 

EXERCISE 20 

1. Translate: diede, darete, dia, danno, dette, darai, deste, diamo, 
diedero, dai, hanno dato, me lo davano, glielo darebbe?, ce lo dia, 
diamogliene, ve ne daranno, se ne da, 1' aveva dato loro, dammene, 
gli si e dato. 

2. Translate into Italian: I should give, I gave, you are giving, 
give, we have given, I was giving, they gave them to me, he gives 
himself to us, he gave them some, I had given it to her, will you give 
me some?, we should have given them to you. 

3. Translate: stareste, stavano, stette, stia, steste, stanno, stet- 
tero, starebbe, state, sta', stemmo, stai, stiano, stiamo, stara, sto 
lavorando, stava parlando, stava per dirmelo. 



126 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

4. Translate into Italian: he was standing, they would stand, I 
stood, let them stand, we stood, you are standing, stand, let us stand, 
he stood, they are calling, I was about to thank -you. 

5. Study these sentences: i. Cos' hai in quella mano? Dammelo 
subito. 2. Come sta? Benissimo, grazie, e Lei? 3. Stava per 
domandargli perche non se ne fosse andato. 4. Per il Natale gli 
si diedero dei libri italiani. 5. Chi da presto, e come se desse due 
volte. 6. Stia attento: non si faccia male. 7. Daranno il voto a chi 
meglio li paga. 8. Poveretta! Sta sempre li a cucire. 9. Prima faceva 
1' ingegnere, ma poi si diede allo studio della filosofia. 10. Tutti gli 
facevano degl' inchini profondi, e gli davano dell' illustrissimo. 

6. Translate into Italian: i. He gave you two of them, and I gave 
you three. 2. They have * come back, but they are standing outside. 
3. If it's his, give it to him. 4. They were explaining it to him when 
we came in. 5. Here you are at last: I was about to go and call you. 
6. How much would you have given him? Not a cent. 7. They are 
giving a dinner this evening for that English writer. 8. Yesterday 
he was a little better, but today he's worse. 9. I thank you, sir: your 
words have given me the courage to (di) continue. 10. Give them 
some z money, but don't let them come in. 

1 Translate by the proper form of Sssere. 

2 Use the partitive construction. 



LESSON 21. ARTICLES 
Study 10-16 inclusive, 45 (a)-(e) inclusive. 

EXERCISE 21 

1. Review Exercise 3, sections 2, 3, 4. 

2. Study these sentences: i. Nell' unita sta la forza. 2. Preferfsce 
1* Ariosto allo Spenser e Dante allo Shakespeare. 3. Andammo in 
Inghilterra colla madre, e quando noi tornammo lei ci resto con una 
sua cugina. 4. Era orfano, ma un stio zio gli faceva da padre. 5. 
Aveva i capelli neri e folti; neri anche gli occhi; nero 1' abito, neri 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 127 

i guanti. 6. II medico gli toccava il polso: la febbre montava. 7. 
Si e fatto molto male; avra a restare a casa una settimana almeno. 

8. Gli uomini piu grandi hanno quasi sempre le maniere semplici. 

9. ) un gran poeta; chi lo nega parla da sciocco. 10. Ha venduto 
la casa e ogni cosa, ed e partito per gli Stati Uniti d' America. 

3. Translate into Italian: i. Habits make us what we are. 2. We 
are still in France, but we hope to (di) go to Italy this summer. 
3. Mr. Rossi loves books, and spends almost all his time in 
his study; if he isn't well, it's his fault. 4. Poor Ghedini was a 
friend of mine. 5. Last year Queen Margherita travelled through 
France. 6. He took off his hat and made us a low bow. 7. Venice 
is perhaps the most beautiful of the cities of Italy. 8. If he is an 
Italian, let him be worthy of his fatherland. 9. He is still very 
young, but he talks like a man. 10. Give him your handkerchief 
quick; he has cut his hand. 



LESSON 22. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE SECOND 
CONJUGATION 

Read 64-67; study 92, 6-10. 

EXERCISE 22 

1. Translate: sapro, seppe, sai, sapremmo, sanno, sapevo, ca- 
dono, cadro, caddi, caduto, cadde, cadrebbe, dobbiamo, dovetti, 
devi, dovemmo, doverono, dovrete, sedei, siedono, sedendo, sedete, 
sedette, sedeva, veda, vide, vedrai, visto, vedano, videro; V avremo 
saputo, vi cadde, me lo deve, vi sedeva?, ce lo vedemmo, lo seppero, 
ci sarebbe caduto, glielo dobbiamo, ci sedetti, li vedra. 

2. Translate into Italian: we know, they knew, you had 
known, know, they fell, I was falling, we shall fall, you fell, he^ 
owes, we should owe, they owe, owing, he is sitting, they will sit, 
you were sitting, seated, we should see, let him see, I saw, let us 
see; did he know it?, they had fallen there, they owe it to her, 
they are sitting there, did they see us? 



128 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

3. Study these sentences: i. Stavano insieme alia fmestra a guardare 
la neve che cadeva lenta lenta. 2. Che buio! Non ci si vede 1 punto! 
3. II povero vecchio stava seduto al canto del camino. 4. Videro il 
loro bambino che giocava 2 colle pistole dello zio. 5. Non so se Lei 
sappia la triste notizia. 6. Si vedeva nelle sue maniere un non so 
che di nuovo e di strano. 7. Mi hanno dato tutto; non mi si deve 
piu nulla. 8. Coi pensieri che gli giravano per la testa non sapeva 
piu in che mondo si fosse. 9. II poco che si sa, si sappia bene. 10. 
Non dimenticate i caduti per la patria. 

1 Non ci si vtde, 'One can't see.' There are several verbs that may 
assume the idea of possibility in the present and past descriptive 
tenses. 

2 che giocdva, 'playing.' An Italian relative clause is often equiva- 
lent to an English participle. 

4. Translate into Italian: i. Let's see where they are going. 2. He 
was standing there talking with his brother, when a brick fell on his 
head. 3. Did you see them speak to him? Do 3'ou know their 
names? 4. They will not know what we are doing. 5. See: they 
have given me some l gloves like yours. 6. I hope that tomorrow you 
will all know the lesson. 7. If I see him I'll give him the ten lire I 
owe him. 8. He had him sit down beside the desk. 9. Were they 
not standing there when you saw them? 10. He owed him everything, 
yet he went away leaving him alone and sick. 

1 Use the partitive construction. 

LESSON 23. NOUNS 
Study 22, 23, 24, 25. 

EXERCISE 23 

1. Review Exercise 4, sections 2 and 3. 

2. Give the plural of each of these masculine nouns: ago, amico, 
bacio, bosco, braccio, cantico, collega, dito, duca, equivoco, figlio, 
fuoco, ginocchio, guaio, luogo, miglio, monaco, nemico, obbligo, 
occhio, paio, patriarca, studio, turco, uovo. 

3. Give the plural of each of these feminine nouns: biblioteca, coscia, 
fabbrica, faccia, frangia, fuga, giacca, lega, valanga, valigia. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 120 

4. Give the masculine and feminine plural of each of these adjectives: 
artistico, buio, carico, cieco, classico, doppio, fresco, grigio, largo, 
lungo, poco, proprio, simpatico, vago, vecchio. 

5. Study these sentences: i. La ricchezza dei contadini sta nelle 
braccia. 2. Tornarono tutti carichi di frutta e di confetti. 3. Si 
sent! tremare le ginocchia per la paura. 4. E i medici, non gli 
danno piu speranza? 5. In quei villaggi ci sono moltissimi ciechi. 

6. I suoi 1 lo credono un buon ragazzo; ma ha molti vizi e pochis- 
sime virtu. 7. Che c' e di nuovo? Gli operai hanno fatto sciopero. 

8. Ha studiato il tedesco due anni, ed ora lo parla assai bene. 

9. II suo aspetto aveva qualche cosa di misterioso, quasi di divino. 

10. Le loro facce e maniere hanno un non so che di semplice e di 
umano che fa vedere che la loro vita si fonda sul vero e non sul 
falso. 

1 / sudi, 'His family.' The masculine plural possessives are often 
used in this way. 

6. Translate into Italian: i. Yesterday morning they walked more 
than ten miles. 2. They hope that their old friends will arrive this 
evening. 3. We saw them with our own eyes. 4. The lakes are 
longer than they x are 1 broad. 5. He has finished his studies on 
the libraries of ancient times. 6. Give me two pairs of stockings. 

7. They are very agreeable young men. 8. Her eyes were black as 
night, and her cheeks were white as snow. 9. He has lost two fingers 
of his right hand. 10. The monarchs of Milan were called dukes; 
those of Venice, doges; those of Rome, popes; and those of Naples, 
kings. 

1 Omit these words in translating. 

LESSON 24. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE SECOND 

CONJUGATION (continued) 
Study 92, 11-17. 

EXERCISE 24 

1. Translate: giacciono, giacque, giacendo, piacerei, piace, piac- 
quero, taccia, taci, tacqui, suole, solito, solevano, dorra, dolse, 
rimasero, rimanga, rimarreste, tiene, terrete, tenne, tenuti, tengano, 



130 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

teniamo; gli place, 1 gli piaccio, le piacciono, vi piaceva?, piacque 
loro, gli duole, 1 vi rimangano, c' e rimasta, vi saranno rimasti, li 
teneva, teniamolo, 1' aveva tenuto. 

1 The personal object of piacSre or dolere is indirect. 

2. Translate into Italian: he was lying, it lay, they please, you 
will please, they were silent, we shall be silent, they were wont, it 
grieves, remain, they remain, thou boldest, they would hold; it 
pleases me, I like it, 1 they please me, I like them, it pleased him, 
he liked it, she liked it, we liked it, they liked it, they have 
remained there, they are held, we should have held them. 

1 When ' like ' has a noun or a pronoun as object, the sentence should 
be recast for translation into Italian by substituting 'please' for 'like/ 
and making the original object the subject and the original subject the 
object: 'I like it'= 'it pleases me.' 

3. Study these sentences: i . Gli piacerebbe molto se Lei glielo desse. 
2. Arrivarono lunedi, e ci rimarranno almeno fino a domenica. 3. 
Non credo che quel posto gli piaccia: l non c' e niente da fare. 4. leri 
m' entro una spina nel piede, e ancora mi duole. 5. Tengo per fermo 
che un tale dono non gli piacera. 6. Faceva un gran freddo; ma si 
teneva vivo il fuoco, e si stava al caminetto. 7. difficile piacergli, 
e liii non cerca mai di piacere a nessuno. 8. Ha tante buone qualita: 
peccato che non sappia tener la lingua. 9. Mi faccia il piacere di 
farmelo vedere. 10. La notte taceva: non un suono, non una voce; 
solo si sentiva, da lontano, il mormorio del fiume. 

1 piaccia, ' will please.' The present subjunctive often has a future 
tense- value. 

4. Translate into Italian: i. It fell and lay three days on the ground. 
2. He was sitting in the room where his brother lay sick. 3. Have you 
seen my new coat? how do you like it? 4. If they keep still, we shall 
not know where they have been. 5. I have been studying too much; 
my eyes are paining me. 6. If you don't like this one, I will give 
you another. 7. It would grieve him very much if they should go 1 
away now. 8. The village lies at the foot of the mountain, near the 
river. 9. Don't go now: stay to dinner, and then let's go to the 
theatre. 10. He kept us in doubt up to the last moment. 

1 'should go': use the past subjunctive. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 131 

LESSON 25. AUGMENTATTVES, DIMINUTIVES, AND 
NUMERALS 

Study 35-40 inclusive. 

EXERCISE 25 

1. Pronounce and translate: cinquantatre, settantasei, novantadue, 
centodiciassette, dugentoquarantotto, quattrocentottantuno, seicento- 
trentanove, novecentosessantasette, milletrecentoventidue, milleno- 
vecentoquindici, tremilaquarantacinque. 

2. Read in Italian: 31, 77, 243, 854, 1265, 1321, 1492, 1621, 1775, 
1915; Sisto IV, Innocenzo VIII, Alessandro VI, Pio III, Giulio II, 
Leone X, Adriano VI, Clemente VII, Pio IX, Leone XIII, Pio X, 
Benedetto XV. 

3. Translate: sono le tre, sono le cinque e died, sono le died e un 
quarto, sono le sei e mezzo, sono le nove meno vend, sono le otto 
meno un quarto, sono le due meno dodici. 

4. Translate into Italian: it's four o'dock, it's 6:12, it's half past 
eight, it's 25 minutes of nine, it's six minutes of five; April i, April 2, 
April 3, April 22. 

5. Translate in terms of American money: 1 died centesimi, cin- 
quanta centesimi, una lira e venti centesimi, trentun soldo, due 
lire e quaranta, cinque lire e mezzo, sette lire e cinquanta, 
venti lire, sessantadue lire e quarantacinque centesimi, mille lire. 

1 100 centesimi = i lira = 20 cents; 5 centesimi = i soldo. 

6. Translate in terms of Italian money: $.05, $.18, $.25, $.42, $1.00, 
$1.50, $6.38, $100.00. 

7. Study these sentences: i. La lettera fu datata "Roma, venerdi 
15 febbraio 1823." 2. Lo forni di una ventina di lire, troppe per chi 
le dava, troppo poche per chi le riceveva. 3. II costo totale sarebbe 
di lire cinquantasei e centesimi settantacinque. 4. Lui allora aveva 
ventiquattro anni, e lei soltanto diciotto. 5. Erano in tutto quindici 
biglietti da dieci lire. 6. Nel quarantotto combatte a Milano contro 
gli Austriaci. 7. Ha pubblicato or ora un volume sulla pittura del 



132 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

Trecento. 8. Vi ando nei primi giorni del 1612, e vi rimase fino a 
mezzo il 1614. 9. A che ora parte il treno? Alle quindici e mezzo, 
cioe alle tre e mezzo dopo mezzogiorno. 10. La raccolta piu impor- 
tante delle poesie italiane piu antiche e il codice vaticano 3793. 

8. Translate into Italian: i. They woke me at five o'clock. It was 
dark and cold, and it was snowing hard. 2. The sonnet consists 
of 14 lines, and each line of n syllables. 3. The i$th century 
and the i6th are the two centuries of the Renaissance in Italy. 
4. He made him repeat it five times. 5. The work of Manz6ni 
falls in the first half of the i9th century. 6. I gave him 30 lire, 
and he bought two pairs of shoes. 7. Seven months have 31 days, 
four 30, and one 28 or 29. 8. Would you do me the favor to 
(di) lend me ten lire or so until Monday? 9. From the tower 
one saw thousands l and thousands of persons crowded in the streets 
and the squares. 10. Victor Emmanuel II was the first king of 
the Third Italy. 

1 Use miglidio. 

LESSON 26. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE SECOND 
CONJUGATION (continued) 

Study 92, 18-22; also 79 (6) i. 

EXERCISE 26 

1. Translate: varro, valse, valgono, valemmo, valevano, valsero, 
vogliono, vuoi, vorra, volevo, vuole, vorrei, paiamo, parvi, pari, 
parremmo, parvero, parrete, potei, possono, potendo, potete, pote, 
pud, persuada, persuase, persuadevano, persuadiamo, persuaso, 
persuadi; lo varranno, T hanno voluto, ci era parso, non avreste 
potuto, persuadeteli, non lo valeva, vorranno farlo?, gli parve, 
non si puo, sono stati persuasi. 

2. Translate into Italian: it would be worth, we are worth, it 
was worth, you were worth, they wished, I was wishing, we shall 
wish, you wished, it seems, we should seem, they seem, seeming, 
he can, they will be able, you were able, they can, we should 
persuade, let him persuade, I persuaded, let us persuade; will it 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 133 

be worth it?, did they wish it?, it seemed to us, we have not been 
able, haven't they persuaded him? 

3. Study these sentences: i. Rimanga se pud, ma vada se ha da 
studiare. 2. Quanto crede che valgano quegli anelli? 3. difficile, 
lo so, ma cosa vuole? faccia tutto quello che potra. 4. Aveva fatto 
come pareva meglio a lui. 5. La chiesa sta piu in alto: ci vuole 
un' ora per arrivarci. 6h allora non vale la pena. 6. Chi non 
pud fare come vuole, faccia come puo. 7. Non si pud contentarlo: 
piu ne ha e piu ne vuole. 8. Due non basteranno: ce ne vogliono 
almeno quattro. 9. Se potesse farmi questo piacere Le sarei mille 
volte obbligato. 10. Volere e potere. 

4. Translate into Italian: i. We shall not be able to persuade 
him. 2. They seem large, but they cannot be good. 3. If you wish 
it, they will stay with you. 4. I should not have thought that they 
were worth 1 so much. 5. They owe me 20 lire, and they are not willing 
to pay me. 6. I wanted to give it to you, but I couldn't. 7. My 
head aches so much that I can't study. 8. He's going away tomor- 
row, although he wants 1 to stay here. 9. I should like to speak to 
you about it; could you stay ten minutes or so? 10. It takes a brave 
man to (a) do a thing like that. 

1 Use the subjunctive. 

LESSON 27. AUXILIARY VERBS 

Study 54, 57. 

EXERCISE 27 

1. Translate: devo parlare, dovevo parlare, dovei parlare, dovro 
parlare, dovrei parlare, ho dovuto parlare, avevo dovuto parlare, 
avro dovuto parlare, avrei dovuto parlare; posso parlare, potevo 
parlare, potei parlare, potro parlare, potrei parlare, ho potuto 
parlare, avevo potuto parlare, avro potuto parlare, avrei potuto 
parlare; voglio parlare, volevo parlare, volli parlare, vorro parlare, 
vorrei parlare, ho voluto parlare, avevo voluto parlare, avro voluto 
parlare, avrei voluto parlare; glielo avevano dovuto dare, non 
avremmo potuto persuaderlo, avreste voluto yederli?, non era 



134 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

potuto entrare, avrebbe dovuto finirlo, avevamo voluto comprarne; 
stiamo per andarcene, rimase tradito, va studiato cosi, lo fecero 
portare, bisognerebbe prestarglieli, hanno da cercarlo, non saprei 
spiegarlo, non potemmo a meno di non tacere. 

2. Translate into Italian: they are to speak, we must speak, 
you were to speak, he had to speak, we shall have to speak, I 
ought to speak, he would have to speak, they have been obliged 
to speak, he must have spoken, she had had to speak, we shall 
have had to speak, he ought to have spoken, they were not able 
to speak, he may have spoken, they could have spoken, I should 
not have been able to speak, I might have spoken, will they be 
willing to speak?, he had been willing to speak. 

3. Study these sentences: i. Avendo tanto da fare in citta, avreste 
dovuto partire col treno delle sette e mezzo. 2. Voile fare una visita a 
casa sua per vedere i suoi, che non aveva visti da tanto tempo. 

3. A quel tempo non si poteva vedere tutto cio che s' e veduto dopo. 

4. Lasciano la scuola con P odio per le cose di cui si sono dovuti occu- 
pare e per gli autori di cui hanno dovuto studiare le opere. 5. Non 
capisco come una cosa simile abbia potuto accadere. 6. Dopo aver 
fatto tutti gli sforzi possibili, si e dovuto capitolare. 7. Non 
sarebbe potuto arrivare a Firenze neanche la sera. 8. Ti 
chiamero presto perche dovrai andare alia stazione a piedi. 
9. Aveva sperato che nella casa paterna avrebbe potuto godere almeno 
un po' d' affetto. 10. Molto sa chi poco sa, se tacer sa. 

4. Study these sentences: i. If I saw him, I should have to speak 
to him. 2. You ought to know when you will be able to bring it to 
us. 3. He would have had to keep still: he didn't know their names. 
4. You must work if you want to please him. 5. They may find it, 
but I'm afraid that they have l left it in the city. 6. It grieves me, 
but I shall have to do it. 7. We ought to have kept still, but we 
couldn't help laughing. 8. He would like to know why they had to 
go away. 9. In what might I have the honor of serving you? 10. 
He always wanted to do what seemed best to him. 

1 Use the subjunctive. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 135 

LESSON 28. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE THIRD 
CONJUGATION 

Study 92 (e), (/), (g) (on p. 85), 24-73 [omitting verbs marked 
Rare, and forms in parentheses]. 

EXERCISE 28 

1. Inflect the present tenses of affliggere, conoscere, crescere, and 
leggere. 

2. Translate: accendendo, accese, afflitto, alludono, ardeva, ardera, 
risolvette, chiude, chiuderemo, conosciuto, conosca, conobbero, 
corriamo. correvano, corse, cresce, crescera, cuoce, decida, decisi, 
difeso, diresse, dirigero, discussero, distinti, divisero, esistito, esistono, 
esprimano, espresse, fitto, finga, fingiamo, frigge, fuso, invasero, 
leggano, lessero, mettiamo, misi. 

3. Translate into Italian: I light, he alluded, I will shut, he 
knew, run, grown, cooking, they decided, let us divide, it exists, he 
will express^ fried, they will invade, let him read, they put. 

4. Study these sentences: i. Gli espresse il suo rincrescimento per 
quel che si era fatto. 2. Gli si leggeva la gioia nel viso. 3. Ci 
mise davanti 1 un mucchio di carte. 4. Mi lasci parlare; non chiuda 
il cuore alia pieta. 5. Lo conobbi a Firenze T anno scorso. 6. II 
fondo del romanzo e storico, ma vi e mescolato il finto col vero. 7. 
Piu li conosce e piu gli cresce 1' amicizia per loro. 8. Le opinioni si 
divisero: alcuni applaudirono la sua azione, altri la biasimarono. 

9. Nel Cinquecento Francesi e Spagnuoli corsero tutta 1' Italia. 

10. Distinguiamo nel suo carattere quel che vi e di sincere 2 e quel 
che vi e di falso. 

1 Ci mise davanti, 'He put before us.' When the logical object of 
an Italian preposition is an unemphatic personal pronoun, the, use of 
a disjunctive pronoun is often avoided by putting a conjunctive 
pronoun before the verb and treating the preposition as an adverb. 

2 quel che vi e di sincero, 'its elements of sincerity.' 

5. Translate into Italian: i. It's the third time she has read that 
book. 2. Do you know my friend Mr. Ghedini? 3. He went to the 
door, shut it, and put the key in his pocket. 4. I lighted the other 



136 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

light and ran into the room. 5. Do you want fried eggs? 6. What 
is she cooking now? 7. Do me the favor to (di) shut the door. Have 
those windows been shut? 8. Where did you put my hat? I have 
to go now, and I can't find it. 9. To whom was he alluding when he 
spoke of his enemies? 10. The schools will be closed from June to 
September. 

LESSON 29. MOODS AND TENSES 
Study 69-76 inclusive. 

EXERCISE 29 

1. Study these sentences: i. II lasciar le mura della citta e il rivedere 
la casa paterna nel piccolo villaggio furono sensazioni piene di gioia. 
2. Vedendolo venire con quei libri in mano, n' era molto lieta, sperando 
che glieli avrebbe regalati. 3. Partirono poco dopo il levar del sole, 
e tornarono sul far della sera. 4. Non sapeva ne come fare ne dove 
andare. 5. A continuare cosi si corre il pericolo di perdere tutto cio 
che si e guadagnato. 6. Crede di aver trovato quel che cercava da 
tanto tempo. 7. Quando avrai gli anni che ho io, non sarai mica si 
pronto a giudicare gli altri. 8. Finita la lezione, tornarono a casa, 
e trovarono il cugino che li aspettava. 9. Non ci avrebbe nulla l da 
dare a un povero cieco? io. Torno pian piano alia casa; picchio; 
nessuno risponde; entro; e ci trovo cosa crede? n. Inutile 
illudersi; non c' e piu speranza. 12. L' esser simpatici non basta, no; 
bisogna essere utili a qualche cosa. 13. Rimarrai fino alle cinque, non 
e vero? Non mi dire di no. 14. Quando arrival a casa, mio padre 
non c' era. Mia madre si spavento, perche vedendomi cosi pallido 
mi credette malato. 15. Augurata la buona notte al padrone, se 
n' ando in fretta. 16. Lui gli vende T anima, e il diavolo gli promise 
che per un certo tempo gli avrebbe ubbidito come a suo signore. 17. 
Tornat^ che furono, domandarono subito da mangiare. 18. In quel 
vagone e proibito fumare. 19. Appena mi vide, la sua espressione, da 
irrequieta che era, 2 si fece minacciosa. 20. La strada che mena a 
Sorrento e un succedersi continue di punti di vista stupendi. 

1 Non ci avrebbe nulla, ' Haven't you anything ? ' The use of the 
past future gives the sentence an apologetic tone. 

2 da irrequieta che era, 'instead of anxious.' 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 137 

2. Translate into Italian: i. Do you prefer traveling to studying? 
2. I'll have it given back at once. 3. Their manners may be crude, 
but they are sincere. 4. Gratitude is to be praised. 5. You know, 
doubtless, 1 that my brother has returned. 6. When you arrive in (a) 
Florence, you will find at the hotel a letter from (di) my agent. 
7. Have you not heard him spoken of? 8. I have been here for two 
months, working 2 in the libraries. 9. Where are they? They are 
there outside, waiting for 3 you. 10. He ought to have spoken to 
you about it himself, instead of writing. 

1 Express this idea in the verb. 

2 Translate by a with the infinitive. 

3 Use a relative clause instead of a participle. 



LESSON 30. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE THIRD 
CONJUGATION (continued) 

Study 92, 75-124 [omitting verbs marked Rare or Poetical, and forms 
in parentheses]. 

EXERCISE 30 

1. Inflect the present tenses of muovere and sorgere. 

2. Translate: mordono, mosse, movera, nasce, nacquero, 
nascosto, nascondevo, negletto, offendendo, offesi, perso, per- 
derebbe, pioveva, piovera, prenda, preso, proteggono, protesse, 
redenta, raso, rendevano, ridi, risero, risponda, risposi, rotti, 
ruppero, scendemmo, scorgiamo, scriva, scrissi, scosso, sorge, 
spargeva, sporgono, successe, teso, torce, torse, uccidera, vinco, 
vinsero, volsi, volgerebbe. 

3. Translate into Italian: they were moving, he was born, hide, 
we are losing, it is raining, let them take, he laughed, they an- 
swered, broken, write, he shook, they rise, she spent, it happens, it 
would kill, I shall conquer, let him live, they turned. 

4. Study these sentences: i. Se te li presto, quando me li renderai? 
2. La scodella gli cadde per terra e si ruppe in tre pezzi. 3. Soli 
quelli che gli vivono da presso sanno che egli e anche piu buono che 



138 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

grande. 4. Scriva un po' meglio; altrimenti non potranno leggere 
niente. 5. Successe una pausa, rotta finalmente da un grido di 
terrore. 6. Non si lasci vincere dalT ira. 7. II codice fu scritto, 
pare, verso la fine del Trecento. 8. successo quello che pur troppo 
non poteva non succedere. 9. L' Italia nacque come nascono tutte 
le nazioni nuove, dall' energia dei meno che porta al destine 1' inerzia 
dei piu. 10. Ben perduto e conosciuto. 

6. Translate into Italian: i. He put it on the table, but someone 
has moved it. 2. Let's stand under that tree while it rains. 3. If 
he had moved it, it would have fallen. 4. There the mountains rise 
from the waters of the lake. 5. Goldoni and Alfieri lived in the 
1 8th century. 6. They are all running: what has 1 happened? 7. 
He shook his head, smiling, and turned 2 toward the door. 8. When 
I spoke to him about it, he laughed, and did not answer me. 9. In 
what year was Dante born? 10. They don't think he will live 3 if 
he remains here. 

1 Translate by the proper form of essere. 

2 Put the proper reflexive pronoun before the verb. 

3 Use the subjunctive. 



LESSON 31. CONJUNCTIONS 

Study 78. 

EXERCISE 31 

1. Give the meanings of these conjunctions: a meno che non, accioche, 
affinche, anzi, avanti che, benche, che, dacche, dato che, donde, 
dovunque, finche, finche non, mentre, neanche, ossia, perche (with 
indicative), perche (with subjunctive}, per quanto, poiche, prima che, 
purche, pure, qualunque, quasi, sebbene, se non che, siccome. 

2. Study these sentences: i. Seguito a filare finche il figlio del re 
non se ne fu andato. 2. L' avrebbe potuto fare, purche 1' avesse 
voluto. 3. Molti sono e i difetti e i pericoli di una tale decisione 
4. I giorni passavano senza che il padre gliene parlasse. 5. Non 
I 1 avrebbe mai saputo, se non che le si spedi da Milano un giornale 
c6Ua notizia. 6. Lo conoscevo nei giorni che era qui a visitare 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 139 

la nonna. 7. Non ci aiuta punto, anzi c' impedisce. 8. Le sue 
espressioni, per quanto fossero forti, non erano esagerate. 9. Mi 
dispiacque di non averla veduta prima che partisse. 10. Non voleva 
nemmeno vederlo, non che parlargli. 

3. Translate into Italian: i. They were sitting in the parlor while 
I was writing the letters. 2. Who is going there today? Either he 
or I. 3. They received them as if they were old friends. 4. He re- 
mained at the window until he heard them knock. 5. We will pardon 
him provided he will promise to (di) give it back to us at once. 6. I 
found it without difficulty, although he had hidden it with the greatest 
care. 7. When you see him, do me the favor to (di) give him these 
tickets. 8. I should like to speak to him before he goes. 9. Since 
they are worth what they cost, why don't you buy them? 10. I sent 
you 1 here in order that you should study, not in order that you 
should waste my money. 

1 Use the second person singular in translating this sentence. 

LESSON 32. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE THIRD 
CONJUGATION (continued) 

Study 92, 127-133. 

EXERCISE 32 

1. Translate: bevano, bevve, bera, avrebbe bevuto, beviamo, 
bee, chiesto, chiesi, chiedete, chiederanno, chieda, chiedevano, 
condurrei, condotto, condussero, condtica, conduci, sono condotti, 
noceva, nuoce, nocque, ponga, posto, posi, poniamo, porra, pone, 
traevano, trassero, traggono, trarremo, avevano tratto, tragga. 

2. Translate into Italian: they would drink, he was drinking, 
I drank, let him drink, let us ask, he will have asked, they asked, 
we were asking, I conducted, let them conduct, he has conducted, 
I was conducting, it will harm, they harmed, we put, put, they are 
putting, they will put, he dragged, we should drag, I have dragged. 

3. Study these sentences: i. Quando avra sei anni lo porremo a 
scuola. 2. Se bevesse un po' di quel vino, gli farebbe bene. 3. II 
fumare troppo gli ha nociuto gravemente. 4. Non le sa negare quel 



140 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

che gli chiede. 1 5. SofTri lunghi anni di una malattia di cuore che 
finalmente lo trasse alia morte. 6. Ho sete: dammi da here. 7. 
Vorrei chiederle una vacanza di pochi giorni, finche mi rimetta un 
po' in salute. 8. Fini col darsi per vinto, e col concedere tutto quanto 
gli era richiesto. 9. Questo mi ha indotto a riconoscere in Itii 
I' autore delle mie disgrazie. 10. Tutte le strade conducono a Roma. 
1 The personal object of chiedere is indirect. 

4. Translate into Italian: i. Drink a little water. 2. They are 
putting it in the other corner of the room. 3. Clouds of smoke were 
rising, and they were dragging everything out of the house. 4. I put 
it there because I found it there: don't move it. 5. Go and ask him 
why he didn't read what I wrote. 6. If you stay to dinner, we'l] 
take 1 you to the theatre this evening. 7. The house was placed so 
that one could see between the hills as far as the river. 8. If you 
had asked me for 2 it, I should have given it to you. 9. Then he 
drew his sword and took 3 his place at the head of his company. 10. 
He put his hands on my shoulders and asked me if I had been a 
good boy. 

1 Use mendre. 2 Chiedere means ' to ask for.' 3 Use prendere. 



LESSON 33. THE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Study 77 through (/). 

EXERCISE 33 

1. Study these sentences: i. Senta: potrebbe prestarmi per qualche 
giorno una ventina di lire? 2. Bisognava che ne trovassero un altro 
perfettamente simile a quello che si era perduto. 3. Ci faccia sapere 
quale difficolta ci sia. 4. il poeta piu classico e nondimeno il piu 
moderno che abbia P Italia. 5. Quanto male ci ha fatto! Non 
P avessimo mai visto! 6. Se avesse uno che si prendesse cura di Itii, 
anche lui potrebbe far meglio. 7. Legga, scriva, non sia mai ozioso, 
non chieda mai a nessu.no, non speri che nel suo lavoro. 8. Non vi e 
piu alcuno che creda alle loro storie. 9. Ti sia sempre nella mente 
che il compiacersi dei mali degli altri e crudelta. 10. Se vuole andare, 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 141 

se ne vada; per me, ci avrei piacere. n. ra un' idea di cui parlava 
in ogni conversazione che riguardasse il suo avvenire. 12. Fossi tu 
qui con me! Pur troppo bisogna ora che tu rimanga in citta. 13. 
Badi di non parlarmi piu cosi; e basti 1' avviso per questa volta 

14. Si mostro pronto a tutto cio che potesse piacere ai superiori. 

15. Domando alia serva se si potesse parlare al padrone. 16. Divi- 
sero la citta in sei parti, ed elessero dodici cittadini che la governassero. 
17. Nessuno se ne meravigli: era da aspettarsi. 18. Benche non vi 
sia niente che abbia T aria di essere esagerato, tutto il libro e una 
terribile accusa. 19. Se ci va spesso, e perche ci si mangia bene. 
20. Parrebbe impossibile a chi non lo conoscesse per quell' uomo che e, 

2. Translate into Italian: i. If he were here, perhaps he would be 
able to give us a little light. 2. He asked me if I were really a count. 
3. This is the first and only pleasure I have had since I have been 
here. 4. It would be enough to (per) convince one who had not 
sworn to remain in the dark. 5. They wanted to give her a name 
that should recall her aunt's affection. 6. Russia is the only 
country in (di} Europe that he hasn't visited. 7. They are things 
that happen often, although they seem impossible. 8. Did they 
ask you if you had read his last novel? 9. Wherever I go, that 
scene is ever before my eyes. 10. They had placed a guard at the 
only door by which he could have escaped. 

LESSON 34. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE THIRD 
CONJUGATION (continued) 

Study 92, 134-148. 

EXERCISE 34 

1. Translate: coglie, colse, coglieremo, scelga, scelto, sceglievi, 
sciogliemmo, sciogliendo, avrebbe sciolto, tolgono, torra, torrei, 
giungete, giunsero, sono giunti, piangi, pianse, piangero, pinge, 
pingano, pingeranno, spegne, spense, spegneva, spinga, avev^ 
spinto, spinsero, stretto, stringono, stringemmo. 

2. Translate into Italian: they gather, we gathered, I was 
choosing, let them choose, we have taken, I shall take, you are 



142 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

weeping, I wept, they extinguish, we shall extinguish, you were 
pushing, I had pushed, we are bound, bind. 

3. Study these sentences: i. II sole che calava tingeva di rosso le 
acque del lago. 2. La Cappella Sistina fu dipinta da Michelangelo 
tra il 1508 e il 1512. 3. Gli afferro la destra e gliela strinse con forza, 
ma al ritirare la mano la vide tinta di sangue. 4. Tutti quelli con cui 
era stretto d' amicizia se n' andarono, lasciandolo solo solo. 5. Non 
si sapeva se riderne o piangerne; infatti alcuni piansero, sorridendo 
pero fra le lagrime. 6. Se si potessero parlare una volta, le dimcolta 
sarebbero subito sciolte. 7. ]Erano giunti a un tal punto che biso- 
gnava o vincere o perder ogni cosa. 8. Stava inginocchioni colle 
mani giunte in atto di preghiera. 9. Gli tolse di mano il denaro 
senza nemmeno ringraziarlo. 10. L' imperatore, poeta egli stesso, 
protesse i poeti e li accolse e onoro nella sua corte. 

4. Translate into Italian: i. Among all the employees they chose 
him as the most industrious. 2. Then they looked at each other, 
and began to weep. 3. Go and gather some 1 flowers for the vases in 
the parlor. 4. When we arrived, the sacristan was putting out the 
lights. 5. Take 2 those papers from the table and put them on the 
desk. 6. In ancient times cities were surrounded by walls and ditches. 

7. He pushed me into (a) this business, and now he ought to help me. 

8. They were crying like children; she was going from one to the other, 
trying to (di) comfort them. 9. We found ourselves compelled to (a) 
ask him for it. 10. He might have surrendered: he chose to (di) die. 

1 Use the partitive construction. 2 Use togliere. 



LESSON 35. PREPOSITIONS 
Study 79. 

EXERCISE 35 

1. Give the meaning of these prepositions: accanto a, al di la di, 
attorno a, circa, contro, dentro di, dietro, dirimpetto a, dopo, eccetto, 
fin da, fino a, fuori di, innanzi, intorno a, lungo, oltre, quanto a, 
rispetto a, secondo, sino a, sotto, su, tra, tranne. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 143 

2. Study these sentences: i. Se vuol rimanere con noi, ha da fare 
quel che voglio io. 2. (3ra le ha comprato una macchina da cucire. 
3. Ce lo giuro per quanto aveva di piu caro. 4. Da allora in poi 
visse da buon cristiano. 5. Lo so per certo che oggi non gli hanno 
dato da mangiare. 6. Al di la del fiume si vedevano delle vecchie 
torri medioevali. 7. Ci si ammalavano a centinaia per giorno. 
8. C' era una volta un bel fanciullo dai capelli biondi e dagli 6cchi 
azzurri, che aveva fra i died e i dodici anni. 9. Lui, poveretto, 
stava zitto a guardarmi, ed io gli parlai con un tono da fargli 
coraggio. io. Alia porta della chiesa c' era una vecchia che 
accattava da chi entrava; il ragazzo ando da lei, e le diede meta 
del suo pane. 

3. Translate into Italian: i. They want to have (fare] lunch be- 
fore the others. 2. You can't persuade him to vote against the 
government. 3. We'll be at your house in an hour and a half. 4. 
They will arrive on (con) the 5.20 train. 5. He went to France in 
1872, and remained there for three or four years. 6. Go tell 1 them 
they'll have to do without me. 7. His arrival was greeted by all with 
an exclamation of surprise. 8. I begged my father to take 2 me to 
the city to see my cousins. 9. They have been living in Venice 
for six months, io. You ought to do something for him instead of 
letting him suffer so. 

1 Use dire, the personal object of which is indirect. 

2 Use mendre. 



LESSON 36. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FOURTH 
CONJUGATION 

Study 92, 149-163. 

EXERCISE 36 

1. Translate: aprono, apri, sono aperti, copra, coperse, co- 
prite, offrimmo, offrira, offersi, soffrii, hanno sofferto, soffnrM, 
costruivano, digerisce, esaurito, e stato sepolto, cucivo, empiono, 
empi, empiere, muoia, morranno, e morto, segui, segui, seguirei, 
sparve, spariscono, sparira. 



144 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

2. Translate into Italian: we opened, they would open, cover, I 
covered, let us offer, he has offered, he is suffering, you will suffer, 
she was sewing, he died, I shall die, following, let us follow, it 
would disappear, they disappeared. 

3. Study these sentences: i. Se la tua patria avra bisogno di te, 
offrile te stesso. 2. Le finestre dello studio si aprono all' est. 3. 
Possa tu godere quant' io ho sofferto e soffro. 4. Tutti i figli le 
erano morti, 1' uno dopo 1' altro, ed era rimasta sola sola al mondo. 

5. Gli apparve in sogno un fantasma che lo minacciava di morte. 

6. Lui proseguiva il lavoro senza badare a cio che faceVano gli altri. 

7. Di questo si trattera nel capitolo seguente. 8. Ha la sposa ricca, 
ma morrebbe piuttosto che chiederle un soldo. 9. Compiuti gli 
studi, fece un lungo viaggio per 1' Europa. io. Muor giovane colui 
che al cielo e caro. 

4. Translate into Italian: i. If the window isn't open, do me the 
favor to open it. 2. He died last night at half past eleven. 3. Those 
are old customs that now are disappearing. 4. Let's offer them to 
her, and if she doesn't want them we'll keep them for ourselves. 
5. The king is dead: long 1 live the king! 6. She covered her face 
with her hands and wept. 7. You have written a song that will 
not die. 8. I opened the window and called them, but they didn't 
hear me. 9. If I suffered as they have suffered, I should die. 
io. They are building a theatre on the site of those old shops. 

1 Omit this word in translating. 



LESSON 37. THE SUBJUNCTIVE (continued) 

Study 77 (g), (k), (*). 

EXERCISE 37 

1. Study these sentences:^ i. Pare che se ne siano scordati affatto. 
2. Badi che non gli facciano male! 3. Se le displace che lo facciano 
gli altri, non lo faccia lei stesso. 4. Mi rincresce che Lei abbia dovuto 
partire senza vederli. 5. Non permise pero che finisse cosi. 6. Cosa 

1 In several of these sentences the che clause should be replaced, in 
translation, by an infinitive construction. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 145 

pensi tu che ci sia da fare? 7. Non sapeva che s' era proibito che 
i forestieri visitassero la fortezza? 8. Non potrai venire domani? 
Avrei bisogno che tu mi aiutassi. 9. II ponte par che segni il punto 
in cui il fiume entra nel lago. 10. Non si pud non sospettare che 
T abbiano saputo. 'n. Pareva ci fossero degli spiriti invisibili. 12. 
Teme che gli si possa togliere quel che ha guadagnato. 13. Voglia 
il cielo che non venga un giorno in cui si penta di non avermi ascoltato. 

14. Lascino ch' io gli parli ancora una volta prima che se ne vada! 

15. Chi vuoi che le compri, delle scarpe cosi? 16. Ho letto quelle 
pagine col piu vivo interesse, e vorrei che le potessero legger tutti. 
17. Se vuole che gli si porti rispetto, deve imparare a rispettare gli 
altri. 1 8. L' ho sentito negare che la vita per se stessa sia desiderabile. 

19. Pagare e poi pagare, perche i nostri soldati vadano a morire 
nell' Africa, non si puo pretendere che piaccia al popolo italiano. 

20. Non possiamo permettere che certi punti del Mediterraneo siano 
presi ed occupati da coloro che un giorno potrebbero esserci nemici. 

2. Translate into Italian: i. I am surprised that you do not under- 
stand it. 2. I know they wanted me to stay 1 until tomorrow. 3. It 
seemed to us that they were afraid that someone would recognize 
them. 4. He begged them to give 1 him a little bread. 5. It may be 
believed that he has earned in this way more than 2000 lire. 6. He 
was ashamed that they should think that he had not been content. 
7. Yesterday I heard that he was a little better. 8. Doesn't it seem 
to you that he is asking too much? 9. He ordered them all to be 1 
silent, io. I hope he'll give you all you want. 

1 Use a che clause, turning the preceding personal pronoun into a 
subject. 

LESSON 38. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FOURTH 
CONJUGATION (continued) 

Study 92, 164-168. 

% 

EXERCISE 38 

1. Translate: dissero, diceva, e stato detto, di', dicano, diresti, 
sali, saiga, salite, salivano, salgo, salira, vieni, verra, venne, sono 
venuti, venga, verrei, udirono, ode, udiranno, esca, usciamo. 



146 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

2. Translate into Italian: you say, he said, say, they are ascending, 
I ascended, let us ascend, they came, I shall come, she has come, they 
hear, hearing, we had heard, he is going out, they went out, I should 
go out. 

3. Study these sentences: i. Quando uscii di camera, mia madre, 
gia alzata, mi aspettava per dirmi addio. 2. Che cdsa vuol dire 
questa parola? 3. Ci dice che sono venuti tutti, e che rimarranno 
fino alle died. 4. I prezzi delle carni sono gia saliti assai. 5. Mori 
benedicendo i figli e i figli de' figli suoi. 6. Rifiuto nondimeno 
1' aiuto che gli veniva offerto. 7. rano sempre severi con lui, senza 
mai dime il perche. 8. Poi le venne in mente che aveva promesso di 
restituirglieli il giorno dopo. 9. I fatti che siamo venuti narrando 
bastano a dimostrare la falsita dell' accusa. 10. Dimmi con chi 
pratichi e ti diro chi sei. 

4. Translate into Italian: i. They come and they disappear. 
Where do they all go? Tell me, do they all die? 2. I'm afraid they 
won't come if it rains. 3. If it's he, call him, and tell him I should 
like to speak to him. 4. He is much better now; he goes out almost 
every day. 5. Let them tell him to come at once. 6. They told 
me that he had arrived Monday. 7. They came; I heard them open 
the door; they went up; and then they disappeared. I went out, 
but they had gone away. 8. Did they tell you when they would 
come? 9. If he had told you that, what would you have done? 
10. I came, I saw, I conquered. 



LESSON 39. ADVERBS AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 
Study 80-91 inclusive. 

EXERCISE 39 

1. Give the meanings of these indefinite pronouns and adjectives: 
alcuno, altri, altriii, ambedue, certo, chi, chicchessia, ciascheduno, 
ciascuno, meno, nessuno, nulla, ognuno, parecchi, per quanto, qual- 
checosa, qualcuno, qualungue, si, un tale. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 147 

2. Study these sentences: i. Senti qualcheduno che piangeva li 
dentro. 2. Se fossi Lei, gli scriverei un' altra volta, benche non Le 
abbia mai risposto. 3. Sentiva un gran desiderio di fare qualcosa di 
strano e di terribile. 4. L' uno e 1' altro me n' hanno dato parola. 

5. Ci andremo insieme, non e vero? Non mi dica di no. 6. Cosa 
fai li? O che vuoi bruciar la casa? 7. Ed ecco che le appari sulla 
soglia un non so che di bianco. 8. L' ha cambiato tutto, ed ora si 
che mi piace! 9. Non si va in quel luogo se non per vedere la fontana. 
10. Questo mondo e fatto a scale, chi le scende e chi le sale. 

3. Translate into Italian: i. Do you go there oftener now? What? 
Yes, every eight or ten days. 2. I shall be there too, day after to- 
morrow, and I shall stay the whole week. 3. We saw certain things 
there that we didn't like at all. 4. I should never have believed that 
they would both leave me. 5. Take care that no one sees you start. 

6. Each of you ought to give him something. 7. One must respect 
the rights of others. 8. One can't say, though, that such a work 
isn't worth anything. 9. I have but two, but if you want one of 
them, here it is. 10. He must have known them well; he has lived 
there for several years. 

LESSON 40. REVIEW 
EXERCISE 40 

1. Give the plural of each of the following combinations: V ani- 
male grigio, il mio braccio, del caffe nuovo, nelP estasi (fern.), 
poca facolta, dalla tua famiglia, la mano bianca, 1' operaio eroico, 
1' origine mistica. quel paio, il gran palco, col vecchio porco, la 
radice profonda, F ultima riga, al bel rogo, lo scherzo comico, sullo 
scoglio pittoresco, il buon sindaco, il telegramma lungo, il suo zio. 

2. Translate: lo apra, 1' avremmo, me lo chiesero, li coglie, 
condottovi, ve lo conobbe, glielo devono, ce lo dia, ditele, lui li ha 
divisi, eccotelo, n' esce, glielo fece portare, vi foste, ci pianse, 16 
lessi loro, 1' aveva mosso, muoiano loro, vi nacque, offertoglielo, 
vi sarebbe parso, dovreste piangerne, lo potemmo vedere, me lo 
rese, li ruppero, si vorrebbe sapere, le scrissi, avrebbe dovuto 



148 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

seguirli, ci steste, 1' avranno stretto, lei tacque, lo tenga lei, li trae, 
ci vanno, erano venuti, ci videro, ci ha vissuto. 

3. Translate into Italian: will you be there?, they chose it, we 
had come, he was dying there, give it to him, will they go there?, 
he has been killed, do you know it?, do you know him?, they would 
have lost it, they ought to have opened it, he could not persuade 
him, it pleased him, I put it there, they made me read it, we shall 
remain there, it seemed to them, they have seen us, tell it to me, 
they wish it. 

4. Study these sentences: i. Mi rispose di si, 1 e che ci avrebbe molto 
piacere. 2. Lui piangeva piangeva, e gli altri stavano zitti a guar- 
darlo. 3. Sedevano attorno alia tavola, impazienti che si servisse la 
colazione. 4. Morto, le parve assai piu grande e buono che non le 
fosse mai parso vivo. 5. Finalmente riusci a farselo restituire. 6. 
Gli abitanti si rifugiavano su per i monti, portandovi quel che avevan 
di meglio. 2 7. Nel succedersi degli avvenimenti in mezzo ai quali 
veniva innalzato al soglio, parve manifestarsi la mano della Prov- 
videnza. 8. Prevedeva di doversene tornare a casa, di li a pochi 
giorni, povero com' era venuto. 9. Che molti di quei temi esistes- 
sero nella poesia piu antica, ci pare pienamente dimostrato. 10. Se 
li perdo, che sara di me? u. Le stava davanti, quasi aspettasse 
che gli dicesse d' andarsene. 12. Queste poche pagine poste in 
principio serviranno di introduzione a tutto il libro. 13. Decise di 
sentire tranquillamente cio che allo zio piacesse d' aggiungere. 14. 
Si trasse dal dito 1' anello magico, e se lo mise in bocca. 15. 
Adesso le spieghero, meglio ch' io non facessi allora, che cosa vo- 
gliamo fare. 16. Non posso non farlo, ne vorrei, anche potendo, 
non farlo. 17. Una societa che si formi cosi deve finire con 
1' esser composta di ribelli. 18. Parleremo prima di lui, non 
perche egli sia il piu antico, ma perche e il piu importante. 19. Non 
si erano mai accorti delle occhiate di ammirazione con cui lui li 
guardava. 20. Alcuni contadini, credendo che cercasse dei tesori, 
e persuasi che avesse gia qualche cosa di prezioso in tasca, gli si 
awicinarono per accertarsene. 

1 di si, 'that he would.' 

2 quel che avevan di meglio, ' the best of their belongings.' 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 149 

5. Translate into Italian: i. He told me that he had desired it 
for many years. 2. I should not have believed that you had spoken 
of it to him. 3. If I'm not mistaken, we shall be there in a few 
minutes. 4. I am surprised that they haven't called you yet. 5. I 
know him only by (di) sight; I have seen him several times in the 
Public Gardens. 6. The prisoner has 1 escaped and has hidden him- 
self in the wood; the peasants are protecting him. 7. I was sure 
of it, although her face did not betray any surprise. 8. Did they 
tell you when they would come to your house? 9. We could have 
given it to you, if we had known that you wanted it. 10. It isn't, 
impossible that he has seen it, but I don't believe so. 

1 Translate by the proper form of essere. 

LESSON 41. OLD AND POETIC FORMS 

Study section 3 (/) on p. 7, the second footnote on p. u, the second 
footnote on p. 17, section 44 (a), the first footnote on />. 35, section 
48 (e), the footnote on p. 39, section 63 (d), section 68, the forms 
given in section 92 in parentheses and footnotes, the verbs numbered 
23 and 169, and those among nos. 24-125 that are marked Rare or 
Poetical; also the verbs gire and ire given on p. 94. 

EXERCISE 41 

1. Give the modern prose equivalents of: lo giorno, i capei, tai re, 
ne 1 parla, mel dice, nol credo, sen va, ameria, parleria, parlaro, 
parlerebbono, parloe, parle, parlar, compro, 2 sentio, fenno, feste, 
face, diero, ave, avea, avieno, aggia, ara, ei, caggiano, dee, denno, il 
veggo, v61si, puote, ponno, poria, enno, suto, sete, fora, foro, fia, 
chieggo, corre, torre, piagne, vegna. 

1 Do not regard this ne as meaning ' of it.' 

2 Do not regard this form as present indicative. 

2. Study these lines: 

1. Or fia ch' ei vegna solo? Ahi, meglio fora! 

2. Udrassi allor chi puote il ver narrare. 

3. Morte emmi il gire, e il rimaner m' e morte. 

4. Stawi sempre nol sai? cui starvi lice. 

5. Tormeli credi? Chi dietti tal forza? 



150 ITALIAN GRAMMAB 

6. La patria amar; lieti per lei moriro. 

7. II veggio, o parmi, coi fratei venire. 

8. Qual fuggitivo non vorria mostrarmi. 

9. "O felici costor!" pareane dire. 

10. "Lasciar ti debbo" poi sen gia cantando. 

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES IN PRONUNCIATION 
A 

Acacia, accecare, acciaio, acquaiuolo, aggiungere, ahi, allegro, ami- 
cizia, archibugio, artiglieria, bicchiere, biglietto, Boccaccio, Boiardo, 
bugia, buio, buoi, canzone, Carducci, cascaggini, Castiglione, caval- 
leria, Cellini, cencio, centottantotto, cerchio, Checchina, chiacchiere, 
chiaroscuro, Chioggia, cicatrice, ciglio, cinquecento, Civitavecchia, 
cogliere, coraggio, corridoio, costituzionale, crescendo, cugino, cuocere, 
dolcezza, doppio, dunque, echeggiare, faccione, fasciare, fazzoletto, 
fiocchi, fischio, floscio, Fogazzaro, Francesco, fruscio, fuorche, gaio, 
ghiaccio, ghiaia, Ghirlandaio, giaciglio, ginocchio, gioia, Giorgio, 
Girgenti, giudizio, grigio, guai, guerra, Guido Guinizelli, hai, hanno, 
ho, ignobile, incognito, inginocchiatoio, inscioglibile, iridescenza, 
Italia, laggiu, larghezza, lenzuolo, letteratura, liscio, luccichio, Machia- 
velli, menzogna, merciaio, Michelangelo Buonarroti, minchioneria, 
negozio, Niccolo, noialtri, occhiacci, oceano, orecchio, ossia, Pagliacci, 
Palermo, pazienza, Petrarca, piazza,, pieghevolezza, Pintoricchio, 
Poliziano, Pollaiuolo, Pozzuoli, puo, quacquero, quaggiu, quegli, 
ricchezza, richiamiamo, risuscitare, ruota, Sacchetti, sbercio, sce- 
gliere, schermisce, scherzo, schiamazzo, sciagurato, sciogliere, 
sciupacchiare, scricchiolio, sdraiato, sdrucciolo, Sforza, sgherro, 
Sicilia, singhiozzo, slanciano, squarciagola, stizzisce, sudicio, tazza, 
treccia, tribu, uggia, uguale, uovo, usciamo, vecchio, viaggio. 

B 

Un mio amico raccontava una scena curiosa alia quale era stato 
presente in casa di un giudice di pace in Milano, molti anni fa. Lo 
aveva trovato tra due litiganti, uno dei quali perorava caldamente 
la sua causa; e quando costui ebbe finito, il giudice gli disse: "Avete 
ragione." 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 151 

"Ma, signer giudice," disse subito 1' altro, "lei mi deve sentire 
anche me, prima di decidere." 

" troppo giusto," 1 rispose il giudice, "dite pur su, 2 che v' ascolto 
attentamente." 

Allora quello si mise con tanto piu impegno a far valere la sua 
causa, e ci riusci cosi bene che il giudice gli disse: "Avete ragione 
anche voi." 

C' era li accanto 3 un siio bambino di sette o otto armi, il quale, 
giocando pian piano con non so qual balocco, non aveva lasciato di 
stare anche attento alia discussione, e a quel punto, alzando un visino 
stupefatto, esclamo: "Ma babbo, non pud essere che abbiano 
ragione tutt' e due." 

"Hai ragione anche tu," gli disse il giudice. 

MANZONI. 

1 troppo giusto, 'That's only fair.' 

2 dite pur su, 'go ahead.' 

8 accanto. ' in the room with them.' 






Che sia il Pincio nelT ora che sul ponente color d'arancio si dipinge 
la gigantesca ombra di San Pietro e del Vaticano, non c' e lingua 
che possa dire. un incanto, un' estasi, un sogno, e un confuso 
viavai d' immensi pensieri, e un tumulto di memorie grandiose e di 
speranze arcane, in cui la mente si perde, come in un mare senza 
confini. Guardando il Gianicolo e Monte Mario, che stanno in faccia, 
par di veddre nel fondo dell' angusta vallata passar silenziosi i secoli 
fra le nebbie della sera, e un brivido corre per le ossa, come se da quel 
fondo si rizzassero taciturni e cupi gli spettri dei grandi, che resero 
temuta e sacra alle genti questa terra fatale. Questo piccolo spazio, 
che lo sguardo abbraccia senza fatica, e il punto piu storico di tutto 
il mondo. Tutta la civilta antica s' e condensata fra questi colli, e df* 
qui, risalendo il Tevere, s' e distesa a conquistar la maggior parte 
della terra conosciuta. Di qui mossero gli eserciti invasori, qui ne 
furono celebrati i trionfi, di qui si propagarono le leggi e la lingua che 



152 ITALIAN GRAMMAR 

fecero di gran parte dello sterminato impero un popolo solo. Quando 
poi i vinti si ribellarono, la non vinta regina soggiogo colle speranze 
di un' altra vita tutti coloro che ricusavano il suo dominio in questa; 
e in nome di Cristo risollevo P impero caduto. Poiche le furono 
strappate di mano le armi, regno disarmata: ricupero con un altro 
vessillo la corona perduta, ne fu meno grande e potente di prima. 
E P emblema di questa storia, nodo dei tempi anteriori e dei succes- 
sivi, e la sotto gli 6cchi: un obelisco egiziano, portato in Roma da- 
gP imperatori romani e sormontato dalla croce, compendia la storia 
di tutta la civilta. 

GABELLI. 



NOTE ON READING ITALIAN VERSE 

In reading Italian verse the verbal stress is the same as in prose. 
There is no such artificial shifting of the stress as in Latin scansion. 

Two adjacent vowels in the same word are usually to be 
pronounced as belonging to the same syllable, the voice gliding 
quickly from the first vowel to the second. They are however to 
be pronounced as belonging to separate syllables (i) when the first 
is a, e, or o and the second is stressed; (2) when the first of the 
two vowels is the last stressed vowel of the line; (3) in some other 
cases (there is one instance in Exercise E, line 4: trionfdle). 

Two vowels standing one at the end of a word and the other at 
the beginning of the next word and not separated by a mark of 
punctuation are usually to be pronounced, also, as belonging to the 
same syllable. (There are no exceptions in these exercises. Ex- 
ceptions occur when the first of the two vowels is stressed or is 
immediately preceded by a stressed vowel, and in some other 
cases.) If the two vowels are different, the voice glides quickly 
from the first to the second; if they are identical, they are pro- 
nounced as a single long vowel. 

Two adjacent vowels separated by a mark of pronunciation are 
to be pronounced as belonging to separate syllables; though as a 
matter of technical versification they are arbitrarily reckoned as 
belonging to the same syllable, unless they are of one of the types 
referred to as exceptional. 



LESSONS AND EXERCISES 153 



Lungo la strada vedi su la siepe 
ridere a mazzi le vermiglie bacche: 
nei campi arati tornano al presepe 
tarde le vacche. 

Vien per la strada un povero che il lento 

passo tra foglie stridule trascina: 

nei campi intuona una fanciulla al vento: 

Fiore di spina! . . . PASCOLI. 

Line i. su la: the prepositions which normally contract with a 
following definite article are in verse often uncontracted. 

4. tarde is a predicate adjective used with adverbial force: 'slowly.' 
intudna: see section 59 (6). 

8. Fiore di spina: these are the first words of a peasant song. 



Lievi e bianche a la plaga occidentale 
Van le nubi: a le vie ride e su '1 foro 

> 

Umido il cielo, ed a F uman lavoro 
Saluta il sol, benigno, trionfale. 

Leva in roseo fulgor la cattedrale 
Le mflle guglie bianche e i santi d' oro, 
Osannando irraggiata: intorno, il coro 
Bruno de' falchi agita i gridi e F ale. 

Tal, poi ch' amor co '1 dolce riso via 
Rase le nubi che gravarmi tanto, 
Si rileva nei sol F anima mia, 

E molteplice a lei sorride il santo 

Ideal de la vita: e un' armonia 

6gni pensiero, ed ogni senso un canto. 

CAKDUCCT. 

Line 2. '/ is a form of il often used in verse. 

10. Rdse is a past absolute used with the force of a present perfect: 
'has swept.' gravarmi: see section 68 (d). 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



This vocabulary contains all Italian words appearing in exercise sections involving 
translation from the Italian and all words appearing in Exercises B-E on pp. 150-153, 
with the following exceptions: articles, cardinal and ordinal numerals, possessive and 
personal pronouns, and words occurring only in the following exercise sections: Ex. 28 
sect. 2 Ex. 30 sect. 2, Ex. 31 sect, i, Ex. 34 sect, i, Ex. 35 sect, i, Ex. 36 sect, i, Ex. 39 
sect. i. The meanings of all words occurring in these sections are given in the portions of 
the Grammar assigned for the lessons in question. The irregular verb forms occurring in 
Exercises B-E (except the forms of avere and Sssere) are separately entered here. 

The position of the secondary stress is indicated only in words in which it falls upon an 
open e or o. 

Nouns ending in o are masculine and those ending in a are feminine, unless indication to 
the contrary is given. 



a, to, toward, at, in, on, upon, for, 
by, of; a fare, doing, if one 
does; al fare, on doing, when 
one does. 

abbracciare, to embrace. 

abitante, m., inhabitant. 

abito, coat. 

accadere, to happen. 

accanto, a, beside. 

accattare, to beg. 

accertarsi, to make certain. 

accdgliere, to welcome. 

accdrgersi di, to notice. 

accusa, accusation. 

acqua, water. 

addio, good-by. 

adesso, now. 

affare, m., affair. 

affatto, entirely. 

afferrare, to seize. 

affetto, affection. 

Affrica, Africa. 

aggiungere, to add. 

agitare, to agitate, wave. 



ah, ah; ah si?, is that so? 

ahi, ah. 

aiutare, to help. 

aiuto, help. 

ala, wing. 

albero, tree. 

alcuno, some; pron., anyone. 

alloggiare, to lodge. 

allora, then; da in poi, there- 
after. 

almeno, at least. 

alto, high, tall; in , high up. 

altrimenti, otherwise. 

altro, other; 1' imo e 1' , both. 

alzare, to raise; alzato, up. 

amare, to love, be fond of. 

America, America. 

amicizia, friendship. 

amico, friend. 

ammalarsi, to fall sick. 

ammirazione, /., admiration. 

am6re, m., love. 

anche, also, too, even, at the 
same time. 

ancora, still, yet, again, even, more. 



156 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



andare, to go; andarsene, to go 

off or away; va fatto cosi, it 

must be done so. 
anello, ring, 
angusto, narrow. 
anima, soul. 
anno, year; di due anni, two years 

old; avere due anni, to be two 

years old. 
anteriore, former. 
antico, ancient, old. 
anzi, even, rather, on the contrary. 
apparire, to appear, 
appena, scarcely, as soon as. 
applaudire, to applaud, 
aprire, aprirsi, to open, 
arancio, orange. 
arare, to plough. 
arcano, secret. 

aria, air; aver 1' , to seem. 
Ariosto, Ariosto. 
armi, /. pi., arms. 
armonia, harmony. 
arrivare, to arrive, get; a, to 

reach. 

ascoltare, to listen, listen to. 
aspettare, to wait, wait for, expect, 
aspetto, aspect, appearance. 
assai, enough, very, considerably, 

much. 

assnte, absent, 
attentamente, attentively. 
attento, attentive, careful. 
atto, act, attitude. 
attorno, a, around, 
augurare, to wish. 
aurora, dawn. 
austriaco, Austrian. 
autom6bile, m., automobile, 
autdre, m., author. 
autunno, autumn, 



avanti, forward, come in. 

avere, to have, possess, hold; ho 
da, I have to, I must. Other 
idioms in which avere appears 
are registered only under the 
other words concerned. 

awenimento, event. 

awenire, to happen; n. m., future. 

awertire, to warn. 

awicinarsi a, to approach. 

awiso, warning. 

awocato, lawyer. 

azione, /., action. 

azzurro, blue. 

B 

babbo, papa. 

bacca, berry. 

badare, to notice, take care, pay 
attention. 

balocco, toy. 

bambino, child, small boy. 

bastare, to be enough, suffice. 

battaglia, battle. 

battere, to beat, strike. 

batile, m., trunk. 

bello, beautiful, fair, handsome, 
pretty, fine. 

benche, although. 

bene, well; . m., good thing, hap- 
piness; far , to do good. 

benedire, to bless. 

bemgno, benign. 

benissimo, very well. 

bere, to drink. 

bianco, white. 

biasimare, to blame, condemn. 

bicchiere, m., glass. 

biglietto, ticket, bill. 

biliardo, billiards. 

biondo, blond, golden. 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULABY 



157 



bisognare, to be necessary. 

bisogno, need; aver di, to need. 

bocca, mouth. 

bottone, m., button. 

braccio. arm. 

brivido, shudder. 

bruciare, to burn. 

bruno, brown, dark. 

buio, dark; n., darkness. 

budno, good. 



cadere, to fall. 
caffe, m., coffee, 
calare, to sink, set. 
caldamente, warmly, eagerly, 
caldo, hot, warm, 
cambiare, to change. 
camera, room. 
caminetto, fireplace. 
camino, chimney, 
campo, field. 
cantare, to sing. 
canto (i), song. 
canto (2), corner, 
capello, hair. 
capire, to understand. 
capitolare, to capitulate, surren- 
der. 

capitolo, chapter, 
cappella, chapel, 
cappello, hat. 
carattere, m., character. 
carico, laden, 
carne, /., meat. 
caro, dear. 
carta, paper, 
casa, house, home, 
cattedrale,/., cathedral. 
cattivo, bad. 
causa, cause, case. 



cldere, to yield. 

celebrare, to celebrate. 

centesimo, centime. 

centinaio, hundred. 

centre, centre. 

cercare, to seek, search, look for, 
try. 

certo, certain; per , for a cer- 
tainty. 

che, conj., that, because, and, 
than; fatto ebbe, when he 
had made; ecco , suddenly; 
non , to say nothing of; se 
non , if ... not, but; non 
... , only; poi , when; 
si e budno, it's very good 
indeed; o , used without trans- 
latable force to introduce a ques- 
tion. 

che, pron., what, what a, who, 
which, that, when; - cdsa, 
what; ci6 , quello , what, 
that; un non so di budno, 
something good, a certain 
goodness. 

chi, who, he who, one who, if any- 
one; ... , some . . . 
others; di , whose. 

chiamare, to call; c6me si chiama?, 
what is the name of? 

chiaro, clear, bright. 

chiave,/., key. 

chiedere, to ask. 

chiesa, church. 

chiudere, to close, shut. 

ci, here, there, in it; often pleo- 
nastic. - 

cieco, blind; n., blind man. 

cielo, sky, heaven. 

ci6, that; che, what, that. 

cioe, that is. 



158 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



citta, city. 

cittadino, citizen. 

civilta, civilization. 

classico, classic. 

co *1, poetic, = col. 

codice, m., manuscript. 

cdgliere, to gather. 

colazione,/., lunch. 

colle, *., hill. 

co!6re, m., color; d' arancio, 
orange-colored. 

co!6ro, those. 

colui, he. 

combattere, to fight. 

come, how, as, like. 

cominciare, to begin. 

compagnia, company. 

compendiare, to sum up. 

compiacersi, to take pleasure. 

compire, to complete, finish. 

complimento, compliment. 

comp6rre, to compose. 

comprare, to buy. 

con, with, by, in, on, to. 

concedere, to concede, grant. 

condensare, to condense, concen- 
trate. 

condurre, to lead. 

confetti, m. pi., candy. 

confine, m., limit. 

confondere, to confuse. 

conoscenza, acquaintance. 

conoscere, to know, make the 
acquaintance of, recognize. 

conquistare, to conquer. 

consiglio, counsel. 

contadino, peasant. 

contentare, to content, satisfy. 

continuare, to continue. 

continuo, continual. 

c6ntro, di, against. 



conversazi6ne, /., conversation. 

coraggio, courage; da far , en- 
couraging. 

c6ro, choir. 

corona, crown. 

coronare, to crown. 

correre, to run, overrun. 

cdrte, /., court. 

cortesia, courtesy. 

corto, short. 

c6sa, thing, what; che , what; 
ha qualche di buono, there 
is something good about it. 

cosi, so, such. 

cost&re, to cost. 

costo, cost. 

costoro, they. 

costui, he. 

credere, to believe, think. 

crescere, to grow, increase. 

cristiano, Christian. 

Cristo, Christ. 

croce, /., cross. 

crudelta, cruelty. 

cucire, to sew; macchina da , 
sewing-machine. 

cugina, cousin. 

cugino, cousin. 

cui, whom, which, to which, he to 
whom. 

cuore, m., heart. 

cupo, gloomy. 

cura, care. 

curioso, curious. 



da, from, by, for, with, to, of, as, 
like, such as to; da lontano, in 
the distance; da presso, near; 
da mangiare, something or any- 
thing to eat. 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



159 



Dante, m., Dante. 

dare, to give, devote; del, to 

call; darsi per vinto, to give in. 
datare, to date. 

davanti, a, before, in front of. 
decidere, to decide. 
decisi6ne,/., decision. 
denaro, money, 
dentro, within, in. 
desiderabile, desirable, 
desiderare, to desire. 
desiderio, desire, 
destine, destiny. 
destra, right hand, right. 
deve, 3rd sing. pres. ind. of dovere. 
di, of, about, with, from, by, in, 

to, than, as; dare del, to call; 

dire di si, to say ' yes '; al di li 

di, beyond ; del pane, some bread, 
diavolo, devil. 
dietro, a, behind. 
difetto, defect. 
difficile, difficult. 
difficolta, difficulty, trouble, 
dimenticare, to forget. 
dimostrare, to demonstrate, prove, 
dipingere, to paint. 
dire, to say, tell; di si, to say 

1 yes '; voler , to mean, 
disarmato, unarmed, 
discussione, /., discussion, 
disgrazia, misfortune. 
dispiacere, to displease; mi di- 

spiace, I'm sorry, I don't like. 
disse, ^rd sing, past abs. of dire, 
distendere, to distend; refl., to 

reach out. 

disteso, pp. of distendere. 
distinguere, to distinguish. 
dite, 2d pi. imv. of dire, 
dfto, finger. 



divertire, to divert, amuse. 

dividere, to divide. 

divino, divine. 

dolce, sweet. 

dolere, to pain. 

domandare, to ask, ask for. 

domani, tomorrow. 

domenica, Sunday. 

dominio, dominion. 

donna, woman. 

ddno, gift. 

dopo, after, afterward, since. 

dormire, to sleep. 

dove, where. . 

dovere, to owe, be obliged; devo, 

I am to, I have to, I must; 

dovrei, I ought to. 
duro, hard. 



e, and, both; le dfie e dieci, ten 
minutes past two; pift . . . e 
pill, the more . . . the more. 

ecco, here is, there is; che, 
suddenly. 

ed, and. 

egiziano, Egyptian. 

ell, eh. 

eleggere, to elect. 

emblema, m., emblem. 

energia, energy. 

entrare, to enter, go in, get in, 
come in. 

esagerare, to exaggerate. 

esame, m., examination. 

esclamare, to exclaim. 

esercito, army. 

esistere, to exist. 

espressione,/., expression, remark. 

esprimere, to express. 

essere, to be, become; refl., to be. 



160 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



est, m., east, 
estasi,/., ecstasy. 
eta, age. 
Eurdpa, Europe. 



facchino, porter. 

faccia, face; di , in , opposite. 

facile, easy. 

falco, falcon. 

falsita, falseness. 

falso, false. 

fame,/., hunger. 

fanciulla, girl. 

fanciullo, boy, child. 

fantasma, m., phantom. 

fare, to do, make, have, let, take, 
say, be, act, serve as; refl., to 
become, get; lascia a me, 
leave it to me; d61ce niente, 
sweet idleness; sul di, toward; 
fa, ago. Other idioms in which 
fare appears are registered only 
under the other words concerned. 

fatale, fateful. 

fatica, fatigue, difficulty. 

fatto, fact. 

favore, m., favor. 

febbraio, February. 

febbre,/., fever. 

fecero, yrd pi. past abs. of fare. 

felice, happy. 

ferire, to wound. 

fermo, firm, certain. 

ferro, iron. 

figlio, son. 

filare, to spin. 

filosofia, philosophy. 

finalmente, finally, at last. 

finche, as long as, until; ... 
non, until. 



fine,/., end. 

finestra, window. 

fingere, to feign; finto, fictitious. 

finire, to finish, end; colP an- 

dare, finally to go. 
fino a, until. 
fi6re, m., flower. 
fiorino, florin, an obsolete coin 

worth about $2.50. 
Firenze,/., Florence, 
fiume, m., river, 
foglia, leaf. 
f61to, thick. 
fondare, to found, 
fondo, depth, trough, hollow, basis, 
fontana, fountain. 
forestiere, m., foreigner, stranger, 
formare, to form. 
fornire, to furnish; di, to give. 
f6ro, forum, market place. 
f6rse, perhaps. 
fdrte, strong. 
fortezza, fort. 
fortunato, fortunate. 
fdrza, force, strength; con , hard, 
fotografia, photograph. 
fra, between, among, amid, 

through. 

francese, French. 
frasca, bush, 
frase, /., sentence, 
fratello, brother. 

freddo, cold; fire , to be cold 
fretta, haste. 
frutto, fruit. 
fuggire, to flee, 
fuggitivo, fugitive. 
fulgore, m.) glow. 
fumare, to smoke. 
fuoco, fire, 
fuorche, except. 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



161 



galleria, gallery. 

garantire, to guarantee. 

gente, /., people, nation. 

gentile, gentle, polite, kind. 

gia, already. 

giacere, to lie. 

giallo, yellow. 

Gianicolo, Janiculum. 

giardino, garden. 

gigantesco, gigantic. 

ginocchio, knee. 

giocare, to play. 

gidia, joy. 

giornale, m., journal, newspaper. 

giorno, day; per , daily. 

gi6vane, young; n. m., young man. 

Giovanni, m., John. 

giovine, young. 

giovinezza, youth. 

girare, to whirl. 

gire, poetical, to go; girsene, to 

go away. 

gita, trip, excursion, 
giudicare, to judge, 
giudice, m., judge, justice. 
giungere, to join, clasp; a, to 

reach. 

giurare, to swear. 
giusto, just, fair. 
godere, to enjoy. 
governare, to govern. 
grande, great, large, big; n. m., 

great man; fare un freddo, 

to be very cold, 
grandiose, grand. 
gravare, to weigh down, oppress, 
gravemente, gravely, seriously. 
grazia, lavor; pi., thanks. 
grido, cry. 
guadagnare, to earn, gain, win. 



guanto, glove. 

guardare, to look, look at, watch 

guglia, pinnacle. 



idea, idea. 

ideale, m., ideal. 

ieri, yesterday. 

illudere, to deceive. 

illustrissimo, excellency. 

immense, immense. 

imparare, to learn. 

impaziente, impatient. 

impedire, to hinder. 

impegno, pledge, earnestness. 

imperatore, m., emperor. 

impero, empire. 

importante, important. 

impossibile, impossible. 

in, in, at, to; da allora in poi, 

thereafter. 

incanto, enchantment. 
inchino, bow. 
incontrare, to meet, 
indorare, to gild. 
indurre, to induce, lead, 
inerzia, inertia, 
infatti, in fact. 
ingegnere, m., engineer. 
Inghilterra, England, 
inginocchioni, kneeling, 
innalzare, to raise, 
insegnare, to teach, 
insieme, together. 
interessante, interesting, 
interesse, m., interest, 
intonare, to intone, start singing, 
intorno, round about. 
introduzidne, /., introduction, 
inutile, useless. 



162 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULAKY 



invas6re, m., invader; adj., in- 
vading. 

invece, instead. 
inverno, winter. 
invisibile, invisible. 
ira, anger. 
irraggiato, radiant, 
irrequieto, anxious. 
Italia, Italy, 
itali&no, Italian. 



la, there; al di la di, beyond. 

ISgo, lake. 

lagrima, tear. 

lasciare, to leave, let, fail; lascia 

fare a me, leave it to me. 
litte, m., milk. 
lavorare, to work. 
Iav6ro, labor, work, 
legge,/., law. 
leggere, to read, 
lento, slow, quiet, gentle, 
lettera, letter. 
levare, to raise, rise, 
lezione, /., lesson. 
li, there; di li a, within. 
liberta, liberty, freedom. 
libro, book. 

licere, poetical, to be permitted, 
lieto, glad. 
lieve, light. 

lingua, tongue, language. 
lira, lira, a coin worth about 20 

cents. 

litigdnte, m., litigant. 
lontano, distant, far; da , in the 

distance. 
KUne, m., light. 
lunedi, Monday. 



lungo, adj., long. 
lungo, prep., along, 
luogo, place. 

M 

ma, but. 

macchina, machine. 

madre, /., mother. 

maggi6re, greater. 

magico, magic. 

mai, never, ever; non ... , 
never. 

malato, sick. 

malattia, sickness, trouble. 

male, badly, ill; n. m., harm, ill; 
far , to hurt. 

mandare, to send. 

mangiare, to eat. 

maniera, manner. 

manifestare, to manifest. 

mano, /., hand. 

mare, m., sea. 

Maria, Mary. 

Mario, proper name. 

matita, pencil. 

mattina, morning. 

mazzo, cluster. 

medico, doctor. 

medioevale, mediaeval. 

Mediterraneo, Mediterranean. 

meglio, better, best. 

mela, apple. 

memoria, memory. 

menare, to lead, take. 

meno, less; le due died, ten 
minutes of two; non potere a 
di non, not to be able to 
help; i , the minority. 

mente, /., mind; venire in , to 
occur. . 

mentre, while. 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



163 



meravigliare, to surprise. 

mercato, market. 

mescolare, to mingle. 

mese, m., month. 

meta, half. 

mettere, to put, set; refl., to begin. 

mezzo, half; in a, amid; fino a 

, until the middle of ; le due 

e , half past two. 
mezzogiorno, noon; dopo , P. M. 
mica: non ... , not. 
Michelangelo, Michelangelo. 
migliore, better, best. 
Milano, /., Milan, 
minacciare, to threaten. 
minaccioso, threatening. 
tnise, 3rd sing, past abs. of 

mettere. 

misterioso, mysterious. 
moderno, modern, 
moglie, /., wife. 
molteplice, manifold. 
moltissimo, very much, a great 

deal of. 
molto, much, very much; adv., 

much, very; far male, to 

hurt badly, 
momento, moment. 
mondo, world; non sapere in che 

si sia, not to know where one 

is, to be completely bewildered. 
montare, to mount, go up. 
mdnte, m., mountain, mount. 
morire, to die. 
mormorio, murmur, 
morte, /., death. 
mdssero, 3rd pi. past abs. of 

muovere. 
mostrare, to show; refl., to 

appear, 
mucchio, pile. 



mudvere, to move, start. 
muro, wall. 

N 

Napoli,/., Naples. 

narrare, to narrate, tell. 

nascere, to be born or formed. 

Natale, m., Christmas. 

nazione, /., nation. 

ne, thence; andarsene, to go off 
or away. 

ne, nor, neither; non ... ne ... 
ne, neither . . . nor. 

neanche, non ... , not even. 

nebbia, mist. 

necessario, necessary. 

negare, to deny, refuse. 

nemico, enemy. 

nemmeno, non ... , not even. 

nero, black. 

nessuno, no one; non . . . , 
not anyone. 

neve,/., snow. 

nido, nest. 

niente, non ... , nothing, not 
anything; dolce far , sweet 
idleness. 

no, no, not. 

nodo, knot, link. 

nome, m., name. 

non, not, no; ... che, 
. . . se , only; che, to 
say nothing of; se , except; 
se -- che, if ... not, but; 
piu . . . che , more than; 
potere , not to be able to 
avoid or fail; potere a meno 
di , not to be able to help; 
un so che di budno, some- 
thing good, a certain goodness; 
so quale, some ... or other. 



164 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



nondimeno, nevertheless, 
nonna, grandmother. 
notizia, notice, news, 
ndtte,/., night, 
nube,/., cloud, 
nulla, non ... , nothing. 
numero, number. 
nudcere, to hurt. 

nudvo, new; che c' e di ?, 
what's the news? 



o, conj.j or, either. 

o, inter j., O; o che, used without 

translatable force to introduce a 

question. 

obbligare, to oblige. 
obelisco, obelisk, 
occasione, /., occasion, 
occhiali, m. pi., glasses. 
occhiata, glance, 
occhio, eye. 
occidentale, western. 
occupire, to occupy. 
6dio, hatred. 
offrire, to offer. 
6ggi, today. 
6gni, every. 
6h, oh. 

ombra, shadow, 
ombrello, umbrella, 
onorare, to honor. 
on6re, m., honor. 
6pera, work. 
operaio, workman. 
opinidne, /., opinion. 
6ra, adv., now; or , just. 
6ra, ., hour, time. 
6rfano, orphan. 
6ro, gold, 
osannare, to sing hosanna. 



6sso, bone. 
ozioso, idle. 



pdce, /., peace. 

padre, m., father. 

padrone, m., master. 

pagare, to pay. 

pagina, page. 

palazzo, palace. 

pallido, pale. 

pane, m., bread. 

paniere, m., basket. 

parere, to seem, appear. 

parlare, to speak. 

pardla, word. 

parte,/., part. 

partire, to depart, leave; di, to 

leave. 

partita, match, game, 
passare, to pass. 
passo, step. 

paterno, of one's parents, 
patria, fatherland. 
paura, fear, 
pausa, pause. 
pazienza, patience. 
peccato, sin; inter j., too bad. 
pena, trouble, 
penna, pen. 
pensare, to think. 
pensiero, thought. 
pentirsi, to repent. 
per, for, through, along, in, on, as, 

as for; quanto sia budno, 

good as it is; stare , to be 

about to. 
pera, pear. 
perche, why, because, in order 

that; n. m., reason, 
perdere, to lose. 



ITALIAN- ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



165 



perfettamente, perfectly, exactly. 

pericolo, danger. 

permettere, to permit, allow. 

perd, however, though. 

perorare, to plead. 

persuadere, to persuade, convince. 

pesce, m., fish. 

pezzo, piece. 

piacere, to please; n. m., pleasure, 

favor; aver , to be glad; mi 

piace, I like. 

piangere, to weep, cry, weep for. 
piano, smooth, slow; adv., softly, 

quietly. 

picchiare, to knock. 
piccolo, little, small. 
piede, m., foot; a piedi, on foot, 
pienamente, fully. 
pieno, full, 
pieta, pity. 
Pietro, Peter, 
pigliare, to take, catch. 
Pincio, Pincian Hill, 
pistola, pistol. 
pitt6re, m., painter, 
pittura, painting. 
pift, more, most, longer, again; 

. . . e , the more . . . the more; 

non . . . , not, no, not any; 

i , the majority. 
piuttdsto, rather. 
plaga, sky. 

po', abbreviated form o/pdco. 
pochissimo, very little. 
p6co, little, a little. 
poesia, poetry, poem. 
poeta, m., poet. 

pdi, then; da al!6ra in , there- 
after; che, when, 
poiche, after. 
pdlso, pulse. 



ponente, m., west. 

ponte, m., bridge. 

pdpolo, people. 

p6rre, to put, place, send. 

porta, door. 

portare, to carry, bring, take, 

show, 
possa, ^rd sing. pres. subj. of 

potere. 

possibile, possible. 
pdsto, place. 
potente, powerful, 
potere, to be able; posso, I can, I 

may; non non, not to be 

able to avoid or fail; non 

a meno di non, not to be able 

to help. 

poveretta, poor woman, 
poveretto, poor fellow. 
pdvero, poor; n., poor man. 
pranzo, dinner. 

praticare, to practice, associate. 
preferire, to prefer. 
preghiera, prayer, entreaty. 
premere, to press. 
prendere, prendersi, to take, 
presentare, to present. 
presente, present. 
presepe, m., stable, 
presso, da , near. 
prestare, to lend. 
presto, quickly, soon, early, 
pretendere, to expect, 
prevedere, to foresee. 
prezioso, valuable. 
prezzo, price. 
prima, first, before; di, che, 

before. 

principle, beginning. 
profondo, deep, low. 
proibire, to forbid. 



166 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



promettere, to promise. 
pronto, ready, quick. 
propagare, to spread abroad, 
proseguire, to continue. 
proteggere, to protect, patronize, 
prowidenza, providence. 
pubblicare, to publish. 
punto, point; adv., at all. 
pud, ^rd sing. pres. ind. of potere. 
purche, provided that, if only, 
pure, yet, just; trdppo, unfortu- 
nately. 



quadro, picture. 

qualche, some, a few; ha c6sa 

di budno, there is something 

good about it. 
qualcheduno, someone. 
qualcdsa, something. 
quale, which, what, as; il , who, 

which ; non so , some ... or 

other. 

qualita, quality. 
quando, when. 
quanto, how much, as much, as 

much as, all that, that, as; per 

sia budno, good as it is. 
quarto, quarter. 
quasi, almost, as if. 
quello, that, that one, the one, 

the, he; che, what, that, 
questo, this, this one. 
qui, here; di , hence. 

R 

racc61ta, collection. 

raccontare, to narrate, tell, tell 

about. 

radere, to shave, sweep. 
ragazza, girl. 



ragazzo, boy. 

ragi6ne, /., reason; aver , to be 

right. 

rase, jrd sing, past abs. of radere. 
re, m., king. 
regalare, to give, 
regina, queen. 
regnare, to reign. 
rendere, to render, give back, 

make. 
resero, 3rd pi. past abs. of 

rendere. 
restare, to stay. 
restituire, to give back, 
ribellarsi, to rebel, 
ribelle, m., rebel. 
ricchezza, riches, wealth. 
ricco, rich. 

ricevere, to receive, get. 
richiedere, to ask. 
riconoscere, to recognize. 
ricuperare, to recover, regain. 
ricusare, to refuse, deny, 
ridere, to laugh. 
rifiutare, to refuse. 
rifugiarsi, to take refuge. 
riguardare, to look again, regard, 

concern, 
rilevare, to raise again; refl., to 

rise again. 

rimanere, to remain, be left, be. 
rimettere, to replace; refl., to gain. 
rincrescere, to displease; mi rin- 

cresce, I'm sorry, 
rincrescimento, regret, 
ringraziare, to thank. 
ripetere, to repeat, 
risalire, to go up. 
riso, smile. 

risollevare, to raise again, 
rispettare, to respect. 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



167 



rispetto, respect. 
rispondere, to answer, reply. 
risp6se, 3rd sing, past abs. of 

rispondere. 

ritardo, delay; in , late. 
ritirare, to draw back. 
riuscire, to go out again, succeed. 
rivedere, to see again. 
rizzare, to raise; refl., to rise. 
Roma, Rome. 
romano, Roman. 
romanzo, novel. 
r6mpere, to break. 
r6sa, rose. 
roseo, rosy. 
rosso, red. 
rotondo, round. 



S 

sacro, sacred. 

salire, to go up. 

salotto, parlor. 

salutare, a, to greet. 

salute,/., health. 

sangue, m., blood. 

sano, sane, safe. 

santo, holy; saint. 

sapere, to know, find out, know 
how, be able; far , to tell; 
non in che mondo si sia, not 
to know where one is, to be 
completely bewildered; un non 
so che di buono, something 
good, a certain goodness; non 
so quale, some ... or other. 

stala, stair. 

scarpa, shoe. 

scena, scene. 

scendere, to go down. 

sciocco, fool; da , foolishly. 



scidgliere, to untie, remove. 

sciopero, strike; fare , to strike 

scodella, bowl. 

scopa, broom. 

scopare, to sweep. 

scordarsi di, to forget. 

scorso, last. 

scrivania, desk. 

scrivere, to write. 

scudla, school. 

scuro, dark. 

se, if, whether; se non, except; 

se non che, if ... not, but; 

non . . . se non, only. 
secolo, century. 
secondo, according to. 
sedere, to sit; seduto, sitting. 
seggiola, chair. 
segnare, to mark. 
seguente, following. 
seguire, to follow. 
seguitare, to follow; a, to 

keep on. 

semplice, simple. 
sempre, always. 
senno, wisdom. 
sensazione, /., sensation. 
senso, sense. 
sentire, to feel, hear, listen, listen 

to; sentite, I say, tell me. 
senza, che, without. 
sera, evening. 
serva, servant, 
servire, to serve, 
servitore, m., servant, 
sete, /., thirst; aver , to be 

thirsty. 

settimana, week. 
severe, severe. 
sforzo, effort. 
sguardo, glance. 



168 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



si, yes, so; ah si?, is that so?; si 
che e buono, it's very good 
indeed. 

siepe, /., hedge. 

signora, lady. 

sign6re, m., lord, gentleman, 
master, Mr. 

silenzioso, silent, still. 

simile, similar, like, such. 

simpatico, sympathetic, agreeable. 

sincere, sincere. 

Sistina, Sistine. 

so, ist sing. pres. ind. of sapere. 

societa, society. 

soffrire, to suffer. 

soggiogare, to subjugate. 

sdglia, threshold. 

soglio, throne. 

sogno, dream. 

soldito, soldier. 

soldo, penny, cent. 

s61e, w., sun, sunlight. 

solere, to be wont. 

s61o, alone, single, only. 

soltanto, only. 

sorella, sister. 

sormontare, to surmount. 

Sorrento, Sorrento. 

sorridere, to smile. 

sospettare, to suspect. 

s6tto, beneath. 

spagnuolo, Spanish; n., Spaniard. 

spaventare, to frighten. 

spazio, space. 

spedale, m., hospital. 

spedire, to send. 

speranza, hope. 

sperare, to hope. 

spesso, often. 

spettro, spectre, ghost. 

spiegare, to explain. 



spina, thorn. 

spirito, spirit. 

sposa, wife. 

sposo, bridegroom; adj., engaged 

stamane, this morning. 

stanno, jrd pi. pres. ind. of stare, 

standtte, last night. 

stUnza, room. 

stare, to stand, be, stay, sit; 
per, to be about to. 

stasera, this evening. 

stato, state. 

stazione, /., station. 

sterminito, boundless. 

stesso, same, self. 

stdffa, stuff, goods. 

storia, history, story. 

storico, historic, historical. 

strada, street, road. 

strano, strange. 

strappare, to snatch, tear. 

stretto, narrow. 

stridulo, harsh, rustling. 

stringere, to bind, press. 

studente, m., student. 

studiare, to study. 

studio, study. 

stupefatto, astonished. 

stupendo, fine. 

su, up, on, upon. 

subito, at once; che, as soon as. 

succedere, to succeed, follow^, 
happen; succedersi, n. m., suc- 
cession. 

successivo, succeeding. 

sudno, sound. 

superi6re, superior. 



tacere, to be silent or still, 
taciturno, taciturn, silent. 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



169 



tale, such, so. 

tanto, so much, as, so; piu, all 

the more. 
tardi, late, 
tar do, slow, 
tasca, pocket, 
tavola, table. 
teatro, theatre. 
tedesco, German. 
telefonare, to telephone, 
tema, m., theme. 
temere, to fear, be afraid. 
tempo, time, weather; tanto , 

so long, 
tenere, to hold; per fermo, to 

be certain; vivo, to keep up. 
terra, earth, ground, land, world, 
terribile, terrible. 
terrdre, m., terror, 
tesoro, treasure. 
testa, head. 
Tevere, m., Tiber, 
tingere, to tinge, stain. 
toccare, to touch, feel, 
togliere, to take; a, to take 

from. 

tdno, tone. 
tornire, to return, go back, come 

back; tornarsene, to come 

home. 

t6rre, /., tower. 

torto, wrong; aver , to be wrong. 
totale, total. 
tra, between, through, 
tranquillamente, calmly, 
trarre, to draw, bring, take, 
trascinare, to drag, 
trattare, to treat, 
tremare, to tremble, 
treno, train. 
trionfale, triumphal. 



tri6nfo, triumph. 

triste, sad. 

trdppo, too, too much, very; pur 

, unfortunately. 
trovare, to find. 
tumulto, tumult. 
tutto, all, everything; il, the 

whole; tutti e due, both. 



ubbidire, to obey. 

uccello, bird. 

udire, to hear. 

ultimo, last, latest. 

umano, human, of man, kindly. 

umido, wet. 

unire, to unite. 

unita, unity, union. 

universita, university. 

uno, one, some, someone; V 

e 1' altro, both. 
u6mo, man. 
uscio, doorway, door, 
uscire, to go out; di, to leave, 
utile, useful, good. 



vacanza, vacation. 

vacca, cow. 

vag6ne, m., car. 

valere, to be worth; far , to 

prove. 

valigia, valise, bag. 
vallata, valley. 

van, jrd pi. pres. ind. of andare. 
vaticano, Vatican. 
vecchia, old woman. ^ 

vecchio, old; n., old man. 
vedere, to see; far , to show, 
vendere, to sell, 
venerdi, Friday. 



170 



ITALIAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



VenSzia, Venice. 

venire, to come, be; in mente, 
to occur. 

ventina: una di, twenty or so. 

vento, wind. 

verde, green. 

vermiglio, vermilion, red. 

vero, true; non e ?, a request for 
assent, to be translated, according 
to the context, as am I not?, was 
he not? etc. 

verso, toward. 

vessfllo, banner. 

vestito, dress. 

vi, there, to it, in it. 

via, way, street; adv., away. 

viaggio, journey. 

viavai, m., coming and going, 
surging. 

vie~n, 3rd sing. pres. ind. of venire. 

villa, villa. 

villaggio, village. 

vincere, to win, vanquish, con- 
quer, overcome; darsi pervinto, 
to give in. 

vino, wine. 

vinto, pp. of vincere. 



virtu,/., virtue. 

visino, little face. 

visita, visit. 

visitare, to visit. 

viso, face. 

vista, sight, view. 

vita, life. 

vivere, to live. 

vivo, alive, keen; tener , to 

keep up. 
vizio, vice. 
v6ce, /., voice. 
volere, to will, be willing, wish, 

want, like, intend, decide, grant, 

think; dire, to mean; ci 

vuole, it takes; c6sa vudle?, 

never mind, 
vdlta, time; una , once, once 

upon a time; un' altra , 

again. 

volume, m., volume, 
voto, vote. 



zio, uncle. 
zitto, silent. 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



This vocabulary contains all English words appearing in exercise sections involving 
translation into Italian, except articles, cardinal and ordinal numerals, and possessive and 
personal pronouns. 

Italian nouns ending in o are masculine and those ending in a are feminine, unless 
indication to the contrary is given. 

Irregular Italian verbs are marked with a star. 



able: be , potere.* 

about, ( = approximately} circa; 
( = around) int6rno a; it, ne; 
be to, stare * per. 

according to, secondo. 

ache, dolere.* 

affection, affetto. 

afraid: be , temere. 

after, d6po; day tomorrow, 
doman 1' altro. 

again, ancora. 

against, c6ntro; (before a disjunc- 
tive pronoun) c6ntro di. 

agent, fatt6re, m. 

agreeable, simpatico. 

all, tutto; not ... at , non . . . 
punto. 

allude, alludere.* 

almost, quasi. 

alone, s61o. 

already, gia. 

although, benche. 

always, sempre. 

among, fra. 

amuse, divertire. 

ancient, antico. 

and, e; go , andare * a. 



another, un altro. 

answer, rispondere.* 

any, adj., alcuno; not . . . , 
non . . . nessuno; pron., ne. 

anything, qualche cosa; not . . . 
, non . . . niente. 

applaud, applaudire. 

apple, mela. 

April, aprile, m. 

arrival, arrivo. 

arrive, arrivare. 

as, come, tanto, quanto: see 32; 
as soon as, subito che; as far 
as, fino a. 

ascend, salire.* 

ashamed: be , vergognarsi. 

ask, (lesson 15) domandare; (les- 
son 32 and later lessons) chie- 
dere *; for, chiedere.* 

at, a; at last, finalmente; at least, 
almeno; at once, subito; at 
his house, da lui; not ... at 
all, non . . . punto; look at, 
guardare. 

aunt, zia. 

automobile, automdbile, m. 

autumn, autunno. 

away, via; go , andarsene.* 



172 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



B 

back, dietro; come or go , 
tornare; give , restituire. 

bad, cattivo. 

bag, valigia. 

basket, paniere, m. 

be, essere *; (of health) stare *; 
I am to, devo.* Other idioms 
with be are registered only under 
the other words concerned. 

beat, battere. 

beautiful, bello. 

because, perche. 

before, adv., prfma; 'conj., prima 
che; prep., (of time) prima di; 
(of place) davanti. 

beg, pregare. 

begin, cominciare. 

behind, dietro; (before a disjunc- 
tive pronoun) dietro a. 

believe, credere. 

beside, accanto a. 

best, adj., migli6re; adv., meglio. 

betray, tradire. 

better, adj., migli6re; adv., meglio. 

between, tra. 

big, grande. 

bind, strfngere.* 

black, ne"ro. 

book, libro. 

born: be , nascere.* 

both, tutti e due. 

bow, inchlno. 

boy, ragazzo. 

brave, coraggi6so. 

bread, pane, m. 

break, r6mpere.* 

brick, matt6ne, m. 

bring, portare. 

broad, Idrgo. 

brother, fratello. 



build, costruire.* 

business, affare, m. 

but, ma; ( = only) non . . . che. 

button, bott6ne, m. 

buy, comprare. 

by, da; (in special cases) di, per. 



call, chiamare. 

can: I , posso.* 

care, cura; take , baddre. 

carry, portare. 

cent, soldo. 

centre, centro. 

century, secolo; see 39 (c). 

certain, certo. 

cheek, guancia. 

child, fanciullo. 

choose, scegliere.* 

church, chiesa. 

city, citta. 

close, chiudere.* 

cloud, nuvola. 

coat, abito. 

coffee, caffe, m. 

cold, freddo. 

color, co!6re, m. 

come, venire*; back, torndrej 

in, entrare. 
comfort, confortare. 
company, compagnia. 
compel, costringere.* 
conduct, condurre.* 
conquer, vincere.* 
consist, constare.* 
content, contento. 
continue, continudre. 
convince, convfncere,* 
cook, cudcere.* 
corner, canto. 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



173 



cost, costare. 
count, c6nte, m. 
country, paese, w. 
courage, coraggio. 
cousin, cugino. 
cover, coprfre.* 
crowd, affollare. 
crude, crudo. 
cry, piangere.* 
custom, costume, 
cut, tagliare. 



dark, scuro; (lessons 25 and 33) 

buio. 
day, gi6rno; after tomorrow, 

doman 1' altro. 
decide, decidere.* 
depart, partire. 
desire, n., desiderio. 
desire, vb., desiderare. 
desk, scrivania. 
die, morire.* 
difficult, difficile. 
difficulty, difficolta. 
dinner, pranzo. 
disappear, sparire.* 
ditch, fossa. 
divide, dividere.* 
do, fare.* For do as auxiliary, 

see 54 (g). 
doge, doge, m. 
door, porta. 
doubt, dubbio. 
down, giu; sit , sedere.* 
drag, trarre.* 
draw, trarre.* 
dress, vestito. 
drink, bere.* 
duke, duca, m. 



E 

each, adj., 6gni; pron., ognuno; 
other: see 47, 2 and 51 (/). 
early, presto. 
earn, guadagnare. 
easy, facile. 
eat, mangiare. 
egg, uovo. 
either, o. 

Emmanuel, Emanuele, m. 
employee, impiegato. 
end, finire. 
enemy, nemico. 
English, inglese. 

enjoy, godere. 

enough, abbastanza; be , ba- 
stare. 

enter, entrare. 

entreaty, preghiera. 

escape, scappare. 

Europe, Europa. 

even, anc6ra; not . . . , non 
. . . nemmeno. 

evening, sera; this , stasera. 

ever, sempre. 

every, ogni. 

everything, tutto. 

examination, esame, m. 

exclamation, esclamazi6ne, f.\ 

exist, eslstere.* 

explain, spiegare. 

express, esprimere.* 

extinguish, spegnere.* 

eye, 6cchio. 



face, faccia. 

faU, cadere.* 

far, lontano; as as, ffno a. 

father, padre, m. 



174 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



fatherland, patria. 

fault, colpa. 

favor, fav6re, m. 

fear, temere. 

feel, sentire. 

few, a , pochi. 

fight, combattere. 

finally, finalmente. 

find, trovare. 

fine, bello. 

finger, dito. 

finish, finire. 

first, adv., prima. 

flee, fuggfre. 

Florence, Firenze, /. 

flower, fiore, m. 

follow, seguire.* 

foot, piede, m. 

for, per; two years, due anni, 
da due anni: see 79 (e)-, ask , 
chiedere *; look , cercare; 
wait , aspettare. 

foreigner, forestiere, m. 

France, Francia. 

French, francese. 

friend, amico. 

from, da; (in special cases) di. 

fry, friggere.* 

full, pieno. 



gallery, galleria. 

garden, giardino. 

gather, cogliere.* 

gentleman, sign6re, m. 

get, ricevere. 

girl, ragazza. 

give, dare *; back, restitufre. 

glasses, occhiali, m. pi. 

glove, guanto. % 

go, andare *; go away, andar- 



sene *; go back, tornare; go 
in, entrare; go out, uscire *; 
go up, salire.* 

good, buono. 

goods, stoffa. 

government, governo. 

gratitude, gratitudine, /. 

great, grande. 

greet, salutare. 

grieve, dolere.* 

ground, terra. 

grow, crescere.* 

guarantee, garantire. 

guard, guardia. 



habit, abitudine, /. 

half, n., meta; adj., mezzo; 

past two, le due e mezzo. 
hand, mano, /.; right , destra. 
handkerchief, fazzoletto. 
handsome, bello. 
happen, succedere.* 
happy, felice. 
hard, adv., forte, 
harm, nuocere.* 
hat, cappello. 
have, avere *; (causative) fdre *; 

(expressing obligation) dovere.* 

For have as auxiliary, see 64, 3. 
head, testa. 
health, salute, /. 
hear, sentire; (lesson 38) udire.* 
help, aiutare; not to be able to , 

non potere * a meno di non. 
here, qui, ci: see 84; is, cco. 
hide, nasc6ndere.* 
high, alto, 
hill, colle, m. 
hold, tenere.* 
home, casa. 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



175 



honor, on6re, m. 

hope, sperare. 

hotel, alb ergo. 

hour, 6ra. 

house, casa; at his , da lui. 

how, come; much, quanto. 



idea, idea. 

if, se. 

impossible, impossfbile. 

in, in; (with the name of a city} 
a; ( = within} fra; (in special 
cases] di; come or go in, en- 
trare; in order that, per die; 
hi this way, cosi. 

industrious, industrioso. 

instead, invece. 

interesting, interessante. 

into, in; (in special cases) a. 

invade, invadere.* 

Italian, italiano. 

Italy, Italia. 



John, Giovanni, m. 
June, giugno. 

K 

keep, tenere *; still, tac6re.* 
key, chiave, /. 
kill, uccfdere.* 
king, re, m. 
knock, picchiare. 

know, sapere *; ( = be acquainted 
with) con6scere.* 



lady, sign6ra. 
lake, lago. 
large, grande. 



last, ultimo; at , finalmente 1 , 
- night, stanotte; yar, 

1' anno scorso. 
late, in ritardo. 
latest, ultimo.- 
laugh, ridere.* 
lawyer, avvocato. 
lead, menare. 
leaf, foglia. 
least: at , almeno. 
leave, (intransitive) partire; (tran- 
sitive) lasciare. 
lend, prestare. 
lesson, lezione, /. 
let, lasciare. For let as auxiliary, 

see the note on p. 115. 
letter, lettera. 
library, biblioteca. 
lie, giacere.* 
life, vita. 
light, n., lume, m. 
light, vb., accendere.* 
Uke, prep., come; a man, da 

uomo. 
like, vb., (with an infinitive) 

volere *; I like it, mi piace.* 
line, linea. 
little, piccolo; a ( = some), un 

po' di; ( = somewhat), un po'. 
live, vivere.* 
long, lungo. 
look, - - at, guardare; for, 

cercare. 
lose, perdere. 
love, amare. 
low, profondo. 
lunch, colazi6ne,/. 


M 

make, fare.* 
man, uomo; young , gi6vane, m. 



176 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



manner, maniera. 

market, mercato. 

Mary, Maria. 

may: I , pdsso.* 

Milan, Milano, /. 

mile, miglio. 

minute, minuto; ten minutes past 

two, le due e died; ten minutes 

of two, le due meno died. 
mistaken: be , sbagliarsi. 
moment, momento. 
monarch, monarca, m. 
Monday, lunedi. 
money, denaro. 
month, mese, m. 
more, piu. 
morning, mattina; this , sta- 

mane. 
most, piu. 
mother, madre, /. 
mountain, montagna. 
move, muovere.* 
Mr., sign6r. 
much, m6lto; how , quanto; 

so , tanto; too , troppo; 

very , m61to. 
must: I , devo.* 



name, n6me, m. 

Naples, Ndpoli,/. 

near, vidno a. 

necessary, necessario; be , bi- 

sognare. 
never, mai. 
new, nu6vo. 
newspaper, giornale, m. 
night, notte, /. ; last , stanotte. 
no, no; one, nessuno. 
noon, mezzogi6rno. 



not, non. 
novel, romanzo. 
now, 6ra. 



obliged : be , dovere. * 

o'clock: two , le due. 

of, di; of it, of him, of them, ne; 

ten minutes of two, le due m6no 

died. 

off, via; take , levare. 
offer, offrire.* 
often, spesso. 
old, vcchio. 

on, su; (in special cases) con. 
once, una volta; at , subito. 
one, uno; (as indefinite subject) 

si; no , nessuno; other , 

altro; that , the , quello; 

this , questo; who, chi. 
only, adj., s61o; adv., soltanto. 
open, adj., aperto. 
open, vb., aprire.* 
or, o; ten or so: see 40. 
order, n., 6rdine, m.; in that, 

perche. 

order, vb., comandare. 
other, one, altro; each : see 

47, 2 and 61 (/). 
ought: I , dovrei. 
out, fuori; go , usdre *; put, 

spegnere.* 
outside, di fu6ri. 
owe, dovere.* 
own, proprio. 



pain, dolere.* 
pair, paio. 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



177 



paper, cdrta. 

pardon, perdondre. 

parlor, salotto. 

past, passato; half two, le due 

e mezzo. 

patience, pazienza. 
pay, pagdre. 
peasant, contadino. 
pen, penna. 
pencil, matita. 
perfectly, perfettamente. 
perhaps, 6rse. 
person, pers6na. 
persuade, persuadere.* 
photograph, fotografia. 
picture, quddro. 
place, n., p6sto. 
place, vb., p6rre.* 
please, piacere.* 
pleasure, piacere, m. 
pocket, tasca. 
poem, poesia. 
polite, gentile. 
poor, povero. 
pope, papa, m. 
porter, facchino. 
praise, lodare. 
prefer, preferfre. 
present, presentare. 
press, premere. 
pretty, bello. 
prisoner, prigioniero. 
probably, probabilmente. 
promise, promettere.* 
protect, proteggere.* 
provided, purche. 
public, pubblico. 
push, spingere.* 

put, (lessons 28 and 30) mettere *; 
(lessons 32 and 34) p6rre *; 
out, spegnere.* 



queen, regina. 
quick, subito. 



rain, piovere.* 

read, leggere.* 

ready, pr6nto. 

really, veramente. 

recall, ricordare. 

receive, ricevere. 

recognize, condscere.* 

red, rosso. 

remain, rimanere.* 

Renaissance, Rinascimento. 

repeat, ripetere. 

respect, rispettare. 

return, tornare. 

right, diritto; hand, destra; be 

, aver * ragi6ne. 
rise, s6rgere.* 
river, fiume, m. 
Rome, R6ma. 
room, stanza. 
rose, rosa. 
round, rot6ndo. 
run, c6rrere.* 
Russia, Russia. 



S 

sacristan, sagrestano. 
say, dire.* 
scene, scena. 
school, scuola. 
search, cercdre. 
seated, seduto., 
see, vedere.* 
seek, cercdre. 
seem, parere.* 



178 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



self, stesso. 

send, mandare. 

sentence, frase, /. 

September, settembre, m. 

servant, servit6re, m. 

serve, servire. 

several, parecchi. 

sew, cucire.* 

shake, scudtere.* 

shoe, scarpa. 

shop, bottega. 

short, c6rto. 

shoulder, spalla. 

show, mostrare. 

shut, chiudere.* 

sick, malato. 

sight, vista. 

silent, silenzi6so; be , tacere.* 

since, (causal) poiche; (temporal) 

dacche. 

sincere, sincere. 
shig, cantare. 
sir, sign6re, m. 
sister, sorella. 
sit, down, sed6re.* 
site, sito. 
sleep, dormfre. 
small, piccolo, 
smile, sorridere.* 
smoke, fumo. 
snow, n., neve,/. 
snow, vb., nevicare. 
so, cosi; so much, tanto; I think 

so, lo credo; ten or so: see 40. 
some, alcuno, qualche, ne: see 89. 
someone, qualcuno. 
something, qualche c6sa. 
song, canto. 
sonnet, son6tto. 

soon, presto; as as, subito che. 
speak, parlare. 



spend, (of money) spendere *; 

(of time) passare. 
square, piazza, 
stand, stare.* 
start, partire. 
station, stazione, /. 
stay, (lesson 15) restare; (lesson 24 

and later lessons) rimane're.* 
still, adj., quieto; keep , tacere.* 
still, adv., anc6ra. 
stocking, calza. 
street, via. 
student, studente, m. 
study, n., studio, 
study, vb., studiare. 
such a, un tale. 
suffer, soffrire.* 
summer, estate,/. 
sun, s61e, m. 
Sunday, domenica. 
sure, sicuro. 
surprise, n., sorpresa. 
surprise, vb., sorpr^ndere *; be 

surprised, meraviglidrsi. 
surrender, rendersi.* 
surround, cingere.* 
swear, giurare. 
sword, spada. 
syllable, sillaba. 



table, tavola. 

take, prendere*; ( = take away) 
togliere *; ( = accompany, lead) 
menare; care, badare; 
off, levare; it takes, ci vudle.* 

talk, parlare. 

tall, alto. 

telephone, telefonare. 

tell, (lessons 13-17) raccontare; 
(lessons 35-40) dire.* 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



179 



than, che, di: see 33. 

thank, ringraziare. 

that, conj., che; hi order , 
perche. 

that, pron., quello, do, che: see 
42 and 44; one, quello. 

theatre, teatro. 

then, poi. 

there, la, vi, ci: see 84; is: 
see note on p. lop. 

thing, c6sa. 

think, (= meditate) pensare; ( = 
suppose) credere. 

this, questo; one, questo; hi 
way, cosi; - morning, 
stamane; evening, stase"ra. 

though, pero. 

thousand, migliaio. 

through, per. 

ticket, biglietto. 

time, tempo, volta: see note on p. 
in. 

to, a; (before the name of a coun- 
try} in; (in special cases') da, di, 
per; according to, sec6ndo; be 
about to, stare * per. For to 
before an infinitive, see 79 (b); 
for to with an unemphatic per- 
sonal pronoun, see 47-50. 

today, oggi. 

tomorrow, domani; day after , 
doman F altro. 

too, - - much, troppo; he , 
dnche lui. 

toward, verso. 

tower, t6rre, /. 

tram, treno. 

travel, viaggiare. 

tree, albero. 

true, v6ro. 

trunk, baule, m. 



try, cercare. 

turn, (intransitive) volgersi*; (tran- 
sitive) volgere.* 

U 

umbrella, ombrello. 
under, sot to. 
understand, capire. 
until, conj., finche non; prep. 

fino a. 
up, su; up to, fino a; go up, 

salire.* 



vase, vaso. 
Venice, Venezia. 
very, much, m61to. 
Victor, Vittorio. 
view, vista. 
villa, villa. 
village, villaggio. 
visit, visitare. 
vote, votare. 

W 

wait, for, aspettare. 
wake, svegliare. 
walk, camminare. 
wall, muro. 
want, volere.* 
warm, caldo. 
waste, sprecdre. 
watch, guardare. 
water, acqua. 
way, via; hi this , cosi. 
weather, tempo, 
week, settimana. 
weep, piangere.* 
well, bene. 
what, inter j., c6me. 



180 



ENGLISH-ITALIAN VOCABULARY 



what, pron., quello che, che, che 
c6sa: see 42-44. 

when, quando. 

where, d6ve. 

wherever, dovunque. 

which, che, quale : see 43 and 44. 

while, mentre. 

white, bianco. 

who, chi, che : see 43 and 44 ; one 
, chi; whom, cui. 

whole, intero; the , tutto il. 

whose, di chi. 

why, perch&r 

wife, m6glie, /. 

willing: be , volere.* 

wind, vnto. 

window, finestra. 

winter, inverno. 

wish, volere.* 

with, con. 

without, s6nza; (before a disjunc- 
tive pronoun) senza cfi. 

woman, donna. 



wont: be , solere.* 

wood, bosco. 

word, par61a. 

work, ., Iav6ro; (literary work} 

6pera. 

work, vb., lavorare. 
worse, peggio. 
worth: be , valere.* 
worthy, degno. 
write, scrivere.* 
writer, scritt6re, m. 
wrong: be , av6r* t6rto. 



year, anno. 

yellow, giallo. 

yes, si. 

yesterday, ieri. 

yet, anc6ra; ( = nevertheless) ep- 

pure. 

yield, cedere. 
young, gi6vane. 



INDEX 



[The numbers refer to paragraphs. Ad, N. means the Additional Notes on 
Pronunciation printed on pp. 6-10.] 



a (letter): 2; Ad. N., 2. 

a (preposition): 79; 79, b, h. 

Accent: 7; Ad. N. (pp. 9, 10); 47; 
48; 84; 92, 

Accents: 3; 7. 

Address (forms of): 52. 

Adjectives: 26-34. 

Comparison: 31-34; gender: 
26; 28; number: 26; 29; 
position: 27; used as nouns: 
20; 30. 

Adverbs: 80-85. 

ci, vi: 47, a; 84; comparison: 
80, 2; manner: 85; ne: 47, 
3, a; 56, b; 'never': 83; 
'not,' non: 80, i; 81; 91, a; 
'only': 82; position: 80, i; 
'so': 85, a. 

'All': 87. 

Alphabet: i; Ad. N., i. 

altrui: 91, d. 

'Any': 88. 

Articles: 9-16. 

Augmentatives: 35-37. 

Auxiliary verbs: 53-57. 

avere: 53, b; 54, 3; essere: 53, 
a; 54, i, 3; compound 
tenses: 54; 56; modal aux- 
iliaries: 57. 

avere: 53, b; 54, 3; 54, b; 92, 5. 



'Be': 53, a; 54, i, 3; 54, a, c, d, f; 

92, 126. 
bello: 29, c. 
'Both': 38, 4; 91. 
buono: 29, c. 

'Can': see Modal Auxiliaries. 

ci (adv.): 47, a; 84. 

ci (pron.) : 47~5o. 

Close Vowels: 3; Ad. N., 3. 

Comparison: 31-34; 80, 2. 

Adjectives: 31-34; adverbs: 
80, 2; irregular: 31, a; 
80, 2. 

Compound Tenses: 54; 56; 73; 75. 

Conditional: see Past Future. 

Conjugation: 53-68; 92. 

First: 59; second: 60; third: 
60; fourth: 61; variations: 
63; 66, a; 68; irregular 
verbs: 64-68; 92; auxiliary 
verbs: 53-57; compound 
tenses: 54; 56; compound 
verbs: 67, a; 93, a. 

Conjunctions: 78. 

With subjunctive: 77, d; 78, 
a, b. 

Consonants: 4-6; Ad. N., 4-6. 

Contraction: 12; 23 ( 2 ); 50 ( l ); 
63, d; 65; 66, i; 68, a. 



182 INDEX 

da: 79, c,f, g. Infinitive: 48, b; 58; 69-72. 

Dates: 38, b; 39, b, c. Contracted: 65. 

Definite Article: 10-13. Inflections of the Voice: see p. 9. 

Form: 10-12; use: 12, a; 13; Interrogation: see Questions. 

38, b; 39, a; 45; 69; 70. issimo (suffix): 35, a. 

di: 12; 17; 79, b, 3,/, h,j. 'It': 47; 51; 51, h. 
Diminutives: 35-37. 

'Do': 54, g. Letters: i; Ad. N., i. 
Double Letters: 6. 

Doubling: Ad. N., 6; 48. d: 93, a. <,,- , 

'May': see Modal Auxiliaries. 

e (letter) : 3; Ad. N., 3; 68, i, j. Modal Auxiliaries: 57. 

e (conjunction): 78; 78, c. Moods: 57; 6 9~77J 78, a. 

ecco: 48 e; 84 a. Conditional: see Past Future. 

essere: 53, a; 54, i, 35 54, a, c, d; Imperative: 66, b; 72; 77, a; 

92, 126. infinitive: 48, b; 58; 65; 69- 

Exclamations: Ad. N (p. 10); 43, 72; Participle: 54, a, 6; 62; 

jy ^ # 4 63, d; 69-71; subjunctive: 

44, c; 77; 78, a. 

'For': 79, e. 'Must': see Modal Auxiliaries. 

Fractions: 39, d. 'Myself,' 'thyself,' etc.: 47, 2; 

Future: 54, 2; 68, c; 74; 77. 5*, e. 
Contracted: 65; 66, i. 

ne (adv.): 47, a; 56, b; 84. 

Gender: 9-11; 14-15; 18-21; 26; ne ( pr0 n.): 47,3; 48; 49; 88; 89. 

Neuter Verbs: 54, 3; 56, a. 

grande: 29, c. 'Never': 83. 

non: 80, i; 81; 91, a. 

h: 4 ; 22, a; 23, a, c; S9> a. < Not ': 80, i; 81. 

Have : 53, b; 54, 3; 54, b, h; 57, Nouns: I? _ 25 . 

, fl; 92 ' 5< Gender: 18-21; number: 22 

Here': 84. 25 

i (letter): 2; 2, a; 4; Ad. N., 2; 22, Dumber: 9-11; 22-25; 29. 

b; 23, 6; 59, a; 60; 92, /. Numerals: 38-40. 

i (euphonic): 79; 81. Cardinal: 38; ordinal: 39. 
Imperative: 66, b; 72; 77, a. 

Imperfect: see Past Descriptive. o (letter): 3; Ad. N., 3; 59, b. 

Impersonal Verbs: 51; 51, h; 77, c. o (conjunction): 78; 78, c. 

Indefinite Article: 14-16. Old Forms: Ad. N., 3,/; 12 (); 

Form: 14-15; use: 16; 38, i; 23 ( 2 ); 44, a; 47 0); 48, d; 

43, b. 50 C); 63, d; 68; 92; 93. 



INDEX 



183 



'One' (indefinite): 55; 86. 
'Only': 82. 

Open Vowels: 3; Ad. N., 3. 
'Ought': see Modal Auxiliaries. 

Participle: 54, a, b; 62; 63, d; 69- 

7i- 
Past: 54, a, b; 63, d; 71, c; 

present: 62; 69-71. 
Partitive: 12, a; 88; 89. 
Passive: 54, i; 54, /; 55; 56,0. 
Past Absolute: 60; 65; 66, 2, 3; 68, 

d, e; 75. 
Past Descriptive: 

Form: 63, 63, c; 65; 68, a, h; 

use: 54, d, e; 73; 75. 
Past Future: 54, 2; 68, b; 76; 77; 

92, c. 

Contracted: 65; 66, i; 92, c. 
Past Perfect: see Perfect Tenses. 
Perfect Tenses: 54, 35 56; 73 ; 75- 
Personal Pronouns: 46-52. 

Conjunctive: 47-50; form: 47; 
48, c, d; 50; 52, i ; position: 
48; 49. 

Disjunctive: 51-52; omission: 
51, 2; 51, h; use: 51; 51, i; 
51, a, b, h. 
Pitch: see p. 9. 

Pluperfect: see Perfect Tenses. 
Plural: 22-25; 29. 

Irregular: 23, d; 25; words in 

-co and -go: 23, c. 
Poetic Forms: see Old Forms. 
Possessive: 17; 45; 52, i. 
Prefixes: 93, a. 
Prepositions: 79. 
da: 79, c,f, g. 
'to': 79, a, b. 

Present: 65; 66, 4; 68, /, g; 
73; 74- 



Preterit: see Past Absolute. 

Preterit Perfect: see Second Past 
Perfect. 

Pronouns: 41-52; 86-91. 

Demonstrative: 42; indefinite: 
86-91; interrogative, 43; 
personal: see Personal; pos- 
sessive: see Possessive; re- 
ciprocal: see Reciprocal; 
reflexive: see Reflexive; 
relative: 44. 

Pronunciation: 1-8; Ad. N. 

qualche: 29, b; 89. 
Quantity: 2; Ad. N., 2. 
Questions: Ad. N. (p. 10); 43; 51, 
2; 77, f, g; 79, b; 81, a. 



Reciprocal Pronouns and Verbs: 

47, 2; 48; 49; 50; 51, 3; 51, 

/; 52, i; 56, b. 
Reflexive Pronouns: 47, 2; 48; 49; 

50; 51, 3; 52, i; 55; 56, ft; 

63, a; 86. 
Reflexive Verbs: 55; 56, b; 63, a; 

86. 



santo: 29, c. 

Second Past Perfect: 54, 3; 75. 

'Shall': 54, 2; 57. 

'Should': 54, 2; 57; 76; 77. 

si: 47-5o; 52; 55; 56, b; 63, 

a; 86. 

'So': 85, a. 
'Some': 89. 

Spelling: 1-8. 9 

Subjunctive: 44, c; 77; 78, a. 
Suffixes: Ad. N., 3; 35-37; 85. 
Syllables: 8. 



184 



INDEX 



Tenses: 

Compound: 54; 56; 735 75- 
Future: see Future; imper- 
fect: see Past Descriptive; 
past absolute: see Past 
Absolute; past descriptive: 
see Past Descriptive; pres- 
ent: see Present; preterit: 
see Past Absolute. 

'Than': 33. 

'There': 84. 

Tune of day: 38, c. 

'To': 79, , b. 

u (letter): 2; 2, a; 4; Ad. N., 2. 



Verbs: 53~77; 92; 93- 

Auxiliary verbs: see Auxiliary; 

conjugation: see Conjuga- 'You': 52; 86. 



tion; lists of irregular verbs: 
92; 93; alphabetical: 93; by 
conjugations: 92; moods: 
see Moods; tenses: see 
Tenses; regular verbs: 55- 
56; 59-63; irregular verbs: 
64-68; 92; regular parts: 
66; compound verbs: 67, a; 
93, a; old forms: 63, d; 
68; 92. 

vi (adv.): 47, a; 84. 

Vowels: 2-3; Ad. N., 2-3. 

'Whatever': 44, c. 

'Whoever': 44, c. 

'Will': 54, 2; 57- 

'Would': 54, 2; 54, e; 57; 76; 77. 



PC Grandgent, Charles Sail 

1111 Italian grammar. Rev. ed 

(17 

1915 

cop. 2 



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