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Ctrtosa ot Pavia 









First Published in ig 1 1 


NO attempt has been made in this volume to 
deal with all the workers in stone or metal 
who were active in Italy after the revival, or to describe 
each work commonly given to the sculptors included. 
While Niccola Pisano is rated as the first of the modems, 
brief mention has been made of the forerunners of the 
Pisan school : notably of Bonanno, Guido da Como and 
Antelami. Even had it been possible, a detailed 
examination of the vast amount of pre-Pisan carving 
scattered all over Italy, would have been profitless. 
The work of the chisel was mere stone-cutting — and not 
of the best — till it was grasped by the hand of Niccola, 
who brought about a revolution in plastic art even 
greater than Masaccio's in pictorial some century and 
a half later. After Niccola development was extra- 
ordinarily rapid; considerable space has necessarily 
been devoted to his leading successors, and more than 
ordinary care has been given to certain sculptors of the 
golden age, whose renown has been somewhat unjustly 
dimmed by the dazzling glory of their great con- 
temporaries : men like Agostino di Duccio, Amadeo, 
Balduccio, Bertoldo, Bonino di Campione, Bregno, 


Civitale, Marinna, Giovanni da Nola and the unknown 
creators of the Orvieto reliefs. With regard to the 
attribution of uncertain or unsigned works, the con- 
servative attitude has, as a rule, been kept with the view 
of counteracting the tendency, too marked nowadays, to 
seek in debatable cases a fresh author merely for the 
sake of making a change ; and an agnostic position has 
been preferred to a definite pronouncement in cases 
where claims may seem delicately balanced. In many 
instances, notably in the Venetian workshops of the 
Quattrocento, important monuments and statues were 
produced by the combined effort of some particular 
family or school — the Lombardi will furnish an instance 
— and many of these works, hitherto ascribed to indi- 
vidual sculptors, will be found in the following pages, 
given as the product of the workshop. Considerations 
of space have forbidden full discussion of certain open 
questions, such as the milieu of Niccola Pisano's training, 
and the inspiration of the reliefs on the facade at 

At the present time the literature of Art is in a 
condition of feverish activity. The Art magazines of 
every country teem with new views on old subjects, and 
the reader who tries to master and digest the conflicting 
evidence, scattered through dozens of articles, will end 
his task in sheer perplexity, confident only on one point 
viz., that a vast proportion of the questions mooted have 
been treated with labour and diligence altogether out 
of proportion to their importance. No doubt it is an 
advantage that slovenly and impossible attributions 
should have been set right, and that Vasari's anecdotes, 


which formerly did duty for Art history, should have 
been relegated to their proper place; but the younger 
writers in their enthusiasm are apt to forget that there 
are two Vasaris, and that it is hardly fair to treat as 
equally untrustworthy the transcriber of gossip about 
fourteenth and fifteenth-century artists, and the author 
of the wonderful life of Michelangelo and the vivid 
reporter of the careers of many others who lived nearer 
to his own time. 




Details of Cloister, Certosa of Pavia 




Agostino di Duccio Allegories of the Sciences, S. Francesco, Rimini 
,, . Music, S. Bernardino, Perugia "j 

„ . M. Aurelius, Bargello, Florence \. 

Poverty, S. Bernardino, Perugia/ 
Lunette, Cloister Door, Certosa of Pavia 
Details of Fa9ade, Certosa of Pavia 
Lunette, Baptistery Door, Parma . 
Conflict, Bargello, Florence . 
Angle Sculpture, Ducal Palace, Venice . 
Battle of Centaurs and Lapithae, 

Buonarroti, Florence. 
Details of Medici Tombs, New Sacristy, San 
Lorenzo, Florence .... 

-* I New Sacristy, San Lorenzo 

Madonna t ^n 

r, ^ . I rlorence ... 
b. Damiano / 

Head of Gaston de Foix, Castello, Milan 1 

Fountain of the Tartarughe, Rome . / 

Details of Frieze, S. Satiro, Milan 

Tomb of Ladislas, S. Giovanni a Carbonara 

Naples ...... 

S. Elizabeth, Cathedral, Genoa 

Bronze Door, Bargello, Florence . ) 

The Brazen Serpent, Bargello, Florence j 

Pulpit, Cathedral, Prato 

High Altar, S. Antonio, Padua . 

Holy Water Stoup, Cathedral, Siena . 

Reredos, Cathedral, Fiesole . 

Details of Eastern Doors, Baptistery, Florence 

Altar Relief, Eremitani, Padua 

Andrea DI Aquila(?) 1 D ,. , . u rr- . i x- 
, _ ,,, ^ ' J- Reliefs, Arch of Castel Nuov( 


Lbopardi . . Tomb of A. Vendramin, SS. Giovanni 

Paolo, Venice 



Anon. . 










Giovanni da Pisa 














Anon. . 
Majano, B. da 
Nanni di Banco 
NiccoLA DI Barto 


PisANO, Andrea . 
Pisano, Giovanni. 
Pisano, Niccola . 





Sansovino, J. 

»> • 

Settignano, Desi- 
derio da, and 


Settignano, Desi- 


TiNO DI Camaino . 

Tribolo and 

Verrocchio . 

Altar, S. Domenico, Naples . 
Tomb of Robert, S. Chiara, Naples 

Reliefs, Campanile, Florence 

Panel of Pulpit, S. Andrea, Pistoia 

Pulpit, Baptistery, Pisa "> 

Pulpit, Cathedral, Siena j 

Panel of Pulpit, Cathedral, Siena . 

Tomb of Sixtus iv, S. Peter's, Rome 

Lunette of Door, S. Petronio, Bologna) 

Head of Ilaria, Cathedral, Lucca J 

Font, Baptistery, Siena 

Tron Monument, Frari, Venice 

Altar, La Verna ..... 

Angels, Impruneta, near Florence "^ 

Resurrection, Cathedral, Florence J 

Tomb of Federighi, S. Trinita, Florence"! 

Font, S. Frediano, Lucca . . • j 

Altar, Mount OHveto, Naples 

Hermes')^ ,^ . 

Apollo I Loggetta, Venice . . . 

Cherubs, Pazzi Chapel, S. Croce, Florence 



S. Cecilia, S. Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome 
Effigy of Guidarelli, Pinacoteca, Ravenna 

Lavabo, Certosa of Pavia . . . .118 

Altar, Monte Oliveto, Naples . . .122 

Altar, Fontegiusta, Siena . . . .126 

Pietk, S. Giovanni, Modena . . . .128 

Assumption, Cathedral, Florence . . .140 

Pulpit and Details, Cathedral, Ravello . .142 











Tomb of Ludovico and Beatrice Sforza, 

Certosa of Pavia .... 
Tabernacle, S. Lorenzo, Florence. . . 2IO 

Tomb of Mary of Hungary, S. Donna Regina, 

Naples 218 

Fountain, Castello, near Florence . . . 220 

Christ and S. Thomas, Or 8. Michele, Florence 226 
Collcone, Venice 228 


AFTER the fall of the Western Empire art production 
practically ceased in Italy, on account of the persistent 
violence of the barbarian invasions. In spite of the survival 
of the imperial seat at Constantinople, the fertile plains 
and the splendid cities of Italy still shone as the promised 
land in the sight of the northern hordes who followed the 
traces of the retreating legions. Each swarm was followed by 
a fresh one, hungrier and more truculent; and that any 
structure or carven figure should have survived the passing 
of this human tempest must be ascribed to the fact that the 
invaders were driven on by hope of richer spoil, and 
unwilling to halt to level massive walls or break up marble 
statues. Not that the barbarians found the sculptured 
treasures of the Empire intact. After the edict of Theodosius 
in 396, which proscribed the old religion, the Christian leaders 
destroyed right and left the statues which to them suggested 
an unclean worship. The central idea of the new faith was 
essentially hostile to the tendencies of classic art The rude 
enthusiasts, who cut down the groves, overthrew the temples, 
and shattered the images were firmly persuaded that they 
were carrying out God's will in maiming these types of sleek 
sensuous beauty which, if left intact, might lure back to 
damnation the half-dazed converts to the new faith. 
Thousands of statues were destroyed, and that so many 
survived was probably due to the enlightenment of Theodoric, 
who, during his reign as Gothic King of Italy, took all public 


buildings and statues — notably the horses on Monte Cavallo — 
under his special protection. Theodoric built palaces in 
various cities ; agriculture and industry revived under the 
spell of order, and art naturally shared the quickening 
impulse. The virulence of the Christian leaders was softened ; 
indeed, the love of beauty was too closely interwoven in the 
Latin temper to allow anything like suppression of artistic 
effort, and as soon as Christianity was established as the 
dominant faith of the Roman world, and no longer 
apprehensive of a pagan revival, art was summoned to serve 
the new religion as it had served the old. The finely carved 
Christian sarcophagi of the fourth and fifth centuries in the 
Lateran prove that there still existed patrons anxious to 
commemorate their dead by sculptured monuments, and that 
sculptors, albeit in decadence, were still possessed by the 
spirit of earlier times. The delicate ivory carvings of the 
period, such as the throne of Maxim ianus (546) in the 
Cathedral at Ravenna, show a true art spirit ; for a long time 
the workers were chiefly Byzantine Greeks, and their activity, 
with their eyes full of Eastern models, led to the evolution of 
what is known as the Lombard or Romanesque style. But 
sculpture was not yet through its troublous times. While 
slowly recovering in the West, it was devastated in the East 
by the iconoclastic fury of the eighth century. The edict of 
726 banished all images from the Eastern Churches, nothing 
but pictorial decoration being permitted; and in Italy Httle 
work was done except the ornamentation of graven bronze 
doors, the best examples of which are at Amalfi, Salerno, 
Atrani, and S. Mark's at Venice. These were probably all 
made in Constantinople and exported — as were those of 
S. Paolo fuori le Mura at Rome, which were almost destroyed 
in 1823. Their decoration is a thin outline of silver inlay; 
the slightest relief would have savoured of image worship. 
But as order returned under Gothic rule, architecture revived, 
and sculpture, though lacking in symmetry and correctness of 


form, was used as a decorative adjunct. Byzantine hostility was 
evidently active in Ravenna as early as the sixth century, the 
decoration of the churches there being almost entirely confined 
to mosaic; but elsewhere in Italy this prejudice was less 
marked. Even in Ravenna carved capitals are to be found, 
and in S. Vitale is the famous relief of the throne of Neptune : 
and on the outer wall of the Baptistery is another of a 
mounted warrior. Both these are classic fragments. 

Amongst the early sculptured work — called indifferently 
Byzantine, Lombard, or Romanesque — the most remarkable 
efforts are the great bronze doors of the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. Italy was fairly prosperous, and the momentous year 
looo A.D., which according to tradition had been anticipated 
as the end of the world, had passed innocuously, so men began 
to build for the future. The doors of S. Zeno at Verona are 
of the eleventh century ; some of the panels of the right-hand 
door are perhaps later. The doors at Troja date from 1 1 1 9 ; 
of Benevento, from 1150; of Trani, from 11 66; of Ravello, 
from 1 179 ; of Pisa, from i i8o(?); of Monreale, from 1 186 ; and 
of the Lateran, from the same year. These doors, decorated 
with figures in high relief, must be sharply distinguished from 
the graven ones already noticed. The smiths who made them 
were probably the heirs of Byzantine traditions, but a glance 
at these renderings will show that on Italian soil their makers 
had imbibed something of the genius loci, which stimulated 
their hands to endow the metal with new life and motion. 
The doors of Trani and Benevento are the finest extant bronze 
work of the twelfth century. At Benevento the bosses and 
decorations of the framework are strongly classic ; the reliefs, 
sixty-eight in number, are admirable in composition, with the 
individual figures modelled with grace and dignity, — notably 
in the Annunciation, the Entry into Jerusalem, and the 

The carver in stone for some time failed to equal the smith in 
skill The introduction of Romanesque Church architecture. 


which, with its solid construction, made possible deep carving 
in relief, gave the sculptor his opportunity. In the Baptistery 
at Florence, in the Badia at Fiesole, and in S. Miniato 
vari-coloured marble was the chief decoration; but in the 
Pisan Baptistery, in Parma, Modena, Verona, Pavia, Lucca, 
and elsewhere relief carving prevailed, and the impulse thus 
given to the carver's art gathered strength till it culminated 
in the Pisan pulpit of Niccola Pisano. The cardinal fact to 
be realized in studying Italian sculpture is that the art, in 
whatever part of Italy it may be found, takes its prevailing 
excellencies from its Tuscan origin. At the time of Niccola's 
triumph in 1260 sculpture throughout Italy was merely 
rudimentary, and the success afterwards attained by any great 
centre stands almost exactly in proportion to its indebtedness 
to Tuscan teachers. 

Apulia and Naples. — At the beginning of the twelfth 
century the carved work which existed in the South reflected 
the characteristics of the various races — Greek, Saracen, and 
Norman — which had successively struggled for this fair 
possession. Under the strong hand of the Normans social 
order began to assert itself In the past, Byzantine influences 
had been felt everywhere, but the so-called Greek art which 
now came to the front differed greatly from the Byzantine 
which flourished at Ravenna. It had been largely modified 
by contact with the form and colour of the East. It was no 
longer a melancholy procession of haggard forms, expressionless 
faces, and ill-faUing draperies j but shone with gold and the 
rich colour of oriental gems, — elaborate arabesque patterns of 
foliage and animals, intertwined in carved stone, replaced 
the ascetic forms of the earlier mosaics. This redundant 
ornamentation — tempered in later examples by Norman 
characteristics — may be studied in the facade, the portal, the 
ciborium, and the episcopal chair of S. Niccolb at Bari ; 
in Bohemond's Chapel at Canossa ; in the pulpit of S. Maria 


del Lago at Moscufo, and in the Cathedrals of Troja and 
Ravello. Saracenic influences appear chiefly in the earlier 
carvings, which are of foliage alone, the portrayal of animal 
forms being forbidden by the Moslem religion. 

The twelfth century saw the firm establishment of the 
Norman power, and a great change in the character of 
Southern art. Greek and Saracenic details were modified, and 
in many cases replaced by rude figures of fighting animals and 
interlaced ornament, such as is found on Scandinavian 
and Celtic monuments. Many great twelfth-century churches, 
however, show Eastern characteristics : the Cathedral at 
Otranto (crypt), S. Giovanni in Venere near Lanciano, and 
S. Clemente at Casauria. With the Hohenstaufen appear 
traces of Northern Romanesque, and all these styles in 
juxtaposition may be found in the Cathedral of Bitonto, near 
Ban. The decoration of the portal is a mixture of foliage 
and animals coarsely carved. The open arcade is quasi- 
Romanesque, and the larger of the pulpits has the symbols of 
the Evangelists, trees, birds, and a rude relief of Solomon and 
the Queen of Sheba. In the Cathedrals of Atri and Bitello 
Gothic details are more abundant : images of Saints, the 
Madonna, Christ and the Apostles, combined with a tangle of 
foliage and grotesque animals. Similar work is to be seen on 
the Doors of the Cathedrals of Trani and Sessa. In the 
Cathedral at Cosenza is an interesting tomb, French rather 
than Italian in style, to Isabella of Aragon, Queen of Philip 
the Bold of France (1271). Throughout the South there is 
little else but carving in relief. Statues of this period are rare, 
and the major part of the surviving sculpture shows Greek or 
Saracenic features, a fact which perhaps has not been duly 
considered by those who profess to find in Apulia the source 
of Niccola Pisano's inspiration. At Naples, in the Chapel of 
S. Restituta adjoining the Cathedral, are some rude twelfth- 
century reliefs of the feats of Samson and of Christ, but the 
city is almost bare of any sculpture executed before the coming 


of Tino da Camaino in 1325, the claim of the Masuccios to 
any of the carved work of the fourteenth century being now 
generally disallowed. Tino's great achievement is the Tomb 
of Queen Mary in S. Maria Donna Regina, which served as a 
model for the later Angevin tombs. None of these, however, 
shows any of the cold austere spirit of the Sienese master; 
though the proportions are often good and impressive, the 
execution of the Neapolitans is wanting in grace and finish, and 
suggests intellectual poverty and common-place ideals in the 
executants. Direct Florentine influences first affected Naples 
in the middle of the fourteenth century, when two sculptors 
generally known as Pacius and Johannes, made King Robert's 
Tomb in S. Chiara ; and again a century later, when Donatello 
and Michelozzo did the Brancacci Tomb in S. Angelo a Nilo. 
Benedetto da Majano and Antonio Rossellino came next, and 
Isaia da Pisa worked upon the arch of Castel Nuovo about 
1458. Giovanni di Nola and Girolamo di Santo Croce, two of 
the best Neapolitan born sculptors, were strongly influenced 
by Michelangelo. Milan also had a part in the creation of 
the Neapolitan school, as Leonardo di Bisuccio and Scilla, 
both Milanese, assisted Ciccione on the Tombs of Ladislas and 
of Carraciolo ; and Pietro Martino was the designer of the arch 
of Castel Nuovo, the fine bronze doors of which are the best 
work of the period out of Tuscany. 

Rome. — Of all great Italian cities Rome has been the most 
barren of art. As mistress of the world, she suffered the most 
from barbarian attack. Byzantine influences touched her but 
lightly, and she never enjoyed order and security like that 
which the Normans and Swabians gave to Naples. Sculpture 
never ceased entirely, and of the early examples which survive 
the following are the most noteworthy : the Christian 
sarcophagi, the statues of S. Hippolylus, S. Peter, S. Paul, 
the Good Shepherd and Nicolas iv in the Lateranj the 
carved sarcophagus of Junius Bassus (359), the relief 


portrait of Boniface viii, the bust of Benedict xii, the 
sarcophagus of Urban iv, and other fragments of Papal tombs 
in the crjpt of S. Peter's ; and the ancient Papal throne, under 
Bernini's covering, in the Basilica itself. Carving of the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries exists at Cometo and Alba 
Fucese near Rome; and a Cosmati family, Paolo, his son 
Giovanni, and his brothers Piero, Angelo, and Sasso, worked in 
S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura and in S. Croce in Gerusalemme 
(1154). Somewhat later came the family of the Ranucci, who 
did much decorative work near Rome and made the ciborium 
in S. Maria di Castello at Cometo, where also is a fine pulpit 
with lions probably by the same. In S. Paolo fuori le Mura is 
a circular candlestick by a certain Nicolas di Angelo. These 
works, and many more of a similar character, were executed 
by men trained in the workshops of the Cosmati. This art 
firatemity, akin to that of the Comacini of Lombardy — dates 
from the beginning of the twelfth century, its earliest works 
being decorative inlay with gold and vari-coloured mosaics, of 
which the pulpits of Alba Fucese, Fondi, and Cometo are 
good examples; Salemo, Sessa, and Ravello are of a later 
period. The decoration is at times excessive, but the 
architectural proportions are usually so good that the effect is 
never unpleasing. Giovanni, the first sculptor of eminence, is 
dealt with individually. The statue of Charles of Anjou, now 
in the Palazzo dei Conservatori, is of this period. 

The migration of the Papacy to Avignon in 1307 was fatal 
to Roman art, and the dty was little better than a heap of 
ruins when the Popes returned in 141 7. Paolo and Gian 
Cristoforo Romano did some fairly good work : the reliefs on 
the Tabernacle of Sixtus iv in the crypt of S. Peter's (some- 
times attributed to a certain Pietro Paolo d' Antonio) are the 
work of a far more able sculptor, strongly classic in spirit and 
finely grouped and executed ; but all the finest existing sculp- 
ture was done by Florentines — Amolfo, Donatello, Simone 
Ghini, Filarete, Mino da Fiesole, Pollaiuolo, the Sansovini, 


Lorenzetto, Tribolo, and Michelangelo have left a legacy 
beside which that of artists more definitely Roman is as 

Central Italy. — In the Central Italian States very little 
early sculpture exists. The chief examples are the fagades of 
the Cathedrals of Modena (with reliefs of the story of the 
Creation and of Noah), Piacenza, Ferrara, and Borgo San 
Donnino ; the reliefs by Antelami on the Baptistery at Parma ; 
others, in stucco, on the Baptistery at Ravenna ; and one of 
the Virgin in S. Maria a Porto outside the town. There are 
fine early sarcophagi in the Cathedral, S. Apollinare in Classe, 
S. Vitale, and S. Francesco at Ravenna, in the crypt of the 
Cathedral at Ancona, and in S. Francesco dei Conventuali at 
Perugia. In Bologna there existed a school of carvers of 
stone crucifixes in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
examples of which may be seen in S. Petronio and in the 
Museo Civico. 

Lombardy. — After the northern plain of Italy was subdued 
in the sixth century by Alboin, and had received the name of 
Lombardy, order was gradually restored and the fertile soil 
yielded wealth enough to allow the erection of substantial 
churches, some of which survive. The insecurity of the land 
forced certain craftsmen to retire to the island of Comacina in 
the Lake of Como, and when Rodari, the Lombard king, began 
to build he took the fugitives under his protection and gave 
them employment. The conversion of the Lombards from 
Arianism in 590 had stimulated the movement, the first great 
work being the Cathedral of Monza. The Comacine style 
became the Lombard, which, indeed, is nothing else than 
Byzantine activity engaged in a milieu rich in classic tradition. 
Solid structure led to deep cutting in relief, and this helped 
forward the evolution of the free standing statue: repre- 
sentative reliefs are those on S. Michele at Pavia, and 


throughout Lombardy others may be found, often interwoven 
with arabesques, griffins, fishes, and monsters, and occurring 
generally on facades, fonts, and pulpits. Before Balduccio's 
sojourn in Milan, sculpture had made little progress. The 
reliefs of Oldrado di Trissino on the Broletto, and the altar of 
S. Ambrogio in Milan ; the fa9ades of the Cathedral and of 
S. Zeno, and the font in S. Giovanni in Fonte in Verona ; the 
fa^de of S. Michele at Pavia, and the various fragments now 
collected in the Castello at Milan, are the chief examples of 
early work. 

Venice. — The early sculpture is strongly Byzantine in type. 
The introduction of Gothic architecture at the end of the 
thirteenth century caused a change in the character of 
decorative detail, but no sculpture worth notice was done other 
than that of the artists whose names are given in the following 

Tuscany. — The early work is chiefly in Pistoia, Lucca, and 
Pisa, and the most important examples will be described under 
the respective sculptors. Other noteworthy anonymous 
examples are a stone font with heads of animals, now in the 
Bargello, and the pulpit at S. Miniato in Florence ; the pulpits 
of Groppoli and Barga ; the sculptured frieze of S. Maria della 
Pieve at Arezzo, attributed to Marchionne (1216), S. Martin and 
the b^gar on S. Martino ; the outside reliefs, and the font of 
the Baptistery at Pisa; the statue of S. Michael on the 
Oratorio di S. Giuseppe at Pistoia ; the font in the Cathedral at 
Massa Maritima ; the facade of the Cathedral at Volterra ; the 
altar in the Cathedral at Citta di Castello, and a relief in the 
Chapel of S. Ansano in the Cathedral at Siena. The reliefs 
on the facade of the Cathedral at Lucca were done by some of 
the Comacine sculptors, who were active in many other Tuscan 
cities. Andrea Pisano was the real initiator of the Florentine 
school, and Donatello and Luca della Robbia its chief 


executants. Study of Andrea's work will reveal a richness of 
imagination and a purity of taste surpassed by few of his 
successors ; his technique holds a middle place between the 
savage vigour of Giovanni Pisano and the sometimes frigid 
restraint of Donatello. Under his hand the bronze takes 
graceful forms, which exhale the passions and movements of the 
beings represented with greater dramatic power than those 
modelled by his great predecessors : but he just misses the 
touch which, in Donatello's major creations, evokes with such 
perfection the very self of saint or martyr or mail-clad warrior ; 
and the tender grace of Luca's women, a grace which will 
always draw the workaday world more powerfully than mere 
technical perfection. The generation of sculptors which 
followed these masters rose to their opportunity, and produced 
that grand collection of masterpieces which make Florence the 
Mecca of Art. Mino, Desiderio, the Rossellini, and Benedetto 
da Majano produced work more perfect in technique than that 
of their forerunners; the master touch may be absent, but 
there is in compensation a grace of form and a beauty of 
execution unattained before. In treating of this great epoch 
the claim of Michelozzo is too often overlooked. The Chapel 
of the Crucifixion in S. Miniato, the Cossa Tomb in the 
Baptistery, the Tabernacle of Christ and S. Thomas on Or 
S. Michele, the altar in the Impruneta near Florence, and the 
Brancacci Tomb in S. Angelo a Nilo in Naples are striking 
examples of his genius. The figures which Luca and Donatello 
and Verrocchio modelled, fine as they are, would lose much 
of their beauty were they bereft of the harmonious setting 
Michelozzo has given them ; and the form in which he cast 
the tombs above mentioned was taken as a model for the 
greatest of those which came later. 

With Donatello the wave of Florentine art rose to its 
highest, and the impulse of his genius was so vigorous and 
lasting that the stream ran for several generations full and 
strong, with no disastrous reaction like that which followed on 


the meteoric career of Michelangelo. The seed sown by 
Donatello was sound, and the soil rich with kindly nurture. 
The types which he left were normal, with the superadded 
touch of genius that was necessary for their continuance. 
Creations of the highest excellence, inspired by his work and 
by that of Luca, stand to the credit of Mino and the others, 
and ensure their immortality ; but had these sculptors been 
set to frame their work after the model of the Moses, or of the 
Titanic forms in the New Sacristy, their failure might have 
been fully as disastrous as that of Bandinelli or Ammanati. 
As it was, the sculptors of the fifteenth century produced a 
vast number of works of a very high level of merit. Besides 
the great examples, there are hundreds of others — many 
anonymous — scattered about in the smaller towns. The 
momentum of the great revival continued operative up to the 
crisis of the sack of Rome, after which sculpture reflecting the 
characteristics of the golden time grew rarer and rarer, and 
any work of merit generally stood out as the one isolated 
achievement in a lifetime of effort otherwise featureless. 


S. Franttsco, KimiHi 


AgOStinO di DuCCio (Florentine, 1418-1481) 

A COSTING may not have been the greatest sculptor of 
his generation, but he was undoubtedly the most 
original and fascinating. Unlike Niccola Pisano, who re- 
captured the grand style after centuries of obscuration and 
could trace clearly his descent, Agostino flits like Ariel across 
the art firmament, coming we know not whence and leaving 
no follower. Probably a pupil of Luca della Robbia, his 
earliest known work dates from 1442, a series of Reliefs on the 
front of the Cathedral at Modena, picturing scenes in the life 
of S. Gimignano, in which the influence of the Delia Robbia 
teaching is evident. About 1446 he left Florence for Rimini, 
where he was employed by Alberti to assist Simone Femicci to 
decorate S. Francesco. This occupied him till 1454, his finest 
work being the Reliefs in the fourth chapels right and left 
The piers of the one on the left are carved with eighteen 
figures typifying the sciences, the Trivium and the Quadrivium 
— Botany and Philosophy being especially beautiful In the 
right-hand chapel the Reliefs represent the Planets and Signs 
of the Zodiac. Mercury should be specially noticed, as well 
as a curious representation of the four winds. The sense of 
movement in the figures, and the flow of drapery particularly, 
demonstrate the grace and richness of Agostino's genius; indeed, 
these exquisite figures are amongst the finest products of Italian 


sculpture. In the first chapel on the right he carved, beside 
Ciuffagni's statue of S. Sigismond, a marble curtain held back 
by two most lovely Angels ; and in the first on the left he made 
the Tomb which Sigismondo erected to his ancestors. It is a 
sarcophagus of antique form, poised on brackets, with two 
reliefs and an inscription on the front. The left-hand relief 
shows Pallas in the Temple of Memory, surrounded by the 
Malatestas in successive generations, beginning with Scipio 
Africanus and ending with Sigismondo. That on the right 
shows him as the hero of a triumph returning from victory in 
a chariot surrounded by captives. 

About 1459 Agostino went to Perugia, where he produced 
in terra-cotta what is generally reckoned to be his masterpiece — 
the facade of the Oratorio di S. Bernardino. The central arch 
is filled above with a lunette in which the Saint stands in a 
mandorla of tongues of fire, with angel musicians' and flying 
cherubs on either side. Above the arch are the griffins of 
Perugia enclosed in wreaths, and over the architrave Christ sits 
in glory. Tabernacles on either side contain the Virgin and 
S. Constantius, the Archangel Gabriel and S. Herculanus. On 
the pilasters of the arch are six angels and six virtues, which 
recall the figures at Rimini ; but they have suff'ered more from 
time and from exposure to the rough climate of Perugia. The 
figures of Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience are of surpassing 
loveliness. The lintel is carved with reliefs of scenes in the 
Saint's life, also the spaces below the tabernacles. In the 
same fresh joyous spirit is his fine Relief of the Madonna in 
the Opera del Duomo at Florence, and that of a party of 
horsemen in a wooded landscape in the Castello at Milan ; 
the landscape and the background being strongly reminiscent 
of the Chariot of Diana at Rimini. Other works ascribed to 
Agostino are a terra-cotta statue of the Madonna in the 
University, a Pietk in relief in the Cathedral, and some terra- 
cotta decoration in S. Domenico at Perugia ; a Tabernacle in 
the refectory of the Ognissanti at Florence ; a Relief of the 
Madonna (Auviller's bequest) in the Louvre, and replicas of 
the same at Berlin and in the Villa Castello at Florence; 


a magnificent head in profile, styled M. Aurelius, in the 
Bargello ; a fragment of an arch with angels in the lunettes, 
and a Relief of angels (attributed also to the Maestro di S. 
Trovaso) in the Castello at Milan. It seems possible that 
this Maestro may have been Agostino himself, seeing that the 
altar frontals of exquisitely wrought children in relief in S. 
Trovaso at Venice, from which he derives his fame and title, re- 
semble so strongly in spirit and execution the reliefs in S. Fran- 
cesco at Rimini. The S. Giustina in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum — sometimes given to Donatello — is probably also by 
Agostino. The art of Agostino derives something of its charm 
from Donatello's influence and something from his association 
with the Delia Robbias. His genius was nourished by both 
these streams, but its great charm lies in its originality. Doubt- 
less he was influenced also by the atmosphere of Malatesta's 
court Recent investigation has shown that Sigismondo was 
no abnormal monster — as Symonds and others have maintained, 
on no better authority than the terms used in the Papal im- 
peachment. As a condottiere he was on a level with the other 
free captains of his age. But he was a scholar, a poet, and 
the friend of the most illustrious Humanists and artists of the 
time. Living in an atmosphere like this, Agostino was naturally 
led to give the highest place to the joy of life, and the visible 
beauty of the universe. These and the types of the sciences, 
which were so soon to transform the world, he clothed with 
the most graceful forms he could invent. Nor was he less 
studious when working at the shrine Diva. Isottce Sacrum^ 
or at the types of the Christian virtues at Perugia, or at the 
beautiful Relief of the Virgin in Florence. As a sculptor he 
retained many of the faults of his predecessors. His figures 
are often stiff and unduly lank, and betray a lack of anatomical 
knowledge. But all this may be forgiven for the sincerity and 
simplicity of his aim, which was manifestly to reveal the beauty 
of the visions which attended him, without trying to teach a 
lesson of any sort or kind. 


Agostino di Giovanni e Agnolo di 
Ventura (Sienese, -1350) 

These sculptors are sometimes described as Agostino e 
Agnolo Sanesi, and pupils of Giovanni Pisano. It is 
doubtful whether Giovanni actually taught them, but they 
certainly came under his influence, and they may have worked 
at the external sculpture at Orvieto, though there is no direct 

It is said that, while they were thus engaged, Giotto saw their 
work and recommended them to Pietramala to execute the 
Tomb of his brother, Bishop Guido Tarlati, in the Cathedral 
at Arezzo. Guido was a warrior rather than a churchman : a 
leader of the Ghibelines, he assisted at the coronation of Louis 
of Bavaria at Milan in 1327, and was excommunicated in 
consequence. He died the same year. The tomb is a lofty 
Gothic structure with the effigy of the bishop lying above, and 
beneath are sixteen panels carved in relief with scenes of his 
life. Between the reliefs are figures of ecclesiastics which are 
considerably better in execution. It may be noted that within 
the arch above hang the curtains which afterwards, with the 
angels to draw them back, appear on so many monuments. The 
tomb was finished in 1330. There is a tradition that Giotto 
supplied the designs for the reliefs, and, though this is un- 
supported, the dramatic spirit and the pictorial style apparent 
argue the working of some influence other than that of the 
Sienese school. 

Algardi, Alessandro (Bolognese, 1598-1654) 

He was a contemporary and follower of Bernini. He 
began as a painter under Ludovico Carracci, but after he 
went to Rome in 1625 he took to sculpture and did statues 
of S. John and the Magdalen in S. Silvestro, and of S. Filippo 
Neri in S. Maria in Vallicella ; and later a colossal group of 
the Decapitation of the Baptist in S. Paolo at Bologna. His 

5 Q "fe- 

€ C. 


chief works are the fine Tomb of Leo xi, with figures of 
Prudence and Humility, in the left aisle of S. Peter's, and the 
Relief of Attila in the Cappella Leonina. In this last Algardi 
shows how strongly he was influenced by the Bolognese 
painters : violent action, tempestuous draperies, facial contor- 
tion, clouds and flying forms — winged and otherwise — are 
crowded into the panel, and to bring order into such a chaos 
needed powers beyond Algardi's. The small Reliefs over the 
Apostles in the Lateran are by him ; also some heads in S. 
Carlo at Genoa. The bronze busts (Nos. 1089, 1088) of 
Alexander viii and Innocent x, and of a man (No. 8883), in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum ; the bust of Cardinal Zacchia 
in the Berlin Museum ; the seated statue of Innocent x in the 
Palazzo dei Conservatori at Rome, and the busts of members 
of the Frangipani family in S. Marcello, are later works. 

Amadeo, Gio. Ant. (Milanese, 1447-1522) 

Amadeo was the most famous of the Milanese sculptors, 
and probably learned his art at the Certosa, where he and 
his brother Protasio were working as early as 1466 under 
the Mantegazzas. His work there is difficult to identify, as, 
like many of his contemporaries, he worked more or less after 
the laws of local convention. There is, however, a signed 
Relief by him over the door leading from the church into 
the small cloister, and this gives a standard for identification. 
The decoration of the borders and pillars is finer work 
than the figures in the lunette. In 1469 he left the Certosa 
with Protasio and, during his absence, made the Tomb of 
Lanfranc, the Italian jurist, who ultimately became Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, in S. Beato Lanfranco, near Pavia. Six 
slender columns support a sarcophagus sculptured in relief, 
and on the superstructure are other reliefs of the life of Christ 
He next went to Bergamo, where he designed the Memorial 
Chapel for Bartolonimeo CoUeone, and executed the Tomb 
of his daughter, Medea CoUeone, who died in 1470. The 
exterior decoration is even more sumptuous than that of the 


Certosa, and no one but a consummate artist could have 
treated in this limited space such abundant detail without 
marring the harmony of the plan. The putti musicians are 
delightful, and under the windows the story of Genesis is 
\x&dXQ.d. pari passu with the labours of Hercules. In CoUeone's 
own tomb Amadeo was less successful. Its proportions are un- 
symmetrical, and the sculpture and architecture harmonize 
imperfectly. In Medea's tomb he shows distinct originality. 
She is clad in a brocade robe, with a string of pearls round her 
long slender neck. The face, in no way beautiful, is finely 
modelled ; the eyes are closed and the arms crossed. Until 
he finally left the Certosa, Amadeo probably worked there at 
intervals. In 1482 he made, in the Cathedral at Cremona, a 
shrine commemorating four Christian martyrs who suffered 
under Claudius 11 in 271. The shrine was broken up, and 
eight of the reliefs now form the decoration of the pulpits. 
Other important works partly from his hand are the Borromeo 
Tombs on Isola Bella. That of Gio. and Vitale Borromeo is 
one of the finest in Lombardy, and the figures of warriors 
on the piers are Amadeo's best statues. The other tomb, that of 
Camillo, is less imposing. On both tombs the varying quality of 
the work shows that assistants worked upon these monuments. 
Before he left the Certosa, Amadeo had made a new design for 
the fa9ade ; but this was not adopted till 1490, when he became 
chief director, and from this date he was engaged on the church 
till 1501. The record of his activity at this time is exceedingly 
difficult to follow. He was certainly associated with Briosco 
over the central door, but he failed to carry out his part of the 
contract. The Reliefs on either side are probably from his 
design, but they were largely carried out by Briosco and 
Agostino Busti. They represent the foundation of the Grande 
Chartreuse near Grenoble by S. Bruno, and of the Certosa by 
Gian Galeazzo Visconti. The frieze of the central portal is 
decorated with medallions of angels bearing the instruments of 
the passion, certainly by Amadeo ; as are also the Reliefs of 
kneeling priests and angels adjoining the door, and the square 
reliefs on the facade, just above the basement, the best of these 


being the raising of Lazarus, Christ among the Doctors, the 
Resurrection, the Adoration of the Magi, and Christ derided 
by the Jews. His best work is in the four large windows, the 
ornamentation of which is the finest specimen of Lombard 
decorative sculpture. Other work of this period is the 
decoration of the Old Sacristy Door, with Relief of the Resur- 
rection in the lunette, portrait medallions above, and on the 
pediment a curious version of the Temptation of S. Antony ; 
no woman is shown, holy men on one side and satyrs and 
monsters on the other. Over the lavatory door he did a 
Relief of Christ washing the Disciples' Feet, and other portrait 
medallions. He was concerned in Gian Galeazzo's Tomb, which 
was chiefly carried out by Gian Cristoforo Romano, and made 
the lavabo in the small cloister. Later he did the Memorial 
Tablet of Branda Castiglione in S. Maria delle Grazie at Milan ; 
the Tomb of Guido Castiglione at Castiglione d' Olona ; a 
lavabo in the Carmine ; a relief on the Salimbeni Tomb in S. 
Michele; a Madonna in the Archbishop's palace, and the 
Bottigella Monument in the University at Pavia ; and Reliefs 
of the Adoration and the Flight into Egypt in the Museo at 
Parma. In the Cathedral at Cremona are reliefs of S. Imerio 
distributing alms, S. Antonio, S. Jerome, and the Flagellation. 

In 1502 he was working at the Cathedral at Pavia, after 
which he repaired to Milan, where he remained till his death. 
The downfall of Ludovico Sforza proved disastrous to 
Milanese art, and in his later years Amadeo did littJe more 
than give occasional advice to those in charge of the Cathedral 
works. Many examples in Lombardy are attributed to him. 
Of those in the Castello at Milan, the finest are a tabernacle 
with Christ bound, S. Cristoforo, and a Tondo of the adora- 
tion of the infant Christ. The last named, together with 
another Tondo in the Louvre, are portions of the Tomb of the 
Martyrs at Cremona. 

In sculpture Amadeo was a thorough exponent of the 
Humanist spirit, striving to reveal beauty as a supreme aim. 
If he fails, it is because of his imperfect training, and not from 
want of insight In his day the mental range of the sculptor 


was necessarily a limited one, and the simplicity with which 
Amadeo and his fellows set about their task is their most 
alluring charm. A prime instance of this is the rendering on 
the faQade of the CoUeone Chapel of the story of Adam and 
the Fall beside the Labours of Hercules. He would hardly 
have combined these stories — so incongruous to modern 
sentiment — with any set purpose, in spite of the over- 
laboured gloss of Symonds, which suggests that he may have 
purposed to contrast the vicarious sacrifice of the Christian 
dispensation with the valiant struggle of the Hellenic demi- 
god. But had this been his aim, he would have in no way con- 
tradicted the sentiment of his age. Men talked everywhere 
about the new learning, and Amadeo no doubt was caught up 
by the intellectual whirlwind ; but nothing in his record or in 
the character of his work disposes us to believe that he willed 
to impress any hidden doctrinal meaning upon his carvings. 
It was enough for him to set up Divus Julius and Divus 
Trajanus on the Chapel as Bergamo, and to carve medallions 
of Alexander, Hercules, and Pompey alongside Judas 
Maccabeus on the fagade of the Certosa, because they 
seemed to fit in with his scheme of decoration. 

Ambrogio di Milano (Milanese— Working, 1475) 

He was doubtless one of the host of sculptors trained on 
the Cathedral, but he left Milan early and is chiefly known 
by what he did in the Palace at Urbino and in Ferrara. 
At Urbino his work is entirely decorative, and the exquisite 
ornamentation of the cornices, chimney-pieces, and pilasters 
prove him to have been a rare artist. His designs are by no 
means conventional ; observation will show how closely these 
charming creations conform to nature, and how dexterously 
Ambrogio developed and ennobled the types which were the 
roots of his scheme. He worked about 1474 : in some parts 
of the Palace the Delia Rovere arms appear, and this work 
must be of a later date. 


In S. Giorgio fuori le Mura at Ferrara, in collaboration with 
Antonio Rossellino, he made the Tomb of Lorenzo Roverella, 
Bishop of Ferrara (1475). This is strictly on the Florentine 
model, and the technique throughout is admirable. 

The effigy reclines on a sarcophagus under an arched recess, 
S. George and the dragon surmount the arch, with putti on 
either side ; and within the arch is a circular group of the 
Virgin, Christ, and Angels, The statues of the Baptist and 
S. Jerome are very fine. In Venice, Ambrogio worked on 
the decorative carving in S. Michele (1470), S. Giobbe, and 
S. Maria dei Miracoli ; in the Cathedral at Spoleto he did the 
Tomb of Francesco Orsini and the Reliefs on the font ; and at 
Fano the richly decorated Door of S. Michele. 

Ammanati) Bartol (Florentine, 1511-1592) 

He was first a pupil of Bandinelli, and then went to study 
under Sansovino at Venice. Probably his earliest work 
is that in Padua (1540). A gigantic figure in the court 
of the Palazzo Aremberg and the Tomb of the jurisconsult 
Benavides in the Eremitani : the last a fine work with the 
effigy of Benavides surrounded by allegorical figures. In 
1550 he went to Rome, where he did some well-modelled 
terminal figures in the garden of the Villa Papa Giulio, and 
the Tomb of Cardinal dei Monti and his father in S. Pietro in 
Montorio, On his return to Florence he made the group of 
Hercules and Antaeus for Tribolo's fountain at the Villa 
Castello, and a colossal figure for the upper garden. From 
1557-1571 he was engaged on the fountain in the Piazza della 
Signoria, The central group of Neptune is ineffective, 
probably because he forced his style into an imitation of 
Michelangelo, and the nymphs round the basin are still worse. 
Their limbs have little relation to their shapeless bodies, and 
their heads are many sizes too small. The Reliefs of putti 
wreaths and birds on the pedestals are the best details. He 
also did small replicas of Michelangelo's Moses, and Leda 
in the Bargello, and the Tomb of Bindo Altoviti in 


SS. Apostoli. Attributed to him is the Tomb of the kinsfolk 
of Gregory xiii in the Campo Santo at Pisa. 

Angelo e Francesco di Pietro (Siekese— 

Working, 1362) 

The beautiful Gothic Tomb of S. Margaret in S. Margarita 
at Cortona, hitherto ascribed to Giovanni Pisano, is now 
generally recognized as the work of these masters. The 
pietistic sentiment of the figures is eminently suggestive of 
the contemporary Sienese school. The tomb stands on 
twisted columns, on the capitals of which are figures of Christ 
and the Virgin. The effigy lies on a sarcophagus, on the lid 
of which are carved six Reliefs of scenes in the Saint's life, 
rendered with an archaic simplicity quite unlike Giovanni 
Pisano's style. 

Antelami, Benedetto (Parmesan, end of 

Twelfth Century) 

Antelami was the most advanced of the pre-Pisan sculp- 
tors. He is chiefly known by his Reliefs on the doors 
of the Baptistery at Parma (1196). On the eastern door 
the pilasters have the Labourers in the Vineyard ; the 
Untel, the Resurrection ; the lunette, Christ with the instru- 
ments of the Passion, bordered by Saints. On the northern 
door the pilasters show the ancestors of Jesse and Joachim ; 
the lintel, scenes from the life of the Baptist ; the lunette, the 
Adoration of the Magi, bordered by the Prophets. The 
lunette of the southern door is a curious allegory, perhaps 
taken from the story of Barlaam. A youth sits in the 
branches of a tree eating honeycomb, and below two animals 
are gnawing the trunk, while a fiery dragon waits to devour the 
youth when he shall fall. An earlier work of his (1178), a 
panel representing the Descent from the Cross, is now built 
into the wall of the Boiardi Chapel of the Cathedral : it shows 

— " I- s 


certain Byzantine characteristics from which his later work is 
free. Three carved capitals by him are in the Museo, 
portions of the dismantled pulpit. The dramatic expression 
of these is marked, and the sense of motion is admirably 
rendered. That he had a sense of beauty is quite clear, from 
the treatment of the figure of the Virgin and the floral 
ornament of the borders and pilasters. 

Antelami's history is a blank, but from his name it is 
probable that he came from Antelami, a region near Varese, 
and was a member of a guild of sculptors analogous to the 
Comacini. His work is unknown outside Parma, but the 
Reliefs and Statues on the doorway of the Cathedral at Borgo 
San Donnino, and the Madonna on the Campanile, are in his 
style. The allegories of the Months inside the Baptistery at 
Parma are most likely the work of his assistants; also the 
interior lunettes representing the Flight into Egypt, the 
Presentation, and Paradise. 

Aquila, Andrea di (Neapolitan — Working, 

Little is known of his life, but he was almost certainly a 
pupil of Donatello in Florence. His chief work was done 
on the Arch of Castel Nuovo at Naples, where he wrought 
the Relief of King Alfonso surrounded by his nobles. In S. 
Maria del Soccorso at Aquila the decoration of the altar and 
the Madonna in the lunette are probably by him. His work 
is often confused with that of Silvestro d' Aquila. 

Aquila, Silvestro di (Neapolitan — Working, 

He was a follower of Desiderio da Settignano, and may 
have been taught by him and Andrea Bregno. In 1480 
he did the Tomb of Cardinal Agnifigli in the Cathedral at 
Aquila, and in 1496 the fine Monument of the Coimtess 


Montorio Camponeschi (Periera) in S. Bernardino. Both of 
these tombs are closely imitated from Florentine originals, and 
in the last named the disposition of the effigies is curious. The 
mother lies upon the sarcophagus and the child beneath it, 
both of them beautifully carried out. In the same church he 
did the Tomb of S. Bernardino, who died at Aquila in 1444. 
It is a huge pile of masonry covered with details of the usual 
kind. The figures, except that of the Holy Child, are theatrical 
and poorly executed. Other works of his are a Madonna in 
terra-cotta, also in S. Bernardino; a S. Sebastian in wood 
in S. Maria del Soccorso ; Madonnas in S. Marciano and in 
the Church of CoUemaggio ; a Mater Domini at Chieti. 

Arnoldo, Alberto (Florentine— Working, 1351) 

He was a Lombard by birth, and a pupil and assistant of 
Andrea Pisano, whom he helped in the Reliefs on the 
Campanile ; but his chief work was the marble decoration of 
the surface. In 1359 he was made chief of the works on the 
Cathedral. His two pieces of sculpture extant are the small 
half-length Madonna in relief on the outside of the Bigallo 
opposite to the Baptistery, 1361, and the life-sized group of 
the Madonna with Angels on the altar of the Bigallo Chapel, 
1364, which for a long time was attributed to Andrea Pisano. 

Arnolfo di Cambio (Pisan, i 232-1300) 

Arnolfo was one of the most distinguished pupils of 
Niccola Pisano, with whom he worked on the Siena pulpit. 
Later on, when he was free to choose his own course, 
he forsook sculpture almost entirely and became one of 
the greatest architects the world has ever seen. In 1277, 
when he was in Naples in the service of Charles of Anjou, a 
petition was sent by the magistrates of Perugia to the king 
asking him to allow Arnolfo to go to help with the fountain 
which the Pisani were making. Charles apparently assented, 
and promised a block of marble as a contribution. Arnolfo 


certainly did a part of the fountain, but how much is 
uncertain. He left three authentic works, and designs for 
several others. His most famous achievement was the Tomb 
of Cardinal de Braye in S. Domenico at Orvieto, which was 
finished after 1282. Both in architectural and sculptural 
design this tomb is fine. The framework of mosaics and 
twisted columns, the effigy of the cardinal, the angels, the 
majestic Madonna and attendant saints, and the general 
architectural design, are admirable in composition. A 
trifling stiffness and want of continuity may appear in the 
junction of the upper and lower parts, but it must be borne in 
mind that this tomb is an early effort, and the starting-point of 
the series of tombs which culminated in the triumphs of the 
Quattrocento. The statues of S. Dominic and of S. Peter 
and the Cardinal are in the style of Giovanni Pisano, and the 
curtains over the effigy are drawn back by tonsured youths 
and not by angels. 

In 1 28 1 he went to Rome, and in 1285 he completed 
the Gothic Ciborium in S. Paolo fuori le Mura, one of the 
treasures which escaped destruction when the church was 
burnt in 1823. Apart from the intrinsic beauty of the work, 
the trefoils, the pointed cusped arches, the wheel windows, 
and the foliated capitals are most interesting, as showing 
how completely Amolfo had assimilated the Gothic element 
of Niccola's genius. Its erection probably hastened the 
temporary triumph of the Gothic style in Rome ; but, as the 
sequel showed, this triumph was short-lived. The ciborium 
b a graceful canopy supported on four columns. The Tuscan 
side of Amolfo's genius appears in the finely car\'ed heads 
on the capitals of these, and in the statues of the saints and 
donor. In the spaces above the arches are figures in relief; 
one of which, Eve plucking the Apple, is exceedingly beautiful 
— the figure must have been modelled from reminiscence of 
some effigy of Venus ; and opposite is Adam rebuked by the 
Almighty. On another side are Cain and Abel making their 
offerings. The whole fabric is sumptuously decorated with 
mosaics, which probably were designed by the painter Pietro 


Cavallini. The keystone of the vaulted dome is a detail of 
extraordinary beauty, a large floriated cross surrounded by four 
angels with outspread wings. The ciborium in S. Cecilia in 
Trastevere (1293) is now accepted as Arnolfo's ; but it is inferior, 
in proportion as well as in details, to his other. The cusped 
arches are flattened unduly, and the sculpture of the figures at 
the angles is coarse. Ascribed to him are the Gothic Tomb 
of Cardinal Annibaldi in the Lateran, and two Angels and 
the Tomb of Boniface viii in the crypt of S. Peter's. Of the 
last he may have provided the design, but, judging from its 
style, it may more reasonably be assigned to one of the 
Cosmati. Also some fragments of an early adoration in the 
Oratorio del Presepio in S. Maria Maggiore. 

Aspetti, Tiziano (Venetian, 1565-1607) 

A FOLLOWER of Alessandro Vittoria. His chief works are 
the Moses and S. Paul on the front of S. Francesco 
della Vigna at Venice and two angels on an altar inside, a 
figure of Atlas in the Library, some bronze busts in the 
Archaeological Museum, and the caryatides of the chimney- 
piece in the Sala dell' AntecoUegio in the Ducal Palace. In 
S. Antonio at Padua he did a figure of Christ on one of the 
holy water stoups by the main entrance (1580). 

Auria, Dom. (Neapolitan, 1550- ) 

He was a pupil of Giovanni di Nola, and subsequently his 
assistant. His chief original work is the Relief of the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin on the high altar of S. Giovanni a Car- 
bonaro at Naples. 


BalduCCio, Giovanni (Pisan— Working, 1339) 

BALDUCCIO was in all probability a pupil of Andrea 
Pisano. His earliest known achievement is a pulpit 
in the Church of S. Maria at Casciano near Florence. The 
figures are rude and ill-proportioned, and his Tomb of 
Guamerio degli Interminelli, the son of Castruccio Castracane, 
who died in 1322, in the Church of S. Francesco at Sarzana, 
shows a great advance. The architectural design is well-pro- 
portioned and the figures are lifelike. Shortly after this 
Balduccio went to Milan to execute the Tomb of Peter Martyr 
in S. Eustorgio. Azzo Visconti had passed some time in 
Florence and, being struck by the vast superiority of its 
sculpture to that of Milan, he called in Balduccio, who thus 
carried Tuscan art to Milan. Balduccio began the tomb in 
1336, and four years later he completed it. This magnificent 
work gives him high rank as a sculptor, and the fine propor- 
tions of the setting show him to have been also a master of 
design. The sarcophagus is supported on eight figures of the 
Virtues exquisitely carved : some of them bear resemblance to 
the Virtues on S. Augustine's Tomb at Pa via. At the left- 
hand angle of the front of the sarcophagus is the figure of 
S. Ambrose, and reliefs and statues follow alternately. The 
tomb is completed by a graceful series of arched canopies 
filled with statuettes. The reliefs are of unequal merit, those 
on the west side being by far the best ; but even in these the 
crowd of figures introduced shows a distinct relapse from the 
eloquent simplicity of Andrea Pisano on the Florentine 


Campanile. There are many works, strongly Tuscan in char- 
acter, in Milan dating from this period, and the best of these 
may be assigned, at least in part, to Balduccio, though un- 
signed. The Tombs of Gaspare, Uberto, and Stefano Visconti 
in S. Eustorgio, and the Reliefs of the story of the Magi, and 
the ancona of the High Altar ; the Tombs of Aliprandi and 
Settala in S. Marco are the best of these. The same hand 
probably carved Stefano Visconti's Tomb and that at Sarzana, 
and in all the reliefs the short, large-headed figures recall 
those on S. Peter Martyr's Tomb. The Settala Monument is 
of the conventional jurisconsult type. The effigy lies above, 
and below he is teaching his pupils. The figures on the 
sarcophagus may well be Balduccio's. Azzo Visconti's Tomb 
(1339), formerly in S. Gottardo, is broken up; it is attributed 
to Balduccio, and a few fragments are in Prince Trivulzio's 
collection. In S. Bassano at Pizzighettone are three Reliefs, 
and in the Castello at Milan some decorated door lintels from 
the dismantled Church of S. Maria in Brera; outside the 
Cathedral at Cremona statues of the Madonna, S. Omobono, 
and a bishop, and in the Castello at Milan many anonymous 
fragments suggest his hand. 

Bamboccio, Antonio (Neapolitan, 135 1-1422?) 

He was trained as an architect, and built the florid Gothic 
facade of the Cathedral at Naples in 1407. Over the 
door he carved the statue of his patron. Cardinal Minutolo, 
kneeling before the Madonna, with S. Peter and S. Gennaro. 
Inside, Bamboccio did his tomb, and also one to Cardinal 
Carbone, dated 1405. The last named, in the style of the 
Angevin tombs in S. Chiara, is the better of the two. He also 
did the Tombs of Penna and the Princesses of Durazzo in 
S. Chiara. In the same style, but superior in every respect, 
is his Tomb of Queen Margaret, dated 141 2, in the 
Cathedral of Salerno. Her effigy lies on the sarcophagus, 
which is carved with a relief showing her in life surrounded 
by her court. In the Museo of S. Martino is the Tomb of 


Ludovico Aldemoresco, the High Admiral of King Ladislas, 
dated 1420. It is overwrought with bizarre details. The 
knights who support the sarcophagus have Turkish head-gear, 
and the reliefs are a confused mass of soldiers, angels, women, 
pages, banners, and horses, all crowded round the Virgin and 
S. Catherine. 

Bandinelli, Baccio (Florentine, 1 488- 1 560) 

Banoinelli has always been a favourite object of attack 
by critics and biographers. After making full allowance 
for prejudice and exaggeration, and dismissing as a fable 
the legend of his destruction of Michelangelo's cartoon, 
his record as a man is not a good one, and those terrible 
masses of maltreated marble which survive demonstrate his 
quality as an artist. Florence, in Bandinelli's youth, was filled 
with the creations of her greatest men, but he was insensible 
to their influences, though he was a fair draughtsman with a 
sufficient knowledge of anatomy. In 15 15 he did the Statue 
of S. Peter for the Cathedral. Cardinal dei Medici was now 
Pope as Leo x, and Bandinelli, hoping to win his patronage 
as a Florentine, rushed off to Rome ; but Leo, who had a true 
eye for art, and had seen the clay Hercules which Bandinelli 
had made in the gala decoration when he entered Florence in 
1 5 14, sent him to occupy himself over the decoration of the 
Santa Casa at Loreto. He probably returned to Rome, but 
nothing is heard of him till 1525, when he made a replica of 
the Laocoon which Pope Clement vii, also a Medici, pre- 
sented to Charles v. It is now in the Uffizi, and is a good 
piece of work. After the sack of Rome and the fall of the 
Medici, Bandinelli withdrew to Loreto as Andrea Sansovino's 
assistant, and after Andrea's death in 1529 he finished the 
Relief of the Birth of the Virgin. In 1530, when the Medici 
were reinstated in Florence, Bandinelli hastened to offer his 
services to the new rulers, and became the favoured sculptor 
of the court. The frightful Hercules and Cacus, which still 
disfigures the Piazza, marks his activity. Something, however, 


may be forgiven him, in that the imperfections of this statue 
eUcited CeUini's masterpiece of vituperation. In 1540 he 
completed the Statue of Giovanni delle Bande Nere in the 
Piazza S. Lorenzo, and helped to convert the Palazzo Vecchio 
into a ducal residence, which contains by him : Leo x (finished 
by Vincenzio dei Rossi), Giovanni dei Medici, and Duke 
Alessandro ; also a Coronation of Charles v by Clement viii. 
In the cloisters of S. Croce he did the seated Figure of God 
the Father (1549). During this period Bandinelli was work- 
ing at intervals in Rome. He secured the commissions for 
the Tombs of Leo x and Clement vii in the Minerva by 
underhand dealing (1535), the work having been promised to 
Alessandro Lombardo. He designed these tombs on the lines 
of the classic triumphal arch, and this plagiarism was probably 
much happier in effect than any original effort would have 
been. Leo's statue is by Raffaele di Montelupo, and Clement's 
by Nanni di Baccio. Bandinelli did the apostles in the side 
arches, figures which suggest the Hercules, in conventional 
Biblical attire. He worked on the High Altar of the Cathedral 
at Florence, and the Reliefs on the circular choir enclosure. 
The Adam and Eve (155 1), which formed part of the decora- 
tion, were removed in 1722 as an offence against Christian 
decency. The figures in relief on the choir enclosure are 
noble and dignified, so it will surprise no connoisseur that 
critics generally now assign them to his assistant Bandini. It 
remains only to notice two Pietks — one in the Annunziata and 
one in S. Croce — in his worst manner ; a bust of Cosimo i, 
and his own portrait, both in the Bargello. A Bacchus in 
the Pitti, and many of the small bronzes in the Bargello, 
are his. 

Bandini (Giovanni dell' Opera) (Florentine, 


He was a pupil of Bandinelli, and probably did the 
greater part of the Figures in Relief on the choir en- 
closure in the Cathedral at Florence — as they strongly re- 


semble his two fine Reliefs, the Presentation and the Marriage 
of tlie Vii^in, in the Gaddi Chapel of S. Maria Novella. The 
best of the figures, that of Architecture, on Michelangelo's 
Tomb in S. Croce, was also done by him in 1572. He did a 
fine Bacchus in the Bargello, and Statues of S. James and 
S. Philip in the Cathedral ; also the Bust of Ferdinand i for 
the Loggia of the Uffizi, and the Equestrian Statue of the same 
prince at Leghorn, 

Barisano di Trani (Apulian, 1160-1179) 

The most eminent of the early bronze workers whose 
work can be identified. His name appears on the northern 
Cathedral doors of Monreale (1186), and those of Trani 
and Ravello are probably by him. Some of his reliefs 
show traces of Byzantine influence, and it is interesting to 
mark his efforts after a greater freedom of style. On the doors 
of Trani the panels of S. Eustace on horseback accompanied by 
a dog, and of two warriors fighting with clubs, are full of life. 
He is, on the whole, inferior to the creator of the doors of 
Benevento, of which many of the panels — notably the Salu- 
tation, the Circumcision, Christ walking on the Sea, and the 
Ascension — are of extreme beauty. The doors of Benevento 
date from 1150, of Trani from 11 60, and of Ravello from 

Baroncelli, Niccol6 (Florentine, -1453) 

Baroncelli was a pupil of Brunelleschi, and seems to 
have worked with Donatello as a bronze caster at Padua. 
In 1443 he was summoned to Ferrara by Duke Borso, 
where he made an equestrian Statue of Niccolb d' Este, which 
was perhaps finished before Donatello's Gattamelata at Padua. 
Niccolb did the horse, and was known afterwards as " Niccolo 
del Cavallo." In 1450 he did a seated Statue of Duke Borso, 
but both these statues were destroyed during the revolution of 
1796. In 1450 the authorities of Ferrara asked Donatello to 


execute for them five bronze statues for the Cathedral, but he 
refused the task, so the work was given to Niccol6. He 
did the five statues, now in the right-hand transept of the 
Cathedral, — the Crucifixion, the Virgin, S. John, S. George, 
and S. Maurice. Donatello's influence is apparent in these 
figures, and the figure of the Virgin is one of great beauty. 
Apparently Niccolo left the S. George, the S. Maurice, and 
the statue of Duke Borso unfinished at his death, as it is on 
record that they were completed by his son Giovanni and his 
son-in-law Domenico di Paris, in 1466. 

Bartolo, Giovanni di — " II Rosso " 

(Florentine — Working, 1419-1451) 

He was working on the Campanile at Florence from 
1419 to 1422 as an assistant of Donatello, and did a 
part of the group of Abraham and Isaac. His name is also 
inscribed on the base of the Statue of Obadiah on the west 
side, a work which up to 1831 had been ascribed to Donatello, 
and he probably did the Moses and Joshua (E). In 1424 
he left Florence, and made the Brenzoni Monument in S. 
Fermo Maggiore at Verona, a tawdry creation characterized 
by a false note of devotion and manifest insincerity of purpose. 
Possibly he may have been concerned with the beautiful 
Reliefs in S. Anastasia generally assigned to the Master of the 
Pellegrini Chapel. Afterwards he was commissioned by a 
certain Mauruzi to decorate the fa^de of the Church of S. 
Niccolo at Tolentino. This he carried out in a style which 
suggests that he must have seen the fagade at Orvieto. In 
one tympanum is a relief of the Virgin with S. Augustine and 
S. Niccolo, and in another a member of the Visconti family 
posing as S. George and slaying the dragon. The proportions 
of the facade are fine and harmonious, and show that Giovanni 
had a true eye for design ; but much of the decorative carving 
must have been done by assistants. Altogether it is one of 
the most important achievements in ornamental sculpture 
executed in the early part of the fifteenth century. 


Beccafumi, Domenico (Sienese, 1486-1551) 

Beccafumi, in his later years, took to modelling, and made 
the eight candle-bearing Angels which occupy the brackets 
on the pillars of the choir of the Cathedral at Siena. They 
are artistically about on a level with Beccafumi's paintings. 

Begarelli, Antonio (Modenese, 1498- 1565) 

Begarelli worked in clay after the manner of Alfonso 
Lombardi and Mazzoni. Nothing definite is known of 
his training. His achievements are very unequal in merit; 
his heavy masses of coloured clay resemble anything rather 
than flowing robes, and his attempts at composition with life- 
sized figures are often disastrous. His Deposition in S. 
Francesco at Modena is his best work. The women who 
attend the fainting Virgin are admirable in modelling and 
expression, but this successful detail accentuates the vicious 
scheme of the whole, and shows a composition split into two 
conflicting motives, with little or no relation one to the other. 
In S. Pietro is a Pietk which is far better, being less elaborate ; 
also six statues of saints, and a Madonna seated on clouds 
with saints and angels. In S. Domenico, S. Agostino, 
and S. Maria del Carmine are groups of the Mortorio type, 
and in the Museo a Madonna. At Parma, in S. Giovanni, 
are four glazed terra-cotta statues — the Madonna, S. John, 
S. Benedict, and Elizabeth and the Baptist ; and at Carpi a 
Madonna in S. Crocefisso. Tuscan spirit had little direct 
influence on Modenese art, which was more affected by 
Michelangelo's teaching in Rome, brought into the Emilia 
by Tribolo's activity at Bologna in 1525. 

Bellano, Bartolommeo (Paduan, 1430-1492) 

Bellano was a Paduan artist employed by Donatello 
in his work at S. Antonio. He is best known by his 


series of Reliefs in the choir of S. Antonio (1488), which are 
greatly inferior to his master's, and to those of Riccio, his pupil, 
who did two other reliefs of the series — the Judith, and David 
and the Ark. Bellano's fault is the overcrowding of his 
subjects : perhaps he derived this from Donatello's later 
works, and if all reliefs were like Bellano's the question, 
whether this method is legitimate as a vehicle of pictorial 
expression, would certainly be decided in the negative. He 
also did the Monument to the De Castros, legists, in 
S. Maria dei Servi ; and one in S. Francesco at Padua to Pietro 
Roccabonella, a jurist, which has been broken up. He is 
represented writing on one relief, and on the other are the 
Virgin and Saints. This monument was finished by Riccio 
after Bellano's death. 

Pope Paul II employed Bellano to remodel the Palazzo 
Venezia in Rome. He did a Bust of the Pope and also a 
bronze Statue — since destroyed — for Perugia in 1466. At 
Padua he did the Tomb of Roycelli, and perhaps that of the 
Gattamelatas in S. Antonio : S. Niccolb in the Church of 
S. Niccolb ; a Pietk in S. Pietro ; the Castro Tomb in S. Maria 
dei Servi ; S. Benedict in S. Benedetto ; a Madonna in the 
Museo, and another in the Eremitani. Some small bronzes in 
the Museum at Berlin and in the Bargello are attributed to him. 

Certain critics hold that Bellano carried Donatello's style 
to Venice, and helped to form the school of the Lombardi ; 
but the chiefs of that family give evidence of innate qualities 
which would render them independent of such a teacher. 

Bernini, Lorenzo (Neapolitan, 1598-1680) 

A HUNDRED and twenty-three years elapsed between the 
birth of Michelangelo and that of Bernini ; the gulf 
between the intellectual outlook and the realised achieve- 
ments of the two men seems immeasurable, yet it is one of 
the commonplaces of criticism that Michelangelo let loose 
the torrent of exaggerated expression, and that the carven 
images with which Bernini filled the world are but the 


legitimate outcome of the Night and Morning and the Last 
Judgment. Michelangelo, no doubt, quickened the pace, 
and led his successors to lay a task of expression on marble 
it could hardly bear ; but the vast divergence between his work 
and Bernini's springs not from one man's idiosyncrasy, but 
from the fundamental change in the outlook of Catholicism, 
the dominant mental force of the time. At various epochs 
Michelangelo's work gives back an echo of the world's 
utterances : he wrought as the meteoric nature within him 
commanded. Bernini was bom into a world recently swept 
by a political and religious whirlwind ; when the rulers of the 
Church saw that a new style of ecclesiastical art was necessary 
to the new order of things, so they called on Bernini to give 
them what they wanted. The Jesuits, who had the matter in 
hand, decided that the simplicity and purity of the Quattro- 
cento Tuscans would be of no service : it was too vague and 
immaterial to appeal to the gross multitude, and help win their 
obedience. Religious art must be more in sympathy with the 
temperament of the average sensual man, and for good or 
evil Bernini was at hand. 

His activity was enormous ; he had a sure eye and a rapid 
hand. Finely finished as his statues are, delicate as is the 
treatment of flesh, the labour of the file never appears. His 
earliest productions are amongst his best; they are by no 
means mere replicas of the mannered and effete sculpture of 
the age of Paul v, for they show balance of proportion and a 
strong sense of beauty. David with the Sling, Apollo and 
Daphne, and vEneas and Anchises in the Villa Borghese are 
wonderful feats for a youth under twenty. The Ludovisi Rape 
of Proserpine, now in the Villa Borghese, shows him with still 
more complete command of his medium. The Statue of 
S. Bibiena on the high altar of her church is one of his best 
single figures, though bearing traces of the hysteric mood 
which makes his later works intolerable. It was about 1630 
that Urban viii set him to work on the great bronze canopy 
which still disfigures the space beneath the dome in S. Peter's. 
The metal of which it was made was taken from the Pantheon, 


and the failure which attended Bernini's efforts to give it 
symmetry in its new form was a just vengeance on such 
ignoble pilfering. Urban next commissioned Bernini to 
execute the Barcaccia fountain in the Piazza di Spagna, and 
the Tritone in the Barberini, and later the great fountain in 
the Piazza Navona, an imposing composition with figures free 
from exaggeration. Bernini also prepared the designs of the 
Fontana di Trevi, which was carried out a century later. 
A fine work, probably of this period, is the Salutation in the 
Cathedral at Savona, recalling Luca della Robbia's version in 
S. Giovanni fuori civitas at Pistoia. 

Urban viii removed from Mantua the body of the Countess 
Matilda, and the Tomb which Bernini made for her in 
S. Peter's is his best. It follows Rossellino's lines, but the 
recumbent effigy is replaced by two child angels holding a 
highly decorated label, and under the arch stands the statue 
of the countess. 

His two other monuments, the Tombs of Urban viii and 
Alexander vii, are faulty and meretricious : a mixture of 
bronze and parti-coloured marble, solid shapeless draperies, 
and monitory skeletons. The figure of Urban has a certain 
dignity, and the Charity is inoffensive. The Justice is a 
ridiculous figure, overwhelmed apparently by the weight of 
her sword. On the Tomb of Alexander the Pope's effigy is 
characterless, and the Virtues in front are merely blowsy over- 
grown women. The defects of these tombs are intensified by 
comparison with that of Paul iii by Guglielmo della Porta, 
which adjoins them. In the Ecstasy of S. Teresa in S. Maria 
della Vittoria, Bernini reaches the lowest depth of hysterical 
emotion. A scoffer might view this group with indifference 
or even satisfaction, but to the religious mind it must be 
painful and revolting. In decorative work he was at his worst 
in the costly covering of the Chair of S. Peter. 

Various other works by Bernini may be noted : a Statue 
of Daniel and one of Habakkuk in the Chigi Chapel of 
S. Maria del Popolo ; one of S. Gaetano in the Sistine Chapel 
of S. Maria Maggiore; a marble Relief in S. Francesca 


Romana; S. Lorenzo in the Palazzo Strozzi in Florence; a 
Pieti in the Corsini Chapel at the Lateran ; the Angels on the 
bridge of S. Angelo ; the Reliefs, and perhaps the Statue of 
Constantine, in the Portico of S. Peter's ; S. Longinus under 
the dome ; the Effigy of Ludovica Albertone in S. Francesco 
a ripa ; the Magdalen and S. Jerome in the Chigi Chapel of 
the Cathedral at Siena ; and Urban viii. in the Capitol. 

As a portraitist Bernini took a higher place. His Bust of 
Costanza Buonarelli in the Bargello; of an Old Woman in 
S. Lorenzo in Lucina in Rome, of Francesco d' Este in the 
Museo at Modena; of Cardinal Scipio Borghese in the 
Accademia at Venice, and a series of effigies of members of 
the Comaro Family in S. Maria della Vittoria at Rome are 
all of considerable merit. Bernini's technical dexterity was 
marvellous, and this he succeeded in imparting to his pupils, 
and in securing the survival of his style of portrait sculpture, 
while his florid allegories and posturing saints have justly 
fallen into disrepute. 

The fine bust of Cromwell, now in the House of Commons, 
was probably done by one of the assistants employed by him 
during his long sojourn in Paris. 

Bernini, PietrO (Florentine, 1562- ) 

He seems to have gone early to Rome, and to have helped 
in the decoration of the Vatican and of the palace at 
Caprarola. In 1584 he went to Naples, where his son 
Lorenzo was bom in 1598. His chief works there are 
the Carita in the Church of Monte di Pieta ; SS. Peter and 
Paul in the Brancacci Chapel in the Cathedral ; a Baptist in 
S. Maria Nuova; S. Matthew in the Gesu Nuova; SS. 
Bartholomew and Simon in S. Filippo Gerolomini ; a Madonna 
in the Museo of S. Martino. In Rome he did an Assumption 
and some caryatid figures in S. Maria Maggiore, and a 
Baptist in S. Andrea della Valle. 


Bertoldo di Giovanni (Florentine, 1410-1491) 

Bertoldo was in many ways the most remarkable of 
Donatello's pupils. In spite of his long life he left little 
work, but he was the friend and companion of his master's 
old age; he had a large share in the completion of the 
S. Lorenzo pulpits; and he formed the link between the 
earlier and the later revival of sculpture from the fact that 
Lorenzo dei Medici made him the director of the school 
of art, which numbered Michelangelo amongst its earliest 
pupils. Nothing is known of Bertoldo's early association with 
Donatello ; but it is probable they worked together at Padua 
upon the bronze reliefs. His most noteworthy achievement 
is the bronze relief of the Conflict in the Bargello, which is 
generally set down as a creation of his later years. It is a 
fine example of execution, but wanting in originality. The 
delineation of the half-nude figures is superb : the muscles, 
both in the men and in the horses, are tense with the strain 
of battle, and the rush and clatter of the fight could not 
have been more faithfully rendered. Two winged female 
figures are placed at the extremities, and below them two 
majestic forms, a man and a woman. Another work of his 
is the group of Bellerophon and the Centaur in the Imperial 
Museum at Vienna. The attitude of the horse will recall 
those on the upper frieze of the pulpits in S. Lorenzo ; only 
one other work bears his name and is absolutely authentic, 
— a medal of Sultan Mahomet 11 bearing on the reverse two 
recHning figures which suggest the pose of Michelangelo's 
Night and Morning. Of the unsigned works attributed with 
good reason to Bertoldo, the most remarkable are the bronze 
Relief of the Crucifixion, another of dancing /«///, a Pietk 
(of which there is a replica in the Louvre), and a statuette of 
Orpheus in the Bargello, a mounted Hercules in the Museo 
at Modena ; statuettes of him in the museums at Oxford 
and at Berlin, where there is also the nude youth called the 
Suppliant, and a plaque of Cupids ; a Relief of the Virgin 
in the Louvre ; and a plaque, the Education of Cupid ; 


Hercules slaying the Lion — two versions — and another with 
the club, in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

The reUef of Cupids in the Bargello and Giovanni da Pisa's 
altar in the Eremitani at Padua strongly resemble each other, 
and Donatello's pulpits in S. Lorenzo seem to take something 
from both ; a circumstance which confirms the view that 
these two sculptors worked with Donatello upon them. 

Bicci di Lorenzo (Florentine, 1373-1452) 

He is chiefly known as a painter, but he left one note- 
worthy piece of sculpture, the Coronation of the Virgin, 
on the Church of the Hospital of S. Maria Nuova at 
Florence. This was for a long time attributed to Dello Delli, 
but the hospital records place its origin beyond all dispute. 
It is one of the earliest examples of terra-cotta work, dating 
as it does from 142 1. The sentiment of the group is 
Giottesque, and the treatment extremely simple, all ensigns 
of divinity being absent. This, like the rendering of the 
Massegne in S. Francesco at Bologna, represents the simple 
act of coronation, which is the glorification generally accorded 
to her in the fourteenth century. Orcagna in Or. S. Michele, 
and Nanni di Banco in the Porta della Mandorla of the 
Cathedral, exhibit her adored by angels ; an honour to be 
sujjerseded later on by the Assumption complete, supplemented 
at times by her coronation by Christ in Heaven. 

Biduino (Pisan— Working, 1180) 

He was one of the earliest of the Tuscan carvers. What 
he has left is exceedingly rude, and greatly inferior to 
Rodolfino's work at Pistoia, or Roberto's at Lucca. He 
decorated the doors of S. Salvatore and S. Giovanni at Lucca ; 
of S. Casciano near Pisa, dated 1180; and a sarcophagus in 
the Campo Santo, dated 1200. 


Bologna, Gian (Florentine, i 524-1608) 

GiAN Bologna was one of those artists who, coming to 
maturity at a period of decadence, are strong enough 
to hold at bay for a time the threatening forces of 
deterioration. Though born a Fleming, he was in art 
Florentine and nothing else. He went to study in Rome in 
1 5 50? where he remained two years, under Michelangelo's 
instruction. On his way back to Florence in 1552 he 
attracted the attention of the ruling house, and remained 
there the rest of his life. Several early works have disap- 
peared, but there is in the museum at Douai a terracotta 
sketch of Samson and the Philistines which probably relates 
to one of these. In 1559 he was a competitor for the erection 
of the fountain — finally given to Ammanati — in the Piazza 
della Signoria. His talents were evidently recognized outside 
Florence, for in 1563 Pius iv commissioned him to carry out 
the great Fountain at Bologna. On the summit of this he 
placed the Statue of Neptune which he had designed for the 
one in Florence, a figure not in his happiest style, and greatly 
inferior to the spouting boys and sirens which harmonize 
admirably with the architectural portion done by Francesco 
Laurati. He made another Fountain in the Boboli Gardens, 
the Vasca dell' Isolotto, with a statue of Oceanus and three river 
gods. About 1566 he did the group of Virtue subduing 
Vice (which shows Michelangelo's influence), and the flying 
Mercury, one of the most popular statues in the world, both 
in the Bargello. In 1575 he did the bronze Statues of the 
Virtues and ReHefs of the Passion which are now in the 
hall of the University of Genoa. The Charity, the Hope, 
the Flagellation, and the Maries at the Tomb are exceptionally 
fine. For the Cappella del Soccorso, in which he lies buried, 
in the Annunziata in Florence, he did a set of Reliefs, virtually 
replicas of the Genoan ones, and a fine bronze crucifix ; other 
crucifixes by him are in S. Lorenzo, in the Church of the 
Impruneta near Florence, and in the Cathedral at Pisa. In 
the Cathedral at Lucca in 1579 he made Statues of Christ, 


S. Peter, and S. Paulinus over the Altar of Liberty. The 
Christ is mawkish and theatrical, but the S. Paul is a grand 
and impressive figure. In 1501 he executed his masterpiece, 
the Rape of the Sabines, now in the Loggia dei Lanzi at 
Florence. It was at once hailed as the greatest feat of the 
age, and for perfect balance, for harmonious blending of 
force and grace, and for anatomical rendering of the human 
form, it is excelled by few groups ancient or modem. The 
group of Hercules and Nessus, also in the Loggia, is less 
happy. In 1585 he did the Statue of Cosimo dei Medici 
outside the UflSzi. 

For a long time Gian Bologna was credited with the 
Reliefs on the western doors of the Cathedral at Pisa, but 
Signor Supino has recently shown that any direct participation 
of his in these is improbable. Neither in composition nor 
treatment do they proclaim his fine sense of proportion and 
firm accurate touch. He may have suggested designs to be 
carried out by his pupils. Other works of his are a bronze 
Angel, and Christ and the Baptist, on the holy water 
stoups in the Cathedral at Pisa ; the Architecture, Hercules, 
Venus, Galatea, Apollo, Boy Fishing, and Juno, in the 
Bargello ; Venus on Tribolo's fountain at Petraia ; another 
in Buontalenti's grotto in the Boboli Gardens, where is 
also the Abundance; the colossal Appenino at Pratolino; 
S. Luke on Or. S. Michele, and a replica, styled S. Matthew, 
in the Cathedral at Orvieto ; the Equestrian Statue of Duke 
Cosimo in the Piazza della Signoria. The duke's figure is 
good and life-like. The Reliefs on the pedestal show a great 
falling off from his earlier ones, and the horse is of the small- 
headed Flemish type. The statue of Ferdinand i in the 
Piazza dell' Annunziata — begun in 1608 — is greatly inferior; 
it was finished by Tacca, one of his pupils; as were Statues 
of Henri iv of France (destroyed during the Revolution) and 
Philip III of Spain. He also furnished designs for Statues of 
Cosimo I and Ferdinand i, which were carried out by Franca- 
villa and are now in Pisa. In the Museum at Vienna is a 
graceful figure of a Girl Bathing, at S. Petersburg a Rape of 


Deianira, and in the Victoria and Albert Museum a fountain 
figure of Venus (No. 2818), Nessus and Deianira (No. 2504), 
the Rape of a Sabine Woman (No. 1619), Galatea (No. 5879), 
and some wax models for the reliefs in the Annunziata 
(Nos. 76, 77). 

Bon, Bartolommeo, Giovanni, Pacifico, and 

Pantaleone (Venetians — Working, 1440) 

These were the chief of the architects who were engaged 
on the Ducal Palace at Venice during the fifteenth century, 
when the alterations and additions which brought it to 
its present form were carried out. The carved angels and 
capitals are the chief glory of Venetian sculpture; and it 
was formerly held that Bartolommeo and his sons were re- 
sponsible for these, as well as for the later structure of the 
Palace, which was completed about 1462. This claim is now 
generally abandoned. Their first definite work is the Porta 
della Carta, between the Ducal Palace and S. Marco, which 
was begun in 1439 ^"^^ finished in 1443. It is crowned by 
a Statue of Justice seated between two lions. Beneath is a 
roundel, with a half-length of S. Mark, and on the pilasters 
canopied niches containing statues of the Virtues. Over the 
door is the winged lion and a kneeling doge, and classic 
details are visible in the ornamentation, showing that the 
new spirit had already affected Venice. The Porta bears 
Bartolommeo's signature. Other productions are the Statues 
of S. John, S. Mark, and the Madonna over the altar of the 
Cappella dei Mascoli in S. Marco ; the lunette over the door 
of the Scuola di S. Marco; the statuettes on the facade of 
S. Maria dell' Orto ; and a Madonna in the Municipio at Udine. 
Critics refuse to allow them the beautiful carved statuary and 
foliage on the Ducal Palace, on the ground of its marked 
superiority to any of their recognized work. Early writers 
supported their claims by the argument that the personality 
only of Bartolommeo was known, through his signature on 


Diuat Palate, I'tnitt 


the Porta della Carta, and that his sons might have been 
better sculptors, and have executed the capitals and angles 
by copying fragments of the old palace. But in the great 
reconstruction, which began in 1423, the arcade facing the 
Molo was probably untouched; and the one facing the 
Piazzetta was built to match it about 1426, so they could, at 
the most, have been concerned only in the part last named. 
Other critics find traces of Florentine spirit, and favour the 
claims of the makers of the Tomb of Tommaso Mocenigo in 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo ; but this is doubtful, if there is any 
truth in the contention, recently advanced, as to the age of 
the arcades of the Ducal Palace. Burckhardt's Cicerone 
assigns the sculpture towards the Molo to the end of the 
fourteenth, and that towards the Piazzetta to the first ten years 
of the fifteenth century. 

BonamicO (Pisan, Twelfth Century) 

His only known work is a Relief in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa representing Christ seated in a mandorla surrounded by 
the symbols of the evangelists. It is chiefly interesting as 
marking the condition of sculpture about a century before 
Niccola Pisano's pulpit in the Baptistery. The treatment is 
evidently borrowed from some Byzantine example. 

Bonanno (Pisan, Twelfth Century) 

BoNANNO is best known as the architect of the Pisan 
Campanile. After 1 1 74 he probably went to Monreale and 
worked on the west doors of the Cathedral — finished in 
1 186. The Byzantine and oriental characteristics in his 
doors of the Pisan Cathedral suggest that they were made 
after his Sicilian experiences. In them he uses the palm- 
tree, which he would have seen in Sicily, and the figures 
and composition are distinctly Byzantine. 


Bracci, P. (Roman — Working, 1725) 

He did the Tombs of Benedict xiii and xiv in the Minerva 
and in S. Peter's, and of Clement xii in the Lateran. His 
best work is the monument of Maria Sobieski in the left aisle 
of S. Peter's, Naturally, his work shows Bernini's influence; 
but, considering the age, it has merit. 

Bregno, Andrea (Milanese, 1421-1506) 

Bregno was born at Osteno, near Lugano, and in the 
church there is an Altar of the Virgin, his earliest known 
work (1464), and a Tabernacle. After this he went to 
Rome, where his first works were the Lebretto Tomb in 
Ara Coeli, and one of the Angels on the Tebaldi Tomb and 
probably the Capranica Tomb in the Minerva. In 1473 ^^ 
did the Altar of Alexander vi in S. Maria del Popolo ; also 
two Tabernacles and the Costa Tomb. The Alano Tomb in 
S. Prassede is sometimes attributed to him, but this is doubtful. 
In 1476 he executed, in conjunction with Dalmata, the Tomb 
of Roverella in S. Clemente, and the next year the Riario 
Tomb in SS. Apostoli (with Mino) and the Savelli Tomb 
in Ara Coeli. His latest work was the Piccolomini Altar in 
the Cathedral at Siena (1481-1485), done in collaboration 
with Capponi and Lorenzo Marinna. In 1490 he did the 
imposing Tabernacle in the Madonna della Quercia at Viterbo, 
on which he used a scheme of decoration too minute for the 
massive proportions of the structure. The Periera Altar in 
S. Paolo fuori, the Memorial Tablet of Cardinal Cusa (1465) 
in S. Pietro in Vincoli, the Astorigio, Ferrici, and Coca Tombs 
in the Minerva, the della Rovere Tomb in S. Maria del 
Popolo, the Statues of S. Luke, S. Lawrence, S. Mark, the 
Baptist, and a Relief of the Crucifixion in the Lateran, and 
an Altar in S. Maria Maggiore are from his workshop and 
partially by him. Bregno was trained in the Mantegazza 
traditions, but the influences he encountered in Rome 
modified any excess of Lombard characteristics. His pro- 


portions are correct and dignified, and his draperies are 
free from the "cartaceous" appearance too common in 
Lombard sculpture. His long sojourn in Rome may have 
inclined him to overdo classic ornamentation, a tendency visible 
in his later work. 

Bregno, Lorenzo (Venetian, -1524) 

He was an assistant and probably a pupil of Antonio 
Lombardi, whose style he closely followed. In collabora- 
tion with Antonio Minello he made the monument of 
Admiral Pesaro in the Frari (1503). The Effigy of Dom. 
Naldo on the Naldo tomb in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and two 
female figures on the Vendramin tomb, are also his. The 
Trevisan Altar in S. Maria Mater Domini was done by him 
and Dentone. In the Cathedral at Treviso he helped to 
decorate Antonio Lombardo's Cappella del Sacramento, 
fragments of which are preserved in the church. The statues 
of the Madonna and of S. Sebastian and two reliefs are 
probably by him. Lorenzo was a sculptor of great merit, and 
thoroughly penetrated with the sentiment of the Renaissance. 

Bresciano, Prospero (Roman— Working, 

I 585- I 595) 

He was an exponent of Bandinelli's style at its worst 
He is chiefly known by the Statue of Moses on the Fontana 
dei Termini at Rome, a slovenly imitation of Michelangelo. 
He also made a bronze Crucifix in S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini. 

BriosCO, Benedetto (Milanese— Working, 

He was employed many years on the Certosa, and was 
several times made capo maestro during the absence of 
Amadeo. The present Front is probably from their joint 


design. The great Central Door is his ; also several of the 
delicately carved Reliefs on either side, which were formerly 
given to Amadeo. Briosco was engaged on the Tomb of 
Gian Galeazzo, and his name is on the base of a figure of 
the Virgin, but the tomb is chiefly by Gian Cristoforo 
Romano. After 1497 Briosco worked with Amadeo on 
the faQade. In 1501 he began the great Central Door, a 
noble work which proclaims him the greatest architect 
employed on the fagade. Later work of his is in the crypt 
of the Cathedral at Cremona, the Tomb of S. Pietro and 
S. Marcellino. The sarcophagus is ungraceful in form 
and coarse in decoration ; and was probably largely done 
by Girolamo della Porta. A Pietk in the hall of the Monte 
di Pietk at Milan is attributed to him. 

Brunelleschi, FilippO (Florentine, i 377-1446) 

Brunelleschi would doubtless have won fame as a sculp- 
tor had not architecture claimed him. The legacy of 
sculpture he left was a very scanty one : the Trial Panel 
for the Baptistery doors (1401), now in the Bargello; the 
Crucifix in S. Maria Novella; and some decorative carving 
on the Doors of the Pazzi Chapel in S. Croce. The fact 
that he was asked to compete with Ghiberti and other 
famous sculptors shows that he must have already gained 
a reputation with the chisel. Ghiberti's sketch is also in 
the Bargello, and the two may be studied conveniently. 
The want of pose in Brunelleschi's figures is probably a 
result of inexperience; the figures taken by themselves are 
finely conceived and sculptured. The cowering terror of the 
youthful Isaac, and the merciless sweep of Abraham's arm 
are expressed with intense dramatic power. As a confirma- 
tion of the report of Brunelleschi's visit to Rome with 
Donatello, it may be noted that in the relief he has modelled 
one of the servants closely in imitation of the Boy with a 
Thorn in the Capitol Museum. The Crucifix of S. Maria 
Novella is evidently a work of maturity, executed long after 


the competitive panel. It shows a fine restraint and an 
intimate knowledge of anatomy. It is indeed an extra- 
ordinary tour de force for a man who practised sculpture 
so scantily as Brunelleschi, and is only surpassed by 
Donatello's magnificent bronze crucifix at Padua. It is 
quite possible that its merits may have been in some measure 
due to the counsels and aid of Donatello, with whom 
Brunelleschi maintained a lifelong friendship. 

In the Cappella Pazzi in S. Croce, Brunelleschi executed 
the decorative carving on the panels of the door, and also 
the beautiful pediment, with its figures sculptured in low 
relief, and the boys supporting a wreath on the lintel. This 
door should be compared with Michelozzo's doors of the 
Cloister and of the Noviciate, also in S. Croce. 

Bruno di Ser LapO, Mazzei (Florentine, 


He was one of the greatest Italian smiths. His chief work is 
the exquisite bronze Grille in the Cappella della Cintola in the 
Cathedral at Prato. 

Buggiano (Maestro Lazzaro) (Florentine, 


He was the adopted son of Brunelleschi, and is best 
known as the sculptor of the Portrait of the great archi- 
tect in the Cathedral at Florence. The head is massive 
and powerful, and the expression shrewd and kindly, though 
the execution is somewhat rough. Buggiano also made the 
Lavabos in the Sacristies (1440), the architectural features of 
which recall Brunelleschi's work in the Cappella Pazzi in 
S. Croce. The figures of the nude boys display some originality, 
but the pose is unfortunate. It is a matter of dispute whether he 
is the same person as the Maestro Lazzaro who made the Pulpit 
in S. Maria Novella from Brunelleschi's designs; but, as his 


father's name was Lazzaro, and as he himself was adopted by 
Brunelleschi, this contention seems reasonable. The carving 
on the pulpit resembles that of the lavabos in its freedom 
and rough vigour, and they both have a suggestion of Delia 
Quercia's influence. The design of the pulpit is of no remark- 
able merit, and the minor ornamentation is conventional. 
Decorative work in the Cathedral of Pescia, and in S. Maria 
della Spina at Pisa, is also attributed to him. He also did the 
Tomb of the parents of Cosimo dei Medici, which is placed 
under the table in the Old Sacristy of S. Lorenzo, and the 
Madonna Relief over the altar. 

Buglione, Benedetto (Florentine, 1461-1521) 

He was one of the best of the followers of the Delia 
Robbias, and was engaged with Giovanni on the Hospital 
at Pistoia; he also did a Resurrection in S. Francesco. 
He went later to Perugia, where he executed a Pulpit and three 
Medallions in the Refectory of S. Pietro, and a Lavabo with 
Christ and the Samaritan in the corridor. In the University 
Museum are two figures of David and Jesse. His chief work in 
Florence is the fine Lunette over the door of the Badia. The 
Effigy of S. Cristina in the Cathedral at Bolsena is probably by 

Buonarroti, Michelangelo (Florentine, 

To deal with Michelangelo oply as a sculptor, leaving aside 
all other phases of his complex and fascinating character, 
would require a volume by itself, and the impossibiHty of any 
such treatment must be the justification for offering here what 
can be little more than a catalogue and description of his 
extant work, with whatever comments upon it and upon his 
personality that may appear absolutely necessary. 

The events of Michelangelo's life have been fully recorded. 
Born at Caprese, near Arezzo, he was taken to Florence when 

- z 5 

w u s 

2 o as 


he was of age to go to school, where he preferred to illustrate 
the margins of his books rather than study the text. His 
father at first opposed his inclination towards art, but ultimately 
allowed him to enter the workshop of Domenico Ghirlandaio, 
where one of the elder students, Francesco Granacci, proved 
a kind friend and helper. At this time Lorenzo dei Mtdici 
had collected many antique statues in the gardens of S. Marco, 
and he requested Ghirlandaio to send thither his best pupils, 
amongst whom went Michelangelo. This academy was under 
the direction of Bertoldo, Donatello's pupil and assistant in 
the pulpits of S. Lorenzo, so Michelangelo came at once 
under the influence of the great master. Here he is 
said to have made the Faun's Mask, now in the Bargello, 
but this is probably a late imitation. Lorenzo was greatly 
taken with the youth, and gave him lodging in the palace while 
he was studying. Here he met the leading scholars of the 
age; amongst them Poliziano, who advised him to attempt 
a classic subject, the Battle of the Centaurs, which is now 
in the Casa Buonarroti. For a youth of eighteen it is indeed 
a marvellous achievement, and in it the ge/m of his subsequent 
triumphs may readily be traced. Bertoldo wrought a large 
portion of the pulpits in S. Lorenzo, and study of these, and 
of Bertoldo's fine panel, the Conflict, now in the Bargello, 
aflfected powerfully Michelangelo's early development. Even 
at this early age he must have known far more of anatomy 
than did his great forerunner. Any inspiration he might 
gather from the degenerate Graeco-Roman fragments in the 
gardens of S. Marco could scarcely have been called classic, 
and it is uncertain whether at this time he had seen any of the 
Pisan masterpieces, yet this relief of the Centaurs is intensely 
classic in form. The execution shows a wonderful control 
over a crowded and involved composition, and at every turn 
the human form shines out from the confused mass of limbs 
and muscles. In the Berlin Museum there is an unfinished 
Apollo, claimed as an early work of the master, and the re- 
semblance between it and the individual figures in the 
Centaurs is certainly very remarkable. 


In 1492 the death of Lorenzo completely changed his life. 
There are legends of a Statue of Hercules, of which nothing is 
known ; and how he studied anatomy at the Monastery of 
S. Spirito. It is certain that in 1494, before the coming of 
Charles viii, he withdrew to Venice, and ultimately to Bologna, 
where he made the right-hand kneeling Angel on S. Dominic's 
tomb in S. Domenico, and worked at the drapery of the Statue 
of S. Petronio on the canopy. Another image, that of S. 
Procolo, was also made by him, but in 1572 this was destroyed, 
and the present one made by Prospero Spani, a sculptor of 
Reggio. While in Bologna he would certainly have studied 
Quercia's reliefs on the west door of S. Petronio : it is the 
fashion to regard Querela as the inspirer of Michelangelo's 
later style, but this view is open to dispute. When he returned 
to Florence he found political chaos. Legend says that he fell 
under Savonarola's influence, and that he " doctored " a statuette 
of Cupid and sold it to a Roman dealer as an antique. In 1496 
he went to Rome, where his reputation seems to have preceded 
him, for he soon got a commission from Jacopo Gallo for 
the Bacchus, now in the Bargello, and for a Cupid, probably the 
figure now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The execution 
of the Bacchus is poor : it is merely a reflection of the decadent 
Grseco-Roman work of the later Empire. The so-called Cupid 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 7560) is an interesting 
study, and generally recognized as genuine, but the S. Giovannino 
at Berlin is wanting in the master's characteristics. To this same 
period may be assigned the Crouching Boy at St. Petersburg. 
Michelangelo was probably forced by need to accept any work 
which came in his way. Jacopo Gallo seems to have possessed 
at one time an Apollo, which has disappeared; and in 1498, by 
Gallo's influence, he got the commission for the Pietk in S. 
Peter's, his finest early work, which shows his style in transition. 
With his training he needed an entirely fresh set of ideas to 
carry out such a group as this ; and for the Virgin, with her pity- 
ing face and gestures, he seems to have looked back to the Delia 
Robbias and RosselHno, while for the Christ he trusted entirely 
to his own powers. His knowledge of anatomy enabled him to 


render faithfully the muscles relaxed in death, a far harder 
task than the exhibition of a man in the full vigour of life. 
The Piet^ is the finest existing group of devotional sculpture. 
Every line in the Virgin speaks of life; every line in the 
Christ of death ; and at the same time they run, one and all, 
in perfect harmony together. 

In 1 50 1 Michelangelo returned to Florence with his reputa- 
tion made, and began the colossal David, which shows classical 
influences, but he also imitated Donatello's imperfections in the 
enormous, ill-proportioned hands. It was finished in 1504 out 
of a block of marble unduly curtailed by the hacking of Agos- 
tino di Duccio. A charming work of this period is a Madorma, 
now in the Cathedral at Bruges. About 1505 he executed 
three Madonna Reliefs, the earliest of which is that of the 
Casa Buonarroti, strongly reminiscent of Donatello's style; 
another, unfinished, is in the Bargello ; and the third is in the 
Diploma Gallery at Burlington House. 

The year 1505 marks a decisive crisis in Michelangelo's 
life. In January, Julius 11 summoned him to Rome to 
prepare a design for a sepulchral monument for himself. The 
plan was on a gigantic scale, comprising thirty-eight life-sized 
statues, and Julius forthwith sent him to Carrara to prepare 
the marble, the cargoes of which, when they reached Rome, 
bulked so large that Julius began to hesitate ; for, in the mean- 
time, a vaster work had captivated his fancy — the rebuilding 
of S. Peter's. Condivi, in his Life of Michelangelo, tells a 
a story that Bramante, whose plan for the new basilica had 
been preferred to San Gallo's, was anxious to rid Rome of the 
Florentine artists, and warned the Pope that men who built 
their own tombs soon occupied them, and suggested that 
Michelangelo should be set to paint the ceiling of the Sistine 
Chapel, hoping that he might fail and disgrace himself. In 
any case, Michelangelo found his position in Rome un- 
comfortable, and stole away in February 1506 to Florence, 
where he remained for six months. Julius wrote to the Signory 
demanding that he should be sent back, but war intervene^ 
and he ceased to press his claim. Having driven the Benti- 


vogli out of Bologna, he determined to commemorate his 
victory by setting a colossal bronze statue of himself over the 
door of S. Petronio, and again wrote to Florence to secure the 
services of Michelangelo, who met him at Bologna in November. 
The statue was duly cast and set up, but when the Bentivogli 
recovered the city in 151 1 it was destroyed and used for 
casting cannon. 

Julius next summoned him to Rome, and set him to paint 
the Sistine ceiling, the project for the tomb being apparently 
laid aside. This work lasted till 15 12, and in the year following 
Julius died. His next statue was the Christ, now in the 
Minerva at Rome, one of his most uninteresting works. It is 
only partially by him, the hands and feet having been done 
by Pietro Urbano. In 15 15 he began the Julian Tomb, and 
in the same year Leo x, while visiting Florence, determined 
to complete the front of S. Lorenzo, the burial-place of 
the Medici. He charged Michelangelo with the work, thus 
causing him to break his contract for the Julian tomb, and 
to waste three years of his life at Carrara, making roads and 
fighting quarrymen. The contract was cancelled in 1520. 
Next Leo determined to build the new Sacristy, which Michel- 
angelo undertook, but Leo died in 15 21, and it was not 
finished till 1524, under Clement vii, another Medici pope. 
The monuments were not settled till 1524, and the work 
lingered on till 1535. In 1527 Rome was taken and pillaged, 
and the Medici expelled from Florence, Michelangelo being 
called from the Sacristy to design fortifications. Florence was 
taken in 1530 and the Medici restored, and he went back to 
his sculpture in danger of his life, for Alessandro dei Medici, 
the new duke, hated him as a member of the popular party, 
and would have killed him but for the Pope's protection. He 
had been working intermittently on the Julian tomb, and in 
1532 a fresh contract was made with the Duke of Urbino for 
its prosecution. 

In 1534 Clement died, and his successor Paul in cared 
nothing for the Sacristy or the Tomb, being set upon a great 
altarpiece in the Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo ; but he 



yrm SMcriity, Smn Ltrtux*. Flmnn.t 


lightened the master's burdens by persuading the Duke of 
Urbino to accept what statuary had been already completed 
for the tomb as sufficient. Henceforth his labours on these 
two works were so intermingled that a clear chronicle is 
difficult. Cosimo, Pater Patriae, was already commemorated 
in the church : the new monuments in the Sacristy were to 
be those of Lorenzo the Magnificent, of Giuliano his brother, 
of Giuliano son of Lorenzo, and of Lorenzo his grandson, son 
of the worthless Piero. Only the last two were executed. That 
of Giuliano is a mediocre production : the neck is long and 
the pose mannered. Though the sculptor must have known 
he had neither military capacity nor experience, he has tricked 
him out as a Roman warrior. Lorenzo's is by common 
consent one of the great statues of the world. The pose, 
save for the right hand, is dignified and easy, but the eye will 
pass over all else to rest upon the wonderful face shaded by 
the peak of the helmet. Rogers and Symonds and many 
others have written at length over the significance of that 
thought-burdened brow, and to paraphrase what has been so 
finely said savours of impertinence. Symonds writes : " What, 
for example, occupies Lorenzo's brain ? Bending forward, lean- 
ing his chin upon his wrist, placing the other hand upon his 
knee, on what does he for ever ponder ? The sight, as Rogers 
says, both 'fascinates and is intolerable.' Michelangelo has 
shot the beaver of the helmet forward on the forehead and 
bowed his head, so as to clothe the face in darkness. But 
behind the gloom there lurks no fleshless skull, as Rogers 
fancied. The whole frame of the powerful man is instinct 
with some imperious thought. Has he outlived his life 
and fallen upon everlasting contemplation? Is he brood- 
ing, injured and indignant, over his own doom, and the 
extinction of his race? Is he condemned to witness in 
immortal immobility the woes of Italy he helped to cause? 
Or has the sculptor symbolized in him the burden of that 
personality we carry with us in this life, and bear for ever 
when we wake into another world." The male figures on 
the sarcophagi are unfinished. The other two, the Night 


and the Dawn, are completed, and are with the Lorenzo the 
culminating-point of Michelangelo's sculpture. To quote 
Symonds again : " Dawn starts from her couch as if 
some painful summons had reached her, sunk in dreamless 
sleep, and called her forth to suffer. Her waking to 
consciousness is like that of one who has been drowned, 
and finds the return to life agony. Before her eyes, seen 
even through the mists of slumber, are the ruin and shame 
of Italy. Opposite lies Night, so sorrowful, so utterly absorbed 
in darkness and the shade of death, that to shake off that 
everlasting lethargy seems impossible. Yet she is not dead. 
If we raise our voices, she too will stretch her limbs, and, 
like her sister, struggle into sensibility with sighs. Only we 
must not wake her: for he who fashioned her has told us 
that her sleep of stone is great good-fortune. But both these 
women are large and brawny, unlike the Fates of Pheidias, 
in their muscular maturity. The burden of Michelangelo's 
thought was too tremendous to be borne by virginal and 
graceful beings. He had to make women no less capable of 
suffering, no less world-wearied than his country." 

The other statues in the Sacristy, the Virgin and Child, — 
the finest, after the Pietk, of all Michelangelo's religious works 
in sculpture, — the Statues of S. Cosimo by Montorsoli, and of 
S. T)amian by Montelupo, were intended for the monument 
of Lorenzo the Magnificent, but this was never erected. 

From 1536 to 1541 he was engaged over the Last 
Judgment, and in 1542 he signed the final contract for the 
Julian tomb. The architectural setting was assigned to 
Giovanni di Marchesi, and Montelupo agreed to finish the 
two statues of Rachel and Leah. He himself put the final 
touches to the Moses : the Two Captives, still unfinished, 
being unfitted to the revised scheme of the monument, were 
given by him to Roberto Strozzi, and were ultimately trans- 
ferred to the Louvre, where they remain. The architectural 
setting of the lower portion of the tomb represents his original 
scheme. In the upper he carried still further the style he 
had adopted in the Sacristy at S. Lorenzo. Of the three 

< 2 8 



upper statues that of the Madonna is largely his work, finished 
possibly by Scherano da Settignano ; the two others, the Sibyl 
and the Prophet, may have been blocked out by him. They 
are lacking in interest ; and the Effigy of the Pope, by Maso del 
Bosco, is the least satisfactory. The effect of this ill-starred 
achievement, as it now stands, is unsatisfactory. The contrast 
between the earlier part, with its graceful quattrocento 
decoration, and the crude naked pilasters and architraves of 
the upper, is jarring. The minor figures — though the Rachel 
and Leah are graceful in themselves — are nullified by the 
stupendous Moses, which, grandiose as it is, cannot be praised 
without reserve. In spite of its bulk it is not impressive. 
The nose is characterless and the beard a monstrosity. The 
hands, as usual, are enormous ; the right arm resting on the 
Tables is symmetrical, J)ut the pose of the left is meaningless. 
For beauty qua beauty Michelangelo cared nothing. Beauty 
must find due place in his ordered scheme or stay vrithout, 
and it is nothing strange that she is absent here. Condivi 
writes : " That most marvellous Moses, leader and captain of 
the Hebrews, who is seated in an attitude of thought and 
wisdom, holding under his right arm the Tables of the Law, and 
supporting his chin with his left hand (a curious mistake), like 
one tired and full of cares. Between the fingers of that hand 
escape long waves of his beard — a ver)' beautiful thing to see. 
And his face is full of life and thought, and capable of inspiring 
love and terror, which, perhaps, was the truth." 

The Victory (removed to the Accademia from the 
Bargello), the unfinished Apollo, and the Dying Adonis, 
now in the Bargello, were probably designed to form portions 
of the Julian tomb. The figure of Victory is somewhat too 
tall, and the features are unpl easing. The Adonis was probably 
blocked out by him and left unfinished. It is a beautiful 
work, but the insignificant boar under the right leg would be 
better away. The Apollo is graceful and vigorous, and the 
face one of the most beautiful he ever carved. In the Bargello 
is also the unfinished Bust of Brutus. In the Cathedral is 
the unfinished Piet^ probably his last work and certainly 


the most pathetic. He carved it to be his own monument ; 
and Vasari, who was his personal friend, gives a dramatic 
account of how he worked at it in his solitary old age. Vasari 
sent a present of candles to help light the studio, but the old 
man girded and grumbled before he would accept them. The 
group did not satisfy him, and he began to break it up, but 
the fragments were rescued and put together by his servant. 
It was acquired by Duke Cosimo in and placed in the 
Cathedral in 1722. The darkness of its present position 
makes a proper study of it impossible. There is another 
unfinished Pietk in the Palazzo Rondanini in Rome. 

In the Accademia are four rough-hewn Statues formerly 
in the Boboli Gardens, which were either destined for the 
Julian tomb or for the fagade of S. Lorenzo. In the 
Chapel of the Barberini Palace at Palestrina is a Pietk attri- 
buted to him of which only the head of Christ and the 
hands of the Virgin are finished. If Michelangelo had been 
asked which field of art had yielded him the richest harvest 
he would probably have declared for Poetry. His sonnets 
show him to be a great poet, but the world will rarely allow 
a man eminence in more than one capacity. Whatever truth 
there may have been in the story of his adhesion to Savonarola, 
he was certainly penetrated by the deepest sentiment of 
religion — of this his relations with the Marchesa Pescara are 
sufficient proof. His art, compared with that of the Delia 
Robbias, may seem barren of devotional manifestation, but 
they who can spy beneath the surface, .they who can realize 
the man apart from the artist, will easily discern the ardent 
faith, the passionate love of all that was just and righteous, 
burning in the heart of this mighty being, fascinating alike in 
his virtues and in his imperfections. 

Buonvicino, Ambrogio (Milanese, 1552-1622) 

He worked almost entirely in Rome under Paul v. In 
S. Maria Maggiore he did the angels on the arch and 
cupola of the Cappella Paolina ; two of the reliefs on the 



Caste.'le, Milan 



tomb of Paul v ; in the Lateran, the half-figures of David and 
Ezekiel, beneath the organ, and two bronze angels; in S. 
Maria sopra Minerva, the Tomb of Urban vii, and two angels 
on the altaj of the Cappella Aldobrandini ; and in S. Peter's, 
Christ giving the Keys to Peter. 

Busti, Agostino (Bambaja) (Milanbse, 
I 480- I 548) 

BusTi's reputation rests chiefly on the fragments of the 
Tomb he planned to the memory of Gaston de Foix, 
the drawing of which is now in the Victoria and Albert 
Museimi. It was begun in 15 15 and left incomplete at the 
expulsion of the French in 1522. Then the work was 
abandoned and the fragments scattered and many lost. In 
1 566 Vasari saw certain of them in the Convent of S. Maria at 
Milan, and gives an interesting account of them (vi. 514). 
Many of them are now in the Ambrosiana. In the Castello is 
the finest, the effigy of Gaston, which must be numbered with 
the great monumental figures of the world. Though mutilated 
and unfinished, it is lifelike and full of charm. Here also is 
one of the seated figures of the basement series, and four more 
of them are in the church of Chiaravalle near the city ; also in 
the neighbouring Villa Busca are seven reliefs for the sides of 
the monument, three pilasters, and six more of the seated 
figures. Four pilasters are in the Museo at Turin, and in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum are two statuettes. Fortitude and 
Charity (Nos. 4912 and 7100), and three of the side reliefs: 
a man leading a horse (7262), two warriors defending a breach 
(400), and a conqueror in a triumphant car (7257). 

His earliest work probably was the Tomb of Lanzino Curzio, 
executed in 1513 and now in the Castello, with the eflSgy of the 
dead man and some well-wrought ornamental details on the 
tablet above. The general scheme is clumsy — winged leaves, 
/«///, the Graces, candelabra, figures of Faith and Victory, 
thrown together without plan. In the Cathedral at Milan are 
two monuments : one of Cardinal Carraciolo, dated 1558, at 


the entrance to the choir, and another of Canon Giov. 
Vimercati in the right aisle ; also a relief of the Presentation of 
the Virgin in the right transept, the figures of which resemble 
his Medallion Reliefs on S. Lorenzo at Lugano. He did the 
BuaTomb in S. Maria Maggiore at Treviso (1637), which was 
brought from Pavia. Busti was one of Amadeo's chief assistants 
with the Borromeo Tombs now on Isola Bella, the reliefs of 
the Agony and of the Flagellation being generally ascribed to 
him, and the Tomb of Birago in the same chapel is entirely 
from his hand. Certain fragments of this are in the Castello 
and in the Ambrosiana. He also did the relief portraits of 
Ludovico Moro and of Maximilian i in S. Maria delle Grazie 
at Milan. Busti never came under Florentine influences, and 
his work throughout shows want of discipline and the prevailing 
weakness of the Milanese school. His figures are lacking in 
character and in steadiness of outline ; in the matter of com- 
position he was inept, and quite careless of the limitations 
applicable to sculpture as an interpretative art. These failings 
are especially marked in his decorative work. It is possible 
that he may have had a share in the large reliefs of the central 
door of the Certosa, as these in style resemble strongly his 
Presentation of the Virgin in Milan. The Tosi Tomb in S. 
Fedele at Milan is probably by him. 

Caccavello, Annibale (Neapolitan— Working, 


HE was one of Giovanni da Nola's best pupils. He did 
the Tombs of Rota Capece and of Palmieri in S. Domen- 
ico Maggiore : of Acciapaccia in S. Caterina a Formello ; of 
Somma in S. Giovanni a Carbonaro ; of Pisanello and of 
FoUiero in S. Lorenzo ; of Lautrec and Navarro in S. Maria 
Nuova ; and of Alf. Basurto in S. Giacomo. He also did a 
Relief of the Madonna and the Souls in Purgatory which is 
now in the Museum at Capua. 

Caccini, G. B. (Florentine, 1562-1612) 

He made the Tabernacle and Balustrade of the high 
altar in S. Spirito at Florence, a richly decorated work 
of great merit. The Statues of saints and angels upon it 
are also by him. Other statues in Florence are S. Bartholo- 
mew and S. Zanobi in S. Maria Maggiore; S. Alexis in 
S. Trinita ; a Bust of Andrea del Sarto in the Cloister of the 
Annunziata ; and the " Summer " and " Autumn " on the Ponte 
della Trinita. 

Caccini was one of the chief executants of the bronze Doors 
of the Cathedral at Pisa. On the principal door the Reliefs of 
the Birth, the Presentation, and the Marriage of the Virgin, 
and of the Ascension are by him, and are the best of the 
series ; the Birth being especially fine. The beautiful detail 
of the door frames is largely from his design. 


Calamech, Andrea (Carrara— Working, 
I 570-1604) 

Andrea was a pupil of Ammanati, and an assistant with the 
Fountain in the Piazza at Florence. In 1565 he went to 
Messina as master of the sculptors' work then being done in 
the Cathedral. In Messina he made the marble Fountain with 
figures adjoining the Oratorio of S. Cecilia, a bronze Statue of 
S. Andrea in the Cathedral, and one of Don John of Austria 
(1572), now in the Piazza dell' Annunziata. The fine marble 
Pulpit in the Cathedral was probably done by him. It was 
much damaged by the earthquake. 

Calcagni, A. (Venetian, -i593) 

(See Lombardi, The) 

Camello, Vittorio (Venetian, 1460-1539) 

He was chiefly known as a medallist and a skilful imitator 
of antiques. He did Medals of Sixtus iv, of the Doge 
Antonio Gritti, of Gentile and Giovanni Bellini, and of the 
jurisconsults Fesulo and Castaldo. The Statues of the Apostles 
in S. Stefano, and of the Virgin, the Baptist, and of the 
Apostles in the Frari are attributed to him. His best works 
are two bronze Reliefs of fighting warriors in the Museum of 
the Ducal Palace. 

Campagna, GirolamO (Veronese— Working, 1542) 

He was a pupil of Cattaneo, and a far abler sculptor. He 
did a Relief of the Dead Christ with two angels in 
S. Giuliano at Venice, and over the high altar in S. Giorgio 
Maggiore a bronze Group of the Evangelists holding up a gilt 
globe bearing a fine figure of Christ. In the Church of the 
Redentore there is by him a Group of Christ Crucified, S. 
Mark, and S. Francis ; in S. Tommaso, Statues of S. Peter and 


S. Thomas; and in S. Maria dei Miracoli Statuettes of 
S. Francis and Sta. Chiara. He was less successful with his 
Madonnas. Those in S. Salvatore and in S. Giorgio Maggiore 
are of little interest. In Verona he did one which stands at 
the comer of the Cathedral Piazza; as well as a fine Head 
of Christ in S. Pantaleone, and an Annunciation in the 
Palazzo Pubblico. In S. Lorenzo in Venice he did Statues 
of S. Lawrence and S. Sebastian ; a colossal Figure in the 
Zecca, and a Mercury and a Hercules for the chimneypiece of 
the Sala del Collegio in the Ducal Palace. He also did the 
Effigy of the Doge in Cattaneo's tomb of Lorenzo Loredano 
and a Tabernacle in SS. Giovanni e Paolo ; and a Monument 
to the Doge Cicogna for the Gesii. His masterpiece is the 
Relief, in S. Antonio at Padua, of the young man restored 
to life to testify to his father's innocence. This had been 
assigned to Cattaneo before his death, and was completed by 
Campagna in 1577. After this he did the bronze Tabernacle 
on the altar of the Cappella del Sacramento. The Figures on 
the font in the Frari are attributed to him. 

Campionesi, The (Milanese — Working, 

These sculptors originated in Lugano at the opening of 
the fourteenth century. Ugo Campione made the fine 
Tomb of Guglielmo Longhi (13 19) in S. Maria Maggiore at 
Bergamo, which strongly resembles the Maggi tomb in the Old 
Cathedral at Brescia, Giovanni, his son, decorated the doors 
and the exterior angles of S. Maria Maggiore, the Reliefs and 
the Figures of the Virtues being especially fine, and the Scaliger 
Tombs at Verona were done largely from his designs. Bonino 
and Matteo were probably pupils and assistants of Balduccio 
during his sojourn in Milan, and the chief work ascribed to 
them is the great monumental Tomb of S. Augustine in S. 
Pietro in Ciel d'Oro at Pavia. It is not signed, and its attribu- 
tion rests on the resemblance of the figures of the Virtues to 


those on Balduccio's Peter Martyr tomb in S. Eustorgio ; the 
statues of Fortitude, Temperance, Prudence, and Charity being 
almost the same. In richness of detail and in beauty of 
execution this is the finest of the great tombs, but its propor- 
tions are somewhat clumsy. The best of the effigies are the 
recumbent figure of the Saint, with S. Monica and the Fathers 
standing by as mourners ; the figure of Charity, on the west 
side of the base ; and those of S. Stephen, S. Paul the hermit, 
and S. Lawrence, on the north. 

In the Castello at Milan are the Rusconi Tomb, and 
the Tomb and equestrian Statue of Bernabo Visconti, an effigy 
having all the air of a portrait. It now stands on the Tomb 
of his wife Regina, which is covered with reliefs of inferior 
workmanship. Bonino made the Tomb of Cansignorio della 
Scala at Verona, following the style of the other Scaliger 
tombs carried out by Giovanni Campione and his assistants. 
Even at this date evidences appear of a revolt against Gothic 
in the presence of Corinthian details, a manifest outcome of 
Bonino's Pisan training, seeing that the Pisans had never 
treated Gothic otherwise than as an accessary. The Figure of 
the dead prince lies on a richly wrought sarcophagus, over- 
shadowed by a beautiful angel with half-opened wings. On 
the sides are Reliefs illustrating the prince's career, and on the 
apex is his equestrian Statue. Two other works attributed to 
him are the Folchino and Schizzi Tomb on the outside of the 
Cathedral at Cremona, and that of Malaspina in S. Francesco 
at Sarzana ; and many Milanese monuments (see Balduccio) 
are probably partly done by him. 

Matteo di Campione was rather architect than sculptor, 
and is chiefly associated with the Cathedral at Monza. Some 
Statuettes on the pulpit strongly resemble those on S. 
Augustine's tomb, and thus strengthen his claim as a colla- 
borator in that work; and there are some beautiful panels 
in low relief. On the reading-desk are Statuettes of the 
Evangelists and of Christ, who holds a book in one hand and 
a thunderbolt in the other, a curious mixture of Heaven and 
Olympus. Bonino died in 1397, and Matteo in 1396. 


Capponi, Luigi (Milanese — Working, 1495) 

He was assistant to Andrea Bregno in Rome over the 
Savelli Tomb in Ara Coeli, and did the S. John and S, 
James on Bregno's altar of S. John in the Lateran. The Bonsi 
Tomb and the Altar of S. Gregory in S. Gregorio are his work. 
Attributed to him are the Brusati Tomb in S. Clemente, a 
Relief of the Madonna over the door of S. Maria della Con- 
solazione, one of the Crucifixion in the Hospital adjoining, 
one of the Baptist and of Leo in in the Lateran Baptistery, 
Tabernacles in S. Marcello and in S. Giovanni dei Genovesi, 
and the Tomb of Lorenzo Colonna, the fragments of which 
are now in the court of SS. Apostoli. He probably did the 
Angels on Bregno's Piccolomini tomb in the Cathedral at 
Siena. His style strongly resembles Bregno's, classical in- 
fluences being specially marked by his draperies. 

CaradossO, Ambrogio (Milanese, 1452-1526) 

Caradosso is best known as the producer of the exquisite 
gold Pax, made for Cardinal dei Medici, and given by him 
to the Cathedral at Milan. It is a relief of the Deposi- 
tion between columns of lapis lazuli and cameo. Above are 
angels with the instruments of the Passion, and God the 
Father surrounded by cherubim. Much of his finest work as 
a goldsmith has perished. He did two Tabernacles, now in the 
Castello at Milan, and in S. Satiro is a Pietk in coloured terra- 
cotta, somewhat after the manner of II Modanino, but vastly 
superior; and a terracotta Frieze in the sacristy built by 
Bramante. This frieze is an exquisite work ; the playing 
children may challenge comparison with Donatello's, and the 
life-sized heads are of the finest. Caradosso made Medals of 
Ludovico Moro, Francesco Jacopo Trivulzio, Bramante, and 
Julius II. In the Victoria and Albert Museum is a S. Sebastian 
(No. 2234) in wood by him, and he probably did the Combat 
of the Centaurs and the Lapithae, formerly at Cremona and 
now in the Louvre ; another, a Centaur carrying off a Woman, 


is on the porch of S. Michel at Dijon. There is a small 
bronze Cabinet by him in the Bargello. 

Casignola (Roman— Working, i 550-1 590) 

Two brothers of this name were largely engaged on the 
Tombs of the post-Reformation Popes. Guglielmo della 
Porta's monument of Paul iii had set the type, and the later 
tombs of the century followed the same lines. Casignola's 
statue of Paul iv. in the Carafa Chapel of the Minerva is one 
of the best of this epoch. The most conspicuous examples 
of these overdone monuments are those of Pius v, Sixtus v, 
Clement viii, and Paul v, in S. Maria Maggiore. 

CattaneO, Danese (Venetian, 1 509-1 573) 

He was born in Carrara, and studied in Rome under 
Jacopo Sansovino, who took him to Venice as his assist- 
ant. He made a curious Statue of Apollo holding an ingot 
of gold in the court of the Zecca, and designed the Tomb 
of Lorenzo Loredano (1572) in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, the 
sculpture of which was partially done by his pupil Girolamo 
Campagna. He also did the Tomb of Andrea Badoeri in 
S. Giovanni Evangelista. His chief work in Venice was as 
Sansovino's assistant in decorating the Library and the Logetta. 
At the time of his death he was engaged on a bronze Relief 
for the Cappella del Santo at Padua, completed after his 
death by Campagna. In 1565 he went to Verona, where he 
made a Statue of Christ for the Fregoso Chapel in S. Anastasia. 
Cattaneo was a skilful portraitist. He did Busts of Pietro 
Bembo, of Buonamico, and of Contarini in S. Antonio at 
Padua, of Fracastoro in the Council Chamber at Verona, and 
of Lazzaro Buonamico in the Museo at Bassano. 

Cavalli, Gian Marco (Mantuan, 1450-1513?) 

The bronze Bust of Mantegna, on the monument in S. 
Andrea at Mantua, one of the finest in existence, is now 



5. Satirt. Milan 


assigned to Cavalli. In the Library is a half-length Figure 
in wood of Spagnoli, the General of the Carmelite Order, and 
a Bust of Francesco Gonzaga, which are probably his. In the 
Museo is another bust of Gonzaga (clay) of much greater 
merit ; and in S. Maria di Castello at Viadana (near Mantua) 
is a fine Entombment in baked clay after the style of 

Cazzaniga, Tommaso and Franceso di 

(Milanese — Working, 1484) 

The Delia Torre Tomb in S. Maria delle Grazie in Milan was 
made by Tommaso in 1483, and that of Jacopo Stefano di 
Brlvio in S. Eustorgio in i486 by Francesco, who, however, 
died before its completion, so it was finished by Tommaso and 
Benedetto Briosco. These are of the ordinary Milanese type, 
a sarcophagus with sculptured reliefs standing on columns ; 
that of Otto Visconti in the Cathedral (1295) being the 
earliest known example. The Tomb of Pietro Candido Decem- 
brio in S. Ambrogio strongly resembles these ; and, if not by 
the Cazzaniga, must be by some other follower of Amadeo. 
The carving is fine and delicate, especially on the Delia Torre 
tomb. The Area of the saint, in the Cathedral of Borgo San 
Donnino, several fragments in the Castello at Milan, a marble 
Ancona in the Badia of Campomorto, and an Adoration in 
the chapter-house of the Certosa are also attributed to these 

Cellini, BenvenutO (Florentine, 1500-1572) 

Ckluni achieved less fame as an artist than as an auto- 
biographer, but it is perhaps commensurate with his merits. 
He was a better goldsmith than sculptor, and his best 
work has suffered most, as it is ill to work in precious 
metals in times of disorder when the meltmg-pot is usually in 
request. In his Life he records the execution of numerous 
jewels and silver articles. Many of these are known to have 


perished, and of those which at present claim him as author 
only one claim is unchallenged, i.e. the Salt Cellar made for 
Francis i, and now in the Imperial treasure at Vienna. The 
more important of the doubtful works are: Jewels — (i) Leda 
and the Swan, in the Imperial Museum at Vienna; (2) the 
setting of an antique cameo, in the Uffizi ; (3) the Car of Apollo, 
in the Musde de Chantilly; (4) fastening of a cloak, in 
S. Barbara at Mantua ; (5) a pendant, the Judgment of Paris, 
in the Griine Gewolbe at Dresden ; (6) a collection of jewels, 
chiefly pendants, in the Rothschild Room at the British 
Museum. Silver and Gold — (i) A rock crystal vase, gold 
mounted, in the Kunst Gewerbe Museum at Berlin ; (2) a 
circular dish of engraved rock crystal, in the Bargello ; (3 and 
4) circular relief of the Apotheosis of Charles v, and two 
oval reliefs of the Fight of Perseus and Phineus, and the 
Destruction of the Titans, in the Vatican Library ; (5 and 6) 
a sardonyx vase and a silver box, in the Museum at Naples ; 
(7) a cup in rock crystal, with gold-enamelled cover, in the 
Uffizi : (8) candelabra and cross, in the Treasury of S. Peter's ; 
(9 to 13) a jug and platter, a flask of gold and enamel, 
two two-handled cups of gold and enamel, a rose-water basin, 
and a silver pax, in the Palazzo Pitti; (14) an Abbot's cross, 
at Monte Cassino; (15) a missal cover in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum ; (16) a jug (with modern platter), in S. Celso 
at Milan; (17 and 18) a silver-mounted dish of mother of 
pearl and a chalice, in the Griine Gewolbe at Dresden. Until 
he was past forty Cellini attempted nothing in the way of 
sculpture. During his second visit to Paris in 1543 he began 
a scheme of decoration at Fontainebleau, but nothing of this 
remains, and the Nymph, now in the Louvre, is all he has 
left. Here he has succeeded best with the animals standing 
round; these are full of life and true to nature, while the 
Nymph herself, with her clumsy body and elongated legs, is 
little belter than Ammanati's figures on the fountain in the 
Piazza at Florence. Cellini went on with his modelling after 
his return, his earliest work being the Bust of Cosimo i, in the 
Bargello, and this, though a great improvement on the Nymph, 


shows his want of training. The Bust of Bindo Altoviti in 
the Altoviti Palace in Rome is a far more satisfactory per- 

The Perseus is one of the famous statues of the world, and, 
in spite of its imperfections, one of the most attractive. The 
modelling is still very faulty, and suggests that Cellini has 
fallen into the same exuberance of muscular expression which 
he censured so sharply in Bandinelli. This failing certainly 
appears in the lumpy shoulders and the overdone proportions 
of the trunk and thighs. It stands magnificent as a type of 
calm strength, firm and irresistible, but all its other merits 
are forgotten in the matchless beauty and charm of the face. 
The pedestal has been criticized as too ornate, and calculated 
to divert attention from the figure above, but it seems in 
no way inappropriate as a support for Cellini's handiwork. 
Had the Perseus been carved in the Greek spirit the objection 
might hold; but, as the very culminating-point of Classic 
Renaissance art, it does not suffer from the neighbouring 
ornamentation. The Perseus relief in the Bargello — replaced 
by a copy in the Loggia — is perhaps the least successful part 
of this wonderful work. In the Bargello are two Sketch 
Models of the statue, one in wax and one in bronze — both 
show variations from the original, and are more graceful in 
form ; also a bronze Ganymede borne by the eagle. The 
antique Ganymede restored by Cellini is also in the Bargello ; 
he likewise restored the Satyr in the entrance to the Uffizi. A 
little-known work of his is a marble Crucifix, intended for his 
own tomb, which is now in the Chapel of the Escurial. 

Cellino di Nese (Sienese — Working, 1360) 

To this sculptor is attributed the very interesting Tomb of 
Cino dei Sinibaldi in the Cathedral at Pistoia, executed in 
1337- The tomb is a Gothic canopy supported on twisted 
columns after the style of the Cosmati, and crowned by a 
small tabernacle in which stand the Virgin and two saints. In 
the centre of the canopy is Sinibaldi, a famous jurisconsult 


surrounded by his scholars, and a relief below shows him 
teaching from a desk. Cino was a poet and a friend of Dante. 
Some authorities assign this tomb to Agostino e Agnolo di 
Ventura ; its lines were subsequently followed in designing the 
monuments of professors and jurisconsults. The tomb of 
the physician Ligo Ammanati in the Campo Santo at Pisa is 
also attributed to Cellino. 

It is characteristic of the makers of these early Sienese 
tombs that they gave their works a secular rather than a 
religious signification. The earlier Tuscan sculptors had 
accentuated the religious idea, but the Sienese reduced this to 
a minimum, and spent their chief effort in delineating scenes 
in the life of the defunct. Similar tombs are those of Bishop 
Tarlati in the Cathedral at Arezzo, of Bishop Orso in the 
Cathedral at Florence, and of Niccolo Arringhieri in the 
University at Siena. How this tendency spread will appear 
when studying the numerous tombs of physicians and juris- 
consults at Bologna. 

Ciccione, Andrea (Neapolitan— Working, 1414) 

Ciccione's real name is now generally held to have been 
Andrea di Firenze. His chief work is the Tomb of King 
Ladislas in S. Giovanni a Carbonara at Naples, erected by 
his sister, Joanna 11, a gigantic structure above the high 
altar. The lower portion is a gallery of three arches, supported 
by four of the Virtues as caryatides, in which are seated figures 
of Ladislas and his mother, Margaret of Durazzo, flanked by 
the cardinal Virtues and saints. On the next grade the King's 
effigy lies on a sarcophagus with finely carved niches, in which 
are seated figures. Two very beautiful angels stand before 
the effigy, and in the background are ecclesiastics. The 
canopy over this is richly carved in Florentine design, and the 
structure is surmounted by an equestrian statue. Another 
tomb by Ciccione in the chapel behind the high altar is that 
of Gian Carracciolo, the minion of Queen Joanna, assassinated 


S. Ciovannia Cartonarm, NapUt 


in 1432 at her instigation. It is a heavy mass, supported on 
three coarsely carved figures of armed men, bad throughout in 
proportions and execution. The tomb of Ladislas, though it 
may not bear close investigation, is fine and grandiose, the 
upper portion being especially graceful. Both of these tombs 
have been heavily painted and gilded by Leonardo di Bisuccio, 
a Milanese artist, a process which has not helped to minimize 
the inherent vices of Neapolitan art which they manifest. 
Another signed work of his is the Tomb of Tommaso di 
S. Severino in the Oratorio of S. Monaca (near S. Giovanni 
a Carbonara), who died in 1432 : this shows plainly the 
influence of Donatello's Brancacci tomb in S. Angelo a 

Cioli, Valerio (Florentine, i 529-1 599) 

Valeric Cioli did the figure representing Sculpture on 
Michelangelo's tomb in S. Croce, and a bronze Group 
of a boy and winged sea-monster in the Bargello. His 
finest work is a bronze Candelabrum bearing the Medici arms, 
in the Bai^ello ; where also is a dwarf seated on a sea- 
monster. He worked on the Reliefs in the Santa Casa at 

Ciuffagni, Bernardo di Piero (Florentine, 

Ciuffagni had the honour to be associated with Dona- 
tello, Nanni di Banco, and Niccolo d'Arezzo in the pro- 
duction of the seated Statues of the Evangelists for the 
Cathedral at Florence, but his figure of S. Matthew makes a 
poor show beside the others. He has not succeeded in giving 
a sense of life either to the features or to the limbs, and the 
draperies are stony and unreal. His Isaiah, formerly on 
the facade of the Cathedral and now inside, is of no merit. 
He must have made many statues for the Cathedral during 


his long sojourn in Florence, but only these two can be 
identified. The S. James on Or S. Michele is by him. 

In 1447 he went, on Sigismondo Malatesta's invitation, to 
Rimini, and here also it is difficult to determine his produc- 
tions. In the first chapel to the right in S. Francesco he 
made the Statue of S. Sigismond, which strongly resembles the 
S. Matthew at Florence. In the chapel opposite, the Prophets 
and the Sibyls on the pillars are perhaps by him ; also the 
Tomb and Statue of Isotta, sculptured under the guise of 
S. Michael, in the third chapel to the right, which were executed 
in 1450. 

Civitale, Matteo (Lucchese, 1435-1501) 

CiviTALE was born at Lucca, and probably got his 
teaching in Florence while the traditions of the great 
masters were yet operative. No record exists to show who 
taught him, but the affinities of his sculpture to that of 
Desiderio suggest that he had the same masters. His first 
recorded commission was for the Tomb in the Cathedral at 
Lucca of Pietro di Noceto, secretary of Nicolas v. The 
tomb seems to have been completed in 1472; and, a dispute 
having arisen between the heirs of Noceto and Matteo, 
Bernardino Rossellino was called in as arbitrator, and fixed 
the fee at 350 ducats. It is an imitation of Leonardo Bruni's 
in S. Croce, and Cicognara is scarcely correct in citing it 
as the model of many similar ones subsequently erected. 
Civitale has made one alteration which gives to his monument 
greater human interest, i.e. the introduction of medallion 
relief portraits of Noceto's son and daughter-in-law in place of 
angels on either side of the relief of the Madonna. Another 
work in the Cathedral is the Tabernacle with kneeling angels 
(1473?), which have been somewhat over-praised, for their facial 
expression and attitudes are overstrained and restless. Faith 
and an Ecce Homo in the Bargello are of the same character. 
At the entrance to the chapel is the fine Bust of Count Dom- 
enico Bertini, who built it. The richly carved Altar Balustrade 

Cmthtdnl, Ctn»a 


was done by him after the Tabernacle, and is in the finest 
decorative style of the period. Civitale showed his skill as 
an architect by the construction of the exquisite little Chapel 
of the " Volto Santo," a jewel of lightness and strength. On 
the exterior stands his Statue of S. Sebastian, of an ascetic 
type, finished in 1484. In the same year he began the Altar 
of S. Regulo, consisting of a sarcophagus high up against the 
wall with an angel on either side, and the Madonna throned 
above. Below is a reredos with the Baptist, S. Regulo, and 
S. Sebastian — beautiful figures which place Civitale in the 
first rank. By a curious freak he has presented the Baptist 
and S. Sebastian in the robes of Florentine citizens. On the 
predella are two portrait medallions and three reliefs. The 
composition of the monument is faulty, the upper portion 
being far too heavy. On the chief doorway he did a relief 
Portrait of Giovanni d' Avenza, In the Museum at Lucca are 
two of his works : an Annunciation and an Ecce Homo. He 
did a Relief of the Madonna in S. Trinita ; and in 1490 the 
Tomb of S. Romano in the church of the Saint. The head 
of S. Romano is a delightful sketch, a strange variation 
from Civitale's cold and literal method ; also a Madonna in 
S. Michele. About 1491 he made six Statues for the 
Chapel of the Baptist in the Cathedral at Genoa — Adam, Eve, 
Isaiah, Habbakuk, Zacharias, and Elisabeth ; and upon these 
his reputation chiefly rests. Unfortunately the mistaken 
prudery of the Jesuit reaction led to the disfigurement of the 
statues of Adam and Eve by robes of stucco, so that Adam 
can be judged only imperfectly, and Eve not at all. Adam is 
a simple and dignified figure; his expression of penitence is 
just and restrained; indeed, all these figures are free from 
that striving after passionate emotion which is Civitale's 
besetting fault. The Elisabeth is easily his masterpiece, 
and the finest statue of the close of the fifteenth century. 
Below are reliefs of incidents in the life of the Baptist 
On his return to Lucca in 1494 he did the Pulpit in the 
Cathedral, and later the Holy Water Stoup, a fine example of 
decorative carving. Civitale's weakness was intellectual. A 


capable sculptor and anatomist, he lacked the mental insight 
to discern the attributes which alone give life to statuary, 
wherefore much of his work is unsatisfactory. He strove to 
make his figures life-like, and often fell into an exaggeration of 
facial expression and attitude which some writers mistake for 
a reflection of the Christian idea. In the Victoria and Albert 
Museum are two Tabernacles by him (Nos. 418, 7569), and a 
curious profile Relief of a man (No. 5899). 

ComO, Guido da (Pisan, Thirteenth Century) 

There is only one generally recognized work by this 
sculptor: the Pulpit in S. Bartolommeo in Pantano at 
Pistoia. The equestrian figures on the side panels are of a 
distinctly Byzantine type, while the reliefs on the front show 
clearly that the sculptor must have studied the grouping of 
figures on Roman sarcophagi. There is strikingly good work 
in the figures at the angles ; on one is a group of three, and 
on the other a figure between two strange-looking beasts 
standing on a satyr's head. The proportions of the figures 
are good, and they seem more instinct with life than those of 
any previous sculptor. The relief of the Nativity is graceful, 
and the figure of a man beneath the pulpit is admirably 
modelled, and at the time of its execution must have marked 
the highest point of the plastic revival. By some authorities 
Guido is reckoned the maker of the Font in the Baptistery 
at Pisa. 

Cortona, Urbano da (Florentine, 1426-1504) 

He was one of Donatello's assistants at Padua, and after- 
wards settled in Siena. He did some Reliefs of scenes 
in the Virgin's life in the right aisle of the Cathedral, and 
others on the benches of the Loggia dei Nobili. His prin- 
cipal work is the Tomb of Cristoforo Felici in S. Francesco 
(1462). The effigy is far the best part of it; the setting is 
taken bodily from Donatello, and the introduction of the 


jubilant putti into a mortuary structure is certainly bizarre. A 
Madonna in relief in S. Francesco is probably his work. An 
Angel of S. Matthew and an Annunciation in the Opera del 
Duomo are attributed to him, and the Tomb of Bishop 
Baglioni and two Reliefs in the Cathedral at Perugia ; also in 
the Museum of the University four other Reliefs ; and on the 
fa9ade of S. Caterina at Siena a Relief of the Saint and Angels. 

Cosmati, The (Roman, 1 100-1300) 

This school probably takes its name from the chief of 
some botUga of stone carvers, and later on the name was 
applied to all craftsmen working in marble with inlay or veneer 
of porphyry, coloured stone, or glass mosaic. During the 
twelfth century the work was chiefly decorative: in 1226 one 
of the school made the Gaetani Tomb in the Cathedral of 
Anagni. The first sculptor of note was Giovanni, who made 
in 1298 the Tomb of Rodrigo Gonsalvo in S. Maria Maggiore, 
of Durante and of Orsini in the Minerva, of Acquasparta in Ara 
Coeli, and of Stefano Surdi in S. Balbina. That of Durante 
is the finest work of the period. The Tombs of Anchera in 
S. Prassede, of Boniface viii in the crypt of S. Peter's, of 
Cardinal Orsini and of the Queen of Cyprus at Assisi, and the 
Paschal Candlestick and Ciborium in S. Maria in Cosmedin at 
Rome, are the chief works of the school. 

To the school of Paolo (11 10-1180) are attributed the 
Tabernacle in S. Lorenzo Fuori ; the Ciboria of SS. Cosimo e 
Damiano and of S. Croce in Gerusalemme, and the Paschal 
Candlestick of S. Paolo Fuori. To the school of Vasaletus, 
the Bishop's Throne and the Candlestick in the Cathedral 
at Anagni, the Tabernacle and the Tomb of Hadrian v at 
Viterbo, and the cloisters of the Lateran and of S. Paolo Fuori. 
To the school of Oderisi, the Tomb of Clement iv at Viterbo. 
Petrus, one of this school, came to England and completed the 
Tomb of Edward the Confessor, and probably made that of 
Henry 111, The pavement of the Presbytery is also by an 


Cozzarelli, Giacomo (Sienese, 1453-1515) 

CozzARELLi was a pupil of Francesco di Giorgio. He was 
a skilled metal worker, and made many of the bronze 
rings which were built into the Sienese palaces to hold 
the flagstaffs — some fine ones may yet be seen on the Palazzo 
del Magnifico, opposite the Baptistery. He also made two 
bronze Brackets for Beccafumi's candle-bearing angels on the 
columns nearest to the high altar in the Cathedral. Coz- 
zarelli's fame rests on his skill in modelling life-sized groups in 
clay after the style of Mazzoni and Begarelli. His finest is 
that of a Lamentation in the sacristy of the Osservanza near 
Siena. The aspect of death and the relaxation of the limbs 
is as perfectly rendered as in Michelangelo's Piet^; and the 
women on the right are very lovely. There is another Pietk in 
the right aisle of the church, a clever composition, but the 
figures are less lifelike, and the whole group suffers from heavy 
painting. A Figure of S. Sigismond, formerly in the Carmine, 
is now in the Palazzo Pubblico at Siena ; and in the transept of 
S. Agostino is a Figure of S. Niccolo di Tolentino. In S. 
Spirito the second altars right and left have respectively Figures 
of S. Vincent and S. Catherine. All of these are in painted 
terra-cotta. Besides these are ascribed to him the Monument 
of Gian Battista Tondi in the entrance hall of the Scala 
Hospital; a Bust of S. Catherine and two Reliefs in the 
House of the Saint ; a kneeling Figure of S. John in the Museo 
del Duomo ; S. Bernardino and S. Catherine in the Oratorio di 
S. Bernardino; an Ecce Homo in the Concezione; some 
Figures of saints in S. Lucia ; a S. Catherine in S. Girolamo ; 
and Figures of the Baptist in the Oratorio of 8. Giovannino 
beside S. Spirito, and in the Museo del Duomo. 

Dalmata, Giovanni (Roman— Working, 1470-1480) 

DALMATA is chiefly known by the great Tomb which 
he, in collaboration with Mino da Fiesole, made for 
Paul II. This was broken up when the old Basilica was 
destroyed, and its fragments, save two now in the Louvre, are 
in the crypt of S. Peter's. Mino began the tomb about 1475 > 
and, finding many other commissions, engaged Dalmata as 
assistant, and did very little of the work himself. Ciaconius, 
in his work Fi/ce Pontificum^ ii. 1093, gives a sketch of the 
original structure. It is of the Rossellino type, and far more 
elaborate than anything else of Mino's ; indeed, it shows that 
he, while able to plan the most charming tabernacles and 
retables, was lost when he attempted so high a flight as this. 
The sarcophagus and effigy stand under an arch on Corinthian 
columns. In the lunette is a confused Relief of the Last Judg- 
ment which has been ascribed to Mino, but a comparison of 
this relief with another of the same subject on his tomb of 
Bishop Piccolomini in the cloister of S. Agostino (now the 
Ministry of Marine) makes this doubtful. This and the Relief 
of the Resurrection, the sarcophagus and effigy, the Creation 
of Eve, the figures of Hof)e, SS. Mark and Matthew, are 
Dalmata's ; the putti and garlands in the Louvre are probably 
by Mino. Dalmata's technique, except in the Hope, is im- 
perfect The fragments of the Eroli Tomb, also in S. Peter's 
crypt ; the Roverella Tomb in S. Clemente, the Tebaldi Tomb 
in S. Maria sopra Minerva, and a Picti in S. Agostino, are 
attributed to him in collaboration with Andrea Bregno ; and 


a Relief of the Crucifixion in S. Balbina with Mino. He also 
did the Statue of S. Thomas in the Cathedral of Trau in 
Dalmatia, the Tomb of Gianelli in the Cathedral at Ancona, 
and some Angels in the crypt of S. Pietro in Montorio in 
Rome. He went to Hungary, summoned by Matthias Corvinus, 
and did Relief Portraits of him and of Isabella of Aragon which 
are now in the Imperial Museum at Vienna. 

Danti, VincenzO (Florentine, i 530-1 576) 

The work which Danti left shows no sign of the deteri- 
oration which fell on so many of his generation, for he 
acquired a style which, had he lived, would have placed him 
abreast of Giovanni Bologna. His chief work is the Beheading 
of the Baptist, over the south door of the Baptistery, a group 
which will bear comparison with either of the others. The 
figures of Salome and the executioner are particularly fine. 
He also completed Sansovino's Group of the Baptism. The 
influence of Michelangelo appears in his Group of Virtue over- 
coming Vice, in the Boboli Gardens, and in the Relief of the 
Brazen Serpent, in the Bargello. The modelling of the in- 
dividual figures in the foreground is very fine, but the design 
is marred by overcrowding. Another Relief on a small bronze 
door, also in the Bargello, is his masterpiece. The proportions 
of the setting are harmonious, and the depth of the reliefs is 
graduated admirably according to their mutual relation. He 
also did the bronze Statue of Julius iii at Perugia. 

Dentone, Antonio (Paduan— Working, 1480-1524) 

He was an associate of Antonio Lombardo, and studied 
under him and Cristoforo Solari. His chief work is the 
marble Group in SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice, represent- 
ing the Admiral Vittore Capello receiving the baton from S. 
Helena. A Pietk by him in the Salute is exaggerated and 
unpleasing. A better work is the Tomb of Melchior Trevisan 
in the Frari (1500), the effigy being free and life-like. He did 



HmrgeU^t F tort nee 

\ '■ 



the Relief of the resurrection of a murdered woman in the 
Cappella del Santo in S. Antonio at Padua in 1524. 

DomenicO di Paris (Paduan— Working, 1467) 

He completed Baroncelli's group of the Crucifixion in the 
Cathedral at Ferrara, where also may be found his best work, 
the plaster frieze with graceful figures in one of the rooms of 
the Palazzo Schifanoia. 

Donatello (Florentine, i386?-i466) 

The events of Donatello's life are known but imperfectly. 
He left no written record, and all that can be gleaned of him 
comes from certain contracts in which his name appears, from 
contemporary comments, and from Vasari's Life. His full name 
was Donatello di Niccolb di Betto Bardi. No one knows his 
teachers, or how he occupied himself up to the time when his 
name first appears in the accounts of the Opera del Duomo. 
In 1 40 1 the Florentines invited competition for the east 
Baptistery doors, and from the fact that a little later Donatello 
was skilled enough to be working on the Cathedral it is per- 
missible to imagine that he may also have worked with 
Ghiberti on the bronze doors. Then comes the story of his 
journey to Rome with Brunelleschi, which is probably 
authentic ; indeed, some writers find warrant for it in traces of 
classicism visible in his early work ; though it should be noted 
that at Pisa, much nearer Florence, he might have seen both 
Niccola Pisano's pulpit and the classic fragments which inspired 
it. He was back in Florence by 1406, for in that year there is 
an entry in the Cathedral accounts of a payment to him of 
ten golden florins for two statues for the north door. These 
figures stand too high to be properly seen, but they are of no 
great merit. He was next employed on certain of the statues 
on the west front of the Cathedral, which was dismantled in 
1586. He also executed other life-sized statues for the 
Cathedral, the earliest of which was ordered in 1408, and of 


these nine survive. Inside the Cathedral are three, the so- 
called Joshua, the Poggio, and the seated S. John the 
Evangelist. In niches on the Campanile are Jeremiah, Ha- 
bakkuk, the Zuccone, S. John Baptist, and Abraham. The 
ninth, the David in marble, has been removed to the Bargello. 
Of these statues the Joshua (1409) is the earliest; the treat- 
ment is immature and ungraceful, and the ill-falling drapery 
and fat stupid face resemble nothing else of Donatello's work : 
its authenticity has often been called in question. Opposite 
stands what has been claimed sometimes as a portrait of the 
Humanist, Poggio Bracciolini ; it may be noted that a figure 
strongly resembhng this statue surmounts the tomb of 
Tommaso Mocenigo in SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice, which 
was made by the Florentines, Piero di Niccolo and Giovanni 
di Martino, some time after 1423, the year of Mocenigo's death. 
The tomb shows further signs of Florentine influence in the 
standing figure at the left-hand corner of the sarcophagus, 
which is a reduced replica of Donatello's famous S. George on 
Or S. Michele. S. John the EvangeUst, made originally to 
stand with three others outside the great door of the Cathedral, 
is certainly the finest work of his early period. The order for 
it was given in 1408, when he was only twenty-two years of age, 
and it was completed by 14 15. It needs no deep scholarship 
to perceive that this majestic figure helped to inspire Michel- 
angelo's Moses. The hands are huge and ill-proportioned ; a 
fault which Michelangelo certainly did not rectify. In pose 
Donatello's statue is the finer of the two, but the spirit that here 
underlies the marble surface is less tense and passionate. It 
may be noted that he has given to S. John the rugged, virile 
aspect usually associated with S. Peter or S. Paul, instead of 
the soft, youthful rendering of the later artists. Of the five 
statues on the Campanile, Jeremiah (set on a base bearing the 
name of King Solomon) and Habakkuk are alike in treatment, 
and full of life. The faces are keenly alive, but the figures are 
imperfectly rendered. The throat is clumsy and shapeless, 
and the enormous hands seem inoperative, merely pressing 
the objects they profess to grasp. The famous Zuccone, the 


pumpkin-head, is the effigy of a supremely ugly man, absolutely 
true to life. It stands on a base bearing the name of King 
David, and was formerly supposed to represent that monarch. 
The Abraham and Isaac — in collaboration with II Rosso, 142 1 
— is only moderately successful. Donatello at this period 
was at his best at single figures, and the introduction of Isaac 
into the composition has weakened the effect ; but it must 
always be interesting from the grandeur of Abraham's head. 

The remaining statue to be noticed on the Campanile is 
the Baptist ; and seeing that Donatello, as a Florentine loyal 
to his patron saint, sculptured him many times, it will be more 
convenient to notice all these statues seriatim, (i) The one 
on the Campanile (14 16) makes the saint a young peasant in 
lusty youth, with a heavy wooden face unilluminated by any 
touch of spirituality. (2) That of the Bargello is of a full- 
grown man, meagre and ascetic, and suggesting under the 
marble a conscious self, deeply spiritualized. (3) The charm- 
ing little Relief in the same gallery shows him in childhood. 
(4) A youthful bust in the Palazzo Martelli (ascribed also to 
Antonio Rossellino), and (5) a statue also as a young man. 
(6) In S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini in Rome (a doubtful work), 
as a boy. (7) The Church of the Fran at Venice possesses 
a statue of him (1451), carved in wood and terribly overloaded 
with paint, in which he is represented as somewhat past 
maturity, and treated in a style which culminated in the 
shaggy ugliness of the Magdalen of the Florentine Baptistery. 
(8) The bronze statue at Siena (1458). (9) The bronze 
statue at Berlin. Both of these represent the Baptist older 
than Biblical history warrants. (10) A wooden statue in the 
Museum at Faenza, where there is also a youthful marble bust, 
ascribed by most critics to Bernardo Rossellino, rather than to 
Donatello. (11) A bust in the Louvre. 

The marble David — which must not be confused with his 
far finer David in bronze — was completed in 14 16, and shows 
the same faults as the so-called Joshua. The pose and the 
disposition of the hands are ungraceful ; the lower limbs seem 
too short for the body, and there is a self-conscious air which 


accords ill with the conception of the young shepherd. 
Between 1410 and 1423 Donatello executed four statues for 
Or S. Michele : S. Peter, S. Mark, S. Louis, and S. George. 
Of these the first two still stand in their niches ; S. Louis is 
now in S. Croce, and S. George has recently been removed to 
the Bargello, and replaced by a bronze copy. The S. Peter is 
probably the earliest in date, and is not very interesting. The 
drapery falls easily and was evidently inspired by some classic 
model. S. Mark is far more successful and lifelike. The pose 
is noble and dignified, and the face almost as quick with 
intelligence as that of the S. George, but Donatello again fails 
in the hands. The S. Louis in S, Croce is an uninteresting 
figure. In 141 6 he finished the famous S. George, his master- 
piece, and one of the great statues of the world, which is too 
well known to need description. In S. Croce is the early 
Crucifix, also the Relief of the Annunciation, in which he shows 
a keener sense of beauty and greater skill in giving a sense 
of motion. The framework and decoration are somewhat 
baroque, and the coarse stone in which it is carved detracts 
from its charm. Various dates — 1430-1443 — are given 
to it ; the classic spirit is very strongly apparent. Between 
1424 and 1428 Donatello worked intermittently with Querela 
on the Sienese font. He made two of the figures, i.e. Faith 
and Hope standing between the reliefs, as well as one of the 
panels, the Banquet of Herod, his first essay in relief. (A 
replica of this in marble is in the Museum at Lille.) He 
also did some statuettes of children for the upper frieze. 
Another work of his at Siena is the slab monument of Arch- 
bishop Pecci in the Cathedral (1426). 

Since 1423 Donatello and Michelozzo had been col- 
laborators, and to this period much remarkable work may be 
referred ; the Tombs of Pope John xxiii in the Baptistery at 
Florence (1426-1429) and of Cardinal Brancacci (1427) in 
S. Angelo a Nilo at Naples ; and the famous Pulpit at Prato. 
The Tomb of Pope John is one of his finest mixed works, the 
relation of the figures to the architectural design being entirely 
harmonious. The Pope's face denotes sleep rather than 


death, and the relaxed recumbent figure is that of a man at 
rest. The little angels who support the scroll are beautifully 
modelled. The Brancacci Tomb is far less successful; the 
upper part is too heavy for the meagre ineffective base. The 
sarcophagus is borne on the shoulders of three caryatid figures 
by Michelozzo, and the figure of the Cardinal, the standing 
angels, and the relief of the Assumption — a perfect gem — are 
in Donatello's finest style. The face of the dead man is 
drawn and somewhat ghastly — and the angel standing at the 
pillow is worthy to rank amongst his grandest creations. 
Stern, pitiful majesty and irresistible force have rarely been 
so consummately expressed. 

The Pulpit at Prato occupied Donatello on and off from 
1434 to 1439, but long before it was completed he began 
on the Cantoria or singing gallery for the Cathedral of Florence. 
At Prato he made another and successful essay in treating 
figures in groups, and Michelozzo supplied the architectural 
framework for the panels of dancing children. Their mirth 
has something Bacchic in it, — in spiteof the sprouting wings 
on their shoulders. Perhaps they do not attain the grace of 
the children on the Cantoria, but the work is equally beautiful 
in harmony of design. Two of these panels in ancient terra- 
cotta replicas are in the Wallace Collection. The pulpit rests 
on a bronze capital of exquisite design. The Cantoria, 
formerly in the Cathedral and now in the Opera del Duomo 
at Florence, occupied him from 1433 to 1440, and is probably 
his most popular work. In these reliefs he attained the 
highest point of grace and delicacy, equally remote from the 
austerity of his early and from the exaggerated movement and 
complication of certain of his later works. Children have 
never been more exquisitely displayed: he was, indeed, the 
first to give the child — apart from the infant Christ — a due 
place in sculpture. 

Before either the Prato Pulpit or the Cantoria was finished, 
Florence was convulsed by the banishment of Cosimo in 
1433, ^^d Donatello withdrew to Rome, where, according to 
legend, be advised his "brother" Simone in the matter of 


the Tomb of Pope Martin v ; but Donatello had no brother, 
and the Simone in question was Simone Ghini, Filarete's 
assistant on the bronze doors of S. Peter's. During his sojourn 
he must have made the Tabernacle now in the Sacristy of 
the Canons at S. Peter's, one of his less attractive works. In 
the decoration the classic note is stronger: the putti are 
charmingly modelled, but as a whole the composition is 
lacking in harmony, perhaps owing to Michelozzo's absence. 
He probably went back to Florence after Cosimo's return from 
exile in 1434, and about this time made eight classic Reliefs 
from antique gems in the Medici Collection, which were placed 
in the court of the Medici palace. These reflect manifestly 
the classic influences to which he was subjected in Rome, 
and demonstrate likewise the vigour of his personality by the 
skill with which he has reproduced the spirit of antiquity 
modified by the working of his own genius. They may be 
derived from classic models, but they are immensely greater 
than copies. Classic sentiment and treatment appear so 
strongly in the bronze David which was done about this time 
that it may be permitted to define this commission of Cosimo's 
and the sojourn in Rome as the seminal period of Donatello's 
middle and later style. The David, now in the Bargello, was 
his first essay in the nude, and, considering how limited were 
his opportunities for anatomical study, his success was 
astonishing. It was the first nude statue executed since 
classic times, a delightful expression of youth and vigour. 
There is a fine marble copy in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (No. 884). In the Bargello are two other statues 
quick with classic spirit : the charming Cupid in the breeches 
of a Tuscan peasant boy — the first modern rendering of a 
Greek god — who tramples on a serpent ; and another standing 
on a scallop shell. The Marzocco, the civic lion of Florence, 
is now in the Bargello; the finely carved pedestal is still in 
the Palazzo Vecchio, and on it is a bronze replica of the 

Donatello produced a large number of Reliefs of the Madonna. 
Three appear as details in larger works : one m the Tomb of 


OUktdrai. Prof 


Pope John (also attributed to Pagno di Lapo), one in the 
Brancacci Tomb at Naples, and one in the panel of the 
Mother vindicated by her Child at Padua. The popular de- 
mand for subjects of this kind was immense, and an enormous 
number of replicas in terra-cotta were made during Donatello's 
lifetime : the small oval in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(No. 71); the Madonnas of the south porch of the Cathedral 
at Siena and of the Via Pietra Piana in Florence ; the Orlan- 
dini Madonna and the one from the Convent of S. Maria 
Maddalena in Florence, now in Berlin (Nos. 39, 39A) — one 
with cherubs in marble ; and a Relief in bronze in the 
Louvre, are the most noteworthy. It may be remarked that 
seven other renderings of the subject in the Berlin Museum 
are claimed as genuine, and four or five in the Louvre. His 
portrait busts are not very numerous. At Berlin there is one 
unfinished, known as Ludovico Gonzaga, and another of 
Giovanni, the son of Gattamelata, with a large plaque on his 
breast, now in the Bargello, where also is the over-praised 
bust of Niccolb d' Uzzano. This, however, deserves notice 
as the first essay in Renaissance portraiture; and it would 
doubtless be more attractive were it cleaned from its thick 
coat of paint. Other busts executed by him or his pupils are 
the so-called S. Cecilia in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(No. 7585) ; the S. Lorenzo, terra-cotta, in the Sacristy of S. 
Lorenzo in Florence ; and one of S. Lussorio in S. Stefano 
at Pisa. A fine head in relief, with good claim to authen- 
ticity, is in the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 923). 
About 1440 Donatello did his group of Judith and Holo- 
fernes, now in the Loggia dei Lanzi. Broken up, it would 
furnish a store of exquisitely wrought fragments, but as 
it stands it repels by reason of its extraordinary jumble 
of details, and the impossibly cramped juxtaposition of the 
figures themselves ; moreover, the group ought never to have 
been set on such a base, and both base and figures are out 
of place on such a pedestal. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that at this time sculptured groups were a new departure. 
The Pisan masters had represented groups and even crowds 


in strong relief with much success, but the group of free 
standing figures was another and a very long step, and 
Donatello, when he attempted the Judith, was not firm on 
his feet. The pedestal is enriched with a charming relief of 
a revel of amorini : the joy of Ufe delineated with true gusto 
amid the graceful surroundings of some Arcadian festival. 
Nowhere in his work are classic influences more strongly 
apparent. It is a long step from this gem to the Magdalen 
in the Baptistery, which is ascribed to various periods of his 
life, and was probably carved about 1457. It is one of the 
ugliest of statues, and its ugliness, unlike that of the Zuccone, 
fails to attract. Various influences, which might have led 
him to produce it, have been suggested : one is that the levity 
apparent in the Florentine character moved him to present 
to the pleasure-loving crowd a spectacle of penitence on the 
most austere lines. This personification of haggard misery 
will seem to most spectators as far removed from the legend 
of the Magdalen, as is the placid, well-fed, well-dressed lady, 
reading a good book in some pleasant garden, — the rendering 
given by painters of a later age. 

It is not easy to assign a date to the bronze doors in the 
Sacristy of S. Lorenzo, with their extremely simple treatment. 
Each panel contains only two figures, who illustrate the theme 
by action dignified and animated, — one pair of doors being 
given to the saints, and the other to the martyrs. Over these 
doors are two groups of saints in terra-cotta relief, S. Stephen 
and S. Laurence on one side, and S. Cosmo and S. Damiano 
on the other ; also four large circular Reliefs of the Evangelists, 
and four smaller ones of scenes in the life of S. John. Classic 
detail appears in all these medallions, which were finished 
before 1444. He also did an exquisite balustrade for the 
singing gallery of the Church and a frieze of cherubs' heads. 
As soon as he was free he went to Padua, where he remained 
till 1453. I' ^i'^ ^^ more convenient to continue here the 
description of the other work he did in S. Lorenzo after his 
return. The two great bronze pulpits, his last achievement, 
were largely done by his pupils and assistants ; but these 


Donatello had selected and taught with such judgment that 
the work shows only occasional falling away. They are 
rectangular in form, and are decorated with twelve bronze 
reliefs illustrating the Passion. On the north pulpit, in front, 
are the Cruci6xion and the Descent ; on the left side, Christ 
before Pilate and Caiaphas ; on the right, the Entombment ; 
and in the rear, Gethsemane and the Flagellation, divided by 
a figure of S. John, On the south pulpit, in front, are the 
Descent into Limbo, the Resurrection, and the Ascension ; on 
the left, the Women at the Sepulchre ; and on the right, the 
Descent of the Holy Ghost. In the rear is the Martyrdom of 
S. Laurence and an Ecce Homo, divided by a figure of 
S. Luke. All these subjects are treated with reverence ; there 
might occasionally be a little more restraint, and there is 
awkward overcrowding of the figures — notably in the Ascension 
and in the Descent into Limbo — and always a sense that 
what we see is the work of an old man, tired and wanting 
rest. Interesting as these great reliefs are, they are rivalled 
by the setting provided for them. A first glance may suggest 
that it was a want of taste which placed the great World 
Tragedy in a framework more fitted for a Bacchic dance or 
a procession of the Muses and Graces. One school will argue 
that it proves Donatello to have been a pagan at heart ; and 
another, that he must have been a Christian indeed to have 
let the story of the Cross triumph in spite of this subtle reek 
from an unclean altar. Probably the question never troubled 
him at all ; probably the Renaissance, and what we call 
Humanism, looms far more important to us than it did to the 
Florentine architects and stone-cutters of the Quattrocento. 
His friend Michelozzo provided him with divers pretty devices 
and patterns, copied from old tombs and pilasters, and he 
used them when it pleased him. On the first pulpit the frieze 
is divided into sections by pairs of graceful amphorae, and two 
centaurs occupy the middle — the first use of this creature 
since classic times. In the spaces cupids sport and play and 
make music, and they are likewise introduced into the 
capitals of the pilasters which divide the great reliefs. 


Donatello has concealed the bases of some of the pilasters 
by majestic figures, notably in the Deposition, the Pilate and 
Caiaphas, and in the Crucifixion. At the angles of the second 
pulpit he has introduced groups of men and horses, evidently 
copied from the bronzes on Monte Cavallo. The Pilate and 
Caiaphas reUefs are bounded by columns modelled on 
Trajan's, and surmounted by graceful nude figures. Bertoldo 
was Donatello's chief assistant, and much of the execution, 
doubtless, was his. A charming Relief of sportive Cupids in 
the Berlin Museum, ascribed to Donatello, is probably also 
by Bertoldo. 

To the end of his Paduan sojourn may be assigned the 
bronze Relief of the Crucifixion in the Bargello, and the 
Dead Christ with Angels in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(No. 7577). We have there several fine authentic works in 
addition, — the Charge to Peter in very shallow marble relief 
(No. 7629) ; the Flagellation and Crucifixion, a clay sketch 
for an altar (No. 7609); an oval stucco relief of the Madonna 
with Saints and Angels (No. 93). Ascribed to Donatello are 
the so-called S. Cecilia, a fine portrait bust in clay (No. 7585); 
a Madonna adoring the Child, a work of great beauty (No. 
57); the plaster Relief of S. George (No. 7607), the Magdalen 
(No. 157), a replica of the Pietra Piana Madonna (No. 7412), 
a replica of the Madonna of S. Croce (No. 7624), the Deposi- 
tion in clay strongly resembling the Pietk in S. Antonio at 
Padua and probably a genuine work (No. 8552), and the 
figure of a winged boy in bronze made for a fountain (No. 
475). The beautiful Monument of S. Giustina (No. 75) is 
ascribed by recent criticism to the anonymous maker of the 
tombs of the Gattamelatas in S. Antonio at Padua, and 
perhaps of the famous S. Cecilia, hitherto attributed to 
Donatello, belonging to the Earl of Wemyss. It might with 
equal justice be attributed to Agostino di Duccio. Another 
example alike in rendering is the fine marble profile Relief 
(No. 973). 

In 1444 Donatello, then in his fiftieth year, went to 
Padua and there carried out two of his greatest works, the 




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High Altar of S. Antonio and the Equestrian Statue of 
Gattamelata. The high altar is perhaps the most sumptuous 
mass of bronze and marble in the world. Alone in the 
centre the seated statue of the Virgin in a chair supported by 
sphinx-Uke figures is one of his most remarkable creations. 
Seldom has the mother of God been cast in so mysterious 
a form ; the technique is thorough and searching, but in no 
way detracts from the impression of majesty. Her look is 
solemn and awestricken, with no touch of maternal tender- 
ness, and recalls, somehow, the famous dictum of Pater as 
to the "intolerable honour" which the possession of the 
Holy Child brought to Botticelli's Madonnas. On her right 
stands S. Francis, a magnificent figure, and on her left S. 
Antony, both in the garb of the order. The other single 
statues are of S. Giustina and S. Daniele above, and S. 
Ludovico and S. Prosdocimus on each side of the altar below. 
He did four large Reliefs of the miracles of S. Antony, 
which were very elaborate in plan. The figures are skilfully 
and symmetrically grouped, moving with grace and dramatic 
power, and the scene is always full of life. Compared with 
the severe simplicity of the panels of the doors of the 
Sacristy of S. Lorenzo, these reliefs show a vast change of 
method. One cause of this new departure may be found 
in the fact that on going to Padua he found himself in the 
presence of the school of Squarcione, then in its zenith. 
Squarcione is said to have traversed Italy and Greece in 
search of relics of ancient art, and to have made careful 
drawings which formed the basis of his great art school at 
Padua. The tendency of his teaching was undoubtedly to 
reproduce in painting the impression of a sculptured subject, 
a tendency which appears so plainly in the work of his 
greatest pupil Andrea Mantegna, of whom it is often said 
that his canvases are painted sculpture. These reliefs of 
Donatello might with equal justice be described as sculptured 
paintings ; and a comparison of his great altar Crucifix, his 
first work in Padua, with the Gattamelata statue, his last, 
will suggest that the modification of his style may well have 


been caused by the presence of the workshop in which the 
young Mantegna was probably then a pupil. 

The first Relief tells the story of a Ferrarese nobleman 
who doubted the chastity of his wife; but her honour was 
vindicated by the testimony of her infant, who, by the 
agency of the saint, spake and gave full confirmation of 
her innocence. The second shows how a certain miser 
died, and how the saint declared that his heart would be 
found with his treasure — to wit, in his money chest. The 
third is the Miracle of the Mule, belonging to a notorious 
atheist, to which, when starving, the saint offered the 
consecrated wafer for food. The mule genuflected, refused 
the wafer, and the atheist was converted. The fourth is of 
a youth who kicked his mother and had his foot cut off as 
a penalty. The saint joins it on to the leg once more. Two 
of these reliefs serve as the retable of the altar, and two are 
at the back of it. On the altar frontal in the centre is a 
square Relief of the Dead Christ and Angels, and on either 
side of it six narrow panels with reliefs of angel choristers. 
Two of these contain two figures, and these are the most 
beautiful; some of the others, notably the one on either 
side of the central relief, are of inferior workmanship. 
Four square reliefs of the symbols of the Evangelists are 
placed two at the front and two at the back; the Eagle of 
S. John and the Angel of S. Matthew are remarkably fine. 
The door of the tabernacle is a Pietk in bronze relief, a 
poor work. The most important detail of the decoration 
of the rear of the altar is the large relief of the Entombment 
in stucco, delineated with a violence of passion which, com- 
pared with the calm majesty of the Virgin seated above, 
seems excessive. A greatly elaborated variant of this work, 
in bronze, with a large infusion of classic spirit in the 
decoration, is in the Imperial Museum at Vienna, and 
is attributed to Donatello. There is also a small bronze 
relief, closely following the original, in the Oxford Museum. 
The last work to be noticed in S. Antonio is the one first 
executed, the great bronze crucifix over the altar, the greatest 


crucifix ever wrought, and a triumph of art which, in the 
opinion of many, rivals the S. George itself. As a study of 
human anatomy it is a marvel, and it establishes, once for 
all, his consummate genius by the perfect blending of suffer- 
ing humanity with the willing and beneficent surrender of 
the God. 

Padua possesses another great work by Donatello : the 
Equestrian Statue of Gattamelata, usually bracketed for 
comparison with Verrocchio's Colleone at Venice. The 
stock criticism of this work, that the man is too small for 
the horse, will suggest itself to most spectators. It is not, 
as is frequently asserted, the first equestrian statue of the 
Renaissance, as the one of Bemabo Visconti in the Castello 
at Milan dates from 1354 or earlier; but it is the first bronze 
casting of a horse. In its modelling Donatello would 
certainly have studied the bronze horses on S. Mark's at 
Venice. The face of Gattamelata is finely conceived; less 
truculent but not less life-like than that of Colleone, and the 
fiery spirit of the horse is admirably expressed. The rich 
details upon the armour and saddle are not properly seen 
in their present position. 

This is but a hurried survey of Donatello's great achieve- 
ment He was the inheritor of the traditions of the Pisan 
school, which he took up and enriched with qualities which 
came neither firom classic, nor Burgundian, nor Northern 
source. That he was able to modify and carry forward 
sculpture beyond the point to which Niccola and Giovanni 
Pisano, Orcagna and Ghiberti had brought it, proves him 
to have been one of the kings of art. That soft delicate 
beauty, delineated so constantly by his contemporary Luca 
della Robbia, and by his successors Mino, Desiderio, and the 
Rossellini, had no attraction for him ; in any case, he refrained 
from rendering it If he ever approached it, it was in the 
Annunciation of S. Croce and in his sportive putti and 
children ; but in these he shows himself before all a naturalist 
Any excursions he may have made by way of experiment 
were in the opposite direction : as witness the Zuccone and 


the Magdalen of the Florentine Baptistery, which are 
veritable masterpieces of ugliness. One characteristic of 
his method is that he seldom introduces into his com- 
positions any natural object other than the human form. 
On the pulpits of S. Lorenzo trees and animals appear, but 
in these his assistants had a free hand. 

One of the reasons why he left no band of disciples to carry 
on his style may be that none of his successors approached him 
in power of intellect nearly enough to transfer the essential 
character of the concept to the marble with a vigour and 
directness in any way approaching his own. Their figures 
were often more correctly modelled than his, and they lived, 
but the impress they had received was that given by a skilful 
carver, and not by an inspired master. In this respect a 
striking parallel may be drawn between Donatello and Jacopo 
della Querela. 

His work does not always please : his themes were often too 
intractable and his arm too strenuous to allow him to smooth 
away those rugosities which offend the fastidious eye. Dona- 
tello did not strive for beauty alone : he strove for character, 
for truth ; and to those who search first for these he will always 
remain the greatest sculptor of the revival. His immediate suc- 
cessors and pupils, infected by the spirit of the time, strove for 
beauty alone, and not seldom missed true beauty in their efforts 
to render mere grace. They hastened to trick out their work 
with fruits and flowers, garlands and arabesques, a practice he 
had never adopted. In this sense it may be admitted that 
Donatello founded no school ; but he left no germ of corrup- 
tion to bring the degeneracy and decay upon art which super- 
vened upon the death of Michelangelo. In none of his 
creations is the working of the brain and spirit exhibited with 
that passionate strength which quivers under the marble of 
those giant forms in the Sacristy of S. Lorenzo. Michelangelo 
applied his art to stone for the interpretation of intellectual 
problems : Donatello's hand was equally sure and skilful ; his 
outlook was wider ; he realised more thoroughly the limita- 
tions of his subjects, and the legitimacy of this or that method j 


and he was therefore the greater sculptor though not the 
greater artist. To appreciate him rightly it is necessary to 
realize his epoch : that wonderful time when men awoke to 
new life after the dark night of Mediaevalism ; when scholars 
read once more the classics, and found new truths in the old 
world which had so long lain buried under the ruins of Rome ; 
when youth learnt once more the joy of bodily vigour and 
strenuous life; and when curious seekers, in spite of ecclesi- 
astical frowns, began to pry into the secrets of nature. Dona- 
tello's art epitomised all these phenomena : its spirit was in 
sympathy with all these streams of human activity, and, like 
the sympathy of all the truly great, was of the widest. If the 
last of his Paduan works, the Gattamelata, glorifies the ideal of 
human force and capability ; his first, the great bronze Crucifix, 
assuredly represents the most exalted rendering of human 
suffering and Divine pity. 

Examples of Donatello's work are in the Bardini Collection 
in Florence, in the Duke of Westminster's in London, in the 
Andr^ and Dreyfus Collection in Paris, and in the Beckerath 
and the Weisbach Collections in Berlin. There is an unfinished 
David in the Martelli Palace in Florence, an early work. 

Embriachi, Baldassare degli (Florentine 

— Working, 1396) 

HE carved the ivory reredos for the Certosa at Pavia, which 
was destined to stand on the High Altar but is now 
in the Old Sacristy. It is one of the finest examples extant, 
and contains sixty-four reliefs and ninety-four statuettes. The 
figures and the architecture are beautiful in proportion, and the 
delicacy of the manipulation shows that the maker must have 
been possessed by the best traditions of the Florentine school. 
In the Bargello are two finely carved ivory triptychs, which are 
attributed to him. 


Cathedral, Sitna 

Federighi, Antonio (Sienese, 1415-1490?) 

FEDERIGHI was powerfully affected by the traditions of 
the Pisan masters. He made the Tomb of Bishop 
Bartoli in the right aisle of the Cathedral at Siena; and the 
Reliefs on the Font in the Chapel of the Baptist (which must 
not be confused with the under church of S. Giovanni, the 
Baptistery of the city). These reliefs are evidently influenced 
by Quercia's work. He also made the two beautiful Holy 
Water Stoups at the west end of the nave, which are amongst 
the finest and most original specimens of Renaissance sculp- 
ture. Tradition runs that the foot of the southern one is a bit 
of antique work. As a sculptor of draped statues Federighi 
was less successful, and his Figures of S. Ansano, S. Vittorio, 
and S. Savino (1456) in the Loggia dei Nobili are poor, though 
much better than Vecchietta's beside them. He did the Reliefs 
on the right-hand bench of the Loggia in 1464, and the Statue 
of S. Galgano in S. Cristofero ; also a Madonna in S. Francesco. 
TTie Holy Water Stoup in the Cathedral at Orvieto is by him, 
and perhaps the Sibyl on the fa9ade. Other works attributed to 
him are the Gravestone of Bettini in S. Girolamo, a Madonna 
in the Via dei Rossi, and the Moses in the Museo del Duomo 
at Siena. 

Ferrucci, Andrea (Florentine, 1465-1526) 

He was of the Ferrucci family of Fiesole, and began as 
a decorative carver. Having attracted the notice of King 
Ferdinand of Naples, he was summoned there in 1487 ; 


but whatever work he did has perished. From Naples he 
went to Pistoia, where he did his masterpiece, the Font in 
the Cathedral, in collaboration with Baccio di Montelupo. 
Another fine work of his is the Altar in the Cathedral at Fiesole, 
which resembles Andrea Sansovino's in S. Spirito in Florence, 
though less ambitious in design. He also did the Crucifix in 
S. Maria Primerana. His Statue of S. Andrea in the Cathedral 
at Florence (15 12) just reaches the average standard of that very 
uninteresting series ; on the other hand, his Bust of Marsilio 
Ficino (1522) is original and life-like. The Tomb of Antonio 
Strozzi in S. Maria Novella is faulty in design, and was largely 
carried out by his pupils. The Tondo of the Madonna in the 
Bargello is unconventional in type, and is executed with 
sincerity and a manifest desire to follow nature rather than 
tradition. A Bust of Marcello Adriani in S. Francesco al 
Monte is attributed to him. 

In the Victoria and Albert Museum is a marble Ancona by 
him, with beautiful figures of the Madonna, S. Jerome, S. 
Antony, and the Magdalen, formerly in S. Girolamo at Fiesole, 
one of his best works ; also a graceful Tabernacle. He made 
a Crucifix in S. Felicitk at Florence, and two Angels in the 
Cathedral at Volterra. 

Ferrucci, Francesco di Simone (Florentine, 
I 440- I 493) 

He was the son of Simone Ferrucci, and perhaps Ver- 
rocchio's pupil. His chief work is the Tomb of the jurist 
Tartagni (1477) in S. Domenico at Bologna, a sumptuous 
structure, but wanting in originality of detail, the borrowing 
from Desiderio's tomb of Marsuppini being clearly manifest. 
The grouping of parts is harmonious, and the effect imposing. 
An earlier work, the Tomb of Barbara Manfredi in S. Biagio at 
Forh (1466), is strongly allied to the Tartagni monument in 
conception, and less laden with ornament. Other tombs in 
Bologna — of Malvezzi in the Campo Santo, and of Albergati 
in S. Francesco — were done by him. The last was removed 


when the church was desecrated, but with the rest of the 
monuments it has been replaced. He also decorated the 
Portal of the Palazzo Bevilacqua at Bologna. Other works 
attributed to Ferrucci are the Tomb of Filippo Inghirami in 
the Cathedral at Prato ; the fragments of the Balducci Tomb 
now in S. Egidio in Florence ; the Altar and Tabernacle in 
S. Maria di Monteluce near Perugia; the Tombs of Oliva 
and of Marsabilia Trinci in the Convent of Monte Fiorentino 
near Pesaro ; the Madonna della Via della Chiesa in Florence ; 
the Lavabos and the Door of the Sacristy of the Badia of 
Fiesole; the Monument of Pandolfini in the Badia of Flor- 
ence, — also attributed to Desiderio, — and a Fountain in the 
Palazzo Pitti ; the ornamentation of the Windows of S. Petronio 
at Bologna ; an Altar in S. Giobbe in Venice ; and Tabernacles 
in the Cathedral at Prato and at Ostiglia, the last now in the 
Pal. Cavriano at Mantua. 

Ferrucci, Simone (Florentine, 1402- ) 

He worked for the most part in S. Francesco at Rimini, 
where he is first heard of in 1442. The treatment of the 
sportive Children, with which he has decorated the third 
chapels right and left, is akin to Donatello's. In the right 
chapel the /«/// are playing musical instruments, and on the 
left are sporting in the sea. Though their limbs are too heavy 
they are quite lovely. Others on the rails of several of the 
chapels are also by Ferrucci. In the first chapel on the right 
he sculptured in relief Figures typifying the cardinal and theo- 
logical Virtues, and in the one opposite on the left the Prophets 
and Sibyls. These are commonplace ; only one, a Young Man 
bearing a shield with the Malatesta device, being remarkable. 
It is possible, indeed, that this figure alone is his, and all the 
rest by CiuffagnL The Font in the Cathedral at Arezzo is 
attributed to him, and a Lunette with Madonna and angels in 
the Museo at Forli. In the Bargello a Madonna by Andrea 
della Robbia stands on a Bracket oi pietra serena covered with 
channirig reliefs which are almost certainly from his hand. 


His full name was Simone di Giovanni Ferrucci da Fiesole, 
and he it was who was for some time identified with the 
mythical Simone, the brother of Donatello. He seems to 
have sometimes signed himself " Simone Fiorentino " ; and 
Simone Ghini, who did the monument of Martin v in the 
Lateran, used the same style, so a further confusion of person- 
alities occurred. There is no evidence that this Simone ever 
went to Rome, and the contention that he did the marble 
and Ghini the bronze work of the Lateran tomb is quite 

Fiesole, Andrea da (Upper Italian— Working, 


Except by name, he has no connection with Fiesole, and 
he must not be confounded with Andrea Ferrucci da Fiesole, 
who lived some eighty years later. His extant works 
are in Bologna, and they show directly the influence of 
the Massegni, who, in 1386, made their great altar in S. 
Francesco. Bologna, as the seat of an illustrious university, 
exhibits in its churches many beautiful and stately tombs of its 
learned teachers, most of which were framed after the model 
of that of Sinibaldi by Cellino di Nese at Pistoia. The 
Bolognese Tombs have mostly been removed into the ^useo 
Civico. The finest are to the following professors : Bonandrea 
dei Bonandrei, Giacomo di Legnano, Lorenzo Pini, Giovanni 
Calderini, Pietro Cerniti, and Bonifazio Galluzzi. In all of 
these the teacher is seated amidst his pupils, who take notes 
of his discourse. Andrea da Fiesole made two fine tombs of 
this class : of Roberto and Riccardo di Saliceto, and of Barto- 
lommeo di Saliceto, both now in the Museo. The first of these 
wants the effigy of the deceased ; the second is a monument 
of fine proportions poised on brackets let into the wall. On the 
face of the sarcophagus the professor sits with pupils on either 
side, writing. A recumbent effigy lies on the carved cover of 
the sarcophagus, and on the elaborate cornice the Virgin 
stands with a saint on her right hand. 


Fiesole, Mino da (Florentine, 1430-1484) 

MiNO was born at Poppi in the Casentino, and probably 
was taught in Florence, his earliest known works being 
portrait busts. One of the earliest of these is that of 
Rinaldo di Luna in the Bargello, dated 1461; but in the 
Museum at Berlin is another of Niccolo Strozzi, done at 
Rome in 1454, signed "opus nini," which is claimed by the 
authorities as Mino's work in spite of the spelling. In the 
Bargello are three other interesting portraits by him : one of 
Piero dei Medici, who died in 1469, aged 53 ; one of a Young 
Man in Armour, identified by some as Piero's brother Giovanni ; 
and another of a very beautiful Woman in profile relief, bearing 
the inscription " et 10 dal mino o avuto el lume." Female 
busts in the Museum at Berlin and in the National Library 
at Paris are attributed to him. Little is known of Mino's 
life before his first visit to Rome in 1463. In this same year 
he was working at the Pulpit before S. Peter's which was swept 
away when the old Basilica was destroyed. Recently portions 
of the Ciborium of Sixtus iv lying in the Crypt have been 
ascribed to Mino. Another work of this period, the Tabernacle 
for the remains of S. Jerome, ordered by Cardinal d' Estoute- 
ville for S. Maria Maggiore, disappeared for a time, but in 
the Museo Municipio in Rome four slabs have come to light 
which have all the characteristics of Mino's work, and are 
carved with scenes from S. Jerome's life, and possibly these 
may be portions of it. He did about this time a Relief of the 
Crucifixion, with the Virgin and S. John, formerly in S. Peter's 
and now in S. Balbina. 

D' Estouteville seems to have entrusted Mino with a second 
commission : a Ciborium for the high altar of S. Maria Mag- 
giore, which was also broken up in the eighteenth century, but 
fortunately the chief reliefs are built into the walls of the choir, 
and fragments are preserved in the sacristy. The work on these 
b superior to that of the fragments of S. Jerome's Tabernacle, 
and in the Adoration of the Magi classic influences are 
strongly manifested. There is a theory, quite reasonable, 


that these reliefs date from Mine's second visit to Rome. One 
of them is in the Palazzo Stroganoff. 

In 1464 Mino returned to Florence and matriculated as 
a member of the Stone- and Wood-Carvers' Company. He 
did the Tomb and Bust of Bishop Salutati and the Reredos in 
the Cathedral at Fiesole. The tomb of Salutati is a stately 
sarcophagus, very original in design, and standing on brackets 
let into the wall. Beneath is the Bishop's bust, one of the 
most life-like that ever was carved. The figures of the reredos 
have all the charm and sweetness of his best time. The one 
blot is the head of Christ above, which is far too heavy, and 
mars the symmetry of the pediment. Mino's next work 
was in the Badia at Florence, a Reredos on the wall to the 
right of the entrance, with the Virgin between S. Lawrence 
and S. Leonard. Here the setting is again very beautiful, 
a gem of Renaissance design, showing that Mino, as a true 
artist, aimed at general symmetry and did not care to spend 
all his care in the delineation of spiritual rhapsody. In the 
adjoining chapel is his Tomb of Bernardo Guigni (1468), which 
does not show him at his best. It is suggested by the 
Desiderio and Rossellino tombs, and though the effigy 
and the figure of Justice are good, they do not accord with 
the setting : the tympanum is weak and the cornice over-heavy, 
a blot accentuated by the meagre baseless pilasters on which 
it rests. The beautiful Tabernacle in the Medici Chapel in 
S. Croce is probably a work of this period. 

In 147 1 he went to Volterra, where he did for the Cathedral 
Baptistery a richly sculptured Tabernacle and two Angels with 
Candlesticks. In 1473 ^^ undertook with Antonio Rossellino 
the Cathedral Pulpit at Prato, the design of which is evidently 
his. The ornament is somewhat uninteresting, and Mino's 
reliefs — notably the Beheading of the Baptist — show that 
elaborate compositions were yet beyond him. The base is 
carved with griffins, a borrowing from the Marsuppini tomb 
which he repeated and accentuated in the Tornabuoni tomb 
in the Minerva. On the death of Paul 11 in 147 1 overtures 
were made to Mino with regard to a Monument, but this was 



Cathtdrat, Fus»:t 


not begun before 1475. ^^ ^^^ much work on hand; he 
had contracted for a Tomb to Count Hugo in the Badia, and 
for a Reredos at Perugia, and divers Roman patrons were eager 
to employ him. He engaged Giovanni Dalmata as his 
assistant ; and, having furnished the design, left the execution 
thereof largely to him. He did the figures of Faith and 
Charity, SS. Luke and John, the Temptation, and one of the 
fragments now in the Louvre ; also the carving on the balcony 
in the Sistine. Other works of this period are the Tabernacle 
in S. Marco (with Dalmata), another in S. Maria in Trastevere, 
and one of the Angels over the door of S. Giacomo degli 
Spagnuoli. In 1473 ^^ completed the Reredos in S. Pietro 
near Perugia, on which arabesques and garlands replace the 
simple grooving. The chief figures are Christ Crucified in 
bronze, a relief on the door of the central tabernacle, and 
S. John and the Baptist. 

While in Rome Mino, in collaboration with Dalmata, did 
four tombs : that of Cardinal Forteguerra in S. Cecilia ; that 
of Cardinal Riario in SS. Apostoli (somewhat resembling 
Isaia da Pisa's tomb of Eugenius iv); that of Bishop 
Piccolomini (1479) in the cloister of S. Agostino (probably 
in collaboration with Bregno) ; and that of Tomabuoni in the 
Minerva. The last is the best and at the same time his 
most manifest imitation of Desiderio. In 1481 he returned 
to Florence and finished Count Hugo's tomb in the Badia, 
which had been in hand since 1469 — a masterpiece in spite 
of interruption and delay. He also did the exquisite 
Tabernacle in S. Ambrogio. There are two beautiful Madonnas 
by Mino in the Bargello, one in the Berlin Museum, three 
reliefs in the Louvre, and one in the CoUegiata at Empoli. 
The so-called Isotta Malatesta in the Campo Santo at 
Pisa is assigned to him — as to Desiderio — on insufficient 
grounds. In the Victoria and Albert Museum are several 
Madonnas of his school, and three of great beauty (Nos. 7591, 
7562, 6737) are probably by him. 

One of his finest busts, that of Diotisalvi Neroni, is in the 
Dreyfus Collection in Paris. 


Filarete, Antonio (Florentine— Working, 1435) 

He probably worked under Ghiberti, and came to the 
notice of Eugenius iv during the sitting of the Council 
of Florence in 1438. The Pope desired to give to S. 
Peter's a pair of bronze doors in commemoration of the 
anticipated reunion of Christendom ; and, as he was ignorant 
of art, he left the matter to officials, who selected Filarete, 
possibly because he was the best man available. The doors 
were begun in 1439 and finished in 1445. Whether Filarete 
studied under Ghiberti or not, they show little trace of that 
master's style. The right-hand one has reliefs of Christ, of 
S. Paul, and of S. Paul's decapitation, and the left the Virgin, 
S. Peter giving the Keys to Pope Eugenius, and his crucifixion. 
The * cross-rails have reliefs of scenes in the pontificate of 
Eugenius : the Emperor John Palseologus and the Pope 
arriving at the Council on horseback ; the Pope receiving 
ambassadors ; the coronation of the Emperor Sigismund ; and 
the proclamation of the union of the churches. In the larger 
figures the draperies are shapeless and clumsy, and the faces, 
except S. Paul's, expressionless. The lower panels, crowded 
with figures, show great ingenuity of execution, and adequate 
effect of distance is secured without Ghiberti's trick of setting 
the figures on different planes. The decoration of the outer 
framework is an extraordinary medley : in scrolls of elaborate 
floral device Christian and Pagan subjects are mixed at 
random — Adam and Eve, the Labours of Hercules, the 
Baptist, Ganymede, Jupiter and lo, Romulus and Remus, 
and Leda and the Swan ; the spaces being filled in with 
Cupids, profiles of the Caesars, and devices taken from Grseco- 
Roman carving. The decoration of these doors and that of 
PoUaiuolo's tomb of Sixtus iv demonstrate the mental attitude 
of the powers of the Church towards the Renaissance. Filarete 
did a bronze Altar decorated in the same spirit, now in the 
Louvre. The Tomb of Ramirez, and S. Mark, over the door of 
S. Marco, are attributed to him ; also the Tomb of the Cardinal 
of Portugal in the Lateran, the effigy being by another hand. 

Foggini, Giovanni Battista (Pisan— 

Working, 1675- ) 

His principal work is in the Cathedral at Pisa. He did 
one of the Capitals of the great Easter candlesticks in 
the choir, and the elaborate silver Tabernacle on the Altar 
of the Holy Sacrament, of which the technique is very fine. 
In the Corsini Chapel of the Carmine at Florence he did the 
three large altar Reliefs. The figures are well modelled, and 
the treatment goes no further in pictorial effort than is 
legitimate. These reliefs, though infected by Bernini's in- 
fluence, are superior to most of the contemporary sculpture, 
and much less extravagant than Algardi's supposed masterpiece, 
Attila, in S. Peter's. 

Fontana, Annibale (Milanese— Working, 1575) 

He is best known as the maker of elaborately worked 
bronze Candelabra, the finest of which may be seen in 
the Certosa, and in S. Fedele in Milan. As a sculptor his 
chief work is in S. Maria presso S. Celso, the fagade of which 
he decorated with figures of prophets, sibyls, and angels 
blowing trumpets. In the church, over the left side-door, is 
a Statue of S. Maria in S. Celso, a graceful figure with winged 
putti, but overborne by heavy draperies. His Baptist is rather 
commonplace, and the S. John the Evangelist, which stands 
over Fontana's own monument, has a head manifestly copied 
from Michelangelo's Moses. 

Francavilla, Pietro (Florentine, 1 548-1618) 

Francavilla was a Belgian, but he belongs to Italian 
art through his training in Florence and his association 
with Gian Bologna. He worked at the bronze Doors at Pisa, 
and did the Reliefs of the Baptism, the Betrayal, and the 
Calvary. He was first employed at Genoa, where he did 
Statues of the Evangelists and of S. Stephen and S. Ambrose 


in the Cathedral. In 1589 he went to Florence and made 
six Saints in S. Marco, and Statues in the Annunziata and in 
the Niccolini Chapel of S. Croce. The Pisan reliefs were in 
progress from 1596 to 1602, and during this time he executed, 
from Gian Bologna's design, the Statue of the Grand Duke 
Cosimo I on the Piazza dei Cavalieri, and that of Ferdinand i 
on the Lung Arno at Pisa. He finished Gian Bologna's Statue 
of Henri iv for Paris, and did the four slaves for the base, 
which are now in the Louvre. 

As a sculptor Francavilla had no originality; his figures 
are cold and lifeless, and his technique allowed him to be an 
efficient copyist, and nothing else. 

Francesco di Giorgio (Sienese, 1439-1502) 

He made the two bronze Angels on either side of Vecchi- 
etta's tabernacle on the high altar of the Cathedral at 
Siena, and the other half-length Angels on brackets on 
the columns of the choir. He also did the plaster Reliefs 
on the vaulting of the Osseveranza near Siena, and the 
painted terra-cotta Altar of the Assumption of the Virgin 
in the Chapel of the Palazzo Turco. His statues strongly 
resemble those of Stefano di Giovanni — life-like and graceful 
figures which foreshadow the extinction of the cold and 
barren early Sienese traditions, and the prevalence of P'loren- 
tine ideals. 

Francesco di S. Agata (Paduan— Working 

ABOUT 1520) 

A BOXWOOD Statuette of Hercules in the Wallace Museum 
has been identified as the work of this artist by Dr. 
Bode, who assigns to him also bronze replicas of the same 
in the Oxford Museum and in the Louvre, a S. Sebastian 
in boxwood at Berlin, and two youthful Figures in the Louvre. 
His work has affinity with that of Bertoldo, and his statuettes 
are not copies but graceful adaptations, both the ruggedness 


and the force of the earlier masters being wanting. He was 
the heir of several generations of great artists, and, though 
working on a small scale, made good use of his heritage. 

Fusina, Andrea (Milanese— Working, 1500) 

He was probably a pupil of Cristofero Solari, and is chiefly 
known by the Tomb of Birago (1495) ^^ S. Maria della 
Passione at Milan, and that of Bishop Bagaroto in the 
Castello (151 7). Both of these are rich in ornamentation, 
but the Bagaroto tomb is of coarse and inferior workmanship. 
He was engaged on the Certosa, and in 1520 he and Cristofero 
Solari ousted Amadeo from the directorship of the works. 
The Tomb of Cardinal Piccolomini in the Cathedral of Siena 
is sometimes ascribed to him on the strength of the inscription 
" opus andreae mediolanensis mcccclxxxv," but this might be 
applied with better reason to Andrea Bregno. Other works 
ascribed to him are the Medici Tomb in S. Tommaso, the 
Tolentino Tomb in the Incoronata at Milan, and some Statues 
in the Church of the Madonna at Saronno. 

Ga.gini; The (Lombards — Working, 1448- 1536) 

THE Gagini were a family of sculptors, sprung from 
Bissone near Lugano, The first of any note was 
Domenico, who in 1447 decorated the Chapel of the Baptist 
in the Cathedral at Genoa with terracotta reliefs, assisted by 
Elia his nephew. After Domenico went to Sicily in 1465 
Elia remained in Genoa, completing his work, and decorating 
also the Fieschi Chapel and the portal of the Palazzo Doria ; 
some Statues in the Palazzo di S. Giorgio and an Altar in 
S. Maria di Castello are probably his. The Gagini worked 
also in the Loggia of the Market-Place at Perugia, and in the 
Cathedral at Cittk di Castello. In 1465 Domenico settled in 
Sicily, and his son Antonello was so intimately associated with 
him that it is difficult to distinguish their work. The Holy 
Water Stoup in the Cathedral at Palermo is ascribed to him, 
but the only authentic work of his in Sicily is a Relief — a 
portion of a tabernacle — built into the wall of the church at 

Antonello did a High Altar for the Cathedral at Palermo, 
but this was broken up, and now forms the tribune. In the 
sacristy is a Madonna by him dated 1503. Other works 
attributed to him are a Statue of S. Catherine in S. Caterina, 
an Altar in S. Cita, strongly Lombardic in style, two Statues 
of the Madonna, one of S. George, and the Monument of 
Cecilia Aprilis in the Museo. At Monte S. Giuliano, in the 
Cathedral, is a finely decorated Altar, probably by Antonello, 
and a Relief of the Annunciation in the Museo (15 13). At 



Nicosia, in S. Maria Maggiore, is another Altar; and in 
S. Giovanni, at Castelvetrano, a Statue of the Baptist. 

In the Cathedral at Syracuse, and in the Cathedral and in 
the Gesii at Catania, are several works either by Antonello or 
his pupils, the best of these being a Relief of Christ and the 
Apostles at Syracuse. Milanese influences are manifest in all 
the sculpture and decorative work of the Gagini, which, how- 
ever, provoked no imitators in the irresponsive surroundings of 
Sicily. In the Victoria and Albert Museum are two Reliefs in 
slate of S. George and the Dragon (No. 7256), which are 
attributed to the school. 

Gambello, Vittorio (Venetian, 1460-1539) 

He was chiefly known as a medallist, and his best Portraits 
are those of Sixtus iv, of the Doges Andrea Gritti and 
Agostino Barbarigo, of Gentile Bellini, and of the juris- 
consults Fasuolo and Castaldo. He did the ornamenta- 
tion of the Choir and the Statues of the Apostles in S. Stefano, 
and those of the Virgin, the Baptist, and the Apostles in the 
Frari. These figures are pleasing, if somewhat insipid. 
Other works attributed to him are two Reliefs of battle 
scenes, in the Accademia; the Figures of Slaves on the 
Contarini Monument by Alessandro Vittoria, in S. Antonio at 
Padua; the "Gobbo," or hunchback of the Rialto; the 
Statuette of Mars over the great window of the Ducal Palace 
in Venice ; and a Statue of Justice on the piazza at Murano. Sanese (Sienese — Working, 13 14) 

Gang was probably a pupil of Agostino and Agnolo, and 
a contemporary of Tino da Camaino. Of his works two 
fine Tombs in the church of Casole, between Siena and 
Volterra, remain. One of these is of Tommaso di Andrea, 
Bishop of Pistoia, a mediocre production ; but the other, of 
Raniero Porrina, is a fine work. In its simple and dignified 
treatment and in the fidelity to nature of the eflSgy this tomb 
shows the Sienese school at its best. 


Ghiberti, Lorenzo (Florentine, 1 378-1455) 

Ghiberti was born in Florence, and was taught the gold- 
smith's art by his stepfather Bartolo di Michele, whose 
training made him a well-nigh faultless metal worker. At 
an early age he seems to have studied painting, and there 
is a legend that in 1399, when plague broke out in Florence, 
he went to Rimini to help to decorate the Castello for Carlo 
Malatesta, where he worked until 1401, when he competed for 
the North Baptistery doors. He was successful, and his Trial 
Panel of the Sacrifice of Isaac now hangs in the Bargello beside 
Brunelleschi's. The verdict of every age has confirmed the 
judgment of the arbitrators, but it may be remarked that in 
every other panel of the great doors Ghiberti did better than 
in the one which won him success. His plan is practically a 
reflection of Andrea Pisano's, but in its execution Ghiberti 
fell far short of Andrea in force of intellect and in skill of 

The commission was assigned to him in 1403, but it was 
not completed till 1424, Like Andrea, he gave twenty-eight 
panels : twenty from the life of Christ, four Evangelists, and 
four Doctors of the Church. Though, like Andrea, strongly 
under classic influences, his figures show a certain aflSnity with 
those of Giovanni Pisano, taking from them, in a softened and 
modified fashion, the spirit which invests Giovanni's creations 
with certain reactionary Gothic characteristics. Traces of 
this spirit may be noted in the relief of Christ expelling the 
Money-Changers, of S. Peter and the Soldiers, and of the 
Flagellation. The doors are too familiar to need detailed 
description. Of the life of Christ, the panels of the Annuncia- 
tion, the Adoration of the Magi, the Raising of Lazarus, and 
the Temptation are the most noteworthy; the figures of the 
Evangelists and the Fathers are Gothic in spirit and handling. 
During the work Ghiberti undertook several other com- 
missions. In 14 1 4 he did the Statue of the Baptist, now on 
Or S. Michele, and began the S. Matthew, his finest work in 
life-size. About the same time he made two Candlesticks for 


this church, and in 14 19 an elaborate gold Mitre for Martin v, 
which has disappeared. The two Reliefs of the Baptism of 
Christ, and the Baptist before Herod, on Quercia's font at Siena 
(1417-1427), form the connecting link between his first and 
his second manner. He had begun to set out his panel as a 
picture, and to pose his figures on different planes so as to 
obtain a sense of aerial perspective, but the figures in the 
foreground still dominate the composition. The women 
standing by the sea and the Baptist are beautifully wrought, 
and show Ghiberti as a smith at his best. 

Ghiberti has left interesting commentaries on his work and 
on the Philosophy of Art, and nowhere are they so valuable as 
where they deal with his mental attitude towards the method 
employed on his most popular work, the East Baptistery Doors. 
He writes that his aim was to imitate Nature as closely as 
possible, and that he studied her aspects and changes in order 
to achieve his aim. " I strove to realize in what manner an 
object strikes the vision, and how best to comprehend the 
theory of graphic and pictorial art. I introduced into some 
of my compositions a hundred figures, modelled upon 
different planes, so that the nearer might appear larger and 
the remoter smaller in proportion." Piero della Francesca 
and Paolo Uccello had already made empiric use of perspec- 
tive in painting, and later Brunelleschi had formulated its 
laws, and made it apparently as applicable to Sculpture as to 
Painting, wherefore Ghiberti, with the eagerness of a true 
Florentine, rushed in to seize the fruits of the new discovery. 

The second Doors were begun in 1425 and finally completed 
in 1452. The subjects of the reliefs were chosen from the 
Old Testament by Leonardo Bruni of Arezzo, and it is 
difficult even to hint which are the finest. The Creation, 
with its supremely lovely figure of Eve ; and the Solomon and 
the Queen of Sheba, with its shallower perspective and fine 
grouping, seem to mark the highest point of metal work of this 
character. The framework of each door and the doorposts 
and lintels are enriched with exquisite decorative carving. 
Statuettes in carved niches stand beside each panel, and at 


the angles are finely modelled heads. The statuettes of 
Miriam and Judith are exceptionally beautiful. 

During the execution of the second doors (1428) Ghiberti 
did the Statue of S. Stephen for Or S. Michele. It is a fine 
figure, but inferior to S. Matthew; indeed, all his statues on 
this church fail to reach the beauty of his statuettes. In 1432 
he undertook the magnificent Shrine of S. Zanobi under the 
altar of the saint in the Cathedral at Florence, one of his 
masterpieces. In front is a relief showing a miracle of the 
saint, who restores to life a dead child, and at the back a 
wonderful group of floating angels. This exquisite work is not 
easy to see. A smaller Shrine in the same style, that of S. 
Giacinto, is in the Bargello. In 1439 he made a Papal Mitre 
for Eugenius iv, — even more splendid than the first, — and this 
has likewise been broken up and destroyed. He also made 
memorial Slabs for the tombs of Stagio Dati, the General of 
the Dominicans, in S. Maria Novella, and of Lod. degli Obizzi 
and of Bartolommeo Valori in S. Croce, all of which are well- 
nigh destroyed by the tread of passers-by. One of his latest 
works is the bronze Door for a reliquary of Bernardo 
Rossellino's in S. Egidio in Florence (1450). 

The two sets of doors on the Baptistery provide the fullest 
material illustration of the development of relief carving. The 
Greek idea of relief carving, repeated in the Graeco-Roman 
sarcophagus and taken up by the Pisans, was that the ground- 
work of the figures represented a wall or solid mass, all the 
figures standing practically on the same plane. Niccola Pisano 
kept to this method, while liberating his figures — notably on the 
Siena pulpit — so far from the background as to make them 
practically free-standing statues. In Giovanni Pisano's later 
work background figures, smaller in size, and attempts at 
perspective were introduced, and the composition complicated 
by the introduction of more than one subject into the same 
panel. Andrea Pisano in his bronze doors returned to the 
earlier practice ; and though his simple and effective method 
ruled Ghiberti's hand in his first attempt, in the second, 
dominated by the desire to apply perspective more thoroughly 


to sculptxire, he followed his impulse and produced the Gates 
of Paradise, which, though the purist may condemn them, 
are a marvellous example of graceful design and correct 
handicraft. The experiment may not have been legitimate, 
but no one can regret that Ghiberti made it; probably it 
affected adversely Donatello in his elaborate compositions at 
Padua and on the S. Lorenzo pulpits, and led subsequent 
sculptors astray from the true object of relief carving, but 
in compensation it enriched the world with its greatest tour 
deforce of the smith's art. 

Ghini) Simone (Florentine, 1407-1491) 

He is only known by his bronze Tomb of Pope Martin v 
in the Lateran at Rome. He has been mixed up with 
Simone Ferrucci, and described as " Donatello's Brother." 
Donatello was his intimate friend, and when he withdrew 
to Rome in 1433 he naturally gave Ghini his advice. The 
tomb is a fine one. The face and hands of the Pope are 
modelled with admirable restraint and simplicity. The 
ornamentation throughout is classic, but without the extra- 
vagance of Filarete's doors of S. Peter's, upon which Ghini 
may possibly have worked. The Papal emblems are enclosed 
in a wreath held up by two full-grown nude boys with wings. 
This tomb is interesting in comparison with Donatello's tomb 
of Bishop Pecci at Siena, made in 1427. 

Giglio da Pisa. (See Ognabene) 
Giovanni di Francesco and Betto di 

Francesco (Florentines — Working, 1375) 

The one recognized work of these sculptors is the Shrine 
of S. Donato in the Cathedral at Arezzo, formerly be- 
lieved to have been done by Giovanni Pisano in 1286. 
Milanesi, however, has finally established the claim of the 
above-named sculptors by documentary evidence. The plan 


of the monument is massive and not unsymmetrical, but the 
smaller statues are clumsy and ill-proportioned. 

The eastern side is the best in design, the mass of the 
monument, resting on well-proportioned columns, is imposing 
and graceful. The three upper panels represent the Expulsion 
of Joachim, the Death of the Virgin, and the Angel and the 
Shepherds. In the Death of the Virgin S. Thomas (as in 
Orcagna's version in Or S. Michele) kisses the Virgin's hand ; 
and another, probably S. John, is trying to kindle a censer. 
Below are six smaller panels illustrating scenes in S. Donato's 
Hfe. Beginning from the left, he raises a certain Eufrosina 
from death, is consecrated bishop, restores a broken chalice, 
expels a dragon from a poisonous spring, casts a devil out 
of a daughter of the Emperor Theodosius, and restores a 
dead man to life. The west front is inferior in design. It is 
a heavy mass with clumsy Gothic finials, and the pointed 
panels on three different levels are jarring to the eye. In the 
centre space are the Madonna and two very lovely angels, 
and above these is the Assumption ; the act of coronation, 
as in Orcagna's relief, being omitted. On the right is the 
Annunciation, and to the left the Marriage of the Virgin. In 
the small half-lunettes are other New Testament scenes. 
Beneath these in small panels are various scenes from the 
saint's life, and to the right of the large relief of the Virgin is 
S. Gregory, supposed to be taken from Honorius iv, and on 
the left S. Donato himself. At the ends are Reliefs of Sirenna, 
a blind woman who brings her son to S. Donato ; the 
baptism of Sirenna ; the seizure of S. Donato ; the murder 
of Hilarinus, his friend; the building of the original church; 
S. Donato causing rain to fall ; an Ecce Homo ; the 
Resurrection, and symbols of the Passion, Hell, and the Last 
Judgment. The marble inlaid work on the pillars and 
transoms of the monument is very beautiful both in execution 
and design. 

Giovanni di Francesco made also the Cappella Dragomanni 
in S. Francesco at Arezzo, a tasteless overloaded work in which 
the worst faults of S. Donato's shrine are reproduced. 


Eremitant, Padua 


Giovanni da Pisa (Florentine— Working, 1450) 
He was a pupil and assistant of Donatello, and almost certainly 
helped largely in the Statues and Reliefs in S. Antonio at 
Padua, The only authenticated work he has left is in the 
Eremitani at Padua, a terra-cotta relief of great beauty, 
over the altar. The figure of Christ stands above, surrounded 
by cornucopias, while delightful winged putti, shouting and 
playing instruments, frolic about the pediment and demonstrate 
that Giovanni had caught something of his master's spirit 
in the treatment of the child. The central panel is a fine 
relief of the Adoration of the Kings, greatly disfigured by 
paint, which, however, cannot conceal the exquisite modelling 
of the faces and draperies. S. Francis, S. Antony of Padua, 
and S. John Baptist are on the left of the Virgin ; and S. James, 
S. Christopher, and S. Antony the Hermit on the right, A 
glance at Giovanni's work will show the correlation between 
Mantegna and the school of Florence. The Fulgoso Tomb in 
S. Antonio has been attributed to him, and he worked on the 
S. Lorenzo Pulpits at Florence, 

Giovanni di Verona (1457-1525) 

He was one of the most illustrious of Italian wood-carvers and 
workers in intarsia. The backs of the stalls in the Cathedral 
at Siena are by him, having been brought in 1813 from the 
Church at Monte 01 i veto Maggiore, where there are still 
other panels, some framework, a fine door, a coffer, and a 
wooden candlestick by him. In S. Maria in Organo at Verona 
his intarsia work in the choir and Sacristy — done in 1499 — is 
of the finest, and the walnut candelabrum behind the altar 
is one of the most beautiful examples of wood-carving in the 
world. In collaboration with Giovanni Barile he made the 
Doors of the Stanze in the Vatican. 

Goro di Gregorio (Sienese — Working, 1324) 
He was a contemporary of Tino di Camaino and Lorenzo 
Maitani, and the son of Gregorio di Gregorio, a pupil of 


Niccola Pisano. His chief work is the area of S. Cerbone in 
the Cathedral of Massa Maritima (1324), sculptured with the 
chief scenes in the saint's life : his summons to Rome ; how 
he milked a hind on the way, and gave the milk to the 
messengers ; how he healed the sick, and took the Pope some 
geese as a present, and celebrated Mass. The workmanship 
is careful, but he had no sense of composition, or indeed any 
quality to connect him with Niccola. At the back of the 
monument are other reliefs. The figures of the Apostles, 
formerly on the monument, now stand on the choir-stalls. 
With their large heads and heavy draperies they are very un- 
attractive. The Tomb of Archbishop Guidotto di Tabatis in 
the Cathedral at Messina was once attributed to Goro's 
father; but its date (1333) makes the son's authorship more 
likely. Moreover, it strongly resembles S. Cerbone's. The 
best work is in the reliefs of the Annunciation and the 
Crucifixion. It suffered damage from the earthquake. 

Goro di Neroccio (Sienese, 1455) 

A PUPIL and follower of Jacopo della Quercia. His only 
known work is the Statuette of Charity on Quercia's font at 

Grado, Giovanni, Franc, da (Venetian, 
1520- ) 

He was probably a pupil of Andrea Sansovino. His best- 
known works are the effigies of warriors in the Steccata at 
Parma; the finest being those of Guido da Correggio, of 
Sforzino Sforza, and of Beltrando Rossi. 

Gruamonte (Pisan, Twelfth Century) 

One of the doors of S. Andrea at Pistoia has an architrave 
sculptured in relief, supported on pilasters the capitals of 
which were evidently worked by the same hand. It is signed 
by Gruamonte and by his brother Adeodatas, 1166. The 


figures of the three kings on horseback show a distinct 
advance on Bonamico's work in the Campo Santo at Pisa, 
and the horses are good. In 1 1 80 these sculptors carved the 
architrave of a door of S. Giovanni fuori-civitas at Pistoia 
with a relief of the Last Supper. 

Guardi, Andrea di Franc. (Florentine 

— Working, 1450) 

He was probably a pupil of Michelozzo. His work is all in 
Pisa : a Relief of the Madonna over the south transept door 
in the Cathedral ; the Ricci Tomb and four Reliefs in the 
Campo Santo, and Tabernacles in S. Caterina, S. Michele, and 
in the Museo. He also did some Reliefs of the Virtues on 
S. Maria della Spina. 

GuglielmO) Fra (Pisan, 1238-13 12) 

Fra Guglielmo was probably one of the earliest of the 
Dominican artists, and it fell to his lot to carve the area of 
the illustrious founder of his order. The great tomb, as it 
now stands in S. Domenico at Bologna, is the work of several 
hands, Fra Guglielmo being concerned only with the area 
which contains the body of the saint. The reliefs which 
decorate it are deeply cut, and were for some time attributed 
to Niccola Pisano ; but a glance at the draperies, the facial 
expression, the round chubby faces, and the squat forms of 
the friars and holy women will disprove this ascription. The 
left-hand panel on the front shows the restoration to life of a 
noble youth, Napoleone, who had been killed by a fall from 
his horse- The next gives a dispute between the saint and 
certain Manichaeans. Both throw their books into the fire : 
those of Dominic fly out uninjured, while the tomes of heresy 
are consumed. On the next S. Peter and S. Paul give books 
to the order. The others show the Death and Resurrection of 
S. Reginald of Orleans; the Vision of Pope Honorius iii; 
and Angels giving bread to the order during famine. The 


full-length figures standing between the panels and at the 
corners of the area are vigorous and stately, and recall the 
style of Giovanni Pisano. The area was completed in 1267. 
During its execution Niccola was busy on the Siena pulpit ; 
probably the contract may have been given to him originally 
and handed on, through press of work, to Fra Guglielmo, 
whose masterpiece, the pulpit in S. Giovanni fuori Civitas at 
Pistoia, is in technique superior to the area. Its date is 1270. 
The finest feature of it is the central group in the front, the 
evangelistic emblems. The angel stands in front with the 
Hon and bull on either side, and above a beautiful eagle with 
uplifted wings acts as a lectern. The reliefs are in two rows. 
On one side the Annunciation and the Salutation are above, 
and the Nativity below. On the other side the left portion 
represents the Ascension, and the right Pentecost and the 
Death of the Virgin. On the front the upper compartments 
give the Washing the Disciples' Feet and the Descent from 
the Cross ; and the lower ones the Crucifixion and Christ in 
Hades. The Nativity, the Deposition, and Christ in Hades 
show freshness and originality, and an effort to escape from 
the double-row arrangement of the figures used in the area 
at Bologna, a reminiscence of the classic sarcophagus. The 
figures are often badly proportioned and the heads too large, 
but the visitation is charming and strongly classic in feeling. 
By a curious trick Fra Guglielmo makes all his figures look 
like grown-up children. In the Nativity, like Niccola and 
Giovanni Pisano, he has put sheep in the foreground; and, 
by way of magnifying the mendicant orders, has introduced 
a friar who is preaching to the new-born infant. In 1293 
Fra Guglielmo was put in charge of the work at the Cathedral 
at Orvieto, but there is no trace of his style in any of the 
sculpture on the fa9ade. 

5 ^ 

Isaia da Pisa (Roman — Working, 1470) 

HE was one of the chief sculptors employed on the 
triumphal arch of Castel Nuovo at Naples, where he 
probably did the Relief of Alfonso with his nobles in armour. 
He is best known by his Tomb of Pope Eugenius iv in S. 
Salvatore in Lauro at Rome (1447), which is specially interest- 
ing as the first Roman tomb in the Renaissance style. Its 
structure is manifestly suggested by the triumphal arch. The 
figures at the sides, the shallow niches which contain them, 
the shell finial at the top, the children and flowers on the frieze, 
and the draperies throughout are copied direct from classic 
models. This tomb was the model of many others ; such as 
that of Astorgio Agnense in S. Maria sopra Minerva, and of 
Cardinal D' Ausio in S. Sabina. Isaia also made the Monu- 
ment of S. Monica and four Saints in S. Agostino, and he was 
associated with Paolo Romano in the execution of a Taber- 
nacle for the head of S. Andrew, which is now in the cr)'pt 
of S. Peter's. For this he was paid in 1464. The Monumental 
Slab of Fra Angelico in the Minerva is attributed to him. 


JaCOpO di PierO (Florentine — Working, 1383) 

HE was a pupil of Orcagna, whose style he followed 
closely. He collaborated with Lorenzo di Giovanni 
d' Ambrogio in the execution of the theological Virtues in the 
Loggia dei Lanzi, and probably did the larger portion of the 
work. It is possible that he may have done the Monument 
to Acciajuoli at the Certosa near Florence, and the Angel with 
Violin (commonly attributed to Orcagna) in the Bargello. 


Landini, Taddeo (Florentine, -1594) 

HIS finest work is the beautiful Fountain of the Tartarughe 
in Rome, made in 1585, which is incomparably the 
finest piece of sculpture executed at the end of the sixteenth 
century. What it takes from Michelangelo shows strength 
without violence, and the vigour and grace of the youths who 
hold up the tortoises suggest that the legend of Raffaele's 
design may rest on some valid foundation. The perfect pro- 
portions of the fountain as a whole, and the wonderful 
correlation of the structural and sculptural elements, proclaim 
it an artistic triumph. Its vast superiority to Landini's only 
other authenticated work, the figure of Winter on the Ponte 
della Trinita, rouses a suspicion of some other hand. Other 
works attributed to him are the statue of Sixtus v in the 
Palazzo dei Conservatori at Rome, and the Relief of the 
Washing the Disciples' Feet in the Church of the Qairinale. 

Lanfrani, JacopO (Venetian — Working, 1347) 

He is said to have been a pupil of Agostino di Giovanni and 
Agnolo di Ventura. He is only known by one tomb, that of 
Taddeo Pepoli, a judge, in S. Domenico at Bologna. It is in 
the form of an area with a base of chequered marble and a 
cover carved with a pattern resembling that on S. Dominic's 
in the same church, and surmounted with florid marble scrolls 
of a later pattern. There are two reliefs on the front : in the 
left-hand one Pepoli is addressing the commune of Bologna, 


and in the right he is offering two chapels to S. Michael and 
S. Thomas Aquinas. In the reliefs at the back, on the right 
Taddeo is receiving a messenger, and on the left is kneeling 
and offering four chapels to S. Peter Martyr, S. Augustine, 
S. Mary Magdalen, and S. Catherine. The reliefs on the 
front are on the whole the best, and the figure dividing those 
at the back is very fine. The Tomb of Andrea Calderini, 
formerly in S. Domenico and now in the Museo Civico, is 
sometimes attributed to him, but this is so entirely different 
from Pepoli's in character and technique that it is impossible 
they should have been done by the same hand. In view of 
Lanfrani's suggested Sienese training, it is worth debating 
whether this tomb, and not Pepoli's, may be his genuine 
work ; it is Gothic in form and strongly Sienese in sentiment, 
notably in the almost Dantesque figure of Calderini seated 
in the midst, and in the scholars adjacent who are straining to 
catch his words. What Sienese feeling there is about Pepoli's 
is in the reliefs in the rear, which differ strangely from those 
in the front. Pepoli's tomb is probably the work of more 
than one hand, — as if some later sculptor had come across the 
reliefs and put them together in a Renaissance setting. 

Laurana, Francesco (Istri an— Working, 
1 456- 1 483) 

Laurana was born near Zara in Dalmatia, then subject to 
Venice, and his chief works were executed in Urbino, Naples, 
Sicily, and Southern France. A Bust of the Duchess Battista 
of Urbino is now in the Bargello, and in Naples he was 
probably engaged on the sculptural decoration of the Arch of 
Castel Nuovo ; indeed, Summonte writes of him as the sculptor 
of the Statue of King Alfonso. In 1470 he did a Statue of 
the Virgin for the Church of S. Barbara in Castel Nuovo. A 
year later he was engaged at Marseilles in I'Eglise Majeure 
and in S. Lazare, and then entered the service of King Rend, 
for whom he executed a marble Altar with a relief of the 

LEONI 107 

Crucifixion finished in 1481, and now in S. Didier at Avignon. 
His works in Sicily are two marble Reliefs of Evangelists 
and Fathers of the Church in S. Francesco at Palermo; 
Statues of the Madonna in the Cathedrals of Palermo and of 
Monte S. Giuliano, in S. Crocifisso di Noto, and in the 
Museum at Palermo, where also are some Busts by him. 
Besides these are attributed to him two charming Child Angels 
bearing scrolls, in the Cathedral of Sebenico in Dalmatia, and 
two portraits in relief of Federigo and Battista of Urbino, done 
in 1474, in the Museum at Pesaro. He also did the fine Bust 
of a Lady in the Louvre, and a replica in the Imperial Museum 
at Vienna. 

Lazzaro, Maestro. (See buggiano) 
Leonardo di Ser Giovanni. (See Ognabene) 

Leoni, Leone (Milanese, 1509-1592) 

He was born at Menaggio, and trained in Milan as a medallist 
and sculptor. He went to Rome and worked with Michel- 
angelo, and in 1538 he was engraver of dies in the Roman 
mint Later Pier Luigi Farnese made him master of the mint 
at Parma. He engraved medals of Pietro Aretino and many 
other celebrities. In 1546 he went to Brussels, made an 
allegory in bronze of Charles v trampling on sedition, now 
in the Prado at Madrid, where also are many busts by him of 
members of the Imperial family. His chief works in Italy are 
the Statue of Ferrante Gonzaga at Guastalla, and the Tomb 
of Giovanni Giacomo dei Medici, brother of Pius iv, in the 
Cathedral at Milan. In this he is justly held to have imitated 
the tomb of Julius 11. The side figures are the best, that of 
the woman being graceful and finely modelled. The body of 
the Marchese is clumsy, and the head quite characterless. 
L^oni's technique is good, and as a bronze caster he stands 
in the first rank ; but all the dignity and refinement he may 


have gathered from his early association with Michelangelo — 
he did one of the best of the medallion portraits — and from 
the influence of the Florentine Renaissance, was nullified 
when he came into the range of Spanish life and sentiment. 
His finest statue is that of Vespasiano Gonzaga in the 
Incoronata at Sabionetta near Cremona. This and his statue 
of Philip II at Madrid are in bronze, but he was also a skilful 
worker in marble : a Statue and a Bust of Charles v, and a 
profile Relief of the Empress Isabella being his best produc- 
tions. His son, Pompeo, was for a long time associated with 
him, his touch being so like his father's that their statues are 
often confused. In the Victoria and Albert Museum is a 
bronze candlestick (No. 2330) attributed to one or other. 

Leopardi, Alessandro (Venetian, -1522) 

In collaboration with the Lombardi, Leopardi executed the 
most imposing of the Ducal tombs, that of Andrea Vendramin 
in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, which was completed in 1494. 
Probably he is responsible for the design and the carved 
ornament, and one of the Lombardi — probably Tullio — for 
the statues. The chief merit of the monument lies in the 
fine proportions of the great central arch and of the Corinthian 
columns which support it ; the wings right and left, and the 
flat pilasters, harmonize admirably. The effigy and the torch- 
bearing figures around it, and the Virtues on the Area itself, 
are dignified and graceful ; but the finest are the two statues 
of youthful warriors in the side niches. Pagan and Christian 
emblems — eagles, sirens, griffins, putti, and arabesques are 
scattered broadcast; and Ruskin, with his unconquerable 
hatred of Renaissance ornament, writes of it : " Its sculpture 
is perfect in workmanship and devoid of thought ; its dragons 
are covered with marvellous scales, but have no terror and 
sting in them ; its birds are perfect in plumage, but have no 
song in them ; its children are lovely in limb, but have no 
childishness in them." With all its defects the monument is 
a noble one. Leopardi worked with Antonio Lombardo in 


SS. Cio. t. Paolo, VtHict 


decorating the Cappella S. Zeno in S. Marco, and in 1487 he 
was convicted of forgery and banished from the state, but 
after the death of Verrocchio the Senate recalled him, on 
account of his skill as a bronze caster, in order that he might 
direct the founding and erection of the great CoUeone statue. 
This he completed with consummate skill, and provided for 
it a pedestal which is worthy of it. But he was evidently a 
tricky dishonest man, for he certainly arrogated all the credit 
for this masterpiece, and his claim for a time was allowed ; 
but recently a document under the hand of Lorenzo di Credi, 
Verrocchio's pupil, has come to light which shows that the 
statue was practically completed in the clay at the master's 
death. He also made the three bronze bases for the standard 
masts opposite S. Marco. These are supported on bronze 
lions, and decorated with ships, tritons, sea gods, and other zp- 
propriate maritime emblems, the centre one being decorated 
with a fine relief profile portrait of Lorenzo Loredano. The 
Tomb of Pietro Bernardo in the Frari has been ascribed to him 
with good reason. 

Lombardi, Alfonso (Cittadella) (Ferrarese, 


His father Niccolo Cittadella emigrated from Lucca to 
Ferrara, and had no connection with the Lombardi of Venice. 
Alfonso's earliest works are in the Cathedral at Ferrara — the 
Busts of Christ and the Af)ostles in terra-cotta, which are very 
fine ; the faces of S. John and of S. James the Less have all 
the mysterious charm of Leonardo's angels. He also did a 
Relief of the Madonna in S. Giovanni, and a Bust of S. 
Hyacinthus in S. Domenico. In 15 19 he went to Bologna, 
where he did the life-sized clay group of the Lamentation of 
Christ in the Cathedral crypt, a work which is sometimes 
ascribed to Mazzoni. The story that Michelangelo employed 
him as assistant in casting the bronze Statue of Julius 11 in 
1 507 is an impossibility, as he could only have been ten years 


old. He also made the Mortorio, with figures larger than 
life, in the Hospital of S. Maria della Vita. It has been 
suggested, without much reason, that it shows signs of Michel- 
angelo's influence. Both groups are in painted clay, after 
Mazzoni's style. Other works of his in Bologna are Hercules 
and the Hydra in the Palazzo Pubblico, and four effigies of 
saints on the Torre dell' Arengo, all in terra-cotta; the 
Resurrection, in a lunette of a side door of S. Petronio, and 
Adam and Eve inside the church ; some terra-cotta Busts of 
the Apostles in S. Giovanni in Monte, and a Monument to 
Armaciotto dei Ramazzotti, a condottiere chief, in S. Michele 
in Bosco outside the city, fine in technique but very awkward 
as to the pose of the figure. His masterpieces are the Reliefs 
(^533) on the gradino of the tomb of S. Dominic in S. 
Domenico. These are very shallow, and show strong contrast 
to Fra Guglielmo's deep cutting on the area above. They 
are somewhat overcrowded with figures. They give scenes 
in the saint's life : his birth, his abandonment of his soft bed 
for the hard ground, his selling his books to feed the poor, 
Adoration of the Magi (signed by the sculptor), his soul 
received in heaven. Alfonso was a good portrait sculptor: 
he did Busts of Charles v, Clement vii, Giuliano and 
Alessandro dei Medici in the Palazzo Vecchio. 

Lombardo, Antonio (Venetian, -1516) 

His chief work is the relief panel of the Child vindicating the 
Mother's Honour in S. Antonio at Padua, finished in 1505. 
The execution here is so exactly on the same level with 
TuUio's reliefs adjoining, that discrimination between the 
Lombardi becomes difficult. Antonio worked on Cardinal 
Zeno's Tomb in S. Marco, and on the Mocenigo Monument 
in S. Giovanni e Paolo. The Statues of Thomas Aquinas 
and Peter Martyr in SS. Giovanni e Paolo ; of S. Luke in 
S. Giobbe ; and a Madonna in S. Niccolo at Treviso are 
probably by him. He was a son of Pietro Lombardo. 


Lombardo, Pietro (Venetian, 1435-1515?) 

He was trained as an architect, and in 1480 he began the 
Church of S. Maria dei Miracoli, his masterpiece and the 
choicest jewel of Renaissance work in Venice. Everywhere 
design and execution show the most exquisite skill and 
feeling. The character of the ornamentation owes something 
perhaps to Michelozzo's sojourn in Venice earlier in the 
century ; but on the whole it shows distinct originality. In 
1482 he executed the very unsatisfactory Monument of Dante 
at Ravenna, a curious failure for so fine an artist. In 1483 
he erected in the Piazza at Ravenna two columns, and 
carved an effigy of S. ApoUinare for one, and of the Venetian 
lion for the other; the latter being replaced by one of 
S. Vitale when Ravenna reverted to the Papacy. Some 
uninteresting Reliefs are on the bases of the columns. 
These Ravenna works, and the fine statues of S. Paul and 
S. Jerome in S. Stefano at Venice, alone bear his signature. 
In Treviso and in Cividale he was charged with divers 
commissions, but here he probably acted as architect and 
director, the sculpture being done by his sons. In 1484 
he returned to Venice, and resumed work on S. Maria dei 
Miracoli, adding to his design the chapel of the Sanctuary, 
and completed his task in 1489 ; a wonderful feat, considering 
the elaboration and perfect finish of the carving. 

The Entrance Door and the Chapel of the Doge Cristoforo 
Moro in S. Giobbe are sometimes assigned to him, and some 
of the decorative ornament strongly resembles that on 
S. Maria dei Miracoli. The Statues of S. Francis and S. 
Bernard may be his, but the other carving is beneath his 
standard. Pietro's finest work is the Tomb of Pietro Mocenigo 
{d. 1476) in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, a masterpiece in archi- 
tectural plan and decoration, but the statues are less 
satisfactory. A bronze Bust of a senator by him in the Ducal 
Palace is hard and lifeless. The Tombs of Niccolo Marcello 
and Pasquale Malipiero (SS. Giovanni e Paolo), and of 
Jacopo Marcello (Frari), are attributed to him. All these 


monuments suffer in unity and simplicity through the 
number of statues upon them. The S. Mark in the Sacristy 
of S. Giorgio Maggiore is a fine work, and possibly by him. 
As decorators the Lombardi were admirable : their figures show 
less originality than those of the contemporary Florentines, 
but they clothed their ideas in a richer, more poetical, and 
less conventional form. They celebrated the personality 
and glory of their sovereign city, the Queen of the Sea, by 
carving sirens and sea horses on the tombs of her rulers 
and round the bases of her altars, a flight of fancy rarely 
attempted elsewhere ; and they brought faultless skill to 
their task. There is no finer stone-carving in Europe than 
that of S. Maria dei Miracoli, S. Giobbe, and the Cathedral 
of Treviso. A Madonna (No. 316) in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum is attributed to him. 

Lombardo, Tullio (Venetian, -1532) 

He was one of Pietro's sons. A master of technique, he 
was wanting in intellect. His figures possess a certain 
dignity when standing by themselves, but in composition 
they lack the vitality necessary to bring one into relation to 
another. His chief works in Venice are the four kneeling 
Angels which support the altar in S. Martino (1484); the 
Relief of the Coronation of the Virgin with the Apostles in 
S. Giovanni Chrisost. ; and another of S. Mark baptizing 
a Saint on the wall of the Scuola di S. Marco. He co- 
operated with A. Leopardi in the Vendramin Tomb in 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and he probably did much of the 
figure sculpture in S. Maria dei Miracoli and in S. Giobbe, 
and the half-length figures in the Giustiniani Chapel of 
S. Francesco. The commission which Pietro took at Treviso 
was largely carried out by his sons, Tullio's share being the 
chief. The Zanetti Monument in the Cathedral is in the 
best style of the school. The sarcophagus, adorned with 
statuettes, rests on brackets and is decorated with graceful 
figures holding vases, and a most beautiful eagle. In the 


Church of S. Niccolo they executed the Monument of the 
Senator Onigo (1485), which consists of two sarcophagi, 
the upper one carved with eagle and leaf ornament, and 
the lower in arabesques and profiles of Roman emperors. 
Tullio did two of the marble Reliefs in the Cappella di 
S. Antonio at Padua : the Healing of the Young Man's Foot, 
and the Miser's Heart, completed in 1525. The renderings 
of the same by Donatello in bronze on the altar may be 
compared with these later works as an illustration of the 
divergence between Florentine and Venetian sentiment in 
sculpture. Other works by Tullio are the beautiful figure 
decoration on the shaft of a marble candelabrum, and the 
Statues of Adam and Eve, formerly on the Vendramin tomb 
and now in the Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi ; the Tomb of 
Matteo Bellati (1528) in the Cathedral at Feltre; and (in 
collaboration with Antonio) the Tomb of Giovanni Mocenigo 
in SS. Giovanni e Paolo. Attributed to him are the Reliefs 
on the great door of S. Lorenzo at Lugano (sometimes 
given to Rodari) ; the Bernardo Tomb in the Frari ; and a 
finely carved Mantelpiece in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Lombard!, The (Venetians — Working, 1547-1580) 

GiROLAMO LoMBARDO was the head of a numerous band of 
bronze casters, mostly of his own family, consisting of his 
brothers Lodovico and Aurelio, and of his four sons. Their 
chief work is in the Cathedral of Loreto, a series of Reliefs 
on the great central doors representing scenes in the Old 
Testament, in which they were assisted by Girolamo's pupils 
Vergelli and Calcagni. They also made the hanging Lamps in 
the Santa Casa and the four bronze Doors, and a bronze 
Madonna over the great portal. The Statue of Sixtus v in 
front of the Cathedral is by Vergelli and Calcagni, and they 
also decorated the side Door on the right; that on the left 
is by Vergelli, who made the Holy Water Stoup. All this 
work is baroque and overdone with ornament 


LorenzettO (Florentine, 1489-1541) 

LoRENZETTO, Jacopo di Sansovino, and Tribolo were three 
of the followers of Michelangelo who learned to present 
their ideals with adequate strength, and at the same time 
to avoid the violence and exaggeration which marred the 
efforts of so many of his pupils. Lorenzetto gave his Jonah 
in the Chigi Chapel of S. Maria del Popolo the head of 
Antinous, and sculptured a Roman Vestal as Madonna over 
the tomb of Raphael in the Pantheon. His first-known 
work was at Pistoia, where in 15 14 he helped in the 
erection of Verrocchio's monument of Cardinal Forteguerra 
in the Cathedral. The Head of Charity, a very poor work, 
is by him ; also a Statue of the Cardinal, now in the Liceo 

Lorenzetto was a friend of Raphael, and was associated with 
him in the erection of the Chigi Chapel in S. Maria del 
Popolo. Tradition gives to Raphael the designing and 
modelling, and even in part the carving, of the Statue of 
Jonah which adorns it. There is good ground for this 
contention. Raphael undoubtedly did occasionally try his 
hand on the round ; as capo maestro in charge of the Chigi 
Chapel he would have the control of its decoration, and he 
probably designed and quite possibly helped produce the 
Jonah in marble. There is a clay sketch of it in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 4123). The Statue of 
Elias is weak, and greatly inferior to another undoubted work 
of Lorenzetto's, the S. Peter now on the Ponte S. Angelo. 
After the death of Clement vii he fell into low fortune, but 
was ultimately recommended by Antonio di San Gallo as chief 
of the works at S. Peter's, in which office he died. 

Lorenzi, Stoldo (Florentine, i 534-1583) 

His earliest known work is at Pisa : the Annunciation in S. 
Maria della Spina, the Figures of Religion and Justice on the 
Palazzo del Cavalieri, and the Angel on the Easter candlestick 


in the Cathedral, where he also completed the work begun by 
Mosca in the Cappella di S. Ranieri. At Florence he worked 
on the Tomb of Michelangelo with Cioli and Bandini, and did 
the figure of Painting, and probably the Bust and the Sarco- 
phagus. On the facade of S. Maria presso S. Celso at Milan 
he did the Statues of Adam and Eve, and Reliefs of the 
Annunciation, the Adoration, and the Flight into Egypt. 

Lorenzo di Giovanni d' Ambrogio 

(Florentine — Working, 1402) 

His principal work is the sculptured Decoration and Group 
of the easternmost south door of the Cathedral at Florence, 
a work for some time attributed to Giovanni Pisano, The 
design and decoration of the arch are of the finest, as are 
also the Figures of the Virgin and the adoring Angels. It 
is probable that Lorenzo began the decoration of the Porta 
della Mandorla, and left it to be completed by Nanni di 
Banco. Lorenzo probably worked with Talenti on the 
Windows of Or S. Michcle, and upon the Medallions of 
the Virtues, designed by Agnolo Gaddi, on the Loggia 
dei Lanzi. 


Maderna, Stefano (Milanese, 1576-1636) 

HE was the maker of the finest piece of sculpture executed 
in Rome at the end of the sixteenth century, the 
beautiful Figure of the saint under the high altar in S. Cecilia 
in Trastevere. The purity of sentiment and the simplicity of 
execution it displays tend to raise a doubt that such a statue 
could have been made in an age ripe for the appreciation of 
Bernini. He did also the Statues of Peace and Justice on the 
altar of S. Maria della Pace ; two Angels in the Cappella Aldo- 
brandini in S. Maria sopra Minerva; a Statue of S. Carlo 
Borromeo in S. Lorenzo in Damaso ; some Reliefs in the 
Cappella Paolina, and a Statue of S. Ephrem in S. Maria 
Maggiore ; and two Angels on the high altar at Loreto. Here 
he also did some of the Sculpture on the beautiful fountain 
before the Cathedral. 

Maffioli, Alberto di {Carrara— Working, 1475) 

He was born at Carrara, and worked for the most part at the 

Certosa, where in 1489 he did the beautiful Lavabo in the 

Lavatory of the monks. It shows strongly the Mantegazza 

influence in the treatment of the figures and draperies, but the 

composition of the principal relief is free and harmonious, and 

the execution — especially of the two dolphins — of the finest 

delicacy. The Bust is supposed to represent Heinrich of 

Gmunden, the legendary architect of the monastery. In 1490 

he did the medallion Portrait of Gian Galeazzo Visconti over 



S. Cecilia, in Trastn'tre, Romt 


PiHattttia, RntHua 


the door of the Old Sacristy. The Statuettes on the ciborium 
and the Carvings on the organ loft in the Cathedral at Parma 
are attributed to him; also an Altar in the Cathedral at 

Magister Paulus (Roman— Working, 1397-1417) 

He is sometimes confounded with Paolo Romano. His 
principal works are the Tombs of Cardinal Stefaneschi (1417) 
in S. Maria in Trastevere ; of Cardinal Carafa, and of Carac- 
ciolo, in S. Maria del Priorato (1405); of the brothers 
Anguillara in S. Francesco at Capranica. Other Monuments 
attributed to him are those of Boniface ix in the Sacristy of 
S. Paolo Fuori ; of Cardinal Adam of Hertford in S. Cecilia ; 
of the Cardinal d'Alengon (1397) in S. Maria in Trastevere; 
of Cardinal Vulcani (1403) in S. Francesca Romana; and a 
Bust of Benedict xii in the crypt of the Vatican. The two 
angels who hold back the curtains on a monument in the 
crypt of S. Peter's resemble his work. 

Maitani, Lorenzo (Sienese, i275?-i33o) 

The foundation of the Cathedral of Orvieto dates from 1290. 
In 1310 Lorenzo -Maitani was summoned from Siena to take 
charge of the works, and his first task was to design the fa9ade ; 
and, when this was completed, he doubtless designed also the 
great reliefs which adorn it. He had already been engaged on the 
Cathedral of Siena, and, like all the great men of his time, was 
architect as well as sculptor, and the construction of the facade 
at Orvieto bears the impress of his genius as powerfully as 
does the decoration. The selection of Maitani as the capo 
maestro of such an important undertaking shows that he must 
have been one of the ablest of the scholars trained at Siena 
by the Pisani. The rapid growth of Sienese sculpture after 
Niccola Pisano had set up his great pulpit seemed to promise 
a brilliant future and far-reaching influence, but sculpture in 
Siena bore within itself, from the first, the seeds of decay. 

1 1 8 MAITANI 

Save in the instance of Jacopo della Quercia, the achievements 
of the Sienese sculptors never approached those of the painters. 
Sienese sculpture was rugged in expression, unimaginative, and 
barren; cold, and lacking a sense of beauty, it was unpro- 
gressive and short-lived, and found little favour in its own city, 
except in certain decorative work on the Cathedral facade. 
Niccola and Giovanni Pisano, Ghiberti, Donatello, and minor 
sculptors, inspired by Florentine spirit, are the makers of most 
of the masterpieces now within its walls. Examples of Sienese 
sculpture, worthy of notice, must be sought elsewhere : Tino 
di Camaino, in Pisa, Florence, and Naples ; Agostino and 
Agnolo, in Arezzo; Jacopo della Quercia, in Lucca and 
Bologna ; and Cellino di Nese, at Pistoia. Gothic art never 
flourished on Italian soil. The massive walls and the broad 
windows of its architecture are adapted to the sharp cold and 
fleeting daylight of the North, and are in a measure antipathetic 
to the warmth and brilliancy of the Southern atmosphere ; and 
it is because Sienese architecture allied itself to the Gothic 
spirit, emanating from the forests and mists of Franconia and 
Champagne, that it failed to commend itself to the dwellers on 
the sunny Italian hillsides. Sienese sculpture undoubtedly shared 
the characteristics of Sienese architecture, and to this fact may 
be attributed its brief existence. Some deny to the Sienese 
spirit any share in the conception or the execution of the 
Orvieto Reliefs. That the design was Maitani's is now 
commonly admitted ; and on this score it has been assumed 
that the initial spirit of the decoration would also be Sienese. 
Probably it was, but Maitani was employed here for twenty 
years, and the operations went on long after his death, — the 
total period being one which included the germinative epoch 
of the plastic revival of the fifteenth century, — and artificers 
from distant workshops would naturally be attracted to the 
greatest enterprise in decorative sculpture that had yet been 
undertaken, and leave upon it traces of their individuality, 
superseding the waning spirit of Siena by manifestations of 
the richer and more virile art of Florence. Niccola's pupil, 
Fra Guglielmo, was there in 1293, long before the decoration 


Ctr osa o/ Pmvia 

MAITANI 1 1 9 

was begun, but no traces of his hand are visible. Andrea 
Pisano was capo maestro for a short time after 1347, and 
Nino, his son, later on — Talenti, Pietro di Jacopo, Niccolo di 
Florentia, Maestro Cino (probably Orcagna's father), and 
Orcagna himself in 1359. The school of Florence during 
Andrea's sojourn was full of vigour, so naturally the Florentine 
rather than the Sienese spirit prevailed. Yet the sculptured 
facade has a character all its own, which is most apparent in the 
large heads, the imperfectly proportioned limbs, and the strongly 
classic treatment of the animals. There is a legend that 
Niccola Pisano did the relief of the Last Judgment, — a manifest 
impossibility, — and that certain Germans assisted in the work. 
The last statement may be true, as there are many traces of 
Northern influence elsewhere in Italy during this period ; and 
here it is specially marked in the Last Judgment. The treat- 
ment is entirely different from that used over the same subject 
by Niccola and Giovanni on their pulpits. They preserved a 
balance between emotion and intellect, and dealt with it as 
the sublime manifestation of Divine justice, treating this 
supreme episode of the Christian epic after the classic spirit 
At Orvieto there are signs of decadence — of that rage and 
revenge and bestial ugliness which make hideous the great 
porches of so many of the Northern Cathedrals. The panel, on 
the whole, is Northern in spirit, but some of the figures — the 
Angels who drive on the Damned — are evidently carved by 
Florentine artists. The Blessed in Paradise have feeble, ill- 
shaped bodies, and faces without a trace of intelligence. The 
reliefs occupy four pilasters, two on either side of the door. 
I, the one on the extreme left, facing the fa9ade, gives the 
story of the Creation and the events immediately subsequent, 
and is the finest in idea and in execution ; the groups of the 
Creation of Eve, the Fall, and Tubal Cain being very beautiful. 
II gives various scenes from the Old Testament, rather 
difficult to particularize. The handling of the heads shows a 
marked variation from I, as they are strongly classic and 
reminiscent of Niccola Pisano's. On III are sculptured 
scenes from the life of Christ, and in this series Florentine 


influence is most strongly apparent. The groups of the 
Nativity, the Annunciation, and the Adoration of the Magi 
show a distinct advance in delicacy of thought and execution to 
any interpretation hitherto attempted. It is probable that these 
jeliefs were done after the completion of Orcagna's tabernacle 
in Or S. Michele in 1360. IV gives the Resurrection and the 
Last Judgment already referred to, compositions which certainly 
affected powerfully Signorelli when he set to work on his 
frescoes in the Cappella S. Brizio in the Cathedral. It should 
be noted that in the first pilaster the various groups are joined 
and interlaced with ivy tendrils ; on the second and third with 
the acanthus ; and on the fourth with the vine. 

Andrea Pisano is treated by the anti-Sienese critics as the 
prevaiUng genius of the place, and doubtless his bronze reliefs 
at Florence foreshadow in a way the more passionate and 
intense revelation in stone at Orvieto, but there is much here 
in which Andrea could have had no part. In the finest of the 
groups are to be found feeble outlines and ill-cut features, such 
as he, or men trained by him, could never have carved. The 
sentiment is delightful; there is nothing finer in Italian art, 
the very product to be expected from men of strong religious 
feeling and cultivated understanding, though imperfectly trained 
as sculptors. 

Whether Maitani can be rated as the sculptor of any portion 
of the fagade is an open question. He has been credited with 
four bronze Symbols of the Evangelists above the doors, and 
the Angels around the Madonna in the central lunette. After 
his death in 1330 his son Vitale and his pupils Niccolo and 
Meo Nuto were in charge. In 1347 Andrea and Nino Pisano 
came, and the last named, who became capo maestro in 1349, 
was succeeded by Orcagna in 1359. Of all these, Nino Pisano, 
to judge from the character of his work elsewhere, was the one 
who might have given to the Orvieto reliefs the strongest 
infusion of Tuscan style and sentiment. Soft beauty, delicacy 
of conception allied to a certain weakness in execution, may 
be cited as his dominant traits, and these are present in the 
Orvieto reliefs. The Madonna in the Opera del Duomo is 


almost certainly by him, one of the most human renderings 
hitherto attempted, and the sentiment manifest here is visible 
on the fagade. Any efforts in the way of definite ascription 
would be unnecessary or even ungracious, in view of the fact 
that the men who worked here evidently courted anonymity by 
refraining from inscribing their names on the marble they had 
carved, and by leaving no written record of their activity. It was 
here as it was in the decoration of the great French Cathedrals, 
on which stand hundreds of beautiful statues wrought by un- 
known hands. Judging from the mighty achievement he left 
at Orvieto, Maitani must have been a man of strong character, 
lofty ideals, and fine taste, besides being an architect and 
sculptor of exceptional excellence ; and it may be added that 
one of the most convincing testimonies to his greatness as a 
man lies in the fact that he was able to lead the artists who 
served under him to regard the labour and care they expended 
in helping to build up this noble monument as a sufficient 
reward, and to be content to allow their individuality to sink 
into oblivion. 

Majano, Benedetto da (Florentine, 1442-1497) 

Benedetto was probably trained as a stone mason. His first 
signed work is the famous Bust of Pietro Mellini (1474) in the 
Bargello. Mellini was a generous benefactor to the Church, 
and gave to S. Croce the fine Pulpit from Benedetto's hand, the 
beautiful proportions of which show him to have been an 
accomplished architect. The five panels represent scenes in 
the life of S. Francis : the obsequies of the saint, with its crowd 
of figures and architectural details, is a triumph, and rivals 
Ghiberti's finest achievement. The treatment of the incident 
resembles Ghirlandaio's in the Sassetti Chapel of S. Trinita 
closely enough to suggest that one artist copied the version of 
the other. Ghirlandaio's painting dates from 1485, and the 
S. Croce pulpit is undated, but it is probably the earlier, as 
Benedetto would naturally have b^un it as soon as possible after 


the donor's death in 1474. The Virtues are his finest figures. 
Casts of the panels are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

His Shrine of S. Savino in the Cathedral at Faenza was 
probably an earlier work ; the reliefs below of scenes in the 
saint's life are better than the sarcophagus above. About 1475 
he did the Altar of S. Fina in the Cathedral at S. Gimignano, 
which, though deformed by later additions, is full of grace ; 
also a Ciborium and a Bust of Onofri. 

The works ascribed to him at Loreto — Reliefs in glazed terra- 
cotta, a carved marble Doorway, and two marble Basins — are 
uncertain as to date. With his brother Giuliano he did the 
terra-cotta Madonna, with a Pietk in marble below, for the 
shrine of the Madonna dell' Ulivo (now in the Cathedral at 
Prato). The technique is very fine, but it is conventional in 
style and evidently inspired by the Delia Robbias. One of 
his most beautiful works is the Ciborium in S. Domenico at 
Siena, where he did also two Angels holding candelabra. 
Benedetto's most generous patron was Filippo Strozzi. The 
great Palace in Florence was his masterpiece of architecture, 
and the Memorial to its founder in the Strozzi Chapel in 
S. Maria Novella is important, if not altogether successful. 
Its weak point is the disposition of the surrounding angels, 
which have little relation to the rest of the monument. The 
Madonna Relief is in his best manner. He also did the 
magnificent Bust of Filippo, in the Louvre ; the authorship of 
the one in terra-cotta, now in Berlin, cannot be definitely 
assigned to him. Other works in Florence by him are the 
interesting portrait Medallions of Giotto and of the musician 
Squarcialupi in the Cathedral ; a wooden Crucifix (begun by 
Desiderio) in S. Trinita ; and another, painted by Lorenzo di 
Credi, in the Cathedral ; and marble Statues of the Madonna 
and S. Sebastian in the Misericordia. The finest of his 
Sculpture from the Palazzo Vecchio, the Statues of the Baptist 
and of Justice, and Angels with garlands and candelabra, are 
now in the Bargello. About 1485 Benedetto went to Naples, 
where he completed the replica of the Cardinal of Portugal's 
Tomb, which Antonio Rossellino had begun, in Monte Oliveto, 



U»m/e OUvtie, SafUs 


by adding the Virgin and the Angels to the upper part ; and 
in the same church he did the beautiful Altar Reredos, which 
contains his famous Annunciation. There are figures of 
saints on either side, and seven reliefs below. In 1494 
Benedetto went again to S. Gimignano, where he did his last 
important work, the Altar of S. Bartolo in S. Agostino. The 
design is one of his finest efforts, and the figures of the 
theological Virtues are worthy of their setting. In the Victoria 
and Albert Museum are Sketches in plaster by him of three of 
the panels of the S. Croce Pulpit A Madonna in the Berlin 
Museum and an Angel in the Morelli Gallery at Bergamo — 
both in terracotta — are ascribed to him. Benedetto was one 
of the most accomplished sculptors of the Renaissance. In 
delicacy of technique he rivals Mino, and surpasses him in 
composition. His angels are finer than the much-lauded ones 
of Civitale at Lucca, and in his larger compositions he is only 
surpassed by Desiderio and Bernardo Rossellino. 

MalvitO, Tommaso (Como — Working, 1497) 

His extant work is all in Naples. His decorative ornament 
in the crypt of the Cathedral is a fine example of the style 
of the period, also the bronze Doors with relief enrichment 
of figures and arabesques. He did the kneeling Statue of 
Cardinal Carafa in the crypt ; a Tomb of Alagni in S. Domenico 
Maggiore, and of Bishop Vassolo in Monte Qliveto. 

Mantegazza, Cristoforo and Antonio 

(Milanese — Working, 1464- 1493) 

Little is known of these sculptors. They were sons of a 
goldsmith in Milan, and probably worked first at their father's 
calling. They were engaged at the Certosa in 1464, and must 
have soon come to the front, as Galeazzo Maria Sforza 
offered them the execution of the statue of his father, which 
was subsequently given to Leonardo da Vinci, a commission 


which came to nothing. Certain of their works at the Certosa 
can be identified, one of the best being the Lavabo in the first 
chapel of the left aisle; and the large Lavabo (sometimes 
attributed to Amadeo) in the small cloister. Another work 
was the Relief of the Entombment in the Chapter-House, in 
which the figures are weak, badly modelled, and ill grouped, 
the carving of the draperies being especially stiff and clumsy. 
The graceful Angels on the gradino are the best part of it. In 
the Chapter-House of the monks is another Relief of the 
Adoration of the Magi, marked by a curious mixture of styles, 
which might well be by Antonio (Cristoforo died in 1482). 
The little temple in it has a suggestion of Bramante, and the 
long-limbed figures recall Briosco's reliefs under the central 
door. It is interesting as containing figures of Gian Galeazzo 
and Filippo Maria Visconti. Other work by them in the 
church is a Pietk over the door leading out of the right 
transept into the small cloister, another on the high altar 
frontal (attributed sometimes to Amadeo), and some Angels in 
relief on the doorposts of the great cloister. In 1473 the 
brothers were appointed head sculptors of the fagade, and 
did many of the Statues of the Prophets and Apostles on the 
lower grade. The design was not complete till 148 1, so 
Cristoforo could have had little to do with it. Antonio 
worked on at the Certosa till 1490. In the Castello at Milan 
are four fragments from the facade of S. Satiro attributed to 
them ; some Reliefs of the Flagellation, and Christ bearing the 
Cross, in the Museum of the Certosa ; a Pietk in the Ospedale 
at Pavia ; a Panel with figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity in 
the Louvre ; and a Deposition in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum (No. 8), wrongly given to Amadeo. 

Mariani, Camillo (Vicenza, 1565-1611) 

Mariani's extant work is all in Rome. In S. Maria Maggiore 
he did the Figure of the Angel over the Sacristy door ; the 
Statue of S. John, and the Relief of the Capture of Strigonia on 


the tomb of Clement viii in the Cappella Paolina. In the 
Minerva the Statues of S. Peter and S. Paul in the Cappella 
Aldobrandini are by him. 

Maxini, Angelo (Milanese — Working, i 550-1 560) 

He was one of the sculptors employed on the facade of the 
Certosa; some of the most important Statues — those of 
S. Bruno, of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, of Adam and Eve, and 
of 8. Augustine — having been attributed to him. He did the 
Statue of Pope Pius iv, poised on a richly carved bracket in 
the Cathedral at Milan. This was manifestly suggested by 
Tradate's monument to Martin v, and it does not suffer by 

Marini, Michele (Fiesole, 1459- ) 

Vasari names this sculptor as the maker of the Statue of 
S. Sebastian in the Minerva at Rome. This is his only 
authentic work, but recent criticism, without valid reason, has 
ascribed to him the Maffei Tombs in the Minerva, the Ponzetti 
Monuments in S. Maria della Pace, and the Cibo Tomb in 
S. Cosimato. 

Marinna, Lorenzo di (Sienese, 1476-1534) 

He was the son of a Sienese goldsmith, and studied in the 
Opera del Duomo, of which he became head in 1506. 
Amongst his first works were the decoration of the Piccolo- 
mini Chapel in S. Francesco in 1504, and of the Doorway of 
the hbrary in the Cathedral, both commissions from the 
Piccolomini family. In the same style he decorated the 
Portal of the Cappella di S. Giovanni adjoining. In 15 17 
he did his masterpiece, the Altar and Reredos in the Church of 
Fontegiusta, and in 1522 the Marsili Altarpiece in S. Martino. 
The one in the chapel opposite is also by him, but of inferior 
merit Marinna was one of the greatest decorators in carved 


stone that Italy ever produced. The versatility and loveliness 
of his work in the Cathedral and in Fontegiusta are in- 
sufficiently appreciated. In Fontegiusta the relief of Christ 
and Angels is an exquisite bit of sculpture, worthy of the 
scheme of decoration around it. He was manifestly inspired 
by Desiderio, and showed himself a master of proportion, 
always keeping the structural masses in harmony with the 
ornamentation. Other works of his were Graffiti of the Virtues 
in the Piccolomini Chapel, and the Capitals of the columns in 
the family palace ; a Bust of S. Catherine in terra-cotta in the 
Convento del Paradiso; and some Carving on the left-hand 
seat of the Loggia dei Nobili. 

Massegne, Jacobello e Pietro Paolo 

(Venetians — Working, 1388) 

Probably these sculptors were Venetians, seeing that much of 
their best sculpture is to be found in Venice. The tradition 
that they were taught by Agostino and Agnolo of Siena 
cannot be confirmed. Their work is Tuscan in sentiment, 
which might well have been derived through Bonino di 
Campione, who did the finest of the Scaliger tombs at Verona, 
and perhaps worked also in Venice. Up to 1375 the Venetian 
sculptors were anonymous, and the work of the Massegni 
and Lanfrani is the first that can be identified. The first 
Massegne monument is the Tomb of Giovanni di Legnano, a 
university professor at Bologna, in the Church of S. Domenico, 
made in 1383; and the next the great Altar of S. Francesco, 
a huge reredos with the Coronation, the Eternal, and a statue 
of the Virgin in large niches in the centre. Statues and half- 
lengths stand in smaller niches on either side, and innumer- 
able statuettes are scattered about the fabric. A lofty pinnacle 
in the centre is crowned by the Crucifixion and two saints, 
and on either side lesser pinnacles support busts of saints. 
The handiwork is of the finest, recalling that of Bonino di 
Campione on the Area of S. Augustine at Pavia ; and on the 
predella are reliefs illustrating episodes in the life of S. Francis. 



FoMltsiusta, Si*H 


In 1394 they returned to Venice, where they did the Statues of 
the Apostles on the Choir Balustrade in S. Marco ; also of the 
Virgin and S. Mark. In all the statues above named there is 
a certain serious charm, and the attempt to express emotion 
and life is almost always successful. If the Massegni did not 
catch the true Pisan spirit, they emancipated themselves from 
the wooden formalities of Lombard Gothic. On the railing 
of the choir in S. Mark's are other Statues, probably by 
followers of the Massegni. In SS. Giovanni e Paolo they did 
the Tomb of Antonio Venier (1400), and in the Frari that 
of Simone Dandolo (1396); also the beautiful Relief of the 
Madonna, S. Mark, and S. John Baptist, above the entrance to 
S. Zaccaria ; Statues and half-length Figures in the Baptistery 
of the Frari ; and a Madonna with adoring angels over the 
door of the left transept. In the Cathedral at Modena, in the 
left aisle, is an Altar with small terra-cotta reliefs attributed 
to the Massegni. 

Massegne, Paolo della (Venetian— Working, 1394) 

He was the son of Jacobello, and a skilful carver. In SS. 
Giovanni e Paolo is a Monument by him in memory of Jacopo 
Cavallo, a Venetian general, richly carved with delicate leaf 
mouldings and oval reliefs of symbols of the Evangelists. 
The effigy is in armour, with a lion at the head and a dog at 
the feet, unduly elongated but otherwise well proportioned. 
Another of his Tombs is that of Prendiparte Pico, now in the 
Museo Lapidario at Modena, with a relief of the Crucifixion 
on the front, the effigy of a burdened mule at one end, and 
a relief of Catherine Cornaro, his wife, at the other. 

Masuccio I and II (Neapolitans, Thirteenth 
AND Fourteenth Centuries) 

They are supposed to have lived in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries. The first is wholly mythical, and the 
second only exists as a sculptor and architect on the authority 

1 2 8 M AZZ A— M AZZONI 

of the guide-books, and on a tradition that he died in 1387, 
aged 96. Authentic records are entirely silent. Perkins, 
after rejecting his authorship of any of the tombs in S. Chiara, 
admits that he might have made that of the Duchess Catherine 
of Austria in S. Lorenzo, on the singular and insufficient 
ground that it is quite unlike any of the others; but this 
argument does not appear weighty enough to withdraw this 
fine tomb from the list of anonymous sculpture. 

Ma.ZZa, Gius. (Bolognese — Working, 1679) 

He was a good worker in reliefs, though showing signs of 
Bernini's influence. His work is to be found in many 
churches in Bologna; but he is at his best in the Reliefs 
showing the life of S. Dominic in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and in 
the Statuettes on the high altar in the Redentore in Venice. 

Mazzoni, Guido (II Modanino) (Modenese, 

The external sculpture on the Cathedral at Modena is 
amongst the most interesting examples of early Italian carving, 
but this city was little affected by the Tuscan revival of the 
thirteenth century. It was not till the end of the fifteenth 
that Mazzoni, the first plastic artist of Modena, appeared. 
He was the earliest and the most industrious of the producers 
of the life-sized groups in coloured clay known by the generic 
name of Mortorio. One of the best of these is in the Church 
of S. Giovanni DecoUato at Modena, and there is another 
in the Minorite Church at Busseto near Parma. The artist 
strives to produce an impression of intense grief, and to effect 
this opens the mouths of the mourners. The figures are life- 
like, well modelled, and symmetrically arranged, and the 
seated man on the left is a triumph. In the crypt of the 
Cathedral is a very interesting Adoration, in which the nurse- 
girl blows the food to cool it before giving it to the infant 
Christ. In S. Maria della Rosa at Ferrara he did another 


Lamentation of Christ. In 1489 he went to Naples, where he 
executed a Deposition in the Church of Monte Oliveto, which 
is interesting on account of the legend that some of the 
heads are portraits of living celebrities. Pontano appears as 
Nicodemus, Sannazzaro as Joseph of Arimathea, and Alfonso 11 
as S. John ; but the monument as a whole is mannered and 
theatrical, and inferior to his masterpiece at Modena. He 
also did a fine bronze Bust of King Ferdinand, now in the 
Museo. Mazzoni, having attracted the notice of Charles viii 
at Naples in 1495, returned with him to France and, according 
to tradition, designed the King's Tomb in S. Denis. In the 
Church of the Trinity at Fecamp is a terra-cotta group of the 
Fainting of the Virgin, which has recently been ascribed to 
him, and in the Museo at Padua are fragments of a Piet^ 
probably from his hand. 

Michelangelo, Sanese (Sienese— 

Working, 1524) 

He was probably a pupil of Giacomo Cozzarelli ; but little is 
known of him except that he was entrusted by Baldassare 
Peruzzi to carry out his design for the Tomb of Adrian vi 
in the Church of S. Maria dell' Anima in Rome. Tribolo 
helped him, and probably carved the allegorical figures 
representing Justice, Peace, Prudence, and Fortitude. The 
Pope's effigy is almost exactly like the figures on Andrea 
Sansovino's tombs in S. Maria del Popolo, and the general 
treatment of the design shows great ability. Cellini speaks 
of Michelangelo in his Memoirs, and praises him both as a 
clever artist and as a jolly companion. 

Michelozzo Michelozzi (Florentine, 

Michelozzo was the son of a Florentine tailor of Burgundian 
descent. In the hfe of Donatello it has been noted how close 
was the association of these two gifted men. They worked 


together upon the Pulpit at Prato, and on the Tombs of Pope 
John in Florence and of Cardinal Brancacci in Naples. The 
Aragazzi Tomb in the Cathedral at Montepulciano is now 
recognized as the work of Michelozzo alone. He was a 
skilful founder ; and Donatello, having realized his colleague's 
superiority in this craft, left to him the reproduction of his 
bronzes, and also trusted him to design the architectural 
setting of the monuments in which they collaborated. His 
knowledge of ancient art was thorough ; he was, with 
Brunelleschi, the founder of Renaissance architecture, and he 
must have possessed rare personal qualities, seeing that he 
was the friend and art adviser of Cosmo dei Medici. His 
association with Ghiberti was a long one. In 1424 he was 
working on the Baptistery Doors; in 1427 it is on record that 
a certain sum was due to him from the Guild of Money 
Changers for his services as Ghiberti's assistant on Or S. 
Michele, and in 1442 he was still engaged on the Doors of the 
Baptistery. His association with Donatello began in 1423, 
and the figures under the sarcophagus on Pope John's Tomb 
in the Baptistery were probably the first statues he carved. 
At a first glance the proportions of the tomb may seem to be 
unduly elongated, but the general effect is fine, and the lofty 
massive columns form an admirable setting ; indeed, when in 
1427 Donatello and Michelozzo were given a free hand as to 
space for the Brancacci Tomb at Naples the result was less 
harmonious than at Florence. In Naples the figures which 
support the effigy are almost certainly from Michelozzo's hand. 
The commission for the Aragazzi Tomb at Montepulciano 
was given to Donatello and Michelozzo in 1427, but it was 
executed entirely by the last named. It is unfortunate for his 
reputation that this, his one great work, should have been 
broken up, and the fragments set up in various parts of the 
Church. The finest of these is the Statue of Christ, an 
interesting and very unusual rendering of His personality. 
His age is considerably more advanced than convention 
allows, and He has the robust physique generally assigned to the 
Apostles. In the two allegorical figures Michelozzo has been 


less successful. They are frank imitations of Donatello, and 
his attempts to express passion and movement are not happy. 
Two angels, portions of this tomb, are in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. Of the fragments of the Aragazzi Monument 
the finest are two reliefs : the Family of Aragazzi adoring 
the Virgin, and the Children bidding Farewell to their 
Mother. The figures are ranged in line, as on a sarcophagus, 
and the mother of the Aragazzi and the Virgin are of the 
Roman matron type. The young children are charmingly 
executed. The effect of classic study is as manifest in 
Donatello as in Michelozzo, but Donatello's personality and 
genius were strong enough to keep clear of anything like bare 
imitation and to retain only that element which was necessary 
to the development of his own method. In Michelozzo the 
imitator is more plainly predominant Had he prosecuted 
further the sculptor's art he might have manifested greater 
original force, but beyond these fragments there is little to 
consider. Outside the S. Agostino he did a Lunette in terra- 
cotta, representing the Virgin and S. John Baptist and a 
bishop. Michelozzo was working with Donatello on the 
Pulpit at Prato until its completion. About 1448 he carried 
out the exquisite Chapel of the Crucifix in S. Miniato, which 
Luca della Robbia decorated. In 1457 he went to Milan 
to remodel the Palazzo Vismara, which Francesco Sforza 
had given to Cosmo dei Medici. This palace had been 
demolished, but one of its sculptured doors is preserved in 
the Castello. In 1462 he built the Cappella Portinari in 
S. Eustorgio, where now stands Balduccio's Tomb of S. Peter 
Martyr. Round the base of the dome is a very beautiful 
circle of angels in stucco, attributed to him, but they are 
entirely foreign to his style. The beautiful Tabernacle in 
which stands Verrocchio's Incredulity of S. Thomas, on 
Or S. Michele, is sometimes given to Donatello, but it is more 
in Michelozzo's manner, especially in the decorative details, 
which resemble those on his doors of the Cloister and of the 
Chapel of the Noviciate in S. Croce. The Tabernacle in the 
Chapel of the Madonna at Impruneta, near Florence, decorated 


with two of Luca della Robbia's finest statues, is also from 
his design, and the sculptured Relief on the predella is by 
him. The sacred image had been stolen. One day a peasant 
was ploughing, and his oxen, when they came to a certain 
spot, knelt and would not move. The ploughman dug, and 
naturally found the image, and this story Michelozzo has illus- 
trated in his relief. He also made the Statue of the Baptist 
in the Annunziata, and another on the silver altar in the Opera 
del Duomo. In S. Croce his doors of the Noviciate and of 
the Cloister are interesting as illustrating the growth of the 
Renaissance style of decoration. The first is classic, while in 
the second the rigid lines are softened and the adornment 
enriched with wreaths and arabesques. In 1464 Michelozzo 
was engaged at Ragusa on the decoration of the University. 
The capitals of the columns of the portico are of great beauty, 
and may have been inspired by Donatello's beneath the pulpit 
at Prato. Michelozzo, it may be noted, was the companion 
in exile of Cosmo dei Medici in 1433 > ^^^V went to Venice, 
and several works there are referred to this period of 
Michelozzo's life, but without sufficient warrant. 

Minello, Antonio (Paduan, 1480-1524) 

He did one of the bronze Reliefs in the Cappella del Santo in 
S. Antonio at Padua, the Saint's Ordination, the treatment of 
which is sober and scholarly, but wanting in distinction (1512). 
He began another of the Reliefs, the Raising to Life of the Dead 
Child, which was finished after his death by Jacopo Sansovino. 
Antonio's chief work was the decoration of the portal of S. 
Petronio at Bologna with Figures of the Prophets (15 10-15 16), 
in completion of Quercia's scheme. He assisted Lorenzo 
Bregno over the Tomb of Admiral Pesaro in the Frari ; and 
completed, in 1524, Bregno's Altar in the Cappella Trevisan in 
S. Maria Mater Domini. He was the son of Giovanni Minello, 
and as they worked in the same style their sculptures are often 
confused. He probably completed the Tomb of Calphurnius 
in S. Antonio about 1512. 

Minello, Giovanni (Paduan, 1460-1527?) 

He was a contemporary and fellow-worker in S. Antonio with 
Riccio, whose methods he closely followed. By the entrance 
are two Holy Water Stoups which are probably by him, and 
another by the north door which certainly is his work. He 
did much of the decorative carving of the Cappella del Santo, 
and Statues of S. Giustina and of S. Felix ; also in S. Giustina 
a Statue of the Saint In the Museo Civico are plaster Statues 
of Christ, S. Peter, and S. John ; and in the Eremitani two 
Altars in terracotta, and in S. Giustina a Madonna. In the 
cloister court of S. Antonio is the Tomb of the jurist Cal- 
phumius, represented as teaching ; and in S. Giovanni at 
Bassano a large painted plaster Relief of the Baptism of Christ 
Other works attributed to him in Padua are Reliefs of the 
Sacrifices of Cain and Abel in the Cappella del Santo at 
S. Antonio, Statues of SS. Philip and James in S. Niccolo, and 
of the Apostles on the Policastro altar in the Eremitani. 

Mocchi, Francesco (Florentine— Working, 1648) 

He is only known by his colossal equestrian Statues of Ales- 
sandro and Ranuccio Farnese in Piacenza. They are ex- 
travagant, with all the worst characteristics of Bernini's style. 
S. Veronica in S. Peter's at Rome is attributed to him. 

Montelupo, Baccio di (Florentine, 1469-1533) 

MoNTELUPO was one of the Florentines who fell under the 
influence of Savonarola, and withdrew to Bologna and ultim- 
ately to Venice, where, in 1503, he made the Statue of Mars 
which stands on Lorenzo Bregno's tomb of Admiral Pesaro in 
the Frari. In 15 15 he was back in Florence, engaged on the 
bronze Statue of S. John on Or S. Michele, a very uninteresting 
work. This replaced an earlier figure in marble which is now 
in the Bargello. A Crucifix in wood in S. Lorenzo is attributed 
to him, and the Rossi Tomb in S. Felicita ; also a Madonna 
in S. Michele at Lucca. 


MontelupO, Raffaele di (Florentine, 
1505?- 1 569?) 

MoNTELUPO was one of Michelangelo's chief assistants. He 
began as a goldsmith, having been apprenticed to Bandinelli's 
father, but finding this art distasteful he went into the work- 
shop of his father, a sculptor of some merit. About 1526 he 
made the Tomb of a Bishop of Worcester in S. Michele at 
Lucca. The Tomb has disappeared, but the Relief of the 
Virgin, a part of it, is in the left aisle. On the election of 
Clement vii in 1524 many Florentine artists flocked to Rome ; 
Montelupo followed, and entered the studio of Lorenzetto, who 
had preceded him, and was set to work on the Statues designed 
by Raphael for the Chigi Chapel in S. Maria del Popolo, on 
the Tomb of Bernardino Cappello in S. Stefano Rotondo, and on 
Lorenzetto's Madonna over Raphael's tomb in the Pantheon. 
Later on he was sent by the Pope to Lore to, where he worked 
under Sangallo on the Reliefs of the Santa Casa. He finished 
several of these which had been left incomplete by Andrea 
Sansovino : the Marriage of the Virgin, the Assumption, the 
Nativity, and the Adoration of the Magi. In these he shows 
a want of training or natural incapacity to absorb the teaching 
of his instructors ; the feeling for art was there, but the treat- 
ment at times borders on archaism. When peace was restored 
after the sack of Rome, Montelupo went to Florence and 
worked under Michelangelo in the New Sacristy at S. Lorenzo. 
He made the Statue of S. Damiano, which suffers by com- 
parison with Montorsoli's S. Cosimo, and afterwards followed 
Michelangelo to Rome and worked at the Tomb of Julius 11. 
The Statues of Rachel and Leah are by him ; also the Prophet 
and Sibyl, over which the master is reported to have grown 
sarcastic. He did the Statue of Leo x on Bandinelli's tomb 
in the Minerva, a work entirely without distinction, and the 
Monument of Balthasar Turini in the Cathedral at Pescia. 
The magnificent Relief of the Adoration of the Magi, the centre 
panel of Mosca's altar in the Cathedral at Orvieto, has been 
ascribed both to him and to Mosca ; but it is so immensely 


superior to any ascertained work of theirs that this attribution 
seems questionable. The uninteresting Statues of Adam and 
Eve near the Chapel of S. Brizio are probably by him. 

Montorsoli, Giovanni Angelo (Florentine, 
I 507-1 563) 

Montorsoli, if not the greatest of Michelangelo's pupils, was 
the one who left to the world the most creditable legacy of 
sculpture. Signs of his master's influence appear everywhere ; 
but these signs do not exhibit him as exaggerating exaggera- 
tions, but rather as a sympathetic student, conscious of his 
limitations, and striving to bring forth the best fruit of disciple- 
ship in a reflection of his master's manner, tempered by the 
forces of his own personality. Montorsoli probably first met 
Michelangelo in Rome and accompanied him to Florence, for 
about 1522 he was working with him on the Medici Tombs. 
After the siege of Florence, in 1527, Montorsoli entered the 
Servite order and kept to his profession of sculptor. Clement 
VII summoned him again to Rome to carve his Bust, and to 
restore the left arm of the Apollo Belvedere and the right arm 
of the Laocoon. About 1530 he produced his first original 
Statue, S. Cosimo, in the New Sacristy of S. Lorenzo, a noble 
work ; and if Michelangelo really sculptured the hands and the 
head, they do him credit. He followed the master to Rome, 
and worked intermittently on the Julian Tomb. After some 
years spent in travel he returned to Florence in 1536, when he 
did the life-sized terracotta Statues of Moses, David, and S. 
Paul now in the Painters' Chapel of the Annunziata, evidently 
suggested by figures on the Sistine ceiling, and a Monument to 
Cardinal BenevenUno in S. Piero at Arezzo. About this time 
he did the Figures of Minerva and Apollo for Girolamo Santa 
Croce's tomb of Sannazzaro in S. Maria del Parto at Naples. 
These Statues were subsequently renamed David and Judith, 
in consequence of an order of the Spanish governor that all 
pagan effigies should be removed from the churches. In 1538 
he was in Genoa, executing various works for the Doria 


family : a Statue of Andrea the great admiral, thrown down 
and broken in the revolution of 1797, and now lying in the 
cloister of S. Matteo, in which church he also decorated the 
two pulpits with Garlands and Reliefs, some of which have been 
removed to the Doria Palace at Fassolo, and a Pietk in the 
choir, closely following Michelangelo's in S. Peter's. In the 
Doria garden is a Fountain, and a gigantic Statue of Jupiter in 
stucco. He also made a Statue of S. John for the Cathedral, 
a likeness of Prince Doria his patron. The stucco decorations 
of the dome and ceilings are by his assistants. In 1547 he 
quitted Genoa for Rome, and soon afterwards went to Messina, 
where he made two Fountains. That on the quay represents 
Neptune as the ruler of the sea, surrounded by sea horses and 
dolphins and two tritons, which typify Scylla and Charybdis. 
From its grandeur of proportion and admirably devised decora- 
tion it is one of the finest fountains extant. Fortunately, it 
was little injured by the earthquake. The other on the piazza 
is also very striking. It takes the form of a great basin 
adorned with reliefs and sea monsters and deities, with two 
other smaller basins, one above the other. He also did a 
series of life-sized Figures for the Cathedral, his sojourn in 
Messina being curtailed by an order of Paul iv in 1557 for all 
monks to return to their cloisters, whereupon he went back to 
Florence and lived with the Servites. In 1559, by Papal leave, 
he went to Bologna to make an Altar for the church of his 
order. As a combination of sculpture and architecture it is 
a beautiful and harmonious work, with one exception, i.e. the 
figure of Christ in the central niche, — a massive, muscular 
figure, differing only in name from the Neptune on the Messina 
fountain. The figures of the Virgin and S. John on either 
side and the reliefs on the base are admirable. Montorsoli 
has here departed from the rule of Michelangelo, who per- 
mitted no decorative element save that derived from the 
disposition of lines, niches, and columns, and the human 
effigies they might enclose, by introducing on the central 
frieze putti and looped garlands. Many small bronze Figures 
are attributed to him : a good example is one of a Triton in 

MOSCA 137 

the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 2319). Montorsoli 
spent his last years in Florence decorating the Chapel of the 
Painters in the Annunziata. His sculpture may fail to move 
us, but it does not leave us indifferent. We feel as we gaze 
that he tried to extort from the marble the legitimate expres- 
sion of his own conception, and not merely to exhibit the 
human form encumbered with muscles of a bulk beyond 
nature, and limbs twisted into attitudes which no human 
frame could endure. 

Mosca, Simone and Francesco (Florentines, 

Mosca was a decorative carver rather than a sculptor. He 
went with Antonio di San Gallo to Rome, where he worked in 
S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini and in the Cesia Chapel of S. Maria 
della Pace ; here his work is confused and inharmonious, 
especially on the niche where stands V. del Rossi's statue of 
S. Matthew. He afterwards went to Loreto, and his work there 
is in far better taste. In 1558 he finished the Altar in the 
Cathedral at Orvieto, which had been begun by Sammichele, 
the great Veronese architect. Here it is interesting to note 
the difference between his ornamentation and that of Sam- 
michele. He makes free use of his marble dolphins, rams* 
heads, and garlands ; but here he groups them with skill and 
judgment, so that the bizarre impression of the Cesia Chapel is 
not reproduced. On the lower part Sammichele's ornamenta- 
tion is in the purest North Italian style, and recalls his work in 
the Baptistery of S. Bernardino at Verona. The centre panel 
is described under R. di Montelupo, Mosca did a replica of 
this altar for the north transept, the central Relief of which 
was carved by his son Francesco (II Moschino), who also made 
the Altars in the Chapels of S. Ranieri and of the Sacrament in 
the Cathedral at Pisa, and the niches and sculpture. Mosca 
did two Statues of Warriors in S. Spirito in Venice. 


Nanni di Banco (Florentine, i374?-i42i) 

NANNI DI BANCO was descended from a family of 
sculptors and architects, his father, Antonio di Banco, 
having worked on the Cathedral at Florence in collaboration 
with Niccolo d' Arezzo. He seems to have been apprenticed 
to his calling in 1405, and to have sculptured — for the Guild 
of Shoemakers — the Statue of S. Philip on Or S. Michele in 
1407. About the same time he made for the Guild of Masons 
and Carpenters a group of four saints; and this group and 
S. Philip's statue still occupy their original niches. In 1415 
he executed a third commission, S. Eloi, for the Guild of 
Smiths, also in situ ; and this Statue, the seated figure of 
S. Luke, originally intended to stand beside the great western 
door of the Cathedral, and the Relief of the Assumption over 
the Porta della Mandorla, are his greatest achievements. 
Under the group of four saints he has sculptured a charming 
little Relief, "The Sculptor's Workshop," in which the 
procedure of the carver's art is presented. Under S. Eloi, 
the patron of smiths, is another Relief of the Saint casting out 
an evil spirit from a refractory horse, while the smith makes 
a shoe on the anvil and blows the bellows. 

Vasari falsely states that he was the pupil and prot^gd of 
Donatello, who is made to act as a beneficent though somewhat 
contemptuous friend and patron in rescuing Nanni from 
divers embarrassments into which he had fallen through his 
incapacity as an artist. Nothing could be further from the 

facts. Nanni, on Vasari's own showing, was twelve years 



Donatello's senior. His position as a sculptor was well 
assured before Donatello made his reputation ; his statues on 
Or S. Michele were all anterior to Donatello's; and beyond 
this, in the decoration of the Porta della Mandorla, Nanni 
was given the important Relief of the Assumption, while 
Donatello in 1406 was only trusted with the two small figures 
known as the Prophets. S. Philip on Or S. Michele was done 
about 1401, and is not a very interesting work. The four 
saints are probably earlier. In the modelling of the draperies 
there are evidences of study of classical forms. This work in 
many respects marks a long step in advance, and deserves 
more attention than it has hitherto received. It was, in fact, 
the first group of free standing figures sculptured after the 
revival, and it is regrettable that so many writers have found 
nothing else to say about it except to repeat Vasari's silly 
story how Nanni discovered, when he had finished it, that 
it was too large for the tabernacle it was to fill, and went in 
despair to Donatello for assistance. Donatello sent him to 
Prato, and then set to work to shorten a leg here and an elbow 
there, and to change entirely the position of one arm, thus 
reducing the dimensions of the group so that it fitted the niche 
accurately. This feat might have been done with a clay 
model ; but with a finished marble statue, as Vasari declares 
it was, it was impossible. Nanni's Statue of S. Eloi is a fine 
work. The hands are infinitely better modelled and propor- 
tioned than the hands of Donatello's statues of this period. S. 
Eloi really holds the book and crozier. In pose and in treatment 
it is far finer work than Donatello's S. Peter standing near to it 
The seated Statue of S. Luke may be considered in 
comparison with Donatello's S. John the Evangelist. Donatello, 
when he carved this masterpiece, outsoared all his former 
efforts. The great divergence of sentiment revealed in these 
two statues makes comparison difficult. The S. Luke, though 
produced by a man getting on in years, is incontestably the 
more modem of the two. The head is of the type of a good- 
looking man of the present day ; the robes fall gracefully, and 
reveal adequately the figure beneath. 


Nanni di Banco's great work was the Relief of the 
Assumption of the Virgin over the Porta della Mandorla of the 
Cathedral. This subject had recently been treated by Orcagna 
in the Tabernacolo of Or S. Michele, and it was only natural 
that other sculptors should desire to work on so attractive a 
theme. Nanni could scarcely hope to rival Orcagna's great 
relief, but his own is a very fine work. The Virgin is seated 
in a mandorla with cherubs around her. Four angels support 
the mandorla and three others — the topmost one of exceeding 
beauty — pipe in her praise. Below, on the left, is the kneeling 
figure supposed to represent the penitent S. Thomas, and on 
the right an oak tree into which a bear is climbing. This bear 
also appears in Andrea Pisano's Relief of Adam digging, on the 
Campanile. This Relief shows Nanni to have been more allied 
in temperament to Luca della Robbia than to Donatello. 

Vasari pursued him with misrepresentation even beyond 
the tomb. He died in 1421, but this fact did not restrain 
Vasari from asserting that Fra Angelico painted his portrait 
as S. Cosimo in the Crucifixion of S. Mark, a work which was 
not executed till twenty years after. 

Neroccio di Bartolommeo (Sienese, 1500) 

He did the graceful Statue of S. Catherine of Alexandria 
in the Cathedral Baptistery at Siena, and in 1465 an Image 
in wood of S. Catherine of Siena over the altar in the Oratory, 
a somewhat ascetic rendering. The chief work of his later 
years was the Tomb of Tommaso Piccolomini in the right aisle 
of the Cathedral. Like so many of these mural tombs, it is 
placed too high to allow it to be properly seen, but the re- 
cumbent figure seems to be a dignified rendering of a dead man. 
Of all the Sienese sculptors, Neroccio followed most closely 
the style of Quercia. He also did a Relief of the Madonna 
over the portal of Fonteguista. 



CtUhtdrml, hUrtnct 


NicCOlo d' ArezzO (Florentine, -1456) 

NiccoLO Di PiERO d' Arezzo went as a youth to Florence 
and worked on the Cathedral as early as 1388. His first 
known work was the six stone shields in the Loggia dei Lanzi, 
1390; and next the armorial device of the Guelfs, 1391- In 
1397 he was commissioned to car\e the Statues of S. Augustine 
and S. Gregory for the great door of the Cathedral ; S. Jerome 
and S. Augustine having been given to Giovanni Tedesco. 
When the Cathedral fagade was demoUshed in 1586 all the 
statues were dispersed, and the four above named are probably 
those which now stand outside the Porta Romana, labelled 
Homer, Virgil, Dante, and Petrarch. At Arezzo Niccolo had 
worked on the facade of the Hospital of the Misericordia, but the 
sculpture formerly assigned to him is by Bernardo Rossellino. 
The Saint on the Tower and the decorative details and 
twisted columns are probably by him ; also the Figure of 
S. Antony in S. Antonio. In 140 1 he competed for the work 
on the Baptistery doors at Florence, but his design was rejected 
on account of defective proportions of the figures. In 1403, 
according to Gaye, he was invited to Venice to superintend the 
alterations to the Ducal Palace ; but there is no evidence that 
he ever went, though some writers hold that he was the Piero 
who helped to make the Tomb of Tommaso Mocenigo in 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo. In 1408 he did the seated Statue of 
S. Mark in the Cathedral at Florence, and shortly afterwards 
the two Statuettes over the tabernacle of S. Matthew on Or 
S. Michele. In the Museo del Duomo are two other 
Statuettes by him. He worked at the Porta della Mandorla 
of the Cathedral, which had been begun by Giovanni 
d' Ambrogio. The last record of him is in 141 9. 

Niccolo was one of the best sculptors of his day. With 
Orcagna he broke loose from mediaeval bonds, realizing that 
art, in order to become a power, must appeal to the love of 
beauty. His figures show all the sincerity of the Giottesques 
without their deformities. In his decoration of the Porta 
della Mandorla, with its inlaid twisted columns, exquisitely 


carved foliage, and scrolls interwoven with putti and fruit, he 
shows that Italian sculpture was able to assert itself otherwise 
than by its figures and delicate reliefs. This work of Niccolo's 
is admirably placed for comparison with that of his collaborator, 
Piero di Giovanni Tedesco, and it alone shows its superiority 
by the rhythmic harmony of its composition and its beauty 
of detail. The under figures stand amongst the scrolls and 
leafage as if they had been set there by nature. The stately 
busts in their hexagonal panels recall Orcagna's on the great 
Tabernacolo. Several of the subjects are classic : Hercules 
and Cacus, and with the Nemaean lion ; a Triton with a shell ; 
and a Woman with grapes and a cornucopia. Some reliefs and 
a Statue of S. Luke in the Cathedral porch at Arezzo, much 
damaged, are attributed to him. 

NicCOl6 da Bari (Neapolitan, -1494) 

He was only Neapolitan by birth. Born at Bari, he went early 
to Bologna, where he evidently studied Jacopo della Quercia's 
door at S. Petronio. Probably his earliest extant work is a 
very indifferent Lamentation of Christ, a life-sized terra-cotta 
group in Mazzoni's style in S. Maria della Vita. In 1458 
he did the equestrian Relief of Annibale Bentivoglio in the 
Bentivoglio Chapel in S. Giacomo; and in 1478 the beautiful 
terra-cotta Relief of the Virgin on the Palazzo Apostolico, 
supported on a bracket which recalls Donatello's capital at 
Prato. His greatest achievement was the construction of the 
Monument of S. Dominic in S. Domenico. The Area, 
sculptured with scenes from the saint's life (see " Guglielmo, 
Fra"), had served since 1267 as the saint's resting-place; but 
in 1469 it was decided to give it an imposing setting, and 
Niccolb was charged with the undertaking. He made the 
area the central point of his design, covering it with a canopy 
enriched with scale-pattern carving, and from this canopy he 
let spring bold volutes, on the junction of which he erected 
an enriched pedestal crowned by a figure of the Eternal. 
Wreaths, /«/■/■/, and sea monsters decorate the volutes, on the 

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lower members of which stand S. Florian and the Baptist in 
Saracen dress. In the centre, Christ rises from a sarcophagus 
with adoring angels on either side. On the canopy stand 
effigies of S. Dominic, S. Francis, S. Petronio (by Michelangelo), 
and S. Procolo. At the base kneel two beautiful angels ; the 
one on the right by Michelangelo, and the other — much the 
more beautiful — by Niccolo. In 1553 the gradino (see "Alf. 
Lombardo ") was enriched by a series of reliefs ; those on the 
front of the altar are seventeenth-century work by Carlo 
Bianconi, Tasi, and Savolini, Bolognese sculptors. Niccolb 
doubtless had other assistants besides Michelangelo: the 
Resurrection and Angels have been ascribed to Tribolo, who 
was in Bologna in 1525. Niccolo is the best sculptor produced 
by the South ; but he takes nothing from his native soil. He 
is curiously detached and origirtal. His figures are graceful, 
correct in modelling, and wrought with a sense of beauty 
which must have come from Tuscan sources. 

Niccola di Bartolommeo (Foggia— 

Working, 1272) 

Hk made the magnificent Pulpit in the Cathedral at Ravello, 
and adorned it with some of the most interesting surviving 
sculpture in the South. At the upper part of a door behind 
the pulpit are relief portraits, probably of Niccolo Rufolo, the 
donor of the pulpit, and his wife; and above the door a 
wonderful bust, described variously as Mater Ecclesia, 
Sigelgaita Rufolo, and a Queen. The bust is the finest 
work of the period, and, like Niccola Pisanio's work of a 
slightly earlier date, shows Gothic influences contending 
successfully with the original classic predilections of the 

Nola, Giovanni di (Neapolitan, 1478-1560) 

According to tradition he was a pupil of a certain Agnolo 
di Fiore. The Reliefs carved in wood of scenes from the 


life of Christ in the Annunziata are said to be early work 
of his — about 1500, and they show traces of Michelangelo's 
influence. His finest work is in S. Severino : the Tomb 
of the three San Severino brothers who were poisoned (15 16) 
by their uncle, Don Geronimo, at the instigation of his 
infamous wife Donna Lincia. Their effigies are seated on 
the sarcophagus, and show them evidently at the point of 
death through poison, an effect difficult to render without 
offence, but here perfectly compassed, as the cause of the 
tragedy is hinted at rather than expressed. The reliefs on 
the tomb are good, and free from the exaggerated expression 
and loose composition of his later works, a tendency dis- 
agreeably manifest in those on the Tomb of Don Pedro da 
Toledo, who died in 1553, in S. Giacomo dei Spagnuoli. 
Here armies and navies and sculptured landscapes are 
crowded together; the effigies of the Duke and his wife are 
stiff and mannered, but the allegorical figures at the angles 
are graceful. Some of his Madonnas are fine : one in S. 
Aniello sitting on a crescent moon with the Infant on her lap, 
and looking down upon the souls in purgatory who implore 
her mercy, while S. Augustine and S. Dominic are in adoration ; 
another in the Sacristy of S. Maria delle Grazie, with the dead 
rising from their graves ; and a third in S. Domenico, where 
she stands between S. John and S. Matthew, who dips his pen 
in an inkhorn held by a little angel. Several other works in 
S. Domenico are ascribed to him, the most remarkable of 
which is the Tomb of Francesco Carafa, who died in 1470. 
Giovanni was only eight years old at this time, but the tomb 
is strongly suggestive of his early style, and, as its date cannot 
be fixed, the assumption that it was carried out some years 
after Carafa's death is allowable; also a Tomb in the right 
transept to Don Orso, with a Relief of S. Jerome ; the Tomb 
of Galeazzo Pandano, who died in 15 14, with a Medallion 
Relief of the Madonna giving fruit to the Child, a very fine 
head of Pandano, and beautiful Renaissance decoration ; a 
Statue of S. John ; a Tomb of Bernardino Rota, probably 
largely by assistants — with ungainly male figures, and a 



NUTO 145 

female with the attributes of the Ephesian Diana ; and the 
Tomb of Porzia Capece, who died in 1459. The beautiful 
Monument of the Miroballi in S. Giovanni a Carbonara is 
probably his work. The best of his Madonnas is the one in 
Monte Oliveto, in which the playful humour of the infants 
Christ and John suggests Florentine influence. He probably 
had a share in the following works : Statues of S. Lorenzo, 
S. Francesco, and S. Antonio, on the screen in S. Lorenzo ; the 
beautiful Tomb of Antonio Gandino (1 530), in S. Chiara; Statue 
of the Baptist and a Flagellation, in Monte Oliveto; an 
Entombment, in S. Maria delle Grazie, and a terra-cotta 
group in S. Maria del Parto. It is probable also that he had 
an important part in the sculpture upon the triumphal arch of 
Castel Nuovo. 

Except in a few instances Giovanni was unaffected by 
Tuscan influences ; indeed, the local activity of Donatello, 
Rossellino, and Majano had little or no efi"ect on the art of 
Naples. Something in race or soil or climate seemed to 
possess a sinister power of diverting all artistic effort — however 
pure its source — from its due achievement. The best that 
can be said of Giovanni di Nola is that he certainly showed 
a greater sense of beauty and more originality and power 
of composition than any other distinctly Neapolitan sculptor. 

NutO, NicCOlo and Meo (Sienese— Working, 


These sculptors were Sienese assistants of Lorenzo Maitani 
in the decoration of the west front of the Cathedral at Orvieto. 
The great Madonna and the Angels over the central door are 
attributed to them ; also the standing Madonna in the Opera 
del Duomo. Venturi rightly rejects Vasari's attribution of 
the Tomb of Benedict xi in S. Domenico at Perugia to 
Giovanni Pisano, but proceeds, somewhat hastily, to assign 
it to Niccolo di Nuto, who seems to have been in Perugia in 
1324. No work of this sculptor can be precisely identified, 



so this ascription can only be conjectural, and the common 
authorship of the clumsy and ungraceful Madonna of the 
Opera del Duomo at Orvieto, and the beautiful effigy and 
angels of the Pope's tomb at Perugia, can only be accepted 
on the understanding that the sculptor, whoever he might be, 
had made abnormal progress in the interval between the 
execution of the two works. 

Ognabene, Andrea di (Pisan— Working, 13 i6) 

THE great silver Altar of S. Jacopo at Pistoia was mainly 
done by Ognabene and his assistants. When he began 
in 1316 he found fragments of ornamentation dating from 1287 
which had been made to replace the treasure stolen by the 
Vanni Fucci, whom Dante censures so strongly {Inferno, xxiv.). 
The altar has undergone many changes. To begin with, the 
reredos, the four groups on the top, one statue right and left 
of them, and the Christ in Glory date from 1395, and were 
carried out by Florentine artists. The two next rows of 
statuettes date from 1287, and were part of the original. The 
central figure of S. James was made by Giglio da Pisa in 
1353, and below it is a row of saints in half-length. Next 
comes a relief of the Annunciation flanked by saints, and 
below is the tomb of Bishop Alto. In 13 16 Ognabene added 
the Altar Frontal with fifteen scenes from the New Testament, 
from the Annunciation to the Martyrdom of SS. Peter and 
Paul. When the figure of S. James was set up two more sets 
of reliefs were added : one on the left of Ognabene's frontal 
by Pietro di Leonardo in 1357, and one on the right by 
Leonardo di S. Giovanni in 137 1, each set containing nine 
panels. In 1386 four figures were added by Piero d' Arezzo, 
who also made the canopy and angels over the statue of 
S. James. 

The origin of this great work was Sienese, but Florentines 
had the chief part in its execution. The earliest portions 
show all the defects of their period — large heads, ill-propor- 



tioned limbs, and confused grouping, with certain Byzantine 
characteristics, from which Ognabene and his assistants were 
free. In the panels of the Crucifixion and the Birth of the 
Virgin he imitated Giovanni Pisano's pulpit reliefs. The 
finest portions are the angels round the seated Christ, and 
the panels of the frontal done by Leonardo di S. Giovanni 
representing the life of S. James. This artist was thoroughly 
Florentine in spirit, and his work shows the influence of 
Andrea Pisano's bronze doors. 

Olivieri, Paolo (Roman, i 551-1599) 

He was one of the few Roman sculptors working at the end 
of the sixteenth century. He did the Tomb of Gregory xi 
(1574) in S. Francesca Romana, the Adoration of the Magi 
in S. Pudenziana, a Statue of Gregory xiii in the Capitol, and 
S. Antony of Padua in S. Maria Maggiore, all in the decadent 
style of the age. 

Onofri, Vincenzo (Bolognese — Working, 
I 480- I 504) 

He was one of the workers in clay groups and figures, but 
not on so large a scale as Mazzoni or Alfonso Lombard!. 
His earliest known work is his finest : the Tomb of Bishop 
Nacci, in S. Petronio at Bologna, executed about 1480. The 
figures of the Virtues and the frieze of putti are graceful and 
quite Florentine in spirit. In S. Petronio there is by him a 
painted Relief, the Madonna, S. Lawrence, S. Eustace, and 
two angels, with a Pietk over it. He did also a good Bust of 
Filippo Beroaldus the philologist in S. Martino Maggiore 
(1504), and a Tomb to a professor, one of the earliest of this 
particular character. In S. Giacomo Maggiore is a fine 
profile Relief of Giovanni Bentivoglio 11, on a pilaster to 
the right of the entrance, and in the Museo the Tomb of 
Canonici, both probably by him. Onofri displays much grace 
and truth to life, and is on the whole the most satisfactory 
of the Bolognese sculptors. 


Orcagna, Andrea (Florentine, -1368) 

Orcagna divides with Giotto the honour of being the greatest 
master of the fourteenth century. In versatility he surpasses 
him, and even Michelangelo, seeing that he won distinction 
as sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and goldsmith. His two 
great works are the fresco of Paradise in the Strozzi Chapel 
in S. Maria Novella, and the Tabernacle in Or S. Michele, 
both in Florence. Where this church now stands was formerly 
a covered Loggia used as a corn-market, and on one of its 
brick piers, about 1285, Ugolino da Siena painted a picture 
of the Virgin and Child. For some unknown reason this 
picture acquired a great reputation as a wonder-working in- 
strument, but in 1304 the Loggia was destroyed by fire. In 
1336 a new Loggia was erected, and the authorities provided 
for their picture the wonderful Tabernacle which is now one of 
the chief glories of Florence. The execution of this work was 
entrusted to Orcagna, who did not complete it till 1359. In 
front of the tabernacle is the altar with the miraculous picture, 
probably painted by Bernardo Daddi, and certainly not the 
original one, which must have perished in the fire. On the 
altar frontal are two octangular reliefs, the Marriage of the 
Virgin and the Annunciation, and between them a figure of 
Hope. On the right side, the Birth of the Virgin and the 
Presentation in the Temple, and a figure of Faith between ; 
on the left side, the Nativity and the Adoration of the Magi, 
divided by Charity ; at the back are the Purification and the 
Angel announcing to the Virgin her approaching death. 
Above these last is the great relief of the Entombment and 
the Glorification of the Virgin. 

Of the octangular reliefs the finest are the Marriage of the 
Virgin, given in the conventional fashion, but distinguished by 
simpler grace and dignity; the Annunciation, in which the 
Virgin, with a meek, awe-stricken face, listens to the divine 
message of the archangel, who bears in his hand a bunch of 
budding lilies, a detail Orcagna probably borrowed from some 
Byzantine carving; the Nativity, treated in a novel fashion. 


Christ, a young boy, lies on a bed beside which sits the 
Virgin, a woman of middle age. Joseph, an old man, is there 
also, and in the background are the cattle, the shepherds, the 
star, and the angel. The Warning of Death is the finest 
of all the reliefs, evincing the highest powers of dramatic 
expression. The Virgin is an old woman with a sweet and 
dignified face, touched but not defaced by age. She smiles 
as she listens to the kindly summons from earth to share the 
glory of her Son. The Birth of the Virgin is noteworthy from 
the strongly classical character of certain of the figures. The 
three women standing by the bed might have been copied 
direct from some antique fragment. The great relief, 
Orcagna's masterpiece, of the Death and Glorification of the 
Virgin is one of the triumphs of Italian sculpture. He has 
divided his composition into two parts : the lower one shows 
the Virgin dead, surrounded by the Apostles, and in the upper 
one she is seated on a throne within a mandorla with six 
angels sounding her praises, and a mortal figure kneeling to 
her as if in supplication. In the Cathedrals of Northern 
France this subject had already been treated in sculpture, 
but this is probably the earliest Italian version. The legend 
is borrowed from an apocryphal poem by S. John, telling how 
the Virgin, by special favour of Heaven, was assured that at 
her death all the Apostles should assemble round her couch, 
and that Christ should also be present to receive her soul. 
Forty days after her burial by the Apostles in the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat, the risen Virgin was carried by angels to heaven, 
and there, seated at her Son's right hand, was crowned by 
Him. The various episodes of this legend were seized upon 
by painters and sculptors of successive epochs ; the Assumption 
and the Coronation by Christ being the latest to be illustrated. 
Orcagna's great relief is often erroneously spoken of as the 
Assumption ; it is really nothing more than the Virgin throned 
and praised by quiring angels, and accepting the homage of 
S. Thomas the doubter, the kneeling figure on the left. In 
later versions she throws down her girdle for the better con- 
firmation of his faith, and later still she is shown as being 


crowned by the hand of Christ. Two representations of this 
act, long before it became common, are Bicci di Lorenzo's in 
S. Maria Nuova in Florence, and one on the base of Bemabo 
Visconti's equestrian statue in the Castello at Milan. 

In the lower relief, the Death of the Virgin, the composition 
is masterly in grouping and design. It gives as perfect a 
picture as can be produced by relief cutting, and shows how 
greatly Orcagna's practice as a painter helped him with the 
chisel In the centre of the group of Apostles stands Christ, 
undistinguished by any symbol of divinity, bearing in His 
bosom a child emblematic of the Virgin's soul. The figure 
bending in grief over the bed is that of S. Thomas, penitent 
for his unbelief. At each angle of the structure, at the bases 
of the pilasters, are two heads of the Prophets ; and three 
female heads, symbolic of the Virtues, of which the most 
beautiful are Docilitas, Obedientia, and Solertia, On each 
side of the altarpiece, above the pilasters, stand two statues ; 
and a frieze, richly carved with figures of saints and angels, 
runs all round, and from it spring the comer pinnacles and 
crock eted finials. Throughout this great work Orcagna ex- 
hibits his creations with a touch manifestly skilled in painting 
as well as in sculpture, and always with success. That he 
should have studied Andrea Pisano was inevitable, but he 
assuredly was gifted with a temperament too rich and 
penetrating to let his own work be affected essentially by 
that of another hand. Equal to Andrea in sense of beauty, 
he excelled him in grace and delicacy of finish. On the 
whole his reliefs show signs of a more active intelligence. The 
prevailing mood of the scenes portrayed is a graver one 
than that of the painted Paradiso. Orcagna was growing 
old, and the shortening days and failing hopes worked upon 
him as upon all men, and suffused his ideals with a more 
sombre tone. He reverted to Giotto's mood : his creatures, 
more dramatic and less serenely beautiful, give trace of a 
manifest detachment from life, as if waiting the summons, 
like his sculptured Virgin. 

The statuettes on the stonework of the windows of Or 


S. Michele — now given to Talenti — were formerly attributed 
to him ; as well as the medallions of the Virtues on the 
Loggia dei Lanzi, and the gravestone of the Acciaiuoli family 
at the Certosa near Florence. More valid are the claims of 
the four Statues standing in niches on the north side of the 
Campanile, the Angel playing a Violin in the Bargello, the 
Statue of a Prophet in the garden of the Villa Petraia, and 
some Angels at the Villa Castello. 


S. Chiara, ft'afits 

Pacius and Johannes (Florentines— Working, 


THESE sculptors are only known by the Tomb of 
King Robert of Naples erected by Queen Joanna in 
S. Chiara in 1343. Though lacking in symmetry it is an 
imposing structure. The double columns of the canopy are 
niched, and bear numerous figures of saints and virtues, 
graceful and well modelled, and in the central gable of the 
arch is a relief of the Resurrection. The tomb beneath is 
in three storeys. Below, the effigy of the King lies on a 
sarcophagus, with the frontal carved in niches which are filled 
with figures of the King, his two wives, and his son and 
daughter-in-law. On the next level the King is seated on a 
throne with the ensigns of royalty. Above is a group of 
S. Francis and S. Chiara, who present the King and Queen to 
the Madonna. Throughout the tomb are signs of Amolfo's 
influence. After he left Naples his trained assistants doubtless 
carried on his style, and Pacius and Johannes may have been 
taught by these. The sweep of the arches and the general 
proportions of the tomb resemble strongly those of Amolfo's 
ciborium in S. Paolo at Rome, and are little influenced by 
the Neapolitan work of Tino di Camaino. There are traces of 
more than one hand in the sculpture. The statuettes on the 
piers and the curtain-drawing angels are Tuscan in style, and 
by far the best ; and the worst is the seated figure of the King, 
stiff" in modelling, coarse in execution, and evidently done by 
some half-trained Neapolitan. The relief panels on the pulpit 
are also attributed to these sculptors. 


Pagno di LapO Portigiani (Florentine, 
I 406- I 470) 

He was Donatello's assistant and probably helped him with 
the pulpit at Prato, and with the work he did on Quercia's 
font at Siena in 1428. Later on, in 1435, ^^ helped to finish 
the Statues for the Casa dei Nobili, which had been assigned 
originally to Querela. Attributed to him are the Pulpit in 
the Cathedral at Perugia, a Madonna in the Museo del 
Duomo at Florence, which suffers through the close neigh- 
bourhood of Agostino di Duccio's exquisite Virgin and Child, 
and another on Pope John's Tomb in the Baptistery ; also 
the Tomb of Giovanni Chillini in S. Jacopo di S. Miniato al 

Paladini, FilippO (Florentine— Working, 1585) 

He completed Giovanni della Robbia's Frieze on the Ospedale 
del Ceppo at Pistoia by adding the panel, executed in clay 
and painted, which represents Giving drink to the Thirsty. It 
is in perfect harmony with the rest of the frieze, and is by no 
means the least attractive of the reliefs, 

Pedoni, Gian Gasparo and Cristoforo 

(Lugano, 1450-1500?) 

Gian Gasparo was born at Lugano. The facade of 
S. Maria dei Miracoli at Brescia is attributed to him ; but 
Tamagnino's claim seems to be more valid. In Cremona he 
carved the great Doorway of the municipal palace, with a 
lavish display of all the customary details of the style. The 
figures of Justice and Temperance on either side are graceful, 
but he was best as a decorative carver. The Fireplace in the 
inner room is the finest of all his works. Cristoforo, probably 
his son, made the Tomb of S. Arcaldo in the crypt of the 
Cathedral at Cremona. 

PIERO 1 5 5 

Piero di Giovanni TedeSCO (Florentine- 
Working, 1396) 

The two Statues of S. Jerome and S. Ambrose which he made 
in 1396 for the fa9ade of the Cathedral now stand outside the 
Porta Romana. He also did the decoration of the Pilasters 
on the easternmost of the southern doors of the Cathedral, 
which shows a remarkable contrast to that on the corre- 
sponding northern door by Niccolo d' Arezzo. The dragons, 
centaurs, and amorini disposed amongst the boldly carved 
foliage and arabesques plainly denote a classic source, and 
foreshadow the supersession of Gothic by Renaissance details 
in decorative carving. The same objects appear in Niccolo's 
pilasters of the Porta della Mandorla, but his skill as designer 
and carver is incomparably sup)erior to Piero's. In the 
Bargello are two Statues of S. John, removed from Or 8. 
Michele, which are attributed to him. He is probably the 
sculptor of the ungraceful Font in the Cathedral at Orvieto, 
and of a Relief of the Trinity in the Palazzo Vecchio at 

Piero di Niccolo and Giovanni di Martino 

(Florentines — Working, 1424) 

The Tomb of Tommaso Mocenigo in SS. Giovanni e Paolo 
in Venice is the chief work of these sculptors, who were 
Donatello's pupils. It is interesting as a testimony of the far- 
reaching influence of Tuscan art during the Quattrocento. 
Venice was growing weary of Gothic monuments, but con- 
vention was as yet strong enough to forbid the complete 
adoption of the new style, so the Mocenigo tomb is a com- 
promise, and not a very satisfactory one. The sarcophagus 
and the niched wall ornaments are Gothic in design, but the 
fluted coving of the niches is distinctly Renaissance. The 
figure at the left-hand comer of the sarcophagus is an imitation 


of Donatello's S. George, and the Justice on the apex is 
evidently inspired by that of the " Poggio " in the Cathedral 
at Florence. These and the effigy of Mocenigo are by far the 
finest parts of the monument. The face is finely wrought, so as 
to suggest the repose and none of the horror of death. The 
figures on the sarcophagus and the Gothic background are 
poor work. The Tomb of Onofrio Strozzi, who died in 141 7, 
in the Sacristy of S. Trinita at Florence, is generally attributed 
to a pupil of Donatello — Piero di Niccolo by preference. If 
this view is correct, Niccolo must be the maker of the finer 
parts of the Mocenigo monument; indeed, the Strozzi tomb 
is of such high merit, both in treatment and design, that it 
might well be from the hand of Donatello. In certain of its 
details it strongly resembles the Tomb of Giovanni d' Averado 
dei Medici in the old Sacristy of S. Lorenzo, made after 1489 
and sometimes attributed to Donatello, but probably done by 
Buggiano. The record of this tomb has been confused by the 
discovery of an entry in the Strozzi Archives, of a payment of 
six florins made to Piero di Niccolo by Palla Strozzi, son of 
Onofrio, with respect to a tombstone. Such a sum cannot 
be taken as the cost of a sumptuous tomb like this, and a 
plausible theory has been advanced that this small payment, 
which was made in 141 8, was for a simple memorial, and that 
when Palla Strozzi found that the Medici, citizens of his own 
rank, were putting up costly family tombs he determined to 
do the same. It may be remarked that these monuments, 
with a sarcophagus under a circular arched niche, are all 
Florentine, and made within a limited period ; that of Filippo 
Inghirami, attributed to Francesco di Simone Ferrucci, in the 
Cathedral at Prato, that of Orlando dei Medici in the 
Annunziata, that of Giannozzo Pandolfini in the Badia, by a 
follower of Desiderio, and the two Sassetti tombs in S. Trinita 
by Giuliano di San Gallo, being the most remarkable 

Pietro di Leonardo. (See Ognabene) 


Pila, JaCOpO della (Milanese — Working, 1492) 

His best-known work is in Naples : a Ciborium in S. Barbara, 
and the fine Tomb of Tommaso Brancaccio in S. Domenico ; 
also the Tomb of Piscicelli in the Cathedral at Salerno. 

Pisano, Andrea (Florentine, i 270-1348) 

Andrea di Ser Ugolino da Pontedera — commonly knovm 
as Andrea Pisano — was born at Pontedera near Pisa, where he 
probably got his training as a sculptor. There is mention in 
the Cathedral Archives of a certain " Andrea famulus magistri 
Johannis," which has been held to refer to Andrea as the 
pupil of Giovanni Pisano. This reading in any case cannot be 
accepted without reserve : first, because he is also described as 
a son of " maestro Simone Senese " ; and second, because the 
sentiment and execution of his sculpture is absolutely foreign 
to Giovanni's, and because, for the first sixty years of his life, 
he was chiefly known as an artist in bronze, ivory, or gold. 
Giovanni, on the other hand, worked entirely in marble. 

Andrea's life, like that of his great forerunner Niccola, is 
a complete blank up to late middle age. The story of his 
sojourn in Venice, during which he made some of the statues 
on the Ducal Palace, and drew plans for the Arsenal which 
were afterwards carried out by the half-mythical Filippo 
Calendario, is too vague to deserve attention. Andrea was 
rather a smith and a founder than a sculptor, and there is 
no record that he touched marble till he began to carry out 
the designs for the reliefs on the Campanile. His greatest 
work was in the bronze Doors, now at the entrance to the 
Baptistery. The commission was entrusted to him in 1330, 
and in the incredibly short space of three months the wax 
models are said to have been completed. The casting was 
deferred for some unknown cause, and nothing was done for 
nearly two years, when one Leonardo del Avanzo made an un- 
successful attempt ; whereupon Andrea undertook the task 
himself, successfully, the doors having been finished in 1336. 


They bear the date of 1330, and contain twenty-eight panels, 
of which twenty deal with scenes from the Baptist's life, and 
eight with the cardinal and Christian Virtues. Finely wrought 
lions' heads are set at the angles of the panels. The finest of 
the reliefs are the Salutation, the Birth of John, Zacharias 
writing the Child's Name, John reproving Herod, John taken to 
Prison, and his Disciples seeking his Body after Decapitation. 
Of the Virtues, Fortitude and Temperance are the best. In 
only five of the reliefs — John in the Desert, his Preaching, his 
Interrogation by the Pharisees, his Baptism of a Neophyte, 
and the Baptism of Christ — does Andrea introduce any touch 
of landscape into the reliefs, and these five, it may be noted, 
are the least satisfactory. A cursory glance will show how vast 
is the advance made in artistic presentation since the early 
reliefs of the Pisan school ; it will be found to be still greater 
if these masterpieces of Andrea's be compared with Giovanni 
Pisano's in the Museo Civico at Pisa. In lieu of the crowded 
panel, always restless and often unsuggestive, we here find the 
story told directly and lucidly by the aid of a few figures harmoni- 
ously disposed. Andrea had learnt the great lesson of selection 
and subordination. His grouping of figures is admirable, and 
his draperies are wrought with the utmost skill and distinction. 
These doors manifestly gave the key to Donatello's in 
S. Lorenzo, to Ghiberti's on the north side of the Baptistery, and 
to Luca della Robbia's in the Cathedral. The most popular 
exploit in bronze relief, Ghiberti's Gates of Paradise, was, in 
a way, a relapse which powerfully affected the later work of 
Donatello, prompting him to produce the crowded panels in 
S. Antonio at Padua, and on the pulpits in S. Lorenzo. That 
Andrea should have cut himself free from the traditions of the 
great Pisan masters when he realized the weak point in 
their methods — the confused background — shows him to have 
been a true artist. 

It was in 1334 that Giotto began the building of the 
Campanile, and in January 1336 he died. It is commonly 
held that he left perfect the plans and designs for the famous 
reliefs on the lower grade, but that he executed any of them 



t is scarcely probable. He had all his lifetime been a painter 

and architect, and it is not reasonable to suppose that he would 

take to sculpture in his seventieth year, especially as he had 

on hand the erection of the Campanile itself, as well as the 

ornamentation of the Cathedral. Moreover, some time before 

his death, he went to Milan on some art mission to the Ducal 

Court, and died there in 1336. A comparison of the Reliefs 

of the Campanile with those of the Baptistery doors will suggest 

that they are the product of another hand and eye, more richly 

endowed with the pictorial faculty. In those on the western 

side the landscape detail is in just relation to the figures. 

There are twenty-six in all. The seven on the west, the seven 

on the south, the five on the east, and the two easternmost ones 

on the north are Andrea's, and the remaining five on the 

north Luca della Robbia's. All deserve the closest study, 

those on the west being the finest. The heads throughout are 

curiously uniform, and certainly modelled after one sj)ecial 

type — a type differing fi-om Andrea's male heads on the 

Baptistery doors ; a fact which suggests that he may have taken 

it from some sketch made by Giotto. Vasari's statement 

that the Baptistery reliefs are from Giotto's designs is no 

longer accepted. The reliefs of the second grade are inferior, 

and probably done by assistants. 

On Giotto's death, Andrea was made ca/>o maestro, but he 
was subsequently removed from this post. He worked on the 
Campanile till 1342, and in 1347 he went to Orvieto to 
superintend the works on the facade ; in the year following he 
died. The Madonna over the westernmost south door of the 
Cathedral at Florence has been attributed to him on insufficient 
grounds ; a much stronger plea may be advanced on behalf of 
the two beautiful Statuettes of Christ and S. Reparata in the 
Opera del Duomo. 

Andrea is rightly placed as the founder of the Florentine 
school of sculpture, his method throughout being a distinct 
reaction from that of the Pisan masters, from whom he takes 
little but his name. He certainly does not borrow from the 
antique ; though he carved fewer free-standing statues than 


Giovanni, he made a more distinct forward movement towards 
the establishment of this form of sculpture. He withstood 
the pictorial influence of Giotto, to which Ghiberti succumbed ; 
he cleared the sculptured relief of its background of encumber- 
ing figures, and let the few he presented stand out as free 
statues, except for the almost imperceptible link which held 
them to the ground. Few free figures give a more complete 
sense of independence than the allegories of the Virtues, the 
Fortitudo, the Humilitas, and the Temperantia on the Baptistery 
doors. In these, and in the no less beautiful carven pictures 
on the Campanile, Andrea left an open book for Ghiberti, 
Delia Robbia, Donatello, and Verrocchio, and if some of these 
in their later work may have fallen away from the vigour and 
simplicity of their prime, they have still left us the S. Matthew, 
the Incredulity of Thomas, the S. George of Or S. Michele, and 
the doors of the Cathedral Sacristy, as witnesses of the potency 
of Andrea's exemplar. 

Pisano, Giovanni (Pisan, 1250-1328) 

Giovanni Pisano was the son of Niccola, and a worthy trans- 
mitter of his wonderful gifts. He is first heard of in 1366, 
working as a principal, at his own will and leisure, with his 
father on the Sienese Pulpit. When this was finished he went 
with his fellow-worker Arnolfo to Perugia to carry out the 
great Fountain — Niccola probably remaining at Pisa. After 
the completion of the fountain, Giovanni sculptured his two 
beautiful Madonnas at Pisa — the half-length in the Campo 
Santo, and the full-length figure over the Baptistery door. 
From 1284 to 1298 he was in charge of the works at the 
Cathedral at Siena. Many of the statues still in situ, and 
others in the Museo del Duomo, are erroneously ascribed to 
hinij but the beautiful Sibyl on the architrave of the great 
door is probably his. In 1298 he was commissioned to make 
the Pulpit for S. Andrea at Pistoia, unquestionably his master- 
piece, and interesting as a study in comparison with Niccola's. 
It follows the Sienese lines, but differs in the style of the cusped 


arches, which are certainly less graceful. The body is hexagonal, 
set upon seven columns, three resting upon lions, and the 
central one on a finely modelled figure. Over the capitals stand 
dignified figures of Sibyls, and these, together with the effigies 
of the Prophets in the spandrils of the arches, are amongst the 
finest and most characteristic of Giovanni's sculpture. Another 
grand figure is a youth, typifying S. Matthew, surrounded by 
emblems of the other Evangelists. Into some of the panels 
Gio\'anni puts several subjects. The Massacre of the Innocents 
is the most dramatic of alL Herod looks on unmoved, and 
the grief of the mothers is poignant without violence. The 
Crucifixion, save for the women to the left of the Cross, is 
unsatisfactory. The Last Judgment, like Niccola's, loses in 
effect through the inevitable crowding. These sculptured 
pictures, when compared with Niccola's, show strong i^iver- 
gencies of treatment and temperament. The larger figures at 
the angles recall Niccola's style ; but Giovanni's temperament 
was void of reticence, and led him into extravagances which 
often defaced his finest compositions. An instance of his 
naturalistic tendency may be seen in the action of the nurse 
in the Relief of the Nativity, who tests with her hand the 
warmth of the bath before putting the child into it. Like Fra 
Guglielmo, he often makes the heads of his figures too large, 
and the Statue of the Prophet between the Crucifixion and 
the Last Judgment, at Pistoia, strongly resembles one of the 
comer statues on Fra Guglielmo's Area di S. Domenico. He 
also made for S. Giovanni fiiori Civitas in Pistoia a Holy Water 
Vessel on the shaft of which are carved figures of Temperance, 
Prudence, and Justice. Another Stoup, in S. Piero at Pisa, is 
ascribed to him. About 1305 he made the beautiful Madoruia 
of the Scrovegni Chapel in the Arena Church at Padua, and 
about the same time the Statue of Enrico Scrovegni, now in 
the Sacristy of the Chapel. Scrovegni died in 1321, and his 
tomb in the chapel is by a follower of Giovanni. In 1299 
he was appointed capo maestro of the Cathedral at Pisa, and 
from 1302 to 131 1 worked on the great Pulpit, which was 
unhappily overthrown and injured in the fire of 1595. Some 


fragments of it are built into the existing pulpit, some are in 
the Berlin Museum, and seven of the panels and certain of 
the supporting columns and statues are in the Museo Civico at 
Pisa. All these panels are set out to form segments of a circle, 
and the restored wooden model — also in the Museo — shows 
the body of the pulpit as circular with seven panels. Another 
view is that the pulpit had nine panels, two of which are built 
into the balustrade of the Cathedral choir ; but this is impossible, 
as the two in question are flat slabs and would never have 
ranged with the curved ones in the Museo. The Reliefs in 
the cathedral choir, formerly attributed to Giovanni, are 
portions of a pulpit which once stood in S. Michele del Borgo, 
where there is an Eagle probably by Giovanni. The reading 
desk of the Cathedral pulpit is in the Berlin Museum. 

The reconstruction by Fontana of the pulpit in the Museo 
allows a comparison with the others, and shows it to be the 
least satisfactory. The cusped arches are more graceful than 
those of Pistoia, and certain of the reliefs and statuettes are 
of the finest, but the general effect is one of failure both in 
grouping and proportions, aggravated by superabundance of 
action in the figures and of ornamentation in the design. 
The eye finds no resting-place, and becomes weary. Supino 
impugns the correctness of the wooden model, affirming that 
fragments from other works have been inserted, and that the 
Reliefs in the Cathedral are by Fra Guglielmo. Giovanni did 
an ivory Madonna now in the Sacristy of the Cathedral, and 
the Madonnas in the Cathedral at Prato and in the Museum 
at Turin. Some authorities ascribe to him the colossal figures 
which support the door of the church at S. Quirico ; the 
statues of the Madonna and angels (much mutilated) on the 
Cathedral at Todi, and on S. Maria della Spina at Pisa, and 
others of similar character in the Berlin Museum ; also 
a Madonna at Orvieto. The Tomb of Benedict ix in S. 
Domenico at Perugia was formerly attributed to him, but it 
possesses few of his characteristics ; it was probably done by 
some Sienese sculptor inspired by Arnolfo or the Cosmati. 
The Madonna at the apex of the fa9ade of the Cathedral of 


Pisa, and the one over the entrance to the Campo Santo, are 
no longer classed as his work, the last named being manifestly 
much later. 

In 1 3 13 Giovanni made the Tomb of the Princess Margarita, 
wife of the Emperor Henry vii, in the Church of S. Francesco 
di Castelletto in Genoa. The fragments of this (much 
mutilated) are now in the Palazzo Bianco (Museo Civico) at 

Pisano, Niccola (Pisan, i2o6?-i278) 

In Tuscany the middle part of the thirteenth century was 
destined to witness one of the most startling apparitions of 
genius that had ever burst upon the world of art. Great 
leaders have, as a rule, emerged at some culminating point of 
a period of progressive growth, and proffered their achieve- 
ments, albeit finer than anything hitherto seen, as the legiti- 
mate sequence of what had gone before ; but in 1260, when 
Niccola Pisano displayed his great Pulpit in the Baptistery at 
Pisa, it must have seemed to the onlookers that a new beauty 
had come into the world by spontaneous generation. Since 
the beginning of the twelfth century there had been consider- 
able activity in art and a certain improvement in technique, 
but this improvement had been concerned almost entirely 
with architecture ind decorative carving. The sculpture of 
Guido da Como, Gruamonte, and Bonamico scarcely promised 
a revival. To this period belong such gems as S. Miniato at 
Florence, S. Zenone at Verona, the Cathedral, the Campanile 
and the Baptistery with its wonderful font at Pisa. While the 
northern carvers were covering the French cathedrals with 
sculpture which is still a wonder of beauty, the Italians, for 
some strange reason, had progressed little beyond the quaint 
grotesques of the Lombard period. As an architect Niccola 
could find teachers in plenty, but not as a sculptor; all the 
greater the wonder, then, that at his touch the sense of beauty, 
which had lain dead or dormant for centuries, awoke once 
more to life. 


For many years a controversy has been going on — and it is 
not yet settled — whether Niccola was really a Tuscan, or an 
Apulian who had migrated north. The supporters of the 
view last named base their argument on the words of a con- 
tract made in 1266 between Fra Melano, the chief of the 
works at the Cathedral at Siena, and Niccola Pisano under 
the style of Nicholam Petri de Apulia, and maintain that these 
words must mean that the Niccola in question must have 
been the son of an Apulian father, urging in addition that at 
this time there was a flourishing school of sculpture in the 
South in which Niccola might well have got his teaching. 
Their opponents quote two extracts referring to him from the 
archives of S. Jacopo at Pistoia which, according to Milanesi's 
interpretation, run thus : Magistro Nichole quondam Petri de 
cappella Sancfi Blasii pisa ; in other words, that he was the 
son of a certain Pietro, a Pisan, who formerly lived in the 
parish of S. Biagio at Pisa. They also hold that the words 
" de Apulia," in the Sienese contract might very well refer to a 
Tuscan town near Siena called Puglia, or to one near Arezzo, 
and that Niccola might have been associated with either of 
these by birth or otherwise. The strongest argument they 
advance is that the sculpture Niccola would have seen as a 
young man in Apulia would have been much less likely to 
stimulate the production of his masterpieces than that which 
he would have seen in Tuscany. In the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries much more carved and graven ornament was pro- 
duced in the south than in the northern and central parts, and 
some of it, e.g. the bronze doors of Trani and Benevento, was 
of high merit; but with these exceptions it was influenced 
by Byzantine or Saracenic models : animals, arabesques, or 
Oriental designs brought back by returning Crusaders. In this 
connection it may be noted that M. Bertaux professes to 
detect traces of Byzantine influence in Niccola's pulpits ; in 
the garments of an Archangel at Pisa, and of one of the 
Virtues at Siena, surmising that Niccola may have borrowed 
the patterns from a Byzantine ivory. After the Norman 
occupation in 1028 many churches were built in Apulia with 

i, ft. 

5 ^ 


fine carved decoration, which, however, would scarcely have 
inspired Niccola's subsequent work. It is possible that Graeco- 
Roman fragments, since destroyed, may have been abundant 
in the South ; but this is hypothetical, while it is certain that 
Niccola would have found them — as Vasari said he did — in 
the Campo Santo at Pisa. The figure of the Virgin in the 
Adoration of the Kings on the pulpit is closely imitated from 
the Phaedra relief, and in the Circumcision the bearded man 
and the youth in the foreground are inspired by the figures 
of Dionysus and Ampelos on a Greek vase, and the classic 
horses are copied from the same model. One of the devils in 
the Last Judgment has a face like an antique comic mask, and 
the Virgin of the Nativity, posed as a recumbent Ariadne, was 
modelled from an ancient Etruscan mortuary urn. The Pulpit 
is hexagonal, resting upon six angle and one central columns ; 
its composition shows Niccola's daring, and also his fine 
artistic sense. It needed true genius to blend these diverse 
elements into such beautiful and harmonious combination. 
He based three of his columns on the backs of lions of the 
Lombard type, and the central one on a group of figures, and 
crowned them with classic capitals, but his most epoch-making 
feat was the introduction, into the spaces between the capitals 
and the panels above, of the beautiful series of carved and 
cusped arches, the first instance of a combination of Gothic 
and classic work. The five Reliefs on the Pulpit represent the 
Nativity, the Adoration, the Circumcision, the Crucifixion, 
and the Last Judgment. It is probable that his next work 
was the ReUef of the Deposition over the left-hand door of 
the west front of the Cathedral at Lucca. The date (1233) 
on the portico has led to an erroneous impression that the 
relief itself was done in this year, and is consequently Niccola's 
earliest work, whereas this date evidently refers to the erection 
of the portico. But the treatment of the subject would be 
enough to proclaim it a work of Niccola's golden prime. It 
is better than at least two of the reliefs on the Pisan pulpit, 
and much better than those of the Nativity and the Adoration 
just below it on the lintel of the door, which have been 


ascribed, with doubtful claims, to Niccola, and by some critics 
to Giovanni, his son. The contract for the Siena Pulpit, 
Niccola's greatest feat, dates from 1266, and it was completed 
two years later. Giovanni his son and Arnolfo his pupil were 
associated with him, and some critics profess to be able to 
detect in certain of the panels the distinctive touch of each. 
Two panels were added — the Flight into Egypt and the 
Massacre of the Innocents — and in these Giovanni's style is 
predominant. The Nativity and the Adoration are finer than 
at Pisa ; and in the last named one of the Magi — whose head 
was certainly carved by Giovanni, is for the first time shown 
kissing the Child's foot, a detail often repeated. The horses 
are strongly classical in type. The chief failing of the Siena 
panels is the undue crowding of the subjects and the in- 
termixture of figures of different sizes. The Sienese Pulpit 
is on a larger scale, and as it now stands is more hetero- 
geneous in composition. At Pisa the panels are divided by 
clustered columns, but at Siena Niccola has introduced 
statuettes, some of which are of great beauty. A Madonna 
and one of the Virtues are the finest figures carved since 
classic times. These figures enrich the total effect, but the 
Pisan columns, by dividing sharply one sculptured panel from 
its neighbour, are more effective. At Siena he has extended 
his illustration beyond Christian iconography, and has por- 
trayed on the bases of the columns figures representing the 
liberal arts. Grammar, Dialectics, Rhetoric, Philosophy, and 
Music. Similar honour was done to Science on the fountain at 
Perugia, and on Giovanni's Pulpit at Pistoia. Compared with 
the Pisan Pulpit, the Sienese shows a closer knowledge of 
Nature ; an increased disposition to rely on natural models 
rather than on classical remains. 

After the completion of the pulpit Siena became a leading 
centre of plastic art. To quote the words of an old writer : 
"From the pulpit the first Sienese and Florentine sculptors 
issued, like the Greeks from the Trojan horse." Hitherto 
Sienese sculpture had been of the rude tyi>e of the reliefs in 
the Ansano Chapel of the Cathedral, but so rapidly did it 



progress after Niccola's sojourn that in 13 10 Lorenzo Maitani, 
a Pisan, was put in charge of the Cathedral works at Orvieto. 
Henceforth Niccola's movements are uncertain. In 1273 he 
seems to have made an Altar for the Chapel of S. Jacopo at 
Pistoia ; his next work and his last was the Fountain at Perugia, 
in collaboration with Giovanni. His pupil Arnolfo was then 
(1277) engaged at Naples by Charles of Anjou, who, on the 
prayer of the authorities at Perugia, allowed him to go and 
co-operate. The sculpture as it stands is greatly defaced by 
time and exposure, but that which has kept its outline shows 
Niccola's art at its best. The fountain consists of a lower 
and upper basin, with a circular vase rising from the upper, in 
which is a beautiful bronze group of female figures supporting 
griffins, who send up a central jet of water. This bronze 
work was done by Rosso, a native artist, in 1277. Around the 
upper basin are twenty-four figures of Scriptural and allegorical 
personages, certain of which have all the characteristics of 
Niccola's style, and were probably done by him ; while the 
fifty-four reliefs which decorate the lower basin were done by 
Giovanni and Arnolfo. The proportions of the fountain are 
dignified and graceful ; Niccola has divided the reliefs on the 
lower basin, like those on the Pisan pulpit, by clustered 
columns. It has been noted that, on the Sienese pulpit, 
he invested his scheme of illustration with a mere secular 
character, by including in it the liberal arts. On the Fountain 
at Perugia he widened his range still further, by bringing in 
the signs of the Zodiac, the Months, the Trivium and 
Quadrivium, Romulus and Remus, and divers of ^sop's fables. 
In the present state of the sculpture it is impossible to assign 
any portion definitely to any one hand ; but as Niccola died in 
1278, soon after it was completed, it is natural to assume that 
the far larger share of the stone cutting was done by Giovanni 
and Arnolfo. Probably he furnished the design and carved 
his figures at Pisa, sending them on to his son, who was in 
charge of the works. On the upper basin is an inscription : 
" M. Johannes est sculptor hujus operis," which seems to show 
that Giovanni alone was concerned in the final stages of the 


fountain. On the lower basin is another one referring to 
Niccola and Giovanni ; and on the part of the citizens of 
Perugia, wishing them health, sint multo tempore sani. This 
is dated 1278, and there is good reason to believe that Niccola 
died the same year. 

Vasari has described Niccola's activity as an architect in 
every region of Italy, from Pisa to Naples, and from Venice 
to Volterra; but in all the early Lives Vasari must be dis- 
trusted unless he be adequately supported, and in writing 
of Niccola he is more than usually incorrect, for, treating 
of the area of S. Dominic at Bologna, he asserts that, at 
the time of Dominic's death, in 1221, Niccola, then about 
fifteen, had proved himself the leading Tuscan sculptor; 
that Arnolfo, instead of being a pupil of Niccola, was his 
predecessor; that Niccola was called on to undertake the 
area of S. Dominic seven years before the canonization, and 
that he finished it in 1231, or some thirty-four years before 
it was really begun. The area is still set down to Niccola 
in guide-books, but it was done by his pupil Fra Guglielmo, 
probably from a design of his master's. Again, Vasari sends 
Niccola to Naples in 1231, "at the time of the coronation 
of Frederic 11 by Pope Honorius," an event which took place 
ten years sooner. Yet Niccola must have been at work either 
as architect or sculptor before 1260, and Vasari may have 
been right as to some of the works attributed to him. 
Milanesi credits him with the plan of the ancient Church of 
S. Domenico in Bologna, rebuilt by Benedict xiii in the 
seventeenth century; if this be correct, it would probably 
have been an early work, and Vasari may have compared 
the completion of the church with the completion of the 
area of the saint. Niccola is said to have gone to Naples 
in the train of Frederic 11, and to have remained there ten 
years, during which he built the Castel dell' Ovo, the Castel 
Capuano, and many towers and hunting lodges. Of all his 
reputed excursions out of Tuscany, this seems the most 
probable. The Emperor, a man of magnificent ideas and 
great wealth, was bent on making Naples a capital worthy of 


that portion of his dominions he loved best, and Niccola, 
as architect and sculptor, would naturally be drawn thither; 
but the Castel dell' Ovo was finished in 1221, so he could 
hardly have been concerned with that. He may well have 
designed S. Jacopo at Pistoia, but scarcely S. Antonio at 
Padua, as his name is nowhere to be found in the archives. 
His last achievements given by Vasari are surely mythical: 
the erection, by the command of Charles of Anjou, of a 
convent of monks at Tagliacozzo who should pray for ever 
for the souls of those who fell in the battle. Nothing exists 
to suggest any such religious fabric, nor is there any truth in 
his other assertion that, on his way northward, Niccola halted 
at Orvieto and, in company with certain Germans, made 
several statues on the fa9ade, and the reliefs of the Last 
Judgment and of Paradise and Hell. Niccola had been 
dead over thirty years. 

In searching for the secret of Niccola's success, critics for 
the most part have overlooked the chief cause. They dis- 
course at length on the classic inspiration gathered from 
sarcophagi and the like, but they fail to notice that all this 
observation and appreciation of Greek masterpieces would 
have been futile unless Niccola had been a well-trained carver : 
it was the combination of the craftsman's hand and the artist's 
brain and eye which gave to art the greatest impulse it had 
ever felt 

Pisano, Nino (Florentine, -1368) 

Nino was the son of Andrea Pisano, and, like many sculptors 
of this period, he spent much time in the decoration of the 
west front of the Cathedral of Orvieto, where he was appointed 
capo maestro in 1 349. Before this he had helped Andrea on 
the Baptistery doors. His most important work is the Tomb 
of Archbishop Saltarelli, who died in 1342, in S. Caterina 
at Pisa, which is strongly Sienese in feeling. The archi- 
tectural setting is not very harmonious and rather coarse in 
execution, the statuary being by far the best part of the tomb. 


On the base are three panels in relief, illustrating the dealings 
of the Archbishop with Louis of Bavaria when he seized Pisa 
by force. The effigy lies behind a heavy colonnade of pillars 
and arches, on each side of which are graceful angels holding 
back a curtain, and above this are other reliefs. In the 
choir are two fine statues of the Virgin and the Angel Gabriel, 
and in S. Cecilia a figure of Christ. In SS. Giovanni e Paolo 
in Venice the Madonna and Apostles over the tomb of Marco 
Cornaro are now ascribed to him. 

Nino did a great number of Madonnas ; that of S. Maria 
Novella, standing on the tomb of Aldobrandini dei Cavalcanti 
(which also is now attributed to him), one half-length and 
one standing holding the Child, who reaches after a flower, in 
S. Maria della Spina at Pisa. On either side of the last 
named are Statues by him of the Baptist and S. Peter. There 
are Madonnas by him in the Museo del Duomo at Orvieto, 
in the Berlin Museum, at Budapest, and in S. Ansano at 
Fiesole. Recent investigations at Oristano in Sardinia have 
brought to light the statue of a bishop, probably S. Augustine, 
signed by him. It bears traces of colouring, a practice 
he adopted largely in his later work. Nino was the first 
sculptor who produced free standing life-sized statues in any 

Pollaiuolo, Antonio (Florentine, 1429-1498) 

The son of a citizen of Florence, he was sent to study in the 
same workshop where Lorenzo Ghiberti had been taught. 
Lorenzo, hearing of his excellence as a smith, took him as an 
assistant for his work on the bronze Reliefs of the Baptistery 
doors. Pollaiuolo's art legacy as a sculptor was very small, 
a fact which may be due to his many-sided activity and to 
his diligent study of anatomy. He was certainly the first 
to practise dissection with this end in view, and was the 
founder of the scientific study of the human frame. He 
realized that all his forerunners had been on the wrong 
tack, and set to work on original lines. His nude figures, 


at a first glance, recall the classic style, but study and com- 
parison will show that they are as strongly independent as 
works of art can be. It is not altogether a paradox to affirm 
that he painted and modelled more as an anatomist than as 
an artist and that his work shows consummate knowledge 
but very little intellect. 

Little is known of his life. He seems to have prospered, 
and bought fields and houses. When his commissions for 
pictures and metal work were more than he could carry out 
he would turn over his pictures to his brother Piero, and 
devote his time to his bronze and silversmith's work. Piero 
was not such an incompetent person as he is commonly 
represented. He did sculpture on his own account, and 
almost certainly helped his brother on the tombs of the Popes. 

Compared with Donatello, he is a good example of the 
better craftsman and the inferior artist ; but with it all he was 
the greatest draughtsman, goldsmith, and anatomist of his 
time. His earliest work is the pedestal of the Silver Cross, 
made for the Florentine Baptistery in 1457, and now in 
the Opera del Duomo. The upper part — the Cross itself 
and the brackets — was made by Betto di Betti, and was re- 
constructed in the seventeenth century. Pollaiuolo's base 
was formerly enriched with enamel, but this has perished. 
Round the base are finely worked reliefs : the Baptism of 
Christ, and Moses with the Tables of the Law, and the rest 
of the space is occupied by figures of angels, the fathers of 
the Church, and the Christian virtues. Verrocchio's picture, 
now in the Accademia, and Michelangelo's Prophets in the 
Sistine Chapel show signs that these reliefs of Pollaiuolo's 
had been carefully studied, and the lessons learned from 
them judiciously carried out. On either side sphinx-like 
figures support beautiful statuettes, Faith and Hope. In 
1477 Pollaiuolo executed one of the silver panels for the 
altar now in the Opera del Duomo. It is a vigorous 
presentment of the Birth of the Baptist, but it is inferior to 
Verrocchio's panel of the Decollation. The woman who 
holds the child and the other with a basket on her head 


are admirable as separate figures, but Pollaiuolo, both as 
painter and sculptor, failed in grouping and in perspective. 
In the Bargello are two of his works, the Bust of a young 
man and a Group of Hercules and Antaeus. A David in the 
Museum at Naples is probably his, and the Bust of Ordelaffi 
in the Museum at Forh is much more in his manner than 
in Verrocchio's. 

Pollaiuolo's greatest works are the Papal Tombs in S. Peter's. 
On the death of Sixtus iv, Innocent viii, his successor, 
commissioned him to execute the monument which is the 
finest bronze tomb extant. The Pope's effigy lies upon a 
bronze slab upon which are sculptured figures typifying the 
seven Virtues, the Charity having been evidently suggested 
by the sleeping Ariadne. Faith and Hope are full of vigour, 
and more appropriate for a pagan triumph than for a 
pontifical sepulchre. Prudence, Temperance, and Fortitude are 
treated with greater reticence, and all are exquisitely modelled 
and chased. On the concave sides of the monument are 
allegories of Rhetoric, Dialectics, Theology, Perspective, 
Grammar, Geometry, Music, and Arithmetic, of which the 
first four are the finest. 

Before the tomb was completed Pope Innocent died, 
whereupon his nephew Cardinal Cibo commissioned 
Pollaiuolo to execute a tomb to his uncle's memory. In 
this he has been more successful with the Pope, and less 
with the accessaries, than on the other tomb. Probably 
this was because he knew Innocent as a living man, and 
decided to represent him in life on the upper part of the 
monument. This seated figure is Pollaiuolo's finest statue. 
The face, good-humoured and sensual, is full of character, 
and the pose is full of life. He holds in his hand a replica 
of the precious relic he added to the Papal store during his 
pontificate, the spear-head with which the side of Christ was 
pierced. On the slab beneath lies the effigy of the Pope 
in death. The likeness has been marvellously preserved, 
though the signs of mortal change have been rendered with 
somewhat cruel realism. The seven Virtues around the 


S. PtUr't, KctHt 


seated figure are variants of the same subjects on the 
Tomb of Sixtus. Since its completion the tomb has been 
several times moved and remodelled, and its present 
collocation is in many ways awkward and inharmonious. 
In the seated statue of Pope Innocent, PoUaiuolo escaped 
his besetting failure of over-crowding his space and over- 
elaborating his detail. The one defect in the Tomb of 
Sixtus lies in the restless draperies of the female figures, 
which, even standing by themselves, would have suffered on 
this account, and suffer still more in their position as 
accessaries to a sepulchral monument In 1477 he made, 
at the command of Giuliano della Rovere, the Bronze Door 
of the closet in which are kept S. Peter's fetters in S. Pietro 
in Vincoli. There is in the Bargello a terra-cotta bust of 
Charles viii which has been attributed, without either reason 
or authority, to PoUaiuolo. It was probably done during 
the sojourn of Charles in Rome in 1495. The features tally 
exactly with the description of the king's appearance given 
by Contarini, the Venetian ambassador. 

Pollaiuolo probably takes a higher place in art from his 
drawings than from his sculpture or his painting. These 
demonstrate most clearly the results of his anatomical 
studies, and on this account have become valuable docu- 
ments to students and art historians, as well as fascinating 
studies to the artist. The outhne of his figures, whether 
drawn or carved, conveys an impression of absolute 
certainty. Mind, eye, and hand knew their task, and carried 
it out with faultless exactness. He did not trouble himself 
to search for any great variety of types : his hand was 
versatile enough to modify those which he had already 
portrayed into a hundred variants. An example of this 
dexterity may be found in the series of highly vitalized 
young women who pose in graceful attitudes around the 
effigy of Pope Sixtus. Hostile critics have called him 
violent and brutal, and there is a certain amount of justice 
in this charge; but it should be added that, when he does 
represent violence or brutality, he renders it so as to 

1 74 PORTA 

represent the consummate point of strength and motion. 
No one can claim for him any inherent feeling for beauty or 
harmony. Naturally, he revealed beauty occasionally, but it 
was that beauty which follows inevitably from the touch of the 
artist, and not something sought and cherished for its own 
sake. And unquestionably there runs through the whole of 
his work a vein of exaggeration, which affected disastrously art 
in the next generation. He was the most frankly pagan of 
all the Florentine artists. He executed no Madonnas ; the 
sacred personages in the Relief and the Crucifix base have 
no devotional stamp upon them ; and he made the tombs 
of two Popes without a single Christian emblem. 

Porta, Giovanni Battista della 

(Florentine, 1542- 1597) 

He did the Group of Christ giving the Keys to Peter in S. 
Pudenziana at Rome; a Statue of S. Dominic on the tomb 
of Pius V in S. Maria Maggiore ; and a Moses striking the Rock 
on the Fontana dei Termini. 

Porta, Guglielmo della (Milanese, -1577) 

He was a son of Gio. Giacomo della Porta. In 15 16 he 
went with his father to Genoa, where they made the Ciborium 
over the altar in the Cathedral. He carved in relief the 
figures of the Prophets on the bases of the four columns, and 
seven statues for the altar of the left transept. For the Church 
of S. Thomas he did a Group of the Incredulity, and a Statue 
of S. Catherine for one of the city gates, which statue is now 
in the Museo. In 1537 he went to Rome, where, by the 
influence of Michelangelo and Sebastian del Piombo, he was 
employed by Paul iii to restore certain antique statues in the 
Palazzo Farnese. His chief work in Rome is the Pope's tomb, 
in which Michelangelo's influence is plainly visible. It is a 
skilful and not unpleasing adaptation of the style of the 


Medici tombs. Its composition is not faultless : the two 
female figures at its base, which have done so much to make 
it notorious, belong neither to each other nor to the tomb as 
a whole, and would be better away. The figure of Paul is fine 
and dignified. Vasari writes of four reclining figures, but only 
two, Prudence and Justice, are now in situ. The Prudence 
is well modelled; the figure of Justice, as she appeared 
originally, might have been taken for a Venus, and is assuredly 
inappropriate to a Christian temple. Tradition has it that the 
face is a portrait of Giovanna di Sermoneta, the Pope's sister- 
in-law. The bronze vestments which now veil her were put 
on in 1593 by Teodoro della Porta, the sculptor's son. The 
Pope's Bust in the Museum at Naples is equally fine. In 
allegorical work he failed entirely; he was devoid of the 
intellectual equipment which is necessary for the endowment 
of a work of art with an esoteric meaning. His imitation of 
Michelangelo did not go very far; but it may be remarked 
that M. Reymond finds his style more correct than Michel- 
angelo's. In the Palazzo Famese were two statues by him 
which may have been made for the tomb of Paul in. 

Properzia di Rossi (Bolognesb, i49o?-i53o) 

Properzia was the only woman who won distinction in art 
during the Renaissance in Italy, She was a pupil of the 
engraver Marc Antonio Raimondi, and her early efforts were 
devoted to the production of whimsicalities like cherry-stones 
carved with sixty separate heads, or with the entire story of 
the Passion. Specimens of this wasted labour are preserved 
in the Cabinet of Gems in the Uffizi at Florence. After a 
time she practised decorative stone-carving, and executed the 
graceful Frieze of Raffaelesque ornamentation round the high 
altar in the Church of the Madonna del Barracano at Bologna. 
A Bust in S. Petronio, of Count Pepoli, is now discredited ; 
but the Angel in Triboli's relief of the Ascension in S. Petronio 
is probably by her. She was a woman of great beauty, an 


accomplished musician, and apparently of violent passions. 
Vasari tells of her unrequited love for a handsome youth, and 
how, by way of relieving her emotion, she carved the histories 
of Joseph and of the Queen of Sheba — now in the Sacristy 
of S. Petronio, — and how, when Clement vii came to Bologna 
to crown Charles v, he desired to see the gifted lady, who 
unhappily had died a few days before. 

Pyrgoteles (Venetian, -1531) 

His real name was Zuan Zorzi Lascaris. He made the Figure 
of S. Giustina on one of the holy water stoups in S. Antonio 
at Padua; the beautiful Madonna relief over the door of 
S. Maria dei Miracoli; the Madonna on the Pesaro tomb 
in the Frari, and the Reliefs of the Madonna and two Saints 
on the Scuola degli Albanesi, near S, Maurizio at Venice. 
He was one of the best of the followers of the Lombardi. 

S. Petronio, Bologna 

Catktdral, l.uica 

Quercia, Jacopo della (Sienese, 1374-1438) 

9UERCIA was bom at a time when the Sienese school of 
sculpture, which had taken vigorous growth after the 
sojourn of Niccola Pisano, had almost died out He was 
probably trained as a goldsmith, but there is no mention of 
his name until his competition in 1401 for the doors of the 
Baptistery at Florence. After this he seems to have gone to 
Lucca, where he executed his earliest and most famous work, 
the Tomb of Ilaria del Carretto, the wife of Paolo Guinigi, the 
ruler of the city, in the Cathedral. It is now moved out from 
the wall, and completed in its original form by the addition of 
the side slabs which were formerly in the Bargello at Florence. 
Its date is uncertain. Ilaria died in 1405, and it was not 
finished till 14 13. It is too well known to need description, 
and Ruskin's eulogy of it seems justified. Jacopo was an 
erratic worker. While engaged on this tomb, in 1409, he 
contracted with the Sienese authorities to make a marble 
Fountain for the mark^-place, but this was not begun till 14 12. 
This fountain, a beautiful work, is now in the Museo — the 
present structure being a careful reproduction by Sarrochi. 
In 141 7, before he had completed the fountain, he returned to 
Lucca to make a Reredos for a chapel in S. Frediano : a bene- 
faction of a citizen named Trenta. This is one of Quercia's 
least attractive productions. The Gothic niches are overdone 
with ornament and ill-proportioned, while the figures have 
little charm and are awkwardly posed. The reliefs below 
illustrate incidents in the lives of the sculptured saints. He 
did also two mortuary effigies for the Trenta family, but all his 
work in S. Frediano is unworthy of him. It was probably 


done in haste — for mere bread — as he was in trouble with the 
Sienese authorities on account of his delay over the fountain. 
In 14 1 6 he complicated matters still further by an agreement 
to do the Font in the Baptistery at Siena; and though he 
finished the Trenta reredos in 1422, and the fountain at 
Siena in 141 9, he raised fresh confusion by contracting, in 
1425, to decorate the West Door of S. Petronio at Bologna. 
These irregularities make it exceedingly difficult to frame 
an intelligible record of his work. By thus abandoning the 
Sienese font, he exasperated the authorities, who wrote 
threatening him with a heavy fine if he did not return to his 
work. To this he replied, begging their mercy on the ground 
that he was kept by force in Bologna. He returned to Siena 
about 1428, and worked on the font, but he did not finish the 
first of the reliefs allotted to him — the Expulsion of Zacharias — 
till 1430 ; and the other one, the Feast of Herodias, was given 
to Donatello. The Sienese font is one of the most interesting 
creations of the time : in no other is there to be found a 
happier blending of the Gothic and Renaissance styles. From 
an octagonal basin below rises a clustered Gothic column with 
finely carved capitals on which is set a tabernacle with coved 
niches divided by fluted pilasters and containing Quercia's 
relief statuettes. On the cornice stand Donatello's bronze 
children ; the structure is completed by a pillar crowned with 
Quercia's figure of the Baptist. Quercia's relief is a great 
contrast to the others by Ghiberti and Donatello. Its severe 
architectural setting, its uncrowded space, and the repose of 
the figures show a great advance on his Trenta reredos. 
Jacopo left the marble carving of the font to be done by 
Minello da Siena, Nanni di Lucca, and others. 

His great work, the decoration of the Portal of S. Petronio 
at Bologna, was left incomplete at his death. He was engaged 
over it for ten years, but much of this time was spent over 
arrears of work at Siena, and not a little in seeking marble, 
and quarrelling with his employers. The scheme comprised 
thirty-two half-figures and fifteen reliefs, the last-named being 
some of his greatest achievements. The five over the door 


BmptisUrj, SUnm 


are scenes from the life of Christ, and right and left are ten 
scenes from the Old Testament — one of which, Abraham's 
Sacrifice, was the subject given in the trial for the Baptistery 
doors. It is interesting to note the difference between 
Quercia's and Ghiberti's renderings in this and in the 
Creation of Eve. In contrast to Ghiberti's crowded panels, 
Quercia delivers his message in the fewest possible words. 
For the most part his reliefs contain only three figures. The 
Creation of Eve, when brought into comparison with Ghiberti's, 
may appear wanting in beauty, but what it misses in alluring 
softness it gains in directness and strength. The Expulsion 
from Paradise marks an enormous advance on any former 
relief in dramatic realism. There is a replica in the Cathedral 
library at Siena. The Curse of Labour is another wonderful 
picture. Adam and Eve are rudely carved, and the children 
playing around are shapeless, but Quercia lets them disclose 
plainly enough the opening scene of the grim drama of toil. 
He does not, like Ghiberti, need to crowd his composition with 
clouds, landscapes, trees, and architecture. In the lunette are 
Figures of S. Petronio and S. Ambrose with the Virgin between 
them : a beautiful and dignified rendering and the finest yet 
produced. In 1436 he did the Tomb of Antonio Bentivoglio 
in the ambulatory of S. Giacomo Maggiore — one of the 
teaching-professor type ; and in the Museo Civico are two 
Reliefs of the Virgin and Angels, and of S. Michael and' a 
Sibyl. On the exterior of the Cathedral at Orvieto is a female 
Figure, attributed to Quercia and quite in his style, and in 
S. Martino at Siena are five wooden Statues, gilded and 
painted, of the Virgin and saints. The Virgin is very fine, and 
all are probably genuine. The Madonna in the Sacristy of the 
Cathedral at Ferrara is rated by many competent critics as an 
early work. In the Victoria and Albert Museum are three 
Madonnas in terra-cotta (Nos. 7572, 7573, 7574) and the 
Front of a Water Trough (No. 7613) with three very character- 
istic medallions in relief. All these are probably from his 
workshop, and possibly also another Madonna in painted clay 
in the Louvre. 

Raverti, Matteo (Milanese— Working, 1400) 

HE was in charge of the sculpture on the Cathedral 1398- 
1404. He did the series of colossal Figures under the 
gargoyles ; and inside the Cathedral the Statue of S. Babila 
and Three Children in the north transept. The Figures on the 
tomb of Gio. Borromeo on Isola Bella show traces of his 
style. He probably went to Venice about 141 9 to help in the 
rebuilding of the Ducal Palace after the great fire. 

Rho, PietrO da (Milanese — Working, 1500) 

He was an assistant, and probably a pupil, of Amadeo. He 
did the Statues of SS. Peter, Paul, Mark, and Marcellinus on 
the fagade of the Cathedral at Cremona, a Relief of S. Jerome 
in the Casa Fassati, and the decoration of the Portal of the 
Palazzo Communale. Venturi attributes to him the Reliefs of 
the Martyrs in the Cathedral and the decoration of the Porta 
Stanga now in the Louvre. 

Riccio, Andrea (Briosco) (Paduan, 1470-1532) 

Riccio was trained in the workshop of Bellano, one of Dona- 

tello's assistants at Padua. He is chiefly known as the maker 

of the famous Paschal Candlestick in S. Antonio, probably the 

most sumptuous existing example of decorative bronze casting. 

It represents ten years' labour, from 1507 to 1517, and its 


RICCIO 1 8 1 

abundance of detail renders description impossible. The best 
reliefs are the Adoration, the Paschal Lamb, Christ in Limbo, 
and the Entombment ; and the best figures, Courage, Temper- 
ance, Prudence, and Justice. Riccio treated all themes, secular 
and religious, in the undiluted classic spirit of the later 
Renaissance. The Paschal sacrifice, as he has rendered it, 
would serve equally well as a scene in a temple of Apollo, with 
its torches, vases, and double pipes. Unless it can be realized 
that there was nothing incongruous in this mixture to the artist 
himself, his attempt may seem bizarre and unsatisfying ; but 
the extraordinary beauty of the candlestick as it stands, the 
freedom and sureness of touch displayed in execution, the 
harmony of composition, everywhere apparent in spite of 
the abundance and variety of detail, are indisputable. Of the 
large Reliefs in the inner choir two — David dancing before the 
Ark, and Judith — are by Riccio, and are greatly superior to 
the rest, which are Bellano's. In 1522 he did the Tomb of 
Trombetta near the door, with a fine portrait bust. Pietas in 
S. Benedetto and in S. Canziano are ascribed to him, also 
some fragments in painted clay in the Museo Civico. Later 
he went to Verona and did the Monument of Girolamo and 
Marc Antonio della Torre in S. Fermo — a sarcophagus on 
sphinx-Hke figures admirably modelled with a richly carved 
frieze. The Bronze Reliefs were carried away by the French 
and are now in the Louvre. They show Riccio's tendency to 
illustrate Christian themes by classic examples; Death and 
Paradise are rendered by the passage of the Styx and an 
Olympian revel. Some Reliefs by him, scenes from the lives 
of Constantine and S. Helena, and a Figure of S. Martin, are in 
the Ducal Palace at Venice ; and a Bust of Andrea Loredano 
in the Museo Correr. Inkstands in the Oxford Museum and 
in the Wallace Gallery, and a fine Equestrian Statuette 
(No. 2331), two Sphinxes (No. 2888-9), two Inkstands (Nos. 
2910, 2940), and a group of a Woman and a Centaur (No. 
291 1 ) in the Victoria and Albert Museum, are by him or from 
his workshop. Riccio finished the Tomb of Roccabonella, left 
unfinished by Bellano, in S. Francesco at Padua. 

1 82 RIZZO 

Rizzo, Antonio (Veronese, 1430-1498?) 

Rizzo probably got his training under the Mantegazzas at the 
Certosa, and went about 1467 to Venice, where, with Pietro 
Lombardo, he laid the foundation of the Renaissance archi- 
tecture of the city. Some of his earliest carvings are the 
figures of Adam and Eve and Mars on the Foscari Memorial 
in the court of the Ducal Palace, which show a great advance 
on any existing Venetian sculpture. He also did the Tomb of 
the ill-fated Francesco Foscari in the Frari. Its date is not 
exactly known, but it was probably erected some years after 
Foscari's death in 1457. It shows a clash of styles, as if the 
original conception, evidently borrowed from the Florentine 
tomb of Tommaso Mocenigo in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, had 
proved displeasing to public sentiment, and had therefore been 
modified by the infusion of a certain amount of conventional 
Gothic ornament. Though the figures are finely wrought and 
modelled the effect is not altogether happy. The early Pisan 
detail of the curtain-drawing angels here becomes a vast tent, 
the angels having disappeared. His Tomb of Niccolo Tron 
close by (1473) is his finest work. To carry it out with its 
nineteen large statues, numerous reliefs, and mass of orna- 
mental detail, he needed a large number of assistants, and it is 
difficult to identify all his work. Many of the statues show 
Donatello's influence : the architectural setting is harmonious, 
and, considering the vast scale on which he set out his subject, 
he achieved a great success. The two allegorical Virtues and 
the effigy of the Doge are especially good. In 1483 he was 
made chief architect of the Ducal Palace, and with Pietro 
Lombardo is largely responsible for the existing fabric. It is 
reported that he misappropriated funds, and fled to Foligno, 
where he died about 1498. Some writers give him the name 
of Bregno, and confuse him with Antonio Bregno of Como, 
who was also employed on the decoration of the Ducal 



fntri, ytniie 


Robbia, Andrea della (Florentine, 1435-1525) 

Andrea was the nephew of Luca and thirty-five years his 
junior. Some critics detect in his work a tendency towards 
religious hysteria, a weaker intellect, and a striving for effect 
by display of devotional sentimentality : a judgment possibly 
suggested by the fact that he is known to have been a follower 
of Savonarola. It b difficult to date his works, but the 
Children of the Innocenti in Florence are amongst the earliest. 
The excellence of the glazing has suggested Luca's collabora- 
tion in these, as well as in the Relief of the Annunciation in 
the court of the Hospital. His finest works are at La Vema — 
the Crucifixion, the Annunciation, the Madonna in Adoration, 
and the Madonna della Cintola. The Crucifixion shows him 
at his best. The figures of S. John and the Virgin are noble 
and dignified, and the angels graceful and well grouped ; the 
composition perhaps would be better without the kneeling 
saints. The angel in the Annunciation is one of his finest 
figures, but the group is marred by the trivial and needless 
group in the upper comer. This work dates from 1478. 
Slightly later are the Madonna of Mercy in S. Maria in Grado, 
and the Madonna and Saints in the Campo Santo at Arezzo ; 
the Virgin of the Architects in the Bargello ; the Coronation 
in the Osservanza near Siena ; and the Altar in S. Maria delle 
Grazie near Arezzo, which is interesting as the only work in 
marble he ever attempted. It is not a success. The plan is 
chaotic : a clumsy frieze and pediment held up by ill-proportioned 
pilasters on mean bases ; cherubs squatting on the pediment, 
and reliefs dropped into every vacant space. In the centre 
is a painting of the Madonna della Misericordia, enclosed 
in a conventional coloured terra -cotta border of fruit and 
flowers; with an outer marble one, carved with cherubs* 
heads, which is interrupted at the sides to allow space for 
four doll-like statues. In the Victoria and Albert Museum 
there is a very fine Madonna in a border of fruit and flowers 
(No. 7630). Andrea's work varies little in its characteristics, 

1 84 


and to describe each example would be profitless repetition. 
The above-named are the more important; the minor and 
uncertain works are given in the following list : — 

Aquila . 
Arezzo . 

Assisi . 

Brancoli . 
Empoli . 

Gradara . 
London . 

Naples • 
Pisa , . 
Pistoia . 

Prate . . 

Viterbo . 
Volterra . 

Altar, Resurrection, Coronation of the Virgin 

Trinity, Madonna with Saints, Ascension, 
Crucifixion, a variant of that at La Verna 
Coronation of the Virgin and Saints, S. 

Francis (S. Maria degli Angeli). 
Three Madonnas (Museum). 
S. George (Church). 

Two Medallions (CoUegiata), Altar (Prefettura). 

Madonna of the Cushion (76), two Madonnas 

(10, 27) (Bargello), Lunette, Madonna 

and Angels (Opera del Duomo), Madonna 

and Saints (S. Croce, Cappella Medici), 

Tabernacle (S. Egidio), Piet^ (Monte de 

Pietk), S. Francis, S. Dominic, and 

Medallions of Saints (Ospedale di S. 

Paolo), Infant Christ (Casa Sorbi), Altar 


Altar (Municipio). 

Madonnas (7547, 5633), Assumption (5741) 

(Victoria and Albert Museum). 
Medallions of Evangelists (Monte Oliveto). 
Madonna (Campo Santo). 
Madonna and Angels and portal decoration 

Lunette (Cathedral), Vaulting, Medallions, and 
Frieze (S. Maria delle Carceri), Altar, 
Madonna and Saints, SS. Paul and Lucia, 
Lunette (S. Maria del Buonconsiglio). 
Madonna and Saints. 
Bust of Almadiano (Museo). 
Bust of S. Lino (Cathedral). 



La Merita 


Robbia, Giovanni della (Florentine, 1469-1529) 

It was in his time that the school founded by Luca ceased 
to be a studio of artists and became a potters' factory. He 
was Andrea's fourth son, and, judging from his few individual 
works, he was inferior to his father in modelling, but with 
a better eye for composition. But it is a difficult question, 
for the conditions under which his Madonnas and Tabernacles 
were manufactured make it almost impossible to determine 
what part he may have had in them. The dated examples — in 
which he had probably the larger share — are the Lavabo in 
S. Maria Novella (1497); the Madonna in the Museo del 
Duomo (1498) ; the Madonna in the CoUegiata et Foiano 
(1502); the Last Judgment in S. Girolamo at Volterra (1501); 
the Altar in the Cathedral at Arcevia (1513) ; the Assumption 
in the Campo Santo at Pisa (1520) ; a Nativity in the Bargello 
(152 1); at Fiesole a Madonna and Saints in the Seminario 
(1520), and a Statue of S. Romolo in the Cathedral (1521); a 
Tabernacle in the Via Nazionale in Florence (1522) ; Medallions 
of the Saints and Evangelists and Statues at the Certosa in 
Val d' Ema (1522); and the Frieze of the Ospedale at Pistoia 
(1525-1529). Other important works in Florence are the 
Resurrection in the Accademia; a Deposition, Madonnas, 
a Piet^ and a Figure of S. Dominic in the Bargello; a 
Tabernacle in SS. Apostoli ; an Annunciation on the Palazzo 
Sorbi ; and Christ Praying in the Sacristy of S. Croce. The 
list below gives the most important of the many other works 
attributed to him. 

Anghiari . . . The Nativity (Cathedral) and the 

Madonna della Misericordia 

Arezzo . . . Peter Martyr (S. Domenico), 

Madonna and Saints (Cathedral). 
Bai^ . . , Altar (Cathedral), Assumption 

Berlin . . . Statue of a Boy, Pietll (Museum). 

1 86 



Nativity (S. Lorenzo). 

Bolsena . 

Two Altars (S. Cristina). 

Borgo San Sepolcro . 

Nativity (S. Chiara), Tabernacle 



Madonna and Saints (Hermitage). 

Castiglione Fioren- 

Altar with Annunciation and 


Assumption (Collegiata), Bap- 

tism and S. Michael (Baptistery). 

Cittk di Castello 

Nativity (Pinacoteca). 


S. Lucia (8. Maria a Ripa). 

Gallicano . 

Madonna and Saints (S. Jacopo). 

London . 

Nativity (252), Bust of Christ (476), 

Adoration of Magi (4412), 

Head of a Saint (5890), Pietk 

(8882), Annunciation (7235) 

(Victoria and Albert Museum). 

Monte Oliveto . 

Madonna (Monastery). 

Montepulciano . 

Annunciation (Oratorio), Madonna 

and Saints (Municipio). 


Madonna and Bust of Boy 



S. Antony and Angels (S. Antonio), 

S. Lodovico, Madonna and 

Saints, S. Giuliano and S. 

Ansano (S. Maria del Buon- 

consiglio), Lavabo and Adora- 

tion (S. Niccolo). 


Statues of S. Michael, S. Gabriel, 

and Madonna (Osservanza). 

La Verna 

Ascension, Madonna and Saints 


Viterbo . 

Three Reliefs over doors (S. Maria 

della Querela). 

Volterra . 

Last Judgment (S. Girolamo). 

Of the above-named the Lavabos in S. Maria Novella and 
at Prato, the Tabernacles of SS. Apostoli and of Bolsena, 


the Last Judgment at Volterra, the S. George and the Dragon 
at Brancoli, and the Madonna at Arezzo are the finest. In 
the examples in S. Maria Novella and in SS. Apostoli 
Giovanni's ornamentation follows the lines of Rossellino's, 
and many of his heads have been imitated from Verrocchio. 
The Annunciation on the Palazzo Sorbi recalls the style of 
Luca, and the Tabernacle of the Via Nazionale and the 
Virgin and Saints of S. Croce resemble each other closely and 
were probably by the same assistant. Of single figures his 
best examples are the S. Lucia at Empoli, and S. Giuliano 
and S. Ansano at Prato. The two last are full of life, finely 
modelled but startlingly ugly in feature. 

The last years of Giovanni's Ufe were occupied over one of the 
most important achievements in glazed terra-cotta — the Frieze 
of the Ospedale del Ceppo at Pistoia. This decorative series 
consists of six oblong reliefs illustrating the various functions 
of the fabric they adorn, with figures symbolic of the Christian 
Virtues between the panels. They stand as follows : ( i ) The 
Clothing of the Naked ; (2) The Entertainment of Pilgrims ; 
(3) The Healing of the Sick ; (4) The Visiting of Prisoners ; 
(5) The Burying of the Dead ; (6) The Feeding of the Hungry. 
A seventh panel to complete the series, which was left 
incomplete at Giovanni's death, was added in 1585 by Filippo 
Paladini. It is in painted stucco, and represents the giving 
of drink to the thirsty. The Virtues are by some assistant 
who worked also on certain of the panels. The Feeding of the 
Hungry and the Healing of the Sick are the best Over the 
door of the chapel is a fine Coronation of the Virgin (1510) 
by Buglioni, the man who according to tradition was the last 
possessor of Luca's secret for terra-cotta glaze. In this frieze 
Giovanni used colour freely, and the panels, taken one by one, 
are not inharmonious in composition ; but the general effect 
is restless and unsatisfying. A gorgeous display of colour set 
upon the grey walls of the Hospital may perhaps be justified 
in the suggestion of light and brilliance and vitality it brings 
to the suffering inmates. 


Robbia, Luca della (Florentine, 1400-1482) 

LucA DELLA RoBBiA now probably fills the place in the 
affections of the multitude who travel which was formerly 
filled by Guido Reni and Carlo Dolci. This change may be 
regarded as indicating a vast elevation of the standard of taste. 
Luca was a great artist. His genius possessed the happy 
touch of universality which fascinates all conditions of 
temperament and intellect. He misses the force and 
character of Donatello, but his mild beautiful women appeal 
to a wider circle ; and one delightful gift these great men had 
in common, i.e. the faculty of giving the loveliest presentments 
of children the world has ever seen. The first dated work of 
Luca, the Cantoria in the Opera del Duomo at Florence 
(1430), is also his greatest. It was taken down from its place 
in the Cathedral, together with Donatello's, in 1688. Its 
resetting, though done by Signor Del Moro with conspicuous 
success, is not entirely satisfactory, and other fragments have 
recently come to light which prove that the wide Ionic 
pilasters between the reliefs are incorrect, and ought to be 
replaced by narrow twin pilasters with Corinthian capitals. 
The eight reliefs stand in two series. The upper one begins 
with the boys with trumpets, — the original sketch of this is in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, No. 7609, — next come the 
girls with lutes, and last the drumming and dancing boys. 
The end panels of singing boys, the most famous of all, are 
placed, to be better seen, on the wall. The lower series 
begins with children who dance in a round ; then play on 
organ, harp, and mandolin ; then, as flower-garlanded boys, 
beat their tambourines ; and last, dance and clash their symbols 
with true Bacchic energy. It is difficult to particularize where 
all are so attractive. The vigour of the horn-playing boys 
imparts itself to the whole series, and the sense of music is 
never lost. The maidens in the second might be singing a 
birthday madrigal ; the child with the organ, surrounded by 
other childlike forms, has all the repose of a classic work of 
the best time; while the two last might be gatherings of 


amorini beating their tambourines and cymbals. No other 
production of Luca's is so fresh, so rich in sentiment, or so 
splendidly carried out. Luca no doubt won his popularity 
fi^om his adoring Madonnas, which meet the eye in many 
Tuscan churches, and some critics, with their eyes filled with 
the charm of these, hasten to proclaim that Luca's art took 
nothing from classic sources : a short-sighted judgment, seeing 
that those lovely forms would never have come into being but 
for the study of ancient models which, in the first instance, 
produced such triumphs as the Campanile MedaUions and the 

In 1437 Luca was employed to furnish five Reliefs for the 
spaces on the north side of the Campanile left unfilled by 
Andrea Pisano, which were to typify the Arts and Sciences. 
Andrea had carved the panels illustrating Sculpture and 
Painting ; and Luca's, beginning from the right, represent 
Harmony, with Tubal Cain sitting at an anvil and striking out 
music with two hammers ; Science, with two figures clad in 
the garb of Moorish scholars, then recognized as the most 
skilful exponents of the secrets of Nature ; Lyric Song, with 
Orpheus sitting in a wood with listening beasts around (this 
is probably the first Renaissance presentation of a classic 
myth) ; Dialectics, with two men in classic robes arguing some 
question ; and Grammar, with a teacher and two scholars. 
Of these, the first and the last are most noteworthy, the 
figures of Tubal Cain and of the writing scholar being 
sculptured with perfect grace and freedom. There is a 
tradition that Giotto left drawings for all these reliefs, and 
certainly traces of his manner may here and there be detected ; 
but Luca's genius was too vigorous and fertile to follow 
slavishly any plan laid before him, and his superior skill and 
knowledge are everywhere apparent. Two other Reliefs in 
marble, evidently of the same period and supposed to be 
portions of an unfinished altar of S. Peter and S. Paul, are 
now in the Bargello. They represent the Liberation and the 
Crucifixion of the Saint It will be convenient here to ignore 
chronological order, and describe Luca's Bronze Doors of the 


Sacristy of the Cathedral. This commission was first given to 
Donatello in 1437 but as he let nine years pass without doing 
anything, it was transferred to Michelozzo and Luca in 1446. 
In 1474 Luca was paid the final instalment of the cost, so it is 
almost certain that the entire work was done by him. These 
doors contain ten reliefs, with exquisitely modelled heads 
looking out at the angles of the framework, as in Ghiberti's : 
four of the reliefs represent the Evangelists, four the Doctors 
of the Church, and the upper two Christ and the Virgin. 
Although they are only a few years later than Donatello's 
doors in S. Lorenzo, the treatment shows a considerable 
advance in grouping and composition. Some of the reliefs 
contain four figures, and the action is often animated and 
dramatic, though certain of the figures, e.g. those of the 
Virgin and S. Gregory, are treated in Luca's severest manner. 
In 1442 he did a marble Tabernacle for S. Maria Nuova to 
which he added some terra-cotta decoration, probably his first 
essay in this medium. This altar is now in the Collegiate 
Church at Peretola near Florence. The architectural portion 
shows plainly the influence of Michelozzo, especially in the 
garlands looped up over the cherubs' heads on the frieze. 
The figure of God the Father above and the Pietk are wanting 
in grace. The association of terra-cotta and marble in a 
monument of this character was a bold experiment, and was 
only partially successful. His next works were the glazed 
Reliefs of the Resurrection (1442) and the Ascension (1446) 
in the Cathedral, quite in his finest style. In both the form 
of Christ is heroic, a great advance on Ghiberti's rendering. 
As in his other supreme achievements, classic influences are 
plain. In certain details the Resurrection shows resemblance 
to Piero della Francesca's great fresco at Borgo San Sepolcro : 
in the form of the tomb, in the trees, and above all in the 
sleeping soldiers. The date of Piero's fresco is undetermined ; 
it probably is later than Luca's relief. About 1448 he made 
the two Angels bearing candelabra which are now in the old 
Sacristy, the only free standing figures from his hand, and the 
fine Salutation in S. Giovanni fuori Civitas at Pistoia. 


Imfruutia, mar h'lareme 

Calhtdrat. Ftcrtnn ( f.mi j 


In the same year he was associated with Michelozzo over 
the Chapel of the Crucifix at S. Miniato. This is a triumph 
of Michelozzo's genius as an architect, and Luca's decorative 
scheme was quite worthy of its setting. He ornamented the 
vault of the roof with mouldings, and a frieze, interwoven with 
the Medici device, runs round the structure. Over the altar 
is a crucifix greatly inferior to the surrounding work and much 
damaged. Somewhat later, about 1460, he did five exquisite 
Medallions for the roof of the Portuguese Chapel in S. Miniato : 
Prudence, Justice, Fortitude, and Temperance, with the Dove 
in the centre. Two other Medallions of Temperance and 
Justice, generally atttibuted to him, are in the Hotel Cluny at 

Another work in marble with terra-cotta decorations is his 
Tomb of Bishop Federighi, now in S. Trinita in Florence. The 
face of the Bishop is a masterly presentment of death, and by 
its natural sincerity throws into the shade the conventional 
figures forming the Pietk at the back. The angels bearing 
wreaths and the decorations are in perfect harmony. Luca's 
decoration of the Pazzi Chapel in S. Croce is hard to date, and 
was probably not finished before 1478. Over the door is a 
majestic figure, — God the Father, according to Dr. Bode, but 
the cross in the hand makes this view questionable, — and 
inside are reliefs of the Apostles. The four Medallions of 
Evangelists under the dome are one of the puzzles of art, and 
rarious views have been advanced to explain the marked 
contrast they show to the Apostles in colour and spirit — one 
of the boldest being that they were made from Brunelleschi's 
designs. Luca did many heraldic devices for noble families 
and trade guilds : the finest is that of Ren6 d'Anjou in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum (No 6740). Three others of 
the Merchants, the Physicians, and the Builders are on 
Or S. Michele, and on the Palazzo Serristori is one of that 
family and one of the Pazzi. 

In the Collegiata at Impruneta near Florence are two 
chapels built by Michelozzo and decorated by Luca. In that 
of the Holy Cross the tympanum of the Tabernacle is in bold 


design, and on the Predella are groups of angels in flight. The 
Baptist and S. Augustine stand on either side, the last far the 
better. The Tabernacle in the Chapel of the Madonna has 
strong affinity with the noble niche — Michelozzo's work — on 
Or S. Michele, which contains Verrocchio's Christ and 
S. Thomas. The Relief on the predella is by Michelozzo, an 
illustration of the discovery of the lost image (p. 132). Of 
the statues, that of S. Luke is better than that of S. Paul. The 
Frieze outside the chapel is enriched with a band of fruit and 
flowers and panel Reliefs of the Madonna. In another chapel 
is a Relief of the Crucifixion which is less successful. 

Luca's Madonnas resemble each other so closely that it 
would be wearisome to describe them in detail. The one he 
did in 1449 for S. Domenico at Urbino is probably his earliest : 
it includes the figures of Thomas Aquinas, Albertus, S. Peter 
Martyr, and S. Dominic. Of the others the most important 
are the Madonna in the Innocenti at Florence ; of the Roses, 
of the Angels, of the Apple, of S. Pierino and of the Via 
d'Agnolo, all now in the Bargello. The Berlin Museum has 
numerous Madonnas, several of great beauty and interest, 
which are attributed to him. Of these the most remarkable 
are the Alessandri, and the Frescobaldi, the handling of 
which is somewhat uneven ; a Madonna between two Angels 
in a lunette, a fine work and unglazed; a variant of the 
Madonna of the Apple; and one in painted clay. Also a 
Portrait of a Youth in high relief, a fine and certainly genuine 
work. He did the interesting set of circular Reliefs of the 
Months, originally in Piero dei Medici's study and now in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, which also possesses an un- 
coloured Madonna in relief (No. 441 1) and a very beautiful 
tondo, the Adoration of the Shepherds (7752). The clay Relief 
in the Oxford Museum is questioned by some critics. It 
certainly differs greatly from his other work. There is a 
replica of it in painted clay in the Louvre. 

Important works by Luca are in the Andr^ and Foulc Collec- 
tions in Paris, in the Liechtenstein and Benda Collections in 
Vienna, and in the collections of Herr Beckerath and of Herr 


S. Trittilm, finrtmet 



von Dirksen in Berlin. Fine as was the result of the discovery 
of Luca's enamel glaze — by which terra-cotta could be rendered 
as durable as stone — it is possible that Art may have suffered 
thereby. The greatest works he did were in marble or bronze, 
and the last contract he made for working in these materials 
dates from 1446. Had he never found out the glaze the mass 
of his achievement might have been smaller, but on a higher 
level. But the terra-cotta process was rapid and easy, and his 
adoring Madonnas soon captured the public taste. Dozens 
no doubt have disappeared, and the latest censors have 
reduced considerably the number of those which had been 
hitherto unquestioned. Luca's composite terra-cottas show 
considerable variety of merit in their separate figures. Either 
he was a very uncertain modeller, or he did not scruple 
to put in something by an assistant when pressed by 

Robertus (Tuscan, Twelfth Century) 

The great circular Baptismal Font in S. Frediano at Lucca is 
the only extant work of this sculptor, and it may be rated 
amongst the best examples of pre-Pisan sculpture. The reliefs 
are free in execution, and for their period very accurate in 
modelling. They represent the Passage of the Red Sea, 
Moses with the Tables of the Law, Christ Healing the Sick, 
the Repentance of S. Peter, and the Twelve Apostles. 

Rodari, Tommaso and Jacopo (Como— 
Working, 1487- 15 26) 

The beautiful front of the Cathedral at Como owes much of 
its charm, both as to its architecture and its sculpture, to 
these two artists, who worked on it at the end of the fifteenth 
century. They probably did the five Statues of the Madonna 
and Saints above the chief door, and the Statuettes of Bishops 
and Saints round the windows and on the pilasters. They 
also did the Renaissance Canopies on either side of the door, 


and the Statues of the two PUnys (1498) which occupy them. 
There is a fine Relief of the Adoration of the Magi above the 
door, and the lower part of the fagade is sculptured with 
curious devices, some of them Masonic. The north doorway 
is beautifully decorated with centaurs, bacchantes, arabesques, 
birds, beasts, and serpents ; and about the windows are well- 
carved reliefs of illustrious personages. Those inside the 
Cathedral are less satisfactory. The Decoration of the Facade 
of S. Lorenzo at Lugano, and the relief Busts of the Prophets, 
have been ascribed to them, but recent criticism favours the 
claims of Tamagnino, Gaspare da Milano, and Busti. A 
Relief in S. Carlo at Milan may also be by them. 

Rodolfino (Pisan, Twelfth Century) 

The only work known to be by this sculptor is the Architrave 
of the door of S. Bartolommeo in Pantano at Pistoia. It 
appears to be distinctly Roman in character, with no Lombard 
or Byzantine traits. The Corinthian capitals below and the 
acanthus decoration above are evidently by Rodolfino also. 
The ground of the relief is decorated with a pattern, the 
figures stand clear, the draperies are not ill modelled, and 
some of the faces are life-like. Christ is in the centre, with 
six Apostles and an Angel on either side. 

Romano, Gian CristoforO (Roman- 
Working, 1495) 

He was the son of Isaia da Pisa, and was probably trained by 
his father and Paolo Romano. He was a skilful medallist, 
and his portait Medal of Isabella d' Este, made in 1498, recalls 
Leonardo da Vinci's sketch. About 1491 he went to Milan 
in the service of Ludovico Moro, and executed a Bust of the 
Duchess Beatrice which may be the one now in the Louvre. 
He was certainly the chief worker, and probably the designer, 
of Gian Galeazzo Visconti's Tomb in the Certosa, which 
occupied him from 1491 to 1497. This tomb has been 


touched by so many hands that it is hard to allocate it to 
anyone; but, seeing that it is signed by Romano, he has 
clearly the best claim. The effigy is almost certainly by him, 
and the two figures on the sarcophagus are of a later date. He 
was at one time at Ferrara, and at Mantua he executed many 
works for the Marchesa Isabella. About 1505 he did the 
Tomb of Paolo Francesco Trecchi in S. Vincenzo at Cremona. 
In 1506 he went to Rome, where he engraved a Medal of 
Julius II and one of Sannazzaro, and in 1507 one of Isabella 
of Aragon. In 15 10 he was at Loreto, probably as director 
of the works. He must have been a man of charm and 
distinction or he would not have been a welcome guest at the 
court of Urbino at the time when Castiglione was meditating 
his immortal Courtier., in company of the most illustrious 
personages of the time. During this visit he made Medals 
of the Duchess Elizabeth and of a kinswoman of hers, Emilia 
Pia di Feltre. In the Bargello is a relief Portrait of Francesco 
Sforza which is ascribed to him ; as is the Bust of Francesco 
Gonzaga in the Museo at Mantua. The Tombs of Pietro 
Mellini, of Albertoni, and of Podocataro in S. Maria del 
Popolo are probably his work. He died in 15x2, and was 
buried at Loreto. 

Romano, Paolo (Roman — Working, 1451-1470) 

Little is known of his early life. He is reported to have 
been a clever goldsmith, and to have made twelve silver 
Statuettes of the Apostles for the private chapel of the Popes, 
which were stolen during the sack of the city in 1527. He 
is first named in the Vatican records in 1451, when he was 
in the employment of Nicolas v; and in 1458 he was at 
Naples, working on the Arch of Castel Nuovo. In 1460 he 
was again in Rome in the service of Pius 11, making the 
Statues of S. Peter and S. Paul for the steps of the Basilica. 
They stood at the entrance of S. Peter's till 1847, when they 
were moved to their present site at the Sacristy door. The 
S. Peter is very bad, but not much worse than his Figure of 


S. Andrew in the Sacristy itself. Another Statue of S. Paul 
by him stands on the Ponte S. Angelo. His statues are 
lifeless and uninteresting. He possessed apparently sufficient 
mental capacity and imagination, but his want of training 
marred his achievements. In 1462 he made two images of 
the Pope's arch-enemy, Sigismondo Malatesta, which were 
consumed in a bonfire, and in 1463 the Statue of S. Andrew 
for the commemorative chapel near the Ponte MoUe ; and in 
collaboration with Isaia di Pisa he carved a Tabernacle for the 
saint's head, now in the crypt of S. Peter's. The chapel was 
built to mark the spot where the holy head had rested on its 
way from the Morea, where it had been rescued from the 
Turks. He did the Tomb of Cardinal Scarampi Mezzarota, 
in S. Lorenzo in Damaso (1467), and the decoration of the 
Altar in S. Agnese Fuori le Mura. In 1464 he helped to 
decorate the Fagade of S. Giacomo dei Spagnuoli, and carved 
the left-hand Angel — the other being done by Mino da Fiesole 
— and was one of the sculptors employed on the marble Pulpit 
in S. Peter's used for the papal benediction. The Bust of 
Pius II in the Appartamento Borgia in the Vatican, and a 
Relief of the Crucifixion in S. Maria di Monserrato, are by 
him. The Cusa monument in S. Pietro in Vincoli is now 
generally ascribed to B regno. 

Roselli, Domenico (Pistoian, 1439-1498) 

He was a follower, if not a pupil, of Desiderio da Settignano. 
His first work seems to have been the Font, with reliefs of the 
Baptism of Christ and the Virtues, in the Collegiate Church 
of S. Maria a Monte, near Empoli, the figure of Hope being 
reminiscent of Agostino di Duccio. He went to Florence 
about 1464, and worked at the Monumental Slab of Agostino 
Santucci in S. Croce. In 1476 he went to Urbino, where he 
helped to decorate the Ducal Palace, probably under the 
direction of Ambrogio di Milano. The Santucci family were 
evidently his patrons, for in 1479 ^^ made the Monument of 
Calapatrissa Santucci in the court of the Palace, and decorated 


the Santucci Palace. In 1480 he went to Fossombrone and 
carried out his masterpiece in the Cathedral, the Ancona of 
the high altar, with five figures of Saints and five reliefs. In 
the lunette over the door is a relief of the Virgin between 
S. Francis and S. Bemadino. His figures are dignified and 
life-like, and his taste as a decorator is correct. In the 
Victoria and Albert Museum there is a Madonna by him 
(No. 6), a work of great beauty. 

RossellinO, Antonio (Florentine, 1427-1478) 

He was influenced by Desiderio rather than by his brother 
Bernardo, and his reliefs show that he inclined towards 
Ghiberti's pictorial artifices. His earliest work is the Bust of 
Giovanni di S. Miniato in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(No. 7671), a powerful and life-like presentment. The Museum 
also possesses a marble Relief of the Madonna strongly resem- 
bling the one in the Bargello (No. 7622), a clay Replica of the 
youthful Baptist (No. 414), a portrait bust (No. 974), and a very 
fine Relief of the Madonna (No. 108). His next work was 
probably the S. Sebastian in the Collegiata at Empoli, a fine 
study of anatomy, and in 1463 he finished the Lazzari Tomb 
in S. Domenico at Pistoia, left incomplete by Bernardo. 
Other works are the fine Bust of Palmieri (1468) in the Bargello, 
and the Portrait of Donato dei Medici (1475) i" ^^e cathedral 
at Pistoia. His masterpiece, the Tomb of the Cardinal of 
Portugal, who died in 1459, in S. Miniato, is the best known 
of his works. It inevitably provokes comparison with Bernardo's 
tomb of Bruni, and Desiderio's of Marsuppini in S. Croce, and 
is inferior in design. To begin, it is not a coherent whole, 
but a sarcophagus, with various decorative appendages, set 
under an arch which has no necessary relation with what 
it shelters. The carved base, the Area, the angels on 
the frieze, and the effigy are all exquisite individually, and 
harmoniously combined ; indeed, if these portions, which 
practically make up the tomb, stood against a bare wall, the 
monument would probably be more eflective than it now is. 


The external parts, also all beautiful, jar somehow, and throw 
it out of harmony. Just above the effigy is a square window 
with a smaller square relief in the centre, and above this a 
tondo of the Virgin in a lovely frame, supported by two graceful 
flying angels. Antonio may have aimed at minimizing the 
importance of the architectural framework, which is predominant 
in the great Santa Croce tombs, and thus securing greater 
prominence for the effigy itself, but if he did, he failed ; for in 
this tomb the accessaries, the tondo and the flying angels, 
compete much more strongly with the effigy than in either of 
the others referred to. Antonio Piccolomini, having seen the 
S. Miniato tomb, was so greatly pleased with it that he com- 
missioned Rossellino to execute a Replica for the Church of 
Monte Oliveto, at Naples, as a memorial of his wife, Maria 
of Aragon, who died in 1470. This was- left unfinished at 
Rossellino's death, and completed by Benedetto da Majano. 
One of the most charming renderings of childhood is his 
Baptist, in the Bargello ; indeed, he came very near to Dona- 
tello in his figures of children. About 1473 he did the Reliefs 
of the Stoning and the Burial of S. Stephen, and the Virgin and 
S. Thomas, on Mino da Fiesole's pulpit at Prato ; where also 
in S. Francesco he did the Effigy of Gemignano Inghirami. 
In S. Croce there is affixed to a column a Relief, the Madonna 
del Latte, a memorial erected by Francesco Neri, who was 
killed in the Pazzi riot in 1478, to his ancestors and himself. 
This Madonna has a certain distinction, for she is represented 
as if in heaven, seated on clouds, surrounded by a mandorla 
of angels, and having the Child on her lap. In earlier versions 
of the Glorification — Nanni di Banco's on the Cathedral 
at Florence, and Orcagna's in Or S. Michele — the Child is 
absent. He made numerous other Madonnas, of which the 
best known is the square Relief in the Bargello, where is also 
a Relief of the Adoration of the Shepherds and a fine Tondo of 
the Virgin in Adoration (the study for which, in gesso duro, is 
in the Oxford Museum, which also possesses a Head of the 
youthful Baptist, probably his work). Antonio paid a second 
visit to Naples to execute for Piccolomini the Altar in the 

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tl»Hlt Oiivtt». SmfUt 


family chapel in Monte Oliveto, with its exquisite group of 
singing cherubs. Here the relief carving, as well as on Mary 
of Aragon's tomb, reflects Ghiberti's manner, and on the whole 
his reliefs in Naplei are superior to those at Prato. The Tomb 
of Bishop Roverella in S. Giorgio at Ferrara is now recognized 
as the joint work of Antonio and of Ambrogio di Milano, in 
whose life it is described. The Tomb of S. Marcolino, in the 
Museo at Forli, is attributed to him, but the figures want his 
fine finish ; also a Madonna Relief in the Municipio at Solarolo. 
The Berlin Museum has a beautiful Relief of the Madonna and 
singing Cherubs; and in the Museum at Vienna is a fine 
Madonna with Angels. In the Louvre are several doubtful 
works ; the Bust of Francesco Sassetti in the Bargello and the 
Baptist in the Martelli Palace may be his. The infant Baptist 
in the Vanchetoni Church in Florence, sometimes ascribed 
to him, is more probably by Desiderio. 

RoSSellinO, Bernardo (Florentine, 1 409-1464) 

The association of Donatello and Michelozzo in the con- 
struction of their great tombs of Pope John and of Cardinal 
Brancacci demonstrated the advantage of uniting sculpture 
with architecture in monuments of this character; a lesson 
which the artists of the following generation did not overlook. 
Bernardo Rossellino began his career when sculpture in 
Florence was at its highest point, and executed his masterpiece, 
the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni in S. Croce, in 1444. The 
ornamentation and architectural details recall Michelozzo's 
doors of the cloister and of the Noviciate in the same church ; 
but Bernardo was a fine and original artist. The rugged 
strength, the uncompromising "character," of Donatello are 
softened without any appreciable loss of vigour, and the fruits 
of the Humanist revival appear in the refined beauty of the 
dead man's features, in the perfect proportions of the monu- 
ment, and in the delicate handiwork applied. 

Leonardo was one of the most illustrious of the Humanists, — 


Niccolo Niccoli, Poggio, Marsuppini, and Traversari, — and 
looking at the tomb it is difficult to discern a single trace of 
Christian sentiment. The figure of the Virgin in the lunette 
is that of a comely lady, and the Child is entirely human. 
Their presence here has no necessary Christian significance, 
neither is it in any way incongruous, for the Humanists had no 
dislike to Christianity ; they treated it with easy tolerance, as 
an interesting phase in the growth of thought. Marsuppini, 
an open free-thinker, gave a commission to Filippo Lippi to 
paint a Coronation of the Virgin for the Convent of Monte 
Oliveto. The winged figures — of Fame rather than of angelic 
personages — who hold up the inscribed tablet below, and the 
robust nude Cupids who support the wreath and armorial 
device above, might have come from a Grseco-Roman sarco- 
phagus. The figure of the dead man is one of the most 
beautiful mortuary effigies extant. 

Bernardo's first work is a terra-cotta Annunciation in the 
Cathedral at Arezzo (1433), and in the following year he did 
the Lunette of the Madonna and the Statues of Saints on the 
Hospital of the Misericordia, which were formerly attributed 
to Niccolo d' Arezzo. The plaster model of the relief is in the 
Museo. He did the Tomb of Beata Villana, a fourteenth- 
century saint, a beautiful effigy, in S. Maria Novella, and in 
1447 an Annunciation, something in the spirit of Donatello's 
in S. Croce, in the Misericordia at Empoli. One of his latest 
works was the Tomb of Lazzari in S. Domenico at Pistoia, 
with a fine relief of the master teaching his pupils. He began 
this in 1463, and his brother Antonio finished it after his 
death. Works attributed to him are the Tomb of Ripafratta 
in the same church ; of Orlando dei Medici in the Annunziata at 
Florence ; of Giannozzo Pandolfini in the Badia, a work more 
in the manner of Simone Ferrucci j a Reliquary in S. Egidio ; 
in the Museo at Faenza, a Bust of the Baptist as a boy, also 
given to Donatello ; and in the Victoria and Albert Museum a 
Tabernacle formerly in S. Chiara at Florence. 


Rossi, Vincenzio dei (Florentine, i 525-1 587) 

He was Bandinelli's pupil, and reproduced all his master's 
imperfections. He went to Rome, where he did the shapeless 
Statue of S. Matthew, in the niche ornamented by Mosca in 
S. Maria della Pace. On his return to Florence he assisted 
Bandinelli in the works undertaken by Cosimo i in the 
Palazzo Vecchio, and completed the Statue of Leo x, begun by 
Bandinelli. He also carved six Groups of the Labours of 
Hercules for the great hall of the Palace, which are now in 
the Bargello, and S. Matthew and S. Thomas for the 

Rovezzano, Benedetto da (Florentine, 


He was bom at Pistoia, and probably trained at Florence, 
which he quitted in 1499 for Genoa, where he carved the 
marble Organ Gallery in S. Stefano. In the Bargello at 
Florence are the Chimney-piece from the Borgherini Palace, 
and the fragments of the Tomb of S. Giovanni Gualberto, 
begun for the Abbey of Vallombrosa in 1505, but injured 
before its completion in the tumult of 1530. An Altar in 
S. Trinita, in the Cappella S. Niccolo, was probably constructed 
from other fragments of the tomb. The technique of these is 
admirable, the draperies are light and graceful, the heads are 
full of life, and each figure is invested with a particular charm. 
In the Bargello are also two architectural Niches of beautiful 
design. The Tomb of Oddo Altoviti in SS. Apostoli, the Statue 
of S. John in the Cathedral, and the Monument of Pietro 
Soderini in S. Maria del Carmine are by him. 

Rovezzano visited England in 1524, to execute for Wolsey 
a Sarcophagus for himself. After the Cardinal's fall, Henry 
ordered it to be finished to be ready for his own royal person, 
but at his death it was still incomplete. Charles i intended it 
for his sepulchre, but fate intervened, and it was reft of its 


bronze ornaments by the Parliament. It was, however, 
reserved for a noble use, for in 1805 it received the body of 
Nelson, and now stands in the crypt of S. Paul's. 

Rustici, Giovanni Francesco (Florentine, 
1 474- 1 554) 

He is only known by one work, a very important one, the 
Group of the Preaching of the Baptist, over the north door of 
the Florentine Baptistery. It was begun in 1506, and the 
casting completed in 15 n. Rustici evidently began as a 
follower of Verrocchio and Donatello. Michelangelo's in- 
fluence was scarcely operative in Florence as early as 1506, 
but the resemblance between his work and Rustici's group 
suggests that they must have drawn their inspiration from a 
common source. Probably they were fellow-students under 
Bertoldo in Lorenzo's academy of S. Marco. 

Sangallo, Francesco di (Florentine, 

HE was the son of Giuliano, and had little talent as a 
sculptor. He did the Virgin and S. Anne in Or 
S. Michele as nude statues, an innovation which was after- 
wards corrected by a metal covering; the Tomb of Bishop 
Angelo Marzi in the Annunziata ; the Statue of Paolo Giovio 
the historian, in the cloister of S. Lorenzo ; the Monument to 
Bishop Bonafede, in the Certosa near Florence (1545); and 
the Reliefs of the Madonna and of S. Roch, in S. Primerana at 
Fiesole. The sculpture on the Tomb of Piero dei Medici in 
the church at Monte Cassino is said to be by him. 

Sangallo, Giuliano di (Florentine, 1455-1534) 

This great architect left several examples of sculpture worth 

recording. The Sassetti Tombs in S. Trinita at Florence (148 5- 

149 1 ) are massive porphyry sarcophagi in the classic style, 

one of Francesco and the other of Nera Sassetti. They 

are well placed, under decorated circular arches. The chief 

interest lies in the relief sculptures on Francesco's tomb, which 

are strongly classical in spirit In the centre is a circular 

profile of Francesco, and on the left of this a relief of sportive 

cupids and centaurs, manifestly inspired by Donatello's friezes 

in S. Lorenzo. Here is the brightness of youth and the joy 

of life, but on the right side is told the sadder tale of " cold 

obstruction." In the centre of this relief the dead man is 



being prepared for burial; on one side mourning women, 
and on the other a finely modelled group of male figures. 
At each end is an urn and a centaur. In no other monument 
is classic sentiment so strongly expressed ; absence of Christian 
symbols is frequent, but here the delineation of the mortuary 
rites denotes something more than mere negation. The 
frieze of Nera's tomb has her profile in the centre. There 
is a Crucifix by San Gallo in the Annunziata. 

In spite of the enormous vogue of Ghiberti's doors, Giuliano 
showed himself faithful to classic methods by carving shallow 
reliefs, and never attempting to render objects on different 
planes. His other work in Florence is in the Palazzo Gondi : 
some very beautiful Reliefs, on a chimneypiece of nymphs, 
tritons, and sea-monsters. In S. Maria Maggiore at Rome 
is a fine example of his Wood-carving. 

Sansovino, Andrea (Florentine, 1460-1529) 

He studied in Florence under Pollaiuolo, and afterwards in 
Bertoldo's Accademia at S. Marco. His first work is in 
S. Chiara at Monte S. Savino (his birthplace), an Altar with 
S. Lorenzo in the centre flanked by S. Sebastian and S. Roch. 
On the predella are scenes from the lives of these saints, and 
graceful angels above. Tradition — now discredited — assigns 
to him another Altar, the Assumption of the Virgin, with saints 
and angels ; it is probably by one of the Delia Robbia's work- 
men. His early work shows sense of beauty, but his figures 
are wanting in character, and his composition is faulty. In 
S. Spirito in Florence he did a Tabernacle and an Altar in the 
Corbinelli Chapel. The sculpture is stiff and cold, and the 
whole effect unsatisfactory. About 1490 Andrea went to 
Portugal, where he remained eight years, and after his return 
he did the Font in the Baptistery at Volterra (dated 1502); 
then a Madonna and the Baptist to complete Civitale's decora- 
tion of the Chapel of the Baptist in the Cathedral at Genoa. 
In 1502 he contracted for the Group of the Baptism of Christ 


over the east door of the Florentine Baptistery, but this was 
left incomplete at his death, and finished by Vincenzio Danti (the 
angel is by Spinazzi, an eighteenth-century sculptor). The figure 
of Christ is remarkable as the first treated in the nude ; it is 
well modelled, but greatly inferior to the magnificent present- 
ment of the Baptist, with its perfectly natural pose, its splendid 
vigour, and free onward movement of arms and rugged beauty 
of face. In 1506 he went to Rome, where he did the Tombs 
of the Cardinals Ascanio Sforza and Girolamo Basso in 
S. Maria del Popolo. In architectural design the tombs are 
exactly the same, and the variations in details are trifling. 
Considering Sansovino's originality and power, it is diflScult to 
believe that this duplication means a shirking of trouble on 
his part. Probably Julius 11, who gave the commission, in- 
sisted on a uniform pattern. The tombs are an amplification 
of the scheme of the Corbinelli altar at Florence. They are 
considerably more complex than Desiderio's and Rossellino's 
masterpieces, but the due proportion between sculpture and 
architectural setting is preserved, and the relations of cornice, 
pillar, arch, and horizontal line are quite harmonious. The 
mortuary effigies are ungraceful, but the figures of Prudence 
and Fortitude on the Sforza monument are of great beauty 
and are Sansovino's best productions. In the Ara Coeli is a 
Tomb of Cardinal Vincenzi, who died in 1504, which is 
practically a replica of the Sforza monument, probably done 
by a follower of Sansovino's some time after. The fact that 
Sforza died only in 1505 has been taken to indicate that 
the Ara Cceli tomb was the original, but its treatment is in- 
ferior, and there is no reason why Vincenzi's tomb should 
have been erected first because he died first A Group of 
the Virgin and Child and S. Anne in S. Agostino, and a 
Madonna in S. Giacomo a Ripetta, are less interesting. 

In 1 5 13 Sansovino went to Loreto, where he worked at 
the Santa Casa till his death in 1529. The Annunciation 
and the Nativity, the great reliefs of the south and west sides, 
were by him alone. He began the great relief on the north 
side, which was finished by BandinelU in 1531. The Marriage 


of the Virgin, also on the north side, was completed either by 
Tribolo or by Raffaele di Montelupo about 1533, and Girolamo 
Lombardi finished the Adoration of the Magi. He designed 
and partially executed two Reliefs of the Death and Burial of 
the Virgin, in which certain Jews are shown attempting to 
rob the sacred body ; these were finished by Domenico Aimo 
of Bologna. It is probable that he furnished the complete 
scheme of decoration which was afterwards carried out. This 
achievement at Loreto, though it is Sansovino's most 
ambitious flight, is marked with all the signs of decadence. 
The essay of Ghiberti to let sculpture do the work of painting 
was one only to be repeated by a master. Sansovino was 
feeblest in sculpture and landscape, but his treatment of the 
human figure in composition was also unsatisfactory. He 
shows, perhaps unconsciously, his dissatisfaction with his 
figures by attempting to endow them with superabundant 
vitality. A glance at the Nativity, or at the Annunciation, 
will illustrate the purpose of these remarks. 

Sansovino, JaCOpO (Florentine, 1486-1570) 

Jacopo Tatti, the most talented pupil of Andrea Sansovino, 
is always known in art under his master's name. In archi- 
tecture and sculpture he figures as the rival of Michelangelo : 
there was little personal intercourse and less cordiality between 
them, jealousy having been kindled by the rejection of 
Sansovino's plan for the facade of S. Lorenzo at Florence in 
favour of his rival's. He ultimately settled in Venice, where, 
as architect, he practically created the Venice of to-day. He 
followed his master to Rome in 15 10, returning to Florence 
in 15 13, when he completed the Bacchus of the Bargello, his 
most attractive statue, and superior in every way to Michel- 
angelo's in the same place ; there are few finer expressions of 
youth and strength. In the Bargello is also a bronze Taber- 
nacle with a Relief of Christ in Glory, a very fine example. 
There is a legend that he competed with Baccio di Montelupo 
for the Statue of S. John on Or S. Michele, and that Andrea del 

c ": 


Sarto has reproduced Jacopo's model in the figure of the 
same saint in his picture, the Madonna delle Arpie, now in the 
Uffizi. About 15 15 he again went to Rome, where he re- 
mained for seven years. He made the colossal Madonna in 
S. Agostino, which shows signs of Michelangelo's influence; 
and the Statue of S. James in S. Maria di Monserrato. The 
S. Antony of Padua, now in S. Petronio at Bologna, was 
probably produced about this time. In 1523 he went to 
Venice ; but, hearing of the election of Cardinal dei Medici 
as Clement vii, he hurried back, hoping for patronage as a 
Florentine, but there is no record of any commission, and 
before the sack of Rome in 1527 Sansovino had settled in 
Venice for good. His career here was more that of an 
architect than of a sculptor. On the facade of his exquisite 
Loggietta (1540), recently destroyed by the fall of the 
Campanile, he placed the four Figures of Hermes, Pallas, 
Apollo, and Peace, which in mere beauty of form are of the 
finest ; and made for the interior a Madonna in terra-cotta, also 
some Reliefs in marble, allegorizing the history of Venice. 
The Madonna of the Arsenal is mannered and unattractive. 
One of his finest Figures is that of Hope, on his tomb of the 
Doge Venier in S. Salvatore ; that of Charity is uninteresting, 
and the Piet^ in the lunette is strongly reminiscent of Michel- 
angelo. In S. Sebastiano he made the Tomb of Cardinal 
Podocataro. His most prominent and least meritorious 
Statues are the Mars and Neptune on the Giants* Staircase of 
the Ducal Palace, and his seated bronze Figures of the 
Evangelists upon the railing of the high altar in S. Marco 
are amongst his best ; in those of the four Fathers he has not 
been so successful, and all of them suggest imitation of 
Michelangelo's work. He also did a bronze Statue of Thomas 
of Ravenna over the door of S. Giuliano, a Madonna in the 
Chapel of the Doge's Palace, and a Statuette of the Baptist on 
the font in the Frari. Jacopo's reliefs are unsatisfactory. 
The famous bronze Door of the Sacristy of S. Marco, which 
is said to be the fruit of twenty years' labour, is disappointing ; 
the best portions of it are the figures of the Prophets. The 


six Reliefs in bronze illustrating S. Mark's miracles are quite 
unworthy of him. Somewhat better is that on the door of 
the ciborium, which has a graceful marble angel on either side. 
Other works attributed to him are a fine terra-cotta Relief 
of the Madonna in the Berlin Museum ; the ReHefs on the 
bases of the columns in S. Cristoforo at Ferrara ; a wax Model 
of a Descent from the Cross in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum ; a Madonna in coloured clay in the Louvre, and 
one in S. Maria in Augusta in Rome; and a Gravestone of 
Cardinal della Rovere in S. Pietro in Vincoli. 

Santa Croce, Girolamo di (Neapolitan, 


Nothing is known definitively of his training, but certain 
features of his work suggest that his teachers must have 
studied near or with Michelangelo. He did his best work, 
the Tomb of Sannazzaro in S. Maria del Parto at Naples, in 
collaboration with Montorsoli, but it could not have been from 
this side that Florentine influences affected him, seeing that 
they were plainly apparent in work executed before this. The 
poet's bust and the decorative details are unsatisfactory. The 
relief of Marsyas on the sarcophagus is fine. In 1524 he 
made for the Pezzo family an Altar in Monte Oliveto — the 
Child standing on the Virgin's lap, with S. Peter and S. John 
on either side. The pose of the figures and the treatment of 
the hands and draperies show Michelangelo's influence, which 
is also apparent in his Baptist in the Sacristy. In S. Maria 
delle Grazie is a Relief, attributed to him, of the Incredulity of 
S. Thomas. 

Sanctis, Andreolo di (Venetian, -1377) 

He was a follower of the Massegni, and is chiefly known 
as tlie architect and decorator of the Cappella S. Felice in 
S. Antonio at Padua, where on the outer wall he carved five 
Statues. With his son Giovanni he did the Madonna in the 

< k 

a t 


Sacristy of S. Maria dell' Orto at Venice, and the Lupi and 
Rossi Tombs in the Church. The Carrara tombs in the 
Eremitani at Padua are sometimes attributed to him. 

Settignano, Desiderio da (Florentine, 
I 428- I 464) 

Desiderio was one of Donatello's most distinguished pupils, 
and one of those fortunate personalities with a keen sense 
of beauty allied with an adequate power of expression. Con- 
sidering how thorough his method was, a large legacy of 
achievement was scarcely to be expected from him, and the 
cruel brevity of his life made the list of his works a very 
scanty one. Little is known of his early years. It is quite 
possible that the decoration of the frieze of the portico of the 
Pazzi Chapel in S. Croce, with cherubs' heads, in collaboration 
with Donatello, may have been an early work of his. This 
ascription, now generally accepted, has no documentary support, 
but the characteristics of the two masters are plainly apparent. 
There is strength and character in the infant faces, which 
Desiderio alone would scarcely have imparted to them, and 
their open mouths recall the boys on the Cantoria and on the 
altar at Padua. Angelic softness which does not cloy, as it 
too often does, is the mark of Desiderio's hand. His master- 
piece is the Tomb of Carlo Marsuppini, who died in 1455, 
in S. Croce. This noble monument is too well known to 
demand detailed description. Without doubt Desiderio took 
for his model the Tomb of Leonardo Bruni by Bernardo 
Rossellino on the opposite wall, and in passing over from one 
of these masterpieces to the other it is difficult to adjudge the 
palm. If Desiderio had not been a consummate artist the 
wealth of ornament which he has spread over base, sarcophagus, 
and bier might well have proved excessive; but though we 
may miss the dignity of Rossellino's masterpiece, we find that 
Desiderio contrives to interweave his garlands, monsters, 
eagles' wings, and lions' feet harmoniously. The sarcophagus, 


the portion most richly ornamented, is a miracle of beauty ; 
and the boys above, holding up wreaths, are certainly more 
graceful than those of his rival. Marsuppini's face is a con- 
summate piece of modelling, and the effigy lies so that it can 
be seen with ease. About 1460 he produced another master- 
piece, the Tabernacle in S. Lorenzo. The figures at the base 
are in happier relation with the rest of the structure than are 
the little boys on the Marsuppini tomb. The ornamentation 
follows the same lines, and the sentiment throughout is more 
distinctly religious. This tabernacle was reconstructed in the 
seventeenth century, and the heavy bases and brackets then 
added have certainly marred its symmetry, though they cannot 
destroy its charm. 

Desiderio's Bust of Marietta Strozzi, acquired in 1878 by 
the Berlin Museum, has been re-named "A Princess of 
Naples " by Dr. Bode. He holds that the real bust of 
Marietta has been in Berlin since 1842 — a purchase made by 
Waagen — and supports his theory by a recent discovery in a 
villa of the Strozzi of a bust of Marietta which is a fine copy 
of the bust of 1842. He quotes no documentary evidence 
to help to identify the new find with Marietta — a somewhat 
serious flaw in the chain — seeing that the Stilkritik, which he 
rates generally as all sufficient, will be hard to apply to a work 
which, by his own showing, is greatly defaced by exposure to 
weather. Another charming Bust in Berlin is the Princess 
of Urbino, — the face full of life and character, and the hair 
and dress exquisitely rendered. There are in the Bargello, 
Busts of a Young Woman and of a lovely Boy in Florentine 
dress ; in the Church of the Vanchetoni in Florence, a Bust 
of the infant Christ; and a clay Group of the Virgin and 
Laughing Child in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The 
infant Baptist of the Vanchetoni is sometimes ascribed to 
Antonio Rossellino. Other works in which Desiderio had a 
share are the Tomb of Giannozzo Pandolfini in the Badia ; 
the Madonna on the Panciatichi Palace in the Via Cavour ; 
the Bust of Marietta Strozzi in the Palazzo Strozzi ; the 
wooden Statue of the Magdalen in S. Trinita in Florence \ 



S. l^reitzc. ftortHte 

SOLARI 2 1 1 

the Madonna of the Museo at Turin ; a coloured clay Replica 
of the last-named (5767), Reliefs of the Madonna (7591-66- 
7582), Madonna and Smiling Child (No. 4495), a marble 
Tabernacle (No. 7720), and Christ and the Baptist as children 
in shallow relief (No. 5783), in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. Divers other female busts — of Battista Sforza, wife 
of Federigo of Urbino, in the Bargello ; and of unknown ladies, 
in the Imperial Museum at Vienna, in the Louvre, in the 
Museo at Palermo, and in the Campo Santo at Pisa (the 
so-called Isotta da Rimini) — have been ascribed to him. 

Works by Desiderio are in the possession of the Earl of 
Wemyss in London, of M. G. Dreyfus and of Madame Andrd 
in Paris, and in the Benda Collection in Vienna. 

Solari, Cristoforo (il Gobbo) Milanese- 
Working, 1497) 

His chief work is the Monument of Ludovico Moro and 
Beatrice d' Este, now in the Certosa (1497). The effigies, 
carried out in the conventional style of the period, are ex- 
quisitely modelled and finished : they are probably faithful 
portraits, as they correspond closely with the representations 
of the Duke and Duchess in Zenale's picture in the Brera. 
Solari has shown them in sleep rather than in death, in the 
amplitude and vigour of prosperous existence. His Statue of 
Christ in the Sacristy at Milan is coarse and unpleasing, and 
the four Fathers of the Church are little better ; but the Adam 
and Eve on the exterior are superior to the average of that 
vast collection. He worked intermittently at the Certosa, and 
probably much of the best of the exterior sculpture is by him. 
A Piet^, a Bust of Christ, and portrait Medallions of Gio. 
and Tomm. Bossi in the Castello at Milan; a Gravestone 
of Ambrogio Griffi in S. Pietro, and two Medallions ; a Grave- 
stone of Beatrice Rusconi in S. Angelo, and some Reliefs in 
the Trivulzi Palace are also his work. 

212 SPANI 

Spani, Bartolommeo (Reggio— Working, 


He and his grandson Prospero are sometimes called Clementi. 
He began as a goldsmith ; in the Cathedral at Reggio are two 
beautiful silver Statuettes, and the Font is also by him. His 
best sculpture is the Tomb of Buonfranco Arlotti, who died in 
1508 ; the Malegazzi Monument, finished in 1530, is tawdry and 
greatly inferior. On the tower of the Cathedral he did a good 
Statue of the Virgin in copper. In S. Prospero he did the 
Tomb of Rufino Gablonetta (1527), a sarcophagus on a base 
covered with reliefs of mythological subjects. Two sphinxes 
support the arch, Neptune drawn by sea-horses is amongst the 
reliefs, and in the lunette above is an effigy of God the Father. 
In the effigy of the deceased the attitude of death or prayer is 
abandoned, and we see a living man, resting his head on his 
hand. Another work of his is the Tomb of Francesco Molza 
in the Cathedral at Modena. 

Spani, Prospero (Reggio, 1 500-1 584) 

He studied in Rome, where he fell under the influence of 
Michelangelo, and afterwards produced some of the worst 
sculpture of the time. The monstrous Statues of Lepidus and 
Hercules at Modena, and the Rangoni and Sforziano Monu- 
ments in the Cathedral at Reggio, are his chief works. The 
Rangoni Tomb was completed in 1567, a huge seated statue 
with genii on the sarcophagus, and reliefs of the Virtues on 
the base. The Sforziano is an absurdity : an immense hour- 
glass with figures of the deceased rising from the dead, and 
two Virtues. Outside the west door are Statues of S. Grisanto 
and S. Daria, and above Adam and Eve, imitations of the Day 
and Night of Michelangelo. In the crypt of the Cathedral at 
Parma he did the Tomb of Prati, a jurist who died in 1542 ; 
and one of Bishop Uberti, in somewhat better taste. He 
made the Tomb of Bishop Andreassi in S. Andrea at Mantua, 
a huge swan in bronze and a sarcophagus resting on marble 


sphinxes ; at Bologna the Statue of S. Procolo on the Volta 
tomb, and a copy of Michelangelo's effigy of the same saint 
on S. Dominic's tomb in S. Domenico ; and a recumbent 
Figure of Alberto Pio del Carpi in the Louvre. 

Sperandio (Paduan — Working, 1500) 

Sperandio was chiefly known as a medallist, and as one of the 
many artists employed by the Gonzagas at Mantua. Of his 
Medal Portraits, those of Nonnina Strozzi, Agnolo Buonfran- 
cesco, Sigismondo d' Este, and Pietro Bono Avogari are the 
finest. His only marble work is the Tomb of Pope Alexander v 
in S. Francesco at Bologna, which was erected in 1482, and 
shows plainly the in fluence of the Cossa Tomb at Florence. The 
lower part has a fine originality. Massive pilasters gracefully 
decorated enclose shallow niches in which stand allegorical 
figures in place of the conventional virtues. The sarcophagus 
is heavy, and the effigy of the Pope imperfectly seen. Attrib- 
uted to him are a Relief of the Annunciation in the Cathedral 
at Faenza; Busts of Antonio Barbazzi in S. Petronio at 
Bologna and of Giovanni Bentivoglio in the Louvre ; and two 
circular bronze Medallions of Hercules in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum (58 and 149), and a Madonna in terra-cotta 
(No. 85). 

Spinazzi, InnocenzO (Florentine- 
Working, 1770) 

Spinazzi was incomparably the most gifted of the later 
Florentines. His graceful Monument of Machiavelli (1787), 
and his dignified and living Statue of the jurisconsult Lami in 
S. Croce, would have deserved notice at any epoch. He com- 
pleted Andrea Sansovino's group of the Baptism of Christ 
over the eastern door of the Baptistery by adding the Angel ; 
and executed the beautiful Allegories of Repentance and Faith 
in S. Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi. At Rome he did the Statue 
of Piranesi in S. Maria del Priorato. 


Stagi, Stagio and Lorenzo (Pisan) 

Stagio's authentic work (1496- 1563) is almost all in the 
Cathedral at Pisa. The Altar in the right aisle containing the 
ashes of S. Gamaliel and other saints is an interesting example 
of the decorative sculpture of the period. The figure of God 
the Father in the lunette is attributed to Ammanati. In col- 
laboration with Pandolfo Fancelli, Stagio made the Altar of 
S. Biagio in the south transept, the statue of the saint being in 
part the work of Tribolo. He also carved the capital of the 
ancient column of porphyry in the choir, now used as an 
Easter candlestick. Holy Water Stoups by him are in S. Sisto 
at Pisa, in the CoUegiata at Empoli, and in the Cathedral at 
Pietra Santa, his birthplace, where are other minor works 
attributed to him. In 1534 he did the Tomb of the juris- 
consult Filippo Decio in the Pisan Campo Santo, and about 
the same time finished the effigy of Raffaele MaflFei in S. Lino 
at Volterra. A Madonna in the Cathedral at Pisa is attributed 
to him, and another at Monte Oliveto. 

Lorenzo Stagi, his father (145 5-1506), decorated the Cathedral 
at Pietra Santa, but much of his work has perished. The Pulpit, 
with finely carved high reliefs, is attributed to him, in collabora- 
tion with Donato Benti. 

Stefano di Giovanni (Sienese— Working, 
I 466- I 499) 

His extant work is all in Siena. He made the Statue of S. 
Ansano which stands opposite to Neroccio's S. Catherine in 
the Cathedral Baptistery, a manifest imitation of Jacopo della 
Quercia's style, and the Tabernacle of the Chapel of S. Catherine 
in S. Domenico. In 1489 he executed two of the beautiful 
bronze Angels which stand on either side of Vecchietta's Taber- 
nacle on the Cathedral high altar, and are his best work. His 
study of Florentine models is visible in the grace of these 
charming figures and the skilful manipulation of hair and 
drapery. Like all Quercia's followers, he soon freed himself 



from the trammels of his master's style. It is generally recog- 
nized that Quercia founded no school, and none of his pupils 
departed more thoroughly from his style than did Stefano di 
Giovanni The Tabernacle over the high altar in the Lateran 
is attributed to him on insufficient grounds. 

TaCCa, Pietro (Florentine, 1517-1650) 

TACCA was born at Carrara, and trained in Florence 
under Gian Bologna, one of his first commissions 
being the bronze Reliefs on the pedestal of Duke Cosimo's 
equestrian statue in the Piazza in 1588. Later he completed 
another equestrian Statue of Ferdinand i for the Piazza dell' 
Annunziata, where are also his two grotesque bronze 
Fountains, — figures full of life and humour and admirably 
wrought. Another Effigy of Ferdinand, and one of Cosimo 11, 
stand on their respective tombs in the Medici Chapel of 
S. Lorenzo. His finest works are the four Slaves at the base 
of Giovanni dell' Opera's statue of Ferdinand i at Leghorn. 
Bronze models of these are in the Berlin Museum. His 
animals are fine; notably the bronze Boar in the Mercato 
Nuovo at Florence, and the Dragons on the windows of the 
Palazzo Novellucci at Prato. The Relief of the Adoration of 
the Magi on the west door of the Cathedral at Pisa is by 
him. He also did equestrian Statues of Henri iv of France, 
and of Philip 11 1 and Philip iv of Spain : the last, completed 
in 1640, is the finest equestrian statue of the century. 

Talenti, Simone di Francesco (Florentine 

— Working, 1378) 

He was the son of Francesco Talenti, the great architect, 

and was himself an accomplished architect, decorator, and 

sculptor. When it was decided to convert the Loggia of 



Or S. Michele into a Church he was employed to fill in the 
arches with windows, the upper part of which he covered 
with an elaborate design of foliated ornament and angels 
and small circular openings with lovely tracery. The 
arrangement of the intersecting arches is very graceful, and 
on the capitals of the slender columns — outside and in — 
are placed statuettes which recall the style of Andrea Pisano. 
Altogether these windows mark the highest point of Italian 
Gothic decoration. He also sculptured a Madonna which 
formerly occupied the tabernacle of the Medici outside the 
church, and is now on the interior wall of the left aisle. 

Tamagnino (Antonio della Porto) 

(Milanese — Working, 1475) 

He was one of the chief decorators of the Certosa. The 
Angels on either side of the great door are probably by him, 
as they resemble strongly his work in S. Maria dei Miracoli 
at Brescia. Of the larger Statues on the fagade he did the 
Judith, the S. Sebastian, the Evangelists, the Baptist, and 
the David. Inside, the right-hand Tabernacle by the high 
altar was made by him and Pace Gagini in 15 13. At Brescia 
he did six of the Heads of the Emperors on the Palazzo 
Communale. Inside S. Maria dei Miracoli he did twelve 
Angels round the dome, and four Medallions ; also Statues 
of Judith and two Sibyls on the west wall of the arcade. 
There is a portrait Bust by him of Accelino Salvagio in the 
Berlin Museum, and some Statues in S. Giorgio at Genoa. 

Tino di Camaino (Sienese, -1339) 

He was probably a pupil of the Pisani, and is first heard of 
in 1311, when he was made capo maestro of the Cathedral 
at Pisa, but none of his work there survives. In the Campo 
Santo is his Tomb of the Emperor Henry vii (13 15), a Gothic 
sarcophagus with rudely carved figures of the Apostles on 
the front, and on the area a recumbent effigy of the Emperor, 


a graceful figure and by far the finest portion of the monument. 
When Henry attacked Florence it was valiantly defended by 
Bishop Orso, whose tomb Tino made likewise. It is in the 
Cathedral at Florence, left of the great door, a seated figure 
on a sarcophagus carved in relief. The reliefs on the support- 
ing brackets are quite archaic. Tino made the Monument 
of Cardinal Petroni in the Cathedral at Siena, and later on 
(1336) the Tomb of Bishop Aliotti in S. Maria Novella at 
Florence. Tino is chiefly interesting as the Apostle of 
Tuscan art in Naples. In 1325 he went there to make the 
Tomb of Mary of Hungary, Queen of Charles 11, in S. 
Maria Donna Regina. He had for assistant a certain 
Gallardus, a Neapolitan, who adopted his style and handed 
it on to his successors, who followed Tino's model in the great 
royal tombs. Queen Mary's tomb is a richly carved sarcophagus 
under a Gothic canopy of graceful design, with cusped arches 
typical of the Pisani. Its design suggests that Tino might 
have studied Arnolfo's ciborium in S. Paolo at Rome. The 
fine Tomb of Charles of Calabria in S. Chiara is thoroughly 
Tuscan in spirit. Charles died in 1328, but the tomb could 
not have been made till later, as the Church was not then 
completed. It is a repetition of Queen Mary's Tomb with 
slight modifications. By the school of sculptors founded by 
Tino several important works remain : the Tomb of Mary 
of Valois, and of her daughter Maria (a sarcophagus flanked 
by graceful figures of Faith and Hope), both in S. Chiara; 
in the same church a series of Reliefs of the life of S. 
Catherine round the organ gallery ; the Tomb of Catherine 
of Austria in S. Lorenzo, and that of Archbishop Minutoli 
in the Cathedral. 

Torrigiani, Pietro (Florentine, 1492-1528) 

He probably studied under Bertoldo in the Accademia di 
S. Marco, and his earliest work is the S. Francis on Bregno's 
Piccolomini tomb in the Cathedral at Siena. Legend says 
that he fled from Florence, after breaking Michelangelo's 


S. DettMa Kf^na, SapUt 


nose, to Rome, where he did some work for Alexander vi, 
and then had a spell of soldiering under Caesar Borgia. 
Finding preferment slow, he took to sculpture again and 
went to England, where Henry viii employed him to make 
the Tomb of his father, which is now in Westminster Abbey. 
When Torrigiani was engaged in 1509 he modified the 
Gothic features of the design and produced the fine tomb 
we possess. The effigies of the King and Queen and the 
four bronze angels are finely modelled, and recall the best 
characteristics of the Florentine school. He also did the 
beautiful effigy of the Duchess of Richmond in the Abbey, and 
the Tomb of Doctor Young in the Museum of the Record 
Office. In the Victoria and Albert Museum is a very fine 
Bust of Henry vii (No. 7916). From England Torrigiani 
went to Spain ; his chief works there are a Madonna and 
a S. Jerome in the Museum at Seville. 

Tradate, JaCOpinO da (Milanese- 
Working, 14 18) 

He was a skilful carver of animals and floriated ornament, and 
was attached to the works at the Cathedral from 1401 to 
1425. His chief work is the colossal Statue of Pope Martin v 
seated in a pontifical chair on an elaborately carved bracket. 
The figure is skilfully modelled in view of the position it was 
to occupy, and the effect is more pleasing than that which 
such works generally produce. The bronze Effigy of God the 
Father in the roof of the apse is also his, and the Tomb of 
Pietro Torello in S. Eustorgio is attributed to him. He went 
to Mantua about 1440, and probably died there. 

Tribolo, Niccolo (Florentine, 1485-1550) 

He was a pupil and assistant of Jacopo Sansovino. An 
early work of his is the Statue of S. James in the Cathedral. 
In 1525 he went to Bologna, where he decorated the side 


Doors of the west front of S. Petronio. Here, though sub- 
jected to comparison with Quercia's great effort, he does not 
suffer greatly. He follows practically the same scheme, 
decorating the sides with figures of prophets and sibyls, and 
the lintels and pilasters with scenes from sacred history; on 
the right is the history of Joseph, and on the left that of 
Moses. A Statue of the Madonna, and a Relief of the 
Assumption in S. Petronio (which was said to have been 
finished by Properzia dei Rossi), are ascribed to him. Both 
show signs of Michelangelo's influence. About 1528 Tribolo 
was sent by Clement vii to Loreto to finish the Relief of the 
Marriage of the Virgin, left incomplete by Andrea Sansovino ; 
and, this being completed, he did the allegorical Figures on 
the tomb of Hadrian vi in S. Maria dell' Anima in Rome. 
He next went to Venice with Cellini, Jacopo Sansovino 
having offered him employment, which, however, was not 
forthcoming. Cellini gives an amusing account of his inter- 
vention on Tribolo's behalf with Jacopo, who naturally came 
off second best. Tribolo returned to Florence, and, after 
executing the lovely Fountains at Castello and Petraia, did little 
else thenceforth than plan decorations for the Medici fetes. 
The Petraia Fountain is a gem ; it is surmounted by a Venus 
by Gian Bologna. That at Castello is almost as beautiful ; 
indeed, the sporting children round the pedestal might have 
been carved by Donatello. The Hercules and Antaeus on 
it are by Ammanati. Tribolo was subject to the full blast 
of Michelangelo's influence, but it did not lead to deteriora- 
tion. He made small reproductions of the figures on the 
Medici tombs, in which the face of Evening is finished. 
These are now in the Bargello. In the Victoria and Albert 
Museum is a charming Group of Boys (No. 5891) from a 
fountain at S. Casciano. 

Turino, Giovanni di (Sienese, -1454) 

He was the son of Turino di Sano, a contemporary of Jacopo 
della Quercia, and he fell early under the influence of this 


CasteiU, Mtar FUrtHte 


master, and executed under his direction his two principal 
works, the Reliefs of the Birth and Ministry of the Baptist 
on Quercia's font in the Baptistery. He also made three 
of the Statues which stand between the panels : Courage, 
Justice, and Prudence. In 1429 he made the bronze Wolf 
on the column in front of the Palazzo Pubblico ; the Holy 
Water Stoups in the Chapel of the Palace and in the Cathedral 
Sacristy. Other works of his are the series of Reliefs of the 
Evangelists and S. Paul in the south transept of the Cathedral, 
and of the Apostles in the Accademia. 


Ubertus and Petrus (Piacenza— Working, 1 196) 

These were early smiths and founders who made the bronze 
Doors of the Oratory of S. Giovanni in the Lateran at Rome. 


VaSOldo, Giovanni Antonio (Roman- 
working, 1600) 

HE did the Tomb of Cardinal Albano in S. Maria del 
Popolo at Rome, and the Tomb of Cardinal Farnese 
in the Lateran ; also the Statues of Sixtus v and of S. Peter 
Martyr in the Tomb of this Pope in S. Maria Maggiore. 

Vecchietta, Lorenzo (Sienese, 1412-1480) 

He came first under Jacopo della Quercia's influence, but 
ultimately adopted Donatello's style, and worked almost 
entirely in bronze. His masterpiece is the Tabernacle on the 
high altar of the Cathedral at Siena, originally made in 1465 
for the Ospedale della Scala, in the Chapel of which his Christ 
— a somewhat repulsive work — still stands on the altar. The 
tabernacle is ungraceful in its proportions, but the Christ 
which surmounts it and other statuettes are finely wrought. 
For the Loggia dei Nobili he made Statues of S. Peter and 
S. Paul ; and other works of his are S. John and a Relief at the 
entrance of the Cathedral library ; S. Mary and S. John at the 
foot of the Cross in S. Pietro in Ovile ; and an Effigy of 
Marino Soccino, a Sienese jurist, in the Bargello at Florence. 
In the Cathedral at Nami and in S. Bernardino are wooden 
Statues of S. Antonio, and in the Louvre one of S. 
Christopher, which are attributed to him. 


Vergelli, Tib. (Florentine, -1599) 

(See LoMBARDi, The) 

VerrOCChio (Florentine, i 435-1488) 

Verrocchio stands amongst the greatest of the golden age. 
His name is less widely known than that of many sculptors 
immeasurably his inferiors, largely because he set himself to 
make his productions conform inflexibly to the truth, and 
sculpture of this kind is rarely as popular as that fashioned 
after the conventions which the untrained eye approves. 
Vasari, in the opening sentences of his Life, affirms that 
Verrocchio's style is hard and crude ; that his work showed 
itself to be the product of diligent study rather than of natural 
gifts ; and these remarks have unfortunately been widely 
accepted. He certainly was a hard worker : he made himself 
a thorough anatomist and draughtsman, and, though he was 
not more learned than Pollaiuolo, his genius burnt with a 
purer flame; the strain of poetry in him was deep and 
sympathetic, and his views were wide — a truism, this last, to 
those who can call to mind the delightful Baby with the 
Dolphin and the gigantic CoUeone. Verrocchio, being a 
generation later than Donatello, enjoyed greater advantages of 
instruction. Probably he was of a nature more alert, judging 
from the rapidity with which he mastered the difficulties of 
technique. In his earliest works — the David, and the Boy with 
the Dolphin — there is no sign of that imperfect knowledge and 
workmanship which marks Donatello's first efforts. Verrocchio 
seems to have been trained as a goldsmith, and to have gone 
later into Donatello's workshop. In 1461 he sent in an 
architectural design for a tabernacle in the Cathedral at Orvieto, 
which was rejected. A Sleeping Boy in terra-cotta at Berlin 
is classed amongst his early works ; and since the recent 
discovery (1903) of a Relief of the Resurrection at the Villa 
Careggi near Florence, the theory has been started that the 
Berlin fragment was modelled as a study for one of the figures. 
There seems to be no documentary evidence of the authen- 


ticity of the Careggi relief, but the Florentine experts are 
quite confident on this point. It is a palpable imitation of 
Luca della Robbia's version in the Cathedral, over the Sacristy 
door, and it is a fine work with all the marks of Verrocchio's 
hand. The David, now in the Bargello, must have been made 
before 1476. It stands in friendly rivalry with Donatello's 
version, and is as fine a figure of a stripling as was ever carved. 
The light limbs, the abundant hair, the delicate mouth, and 
the graceful poise of the body convey a sense of youth which 
Classic sculptors often attempted and often failed to catch. 
The Boy with the Dolphin in the Palazzo Vecchio belongs also 
to this period. Other works in the Bargello are a Bust of a 
Lady with a rose in her hand ; a marble Relief of the Virgin 
and Child, one of the finest renderings, and a terra-cotta Relief 
of the Madonna, formerly in S. Maria Nuova. Verrocchio 
seems to have been overwhelmed with orders, and to have 
tried severely the patience of his patrons. In 1465 he was 
commissioned to make the Group of Christ and S. Thomas for 
Or S. Michele, which was not finished till 1483. In 1478 
he completed the silver Relief of the execution of S. John 
Baptist for the silver altar of the Baptistery, — now in the 
Opera del Duomo, — a masterpiece equal to Pollaiuolo's 
"Birth." The Lavabo in the Sacristy of S. Lorenzo was 
begun by Donatello and completed by Verrocchio. Its 
design is faulty, and the undoubted vigour of the treatment 
and beauty of detail are impotent to set it in the first rank. 
It bears the Falcon, the device of Piero, son of Cosimo dei 
Medici, who ordered it. Verrocchio also made the Tomb of 
Cosimo, a plain slab of red porphyry, ornamented only with 
an inlay of white marble and bronze shields at the four 
comers. In the revolutions of the State it has been battered 
and renovated according to the sentiments of the prevailing 
faction. The inscription was reft of the words " Pater Patriae " 
in 1495; and in 1527 the stone was still further maltreated. 
Later on, in 1472, he made a Monument in porphyry and 
bronze to Piero and Giovanni dei Medici, the father and brother 
of Cosimo, in the Sacristy of S. Lorenzo. It is entirely decora- 


tive, the bronze ornamentation being exceedingly sumptuous 
and somehow out of harmony with the porphyry on which it is 

In 1477 the citizens of Pistoia commissioned Verrocchio to 
erect a Tomb to Cardinal Forteguerra in their Cathedral, and 
the result was a work over which long and virulent contro- 
versies have raged. It needs little connoisseurship to decide that 
the existing monument had very little to do with Verrocchio 
in the way of design. Some of the figures are graceful, especi- 
ally the four angels who support the mandorla, but the treat- 
ment of the draperies, and the jumble of Virtues, angels, 
volutes, and eighteenth-century children with inverted torches, 
forbid the notion of Verrocchio's supervision. There was 
trouble over the monument from the beginning. The clergy 
wanted to oust Verrocchio, and give the work to Pollaiuolo ; 
but Lorenzo dei Medici, who was called in to arbitrate, 
upheld the choice of the citizens. It was not taken to Pistoia 
till 1488, after Verrocchio's death, and there it lay till 151 1, when 
it was put together by Lorenzetto. He left it incomplete, and 
in 1753 Mazzoni grouped it as it now stands with the common- 
place bust of the Cardinal and the fat boys with torches. 
The Christ, the four Angels, and the Faith and Hope, came 
from Verrocchio's workshop ; the heads of Hope and of the 
lower left-hand Angel are probably from his hand. A Sketch 
in clay of this monument in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(No. 7599) is now generally recognized to be a modern forgery ; 
but the Bust (No. 4407) and the Sketch for the Assumption of 
the Magdalen are genuine, though not in Verrocchio's best 
manner. A fine fragment in clay, an Angel, in the Louvre, 
is attributed to him. Other disputed works are the Reliefs, 
said to have been made for the tomb of Lucrezia Tornabuoni, 
originally in the Minerva at Rome and now in the Bargello. 
The latest view, based on the character of the workmanship, is 
that they are adaptations by Francesco Ferrucci of Verrocchio's 
designs to commemorate some lady of the Strozzi family, 
but some critics hold that the facial contortion of the grief- 
stricken women in the death-bed scene is too violent to allow 


Or Sam Mi<hfU. Fttrtmr 


this work to be associated in any way with Verrocchio. The 
figures are ill-proportioned, and the carving of the features, 
especially in the men, is coarse and unpleasing. Verrocchio 
was a dilatory worker, and his embarrassments may have led 
him occasionally to hurry or scamp his work. It is well 
established that certain reliefs were done for the Minerva, 
and the Medici Inventory describes the Bargello reliefs as 
the work of Donatello and as bearing the Strozzi arms, but 
this device has vanished. The Christ and S. Thomas on 
Or S. Michele, and the Bartolommeo Colleone at Venice, 
are Verrocchio's greatest works. It was no light task to supply 
statuary worthy to fill Michelozzo's exquisite tabernacle, but 
Verrocchio did not fail. The figure of Christ with uplifted 
arm stands inside the tabernacle on a higher level than 
S. Thomas, a disposition which helps to give Him due pre- 
dominance. On His face gentleness, sorrow, and forgiveness 
are perfectly blended. Thomas, in deep contrition but free 
from abasement, listens to His voice ; His youthful, gracious 
figure is in strong contrast to the robust, rugged type of the 
conventional Apostle. The modelling of the feet and of the 
drapery is one of the finest examples of Florentine art ; and 
the religious sentiment, never very vividly expressed in 
Verrocchio's work, is more than usually manifest. 

The equestrian Statue of Bartolommeo Colleone, the great 
Free Captain, which stands by the Church of SS. Giovanni e 
Paolo at Venice, is the finest ever made. Colleone was one 
of the chief condottieri of the fifteenth century, and served 
the Republic of Venice for a long period. In 1479 the Signory 
decided to authorize Bellano of Padua, Alessandro Leopardi, 
and Verrocchio to prepare models of the horse. After certain 
delay the commission both for horse and rider were given 
to Verrocchio. He probably began his task about 1481, and 
at his death in 1488 the clay model was finished, but the 
casting was yet to be done. In his testament he requested 
that his pupil, Lorenzo di Credi, might complete the statue; 
but Lorenzo seems to have been mistrustful of his powers, 
and assigned the task to a certain Giovanni d' Andrea. The 


Signory, however, interposed their veto, and commissioned 
Alessandro Leopardi, who was famed as a bronze caster, to 
undertake it. There is a document under the hand of 
Lorenzo di Credi which is important as showing that at 
Verrocchio's death the entire statue was finished in the clay ; 
it was finally set up in bronze in 1496. It is painful to note 
that Leopardi showed himself to be a knave and a cheat over 
this commission. If he did not openly claim the authorship 
of the statue, he allowed other people so to describe him. 
Sanudo in his diary hails him as the creator of Colleone's 
effigy, as does Luca Paccioli the mathematician, in the 
dedication of his Summa to the Duke of Urbino. More- 
over, on the saddle-girth of the horse he cut in large letters, 
"Alexander Leopardus V. F. Opus." The Colleone is one 
of those masterpieces which need no description. It flashes 
its greatness on every eye that lights upon it. Many of those 
who know it rate it as the greatest equestrian statue in the 
world, and some would bracket it with the Sistine ceiling as 
the finest product of the Renaissance. Certainly it would be 
hard to find another such a rendering of alertness, courage, 
strength, and dauntless resolution — the qualities with which 
Verrocchio's touch has endowed so emphatically this mass 
of bronze. Vigour and movement have never been more 
adequately expressed; and though the dominant impression 
is that of strength, the consummate grace and balance, with 
which horse and rider seem to move together, mark perhaps 
the subtlest touch of genius. Leopardi's pedestal is a fine 
work, and drawn exactly on the scale to display the statue 
to the best advantage. 

There is in the Museum at Berlin a Study for an Entomb- 
ment in terra-cotta. The draperies are as well modelled as 
those of the Incredulity of S. Thomas ; as a study of anatomy 
the figure of Christ is very fine. In the Victoria and Albert 
Museum the Ecstasy of the Magdalen (No. 7605), the Head of 
the Baptist (No. 7545), and the Crucifixion (No. 7571), are 
probably by him. In the Carmine at Venice is a bronze 
Relief of the Descent ; and in the University at Perugia one 



of the Flagellation, sometimes assigned to Verrocchio, but 
Dr. Bode is inclined to class them with the plaster sketch, 
Discord, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, as early works 
of Leonardo da VincL 

Vinci, Pierino da (Florentine, i 520-1 554) 

He was a grand-nephew of Leonardo, and was at first a pupil 
of Bandinelli, but subsequently studied under Tribolo, whom 
he helped with the fountain in the Villa Castello. Two Reliefs 
of his are in the Bargellg : the Holy Family with the Baptist 
and S. Elisabeth, and the Death of Ugolino. Of the last 
named there are replicas in wax and terra-cotta in the Oxford 
Museum. In the V^atican there is an allegorical Relief by him 
of Pisa succoured by Duke Cosimo ; one of the Holy Family 
in the Berlin Museum, marble ; and a bronze Replica in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 1518), where there is a 
graceful Group of Boys with a Fish (No. 2384). His figures 
are well modelled, but wanting in distinction. 

Vittoria, AlessandrO (Venetian, 1525-1608) 

He was bom at Trent and studied at Venice under Jacopo 
Sansovino, for whom he worked for some time in stucco; 
also for Palladio at Vicenza until 1553. He spent most of 
his life in decorating Sansovino's buildings ; his principal 
achievements being the Ceilings of the Library and of the 
Scala d' Oro in the Ducal Palace ; the Fa9ades of the Scuola di 
S. Girolamo and of the Palazzo Balbi. He did the Statues of 
S. Giustina and S. Dominic in SS. Giovanni e Paolo, and some 
huge Figm^es of Prophets and Sibyls, and a Statue of S. Jerome. 
Another S. Jerome by him is on the Bergamasco altar. Other 
Statues of his are the Car>'atides at the door of the Palace 
Library ; S. Antony, S. Roch, and S. Sebastian in S. Francesco 
della Vigna ; the Evangelists in stucco in S. Giorgio Maggiore ; 
S. Jerome in the Frari ; a Prophet over the chief door of 
S. Zaccaria ; S. Roch and S. Sebastian in S. Salvatore : 

230 VOLPI 

S. Catherine and Daniel with a Lion in S. Giuliano; and 
Christ over the chief door of the Frari, 

Vittoria made the Tomb of Edward Windsor in SS. Giovanni 
e Paolo, his own Monument in S. Zaccaria, and the Bust and 
Tomb of Gasp. Contarini in S. Maria Zobenigo. Many of the 
Figures on the Contarini Tomb, designed by Sammichele, in 
S. Antonio at Padua are by him. Vittoria rivalled Tintoretto 
as a rapid worker. His creations probably suffered nothing 
on this account, as he was by nature wanting in taste and 
intellect, and he had been trained in a degenerating school. 
Jacopo Sansovino left some beautiful sculpture, but he was 
by character quite unable to arrest the downward course of 
taste, and Vittoria, as his pupil, fell with increased velocity, 
and dragged art down into the gulf of the baroque. He 
succeeded best with his Busts. Those in the Palazzo Correr, 
and in S. Maria del Orto, his own on his monument, that of 
Antonio Grimani in the Berlin Museum, those of Francesco 
and Domenico Duodo in the Royal Gallery in Venice, and 
one in the Palazzo Stroganoff in Rome, are of considerable 
merit ; as are also the figures allegorizing Sculpture and Archi- 
tecture and Fame over his monument in S. Zaccaria. A 
Neptune on a Sea-horse in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
(No. 2887) is probably his work. 

Volpi, Amb. (Milanese— Working, 1567) 

He was one of the minor sculptors employed on the Certosa 
of Pavia. The principal works ascribed to him are the Pietk 
on the High Altar (given also to Amadeo and Mantegazza) 
and the bronze Tabernacle ; also the decoration of the Door 
of the Lavabo and the Pulpit in the Refectory. At Casal- 
monferrato he made an Altar in the Cathedral, and six Statues 
and some Reliefs in the Sacristy. 


Zacchi, Giovanni (Bolognese — Working, 1536) 

HIS work is mostly in Bologna ; the best being the Tomb 
of Giacomo Birro in the court of S. Domenico. He 
made a Monument in terra-cotta to Lodovico Gozzadini in 
S. Maria dei Servi, and a Group of the Madonna and Saints 
in S. Maria Maggiore. 



Abondio, S., Altar of . . 
Acciajuoli, Tomb of . . . 

Acquasparta, Tomb of . 

Adam of Hertford, Tomb 

Agata, S., Tomb of . . . 
Alberti, L. B., Profile in 

Albertoni, Tomb of . . . 
Alengon, Tomb of . . . 

Alfano, Tomb of ... . 

Allegory of Discord . , . 

Altar (early) 


„ (early) 

„ (three kings) . . . 

„ (Byzantine) . . 

Como . . 


near Flor- 



Rome . . 

Ara Coeli (Cos- 

mati ?) 

Rome . . 

S. Cecilia (Magister 

Paulus ?) 



Paris . . 


Rome . . 

S. Maria del Popolo 

Rome . . 

S. Maria in Tras- 


Rome . . 

S. Maria in Cos- 



Victoria and Albert 


Citta di Cas- 


tello . . 

Rome . . 

S. Gregorio 

Milan . . 

S. Ambrogio 

Milan . . 

S. Eustorgio 

(Balduccio ? 

Bonino di Cam- 

pione ?) 

Venice . . 

S. Mark's 


S. Trovaso 



Altar Salerno 

,, Modena 

Altoviti Palace .... Florence 

Ancherus, Tomb of . . . Rome . 

Angevin Tombs .... Naples 

Anjou, Charles of, Statue of Rome . 

Ansano Chapel, Reliefs Siena . 


Apostles, Statues of . . . Florence 

ApoUonia, S., Tomb of . . Brescia 

Arringhieri, Tomb of . . Siena . 

Arsendi, Tomb of . . . Padua . 

Astorgio, Tomb of . . . Rome . 

Austria, Catherine of, Tomb Naples . 

Cathedral (Sacristy) 

Cathedral (Master 
of Pellegrini 

Caricature sculp- 
ture on facade 

S. Prassede 

S. Lorenzo 

Palazzo dei Con- 


S. Antonio 
S. Maria sopra Min- 
erva (cloisters) 
S. Lorenzo 

Bacchanals, Terra - cotta Berlin 


Bainbridge, Cardinal Mon. . Rome 

Balcony Rome 

Balustrade Rome 

Bardi, Tombs of ... . Florence 

Baroncelli, Tomb of . . . Florence 

Bassus, Junius, Statue of . Rome . 

Beato, Carissimo, Tomb of Venice . 

Benedict ix. Tomb of . . Perugia 

„ xii. Bust of . . Rome . 

Bonandrei, Tomb of. . . Bologna 

Boniface viii. Statue of . . Bologna 


English College 

Sistine Chapel 

S. Maria sopra Min- 
erva (Cappella 

S. Croce 

S. Croce 

S. Peter's (crypt) 


S. Domenico 

S. Peter's (crypt) 

Museo Civico 

Museo (Manni?) 


Boniface viii, Statue of . 

Relief Bust 
Tomb . . 

Rome . 
Rome . 

Calderini, Gio., Tomb of . Bologna . 

Calixtus III, Tomb of . . Rome . . 

Camino, Tomb of . . . Serravalle . 

Candlestick Milan , . 

„ Naples . . 

„ Rome . . 

Capponi, Tomb of . . . Florence . 

Carraciolo, Tomb of . . . Rome . . 

Carrara, Ubertino and Padua . . 

Jacopo, Tombs of 

Casalio, Michele, Tomb of Rome . . 

Castiglione, Tomb of . . Castiglione 


Castiglione, Card, Tomb of Castiglione 

d' Olona 

Catherine, S., Reliefs of Naples 

Life of 

Cerchi, Tomb of ... . Assisi . . 

Cemili, P., Tomb of . . . Bologna . 

Cesi, Tomb of Narni . . 

Ciborium Corneto . 

„ Bari . . 

„ Rome . . 

„ Rome . . 

Clement iv. Tomb of . . Viterbo . 

Cloisters Pavia . . 

Cordova, Tomb of . . . Rome . . 

Corsini,TommasoandNera, Florence . 
Tombs of 



S. Peter's (crypt) 

S. Peter's (crypt) 

Museo Civico 

S. Peter's (crypt) 

S. Giustino 


S. Domenico Mag- 

S. Paolo Fuori 
S. Spirito 


S. M. della Carita 

Corpus Dom. 

S. Chiara 

S. Francesco 

Museo Civico 


S. Maria 

S. Niccolo 

S. Maria in Cos- 

S. Francesco 
S. Maria di Mon- 

S. Trinita 



Corta, Gio., Tomb of 

Crucifixion (wood) . . 

Cyprus, Queen of, Tomb of Assisi 

Davanzati, Tomb of . . . 
Descent from Cross, Relief 

Diotisalvi, Tomb of 
Discord, Allegory of 

Dolfino, Tomb of 
Door (sculptured) 

Doors (bronze) . 

Doors (wood) . 

Ducal Palace (Capital and 

Angle Sculpture) 
Duccio d' Alberti, Tomb of 

Rome . . 

S. Maria del Po- 


Como . . 


Assisi . . 

S. Francesco 

Florence . 

S. Trinita 


Carmine (Verroc- 

chio ?) 

Rome . . 


London . 

Victoria and Albert 



SS. Giovanni e Paolo 

Bari . . 

SS. Niccolo 

Borgo S. 



Ferrara . 

Cathedral (Giud- 

ectus ?) 

Lucca . . 


Lucca . . 

S. Giovanni 

Paris . . 

Louvre (from Pal. 

Stanga, Cremona) 

Pavia . . 

S. Michele 






Cathedral, Chapel 

of the Treasury 

Ravello . 

Cathedral (Baris- 

ano ?) 

Rome . 


Troja . . 


Verona . 

S. Zenone 

Rome . . 





Eve, Creation of . 

Florence . Museo del Duomo 


Fieschi, Cardinal, Tomb of 

Rome . . 

S. Lorenzo Fuori 

Filomarini, Tomb of. . . 



Flagellation (bronze relief) . 

Perugia . 

University (Verroc- 
chio ?) 

Flamberto, Tomb of. . . 

Ravenna . 

S. Francesco 


Florence . 


„ (early) 

Florence . 



Pisa . . 





Frangipane Tomb . . . 

Rome . . 


Fulgoso, Tomb of . . . 

Padua . . 

S. Antonio 

Galuzzi, Bon., Tomb of . . 

Bologna . 

Museo Civico 

Gattamelatas, Tombs of . 

Padua . . 

S. Antonio (Bel- 

Pisa . . 

Campo Santo 

Tomb of 

Giustina, S., Tomb of . . 

London . 

Victoria and Albert 

Good Shepherd, Relief of . 

Rome . . 

Lateran Museum 

Guidarelli, Effigy of . . . 

Ravenna . 

Pinacoteca (TuUio 
Lombardo ?) 

Hadrian v. Tomb of . . . 


S. Francesco 

Heraclius, Emperor, Statue 

Hippolytus, S., Statue of . 

Barletta . 


Rome . . 


Honorius iv, Tomb of . . 

Rome . . 

Ara Cceli 

Inghirami, G., Tomb of. . 

Prato . . 


Innocent iv. Tomb of . . 


Cathedral (1294) 

Innocent vii 

Rome . . 

S. Peter's (crypt) 

Isabella of Aragon, Tomb of 

Cosenza . 


Legnano, Gio. da, Tomb of 

Bologna . 

Museo Civico 

Lonati, Tomb of ... . 

Rome . . 

S. Maria del Popolo 



Loredano, L., Relief of . . Venice 

Madonna of Lunette . . . Orvieto 

Madonna with S. Francis . Venice 

Malatesta, Rob., Statue of . Paris . 

Malatesta, Tomb of . . . Fano . 

Marco, Fra., Tomb of . . Viterbo 

Martenigo, Tomb of . . . Brescia 

Martin, S., and the Beggar . Pisa 

Maximianus, S., Throne of. Ravenna 

Miracoli, S. Maria dei, Brescia 

Reliefs on fagade 

Miroballo Tomb .... Naples . 

Ducal Palace, 

Museo (Rizzo ?) 
S. Francesco 
S. Francesco 
Museo Civico 
S. Martino 
Abps. Pal. 

S. Giovanni a Car- 

Naples, Princess of. Bust of Berlin . . Museum 

Nativity Relief .... Brescia . S. Francesco 

Neptune, Relief of . . . Ravenna . S. Vitale 

Nicolas IV, Relief Statue of Rome . . Lateran 

Obizzi Tomb Rome 

Orsini Tomb Rome 

Ortega, Cardinal, Tomb of. Rome 

S. Maria del Prior- 

S. Maria del Popolo 


Passaggeri Tombs . . . Bologna 

Paul, S., Statue of . . . Rome . 

Pazzi, Tombs of ... . Florence 

Pellegrini Chapel, Reliefs . Verona 

Peter, S., Statues of . . . Rome . 

Pietk (bronze relief) . . . Venice 

Pini, Lor., Tomb of . . . Bologna 

Pius II and in, Tombs of . Rome . 

Podocatharo, Tomb of . . Rome . 

Pollaiuolo, Tomb of . . . Rome . 

S. Croce 
S. Anastasia 
Vatican and Lateran 
S. Maria del Car- 
Museo Civico 
S. Andrea della Valle 
S. Maria del Popolo 
S. Pietro in Vincolo 


Ponzetti Monument . . . Rome . . S. Maria della Pace 

Prato, L. de, Equestrian Venice SS.GiovanniePaolo 
Statue of 

Prophets and Saints, Reliefs Bologna . S. Petronio 

Pulpit AlbaFucese S. Pietro 

,, Barga(near Church 


„ Benevento Cathedral 

„ Bitonto Cathedral 

„ Canossa . Cathedral 

„ Florence . S. Miniato 

„ Fondi . . Cathedral 

„ Groppoli . (now in Villa d' Alp- 

ina, near Pistoia) 

„ S.Leonardo Church 

in Arcetri 

„ Moscufo . S. Maria del Lago 

„ Salerno . Cathedral 

„ Sessa . . Cathedral 

„ Terracina. Cathedral 

Reliquary Perugia Cathedral 

„ Rome . . S. Pietro in Vincoli 

Ripafratta, Tomb of . . . Pistoia, . S. Domenico(Bem. 

Rossellino ?) 
Roycelli, Tomb of . . . Arezzo . . S. Francesco 

Sarcophagi Ravenna . S. Appolinare in 

Sardi, Tomb of ... . Rome . . S. Balbina (Cos- 

mati ?) 
Sar^o,Statueof(equestrian) Verona S. Anastasia 

Savelli, Tomb of ... . Rome . . Ara Cceli 
Scaliger, Tombs of . . . Verona S. Maria Antica 

(B. and G. di 



Scipio, Profile head of . . 
Sebastian, S., Statue of . . 

Sixtus IV, Reliefs on Taber- 
nacle of 

Slab, Gravestone of two 

Paris . . Louvre 
Rome . . S. Maria sopra Min- 
Rome . . S. Peter's (crypt) 

near Lucca Oratorio della 

Throne, Episcopal 

Tiepolo, Jac, Tomb of . . 
Torre, Gaston della. Tomb 

Bari . . S. Niccolo (Romu- 

aldus ?) 
Canossa . Cathedral (Romu- 

aldus ?) 
Milan . . S. Ambrogio 
Venice . SS.GiovanniePaolo 
Florence . S. Croce 

Urban vi, Tomb of . . , 

Rome . 

. S. Peter's (crypt) 

Vinea, Pietro, Bust of . 

. Capua . 

. Museo 

„ Tombs 

. Fermo . 

. Cathedral 

Visconti, Otto, Tomb of 

. Milan . 

. Cathedral 

Vulcano, Tomb of . . 

. Rome . 

. S. Francesca Rom- 
a n a (Magister 


Some of the Woris catalogued are not mentioned in the Text. 
Figures within parentheses refer to Museum numbers 

S. PiETRO, Cosmati School, Pulpi^ 



Cath., Anon., Stats, of Boniface 
VHi and other Popes, 235 
Cosmati, Gaetani Tomb ; 
Throne and Candlestick, 61 


Cath., Dcdmata, Tomb of Gianelli, 


Cath., Robbia, C, Nat., 185 
Piazza, Robbia, C, Mad. of Mercy, 


Cath., Sil. d' Aquila, Tomb of 

Agnifili, II 
S. Bernardino, Sil. d' Aquila, 

Tomb of S. Bernardino, 12 ; 

Mad. and Saints, 12 ; Tomb 

of Maria Periera, 1 1 
Robbia, A., AlUr, 184 
S. Maria, Sil. </' Aquila, S. 

Sebastian, 12 
S. Marciano, Sil. d' Aquila, Mad., 


Cath,, Robbia, G., Altar, 185 


Cath. {Ext.), Niccolb cT Arezzo, 
Mad., Angels, and S. Luke, 
(Int.), Gio. and Betto di Fran- 
cesco, Tomb of S. Donato 
(High Altar), 97 
Robbia, G., Mad. and Saints, 
Nave, L. (Chapel of Mad.), 
Robbia, A. , Altar with Cruci- 
fixion, Trinity, Ascension, 
and Mad., 184 
Ferrucci, Sim., Font, 83 
Agostino di Giovanni and 
Agnolo di Ventura, Tomb of 
Tarlati, 4, 56 
Rossellino, B., Annunciation 
(t.-c.) (Sacristy), 200 
Abbadia di S. Fiora, B. da 

Majano, Ciborium, 122 
S. Antonio, A'iccolo d Arezzo, 

Stat, of S. Antonio, 141 
S. DOMENICO, Gio. di Francesco, 
Altar (Cappella Drago- 
manni), ^ 
Robbia, G., S. Peter Martyr, 



Arezzo, continued — 

S. Francesco, Anon.., Tomb of 

Roycelli, 239 
S. Maria in Grado, Robbia, A., 

Mad. of Mercy, 183 
S. Maria delle Grazie, Robbia, 

A., Altar, 183 
S. Maria DELLA Pieve, Rom- 
anesque Portal (Marchionne?) 
Campo Santo Chapel, Robbia, 

A., Mad., 183 
Misericordia, Chapel of, B. 

Rossellino, Lunette and 

Facade, 200 
Museo Civico, B. Rossellino, Clay 

model of Misericordia Dec, 



S. Francesco, Cosmati, Tomb of 
the Queen of Cyprus, 61, 
236 ; Tomb of Cardinal 
Orsini, 61 
Anon., Tomb of Cerchi, 235 

S. Maria degli Angeli, Robbia, 
A., Altar, S. Francis, 184 


S. Didier, Laurana, Rel. of 
Crucifixion, 107 

BARGA (near Lucca) 

Cath,, Anon., Pulpit, 239 
Robbia, G., Altar, 185 
Cappuccini, Robbia, G., Assump- 
tion, 185 


S. Niccol6, Romualdus (?), Epis- 
copal Throne, 240 
Anon., Ciborium, 235 ; Sculp- 
tured Portal, 236 


Heraclius, Stat, of the Emperor 
(Byzantine), 237 


S. Gio. Battista, Minello, Gio., 

Relief (/.-r.), 133 
Museo, Catlaneo, D., Bust of L. 

Buonamico, 52 

Cath., Anon., Bronze doors, 236 


S. Maria Magg. {Ext.), Gio. di 
Campione, Sculptured Portal, 

(Int.), Ugo di Campione, Tomb 
of Longhi, 49 
Colleone Chapel {Ext.), 
Amadeo, Sculptured Fa9ade, 
{Int.), Amadeo, Tomb of Barto- 
lommeo Colleone 5, 6; 
Tomb of Medea Colleone, 
Baptistery {Ext.), Gio. di Cam- 
pione, Stats, of the Virtues, 

{Int.), Gio. di Campione, 
Reliefs, 49 


Museum, Robbia, L., Frescobaldi 
Mad., 192; Youth's head in 
relief, 192 ; Alessandri Mad., 
192 ; Mad. of Apple (copy), 
Ag. di Duccio, Auvillers Mad. 

(copy), 3 
Algardi, Bust of Zacchia, 5 
Ben. da Majano, Mad. {t.-c), 
123 ; Filippo Strozzi, 122 



BertoldCy Hercules (ascribed), 

26 ; S. Jerome (ascribed) ; 

The Suppliant (ascribed), 26 ; 

Centaur group (ascribed), 26 ; 

Relief of Cupids, 26, 74 
Donatelloy Pazzi Mad., 71 ; 

Orlandini Mad., 71 ; Marble 

Mad., 71 ; Gonzaga Bust, 71 ; 

Baptist, 67 
Buonarroti, M. A., Apollo, 

37 ; S. Giovannino, 38 
Mino, Bust of Nice. Stiotzi (?), 

85 ; Mad., 87 
Franctsco di S. Agata^ S. 

Sebastian Stat., 91 
Sanstmino,/., Mad., 208 
Settignano, Z>., Princess of 

Naples, Marietta Strozzi, 

Princess of Urbino, 210 
Verrocchio, Entombment, 228 


S. Lorenzo, Robbia, G., Nat, 

Cath., Anon., Pulpit, 239 


CATH.,jVa22^wfi(?),Dead Christ,i09 
S. DOMENICO, Niccolb da Bart, 
Area di S. Domenico, Struc- 
ture and Angel (L.), 142, 

Buonarroti, M. A., Area di S. 
Domenico, Statues of SS. 
Petronio and Procolo, Angel 

(R.). 38 

Fra Guglielmo, Area di S. 
Domenico, Reliefs on Sar- 
eoph. and Statues at angles, 
loi, 102 

Alf. Lonibardi, Area di S. 

Domenico, Reliefs on base, 

Lanfrani, Tomb of Pepoli, 

Ferrucci, Franc, di Simone, 

Tomb of Tartagni, 82 
Zacchi, Tomb of Birro, 

S. Francesco, Massegni, Altar, 
Ferrucci Franc, di Simone, 
Tomb of Malvizzi, 82 ; Tomb 
of Albe^ati, 82 
Sperandio, Tomb of Alexander 
V, 213 
S. GiACOMO Magg., Querela, 
Tomb of Ant. Bentivc^Iio, 
Niccolb da Bari, Rel. Annib. 

Bentivc^lio, 142 
Onofri, Rel. Gio. Bentivoglio, 

Anon., Tomb of Vari 
S. Giovanni in Monte (Ext.), 
Niccolb da Bari, Eagle over 
Alf. Lombardi, Busts of Ap- 
ostles {t.-c), 110 
Madonna del Barracano, 
Properzia dei Rossi, Decora- 
tion of Altar, 1 75 
S. M.\RiA Maggiore, Gio. Zacchi, 
Mad. and Saints {t.-c), 

S. Maria della Vita, Nice, da 

Bari, Lamentation (/. -c. ), 

Alf. Lombardi, Death of 

Virgin {t.-c), no 
S. Martino Magg., Onofri, Bust 

of Beroaldus, 148 

Lombardi, Tomb of Ramaz- 

zotti, no 



Bologna, continued — 

S. Paolo, Algardi, Decapitation 

of Bap. , 4 
S. Petronio {Ext.), Central Door, 
Querela and A. Minello, 
Reliefs over Door, 132, 178 
Querela, Mad. and Saints, 38, 
(Side Doors), Tribolo and Alf. 
Lonibardi, Reliefs, no, 220 
{Int. ), Stone Crucifix 

Onofri, Tomb of Nacci and 

Rel. of Mad. and Saints, 148 

Sperandio, Bust of Barbazzi, 

Tribolo and Prop, dei Rossi, 

Assumption, 220 
Jac. Sansovino, S. Antony, 207 
Tribolo, Madonna, 220 
Alf, Lombardi, Adam and 

Eve, no 
Francesco di Simone, Window 
Dec, 83 
Servi, Montorsoli, Altar, 136 
Onofri, Relief (/.-^.) 
Zacchi, Tomb of Gozzadini, 231 
MusEO Civico, And. da Fiesole, 
Tomb of Bart, da Saliceto, 
84 ; Tomb of Rob. and Rice, 
da Saliceto, 84 
Lanfrani, Tomb of Calderini, 


Anon., Tomb of Bonandrei, 

234 ; Tomb of Gio. da 

Legnano, 237 ; Tomb of 

Lor. Pini, 238 ; Tomb of 

Giovanni Calderini, 235 ; 

Tomb of Pietro Cerniti, 235 ; 

Tomb of Bon. Galuzzi, 237 ; 

Querela, Two Reliefs, 179 

Niccolb da Bart, Tomb of 

Manni (?), Stat, of Boniface 


Onofri, Tomb of Canonici, 148 

Pal. Bolognini, Alf. Lombardi, 

Pal. Apostolico, Niccolb da 
Bari, Rel. of Mad. {t.-c), 
Alf. Lombardi, Hercules {t.-c), 

Pal. del Podesta, Alf. Lom- 
bardi, Statues {t.-c), no 

Piazza, Gian Bologna, Fountain, 


S. Cristina, Robbia, A. and G., 
Altars, 186 
Buglione, S. Cristina, 36 

BORGO s. donnino 

C.\TH., Antelami (?), Rel. Dec, II 
Cazzaniga, Area of S. Donnino, 


Cath., Robbia, G., Tabernacle, 

S. Chiara, Robbia, G., Mad., 



Cath. (Old), Ugo di Campione, 

Mazzi Tomb, 49 
Cath. (Mod.), Anon., Tomb of S. 

Apollonia, 234 
S. Francesco, Anon., Rel. 

Nativity, 238 
S. Maria dei Miracoli, Tama- 

gnino, Rels. and Decoration 

on Fayade, 217 
{Int.), Tamaptino, Angels, Med- 
allions, Judith and Sibyls, 

Pau Comm., Gasp, da Milano and 

Tamagnino, Rel. Heads, 217 



MusBO Civico, AnoM., Martenigo 
Tomb, 238 


CatH., Buonarroti, M. A., Mad., 


Chvrch of Minorites, Mazztmi, 
Pieti, 128 


Hermitage, Robbia, G., Mad. and 
Saints, 186 

Badia, Catzaniga, Altar, 53 


Cath., Arum., Pulpit, Bohemonds 
Chapel and bronze Doors, 

RomuaUus, Epis. Throne, 240 


Cath. , Af agister Paulus, Anguillara 
Tomb, 117 


MusEO, Caccavello, Mad. and 
Purgatory Rel., 47 
Ancn., Busts, Pietxo Vineaand 
Jupiter, 240 


S. Crocefisso, Begarelli^ Mad. 
(/.-^.), 21 

S. Clements, Anon., Pulpit, xv 


Cath., Gano da Siena, Tombs of 
Bp. Tommaso and Raniero 


S. Giovanni, Gagini, StaL of 
Bap., 93 


Collegiata, Robbia, G., Altar, 

Baptistery, Robbia, G., Tondos 

of Baptism and S. Michael, 



Corpus Dom., Amadeo, Tomb of 
Castiglione, 7 

Cath., Gagini, Rel. Dec, 93 

Cath., TuJUo Lombardo, Altars 


Cath., Anon., Altar Frontal, 233 
PiNACOTECA, Robbia, G., Nativity, 


Cath. (Ext.), Rodari, Dec. South 
Door, 193 ; Dec North 
Door, 193 ; Fa9ade and 
Stats, of the Plinies, 194 
(/«/.), Rodari, Altars of SS. 
Lucia and Addolorata 
Anon., Altar of S. Abondio, 
233 ; Crucifix, 236 




S. Maria, Anon., Pulpit and 
Ciborium, 235 


S. Margarita, Ang. and Franc, 
di Pietro, Tomb of S. Mar- 
garet, 10 


Cath., Anon., Tomb of Isabella of 
Aragon, 237 


Cath. {Ext.), Balduccio, Stats, of 
Mad. and S. Omobono on 
Fa9ade, 16 
Bonino di Campione, Tombs of 

Folchino and Schizzi, 50 
Pietro da Rho, Statues of 
Saints, 180 
{Int.), Amadeo, Reliefs of Pulpit, 
6 ; Reliefs (Crypt), 7 
Briosco, Tomb of Petrus and 

Marcellinus, 34 
Pedoni, C. (?), Tomb of S. 
Arcaldo (Crypt), 154 
S. ViNCENZO, Cristof, Romano, 

Tomb of Trecchi, 195 
MUNICIPIO, G. G. Pedoni, Decor- 
ation of Portal and Fire- 
places, 154 
Casa Fassati, Pietro da Rho, 
S. Jerome (Rel.), 180 


Collegiata, a. Rossellino, S. 
Sebastian, 197 
Mino da Fiesole, Rel. of Mad., 


Robbia School, Relief Medal- 
lions and other Works, 184 

Stagi, Holy Water Stoup, 214 

MISERICORDIA, Bern. Rossellino, 

Annunciation, 200 
S. Maria a Ripa, Robbia, G., 

Mad. and Saints, S. Sebas- 

tian, S. Lucia, 186, 187 ■ 

MUNICIPIO, Robbia, A., Altar, ^ 


ESCORIAL (near Madrid) 
Chapel, Ben. Cellini, Crucifix, 



Cath., Sperandio, Rel. of Annunci- 
ation, 213 

B, da Majano, Tomb of S. 
Savino, 122 
MusEO, Donatello, Bapt. (Wood), 

B. A. Rossellino, Infant Bapt, 

Alf. Lombardi, Mad. and 


S. Francesco, Anon., Tomb of 
Bianca Malatesta, 238 

S. MiCHELE, Amb. da Milam, 
Decoration of Portal, 9 


Cath., T. Lombardo, Tomb of 
Bellati, 113 


Cath., Anon., Visconti Tombs, 


Cath. {Ext.), Anon., Sculptured 
Fa9ade and Portals, 236 



(/«/.)> A^. LombarcU, Busts of 
Apostles (t.-c.) (R- and L. 
Trans.), 109 
QMTcia {?), Mad. (Sacristy), 

Baroncelli and Dom. di PariSy 

Bronze Crucitix (R. Trans.), 

20, 65 
S. Cristoforo, J(u. SansovitUy 

Rels. on Bases of Columns, 

S. DoMENico, Alf. Lombardi, 

Bust of S. H}'acintbus, 

S. Giorgio, A. Rossellino and 

Ambr. da Milano, Tomb of 

Roverella, 9 
S. Giovanni, Alf. Lombardi, Rel. 

of Mad., 109 
S. Maria della Rosa, Matxoni, 

Pieta (/.-<•.), 128 
Pal. Schifanoia, Dom. di Paris, 

Frieze, 65 


Cath., Robbia, G., S. Romolo, 
185 ; Statues 
Mino, Marble Reredos, 86; 

Tomb of Salutati, 86 
A. Ferrucciy Altar, 82 
Seminary, Robbia, C, Altar, 

S. Ansano, Robbia School, Altar 
Nino Pisano, StaU of Mad., 
Badia, Desiderio School, Sculp- 
tured Decoration 
Franc, di SinunUy Lavabos 
and Dec, 83 
S. Maria Primerana, Robbia 
School, Altar 
Fr. di San Gallo, Rel. of S. 

Roch, 203 
A. Fermeci, Crucifix, 82 


Cath. (Ext.), Piero di Giovanni, 
Pilasters (S. Door), 155 
Nice, d' Aretto and Nanni di 
Banco, Rels. and Dec (N. 
Door), 139, 140, 141 
Donatello, Two Stats. (N. 
Door), 65 
(/«/.), Anon., Stat, of Boni- 
fkce VI 1 1 (West Wall), 

Tino di Camaino, Tomb of Bp. 

Orso, 56 
Buggiano, Rel. Portrait of 

Brunelleschi (R. Aisle), 35 
Z'<7«aAf/^(?), Joshua (R. Aisle), 

Ben. da Majano, Bust of 

Giotto (R. Aisle), 122 
Ciuffagni, Isaiah (R. Aisle), 

57 ; S. Matthew (R. Aisle), 

Nanni di Banco, S. Luke (R. 
Aisle), 138 

A. Ferrucci, Bust of Fidno (R. 
Aisle), 82 

Bandinelli and Bandini, 

Reliefs on Choir end. (under 

Dome), 18, 19 
V. Rossi, S. Matthew (under 

Dome), 201 
Bandini, S. Philip (under 

Dome), 19 ; S. James the 

Less, 19 

B. Rovexaano, S. John (under 
Dome), 201 

Bandinelli, S. Peter (under 

Dome), 17 
Ferrucci, S. Andrew (under 

Dome), 82 
Jac. Sansovino, S. James 

(under Dome), 
y. Rossi, S. Thomas (under 

Dome), 201 



Florence, continued — 
Cath,, Buonarroti, M. A., Pieti 
(under Dome), 43 

B. da Majano, Crucifix (under 
Dome), 122 

Ciuffagni, David (L. Aisle), 

Donatella, Poggio (L. Aisle), 
66; S. John(L. Aisle), 66 

Niccolo d' Arezzo, S. Mark (L. 
Aisle), 141 

B. da Majano, Rel. Squarci- 
alupi (L. Aisle), 122 

Robbia, L., Ascension over 
Door (Old Sacristy), 190 

Buggiano, Lavabo (Old Sac- 
risty), 35 

Robbia, Z.,Angels with Candel- 
abra (Old Sacristy), 190 ; 
Bronze Doors (New 

Sacristy), 189-90; Resur- 
rection (New Sacristy, over 
Door), 190 

Buggiano, Lavabo (New 
Sacristy), 35 

Tribolo, S. James the Less 
(Choir), 219 

Ghiberti, Shrine of S. Zanobi 
(Choir), 96 
Campanile, A. Pisano, Reliefs 
(W., S., E.), 159 

Robbia, L., Reliefs (N.), 189 

Donatello, Stats, of Jeremiah, 
Baptist, and Zuccone (W.), 
66, 67; Stats, of Hab- 
akkuk (E.), 66; with N. di 
Bartolo, Stats, of Abraham 
and Isaac (E.), 20, 66, 67 

N. di Bartolo, Stats, of Moses 
and Joshua (E. ), 20; Stat. 
ofObadiah (W.), 20 

Anon., Four Sibyls (N. ) and 
Four Prophets (S.), 234 
Baptistery {Ext. ), Ghiberti, Doors 
(N.), 94; Doors (E.), 95 

A. Pisano, Doors (S.), 157 
Rusiici, Baptist preaching 

(over N. Door), 202 
A. Sansovino, Baptism of 

Christ (Angel by Spinazzi) 

(over E. Door), 205-6 
V. Danti, Decapitation of 

Baptist (over S. Door), 64 
{Int.), Anon., Font, 237 

Donatello, Magdalen, 72 ; with 

Michelozzo, Tomb of John 

XXIII, 68, 71 
Opera del Duomo (Museo), A. 

Pisano, Stats, of Christ and 

S. Reparata, 159 
Nanni di Banco, Annunc. 
Pagno di Lapo, Rel. of Mad., 

Robbia, A., Rel. of Mad., 184 
Agostino di Duccio, Rel. of 

Mad., 2 
Donatello, Cantoria with 

Reliefs, 69 
Robbia, L , Cantoria with 

Reliefs, 188 
Pollaiuolo, Crucifix on Silver 

Altar, 171 ; Rel. Birth of 

Bap., Altar, 171 
Verrocchio, Decapitation of 

Bap., Altar, 22$ 
Michelozzo, Stat, of Bap., 

Altar, 132 
Anon., Fragments of Sculpture 

(Pisan School) 
S. Ambrogio, Minot Tabernacle, 

S. Annunziata, Michelozzo and 

Pagno di Lapo, Tabernacle 
Giuliano di Sangallo, Crucifix, 

Francesco di Sangallo, Tomb 

of Marzi Medici (Choir), 

Caccini, Bust of A. del Sarto, 




Gian Bologna, Bronze Rel& 

on his own Tomb, 28 ; 

Crucifix, 28 
Fratuavilla, Statues, 90 
Bofiditulli, Pietii (R. Trans.), 

B. Rossellinc, Tomb of Ori. 

dci Medici (R. Trans,), 200 
A. Sangallo, Crucifix (Capp. 

Dei Pittori) 
Morttorsoli, Stats, of Moses, 

Paul, David, and Prophets, 

Michelozxo, Baptist {t.-c), 132 
Piazza dell' Ann., Gian Bologna, 
Stat, of Ferd. i, 29 
Tacca, Bronze Fountains, 216 
SS. Apostoli, Rodbia, G., Taber- 
nacle and Altar, 185 
Rovettano, Tomb of Oddo 

Altoviti, 201 
Ammanati (?), Tomb of Bindo 
Altoviti, 9 
Badla, Desiderio (?), Tomb of 
Pandolfini, 210 
Mino, Altar, 86 ; Tomb of 
Giugni, 86 ; Tomb of Count 
Hugo, 87 
Buglione, Lunette over Door, 
BiGALLO {Ext.\ Amcldo, ReL 
Mad., 12 
(Int.), Altar, 12 
Certosa (near Florence), Anon., 
Acciajuoli Tomb (Crypt), 

Fr. di Sangallo, Effigy of 

Buonafede (Chapter-house), 

Robbia, G., Medallions and 

StaU. (Cloister), 185 
S. Croce, Donatello, S. Louis, 68 
Gkiberti, Mon. Slabs of Bart. 

Valori and Lod. degli Obizzi 

(Nave), 96 

B. da Majano, Pulpit, 121 
Vasari, Tomb of Michelangelo 
(design) (?) ; Stoldo Loremi 
(Bust and "Painting") 115; 
Bandini (" Architecture "), 
19; V. Cw/« ("Sculpture") 
(R. Aisle), 57 

A. Rossellino, Rel. of Mad. on 
Column (R. Aisle), 198 

Donatello, Annunc. (R. Aisle), 

B. Rosullino, Tomb of Bnmi 
(R. Aisle), 199 

Desiderio (?), Castellani Tomb, 

(R. Trans) 
Bandinelli, Pieti (R. Trans.), 

Donatello, Crucifix (L. Trans.), 

Mino, Tabernacle (Capp. 

Medici), 86 
Robbia, A., Rel. of Mad. (Capp. 

Medici), 184 
Donatello (?), Rel. of Mad. 

(Capp. Medici), 71 
Verrocchio, Rel. of Mad. (/.-c.) 

(Capp. Medici) 
Robbia, A., Bust of Christ 

Robbia, G., Altar (Capp. 

Spinazzi, Macchiavelll Mon., 

213 ; Statue of Lami, 

Francavilla, Allegories (Nicco- 

lini Ch.), 90 
Mieheloxto, Door of Cloister, 

Anon. , Tomb of Delia Torre, 

Bandinelli, Stat of God the 

Father, 18 
Desiderio and Donatello, Frieze 

of Cherubim (Pazzi Chapel), 




Florence, continued — 

S. Croce, Robbia, L. and A., 

Medallions of Apostles and 

Evang. on Ceiling (Pazzi 

Chapel), 191 
Brunelleschi, Decoration of 

Doors, 34 
Michelozzo, Door (Chapel of 

Noviciate), 132 
S. Felice, Robbia, G., Group 

S. Felicita, Montelupo, Tomb of 

Rossi, 133 
Ferrucci, A., Crucifix, 82 
S. Francesco al Monte, Fer- 
rucci, A., Bust of a Man, 

Innocenti {Ext.\ Robbia, A., 

Medallions of Children, 183 ; 

Lunette over Church Door, 

(Int.), Robbia, L., Rel. of 
Mad., 192 

S. Leonardo in Arcetri (Out- 
side Porta S. Giorgio), 
Anon., Pulpit, 239 

S. Lorenzo, Donatella (with 
Bertoldo, Gio. da Pisa, and 
Bellano), Two Pulpits, 26, 

37, 72, 73 
Verrocchio, Bronze Slab over 

Grave of Cosimo, 225 
Montelupo, B., Crucifix, 133 ; 

Gian Bologna, Crucifix, 28 
Desiderio, Tabernacle (R. 

Trans.), 210 
Donatella, Cantoria (L. Aisle), 

Ferrucci, S., Crucifix (wood) 

(L. Aisle) 
Donatella, Reliefs and Frieze 

(Old Sacr.), 72; Bronze 

Doors (Old Sacr. ), 72 ; Bust 

of S. Lorenzo .(Old Sacr.) 

{t.-c.\ 71 

Verrocchio, Mon. of Piero and 

Gio. dei Medici (t.-c), 225 ; 

Lavabo (in inner room) 

(t.-c), 225 
Buggiano (?), Mon. of Giovanni 

d' Averado and Piccarda dei 

Medici (t.-c), 36 
Fr. di Sangalla, Mon. of Paolo 

Giovio (Cloister), 203 
New Sacristy, Michelangelo, 

Tomb of Lorenzo dei Medici, 

41 ; Tomb of Giuliano dei 

Medici, 40, 42 ; Madonna, 

Mantarsoli, S. Damiano, 42 
B. da Montelupo, S. Cosimo, 

Medici Chapel, Tacca, Stats, of 

Ferd. i and Cosimo 11, 216 
On Piazza, Bandinelli, Stat, of 

Gio. delle Bande Nere, 18 
S. Marco, Francavilla, Statues, 90 
Partigiani, S. Antoninus and 

Rels. (Sacristy) 
S. Maria del Carmine, B. da 

Rovezzano, Mon. of P. 

Soderini, 201 
Foggini, Corsini Mon. and 

Rels., 89 
S. Maria Madd., Spinazzi, Alle- 
gories, 213 
S. Maria Novella, Buggiano, 

Pulpit, 35 
Ferrucci, A. (?), Tomb of Ant. 

Strozzi, 82 
Tina da Camaino, Tomb of 

Aliotti (R. Trans.), 218 
Anon., Tomb of Aldobrandini 

— with Mad. by Nino Pisano, 

B. Rossellina, Tomb of Beata 

Villana (R. Aisle), 200 
B. da Majana, Tomb of F. 

Strozzi, 122 
Brunelleschi, Crucifix, 34 



Banditti, Gaddi Tomb Rels., 

Robbia, G., Lavabo (Sacristy), 
185 ; Altar (Clobter) 
S. Maria Nuova (Ext.), Lorento 
di Bicci, Coronation of Mad. 
(Door lunette), 27 
(Ch. S. Egidio) (/«/.), Ferrucci, 
F., Baldacci Tomb (frag- 
ments), 83 
Robbia, A., Tabernacle, 184 
B. Rossellino, Tabernacle, with 
Bronze Door by Ghiberti, 
(Ospedale), Robbia, L. (?), ReL 
of Mad. 
Michelozto, ReL of Mad. (?) 
S. MiNiATO, Arum., Pulpit (Choir), ! 

Robbia, G. (?), Crucifixion 

Michelozzo, Chapel of the 

Crucifix, 131 ; Decoration by 

Robbia, L. (Choir), 191 
Ant. Rossellino, Tomb of Card. 

of Portugal (Cappella S. 

Jacopo), 197 
Robbia, L., Medallions (Cap- 
pella S. Jacopo), 191 
MISERICORDIA, B. da Majano, 

Mad. and S. Sebastian, 122 
Robbia, A., Altar, 184 
Ognissanti, Robbia, G. (?), Lunette 
Agostino di Duccio, Tabernacle 

(Refectory), 2 
Or S. Michele {Ext.), TaUnti, 

G.f Statuettes in tracery, 

Ghiberti, L., Stat, of Baptist 

(E.), of S. Matthew and S. 

Stephen (W.), 94, 96 
Robbia, L., Arms of Merchants 

(E.), of Builders (N.), of 

Silk Weavers and Physicians 

(S.), 191 

Verrocchio, Christ and S. 

Thomas (E.), 192, 225 
Gian Bologna, S. Luke (E.), 

Donatella, S. Peter (N.), S. 

Mark (S.), S. George (bronze 

copy) (S.), 68 
Nanni di Banco, S. Philip, 

Four Saints and Relief on 

Base (N.), S. Eloi and Relief 

on Base (W.), 138-9 
Ciuffagni, S. James (S.), 58 
B. di Montelupo, S. John (S.), 

Niccolh d Arezzo, Rel. of An- 
nunciation over S. Matthew 
(W.), 141 
(Int.), Orcagna, Tabernacle, 
Talenti, Madonna, 217 
Fra. di Sangallo, Mad. and S. 
Anne, 203 
S. Spirito, Caccini, Tabernacle, 

B. Rossellino (J), Tomb of Nero, 

A. Sansovino, Altar, 204 
S. Stefano, Tacca, Rel. 
S. Trinita, Anon., Tomb of 

D' Avanzati, 236 
Desiderio, Magdalen (wood), 

Rovezzano, Altar, 201 
Robbia, L., Tomb of Federighi, 

Giul. di Sangallo, Tombs of 

the Sassetti, 203 
Piero di Niccolo, Tomb of 

Onofrio Strozzi (Sacristy), 

Caecini, S. Alexis, 47 
Vanchettoni, Church of, 
Desiderio, Bust of Boy, 210 
A. Rossellino, Bust of Boy, 




Florence, continued — 
ACCADEMIA, Robbia, A.(?), Lunette 
over Door 
Bobbia, G., Resurrection and 

Head in relief (Cloister) 
Buonarroti, S. Matthew (un- 
finished) (Cloister) ; David, 
39 ; Victory, 43 ; Unfinished 
figures from Boboli Gardens, 

Loggia dei Lanzi, Gio. d'Ambro- 

gio, Medallions, 104, 115 
Cellini, Perseus, 55 
Donatello, Judith, 71 
Gian Bologna, Rape of the 

Sabines, 29 ; Hercules and 

Nessus, 29 
Loggia di S. Paolo, Robbia, A., 

Medallions and Lunette, 

Monte di Pieta, Robbia, A., 

Pieta, 184 
Mercato Nuovo, Tacca, Bronze 

Boar, 216 
Casa Buonarroti, Buonarroti, 

M. A., Centaur Rel., 37; 

Madonna, 39 
Bargello (Museo Nazionale), 
(Ground Floor), Piero di 

Giovanni, S. John (5), 155 
Nice. d'Arezzo, S. Luke (3) 
Buonarroti, M. A., Adonis 

(15), 43; Bacchus (128), 

Bandinelli, Adam and Eve, 18 
Rovezzano, Chimney-piece and 

Niches — Fragments of 

Tombs of S. Gualberto, 201 
Pierino da Vinci, Ugolino 

(117), Holy Family (118), 

Ammanati, Leda, Moses (after 

Buonarroti), 9 
Agostino di Duccio, M. 

Aurelius, 3 

Tribolo, Figures on Medici 
Tombs (after Buonarroti), 

Buonarroti, Mad. (123), 39; 
Brutus (ill), Apollo (224), 

Anon. , Romanesque Fonts, 

(First Y\oo\), Donatello, Marzocco, 
Cupid, David (bronze), 70 ; 
David (marble), 66 ; Infant 
Baptist, 67 ; Crucifixion Rel., 
74 ; Niccolo d' Uzzano, 71 ; 
Baptist, 67 ; S. George, 68 
-9 ; Bust of Young Man 
(Gattamelata), 71 ; Bust of 
an Old Woman ; Casts of 
various Works ; Baptist 
(marble), 67 ; S. George 
(marble), 69 ; Busts of two 
Young Men ; Portrait Rel. 
of Young Man (Gattamelata), 
71 ; Marsyas 

Michelozzo, Baptist 

Verrocchio, David (22), 224, 

Vecchietta, Effigy of Soccino, 
(16), 223 

Brunelleschi, Abraham's Sacri- 
fice (13), 34 

Ghiberti, Abraham's Sacrifice 
(12), 94; Shrine of S. 
Giacinto, 96 

Bertoldo, Orpheus, 26 ; Cal- 
vary (Rel.) (15), 26; Piet^, 
26; Bacchanals (Rel.) (14), 
26; Conflict (Rel.) (20), 26, 


Pollaiuolo, Hercules and An- 
taeus, 172 

Cellini, Bust of Cosimo I (39), 
54 ; Ganymede (23), 55 

Gian Bologna, Mercury (82), 
28 ; Candlestick ; Staluelles, 



Danti, V., Brazen Serpent 

and Bronze Door, 64 
/iu. Sansomno, Christ in Gloiy 

(Rel.), 206 
Gian Bologna and Tacca, 

Stats, of Animals (77, 79), 

29 ; Boy fishing, 29 
Cioli, Candelabra and Boy on 

Sea Monster, 57 
Embriachi, B., Ivory Trip- 

tychs, 80 
Cellini, Rel. of Perseus Statue 

Pedestal, 55 ; Two Models 

of the Perseus in wax, 

(Second Floor), Robbia, L., Mad- 
onna (Via d' Agnolo), 192 ; 
(S. Pierino, 29), 192 ; (of 
the Roses, 31), 192; (Child 
with Apple, 28), 192 ; 
(Angels in Adoration, 26), 
192 ; (Adoration of the Child, 
21); (with Angels); Bust 
of Boy (75); ReL Portrait 
of Girl 

Robbia, A., Madonna (on 
bracket by Franc di 
Simone, 74), 83 ; Three 
Madonnas (10, 27, 76), 

Robbia, G., Altar Nativity (25), 
185 ; Deposition (37), 185 ; 
Mad. and Saints (38), 185 ; 
Pieta (64), 185 ; S. Dominic 
(68), 185 ; Two Madonnas 
from S. Maria Nuova, 185 

MicheUnzo, Baptist — Youth 

Verroechio, Fragments of 
Tomabuoni Tomb, 226 

Mino, Bust of Luna, 85 

A. Roiullino, Bust of Pali- 
meri (160), 197 

Laurana, Bust of Duchess 
BattisU of Urbino, 106 

Verrocchio, Bust of a Young 

A. Rossellino, Rel. of Mad., 
198; Rel. of Mad. {t.-cX 

Verrocchio, ReL of Mad. [t.-c.), 

Pollaiuolo, Bust of Young Man 

{t.-c.\ 172 

B. da Majano, Bust of Mellini 

(153), 121 
Orcagna, Angel with Violin 

(139), 104, 152 
Ant. Rossellino, Bust of Sassetti 

(147). 199 
Rovezzano, Fragments of 

Gualberto Tomb, 201 
Desiderio, Bust of Youth, 210 ; 

Bust of Girl, 210 
B. da Alajano, Candelabra and 

Putti, 122 
Mino, Two Profile Reliefs, 85 ; 

Two Tabernacles, 85 ; Two 

Madonnas, 87 ; Busts of 

Piero and Gio. dei Medici, 

Verrocchio, Rel. of Mad., 225 ; 

Bust of Lady, 225 
Civitale, Faith and Ecce Homo, 


A. Rossellino, Rel. of Adora- 
tion, 198; In&nt Bap., 

B. da Majano, Justice, 122 
Robbia, L., Crucifixion and 

Deliverance of Peter, 189 
Jacopo Sansffcino, Bacchus, 

B. da Majano, Baptist, and 

Justice, 122 
Bernini, Bust of Costanza 

Buonarelli, 25 
Bandini, Bacchus, 19 
Altoviti Pal., Anon., Caricatures 

on Fa^ule, 234 



Florence, continued — 

GoNDi Pal., Giulianodi Sangallo, 

Chimneypiece, 204 
Martelli Pal., Donateilo, David; 
Baptist, 67 
A. Rossellino, Baptist (Bust), 

Mino, Rel. of Mad. (on house 
Medici Pal. (Riccardi), Dona- 
tella, Medallions, 70 
Anon., Statues of Prophets 
Pal. Panciatichi, Desiderto, 

Madonna, 210 
PiTTi Pal. (Boboli Gardens), 
Danti, Allegory — Virtue 
overcoming Vice, 64 
Rossi, Paris and Helen 
Gian Bologna, Fountain, 
Colossus, 28 ; Stat. Abund- 
ance, 29 ; Venus, Two 
Angels, 29 
{hit.), Bandiftelli, Ba.cch\is, 18 
Franc, di Simone, Fountain, 

Uffizi Pal., Bandinelli, Copy of 
Laocoon, 17 
Gian Bologna, Stat, of Cosimo 
dei Medici, 29 
Serristori Pal., KobbiaL., Arms 
of Serristori and Pazzi, 
SORBI Pal., Robbia, A., Infant 

Christ, 184 
Strozzi Pal., Caparra, Lantern 
Desiderio, Bust of Marietta 
Strozzi, 210 
Pal. Vecchio, Donatella, Ped- 
estal of Marzocco, 70 
Verrocchio, Boy with Dolphin, 

Piera di Giovanni^ Rel. of 

Trinity, 155 
Bandinelli^ Portrait Statues, 

Rossi, Labours of Hercules, 

Lombardi, Alf., Portrait Busts 

of the Medici, no 
B. da Majana, Decoration of 
Doorways, 122 
OsPEDALE DI S. Paolo, Robbia, 
A., S. Francis, S. Dominic, 
and Saints, 184 
Piazza della Signoria, Amma- 
nati. Fountain, 9 
Gian Bologna, Eques. Stat., 

Cosimo I, 29 
Bandinelli, Hercules and 
Cacus, 17 
PONTE S. Trinita, Landini, 
" Winter "—Group, 105 
Caccini, " Summer " and 
" Autumn," 47 
PoGGio Imperiale, Porta 
RoMANA, Anon. , Early 
Stats, from Cath., 141 
Via della Chiesa, Franc, di 

Simone, Tabernacle, 83 
Via Pietra Piana, Donatella, 

Tabernacle, 71 
Villa Careggi (Outside), 
Verrocchio, Resurr. (/. -c. ), 
Villa Castello (Outside), 
Agost. di Duccio, Rel. of 
Mad. {t.-c), 3 
(Outside), School of Orcagna, 

Angels, 152 
Tribola, Fountain (upper figures 
by Ammanati), 9, 220 
Villa Petraia (Outside), School 
of Orcagna^ Stat, of Prophet, 

Gian Bologna, Stat. on 
Tribolo's Fountain, 29 
Villa Pratolino, Gian Bologna, 
Apennino — colossal, 29 




COLLEGIATA, Robbia, G^., Altar, 185 
S. Francesco, Robbia, Altar 


S. BlAGIO, Franc, di Sitnone, 

Tomb of Barbara Manfredi, 

A. Rossellino, Tomb of Museo 

Marcolino, 199 
Pollaiuolo (?), Bust of Ordelaffi, 

Simone Ferriuci, Lunette with 

Mad. and Angels, 83 


Cath., Dom. Rosselli, Reredos wth 
Figures, 197 


S. Jacopo, Robbiay G., Mad. and 
Saints, 186 


Cath., Francavilla, Statues, 90 
Gagini, Dec. Sculpture (Chapel 

of Bap.), 92 
Gug. dtlld Porta, Tabernacle, 

and Reliefs on Columns 

(Chapel of Bap.), 174 
CrvitaU, Reliefs and Statues 

(Chapel of Bap. ), 59 
A. SansoviHo, Stats, of Mad. 

and Bap. (Chapel of Bap.), 

Gug. d<lla Porta, Seven Stats. 

(L. Trans.), 174 
S. Carlo, Algardi, Heads, 5 
5. Giorgio, Tamagnino, Stats., 


S. Maria del Castello, Robbia, 

Mad. (Rel.) 
S. Maria del Carignano, 

Tacca, Crucifix 
S. Matteo, Montorsoli, Dec, 

Sculpt. , and Sarcophagus, 

136 ; Stats, of Doria Family, 

S. Stefano, Rovezzano, Dec. of 

Organ Gallery, 201 
S. TOMMASO, Gug. della Porta, 

Christ and Thomas, 174 
Museo, Francamlla, Jupiter and 

Gio. Pisano, Fragments of 

Mon. of Wife of Henry VII, 

Robbia, G., Altar 
Gug. della Porta, S. Catherine, 

University, Gian Bologna, Reliefs 

and Stats., 28 
Pal. Dorla, Gagini, Portal Dec, 

Pal. S. Giorgio, Tamagnino, 

Statues, 217 
Gagini, Statues, 92 


MUNICIPIO, Robbia, A., Altar, 


S. Michele, Anon., Pulpit (early), 


Leone Leoni, Statues of the 
Gonzagas, 107 

IMPRUNETA (near Florence) 

Chapel, Michelotzo, Tabernacle 
and Relief on Predella, 192 



Impruneta, continued — 
Chapel, i?o3(^/a,^., Stats, of S.Luke 

and S. Paul on same, 192 ; 

Tabernacle with Angels on 

Predella, 192; Stats. ofBapt. 

and S. Augustine on same, 

192 ; Coffered Ceilings, 192 ; 

Crucifixion, 192 ; Two Rels. 

of Mad. in Frieze, 192 
Gian Bologna, Crucifix in 

bronze, 28 


Chapel, Amadeo, Raverti, and. 
^«ji'i,Borromeo Tombs, 6, 46 
Busti, Birago Tomb, 46 


Quay, Bandini, Equest. Stat. 
Ferdinand I, 19 
Tacca, Figures of Slaves on 
Base, 216 

(near Florence) 

Church, Anon., Pulpit (early), 239 


Victoria and Albert Museum, 

Agostinodi Duccio, S. Giustina, 


Algardi, Busts of Alexander 
VIII (1089), 5; Innocent x 
(1088), 5; Anon. (8883), 5 

Berioldo, Plaque, Education 
of Cupid, Stats, of Hercules, 

Gtan Bologna, Fountain 
(2818), 30 ; Nessus and 
Deianira (2504), 30 ; Sabine 
Woman (1619), 30 ; Galatea 
(5879). 30; Wax Models of 
Reliefs (76, 77), 30. 

Buonarroti, M. A., Cupid, 

Busti, Fragments of Tomb of 
Gaston de Foix (4912, 
7100, 7262, 400, 7257), 45 

Caradosso, S. Sebastian (2234), 


Civitale, Tabernacles (418, 
7569), ; Rel. Portrait (5899), 

Donatello, David (marble copy) 
(884), 70; Mad. painted 
{t.-c), 71 ; S. Cecilia (7585), 
Portrait Rel. (923), 71 ; 
Piet^ (7577), 74; Charge to 
Peter (7629), 74 ; Mad. Rel. 
(93), 74 ; Flagellation and 
Crucifixion (7609), 74 ; S. 
George (7607) ; Magdalen 
(157)) 74; Mad. adoring 
Christ (57), 74 ; Mad. 
(7412), Mad. (7624), De- 
position (8552), 74 ; Winged 
Boy (475), 74 

Ferrucci, A., Ancona, and 
Tabernacle, 82 

Majano, B., Casts of S. Croce 
Pulpit, 122 

Mino, Three Madonnas (7591, 
7562, 6737), 87 

Gagini, Rel. of S. George 

(7256), 93 
Leone Leoni, Candlestick 

(2330), 108 
Lombardo, P., Mad. (316), 

Lombardo, Tullio, Mantelpiece, 

Lorenzetto, Sketch of Jonah 

(clay) (4123), 114 
Mantegazz^, Deposition (8), 

Michelozzo, Angels, 131 
Quercia(?), Madonnas (7572-3- 

4), Rel. (7613), 179 



Rucio, Equest. Stats. (2331), 
Sphinxes (2888-2889), Ink- 
stands (2910-2940), Woman 
and Centaur (291 1), 181 

Robbia, A., Madonnas (7630, | 

7547, 5633). 184 

Robbia, Gio., Nativity (252), 
Bust of Christ (476), Adora- 
tion (4412), Head of Saint 
(5890), Pieta (38S2), Ann. 
(7235), 186 

Robbia, L., Cast of Cantoria 
(7609), 188 ; Arms of Rene, 
191 ; Reliefs of Months, 
Mad. (441 1 ), Adoration of 
Shepherds (7752), 192 

Rosselli, D., Mad. (6), 197 

Rosullina, A., Bust of S. 
Miniato(767i), Mad. (7622), 
Baptist (414), Bust "(794), 
Mad. (108), 197 

Rossellino, B., Tabernacle, 

Sansovino, J., Descent from 
Cross (wax), 208 

Settignano, D., Virgin with 
Laughing Child (4495), 210 ; 
Madonnas (5767, 7591, 7566, 
7582), Tabernacle (7720), 
Christ and Baptist (5783), 

Sperandio, Medallions (58, 
149), Madonna (85), 213 

Torrigiani, Bust of Henry 
VII (7916), 219 

Tribolo, Group of Boys (5891), 

VerrocckU, Ecstasy of the Mag- 
dalen (7605), Head of 
Baptist (7545), Crucifixion 
(7571), 228 

Vinci, P., Holy Family ( 1518), 
Boys with Fish (2384), 229 
Blrungton House, Buonarroti^ 
M. A., Mad. (Rel.), 39 


Wall.\ce Collection, Dona- 
tella, Casts of Prato Reliefs, 
Franc, di S. Agata, Hercules, 

Riccio, Inkstand, 181 

S. P.\ul's (Crypt), Rovezzanc, 
Nelson Sarcophagus, 201 

Westminster Abbev, Cosmati, 
Tombs of Edward the Con- 
fessor and Henry iii, 61 
Torrigiani, Tombs of Henry 
VII and Duchess of Rich- 
mond, 219 

Record Office Museum, 
Torrigiani, Tomb of Dr. 
Young, 219 


Cath. , Giro. Lombardo and School, 
Bronze Doors, Hanging 
Lamps, and Madonna, 113 

B. da Majano, Doors of the 
Sacristy, 122 ; Glazed Rels. 
mt.-c., 122; Marble Basins, 

BandineUi, Rels. and Dec, 

Cioli, Rels. and Dec., 57 
Tribolo, Rels. and Dec., 

Sansovino, A., Rels. and Dec, 

205, 206 
Montelupo, Rels. and Dec, 

Mosca, Rels. and Dec, 137 
Porta, Gugl. della, Rels. and 

Scmgallo, 203 (?) 
Madema, Angels on High 

Altar, Sculpture on Fountain, 

Vergtlli and CaUagni, Stat, of 

Sixtus V, 113 




Cath. (ExL), Anon., Sculptured 
Portal, 236 

iV. Pisano, Rel. Descent from 
the Cross, 165 ; Nativity and 
Adoration (?), 165 

Civitale, Rel. Port. Gio. d' 
Avenza, 59 
{/ni.), Civitale, Holy Water 
Stoup, 59 ; Altar Enclosure, 
58 ; Tempietto and S. Sebas- 
tian (L. Aisle), 59 ; Pulpit (R. 
Aisle), 59 ; Tomb of Noceto 
(R. Trans.), 58; Bust of 
Bertini (R. Trans.), 58; 
Tabernacle and Angels (Ch. 
of Sacrament), 58 ; Altar of 
S. Regolo (Choir, R.), 59 

Querela, Holy Water Stoups 
(R. Trans.), Holy Water 
Stoups (L. Trans.), Tomb 
of Ilaria (L. Trans.), 177 

Gian Bologna, Altar of Liberty 
and Stat. (Choir, L. ), 28 
S. Frediano, Robertus, Font (R. 
Aisle), 193 

Civitale, Lavabo and Decora- 
tion (R. Aisle) ; Altar (R. 
Aisle) ; Death of the Virgin, 
Rel. in wood (R. Aisle) ; 
S. Peter (L. Aisle) 

Quercia, Trenta Altar (L. 
Aisle), 177 
S. Giovanni, Anon., Sculptured 

Door, 236 
S. MiCHELE, Civitale, Mad., 59 

Montelupo, Rel. of Mad., 

S. Romano, Civitale, Tomb of S. 

Romano, 59 
S. Salvatore, Biduino, Sculpture 

on Portal, 27 
S. Trinita, Civitale, Rel. of Mad., 


Oratorio della Mad. (outside 
the city), Anon., Sculptured 
Gravestones, 240 

MuSEO, Civitale, Rel. of Annunc, 
59 ; Ecce Homo, 59 


S. Lorenzo {Ext.), Busti and 

Rodari, Medallions and 

Figures of Prophets on 
Fa5ade, 46 


S. Andrea, Cavalli, Bust of Man - 

tegna, 52 
Spani, P., Andreassi Tomb, 

S. Benedetto, Begarelli, Statues 
Biblioteca, Cavalli, Effigy of G. 

B. Spagnoli (wood), 53 ; 

Bust of Fr. Gonzaga (t.-c), 

Pal. Cavriano, Francesco di 

Simone, Tabernacle, 83 
Museo, Cavalli, Bust of Fr. 

Gonzaga, 53 


Cath., Goro di Gregorio, Tomb of 
Bp. Gregorio, 100 
Anon., Font 


Quay, Montorsoli, Fountain, 136 
Piazza, Montorsoli, Fountain, 

Cath. , Goro di Gregorio, Tomb of 

Tabatis, ICXJ 
Calamech, S. Andrea, Pulpit, 

48 ; Fountain, Stat, of Don 

John of Austria, 48 




Cath. {Ext.), Raverti^ Figures 
onder Eaves, 180 
NucoSt ct Arexzo (?), Stat of 

Giulia Carelli (on N. Sac.) 
So/art, Adam and Eve, 211 
(/«/.). Solari, Figures of the 
Fathers, 211 
Anon., Bronze Candelabrum, 

Raverti, S. Babila (N. Trans.), 

Nice, ct Aresto (?), Tomb (rf 

Carelli (R. Aisle) 
Solan, Christ (S. Sac), 211 
Jeu. da Campione, Sculptured 

Door(N. Sac.) 
Busti, Rel. of Mad. (R, Aisle), 

L. Leoni, Tomb of Gio. Giac 

dei Medici, 107 
Tradate, Stat of Martin v 

(Choir), 219 
Busti, Tomb of Carradolo, 45 ; 

Tomb of Vimercati, 46 
Caradosso, Gold Pax, 51 
S. Ambrogio {Ext.), Caxzanigu 

(?), Tomb of Decembrio, 53 
(Int.), Anon., Throne, 240 
Voljvinus, Altar Frontal 
S. Angelo, Solari, Busca Rusconi 

Tomb, 211 
S. Carlo, Rodari, Presepio Rel., 

S. EusTORGio, Caxzamga, Tomb 

of Brivio, 53 
Baldnccio and B. da Campion*, 

Tombs of Stef, Uberto and 

Gasp. Visconti, 16 
B. da Campunu, Altar of the 

Three Kings, 233 
Anon., High AlUr, 233 
Balduccia, Tomb of Peter 

Martjr, 15 

School trf Amadeo, Angels in 
Cupola (Capp. Portinari), 131 

S. Fedele, Busti, Tomb of Tosi, 

S. Marco, Balducdo, Aliprandi 
Tombs, 16 

Balducdo, Settala Tomb, 16 

Luoni, Birago Tomb 
S. Maria pr. S. Celso (Ext.), 
A. Fonicma, Sculptured 
Fa9ade, 89 

Loremi, Stoldo, Adam and Eve, 
lis ; Rels. of Annunc, Ad- 
oration, and Flight into 
Egypt, 115 
{Int.), A. Fontana, Rel. o^ 
Assumption (High Altar), 
89 ; Stats, of Prophets, 89 ; 
Stats, of S. Maria and Bapt., 
89 ; Tomb of himself, with 
Stat, of S. John, 89 
S. Maria delle Grazie, Cazza- 
niga, Delia Torre Tomb, 

Amadeo, Castiglione Mon., 

Busti, Rels. of Maximilian l 
and Ludovico Moro, 46 

S. Maria Lvcoronata, Fusina, 
Tolentino Tomb, 91 

S. Maria della Passione, 
Fusina, Birago Tomb, 91 

S. Maria pr. S. Satiro, Cara- 
dosso, Pieti (/.-<-.), 51 ; Heads 
and Putti on Frieze (Sac), 

S. Pietro in Gessate, Solari, 
Griffi Tomb, 211 

S. ToMMASO, Fusina, Medici 
Tomb, 91 

BiBL. Ambrosiana, Busti, Frag- 
ments of Tomb of Gaston de 
Foix, 45 



Milan, continued — 

Castello, MichelozzOy Sculptured 

Portal, 131 
Castello, Campione, Eques. Stat, 
of Bernabo Visconti, 50, 77 ; 
Tomb of Regina della Scala, 
50 ; Rusconi Tomb, 50 ; Mad. 
with Saints 
Master of S. Trovaso, Angel 

and Tab. , 3 
Solan, Pieta, 211 
Agostinodi Duccio, Rel. Horse- 
men in Forest, 2 ; Fragment 
with Angels, 3 
Solari, Portrait Medallions, 

Bust of Christ, 211 
Caradosso, Tabernacles (marble 

and t.-c), 51 
Amadeo, Rels. of S. Cristoforo, 
Flagellation, Annunciation, 
Nativity, and Adoration, 7 
Rodari, Rel. of Mad. and 

Angels, Bust of a Lady 
Fusina, Bagaroto Tomb, 91 
Busti, Fragments of Tomb of 
Gaston de Foix, 45 ; Lan- 
zino Curzio Tomb, 45 ; Re- 
liefs, 46 
Caradosso, Medallion Rel. 

Bernini, Bust of Costanza 
Buonarelli (Bronze), 25 
Monte di Pieta, Briosco, PietJi 

Rel., 34 
Ospedale Magg., Luoni, An- 

nunc. Rel. 
Palazzo Trivulzi, Anon., Frag- 
ments of Visconti Tomb, 
Cazzaniga, Rels. 
Briosco, Rels. 
Solari, Rel. Put., 211 
L. Leone, Bust of Philip il 
Villa Busca, Fragments of Tomb 
of Gaston de Foix, 45 


Cath. (Ext.), Anon., Decorative 
Sculpture, xvii, 128 
Agostino di Duccio, Rels. 
(South Wall), I 
[Int.), Pellegrini Master (^), Rels. 

{(■-c), 234 
Begarelli, Nativity 
B. Spani, Molza Tomb, 212 
Agostino di Duccio, Stat, of S. 

Gimignano, I 
Mazzoni, Adoration (/. -c ) 
(Crypt), 128 
S. Agostino, Bagarelli, Pieti 

{t.-c), 21 
S. Domenico, Begarelli, Mary 

and Martha, 21 
S. Francesco, Begarelli, Descent 

from Cross {t.-c), 21 
S. Giovanni, Mazzoni, Y\Q\k{t.-c.), 

S. PlETRO, Begarelli, Statues : 
Lamentation, Mad. and 
Saints, 21 
Palazzo {Ext.), P. Spani, Her- 
cules and Lepidus, 212 
MusEO, Massegne, Tomb of Pico, 
Begarelli, Mad., 21 
Bertoldo, Hercules, 26 
Bernini, Bust of Fr. d' Este, 


Cath., Bonanno, Bronze Doors 
(W.), 31 
Barisano, Bronze Doors (N.), 



Church, Fr. di Sangallo {}), Rels. 
on Tomb of Piero dei Medici, 




S. Francesco, Fr. di Sitmme^ 

Oliva Tomb, 83 


Monastery, Stagi, Mad., 214 
Afino, Rel. Mad. 
Roibia, G., Mad., 186 
Cio. di Verona, Candlestick 

and Wood-Carving in Ch. 

and Lib., 99 


Cath., Muhelotzo, Fragments of 

Aragazzi Tomb, 130 
S. Agostino, Muhelotxo, Lonette, 

Misericordia, Robbia, G., Altar, 

Pal. Pubblico, Robbia, (7.,Ahar, 



Cath., Laurana, Mad., 107 

Gagint, Altar, 92 
MusEO, Gagini, Rel. of Annonc, 


S. Chiara, a. Sansovino, Altar 
with Saints, 204 
Robbia^ Altar, 204 


Cath., Af. Campione, Pulpit and 
Decoration, 50 


Cath. {Ext.\ Bamboccio, Sculp- 
ture on Fafade and Stat, of 
Minatolo, 16 

(/«/.). Bamboccio (?), Carbone 
Tomb, 16 ; Minutolo Tomb, 
Malvito, Rel. Dec. (Crypt), 
123 ; Bronze Doors (Crypt), 
123 ; Sut. of Card. Carafa 
(Crypt), 123 
Atum., Rels. (twelfth cent.), 
History of Samson (Capp. 
di S. Restituta) 
S. Angelo a Nilo, Donatdlo and 
MUhtlozzo, Brancacd Tomb, 
68, 71, 130 
S. Aniello, Gio. di Nola, Mad. 
with Saints 
Arum., Monument to Franc, 
and Stef. Brancacci, 
Annlnziata, Gio. da Noloy Dec 
Carving, 144 
Laurana, Mad. 
S. Caterina a Formella, Caeca- 
vello, Tombof Acciapaccia, 47 
S. Chiara, Bamboccio, Penna 
Tomb, 16 
Pacius and Johannes, Rels. on 

Pulpit, 153 
Gio. da Nolo, Gandino Tomb, 


Pacius find Johannes, Tomb 
of King Robert, 153 

Bat/tboccio, Durazzo Tomb 
(L. Trans.), 16 

Tino da Camaino, Tomb of 
Maria of Calabria (L. Trans.), 
218 ; Tomb of Charles of Cal- 
abria and Marie de Valois, 218 

Anon., Reliefs of Legend of S. 
Catherine (Organ Gallery), 
2»8, 235 
S. DOMENICO MaGG., Gio. da 
Nola, AlUrs of Bap. and 
Mad., Tomb of A. Carafa, 
Tomb of Don Orso, 144 

Cacccn'tlio, Rota-Capcce Tomb, 
Palmieri Tomb, 47 



Naples, continued — 
S. DoMENico Magg., Anon., 
Paschal Candlestick, 235 
Gio. da Nola, Pandano Tomb, 

Benardino Rota Tomb 
Caccavello, Palmieri Tomb, 47 
Malvito, Alagni Tomb, Stat, 
of Carafa, 123 
da Nola, Toledo Tomb, 144 
Caccavello, Basurto Tomb, 47 
S. Giovanni a Carbonaro, 
Ciccione, Tombs of Ladislas 
and Sergianni Carracciolo, 56 
Caccavello, Somma Tomb, 47 
Anon., Miroballo Tomb, 145 
Cappella S. Monaca, Ciccione, 
San Severino Tomb (Cap. 
S. Monaca), 57 
S. Lorenzo Magg., Caccavello, 
Pisanello Tomb, 47 ; Fol- 
liero Tomb, 47 
Anon., Tomb of Catherine of 

Austria, 234 
Anon., Angevin Tombs, 234 
Gio. da Nola, Stats, on 
Screen, 145 
S. Maria delle Grazie, Gio. da 
Nola, Entombment and 
Madonna, 144 
G. di Santa Croce, Inc. of 
Thomas, 208 
S. Maria Donna Reg., Tino di 
Camaino, Tomb of Queen 
Maria, 218 
S. Maria Ni;ova, Caccavello, 
Tombs of Lautrec and 
Navarro, 47 
S. Maria del Parto, Montorsoli 
and Santa Croce, Tomb of 
Sannazzaro, 208 
Gio. da Nola, Nativity (A-c), 

S. Martino, BambocciOt Tomb of 
Aldemoresco (Museo), 16 

Monte Oliveto, Gio. da Nola, 
Altar, Stat, of Baptist and 
Flagellation, 145 
G. di Santa Croce, Altar (Pezzo 

Family), 208 
A. Rossellino and B. da 
Majano, Tomb of Maria of 
Aragon, 122, 198 

A. Rossellino, Altar, 199 
Mazzoni, Deposition, 129 
Gio. da Nola, Altar of Bap., 


B. da Majano, Altar, 123 
Malvito, Vassolo Tomb, 123 ; 

Alessandro Tomb 
Mazzoni, Group ^t.-c.) 
Santa Croce, Stat, of Bap. 

(Sac), 208 
Robhia, A., Medallions of the 

Evangelists, 184 
S. Severino, Gio. da Nola, 

San Severino Tomb, Cicara 

Tomb (?), 144 
Museo, Pollaiuolo, David, 172 
Mazzoni, Bust of Ferdinand I, 

Delia Porta, Bust of Paul III, 

Gian Bologna, Mercury 

Castel Nuovo, Isaia da Pisa, 
Andrea cT Aquila, Paolo 
Romano, Gagini, and others. 
Reliefs, 11, 103, 106, 195 

S. Barbara, Laurana, Mad., 

Porta Capuana (?), Gio. da Nola, 
Statues, 145 


Oath., Vecckietta, S. Antonio 
(wood), 223 
Anon. , Tomb of Cesi, 235 
S. Bernardino, Vecckietta, S. 
Bernardino (wood), 223 




S. Maria Maggiore, Gagini, \ 

Altar, 93 1 



S. Crocefisso, Laurana, Mad., 

»07 Is. 



Cath. (Ext.), Anon., Mad. over ■ 
W. Door, 238 

Afattani (?), Sjinbols of Evan- 
gelists, 120 

Afattani and Assistants, Rels. 
on Facade, 117 

Federighi {?), Sibyl and Holy 
Water Stoup, 81 1 

{Int.), Piero di Gio. Tedesco, 
Font, 15s I 

Mosca and SammicheU, Altar ; 
(S. Trans.), 137 i 

Moschino, Altar (N. Trans.), j 

Montelupo, Crucifix and Adam 

and Eve, 135 
Gian Bologna, S. Matthew, 29 
S. DOMENICO, Amolfo, Tomb of 

Cardinal Braye, 13 
MUSEO, Nino Pisano, Mad., 1 70 
Ugolino da Siena, Reliquary 


Church, Bregno, A., Altar and 
Tabernacles, 32 


Ml'SEt'M, Btllano, Hercules Statu- 
ettes, 26 
Donatelb (?), Entombment, 76 
Frantcsco di S. Agata, Her- 
cules, 90 

Riccio, Inkstand, 181 
Robbia, L., Mad., 192 
Rossdlino, A., Mad,, Baptist, 

Vinci, P., Ugolino Rel., 229 


Antonio, Riccio, Tomb of 

Trombetta (Nave), l8l 
Mimllo, G., Holy Water 
Stoups, 133 ; Stats, of Christ, 
by Aspetti, 1 4 ; of BapL , by T. 
Lombardo ; of S. Giustina, 
by Pyrgoteles (Nave), 176 
SammicheU and A. Vittoria, 
Contarini Tomb (Nave), 230 
Cattaneo, Bust on the above 
(Nave), 52 ; Bust of Bembo 
(Nave), 52 
Minello, G., Stats, of Saints 
and Decoration (Capp. del 
Santo), 133 
Minello, A., Dentone, Cam- 
pagna, J. Sansovino, Tullio 
Lombardo, Cattaneo, Mosca, 
and A. Lombardo, Nine 
Marble Rels. of the Miracles 
of the Saint (Capp. del 
Santo), 49, 52, 65, no, 113, 
132, 207 
Donatella, Mad., Saints, and 
Crucifix, Rels. Symbols of 
Evangelists and Angels 
(High Altar), 74 
Giovanni da Pisa, Fulgoso 

Tomb, 99 
Riccio, Paschal Candlestick, 
180; and Bellano, Eleven 
Bronze Rels., 22 
Bellano, MedalUons of the 
Evangelists, 22 ; Marble 
Decoration (Sac), 22 ; 
Tombs of the Gattamelatas(?) 
and of Roycelli, 22, 74 



Padua, continued — 
S. Antonio, Minello, A., Tomb of 
Calphurnius (Cloister), 132 
Cattaneo, Bust of Buonamico 

(Cloister), 52 
Campagna, Tabernacle (Capp. 
del Sacramento), 49 
Piazza, Donatella, Stat, of Gatta- 

melata, 74 
S. Benedetto, Bellano, S. 
Benedict, 22 
A. Riccio (?), Pieti, 181 
S. Canziano, Riccio, Pietk {t.'C.\ 

Eremitani, Minello, G., Altars 
{t.-c), Stats, on Policastro 
Altar, 133 
Ammanati, Tomb of Bena- 

vides, 9 
Gio. da Pisa, Rel. of Mad. 
and Saints, 99 ; Rel. of 
Mad. (Sac), 99 
Bellano, Rel. of Mad. 

(Sac), 22 
Di Sanctis, Tombs of Jac and 
And. Carrara, 209 
S. Francesco, Bellano and Riccio, 

Roccabonella Tomb, 22 
S. Giustina, Minello, G., Mad., 


Madonna dell' Arena, Gio- 
vanni Pisano, Mad., 161 ; 
Stat, of Scrovegni (Sac), 

S. Maria dei Servi, Bellano, 
Castro Tomb, 22 

S. NiCCOLO, Bellano, Stat, of S. 
Niccolo (Sacristy), 22 
Minello, G., Stats, of SS. 
Philip and James, 133 

S. Pietro, Bellano, Piet^, 22 

Pal. Arembero, Ammanati, Col- 
ossus, 9 

Mused, Bellano, Mad. in Rel. 
(wood), 22 

Riccio, Fragments of Pieta, 181 
Mazzoni, Fragments of Pieta, 

Minello, G., Statues (t.-c), 



Cath., Gagini, D., Holy Water 

Stoups, 92 ; Stats, and Rels. 

from High Altar (broken up), 


Gagini, A., Mad. (Sacristy), 92 

Laurana, Stat, of Mad., 107 

S. Caterina, Gagini, Stat, of S. 

Catherine, 92 
S. CiTA, Gagini, Altar, 92 
S. Francesco, Laurana, Rels. 

and Stats, of Fathers, 107 
Museo, Robbia, A., Mad. Rel. 
Laurana, Rel. Portraits, and 
Busts, 107 ; Stat, of Mad., 
Gagini, Tomb of Cecilia 
Aprilis and S. George, 92 


Palazzo Barberini, Buonarroti, 
.M, Piet4 (unfinished) Chapel, 


Louvre, Agostino di Duccio, Mad. 

(Auvillers), 3 
Amadeo, Tondo, 7 
Bertoldo, Pieti, 26 ; Virgin and 

Children, 26 
Buonarroti, M., Captives, 42 
Caradosso, Centaurs, 51 
Cellini, Nymph, 54 
Donatello, Baptist, 67 
Dalmata or Mino, Fragments 

of Tomb of Paul 11, 63 
Donatello, Mad. Rel. (bronze), 




Mino, Three Reliefs, 87 
Filarete, Altar, 88 
Franc avil la. Slaves, 90 
Francesco di S. Agata, Hercules 

Stat., 90 
Laurcma, Bust of Lady, 107 
Majano, B., Bust of Strozri, 

G. C. Romano, Bust of Beatrice 

d'Este, 194 
Quercia, Mad., 179 
Robbia, Z., Mad., 192 
Jac. Sansovino, Mad., 208 
Scttignano, D., Female Busts, 


Cath., Antelamiy Rels. on High 

Altar and Episcopal Throne, 

10 ; Descent from the Cross, 

Maffioli, Tabernacle and 

Decoration of Oi^an Gallery, 

Spani, P., Tombs of Prati and 

Uberti (Crypt), 212 
Baptistery (Exi.), Antelami, 

Sculptured Rels. in Lunettes 

and Dec., 10 
(Int.), Antelami, Lunettes and 

Allegories, 10 
S. Giovanni, Ev. Begarelli, 

Stats., 21 
La Steccata, Grado, G. F., 

Monumental Effigies, 100 
MUSEO, AnUlami, Sculptured 

Capitals, 11 
Amadto, Adoration and Flight 

into Egypt (Rels.), 7 


S. Lanfranco (OuUide), Aniadeo, 
Tomb of Lanfranc, 5 

S. Maria del Carmine, Amadeo, 

Lavabo, 7 
S. MiCHELE, Amadeo, Rel. (Crypt), 



Campione, Bon., Tomb of S. 

Augustine, 49 
OsPEDALE, Mantegazza, Piet^, 124 
Ep. Pal.\ce, Amadeo, Rel. of 

Mad., 7 
University, Amadeo, Bottigella 

Mon., 7 


Facade {Ext.), Amadeo, Briosco, 
Mantegazza, Marini, and 
Tamagnino, Rels. and Stats. , 

6, 7, 33. 124, 125, 217 
{Int.), Mantegazza, Lavabo (L. 

Aisle), 124 
Solari, Tomb of Ludovico and 

Beatrice Sforza (L. Trans.), 

Mantegazza, Pietll (Door into 

Cloister), 124 
Amcuieo {with Briosco and G. C. 

Romano), Tomb of Gian 

Gal. Visconti (R. Trans.), 

7, 34, 194 ; Rel, and Decora- 
tion of Door of Old Sacristy 
(medallions of Dukes), 7 ; 
Rel. and Decoration of Door 
of New Sacristy (medallions 
of Duchesses), 7 ; Lunette 
and Decoration of Door into 
Cloister (Outside), 5 

A. Fontana, Bronze Candle- 
sticks, 89 

Embricuhi, Ivory Triptych (Old 
Sacristy), 80 

Maffioli, Lavabo (Lavatory), 

Catzaniga, Adoration (Chapter- 
house), 53 



Ckrtosa di Pavia, continued — 
Mantegazza, Lamentation 
(Chapter-house), 124 ; Dec- 
oration of Portal (Great 
Cloister), 124 ; Pieta on 
High Altar, 124 
Anon., Terra-cotta Enrich- 
ments (Great Cloister), 235 
Amadeo, Lavabo (Small 
Cloister), 7 ; {with assistants), 
Windows and Reliefs on 
Fa9ade, 6 


Church, Robbia, L., Tabernacle, 


Piazza, Nice, and Gio. Fisano, 
Fountain, 160, 167 
Danti, V., Stat, of Julius III, 64 
Cxin, , Urbano da Cortona, Baglioni 
Tomb and Rels., 61 
Agostino di Duccio, Piet^, 2 
S. Bernardino, Agostino di 

Duccio, Fa9ade, 2 
S. DOMENICO, Anon., Tomb of 
Benedict xi, 234 
Agostitwdi Dttcci0yh\i2ix{t. -c. ),2 
Mad. DI MoNTELUCE, Fr. di 

Simone, Altar, 83 
S. PiETRO DEI Cassinesi, Mino, 
Tabernacle, 87 
Buglione, B., Pulpit and 
Lavabo (Refectory), 36 
MusEO (University), Statues 
from Fountain, 
Urbane di Cortona, Reliefs, 61 
Agostino di Duccio, Stat, of 

Mad., 2 
Anon., Flagellation (Bronze 

Rel.), 237 
Buglione, B., Stats. David and 
Jesse, 36 


MusEO, Laurana, Portrait Rels. 
of Fed. and Batt. of Urbino, 


Cath., Montelupo, Tomb of Turin i 

Buggiano, Decorative Sculp- 
ture, 36 


Piazza, Mocchi, Equest. Stats, of 
Farnese Dukes, 133 


Cath. {Ext.), Bonanno, Bronze 
Doors (S. Trans.), 31 

Francavilla, Tacca, and Others, 
Bronze Doors (W.), 47, 
{Int. ), Bandinelli and Rossimino, 
Holy Water Stoups 

Stagi, Tomb of Gamaliel and 
Nicodemus (Lunette by 
Ammanati (S. A.), 214 ; 
Altar (Stat, of S. Biagio by 
Tribolo) (S. Trans.), 214 

Guardi, Rel. of Mad. over 
Door (S. Trans.), loi 

Mosca, Mad. and Christ (Capp. 
di S. Raniero) (S. Trans.), 
1 37 ; {with Stoldo Lorenzi), 
Adam and Eve and Decora- 
tion (N. Trans.), 115 

Foggini, Tabernacle (N. 
Trans. ), 89 

Gio. Fisano, Mad. (in ivory) 
(Sac), 162 

G. Bologna, Angel (Sac); 
Stats, on Holy Water 
Stoups ; Crucifix (Sac. ), 28 



Stmif and Ftgginiy Easter | 

Candlesticks, 89 j 

Loremi, Stoldo, Angel, II4 j 
Gio. Pisano and Pupils, Six \ 

Rels. on Singing Gallery, 162 , 

Stagi, Mad., 214 I 

Baptistery (£jr/.), Arum., Early j 

Rel. Dec, 237 
Gio. Pisano, Mad. in Lunette, 

(/«/.), Niccolh Pisano, Pulpit, 

Guido da Como, Font (?), 60 
Campo Santo, Gio. Pisano, Mad., 

Cellino di Nese, Ammanati 

Tomb, 56 
Robbia, G., Mad. with Saints, 

Robbia, A., Mad. Rel., 184 
Afino, Female Bust, 87 
Ammanati, Tomb of Family 

of Gregory XIII, 10 
Stagi, Tomb of Decio, 214 
Bonamico, Rel., 31 
Biduino, Sarcophagus, 27 
Tino di Camaino, Tomb of 

Emperor Henry vii, 217 
Guardi, Ricd Tomb and Four 

Rel., loi 
S. Casciano, Biduino, Sculpture 

on Door, 27 
Anon., Tomb of Cardinal 

Gherardesca, 237 i 

S. Caterina, Guardi, Tabernacle, | 

loi j 

Nino Pisano, Saltarelli Tomb, | 

169 ; Mad. and Archangel 

Gabriel (Choir), 170 
S. Cecilia {Ext.), N. Pisano, \ 

Christ, 170 j 

S. Maria della Spina (Ext.), ' 

Anon., Statues, 
Nino Pisano, Mad., 170; 

Altar, Mad. and Saints, 170 \ 

Guardi, Rels. of Virtues, 10 1 
Lorenzi, Stoldo, Annunc, 115 
S. MiCHELE, Guardi, Tabernacle, 


S. SiSTO, Stagi, Holy Water 

Stoups, 214 
S. Stefano, Donatella, Bust of 

S. Lussorio, 71 
S. Martino, A/ton., S. Martin 

and the B^;gar, 238 
Museo, Nino Pisatio, Annunc. 

Guardi, Tabernacle, loi 
Gio. Pisano, Fragments of Pul- 
pit and Wooden Model, 162 
Lung Arno, Francavilla, Equest. 

Stat. Ferd. i, 90 
Piazza dei Cavalieri, Franca- 

villa, Equest. Stat. Cosimo i, 

Tacca, Bust of Cosimo 11 

(on Fa9ade of Palace) 
Palazzo dei Cavalieri, Lorenzi, 

Stoldo, Stats, of Religion and 

Justice, 114 


Oath. {Ext.\ Robbia, A., Lunette 

and Roof Decorations of 

Portal, 184 
(Int.), Ferrucci, A., Font, 82 
Cellino di Nese, Sinibaldi 

Tomb, 55 
Verrocchio and Lorenzetto, 

Forteguerra Monument (R. 

Aisle), 114, 226 
Ognabene and Others, Silver 

Altar, 147 
A. Rossellino, Rel. Port. 

Donato dei Medici, 197 
S. Andrea, Gio. Pisano, Pulpit 

and Crucifix, 160 
Gruamonte and Adeodatus, 

Reliefs, 100 



PiSTOlA, continued — 
S. Bartolommeo [Ext.), Rodol- 
fmo, Sculptured Portal, 194 
{Int. ), Guido da Coino, Pulpit and 
Crucifix, 60 
S. DOMENICO, B. and A, Ressel- 
lino, Lazzari Tomb, 200 
B. Kossellino (?), Ripafratta 
Tomb, 200, 239 
S. Giovanni Fuori, Gruamonte, 
Dec. of Portal, lOi 
A'obbia, L., Salutation, 
Gio. Pisano, Font, i6i 
Fra Gugliebno, Pulpit, 102 
OsPEDALE, Robbia, G.y and 
Paladini, Frieze, 154, 185, 
LiCEO, Lorenzetto, Stat, of Card. 
Forteguerra, 114 

S. Bassano, Balduccio, Rels., 16 

POLIZZI (Sicily) 
Church, Dom. Gagini, Rel., 92 


Cath. {Ext.), Donatella and 

Michelozzo, Pulpit, 69 
Robbia, A., Lunette, 184 
(Int.), Bruno, Mazzei, Iron 

Screen, 35 
Gio. Pisano, Mad., Silver 

Statuette, 162 
Francesco di Simone, Ciborium, 

Inghirami Tomb, 83 
Bened. da Majano, Mad. {t.-c) 

and Marble Rel., 122 
Mine and A. Rossellino, 

Pulpit, 86, 198 
S. Francesco, Ant. Rossellino, 

Inghirami Tomb (Effigy), 198 

S. Maria del Buonconsiglio, 

Robbia, A., Altar, Stats, of 

S. Paul and S. Lucia, and 

Lunette, 184 
Robbia, G., S. Louis, S. Giuli- 

ano, and S. Ansano, Mad. 

and Saints, 186 
S. Maria dei Carceri, Robbia, 

A., Medallion on Vaulting 

and Frieze, 184 
S. NiccOLO, Robbia, G., Lavabo 

and Adoration (Sacristy), 

Pal. Novellucci, Tacca, Iron 

Window Screens, 216 


Cath., Barisano, Bronze Doors, 

("79), 19 
Nice, di BartoL, Pulpit and 
Female Head, 143 


Archbps. Pal., Anon., Ivory 

Throne, 238 
S. Apollinare in Classe, 

Anon., Sarcophagi, 239 
S. Francesco, Anon., Tomb of 

Flamberto, 237 
S. Vitale, Anon., Rel. Throne 

of Neptune, 238 
Dante Mausoleum, P. Lombardi, 

Rel., in 
Pinacoteca, Anon. , Guidarelli 

Mon., 237 
Piazza, P. Lombardo, Columns 

and Reliefs, ill 


Cath. {Ext.), Spani, P., Stat, of 
Adam and Eve, and of SS. 
Grisanto and Daria, 212 



(/«/.). Spami, B., Two Busts in 
Silver and Font, 212 
Spani, P., Rangoni and 

Sforziano Tombs, 212 
Spani, B., Arlotti and Mala- 
gazzi Tombs, 212 
Cath. Campanile, Spam, B., 

Mad. (in copper), 212 
S. Prospero, Spani, B., Gablon- 
etta Tomb, 212 


Cath. (Tempio Malatest.), 
Ferrttcci, Sitiione, Tomb of 
S. P. Malatesta, 83 ; Decora- 
tive Rels. on Pilasters (Third 
Chapels r. and 1.), 83 ; Putti 
on Balustrades, and Herald 
(First Chapel r.), 83 

Ciuffagni, Slat, of S. Sigis- 
mond, 2, 58 ; Prophets and 
Sibyls, 58; Stat, of Isotta 
(Altar of S. Michael), 58 

Agostino di Dvccio, Decorative 
Rels. on Pilasters (Fourth 
Chapels r. andl.), I ; Angels 
in Rel. (First Chapel r.), 2 ; 
Tomb of Sigismond's An- 
cestors (First Chapel 1.). 2 
MUNICIPIO, Agostino di Dtucio, 
Med. Port, of Augustus 


S. Agostino, Jac. Sansovino, 

Mad., 207 
And. Sansovino, Mad. and 

S. Anne, 205 
Isaia da Pisa, S. Monica and 

Four Saints, 103 
Dalmata, Pieta, 63 
Bregno, A. (with Mino), Picco- 

lomini (Ammanati) Tomb 

(Cloister Court), 87 ; Oliva, 

Fomario, and Sclafenate 
Tombs (?) 
S. Andrea della Valle, Basti di 
Ferrttcci and Franc, di Gio- 
vanni (?), Tombs of Pius li 
and Pius III, 238 
S. Andrea (Ponte Molle), 
Paolo Romano, Stat, of S. 
Andrew, 196 
SS. Apostoli, Capponi, Tomb of 
Lor. Colonna, 51 
Canova, Tomb of Volpato 
Afino and Bregno, Riario 

Tomb, 32, 87 
Anon., Della Rovere Tomb 
S. Balbina, Cosmati, Surdi 
Tomb, 61, 239 
Alino and Dalmata, Rel. of 
Crucifixion, 64, 85 
S. Bibiena, Bernini, Stat, of S. 
Bibiena, 23 
Anon., Mon. Stat, Matt. 
S. Cecilia in Trastevere, 
Mino, Forteguerra Tomb, 87 
Magister Paulus, Tomb of 

Adam of Hertford, 117 
Madema, Tomb of S. Cecilia, 

Amolfo, Tabernacle, 14 
Mino, Rel. of Mad. (Sacristy), 

S. Clements, Dalmata and 
Bregno, Roverella Tomb, 32, 


Capponi, Brusati Tomb, 51 
Anon., Recanati Tomb 
S. Cosimato, Anon., Cibo Mon., 

S. Francesco a Ripa, Anon., 
Mon. Slabs of the Anguillari, 
Bernini, Effigy of Ludovica 
Albertone, 35 



Rome, continued — 

S. Francesca Romana, Anon., 

Vulcano Tomb, 240 ; Equest. 

Stat, of Ant. Rido, 
Olivieri, Tomb of Gregory XI, 


{^Ext.), Mino and Paolo 

Romano, Angels, 87, 196 
{Int.), Paolo Romano, S. James, 

S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini, 

Donatella (?), Baptist, 67 
S. Giovanni dei Genovesi, 

Capponi, Tabernacle, 51 
S. Giovanni in Laterano, 

Algardi, Reliefs, 5 
Buonvicino, Reliefs and Stats. 

on Tomb of Paul V, 45 
Stefano di Giovanni (?), Taber- 
nacle, 215 
Filarete, Tomb of Card, of 

Portugal, 88 
Bregno, Altar of Baptist, Stats. 

of SS. Luke and Lawrence 

(Sac), Stats, of Baptist 

(Cloister), S. Mark, Relief 

of Crucifixion (Bap.), 32 
Capponi, Stats, on Bregno's 

Altar, 51 ; Rel. Leo III, 51 
Bernini, Pieta and Stats. 

(Corsini Chapel), 25 
Mino, Relief 
Arnolfo, Effigy on Annibaldi 

Tomb, 14 
Bracci, Tomb of Clement Xll, 

Vasoldo, Tomb of Card. 

Farnese, 223 
Ghini, Mon. of Martin v, 97 
Anon., Bianchi Tomb, Stat, of 
Nicholas IV, 238 
S. Gregorio al Monte Celio, 
Capponi, Bonsi Tomb, Altar 
of S. Gregorio, 51 

S. Lorenzo in Damaso, Paolo 

Romano, Scarampo Tomb, 


Maderna, Borromeo Stat., 


S. Lorenzo in Lucina, Bernini, 

Bust of Old Woman, 25 
S.Lorenzo Fuori, Anon., Fieschi 

and other Tombs, 236 
S. Marcello, Captoni, Taber- 
nacle, 51 
Algardi, Frangipani Busts, 5 
Anon., Micheli Tomb 
S. Marco, Mino and Dalmata, 
Tabernacle, 87 
Filarete, Ramirez Tomb, S. 

Mark, 88 
Anon. , Capranica Tomb 
S. Maria dell' Anima, Tribolo 
and M. A. Sanese, Tomb of 
Hadrian vi, 220 
S. Maria in Ara Cceli, Bregno, 
Lebretto Tomb (1465), 32 ; 
Savelli Tomb (with Capponi), 

32, 51 
Donatello, Crivelli Gravestone 
A. Sansovino, Vincenzi Tomb, 

Cosmati, Acquasparta Tomb, 

Anon., Tombs of Honorius IV, 

237 ; Cavalieri ; Albertoni, 

233 ; Luca Savelli, 239 ; 

Delia Valle 
S. Maria in Augusta, Jae. 

Sansovino, Mad., 208 
S. Maria della Consolazionb, 

Capponi, Mad. Rel., 51 
S. Maria in Cosmedin, Cosmati, 

Paschal Candlestick and 

Ciborium, 61 
Anon., Alfano Tomb, 233 
S. Maria Maggiore, Cosmati, 

Gonsalvo Tomb, 61 
Mino, Fragments of Tab., 85 




Bregtu), Altar, 32 

Madema, Stat, of S. Ephrem, 

Bernini, S. Gaetano, 24 
Giuliano di Sangallo, Wood- 
Carving, 204 
Mariani, Angel, 124; S. 

John and Rel. (Tomb of 

Clement viii), 125 
Oliviiri, S. Antony, 148 
Buomncino, Angels (Capp. 

Paolino), Rels. on Tomb of 

Paul V, 44, 45 
Anon. , De Levis Tomb 
S. Maria sopra Minerva, Cos- 

maii, Gio., Durante Tomb 

(1296), 61 ; School of , Orsini 

Tomb, 238 
Dalniata and Bregno, Tebaldi 

Tomb (1476), 32, 63 
Mino, Tomabuoni Tomb, 

and Mad. Rel. on Ferrid 

Tomb, 87 
Bregno, Astorgio, Coca, and 

Ferrici Tombs, 32 
Isaia da Pisa (?), Effigy of 

Fra Angelico (1455), 103 
Buonarroti, M. A., Christ, 

BandineUi, Tombs of Leo x 

and Clement vii, 18 
Casignola, Tomb of Paul IV. 

(Capp. Carafa), 52 
Marini, M., S. Sebastian, 

Mad. Rel. Maflfei Tombs (?), 

Giac. delta Porta, Tomb of 

Family of Clement viil 

(Capp. Aldobrandini) 
Madema, Two Angels (Capp. 

Aldobrandini), 116 
Montelupo, Raff., Sut. of Leo 

X (on Tomb), 134 
Braeci, Tombs of Benedict XIII 

and XIV, 32 

Buonvicino, Tomb of Urban 

VII, 45 ; Angels in Cappella 

Aldobrandini, 45 
Anon., Tombs of Frangipani 

(1294), 237; Orsini (1340 

and 1294), 238 ; Rastice 

(1482), Alberino (R. Aisle), 

Capranica, Neroni (1482), 

Sopranzi (1495) 5 Balustrade 

(Capp. Carafa) ; Monument 

of A. Bregno (Cloister 

S. Maria di Monserrato, 

Joe. Sansovino, S. James, 

Capponi, Tabernacle 
Paolo Romano, Altar with Rel. 

of Crucifixion (Cloister), 

Anon., Tombs of Mella 

(1467); Toledo (1479); 

VeteU (1484) ; Cordova 

(i486), 235; and Paradinas 

S. Maria della Pace, Mosca, 

Altar Decoration, 137 
Rossi, S. Matthew, 201 
Madema, Peace and Justice, 

Anon., Ponzetti Mon., 238 
S. Maria del Popolo, Mino and 

Bregno, Tomb of Cristoforo 

and Dom. della Rovere 

(R. Aisle), 32 
Rizzo, Effigy of Card. Foscari 

(R. Aisle) (1485), 182 
Bregno, Altar of Alex. VI 

(Sac. ),Tabemacles (L. Aisle), 

Costa Tomb, 32 
Vasoldo, Albano Tomb, 223 
A. Sansovino, Sforra and 

Basso Tombs (Choir), 205 
Lorenzetto and Raffaele, Jonah 

and Rel. (L. Aisle), 114; 

Elijah, 114 



Rome, continued — 

S. Maria del Popolo, Bernini^ 
Statues, 24 
Anon., Altar of Gugl. Pereriis ; 
Tombs of G. Mellini (1478) ; 
Rocca (1482); P. Mellini 
(1483); Gio. della Rovere 
(1483); Albertoni (1485), 
233; Malvezzi (1488) ; Pal- 
lavicini (1501); Podocataro 
(1504), 238; Castro (1506), 
235; Lonato(i497), 237 

S. Maria del Priorato, 

Magister Paulus, Carafa 
and Caracciolo Tombs, 117 
Anon., Tombs of Seripandio 
and Obizzi, 235 

S. Maria Rotonda( Pantheon), 

Lorenzetto, Mad., 114 
S. Maria in Trastevere, Mag- 
ister Paulus, Tombs of 
Stefaneschi and Alencon, 

Mino, Tabernacle, 87 
A. Sansovino (?), Armellino 

S. Maria in Vallicella, Algardi, 

S. Filippo Neri, 4 

S. Maria della Vittoria, Ber- 
nini, S. Teresa, 24 ; Comaro 
Effigies, 25 
S. Paolo Fuori, Anon., Bronze 
Doors (damaged) 

Arnolfo, Tabernacle, 13 

Magister Paulus, Stat. Boni- 
face IX, 117 

Bregno, Altar, 32 

Cosmati, Candlestick and Carv- 
ing in Cloisters, 6x 

S. Pietro in Montorio, 
Ammanati, Dei Monti 
Tomb, 9 
Dalmata, Angels (Crypt), 64 

Anon., Mon. Slab of De 

S. Pietro in Vaticano, Filarete, 

Bronze Doors, 88 
Bernini, Rel. over Portal, 

Tab., and Stat, of Longinus 

(under Dome), 25 ; Mon. of 

Countess Matilda (R. Aisle), 

24 ; Mon. of Urban vili, 

of Alexander Vll, 24 ; and 

Cover of Chair of Peter 

(Choir) (R. Aisle), 24 
Buonarroti, M. A., Pieta (R. 

Aisle), 38 
Pollaiuolo, A. , Mons. of Sixtus 

IV (R. Aisle), of Innocent 

VIII (L. Aisle), 172, 173 
Bracci, Mons. of Benedict xiv 

(R. Aisle), of Maria Sobieski 

(L, Aisle), 32 
Gug. della Porta, Mon. of 

Paul III (Choir), 174 
Algardi, Attila (Choir), Mon. 

of Leo XI (L. Aisle), 5 
Mocchi, F., S. Veronica 

(under Dome), 133 
Anon., Stat, of S. Peter (in 

bronze), 238 
Paolo Romano, Stats, of SS. 

Peter and Paul (Sacristy), 

Donatello, Tabernacle, 70 
Buonvicino, Delivery of the 

Keys, 45 J 

Crypt, /frM(?^^, Bust of Boniface » 

VIII, Two Angels, 14 
Mino and Dalmata, Fragments 

and Effigy from Tomb of 

Paul II, 63, 86; Tomb of 

Eroli, 63 
Mino, Stats, from Ciborium of 

Sixtus IV, 85 
Paolo Romano and Isaia da 

Pisa, Tab. of S. Andrew, 




Paalo da Siena, Bust of Bene- 
dict XII, 

Anan.^ Rels. from Tab. of 
Sixtus IV, Sut. of S. Peter, 

Attcn., Tombs of Nicolas III 
(12S9), Boniface viii (1303), 
61, 235; Urban vi (1389); 
Innocent vii (1406), 237; 
Card. Fonseca (1422); 
Nicolas V (1455); Calixtus 
HI (1450) ; Card, della Porta 

S. PlETRO IN ViNCOLl, Buonarroti, 
M. A., Mon. of Julius 11, 39, 
40, 42 ; Moses, 43 ; with 
Raff, da Montelupo, Leah 
and Rachel, 42 
Paolo Romano or Bregno, Mon. 

of Cardinal Cusa, 32, 196 
Jacopo Sansomno, Gravestone 

of Card, della Rovere, 208 
Anon., Pollaiuolo Monument, 
238 ; Bronze Doors of Sacra- 
S, Prassede, Cosmati, Tomb of 
Ancheriis, 61, 234 
Bregno (?), Tomb of Alano, 32 
S. PuDENZiANA, G. B. della Porta, 
Delivery of the Keys, 174 
Olivieri, Ad. of Magi, 148 
S. Sabina, Isaia da Pisa, Ausio 

Tomb, 103 
S. Salvatore, Isaia da Pisa, 
Tomb of Eugenius iv, 103 
Anon. , Tomb of Mad. Orsini 
S. SiLVESTRO, Algardi, S. John 

and Magdalen, 4 
Anon., Monument of Car- 
dinal Bainbridge, 234, Bernini, Tritone, 24 ; 
Barcaccia, 24 ; Piazza Na- 
vona, 24; Font, del Moro, 

Font, di Trevi (design), 24 
Landini, Tartarughe, 105 
Gio. della Porta, Moses (Fort, 
dei Termini), 174 
Palazzo dei Conservatori, 
Olivieri, Stat, of Gregory 
XIII, 148 
Landini, Stat, of Sixtus v, 105 
Bernini, StaL of Urban viii, 25 
A turn., Stat, of Charles of 

Anjou, 234 
Algardi, Stat, of Innocent X, 5 
Palazzo Farnese, Guglielmo 
della Porta, Two Statues 
from Tomb of Paul III, 175 
P.\LAZZO Laterano, Atton., The 
Good Shepherd, 237 ; 
S. Ippolito, 237 ; Sarco- 
Palazzo Rondanini, Michel- 
angelo, Pieti (unfinished), 44 
Palazzo Stroganoff, Mino, 
Fragment of Ciborium from 
S. Maria Maggiore, 86 
A less. Viitoria, Bust, 230 
Vatican, Bernini (?), Stat, of 
Constantine (Staircase), 25 
Mino and Dalmata, Decora- 
tion of Balcony (Sistine 
Chapel), 87 
Giovanni da Verona, Carved 
Doors (Stanze), 99 
Palazzo Venezia, Bellano, Bust 

of Paul II, 22 
PONTE S. Angelo, Loremetto, S. 

Peter, 114 
Villa Borghese, Bemini, David 
with Sling, 23 ; ^neas and 
Anchises, 23 ; Apollo and 
Daphne, 23 ; Pluto and 
Proserpine, 23 
Villa Papa Giuuo, Ammanati, 

Terminal Figures, 9 
Mt'SEO MuNiciPio, Mino, Frag- 
ments of Ciborium, 85 




Incoronata, L. Leoni, Stat, of 
Vespasiano Gonzaga, 107 


Cath. , Bamboccto, Tomb of Queen 
Margaret, 16 
Anon., Altar, Pulpits, and 
Gallery, 233, 239 


S. Maria Cappucini, Balduccio, 
Pulpit, IS 


Cath., Ben. da Majano, Altar of 
S. Fina, 122 ; Ciborium 
(Sacristy), 122 ; Bust of 
Onofri, 122 

S. Agostino, Ben. da Majano, 
Altar of S. Bartoldo, 123 

t.'.«:c,» 1 ^^~ «""'«'° 

Church, Gio. Pisano (?), Figures 
of Giants, 162 

S. ChiARA, Robbia, G., Altar, 204 

Church, Robbia, Altar 

Church, Dom. RosulU, Font, 196 


Church of Madonna, Fusina, 
Statues under Dome, 91 


Cath., Maffioli, Altar of the 

Conception, 117 
S. Francesco, Balduccio, Cas- 

truccio Tomb, 15 
Campione, Bon. , Malaspina 

Tomb, 50 

SEBENICO (Dalmatia) 

Cath., Laurana, Heads of 
Angels, 107 


Piazza, Quercia, Fountain (re- 
stored), 177 
Cath. {Ext.), G. Pisano, Statues 
on Fa9ade, 160 
Donatella, Mad. in Lunette, 

(Int. ), Urbano da Cortona, Rels. , 

Federighi, Holy Water Stoups, 

Bregno, Piccolomini Altar, 32 ; 

Statues by Torrigiani, M. 

Angela, and Capponi, 51, 218 
Marinna, Door of Library, 125 
Quercia, Expulsion from 

Paradise (Interior Lunette), 

Vecchietta, S. John Rel., 223. 
Marinna, Portal Decoration 

(Baptistery), 125 
Donatella, Stat, of Bap. 

(Baptistery), 67 
Nerocci, Stat, of S. Catherine 

(Baptistery), 140 
Stefano di Giovanni, Stat. 

S. Ansano (Baptistery), 21 4| 
Federighi, Rels. on Fon 

(Covered) ( Baptistery), 81 ; 

Petroni Tomb (L. Aisle) 



Donatello, Gravestone of 

Pecci (L. Aisle), 68 
Anon., Rels. of Nativity and 

Adoration (Ansano Ch.), 

Turino, Holy Water Stoup 

(Sacristy), 221 
Nice. Pisano and Schclars, 

Pulpit, 166 
Gio. di Verona, Carved Stalls, 


Vecchietta, Bronze Tabernacle 

(High Altar), 223 
Stefano di Gurvanni, Angels 

(High Altar), 214 
Franc, di Giorgio, Angels 

(High Altar), 90 ; Angels, 

half-length (Choir), 90 
Beccafumi, Angels, half-length 

(Choir), 21 
Cozzarelli, Pedestals for the 

above, 62 
Turino, Rels. of Evangelists 

and S. Paul (R. Trans.), 

Federighi, Gravestone of 

Bartoli (R. Trans.), 81 
Bernini, Statues (ex - voto 

Chapel) (R. Trans.), 25 
Nerocci, Piccolomini Tomb 

(R. Aisle), 140 
Urbano da Cortona, Rels. of 

the Life of the Virgin (R. 

Aisle), 60 
MusEO DEL DuoMO, Quercto, 

Fragments, 179 
Urbano da Cortona, Rels. and 

Angel, 61 
Cotxarelli, Baptist {(.-c), 62 
Federighi, Moses, 81 
Gio. Pisano (?), Fragments 

from Fa9ade of Cath., 160 
Qtterria, Font., Stat, of Bap., 

Five Rels. of Prophets, and 

Relief of 2^u:hanas, 178 

Ghiberti, Rels. of Bap. of 
Christ, and Bapt. before 
Herod, 95 
Donatella, Herodias Rel. , Stats. 

of Hope and Faith, 68 
Turino, Kels. of the Birth and 
of the Preaching of the Bap., 
221 ; Stats, of Virtues, 221 ; 
Mad. Rel., 221 
Goro di Neroccio, Stat, of 
Charity, 100 
S. Agostino, Quercia, Mad., 
(painted wood) 
Cozzarelli, S. Niccoli, 62 
S. Bernardino, Cozzarelli, S. 
Bernardino and S. Catherine, 
S. Caterina (Fontebranda), 
(Ext.), Cozzarelli, S. Cathe- 
rine, 62 
Urbano da Cortona, S. 
Catherine and Angels, 61 
{Int.), Neroccio, S. Catherine 
(wood), 140 
S. Caterina (Paradiso), Mar- 
inna. Bust of S. Catherine 
[t.-c), 126 
CoNCEZiONE, Cozzarelli, Ecce 

Homo, 62 
S. Cristoforo, Federighi, S. 

Galgano, 81 
S. DoMENico, Stefano di Giovanni, 
Tabernacle (Capp. di S. 
Caterina), 214 
Ben. da Majano, Tabernacle 
(Choir), 122 
FONTEGIUSTA {Ext. ), NerocciOy 
Mad. Rel., 140 
{Int.), Marinna, High Altar, 
S. Francesco, Urbano da Cot' 
tona, Felici Tomb, and 
Mad. Rel., 60, 61 
Fr. di Giorgio, Med. Ports., 90 
Federighi, Mad. Rel., f i 



Siena, continued — 

S. GIOVANNINO, CozzarelH, Stat. 

of Bap. {t.-c), 62 
S. GiROLAMO, Marinna, Altar, 125 
CozzarelH, S. Catherine (A-f. ), 

Federighi, Bettini Mon., 81 
S. Lucia, CozzarelH, Saints {t.-c), 

S. Martino, Marinna, Decoration 
of Altar, 125 
Quercia, Mad. and Saints 
(wood), behind Choir, 179 
OSSERVANZA, Franc, di Giorgio, 
Rels. in Vaulting, 90 
Robbia, A., Coronation, 183 
Robbia, G., Mad. and Gabriel, 


CozzarelH, Pieta (/. -c. ), 62 ; 

Pieta (A -c. ) (in Sacristy), 62 

Federighi, Gravestone of N. 

Piccolomini (Crypt), 140 

S. PlETRO IN OviLE, Vecchietta, 

Mad. and S. John, 223 
Santuccio, Church of, Goro di 

Neroccio, Annunc. 
S. Spirito, CozzarelH, S. Cath- 
erine and S. Vincent, 62 
etta, Christ (on High Altar 
of Chapel), 223 
CozzarelH, Tondi Monument 
(Entrance), 62 
Palazzo Pub., Turino, Bronze 
Woll (in front), 221 ; Font 
in Chapel, 221 
B. Rossellino, Decoration of 
Doorway (Sala del Con- 
CozzarelH, S. Sigismond, 62 
Quercia, Fragments of Fonte- 
gaia, 177 
Accademia, Turino, Rels. of Ap- 
ostles, 221 
Cio. Pisatu>, Mad. 

University, Anon., Arringhieri 

Tomb, 56, 234 
Loggia dei Nobili, Federighi, 

S. Victor, S. Ansano, and S. 

Savino, 81 
Vecchietta, S. Paul and S. 

Peter, 223 
Urbano da Cortona and Feder- 
ighi, Decoration of Benches, 

60, 81 
Pal. del Magnifico, CozzarelH, 

Lantern and Bronze Rings, 

Via DEI Rossi, Federighi, Mad., 



Municipio, a. Rossellino, Mad. 
Rel., 199 


Cath., Campione, Pulpit 
Anon., Tab. and Font 


Cath., Ambrogio da Milano, Font 
and Orsini Tomb, 9 


Cath., Gio. Pisatw (?), Mad. and 
Angels, 162 


Cath., Rosso, Decoration of 
Fajade, 20 


Cath., Barisano, Bronze Doors 
(1175). 19 




Cath., Lombardo, P., Zanetti 
Tomb, 112; Fragments of 
High Altar, 113; Franco 
Tomb, 113 
L. Bregno, Sculptured Decora- 
tion (Capp. del Sacramento), 
33 ; Rels. of Angels, Stats, 
of Mad. and S. Sebastian, 
Rel. of Visitation, 33 

S. Maria Maggiore, Busti, Tomb 
of Bua, 46 
T. Lombardo, Mad. Rel., 113 

S. NiccOLO, Lombardi Sch., 
Onigo Tomb, 113 
A. Lombardo, Mad., no 


Cath., Anon., Pulpit, 277 

Odertsius (?), Bronze Doors 
(1119), 236 


MUSBO, Busti, Fragments of Tomb 
of Gaston de Foix, 45 
Gio. Pisano, Mad., 162 

MUNICIPIO, Bon, Bartol., Mad,, 30 


S. DOMENICO, Robbia, L., Lunette, 

Mad. and Saints, 192 
Palazzo, Amb. da Milano and 
Dom. Roselli, Decorative 
Carving, 8 
Dom. Roselli, Santucci Men. 

(in Court), 196 
Anon., Rels. in LoQ;ia and 

VARRAMISTA (near Pisa) 

Church, Robbia, A., Mad. and 
Saints, 184 


S. Marco (Fa9ade), Anon., Early 
and Mediaeval Sch., Morosini 
Ant. and T. Lombardo, Zeno 
Tomb (Capp. S. Zeno), 
(/«/.), Massegni, Stats, of Mad., 
Apostles, and Saints (Choir 
Railing), 127 
/m. Sansovino, Rels. of 
Miracles of S. Mark, 208 ; 
Doors of Tabernacle, 208 
Jac. Sansovino, Bronze Stats., 
Evangelists and Fathers 
(Altar Railing), 207 
Massegni (?), Marble Stats, 
(behind Altar), 127 ; Altar, 
Mad. and Saints (L. Trans.), 
Jac. Sansovino, Bronze Door 

(Sac), 207 
Bon, Bart., Stats, of Mad., S. 
John, and S. Mark (Capp. dei 
Mascoli), 30 
Piazza S. Marco, A. Leopardi, 
Bronze Sockets for Masts, 
S. Apollinare, Riicio, S. Helena 
SS. Apostoli, T. Lombardo (?), 

S. Sebastian Rel., 113 
S. Francesco della Vigna, 
{,Ext.), Aspetti, Moses and 
S. Paul, 14 
(/«/.), Aspetti, Angels, in Bronze, 
A. Vittoria, Altar, with S. 
Antonio, S. Roch, and S. 
Sebastian, 229 



Venice, continued — 

S. Francesco della Vigna, 

Lombardi, The^ Prophets, 

Evangelists, and Rels. , 


Gesuiti, Campagna, Cicogna 

Tomb, 49 
S. GiOBBE {Ext.), P. Lombardo, 
Decoration of Fa5ade, 1 1 1 
{Int.), Ant. Lombardo, S. Luke, 
Fr. di Simone, Altar, 83 
Robbia, L. (?), Rels. on Ceil- 
P. Lombardo, Rels. (Choir), 

Ambrogio da Milano, Dec. 
Sculpture, 9 
S. Giorgio Magg., Campagna, 
Mad,, 49; Bronze Group 
(H. Altar), Christ and 
Evangs., 48 
A. Vittoria, Evangelists (t.-c), 

P. Lombardo, Saints (Sac), 

SS. Giovanni Crisostomo, T. 

lombardo. Coronation, 1 12 
S. Giovanni Evangelista, 

Cattaneo, Badoeri Tomb, 

SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Pietro 

Lombardo, P. Mocenigo 

Tomb(Entr. Wall), in 
A. and T. Lombardo, Gio. 

Mocenigo Tomb (Entr. 

Wall), no 
Mazza, Rels. of Life of S. 

Dominic (R. Aisle), 128 
Master of S. Trovaso, Angel 

on Altar (R. Trans.) 
L. Bregno, Naldo Tomb (R. 

Trans.), 33 
Vittoria, Windsor Tomb 

(Capp. del Crocefisso), 230 

Nino Pisano(?), Stats, on 

Cornaro Altar (Choir), 170 
Dentone, Capello Mon., 64 
Leopardi, Bregno, and The „ 

Lombardi, Vendramin Tomb 9 

(Choir), 33, 108, 112 « 

Campagna and Cattaneo, 

Loredano Tomb (Choir), 49, 

P. Massegtie, Cavallo Tomb 

(Choir), 127 ; Venier Tomb 

(L. Trans.), 127 
Campagna, Tab. and Stats. 

(Capp. del Rosario), 49 
A. Vittoria, S. Giustina, S. 

Dominic, and S. Jerome 

(Capp. del Rosario), 229 
P. Lombardo, Malopiero Tomb 

(L. Aisle), III 
Anon., Bonzi Tomb (L. 

A. Lombardo, Stat, of S. Peter 

Martyr and S. Thomas (L. 

Aisle), no 
Nice, and Giov. di Martina, 

T. Mocenigo Tomb (L. 

Aisle), 30, 66 
P. Lombardo, Nice. Marcello 

Tomb (L. Aisle) 
Vittoria, Stat, of S. Jerome 

(on Bergamasco Tomb) (L. 

Aisle), 229 
Piazza, Verrocchio, Stat. of 

Colleone (Base by Leopardi), 

109, 227 
S. G\\2\AK^o{Ext.),Jac. Sansovino, 

S. Thomas of Ravenna, 

{Int. ), Campagna, Pietk, 48 
. Vittoria, S. Catherine, Daniel, 

and Rels., 230 
S. Lio, T. Lombardo, Entombment 

S. Lorenzo, Campagna, S. 

Sebastian, 49 



. Maru del Carmine, Ardu- 

inus, Mad. (before the 

Church) (1340) 
Ancn., Descent firom Cross 

(Bronze Rel.), 236 
. Maria dei Fr.\ri [Ext.), 

Vittoria, Christ (over Door), 

Anon., Maxl. and Angels (over 

Door, L. Trans.) 
[Int. ), Massegni, Dandolo Tomb 

(Nave), 127 
T. Lombardo, Bernardo Tomb 

(Nave), 113 
Bellanc, Prophets, Vincentino 

Tomb (Nave) 
Campagna, Stats. Innocence 

and S. Antony (on Font), 49 
A. Vittoria, S. Jerome (R. 

Aisle), 229 
Anon., Beato Carissimo Tomb 

(R. Trans.), 234; Savello 

Tomb (R. Trans.), 
Bregno, L., Pesaro Tomb- 
Mars by MonUlupo (R. 

Trans.), 33 
P. Lombardo, Jac. Marcello 

Tomb(R. Trans.), iii 
T. Lombardo, Bernardo Tomb, 

Bregno, P. Foscari Tomb 

(Choir Chapel), 33 
Ritxo, A., Tron Tomb (Choir 

Chapel), 182 
Donattllo, Baptist (wood) 

(Choir Chapel), 67 
Lombardi and Dentone, 

Trevisan Tomb (Choir 

Chapel), 64 
Massegni (?), Stats. over 

Font (Baptistery), 127 
Joe. Sansovino, Baptist on 

Font), 207 
Camello, Stats, of Mad., Baptist, 

and Apostles, 48 

PyrgoteUs, Mad. on Pesaro 
Tomb, 176 
S. Maria Mater Dom., Bregno 

and Dentone, Altar, 33 
S. Maria dei Miracoli [Ext.\ 
Lombardi, The, Decorative 
Sculpture, ill 

PyrgoteUs (?), Mad. in Lunette, 
{Int.), Lombardi, The, Decora- 
tive Carving, III ; The 
Annunciation, S. Francis and 
S. Chiara, 49, 1 1 1 ; Madonna 
and Christ (Sacristy), 1 1 1 

T. Lombardo (?), Last Supper 
Rel. (Sacristy) 

Campagna, 8. Francis and S. 
Chiara, 49 

Ambrogio di Milano, Decora- 
tive Carving, 9 
S. Maria dell' Orto, A. Vit- 
toria, Marble Busts, 230 

De Sanctis, Lupi and Rossi 
Tombs, 209 

Bon, B., Stats, on Fa9ade, 30 
S. Maria della Salute, Bresciano, 
Bronze Candelabra, 33 

Dentone, Pieti, 64 
Seminario, Lombardi, The, Altar 

Vittoria, Bust of Sansovino 

T. Lombardo, Tabernacle 
(Oratory) ; Rel. God the 
Father (Oratory), Annuncia- 
tion (Oratory) 

A. Lombardo, S. Cath. and S. 
Cecilia (Chapel) 

Anon., Rel. of Adoration 

P. Lombardo, Rel. Portraits of 
Gradenigo and Barbo 

Vittoria, Stat, of Rangone and 
Bust of Peranda (Museo), 
Terra-Cotta Busts 



Venice, contintted — 

S. Maria Zobenigo, Vittoria, 

Contarini Tomb, 230 
S. Martino, T. Lombardo, Angels, 

S. MiCHELE, Avib. daMilano, Dec. 

Carving, 9 
MiSERicoRDiA, Campagna, Mad., 

Vittoria, Apostles 
Redentore, Anon., Bust of 

Campagna, Christ, S. Mark, 

and S. Francis (High Altar), 

Mazza, Stats., 128 
S. Salvatore, Vittoria, Busts, 

Dolfino Tomb 
Campagna, Mad., 49 
Jac. Sansovino, Venier Tomb, 

Vittoria, S. Sebastian and S. 

Roch, 229 
Cattaneo, S. Jerome 
S. Sebastiano, Vittoria, Bust of 

Grimani, 230 
Jac. Sansovino, Podocatharo 

Tomb, 207 
Lombardi, The, Mad. 
S. Spirito, Mosca, Stats, of 

Warriors, 137 
S. Stefano, p. Lombardo, Stats. 

of S. Paul and S. Jerome, 

Sammichele, Ferretti Tomb 
Lombardi, The, Saints and 

Apostles, III 
Campagna, Two Statues 

(High Altar) 
P. Lombardo, Relief (Cloister), 

Camello, Stats, of Apostles, 48 
S. Tommaso, Campagna, Stats. 

of S. Peter and S. Thomas, 


S. Trovaso, Anon., Altar Frontal, 

S. Zaccaria (Ext.), Massegne,Rel. 
Mad., S. Mark, and Bapt., 
Vittoria, Stat, of S. Zacharias, 
(Int.), Vittoria, Tomb of the 
Sculptor and Bust, 230 
Accademia, Bernini, Bust of Card. 
Borghese, 25 
Vittoria, Busts of the Duodi, 
Arsenal, Campagna, Stat, of 

Library of S. Mark, Vittoria, 
Caryatides at Portal, 229 
P. Lombardo, Rel. over Door, 
Campo S. ThomX, p. Lombardo, 

S. Mark Rel., 112 
Ducal Palace, Anon., Sculp- 
tured Decoration of Fa9ade 
and Angles, 236 
Bon, B., Porta della Carta, 30 
Rizzo, Adam and Eve (Stair- 
case), 182 
Jac. Sansovino, Mars and 

Neptune (Staircase), 207 
Campagna, Four Statues (Sala 

delle quattro porte), 49 
Aspetti, Chimneypiece (Sala 

deir AnticoUegio), 14 

Campagna, Mercury and 

Hercules on Chimney (Sala 

deir AnticoUegio), 49 

Rizzo (7), Mad. and Doge Lored- 

ano (Museo Archaeolog.),237 

Aspetti, Two Bronze Busts, 14 

Vittoria, Bust of Doge Venier, 

A, Lombardo, Coronation and 

Assumption of Mad. 
Camello, Bronze Rels. of 
Warriors, 48 



71 Lombardoy Portraits of Two 

Pau^zzo Correr, Viitoria, Busts 

(t.-c), 230 
Riccia, Bust of A. Lore<lano,i8l 

PyrgoUUs, Mad. and Saints, 

ScuoLA Di S. Marco, T. Lorn- 

bardo, S. Mark, Rel., 112 
ScuoLA DI S. Rocco, Campagna, 

S. Roch, Bapt., and S. 

ZecCA, Caitanec, Apollo, 52 

Campagna and Arfetti, Giants, 



Church, Robbia, A., Two Mads., 
Annunc, Crucifixion, 183. 


Cath. Piazza, Campagna, Mad., 

Cath. (Ext.), Anon., Sculpture on 
Door, 236 
(Int.), Tomb of S. Agata, 233 
Jac. Sansovtno (?), Tomb of 
S. An astasia. Anon., Altars with 
Statues (R. and L. Aisles), 
238 ; Terra-Cotta Dec. 
(Pellegrini Chapel), 20, 238 ; 
Cavalli Tomb (Choir) 
Cattaneo, Stats, on Fregoso 

Tomb, 52 
Bartolo, Gio. di, Sarego Tomb, 
S. Fkrmo Magg., Bartolo, Gio. di, 
Brenzoni Tomb, 20 
Riccio, Torriani Tomb, 181 
S. Maria Antica (Outside), Bon. 
and Gio. di Campione (?), 
Tombs of the Scaligers, 50 

S. Maria in Organo, Gio. da 
Verona, Pulpit and Candle- 
stick (wood), 99 

S. Pantaleone, Campagna, Head 
of Christ, 49 

S. Zeno, Gulielmus and Nicolas, 

Sculpture on Fafade 

Anon., Bronze Doors, 236 

Pal. del Consiglio, Catiamo, 
Stat, of Fracastoro, 52 
Campagna, Annunciation, 49 


Imperial Museum, Bertoldo, 
Bellerophon Group, 26 
Gian Bologna, Girl Bathing, 

Nessus and Deianira, 29 
Cellini, Salt Cellar, 54 
Dalmata, Busts of Corvinus 

and Isabella of Aragon, 64 
DonaUHo (7), Entombment, 76 
Settignano, Female Busts, 211 
Laurana, Bust of Lady, 107 


S. Francesco, Cosmati, Tombs of 

Clement iv, 61 ; and Hadrian 

V, 61, 23s, 237 
Mad. della Quercia, Robbia, G., 

Lunettes of Door, 186 
Bregno, Tabernacle, 32 
Museo, Robbia, A., Bust of Alma- 

diano, 184 


Cath., Afino, Angels with Candle- 
sticks, 86 ; Tabernacle (Bap- 
tistery), 86 
A. Sansozn'no, Font (Bap- 
tistery), 204 
Robbia, A., Bust ofS. Lino, 184 
S. GiROLAMO, Robbia ScA., Altars, 

S. Lino, Stagi, Maffd Tomb, 214 

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