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and StRIA, with 20 Maps, 48 Plans and a Pan 
lem. Third Edition. 1898. 12 

ORTUGAL, with 7 Maps and 47 Plans. 

901. 16 

with 65 Maps, 14 Plans and 11 Pano, 

Edition. 1903. 
CONVERSATION, in four languages 



(Comp. p xi.) 
Approximate Equivalents. 

Italian. 1 





L j re J Cent. 

Doll. 1 Cts. 

L. 1 S. 




K 1 










l h 































9 3 /< 























































































V/ t 







































































4 * 

























Distances. Italy, like most of the other European states, has adopted 
the French metrical system. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly 
Va ths, of ar. English mile (8 kil. = 5 M). 

The Italian time is ^lat of Central Europe. In official dealings the 
old-fashioned Italian w y cf reckoning the hours from 1 to 24 has again 
bien introduced. Thu.i, alle tredici is 1 p.m., alle venli 8 p.m. 











With 30 Maps and 39 Plans 




All rights reset' ved 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere: 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
"Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 






The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists of 
three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the trav- 
eller with some information regarding the culture and art of 
the people he is about to visit, as well as regarding the nat- 
ural features of the country, to render him as independent as 
possible of the services of guides and valets-de-place, to pro- 
tect him against extortion, and in every way to aid him in 
deriving enjoyment and instruction from his tour in one of 
the most fascinating countries in the world. 

The Handbook is founded on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from correspondents , which he gratefully 
acknowledges , has in many cases proved most serviceable. 

The present volume, corresponding to the sixteenth Ger- 
man edition, has, like its predecessor, been thoroughly revised 
and considerably augmented. Its contents have been divided 
into groups of routes arranged historically and geographically 
(Piedmont, Liguria , Lombardy , Venetia , The Emilia, and 
Tuscany), each group being provided with a prefatory outliue 
of the history of the district. Each section is also prefaced 
with a list of the routes it contains, and may be removed 
from the volume and used separately if desired. 

The introductory article on Art, which has special re- 
ference to Northern Italy and Florence, and the art-historical 
notices prefixed to the descriptions of the larger towns and 
principal picture-galleries are due to the late Professor 
Springer, of Leipzig. In the descriptions of individual pic- 
tures the works of Morelli, Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and Burck- 
hardt have been laid extensively under contribution, and also 
occasionally those of RusJcin and others. _ 


vi » PREFACE. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (eomp. p. ii). The 
Populations given are those of the communal districts 
(comuni) according to the census of 1901; the populations of 
the separate towns and villages (popolazione agglomerata) , 
which are usually considerably lower than the figures in the 
Handbook, have not yet been published. 

Hotels (comp. p. xix). Besides the modern palatial and 
expensive establishments the Handbook also mentions a se- 
lection of modest, old-fashioned inns, which not unfrequently 
afford good accommodation at moderate charges. The asterisks 
indicate those hotels which the Editor has reason to believe 
from his own experience, as well as from information supplied 
by numerous travellers, to be respectable, clean, reasonable, 
and fairly well provided with the comforts and conveniences 
expected in an up-to-date establishment. Houses of a more 
primitive character, when good of their class, are described as 
'fair' or 'very fair'. At the same time the Editor does not doubt 
that comfortable quarters may occasionally be obtained at inns 
which he has not recommended or even mentioned. The 
average charges are stated in accordance with the Editor's 
own experience, or from the bills furnished to him by trav- 
ellers. Although changes frequently take place, and prices 
generally have an upward tendency, the approximate state- 
ment of these items which is thus supplied will at least enable 
the traveller to form an estimate of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commend- 
ation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly ex- 
cluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned 
against persons representing themselves as agents for 
Baedeker's Handbooks. 



Practical Introduction xi 

History of Art xxxi 

Glossary of Technical Terms : . nxiv 

I. Routes to Italy. 


1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis 1 

2. From Brigue over the Simplon to Domodossola 3 

3. From Lucerne to Como (Milan). St. Gotthard Railway. . 4 

4. From Thusis to Colico over the Spliigen 14 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner 16 

6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba 20 

II. Piedmont 23 

7. Turin 25 

8. The Alpine Valleys to the West of Turin 40 

9. From Turin to Ventimiglia via Cuneo and Tend a .... 42 

10. From Cuneo to Bastia (Turin, Savona) 46 

11. From Turin to Genoa 47 

12. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur 51 

13. From Aosta to the Graian Alps 57 

14. From Santhia (Turin) to Biella 60 

15. From Turin to Milan via Novara 61 

III. Liguria 65 

16. Genoa 66 

17. From Genoa to Ventimiglia. Riviera di Ponente .... 85 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 96 

IV. Lombardy 109 

19. Milan. 112 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco 145 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 152 

22. Lake of Como 153 

23. From Menaggio to Lugano and Luino 162 

24. From Milan to Porto Ceresio via Gallarate and Varr se . . 165 

25. From Milan to Laveno via Saronno and Varese 168 

26. From Milan to Arona via Gallarate 169 

27. From Bellinzona to Genoa via Alessandria 170 

28. Lago Maggiore 171 

29. From Domodossola to Novara. Lake of Orta. From Orta 

to Varallo 182 


Route Paee 

30. From Milan to Genoa via Pavia and Voghera 185 

31. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 189 

32. From Milan to Bergamo 193 

33. From Milan to Verona 198 

34. Brescia 199 

35. The Brescian Alps 206 

36. The Lago di Garda 210 

V. Venetia 219 

37. Verona 221 

38. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 235 

39. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 242 

40. Padua 248 

41. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 256 

42. Venice 258 

43. From Venice to Trieste 322 

VI. The Emilia 331 

44. From Turin to Piacenza via Alessandria 333 

45. From Milan to Bologna via. Piacenza and Keggio .... 333 

46. Parma 340 

47. From Parma (Milan) to Sarzana (Spezia. Pisa) .... 346 

48. Modena ' 347 

49. From Padua to Bologna 352 

50. Ferrara 355 

51. Bologna 362 

52. From Bologna to Florence via Pistoja 382 

53. From Bologna to Bavenna 384 

54. From Ravenna (or Bologna) to Florence via Faenza. . . 395 

VII. Tuscany 397 

55. From (Genoa) Leghorn to Florence via Pisa and Empoli 400 

56. Pisa 404 

57. From Pisa to Florence via Lucca and Pistoja 415 

58. Florence 431 

59. Environs of Florence 520 

List of Artists 535 

Index 543 


1. General Map of Northern Italy (1:1,350,000), Western Half: before 

the title-page. 

2. General Map of Northern Italy, Eastern Half: after the Index. 

3. Environs of Lugano (1:150,000): p. 10. 

4. Eastern Environs of Turin (I: 60,200): p. 39. 

5. Graian Alps (1 : 250,000) : p. 50. 

6. Environs of Genoa (1:10(1.000): p. 84. 

p. 14G. 



Environs of Boedighera (1:50,000): p. 94. 

Riviera di Levante from Genoa to Spezia (1: £00,000): p. 96. 

Environs of Rapallo (Recco-CMavari; 1.-1GO.O0O): p. 100. 

Environs of SbSTRi-LEVANTE (1:100,000): p. 102. 

Environs of Spezia (1:100.000): p. 104. 

Environs of the Certosa di Pavia (1 : 86,4C0) : p. 143. 

Railway Map of the Environs of Milan (1:500,000): 

Environs of Como (1:28.000): p. 148. 

Lakes of Como and Lugano (1:250,000): p. 152. 

Lago Maggiore and Lago d'Orta (1:250.000): p. 170. 

Environs of Locarno (1 : 75,000) : p. 172. 

Environs of Pallanza (1 : 65,000) : p. 177. 

Environs of Baveno and Stresa (1:65,000): p. 180. 

Lago di Garda (1:500,000): p. 210. 

Environs of Gardone-Riviera (1:75.000): p. 212. 

Environs of Riva and Arco (1:75,000): p. 216. 

The Lido at Venice (1:12,500): p. 319. 

Environs of Bologna (1:86,400): p. 380. 

Environs of Ravenna (1:86,400): p. 394. 

Environs of Florence (1:55,00U): p. 520. 

Environs of Vallombrosa and Camaldoli (1 : 280,000) : p. 530. 

Key Map of Italy (1:7,000,000): at the end of the Handbook. 


Bergamo . 

Bologna . 

Brescia . . 

Florence . 

Genoa . . . 

Leghorn . 

Lucca . . 

Lugano . . 








Plans of Towns. 

Pa .. 


12. Mantl-a . . 

. . 235 


Reggio (with 

13. Milan . . 

. . 112 

environs) . . 

. 337 

14. MODENA . . 

. . 347 


San Remo . . 

. 90 

15. NoVABA . . 

. . 64 


Treviso . . . 

. 322 

16. Padua. . . 

. . 248 


Turin .... 

. 24 

17. Parma. . . 

. . 340 


Udine .... 

. 325 

18. Pavia . . . 

. . 186 


Venice (with 

19. Piacenza . 

. . 334 

environs) . . 

. 259 

20. Pisa. . . . 

. . 404 


Verona . . . 

. 220 

21. PlSTO.lA . . 

. . 424 


VlCENZA . . . 

. 243 

22. Ravenna . 

. . 384 

Ground Plans. 

Page ! Page 

1. Castello, at Milan ..... 130 j 6. Academy, at Bologna .... 377 

2. Certosa di Pavia 143 , 7, 8. Uffizi Gallery, at Florence 460 

3. Church of St. Mark, at Venice 274 9. Archaeological Museum , at 

4. Doges' Palace, at Venice . . 275 Florence 484, 485 

5. Academy, at Venice 284 


M. = Engl. mile, 
ft. = Engl. foot, 
kil. = kilometre, 
kg. = kilogramme, 
hr. = hour, 
min. = minute. 
Alb. = Albergo (hotel), 
omn. = omnibus. 

B. = breakfast 
D. = dinner. 
A. = attendance. 
L. = light. 

dej. = dejeuner 'a la fourchette\ 
rfmts. = refreshments, 
pens. = pension (i.e. board and lodg 

carr. = carriage. 

N. = north, northwards 

8. = south, etc. (also 

15. = east, etc. 

W. = west, etc. 

, northern, 

fr. = franc (Ital. lira), 
c = centime (Ital. centesimo). 
k. — Krone (Austrian currency). 
h. = Heller (Austrian currency), 
ca. = circa (about). 

R. = room (including 1 
attendance), route. 



comp. = compare. 


The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates the 
year of his death. The number prefixed to the name of a place on a rail- 
way or highroad Indicates its distance in English miles from the starting- 
point of the route or sub-route. The number of feet given after the name 
of a place shows its height above the sea-level. 

Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 

Chronological Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. — March 22. Charles Albert enters 
Milan. Republic proclaimed at Venice. — May 15. Insurrection at 
Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('Re Bomba" 1 ). — May 30. Radetzky 
defeated at Goito; capitulation of Peschiera. — July 25. Radetzky's 
victory at Custozza. — Aug. 6. Radetzky's victory at Milan. — 
Aug. 9. Armistice. — Nov. 25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1819. Feb. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. — March 16. Charles Albert 
terminates the armistice (ten days' campaign). — March 23. Radetzky's 
victory at Novara. — Mar. 24. Charles Albert abdicates ; accession of 
Victor Emmanuel II. — Mar. 26. Armistice. — Mar. 31. Haynau 
conquers Brescia. — April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La- 
marmora. — Apr. 30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. — 
May 15. Subjugation of Sicily. — July 4. Rome capitulates. — 
Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. — Aug. 22. 
Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

1S59. May 20. Battle of Montebello. — June 4. Battle of Magenta. — 
June 24. Battle of Solferino. — Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

186). March 18. Annexation of the Emilia. — Mar. 22. Annexation of 
Tuscany. — Mar. 24. Cession of Savoy and Nice. — May 11. Garibaldi 
lands at Marsala. — May 27. Taking of Palermo. — July 20. Battle 
of Melazzo. — Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. — Oct. 1. Battle of 
the Volturno. — Oct. 21. Plebiscite at Naples. — Dec. 17. Annexa- 
tion of the principalities, Umbria, and the two Sicilies. 

1861. Feb. 13. Gaeta capitulates. — March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes 
the title of King of Italy. — June 6. Death of Cavour. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. — July 5. Cession of Venetia. — July 20. 
Naval battle of Lissa. 

1870. Sept. 20. Occupation of Rome by Italian troops. — Oct. 9. Rome 
declared the capital of Italy. 

1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II.; accession of Humbert I. — 
Feb. 7. Death of Pius IX. — Feb. 20. Election of Leo XIII. 

1900. July 29. Assassination of Humbert I ; accession of Victor Emmanuel III. 



I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period and Plan of Tour xii 

III. Language xiii 

IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage xiv 

V. Public Safety. Beggars xiv 

VI. Gratuities. Guides xv 

VII. Railways. Steamboats xv 

VIII. Cycling xix 

IX. Hotels xix 

X. Restaurants. Cafes. Birrerie xxi 

XI. Sights. Theatres. Shops xxiv 

XII. Post Office. Telegraph xxv 

XIII. Climate. "Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health xx\i 

XIV. History of Art, by Prof. A. Springer xxxi 

'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 

Of all Art yields, and Xature can decree; 

E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 

Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 

More rich than other climes 1 fertility, 

Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 

With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced. 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends, of course, on the 
traveller's resources and habits, but, as a rule, it need not exceed 
that incurred in other much-frequented parts of the continent. The 
average expenditure of a single traveller, apart from railway-fares, 
may be estimated at 15-25 francs per day, or at 10-20 francs when 
a prolonged stay is made at one place ; but persons acquainted with 
the language and babits of the country may easily restrict their ex- 
penses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as members of a 
party effect a considerable saving by sharing the expense of guides, 
carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
tbe whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi, 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 a. (comp. p. ii). In copper (bronzo or rame) there are 
coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi, and in nickel pieces of 20 and 
40 c. In silver there are pieces of 1, 2, and 5 fr., but coins issued 
before 1863 are refused. The gold coins (10, 20, 50, and 100 fr.) 
have disappeared entirely from circulation, their place being taken 
by Biglietti di Stato (treasury-notes) of 5, 10, and 25 fr., and the 
banknotes of the Banca dfltalia. All other banknotes should be 
refused. — All foreign silver and copper coins should also be refused, 

xii SEASON. 

with the exception of the five -franc pieces (scudi) of the Latin 
Monetary League (Italy, France, Switzerland, and Greece), which 
circulate at their face- value. Obsolete and worn coins are frequently 
offered to strangers at shops and inns and even at railway ticket- 
offices. — A piece of 5 c. is called a soldo or palanca, and as the 
lower classes often keep their accounts in soldi, the traveller will 
find it useful to accustom himself to this mode of reckoning {died 
soldi = 50 c, dodici soldi = 60 c, etc.). 

Best Monet fok the Tour. Circular Notes or Letters of Credit, ob- 
tainable at the principal English or American banks, form the proper 
medium for the transport of large sums, and realise the most favourable 
exchange. English and German banknotes also realise their nominal 
value. Sovereigns (26-27 fr.) and the gold coins of the Latin Monetary 
League should be exchanged for notes at a money-changer's, as the 
premium is lost in hotels and shops. 

Exchange. Foreign money is most advantageously changed in the 
larger towns, either at one of the English bankers or at a respectable 
money-changer's (' ■ cambiavaluta' ) . As a rule, those money-changers are 
the most satisfactory who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of 
exchange. The traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of silver and small notes, as it is often difficult to change notes of 
large amount. It is also advisable to carry 1-2 fr. in copper and nickel in 
a separate pocket or pouch. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10Z., are now 
granted by the English Post Office at the following rates: up to 21., Qd.; 
bl., Is.; ll. , 1*. Qd.; 10Z., 2s. These are payable in gold, and payment in 
paper should be firmly declined unless the premium be added. The 
identity of the receiver must be guaranteed by two well-known residents, 
or by an exhibition of the passport. The charge for money-orders granted 
in Italy and payable in England is 40c. per ll. sterling. 

II. Period and Plan of Tour. 
Season. As a general rule, the spring and autumn months are 
the best season for a tour in North Italy, especially April and May 
or September and October. Winter in Lombardy (apart from a few 
favoured spots on the shores of the lakes) and Piedmont is generally 
a much colder season than it is in England, but the Ligurian Riviera 
(Genoa excepted) affords pleasant and sheltered quarters. The 
height of summer can hardly be recommended for travelling. The 
scenery, indeed, is then in perfection, and the long days are hailed 
with satisfaction by the enterprising traveller ; but the fierce rays of 
an Italian sun seldom fail to impair the physical and mental energies. 
Plan. The following short itinerary, beginning and ending at 
Milan, though very far from exhausting the beauties of North Italy, 
includes most of the places usually visited, with the time required 
for a glimpse at each. 

Milan (R. 19), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, p. 143) . . . 2'/2 
To the Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano, and Lago Maggiore (RR. 22, 

23, 28) and on to Turin 3 

Turin (R. 7) 1 

From Turin to Genua (R. ll) Vj 

Genoa (R. 16), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 86) . 2 1 /-; 
NerVi (p. 97), and Rapallo (p. 100) or Sestri Levante (p. 101); R. 18 1"/- 



Via Spezia to Pisa, see R. 18 ; Pisa (R. 56) l»/ a 

Via Lucca and Pistoja to Florence, see R. 57 1 

Florence (R. 58) 5 

From Florence to Bologna (R. 52) 7s 

Bologna (R. 51), with excursion to Ravenna (R. 53) 272 

From Bologna via Ferrara to Padua (R. 49) 1 

[Or to Modena (R. 48) and Parma (R. 46), see R. 45 l'/2 

From Modena via Mantua to Verona (see R. 38) and via Ficewza 

to Padua (see R. 39)] IV2] 

Padua (R. 40), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 42) 4 

From Venice (via Vicenza) to Verona (R. 37), see R. 39 .... 2 
[Excursion to Mantua (p. 235), when the way from Modena to Verona 

via Mantua is not adopted 1] 

Lago di Garda (R. 36) l'/s 

From Desenzano via Brescia (R. 34) and Bergamo to Milan (RR.33, 32) 2 

To those who wish to visit only a part of North Italy (whether 
the eastern or western), the following itineraries may be recom- 
mended : — 

a. Eastern Part, starting from the Brenner Railway. Days 

From Mori to Riva (p. 215), Lago di Garda (R. 36) IV2 

Verona (R. 37) 1 

Excursion to Mantua (p. 2o5) 1 

From Verona via Vicenza (p. 242) to Padua 1 

Padua (R. 40), and thence to Venice 1 

Venice (R. 42) 4 

From Venice via Ferrara (R. 50) to Bologna 1 

Bologna (R. 51) IV2 

Excursion to Ravenna (R. 53) 1 

From Bologna to Modena (R. 48) and Parma (R. 46), see R. 45 . . H/2 

From Parma via Piacenza (p. 3^4) to Milan V2 

Milan (R. 19), and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, p. 143) . . . 2 l / 2 
Lago Maggiore, Lago di Lugano, Lago di Como (RR. 22, 23, 28), and 

from Lecco via Bergamo and Brescia (R. 32) to Verona . . . 472 

Western Part, starting from the St. Gotthard or Spliigen. 


Lago di Como, Lago di Lugano. Lago Maggiore (RR. 22, 23, 28) . 3 

To Turin (R. 15) 1/2 

Turin (R. 7), and thence to Genoa (R. 11) 17 a 

Genoa (R. 16), and excursion to Pegli (Villa Pallavicini, p. 86) . 272 

Excursion to San Remo and Bordigfiera (R. 17) 2 

From Genoa via Voghera and Pavia {Certosa, p. 143) to Milan . . 1 

Milan (R. 19) 2 

III. Language. 

It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian and 
French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such trav- 
ellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay l alla Inglese' by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language ; but 
for those who desire the utmost possible freedom, and dislike being 
imposed upon, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country 
is indispensable. Those who know a little Italian , and who take 
the usual precaution of ascertaining charges beforehand (con- 


trattare , 'bargain) in the smaller hotels , in dealings with drivers, 
gondoliers, guides, etc., and in shops, will rarely meet with attempts 
at extortion in Northern Italy. f 

IV. Passports. Custom House. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not he delivered to strangers, 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. The count- 
enance and help of the English and American consuls can, of course / 
be extended to those persons only who can prove their nationality. 
The Italian police authorities are generally civil and ohliging. 

Foreign Office passports may be obtained through C. Smith & Son, 
63 Charing Cross, Buss, 440 West Strand, W. J. Adams, 59 Fleet Street, 
or the usual tourist agents (Cook, Gaze, etc.); charge 25.; agent's fee 1*. 6d. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
frontier railway-stations is generally lenient, hut complaints are 
sometimes made as to a deficiency of official courtesy at diligence 
and steamer stations. Tobacco and cigars (only six pass free), playing 
cards, and matches are the articles chiefly sought for. A duty of 
30 c. per kilogramme (2^ lbs.) is levied on unexposed photograph 
plates. The custom-house receipts should he preserved, as travellers 
are sometimes challenged by the excise officials in the interior. At 
the gates of most of the Italian towns a tax (dazio consumo) is levied 
on comestibles, but travellers' luggage is passed at the barriers (limite 
daziario) on a simple declaration that it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods-train , as it is liable to damage , pilferage , and undue 
custom-house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in 
this way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and 
send him the keys. As a rule it is advisable, and often in the end 
less expensive , never to part from one's luggage , and to super- 
intend the custom-house examination in person (comp. p. xviii). 

V. Public Safety. Beggars. 
Public Safety in Northern Italy is on as stable a footing as to the 
N. of the Alps. Travellers will naturally avoid lonely quarters 
after night-fall, just as they would at home. The policeman in the 
town is called Guardia; the gendarme in the country, Carabiniere 
(black coat with red facings and cocked hat). No one may carry 
weapons without a licence, on pain of imprisonment. Armi in- 

+ A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons un- 
acquainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard. £c before t 
or i is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
H is silent. The vowels a, «, I, o, u are pronounced ah, a, ee, o, oo. — In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Lei 1 , with the 3rd pers. sing., 
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 
3rd pers. pi). 'Vor is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc. 


sidiose, i.e. concealed weapons (sword-sticks; even knives with 
spring-blades, etc.), are absolutely prohibited. 

Begging (accattonaggio), always one of those national nuisances 
to which the traveller in Italy must accustom himself, has recently 
somewhat increased, especially in Tuscany, owing partly to growing 
poverty, but largely also to the misplaoed generosity of travellers. 
As the profits of street- beggars too frequently go for the support of 
able-bodied loafers, travellers should either give nothing, or restrict 
their charity to the obviously infirm. Gratuities to children are 
entirely reprehensible. — Importunate beggars should be dismissed 
with 'niente' or by a gesture of negation. 

VI. Gratuities. Guides. 

Gratuities. — The traveller should always be abundantly 
supplied with copper and nickel coin in a country where trifling 
donations are in constant demand. Drivers, guides, and other per- 
sons of the same class invariably expect, and often demand as their 
right, a gratuity (buona mano , mancia, da bere, bottiglia, caffe, 
sigaro) in addition to the hire agreed on, varying according to circum- 
stances from 2-3 sous to a franc or more. The traveller need have 
no scruple in limiting his donations to the smallest possible sums. 
The following hints will be found useful by the average tourist. In 
private collections 1-2 visitors should bestow a gratuity of ^-l fr., 
3-4 pers. I-IV2 fr - ^ or repeated visits 25 c. is enough for a single 
visitor. For opening a church-door, etc., 10-20 c. is enough, but if 
extra services are. rendered (e.g. uncovering an altar-piece, lighting 
candles, etc.) from 1/4 to 1 fr. may be given. The Custodi of all 
public collections where an admission-fee is charged are forbidden 
to accept gratuities. — In hotels and restaurants about 5-10 per 
cent of the reckoning should be given in gratuities, or less if service 
is charged for. 

Valets de Place (Guide, sing, la Ouida) may be hired at 6-10 fr. 
per day. The most trustworthy are those attached to the chief 
hotels. In some towns the better guides have formed societies as 
'Guide patentate' or 'Guide autorizzate'. Their services may generally 
well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed for time. Pur- 
chases should never be made, nor contracts with vetturini or other 
persons drawn up, in presence or with the aid of a commissionnaire, 
as any such intervention tends considerably to increase the prices. 

VII. Railways. Steamboats. 
Railways. — For visitors to Northern Italy the most important 
railways are the Rete Mediterranean the Rete Adriaticd , and the 
Ferrovie Nord Milano, the last affording quick and convenient access 
to the Lake of Como and the Lago Maggiore, though it is not in- 
cluded in the system of circular tours in Italy. The rate of travelling 


is very moderate, rarely reaching 30 M. per hour. The first-class 
carriages are comfortahle, the second resemble the English and French, 
while the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower orders. 

Among the expressions with which the railway-traveller will soon 
become familiar are — '■pronli' (ready), i partenza" (departure), 'si cambia 
trench (change carriages), 'mere in coincidenza" (to make connection), and 
'•uscita' (egress). The station-master is called ^eapostazione 1 ; the guard, con- 
duttore. Smoking compartments are labelled ''pei fumatori\ those for non- 
smokers '■vietato di fumare\ The international trains de luxe are generally 
available for long-distance travellers only. The mail trains are called. 
Treni Direttissimi (Lst and 2nd class only 5 sometimes with dining and sleep- 
ing cars) and the ordinary expresses Treni Direlti. The Treni Accelerati are 
somewhat faster than the Treni Omnibus. The Treni Misti are composed 
partly of passenger- carriages and partly of goods-waggons. The fares of 
the Uete Adriatica and Rete Mediterranea are (for the three classes) 12.75, 
8.93, and 5.80 c. per kilometre by the express-trains, and 11.60, 8.12, and 
5.22 c. by the slow trains. In addition to this there is a government tax 
of 3 per cent, on all fares above 90 c. (included in the fares given in the 
railway time-tables), and there is also a stamp-duty of 5 c. on each ticket. 

The best Time Table is the Orario Ufficiale delle Strade Ferrate, 
delle Tramvie, della Navigazione e delle Messaggerie postali del Regno, 
published by the Fratelli Pozzo at Turin (price 1 fr.). Smaller 
editions are issued at 80 c, 50 c, and 20 c. 

Tickets. At the larger towns it is better, when possible, to take 
the tickets at the town-agencies of the railway. When tickets are 
taken at the station, the traveller will find it convenient to have as 
nearly as possible the exact fare ready in his hand. 'Mistakes' are 
sometimes made by the ticket-clerks. It is also important to be at 
the station early. The ticket-office at large stations is open 40 min., 
at small stations 20 min. before the departure of the train. Ticket- 
holders alone have the right of admission to the waiting-rooms. At 
the end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscita. — Holders 
of tickets for distances over 124 M. may break the journey once, 
those with tickets for over 310 M. twice ; but the ticket must be 
shown to the capostazione on leaving the train, and again presented 
at the ticket-office to be stamped before the journey is resumed. 

Return Tickets (Biglietti di andata-ritomo) for distances up to 
100 kilometres (62 M.) are valid for one day only, up to 200 kil. 
for 2 days, up to 300 kil. for 3 days, and beyond 300 kil. for 4 days. 
But those issued on Saturdays and the eves of festivals are avail- 
able for three, those issued on Sundays and festivals for two days 
at least. These tickets do not allow the journey to be broken. 

Circular Tour Tickets are of two kinds : for routes fixed by 
the railway company (biglietti circolari combinati) and for routes 
arranged to meet the wishes of particular travellers (biglietti circolari 
combinabili). Full details as to these are given in the larger edition 
of the Orario Ufficiale (see above). Tickets of the latter kind are 
not issued for distances below 400 kil. (248 M.); tickets for 800 kil. 
permit the return-journey by the same route as the outward journey, 
but holders of tickets for less than 800 kil. are not permitted to 


traverse more than one-fourth of the total distance twice. These 
tickets are valid for 15 days (under 800 kil.), 30 days (under 
2000 kil.), or 45 days. They are issued at the principal Italian 
stations six hours after application is made. The desired route, the 
class, and the station at which the journey is to "begin should he 
carefully specified. The period for which the ticket is valid may 
he extended (prcrogare) on payment of a small percentage ; the same 
holds good for the 30 days return-tickets to the Riviera. — Tickets 
of both the ahove-mentioned kinds and full information may be 
procured in London (at the principal stations of the southern rail- 
ways j from Messrs. Cook & Son, Ludgate Circus, Messrs. Gaze & 
Sons, 53 Queen Victoria Street, etc.), in Paris, and at the chief 
towns of Germany and Switzerland. If the tickets are bought in 
Italy, with paper money, the traveller has a small advantage owing 
to the premium on gold. Those with whom economy is an object 
may also save a good deal by taking return-tickets to the Swiss 
frontier, travelling third class in Switzerland, and then taking 
circular-tour tickets in Italy. 

These tickets have to he signed by the traveller and require to be 
stamped at each fresh starting-point with the name of the next station 
at which the traveller intends to halt. This may be done either at the 
city-office or at the railway -station (usually at a special ticket -office, 
labelled 'viaggi circolari'), If the traveller makes up his mind en route 
to alight before or beyond the station for which his ticket has been stamped, 
he must at once apply to the capostazione of the station where he leaves 
the train for recognition of the break in the journey ( i accertare il cam- 
oiamento di destinazione'' ) . When the traveller quits the prescribed route, 
intending to rejoin it at a point farther on, he has also to procure an 
i annotazione'' at the station where he alights, enabling him to resume his 
circular tour after his digression ('■vale per riprendere alia slazione . . . il 
viaggio interrotto a . . .'). If this ceremony be neglected the holder of the 
ticket is required to pay full fare for the omitted portion of the route for 
which the ticket is issued. 

General Tickets. The so-called Biglietti diAbboriamento Speciale 
or General Season Tickets, resembling the Swiss 'General-Abonne- 
ments', entitle the holder to travel at will during a given time ovex 
the railways in any one of seven districts into which Italy is divided 
for the purpose (two in N. Italy, two in Central Italy, two in S. 
Italy, and Sicily). The two districts in N. Italy are separated by the 
line Chiasso-Milan-Rologna-Rimini, which is considered to belong 
to the E. section ( 'Chiasso-Milan included in both). The steamboat 
lines of LagoMaggiore belong to theW. section ( Rete Mediterranea), 
those of the Lago di Garda to the E. section (Rete Adriatica), and 
those of the Lake of Como to both. A fortnightly ticket of this kind 
costs 95, 65, or 40 fr. (1st, 2nd, and 3rd class), a monthly ticket 
160, 110, 65 fr., a quarterly ticket 410, 280, 165 fr. The price of 
the fortnightly ticket is nearly as high as that of the 'combined 
ticket', valid for a month, of any of the most extensive circular tours 
in the same district; but on the other hand the holder is spared the 
necessity of having it stamped at each break of the journey. The 
Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. b • 

xviii STEAMERS. 

general season tickets are issued only at some of the principal 
stations (sucli as Florence, Milan, Turin, Bologna, Genoa, tisa, and 
Leghorn), but a form of application may be obtained at any station. 
The applicant must pay 1 fr. when ordering the ticket and at the 
same time furnish an unmounted photograph of himself. The ticket 
is issued at the chief stations 2 hrs., at the smaller stations about 
24 hrs. after the application. 

Luggage. No luggage is allowed free , except small articles 
taken by the passenger into his carriage ; the rate of charge is 4*/2 c 
for 100 kilogrammes per kilometre. Travellers who can confine their 
impedimenta to articles which they can carry themselves and take into 
the carriages with them will be spared much expense and annoyance. 
Those who intend to make only a short stay at a place, especially 
when the town or village lies at some distance from the railway, 
had better leave their heavier luggage at the station till their return 
{dare in deposito , or depositare ; 5 c. per day for each piece, min- 
imum 10 c.) or forward it to the final destination. At small stations 
the traveller should at once look after his luggage in person. — The 
luggage-ticket is called lo scontrino. Porters (facchini) who convey 
luggage to and from the carriage are entitled to 5-20 c. per package 
by tariff; and attempts at extortion should be firmly resisted. 

As several robberies of passengers 1 luggage bave been perpetrated in 
Italy without detection, it is as well that articles of great value should 
not be entrusted to the safe-keeping of any trunk or portmanteau, however 
strong and secure it may seem (comp. p. xiv). — Damaged trunks may be 
secured by leaden seals (piombare) for 5 c. each package. 

The enormous weight of the large trunks used by some travellers not 
infrequently causes serious injury to the porters who have to handle them. 
Heavy articles should therefore always be placed in the smaller packages. 

Italian Railway Restaurants , especially those at frontier-stations, 
leave much to be desired. Ltincheon-baskets (3-4 fr.) may be obtained 
at some of the larger stations. 

Passengers by night-trains from the larger stations may hire pillows 
(cuscino, guanciale; 1 fr., for abroad 2 fr.). These must not be removed 
from the compartment. 

• Steamers. The time-tables of the steamer-routes are given in 
the larger railway-guide mentioned at p. xvi; but changes are so 
frequent that enquiries on the spot are always advisable. 

On the Italian Lakes the tickets are usually issued on board 
the steamer. Passengers embarking at intermediate stations receive 
checks which they show on purchasing their tickets. There is no 
extra charge for embarking or disembarking at small-boat stations. 
The railways issue tickets including the lake-journey. Return- 
tickets do not usually permit of the journey being broken. On 
Sundays in summer the boats are frequently crowded by excur- 
sionists. — The steamers occasionally leave the smaller stations as 
much as 10 min. in advance of the scheduled times, but they are 
much more frequently late. 

In the proper season a steamer trip on the Mediterranean, especially 
between Genoa, Spezia, and Leghorn, or on the Adriatic, between Venice 
and Trieste, is a very charming experience. Tickets should be taken in 


person at the steamboat-agencies. Ladies should travel first-class, but 
gentlemen of modest requirements will find the second cabin very fair. 
The steward expects a gratuity of about 1 fr. per day, or more if the trav- 
eller has given him extra trouble. — The inadequate arrangements for 
embarking and disembarking give great annoyance. The tariff is usually 
l-lV2fr. for each person, including luggage; but the passengers are generally 
left at the mercy of the boatmen, who often make extortionate demands. 
The traveller should not enter the boat until a clear bargain has been 
made for the transport of himself and his impedimenta, and should not 
pay until everything has been deposited on deck or on shore. Small articles 
of luggage should be kept in one's own hands. 

VIII. Cycling. 

The environs of Milan, Turin, Verona, and Bologna, the neigh- 
bourhood of the Italian Lakes, and the Riviera all offer many attrac- 
tions for the cyclist. The roads are good on the whole, though often 
very dusty in summer (especially in the N. Italian plain) and 
correspondingly muddy in wet weather. — English riders should 
remember that the rule of the road in Italy is the reverse of that 
in England: keep to the right on meeting, to the left in overtaking 
another vehicle. 

The unattached cyclist on entering Italy with his wheel must 
deposit 42 fr. 60 c. with the custom-house authorities, which sum 
is returned to him (though sometimes not without difficulties), when 
he quits the country. Members of well-known cyclist associations, 
such as the Cyclists 1 Touring Club (London; 47 Victoria St., S.W.) 
or the Touring Club tie France (Paris ; 10 Place de la Bourse), are, 
however, spared this formality, on conditions explained in the 
handbooks of these clubs. A certificate of re-exportation (cerlificalo 
di scarico) should always be obtained, as otherwise the club of 
which the cyclist is a member, may be called upon subsequently to 
pay the duty as above. 

On the railways cycles are treated as ordinary passengers' lug- 
gage (p. xviii). Valises should not be left strapped to cycles when 
sent by rail, owing to the risk of theft (p. xviii). 

Members of the Touring Club Italiano (Milan, Via Giulini 2; entrance 
fee 2 fr., annual subscription 5 fr.) command advantageous terms at nu- 
merous hotels, besides having access to the special information and maps 
of the club. One of its best guides is L. V. BertarelWs Guida Itinerario 
delle Strade di grande Comunicazione dell 1 Italia (3rd ed. ; Milan, 1900), 
with numerous maps and plans. 

IX. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
all the principal resorts of travellers in Northern Italy, mostofthem 
having fixed charges: room 3-10 fr. for each person, light 75 c. to 
1^2 fr-) attendance (exclusive of the 'facchino' and portier) 1 fr., 
luncheon (colazione, dejeuner) 3-4 fr., dinner (prdnzo, diner) 4-6 fr. 
The charge for dinner does not include wine, which is usually dear and 
often poor. For a prolonged stay an agreement may generally be made 
with the landlord for pension at a more moderate rate. Visitors are 



expected to dine at the table-d'hote ; otherwise the charge for rooms 
is apt to he raised. The charges for meals furnished in private rooms 
or at unusual times are much higher. Other 'extras' are also dear. 
The cuisine is a mixture of French and Italian. During the season 
and at the more frequented resorts it is advisahle to engage rooms 
in advance, especially if arriving in the evening. It is advisahle to 
prepay the answer, to prevent disappointment on arrival. Gentlemen 
travelling alone may leave their luggage at the station until rooms 
have heen secured. The charge for the use of the hotel-omnihus 
from the station to the hotel is so high (1-1 ^ fr- each), that it is 
often cheaper to take a cah. It is also easier for those who use a cab to 
proceed to another hotel, should they not like the rooms offered them. 

The Second Class Hotels (Alberghi; in the S. districts, also Lo- 
cande) are less comfortable and thoroughly Italian in their arrange- 
ments. The charges are little more than one-half of the above : room 
1-3, attendance ^ omnibus ^"l. fr. They have no table-d'hote, but 
there is generally a trattoria connected with the house, where refresh- 
ments a la carte, or a dinner a prezzo fisso, may be procured. Fair 
native wines, usually on draught, are furnished in these houses at 
moderate prices. Morning coffee is usually taken at a cafe and not 
at the inn. It is customary to make enquiries beforehand as to the 
charges for rooms, not forgetting the servizio e candela; and the 
price of the dinner (if not a la carte) should also be agreed upon 
(2-4 fr., with wine 2i/ 2 -4V2 fr 0- These inns will often be found 
convenient and economical by the voyageur en garQon, and the better 
houses of this class may even be visited by ladies, when at home in 
Italian ; the new-comer should frequent hotels of the first class only. 

Hotels Garnis are to be found in most of the larger towns, 
with charges for rooms similar to those in the second-class hotels. 

As matches are rarely found in hotels, the guest should provide himself 
with a supply of the wax-matches (cerini) sold in the streets (1-2 boxes 
10-15 c). Soap is also a high-priced 'extra 1 . 

Money or objects of value should either be carried on the traveller's 
person or left with the landlord in exchange for a receipt. 

The Pensions of the larger towns and resorts also receive passing 
travellers. The charge is about the same as that of the second-class 
inns and usually includes table-wine. As, however, the price of 
dejeuner is usually (though not universally) included in the fixed 
daily charge, the traveller has either to sacrifice some of the best hours 
for visiting the galleries or to pay for a meal he does not consume. 

For a prolonged stay in one place families will find it much 
cheaper to hire Private Apartments and do their own housekeep- 
ing. A rent lower than that first asked for is often accepted. When 
a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written contract on stamped 
paper should be drawn up with the aid of someone acquainted 
with the language and customs of the place (e.g. a banker), in order 
that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. A payment of part of 


the rent in advance is a customary stipulation; but such payments 
should never be made until after the landlord has redeemed all his 
undertakings with regard to repairs, furnishing, etc. For single 
travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, linen, stoves 
and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal, and other details will 
generally suffice. Comp. p. xxx. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age; but 
the traveller in the N. part of the country will rarely suffer from this 
short-coming even in hotels of the second class, though those who 
quit the beaten track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads 
should if possible be selected, as they are less likely to harbour the 
enemies of repose. Insect-powder (polvere insetticida or contro gli 
insetti) or camphor somewhat repels their advances. 

The zanzare, or mosquitoes, are a source of great annoyance, and often 
of suffering, during summer and autumn and, on the Riviera, even in 
winter. Only a few parts of X. Italy (e.g. Piedmont, the "W. lakes, and 
Bologna) are free from this pesf, which is always worst in the neigh- 
bourhood of plantations, canals, or ponds. Between June and October the 
night should never he spent in malarial districts (Colico, Mortara, Pavia. 
Mantua, Ferrara, Ravenna), where the female of the Anopheles Claviger 
frequently conveys the infection of malarial fever with its sting. Small 
doses of quinine may be used as a prophylactic. Windows should always 
be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin 
curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves are 
employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious intruders. The 
burning of pastilles (fldibus contro le zanzare; in Venice, chiodi), which may 
be purchased of the principal chemists, is efficacious, but is accompanied 
by a scarcely agreeable odour. A weak solution of carbolic acid in water 
is efficacious in allaying the discomforts occasioned by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman: Shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camicia (di tela, di cotone, di lana) ; night-shirt, 
la camicia da notte; collar, il solino, il colletto; cuff, il polsino ; drawers, 
le mutande; woollen under-shirt, una flan ell a or giubba di flan ell a or magUa; 
petticoat, la soitana; stocking, la calza; sock, la calzetta; handkerchief 
(silk), il fazoletto (di seta). To give out to wash, dare a bucato (di bucato, 
newly washed); washing list, la nola; washerwoman, laundress, la stira- 
trice, la lavandaja; buttons, i bottoni. 

X. Restaurants. Cafes. Birrerie. 
Restaurants (Ristoranti, TraltorieJ&Te frequented between 11 a.m. 
and 2p.m. for luncheon (collazione) and between 6 and 8 p.m. for 
dinner (pranzo). Meals are usually served alia carta at moderate 
prices; meals a prezzo fisso (2-5 fr.) are not customary except in a 
few restaurants largely frequented by foreigners and are, in genera], 
not recommended. When there is no bill of fare the waiter (eameriere) 
will recite the list of dishes. If too importunate in his recom- 
mendations or suggestions he may be checked with the word l basta\ 
The diner calls for his bill fwhich should be carefully scrutinized) 
with the words l il conto\ The waiter expects a gratuity of about 
5 c. for each franc of the bill (comp. p. xv). — Residents for some 
time in a town should arrange to pay a fortnightly or monthly sub- 
scription ('■pensione' 1 ) at a lower rate. 


List of th< 

ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants. 

Antipatti, relishes taken as whets 
(such as sardines, olives, or rad- 

Minestra or Zuppa, soup. 

Brodo or Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 
vegetables and bread. 

Minestra di riso con piselli, rice-soup 
with peas. 

Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 
pudding (rich). 

Paste asciutte, maccaroni, al tugo e 
al burro, with sauce and butter; 
ai pomi oVoro, with tomatoes. 

Saldme, sausage (usually with garlic, 

Polio, fowl. 

Antlra, duck. 

Polio cVIndia, or dindo, turkey. 

Stvfatino, Cibreo, ragout (often med- 

Crocchetti, croquettes of rice or po- 

Polpettine, small meat-dumplings. 

Gnocchi, small dumplings of dough. 

Pasticcio, pate, patty. 

Contorno , Guarnizione , garnishing, 
vegetables, usually not charged for. 

Carrie lessa, bollita, boiled meat; in 
umido, alia genovese, with sauce; 
ben cotto , well-done; al tangue, 
air inglese, underdone; ai ferri, 
cooked on the gridiron. 

Manzo, boiled beef. 

Fritto, una Frittura, fried meat. 

Fritto misto, a mixture of fried liver, 
brains, artichokes, etc. 

Arrosto, roasted meat. 

Arrosto di vitello, roast-veal. 

Bistecca, beefsteak(usually mediocre). 

Majale, pork (eaten in winter only). 

Montone, mutton. 

Agnello, lamb. 

Capretlo, kid. 

Testa di vitello, calfs head. 

Figato di vitello, calfs liver. 

Braciola di vitello, veal-cutlet. 

Rognoni, kidneys. 

Gostoleila alia Milanese, veal- cutlet 
baked in dough. 

Esgaloppe, veal-cutlet with bread- 

Patate, potatoes. 

Pesce, fish. 

Soglia, a kind of sole. 

Aragosta, lobster. 

Ostriche^ oysters (good in winter only ; 

comp. p. 260). 
Frutta di mare, mussels, shell-fish, etc. 
Funghi, mushrooms. 
Presciutto, ham. 
Uova, eggs ; a la coque, boiled (ben cotle, 

soft-boiled, dure, hard-boiled); al 

piatto, poached. 
Polenta, boiled maize. 
Insalata, salad. 
Carciofi, artichokes. 
Aspdragi, asparagus (expensive). 
Spinaci, spinach (mediocre). 
Piselli, peas. 
Lenticchie, lentils. 

Broccoli, or Gavoli fiori, cauliflower. 
Gobbi, Cardi, artichoke stalks (with 

Zucchino, marrow, squash. 
Fare, beans. 

Fagiolini, Cornetti, French beans. 
Mostarda francese, sweet mustard 

(mixed with vinegar). 
Mostarda inglese or Senape, hot 

Sale, salt. 
Pepe, pepper. 
Dolce, sweet dish. 
Budino (in Florence), pudding. 
Frittata, omelette. 
Frutta, Giardinetto di frutta, fruit- 
desert ; frutta secche, nuts, raisins, 

almonds, etc. 
Grostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Pera, pear. 
Mela, apple. 

Pirsiche, Pesehe, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Fichi, figs. 
Nispole, medlars. 
Nod, nuts. 
Limone, lemon. 
Arancio, orange. 
Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

(the Italian is made without). 
Burro, butter. 
Formaggio, cheese (Gorgonzola, verda 

or bianco, and Stracchino). 

Wine (jvino dapasto. tahle-wine; nero, red; bianco, white; dolce, 
pastoso, amabile, sweet; secco, dry; del paese, nostrano, wine of the 
country) is usually served in open bottles one-half, one fourth, or 
one fifth of a litre (un mezzo litro; un quarto ; un quinto or bicchiere). 
Wines of a better quality are sold in ordinary quarts and pints. 

CAFES. xxiii 

In the North of Italy the following are the best wines: the care- 
fully manufactured Piedmontese brands, Barolo, Nebiolo, Barbera, and 
Grignolino (an agreeable table-wine), and the sparkling Asti spumanle; the 
Valtellina wines (best Sassella)\ the Veronese Valpolicella, an effervescent 
red wine; the Vincentine Marzemino and Breganze (a wbite sweet wine)-, 
the Paduan Bagnoli; in the province of Treviso, Conegliano, Raboso di Piave, 
Prosecco, and Verdiso; in Udine. Refosco ; the wine of Bologna, partly from 
French vineyards; Lambrusco. etc. 

In Ligckia tbe local wines of the Veil Polcevera (best Coronata) and the 
Cinque Terre share the popularity of the Piedmontese and Tuscan vintages. 

In Tuscany the best wines (almost all red) are: Chianti (best Broglid), 
Rufina (best Pomino). Nipozzano, Altomena, and Carmignano, and Aleatieo 
(sweet). Orvieto and Afontepulciano are produced farther to the south. — 
In Tuscany the ordinary table-wine, which is met which all over X. Italy 
under the name 'Cbianti', is generally served in a 'fiasco', or straw-covered 
ilask holding three ordinary bottles, but only the quantity consumed is paid 
for. Smaller bottles may be obtained: mezzo fiasco (*/i), quarto fiasco Q/i), 
fiaschetto or ottavino (}/$). 

Like the trattorie with i Cucina alia casalinga' ('homely fare'), 
the Ostehie, or ordinary wine-shops, are almost exclusively fre- 
quented by the lower ranks. The prices are often inseribed on the 
outside of the shop ('6', '7', '8', meaning that half a litre costs 6, 
7, or 8 soldi). Some of the better wine-rooms (Fiaschetterie) selling 
Tuscan wines provide also very tolerable meals. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon, and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices, coffee, beer, vermouth (usu- 
ally with Seltzer water), etc. The tobacco smoke is often very dense. 

Cafft nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (15-25 c. per cup). 
Caffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before served ( 25-50 c; 'cappuccino', 
or small cup, cheaper). Cbocolate (cioccolata) costs 55-50 c. Poll (pane) 5, 
with butter (pane al burro) 20 c. Cakes or biscuits (paste) 5-15 c. 

Ices (gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the cafes at 
59-90 c. per portion; or half a portion (mezza) may be ordered. Sorbetto, 
or half-frozen ice, is much in vogue in the forenoon. Granita is water- 
ice (limonata, lemon; aranciata, orange; di caffe, coffee). Ghiacciate and 
spremuto, lemonade flavoured with fruit syrup, may be rcommended to 
ladies. Gassosa, aerated lemonade, is also frequently ordered. The waiters 
expect a sou or more, according to the amount of the payment. 

The principal Parisian and Viennese newspapers (giornali) are to be 
found at all the larger cafes, English less often. Italian papers (5-10 c.) 
are everywhere offered by newsvendors. The Corriera delta Sera (p. 114) 
gives most of the foreign despatches. 

Birrerie, corresponding to the French 'Brasseries', are now found 
in all the larger towns and chief resorts of visitors. Munich, Pilsen, 
or Gratz beer may generally be procured at these. A small glass 
(piccola tazza) costs 30-40 c, a large glass (generally holding un 
mezzo litro) 50-60 c. Luncheon may usually be obtained at these. 

Cigars (Sigari) in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and 
usually bad: Conchas and Trabuco?. 20 c, Minghettis, 15 c, Grimaldis, 
10 c, Virginias, 7 4 /2, 12, or 15 c, Toscani, Napoletani, Cavours, 
7 l /-2-10 c, etc Good imported cigars may be bought at the better 
shops in the large towns for 25-60 c each, and also foreign cigarettes. 
— Travellers who import their own cigars, paying the heavy duty, 
should keep the customs receipt, as they are liable to be challenged. 


e.g. by the octroi officials (p. xiv). — Passers by are at liberty to 
avail themselves of the light burning in every tobacconist's, without 
making any purchase. 

XI. Sights. Theatres. Shops. 

The larger Churches are open in the morning till 12, and generally 
again from 2, 3, or 4 to 7 p.m., while the most important are often 
open the whole day. Many of the smaller churches are open only 
till 8 or 9 a.m. Visitors may inspect the works of art even during 
divine service , provided they move about noiselessly , and keep 
aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the occasion 
of festivals and for a week or two before Easter the works of art 
are often entirely concealed by the temporary decorations. Those 
always covered are shown by the verger (sagrestano), who expects 
30-50 c. from a single traveller, more from a party (p. xv). 

Museums, picture-galleries, etc., are usually open from 9 or 10 
to 4 o'clock. All the collections which belong to government are 
open free on Sun. and holidays, but on week-days a charge is usually 
made. Gratuities are forbidden. The collections are closed on the 
following public holidays: New Year's Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), 
Easter Sunday, Ascension Day (Ascensione), Whitsunday, Fete 
de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa dello Statuto (first Sunday in 
June), Assumption of the Virgin (Assunzione; 15th Aug.), Nativity 
of the Virgin (8th Sept.), Festival of the Annunciation (25th Mar.), 
All Saints' Day (1st Nov.), and Christmas Day; also the birthdays 
of the king (11th Nov.) and queen (8th Jan.). The arrangements. 
however, vary in different places. For Florence, see p. 436. 

Artists, archaeologists, and scholars, on making application to the 
Ministry of Education on a stamped form (1 fr. 20c), receive free tickets 
(tessera di libero ingresso), valid all over the country. For a single town 
the application is made to the Director of the Gallery (stamp 60 c). The 
application must be accompanied by an unmounted photograph and by a 
certificate from a university or some similar body, countersigned by an 
Italian consul in the applicant's country. 

Theatres. Performances begin at 8, 8.30, or 9, and terminate at mid- 
night or later. In the large theatres, in which the season (stagione) 
frequently lasts only from St. Stephen's Day (Dec. 26th) to the end 
of the Carnival, operas and ballets are exclusively performed. The 
first act of an opera is usually succeeded by a ballet of three acts 
or more. The pit (platea), to which the 'biglietto d/ingresco' gives 
access, has standing-room only; for seats additional tickets must 
be taken (usually in advance in the larger towns). A box (palco di 
primo, secondo, terzo ordine), which must always be secured in ad- 
vance, is the pleasantest place for ladies or for a party of several 
persons. Evening dress is generally worn in the boxes. Other re- 
served seats are the pollrone (front stalls) and the posti distinti or sedie 
(rear stalls). In some of the larger theatres good seats may be ob- 
tained in the anfiteatro or prima galleria. The theatre is the usual 


evening-resort of the Italians, who seldom observe strict silence 
during the performance of the orchestra. The intervals between the 
acts are usually very long. Cloak-rooms are found only in a few of 
the best theatres. Gentlemen usually wear their hats until the 
curtain rises. 

Shops. Fixed prices have of late become much more general 
in N. Italy, but a reduction may usually be obtained on purchases 
of large amount. The traveller's demeanour should be polite but 
decided. Purchases should never be made in presence of a valet- 
de-place or through the agency of a hotel-employee. These indivi- 
duals, by tacit agreement, receive a commission on the purchase- 
money, which of course comes out of the purchaser's pocket. On the 
other hand, the presence of an Italian friend is a distinct advantage. 

An active trade is driven in spurious antiquities, especially in Venice 
and Florence. Ancient works of art should never be purchased without 
a written guarantee of their authenticity. The 'lucky discoveries' offered 
by the smaller dealers are usually nothing but traps for the unwary. 

Some caution is necessary in buying articles to be sent home. The 
full amount should never be paid until the package has arrived and its 
contents have been examined. If the shopkeeper does not agree to a written 
agreement as to the method of packing, ihe means of transport, and com- 
pensation for breakages, it is advisable to cut the transaction short. The 
transmission of large objects should be entrusted to a goods-agent. 

XII. Post Office. Telegraph. 

In the larger towns the Post Office is open daily from 8a.m. to 
8 or 9.30 p.m. (also on Sundays and holidays); in smaller places 
it is generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Letters (whether 'poste restante\ Italian i ferma in post a , or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. The surname (cognome ; 
Christian name, nome) should be underlined. When asking for let- 
ters the traveller, should show his visiting-card instead of pronounc- 
ing his name. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at the post- 
offices and tobacco-shops. The mail-boxe3 (buca or cassetta) are lab- 
elled 'per le lettere', for letters, and l per le stampe\ for printed matter. 

Lettkbs of 15 grammes (>/« oz., about the weight of three sous) by 
town-post 5c, to the rest of Italy 20 c, abroad (per lestero) 25 c The 
penalty (segnatatsa) for insufficiently prepaid letters is double Ihe defi- 
ciency. — Post Cards (cartolina postale) for town-post 5 c, for the rest 
of Italy and abroad 10 c, reply-cards (con ritposta pagata), inland 15 c, 
abroad 20 c — Lettee Cards (biglietlo postale) for town-post 5 c, for the 
rest of Italy 20 c, for abroad 25 c — Book Packets (stampe sotto fascia), 
2 c. per 50 grammes, for abroad 5 c. — Registration Fee (raccomanda- 
zione) for letters for the same town and printed matter 10 c, otherwise 
25 c. The packet or letter must be inscribed i raccomandata\ — Post Office 
Orders, see p. xii. Sums not exceeding 25 fr. may be sent within Italy 
by the so-called cartolina vaglia (fee 10 c for 1-5 fr. and 5 c for each 5 fr. 
more). Money may also be transmitted by telegraph. To secure registered 
letters or the payment of money orders, the stranger must show his pass- 
port or be identified by two witnesses known to the postal authorities. 
It is therefore often convenient to arrange to have the money sent to 
one's landlord. 

xxvi CLIMATE. 

Parcel Post. Parcels not exceeding 5 kg. (11 lbs.) in weight or 20 cubic 
decimetres in size (longest dimension not more than 60 centimetres, or 
about 2 ft.) may be sent by post in Italy for 60 c. ; to England, via France, 
2 fr. 75 c. The parcels must be carefully packed and sealed and may not 
contain anything in the shape of a letter. Parcels for abroad must be 
accompanied by two customs - declarations on forms for the purpose. 
Articles not liable to duty (such as flowers, etc.) are best sent as samples 
of no value (campione senza valore) in Italy 2 c. per 50 gr., abroad 10 c. 
up to 50 gr., then 5 c. for each 50 gr. more. 

Telegrams. For telegrams to foreign countries the following 
rate per word is charged in addition to an initial payment of 1 fr. : 
Great Britain 26, France 14, Germany 14, Switzerland 6-14, Austria 
6-14, Belgium 19, HoUand 23, Denmark 23, Russia 42, Sweden 
26, Norway 34 c. To America from 3 3 / 4 fr. per word upwards, ac- 
cording to the state. Within the 'kingdom of Italy, 15 words 
1 fr. , each additional word 5 c. Telegrams with special haste (tele- 
grammi urgenti), which take precedence of all others, may he sent 
at thrice the above rates. 

Mil. Climate. Winter Stations. Seaside Resorts. Health. 

It is a common error on the part of those who visit Italy for the 
first time to "believe that heyoncl the Alps the skies are always blue 
and the breezes always balmy. It is true that the traveller who 
has crossed the Splugen, the Brenner, or the St. Gotthard in winter, 
and finds himself in the district of the N. Italian lakes, cannot fail 
to remark what an admirable barrier against the wind is afforded 
by the central chain of the Alps. The average winter-temperature 
(December, January, and February) here is 37-40° Fahr. as compared 
with 28-32° on the N. side of the mountains. Places nestling close 
to the S. base of the Alps, such as Locarno (winter-temperature 
37° Fahr.), Pallanza (38.5°), Arco (38.75°), and Qar done- Riviera 
(40°), thus form an excellent intermediate stage between the bleak 
winter of N. Europe and the semi-tropical climate of the Riviera or S. 
Italy. A peculiarity of the climate here is afforded by the torrents of 
rain which may be expected about the equinoctial period. The masses 
of warm and moisture-laden clouds driven northwards by the S. wind 
break against the Alpine chain, and discharge themselves in heavy 
showers, which fill the rivers and occasion the inundations from 
which Lombardy not unfrequently suffers. If , however, the trav- 
eller continues his journey towards the S. through the plain of Lom- 
bardy he again enters a colder and windy region. The whole plain 
of the Po, enclosed by snow-capped mountains, exhibits a climate 
of a thoroughly continental character ; the summer is as hot as that 
of Sicily, while the winter is very cold, the mean temperature 
being below 35° Fahr. or about equal to that of the lower Rhine. 
In Milan the thermometer sometimes sinks below zero. Changes 
of weather, dependent upon the direction of the wind, are fre- 

CLIMATE. xxvii 

quent; and the humidity of the atmosphere, occasioned in part hy 
the numerous canals and rice-marshes, is also very considerahle. 
A prolonged residence in Turin or Milan should therefore he avoided 
by invalids, while even robust travellers should be on their guard 
against the trying climate. As we approach the Adriatic Sea the 
climate of the Lombard plain loses its continental character and 
approximates more closely to that of the rest of the peninsula. The 
climatic peculiarities of Venice are described at p. 264. 

As soon as we cross the mountains which bound the S. margin 
of the Lombard plain and reach the Mediterranean coast, we And a 
remarkable change in the climatic conditions. Here an almost un- 
interrupted series of winter-resorts extends along the Ligurian 
Riviera as far S. as Leghorn, and these are rapidly increasing 
both in number and popularity. The cause of the mild and pleas- 
ant climate at these places is not far to seek. The Maritime 
Alps and the Ligurian Apennines form such an admirable screen 
on the N., that the cold N. winds which pass these mountains do 
not touch the district immediately at their feet, but are first per- 
ceptible on the sea 6-10 M. from the coast. It is of no unfrequent 
occurrence in the Riviera that the harbours are perfectly smooth 
while the open sea is agitated by a brisk tempest. Most of the towns 
and villages on the coast lie in crescent - shaped bays , opening 
towards the S., while on the landward side they are protected by 
an amphitheatre of hills. These hills are exposed to the full force 
of the sun's rays, and the limestone of which they are composed 
absorbs an immense amount of heat. It is therefore not to be 
wondered at that these hothouses of the Riviera show a higher tem- 
perature in winter than many places much farther to the S. Thus, 
while the mean temperature of Rome in the three coldest months is 
46° Fahr., that of the Riviera is 48-50° (Nervi 48°. San Remo 50°; 
Pisa, on the other hand, only 42°). 

It would, however, be a mistake to suppose that this strip of 
coast is entirely free from wind. The rapid heating and cooling of 
the strand produces numerous light breezes, while the rarefaction 
of the masses of air by the strength of the sun gives rise to strong 
currents rushing in from the E. and W. to supply the vacuum. 
The most notorious of these coast-winds is the Mistral, which is 
at its worst at Avignon and other places in the Rhone Valley (see 
Baedeker's Southern France). The N.E. wind on the contrary 
is much stronger in Alassio and San Remo than on the coast of 
Provence. The Scirocco as known on the Ligurian coast is by no 
means the dry and parching wind experienced in Sicily and even 
at Rome ; passing as it does over immense tracts of sea, it is gener- 
ally charged with moisture and is often followed by rain. 

The prevalent belief that the Riviera has a moist climate, on 
account of its proximity to the sea, is natural but erroneous. The 
atmosphere, on the contrary, is rather dry, especially in the W. 

xxviii CLIMATE. 

half of it, while the humidity rapidly increases as we approach 
the Riviera di Levante. The same holds good of the rainfall. 
While San Remo has 45 rainy days between November and April, 
Nervi has 54, and Pisa 57. The average number of rainy days 
during the three winter months in the Riviera is 16. Snow is 
rarely seen ; it falls perhaps once or twice in the course of the 
winter, but generally lies only for a few hours , while many years 
pass without the appearance of a single snow-flake. Fogs are very 
rare on the Ligurian coast ; but a heavy dew-fall in the evening is 
the rule. In comparison with the Cisalpine districts, the Riviera 
enjoys a very high proportion of bright, sunny weather. 

The above considerations will show that it is often necessary to 
discount the unpropitious opinions of those who happen to have 
visited the Riviera under peculiarly unfavourable climatic con- 
ditions. Not only do the ordinary four seasons differ from eacb other 
on the Riviera, but the different parts of winter are also sharply 
discriminated. A short rainy season may be counted on with almost 
complete certainty between the beginning of October and the middle 
of November, which restricts, but by no means abolishes, open-air 
exercise. Then follows from December to February usually an un- 
interrupted series of warm and sunshiny days, but invalids have 
sometimes to be on their guard against wind. March here, as else- 
where in the south, is the windiest mouth of all, but is much less 
boisterous in the Italian part of the Riviera than in Provence. 
April and May are delightful months for those who require out-door 
life in a warm climate. 

The mildness of the climate of the Riviera requires, perhaps, no 
better proof than its rich southern vegetation. The Olive, which is 
already found in the neighbourhood of the N. Italian lakes, here 
attains its full growth, while the Eucalyptus globulus (which grows 
rapidly and to an astonishing height), the Orange, the Lemon, and 
several varieties of Palms also flotirish. 

The geological character of the Riviera is also of sanitary signi- 
ficance. The prevailing formation is limestone, which absorbs the 
sun's rays with remarkable rapidity and radiates it with equal speed, 
thus forming an important factor in making the most of the winter 
sunshine. On account of its softness it is also extensively used 
for road-making, and causes the notorious dust of the Riviera, which 
forms the chief objection to a region frequented by so many per- 
sons with weak lungs. The authorities of the various health-resorts, 
however, take great pains to mitigate this evil as far as practicable. 
After heavy rain the roads are apt to be very muddy. 

The advantages that a winter-residence in the Riviera, in contra- 
distinction to the climate of northern Europe, offers to invalids and 
delicate persons, are a considerably warmer and generally dry at- 
mosphere, seldom disturbed by storms, yet fresh and pure, a mora 

CLIMATE. xxix 

cheerful sky, and comparative immunity from rain. The 'invalid's 
day', or the time during which invalids may remain in the open 
air with impunity, lasts here from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. The general 
effect of a prolonged course of open-air life in the Riviera may be 
described as a gentle stimulation of the entire physical organism. 
It is found particularly beneficial for convalescents, the debilitated, 
and the aged ; for children of scrofulous tendency ; and for the mar- 
tyrs of gout and rheumatism. The climatic cure of the Riviera is 
also often prescribed to patients with weak chests, to assist in the 
removal of the after-effects of inflammation of the lungs or pleurisy, 
or to obviate the danger of the formation of a chronic pulmonary 
discharge. The dry and frequently-agitated air of the Riviera is, 
however, by no means suitable for every patient of this kind, and 
the immediate vicinity of the sea is particularly unfavourable to 
cases of a feverish or nervous character. The stimulating effects of 
the climate are then often too powerful, producing sleeplessness 
and unwholesome irritation. The dry air of the Riviera di Ponente 
is also prejudicial to many forms of inflammation of the wind-pipe 
and bronchial tubes, which derive benefit from the air of Nervi, 
Pisa, or Ajaccio. Cases of protracted nephritis or diabetes, on the 
contrary, often obtain considerable relief from a residence here. 

The season on the Ligurian coast lasts from about the begin- 
ning of October to the middle of May. In September it is still too 
hot, and in March it is so windy that many patients are obliged to 
retire farther inland. Many invalids make the mistake of leaving 
the Riviera too soon, and thus lose all the progress they have made 
during the winter, through reaching home in the unfavourable trans- 
ition period between winter and spring. It is better to spend April 
and May at some intermediate station, such as Pallanza, Cannero, 
Locarno, Lugano, or Gardone Riviera. 

Good opportunities for sea-bathing are offend at many points 
on the Mediterranean coast of N. Italy, such as Alassio, Savona, 
Pegli, Spezia, Viareggio, Leghorn, and Venice. The Mediterranean is 
almost tideless; it contains about 41 per cent of common salt, a con- 
siderably higher proportion than the Atlantic ; its average tempera- 
ture during the bathing-season is 71° Fahr. The bathing-season 
on the Ligurian coast begins in April, or at latest in May, and lasts 
till November, being thus much longer than the season at any English 

Most travellers must in some degree alter their mode of living 
whilst in Italy, without however implicitly adopting the Italian style. 
Inhabitants of more northern countries generally become unusually 
susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be well 
supplied with warm clothing for the winter. "Woollen underclothing is 
especially to be recommended. A cloak or shawl should be carried to 
neutralise the often considerable difference of temperature between the 
sunshine and the shade. In visiting picture-galleries or churches on 

xxx HEALTH. 

warm days it is advisable to drive thither and walk back , as other- 
wise the visitor enters the cool building in a heated state and has 
afterwards no opportunity of regaining the desirable temperature 
through exercise. Exposure to the summer-sun should be avoided 
as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and for- 
eigners (Ingljesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas, or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to pro- 
tect the whole eye are best), may be used with advantage. Blue veils 
are recommended to ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is ad- 
visable, and a moderate siesta is often refreshing. 

Great care should also be taken in the selection of an apartment. 
Carpets and stoves are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect in 
winter is an absolute essential for delicate persons, and highly desir- 
able for the robust. The visitor should see that all the doors and 
windows close satisfactorily. Windows should be closed at night. If 
there is the slightest suspicion of dampness in the bed-clothes, 
recourse should be had to the warming-pan (mettereilfuoco nelletto). 

Health. English and German medical men are to be met with 
in the larger cities, and in most of the wintering-stations of the Ri- 
viera. English and German chemists, where available, are recom- 
mended in preference to the Italian, whose drugs are at once dearer 
and of poorer quality. Foreigners frequently suffer from diarrhoea in 
Italy, which is generally occasioned by the unwonted heat. The 
homoeopathic tincture of camphor may be mentioned as a remedy, 
but regulated diet and thorough repose are the chief desiderata. A 
small portable medicine-case, such as those prepared and stocked with 
tabloid drugs by Messrs. Burroughs, Wellcome, $ Co., Holborn Yia- 
duct, London, will often be found useful. 

Italian Art. 

A Historical Sketch by Professor Anton Springer. 

One of the primary objects of the enlightened traveller in Italy 
is usually to form some acquaintance with its treasures of art. 
Even those whose usual avocations are of the most prosaic „ TT ^*"" 
nature unconsciously become admirers of poetry and art in 
Italy. The traveller here finds them so interwoven with scenes of 
everyday life, that he encounters their influence at every step, and 
involuntarily becomes susceptible to their power. A single visit 
can hardly suffice to enable any one justly to appreciate the 
numerous works of art he meets with in the course of his tour, nor 
can a guide-book teach him to fathom the mysterious depths of 
Italian creative genius, the past history of which is particularly at- 
tractive; but the perusal of a few remarks on this subject will be 
found materially to enhance the pleasure and facilitate the researches 
of even the most unpretending lover of art. Works of the highest class, 
the most perfect creations of genius, lose nothing of their charm by 
being pointed out as specimens of the best period of art; while 
those of inferior merit are invested with far higher interest when 
they are shown to be necessary links in the chain of development, 
and when, on comparison with earlier or later works, their relative 
defects or superiority are recognised. The following observations, 
therefore, will hardly be deemed out of place in a work designed to 
aid the traveller in deriving the greatest possible amount of enjoy- 
ment and instruction from his sojourn in Italy. 

The two great epochs in the history of art which principally 
arrest the attention are those of Classic Antiquity, and of the r . T . DOT „ w>rv 
lbth century, the culminating period of the so-called E enais- Renais- 
sance. The intervening space of more than a thousand years sanoe 
is usually, with much unfairness , almost entirely ignored ; EKI0US - 
for this interval not only continues to exhibit vestiges of the first 
epoch, but gradually paves the way for the second. It is a common 
error to suppose that in Italy alone the character of ancient art can 
be thoroughly appreciated. This idea dates from the period when no 
precise distinction was made between Greek and Roman art, when 
the connection of the former with a particular land and nation, 
and the tendency of the latter to pursue an independent course 
were alike overlooked. Now , however , that we are acquainted 
with more numerous Greek originals, and have acquired a 
deeper insight into the development of Hellenic art, an indis- 


criminate confusion of Greek and Roman styles is no longer to be 
Greek and apprehended. We are now well aware that the highest per- 
Roman fection of ancient architecture is realised in the Hellenic 
Styles dis- temple alone. The Doric order, in which majestic gravity is 
tinguished. eX p resse <i by ma ssive proportions and by a symmetrical de- 
coration, which at the same time subserves a practical purpose, 
and the Ionic structure , with its lighter and more graceful char- 
acter, exhibit a creative spirit entirely different from that mani- 
fested in the sumptuous Roman edifices. Again, the most valuable 
collection of ancient sculptures in Italy is incapable of affording so 
admirable an insight into the development of Greek art as the sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon and other fragments of Greek temple - archi- 
tecture preserved in the British Museum. But, while instruction is 
afforded more abundantly by other than Italian sources, ancient art 
is perhaps thoroughly admired in Italy alone , where works of art 
encounter the eye with more appropriate adjuncts, and where climate, 
scenery, and people materially contribute to intensify their impres- 
siveness. An additional facility, moreover, is afforded by the circum- 
stance , that in accordance with an admirable custom of classic 
antiquity the once perfected type of a plastic figure was not again 
arbitrarily abandoned, but rigidly adhered to, and continually re- 
produced. Thus in numerous cases, where the more ancient Greek 
original had been lost, it was preserved in subsequent copies; and 
even in the works of the Roman imperial age Hellenic creative talent 
is still reflected. 

This supremacy of Greek intellect in Italy was established in a 
Greece twofold manner. In the first place Greek colonists intro- 
supreme in duced their ancient native style into their new homes. This 
Aet - is proved by the existence of several Doric temples in Sicily, 
by the so-called Temple of Neptune at Paestum, as well as by the 
ruins at Metapontum. But, in the second place, the art of the Greeks 
did not attain its universal supremacy in Italy till a later period, 
when Hellas, nationally ruined, had learned to obey the dictates of 
her mighty conqueror, and the Romans had begun to combine with 
their political superiority the refinements of more advanced culture. 
The ancient scenes of artistic activity in Greece (Athens for example) 
became re-peopled at the cost of Rome ; Greek works of art and 
Greek artists were introduced into Italy; and ostentatious pride in 
the magnificence of booty acquired by victory led by an easy transi- 
tion to a taste for such objects. To surround themselves with artistic 
decoration thus gradually became the universal custom of the Ro- 
mans, and the foundation of public monuments came to be regarded 
as an indispensable duty of government. 

Although the Roman works of art of the imperial epoch are 

Roman deficient in originality compared with the Greek , yet their 

Architeu- authors never degenerate into mere copyists, or entirely re- 

ture. nounce independent effort. This remark applies especially to 

ITALIAN ART. xxxiii 

their Architecture. Independently of the Greeks, the ancientltalian 
nations, and with them the Romans, had acquired a knowledge of 
stone-cutting, and discovered the method of constructing arches 
and vaulting. With this technically and scientifically important 
art they aimed at combining Greek forms, the column supporting 
the entablature. The sphere of architecture was then gradually ex- 
tended. One of the chief requirements was now to construct edifices 
with spacious interiors, and several stories in height. No precise 
model was afforded by Greek architecture, and yet the current 
Greek forms appeared too beautiful to be lightly disregarded. The 
Romans therefore preferred to combine them with the arch-prin- 
ciple, and apply this combination to their new architectural designs. 
The individuality of the Greek orders, and their originally un- 
alterable coherence were thereby sacrificed, and divested of much 
of their importance ; that which once possessed a definite organic 
significance frequently assumed a superficial and decorative charac- 
ter; but the aggregate effect is always imposing. Attention must be 
directed to the several-storied structures, in which the tasteful as- 
cending gradation of the component parts, from the more massive 
(Doric) to the lighter (Corinthian), chiefly ariests the eye; and the 
vast and artistically vaulted interiors, as well as the structures of a 
merely decorative description, must also be examined, in order that 
the chief merits of Roman art may be understood. In the use of 
columns in front of closed walls {e.g. as members of a facade), in 
the construction of domes above circular interiors, and of cylindrical 
and groined vaulting over oblong spaces, the Roman edifices have 
served as models to posterity, and the imitations have often fallen 
short of the originals. 

It is true that in the districts to which this volume of the Hand- 
book is devoted, the splendour and beauty of ancient art is not so 
prominently illustrated as in Rome or S. Italy. Nevertheless N. 
Italy also contains many interesting relics of Roman architecture 
(such as the Amphitheatre at Verona, the Triumphal Arches at Aosta 
and Susa, etc.), and the traveller will find ample food for his ad- 
miration in the antique sculptures in the collections at Turin, Brescia, 
Mantua, and Florence. — Upper Italy and Tuscany stand, on the 
other hand, in the very forefront of the artistic life of the middle 
ages and early Renaissance, and Venice may boast of having brilliant- 
ly unfolded the glories of Italian painting at a time when that art 
had sunk at Rome to its nadir. In order, however, to place the 
reader at a proper point of view for appreciating the development 
of art in N. Italy, it is necessary to give a sketch of the progress 
of Italian art in general from the early middle ages onwards. 

In the 4th century the heathen world, which had long been in 
a tottering condition, at length became Christianised, and a christia: 
new period of art began. This is sometimes erroneously re- Peuioi. 
?arded as the result of a forcible rupture from ancient uF Ain - 

Bakukkkk. Italy I. i'2lLi Edit. C • 


Roman art, and a sudden and spontaneous invention of a new style. 
But the eye and the hand adhere to custom more tenaciously than 
the mind. While new ideas, and altered views of the character of 
the Deity and the destination of man were entertained, the wonted 
forms were still necessarily employed in the expression of these 
thoughts. Moreover the heathen sovereigns had hy no means been 
unremittingly hostile to Christianity (the most bitter persecutions 
did not take place till the 3rd century), and the new doctrines were 
permitted to expand, take deeper root, and organise themselves in 
the midst of heathen society. The consequence was, that the trans- 
ition from heathen to Christian ideas of art was a gradual one, and 
that in point of form early Christian art continued to follow up the 
lessons of the ancient. The best proof of this is afforded by the 
paintings in the Roman Catacombs, the burial-places of the early 
Christian community. In these the artistic principles of pagan 
antiquity are adhered to, alike in decorative forms, design, choice 
of colour, grouping of figures, and treatment of subject. Even the 
Sarcophagus Sculptures of the 4th and 5th centuries differ in 
purport only, and not in technical treatment, from the type exhibited 
in the tomb-reliefs of heathen Rome. Five centuries elapsed be- 
fore a new artistic style sprang up in painting and in the greatly 
neglected plastic arts. Meanwhile architecture had developed itself 
commensurately with the requirements of Christian worship, and, 
in connection with the new modes of building, painting acquired a 
different character. 

The term Basilica Style is often employed to designate early 
Church Christian architecture down to the 10th century. The Roman 
architec- forensic basilicas, which are proved to have existed in the 
tdre. f ora f mos t f tin* towns of the Roman empire, served as 
courts of judicature and public assembly-halls. The belief that 
these were afterwards fitted up for the purposes of Christian worship 
is now exploded, but in their main features they served as models 
for the construction of Christian churches. After the 4th cent, 
the following became the established type of the Christian bas- 
ilica. In front is a quadrangular fore- court (atrium), of the same 
width as the basilica itself, surrounded with an open colonnade 
and provided with a fountain (cantharus) for the ablutions of the 
devout. This forms the approach to the interior of the church, 
which usually consisted of a nave and two aisles, the latter lower 
than the former, and separated from it by two rows of columns, the 
whole terminating in a semicircle (apsis). In front of the apse there 
was sometimes a transverse space (transept) ; the altar, surmounted 
by a columnar structure, occupied a detached position in the apse ; 
the space in front of it, bounded by cancelli or railings, was 
destined for the choir of officiating priests, and contained the two 
pulpits (ambones) where the gospel and epistles were read. Un- 
like the ancient temples, the early-Christian basilicas exhibit a 


neglect of external architecture, the chief importance heing at- 
tached to the interior, the decorations of Avhich, however, especially 
in early mediaeval times, were often procured by plundering the 
ancient Roman edifices, and transferring the spoil to the churches 
with little regard to harmony of style and material. The most ap- 
propriate ornaments of the churches were the metallic objects, such 
as crosses and lustres, and the tapestry bestowed on them by papal 
piety ; while the chief decoration of the walls consisted of mosaics, 
especially those covering the background of the apse and the 
'triumphal' arch which separates the apse from the nave. The 
mosaics, as far at least as the material was concerned, were of a 
sterling monumental character, and contributed to give rise to a 
new style of pictorial art ; in them ancient tradition was for the 
first time abandoned, and the harsh and austere style erroneously 
termed Byzantine gradually introduced. 

Christian art originated at Rome , but its development was 
actively promoted in other Italian districts, especially at Ravenna, 
where during the Ostrogothic supremacy (493-539), as well 
as under the succeeding Byzantine empire, architecture g^^f* 8 
was zealously cultivated. The basilica-type was there more 
highly matured, the external architecture enlivened by low aTches 
and projecting buttresses, and the capitals of the columns in the 
interior appropriately moulded with reference to the superincumb- 
ent arches. There, too, the art of mosaic painting was sedu- 
lously cultivated, exhibiting in its earlier specimens (in the Bap- 
tistery of the Orthodox and Tomb ofOalla Placidia) greater technical 
excellence and better drawing than the contemporaneous Roman 
works. At Ravenna the Western style also appears in combination 
with the Eastern, and the church of San Vitale (dating from 547) 
may be regarded as a fine example of a Byzantine structure. 

The term 'Byzantine' is often misapplied. Every work of the 
so-called dark centuries of the middle ages, everything in archi- 
tecture that intervenes between the ancient and the Gothic, every- 
thing in painting which repels by its uncouth , ill-proportioned 
forms, is apt to be termed Byzantine ; and it is commonly supposed 
that the practice of art in Italy was entrusted exclusively to By- 
zantine hands from the fall of the Western Empire to an ad- 
vanced period of the 13th century. This belief in the universal 
and unqualified prevalence of the Byzantine style, as well as the 
idea that it is invariably of a clumsy and lifeless character, is 
entirely unfounded. The forms of Byzantine architecture are 
at least strongly and clearly defined. While the basilica is a 
long - extended hall , over which the eye is compelled to range 
until it finds a natural resting-place in the recess of the apse, 
every Byzantine structure may be circumscribed with a curved 
line. The aisles, which in the basilica run parallel with the 
nave , degenerate in the Byzantine style to narrow and in- 


significant passages; the apse loses its intimate connection with 
the nave, being separated from it; the most conspicuous feature 
in the building consists of the central square space, bounded 
by four massive pillars which support the dome. These are the 
essential characteristics of the Byzantine style , which culminates 
in the magnificent church of St. Sophia at Constantinople, and pre- 
vails throughout Oriental Christendom, but in the West, including 
](taly only, occurs sporadically. With the exception of the churches 
of San Vitale at Ravenna, and St. Mark at Venice, the edifices of 
Lower Italy alone show a frequent application of this style. 

The Byzantine imagination does not appear to have exercised a 

Growth greater influence on the growth of other branches of Italian 

of Art in art than on architecture. A brisk traffic in works of art 

Italy. was ca rried on by Venice, Amalfi , and other Italian towns, 
with the Levant ; the position of Constantinople resembled that of 
the modern Lyons; silk wares, tapestry, and jewellery were most 
highly valued when imported from the Eastern metropolis. By- 
zantine artists were always welcome visitors to Italy , Italian con- 
noisseurs ordered works to be executed at Constantinople, chiefly 
those in metal , and the superiority of Byzantine workmanship 
was universally acknowledged. All this, however, does not justify 
the inference that Italian art was quite subordinate to Byzantine. 
On the contrary , notwithstanding various external influences, it 
underwent an independent and unbiassed development, and never 
entirely abandoned its ancient principles. A considerable interval 
indeed elapsed before the fusion of the original inhabitants with 
the early mediaeval immigrants was complete, before the aggregate 
of different tribes , languages , customs, and ideas became blended 
into a single nationality, and before the people attained sufficient 
concentration and independence of spirit to devote themselves 
successfully to the cultivation of art. Unproductive in the pro- 
vince of art as this early period is , yet an entire departure from 
native tradition, or a serious conflict of the latter with extraneous 
innovation never took place. It may be admitted , that in the 
massive columns and cumbrous capitals of the churches of Upper 
Italy , and in the art of vaulting which was developed here at an 
early period , symptoms of the Germanic character of the inhabit- 
ants are manifested, and that in the Lower Italian and especially 
Sicilian structures, traces of Arabian and Norman influence are 
unmistakable. In the essentials, however, the foreigners continue 
to be the recipients ; the might of ancient tradition and the 
national idea of form might be repressed but they could not be 

About the middle of the 11th century a zealous and promis- 

Roman- i n S artistic movement took place in Italy, and the seeds 
esque were sown which three or four centuries later yielded so 
Style, luxuriant a growth. As yet nothing was matured, nothing 

ITALIAN ART. xxxvii 

completed, the aim was obscure, the resources insufficient; mean- 
while architecture alone satisfied artistic requirements, the at- 
tempts at painting and sculpture being barbarous in the ex- 
treme; these, however, were the germs of the subsequent devel- 
opment of art observable as early as the 11th and 12th centuries. 
This has been aptly designated the Romanesque period (11th- 
13th cent.), and the then prevalent forms of art the Ro- 
manesque Style. As the Romance languages, notwithstanding 
alterations, additions, and corruptions, maintain their filial rela- 
tion to the language of the Romans, so Romanesque art, in 
spite of its rude and barbarous aspect, reveals its immediate 
descent from the art of that people. The Tuscan towns were the 
principal scene of the prosecution of mediaeval art. There an in- 
dustrial population gradually arose, treasures of commerce were 
collected, independent views of life were acquired in active party 
conflicts, loftier common interests became interwoven with those 
of private life, and education entered a broader and more enlight- 
ened track; and thus a taste for art also was awakened, and 
aesthetic perception developed itself. When Italian architecture 
of the Romanesque period is examined, the difference between its 
character and that of contemporaneous northern works is at once 
apparent. In the latter the principal aim is perfection in the 
construction of vaulting. French, English, and German churches 
are unquestionably the more organically conceived, the individual 
parts are more inseparable and more appropriately arranged. But 
the subordination of all other aims to that of the secure and ac- 
curate formation of the vaulting does not admit of an unrestrained 
manifestation of the sense of form. The columns are apt to be 
heavy, symmetry and harmony in the constituent members to be 
disregarded. On Italian soil new architectural ideas are rarely 
found, constructive boldness not being here the chief object ; on the 
other hand, the decorative arrangements are richer and more grate- 
ful, the sense of rhythm and symmetry more pronounced. The cath- 
edral of Pisa or the church of San Miniato near Florence, both 
founded as early as the 11th century, may be taken as an example 
of this. The interior with its rows of columns , the mouldings 
throughout, and the flat ceiling recall the basilica-type ; while the 
exterior, especially the facade destitute of tower, with the small 
arcades one above the other, and the variegated colours of the courses 
of stone, presents a fine decorative effect. At the same time the con- 
struction and decoration of the walls already evince a taste for the 
elegant proportions which we admire in later Italian structures; 
the formation of the capitals, and the design of the outlines prove 
that the precepts of antiquity were not entirely forgotten. A pe- 
culiar conservative spirit pervades the mediaeval architecture of 
Italy; artists do not aim at an unknown and remote object; 
the ideal which they have in view, although perhaps instinctive- 

xxxviii ITALIAN ART. 

ly only, lies in the past; to conjure up this, and bring about 
a Renaissance of the antique , appears to be the goal of their 
aspirations. They apply themselves to their task with calmness 
and concentration, they indulge in no bold or novel schemes, but 
are content to display their love of form in the execution of details. 
What architecture as a whole loses in historical attraction is 
compensated by the beauty of the individual edifices. While 
the North possesses structures of greater importance in the develop- 
ment of art, Italy boasts of a far greater number of pleasing works. 
There is hardly a district in Italy which does not boast of 
interesting examples of Romanesque architecture. At Verona we 
Roman- ma Y mention the famous church of St. Zeno, with its sculp- 
esqde tured portals. In the same style are the cathedrals of Fer- 
Churches rara ^ Modena. Parma, and Piacenza, the church of Sant' Am- 
brogio at Milan, with its characteristic fore-court and facade, and 
that of San Michele at Pavia. Tuscany abounds with Romanesque 
edifices. Among these the palm is due to the cathedral of Pisa, a 
church of spacious dimensions in the interior, superbly embellished 
with its marble of two colours and the rows of columns on its facade. 
To the same period also belong the neighbouring Leaning Tower and 
the Baptistery. The churches of Lucca are copies of those at Pisa. 
Those of Florence, however, such as the octagonal, dome-covered 
Baptistery and the above-mentioned church of San Miniato, exhibit 
an independent style. 

The position occupied by Italy with regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture is thus rendered obvious. She could not entirely 
Style ig nore i* s influence, although incapable of according an un- 
conditional reception to this, the highest development of 
vault- architecture. Gothic was introduced into Italy in a mature 
and perfected condition. It did not of necessity, as in France, 
develop itself from the earlier (Romanesque) style, its progress 
cannot be traced step by step ; it was imported by foreign architects 
and adopted as being in consonance with the tendency of the age ; 
it found numerous admirers among the mendicant orders of monks 
and the humbler classes of citizens, but could never quite dis- 
engage itself from Italianising influences. It was so far transformed 
that the constructive constituents of Gothic are degraded to a de- 
corative office, and the national taste thus became reconciled to it. 
The cathedral of Milan cannot be regarded as a fair specimen of 
Italian Gothic, but this style must rather be sought for in the 
mediaeval cathedrals of Florence, Siena, Orvieto, in the church of 
San Petronio at Bologna, and in numerous secular edifices, such 
as the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, the communal palaces of 
towns in Central Italy, and the palaces of Venice. An acquaintance 
with true Gothic construction, so contracted notwithstanding all its 
apparent richness, so exclusively adapted to practical requirements, 
can certainly not be acquired from these cathedrals. The spacious 


interior, inviting, as it were, to calm enjoyment, while the cath- 
edrals of the north seem to produce a sense of oppression, the pre- 
dominance of horizontal lines, the playful application of pointed 
arches and gahles , of finials and canopies , prove that an organic 
coherence of the different architectural distinguishing memhers was 
here but little considered. The characteristics of Gothic architecture, 
the towers immediately connected with the facade, and the promi- 
nent flying buttresses are frequently wanting in Italian Gothic edi- 
fices, — whether to their disadvantage, it may be doubted. It is not 
so much the sumptuousness of the materials which disposes the 
spectator to pronounce a lenient judgment, as a feeling that Italian 
architects pursued the only course by which the Gothic style could 
be reconciled with the atmosphere and light, the climate and natural, 
features of Italy. Gothic lostmuch of its peculiar character in Italy, 
but by these deviations from the customary type it there became 
capable of being nationalised, especially as at the same period the 
other branches of art also aimed at a greater degree of nationality, and 
entered into a new combination with the fundamental trait of the 
Italian character, that of retrospective adherence to the antique. 

The apparently sudden and unprepared-for revival of ancient 
ideals in the 13th century is one of the most interesting phenomena 
in the history of art. The Italians themselves could only revival 
account for this by attributing it to chance. The popular of Ascien ; 
story was that the sculptor Niccolo Pisa> t o (ca. 1206-80 J Art Ideals 
was induced by an inspection of ancient sarcophagi to exchange the 
prevailing style for the ancient, and indeed in one case we can trace 
back a work of his to its antique prototype. "We refer to a relief on 
the pulpit in the Baptistery at Pisa, several figures in which are 
borrowed from a Bacchus vase still preserved in the Campo Santo 
of that city (pp. 408, 410). Whether Niccolo Pisano was a member 
of a local school or was trained under foreign influences we are as 
yet unable to determine. His sculptures on the pulpits in the 
Baptistery of Pisa and the Cathedral of Siena introduce us at once 
into a new world. It is not merely their obvious resemblance to the 
works of antiquity that arrests the eye; a still higher charm is 
exercised by the peculiarly fresh and direct life that animates the 
separate figures. By his son, Giovanni Pisano (ca. 1250- ca.1328 ) and 
his followers of the Pisan School, ancient characteristics were placed 
in the background, and importance was attached solely to life and 
expression {e.g. reliefs on the facade of the Cathedral at Orvieto). 
Artists now began to impart to their compositions the impress of their 
own peculiar views, and the public taste for poetry, which had already 
strongly manifested itself, was now succeeded by a love of art also. 

From this period (14th century) therefore the Italians date the 
origin of their modern art. Contemporaneous writers who ob- j> iaE OF 
served the change of views, the revolution in sense of form, Modern 
and the superiority of the more recent works in life and ex- Art 


pression, warmly extolled their authors, and zealously proclaimed 
how greatly they surpassed their ancestors. But succeeding genera- 
tions began to lose sight of this connection between ancient and 
modern art. A mere anecdote was deemed sufficient to connect 
Giotto di Bondone (1276-1337), the father of modern Italian art, 
with Giovanni Cimabue (d. after 1302), the most celebrated re- 
presentative of the earlier style. (Cimabue is said to have watched 
Giotto, when, as a shepherd-boy, relieving the monotony of his 
office by tracing the outlines of his sheep in the sand, and to have 
received him as a pupil in consequence.) But it was forgotten 
that a revolution in artistic ideas and forms had taken place at 
Rome and Siena still earlier than at Florence, that both Cimabue 
and his pupil Giotto had numerous professional brethren , and 
that the composition of mosaics, as well as mural and panel- 
painting, was still successfully practised. Subsequent investigation 
has rectified these errors, pointed out the Roman and Tuscan mosaics 
as works of the transition-period, and restored the Sienese master 
Duc.cio (ca. 1300), who was remarkable for his sense of the beauti- 
ful and the expressiveness of his figures, to his merited rank. 
Giotto, however, is fully entitled to rank in the highest class. The 
amateur, who before entering Italy has become acquainted with 
Giotto from insignificant easel-pictures only, often arbitrarily 
attributed to this master , and even in Italy itself encounters 
little else than obliquely drawn eyes, clumsy features, and 
cumbrous masses of drapery as characteristics of his style, will 
regard Giotto's reputation as ill-founded. He will be at a loss 
to comprehend why Giotto is regarded as the inaugurator of a 
new era of art , and why the name of the old Florentine master 
is only second in popularity to that of Raphael. The fact is that 
Giotto's Giotto's celebrity is not due to any single perfect work of 
Influence, art. His indefatigable energy in different spheres of art, the 
enthusiasm which he kindled in every direction, and the develop- 
ment for which he paved the way, must be taken into consideration, 
in order that his place in history may be understood. Even when, 
in consonance with the poetical sentiments of his age, he embodies 
allegorical conceptions, as poverty, chastity, obedience, or displays 
to us a ship as an emblem of the Church of Christ, he shows a 
masterly acquaintance with the art of converting what is perhaps 
in itself an ungrateful idea into a speaking, lifelike scene. 
Giotto is an adept in narration, in imparting a faithful reality to 
his compositions. The individual figures in his pictures may fail 
to satisfy the expectations, and even earlier masters , such as 
Duccio, may have surpassed him in execution, but intelligibility 
of movement and dramatic effect were first naturalised in art by 
Giotto. This is partly attributable to the luminous colouring 
employed by him instead of the dark and heavy tones of his 
predecessors , enabling him to impart the proper expression to 


his artistic and novel conceptions. On these grounds there- 
fore Giotto, so versatile and so active in the most extended spheres, 
was accounted the purest type of his century, and succeeding 
generations founded a regular school of art in his name. As 
in the case of all the earlier Italian painters, so in that of Giotto 
and his successors, an opinion of their true merits can he formed 
from their mural paintings alone. The intimate connection of the 
picture with the architecture, of which it constituted the living 
ornament, compelled artists to study the rules of symmetry and 
harmonious composition, developed their sense of style, and, as 
extensive spaces were placed at their disposal, admitted of hroad 
and unshackled delineation. Almost every church in Florence 
hoasted of specimens of art in the style of Giotto, and almost ev- 
ery town in Central Italy in the 14th century practised some 
branch of art akin to Giotto's. The most valuable works of this style 
are preserved in the churches of Santa Croce (especially the choir 
chapels) and Santa Maria Novella at Florence. Beyond the precincts 
of the Tuscan capital the finest works of Giotto are to he found at 
Assisi and in the Madonna dell' Arena at Padua, where about 1306 
he executed a representation of scenes from the lives of the Virgin 
and the Saviour. The Campo Santo of Pisa (p. 408 ) affords specimens 
of the handiwork of his pupils and contemporaries. In the works 
on the walls of this unique national museum the spectator cannot 
fail to be struck by their finely-conceived, poetical character {e.g. 
the Triumph of Death), their sublimity (Last Judgment, Trials of 
Job), or their richness in dramatic effect (History of St. Rainerus, 
and of the Martyrs Ephesus and Potitus). 

In the 15th century, as well as in the 14th, Florence continued 
to take the lead amongst the capitals of Italy in matters of art. 
Vasari attributes this merit to its pure and delicious atmo- Florence 
sphere, which he regards as highly conducive to intelligence a Cradle 
and refinement. The fact, however, is, that Florence did not OF Art - 
itself produce a greater number of eminent artists than other places. 
During a long period Siena successfully vied with her in artistic 
fertility, and Upper Italy in the 14th century gave birth to the two 
painters Jacopo b'Avanzo and Altichikbj (paintings in the Chapel 
of San Giorgio in Padua, p. 252), who far surpass Giotto's ordinary 
style. On the other hand, no Italian city afforded in its political in- 
stitutions and public life so many favourable stimulants to artistic 
imagination, or promoted intellectual activity in so marked a degree, 
or combined ease and dignity so harmoniously as Florence. What 
therefore was but obscurely experienced in the rest of Italy, and 
manifested at irregular intervals only, was generally first realised 
here with tangible distinctness. Florence became the birthplace of 
the revolution in art effected by Giotto, and Florence was the home 
of the art of the Renaissance, which began to prevail soon after the 
beginning of the 15th century and superseded the style of Giotto. 


The word Renaissance is commonly understood to designate a 
Renais- revival of the antique ; but while ancient art now began to 
sancb influence artistic taste more powerfully, and its study to be 
Culture. more zealously prosecuted , the essential character of the 
Renaissance consists by no means exclusively, or even principally, 
in the imitation of the antique ; nor must the term be confined 
merely to art , as it truly embraces the whole progress of civili- 
sation in Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. How the 
Renaissance manifested itself in political life , and the different 
phases it assumes in the scientific and the social world , cannot 
here be discussed. It may, however, be observed that the Re- 
naissance in social life was chiefly promoted by the 'humanists', 
who preferred general culture to great professional attainments, 
who enthusiastically regarded classical antiquity as the golden 
age of great men , and who exercised the most extensive in- 
fluence on the bias of artistic views. In the period of the Re- 
naissance the position of the artist with regard to his work , and 
the nature and aspect of the latter are changed. The education and 
taste of the individual leave a more marked impress on the work of 
the author than was ever before the case ; his creations are pre-emin- 
ently the reflection of his intellect ; his alone is the responsibility, 
his the reward of success or the mortification of failure. Artists 
now seek to attain celebrity, they desire their works to be examined 
and judged as testimonials of their personal endowments. Mere 
technical skill by no means satisfies them, although they are far 
from despising the drudgery of a handicraft (many of the most emin- 
ent quattrocentists having received the rudiments of their education 
in the workshop of a goldsmith); the exclusive pursuit of a single 
sphere of art is regarded by them as an indication of intellectual 
poverty, although they aim at mastering the technique of every 
branch. They work simultaneously as painters and sculptors , and 
when they devote themselves to architecture, it is deemed nothing 
unwonted or anomalous. A comprehensive and versatile education, 
united with refined personal sentiments, forms their loftiest aim. This 
they attain in but few instances, but that they eagerly aspired to it 
is proved by the biography of the illustrious Leon Battista Alberti 
(1404-72), who is entitled to the same rank in the 15th century as 
Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th. Rationally educated, physically and 
morally healthy , keenly alive to the calm enjoyments of life, and 
possessing clearly defined ideas and decided tastes, the Renaissance 
artists necessarily regarded nature and her artistic embodiment 
with different views from their predecessors. A fresh and joyous love 
of nature seems to pervade the whole of this period. She not only 
afforded an unbounded field to the scientific, but artists also strove 
to approach her at first by a careful study of her various phenom- 
ena. Anatomy, geometry, perspective, and the study of drapery 
and colour are zealously pursued and practically applied. External 


truth, fidelity to nature, and a correct rendering of real life in 
its minutest details are among the necessary qualities in a 
perfect work. The realism of the representation is, however, of^heEk- 
only the hasis for the expression of lifelike character and rAwawrcis 
present enjoyment. . The earlier artists of the Renaissance Abtists to 
rarely exhibit partiality for pathetic scenes, or events which x ATCK 
awaken painful emotions and turbulent passions, and when such 
incidents are represented, they are apt to be somewhat exagger- 
ated. The preference of these masters obviously inclines to cheerful 
and joyous subjects. In the works of the 15th century strict faith- 
fulness, in an objective sense, must not be looked for. Whether the 
topic be derived from the Old or the New Testament, from history or 
fable, it is always transplanted to the immediate present, and adorn- 
ed with the colours of actual life. Thus Florentines of the genuine 
national type are represented as surrounding the patriarchs, visiting 
Elizabeth after the birth of her son, or witnessing the miracles of 
Christ. This transference of remote events to the present bears a 
striking resemblance to the naive and not unpleasing tone of the 
chronicler. The development of Italian art, however, by no means 
terminates with mere fidelity to nature, a quality likewise displayed 
by the contemporaneous art of the North. A superficial glance at 
the works of the Italian Renaissance enables one to recognise the 
higher goal of imagination. The carefully selected groups of digni- 
fied men, beautiful women , and pleasing children, occasionally 
without internal necessity placed in the foreground , prove that at- 
tractiveness was pre-eminently aimed at. This is also evidenced by 
the early-awakened enthusiasm for the nude, by the skill in dispos- 
ition of drapery, and the care devoted to boldness of outline and 
accuracy of form. This aim is still more obvious from the keen 
sense of symmetry observable in all the better artists. The indi- 
vidual figures are not coldly and accurately drawn in conformity 
with systematic rules. They are executed with refined taste and 
feeling; harshness of expression and unpleasing characteristics are 
sedulously avoided, while in the art of the North (e.g. in wood-cuts 
and engravings) physiognomic fidelity is usually accompanied by ex- 
treme rigidity. A taste for symmetry dees not prevail in the forma- 
tion of the individual figure only; obedience to rhythmical precepts 
is perceptible in the disposition of the groups also, and in the com- 
position of the entire work. The intimate connection between Italian 
painting (fresco) and architecture naturally leads to the transference 
of architectural rules to the province of pictorial art, whereby not 
only the invasion of a mere luxuriant naturalism was obviated, but 
the fullest scope was afforded to the artist for the execution of his 
task. For, to discover the most effective proportions, to inspire life 
into a scene by the very rhythm of the lineaments, are not accom- 
plishments to be acquired by extraneous aid ; precise measurement 
and calculation are here of no avail; a discriminating eye, refined 


taste, and a creative imagination, winch instinctively divines the 
appropriate forms for its design, can alone excel in this sphere of art. 
This enthusiasm for external heauty and just and harmonious pro- 
portions is the essential characteristic of the art of the Renaissance. 
Its veneration for the antique is thus also accounted for. At first 
an ambitious thirst for fame caused the Italians of the 15th and 16th 
Study centuries to look hack to classical antiquity as the era of illus- 
of the trious men, and ardently to desire its return. Subsequently, 

Antique, however, they regarded it simply as an excellent and appro- 
priate resource, when the study of actual life did not suffice, and an 
admirable assistance in perfecting their sense of form and symmetry. 
They by no means viewed the art of the ancients as a perfect whole, 
or as the product of a definite historical epoch, which developed 
itself under peculiar conditions ; but their attention was arrested by 
the individual works of antiquity and their special beauties. Thus 
ancient ideas were re-admitted into the sphere of Renaissance art. 
A return to the religious spirit of the Romans and Greeks is not of 
course to be inferred from the veneration for the ancient gods shown 
during the humanistic period ; belief in the Olympian gods was ex- 
tinct; but just because no devotional feeling was intermingled, 
because the forms could only receive life from creative imagination, 
did they exercise so powerful an influence on the Italian masters. 
The importance of mythological characters being wholly due to the 
perfect beauty of their forms , they could not fail on this account 
pre-eminently to recommend themselves to Renaissance artists. 
These remarks will, it is hoped, convey to the reader a general 
Character- idea of the character of the Renaissance. Those who ex- 

isTics op amine the architectural works of the 15th or 16th century 
sance should refrain from marring their enjoyment by the not al- 
Archi- together justifiable reflection, that in the Renaissance style 

tecture. n0 new system was invented, as the architects merely em- 
ployed the ancient elements, and adhered principally to tradition 
in their constructive principles and selection of component parts. 
Notwithstanding the apparent want of organisation, however, great 
beauty of form, the outcome of the most exuberant imagination, 
will be observed in all these structures. 

Throughout the diversified stages of development of the suc- 
ceeding styles of Renaissance architecture, felicity of proportion ia 
invariably the aim of all the great masters. To appreciate their 
success in this aim should also be regarded as the principal task of 
the spectator, who with this object in view will do well to compare 
a Gothic with a Renaissance structure. This comparison will prove 
to him that harmony of proportion is not the only effective element 
in architecture ; for, especially in the cathedrals of Germany, the 
exclusively vertical tendency, the attention to form without regard 
to measure , the violation of precepts of rhythm , and a disregard 
of proportion and the proper ratio of the open to the closed cannot 


fail to strike the eye. Even the unskilled amateur will thus be 
convinced of the abrupt contrast between the mediaeval and the 
Renaissance styles. Thus prepared, he may, for example, proceed 
to inspect the Pitti Palace at Florence , which , undecorated and 
unorganised as it is, would scarcely be distinguishable from a rude 
pile of stones, if a judgment were formed from the mere description. 
The artistic charm consists in the simplicity of the proportions, 
the justness of proportion in the elevation of the stories , and the 
tasteful adjustment of the windows in the vast surface of the fa- 
cade. That the architects thoroughly understood the aesthetic effect 
of symmetrical proportions is proved by the mode of construc- 
tion adopted in the somewhat more recent Florentine palaces , in 
which the roughly hewn blocks (rustica) in the successive stories 
recede in gradations, and by their careful experiments as to whether 
the cornice surmounting the structure should bear reference to the 
highest story , or to the entire facade. The same bias manifests 
itself in Bramante's imagination- and when, after the example of 
Palladio in church-facades , a single series of columns was sub- 
stituted for those resting above one another, symmetry of proportion 
was also the object in view. 

From the works of Brunelleschi (p. xlvi), the greatest master of 
the Early Renaissance, down to those of Andrea Palladio of Yi- 
cenza (p. xlviii), the last great architect of the Renaissance, the works 
of all the architects of that period will be found to possess many 
features in common. The style of the 15th century may, however, 
easily be distinguished from that of the 16th. The Flor- Eaelt Be- 
entine Pitti, Riccardi, and Strozzi palaces are still based on naissancb 
the type of the mediaeval castle , but other contemporary creations 
show a closer affinity to the forms and articulation of antique art. 
A taste for beauty of detail , coeval with the realistic tendency of 
painting, produces in the architecture of the 15th century an exten- 
sive application of graceful and attractive ornaments, which entirely 
cover the surfaces, and throw the real organisation of the edifice into 
the background. For a time the true aim of Renaissance art appears 
to have been departed from ; anxious care is devoted to detail instead 
of to general effect; the re-application of columns did not at first 
admit of spacious structures; the dome rose but timidly above the 
level of the roof. But this attention to minutiae, this disregard of 
effect on the part of these architects, was only, as it were, a re- 
straining of their power, in order the more completely to master, 
the more grandly to develop the art. 

There is no doubt that the Renaissance palaces (among which 
that of Urbino, mentioned in vol. ii of this Handbook, has always 
been regarded as pre-eminently typical) are more attractive than the 
churches. These last, however , though destitute of the venerable 
associations connected with the mediaeval cathedrals, bear ample 
testimony to the ability of their builder?. The churches of Northern 


Italy in particular axe worthy of examination. The first early Re- 
naissance work constructed in this part of the country was the facade 
of the Certosa ofPavia, a superb example of decorative architecture. 
Besides the marble edifices of this period we also observe structures 
in brick, in which the vaulting and pillars form prominent features. 
The favourite form was either circular or that of the Greek cross 
(with equal arms), the edifice being usually crowned with a dome, 
and displaying in its interior an exuberant taste for lavish enrich- 
ment. Of this type are the church of the Madonna della Croat near 
Crema and several others at Piacenza and Parma (Madonna della 
Steccata). It was in this region thatBRAMANTE prosecuted the studies 
of which Rome afterwards reaped the benefit. Among the secular 
buildings of N. Italy we may mention the Ospedale Maggiore at 
Milan, which shows the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. The 
best survey of the palatial edifices built of brick will be obtained 
by walking through the streets of Bologna (p. 362). 

The visitor to Venice will have an opportunity of tracing within 
a very limited space the progress of Renaissance architecture. The 
church of San Zaccaria is an example of early Renaissance still in 
conflict with Gothic, while the richly coloured church of Santa Maria 
dei Miracoli and the Scuola di San Marco exhibit the style in its 
perfection. Foremost among the architects of Venice must be 
mentioned the Lombardi, to whom most of the Venetian buildings 
of the 15th cent, are attributed; but we shall afterwards advert to 
the farther progress of Venetian architecture (p. xlviii). One of the 
most famous architects of N. Italy was Fra Giocondo of Verona 
(1435-1515), a monk, a philologist (the discoverer of the letters 
of the younger Pliny), a botanist, an engineer, and a thoroughly 
well trained architect, who at a very advanced age, after the death 
of Bramante, was summoned to Rome to superintend the building 
of St. Peter's. 

Examples of early Renaissance architecture abound in the towns 
of Tuscany. At Florence, the scene of Filippo Brunelleschi's 
labours (1379-1446), the attention is chiefly arrested by the church 
of San Lorenzo (1425), with its two sacristies (the earlier, after 
1421, by Brunelleschi, the later by Michael Angelo , which it is 
interesting to compare), while the small Cappella dei Pazzi near 
Santa Croce is also noticeable. The Palazzo Rucellai is also import- 
ant as showing the combination of pilasters with 'rustica' , the 
greatest advance achieved by the early Renaissance. Siena, with its 
numerous palaces, Pienza, the model of a Renaissance town, and 
TJrbino also afford excellent examples of the art of the Quattrocen- 
tists, but are beyond the limits of the present volume. While all 
these different edifices possess many features in common, they may 
be classed in a number of groups, differing in material and various 
other characteristics, and entirely relieving them from any reproach 
of monotony. 


The early Renaissance is succeeded by Bbamante's epoch (1444- 
1514), with which began the golden age of symmetrical construc- 
tion. With a wise economy the mere decorative portions zenith 
were circumscribed, while greater significance and more of the Re- 
marked expression were imparted to the true constituents NAISSANCE - 
of the structure , the real exponents of the architectural design. 
The works of the Bramantine era are less graceful and attractive 
than those of their predecessors, but superior in their well defined, 
lofty simplicity and finished character. Had the Church of St. Peter 
been completed in the form originally designed by Bramante , we 
could have pronounced a more decided opinion as to the ideal of the 
church-architecture of the Renaissance. The circumstance that the 
grandest work of this style has been subjected to the most varied 
alterations (and vastness of dimensions was the principal aim of the 
architects) teaches us to refrain from the indiscriminate blame which 
so commonly falls to the lot of Renaissance churches. It must at 
least be admitted that the favourite form of a Greek cross with 
rounded extremities, crowned by a dome, possesses concentrated 
unity, and that the pillar-construction relieved by niches presents 
a most majestic appearance; nor can it be disputed that in the 
churches of the Renaissance the same artistic principles are applied 
as in the universally admired palaces and secular edifices. If the 
former therefore excite less interest, this is not due to the in- 
feriority of the architects, but to causes beyond their control. The 
great masters of this culminating period of the Renaissance were 
Raphael, Baldassabe Pebuzzi, the younger Antonio da Sangallo 
of Rome, Michele Sanmicheli of Verona (p. 223), Jacopo Sanso- 
vino of Venice, and lastly Michael Angelo. The succeeding gener- 
ation of the 16th century did not adhere to the style introduced by 
Bramante, though not reduced by him to a finished system. They 
aim more sedulously at general effect, so that harmony among the 
individual members begins to be neglected ; they endeavour to arrest 
the eye by boldness of construction and striking contrasts ; or they 
borrow new modes of expression from antiquity, the precepts of 
which had hitherto been applied in an unsystematic manner only. 

The traveller will become acquainted with the works of Bramante 
and his contemporaries at Rome (see vol. ii of this Hand-p AM0CS p Ll> 
book), but there are other places also which possess important naissance 
examples of the 'High Renaissance' style. At Florence, for Buildings. 
example, are the Palazzo Pandolfini and the Palazzo Uguccioni, 
the former of which is said to have been designed by Raphael ; the 
Court of the Pitti Palace by Bart. Ammanati ; the Palazzo Serristori 
and the Palazzo Bartolini by Baccio d'Agnolo. We must also 
mention Mantua as the scene of the architectural labours of Giulio 
Romano (p. 236) , Verona with its numerous buildings by San- 
micheli (e.g. the Palazzo Bevilacqua~) , and Padua, where Gio- 
vanni Maria Falconetto (1458-1534) and Andrea Riccio , or 

xlviii ITALIAN ART. 

properly Briosco (Cappella del Santo) flourished. At Venice the Re- 
naissance culminated in the first half of the 16th cent, in the works 
of the Florentine Jacopo Sansovino (properly Tatti, 1486-1570), 
and at Genoa in those of Galeazzo Albssi (1500-1572) of Perugia 
(e.g. Santa Maria di Carignano). 

In the middle and latter half of the 16th cent, Venice, Genoa, 
Archi- ana " Vicenza were zealous patrons of art. To this period 

teotuke a-i belongs Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518-80; p. 243), 
Venice. t he } ast f t h e g rea t Renaissance architects, whose Venetian 
churches (San Giorgio Maggiore and Redentore) and Vicentine palaces 
are equally celebrated. The fundamental type of domestic archi- 
tecture at Venice recurs with little variation. The nature of the 
ground afforded little scope for the caprice of the architect, 
while the conservative spirit of the inhabitants inclined them to 
adhere to the style established by custom. Nice distinctions of style 
are therefore the more observable, and that which emanated from 
a pure sense of form the more appreciable. Those who have been 
convinced by careful comparison of the great superiority of the 
Biblioteca of Sansovino (in the Piazzetta ; p. 275) over the new 
Procurazie of Scamozzi (p. 271), although the two edifices exactly 
correspond in many respects, have made great progress towards an 
accurate insight into the architecture of the Renaissance. 

Much, however, would be lost by the traveller who devoted his 
Minor attention exclusively to the master-works which have been 

Works of extolled from time immemorial, or solely to the great mon- 
Abt * umental structures. As even the insignificant vases (ma- 

jolicas , manufactured at Pesaro , Urbino , Gubbio , Faenza , and 
Castel-Durante) testify to the taste of the Italians, their partiality 
for classical models, and their enthusiasm for purity of form, so 
also in inferior works, some of which fall within the province of a 
mere handicraft, the peculiar beauties of the Renaissance style are 
often detected , and charming specimens of architecture are some- 
times discovered in remote corners of Italian towns. Nor must the 
vast domain of decorative sculpture be disregarded, as such works, 
whether in metal, stone, or stucco, inlaid or carved wood (intarsia), 
often verge on the sphere of architecture in their designs, drawing, 
and style of enrichment. 

On the whole it may be asserted that the architecture of the Re- 
naissance , which in obedience to the requirements of modern life 

Sculpture manifests its greatest excellence in secular structures, cannot 

ok the Re- fail to gratify the taste of the most superficial observer. 

naissance. With the sculpture of the same period, however, the case is 
different. The Italian architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries 
still possesses a practical value and is frequently imitated at the 
present day ; and painting undoubtedly attained its highest con- 
summation at the same period; but the sculpture of the Renais- 
sance does not appear to us worthy of revival, and indeed cannot 


compete with that of antiquity. Yet the plastic art ; far from 
enjoying a lower degree of favour, was rather viewed by the ar- 
tists of that age as the proper centre of their sphere of activity. 
Sculpture was the first art in Italy which was launched into the 
stream of the Renaissance, in its development it was ever a step 
in advance of the other arts, and in the popular opinion possessed 
the advantage of most clearly emhodying the current ideas of the 
age, and of affording the most brilliant evidence of the re-awakened 
love of art. Owing probably to the closeness of the connection be- 
tween the plastic art of the Renaissance and the peculiar national 
culture, the former lost much of its value after the decline of the 
latter, and was less appreciated than pictorial and architectural 
works, in which adventitious historical origin is obviously less im- 
portant than general effect. In tracing the progress of the sculpture 
of the Renaissance, the enquirer at once encounters serious de- 
viations from strict precepts, and numerous infringements of aesthetic 
rules. The execution of reliefs constitutes by far the widest sphere 
of action of the Italian sculptors of the 15th century. These, 
however, contrary to immemorial usage, are executed in a pictorial 
style. Lobenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455), for example, in his cel- 
ebrated (eastern) door of the Baptistery of Florence . is not satis- 
fled with grouping the figures as in a painting , and placing them 
in a rich landscape copied from nature. He treats the background 
in accordance with the., rules of perspective ; the figures at a dis- 
tance are smaller and less raised than those in the foreground. 
He oversteps the limits of the plastic art, and above all violates 
the laws of the relief-style, according to which the figures are 
always represented in an imaginary space , and the usual system 
of a mere design in profile seldom departed from. In like manner 
the painted reliefs in terracotta by Ltjca della Robbia (1399-1482) 
are somewhat inconsistent with purity of plastic form. But if 
it be borne in mind that the sculptors of the Renaissance did not 
derive their ideas from a previously defined system, or adhere to 
abstract rules , the fresh and lifelike vigour of their works (espe- 
cially those of the 15th century) will not be disputed, and pre- 
judice will be dispelled by the great attractions of the reliefs 
themselves. The sculpture of the Renaissance adheres as strictly 
as the other arts to the fundamental principle of representation; 
scrupulous care is bestowed on the faithful and attractive ren- 
dering of the individual objects; the taste is gratified by express- 
ive heads, graceful female figures, and joyous children ; the sculp- 
tors have a keen appreciation of the beauty of the nude, and 
the importance of a calm and dignified flow of drapery. In their 
anxiety for fidelity of representation, however, they do not shrink 
from harshness of expression or rigidity of form. Their predi- 
lection for bronze-casting, an art which was less in vogue in the 
16th cent., accords with their love of individualising their charact- 
Baedeker. Ttalv T. 12th Edit. rl . 


eT9. In this material, decision and pregnancy of form are expressed 
without restraint, and almost, as it were, spontaneously. Works in 
marble also occur, but these generally trench on the province of 
decoration, and seldom display the bold and unfettered aspirations 
which are apparent in the works in bronze. 

The churches have always afforded the most important field for 
the labours of the Italian sculptors, some of them, such as Santa 
Croce at Florence, the Frari and Santi Giovanni e Paolo at Venice, 
and Sanf Antonio at Padua, forming very museums of Renaissance 
sculpture. At the same time many of the wealthier families (the 
Medici and others) embellished their mansions with statuary, and 
the art of the sculptor was frequently invoked with a view to erect 
a fitting tribute to the memory of some public benefactor (such as 
the equestrian statues at Venice and Padua~). 

At Florence , the cradle of Renaissance sculpture , we become 
Sculptors acquainted with Ghiberti and Delia Robbia, who have been 
of the Re- already mentioned , and with the famous Donatello (pro- 
naissance. p er iy Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi, 1386-1466), who 
introduced a naturalistic style, which, though often harsh, is full 
of life and character. The Judith Group in the Loggia de' Lanzi 
is an exaggerated and unpleasing example of this style, the master 
having aimed at the utmost possible expressiveness, while the lines 
and contours are entirely destitute of ease. Among Donatello's 
most successful works on the other hand are # his statue of St. George 
and his Victorious David in bronze in the Museo Nazionale (p. 473), 
a collection invaluable to the student of the early Renaissance. The 
reliefs on the two pulpits in San Lorenzo and the sculptures in the 
sacristy of that church (p. 500) should also be inspected. Dona- 
tello's finest works out of Florence are his numerous sculptures in 
Sant' Antonio at Padua. 

The next sculptor of note was Andrea Verrocchio (1435-88). 
Most of the other masters of this period (Antonio Rossellino, 
Mino da Fiesole, Desiderio da Settignano) were chiefly oc- 
cupied in the execution of tombstones , and do not occupy a 
position of much importance; but the life and sense of beauty which 
characterise the early Renaissance are admirably exemplified in the 
works of the comparatively unknown Matteo Civitali of Lucca 
(p. 416).- Important Florentine masters of the first half of the 
16th cent, were Giov. Franc. Rustici (1474-1554), who was perhaps 
inspired by Leonardo da Vinci, and particularly Andrea Sansovino 
(1460-1529), the author of the exquisite group of Christ and the Bap- 
tist in the Baptistery at Florence, of superb monuments at Rome (in 
the choir of S. Maria del Popolo), and of part of the sculptures which 
adorn the Santa Casa near Ancona. Northern Italy also contributed 
largely to the development of the plastic art. The Certosa at Pavia, 
for example, afforded occupation during several decades to numerous 
artists, among whom the most eminent were Giovanni Antonio 


Amadeo (creator of the Cappella Colleoni at Bergamo), and, at a 
later period, Cristofobo Solari, surnamed II Gobbo ; Venice 
abounds in works by the Lombardi, including Albssandro Leo- 
fardi (d. 1522), the most famous sculptor of his period; Riccio or 
Briosco (p. xlvii) wrought at Padua ; Agostino Busti, il Bambaja 
(ca. 1480-1548), and the above-mentioned Cristoforo Solari, were 
actively engaged, at Milan ; and Modena afforded employment to 
Mazzoni and Begabelli (p. 348), artists in terracotta. 

Among the various works executed by these masters, Monumental 
Tombs largely predominate. While these monuments are often of 
a somewhat bombastic character , they afford an excellent illus- 
tration of the high value attached to individuality and personal 
culture during the Renaissance period. We may perhaps also fre- 
quently take exception to the monotony of their style, which 
remained almost unaltered for a whole century, but we cannot fail 
to derive genuine pleasure from the inexhaustible freshness of 
imagination and richness of detail displayed within so narrow limits. 

As museums cannot convey an adequate idea of the sculpture 
of the 15th century, so the picture galleries will not afford an 
accurate insight into the painting of that period. Sculp- p AlinM 
tures are frequently removed from their original position, of the Cin- 
many of those belonging to the Florentine churches, for Quecen-to. 
example , having been of late transferred to museums ; but mural 
paintings are of course generally inseparable from the walls which 
they adorn. Of the frescoes of the 15th century of which a record has 
been preserved, perhaps one-half have been destroyed or obliterated, 
but those still extant are the most instructive and attractive ex- 
amples of the art of this period. The mural paintings in the church 
of Santa Maria del Carmine (Cappella Brancacci) at Florence (p. 509) 
are usually spoken of as the earliest specimens of thepainting of 
the Renaissance. On material grounds the classification is justifiable, 
as this cycle of pictures may be regarded as a programme of the 
earlier art of the Renaissance, the importance of which it served to 
maintain, even during the age of Raphael. Here the beauty of the 
nude was first revealed, and here a calm dignity was for the first 
time imparted to the individual figures, as well as to the general 
arrangement ; and the transformation of a group of indifferent specta- 
tors in the composition into a sympathising choir, forming. as it were 
a frame to the principal actors in the scene, was first successfully 
effected. It is, therefore, natural that these frescoes should still be 
regarded as models for imitation, and that, when the attention of 
connoisseurs was again directed during the 18th century to the 
beauties of the pre-Raphaelite period, the works of Masolino (?) 
and Masaccio (1401-28) should have been eagerly rescued from 

A visit to the churches and convents of Florence is well calculated 
to convey an idea of the subsequent rapid development of the art of 



painting, and of the diversified and widely ramitling tendences, 
which originally had their root in one and the same impulse or 
principle. The ancient convent of Sanf Apollonia (p. 497) contains 
the most important works of Andrea del Castagno (1390-1457), 
who is second only to Masaccio as a representative of the older 
generation. In the Dominican monastery of San Marco reigns the pious 
and peaceful genius of Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole (1387- 
1455), who, though inferior to his contemporaries in dramatic power, 
vies with the best of them in his depth of sentiment and his sense of 
beauty, as expressed more particularly by his heads, and who in 
his old age displayed his well-matured art in the frescoes of the 
chapel of St. Nicholas in the Vatican. Most important and extensive 
works are those of Domenico Ghirlandajo (1449-94) : viz. 
P Flomhtcb? tte frescoes in Santa Trinita, and those in the choir of Santa 
' Maria Novella, which in sprightliness of conception and in 
grace of representation are hardly surpassed by any other work of 
the same period. (The traveller will find it very instructive to 
compare the former of these works with the mural paintings of 
Giotto in Santa Croce, which also represent the legend of St. Francis, 
and to draw a parallel between Ghirlandajo's Last Supper in the 
. church of Ognissanti, and the work of Leonardo da Vinci.) 

Although the Tuscan painters exhibit their art to its fullest 

extent in their mural paintings, their easel-pictures are also well 

worthy of most careful examination ; for it was chiefly through these 

that they gradually attained to perfection in imparting beauty and 

dignity to the human form. Besides the two great Florentine galleries 

(Uffizi and Pitti), the collection of the Academy (p. 492) is also well 

calculated to afford a survey of the progress of Florentine painting. 

Beyond the precincts of Florence, Benozzo Gozzoli's charming 

scenes from Jthe Old Testament on the northern wall of the Campo 

Painting in Santo of Pisa (p. 409), truly forming biblical genre-pictures, 

othee Paets and his scenes from the life of St. Augustine in San Gimi- 

of Tuscant. g nan0t) Filippo Lippi's frescoes at Prato (p. 428), Piero 

della Francesca's Finding of the Cross in San Francesco at Arezzo 

(p. 534), and lastly Luca Signorelli's representation of the Last 

Day in the Cathedral at Orvieto, afford a most admirable review of 

the character and development of Renaissance painting in Central 

Italy. Those who cannot conveniently visit the provincial towns 

will find several of the principal masters of the 15th century united 

in the mural paintings of the Sistine Chapel at Rome, where Sandro 

Botticelli (1446-1510), a pupil of the elder Lippi, Cosimo Rosselli, 

Dom.Ghirlandajo, Signorelli, and Perugino (p. liii) have executed a 

number of rich compositions from the life of Moses and that of Christ. 

But an acquaintance with the Tuscan schools alone can never 

suffice to enable one to form a judgment respecting the general 

Othee progress of art in Italy. Chords which are here but slightly 

Schools, touched vibrate powerfully in Upper Italy. The works of 


Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506 ; at Padua and Mantua) derive 
much interest from having exercised a marked influence on the 
German masters Holbein andDiirer, and surpass all the other works 
of his time in fidelity to nature and excellence of perspective 
(p. 222). — The earlier masters of the Venetian School (Vivarini, 
Crivelli) were to some extent adherents of the Paduan school, to 
which Mantegna belonged, but the peculiar Venetian style, mainly 
founded on local characteristics, and admirably successful in its rich 
portraiture of noble and dignified personages, was soon afterwards 
elaborated by Gentile Bellini (1427-1507) and his brother Gio- 
vanni (1428-1516), sons of Giacomo. — The TJmbrian School also, 
which originated at Gubbio, aiid is admirably represented early in 
the 15th century by Ottaviano Nelli, blending with the Tuscan 
school in Gentile da Fabriano (ca. 1370-1423) and culminating 
in its last masters Pietro Vanucci, surnamed Perugino (1446- 
1524), and Bernardino Betti, surnamed Pinturicchio (1454- 
1513), merits attention, not only because Raphael was one of its 
adherents during his first period , but because it supplements the 
broader Florentine style, and notwithstanding its peculiar and limit- 
ed bias is impressive in its character of lyric sentiment and relig- 
ious devotion (e. g. Madonnas). 

The fact that the various points of excellence were distributed 
among different local schools showed the necessity of a loftier union. 
Transcendent talent was requisite in order harmoniously to tjnion of 
combine what could hitherto be viewed separately only, different 
The 15th century, notwithstanding all its attractiveness, Schools. 
shows that the climax of art was still unattained. The forms em- 
ployed, graceful and pleasing though they be, are not yet lofty and 
pure enough to be regarded a3 embodiments of the highest and 
noblest conceptions. The figures still present a local colouring, 
having been selected by the artists as physically attractive , rather 
than as characteristic and expressive of their ideas. A portrait style 
still predominates , the actual representation does not appear 
always wisely balanced with the internal significance of the event, 
and the dramatic element is insufficiently emphasised. The most 
abundant scope was therefore now afforded for the labours of the 
great triumvirate, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo Buonar- 
roti, and Raphael Santi, by whom an entirely new era was in- 

Leonardo's (1452-1519) remarkable character can only be thor- 
oughly understood after prolonged study. His comprehensive 
genius was only partly devoted to art; he also directed Leonardo 
his attention to scientific and practical pursuits of an entirely DA Vinci. 
different nature. Refinement and versatility may be described as 
the goal of his aspirations; a division of labour, a partition 
of individual tasks were principles unknown to him. He laid, 
as it were, his entire personality into the scale in all that he 


undertook. He regarded careful physical training as scarcely less 
important than comprehensive culture of the mind ; the vigour of 
his imagination served also to stimulate the exercise of his intellect ; 
and his minute ohservation of nature developed his artistic taste and 
organ of form. One is frequently tempted to regard Leonardo's 
works as mere studies , in which he tested his powers, and which 
occupied his attention so far only as they gratified his love of 
investigation and experiment. At all events his personal impor- 
tance has exercised a greater influence than his productions as 
an artist, especially as his prejudiced age strenuously sought to 
ohliterate all trace of the latter. Few of Leonardo's works 
have been preserved in Italy , and these sadly marred by neglect. 
A reminiscence of his earlier period, when he wrought under 
Andrea Verrocchio at Florence, and was a fellow-pupil of Lo- 
renzo di Credi, is the Annunciation in the Uffizi (p. 465) , if it 
be a genuine work. Several oil-paintings, portraits (e. g. the two 
fine works in the Ambrosiana at Milan, p. 134), Madonnas, and 
imaginative works are attributed to his Milan period, although 
careful research inclines us to attribute them to his pupils. Un- 
adulterated pleasure may, however, be taken in his drawings in 
the Ambrosiana, the Venice Academy (p. 286), and the Uffizi. Two 
unfinished paintings, the Adoration of the Magi in the Uffizi (p. 464), 
which bears ample testimony to the fertility of his imagination, and 
the St. Jerome in the Vatican, afford an insight into his technique. 
The best idea of his reforms in the art of colouring is obtained by 
an attentive examination of the works of the Milan school (Luini, 
Salaino; p. 117), as these are far better preserved than the only 
undoubted work of Leonardo's Milan period in Italy: the Last 
Supper in Santa Maria delle Grazie (p. 136). Although now a total 
wreck, it is still well calculated to convey an idea of the new 
epoch of Leonardo, especially to those who have studied Morghen's 
engraving of the picture. The spectator should first examine the 
delicate equilibrium of the composition, and observe how the in- 
dividual groups are complete in themselves, and yet simultaneously 
point to a common centre and impart a monumental character to 
the work; then the remarkable physiognomical fidelity which 
pervades every detail, the psychological distinctness of character, 
and the dramatic life, together with the calmness of the entire 
bearing of the picture. He will then comprehend that with Leonardo 
a new era in Italian painting was inaugurated , that the devel- 
opment of art had attained its perfection. 

The accuracy of this assertion will perhaps be doubted by the 

amateur when he turns from Leonardo to Michael Angelo (1475- 

Michael 1564). On the one hand he hears Michael Angelo extolled 

Angelo. a s the most celebrated artist of the Renaissance, while 

on the other it is said that he exercised a prejudicial influence 

on Italian art, and was the precursor of the decline of sculpture 


and painting. Nor is an inspection of this illustrious master's 
works calculated to dispel trie doubt. Unnatural and arbitrary 
features often appear in juxtaposition with what is perfect , pro- 
foundly significant, and faithfully conceived. As in the case of 
Leonardo, we shall rind that it is only by studying the master's bio- 
graphy that we can obtain an explanation of these anomalies , and 
reach a true appreciation of Michael Angelo's artistic greatness. 
Educated as a sculptor, he exhibits partiality to the nude , and 
treats the drapery in many respects differently from his professional 
brethren. But. like them, his aim is to inspire his figures with life, 
and he seeks to attain it by imparting to them an imposing and im- 
pressive character. At the same time he occupies an isolated position, 
at variance with many of the tendencies of his age. Naturally pre- 
disposed to melancholy, concealing a gentle and almost effeminate 
temperament beneath a mask of austerity, Michael Angelo was con- 
firmed in his peculiarities by the political and ecclesiastical circum- 
stances of his time, and wrapped himself up within the depths of 
bis own absorbing thoughts. His sculpture most clearly manifests 
that profound sentiment to which, however, he often sacrificed sym- 
metry of form. His figures are therefore anomalous , exhibiting a 
grand conception, but no distinct or tangible thoughts, and least of 
all the traditional ideas. It is difficult now to fathom the hidden 
sentiments which the master intended to embody in his statues and 
pictures; his imitators seem to have seen in them nothing but massive 
and clumsy forms, and soon degenerated into meaningless mannerism. 
The deceptive effect produced by Michael Angelo's style is best ex- 
emplified by some of his later works. His Moses in San Pietro in 
Vincoli is of impossible proportions ; such a man can never have 
existed; the small head, the huge arms, and the gigantic torso are 
utterly disproportionate ; the robe which falls over the celebrated 
knee could not be folded as it is represented. Nevertheless the 
work is grandly impressive ; and so also are the Monuments of the 
Medici in the New Sacristy of San Lorenzo at Florence (p. 500"), 
in spite of the forced attitude and arbitrary moulding of some of 
the figures. Michael Angelo only sacrifices accuracy of detail in 
order to enhance the aggregate effect. Had so great and talented a 
master not presided over the whole, the danger of an inflated style 
would have been incurred, the forms selected would have been 
exaggerated, and a professional mannerism would have been the 
result. Michael Angelo's numerous pupils, in their anxiety to 
follow the example of his Last Judgment in the Sistine, succeeded 
only in representing complicated groups of unnaturally foreshort- 
ened nude figures, while Baecio Bandinelli, thinking even to surpass 
Michael Angelo, produced in his group of Hercules and Cacus (in 
the Piazza della Sigrroria at Florence) a mere caricature of his model. 
Michael Angelo lived and worked at Florence and Rome alter- 
nately. We find him already in Rome at the age of 21 years (1496), 


as Florence, after the banishment of the Medici, offered no favour- 
able field for the practice of art. Here he chiselled the Pieth and 
the Bacchus. In the beginning of the 16th cent, he returned to his 
home, where he produced his David and began work on the cycle 
of frescoes destined for tbe great hall of the Palazzo Vecchio 
{Battle Cartoon, see p. 446). In 1505 the Pope recalled him to 
Rome, but the work entrusted to him there, the Tomb of Julius II., 
was at this time little more than begun. The Ceiling Paintings in 
the Sistine Chapel absorbed his whole attention from 1508 to 1512. 
After the death of Julius, his monument was resumed on a more 
extensive scale. The commands of the new pope, LeoX., however, 
who wished to employ the artist for the glorification of his own 
family, soon brought the ambitiously designed memorial once more 
to a standstill. From 1516 onwards Michael Angelo dwelt at Carrara 
and Florence, occupied at first with the construction and embellish- 
ment of the Facade of San Lorenzo, which was never completed, 
and then with the Tombs of the Medici. This work also advanced 
very slowly towards maturity, and at last the artist, disgusted with 
the tyranny of the Medici, set up in their places those of the statues 
which were finished, and'migrated to Rome (about 1534). His first 
work here was the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, his next 
the erection of the scanty fragments of the tomb of Pope Julius. 
His last years were mainly devoted to architecture (St. Peters). 

Amateurs will best be enabled to render justice to Michael 
Angelo by first devoting their attention to his earlier works, 
among which in the province of sculpture the group of the Pieta 
in St. Peter's occupies the highest rank. The statues of Bacchus 
and David (at Florence; pp. 473, 493) likewise do not transgress 
the customary precepts of the art of the Renaissance. Paintings of 
Michael Angelo's earlier period are rare ; the finest, whether con- 
ceived in the midst of his youthful studies, or in his maturer years, 
is unquestionably the ceiling-painting in the Sistine. The architec- 
tural arrangement of the ceiling, and the composition of the several 
pictures are equally masterly ; the taste and discrimination of the 
painter and sculptor are admirably combined. In God the Father, 
Michael Angelo produced a perfect type of its kind; he under- 
stood how to inspire with dramatic life the abstract idea of the 
act of creation, which he conceived as motion. In the prophets and 
sibyls, notwithstanding the apparent monotony of the fundamental 
intention (foreshadowing of the Redemption), a great variety of 
psychological incidents are displayed and embodied in distinct 
characters. Lastly, in the so-called Ancestors of Christ, the forms 
represented are the genuine emanations of Michael Angelo's genius, 
pervaded by his profound and sombre sentiments, and yet by no 
means destitute of gracefulness and beauty. The decorative figures 
also which he designed to give life to his architectural frame-work 
are wonderfully beautiful and spirited. The Last Judgment, which 


was executed nearly thirty years later (in 1534-41), is not nearly 
so striking as the ceiling-paintings, owing in a great measure to its 
damaged condition. — Among: Michael Angelo's pupils were Sebas- 
tian del Piombo [pp. lxi, 268), Mabcello Vekusti, and Daniele 


Whether the palm he due to Michael Angelo or to Raphael (1483- 
1520) among the artists of Italy is a question which formerly gave 
rise to vehement discussion among artists and amateurs. p APHAEL 
The admirer of Michael Angelo need, however, hy no means 
he precluded from enjoying the works of Raphael. We now know 
that it is far more advantageous to form an acquaintance with 
each master in his peculiar province, than anxiously to weigh 
their respective merits ; and the more minutely we examine their 
works, the more firmly we are persuaded that neither in any way 
ohstructed the progress of the other , and that a so-called higher 
comhination of the two styles was impossible. Michael Angelo's 
unique position among his contemporaries was such, that no one, 
Raphael not excepted , was entirely exempt from his influence ; 
hut the result of preceding development was turned to the best 
account , not hy him , but hy Raphael , whose susceptible and 
discriminating character enahled him at once to combine different 
tendencies within himself, and to avoid the faults of his pre- 
decessors. Raphael's pictures are replete with indications of pro- 
found sentiment, hut his imagination was so constituted that he did 
not distort the ideas which he had to emhody in order to accommo- 
date them to his own views, hut rather strove to identify himself 
with them, and to reproduce them with the utmost fidelity. In the 
case of Raphael, therefore, a knowledge of his works and the en- 
joyment of them are almost inseparable, and it is difficult to point 
out any single sphere with which he was especially familiar. Ho 
presents to us with equal enthusiasm pictures of the Madonna, ami 
the myth of Cupid aiid Psyche; in great cyclic compositions he is 
as brilliant as in the limited sphere of portrait-painting; at one 
time he appears to attach paramount importance to strictness of 
style, architectural arrangement, symmetry of groups, etc. ; at other 
times one is tempted to helieve that he regarded colour as his most 
effective auxiliary. His excellence consists in his rendering equal 
justice to the most varied suhjects, and in each case as unhesitat- 
ingly pursuing the right course, hoth in his apprehension of the 
idea and selection of form, as if he had never followed any other. 

Little is known of Raphael's private life , nor is it known by 
what master he was trained after the death of Giovanni, his father 
(1494). In 1500 he entered the studio, of Perugino (p. liii), and 
probably soon assisted in the execution of some of the works of his 
prolific master. Of Raphael's early or Umbrian period there are 
examples in the Vatican Gallery (Coronation of Mary) and the BreTa 
at Milan (Spomlizio of the Madonna, 1504). On settling at Florence 


(1504) Raphael did not at first abandon the style he had learned at 
Perugia , and which he had carried to greater perfection than any 
of the other Umbrian masters. Many of the pictures he painted 
there show that he still followed the precepts of his first master ; 
but he soon yielded to the influence of his Florentine training. 
After the storm raised by Savonarola had passed over, glorious days 
were in store for Florence. Leonardo, after his return from Milan, 
and Michael Angelo were engaged here on their cartoons for the 
decoration of the great hall in the Palazzo Vecchio (p. 446) ; and it 
was their example, and more particularly the stimulating influence 
of Leonardo, that awakened the genius and called forth the highest 
energies of all their younger contemporaries. 

The fame of the Florentine school was at this period chiefly 
R phael 1 maintained by Fra Bartolomeo (1475-1517) and Andrea 
Florentine del Sarto (1487-1531). The only works of Bartolomeo 
Oontempob- which we know are somewhat spiritless altar-pieces, but they 
aries. exhibit in a high degree the dignity of character, the tran- 
quillity of expression, and the architectural symmetry of grouping 
in which he excelled. His finest pictures are the Christ with the four 
Saints, the Descent from the Cross (or Pieta), the St. Mark in the Pitti 
Gallery, and the Madonna in the cathedral at Lucca. The traveller 
would not do justice to Andrea del Sarto, a master of rich colouring, 
were he to confine his attention to that artist's works in the two 
great Florentine galleries. Sarto's Frescoes in the Annunziata 
(p. 483) and in the Scalzo (History of John the Baptist, p. 497) are 
among the finest creations of the cinquecento. Such, too, was the 
stimulus given to the artists of this period by their great contem- 
poraries at Florence that even those of subordinate merit have occa- 
sionally produced works of the highest excellence, as, for instance, 
the Salutation of Albertinelli and the Zenobius pictures of Ri- 
dolfo Ghirlandajo in the Uffizi. The last masters of the local 
Florentine school were Pontormo and Angelo Bronzino. 

Raphael's style was more particularly influenced by his relations 
to Fra Bartolomeo, and the traveller will find it most interesting 
to compare their works and to determine to what extent each derived 
suggestions from the other. The best authenticated works in 
Italy of Raphael's Florentine period are the Madonna del Granduca 
(Pitti), the Madonna del Cardellino (Uffizi), the Entombment (Gal. 
Borghese in Rome), the Predelle in the Vatican, the portraits of 
Angelo and Maddalena Doni (Pitti) , and the Portrait of Himself 
(Uffizi; p. 458). The Portrait of a Lady in the Pitti gallery is of 
doubtful origin, and the Madonna del Baldacchino in the same gal- 
lery was only begun by Raphael. 

When Raphael went to Rome in 1508 he found a large circle 

Raphael's of notable artists already congregated there. Some of these 

Roman were deprived of their employment by his arrival, including 

Period. Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, surnamed II Sodoma (ca. 1477- 


1549) , whose frescoes in the Farnesina (unfortunately not now 
accessible) vie with Raphael's works in tenderness and grace. A 
still more numerous circle of pupils, however, soon assembled around 
Raphael himself, such as Giulio Romano, Perin del Vaga, An- 
drea da Salerno, Polidoro da Caravaggio, Timoteo Viti or 
della Vite, Garofalo, Franc. Penni, and Giovanni da Udine. 
Attended by this distinguished retinue , Raphael enjoyed all the 
honours of a prince, although , in the Roman art world, Bramante 
(p. xlvii) and Michael Angela occupied an equally high rank. The 
latter did not, however, trench on Raphael's province as a painter 
so much as was formerly supposed, and the jealousy of each other 
which they are said to have entertained was probably chiefly confined 
to their respective followers. Raphael had doubtless examined the 
ceiling of the Sistine with the utmost care, and was indebted to 
Michael Angelo for much instruction ; but it is very important to 
note that he neither followed in the footsteps, nor suffered his native 
genius to be biassed in the slightest degree by the example of his 
great rival. A signal proof of this independence is afforded by the 
Sibyls which he painted in the church of Santa Maria della Pace in 
1514, and which, though conceived in a very different spirit from 
the imposing figures in the Sistine, are not the less admirable. In 
order duly to appreciate the works produced by Raphael during his 
Roman period, the traveller should chiefly direct his attention to 
the master's frescoes. The Stanze in the Vatican, the Tapestry, the 
Logge, the finest work of decorative art in existence, the Dome 
Mosaics in Santa Maria del Popolo (Capp. Chigi), and the Galatea 
and Myth of Psyche in the Farnesina together constitute the treasure 
bequeathed to Rome by the genius of the prince of painters. (Far- 
ther particulars as to these works will be found in the second volume 
of this Handbook.) 

Many, and some of the best , of Raphael's easel-pictures of his 
Roman period are now beyond the Alps. Italy, however, still pos- 
sesses the Madonna della Sedia , the most mundane , but most 
charming of his Madonnas (Pitti), the Madonna delV Impannata 
(Pitti), the Madonna col Divino Amore (Naples), the Madonna di 
Foligno and the Transfiguration ("in the Vatican), St. Cecilia (Bo- 
logna), and the Young St. John (Uffizi). The finest of his portraits 
are those of Pope Julius II. (Uffizi) and Leo X. with two Cardinals 
(Pitti). Besides these works we must also mention the so-called 
Fornarina (in the Pal. Barberini at Rome), and the Portrait of a 
Lady (Pitti, No. 245), which may represent the same original and 
also recalls the Sistine Madonna. 

After Raphael's death the progress of art did not merely come 
to a standstill, but a period of rapid Decline set in. The conquest 
and plundering of Rome in 1527 entirely paralysed all artistic effort 
for a time. At first this misfortune proved a boon to other parts of 
Italy. Raphael's pupils migrated from Rome to various provincial 


towns. Giulio Romano, for example, entered the service of the 

Duke of Mantua, embellished his palace with paintings, and 
P jKouire. F desi £ ned tne Palazzo del Te (p. 240), while Perin del Vaga 

settled at Genoa (Pal. Doria). These offshoots of Raphael's 
school, however, soon languished, and ere long ceased to exist. 

The Northern Schools of Italy , on the other hand , retained 
their vitality and independence for a somewhat longer period. At 
Bologna the local style, modified by the influence of Raphael, 

was successfully practised by Bart. Ramenghi, surnamed 
S N H i?alt° F Bagnacavallo (1484-1542). Ferrara boasted of Dosso 

Dossi (ca. 1479-1542) and Benvenuto Tisi, surnamed Garo- 
palo (1481-1559). At Verona the reputation of the school was 
maintained by Francesco Caroto (1470-1546) and Paolo Moranda, 
surnamed Cavazzola (1486-1522). 

The most important works produced in Northern Italy were those 

of Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (1494-1534), and of 

Correggio tne Venetian masters. Those who visit Parma after Rome 

and Florence will certainly be disappointed with the pic- 
tures of Correggio. They will discover a realistic tendency in his 
works, and they will observe, not only that his treatment of space 
(as in the perspective painting of domes) is unrefined , but that 
Ms individual figures possess little attraction beyond mere natural 
charms, and that their want of repose is apt to displease and fatigue 
the eye. The fact is, that Correggio was not a painter of all-em- 
bracing genius and far-reaching culture , but merely an adept in 
chiaroscuro, who left all the other resources of his art undeveloped. 
In examining the principal works of the Venetian School, how- 
ever, the traveller will experience no such dissatisfaction (comp. 

p. 268). From the school of Giovanni Bellini (p. lii) emanated 
School* tne S reatest representatives of Venetian painting — Gior- 

gione, properly Barbarelli (1477?-1510), whose works 
have unfortunately not yet been sufficiently well identified, the 
elder Palma (1480-1528) , and Tiziano VeceUio (1477-1576), who 
for nearly three quarters of a century maintained his native style at 
its culminating point. These masters are far from being mere colo- 
rists ; nor do they owe their peculiar attraction to local inspiration 
alone. The enjoyment of life and pleasure which they so happily 
pourtray is a theme dictated by the culture of the Renaissance (a 
culture possessed in an eminent degree by Titian, as indicated by 
his intimacy with the 'divine' Aretino). Their serene and joyous 
characters often recall some of the ancient gods, showing the manner 
in which the artists of the Renaissance had profited by the revived 
study of the antique. Properly to appreciate Titian it is of impor- 
tance to remember how much of his activity was displayed in the 
service of the different courts. His connection with the family of 
Este began at an early period; he carried on an active intercourse 
with the Gonzagas at Mantua, and executed numerous pictures for 


them. Later he basked in the favour of Charles V. and Philip II. of 
Spain. The natural result of this was that the painting of portraits 
and of mythological subjects engrossed the greater part of his time 
and talents. That Titian's genius, however, was by no means alien 
to religion and deep feeling in art, and that his imagination was as 
rich and powerful in this field as in pourtraying realistic and sen- 
sually attractive forms of existence, is proved by his ecclesiastical 
paintings, of which the finest are the Pesaro Madonna (p. 311), the 
Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (p. 301), the Presentation in the Temple 
(p. 290), and the Assumption (p. 285) at Venice. 

Owing to the soundness of the principles on which the Venetian 
school was based, there is no wide gulf between its masters of the 
highest and those of secondary rank , as is so often the case in the 
other Italian schools ; and we accordingly find that works by Lo- 
renzo Lotto, Sebastian del Piombo (p. lvii), the Bonifazios, Poe- 
denone, Pabis Bobdone, and Jacopo Tintoeetto frequently vie 
in beauty with those of the more renowned chiefs of their school. 
Even Paolo Caliaei, surnamed Veeonese (1528-88), the last great 
master of his school, shows as yet no trace of the approaching 
period of decline , but continues to delight the beholder with his 
delicate silvery tints and the spirit and richness of his compositions. 

Correggio, as well as subsequent Venetian masters, were fre- 
quently taken as models by the Italian painters of the 17th century, 
and the influence they exercised could not fail to be de- 
tected even by the amateur, if the entire post-Raphaelite jjeclixe 1 
period were not usually overlooked. Those, however, who 
make the great cinquecentists their principal study will doubtless 
be loth to examine the works of their successors. Magnificent de- 
corative works are occasionally encountered, but the taste is 
offended by the undisguised love of pomp and superficial man- 
nerism which they generally display. Artists no longer ear- 
nestly identify themselves with the ideas they embody; they 
mechanically reproduce the customary themes, they lose the desire, 
and finally the ability to compose independently. They are, more- 
over, deficient in taste for beauty of form, which, as is well known, 
is most attractive when most simple and natural. Their technical 
skill is not the result of mature experience, slowly acquired and 
justly valued : they came into easy possession of great resources of 
art, which they frivolously and unworthily squander. The quaint, 
the extravagant, the piquant alone stimulates their taste ; rapidity, 
not excellence of workmanship, is their aim. Abundant specimens 
of this mannerism, exemplified in the works of Zuccaeo, d'Abpino, 
Tempesta , and others, are encountered at Rome and Florence 
(cupola of the cathedral). The fact that several works of this 
class produce a less unfavourable impression does not alter their 
general position , as it is not want of talent so much as of con- 
scientiousness which is attributed to these artists. 



Among the best works on Italian art are MorellCs Italian Paint- 
ers; Crowe $ Cavalcaselle's History of Painting in Italy and History 
of Painting in North Italy; Kugler's Handbook of Painting (new 
edit, by Sir H. Layard); Mrs. Jamesons Lives of the Italian Paint- 
ers; the various writings of Dr. Jean Paul Richter; and the works 
of Mr. C. C. Perkins on Italian Sculpture. A convenient and trust- 
worthy manual for the traveller in Italy is Burckhardt's Cicerone 
(translated by Mrs. A. H. Clough). 

Ambo, Ambonei 

Apse or Tribuna, semicircular or poly- 
gonal ending of a church, generally 
at its E. end. 

Attic, a low upper story, usually with 

Badia, Abbazia, an abbey. 

Basilica, a church with a high nave, 
ending in an apse and flanked by 
lower aisles. For the early-Chris- 
tian basilica, comp. p. xxxiv. 

Borgo, Sobborgo, a suburb. 

Campanile, detached bell- tower of 
the Italian churches. 

Gampo Santo, Cimitero, a cemetery. 

Central Structure, a building the 
ground-plan of which can be en- 
closed in a circle. 

Certosa, Carthusian convent. 

Chiostro, cloisters, a monastic court. 

Ciborium, the sacred vessel or box 
(pyx) in which the consecrated 
euchavistic elements are preserved. 
Also, a canupy above the altar, 
supported by four pillars. 

Cinquecento, 16th century. 

Gollegio, college, common table at a 

Confession, an underground chamber 
below the high-altar of a church, 
with the tomb of its patron-saint, 
the original form of the crypt. 

Glossary of Technical Terms. 

p. xxxiv. \ Diptych, double folding tablet of 

wood, ivory, or metal. 
Loggia, arcade, balcony. 
Monte di Pieta, pawn-shop. 
Municipio, municipality, city-hall. 
Niello, engraved design on silver, 

with incised lines filled with a 

black alloy ; impressions from such 

Palazzo Arcivescovile, archbishop's 


— Comunale or Pubblico, city-hall. 

— della Ragione, a law-court (now 
usually called Pal. di Qiustizia or 

— Vescovile, bishop's palace. 
PlaqueUe, small bronze tablet with 

Predella, small picture attached to a 

large altar-piece. 
Putto (pi. putti), figure of a child. 
Quattrocento, 15th century. 
Rvstica, masonry with rough surface 

and hewn edges. 
Triumphal Arch (in a church), the 

arch connecting the choir with the 

transept or nave. 
Vescovado, bishopric, episcopal pal- 
Villa, country-house and park. 
Visitation, Meeting of the Virgin Mary 

and Elizabeth (St. Luke, chap. i). 

Abbreviations of Italian Christian Names. 

Ag. = Agostino. 

Bern. = Bernardo, 

Gugl. = Guglielmo. 

Al. = Alessandro. 


Jac. = Jacopo. 

Alf. = Alfonso. 

Dom. = Domenico. 

Lod. = Lodovico. 

Andr. = Andrea. 

Fed. = Federigo. 

Lor. = Lorenzo. 

Ang. = Angelo. 

Fil. = Filippo. 

Nice. = Niccolo. 

Ant. = Antonio. 

Franc. = Francesco. 

Rid. = Ridolfo. 

Bart. = B irtolomeo. 

Giac. = Giaconio. 

Seb. = Sebastiano. 

Batt. = Battista. 

Giov. = Giovanni. 

Tomm. = Tommaso. 

Ben. = Benedetto. 

Girol. = Girdlamo. 

Vine. = Vincenzo. 

Gins. = Giuseppe. 

Vitt. = Vittore. 

I. Routes to Italy. 1 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis .... 1 

From Geneva to Culoz 1 

2. From Brigue over the Simplon to Domoclossola ... 3 

3. From Lucerne (Bale) to Lugano, Chiasso, and Como 
(Milan). St. Gotthard Railway 4 

4. From Thusis to Colico over the Spliigen 14 

5. From Innshruck to Verona by the Brenner 16 

From Mori to Riva 19 

6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba 20 

1. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis. 

499 M. Railway in 22-3072 hrs. (fares 98 fr. 80, 73 fr. 55, 53 fr. 30c). 

From Paris to (348 M.) Culoz (774 ft.; Hotel Folliet ; Rail. 
Restaurant), the junction of the Geneva line, see Baedeker's North- 
ern France and Baedeker's Southern France. 

Fkom Geneva to Ccloz, 42 31., railway in 172-272 hrs. (fares S fr. 10 c, 
6fr., 4fr. 45c). The line follows the right bank of the Rhone, on the 
slope3 of the Jura 31ts. Beyond (14V2 31.) Collonges the Rhone flows through 
a narrow rocky valley, confined between the Jura and Mont Youache. 
and commanded by the Fort de I'Ecluse , which rises far above on the 
right. The line quits the defile by the long Tunnel du Credo (2y 3 31. 'i, 
crosses the grand Yalserine Viaduct (275 yds. long and 170 ft. high), and 
reaches (20V2 31.) Bellegarde (Poste), at the influx of the Valserine into the 
Rhone (French cnstom-house examination). — 42 31. Culoz. 

The train crosses the Rhone, and at (352'/2 ^-) Chindrieux 
reaches the N. end of the Lac du Bourget (745 ft.), 10 M. in length, 
3 M. in breadth, the E. bank of which it follows. On the opposite 
bank is the Cistercian monastery of Hautecombe. 

362 M. Aix-les-Bains (850 ft.; Splendide; Grand Hot. Bcrnai- 
con et Reyina; Grand Hot. d'Aix ; Hot. de la Poste, Hot. du Centre, 
less expensive ; and many others) , the Aquae Gratianae of the 
Romans, is a celebrated watering-place with 8300 inhab., possessing 
sulphur-springs (113° Fahr.). In the place in front of the Etablisse- 
ment Thermal rises the Arch of Campanus, a Roman tomb of the 
3rd or 4th cent., built in the shape of a triumphal arch. 

370 M. Chambery (880 ft.; Hot. de France; Hot. des Princes; 
Hot. du Commerce), beautifully situated on the Leisse, with 21,800 
inhab., is the capital of the Department of Savoy, and an archie- 
piscopal see. 

376i/ 2 M. Chignin-les- Marches. — 378* 2 M. Monlmelian (921 ft. ; 
buffet). The ancient castle was long the bulwark - of Savoy against 
France until its destruction in 1705 by Louis XIV. The train con- 

t Approaches to Italy through France, see Baedeker's Southern France. 
Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. i . 


tinues to ascend the valley of the hire. 381 M. Cruet. — 386 M. 
St. Pierre d'Albigny (Hot. de la Gare), the junction of the hranch-line 
to Albertville and (32 M.) Moutiers-en-Tarentaise (p. 57); the town 
lies opposite on the right hank, commanded hy the ruins of a castle. 
— Near (388 , /2 M.) Chamousset the line turns to the right , and 
traverses the valley of the Arc (Vallee de Maurienne), which here 
joins the Isere. 394 M. Aiguebelle ; 414^2 M. St. Jean de Maurienne ; 
422 M. St. Michel de Maurienne (2330 ft.). The train crosses the 
Arc several times. Numerous tunnels. — 428 M. La Praz (3135 ft.). 

431 M. Modane (3465 ft.; Buffet, dej. with wine 4 fr. ; Hotel 
International , R. 3^2) B. l 1 ^ fr.) is the seat of the French and 
Italian custom-house authorities (carriages changed). 

The train (view to the right) describes a wide curve round the 
village, and, passing through two short tunnels, enters the great 
Mont Cenis Tunnel, by which the Col de Frejus (8470 ft.) is pen- 
etrated in a S.E. direction, though the name is derived from the old 
Mont Cenis Toad, which crosses the Mont Cenis Pass, 17 M. to theE. 

The tunnel (7 3 A M. in length; N. entrance 3800 ft., S. entrance 4100 ft. 
above the sea-level; height in the centre 4245 ft., depth below the sur- 
face of the mountain 4090 ft.) was completed in 1861 - 1870 under the 
superintendence of the engineers Sommeiller, Grandis, and Grattoni at a 
total cost of 75,000,000 fr. The tunnel is 26 ft. wide, 19 ft. high, and has 
two lines of rails. It is lighted by lanterns placed at intervals of 500 
metres, and the distances are given in kilometres. The transit occupies 
25-30 minutes. Travellers are warned not to protrude their heads or arms 
from the carriage-windows during the transit, and are also recommended 
to keep the windows shut. 

At the S. end of the tunnel, 5 M. from the frontier, is (444 M.) 
Bardonneche (4125 ft.), the first Italian station. The hest views are 
now to the left. Two tunnels. 447 M. Beaulard. Near (451 M.) 
Oulx (3500 ft.), the Roman Villa Martis, the line enters the pictur- 
esque valley of the Dora Riparia. Beyond a bridge and two tun- 
nels is (455 M.) Salbertrand (3303 ft.). The river is again crossed. 
Before the next station nine tunnels are traversed. To the left, 
between the second and third, a glimpse is obtained of the small 
town of Exilles, with the frontier-fortress of that name. — 461 1/ 2 M. 
Chiomonte, or Chaumont (2525 ft.). Then several tunnels and 
aqueducts. The valley contracts and forms a wild gorge (he Gorgie), 
of which beautiful views are obtained, with the Mont Cenis road 
winding up the hill on the farther side, and the Rocciamelone (Fr. 
Roche-Melon; 11,604 ft.) and other peaks towering above it. When 
the valley expands, Susa, with its Roman triumphal arch, comes in 
sight on the left (see p. 42). — 465 M. Meana (1950 ft.), 1 M. 
from Susa, lies 325 ft. higher than the latter. Three tunnels. The 
train then descends through beautiful chestnut-woods, and crosses 
the Dora. — 471 M. Bussoleno (1425 ft.) , the junction of the 
branch-line to Susa described at p. 42. 

At (475 M.) Borgont the Dora is crossed. 478 M. San Anton ino ; 
480 M. Condove. — Beyond (482 M) SanV Ambrogio di Torino 

BRIGUE. 2. Route. O 

(1160 ft.) the line traverses the Chime, a narrow pass, fortified by 
the Lombards, between the Monte Pirchiriano (3150 ft.; right) and 
the Monte Caprano (left), where Charlemagne defeated the Lombard 
King Desiderius in 774. 

A bridle-path ascends in i 3 /4 hr. from Sanf Ambrogio to the *Sagra di 
San Michele, a monastery founded in 999 upon the rocky summit of the 
Monte Pirchiriano (Alb. Giacosa, clean, at San Pietro. l /t hr. from the top). 
The monastery, enlarged by the Benedictines ia the 12th cent., is now 
occupied by a few Rosminian monks (p. 181). The Scalone de 1 Morti, a 
staircase hewn in the rock, ascends through the Porta dello Zodiaco 
(Romanesque sculptures) to the Romanesque church, the apse of which 
rests upon massive foundations, 75 ft. deep. Various scions of the House 
of Savoy are interred in the crypt. The fine view ranges over the valley 
of Susa, the Alps, and the plain of Piedmont. Another bridle-path de- 
scends to Avigliana. 

At (485 M.) Avigliana, a mediaeval town with a large dynamite 
factory, the valley expands into a broad plain. — 488 M. Rosta. 

About 3 M. from Rosta lies the Abbazia di Sanf Antonio di Ranverso, 
founded in 1188, with a Gothic facade of three gables. The bigh-altar-piece 
is a Nativity, by Defendente de Ferrari; ia the sacristy is a 15th cent, fresco 
of the Bearing of the Cross. 

499 M. Turin, see p. 25. 
2. From Brigue over the Simplon to Domodossola. 

40 M. Diligence from Brigue to Domodossola twice daily in summer 
in 9-972 hrs. (fare 16 fr. 5, coupe 19 fr. 90 c). Extra Post (landaus) with 
two horses (S-8V2 hrs.) 91 fr. 30 c. ; horses are changed three times (pre- 
ferable to the carriages of the Brigue hotels). 

Brigue (2245 ft.; Hotel des Couronnes et Poste; Angleterre; 
Terminus $ Railway Restaurant), a well-built little town, with a 
turreted chateau , is the terminus of the railway (see Baedekers 
Switzerland), and the beginning of the Simplon Route, constructed 
by order of Napoleon in 1800-1806, which here quits the valley of 
the Rhone, and ascends in numerous windings. 

On the left bank of the Rhone, IV2 M. above Brigue, is the N. entrance 
of the Simplon Tunnel, the construction of which, begun at both the Swiss 
and the Italian ends in ]S T ov., 1S98, is expected to take 5 x /2 years, at an 
estimated cost of 69,500,000 fr. This tunnel, which is to be 12*/4 M. in 
length, differs from all similar constructions inasmuch as it consists of two 
parallel tunnels, 55 ft. apart but connected with each other by transverse 
shafts at intervals of 220 yds. Only one of these tunnels i^ at present being 
completely fini-hed, the other being used for ventilation, for the supply of 
water, and for the conveyance of the material and workmen. From the 
N. entrance (2255 ft.) the tunnel ascends at the gradient of 20 : 1000 to the 
(5 3 A M.) culminating point (2303 ft.), which lies 7000 ft. below the mountain- 
surface above (between the Furggenbaumhorn and the Wa^enhorn); then, 
after remaining on the level for 550 yds., it descends (gradient 70 : 10C0) to 
the (6V4 M.) S. entrance (2080 ft.), at Isclle, in the valley of the Diveria 
(p. 4). Ten or twelve hydraulic boring-machines are in operation at either 
end; visitors are admitted to the works on Tues. and Frid. at 3 p.m. 
(tickets at Brigue Station, gratis). 

9 M. Berisal (5005 ft.), the Third Refuge (Hotel de la Poste). 
Above the Fourth Refuge (5645 ft.) a retrospect is obtained in 
clear weather of the Bernese Alps to the N., from which the Aletsch 


4 Route 2. SIMPLON. 

Glacier descends. The part of the road between the Fifth Refuge 
(6345 ft.) and the culminating point is protected from avalanches 
by several galleries. From the Sixth Refuge (6540 ft.) a splendid 
final view is enjoyed of the Bernese Alps. 

At the (5 min.) summit of the Simplon Pass (6590 ft.) stands 
the Hotel Bellevue (R. 2y 2 -6, B. f l/ 2l dej. 3, D. 4 fr.). About % M. 
farther on (6 M. from Berisal) is the Hospice (6565 ft. ; plain ac- 
commodation), a spacious building at the foot of the Hubschhom 
(10,505 ft.). We then descend gradually through a broad valley, 
bounded by snow-capped heights. 

20 M. Simplon, Ital. Sempione (4855 ft.; Poste, R. 2i/ 2 -3, 
D. 3-3 1 /') fr- ; Hotel Fletschhorn), is a village situated on green mea- 
dows, where the diligence halts for dinner. The road (to the left, 
short-cut for walkers) now describes a long curve and enters the 
Laquin Valley. At (2 M.) Algaby we cross the Krummbach, now 
called the Diveria or Boveria. 

Beyond the (^4 M.) Algaby Gallery begins the wild and grand 
Ravine of Gondo. We cross the stream twice, and at the Ninth 
Refuge (3514 ft.) enter the Gondo Gallery. At the end of this 
tunnel the Fressinone (or AlpienbacJi) forms a fine waterfall, which 
is crossed by a slender bridge ; on both sides the rocks tower to a 
height of over 2000 ft. , presenting a most imposing picture. — 
3 3 / 4 M. Gondo (2815 ft.) is the last Swiss village (custom-house) ; 
3/ 4 M. farther on is Paglino, the first Italian village. The valley now 
assumes the name of Val di Vedro. 

29 M. Iselle (2155 ft.; Posta~) is the seat of the Italian custom- 
house. The valley, although now less wild, continues to be ex- 
tremely picturesque. Beyond Crevola (1100 ft.) it unites with the 
broad and fertile valley of the Tosa (or Toce), here called the Val 
d'Ossola. The scenery now assumes a distinctly Italian character. 

40 M. Domodossola (920 ft. ; *H6tel de la Ville, R. 31/2, dej. 3, 
P. 41/2 fr.; ^Terminus et Espagne, R. 2 l /2~4, dej. 2>/ 2 , D. 4 fr.; Na- 
tional; AlbergoManini; Buffet), the ancient Oscela, a small town with 
3700 inhab., beautifully situated. The Palazzo Silva (16th cent.) 
contains a small museum. The Calvary Hill, 20 min. to the S., 
commands a superb view towards the N. 

About 41/2 M. to the W. lies Bognanco (20S3 ft.), the chief place of the 
valley of that name, with mineral springs and a hydropathic establishment. 

Railway from Domodossola to Gravellona (for Pallanza and 
Stresa) and to Novara, see R. 29. 

3. From Lucerne (Bdle) to Lugano, Chiasso, and 
Como (Milan). St. Gotthard Railway. 

Railway to Chiasso, 140 M. ; express train (first class only) in 4 3 /4 hrs., 
fast trains in 5V 4 -7 hrs., ordinary trains in 9Vi hrs. (fares 29 fr. 70, 20 fr. 75, 
14 fr. 90 c). To Milan (173 M.) the express train takes 6, the fast trains 
S 3 A hrs. (fares 36 fr. 50 c, 25 fr. 60, IS fr. 20 c). — At Arth-Goldau (p. 5) 


this line is joined by the branch from Zug and Zurich (lVt-lVa nr )- 
— A dining-car is attached to the express train (de'j. 4, D. 5 fr.) and also (as 
far as Chiasso) to the afternoon fast train (dej. 6 l (z, D. 4 fr.). The night 
express has a sleeping-carriage. A table-d'hcte dinner (3V2 fr., inclad. wine) 
for passengers by the day-train is provided at Goeschenen, where the 
traveller should be careful to avoid an involuntary change of carriages, 
or even of trains. — Finest views from Lucerne to Fliielen to the right, 
from Fliielen to Goeschenen to the left, from Ariolo to Beilinzona to the 
right, and at Lugano and Como to the left. — The ^Steamboat Voyage on 
the Lake of Lucerne from Lucerne to Fliielen (2V4-2 3 /i hrs.) is much 
pleasanter than the railway- journey (I-IV2 hr.) and is recommended to 
those who are not pressed for time. Comp. Baedeker's Switzerland. 

The *St. Gotthard Railway was constructed in 1872-82, at a total cost 
of 271 million francs. Its highest point is in the middle of the great tunnel 
and is 3787 ft. above the level of the sea. The inclines (maximum gradient 
26 : 100) have partly been surmounted by large spiral tunnels, of which 
there are three on "the N. side of the St. Gotthard and four on the S. In 
all the railway has 80 tunnels (with an aggregate length of 29 M.), 83 large 
bridges, 32 minor bridges, and 14 viaducts. The great tunnel alone cost 
nearly 57 million francs. Louis Favre, the engineer, died of apoplexy in 
the tunnel on July 19th, 1S79. 

Lucerne. — Hotels. Schweizerhof; Grand Hotel National; Lozer- 
kerHof; Beacrivage; Edrope ; Angleterre; Swan; Hotel do Rigi, all 
on the lake; the first-named two are on a large scale. Balances, on the 
Reuss; Hotel dc Lac, St. Gotthard, Bristol, Monopole, Waldstatter 
Hof, all near the station. — Sadvage, Rcessli, Engel, unpretending. 

Lucerne (1437 ft.) , the capital of the canton of that name , is 
beautifully situated at the efflux of the Reuss from the Lake of 
Lucerne. The "best view is obtained from the Gutsch ( 1722 ft.), at 
the N.W. end of the town, ^2 M. from the station (wire-rope rail- 
way). The celebrated Lion of Lucerne, designed by Thorvaldsen, 
lies J / 4 M. to the N. of the Schweizerhof-Quai. For details, see 
Baedeker's Switzerland. 

The railway skirts Lucerne in two tunnels and then runs towards 
the Kussnach arm of the Lake of Lucerne. The view is very fine, 
with the Rigi rising in front of us. — 12 M. Immensee (1520 ft.), 
oil the Lake of Zug; il% M. Arth-Goldau (p. 4). Beyond (25 M.) 
Brunnen the line reaches the Timer See or E. arm of the Lake of 
Lucerne, along which it runs through a succession of tunnels. Beyond 
(32 M.) Fliielen (1435 ft. ; Weisses Kreuz, Adler, etc.) the train 
ascends the broad valley of the Reuss, via (38 M.) Erstfeld. 

The most interesting part of the railway begins at (41^2 M.) Am- 
steg (1760 ft.). The train crosses the Kaerstelenbach by an imposing 
bridge, commanding a view of the Maderaner-Thal, to the left, and 
of the Reuss-Thal, to the right, and is then carried through the slope 
of the Bristenstock (10,085 ft.) by means of two tunnels, and across 
the Reuss by an iron bridge, 256 ft. high. Y/e now follow the left 
bauk of the picturesque Reuss valley, traverse a tunnel, cross the 
Inschialp-Bach and the Zgragyen-Thal, and skirt the mountain 
through three tunnels and over a viaduct. — Beyond (50 M.) Gurt- 
ne.Uen (2300 ft.) the train crosses the Gorneren-Bach and i\\eHae- 
grigen-Bach and enters the Pfaffensprung Loop Tunnel (1635 yds. 
long; 115 ft. of ascent). After three shorter tunnels we cro^s the 

6 Route 3. AIROLO. From Lucerne 

Lower Meienreuss Bridge. Beyond the Wattinger Loop Tunnel 
(1199 yds. long; 76 ft. of ascent) the train again crosses the Reuss 
and penetrates another tunnel to — 

51 M. Wasen (3055 ft.), a considerahle village, the church of 
which, owing to the windings of the railway, seems constantly to 
shift its position. The imposing Middle Meienreuss Bridge (260 ft. 
high) and the Leggistein Loop Tunnel (1204 yds. long, 82 ft. of 
ascent) now carry us to the Upper Meienreuss Bridge, where we cross 
the wild and deep ravine of the Meienreuss for the third time. 
Passing through another tunnel and skirting the face of the moun- 
tains, we obtain a view of Wasen, far below us, and of the windings 
just traversed. Opposite rises the Rienzer Stock (9785 ft.). We 
next cross two fine bridges, penetrate the Naxberg Tunnel (1 M. long; 
ascent of 118ft.), and, immediately beyond the village of Goeschenen, 
cross the deep gorge of the Goeschenen-Reuss (view of the Goe- 
sc.henen-Thal to the right, with the beautiful Dammafirn). 

56 M. Goeschenen (3640 ft.; Rail. Restaurant, comp. p. 5). 

Immediately beyond the station the train crosses the Gotthard 
Reuss and enters the great St. Gotthard Tunnel, which runs nearly 
due S., 5-6000 ft. below the highest point of the mountain. The 
tunnel is 16,309 yds. or about 9^4 M. in length, 28 ft. wide, and 
21 ft. high, and is laid with a double line of rails. Trains take 
14-25 min. to pass through it. — At the S. end of the tunnel, to 
the right, are some new fortifications. 

66M. Airolo (3755ft.), in the upper TicinoValley, was in jured by 
a landslip in 1898. The scenery here still retains an Alpine character. 

Beyond Airolo the train crosses the Ticino, passes through the 
Stalvedro Tunnel, and enters the Stretto di Stalvedro. On the left 
bank of the Ticino the highroad runs through four rock-cuttings. 
The valley expands near (70 M.) Ambri-Piotta (3250 ft.). Beyond 
(73 M.) Rodi-Fiesso (3100 ft.) the Monte Piottino (Platifer) projects 
into the valley on the N. The Ticino descends the gloomy gorge 
in a series of waterfalls. The railway crosses the gorge, passes through 
two short tunnels, and enters the Freggio Loop Tunnel (1 M. in 
length), from which we emerge, 118 ft. lower, in the Piottino Gorge. 
We again cross the Ticino in the midst of the grandest scenery, and 
then thread two short tunnels, the Prato Loop Tunnel (1 M. long; 
118 ft. of descent), and another short tunnel, beyond which we enjoy 
a view of the beautiful valley of Faido, with its fine chestnut-trees. 
Crossing the Ticino and going through another tunnel, we reach — 

78 M. Faido (2485 ft.), the capital of the Leventina, thoroughly 
Italian in character. On the right the Piumogna descends in a 
fine waterfall. — The train now follows the left bank of the Ticino, 
traversing a beautiful district, richly wooded with walnut and chest- 
nut trees. Cascades descend from the abrupt cliffs on either side, 
one of the finest being the fall of the Cribiasca, a little short of 
(82 M.) Lavorgo. 

to Como. BELLINZONA. 3. Route. 7 

Farther on the Ticino forces its way through the Biaschina Rav- 
ine to a lower region of the valley and forms a "beautiful waterfall. 
The railway descends on the left hank by means of two loop-tunnels, 
one helow the other in corkscrew fashion: viz. the Pianotondo Loop 
Tunnel ( 9 / l0 M. long; 115 ft. of descent), and the Travi Loop Tunnel 
(nearly 1 M. long; 118ft. of descent). 

The train has now reached the lower zone of the Valle Leventina, 
and crosses and recrosses the Ticino on either side of (87 M.) Gicr- 
nico (1480 ft.). On the right is the pretty fall of the Cramosina. 
91 M. Bodio (1090 ft.). The Brenno descends from the Val Blenio 
on the left to join the Ticino, the valley of which now expands. 

94 M. Biasca (970 ft.), with an old Romanesque church on a hill. 
From the station a series of oratories ascends to the Petronilla Chapel, 
near which is a waterfall. — The train passes through two tunnels. 
98 M. Osogna (870 ft.). — 102 M. Claro (830 ft.), at the foot of the 
Pizzo di Claro (8920 ft.). Beyond (104 M.) Castione the train passes 
the mouth of the Val Mesocco (Bernardino route) and crosses the 
Moesa. The train then passes through a tunnel beyond which we 
obtain a magnificent view of Bellinzona. 

106 M. Bellinzona (760 ft. ; Railway Restaurant; Hot. Suisse 
et de la Poste, R. 3-5, B. li/ 2 , de'j. 3 4 / 2 , D . $fr.; Cervo ; Railway 
Hotel, R. 172-4 fr.), the capital of the canton of Ticino, a thoroughly 
Italian town with 5100 inhah., is the junction for Locarno (p. 172) 
and Luino (p. 171). Above it rise three picturesque castles huilt 
ahout 1445 by Fil. Maria Visconti (p. Ill): the Castello Grande, to 
the W., the Castello di Mezzo, and the Castello Corbdrio (restaurant), 
to the E. 

Ascent of the Monte Camoghe from Bellinzona via Giubiasco, see p. 12. 

The railway to Lugano and Milan passes through a tunnel 
(300 yds.) helow the Castello di Mezzo. At (103 M.) Giubiasco 
the railways to the Lago Maggiore (p. 172) diverge to the right. 
Our line approaches the foot of the mountains, and ascends the 
slopes of Monte Cenere. Cadenazzo (p. 172) lies helow on the right. 
Two tunnels. *View of the Ticino Valley and the N. end of the 
Lago Maggiore, improving as we ascend. The train then penetrates 
the Monte Cenere by means of a curved tunnel (1 M. long), 1435 ft. 
above the sea-level and ahout 370 ft. helow the summit of the pass. 
At the S. end of the tunnel, in a sequestered valley, lies (115 M.) 
Rivera-Bironico (1420 ft.). The train then descends the valley of 
the Agno. Short tunnel. 120 M. Taverne (1130 ft.; inn). Beyond 
Lamone (1033 ft.) the train quits the Agno and threads the Massagno 
Tunnel (1135 ft. above the sea). 

124 M. Lugano. — The Railway Station (LliOft.j; PI. C, 2; 'Restau- 
rant; view, see p. 10) is connected with the town by a road, a shorte* 
footpath, and a Cable Tramway (Funicolare; comp. PI. C, 2, 3), at the S. 
end of the huilding (fares : up 40 or 20 c, down 2D or 10 c). — The Steam- 
boats (to Porto Ceresio, for the Lago di Varese, to Ponte Tresa, for iheLago 
Maggiore, and to Porlezza, for the Lago ili Como, see p. 162; to Capolago, 

8 Route 3. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

on the Generoso Railway, see p. 13) bave three piers: Lugano-Cittd, in the 
inner town, in front of the Palazzo Civico (Pi. C, 3), Lugano-Parco, near the 
Hotel du Pare (PI. C, 4), and Lugano- Paradiso (PI. B, 8), for Paradiso (p. 10) 
and the Mte. San Salvatore. 

Hotels (in spring rooms should be secured in advance). The chief hotels 
send omnibuses to meet the trains and steamers. On the Lake: 'Gkaxd 
Hotel, formerly du Pare (PI. a; B, C, 4), in an old monastery at the S. 
end of the town, with garden (band twice a day) and the dependances of 
Belvedere and Villa Ceresio, R. 4-6, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, omn. H/2, music •/•_', 
pens. 8-14 fr., well spoken of by visitors 'en pension 1 . 'Grand Hotel 
Splendide (PI. c; B, 5), Via Antonio Caccia, on the road to Paradiso (p. 10), 
with lift, steam-heating, and garden, frequented by English and Americans, 
R. 51/2-9, B. IV2, dej. 3V2, D. 5, omn. iy 2 , pens, from 10 fr. ; *Hot.-Pens. 
Bellevue au Lao (PI. h; A, 5), in the same street, with lift, steam-heating, 
and garden, R. 3-5, B. l'/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 71/2-il, omn. I1/4 fr. ; Hot. 
60 Parc-Beausejour( Vve.Beha). — Second Class: Hot.-Pens. Lugano (PL e; 

C, 3), on the quay, with a restaurant and small garden, R. 272-5, B. l 1 ^, 
dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 6-10, omn. 1 fr., Italian; Hot.-Pens. Victoeia (PL 1; 
B, 5), Via Antonio Caccia, with garden, R. 2y 2 -37 2 , B. H/ 4 , dej. 3, D. 31/2, 
pens. 6V28, omn. H/4 fr. ; Hotel Garni Walter (PL p; 0, 3), with restaurant 
(see below), R. 2-3, B. iy 4 fr. ; Hot.-Restaurant de la Fontaine, Piazza 
Kizziero Rezzonico (PI. C, 3), R. 1V2-2, D. 2 fr., unpretending. 

In the Town: Hot. Suisse (PL g; D, 3), "\ ia Canova, near the Piazza 
Giardino, R. 2-3, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, I). 3, pens, from 61/2, omn. 3/ 4 f r . ; Pen- 
sion Zweifel, Via Cattedrale, pens. 5 fr.; Albergo-Pensions Grutli, Alb. 
Pozzo, both Via Carlo Battaglini, unpretending. — Near the Station. To the 
S. : *H6t. Metropole (PI. x ; B, 4), with fine garden, R. 4-5, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 5, 
pens. S-12 fr. ; *H6t.-Pens. Beau Regard et Continental (PL i; B, 3), R. 
2»/2-4, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-12 fr. ; 'Hotel St. Gotthard et Terminus 
(PL k; C, 3), with garden, R. 3-5, B. iy 4l dej. 2»/2-3, D. 3V2-4, pens. 7-10 fr.; 
Hot. Lucerne & Poste; 'Hot. -Pens. Berna et Bella- Vista (PL r; C, 3), 
with steam-heating and garden, R. 2V2-3V2, B. iy 4 , D. 3V2, S. 2V2, pens, 
from 6 fr. To the 1ST. : 'Hotel Washington (PL d ; C, 1). with steam-heatina: 
and garden, R. 3-37 2 , B. iy 4 , dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 7-8, omn. 1 fr. (closed 
Dec. Ist-Feb. 15th): Pens. Villa Stauffer, pens, from 4 fr. ; Hot. -Pens. 
Amtmann, R. 172-272, pens, from 6 fr.; Hot.-Pens. Oberland, at Massagno 
(PL C, 1), R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 272, S. 2, pens. 5-7 fr. (closed Kov. 15th-Feb. 
15th). Below the station: "Hot.-Pens. Pfister, Via al Colle, R. 27 2 -4, 

B. I74, dej. 272, D. 372, pens. 9-10 fr. ; Hotel-Pens. Erica (PL q; C, 2), 
with garden, R. 3-4, B. iy 4 , dej. 27 2 , D. 3y 2 , pens. 672-872 fr. ; 'Hotel 
de la Ville et Pens. Bon-Air (PL s; C, 2), R. 2-3, B. 17*4, dej. 272, 

D. 3V2, pens. 6-7 fr., Italian; Hotel Milan et Trois Suisses (PI. t; C, 2), 
R. I72-272, B. I74, dej. 272, D. 3, pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hot. de la Gare (PL 0; 

C. 2), R. 2 fr. ; Pens. Induni, 5-6 fr., unpretending. — At Loreto: Pens. 
Villa Si'eranza (PL w; A, B, 4); Pens. Loreto. 

At Paradiso (p. 10), 3 / 4 M. to the S. : 'Hot. -Pens, de l\Europe (PI. v; A, 6), 
with lift and steam-heating, R. 37 2 -S, B. iy 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, pens. i)7 2 -lb\ 
omn. 17 2 fr. ; *Hot. Reichmann au Lac (PL n ; B, 6), R. 27 2 -5, B. I74-I72, 

D. 33/4-4, S. 23/4-3, lake-bath 7 2 -3/ 4 , pens, (lights extra) 8-10, omn. iy 2 fr. 
(closed from the middle of Nov. till the end of Feb.); *H6t. Beau-Rivage 
(PL m; A, B, 6), R, 3-5, B. iy 2 , D. 37 2 , S. 3, pens. 772-12, omn. 1 fr. ; 
'Pens. Villa Carmex (PI. u; B, 6), R. 2-5, B. 17 4 , D. 3, S. 2, pens. 6-8, 
omn. I72 fr. ; Pens. Meister , pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hot.-Pens. Paradiso, pens. 
5-67 2 fr. — At Cassarate (p. 11), 1 M. to the E. of the pier of Lugano-Citta, 
in a sheltered position, *Pens. Villa Castagnola (PL f ; G, 3), with pretty 
garden, pens. 6-9, omn. 1 fr. ; 'Pens. Villa du Midi (PL G, 5), 73 M. farther 
on, pens. 472-5 fr. — At Castagnola (p. 11), !, Pens. Villa Moritz, on the 
mountain-slope, 5V2-7 fr. (closed in July and Aug.); Pens. Mont-Fleuri. 

Restaurants at the B6t. Lugano; "Walter (see above; dej. 2, D. 27 2 fr.) ; 
Trattoria Biaggi (also rooms and board), to the W. of the Piazza della 
Riforma, on the way to the cable-railway; Pistor ante Americana (also rooms), 
Piazza della Riforma, these two Italian. 

to Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 9 

Beer: Waller, see p. 8 (Munich beer): M. Saal, Piazza della Riforma; 
Post," opposite the post-office; Theatre Restaurant. 

Cafes. Cafe" Centrale, C. Jacchini, both in the Piazza Giardino; Continental, 
Piazza Guglielmo Tell. — Confectioners: Ahish-r (Vienna bakery), a little 
to the S.W. of the Palazzo Civico and at Paradiso behind the Hot. de 
TEurope ; Forsler, Via Canova, beside the post-office. 

Lake Baths (Bagno Puhblico; PL B, 5), on the Paradiso road (open 
June-Sept. ; bath 20 c, box 80 c, dress and towels 20 c). Warm B4tiis at 
Anastasfs, near the Hot. du Pare, and at Oerber's, at Paradiso. 

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. D, 3), Via Canova. — Physicians, Dr. Michel, 
Dr. Zbinden, Dr. Eeali, Dr. Bonardi. — Dentist, Winzeler. — Bookseller, 
Arnold (Libreria Dalp). Piazza della Riforma, in the Banca Popolare 
(PI. 4;";C, 3). — English Goods (groceries, tea-room, etc.): The British Trad- 
ing Company, Piazza del Comercio. 

Theatre. Teatro Apollo (PI. D, 3). Q.uai Giocondo Albertolli; operas 
and dramas in winter, concerts and. variety-performances in summer. 

Electric Tramway (10 c.) from the Piazza Giardino every 20 min. to (S.) 
Paradiso or the Salvatore Station, (E.) Cassarate, and (N.) Molino Nuovu. 

Carriage from the Railway Station to the town and vice versa, incl. 
the Paradiso and the Salvatore railway, with one horse, 1 pers. 1, 2 pers. 
IV2, 3 pers. 2, with two horses, 1-2 pers. 2, 3-5 pers. 3 fr. ; same fares from 
the town to Cassarate. To Castagnola IV2, 2, 2V2, 3, or 4 fr. 5 from the 
St. Gotthard or the Salvatore railway-station to Cassarate IV2, 2, 21/2, 3, 
4 fr., to Castagnola % 2V2, 3, 4, 5 f r. ; to Luiho one-horse carr. 12, two- 
horse 20 fr. ; to Capolago 7 or 12 fr. ; to Varese 16 or 30 fr. ; driver's foe 
1U per cent of the fare. Drive round the Mte. San Salvatore via Pambio, 
Figino, Morcote, and Melide (2V2hrs.), one-horse carr. 7, two-horse 12 fr. 

Boat with one rower i 3 /«fr., two rowers 3 fr. for the first hour, each 
addit. 1/2 hr. >/a fr. and 1 fr. — Sailing Boat 31/2 and I1/2 fr. 

English Chapel, adjoining the Belvedere du Pare (PI. C, 4; see p. S). 

Lugano (932 ft.) , the largest and busiest town in the Swiss 
cauton of Tioino, with 9400 inhab., is charmingly situated on the 
lake of the same name, and is a very pleasant place for a lengthened 
stay, especially as a transition - stage on the way farther south. 
The winter temperature is somewhat higher than that of Montreux 
or Meran ; the heat of summer is seldom excessive; while in spring 
and autumn N. winds prevail, from which, however, Castagnola 
(p. 11) is somewhat protected. The environs possess all the charms 
of Italian mountain-scenery; numerous villages, churches, chapels, 
and country-seats are scattered along the banks of the lake , and 
the lower hills are covered with vineyards and gardens, contrasting 
beautifully with the dark foliage of the chestnuts and walnuts in 
the background. To the S., immediately above the town, rises the 
Monte San Salvatore (p. 11), wooded to its summit; to the E., 
across the lake, is the Monte di Caprino, to the right is the Monte 
Generoso (p. 13), to the left are the Monte Bre (p. 11) and the 
beautiful Monte Boglia (p. 12). On the N. opens the broad valley 
of the Cassarate, backed by a group of mountains among which the 
double peak of Monte Camoghe (p. 12) and the rugged Sasso Grande 
(4880 ft.), are conspicuous. 

To the E. of the steamboat-pier of Lugano-Citta lies the Piazza 
Giardino (PI. C, D, 3), an open space beautified by pleasure 
grounds and a fountain. On its W. side rises the imposing Palazzo 

10 Route 3. LUGANO. From Lucerne 

Civico (PL C, 3), erected in 1844, with a beautiful colonnaded 
court and a small Collection of Paintings by local artists on the first 
floor (open 10-12 and 2-4; fee). Beyond lies the Piazza delta Ri- 
forma. — A broad Quay, planted with trees and much frequented 
as an evening-promenade, stretches, under various names, along the 
lake. At its E. end is the Theatre (p. 9); at the S. end of the 
Quai Vincenzo Vela is a small Fountain Statue of Tell (PI. C, 4), by 
Vela (1852). 

The old conventual church of Santa Maria degli Angioli 
(PL C,4), adjoining the Hotel du Pare, contains some good frescoes 
by Bernardino Luini. 

The painting on the wall of the screen (1529), one of the largest and finest 
ever executed by Luini , represents the 'Passion of Christ , and contains 
several hundred figures, arranged according to the antiquated style in 
two rows. In the foreground, occupying the upper part of the wall, 
stand three huge crosses, at the foot of which we perceive Roman war- 
riors, the groups of the holy women, and St. John, and the executioners 
casting lots for the garments. Above, on a diminished scale, from left to 
right, are Christ on the Mount of Olives, Christ taken prisoner, the 
Mocking of Christ, the Bearing of the Cross, the Entombment, Thomas's Un- 
belief, and the Ascension, all immediately adjacent. Although the style of 
the composition strikes one as old-fashioned, the eye cannot fail to be 
gratified by the numerous beautiful details. The St. Sebastian and St. Rochus, 
below, between the arches, are particularly fine. — To the left, on the 
wall of the church, is the Last Supper, and in the 1st Chapel on the right 
is a fine Madonna, two frescoes by Luini. The chapel also contains the 
tomb of Archbp. Lachat (d. 18S6). The sacristan expects a small fee 
(25-30 c). 

The interior of the town, with its arcades, its shops and 
workshops in the open air, and the granite wheel-tracks in the 
streets , is also quite Italian in its character. — San Lorenzo 
(PL C, 2), the principal church, on a height below the station, 
built at the close of the 15th cent., has a tastefully enriched marble 
facade in the early-Renaissance style, probably by Tommaso Rodari 
(1517). — The terrace in front of the station commands an extensive 
*View of the town and the lake. 

There are various pleasant Walks, well provided with guide- 
posts and benches. To the S., on the highroad through the suburb 
of Paradiso (PL A, B, 6; electric tramway, seep. 9), and by the 
foot of Mte. Salvatore, to the (l 1 ^ M.) headland of San Martino. 
To Melide, see p. 12. — From Paradiso a footpath leads to the right 
to (5 min.) the Belvedere, which commands another fine view. — 
To the W. by the Ponte Tresa road (PL A, B, 4, 5; p. 154; short- 
cuts for walkers), to the (l*/ 2 M.) hill on which lies the frequented 
Restaurant du Jardin (also pension), with a shady garden. The 
village of Sorengo (1325 ft.; Pens, de la Colline d'Or) is situated 
on a hill to the right (fine view from the church ; to the W. is 
the Lake of Muzzano). A carriage-road leads from the Restaurant 
du Jardin, to the left, via Qentilino, to (l 1 /^ M.) the conspicuous 
church of Sant J Abbondio (1845 ft.), in the graveyard of which 
are several monuments by Vela. The walk may be pleasantly 

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to Como. LUGANO. 3. Route. 11 

extended from Gentilino to Montagnola and thence back via Sant' 
Abbondio (1 br.). — To tbeE., from tbe Piazza dell' Indipendenza 
(PI. D, 3), we may follow tbe Via Carlo Cattaneo, which crosses the 
(i/ 4 M.) Cassarate, to (3/ 4 M.) Cassarate (PL G, 3; electric car, p. 9), 
and thence proceed by the sunny highroad skirting the foot of the 
Mte. Bre to (1 M.J Castagnola (1080 ft. ; good restaurant in the Villa 
Moritz, p. 8). At No. 78 in the Piazza dell' Indipendenza is the 
entrance to the shady grounds of the Villa Gabrini (PL D, E, 3), 
with a beautiful figure of a mourning woman ('La Desolazione'J, by 
Vine. Vela (gardener v jyi fr.). — From Castagnola a hilly foot- 
path leads to (3 M.) Gandria (p. 164), where some of the steam- 
ers touch. 

The most interesting excursion ia the 'Ascent of the Monte San Sal- 
vatoee, by cable-railway (1800 yds. long), from Paradiso in 1/2 hr. (fare 
3, down 2, return-ticket 4"fr., inch R., S., & B. 10 fr.). The lower station 
(PI. A, 6; 1245 ft.; Restaurant, dej. 3, D. 4fr.) lies at the terminus of the 
electric tramway (p. 9), V* M. from the steamboat-pier Lugano- Paradiso. 
— The railway, with an initial gradient of 17: 100, crosses the St. Gott- 
hard Railway, traverses a viaduct (110 yds. long; gradient 38:100) and 
reaches the halfway station of Pazzallo (1600 ft.) where carriages are 
changed. Here is the machine-house for the electric motor. The line 
now ascends over dolomite rock, at an increasing gradient (finally 60 : 100), 
to the terminus (2900ft.; Hotel Kulm, R. 21/2-4, B. li/i. dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 
8 fr.). Thence we ascend on foot to the (7 min.) summit (Velta) of the 
Monte San Salvatore (2980 ft.), on which there is a pilgrimage-chapel. 
The *View embraces all the arms of the Lake of Lugano, the mountains 
and their wooded slopes, especially those above Lugano, sprinkled with 
numerous villas. To the E. above Porlezza is Monte Legnone (p. 150); 
U. above Lugano the double peak of Monte Camoghe (p. 12), to the left 
of this the distant Rheinwald mountains; W. the chain of Monte Rosa, 
with the Matterhorn and other Alps of the Valais. This view is seen to 
best advantage in the morning (panorama by Imfeld). — Walkers (from 
Lugano to the top 2 hrs.) pass under the Gotthard line and the (cable- 
railway and follow the road from Paradiso (comp. PI. A, 6) to (i'/j M.) 
Pazzallo ; here they turn to the E., following the narrow street named 
'Al Monte', and farther on cross (12 min.) the funicular railway. 

The ascent of Monte Bre (3050 ft.), to the E. of Lugano, is another easy 
excursion (up 2y 2 -3 hrs., down 13/ 4 hr. ; guide needless; mule 10 fr.). 
We take the electric tramwav to Cassarate (see above), whence a road 
leads to the N. to (V4 M.) Viganello (10l>7 ft.). Below the hill crowned by 
the church of Pazzalino a bridle-path ascends to the right, partly between 
walls, and among chestnuts, figs, and vines, via, (iy 2 M.) Albonago (1525 ft.), 
to ( 3 /* hr.) Aldesago (1950 ft.), the highest village on the W. mountain- 
slope. Aldesago may also be reached in 3/ 4 -i h r . from Castagnola (see 
above), via, Ruvigliana. Above Aldesago the path divides: both branches 
lead round to the 0/2- 3 A Qr -) village of Brk (2630 ft. ; restaurant), at the back 
of the hill. From the church of Bre we ascend by a narrow path to the 
summit of the mountain in 1/2 hr., either traversing the highest crest of 
the hill to the right, or crossing the spur to the left, in the direction of 
Lugano. The view of the several arms of the Lake of Lugano, especially 
in the direction of Porlezza, and the surrounding mountains, is very fine. 
Lugano itself is not visible from the summit, but from the above-mentioned 
spur a good view of it may be obtained. 

A pleasant walk may be taken on the highroad from Campione 
(steamboat- station), past the Madonna deW Annunziaia, with 16th cent, 
frescoes, to 0/j hr.) Bissone (steamboat- station) and by the railway 
embankment to (20 min.) Melide (steamboat and railway station; see 
p. 13). Thence in V2lir. t San Mariino (p. 10). 

12 Route 3. MONTE CAMOGHE. From Lucerne 

The Monte di Caprino, opposite Lugano, on the E. bank of the lake, 
is much frequented on holidays by the townspeople, who possess wine- 
cellars (Cantine) in the numerous cool grottoes by which the side of the 
mountain is honeycombed. These cellars are closed at sunset, and in 
winter they are open on Monday and Friday only. The garden- restau- 
rant at Molino, to the S. of the Cantine, has also become a popular re- 
sort. Close by is a pretty waterfall. Small boat there (35 min.) and 
back in 2 x /2 hrs., including stay (fares, see p. 9); steamboat on Sun. and 

To San Beknardo and Bigokio (to station Taverne 5-6 hrs.). From 
the station, we at first follow field-paths, leading over the fertile undulat- 
ing district to the N. of Lugano and passing the villages of Massagno, 
Savosa, Porza, and Comano, to (2 hrs.) the church of San Bernardo (2310 ft.), 
situated on a rocky plateau, commanding a picturesque view. [At the S.E. 
base of the plateau are the village of Canobbio and the chateau of Trevano, 
with a charming park. The Castello di Davesco (1375 ft.), on the opposite 
bank of the Cassarate, is now a hydropathic establishment (pens. 8-12 fr.).J 
Thence (at first following the top of the hill to the N. ; no path) to 
(U/2-2 hrs) Sala and the (1 hr.) monastery of Bigorio (2360 ft.; refresh- 
ments), charmingly situated (the church contains a Madonna attributed 
to Guercino). A delightful walk may be taken hence, through chestnut- 
woods and over pastures, to (l J /4 hr.) the top of Mte. Bigorio (3615ft.). 
From the monastery back by Q-jz hr.) Ponte Capriasca (1427 ft.), with a 
church containing a good old copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper 
(best light 11-1), to ( 3 A hr.) the railway-station of Taverne (p. 7). 

■ Monte Boglia (4960 ft. ; accent 4-4 1 / 2 hrs.; guide desirable). Ascent 
by Soragno and the Alp Bolla, or from Bre (see above), P/i hr. The view 
is less comprehensive but more picturesque than that from Mte. Generoso 
(p. 13). Descent on the E. side through the grassy Veil Solda to Castello 
and San Mamette or Oria (steamboat-stations ; p. 164). 

Monte Caraoghe (7300 ft.), commanding a striking panorama of the 
Alps from Mte. Rosa to the Ortler. Road via Canobbio and Tesserele ("Trat- 
toria Sev. Antonini), and then to the right, through the Val di Colla, or 
upper valley of the Cassarate, to (12 M. ; carr. in 2*/2 hrs.) Scareglia or 
Lower Colla (3205 ft. ; *Osteria Garzirola). Thence on foot (with guide) 
by Colla and the Alp Pietrarossa, leaving the Monte Garzirola (see below) 
to the left, to the (3 hrs.) Alp Sertena (5920 ft.) and the (l>/2 hr.) top. 
— The descent may be made to theN., via. the alps of Rivolfe and Leveno 
and through the Val Morobbia, to Giubiasco and (5 hrs.) Bellinzona (p. 7). — 
The ascent of Monte Garzirola (6940 ft.), accomplished from Colla in 3 hrs., 
is also recommended. — Pedestrians will find it to their account to return 
from the Val Colla to Porlezza over the Pass of San Lucio (5960 ft.), or to 
the Val Solda (p. 164), either by the Cima di Fojorma (5935 ft.; views) or past 
the remarkable Dolomitic peaks of the Denti di Vecckia. 

Monte Tamaro (6130 ft.; 4 hrs.; guide) from Taverne (p. 7) or Bironico 
(p. 7), not difficult. Splendid view of Lago Maggiore(in the distance),- etc. 

A pleasant excursion may be made in a light mountain-carriage 
(16-17 fr.) via Bioggio (1053 ft.) to (2 hrs.) Cademario (2407 ft.), whence the 
carriage is sent to Agno. From Cademario we ascend on foot to (20 min.) 
San Bernardo (2955 ft.; beauliful view of Lago Maggiore, etc.). We next 
proceed to the Aranno-Iseo road and follow it to the left to Iseo (1254 ft.), 
C'imo, Vernate, and (2 hrs.) Agno (p. 165), where we rejoin the carriage. The 
chapel of Santa Maria (2560 ft.) lies near the road, between Iseo and Cimo. 

Excursion to the Monte Generoso, see p. 13; to the Grotto of Otleno, 
see p. 163. 

From Lugano to Chiasso and Como (Milan). The train crosses 
the Tassino Valley, by means of a viaduct, 120 ft. high (charming 
view of Lugano to the left), skirts the Monte San Salvatore, and 
passes under its N.E. spur. Tt then skirts the W. bank of the lake 

to Como. MONTE GENEROSO. 3. Route. 13 

via the village of (128 M.) Melide (Demicheli , pens, from 5 fr. ; 
Grotto Civelli, a restaurant), l l fa M. beyond the headland of San 
Martino (p. 10). The train and the road then cross the lake to Bis- 
sone by a stone viaduct */a M. long (views). Two tunnels. Then 
(130 M.) Maroggia (Hot.-Restaurant Val Mara, R. l l l 2 -2 fr., B. 80 c"), 
at the W. base of the Mte, Generoso ; continuous view of the lake 
on the right. 

13272 M. Capolago (Hot.-Pens. du Lac, very fair, with garden, 
R. 2, pens. 6-8 fr.; Alb. £ Italia, well spoken of; Buffet), at the 
head of the S.E. arm of the lake, near the mouth of the Laveggio, 
is the station for the Generoso Railway (steamboat from Lugano 
2-3 times a day in summer, in about 1 hr.). 

Fkom Capolago to the Monte Generoso, rack-and-pinion railway 
(generally running from April loth to Oct. 15th) in H/4 hr., to Bellavista 
(Hot. Generoso) in 56 minutes. Return-fare to the top 10 fr. (Sun. 5 fr.), from 
Lugano 11 fr. 75 c. (Sun. 6 fr.); return-ticket, incl. B., D., &B. in Ihe Hot. 
Kulm, IS fr. — The trains start from the steamhoat-pier at Capolago and 
halt at (2 min.) the St. Gotthard Railway Station. The train crosses the road 
and the St. Gotthard railway and ascends the slope of the Generoso (gradient 
20 : 103, afterwards 22 : 100), with a continuous open view, on the right, of 
the Val di Laveggio, girt with wooded hills, of the little town of Mendrisio, 
and, behind, of the Lake of Lugano. Then it skirts abrupt cliffs and enters 
a curved tunnel (150 yds. long), immediately before which the summit of 
Monte Rosa is visible. — l 8 /4 M. San Nicolao (2820 ft.), a station in the finely 
wooded Yal di Solarino. The line next describes a wide curve, enters a 
tunnel 50 yds. long, and proceeds high up on the mountain-slope, with 
fine views of the plain of Lombardy as far as Milan and Varese. 

3V2 M. Bellavista (4010 ft. ; Albergo Bellavista, plain ; restaurant). A path 
leads from the station along the mountain-ridge (benches) to the (5 min.) 
*Perron, a platform provided with railings, immediately above Capolago, 
with a beautiful view (best in the morning) of the Lake of Lugano and 
the surrounding heights, backed by the line of snow-peaks stretching from 
the Gran Paradiso to the St. Gotthard. About 1/2 M. to the E. of the 
station (hotel-porter meets the trains) is the 'Hotel Monte Generoso (3965 ft. ; 
B. 4-5, B. 1V2, dej. 3V2-4, D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr.; post and telegraph office; 
Engl. Church Service), situated on a mountain-terrace commanding a view 
over the plain of Lombardy as far as the Monte Viso. The hotel, open 
from May 1st to Oct. 15th, is frequented in summer mainly by Italians, at 
other seasons by English and Americans. A bridle-path leads hence to 
the summit in I1/4 hr. 

Beyond Bellavista the railway ascends through another tunnel (90 yds. 
long), and closely skirts the barren ridge, affording occasional views to 
the left of the lake and town of Lugano, and to the right, below, of the 
villages of Muggio and Cabbio. Beyond two short tunnels we reach the 
station of (51/2 M.) Vetta (5355 ft.; H6tel Kulm, B. 3-5, B. 11/2, dej. 3Vs-4, 
D. 5, pens. 8-12 fr., connected by view-terraces with the Restaurant Vetta; 
adjacent, Ristorante Clericetti, plain, D. with wine 3 fr.). A good pa'h 
leads hence in 10 min. to the summit of *Monte Generoso (5590 ft.). The 
View, no less striking than picturesque, embraces the lakes of Lugano, 
Como, Varese, and Lago Maggiore, the entire Alpine chain from the Monte 
Viso to the Corno dei Tre Signori, and to the S. the plain of Lombardy, 
watered by the Po and backed by the Apennines, with the town3 of 
Milan, Lodi, Crema, and Cremona (best in the morning). — From the 
station of Vetta we may descend on foot to the Hotel du Generoso or to 
Bellavista station in 3 /4 hr. 

Monte Generoso may also be ascended from Rovio (16G5 ft. ; "Hot. -Pen-;. 
Mte. Generoso, open also in winter, R. 1-2, D. 2 l / 2 , S. IV2, pens. 5-6 fr. ; 
3 M. from Maroggia station by road, less by footpath), in 3V2-4 hrs.,,by a 

14 Route 4. SPLUGEN. 

good path, well-shaded in the morning ^ from Mendrisio (see below) via 
San Nkolao, by bridle-path in 4 hrs. (mule 6 fr.) ; or from Balerna (see 
below) via Muggio in 4-4 : /2 hrs. (road to Muggio, beyond which the ascent 
is fatiguing). — From Lanzo <P Intel vi (bridle-path, 5 J /2 hrs.), see p. 163 •, 
recommended for the return (to Osteno 6 hrs.). 

135 M. Mendrisio (1190 ft.; Angelo, a good Italian house, R. 
2'/2 fr-)> a small town of 2900 inhab., ife M. from the station, lies 
at the beginning of the bridle-path to the Monte Generoso (to the 
Hot. Generoso 3 hrs. ; mule 6 fr.). At Ligometto, l l / 2 M. to the W., 
the birthplace of Vincenzo Vela (1822-91), is the Museo Vela, with 
models and a few originals by that sculptor. — A short tunned 
carries us through the watershed between the Laveggio and the 
Breggia. 139 M. Balerna. 

140 M. Chiasso (765 ft. ; *Buffet ; Alb. Croce Rossa, R. 2, B. 1 fr., 
at the station), the last Swiss village (custom-house 5 few porters; 
usually a long halt). To Cernobbio, see p. 155. — The line pierces 
the Monte Olimpino by means of a tunnel 3190 yds. long, beyond 
which a view of the Lake of Como is disclosed to the left. 

143 M. Como {Stazione di San Giovanni, p. 148); thence to 
(30 M.) Milan, see R. 20. 

4. From Thusis to Colico over the Spliigen. 

53 M. Diligence from Thusis to Chiavenna (41 M.) twice daily in 
summer in 10 hrs. (fare 16 fr. 50, coupe 19 fr. 80 c). Extra Post from 
Thusis to Chiavenna with two horses 99 fr. 20 c, with three horses 135 fr. 
50 c. — Railway from Chiavenna to Colico, 17 M., in 3/ 4 -l hr. (fares 3 fr. 
15, 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 40 c), corresponding with the steamboats to Como-. 

Thusis (2450 ft. ; Hot.-Pens. Via Mala, Post, Rhaetia, etc.), the 
terminus of the railway, lies at the confluence of the Rhine and the 
Nolla. — The Spliigen road leads hence through the gorge of the 
*Via Mala, crossing the foaming Rhine several times. Finest view 
at the second bridge. 

772 M. Andeer (3210 ft.). — Then we follow the wooded Rofna 
Ravine and the picturesque Rheinw aid- Thai (Vol Rhein) to — 

1672 M. Spliigen, Roman. Spluga (4757 ft. ; Hotel Bodenhaus, 
R. S l /2, D. 3^2 fr"0> tne capital of the Rheinwald-Thal, at the junc- 
tion of the Spliigen and Bernardino routes. The latter here runs 
to the W. The Spliigen route turns to the left, crosses the Rhine, 
and ascends in windings to the (6 3 / 4 M.) Spliigen Pass (Colmo delV 
Orso ; 6945 ft.), the boundary between Switzerland and Italy. About 
3 / 4 M. beyond the pass is the Dogana (6245 ft.), the Italian custom- 

The road now descends by numerous zigzags along the E. slope, 
being protected against avalanches by three long galleries and avoid- 
ing the dangerous Liro Gorge. Beyond Pianazzo (inn), near the 
entrance to a short gallery, the Madesimo forms a magnificent water- 
fall, 650 ft. in height, which is best surveyed from a platform by 
the roadside. 

CHIAVENNA. *. Route. 15 

From Pianazzo a road ascends to the N.E. to (l'/4 M.) Madesimo 
(4920 ft.), a prettily situated village with a chalybeate spring and a '-Hydro- 

34 M. Campodolcino (3455 ft.; Croce cTOro) consists of four 
large groups of houses. The second contains the church. The Liro 
Valley (Valle San Gidcomo) is strewn with fragments of rock, but 
the wildness of the scene is softened by the luxuriant foliage of 
the chestnuts lower down, from which rises the slender campanile 
of the church of Gallivaggio. Beyond San Giacomo the rich luxuriance 
of Italian vegetation unfolds itself to the view. 

41 M. Chiavenna. — Hotels. *H6tel Conbadi et Poste, >/4 M - 
from the railwav-station, with railway ticket office and electric light 
R. 21/2-4, B. IV2, dej. 21/2, D- 3-41/2- S. 21/2, peDs. 61/2-8, omn. i/ 2 - 3 /4 f r. ; 
Albebgo Specola, at the station, R. 21/2, B. 1 fr., well spoken of. — Alb. 
Crimea e Chiave d'Oeo, on the Promenade, -R. li/ 2 , D. 2-3 fr., Italian; 
Alb. San Paolo, unpretending. 

The Station (Ca) 6- Restaurant, D. incl. wine 21/2 fr- j beer) lies to the 
E. of the town. Through-tickets are here issued to the steamboat-stations 
on the Lago di Como, with coupon for the omnibus-journey between the 
railway-station and the quay at Colico. — Diligence Office at the- station. 

Chiavenna (1090 ft.), the Roman Clavenna, an ancient town 
with 4100 inhab., is charmingly situated on the Mera, at the mouth 
of the Val Bregaglia, through which the road to the MalojaPass and 
the Engadine leads to the E. Opposite the Hotel Conradi are the 
ruins of an unfinished palace ofDeSalis, the last governor appointed 
by theGrisons. Picturesque view from the castle-garden or 'Paradiso' 
(adm. 50 c). — San Lorenzo, the principal church, has a slender 
clock- tower or campanile, rising from an arcaded enclosure which 
was formerly the burial-ground. The octagonal Battisterio (closed ; 
fee 15-20 c.) contains a font of 1206, adorned with reliefs. 

The hills of the Val Capiola contain many 'Marmitte dei Gigantr 
(giant's kettles) or ancient 'glacier -mills' 1 of all sizes (guides at the 

The Railway to Colico (fares, see p. 14) traverses three tun- 
nels soon after starting, beyond which we enjoy a fine retrospect of 
Chiavenna. Rich vine-bearing country. The valley (Piano di Chia- 
venna) is enclosed on both sides by lofty mountains. The lower- 
lying districts are exposed to the inundations of the Liro and Mera, 
which unite below Chiavenna. On the right bank of the Mera lies 
Gordona, at the mouth of the Val della Forcola, beyond which 
the Boggia forms a pretty waterfall in its precipitous descent 
from the narrow Val Bodengo. — 6 M. Sam6laco is the station for 
the large village of that name on the opposite (right) bank of the 
Mera, at the mouth of the Val Mengasca. Near (8V2 M.) Novate 
(Mezzola) the railway reaches the Lago di Mezzola (650 ft.), originally 
the N. bay of the Lake of Como, from which it has been almost 
separated by the deposits of the Adda. The narrow channel which 
connects the lakes has again been rendered navigable. To the 
S. appears the pyramidal Monte Legnone (p. 160). The railway, 
supported by masonry and traversing tunnels, crosses the Adda 

16 Roule 5. INNSBRUCK. 

beyond (l2 1 /2 M Dubino. The Valtellina railway (p. 161) joins 
ours from the left; we observe on a hill to the right the ruined 
castle of Fuentes, once the key of the Valtellina, erected by the 
Spaniards in 1603, and destroyed by the French in 1796. 

17 M. Colico (720 ft. ; "Hotel Risi, R. 2i/ 2 , B. 1 fr.; Alb. Piazza 
Garibaldi, on the lake, Alb. Isold Bella, R. 1^2 &•> B. 80 c, both 
Italian), at the N.E. extremity of the Lake of Como, see p. 161. The 
station is nearly */ 2 M. from the quay (omnibus, see p. 15). — 
Railway from Colico to Lecco (Milan), see pp. 151-146. 

5. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner. 

175 M. Acsteian Southern Railway (Oesterreichisclie Sudbahn) to Ala, 
thence Italian Railway (Rete Adriatica) ; express fares 29 fr. £0, 21 fr. 
90 c; ordinary 23 fr. 45, 17 fr. 35, 11 fr. 50 C; (through-tickets payable in 
gold). The 'Nord-Sud-Express-Zug , (Berlin to Verona, in winter to Milan), 
a train de luxe composed of first-class and dining cars, performs the journey 
in 6V2 hrs.; the day-express (1st & 2nd cl.) takes 8, the night-express 
(1st, 2nd, & 3rd cl.) £3/ 4 , the ordinary trains ll 3 /4 hrs. — Views on the 
right as far as the summit of the Brenner. 

The Brenner (4495 ft.), the lowest pass over the principal chain of the Alps, 
is traversed by one of the oldest of the Alpine routes, which was used as early 
as the Roman period, and rendered practicable for carriages in 1772. The 
railway, opened in 1867, is carried through 30 tunnels, and over 60 large 
and a number of smaller bridges within a distance of 83 31. The greatest 
incline, 1:40, is between Innsbruck and the culminating point. ISV^^a 

Innsbruck (1880 ft. ; TirolerHof, Hot. de V Europe, Goldene 
Sonne, these three first-class, opposite the station ; Victoria, also 
opposite the station ; Hotel Kreid , Margarethen-Platz ; Hot. Habs- 
burg, Hot. Stadt Miinchen, in the town, these four second-class ; 
Rail. Restaurant), the capital of Tyrol, with 35,000 inhab., is de- 
scribed in Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

The railway ascends the valley of the Sill. Numerous tunnels. 
f 6 M. Patsch (2570 ft.). — 12i/ 2 M. Matrei (3254 ft.), with the 
chateau of Trautson. — 15y 2 M. Steinach (3447 ft.). — The train 
now ascends a steep incline, crosses the valleys of Sehmirn and Vals 
in a wide curve beyond (18y 2 M.) St. Jodok, and runs high above 
the Sill to (19^2 M.) Ories (4114 ft.). It then passes the small green 
Brenner-See, and reaches — 

25 M. Stat. Brenner (4495 ft. ; Buffet), on the summit of the 
pass, the watershed between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. From 
the hillside to the right descends the Eisak , which the train now 
follows. — 27V2 M - Brennerbad (4290 ft.). The line then descends 
rapidly to (30^2 M Schelleberg (4075 ft.), where it turns into the 
Pflersch-Thal, returning, however, to the Eisak valley by a curved 
tunnel, 800 yds. long. — 36 M. Oossensass (3494 ft.), a summer- 
resort. — The train now runs through wild rocky scenery. 40 M. 
Sterzing (31 10 ft.). On the left rises the castle of Sprechenstein, and 
on the right those of Thumburg and Reifenstein. — 43 M. Freien- 

BOTZEN. 5. Route. 17 

feld. — We now cross the Eisak. On the left bank is the castle of 
Welfenstein. — 46 M. Mauls. — 47 [ / 2 M. Orasstein (2745 ft.), at 
the entrance of the narrow defile of (50 M.) Mittewald. The lower 
end of the defile, called the Brixener Klause , near Vnterau, is 
closed by the Franzensfe3te, a strong fortress constructed in 1833. 
The (52>/ 2 M.) station (2450 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant), the junction 
of the Pusterthal line (for Carinthia), lies ll/ 4 M. to the N.W. of 
the fortress. — Vineyards and chestnuts now appear. 

59^2 ML Brixen (1840 ft.) was the capital of an ecclesiastical 
principality, dissolved in 1803. — We cross the Eisak. 61 1 /2 M. 
Albeins. The valley contracts. 64 M. Villnoss; 65 M. Klausen 
(1715 ft.). — The line skirts precipitous porphyry cliffs. — 68V2 M. 
Waidbruck (1545 ft.). On the left, high above, rises the Trostbura. 
The train crosses the Eisak, in a wild ravine hemmed in by porphyry 
rocks. 711/2 M. Kastelruth; 731/2 M. Atzwang (1220 ft.). — 78 M. 
lilumau. On the right bank begin the vine -clad slopes of the 
Botzener Leite. — 81 ^ M. Kardaun. The train now returns to the 
right bank of the Eisak and enters the wide basin of Botzen, a 
district of luxuriant fertility. 

83 M. Botzen. — Hotels. *Bristol, 2 min. from the station, R. 5-7, 
B. I1/2, D. 4, S. 3'/2 K. ; *Victoria, opposite the station, R. 3-5 K.; *Goldner 
Greif, "Kaiserkroxf, Hot. de i/Europe, Riese, etc., in the town. 

Botzen, Ital. Bolzano (880 ft.), with 13,600 inhab., in the middle 
ages the chief centre of the trade between Venice and the North, 
and to-day the most important commercial town in Tyrol, is beauti- 
fully situated at the confluence of the Eisak and the Talfer, which 
descends from the Sarnthal on the N. The background towards the E. 
is formed by the strikingly picturesque dolomite mountains of the 
Val di Fassa ; to the W. rises the long porphyry ridge of the Mendel. 
In the Walther-Platz is a Monument to Walther von der Vogelicelde, 
the poet, by H. Natter (1889). The Gothic Parish Church of the 
14th and 15th cent, has a portal with two lions of red marble, in 
the Lombard style. — The Calvarienberg (950 ft.; 25 min. walk; 
beyond the Eisak bridge we cross the railway to the left) commands 
a fine view. — Beyond the Talfer, at the foot of the Guntschnaberg, 
lies Gries, frequented as a winter-resoit. 

From Botzen a branch-line diverges to (20 M.) Meran (IV2-2 hrs.). 
See Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

Beyond Botzen the train crosses the Eisak, shortly tefore its- 
confluence with the Etsch (or Adige~), which becomes navigable at 
(89^2 M.) Branzoll. In the distance, to the right, rises the wooded 
range of the Mittelberg. Beyond (93 M.) Auer the train crosses the 
Adige. — 96 M. Neumarkt-Tramin. — 99 M. Salurn, commanded 
by the ruined Haderburg on an apparently inaccessible rock. — 
107 M. San Michele, with a handsome old Augustine monastery, is 
the station for the Val di Non. The train again crosses the Adige. 

Bardkkbk. Italy!. 12th Edit. 2^ 

18 BouteS. TRENT. From Innsb ruck 

— Ill M. Lavis, on the Avisio, the stony bed of which is crossed 
farther on by a bridge 1000 yds. in length. — 115 M. Oardolo. 

llTi/2 M. Trent. — 'Imperial Hotel Trento, near the station, 
R, 3-61.,'B. 1 K. 30 7*., dej. 3»/2, I>. 5 Ji>, *Carloni, Via Lunga, with good 
trattoria. — Second-elass : Agnello d'Oro. 

Trent (640 ft.), or Trento, Lat. Tridentum, with 21,600 in- 
hab., formerly the wealthiest and most important town in Tyrol, 
possesses numerous towers, palaces, and broad streets, and presents 
an imposing appearance. The pretty grounds (Piazza Dante) ad- 
joining the station are adorned with a lofty Monument to Dante, 
designed by Cesare Zocchi (1896). 

The *Cathedral, founded in 1048, rebuilt in 1212 et seq., and 
restored in 1882-99, is a Romanesque church surmounted by a dome. 
The N. portal, as at Botzen, is adorned with a pair of lions. In the 
S. transept are frescoes and the marble tomb of the Venetian general 
Sanseverino, who was drowned in the Adige in 1487 after his defeat 
by the Tridentines at Calliano (see below). — In the Piazza Grande 
(at the cathedral), which is embellished with the tasteful Neptune 
Fountain (1769), stands the Palazzo Pretorio (now the military head- 
quarters), with the old Torre Grande (clock-tower). 

Santa Maria Maggiore, begun in 1520, contains a picture (1563), 
in the choir, with portraits of the members of the Council of Trent 
which assembled here in 1545-63. The handsome organ-loft is in 
the Renaissance style. 

The Palazzo Municipale, in the Via Larga, to the N. of the cath- 
edral, contains the Public Library and the Museum, the latter con- 
sisting of collections of natural history specimens, S. Tyrolese anti- 
quities, coins, etc. 

On the E. side of the town rises the imposing Castello del Buon 
Consiglio (adm. 9-11 and 2-4), formerly the seat of theprince-bishcps 
and now a barrack. A line view is enjoyed from the huge Torre di 
Augusto. — A good view of the town is also obtained from the Ca- 
puchin Convent above the Castello. — The rocky, fortified hill of 
Verruca or Dos Trento (950 ft.), on the right bank of the Adige, is 
not accessible to visitors. 

From Trent to Bassano through the Val Sugana, 70 M., see Baedeker's 
Eastern Alps. Railway to (47 M.) Tezze in 2 8 /4-3 8 A br*.; diligence thence to 
.(23 M.) Bassano in 4 a /2 hrs. 

The Railway follows the Adige. — 122 M. Matarello. On a 
hill near (127 M.) Calliano rises the castle of Beseno (to the left). 
The lower valley of the Adige, as far as the Italian frontier, is 
named the Vol Lagarina. It is rich in vines, maize, and mulberries. 

132 M. Rovereto (695 ft.; Hot. Glira, very fair; Balmoral), a 
town with 11,000 inhab., has an old Castello. — Road to Recoaro 
(omnibus in summer), Torrebelvicino, and Schio, see p. 247. 

The train crosses the Leno. On the right bank of the Adige lies 
Isera, celebrated for its wine, with a waterfall. On the left bank, 

to Verona. ALA. 5. Route. 19 

near Lizzana, is the Castello Dante (1003 ft.), in which, ahout the 
year 1302, Dante when hanished from Florence was the guest of 
Count Castelbarco. 

135 M. Mori (570 ft.- Buffet; Railway Hotel, R. from 1% K.~) is 
the starting-point of a narrow-gauge railway to Riva on the Lago di 
Garda via Arco. 

From Mori to Riva, loy-j M., railway in W[-i lir. (fares 1st cl. 3 K. 6 h., 
3rd cl. IE. 54ft.: best views to the left). The line crosses the Adige to 
(2 ■•) Mori Borga'ta, the station for the large village of Mori (672 ft.), noted 
for it^ asparagus. It then traverses the broad green valley to (41/2 M.) Loppio 
(735 ft.), with the chateau of Count Castelbarco, passes the little Lago di 
Loppio (720 ft.), with its rocky island, and winds np among rocky debris 
to the (1^4 M.) culminating point of the route , at the chapel of Ban 
Giovanni (915 ft.). We now descend to (8 M.) Nago (710 ft.), a village 
Bituated on the brink of a ravine, with The ruins of the castle of Penede 
(922 ft.), on a barren rock to the left. — The line descends along the 
slope of the mountains. We enjoy an exquisite *View of the blue Lago 
di Garda. with the Sarca at our feet, and the long Monte Brione opposite. 
Presently Arco and the wide valley of the Sarca, with its mountain-sides, 
come into view. 11 M. Oltresarca is the station for Yignole. Bolognano, and 
otber villages. We then cross the Sarca to (12V2 M.) Arco (p. 217). Thence 
we traverse the fertile valley (to the left Mte. Brione; to the right, among 
the mountains, Tenno, see p. 216). 1372 M. San Tommaso. — lo 1 2 If. Riva 
(p. 215-, steamers on the Lago di Garda, see p. '2!0j. 

Near (136 1 / , 2 Iff.) Marco the line intersects the so-called Slavini 
di Marco, probably the remains of an ancient glacier, according lo 
others the traces of a vast landslip, which is said to have buried a 
town here in 883, and is described by Dante [Inferno, xii. 4-9). 
At (137 M.J Serravalle the valley contracts. 

142 M. Ala (415 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; Hot. Ala, very fair; 
Corona'), with 4600 inhab., is the seat of the Italian and Austrian 
custom-house authorities. Those who have forwarded luggage by 
this route to or from Italy should enquire for it at the custom-house 
here. — 144 M. Avio, with a recently restored chateau of Count 
Castelbarco. — 145 1 / 2 M. Borghetto (430 ft.), the last Austrian station. 

148 M. Peri (413 it.), the first Italian station, is the starting- 
point for the ascent of the Monte Baldo (Mte. Maggiore ; comp. 
p. 216), which separates the valley of the Adige from the Lago di 
Garda. — On an eminence to the right, near (156 M.) Ceraino, lies 
Rivoli, which was stormed by the French in 1796 and 1797 under 
Massena, and afterwards gave him his ducal title. Here also are 
two new forts. — We now enter the Chiusa di Verona, a rocky defile 
celebrated in mediaeval warfare. At the entrance are the works of 
Incanale, commanding the pass. 

The train passes (160 M.) Domegliara (400 ft.), also a station 
on the Verona and Caprino line (comp. p. 234), then (164 M.) 
Pescantina, and (167 M.) Parona all' Adige (p. 234), crosses the 
Adige, and soon reaches the Verona and Milan line. 

At Verona (see p. 221) it first stops at (173 M.) the Stazione 
Porta Nuova and then at the (175 M.) Stazione Porta Vescovo, the 
principal station. 



6. From Vienna to Venice via Pontebba. 

401 M. Austrian South Railway to Bruck; Austrian State Railway 
thence to Pontafel; Italian Railway (Bete Adriatic**) thence to Venice. 
'Train de luxe 1 (Vienna-Cannes ; first-class carriages only, at special rate) 
daily in winter in 14 hrs. ; express train in 1574 hrs. (fares 71 fr. 15, 50 t'r. 
35 c.) ; ordinary train in 25 3 /4 hrs. 

Vienna, see Baedeker's Austria. The express trains take l^hr. 
from Vienna to (47 M.) Gloggniiz via Baden and Wiener-Neustadt. — 
At Gloggnitz (1450 ft.) begins the *Semmering Railway, the oldest 
of the great continental mountain-railways, constructed in 1848- 
53 (best views on the left). In the valley flows the green Schwarza. 
On the left is the three-peaked Sonnwendstein ; to the right, in the 
background, the Raxalp. — At (51 M). Payerbach (1615 ft.) the train 
crosses the Valley of Reichenau by a viaduct 80 ft. high and ascends 
rapidly on the S. slope of the valley (gradient 1 : 40). Beyond four 
tunnels it reaches (60 M.) Klamm (2290 ft.), with a half-ruined 
castle of Prince Liechtenstein, on a rocky pinnacle. Far below runs 
the old Semmering road. The train now skirts the Weinzettelwand 
by a long gallery and reaches (64'/ 2 M.) Breitenstein (2530 ft.). The 
ravines of the Kalte Rinne and the Vntere Adlitzgraben are crossed 
by lofty viaducts, between which the line ascends in curves. 

Beyond (6972 M.) Semmering (2930 ft.) the train passes from 
Austria into Styria by means of the Semmering Tunnel, nearly 1 M. 
long. It then descends the valley of the Froeschnitz to (751/2 M«) 
Spital and (80 M.) Murzzuschlag (2200 ft.). — The line now fol- 
lows the picturesque valley of the Miirz, containing numerous forges. 

— 85 M. Langenwang; 87!/ 2 M. Krieglach; 90y 2 M. Mitterdorf. On 
the right, near Wartberg, rises the ruin of Lichtenegg. The train 
makes a wide sweep round the Wartberg-Eogel, crossing the Miirz 
twice, and reaches (95 M.) Kindberg, with a castle of Count Attems. 

— 100 M. Martin; 103»/ 2 M. Kavfenberg. 

106 1 / 2 M. Bruck an der Mur (1595 ft.), a small town at the 
confluence of the Miirz and the Mur, is the junction of the line to 
Gratz and Trieste (see Baedeker's Austria'). On a rocky height to 
the N. of the station is the ruined castle of Landskron. 

The Staatsbahn, which we now follow, diverges to the right 
from the South Railway, crosses the Mur, and ascends the narrow 
valley of that river. Beyond (114 M.) Niklasdorf we again cross the 
Mur and reach (116V2 M.) Leoben (1745 ft.), the most important 
town of Upper Styria (7000 inhab.). The train describes a wide 
circuit round the town, and stops at the (11772 ML) Staatsbahnhof, 
to the S. of the suburb of Waasen. It then follows the Mur, passing 
the chateau of Goss on the left. 

125 M. Sankt Michael (1955 ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant), at the mouth 
of the Liesing-Thal, is the junction for the line to Selzthal. — 
139 M. Knittelfeld (2110 ft.). — 148V 2 M - Juderiburg (2380 ft.). 
an old town, with extensive foundries; 151i/ 2 M. Thalheim; 157 M. 

PONTEBBA. 6. Route. 21 

St. Georgen. — ±60 M. Unzmarkt. On the right rises the ruin of 
Frauenburg, once the seat of the minnesinger Ulrich von Liechten- 
stein. Beyond (i64 1 /2 M..)]Scheifling, with the chateau of Schratten- 
berg (r.), the train quits the Mur and ascends to (16972 M.) 
St. Lambrecht [2900 ft.), on the watershed between the Mur and the 
Drave. It then descends the valley of the Olsa, passing (173 M.) 
Neumarkt and (178 M.) Einoed. 

182 1 /2 M. Friesach (2090 ft.) , an ancient town on the Metnitz, 
commanded by four ruined castles. — 185 72 M. Hirt. The train 
now enters the Krappfeld, the fertile plain of the Qurk ; to the E. 
is the Sau-Alpe, to the S. rise the Karawanken and the Triglav. — 
197 M. Launsdorf. The most interesting of the numerous ■ 
of the Caiinthian nobles in this district is" Kqch-Qsterwitz , the 
property of the Khevenhiiller family, 2 M. to the S.W., on a rock 
500 ft. high. 

From (20172 M.) Glandorf (1540 ft.) a branch-line diverges to 
Klagenfurt. — 203 M. St. Yeit an der Glan was the capital of 
Carinthia down to 1519. — The line continues to ascend the valley 
of the Glan, part of which is marshy. 20872 M. Feistritz-Pulst. 
To the right is the ruin of Liebenfels; to the left those of Kar lsbcrg 
and (farther on"! Hardeyg. — 211 M. Glanegg^vfifh. an obi nestle. 
Beyond (21772 M.) Feldkirchen we skirt a wide moor and at 
(2237 2 M.) Steindorf we approach the Ossiacher See (1G00 ft.). At 
the S.W. end of the lake is the ruin of Lands kron^ 

234 M. Villach (1665 ft. 5 *Bail. Restaurant fHot. Mosser), an 
old town on the Drave, with 7700 inhab., the junction of the lines 
to Marburg and Franzensfeste, is very picturesquely situated at the 
base of the Dobratsch (7110 ft.). 

The train skirts the town towards the S. and crosses the Drave 
and the Gail. 239 l / 2 M. Fiirnitz; 247 7 2 M. Thoerl-Maglern. The 
line then runs along the left side of the Gailitz Valley. 

251 M. Tarvis (2410 ft.; *Bailway Hotel & Restaurant), whore 
the railway from Laibach joins ours on the left, the chief place in 
the Kanal Valley, is beautifully situated. It consists of Unter-Tarvis 
in the floor of the valley, 72 M. from the station, and Ober-Tarvis, 
3 /4 M. farther on, with a station of its own, at which the slow 
trains stop. 

Beyond Tarvis the line gradually ascends. To the left rises the 
Liischariberg (5880 ft.), a pilgrims' resort, and behind us is the 
imposing Manhart. — 256 M. Saifnitz (2615 ft.), on the watershed 
between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. The train then descends 
along the Fella. — Near a picturesque fort the Fella is crossed. 
Beyond (26272 M.) Malborghet the train traverses a rocky ravine, 
at the end of which lies (266 M.) Lusnitz. 

- 1 272 M. Pontafel (1870 ft. ; Railway Restaurant), the Austrian 
frontier and customs station, is separated by the rushing Pontebbana 
from — 

22 Route 6. VENZONE. 

27372 M. Pontebba, the first village in Italy, with the Italian 
custom-bouse (luggage examined). The next part of tbe railway, 
descending tbe wild ravine of tbe Fella (*Valle del Ferro), is remark- 
able both for tbe grandeur of the scenery and for the boldness 
displayed in the construction of the line. The train traverses an 
almost continuous series of cuttings, tunnels (24 before Stazione 
per la Carnia), bridges, and viaducts. The Fella is crossed by an 
iron bridge, 130 ft. high. — 278 M. Dogna (1510 ft,), at tbe mouth 
of the valley of that name; in tbe background, to the E., rises the 
grand pyramid of the Montasio or Bramkofd (9030 ft.). We recross 
the river. — 281 M. Chiusaforte (1285 ft.), at the entrance of the 
picturesque Raccolana Valley. At (286 M.) Resiuita (1035 ft.) the 
train crosses the Resia. Below (288 M.) Moggio (Udinese) tbe valley 
of the Fella expands. The bottom of tbe valley is covered with 
rubble. A little below (291 M.) Stazione per la Carnia the Fella 
flows into the Tagliamento, which here waters an extensive plain. 

294 M. Venzone (750 ft.). Tbe train traverses the marshy Rughi 
Bianchi, or valley of the Tagliamento, by an imposing viaduct, ^2 M. 
in length, and then quits the basin of that river. — 298 M. Oemona- 
Ospedaletto; 30iy 2 M. Magnano-Artegna; 304 M. Tarcento; 306 1 / 2 M. 
Triceshno; 310 M. Reana del Rojale. 

316 M. Udine, see p. 325. 

From Udine to (401 M.) Venice, see pp. 325-322. 

II. Piedmont. 

7. Turin 25 

From the Piazza Castello, with the Royal Palace, to the 
Academy (gallery of paintings) and the Piazze San Carlo 
and Carlo Emanuele, 2S. — From the Piazza Castello to 
the Cathedral, the Porta Palatina, and the Consolata, 33. — 
From the Piazza Castello to the Piazza dello Statuto; 
Giardino della Cittadelia; Corso Vittorio Emanuele Se- 
gundo, 35. — From the Piazza Castello by the Via di 
Po to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele Primo, and thence 
to the Giardino Pubblico, 36. — Right bank of the Po ; 
Monte dei Cappuccini, 38. 

Excursions: The Superga, 39.— Moncalieri. Stupinigi. 

Carignano, 40. 

8. The Alpine Valleys to the West of Turin 40 

a. Ceresole Reale, 40. — b. Lanzo, 41. — c Susa, 41. — 
d. Torre Pellice, 42. — e. Crissolo (Monte Viso), 42. 

9. From Turin to Ventimiglia via Cuneo and Tenda . . 42 

10. From Cuneo to Bastia (Turin, Savona) 46 

Environs of Mondovi, 46. 

11. From Turin to Genoa 47 

a. Via, Bra and Savona 47 

From Bra to Alessandria, 47. — From Ceva to Orinea,' 47. 

b. Via Acqui and Ovada 48 

c. Via Alessandria and Novi 50 

12. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur 51 

13. From Aosta to the Graian Alps 57 

1. From Aosta to Cogne, 57. — 2. From C gne to Valsava- 
ranche, 59. — 3. From Valsavar t nche to Rhemes Xotre- 
Dame, 59. — 4. From Rhemes Notre-Dame to Valgri- 
sanche, Liverogne, and Aosta, 60. 

14. From Santhia (Turin) to Biella . 60 

15. From Turin to Milan via NovaTa 61 

From Vercelli to Alessandria, 62. — From Novara to 
Varallo, to Arona, and to Seregno, 63. 

This district 'at the foot of the mountains', enclosed on three sides 
by the Alps and Apennines, and separated from Lombardy by the Ticino, 
embraces, according to the present division, the provinces of Turin, No- 
vura, Cuneo, and Alessandria, with 3,233,000 inhab., and an area of about 
11,400 sq. M. It consists of lowlands flanking the banks of the Po and its 
tributaries, which yield rice, wheat, and maize, and of highlands where ex- 
cellent wine and silk are produced, and lastly of a bleaker mountain 
region of forests and pastures. The earliest Inhabitants were Celtic and 
Ligurian tribes, who were but slowly influenced by Roman culture; and 
it was not till the reign of Augustus that the subjugation of the higher 
valleys was completed. The Dialect of the people still retains traces of 
heir ancient affinity with the French ; thus, pieuve, instead of the Italian 
piovere, om for uomo, cheur for cuore, sita for citta-, rason for ragione, 
piassa for piazza. This patois is universally spoken, even by the upper 
classes, but is unintelligible to strangers. Throughout Piedmont, however, 
French is very generally understood. 


The Histoey of the country is closely interwoven with that of its 
dynasty. The House of Savoy (or Casa Sabauda) , a family of German 
origin, professing even to trace their descent from the Saxon Duke 
Wittekind, the opponent of Charlemagne, first became conspicuous among 
the nobles of Upper Burgundy about the year 1000. Humbert I. ( l Bian- 
cainano"; d. 1056) is generally regarded as the founder of the dynasty. 
His descendants, by judiciously espousing the cause of the pope and the 
emperor alternately, gradually succeeded in extending their supremacy 
over Turin, Aosta, Susa, Ivrea, and Nice. Amadeus VI. (1343-83), known 
as the 'Conte Verde' ('green count 1 ) from his usual dress, extended the 
power of his house in numerous feuds and warred in the East. Ama- 
deus VIII., raised to the ducal dignity by Emp. Sigismund in 1416, added 
Geneva, Vercelli, and Piedmont to his possessions, and gave the princi- 
pality its fiiut legislative code. He retired to a hermitage at Ripaille, near 
Thonon, iu 1434, but was created pope as Felix V. (1439-49) by the Council 
of Basle and died in 1451. — Situated between the two great mediaval 
powers of France on one side, and Austria and Spain on the other, the 
princes of Savoy frequently changed sides, and although sometimes over- 
taken by terrible disasters, they contrived to maintain, and even to extend, 
their territory. At one period the greater part of the Duchy was annexed 
to France, but Emmanuel Philibert ('Testa di Ferro 1 , 1553-80) restored it 
to its original extent, and became its second founder. This prince spent 

25 vears as a general in the service of Charles V. and won the battle of 
St. Quentin for Philip II. Under his son Charles Emmanuel I. (1580-1630) 
the Duchy again became dependent on France. From the sons of this 
prince are descended the elder branch of the family, which became extinct 
in 1831, and the younger Carignano line, which succeeded to the throne 
in the person of Carlo Alberto. The following dukes were Vittorio Amedeo I. 
(1630-37), Francesco Giacinto (1637-38), Carlo Emanuele II. (1638-75), and 
Vittorio Amedeo II. (1675-1730). The last of-these, having boldly allied him- 
self with Austria during the Spanish War of Succession, managed to throw 
off the French suzerainty (1703); he obtained Sicily as his reward, which 
inland, however, he was afterwards obliged to exchange for Sardinia (1720), 
and in 1713 assumed the title of King, which was subsequently coupled 
with the name of the latter island. His successors were Carlo Emanuele III. 
(1730-73), and Vittorio Amedeo III. (1773-96). After the battle of Turin 
(1706), in which Prince Eugene commanded the Imperialists, the Piedruont- 
ese princes directed their attention to Prussia, which served as a model 
lor the organisation of their kingdom. In both countries the military 
and feudal element preponderated, and both were obliged to succumb 
to the new powers evolved by the French Revolution. Carlo Emanuele 1 V. 
(1796-1802) was deprived of all his continental possessions by the French 
in 1798, and restricted to the island of Sardinia, which was protected 
by the English fleet. Vittorio Emanuele I. (1802-21) was at length rein- 
stated in his dominions, with the addition of Genoa, by the Congress of 
Vienna. The Napoleonic period had swept away the feudal institutions 
of Piedmont, and had bequeathed in their stead 'many of the benefits of 
modern legislation, and high military renown. It is therefore intelligible 
that the clerical reaction, which set in with the king's return, gave rise 
to an insurrection which caused the king to abdicate, and had to be 
quelled by Austrian troops. His brother Carlo Felice (1821-31) adhered 
faithfully to Jesuitical principles, and lived on the whole in accordance 
with his motto, 'Non sono re per essere seccato 1 ('worried'). The older 
line of the House of Savoy became extinct with this prince, and was 
succeeded by the collateral line of Carignano (p. 40; 27th April, 1831). 
Carlo Alberto (b. 1798), who had been educated at a French military 
school, and had headed the insurrection of 1821, was protected by France 
and Russia against the attempts of Austria to deprive him of his claims 
to the throne. His own experiences, and the force of circumstances, 
rendered him an implacable enemy of Austria. With him began the 
national development of Piedmont, 'although his efforts were not always 
consistent. The liberals called him the 'Re Tentenna' (the vacillating), 
while in 1843 he himself described his position as being 'between the 


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TURIN. 7. Route. 25 

daggers of the Carbonari and the chocolate of the Jesuits 1 . On 6th 
Jan., 1848, Count Cavour made the first public demand for tbe establish- 
ment of a constitution , and on the 7th Feb. the king , half in despair, 
yielded to the popular desires. The insurrection in Lombardy at length 
induced him to become the champion of national independence, and to 
give vent to his old enmity against Austria (23rd March), but one year 
later his career terminated with his defeat at Novara (23rd March, 1849). 
He then abdicated and retired to Oporto, where he died in a few months 
(26th July). It was reserved for his son Viltorio Emanuele II. (b. 1820, 
d. 9th Jan., 1878) finally to give effect to the national wishes of Italy. 

7. Turin, Ital. Torino. 

Railway Stations. 1. Stazione Cen irate, or di Porta Nuova (PI. D, 4), 
the terminus of all the lines (Rail. Restaurant). — 2. Stazione di Porta Susa 
(PI. B, 2), the first stopping-place of all the trains of the Novara-Milan 
line and fur the Cuorgne line. Omnibuses and cabs meet every train at 
bo!h these stations. City office at the Agenzia di Cittd delle Ferrovie del 
Mediicrraneo, Via Finanze 9. — Stations of the Steam Tramways : for the 
Super ga (p. 39) and Moncalieri (p. 40) in the Piazza Castello (PJ.E, 2, 3); 
for Cirie-Lanzo (p. 33) near the Ponte Mosca (PI. E, 1): fur Stupinigi (p. 40) 
in the Via Sacchi, on the W. side of the Central Station; for Carignano 
(p. 40), in tbe Via Nizza, on the E. fide of the Central Station. For the 
sieam-tramways, comp. the larger edition of the time-table mentioned at 
p. xvi, or the Orario dei Tramways (10 c). 

Hotels. c Grand Hotel et Hotel d'Europe (PL a; E, 3), Piazza 
Castello 19, with lift and steam- beating, R. 3-8, B. iy 2 , dej. 4, D. 5, 
pens, frum 9. omn. 1 fr. ; "Kkai-ts Gk. Hot. de Turin (PI. b; D, 4), Via 
Sacchi 10, opposite the Central Station, with lift, R. 4-7, B. li/z, dej.3y 2 -4, 
D. 5-6, pens, from 10, omn. y 2 -l fr. ; *H6tel Tkombetta ed Inghilterra 
(PL c; I), 4), Via Roma 31 and Via Cavour 2, R. 3 5, B. H/z, dej. (incl. 
wine) 3'/2, D. 4'/ 2 , pens. 10 fr. All these are of the first class. — Hot. Bonne- 
Femme et MEtropole (PL d; E, 3), Via Pietro Micca 3, with lift. — 
Hot. Suisse et Terminus (PL h: D, 4), Via Sacchi 2, near the Central 
Station, with lift and steam-heating, R. 3-5, B. l»/4, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 
S-10, omn. V2 fr- i Or. Hot. Ville et Bologne, Corso Vitt. Emanuele, 
opposite the Central Station 5 Hot. Central et Continental (PL e; E, 3), 
Via delle Finanze 2, with restaurant, R. 3-5, B. IV4, dej. incl. wine 3, D. 
incl. wine 4, pens. 9 fr. ; Hot. du Nord. Via Roma 34, well spoken of: Gr. 
Hot. Meuble Fiorina (PL f ; D, 3), Via Pietro Micca 22, near the Piazza 
Solferino, well furnished, R. 272-372 fr., omn. 80 c. — The following are 
second-class and more in the Italian style: Hot. Tre Corone (PL g; D, 3), 
Via Venti Seltembre 4t, R. from 272, D. 4, pens, from 9 fr., well spoken of; 
Alb. Roma e Rocca Cavour (PL i; D, 4), Piazza Carlo Felice, prettily 
situated; Hot. de France et de la Concorde (PL k; F, 3), Via di Po 20; 
Alb. della Zecca, Via Roma 36, Dogana Vecchia (PL m : D, 2), Via Corte 
d'Appello 4, R. 272 fr., both unpretending. — The Grissini, a kind of bread 
in long, thin, and crisp sticks, are a speciality of the place. The Pied- 
montese wines have a high repute (comp. p. xxiii). 

Restaurants (comp. p. xxi). "Parigi, Via di Po 21; *Cambio, Piazza 
Carignano 2; "Birreria Voigt, Via Pietro Micea 22, in the Hot. Fiorina, 
much frequented; * Trattoria Meridiana, Via Santa Teresa 6, Galleria Natta 
(Vienna beer); Milano, corner of the Piazza Castello and Via Barbaroux; 
Posta, Piazza Carlo Alberto ; Rittorante delta Zecca (see above), Via Roma 3G. 

— Wine Room. Cantina di Savoia, Via Cavour 2, good Piedmontese wines. 

— Vermouth di Torino (famous), good at Carpono's, Piazza Castello 18. 

Cafes. *Nazionale, Via di Po 20 ; Ligure, Corso Vitt. Em. II., near the 
station (concerts); San Carlo, Piazza San Carlo (concert in the evening); 
degli Specchi, Via Pietro Micca ; Alfieri, Via di Po. — Confectioners. Baratii <c 
Milano, Iiomina , Piazza Castello, S. side: Slratta, Piazza San Carlo 7. 
Chocolate: Giuliano , Via deir Accademia delle Scienze. — A favourite 

26 Route?. TURIN. Practical Notes. 

local beverage is Bicerin (15 c), a mixture of coffee, chocolate, and milk. — 
— Beer Houses (Birrerie ; comp. p. xxii). Gambrinus- Halle, next the Teatro 
Alfieri (see below); Caffe Nazionale (see p. 25); Caffd Piemonte , at the 
station (Munich beer at these); Birreria Voigt (see p. 25; local beer); 
Birreria della Borsa, Via dell 1 Accademia delle Scienze 2. 

Cabs (Veiture, Cittadine): per drive (corsa) 1 fr., at night (12-6 a.m.) 
1 fr. 20 c. ; first y 2 hr. 1 fr., first hour (ora) 1 fr. 50 c, each following 
Va hr. 75 c, at night I72, 2, and lfr.; hand-luggage, carried inside, free; 
each trunk 20 c. 

Electric Tramways (fare 10 c, transfer 15 c.) traverse the streets in 
many different directions (see Plan and p. 114). The chief centres are 
Piazza Castello (PI. E, 2, 3), Piazza Emanuele Filiberto ('Porta Palazzo'; 
PI. D, E, 1, 2), Piazza dello Statuto (PI. C, 2), Piazza San Martino (PI. B,2), 
Piazza ^Solferino (PI. D, 3), and Piazza Carlo Felice (PI. D, 4). 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 46; E, 3), Via Principe Amedeo 10, near 
the Piazza Carlo Alberto. 

Booksellers. Carlo Clausen, Via di Po 19; Rosenberg <k Sellier , Via 
Maria Vittoria 18; Casanova, Piazza Carignano; Streglio, in the Galleria 
Subalpina (p. 28). — Photogkaphs. Clausen, see above. — Newspapers: 
Stampa, Gazzetta del Popolo, Gazzetta di Torino. 

Goods Agents. Fratelli Girard, Galleria Nazionale (p. 33). — Cook's 
Office, Via Roma. 31, in the Hotel Trombetta. 

Bankers. Pellegrini & Moris, Piazza Solferino 6; De Fernex <Sc Co., 
Via Alfieri 15 ; Kusier <k Co., Via Venti Settembre 54. 

Physicians. Dr. F. Conti, Corso Oporto 30 (speaks English and French); 
Dr. Bergesio, Via Melchior Gioia 8 (speaks French). — Dentists. Martini, 
Via Pietro Micca (speaks English); Garelli, Via Roma 15. — Chemists. 
Foglino, Via Roma 27; A. Torre, Via di Po 14. 

Baths. La Provvidenza, Via Venti Settembre 7; Bagni Cavour , Via 
Lagrange 22. Bath li/4-lVz fr., with fee of 20 c - 

Military Music in front of the royal palace every afternoon when the 
guard is changed (between 4 and 6 p.m.); in May and June on Sun. in 
the old Piazza d'Armi about 6 p.m. , during the Corso ; and thrice weekly 
8-10 p.m. and on Sun. 2-4 in the Giardino Reale (comp. p. 29). 

Theatres (comp. p. xxiv). Teatro Regio (PI- E, 3), Piazza Castello, for 
operas and ballets, with seats for 2500 persons, generally open during Lent 
and the Carnival only (admission 3 i'r., reserved seats 10 fr.); Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. 52; F, 3), Via Rossini 13, for operas, ballets, and equestrian 
performances; Carignano (PI. 48; E, 3), in the Piazza of that name, for 
operas and dramas; Alfieri (PI. 47; D, 3), Piazza Solferino ; Gerbino (PI. F, 4), 
Via Maria Vittoria 41, for dramas and operettas; Balbo (PI. E, 4), Via 
Andrea Doria 15, for operettas; Rossini (PI. 50; F, 3), Via di Po 24, for 
plays in the Piedmontese dialect. — Gianduia (PI. 49; E, 3), Via Principe 
Amedeo 24, a marionette- theatre. — Caffe Romano, Galleria Subalpina 
(p. 28), a theatre of varieties, with a separate stage for summer. 

British Vice-Consul, Giacinto Cassinis, Via Bogino 25. — United States 
Consul, Pietro Cuneo, Via Andrea Doria 12. 

English Church, Via Pio Quinto 15, behind the Tempio Valdese; ser- 
vice at 10.30 a.m. — Protestant Service in the Tempio Valdese (PI. D, E, 
4, 5) on Sundays, in French at 11, in Italian at 3 o'clock. — Chiesa Melo- 
dista Episcopate, Via Lagrange 13 (Sun. 10a.m. and Thurs. 10.30am.). — 
Chiesa Crisliana Evangelica, Galleria Nazionale. 

Public Collections, etc. (official holidays, see p. xxiv). 
Accademia Albertina di Belle Arti (p. 37), week-days 10-4; fee. 
Accademia delle Scienze (Museum of Antiquities and Picture Gallery; p. 30), 
week-days 10-4 (May-Oct. 9-4), 1 fr. ; Sun. and holidays 1-4, free. On 
certain holidays open in the morning also. 
Armeria Reale (Armoury; p. 23), daily 11-3; on week-days tickets must 

be obtained (gratis) at the Ufficio della Direzione, on the staircase. 
BibUoleca Nazionale (p. 37), daily (except Sun.) in summer 9-5 (Nov. to 
April 9-4 and 7-10); closed in September. 

Hlilory. TURIN. 7. Route. 27 

Caslcllo Medioerale (p. 38), daily 9-12 and 2 6; Sun. £ holidays 50 c, other 
dava 1 fr. 

Mole' Anlonelliana (p. 37), d^ily 7-5, (in winter 9-3), 50 c. 

Monte dei Cappuccini (Belvedere of the Italian Alpine Club; p. 39), Xov. to 
Feb. 8-11.30 and 1-5. May to Aug. 5-11.30 and 2 6; at other times 6.20- 
11 3) and 16; 40c, Sun. & Thuis. 25c. 

Museo Indusiriale Italiano (p. 33), week-days 9-12 and 2-5.30, Sun. & holi- 
days 12.30-4, free. 

Museo Municipals (Arte Antica and Arte Moderna; pp. 30, 36), week-days 9-4, 
1 fr. ; Sun. and Thurs. (and the Arte Antica section on Tues. also), free. 

Mvseo di Storia Natnrale (p. 23), dailv, except Mon., 1-4, free. 

Palazzo Reale (p. 28), daily 9-4; fee 1 fr. 

Reale Pinocoteca, see Accademia delle Scienze. 

Principal Attractions (l-l'/a day): Armoury (p. 28), "Picture Gallery 

(p. 30) and Museum of Antiquities (p. 30), monuments in the Cathedral 

(p. 34), view from the Monte dei Cappaccini (p. 39) or from the "Superga 

(p. 39). — Excursion to the Sagra di San Michele, see p. 3. 

Turin (785 ft.), ltal. Torino, the ancient Taurasia, capital of 
the Taurini , a Ligurian-Celtic tribe , destroyed by Hannibal B.C. 
218, afterwards the Roman Augusta Taurinorum , was the capital 
of the County of Piedmont in the middle ages, and in 1418 became 
subject to the Dukes of Savoy, who frequently resided here. From 
1720 it was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, and from 1859 
to 1865 of Italy. The seat of a university (founded in 1404), of 
an archbishop, and of a military academy, and headquarters of the 
1st Italian Corps d'Armee, this great city lies in an extensive plain 
on the Po, which receives the waters of the Dora Eiparia below 
the city. The plain of the Po is bounded on the W. by the Graian 
and Cottian Alps , and on the E. by a range of hills rising on the 
right bank, opposite the city (Monte dei Cappuccini, p. 39 ; Superga, 
p. 39). Turin was the chief centre of those national struggles which 
led to the unification of Italy. The removal of the seat of government 
to Florence seriously impaired the prosperity of the citizens for a 
time, but they have long since recovered their losses. The rapidly 
increasing population now numbers upwards of 329,600, including 
the suburbs. 

Turin is conspicuous among the cities of Italy for the regularity of 
its construction. Its plan presents rectangular blocks of houses (hole), long, 
broad, straight streets ( Vie) , frequently with arcades (Portici), and spacious 
squares. Its history explains this. The plan of the old town, with slight 
variations , is the same as that of the colony founded by the Emperor 
Augustus, or even of an older Roman camp. It formed a rectangle of 
2210 ft. in length and 1370 ft. in breadth, and had eleven towers on 
each side. Its site is now bounded by the Pia?za Castello on the E., the 
Via della Consolata and the Corso Siccardi on the W., the Via Giulio on 
the X., and the Via Santa Teresa on the S. The ancient Via Decumana 
is represented by the modern Via Garibaldi and the Via Principalis by the 
Via Porta Palatine and the Via San Tommaso. Be=ides the N. main gate, 
or Porta Principalis Dextra (now the Porta Palatina, p. 34), fragments still 
remain of the E. main gate (Porta Decumana, p. 28) and of the ancient 
N.W. corner-tower, beside the Consolata (p. 35). In the 17th cent, a 
systematic extension of the city was begun in accordance with the original 
plan. The fortifications constructed by Francis I. in 1536, and finally the 
siege of 1706 cleared away most of the old buildings and gave the town 
its present regular and modern appearance. The fortifications were demol- 
ished by the French in 1801. 

28 Route 7. TURIN. Piazza Castello 

The spacious Piazza Castello (PL E, 2, 3) forms the centre 
of the town. From this point the busiest streets diverge : Via Roma, 
Via Pietro Micca, Via Garibaldi, Via delV Accademia delle Scienze, 
and the broad and handsome Via di Po, leading to the bridge over 
the Po, and flanked by arcades, containing shops. The University 
in the Via di Po, see p. 37. — In the S.E. angle of the Piazza 
Castello is the Qalleria dell' Industria Subalpina (PL 19), the other 
end of which is in the Piazza Carlo Alberto (p. 30). 

The Palazzo Madama (PL E, 3), a lofty and cumbrous pile in 
the centre of the Piazza Castello, had as its nucleus a mediaeval castle 
built on the site of the Roman Porta Decumana (see p. 27). This 
Castrum Portae Phibellonae, strongly fortified by William of Mont- 
ferrat towards the end of the 13th cent., was extended on the E. 
side and protected by two lofty sixteen-sided towers in 1416 
by Lodovico d'Acaja. Farther alterations were made by Charles 
Emmanuel II., but the building owes its present name to his widow, 
Maria, who as Dowager Duchess ('Madama ReaW ) embellished it 
in 1718 by the addition of a handsome double flight of steps and the 
facade on the W. side, from a design by Fil. Juvara. The apart- 
ments on the first floor, which were redecorated at the same period, 
were used from 1848 to 1860 as the meeting-place of the Sardinian 
Senate. The palace now contains several institutions, including the 
State Archive Office and an Observatory, in the towers concealed by 
the W. facade. — In front of it stands a Monument to the Sardinian 
Army (PL 28), by Vine. Vela, erected by the Milanese in 1859. 

At the N.W. corner of this piazza is the church of San Lorenzo 
(PL E, 2), by Guarini (1687), with a peculiar dome, and destitute 
of facade. 

On the N. side of the Piazza Castello rises the Palazzo Realo, 
or Royal Palace (PL E, 2), a plain brick edifice begun in 1646 under 
Charles Emmanuel II. The palace-yard is separated from the Piazza 
by a gate, the pillars of which are adorned with two groups in bronze 
of Castor and Pollux, designed by Abbondio Sangiorgio in 1842. To 
the left in the hall of the palace (admission free), near the staircase, 
is an equestrian statue of Duke Victor Amadeus I. (d. 1637); tho 
statue is of bronze, the horse in marble ; below the latter are two 
slaves. The handsome staircase is embellished with statues of 
Emmanuel Philibert by Santo Varni, and Carlo Alberto by Vine. Vela. 

The Interior (adm., see p. 27; we begin with the Sala degli Svizzeri) 
contains a series of handsome apartments with ceiling-decorations by 
Bdlosio (1844), Claudio Beaumont, the brothers Feci (1660), and Daniel Setter 
of Vienna (1690), and with modern paintings by Hayez and Arienti. The 
private apartment 1 ? of Victor Emmanuel II. are not shown. 

The remains of a Roman Theatre have recently been discovered in the 

The S.E. wing of the palace contains the * Royal Armoury 
(Armerfa Reale; PL E, 2), entered from the arcade of the Pre- 
fettura (PL E, 2; last door to the left); admission, see p. 26. The 

and its Environ*. TURIN. 7. Route. 29 

collection, which is on the second story, is very choice. Catalogue 
(1891) 5 fr. 

Eooii I (Rolonda). To the right are Indian weapons and giffs of honour 
to Victor Emmanuel II. Beyond the door: scimitar of Tippoo Sahih, Sultan 
of Mysore (d. 1799); Prussian helme's; two suits of Saracenic armour; 
weapons from Eritrea; Japanese weapons and armour; models of modern 
weapons; Turkish and Persian weapons; tiny MS. of the Koran in a ca c e. 
In the centre of the room are a bronze statuette of Napoleon I. (by 
Marochetti), a sword he wore, and a quadrant he used when a young 
officer; two French regimental eagles; gifts of honour to KiDg Humbert; 
Moltke's Italian orders ; the favourite horse of Charles Albert. Piedmontese 
flags from the wars of 1848-49 and 1859 over the cabinets. — The long 
Hall (Galleria Beaumont) contains, on the right, several suits of armour 
worn by members of the Brescian family of Mar^inengo (16th cent.); the 
equestrian armour of Cardinal Ascsnio Maria Sforza Visconti (15th cent.); 
campaign suit of Prince Eugene (1706); mi?file weapons; shields, helmets, 
daggers, maces; sword at one time erroneously attributed to Benvenulo 
Cellini. Under glass, a shield, embossed, and inlaid with gilding, represent- 
ing scenes from the war of Marius against Jugurtha. By the left wall, 
as we return: under gla c s, so-called sword of St. Maurice (a work of the 
13th cent.); adjacent, an ancient rostrum in the form of a boar's head, 
found in the harbour at Genoa. Farther on the armour of Duke Emmanuel 
Philibert, Viceroy of Sicily (early 17th cent.); prehistoric, Etruscan, and 
PLoman weapons; fine helmets and shields of the 15-16th cent.; sword of 
the Imperial General Johann von Werth (d. 1652) , bearing a German 
inscription in verse; equeslrim armour of one of the Martinengo family 
(see above). — The windows on the right command a fine view of the 
palace garden and the Superga (p. 39). 

On the floor below is the Royal Library of 60 v 000 vols, and 2000 MSS. 
(shown only on application to the librarian), containing valuable geo- 
graphical, historical, and genealogical works, miniatures of the 1416th 
cent., drawings by Leonardo da Vinci ('Portrait of himself), Fra Bartolomeo, 
Correggio, Gaudenzio Ferrari, etc. — A staircase ascends hence to the 
Collection of Coins, trinkets, enamels, carved ivory, etc., in a small room 
adjoining the Armoury. 

The Palace Garden [Giardino Reale; Pl.E, F, 2), entered from 
the arcade opposite the Palazzo Madama, is open on Sun. and festi- 
vals, between 1st July and 1st Oct., 11-5 o'clock (military music; 
p. 26). Fine view of the Superga. — Cathedral, see p. 33. 

In the Piazza Cakignano , a little to the S. of the Piazza 
Castello, rises the Palazzo Carignano (PI. 41 ; E, 3), with a curiot^s 
brick facade, erected by Guarini in 1680. Victor Emmanuel II. 
was born in this palace. The Sardinian Chamber of Deputies met 
here from 1848 to 1859, and the Italian Parliament from 1860 to 
1864. The handsome facade at the back, in the Piazza Carlo Alberto, 
was added in 1864-71 by Ferri and Bollati. 

The palace contains the Mcseo di Storia Xaturale (adm., see p. 27). 
The collection is divided into the Zoological and Comparative Anatomy 
Section and the Palaeontological, Geological, and Mineralogical Section. The 
former contains a fine array of birds and insects, and a collection of the 
vertebrates of Italy arranged in a separate gallery. The palseontological 
division contains a fine collection of fossil mollusca from the tertiary 
formations, and the skeletons of a gigantic armadillo ( Glyptodon Clavipes), 
a Telralophodon Arvemensis. a Megatherium Cuvieri, and other antediluvian 

In the Piazza Carignano stands the marble statue of the philos- 
opher and patriot Vincenzo Gioberti (1801-52), by Albertoni, erected 

30 Route 7. TURIN. Collections 

in 1859. — The Piazza Carlo Albkrto (PI. E, 3) contains a bronze 
monument to King Charles Albert, designed by Marocchetti (1861). 

In tbe vicinity, at the corner of the Piazza Carignano and the 
Via dell' Accademia No. 4, is tbe Palazzo dell' Accademia delle 
Scienze (PI. E, 3), formerly tbe Jesuit College, erected by Guarini 
in 1679. On tbe Ground Floor, to tbe right, are Egyptian, Roman, 
and Greek sculptures (key kept on the first floor) ; on the First 
Floor smaller antiquities ; on the Second Floor (98 steps) tbe 
picture-gallery. Admission, see p. 26. 

The Museum of Antiquities (Reale Museo delle Antichita) had as its 
nucleus the Egyplian collection founded ahout 1820 by Btrn. Brovelli. 
Director, Prof. Schiaparelli. No catalogue. 

Rooms I and II on the groundfloor contain the larger Egyptian anti- 
quities: large sphinxes, figures of idols and kings, architectonic fragments, 
models of temples, and plaster casts. The finest objects are, in R. I: 
large capital in the shape of a wreath of lot us -flowers; colossal head of 
a king of the Early Empire; two statues of Amenophis II.; and dioiite 
'Statue of Ramses II. (SesostiiO; in R- II : colossal statues of Kings 
Thutinosis II. and Horemheb. — We now enter the Galleky, to the left. 
1st Section: Greeco-Roman sculptures found in Egypt and Rome: Youth 
(restored as Mercury); a good torso; Amazon (in green basalt; freely 
restored); fragment of a fine relief (youth in a chariot with four horses), 
probably a Greek work. In this section are also cinerary urns and other 
Etruscan antiquities from Luni (p. 105). 2nd Section. Remains of a 
lioman mosaic (myth of Orpheus) and inscriptions found in Piedmont. 
3rd Section: Roman inscriptions and architectural fragments. 

The Egyptian collections are continued on the First Floor. In the 
1st Room are mummy-coffins, mummies, mummy wrappings, canopi, 
scarabai, amulets, etc. Among the papyri is a 'Book of the Dead 1 , edited 
by Lepsius, In the centre are the mummy of a priest and the coffin of 
a scribe, bearing hieratic inscriptions from the Book of the Dead. — The 
2nd Room contains reliefs and inscriptions, from the 5th Dynasty down 
to the Roman period; ^Statuettes of the Early Empire, the Middle Empire, 
and the New Empire (notably one of a girl, of the latest peiiod). In the 
centre, in a case resembling an Egyptian house, are papyri of the 
20th Dynasty. Fragments from the archives of a temple in the Necropolis 
of Thebes The desk-cases contain a celebrated list of the kings of Egypt 
down to the 19th dynasty, discovered by Champollion; remains of topo- 
graphical plans of Egyptian gold-mines; a papyrus with caricatures-, etc. — 
Adjoiniag is a small «*oom containing Cyprian antiquities. — From R. 1 we 
enter Gallery Z, to the left. To the ri'ht and in the centre are figures of 
Egyptian deities, amulets, articles used in worship; the Tabula Isiaca 
found in the pontificate of Paul III. ; domestic utensils, vases, textile 
fabrics, toilet-articles, weapons, sandals, etc. To the left are Egyptian 
an'iquitie3 of the Hellenistic, Roman, early-Christian, and Arab periods 
(including Coptic textiles). — Galltry 2. To the right and in the centre, 
prehistoric antiquities from Egypt; to the left, prehistoric and ethno- 
graphical collections from the Congo; weapons and utensils from Somali- 
land. — Room 3. Prehistoric collection from Piedmont; casts of the reliefs 
of a triumphal arch at Susa (p. 42). In the centre, model of the largest 
'^rago' iii Sardinia. — Room 4. Roman and Celtic antiquities found in 
Piedmont. Amongst the former are some fine glass and good bronzes (a 
Silenus; *Athena of the type of the Parthenos of Phidias; Roman p:> 
bust of a member of the Gen3 Claudia). 

The *Picture Gallery (Pinacoteca) embraces 21 rooms, contain- 
ing over 600 paintings. Director, Al. Baudi di Vesme. Good 
illustrated catalogue (1899), 4 fr. — The art- collections of tbe 
House of Savoy were founded by Cbarles Emmanuel I. (1580-1630) 

in the Academy. TURIN. 7. Route. 31 

and were largely increased in 1741 by the purchase of Prince 
Eugene's valuable gallery, which included many Netherlandish 
works. A number of the paintings carried off by the French in 
1798 remained in Paris after the conclusion of peace in 1815; and 
in 1832, the rest, which had meantime been scattered through 
various palaces, were collected to form a public gallery in the 
Palazzo Madama. They were transferred to the Accademia in 1865. 
The collection is important for the study of Macrino d'AVoa 
(1470-1528) and his pupil D'fendente de Ferrari, and of Gaudenzio 
Ferrari (c. 1471-1546), vho was inspired by Leon, da Yinci and 
influenced by Perugino (Nos. 46 and 51). Sodoma (c. 1480-1549), 
who originally belonged to the Lombard school, is well represented. 
Lorenzo di Credit (1459-1 537) Madonna, No. 115, of his best period, 
shows that he was influenced by Leon, da Yinci. Among numerous 
and important works of the old Netherlandish school are : 188. 
Fetrus Cristas; 202. Mending; 274. Sketch by Rubens; 17, 264, 
279, 288. by Van Dyck. 

I. Room. Princes of the House of Savoy: 1. 'Horace Vernet , King 
Charles Albert ; 5. /. van Schuppen, Prince Eugene ; 12. N. Mignard, Francoise 
cTOrle'ans, first wife of Charles Emmanuel II.; *17. Van Dyck, Prince 
Thomas (1634). 

II. Room. Chiefly Piedmontese masters c f the 14-16th cent. : 21. Barnala 
da Modena, Madonna (1370); Macrino d Alba, 23. St. Francis receiving the 
stigmata (1506), *26. Madonna with SS. John the Baptist, James- Hugh, 
and Jerome (the painter's masterpiece;; 1498), 31, 33. Aitar-wings with 
St. Louis of Toulouse and SS. Peter, Paul, and Bonaventura(?); Defendente 
de Ferrari, 35. Betrothal of St. Catharine, 36. Madonna with SS. Michael 
and Barbara (on the predella of the ancient frame, the Legend of St. Bar- 
bara), 33. Saints. 

III. Room. Gaudenzio Ferrari, 43. Visitation, '46. St. Peter and donor, 
48. Joachim driven from the Temple, 49. Madonna enthroned and two 
saints, 50. Crucifix! n (in distemper), 51. Lamentation. 

IV. Room. Sodoma, 56. Holy Family, 59. Lucretia,~" : s 63. Madonna 
enthroned with SS. Jerome, John the Evangelist, Lucia, and Catharine. 

V. Room. Piedmontese masters of the 17th and 18th centuries. 

VI. Room. Tuscan School (15-I6th cent.): 103, 101, Fra Angelico da 
Fiesole, Adoring ange's ; 106. Style of Sandro Botticelli, Triumph of Chastity-. 
110. Botticelli, Madonna; 112. Franciabigio, Annunciation; 113. School of 
Botticelli, Tobias with the three angels; "115, 116. Lor. di Credi, Madonnas; 
117. Piero Pollajuolo, Tobias and the archangel Raphael; 122, 123. Ang. 
Bronzino, Eleonora da Toledo and her husband Cosimo I. of Medici {Bald. 
Peruzzi, 129. Head, 131. Design of a facade (drawing). 

VII. Room. Various Italian Schools (l5-16th cent.): Ambrog. Borgognone, 
134. St. Ambrose preaching and consecration of St. Augustine, 13o. Madonna: 
140. Gianpietrino, SS. Catharine and Peter Martyr; 141. Paolo, da Brescia, 
Madonna and four saints (triptych, 1459); 145. After Raphael?* Portrait 01 
Pope Julius n. (p. 4t>2); *14b. 'Raphael, Madonna della Tenda (a very fine 
picture, but the original is at Munich); 148. Franc. Penni, Go. d copy 
of Raphael's Entombment in the Eorghese Gallery at Rome (1518); Giulio 
Clovio, 14ft. 'II Santissimo Sudario 1 (comp. p. 34);' loo. Garofalo, The boy 
Jesus in the Temple; 154. Lod. Mazzolino, Madonna and saints; 157. Giov. 
Bellini, Madonna (ruined by retouching); 155. Franc. Francia, Entombment 
(1515); 161. Titian, St. Jerome (a late work; injured); 162. Gregorio Schia- 
vone, Madonna; 164. Mantegna , Madonna and saints, (much retouched); 
165. Afrer Titian, Pope Paul ill. (original at Naples)."— The Ante-Booh 
and Room IX contain a collection of drawings, engravings, and woodcuts 
by old masters (changed from time to time). 

32 Route 7. TURIN. Academy. 

VIII. Room. '167. Desiderio da Settignano (ascribed here to Donatello), 
Madonna (marble relief); IBS. Studio of the Delia Robbia , Adoration of 
the Infant Saviour (terracotta relief). — 169-186. Porcelain-paintings by 
A. Constantin of Geneva (cbietlv copies of famous pictures; c. 1820). — 
We pa33 tbrougb R. IX (see p. 31) to tbe — 

X. Room. Netherlandish Schools (15-I7th cent.); 187. John van EycJctf), 
St. Francis receiving the stigmata; 188. Petrtis Cristas, Madonna; *18y, 190. 
Rogier van der Wet/den, Visitation, with portrait of ihe donor (retouched) ; 
192. Flemish Master of the Female Half-figures, Crucifixion (triptych); 193. 
School of Hieron. Bosch, Adoration of the Magi; *202. H. Memling, The 
Passion of Christ, a chronological representation in the popular sty'e of the 
North; '218. Tenders the Younger, The painter's wife; 223. Ant. Sallaert, Pro- 
cession in Brusse's; 231. Teniers, Tavern-scene ; 234. Jan Brueghel, Landscape. 

XI. Room. Dutch Fchrol (17th cent.): 261. Teniers, Card-players; *264. 
Van Dycl;, Children of Charles I. of England (1635); 274. Rubens, Sketch 
of his apotheosis of Henri IV in the Dfflzi (p. 469); Van Dyck, 279. Infanta 
Isabella of Sptdn (c. 1628), 2-8. Holy Family (showing the influence ( f 
Tiian); 292. Fyt, Still-life; 296. Snyders, Breakfast. 

XII. Room. German and Spanish Schools. 303. H. Holbein the Yovng<r, 
Portrait, of Errsmus (a copy of the original in Parma); 313, 318. Angelica 
Kauffmann, Sibyls; 315. Netscher, Scissors-grinder (1602) ; ' :: 320. Velazquez, 
Philip IV. of Spain; 322. Ribera, St. Jerome. 

XIII. Room. French School (17-18th cent.): 330. N. Povssin, St. Mar- 
garet; 338. P. Mignard, Louis XIV. on horseback; 343, 346. Claude Lorrain, 
Landscapes; 352. Bourguignon, Battle against the Turks; 360. Mad. Vige'e- 
Lebrun, Portrait (1792). 

XIV. Room. Netherlandish Schools (16-17th cent.): 332. Engelbrechtsen, 
Crucifixion (triptych); G. Dou, 375. Portrait of a geographer, 377. Girl at a 
window (1662); 379. Frans van Mieris the Elder, Portrait of himself (1659); 
392. B. Fabritius, Expulsion of Hagar (1665); :! 393. Rembrandt, Old man 
asleep (resembling the artist's father; an early work); 3[ : 5. Mytens and 
Sleenwyck, Charles I. of England; Philips Wouverman, 402. Battle, 404. 
Horse-market; *406. Paul Potter, Cattle (1649); *412. Saenredam, Interior of a 
synagogue, ihe figures by A. van Ostade; 419, 420. De Heem, Fruit and flowers. 

XV. E-oom. Landscapes of the Dutch school, etc. 

XVI. Room. Italian Schools (17th cent.): 464. Giulio Cesare Procacdni 
(here aUiibuted to Giov. Battista Crespi), SS. Francis and Carlo Borromeo 
adoring the Madonna; *4C5. Caravaggio, Lute-player; 474. Sassoferrato, 
Madonna; 478. Carlo Bold, Madonna; 479. Carlo Maratta, Archangel Gabriel; 
482. Sassoferrato, Madonna dellaRosa; above, 477, 483. G. Poussin, Landscapes. 

XVII. Room. 491. Guercino, St. France c ca Romana; 492, 493. Albani, 
Sa'macis and the Hermaphrodite; 498. Guido Reni, Pntli; 497. Guercino, 
Return of the Prodigal Son; 501. Gius. Maria Crespi, St. Nepomuk in the 
confessional; 504. Elisabetta Siraiti (?), Dea'h of Abel. — In tbe corners; 
489, 4 5, 500, 509. Franc. Albani, The four Element. 

XVIII. Room. 534. Guercino, Ecce Homo; 548. Strozzi (?), Homer. 

XIX. Room. Chiefly Venetian Sihools (16-lSth cent.) : Andrea Schiavone, 
561. Greeks sacrificing at Au'i^, 562 • Judgment of Paris; 564. Paolo Veronese, 
Danae ; 567. Ant. Badile (master of P. Veronese), Presentation in the Temple ; 
Schiavone, 569. Capture of Troy, 570. Rape of Helen; 572. P. Veronese, The 
Queen of Sheba before Solomon; 573. Girolamo Savoldo, Holy Family; 575. 
School of P. Veronese, Finding of Moses. 

XX. Room. *580. P. Veronese, Mary Magdalen washing the Saviour's 
fret; 5S2, 585. Bern. Belotto, Views of Turin; 587. Jac. Bassano, Cupid at 
the forge of Vulcan; 590. Canaletto, Piazzetta in Venice; 594. Giov. Bait. 
Ti«polo, Triumph of Germsnicus. 

XXI. Room. Battles of Prince Eugene, by Hxtchtenbtirgh and others. 
Opposite the Academy, to the E., is the large church of San 

Filippo (PL 9; E, 3), erected by Guarini in 1679, and restored by 
Juvara in 1714. The portico in front is a later addition. The church 
contains pictures by Guercino and others. 

Via Roma. TURIN. 7. Route. 33 

The spacious Piazza San Carlo (PI. D, E. 3) is embellished 
with, an equestrian *3tatue of Duke Emmanuel Philibert, in bronze, 
designed by Marocchetti[ 1838). The relief on theW. side represents 
the Battle of St. Quentin (1557); that on the E. side the Peace 
of Cateau-Cambresis (1559), by which the duchy was restored to 
the House of Savoy ; the duke as 'pacem redditurus' is in the act 
of sheathing his sword. — The two churches on the S. side of the 
piazza are San Carlo and Santa Cristina, both founded at the 
beginning of the 17th cent., with facades of later date: that of 
S. Cristina by Juvara (1718), that of S. Carlo by Grassi (1836). 
S. Carlo contains a monument of the condottiere Francesco Maria 
Broglia and a high-altar-piece by Morazzone. 

The Via Roma leads from the Piazza San Carlo to the N. to the 
Piazza Castello I p. 28), and to the S., passing the Galleria Nazlonale 
(PI. D, 4), built in 1889, to the Piazza Carlo Felice (p. 36) and the 
central railway-station; to the E. the Via Maria Yittoria, with the 
Pal. della Cisterna (PI. 44, E 3; at the corner of the Via Carlo Al- 
berto), the residence of the Duke of Aosta, leads to the Piazza Carlo 
Emanuele Secondo (see below). — No. 32 in the Via dell' Ospedale 
is the Museo Tndustriale Italiano (PI. 39, E 4; adm.. see p. 27). 

The Ajuola Balbo (PI. E, 4), close by, is adorned with a monument 
to Doniele Manin (comp. p. 267), by Vela, and with statues of Cesa re Balbo 
(1789-1853), the minister and historian, by Vela, of the Piedmontese general 
Bava, by Albertoni, and of Gustavo ifodena, by L. Bist: lfi. — To the N.E. 
are the grounds of the Piazza Cavour (PL E, F, 4), with a statue of the 
general and statesman Count Robilant (1326-88) and a bust of the Marchese 
Pes di Yillamarina, the statesman, by O. Tabacchi. — Farther en, in the 
direction of the Piazza Maria Teresa (PI. F, 4), is a monument, by Butti. 
to Gen. Guglielmo Pepe (d. i;53), the gallant defender of Venice in 1849. — 
A few pa es to the S., in tbe Via Mazzini, stands the domed church of 
San Massimo (PI. E, 4), built in 1845-54 by G. Sada. The interior contains 
good modern frescoes and some statnes by Alberioni. 

The Piazza Bodoni (P1.E,4), to the S.W. of the Ajuola Balbo, is adorned 
with an equestrian statue, in bronze, by Grimaldi (1891), of General Alfonso 
Lamarmora (d 1878), well known from the Crimea and the war of 1859. 

In the centre of the Piazza Carlo Emanuele Secondo (PI. E, 3, 4), 
commonly called the 'Piazza Carlina', rises the imposing ^Monument 
of Cavour, 48 ft. high, by Giov. Dupre, erected in 1873. Grateful 
Italy presents the civic crown to the creator of Italian unity, who holds 
a scroll in his left hand with the famous words 'libera chiesa in libero 
stato'. The pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures: the reliefs 
represent the return of the Sardinian troops from the Crimea, and 
the Paris Congress. — A tablet at Via Cavour, No. 8, marks the 
house (PI. D, 4) in which Count Camillo Cavour (1810-61) was bom. 

Adjoining the Pal. Reale (p. 28) on the N.W. is the Cathedral 
(San Giovanni Battista ; PI. E,2), erected on the site of three earlier 
churches in 1492-98 by Meo del Caprina of Florence, in the Re- 
naissance style. The upper part of the tower dates from 1648. 

The Interior consists of nave, aisles, and transept, with an octagonal 
dome. Over the W. portal is a copy of Leon, da Vinci's Last Supper 

Baedekes. Italy I. 19th Edit. 3 . 

34 Route 7. TURIN. Northern 

(p. 136). Over the second altar on the right is an altar-piece (.Madonna 
and saints) by Defendente de Ferrari (restored in 1899). Frescoes on the ceil- 
ing modern. The seats of the royal family are to the left of the high-altar. 

Behind the high-altar is the Cappella del Santissimo Sudario or della 
Santissima Sindone (open during morning mass till 9 o'clock; reached by 
37 steps to the right of the high-altar) , constructed in 1694 by Guarini. 
It is a lofty circular chapel of dark brown marble, contrasting strongly 
with the white monuments, separated from the choir by a glass partition, 
and covered with a curiously shaped dome. The monuments were erected 
by King Charles Albert in 1842 to the memory of illustrious members of 
his family : (r.) Emmanuel Philibert (d. 1580), 'restitutor imperii 1 , by Pompeo 
Marchesi; Prince Thomas (d. 1656), 'qui magno animo italicam libertatem 
armis adseruit nee prius dimicare destitit quam vivere', by Gaggini; Charles 
Emmanuel II. (d. 1675), by Fraccaroli; Amadeus VIII. (d. 1451), by Cac- 
ciatori. The peculiar light from above enhances the effect. In a kind 
of urn over the altar is preserved the Santissimo Sudario or Santissima 
Sindone, a part of the linen cloth in which the body of the Saviour is 
said to bave been wrapped. This was brought from Cyprus to Chambery 
in 1452 and since 1578 has been preserved at Turin. 

From the Piazza San Giovanni we pass to the W. through the 
Via Quattro Marzo to the Palazzo di Citta (see below). A mon- 
ument, by 0. Tabacchi, at the intersection of this street with the 
Via Porta Palatina, commemorates G. B. Bottero. — In the N. por- 
tion of the Via Porta Palatina rises the Porta Palatina, or Palazzo 
delle Torn (Pi. F, 2; p. 27), a Roman gateway with two sixteen- 
sided brick towers, now fitted up as a drawing-school. — At the 
S. end of the street, to the right, is the church of Corpus Domini 
(PL D, E, 2), erected in 1610 by Ascanio Vittozzi, on the site of a 
chapel built in 1543 to commemorate a miracle of the Host (1521). 
The interior was altered in 1753. — In the adjacent church of Santo 
Spirito, dating from 1610 and restored in 1743, Rousseau, an exile 
from Geneva, at the age of 16, became a Roman Catholic in 1728, 
hut he again professed Calvinism at Geneva in 1754. 

The Piazza del Palazzo di Citta, a few paces to the W., is 
adorned with a monument to Amadeus VI. (PI. 21), the 'Conte 
Verde' (p. 24), conqueror of the Turks and restorer of the imperial 
throne of Greece (d. 1383), a bronze group by Palagi (1853). 

The Palazzo di Citta (PI. D, 2), or town-hall, was erected by 
Lanfranchi in 1669. The marble statues beside the entrance of (1.) 
Prince Eugene (d. 1736; by Simonetta) and (r.) Prince Ferdinand 
(d. 1855 ; by Dini), Duke of Genoa and brother of Victor Emman- 
uel II., were erected in 1858 ; that of King Charles Albert (d. 1849), 
by Cauda, in the colonnade to the left, was erected in 1859 ; that of 
King Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878), by Vela, to the right, in 1860. 

The Via Milano leads hence to the N. to the church of San Do- 
menico (PI. 8, D 2; founded in 1354 and frequently restored), 
which contains a Madonna and St. Dominic by Guercino ; and the 
Via Corte dAppello to the W. to Piazza Savoia (PI. D, 2), in 
which rises an obelisk, 75 ft. in height, commemorating the aboli- 
tion of ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the minister Siccardi in 1850. 
— A few yards to the W., in the Via del Carmine, is the Chiesa 
del Carmine (PI. 1 ; C, D, 2), designed by Juvara (modern facadej. 

Quarter*. TUKTN. 7, Route. 35 

The Via della Consolata leads from the Piazza Savoia to the N. 
to the church of La Consolata. At the S. end of this street (No. 1) 
is the Palazzo Paesana (Pi. 45; D, 2), huilt in the 18th cent, by 
Planteri, a pupil of Juvara, with an imposing hall and staircase. 

La Consolata (PL 2; D, 2), formed by the union of three 
churches, is a building in the baroque style, erected by Guarini in 
1679, and decorated by Juvara in 1714. The oval church of Sani 
Andrea is adjoined by a Campanile (10th cent.?), a relic of the 
convent of Sant' Andrea, and beyond the hexagonal Santuario della 
Consolata, which contains a highly revered Madonna, we enter a 
circular Sacristy , forming the third member of the group. The 
passage on the right is hung with votive pictures. A new chapel 
to the left contains kneeling statues in marble of Maria Theresa, 
Queen of Charles Albert, and Maria Adelaide, Queen of Victor Em- 
manuel II. (both of whom died in 1855), by Vela, erected in 1861. 

A little 1o theN.E., and intersected by the Corso Regina Mar gherita, 
lies the Piazza Emanuele Filibebto (PI. D, E, 1, 2), adjoined on the N. 
by the Piazza dei Molini. To the N. of the latter runs the Via Ponte 
Mosca (PI. E. 1). on the right side of which is the church of San 
(PI. 12), a basilica in the Lombard style, with a campanile 150 ft. high 
erected in 1ST6-82 by Count Ceppi. — The street then crosses the Dora 
Riparia by the Ponte Mosca, a handsome bridge of one arch, constructed 
in 1830, and affording a fine view of the Superga and of the Graian Alp-. 

From the Piazza Castello (p. 28) the Via Garibaldi leads to the 
Piazza dello Statuto (PL C, 2), with the huge Mont Cents Tunnel 
Monument, by Tabacchi (1879): the Genius of Science soars above 
a pile of granite rocks, on which lie the stupefied and conquered 
giants of the mountain. On a tablet are the names of the engineers. 

From the Via Garibaldi we proceed to the S. by the Corso Sic- 
cardi to the Giardino della Cittadella (PL C, D, 2), where statues 
were erected in 1871 to Brofferio (d. 1866), poet and radical poli- 
tician, and opposite, in 1873, to the jurist G. B. Cassinis. — 
Farther on, at the corner of the Via della Cernaia, is a monument 
by Gius. Bogliani (1834) in memory of Pietro Micca (PL 35; C, 3), 
the heroic 'soldato minatore', who at the sacrifice of his own life 
saved the citadel of Turin, on 30th Aug., 1706, by springing a mine 
when the French grenadiers had already advanced to the very gates. 
Nearly opposite is a bust of Al. Borella, the author, and in the Via 
della Cernaia rises the statue of General Alex. Lamarmora (d. 1855 
in the Crimea), by Cassano (1867). 

The Maschio della Cittadella (PL 20; C, 3) is the former en- 
trance to the citadel, erected in 1565 and nearly all pulled down 
in 1857. A marble tablet above the gateway commemorates the 
Italian soldiers who fell in Africa in 1887. The interior accommod- 
ates the Museo Nazionale d'Artiglieria, a collection of ordnance from 
the 14th cent, to the present day; adm. only by permission from 
the 'Direzione dell" Officina di Costruzione d'Artiglieria'. 


36 Route 7. TURIN. North -Western Quarters. 

In the Piazza Solferixo (PI. D, 3) rises an equestrian statue of Duke 
Ferdinand of Genoa (p. 34), by Balzico (1877); the duke is represented as 
commander at 1he battle of Novara (p. 63), with his horse mortally wounded. 
The gardens of the piazza contain monuments of General Gerbaix de Sonnaz 
(d. 1867), by Dini, and the historian Giuseppe La Farina (d. 1863), by Auteri. 
— To the S.E. of the Piazza Solferino, in the Via dell 1 Arsenale, stands 
the Artillery Arsenal (PI. D, 4), founded in 1658. 

Farther on the Corso Siccardi intersects the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele Secondo (PI. C, 4), in which was unveiled in 1899 the 
Monument of Victor Emmanuel II., by P. Costa (d. 1901). The 
base, adorned with four heraldic eagles, over which are allegorical 
figures, is surmounted by four Doric columns of red Baveno granite, 
supporting a colossal statue of the king. The total height of the 
monument is 125 ft. 

To the S. of the Piazza, Corso Siccardi 30, is the Museo Civico 
or Municipale d'Arte Moderna (PI. B, C, 4; adm., see p. 27). 

In the vestibule, marble sculptures: Canova, Sappho; Vela, Dante; 
Fantacchiotti, Eve; Franceschi of Naples, "Crucifixion of Eulalia, extremely 
realistic (18:0); Et. Ximenes, The Kiss of Judas (bronze; 18S4). Eight rooms 
contain modern Italian paintings. — On the upper floor is the Museo del 
Risorgimento , illustrating the war of independence. 

The broad Corso Vittorio Emanuele Secondo (PI. A-E, 3,4), 
intersecting the entire town, leads past the Central Station (p. 25; 
on the right) to the Giardino Pubblico (p. 38) and the Ponte XJm- 
berto Primo (p. 38). — In front of the station, to the left, extends 
the Piazza Carlo Felice (PI. D, 4), with its tasteful gardens, 
adorned with a bronze statue of Massimo d'Azeglio, patriot, poet, 
and painter (1798-1866), by Balzico, erected in 1873. This piazza 
is adjoined by two smaller ones: the Piazza Paleocapa to the W., 
with the statue of the minister of that name (d. 1869 ; PL 36), and 
the Piazza Lagrange, on the E., with the statue of L. Lagrange, 
the mathematician (d. 1813 at Paris; PL 31). 

To the E. of the Piazza Carlo Felice is the Waldensian Church 
CTempio Valdese; PL D, E, 4, 5; see p. 42), the first Protestant 
church built at Turin after the establishment of religious toleration 
in 1848. A few paces farther on, also to the right, rises the church 
of San Giovanni Evangelista (PL E, 5), built by Count Mella in 1882. 

In the Via San Secondo, to the S. of the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
Secondo, rises the church of San Secondo (PI. 16; C, 4), completed in 1882 
in the Lombard style, with a campanile 170 ft. high. — A little to the S.W - 
of the Waldensian church, at the corner of the Via Sant' Anselmo and 
the Via Pio Quinto, is the Synagogue (PI. 52; I), 5), in the Moorish style 
(1881). — In the Piazza Saluzzo , to the S.W., is the church of Sand 
Pietro e Paolo (PI. 14; D, 5), with a Byzantine facade (1865). 

In the Via di Po (p. 28), which leads to the S.E. from the Piazza 
Castello, on the left (No. 17), is the University (PL E, 3 ; 2500 stu- 
dents), erected in 1713 from designs by Ant. Ricca, with a hand- 
some court. It contains a Museo Lapidario of Roman antiquities, 
chiefly inscriptions. Marble statues have been erected here of Carlo 
Emanuele III. and Vittorio Amadeo II. (at the entrance), both by 

North- Eastern Quarters. TURIN. 7. Route. 37 

the brothers Collino ; of the physicians, Prof. Riberi (d. 1881), by 
Albertoni, Dr. L. Qallo (d. 1857), by Tela, and Prof. Timermans 
(d. 1875), by Tabacchi; and of Pescatore, the jurist, by Pini. The 
University Library, now the Biblioteca Nazionale (adm., see p. 26), 
was founded in 1720 by Vittorio Amadeo II. 

The nucleus of the collection, which numbers over 250, 00 printed 
vols, and 4133 MSS., consists of the former library of the house of Savoy 
and some valuable MSS. from Bobbio (p. 333). There are numerous Oriental 
MSS., about 400 Greek MSS. (including Theodoret's Commentary on the 
Minor Prophets, with Byzantine miniatures; 9th cent.), and IQOO Latin MSS., 
including palimpsests of Cicero and Cassiodorus, the Theodosian carles, 
two Irish MSS. of the 7th cent., and Pliny's Histo^ia Naturalis , with 
miniatures of the school of Mantegna. — Among the 1095 incunabula is 
the Rationale of Guglielmo Duranti, printed by Fust at Mayence in 1459. 
The library contains also many Aldine editions and a copy of the great 
Bible of Plantin, presented by Philip II. of Spain to Charles Emmanuel. 
Some old playing-cards (loth cent.), F r. Bassos map of the world (1570), 
and about 10,000 woodcuts and engravings of various schools are also 
among the treasures of the library. 

No. 6, to the right in the Via Accademia Albertina, is the 
Accadernia Albertina di Belle Arti [PL E, F, 3 ; adm., see p. 26), 
founded in 1652, and transferred hither in 1833. It contains a 
small collection of pictures. Among the best of the older works 
(many copies) are : 126. Quinten Matsys ('?), Head of Christ ; 140, 
141. Fra Filippo Lippi, Four Fathers of the Church (wings of altar- 
piece). Also numerous *Cartoons by Gaudenzio Ferrari and Bern. 
Lanini. and a cartoon of Leon, da Vinci's St. Anna with the Yirgin 
and Holy Child (not genuine). 

The Yia Montebello, the next cross-street, leads to the so-called 
Mole Antonelliana (PI. F. 3; adm., see p. 27), begun in 1863 
as a synagogue by Al. Antonelli ( d. 1888) and completed by the city 
in 1878-89. It will be fitted up as a Museo del Risorgimento (eonip. 
p. 36). It is a square building (44 yds. each way) resembling a 
tower, with a singular facade formed of several rows of columns; 
its height to the head of the copper statue (13 ft. high) at the top 
is 538 ft. (Washington Obelisk 555 ft.). The dome is striking from 
its bold disregard of the ordinary technical rules of construction. 
The hall beneath the dome is 84 ft. square and upwards of 300 ft. 
high, and contains three galleries one above the other. Tiro upper- 
most gallery commands a splendid *View of the city and the Alps, 
best by morning light. (Comp. the Panorama, p. 38.) 

The prominent heights are: to the N., the snowv peaks of Monte 
Rosa (15,215 ft.); to the N.W., the Gran Paradiso (13,324 ft) : more to the W. 
is the Rocciamelone (11,604 ft.), concealing Mt. Cenis ; then, to the left, the 
valley of Susa (p. 4 1), with the Sagra di San Michele (p. 3) on a conspicuous 
hill; farther to the S.W. Monte Viso (12,670ft.). 

In the Via di Gaudenzio Ferrari, No. 1, is the Museo Civico or 
Municipale d'Arte Antica (PL F, 3; adm., see p. 27). 

Ground Flooe. Early sculptures, early mediaeval relief of the Ma- 
donna, terracottas, wood-carvings of the 14-19th cent., a model of a large 
Venetian galley (peota) of 1730. — First Floor. 1st Room. Paintings by 
G. Honthorst, Jan Victors, etc. — 2nd Room. Paintings by Bugiardiiv, Basso 
ferrato, Ant. Vivurini, and Claudio Beaumont; Polidoro da Caravaggio, Pur- 

38 Route 7. TURIN. South-Eastern Quarters. 

trait of Giov. Maria della Rovere. painted in 1512 by order of Pope Julius II. 
The central case contains illuminated manuscripts; missal of Card. Dom. 
della Rovere (15th cent.); statutes of the town of Turin. — 3rd Room. Fur- 
niture, clocks, instruments. — Second Floor. 4th Room. Inlaid wood- 
work, iron and brass works. — 5th Room. Weapons, bronzes, medals, pla- 
quettcs, church utensils, locks, keys. — 6th Room. Enamels from Venice and 
Limoges, precious stones, stained glass, glass vessels, clocks — 7th Room. 
"Collection of Eglomises (painted glass, 14-i8th cent.). — 8th Room. Ceramic 
ware of foreign countries (porcelain from Dresden, Berlin, Sevres, and 
Vienna). — 9th Eoom. Italian ceramic ware, including fine majolica 
(15-18th cent.). — 10th Room. Sculptures in marble, stucco, ivory, and 
wood. Six pieces of sculpture from the tomb of Gaston de Foix (p. 131), 
by Bambaja. — ilth Room. Textiles. — 12th Room. Embroideries; costumes. 
— 13th and 14th Rooms. Furniture ; wood-carvings. — 15th Room. Choir- 
stalls from the abbey of Staffarda. — 16th and l?th Rooms. Furniture of 
the 17th and 18th centaries. 

The Via di Po (p. 37) ends at the large Piazza Vittokio Ema- 
nuele Primo (PI. F, 4), on the other side of which is the handsome 
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele Primo (PL F, G, 4), crossing to the Gran 
Madre di Dio (see below). From the S. side of the piazza the Corso 
Cair6li (PL F, 4, 5), adorned with a Monument of Garibaldi by 
Tabacchi (1887) , leads up the river to the Ponte Vmberto Primo 
(PI. F, 5), the new iron bridge at the E. end of the Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele II. (p. 36), and to the Giardino Pubblico. 

The Giardino Pubblico or Parco del Valentino (PL E, 5-7), an 
attractive promenade (cafe-restaurant), was in 1902 the site of the 
International Exhibition of Industrial Art. It comprises also the 
Botanical Garden and the *Castello del Valentino, a building in the 
French style with four towers, begun in 1650 for the Madama Keale 
Christine, wife of Vittorio Amedeo I., by a pupil of Sal. Debrosse, 
but left unfinished. The chateau is now occupied by the Polytechnic- 
School (Reale Scuola <f Applicazione per gli lngegneri). In the court 
is a bronze statue of Quintino Sella, the scholar and statesman, by 
Ces. Reduzzi (1894). On the S. side of the garden is the Castello 
Medioevale (adm., see p. 27), a reproduction of a castle of the 
15th cent., erected for the exhibition of 1884 (restaurant). 

On the Right Bank of the river, at the E. end of the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele Secondo (p. 36), stands the large Crimean Monument 
(PL 25; F, 5), by Luigi Belli, erected in 1892 to commemorate the 
war of 1855-56. 

The Via Moncalieri leads from the bridge to the left, along the 
bank of the river, to (5 min.) the Monte dei Cappuccini (PL F, G, 5 ; 
955 ft. above the sea), a wooded hill rising 164 ft. above the Po 
and ascended by a cable-tramway (return-fare 15 c). At the top 
are a Capuchin monastery, founded in 1583, the church of Santa 
Maria del Monte, a small garden-restaurant, and a Station of the 
Italian Alpine Club, with maps and other collections, and a belvedere 
(adm., see p. 27). The *View (best by morning-light) embraces the 
river, city, plain, and the chain of the Alps in the background; 
comp. the opposite Panorama. 

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TURIN. 7. Route. 39 

Near the Monte dei Cappuccini, opposite the Ponte Vittorio 
Emanuele Primo (see above), stands the large domed church of 
Gran Madre di Dio (PI. G, 4), erected by Ferd. Bonsignore in 1818-31 
in imitation of the Pantheon at Rome, to commemorate the return 
of King Victor Emmanuel I. in 1814. In front of the church rises a 
Monument of Victor Emmanuel I. (d. 18241, by Gaggini. — A few 
hundred yards to the E. is the Villa delta Regina (PI. H, 5), now a 
school for the daughters of officers who have fallen in battle. 

The Cemetery (Campo Santo Generate; PI. G. H, 1), iy 4 M. to 
the N.E. of the Piazza Castello (open 10-4 in winter in fine weather; 
in March, April, Sept., and Oct. 9-6; in summer 8-12 and 2-7), is 
entered from the end of the Via Catania, which is reached from the 
Ponte delle Benne by the Strada del Regio Parco, a shady avenue 
(steam-tramway from the Piazza Emanuele Filiberto, p. 35). In the 
front section , to the left by the wall, is the tomb of Silvio Pellieo 
(d. 1854) ; in the section behind we observe the names of D'Azeglio, 
Bava, Brofferio, Gioberti, Pepe, Pinelli, and other eminent Italians. 
— At the S. end is a Crematorium (PI. G, H, 1, 2); adm. 9-12. 

The *Superga (2205 ft.), the royal burial-church since 1778, 
conspicuously situated on a hill to the E. of Turin, is well worthy 
of a visit. A steam-tramway plies from the Piazza Castello to the 
village of (3 M.) Sassi in */ 2 hr. ; thence we reach the top by cable- 
tram in 20 min.; no change of carriages in the case of treni diretti; 
return-fares to Sassi 60 or 50 c, to the Superga 3 fr. 10 or 2 fr. 25 c. 
(on Sun. and holidays 2 fr. 40 or 1 fr. 75 c). From Sassi the top 
may also be reached on foot in IV2 nr - Dv a shady road (to the right 
as we quit the station, then by the first turning to the left). 

The Superga, a votive offering dedicated by Victor Amadeus II. 
on the occasion of the raising of the siege of Turin in 1706 (p. 24), 
and erected in 1717-31 from designs by Juvara , is a handsome 
edifice with a lofty dome and an imposing portico in the style of an 
antique temple, and has a spacious octagonal interior. It includes 
a library and a suite of royal apartments (never occupied). We enter 
by the door on the left of the church. In the interior (closed 12-2) 
are shown a room hung with indifferent portraits of all the popes, the 
church, the Archangel Michael contending with the Devil, a marble 
group by Carlo Finelli (1842), and the crypt containing monuments 
of the kings from Victor Amadeus II. to Charles Albert, and of Queen 
Maria Adelaide (p. 35) and Duke Amadeus of Aosta (d. 1890). 
The dome (245 ft. high; 311 steps) commands a splendid *View of 
the Alps, from Monte Viso to the Adamello Group (comp. p. 38, 
and Cherubini's relief in the station-building), the Apennines, the 
valley of the Po, and the vine-clad hills of Montferrat. — *Alberuo 
Ristorante delta Ferrovia Funicolare, de'j. 2, D. 3-4. pens. 7 fr. ; 
Ristorante Belvedere, dej. l 1 ^? D. 2-3 fr., plainer. 

40 Route 7. TURIN. Environs. 

To the S. of Turin, on the line to Genoa (R. lib) and connected with 
Turin by steam-tramway also (p. 25), lies Moncalieri (Albergo Roma), a 
pleasant little town of 10,000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a chain of 
hills, and commanding a superb view. On a height above the village is 
the royal Chdteau (loth cent. ; rebuilt 17th cent.), in which Victor Em- 
manuel I. died in 1824. The picture-gallery in the W. wing contains a 
series of large paintings illustrating the history of the House of Savoy. 
The last of the series , 'Delivery of the Plebiscite of Tuscany by Baron 
Ricasoli in 1830 1 , is interesting from its numerous portraits (fee '/2-1 fr.)- 
A horse-tramway runs to the chateau from the terminus of the steam- 

About 6 M. to the S.W. of Turin (steam-tramway, see p. 25) lies Stupi- 
nigi, a royal chateau, erected from designs by Juvara in the reign of Charles 
Emmanuel III. and occupied since 1900 as a summer -residence by the 
Queen-Dowager Margherita. It contains several rooms with fine frescoes 
and is surrounded by an extensive deer-park {'Albergo del Castel Yecchio, 
at the back of the chateau, moderate). 

Another steam-tramway (p. 25) connects Turin with Carignano, a town 
with 4300 inhab. and several fine churches, situated on the highroad to 
Nice. San Giovanni Battista was erected by Count Alfieri ; Santa Maria 
delle Orazie contains a monument to Bianca Palseologus, daughter of Gug- 
lielmo IV., Marquis of Montferrat, and wife of Duke Charles I., at whose 
court the 'Chevalier Bayard'' was biought up. — Carignano, with the title 
of a principality, was' given as an appanage to Thomas Francis (d. 1656), 
fourth son of Charles Emmanuel I., from whom the present royal family 
is descended. — Steam-trumway to Carmagnola, see p. 47. 

8. The Alpine Valleys to the West of Turin. 

Strangers are not allowed to approach within 1 kilometre 0/2 M.) of 
any frontier-fortress-, and photographs must not be taken within 10 kilo- 
metres (6 M.) of a fort. 

a. From Turin to Ceresole Reale. To (28 M.) Cuorgrie, rail- 
way in 13/ 4 -2 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 15 c). The trains start at the 
Stazione di Porta Susa (p. 25). The most important intermediate 
stations are (22 M.) Rivarolo (Canavese) and (26 M.) Valperga, the 
latter commanded by the (l^hr.) Santuario di Belmonte (2380 ft.; 
view"), founded by King Arduin (p. 51) in 1010 and restored in 
1300. — From Cuorgne (1350 ft. ; Alb. della Corona Grossa; Cafe- 
Restaurant de Paris ; omn. to Locana twice daily in 2>/ 4 hrs., 1 V2 Ir - ; 
one-horse carr. to Noasca 1G, two-horse 27 fr.; carr. from the Grand 
Hotel at Ceresole Reale meet the first morning train) a road ascends 
to the W. through the valley of the Oreo (Vol Locana) via (3^2 M«) 
Ponte Canavese (1443 ft. ; Alb. del Valentino), a picturesque little 
town at the mouth of the Yal Soana, Locana (2025 ft. ; Corona G rossa ; 
Tre Pernici ; Cervo), and Percbecche (p. 59) to (20 M.) Noasca (3480 ft. ; 
*Alb. Reale, R. 3i/ 2 , de"j. 21/2, D. 33/ 4 fr.). In the neighbourhood 
is the pretty waterfall of the Noaschetta. — A bridle-path (mule 
6 fr.) leads from Noasca through the wild gorge of the Oreo (the 
' Scalar 1 or L Scalee'' di Ceresole^ to (2 hrs.) — 

Ceresole Reale (4905ft.; *Grand Hotel, R. from 3y 2 , B. li/ 4 , 
dej. 3, D. 4, pens, inch wine 12 fr. ; Antico Stabilimento; Alb. Lc- 
vanna; Alb. della Galisia; Bellagarda , well spoken of), a village 
with 272 inhab., situated in a wide valley at the N.E. base of the 

SUSA. 8. Route. 41 

four-poaked Lev anna (11,875 ft.), is frequented as a summer-resort 
for its chalybeate spring. 

Excursions, (guide?, Paolo Colombo, Bart. Rolando, 5-6 fr. per day; mule 
and driver 10 fr.). Via Grosso and through fine fir-woods to the (1 br.) Alpi 
Crusionay (5708 ft.), the (1 hr.) Alpi Liet, and the (25 min.) Laglietti delta 
Bellagarda (7310 ft.), on the N.E. slopes of the Monte Bellagarda (9642 ft.). 
— \id. Frera to the (2 hrs.) Lago di Dres (6330 ft.), affording a fine view of 
the Levannetta (1L2S0 ft.). — From the (V2 hr.) Parrocchia (p. 54) to the 
(21/2 hrs.) Alpi di Net and the Lago di Kel (7S0O ft.), at the foot of the vast 
lS T el Glacier. — Over the Col de Mvolet to Vol Savaranche (with ascent of 
the Gran Paradiso) and Villeneuve (Aosta), see p. 55; to Cogne, see p. 59. 

b. From Turin to Lanzo, 20 M., railway in I 1 /* hr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 
2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 50 c), starting from the Via Ponte Mosca (p. 35). — 
4^2 M. Venaria Reale, with the ruins of a royal hunting-chateau, 
at the influx of the Ceronda into the Stura. The train crosses both 
streams and ascends the valley of the latter. — 13 M. Cirie, with 
a Gothic church of the 13th century. — 20 M. Lanzo Torinese 
(1770 ft.; Posta; Europa; Bail. Restaurant), prettily situated on a 
hill, with a ruined castle, and surrounded with villas. 

Lanzo is the best starting-point for excursions in the three Valleys 
ok the Uppee Stura. The southernmost of these is the Yalle di Viii, 
through which a road leads to the village of Viii (2175 ft.). — In the middle is 
the Valle d'Ala, which diverges from the N. or chief valley at Ceres (2310 ft. ; 
Alb. di Ceres, dej. 2V2, D. 3Vv, pens. 7'/2 fr.), and contains the villages of 
Ala di Stura (3545 ft.) and Balme (4785 ft. ; Alb. Reale). Between the two 
villages is the fine waterfall of the Gorgia di Mondrone. — Through the 
northernmost, or Valle Grande, a road ascends via, Chialamberio (2S05 ft.) 
and Groscavallo (3615 ft.) to For no Alpi Graie (3935 ft.), at the S. base of 
Monte Levanna (see above). — An interesting excursion may also be made 
to the valley of the Tesso, and to the Santuario di Sanf Ignazio (3000 ft. ; 
l'/a hr.). The Ponte del Roc, which crosses the Stura near Lanzo with an 
arch of 120 ft. in width, was built in 1378. — See C. Ratti's 'Da Torino a 
Lanzo e per le Valli delta Stura'' (Casanova. Turin). 

c. From Turin to Susa. — To (28 M.) Bussoleno by the Mt. 
Cenis Railway, see pp. 3,2. To the left, above Sant' Ambrogio, 
appears the abbey of Sagra di San Michele (p. 3). — From Bus- 
soleno a short branch-line (4i/ 2 M., in 1/4 hr.) runs to Susa (1625 ft. ; 
Sole), a small and ancient town (5023 inhab.), the Roman Segusio, 
picturesquely situated on the right bank of the Dora. A garden on 
the W. side of the town contains a Triumphal Aich.44 ft. in height, 
39 ft. in width, and 23 ft. in depth, with projecting Corinthian col- 
umns at the corners and sacrificial scenes on the frieze, erected accord- 
ing to the inscription in A.D. 8 to Augustus. There are also a few 
other Roman relics. The church of San Giusto dates from the 11th 
century. On the opposite bank of the Dora rises the ruined castle 
of Brunetta. 

d. From Turin to Torre Pellice, 34 V 2 M. , railway in 2 1 / / 4~ 
2V2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 15, 3 f r. 85, 2 fr. 55 c.).'— The train diverges 
from the Genoa line (p. 48) at Sangone and turns to the S.W. — 
I51/2 M. Airasca (850 ft.), whence a branch runs to Saluzzo (2272 M. ; 
passing Moretta, p. 43). — 24 M. Pinerolo, Fr. Pignerol (1312 ft.; 
Cam-pana; Cannone d'Oro), a town with 18,000 inhab., long the 

42 Route 8. TORRE PELLICE. 

residence of the Acaja family in the middle ages, contains an old 
Cathedral (11th cent.), and a monument to Gen. Brignone hy Ta- 
hacchi. A new vault (1898) in the church of San Maurizio contains 
the tombs of eight princes of Savoy, from Philip of Acaja (d. 1334) 
to Duke Charles I. of Savoy (d. 1490). 

A steam - tramway runs hence to Cavour and Saluzzo (see p. 43). 
Cavour lies at the foot of the Rocca, an isolated granite cone rising 530 ft. 
above the plain, the once fortified top of which commands a fine view of 
the Alps. From the 17th cent, onwards it was the seat of the now ex- 
tinct Counts of Cavour. — Another steam-tramway runs from Pinerolo to 
Perosa (Argentina), in the Val Chisone, whence a diligence plies to Perrero 
and Fenestrelle. 

29^2 M. Bricherasio (branch-line to Barge, seebelow). — 34^2 M. 
Torre Pellice, Fr. Tour-Pelis (1920 ft. ; Orso, well spoken of; Leone; 
Pens. Bel-Air, 6-7 fr., Pens. Suisse, 6 fr., both well spoken of), a 
town of 5898 inhab. and the capital of the Waldensian Valleys. 

The Waldensian Valleys (Vallees Vandoises), adjoining the French 
frontier, were the home of those well-known Protestant communities (about 
25,000 souls) who have resided here for upwards of six centuries and wei'e 
formerly so cruelly persecuted. The language of the valleys is French. 
After Torre Pellice the chief settlements are Luserna, Villar, and Bobbio 
Pellice fall three in the valley of the Pellice); Angrogna, in the beautiful 
valley of the same name to the "N. of Torre Pellice ; San Germane in the 
Val Chisone; and Perrero (see above), in the Val Germanasca. 

e. From Turin to Crissolo. Railway to (37t/o M.) Barge in 
2»/ 2 hrs. (5 fr. 90, 3 fr. 40 ; 2 fr. 20 c). — Our line diverges to the 
S. at (29l/ 2 M.) Bricherasio (see above) from that to Torre Pellice 
and runs via, some unimportant stations to (37*/2 M.) Barge, with 
9319 inhabitants. — From Barge roads lead in one direction to 
Revello (p. 43; diligence twice daily), and in the other to (3 M.) 
Paesana (p. 43) and up the valley of the Po to (91/2 M.) Crissolo, Fr. 
Crussol (4580 ft. ; Alb. del Gallo). Near Crissolo is the Caverna 
del Rio Marlino (guide and illumination of of the cave, 5 fr.). 

Crissolo is the starting-point for the ascent of Monte Viso (12,608 ft.), 
the highest summit of the Cottian Alps (not recommended to any but ex- 
perts; guide 25 fr.). We follow the bridle-path leading to the W. to the 
Col de la Traversette (9770 ft.) as far as the (2 hrs.) Plan del Re (6625 ft. ; 
small inn), near the sources of the Po. Thence we proceed to the S.. 
across the Passo delle Baguette (9760 ft.), to the (3 T /2 hrs.) Rifugio Quintino 
Sella of the Club Alpino Italiano (9840 ft,), in the Val delle Forciolline. 
From this point we reach the summit by a stiff climb of 4 hrs. up the 
S. face. The summit commands a splendid panorama, embracing Mont 
Blanc and Monte Rosa on the N. — From the Col de la Traversette to 
Abries, see Baedeker's Soutkern France. 

9. From Turin to Ventimiglia via Cuneo and Tenda. 

114 M. Railway to (55 M.) Cuneo in 21/2-3 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 20, 7 fr. 20, 
4 fr. 60 c); thence to (27 31.) Vievola in 2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 5, 3 fr. 55, 2 fr. 2o c). 
The railway is to be continued to Ventimiglia. In the meantime a Post 
Omnibus runs twice daily from Vievola to (32 M.) Ventimiglia in 9V2 hrs. 
Carr. and pair from Tenda to Ventimiglia 25 fr. — Beyond Tenda the road 
runs for some distance through French territory, so that the custom-house, 
formalities have to be undergone twice. 

SALUZZO. .9. Route. 43 

From Turin to (18 M.) Carmagnola, see p. 47. — 24 M. Rac- 
conigi, "with a royal chateau built in 1570, and since 1901 the summer- 
residence of the King; the park was laid out in 1755 in the style of 
Le Notre. — From (28 M.) Cavallermaggiore branch-lines run E. 
to (8 M.) Bra (p. 47) and W. to flO M. ) Moretta (p. 41). 

32 M. Savigliano (1050 ft, ; Alb. Corona), a town of 17,340 inhab., 
on the Macra. The principal church contains paintings by Giov. 
Ant. MoUnari (1577-1640), a native of the town. Bronze Statue 
of General Arimondi (d. 1896). victor at Agordat. 

From Savigliano a branch-line (10 M., in 1/2 hr. ; fares i fr. 90. i fr. 35, 
90 c.) runs to — 

Saluzzo (1197 ft. : Corona Grossa, R. 2, B. 1, de'j. 21/2, D. incl. wine 3 fr.), 
capital of the province (formerly marquisate) of that name, with 16,028 
inhab., the seat of a bishop, and a flourishing trade and industries. The 
higher part of the town affords a fine survey of the Piedmontese plain. 
Among the quaint buildiDgs in Saluzzo are the media-val Torre del Comune 
and the Casa del Giureconsvlto Casazza (16th cent.), now the Museo Ciiico. 
A visit should be paid to the church of San Giovanni, in the French Gothic 
style, with a raised choir. The Jate-Gothic interior contains the tomb of 
Marquis Lodovico II., by Ben. Briosco, and many other sculptures by Lombard 
artists. A monument was erected here in 1863 to Silvio Pellico, the poet 
(>]. 1854), author of 'Le Mie Prigioni' and the tragedy of 'Francesca da 
Rimini', who was born at Saluzzo in 1788 and expiated his patriotic efforts 
by ten years 1 imprisonment in Santa Margherita, the Doges 1 Palace (see p. 277) , 
and the Spielberg at Briinn. — Pieasant excursion to the Castello della Mania, 
once a chateau of the marquis, with frescoes (15th cent.). 

From Saluzzo to Ceneo, 2OV2M., railway in iy.i-2 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 80, 
2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 75 c). — Railway to (22 1 2 M.) Airasca. see p. 41. 

Steam Tramways from Saluzzo to Turin, p. 25; to Pinerolo. p. 41; to 
.Yenasca; and to (12 1 '2 M.) Paesana (p 42) via (5 M.) Revello, where there 
is an ancient copy of Leon, da Vinci's Last Supper (p. 133), with variations. 

40 M. Fossano (1180 ft.; Rail. Restaurant), with 18,175 inhab., 
situated on a hill on the left bank of the Stura, commanded by a 
castle, is the seat of a bishop, and has an academy and mineral 
baths (branch-line to Mondovi, p. 47). — 47 M. Centallo., a con- 
siderable place with remains of mediaeval fortifications. 

55 M. Cuneo, or Coni (1722 ft.,- Alb. Superga, Barra di Ferro, 
both well spoken of), the capital of a province, with 26,879 inhab., 
lies on a view-commanding hill at the confluence of the Stura and 
the Gesso. The fortifications have been converted into shady prom- 
enades, which afford splendid views of the Maritime Alps, of Mte. 
Yiso (p. 42 ; N.W.), and the Besimauda (p. 46 ; S.E.). In the Piazza 
Vitt. Emanuele is a monument to Giuseppe Barbaroux, erected in 
1879. The Franciscan Church is in the Gothic style (13th cent.). 
Pleasant walk to the Madonna degli Angeli. 

From Cuneo to the Cerlosa di Vol Pesio and to Mondovi, see p. 46; to 
Saluzzo, see above. — Steam Tramway from Cuneo, via Caraglio, to Dronero, 
situated to the If .W. in the Maira valley; and also to Borgo San Dalmazzo 
(see below). 

The railway to Vievola at first traverses a plain covered with 
groves of chestnuts. — 63 M. Borgo San Dalmazzo (2070 ft. ; Tre 
Galli;, a smalltown with 4700 inhab., is overlooked by the 
church of M a donna del Monserrato (view). 

44 RouU 0. VALDIERI. From Turin 

From Borgo San Dalmazzo a delightful excursion may be made to the 
Upper Valley of the Gesso (diligence daily in summer as far as the 
Terme di Valdieri). — The road ascends along the left hank of the Gesso 
to (6 M.) Valdieri (2485 ft.; Corona Grossa), which is the starting-point for 
an ascent of the Monte VArp (6000 ft.), an excellent point of view. — 
Beyond Valdieri a road leads to the left to Entraque (2958 ft. ; *Angelo, 
unpretending; Moro), a village of 2996 inhah., finely situated in a lateral 
valley, 9 ! /4 M. from Borgo San Dalmazzo. From this point excursions 
(guide, Giov. Demichelis) may be made to the Bousset Valley, through which 
a road ascends to (2 x /2 hr3.) a waterfall 1280 ft. high; to (2 J /2 hrs.) the Lake 
of Rovina (5117 ft.) and on, past a picturesque waterfall, to the (41/2 hrs.) 
mountain-lake of Brocan (6578 ft.; Rifugio Genova of the I. A. C), with 
a magnificent environment, a good starting-point for an ascent of the 
Punta Argentera (4 hrs. ; see below) and other mountain-tours ; to the top 
of the Bee oVOrel (8145 ft.; :; View); and to (6 M.) San Giacomo (good road 
through beech-woods). From S. Giacomo bridle-paths lead to the glacier- 
filled head of the valley at the Monte Clapier , and across the Colle delle 
Finestre to (8 hrs.) St. Martin- Visubie (see Baedekers Southern France). — 
The main road continues to ascend the Gesso valley. About 8 M. above 
Valdieri, in a sequestered upland valley, lie the Terme di Valdieri (4410 ft.), 
with eight warm sulphur springs (100-156° Fahr.) and a well-equipped hotel 
(season, June 25th to Sept. 30th; pens. 8-10fr.). The splendid situation 
attracts many other guests beside the patients. To the E. lies a fine beech- 
forest. To the W. a pleasant excursion may be made into the Vallasco 
Valley, with its royal shooting-box. The ascent of the ''Monte Matto (10,130 ft.) 
is fatiguing though not difficult (5 hrs. ; guide 10 fr.). That of the * Punta 
deir Argentera (10,883 ft.; 6 hrs. ; guide 12 fr.), the highest of the Maritime 
Alps, is recommended to experts only; the splendid panorama from the 
top includes the plain of the Po and the Tyrolese Alps ©n the N.E., the 
Alps of Dauphiny on the W., the coast of Provence on the S.W., from 
the lower valley of the Var to the Islands of Hyeres, and Corsica on the S. 

Another road connects Borgo San Dalmazzo with the Upper Valley of 
the Stura, a tributary of the Tanaro (diligence to Bagni di Vinadio in 
summer). The capital of this fair valley, known to the Romans as the 
Vallis Aurea on account of its fertility, is (10 1 /:! M.) Demonte (2550 ft. ; Alb. 
Garibaldi), an industrial place with 7100 inhab., pleasantly situated in an 
open part of the valley. Above Demonte the valley contracts. The next 
villages are (17 M.) Vinadio (3020 ft. ; Alb. d'ltalia), picturesquely situated 
and encircled by strong fortifications, Samhueo, and Argentera (Fr. Argen- 
tine), with the Italian custom-house. [For the route over the Col de 
Larche or Col de VArgentiere to Larche and Barcelonnette, in France, see 
Baedeker" s Southern France.] — A road to the left, halfway between Vinadio 
and Sambuco, leads to the high-lying Bagni di Vinadio (4363 ft.), situated 
in a lateral valley, 7 M. to the S.W. of Vinadio, and possessing a hotel 
(pens. 7'/2-9 fr.) and eight hot sulphur-springs (85-144° Fahr.). A pleasant 
excursion may be made hence to the (1 hr.) hamlet of Callieri, with its 
old woods of beech and pine and a fine waterfall. Admirable views are 
had from the Becco d^Ischiatbr (9860 ft. ; 5 hrs.), reached by passing the 
lakes of the same name, and from the Monte Tinibras (9950 ft.); but the 
ascent in each case is fatiguing (guide 12 fr.). 

6372 M. Roccavione (2145 ft.). The train enters the valley of the 
Vermenagna, enclosed now by wooded heights, now by precipitous 
limestone cliffs. Numerous tunnels. — 70 M. Vemante. We pass 
through a long loop tunnel and across a lofty viaduct. Fine but 
fleeting retrospect of Mte. Viso on the right. 

75 M. Limone (3285 ft. ; Porta, Europa, both plain), with 3608 
inhab., lies in an open stretch of the valley, at the N. base of the 
Col di Tenda. — Ascent of the Besimauda, see p. 46. 

The old road over Ihe forlified heights of the Col di Tenda, or di Cornio 
(6263 ft.), where the Maritime Alps (W.) terminate and the Ligurian Alps 

to Ventirniglia . TENDA. 9. Route. 45 

(E.J begin, i9 now closed to ordinary traffic. The new road, constructed 
in 1883, penetrates the Tenda by means of a tunnel, about IV2 M. long 
(N. entrance 4330 ft., S. entrance 4186 ft.). From the central point both 
ends are visible. The road then descends through the valley of the Roja, 
to (9 M.) Vievola (see below). 

The railway now traverses the Tenda Tunnel (5 M. long), com- 
pleted in 1899, and enters the valley of the Roya. — 82 M. Vievola 
(3260 ft.), the present terminus of the railway. — Post Omnibus 
to Ventirniglia, see p. 42. 

The fine Road to Vextimiglia passes through a ravine, enclosed 
by curious sandstone Tocks, and reaches — 

2^2 M. (from Vievola) Tenda (2675 ft. ; Alb. Nazionale, Lanza, 
Croce Bianca, Stazione, all plain; post-omnibus to Nice), a pic- 
turesque little town with 2279 inhab., overhung by precipitous walls 
of rock. Fragments of the castle where Beatrice di Tenda was born 
(comp. p. 143) stand on a rock here. 

Excursions (guide, Maurizio Sassi) may be made from Tenda through 
the Urno Wood to (4 hrs.) the top of the Monte Ciagore (7525 ft.), which 
commands a view extending to the sea; to the N.E., through the pic- 
turesque valley of the Rio Freddo and over the (4 hrs.) Colle dei Signori 
(refuge-hut), to the top of the Cima di Mavguareit (86t'0 ft.), the highest 
summit of the Ligurian Alps (*View). 

We now descend through a narrow rocky valley to — 
o^M-SanDalniazzo di Tenda (2250 ft.; Italian custom-house), 
situated amid luxuriant groves of chestnut, with several villas and 
an old Carthusian abbey, fitted up as a hotel and hydropathic (open 
from mid- April to the end of Oct., pens. 8 fr. ; Engl. Ch. service). 
Some interesting caves have recently been discovered in the vicinity. 
About 2 31. to the E. of San Dalmazzo lies Briga (2500 ft.-, Hotel de la 
Source, well spoken of), in the valley of the Levenza, with an interesting 
church. A little to the S. is the pine-forest of Pine". — A bridle-path leads 
to the W. to (3 hrs.) Casterino (5110 ft.; good accommodation), in an 
attractive valley, surrounded by larch-woods. Excursions (guides) may 
be made from this point past the old silver and lead mine of Yallauria, 
once worked by the Saracens, to the wild Valle delV Inferno, strewn with 
huge blocks of rock and containing 14 small lakes, and on to (3 hrs.) the 
Meraviglie (7218 ft.), rocks of slate inscribed with rude drawings of unknown 
antiquity; via the Fontanalba Valley, with similar drawing.- 1 , to the (5 hrs.) 
top of the "Monte Bego (9425 ft.), which commands a splendid view of the 
Alps, Nice, and the Riviera (accent fatiguing but not difficult); and to 
the three large mountain-lakes of "Falmasca, which lie in a rocky solitude, 
one above another, the largest (2^2 hrs.; toilsome walk) at a height of 
7675 ft. at the foot of the Mle. Ciaminejas (9558 ft.). 

Near the (8 M.) French frontier the valley contracts to the *Gola 
di Gaudarena, one of the most imposing gorges of the Alps, so nar- 
row at places as barely to leave room for river and road between 
the perpendicular rocks (700-800 ft.). — At (IO1/2 M.) Fontana 
(Fr. Fontan, 1424 ft.), with the French custom-house, the scenery 
assumes a more southern character and the first olives appear. 
Farther on Saorgio (Fr. Saorge), on a lofty rocky terrace to the left, 
with the ruins of a castle destroyed by the French in 1702, com- 
mands the road. Adjacent is a large monastery. 

At (I5V2M.) La Giandola (1250 ft. ; Hotel desEtrangers-Poste), 

46 Route 10. MONDOVI. 

situated in a green valley at the foot of Dare cliffs of slate, the roads 
to Nice and Ventlmiglia part company. 

The Road to Nick (38 M. ; post-omnibus from Tenda once daily in 
14 hrs.) leads over the Col di Brouis (2748 ft.) to Sospello, Fr. Sospel (1175 ft.; 
Hotel Carenco, mediocre), and then over the Col de Braus (4230 ft.) to LPEs- 
carene (Ital. Scarena). Finally we descend along the Paillon. — Comp. 
Baedekers Southern France. 

The road to Ventimiglia follows the picturesque valley of the 
Roja, passes the little town of Breglio or Breil, with the ruined 
castle of Crivella, and regains Italian soil (custom-house). It then 
threads two tunnels, helow the rocky nest of Piena, and farther 
on traverses the villages of (23 M.) San Michele and (25 M.) Airole. 

32 M. Ventimiglia, see p. 96. 

10. From Cuneo to Bastia (Turin, Savona). 

23 M. Railway in U/i hr. (fares 4 fr. 30, 3 fr. 15, 1 fr. 95 c). 

Cuneo, see p. 43. — From (5 M.) Beinette an omnibus runs 
in summer daily (5.45p.m.; fare 1 fr.)to the secularized Certosa di 
Pesio, which lies about 10 M. to the S. 

The Certosa di Pesio , in the lonely and romantic Val Pesio, was 
founded in 1173, and is now a hydropathic and pleasant health-resort 
open from June 1st to the end of Sept. (pens. incl. wine from 8 fr.). An 
excursion may he made hence to the Sources of the Pesio, in a rocky 
ravine below the steep N. side of the Cima di Marguareis (p. 45). The Certosa 
is also the starting-point for the ascent of the Colla Plana (6825 ft.), with 
its large Alps, and of the -Besimauda (7880 ft.), a ridge of gneiss rising 
abruptly from the plain and commanding a splendid view of the valley of 
the Po and the Ligurian Alps (mule-path, 4 hrs. ; descent to Limone, see p. 44). 

17 M. Mondovi (1835 ft, ; Tre Limoni d'Oro, mediocre), a town 
of 18,982 inhab., was the seat of a university from 1560 to 1719. 
From the Breo, or lower and industrial part of the town, a wire-rope 
railway ascends to the Piazza, or upper part of the town, with the 
Palazzo Vescovile, the Cathedral (15th cent.), and monuments to the 
March ese Sambuy and Francesco Beccaria, the physicist (1716-81). 
The Belvedere (1873 ft.), with its Gothic tower, commands a fine 
view of the Alps. 

From Mondovi a tramway runs to (20 min.) the "Santuario di Vico, 
a huge domed structure, erected in 1586-1736 from the plans of Ascanio 
Yittozzi. It contains the tomb of Charles Emmanuel I. (p. 24), and there 
is a marble statue of the same monarch, by Delia Vedova (1891), in front 
of the church. 

From Mondovi a road (omn. 50 c. ; steam-tramway under construction) 
ascends the valley of the Pllero, passing the (3 3 A M.) Cappella delV Annun- 
ziata, to (4'/2M.) Villanova Mondovi (inn), a picturesque little town on the 
slope of the Monte Calvario (2410 ft. ; view). About IV4 M. to the W. of 
Villanova, and reached from the Cuneo-Beinette road by a steep zigzag 
path in a few minutes, is the Grotta dei Dossi, rendered accessible in 
1893 (adm., May-Oct., 1 fr. •, excursion-parties from Mondovi in summer 
at fixed rates). Various fantastic names are attached to different parts of 
the cave, an exploration of which takes about V2 hr. (electric light). — 
About 15 M. to the S , in the beautiful Valle di Corsaylia, is the much 
finer : Grotta di Bossea, which is illuminated with n.aitte.^ium-light. It 

CARMAGNOLA. 11. Route. 47 

is reached by carr. in 4-5 hrs., via the Cappella dell' Annunziata (p. '46), 
(8V2 M. ) Frabosa-Sottana, and the summer-resort of (IOV2 M.) Frabosa-Soprana 
(ca. 2950 ft.; Alb. Gas tone). Carr. from Mondovi, 7-8 fr. per head. The 
cave i3 open from June to Oct. (adm. 2 x /4 fr., parties cheaper; no fees); 
the inn beside it is open from July 20th to the beginning of September. 
From Mondovi to Fossano (p. 43), 15 M., railway in l l /4 hr. ; to San 
Michele, steam-tramway in 3 /i hr. From S. Michele a post-omnibus runs 
to Ceva (see below). 

23 M. Bastia, on the railway from Turin to Savona, see below. 

11. From Turin to Genoa. 

a. Via Bra and Savona. 

From Turin to Savona, 91 M., in 4 3 /4-6 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 10, 11 fr. 95, 
7fr. 70 c; express 18 fr. 80. 13 fr. 15 c); thence to Genoa, 27 M., in 
11/4-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 15, 3 fr. 55, 2 fr. 25 c. ; express 5 fr. 55, 3 fr. 90 c). 
Finest views to the right. 

From Turin to Trofarello, 8 M., see p. 48. — 12y 2 M. Villa- 

18 M. Carmagnola (785 ft.), with 11,721 inhab., was the birth- 
place (1390) of the famous Condottiere Francesco Bussone, son of 
a swineherd, usually called Count of Carmagnola, who reconquered 
a great part of Lombardy for Duke Filippo Maria Visconti, and be- 
came Generalissimo of the Republic of Venice in 1426. At length 
his fidelity was suspected by the Council of Ten, and he was 
beheaded on 5th May, 1432. Bussone's fate is the subject of a tragedy 
by Manzoni. — The 'Carmagnole', the celebrated republican dance 
and song of the French Revolution, was named after this town, the 
home of many of the street-musicians of Paris. — Steam-tramway 
to Carignano (p. 40) and Turin — To Cuneo (Ventimiglia), see 
pp. 42-46. 

31 M. Bra (15,821 inhab.), with a busy trade in wine, cattle, 
truffles, and silk. Branch to Cavallermaggiore, see p. 43. 

From Bra to Alessandria, 53 M., railway in 3V2-3 3 /4 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 
9), 6 fr. 95, 4 fr. 43 c). — 4'/j M. Santa Vittoria; pleasant excursion thence 
to the royal chateau of Pollenzo, with the remains of the Roman town of 
Pollentia. — iiy 2 M. Alba (555 ft.), with 13,637 inhab. ; the cathedral of San 
Lorenzo dates from the 15th century. — 19 1 /? M. Castagnole (Lanze); branch- 
line to Asti (p. 48). We next traverse a fertile wine-country. 2b l h M. Santo 
Stefano (Belbo), on the Belbo, the valley of which the train traverses for 
some distance. 34 II. Nizza (Monferrato), also on the Asti-Ovada-Genoa 
line (p. 49). — 48 M. Cantalupo and thence to (53 M.) Alessandria, see p. 50. 

36 M. Cherasco, at the confluence of the Tanaro and Stura, is 
not seen from the line, which ascends the former. 

53 M. Bastia, the junction of the line to Cuneo (see above). 

62 y 2 M. Ceva (1270 ft.), on the Tanaro. 

From Ceva to Ormea, 22'/ 2 M., railway in iy 2 -2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 20, 
2 fr. 95, 1 fr.J)0 c). — The train ascends the valley of the Tanaro. — 151/s M. 
Garessio (1970 ft.; Leon d'Oro ; Rosa Rossa), with marble quarries, is con- 
nected with (22 M.) Albenga (p. 88) by a road crossing the pass of San 
Bernardo (3165 ft.). — 22»/ 2 M. Ormea (2393 ft.; Grand-HStel, with hy- 
dropathic; Albergo Nazionale), an ancient and picturesque little town (pop. 
5349), with marble quarries. It is frequented as a summer-resort; and 

48 Route 11. ASTI. From Turin 

pleasant excursions may be made to the imposing stalactite cavern of Nava, 
and tb rough the rocky gorges of the Negrone to (ihrs.) Viozena (inn; guides). 
From Viozena we may ascend the Mongioje (8630 ft.; 3 hrs.), the Pizzo 
d'Orme.i (8125 ft. ; 4*/2 hrs.), and the Armetta (5675 ft. ; 3 hrs.), on the light 
bank of the Tanaro; or visit the meadows on the Monte Antoroto (7035 ft ; 
rich Alpine flora) and proceed via the (3 J /4 hrs.) Colle di Termini (6560 ft.) 
to the (2 l /2 hrs.) Grotta di Bossea (p. 46). On all these excursions we enjoy 
fine views of the Ligurian Alps and the sea, and of the valley of the Po 
with the Alps in the distance. — From Ormea a picturesque road leads 
across the fortified Colle di Nava (3074 ft.) and past the prettily situated 
village of Pieve de Teco to (31 M.) Oneglia (p. 88). 

The train passes under the old castle of Ceva hy a tunnel and 
begins to cross the Ligurian Alps, the most imposing part of the 
line. Between this and Savona are numerous viaducts and 28 tunnels. 
The train quits the Tanaro and ascends. Beyond (6Q l /2 M.) Sale 
delle Langhe is the Galleria del Belbo, a tunnel upwards of 3 M. in 
length, the longest on the line. 73 Y2 M. Cengio, in the valley of 
the Bormida di Millesimo. 

79 M. San Oiuseppe di Cairo, on the Bormida di Spigno, through 
the valley of which the Acqui railway descends (see p. 49). 

Interesting journey amid the deep ravines and precipices of the 
Apennines. Tunnels and viaducts in rapid succession. 86^2 M. 
Santuario di Savona, a pilgrimage-church, founded in 1536. 

91 M. Savona, and thence to Genoa, see pp. 87-85. 

b. Via Acqui and Ovada. 

100 M. Railway in 6-8 1/4 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 75, 13 fr. 15, 8 fr. 35 c). 

The line at first runs at some distance from the left bank of the 
Po, crosses its affluent the Sangone (beyond which the branch-line 
to Pinerolo diverges, p. 41), and then the Po itself by a bridge of 
seven arches. — 5 M. Moncalieri, with a royal chateau on the hill 
(p. 40). A final retrospect is now obtained of the hills of Turin, 
and of the snowy Alps to- the left. 

8 M. Trofarello is the junction for branch-lines to Savona (p. 47) 
and Cuneo-Limone-Vievola (RR. 11a, 9). 

The line from Tdrin to (13V2 M., in 50 min.) Chieei also diverges at 
Trofarello. — Chieri, an industrial town with 15,000 inhab., contains a 
Gothic Cathedral (14th cent.) and a freely restored octagonal Baptistery 
(13th cent.), with an altar-piece by Defendente de Ferrari. — A pretty road 
(diligence twice daily in lV2-l 3 /4 hr.) leads to the E. from Chieri, through 
an undulating wine-growing district, to Castelnuovo (d'Asti). This is within 
an hour's drive of the former Abbazia di Vezzolano (said to have been 
founded by Charlemagne), the Romanesque church of which (12th cent. ; 
interior recently restored) has an interesting sculptured portal and contains 
a fine rood-loft and frescoes of the 15th century. The adjoining cloisters 
are parily Gothic. — About 12 M. to the N.E. of Vezzolano lies Cavagnolo, 
on the steam-tramway from Turin to Brusasco, with the church of Santa 
Fede, also boastiDg of many Romanesque sculptures. 

1972 M. Villanova d' Asli ; 30^2 M - SanDamiano. The train 
then crosses the Borbore and reaches the valley of the Tanaro. 

35t/ 2 M. Asti(390ft,; Leone d'Oro; Albergo Reale ; Rail. Restau- 
rant), the ancienMsfa, a mediaeval-looking town with 39,251 inhab. 

to Genoa. ACQUI. II. Route. 49 

and numerous towers, is famous for its sparkling wine (Asti spumante) 
and its horticulture. The left aisle of the Gothic Cathedral, erected 
in 1348, contains (2nd chapel) a Madonna with four saints "by a 
master of the school of Vercelli, and (3rd chapel) a Sposalizio, prob- 
ahly hy the same. — The adjacent church of San Giovanni (the sac- 
ristan of the cathedral keeps the key) is "built over an ancient Christ- 
ian "basilica, part of which has again "been rendered accessible, and 
has monolithic columns with capitals hearing Christian symhols 
(6th cent.). In the Piazza is a statue of the poet Alfteri (1749- 
1803), a native of Asti, hy Vini, and in the Giardino Puhblico is a 
monument to Victor Emmanuel II. Near the Porta Alessandria is 
the small octagonal Baptistery of San Pietro (11th cent.), borne by 
short columns with square capitals, and enclosed by a low polygonal 
gallery. — Asti is the junction of the line via Alessandria (p. 50). 
From Asti to Mortara (Milan), 46 M., in 3-574 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 60, 
6 fr. 5, 3 fr. 90 c). Stations unimportant ; 29 M. Casale-Monferrato, see p. 62 ; 
Mortara, see p. 171. — From Asti to Castagnole (p. 47), 13M., in 3 /4-i 1 A nr - 
— Steam Tramway from Asti to Cortanze and to Canale. 

The Genoa line now crosses the Tanaro and near (38^2 M.) 
San Marzanotto-Rivi reaches the wine-growing hill-district of the 
Colli Astigiani. On the heights is the old chateau of BeUangero. — 
41 M. Mongardino. We thread a tunnel and enter the valley of the 
Tiglione. — 46 M. Agliano-Castelnuovo-Calcea. — The line crosses 
the Belbo and unites with that from Bra to Alessandria at (oO 1 ^ M.) 
Nizza Monferrato (p. 47), a town of 9205 inhabitants. — Farther 
on we again cross and recross the Belbo. 55V2 M. Mombaruzzo, 
in the Vol Cervino. — We thread a long tunnel near (SS 1 ^ M.) 
Alice-Belcolle and reach the valley of the Medrio. 

63 M. Acqui (555 ft.; Grand Hotel ; Mcro ; Italia), the Aquae 
Statidlae of the Romans, an episcopal town on the Bormida with 
13,940 inhah., is known for its warm sulphur springs. The Cathedral 
(12th cent.) has douhle aisles. Good wine is produced in the vicin- 
ity. — To Alessandria and Savona, see p. 50. 

We now cross the Bormida. 65 M. Visone; 67V2 M. Prasco- 
Cremolino. — The tunnel of Cremolino, 2 M. long, brings us to the 
valley of the Orba, an affluent of the Tanaro. — 72 l /2 M. Ovarla 
(655 ft.), a town with 10,284 inhah., at the confluence of the Stura 
with the Orba. Steam-tramway to Novi, see p. 50. 

We now ascend the pretty valley of the Stura. 77i/ 2 M. Rossig- 
lione. — Numerous viaducts and tunnels. Beyond (81 7-2 M.) Cam- 
poliyure (1165 ft.), the highest point of the line, it pierces the crest 
of the Apennines hy the Galleria del Turchino (3 M. long). Over- 
head is the pass of the same name (1745 ft.). We then descend to 
(86 M.) Mele, about 3 M. above Voltri (p. 86). 

Farther on the line skirts the slopes of the mountains. 88 M. 
Acquasanta; 92 M. Granara; 94 M. Borzoli. Several fine views of 
the sea are obtained to the right. — 97!/ 2 M. San Pier d' Arena, and 
thence to Genoa, see p. 85. — 100 M. Genoa, see p. 66. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 4- 

50 Route 11. ALESSANDRIA. 

c. Via Alessandria and Novi. 

103 M. Railway in 3»/4-8V2 hrs. (fares 19 fr. 25, 13 fr. 50, 8 fr. 70 c. ; 
express 21 fr. 20, 14 fr. 85 c). — Holders of through-tickets to San Remo 
and Ventimiglia change carriages at San Pier d'Arena. 

From Turin to (35 l / 2 M.) Asti, see R. lib. — Thence our line 
ascends the valley of the Tanaro. Stations; Annone, Felizzano, Solero. 
Country flat and fertile. Near Alessandria the line to Bellinzoua 
(R. 27) diverges to the N. We cross the Tanaro. 

5672 M. Alessandria (310 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; Europa, fair; 
Grand Mogol et des Etr angers, pens. 8fr., well spoken of; Londra), 
a town with 72,109 inhab., situated on the Tanaro in a well- watered 
district, and remarkable only as a fortified place. It was founded 
in 1168 by the Lombard towns allied against the Emp. Frederick 
Barbarossa, and named after Pope Alexander III. A bronze statue, 
by Monteverde, was erected here in 1883 to the statesman TJrbano 
Rattazzi (1810-73), a native of the town. 

Alessandria being a junction of several lines, carriages are generally 
changed here. Railway to Vercelli via Valenza, see p. 62; to Novara and 
Bellinzona, see pp. 171, 170; to Milan via Murtara and Vigevano, see p. 171; 
to Pavia via, Torre BerretU, see p. 188; to Piacenza, Parma, Bologna, etc. 
see RR. 44 and 45; to Bra (Cavallermaggiore), see p. 47. 

Steam Tkamways from Alessandria via Marengo to Sale and Tortona, to 
Casale-Monferrato (p. 62), to Spinetta (p. 333); and to Montemagno (p. 62) via, 

From Alessandria to Savona (via, Acqui), 65 M., in about A l /i-A l /2 hrs. 
(fares 12 fr. 20, 8 fr. 55, 5 fr. 50 c). — As far as Cantalupo the line is the 
same as to Bra (see p. 47). — 21 M. Acqui, also a station on the railway 
from Asti to Ovada and Genoa (see p. 49). — The line ascends the valley 
of the Bormida, passing through ten tunnels. Stations of little importance. 
52 M. San Giuseppe di Cairo, see p. 48. — 65 M. Savona, see p. 87. 

The line crosses the Bormida (p. 48). About iy 4 M. to the E. of 
the bridge, in the plain between the Bormida and the Scrivia, lies 
the village of Marengo, near which, on 14th June, 1800, Napoleon 
defeated the Austrians in a momentous battle. — 62 M. Frugarolo. 

70 M. Novi Ligure (645 ft. ; Hot. Novi), a town with 17,868 in- 
hab., commanded to the right by hills with a belvedere-tower, was 
the scene of a victory gained by the Austrians and Russians under 
Suvorov over the French on 15th Aug., 1799. 

Branch-line to Pavia and Milan via, Tortona and Voghera, see R. 30. 
Strain-tramway to Ovada, see p. 49. 

At (74 M.) Serravalie (Scrivia) the train enters a mountainous 
region. 77 M. Arquata [Scrivia; 820 ft.), with a ruined castle. 
Between this and Genoa there are twenty-four tunnels. The train 
threads its way through rocky ravines (la Bocchetta) and over lofty 
embankments, crossing the Scrivia several times. Scenery imposing. 
83 ] / 2 M - Isola del Cantone; on the hill to the right a ruined castle. 
— 86 M. Ronco (Scrivia; 1065 ft.). 

The train enters the Ronco Tunnel, upwards of 5 M. in length, 
and then descends through the narrow Polcevera Valley with the help 
of numerous viaducts and cuttings. Opposite we see the old line via 
Busalla, which some trains follow. — 91 1 /? M. Mignanego ; 95 y 2 M. 

IVREA. 12. Route. 51 

San Quirico. The valley now expands; its well-cultivated slopes are 
dotted with the summer- villas of the Genoese. 

101 M. San Pier d 1 Arena (p. 85; Rail. Restaurant). On the 
right are the lighthouse and the rocky headland , mentioned on 
p. 82, helow which the train passes hy a tunnel. 

103 M. Genoa, see p. 66. 

12. From Turin to Aosta and Courmayeur. 

Kail way to (80 M.) Aosta in 31/4 -57 2 hrs. (fares 15 fr., 10 fr. 50, 6 fr. 80 c. ; 
express train in summer onl}'). The part of the line between Ivrea and 
Aosta (42 M. ; fares 7 fr. 85, 5 fr. 55, 3 fr. 55 c.) is distinguished both by 
the beauty of the scenery and the boldness of its engineering. — From 
Aosta to Courmayeur, 21 51., Omnibus thrice daily in July and Aug. (at other 
times twice daily) in 5 hrs. (return 4 1 /'-* hrs.), fare 5 fr. (outside seat 5 J /2 fr.) ; 
each trunk 1 fr. One-horse carr. 18. two-horse 30 fr. 

From Turin to (18 M.) Chivasso , see p. 62. The line to Aosta 
here diverges to the N. from that to Milan. Between the depressions 
of the lower mountains peeps the Gran Paradiso, and to the E., 
farther on, Monte Rosa. — Beyond (27 M.) Caluso (Canavese) the 
train traverses a tunnel helow the chain of hills on the S. side of 
tho former glacier of the Dora valley (known as the Moraine Circus 
of Ivrea). Beyond (33 M.) Strambino we cross the Chiuselia. 

38 M. Ivrea (?70 ft. ; Scudo di Francia, fair, with tourist-office, 
R. from 2, de'j. 2'/2, I), incl. wine 4 fr. ; Universo; Italia), the capital 
of the Canavese, is a town with 11,696 inhab., picturesquely situated 
on the Dora Baltea (Fr. Doire), The hill, on the slope of which it 
lies, is crowned hy the Castello delle Quattro Torri, built hy Ama- 
deus VI. (p. 24) in 1358, and now a prison. Only three of the lofty 
brick towers remain, the fourth having been destroyed by lightning 
in 1676. The Cathedral, a building of ancient origin, hut frequently 
restored, is adjoined by cloisters of the 10-llth centuries. An an- 
cient sarcophagus adorns the adjoining Piazza. In the Palazzo Muni- 
cipal is the small Museo Garda, with ethnographical collections. 
A monument was erected here in 1880 to Ettore Perrone, general and 
minister (d. 1849). Ivrea, the ancient Eporedia, was colonised by the 
Romans, B.C. 100, in order to command the Alpine routes over the 
Great and Little St. Bernard. Of the marquises of Ivrea the best- 
known are Berengar II. (d. 966) and Arduin (d. 1016), who ob- 
tained the Italian crown at Pavia (p. 186). 

Pleasant walk to the Madonna del Monte (pilgrimage -church) and the 
L^go Sirio or Lago di San Giuseppe. 

Steam-tramway from Ivrea in 2 hrs. to (I8V2M.) Santhia (p. 62; fares 
1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 50 c). The line runs near the S.W. edge of the Serra, a 
hilly ridge 10 M. in length, the longest moraine in Europe, at one time 
the lateral moraine of the glacier of the Dora valley. 

The train penetrates the hill on which Ivrea stands by means of 
a tunnel, 1100 yds. long, and ascends the fertile valley of the Dora. 
41 M. Montalto (Dora), with a ruined battlemented castle. 42 y 2 M. 
Borgofranco (840 ft.) has arsenical springs. 


52 Route 12. VERRES. From Turin 

49 M. Pont-St-Martin. The village (1030 ft. ; Rosa Rossa; Ca- 
vallo Bianco'), with a ruined castle, foundries, and a Roman bridge 
over the Lys, is picturesquely situated at the mouth of the deep Vol 
Gressoney, 1 M. from the station (see Baedeker s Switzerland). 

We next cross the Lys and follow the broad valley, flanked 
by fine mountains, to (50^2 M.) the prettily- situated Donnaz 
(1066 ft. ; Rosa). The train now ascends a rocky defile and passes 
through a tunnel under Fort Bard (1282 ft.), which was built in the 
beginning of the 11th cent, and was taken in 1242 by Amadeus IV. 
of Savoy after a long siege, while in May, 1800, before the battle of 
Marengo, it was gallantly defended by 400 Austrians, who kept the 
French army in check for a week. The train then crosses the Dora 
to (52 M.) Hone-Bard, beautifully situated. On the left opens the 
Val di Camporciero, or Champorcher, with its fine rocky peaks (p. 58); 
to the N.W. towers the Becca di Luseney (11,500 ft.). — At Cam- 
pagnola the train crosses the Dora and intersects a promontory of 
debris. — 55 M. Arnaz, with a ruined castle. 

5672 M. Verres. The village (1207 ft; Italia; Ecu de France), 
with 1277 inhab. and the old castle of Rocca, belonging to the 
former Counts of Challant (built in 1390, refortified in 1536), lies 
picturesquely at the entrance of the Val Challant, 3 /4 M. from the 
station. Opposite, on the right bank of the Dora, lies Issogne, also 
with an interesting chateau of the Counts of Challant (end of the 
15th cent.). To the N.E., between the Challant and Gressoney 
valleys, towers the rocky pyramid of the Becca di Vlou (9370 ft.). 

The valleys of Aosta and Susa (p. 41) were alternately occupied by 
the Franks and the Longobards, and belonged to the Franconian Empire, 
in consequence of which a South French dialect, (langue valdotaine) still 
predominates in these Italian districts. The village of Bard (below the fort) 
is the point of transition from Italian to French. 

Above Yerre's the valley expands, but soon contracts again. Ex- 
tensive vineyards are passed. We cross the Evancon and the Dora. 
On the slope to the left is the village of Champ de Praz, lying at 
the entrance of the Val Chalame, the torrent of which has overspread 
the valley of the Dora with detritus. Farther on lofty walls of rock 
rise to the left. — Near (60 M.) Montjovet appear on the right, 
high above us, the extensive ruins of the chateau of Montjovet or 
St. Germain. Tunnel. The train crosses the Dora by means of a long 
viaduct and enters the picturesque *Defile of Montjovet, the grand- 
est part of the line, with a succession of tunnels and buttresses of 
masonry, and the brawling Dora far below. 

63 M. St. Vincent (1415 ft.). To the right, 1 M. above the station, 
at the end of the defile and the foot of Mte. Zerbion (8925 ft.), lies the 
village (1886 ft. ; Grand Hotel de la Source, with hydropathic; Lion 
d'Or; Rome; Corona). — Two short tunnels. Loftily perched on the 
left is the old castle of Ussel, belonging to the Counts of Challant. 

64 V 2 M. Chatillon (1807 ft.; *H6t de Londres, R. 3V 2 fr. ; *H6t. 
Pens. Suisse; Hot. des Alpes; Caff t-Ristor ante Alpino, beyond the 

to Courmayeur. AOSTA. 12. Route. 53 

bridge), with 3061 inhab., is finely situated 1 M. above the station, 
at the entrance to the Val Tournanche. Its houses are picturesquely 
scattered over the gorge of the Matmoire or Marmore, a torrent de- 
scending from the Matterhorn ; and in the middle of the town is a 
bridge spanning the ravine in one fine arch. (To Val Tournanche, 
and over the The'odule Pass to Zerrnatt, see Baedeker s Switzerland.^) 

The line crosses the Matmoire, traverses a deep cutting through a 
deposit of debris, threads two tunnels, and reaches (67* '2 M.) Cham- 
lave (1555 ft.), noted for its wine. To the W. opens the view of the 
beautiful valley of Aosta, rich in fruit and surrounded by lofty 
mountains, with the three-peaked Rutor (p. 60) in the background. 

Beyond a tunnel the line traverses a mass of de'bris at Diemos 
(viaduct 107 yds. long), and crosses the Dora. To the left lies the 
pioturesque chateau of Finis (with old mural paintings), at the mouth 
of the Clavalite Valley, through which peeps the snowy peak of the 
Tersiva (p. 58). The train crosses the Dora twice and reaches (72 M.) 
Nus (1755 ft. ; Croce d'Oro) , with a ruined castle, at the mouth of 
the Val St. Barthekmy. We then recross to the right bank of the 
Dora. On the slope above (73 M.) St. Marcel, which lies at the 
mouth of the valley of the same name (p. 58), is the much-frequented 
pilgrimage-church of Plou. We again cross the Dora to (74 * '2 M.) 
Quart- Villefranche (1755 ft.), with the chateau of Quart on a hill to 
the right (2485 ft.). We then cross the Bagnere and the Bulkier. 

80 M. Aosta. — 'Hutel Royal Victoria, opposite the station, R. 
37:>-5, B. IV2, dej. 3V2, D. 5, pens. incl. wine 9-12 fr.; 'Hot. dd Montblanc, 
at the W. end of the town, R. 3-3y 2 , B. I.1/2, D. 5 fr., these two open in 
summer only. — Albergo Corona, very fair, in the Piazza Carlo Alberto 
or market-place; Hot. Paul Lanier, in the Palazzo di Citta, opposite. — 
C".f-:- Restaurant Centoz (with bedrooms), Caffi Xazionale, both in the market- 
place. Beer at Zimmer matin's, in the Via Saverio di Maestre, near the P^l. 
di Citta. Good bedrooms (3 fr.) at the omnibus-office in the market-place. 
— Omnibus and carriages to Courmayeur. see p. 51. 

Aosta (1910ft.), with 7554 inhab., the Augusta Praetor ia Salas- 
sorum of the Romans and now the capital of the Italian province of 
Aosta, lies at the confluence of the Buthier and the Doire or Dora 
Baltea. The valley was anciently inhabited by the Salassi, a Celtic 
race, who commanded the passage of the Great and the Little 
St. Bernard, the two chief routes from Italy to Gaul. They frequently 
harassed the Romans in various ways, until they were conquered in 
B.C. 25 by Terentius Varro, who sold many of them as slaves at 
Eporedia (p. 51). To protect the roads Varro then founded a camp, 
790 yds. long and 625 yds. broad, with 22 square towers, and gar- 
risoned it with 3000 soldiers of the Praetorian cohorts. The import- 
ance of the Roman Aosta is indicated by the extant remains. 

Near the railway-station, which lies on the S.' side of the town, 
is an excellent bronze Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. , by Tortone 
(1886), commemorating the king's sporting expeditions amid the 
Graian Alps. A short walk brings us to the ancient Town Walls, 

54 Route 12. AOSTA. From Turin 

IB 1 /? ft. high, which are preserved almost in their entire extent, 
while on the S.W. side the ancient facing and cornice are still 
in situ. 

From the market-place (Piazza Carlo Alberto), where the main 
streets of the town, still preserving the old Roman arrangement, 
intersect each other, we proceed through the well-preserved E. 
town-gate , the ancient three - arched *Porta Pretoria , to the 
(^4 M.) handsome * Triumphal Arch of Augustus, with its ten 
Corinthian pilasters. We then cross the Buthier, which has changed 
its channel, to the beautiful arch of the old Roman Bridge, now 
half-buried in the earth. 

In the Borgo di San Orso, the E. suburb, lies the church of 
St. Ours or Sant' Orso, founded in 425 and rebuilt in tbe 12th cent- 
ury. The choir contains the tomb of Bishop Gallus (d. 546) and finely 
carved stalls of the 15th century. The old crypt is borne by Roman 
columns. The cloisters contain early-Romanesque columns (12th 
cent.), with interesting capitals. Near the church rises a Tower, 
built of Roman hewn stones in the 12th cent., opposite which are 
two ancient columns at the entrance of a chapel. In the same piazza 
is the picturesque Priory of St. Ours (15th cent.), with terracotta 
ornamentation and an octagonal tower. The interior contains good 
wood-carvings and frescoes. 

The Vicolo del Baillage, leading to the N. from the Porta Pre- 
toria, and then the Via del Teatro, to the left, bring us to the Roman 
Theatre, of which only the S. wall (70 ft. high) is now standing. — 
The Amphitheatre, destroyed all but a few arcades, in the old Con- 
vento di Santa Caterina, is reached from the market-place by the 
Via Saverio di Maestre, leading to the N.E. 

The Cathedral, also in the N. part of the town, owes its present 
form to the 14th century. Above the portal is a painted terracotta 
relief; in the choir, two mosaic pavements of 1429 and Gothic 
stalls of the 15th century. The treasury contains two shrines of the 
13th and 15th cent. (SS. Gratus and Jucundus), a cameo of a Roman 
empress in a setting of the 13th cent., and an ivory diptych of the 
Consul Probus (406) with a representation of the Emp. Honorius. 
The cloisters date from 1460. ■ — The Vescovada (17th cent.), close 
by, contains portraits of all the bishops of Aosta and a large relief- 
plan of the Aosta valley, by Luigi Vescoz. In the Accademia di San? 
Anselmo are Celtic and Roman antiquities. 

At the S. town-gate (the ancient Porta Principalis Dextra; re- 
cently freed from encroaching buildings) rises the Torre Bramafam 
(12th cent.), a relic of a castle of the Counts of Challant. It contains 
an inscription dedicated to Augustus by the Salassi. — By the W. 
wall is the mediaeval Torre del Lebbroso, or Tour du Lepreux, de- 
scribed in Xavier Le Maistre's novel, in which a leper named Guasco 
(d. 1803) and his sister Angelica (d. 1791) dragged out their mis- 
erable existence. — Numerous cretins will be seen in Aosta. 

to Cowmayeur. VILLENEUVE. 12. Route. 55 

The -Becca di Nona (10,305 ft.), rising to the S. of Aosta, commands 
a superb view of the Alps. Ascent 6-7 hrs., with guide 1 12 fr.); provisions 
should be taken. A bridle-path leads to the village of Charvensod (2445 ft. ; 
guide, Gregoire Come) and thence via, the hermitage of St. Grat (c815 ft.) 
to the Col tie Plan Fenetre (7'2S0 ft.) and ihe (4tyg hrs.) Alp Comboe (6660 ft. : 
tolerable night-quarters). The Signal Sismonda (7695 it.), V2 hr. above (S.) 
the Col de Plan Fenetre, commands a fine view of the Rutor and the 
Pennine Alps. From the Alp Comboe a good zigzag path ascends in 2V2 hrs. 
to the top of the Becca di Nonna (shelter-hut). — The Mont Emilius 
(11,677 ft.) may be ascended by experts from Comboe in 4'/2 hrs. (guide 
30 fr.). The view is still more extensive than that from the Becca di Nona. 

The Road to Cotjrmayeub, (omn., see p. 51) traverses the broad 
and shadeless valley of the Dora Baltea, passing the handsome royal 
chateau of Sarre (2145 ft.), to Aymaville (2120 ft.), with a chateau 
with four towers. Opposite St. Pierre (2165 ft.), with its church and 
a picturesque chateau (partly restored) on a rock, opens the Val de 
Cogne on the S. (see p. 57). Thence we continue, enjoying a line 
view of the Rutor and Grivola, and passing an old tower, to — 

6 M. Villeneuve (2132 ft. ; Cervo, poor), a picturesquely situated 
village, commanded by the rock-perched ruin of Argent. 

From Villeneuve to Ceresole Reale over the Col de Nivolet (13 hrs.). 
Ascent from Villeneuve by a paved path, rough and steep. To the W., a 
fine view of Mont Blanc. Opposite ( 3 /i hr.) Champlong, where we reach 
the lowest part of the Val Savaranche (p. 56), the beautifully wooded Val 
de Rhemes opens on the W. ; on the height between the valleys rises the 
chateau of Introd (p. 59). Following the lofty right bank of the deep valley, 
we next come to (3 hrs.) Degioz-Valsavarancne (p. 59). then Tignet and 
Bien and (2i/4 hrs.) Pont (63S0 ft. •, *Hot. de la Grivola, plain), the highest 
hamlet in the Val Savaranche. at the W. ba^e of the Gran Paradiso (p. 59). 

The Val Savaranche divides here. We cross the brook descending 
from the W. branch of the valley, and ascend r. steep rocky slope in 
numerous windings, passing a fine waterfall, to the (1 hr.) Croix d'Aro- 
letta (7800 ft.), a cross on the brink of a precipice, where we enjoy a 
magnificent survey of the Qran Paradiso and its three peaks opposite to 
us, to the N. of which are the Becca de Montandeyne, Pointe Herbetet, and 
the Grivola. Traversing a deflate; and at places marshy, valley, with 
numerous traces of glacier-friction, we next pass (1 hr.) the Chalets de 
Nivolet (rfmts. and two bed?) and a small lake with a royal shooting-box, 
which lie to the left , and reach the (1 hr.) Col de Nivolet (3660 ft.), a 
narrow ridge of rock with a superb view to the S. of the Levanna (p. 41), 
rising on the opposite side of the deep Val d'Orco. To the W. are the lofty 
Col de la Galise and the Oima di Bousson ; to the E., the chain of the Oran 
Paradiso. (A route leads across the Colle Kosselto into the Val de Rhemes.) 

Our route descends a steep rocky slope, in many windings, to a bleak 
valley with several small tarns and a few chalets, and thence by steep 
zigzags on the left side of the Agnello, with its numerous fall J , to (2 hrs ) 
Chiapili di Sopra (5748 ft.), the highest hamlet in the valley of the Oreo. 
Farther on we pass the beautifully situated Parrocchia or parish-church 
(5280 ft.) and finally reach the hotels of (2 hrs.) Ceresole Reale (p. 40). 

Beyond Villeneuve we cross the Savaranche and ascend rapidly 
to (3 3 / 4 M.) Arvier (2545 ft. ; Croce Bianca). High up on the precip- 
itous cliff to the right stands the church of St. Nicolas (3925 ft.). 
In front of us is the snowy Rutor (p. 60). — Near the beautifully 
situated village of ( 3 / 4 ?J.) Liverogue (2395 ft. ; Hot. du Col du Mont, 
plain) we cross the deep gorge of the Dora di Valgrisanche (p. 60), 
and traverse a rocky gorge to Ruiriaz (2580 ft. ; Croix.). Opposite 
lies Avixe, with a ruined castle and an old church. Mont Blanc now 

56 Route 12. COURMAYEUR. 

comes in sight. The road passes through another wild defile (Pierre 
Taillee) and crosses to the left bank by the (2 M.) Pont d'Equilive 
(2570 ft.). The valley expands. On the right bank is the pretty Cas- 
cade de Derby, descending in several leaps. 2 V2 M. Morgex (3020 ft. : 
Chene Vert; Ange). The road now follows the lofty slope for some 
distance, with a fine retrospective view of the Grivola (p. 58), and 
crosses to the right bank of the Dora Baltea near (2*/ 2 M.) — 

Pre-St-Didier (3250 ft. ; * Hotel de VUnivers et de la Rose; Cou- 
ronne), a picturesquely situated village with baths, where the road 
to the Little St. Bernard diverges to the left (see below). 

Excursions. The ascent of the *Tete de Crammont (8955 ft.), 4 hrs. to 
the W. of Pre-St-Didier, is highly interesting (riding practicable to within 
V2 hr. of the top). Following the St. Bernard road to a point about 6 min. 
above the first tunnel (shorter footpath in 20 min.), we thence ascend in 
zigzags to the right to the (2 hrs.) hamlet of C/ianton (5970 ft.), whence we 
reach the summit in i J /2 hr. more. Splendid view of Mont Blanc and the 
Graian Alps. About 5 min. below the top is the Capanna De Saussure, a 
refuge-hut of the Italian Alpine Club. Another and easier route diverges 
to the right from the St. Bernard road at Elevaz. 3 M. from Pre-St-Didier, 
joining the above route at Chaton. Experts may dispense with a guide. 

To Bourg-St-Mauriue over the Little St. Bernard, 27 M. The fine 
road (footpath shorter) winds up the valley of the Thuile via Balme and 
(6 M.) La Thuile (4726 ft. ; Alb. Nazionale, Alb. della Goletta, both primitive ; 
guide, Maurizio Bognier), where we have a view of the great glacier of 
the Iiutor (11,435 ft.), which may be ascended hence (comp. p. 60), to 
(372 M.) Pont-Serrand (4515 ft.), and past the (3 M.) Cantine des Eaux-Rousses 
(6740 ft.) to the (l'/s M.) pass of the Little St. Bernard (7175 ft.). The 
boundary between France and Italy is on the S. side, about 3 /4 M. beyond 
the summit and near a Hospice (7089 ft.) affording fair quarters (simple 
fare free , better dishes at a fixed tariff). [The Mt. Valaisan (9455 ft.), 
31/2 hrs. to the S.E. , the Belvedere (8665 ft.) , D/2 hr. to the E. , and the 
Lancebranlette (9605 ft.), 3 hrs. to the W., all afford admirable views of the 
Mont Blanc chain.] We now descend gradually, overlooking the beautiful 
upper vallev of the Isere (La Tarentaise) and the Savoy Mts. the wbole 
way,' to St." Germain, Siez, and (12 M.) Bourg- St -Maurice (2805 ft.; Hdt. 
Ma'yet, fair, R. 3 1 /-', D. 3 fr.), a small town on the Isere, whence a diligence 
runs twice daily in 4V2 hrs. to (16 M.) Moutiers-en- Tarentaise (p. 2). 

Beyond Pre'-St-Didier the road ascends the left bank to (y 2 M 
Palesieux, and winds through a wooded ravine to (3 M.) — 

Courmayeur. — *Grand Hotel Royal, with garden, R. 4-7, B. D/2, 
dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 10-15 fr. (open in summer only); Alb. dell'' Angelo, 
similar charges; "Union, R. 3, B. D/2, D. 5, pens. 8-10 fr., inch wine; 
-Mont Blanc, '/ 2 M. to the N. of the village, R. 2V2-4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 
IOV2 fr., incL wine. — Restaurant Savoy e (also rooms); Cafe" du Montblanc. — 
Diligence to Aosta, see p. 51; carr. with one horse 15, with two 25 fr. — 
English Church Service in the season. 

Courmayeur (4360 ft,), a considerable village (1154 inhab.), 
beautifully situated at the head of the Aosta valley, is much 
frequented by Italians in summer. The highest peak of Mont Blanc 
is concealed from Courmayeur by the Mont Chetif (7685 ft), but is 
seen from the Pre'-St-Didier road, */ 2 M. to the S. — About iy 4 M. 
to the N. are the small sulphur baths of La Saxe. 

The Mont de la Saxe (7735 ft.; 3 hrs.; guide, 6 fr., unnecessary) 
affords a complete view of the E. side of Mont Blanc, from the Col de 
la Seigne to the Col de Ferret, the Dent du Ge'ant and the Jorasses being 


COGNE 13. Route. 57 

prominent. A good bridle- path ascends from Courmayeur, by La Saxe 
(p. 56) and Villair, to the (2 hrs.) Chalets du Pre" (6480 ft.) and the (1 hr.) 
summit. The descent may be made by the Chalets du Leuchi (6295 ft.) into 
the Val Ferret. — Excursions in the Blont Blanc chain, to Chamonix, etc., 
see Baedeker - '* Switzerland or Southern France. 

13. From Aosta to the Graian Alps. 

The Graian Alps, an extensive mountain-system culminating in the 
Gran Paradiso (13,324 ft.) and the Grivola (13,022 ft.), lie between the 
valleys of the Dora Baltea and the Isere on the N., and those of the 
Dora Riparia and the Arc on the S. We here describe a few of the most 
interesting routes through the E. part of this grand mountain-region, 
in the form of a circular tour of four days from Aosta , taking in Cogne, 
Valsavaranche, Rhemes Nolre-Dame, Yalgrisanche, and Liveroyne. Cogne is 
the best centre for excursions. 

The mountains of Cogne formed a favourite chasse of King Humbert, 
as they did of his father Victor Emmanuel (p. 53), and the mountain 
goat ('Steinbeck', Ital. 'stambecco', Fr. 'bouquetin'), elsewhere nearly 
extinct, is still found here. Several excellent bridle-paths, leading to the 
royal shooting-lodges, are a great assistance to the pedestrian. 

1st Day. — Fiom Aosta to Cogne (6^ hrs.). As far as (6 M.) 
Aymaville (2120 ft.) we may follow the highroad (p. 55), but it is 
preferable to cross the Dora near Aosta, and to go by Gressan and Jo- 
vencan, across meadows and fields. The bridle-path then ascends 
rapidly past the church of St. Martin to Poia (2790 ft.), and enters 
the monotonous Val de Cogne at a great height above the ravine of 
the brawling Grand- Eyvie. Far below we soon observe the houses 
of Pont d'Ael (2865 ft.), with its admirably preserved *Roman 
Bridge (formerly an aqueduct), 60 yds. long and 390 ft. above the 
stream. It was erected in the reign of Augustus. The valley con- 
tracts. Near the bridge by which we cross the stream we obtain a 
view of the Grivola for a short time. We next reach (iy 2 hr.) 
Vieyes (3714 ft.; cantine), at the mouth of the Combe de Nomenon 
(pretty waterfall), with the Grivola and the Gran Nomenon 
(11,440 ft.) in the background. Beyond (7 4 hr.) Silvenoire (right) 
and a deserted iron-foundry we again cross the brook by the Pont 
de Laval (4480 ft.), where the mountains of Cogne are revealed, 
to (li/2 h r Epinel (4760 ft.), opposite the lofty Punta del Pousset 
(see below) and the Trajo Glacier. At (V2 hr.) Cretaz the Val- 
nontey descends from the S. to the Grand' Eyvie ; (20 min.) Cogne. 

Cogne (5033 ft. ; *Couronne, R. Vfa-I 1 /* B. IV2, de 'J • 2 V2> D. 31/2, 
pens. 6^2 fr- ; Grivola, similar charges, clean), charmingly situated, 
with a beautiful view of the Gran Paradiso and the Tour du Grand 
St. Pierre, with their glaciers (Glacier de la Tribulation, du Grand 
Crou, du Money, etc.) to the S., and of the Mont Blanc to the N.W., 
is an excellent starting-point for excursions. Three valleys converge 
here: the Vallone di Valnontey from the S., the Vallone d'JJrtier 
from the S.E., and the Vallone di Grauson from the N.E. 

Ascents and Passes (no authorized guides). 'Punta del Pousset (9994 ft. ; 
5 hrs.; guide 6, with mule 12 fr.), a superb point of view. At Critaz (see 
above) the bridle-path crosses the Valnontey and enters a wood and then 

58 Route 13. COGNE. Graian 

ascends grassy slopes to the chalets of Ors Desstis and (3 hrs) Pons set-Dessus 
or Snperiori (8385 ft.). Thence a steep climb of l J /2 hr., passing a very giddy 
place near the top, brings us to the rocky crest of the Punta del Pousse t. 
Close to ns, above the Grivola Glacier, towers the Grivola, which, on 
this side, is hardly inferior in boldness to the Matterhorn, while other 
mountains of the Pennine and Graian Alps are also visible. — Grivola 
(13,022 ft. 5 from Cogne 9 hrs. ; two guides at 28 fr. each), difficult, and fit 
for experts only. Ascent from Valsavaranche still more difficult. 

The *Punta di Tersiva (11,526 ft. ; 7 hrs., with guide) presents no dif- 
ficulty to adepts. We proceed through the Vallone di Grauson to the 
(2'/ 2 hrs.) chalets of Grauson (7450 ft.) and to (3/ 4 hr.) Ervilliere (8245 ft.)-, 
thence, passing the little Lac Doriere, to the (1 hr.) Passo d'Invergneux 
(9485 ft.) and by the W. arete to the (21/2 hrs.) summit. Magnificent view 
of the Graian and Pennine Alps and of the plain of Piedmont (Turin), etc. 
The ascent may be also made from the S. from the Val dTrtier via. the Pon- 
ton Alp, or from the N. (more difficult) from the Val de ClavaliU (p. 53). 

In the Valnontey, opening to the S. of Cogne, lie the (3 hrs. ; steep final 
ascent) chalets of Le Money (7654 ft.), which command an admirable view 
of the Gran Paradiso with its glaciers (ascent, see p. 59). Two difficult 
glacier passes, the Colle Grand Crou (10,844 ft.), between the Gran 
Paradiso and Becco di Gay, and the Colle Money (11,247 ft.), between the 
Roccia Viva and the Tour du Grand St. Pierre, lead from the head of the 
Vallone de Valnontey to the Val oVOrco (p. 40; guide 15 fr.). 

From Cogne to Hone-Bard over the Fenetre de Champorcher, 
11-12 hrs., attractive and not difficult. A bridle-path (royal hunting-path) 
crosses the Urtier at Q/2 hr.) Champlong (5185 ft.), and ascends the valley of 
the stream with its abundant flowers and waterfalls, commanding fine views 
of the Grivola to Ihe W. and of the Combe de Valeille (see p. 59), enclosed 
by glaciers, to the S. We next pass the chapel of Cret to the (2 hrs.) chalets 
of Chavanis, whence we may either follow the lower path to the right by 
Brulot and Peyrasas, or that to the left along the slope of the Tersiva (see 
above), via Plane's and Ponton, with its little lake, and along the Tour 
de Ponton (9846 ft.), to the (2 hrs.) Fenetre de Champorcher (9311 ft.), 
between the Tour de Ponton and the Becco Costassa. We descend into the 
pastoral Val Champorcher or Camporciero, passing the chalets of Dondenna, 
to (3V2 hrs.) Champorcher (4G82 ft.; rustic inn), and thence by Pont-Boset 
to (2V2 hrs.) Bone-Bard (p. 52). 

From Cogne to St. Marcel over the Col de St. Marcel, 8 hrs., not 
difficult (practicable for mules). The route leads through the Vallone di 
Grauson to the (2*/2 hrs.) chalets of Grauson (see above), and thence past the 
little Coronas Lake to the (2 hrs.) Col de St. Marcel [Colle di Coronas, 
9535 ft.), a saddle of the Cresta del Tessonet. We descend through the wooded 
Vallone di St. Marcel to (3>/2 hrs.) St. Marcel (p. 53). 

From Cogne to Aosta, 9 hrs. (with guide), fatiguing but interesting. 
The route ascends via. the chalets of Chavanis and Arpisson (7630 ft.) to 
the Col d'Arbole (9715 ft.); fine view of the Gran Paradiso and Grivola. 
Descent via. the Chalets d'Arbole (81S6 ft.) and the hermitage of St. Grat 
(5815 ft.; p. 55). — To Aymaville over the Colle de Chaz-Seche (9250 ft.) 
or the Colle del Brine (8735 ft.), 7-8 hrs., both not difficult. 

From Cogne to the Val Soana across the Colle della Nolva, 7-8 hrs., 
attractive and repaying. Passing the chalets of Chavanis and Brulot (see 
above) to the foot of the glacier and skirting this to the right, we reach 
(3 hrs.) the Colle della Nouva (Colle deW Arietta; 9623 ft.), and enjoy an 
.•dmirable view of Mont Blanc and the S. side of the Graian Alps. Steep 
descent to the chalets of Arielta, and through the Val Campiglia to (3 hrs.) 
C'ampiglia, O/2 hr.) Valpralo, and O/2 hr.) Ronco (3087 ft.; Alb. Nazionale; 
"Uaivcrso; omn. to Cuorgne), in the Val Soana, 2^2 hrs. above Font Canavese 
(p. 40). — Two other passes to the Val Soana lead respectively across the 
Colle Bardoney (9295 ft.), between the Punta Lavina and the Punta Rol 
(fatiguing), and across Ihe Bocchetta di Ranch (fSCOft.), to the N. of the 
Punta Lavina (difficult). 

Alps. VALSAVARANCHE. 13. Route. 59 

To the Val d'Orco (Val Locana) over the Colle Grand Crou or the Colle 
Money, see p. 58. Two other difficult passes lead from the Vallone di 
ValeiUe, the lateral valley parallel to the Vallone d'Urtier on the S. (see 
p. 58), to the Rifugio Piantonetto (9020 ft.) of the Italian Alpine Club in the 
Val Piantonetto and to Perebecche (p. 40) in the Val d^Orco: the Colle di 
Teleceio (10,910 ft.), between the Tour du Grand St. Pierre (12,113 ft. ; the 
difficult ascent of which may be made from the pass) and the Ondezana 
(11,360 ft.); and the Colle Sengie (10,515 ft.), between the Ondezana and 
the Punta Sengie (11,180 ft.). 

2nd Day. — From Cogne to Valsavaranche over the Col de 
Lauzon (8-9 hrs.), easy and attractive (guide, 10 fr., not indis- 
pensable). From (3/ 4 hr.) Valnontey (5505 ft.) the bridle-path as- 
cends to the right, through wood, passing a pretty fall of the Lauzon, 
to the (2^2 Im-) royal shooting-lodge ('Campement du Roi' ; 8490 ft.) 
and the (2 hrs.) Col de Lauzon (10,850 ft.), with an admirable 
view (still more extensive from a height a few minutes to the S.). 
We now descend, enjoying superb views of the Gran Paradiso, on the 
left, and Grivola, on the right, to (i l /. 2 hr.) the Chalets de Leviona 
(7966 ft.). (Good walkers, with a guide, may cross the brook here 
near the small waterfall, and descend by a steep path direct to 
Valsavaranche.) The bridle-path follows the left bank and reaches 
the bottom of the Val Sauaranche near (IV2 nr the hamlet of Tignet, 
1 M. to the S. of Degioz-Valsavaranche (5055 ft.-, *H6t. du Grand 
Paradis; Hot.-Restaurant du Club Alpin, R. iy 2 , D. 2^2 f r -> plain), 
the chief village in the Valsavaranche (guides, G. Blanc, P. Dayne, 
Gius. Prayet). 

Two other somewhat fatiguing passes from Cogne to Val Savaranche 
are the Col de VHerbetet (10,830 ft.) and the Col de Mesoncles (10,174 ft.). — 
From Val Savaranche to Ceresole Reale, see p. 55. 

The Gran Paradiso (13,324 ft. ; difficult, for adepts only ; guide 60 fr.) 
may be ascended in 7-8 hrs. from (2 x /4 hrs.) Pont (p. 55), the highest 
hamlet in the Val Savaranche. About 1/4 hr. to the S. of Pont we ascend 
to the left to the (2 hrs.) Ricovero Vittorio Emmanuele (9350 ft.), above the 
Moncorvi Alp, and thence cross the Glacier de Moncorvi to the (4 hrs.) 
summit. The descent may be made to the Chalet oVHerbetet (accommoda- 
tion) and through the Valnontey (p. 58) to Cogne (very difficult). 

3rd Day. — From Valsavaranche to Rhemes Notre-Damk over 
the Colle D'ENTRELOR(6hrs.; guide 6 fr.). The bridle-path ascends 
from Valsavaranche by (1 M.) Creton, at first somewhat steeply, to 
(2 hrs.) a royal shooting-lodge (7185 ft.), and thence leads in zig- 
zags along the slope to the left, passing (l 1 ^ hr.) the small Lago di 
Djouan (8280 ft.) and the Lago Nero (9075 ft.), to the (1 V2 hr.) Colle 
d'Entrelor (9872 ft.), between the Cima di Gollien (10,115 ft.) and 
the Cima di Percia (10,110 ft.). Fine view of the Rutor (see p. 60) 
to the W., and of the Gran Paradiso and Grivola to the E. Descent 
rather steep through the Vallone d'Entrelor, with the Beccadi Sam- 
beina (10,370 ft.) on the left, to (2»/ 2 hrs.) Rhemes Notre-Dame 
(6015 ft. ; poor cantine, or a bed at the cure's), the chief place in 
the Val de Rhemes, which is enclosed by imposing glaciers (guide, 
C. Therisod). Notre-Dame is 5 hrs. from Villeneuve. The route 
down the valley passes Rhemes- St- Georges and Introd (2885 ft.), 

60 Route 13. VALGRISANCHE. Graian Alps. 

with the chateau of that name, where the Val de Rhemes unites 
with the Val Savaranche (p. 55). In descending we obtain a fine 
view of Mont Velan and the Grand Combin to the N. 

A shorter but more toilsome route than the Col d'Entrelor leads from 
Valsavaranche to Rhemes Notre-Dame across the Colle di Sort (9730 ft.), 
which lies to the S. of the Mt. Roletta (11,100 ft.). 

4th Day. — From Rhemes Notre-Dame over the Finestra 
del Torrent to Valgrisanche, and toLiverogne (6 hrs. to Valgri- 
sanche; guide 6 fr.-, 3 hrs. more to Liverogne). Steep ascent to the 
(3y 2 hrs.) Finestra del Torrent (9340ft.), between the Becca di Tei 
(10,434 ft.), on the right, and the Becca dell' Invergnan (11,838 ft.), 
on the left, with fine view of the Ormelune and the Rutor. The 
path descends through the stony Vallone del Bouc. Where it di- 
vides, we keep to the left. On our left are the Glacier de Rabuigne 
and Mont Forciat, which conceals the Becca dell'Invergnau. Passing 
(IV2 nr the Alp Nouva (7020 ft.), we descend and cross the brook 
to Fornet (5675 ft. ; small inn), the highest hamlet in the Val 
Grisanche,- then to Sevey, Mondange, and (2 hrs.) Valgrisanche 
(5470 ft. ; accommodation at the Cantine du Col du Mont or at the 
cure's; guides, G. Bethaz, Sev. Ponton, and G. S. Rosier), a village 
prettily situated at the base of the Rutor. 

The ascent of the Kutor, au extensive, glacier-clad mountain with 
several peaks (8. and highest peak 11,435 ft.; N. peak 11,310 ft.), either 
from Valgrisanche, or better from La Thuile on the Little St. Bernard 
route (p. 56), presents no serious difficulty (guide 40 fr.). From La Thuile 
a bridle-path leads through the deep and narrow Rutor valley via La 
Joux to the (2 hrs.) grand * Falls of the Rutor (6345 ft.), whence we ascend 
to the left to the (I1/2 hr.) Rifugio di Santa Margherita (c. 8085 ft.), situated 
on the Rutor Lake, 5 min. to the N.E. of a height (7940 ft.) commanding 
a magnificent *View. Thence across the large Rutor Glacier to the (3 hrs.) 
Tete du Rutor (11,438 ft.), which commands a most splendid panorama of 
Mont Blanc, etc. (refuge-hut of the Italian Alpine Club on the top). — 
From Valgrisanche to Bourg-St-Maurice (p. 56; 15 hrs. from Aosta), 
over the Col du Mont (8630 ft.), a tolerable bridle-path. 

The bridle-path from Valgrisanche to Liverogne (3 hrs.) leads 
through the beautifully wooded Val Grisanche, on the left bank of 
the Dora di Valgrisanche, to Ceres or Serve (Hot. Frassy, rustic) and 
Revers, where the river disappears for a short distance under rocks. 
The hamlet of Planaval lies to the left. The valley contracts to a 
wild ravine. The path on its left side skirts a precipice high above 
the roaring torrent. On the opposite bank, on an apparently in- 
accessible rock , is perched the ruined castle of Montmajeur or 
Tour d'Arboe. — Liverogne, see p. 55. Near Liverogne the path 
quits the gorge and descends to the left through meadows and groups 
of trees to the road from Counnayeur to Aosta (p. 53). 

14. From Santhia (Turin) to Biella. 

I8V2 M. Railway in ca. 1 hr. (fares 3 fr. 40, 2 fr. 55, 1 fr. 70 c). 
From Turin to (36L/ 2 M.) Santhia, see p.' 62. The intermediate 
stations are unimportant, but the mountain-views are fine. 

OROPA. 14. Route. 61 

18^2 M- Biella. — Hotels. Tksta Grigia, fair; Angelo; Leon 
dOko: Alb. Centrale, all in the town; Grand Hotel, with hydropathic 
establishment, in the old town. — Photograph- at Vittorio Bella's. 

Biella, an episcopal see with 19,267 inhab., lies on the Cervo and 
is divided into Biella Piazzo (1558 ft.), the high-lying old towD, and 
Biella Piano (1410 ft.), the new town. The power for the electric 
lighting of the industrial new town and for its factories is furnished 
hy the Chiusella (p. 51) and the Dora (near Pont -St -Martin, 
p. 52). The new town possesses arcaded streets and a fine Cath- 
edral of the 15th cent., with a facade of 1825. The latter stands in 
a spacious Piazza , where the episcopal palace is also situated. 
Near the cathedral is an early - Christian Baptistery (9th cent.?). 
The church of San Sebastiano is a fine Renaissance structure of 
1504. The Giardino Pubblico, near the station, contains monnmeiits 
of Gen. Alfonso Lamarmora (p. 33) and Garibaldi, while the Piazza 
del Teatro has a statue of Quintino Sella (1828-84), the statesman. 
— The palaces of the old town, rising picturesquely on the hill 
and reached hy a Cable Tramway (10 c. ), are now tenanted hy the 
lower classes. — About 3 M. to the N.E. of Biella, near the village 
of Bioglio (2235 ft.), lies the Villa Sella, with a beautiful garden and 
a splendid view of the Alps (visitors admitted). 

From Biella Steam Tramways run to (13 31.) Yalle ifosso via (7 31.) 
Cossato, and to (5 J /2 M.) Mongrando via, (2 M.) Occhieppo (see below). A 
third line ascends to the ^S. through the valley of the Cervo to (5 31.) An- 
dorno (1805 ft.; Grand Hotel, with two hydropathics, pens. 9-14 fr. 5 Croce 
Rossa; Engl. Ch. service at the Grand Hotel). The Goihic church (1304) 
has been modernized. — Beyond Andorno the tramway goes on to (6 31.) 
Sagliano (Micca), with a monument to Pietro 3Iicca (p. 35), and (9 31.) 
Balma, noted for its large granite-quarry, whence omnibuses (-5 c.) run 
to Campiglia (2460 ft. ; albergo). From Campiglia roads ascend to the San- 
tuario di San Giovanni (3545 ft.). 274 31. to the W., and via, Rosazza (Alb. 
della Gragliasca) to Piedicavallo (34U5 f t. ; Alb. Mologna, well spoken of), 
whence Mte. Bo (8385 ft. ; *View) may be ascended in 472 hrs. (guide 5fr.). 

A pleasant excursion may also be made via, (174 31.) Cossila (1970 ft.), 
with its water-cure, and Favaro (2460 ft.) to Oropa, 6 31. to the N.W. of 
Biella (omn. five times daily, 272 fr., down 172 fr. ; carr. with one horse 6, 
with two 12 fr. ; electric tramway projected). Here stand a large Slabili- 
mento Idroterapico (3480 ft.), founded in 1850 (open June-Sept.; R. 272-4, 
pens. 6, water-treatment 2 fr. daily; Engl. Ch. service in June and July), 
ana the famous pilgrimage-church of Madonna d"Oropa (3870 ft.). 

About 772 31. to the W. of Biella (road via Occhieppo, see above; omn. 
from the Leon d"Oro 272 fr. ; carr. with one horse 6. with two 12 fr.) lie 
the pilgrimage-church and hydropathic of Graglia (2625 ft.). situated 2 31. 
above the village of that name, amid a splendid array of mountains. 

15. From Turin to Milan via, No vara. 

93 M. Railway in 3-77 4 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 40, 12 fr. 20, 7 fr. 85 c. ; ex- 
press 18 fr. 90, 13 fr. 45 c). Glimpses of the Alps to- the left, 

Turin , see p. 25. — The Dora Riparia is crossed , then the 
Stura between (5 M.) Succursale di Torino and (ICK/2 M.) Settimo 
(Torinese), whence a railway runs N. to Rivarolo, with branches 
thence to Cuorgne (p. 40) and Castellamonte. We cross the Oreo. 

62 Route 15. VERCELLI. From Turin 

18 M. Chivasso (600 ft.; Alb. del Moro), a town with 9804 inhab., 
near the influx of the Oreo into the Po. The parish-church contains 
a painting by Defendente de Ferrari. Branch-lines hence to Aosta 
(p. 53) and (30Y2 M.) Casale-Monferrato (see below). A road leads 
from Chivasso to the S. to (2 M.) San Genesio, with sulphur baths 
(Gr. Hot. S. Genesio, pens, from 8 fr., open May to Nov."). — Near 
(25 M.) Saluggia the train crosses the Dora Baltea (p. 51). 

3Q l /2 M. Santhia (Rail. Restaurant; Alb. del Pallone) , with 
5700 inhabitants. The church, restored in 1862, contains an altar- 
piece by Gaud. Ferrari. — Railway to Biella, see p. 60 ; steam- 
tramway to Ivrea, see p. 51. 

49V 2 M. Vercelli (430 ft.; TreRe; Leond'Oro), an episcopal 
town with 30,470 inhabitants. From the station we see the impos- 
ing church of SanC Andrea, founded in 1219, with a dome and W. 
towers like those of northern churches. Interior early-Gothic. Ad- 
jacent is a MuseoLapidario, with Roman inscriptions and sculptures. 
The church of San Cristoforo contains frescoes by G. Ferrari (1532- 
38) and B. Lanini ; by the high-altar, *Madonna and St. Christopher 
in an orchard, by Gaud. Ferrari. Santa Caterina and San Paolo 
each contain a work by G. Ferrari, and there is another (a Pieta, 
after Perugino) in the Istituto di Belle Arti. In the cathedral- 
library are some rare old MSS. The town possesses statues of Cavour, 
Victor Emmanuel II., and Qaribaldi. — To the S. of Vercelli lie 
the Campi Raudii, where Marius defeated the Cimbri in B.C. 101. 

Steam-tramways ply from Vercelli to Trino on the S.W., to Casale- 
Monferrato (see below) on the S., and to the N. to Aranco in the valley 
of the Sesia and to Biandrate and Fara. 

Feom Vercelli to Alessandkia, 35 M., railway in 2-272 hrs. (fares 
6 fr. 50, 4 fr. 55, 2 fr. 95 c). — The chief intermediate station is (l4'/ 2 M.) 
Casale-Monferrato (37J ft. ; Rosa Rossa, very fair, with haths ; Angelo), on 
the right bank of the Po, with 51,370 inhab., the ancient capital of the 
Duchy of Monferrato, which passed in 1536 to the Gonzagas (p. 236). The 
interesting Romanesque Cathedral, a vaulted basilica with double aisles 
and a fine atrium, was founded in 741 by the Lombard king Liutprand, 
and rebuilt in 1107. It contains several good paintings (by G. Ferrari and 
others), and sculptures by Lombard masters. The church of San Domenico, 
in the Renaissance style, the Palazzo di Citta, with a handsome colonnade, 
and other palaces are also noteworthy. The Ghibelline prince William 
of Montferrat is mentioned by Dante in his Purgatory (VII. 134). A vitit 
may be paid from Casale to the Sacro Monte di Crea, a pilgrim -resort 
resembling the Mt. Calvary at Varallo. The chapels contain terracotta 
groups by Tabacchetfi and others (nearly all freely restored) ; and in the 
church is a painting by Macrino d'Alba. — Casale-Monferrato is the junction 
of the Asti-3Iortara line (p. 49) and of that to Chivasso (see above). It is 
also connected with Alessandria, with Vercelli (see above), and with Mon- 
temagno (p. 50; via, Altavilla) by tramways. — Various small stations, in- 
cluding (32 M.) Valenza (p. 171). — 35 M Alessandria, see p. 50. 

From Vercelli to Pavia, see p. 171. 

The train crosses the Sesia (p. 184); to the left rise the Alps, 
among which the magnificent Monte Rosa group is conspicuous. 

62 M. Novara (490 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; Hot. de la Ville, very 
fair; Alb. Tre Re, Corso Cavour 4; Alb. d' Italia, opposite the station, 
R. 1^4, D. 2 fr., well spoken of), the Roman Novaria, an episcopal 

te MiU ,'. 


15. Route. 63 

town and formerly a fortress, with 44,249 inhab., was the scene of 
a victory gained by the Austrians under Radetzky over the Pied- 
montese in 1849, which led to the abdication of Charles Albert (in 
the Palazzo Bellini, see p. 64). 

From the station we cross the Piazza Carlo Alberto, with a 
Monument of Garibaldi, and follow the Yia Garibaldi to the Piazza 




1 ilo/uim. Carlo Alberto 

2 - Carlo E ntanuele. M 

3 - Ca.-,-oiw 

4 ■ Garibaldi. 

5 - Yitt. £ 
Teatro Coccia. 

Cavour, with a Monument of Cavour, by Dinl A little to the AY 
at the end of the Yia Gaudenzio Ferrari, rises the church of San 
Gaudenzio, erected about 1570 by Tibaldi, with a dome 396 ft. 
high, added by Antonelli (p. 37) in 1875-78. The church, without 
aisles, in imitation of San t' Andrea at Mantua, contains (2nd chapel 
to the left) a large altar-piece by Gaud. Ferrari (1514). The tower 
commands a wide view. - To the S., in the Via Negroni, rises 

64 Route 15. MAGENTA. 

the Palazzo Bellini , built by P. Tibaldi ; the facade dates from 
about 1680, the pretty rococo decoration of the interior from the 
18th century. 

The Cathedral, originally an early- Christian edifice, has been 
entirely altered by rebuilding and by additions clue to Antonelli. 
It contains a Marriage of St. Catharine, by Gaud. Ferrari. On the 
opposite side of the entrance-court is an early-Romanesque Bap- 
tistery (awaiting restoration). — A few yards to the W. is a marble 
statue of Charles Emmanuel III., by Marchesi. 

In the Piazza Yittorio Emanuele, between the old Castello and 
the Mercato, or Corn Exchange, is a monument to Victor Em- 
manuel II. — To the E. of the cathedral, in the fore-court of the 
Palazzo Civico in the Piazza dello Statuto, is a monument to Charles 
Albert. — The Biblioteca Civica possesses two small works (angels) 
by Gr. Ferrari. — The tasteful terracotta ornamentation (15th cent.) 
on the Casa delta Porta, Via Cannobio 8, should be noticed. 

Tramway to Vigevano (p. 171) and to Biandrate (p. 62). 

From Novara to Varallo, 34 M., railway in 2 J /4 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 40, 
4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 90 c). Unimportant stations. — Varallo, see p. 184. 

From Novara to Arona, 23 M., railway in I-I1/2 hr. (4 fr. 30, 3 fr. 15, 
1 fr. 95 c). — 'lOy-i M. Oleggio is also a station on the Bellinzona-Genoa 
line (p. 170). I772 M. Borgo Ticino. The line now skirts the S. hay of 
the Lago Maggiore; in the background, on the rip;ht, are the Campo de' 
Fiori and the Madonna del Monte (p. 170). — 23 M. Arona, see p. 169. 

From Novara to Seregno, 34 M., railway in l 3 /4-274 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 50, 
3 fr. 65, 2 fr. 25 c). — 17 M. Busto-Arsizio (p. 165). — 25*/2 M. Saronno 
(p. 145). — 34 M. Seregno (p. 14S). 

At Novara the Turin and Milan line is crossed by those from Domo- 
dossola (p. 4) and from Bellinzona to Genoa (R. 27). Carriages are often 
changed at Novara. 

69 M. Trecate. The line crosses the Ticino by a handsome stone 
bridge of eleven arches , which the Austrians partially destroyed 
before the battle of Magenta. 

Farther on we cross the Naviglio Grande (p. 115). On the 
right, near (77 M.) Magenta, stands a monument erected to Napo- 
leon III. in 1862 , to commemorate the victory of the French and 
Sardinians over the Austrians on 4th June, 1859, which compelled 
the latter to evacuate Lombardy. Opposite the station are numerous 
graves of those who fell in the struggle, with a small chapel on an 
eminence, and adjoining it a charnel-house and a bronze statue 
of MacMahon, by Luigi Secchi (1895). 

The line intersects numerous rice-fields, which are kept under 
water for months at a time. — 79 M. Vittuone ; 841/2 M. Rhb (p. 165), 
where the line unites with that from Arona. 

93 M. Milan (seep. 112). 

III. Liguria, 

16. Genoa 66 

a. The harbour and adjoining streets, 71. — b. From the 
harbour through the Via San Lorenzo to the Piazza Um- 
berto Primo and the Piazza Deferrari , 74. — c. From 
the Piazza Deferrari to the main railway-station and the 
lighthouse, 76. — d. From the Piazza Deferrari to the 
Via di Circonvallazione a Mare via, the Piazza Corvetto, 
Acquasola, and Corso Andrea Podesta, 82. — e. From 
the Piazza Corvetto to the Piazza Manin: Via di Circon- 
vallazione a Monte; Castellaccio ; Campo Santo, 84. 

17. From Genoa to Yentimiglia. Riviera di Ponente . . 85 

Pegli, 86. — Arenzano and Savona, 87. — Alassio, 88. — 
San Remo, 89. — Ospedaletti. Bordighera, 93. 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 96 

Nervi, 97. — Road from Recco to Rapallo. Monte di 
Portofino, 98. — Santa Margherita. From Santa Margherita 
to Portonno, 99. — Rapallo. Road from Rapallo to Chiavari, 
ICO. — Sestri Levante, 101. — Road from Sestri Levante 
to Spezia ; to Borgotaro, 102. — Spezia, 103. — From Avenza 
to Carrara, 105. — Viareggio, 107. 

The Maritime and Ligurian Alps and the contiguous Apennines (the bound- 
ary between which is some 20 M. to the W. of Genoa) slope gently north- 
wards to the Po in the form of an extensive rolling country, and descend 
abruptly towards the sea to the S. The narrow Rivieba, or coast-district, 
is sheltered from the N. wind by the mountains, and enjoys a fine sunny 
aspect. While the mean temperature at Turin is 52° Fahr. , it is no less 
than 61° at Genoa; and again, while the temperature of January averages 
31° at the former, and occasionally falls below zero, it averages 46° at the 
latter, and is rarely lower than 23°. The climate of the Riviera is there- 
fore milder than that of Rome, and ever since the middle of the 19th cent, 
has attracted crowds of visitors, fleeing from the northern winters. 

The Riviera, divided by Genoa into an eastern {Riviera di Levante ; p. 96) 
and a larger western half (Riviera di Ponente), which belongs to France from 
Ventimiglia westwards, is one of the most picturesque regions of Italy. It 
affords a delightful variety of landscapes, bold and lofty promontories alter- 
nating with wooded hills, and richly cultivated plains near the coast. At 
places the road passes precipitous and frowning cliffs, washed by the surf 
of the Mediterranean, while the summits are crowned with the venerable 
ruins of towers erected in bygone ages for protection against pirates. At 
other places extensive plantations of olives, with their grotesque and gnarled 
stems, bright green pine-forests, and luxuriant growths of figs, vines, 
citrons, oranges, oleanders, myrtles, and aloes meet the view, and even 
palms are occasionally seen. Many of the towns are charmingly situated 
in fertile spots or on picturesque hills ; others, commanded by ancient 
strongholds, are perched like nests among the rocks. Little churches and 
chapels peering from the sombre foliage of cypresses, and gigantic grey 
pinnacles of rock frowning upon the smiling plains, frequently enhance 
the charms of the scenery, while the vast expanse of the Mediterranean, 
with its ever-varying hues, forms one of the chief attractions. At one 
time the sea is bathed in a flood of sunshine, at another its beautiful blue 
colour arrests the eye ; or while the shore immediately below the spectator 
is lashed with wild breakers, the snowy crests of the waves are gradually 
softened to view in the purple distance. 

Baedekeb. Italy I. 12th Edit. 5 . 

66 Route 16. GENOA. 

As the country differs in many respects from Piedmont, so also do its 
Inhabitants, while their Genoese dialect, which is difficult for foreigners 
to understand, occupies a middle place between the Gallic patois of Upper 
Italy and that of Sardinia. The historical development of the two countries 
has also been widely different. The natural resource of the Ligurians, or 
the inhabitants of the Riviera, was the sea, and they were accordingly known 
to the Greeks at a very early period as pirates and freebooters. As the Greek 
Massalia formed the centre of trade in S. France, with Niksea (Nice) as its 
extreme outpost towards the E., so Genoa constituted the natural outlet for 
the traffic of the Riviera. During the 3rd cent. B.C. Genoa became subject 
to the Romans, who in subsequent centuries had to wage long and obstinate 
wars with the Ligurians, in order to secure the possession of the military 
coast-road to Spain. As late as the reign of Augustus the Roman culture 
had made little progress here. At that period the inhabitants exported 
timber, cattle, hides, wool, and honey, receiving wine and oil in exchange. 
In the 7th cent, the Lombards gained a footing here, and thenceforth the 
political state of the country was gradually altered. The W. part witn 
Nice belonged to Provence, but in 1388 came into the possession of the 
Counts of Savoy, forming their only access to the sea down to the period 
when they acquired Genoa (1815). After the Austrian war of 1859 Nice 
(1512 sq. M.) and Savoy (3889 sq. M.) were ceded by Italy to France in 
1860 as a compensation for the services rendered by Napoleon III. 

The district of Liguria, consisting of the provinces of Porto Maurizio 
and Genoa, with an area of 2040 sq. M. and 899,300 inhab., once formed the 
Republic of Genoa, which in the 13th cent, became mistress of the W. 
part of the Mediterranean, and afterwards fought against Venice for the 
supremacy of the Levant. Genoa's greatness was founded on the ruin of 
Pisa. The Tuscan hatred of the Genoese was embodied in the saying — 
'Mare senza pesce, montagne senza alberi, uomini senza fede, e donne senza 
vergogna < ', and Dante (Inf. xxxiii. 151-53) addresses them with the words — 
'Ahi, Genovesi, uomini diversi 
D'ogni costume, e pien d'ogni magagna; 
Perche non siete voi del mondo spersi?' 
Modern historians describe the character of the Genoese in the middle 
ages in a similar strain. The whole energy of the Genoese seems indeed 
to have been concentrated on commerce and the pursuit of gain. Notwith- 
standing their proud naval supremacy , they participated little in the 
intellectual development of Italy, and neither possessed a school of art, 
nor produced any scholars of eminence. When at length the effete re- 
public was incorporated with Piedmont, it became the representative of 
radical principles as contrasted with the conservatism of the royalist terri- 
tory. Giuseppe Mazzini was born at Genoa in 1808, and Garibaldi, though 
born at Nice (1807), was the son of a Genoese of Chiavari. The rivalry 
of the once far-famed republic with the upstart Turin, and of the restless 
harbour population with the stolid Piedmontese, have of recent years 
been productive of very notable results. Modern Genoa has, moreover, 
regained its ancient mercantile importance, though its naval arsenal has 
been transferred to Spezia. 

16. Genoa.* 

Railway Stations. 1. Stazione Piazza Principe (PI. B, 2; restaurant), 
the West Station, in the Piazza Acquaverde, is still the principal station 

t Genoa is divided into the Sestieri of Pre, Molo, Portoria, San Vicenzo, 
San Teodoro, and Maddalena. — The focus of traflic is the Piazza Deferrari 
(PI. E, 5, 6). — Via, street; vico, lane; vico chiuso, blind alley; salita, as- 
cending street; rnura, rampart. — The houses are numbered in black; red 
numbers are used only for shops (boiteghe) and for the street-entrances to 
a series of Hats. 

! 'jfsft 

***" < 

G E N V A 


V A 

M I 

1 (> R T 



S i N V A 

— —■ ,.: a»™i». 

Practical Notes. GENOA. 16, Route. 67 

for all trains. The hotel-omnibuses and cabs (tariff, see p. 68) wait here 
only. — 2. Stazione Piazza Brignole (PL H, 6), or East Station, at the end 
of the Via Serra, and connected with the W. Station by means of a tunnel 
below the higher parts of the town, is the first place where the Spezia and 
Pisa trains stop and the starting-point for the local trains to Chiavari. 

— 3. Stazione Orientale (PI. I, 6), now being built, will be the principal 
station when finished. — The Stazione Garicamento (PI. D, 4) and the 
Stazione Marittima (PI. A, 2) are the goods-stations for the harbour traffic, 
while the internal trade is carried on through the goods-station in the 
Piazza Principe (PI. B, 2), adjoining the W. Station. — Railway-ticket; 
of all kinds may also be obtained of the Fratelli Gondrand, Galleria 
Manzir.i, and of Thos. Cook & Son, Via Cairoli 17. 

Arrival by Sea. Passenger-steamers land at the Ponte Federico Gu- 
glielmo (PI. B, 3) or anchor near it (embarking or disembarking by boat 
30 c, at night 60 c. ; luggage 50 c. per 110 lbs.). On the wharf are the 
custom-house, post and telegraph office, and railway booking-office. — 
Travellers wishing to go on by rail without delay, may, immediately after 
the custom-house examination on the quay, book their luggage there for 
their destination (fee to the facehino of the dogana, 20-30 c). 

Hotels (comp. p. xix; most of them are in noisy situations ; nearly all 
the larger hotels have lifts, steam-heating, and electric light). Grand Hotel 
de Genes (PI. f; E, 5), by the Teatro Carlo Felice, R. from 4'/ 2 , B. H/2, 
dej. 3V2, D. 5, pens, from 12, omn. I1/4 fr. ; Grand Hotel Savoie (PL s; 

C, 2), R. 5-6, dej. 4, D. 5 fr. ; Grand Hotel Isotta (PL a ; F, 5), Via Roma 5, 
with railway ticket-office, R. from 5, B. I72, de'j. 372, D. 5, pens, from 12, 
omn. H/2 fr. ; Eden Palace Hotel (PL b; G, 5), Via Serra 6-8, below 
Acquasola (p. 82) and not far from the E. Station, quiet, with pleasant garden. 

— Hotel de la Ville (PL d ; D, 4), R. from 4, B. I1/2, dej. 3V2, D. 5, pens, 
from ^12, omn. 1 fr. ; Hot. de Londres (PL h; C, 2); Hotel Cont inental 
des Etrangers (PL I5 E, 4), Via Cairoli 1, with rail. ticTcef-'oTriceT'R. 3V 2 -6, 
B. I1/2, de'j. 3, D. 4-5, pens. 9-14, omn. 1 fr. ; Hot.-Pens. Bristol, Via Venti 
Settembre 35. — The fallowing are less pretending: Hotel de France (PL g; 

D, 5), R.3-4, B. I74, dej. 3, D.4V2, pens., from 8fr., incl. wine; Hot. Central 
(PL c; F, 5), Via San Sebastiano 8, R. 21/2-41/2, B. li/ 4 , dej. 2i/ 2 , D. 4, pens, 
from 81/2 fr., incl. wine, omn. 3 /i fr., well spoken of; Hotel Smith (PL e, 
D 5; English landlord), near the Exchange, Vico Denegri, R. 2i,' 2 -4, B. P/i, 
dej. 272, D. 31/2, pens. 71/2-IO fr., incl. wine, omn. 1 fr., well spoken of; 
Mrtropole (PL 0; F. 5), Piazza Fontane Marose, R. 3, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 5, 
pens. 8-10 fr., incl. wine; Royal Aquila (Pl.k; C, 2), Piazza Acquaverde, 
near the W. Station, well spoken of, R. 3-41/2, B. li/ 4 , dej. 3, D. 4, omn. 
1/2 fr. ; Hot. de Milan (PL i ; C, 2), Via Balbi 34, R. from 2i/ 2 , B. li/ 2 , dej. 3, 
D. 4 fr. ; Albergo Ginevra (PL r; D, 3), Piazza Annunziata, with lift, R. 
2i/ 2 -3, B. IV4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 9 fr., incl. win la (PL t; I), 3), 
Piazza Annunziatts, R. from 2j B. H/j, dej. 2 1 /'.-, D. 4, 'pens, from 7 fr., incl. 
wine; Concordia (PL n ; F, 0), Via San Giuseppe, opposite the Galleria 
Mazzini ; Ligcria (PL v ; C, 2), Via Balbi 2(3, R. from £1/2, pens, from 7 fr. ; 
Confidenza (PL m; F, 5), Via San Sebastiano 11, with lift, R. 2i/ 2 , dej. 2i/ 2 , 
D.4, pens. 8fr., incl. wine, omn. 3 /i fr., commercial; Unione, Piazza Cam- 
petto 9, R. 3, B. 1, pens. 7-9, omn. i/ 2 fr., with restaurant; Alb. Nazionale 
(PL u; D,4), Via LomeUiniU, R. 2i/ 2 -3, B. 1, dej. 2V 2 , D. 3i/ 2 , pens. 7-8 fr., 
incl. wine, omn. 60 c, patronized by the Roman Catholic clergy; Firenze, 
Via Carlo Alberto 31, R. from I1/2 fr. ; Germania, Via Carlo Alberto 39, 
near the station, unpretending, R. from 27 2 fr. — Excelsior (PL w ; E, 5), 
Via Carlo Felice 4, a good hotel garni, R. 3 fr. 

Cafes (comp. p. xxiii). Cafe Milano, Galleria Mazzini, Roma, Via Roma 
and Galleria Mazzini, both expensive for foreigners; Concordia, Via Gari- 
baldi 11, opposite the Pal. Rosso (PL E, 4; p. 77), with a garden, pleasant 
and cool; Andrea Doria, Via Roma, on the groundfloor of the Prefecture; 
Posta, Via Carlo Felice; Centro, Piazza Deferrari. 

Restaurants. Teatro, in the Teatro Carlo Felice (PL E, F, 5; p. 69); 
Concordia, Via Garibaldi 11, dej. 3, D. 4 fr. ; Righi, see p. 84; San Gottardo, 
Via Carlo Felice 6; Labb, Via Carlo Felice 7; Cambio, Piazza delle Vigne 4, 


68 Route h 



One-horse cab 
By day At night 

By day 

1 — 

5 — 


| 8.50 

At night 

2 — 

3 — 

Italian •, Aquila cTOro, at the Exchange (p. 73). — Beer: Gambrinut, Monsch, 
both in the Via San Sebastiano (PI. F, 5), also cold viands ; Eberlbrau (also 
restaurant), Galleria Mazzini 53 5 Augustiner Brau, Piazza Corvetto (PI. G, 5) ; 
Erhart, Via Carlo Felice 65 Munich beer at all these. 

Cabs (a tariff in each). 

Per drive (between the Bisagno 
on the E. and the lighthouse 
on the W.) 

1 hour 

Each addit. 1/2 hr 

To Nervi or Pegli .... 
To Recco 

Night-fares are due from 9 p.m. (Oct. -Mar. 7 p.m.) until the street- 
lamps are extinguished. For drives beyond the town, incl. a halt of l fe hr., 
a half-fare extra must be paid for the return. — Small articles of luggage 
free • trunk 20 c. 

Omnibus from the Piazza Deferrari (PL E, 6) via, the Via Garibaldi 
and Via Balbi to the principal station and the Piazza Principe (PI. B, 2; fare 
10 c. ; some of the omnibuses go on to the Piazza Dinegro, p. 82). 

Electric Tramways. The suburban lines are generally overcrowded 
by workmen towards evening (comp. p. 114). 1. (white lamps, etc): Piazza 
Raibetta (PI. D, 5) -Piazza Deferrari (PI. E, 6) -Piazza Corvetto (PI. G, 5)- 
Piazza Brignole (PI. H, B)-Via Galata (PI. H, 6, 7); every 9 min., 10 c. — 
2. (green lamps): Piazza Deferrari (PI. E, 6) -Piazza Corvetto -Piazza Manin 
(PI. I, 4) -Via di Circonvallazione a Monte (station at San Nicolo, see below) - 
Piazza Acquaverde (PI. B, C, 2)- Piazza Principe (PI. B, 2)-, every 10 min., 
25 c. — 3. (red and white): Piazza De/emm- Piazza Corvetto -Corso Andrea 
Podesta (PI. F, G, 6, 7)- Via Gal. Alessi- Piazza Carignano (PI. E, 8); every 
12 min., 10 c. — 4. (white and red) : Piazza Deferrari- Piazza Corvetto- Corso 
Andrea Podesta- Via Corsica (PI. F, 4); every V* hr., 10 c. — 5. (red): 
Piazza Deferrari -Piazza, Corvetto -Piazza Manin (PI. I, 54)- Via Montaldo 
(PI. I, l)-Campo Santo (p. 85); every 9 min., 20 c. — 6. (blue): Piazza 
De/erran'-Piazza-Portello (PI. F, 4) Largo della Zecca (PI. D, 3)-Via Balbi- 
Piazza Acq uaverde- Piazza Principe (PL B, 2); every 3 J /2 min., 10 c. This 
line runs partly through tunnels in which the temperature is low. — 
7. (white with red stripe): Piazza Deferrari -Via Venti Settembre (PL F, G, 
6, 7) -Via Canevari (PL K, 6, 4)-Campo Santo Doria - Prato (p. 336) 5 every 
20 min., 35 c. — 8. (white): Piazza Deferrari -Via, Venti Settembre -Ponte 
Pila (PI. H, I, 7) - San Martino d'Albaro-Sturla-Quarto-Quinto- Nervi; every 
V* hr., in 50 min., 45 c. (to Sturla 20, to Quinto 35 c). Some of the cars do 
not go beyond San Martino d'Albaro. — 9. (white with green s(ripe): Piazza 
Deferrari- Via Venti Settembre -Piazza Savonarola (PL I, K, 8)-Cantiere delta 
Foce (PL H, I, 10)-, every 12 min., 10 c. — 10. (red): Piazza Raibetta 
(PL D, 5) -Via di Circonvallazione a M&re- Ponte Pila (PL H, I, 7); every 
12 min., 10 c. Some of the cars (green) run to the Campo Santo; 20 c. 
— 11. Piazza Garicamenio (PL D, 5) -Via Carlo Alberto -Piazza Principe 
(PL B, 2) -San Pier d" Arena (25 c), and thence in the one direction to 
Cornigliano (30 c), Sestri Ponente (45 c), Multedo, Pegli (55 c), and Vollri, 
and in the other to Rivarolo (40 c), Bolzaneto (55 c), and Pontedecimo (80 c). 

Cable Tramways (Funicolari). 1. Largo della Zecca (PL D, 3) -Corso 
Carbonara (PL E, 2; 10 c.)-San Nicolo (see above; 15 c)- Castellaccio (beyond 
PL E, 1; p. 81); every 12 min., 50c — 2. Piazza Portello (PL F, 4) -Corso 
Magenta (PL F, G, 3; p. 81); 10 c — 3. Piazza Principe (PL A, B, 1, 2)- 
Granarolo (p. 81); every V2 hr. (in winter every hr. on week-days). 

Baths. At the "Palazzo Spinola, Salita Santa Caterina (PL F, 5); others 
at Via delle Grazie 11, and Piazza Sarzano 51 (PL D, 7L — Sea Baths 
(July & Aug.) by the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare (p. 83); also beyond 
the lighthouse (p. 82; poorly fitted up). Sea-bathing places on the Riviera, 
see pp. 87, 97. 

Notes. GENOA. 16. Route. 69 

Theatres. *Teatro Carlo Felice (PL E, F, 5) , one of the largest in 
Italy, open in winter only, for operas ; Politeama Genovese (PI. F, G, 4), near 
theVilletta Dinegro, for operas (smoking allowed); Paganini (PI. F, 3, 4), 
chiefly drama (in winter only); Politeama Regina Margherita (PI. G, 7), Via 
Venti Settembre, for dramas, operas, and operettas; Arena Alfieri (PL F, 8), 
Via Corsica, in summer only. — Band in the Acquasola Park (p. 82) three 
times a week, 7-9 p.m. in summer and 2-4 p.m. in winter; excellent 'Concert 
of the band of the Pompieri (firemen) once weekly in the Piazza Fontane 
Marose (PI. F, 4, 5). 

Shops. Booksellers: A. Donath, Via Lnccoli 33 (PI. E, 5; p. 73); 
L. Beuf, Via Cairoli 2; Libr. Sordo-Muti, Piazza Fontane JIarose. — Photo- 
graphs: Alfred Noack, Vico del Filo 1, 4th floor (his views of the Riviera 
and N. Italy also to be had from the booksellers, etc.); Sivelli, Via Cai- 
roli 7 ; Lupi, Via degli Orefici 148. — Filigree Work : Codevilla and others in 
the Via degH Orefici ; Sivelli, Via Roma 66. — Silk and Velvet (Velluto di 
Genova): Deferrari, Piazza Soziglia. — Candied Frcit (Frutti candili) : Pietro 
Romanengo , Piazza Soziglia; Ferro e Cassamllo , Piazza Deferrari; Florin, 
Via Balbi. — A>:tiqcities. S. Zerega, Via Luccoli 96. 

Newspapers. II Caffaro; II Secolo JVuovodecimo ; II Ciltadino; II Giomale 
del Popolo. 

Post Office, Galleria Mazzini (PI. F, 5), open 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. — Tele- 
graph Office (PI. E, 6), Palazzo Ducale (p. 75), Piazza Defferrari. 

Bankers, Granet , Brown, dc Co., Via Garibaldi 7; Banca Commerciale 
Italiana, Piazza Banchi (PI. D, 5), near the Exchange (p. 73); Sandoz, Via 
Luccoli 30; C. Pjister, Piazza Deferrari 38 (1st floor). — Money Changers 
abundant near the Exchange. 

Steamboats (comp. p. xviii). The most important for tourists are those 
of the Navigazione Generate Italiana (Florio-Rubattino ; office, Piazza Acqua- 
verde), to all the chief ports of Italy and to the Levant. Comp. the Italian 
time-table (larger edition). — The North German Lloyd (agents, Leupold 
Fratelli, Piazza San Siro 10) maintains a weekly line of steamers from 
Genoa to Gibraltar and New York, while the China and Australian steamers 
of this company also touch at Genoa (2-3 times a month). — Steamers of 
the Stoomvart Maatsschappij Nederland and Rotterdamsche Lloyd sail once a 
fortnight from Amsterdam (or Rotterdam) via Southampton to Genoa, Port 
Said, and Batavia. — La Veloce from Genoa to Barcelona and South America, 
thrice a month, to Central America, once a month. — Compagnie Fraissinet 
weekly to Marseilles direct and also via, Nice and Cannes. 

Consuls. British Consul-General, William Keene, Via Palestro 8 ; Ameri- 
can Consu', William Henry Bishop, Corso Andrea Podesta 6. 

Physicians : Dr. Breiting (speaks English), Corso Solferino 20; Prof. Giov. 
Ferrari (speaks English), Via Assarotti 12; Dr. Zdslein, Corso Solferino 17; 
Dr. Wild, Via Gropallo 4. — Protestant Hospital, Salita San Rocchino, sup- 
ported by the foreigners in Genoa (physician, Dr. Breiting). — Dentists : 
Bright, Via Santi Giacomo e Filippo 35; Terry, Piazza Cavour 5; Markus, 
Via Boma 5; Mela. Salita Santa Catarina 1. — Chemists: Zerega (English 
prescriptions), Via Carlo Felice 2; Farmacia InternazionaU , Via Carlo 
Felice 33. 

Goods Agents. Jesinghaus, Pal. Doria (PL A, B, 2); Weiss, Piazza Ser- 
riglio 4; Semler & Gerhardt, Vico San Pancrazio 2, near the Piazza Fossatello 
(PL D, 4); Weidmann, Via Balbi, Vico Sanf Antonio 5. 

English Churches. Church of the Holy Ghost (built by Street, in the 
Lombard style), Via Goito; services at 8.15, 11, and 5; chap., Rev. Edwin 
H. Burtt, M. A. Church Seamen's Institute, Via Milano 26 (Mr. Burtt) ; serv. 
Sun. and Thurs. 7.30 p. m. ; weekly concert on Sat. ; .reading, writing, 
and recreation rooms open daily for'seamen, 10-10. — Presbyterian Church, 
Via Peschiera 4 (Rev. Donald Miller, D. D.); service at 11 a.m. Genoa Har- 
bour Mission, in connection with the Brit. & For. Sailors' Society and the 
Amer. Seaman's Friend Society; serv. Sun. and Tues. at 7.30 p.m. in the 
Sailors" Rest, 15 Via Milano (Rev. Dr. Miller and Mr. Clucas). Social enter- 
tainments Frid. at 7.30 p.m. (visitors welcome). 

70 Route 16. GENOA. Situation. 

Collections and Galleries. 

Cathedral Treasury (p. 75), Mon. & Thurs. 1-4; l / 2 fr. 

Museo Civico (p. 82), daily, except Mon., 11-4; fee, on Sun. free. 

Palazzo Bianco (p. 78), daily, 11-4 (April to Sept. 10-4), 50 c, Sun, & Thurs. 

25 c, the last Sunday of each month free. 
Palazzo Durazzo-Pallavicini (p. 79), daily, 11-4 (fee V2-I ft'-)- 
Palazzo Reale (p. 80), daily, in the absence of the court. 
Palazzo Rosso (p. 77), on Mon., Wed., Thurs., Frid., and Sat., 11-3, free 

(no gratuities), closed on Tues., Sun., and holidays. 
Principal Attractions (two days). 1st Day. Morning: row in the Har- 
bour (p. 73); walk through the Via San Lorenzo past the Cathedral (p. 74) 
to the Piazza Uinberto Priino with San Ambrogio (p. 75) and to the Piazza 
Deferrari. Afternoon: through the '■Via Garibaldi (p. 76), with visits to the 
Palazzi Rosso (p. 77) and Bianco (p. 78); Via Balbi (p. 79j; Palazzo Doria 
(p. 81); "Lighthouse (p. 82). — 2nd Day. Morning: * Villelta Dinegro (p. 82); 
Corso Andrea Podesta (p. 82) ; Santa Maria di Carignano (p. 83) ; Via di Cir- 
convallazione a Mare (p. 83). Afternoon: Campo Santo (p. 85) and * Castellaccio 
(p. 84; best towards evening). — Excursions to Nervi (p. 97) and to Pegli, 
including the Villa Pallavicini (p. 86; closed on Frid.). 

Genoa, Italian Oenova, French Genes, with 219,500 inhab. , the 
seat of a university and of an archbishop , and the headquarters of 
the 4th Italian army corps , is a strong fortress and the chief com- 
mercial town in Italy. Its situation, rising above the sea in a wide 
semicircle, and its numerous palaces justly entitle it to the epithet 
of 'La Superba\ The old town is a net-work of narrow and steep 
streets, lined with many-storied buildings, but the newer quarters 
have broad and straight thoroughfares. Since the 17th cent. Genoa 
has been protected on the landward side by a rampart, over 9 M. 
long, which extends from the large lighthouse on the W. side (p. 82), 
where the barracks of San Benigno afford quarters for 10,000 men, 
past the Forte Begato (1620 ft.), to the Forte dello Sperone (1690 ft.) ; 
then descends past Forte Castellaccio (1250 ft.; view) into the valley 
of the Bisagno, on the E. The heights around the town are crowned 
with ten detached forts. 

The beauty of its situation and the reminiscences of its ancient 
glory render a visit to Genoa very attractive. Invalids , however, 
must be on their guard in winter against the raw winds and the 
abrupt changes of temperature. 

From the earliest times Genoa has been famous as a seaport, and it 
is believed to derive its name from the fact that the shape of the coast 
here resembles that of a knee (genu). The Roman form of its municipal 
government was maintained throughout the period of the barbarian in- 
vasions, when a Frankish feudal nobility sprang up alongside of the native 
noblesse. The smaller towns on the Ligurian coast looked up to Genoa 
as their champion against the Saracens, who ravaged the country from 
Frassineto (Fraxinet), and in 936 even plundered Genoa itself. In 1119-33 
the Genoese waged war with varying success against Pisa, which threatened 
its maritime commerce from the settlements on Corsica and Sardinia. In 
the f blowing century the rival cities were almost permanently at war 
down to 1284, when the power of Pisa was shattered for ever in the 
terrible naval battle at Meloria (p. 405). At a still earlier period Genoa 
had participated in the Crusades, and secured to herself a busy trade with 
the Levant. She also possessed settlements at Constantinople, in Syria 
and Cyprus, at Tunis and Majorca. The consequent rivalry of the Genoese 
and Venetians was a fruitful source of wars and feuds, which were not 
ended until the defeat of Genoa at the battle of Chioggia in 1380. 

History. GENOA. 16. Route. 71 

The internal history of the city was no less chequered than the ex- 
ternal. The party-conflicts between the great families of the Doria , 
Spinola, Adorni, and Fregosi (Ghibeliines) on one side, and the Grimaldi, 
Fieschi, Guarchi, and Montaldi (Guelphs) on the other, led to some extra- 
ordinary results. The defeated party used, at the expense of their own 
independence, to invoke the aid of some foreign prince, and accordingly 
we find that after the 14th cent, the kings of Naples and France, the 
marquises of Montferrat, and the dukes of Milan were alternately masters 
of Genoa. Nor was thi3 state of affairs materially altered by the revolution 
of 1339, by which the exclusive sway of the nobility was overthrown, 
and a Doge, elected for life, invested with the supreme power. In the 
midst of all this confusion the only stable element was the mercantile 
Banco di San Giorgio, which had acquired extensive possessions, chiefly 
in Corsica, and would, perhaps, have eventually absorbed the whole of the 
republic and converted it into a commercial aristocracy, had not Genoa 
lost its power of independent development by becoming involved in the 
wars of the great powers. Andrea Doria (p. 81), the admiral of Emperor 
Charles V., at length restored peace by the establishment of a new oligarchic 
constitution (1528), and the unsuccessful conspiracy of Fiesco in 1547 was 
one of the last instances of an attempt to make the supreme power 
dependent on unbridled personal ambition. But the power of Genoa was 
already on the wane. The Turks conquered its Oriental possessions one 
after another, and the city was subjected to severe humiliations by 
Louis XIV. of France, whose fleet under Duquesne bombarded Genoa in 
16S4, and by the Imperial troops by whom the iity was occupied for 
some months in 1746. These last were expelled by a popular rising. 
begun by a stone thrown by Balilla, a lad of 15 years. A revolt in Corsica, 
which began in 1129, was suppressed only with the aid of the French, 
who afterwards fi768) took possession of the island on their own behalf. 
In 1797 the aiistocra'ic government of Genoa was superseded by the 
democratic 'Lignrian Republic'', established by Napoleon. In 1805 Genoa 
was formally annexed to the Empire of France, and in 1815 to the Kingdom 
of Sardinia. 

To the student of art Genoa offers much of interest. Some of the 
smaller churches are of very ancient origin, though usually altered in the 
Gothic period. The Renaissance palaces of the Genoese noblesse are, on 
the other hand, of the greatest importance, surpassing in number and 
magnificence those of any other city in Italy. Many of these palaces were 
erected by Galeazzo Alessi (a pupil of Michael Angelo, born at Perugia 
1500, d. 1572) , whose style was followed by subsequent architects. In 
spite of occasional defects, Alessi's architecture is of an imposing and 
uniform character, and displays great ingenuity in making the best of an 
unfavourable and limited site. The palaces, moreover, contain a consid- 
erable number of works of art, while Rubens, who resided at Genoa in 
1606-S, and Van Dyck at a later period, have preserved the memory of 
many members of the noblesse. The native school of art, however, never 
rose to importance, and was far from being benefited by the zeal of its 
artists in painting facades. The chief painters were Luca Cambiaso (1527-85), 
Bernardo Strozzi, surnamed II Cappuccino or Prete Genovese (1581-1644), 
Giov. Bait. Paggi (1554-1627), Benedetto Castiglione (1616-70), and Bartolomeo 
Biscaino (1632-57). 

a. The Harbour and the Adjoining Streets. 
Until recently the harbour consisted solely of the Porto or inner 
harbour, which was closed on the S. by the Molo Vecchio (492 yds. 
long), said to have been constructed in 1134, and by the Molo Nu- 
ovo (722 yds. long), dating from the 18th century. In 1877-95, 
however, very extensive additions were made, a sum of 20 million 
francs having been presented to tbe city for the purpose by the Mar- 

72 Route 16. GENOA. a. Harbour and 

chese Raffaele Deferrari , Duke of Galliera (d. 1876). The Molo 
Nuovo was prolonged to the S.E. by the Molo Duca di Galliera 
(about 1 M. long), and on the E. side a new breakwater, the Molo 
Giano or Orientate (550 yds. long), was added, creating a new harbour 
(Porto Nuovo) and an outer basin (Avamporto) for war-vessels. A 
new outer harbour, the Bacino del Faro beside the Molo Nuovo, is 
expected to be finished about 1905 (comp. the Map, p. 84). The 
aggregate water area of these different basins is 555 acres; the 
length of the quays (calate) is 5 M. In 1900 the harbour was entered 
and cleared by 13,602 vessels, of which 7292 were steamers. The 
value of the imports (3,075,789 tons; chiefly coal and grain) 
was 520,000,000 fr., that of the exports (232,300 tons) was 
240,000,000 fr. 

To reach the harbour from the railway-station, we traverse the 
Piazza Acquaverde (PL C, 2 ; p. 81) and descend, the narrow Via 
San Giovanni (PI. B, C, 2) towards the S. To the right, at the corner 
of the Piazza della Commenda, is the small early-Gothic church of 
San Giovanni Battista or di Pre (13th cent.), which originally be- 
longed to a lodge of the Knights of St. John. Since a reconstruction 
in the 17th cent, the entrance has been at the E. end. 

The busy Via Carlo Albbbto (PI. C, D, 2-4), skirting the 
Piazza della Commenda, leads to the W. to the Dogana (PI. B, 2), 
or custom-house, and to the Ponte Federico Guglielmo (p. 67), the 
landing-place of the oceanic steamers. Farther on are the Palazzo 
Doria (p. 81) and the large lighthouse (p. 82). To the E. the 
street leads past the Magazzini della Ddrsena, the former marine 
arsenal, the old Darsena (PL C, 3), or war-harbour, in which Fiesco 
was drowned in 1547, and the Porticato di Sottoripa (PL D, 4), 
with arcades restored in the Gothic style in 1900, to the Piazza 
Cabicambnto (PL D, 4, 5), in which a bronze statue, by Rivalta, 
was erected in 1893 to Raffaele Rubattino (1809-72), the Genoese 
steamship-owner. On the S. side of the square is the Gothic Palazzo 
di San Giorgio, erected about 1260, enlarged in the 14th cent, and 
in 1571, and from 1408 to 1797 occupied by theBanca di San Giorgio 
(p. 71). It is now being converted into a produce-exchange. The large 
hall is embellished with 21 marble statues of men who have deserved 
well of the city, partly of the 15-16th century. The best are those 
of Luca Grimaldi and Ant. Doria (by Tamagnini; 1508) and Franc. 
Lomellini (by Pace Gagini; 1509). 

Beside the Piazza Raibetta (PL D, 5; electric tramways, p. 68), 
farther on, is the Porto Franco, or free harbour, with extensive 
bonded warehouses (visitors admitted ; no smoking). 

The broad Via Vittobio Emanuele (PL D, 5), skirting the E. 
side of the free harbour, leads to the S.W. to the Piazza Cavour 
(PL D, 6), to the S. of which begins the Via di Circonvallazione a 
Mare (p. 83). To the W. is the Molo Vecchio, with the Porta del 
Molo (PL C, 5), a gateway built in 1550 by Gal. Alessi, and the 

Adjoining Streets. GENOA. 16. Route. 73 

new Magazzini Generali. — The Via San Lorenzo ascends from the 
Via Vittorio Emanuele to the cathedral, see p. 74. 

A Row in tee Haebocb (2 fr. per hour for 1-4 pers. ; bargain before- 
hand) is very attractive when the sky is clear and the sea calm. We first 
proceed to the end of the Molo Vecckio, on which stands a small Fanale 
or lighthouse (PI. A, 5; no admission). Thence we cross to the Bacini 
di Carenaggio (PI. C, D, 7, 8), large dry docks constructed in 1SU3-95. 
After seeing these, we row past the end of the Molo Giano (lighthouse; 
PI. C, 8, 9j to the Molo Duca di Galliera, which commands a fine view of 
the city and mountains. Hence we return on foot, passing the Quarantine 
Station, and traverse the Molo Nuovo to the large lighthouse (p. 8?), which 
may now be visited. Then by electric tramway (No. 11; p. 68) to the 
Darsena (p. 72). 

The following route avoids the noisy and crowded streets near 
the harbour. From the S.E. end of the Darsena (PI. C, 3), whence 
the Via delle Fontane leads to the left to the Piazza dell' Annunziata 
(p. 79), we pass through the Gothic Porta dei Vacca, erected on the 
site of the N.W. town-gate of 1159 and adorned with mediaeval 
sculptures and towers, to the Via del Campo (PI. D, 4) and the 
Piazza Fossatello (PI. D, 4). From this piazza the Via Lomellini, 
with the Palazzo Centurione (No. 1), by Alessi(?), and the house 
in which Mazzini was born (No. 33), leads to the left to the Piazza 
dell' Annunziata (p. 79). 

In the small Piazza San Siro, a few paces to the E. from the 
Piazza Fossatello, is the old cathedral of San Siro (PI. D, E, 4), 
rebuilt about 1576, with a facade of 1830, containing frescoes by 
Giov. Batt. Carlone. 

Then through the Via di San Luca to the Piazza Banchi, with 
the Exchange (Loggia de' Banchi, Borsa; PI. D, 5), adorned with 
a marble figure of Cavour by Vine. Vela (business-hours, 11-3). — 
To the left of the Exchange, the narrow Via Objsfici (PL D, E, 5), 
with numerous goldsmiths' shops (a door on the right is adorned 
with an Adoration of the Magi in relief, loth cent.), and then the 
Piazza Soziglia (PL E, 5) and the Via Luccoli, lead to the Piazza 
delle Fontane Marose (p. 76). 

To the N. of the Piazza Soziglia is the church of Santa Maria delle 
Vigne (PI. E, 5), with three Gothic figures above the side-portal on the 
right, and a tower of the 13th century. The fine interior was restored in 
the late-Renaissance style in 1586; in the chapel to the left of the choir is a 
wooden crucifix with painted sta'ues of the Virgin and St. John, by 
Maragliano. The church is adjoined by a ruined cloister of the 11th century. 
— On the S. side of the Piazza Soziglia (Piazza Campetto, No. 8) is tile 
handsome Palazzo Imperiali, by G. B. Castello (1560). 

From the Exchange the Via San Pietro della Porta, passing the 
former church of San Pietro de' Banchi (1583), with its high flight 
of steps, leads to the S. to the Via San Lorenzo (see p. 74). 

The steep streets to the S. of the Via Vitt. Emanuele (p. 72) and the 
Via San Lorenzo, in the oldest and most unsavoury part of Genoa, contain 
several churches of considerable artistic interest." The Via San Giorgio, 
a side-street of the Via Vitt. Emanuele, and the continuation of the above- 
mentioned Via San Pietro della Porta, both lead to the Piazza San Giobgio 
(PI. D, 6), on the S.E. side of which stands the church of San Giorgio, a 
baroque structure with a dome, containing a Pieta by the Spanish ma-ter, 

74 Route 16. GENOA. b. From the Harbour 

Sanchez Coello (1st chapel to the left of the choir), and three paintings hy 
Luca Cambiaso. Adjoining it on the left is the charming little church 
of San Torpete, by Ant. Rocca (1631). A few yards to the S.W. of the 
latter is the Piazza Cattaneo, named after the Palazzo Cattaneo , which 
has a tasteful Renaissance portal by Tamagnini and others. The Via 
delle Grazie and then the Vico di San Cosmo (to the left) lead hence to 
the Romanesque church of Santi Cosmo e Damiano, which contains a Madonna 
of the 14th cent, (left of the high-altar). — Continuing to ascend beyond 
San Cosmo, we reach the church of Santa Maria di Castello (PI. D, 6), 
a Romanesque building (perhaps of the 11th cent.), on the site of the 
Roman castle. Above the portal is an ancient architrave; ten of the shafts 
of the columns in the interior are also ancient. In the first chapel on the 
left is a Roman sarcophagus, used as an altar; in the second chapel on 
the right is a Coronation of the Virgin by Lod. Brea; and the third has 
tasteful mural decorations (tiles) and an altar-piece by Sacchi (1526). The 
ch:>ir was added in the i5th century. In the cloisters are ceiling-frescoes 
of Sibyls and Prophets and a Madonna by Justus de Allamagna (1451 ; under 
glass). — We now descend to the E. to San Donato (PI. E, 6), a Romanesque 
structure of the 12th cent, (restored in 1900), containing some ancient 
columns. The architrave and columns of the entrance show an archaistic 
tendency like Ihose of the cathedral. In the interior are some antique 
columns and (1st altar on the left) a fine Adoration of the Magi, by the 
Master of the Death of the Virgin (covered). — We may proceed hence 
either via, the Salita Pollajuoli to the N.E. to the Piazza Umberto Primo 
(p. 75) or via. the Vico del Fico to the E. to the Piano di Sanf Andrea, 
and thence pass under the Gothic Porta Soprana and descend the Vico 
Dritto di Ponticello to the Via Venti Settembre (p. 76). No. 37, on the 
left side of the Vico Dritto di Ponticello, is the small Ancestral House of 
Columbus (PI. E, 6; p. 81). 

b. From the Harbour through the Via San Lorenzo to the Piazza 
Umberto Primo and the Piazza Deferrari. 

Near the beginning of the Via Vitt. Emanuele (p. 72) is the 
busy Via San Lorenzo, running towards the S.E. It contains the 
cathedral of — 

*San Lorenzo (PI. E, 5, 6), founded in 985, re-erected about 1100 
in the Romanesque style, restored in the Gothic style in 1307, and 
provided with a Renaissance dome by Galeazzo Alessi in 1567. The 
choir was modernized in 1617, and a harmonious restoration of the 
interior was carried out since 1896. The lower part of the facade, 
which consists of alternate courses of black and white marble, was con- 
structed in imitation of the French Gothic churches; the two lower 
of the recumbent lions which adorn it on the right and left of the 
steps are modern. Only one of the towers is completed. The sculp- 
tures of the principal portal date from the end of the 13th century. 
The Romanesque entrances to the aisles are richly decorated with 
sculptures of the 12-14th cent, (on the N. portal, a carver's inscrip- 
tion of 1342) and with archaistic ornamentation on the entablature 
and capitals. A small Gothic oriel of 1402, formerly belonging to 
tbe Hospital of St. John, has been built into the right aisle. 

The Interior, to which the massive substructure of the towers forms 
a kind of atrium, still retains 16 Corinthian columns from the original 
Romanesque building. The upper series of columns alternating with piers, 
and also the whole of the vaulting, belong to the building of 1307. On 

to the Piazza Def err ari. GENOA. 16. Route. 75 

the right, over the second side-portal, is the monument of Cardinal Luca 
Fieschi (d. 1336). — In the chapel to the right of the choir, a ""Crucifixion 
with saints and angels (covered), the masterpiece of Fed. Baroccio. In 
the choir, handsome stalls with inlaid work (1514-46). In the chapel to 
the left of the choir, six pictures and a statue of Fides by Luca Cambiaso. — 
In the first chapel in the left aisle-are seven statues by Gugl. delta Porta. 
The second chapel (women not admitted), that of *San Giovanni Battista, 
erected in 1443-96, contains a stone area of the 13th cent, (below the altar) 
with relics of John the Baptist. The six statues at the sides are by Matteo 
Civitali (p. 416); the Madonna and John the Baptist by Andrea Sansovino 
(1503); the canopy and the other sculptures by Giacomo and Guglietmo delta 
Porta (1532). The external decoration of the chapel, with admirable reliefs 
above (best light in the afternoon), was executed by the Lombardic masters, 
Bom. and Elia Gagini and Giov. da Bissone (1448-50). 

In the sacristy is the Cathedral Treasury (adm., p. 70; entrance, 
Via delT Arcivescovado 21). Among the relics here are a silver shrine 
for the Procession of Corpus Domini, executed in 1553-1611 by Franc. 
Rocchi of Milan and other artists: and (to the left) a 13th cent, cross from 
Ephesus, captured at Phocseain 1308. To the right is the Sacro Catino, the 
vessel out of which the Saviour and his disciples are said to have partaken 
of the paschal lamb, or that in which Joseph of Arimathea caught some 
drops of the blood of the Crucified (an ancient Oriental glass vessel, cap- 
tured by the Genoese at Cesarea in 1101 and supposed to be made of a 
large emerald, until it was broken at Paris, whither it had been carried 
by Napoleon I.). The setting dates from 1827. Beneath is a silver altar- 
front by the German goldsmith Melchior Siiss (1599) ; opposite is a silver 
shrine for the procession on Ash Wednesday, by Teramo di Baniele (1437) ; 
a casket for the relics of John the Baptist, probably a Florentine work of 
the end of the 16th century. On the third wall are two choir vestmenta 
(15th and 16th cent.) and costly vessels. 

To the left of the cathedral are Romanesque cloisters (12th 
cent.). — Opposite, Via dell' Arcivescovado 14, are the State Archives. 

Farther on the Via San Lorenzo leads to the Piazza Uhbebto 
Pbimo and to Sant' Ambrogio (PL E, 6), a church of the Jesuits, 
profusely decorated (1589). 

3rd Altar on the right : Assumption by Guido Rent (restored in 1898 ; 
covered). High-altar-piece , Presentation in the Temple, by Rubens (an 
early work of about 1605; covered). The four black monolith columns 
are from Porto Venere (p. 104). Third Altar on the left : "Rubens, St. Igna- 
tius healing the sick (ca. 1620, restored in 1896; covered). 

The house Vico dei Notari No. 1, to the right of the church, has 
a fine Renaissance portal. 

On the N. side of the Piazza Umberto Primo rises the Palazzo 
Bucale (PI. E, 6), the grand old residence of the doges, originally a 
building of the 13th cent., to which the tower on the left (Torre del 
Popolo) belonged, but completely remodelled by Rocco Pennone (?) 
in the 16th cent, (fine staircase), and modernised after a fire in 1777. 
Facade by Simone Cantoni. It now contains the telegraph-office and 
other government-offices. 

From the Piazza Umberto Primo the Via Sellai leads to the left 
to the busy and recently enlarged Piazza Defebraei (PL E, 5, 6; 
78 ft. above the sea ; starting-point of most of the electric tram- 
ways, p. 68), which is embellished with a large Equestrian Statue 
of Garibaldi, by Aug. Rivalta, unveiled in 1893. — On the N.W. 
side of the piazza stands the Palazzo Beferrari (18th cent.). Opposite 

76 Route 16. GENOA, c. From the Piazza Deferrari 

aie the Teatro Carlo Felice (PL E, F, 5; see p. 69) and the Acca- 
demia di Belle Abti (Pl.E, F, 6), on the first floor of which is the 
Biblioteca Civica (about 45,000 vols.); on the second floor is a col- 
lection of casts and a few paintings. 

The Via Venti Settembre (PI. F-H, 6, 7), a handsome street 
laid out since 1887, leads from the Academy to the S.E. to the old 
Porta d'Archi (p. 83) and thence, passing the new Mercato Orientate 
(market), to the Ponte Pila (PI. H, I, 7; p. 84), the central one of 
the three bridges over the Bisagno. 

The Salita San Matteo leads to the left, from the Piazza Deferrari to 
the small Gothic church of San Matteo (PI. E, 5 ; 1278) , containing many 
memorials of the Doria family, the facade being covered with inscriptions 
in their honour. At the foot, to the right, is an ancient sarcophagus- 
relief, with an inscription in honour of Lamba Doria, who defeated the 
Venetians at Curzola in 1297. The interior was altered in 1530, with the 
assistance of Giov. Batt. Gastello , by the Florentine Montorsoli, who was 
invited to Genoa by Andrea Doria, and executed the whole of the sculp- 
tures which adorn the church. The balustrade of the organ-loft is par- 
ticularly fine. Above the high-altar is Andrea Dona's sword, and his tomb 
is in the chapel below. To the left of the church are handsome cloisters 
with double columns in the early-Gothic style (1308-10), with 17 ancient 
inscriptions relating to the Dorias, and remains of Montorsoli's statue of 
Andrea Doria, which was mutilated during the Revolution in 1797. — The 
little piazza in front of the church is surrounded with Palaces of the Doria 
Family, some with their lower halves covered with black and yellow 
marble. The palazzo (No. 17) at the corner of the Salita alio Arcives- 
covado bears, above its elegant early-Renaissance portal, the inscription, 
l Senat. Cons. Andreae de Oria, patriae liberatori munus publicum'. 

c. From the Piazza Deferrari to the Main Railway Station by the 
Via Garibaldi, Via Cairoli, and Via Balbi. 

From the Piazza Deferrari two broad streets lead to the N.E.: 
to the right the Via Roma (p. 82), to the left the short Via Carlo 
Felice (PI. E, F, 5). The latter leads past the Palazzo Pallavicini 
(No. 12; now the Pal. Durazzo) to the Piazza delle Fontane 
Marosb (PI. F, 4, 5). No. 17 in this piazza is the Pal. delta Casa, 
originally Spinola (15th cent., but restored in the 17th), adorned 
with five ancient honorary statues in niches ; No. 27 is the Pal. 
Lodovico Stefano Pallavicini, with a painted facade and sumptuously 
fitted up in modern taste. 

From the S.E. angle of the Piazza delle Fontane Marose the Salita Santa 
Caterina leads to the Piazza Corvetto (p. 82). — Through the Via Luccoli 
to the harbour, see p. 73. 

At the Piazza delle Fontane Marose begins a handsome line of 
streets laid out since the 16th cent., extending to the Piazza Acqua- 
varde (p. 81), under the names of Via Garibaldi (formerly Nuova), Via 
Cairoli (formerly Nuovissimd), and Via Balbi. In these streets, which 
form one of the chief arteries of traffic , are the most important 
palaces and several churches. Some of the former should'be visited 
for the sake of their noble staircases, one of the sights of Genoa. 

The first of these main streets, the narrow *Via Gaejbaldi 
(PI. E, 4), is flanked with a succession of palaces. On the right, 

to the Railway Station. GENOA. 16. Route. 77 

No. 1, Palazzo Cambiaso, by Gal. Alessi. On the left, No. 2, Pal. 
Gambaro, formerly Cambiaso. Right, No. 3, Pal. Parodi, erected in 
1567-81 by Gal. Alessi for Franco Lercaro, containing frescoes by 
Luca Cambiaso and others. Left, No. 4, Pal. Cataldi, formerly 
Carega, erected about 1560 by Giov. Batt. Castello. Right, No. 5, 
Pal. Spinb'la, by Gal. Alessi, now a commercial school. Left, No. 6, 
Pal. Giorgio Doria (not always open), by Alessi, adorned with fres- 
coes by Luca Cambiaso and other pictures (Castiglione , Shepherd and 
shepherdess ; Van Dyck, Portrait of a lady ; P. Veronese, Susanna). 

Left, No. 10, Pal. Adorno (accessible by introduction only), also 
by Gal. Alessi , contains several good pictures : Rubens , Hercules 
and Dejanira; three small pictures attributed to Mantegna, though 
more in the style of S. Botticelli (Triumph of Amor, of Jugurtha, 
of Judith; comp. p. 31, No. 106); Cambiaso, Madonna and saints; 
Clouet (?), Portraits of four children; Piola, Frieze with children; 
Per in del Vaga, Nativity of Mary. 

Left, No. 12, Pal. Serra (no admission), by G. Alessi; interior 
rebuilt by De Wailly (d. 1798) and Tagliafico, with a magnificent hall. 

Right, No. 9, Palazzo Municipale (PL E, 4), formerly Doria 
Tursi, by Rocco Lurago (d. ca. 1590), with a handsome staircase and 
court, skilfully adapted to its sloping site. 

The Vestibule is adorned with five frescoes from the life of the Doge 
Grimaldi and the Staircase in the court with a statue of Cattaneo Pinelli. 
— In the large Council Chamber on the upper floor are mosaic portraits 
(by Salviati; 1867) of Columbus and Marco Polo. In the adjacent room 
are facsimiles of letters of Columbus (the originals are in the pedestal of 
his bust in the Sala della Ginnta) ; large bronze tablet of B. C. 117, record- 
ing the judgment of Roman arbiters in a dispute between Genoa and a 
castle in tbe Val Polcevera. A cabinet to the left contains Paganini's 
violin (a 'Guarneri 1 ). 

Left, No. 18, Palazzo Kosso (PI. E, 4), by Alessi (?), so named 
from its red colour, formerly the property of the Brignole-Sale 
family, was presented to the city of Genoa in 1874, along with its 
valuable contents, library, and *Picture Gallery (Galleria Brignole- 
Sale Deferrari; adm., see p. 70; lists of pictures in each room), by 
the Marchesa Maria Brignole-Sale, Duchess of Galliera (d. 1889), 
and her son Filippo. 

Ascending the staircase to the third story, we pass to the right into 
the Stanza delle Arti Libeeali (R. I), named, like the following rooms, 
after the ceiling-paintings (by Carlone, Parodi, Deferrari, Piola, and others), 
and containing three portraits of Doges of the Brignole family (17-18th 
cent.). The ceiling-paintings are sometimes continued by the relief-work 
of the cornices. — To the right, the Alcova (R. II): Rigavd, Lady and 
gentleman of the Brignole family; Picasso, Portrait of the Duchess of 
Galliera. — III. Stanza della Gioventc. On the exit -wall: Guercino, 
Cleopatra; B. Slrozzi, l il Cappuccino'', Charity (after Cambiaso); B. Strozzi, 
Cook with poultry. — IV. Sala Grande, with ceiling decorated with the 
armorial bearings of the family. Exit-wall: Guidobono da Savona, Lot and 
his daughters. Entrance-wall : D. Piola, Sun-chariot of Apollo. — V. Stanza 
della Primavera : Paris Bordone, Venetian woman; Moretto, Physician 
(1533); Van Dyck, "Marchese Antonio Giulio Brignole-Sale on horseback; 
A.Durer, Portrait (1506 ; ruined); Titian (school-piece), Philip II. of Spain. 
On the entrance-wall; Van Dyck, Marchesa Paola Brignole-Sale; Rubens 

78 Route 16. GENOA. c. Via Garibaldi, 

(not Van Dyck), Bearing of the Cross: Jac. Bassano, Portrait of father and 
son ; Paris Bordone , 'Portrait. — VI. Stanza deli/ Estate : Guercino, 
Suicide of Cato ; Luca Giordano, Clorinda liberating Olintho and Sophronia 
(from Tasso) ; Guercino, Christ driving out the money-changers ; B. Strozzi, 
Incredulity of Thomas ; Caravaggio, Raising of Lazarus ; Guido Reni, St. 
Sebastian (early copy). On the window-wall is a large mirror, with a 
magnificent baroque frame by Fil. Parodi. — VII. Stanza dellAutunno : 
Bonifazio //., Adoration of the Magi; Guercino, Madonna enthroned, with 
saints. — VIII. Stanza deli/ To the left, Paolo Veronese, Judith 
and Holofernes. Entrance- wall: P. Piola, Holy Family; Paris Bordone, 
Holy Family with SS. Jerome and Catharine (one of the master's chief 
works, but much injured). — IX. Stanza della Vita dell' Uomo : Van 
Dyck, Portrait. Entrance-wall: Van Dyck, Marchesa Geronima Brignole- 
Sale, with her daughter (retouched throughout). 

No. 13, nearly opposite Pal. Rosso, and named 'white' by way of 
contrast, is the Palazzo Bianco (Pl.E, 4), erected in 1565-69, also 
for a long period the property of the Brignole-Sale family, but be- 
queathed in 1889 with numerous works of art to the city by the 
Duchess of Galliera (seep. 77), and since 1893 converted into a 
museum known like the other as the *Galleria Brignole Sale-Defer- 
rari (adm., see p. 70; lists in each room). 

Vestibule. On the walls are numerous inscriptions and sculptures, 
including the remains of Genoese sepulchral monuments. 

Entresol. — Room I (left) : 137. Genoa with the walls of 1159, a large 
painting; 139. View of Genoa harbour in i319; 110. View of Genoa in 1410 
(a copy, dating from 1597); 105. Large relief-plan of Genoa (1898); 126,138. 
Scenes in the Genoese rising against Austria in 1746; 154. Part of the 
harbour chain of Pisa, captured in 1290; church-bell of 1292; old cannon 
found in the harbour in 1890; national relics. — Room II: 1. View of 
Corsica, Genoa, and the Riviera di Levante in 1548; 4. P^an of Genoa in 
1656; 3. Banner of the 'Thousand of Marsala'. The glass-cases contain 
Genoese coins and medals; two letters of Andrea Doria; a letter of Gari- 
baldi; a crystal urn enclosing a small part of the ashes of Columbus, dis- 
covered in 1877 in the Cathedral of Santo Domingo; facsimiles of two 
letters of Columbus. — We return to the staircase, with the continuation 
of the collection of sculpture. On the second landing is I No. 4<9) a frag- 
ment of the tomb of the consort of Emp. Henry VII., by Giov. Pisano. 

Second Floor. — The Ante-Room contains sculptures: 1. Head of Janus 
from San Lorenzo (If th cent.) ; 6. Giov. della Robbia, Terracotta altar, with 
the Coronation of the Virgin (from Spezia) ; 7. Bacchic procession, a Roman 
sarcophagus-relief from the tomb of Franc. Spinola in Gaeta. 

Room I. Models of the caravels of Columbus (1892) ; two globes, by 
Padre Coronelli (1688); large Chinese vases. 

R. II. 7. Byzantine pallium, with legends of the saints (!3th cent.) ; 
Flemish tapestry ; Japanese vases. In the middle, marble group of Children 
playing with a cat, by Giulio Monteverde. 

R. III. Paintings of the Flemish school. To the left, 9. Jan Steen, 
Rustic wedding; *7. Rubens, Lovers (ca. 1618); 16. Jan Steen, Children's 
festival (spoiled); *13. Gerard David (not Floris), Madonna, with SS. Jerome 
and Nicholas of Tolentino; 18. (7. David, Crucifixion (scho. 1-piece); 29. 
/. van Rvysdael, Landscape; 26. Van Dyck, Christ, and the Pharisees; 37. 
G. David (here ascribed to Memling), Madonna; 33. Teniers the Younger, 
Guard-room. — In the middle: Penitent Magdalen, by Canova (1796). 

R. IV. Spanish and French paintings. To the left, 4. Velazquez, Philip IV. 
(school-piece); 5. Murillo, St. Francis in ecstasy; 10, 12. Zurbaran SS. Ursula 
and Euphemia; 17. L. David, Portrait; 19. Murillo, h light into Egypt (school- 
piece). — In the middle: Jenner vaccinating a child, marble group by 
G. Monteverde (1878). 

R. V. Italian paintings. To the left, 10. Paolo Veronese ('?), Boy praying ; 
6. Guercino, God the Father; 7. Dom. Beccafumi, Holy Family; 24. Pontormo, 

Via Cairoli, Via Batbi. GENOA. 16. Route. 79 

Portrait: 30. Filippino Lippi, Madonna and angels, with SS. Francis, Sebas- 
tian, and John the Baptist (1503); 38. Palma Vecchio, Madonna, with the 
Blagdalen and the Baptist; 43. Correggio, Madonna adoring the child (copy). 

R. VI and Gallery I. Paintings of the Genoese school and drawings. 
In the gallery, 6. L. Cambiaso, Diana and Calisto. — R. VII. Genoese frescoes. 
The cases contain anti- ue vases. 

R. VIII. Italian paintings of various schools. In the middle, a bridal 
bed of the Brignole family (17th cent.). — Gallery II. Venetian lace, ec- 
clesiastical vestments (17th cent.), miniatures, and small sculptures. 

R. IX. Modern paintings. In the cases are antique lamps, vases, glass, 
and coins. — R. X. Majolica from Savona and elsewhere. Collection of 

Crossing the small Piazza dell a Meridian a to the N.W., we enter 
the Via Cairoli (PI. E, D. 4). At the end of this street. No. 18, on 
the left, is the Palazzo Balbi (hy Greg. Petondi , 18th century), 
through which a fine view is obtained of the lower-lying Via Lo- 
mellini (p. 73). — We then cross the Largo della Zecca (PI. D, 3), 
with the station of the Cable Tramway to the Via di Circonvallazione 
a Monte (p. 84) and Castellaccio (p. 84), and reach the Via alia 
Nunziata. No. 15 in this street (on the right) is the Palazzo Cat- 
taneo della Volta (not always open), containing on the first floor 
eleven partly injured portraits hy Van Dyck, the best of which is 
that of a lady with a negro holding up a red parasol. 

In the neighbouring Piazza dell'Anntjnziata (PI. D, 3) rises the 
former Capuchin church of *Santissima Annrmziata del Vastato, 
erected by Giac. della Porta in 1587. The portal is borne by marble 
columns ; brick facade otherwise unfinished. This sumptuous church 
is a well-proportioned basilica with a dome; the interior was adorned 
in the 17th cent, with gilding and with frescoes by the Carlone and 
other artists. 

In the left transept the altar-piece is a coloured wooden group of the 
Communion of St. Pasquale, by Maragliano (1723). The sacristy contains 
a Descent from the Cross, by Maragliano (1726) ; the colouring is modern. 

In the handsome Via Balbi (PI. D, C, 3, 2), on the right, No. 1, 
is the Palazzo Durazzo-Pallavicini, formerly della Scala, built by 
Bart. Bianco (?), with a handsome facade, a fine vestibule, and a 
superb staircase (left) added by Andrea Tagliafico at the end of the 
18th century. On the first floor (bell to the right, at the back) is 
the *Galleria Durazzo-Pallavicini (adm., see p. 70). 

The Axtisala contains busts of the Durazzo-Pallavicini family. — 

II. Room (to the left, beyond B. III.). Left: Guercino, Mucius Scfevola 
before Porsenna; Van Dyck(l), Portrait of a man; Rubens, 'Silenus with 
Bacchantes fca. 1608); An. Carracci, Repentant Magdalen; Imitator of Van 
Dyck, Large family group (.Tames I. of Great Britain with his family). — 

III. Boom. Bern. Strozzi, Portrait of a bishop; Guercino, The tribute- 
money; Titian, Magdalen (school-piece). — IV. Room. Guido Rent, Carita 
Bomana ; Paolo Veronese. Marriage of St. Catharine (school - piece); Guido 
Reni, Cleopatra: Rubens (?)., Portrait, a round picture ;. Ribera, St. James; 
Tintoretto, Portrait of Marchese Agostino Durazzo; Guido Reni. Porcia Ro- 
mana; H. Rigaud, Marchese Ippolito Durazzo. Admirable porcelain vases 
in the centre of the room. — V. Boom. Paintings relating to the myth 
of Achilles by unimportant Genoese masters. Beautiful Chinese porcelain. — 
VI. Room. Domenichino, Bisen Christ appearing to his mother, Death of 
Adonis; Van Dyck, *Boy in white satin; Van Dyckp), Young Tobias $ Van 

80 Route 16. GENOA. c. Via Balbi. 

Dyck, Three children with a dog (spoiled); Rubens, *Philip IV. of Spain, 
full-length; Ribera, Heraclitus (weeping philosopher), Democritus (laugh- 
ing philosopher); Van Dyck, Lady with two children (spoiled); Titian (?), 
Ceres with Bacchus, nymph, and Cupid. — VII. Room. Unimportant. — 
VIII. Room. To the left, Unknown Dutch Master (ca. 1500), Pieta; Gerard 
David (?), Flight into Egypt; Fr. Pourbus, Garden of Flora; Flemish Master 
(17th cent.), Fete Champetre. — IX. Room. German School (attributed to 
Lombard Sch.), Crucifixion, with saints; Rubens, Ambrogio Spinola. — 
The Library contains 7000 vols., including many specimens of early printing. 

On the left side, No. 4, isthe*PalazzoBalbi-Senarega(Pl. D, 3), 
begun early in the 17th cent, by Bart. Bianco, and enlarged in the 
18th by Pier Ant. Corradi. It still belongs to the family who built 
it, and after whom the street is named. The superb court, with its 
Doric colonnades, affords a glimpse of the orangery. The interesting 
Picture Gallery on the second floor is shown on introduction only. 

Sala, or Large Room, adorned like the others with ceiling-paintings 
by Genoese artists. To the left: Van Dyck, Francesco Maria Balbi on 
horseback (injured), the prototype of the equestrian portrait of Count 
Olivares by Velazquez, now in the Prado Museum at Madrid. To the 
right: Bern. Strozzi, Joseph interpreting the dream; portraits by Ang. 
Bronzino, etc. — Primo Salotto (to the right): Rubens, "Infant Christ and 
John the Baptist ; Guido Reni, Lucretia, Cleopatra. Titian, *Madonna with 
SS. Catharine, Dominic, and donors : 'charming picture (about 1520), thrown 
out of focus by abrasion, washing, and repainting; but still pleasing on ac- 
count of the grace of the attitudes and the beauty of the landscape 1 (Crowe 
& Cavalcaselle). Gaud. Ferrari, Holy Family; Van Dyck(l), Madonna 
with the pomegranate (della Melagrana). — Secondo Salotto : Van Dyck, 
Equestrian portrait, Portraits of a gentleman and of a *Lady of the Balbi 
family. — Terzo Salotto : Caravaggio, "Conversion of St. Paul, trivial in 
conception, but masterly in execution; Master of the Death of the Virgin, 
Holy Family and Adoration of the Shepherds; Guido Reni, St. Jerome. — 
Qdarto Salotto: Guercino, Rescue < f Andromeda; Perm del Vaga, Four 
figures of children; Jac. Bassano, Market. — Galleria: Sandro Botticelli 
(not Filippino Lippi), Communion of St. Jerome (perhaps a copy); Flemish 
School (not Memliny), Crucifixion ; Titian (or more probably Hans von Calcar), 
Portrait; Correggioty, Marriage of St. Catharine; Van Dyck, Holy Family ; 
Ferrarese School (attrib. to Correggio), St. George. 

On the right side of the street, No. 5, is the^^galazzaJlell' 
TJniversita (PI. D, 3), begun as a Jesuit college by Bart. Bianco in 
1623, and created a university in 1812. The *Court and stair- 
case are probably the finest at Genoa. The second floor contains a 
library, a natural history museum, and an aula with six allegorical 
bronze statues and reliefs by Giovanni da Bologna. A staircase 
leads hence to the high-lying Botanical Garden of the University 
(ring at the iron gate). Adjoining the upper entrance, in the Corso 
Dogali (p. 85), is the Botanic Institute, founded in 1897. 

On the right is San Carlo, with sculptures by Algardi (1650). 

Left, No. 10, Palazzo Keale (PI. C, 3), erected about 1650 
by the Lombard architects Franc. Cantone and Giov. Ang. Falcone 
for the Durazzo family, and extended in 1705 by Carlo Fontana 
of Rome. It was purchased by the royal family in 1817, and restored 
in 1842. The palace contains handsome staircases and balconies (fine 
views), and is sumptuously furnished (adm., see p. 70). The pictures 
and antiquities are of no great value. 

c. Piazza del Principe. GENOA. 16. Route. 81 

Ante-Chamber: Battle-pieces by Burrasca. Room on the right: Van 
Dyck, Portrait of Marchesa Durazzo ; good portrait of the Lombard School, 
attributed to Leon, da Vinci; Perin del Vaga , Holy Family. To the 
right, a handsome gallery with rococo-painting and a few ancient and 
modern statues : on the right, Apollo and Apollino, on the left, Mercury ; 
at the end, Rape of Proserpine by ScTdaffino. On the left, Crucifixion by 
Van Dyck ; Woman taken in adultery, Moreiio ; Sibyl, Guercino. In the 
throne-room, two large pictures by Luca Giordano. 

The Via Balbi ends at the Piazza Acquaverde (PI. 0, 2), the 
large square in front of the railway-station, the terminus of the 
electric tramway along the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, and a 
station on the electric line to the Piazza Deferrari (comp. p. 68). 
On the N. side of the Piazza, embosomed in palm-trees, rises the 
marble Statue of Columbus (erected in 1862), who was probably 
born at Genoa in 1446 or 1147 (d. in 1506 at Valladolid). At the 
feet of the statue, which leans on an anchor, kneels the figure 
of America. — Opposite ! S.E.I is the Palazzo Faraggiana, with a 
marble relief in the pediment representing scenes from the life of 

To the W. of the station is the Piazza del Principe (PL B, 2), 
which commands a good view of part of the old fortifications. A 
large Bronze Monument, 40 ft. high, by Giulio Monteverde, was 
erected here in 1896 in honour of the Duke of Oalliera (pp. 71, 72). 
It represents Liberality, led by a winged genius and handing to 
Mercury treasures from her cup. On the pedestal is a medallion of 
the duke. — No. 4 in the piazza (W. side) is the long — 

Palazzo Doria (PL A, B, 2), presented in 1522 to Andrea 
Doria, 'padre della patria' (d. 1560, at the age of 92). It was remod- 
elled in 1529 from designs by Fra Giov. Ang. Montorsoli, and 
adorned with frescoes and grotesques by Perin del Vaga. The elder 
branch of the Doria family, to which the palace belongs, has allied 
itself with the Pamphili family, and generally resides at Rome. 

The long Latin inscription on the side next the street records that 
Andrea d'Oria, admiral of the Papal, Imperial, French, and native fleets, 
in order to close his eventful career in honourable repose , caused the 
palace to be rebuilt for himself and his successors. His praises were 
thus sung by Ariosto: 'questo e quel Doria, che fa dai pirati sicuro il 
vostro mar per tutti i lati'. 

To the right in the court is a large arcaded loggia, to the left a taste- 
ful garden and a fountain by the Gar lone (1599-1601), with a statue of 
Andrea Doria as Neptune. — The last door on the right admits us to the 
apartments with Perin del Vaga"s Frescoes (restored in 1845). On the ceiling, 
vaulting, and lunettes of the great entrance-hall are scenes from Roman 
history, below which are reliefs by Montorsoli; on the staircase are taste- 
ful grotesques. A corridor on the first floor, with portraits of the Doria 
family, is charmingly decorated with stucco and painted ornaments in the 
style of Raphael's loggie in the Vatican ; a saloon with a large ceiling-paint- 
ing, Jupiter overthrowing the Titans (superb chimney-piece); and a side- 
room with a ceiling -fresco of the Carita Romana. 

The gardens on the hill beyond the railway- line, with a colossal 

statue of Hercules ( l Il Gigante ) in a niche, also belong to the estate. 

A Cable Tramway (No. 3, p. 68) ascends from the Piazza Principe to 

Granarolo (770 ft. ; Ristorante Beda) y which commands a fine view of the 

town and the Val Polcevera (p. 50). 

Baedekeb. Italy I. 12th Edit. 6 • 

82 Route 16. GENOA. c. Lighthouse. 

The Yia San Benedetto and the Via Milano, farther on, lead 
from the Palazzo Doria past the Sailors' Rest (p. 69) and the large 
new quays (comp. p. 72) to the lighthouse. Ahout hallway we reach 
the Piazza Dinegro (omnibus, p. 68), No. 41 in which is the Palazzo 
Rosazza (adin. 1 fr.). The charming gardens, with their rare plants 
and pretty fountains, deserve avisit; in the upperpartis & Belvedere, 
commanding a *View similar to that from the lighthouse. 

On the rocky headland separating Genoa from San Pier d'Arena 
rises the large Lighthouse [Lanterna; 384 ft.), with its dazzling 
reflectors showing a light visible for over 20 miles. Visitors may 
go by the S. Pier d'Arena tramway (No. 11, p. 68) to the tunnel. 
The tower (353 marble steps) may be ascended and the apparatus 
inspected (fee 1 fr.); but the platform at its foot commands as good 
a view. Best light in the evening. 

The *View embraces the town and extensive harbour of Genoa, with 
the amphitheatre of mountains behind; to the E. the Riviera di Levante 
is visible as far as the picturesque promontory of Portofino; to the W. 
are seen the coast-villages on the Kiviera di Ponente from i?an Pier d'Arena 
to Savona, the headland of Noli, and the Capo delle Mele, while in the 
distance are the usually snow-capped peaks of tbe Ligurian Alps. 

d. From the Piazza Deferrari to the Via di Circonvallazione a 

Mare via the Piazza Corvetto, Acquasola, and the Corso Andrea 


The Via Roma (Pl.F, 5 ; electric tramways Nos. 3 and 4, p. 68), 
already mentioned at p. 76, is, with the adjoining Galleria Mazzini 
(right), the most important focus of traffic after the Piazza Deferrari. 
It ascends to the N.E., passing (left) the Salita Santa Caterina 
(p. 76) and cutting off a corner of the interesting old Palazzo Spinola 
(now the Prefettura), to the Piazza Cobvetto (PI. F, G, 5), where a 
large bronze equestrian Statue of Victor Emmanuel II. was erected 
in 1886, from Barzaghi's designs. From this point we may proceed 
to the left, passing a marble Statue of Mazzini, by Costa (1882), 
to the — 

*Villetta Dinegro (PI. F, 4 ; 240 ft.), a beautiful park, the 
property of the city, with pretty cascades, the Museo Civico, with 
collections of natural history (adm., see p. 70), and an incipient 
Zoological Garden. Winding promenades ascend from the entrance, 
near which are marble busts of Aurelio Saffi, Ant. Burlando, and 
Ant. Mosto, to a high bastion which affords a noble survey of city, 
harbour, and environs. 

The direct continuation of the Via Roma is the Via Assa- 
rotti, leading to the high-lying Piazza Manin (p. 84). — From the 
Piazza Corvetto we ascend to the right to the park of Acquasola 
(PL G, 5, 6 ; 138 ft.), laid out in 1837 on part of the old ramparts 
(concerts, see p. 69). — From the S. end of the park we next fol- 
low the electric line along the Coitso Andrea Podesta to the 
church of — 

d. 8. Maria di Carignano. GENOA. 16. Route. 83 

Santo Stefano (P1.F,G, 6), situated on a terrace near the former 
Porta d'Archi (p. 76). This building preserves a Romanesque tower 
dating from the original church on this site, while the facade and 
the outer columns of the choir date from a Gothic restoration of the 
14th century. The cantoria (choir-gallery) on the entrance-wall 
dates from 1499. Above the high-altar, the *Stoning of Stephen by 
Giulio Romano, one of his best works (1523 ; covered). 

In the neighbouring Via Bosco is the church of Santissima Annunziata 
di Portoria or Santa Caterina (PI. G, 6), with a fine Renaissance portal 
(L521) and the reliquary of St. Catharine of Genoa (d. 15i0j. Adjoining it 
is the large Ospedale di Pammatone, in front of which i3 a fountain with 
a bronze statue of the boy Balilla (p. 71) by Giani. 

We now cross the viaduct (Ponte MonumentaleJ above the Via 
Venti Settembre (p. 76) and enter the S. part of the Corso Andrea 
Podesta (PI. F, 7; fine views). From the Piazza Galeazzo Alessi 
(PI. F, 8) we follow the Via Galeazzo Alessi to the W. to the 
church of — 

*Santa Maria di Carignano (PL E, 8; 174 ft. above the sea), 
begun by Galeazzo Alessi in 1552, but not completed till 1603. It is 
a smaller edition of the plan adopted by Michael Angelo and Bra- 
mante for St. Peter's at Rome. Here, however, a square ground- 
plan takes the place of the Greek cross of St. Peter's , and small 
lanterns represent the minor domes. Principal portal, 18th century. 

I.vj:ekiok. Second altar 1o the right, MavaV.a. SS. Blasius and Sebastian ; 
4th altar, Franc. Taitni, Communion of Mary Magdalen; 1st altar to the 
left, Guercino, St. Francis ; 3rd altar, Luca Cambiaso, 'Entombment. 
Baroque statues below the dome by Pierre Puget (St. Sebastian and the 
beatified Aleasandro Sauli), Parodi (John the Baptist), and David (St. Bar- 

The *View from the highest gallery of the dome (370 ft. above the sea; 
119 steps to the first gallery, thence to the top 130; easy and well lighted 
staircase) embraces the city, harbour, and fortifications, the well peopled 
coast (comp. p. 82), and on the S. the vast, ever-varying expanse of the 
Mediterranean. (Sacristan 25 c; his attendance for the ascent unnecessary; 
best light in the morning.) 

The Ponte Carignano (1718), spanning a street 100 ft. below, 
leads from the N.W. side of the church to the Piazza Sarzano (PI. 
JD, 1) and the harbour (p. 72). — In the opposite direction the Via 
Nino Bixio leads to the Piazza Bixio (PI. F, 8), among the gardens 
of which rises a large bronze statue of General Mno Bixio (1821-73), 
by Pazzi (1890). 

To the E. of the Piazza Bixio. in a commanding situation in the Via 
AleS:aodro Volta, is the Ospedale Sunt' Andrea (PI. G, 9), established in 
1883 at the expense of the Duchess of Ualliera (p. 77), who is commemorated 
by a statue (by Monteverde; 1898) in the garden. 

The broad Via Coesica (PI. F, E, 8, 9), the prolongation of the 
Corso Andrea Podesta, descends from the Piazza Bixio towards the 
S.W. to the — 

*Via di Circonvallazione a Mare, a fine street, laid out in 1893- 
95 on the site of the outer ramparts, traversed by an electric tram- 
way (No. 4, p. 68), and commanding beautiful views. It begins, as 
the Via Odone, at the Piazza Cavour (PI. D, 6; p. 72) and passes the 


84 Route 16. GENOA, d. Circonvallazione a Mare. 

docks mentioned at p. 73 ; then, under the name of Corso Aurelio 
Saffi (PI. E-H, 9, 10), it ascends gradually, skirts the sea beneath 
the hill crowned by the church of Santa Maria di Carignano (p. 83), 
and finally ascends the right bank of the Besagno to the Ponte Pita 
(PI. H, I, 7; p. 76), whence it is continued by the Via Canevari, 
leading to the Campo Santo (p. 85). 

The Road to Nekvi (carriage-tariff, see p. 68), the E. continuation of the 
Via Venti Settembre (p. 76), forks beyond the Piazza Tomniaseo (PI. K, 8). 
The main road, at present served by an omnibus-line only, runs due E. 
via the Collina d'' Albaro. In San Francesco d^Alb'ro, at Ihe top of the ridge, 
are the house occupied by L<>rd Byron in 1822-23 (Via Albaro 10), the 
Palazzo del Paradiso (16th cent.), the Villa Cambiaso (15o7), and other fine 
country-houses. — The alternative route (electric tramway, 2\o. 8, p. 68) 
describes a wide curve to the N. of the hill (tine retrospect of Genoa) and 
proceeds via San Martino (T Albaro. 

From Sturla (23 ft. ; p. 97), where the routes reunite , we skirt the 
coast, with continuous fine views of both Rivieras (p. 65), to the station 
of Quarto (p. 97). A small monument near the station marks the point of 
embarkation of 1000 Garibaldians for Marsala in 1860. Thence via Quinto 
to Nerd (p. 97). 

e. From the Piazza Corvetto to the Piazza Manin. Via di Cir- 
convallazione a Monte. Castellaccio. Campo Santo. 

The Via Assarotti (p. 82) ascends from the Piazza Corvetto to the 
N.E., passing the church of Santa Maria Immacolata (Pl.G, 4; 1856- 
73), to the Piazza Manin (PI. I, 4; 330 ft. above the sea). On the W. 
side of this piazza begins the *Via di Circonvallazione a Monte, a 
magnificent route laid out since 1876 on the hills at the back of the 
town (electric line No. 2, see p. 68). It skirts the hillside to the 
W. in long windings, under various names (Corso Principe Amedeo, 
Corso Solferino, Corso Magenta, Corso Paganini), and leads to the 
Spianata Castelletto (PI. E, 3), commanding one of the finest views 
of Genoa. Here it takes the name of Corso Firenze and runs to the 
N. to the church and cable-car station (No. 1; p. 68) of San Nicolb 
(PI. E , 1). It then sweeps round above the poor-house (p. 85) 
and the charmingly situated Castello d'Albertis (PI. C, D, 1), a villa 
in the style of a mediaeval castle, to the Corso TJgo Bassi, whence it 
winds down under various names to the Piazza Acquaverde (p. 81). 
The electric line avoids some of the curves by a tunnel. 

From the Largo dellaZecca (PI. D, 3; p. 79) the cable-tramway 
mentioned at p. 68 ascends through a tunnel in 7 min. to S. Nicolo 
(see above ; change of carriage) and thence in 7 min? more through 
orchards to the loftily-situated Castellaccio. The site of the upper 
terminus of the line (ca. 1020 ft. ; liistorante Beregardo, very fair) 
commands a beautiful view of the valley of the Bisagno and the 
Campo Santo. A little higher up is the Hotel- Restaurant Righi 
(1070 ft.; closed at present), with a magnificent *View of Genoa 
and the coast from Savona to the promontory of Portofino. A more 
extensive view is obtained immediately below the old Forte Castel- 
laccio (1252 ft.), 5 min. farther up. 

e. Circcnvallczione a Monte. GENOA, 16. Route. 85 

A steep paved path, beginning at the Trattoria dei Cacciatori, a little 
to the W. of the HOtel Righi, descends in 20 min. to the church of San 
Nicolb (p. 84). 

The older line ofroads, diverging to the left at the Spianata Castel- 
letto (p. 84), is known as the Via di Circonvallazione a Monte Inferiors. 
The first part of it, named the Corso Carbonara, leads to the Alberao dei 
Poveri or poor-hou=e (PI. D, E, 1, 2; 300 ft. above the ?ea), which has 
room for 1300 persons. It then takes the name of Corso Ddgali and re- 
joins the main thoroughfare at the Castello d'Aibertis, adjoining the up- 
per entrance to the Botanic Garden (p. 8j). 

The *Campo Santo or Cimitero di Staglieno (open daily 9-6, in 
winter 10-5; electric line 5, p. 68) is reached from the Piazza Ma- 
nin (p. Si) by the new Via Montaldo, which leaves the city by the 
Porta San Bartolomeo (PI. I. 3, 4) and then descends (views) to the 
N. into the Valley of the Bisagno and to Staglieno (p. 336). About 
1/2 M. farther on (IV2 M. from the town) is the entrance to the 
cemetery, which was laid ont by Resasco in 1844-51 and stretches 
up the slope on the N. bank of the Bisagno. We first enter a large 
rectangular space, with sumptuous single monuments in the recesses 
of the arcades, and beyond that is an oval space, with rows of 
monuments in the recesses. Flights of steps and broad inclined 
planes lead up to the upper galleries, the central point of which is a 
rotunda, with a dome borne by monolithic columns of black marble. 
Above the rotunda, to the N.E., close to the steep hillside, is the 
tomb of Giuseppe Mazzini (d. 1872). — In returning, we may use 
the electric line (No. 10) along the Via di Circonvallazione a Mare 
(p. 83). 

17. From Genoa to Ventimiglia. Riviera di Ponente. 

94 M. Railway in 43/4-7 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 55, 12 fr. 25, 7 fr. 90 c. ; ex- 
press 19 fr. 30, 13 fr. 50 c). The 'train de luxe 1 from Vienna to Cannes 
fp. 20) performs the journey in about 4 hrs. (1st class fare 25 fr. 90 c). 
In winter a dining-car (dei. 3 x /2, D. 4*/2 fr.) is attached to the first ex- 
press from Genoa and the noon express from Ventimiglia. — Thi< tour 
by road (103 31.) is strongly recommended to Cyclists. — Electric Tramway 
to Pegli, see p. 68. 

During the 19th century the Riviera suffered from Earthquakes in 1818, 
1831, 1854, and 1887. On the last occasion repeated shocks were felt in 
the district between Nice and Finalmarina (p. 87). The increasing inter- 
vals between the outbreaks render a speedy recurrence of the disturban- 
ces very unlikely. 

The remarks at p. 65 on the luxuriant flora apply especially to 
the Riviera di Ponente. The railway penetrates the numerous pro- 
montories by tunnels. 

2 l /2 M. San Pier d' Arena or Sampierdarena, the W. suburb of 
Genoa, projecting far into the sea, has 34,084 inhab. and numerous 
palaces, including the Pal. Spinola and the Pal. Scassi (formerly 
Imperial}), both probably by Gal. Alessi, the latter with a beau- 
tiful garden. The church of Santa Maria della Cella contains fres- 
coes of the Genoese school. Large sugar-refinery. 

86 Route 11. PEGU. From Genoa 

3 M. Cornigliano-Ligure (Grand Hotel Villa Rachel), with nu- 
merous villas (Villa Raggio, finely situated on the coast). Engl. Ch. 
Serv. in April and May. 

472 M. Sestri-Ponente (Albergo-Ristorante della Grotta, R. from 
2, pens., inch wine, from 7fr.), with 17,225 inhab., also has a number 
of villas (Villa Rossi, with fine garden), a church adorned with 
frescoes, manufactories, and wharves. 

6 M. Pegli. — Hotels. ""Grand Hotel M^diterranAe, in the Palazzo 
Lomellini, with hydropathic and electro-therapeutic arrangements, lift, 
steam-heating, and large and fine garden, R. d^/i-V/t, B. l'/2, dej. 3, D. 5, 
pens, b-12 fr., sea-bath 60 c; *Gr. Hotel Pegli (English landlady), R. from 
4, B. IV2, dej. 3'/2, D. 5, pens, from 8 fr., these two on the coast. — Hotel- 
Restaurant de la Ville, opposite the station, R. 2-5, B. i 1 ^, dej. 3, 
D. 4'/2, pens., incl. wine, from 7 fr. ; *Pens. Beauregard, Passeggiata dei 
Villini, English. — Caffe Milano , Ristorante Andrea Doria (rooms), both 
unpretending. — Physicians , see under Genoa, p. 69 ; also Dr. Wagner , 
Grand Hotel Mediterranee. — English Church (St. John), with services in 
winter. — Electric Tramway to Genoa, No. 11, p. 63. 

Pegli (20 ft.), with 9226 inhab., a much visited summer sea- 
bathing place, is cooler and moister than the W. wintering-places 
on the Riviera and is itself visited as a winter-station by nervous 

Numerous beautiful walks in the wooded valleys and on the 
hill-slopes lend a peculiar charm to Pegli, as compared with places 
on the Riviera, better protected by the mountains but more hemmed 
in. The Passeggiata dei Villini, in the grounds of the former Villa 
Elena, may be specially mentioned (fine views). Among the villas 
are the Villa Rostan, with grounds in the English style, the Villa 
Pignone, and the Villa Doria (permesso in the Pal. Doria in Genoa). 
The chief attraction is, however, the — 

* Villa Pallavicini (open on week-days 10-3, on Sun. & holidays 
9-2; closed on Frid., Maundy Thursday, Easter, Whitsunday, All 
Saints Day, and Christmas). The entrance is immediately to the 
left of the exit from the station; permessi are obtained at the 
steward's office, where visitors write their names in a book and re- 
ceive a guide (fee 1-2 fr.). The visit takes about 2 hrs. 

The grounds extending along the slopes of the coast display a profusion 
of luxuriant vegetation and afford delightful prospects of Genoa, the sea, the 
coast, and the mountains. On the highest point (to which visitors should 
insist upon proceeding) stands a castle in the mediaeval style with a tower 
("View). Around it are indications of a simulated siege. Farther on is 
a stalactite grotto with a subterranean piece of water; under the bridge 
a striking glimpse of the lighthouse of Genoa and the sea. There are 
also summer-houses in the Pompeian, Turkish, and Chinese styles, an 
obelisk, fountains, surprize water-works, etc. The gardens contain fine 
examples of the vanilla, cinnamon, and camphor plants, sugar-canes, 
palms, cedars, magnolias, and azaleas. 

77 2 M. Prh, a ship-building place ; 872 M. Voltri(G&l\o; Villa), 
a town with 14,815 inhab., at the mouth of the Gerusa, near which 
is the Villa Brignole-Sale (now Galliera), — Numerous tunnels 
and bridges over small coast-streams. 





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to Veniimiglia. SAVONA. 17. Route. 87 

13 M. Arenzano (Grand Hotel, closed at present; Albergo Roma), 
a retired and sheltered spot (pop. 3957), with the fine park of Mar- 
chesa Pallavicini; beautiful retrospect towards Genoa. The climate 
resembles that of Pegli. 

1572 M. Cogoleto, erroneously described as the birthplace of 
Columbus (p. 81). —20 M. Varazze (Hot. Torretti), with 9815 in- 
hab., is a busy ship-building place, visited as a bathing-resort. 
The coast on both sides of it is rocky. Numerous cuttings and tun- 
nels. — 22 M. Celle. — 24 1/ 2 M. Albiss6la, at the mouth of the San- 
sobbia, where pottery is largely manufactured, was the birthplace 
of Popes Sixtus IV. and Julius II. (Giuliano della Rovere). 

27 M. Savona (33 ft.; Railway Restaurant: Alb. Svizzero , R. 
3 l /2 fr -; Roma, R. 2^2* omn. ^2 * r * 1 DOtn we ^ spoken of; Italia), 
a town with 38,648 inhab. , is charmingly situated on the Letimbro 
amidst lemon and orange gardens. The busy harbour is commanded 
by a fort. The Penitenziario incorporates some remains of the old 
cathedral, destroyed in 1542. The new Cathedral (of 1604) contains a 
picture by Lod. Brea, a marble cross by G. A. Molinari (1499), and 
a Renaissance pulpit by Molinari and Ant. Aprile of Lombardy 
(1522). Opposite is the Ateneo (unfinished), built for Julius II. by 
Giul. da Sangallo. The handsome theatre, erected in 1853, is dedi- 
cated to the poet Chiabrera (1552-1637), a native of the place. The 
oratory of Santa Maria di Castello has a large altar-piece by Vine. 
Foppa and Lod. Brea, with a portrait of the donor, Giuliano della 
Rovere (1490; injured). There is a small picture-gallery in the 
Ospedale Civico (open on Sun. & Thurs., 10-4). The church of Ma- 
donna degli Angeli affords a fine view of the town. — British Vice- 
Consul, Ottavio Ponzone. — Church Seamen's Institute for British 
sailors (services on Sun. and Tues., concert on Wed.). 

Santuario, see p. 48. From Savona to Turin, see pp. 48, 47; to Ales~ 
sandria, see p. 50. 

30y 2 M. Vado, the Vada Sabatia of the Romans. — On this 
side of (32 M.) Bergeggi we obtain a *Retrospect of the Riviera as 
far as Genoa. Then a tunnel and galleries, through the arches of 
which are seen the sea and the islet of Bergeggi, once the seat of a 
celebrated monastery. The construction of the line was difficult 
here ; the tunnels become longer. — 34 M. Spotorno, with an ex- 
cellent bathing beach. 

36 M. Noli (Ristor. d'ltalia, with bedrooms), a small and ancient 
town, charmingly ensconced among vineyards and olive-groves, has 
picturesque narrow streets, ancient towers, and the ruins of a castle. 
The small Romanesque basilica of San Paragorio, near the station, 
dates from the 11th century. — The Capo di Noli, 3 M. to the S., 
commands a wide view (adm. to the signal-station by ticket only). 

42 M. Finalmarina (Albergo Garibaldi, poor) is the seaport and 
principal part of Finale , which consists of three different villages ; 
it contains a cathedral by Bernini, in an elaborate baroque style. 

88 Route 17. ALASSIO. From Genoa 

To the left lies Finalborgo, the oldest part, with a castle; and 
towards the E. is Finalpla. In the neighbourhood are interesting 
caverns, with prehistoric remains. 

47 V2 M - Loano, with a ruined castle. To the right of the line 
is the suppressed monastery of Monte Carmelo, erected by the Dorias 
in 1609 and commanding a fine view. The large twelve-sided 
church of the village was also erected by the Dorias. — Beyond 
(49 ] /2 M.) Ceriale, with its market-gardens, the mountains recede. 

52V2 M - Albenga [Rail. Restaurant; Albergo a" Italia, Vittoria, 
both Italian), the Albingaunum of the Romans, is an ancient town 
(6231 inhab.) and episcopal see. Several chateaux of the old 
noblesse with lofty towers, and the Gothic cathedral with towers 
and elegant facade, are all of brick. The latter contains a ceiling- 
painting of the Resurrection, by Sante Bertelli (1892). Romanesque 
baptistery. Near the town are the remains of a Roman bridge (Ponte 
Lungo). — From Albengo to Garessio. see p. 47. 

To the left lies the rocky island of Gallinaria, crowned with a 
tower. — The train quits the coast and traverses olive -groves, 
vineyards, and orchards. It crosses the Centa and skirts the pro- 
montory of Santa Croce. Several tunnels. 

57 M. Alassio. — Hotels. *Gkand Hotel d'Alassio , with steam- 
heating, R. 3V2-5, B. I1/4, de"j. 3, D. 4'/2, pens. 9-12 fr. (L. extra), omn. 
1 fr. ; 'Hotel Salisbdkt, patronized by the English, pens. 9-12 fr. (the c e 
two of the first class); Savoy Hotel; Hot. Suisse, It. 3, B. l J /4, H. 3 l /2, 
pens. 7-8 fr. ; Hot. Bellevue; Hot. de la Mediterran£e, pens. 6-7 fr., on 
the shore, with garden; Concordia, pens. 7 fr., well spoken of; Victoria, 
an English family hotel, pens, from 6 fr. ; Hotel d'Italie et Pension des 
Anglais, R. from IV2 B. li/ 4 , dej. 2, D. 3, pens, from 6 fr. — Pension 
Villa Ldigia, pens. 7 J /2 fr. ; Pens. Val d'Olivo (English), 772-H fr. — 
Banker, House Agent, etc., Walter Congreve. — English Church. 

Alassio (16 ft.), a seaport with 5247 inhab., has a fine sandy 
beach, extending as far as Laigueglia. It is frequented in sum- 
mer as a bathing-place, and in winter as a health-resort, especially 
by English visitors. A pleasant promenade skirts the beach. 

58 M. Laigueglia. Restrospect of the Capo Santa Croce. The 
train penetrates the Capo delle Mele by means of a long tunnel. — 
60^2 M. Andora. Several tunnels. — QdifeM. Cervo, picturesquely 
situated on the slope. — 64 M.Diano Marina (Gr.-H6t. Paradis, with 
sea-baths), in a fertile plain, was the central point of the great 
earthquake of February, 1887, but has since then been largely 
rebuilt (2020 inhab.). It is frequented in summer as a bathing- 
place by the Italians. To the right, inland, is Diano Castello. — 
The train enters a more extensive plain, in which Oneglia and 
Porto Maurizio are situated. 

68V2 M. Oneglia (Rail. Restaurant ; Grand-Hotel Oneglia, pens, 
from 8 fr. ; Hot. Victoria; Alb. del Vapore), with 8252 inhab. and 
a shallow harbour, carries on a busy trade in olive-oil. The prison 
near the station resembles a church. Sea-bathing establishment. 

From Oneglia to Ormea, via the Col di Nava, see p. 48. 

to Ventimiglia. SAN REMO. 17. Route. 89 

The train crosses the broad and stony bed of the Impero, which 
the road crosses to the left by a suspension-bridge. — 70 M. Porto 
Maurizio (Hotel de France, at the station ; Commercio, in the town), 
with 7207 inhab. and a good harbour, is most picturesquely situated 
on a promontory amidst dense olive-groves. Olive-oil is the staple 
commodity, the finest kinds being produced here and at Oneglia. 
Porto Maurizio, with a fine domed church and a charming Giaidino 
Pubblico, is visited for sea-bathing. 

73M. San Lorenzo al Mare. The low, massive towers which rise 
at intervals along the coast to the right of the line, some of them 
converted into dwelling-houses, were erected in the 9th and iOtli 
centuries. — 77y 2 M. Santo Stefano - Rivaligure. To the right on 
the hill is the fortified Santo Stefano. The train crosses the Taggia, 
beyond which is (79*/ 2 M.) the station of Taggia. 

The picturesque little town of Taggia (omn. from San Remo , p. 90) 
lies 2V2 M. up the valley of the river. Giov. Dom. Ruffini (1807-81), poet 
and patriot, lived here from 1875 till his death. The read goes on via, 
(7 M.) Badalucco, at the beginning of the San Eemo acqueduct, and Mon- 
talto to (12>/2 M.) Triora. finely situated among the mountains. 

Beyond a short tunnel a valley on the right affords a charming 
view of Bussana Vecchia, romantically perched on a hillock. The 
ruins of this village, which was completely destroyed by the earth- 
quake of 1887, are worth visiting (key of the ruined church at 
Bussana Nuova, 1^2 M. lower down). The village opposite is 
Poggio, which first becomes visible. Then a tunnel under the 
Capo Verde. 

84^/4 M. San Eemo. — The Railway Station (PI. C, 4; Restaurant) 
lies on the W. hay, a few hundred yards beyond the new town. 

Hotels & Pensions. The better houses have electric light; nearly all 
have gardens. On the W. Bay, in an open situation: *West End Hotel 
(PI. g; A, 4), Corso Ponente. R. 31/2-91/2, B. iy 2 , dej. 4, D. 6, pens. 10-18, 
omn. 2 fr. ; <=Gr. Hot. Rotal (PI. e; B, 4), Corso dell 1 Imperatrice, R. 4-8, 
B. I1/2, dej. 31/2. D. 5, pens. II1/2-I8 fr. ; Gr. Hot. des Anglais (PI. b ; 
B, 4), Corso dell 1 Imperatrice, R. from 5, B. iy 2 , dej. 4, D. 6, pens, from 
9 fr. ; Gr. Hot. de Londres (PI. c: A, 4i , Corso Ponente, R. from 41/4, 
B. I1/2, de'j. 3V2, D. 5, pens, from 10 fr. ; all these of the first class, 
with lifts, the last two frequented by the English. — *H6t.-Pens. Qcisi- 
sana (PI. q; A, 4), above the Corso Ponente, with lift, R. 4-6, D. 5, pens. 
(L. extra) 8-14 fr. ; *Eden Hotel (PI. 1; A. 4), Corso Ponente, R. from 4, 
B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 472, pens, from 8 fr. ; Hut. Imperial, Corso delF Im- 
peratrice, pens. 7-12 fr. — Less pretentious: 'Hot. -Pens. Paradis et de 
Russie (PI. f ; B, 4), Corso deir Imperatrice, with steam-heating. R. from 
3, B. I1/4, D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr. ; Pens. Faclstich (PI. d; A, 4) v Corso Ponente, 
pens. 7-10 fr. ; Hot. -Pens. Bristol (PI. i; B, 4), Corso delP Imperatrice, 
R. from 3, B. li/ 4 , dej. 2i/ 2 , D. 4, pens, from 7i/ 2 'fr. ; Hot. Pavillon(P1. k; 

A, 4), Corso Ponente, R. 4, B. li/ 4 , dej. 3, D. 31/2, pens. 71/2-IO fr. , fre- 
quented by the English. — In the Via Bevigo, in an elevated situation : 
*Savot Hotel (PI. s 5 B. 3), with lift and steam-heating, R. 41/2-91/2, B. H/2, 
dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 10-18 fr. , first-class; Hot.-Pens. Belvedere (PI. y ; 

B, 3), Pens. Bellavista (PI. be; B, 3), English Pension (PI. m; B, 3), all 
three English. — Near the Station and in the New Town: '-Hot. de Paris 
(PI. n; C, 4), Corso dell' Imperatrice, with lift, R. 4-5, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, 
pens. 10-12 fr. 5 *H6t. d'Ecrope et de la Paix (PI. a; C, 4), with lift, 
R. from 3 3 /4, B.IV2, dej. 3, D. 4V2, pens, from 81/2 fr. ; 'Hot. Cosmopolitain 

90 Route 17. SAN KEMO. From Genoa 

(PI. z; C, 4), Via Roma, R. 3-5, B. iy 4 , dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr.; Hotel 
Metropole & Terminus (PI. o; C, 4), Via Roma, R. 2-3, B. IV4-IV2, dej. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 6-8 fr. ; Central et du Commerce (PI. co; C, 3), Via Andrea 
Carli, with cafe-restaurant and bowling-alley, recommended to passing 
tourists, R. from 2'/2, B. 1, dej. 3, D. incl wine 4 fr. ; Hot. de la Reine, 
Corsi dell 1 Imperatrice, adjoining the Giardino Pubblico ; Hotel National, 
Via Vitt. Emanuele, R. 2y 2 4V2, B. 11/4, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 6-9 fr., unpretend- 
ing; Hot. Sanremo Molinari, Via Roma; Hot. Grande Bretagne, Via Vitt. 
Emanuele, these two quite Italian. — On the E. Bay, in a sheltered and 
quiet situation: *Grand Hotel Bellevde (PI. p;F, i), adjoining the 
Villa Zirio, with lift, R. from 43/ 4 , B. H/2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens, 'from 12 fr. ; 
*Gr.-Hot. de la Mediterranee (PI. w; F, 2), with lift, R. 3-7, B. li/ 2 , dej. 
3V2, B. 5, pens. 9-14 fr.; *Gr.-Hotel Victoria (PI. x; F, 2), R. 43/ 4 -73/ 4 , B. 
1V2, dej. 0V2, D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr., these three in the Corso Felice CavaHotti; 
*Gr.-Hotel de Nice (PI. t; E, 2), Corso Garibaldi, with lift, R. 3V2-6, 
B. IV2, dej. 31/2, D. 5, pens. 9-14 fr.; all these of the first class. Hot. de 
Rome (PI. v; F, 2), Corso Felice Cavallotti, with lift, R. 31/2-5, B. D/2, 
dej. 3, D. 472, pens. 7-11 fr., well spoken of. Plainer: Pens. Villa Linden- 
hof (PI. r; F, 2), near the sea, pens. 8-12 fr. ; Pens. Zahn (Schweizer- 
hof; PI. u, E 2), Corso Garibaldi, pens. 8-10 fr. ; Pens, du Parc, Via di 
Francia (PI. D, E, 2), pens. 6-9 fr.; Pens, des Etrangers, Corso Gari- 
baldi. — Sanatorium Riviera (PI. h; D, E, 2), in a lofty situation near 
the Via Peirogallo. 

In summer only the H6t. de Paris, Hot. Central, Hot. National, H6t. 
Sanremo, H8t. Grande Bretagne, and Pens, du Parc are open. 

Apartments (comp. pp. xx, xxx). Suites of apartments are to be found 
in the Via Vittorio Emanuele, Corso dell" 1 Imperatrice, Via Feraldi, Corso 
Garibaldi, Via Umberto, and Via Roma. Those in other parts of the town 
are less desirable, owing to the coldness of the streets. Villas abound ; 
rent for the winter 1500-12,000 fr., including furniture and other requisites 
(distinct bargain necessary). Lists of apartments and villas at the Angto- 
American Agency (late Agence Congreve), Via Vitt. Emanuele 16, and at the 
Agence Benecke et Heywood, in the same street. 

Cafes-Restaurants. Roma, Via Roma (band in the evening) ; Commerce, 
in the Hot. Central, see above; Europien, Via Vitt. Emanuele; Cavour, 
Via Vitt. Emanuele 18, Maison Dorie, Via Umberto, these two simple. — 
Confectioner. Thewes, facing the Giardino Pubblico. 

Music in the Giar. Pubblico on Sun., Tues., & Thurs. afternoon. — 
Operas at the Teatro Principe Amedeo (PI. D, 3) from 1st Jan. to Easter. — 
Music Hall at the Berliner Restaurant, Via Vitt. Emanuele 27. 

Carriages. Drive in the lower town 1 fr., with two horses IV2 fr. (at 
night I1/2 or 2V 2 fr.) ; per hour 2 or 3 fr. (at night 3 or 3V2 fr.); drive 
in the upper town, H/2, 2, 2, or 3 fr. ; per hour 21/2, 3»/2, 3, or 4 fr. If 
luggage over 40 lbs., each box 1 / 2 fr. One-horse carr. to the Madonna della 
Costa 3fr. ; the same, returning by the Via Barragallo, 8 fr. ; to Mentone 
30fr. — Donkey per day 5, half-day 3fr., and gratuity. — Boat per hour 
for 1 person 1 fr., for several 2 fr. and fee (bargaining advisable). 

Omnibus through the town every 1/2 br. (10 c.) ; from Piazza Colombo 
to Taggia at 7 and 10 a.m. and at 5 p.m. (50 c), to Ceriana at 2 p.m. (1 fr.), 
to Ospedaletti at 6.30 and 10 30 a.m. and 1.30 and 4.30 p.m. (30 c.) , to 
Bordighera at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. (60 c). 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. D, 3), Via Roma, in the CasaPiccone; 
open 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. (till midnight from Dec. 1st to April 30th). 

Bankers. Asquasciati ; Rubino; Mombello, Debraud, & Co.; Agence Con- 
greve, all in the Via Vitt. Emanuele ; The Bank, Corf dell 1 Imperatrice 4. 

Tourist Agents. Thos. Cook <k Son. at the Agence Benecke et Heywood ; 
Messrs. Gaze & Son, at the Agence Congreve. 

Shops. Booksellers: Diemer, Corso Garibaldi 30; Gandolfo, Via Vitt. 
Emanuele 21, both with lending-libraries ; Pfyffer, Via Vitt. Emanuele 28. — 
Among the specialties of the place are inlaid wood (Anfossi, Di Leva, Via 
Vitt. Emanuele) and the perfumes manufactured by Ajcardi. 

to Ventimiglia. SAN REMO. 17. Route. 91 

Physicians. English, Dr. Freeman, Villa delle Palme; Dr. Foster, Villa 
Lamberti; Dr. Blackie- Smith, Villa Victoria; Dr. Hort, Villa Primavera : 
Dr. Cricht on- Miller, Via Vitt. Emanuele 18; Dr. LUHe, II Bel Soggiorno, 
Berigo. German, Drs. Secchi, Rieth, Pohl. Baur, De Ponte, Wauer, Euckein, 
and Czirfuxz; Italian, Drs. Bobone, Martinucci, Ameglio. and Ansaldi. — 
Dentists: Whiting, Via Vitt. Emanuele 19; Martini, Via Francia; Powers, 
Via Asquasciati 1; Armaldi, Via Privata. — Chemists. Squire, Via Vit- 
torio Emanuele 17: Peinemann & Wiedemann, Via Vitt. Emanuele 10 fPl. 
Ap.; C 3), undertake chemical and microscopical analyses; Jordan, Via 
Vitt. Emanuele 28. — German Hospital, in the Villa Maddalena, Via Peiro- 
gallo (PI. D K; F, 1). — Baths in the Via Privata and in the Stdbilimento 
del Bagni di Mare (PI. E, 2), Passeggiata Imperatore Federico. 

British Vice-Consul, Meysey Turton, Esq. — U.S. Consular Agent, Signer 
Alberto Ameglio, Villa Bracco. 

English Churches. St. John the Baptist's, Via Roma. — All Saints', 
Corso deir Imperatrice; chaplain. Rev. C. Daniel. — Scottish and American, 
Church (Presbyterian Service), Corso dell' Imperatrice 4. 

Golf Links (9 holes) at Arma di Taggia, near Taggia (see pp. 89, CO). 

Climate. San Remo is sheltered by an unbroken semicircular hill 
rising from the Capo Nero to the Piano Carparo (3000 ft.), culminating 
in the Monte Caggio (3575 ft.) and Monte Bignone (4260 ft.), and descend- 
ing thence to the Capo Verde, its summit being nowhere more than 4 M. 
distant in a straight line. The N. winds are, therefore, entirely excluded 
from this favoured spot, especially as a double range of Alps rises behind 
the town a little farther back, while the force of the E. and W. winds 
is much broken. Violent E. winds, however, frequently occur at the end 
of February and the beginning of March , and the 'Mistral' is also an un- 
welcome visitor at this season. — To consumptive and bronchial patients 
the E. bay is recommended on account of its sheltered situation and humid 
atmosphere, while sufferers from nervous and liver complaints will find 
the dry and stimulating air of the W. bay more beneficial. — The mean 
temperature of the three winter months is 51° Fahr. 

San Remo, a town of 20,027 inhab., lies in the middle of a 
beautiful bay, 5^2 M". long, embosomed in olive-groves that cover 
the valleys and lower slopes and give place higher up to pines and 
other coniferae. It has been a health-resort since 1861. 

The crowded houses of the old town occupy a steep hill be- 
tween the short valleys of the Torrente del Convento and the Tor- 
rente di San Romolo. A smaller quarter named Castigliuoli lies to 
the W. of the latter stream. These older parts of the town consist 
of a curious labyrinth of narrow lanes, flights of steps, archways, 
lofty and sombre houses, and mouldering walls. The arches which 
connect the houses high above the streets are intended to give them 
stability in case of earthquakes. Vines are frequently seen clam- 
bering up the houses and putting forth their tendrils and leaves 
on the topmost stories. 

The new town, occupying the alluvial land at the foot of the 
hill, contains all the public buildings. The long Via Vittorio Ema- 
nuele (PI. C, D, 3), with its numerous shops, is the chief centre of 
traffic. To the S.E. is the fort of Santa Tecla (PI. D, 3, 4; now a 
prison), constructed by the Genoese to defend the small harbour, 
which is sheltered by a sickle-shaped Breakwater 1300 ft. in 
length. A survey from the parapet of this Molo will convey an idea 
of the sheltered position of San Remo. 

92 Route 17, SAN REMO. From Genoa 

The Via Vitt. Emanuele leads to the small Giardino Pubblico or 
Giardino Maria Vittoria (PI. C, 3; concerts, see p. 90), and to the 
*Cokso dell' Imperatrice (PI. B, C, 4), on the W. bay, which is 
planted with palms (benches). This magnificent promenade, the 
favourite winter-resort of the -visitor, skirts the railway and the sea, 
terminating towards the beautiful Giardino delV Imperatrice 
(PI. A, B, 4), laid ont, like the Corso itself, at the expense of the 
Empress Maria Alexandrowna of Russia (d. 1880). Beyond the 
garden the promenade is continued by the Corso Ponente (PL A, 4). 

A delightful drive (tariff, see p. 90) is afforded by the *Via 
Berigo (PI. A, B, C, 4-2), which diverges to the N.W. from the 
Corso Ponente and ascends the valley of the Torrente dtlla Foce. 
It then turns to the E. and, flanked by beautiful gardens, winds 
along the hillside, finally descending in a sharp curve to the 
Giardino Pubblico. About the middle of this road lies the — 

Villa Thiem (PI. A, 4), on the left, containing the valuable 
*Pkture Gallery of HerrAd. Thiem. The collection consists mainly 
of Netherlandish works and is especially rich in portraits and land- 
scapes by the great masters of the 17th century. It is open to the 
public on Tues. & Thurs., 11-12 (adm. 1 fr., devoted to charitable 
purposes), but lovers of art will probably obtain admission at other 
times also. 

The Vestibule contains a fine old Persian carpet and two Flemish 
tapestries (16th cent.). On the Staircase, adorned with German and 
Italian carvings : Hans Memling, "Madonna ; Tintoretto, Venus ; Crivelli, Saints. 
— A Renaissance door (from Bologna), leads into the — 

Picture Gallery, which is lighted from the roof. Among the best 
pictures are the following : — Rogier van der Weyden, Adoration of the Child ; 
Dirck Bouts, """Crucifixion, 'Christ at the house of Simon the Pharisee; Style 
of B. van Orley, Annunciation; Rachel Ruyfch, Flowers; A. van Beyeren, 
Fruit, Fish; Jan Fyt, 'Fish and fruit, 'Dead game, 'Poultry; W. Kalf, 
Still-life; G. Terburg, Portrait; G. Horst, Fruit; A. van Ostade, Pig-killing; 
75. van Ostade, Laughing peasant; P. deHooch, Interior (165S); /. van Ruysdael, 
Oaks hy the water-side (evening-light ; an early work, ca. 1648), Landscape 
(ca. 1660), Coast-scene; W. Heda, Breakfast-pieces; A. van Dyck, ''Full- 
length portrait of the Marchesa Geronima Spinola-Doria (the gem of the 
collection); ./. van Goyen, Landscape, Skating scene; /. van der Heyde, Hill- 
town; Jac. Backer, 'Portrait; Jan Verm<>er van Delft, Interior; Tenitrs the 
Younger, Landscape; M. d'Hondecoeler, Poultry; Frans Snyders, *Cock-fight, 
c Kitch en-table; /. 1). de Heem (more probably Mahu), Break fast- table ; Jan 
Sleen, After the breakfast. —Also: Ercole de'' Roberti, ; St. Jerome; Fr. Clouet, 
Diana of Poitiers (?). — In the Private Apartments : Master of the Death 
of the Virgin, Triple altar-piece in an antique frame (Crucifixion, Saints, 
and Donors); Rembrandt, t: The Constable 1 , portrait of a Dutchman (1644); 
S. de Vlieger, Dutch fleet in the Maas; Tiepolo, Allegory; L. Knaus, Five 

Farther to the E. and a little below the road is the fine palm-garden 
of the Villa Pirva ( Herr von Huttner), to which visitors are admitted 
on Wed. & Sat., 10-12 and 2-4 (1 fr., for charitable purposes). 

The Via Borgo, the N. prolongation of the Via Berigo, runs up 
one side and down the other of the Romolo valley, passing the 
Madonna del Borgo (PI. B, 1). It then runs to the S.E. to the white 
dome-covered church of Madonna della Costa (PI. C, 2), which is 

to Ventimiglia. OSPEDALETTI. 17. Route. 93 

perched on the top of the hill as the keystone of the old town. The 
church is approached hy alleys of cypresses and commands a fine 
view of hay and mountain. In front there is a large Hospital PI. C, 2). 

From the Madonna della Costa the sheltered Via Barragallo 
(PL C, D, 1,2) descends circuitously to the Via di Francia(¥\. D,E, 2). 

The main thoroughfare of the quarters on the E. hay is formed 
hy the Corso Garibaldi (PI. D, E, 2) and its E. prolongation, the 
Corso Felice Cavallotti (PI. E,F, 2). A little above the latter, next to 
the Bellevue Hotel, is the Villa Villeneuve or Zirio (no admission), 
where the dying Crown Prince Frederick William resided from 
Nov., 1887, to March, 1888. — The chief promenades in this quarter 
are the high-lying Via Peirogalh (PL E, F, 2, 1) and the quiet 
Passeggiata Imperatore Federico (PL E, F, 2), by the sea. 

Excursions. A beautiful and easily reached point of view is the "Ma- 
donna della Guardia (370 ft.) on Capo Verde (best view in the morning ; 
carr. with one horse 8, with two horses 10 fr.). The ascent begins at the 
Dazio Comunale, about 1 3 A 31. to the E. of San Eemo. The return from 
the church may be made by Poggio (see below). About 1 M. beyond the 
Dazio Comunale, on the other side of the embouchnre of the Arma, a 
rough road diverges to the left, leading to Bwsana Vecchia (p. 89). — To 
Taggia, see p. 90. — To San Pietro, 2 hrs. — A good road (omn , see p. 90) 
leads via, Poggio (p. 89) to the (8V2 M.) picturesque hill-town of Ceriana 
(1210 ft.). — A road leads through the charming valley of San Martino to 
the (272 hrs.) prettily situated Verezzo. — To San Romolo (2580 ft.), a 
summer-resort in the upper valley of the Romolo, a donkey-ride of 2 J /2 hrs. 
(6 fr.). This excursion may be continued via, the [}fa hr.) Piano del Re 
(3105 ft.) to the (iy 2 br.) * Monte Bignone (4260 ft.; panorama of the sea 
with Corsica to the S., and the Maritime Alps to the N.). — To Coldirodi 
(see below) by Ospedaletti 2 hrs. ; or direct, by a very ancient road, 1 hr. — 
Via Ospedaletti to (2>/2 hrs.) Bordighera (omn., see p. 90). — Via Bordi- 
ghera to Dolceacqua and Isolabona (p. 96; omn., see p. 90); the return 
may be made by Bajardo and Ceriana (see above). 

The train passes through a tunnel under Capo Nero, while the 
road winds round the promontory high above the sea. 

87 Y2 M. Ospedaletti. — Hotels. ''Hotel de la Eeixe, with lift and 
steam-heating, E. from 4, B. IV2, dej. 4, D. 5, pens, from 8, omn. l J /2 fr. ; 
Hot.-Pens. Suisse, E. 2»/r4, B. H/2, dej. 3. D. 4, pens. 7-12, omn. 1 fr. ; 
*Hot. Eotal Gugcielmina, E. 21/2-3, B. H/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr., 
patronized bv the English (not adapted lor invalids); Hot. Metbopole, 
very fair, E,*3. B. D/4- dej. 21/2, D. 0I/2. P. 6-9 fr. ; Hot.-Pens. Eivieka, 
pens, from 6V2 fr., Italian. — Also Private Apartments. — De. Osteins 
Sanatorium, comfortably fitted up. — English Church Service in winter. — 
Physicians, Dr. Enderlin; Dr. Oster (see above). — Concerts in the Casino 
(with restaurant and reading-room) on Mon. and Frid. at 2.45 p.m. — 
Post <k Telegraph Office next the Hot. Me'tropole. — Omnibus to San Eemo 
and Bordighera, see p. 90. 

Ospedaletti (10 ft.), in a sheltered and most favourable situation, 
with walks free from dust, has recently been converted into a 
winter-resort at great expense. This is the station for the loftily- 
situated (1 hr.) Coldirodi (830 ft.), the town-hall of which contains 
an inconsiderable picture-gallery. 

91 M. Bordighera. — Hotels and Pensions (largely patronized by 
the English). On the Strada Eomana (p. 94), named from W. to E.: 
'Geasd Hotel Axgst, in a sheltered situation, with fine garden, E. from 

94 Route 17. BORDIGHERA. From Genoa 

41/2, B. IV2, dej. 3V2-4, D. 5-6, pens. 10-18 fr. ; 'Hotel Royal, R. 4-8, 
B. IV2, dej. 3i/a, D. 5, pens. 9-16 fr. , both with lift steam-heating, and 
electric light; "Hotel Belvedere, R. 5-6, B. iy 2 , dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-15 fr., 
in an open situation; Hotel de Londkes (PI. c), English; Pens. Con- 
stantia (PL d), pens. 6-IOV2 fr.; Hotel Bella Vista (PI. e), with fine 
view, R. 31/2-6, B. I1/4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 8-11 fr. ; Pens, du Paradis, 
Strada dei Colli, pens. 6-9 fr. — In the Viale Imperatrice Federico : H6t.- 
Pens. Savoy (PI. 1), R. from 4, B. I1/2, dej. 2i/ 2 , D. 4, pens, from 10 fr. ; 
*H6t. Boedigheea et Terminus (PI. b), with steam-heating, R. from 4, B. 
1*Aj dej. 2 ! /2, D. 3 x /2, pens. 6-8 fr. — Lower down, in or near the Via 
Vittorio Emanuele (see below) : Hot. Lozeeon (PI. g), with a large garden, 
R. from 3, B. ii/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens. 9-11 fr. ; °Ge. Hotel des Iles 
Britanniques (PL h), R. 3-6, B. H/2, de'j. 3, D. 4, pens. 8-12 fr. ; "Hotel 
d'Angletebee (PI. f), with electric light and garden, R 3-6, B. H/2, de'j. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. ; Hot. Windsoe, on the beach, 1/2 M. to the W. of the 
station, R. 4-7, de'j. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr.; Hot. Cosmopolitain (PL in), 
at the station, with restaurant; Pens, des Oltviers (PL i); Pens. Jolie 
(PL k), Strada Margherita, pens. 6-7 fr. 

In summer only the Hdtel Windsor and the Pensions des Oliviers and 
Jolie are open. 

Restaurants. Gaffe -Ristorante Ligure; Caffe delta Slazione. — Cafe: 
Berger, Via Vitt. Emanuele. 

Physicians: Br. Banners, Br. Hubbard (English); Br. Sauer, Br. Nau- 
niann, Br. Herschel, Br. Koch (German) ; Br. Agnetti, Br. Odelli, Br. Boggio 
(Italian). — Dentists: Saltarelli, Viviani. — Chemists: Calvauna, Tassarotti, 

English Church: All Saints', Via Bischoffsheim, services at 8, 10.30, 
and 3; chaplain, Rev. Arthur T. Burnett, M.A. 

Post & Telegraph Office, Via Vittorio Emanuele, open 8-12.30 and 

British Vice-Consul, E. E. Berry, Esq. — Bankers: Giribaldi; The Bank 
(also money-changer's); Berry, Casa Balestra (Engl. Banker); the last two 
are also agents for furnished apartments. 

Palms & Flowers at L. Winter's, Via Vittorio Emanuele. 

Cabs (for 1 or 2 pers.) : per drive 1, with two horses l ! /2 fr. ; per 
hour 2, 3 fr. ; each ad«Jit. pers. 25 c. more; to San Remo, with stay of 1 hr., 
10 or 15 fr., to Mentone 20 or 30 fr. 

Omnibus via, Ospedaletti to San Remo (8 a.m. and at noon), see p. 90. — 
Electric Tramway from the Piazza Mazzini by the Via Vitt. Eman. to 
Ventimiglia (p. 96), every V4 hr. in winter (45 or 30 c). 

Climate. The strangers 1 quarter is formed by the Strada Romana, now 
converted into a wide and dust-free promenade running along the slope 
through groves of pine and olive. Only its E. end is fairly sheltered, the 
rest being exposed to the dry coast-winds. Serious cases of illness are 
therefore not usually sent to Bordighera, which, in contrast to the other 
Riviera stations, is frequented mainly by convalescents and tourists. — 
The mean temperature of the three winter-months is 48° Fahr. 

Bordighera (3886 inhab.), first "brought into general notice "by 
Ruffini's novel 'Dr. Antonio', consists of an old upper quarter, on 
the higher ground of the Capo Sant' Ampeglio, and a new lower 
quarter between the coast-road (here named Via Vittorio Emanuele) 
and the Strada Romana. A new Coast Promenade, l^M. in length, 
constructed in 1900, extends from the foot of the rocky cape to the 
Via Bischoffsheim. 

From the Via Vittorio Emanuele, in which stands the Chiesa di 
Terrasanta, built by Gamier, the new Viale Imperatrice Federico 
and other cross-streets ascend to the Strada Romana (the ancient 

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to Ventimiglia. BORDIGHERA. 17. Route. 95 

Via Aurelid), which ends on the W. at the Borghetto brook. This 
tine street affords charming views of the palm-gardens of the Hotel 
Angst and the Villa Etelinda (built by Gamier). On its S. side, below 
the Hotel de Londres, is the New Museum, or International Free 
Library, founded by Mr. Bicknell and containing a reading-room, 
a concert-hall, a small library, a unique collection of the flora of 
the Riviera, a collection of minerals, and an archaeological collection 
(including fragments and casts of the rock-inscriptions mentioned 
at p. 46). — A magnificent *View is obtained from the Spianata 
del Capo, on the top of the promontory, at the E. end of the road: 
to the left, the bay of Ospedaletti ; to the right, Ventimiglia, Mentone, 
Cap Martin, Monaco, the Monts Esterel, and the snow-fleckedAlpes 

Bordighera is famous for its floriculture (roses, carnations, ane- 
mones, etc.), which partly supplants olive-growing, and for its 
date-palms (Phoenix dactylifera), of which, however, the fruit seldom 
ripens sufficiently to be edible. Like lies d'Hyere and Elche (see 
Baedeker's Spain) Bordighera does a large business in supplying 
palm-branches to Roman Catholic churches for Palm Sunday and 
to Jewish communities for the Feast of Tabernacles. For the former 
purpose the leaves are bleached on the trees by being tightly bound 
up. — The finest palms are seen in the above-named gardens, in 
that of the Villa Gamier (to the E. of the town), at Herr Winter's 
Vallone Garden, 3 / 4 M. to the E., near the Sasso bridge, and in the 
*Madonna Garden at Ruota, 3 / 4 M. beyond the bridge, belonging 
to the same owner and containing the celebrated Scheffel Palms 
(open at all hours). 

From the Vallone Garden we may ascend the Valley of the Sasso 
(in dry weather) to the (2^2 M.) Aqueduct and return thence to 
(1 M.) Bordighera along the conduit. — Another pleasant walk is 
afforded by the Strada dei Colli, to the N. of the old town. At 
the end of the road, immediately beyond the Villa Biancheri, a 
footpath leads to the left to the Torre dei Mostaccini, a good view- 
point (key kept by Avvocato Cabagni, Via Vittorio Emanuele). 

Excursions: from Old Bordighera by foot and bridle paths through 
beautiful olive-groves to ( 3 /4 hr.) Sasso. — To (2 l / 2 31.) Vallebona via 
Borghetto. — Through the Vallecrosia Valley, via Vallecrosia , San Biagio 
della Cima, and Soldano , to (3V2-4 hrs.) Perinaldo, a village commanding 
beautiful views. — The ascent of the "Cima di San Biagio or Cima di Santa 
Croce (1060 ft. ; there and back 2-3 hrs.) is highly attractive. Crossing 
the Borghetto at the W. end of the Strada Romana, we proceed past the 
chapel of the Madonna di Loreto to the valley of Vallecrosia ; a footpath 
on the opposite side of the valley ascends to the N. over the ridge (Cima 
Bamassa) to the chapel on the summit. We may return by a steep path 
among vineyards to Vallecrosia (see above). — To Bolceacqua and Pigna, 
see p. 96. — To Coldirodi via (3^/2 M.) Ospedaletti, see p. 93. 

To the right of the line we pass the Protestant school of Valle- 
crosia (shown to visitors on Mon., Wed., & Thurs.). Crossing the Ner- 
via, we obtain a glimpse of the Maritime Alps. The line crosses the 
road; on the left are scanty remains of the Roman theatre of Nervia. 

96 Route 17. VENTIMIGLIA. 

94 M. Veatimiglia. — Hotels. Hotel-Restaurant de l'Eurore, 
R. from 2, dej. I 1 /?, D. 3 x /2 fr., incl. wine; Hot. Suisse et Terminus, at 
the station, both unpretending. — Cafes-Restaurants. Ristorante Tornaghi, 
Via della Stazione; Maison Dorie, at the station; Cafi de Paris, Via Prin- 
cipe Amedeo — Monet Changers at the rail, station. — Goods Agents, 
Fratelli Gondrand — Electric Tramway to Bordighera , see p. 94. — 
Omnibus to Dolceacqua (1 fr.) and to Mentone. — One-horse Carriage to 
Mentone 5-6 fr. (bargaining necessary; stand at the rail, station). 

Ventimiglia (45 ft. ; Fr. Vintimille), the Roman Albintemelium, 
the Italian frontier- town, with 11,468 inhah. and the seat of a bishop, 
lies picturesquely on a hill beyond the Roja. In the Municipio is 
a small collection of Roman antiquities from Nervia (see p. 95). 
The Cathedral and the little church of San Michele are interesting; 
the columns of the vaulted crypt of the latter bear Roman inscrip- 
tions. Fine view of the Roja valley through the Porta Romana. 

A road ascends from Ventimiglia in about 1 hr. to the ruined Castello 
d'Appio (fine views). Outside the Porta di Nizza we turn to the right and 
take the branch to the left at the first fork. — Another road (omn., see 
above) leads through the Val Nervia to (l 3 /4 hr.) Dolceaqua, with the 
ruined ancestral castle of the Dorias of Genoa, and thence via Isolabona 
to (2 hrs.) Pigna. 

From Ventimiglia to Mentone, Monte Carlo, and Nice, see Baedeker's 
Southern France. — From Ventimiglia to Tenda and Vievola (for Cuneo 
and Turin), see R. 9. 

18. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante. 

102V2 M. Railway in 3?/4-7 3 A hrs. (fares 19 fr. 15, 13 fr. 45, 8 fr. 60 c; 

express 21 fr. 10, 14 fr. 80 c). The trains start from the Stazione Piazza 
Principe (local trains to Chiavari also from the Stazione Piazza Brignole; 
comp. the time-tables). Tickets to Nervi, Rapallo, etc. by the fast express 
are issued only as extensions of tickets to Genoa, on application being 
made to the 'Controllore'' or to the station-master immediately on the 
traveller's arrival in Genoa. Local passengers from Genoa with tickets 
for stations short of Chiavari (San Pier d' Arena in the opposite direction) 
are not allowed to travel by the express trains. — For the sake of the 
view, seats should be taken on the left side of the carriage at the Stazione 
Piazza Principe, and on the right side at the Stazione Piazza Brignole. 
Between Nervi and Spezia the view is much interrupted by the numerous 
tunnels. It is dangerous to lean out of the carriage-window. — Electric 
Tramway to Nervi, see p. 68. 

Genoa, p.' 66. The train backs out of the Stazione Piazza Prin- 
cipe, and then starts in the opposite (E.) direction, passing through 
a long tunnel under the higher parts of the town (4-5 min.). 

2 M. Stazione Piazza Brignole. To the left we obtain a view 
of the fortress-crowned heights around Genoa (comp. p. 70). 

On the Riviera di Levante, or coast to the E. of Genoa, the 
vegetation is less luxuriant than on the Riviera di Ponente (p. 85), 
but the scenery is almost more striking. The line is carried through 
numerous cuttings and more tban eighty tunnels, some very long. 
The villages present a town-like appearance , with their narrow 
streets and lofty houses, closely built on the narrow sea-board or in 
confined valleys, and mostly painted externally as at Genoa. 

The train crosses the insignificant Bisagno, and passes under 

U.W. by the Monte Moro, a spur of the Monte Fasce, and on the E. by the 
Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 7 • 

NERVI 18. Route. 97 

tlie Collina d'Albaro (p. 84) by means of a tunnel. 4 M. Sturla 
(Hot. Sturla, dej. 2 l / 2 , D. 3 3 / 4 , pens, from 7 fr., incl. wine), with 
good sea-baths. To the right, the Mediterranean ; to the left, the 
olive-clad slopes of the Apennines, sprinkled with country-houses. 
Tunnel. 5 M. Quarto (p. 84). Tunnel. — 6 M. Quinto (Alb. Quinto, 
with view -terrace and sea- baths), with numerous villas, dense 
lemon-groves, and fine palm-trees. In the foreground rises the pro- 
montory of Three tunnels. 

7^2 M. Nervi. — Hotels (comp. p. six; with steam-heating, electric 
light, and gardens). 'Eden Hotel, a large house on the hill above the 
town, with garden stretching to the sea, R. 4-10, B. iV2, dej. 3'/2, D. 4V2, 
pens. 8-15 (L. extra), bath 3, omn. H/2 fr. ; "Grand Hotel, in the main 
street, adjoining the park of Marchese Gropallo (p. 98), R. 3'/2-S, B. IV2, 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-lb (L. extra), omn. 1 fr.; *H6t.-Pens. Victoria, near 
the station and the sea, R. from 3 3 /i, B. l>/4, dej. 2'/2, D. 4, pens. 8-12 fr. ; 
Hut. Savoie, Via Carignano , near the station, R. 2V2-6, B. li/ 2 , de'j. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 8-14 fr. ; "Strand Hotel, in an open situation with fine views, 
at the W end of the coast promenade, R. 3-6V2, B. IV4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 
(L. extra) 7-12 fr. — Park Hotel, at the E. end of the town, R.from 3, 
pens. 7-10 fr., with grounds stretching to the sea and a cafe-restaurant on the 
terrace over the sea; Hot. d'Allemagne, next the preceding; Hot. -Pens. 
Nervi, R. 2>/ 2 -3V2 fr., L. 30 c, B. iy 2 , dej. 21/2, 1>. 4, pens. 71/2-IO fr. : 
Schweizerhof, R. 2-5, B. U/4, D. 372, S. 2V2, pens. 7- 10 fr., these two in 
the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, at the corner of the Viale Vittorio Emanuele, 
leading to the station. 

Pensions (usually with gardens). P. Bonera, to the W. of the town, 
7-9 fr. ; P. Biirgi, next the Villa Gropallo, 7-10 fr.; P. Centrale, P. Splendide, 
P. de la Ville, these three at. the W. end of the town, near the Giardino 
Pubblico ; P. Prmtempt, near the station and the sea, pens. 6-7 fr. ; P. Mitro- 
2Jole, P. Rimera. P. Concordia (S-l 1 ^ fr.), in the street leading to the station; 
P. Bellevue, 6-8 fr. (L. ext~a), P. Beau-Site, 6 fr., these two in picturesque 
situations in the Via Belvedere, on the road to Sanf llano ; P. Frisia, 
6-7 fr. ; P. Beau-Rivage (6-9 fr.), P. Russe, at the E. end of the town. — 
The following pensions are under medical superintendence: P. Quisisana, 
near the Eden Hotel; Villa Rosengarten, 8 fr. ; P. Hygiea; Reconvalescenten- 
heim, for patients of limited means, 6 fr. 

All the hotels and pensions, except the Hdi. Schweizerhof. P. de la Ville., 
P. Riviera, P. Concordia, and P. Russe , are closed in summer. — Furnished 
Apartments (800-1500 fr. for the season") and villas (2500-4000 fr.) are 
scarce. Agents, Ant. Cerruti, Crovetto, Via del Pozzo 75 and 98. 

Restaurants. Ristorante Cristoforo Colombo, Piazza Vitt. Emanuele; 
Schweizerhof, see above. — Cafes. SclvclerCs Park Caff, see above; CMilano, 
Piazza Vitt. Eman. ; C. des Palmiers, Via del Pozzo ; C. Miramare, on the 
Coast Promenade. 

Post & Telegraph Office, Via Corvetto 134 (8 a.m. to 9 p.m.). 

Cabs. Per drive in the town 50 c, with two horses 1 fr. ; at night 
1 or IV2 fr. ; per hour, l'/2, 2, 2, and 2 J /2 fr. Special tariff for drives 
beyond the town (to Rapallo, 12 or 14 fr. ; to Portofino, 18 or 20 fr.). 

Electric Tramway (starting from the Piazza Vitt. Emau.) and Road to 
Genoa, see p. 6S. 

Physicians. Dr. Alexander, Dr. Lindemann, Dr. Meyer, Dr. Neukonvn, 
Dr. Ortenau, Dr. Schneegans, Dr. Stifkr, Dr. Thomas, Dr. Weissenberg. — 
Chemists. Gallo, Via Corvetto 137;* Guth, Piazza Belvedere. — English 
Church Service at the Eden Hotel. 

Music, daily at 3 p.m. on the Coast Promenade. — Visitors 1 Tax, IV2 fr. 
per week. — Visitors' 1 List, Pro-Neni, twice a month, 25 c. 

Climate, etc. Nervi, the most important winter-station on the E. 
Riviera, is backed on the N. by Monte Gi'igo. and is sheltered on the 
TS.W. by the Monte Moro, a spur of the Monte Fasce, and on the E. by the 

Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 7 • 

98 Route 18. NERVJ. From Genoa 

promontory of Portofino, while it lies fully exposed to the S.E. wind. 
Its mean winter temperature (52° Fahr.) is almost the same as that of 
the W. Riviera, but the rainfall at Nervi is more copious and the periods 
of dry weather less prolonged. The relative moisture of the three winter 
months is 63 per cent. 

Nervi, a small town with 6317 inhab., surrounded with groves 
of olives, oranges, and lemons, is much frequented in winter by 
English and Germans, as a health-resort. The Viale Vittorio 
Emanuele, with its fine palms, leads to the N. from the railway- 
station to the (3 min.) town, which is intersected from W. to E. by 
the highroad, here called Via Cavour (to the "W.) and Via del Pozzo 
(J;o the E.). In the Via Cavour are the Giardino Pubblico (left) and 
the Villa Croce (No. 113 ; right) ; in the Via del Pozzo are the beauti- 
ful Park of the Marchese Gropallo (entrance No. 55, fee 1/2 fr. ; some- 
times closed), with an old watch-tower on the Coast Promenade, 
and the Villa Serra. All these are noteworthy for their luxuriant 
vegetation (orange-trees, aloes, palms, etc.). 

A feature of the place is the dust-free and sunny *Coast Prom- 
enade, which runs along the shore above the rocky beach, and is 
protected by a lofty wall on the landward side. Pleasantly placed 
benches on the promenade and in the adjoining gardens afford rest- 
ing-places for patients who wish to be much in the open air without 
taking active exercise. 

The Via Belvedere, beginning at the Piazza Belvedere, about the middle 
of the main street, ascends in curves to ( 3 /4 hr.) the church of Sanf Ilario, 
halfway up the Monte Giugo (1594 ft). On the way, and from beside the 
church, we obtain admirable views as far as Portofino on the E., and of 
the Riviera di Ponente and the Ligurian Alps on the W. The footpath 
(short-cut) may be chosen for the descent; or we may follow the hill to 
the W. and descend via the Cappella San Rocco (655 ft.) to the Giardino 
Pubblico. — A rough footpath, beginning at the W. end of the town, 
ascends the Nervi Valley to ( 3 /4 hr.) some mills. — The ascent of Monte 
Fasce (2730 ft. 5 27a hrs.) is also worth making. 

The numerous tunnels that now follow sadly interfere with the 
enjoyment of the view. — 9 M. Bogliasco; 9^2 M. Pieve di Sori. 
IO1/2 M. Sori (65 ft.) is beautifully situated at the mouth of a 
pretty valley, up which a road runs to (l 3 /4 M.) Canepa. We enjoy 
a noble survey of sea and valley from the viaduct which passes 
high above the town and rivulet. 

13 M. Recco (modest inn ; omnibus to Ruta 50 c. ; carr. 2-3 fr.). 

The <: Road from Recco to Eapallo ascends the mountain-slope to 
the S.E., with a view, to the right, of Camogli (p. 99) and the pop- 
ulous coast, then skirts Monte Esoli (see p. 99), and reaches (27-2 M.) Ruta 
(930 ft.; Hot. oVItaUe, pens. 6 fr.), a village commanding a magnificent 
retrospect of the Gulf of Genoa. The road then traverses a tunnel (80 yds. 
long; curious view) and descends in wide bends via San Lorenzo delta Costa 
(Flemish altar-piece of 1499 in the church) and through the fertile hills 
above Santa Margherita (p. 99) to the beautiful bay of (7 M.) Rapallo (p. 100). 

The ascent of the "Monte di Portofino (2010 ft. ; guide not necessary ; 
provisions required) is attractive. A good footpath, commanding fine views 
of both the Rivieras, gradually ascends from Ruta in V-j hr. to a finger- 
post on the top of the N. ridge, where we follow the middle, path to the 
(72 hr.) summit, with a former signal-station and a magnificent survey 

to Pisa. SANTA MARGHERITA. 75. Route. 99 

of the coast from Savona to Spezia (Corsica is sometimes visible to the 
S.). The pa f h diverging to the right at the just-mentioned finger-post 
skirts the W slope of the hill and leads in l /o hr. to the new signal-station, 
or Semdforo (1440 ft.), about 1/4 hr. below the summit, to the S.W. — 
The descent to (lVz hr.) Santa Margherita or Portofino (see below) is very 
fine. We return to the finger-post (p. 98) and then descend to the S.E., 
partly through pine-woods. After about 72 hr., a steep path diverging to 
the right descends in zigzags to the S. to (V2 hr.) San Fruttuoso (see below; 
trattoria, clean), whence we take a boat to Portofino or Camogli. 

Another attractive ascent from Ruta is that of Monte Caravagli (2010 ft. ; 
2 hrs.), to the IT., via the ( 3 /i hr.) Monte Esoli (1395 ft.) and the Monte 
Ampola (1380 ft.). 

I41/2 M. Camogli (Alb. delta Stazione, plain; boat to San Frut- 
tuoso 4, to Portofino 8-10 fr., bargain necessary), a small, but at one 
time important harbour (8854 inbab.), with a school of navigation, 
lofty houses, and the ruined Castello Dragone (views), is also connect- 
ed with (3 M.) Ruta by road. — Beyond a tunnel penetrating the 
promontory 01 Portofino the train reaches — 

17^2 M. Santa Margherita Ligure. — Hotels. Gband- Hotel 
Mikamare; Gband -Hotel, both on the sea-, "'3Ietroi>ole, on the Bapallo 
road, with fine garden on the sea, E. from 3, B. V/2, dej. 2 a /2, I>. 3 x /2, pens. 8, 
omn. 1 /2 fr. •, Bellevue, with small garden on the sea, R. 3, B. I1/2, D. 472, 
pens., incl. wine, 7-10 fr., well spoken of; Alb. Roma, pens. 6 fr., plain, 
both in the town; '-'Hoi. -Pens. Villa Elena, with garden, pens. 1(J fr. — 
Ristorante Colombo, near the sea; Caffe Ligure. — Omnibus to Portofino, 
6 times daily. — Physician, Dr. Schwenke. 

Santa Margherita, a town of 7053 inhab., situated on the coast, 
to the right, below the railway, is frequented as a winter-resort and 
for sea-bathing. Columbus, Victor Emmanuel II. , Cavour, and 
Mazzini are all commemorated by statues here. Many of the women 
are engaged in lace-making, while the men go in May as coral-fishers 
to the coasts of Sardinia. — The Monte di Portofino (see above) may 
be ascended from S. Margherita in 2 hrs. 

The *Exccbsion to Portofino (boat 3-4 fr. ; omnibus, 6 times daily, 
25 c.) is attractive. A good road runs to the 8. along the shore, with 
views of the coast as far as the hills of Spezia, to the O/2 hr.) suppressed 
monastery of Cervara, where, after the battle of Pavia, Francis I. of France, 
when detained here by contrary winds on his way to Madrid as the prisoner 
of Charles V., was once confined. Thence the road, passing the picturesque 
Castle of Paraggi (Mr. Brown) and the hamlet of the same name on a little 
bay (whence a footpath crosses tbe wooded hills to Santa Margherita) leads 
to ( 3 / 4 hr.) Portofino ('Grand Hdtel Splendide, frequented by English visitors, 
pens. 10-12 fr. ; Alb. Delfino, very fair; Osteria delta Stella), the Roman Portus 
LelpMni, a small seaport ensconced beneath the S.E. extremity of the pro- 
montory. The old castle at the extremity of the promontory ( l / 2 hr. from 
Portofino; also the property of Mr. Brown) commands a splendid prospect. 
The magnificent Villa Carnarvon (adm. on Mon. afternoon), on the S. side of 
the harbour, was occupied by the German Crown Prince Frederick William 
in 1886. — This excursion may be pleasantly prolonged by taking a boat 
(4-5 fr.) to (I74 hr.) the convent-church of San Fruttuoso (see above), prettily 
situated on a bay between steep rocks and containing the tombs of some 
members of the Doria family (l3-14th cent.). We then row on to ( 3 / 4 hr.) 
the Punta delta Chiappa, the S.W. extremity of the promontory; thence 
on foot to San Rocco (V2 hr.) and Camogli (V2 hr. ; see above). 

The picturesque *Road to Rapallo (2^4 M.) passes the Marchese 
Spinola's Villa Pagana, with its beautiful garden, and the fishing- 


100 Route 18. RAPALLO. From Genoa 

village of San Michele di Pagana, the church of which possesses an 
altar-piece by Van Dyck (Crucifixion; ca. 1625; injured) and a group 
of the Crucifixion by Maragliano (p. 79). Farther on (^ M. from 
Rapallo) is the fine Cursaal. 

The Railway runs to the N. and traverses two tunnels. 

18^2 M. Rapallo. — Hotels (coinp. p. xix). "Hotel Cursaal (see 
above), on the Santa Margherita road, 1 M. from the station, with garden 
and sea-baths, R. 7-12, B. l>/ 2 , dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 12-20 fr. ; *Gr. Hot. Beau- 
Rivage, with lift, steam-heating, and garden, R. from 3, B. l 1 /^ dej. 3-372, 
D. 4 5, pens. 9-12, omn. 1 fr. ; *Gr. Hot. Rotal, R. from 3, B. iy 4 dej. 3V?, 
D. 4V2, pens. 7-12 fr. (these two belong to the same proprietors); "Hot. des 
Etrangers (Pension Anglaise), R. 374-4, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 6V2-IO fr. ; 
Gk. Hot. Savoie, with the dependance Rosa Bianca and a cafe on the sea; 
Eden Hotel & Pens. Germania, with a small garden, R. from 21/2, B. Ityz, 
dej. 2V2, D. 3, pens. 6-7 fr., unpretending. All these are at the W. end of 
the town, with sea-view. Hot. Veedi et Beau-Sejour, in a lofty situation 
on the Recco road, 1 M. from the station, R. 2 1 /2-k l /-2, B. l'/2, dej. 3, D. 4'/2, 
pens. 7-10 fr., well spoken of; Pens. Elisabeth, 672-8 fr. ; *Pens. Bellevue, 
with view, pens. 6-8 fr., L. and heating extra; Gkand Hotel et d'Bdrope, 
with lift, steam-heatiDg, restaurant, and small garden, R. from 2 3 /4, B. 1 72, 
dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 7-12, omn. 1 fr. ; Hot. Rapallo et Poste, on the sea, 
R. from 2, B. ii/ 4 , dej. 27 2 , D. 37 2 , pens. 5-9 fr., these two at the E. end 
of the town; Hot. Terminus, new; Alb. Mont 1 Allegro, near the station, 
R. 2, pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hot. -Pens. Suisse, on the sea, pens. 6-7 fr., both 
very fair. 

Cursaal (see above), with view -terrace, concert-room (music twice daily), 
and reading-rooms (1 fr. per day; 372 fr. per dozen tickets). — Alexandra 
Tea House, adjoining the Rosa Bianca (see above). 

Physicians. Dr. Beeby; Br. Bruck. — Chemist. Farmacia Colombo. 

Engl. Church Service at the Grand Hotel Royal. 

Climate. Rapallo is surrounded on the N. by a semicircle of moun- 
tains, which unite with the promontory of Portotino on the W., to form a 
tolerable shelter against the wind. Rapallo is cooler, moister, and rainier 
than Nervi, but far excels it in the number of its attractive walks. 

Rapallo, a small seaport with 10,343 inhab., who make lace and 
do a brisk trade in olive-oil, has become a frequented winter-resort, 
owing to its agreeable climate and beautiful situation. The old 
Castello, on the beach, is now a prison and coast-guard station. An 
ancient Roman bridge here is known as 'Hannibal's Bridge'. 

Excursions. By boat (l*/2 hr. ; 5-6 fr. there and back) or by road 
(p. 99; 6 M.) via Santa Margherita to Portojino (p. 99). — Via San Lorenzo 
della Costa and Ruta to (272-3 hrs.) Recco or Camogli, p. 99. — To the valley 
of Sunt" 1 Anna, 1 /z hr. to the N.W. Thence to the N. to San Pietro di Novella 
and SanV Andrea di Foggia, to the W. to (72 hr.) Santa Maria del Campo, 
near the ruined Monasterio di Valle Christi, or to the S.W. to San Massimo. 
The last two villages are connected by footpaths with Ruta and San Lorenzo 
(see above). — To Sanf Ambrogio, 3 /i hr. to the S.E. — To the N.E. is the 
pilgrimage church of "Madonna di Montallegro (2005 ft.; inn, R. 2-3, pens. 
5-6 fr.), reached by several routes in 2-272 hrs. (guide unnecessary), which 
commands a superb view to the N. and S. A path at the back of the inn 
ascends to the (10 min.) top of the Monte Rosa (2264 ft.), where the view is still 
more extensive. We may thence follow the ridge to the N.W. via. the chapel 
of Crocetta and descend through the Monte Valley; or to the S.E. via. the 
(.172hr.) Osteria di Levi, whence a road descends to (172hr.) Chiavari (see below). 

The *Road rnoM Rapallo to CiiiAVAiir (7y2 M. ; 3 hrs'. walk) 
is one of the most beautiful in Italy, and should be traversed by 
oarriage (ono-horse 0, two-horse 10 fr.) or on foot. About halfway 

to Pisa. CHIAVARI. 18. Route. 101 

(3 ! /4 M. from Rapallo) we pass Zoagli (see below). Thence we 
ascend to the church of Madonna delle Grazie (ca. G50 ft.), whence 
the road, commanding flue views of the coast as far as Sestri, de- 
scends rapidly to Chiavari. 

The Railway between Rapallo and Chiavari is an almost con- 
tinuous tunnel. — 2i M. Zoagli (165 ft.; cafe), a prettily situated 
little place, with a bronze statue of Conte Canevaro, founder of the 
hospital, and an interesting churchyard. The manufacture of velvet 
(yelluto di Genova p. 69) is a house-industry here. 

24 l /o M. Chiavari (Alb. e Trattoria del Negrino, very fair, R. 
2-2 1/ 2 fr.; Caffe Sanguinati, Piazza Garibaldi), a town with 12,690 
inhab., near the mouth of the Entella, where the mountains recede 
in a wide semicircle, manufactures lace, light chairs (sedie di Chia- 
vari), and silk, and builds ships. It contains a new Town Hall and 
statues of Garibaldi and. Mazzini. Pretty gardens beside the station, 
with a monument to Victor Emmanuel II. 

Carr. with one horse to the Madonna delle Grazie, IV2-2 fr. •, boat to 
Portonno. 5 fr. ; omnibus to Sestri, see below. 

A pleasant excursion may be made (diligence daily) to Graveglia, via 
San Salvatore, with its pretty 13th cent, church. — An omnibus plies twice 
daily via, Carasco to Cicagna, in the upper valley of the Lavagna. 

Chiavari is the starting-point for the ascent of the Monte Fenna 
(5690 ft. ; 9-10 hrs.). The route leads via, Borzonasca (Alb. Carlini ; carriage- 
road thus far; omnibus twice daily, SO c.) and Sopra la Groce (Locanda 
Pittaluga), a summer-resort of the Genoese, whence a steep footpath ascends 
to the summit (fine view of the Apennines and the sea). 

25 l /2 M. Lavagna, a ship-building place, ancestral seat of the 
Counts Fieschi, and birthplace of Sinibaldo de 1 Fieschi, professor of 
law at Bologna, afterwards Pope Innocent IV. (1243-54). — 27 M. 
Cavi, at the mouth of a charming ravine. Then a long tunnel. 

28'/2 M- Sestri Levante. — Hotels. *Grand Hotel, on the W. bay, 
beside the Giardino Pubbli 0, with electric light and garden, R. from 3, 
B. 11/4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 8- 10 fr. (L. extra); Hot. d'Eukope, Via Palestro, 
on the S. bay, with small garden and electric light in the S. rooms, 
E. 21/2-G, B. I1/4, dej. 3, D. 3V2-4, pens. 7-9, omn. *ft fr., well spoken of-, 
Alb. Victoria, at the harbour, plain. — Osteria Ghio, P^az.a Vitt. Eman., 
good Piedmontese and Ligurian wine. — Caffe Ligure, Co:-so Colombo 6. — 
Post Office, Via Carlo Alberto, the main street. — Sea Baths at the Stabili- 
mento Netluno (also theatre), on the W. bay. — Physician: Dr. BarteJ, — 
Omnibus to Chiavari hourly (40 c). 

Sestri Levante, the Roman Segesta Tiguliorum, a small seaport 
with 12,038 inhab., situated on a promontory (230 ft.) between two 
bays, is visited for sea-bathing in summer by Italians and as a winter- 
resort by nervous patients (especially from Germany), while its 
beautiful and well-wooded environs attract an increasing number of 
pleasure tourists. The W. bay is flat and commands fine views; the 
S. bay, bounded on the S.E. by the Monte Castello (870 ft.), has 
steep and rocky shores. The winter-temperature (46.4° Fahr ) is 
considerably lower than that of other Riviera stations. 

The pretty Coast Promenade, on the W. bay, near the station, 
and the adjoining Giardino Pubblico arc the favourite resorts of 

102 Route 18. SESTRI LEVANTE. From Genoa 

visitors. — From the harbour, at the S. extremity of the bay, we 
ascend past the Guardia di Finama (coast-guard station) to the 
* Villa Pluma (ring at the upper gate, No. 4; fee 20-30 c). Passing 
below the mansion and beyond a 'castle' (view), we round the cape 
to the right, with its fine pines and undergrowth. ■ — Good views of 
the S. bay are obtained on the way to the Campo Santo (from the 
harbour to the left by the church), and also from the Capuchin 
Monastery and from the Villa Mandrella, on the S. margin of the bay. 

Pleasant walk from Sestri to the S.E. to Iiiva (see below), via the villages 
of Pila and San Bartolomeo (1 hr. ; boat from Sestri 2-3 fr.). — From San 
Bartolomeo, about 2 M. to the E. of Sestri, an attractive footpath leads to 
the S.W., finally through wood, to the (1 hr.) Telegrafo, or signal-station, on 
the S. spur of the Monte Castello. Here we command a view of the bay of 
Riva and of the coast as far as the promontory of Portofino. — To the N.E. 
to the Erica Wood O/2 hr.) and San Bernardo. — A footpath, diverging to 
the right from the Chiavari road immediately before the tunnel and affording 
line views, leads past the ruined chapel of Sanf Anna to Cavi (p. 101). — 
Carriage-road via, Pila to the copper-mines of Santa Vittoria and Libiolo, 
in the Gromolo valley. 

The Highroad from Sestri to Spezia (3572 M. ; carriage 25, with two 
horses 45 fr.) diverges to the right from the road to Borgotaro (see below) 
beyond Pila (see above), and from (2 M.) Trigoso winds up the scantily 
wooded mountains (short-cuts for walkers), affording a fine retrospect of 
Sestri and the Monte Castello, to the magnificently situated Casa Bertollo. 
(The dairy of Casaggi, a little to the right, is another fine point of view.) 
Thence we follow the crest of the hill, with varying views of the Apen- 
nines and the sea, to (772 M.) Bracco (1310 ft. ; inn). We now traverse the 
(11 M.) Passo del Bracco (2020 ft.; footpath shorter) to Baracchino, situated 
in a bleak district, and to the Osteria Baracca, where the sea disappears 
from view. The road then descends past (14 M.) Matlarana into a pleasant 
valley, in which lies (16 72 M.) Carroddno Inferior e (555 ft.). Beyond this 
village it crosses the Malgua and ascends through wood to a chapel. 
Another descent is made via, Lago and (20'/2 M.) Pogliasca to (22'/2 M.) Bor- 
ghetto di Vara (360 ft. ; Caffe Conti, clean, with rooms), in the valley of the 
impetuous Vara , an affluent of the Magra. The road skirts the broad, 
gravelly bed of the river, turns to the right at Padivama, and runs up and 
down to (30 M.) Riccb (160 fr.) and the pass of (33 M.) La Foce (p. 104), on the 
last height before Spezia, whence we enjoy a magnificent "Prospect of the 
bay and the precipitous Alpi Apuane (p. 106). We then descend by numerous 
windings via Chiappa (p. 104) to (357 2 M.) Spezia (p. 103). 

From Sestri to Borgotaro, 41 M. (omn. to Velva twice daily, to 
Varese once daily). The picturesque road, part of the old highroad to 
Parma, leads to the E. frum Pila (see above) via Sara to (3M.) Casarza Ligure 
(110 ft.), in the Petronio valley, and thence past the copper-mines (on the 
left) to the hamlet of Casali. It then mounts rapidly via (7 M.) Castiglione 
Chiavarese (890 ft.) and (11 M.) Velva (inn) to the (127 2 M.) Passo di Velva 
(1790 ft.), commanding a fine view of the Apennines and the sea. On the 
summit is a pilgrimage- church (Santuario), built in 1895. We descend to 
(21 M.) Varese Ligure (1130 ft.; Alb. degli Amici; Trattoria Venezia, with 
beds), and cross the (29 M.) Passo di Cento Croci (3445 ft.) to (41 M.) Borgotaro 
(p. 346). 

The railway now intersects the picturesque hilly district of Sestri. 
Beyond (31 M.) Riva-Trigoso (see above) tunnels succeed each other 
in rapid succession all the way to Spezia. Several fine views of the 
sea and the rocky coast to the right. 34^2 M. Moneglia; 37^2 M. 
Deiva, at the entrance to a side-valley; 39 M. Framura; 41 M. 

» ..BorzaDasca.lM-Penrta 

^oteLph^Ar^s-. Trnr^Va^er iDebes .Leipzig 

to Pisa. SPEZIA. 18. Eoute. 103 

43 M. Levanto (Grand Hotel, R. from 2% B. 1, de'j. 2l/ 2 , D- 4, 
pens, from l 1 ^, omn. 3 /4 fr. ; Alb. Nazionale, R. l 4 /2 f r - » B. 60 c, 
dej. l 1 ^. D. 2, pens, b-hifefi., incl. wine; £id<!a d' Italia, pens., 
incl. wine, 6 fr., both well spoken of), a small town of 4874 inhab., 
with old fortifications, a small Giardino Pnbblico, and good sea-baths. 

Beyond tbe Punta del Metco follow the villages of the Cinque 
Terre, famous for their wine: 46 M. Monterosso ; 48 M. Vernazza; 
50 M. Corniglia; 51^4 M. Manarola; 52 M. Eiomaggiore. Then a 
long tunnel (7 min.). 

56 1 /2 M. Spezia. — Hotels. "'Grand Hotel Rotal Croce di Malta 
(English landlord), Via Mazzini, in an open situation near the sea, R. 474-674, 
B. 17 2 , dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-12, omn. 1 fr. ; Alb. Italia, Via Chiodo, with 
view and trattoria, R. 372, B. 174, dej. 3, D. 472, omn. 1 fr., well spoken of-, 
Gran Brettagna e Roma, Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, with good trattoria, R. 
from 27 2 , B. 17 2 , dej. 27 2 , D. 37 2 , pens. 9, omn. 1 fr. ; Giappoxe, Corso 
Cavour, with trattoria, R. 2'/2 fr., commercial. 

Cafe. Caffe del Corso. C. Barrel-Crastan, near the Giardino Pubblico; 
Stella Polar e, Via Cavour. 

Baths. Warm baths at the two first-named hotels and at Via Passano 4. 
— Sea Baths at the Selene, Nereide, and Iride establishments on the N. side 
of the gulf, and at San Terenzo and Lerici (p. 104). 

Post & Telegraph Office, Corso Cavour. Branch Offices in the Piazza 
Garibaldi and at the Commercial Harbour. — Physician, Dr. A. E. Leeson, 
Hot. Croce di Malta. — Chemists. Magni, Pratt, both Via Chiodo. 

Theatre. Politeama Duca di Genova. — Music on Sun., Tues., and Thurs. 
in the Giardino Pnbblico. 

Electric Tramways (not all finished). 1. CMoppa- Porta Genova- Corso 
Cavour -Viale San Bartolomeo - Migliarina. — 2. Railway Station -Corso 
Cavour -Viale San Bartolomeo -Pei'tusola. — 3. Railway Station-Yi& Gari- 
baldi -Marola- Cadimare. — 4. Harbour - Via del Prione- Corso Cavour.Yiale 
Savoia - Pegassano. 

Cabs. Per drive 80 c, at night 1 fr. ; with two horses 1 and I74 fr. 
Circular drive via La Foce and Sarbia, with one horse 7, two horses 10 fr. 5 
to Porto Venere, 8 and 12 fr. ; to San Terenzo and Lerici, 10 and 14 fr. ; 
carr. and pair to the top of the Monte di Castellana 20, to Seslri Levante 
50 fr. (carriages at L. CecchVs, Via Fazio, etc.). — Omnibus to Porto Venere 
(twice daily ; 70 c.). 

Boat with one rower, H/2 fr. the first hr., 1 fr. each additional hr. ; 
for 2 pers. 2 fr., and 1 fr. 20 c. each additional hr. ; 3 pers. 272 fr. and 1 fr. 
40 c. ; 4 pers. 3 fr. and 1 fr. 60 c. ; 5 pers. 37 2 and 2 fr. ; to the Stabilimento 
Selene 30 c. (or 50. 60, 70, and 80 c): to Le Grazie Vfr fr. (or 1 fr. 80, 2 fr., 
2 fr. 30, 2 fr. 50 c.) ; to San Terenzo 2 fr. (or 2 fr. 40, 2 fr. SO, 3 fr. 20, 3 fr. 80 c.) ; 
to Porto Venere or to Lerici, 1 pers. 272 fr., to Palmaria 3 fr. (each ad- 
ditional pers 7« f r - more). 

Steamboats (starting at the Giardino Pubblico). Via Le Grazie to Porto 
Venere, thrice daily in 1 hr., fare 30 c; to San Terenzo and Lerici, hourly 
in summer, in 72- 3 A nr -? f are 30 c, there and back 50 c, at other seasons 
twice daily. — Sea-going Steamers to Genoa and Leghorn, see p. 66. 

British Vice-Consul, E. M. de Garsion. — English Church Service in 
winter in the Via Principe Amedeo, near the Hotel Croce di Malta. 

N.B. Visitors must not approach within 300 yds. of the forts, and 
sketching and photographing should be avoided. The landlord of the hotel 
or the police authorities (Sottoprefettura) should be consulted before any 
excursions among the mountains are undertaken. 

Spezia (50 ft.), an industrial town with 66,263 inhab., lies at 
tbe N.W. angle of the Oolfo della Spezia, at the foot of beautiful 
hills fringed by picturesque villages and crowned with forts. The 

104 Route 18. SPEZIA. From Genoa 

climate is very mild, so that Spezia is frequented as a winter-re- 
sidence "by the English and for sea-bathing in summer by the Italians. 
The chief centres of traffic are the Corso Cavour, the Via Mazzini, 
on the coast, the neighbouring Piazza Yittorio Emanuele, converted 
into an attractive Giardino Pubblico, and the Via Chiodo, leading to 
the S. W. to the arsenal (see below). — The Gulf of Spezia, one of the 
largest, safest, and most convenient harhours in Europe, anciently 
praised by Ennius as the Lunai Portus , has been the chief naval 
harbour of Italy since 1861. The entrance is protected not only by 
several hill-forts, but also by the Diga Subacquea, an embankment 
nearly 2 M. long, constructed in 1874. Beside the latter, on the 
shore, are the two forts of Santa Maria (W.) and Santa Teresa (E.). 
— The Royal Naval Arsenal on the S. side of the town, constructed 
by General Chiodo (d. 1870), whose statue rises at the entrance, is a 
large establishment, 150 acres in extent (no admission). Beside it 
are the Naval Barracks and the Hospital. The marine artillery 
magazines in the bay of San Vito cover an area of 100 acres. The 
Cantlere di San Bartolomeo (electric tramway, p. 103), on the N.E. 
side of the gulf, serve as an electric and torpedo station. The com- 
mercial harbour, to the N.E. of the town, is connected by railway 
with the main line and is used, like that of Avenza (p. 105), for 
the export of Carrara marble. 

Excursions. An admirable survey of the town and harbour is afforded 
by the Giro delta Foce (carr., see p. 103; 2 hrs. 1 walk), a circular route 
leading via the Porta Genova and Chiappa (electric tramway, p. 103) to 
the hill of La Foce (790 ft. ; p. 102), and returning via Sarbia, on the ridge 
to the N. of Spezia. — To the S. W. of La Foce, reached by a good road, 
is the Monte Parodi (22C0 ft.), commanding line views. A stalactite cavein 
was discovered on the S. slope of this mountain in 1896. The road goes 
on to the fortified Monte Bramapane (2190 ft.), and returns thence to the 
town through the valley of the Biassa. — A charming ••Excursion may 
be made to Porto Venere, either by steamer (see p. 103) or via, the high- 
road (7 M. ; carr. and omnibus, see p. 103), which describes a wide curve 
round the bay of San Vito, with the arsenal, and then skirts the S. shore 
of the gulf, via Marola, Cadimare (electric railway, p. 103), Fezzano, Pani- 
gaglia, and Le Grazie (steamboat-station, see p. 103). Porto Venere {Trat- 
toria del Genio), on the site of the ancient Portus Veneris, with the 
remains of fortifications built by the Genoese in 1113, is celebrated, 
like the fortified island of Palmaria (613 ft.) immediately opposite, for a 
yellow-veined black marble, known as 'Portoro 1 . Charming prospect from 
the ruined church of San Pietro (now under restoration), rising high above 
the sea, and supposed to occupy the site of the temple of Venus. Between 
two rocks beneath the church is the Grotta Arpaia (accessible by steps; 
fee), or 'Byron's Grotto 1 (inscription), where the poet is said to have written 
much of his 'Corsair 1 . — The fortified Monte di Castellana (1670 ft.), 
ascended from Le Grazie (see above) by carriage-road in 2 hrs., commands 
a fine view of the sea, the Apennines, and the Rivieras. But visitors 
should on no account omit to acquaint the police before making this 
excursion (comp. p. 103). — Several pleasant excursions may also be made 
on the N.E. side of the gulf by steamer (p. 103) or by carriage, the best 
being to San Terenzo (sea-baths, 30 c), where Shelley passed his last days, 
and Lerici (*Alb. Croce di Malta, E. H/2 fr), both on the Bay of Lerici. 
A little to the E. of S. Terenzo, on the road to Lerici, is the Gasa Mac- 
carani, formerly the Casa Magni, where Lord Byron lived in 1822. Lerici, 
with a small harbour, a Garibaldi monument by Al. Bijigi, and an old 

to Pirn. SARZANA. 18. Route. 105 

castle, was the capital of the Gulf of Spezia in the Middle Ages. Its sheltered 
site and charming environs adapt it for a residence of some duration. A 
road leads from Lerici to (47 2 M.) Sarzana (see below). 

Railway from Spezia to Parma (Milan), see R. 47. 

Soon after quitting Spezia we enjoy a beautiful view of the Gulf 
of Spezia to the right, and, to the left, of the jagged Alpi Apuar.e 
(p. 106). — Beyond several tunnels we reach (61 M.) Vezzano 
Ligure (p. 328), whence the line to Parma diverges to the N. — 
62 l /-2 M. Areola, with a conspicuous campanile. The train passes 
through a tunnel, and crosses the broad ftlagra, the ancient boundary 
between Italy and Liguria. 

6572 M - Sarzana (85 ft. ; Alb. di Londra), with 11,850 inhab., 
Rom. Sergiana, or Luna Nova, from its having succeeded the ancient 
Luna, with the picturesque fortification of Sarzanello, constructed 
by Castruccio Castracani (d. 1328), was taken by the Florentines in 
1467 under Lorenzo Magnifico, from whom it was wrested by 
Charles VIII. of France. It subsequently belonged to Genoa. Sarzana, 
the seat of a bishop since 1204, was the birthplace of Pope Nicho- 
las V. (Tommaso Parentucelli, 1447-55). The handsome Cathedral 
of white marble, in the Italian Gothic style, begun in 1355, con- 
tains an ancient painted crucifix. fromLuni. In San Francesco is the 
tomb of Castruccio Castracani (see above), by Giov. di Balduccio. 

Railway from Sarzana to Parma (Milan), see R. 47. — Road via the 
Passo del Cerreto to Castelnuovo ne" 1 Monti (Pietra Bismantova), see p. 339. 

The environs are fertile. Among the mountains to the left lies 
Castelnuovo di Magra, with a castle of 1274. — Near (70 M.) Luni 
are the ruins of Luna. This originally Etruscan town was destroyed 
by the Arabs (1016) ; and its episcopal see was transferred to Sarzana 
in 1204. The ruins of an amphitheatre and a circus are still traceable. 
From Luna the district derives its name of La Lunigiana. — Among 
the mountains to the left the quarries of white marble are visible. 

72 M. Avenza, a small town on the brook of that name, above 
which rises an old castle of Castruccio Castracani, of 1322, with 
bold round towers and pinnacles, was once the frontier-town of the 
Duchy of Massa. It is now in Tuscany. On the coast to the right is 
the Marina (narrow-gauge line to Massa, p. 106), a small harbour 
for the shipment of the Carrara marble. 

Bkanch Railway in i/ 4 hr. (fares 60, 40, 30 c.) to (3 M.) — 

Carrara (Alb. della Posta, very fair, R. 2 l fe fr. ; Alb. Roma, R. I 1 /* fr. ; 
one-horse carr. to Massa, 3-4 fr. 5 omn., see p. 106), a pleasant little town 
with 13,C00 inhab., most of whom gain their livelihood by working the 
marble. Some of the studios of the numerous sculptors are interesting. 
U. S. Consular Agent, Ulisse Boccacci. — From the rail, station we turn to 
the right into an avenue of plane-trees, cross the Carrione (right), and then 
follow the Via Vittorio Emanuele, the main street of the town, to the 
left. This passes a marble statue of Garibaldi (1889) and the Theatre, and 
leads to the Piazza Alberica, which is embellished with a statue of the 
Grand Duchess Maria Beatrice (1861). — The Via Alberica runs hence to the 
right to the Piazza dell' Accademia, with a marble statue of Mazzini (1892) 
and the Accademia di Belle Abti, containing works by sculptors of Carrara 
and several Roman antiquities found in the quarries of Fantiscritti (see 
p. 106; e.g. a bas-relief of Jupiter with Bacchus). — Not far off is the 

106 Route 18. CARRARA. From Genoa 

church of Sanx 1 Andeea, a Gothic structure of the 13th cent., with a fine 
facade and good sculptures. The church of the Madonna delle Gkazie also 
has sumptuous decorations in marble. 

The Marble Quarries (Cave) of Carrara enjoy a worldwide fame. 
The deposits of marble occur throughout almost the whole of the Apuan 
Alps (see below), from the little river Aulella on the N. to Pietrasanta 
(p. 107) on the S. and Castelnuovo di Garfagnana on the E. The quarries 
in the valleys of Fantiscritli , Colonnata , and Torano (see below) were 
worked by the Romans, but after the downfall of the West Roman Empire 
the 'marmor Lunense 1 (so named from the seaport of Luna, p. 105) was 
almost entirely forgotten. The building of the cathedral of Pisa and the 
churches of Lucca, Pistoja, and other neighbouring towns again created 
a demand for Carrara marb'e; and the artistic activity of the 15 16th cent, 
gave a renewed impulse to its use. The industry now grows steadily; in 
1899 about 180,000 tons were exported from Carrara alone. About 600 
quarries in all are in operation ; of these 345, with 4400 workmen, are at 
Carrai-a, 50 (700 men) at Massa (see below), and the rest at JSeravezza, Pietra- 
santa, Stazzema, and Ami. There are 109 marble-sawing works at Carrara, 
employing about 600 men, and 23 at Massa, with about 170 men. The best 
and largest blocks yield the marmo statuavio. — The quarrymen, who 
receive a wage of 1-2 fr. per day, quit work at 3 or 4 p.m. 

A visit to the quarries (2-3 hrs. •, guide, not indispensable, 2-3 fr.) is 
best made early in the morning, when the weather is warm. From the 
above-mentioned Piazza delF Accademia we follow the Via Santa Maria to 
the end of the town and ascend the valley along the left bank of the 
Carrione. ' At (74 M.) a group of houses a path diverges to the right to 
large quarries of inferior marble, but we continue to follow the road, 
passing numerous marble cutting and polishing works. At the entrance 
to the (1 M.) village of Torano we turn to the right and climb the steep 
lanes to the marble railway (see below), the metals of which we follow 
in the narrow shadeless upland valley, passing numerous quarries, to (1 M.) 
the station of Piastra. We may push on to the highest station (small re- 
staurant), but the ascent is fatiguing, and should be attempted only when 
time is abundant. A horn is blown as a signal when the rock is about 
to be blasted. The blocks of marble are carried away partly by means of 
ox-waggons, partly by means of a railway (Ferrovia Marmifera), wbich 
sends branches into several of the lateral valleys. Visitors are sometimes 
allowed to ride in the trains; the tunnels are very cold. 

Kassa ( iU5 ft. ; Hotel Massa, with garden, Alb. Giajwoiie, 
both very fair; omn. from the station to the town and to Carrara), 
formerly the capital of the Duchy of Massa- Carrara, with 10,000 in- 
hab., is pleasantly situated amidst marble-yielding hills, and enjoys 
a mild climate. The handsome Palazzo Ducale (1701 ; now the 
prefecture), with its fine court, was a summer-residence of Napo- 
leon's sister Elisa Baciocchi (p. 416). The loftily situated Castello, 
now a prison, commands a splendid view (permesso at the prefecture). 
— Narrow-gauge railway to the Marina d Avenza (p. 105). 

Country fertile and well cultivated. The picturesque ruined 
castle of Montignoso occupies an abrupt hill to the left. — 80^2 M. 
Seravezza, an agreeable summer-resort, with large marble-quarries, 
lies 2 M. to the N.E. of the station. 

Serravezza is the starting-point for the exploration of the S. portion 
of the Alpi Apuane, the S.W. cbain of the Central Apennines, remarkable 
for the bold shapes of its peaks. Near the centre of the mountains, above 
the village of Stazzema (Locanda del Procincto), noted for its marble- 
quarries, lie the Albergo Alpino (2205 ft.), on the S.W. slope of the Monte 
Pania (6100 ft.), the Alb. del Matanna, in Palagnana, and a dependance of 
the latter on the Praii di Pian d Orsina (3412 ft.), all three much frequented 

to Pisa. VIAREGGIO. 18. Route. 107 

in summer, especially for ascents of the Pania, Mte. Forato (4010 ft.), the 
Procinto (3860 ft.), and'i/te. Matanna (4320 ft.). These hotels may be reached 
from Seravezza in about 472-0 hrs., and in about the same time from 
Bagni di Lucca (p. 423) or from the station of Ponte a Moriano (p. 423). 

83 M. Pietrasanta (Alb. e Rist. Ballerini), a small town (4000 in- 
hab.) with ancient walls, beautifully situated, was besieged and 
taken by Lorenzo de' Medici in 1482. At tbe beginning of the 
town is the Fortezza, a small battlemented castle. The church of San 
Martino (II Duomo), begun in the 13th cent., with additions ex- 
tending down to the 16th cent., contains a pulpit and sculptures 
by Stagio Stagi. Ancient font and bronzes by Donatello in the 
Battistero. Campanile of 1380. SanV Agostino is an unfinished 
Gothic church of the 14th century. — Neat Pietrasanta are quick- 
silver-mines and marble-quarries. 

89^2 M. Viareggio. — Railway Station at the E. end of the town, 
3 /i M. from the beach. 

Hotels (the larger houses have steam -heating and electric light). 
"Grand-Hotel, in an open situation, with a small garden, R. from 3 fr., 
L. 35 c, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 6 7 (in summer 8-10), omn. 1 fr. ; Gr. 
Hot. de Russie, R. from 4, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4 J /2, pens. 8-12 fr. ; these two 
in the Via Manin at the corner of the Piazza d'Azeglio. *H6t. d'Italie, 
R. from 2»/a fr., L. 35 c, B. 1, dej. 2-2V2, D. 3Va-4, pens. 6-8 fr., well 
managed; Hot. de Paris -Soleil; *H6t. de Roue, with small garden, 
pens. 6-71/2 (in summer 8-10) fr. ; these three in the Piazza d'Azeglio. 
"Hot. de Nice, Via Ugo Foscolo; '"Hot. de Florence, R. from 2'/2 fr., 
B. 80c, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. (L. extra) 5-7 (in summer 6-8) fr.$ Hot. de la 
Paix, both Via Manin; Hot. Grande Bretagne, Via San Martino, at the 
corner of the Via Manin, pens. 7-9 fr. ; Alb. Fontanini, Via del Giardino 6, 
with trattoria; Alb. Vittoria. Via Regia, at the corner of the Piazza del 
Mercato, 1/4 M. from the station, both unpretending. — Pensions: Hayden, 
Via Mazzini 75, closed in winter; Pint, Piazza Paolina, pens. incl. wine 
6 fr., well spoken of. — Apartments moderate. 

Cafes. Caffe del Casino, Piazza Manzoni; and, in summer, several cafes 
and confectioners in the Via Manin. 

Cycles for hire at Manettfs, Via Fel. Cavallotti. 

Cabs. Per drive 1 pers. 1 fr., several pcrs. I1/2 fr. ; per hr. within 
l 3 / 4 M., 2 fr., each addit. hr. f/2 fr. ; longer drives according to bargain. 
Same fares at night. Hand-luggage free; trunk 30-50 c 

Post & Telegraph Office, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele Secondo. — Theatres. 
Jleale Teatro Paccini, Piazza Vitt. Em an. ; Politeama, open-air theatre, on 
the beach. 

Sea Bathing at the Stabilimento Nettuno and Balena, both with restau- 
rants, ball-rooms, and skating-rinks ; Bagno di Felice. — Beggars and hawkers 
are exceedingly troublesome on the beach. 

Viareggio (13 ft."), founded by Lucca in 1171, is a quiet country- 
town (17,240 inhab.), with regular and monotonous streets, situated 
in a spacious and somewhat marshy plain on the sea, about 3 M. 
to the S.E. of the Monti delta Versilia, spurs of the Alpi Apuane. 
Its excellent sandy beach attracts numerous sea-bathers (especially 
from Tuscany) in July and Aug., and in winter, in spite of its 
want of protection against the wind, it is occasionally visited as a 

From the railway-station a road leads to the W. direct to the 
beach, crossing the Ponte di Pisa, skiiting the Fosso Burlamacca 

108 Route 18. VIA.KEGGIO. 

(here known as the Porto Canale), the discharge of the lake of 
Massaciuccoli (see below) , and passing the Darscna Vecchia and 
Darsena Nuova, two small harbours. From the end of the N. Molo 
(210 yds. long), at the mouth of the canal, we enjoy a splendid 
view of the Alpi Apuane and of the coast from Leghorn to the 
Gulf of Spezia. 

The Via Manin, skirting the beach, and the Piazza d'Azeglio, 
with its gardens, are the favourite resorts of visitors. The Piazza 
Paolina, to the N.E., is embellished with a Monument to Shelley 
(p. 415), by Urbano Lucchesi. 

On the side of the pedestal, encircled by intertwined branches of oak 
and olive, is a book bearing on its cover the word 'Prometeo 1 . Above 
this is the following inscription : — '1894 to P. B. Shelley, heart of hearts, 
in 1822 drowned in this sea, consumed by fire on this shore, where he 
meditated the addition to 'Prometheus Unbound' of a posthumous page in 
which every generation would have a token of its struggles , its tears, 
and its redemption'. 

The celebrated Pineta, or pine-forest, of Viareggio, extends for 
6 M. along the coast. The N. portion, which belongs to the town 
and is open to visitors, is reached via. the Viale Gino Capponi or 
from the N. end of the Via Manin. In the somewhat neglected S. 
portion, which begins at the canal, is the Villa del Borboni, belong- 
ing to the sons of the first wife (d. 1893) of Don Carlos, Duke of 
Madrid. The villa is entered (permesso essential) from the Yia 
della Fornace, near the old harbour. 

From Viareggio a narrow-gauge railway runs to the 2J.E. in 3 /« hr. 
to (7 M) the little town of Camajore (147 ft.), whence a road leads via 
(2 M.) Pievs di Camajore and (Ji/j J)I.) Montemagno (735 ft.) to (15y 2 M.) 
Lucca (p. 415). 

A pleasant Drive (or cycle-tour) may be made to (6 M.) Pietrasanta 
(p. 107) or to the Lago di Massaciuccoli (272 sq. M. ; 7 ft. deep), near the 
station of Torre del Lago (see below). Near the village of Massaciuccoli, 
at the E. end of the lake, are the so-called Bagni di Nerone, a Roman 
ruin. The lake may be reached by boat on the canal. 

Fkom Viareggio to Lucca, 14 M., branch-railway in 3 ji-i hr. via. (5 M.) 
Massaro&a and (8V2 M.) Nozzano. From Lucca (p. 415) to Florence via 
Pistoja, see p. 423; to Bologna, see pp. 383, 3S2. 

The Railway traverses a thick pine-wood (Macchia di Migliarino) 
beyond (9272 M.) Torre del Lago, and at (9772 M.) Migliarino 
crosses the Serchio (p. 405). 

IO272 M. Pisa (p. 404). To the left, before we enter the station, 
rise the cathedral, baptistery, and campanile. Wo then cross the 

IV. Lombardy, 

19. Milan 112 

a. From the Piazza del Duomo to the Central Station. 
Northern Quarters of the City. The Brera, 117. — b. From 
the Piazza del Duomo and the Piazza de 1 Mercanti to the 
Castello and the Arco della Pace, 128. — c. West Quar- 
ters of the City. Biblioteca Ambrosiana. Santa Maria 
delle Grazie. Sanf Ambrogio, J 33. — d. Along the Via 
Torino to the Southern Quarters of the City (San Lorenzo, 
Sant'Eustorgio, OspedaleMaggiore), 137. — e. East Quarters 
of the City. Corso Vittorio Emanuele and its Side 
Streets. Giardini Pubblici, 141. — f. The Cemeteries, 142. 
Excursion to the Certosa di Pavia 143 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco (Colico) 145 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza 152 

22. Lake of Como 153 

From Colico to the Val Tellina and to Bormio, 161. 

23. From Menaggio, on the Lake of Como, to Lugano and 

to Luino, on the Lago Maggiore 162 

24. From Milan to Porto Ceresio, on the Lake of Lugano, via 
Gallarate and Varese 165 

25. From Milan to Laveno, on the Lago Maggiore, via Sa- 
ronno and Varese 168 

26. From Milan to Arona, on the Lago Maggiore, via 
Gallarate 169 

27. From Bellinzona to Genoa via Alessandria . . . . . 170 

From Milan to Mortara (Genoa) via Vigevano, 171. 

28. Lago Maggiore 171 

29. From Domodossola to Novara. Lake of Orta. From Orta 

to Varallo 182 

30. From Milan to Genoa via Pavia and Voghera .... 185 

From Pavia to Alessandria via Torre-Eerretti and Valenza 
and to Cremona, 188. 

31. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 189 

From Cremona to Brescia and to Piacenza 192 

32. From Milan to Bergamo 193 

From Bergamo to Ponte della Selva and to Lovere, 197. — 
From Lecco to Brescia via, Bergamo, 198. 

33. From Milan to Verona 198 

34. Brescia 199 

35. The Brescian Alps 206 

1. Lago d'lseo and Val Camonica, 206. — 2. Val Trompia, 
2C8. — 3. Val Sabbia and Lago d'Idro, 209. 

36. The Lago di Garda. Biva. Arco 210 


The name of the Germanic tribe that invaded Italy in 568 is now 
applied to the country between the Alps and the Po, which is separated 
from Piedmont by the Ticino, and from Venetia by the Mincio. It is 
divided into the eight provinces of Como, Milano, Pavia, Sondrio, Ber- 
gamo, Cremona, Brescia, and Mantova, covering an area of about 9000 sq. M., 
and containing 3,713,300 inhabitants. The name was once applied to a 
much larger tract. Lombardy has not inaptly been likened to an 
artichoke, the leaves of which were eaten off in succession by the lords 
of Piedmont; thus in 1427 they appropriated Vercelli, in 1531 Asti, in 1703 
Val Sesia, in 1706 Alessandria, in 1736 Tortona and Novara, and in 1743 
Domodossola. The heart of the country, if we continue to use the 
simile, would then be the District of Milan, or the tract lying between 
the Ticino, Po , and Adda. The three zones of cultivation are the same 
as in Piedmont, viz. the region of pastures among the mountains, that 
of the vine, fruit-trees, and the silk-culture on the lower undulating 
country and the slopes adjoining the lakes, and that of wheat , maize, 
and meadows in the plains, the yield of these last being, however, far 
more abundant than in Piedmont. The climate of Lombardy is thoroughly 
continental : winter in the plains, which are scourged by bitter winds, is 
very cold (minimum at Milan, 1.4° Fahr.) and abounds in snow and mist 
(in 1899 at Milan snow occurred on 18 days, mist on 50); while in summer 
the heat is greater than that of S. Italy (maximum at Milan, 97° Fahr.). 
la the height of summer rain is rare beyond the lower Alps, and falls 
more frequently when the wind is from the E. than from the W., as the 
moisture of the latter is absorbed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines; 
but a thorough system of irrigation, without a parallel in any other part 
of Europe, prevails here, so that a failure of the crops is hardly possible. In 
the middle ages the importance of Milan was due to its woollen industries, 
but sheep-breeding has in modern times been largely superseded by the 
3ilk-culture, an industry which has so materially increased the wealth of 
the country, that it used to be said during the Austrian regime that the 
army and the officers lived on mulberry leaves, as their produce alone 
sufficed to pay the land taxes. Under these circumstances the population 
is unusually dense , being about 380 persons to the sq. mile, or only a 
little less dense than in Liguria and Campania. 

The central situation, and the wealth of the country, have ever ren- 
dered it an apple of discord to the different European nations. In the 
earliest period known to us it was occupied by the Etruscans, an Italian 
race, which about 400 B.C was subjugated or expelled by Celts from the 
W. These immigrants founded Mediolanum (Milan), near the site of the 
Etruscan Melpum, destroyed in 396 B C. Traces of their language still 
survive in the modern dialect of the country, as it does in the dialects 
of Piedmont and Emilia. It was but slowly that the Italians subdued or 
assimilated these foreigners, and it was not till B.C. 222 that the Romans 
extended their supremacy to the banks of the Po by their victory at 
Clastidium (p. 333). In the following century Gallia Cisalpina was con- 
stituted a province, on which Ceesar conferred the rights of citizenship 
in B.C. 46, Throughout the whole of the imperial epoch these regions 
of Northern Italy formed the chief buttress of the power of Rome. From 
the 4th cent, on Milan surpassed Rome in extent, and, in many respects, 
in importance also. It became an imperial residence, and the church 
founded here by St. Ambrosius (who was bishop of Milan in 374-97), long 
maintained its independence of the popes. 

The Lombards made Pavia their capital, but their domination, after 
lasting for two centuries, was overthrown by Charlemagne in 774 (p. 3). 
The Lombard dialect also contains a good many words derived from the 
German (thus, bron, gasl, gra, pib, smessor, stor'a, and stosa, from the 
German Brunnen, Gast, Greis, Pilug, Messer, stbren, and stossen). The 
crown of Lombardy was worn successively by the Franconian and by the 
German Kings, the latter of whom, particularly the Othos, did much to 
promote the prosperity of the towns. When the rupture between the 
emperor and the pope converted the whole of Italy into a Guelph and 
Ghibelline camp, Milan, the leader of the federated Lombard cities since 


1167, formed the headquarters of the former, and Cremona those of the 
latter party, and the power of the Hohenstaufen proved to he no match 
for the Lombard walls. The internal dissensions between the nobles and 
the burgher?, which prevailed in every town, led to the creation of several 
new principalities. In 1277 Archbithop Ottone degli Visconti of Milan (whose 
family was so called from their former office of l vicecomites , , or archiepisc- 
opal judges) was nominated 'Capitano del Popolo", and in 1294 Matteo 
Visconti, his nephew, was appointed governor of Lombardy by the German 
king. AlthougH banished for a time by the Guelph family* Delia Torre, 
both Matteo and his sons and their posterity contrived to assert their 
right to the Signoria. The greatest of this family were Lucchino Visconii 
(1339-49), Patrarchs patron, and Giovanni Galeazzo, who succeeded his 
father Galeazzo II. (p. 129; d. 1378) as ruler of the W. portion of the 
district of Milan. In 1385 Giovanni wrested the reins of government in 
the E. portion also from his uncle Bernabb, and afterwards extended his 
duchy to Pisa and Bologna, and even as far as Perugia and Spoleto. His 
chief concern was to raise taxes for the purpose of carrying on war, but 
at the same time the country flourished under his just and systematic 
government. The municipal councillors were entrusted with administrative 
and executive powers in roa'ters of police, while artists and men of 
letters were invited to the court by the prince, who founded the Cath- 
edral at Milan and the Certosa at Pavia. But after his death in 1402 chaos 
came again. 

On the extinction of the Visconti family wiih the death of Filippo Maria 
in 1447, Milaa declared itself a republic under the name Repjbblica di SanC 
Ambrogio. In I4c0, however, Francesco Sforza the condo tiere, who had 
been elected general-in-chief by the 'capitani 1 of the republic, made himself 
duke, and reslored order and security to the distracted state. He rebuilt 
the Castello, constructed the Martesana Canal and the Ospedale Maggiore, 
and surrounded himself with Byzantine and Italian scholars, who applauded 
the Latin orations of his daughter Hippolyta. Francesco died in 1466, and his 
art-loving but dissolute son, Galeazzo Maria, was assass ; nated ten years later 
in the church of Santo Stefano, leaving his son Giovanni Galeazzo still a minor. 
Ludovico it More seized the regency in name of his nephew, and on the death 
of the latter in 1494, he induced Charles VIII. of France to undertake a 
campaign against Maples, thus inaugurating a new period in the history 
of Italy. Since that time Italy has at once been the battlefield and the 
prey of the great powers of Europe. Lodovico himself, after having 
revolted against France and been defeated at Novara in 1500, terminated 
his career in a French dungeon. In 1525 the battle of Pavia constituted 
Charles V. arbiter of the fortunes of Italy. In 1540, five years after the 
death of the last Sforza, he invested his son, Philip II. "of Spain, with 
the duchy of Milan. In 1714 the Spanish supremacy was followed by the 
Austrian in consequence of the War of Succession. On four occasions 
(1733, 1745, 1796, and 1800) the French took possession of Milan, and the 
Napoleonic period at length swept away the last relics of its mediaeval 
institutions. Although Napoleon annexed the whole of Piedmont, Genoa, 
Parma, Tuscany, and Rome (about 36,000 sq. M. of Italian territory) to 
France, the erection of the Cisalpine Republic (1797) and then of a Kingdom 
of Italy (1805) contributed materially to arouse a national spirit of pat- 
riotism. This kingdom embraced Lombardy, Venice, S. Tyrol. Istria, 
the greater part of the Emilia, and the Marches. Milan was the capital, 
and Napoleon was king, but was represented by his stepson Eugene 
Beauharnais. The Austrian Supremacy, which was restored in 1815, proved 
irreconcilable with the national aspirations of the people. By the Peace 
of Zurich (10th Nov., 1859) Lombardy, with the exception of the district 
of Mantua, was ceded to Napoleon III., and by him to Sardinia. 


19. Milan, Ital. Milano. 

Railway Stations. 1. The Central Station (PI. F, G, 1 5 "Restaurant, with 
prices displayed), a handsome and well-arranged structure, is decorated 
with frescoes by Pagliano, Induno, and Casnedi, and with sculptures by 
Vela, Strazza, Magni, and Tabacchi. It is used by all the lines of the 
Rete Adriatica and the Rete Mediterranea. Omnibuses from most of the 
hotels are in waiting (fare 3 /4-J-V2 fr.). Fiacre from the station 1 fr., day 
or night*, each large article of luggage 25 c, small articles taken inside 
the cab free. Electric tramway into the town 10 c. (hand-baggage only 
allowed). — 2. The Stazione Ferrovie Nord (PI. C, 4), for the lines of the N. 
Railway to Saronno and Como (p. 145), to Erba (R. 21), and to Varese 
and Laveno (R. 25), is connected with the Piazza del Duomo, the Stazione 
di Porta Genova, and the Central Station by the electric tramways Nos 3 
& 5 (p. 113). — 3. The Stazione di Porta Genova or di Porta Ticinese 
(PI. B, 8), a secondary station for the trains to Mortara and Genoa (p. 171), 
is of little significance to strangers. — Porterage to the town for luggage 
under 100 lbs 50 c, according to tariff (from any station). — Railway- 
tickets for the Rete Adriatica and the Kete Mediterranea may also be 
procured at the Agenzia lnternazionale di Viaggi (Fratelli Gondrand), 
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 24, or from Thos. Cook & Son, Via Alessandro 
Manzoni 7; for the N. Railways at the Agenzia Ferrovie Nord, Galleria 
Vittorio Emanuele 26. — For the stations of the Steam Tramways, see 
pp. 114, 143. 

Hotels (all those of the first class have lifts and most of them electric 
light). In the Town: *H6tel de la Ville (PI. a; F, 5), Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele, with a winter-garden and post and railway-ticket offices, R. 5-17, 
B. 2, dej. 4, D. 5, pens. 15, omn. iy 2 fr.-, *H6t. Cavour (PI. b; F, 3), 
Piazza Cavour, pleasantly situated opposite the Giardini Pubblici, R. 
from 4, B. 11/2 , dej. 4, D. 6, omn. iy 4 fr.-, "Grand Hotel de Milan 
(PI. c; F, 3, 4), Via Alessandro Manzoni 29, with ticket and luggage office, 
R. 5V2-10, B. I1/2, dej. 4, D. 5, pens, from 10, omn. 1, heating 1 fr. ; 
Gr. Hot. Continental (PI. e; E,4), Via Alessandro Manzoni, R. 4-8, B. IV2, 
dej. 3, D. 5, pens, from 10, omn. IV4 fr. The following are also first-class 
but somewhat less expensive : "Grande Beetagne et Reighmann (PI. d ; 
D, E, 6), Via Torino 45, R. 31/2-51/2, B. H/s, dej. 31/2, D. 41/2, pens. 9, omn. 
1 fr. ; 'Hotel Metropole (PI. q; E, 5), Piazza del Duomo, R. 3V2-5V2, B. 
IV2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 9-12, omn. 1 fr.; Hot. Verdi & Beunerhof, Piazza Cor- 
dusio (PI. D, E, 5), R. 3-5, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 9-12 fr. — Rebecchino 
(PI. p; E, 5), Via Santa Margherita 16, R. 3 3 / 4 -5i/ 2 , B. H/2, dej. 2V«, *>• *i 
pens. 10-15, omn. I1/4 fr. ; "Eoropa (PL f; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 9, 
R. 4-6, B. {1/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2-6, pens. 9-14, omn. 1 fr. ; *Manin (PL k ; F, 2), 
Via Manin, near the Giardini Pubblici, in a pleasant situation, R. from 4 1 /?, 
B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 6, pens, from 10, omn. 1 fr., patronized by English 
travellers; *Nazionale (PL s; E, 4), Piazza della Scala 4, R. from 3, B. IV2, 
dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 8, omn. 1 fr. ; °Bella Venezia (PL i; E, F, 5), 
Piazza San Fedele, R. 3i/ 2 -4, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 10, omn. 1 fr. ; 
"Victoria et Lion (PL o ; G, 4, 5), Corso Vittorio Emanuele 40, with lift 
and steam-heating, R. 21/2-6, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 7, omn. 3 /< fr- ; 
; Roma (PL g; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 7, with lift and restaurant, R. 
from 3, B. I1/2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 9-11, omn. 1 fr. — The following are 
Italian houses of the second class: : Pozzo & Central (PL 1; E, 6), Via 
Torino, R. 3i/ 2 -5, B. H/4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 9, omn. 1 fr.; "Hot. de France 
(PL m; F, 5), Corso Vitt. Eman. 13, with lift and steam-heating, R. 3V4-41/4, 
B. I1/4, dej. 3, D. 4!/2, pens. 9-10, omn. 3 / 4 -l fr. ; *Agnello et du Dome, 
Cor3o Vitt. Eman. 2, with lift, R. 2-4, ddj. 3, D. 4 (both incl. wine), pens. 
8-10 fr. ; *Ancora e Ginevra (PL n; F, 5), Via Agnello and Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele, R. 3i/4-3 3 /4, B. l'/4, omn. 3 / 4 fr. ; "Angioli, Via San Protasio, 
R. 21/2, B. 1, dej. 3, D. 4, omn. 3 / 4 fr. ; *Biscione e Bellevde (PL t; F, 5), 
Piazza Fontana, R. WU-fr/z, B. li/i, dej. 2 l / 2 -3, D. 3V 2 -4, pens. 8-9, omn. »/« fr- 5 
— Popolo (PL r; E, 5), Via San Protasio, cor. of Via Santa Margherita, with 
lift and trattoria, R. 2 l fa dej. 2i/ 2 , D. SVafr. ; St. Michel, Via Pattari (PL F, 5), 

■J M ' 


" /-•'■ - - 


^ \^l^fr^% 


Practical Notes. MILAN. 19. Route. 113 

E. 2V4, B. 1, dej. 2V2, D. 3 l /2, omn. 3 /* fr. ; Agnellino, Via Agnello 4 
(PI. F, 5), R. 2, peiis. 6 fr. •, Hot. -Pens. Suisse, Via Viscontil5, R.2-3, B.IV4, 
d£j. 2*/2, D. 4, pens, with wine 7 fr. ; Falcone, Via del Falcone; Com- 
meecio, Piazza Fontana, with trattoria, R. 2-272 fr. ; Promessi Srosi, Piazza 
Venezia 12 (PI. H, 2), R. from I1/2, dej. I1/2, D. 3 fr., incl. wine. 

Near the Central Station: '-'Palace Hotel (PI. w; G, 1), first-class, with 
restaurant and booking office, R. 5-10, B. l J /2, dej. 372, D. 5, omnibus 72 fr., 
new: *H6t. du Nord (PI. u; F, 1), with lift, steam-heating, and garden, 
R. 272-4, B. I74, dej. 3, D. 4 fr.; Hot. d'Italie (PI. z ; F. 1); Concordia, 
R. 2-3 fr. ; *H6t. Terminus (PI. v; G, 1), with lift, R. 3-4 fr., L. 30 c, B. ii/ 2 , 
dej. 3, D. 372 fr.; Hot. du Parc (PI. x; F, 2), Via Principe Umberto 29, 
with lift, R. 2-4, B. 174, dei. 27 2 , D. 3>/ 2 fr. ; San Gottardo, Via Galileo; 
Schmid, Via Marco Polo 16 (PI. F, 1), R. 17 2 , B. 1, dej. 2, D. 3 fr., incl. wine; 
Nizza, Via Principe Umberto 6, R. 17 2 -2 fr., B. «0 c, D. 2, S. H/2 fr., incl. 
wine; Alb.-Ristor. Cervo, Via Prin. L T mb. 14-16, R. H/2 fr., B. 90 c, dej. 
or D. 272 f r , incl. wine (the last four quite unpretending). 

Pensions (comp. p. xx). Bonini, Piazza della Scala 5, pens. 6-10 fr. ; 
Pension Anglaise (Mrs. Ernst), Corso Vitt. Emanuele 26, pens. 6 fr. ; Bassi, 
Piazza del Duomo 19; Venanzi, Corso Vittor. Eman. 36, pens. 4-5 fr. 

Restaurants (Risloranti, Trattorie; comp. p. xxi). Gaffe Covet, Via 
Giuseppe Verdi, near the Scala, with a garden (evening-concerts in sum- 
mer); Biffi, *Savini, Gambrinus - Halle , all three in the Galleria Vitt. 
Emanuele ; '"'Fiaschetteria Toscana, near the E. branch of the Galleria Vitt. 
Emanuele, good Tuscan wine; Orologio, on the E. side of the Piazza del 
Duomo, very fair; *Savini, near the Arco della Pace (p. 133), a large and 
handsome establishment, with a concert-room and garden. The above 
mentioned second-class hotels are also restaurants. 

Cafes (comp. p. xxiii). "Biffi (concerts in the evening; see above); Cova, 
(see above); C. Crespi, Via Tommaso Grossi, at the corner of the Via 
Santa Margherifa (concerts in the evening); C. Martini, Via Ales«andro 
Manzoni, near the Piazza della Scala; Eden, Via Cairoli (see p. 114); the 
cafe's in the Giardini Pubblici (p. 142) and the Nuovo Parco (p. 132). — Milk 
and Biscuits may be obtained at the shops of the Latteria Lombarda (Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele, etc.). 

Confectioners (Pasticcerie). Cafe Cova, see above; Biffi, Via Alessandro 
Manzoni; "Marchesi, Via del 3Ionte Napoleone. — Panettone is a favourite 
kind of cake, chiefly used during the continuance of the Carnival. 

Birrerie (see p. xxiii). *Gambrinus-Halle, see above (Munich beer, con- 
cert in the evening) ; "Spatenbrau, Via Ugo Foscolo 2, adjoining the Gall. Vitt. 
Eman. (al?o luncheon-rooms); Birreria Nazionale , on the W. side of the 
Piazza del Duomo ; Orologio, see above; B. Milanese, Piazza Cordusio, also 
luncheon-rooms (Bav. and Bohem. beer at these three); B. Pilsen, Galleria 
de Cristoforis (PI. F, 4), a favourite luncheon-room; B. Svizzera, Via Cap- 
pellari, next door to the Hot. Metropole ; Culmbacher Bierhalle,\\& Mercanti 5. 

Baths. "Terme di Milano', Foro Bonaparte 68, built in 1895, with elec- 
tric light and swimming, Turkish, and medicinal baths; Tre Re, Via Tre 
Alberghi 24 (PI. E, 6) ; Bagni Dufour, Via San Vittore ; Bagni delV Annxmziata , 
Via Annunziata 11; also Corso Vittorio Emanuele 17, clean and not ex- 
pensive; Via Pasquirolo 11, etc. — Swimming Baths: "Bagno di Diana 
(PI. H, 2), outside the Porta Venezia (1 fr.). 

Cabs CCittadine' or 'Broughams' 1 ; a tariff in each vehicle). Per drive 
by day or night 1 fr. ; per hour I72 fr., each 72 hr. addit. 1 fr. ; each large 
article of luggage 25 c. 

Electric Tramways (constructed in 1897-99 by the Edison Co., and 
well managed; aggregate length about 60 M. ; comp. the Plan). 1. Piazza 
del Duomo (PI. E, 5)-Via Al. Manzoni- Via Principe Umberto- Central Station 
(PI. F, G, 1). — 2. Piazza del Z)womo-Porta Venezia (PI. H, 2)-Central Station 
— 3. Piazza del Duomo- Via Dante -Stazione Ferrovie Nord (PI. C, 4)-Via 
Vincenzo Monti-Porta Sempione (PI. B, 2)-Corso-Sempione (PI. A, B, 1, 2) — 
4. Piazza del Duomo-Via, Dante-Porta Tenaglia (PI. C, 2)-Via Bramante- 
Cimitero Monumentale (comp. PI. C, 1). The cars on this route return by 

Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 8 • 

114 Notes. MILAN. Practical 

the Porta Volta and the Corso Garibaldi. — 5. Piazza del Duomo -Tia,'£z& 
Sant' Ambrogio (PI. C, 5, 6) -San Vitlore (PI. B, 6). — 6. Tramria Inter- 
slazionale: Central Station-? or tu Nuova (PI. E, F, 1)-Via Pontaccio (PI. D, E, 3)- 
Stazione Ferrovie Nord (PI. C, i)-Staz. di Porta Genova or Ticinese (Pi. B, 8). — 
7. Tramvia di Circonvallazione round the whole of the old town. — Lines 
also run from the Piazza del Duomo to most of the other City Gales. Fare 
from 6.30 to 8 30 a.m. 5c, later 10c. (on line No. 7 always 10c), There 
are no fixed stations; passengers bail the driver when they wish to enter 
and ring when they wish to alight. The cars on the chief lines are often 
overcrowded, and passengers should be on their guard against pickpockets. 

Local Railways connect Milan with a large part of Lombardy (comp. 
the Map, p. 146). The only lines of much interest for Ihe stranger are the 
steam-tramway to the Torre di Mangano and Pavia (Certosa; see p. 148) 
and the electric line to Monza (p. 146). 

Post Office (PI. E, 6), Via Rastrelli 20, near the cathedral, open from 
8 a.m. to 9 p.m. ; branch-offices at the Central Station, etc. A new central 
post-office building was begun in the Via Bocchetto in 1801. — Telegraph 
Office (PI. E, 5), Piazza Mercanti 19, groundfloor. 

Theatres (comp. p. xxiv) The "Teatro alia Scala (PI. E, 4), the largest 
in Italy after the San Carlo Theatre at Naples, was built by Gius. Pier- 
marini in 1778, and holds 3600 spectators. The performances (operas, 
ballets, spectacular pieces) take place during winter only. The interior is 
worthy of inspection (open 9-4; 1/2 fr.). — ""Teatro Lirico Internazionale 
(PI. F, 6), built by Sfondrini in 1894, at the corner of the Via Larga and 
the Via Rastrelli-, "Teatro Manzoni (PI. E, 5), Piazza San Fedele, elegantly 
fitted up, good performances of comedy; Teatro Dal Verme (PL D, 4), Foro 
Bonaparte (operas and ballets, sometimes used as a circus); Teatro Filo- 
drainmatici (PI. E, 4), Via San Dalmazio, operas; ''Teatro Fossati (PI. D,3), 
Foro Bonaparte, plays in the local dialect. — Eden Theatre of Varieties, 
Via Cairoli (PI. D, 4); adm. 1 fr. 

Bands play in summer in the Piazza delta Scala (p. 120; Thurs., 
8-10 p.m.), the Giardini Pubblici (p. 142; Sun., 3-6 and 8-11 p.m.), and the 
Nuovo Parco (p. 132; Sun., 8-11 p.m.). 

Bankers. Banca Commerciale Jtaliana , Piazza della Scala 3; Credito 
Italiano, Piazza Cordusio ; Mylius <k Co., Via Clerici 4 (PI. E, 4); Societa 
Bancana Milanese, Piazza Belgiojoso. — Money Changers: Basini & Co., 
Piazza Mercanti (PI. E, 5) ; Terzaghi & Cagnoni, Via Al. Manzoni 3. 

Booksellers. Hoepli , Galleria de Cristoforis (p. 141), Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele37; Sacchi <k Figli, Via Santa Margherita; Libreria Treves, Gal). 
Vitt. Emanuele; Fratelli Bocca, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 21; Bemo Sandron, 
Via Al. Manzoni 7. — Newspapers. 11 Corriere della Sera (p. xxiii; 5 c); 
La Sera; La Per sever anza; 11 Secolo; UAlba; 11 Tempo. 

Shops. The best are in the Corso and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. 
The Alle Citta d" Italia (Fratelli Bocconi), Piazza del Duomo, is an establish- 
ment in the style of the large Magasins at Paris (fixed prices). — The Silk 
Industry of Milan is very important (comp. p. 115). The following are noted 
retail-dealers: Cogliati &• Co., Corso Vitt. Emanuele 30; Bajetta, Giorannoli, 
& Co., Corso Vitt. Enoan. 31 (fixed prices); Besozzi, Monghisoni, & Co., 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele 28; Citta di Como, Piazza della Scala 5. — Inlaid 
Furniture: Pogliani, Via del Monte Napoleone 13, — Photographs: Bcnomi, 
Gall. Vitt. Emanuele 84; Lamperti & Garbagnati, Via degli Omenoni 4j; 
Orell FussWs Photocrome's, in the show-rooms in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele 
and the Via Al. Manzoni. 

Cigars. Genuine havanas may be obtained at Galleria Vitt. Emanuele 90. 

Physicians. Dr. Jul. Verdi, Via Brera 3; Dr. Cozzi, Via Monforte 6; 
Dr. Morotti, Via Spiga 22; Dr. Lindner, Via Senato 8a (2-4); Dr. Fomoni, 
Via Spiga 4; Dr. Schulte, Via Gesu 8; Dr. A. Tilger, Via del Monte 
Napoleone 16. — Dentist: Dr. Pape, Via Monte Napoleone 45. — Private 
Hospitals: Asilo Evangelico, Via Monte Rosa 12, outside the Porta Magenta, 
the hospital of the foreign colony in Milan; Casa di Salute Privata Parapini, 
Via Alfonso Lamarmora (PI. G, H, 7); Casa Chirurgica di Salute, Via deilo 

Notes. MILAN. 19. Route. 115 

Statuto 15. — Chemists: Valcamonica e Introzzi, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 4; 
Zambelletli, Piazza San Carlo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele; Erba, Piazza del 

Goods Agents. Fratelli Gondrand , Via Tre Alberghi 3 (PI. E, 6j :, 
Seb. Boser, Via Carlo Alberto 24. 

United States Consul, William Jar vis. Via Bettino Ricasoli 2; vice-con- 
sul, Henry P. Smith. — British. Consul, Joseph E. Towsey; vice-consul, 
Wm. M. Tweedie. 

English Church Service: All Sainti Church (PI. D, 2), Via Solferino 17, 
opposite the British Consulate, Sun. at 8, II, and 3.30 (Rev. II. N. 31 i d - 
winter, Via Tasso 7). — Waldensian Church, Piazza San Giovanni in Conca, 
at 11 and 7. 

Collections and Objects of Interest. [Artists receive free admission 
to Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper and the Certosa di Pavia on application 
at the office on the groundfloor of the Brera, while permission for the 
Brera itself and the Museo Poldi-Pezzoli is granted on the first floor. 
For a list of the national holidays, see p. xxiv.] 

Ambrosiana. Library shown daily 10-3, Sun. and holidays 1-3, l /g fr., 
free on Wed. •, open to students from Nov. 12th to Aug. 3ist, daily, 10-3, 
except Wed., Sun., and festivals. Pinacoteca. Sun. and festivals 1-3, other 
days 10-3, i/ 2 fr -i from May 1st to Sept. 30th, Wed., 10-3, free; p. 133. 

Brera. Library, dailv, 9-4 and 7-10 (May to Oct., 9 to 5 or 6), Sun. 
10-2, closed on holidays." Picture Gallery, daily- 9-4 (Xov.-Feb. 9-3), 1 fr.; 
on Sun. and holidays, 12-3, free; p. 123. — Collection of Coins, Mon., Wed , 
and Frid., 12-3; closed on Sun & holidays. 

Castello Sforzesco (p. 129). Museo Archeologico ed ArtisUco, daily 10 to 
4 or 5 (Mon. 1-4 or 1-5); adm. 1 fr , Thurs. 50 c, Sun. & holidays 20 c. — 
Museo del Pdsorgimento Nazionale, daily, 1-5, 20 c; Sun. & holidays, 10 c; 
p. 132. 

Exhibition of the Societa per le Belle Arti, daily, 10-6 (winter 10-4); adm. 
50 c, on Sun. and holidays 25 c; p. 122. 

Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci, at present not accessible; p. 136. 

Museo Borromeo. Tues. & Frid., 1-4, fee (tyis-l fr.) ; p. 13i. 

Museo Civico, dailv (except Mon.), 10-4, V-' fr - : Sun. & holidays, 20 c. ; 
p. 142. 

Museo Poldi-Pezzoli, daily, 9-4, Sun. & holidavs, 10-3, 1 fr. ; p. 121. 

Palazzo Reals, daily, 10-4, fee (lfr.); p. 120. 

Principal Attractions (2 days). 1st Day, in the morning: "Cathedral" 
ascend to the "Roof ; Galleria Vittorio Emanuele; 'Brera (picture-gallery); 
in the afternoon: Piazza de' Mercanti ; Castello Sforzesco; in the evening: 
walk in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele and Piazza del Duomo, or in summer 
in the Giardini Pubblici. — 2nd Day, in the morning: Santa Maria delle 
Grazie and 'Leonardo da Vinci"s Last Supper; Sant 1 Ambrogio ; *San 
Lorenzo; San Satiro; Ospedale Maggiore (p. 140); in the afternoon: Cimitero 
Blonumentale. — Excursion to the 'Certosa di Pavia (p. 143); to Monza 
(p. 146; comp. p. 114). 

Milan (390 ft.), Ital. Milano, surnamed l la grande, the Medio- 
lanum of the Romans, is the capital of Lombardy, the seat of an arch- 
bishop, the headquarters of the second army corps, the chief financial 
centre of Italy, and one of the wealthiest manufacturing and com- 
mercial towns in the country. Silk (over 200 important firms), 
woollen and cotton goods, gloves, carriages, machinery, and art-fur- 
niture are the staple commodities, while it also exports a consid- 
erable amount of cheese, butter, eggs, poultry, and other country 
produce. The town is situated near the small but navigable river 
Olona (p. 168), which is connected by means of the Naviglio Grande 
(p. 64) with the Ticino and Lago Maggiore, by the Naviglio di Pavia 
(p. 186) 'with the Ticino and the Po, and by the Naviglio delta 

116 Route 19. MILAN. History. 

Martesana (p. 148) with the Adda, the Lake of Como, and the Po. 
About 8000 river-craft enter the city annually. Milan ranks next 
to Naples in point of population, containing, with the suburbs and 
a garrison of 7000 raeu, 490,084 inhabitants. There are numerous 
Swiss and German residents. — The drinking- water is indifferent. 
For the climate, comp. pp. xxvi, 110. 

History. The favourable situation of Milan in the centre of Lombardy, 
near the beginning of several of the great Alpine passes, has always secured 
for it a high degree of prosperity. Under the Romans, who conquered it 
in B.C. 222, it was one of the largest cities in Italy, but owing to its 
repeated destruction hardly a trace of that period has been left (p. 138). 
After the decay of the Lombard sovereignty the power of the archbishops 
(p. Ill) increased enormously, especially under Aribert (1018-45), against 
whom the smaller vassals were forced to form a league, known as the 
Motta. At a later date the people, grouped round the Carroccio, fought 
for the Archbishops against Conrad II. and the noblesse, expelling the 
latter from the city in 1041. At this time Milan is said to have contained 
300,000 (?) inhab., and its trade and industry, especially the weaving of 
woollen goods and the making of arms and objects in gold, had become 
very important. The Roman walls had long since become too cramped, 
and in 1157 an almost circular moat, still preserved in the inner canal 
(Naviglio), was constructed round the town. Neither this fortification, 
however, nor the heroic courage of the Milanese could resist the Emp. 
Frederick Barbarossa, who, with the help of the Ghibelline towns of Lom- 
bardy, totally destroyed the city in 1162, with the exception of a few 
churches. The emperor's severe rule, however, soon roused the whole of 
Lombardy against him ; five years later (1167) Milan was rebuilt by the 
allied cities of Brescia, Bergamo, Mantua, and Verona, while the battle 
of Legnano (p. 165; 1176) finally shattered Barbarossa's hopes of re-estab- 
lishing the empire of Charlemagne (comp. p. 111). 

The Visconli (p. Ill), who became 'Signori 1 of Milan in 1277 and 
furnished several occupants to the archiepiscopal chair, made an end of 
the city's constitutional independence, but contributed to its well-being by 
the introduction of the silk-industry (ca. 1340) and by the wide extension 
of their sway. A new outer rampart (the Refosso or Redefosso) was con- 
structed in this period to protect the suburbs. The Sforzas (1450-1535) 
endeavoured to reconcile the Milanese to their loss of liberty by the bril- 
liancy of their court and their patronage of art. 

The wars of the early part of the 16th ceyi. and the heavy taxes of 
the Spanish Period did not prevent the growth of the city, which in 1590 
numbered 246,000 inhabitants. In 1527 city-w r alls were erected on the 
site of the outer ramparts, and in 1549 a new series of fortified and bastioned 
walls were begun. In 1714 Milan, with the rest of Lombardy, passed into 
the hands of Austria. In 1797 it became the capital of the '•Cisalpine Re- 
public\ and then (down to 1815) that of the Kingdom of Italy. The bloody 
insurrection of the Cinque Giornate (March 17th-22nd, 1848) compelled the 
Austrian* to evacuate the city, and the patriotic agitations which ensued 
were happily ended by the desired union with the new kingdom of Italy 
in 1859. No town in Italy has undergone such marked improvement as 
Milan since this date. 

Art History. The only buildings of the early- Christian and Romanesque 
periods that survived the destruction of 1162 were the churches of San 
Lorenzo (the oldest church in Milan), Sant 1 Ambrogio (the quaintest church 
in Milan), San Simpliciano, San Sepolcro, San Celso, and Santa Babila. 
The Gothic churches are more of decorative than constructive value; 
some, like the cathedral, represent a not very successful compromise be- 
tween the styles of the N. and of Italy, while others follow Venetian 
models (the Frari). 

It was not till after 1450 that Filarete (tower-gate of the Castello, Ospe- 
lale Maggiore) and Michelozzo (Pal. Medici, Cappella Portinari in Sant 1 

Art History. MILAN. 19. Route. 117 

Eustorgio) succeeded in introducing the Tuscan early- Eenaissance style, 
and this only after protracted struggles with the Lombard masters, who 
clung obstinately to the pointed arch. Their influence, along with traces 
of that of N. art, is mirrored in the Lombardic school of sculpture, which 
grew up about 1460 and gradually extended its activity to Venice, Genoa, 
and even S. Italy. Its principal masters, the brothers Antonio and Cristoforo 
Mantegazza, Giov. Ant. Amadeo (1447-1522), Cristoforo Solari (d. after 1525), 
and Tom. Rodari, may best be studied in the Certosa in Pavia, tbe Cappella 
Colleoni in Bergamo, and the Cathedral of Como. The decline of the style 
is shown in the late works of Agostino Busti, surnamed Bambaja (ca. 1480- 
1548). A more serious and realistic conception is revealed by the versatile 
Cristoforo Foppa, surnamed Caradosso (ca. 1445-1527), who is also famous 
as a medal-engraver and goldsmith. — The earlier painters of this period, 
such as Vincenzo Foppa (d. 1492), who seems to have been trained in Padua, 
and his pupil Ambrogio Borgognone (d. 1523), remained faithful to the local 

Milanese art reached the zenith of its reputation as the residence of 
Bramante (1472-1500), to whom are due the choir and dome of Santa Maria 
delle Grazie and the baptistery of San Satiro. and of Leonardo da Vinci 
(1485-1500 and 1506-16). The latter here executed his masterpieces : the 
Last Supper and the clay model of the equestrian monument of Francesco 
Sforza, destroyed by the French in 1499. Among the pupils of Leonardo 
were the painters Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio , Marco d'Oggiono, Andrea 
Salaino, Cesare da Sesto, and Gianpielrino ; and his influence is also mani- 
fest in the works of Bernardino Luini, Andrea Solario, Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
and Giov. Ant. Bazzi (il Sddoma). 

We recognize Bramante's style in many buildings of Lombardy, such 
as Santa Maria in Busto Arsizio, the church of Abbiategrasso, Santa Maria 
delle Croce at Crema, the Cathedral and Santa Maria de Canepanova at 
Pavia, the Incoronata at Lodi. Milan itself owes its present architectural 
physiognomy rather to the masters of the late- Renaissance: — Galeazzo 
Alessi (p. 71; Pal. Marino), Vine. Seregni (1509-94; Pal. dei Giureconsulti, 
Pal. di Giustizia), and Pellegrino Tibaldi of Bologna (1532-96-, court of the 
Archiepiscopal Palace). The churches by these architects (San Paolo, San 
Vittore, San Fedele, lower part of the cathedral facade) show the tran- 
sition to the baroque style. The most important architect of the 17th cent, 
was Ricchini (Brera, parts of the Ospedale Maggiore). 

The three earlier Procaccini, the chief painters after 1550, betray the 
mannerism of the Carracci, while Ercole Procaccini the Younger (15Q6-1676), 
Giov. Baft. Crespi, surnamed 11 Cerano (1557-1633), Daniele Crespi (1590-1630), 
and Carlo Franc. Nuvoloni (1608-61) are vigorous disciples of the same 
eclectic masters (p. 365). — The sculpture of this period is insignificant. 

In recent times Milan has raised itself to the highest artistic rank in 
the kingdom. Sculpture is here carried on to such an extent as to have 
become almost a special industry. The Milanese Sculptors take great 
pride in their technical skill, and in effective imitations of nature. 

a. From the Piazza del Duomo to the Central Station. Northern 
Quarters of the City. The Brera. 

The focus of the commercial and public life of Milan is the 
*Piazza del Duomo (PI. E, 5) , which has been much extended 
since 1876, and is now enclosed on the N. and S. by imposing edi- 
fices designed by Mengoni (p. 120). It is a centre for electric 

The celebrated **Cathedral (PL E, F, 5) , dedicated 'Mariae 
Nascent?, as the inscription on the facade announces, and as the 
gilded statue on the tower over the dome also indicates, is built on 
the site of the smaller early - Christian basilica of Santa Maria 

118 Route 10. MILAN. a. From the Piazza del 

Maggijre. It was at that period the largest church iu existence 
and it is still one of the largest and most sumptuous in the world. 
This huge structure covers an area of 14,000 sq. yds. (of which ahout 
2400 sq. yds. are taken up hy the walls and pillars), and holds about 
40,000 people. The interior is 162 yds. in length, the transept 
96 yds. in breadth, the facade 73 yds. in breadth; nave 157ft. in 
height, 18 yds. in breadth. The dome is 220 ft. in height, the tower 
360 ft. above the pavement. The roof, marble like the rest of the 
building, is adorned with 98 turrets, and the exterior with upwards 
of 2000 statues in marble. The stained-glass windows in the choir 
are said to be the largest in the world. The cathedral was founded 
by the splendour-loving Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1386. The general 
style of the building is Gothic, but shows many peculiarities. The 
author of the original design is unknown ; Marco da Campione (d. 
1390) and Simone da Orsenigo (who was master-builder in 1387) 
have been named, but without any positive proof. The building 
progressed but slowly, owing to the dissensions between the Italian 
architects and the German and French masters [Nicholas de Bona- 
venturi, Hans von Freiburg, Heinrich von Gmiind, JJlrich von Fixs- 
singen, Jean Mignot, and others), who were frequently called to 
their aid. Between 1459 and 1480 Guiniforte Solari is mentioned 
among the superintendents of the building-operations; about 1500 
Francesco di Giorgio of Siena and Giov. Ant. Amadeo appear to 
have been associated in the that office ; and after them the work 
was conducted by Dolcebuono, Cristoforo Solari, etc. The crypt and 
the baptistery, the style of which is quite out of harmony with the 
general design of the building, were added in the second half of 
the 16th cent, by Pellegrino Tibaldi, who also laid down the marble 
pavement and designed a baroque facade. The church was con- 
secrated by San Carlo Borromeo on Oct. 20th, 1577. The dome was 
begun in 1759 by the architects Croce and Merula, and was finished 
in 1775. The facade, begun in 1615 after Tibaldi's design, remained 
uncompleted, until in 1805 Napoleon (whose marble statue, in 
antique costume, is among those on the roof) caused the works to 
be resumed, with modifications by Amati. But this entire facade 
is being gradually removed since 1900, and a new one in strict har- 
mony with the style of the rest of the church erected according to 
the plan of the young architect Giuseppe Brentano (d. 1889), whose 
design won the first prize in an open competition in 1888. 

The church is cruciform in shape, with double aisles and a tran- 
sept, the latter also flanked with aisles. The Interior is supported 
by fifty-two pillars, each 16 paces in circumference, the summits 
of which are adorned with canopied niches with statues instead of 
capitals. The pavement consists of mosaic in marble of different 

Interior. By the principal inner portal are two huge monolith col- 
umns of granite from the quarries of Baveno (see p. 179). Bight Aisle: 

Duomo to the N. Quarters. MILAN. 19. Route. 119 

Sarcophagus of Archbishop Aribert (1018-45), above which is a gilded 
crucifix of the 11th century. Monument of Ottone Visconti (d. 1295) and 
Giovanni Visconti (d. 1354), both archbishops of Milan. Gothic monument 
of Marco Carelli (d. 1394), by Niccolb d"Arezzo of Florence (?). Tomb of 
Canon Vimercati, by Bambaja. — Right Teansept (W. wall): Monument 
of the brothers Giovanni Giacomo and Gabriele de" Medici, both of Milan, 
erected by their brother Pope Pius IV. (1564), the three bronze statues 
by Leone Leoni. [Tickets for the roof (25 c, see below) are obtained near 
this monument-, the staircase leading to the dome is in the corner of the 
side-wall.] The altar of the Offering of Mary (E. wall of S. transept) is 
adorned with fine reliefs by Bambaja, with a relief of the nativity of the 
Virgin by Tantardini at the foot. Adjacent is the Statue of St. Bartholo- 
mew by Marco Agrate (1562), anatomically remarkable, as the saint is 
represented flayed, with his skin on his shoulder, and bearing the modest 
inscription 'non me Praxiteles sed Marcus finxit Agrafes'. 

Ambulatoby. The door of the S. Sacristy here is remarkable for its 
richly sculptured Gothic decorations, by Hans von Fernach (1393). In the 
sacristy is the "Treasury (adm. 1 fr.), which contains silver statues and can- 
delabra of the 17th cent. ; the enamelled Evangelium of Abp. Aribert ; 
diptychs of the 6th cent.; book-covers adorned with Italian and Byzantine 
carving of the early middle ages ; ivory vessel belonging to Bishop God- 
frey: a golden Pax by Caradosso ; and lastly a statue of Christ by Crista- 
foro Solan. 

In the ambulatory, a little farther on, is a highly revered Madonna, 
erroneously ascribed to Luini, beyond which is a sitting figure of Martin V. 
by Jacopino da Tradate (1421). Then the black marble Monument of 
Cardinal Marino Caracciolo (d. 1538) , by Bambaja. The fourth of the 
handsome new Gothic confessionals is for the German, French, and English 
languages. The stained glass in the three vast choir-windows, comprising 
350 representations of Scriptural subjects, were executed by Giov. Bertini 
(1844); most of them are copies from old pictures. Before the N. Saceistt 
is reached the statue of Pius IV. is seen above, in a sitting posture, by 
Angelo Siciliano. The door of this sacristy is also adorned with fine sculp- 
tures by Jac. da Campione (d. 1398). 

In front of the choir, below the dome, is the subterranean "Cappella 
San Carlo Borromeo (p. 169), with the tomb of the saint; entrance opposite 
the doors to the sacristy, to the N. and S. of the choir (open till 10 a.m. 
at other times lfr.; for showing the relics of the saint 5fr.). 

In the centre of the N. Teansept is a valuable bronze -Candelabrum, 
in the form of a tree with seven branches, executed in the 13th cent., and 
decorated with figures on the lower portions (prob. French work of the 
13th cent.). 

Left Aisle. Altar-piece, painted in 1600 by Fed. Baroccio, represent- 
ing Sant" Ambrogio releasing Emp. Theodosius from ecclesiastical penalties. 
The third chapel contains the old wooden Crucijix which San Carlo Borro- 
meo bore in 1576, when engaged, barefooted, in his missions of mercy 
during the plague. Adjacent, the monument of three archbishops of the 
Arcimboldi family (ca. 1550), and by the wall, the statues of eight Apostles 
(13th cent.). Not far from the N. side-door is the Font, consisting of an 
antique bath of porphyry ; canopy by Pellegrino Tibaldi. 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the *Roof and 
Tower of the Cathedral. The staircase ascends from the corner of 
the right transept (ticket 25 c. ; open till an hour before sunset, in 
summer from 5.30 or 6 a.m.), where an excellent panorama of the 
Alps by Pirola may he bought (75 c). Single visitors are not now 
admitted, except when other visitors are already at the top. The 
visitor should mount at once to the highest gallery of the tower (by 
194 steps inside and 300 outside the edifice). A watchman, generally 
stationed at the top, possesses a good telescope. 

120 Route 19. MILAN. a. From the Piazza del 

View. To the extreme left (S.W.), Monte Viso, then Mont Cenis 
(p. 2); between these two, lower down, the Superga (p. 39) near Turin; 
Mont Blanc, Great St. Bernard; Monte Rosa, the most conspicuous of all ; 
then, the Mischabelhorner, Monte Moro, theFletschhom, the Monte Leone 
near the Simplon, the Bernese Alps, the St. Gotthard and Splugen, the 
Bernina, and (in the distance to the E.) the Ortler. To the S. the Certosa di 
Pavia (p. 144) is visible, farther E. the towers and domes of Pavia itself, 
in the background the Apennines. Perfectly clear weather is necessary 
to see all these points. 

In front of the cathedral rises the colossal bronze Equestrian 
Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., completed in 1896 from the model 
by Ercole Rosa (d. 1893). The well-executed reliefs on the pedestal 
represent the Allies entering Milan after the battle of Magenta. 

To the S. stands the Palazzo Keale (PL E, F, 5, 6; adm., see 
p. 115), built in 1772 on the site of the Palazzo di Corte, the earliest 
mansion of the Visconti and the Sforza. It is adorned with frescoes 
by Appiani, *B. Luini (from the Oasa della Pelucca, near Monza), and 
Hayez, and contains several handsome saloons. In the street to 
the left, beyond the palace, are visible the tower (1336 ; built by 
F. Pecorari) and apse of the fine half-Romanesque church of San 
Gottardo, formerly the chapel of the Visconti. — Adjacent, on the E. , 
in the Piazza del Campo Santo (formerly the cathedral-cemetery), 
rises the large Archiepiscopal Palace [Palazzo Arcivescovile ; 
PL F, 5), originally built at the end of the 15th cent, in the early- 
Renaissance style, but altered in 1570 by Pellegrino Tibaldi, while 
the facade towards the Piazza Fontana was designed by Fabio 
Mangone. The handsome first court has a double colonnade and 
marble statues (Moses and Aaron) by Tantardini and Strazza. The 
second court, on the side next the Piazza Fontana, is embellished 
with Corinthian columns of the 15th century. — The W. side of 
the Piazza del Duomo is skirted by the Via Carlo Alberto (seep. 128), 
beyond which, to the N.W., lies the Piazza de' Mercanti (p. 128). 

On the N. side is the imposing palatial facade (finished in 
1878) which forms the entrance to the *Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 
(PL E, 5), connecting the Piazza del Duomo with the Piazza della 
Scala. This is the most spacious and attractive structure of the 
kind in Europe. It was built in 1865-67 by Oius. Mengoni, who 
unfortunately lost his life by falling from the portal in 1877. The 
gallery , which is said to have cost 8 million fr. (320,000L) , is 
320 yds. in length, 16 yds. in breadth, and 94 ft. in height. The 
form is that of a Latin cross, with an octagon in the centre, crowned 
at a height of 160 ft. with a glass cupola. 

In the Largo Santa Margherita (PL E, 5), on the W. side of 
the Galleria, stands a bronze statue, by Ettore Ferrari (1901), of 
Carlo Cattaneo (1801-69), the economist and patriot. 

The Piazza della Scala (PL E, 4) is embellished with the 
Monument of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) by Magni, erected 
in 1872. The colossal statue of the master stands on a lofty pedestal, 

D it omo to the N. Quarters. MILAN. 19. Route. 121 

surrounded by Marco d'Oggiono, Cesare da Sesto, Salaino, and Bol- 
traffio, four of his pupils. — In the piazza, to the N.W., is the 
Teatro alia Scala (p. 114). To the S.E. is the large Palazzo 
Marino (PI. E, 4), in which the Municipio has been established 
since 1861, erected by Galeazzo Alessi in 1558-60 for Tom. Marini 
of Genoa. The main facade, towards the Piazza della Scala, was 
completed in 1890 from the designs of Luca Beltrami. The *Court 
and the council-chamber (formerly the ball-room) on the first floor 
are interesting. 

Behind the Pal. Marino is the Piazza San Fedele, with a mon- 
ument to Alessandro Manzoni (p. 151) and, to the N., the Jesuit 
church of San Fedele (PI. E,F,4), erected by San Carlo Borromeo in 
1569 from designs by Pellegrino Tibaldi and containing a sump- 
tuous high-altar. The adjoining Palazzo del Censo ed Archivio, for- 
merly the Jesuit college, contains part of the government archives. 
— To the N.E. of this point is the Via degli Omenoni, with the 
palace of the same name (No. 1) , erected by Leone Leoni and 
adorned with Atlantes. The Yia degli Omenoni ends in the Piazza 
Belgiojoso, which contains the Palazzo Belgiojoso (No. 2) and 
ManzonVs House (No. 3), with frescoes by Giac. Campi (1894). 

Adjacent, Via Morone 10 (PI. F, 4), is the *Museo Poldi- 
PezzoTi, bequeathed to the town by Cav. Poldi-Pezzoli in 1879 and 
exhibited in the tastefully-furnished house formerly occupied by 
the founder. The collections include valuable pictures, textile 
fabrics, arms and armour, and small objects of antiquity (adm., 
see p. 115 ; no catalogue). Director, Camillo Boito. 

Ground Floor. — In the Vestibdle are Oriental carpets. An adjoining 
Room contains Coptic textiles and paintings, including the portrait of a 
cardinal by Domenichino. 

First Floor. In the library (to the left) is an ancient Flemish tapestry 
(15th cent.), representing King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, and the 
following paintings: *Ribera, Portrait, of an ecclesiastic (1636) ; Fr. Guai'di, 
Lagoon at Venice; G. B. Tiepolo, Madonna with saints, Two sketches. — 
The Antioamera and the Sala Gialla, the next two rooms, contain 
nothing of importance. 

Sala Dorata (to the right). In the wall -case is porcelain from 
Dresden, China, Sevres, and elsewhere. In the cases at the window; to 
the left, antique gold ornaments and silver plate; to the right, goldsmith's 
work of the 16-lSth cent. ; in the centre-cases, valuable ecclesiastical 
vessels, etc. (some Gothic); in the last case, antique glass, vases, and bronzes. 
Beside the mirror, Persian weapons and fine "Persian carpet (loth cent.). 
Among the pictures may be mentioned : Piero della Francesco, (?), Portrait 
of a woman; Botticelli, Madonna. — Sala Nera. Pictures: Signorelli, 
St. Barbara; Borgognone , St. Catharine; *Marioito Albertinelli, Small 
winged altar-piece, with the Madonna and SS. Catharine and Barbara 
within and the Annunciation without (1500). — Stanza da Letto. 
Pictures: Fra Viltore GMslandi (p. 196), Three portraits; Bertini, Portrait 
of Cav, Poldi-Pezzoli. Venetian glass. — Corner Room. Romanesque 
crosses and reliquaries. — Sala degli Specchi. Girolamo Romanino, Madonna 
enthroned with saints and angels, in an attractive landscape; Palma Vecchio, 

Sala del Camisetto. Michele da Verona, Samson and Delilah (sig- 
nature 'Victor Carpatius 1 forged); Cavazzola, St. Anthony of Padua; And. 
Verrocchio, Madonna with angels (school-piece); Ant. Vivarini, Madonna 

122 Route 19. MILAN. a. Northern Quarters: 

enthroned, with angels; Stefano da Zevio, A hermit saint; Cosimo Tura, 
Maternal love (school-piece)-, Fra Carnevale (or Piero delta Francesco"!) 
St. Thomas Aquinas; Cos. Tura, A canonized bishop; Pietro Perugino, 
Madonna with angels. 

Gabinetto dei Quadri di Scuola Veneta. Bart. Montagna, St. Jerome, 
St. Paul (wing3 of an altar-piece) ; Alvise Vivarini, Madonna enthroned 
with angels bearing musicil instruments; Carlo Crivelli, Christ and 
St. Francis, St. Sebastian; Giov. Bellini, Pieta; Cima da Conegliano, Head 
of a youthful saint; Mantegna, *Madonna with the sleeping Child (in a 
handsome modern frame); Vitt. Carpaccio, Venetian senator; Bonifazio I., 
Sick-room in Venice. Over the door hangs an antependium of red velvet, 
displaying the arms of Bianca Maria St'orza (15th cent.). — returning to 
the Sala degli Specchi, we enter, to the right, the — 

Sala dei Quadri di Scdola Lombakda. Andrea Solario, "Ecce Homo ; 
Borgognone, Madonna with singing angels; Giov. Ant. Boltraffio, "Madonna; 
Tin. Foppa, Gaud. Ferrari, Madonnas; B. Luini, St. Jerome; A Solario, 
*Rest on the Flight into Egypt, John the Baptist, St. Catharine of Alexandria ; 
B. Luini, Bearing of the Cross with the weeping Mary; Boltraffio, Virgin and 
Child; Luini, Marriage of St. Catharine; Cesare da Sesto (?), Madonna with 
the Lamb (showing Leon, da Vinci's influence). — Three bridal chests 
(15th cent.), that on Ihe right with two charming medallions by Bart. 
Montagna (?). — We now return and enter the Armoury to the right. 

The Via Alessandro Manzoni (PL E, F, 4, 3 ; electric car to 
the Central Station, see p. 113), one of the chief thoroughfares of 
the city, begins at the Piazza della Scala (p. 120). In the Via Bigli, 
the first cross-street beyond the Via Morone, stands the Casa Ta- 
verna or Ponti (No. 11), with a fine portal and an admirably restored 
court of the beginning of the 16th century.. — From the Via del 
Monte Napoleone, the next cross-street, we turn to the left into 
the Via Santo Spirito (PI. F, 4, 3), with the Palazzi Bagatti-Valsecchi 
(No. 10 on the right, No. 7 on the left), built in 1882 and 1895 
in the style of the 15th cent, and adorned with old portals, fres- 
coes, marble sculptures, and wood- carvings (visitors admitted; fee 
1 fr.). 

The Via Alessandro Manzoni ends at the Piazza Cavour (PI. F, 3), 
in which, opposite the S.W. entrance of the Giavdini Pubbliri 
(p. 142), rises a Bronze Statue of Cavour, by Tabacchi, with a figure 
of Clio, by Tantardini, on the pedestal. — To the right is the 
Istituto Tecnico Superiore, in the court of which is a statue 
of the mathematician Francesco BrioscM (1824-97), by Luigi 
Secchi (1900). 

Farther on, in the Via Principe Umberto, to the left, is a statue 
of Agostino Bertano (1812-86), physician and statesman. To the 
right are the show-rooms of the Society per le Belle Arti (PI. F, 2; 
adm., see p. 115). This street ends at the Porta Principe Umberto 
(PI. F, 1) and the large open space in front of the Central Station 
(P- H2). 

At the N.Vf. angle of the Piazza della Scala begins the Via 
Giuseppe Verdi (PI. E,4), which is traversed by the electric tramway 
(No. 4; p. 113) to the Porta Volta. To the right is the former Casino 
de' NoMli (Nos. 2 & 4), with a Renaissance court by Bramante. — 

Brtra, MILAN. 29. Routt. 123 

In the Via del Monte di Pieta, the second side-street on the right, 
is the handsome Cassa diRisparmio, or savings-bank, byBalzaretti. 
— The Via di Brera, forming a prolongation of the Via Giuseppe 
Verdi, leads to the — 

♦Palazzo di Brera (PI. E, 3; No. 28), built for a Jesuit college 
by Ricchini in 1651 et seq., since 1776 the seat of tbe Aceademia 
di Belle Arti, and now styled Palazzo di Scienze, Lettere eel Arti. 
It contains the Picture Gallery described below, the Library founded 
in 1770 (300,000 vols. ; adm., see p. 115), the Reale Gabinetio 
Numismaiico, or Collection of Coins (50,000; adm., see p. 115), 
and the Observatory, founded in 1766. 

In the centre of the handsome Court is a bronze statue of 
Napoleon I., as a Roman emperor, by Canova, considered one of 
his finest works (1859). By tbe staircase, to the left, the statue of 
the celebrated jurist Cesare Beccaria (1738-94), who was the first 
scientific questioner of the wisdom of capital punishment. The 
court is also adorned with several other statues. 

The staircase ascends to the first floor, on which is the *Picture 
Gallery or Pinacoteca, founded in 1806. A dm., see p. 115); catalogue 
(1901), 1^2 fr- Director, Dr. Corrado Ricci. The collection has 
been greatly enlarged and also re-arranged since 1901. In our 
description below we follow the new arrangement. — The gem of 
the collection is Raphaels Sposalizio (Room XXIII), the chief 
work of his first or Umbrian period. The numerous pictures of 
the Lombard school, and particularly the frescoes sawn out of 
churches, are also very valuable. The authenticity of the Head of 
Christ (R. XIV) ascribed to Leon, da Vinci is open to considerable 
doubt. The Madonna in a bower of roses (R. XV) is the best of the 
oil-paintings by Bernardino Luini, and the best of his frescoes are 
the Madonna with SS. Anthony and Barbara (R. II) and the Burial 
of St. Catharine (R. XV). The most interesting works of the early 
Italian school are those by Mantegna, in R. VIII. The collection 
also affords an instructive survey of the progress of Carlo Crivelli 
(R. VIII), a master who flourished in 1468-93 and connects the 
Paduan school with that of Venice. The most notable works of the 
latter school are The Preaching of St. M^rk by Gentile Bellini (R. V), 
three works by Giovanni Bellini (R. VIII), and three by Cima da 
Conegliano (R. V); and of a later period The Finding of Moses by 
Bonifazio I. (R. V), the Portrait of Porcia and the St. Jerome by 
Titian (R. VI), Tintoretto's Finding of the body of St. Mark (R. IV), 
and the admirable series of portraits by Lorenzo Lotto (R. VII). 
rivalled by Giov. Batt. Moroni of Bergamo (R. III). Of Correggio the 
collection now possesses an admirable early work (R. XVIII). Domeni- 
chino and Guercino (R. XVII) represent the Italian masters of the 
17th century. The most important works of foreign schools are 
The Last Supper by Ruben*, and the portraits of ladies by Van Dyck 
and by Rembrandt (R. XXVIII). 

124 Route 19. MILAN. a. Northern Quarters: 

From Room I, in which admission-tickets are obtained, we enter 
(to the right) — m 

Room II. ('Affreschi'), a long gallery, hung with frescoes of the 
Lombard School. Vine. Foppa, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; Madonna 
with SS. John the Baptist and John the Evangelist (1485). Bor- 
gognone, Madonna with angels; Ten saints (from San Satiro). 
Bramantino, Madonna enthroned, with angels. Gaud. Ferrari, Ador- 
ation of the Magi. Marco d'Oggiono, Adam and Eve; Marriage at 
Cana; Death of the Virgin. Bernardino Luini, *Madonna with 
SS. Anthony and Barbara. — The Anteroom on the right contains 
the archives and a large collection of photographs for purposes of 
study. — Straight on is — 

Room III: Venetian Schools of the 16-18th centuries. Paris 
Bordone, Holy Family with St. Ambrose and the donor; Baptism of 
Christ; Love-scene. G. B. Tiepolo, Two sketches. Bern. Bellotto, 
Two landscapes (near Varese). — Franc. Morone, Madonna enthroned, 
with two saints — Girol. Savoldo, *Madonna and four saints. Mcretto, 
Madonna with SS. Jerome, Anthony Abbas, and Francis (injured); 
St. Francis ; Assumption. — Giov. Batt. Moroni, Portrait of Nava- 
giero, Podesta. of Bergamo (1565); Assumption. — To the left is — 

Room IV: Venetian School of the 16th century. Palma Vecchio, 
Adoration of the Magi (probably finished by Cariani). Bonifazio I., 
* Finding of Moses, in the style of Giorgione. Bonifazio 11., Christ 
at Emmaus. Jac. Tintoretto, *Fiuding of the body of St. Mark ; 
SS. Helena, Macarius, Andrew, and Barbara; Pieta. Paolo Veronese, 
Adoration of the Magi, with SS. Gregory and Jerome to the left and 
SS. Ambrose and Augustine to the right; *SS. Anthony Abbas, 
Cornelius, and Cyprian, amonk, and a page, the finest 'conversazione' 
piece (see p. 268) by this master; Christ at the house of Simon the 
Pharisee. — To the left is — 

Room V : Venetian Schools of the 15-16th centuries. Ant. Vivarini 
and Giov. Alemanno, Madonna and saints. — Gentile Bellini, '^Preach- 
ing of St. Mark at Alexandria. 

In this piece we l perceive that the art of Gentile forother of Giovanni) 
on the eve of his death was better than it had ever been before. . . . The 
composition is fine, the figures have the individuality which he imparted, 
and the whole scene is full of stern and solid power. — '■History of Paint- 
ing in North Italy\ by Crowe, and Cavalcaselle. 

Vitt. Carpaccio, Presentation and Marriage of the Virgin (1504; 
p. 309); St. Stephen and the Scribes (1514). Lazzaro Bastiani, 
Scenes from the life of St. Jerome (from an altar). Cima da Co- 
negliano, *Madonna enthroned, with SS. John the Baptist, Sebastian, 
Rochus, and Mary Magdalen (an early work); *SS. Peter Martyr, 
Augustine, and Nicholas of Bari; St. Peter with John the Baptist 
and St. Paul. — Bart. Montagna, *Madonna enthroned, with saints 
and angels with musical iustruments, one of the master's best works 
(1499). — Stefano da Zevio, Adoration of the Magi (1453). Liberale 
da Verona, St. Sebastian. — To the right is — 

Brera. MILAN. 19. Route. 125 

Room VI Venetian School of the 16th century. Titian, *Portrait 
of Count Porcia (of the master's middle period, ca. 1537; injured); 
St. Jerome, a characteristic example of his later style (about 1560). 
Palma Vecchio, Four saints. 

Room VII: Venetian School of the 16th century. Lorenzo Lotto, 
*Portrait of a lady ; *Portraits of two men. 

'The fine-chiselled features (of the lady), extremely pure in drawing, 
charm hy their mild expression. A delicate but healthy complexion is 
displayed in warm sweet tones of extraordinary transparence ; and masterly 
transitions lead the eye from opal lights into rich and coloured shadows. 
A half length in the same collection represents a man of lean and bony 
make with a swallow-tailed beard, a grey eye, close set features, and a 
grave aspect. ... A third half length, companion to these, offers another 
variety of type and execution. A man stands at a table in a pelisse with 
a fox skin collar; he is bare-headed and bearded. His right hand rests 
on the table and grips a handkerchief. The ruddy skin of the face is 
broken with touches now warm now cold by which the play of light and 
reflections is rendered with deceptive truth'. — C. & C. 

Room VIII: Venetian Schools of the 15-16th centuries. Carlo 
Crivelli, *Madonna enthroned; *Madonna enthroned, with four saints 
(1482); Crucifixion, with the Madonna and St. John; Coronation 
of the Virgin, with a Pieta above it (1493). — Andrea Mantegna, 
Large altar-piece, at the top the Madonna and St. John weeping 
over the dead body of Christ, below St. Luke and other saint3, 
painted in 1454, and a proof of the early maturity of the artist, then 
23 years old ; *Madonna in a nimbus of angels' heads ; *Pieta. 

'It is a picture in which Mantegna's grandest style is impressed, 
foreshortened with disagreeable boldness, but with surprising truth, 
studied from nature, and imitating light, shade, and reflection with a 
carefulness and perseverance only equalled by Leonardo and Diirer: dis- 
playing at the same time an excess of tragic realism, and a painful un- 
attraciiveness in the faces of the Marys.' — C. <£ C. 

Giovanni Bellini, Madonna (an early work with Greek inscrip- 
tions); *Pieta, an early and genuinely impassioned work ; Madonna 
(ablate work, about 1510). 

Room IX (School of Genoa) has examples of Castiglione, Luca 
Carnbiaso, etc. 

Rooms X and XI : Early Lombard Schools. Vine. Civerchio, Ador- 
ation of the Child. Vine. Foppa, Madonna enthroned with angels ; 
Sis panels with figures of saints. Borgcgnone, Madonna with 
St. Clara and a Carthusian Monk. 

Rooms XII and XIII: School of Leonardo da Vinci. Works by 
Bern. Lanini, Salaino, arid Bern, de" 1 Conti. — Marco d'Oggiono, 
Fall of Lucifer. 

Room XIV: School of Leonardo da Vinci. Franc. Napoletano 
(a little-known pupil of Leon, da Vinci), Madonna. Sodoma (?), 
Madonna with the Lamb, painted under the influence of Leon, da 
Vinci. Andr. Solario, Madonna with SS. Joseph and Jerome, an early 
work (1495 ; restored) ; Portrait of a man. Gianpietrino, Madonna with 
the Lamb (unfinished); Mary Magdalen. Gaud. Ferrari, Martyrdom 

126 Route 19. MILAN. a. Northern Quarters: 

of St. Catharine; Madonna. Leonardo da Vinci (?), *Head of Christ, 
a drawing (injured). 

Room XV: School of Leonardo da Vinci. Two Madonnas upon 
panel "by Birn. Luini and the following frescoes by the same: God 
the Father (from the church of Santa Maria diBrera); Resurrection 
of Christ, Four angels, etc. (from theMonasterodelleVetere); Sportive 
maidens, Sacrifice to Pan, Birth of Adonis, etc., and *St. Catharine 
placed in her sarcophagus by angels, with the inscription C. V. 
S. Ch., i e. 'Catharina Virgo Sponsa Christi' (from the Casa della 
Pelucca, p. 120); Scenes from the life of the Virgin, with angels; 
the Madonna with St. John the Evangelist and Martha and the donor, 
formerly in the Chapel of St. Joseph in the old church of Santa 
Maria della Pace. — To the right is — 

Room XVI, with works of various Lombard Schools. Borgoynone, 
S3. Jerome, Ambrose, and Catharine, with a Pitta above; Assumption 
and Coronation of the Virgin (1522). Birn. Lanini, Madonna with 
three saints; Group with St. Anna (a free copy after Leon, da Vinci's 
work in the Louvre). Giov. Ant. Boltraffio, ^Portion of a large altar- 
piece, with the two kneeling donors. Bern. Zenale (?), Madonna 
enthroned, with the four great church- fathers, SS. Jerome, Gregory, 
Augustine, and Ambrose, and the donors, Lodovico il Moro, his 
wife Beatrice d'Este, and their two children. Works by Bramantino, 
etc. — Also, works by Lombard masters of the 17-18th cent. : 
Procaccini, D. Crespi (Dead Franciscan), C. F. Nuvoloni (Family 
of the painter), etc. 

Room XVII: works of the later Bolognese School (16-18th cent.). 
Ann. Carracci, Christ and the Samaritan Woman; Guido Rent, SS. 
Paul and Peter; Domenichino, Madonna enthroned, with SS. John 
the Evangelist and Petronius ; Guercino, Expulsion of Hagar ; Franc. 
Albani, Dance of Cupids. — To the left is — 

Room XVI: Schools of Modena, Reggio, and Parma. Fit. Mazzola, 
Portrait; Girol. Mazzola-Bedoli, Benedictine saint. Correggio,*A.AoT- 
ation of the Magi, an early work in the master's Ferrarese style; 
Madonna, St. Lucy, and Mary Magdalen. 

Room XIX: works of Bolognese and Ferrarese masters cf the 
15-16th centuries. Franc. Cossa, SS. John the Baptist and Peter; 
Ercole d£ Roberti, *Madonna enthroned with St. Augustine, the 
beatified Pietro degli Onesti, and two female saints (from Santa 
Maria in Porto Fuori at Ravenna). Lor. Costa, Adoration of the 
Magi (1499). Garofalo, Pieta (1527). Dosso Dossi, SS. Sebastian, 
George, and John the Baptist. 

Room XX: Schools of the Romagna, Forli, Faenza, Imola, and 
Bavenna. Nice. Rondinelli, St. John the Evangelist appearing to 
Galla Placidia (p. 385) ; Madonna enthroned, with four saints. Marco 
Palmezzano, Madonna enthroned, with four saints (1483). Cotignola, 
Madonna enthroned, with two saints and angels (1499). Ant. Aleotti, 
Same subject. Luca Lonyld, Same subject (1538). 

Brera. MILAN. 19. Route. 127 

Eoom XXI ('Affreschi di Bramante'). Fragments of *Frescoes by 
Bramante, from the Casa Prinetti. 

Room XXII, with smaller works of the Schools of Central Italy 
[Tuscany, Fimbria, etc.). Benozzo Gozzoli, Miracles of St. Dominic 
(part of an altar-piece). Gentile da Fair iano, Coronation of the Virgin, 
with four saints. Giac. Pacchiarotto, Madonna ; Ang. Bronzino, Portrait 
of Andrea Doria (p. 71) as Neptune; Pietro da Cortona, Madonna 
with four saints. 

Room XXIII ('Raff aello'). **Raphael's far-famed Sposalizio, or 
the Nuptials of the Virgin, painted in 1504 for the church of San 
Francesco in Citta di Castello, where it remained till 1798. 

The composition closely resembles that of the Sposalizio of Perugino 
(now at Caen), in whose studio Raphael then worked. 'In both paintings 
the top is rounded, and in both a small polygonal temple, a charming 
forecast of Bramante*s buildings, rises in the background. The central 
part of the foreground is occupied by the long-bearded high-priest, who 
joins the hands of the bridal pair ; Mary is attended by a group of graceful 
virgins, while near Joseph stand the rejected suitors, the most passionate 
of whom breaks his shrivelled wand. A closer examination of Raphael's 
work, however, divulges so many points of divergence, as to make the 
observer almost oblivious to its Peruginesque character. The transposition 
of the bride and bridegroom with their attendant groups to opposite 
sides of the canvas is a purely external difference and one of little signi- 
ficance, but the conception and drawing of the individual figures and the 
more delicate disposition of the grouping reveal the original and peculiar 
genius of the younger artist'. — '■Raffael und Mien el ang el o\ by Prof. An- 
on Springer. 

Room XXIV: Umhrian and S. Tuscan masters of the 15-16th 
centuries. Piero della Francesca (or Fra Carnacale?), Madonna 
enthroned with saints, angels, and the worshipping donor, Duke 
Federigo da Montefeltre. Luca Signorelli, Madonna, Scourging of 
Christ (early works) ; Madonna enthroned with four saints (freely 
retouched in 1892). Giov. Santl (father of Raphael), Annunciation. 
Timoteo Viti, Madonna with SS. Crescentius and Vitalis, Annunciation 
with SS. John the Baptist and Sebastian. 

Room XXV: Tuscan and Roman Schools (16- 17th cent.). Sasso- 
ferrato, Madonna (perhaps a copy?). 

Room XXVI: Schools of Southern Italy (16-17th cent,). Luca 
Giordano, Madonna and saints. Salv. Rosa, Landscape, with St. Paul 
the Hermit. 

Rooms XXVII and XXVIII: Foreign Schools. Netherlandish 
School (attrib. by Hofstede de Groot to Herri de Bles), Adoration 
of the Magi. Rubens, Last Supper (from Malines; ca. 1615-20). 
A. van Dyck, "''Portrait of a young English lady (?) ; Madonna and 
St. Anthony of Padua, Jan Brueghel, Village-street (1607). Rem- 
hrandt, ^Portrait of his sister, an early work (1632). Rihera. St Jerome. 
Raphael Mengs, Dom. Annibali, the singer (1750). 

Room XXIX: Copies and Photographs (for sale). 

Adjacent, at the junction of the Martesana (p. 148) with the 
Naviglio, is the church of San Marco (PI. E, 3), originally a Gothic 
building of the 13-14th cent. , but entirely modernized in 1690. 

128 Route 19. MILAN. a. Northern Quarters. 

The transept contains the Gothic tombs of Beato Lanfranco-Settala 
(d. 1243), by Giovanni di Balduccio (p. 131), and the jurist Sal- 
varinus de Aliprandis (d. 1344), by one of the sculptors known as 
the Campionesi (see p. 164). 

To the N.W. of the Brera is the church of San Simpliciano 
(PI. D, 3), a fine Romanesque structure, repeatedly altered at a 
later date; it contains a triumphal arch adorned with 'putti' by 
Luini, and a Coronation of the Yirgin by Borgognone (restored; in 
the apse). — Farther to the N., in the Corso Garibaldi (r.), not far 
from the Porta Garibaldi, is the Gothic double church of Santa 
Maria Incoronata (PI. D, 1), built in 1451-87. The Cappella Bossi 
contains the tombs of Giovanni Tolentino (1517) and Archbishop 
Gabriele Sforza, the former in the style of Andrea Fusina. — In 
this vicinity, at the corner of the Via Alessandro Volta, which leads 
to the Cimitero Monumentale (p. 142), is a seated bronze figure 
of the distinguished engineer G. B. Piatti (1812-67), by Salvatore 
Pisani (1894). 

To the S. W. of the Brera lies Santa Maria del Carmine (PL D, 
3, 4), a Gothic cruciform church of the 15th cent., but now entirely 
modernized. In the right transept is an Adoration of the Child, by 
Vine. Civerchio. — The Palazzo Clerici (now a law-court), in the 
adjacent Via Clerici (PL E, 4), contains an admirably -preserved 
* Ceiling Fresco by G. B. Tiepolo in a handsome baroque room 
(always open). 

b. From the Piazza del Duomo and the Piazza de' Mercanti 

to the Castello and the Arco della Pace. 
To the W. of the Piazza del Duomo , beyond the Via Carlo 
Alberto (p. 120), lies the *Piazza de* Mercanti (PL E, 5), the 
central point of the mediaeval city, and formerly provided with 
five gates. In the centre of the Piazza is the building which 
was formerly the Palazzo della Ragione, a large hall erected in 
1228-33 by the podesta (or mayor) Tresseno , to whom an eques- 
trian relief was placed on the S. side with the inscription, 'qui 
solium struxit, Catharos ut debuit uxit' (the Cathari were the Wal- 
densians). — On the N. side of the piazza is the Palazzo dei Giure- 
consulti, with a tower, erected by Vine. Seregni (1564; telegraph- 
office on the groundfloor) ; on the S. side are the Loggia degli Osii, 
erected in 1316, and the Collegio dei Nobili, also by Vine. Seregni 
(1564). — Through the Via de' Ratti to the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, 
see p. 133. 

The Piazza de' Mercanti is adjoined on the N.W. by the new 
Piazza Cordusio (PL D,E, 5), commonly known as Piazza Elittic a, 
from its elliptical shape. On the S.E. side, beside the Via Orefici, 
are the handsome offices of the Societh delle Asdcurazioni Generali, 
by Luca Beltrami, and on the S. side rises the new Exchange, with 

b. Castello Sforzesco. MILAN. 19. Route. 129 

a fine covered court, by L. Broggi (1899-1901). Facing the Via 
Dante, on the N.W. side of the Piazza, is a bronze statue (by Lnigi 
Secchi; 1899) of Gins. Parlni (1729-99), author of the satiric poem 
'II Giorno'. 

From the Piazza Cordusis a new series of streets leads in a direct 
line to the Castello. The first part of this thoroughfare is the wide 
and handsome Via Dante (PI. D, 5, 4; electric tramways Nos. 3 & 4, 
see p. 113), which is continued, beyond the Foro Bonaparte, by the 
Via Cairoli (PI. D, 4). In the Foro Bonaparte is a bronze Equestrian 
Statue of Garibaldi, by Ettore Ximenes (1895). The allegorical 
female figures on the pedestal represent Revolution and Liberty. 

The *Castello Sforzesco (PI. C, 3, 4), the castle of Milan, was 
originally built as the Castello di Porta Giovia by Galeazzo II. Vis- 
conti (1355-78), on the city-wall, adjoining the old Porta Giovia. 
It was destroyed by the Ambrosian Republic (p. Ill) in 1447, but 
was rebuilt and enlarged by the Sforza after 1450. In 1893 et seq. 
it was restored in the 15th cent, style from the plans of Luca 
Beltrami, and it now contains the municipal art- collections. The 
rectangular building, defended by four corner-turrets and a curtain 
wall, comprises a large Anterior Court and two castles or palaces : 
the Rocchetta, built by Franc. Sforza on the foundations of the Vis- 
conti castle, and the Corte Ducale. Each of these, in turn, encloses 
a smaller court. 

The old Yisconti castle seems to have been built by Galeazzo II., not 
only as a bulwark against external foes but to protect the W. quarters of 
the town against Bernabo Visconti, who had begun about 1368 to erect a 
new castle on the site of the present Ospedale Maggiore (p. 140), in addition 
to the Palazzo di Corte (p. 120). Under Filippo Maria its main function 
was to hold the citizens in check. Francesco Sforza (1450) persuaded the 
people to rebuild the stronghold that they had but a few years before 
razed to the ground amid universal jubilation. The forbidding character 
of the structure was somewhat modified by the elegant tower-gateway 
erected by Filarete in 1452-54 on the side next the town. This, however, 
was destroyed by an explosion of gunpowder in 1521. Behind the Castello 
lay an extensive deer-park. Galeazzo Maria began to fit up both the palaces 
with great luxury, and in 1477 Bona di Savoia, his widow, ereced the 
tower named after her at the E. angle of the Rocchetta. Lodovico il Moro 
emulated the artistic zeal of his brother, and Brarnante and Leonardo da Vinci 
cooperated with him in beautifying the Castello, though the latter" s design 
for the rebuilding of the main facade was never executed. 
lq An abrupt end was put to this brilliant period by the French invasion. 
In 1552-70 the cas'le was surrounded with six bastions and separated from 
the new town-walls (p. 116) by a broad moat. Throughout the Spanish 
and Austrian domination it farmed the focus of all the struggles for the 
possession of Lombardy. The republican movement of 1796 incited the 
Milanese to a repetition of the events of 1447, but it was not till 1800 
that Napoleon ordered the destruction of the fortifications ; on the site of the 
Spanish bastions and rampart arose the spacious Foro Bonaparte (see above), 
now partly built over. Under the Austran re'gime the castle was converted 
into barracks and the pleasure-garden became a drill-ground (Piazza d'Armi). 
In 1886 it was resolved to rebuild the castle, which was banded over to 
the city in 1893. 

Main Facade. The circular E. Tower (Torrione Est), wbich is 
faced with cut stone, was rebuilt in its original height (100 ft.) in 
Baedekeb. Italy I. 12th Edit. 9. 

130 Route 19. 


b. Castello Sforzesco 

1897 and is now used as a reservoir for drinking-water (serbatoio). 
The tower-gateway of Filarete (see p. 129) was restored after 1901 
as the Torre Umberto Primo; hut the S. corner-tower and the curtain 
hetween the towers still await restoration. 

Interior. To the left of the anterior court is the unpretending 
Rocchetta, with a new curtain-wall and the Torre di Bona di Savoia 
(165 ft. high); to the right is the Corte Ducale, the new palace of the 
Sforza, with Gothic windows (restored) and a curtain-wall. — In 
the passage leading to the Corte Ducale, to the left, is a fresco re- 
presenting the Crucifixion, with saints and the pious donors (ca. 

In the S. angle of the court of the Corte Ducale is the Loggetta, 
a graceful Renaissance structure, from the time of Galeazzo Maria. The 
huilding now accommodates the *Museo Archeologico ed Artistico 
(adm., see p. 115; gulda sommaria, 10 c). 

On the groundfioor is the Museo Archeologico, formerly (1862- 
98) in the Brera. This includes prehistoric articles and antiques 
discovered in Lomhardy and fine mediaeval and modern sculptures. 

I. Room. In the first division are Egyptian and prehistoric antiquities. 
The last cabinet in the middle contains objects found in Celtic graves at 
Sesto Calende in 1867. In the second division are Etruscan, Greek and 
Roman antiquities. In front, four antique porphyry columns; among the 
sculptures, by the last window on the right, is a colossal head of Zeus 
(nose restored). 

To rre QolT esoro 

Torre tlehVAsxe 

II. Boom. Early mediaeval sculptures (6- 13th cent.). Entrance- wall : 
Fragments of frescoes and architectural fragments from the former convent- 
church of Santa Maria d'Aurona (some still in the Longobardic style). In 
front, Case with articles found in Longobardic graves at Fornovo di San 
Giovanni. — Left wall: Romanesque architectonic fragments from the 
churches of Sanf Eustorgio and San Celso (12th cent.). — Exit-wall: 
Remains from the cloisters of the convent of Santa Radegonda (12th cent.); 
reliefs from the Porta Romana (1171) and Porta Tosa (caricatures of Emp. 
Frederick Barbarossa and the Empress Beatrice). 

and its Collections. MILAN. 19. Route. 131 

III. Room (Sala di Balduccio da Pisa), with traces of the original ceiling- 
paintings (Resurrection and Saints), by Vine. Foppa. Lombardic and Pisan 
sculptures (middle of the 14th cent.); capitals and sculptures from the 
church ot Santa 3!aria in Brera, by Giov. di Balduccio (1347)-, statues of tbe 
Madonna, from the cathedral; portal of the church of San Gottardo (p. 120). 

IV. Room (Sala Aperta). Works by the Campionesi (14th cent.-, see 
p. 164). la the centre, large "Monument of Bernabo Visconti (p. Ill), in the 
style of Bonino da Campione , erected by Bernabo during his lifetime (ca. 
1370-80), in the church of San Giovanni in Concha-, on the sarcophagus are 
reliefs of the Evangelists, the Coronation of Mary, the Crucifixion, and a 
Pieta; above, the equestrian statue of Bernabo and two Virtues (numerous 
traces of gilding). By the wall is the monument of Regina della Sca'a, 
wife of Bernabo; monument of the Rusconi family of Como (c. 1400). — In 
the adjacent Court, to the left, baroque portal of tbe time of Philip III., 
surmounted by the arms of the Visconti and the Sforza; opposite, on the 
right, *Marble portal from the Palazzo Medici, built for Cosimo de 1 Medici 
by Michelozzo in 1457-70, with the arms and portraits of Francesco Sforza 
and his wife Bianca Maria Visconti. — An adjoining Anteroom on the 
right (opened on request) has ceiling-decorations (putti) of the 16th cent., 
erroneously attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. 

V. Room, the former chapel (Cappella Ducale), with the sadly damaged 
remains of ceiling-frescoes (Resurrection, Annunciation) by Stefano de' Fedeli, 
Giov. di Montorfano, and others (1473). Late-Gothic sculptures (ca. 1400-50), 
mostly from the cathedral; early -Renaissance pulpit from San Pietro in 
Gessate, designed by Michelozzo. — Straight on is the — 

VII. Room (Sala dei Ducali), with a ceiling tastefully decorated with 
the arms and initials of Galeazzo Maria Sforza on a blue ground. Early- 
Renaissance sculptures, showing the influence of Donatello (ca. 1450): to 
the right, "-'Tabernacle with six angels, by the Master of San Trovaso ; relief 
of the Tiburtine Sibyl announcing the Nativity to Augustus, by Agostino 
di Duccio, from Rimini. — To the right is the — 

VI. Room (inaccessible in 1902), in the Torre delle Asse. The fine 
ceiling -paintings are ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci. The room contains 
Lombard and Tuscan sculptures of the school of Filarete and Michelozzo. 
— To the left is the — 

VIII. Room (Sala delle Colombine), with well-preserved ceiling and wall 
decorations on a red ground. (The white dove in an aureole is the crest 
of Bona di Savoia; beside it is her motto, l a bon droit 1 .) Sculptures of 
the best Lombard period (c. 1500). Entrance - wall .- Giov. Ant. Amadeo, 
Adoration of the Child, a relief from Cremona (1482). Exit-wall: Medallion 
portrait of Lodovico il Moro; half-length of a woman and relief of the 
Madonna, by Tomm. Rodari. In the centre, half-length of a woman and 
busts, by Amadeo (?); painted wooden figure of a saint. 

IX. Room (Sala degli Scarlioni). Sculptures of the 17-18th centuries. 
In the first division: Andr. Fusina, Tomb of Bishop Batt. Bagaroto (1519); 
Bambaia, Portions of the monument of Gaston de Foix (p. 31J5), ordered 
in 1515 by Francis 1. but never completed, with the recumbent "Statue 
of the hero, and casts of the remaining portions; Bambaia, Monument of 
the poet Lancino Curzio (d. 1513). — In the second division: 'Bronze Bust 
of Michael Angelo, by one of his pupils (replica in the Louvre); bust of 
a nobleman, in the style of Leone Leoni. 

X. Room. Terracottas of the 12-16th cent., from Milan and Cremona. 

The staircase at the end of R. X, affording an excellent view 
Of the elegant Gothic window in R. IX (to the right), leads to the 
Loggetta (p. 130), on the first floor of which is the — 

*Museo Artistico Municipale. This collection, founded in 1874 
and since then considerably extended, oiiginally occupied the former 
Salone in the Gardini Pubblici. 

I. Room (Sala delle Guardie; No. 11 on the Plan). The first division 
contains a valuable collection of *Majolica: Milanese fayence (18th cent.), 


132 Route 19. MILAN. b. Castello Sforzesco. 

including imitations of Chinese and Japanese porcelain; fine Italian majo- 
lica of the lBth cent., with snmi'tuous specimens from Urbino (Case 3, in 
the middle), Gubbio, and Deruta (Case 4); fine Persian files (window-wall 
to the right), and Hispano -Mauresque majolica (centre of the left wall). 
Then, Cldnese and European porcelain, including examples from Capodi- 
monte and Ginori. — Second division: in the central cabinets are ivory 
carvings (in Cab. 8, Roman, early-Christian, and medieval), niello works, 
Limoges enamels, glass (goblet of the Sforzas; 16th cent.); on the walls 
are lace, costly textiles, etc. — From the first division we en'er the — 

II. Room (Prima Sala Ducale; PI. 12). To the left, Italian iron-work 
and bronzes (16-18th cent.), including a bust of Costanza Buonarelli, by 
Lor. Bernini. By the first window, Ecclesiastical jewellery (14-l6th cent.). 
By the exit, Japanese bronzes and armour. On the walls is Flemish 
tapestry (17th cent.). 

III. Room (Seconda Sala Ducale; PI. 13). Italian furniture (16-17th cent.), 
including several bridal chests; collection of frames (15-17th cent.); early 
Flemish tapestry (15th cent.), with the Raising of Lazarus. — IV. Room 
(Terza Bala Ducale ; PI. 14). Furniture and frames of the 17 18th centuries. 

V. Room (Sala delta Torre; PI. 15). The desk-cases contain coins and 
Italian "Medals and Pla u ttes of the Renaissance period. <Jn the walls 
are hung drawings (15-19th cent.), bequeathed by Morelli (p. 196). 

VI. Room (Sala delV Elefante; PI. 16). Ifalian paintings of the 19th 
century. By the exit, bronze figure of a miner, by E. Butti. 

VII. Room (Sala di Milano ; PI. 17). Objects of interest connected with 
Milan; large banner of St. Ambrosius, carried in municipal processions; 
ancient views of the city and castello; coins and medals. 

VIII. Room (Sala delta Cancelleria; PL 18): * Pinacoteca, or gallery of 
old masters. To the right of the entrance, 1. Vine. Foppa (?), Martyrdom 
of St. Sebastian; 27. Cariani, Lot and his daughters; 31. Bonifazio I., Holy 
Family and four saints \ 32. Lor. Lotto, Portrait of a youth; 58. Pordenone, 
Portrait of a gentleman, with a lap-dog ; 59. Jac. Bassano, Portrait of a 
soldier; 64. Tintoretto, Doge Jac. Soranzo ; 65. 0. B. Moroni, Portrait; .8. G.B. 
Tiepolo, Communion of St. Lucia; 83. Fr. Guardi, Sea-piece with ruins; 
130. Greuze, GirLshead; 106. P.Potter, Swine (1649); '145. Van Dyck, Hen- 
rietta Maria, wife of Charles I. of England ; 178. C. F. Nuvoloni, Madonna ; 
196. Ribera, St. Jerome; Fra Vittore Ghislandi (p. 196), 202. Portrait, of 
himself. 203. Portrait of a monk; 2^8. Al Magnaso, Market-scene; *249. 
Ant. da Messina Portrait of a man in a laurel- wreath; *253. Correggio, 
Holy Family, an early work in the master's Ferrare-^e style; Boltrafrio, 280. 
Madonna, 279, 281. Altar-wings with saints and donors; ^283. Sodoma, Arch- 
angel Michael; 306. Gianpietrino, St. Mary Magdalen; 3(j5. V. Foppa, Ma- 
donna; no number, Borgognone, St. Jerome. — On the right wall are Milan- 
ese frescoes (15th cent.) from the demolished churches of Santa Chiara and 
Santa Maria del Giardino. 

The Rocchetta, only partly restored so far, has lost almost the 
whole of its artistic decoration. The Epigraphical Section of the 
Archaeological Museum is arranged under the arcades of the court 
(catalogue by Em. Seletti). On the groundfloor of the Torre del 
Tesoro are the remnants of a fresco of Argxis (head missing), possibly 
by Bramante. The other rooms contain the collections of the Societh 
Numismatka Italiana (coins) and the archives of the Societh Storica 
Lombarda. — On the first floor is the Museo del Risorgimento Na- 
zionale (adm., see p. 115), with a collection of patriotic ohjects from 
the time of the Cisalpine Republic down to the present day. 

The former Piazza d'Armi, the open space at the back of the 
Castello, originally the pleasance of the Visconti and Sforza, was 
converted in 1893-97 into the still somewhat shadeless Nuovo Parco 
(PI. B, C, 2-4). In the N. part of the grounds is the Montagnola, a 

b. Arco della Pace. MILAN. 19. Route. 133 

low hill with a cafe-restaurant. Hard by is the Torre Stigler, an iron 
belvedere, erected for the Exhibition of 1894 and commanding an 
extensive *Panorama of Milan, the plains of Lombardy, and the Alps 
(adm. 25 c. ; ascent only on Sun. in clear weather, in summer on 
Sun. evenings also). 

On the N. side of the park lies the Arena (PL C, 2), a kind of cir- 
cus for races, skating, and so forth, erected in 1805. TheN.W. side 
of the park is bounded by the Porta del Sempione (electric tramway 
No. 3, see p. 113), the name of which refers to the construction of 
the Simplon route (p. 3), and the Arco della Pace (PI. B, 2), a 
triumphal arch of white marble, begun by L. CaynUa for the Foro 
Bonaparte in 1806 and completed under the Austrians in 1838. 
Most of its sculptures are by Pompeo Marchesi. 

To the S.W. of the Castello lies the Stazione FerrovieNord (PL B, 
C, 4; p. 112), passing which and following the Via Boccaccio and 
the Via Caradosso (PL B, 5), we reach the church of Santa Maria delle 
Gfrazie and Leon, da VincVs Last Supper (p. 136). 

c. West Quarters of the City. Biblioteca Ambrosiana. Santa 
Maria delle Grazie. Sant' Ambrcgio. 

The archway in the S.W. corner of the Piazza de' Mercanti 
(p. 128) and the Via deiRatti lead to the Via and Piazza della Rosa. 
At No. 2 in the latter, the building erected for it in 1603-9 by Fabio 
Mangone, is the celebrated *Biblioteca Ambrosiana (PL D, E, 5), 
which contains 175,000 vols, of printed books and 8400 MSS., and 
also a valuable collection of objects of art (adm., see p. 115 ; entrance 
from the reading-room, to the right, in the court). The director of 
the library is Cav. Sacerdote Ceriani, the Orientalist. 

In the Biblioteca. which is on the groundfloor, many of the most in- 
teresting 31 SS. are exhibited to the public. Among the chief treasures are 
fragments of an illuminated MS. of Homer, of the end of the 4th cent. : 
a copy of Virgil, with marginalia by Petrarch; a palimpsest of the 5th 
cent, with the Pauline epistles and other parts of rifilas Gothic trans- 
lation of the Bible, along with a fragment of a Gothic calendar (from 
Bobbio, p. 336); Dante's Divine Comedy, a MS. of the iirst half of the 
14th cent. ; the celebrated -Codex Atlanticus, being a collection of original 
drawings and MSS. of Leonardo da Vinci; a number of miniatures; letters 
of Lucretia Borgia, San Carlo Borromeo, Ariosto, Tasso, Galileo, Liguori, 
etc. — The side-rooms contain a few sculptures in marble: part3 of the 
tomb of Gaston de Foix (p. b95); Cupid in marble, by R. Schadow ; bust of 
Byron and several reliefs by Thorvaldsen. Also a Roman mosaic and a 
fresco of Christ crowned with thorns by Bern. Luini. 

On the First Floor, at the top of the second short staircase, is the 
"Pinacoteca. I. and II. Booms: Engravings. — III. Room. Opposite the 
windows: 52. Savoldo, Transfiguration (copy; original in the Palazzo degli 
Uflizi, p. 468); *54. Borgognone, Madonna enthroned, with saints and sing- 
ing angels; 57. Moretto, Death of St. Peter Martyr; 72. S. Botticelli, Madonna 
and angels; above, 70. Baroccio, Nativity; on the end-wall, 96. Cariani, 
Bearing of the Cross. — To the right is Boom IV: *312. Giov. Bati. Moroni 1 
Portrait (1554); no number, Rottenhammer, Choir of angels ; also landscapes 
and still-life pieces by /. Brueghel and others. — V. Room: Paintings of 
no importance. — We return through the III. Room to the VI. Room. 

134 Route 19. MILAN. c. West Quarters: 

To the right and left of the entrance, 260, 261. Boltraffio, Large portrait- 
heads of a man and a woman, in chalk; 262. G. Ferrari, Marriage of the 
Virgin. — End -wall: 236, 233. Titian (copies), Adoration of the Magi, 
Deposition in the Tomb ; '231. Bonifazio I., Holy Family, with Tobias and 
the angel (restored) ; 230. Jac. Bassano, Adoration of the Shepherds. On the 
window-wall are drawings of the School of Leon, da Vinci, and a few 
specimens from his own hand, including some caricatures. — Opposite is 
** Raphael" s Cartoon of the 'School of Athens 1 , which should be carefully 
studied. The dilapidated condition of the fresco in the Vatican makes this 
cartoon of great interest and value, since here only we gain the full key to 
the artistic motives of the painter. The deviations of the fresco from the 
cartoon, with the exception of the additions of the sitting figure at the 
foot of the staircase, the temple-colonnade, and the portrait of Raphael 
himself, are unimportant. — On the exit-wall : Bramantino, 272. Madonna 
with saints, 273. Adoration of the Holy Child (an early work); 274. Marco 
cfOggiono and 277. Gianpietrino, Madonnas; 279. Boltraffio, Portrait; 281. 
B. Luini, Holy Family (after Leon, da Vinci's cartoon in London) ; *282. Leo- 
nardo da Vinci (?) , Portrait (unfinished) ; Luini, 283. Youthful Christ in 
an attitude of benediction, 284. John the Baptist as a child; ""285. Leonardo 
da Vinci (attributed by Morelli to Ambrogio de Predis), Portrait of a young 
lady (perhaps Bianea Maria Sforza, afterwards wife of the Emp. Maxi- 
milian I.). — VII. Room: Drawings of the Lombard School, including 
some by Leon, da Vinci (the portrait of himself is a forgery, comp. p. 29) ; 
also several by Diirer. 

The custodian also exhibits the Cabinet of Bronzes, containing bust3 
of Canova and Thorvaldsen, the latter by the master himself, and pictures 
of no great value: 46. Rapftael Mengs , Pope Clement XIII.; 30. Marco 
Basaiti, Risen Christ ; 24. Bart. Veneto (not Lorenzo Lotto), Madonna (injured). 

At the back of the library is the Romanesque church of Santo 
Sepolcro ^Pl. D, 5), dating from the 11th century, with a picture 
by Gianpietrino (Madonna and angels) in the sacristy. The Via del 
Bollo leads hence to the W. to the Piazza San Borromeo, which 
contains a statue of San Carlo Borromeo and also the former — 

Palazzo Borromeo (No. 7; PI. D, 5). On the groundfloor of the 
palace are three frescoes, historically interesting for their subjects 
(card-players, players at ball, and a rustic dance); they are ascribed 
to Michelino da Bedozzo (ca. 1430). On the first story is a *Pictube 
Gallery ( Pinacoteca) containing some important paintings and a 
few sculptures, chiefly of the Lombard School (adm., see p. 115; 
lists of the pictures provided). 

I. Room. Madonna with John the Baptist and St. Sebastian, an alto- 
relief by Marco da San Michele (1525). Copies of ancient paintings (56. 
Cavalry engagement, by Ercole de' Roberti), etc. — II. Room. Lombard School , 
Madonna with the donor (King Francis I.?), alto-relief of the 16th cent.; 
Desiderio da SeWgnano (?), Bust of a girl; 155. B. Luini (1), Head of the 
Virgin (fragment of a fresco) ; 209, 214. Zuccarelli, Pastel portraits of girls. 
This room also contains some beautiful miniatures upon copper. — 
III. Room. Paintings of the German and Netherlandish schools, drawings, 
autographs, etc. — IV. Room, containing the chief works of the collection. 
4. Marco d 1 Oggiono (?), Michael the Archangel ; Gianpietrino, 6. St. Catha- 
rine, 9. Fertility; Gaud Ferrari, 10. St. Sebastian, 12. Madonna with SS. 
Joseph and Anthony Abbas; 13. School of Mantegna, Bearing of the Cross; 
Gaud. Ferrari, 14. St. Rochus, 16. Two Amoretti; '68. Bern. Luini, Susanna 
(half-length); 69. Fil. Mazzola , Portrait (1463); 34. Luini, Holy Family; 
35. Borgognone (?), Portrait of Andrea de 1 Novelli, Bishop of Alba; 36. 
Pinturicchio, Bearing of the Cross (1513); 37. Cesare da Sesto, Adoration of 
the Magi (early work) ; 43. Lorenzo Lotto, Crucifixion; 40. Bart. Veneto, St. 
Catharine; Borgognone, *41. Madonna enthroned, *45. Madonna by a rose- 

Santa Maria delle Grazie. MILAN. 19. Route. 135 

hedge-, Luini, 44. Madonna and saints, 47. Daughter of Herodias with the 
head of John the Baptist; Borgognone, 48. Christ blessing, 49. Madonna, 
50, 52. Annunciation; 51. Lombard School (not Leon, da Vinci), Madonna; 
*72. Boltraffio, Madonna; Bernardino de" Conti, 56. Portrait of Camillo Tri- 
vulzio (d. 1525), 53. Madonna. 

The Via San Borromeo and the Via Santa Maria alia Porta lead 
to the N.W. to the Corso Magenta (electric tramway to the Porta 
Magenta, see p. 114), in which, to the right, is the Palazzo Litta 
(PI. C, 5), with an imposing rococo facade and a handsome staircase 
and court, now occupied by the Bete Mediterranea railway-company 
(p. xvi). Opposite, on the left, rises the small church of — 

San Maurizio, or Chiesa del Monastero Maggiore (PI. C, 5), 
erected in 1503-19 by Oiov. Dolcebuono, a pupil of Bramante. 

The Interior contains numerous frescoes. Last chapel but one on the 
right: 'Scourging of Christ and scenes from the martyrdom of St. Catharine, 
painted by Luini about 1525. The ^Frescoes beside the high-altar are by 
Luini: above, in the centre, the Assumption of the Virgin; below, to the 
left, SS. Cecilia and Ursula at the sides of the tabernacle, with a beauti- 
ful figure of an angel. In the lunette above is a kneeling figure of the 
donor, Alessandro Bentivoglio (d. 1532 ; expelled from Bologna and buried 
here), with SS. Benedict, John the Baptist, and John the Evangelist. Above, 
martyrdom of St. Maurice. Below, to the right, SS. Apollonia and Lucia at 
the sides of the tabernacle, with the risen Christ ; in the lunette, Ippolita 
Sforza, wife of Bentivoglio, with SS. Scholastica, Agnes, and Catharine. 
Above, King Sigismund presents a model of the church to St. Maurice. 
The frescoes in the chapels at the sides of the entrance-door are by 
Aurdio Luini and his pupils. — Behind the high -altar lies the Nuns 1 
Choik, of the same size as the church itself. At the high-altar is a 
series of 9 Frescoes of the Passion; below, the lifesize figures of SS. 
Apollonia, Lucia, Catharine, Agatha, Sebastian, and Rochus, all by Luini. 
Inside, between the arches, are 20 medallions of saints, by Borgognone. In 
the arches of the gallery above are 26 medallions of holy women, by 

Farther on in the Corso Magenta, on the right, is situated the 
church of *Santa Maria delle Grazie (PI. B, 5), an abbey-church of 
the 15th century. The choir, with its elaborate external decoration 
in terracotta, the transept, and the fine dome are by Bramante. 

Right Aisle. In the 2nd chapel, John the Baptist, an altar-piece by 
Bugiardini. 4th chapel, frescoes by Gaudenzio Ferrari, the Crucifixion, 
Christ crowned with thorns, Christ scourged (1542), angels with the in- 
struments of the Passion (on the vaulting) ; an altar-piece (Descent from 
the Cross) by Caravaggio(7). — In the Choik are good stalls of the Renais- 
sance. — Left Aisle. The fine Cappella del Rosario, with a defaced fresco 
(Adoration of the Child) by Vine. Foppa, contains the mural tablet of 
Branda Castiglione (d. 1495). by Giov. Ant. Amadeo (?), and the family-tomb 
of the Delia Torre (p. Hi), by Tomm. and Franc, da Cazzaniga (1483; restored). 

The Monastery, long used as a barrack, with cloisters by Bra- 
mante, is now being restored by Luca Beltrami. The first walk of 
the cloisters (already accessible), to the left of the church, is adjoined 
by the Sacristy, which contains an altar-piece by Marco d'Oggiono 
(John the Baptist and donor). To the right and left are relief-portraits 
of Lodovico il Moro and his son Massimiliano. The Renaissance 
cabinets are adorned with charming paintings on wood. 

A large door marked 'Cenacolo Vinciano', to the W. of the 
church, is the entrance to the former refectory, containing the 

136 Route 19. MILAN. c. West Quarters : 

celebrated **Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci (no adm. ; seep. 115). 

The picture is unfortunately in bad preservation, chiefly from having 
been painted on the wall in oils (before 1499). In the same room 
are also exhibited numerous photographs , and contemporaneous 
copies by Andrea Solario, Cesare del Magno, Marco d' Oggiono, and 
Ant. de Glaxiate, an inspection of which much facilitates the study 
of the original. — The large fresco by Giov. Donato Montorfano 
(Crucifixion) of 1495, opposite the Last Supper, is in much better 
condition. The kneeling figures of Duke Lodovico il Moro (p. Ill) 
and his wife Bianca Maria with their children are by Leon, da 
Vinci, the trace of whose hand is still distinguishable. 

Deplorable as is the condition of the Last Supper, the chief work 
executed by Leon, da Vinci during his stay at Milan, the original alone ex- 
hibits to its full extent the emotions which the master intended to ex- 
press, and which even the best copies fail to reproduce. The motive of 
the work has been well explained by Goethe: 'The artist represents the 
peaceful little band round the sacred table as thunder-struck by the Master's 
words, One of you shall betray me. They have been pronounced; the whole 
company is in dismay, while he himself bows his head with downcast 
eyes. His whole attitude, the motion of his arms and hands, all seem to 
repeat with heavenly resignation, and his silence to confirm, the mournful 
words — 'It cannot be otherwise. One of you shall betray me! 1 Comp. 
also p. liv. 

The Via Caradosso and the Via Boccaccio lead hence to the 
Castello (p. 129). — In the Piazzale Michelangelo Buonarotti, beyond 
the former Porta Magenta (PI. A, 5), is the Casa di Riposo pei Musi- 
cisti, a home of rest for musicians, established in 1899 by Verdi 
(d. 1901), who is buried here. There is also the nucleus of a Verdi 
Museum. [Some reminiscences of Verdi are also preserved in a 
room in the Grand Hotel Milan (p. 112), where he died.] 

From Santa Maria delle Grazie the Via delle Oche and the Via 
San Vittore lead to. the S.E. to the church of San Vittore (PI. B, 6), 
a baroque building by Galeazzo Alessi (1560), interesting for its 
elaborate internal decoration. A little farther on we pass the S. end 
of the Via San Gerolamo, part of the ancient route round the ram- 
parts, in which rises the Palazzo Gonzaga (No. 30), immediately 
to the left, built in 1900 in the Lombard style by Cedlio Arpesani. 
At the end of the Via San Vittore is the large Piazza Sant' Ambrogio 
(PI. C, 5, 6; electric tramway No. 5, p. 114), with the church of — 

*Sant' Ambrogio (PL C, 6), founded by St. Ambrose in the 4th 
cent., but probably dating in its present Romanesque basilica form, 
with its peculiar galleries and an octagonal cupola over the high- 
altar, from the 12th century. The fine atrium in front of the church, 
containing remains of ancient tombstones, inscriptions, and frescoes 
seems, like the facade, to have preserved the architectural forms o, 
the original building. St. Ambrosius baptized St. Augustine here 
in 387, and in 339 he closed the doors of this church against the 
Emp. Theodosius after the cruel massacre of Thessalonica. There 
is a portrait of the saint on the left side of the principal entrance. 

SanV Ambrogio. MILAN. 19. Route. 137 

The Lombard kings and German emperors formerly cansed them- 
selves to be crowned here with the iron crown, which since the time 
of Frederick Barbarossa has been preserved at Monza (p. 146). The 
ancient pillar at which they took the coronation-oath before being 
crowned is still preserved nnder the lime-trees in the piazza. 

Interior. To the right, in the nave, is a marble statue of Pius IX., by 
Franc. Con/alonieri (1S8U). — In the 1st chapel of the left aisle, an Ecce 
Homo, fresco by B. Luini. — On the right and left of the side-entrance 
in the right aisle : frescoes by Gaudenzio Ferrari, representing the Bearing 
of the Cross , the three Maries , and the Descent from the Cross. 2nd 
Chapel on the right: a fine kneeling statue of St. Marcellina, by Pacetti 
(1812). 5th Chapel on the right : Legend of St. George, frescoes by Ber- 
nardino Lanini. — The second door to the left in the large 6th chapel 
leads to the Cappella di San Satiro, with mosaics of the 5th cent, (restored) 
in the dome. In the dark chapel to the right of the choir is an altar-piece 
by B. Luini, Madonna and saints. — The 'High Altar, apparently restored 
about 1200, still retains its original decoration of the first half of the 9th 
cent., the only intact example of its period. This consists of reliefs on 
silver and gold ground (in front), enriched with enamel and gems, executed 
by Vol/oinus, a German (covered, shown only on payment of 5 fr.). The 
12th cent. *Canopy over the high-altar, which is adorned with interesting 
reliefs, recently re-gilded, is borne by four columns of porphyry from the 
original altar. The apse contains an ancient episcopal throne. In the 
Tribuna are 'Mosaics of the 9th cent., earlier than those of St. Marks at 
Venice: Christ in the centre, at the sides the history of St. Ambrose. — 
To the left of the choir, in the aisle, is an inscription from the tomb of 
Emp. Louis II. (d. 875; destroyed; formerly iu the vestibule); farther on 
is the tombstone of Pepin, son of Charlemagne, above which is an altar- 
piece of the Lombard School (Madonna and two saints). Opposite, at the 
K. entrance to the Crypt, is a fresco by Borgognone (Christ among the 
Scribes). The modernised crypt contains a silver reliquary, designed in 
1898 by Ippolito Marchetti and Giov. Lomazzi, in which are preserved the 
bones of SS. Ambrose, Protasius, and Gervasius. — By the pulpit are a 
bronze eagle, a brazen relief of St. Ambrose (10th cent.?), and an early 
Christian sarcophagus of the 6th century. 

Adjacent to the left aisle is an unfinished cloister, designed by 
Bramante (1492), and afterwards rebuilt. 

The Via Lanzone [PI. C, 6) leads hence to the S.E. to the Via 
Torino and San Lorenzo (p. 138). 

d. Along the Via Torino to the Southern Quarters of the City 
(San Lorenzo, Sant' Eustorgio, Ospedale Maggiore). 
The busy Via Torino (Pi. E, D, 5, 6; electric lines to Porta 
Genova and Porta Ticinese, see p. 114) begins at the S.W. corner of 
the Piazza del Duomo. To the left is the small church of San Satiro 
(PI. E, 5, 6; closed 12-4, in winter 12-3), founded in the 9th cent., 
and re-erected by Bramante and his pupil Bramantino about 1480. 
The facade has been restortd. The apparent choir is only painted 
in perspective. The octagonal *Baptistery (off the right transept) 
is also by Bramante, and has a beautiful frieze by Caradosso (putti, 
and heads in medallions). At the end of the left transept is a curious 
little building with a cupola, belonging, like the belfry, to the 
original structure; it contains a Pieta, in painted terracotta, by 
Caradosso (? covered). 

138 Route 19. MILAN. d. Southern 

The church of San Giorgio al Palazzo (PI. D, 6), farther on, to 
the right, contains in the 1st chapel on the right a St. Jerome hy 
Gaud. Ferrari; in the 3rd chapel on the right, *Paintings by Luini: 
above the altar, Entombment and Crowning with thorns ; at the 
sides, Scourging and Ecce Homo ; in the dome, Crucifixion (fresco). 
— Farther to the N.W., in the Piazza Mentana (PI. D, 6), is a Mon- 
ument by Luigi Belli, erected in 1880 in memory of the Italians who 
fell at Mentana. 

To the S. the Via Torino is continued by the Cokso di Porta Ti- 
cinbse (PI. D, 7, 8), in which, on the left, is a large ancient *Colon- 
nal>k (PL D, 7) of sixteen Corinthian columns, the most important 
relic of the Roman Mediolanum. Adjacent is the entrance to — 

*San Lorenzo (PI*. D, 7), the most ancient church in Milan. 
Whether the handsome interior once formed the principal hall of 
the Thermae, or of a palace of Maximian (4th cent.), to which the 
above-mentioned colonnade^ belonged, or a very ancient Christian 
place of worship, like San Vitale at Ravenna, is uncertain. It was 
subsequently altered at least three times, the last time by Martino 
Bassi about 1573. It is octagonal in form , and covered with a 
dome. On the four principal sides are large semicircular apses in 
two stories, each borne by four columns alternately octagonal and 

At the back of the high-altar is the ancient Cappella di Sanf Ippolito, 
containing the tomb of Count Giov. Maria Visconti , by Marco Agrate 
(1559). — To the right of the chnrch is the very ancient Cappella di SanV 
Aquilino (closed), containing mosaics of the 6th and. 7th cent. (Christ and 
the Apostles and Annunciation to the Shepherds, the latter freely restored), 
and an ancient Christian sarcophagus. The entrance to the chapel from 
the church is adorned with an antique marble frame, on which appears 
a Bacchante riding a goat (to the left). 

Farther to the S., beyond the Naviglio, rises the ancient church 
of Sant' Eustorgio (PI. D, 8), founded in the 4th cent., re-erected 
in the Gothic style in 1278, renewed in the bad taste of the 17th 
cent, by Ricchini, and recently again restored. The modern facade 
is by Giov. Brocca (1862). 

1st Chapel to the right, Mural monument of Giac. Stefano Brivio 
(d. 1484), by Tommaso da Cazzaniga and Bened. Briosco ; 4th Chape] to the 
right, Gothic monument of Stefano Visconti (ca. 1337), by one of the 
Campionesi; 6th Chapel, Monuments of Gaspare Visconti and his wife 
Agnes (d. 1417). Farther on, on the same side, the Cappella de" Magi, con- 
taining a relief of 1347 and a late-Romanesque sarcophagus, in which the 
'bones of the Magi 1 were preserved until they were presented to the city 
of Cologne by Frederick Barbarossa after the conquest of Milan in 1162. 
By the high-altar are reliefs of the Passion, dating from the 14th century. 
In a modern sarcophagus (1900) below are deposited the bones of Eustor- 
gius, Magnus, and Honoratus, three archbishops of Milan in the 4th cen- 
tury- — At the back of the choir is the "Cappella Portinari, with a fine 
cupola and a charming frieze of angels, built in 1462-66 by Michelozzo of 
Florence (p. 443). It contains the magnificent Gothic tomb of St. Peter 
Martyr by Qiov. di Balduccio of Pisa (1339). This saint, the Dominican 
Fra Pietro of Veron , was murdered in 1252 in the forest of Barlassina, 
in consequence of his persecution .of heretics. The walls are adorned 
with admirable frescoes of the four Fathers of the Church, scenes from 

Quarters. MILAN. 19. Route. 139 

the life of St. Peter Martyr, the Annunciation, and the Assumption, prob- 
ably by Vine. Foppa. — In the sacristy is a Penitent St. Jerome, by 
Borgognone. — The adjacent convent is now a barrack. 

We follow the street to the Porta Ticinese (PI. D, 8), originally 
intended to commemorate the Battle of Marengo, but inscribed in 
1815 'Paci Popnlorum Sospitce'. We then turn to the E. and skirt 
the city-walls to the Porta Lodovica (PI. E, 8), whence we follow 
the Corso San Celso (PI. E, 8, 7), to the left, to the church of 
Santa Maria presso San Celso (PI. E, 8), built in the Renaissance 
style by Giov. Dolcebuono after 1490. It possesses a handsome 
atrium (1514), groundlessly attributed to Bramante , and a rich 
facade by Galeazzo Alessi (1569-72). On the right and left of the 
portal are Adam and Eve by Stoldo Lorenzi. 

The Interior is in the form of a basilica with barrel-vaulting over 
the nave, a dodecagonal cupola, and an ambulatory. By the 2nd altar to 
the right, Holy Family and St. Jerome, by Paris Bordone; Gaudenzio Fer- 
rari, Baptism of Christ (behind the high-altar); at the beginning of the 
left aisle, Borgognone, Madonna and saints; below it, Sassoferrato, Madonna. 
The 2nd chapel on the left contains a sarcophagus with the relics of St. Cel- 
sus. The cupola is decorated with frescoes by Appiani (1795). — In the 
sacristy are some fine specimens of goldsmith's work. 

Adjacent is the Romanesque church of San Celso, docked of its 
W. half in 1826 and now possessing few remains of the original 
structure. Altar-piece by Moretto: Conversion of St. Paul. 

At the N. end of the Corso San Celso is the Piazza SanV Eu- 
femia, in which, to the right, stands the church of that name (PI. E,7), 
dating from the 5th cent., and recently restored. In the third 
chapel on the left is a Madonna with saints and angels, by Marco 
d' Oggiono. — A little to the S. is the church of San Paolo, a richly 
ornamented and characteristic building of the middle of the 16th 
century. The architectural decorations of the facade already il- 
lustrate the principles of the later baroque style, and this is seen 
even more strongly in the interior, which is adorned with frescoes 
by the brothers Giulio, Antonio, and Vincenzo Campi of Cremona. 

TheViaAmedei leads hence towards theN. to Sant' Alessandro 
(PI. E, 6), erected about 1602 by Lor. Binago, a reduced and in 
the interior successful copy of St. Peter's at Rome, with two W. 
towers. The sumptuous decorations date from the close of the 
17th century. High-altar adorned with precious stones. — Adjacent 
is the Palazzo Trivulzio, with a handsome baroque portal. This 
palazzo (adm. by special introduction only) contains a valuable art- 
collection, in which the most noteworthy objects are the tomb of 
Azzone Yisconti (1328-39) from San Gottardo ; the statuette of a 
warrior, being a bronze copy of one of the figures of Leon, da VincVs 
first model for the equestrian monument to Franc. Sforza (p. 117); 
a relief-portrait by Cristoforo Solari ; a portrait by Antonello da 
Messina; and a Madonna by Mantegna (1497). The extensive 
library contains a Dante codex of 1337, a MS. of Leonardo da 
Vinci, and other rarities. 

140 Route 19. MILAN. d. Southern Quarters. 

The Via Carlo Alberto (PI. E, 5, 6), mentioned at p. 128, passes 
a few paces to the E. of Sant' Alessandro. From it we turn to the 
S.E. into the Cobso di Porta Romana (electric car, see p. 114), 
which leads to the gate of that name. We follow this street as far 
as the church of San Nazaro (PI. F, 6, 7), with the masterpiece 
of Bernardino Lanini (1546), a large fresco representing the *Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Catharine, painted in imitation of the similar picture 
in the Brera by Lanini's master Gaud. Ferrari (No. 107); a hand- 
some carved Gothic altar ; and ancient Swiss stained-glass windows 
to the right of the main entrance. A side-entrance admits to the 
octagonal sepulchral chapel of the Trivulzi, built by Oirolamo della 
Porta (1519). — To the N.E., in the Yia dell' Ospedale, is the — 

*Ospedale Maggiore (PI. F, 6), a vast and remarkably fine brick 
structure, begun in the Renaissance style in 1456 by Antonio 
Filarete of Florence, continued in the Gothic style by Quiniforte 
Solari and other Lombard architects, and not completed by Ricchini 
till after 1624. It contains no fewer than nine courts. The extensive 
principal court, surrounded by arcades, is by Ricchini (17th cent.); 
the court to the right of it is ascribed to Bramante. The edifice is 
entirely covered externally with terracotta, in a style frequently 
observed in other Milanese buildings, but its facade, with its rich 
window-mouldings, is superior to any other structure of the kind at 
Milan. In the chapel are two paintings by Francesco de Vico, con- 
taining portraits of Francesco and Bianca Maria Sforza, the founders 
of the hospital. 

From the back of the hospital the Via San Barnaba leads to the 
Rotonda (PI. H, 6; open on Thurs. & Sun., 10-4; adm. 50 c), built by 
Arrigone and dedicated by the Viceroy Eugene Beauharnais in 1809 as a 
Pantheon Nazionale. It now contains a large collection of portraits of bene- 
factors of the Ospedale Maggiore, from the 16th cent, to the present day. — 
In the Via Guastalla, the first cross-street of the Via San Barnaba, is the 
Synagogue (PI. G, 6), by Luca Beltrami (1892). 

A little to the N. of the Ospedale Maggiore is the Piazza Santo 
Stefano, with the simple Renaissance church of that name (PI. F, 6 ). 
— Hard by is the Piazza del Verziere (PL F, G, 5), used as a vege- 
table-market. We may now return to the W. by the Via Tenaglie 
and the Piazza Fontana (PI. F, 5) to the Piazza del Duomo, or we 
may follow the Via Cesare Beccaria to the N. to the Palazzo di 
Giustizia (PL F, 5), a baroque structure by Seregni, with a courtyard 
of later date (1605); on the portal is a tablet commemorating Silvio 
Pellico and the other Italian patriots committed by the Austrians 
to the fortress of Spielberg in 1821 (comp. p. 43) Adjacent is 
the Piazza Beccaria, with a statue of Beccaria (p. 123) by Grandi, 
erected in 1871. — The Via Cesare Beccaria ends on the N. at the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele. 

e. East Quarter?. MILAN. 19. Route. 141 

e. East Quarters of the City. Corso Vittorio Emanuele and its 
Side Streets. Giardini Pubblici. 

On the N.E. side of the cathedral begins the *Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. F, G, 4, 5 ; electric tramway, see p. 114), which, 
with its prolongation, the Corso Venezia (Pi. G, H, 4, 3), leads to 
the Giardini Pubblici. This is the principal business-street in Milan, 
containing the best shops. At No. 22 is an antique statue, known as 
Tuomo di pietra'. Farther on is the church of San Carlo Borromeo 
(PI. F, 4, 5), a rotunda in the style of the Pantheon at Rome, con- 
secrated in 1847. The adjacent Galleria de Crist6fori$, occupied with 
shops, was erected by Pizzala in 1830-32. 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the" Corso Yenezia 
and the Yia Monforte, is the small Romanesque church of Santa 
Babila (PL G, 4), near which is an old Column with a lion, the 
cognizance of this quarter of the town. 

In Yia Monforte, to the left, is situated the Palazzo di Prefet- 
tura (PL G, H, 4), with a modern facade. — To the S. of this point, 
in the Yia del Conservatorio, is the church of Santa Maria della 
Passione (PL H, 5), 'amori et dolori sacrum', with a spacious dome 
by Crist. Solari (1530), and a nave and facade of 1692.: 

It contains a Last Supper by Gaud. Ferrari (left transept), a *Pieta 
by Luini (behind the high-altar; -with a predella, representing scenes 
from the life of Constantine and Helena, the earliest known work of 
this master, showing the influence of Borgognone and Bramantino), and 
the tomb of Abp. Birago by Andrea Fusina (1485; right transept). The 
14 pilasters are adorned with'figures of saints by Daniele Crespi (1622). The 
ceiling of the sacristy was painted by Borgognone. 

The Conservatory of Music occupies the old monastery buildings. 
— In the vicinity is the Gothic monastic church of San Pietro in 
Gessate (PI. G. 5), built about 1460, containing much defaced fres- 
coes by Bern. Buttinone and Bern. Zenale, and the monument of 
Ambrogio Grifo (d. 1493) by C. Solari. The cloisters, with two 
early-Renaissance courts, are now occupied by the Orfanotrofio, or 

At the E. end of the Corso di Porta Vittoria, near the gate of that 
name (PI. H. 5; electric tramway, see p. 114), is a Monument commemorat- 
ing the Cinque Giomate (p. 116j, designed by Gius. Grandi (d. 1894) and 
unveiled in 1895. 

We now return to the Corso Yenezia. On the left, on this 
side of the canal, is the Archiepiscopal Seminary (PL F, G, 4), by 
Gius. Meda (1570), with a baroque portal and a fine court. In the 
Yia del Senato, which diverges to the left by the Naviglio, is 
(No. 10) the Palazzo del Senato (PL G, 3 ; formerly Pal. Elvetico), 
built about 1600 by Fabio Mangone, now containing the provincial 
archives ; in the court is a colossal equestrian statue of Napoleon III. 
(bronze), by Barzaghi. Adjacent, at the beginning of the avenue 
(Boschetti) leading to the Giardini Pubblici, is a marble statue of 
General Giac. Medici, the Garibaldian, by Barcaglia. 

Farther on in the Corso Yenezia, to the left, Nos. 59-61, is the 

142 Route 19. MILAN. e. East Quarters. 

Pal. Ciani (PI. G, 3), completed in 1861, with rich ornamentation 
in terracotta. On the right is the Pal. Saporiti (PI. G, 3), another 
modern hnilding, in the 'classicist' style, with reliefs by Marchesi. 
— A little farther on, to the left, stands the — 

Museo Civico (PI. G, 3), a tasteful Renaissance hnilding of brick, 
erected in 1892-94 and containing the natural history collections of 
the city. Adm., see p. 115. Director, Prof. Tito Vignoli. 

Ground Floor. Room I. Collection of stones; by the exit- wall, miner- 
als from Elba. — Room II. Fossils of Lombardy, including a cave-bear 
(Ursus spelaeus). — Room III. Fossils from the Pampas of S. America 
(Megatherium, Glyptodon, etc.), from New Zealand (Dinomis Maximus or 
Moa, an extinct, bird of gigantic size) and elsewhere. — Rooms IV-VI 
Mammalia (skeletons, stuffed beasts, etc.). 

First Floor. Rooms I-V. Ornithological collection (Raccolta Turati; 
about 25,000 specimens). — Room VI. Collection of reptiles, founded by 
Jan (d. 1866). 

The *Giardini Pubblici (PI. F, G, 2, 3), between the Corso Venezia 
and the Via Manin, are probably the most beautiful public park in 
Italy, with their tasteful flower-beds, their ponds, and their pictur- 
esque groups of venerable trees. In the older part of the park 
(1785), near the new Museo Civico, are bronze statues of Ant. 
Stoppani, the geologist (1824-41 ; by Fr. Confalonieri), and Gen. 
Oius. Sirtori (by E. Butti). On a small island in the middle is a 
marble statue of the Milanese poet Carlo Porta, by Puttinati. The 
W. portion of the park, laid out in 1856, is embellished with a 
bronze statue of Ant. Bosmini (p. 181), by Franc. Confalonieri 
(1895). — The high-lying N. portion of the gardens, known as the 
Montemerlo , has a Cafe - Restaurant and a bronze statue of the 
patriot Luciano Manara (d. 1859), by Barzaghi (1894). It is skirted 
by the chestnut avenue of the Bastioni di Porta Venezia (PI. G, F, 

On the S. side of the park, in the Via Palestro, is the Villa Beale 
(PI. G, 3), erected by L. Pollack for Gen. Belgiojoso in 1790 and con- 
taining a few works of art. — In the Via Manin stands the Palazzo 
Melzi, containing paintings by Cesare da Sesto, etc. — Piazza Ca- 
vour, see p. 122. 

f. The Cemeteries. 

To the N.W. of the city, outside the Porta Volta (PI. C, D, 1) 
and at the terminus of the electric tramway No. 4, mentioned at 
p. 113, lies the *Cimitero Monumentale (closed 12-2), designed 
by C. Maciachini, 50 acres in area, enclosed by colonnades, and one 
of the finest 'campi santf in Italy. (The guide, who speaks French, 
demands a fee of l l /2 fr. for each person.) Fine view of the Alps. 
The numerous and handsome monuments form a veritable museum 
of modern Milanese sculpture. In the last section is situated the 
'Tempio di Cremazione\ presented to the town in 1876 (inspection 


MILAN. 19. Route. 143 

The Cimitero di Musocco, 2 M. to the N.W. of the Porta del 
Sempione (p. 133), was laid out in 1895 and is twice the size of 
the Cimitero Monumentale. It is reached either by the Corso del 
Sempione (PI. B, A, 1) or by the Corso al Cimitero di Musocco (elec- 
tric tramway), beginning at the Piazza San Michele, to the W. of 
the Cimitero Monumentale. 

Excursion from Milan to the Certosa di Pavia. 

To visit the Certosa di Pavia we may use either the Railway to Cer- 
tosa, on the Pavia-Voghera line, or the Pavia Steam Tkamway as far aa 
Torre di Mangano. The railwav starts from the Central Station and takes 
Vz-1 hr. (fares 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 50 c. ; return-fares 4 fr. 75, 2 fr. 50, 
1 fr. 60 c). The tramway starts about every 2 hrs. from the Porta Tici- 
nese (PI. D, 85 electric tramway from the Piazza del Duomo, see p. 114) and 
takes 1V2-1 3 A hr. (return-fares 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 50 c, or, incl. omn. to the Cer- 
tosa, 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 80 c). The whole excursion takes V2 day. 

The district traversed between Milan and Pavia consists of alter- 
nate stretches of rice-fields and underwood and offers little of in- 
terest. At (4!/ 2 M.) Rogoredo the Railway diverges to the S. from 
the line to Piacenza (p. 333). — 5 4 /a M. Chiaravalle Milanese, with 
its Cistercian *Church, a fine brick edifice with a lofty domed tower, 
in the so-called Romanesque Transition style, dedicated in 1221, 
bnt partly modernised. The interior is adorned with frescoes by 
Milanese painters of the 16th cent, and contains choir-stalls of 
1465. — 9y 2 M. Locate; 12\l 2 M. Villamaggiore. 

17^2 M. Stazione della Certosa (Hotel de la Ville, dej. 3 fr.), 
whence two routes lead along the enclosing wall (right and left) to 
the entrance (W. side) of the Certosa (walk of 1/4 hr. ; omn., 30 or 
50 c). — On the S. side of the Certosa is the modest Alb. Milano. 

The Stea.ji Tramway follows the highroad and passes Binasco, with 
an ancient castle, in which the jealous Duke Filippo Maria Visccnti 
caused his noble and innocent wife Beatrice di Tenda (p. 45) to he put 
to death in 1418. The station of Torre di Mangano (Alb. Italia, clean, 
dej. 2V2, D- 4 fr., wine included), on the Naviglio di Pavia (p. 186), lies 
about Va 31. to the W. of the Certosa (omn. 30 c). 

The *Certosa di Pavia, or Carthusian monastery, the splendid 
memorial of the Milan dynasties, was begun in 1396 by Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti (p. Ill) in fulfilment of a vow made by his wife 
Catharina. The monastic buildings were practically completed 
about 1450, under the direction of Bern, da Venezia, Cristof. da 
Conigo , and others; while the church, originally begun in a N. 
Gothic style, reflecting the influence of Milan Cathedral, was con- 
tinued after 1453 by Guinifcrte Solari (d. 1481) in the Lombard 
Transition style , with exterior arcading and elaborate terracotta 
ornamentation. Between 1491 and 1499 Giov. Ant. Amadeo and 
numerous other sculptors shared in the embellishment of the facade 
of white marble (from Carrara and Candoglia, p. 179), which was 
finally completed (lower part only) by Ben. Briosco and others in 
1507. The monastery, suppressed under Emperor Joseph II. in 

144 Route 19. CERTOSA DI PA VIA. Excursions 

1782, was restored to its original destination in 1844 and presented 
to the Carthusians. Since the suppression of the Italian monasteries 
(1866) it has been maintained as a 'National Monument'. 

An inspection of the Certosa, which is open from 8 to 5.30 in 
summer and from 9 to 4 in winter (on Sun. & holidays 10-2), takes 
l 1 /2 -< 2h rs - (adm. 1 fr., Sun. free; guide imperative, gratuities for- 

Beyond the Vestibule (ticket-office), with sadly- damaged fres- 
coes by Bern. Luini (SS. Sebastian and Christopher) and others, 
we enter the Piazzale, or fore -court, surrounded by the former 
Farmacia or laboratory (now a liqueur-distillery), the Foresteria, or 
pilgrims' lodging-house, and the Palazzo Ducale (now a Museum, 
p. 145), built about 1625 by Ricchini for distinguished visitors to 
the monastery. On the E. side of the court rises the celebrated 
facade of the church. 

The **Facade, unquestionably the finest example of early- 
Renaissance decorative work in N. Italy, is perhaps the most masterly 
creation of its kind of the 15th century. Its design, independent 
of the antique orders of architecture, is in the Lombard- Romanesque 
style of graduated church-fronts, with projecting pillars and trans- 
verse arcades, while within these well-defined structural features 
it embraces a wonderful and judiciously distributed wealth of 
ornament. — The plinth is adorned with medallions of Roman 
emperors, above which are reliefs representing Biblical history and 
scenes from the life of Gian Galeazzo (including the transference 
of the bones of the founder to the Certosa in 1474). Below the 
four magnificent windows is a row of angels' heads, and above them 
are niches with numerous statues. A relief by the main portal 
represents the dedication of the church in 1497. 

The beautiful and spacious *Inteuiob. has a purely Gothic nave, 
supported by eight handsome pillars, with aisles and 14 chapels ; 
while Renaissance forms begin to appear in the transepts and choir 
(each with a triple absidal ending) and in the dome above the 
crossing. The originally handsome decorations designed by Bor- 
gognone and the fine stained-glass windows of the 15th cent, have 
nearly all disappeared. Most of the altar-pieces and the present 
florid enrichments of the chapels date from the 17th century. The 
beautiful choir-screen of iron and bronze was executed about 1660 
by Fr. Villa and P. P. Ripa. The mosaic pavement, originally laid 
down by Rinaldo de Stauris (1450), was restored in 1850. 

We begin in the Left Aisle. 2nd Chapel. Altar-piece by Perugino, of 
which only the central part, above, representing 'God the Father, is 
original, the other parts being now in the Na'ional Gallery in London. 
Adjacent are the four great Church Fathers, by Borgognone. In the 6th Chapel : 
Borgognone, St. Ambrose with four other saints (1490). Left Transept: 
^Figures of Lodovico Moro and his wife Beatrice d'Este (d. 1497), from the 
demolished monument of the latter, one of the chief works of Crist. Solari, 
brought in 1564 from Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan (p. 135) and restored 
in 1891. In front of the altar is a handsome bronze candelabrum by Aran. 

from Milu. CERTOSA DI PAVIA. 19. Routt. 145 

Fontana of Milan (1580). The ceiling-fresco is by Borgognone: Coronation of 
the Virgin, with the kneeling fignres of Franc. Sforza and Lodovico il Moro. 

The Old Sacristy, to the left of the choir, has a fine marble portal with 
seven relief-portraits of the Visconti and Sforza families; in the interior 
is a fine carved ivory altar-piece, in 66 sections, by Bald, degli EmbriacM 
of Florence (1409). — The Choir contains a fine marble altar by 
Arribr. Volpi and others (1568); beneath, in front, is a charming small 
relief-medallion of the Descent from the Cross. The *Choir Stalls are 
adorned with inlaid figures of apostles and saints, executed by Pantaleone 
de'Marchi (1495) from drawings by Borgognone. — The door to the right 
of the choir, handsomely framed in marble and with seven relief-portraits 
of Milanese princesses, leads to the Lavabo, which contains a rich fountain 
by Alb. Maffiolo of Carrara (1490). The stained glass dates from 1477. 
To the left is a fresco by Bern. Luini (Madonna with the carnation). 

Right Transept: magnificent 'Monument of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, 
begun in 1494-97 by Qiov. Gristo/oro Romano and Ben. Briosco, but not 
finished nntil 15G2 (by Galeazzo Alessi and others). The ceiling-frescoes, 
by Borgognone, represent Gian Galeazzo, holding the orginal model of the 
church, and his sons kneeling before the Virgin. — The adjoining Sagrestia 
Nuova, or Oratorio, has a large altar-piece, an 'Assumption by A. Solario 
(completed in 1576 by Bern. Campi). Over the door, Madonna enthroned, 
with two saints and angels, by Bart. Montagna (1490)-, the side-pictures 
are by Borgognone. In the desk-cases are fine choir-books of 1551 and 1557. 

An elegant early-Renaissance portal leads from the right transept to 
the *Front Cloisters (Chiostro della Fontana) , which possess slender 
marble columns and charming decorations in terracotta by Einaldo de 
Stauris (1463-78). Fine view from the front of the Refectory (W. side) of 
the side of the church and the S. transept. — Around the Great Cloisters 
(Grande Chiostro), which also have fine terracotta decorations by R. de 
Stauris, are situated 24 small houses formerly occupied by the monks, each 
consisting of three rooms with a small garden. 

We now re-enter the church. Right Aisle. In the 2nd Chapel : Guercino, 
Madonna enthroned, with two saints (1641; injured). 3rd Chapel: Bor- 
gognone, St. Sims and four other saints (1491). The well-preserved ceiling- 
decoration is by Jac. de Motis (1491). 4th Chapel: Borgognone, 'Crucifixion 
(1490). 6th Chapel : Altar-piece by Macrino d'Alba (1496; the four Evangelists 
above are by Borgognone). 

The Palazzo Ddoale (p. 144) has been occupied since 1901 by the 
Cerlosa Museum, containing paintings, sculptures, casts, objects found in 
1889 in the coffin of Gian Galeazzo, etc. 

The Dome cannot be ascended without a special 'permesso 1 , obtained 
at the prefecture in Pavia. 

Pavia, which lies 5 M. to the S. of the Certosa, and the railway 
thence to Voghera and Genoa, are described in R. 30. 

20. From Milan to Como and Lecco. 

a. From Milan to Como via Saronno. 

281/zM. Railway (Ferrovie Nord) in li/4-l 3 A nr - ( fa res 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 20, 
1 fr. 65 c. ; return-fares, 5 fr., 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 25 c). — At both the Stazione 
Ferrovie Nord and the town office (p. 112) through and return tickets 
may be procured for Brunate, Cernobbio, Cadenabbia, Bellagio, Menaggio 
Bellano, and Colico. 

As far as (3 M.) Bovisa, see p. 152. Farther on we enjoy a good 
view of the Mte. Rosa group, to the left. 

13!/ 2 M. Saronno (702 ft. 5 Albergo Madonna; Leon d'Oro), a 
large village on the Lura, with 9532 inhab., known in Italy for its 
excellent gingerbread (amaretti). — A quadruple avenue of plane 

Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 10* 

146 Route 20. MONZA. From Milan 

trees leads W. from trie station to the Santuario della Beata 
Vbrgine, a celebrated pilgrimage-church, built at different times 
between the end of the 15th and the end of the 17th cent., chiefly in 
a pompous baroque style. It contains a series of admirable *Frescoes. 
The paintings in the interior of the dome represent a concert of 
angels, and are by Gaudenzio Ferrari. Round the drum are several wooden 
statues by Andrea Fusina. The frescoes immediately below the drum are 
by Lanini, those in the next section by Cesare del Magno and Bernardino 
Luini (SS. Rochus and Sebastian). The remaining frescoes are all by 
Luini, who, as the story goes, sought an asylum in the sanctuary of Sa- 
ronno after killing a man in self-defence, and had to work at the bidding 
of the monks. In the passage leading to the choir are depicted the Mar- 
riage of the Virgin and Christ among the doctors; in the choir itself, 
the "Adoration of the Magi and the Presentation in the Temple. Above, 
in the panels and lunettes, are Sibyls, Evangelists, and Church Fathers. 
A small apse built out from the choir contains paintings of *St. Apollonia 
to the right, and *St. Catharine to the left, each with an angel. 

Saronno is a station on the line from Novara to Seregno (p. 64). 
— From Saronno to Varese and Laveno, see R. 25. 

251/2 M. Grandate (p. 151). — 271/2 M. Camerlata (p. 148), 
at the foot of a mountain-cone (1414 ft.), bearing the ruined Castello 
Baradello, the residence of Frederick Barbarossa in 1176. — We 
descend, enjoying a pretty view of Como and Brunate, to (28 M.) 
Como Borghi. 2872 M. Como Lago, the main station, on the bank , 
of the lake (p. 148). 

b. From Milan to Como and Lecco (Colico) via Monza. 

From Milan to Como, 30 M., railway (Rete Mediierranea) in l-l»/i hr. 
(fares 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 40 c. ; express, 6 fr. 15, 4 fr. 30 c). Through 
and return tickets may be obtained at the Central Station of Milan and 
at the Agenzia Internazionale (p. 112) for Tremezzo, Cadenabbia, Bellagio, 
Menaggio, and Colico. — From Milan to Lecco, 32 M., railway (Rete 
Mediterranea) in 1V4-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 95, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 65 c. ; express, 
6 fr. 55, 4 fr. 55 c.) ; to Colico, 56 M., in 2V2-4V* brs. (fares 10 fr. 45, 7 fr. 35, 
4 fr. 70 c. ; express, 11 fr. 50, 8 fr. 5 c). 

There is also an Electric Railway to Monza (9V*1L, in 1 hr. ; fares 
70 45 c, return 1 fr. 10, 80 c), with trains every V2 hr., starting in Milan 
at' the Piazza del Campo Santo (p. 120), on the E. side of the cathedral, 
and running via the Corso Loreto (PL H, 2, 1) and the plane-tree avenue 
of the Viale Monza. The principal intermediate stations are Precotto, with 
a large brass-foundry, and Sesto (see below), commanding a view of the 
Alps. At Monza there are stopping-places at the railway-station, in the 
Piazza Roma, and near the royal palace. 

The lines to Como and Lecco are identical as far as Monza and 
traverse a fertile and well-irrigated plain, luxuriantly clothed with 
vineyards, mulberry-plantations, and fields of maize. — 4^2 M. 
Sesto San Giovanni. 

8 M. Monza. — Hotels. Alb. del Castello e Falcone, at the station ; 
Alb.-Eistor. del Parco, with garden, 1 M. from the station, opposite the 
entrance to the palace park. — Cabs. Per drive % fr. ; per V2 hr. in the 
town 1 fr., each addit V2 hr. 70 c; outside the town 2 and 1 fr. 

Monza (532 ft.), a town on the Lambro, with 13,000 inhab., has 
been the coronation-town of the kings of Lombardy since the 
Uth cent. (comp. p. 186). Leaving the station and following the 

Ferrovie e Tramvie 


nei Dintomi di ^filano 


line*, pri/udfjalt linee XoTd IGZcaw dVaporv 

Scala dil a 500000 

■-> i 3 ; : o 5 K> 




P^Ceresio t j / 


Canzo T VjA \ 


Stazioni di Slilano : 
C.fentraleJiJrbrdMZano, 'LFartaTuxnese 

Thaeenza x ""locti 

to Como. MONZA. 20. Route. 147 

Via Italia to the right, we pass the church of Santa Maria in Istrada 
(second on the right), with a Gothic hrick facade of 1393, and in 
10 min. reach the Piazza Roma, the centre of the town, with the 
handsome Gothic Municipio or town-hall, also called Palazzo 
Arengario (13th cent.). — A few paces distant is the Piazza del 
Duomo, in which rises the — 

Cathedbal (San Giovanni), the chief ohject of interest. It was 
erected in the 14th cent, in the Lomhard Gothic style hy Matteo da 
Campione on the site of a church founded in 590 hy the Lomhard 
queen Theodolinda and afterwards replaced by a Romanesque 
structure. The interior, with both aisles flanked by chapels, has 
been almost entirely modernized since the 17th century. The fine 
facade was restored in 1899-1901. Above the portal is a very 
curious relief representing Queen Theodolinda amid her treasures ; 
below, the Baptism of Christ. 

Interior. In the E. transept is a relief representing the coronation 
of a German king, from the former imperial gallery of M. da Campione 
(now the organ-loft). — The chapel to the left of the choir, restored in 
1890, contains the plain sarcophagus of Queen Theodolinda (14th cent.) 
and frescoes of scenes from her life by Zavattari (1444). Here also is 
preserved the celebrated Iron Crown, supposed to have been the royal 
crown of the Lombards, with which the German emperors were crowned 
as kings of Italy, from the 13th cent, onwards. This venerable relic was 
used at the coronation of the Emp. Charles V. in 1530, of Napoleon at 
Milan in 1805, and of Emp. Ferdinand I. in 1838. It consists of a broad 
hoop of gold adorned with precious stones, round the interior of which 
is a thin strip of iron, said to have been made from a nail of the true 
Cross brought by the Empress Helena from Palestine. In its present form 
it is, perhaps, a work of the 12th century. In 1859 it was carried off by 
the Austrians, but after the peace of 1866 it was restored. (Fee for seeing 
the crown and treasury, 5 fr.) — The ^Treasury (fee 1 fr.) contains several 
objects of historical interest : a hen with seven chickens in silver-gilt 
(on a modern copper base), perhaps representing Lombardy and its seven 
provinces, executed by order of Queen Theodolinda; the queen's crown, 
fan, and comb; a richly-adorned book-cover with an inscription of Theo- 
dolinda; fine diptychs of the 4-6th cent. ; reliquary of Berengarius; goblet 
of sapphire, with a stem of Gothic workmanship; Gothic goblet of Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti; Gothic carvings in ivory. — In a wall-recess of the old 
cemetery, on the N. side of the cathedral, is the mummy of Ettore Visconti 
(d. 1413j, shown by the verger. 

In the Via Matteo da Campione, in the N.W. part of the town, 
a Memorial Chapel is to mark the spot on which King Humbert was 
assassinated, on July 29th, 1900. 

To the N. of the town, about 3/ 4 M. from the Piazza Roma, lies 
the Castello Reale, formerly the royal summer-palace, in an 
extensive and beautiful park, traversed by the Lambro. The mansion, 
in the 'classicist' style, was built about 1777 by Gius. Piermarini for 
Archduke Ferdinand, Governor of Lombardy. A drive in the park 
is attractive (entrance near the electric tramway teiminus, ^4 M. to 
the left of the Castello) ; cyclists are restricted to the main avenue. 

From Monza to Bergamo, 2i M., steam-tramway in 21/4 hrs. The chief 
intermediate stations are (5y 2 M.) Vimercate and (13'/2 M.) Trezzo sulf Adda 
(615 ft.), with the picturesque ruins of a Castle of the Visconti (adm. 50 c), 
in which Giov. Galeazzo (p. Ill) confined his uncle Bernabo. The Mar- 


148 Route W. COMO. From Milan 

leeana (p. 116) diverges here, and its old sluices are said to have been 
constructed by Leonardo da Vinci. — Bergamo, see p. 193. 

Other steam-tramways run from Monza to Gorgonzola (famous for ils 
cheese), Treviglio, and Caravaggio (p. 189); past the royal park to Maclierio 
and (7'/ 2 M.) Garate Brianza; and via (4 J /2 M.) Arcore (p. 151) and (11 M.) 
Monticello (1330 ft. ; Alb. Monticello), a summer-resort, to (12V2 M.) Barzanb 
(1210 ft.). 

The lines to Como and Lecco divide at Monza. The former line 
rnns to the N.W., affording pleasant views, to the right, of the 
fertile\Briansa(p. 152), with its numerous country-residences. Two 
tunnels. 11M. Lissone-Muggib. To the right rises the long, indented 
Monte Resegone (p. 151), to the left of which are the Monte Grigna 
and the mountains reaching to the Spliigen. 

14y 2 M. Seregno (735 ft.), a town with 12,050 inhabitants. 
From Seregno to Bergamo, 25 M., railway in i»/ 2 -l 3 /4 hr. (fares 
4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 10 c). — 8V2 M. Usmate- Carnate (p. 151). — Beyond 
(13 M.) Pademo a" Adda (870 ft.) the railway crosses the Adda (p. 151) by 
the *Ponte di Pademo, a single bold iron archway, 275 ft. above the level 
of the water. Below the bridge the stream forms a series of rapids (rdpidi). 
Adjacent is a dam, 150 yds. long, constructed by the Edison Co. (p. 113) 
in 1897 to conduct the water into the Naviglio di Pademo (l 3 /4 M. long), 
which conveys it, partly underground, to the Electric Works, 90 ft. above 
the level of the Adda, which furnish the motive power (ca. 13,000 horse- 
power) for the tramways and lighting of (22 M.) Milan. — 20 M. Ponte- 
San-Pietro-Locate (p. 198). — 25 M. Bergamo, see p. 193. 
From Seregno to Novara, see p. 64. 

From (18 M.) Camnago a branch-line diverges to San Pietro 
p. 152). 201/2 M. Carimate; 2172 M. Cantu- Asnago. Tunnel. 
241/2 M. Cucciago; 27 M. Albate-Camerlata (p. 146). — 30 M. 
Como (Stazione San Giovanni, see below), 

GomO. — Arrival. The Stazione Como San Giovanni or Mediterranea, 
the principal station (St. Gotthard Railway), is V2 M. to the S.W. of the 
quay (omn. 30 c, included in through-tickets). — The Stazione Como Logo 
or Ferrovie Nord lies 350 yds. to the E. of the quay (branch-lines to Saronno 
and Milan, p. 145, and to Varese and Laveno, p. 151). — The Stazione 
Como Borghi, a third station, is of no importance to tourists. 

Hotels (all near the harbour). *Gr. Hot. Plinius (PL' p), Lungo Lario di 
Levante, a comfortable new bouse of the first class, R. 4-7, B. IV2, dej. 3V2, 
D. 5, music V2, pens, from 9, omn. I-IV4 fr. (closed Dec. lst-Feb. 15th). — 
"Gr. Hot. Volta (PL v), R. 3-5, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 8-10, omn. 1 fr.; 
-Metropole ad Lac (PL m), R. 2V 2 -5, B. IV2, dej. 2Vr3, D. 4, pens. 8-12, 
omn. 1 fr. ; Italia (PL i), R. 2-4, B. l»/ a , dej. 2>/ 2 -3, D. 4, pens. 7-9, omn. 
3/ 4 -l fr. ; Hotel-Pension Bellevue (PL b), R. 2V2-3, B. l>/ 4 , dej. 21/2, !>• 3»/2 
(both inch wine), pens. 8-10, omn. 3 /t fr. 

Restaurants. H6t. Bellevue (Marinoni), PdstoranU delta Barchetta (with 
bedrooms), two frequented establishments in the Piazza Cavour. — Cafes. 
Sbodio, Cavour (at the Hot. Metropole), Plinio, all in the Piazza Cavour; 
Bottegone, Piazza del Duomo; Ca.ffe dei Bagni , adjoining the Hot. Plinius 
on the W. 

Baths (Bagni), adjoining the Hot. Plinius, with cafe (see above); 
lake-baths by the Giardino Pubblico (also warm and vapour baths). — Post 
& Telegraph Office, Via Unione. — Photographs, etc. Vitlani, Via Plinio 4. 
Omnibos from the Stazione Como Borghi (see above) to the Cable Rail- 
way (10 c); to Cernobbio (p. 155 ; 30 c. ; electric line projected). — Steamboat 
to Cernobbio, Torno, and Moltrasio, 6 times daily (20 c). 

Cable Railway ( Funicolare) from the Borgo SanV Agoslino, V* M. to the 
N. of Stazione Como Lago, to Brunate (p. 159), every 1/2 n *. (hourly in 

to Como. COMO. 20. Route. 149 

winter); fares, up IV2- down 1, up and down 2fr., before 8 a.m., with 
return by any train, 1 fr. 

Como (705 ft.), a flourishing industrial town, the capital of a 
province, and the see of a bishop, with 38,174 inhab. and large silk- 
factories and dye-works, lies at the S.W. end of the Lake of Como, 
and is enclosed by an amphitheatre of mountains. The small stream 
Cosia enters the lake here. Como is the Roman Comum, the birth- 
place of the elder and younger Pliny. The electrician and philosopher 
Volta (1745-1826 ; whose Statue by P. Marchesi is in the Piazza 
Volta, to the S.W. of the quay), was born at Como in the house 
marked 'Casa Volta' on the Plan. 

The Piazza Cavour, a large square near the harbour, and the 
new streets skirting the harbour to the E. and W. of it are the most 
animated parts of the town. A short street leads to the S.E. from 
the Piazza Cavour to the Piazza del Duomo. To the left of the 
cathedral is the Broletto (now a public office), constructed of alter- 
nate courses of black and white stone, and completed in 1215. 

The *Cathedbal, built entirely of marble, is one of the best 
in N. Italy. The nave was rebuilt in the Gothic style about 1396, 
the facade in 1457-86 (by Luchino da Milano); and in 1487-1526 
the transepts, choir, and exterior of the nave were altered in the 
Renaissance style by Tornmaso Rodari. The S. portal (1491) is 
built in Brainante' ! s style by an unknown architect; the modern 
dome is by Fil. Juvara. The greater part of the sumptuous plastic 
ornamentation is by Tomm. Rodari and his brother Jacopo. Over 
the magnificent W. portal are reliefs (Adoration of the Magi) and 
statuettes (Mary with Sant' Abbondio and San Protus, etc.); at the 
sides are statues of the two Plinys, erected in 1498. The over- 
decorated N. portal (Porta della Rana) dates from 1505-9. 

Inteeiob. The heavy and gaudy vaulting, restored in 1838, destroys 
the effect of the fine proportions, which resemble those of the Certosa 
near Pavia (p. 144). — To the right of the entrance is the monument of 
Cardinal Tolomeo Gallio (1861). Farther on, to the right, second altar, with 
handsome wood-carving, and scenes from the life of St. Abondius (1514) ; 
adjoining (1.) the *Adoration of the Magi, by Bern. Luini, and (r.) the 
Flight into Egypt, by Gaud. Ferrari. Over the third altar, a Madonna by 
B. Luini. In the Choie, the Apostles, by Povvpeo Marchesi. The Sacbisty 
contains pictures by Guido Reni, Paolo Veronese (?), etc. Fine statue of 
St. Sebastian (1481) in the N. Teansept. In the Left Aisle : at the fir3t 
altar, Entombment by Tornmaso Rodari (1498); at the second altar, 1. 
G. Ferrari, Nuptials of the Virgin, r. B. Luini, Nativity; by the third altar, the 
busts of Pope Innocent XI. (Odescalchi) and Carlo Rovelli, Bishop of Como. 

In the Via Vittorio Emanuele, which runs S.W. from the cath- 
edral, is the rear of the Romanesque church of San Fedele, with a 
fine pentagonal apse. The chief facade of the church, in the Piazza 
de Mercato, is as little worthy of attention as the completely mod- 
ernized interior. — The Palazzo Giovio, on the left, at the end of 
the street, contains the Museo Civico, opened in 1897 (adm. daily 
except Tues., 10-4, 50 c, Frid. 1 fr.; catalogue 1 fr.). 

On the groundfloor are memorials of Volta and of Cesare Cantii 
(1807-95) the historian; views of Como, etc. — On the first floor are pre- 

150 Route 20. COMO. From Milan 

historic and Roman antiquities-, a collection of coins; autographs of Volta 
and others-, local curiosities, etc. 

The old Town Wall is intact except near the lake ; on the S.E. 
side are three well-preserved towers, that in the middle, the Porta 
Torre, now known as the Porta Vittoria, being a massive five-storied 
structure. Outside the gate, in the Piazza Vittoria, is a bronze Statue 
of Garibaldi, by Vela (1889). — In the Viale Varese, a promenade 
shaded with plane-trees and skirting the S.W. town-wall, is the 
church of Santissima Annunziata, of the 17th cent., also known 
as the Chiesa del Crocefisso, from a miraculous image. 

Farther on, on the slope of the mountain on the other side of the 
Cosia, is the fine old Basilica Sant 1 Abbondio, originally a Lombard 
structure of the 8th cent., rebuilt in the 11th cent., and restored in 
1863-88. Beneath it tbe remains of a church of the 5th cent, have 
been found. 

Excursions. The Castello Baradello (p. 146), reached from the Piazza 
Vittoria in li/ 2 hr. by the Via Milano (to the S.) and then by a tolerable 
footpath, is an excellent point of view. — On the W. bank of the lake, 
on the beautiful road to (2*/2 M.) Cernobbio (p. 155), just beyond the Borgo 
San Giorgio or N.W. suburb of Como, lies the *Villa V Olmo (Duca Vis- 
conti-Modrone), the largest on the lake, with fine rooms and a charming 
garden (visitors admitted). — Another fine road, traversing the Borgo Sanf 
Agostino, leads along the E. bank of the lake and then, on the hillside, 
high above the lake, to Blevio and (5 M.) Torno (p. 155). 

A Cable Railway (2/3 M. long ; its steepest gradient 55:100; fares, see 
p. 149), passing through a tunnel 125 yds. long, leads from the N. end of 
the Borgo Sant 1 Agostino to (20 min.) Brunate (2350 ft.; "Grand Hdtel 
Brunette, with hot-air heating, R. 3-5, B. H/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 8-H fr. ; 
Bellavista, R. 2, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 7 fr., incl. wine; Gran Ristoranle Spaini, 
dej. 2, D. 3 fr.), which commands a superb *View of the plain of Lombardy 
as far as Milan, and of the Alps to Mte. Rosa (best light in the morning). — 
Several pleasant walks (guide-posts and benches): to theW. to the (10 min.) 
Fontana Pissarottino (2385 ft.), with a view of Cernobbio and Monte Bisbino; 
to the N.E. to (25 min.) San Maurizio (2860 ft.; Alb.-Ristor. S. Maurizio) 
and the Tre Croci (2970 ft.). More comprehensive views are commanded 
by the Pizzo di Torno (3740 ft.), l l /« hr. to the E. of S. Maurizio, and by the 
(2 hrs.) Monte Boletto (4050 ft.). 

From Como to Bellagio via Erba, about 26 M., one-horse carriage 
in 5-6 hrs. (25 fr.); electric line to Lecco via Erba projected. The road, 
which will also repay the pedestrian, ascends the valley of the Cosia. 
The lake is concealed by the spurs of the Monte Boletto. In the church 
of Camnago Volta (a little to the N. of the road) is the tomb of Volta 
(p. 149). Farther on, to the S. of the r>ad, rises the jagged crest, of 
Montorfano, near a little lake. Near Gassano (1325 ft.) is a leaning cam- 
panile. Beyond Albesio (1325 ft.) we enjoy a view of the Plan d'Erba, with 
the lakes of Alserio, Pusiano, and Annone, dominated on the E. by the 
Gorni di Canzo (p. 158) and the rugged Resegone (p. 151). — 11 M. Erba, 
and thence to Bellagio, see p. 152. 

From Como to Legco, 26 M., railway (Rete Mediterranea) in 1 1/2-2 hrs. 
(4 fr. 90, 3 fr. 45, 2 fr. 20 c). — 3 M. Albate-Camerlata, see p. 14S; 71/2 M. 
Cantu; 11 M. Anzano del Parco. To the left lies the Lago <T Alserio. — 
13 l /a M. Merone- Ponlenuovo , the junction of the Milan and Erba line (p. 152). 
— 15 3 / 4 M. Casletto - Rogeno , on the S. bank of the Lago di Pusiano. — 
I8V2 M. Gggiono, at the S. end of the Lago d'Annone. The train then runs 
along the E. bank of this lake. — 22 M. Sala al Barro is the station for the 
village of Galbiate (1210 ft.), l«/ 4 M. to the E., the best starting-point for 

to Lecco. LECCO. 20, Route. 151 

an ascent of *Mte. Barro (3150 ft). A good bri.lle-path (horse 3 l /z fr., incl. 
fee) ascends to the (2 hrs.) 'Alb. di Monte Barro (2790 it.), a quiet report 
with a large garden, whence a walk of l fe hr. brings us to the top. The 
magnificent view embraces the Brianz'< (p. 152), the Lake of Lecco (p. 158), 
the Val Sassina, and its mountains. The descent may be pleasantly made 
to (lV2hr.) Malgrate (p. 152), passing a finely situated pilgrimage-church. — 
The Lago d'Annone is connected with the Lake of Lecco by the Ritorto, 
the course of which we follow beyond (22*/2 M.) Civate. The 3Ite. Besegone 
(see below) is prominent to the E. — '23 l /2 M. Valmadrera. The train then 
penetrates a tunnel, crosse the wide Adda, and reaches (26 M.) Lecco. 

Fkom Como via Varese to Laveno, on the Lago Maggiore, 32 M., rail- 
way (Ferrovie Nord) in 2-2 3 / 4 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 40, 3 fr. 85, 2 fr. 70 c); te 
Varese. 18 M., in M1/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 10, 2 fr. 10. 1 fr. 55 c). — As far as 
(3 M.) Qrandate , see p. 146. Our line rnns to the S.W., with a view of 
Monte Bisbino (p. 155) and Monte Generoso on the right. We descend to 
(7 M.) Lurate-Caccivio. and then ascend through wood (birch-trees, etc.) to 
(12 M.) Solbiate (1460 ft.), the highest point of the line. In the foreground 
appears the Campo de'Fiori (p. 167). — 15 M. Malnate (p. 168), the junction 
of the Milan-Saronno-Varese line. — 18 M. Varese (change carriages) , and 
thence to (32 M.) Laveno, see p. 166 and B. 25. 

From Como to Monte Generoso and Lugano, see pp. 14-12. 

The Railway from Monza to Lecco skirts the S.E. slopes of the 
beautiful range of hills of the Brianza (p. 152). — ll^fe M. (from 
(Milan) Arcore (G30 ft.), see p. 148. — I0V2 M. Usmate-Camate is 
also a station on the line from Seregno to Bergamo (p. 148). — 19 M. 
Cernusco-Merate. The village of Merate (945 ft.; Albergo del Sole), 
1 M. to the E. of the station, was formerly fortified; pretty villas. 

From CernuTco a pleasant excursion (1 hr.) may be taken to the lofty 
Montevecchia (1572 ft. ; poor Osteria, but good wine). The church of Monte- 
vecchia commands an excellent view of the Lombard plain, Milan, Cremona, 
N' 1 vara, and part of the Brianza, etc. Pleasant return-route by Missaglia, 
with a guide, 174 hr. ; thence to the W. to (V2 hr.) Monticello (p. 148). 

21 M. Olgiate-Molgora. Beyond a tunnel a view of the valley 
of the Adda is obtained to the right. The train descends, crosses 
the river, and joins the Lecco and Bergamo line (p. 198) at (27 y 2 M.) 
Calolzio, near the small Lago di Olginate. — Thence we skirt the 
E. hank of the Lago di Garlate. — 30 M. Maggianico, with a pret- 
tily situated hydropathic establishment. 

32 M. Lecco. — Hotels (with electric light and hot-air heating). 
"Albergo-Bistorante Mazzolem, at the pier, B. 2-5, B. IV2, pens. 8 fr. ; 
*Gk. Hot. Lecco, new: Croce di Malta ed Italia, B. 1 x /2-3, B. I 1 /*, pens. 8, 
omn. y2fr\-, Hotel de la Gare, well spoken of. — Rail. Restaurant, clean. 
— Omn. between thes tation and the pier 50 c. 

Lecco (700 ft.) is an industrial town whit 10,352 inhah. and silk, 
cotton, and iron manufactories, at the foot of Mte. Resegone (6160 ft.) 
and at the S. end of the Lake of Lecco or E. arm of the Lake of Como 
(p. 158), from which the Adda here emerges. Statues of Garibaldi 
and Alessandro Manzoni (b. in Milan 1785, d. 1873), the poet and 
head of the romantic school, both by Confalonieri, were erected in 
the piazza in 1884 and 1891. The pedestal of the latter is decorated 
with reliefs from Manzoni's '1 Promessi Sposi'. The Ponte Grande 
(views), a stone bridge of ten arches, constructed in 1335 by Azzone 

152 Route 21. ERBA. From Milan 

Visconti, spans the Adda to the S. of the town. Beyond the bridge 
the road forks: the left branch leads via Pescate and Oarlate to 
Olginate, on the Lago di Olginate (p. 151) ; the right branch, passing 
the village of Malgrate (with many silk - factories) to the "W. of 
Lecco, leads to Como (p. 148). 

Pleasant walk to the hill of San Gerolamo, with a pilgrimage-church 
and a rained castle ( 3 /4 hr.). Ascent of the "Monte Barro, see p. 151 
(carr. to Galbiate 6, with two horses 10 fr.). — Through Ihe Val Sassina to 
Bellano, see p. 160. 

The Railway feom Lecco to Colico (run by electricity) furnishes 
the shortest route between Milan and Chiavenna (Spliigen; R. 4) and the 
Val Tellina (p. 161). It runs along the E. bank of the lake, passing 
through tunnels and over viaducts. 6 M. Mandello-Tonzanico (p. 153); 10 M. 
Lierna (p. 153); 14 M. Perledo-Varenna (p. 159); 15V2 M. Bellano (p. 160); 
I81/2 M. Dervio (p. 160). — 24 M. Colico, see p. 161. 

Steamer from Lecco to Bellagio (Como), see p. 154. — Railway 
to Bergamo, see p. 198. 

21. From Milan to Bellagio. The Brianza. 

Railway ( Ferrovie Nord) from Milan to (27 x /2 M.) Incino-Erba (starting 
from the Stazione Ferrovie Nord, p. 112) in 1V4-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 25, 
2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 60 c). — Highroad from Erba to (19 M.) Bellagio. 

Brianza is the name of the undulating tract, between the Lambro and 
the Adda, stretching to the N. to the triangular peninsula which divides 
the Como and Lecco lakes (comp. p. 154). The soil is very fertile, and 
the whole district studded with villas peeping out from vines, orchards, 
and mulberry-plantations. In the centre are several small lakes (Lago 
d'Annone, Pusiano, Segrino, Alserio, and Montorfano). 

The Railway from Milan to Incino - Erba traverses a well 
cultivated and well watered plain. As far as (3 M.) Bovisa it coin- 
cides with the line to Saronno (p. 145). — 5^2 M. Cormanno. The 
train now ascends the right bank of the small Seveso. — 10 M. 
Varedo (590 ft.). — From (14 M.) Seveso San Pietro a branch-line 
diverges to (l J / 4 M.) Camnago (p. 148), a station on the Monza- 
Como railway, which our line crosses near (15 M.) Meda. — Near 
( I8V2 M.) Carugo-Oiussano the country becomes hilly. 20 M. Arosio 
(985 ft.), pleasantly situated amid vine-clad hills, some of which 
are crowned with villages and country-houses. — 21*/2 M. Inverigo 
(1150 ft.), a pretty village, above the valley of the Lambro. On an 
eminence rises the Rotonda, one of the finest villas in the Brianza. 
The Villa Crivelli is famous for its cypresses. — Beyond (23 M.) 
Lambrugo - Lurago the train ascends the valley of the Lambro. — 
25^2 M. Merone-Pontenuovo, the junction of the Lecco and Como 
line (p. 150). The Lago d J Alserio is passed on the left and the 
larger Lago di Pusiano on the right. The train enters the charming 
plain of Erba (Pian d'Erba). 

27t/2 M. Incino-Erba, the station for the village of Incino and 
the small town of Erba. Incino, the ancient Liciniforum, is men- 
tioned by Pliny along with Bergamo and Como; it contains a lofty 
Lombard campanile. Erba (1055 ft.; Albergo Buco del Piombo. 


to Bellagio. CIVENNA. 21. Route. 153 

well spoken of) lies a little to the N., on the road from Como to 
Lecco, which here traverses the fertile and terraced slopes of a small 
hill. It contains several villas, among which is the Villa Amalia, 
on the N/W. side, commanding a charming view of the Brianza. — 
From Erba to Como, see p. 150. 

The Highroad feom Erba to Bbllagio (about 19 M.) crosses 
the Lambro, which has been canalized and conducted into the Lago 
di Pusiano, a little to the S.E. Immediately afterwards the route 
to Bellagio diverges to the left from the road to Lecco, and runs 
to the N., past Long one on the W. bank of the narrow Lago del 
Segrino, to — 

5 M. Canzo (1270 ft. ; Croce di Malta'), which is almost contiguous 
to (iy 4 M.) Asso (1394 ft.), the two numbering together 4130 in- 
habitants. At the entrance of Asso is a large silk-manufactory 
(Cam Versa). 

The road now gradually ascends in the wooded ValV Assina, the 
upper valley of the Lambro, passing (2 M.) Lasnigo, (2 M.) Barni 
(2083 ft.), and Magreglio (2415 ft.). The first view of both arms of the 
Lake of Como is obtained from the eminence near the (1 M.) Chapel. 

Delightful survey of the entire E. arm to Lecco and far be- 
yond, after passing the first church of (1 M.) Civenna (2045 ft. ; 
Bellevue, open from April to Oct., with view-terrace; Angela, R. 
1 fr., unpretending), with its graceful tower. The road now runs 
for 2 M. along the shady brow of the mountain, which extends 
into the lake at Bellagio. Beyond the chapel good views are obtained 
of the W. arm of the lake (of Como) , the Tremezzina with the 
Villa Carlotta and Cadenabbia, the E. arm (Lake of Lecco), a large 
portion of the road and electric railway on the E. bank, and finally 
of the entire lake from the promontory of Bellagio to Poniaso 
(p. 161), and far below the Villa Serbelloni (p. 157). 

The road winds downwards for about 2 4 /o ^L 3 finally passing the 
Villa Giulia (p. 158) and the churchyard of Bellagio. From Civenna 
to Bellagio (p. 157), 2 hrs'. walk. 

A longer route, which will reward the pedestrian, is by the "Monte 
San Primo (p. 153). Ascent from Canzo with a guide in 4-5 hrs., descent 
to Bellagio 3 hrs. (fatiguing , over debris). 

22. Lake of Como. 

Plan of Excursion. The Lakes of Como and Lugano (p. 163) and the 
Lago Maggiore (R. 28) may be visited from Milan most expeditiously as 
follows: by the St. Gotthard line or the Saronno-Como railway in 1- 
l 3 /4 hr. to Como (Cathedral) ; proceed by steamboat in the afternoon in 
IV2-2V2 hrs. to Cadenabbia or Bellagio, the latter the most beautiful point 
on the Lake of Como, and spend the night there. In the evening and 
next morning visit Villa Carlotta and Villa Serbelloni; by steamboat in 
V« hr., or by rowing-boat, to Menaggio; thence by railway in 3 / 4 -l hr. to 
Porlezza, in time for the steamboat which starts for Lugano (p. 164), arriving 
early enough to leave time for the ascent of Monte San Salvatore. From 

154 Route 22. LAKE OF COMO. 

Lugano by steamboat in l 3 / 4 hr. to Ponte Tresa and tbence by steam-tram- 
way in 3 /4 br. to Luino; steamboat from Luino in 2 l /4-4V2 brs. to tbe 
Borromean Islands (Isola Bella). From the islands we may proceed in 
I74-IV2 br. to Arona and return by railway to Milan (l 3 /4-2V 2 brs. ; R. 26), 
or we may return by steamer to (iV4-l 3 A br.) Laveno and go on thence by 
the N. railway via. Varese to (2-2 3 / 4 hrs.) Milan (R. 25). — The Circular 
Tour Tickets (see p. xvii) issued for this excursion are economical and 
convenient. Tour No. 8 of the Rete Mediterranea (1st class 27 fr. 70, 
2nd cl. 24 fr. 10 c.) and No. 1 of the Ferrovie Nord (20 fr. 50, 16 fr. 15 c), 
both available for 15 days, follow substantially the above indicated routes. 
— The Return Tickets issued by both railway -systems for Bellagio, 
Gadenabbia, and Menaggio (Rete Med., 10 fr. 70, 8 fr. 70 c. ; Ferr. Nord, 
9 fr. 55, 7 fr. 85, 4 fr. 75 c.) and those issued by the Ferr. Nord for Colico 
(12 fr. 50, 10 fr. 70, 6 fr. 40 c.) are valid for eight days and allow the 
steamboat journey to be broken at three points. 

Steamboat (comp. p. xviii) twice or thrice daily from Como to Colico 
in 3 3 /4-5 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 70, 2fr. 60c); four or five times daily from Como 
to Bellagio; once daily from Como to Lecco in 4 hrs. ; and once daily from 
Lecco to Colico in 4 hrs. Some of the boats are handsome saloon-steamers, 
with good restaurants on board (B. IV4, dej. or S. 3, D. 472 fr.). — In the fol- 
lowing description the stations at which there is a pier are indicated by 'P', 
the small-boat stations by 'B 1 , and the railway-stations (comp. p. 152) by 'R\ 

Rowing Boats (barca, pi. barche). First hour I1/2 fr., each additional 
hour 1 fr. for each rower. From Bellagio to Cadenabbia and back (or vice 
versa), each rower 272 fr. ; Bellagio to Tremezzo, Bellagio to Menaggio, and 
Bellagio to Varenna also 272 fr. each rower; Bellagio to Villa Melzi, Villa 
Carlotta, and back, each rower 3 fr. Detailed tarifls are exhibited in all 
the hotels. — One rower suffices, unless the traveller is pressed for time; 
a second may be dismissed with the words 'basta uno l 1 The traveller 
should insist upon seeing the tariff before embarking. When travellers are 
not numerous, the boatmen readily reduce their demands. In addition to 
the fare, it is usual to give a '•mancia' or ''buonamano' of 72 fr- or 1 fr. 
according to the length of the excursion. 

The *Lake of Como (650 ft.), Italian Lago di Como or II Lario, 
the Lacus Larius of the Romans, is extolled by Virgil (Georg.ii. 159), 
and is in the estimation of many the most beautiful lake in N. Italy. 
Numerous villages and the gay villas of the Milanese aristocracy, 
surrounded by luxuriant gardens and vineyards, are scattered along 
its banks. In the forests above, the brilliant green of the chestnut 
and walnut contrasts strongly with the greyish tints of the olive. 
The mountains rise to a height of 7000 ft. The lake, from Como 
to the N. extremity, is 30 M. long; its greatest width, between 
Menaggio and Varenna, nearly 2 l / 2 M.; greatest depth 1340 ft.; total 
area 60 sq. M. At the Punta di Bellagio (p. 157) the lake divides 
into two branches, called respectively the Lakes of Como (W.) and 
Lecco (E.). The Adda (p. 151) enters at the upper extremity and 
makes its egress near Lecco. Owing to the narrow bed of the lake, 
inundations, as at the Lago di Lugano, are not uncommon. — The 
industrious inhabitants of the banks of the lake are much occupied 
in the production and manufacture of silk. Tasteful articles in olive 
wood are made at Bellagio. 

The variegated hues of the oleanders are very striking in summer. 
The laurel grows wild here. — The lake abounds in fish, and trout (trote) 
of 20 lbs. weight are occasionally captured. The 'Agoni 1 are small, but 


22. Route. 155 

The prospect from the quay at Como is limited , but as soon as 
the steamer has passed the first promontory on the E., the Punta 
di Geno, the beauty of the lake is disclosed to view. 

W. Bank. 

Borgo San Giorgio and * Villa 
VOlmo, see p. 150. 

Villa Tavernola, beyond the 
mouth of the Brtggia. Villa Gon- 
zalez ; Villa Cima, in a beauti- 
ful park. 

Cemobbio (P). — 'Grand Hotel 
Villa d'Este et Eeine d\Angle- 
tehke, with lift and fine park, E. 
4-7, B. I1/2, dej. 3V2, D. 5, pens, from 
9, omn. 1 (from Como 2) fr. , fre- 
quented by English and Americans 
(Engl. Church Serv. on Sun.). — ''Hot. 
KeineOlga, with small garden, R. 2- 
01/2, B. I1/4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens. 6-9 fr., 
incl. wine; Alb.Milano, E. n/2,B. 3 /4, 
D. 3, pens. 5 fr., incl. wine, fair. 
— Omnibus and Local Steamer to Como, 
see p. 148. 

Cernobbio, a considerable vil- 
lage, 272 M. to the E. of Chiasso 
(p. 14), is surrounded by hand- 
some villas : Belinzaghi, Baroggi, 
and others. High above lies the 
church of Rovenna (1450 ft.). 

The Monte Bisbino (4390 ft.), with 
a pilgrimage-church, an inn, and a 
fine view, is easily ascended in 3hrs. 
from Cernobbio or Brienno (p. 156). 

Villa Volpi, on a promontory 
extending far into the lake. 

Moltrasio (P; Ristor. Caramaz- 
za), on a steep slope, "with the 
large Palazzo Passalacqua, rising 
above its terraced garden. 

Local Steamer to Como, see p. 148. 

Urio (P); then Carate (P ; Hot.- 
Pens. Lario, R. from 1V 4 , pens. 
6-8 fr.), Laglio, and Germanello, 
all with attractive villas. On the 
bank of the lake is a pyramidal 
tomb, 65 ft. high, erected by Prof. 
Frank of Pavia (d. 1851). 

Torriggia (P ; Ristor. Casarico) ; 
on the promontory the Villa Elisa. 

Lake of Como. 

E. Bank. 
Borgo Sant 1 Agostino and Bru- 
nate, on the spurs of the Monte 
Boletto, see p. 150. 

Blevio (B), with the villas My- 
lius and Ricordi, and, beyond the 
Punta di Geno, the villas Ratazzi, 
Comaggia, etc. 

Villa Taglioni, formerly the 
property of the famous danseuse 
Marie Taglioni (d. 1884); Villa 
Ferranti, once the residence of 
the celebrated singer Pasta (d. 
1865)-, Villa Taverna. 

Tcrno (P; Albergo Belvedere; 
Ristor. at Vapore) has a pretty 
church and is surrounded by 

Local Steamer to Como, see p. 148; 
Road, see p. 150. 

Villa Pliniana , in the bay of 
Molina, at the entrance of a narrow 
gorge, erected in 1570 by Count 
Anguissola, is now the property 
of the Marchesa Trotti. It derives 
its name of Pliniana from a 
neighbouring spring which daily 

156 Route 2?. 



W. Bank. 

Brienno (B) , embosomed in 
laurels. Monte Legnone and 
Monte Legnoncino (p. 160) are 
distinctly visible towards the N.E. 

Argegno (P ; Alb. d 1 Argegno), 
at the mouth of the fertile Intelvi 

A carriage-road leads hence via 
Casliglione d" 1 Intelvi and San Fedele 
a" Intelvi (2520 ft. ; Alb. San Rocco, 
with electric light and garden, pens, 
incl. wine 6 fr.) to Lanzo cT Intelvi 
fp. 163; omn. 2-4 times daily, 2 fr. 
80 c.) in one direction, and in the 
other to Otteno (p. 163). — About 
7 M. to the S.W. of Argegno, on the 
slope of the Sasso Oordona (4620 ft.), 
stands the Pensione Prabello (3935 ft. ; 
open May-Nov.). 

Colonno (B) • then Sala (P), 
with the small island of Comacina, 
frequently mentioned in the an- 
nals of mediaeval warfare , now 
occupied by a small church of 
San Giovanni. 

Campo (P), charmingly situat- 
ed; then the Punta d'Avedo, a 
promontory which here projects 
far into the lake. On its ex- 
tremity ( 3 / 4 M. from Campo or 
Lenno) glitters the Villa Arconati 
(visitors admitted; fine view). 

In the bay lie Lenno (P ; Ristor. 
Brentani), with an old octagonal 
baptistry, and Azzano (B). On 
the slope above, Mezzegra. 

Tremezzo (P; * Hot. - Pens. 
Bazzoni et du Lac, R. 1V2~3, 
B. li/ 4 , dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 6-8 fr. ; 
Hot. Magatti fy Pens. Belvedere, 
pens, from 6 fr., well spoken of; 
Pens. Villa Cornelia) is the capital 
of the Tremezzina, a beautiful 
district justly called the garden of 
Lombardy. An avenue of plane- 
trees, passing the Villa Carlotta 
(p. 157), connects Tremezzo with 
Cadenabbia, which practically 
forms one place with it. 

E. Bank. 

changes its level , a peculiarity 
mentioned both by the younger 
and the older Pliny. 

Riva di Palanzo (P) and Pog- 
nana (B); then Quarzano and 

Nesso (P) , at the mouth of the 
Val di Nesso , which ascends to 
the Piano del Tivano (3800 ft.), 
with a waterfall in a narrow gorge. 

Beyond Cavagnola we obtain 
the first view of Bellagio. 

Near Lezzeno (P; Osteria del 
Grottina, to the right of the pier) is 
oneofthe deepestpartsof thelake. 

About 2V4 M. to the N.E. of Lez- 
zeno, in the direction of Bellagio, is 
the Grotla Azzurra del Bulgaro (36 ft. 
deep , 75 ft. wide , 10 ft. high). In 
1900 the mouth of this 'Blue Grotto 1 
of the Lago di Como was built up 
with the exception of a narrow 
entrance, through which the light 
falls (adm. 1 fr., paid at the restaurant 
above the grotto). The rough foot- 
path may be avoided by hiring a 
boat (20 min. ; there and back with 
one rower 4 fr.). 

Villa Besana. 

San Giovanni (B), with a church 
containing an altar-piece by 
Gaud. Ferrari : Christ in glory, 
with saints and donors. The beau- 
tiful garden of the Villa Trotti 
combines the luxuriance of a S. 
vegetation with English-like ex- 
panses of turf. 

Villa Trivulzio, formerly Poldi, 
contains the modern mausoleum 
of the last of the Gonzagas, in 
the form of a round Romanesque 
tower. Fine view. Visitors are 
admitted to the beautiful garden. 

*Villa Melzi, 1/2 M. to the S. 
of Bellagio, erected by Albertolli 
in 1810-15, for Count Melzi 
d'Erile (1753-1816), who was 
made Duke of Lodi by Napoleon 
in 1807. It now belongs to the 

of Como. 


22. Route. 


W. Bank. 

Interesting excursion (there and 
back, 3-4 hrs.) by Lenno fp. 156) to 
Santa Maria del Soecorso (1375 ft.), 
a 'Mount Calvary 1 with beautiful 
view (the sacristan sells refresh- 
ments); return by Mezzegra. 

Cadenabbia. — Hotels (many 
English visitors; the first-mentioned 
are closed from the end of Uov. to 
the end of Feb.). 'Belleyue , ad- 
joining the Villa Carlotta, withs hady 
grounds on the lake, pens. 11-16 fr. ; 
•Britannia, with pretty garden, R. 
2V2-41/2, B. 11/4, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 
6-10 fr.; 'Belle Ile, R. 2-4V2, B. 11/4, 
dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr. ; Hotel 
Cadenabbia. R. 21/2-3, B. iy 2 , dej. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 7-9 fr. , Italian. These 
three are situated to the N. of the 
pier, on the Menaggio road. — Cafe" 
Lavezari. — English Church, with 
services from March to yovember. 

Cadenabbia, a small place in 
the parish of Griante, ifa M. to 
the N.E. of Tremezzo and 2 M. 
to the S. of Menaggio (omnibus 
at the railway station, p. 162), lies 
in the warmest and most sheltered 
sitnation on the Lake of Como. 
— In the vicinity (S.W.), in a 
garden sloping down to the lake, 
stands the *Villa Carlotta, 
formerly Sommariva. In 1843 it 
came into the possession of Prin- 
cess Albert of Prussia, after whose 
daughter Charlotte, Duchess of 
Saxe-Meiningen (d. 1855), it is 
named. The Duke of Saxe-Mei- 
ningen is the present proprietor 
(accessible from 8 to 5, door 
opened every */g hr. ; 1 fr. each 

Interior. The Marble Hall con- 
tains the celebrated *Reliefsby Thor- 
valdsen, representing the Triumph 
of Alexander. This frieze was first 
reproduced in plaster for the Quirinal 
in 1811, in honour of Napoleon; for 
this marble replica a sum of over 
14,000;. was paid by Count Somma- 
riva in 1828. Also several statues by 
Canova (Cupid and Psyche, Magdalen, 
Palamedes, Venus); Paris, by Fon- 

E. Bank. 

Duchess of Melzi, and possesses 
numerous works of art and a 
splendid garden (adm. Thurs. & 
Sun., 1 fr. ; entr. by S. gate). 

Bellagio. — Hotels (the first 
mentioned are closed from the end 
of Xov. to the end of Feb.). ~Geand 
Hotel Bellagio, with shadv garden, 
R, 5-10, B. 11/2. dej. 31/2, D." 5, pens. 
10-18, omn. 3 /i fr. , and 'Grande 
Bretagne, frequented by the English, 
also with a large and shady garden, 
both well fitted up and beautifully 
situated on the lake; "Villa Sek- 
belloni. a dependance of the Grand 
Hotel Bellagio, pens. 10-14 fr. (see 
below). — *GenazzinietMetropole. 
also beautifullv situated on the lake. 
R. 31/2-5, B. i'/ 2 , dej. 21/2-3, D. 4, 
pens. 7-11 fr. — Of less pretension 
(all on the lake): *H6tel-Pension 
Florence, R. 2i/ 2 -4, B. l»/a, dej.21/2, 
D. 4, pens. 772-9, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Hot.- 
Pexs. duLac, R. 2-3, B. li/ 4 , dej. 27*, 
D. 31/2, pens. 7-11 fr. ; Hot.-Pexs. des 
Etrangers, R. 21/2-3, B. I1/4, dej. 3, 
D. 31/2, pens. 61/2-8 fr.; Pens. Suisse, 
R. 21/2-3, B. 1, dej. 21/2, D. 31/2, pens. 
6-7 fr. ; all these well spoken of. 

Lace, Silk Goods, and Olive-wood 
Carvings at numerous shops. — 
Books and Photographs . at P. Introz- 
zi'a. — Druggist, Lavizzari. 

Lake Baths near the Villa MeM, 
1/4 M. to the S. of the pier. 

Rowing Boats, see p. 154. 

English Church (April-Oct.) in the 
grounds of the Grande Bretagne. 

Bellagio (710 ft.), a small town 
with 3635 inhab., at tbe W. base 
of the promontory wbich separates 
the Lake of Como from tbe Lake 
of Lecco, is perhaps tbe most 
delightful point among the lakes 
of Upper Italy. — A road and a 
steep lane (beginning behind the 
Hot. Genazzini) ascend through 
the town to the — 

*Villa Serbelloni (adm. 1 fr., 
free for guests of Hot. Bellagio), 
the park of which extends to the 
head of the promontory. Charm- 

158 Route 22. 



W. Bank. 

tana; Mars and Venus, by Acquisti; 
Cupid giving water to pigeons, by 
Bienaime', etc. — The Billiard Room 
contains a small frieze in marble on 
the chimney-piece representing a 
Bacchanalian procession, said to be 
an early work of Thorvaldsen. 

The 'Garden contains the most 
luxuriant vegetation; on the S. side 
of the Villa is a splendid magnolia ; 
pleasant view towards Bellagio from 
the thick shrubbery at the S. end 
of the garden. The trellis-walk of 
lemon-trees is covered in winter. — 
At the S. end of the garden, near 
the lake, is the mortuary chapel 
of the Sommarivas, with marble 
sculptures (adm. for a fee). 

The road to Menaggio passes 
several other fine gardens. Be- 
hind Cadenahhia rises the rock of 
II Sasso di San Martino. 

Halfway up stands the Madonna 
di San Martino, a small church, com- 
manding a beautiful view ; ascent 
I1/2 hr. (we proceed via. Griante to 
the small chapel of San Rocco and 
then follow tbe paved track). 

The Monte Crocione (5370 ft.), a 
more lofty mountain to the W., com- 
mands a striking view of the Lake 
of Como and Bellagio (a fatiguing 
ascent of 31/2-4 hrs. ; guide 5 fr. ; in 
order to avoid the heat the traveller 
should start at 2 a.m.). A finer view 
of the Alps of Valais is obtained from 
the *Monte Galbiga (5600 ft.), to the 
W., which may be reached in 50 min. 
from Monte Crocione by following 
the crest. From Monte Galbiga we 
may descend via. the Ponna Alp to 
(3 hrs.) Osteno (p. 163). 

The promontory of Bellagio ends in the Punta di Bellagio, where 
the S.W and S.E. arms of the lake unite (comp. p. 154) 

The latter, the Lago di Lecco (I21/2 M. long), though inferior to the 
other in picturesqueness and luxuriance of vegetation, presents grander 
mountain scenery. The E. bank is skirted by the railway mentioned at 
p. 152. Steamers ply on the lake from (Como) Bellagio to Lecco and back, 
and from Colico to Lecco and back (comp. p. 154). 

The steamer rounds the Punta di Bellagio (p. 150- To the left, Lierna 
(B. and R.), at the foot of the abrupt Citna Palagia (5080 ft.). Fine view 
towards the N. — Right: Limonta (B.). Vaswia (B.), the station for (3 M.) 
Civenna (p. 153), and Onno (B.). Left : Olcio (R.), at the foot of Mte. Grigna 
(p. 159) ; Tonzanico ; Mandello (P. & R.). at the foot of Mte. Campione (7165 ft. ) ; 
Abbadia (B. & R.), at the mouth of the Val Gerona. On the W. bank, at 
the base of the Corni di Canzo (4500 ft.), arc several cement-furnaces. Op- 
posite Lecco, to the right, lies Pare, situated at the mouth of the Ritorlo 
(p. 151) and separated from Malgrate (p. 152) by the promontory of San 

E. Bank. 

ing glimpses of Varenna, Villa 
Arconati, Villa Carlotta, etc. 

The Villa Belmonte, the prop- 
erty of an Englishman, commands 
another fine view (adm. ^ fr-)* 

On the Civenna xoad (p. 153), 
about 1 M. to the S. of the lower 
entrance to the Villa Serbelloni, 
beyond the cemetery, we reach a 
blue iron gate on the left, leading 
to the Villa Giulia, the property 
of Count Blome of Vienna, with 
beautiful *Gardens (adm. on Sun. 
and holidays only; fee V2 &0 

A pleasant excursion may be taken 
hence to ''Civenna (p. 153), either by 
road, passing the Villa Giulia (one- 
horse carr. 8 fr. ; 3 hrs. there and 
back), or from the steamboat-station 
of Vassena (see below). 

The highly interesting ascent of the 
-Monte San Primo (5555 ft.) may be 
made in 4V2 hrs. from Bellagio (with 
guide, 10 fr.). The route leads past 
the Villa Giulia and Casate, and forks 
at (2 hrs.) a chapel. We follow the 
narrow road to the right to the Alpi 
del Borgo, whence a footpath leads 
to the (£1/2 hrs.) summit. Magnificent 
view of the Lake of Como and the 
Brianza, backed by a grand mount- 
ain-panorama. The descent may be 
made to Canzo (p. 153). 

of Como. 


22. Route. 159 

D'wnigio. The lake now contracts to the width of the Adda. — Lecco 
(P. & R.), see p. 151. 

On the chief arm of the Lake of Como, as we proceed towards 
Colico, the first steamhoat-stations are Menaggio (W. bank) and 
Varenna (E. hank). 

W. Bank. 

Menaggio (P). — Piers. One, the 
Pontile Ferrovia, to the S., beside the 
Hotel Menaggio, for the Steam Tram- 
way to Porlezza (Lugano ; see p. 162) ; 
another, the Pontile Comunale, beside 
the Hotels Victoria and Corona. 
Hotel-omnibuses at both. 

Hotels (manv English visitors). 
*H6tel Victoria, R. 3-7, B. IV2, 
dej. 31/2, B. 5. pens. 7-13 fr. (English 
Church Service); *Grand Hot. Me- 
naggio, R. 21/2-6, B. IV2, dej. 3-3V2, 
D. 5 5V2, pens. 7-11 fr., both with lifts 
and gardens on the lake. — Couronxe, 
Italian, fair, R. IV2, D. incl. wine 
3, pens. 5 fr. — Ristorante Belvedere, 
Cafe" -Restaur ant Olivedo, both plain. 

Menaggio (1675 inhab.), with 
an extensive silk manufactory, 
commands a fine view of Bellagio. 
On the lake, to the S. of the vil- 
lage, is the handsome Villa My- 
lius. — A good road, diverging 
to the right from the Cadenahhia 
road, ascends in windings to the N. 
to (Y'2 hr.) Loveno Superior e, near 
the church of which stands the 
Villa Vigoni, formerly Mylius, 
commanding a magnificent view 
of Menaggio, Bellagio, and of the 
three arms of the lake (apply to 
the gardenerj fee 1 fr.). The 
garden-saloon contains a relief 
by Thorvaldsen and a group in 
marble by Argenti. — Adjacent 
are the Villa Massimo d y Azeglio, 
with paintings by the statesman 
Marchese Massimo d'Azeglio 
(d. 1866), and the Villa Garoviglio. 

From the Villa Vigoni a good 
footpath leads via the villages of 
Plesio and Breglia to (IV2 hr.) the 
church of Madonna della Breglia^ com- 
manding an extensive view. From 
Breglia we may descend by a steep 
path to Acquaseria (p. 160) and rc- 

E. Bank. 

Varenna (P &R; *H6t. Royal; 
Alb. Vittoria, pens. 5-7 1/2 fr. ; All. 
Olivedo') is charmingly situated 
on a promontory surrounded by 
gardens (Isimbardi,Lelia,Venini, 
Kees). at the mouth of the Vcl 
(TEsino. In the vicinity both road 
and railway pass through several 
tunnels. Most of the marble 
quarried in the neighbourhood is 
cut and polished in the town. 

About 3/ 4 M. to the S. of Va- 
renna the Fiume Latte ('milk 
brook', from its colour) is precip- 
itated in several leaps from a 
height of 1000 ft., forming an im- 
posing cascade in spring, but gen- 
erally dried up at other seasons. 

The ruins of Torre di Vezio, beside 
the high -lying bamlet of Vezio 
(1/2 hr.) command a beautiful view. 
— From Varenna a fatiguing foot- 
path leads past Regoledo (p. 160) 
and above the Orrido di Bellano to 
(l3/ 4 hr.) Bellano (p. 160). 

The -Monte Grigna (7905 ft.) is a 
very fine point. From Varenna a 
bridle-path leads on the right bank of 
the Esino via Perledo to (2'/2 
(2960 ft.; Alb. Monte Godeno, fair), 
prettily situated. Thence (guide 
desirable, 7 fr.) to the Alp Cainallo 
IV2. Alp PradaVh, Capanna di Mon- 
codeno (5930ft.; destroyed) 72 hr., and 
to the top (Capanna Grigna Vetta of 
the Ital. Alpine Club, inn in summer) 
in 2 hrs. more (the last part rather 
trying). Superb view of the whole 
Alpine chain from the Mte. Viso 
to the Ortler (the Mte. Rosa group 
particularly fine), and of the plains 
of Lombardy to the distant Apen- 
nines. We may descend to the W. 
(steep) to the club -hut Capanna di 
Releggio (5S40 ft.) in the Val Meria, 
and to Mandello (p. 15S),orto theE. to 
Paeturo in the Val Sassina (p. 160). 


Route 22. 



W. Bank. 
turn thenee to Menaggio by steam- 
boat or via tbe Sasso Rancio. 

The steamer next passes a 
wild, yellowish-brown cliff, the 
Sasso Rancio ('orange -rock'), 
which is traversed by a dangerous 
footpath. The Russians under 
Bellegarde marched by this route 
in 1799, though with heavy losses. 

Acquaseria (P) is the chief vil- 
lage in the commune of SanV 

Rezzonico (B), with a restored 
castle of the 13th century. 

Cremia (P), with the handsome 
church of San Michele (altar- 
piece *St. Michael, by Paolo Ve- 
ronese). The old church of San 
Vito contains a fine Madonna and 
angels by Borgognone. 

Then Pianello (P). 

On rocks rising precipitously 
above Musso (B) are situated the 
ruins of three castles, Rocca di 
Musso , the residence of Giov. 
Giac. de' Medici in 1525-31, 
'the Castellan of Musso', who from 
this spot ruled over the entire 
Lake of Como. 

Bongo (P ; Alb. Dongo), a large 
village in a sheltered situation. 

Gravedona (P; Hot. d'ltalie; 
Hot. Victoria), with 1800 inhab., 
is situated at the mouth of a 
gorge. The handsome Palazzo del 
Pero with four towers , at the 
upper end, was built in 1586 by 
Pellegrino Tibaldi for the Mila- 
nese Cardinal Tolomeo Gallio. 
Adjoining the venerable church 
of San Vincenzo rises the Baptis- 
tery of Santa Maria del Tiglio, an 
interesting building of the 12th 
cent., with campanile, containing 
two Christian inscriptions of the 
5th century. 

E. Bank. 
Gittana is the station for the 
hydropathic establishment of 
Regoledo, situated 500 ft. above 
the lake (cable-railway). 

Bellano (P & R; Hotel-Restau- 
rant Tomen-Grossi, well spoken 
of, Alb. Porta, Alb. Bellano, on 
the lake) has 3672 inhab. and 
considerable factories. By the 
pier is a monument to Tom. Grossi 
(1790-1853), the poet, who was 
born at Bellano. A street leads 
hence to the (8 min.) station 
(p. 152). Following the Yia 
Cavour to the left by the Albergo 
Bellano, then turning to the right 
and then to the left again, we 
reach the church of San Giorgio 
and the *Orrido di Bellano, a 
rocky gorge in which the Piovema 
forms two waterfalls (adm. !/ 2 &.)• 
A narrow road leads through 
the Val Sassina, which opens at Bel- 
lano, via Taceno (1663 ft.) to (6 M.) 
Cortenova (1578 ft.) and thence via 
Introbbio (1920 ft.) to Lecco (p. 151). 

Dervio (P & R), at the mouth 
of the Varrone, is situated at the 
base of the Monte Legnone 
(8505 ft.), and its spur, the 
Monte Legnoncino (5680 ft.). 

* Monte Legnone, the highest 
mountain of Lombardy, may be 
ascended hence in 7 hrs. (not difficult 
for experts ; guide not indispensable). 
Bridle-path to (iy 2 hT.)Sueglio (2590ft.; 
Osteria Bretagna) on the slope of Mte. 
Legnoncino, and thence (red way- 
marks) to the (2 hrs.) Ricovero of the 
Italian Alpine Club (4460 ft. •, good 
accommodation) by the Roccoli Lorla, 
on the faddle between Legnone and 
Legnoncino; thence to the (2J/4 hrs.) 
Cap anna Alpina (7010 ft. 5 no beds) and 
the (1 hr.) summit, with magni- 
ficent view. — The ascent on the N. 
side, from Delebio (p. 161), is easier. 
A bridle-path leads through the Valle 
della Lesina to the (4 hrs.) Alp Cap- 
pello, and thence across the Bocchetta 
di Legnone to the (cJ-3V2hrs.) summit. 

of Como. 


22. Route. 161 

W. Bank. 
A bridle-path leads to the W. 
through the Val di Gravedona , over 
the Passo San Jorio (6420 ft.), and 
down through the Val Marobbia to 
(10 hrs.) Bellinzona (p. 7). Provisions 
and guide necessary (no inn en route). 

Domaso (P) possesses several 
handsome villas. — Finally Gera 

E. Bank. 

Corenno (Plinio), with a mined 
castle; Dorio (R.); Olgiasca. — 
Piona (R.)j on tne Da y named 
Laghetto di Piona. 

Colico (P & R), comp. p. 16. 

From Colico to Chiavenna, and over the Spliigen to Coire, see R. 4. 

From Colico to the Val Tellina and Bormio. 

From Colico to Tirano, 4172 M., railway in 3V2 hrs. (fares 22 fr. 75, 
17 fr. 40, 11 fr. SO c). From Tirano to Bormio, 25V2 M., diligence twice 
daily in 5 hrs. (9 fr. 15, coupe 11 fr. 50 c). 

The Val Tellina, which is wa f ered by the Adda and traversed by a 
railway and a road, belonged to the Orisons down to 1797. then to Austria, 
and since 1S59 has been united to Italy. The inundations ot the river 
often cause lasting damage by scattering debris from its broad gravelly 
channel and make the lower part of the valley marshy and unhealthy. 
An aromatic red Wine is yielded by the vines on the slopes of the valley. 

The Railway runs to the E. from Colico to (4 J /2 M.) Delebio, on the 
Lesina (ascent of Mte. Legnone, see p. 1601. — 8 M. Cosio -Valtellino - Traona. 

— 10 M. Morbegno (850 ft.; Ancora), with 3948 inhab., is, noted for its 
silk-culture and has a church of the 17th cent, with a few good pictures. 
It lies at the mouth of the Val del Bitto, through which a bridle-path 
leads over the Passo di San Marco (5995 ft.) to the Vulle Brembana (p. 193). 

— 14 M. Ardenno-Masino, on the right bank of the Adda, at the mouth 
of the Val Masino (see Baedeker^s Switzerland). — We cross the Adda. 
19 ! /2 M. San-Pietro- Berbenno. Farther on the train skirts the hill of Sassella, 
noted for its wine and crowned with a church. 

25'/2 M. Sondrio (1140 ft. ; *H6t. de la Poste, with garden, E. 3-5, B. iy 2 , 
de'j. 3. D. 4, pens, from 7 fr. , Alb. della Ferrovia, opposite the station, with 
garden, both well spoken of), the capital of the Val Tellina, with 7707 inhab., 
situated, on the brawling Mallero, produces excellent wine. The old castle 
of the bailiffs is now a barrack. — To the Val Malenco and ascent of the 
Monte della Disgrazia, see Baedeker & Switzerland. 

Bevond Sondrio the churches of Montagna and Pendolasco rise on the 
left. 281/2 M. Treshio. About U/ 2 M. to the N". of (30i/2 M.) Ponte is the 
village of that name, with a Madonna in fresco, by Luini, over the W. 
door of the church. 31 3 /4 M. Chiuro. Beyond (33 J /2 M.) San Giacomo, on 
the mount ainridge (views) to the left, lies the small and ancient town of 
Teglio (2860 ft. ; Alb. Combolo), with a ruined castle, the handsome Renais- 
sance Palazzo Berta (16th cent.) and the church of San Lorenzo, with 
frescoes by Ferma Stella of Caravaggio (I5v8). Teglio gives its name to 
the valley (Val Teglino). At (36 M.) Tresenda (1236 ft.; Alb. Ambrosini, 
moderate) the road over the Passo d'Aprica diverges to the right (p. 208; 
from Tresenda to the Bergamasque Alps, see p. 197). — 38 M. Bianzone; 
39 M. Villa. The line next crosses the Poschiavino , which descends from 
the Bernina lakes, and reaches — 

4H/2 M. Tirano (1505 ft.; *H6t. Tirano, new; Albergo della Posla, R. 1-3, 
B. 1, D. 3 fr. ; Italia; Stelvio), a small town of 6573 inhab., exposed to 
damage from the floods of the Adda. It contains old mansions of the 
Visconti, Pallavicini, and Salis families. — From Tirano to Poschiavo, and 
over the Bernina Pass to Pontresina and Samaden, in the Upper Engadine, 
see Baedeker s Switzerland. About 1 M. to the N.W. of Tirano is Madonna 
di Tirano (Albergo San Michele), a small village with a large and hand- 
some pilgrimage-church of the 16th century. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 1} . 

162 Route 22. BORMIO. 

The High Road ascends along the vine-clad slopes to Semio (2083 ft.). 
To the N. rises the precipitous Monte Masuccio (9240 ft.), a landslip from 
which in 1807 blocked up the narrow channel of the Adda, and converted 
the valley as far as Tovo into a vast lake. At (6 M.) Mazzo the road 
crosses to the right bank of the Adda, and beyond Grosotto (1965 ft.-, Alb. 
Pini) it crosses the Roasco, which here issues from the Val Grosina. To 
the left, at the mouth of the latter, is the imposing ruined castle of 
Venosta. Beyond Grosio the road recrosses to the left bank. — 6 M. — 

12 M. Bolladore (2840 ft. ; Posta or Angelo, R. IV2-2V2 fr. ; Hdtel des 
Alpes, well spoken of). On the mountain-slope to the N. rises the church 
of Sondalo. The valley contracts ; the southern vegetation disappears ; 
far below rushes the grey glacier-water of the Adda. 13 V2 M. Mondadizza, 
with a curious old church. At (15 M.) Le Prese (3110 ft. ; inn) we again cross 
the Adda. We then enter the defile of Serra di Morignone, about 3V2 M. 
in length, which separates the Val Tellina from the region of Bormio. 
In 1859 the Ponte del Diavolo was the scene of an engagement between 
Austrians and Garibaldians. At the end of the pass, in the green Valle 
di Sotto, lie the hamlets of Morignone and (farther on) SanC Antonio. 

Beyond (I8V2 M.) Ceppina (Osteria Piccagnoni) we reach the level green 
valley (Piano) of Bormio, enclosed by lofty mountains, the lower slopes 
of which are clothed with pines, and the upper in part with snow. At 
Santa Lucia (3340 ft.) we cross the Frodolfo, just above its confluence with 
the Adda. The road runs to the N.E. to (372 M.) — 

25y 2 M. Bormio, Ger. Worms (4020 ft.; Posta or Leon d'Oro; Alb. 
della Torre, R. H/2; B. V2 f 1 '-, moderate), an antiquated little Italian town 
(1953 inhab.), with numerous dilapidated towers, picturesquely situated at 
the entrance to the Val Furva. — The diligence goes on hence, ascending 
the winding Stelvio route, to the — 

271/2 M. Bagni di Bormio. The New Baths (Bagni Nuovi; 4380 ft.), a 
handsome building surrounded with gardens on a terrace commanding a 
fine survey of the valley of Bormio and the surrounding mountains, are 
much frequented in July and Aug. (at the "Hotel, R. & A. 3-5, L. ^2, 
B. li/a, D. 4, S. 3, pens. 8-12 fr.) and are closed from the middle of Oct. 
(Engl. Church Service in summer). The Bagni Vecchi, or Old Baths of 
Bormio, are a little higher up (4750 ft.), perched on the rocks below the 
road ; a picturesque footpath, shorter than the road, ascends to them in 
l /t hr. (good hotel, less expensive than the New Baths). The seven springs, 
containing salt and sulphur (100-105° Fahr.), rise in the Dolomite cliffs 
near the old baths, whence the water is conducted to the new baths in 
pipes. They are mentioned by Pliny and Cassiodorus. The old Roman 
baths (piscine) hewn in the rock are interesting. — From Bormio over 
the Stelvio to Lnndeck and Meran, see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

23. From Menaggio, on the Lake of Como, to Lugano 
and to Luino, on the Lago Maggiore. 

42 M. Steam Tramway from Menaggio to Porlezza, 8 M., in s /i-l hr. 
(fares 2 fr. 90, 1 fr. 55 c). Steamboat (medioere restaurant) from Porlezza 
to (11 M.) Lugano in ca. 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 20 c), and from Lugano 
to (15 M.) Ponte Tresa in li/a-l 3 /* hr. (fares 2 fr., 1 fr. 50 c). Steam Tramway 
from Ponte Tresa to Luino, 8 M., in s/ 4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 90, 1 fr. 30 c). 
Through-tickets from Menaggio to Lugano 5 fr. 40, 2 fr. 80 c, to Luino 
9 fr. 80, 5 fr. 60 c. (to be had on board any of the steamers). — Swiss 
custom-house examination on board the steamers in the Lake of Lugano, 
Italian custom house at Ponte Tresa or Porlezza (usually also on board 
the steamers). — Comp. the Maps, pp. 154, 10, 174. 

Menaggio, see p. 159. The railway-station is at the S. end of the 
village; the ticket-office is in the Hotel Menaggio. The line at first 
ascends rapidly (5: 100) to the hills above the lake, then runs towards 

OSTENO. 23. Route. 163 

the N. for about half-a-mile. Fine *Yiew to the right of the central 
part of the Lake of Como, with Bellagio in the middle. Farther on 
the line describes a wide bend to theW. and beyond a short tunnel 
ascends in numerous curves on the left side of the Vol Sanagra 
to (3 M.) Grandola (1260 ft.), where we reach the highest point of 
the line, 610 ft. above the Lake of Como. The train descends rapidly 
(4 : 100), via Bene-Grona, Piano (on the small Lago del Piano), San 
Pietro (where the Lago di Lugano comes in sight), and Tavcrdo, 
in the broad Valley of the Cuccio. 

8M. Torlezza.(Alb. del Lago; Posta oxAngelo), on the N.E. arm 
of the Lake of Lugano, with the Italian custom-house for travellers 
in the other direction. Rail, station, close to the steamboat-pier. 

The *Lake of Lugano (870 ft.) , called by the Italians Lago 
Ceresio after its doubtful Latin name, is 20 sq. M. in area and 945 ft. 
deep at its deepest point. Its wooded and oft-times precipitous 
banks are less varied and more sombre than those of Lakes Como 
and Maggiore, but its central part, the *Bay of Lugano, vies in 
scenic charm and luxuriance of vegetation with its more celebrated 
neighbours. — The steamer proceeds via Cima (not called at by 
express steamers), at the foot of the steep hills on the N. bank, and 
crosses the lake diagonally. 

Osteno (Hotel du Bateau; Ristoranle delta Grotta), on the wooded 
S. bank of the lake, was the birthplace in 1506 of the sculptor An- 
drea Bregno, who is represented by two ciboria in the church. It 
is frequently visited from Lugano on account of its grotto (return- 
fare 2 fr. 35 c. ; ticket for the grotto, including the ferry, obtained 
on board the steamer, 75 c). 

The Grotto of Osteno, Ital. Orrido or Pescara ('fishermen's gorge') 
di Osteno, is 7 min. from the landing-place. The ferryman guides visitors 
through the village,and dqwn to the right before the stone bridge, to a small 
foot-bridge over th^.brook. The mouth of the gorge, in which there is a 
small waterfall, is n'earoa projecting rock (restaurant). Visitors embark in 
a small boat and enter the grotto, the bottom of which is occupied by the 
brook. The narrow ravine through which we thread our way is curiously 
hollowed out by the water. Far above, the roof is formed by overhanging 
bushes, between which glimpses of blue sky are obtained. The gorge is 
terminated by a waterfall. — The Tufa Grottoes of Rescia may also be 
visited if time permit (i hr. there and back). Boat (with two rowers, 
there and back, 2 fr. each) round the promontory to the E. of Osteno in 
>/•» hr. to the hamlet of Rescia; thence by a narrow path to the grottoes 
in 5 min. (adm. & torches </a fr-)- In " tne vicinity are tufa quarries, 
containing interesting fossils. 

A road leads from Osteno to the S.W. to (6 M.) Lanzo d'Intelvi 
(3115 ft.; Pens. Lanzo d'Intelvi; Caffe Central?, dej. 2 fr.), i.1/4 M. above which 
is the -Grand Hdtel el Belvedere' '(3015 ft. ; R. 3Va-5, B. D/2, dej. 3V2, D- &i 
pens. 9-12 fr. ; closed Oct.-April), with a large park and a fine view of 
the Lake of Lugano and the Alps with Mte. Rosa, a pleasant spot for a 
stay (Engl. Church Service in summer). [Those whose destination is the 
Hotel Belvedere take the footpath to the right, about s/ 4 M. before reaching 
Lanzo, which soon joins the road ascending to the hotel.] Lanzo may be 
reached also from Maroggia (p. 13) in 3 hrs, on foot or by carr., or from 
Argegno (p. 156; diligence) ia 372 hrs. Near Lanzo (20 min.) are the 
baths of Paraviso. Bridle-path to Mte. Oeneroso (p. 13), 4'/2 hrs. 


164 Route 23. MORCOTE. 

The steamer now steers obliquely across the lake to San Ma- 
mette (Stella d" Italia ; Pens. Amsler), beautifully situated at the 
mouth of the picturesque Val Solda, with Castello high above it 
(p. 12). Beyond Oria, the station for Albogasio, begins the Swiss 
part of the lake. The slopes of the Mte. di Caprino (p. 12), to the 
S., are also in Switzerland. On the N. bank the steamer touches at 
Gandria (walk to Lugano, see p. 11), with its arcades and its vine- 
terraces, and then turns into the pretty bay of Lugano, leaving 
Castagnola (p. 11), at the foot of Mte. Bre (p. 11), to the right. The 
Mte. San Salvatore rises conspicuously on the S. side of the bay. 

Lugano (three piers), see p. 7. The station of the St. Gott- 
hard Railway lies high above the town, 1 M. from the lake (cable 
railway ^4 M. from the Lugano-Citta pier). 

As we leave Lugano, we enjoy a fine retrospect of the town and 
Mte. Bre. The steamer rounds the promontory of San Martino, the 
E. spur of Monte San Salvatore, on the right. On some trips the 
steamer calls at Campione, an Italian enclave in Swiss territory. 
This village was the home of the Lombard sculptors of the 13- 
14th cent, known as the 'Campionesi'. The church of the Madonna 
dell' Annunziata contains some old frescoes. To the left rise the 
steep flanks of Mte. Generoso (p. 13). The boat now passes, with 
lowered funnel, through an arch of the viaduct mentioned at p. 13, 
and touches at Melide (p. 13) on the "W. and sometimes at Bissone 
on the E. bank. 

At this point a fine view is obtained to the left of the S.E. 
arm of the lake (Lake of Capolago, see p. 13), which the Mte. San 
Giorgio (3590 ft.) separates from the S.W. arm. The steamer enters 
the latter (to the left, Brusin Arsizio) and stops at Morcote {Hotel- 
Restaurant Morcote, on the lake, R. from 1, pens, from 4^ fr.)> a 
small town with arcaded houses , picturesquely situated on the 
vine-clad Monte Arbostora (2710 ft.) and commanded by a church 
and a ruined castle. 

The steamer now plies obliquely across the lake to the small bay 
of Porto Ceresio, situated on Italian soil (railway to Varese and 
Milan, see p. 167). To the S. opens the Val Brivio, with Mte. TJseria 
(p. 167). The steamer turns to the N. and reaches the W. part of 
the lake. To the left, in Italy, lies Brusimpiano (not always touched 
at), where Mte. San Salvatore again comes into sight to the N.E. 
The boat passes to the left of the Lake of Agno (p. 165), the back- 
ground of which is formed by Mte. Bigorio, Mte. Tamaro, and 
other summits, and steers through the Stretto di Lavena, a narrow 
channel leading into the westernmost bay of the lake, which is 
almost completely enclosed by mountains. To the left, is the 
village of Lavena; to the right, the sheer Monte Caslano (1740 ft.). 
At the "W. end of the bay is — 

Ponte Tresa, consisting of two villages, the larger of which is 
Swiss and the smaller Italian, divided by the river Tresa, which 

GALLARATE. 24. Route. 165 

issues from the lake here. The railway-station and steamboat 
qnay are on the Italian side. Italian custom-house examination. 
On the Swiss side is the Hotel Crivelli. 

The Road from Lugano to Ponte Tresa (6 M.) passes Sorengo (comp. 
p. 10) beyond the Restaurant du Jardin, descends past the small Lake of 
Muzzano. and traverses the broad valley of the Agno (p. 7) to the small 
town of Agno (970 ft.), which lies on the arm of the Lake of Lugano named 
after it (see p. 164). Farther on we pass Magliato and the Magliasina, 
traverse the Swiss part of Ponte Tresa, cross the bridge to the left, and 
reach the railway-station. 

From Ponte Tresa to Varese via the Valganna, see p. 167. 

The Steam Tramway feom Pontb Tresa to Luino , at first 
ascending a little, follows the left bank of the rapid and clear Tresa, 
which here forms the boundary between Italy and Switzerland. 
Several villages and churches are seen perched among the rocks. 
Beyond the station of (372 M.) Cremenaga (833 ft.) the train passes 
through two tunnels and crosses the river, the precipitous right 
bank of which is now also Italian. — 6 M. Creva (745 ft.), with 
important manufactories. Crossing finally the Bellinzona-Genoa 
line (R. 27; station to the left), we arrive at (8 M.) Luino, where 
the station adjoins the Lago Maggiore steamboat-quay (see p. 175). 

24. From Milan to Porto Ceresio, on the Lake of 
Lugano, via Gallarate and Varese. 

47 M. Railway (Rete Mediterranea) in 3-4 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 60, 6 fr. 5, 
3 fr. 90 c); as far as Varese the motive power of the trains is electricity. 
Trains start from the Central Station (p. 112). — The Italian custom-house 
examination (a somewhat ruthless proceeding; no porters) takes place 
at the rail, station of Porto Ceresio, the Swiss examination on the steamer. 
Comp. the Map, p. 174. 

Milan, see p. 112. — 9 M. Rhb (520 ft. ; p. 64), with the church 
of the Madonna dei Miracoli by Pellegrino Tibaldi. — 17^2 M. 
Legnano (650 ft.; 18 ; 000 inhab.), where Frederick Barbarossa was 
defeated by the Milanese in 1176, an event commemorated by a 
large monument, by E. Butti (1900), in the Piazza Federico Barba- 
rossa. The church of San Magno, ascribed to Bramante, contains a 
large altar-piece, one of the best works of Luini. — 21 M. Busto 
Arsizio (Alb. del Vapore, clean), a town with 20,000 inhabitants. 
The domed church of Santa Maria, built in 1517 by Lonati from 
Bramante's designs, contains frescoes by Gaud. Ferrari. Branch- 
line to Novara and Seregno (p. 64). — 25 l / 2 M. Gallarate (780 ft. ; 
Alb. Leon d'Oro), a town with 11,952 inhab., at the S.E. base of a 
range of hills bounding the Lombard plain, contains a technical 
school and carries on large manufactures of textile fabrics. The 
line to Arona (p. 169) diverges here. 

At Vizzola, 6 M. to the W. of Gallarate, beyond the heath mentioned 
on p. 169, are the largest '-Electric Works in Europe (23,000 horse- 
power), erected on the Ticino in 1898-91 by the Societa Lombard a per 
Distribuzione di Energia Elettrica. Water-power is conducted hitber from 

166 Route 24. VARESE. From Milan 

the dam at Somma Lombarda (p. 169) by means of the Canale Industrials, 
4V2 M. in length. Electric power is distributed from this centre to Sesto 
Calende, Gallarate, Saronno, and other neighbouring places. — The Canale 
Yilloresi, an irrigation-canal constructed in 1884, also begins at Vizzola. 
Fkom Gallarate to Laveno, 20 M., railway in 1-2 hrs. (fares 3 fr. 85, 
2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 80 c). The line diverges to tbe right from that to Arona. — 
10 M. Ternate-Varano, on the little lake of Comabbio (795 ft.). — 15 M. Besizzo 
(850 ft ). — 20 M. Laveno, see p. 176. 

Our line runs to the N. through the attractive and fertile hilly 
district of the Varesotto. 30 »/•> M. Albizzate ; 35 M. Gazzada (1230 ft.), 
in a lofty situation, with the Villa Cagnola. 

37^2 M. Varese. — Railway Stations. 1. Stazione Rete Mediterranean 
to the E. of the town. — 2. Stazione Ferrovie Nord, 350 yds. to the N.E. of 
the foregoing, for the Milan-Laveno and Como-Laveno lines (pp.168, 151). 

Hotels (rooms must be ordered in advance during the races, in Sept.). 
*Grand Hotel Varese (Excelsior), a large establishment 1 M. to tbe W. 
of the town and 1320 ft. above the sea-level, near the station of Casbeno 
(p. 168), with a lift, a beautiful garden, and a splendid view of the whole 
chain of the W. Alps, R. from 6, B. l*/2, de'j. 372, D. 5, pens. 9-11, omn. 
I-IV2 fr. This house, which is much visited by English travellers, is 
closed from Dec. to February. — In the town : Italia, Corso Roma, wilh 
restaurant and small garden, well spoken of; EcRorA , Via Luigi Sacco ; 
Leon d'Oro, Gambero, Angelo, Alb. Centeale, all four quite unpretend- 
ing. — Cafes (Cavour, etc.) under the arcades in the Corso Vittorio Ema- 
nuele. — Birrerie. Sport Bar, Corso lloma (al?o reslaurant); Birreria roretti. 
at the Sta/ione Rete Mediterranea. 

Post Office, Piazza San Vittore. 

Electric Tramway (generally crowded on Sun.) from the Stazione Fer- 
rovie Nord along the Corso Roma and Corso Vitt. Emanuele and through 
the villages of Sanf Ambrogio and Fogliaro to (25 min.) the Prima Cappella, 
below the Madonna del Monte (every 25 min.; fare, up 50, down 30c). 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Varese. — Golf Ground 
(9 holes) near the Grand Hotel. 

Varese (1250 ft.) is a thriving town with 17,666 inhah. and 
silk, paper, furniture, and other manufactories. Noted market 
every Monday. In summer the charming environs attract a number 
of Milanese families. The busiest street is the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele. Adjacent, in the small Piazza San Vittore, is the church 
of San Vittore, rebuilt about 1580 after a design by Pellegrino 
Tibaldi, with a facade of the end of the 18th century. In the interior 
are paintings by Crespi (St. Gregory) and Morazzone. Fine view 
from the handsome tower, 246 ft. in height. Adjoining is an ancient 
Baptistery. — In the Via Luigi Sacchi, to the left, is the Municipio, 
formerly named La Corte, built for Duke Francis III. of Modena in 
1775 and now containing a collection of prehistoric and other anti- 
quities. The Oiardino Pubblico, formerly the palace-garden, is laid 
out in the old Italian style. — Among the villas may be mentioned: 
Villa Litta, on the road to Biume Superiore ; Villa Ponti, to the 
N.E., on the road to Biume Inferiore ; then, near the latter village, 
Villa Litta Modignani, which still bears traces of a skirmish fought 
here in 1859 between Garibaldi and the Austrians. 

Walks. To the Colle Campiglio (1485 ft.), l'/2 M. to the W., on the road 
to Masnago and Laveno, commanding a fine view; thence via Masnago and 
Casciago (1510 ft.; where the Villa Castelbarco affords a fine *View of 

to Lugano. VARESE. 24. Route. 167 

the five lakes and of Mte. Rosa) to Luvinale, whence a beautiful view is 
obtained of the Lake of Varese (185 ft.) and the small adjacent Lake of 
Biandronno (790 ft.), and also of the farther distant lakes of Monate (880 ft.) 
and Comabbio (p. 166). A little farther on are the rail, stations of Barasso 
and Gavirate (p. 168). — To the S. to (1 3 A M.) Sant" Albino and Gazzada 
(p. 16!>). — To the S.W. to Casbeno (p. 16S) and Schieranna, on the Lago di 
Varese, and thence either by boat to the (1 hr.) Isola Virginia (restaurant), 
with the small Museo Ponti (relics of lake-dwellings), or along the N. bank 
of the lake to Calcinate, Oltrona, Voltorre (where there is an old monastery 
with interesting Romanesque cloisters), and (7V2 M.) Gavirate (see above). 

The most interesting excursion, however, is that to the "Madonna del 
Monte (2885 ft.), a resort of pilgrims, 2"/ 2 hrs. to the N.W. The road leads 
via SanC Ambrogio (1510 ft.) and Fogliaro to the hamlet of Oronco, near 
the Prima Cappella (electric tramway, see p. 166; one-horse carr. there 
and back 8-10 fr.). About 150 yds. beyond the tramway-terminus is the 
Albergo del Biposo, with a pretty garden (view). A broad, steep, and 
shadeless paved path (horse or mule 2, ox-cart 4 fr.) ascends hence to 
(1 hr.) the Pilgrimage Church, passing 14 chapels, adorned with 17th cent, 
frescoes and groups in stucco illustrating tbe mysteries of the rosary, and, 
lastly, a statue of Moses. The church, situated on an abrupt rocky summi 1 , 
is a structure of the 16 17th cent., with an ancient crypt. In tbe vestibule 
is a 13th cent, relief of the Madonna: in the dome traces of frescoe3 of 
about 1500. Adjacent are the old monastery and the Albergo Camponovo. 
The view hence is celebrated: the small lakes of Comabbio, Biandronno, 
and Monate, that of Varese, two arms of the Lago Maggiore, part of the 
Lake of Como, and the fruitful plain as far as Milan are visible. — A far 
more comprehensive view, including the glacier-world also, is obtained 
(best by morning-light) from the (1 hr.) Monte delle Tre Groci (ca. 3600 ft.) 
and from tbe (l 3 /4 hr.) Monte Campo de' Fiori (7305 ft.). These are reached 
by a bridle-path diverging to the right at the above-mentioned statue of 
Moses (horse or mule from the Prima Cappella, with driver, 4-5 fr.). 

Those who make a longer s*ay should take the pleasant Drive round 
the Bite. Campo de r Fiori via Gavirate (see above), Cocquio. Orino, Brinzio, 
and Fogliaro (see above; carr. 8-10 fr., with two horses 16 20 fr.). 

Another attractive road leads to the N. via (13/ 4 M.) Induno (see below) 
into the picturesque Valganna, or upper valley of the Olona, the chief 
villages in which are (S M.) Ganna (1500 ft.)", on" the small Logo di Ganna. 
and (10 M.) Ghirla (1475 ft.), at the N. end of the Lago di Ghirla, noted 
for the blackness of its wat-r (numerous crayfish). The picturesque main 
road goes on from Ghirla to the X.E. to (14 M.) Ponte Tresa (p. 165); 
while another road descends 1he Val Travaglia to Lvino (p. 175), passing 
Cunardo, with the Varese electric works. 

Excursion to Castiglione Olona, see p. 168. — From Varese to Como, 
see p. 151: to Laveno, see R. 25. 

The Railway to Porto Ceresio crosses a lofty viaduct over the 
Olona. — 40 M. Jnduno-Olona, with the Villa Medici. To the leff 
rises the Mte. Monarca (2815 ft.). Tunnel. 42 M. Arcisate-Brermo, 
at the base of the finely-shaped Sasso delle Coma (3390 ft.). — The 
line then describes a wide curve round the Monte Useria (1810 ft.), 
with its pilgrimage-church. — 44 M. Blsuschio-Viggiii. Bisuschio, 
which lies in the Val Brivio, 1 M. to the W., is a favourite resort 
from Varese and contains the Villa Cicogna, with a large park and 
a splendid view of the Lake of Lugano. Viggiu lies on the height 
to the right, commanded by the church of Sant' ilia. — We now 
descend into the Val Brivio. 

47 M. Porto Ceresio (p. 164). The rail, station lies close to 
the Lake of Lugano. Steamer to (1 hr.) Lugano, see p. 164. 


25. From Milan to Laveno, on the Lago Maggiore, 
via Saronno and Varese. 

451/2 M. Railway (Ferrovie Nord) in ca. l 3 /4-2 3 /4 hrs. (fares 7 fr., 4 fr. 70, 
2 fr. 80 c); to (31V2M.J Varese in ca. 1-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 55, 2 fr. 95, 1 fr. 
55 c). For return-tickets, comp. p. 172. The trains start from the Stazione 
Ferrovie Nord (p. 112). — In clear weather this is a very attractive journey 
(best views to the left). 

From Milan to (13y2 M.) Saronno, see p. 145. As we proceed, 
we have a fine view to the right of Brunate, the mountains round 
Lake Como, and Mte. Generoso. 

2272 M. Tradate (1014 ft.). To the left we ohtain a grand view 
of the Valais Alps ; in the foreground appear the Mte. Campo de' 
Fiori, with the Madonna del Monte (p. 167), and the mountains 
round the Lake of Lugano. — 247 2 M. Venegono Inferiore; 26 M. 
Venegono Swperiore; 21 l J2 M. Vedano-Olona. 

About IV2 M. to the W. of Venegono Superiore, and 2 J /4 M. to the S.W. 
of Vedano, is Castiglione Olona (1U53 ft. ; Albergo Sanf Antonio), on the 
Olona, with 1900 inhab. and some interesting works of art. The choir of 
the high-lying Collegiate Church contains 'Frescoes painted about 1428 
for Cardinal Branda Castiglione by Masolino of Florence, the master of 
Mataccio (p. 443) : at the sides of the windows, scenes from the life of 
St. Stephen ; on the vaulting, Birth of Christ, Annunciation, Assumption 
of the Virgin, Marriage of the Virgin, Adoration of the Magi, and Angels 
playing musical instruments ; on the left is the monument of Card. Branda 
Castiglione by Leonardus Griffus (1443). The sacristy contains some valuable 
church-furniture and an Annunciation on panel ascribed to Masolino. — The 
sacristan (1 fr.) conducts visitors across the court to the Baptistery, in 
which there are well-preserved frescoes by Masolino (about 1435). Outside, 
the Annunciation; within, on the right, the daughter of Herodias begging 
the head of John the Baptist and bearing it to her mother. The rocky 
cave in the background contains the saint's tomb ; on the vaulting, church- 
fathers: farther to the right, John the Baptist in prison, and preaching 
before Herod. On the rear-wall is a ^Baptism of Christ (the three figures 
undressing themselves to the right are interesting indications of the 
awakening study of the human form); below, on the left, John preaching 
Christ as the Messiah ; above, God the Father between angels. — In front 
of the Chiesa del Santo Sepolcro, in the lower part of the town, stand two 
gigantic figures of saints. Within, at the sides of the altar, are painted 
wooden figures representing the Annunciation and the four Fathers of the 
Church. To the left is a tomb, with sculptures of the school of Amadco. 

The train now enters the Varesotto (p. 166), crosses a viaduct, 
and reaches (28 l / 2 M.) Malnate, the junction of the Como-Laveno 
line (p. 151). We cross the valley of the Olona by a lofty viaduct. 
Beyond a tunnel we cross another ravine. 

3172 M. Varese (p. 166), the junction of the line from Milan 
to Porto Ceresio via Gallarate (R. 24). 

The railway, traversing a tunnel, sweeps round Varese on the 
S. — 33y 2 M. Casbeno, the station for the Grand Hotel Varese 
(p. 166). — Farther on there is a view of the Lago di Varese on 
the left (p. 167), which comes fully into sight beyond (57 1 /o M.) 
Barasso (1320 ft.). 

The train then descends to (3872 M.) Gavirate, near the N.W. 

ARONA. 26. Routt. 169 

extremity of the Lago di Yarese. In the vicinity are quarries of 
'marmo majolica', a kind of marble used for decorative purposes. 

To the left appears Monte Rosa ; in the foreground is the Monte 
Mottarone (p. 181"). 42 M. Gemonio (1015 ft.) , with numerous 
villas. Farther on the Boesio, which waters the Val Cuvio, is crossed, 
and beyond (43 M.) Cittiglio its right bank skirted. The line then 
leads past the S. base of the precipitous Sasso del Ferro to — 

45^2 M. Laveno (p. 176), on the E. bank of Lago Maggiore, a 
station on the Bellinzona and Genoa line (p. 170) and also a steam- 
boat-station. Boat to the Borromean Islands, see p. 176. 

26. From Milan to Arona, on the Lago Maggiore, 
via Gallarate. 

42 M. Railway (Rete Mediterranea) in 2-21/2 hrs. (fares 7 fr.. 4 fr. 65, 
2 fr. 70 c). Departure from the Central Station (p. 112). 

From Milan to (25 1 / ' 2 M.) Gallarate, see p. 165. — 30 J /2 M. 
Somma Lombardo (920 ft.), near the E. bank of the Ticino (Ticinus), 
where Hannibal overthrew P. Cornelius Scipio in B.C. 218. On 
the neighbouring heath (brughiera) is a large manoeuvre-ground, 
with a camp. — 36 M. Sesto Calende (675 ft.), junction of the line 
from Bellinzona to Genoa (p. 170). The train now crosses the 
Ticino, which issues here from the Lago Maggiore, and then skirts 
the S. bank of the lake. 

42 M. Arona. — Alb. San Gottaedo & Pension Suisse, well spoken 
of, E. 2-2'/2 fr. ; Albergo Reals d'Italia e Posta, R. 3-4, B. H/2, dej. 3, 
D. 4, pens. 7-9, omn. 1/2 f r - '•> bo'h on the quay. — Ca/ii adjoining the 
Albergo Reale ; Cafi du Lac, near the quay ; Caffe delta Stazione. 

Arona (740 ft.), an ancient town with 4578 inhab., lies on the 
W. bank of the Lago Maggiore, about 3 M. from its S. extremity. 
In the principal church of Santa Maria the chapel of the Borromean 
family, to the right of the high-altar, contains the *Holy Family 
as an altar-piece, by Gaudenzio Ferrari (1511); it is surrounded by 
five smaller pictures, the upper representing God the Father, at 
the sides eight saints and the donatrix. The adj acent Gothic church 
of Santi Martiri contains a high-altar-piece by Ambr. Borgognone. 

On a height overlooking the entire district, 1 /2 hr. to the N. of 
the station and pier, is a colossal Statue of San Carlo, 70 ft. in 
height, resting on a pedestal 42 ft. high, erected in 1697 in honour 
of the celebrated Count Carlo Borromeo, Cardinal - Archbishop of 
Milan (born here in 1538, died 1584, canonised 1610). The head, 
hands, and feet of the statue are of bronze, the robe of wrought 
copper. The enterprising visitor may enter the interior (50 c.) and 
3limb to the head of the statue, but the ascent is far from pleasant. 
The adjacent church contains a few relics of S. Carlo. The ex- 
tensive building in the vicinity is an Ecclesiastical Seminary. 

From Arona to Novara, see p. 64. 


27. From Bellinzona to Genoa via Alessandria. 

Railway to (155'/2 M.) Genoa in 7-12 hrs. (fares 30 fr. 65, 21 fr. 50, 
13 fr. 85 c; express 33 fr. 70, 23 fr. 65 c); to (25 M.) Luino in I-IV2 lir. 
(fares 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 10 c); to (34 M.) Laveno in 1 72-21/2 hrs. (fares 
6 fr. 35, 4 fr. 60, 2 fr. 95 c). The night express of the St. Gotthard Railway 
is the only train on this route ('Bale-Pino-Genoa') that affords good connec- 
tions for passengers for the Riviera coming from the N. ; comp. RR. 3, 11 c. 

— At Mortara this line is joined by another coming from Milan, on which 
some of the through -trains from Milan to Genoa run. From Milan to 
Genoa, 106 M., in by-z-VL hrs. (fares 19 fr. 85, 13 fr. 90, 8 fr. 95 c; express 
21 fr. 80, 15 fr. 30 c). 

Bellinzona, see p. 7. Railway to (5^2 M.) Cadenazzo, where the 
Locarno line diverges, see p. 172. — At (lO^M.) Magadino (p. 174) 
the train reaches the Lago Maggiore, and skirts its E. hank (views 
to the right; comp. the Map, p. 174). Opposite lies Locarno (p. 172). 

— Beyond (14 M.) Ranzo-Gerra (opposite Brissago, p. 174) we 
cross the Dirinella, the Italian frontier. Tunnel. 

I6Y2 M. Pino, the first Italian station. The hank becomes steep 
and rocky. Between Pino and Luino there are six tunnels and 
numerous cuttings and viaducts. Delightful views of the lake to 
the right; on the opposite bank lies Cannobio (p. 174), and farther 
on is the promontory of Cannero, with the picturesque castles of 
that name on a rocky islet (p. 175). Near (21 M.) Maccagno the 
train crosses the Giona. Several tunnels. 

25 M. Luino, an international station, with Swiss and Italian 
custom-houses, see p. 175. — To Lugano, see pp. 165, 164. 

The line crosses the Margorabbia below its union with the Tresa 
(p. 165), and leads by Germignaga and through a tunnel to (29V2 M.) 
Porto -Valtravaglia. Beyond a tunnel under the castle of Calde 
(p. 176) we skirt the bay of the same name (opposite Intra, p. 176) 
and enter the Tunnel of Calde, l 3 / 4 M. long. 

34 M. Laveno (p. 176) is beautifully situated at the foot of 
the Sasso di Ferro (p. 176). Splendid view across the broad lake 
into the bay of Stresa; in the centre lie the Borromean Islands: in 
the distance rise the snow-peaks of Monte Rosa and the Simplon. 

Laveno is the station for Intra, Pallanza, Stresa, and the Borromean 
Islands (steamer and small boats, pp, 172, 176; from the station to the 
quay, l /t hr. ; omn. in 6 min.). — Railway to Gallarate (Milan), see p. 166; 
via Varese to Como, see p. 151; to Varese and Milan, see pp. 169, 163. 

The line quits the lake. Tunnel. 36y 2 M. Leggiuno-Monvalle ; 
4CH/2 M. Ispra (720 ft.), on a promontory (opposite Belgirate and 
Lesa, p. 182); 43 V2 M - Taino-Angera. 

47 M. Sesto-Calende, at the efflux of the Ticino from the lake, 
junction for Arona and for Milan (p. 169). A handsome iron bridge, 
with two roadways (the lower for the railway, the upper for the 
Simplon road), here spans the Ticino. The railway to Arona (p. 169) 
diverges to the right on the other side of the river. 

We follow the right bank of the Ticino. 51 M. Porto-Varal- 
pombia; then a long tunnel. 52 M. Pombia 56 1 /o M. Oleggio 


MORTARA. 27. Route. 171 

(760 ft.) is the junction of the Novara and Arona -line (p. 64). A 
glimpse of Mte. Rosa is obtained to the right. Flat country. 

67 M. Novara (p. 62), junction for Milan and Turin (R. 15). 

Beyond (77 M.) Borgo-Lavezzaro we traverse rice-fields (comp. 
p. 64). 

82 M. Mortara, a town with 8697 inhabitants. The church of 
San Lorenzo contains pictures by Crespi, Lanini, and Gaud. Ferrari 
(Madonna with SS. Rochus and Sebastian). 

At Mortara the direct line to Milan diverges. From Milan to Mortara, 
32y 2 M., in lV2-2 l /4 hrs. (fares 6 tt. 5, 4 fr. 25, 2 fr. 70 c. ; express 6 fr. 65, 
4 fr. t 5 c). We start from the Central Station, and pass Porta Ticinest 
(PL B, 8) and Abbiategrasso (with a church ascribed to Bramante). We 
cross the Ticino to (24 M.) Vigevano (Alb. Reale), a town of some import- 
ance in the silk-trade, with 23,560 inhab. and a spacious market-place sur- 
rounded by arcades, dating from the reign of Lodovico il Moro. The Gothic 
Caslello has an elegant Renaissance loggia by Bramante, who probably 
designed al a o the upper portion of the main tower, a copy of Filarete's 
tower a f Milan (p. 129). Steam-tramway from Vigevano to Novara (p. 64). 
— Then (32V2 M.) Mortara, see above. — From Mortara to Asti, see p. 49. 

Mortara is also the junction for the Vercelli-Pavia line: 42 M.. in 
2 3 /4-4 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 80, 5 fr. 45, 3 fr. 55 c). Stations unimportant. Ver- 
celli, see p. 62; Pavia, see p. 185. 

92 7-2 M. Sartirana; 95V2 M - Torre-Berretti, the junction of the 
Pavia and Alessandria line (p. 188). 

To the left the long chain of the Apennines forms a blue line 
in the distance. The train crosses the Po. — 100 M. Valenza, once 
a fortified town, with 10,956 inhab., has a cathedral of the 16th cent, 
(line from Vercelli to Alessandria, see p. 62). — Tunnel l ] / 3 M. 
in length. 104 M. Valmadonna ; several prettily situated little 
towns lie on the. chain of hills to the right. The Tanaro is then 

109 M. Alessandria, and thence to (155^2 M.) Genoa, see p. 50. 

28. Lago Maggiore. 

Plan for a circular tour round the three lakes, see p. 153. The finest 
part of the Lago Maggiore is the W. bay, with the Borromean Isla?ids, 
which are best visited from Pallanza, Stresa, or Baveno by small boat, 
though the hurried traveller may accomplish the excursion by steamer. 

Railways. — From Bellinzona to Locarno, 14 M., in V2- 3 /* hr. (fares 
2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 15 c). Through-tickets including the steamboat on 
Lago Maggiore are issued for Pallanza (5 fr. 80, 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 16 c.) and 
other points. 

From Bellinzona to Sesto-Calende via. Luino, 47'/2 M. To Luino in 
1-li/a hr. (fares 4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 10 c); thence to Seslo Calende in 
V4-IV4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 95, 1 fr. 85 c). See R. 25. — Stations on 
this line are denoted by a capital B. in the following description. 

From Luino to Lugano, see pp. 165, 161: from Laveno to Varese (Porto 
Ceresio, Como, Milan), see pp. 169, 168. 

Steamboats (comp. p. xviii). Some of the boats are saloon-steamers, 
with restaurants on board (dej. 3, D. 4 J /2 fr.). Twice or thrice daily in 
summer from Locarno to Arona, 2-4 times daily from Cannobio to Arona, 
and five or six times daily from Luino to Pallanza and Stresa. From 
Locarno to Arona 572-6V2 hrs.; from Luino to Isola Bella 2'/4-4V2 (from 

172 Route 28. LOCARNO. Lago Maggiore. 

Laveno l-lVi) hrs.; from Isola Bella to Arona 174-172 hr. Fares from 
Locarno to Arona 6 fr. 5 or 3 fr. 45 c, from Luino to Isola Bella 3 fr. 25 or 
1 fr. 90 c, from Isola Bella to Arona 1 fr. 95, or 1 fr. 20 e. ; ticket valid 
for two days all over the lake (biglietto di libera percorrenza), 9 fr. 50, 
5 fr. 50 c. ; Sun. ticket (not valid for all steamers) 1 fr. 50, 1 fr.; Sun. 
season-ticket (valid from mid- July to mid-Oct.) 5 fr. 60 c. Ordinary return- 
tickets are valid for two days, Sun. return-tickets for 3 days. Return-tickets, 
valid for 8 days, are issued from the chief stations on the lake to Milan 
(steamer to Laveno, thence N. Railway via Varese)\ fares 13 fr., 9 fr. 40, 
5 fr. 60 c. (Sunday return-tickets 8 fr. 50, 6 fr. 20, 3 fr. 90 c). — Steamboat 
Stations are indicated in the following description by heavier type. The 
following stations are not always touched at: Magadino, Ascona, Gerra, 
Maccagno , Cannero , Oggebbio , Ghiffa , Porto Valtravaglia , Suna , and Isola 
Superiore. — The Italian customs examination takes place between Bris- 
sago and Cannobio, the Swiss between Brissago and Magadino, both on 
board the steamers. 

From Bellinzona to Locarno (fares , see above). The train 
follows the Lugano line (p. 7) as far as (2 ! /2 M.) Oiubiasco , then 
diverges to the right and traverses the broad valley of the Ticino, 
which is marshy and unhealthy in its lower part, before the river 
enters Lago Maggiore. — 5Y2 M. Cadenazzo, the junction of the 
line skirting the E. bank of the lake to Luino, Novara, and Genoa 
(R. 27). — The Locarno branch crosses the Ticino beyond Ougnasco 
(on the right), and the Verzasca, which dashes forth from a gorge 
on the right, beyond (10 M.) Oordola. It then skirts the Lago Mag- 
giore to (14 M.) Locarno. 

Locarno (R.). — The Railway Station (Restaurant) is at Muralto, 
4 min. from the pier and from the Piazza Grande. 

Hotels. At Muralto: "Grand Hotel Locarno, with elevator, hot-air 
heating, fine grounds, and English Chapel, R. from 4V2, B. l ! /2, dej. 3, 
D. 5, pens. 8-I21/2, omn. 1 fr. ; <: H6tel-PENsioN du Parc (PI. b), on the road 
to Minusio, 1/4 M. from the station, with fine garden, R. 272-5, B. l»/4, 
dej. 21/2, D. S1/2, pens. 7-10, omn. V2 &"•; "Hot. -Pens. Reber, R. 2-372, 
B. I1/4, D. 31/2, S. 272, pens. 6-9, omn. »/ 4 fr. ; *Pens. Beau-Rivage, R. 2-4, 
B. IV4, dej. 2V2, D. 3V2, pens. 6-8, omn. 3/ 4 f r . 5 these two, with gard- 
ens, are on the lake-road, 72 M. to the E. of the pier; Hot. International, 
near the railway station, unpretending. — At Locarno (all in the Piazza 
Grande) ; *H6t. Metropole et de la Couronne (PI. d), with hot-air heat- 
ing, R. 2-3V2, B. IV4, dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 6, omn. 3/ 4 f r . . Hot. du Lac 
(PI. e), near the pier, R. 2-4, B. I1/4, D. 3V2, S. 21/2, pens. 6-9 fr., suitable 
for passing tourists; Hot. Suisse (PI. f), R. 2-2V2, B. IV4, pens. 6-7, omn. 
3 / 4 fr., Italian. 

Pensions (usually in open situations with gardens; some closed in 
summer). P. Villa Erica, from 6fr., P. Belvedere, 572-772 fr ., both in an 
elevated situation on the road to the Madonna del Sasso (p. 173); H6t.-Pens. 
Curhaus Sanitas, above the Madonna del Sasso, 6-9 fr. ; P. Villa Muralto, 
behind the Hot. Locarno, 5-6 fr. ; P. Quisisana; P. Villa Liberta, 6-8 fr. ; 
Pens, de Ferrari, these three at Muralto; P. Germania, from 5 fr. — 
Furnished rooms at the Villa Diana, etc. 

Restaurants. At the H6t. du Lac and H6t. Suisse; Ristorante San Gottardo 
(with beds), near the Piazza Grande, behind the Hot. du Lac, Italian. — 
Cafes. C. Locarno ; G. Svizzero ; Railway Restaurant. 

Post & Telegraph Office, in the Quartiere Nuovo, near the Piazza 

Money Changers: Banca Cantonale Ticinese, Banco Credito Ticinese, both 
in the Piazza Grande. 

Baths. Stabilimento Rimoldi, Motta San Jorio. — Rowing Boats, 72 hr., 
1 fr., lhr. O/2 fr., each additional hr. 1 fr. 

1' m i doss aTa • iert 

-Euoz-jrn;ag> »• 

Lago Maggiore. LOCARNO. 28. Route. 173 

Climate. Owing to its sheltered and sunny position on the S. slopes 
of a lofty and uninterrupted mountain-chain, Locarno has of late years 
become a frequented health-resort, especially for German and Swiss 
visitors. The quarter chiefly selected for this purpose, with most of the 
hotels and fine gardens with sub-tropical vegetation, is Muralto, situated 
immediately beside the lake, to the E. of the Ramogna. 

Locarno (680 ft. ; pop. 3600), suitable for a prolonged stay, is 
situated on the N. shore of the lake, at the mouth of the Maggia, 
the deposits of which have formed a considerable delta. In the 
middle ages Locarno belonged to the bishops of Como and after- 
wards to Milan. It has been Swiss (Canton Ticino) since 1513, 
but the character of the architecture, scenery, and population is 
Italian. The expulsion of the Protestants in 1553 arrested the devel- 
opment of the town. 

From the pier we proceed to the W. to the Piazza Grande, or 
market-place, in which are the former Government Buildings and the 
Town Hall ; the houses have arcades on the groundfloor. On the W. 
side a monument has been erected to the deputy Mordasini (d. 1888). 
— To the"W., a fountain in front of the church of SanV Antonio 
(restored 1674) commemorates the Marchese Marcacci (d. 1854), a 
benefactor of the town. — At the S.W. end of the town is the old 
Castello of the Visconti, besieged in vain by 10,000 Swiss in 1502, 
partly demolished in 1518, and now occupied as a law-court and 
prison. At the neighbouring Stabilimento Rimoldi (p. 172) trout- 
breeding is carried on. 

At Muralto (1500 inhab.) is the old parish-church of San Vittore 
(rebuilt in the 12th cent.), with an ancient crypt. On the tower is 
a large relief, probably representing St. Victor on horseback. 

The pilgrimage-church of *Madonna del Sasso (1170 ft.), on a 
wooded eminence above the town, was founded in 1569 and is an- 
nually the scene of a festival on 8th Sept., the Nativity of the Virgin. 
The ascent (*/2 h r leads from the Piazza Grande by the Via delle 
Monache and then by a steep paved path passing to the left of 
the ^Scuola Normale Femminile'. The church contains an Entomb- 
ment, by Ciseri (to the left), and a Flight into Egypt, by Braman- 
tino (to the right). Passing through the convent-buildings, and 
turning to the left again across a wooden bridge, and ascending 
rapidly, we reach (5-6 min.) a Chapel, commanding a charmingly 
picturesque retrospect of the Madonna del Sasso. The chapel con- 
tains a painted terracotta group of the Resurrection by Rossi (1887). 
Still higher up is the chapel of Trinita del Monte, whence we have 
a view of the upper part of the Lago Maggiore. The whole walk 
(best towards evening) may be easily made in l 1 /^ hr. 

Excursions. To the W. to ( X A hr.) SoMuno, then up the left bank of 
the Maggia to the (i hr.) Ponte Brolla (875 ft.); from Salduno to the S.W., 
crossing the Maggia, to (20 min.) Losone, with large wine-cellars (good wine), 
or to (V2 hr.) Ascona (p. 174; and by the bank of the lake to Ronco and 
(i 3 /4 hr.) Brissago (p. 174). The route 'over the hill' from Losone to Ronco 
is still more picturesque. — To the N. to the mountain-hamlets of Orselina 
(1495 ft.; Hot.-Pens. Mirafiori, with open-air restaurant, pen?. 4-5 fr.) and 

174 Route 28. CANNOBIO. Lago Maggiore. 

Brione (14?0 ft.), in 1 hr. each. Easy paths lead from Orselina to the (I74 hr.) 
small Albergo Miralago (3225 ft.) and the German vegetarian Pension Alpen- 
heim (pens. 6 fr. •, with milk-cure), commanding fine lake-views. About 
1 M. farther on is the chapel of San Bernardo (3595 ft.). 

The *Lago Maggiore (635 ft.; greatest depth 1220 ft.), the Lacus 
Verbanus of the Romans , is about 37 M. long and averages 2-3 M. 
in width (area 85 sq. M. ). The N. part of the lake belongs to Switzer- 
land; the W. bank beyond the brook Valmara, and the E. bank 
beyond the Dirinella belong to Italy. Its principal tributaries are on 
the N. the Ticino (Tessin) and the Maggia, and on theW. the Tosa. 
The river issuing from the S. end of the lake retains the name of 
Ticino. The banks of the N. arm are bounded by lofty mountains, 
for the most part wooded, whilst the E. shore towards the lower 
end slopes gradually away to the level of the plains of Lombardy. 
The water is of a green colour in its N. arm, and deep blue towards 
the S. 

Opposite Locarno, at the mouth of the Ticino, lies Magadino 
(R.; Pens. Viviani, pens. incl. wine 472-5 fr., well spoken of, on 
the lake), comprising two villages, Magadino Inferiore and Supe- 
riore, at the foot of Monte Tamaro (p. 12). 

To the S. of Locarno we have a view into the valley of the Maggia. 
Farther on the W. bank of the lake is studded with country-houses, 
villages, and campanili. On the bank of the lake runs the road from 
Locarno to Pallanza. In an angle lies Ascona (B.), with a ruined 
castle and several villas ; higher up, on the slope, Ronco. Passing 
the two small Isole di Brissago , the steamer reaches Gerra and 
Ramo (R.) on the E. bank. — On the W. bank lies Brissago (Hotel 
Suisse, fair), the last Swiss station, with picturesque villas in luxu- 
riant gardens, and a fine group of old cypresses near the church. 
The slopes above are covered with vines, fig-trees, olives, and pome- 
granates, and even the myrtle flourishes in the open air. A pleas- 
ant route leads to Madonna del Monte, with its chalybeate spring. — 
To the S. of Brissago is a large 'international' tobacco factory. 

Opposite Brissago, on the E. bank, lies the Italian village of 
Pino (R.). 

Sant' Agata and Cannobio (Hotel Cannobio el Savoie, on the 
lake, R. 2-3i/ 2 , B. iy 4 , de'j. 2% D. &l/ 2 , pens. 6-8 fr.; Albergo 
delle Alpi, moderate; *Pens. Badia, iy 2 M*. to the S., 260 ft. above 
the lake, pleasant and quiet, pens. 6-7 fr.), on the W. bank, are also 
on Italian territory. Cannobio (3126 inhab.) is one of the oldest 
and most prosperous villages on the lake, situated on a plateau at 
the entrance of the Val Cannobina , and overshadowed by richly 
wooded mountains. In the early-Renaissance church of Madonna 
della Pieta, the fine dome of which is in the style of Bramante and 
the octagonal choir by Pellegrino Tibaldi (1571), is a *Bearing of 
the Cross, with a predella representing worshipping angels, by 
Gaud. Ferrari (about 1525). — Cannobio is the station of the Italian 
gun-boats in the preventive service. 

Lago Maggiore. LUINO. 28. Route. 175 

Pleasant walk of 72 hi - , (also omn.) up the beautiful Val Cannobina to 
the hydropathic of La Salute (open June 10th to Oct. 1st), and thence via 
Traffiume to the (20 nan.) OrrMo, a rocky chasm with a waterfall to which 
boats can ascend (boatman to be brought from Traffiume, V2-I fr.). Thence 
via Malesco, in the Vigezzo valley, to Domodossola. see Baedeker's Switzer- 
land. — A walk along the road to (JU/2 31.) Cannero (see below) may also 
be strongly recommended. 

The steamer now steers to the E. bank (to the W. the Castelli 
di Cannero appear in the lake ; see below), and stops at Maccagno 
(R.), which has two stations: Maccagno Superiore (B.), to the N. 
of the Giona, and Maccagno Inferiore (Alb. della Torre), with a pic- 
turesque church and an ancient tower. Hence we may visit the 
(2 hrs.) loftily situated Lago d'Eglio (2950 ft.; rfmts. ; fine view). 
Farther on the viaducts and tunnels of the Bellinzona and Geneva 
line are seen skirting the lake. Passing Colmegna, in a wooded 
ravine, we next reach — 

Luino (R.). — The Steamboat Piek adjoins the waiting-room (dej. 
incl. wine 272, D. incl. wine 4'/2 fr.) of the Steam Tramway to Ponie Tresa 
(Lugano; see p. 7). By passing to the left of this station and the statue 
of Garibaldi and following the wide Via Principe di Kapoli we reach 
(10 min. ; omnibus 40, trunk 50, smaller package 25 c.) the Stazione Inter- 
nazioxale, the station of the Bellinzona and Genoa line, where the Italian 
and Swiss custom-house examinations take place ("Restaurant, dej. 2-2'/2, 
D. 3-4 fr., incl. wine). 

Hotels. Graxd Hotel Simplon et Terminus, on the lake, to the S. of 
the town, with a sarden, R. 3-5. B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 472- pens. 8-12, omn. 
1 fr.; Hotel Poste et Suisse, R. 2-3, B. I1/4. dej. 27-2-3, D. 37 2 -4, pens. 
7-8 fr., omn. 60 c. ; Victoria, R. 2»/2, B. H/i, dej. 2Va, D. A, pens. 8, omn. 
3 '4 fr. ; Hot. Mf.tropole, R. from IV2, dej. 272, D. 3, pens, from 6 fr. ; 
Ancoba et Bellevce. R. 2-272, dej. 3, D. 4 fr., incl. wine, these three 
near the steamboat-pier. — Near the Stazione Internazionale: Milano, 
R. 27« fr., B. 80 c, dej. incl. wine 2. D. incl. wine 3, pens. 7 fr. — Cafe 3 
Clerici, next the Hotel Poste; Brasserie Cattaneo. 

Luino (690 ft.), a pleasant and busy town with 6000 inhab., is 
situated a little to the N. of the mouth of the Tresa (p. 164). The 
Statue of Garibaldi, near the pier, commemorates his brave hut futile 
attempt to continue the contest here with his devoted guerilla band 
after the conclusion of the armistice between Piedmont and Austria 
on Aug. loth, 1848. The church of San Pietro, in the S.W. of the 
town, contains injured frescoes by Bernardino Luini, a native of 
the place (ca. 1470-1530). Among the numerous tasteful villas in 
the vicinity is the Palazzo Crivelli, to the N., surrounded by pines. 

Pleasant walk to Maccagno (see above). — At the mouth of the Tresa, 
1 /2 M. to the S W.. lies Germingnaga, with the large silk-spinning (filande) 
and winding (filatoie) factories of E. Stehli-Hirt of Zurich. — To Varese 
through the Val Travaglia and Valganna., see p. 167. 

On the W. bank rise two grotesque-looking castles (Castelli di 
Cannero), half in ruins, the property of Count Borromeo. In the 
15th cent, they harboured the five brothers Mazzarda, notorious 
brigands, the terror of the district. — Cannero (Rot -Pens. Nizza; 
Alb. San Remo ; Alb. Cannero) is beautifully situated on the sunny 
S. slopes of Monte Carza, in the mid3t of vineyards and orchards. 
Beyond it is the little village of Barbe, with its slender campanile. 
The next stations are Oggebbio, built in terraces on the mountain 

176 Route 28, LAVENO. Lago Maggiore. 

slopes, and Ghiffa (small-boat station ; *H6tel Ghiffa, pens. 6 fr.), 
on the "W. bank , and Porto Valtravaglia (R. ; Osteria Anticd) on 
the E. In a wooded bay beyond the last lies Calde, with the an- 
cient tower of the Castello di Calde on an eminence. To the S. 
appears the green Sasso di Ferro (see below), and to the W. the 
Monte Rosa and Simplon groups. Then, to the E., — 

Laveno (R.; Posta, at the E. end of the town, fair, R.2 l /2> B - l 1 /^ 
dej. or D. 272-3 fr. ; MorOj near the quay, R. 2 fr., Italian, un- 
pretending), situated at the foot of the Sasso di Ferro, on a bay at 
the mouth of the Boesio, formerly a fortified harbour for the Austrian 
gun-boats. Laveno (2000 inhab.) is adapted for a prolonged stay on 
account of its beautiful situation and ample railway and steamer 
facilities. The quay is close to the station of the Ferrovie Nord, 
while that of the Rete Mediterranea lies 1 / 2 M. farther on in the same 
direction (omn.). A monument near the quay commemorates the 
Garibaldians who fell in 1859. The site of Fort San Michele (to the 
left as the steamer approaches) is now occupied by a pottery belong- 
ing to the Societa Ceramica Italiana. Above it is the Villa Pulle, 
with a belvedere, which contains a few relics of 1859. 

Behind Laveno rises the green Sasso di Ferro (3485 ft.) , the most 
beautiful mountain on the lake, easily ascended in 2 J /2-3 hrs. (red way- 
marks), and commanding a magnificent view of the lake, the plain as far 
as Milan, and the Monte Rosa chain. — About 7 M. to the N.E. of Laveno, 
behind the Sasso di Ferro , lies the hamlet of Vararo (2625 ft.) , whence 
we may ascend the *Monte Nudo (4052 ft.; I1/2 hr.), perhaps the finest 
view-point in the district, commanding an imposing survey of the Lago 
Maggiore, the Lago di Lugano, the Lago di Varese, and the Valaisian Alps. 
— Interesting excursion to the convent of Santa Caterina del Sasso, 
l 1 /* hr. from Laveno, high above the lake. We may go either by land 
(carr. 5 fr.) via Cerro, to which a road diverges to the right beyond the 
bridge over the Boesio and a little short of the Mediterranean station (see 
above), and thence by a picturesque footpath; or direct by boat (3 fr.) 
from Laveno. Imbedded in the vaulted roof of the church is a rock, 
which fell upon it in the 17th century. View of the Borromean Islands 
and the snow mountains to the W. 

From Laveno to the Borromean Islands and Pallanza (pp. 179, 180), boat 
with three rowers, 10-12 fr. ; to Isola Bella IV2 hr. ; thence to Isola Madre, 
20 min., to Pallanza 20 min. more. 

Railway (Ferrovie Nord) from Laveno via Varese to Como, see p. 151; 
to Milan via Varese and Saronno, see R. 25 ; to Porto Ceresio (Lake of Lu- 
gano) via. Varese, see RR. 23, 24. Rete Mediterranea to Milan via Galla- 
rate, see p. 165; to Bellinzona and Genoa, see R. 27. 

The steamboat now approaches the W. bank again, after dis- 
closing a view of the N. neighbours of Monte Rosa : first the Strahl- 
horn, then the Mischabel and Simplon group. 

Intra (685 ft. ; *H6tel de la Ville et Poste, R.27 2 -3y 2 , B. li/ 4 fr. ; 
Hotel Intra; Agnello; Cafe Monti; diligence to Pallanza-Gravellona, 
see p. 177), a flourishing town (6900 inhab. ), is situated on alluvial 
soil, between the Torrente San Giovanni and the Torrente San 
Bernardino. These two mountain-streams afford the water-power 
for numerous cotton-mills, silk-mills, hat-factories, foundries, etc., 
chiefly belonging to Swiss proprietors. Near the quay is a marble 

Lago Maggiore. PALLANZA. '28. Route. 177 

statue of Garibaldi; and close by is a war-monument for 1859. In 
the square in front of the theatre is a bronze Statue of Victor Em- 
manuel II. A bronze bust commemorates Pietro Cerretti. the philo- 
sopher, who was born at Intra in 1823. In the vicinity are several 
fine villas with beautiful gardens. The * Villa Franzosini (Count 
Barbd), 1/2 M - to the N.E., and the Villa Ada of M. Ceriani, 3 4 M. 
farther on, are both noteworthy for their luxuriant gardens. 

Pleasant walk from Intra to the N. by a good road (omn. ; carr. 16 fr., with 
2 or 3 horses, 25 fr. ; shaded short-cuts for walkers), via Arizzano (1540 ft.) 
to (33/4 M.) Bee (1935 ft.; Alb. Bee, very fair), with a fine view of Lago 
Maggiore, and to (3 M.) Premeno (260 ft. ; * ffdt.-Pens. Premeao, pens. 8 fr. ; 
Ristor. Tornico, with rooms), a summer-resort of the Milanese." Above it 
(10 min.) is the Tornico, a platform laid out in honour of Garibaldi, with 
a good spring. About 74 hr. higher is the Bellacista, commanding an ad- 
mirable view of the Alps, the lake, and the beautiful and fertile Val In- 
tragna to the W. 

To the S. of Intra the Punta Castagnola, with its wealth of 
luxuriant vegetation, stretches far into the lake. As soon as we 
double the cape and enter the wide W. bay of the lake, we obtain 
a *View of the Borromean Islands (p. 179) : near the S. bank is the 
Isola Bella, to the W. of it, the Isola dei Pescatori, in front, the 
Isola Madre. The little Isola San Giovanni (no adm.), close to the 
N. bank, with its chapel, house, and garden, is also one of the Bor- 
romean Islands. Behind the Isola dei Pescatori rises the blunt 
pyramid of the Mottarone (p. 181); farther to the W. appear the 
white quarries near Baveno ; while the background is filled up by 
the snow-clad mountains between the Simplon and the Monte Rosa. 

Pallanza. — Hotels (lifts and hot-air heating in the larger houses). 
"Grand Hotel Pallanza, on the road to the Punta Castagnola, 72 M. from 
the landing-place, with the Villa Montebello and several other dependances, 
large grounds, and railway booking-office; R. 4-7, B. H/2, dej. 3-4, D. 5-6, 
music 1, lake-bath 1, pens, in summer fl/i-i^fa in winter T^z-lO, omn. 
I-I74 fr. *Gband Hotel Eden, 3 min. farther on, on the Punta Castagnola 
(see above), with garden and beautiful view, R. 3V2-7, B. ii/2, dej. 3, D. 5, 
pens. 8-14 fr. — *3Ietropole et Poste, with small garden on the lake, 
R. from 21/2, B. I72, dej. 272, D. 4, pens. 7-9, omn. »/s fr. ; * Hot-Pens. 
Bellevtje, R. 2-4, B. 1, dej. 2y 2 , D. 31/2, pens. 6-9 fr. ; Hot. San Gottardo 
& Pens. Suisse, R. from 2, dej. 272, D. 872, pens, from 5 fr., very fair; 
Hot. Milan & Schweizerhof, R. 2-4, B. l»/4, dej. 21/2, D. 3 x /2, pens. 5-7 fr., 
these three near the quay. — Pens. Villa Castagnola, to the E., in the 
direction of the Puma Castagnola, with hot-air heating and garden, pens. 
6-10 fr. — Cafi Bolongaro, near the steam boat-pier. 

Post & Telegraph Office, Via Cavour 12. — Physicians. Dr. Vollmer; 
Dr. Wy smart. 

Diligence (office opposite the Alb. San Gottardo) to (6 M.) Graveliona, 
4 times daily, in 1 hr. (fares 1 fr. 65 c. ; coupe or banquette 2 T /2 fr. ; 33 lbs. of 
luggage free), in connection with the diligence thrice daily to Intra (p. 176), 
in 25 min. (50 c). 

Boat with one rower to the Isola Madre and back 272, with two 4, 
to Isola Bella and back 3 x /2 or 6; to both islands and back or to Stresa 
and back 4 or 7; to Laveno and back or to Santa Caterina del Sasso and 
back 5 or 9 fr. Comp. also p. 154. 

English Church Service in the Grand Hotel Pallanza (April-Oct.). 

Pallanza (660 ft.), a thriving little town with 5257 inhab., 
delightfully situated opposite the Borromean Islands, commands a 
Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 12 • 

178 Route 28. PALLANZA. Lago Magyiore. 

view of them, and of the lake as far as the snow-covered Swiss Alps 
(Mischabel, Fletschhorn). As the most sheltered and warmest spot 
on the Lago Maggiore, it enjoys a repute as a winter-resort, espe- 
cially as an intermediate stage "between the Riviera and more 
northerly climes. Opposite the quay is the market-place (Piazza 
Garibaldi), with the Municipio, a monument to Carlo Cadorna (by 
Trubetzkoi ; 1895), and the church of San Leonardo (16th cent.). 
The road to the right leads past the villas Melzi dT.rile and Biffi and 
the interesting nursery-gardens of Rovelli (left) to the Punta Casta- 
gnola, and thence, parsing the villas of Messthorf, Kaupe, and San 
Remigio, to Intra (p. 176). The old church of San Remigio stands 
by the lake, near the villa of the same name. 

In the street running inland from the church of S. Leonardo is the 
large Penltenziario (1854), and at the end of the town is the church 
of Santo Stefano, with a Roman inscription built into the wall to the 
left of the portal. — To the E. of this point, on the direct road to 
San Remigio, lies a Jesuit College, built in 1900. 

The "broad Yiale Principe Umberto leads straight N. from the 
town, past the bathing- establishment of Caprera (alkaline spring), 
to the C/4 hr.) domed church of the Madonna di Campagna, contain- 
ing frescoes by Gaud. Ferrari (dome) and the Procaccini (choir and 
chapels). The church lies at the foot of the Monte Rosso (2270 ft. ; 
view), which is ascended from the Trobaso road (see below) in 
lt/ohr. , by a new winding carriage-route. Small restaurant at 
the top ("beautiful view). 

Circuit of the Monte Rosso (3 , /2-4 hrs.). We proceed straight on 
from the Madonna di Campagna to the (V* hr.) Osteria del Plusc, where 
we cross the San Bernardino (p. 176; footpath ascends on the left bank); 
20 min. Intra road; 6 min. Trobaso; we turn to the left in the village; 
in 12 min. the road forks, the right branch leading to Unchio (see below), 
the left (yellow way-mark 1 ') recrossing the San Bernardino by a fine bridge; 
1/4 hr. Santino, beyond which the route is in poor condition; 1/2 hr. Bieno; 
then by a steep and stony path to 0/2 hr.) Cavandone* passing by the pil- 
grimage-church below the village; the lake soon comes into view once 
more; l'/2 hr. Sunn (see below). — By following the right arm of the. 
road (black way-marks) beyond Trobaso (see above) to (1/4 hr.) Unchio and 
(40 min.) Cos.<;og7io (Alb. Cossogno) and then taking the "Via Solferino" (to 
the left), we soon reach (stony path) the ( l /* hr.) Roman Bridge over the 
romantic gorge of the San Bernardino. Paths with steps lead hence to 
(1/4 hr.) the church of Rovegro. To reach the village we turn to the right. 
In the village wo turn to the left and then follow a stony path along the 
ridge in the direct' on of Santino (see above) and finally ascend to the right 
to Bie»o (see above). 

The a cent of the *Monte Zeda (7075 ft.; 8 hrs. ; green way-marks) is 
interesting. The road leads via, Trobaso (see above; turn to the right in 
the village). Camliatca (990 ft.), and Comero to the mountain-village of 
Miazzina (236"j fr. ■ Kistor, Principessa Elena), whence a sunny footpath 
ascends to the (3 hrs.) Pian Cavcllone (5140 ft.; Alb. Nava, plain, 20 beds). 
Making an early start next m< rning, we proceed via the Pizzo Marona 
(6725 it.) to the (2 hrs.) 9un mit, which commands a wide view. 

Comp. also the excursions from Intra (p. 177) and from Laveno (p. 176). 

To the W. of Pallanza the road leads along the lake to (1 M.) 
Suna (B ; *Park Hotel et Pension Suna, with garden, R. H/2, B. l 1 /^ 

ftrardLcnva vToce 



[i I 0001 - 

Lago Maggiore. BAVENO. Route 28. 179 

dej. 2^2, D-, iccl. wine, 3*/ 2 , pens, from 6fr.; Alb. Pesce), and 
past the frequented restaurant (^ine) Al Maresciallo, to (3 M.) 
Fondo Toce, situated at the mouth of the impetuous Tosa /ToceJ. 
Farther on we pass the granite-quarries of Monte Orfano (2595 ft.) 
and then cross the Tosa, by a five-arched bridge, to the railway-station 
of Gravellona (p. 182), 6 M. from Pallanza (omnibus, see pp. 177, 183). 
A road, diverging to the right from the main road at Fondo Toce, leads 
to the small Lago di Mergozzo, originally au arm of the Lago Maigiore, 
with which it is now connected only by a narrow channel. From (2*/2 31.) 
Mergozzo (6~0 ft.), on the E. bank, the road ascends the left hank of Ihe 
Tosa to (4 J /2 M.) Candoglia, roted for its extensive quarries of white marble, 
and to (TV2 M.) Cvzzago (p. 182). Milaa Ca'hedral and part of the Certosa 
di Pavia are built of .Candoglia marble. 

In the S.W. nook of the bay lies Feriolo, 2 3 / 4 M. from Gravellona 
(p. 182; omn. to Stresa, see pp. 180, 183). The large granite-quarries 
extending along the hills between Feriolo and Baveno have for ages 
yielded a splendid building material, which has been used for the 
columns in the Cathedral of Milan, the church of San Paolo fuori le 
Mura at Borne, the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele at Milan, and many 
other important structures. The quarries are worked mainly by the 
Delia Casa Company, an English enterprize. — Then — 

Baveno. — Hotels. *Gkasd Hotel Bellevue, with lift and hot-air 
heating, E, 4-7, B. H/a, dej. 31/2. D. 5, pens. 9-12 fr. ; "Beaurivage, R. 2-5, 
B. 1. de'j. 2, D. 3, pen?. 5-U fr., these two with large gardens; "Hot.-Pbnb. 
Sihflon, with a small garden, R. from 2, B. 1, de'j 2, D. 3, pen?, from 
5V2 fr. (closed Xov.-March.) ; Hot. Suisse, pens. 5-6 fr., with restaurant, 
Italian. — Caff 'e Buff 'oni, at the quay. — Diligence to Gravellona (p. 182; 
511. (thrice daily in 40 min. ; fare i fr. 15 c, coupe or banquette l 3 /4 fr.). 
— Eoats, see p. 177. — Phxsician, Br. P. Borella. 

English Chckch in the garden of the Villa Clara. 

Baveno (690 ft.), a small place commanding a fine view of the 
bay, is situated on alluvial soil at the mouth of a streamlet descend- 
ing from Monte Mottarone (p. 181). It is frequently chosen for a 
stay of some time, especially in the warmer months. The Villa Clara ? 
on the S.E. side of the village, was occupied by Queen Victoria 
for three weeks in April, 1879, and for a month by the invalid 
Crown Prince of Germany (Emp. Frederick III.) in Oct., 1877 (no 

The most beautiful feature in this W. bay of the lake is formed 
by the *Borromean Islands, the scenery in the neighbourhood of 
which rivals that of the Lake of Conio in grandeur and perhaps 
surpasses it in softness of character. The westernmost, the Isola 
Superiore or dei Pescatori {Trattoria del Verbano, plain), is almost 
entirely occupied by a fishing-village (300 inhab.), but commands 
some picturesque views. The steamers touch here only occasionally, 
but all of them call at the — 

*Isola Bella (Hotel du Dauphin or Delfino, R. 3, B. li/ 4 , D. 4, 
pens. 7 fr.), the best known of the four islands, which was formerly 
a barren rock with a church and a handful of cottages, until Count 
Vitaliano Borromeo (d. 1690) converted it into a summer-residence 


180 Route 28. STRESA. Lago Maggiore. 

by the erection of a chateau and the laying out of a garden. The 
huge unfinished Chateau contains a series of handsome reception- 
rooms, a gallery hung with Flemish tapestry of the 17th cent., and 
a collection of paintings, mainly copies hut including a few good 
Lombard works (Boltraffio, Portrait; Gianpietrino, Lucretia and 
Cleopatra). The private chapel (adm. by special introduction only) 
contains the handsome Renaissance tombs of Counts Camillo ai;d 
Giovanni Borromeo, the latter partly by pupils of Amadeo. — The 
beautiful Garden, laid out in the old Italian style, rises in ten terraces 
100 ft. above the lake, and is stocked with lemon-trees, cedars, 
magnolias, orange-trees, laurels, cork-trees, camellias, magnificent 
oleanders, and other luxuriant products of the south, while shell- 
grottoes, arbours, and statues meet the eye in profusion. The trav- 
eller coming from the N. cannot fail to be struck with the love- 
liness of the bank of the lake as seen from here, studded with 
innumerable habitations , and clothed with southern vegetation 
(chestnuts, mulberries, vines, figs, olives), the extensive lake with 
its deep blue waters and beautiful girdle of snowy mountains 
combining the stern grandeur of the High Alps with the charms 
of a southern clime. — The island is open to the public daily, ex- 
cept Mon., Wed., and Frid., from March 15th to Nov. 15th, from 9 
to 3, 4, or 5 according to the season. A servant shows the apart- 
ments (fee Y2 fr-5 f° r a P ar ty 1 fr.), and a gardener shows the garden 
for a similar fee. 

The usual charge for a boat from Isola Bella to Isola Madre and 
back with two rowers is 3 fr. 

The *Isola Madre (not a steamboat-station), also belonging to 
the Borromeo family, is laid out in the English style and far excels 
the Isola Bella in the luxuriance and variety of its vegetation. On 
its S. side are three terraces with lemon and orange trellises ; on 
the summit is an uninhabited 'Palazzo' (beautiful view). The island 
is open to the public at the same times as the Isola Bella (fee to 
gardener l/ 2 -l fr.). 

Nearly opposite Isola Bella, on the W. bank, lies — 

Stresa. — Hotels. *Grand Hotel dks Iles Borromees, V2 M. to the 
N.W. of the landing-place, with lift, tourist-office, and beautiful garden, 
R. 4-7, B. IV2, dej. 3V2, D. 5, pens. 10-14 fr. (closed from mid-Nov. to 
mid-March). — *Hot.-Pens. Beau-Sejoue, above the village, on the road 
to the Mottarone, with large garden, R. from 3, B. iy 2 , dej. 3 J /2, D. 41/2, 
pens, from 8, omn. 3/ 4 fr. — ^Hotel Milano, R. 2-4, B. iy 2 , dej. 3, D. 4, 
pens. 7-10 fr. (closed Dec.-Feb.); *H6t. dTtalie et Pens. Suisse, R. 2-2V2, 
B. ii/ 4 , dej. 2V2, D. 31/2, pens, (for not less than 3 days) 6-7 fr., both near 
the quay; Alb. Reale, R. 2-2'/2, B. 1 de}. 21/2-3, D. 4, pens. 7 f r. •, San 
Gottardo, with garden, R. 2, B. iy 4 , dej. 2 r / 2 , D. 3 l / 2 , pens. 5y 2 -6 fr., 
both these less pretending. 

Cafes-Restaurants. At the H6t. d'ltalie and E6t. Milan, both largely 
frequented in the afternoon; Al Collegio, next the Hot. Beau-Sdjour. 

Boat (barca) with one rower 2 fr. for the first hour, and 50 c. for each ad- 
ditional V2 hr. ; to Isola Madre and Isola Bella and back, with one rower, 4Vs fr. 

Diligence to Oravellona (p. 182; 71/2 M.) twice daily in li/ 4 hr. (fare 
i fr. 80 c, coupe or banquette 2 fr. 70 c). 

Lago Maggiore. MONTE MOTTARONE. 28. Route. 181 

English Church Service at the Hotel des lies Borrornees (April-Sept.). 
— English Physician, Br. Danvers (in winter at Bordighera). 

Stresa (690 ft.), cooler and more breezy than the other places on 
the lake, occupies a picturesque and attractive situation, with the 
country-houses of many of the Italian noblesse, and is a suitable 
spot for a lengthened stay during the summer months. The Villa 
Ducale, adjoining the Alb. Milano on the W., belongs to the Duch- 
ess of Genoa, and the new building in the park belongs to her son 
the Duke of Genoa. — About 10 min. above the village, to the S. 
(reached by ascending from the Alb. Reale), stands the Collegia 
Rosmini (875 ft), a Rosminian seminary. The church contains the 
monument of the philosopher and statesman Ant. Rosmini (1797- 
1855) with an admirable recumbent figure by Vela. The front of 
the church commands a beautiful view of Pallanza, Intra, and the 
islands. — Above the lake, A /2 M. to the S.E., is the beautifully 
situated Villa Pallavicino, and */ 4 M. farther on is the Villa Vignolo, 
both with fine gardens (visitors admitted). 

The Monte Mottakoxe is easily ascended from Stresa or Baveno in 
3tys-4 hrs. (guide 5 fr., convenient for the final third of the ascent 5 mule 
5 fr., with attendant 8 fr. ; one-horse mountain-car from Stresa to the Hot. 
Bellevue 10 fir.). The route from Baveno leads to the S. by Romanico and 
Campiao, mostly through wood, to Someraro (1500 ft.), where it joins a route 
ascending from the road along the lake opposite the Isola Bella, and to 
(13/4-2 hrs.) the hamlet of Levo (1915 ft. ; *H6tel Levo, pens. 6-7 fr.). A road 
leads hence towards the left to (25 min.) the Hot. Bellevue (see below). The 
route to the Mottarone farther on ascends to the W. across pastures, past 
the Alp e Giardino (3057 ft.), to the (1 hr.) chapel of Sanf Eurosia (36S5 ft.). 
20 min. Alpe del Mottarone, surrounded by fine beeches and elms; V2 hr. 
Aibergo Mottarone (see below). — Those who start from Stkesa follow the 
Gignese road diverging from the main road a little before the Hotel des 
lies Borrome'es. 1 hr. Ristorante Zanini (1875 ft. ; poor), on an open meadow. 
A finger-post points to the right to Levo (see above). Another footpath 
diverges to the right, 25 min. from the Ristorante Zanini, before we reach 
Gignese, and leads to (1/4 hr.) the -Hot. Bellevue (2756 ft. ; pens. 7-8V2 fr. ; 
closed Dec. -March), with a view of Pallanza, Intra, and Baveno. Thence 
we proceed across pastures and the Alpe del Mottarone (see above) to 
(i 3 /* hr.) the * Aibergo Mottarone (4678 ft.; R. 3, B. D/2, dej. 3, pens, with 
wine 7-8 fr. ; closed Nov.-April), kept by the brothers Guglielmina, 10 min. 
below the bare summit of the — 

*Monte Mottarone (4892 ft.), the culminating point of the Margozzolo 
Group. The view from the top of the 'Rigi of Northern Italy 1 embraces 
the Alps, from the Col di Tenda and Monte Viso on the W., to the Ortler 
and Adamello on the E. (panorama by Bossoli, in the hotel). The most 
conspicuous feature is the Mte. Rosa group t» the W. (especially fine 
by morning-light); to the right of it appear the Cima di Jazzi, Strahl- 
horn, Rimpfischhorn, Allalinhorn, Alphubel, Mischabel (Taschhorn, Dom, 
Nadelhorn), Pizzo Bottarello, Portjengrat, Bietschhorn, Mte. Leone, Jung- 
frau, Helsenhorn, Fiescherhorner ; then more distant, to the E. of the 
peaks of Mte. Zeda, the Rheinwald Mountains, Bernina, Disgrazia, Mte. 
Legnone, Mte. Generoso, Mte. Grigna. At our feet lie seven different lakes, 
the Lake of Orta, Lago di Mergozzo, Lago Maggiore, Lago di Biandronno, 
Lago di Varese, Lago di Monate, and Lago di Comabbio ; farther to the 
right stretch the extensive plains of Lombardy and Piedmont, in the 
centre of which rises the cathedral of Milan. The Ticino and the Sesia 
meander like silver threads through the plains. 

On the W. side a path, rr.ther steep at places (guide advisable) , de- 
scends direct to (2 hrs.) Omegna (rail, stat., see p. 183). Travellers bound 

182 Route 29. VOGOGNA. 

for Oi'ta (474 hrs.) soon reach a broad bridle-path on the S. side of the 
hill (guide unnecessary), which after 1 hr. passes above the Alpe Corlano 
(to the right) and in 40 min. more in front of the Madonna di Luciago. In 
40 min. mora they reach Chtggino (2120 ft.), whence another 1 / i hr. brings 
them to Armeno (1720 ft. 5 Alb. al Mottarone), on the highroad. They 
follow the latter, and in 12 min. reach a point where the road forks, 
the left branch leading to Miasino, while the right, crossing the railway 
to Gravellona (station of Orta to the left), runs via Garcegna and the Villa 
Crespi (p. 183) to Orta (I1/4 hr. from Armeno). To reach the Albergo 
Belvedere (p. 183), we turn to the right, 2 min. beyond the Villa Crespi. 

Beyond Stresa the banks of the Lago Maggiore become flatter. 
— The next place on the W. bank is Belgirate, surrounded by the 
Villas Cavallini, Fontana, Prlncipessa Matilda, and others. — Then 
follow Lesa and Meina (Albergo Zanetta), with country-residences 
of the Italian nobility. The statue of San Carlo Borromeo (p. 169) 
is visible to the S., and a glimpse of the Madonna del Monte (p. 167), 
far to the E., is obtained. 

The steamer steers obliquely across the lake to Angera (R), on 
the E. bank, with an old chateau of the Visconti, since 1439 the 
property of the Counts Borromeo. 

Arona, where the quay is beside the railway- station below the 
town, and thence to Milan, see p. 169; to Novara (Genoa, Turin), 
see p. 64 and R. 27. 

29. From Domodossola to Novara. Lake of Orta. 
From Orta to Varallo. 

56 M. Railway in Bi/r&fa hrs. (fares 10 fr. 45, 7 fr. 35, 4 fr. 70 c); to 
Gravellona, the station for the Lago Magdore (omn. to Pallanza and to 
Stresa, see pp. 177, 180), I81/2 M., in 1 hr. (fares 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 45, 1 fr. 55 c). 

Domodossola , see p. 4. The railway runs straight through the 
Vol d'Ossola, skirting the base of the mountains on the W. and 
following the right bank of the Tosa (Toce), which separates into 
several arms and fills the whole valley with its debris. At (3^2 M.~) 
Villadossola, the Antrona Valley opens on the right (see Baedeker's 

At (7 M.) Piedimulera (810 ft.; Corona; Alb. Piedimulera or 
Cavour ; Alb. della Stazione) the Vol Anzasca opens to the right 
(road to Macugnaga, 20 M., see Baedeker s Switzerland). The railway 
crosses the Anza and then the Tosa (bridge 980 yds. long) to (9 M.) 
Vogogna (715 ft. ; Corona), a small town at the base of precipitous 
rocks, with a ruined castle. — Beyond (13 M.) Cuzzago the Tosa is 
crossed (bridge 510 yds. long). From the main road from Cuzzago 
to Gravellona the road (p. 179) to Candoglia and Mergozzo (Pallanza) 
diverges on the left. — To the left, near (lb 1 / 2 M.) Ornavasso 
(690 ft.; Italia; Croce Bianca), appear the marble-quarries of Can- 
doglia (p. 179). 

18^2 M. Gravellona-Toce (Rail. Restaurant; inns poor), with 
large cotton-mills, at the junction of the Strona with the Tosa. 

ORTA. 29. Route. 183 

Pa?3engers for the Lago Maggioke leave the railway here. The road 
to (6 M.) Fallanza runs via Fondo Toce and Suna (see p. 178; omn., see 
p. 177; carr. with r,ne horse 5, with two horses 10 fir.). For the road to 
(5 M.) Baveno (via Feriolo) ;>nd Stresa, see pp. 179, 180 (oinn., see p. 180; 
carr. to Baveno 4, to Siresa o fr., with two horses 8 or 10 fr.). — There 
are always plenty of vehicles at Gravellona station. It is neither necessary 
nor advisable to take the omnibus-seats at Doniodossola. 

The railway runs to the S. through the fertile valley of the Strona. 
Beyond (21 M.) Crusinallo it crosses the river and immediately 
afterwards the Niyulia Canal, which drains the Lake of Orta. 

23 M. Omegna (995 ft. ; Alb. della Posta), with a large paper- 
mill, lies at the N. end of the charming Lake of Orta (850 ft. above 
the sea; 7^2 M. long), now known also as the Lago Cusio from its 
(somewhat doubtful) ancient name. — The line runs high above the 
lake, commanding beautiful views of it. Beyond (-27 M.) Pttttnasco 
we cross the Pcscone, and then the imposing Sassina Viaduct. 

28 1 /2 M. Orta Novarese, also the station for Miasino. 

The railway-station lies about 1 M. above Orta. On leaving it we 
turn to the left, pass below the railway, and proceed in a straight direction. 
About halfway to the town we pass the Villa Crespi. in a Moorish style, 
beyond which a guide-post points to the right to the Monte d'Orla and 
the ('A hr.) Alb. Belvedere. 

Hotels. Alb. Uelvedebe. on the W. slope of the Monte d'Orta, with 
line view, R. 3, D. 4 fr. (Engl. Ch. Serv. in summer). — Alb. San 
Giclio, Alb. Okta, both well spoken of, in the Piazza, by the lake, i 1 4 M. 
fmm the railway-station; Hot. -Pens. Gakibaldi, at the rail, station. — 
Boats for hire at the Piazza. 

The little town of Orta (1029 inhab.) consists mainly of a Piazza, 
open on the side next the lake, one long narrow street, and a 
number of villas lining the road to the station. It lies opposite 
the small Isola San Oiulio, at the S.W. base of the Monte d'Orta 
(1315 ft.), or Sacro Monte, a beautifully wooded hill, stretching 
out into the lake. The ascent of the Sacro Monte may be made 
either from a point halfway between the town and the station (see 
above) or from the Piazza, through the grounds of the Villa of 
Marchese Natta (50 c). In the 16th cent. 20 chapels were erected 
here in honour of St. Francis of Assisi, each containing a scene from 
his history in painted lifesize figures of terracotta, with a back- 
ground 'al fresco'. The best groups are in the 13th, 16th, and 
20th chapels ; in the last is represented the canonisation of the 
saint (fee for adm. to each chapel, 20-30 c). Various points on the 
hill command charming surveys of the lake, while the panorama from 
the Campanile at the top (50 c.) includes the snowy Monte Rosa, 
■ rising above the lower hills to the W. 

A boat to the Isola San Giulio and back costs 1V2 fr. The ancient church 
here was founded, according to the legend, by St. Julius, who came from 
Greece in 379 to convert the natives, and has been frequently restored. 
It contains reliefs, old frescoes, and a Ilomanesque pulpit. In the sacristy 
are a Madonna by Gaudenzio Ferrari and some old vestments, while the 
crypt, below the high-altar, contains a shrine of silver and crystal, with 
the body of St. Julius. 

Picturesque Exclusions may be made from Orta to the (1 hr.) Madonna 
della Bocciola (1565 ft.), situated on the hill above the station, to the 

184 Route 29. COL DELLA COLMA. 

W., and to the (H/4 hr.) Castello di Buccione (see below; boat to Buccione 
IV2 fr.), to the S., both points commanding good views. By Pella (see below) 
to (V2hr.) Alzo, with extensive granite-quarries (branch-railway froinGoz- 
zano, see below), and to (1 hr.) the Aladon/i a del Sasso (2090ft.), the pretty 
church of the hamlet of Boletlo, on a lofty cliff, commanding a fine view. 

— The Monte Mottaeone may be ascended from Orta in 4-5 hrs. via Car- 
cegna, Armeno (carr. practicable to this point 5 beyond it ox-carts), and 
Cheggino (see p. 182 ; arrows on the houses, 'al Mottarone' or 'al Mergozzolo') ; 
guide 6, donkey 10 fr. ; over the Mottarone to Baveno or Stresa, 10 and 15 fr. 

Beautiful views of the lake as we proceed. In the centre lies the 
island of San Giulio (p. 183), and on the steep cliffs of the W. hank is 
the church of Madonna del Sasso (see above). Beyond (3072 M.) Cor- 
conio the train traverses a cutting on the W. side of the Castello di 
Buccione, a conspicuous old watch-tower at the S. end of the lake. 

— SS 1 ^ M. Gozzano (1204 ft.), a considerable village (branch-line 
to Alzo, see above). We now traverse the fertile Val d'Agogna. 
361/2 M. Borgomanero, 7i/ 2 M. to the S.W. of Arona (p. 169). — 
46i/ 2 M. Momo (1205 ft.). 

56 M. Novara, see p. 62. From Novara to Milan, railway in 
1-1 72 hr., see p. 64; to Laveno in 174-2 hrs., see pp. 171, 170. 

From Orta oveb, the Colma to Vaeallo, 4^2 his. (donkey 6, 
to the Colma 3 fr. ; guide, 5 fr., unnecessary). On the W. bank of 
the lake, opposite Orta, the white houses of Pella (1000 ft. ; Pesce 
d'Oro, unpretending) peep from amidst chestnuts and walnuts 
(reached by boat from Orta in 20 min. ; fare 1 fr.). We now follow 
the road leading along the slopes above the W. bank, and then a 
footpath leading to the left to (1 hr.) Arola (2015ft.). At Arola we 
obtain a fine retrospect of the lake of Orta. We turn to the left 5 min. 
beyond the village, descend a little, and then keep on for 72 hr. on 
the same level, skirting the gorge of the Pellino, which here forms a 
pretty waterfall. We next ascend through wood, between weather- 
beaten blocks of granite, to the ( 3 /4 hr.) wooded Colle della Colma 
(3090 ft.). An eminence to the left commands a splendid view, 
embracing Monte Rosa, the lakes of Orta andVarese, and the plain. 
In descending (to the right), we overlook the fertile Val Sesia, with 
its villages. The path leads through groves of chestnuts and walnuts 
to ( 3 /4 hr.) Civiasco (2350 ft.; several Cantine), whence a fine new 
road (short-cut by the old path to the left), affording a magnificent 
view of Mte. Rosa, winds down to ( 3 /4 hr.) — 

Varallo. — Hotels. Italia, with garden, R. 272-3, dej. 3, D. 4 (both 
incl. wine), pens. 7-8 fr. (closed Dec. -March); Posta, R. 3-5, B. I 1 /*, dej. 
272) D. 4, pens. 6-8 fr., both very fair. — Pakigi; Ckoce Bianca. 

Post Office in Ihe Palazzo di Citta. 

Varallo (1480 ft.), with 4265 inhab., the terminus of the rail- 
way from Novara (p. 64) and the capital of the Val Grande, is finely 
situated at the junction of the Mastallone with the Sesia, which 
descends through the Val Grande from Monte Rosa. 

The Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, at the entrance to the town from the 

VAKALLO. 29. Route. 185 

station, is embellished with a monument to Victor Emmanuel II., 
by Gius. Antonini (1862). Behind the high-altar of the collegiate 
church of San Gaudenzio is a picture in six sections (Marriage of 
St. Catharine, Pieta, and Saints) by Gaud. Ferrari (ca. 1471-1546), 
a native of the neighbouring Val Duggia. The church of Santa 
Maria delle Grazie, at the approach to the Sacro Monte, contains a 
series of 2i *Scenes from the life of Christ (1507-13; rood-screen) 
and other frescoes (left aisle) by this master, while there is also an 
Adoration of the Child by him over the portal of the church of 
Santa Maria di Loreto, about 3 / 4 M. from the village. Amarble statue 
of Ferrari (1884) stands in the Piazza Ferrari. 

The building of the Societa. per £ Incoraygiamento alle Belle 
Arti, in the Via del Santuario, contains a small picture-gallery and 
some natural history collections. In the Piazza Nuova is the read- 
ing-room of the Varallo branch of the Italian Alpine Club (strangers 
welcome). — On the Mastallone bridge is a statue of General 
Giacomo Antonini (1891). Beyond the bridge are the *Stabilimento 
Idroterapico , a large and well-equipped hydropathic (open from 
May 1st to Oct. 15th; pens. 9-11 fr.), with a swimming-bath, and 
the Cotonificio Cuorgne- Varallo, a cotton-spinning mill. 

The * Sacro Monte (Santuario di Varallo; 1995 ft.), a frequented pilgrim- 
resort, rising in the immediate vicinity of the town, is ascended from banta 
Maria delle Grazie (see above) in 20 min. by a paved path shaded by 
beautiful chestnuts, and commands a delightful view. This '■Nuova Gerusa- 
lemme nel Sacro Monte di Varallo' was founded in i486 by Bernardino 
Caimi, a Milanese nobleman and Franciscan monk, with the sanction of 
Pope Innocent VIII.; but as a resort of pilgrims it did not become im- 
portant until after the visits of Cardinal Borromeo (p. 169). — On the top 
of the hill and on it3 slopes are a church and 45 Chapels, or oratories, 
containing scenes from sacred history in painted lifesize figures of terra- 
cotta, with supplementary frescoes, beginning with the Fall in the 1st 
chapel, and ending with the Entombment of the Virgin in the 45th. These 
are the work of Gaudenzio Ferrari (Xo. 5. The Magi, *38. Crucifixion), 
his pupil Bern. Lanini, Taoacchetti (d. 1615), Morazzone, Giov. d? Enrico 
d'Alagna (d. 1644), and other more modern and less gifted artists. The 
handsome Church, built by Pellegrino Tibaldi after 1578 at Card. Borro- 
meo's expense, has a modern facade. In the dome is a -plastic represen- 
tation of the Assumption, with about 150 figures, by Bossola and Volpini 
of Milan. On the top, adjoining the church, are the Alber go- Pension Alpina 
and a Cafe. 

30. From Milan to Genoa via Pavia and Voghera. 

93 M. Railway in 31/4-71/2 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 55, 12 fr. 25, 7 fr. 80 c; 
express 19 fr. 30, 13 fr. 50 c); to Pavia, 22i/ 2 M., slow train in 1 hr. (fares 
4 fr. 20, 2 fr. 95, 1 fr. 90 c). Passengers between Milan and Pavia may 
not use the express trains, except in the morning from Milan to the Cer- 
rosa. — In winter the 'train de luxe 1 from Vienna to Cannes traverses this 
toute (from Milan to Genoa, 3 hrs. 5 fare 23 fr. 75 c). 

From Milan to (17*/ 2 M.) Certosa, see p. 143. 

221/2 M. Pavia. — Railway Stations. 1. Stazione Cenlrale (PI. A, 2), 
the main station, 4 min. beyond the Porta Cavour. 2. Stazione Porta Gari- 
baldi (PI. D, 3), for the line to Cremona (and Mantua). 

Hotels. Crock Biaxoa (PI. a; B, 3), Corso Vittorio Emanuele, R. 2-4. 

186 Route 30. PA VIA. From Milan 

omn. 1/2 fr- i Tre Re CP1- b ; B ) 3), same street. — Cafft Lemetrio, Corso 
Vittoi'io Emanuele. — Trattoria del Mercato, Via Varese 4, on the S. side 
of the Mercato Coperto (p. 187). 

Post & Telegraph Office in the Mercato Coperto. 

Cab per drive 80c, per hour 1 fr., at night 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 50 c. — 
Omnibus from the Stazione Centrale to the Via Mazzini (PL C, 3), 10 c. — 
Steam Tkamway to Milan (comp. p. 114). starting from the Piazza Petrarca 
(PI. B, 2). 

Chief Sights (1/2 day): San Michele ; Covered Bridge; University; 
Castello; San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro; Santa Maria di Canepanova. 

Pavia (250 ft.), with 33,922 inhab., capital of the province of 
the same name, the see of a bishop, and the seat of a university, 
is situated near the confluence of the Ticino and the Po and is con- 
nected with Milan by the Naviylio di Pavia (p. 115). Of the nu- 
merous towers, which won for it the title of 'Citta delle Cento Torn, 
and of the churches, which are said to have numbered 165 in the 
14th cent., ouly a few now remain; but parts of the ancient ram- 
parts and bulwarks still attest the ancient importance of the town. 

Pavia is the Ticinum of the ancients, subsequently Papia, and was the 
capital of the Lombards from 572 to 774. In the middle ages it was the 
faithful ally of the German emperors, until it was handed over in 1360, 
by Emp. Charles IV., to Galeazzo II. Visconti (p. Ill), as imperial vicar. — 
The battle of Pavia, at which Francis I. of France was defeated and taken 
prisoner by Lanvoy, general of Charles V., took place in the park of the 
castle on 24th Feb., 1525. 

Leaving the railway- station, we enter the Corso Cavotjr (PI. 
A, B, 3) through the Porta Cavour (in a wall to the right is the 
statue of a Roman magistrate), and following the Yia Bossolaro to 
the right reach the Piazza del Duomo. 

The Cathedral (PI. B, 3), begun in the early - Renaissance 
style by Cristoforo Rocchi in i488 on the site of two churches of 
the Lombard period and continued with the co-operation of Amadeo 
and Bramante, but never completed, is a vast 'central' structure 
(comp. p. lxiv) with four arms. The facade (1898) and the dome 
(300 ft. high) are modern. 

In the Inxekiob, are altar-pieces by Gianpietrino (1521; in the original 
frame), Bern. Gatti (Madonna with the rosary, 1531), Giov. Bait. Crespi, 
Daniele Crespi, and Fed. Farvffini ( L854). In the crypt is the handsome 
marble altar (by Tomm. Orsolino, 1653) of St. Syrus (2nd cent.), who, accord- 
ing to the legend, was first bishop of Pavia. 

Adjoining the church to the left rises the massive Torre Maggiore 
(256 ft. high), a tower mentioned as early as 1330; the top story 
was begun in 1583 by Pellcgrino Tibaldi. 

We may now proceed to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (PI. B, 
1-4), a street intersecting the town in a straight direction from N. 
to S., from the Porta di Milano to the Porta Ticinese, and leading to 
the Covered Bridge (14th cent ; a pleasant promenade with pictur- 
esque view) over the Ticino. A chapel stands on the bridge, half- 
way across. 

San Michele Maggiore (PI. C, 4), to which the third side- 
street to the right leads (coming from the bridge), a basilica of the 
Lombard period, dates in its present Lombard-Romanesque form 




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to Genoa. PAYIA. 30. Route. 187 

from the latter part of trie 11th century. The facade is adorned 
with numerous reliefs in sandstone , in ribbon-like stripes , and 
a curious gabled gallery. 

The vaulted Interior , restored in 1860-75 , is supported by eight 
pillars, from which rise double round arches. Over the centre of the 
transept rises an octagonal dome. The pillars of the nave bear traces of 
ancient frescoes. The tomb of Mart. Salimbene, in the crypt, is attributed 
to Giov. Ant. Amadeo (1491). 

Near the middle of the Corso Vitt. Emanuele is the Mereato 
Coperto (PI. B, 3}, built by Balossi in 1881-82. Behind it, in the 
Piazza del Popolo, is a monument, by Enrico Cassi (1900), to the 
Cairdli Family of Pavia : Adelaide Cairoli entrusts a banner to her 
five sons, illustrious in the war of independence; in front, to the 
left, is Benedetto Cairoli (1825-89), the statesman. 

In the N. part of the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, to the right, stands 
the Univeksity (PI. B, C, 2, 3), founded by Galeazzo II. Visconti 
in 1361 on the site of a school of law, which had existed here since 
the 11th century. The present imposing building, begun in 1490 
under Lodovico 11 Moro, was greatly extended about 1770 by Gius. 
Piermarini. The handsome quadrangles are embellished with mem- 
orial tablets, busts, and monuments of celebrated professors and 
students. In the second court are a statue of Volta, by Ant. Tan- 
tardini (1878), and memorial reliefs of professors. In the library 
(ca. 200,000 vols.) are preserved some of the ashes of Columbus 
(comp. p. 78), who was a student at Pavia. 

The Corso next leads in a N. direction, past the Piazza d'ltalia, 
with a statue of Italia (PI. 11), to the Piazza Castello, with a mon- 
ument to Garibaldi, by Pozzi, and to the old Castle (PI. C, 2), 
erected by Galeazzo II. about 1360, now used as a barrack, and 
containing a handsome court of the 14th cent. (adm. by permission 
of the officer on guard). 

The Via Luitprando leads to the N.W. of the Piazza Castello to 
the old monastic church of San Pieteo in Ciel d'Oeo (PI. B, 2). 
This building, originally Lombardic but rebuilt about 1100 in the 
Lombard-Romanesque style, was restored in 1875-99 by Ang. Sa~ 
voldi. The exterior of the choir should be noticed. 

Interior. In the high choir is the sumptuous *Arca di Sanf Agostino, 
adorned with 95 statuettes and 50 reliefs, executed by Bonino da Campio»e 
or some other of the Carapionesi after 1362. On the sarcophagus is the 
recumbent figure of St. Augustine, whose relics were brought from Sar- 
dinia to Pavia under King Luitprand (713-744). — The choir-apse has 
modern frescoes by Loverini and Bernardi. — The double-aisled crypt rests 
upon 24 columns. 

The Via Pietro Carpanelli leads to the S.E. of the Piazza 
Castello to the Gothic church of San Francesco (PL C, 2, 3), of the 
13th cent., with a modernized interior. The rich brick facade was 
restored in 1897. — In the vicinity stands the Collegio Ghislieri 
(PL C, 3), founded in 1569 by Pius V. (Ghislieri), a colossal 
bronze statue of whom has been erected in the piazza in front. 

In the Via Defendente Sacchi. a little to the S., is the church 

188 Route 30. PAVIA. 

of Santa Maria di Cantpanova (PL 6 ; C, 3), a small dome-covered 
structure designed by Bramante (1492), with a passage round the 
top. — Three ancient Brick Towers rise in the vicinity. 

The Via Roma, to the W. of the university, terminates in the 
Piazza del Carmine, with the Gothic church of Santa Maria del 
Carmine (PL B, 3), a brick edifice of fine proportions, flanked with 
chapels, and dating from 1390. 

At the S. end of the Piazza Petrarca, to the right, is the Palazzo 
Malaspina, now the Museo Civico (PI. 15; B, 2); open daily (fee ; 
MS. catalogue). On the groundfloor are national relics and mem- 
orials. On the first floor are a collection of about 450 paintings, 
some fine engravings, etc. Among the paintings (2nd room on the 
right) are : Carlo Crivelli, The napkin of St. Yeronica ; 58. Ant. da 
Messina, Portrait (retouched) ; 60. Correggio, Holy Family, an early 
work (much damaged); 68. B. Luini, Fragment of a fresco ; 74. Fra 
Bartolomeo, Holy Family. 

In a side-street (Vicolo San Zeno) are busts of Boethius and Petrarch. 
Tradition points this out as the place in which BoSthius, confined by the 
Emperor Theodoric, composed his work on the 'Consolation of Philo- 
sophy 1 . Petrarch, with his daughter and son in-law, frequently visited the 
palace as the guest of Galeazzo II. His grandson, who died at the Pal. 
Malaspina, was interred in the former church of San Zeno. A short poem 
of Petrarch in allusion to this event, in six Latin distiches, is one of the 
many inscriptions on the wall opposite the entrance. 

To the W. of the town, !/ 2 M. outside the Porta Cavour, lies 
the church of San Salvatore, founded in the 7th cent, under King 
Aribert, but entirely rebuilt in the 15-1 6th centuries. — About 
V2 M. farther on is the church of San Lanfranco (formerly Santo 
Sepolcro), dating from the 12th cent. ; it contains the sarcophagus 
of Bishop Lanfranco Beccari (d. 1198), by G. A. Amadeo (ca. 1470). 

From Pa via to Alessandria via Torre-Berretti and Valenza, 4OV2M., 
railway in ca. 2 l /i hrs. (fares 7 fr. 55, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 45 c). The line crosses 
the Ticino and intersects the broad plain of the Po, in a S. W. direction. 
Unimportant stations. — Torre-Berretti, see p. 171; Yalenza, see p. 171. 

From Pavia to Cremona (Mantua), 46 M., railway in 2 3 /t-3 l /-z hrs. 
(fares 8 fr. 60, 6 fr. 5, 3 fr. 80 c). — The line intersects the fertile plain 
watered by the Po and the Olona. — 9'/z M. Belgiojoso, with a handsome 
chateau. — 27 M. Casalpusterlengo, where the line unites with that from 
Piacenza to Milan (p. 334). — 30 M. Codogno (9000 inhab.) possesses large 
cheese-manufactories (to Piacenza, see p. 334). Near (34 J /2 M.) Pizzighettone, 
a fortified place, the Adda, which is here navigable, is crossed. — 46 M. Cre- 
mona (p. 189). To Treviglio (Milan and Bergamo) and Mantua, see p. 189 ; 
to Brescia, see p. 192. 

From Pavia to Stradella, via. Bressana-Bottarone (see below), 20 M., 
railway in 1-lVz hr. Stradella, see p. 333. 

From Pavia to Vercelli, see p. 171. 

The Railway to Genoa crosses the Ticino by a bridge ^ M. 
long, and almost immediately afterwards, beyond (26 M.) Cava Ma- 
nara, it crosses the Po. At(3lM.) Bressana-Bottarone diverges the 
above-mentioned branch to Stradella (p. 333). 33^2 M. Lungavilla. 

387 2 M. Voghera (310 ft.; Italia), with 20,442 inhab., per- 
haps the ancient Jria, on the left bank of the Staff or a, was once forti- 

CREMA. 31. Rouie. 189 

fled by Giangaleazzo Yisconti. The ancient church of San Lorenzo 
was remodelled in 1600. From Voghera to Piacenza, see p. 333. 

The steam -tramway from Voghera to Stradella (p. 333) passes the 
village of (472 M.) Montebello, famous for the battle of 9th June, 1800 (five 
days before the battle of Marengo). Here, too, on 20th May, 1859, the first 
serious encounter between the Austrians and the united French and Sar- 
dinian armies took place. 

At (44 M.) Pontecurone we cross the impetnons Curone (dry in 
summer). Country fertile. 

49 1 / 2 M. Tortona (390 ft.; Croce Bianco), the ancient Pertona, 
a town of 17,914 inhab., on the Scrivia. The Cathedral, dating from 
1584, contains an ancient sarcophagus. Above the town are the 
ruins of a castle destroyed in 1155 by Frederick Barbarossa. 

From Tortona a branch-railway runs to (5 J /2 M.) Castelnuoro Scrivia, 
and a steam-tramway to Sale (p. 50). 

From Tortona to Turin via, Alessandria, see R. lie. 

60 M. Novi, and thence to (93 M.) Genoa, see p. 50. 

31. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona. 

100 M. Railway in 43/ 4 -53/ 4 hrs. ; fares 18 fr. 60, 13 fr., 8 fr. 40 c. (to 
Cremona, 60 M., in 3-4i/i hrs.; fares 11 fr. 30, 7 fr. 90, 5 fr. 15 c). Car- 
riages are changed at Treviglio and Cremona. 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 198. Our train diverges 
here from the main line to the S.E. — 24^2 M. Caravaggio (365 ft.), 
a town of 8974 inhab., with the pilgrimage-church of the Madonna 
di Caravaggio, was the birthplace of the painter Michael Angelo 
Amerighi da Caravaggio (1569-1609). It is connected with Monza 
by a steam-tramway (p. 148). 

33 l /2 M. Crema (240 ft.: Alb. Pozzo), an industrial town (9602 
inhab.) and episcopal residence, with an ancient castle. The Cath- 
edral has a fine Romanesque facade, and contains a painting (SS. 
Sebastian, Christopher, and Rochus) by Vine. Civerchio (2nd altar 
on the left). — About 3 /4 M. from the town stands the circular 
church of * Santa Maria della Croce, with effective subsidiary build- 
ings in brick, built about 1490 by Giov. Batt. Battaggio of Lodi, 
under the influence of Bramante. The interior, octagonal in form, 
is adorned with paintings by Cam-pi. 

On the Oglio, 5 M. to the E. of Cremona, lies the little town of Soncino 
(275 ft.), the terminus of a steam-tramway from Milan via, Lodi and Crema 
(p. 334), and connected by similar tramways with Bergamo and Brescia 
(pp. 197, 206). It contains a handsome Castello, built in 1469-75 by Ben. 
Ferrini for Galeazzo Maria Sforza. The Palazzo Yiala , with a tasteful 
terracotta facade, and the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie (founded 
in 1492), with frescoes by Giul. and Bern. Campi, are also interesting. — 
The Patazzo Barbi, at Torre Pallavicina, on the Oglio, 3 M. to the N., has 
a charmingly painted interior, due to the CamDi. 

40 M. Castelleone,- 45 M. Soredna; b&f 2 M. Olmenela (p. 192). 

60 M. Cr6mona. — The Railway Station is outside the Porta Milano 
(PI. C, 1). — Hotels. Cappello ed Italia (PI. a; E, 3), Corso Campi, 
R. 2Vz fr., very fair; Roma, Via Giuseppe Mazzini (PI. F, 3), R. 2-21/2 fr. 5 
Pavone, Via Beccherie Vecchie, plainer. — Cafes. Roma; Soresini. 

190 Route 31. CREMONA. From Milan 

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. E, F, 3), Piazza Roma. — Cabs. Per 
drive in the town V2, per V2 hr. li each addit. V2 hr. 1 fr. ; from the 
station to the town 1 fr., at night 1 fr. 20 c. Luggage free. 

Cremona (155 ft.), the capital of a province and an episcopal 
see, with 36. 848 inhab., lies in a fertile plain on the left bank of 
the Po, and carries on considerable silk-manufactures. 

The original town was wrested by the Romans from the Gallic Ceno- 
mani and colonised by them at the beginning of the second Punic war 
(B.C. 218). It became one of the most flourishing towns in E. Italy, bui 
in 70 A. D., during che civil wars, it was reduced to ruins by the Enip. 
Vespasian, who, however, afterwards restored it. 'Bellas exterois intacta 
civilibus infelix 1 is the summary of its history by Tacitus. The Goths and 
Lombards, especially King Agilulf, as well as the subsequent conflicts 
between Guelphs and Ghibellines, did great damage to the town. Cremona 
espoused the cause of Frederick Barbarossa against Milan and Crema, and 
subsequently came into the possession of the Visconti and of Francesco 
Sforza (p. Ill), after which it belonged to Milan. On 1st Feb., 1702, Prince 
Eugene surprised the French marshal Villeroi here and took him prisoner. 
In 1799 the Austrians defeated the French here. 

The manufacturers of the far-famed Violins and Violas of Cremona 
were Andrea Amali (ca. 1510-80) and Niccolb Amati (1596-1684), Antonio 
Stradivari (1644-1723) and Giuseppe Ant. Guarneri (1683-1745). 

Painting. Boccaccio Boccaccino (ca. 1460-1518), who for a time seems 
to have' belonged to the circle of Giov. Bellini (p. 268), in Venice, is gen- 
erally regarded as the founder of the Cremona school of painting. The 
frescoes of his assistants Altobello Melone and Gian Franc. Bembo show the 
influence of Romanino (p. 200) and Pordenone (p. 268), who worked side 
by side with them iu the cathedral. The traditions of Boccaccino were 
continued by his son, Camillo Boccaccino, and by Galeazzo Campi (d. 1536). 
The younger Campi. Giulio and Antonio, were mainly subject to the sway 
of Giulio Romano. Cremona was the birthplace of So/ouisba d" Anguisciola 
(1535-1626), who, like her five sisters, practised the art of painting, and 
was highly esteemed by her contemporaries. She afterwards retired to 
Genoa, and even in her old age attracted the admiration of Van Dyck. 

In the Piazza del Comunb (PI. F, 4) rises the Torrazzo, a tower 
397 ft. in height, erected in 1281-84, and connected with the cath- 
edral by a series of logge. Extensive view from the top. — Oppo- 
site the tower is the Gothic *Palazzo Pubblico (now the Municipio'] 
of 1245 (restored), containing a few pictures by masters of the 
Cremona school and a rich marble chimney-piece by Pedone (1502). 
Adjacent is the Gothic Palazzo de' Gonfalonieri or de' Oiureconsulti, 
of 1292. 

The *Cathbdral (PI. F, 4), a vaulted structure in the Roman- 
esque-Lombard style, erected in 1107-90, has a rich main facade 
embellished with columns (partly remodelled in 1491) and tasteful 
brick facades on the transepts, especially the S. 

The Interior with its aisles, and transepts also flanked with aisles, 
is covered with frescoes by Boccaccio Boccaccino (ca. 1506-18), Romanino 
(1519-20), Pordenone (1520-22), and later masters of the Cremona School, 
such as Camillo Boccaccino, Altobello Melone, Pietro and Gian Franc. Bembo, 
the Campi. and Gatti. Over the arches of the nave, on both sides, are 
long series of frescoes. Left wall, above the first four arches: Boccaccio Boc- 
caccino, Life of the Virgin, in eight scenes; 5th arch, Gian Francesco Bembo, 
The Magi, and Presentation in the Temple-, beyond the organ, Altobello 
Melone, Flight into Egypt, and Massacre of the Innocents; above the last 
arch, Boccaccino, Christ teaching in the Temple. The colossal figures of 
Christ and four saints in the apse arc also by Boccaccino, Right wall : 


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to Mantua. CREMONA. 31. Route. 191 

ifelone. Last Supper. Christ washing the Disciples" 1 feet, Christ on the Mt. 
of Olives, Christ taken by the soldiers, Christ before Caiaphas ; above the 
4th and 5th arches, Romanino, *Christ led out to be crucified, Scourging 
of Christ, Crown of Thorns, Ecce Homo; above the last three arches, 
tewards the facade. Pordenone's three celebrated *Passion Scenes: Christ 
before Pilate, Christ and St. Veronica. Christ nailed to the Cross. On the 
front wall, a colossal Crucifixion and Entombment by Pordenone. — The 
two pulpits are embellished with reliefs from an old altar, by Amndeo 
(1482). — The choir contains fine Renaissance stalls by Gior. Maria Platina 
and Pietro dalla Tarsia (1482-90). The high-altar-piece (Assumption) is by 
Bern. Gatti. The chapel of the Host (1599), to the right of the choir, is 
elaborately frescoed by the Campi. — In the right tran«ept -tands the 
sarcophagus of 9S. Peter and Mar ellinus, by Bened. Briosco (1507). The 
frescoes, by Giulio Campi, repres-nt the history of Esther. — First Chapel 
to the right: altar-piece by Pordenone, Madonna between two saints. 

In the vicinity are the octagonal Battistero (Pi. F, 4) of 1167, 
and the Campo Santo (PI. F, 4). in the pavement of which are 
curious old mosaics (Hercules and Nessus; Piety wounded by 
Cruelty; Faith tearing out the tongue of Discord, etc.). 

The adjacent Piazza Roma (PI. E, F, 3) is laid out with gardens 
(music on Sun. and Thurs. evenings). 

A few hundred yards to the N.W. of the Piazza Roma, in the Via 
Ugolani Dati (PI. E, 2), stands the old Palazzo Dati, erected about 1580 in 
the baroque style and now a hospital. The court is very fine. To the E.. at 
!No. 7 Corso di Porta Venezia , is the Monte di Pieta (PL G, 2. 3), dating 
from the 15th centu-y. The elegant brick facade is embellished with a 
charming frieze of Nereids, coats-of-arm3. and portrait-Lead^, and in the 
court is a frieze of Bacchantes. — Farther on, near the Porta Venezia 
(p. 192). is the chnrch of Sanf Abbondio (PL G, 2), with an early work 
(1527) of Giulio Campi ( with SS. Nazariua and Celsus) and a 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Altobello Melone. In the sacristy are some 
cabinets by G. M. Platina. 

From the Municipio the Via Ala Ponzone leads to the W. to the 
Palazzo Reale (formerly Ala di Ponzone), which contains the in- 
teresting Musbo Civico (daily 9-3, except Sun.). 

On the Staircase are sculptures, portions of frescoes, etc. — First Floor. 
From an Anteroom, with drawings and small painting*, we pa«s through 
a handsome Renais=anee doorway to Room I., which contains enamels, 
bronzes, miniatures, book-bndinzs, ivory carvings, and terracottas. — 
Room II. Medals and plaquettes; also Trinity, by Vine. Cirerchio, and other 
paintings. — Room III. Painting?: Camilla Boccaccino, Madonna and two 
saint?-. Gian Fr. Bembo. Madonna; C. Crivelli, San Nicolo of Toientino (re- 
touched); Boccaccio Boccaccino. Madonna enthr< ned with S^. Anthony of 
Padua and Stephen (1518); Gal. Campi, Madonna and two saints. — EoomIV. 
Lor. di Credi (?). Madonna. — In the following rooms are works by early 
^Netherlandish masters (5. van Orley, Madonna), paintings of the 17-18th cent., 
sculptures, etc. 

In front of the museum is a Marble Statue of Amilcare Ponchielli 
(1834-86), a native of the district and composer of 'Gioconda'. by 
Pietro Bordini (1892). — Farther up the Corso Vitt. Emanuele, in 
the second cross-street to the left, is the church of Sax Pietro al Po 
(PI. E, 5), built in 1549-70 by Ripari. Over the third altar to the left, 
Madonna and four saints, by Gian Franc. Bembo (1524). The rich 
ceiling-decorations are by Ant. Campi and other masters. 

In Sant" Agostino (PI. D, 3), a church of the 14th cent., with 
aisles and barrel-vaulting : first chapel on the right; Pieta, by 

192 Routt SI. CREMONA. 

Giulio Campi; last side-altar but one, Madonna and two saints by 
Perugino (1494); left, between the 3rd and 4th altars, portraits of 
Francesco Sforza, and between the 4th and 5th, of his wife Bianca 
Maria Visconti, frescoes (retouched) by Bonif. Bembo (15th cent.). 

The Via Guido Grandi (passing on the right the small church 
of Santa Margherita, built and painted by Giulio Campi, 1546; and, 
farther on, to the left, No. 1, the Palazzo Trecchi, in the early- 
Renaissance style) leads hence to the Piazza Garibaldi (PI. C, 
D, 2), with a Monument of Garibaldi, by Malfatti, and the church of 
Sant' Agata (by the entrance-wall, Monument of Franc. Trecchi, in 
the Renaissance style, by Gian Cristoforo Romano, 1502; beside the 
high-altar, four large frescoes by Giulio Campi, painted in 1536 in 
the style of Pordenone). From the piazza the Corso Garibaldi leads 
to the N.W. to the Porta Milano (PI. C, 1) and the station. — Near 
the gate, adjoining the church of San Luca (right), is the Cappella 
del Cristo Risorto, a tasteful brick edifice of the early Renaissance 
(1503); the interior, renewed in the baroque style, contains frescoes 
of 1590. 

Not far from the Porta Milano, in the Yia Bertesi, stands the Pal. 
Crotti (formerly Rairnondi), an early-Renaissance structure, contain- 
ing sculptures by Pedone. On the W. side of the Yia Palestro 
(PI. D, 1) is the Pal. Stanga, with a baroque facade and a fine 
colonnade of the early Renaissance. 

About l'/2 M. to tlie E. of the Porta Venezia (PI. H, 2), near the 
Mantua road, is the church of *San Sigismondo, with frescoes and pictures 
by Boccaccio Boccaccino, the younger Campi, and other Cremonese masters ; 
altar-piece by Giulio Campi (1540), Madonna with saints, and below, 
Francesco Sforza and his wife, founders of the church. S. Sigismondo is 
a station on the steam- tramway from Cremona to Casalmaggiore (p. 198). 
— Near the village of Le Torri lies the beautiful Villa Sacerdoti. 

From Cremona to Brescia, 31V2 M. , railway in lVa-l 3 /* hr. (fares 
5 fr. 95, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. 65 c). — 7 M. Olmeneta, see p. 1S9. The other 
stations are unimportant. — 3IV2 M. Brescia. 

From Cremona to Piacenza (steam-tramway 4-5 times daily in ia/ 4 hr.) 
The road intersects the plain on the right bank of the Po, after crossing 
the river with its numerous islands, and at Caorso crosses the river formed 
by the Chiavenna and Riglio. At Roncaglia we cross the Nure and proceed 
to the W. to Piacenza (p. 334). 

From Cremona to Pavia, see p. 188. 

The first station of note beyond Cremona is (79 M.) Piadena, 
the junction of the Brescia and Parma line (p. 198). 

81 M. Bozzolo, with an old castle of a collateral branch of the 
Gonzagas (p. 236). Before reaching (88 M.) Marcaria we cross the 
Oglio. — 931/2 M. Castellucchio. 

About 2Vz M. to the E. of Castellucchio, 5 M. from Mantua, is the 
church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, founded in 1399, a famous resort of 
pilgrims, containing curious votive offerings in the form of lifesize figures 
in wax, bearing the names of 'Charles V. 1 , 'Ferdinand I. 1 , 'Pope Pius II.', 
the 'Conne'table de Bourbon', etc. Also a few monuments. 

The train now crosses the Mincio. — LOOM. Mantua, see p. 235. 


32. From Milan to Bergamo, 

33V2 M. Railway in li/ 4 -2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 30, 4 fr. 40, 2 fr. 80 c). 
Finest views to the left. 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 198. Our line here di- 
verges to the N.E. — 26 M. Verdello; 33 l / 2 M - Bergamo. 

Bergamo. — Hotels. Alb. Re ale Italia, Via Venti Settembre (PI. C, 5), 
R. 2 1 /s-3 , /2, B. IV2, de'j. 3, D. 5, pens. 10, omnJ/4 fr., very fair; Concobdia, 
Viale della Stazione (PI. D, 5, 6), well fitted up, with a trattoria and a 
garden, R. 2-3 fr.; Alb. e Ristoeante Commeecio, Piazza Cavour 14; 
Cappello t/Obo, Viale della Stazione, R. 2-3 fr.. all four in the new town, 
the last two unpretending. — In the old town : Albebgo e Ristorante 
del Sole, Piazza Garibaldi, unpretending. 

Cafes. Centrale, Nazionale, both in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele 
(PI. D, 5); Walker, Piazza Garibaldi, all three unpretending. Beer at the 
Gambrino, Piazza Vitt. Emanuele. 

Cabs, per drive 1, per hr. 2'/2 fr. — Tramway from the Porta San 
Bernardino (PL C, 6) by the Via Venti Settembre, the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, 
and the Piazza Donizetti to the Porta Santa Caterina (PL E, 2). Fare 10 c. 
— Electric Tramway from the rail way- station via the Piazza Vitt. Ema- 
nuele to the lower station of the Cable Railway. — A Cable Tramway 
(Funicolare ; PL C, 3) connects the lower town with the upper town; the 
lower station is in the Strada Vitt. Emanuele. x \z M. from the Piazza Vitt. 
Emanuele. Fare 15 c. 

Bergamo (820-1200 ft.) , the ancient Bergomum, a Milanese 
town from 1264 to 1428 hut after that Venetian until 1797, now a 
provincial capital and episcopal see, with 46,861 inhah. (suhurhs 
included), lies at the junction of the Valle Brembana, watered hy 
the Brembo, and the Valle Seriana, named after the rapid Serio 
(another affluent of the Adda). This is one of the "busiest of the 
smaller trading and manufacturing towns in Italy, although its once 
famous fair (Fiera di Sant' Alessandro, middle of August to middle 
of Septemher) has lost its importance. The town consists of two 
distinct parts, the Citta Alta, picturesquely situated on hills and 
strongly fortified hy the Venetians in 1561-88, and the much larger 
new quarters in the plain (Borgo San Leonardo, Borgo Pignolo, 
Borgo San Tommaso), with numerous cotton, silk, and other fac- 
tories and an interesting piazza (Fiera; PI. D, 4). 

From the railway-station (PI. D, E, 6) the "broad Viale della 
Stazione leads to the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (PI. D, 5), with 
a statue of Victor Emmanuel II. hy Barzaghi (PI. 19). The Via 
Borfuro leads hence to the "W. to SanV Alessandro in Colonna (PI. 5 ; 
C, 5), containing a fine *Assumption hy Romanino (left transept). 
The church is named from the partly antique column in front of 
it, at which St. Alexander, tutelary saint of Bergamo, is said to 
have suffered martyrdom. 

To the N.E., heyond the Teatro Gaetano Donizetti (PI. 25 ; D, 5), 
is the Piazza Donizetti, with a monument hy Franc Jerace (1897) 
to Gaetano Donizetti (1798-1848), who was a native of Bergamo; 
the composer, seated upon an ancient Greek exedra, receives the 
inspiration of a Muse. — In the Via Torquato Tasso, on the N. 

Baedekeb. Italy I. 12th Edit. 13 . 

194 Route 32. BERGAMO. Santa Maria Mag<jiore. 

side of the Piazza, is the church of San Bartolomeo (PI. 8; D, 4). 
Behind the high-altar is a large altar-piece hy Lor. Lotto, *Madonna 
surrounded hy ten saints (1516). Fine choir-stalls by Fra Damiano 
(1520). — Farther on is — 

Santo Spirito (PI. 17; E, 4), the fine aisleless interior of which 
is in the early-Renaissance style, doe partly to Pietro Isabella. 

Interior. Left, 1st chapel: Previtali, John the Baptist, surrounded by 
SS. Bartholomew, Nicholas of Bari , Joseph, and Dominic, the painter's 
masterpiece (1515). Left, second altar, large altar-piece by Borgognone 
(1508): Descent of the Holy Ghost, God the Father, Annunciation; on the 
left, The Baptist and St. Jerome ; on the right, SS. Augustine and Francis. 
Right, 4th Chapel: Lotto, -Madonna and four saints; above, angels in a 
glory (1521); 5th chapel, Previtali, Madonna and four saints (1525), Resur- 
rection with four saints (finished by Ag. da Gaversegno). 

Farther on, in the Via di Pignolo, are San Bernardino in Pignolo 
(PI. 10; D, 3), containing a Madonna and two saints, in fresco, hy 
Previtali (1523 ; 2nd altar on the right), and a high-altar-piece hy 
Lotto, *Holy Family and four saints (1521), and San? Alessandro 
delta Croce (PI. 6, D 3; Moroni, Madonna; in the sacristy, Lotto, 
Trinity; Moroni, portrait; Previtali, Crucifixion, dated 1514). — 
The Via Nuova runs in a straight direction to the Porta Sant' 
Agostino (PI. D, 2), while the Via di San Tominaso leads to the 
right to the Accademia Carrara (see p. 195). 

An avenue of chestnut-trees named Strada Vitt. Emanuele (cahle 
tramway, p. 193) connects the new town with the high-lying — 

Citta Alta, the ramparts (Bastiom) of which have been con- 
verted into promenades and afford fine views of the plain of Lom- 
bardy and the Bergamasque Alps. 

From the upper terminus of the cable -tramway we proceed 
straight on by the Via Gombito to (3 min.) the Piazza Garibaldi, 
the former market-place, with the Palazzo Nuovo (PI. 22; C, 2), in 
the late - Renaissance style, by Scamozzi (1611), but unfinished. 
The palace is now the Reale Istituto Tecnico Vitt. Emanuele. 
Opposite is the Library, in the Gothic Palazzo Vecchio, or Broletto 
(PI. 23 ; C, 2), the groundfloor of which consists of an open colon- 
nade, in which is the Monument of Torquato Tasso (whose father 
Bernardo was born at Bergamo in 1493). In Ithe middle of the 
piazza is a Bronze Monument of Garibaldi (1885). 

Behind the library is the Romanesque church of Santa Maria 
Maggiore (PI. 16; B, C, 2, 3), of 1137, with ancient lion-portals by 
Oiov. da Campione on the N. and S. To the right of the N. portal 
is the Cappella Colleoni. 

The Interior (usual entrance on the S. side) has been restored in a 
rich baroque style. It contains wall-paintings by Paxino da Nova (see 
below ; much injured), under Flemish tapestry, and fine Renaissance *Choir 
Stalls by Franc. Capodiferro (1522-32) and other artists (behind) and by 
Oiov. Belli (1540-77; in front). The *Intarsia work in the central panels 
(usually covered) was partly designed by Lor. Lotto. In the chapel to the 
right of the choir: Giov. Bosello, Christ in glory. — In Ihe right, transept 
is a fresco, representing the tree of St. Bonaventura, by a follower of 
Giotto (1347). — The right aisle contains the partly restored tomb of Car- 

Cathedral. BERGAMO. 32. Route. 195 

dinal Longo dtgli Alessandri (d. at Avignon, 1319). by Dgo da Campione, 
and the monument of the famous composer Donizetti (p. 193), by Vine. 
Vela (1855). In the treasury (above the sacristy) are a large crucifix (5 ft. 
high) of the 13th century (?j and several works in niello. 

The adjoining s Capp"ella Colleoni (shown by the sagrestano), erected 
by Q. A. Amadeo in 1470-76 in the early-Renaissance style, has a lavishly 
sculptured facade, which, however, was probably much altered when the 
interior was modernized in 1774. The interior contains the tomb of the 
founder Bart. Colleoni (d. 1475; p. 304). begun by G. Ant. Amadeo, with 
reliefs from the life of Christ. On the top is the gilded equestrian statue 
of Colleoni by ,Suclus Siry of Nuremberg (1501). To the right is the 
smaller, but beautiful monument of his daughter Medea (d. 1470), also 
by Amadeo, and originally in the church of Basella. Above the altar on 
the right are good sculptures : to the left, a Koly Family by Angelica 
Kau.tfmann; fine intarsia-work (covered); ceiling-paintings by Tiepolo. 

The adjoining Baptistery (PL 3; on the right), hy Giov. da Cam- 
pione (1340), originally in Santa Maria Maggiore, was re-erected 
here in 1898. In the interior are reliefs of the Passion (key in the 
sacristy of the cathedral; fee 30-50 c). 

Opposite is the Cathedral (PL 13), built from designs hy Vine. 
Scamozzi in 1614 on the site of an earlier edifice. First altar to the 
left: Madonna and saints hy O. B. Moroni (1576); hehind the 
high-altar, a *Madonna, a late work of Giov. Bellini (1512; gen- 
erally covered). 

A little to the E. of the Piazza Garibaldi, in the Via Colleoni, 
is the Luogo Pio Colleoni (PL 4 ; C, 2), once the dwelling of Bart. 
Colleoni, who bequeathed it to the city for an orphanage in 1466. 
On the groundfloor are some frescoes by Paxino da Nova and other 
masters of the 15th cent.; among them is an equestrian portrait of 
Colleoni (fee of l fa fr. to the keeper). 

We now return to the station of the cable-tramway and proceed 
thence, to the left, through the Strada Porta Dipinta, passing the 
church of Sant' Andrea, which contains a Madonna enthroned with 
four saints, by Moretto (altar to the right; covered). Fine view. 
The street leads to a small and hilly piazza with the church of San 
Michele al Pozzo Bianco (PL 18, D2; usually closed), which con- 
tains good frescoes by Lor. Lotto, representing the Annunciation 
and the Nativity and Marriage of the Virgin (chapel to the left of 
the choir; partly concealed by the altar-piece). — We may proceed 
to the right through the Via Osmano to the ramparts (p. 194), or 
continue to follow the Strada Porta Dipinta to the left to the Porta 
SanV Agostino (PL D, 2), near which is the old Gothic church of 
the same name (now a barrack). — Just below the gate a footpath, 
lined with acacias, leads to the — 

Accademia Carrara (PL 1 ; E, 2), situated a short way outside 
the Porta Santa Caterina (tramway, p. 193), a school of art with a 
*Picture Gallery [Galleria Carrara, Gal. Morelli, and Gal. Lochis ; 
open daily, 10-4, adm. V2 fr- 5 on 1 st ana " 3rd Sun. of each month, 
and daily from 30th Aug. to 18th Sept., 10-3, free ; at other times, 
1 fr.). Lists of the pictures are provided. Catalogue of the Gal. 
Carrara and the Gal. Lochis 1 fr., of the Gal. Morelli 60 c. 


196 Route 32. BERGAMO. Accademia Carrara. 

First Floor. Unimportant paintings; coins, medals, etc. — On the 
staircase are fragmentary frescoes. 

Second Floor. Straight in front is the Galleria Cakraea. I. Room. 
Engravings and Drawings. The paintings here include : 45-48. Zuccarelli, 
Landscapes; 49. Belotto (Canaletto), Arch of Titus. — II. Room. To the left 
on entering, *66. Lotto, Betrothal of St. Catharine (1523; landscape cut out); 
68. Previtali, Madonna and saints; 67. Cariani, Invention of the Cross; 70. 
Francesco da Santa Groce, Annunciation (1504; early work); 75-83. Moroni. 
Portraits (80, *82, 83, best ; 81, an early work). Then, beyond a series of 
portraits (91 the best) by Fra Vittore Ghislandi (1655-1743), the Bergamasque 
Titian, 97. Previtali, St. Anthony, with SS. Peter, Paul, Stephen, and Law- 
rence; 98. Gaudenzio Ferrari, Madonna and Child; 100. Moroni, St. Jerome 
(in Moretto's manner). Also, on the side-walls, 74, 89, 114. Al. Varotari, 
Copies of Titian's famous Bacchanalia. — III. Boom. To the left, 137. Caroto, 
Massacre of the Innocents; 188. Moroni, Madonna and saints; 159 P. 
Brueghel the Elder, The Woman taken in adultery (1565); Lor. Lotto, 356. 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, 357. Entombment, 358. Miracle of St. Domi- 
nic; Borgognone, 363. Louis IX., 362. St. Agatha, 360. St. Lucy, 359. 
St. Stephen, 361. Pieta; 183. Previtali, Madonna with saints; "379. Lor. 
Lotto, Portrait of a lady, with fine moonlight landscape ; 355. Moroni, Por- 
trait; 136. Memling (?), Portrait; 154. V. Foppa, Crucifixion (1456); *153. 
Manlegna, Madonna (in tempera); no number, Cima da Conegliano (?), Ma- 
donna. — To the right of R. II. is the — 

Gallekia Morelli, bequeathed in 1891 by the well-known art-critic. — 
I. Room. To the left, 3. Vine. Civerchio, Annunciation; 7. Bern. Luini, Ma- 
donna; Franc. Pesellino, 9. A judgment, *li. Marriage of Griselda to the 
Lord of Saluzzo (after Boccaccio's Decameron) ; 17. Vilt. Pisano, Lionello 
d'Este, Duke of Ferrara; 20. Luca Signorelli, Madonna; 21. Sandro Botti- 
celli, Portrait of Giuliano de' Medici (original at Berlin); 22. Boltraffio, 
Christ, a half-figure (an early work); 23. Baldovinetti, Portrait of him- 
self; 26. Ambrogio de Predis, Portrait; 27. Giov. Bellini, Madonna; 31. Ercole 
Grandi, St. John; 35. Benedetto da Majano, Angel (figure in clay); 41. Giov. 
Bellini. Madonna; 44. Bart. Montagna, St. Jerome; farther on, 53. Dona- 
tella (?), Relief of the Madonna. — II. Room. To the left, '61. Basaiti, Por- 
trait (1521); 62. Bacchiacca, Cain and Abel; 64. Gavazzola, Portrait; farther 
on, 70. Elsheimer, Landscape, with St. Jerome ; 77. B. Fabritius, Satyr and 
peasant ; 80. Rembrandt, Portrait of a woman (1635) ; farther on, 86. Brueghel 
the Elder (?), Boors brawling; 87. /. M. Molenaev, The smoker; 88. J. van 
der Meer of Haarlem. Landscape; 91. Empress Frederick of Germany, Tran- 
sitoriness (1882); 90. Lenbach, Portrait of Morelli; farther on, 101. Moretto, 
Christ and the Woman of Samaria. — We return to the staircase; on the 
right is the — 

Galleria Lochis. I. Room. Entrance-wall , 2. Cariani, Portrait of a 
woman; opposite, 21. Jacobello del Fiore, Madonna enthroned with angels, 
and six scenes from the Passion; 55. Moretto, Holy Family. — II. Room. 
Entrance-wall, F. Guardi, Views in Venice; 179. Giorgione, Landscape with 
mythological accessories (studio-piece) ; opposite, Paris Bordone, 42. Vintage, 
41. Landscape with putti; 74 Tiepolo, Sketch for an altar-piece; 60, 61. 
P. Longhi, Venetian scenes ; 32-34. Lor. Lotto, Studies of saints; 35. Moroni, 
Madonna, two saints below : 67. Rubens, Martyrdom of St. Agnes (a sketch 
in colours). — III. Room. To the left of the entrance, 127. Bart. Veneto, 
Madonna (1505); 140. Giov. Bellini, Madonna (an early work; retouched); 
128. Montagna, Madonna between SS. Sebastian and Rochus (1487); 129. 
C. Crivelli, Madonna; 138. Giov. Bellini, Pieta (an early work) ; 130. Luini, 
Holy Family ; 137. Boltraffio, 131. Ambrogio Borgognone, 233. Cosimo Tura, 
Madonnas; farther on, 153. Cariani, Portrait; Manlegna (more probably 
Gregorio Schiavone), 161. St. Jerome, 159. St. Alexius; between these, 154. 
Mantegna (Bonsignorif), Portrait of Vespasiano Gonzaga; farther on, 
235. Carpaccio, Nativity of the Virgin (1504); 170. Caroto, Adoration of 
the Magi; 169. School of Manlegna, Resurrection; 185. Lor. Lotto, Holy 
Family with St. Catharine (1533); 184. Cariani, Portrait of a physician; 
174. Moroni, Portrait of a man; *183. Palma Vecehio , Madonna between 
SS. John and Mary Magdalen ; 177. Moretto, Christ appearing to a donor 

Environs. BERGAMO. 32. Route. 197 

(1518; an early work); 223. Garofalo, Madonna and SS. Rochu9 and Se- 
bastian ; "'201. Raphael (?), St. Sebastian (supposed to be an early work, 
painted in Perugino's school) ; 222. Antonello da Messina, St. Sebastian; 
218. Dosto Dosti, Madonna with St. George and a canonized bishop; 225. 
Vine. Foppa, St. Jerome; Borgognone, 229. Madonna, 219. Procession; 202. 
Fra Angelico, Madonna and angels (early work). 

A more extensive view than that from the ramparts (p. 194) is 
obtained from the old Castello (PI. A, 1), about 3 / 4 M. to the N. W. 
of the Porta Sant' Alessandro (PI. B, 2). There is a small osteria 
at the top. — About l 1 /^ M. to the W. of the Castello is the Pasco 
dei Tedeschi, commanding a good view of the Yaile Brembana. 

Steam Tkamwat from Bergamo to Soncino (p. 189), 26 M. Intermediate 
stations: 3 M. Seriate (p. 198); 7'/2 M. Cavernago , the station fur (1 M.) 
the chateau of Malpaga. the home of Bart. Colleonis old age, with fres- 
coes by Romanino. — From Bergamo (rail, station, PI. D, 6) to Trezzo 
and Afonza, see p. 148. — Railway via Ponte San Pietro (p. 19S) to Seregno, 
see p. 148. From Seregno to Saronno, Busto Arsizio, and Novara, see p. 63. 

From Bergamo (railway- station; PI. E, 6) to Ponte della Selva, 
18 M., railway in I1/2 hr., through the picturesque and industrial Valle 
Seriana. — The train descends to the Serio. 41/4 M. Alzano (where San 
Martino contains one of Lotto's best works, Death of Peter Martyr; good 
wood-carvings in the sacristies). 8 M. Albino. The line ascends, supported 
at places by arches, over the bed of the Serio. 11 M Gazzaniga-Fiorano. 
at the entrance of the valley of Gandino. 12^2 M. Vertova. 

18 M. Ponte della Selva (1560 ft.-. *Albergo Lonardi) is the terminus 
of the line. B,oad thence by Clusone (2165 ft.; 'Alb. G umber o ; Alb. Reale), 
with its interesting church, to (12 M.) Lovere (p. 207). 

Interesting excursion from Ponte della Selva or from Clusone to the 
Bergamasque Alps. — From Clusone we proceed via, Ogna (1815 ft.) and 
Ardesio (1945 ft.) to the (41/2 M.) Ponte diBrialto, where we reach the road 
running up the left bank of the Serio from Ponte della Selva. We then 
go on via (21/2 M.) Gromo (2198 ft.; Osteria dei Terzi) and (4 M.) Fiume- 
nero (2560 ft. ; Osteria Morandi) to (3 M.) Bondione (2920 ft. ; Alb. della 
Cascata. above the village, very fair; guide, Serafino Bonacorsi), the la^t 
village in the Val Seriana. A bridle-path (marked by the I. A. C.) leads 
hence on the left bank of the Serio, passing picturesque cascades and 
ravines (Got di foncc, Goi dtl ca), to the (2 hrs.) magnificent £ Cascata del 
Serio, which descends in three leaps from a height of about 1000 ft. into 
a romantic caldron environed by snow-clad mountains. Above the falls 
is the Pian del Barbellino (3 hrs. from-Bondione), with the Rifugio Cur'« 
(6210 ft.) of the Italian Alpine Club. The best view of the falls is obtained 
from the Belvedere, protected by iron railings (l J /2 hr. from the Rifugio 
and back). From the Rifugio the Monte Gleno (9itt0 ft.; 31/2-4 hrs.), the 
Pizzo di Coca (10,015 ft. ; 5 hrs.), and the Pizzo del Diavolo (9600 ft. 5 4 hrs., 
with guide) may be ascended. Hence we may proceed over the Passo 
di Barbellino (ca. 9050 ft.) and through the finely wooded Val Malgina to 
San Giacomo and (7-8 hrs.) Teglio (p. 161), in the Val Tellina (a pleasant 
trip). Or we may pass the small Barbellino Lake (6095 ft. ; to the N.B.) 
and the sources of the Serio and ascend to (3 hrs.) the Passo di Caronella 
(8565 ft.), to the W. of Monte Torena; we then descend through the Valle 
di Caronella to (3 hrs.), Carona (3710 ft.; accommodation at the Cures) 
and (IV2 hr.) Tresenda (p. 161). 

From Bergamo to Lovere, 28 M., diligence daily in 6 hours. — The 
road at first follows the direction of the railway to Brescia and then runs 
via, (8M.) Tretcorre, 2 M. to the N.E. of station Gorlago (p. 198; diligence), 
with frequented sulphur-baths, into the Val Cavallina: [Near Trescorre 
is the Villa Suavdi, with frescoes by Lor. Lotto, dating from 1524.] The 
road ascends the Val Cavallina, passing Spinone and the pretty lake of 
the same name, and finally descends to (28 M.) Lovere (p. 207). 

198 Route 33. TREVIGLIO. 

From Lecco to Brescia via Bergamo. 

52 M. Railway in 3-4 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 65, 6 fr. 80, 4 fr. 35 c). We change 
arriages at Rovato. 

Lecco, see p. 151. — 2^2 M. Maggianico ; A 1 /^ M. Calolzio, both 
stations on the line from Lecco to Monza and Milan (p. 151). — 
16 M. Ponte San Pietro, with a pretty church and an old castle, the 
junction for Seregno (see p. 197). — We cross the Brembo (p. 193). 
20i/ 2 M. Bergamo (p. 193). — Near (23y 2 M.) Seriate the Serio is 
crossed. 28 M. Gorlago (p. 197); 31i/ 2 M. Grumello del Monte. 
The Oglio (see below) is next crossed. 34 M. Palazzolo (branch to 
Paratico, p. 206); pretty view of the village, to the left. 39^ M. 
Coccaglio, with the convent of MonV Orfano on a height; 4072 M. 
Rovato (see below). — 52 M. Brescia, see p. 199. 

33. From Milan to Verona. 

93 M. Railway in 28/4-6V2 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 40, 12 fr. 20, 7 fr. 85 c, 
express, 19 fr. 15, 13 fr. 45 c). The 'Train de Luxe' (Cannes -Vienna) 
mentioned at p. 20 may he used in winter (2!/2 hrs.). — Railway Stations 
in Verona, see p. 221. 

Milan, see p. 112. — 12 M. Melzo. At (16 M.) Cassano a" Adda 
we cross the blue Adda. 

20 M. Treviglio (410 ft. ; Regina d' Inghilterra ; Rail. Restaurant, 
de'j. 21/2, I>- 372 fr.), a town of 14,987 inhab., is the junction of 
lines to Cremona and Bergamo (pp. 189, 193). The church of San 
Martino has an altar-piece by Buttinone and Zenale. Steam-tram- 
ways to Monza (p. 146), Lodi (p. 334), etc. 

The train crosses the Serio (p. 197). 28 M. Romano di Lom- 
bardia ; 32 M. Calcio. The Oglio (see above) is crossed. 3672 M. 
Chiari, an old and industrious town of 10,749 inhab., starting-point 
of the steam-tramway to Iseo (R. 35). 40 1 / / 2M. Rovato (Rail. Restau- 
rant), junction of the Bergamo-Brescia line described above. 

52 M. Brescia, see p. 199. 

From Brescia to Paema , 57 M. , railway in 2 3 /i-3 3 /i hrs. (fares 10 fr. 
70, 7 fr. 50, 4 fr. 85 c). — The chief intermediate stations are Viadana 
(14 M. ; p. 241), Piadena (31V4 M.; p. 192), junction of the Cremona and 
Mantua line, and (42 M.) Gasalmaggiore, connected with Cremona by steam- 
tramway. — 57 M. Parma, see p. 340. 

From Brescia to Cremona, see p. 192 ; to Bergamo and Lecco, see above ; 
to Vobarno via, Rezzato, see p. 209. — Steam-tramways from Brescia, see p. 206. 

The slopes near Brescia are sprinkled with villas. 56 M. Rez- 
zato. The Chiese is crossed. — Beyond (65 M.) Lonato a tunnel 
and a cutting. 

A long viaduct now carries the line to (68 M.) Desenzano 
(p. 211). Admirable survey in clear weather to the left of the blue 
Lago di Qarda and the peninsula of Sirmione (p. 211). 

72 M. San Martino della Battaglia. A monument on the right 
commemorates the battle of Solferino, where the French and Pied- 
montese under Emp. Napoleon III. and King Victor Emmanuel II. 
defeated the Austrians under Emp. Francis Joseph, 24th June, 1859. 

** ft I" " 

J , J 4) os a o j <S 

S J ° t 

I , 


s. M ij ' ■WWW Jo. ft SS*S. '-t "JTA ^ 3 « 

SOLFERINO. 33. Route. 199 

The village of Solfemw (675 ft.) lies on the S.W. margin of the hills 
bordering the Lago di Garda on the S., about 7Va M. to the S. of Desen/.ano 
and about 5 M. to the S.W. of San Martino. It formed the centre of the 
Austrian position, and was taken about 1 p.m. by the French guards. The 
heights of San Martino to the N.E. were held by General Benedek, who 
repulsed the attacks of the Piedmontese until nightfall, and only abandoned 
his position on receiving the order to retreat. The left wing of the 
Austrian army, attacked by the French under General Niel, also maintained 
its position until late in the afternoon. — Hurried travellers content 
themselves with a visit to the Tower of San Martino, 3 / t M. to the S. 
of the railway-station of that name (see p. 19S). This structure, erected 
to commemorate the battle of Solferino and converted into a military 
museum in 1893, stands upon a platform 65 ft. in width and rises to a 
height of 243 ft. We first enter a circular chamber, in the centre of 
which is a statue by Ant. Dal Zotto, representing Victor Emmanuel II. 
as the commander of the Italian troops at Solferino. On the walls are 
scenes from the life of the King, and on the vaulting are eight allegorical 
figures representing the chief cities of Italy, all painted in wax-colours 
by Vitt. Bretsanin. The side chapels contain busts of the eight Italian 
generals who fell in the wars of independence. From the round chamber 
an easy staircase, ascending through two passages, with bronze tablets 
containing the names of the 650,000 fighters for the unity of Italy, leads 
to seven rooms, one above another, each containing a battle-painting 
and reminiscences of one of the seven campaigns of the wars. From 
the uppermost room we emerge on the platform of the tower, which 
not only commands the battlefield (chief points indicated by arrows) but 
also affords an extensive "View of the Lago di Garda and the chain of 
the Alps. Near the tower is a Charnel House, surrounded by cypresses. 

77 M. Peschiera sul Garda. The station ("Restaurant, de*j. orD. 
2-3 fr.) lies 7-2 M. to the E. of the town [Hot. -Pens. Montresor, clean) ; 
the quay is near the gate, to the right (cab, see p. 215). Peschiera, 
an old fortress with 1700 inhab., lies at the S.E. end of the 
Lago di Garda, at the efflux of the Mincio, which the train crosses. 
On 30th May, 1848, the place was taken by the Piedmontese after a 
gallant defence by the Austrian General Rath, which lasted six weeks. 

79^2 M. Castelnuovo di Verona. — 91 M. Verona Porta Nuova. 
The Adige is crossed ; fine view of the town to the left. 93 M. 
Verona Porta Vescovo, see p. 221. 

34. Brescia. 

The Railway Station (PI. A, i\"Restaurant) lies at the S.W. end of the 
town, near the Porta Stazione. Town Office at Via San Martino 5 (PI. C, 3). 

Hotels. *Albekgo dTtalia (PI. b; C, 3), Corso del Teatro, R. 2 1 (2-^/2, 
dej. 21/2, B 4, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Hotel Bbescia (PI. a; B, 3), Via L T mberto 
Primo, with restaurant and small garden, R. 2 J /2, L. 1 fa, omn. 3 /i fr. ; 
Gallo (PL c ; C, 3), Via Trieste 3, R. from 2 fr. ; Gambero (PL d ; C, 3), 
Corso del Teatro, R. 2, omn. 72 fr., these two with trattorie; Alb. Loca- 
telli, at the station. 

Cafes. Stefanini, Centrale, Corso del Teatro. 

Post Office (PL 20; C, 2), Piazza Posta. — Telegraph Office (PL 21 
C, 3), Via San Martino. 

Cabs (Cittadine): 1 fr. per drive, IV2 fr. per hour. Trunk 20 c. 

Tramway from the railway-station and Porta Milano to Porta Venezia. 

Principal Attractions (1 d'ay). Municipio (p. 200); Cathedral (p. 201); 
Cullection of Antiquities (p. 202); San Clemente (p. 203); Martinengo 
Galleries (pp. 203, 204); Santi Nazzaro e Celso (p. 205); San Francesco 
(p. ^06); San Giovanni Evangelista (p. 205); walk near the Castello (p. 206). 

200 Route 34. BRESCIA. Municipio. 

Brescia (460 ft.), capital of a province and see of a bishop, 
with 69,210 inhab., is beautifully situated at the foot of the Alps, 
and its numerous fountains of limpid water lend it an additional 
charm. Iron wares, and particularly weapons, form the staple com- 
modities, many of the fire-arms used by the Italian army being made 
here. The woollen, linen, and silk factories also deserve mention. 

Brescia, the ancient Celtic Brixia, afterwards a Roman colony, was 
from 1167 one of the most active members of the confederation of Lom- 
bard towns. In 1258 it fell into the hands of Ezzelino (p. 223) and it 
afterwards belonged successively to the Scaligei\< of Verona, the Visconti 
of Milan (1421-26), and the Venetians. It vied with Milan at the beginning 
of the l6th cent, as one of the wealthiest cities of Lombardy, but in 
1512 was sacked and burned by the French under Gaston de Foix (p. 395) 
after an obstinate defence. Five years later it was restored to Venice, 
to which it belonged till 1797, but it has never recovered its ancient 
importance. After the unsuccessful revolt of 1848, Brescia alone of all the 
Lombard towns rallied , under the youthful Tito Speri, to Charles Albert's 
renewed attempt in 1849; but it was bombarded by the Austrians under 
Haynau and after ten days of obstinate street-fighting was taken on 
April 2nd. — Arnold of Brescia , a pupil of Abelard, was one of the most 
prominent leaders of the reforming movement in Italy in the middle ages; 
he attacked the secular power and wealth of the clergy, and after being 
excommunicated by Hadrian IV. was executed in 1155. 

Brescia is noteworthy in" the history of art as "the birthplace of 
Alessandro Bonvicino, surnamed il Moretto (1498-1555), who appears to have 
studied exclusively at his native place, and whose teacher is said to have 
been Floriano Ferramola of Brescia. He has been classed with the Venetian 
school, but erroneously, for nearly all the schools of the 'Terra Ferma 1 
have had an independent development; and, like the Veronese masters, 
he is distinguished from that school by the comparative soberness of 
his colouring ('subdued silvery tone' 1 ), although he vies with the Ven- 
etians in richness and brilliancy, while he sometimes reveals a full measure 
of the ideality of the golden period of art. Bonvicino began his career 
as a painter in his 18th year. He rarely extended the sphere of his labours 
beyond his native place , and Brescia is therefore abundantly stored with 
his works. The churches here (such as San Clemente, p. 203) display his 
fertility, both as a painter 'al fresco'' and in oils, forming quite a museum 
of his pictures. San Giovanni Evangelista (p. 205), Santi Nazzaro e Celso 
(p. 203), and the Galleria Martinengo (p. 204) all contain admirable specimens 
of his powers. Among Moretto's pupils was Giov. Batt. Moroni (ca. 1520-78), 
one of the best portrait-painters of the Renaissance. Another eminent 
master of Brescia, a contemporary of Bonvicino, was Girol. Romanino 
(1485-1566) ; his best works are to be seen in San Francesco (p. 206), San 
Giov. Evangelista (p. 205), and at Padua. — Brescia also contains several 
nteresting antiquities (p. 202). 

The centre of the town is the picturesque Piazza del Comune 
(formerly Piazza Vecchia'), in which rises the *Municipio (PI. 14; 
B, C, 2), usually called La Loggia, begun in the early-Renaissance 
style by Tomm. Fromentone of Vicenza in 1492, but unfinished 
until Jacopo Sansovino completed the upper part in 1554-74. The 
window-mouldings are by Palladio (1562). The large saloon on the 
upper story and the lofty vaulted roof were destroyed by a fire in 
1575. The exterior of this magnificent structure is almost overladen 
with ornamentation, including a charming 'putto' frieze by Sanso- 
vino. On the groundfloor is a deep colonnade ; in front are pillars 
and pilasters. The upper floor recedes considerably. The building 
is now being restored, and it is said that the disfiguring octagonal 

Duomo Nuovo. BRESCIA. 34. Route. 201 

addition on the top, due to L. Vanvitelli (1769-73), is to be replaced 
by a dome in accordance with the original design. — The handsome 
adjacent building on the right, the Archivio e Camera Notarile(Yl. 1), 
is probably also by Fromentone. 

On the opposite (E.) side of the Piazza, above an arcade, rises the 
Torre dell' Orologio , or clock-tower , with a large dial (twice 1 to 
12). The bell is struck by two iron figures as at Venice (p. 275). 
— To the left rises a Monument, erected in 1864 to the Brescians 
who fell in 1849 (p. 200); on the pedestal are scenes from the 
contest. — The S. side of the piazza is occupied by the Monte di 
Pieta, a plain Renaissance building begun in 1484; the E. half, 
with a handsome loggia, was erected in 1597 by Pier Maria Bag- 

To the S.E. of the Piazza del Comune is the *Duonio Nuovo 
(PL C, 3), a handsome church begun in 1604 by Giov. Bait. Lantana 
(but the dome, 270 ft. high, not completed till 1825). It is in the 
form of a Greek cross, with a lengthened choir. 

Interior. By the first pillar on the right is the large monument of 
Bi9hop Nava (d. 1831), by Monti; by the first pillar on the left, the mon- 
ument of Bishop Ferrari (d. 1846). The. second altar on the right is 
adorned with modern statues in marble of Faith, by Selaroni, and Hope, 
by Emanueli, and a painting, Christ healing the sick, by Gregoletti (1850). 
Then (3rd altar on the right), a sarcophagus with small reliefs (1510), 
containing the '■Corpora D. D. Apollonii et Philastrf, transferred hither in 
1674 from the crypt of the old cathedral. — High-altar-piece, an Assump- 
tion by Zoboli, designed by Seb. Conca (18th cent.). 

From a door between the 2nd and 3rd altars 25 steps descend 
to the Duomo Vecchio (PLC, 3), generally called La Rotonda (shown 
by the sacristan of the Duomo Nuovo). This massive dome-struc- 
ture (of the 10th cent. ?) is circular, as its name imports, with an 
ambulatory, and rests on eight short pillars in the interior. Beneath 
is the crypt, or Basilica di San Filastro (now lighted by electricity), 
supported by 42 columns. This represents an early- Christian 
basilica, the ground-plan of which was probably followed in the 
curious old addition on the E. side of the church, consisting of a 
transept and choir with lateral chapels. 

On the W. side of the above-mentioned ambulatory is the tomb of 
Bishop Maggi (d. 1308), by Ugo da Campione('0- — Altar-piece in the added 
choir, an "Assumption by Moretto (1526) •, at the sides, a Presentation in 
the Temple and a "Visitation, hyRomanino; on the left, Palma Vecchio (7), 
Holy Family (retouched). 

Opposite the E. side of the Duomo Nuovo is the entrance to 
the*BibliotecaQaeriniana(Pl. 4, C3; fee %it.\ of 40,000 vols., 
bequeathed to the town in 1747 by Cardinal Querini. Several 
curiosities are preserved in a separate cabinet. (Admission 9-4, 
in winter 9-3, on Wed., Sun., and high festivals 12-3; vacation 
Oct. lst-20th.J. 

Book of the Gospels of the 9th cent., with gold letters on purple 
vellum; Koran in 12 vols., with miniatures and gilding; an old Book of 
the Gospels, and a Harmony of the Gospels by Eusebius (10th cent.), 
with miniatures; 14th cent. MS. of Dante on parchment, with miniatures; 

202 Route 34. BRESCIA. Museum of Antiquities. 

a Petrarch of 1470 with various illustrations CPetrarca figurato 1 ) and 
written annotations; a Dante with numerous wood-cuts, printed at Brescia 
in 1487, etc. 

The Broletto (PI. C, 2, 3), a massive building, adjoining the 
cathedral on the N., dates from 1187 and 1222 hut was not entirely 
completed until the 15-17th centuries. Anciently (until 1421) the 
town-hall, it now contains the courts of justice and the prefecture. 
The campanile on the S. side, the Torre del Popolo, belongs to the 
original edifice, which is now being restored in the initial style. 

The Gothic brick facade of the former church of SanV Agostino 
is incorporated with the "W. side of the Broletto, past which the 
Vicolo Sant' Agostino ascends to the Piazza Tito Speri (PI. C, 2), at 
the entrance to the Castello. This piazza, now embellished with 
a monument to Tito Speri (p. 200; b. 1827, executed at Mantua in 
1853), was one of the most obstinately contested points in 1849. 

The Contrada Broletto and the Via Santa Giulia run hence to 
the E. to the Piazza del Museo (PI. D, 2, 3), occupying the site of 
the Roman Forum, of which the Porticus on the E. side is a Telic. 
At the N. end of the piazza is the entrance to the — 

*Museum of Antiquities {Museo Civico Eta Romana or Museo 
Patrio; PI. D, 2; week-days 10-4, Nov. to Feb. 10-3, fee 1 fr., 
which admits also to the Mediaeval Museum; free on Sun. in 
summer, 1-4). The museum occupies an ancient Corinthian Temple 
of Hercules, excavated in 1822, which, according to inscriptions, 
was erected by Vespasian in A.D. 72. The dilapidated, but ex- 
ceedingly picturesque temple stands on a lofty substructure, with 
a projecting colonnade of ten columns and four pillars to which the 
steps ascend, and has three celiac of moderate depth. 

The pavement of the Principal Hall has been restored from the 
original remains. By the back-wall, as in the other chambers, are placed 
the bases of the temple images. Among the Roman inscriptions and 
sculptures is an archaic head ; also two tombs of the flint period. — The 
Side Room on the right contains ancient glass, vases, coins, bronzes, etc. — 
In the Room on the left are fragments of a colossal temple-figure, arch- 
itectural fragments, gilded bronze busts, a relief of a naval battle, 
breastplate of a war-horse, and above all a ""Statue of Victory, excavated 
in 1826, a bronze figure about 6V2 ft. in height, with a silver-plated 
diadem round her head, a (restored) shield, on which she is about to 
write, in her left hand, and a (restored) helmet under her left foot, one 
of the most precious existing specimens of ancient plastic art. 

A couple of min. to the S. maybe seen some remains of the Roman 
Curia, built into the N. side of the small Piazza del Beveratore; and 
a few traces of the Roman Theatre may be noticed in the court of 
the Casa Gambara, in the Vicolo Fontanone. 

Farther along the Via Santa Giulia (see above), and in the upper 
part of the Via Veronica Gambara, rises a large block of buildings, 
including three churches. These are relics of the convent of San 
Salvalore or Santa Giulia, founded by the Lombard King Desiderius. 
The church of Santa Maria del Solario (Pl.D, 2, 3) is Romanesque 
(11 -12th cent.). The other churches, S. Salvatore (8th cent.) and 

Pal. Tosio. BRESCIA. 34. Route. 203 

S. Oiulia (1466-1599) have been occupied since 1882 by the 
Mediaeval Museum {Museo CivicoEta Cristiana. or Museo Medioevale; 
PI. D, 2; adm. same price and times as the Museum of Antiquities, 
see p. 202). 

In the Vestibule, a bust of Fra Paolo Sarpi (p. 300). In the New Part 
of the church, on the wall to the left, fine weapons, architectural remains 
with interesting ornaments of the Lombard period, majolicas; in front, 
the 'Cross of Galla PJacidia" (p. 385), of 8th cent, workmanship, decorated 
with gems of various periods and portraits of the empress and her sons 
Honorius and Valentinian III. ; in the centre, ivory reliefs, including 
consular diptychs of Boethius and Lampadius (5th cent.) and the Diptychon 
Querinianum, medallions, plaquettes, Renaissance bronzes; on the N. wall, 
Venetian glass, marble door (16th cent.) from a church at Chiari, Limoges 
and Venetian enamel, niello work, and the 'Lipsanoteca' or sides of a 
reliquary of the 4th cent., carved in ivory and arranged in the form of a 
cross. — In the Old Part of the church, the monument of the Venetian 
general Orsini (1510), and tbe Mausoleum of Marcantonio Martinengo 
(16th cent.), with reliefs in bronze, from the church of San Cristo (see 
below). The lectern opposite is adorned with intarsia by Raffaello da 
Brescia (1518). — On the back-wall, a fresco of the 16th century. — 
Finally we descend into the lower-lying church of San Salvatore, which 
contains a collection of frescoes (15-16th cent.). 

The church of San Cristo (PI. D, 2), above the Museum, has a 
facade with interesting brick - ornamentation. — San Pietro in 
Oliveto (PI. D, E, 2) is a Renaissance church by Sansovino(?). 

The Via San Clemente leads to the right from the Via VeTonica 
Gambara to San Clemente (PI. 9; D, 3), a small church containing 
a modern monument of Moretto(y>. 200 ; to the left) and five of his 
works, much injured by retouching. The chuTch is badly lighted 
and is closed 8-2; sacristan, in the lane to the W. 

On the right, 2nd altar, *SS. Cecilia, Barbara, Agnes, Agatha, and 
Lucia: a charming composition, in which the repellant attributes of 
martyrdom are handled with such marvellous naivete as almost to assume 
an attractive air (C. <Sc C). On the left, 1st altar, St. Ursula and the 
Eleven Thousand Virgins; 2nd altar, Madonna with SS. Catharine of 
Alexandria, Catharine of Siena, Paul, and Jerome; 3rd altar, Abraham and 
Melchisedech. s High-altar-piece, Madonna with SS. Clement, Dominic, 
Florian, Catharine, and Mary Magdalen. 

A little to the S.E. is Santa Maria Calchera(Pl. 12; D, 3). First 
altar to the left: Simon the Pharisee and Christ by Moretto. Second 
altar to the right : *St. Apollonius blessing the Host, by Romanino. 
Small chapel behind the pulpit: Pieta with SS. Jerome and 
Dorothea, by Moretto. High-altar: Visitation, by Calisto da Lodi 
(1525). — Adjacent is the Porta Venezia (PI. E, 3), near which is 
a bronze statue of Arnold of Brescia by Odoardo Tabacchi (1882). 
Tramway, see p. 199. 

Besides the above museums the town also possesses valuable 
collections of ancient and modern pictures, sculptures, etc. These 
are preserved in the Palazzo Tosio (PI. D, 3), Via Tosio 12 
(bequeathed by Count Tosio), and in the Palazzo Martinengo. Adm. 
as to the Museum of Antiquities (p. 202); fee 1 fr. No catalogue. 

First Floor. Rooms I- VII. Italian paintings (19th cent.); also (R. V) 
Ganymede, and (R. VI) ^ight and Day, all by Thorvaldsen. — Room IX : 
i. Baruzzi, Silvia, a statue in marble from Tasso. — Octagon: i. Barto- 

204 Route 34. BRESCIA. Pal. Martintngo. 

lint, Boy treading grapes-, 2. Gandolfi (after Thorvaldsen), Genius of Music. 

Cabinet: 1. Eleonora d'Este, a bust by Canova. — Rooms XI & XII 

contain modern paintings. Room XIII (earlier works) : 5. Fr. Albani, Venus 
and Graces; 14. Tintoretto, Portrait; 35. School of Raphael, Madonna; 38. 
Fra Bartolomeo, Holy Family (spoiled by retouching). 

Ground Floor. Room XVI: 1. Laocoon, in marble, by Ferrari; 7. 
Monti, Bust of Galileo; 5, 6. Copies of Canova's colossal busts of himself 
and of Napoleon I. by Gandolfi. 

We now return, and, turning to trie right by the Yia dell' Arsenale, 
reach the new Piazza Moretto (PI. D, 4), with a bronze Statue ofMo- 
retto (PI. 18), by Dom. Ghidoui (1898). On the E. side of the square 

Photographs: Fratelli Rinaldi, Piazza San Francesco, 
rises the unfinished *Palazzo Martinengo CAteneo"), which has 
belonged to the town since 1887. On the groundfloor are relics of 
the rising of 1849, Garibaldi's travelling-carriage, etc., and on the 
first floor is an important *Picture Gallery, especially strong in works 
by Moretto and Romanino. Entrance, Via Martinengo da Barco; 
the adm. fee for the Pal. Tosio admits also to this collection. 

Room I. Giov. Donato Montorfano (?) , St. George and the dragon : 
numerous frescoes. — Room II (main room). Entrance-wall : G. B. Moroni, 
Two portraits; Franc. Francia, Two Madonnas; Girol. dai Libri, Miniature; 
Raphael, *Cbrist blessing, with crown of thorns and wounds (painted in 
Florence, still under Umbrian influence; 1505); Lor. Lotto, "Adoration of 
the Child; Cesnre da Seslo (? more probably Timoleo Viti), Angel's head. 
Above, Moretto, Assumption; Romanino, ^Christ at Emmaus and Magdalen 
at Jesus' feet (frescoes), '"'Bearing of the Cross; Moretto, 'Madonna in clouds, 
with angels, St. Francis, and donors below (1542). End-wall to the left: 
Moretto, Portrait, Annunciation (early work), Christ at Emmaus, Adoration 
of the Child, SS. Anthony of Padua and Nicholas; Romanino, Group of 
saints (injured). End-wall to the right: Moretto, '-Madonna in clouds, 
with four saints below (from Santa Eufemia); v St. Nicholas presenting 
school-children to the Madonna (1539); Descent of the Holy Ghost. Ro- 
manino, Adoration of the Shepherds, Entombment. — Room III. Calisto 
da Lodi, Adoration of the Child (fresco; 1524); Civerchio , St. Nicholas; 
Savoldo, Adoration of the Child ; Sofonisba Anguisciola, Portrait. — Room IV. 
At the exit, Van Dyck (?), Madonna with the Child and St. John ; Glouet, 
surnamed Janet, Portrait of Henri III. of France. — The seven following 
rooms contain valuable drawings and engravings by old masters. 

Adjoining the Pal. Martinengo is Sant' Afra (PI. D, 4), an an- 
cient church entirely rebuilt in 1580 by Bagnadore. 

High-altar-piece: Tintoretto, Ascension, in which the blue of the sky 
is the predominant colour. Over the S. door: Titian (or Gitil. Campif), 
Christ and the Woman taken in adultery (covered). Over the second 
altar on the N. side : P. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. Afra. 

The church of Sant' Alessandro (PI. 7; C, 4), in the Via Moretto. 
contains (1st altar to the right) an Annunciation (covered) by Paolo da 
Bresciafy, and a Pieta by Civerchio (2nd altar to the right). 

Near the N.W. angle of the Piazza del Comune (p. 200) begins 
the Corso delle Mercanzie, which, with its prolongation, the Corso 
Garibaldi, leads to the Porto Milano (p. 205). At the end of the 
first-named street, to the left, is the Torre della Palata (PI. 22; B, 2), 
a mediceval tower (100 ft. high) with modern pinnacles. — Near a 

88. Nazzaro e Celso. BRESCIA. 34. Route. 205 

fountain to the right, in the Via S. Giovanni, is San Giovanni Evan- 
gelista (Pi. B, 2), with admirable pictures. 

We begin on the right. 3rd Altar : Moretto, Massacre of the Innocents, 
a youthful work (copied from the engraving by Marcantonio). In the choir, 
behind the high-altar: Moretto, Mohn the Baptist, Zacharias, SS. Augustine 
and Agnes; in the centre, the Madonna; above, God the Father (un- 
fortunately retouched). — In the next chapel (Corpus Domini) : Civerchio, 
Entombment, in a magnificent Benaissance frame (1509); in the lunette 
above, Coronation of the Virgin, by Romanino. '"Frescoes on the right by 
Moretto (youthful works of 1521, showing the influence of Bomanino) : 
Collecting the manna, Elijah, and Last Supper, on the pilasters, St. Mark 
and St. Luke, and six prophets above. Those on the left are by Romanino: 
Baising of Lazarus, Mary Magdalen before Christ, and the Sacrament, on 
the pilasters, St. John and St. Matthew (the latter damaged), and six 
prophets above. — In the Battistero (in front, to the left): Francesco 
Francia, *The Trinity adored by saints, one of the artist's finest works. 

We next proceed by the Via Borgondio, to the N.E., to visit 
Santa Maria del Caemixe (PI. B, C, 2), dating from the 15th cent., 
with a Renaissance portal and fine brick ornamentation on the 
facade. The lunette contains a fresco (Annunciation) by Ferramola. 
In the third chapel on the right, Fathers of the Church, a ceiling- 
painting by Vine. Foppa. 

To the W., at the end of Yia San Rocco, is the church of Santa 
Maria delle Grazie (PI. A, 2), which dates from 1522, with the 
exception of the main portal, which is older. 

1st altar to the left, Madonna in clouds, with four saints below, by 
Foppa ; over the high-altar, a Nativity of Christ, by Moretto ; chapel to 
the right of the choir, Madonna in clouds, below, SS. Sebastian, Ambrose, 
and Bochus by Moretto. — The church is adjoined on the left by a small 
early-Benaissance court and a modern Bomanesque pilgrimage-chapel, by 
Ant. Tagliaferri. 

Beside the Porta Milano (PI. A, 2) is a bronze Equestrian Statue 
of Garibaldi, designed by Maccagnani (1889). — The Corso CaTlo 
Alberto (the fourth side-street in the Corso Garibaldi, p. 204) leads 
to the S. to the Palazzo'Fe (18th cent.) and the church of Santi 
Nazzaro e Celso (PI. 13 5 A, 3), built in 1780 and containing several 
good pictures. 

•High-altar-piece by Titian , in five sections , the Besurrection being 
the principal subject; on the right, St. Sebastian, on the left, St. George 
with the portrait of Averoldo, the donor (1522); above these, the Annun- 
ciation ('long an object of study to the artists of the Brescian School': 
C. & C). — Second altar on the left, ^Coronation of the Virgin, with SS. 
Michael, Joseph, Nicholas, and Francis below, by Moretto (covered; 'this 
altar-piece is the very best of its kind, cold perhaps in silver-grey surface, 
but full of bright harmony and colour 1 : C. & C). — Third altar on the 
right, Christ in glory (1541); fourth altar on the left, Nativity, with SS. 
Nazzaro and Celso, also by Moretto, sadly damaged. — In the sacristy, 
above the side-door, Predella by Moretto, Adoration of the Child, Madonna 
and angel in medallions. On the organ-wing, an Annunciation by Foppa. 
Above the side-doors of the main portal of the church is a large painting 
of the Martyrdom of Nazarius and Celsus, ascribed to Foppa. 

A few yards to the E., in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (which 
leads to the rail, station), is the small church of the Madonna dei 
Miracoli (PI. 5 ; B, 3), with four domes and a rich facade, an early- 
Renaissance building (1488-1523) though not completed until the 

206 Route 35. LAGO D'ISEO. 

17th century. — A little to the N. is San Francesco (PL B, 3 ; 
adm. 10-4 hy the side-entrance to the left of the choir), with Gothic 
facade ; 3rd chapel on the right, Moretto, *SS. Margaret, Francis, and 
Jerome (signed 1530); over the high-altar, Romanino, **Madonna 
and saints, a masterpiece of hrilliant colouring (ahont 1511 ; in an 
older frame, 1502). 

An elegant little Palazzo, in the high-Renaissance style (16th 
cent.), should be noticed in the Corso Dolzani (PI. B, 3). — Not 
far off, in the Via del Palazzo Vecchio, is the Palazzo Calzavellio, 
with remains of paintings on its facade. 

About 1/2 M. from the Porta Milano (p. 205) lies the pretty Campo Santo, 
to which an avenue of cypresse3 leads from the highroad. Monument to 
the patriots of 1849 , by Pagani (1SO0). Fine view from the tower. — A 
picturesque walk may be taken in the gardens beneath the Castello (PI. C, 
D, 2). The view (best towards evening) extends in clear weather to Monte 
liosa on the W. The ascent to the castle begins at the Piazza Tito Speri 
(p. 202). 

Steam Tramways run from Brescia via Orzinuovi to (20'/2 M.) Soncino 
(p. 189); via (22 M.; 2 hrs.) Medole, in the church of which is a fine late 
work by Titian (Christ appearing to the Virgin), and (26 M.) Guidizzolo, on 
the battlefield of Solferino (p. 199; 2y< hrs.) to (44 M.) Mantua (p. 235; 
4 hrs.); to the Alpine Valleys described in the next route; and to Mad er no 
on the Lago di Garda (couip. p. 210). 

35. The Brescian Alps. 

1. Lago d'Iseo and Val Camonica. 

Railways from Brescia. 1. To Iseo, 15 M., in ca. H/4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 80, 
1 fr. 95, 1 fr. 30 c). 2. To Paratico on the Lago d'Iseo, 24V2M., in H/2 hr. 
(fares 4 fr. 55, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 10 c). — Steam Tramway from Chiari and 
Rovalo (p. 198) to Iseo (the shortest route from Milan). — Steamer on Lago 
d'Iseo between Sarnico and Lovere thrice daily in 2 3 /«-3 1 /4 hrs. (fares 2 fr. 
or 1 fr. 40 c.) and between Iseo and Lovere 4-5 times in 17«-2 3 /4hrs. Predore is 
the only intermediate station touched at by all the boats. — Steam Tramway 
from Lovere to Cividate, 13V2 M., 4 times daily in 1% hr. — Post Omnibus 
from Cividate to Edolo, 21 M., twice daily in 4V2hrs. (one-horse carr. 14- 
15 fr.). 

From Brescia (p. 199) to Iseo. — 8 M. Paderno Franciacorta ; 
13 M. Provaglio d Iseo; 15 M. Iseo (p. 207). 

From Brescia to Paratico. — From Brescia to (18 M.) 
Palazzolo, see p. 198. Our line here diverges to the N.E. 24*/ 2 M. 
Paratico, on the left hank of the Oglio, which here issues from 
Lago d'Iseo. On the opposite hank lies Sarnico (Cappello), a prettily 
situated place, connected with Paratico hy a bridge. Near it is the 
Villa Montecchio, with a superb view. 

The *Lago d'Iseo (Lacus Sebinus ; 605 ft. above the sea; 15 M. 
long, l 1 /^ M. broad , and about 820 ft. deep in the centre) 
has an area of 24 square miles. Its banks are green with luxur- 
iant vegetation, while to the N. is visible the snow-clad Adamello 
Group, with the Pian di Neve, the Salarno, and the Adame glaciers. 
In the middle of the lake lies an island 2 M. long, containing the 
villages of Siviano and Peschiera Maraglio, and culminating in the 
Mont 1 Isola (1965 ft). — On the E. hank, from Iseo to Pisogne 

LOVERE. 35. Route. 207 

(see below), runs the highroad from Brescia, commanding magni- 
ficent views. 

The Steamer from Sarnico usually steers first to Predore, the 
ancient Praetorium, which yields excellent wine; then to the S.E. 
back to Iseo {Leon d'Oro, R. 2, pens. 7 fr.), a busy little town with 
walls and an old castle. Its industries are oil-pressing, dyeing, 
and silk-spinning. — The next stations are Tavernola (W. bank), 
Siviano (see p. 206), Suhano (inn; E. bank), and Peschiera (see 
p. 206). The following stations on the E. bank are Sale- Mar usino, 
then beyond an islet with the ruined monastery of San Loreto, 
Marone (Alb. del Monte Guglielmo; Due Spade), at the W. base 
of Monte Guglielmo (see below), and Velio. Opposite, on the "W. 
bank, lies Riva di Solto. The last station on the E. bank is Pisogne 
(Alb. Croce Verde; Tre Stelle), the best starting-point for an ascent 
of Mte. Guglielmo. The Chiesa della Neve is adorned with frescoes 
by Romanino. Finally we pass the mouth of the Oglio and reach — 

Lovere (Alb. Sant' Antonio; Ancora), a busy little place with 
3406 inhab., prettily situated at the N.W. end of the lake. The 
Stabilimento Metallurgico Gregorini, a large iron-work and cannon- 
foundry on the road to Riva di Solto, employs 1600 workmen; 
and Lovere also possesses a silk-spinning factory. — The hand- 
some church of Santa Maria in Valvendba, built in 1473, restored 
in 1547, 1751, and 1888, contains frescoes by Floriano Ferramola 
(p. 200) and Andrea da Manerbio (Cappella dello Sposalizio). an 
early Milanese altar-piece (in the same chapel), an Annunciation 
by Ferramola (on the outside of the organ-shutters, dated 1518). 
SS. Jovita and Faustinus by Romanino (inside of the shutters), 
and an Ascension by Fr. Morone (high-altar). The parish-church 
of San Giorgio, erected in 1655, was enlarged in 1878. — The long 
Palazzo Tadini contains a collection of old pictures. 

78. Titian , Portrait , damaged ; 119, 127. Brusasorci . St. William, St. 
Francis-, 125. P. Veronese, Madonna-, 255. Jac. Bellini^ Madonna, damaged; 
2S2. Guercino (?), St. Sebastian; 307. P. Bordone, Madonna and saints; 386. 
Savoldo (not Giorgione), Dead Christ. — Here also are sculptures by Benzoni 
and Canova (tombstone) and a zoological collection. 

A pleasant excursion (2 hrs.) may be made via the Convento dei 
Cappuecini to the Santuario di San Giovanni, affording a fine view 
of lake and mountain. 

The * Monte Guglielmo (6390 ft.) is ascended via Pisogne (see above) 
in 6-7 hrs.; just below the summit is a Rifugio (rfmts.). The superb view 
embraces the lake, the Bergamasque Alps, the Adamello group, and the 
mountains of the Val Trompia. The descent may be made via Pezzoro to 
(2-3 hrs.) Lavone, or direct to (5-6 hrs.) Gardone Valtrom-pia (p. 208). 

Good roads lead from Lovere through the Val Cavallina to (27 M.) Ber- 
gamo (p. 193), and through the ravine (orrido) of Borlezza to (7V2 M.) Clu- 
sone (p. 197). 

The Road from Lovere to Edolo (steam-tramway to'Cividate, 
see p. 206) leads through the well-cultivated Val Camonica, which 
is watered by the Oglio. It is enclosed by lofty, wooded mountains, 
and enlivened with many iron-works. The silk-culture is also an 

208 Route 35. COLLIO. Brescian 

important industry here. The dark rocks (verrucano) contrast cu- 
riously with the light triassic formations. 

Near the (572 M.) Casino di Boario (735 ft. ; *Bath Hotel ; Alh. 
degli Alpinisti, R. 2-272* D. 3, pens. 6-8 fr.) our road joins the 
road from Pisogne (p. 207). A route, diverging to the left, leads 
hence through the imposing gorge of the Dezzo to Vilminore and 
Schilpario (see Baedeker's Eastern Alps). 

Near (1372 M.) Cividate, where the steam-tramway ends, is a 
very picturesque deserted monastery on the hill. Farther on we pass 
through a ravin e and cross the Oglio to — 

1572 M. Breno (1080 ft.; Italia, unpretending; Trattoria del 
Fumo; Caffe Leonardi), capital of the lower Val Camonica, with a 
ruined castle. To the E. rises Monte Frerone (8770 ft.). 

The valley again contracts. To the right, a little hack from the 
road, lies the village of Ceto, at the foot of the PizzoBadile (7920 ft.). 
— Beyond (21 y 2 M Ca PO di Ponte (1375 ft. ; Alb. Oeseretti; Alb. 
Sant' Antonio, plain; Osteria Apollonio) the scenery changes; maize 
and mulberries become rare. — 2572 M. Cedegolo (1335ft.; Alb. 
all' Adamello; Osteria Sanguini; Caffe-Trattoria della'Posta, with 
rooms); 297 2 M. Malonno (1770ft.) 

347a m. Edolo (2290 ft. ; Leone d'Oro; Gallo, well spoken of), 
a small and picturesquely situated town, commanded on the E. by 
Monte Aviolo (9450 ft.). 

At Edolo the road divides. The branch to the N. crosses the Tonale 
Pass (6180 ft.) to San Michele, a station on the Botzen and Verona railway 
(p. 17), or over the Mendel Pass direct to Botzen. The road to the W. 
crosses the Passo d'Aprica (3880 ft.) to Tresenda in the Val Tellina (p. 161 ; 
25 M. ; one-horse carr. in 6 hrs., 25 fr.). See Baedekers Eastern Alps. 

2. Val Trompia. 

Steam Tramway from Brescia (starting at the rail, station) to (12 ! /2 M.) 
Gardone Valtrompia five times daily, in ca. l ! /4 hr. (fares 1 fr. 20, 90 c). — 
Omnibus (in summer) from Gardone to (13 M.,",in 3 J /2 hrs.) Collio (carr. 
from the Hot. Mella 8-10, with two horses 16 fr.). 

The Steam Tramway issues from the; Porta Trento (PI. C, 1), 
the N. gate of Brescia, and then runs to the N., through an attrac- 
tive - and well-tilled district, to the Val Trompia, which is watered 
by the Mella. 

■ From (1272 M.) Gardone Valtrompia the attractive Road leads 
past several iron-mines, which furnish the metal for the Brescian 
weapon factories, and past Lavone, the starting-point for the ascent 
of the Monte Guglielmo (p. 207). 

13 M. Collio (ca. 3300 ft. ; *H6tel Mella, with a hydropathic, 
R. 3-5, pens. 9-11 fr., open May-Oct.; Alb. Tabladino), the capital 
of the Upper Val Trompia, frequented in summer for its cool 

An attractive pass leads from Collio via the Colle Maniva (5475 ft.) to 
(5 hrs.) Bagolino (p. 210). The Dosso Alio (6175 ft.; 1 hr.), to the S., 
and the Monte Colombine (7260 ft.-, 2 hrs.), to the N.W., may be ascended 
from the Colle Maniva; two easy and attractive expeditions. 

Alps. LAGO D'IDRO. 35. Route. 209 

3. Val Sabbia and Lago d'Idro. 

Railway from Brescia via, Tormini to Yobarno, 22'/2 M., in ca. l 3 /4 hr. 
(fares 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 30, 80 c.)- The stations are numerous and the trains 
are often late. Public vehicles for Said (fare 50 c.) are usually to be 
found at Tormini. — Steam Tramway from Brescia (Brescia-Tormini-:-alo- 
Maderno line, see below), starting at the rail, station, via (18 M.) Tormini 
(carr. changed) and (2072 M.) Vobamo to (30 31.) Vestone (4 trains daily, 
in 3V2-4: l /4 hrs.). — Highroad from Brescia to (35 l / 2 M.) Ponte Caffaro via 
Preseglie, Vestone, and Anfo (diligence to Anfo daily in 7 hrs.). 

The Railway is identical with, the Milan and Verona line as far 
as (5 1 2 M.) Rezzato (p. 198). We then turn to the N.E., near the 
barren S.W. slopes of the Brescian Alps, and enter the lower Chiese 
Valley, which is watered by the Naviglio Grande, a canal constructed 
in 1*283. The chief stations are (16 M.) Gavardo (650 ft.), where 
we cross the Chiese, and (I872 M.) Tormini (see below). — 22>/2 M. 
Vobamo (805 ft.), the terminus of the line, is situated in the upper 
valley of the Chiese, which is enclosed by lofty mountains and above 
Tormini is known as the Val Sabbia. 

The Steam Tramway leaves Brescia by the Porta Venezia (PI. 
E, 3), the E. city-gate, and skirts the bare S. slopes of the Brescian 
Alps, passing many attractive villas and then large quarries. The 
chief stations are Rezzato (p. 198), Nuvolera, Paitone, and Gavardo, 
villages with the houses lighted by electricity. The mountain- 
chapel of Paitone, y 4 hr. above the village, contains a celebrated 
Madonna by Moretto. 

18 M. Tormini (745 ft. ; inn) lies at the foot of the Selva Plana 
(3166 ft.), which may be ascended hence in 2*/4 hrs. via Prandaglio 
and the church of the Madonna dtlla Neve (2900 ft. ; view). 

From Tormini to Maderno, 11 M., steam-tramway in l'/4 hr. (comp. 
above). The line follows the Desenzano road (p. 211) to the S.E., and 
then, at (3 M.") Cunettone, turns sharply to the N. and descends to (5 J /2 M.J 
Salb (p. 212j, affording splendid "Views of the smiling Bay of Salo, the 
steep bank of the Riviera (p. 212) overhung by the Mte. Pizzocolo, and 
the long Mte. Baldo, on the E. bank of the Lago" di Garda. — 6'/ 2 M. Salb- 
Carmine, at the E. end of the village. We follow the highroad, skirting 
the lake, via (81/2 M.) Gardone Riviera (p. 212) to (11 M.) Maderno (p. 214). 

2OV2 M. Vobamo (see above). — 25 [ /> M. Sabbio. The castle 
(Rocca) contains old Brescian paintings (14-15th cent.). — At 
(27^2 M.) Barghe the road from Brescia through the Val Garza 
enters the Val Sabbia. — 30 M. Vestone (1050 ft.; Agnello; Italia), 
the capital of the valley. 

The Road quits the Val Sabbia at (3 M.) Lavenone (1260 ft.) 
and then skirts the W. bank of the Lago d'Idro (1207 ft.), which is 
6 M. long and 3 / 4 -lV4 M. broad. To the right, at the S.E. angle of 
the lake, is the village of Idro. — 3 M. Anfo (1280 ft. ; diligence 
to Brescia, see above), with the picturesque keep of Rocca d'Anfo, 
once a Venetian frontier- fort. 2^4 M. Sant' Antonio. 

21/4 M. Ponte Caffaro (inn; Italian and Austrian custom-house), 
1 M. to the N. of the Lago d'Idro, on the wild torrent of Caffaro, 
which here forms the frontier. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 14 . 

210 Route 36. LAGO DI GARDA. 

Above Ponte Caffaro the Val Caffaro becomes an impassable govge. 
From Sanf Antonio (p. 209) a road leads in wide carves to (4*/2 M.) 
Bagolino ('2335 ft.; Alb. Ciappana, very fair), a large mountain- village 
(3500 inbab ), in a fine situation. — From Bagolino over the Colle Maniva 
to the Val Trompia, see p. 208. 

From Ponte Caffaro to the Lago di Ledro and to Riva, on the Lago di 
Garda, see p. 217 ^to Conditio and Tione, see Baedeker' s Eastern Alps. 

36. The Lago di Garda. 

Steamboats. 1. W. Bank (the more picturesque; inconvenient rail- 
way-connections, especially with Venice), between Desenzano and Riva, 
twice daily in 4-5 l /4 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 45, 2 fr. 60 c, plus the duty of 10 c. 
per ticket). On Tues. a third boat plies from Desenzano to Maderno. 
Stations: Sirmione, Manerba, San Felice (these two not on all trips), Salb, 
Oardone- Riviera, Maderno, Gargnano, Tignale, Campione, Tremosine, Limone, 
Riva. The morning steamer from Desenzano also touches at Castelletto 
and Malcesine, the afternoon-boat from Riva at Torbole and Malcesine (all 
on the E. bank). — 2. E. Bank, between Riva and Peschiera, daily in 
i l li hrs. (fares 4 fr. 60, 2 fr. 50c). Stations: Torbole, Malcesine, Assenza, 
Magugnano , Castelletto, Gargnano (W. bank), Torn, Garda, Bardolino, 
Lazise, Peschiera. — 3. From Peschiera to Maderno (very pleasant in 
clear weather), once daily in l 3 /4 hr. ; stations: Lazise, Bardolino, Garda, 
Torri, Maderno. — Excursion-trips to both banks are made on Sun. in 
summer; day -ticket 2 fr., season-ticket 5 fr. 60 c — In the following 
description the stations at which there is a pier are indicated by 'P', the 
small-boat stations by 'B\ — The new steamers (restaurant on board) are 
good and clean. Sea-sickness is not unknown in rough weather, and a 
storm from the N. sometimes makes a landing at the intermediate stations 
impracticable. — Luggage undergoes a custom-house examination at Riva. 

Railway from Desenzano and Peschiera to Verona and Brescia (Milan), 
see R. 33; from Riva to Arco and (15 x /2 M.) Mori, p. 19. — The following 
Circular Todr Tickets may be procured (comp. p. xvii): Besenzano-Pes- 
chiera-Riva-Gardone-Riviera S&lo-Desenzano ('H'; valid for 5 days; fares 
9 fr. 20, 8 fr. 65, 5 fr. 10 c); i?ti>a-Desenzano-Milan-Verona-Mori-.Rwa (T; 
15 days; fares 37 fr. 90, 28 fr. 70 c); iZi^a-Desenzano-Venice-Verona-Mori- 
Riva ('K 1 ; 15 days; fares 39 fr. , 29 fr. 50 c). 

Steam Tramway from Brescia via (18 M.) Tormini, (23*/2 M.) Said (p. 212), 
and (26 M.) Gardone- Riviera (p. 212) to (28y 8 M.) Maderno (p. 214), five 
trains daily in 3V4 hrs. (1st class fare 2 fr. 40c); comp. p. 209. Numerous 
wayside stations are stopped at, and punctuality is by no means assured. 

Highroad from Malcesine via, (16 M.) Garda and (26 l /2 M.) Peschiera to 
(3372 M.) Sirmione. or to (35 l /2 M.) Desenzano; from Desenzano via (12V2 M.) 
Salb to (22 l /2 M.) Gargnano. These routes are recommended to cyclists. 

The *Lago di Garda (210 ft.), the Lacus Benacus of the Ro- 
mans, the largest of the N. Italian lakes, is 34 M. in length, and 
3-11 M. "broad; area 189 sq. M., greatest depth 1135 ft. The chief 
feeder is the Sarca, and it discharges itself to the S. hy the Mincio. 
— The E. bank is separated from the valley of the Adige hy the 
Monte Baldo (p. 216), a range about 25 M. in length, terminating 
to the S.W. in the cape of San Viyilio (p. 215). The W. hank, 
hemmed in in its N. part hy precipitous cliffs formed hy spurs of the 
Giudicarian Alps, expands between Gargnano and Said into the 
lovely coast-strip known as the Riviera. From the S. hanks, ranges 
of hills, the moraine-circuses of the ancient lake glacier, extend 
far into the N. Italian plain. The lake belongs to Italy, except 
the N. extremity with Riva, which is Austrian. It is seldom per- 

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LagodiGarda. DESENZANO. 36. Route. 211 

fectly calm, and in fine weather is often considerably agitated about 
midday by a local wind from the S. (Ora; cold in winter). In a 
storm from the N. the lake is sometimes almost as rough as the sea, 
as recorded by Virgil (Georg. ii. 160). The water is generally of an 
azure blue. 

The Vegetation is very luxuriant, especially on the more sheltered 
stretches of the coast, near Garda and on the Riviera. Even the sensitive 
lemon (limone) arrives at maturity on the Riviera and near Limone, hut. 
in winter the trees require to be carefully enclosed by wooden shelters 
(serve). This is done with the aid of numerous white brick pillars, which 
gleam picturesquely amid the soft green foliage. In consequence of the 
disease known as 'gumming' 1 the annual yield of lemons has fallen from 
10-16 millions (1862) to about 3 millions. Citrons (citrus medica) also are 
extensively cultivated on the Riviera. Caper-shrubs (capparis spinosa) flourish 
in the chinks of old walls. The tall laurel trees (lavrns nobilis), which 
shade most of the roads, are characteristic of the Riviera. Groves of olives, 
as in the Sarca valley, stretch up the hill-slopes to a height of 980 ft.; 
but the trees suffer a good deal from 'scale 1 (fungus), which renders it 
necessary to hollow out the trunks artificially. 

The trota, or trout, which attains 25 lbs., the carpione, or salmon-trout, 
the anguilla, or eel, and the luccio, or pike, are excellent fish. 

Desenzano sul Lago (P; Hot. Royal Mayer, R. 2-5, B. li^-l 1 /^? 
dej. 3-31/2, D. 4, omn. l /%-l f r -, Wltn a small garden ; Due Colombe, 
with garden on the lake ; Ristorante Vapore al Lido, at the pier, with 
bathing-establishment, very fair ; Rail. Restaurant), a busy town with 
4700 inhab., at the S.W. angle of the lake, is a station on the railway 
from Milan to Verona (p. 198). Omnibus or one-horse cab from 
the pier to the railway-station 50 c. per pers. ; each large piece of 
luggage 25 c. One-horse carriage to Said and Gardone-Riviera, 
8-9 fr. The drivers usually try to overcharge. Fine view from the 
Breakwater. Large market on Tuesdays. 

West Bank from Desenzano to Riva. The steamers call first at 
Sirmione (P ; Hot. Regie Terme, pens. 7-8 fr., incl. wine, bath 
1V4-2 fr., closed Dec.-Feb.; Hot. Sirmione, R. li/ 2 -2, dej. 21/9, 
D. 31/2, pens. 6-7 fr., incl. wine; AVbergo Trento, Z. 1-21/2, de'j. 2, 
incl. wine, pens. 4-5 fr. ; Alb. Catullo, unpretending), a fishing- 
village near the N. end of the narrow promontory of the same 
name, projecting 2*^ M. into the lake, about 31/2 M. to the E. 
of Desenzano, whence it may al?o be reachedby boat (with one 
rower 5, with two 8 fr.) or by carriage (35 min. ; 2-3 fr., there and 
back, with halt of 2 hrs., 5 fr.). One-horse carr. from Sirmione to 
Peschiera, 1 pers. 3 fr., each addit. pers. 1 fr. — Sirmione is a 
favourite German resort in spring and autumn and is visited by 
many Italians in summer for the sake of its sulphur-baths. 

The village adjoins the handsome ruin of a Castle of the Scaligers 
(p. 223 ; view from the tower; fee). We thence cross the olive-clad height, 
past the little church of San Pietro, to (1 M.) the extremity of the penin- 
sula, where we obtain a charming -View of the lake. Here are the so- 
called Grotte di Catullo, the considerable relic3 of a Roman building ex- 
tending into the lake, said to have been the country-house of Catullus, 
who wrote his poems here ('peninsularum, Sirmio, insularumque ocelle"). 
Tennyson celebrates 'olive silvery 1 Sirmio and its connection with Catullus 
in one of the most musical of his short poems. — The Sorgente, a warm 


212 Route 36. SALO. Lago di Garda. 

sulphur-spring rising in the lake, has heen utilized in the new bath-estab- 
lishment since 1897. 

From Sirmione the steamboat steers past the abrupt Cape Ma- 
nerba (715 ft.), and touches (afternoon trip only) at the villages of 
Manerba (B) and San Felice di Scovolo (B). It then threads the 
rocky channel between the Valtenese (see below) and the beautiful 
crescent-shaped Isola di Garda, with a new chateau belonging to 
the Duchess De Ferrari (visitors admitted on Thurs), steers to the 
W., and enters the bay of — 

Salo (P). — Hotels (not for invalids). Hotel Salo, in an open situation 
beside the lake, near the steam-tramway station Salo-Carmine (p. 209), 
with railway-ticket office and garden, R. 37 2 -4, B. H/4, D. 3V4-4, 8. 21/2-3. 
pens. 772-IO fr., closed June lst-Aug. 15th; Alb. Europa, Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele, moderate; Hot. Europa. R. 2 fr. — Pension Villa Daheim, on 
the Gardone road, pens. 8-12 fr. — Cafes -Restaurants. Baviera, at the 
harbour (steamboat pier); Ristorante Centrale, Via Paradiso, with a small 
garden on the lake; Belvedere^ Piazza Vitt. Emanuele. 

Monet Changers: Banca Popolare; P. Castayna. — Cycles at CadorinVs. 

Steam Tramway (Brescia-Tormiai-Ssdo-Mademo), see p. 211. 

Salb, a town with 4860 inhab. and manufactories of Acqua di 
Cedro (liqueur), is charmingly situated on the W. shore of the bay 
that opens at Gardone. In the town-hall is the former assembly 
room of the Magniflca Patria della Riviera (p. 214). The Gothic 
Parish Church contains several pictures of the Brescian and Vero- 
nese Schools: on the pillar to the right of the high-altar, Adoration 
of the Child, by Torbido ; 4th altar on the right, Christ in Hades, by 
Zenon of Verona (1537). In San Bernardino, 2nd altar on the left, 
is an altar-piece by Romanino (1529; San Bonaventura with a donor 
and angels). 

A fine view (best by evening-light) is obtained from the Monte San 
Bartolomeo (1865 ft.), which is ascended in IV2 hr. through a farmyard 
outside the N. gate of Salo, to the left (descent to Gardone 174 hr.). — 
A Highkoad (one-horse carr. 7 fr.) leads to (5 M ) Desenzano (p. 211) 
through the Valtenese, the undulating wine-growing district between the 
valley of the Chiese (p. 209) and Cape Manerba. 

We here reach the Riviera (p. 211), the warmest part of the 
coast, with numerous villages and country-houses. In the evening 
it sparkles with electric lights all the way from Salo to Toscolano. — 
A little farther on is — 

Gardone Riviera. — Piers at Gardone di Sotto and Fasano (p. 213). 

Hotels (generally overcrowded in March and April). *Grand Hotel 
Gardone-Riviera, at the pier, with hot-air heating, ticket-office, cafe- 
restaurant, garden, covered promenade, and lake -baths, R. 272-6, B. 172, 
D. 372-5, S. 272-3V2, pens. 7i/ 2 -12 fr. (closed from mid-May to mid-Sept,); 
Hot. -Pens. Eden-Riviera ; Hot. -Pens. Seehof, pens from 7 fr.; Hot. -Pens. 
Hohl, pens, from 7 fr. ; Hot. -Pens. Monte Baldo; Hot.-Pens. Fasano, 
3 /4 M. to the E. on the road to Fasano (tramway), with heated corridors, 
electric light, restaurant, view-terrace, and lake-baths, R. 2-6, B. I72, D. 4, 
S. 3, board 6 fr. ; Hot.-Pens. Rosenhof, pens. 772 fr., Hut. Bellevde, plainer, 
but very fair, with restaurant, R. 2-272, pens. 6-7 fr. , these two at Fasano, 
with gardens. 

Pensions. — Pens. Sonnenburg, with a pretty garden, pens, from 10 fr. ; 
P. Aurora (672-8 fr.), P. Villa Goldstravd, these three at Barbarano, 7 2 - 3 A M. 

Lago di Oarda. GARDONE-RIYIERA. 36. Route. 213 

from the quay; P. Amann (6V28 fr.), with garden on the lake; Pens. 
Benaco; Pens. National; P. Bellevue (from 7 fr.), P. Mary, both in Fasano. 

— Villa Primavera, in Gardone di Sopra, 1/2 M. above the quay, an 
establishment for invalids (Dr. Koniger), with a beautiful garden, pens. 
10-15 fr. — Apartments to be obtained also in Salo, Gardone di Sopra. 
Fasano, and Maderno. 

Cafe in the Cur-Garten, between Gardone di Sotto and Fasano. 
Post Office, at the Gr. Hot. Gardone, open daily, 8-12, 4-6, and 8-9. 

— Telegraph Office at the same hotel, 9-12 and 2-7 (Sun. and holidays, 
9-11 and 4-5). 

Physicians : Dr. Koniger ; Dr. Krez; Dr. Boral; Dr. Molinari. — Chemist : 
Pernici, Piazza Wimmer. — Visitors' Tax, 10 fr. per season. 

Cabs. To Salo 27 2 & 3, with two horses 5 fr., to Desenzano 9 & 18, 
to Maderno (p. 214) 3-4 & 6, to Toscolano Gorge (see below) 5-6 & 9, to 
Gargnano (p. 214) 6V2-7V2 «fe 11 fr. — Steam Tbamwat to Brescia and 
Maderno, see pp. 211, 214. 

Boats. To Salo and back with one rower 2 x /2, with two rowers 4 fr. ; 
to Maderno 3 & 5, to Cape Manerba (two rowers) 7, to the promontory of 
San Vigilio (2 rowers) 10, to Garda (2 rowers) 12 fr. — Electbic Launch 
(at the Gr. Hot. Gardone), with 11 seats, per V2 day 25. whole day 40 fr. 

Climate. Gardone is excellently sheltered from the prevalent winter 
winds (N. and X.W.) by the chain of hills rising from the Mte. San Bartolc- 
meo to the Mte. Pizzocolo (see below) and interrupted only by the Barbarano 
Ravine. A like service is rendered by the Mte. Baldo against the E. and 
N.E. winds. The S. and S.E. winds have free access, but the Ora (p. 211) 
is not felt here and 83 per cent of the days of the year are free from wind. 
The greatest rainfall takes place in Oct. (6.2 in.), Nov. (4.3 in.), and April 
(3.8 in.), while the three winter months have usually little rain, abundance 
of sunshine (129 hrs. in Dec, 141 in Jan., 165 in Feb.), a relatively high 
temperature (mean 39.5° Fahr.), and a low range of temperature (mean 
daily range in Dec. 9° Fahr., in Jan. 9.5°, in Feb. l!.7°). Snow seldom 
lies long on the ground. The relative humidity (76 per cent) varies little 
and is about the same as that of Montreux. 

Gardone-Riviera, consisting of eight villages [Gardone di Sotto, 
Gardone di Sopra. Fasano, etc.), has become since 1885 a favourite 
winter-resort for consumptive and nervous invalids, while in the 
spring and autumn it is frequented by those in search of rest and 
refreshment. The visitors are chiefly Germans. The hills afford a 
multitude of varied walks, all free from dust and well provided 
with benches. The vegetation is of a thoroughly southern character 
(comp, p. 211); camellias, magnolias, and palms grow in the gardens 

Excursions. To Morgnaga, returning by the Barbarano Ravine, iy 2 hr. 
— To Gardone di Sopra (425 fr.), with a fine view beyond the church and 
the beautiful gardens of the Villa Cargnacco; from the latter we may 
proceed to the left by tbe 'laurel walk' to Fasano di Sopra (525 ft.) and 
descend through the Bornico Ravine to Fasano di Sotto (1 hr.). — To 
S<m MicheJe (1325 ft.), a high-lying church, affording a fine view of the 
lake and of the Val di Sur, n/4 hr. ; we may return along the slope of 
Monte Lavind (see below) by the 'high walk 1 "via. Sopiane (920 ft.) and Gar- 
done di Sopra (lV2hr.). — Via, Maderno (steam-tramway, see p. 214) to the 
romantic and profound Toscolano Ravine, with its paper-mills (cartiere) 
and large electricity works, returning via, Gaino, the church of which 
(990 ft.) commands a fine view, 372-4 hrs. — By boat (D/2 hr.) to the prom- 
ontory of Manerba (view of the whole lake). — By steam-tramway (p. 209) 
to Tormini (p. 209) and Lake Idro (p. 209). 

Ascents. Monte San Bartolomeo (1S65 ft.), 2 hrs., see p. 212. — Mte. 
Roccolo (16G0 ft.; I1/2 hr.), via Sopiane (see above). — Monte Lavino (2975 ft.; 
2V2-3hrs.). — "Monte Pizzocolo (5195 ft.; 5-6 hrs., with guide), command- 
ing an extensive view. 

214 Route 36. GARGNANO. Logo di Garda. 

We next pass Fasano (P ; hotels, see p. 212), 20 min. to the 
N.E. of Gardone di Sotto, and the "beautifully situated Villa 
Zanardelli. — Maderno (P; Hot. San Marco, well spoken of, R. 
172-2, pens. 6-7 fr. ; Hdt.-Pens. Lignet, pens. 6-7 fr.; Pens. Vic- 
toria) lies at the base of Mte. Pizzocolo (see p. 213), on a promontory 
extending far into the lake. In the early middle ages it was the capital 
of the Magnifica Patria della Riviera, which was acquired "by Venice 
in 1426. The Campanile behind the parish-church is the relic of a 
castle destroyed by the French in 1797. The old church of SanV 
Andrea, altered in the interior, has a Romanesque facade (12th 
cent.) and Roman reliefs on the external wall. Steamer to Pe- 
schiera, see p. 210. Steam-tramway to Salo and Brescia, p. 209. 

The following places, Toscolano (Cavallo Bianco), Cecina, and 
Bogliaco, with a large chateau of Count Belloni of Brescia, are not 
steamer - stations. — Gargnano (P ; Hot.-Pens. Gargnano, Cervo, 
at both R. 1V2-2, pens. 6-7 fr.), an important-looking village amidst 
lemon and olive plantations, marks the N. limit of the Riviera. 

The mountains now become loftier, recalling the scenery of the 
Norwegian fjords. Tignale (B) is the station for Piovere, Gardola, 
and other mountain-villages not visible from the lake, which are 
reached also by a mule-track from Gargnano. The steamer then 
steers past the steep Monte Castello (2550ft.) to Campione (P), which 
lies upon a narrow strip of level ground at the mouth of a brook. 
The large cotton-spinnery (cotonifizio) here is worked by electricity. 

A pleasant excursion may be made hence to (2 hr3.) the Madonna di 
Monte Castello, on the S. slope of the mountain. Thence we may descend 
via, Gardola (see above) to Tignale, or via Piovere to Gargnano. 

Tremosine (1355 ft.), with its little church, situated high above 
the lake, is reached by a zigzag-path from the small-boat station. 

In a bay farther on are the white houses of Limone (P; Alb. del 
Gallo ; Ristorante Belvedere), another lemon and olive producing 
village. A few small steamers (torpediniere) are stationed here to 
prevent smuggling; the entire N. end of the lake is illumined at 
night by their search-lights. 

To theN. of Limone we cross the Austrian frontier and soon after 
pass the gorge of the Val di Ledro (below, the Ponale Fall) ; high 
above the lake is the Ponale Road(jp. 216), running along the vertical 
face of the cliff. 

Riva, see p. 215. 

E. Bank from Riva to Peschibba. The first station is Torbole 
(P ; Hot. Garda-See, very fair, with view- terrace, R. 1 K. 60 h., pens. 
5-6 K.; Alb. alt Aurora, Italian, good wine; boat to Riva 3, to the 
Ponale Falls 4 K.), prettily situated 2i/ 2 M. to the S.E. of Riva, on 
the road to Mori (p. 19). The vessel skirts the base of the pre- 
cipitous Monte Baldo (p. 216) and reaches — 

Malcesine (P ; Hot. Sperrle, pens, from 5 fr. ; Alb. d 1 Italia, pens. 
472 fr.), with a picturesque old castle recently repaired (view from 

Logo di Garda. RIVA. 36. Route. 215 

the tower; fee). Goethe was arrested here in 1786 -when sketching 
by the Venetian officials (see his 'Italienische Reise'). The parish- 
chnrch contains a Descent from the Cross by Girolamo dai Libri, a 
richly coloured masterpiece (1st altar on the right). Beautiful road 
hence to (16 M.) Garda (see below). 

Beyond Makesine lie two rocky islets, Isola delV Olivo and 
Trimelone. The next stations are Assenza, Magugnano, Castelletto 
di Brenzone (P; Alb. del Sole), and Torri del Benaco (P; Alb. Cal- 
ciriardi), with an imposing ruined castle and large quarries of yellow 
marble. The stretch between Torri and Garda is the most beautiful 
part of the E. bank. The banks become flatter. The promontory of 
*San Vigilio (osteria) with the neglected Villa Brenzoni, 2l/ 4 M. to 
the W. of Garda, extends far into the lake. In the beautiful Bay 
of Garda, sheltered from the N. by Monte Baldo, lie the villas of 
Marchese Carlotti and Count Albertini of Verona, both with fine 
parks, with pine-trees. The picturesque old town of Garda (P ; 
Hot. Garda; Hot.-Pens. San Vigilio'), at the influx of the Tesino, 
which descends from Monte Baldo, gives the lake its name. 

About 2i/4 M. to the S.E. is the Rocca di Garda (964 ft. ; view), with a 
ruined castle. Upon the wooded heights opposite are the hermitages of 
SanC Eremo (1014 ft.). — From Garda to the Monte Baldo and Verona, 
see pp. 217, 220. 

The hills farther on aTe covered with olive-trees, vines, and 
fruit-trees. We enjoy a fine view of the lake-expanse, with Cape 
Manerba and Sirmione in the distance. The next places are Bar- 
dolino (P ; Alb. Bardolino) and Lazise (P),with a picturesque old castle. 

Peschiera, see p. 198. The station is on the E. side of the town, 
Y 2 M. from the pier (one-horse carr. 50 c. per pers.). 

Riva. — Steamboat Piers: Riva Ciith, at the harbour; Riva Ferrovia, 
at the railway-station. — The Railway Station (Restaurant) lies about 
1/2 M. to the E. of the harbour. 

Hotels. -Palast-Hotel Lido, in an open situation to ihe E. of the 
station, with lift, steam-heating, and large garden, adapted for a stay of 
some time, R. from 4, B. l 1 ^, dej. 272-372, D. 4-5, pens, from 9, omn. 
I-IV2 K. ; Hot. Imfekial del Sole (marked S on the map), at the harbour, 
with terrace on the lake, R. 2-4, B. 1, D. 3, S. 2, pens. 672-6, omn. 1 / 2 K. ; 
'Hot. Pens. See-Villa, three villas with a park, 3 / 4 M. to the E. of the 
station, R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 3, S. 2. pens. 7-9 K., omn. 60 h. ; 'Hot.-Pens. du 
Lac, a few yds. nearer the station than the preceding, with large garden and 
bathing-establishment, R. 2-3 K, B. 80 ft.-l K., D. 3, S. 2, pens. 6-7 K., omn. 
60ft.-, Hot.-Pens. Jolanda, with garden, on the lake; Hut. -Pens. Eiva, 
Piazza Giardino, R, 27j-3 L, B. 90 7*,, D. 3, S. 2, pens. 6-8, omn. 7 2 K. ; 
Hot-Pens. Seeblick, 74 M. from the station, with garden on the lake; 
Hotel Bahnhof, at the station. — Alb. San Makco, Corso Inviolata (see 
p. 216), R. 172-2, pens. 572 -ff., Italian; BOhm's Hotel, corner of the Corso 
Inviolata and Viale Dante, R. II. 40, D. 2 1. 40ft., pens, from 51; 
Musch, Viale Dante, with garden, R. 1-2, pens. 5-6 K., unpretending. — 
Board and medical attendance for invalids at Dr. von Eartung en's Erholungs- 
heim, 240-300 K. monthly. 

Beer at Muscat, the Alb. San Marco, the H6t. Stadt Miinchen (see above), 
and in the Birreria Krautner, to the N. of the station. — Ca/4 Andreis, 
under the arcade at the harbour. — Confectioner, Aigner, Piazza Brolo, 
next the theatre. 

216 Route 36. MONTE BALDO. 

Post & Telegraph Office in the Piazza Brolo. 

Money Changer, Vine. Andreis. 

Bookseller, Georgi, Piazza Giardino. 

Lake Baths beside the Palast Hotel, and below the Ponale Road, to 
the S. of the abattoir (macello). 

Boats (4 pers.), per hr. witb 1 rower 1 K. (2 rowers 1 K. 60 /».) ; each 
addit. 1/2 hr. 40 or 60 h. 

Railway to Arco and Mori, see p. 19. — Carriage to Arco and back 3 K. ; 
to Mori 8, with two horses 15 K. 

English Church Service in a chapel at the Hotel du Lac. 

Riva (230 ft.), a "busy harbour with 3750 inhah., is charmingly 
situated at the N.W. end of the lake, here resembling a fjord, at the 
base of the precipitous Rocchetta (4976 ft.). On the hillside, high 
above the town, rises the round tower of a ruined castle supposed to 
have been built by the Scaligers. Riva is a sheltered and healthy 
place, affording pleasant summer-quarters; the heat is tempered 
by the lake, and in the afternoon the town lies in the shadow of 
the hills. 

The centre of traffic is the piazza at the harbour. The houses 
have arcades on the groundftoor. At the E. corner is a massive old 
clock-tower. Farther to the E. lie the small Piazza Giardino and the 
barracks of La Rocca, surrounded by a moat, on the site of a castle 
of the Scaligers. To the N. of the Rocca is the Piazza Brolo, whence 
an avenue of palms and magnolias leads to the E. to the station, and 
a narrow street to the N., past the Parish Church, to the Corso In- 
violata, in which is the church of the Inviolata, a late-Renaissance 
edifice of the 16th century. Thence the road goes on to Arco. 

Excursions. The Fall of the Ponale is best visited by motor boat 
(8 times daily, in 20 min.; 50 ft., there and back If.), landing at the 
modest restaurant below the fall. The 'custode al Ponale' exacts 20 ft. from 
each visitor for opening the shutters. in front of the lowest fall, which, 
however, is of trifling interest. Visitors should ascend past the Riva 
electric works and three other waterfalls to the (20-28 min.) *Ponale Road 
(very dusty in summer), which leads high above the lake, through a suc- 
cession of tunnels and cuttings, back to ( 3 /i hr.) Riva. The boat-trip and 
the view from the road are the chief attractions on this expedition. 

A road (omnibus 4 times daily) leads from the Porta San Marco to- 
wards the N.W. to (3 M.) Varone (403 ft.), with a fine waterfall in a grand 
rocky gorge (adm. and electric light 60 7i. ; cloak desirable on account of 
the spray). Thence we may proceed either by road to (3 M.) Arco (p. 21T) 
or on foot, via, Cologna, to (1 hr.) Tenno (1415 ft.), with an old castle 
destroyed in 1703) and charming view, and through richly cultivated 
uplands to Varignano and (IV2 hr.) Arco (p. 217). 

The Monte Brione, 1 hr., to the E of Riva, is accessible by the public 
and affords an excellent survey of the lake. 

The ascent of Monte Baldo (p. 210), noted for its flora, is interesting 
and varied, but somewhat fatiguing in winter on account of the snow, and 
in summer on account of the heat. This range consists of two groups, 
separated by the depression of the Boccadi Navene (4690 ft.): N. ih.e Altissiino, 
and S. the Monte Maggiore, with the Cima di Vol Dritta (7275 ft.) and the 
Punta del Telegrafo (72 18 ft,). The Altissimo (6790 ft.) is best ascended from 
Mori (p. 19), on the N.E. side. The route ascends to (2 hrs) Brentonico 
(2250 ft. ; Alb. Monte Baldo); thence, with guide, over Alpine pastures via, 
(I1/2 hr.) San Giacomo (3825 ft.; inn) to the (3 hrs.) top (refuge-hut; "View). 
Another ascent, starting at Nago (p. 19), leads via. the Malga Casina(5-G hrs.). 
— The panorama is still grander from the Monte Maggiore. A steep road 

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ARCO. 36. Route. 217 

shady in the afternoon, leads from Peri (p. 19) to (2 hrs.) the celebrated 
pilgrimage- church of Madonna della Corona (2540 ft.), not far from the 
village of Spiazzi (2828 ft.; Alb. Zanotti), and. thence to (1 hr.) Ferrara di Monte 
Baldo (2807 ft. •, rustic inn). Spiazzi may also be reached from Garda (p. 215; 
iO 1 /* M.), by the road, via the railway-stations of Caprino (eomp. p. 234; 
diligence to Ferrara in connection with the trains ; carr. there and back 6-7, 
with two horses 10 fr.) and Fazzon (1270 ft.) From Ferrara, making an 
early start, we ascend by a new path to the (2V3-3 hrs.) top of the Punta 
del Telegrafo (Rifugio of the Ital. Alpine Club). 

Val di Ledro (carr. to Pieve and back 8, with two horses 16 E. ; dil- 
igence every afternoon to Pieve in 3V2, to Storo in 5 hrs.). At the angle, 
high above "the Fall of the Ponale (p. 216), the road turns to the W. into 
the green valley, and leads by Biacesa and Molina to the pretty Lago di 
Ledro (2135 ft.),' on the X. bank of which lie Mezzolago and (9 M. from Riva) 
Pieve di Ledro ('Albergo Alpino, R. 1 K. 60-2 E. 40 ft.)- — Thence the road 
leads via, Bezzecca and Tiarno, and through the sequestered Val Ampola, 
to (9 31.) Storo (1340 ft. ; Agnello) in the valley of the Chiese, here called 
the Val Buona. It then crosses the stream and proceeds to Darzo ('Ancora; 
Ciappana), Lodrone (1263 ft.), with a ruined castle, and (3V2 M.) Ponte 
Caffaro (Austrian and Italian frontier; p. 209). From Caffaro to the Lago 
d'Idro and to Vestone, see p. 209. 

About 4 M. to the N.E. of Riva, up the beautiful valley of the 
Sarca (railway, see p. 19; carriage, see p. 216), lies — 

Arco. — Hotels (the larger open only from Oct. to May; nearly all 
have gardens). "Curhotel Nelbock, with whev-cure and a covered prom- 
enade, R. 31/2-5, B. 1 E. 20 ft., D. 4-5, S. 2-21/2, pens. 7-12, omn. 1 K.\ *Cur- 
Casino (C on the Map), with covered promenade, cafe-restaurant, etc., R. 
from 3, B. 1, D. 3, S. 2, pens. 8-10 E. ; ; H6t.-Pens. Olivo, R. 2-3 l A>, B. 80ft.- 
1£ 20 ft., peas. 5-8 A.; Hot.-Pexs. Strassee, R. & L. 2 E. 40 ft. -4 A., B. 1 E. ; 
these four are in the Curplatz, with its well-kept grounds. — Bellevue, 
near the rail, station, R. 1 E. 60 ft.-6 A., B. 1. D. 2 A. 40, B. 1 E. 60 ft., pens. 
6-11 E. ; *Hot.-Pess. Aeco, 1/2 M. from the Curplatz , pen. 7-9 E. *H6t.- 
Pbhs. Olivbnheim , high up, on the edge of the olive-wood, with view- 
terrace; Hot. -Pens. Acstbia, on the Cur-Promenade, R. 1 A'. 60 ft. -2 E., pens. 
5-6 E. ; Hot. Kaiseekrone. in the town, with small garden, pens. 5-6 E. ; 
IIudeb, near the railway-station, R. 1 E. 60-2 A. 40 ft., pens! 5-6 A". 

Pensions (5-10 E. daily, L. & heating extra). Br. NavratiVs Cur-Pension, 
with hydropathic establishment (pens. 8-20 E.) ; Germania ; Hdt.-Pens. Roman- 
zola; Quisisana; Hdt.-Pens. Oreo; P. Rainalter; P. Aurora; P. Monrepos. — 
Private Apartments in various villas; R. according to aspect, 40 -1C0 E 
per month. 

Restaurants. Scheibtneier (beer), Curplatz; Hot. Austria (beer), see 
above ; Silvestro (wine) ; Povoli (wine) ; Strasser (see above) , cafe and con- 

Curanstalt, to the S. of the Casino, well fitted up, with inhaling rooms, 
hydropathic appliances, etc. 

Donkey per hr. 1 A., each hr. addit. 60 ft., 1/2 day 3 E. 20 ft., whole day 
4 E, with fee. — Carriage to Riva and back 3, with two horses 6 E. ; to 
Rovereto (without returning) 10 or 16 E. ; to Trent (without returning) 
14 or 24 E. 

Physicians. Dr. Gager ; Dr. Gerke; Dr.Euntze; Dr. Spitzmiiller. 

Visitors' Tax, 2 E. per pers. per week (3 days free); music tax 3, sub- 
scription to reading-room 4 A. — Band at the Cur-Casino daily 11-1; in 
spring and autumn also 2-3. 

English Church Service in the Evangelical Church, near the railway. 

Arco (300 ft.), an aucient town of 238-4 inhab., situated on the 
right bank of the Sarca, forms a semicircle at the S. base of a 
precipitous rock (730 ft), which is crowned by the Castle of Arco 
(vie^vs), destroyed by the French in 1703 during the War of the 

218 Route 36. CHIARANO. 

Spanish Succession. Almost entirely shut in on the N., E., and 
W. by lofty mountains, Arco is frequented as a winter-resort by 
consumptive and nervous patients. The climate resembles that 
of Gardone (p. 212), but Arco has fewer showers and is somewhat 
less moist (relative moisture 72 per cent) and cooler in winter. The 
Ora (p. 211) is sometimes troublesome, especially at the beginning 
of spring. The vegetation is thoroughly southern in character 
(p. 211); numerous olive-groves. 

The most frequented resorts of the visitors are in the neigh- 
bourhood of the two largest hotels and the new Salone Municipale, 
and the Curplatz, a little to the E. To the N. of the last are the 
Collegiate Church (1603-18) and the old town-palace of the Counts 
of Arco, with faded frescoes. 

The magnolia avenue between the two chief hotels is continued 
to the W., by a road passing numerous villas, to Chiarano (see below). 
A side- road at the W. end of the avenue leads to the right to the 
garden and villa of the Archduke Frederick (no adm.). 

Excursions. To the N. by sunny paths to the Casa Bianca, Veduia 
Maria, and the live-oaks (in all 3/ 4 -l hr. ; guide-posts). The Castle of Arco 
is reached from the Curplatz in less than l fa hr. (key at one of the chemists ; 
fee 60-80 ^.)- — The romantic Via di Prabi, diverging to the left on this 
side of the bridge, between the castle-rock and the Sarca, traverses the 
imposing remains of a huge landslip to (1 hr.) Ceniga (inn), whence we 
may return by a stony path through the Laghel Valley, passing the small 
Lake Laghel, which is dry in summer (l 3 /4 hr.). 

Pleasant walk to the W. hamlet of ( 3 /4 M.) Chiarano, with the Villa 
Angerer (rich Mediterranean flora in the garden) and the Villa Qarda, pre- 
sented to the German emperor in 1901 by Herr Hildebrand, and now 
a convalescent home for officers. Fine views. Thence we proceed either 
by the road to the left, via, the convent of Santa Maria della Grazie to 
(3 M.) Varone (p. 216), or to the right via, Vigne to ( 3 /4 M.) Varignano and 
thence ascend to the right by a rough path, affording beautiful views, to 
(l 1 /* hr.) Tenno (p. 216). From Tenno we descend by Cologna to (40 min.) 
Varone, and return across the plain to (3 M.) Arco. 

V. Venetia. 

37. Verona 221 

a. Quarters on the Right Bank of the Adige .... 223 

b. Left Bank of the Adige (Veronetta) 230 

From Verona to Caldiero and Cologna. From Caldiero 

io Tregnago. From Verona to the Val Pantena and 
to Caprino, 234. 

38. From Verona to Mantua and Modena (Bologna, Florence) 235 

From Verona to Rovigo, 235. — From Mantua to Via- 
dana via. Sabbioneta; to Monselice via. Este, 241. — 
From Suzzara to Parma and to Ferarra, 241, 242. 

39. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 242 

From Vicenza to the Baths ofRecoaro, Schio, Arsiero, 
and Torrebelvicino, 246, 247. 

40. Padua 248 

From Padua to Venice via Fusina, 256. 

41. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassauo . . 256 

42. Venice 258 

a. Piazza of St. Mark and Environs. Eiva degli Schiavoni 271 

b. The Academy 2S3 

c. Canal Grande 29) 

d. From the Piazza of St. Mark to the Rialto Bridge 

and the Northern Quarters 29S 

e. From the Piazza of St. Mark to Santa Giovanni e Paolo, 

and thence to the Riva degli Schiavoni. Eastern 
Quarters 3Ul 

f. Quarters to the W. of the Canal Grande 307 

g. From the Piazza of St. Mark on foot to the Academy 

and Santa Maria della Salute. San Giorgio Maggiore. 

Giudecca 315 

h. Excursions : The Lido. Murano. Burano and Torcello. 

San Lazzaro. Chioggia 318 

43. From Venice to Trieste 322 

a. Via Treviso and Udine 322 

From Treviso to Belluno, 323. — From Conegliano to 
Vittorio, 325. — From Udine to Cividale, 327. 

h. Via Portogruaro and Monfalcone. Excursion to 

Aquileia and Grado 328 

The N.E. part of Italy, named II Veneto after the ancient Veneti, 
is divided into the eight provinces of Verona, Vicenza, Padova , Rovigo, 
Venezia, Treviso, Belluno, and Udine. Its area, 9059 sq. M. , is nearly 
equal to that of Lombardy, while its population of 2,814,200 souls is con- 
siderably smaller. The western and larger portion of the country, between 
the Mincio and Piave, is indeed as thickly peopled as the eastern and 
lessfprosperous part of Lombardy between the Adda and the Mincio ; 
but the Friuli, or ancient county of Forum Julii, the border-land to the 
E. of the Piave, consists of very inferior soil, owing to the de"bris brought 
down by the Alpine streams. The ' Furlanians\ the poor inhabitants of 
the Friuli, speak a patois of their own. 

The Venetian Dialect no longer contains traces of the Gallic ele- 
ment like that of the districts from Piedmont to the Romagna, which 
were once conquered bv the Celts. It boasts of having been frequently 



used by men of letters, as for example by Goldoni in his comedies, and 
is the softest of all the Italian dialects , the flattening and elision of the 
consonants being very common. Thus nevode for nipote, suar for sudare, 
fogo for fuoco, sior for signore. Another characteristic is the conversion of 
g into z, as zente for gente, zorno for giorno, mazore for maggiore. 

The history of the country has always been influenced by the proximity 
of the sea and the peculiar formation of the coast. In the lower part of 
its course the Po differs widely in character from all the other rivers in 
Europe. Its fall is very gradual , being for a considerable distance 2 2 /3 
inches only, and latterly little more than 1 /t inch per English mile. To- 
wards the end of its course, moreover, it receives its most important 
tributaries. The result is that the adjacent districts are much exposed to 
inundations, a danger which has to be averted by the construction of huge 
dykes; and these works frequently require to be raised, as the bed of the 
river is constantly rising. The Po, together with the Tagliamenlo, Livenza, 
Piave, Brenta, Adige, and other coast-rivers, terminates in avast delta which 
extends along the whole coast of Venetia. The quantity of alluvial deposit 
is so great, that the coast-district between Tagliamento and Ravenna alone 
was increased by about 295 sq. M. in the course of the 19th century. From 
the same cause the beds of the streams are continually undergoing change 
and subdivision. Thus the ancient seaport of Hatria now lies 1572 M. from 
the coast, and while the Po formerly flowed towards the S., it has formed 
its present embouchure since 1150. The extensive lagoons (lagune), sep- 
arated from the sea by narrow strips of land (lidi), and connected with it 
by outlets, would render the whole coast uninhabitable in summer, were 
it not for the ebb and flow of the tide, which distinguishes the Adriatic from 
other parts of the Mediterranean (comp. p. 270), and prevents malarious 
exhalations. This extensive alluvial territory, which reminds one of 
Holland, called into activity the ingenuity and enterprise of its inhabitants 
at an early period, and a temperate and conservative character has thus 
been imparted to their history. 

The Veneti, a branch of the Illyrian stock, kept entirely aloof 
from the immigrating Celtic tribes. The seaports of Hatria and Spina, 
at the mouths of the Po, carried on a considerable trade at an early 
period, and several canals on a large scale were constructed as early 
as B. C. 380. In the 3rd cent, the Veneti, together with the Cenomani, 
a Celtic tribe which occupied Brescia and Verona, entered into an 
alliance with Rome. "While the Ronianisation of Lombardy and Pied- 
mont was attended with violent struggles, it was rapidly effected here 
without opposition. The Roman colony of Aquileia was founded as early 
as 181 B. C., and the boundary of Italy was thus laid down at the point 
to which it still extends. Owing to its industries, cattle-breeding, and 
agriculture , Venetia prospered greatly under the emperors. Padua was 
the wealthiest town in Italy next to Rome, and was rivalled in W. Eu- 
rope by Cadiz alone, as it numbered during the reign of Augustus no 
fewer than 500 citizens of knightly fortune 0'. e. upwards of about 4500Z). 
The city was afterwards destroyed by Attila, and a similar fate befel 
Altinum, a prosperous commercial town in the Lagoons, and Aquileia, 
which in ancient times was of a similar importance to the modern Trieste. 
The inhabitants of these coast-towns sought refuge from their conquerors 
in the islands of the Lagoons, where they founded Heraclea, Grada (Aquileia 
Nova), Caorle, Tor cello , Burano , Murano, Malamocco, Pellestrina, Chioggia, 
and other places. The Lombards (p. 110) were repulsed with aid from 
the Byzantine emperors; but in the following century the necessity of a 
closer union for mutual support led to the establishment of a confederate 
state. In 697 Paulucius Anafestus (d. 716) was elected the first Dux or Doge 
of this naval union, while Heraclea was chosen as the seat of government. 
In 707, however, the latter was transferred to Malamocco. Removed from 
Teutonic influences, and cinder the protection of the Byzantine Empire, 
the most famous of mediaeval states took its rise here from apparently in- 
significant beginnings. In 809 the islands repulsed an attack of King Pepin, 
the son of Charlemagne, but on the capture of Malamocco the inhabitants 
were crowded together in the islands of Rivoalto and Torcello. 


v-.'.i.s-iqj'j] i) 

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I'm I : I'.ifio I",,", 

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bss <vn^ 

VERONA. 37. Route. 221 

Rivoalto, the most secure of all the islands, was selected in 811 as 
the seat of government, and here accordingly the city of Venice was founded 
Agntllus Partecipatius is said to have been the first doge whose residence 
occupied the site of the present Palace of the Doges. Situated between 
the Byzantine and Franconian empires , Venice became a connecting link 
between the trade of each and the great depot of the traffic between the 
East and the West. In 828 a Venetian fleet brought the body of St Mark 
to Venice, and thenceforth the Venetians revered him as their tutelarv 
saint, using his emblem, the lion (Rev. iv. 7), as their cognizance and his 
name as synonymous with the republic, while their supreme official func- 
tionaries were styled 'Procurators of St. Mark\ In the interests of her 
commerce Venice was at length induced to make foreign conquests. These 
were at first confined to the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts for the purpose 
of procuring timber and suppressing piracy. The rivalrv that sprang up with 
Genoa during the Crusades led the Venetians to effect a footing in the Levant 
and to establish extensive colonies. At the same time the constitution of the 
state developed into a rigorous oligarchy, which with terrible impartial- 
ity contrived to keep both the nobility and people in check, and effectu- 
ally to curb the national desire for liberty. In the neighbouring town? 
the supreme power rested on a foundation altogether different. The re- 
publics had been overthrown by the despots, who. supported by mercen- 
ary troops and the favour of the lower classes, had founded principali- 
ties in the modern sense of the word. Such were the Visconti in Milan 
the Scaligers in Verona, the Carrara in Padua, the Gonzaga in Mantua! 
and the Este in Ferrara. The danger of collision with warlike princes' 
and the support they afforded to every attempt to overthrow the Venetian 
constitution, led to their own downfall. Venice, having made conquests 
on the mainland (terra ferma) for the sake of her own safety soon be- 
came one of the chief Italian powers, and was thus involved'in all the 
interminable wars caused by the rivalry of the different states She ob- 
tained permanent possession of Treviso in 1339, Vicenza in 1404, Padua and 
Y?™ na j n 140 °' C A ividale in 1419 > Udin « in ^20, Brescia in 1426, Bergamo in 
142S, Crema in 1454, and Rovigo in 1484. In the market-places of these 
towns the lion oi St. Mark was erected as a token of their subjugation, and 
Venetian nobles were appointed their governors. The district thus con- 
?^ C ex *?° ded • t0 about 13,200 sq. M., besides the Dalmatian possessions 
(4250 sq M.) and the settlements in the Levant. Napoleon at length over- 
threw the Republic, which had long been in a tottering condition. On 
15th and 16th May, 1797, Venice was occupied bv French troops under 
Baraguay d Hilliers, this being the first occasion on which it had ever 
been captured by an enemy. In the Peace of Campoformio (1797) it wa? 
adjudged to Austria, but by the Peace of Pressbure in 1805 the Austrian? 
were compelled to cede it to Italy. On the fall ofNapoleon it was again 
awarded to Austria, but in 1866 it was finallv incorporated with the Kingdom 
of Italy. 

37. Verona. 

Railway Stations: (ij Stazione Porta Vescovo (PI. I, 6; rail, restaurant. 
D. incl. wine 31/2 fr.), the principal station, about ly 2 M. to the E of the 
Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. — (2) Stazione Porta Nuova (PI. B. 6). a/ 4 M to 
the S.W. of the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, where the hotel-omnibuses await 
the trains from Tyrol, Milan, and Bologna (luggage is not booked bv ex- 
press-trams from this station). — (3) Stazione Porta San Giorgio (PI. E, 1), 
for the line to Domegliara (p. 19) and Caprino fp. 234). 

Hotels l see P- xix )- Gra * d Hotel de Loxdres et Royal Deux Toubs 
(PI. b; F, 3), Corso Sant 1 Anastasia , in the centre of the town, with 
steam -heating and covered court, R. 5-6, B. IV2, dej. 3-3y 2 , D. 5, 
omn. IV2 fr. ; Ge. Hot. Colomba dX)eo (PI. e; D, 3). Via Colomba, near 
Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, R. 31/2-41/2, B. li/ 2 , dej. 3, D. 4y 2 , omn. 1-1 y, fr. — 
Second-class (with trattorie): -Hotel Riva San Lorenzq (PL d; D, 3) 
agreeably situated on the Adige, Riva San Lorenzo. R. from 2y 2 . B. VU, 

222 Route 37. VERONA. History. 

d6j. 3, D. 4, omn. 1 fr. ; A^uila Nera (PI. f; E, 3), Via delle Quatro Spade, 
R. 2V2-3, omn. 3/ 4 f r . • Regina t/Ungheria (PI. c; E, 3), near the Piazza 
Erbe, with a small garden, R. IV2-2V2, omn. s/ 4 fr. ; Albergo-Ristorante 
alla Gabbia d'Oro (PI. h ; E, 3), Corso Porta Borsari, R. 2, omn. »/» &• ; 
Hotel-Restaurant Accademia (PI. g ; E, 3), Via Nuova, R. 2-3, omn. 3/ 4 f r . ; 
Alb. Ristor. alla Scala dei Mazzanti, near the Piazza Erbe (PI. E, 3), 
R. from H/2 fr. ; Torcolo , Via Colomba 11 , R. from l J /2 fr. ; Alb. Cen- 
trale, Piazza delle Erbe 21, these five unpretending. 

Restaurants at the hotels. Also: Vitlorio Emanuele, Piazza Vitt. 
Emanuele, de"j. 3, D. 4 fr., wine included; Europa, Piazza Vitt. Emanuele; 
Lowenbrdu (Munich beer), Via Nuova Lastricata 14 ; Concordia, Via Nuova. 
— Cafes. Vitlorio Emanuele, Europa , see above; Caffe Dante, Piazza de 1 
Signori. — Birrerie (p. xxiii). Lowenbrdu, Concordia, see above ; Franziskaner, 
Piazza Erbe 35. 

Booksellers. Libreria Dante, Via Nuova Lastricata 20; Libreria alla 
Minerva, Via San Cosimo (PL E, 4). — Photographs: R. Lotze , Via Dis- 
ciplina 9 (PI. G, 4), in Veronetta. — Money Changer: Orti, Via Nuova 27. 

Baths: Via San Luca (PL C,4). 

Post and Telegraph Office in the Piazza delL Indipendenza (PL F, 3). 

Theatres. Teatro Filarmonico (PL C, 4); Teatro Nuovo or Filodram- 
matico (PL E, F, 3), Piazza Navona; Teatro Ristori (PI. B, C, 4). — Music 
on Tues., Thurs., & Sun. evening in the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele. 

Cabs ('Broughams'). Per drive 75 c, per hour l>/ 2 fr. , each addi- 
tional hr. 1 fr. 25 c. ; in the evening (i.e. after the lamps are lit) 30 c. 
per hr. more. From station to town 1 fr. Trunk 25 c. — For each pers. 
above two, one-third more. 

Tramways traverse the town from the Stazione Porta Vescovo to the 
Stazione Porta Nuova (10 c): see Plan. 

English Church Service at the Hotel de Londres (p. 221). 

The Sights of Verona may be seen in one day and a half. 1st Day. 
Morning : Piazza delle Erbe and Piazza de" Signori (pp. 223, 224) ; Tombs 
of the Scaligers (p. 225); Corso Cavour (p. 227); Arena and Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele (p. 227) ; drive to the Porta del Palio (p. 228) and San Zeno (p. 229). 
Afternoon : Sanf Anastasia (p. 225) ; Cathedral (p. 226); San Giorgio in Braida 
(p. 234); Santa Maria in Organo (p. 233); Oiardino Giusti (p. 232). Evening: 
Via Nuova (p. 230). — 2nd Day. San Fermo Maggiore (p. 230); Palazzo 
Pompei (p. 231). — Excursion to San Michele, see p. 234. — Inclusive Tickets 
(biglietto cumulativo; 2 fr. ; valid for three days) may be obtained at the 
station-restaurant and the chief hotels, admitting to all the municipal 
places of interest (Tower of the Municipio, Tombs of the Scaligers, Amphi- 
theatre, Juliet's Tomb, Museo Lapidario, and Museo Civico). 

Verona (155 ft.), the capital of a province, with 73,914 inhab. 
and a garrison of 6000 men, lies on hoth hanks of the rapid Adige. 
which has "been enclosed by high embankments since 1895. A 
fortress of the first class, and seat of the commandant of the 3rd 
Army Corps, it is the most important and beautiful town of the 
Venetian 'terra ferma'. In 1527 et seq. Verona was surrounded with 
new walls and bastions by Sanmicheli. After it came into the pos- 
session of the Austrians in 1814 it was again strongly fortified, and 
along with Peschiera, Mantua, and Legnago formed the famous 
'Quadrilateral', the chief support of Austrian rule in Italy until 1866. 

Founded by the Rhsetians and Euganeans, and afterwards occupied by 
the Celtic Cenomani, Verona was made a Roman colony in B.C. 89, and 
became one of the most prosperous towns of Upper Italy. Its castle of San 
Pietro was a residence of the Ostrogoth Theodoric the Great, the 'Dietrich 
of Bern' (i.e. Verona) of German lore (d. 526). In 568 the town was taken 
by the Lombard king Alboin , who fell a victim to the vengeance of his 
wife Rosamunde, daughter of the conquered ruler of Verona, whom he 
had forced to drink wine out of her father's skull. The Frankish monarchs 

Art History. VERONA. 37. Route. 223 

Pepin, and, after the Carlovingian epoch, Berengarius I., ruled here. Verona 
afterwards headed the league of Venetian cities against Frederick Barba- 
rossa. During the fierce contests between Gnelphs and Ghibellines the 
terrible Ezzelino da Romano (d. 1259) endeavoured to establish a lordship 
at Verona. The year after Ezzelino's death Mastino della Scala, another 
Ghibelline, was elected Podesta. The Scaligers, the great princes of his 
house, inaugurated a glorious period for the city. Mastino was assassinated 
in 1277, but his brother and successor Albert secured the supremacy of 
his line. Romeo and Juliet are said to have loved and died in the reign 
of Albert's son Bartolomeo (1301-04). The greatest member of this illus- 
trious family was Can Francesco, or '■Can Grande I.' (1312-291, who captured 
Vicenza and subdued Padua after a long struggle. His brilliant court 
numbered Dante among its guests. Mastino II. (1329-51 1 at first conquered 
Brescia, Parma, and Lucca, but his rule was afterwards restricted to 
Verona and Vicenza by a league formed by Florence, Venice, and Milan. 
Can Gi-ande II., his successor, was murdered by his brother Can Signorio 
in 1359 ; and in 1337 the latter's son Antonio, who had also endeavoured 
to secure his possession by fratricide, was expelled by Gian Galeazzo Vis- 
conti, Lord of Milan. Through the widow of Visconti the town passed in 
1405 to the Venetians, to whom, with short interruptions, it remained 
subject down to the end of the Republic. 

In the history of Architecture Verona is important, both on account of 
itg mediaeval buildings, and as the birthplace of Fra Giocondo (ca. 1435-1514), 
one of the most famous architects of the early Renaissance, whose works 
are to be found at Venice, Paris, Treviso (fortifications), and Rome, and as 
the home of Michele Sanmicheli (1484-1559), who sought to unite the beauty 
of the Ionic order with the grim strength of military fortifications and 
adorned the city with a series of sumptuous edifices. In judging of the 
Verona palaces, we must bear in mind that it was customary here, &s at 
various other towns of the Venetian 'terra ferma', to adorn the facades 
with paintings. The painted facades of houses near San Fermo, by the 
Porta Borsari, in Piazza delle Erbe, and others partly recall the Paduan 
style of the 15th century. — The earlier Veronese Painters of the second 
half of the 14th cent, were superior especially in colouring to the Floren- 
tine school of Giotto and held themselves clear of its influence. The chief 
of these masters was Altichieri, to whom is ascribed the fresco in Sant' 
Ana-tasia (p. 225), the only monument of the period in Verona (other fres- 
coes in Padua, see p. 251). A new period of importance began in the 15th 
century. Among the chief masters were Vittore Pisano (d. ca. 1451), the 
celebrated medallist; Liberate da Verona, especially noteworthy for his 
miniatures; Domenico and his son Franc. Morone; Francesco Caroto (1470- 
1546); Girolamo dai Libri (1474-1556); and Paolo Morando, surnamed Ca- 
vazzola (1486-1522). The artistic family of the Bonifazios, though originating 
in Verona, flourished mainly in Venice. Un the other hand Paolo Calidri, 
surnamed Veronese (1528-8S), also resident in Venice, owed his artistic 
development mainly to the influence of his native place. — In the history 
of Scolptcre Verona also holds a place of some importance, as is evidenced 
by the Romanesque reliefs on the facade of San Zeno (p. 229). the font 
of San Giovanni in Fonte (p. 226), and the Gothic monuments of the Sca- 
ligers (p. 225). 

Comp. 'The Story of Verona', by Alethea Wiel (1902). 

a. Quarters on the Eight Bank of the Adige. 
The *Piazza delle Erbe (PI. E, 3), the ancient forum, now the 
fruit and vegetable market, is one of the most picturesque squares in 
Italy. The Marble Column at the N. end hears the lion of St. Mark, 
a modern copy of the ancient cognisance of the Republic of Venice. 
Opposite is the Pal. Trezza (formerly Maffef), built in the baroque 
style in 1668, with a curious spiral staircase in the interior. The 

224 Route 37. VERONA. a. Right Bank 

Casa Mazzanti, at the corner to the right, originally the residence of 
Alberto della Scala (d. 1301), is adorned with frescoes by Cavalli, 
an imitator of Giulio Romano. The Fountain, dating from the time 
of Berengarius L, is adorned with a statue of 'Verona', partly an- 
tique. On the houses opposite are frescoes by Liberale (Coronation 
of the Virgin, Adam and Eve) and Girolamo dai Libri (Madonna 
and saints). In the centre of the Piazza is the Tribuna, with its 
canopy borne by four columns, anciently the seat of judgment. The 
Casa dei Mercanti (1301), at the corner of Via Pelliciai, recently 
restored, now contains the commercial court. Opposite rises the 
Torre Civica, or Tower of the Municipio, 273 ft. in height, affording 
a fine view (ascent from tbe court of the Palazzo della Ragione, see 
below, laborious ; adm. 50 c). — A short street to the left of the 
latter leads to the handsomely paved — 

*Piazza dei Signori (PI. E, F, 3), on the "W. side of which is 
the old Palazzo de' Giureconsulti, founded in 1263, but rebuilt in 
the 16th century. — On the S. side, immediately to the right of 
the tower, is the Palazzo della Ragione, founded in 1183 ; the court 
(Mercato vecchio) contains a grand flight of steps of the 14th cen- 
tury. — Adjoining the pinnacled tower is the Tribunate, and on 
the E. side of the piazza is the Prefettura, formerly residences of 
the Scaligers. The original architecture is seen to best advantage 
in the courts , which have been restored. The portal of the Pre- 
fettura is by Sanmicheli. — At the N.E. corner of the piazza stands 
the — 

*Palazzo del Consiglio, or Old Town Hall, usually called La 
Loggia, one of the finest buildings inN. Italy in the early-Renais- 
sance style , erected in 1476-92 , probably from designs by Fra 
Giocondo, originally with statues surmounting the facade (restored 
in 1873). By the door are two bronze statues by Qirol. Campana, 
representing the Annunciation. Over the door is the inscription, 
placed here by the Venetians : 'Pro summa fide summus amor 1592'. 
Above are statues of celebrated ancient Veronese: Cornelius Nepos, 
Catullus, Vitruvius, the younger Pliny, and iEmilius Macer, the poet 
and friend of Virgil. On the wall are busts of famous modern 
Veronese. On the upper floor are several tastefully restored rooms 
(custodian in the court). 

The entrances to the Piazza dei Signori are spanned by archways. 
Above the arch next the Loggia is a portrait of Girol. Fracastoro (d. 1553) 
by Danese Cattaneo (1559); in the N.W. corner is a Statue of Scipionc 
Maffei, the historian (1675-1755). Behind, in the Via Mazzanti, are a 
picturesque Fountain of 1478 and the Volto Barbaro, under which Mastino 
della Scala is said to have been assassinated in 1211. 

In the centre of the piazza rises a Statue of Dante (by Zannoni, 
1865), who found his first asylum here with Bartolomeo della 
Scala after his banishment from Florence in 1303. 

The passage adjoining the Tribunal leads to the ancient church 
of Santa Maria Antica (restored in the original style), with Roman- 

oftheAdige. VERONA. 37. Route. 225 

esque campanile, and the imposing *Tombs of the Scaligers (Arche 
degli Scaligeri; PI. F, 3), the stern Gothic forms of which immor- 
talise the masculine genius of the dynasty. The ladder, their crest, 
often recurs on the elaborate railings. 

Over the church-door are the sarcophagus and equestrian statue of Can 
Grande Primo della Scala (d. 1329); adjoining it, the wall-monument of 
Giovanni della Scala (d. 1350") and the sarcophagus of Mastino I. (d. 1277). 
Next to the Piazza Signori is the monument of Mastino II. (d. 1351), another 
sarcophagus with canopy and equestrian statue. The similar monument 
at the opposite corner of the street, executed by Bonino da Campione for 
Can Signorio (d. 1375) during his life-time, is embellished with statues of 
Christian heroes and virtues. The sarcophagi between these, bearing the 
same crest, have no names. (The custodian lives in a house to the right 
of the church; fee 25c. each person.) 

A little to the S.E., amid the grounds of the Piazza dell' Indipen- 
denza (PI. F, 3), rises an Equestrian Statue of Garibaldi, in bronze, 
by Bordoni (1887). 

We now proceed to the N. to the Corso Sant ; Anastasia, at 
the E. end of which rises *Sant' Anastasia (PI. F, 2), a fine Gothic 
Dominican church begun about 1261, with unfinished brick facade, 
a portal in marble, with reliefs of the life of Peter Martyr, and a 
fresco of the 14th cent, in the lunette. 

The Intekiok, borne by 12 columns, is remarkable for boldness and 
symmetry of proportion, and for the late-Gothic decoration of the vaulting 
(i437). On the first column to the left is an ancient capital, used as a 
Holy Water Basin, supported by a hump-backed dwarf (Gobbo) attributed 
to Gabriele Caliari, father of Paolo Veronese. By the first altar to the right 
is the monument of Fregoso, the Venetian general, by Danese Cattaneo 
(1565). Above the 3rd altar are an Eutombment and other frescoes by 
Liberate. The frame-work of the 4th altar is an imitation of the ancient 
Arco de' Gavi in the Castel Vecchio, removed in 1S05; altar-piece, St. 
Martin by Caroto. The next small chapel contains excellent early-Renais- 
sance ornamentation: a painted group of the Entombment, of the 14th cent.; 
a wooden crucifix of the 15th cent.; and a fine iron lamp. — In the right 
transept, St. Paul by Cavazzola. and Madonna with saints by Girolamo dai 
Libri, in an elegant frame. — In the second chapel of the choir, on the 
right, are ancient Veronese 'Frescoes of the 14th cent, (probably by AUi- 
chieri), Knights of the Cavalli family kneeling before the Virgin. The 
adjoining Capp. Pellegrini (on the left) contains terracotta reliefs from 
the life of Christ, probably by a Florentine master (ca. 1430-40). — In 
the choir, to the left, is the painted monument of General Sarego (d. 
1432), by Rosto, an assistant of Donatello (p. 443), with an equestrian 
statue of the deceased in the middle and squires withdrawing a curtain 
at the side. Behind the high-altar are some fine early-Renaissance stalls 
with intarsia work. — In the adjoining Cappella Lavagnoli (right) are 
frescoes, by Benaglio, of the Miraculous Draught of Fishes , the Cruci- 
fixion, and Christ preaching by the Lake of Galilee (Lago di Garda in the 
background). — The left transept contains frescoes of the 14th cent., and 
a picture by Liberate, Mary Magdalen in clouds. — Above the 4th altar 
(from the entrance) in the left aisle, Descent of the Holy Ghost by Giolftno 
(1418); above is the same subject 'al fresco' by Michele da Verona. At each 
side are four statues of saints. Over the 2nd altar, Christ with SS. Eras- 
mus and George, by Giolfino. Over the 1st altar, painted sculptures by 
Michele da Verona (about 1500). — In the sacristy is a fresco of St. George, 
by Vittore Pisano, in which the chief figure has been defaced by damp. 

In front of the church is a marble Statue of Paolo Veronese, by 
Torquato della Torre and R. Cristiani, erected in 1888. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 12th Edit. 15. 

226 Route 37. VERONA. a. Bight Bank 

To the left of the church, over a gateway, is the marble sarco- 
phagus of Count Guglielmo da Castelbarco, the Scaligers' friend, 
at whose expense the churches of Sant' Anastasia and San Fermo 
were in great part built ; and in the gateway are three others. — 
The small church of San Pietro Martire, entered through the ad- 
joining Collegio Convitto, contains an allegorical fresco by Fal- 
conetto: Madonna with the arms of Teutonic knights (about 1515). 
We now proceed to the right to the — 

Cathedral [Duomo; PI. F, 1,2), a Gothic structure of the 14th cent., 
with choir and Romanesque facade of the 12th cent, and pointed 
windows in the facade inserted later. On the outside of the apse 
are pilasters with an architrave, in the antique style. Behind the 
columns and griffins of the handsome portal are Roland and Oliver, 
the paladins of Charlemagne, in rough relief, executed according 
to the inscription by Nicolaus (1135). By the side-wall rises an 
unfinished campanile, designed by Sanmicheli , resting upon an 
ancient basis. 

The Interior consists of nave and aisles, with eight red marble 
pillars. The walls adjoining and above the first three altars on the right 
and left are adorned with decorative painting by Falconelto (about 1503). 
Above the elegant rood-loft of marble, designed by Sanmicheli, is a bronze 
crncifix by Giambattista da Verona. The Adoration of the Magi, over the 
2nd altar to the right, is by Liberate da Verona, with wings by Oiolfino. 
At the end of the right aisle is the Tomb of St. Agatha, a Gothic mon- 
ument of 1353 enclosed in beautiful Renaissance frame-work (1508). In 
the choir are frescoes from the life of the Virgin, executed by Torbido 
from drawings by Oiulio Romano. — Over the 1st altar on the left, *Assump- 
tion by Titian, about 1543 (frame by Sansovino): 'striking for its masterly 
combination of light and shade and harmonious colours with realistic 
form and action 1 (C. & C). 

To the left of the choir a corridor leads to San Giovanni in 
Fonte, the ancient Baptistery, of the 12th cent. ; the Romanesque 
reliefs on the font (about 1200) show a distinct advance on those 
on the facade of St. Zeno (p. 229). To the left of the facade (2nd door 
on the left) are Romanesque Cloisters, the arches resting on double 
columns of red marble. They contain an antique column and some 
interesting ancient mosaics (fee 50 c). — To the N.E. of the 
cathedral is the Vescovado (PI. F, 1), or bishop's residence, with a 
chapel containing three paintings by Liberate da Verona. — The 
Palazzo dei Canonici, to the N.W. (No. 19), contains the Biblioteca 
Capitolare with its precious MSS., among which Niebuhr discovered 
the Institutes of Gaius. Librarian, Monsignor Giuliari. (Adm. in 
the forenoon.) — The adjacent Fonte Garibaldi (PI. E, 1), a sus- 
pension-bridge, leads to the church of San Giorgio in Braida, in 
Veronetta (see p. 233). 

We now follow the Lungalugb Panvinio (PI. E, D, 2, 3), a 
broad and open quay ascending along the right bank of the Adige, 
and soon turn to the left, to visit the church of Sant' Eufemia (PL 
E, 2, 3), a Gothic structure of the 13th cent., with Madonnas by 
Moretto (1st altar on the left; injured) and Dom. Brusasorci (3rd 

oftheAdige. VERONA. 37. Route. 227 

altar on the right). Frescoes hy Caroto, in the Cappella Spolverini, 
to the right of the choir (injured). 

A few paces to the S. of S. Enfemia is the Corso Porta Borsari, 
which begins at the Piazza delle Erbe and leads to the Porta de' 
Borsari (PI. D, 3), a town-gate, erected under Emp. Gallienus, 
A. D. 265, in the poor later Roman style. 

To the W. this Corso is prolonged hy the Corso Cavoub (PL D, 
C, 3), one of the chief streets of Verona, in which several handsome 
palaces are situated. Immediately to the right (No. 10) is the Gothic 
Palazzo Ponzoni (formerly Pal. de' Medici). Farther on, to the left, 
in a small piazza, is the church of Santi Apostoli (PI. D, 3), with 
very ancient tower and Romanesque apse. In front of it stands a 
marble statue by Zannoni of Aleardo Aleardi, the poet and patriot 
(1812-78). — Also on the left (No. 19) is the handsome *Pal. 
Bevilacqua, by Sanmicheli, now entirely neglected. — Opposite is 
the small church of San Lorenzo (11th cent. ?), a Romanesque 
edifice, with round towers on the facade. The interior, restored in 
1896-98, has galleries supported alternately by pillars and columns. 
There are remains of many old frescoes, and in the apse is an altar- 
piece by Dom. Brusasorci (1566). — Then, on the right, No. 38, 
Pal. Portalupi, and No. 44, Pal. Canossa, also by Sanmicheli, with 
a fine portico and court, but with an attica added in 1770. 

The neighbouring Piazzetta di Castel Vecchio (PL C, 3) affords 
a picturesque view of the imposing pinnacled Bridge of the 14th 
cent., which connects the Castel Vecchio (PL C, 3), the castle of 
Can Grande II. (14th cent.), now a barrack, with the left bank of the 
Adige (open to passengers during the day). 

From the Castello to San Zeno, see p. 229. The Via San Bernar- 
dino leads to the W. to San Bernardino (p. 228), while the Corso is 
prolonged to the S.W. to the Porta del Palio (p. 228). 

To the S. of the Corso, and connected with it by several streets, 
lies the Piazza Vittobjo Emanuele (PL D, 4 ; formerly Piazza Brh, 
from 'pratuni, meadow), with an equestrian Statue of Victor Em- 
manuel II., by Borghi, erected in 1883. 

On the E. side of this piazza rises the famous *Amphitheatre 
[Arena; PL D, 4), erected under Diocletian about A. D. 290, and 
known in German lore as the abode of Dietrich (Theodoric) of 
Bern, 106 ft. in height, 168 yds. long, and 134 yds. wide. Of the 
outer wall with its four stories a fragment only now exists. 

Around the Interior (entr. from the W. side by arcade No. V; adm. 1 fr.; 
closed at sunset; guide superfluous) rise 43 tiers of steps of grey limestone 
or reddish-yellow conglomerate (often restored since the end of the 16th cent., 
and partly modern), on which 20,000 spectators could sit. An inscription 
on the second story commemorates the visit of Napoleon I. in 1805, and the 
restoration carried out by his order. Fine view from the highest steps. 
Two doors at the ends of the longer diameter affordedaccess to the arena 
itself (82 by 48 yds.). 

On the E. side of the Arena, in the small Piazza Mura Gallieno, 
is a fragment of the Late-Roman City Wall, brought to light in 1872. 


228 Route 37. VERONA. a. Bight Bank 

To the S.W. of the Arena stands the Municipio (PI. D, 4 ; formerly 
a guard-house), begun in 1836, which hears several memorial tablets 
relating to political events and to the inundation of 1882. 

The wide Via Pallone, beginning behind the Municipio, leads to the 
S.E., skirting the Mediaeval City Wall of the Visconti period (now used 
as barracks), to the iron Ponte Aleardi (PI. E, 6) and the Cimitero (p. 232). 

Near the Via Pallone, within a garden (visitors ring at the red 
door in front, adm. 50 c.) in the Vicolo San Francesco al Corso, a side 
street of the Via Cappuccini, is a suppressed Franciscan Monastery, where a 
chapel contains a mediaeval sarcophagus called the Tomba di Giulietta, or 
'•Tomb of Julie f (PI. D, 6). The whole scene is prosaic and unattractive. 
Shakespeare's play of 'Romeo and Juliet 1 is founded on events which actu- 
ally occurred at Verona. 'Escalus, Prince of Verona' was Bartolomeo della 
Scala (d. 1303). The house of Juliet's parents, see p. 230. 

The W. side of the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele is occupied by the 
Gran Guardia Vecchia (PI. D, 4 ; now the corn-market ; upper floor 
used for concerts and exhibitions), or old guard-house, begun in 
1609 by Dom. Curtoni. Adjacent are the Portoni, an old gateway 
with a tower, probably another fragment of the city- wall of Giov. 
Galeazzo Visconti. — On the N. side of the piazza is the spacious 
Pal. Malfatti, formerly Guastaverza (by Sanmicheli), with the Cafe* 
Vittorio Emanuele, mentioned at p. 222. 

In the street to the right of the gateway is the Teatro Filarmonico 
(PI. C, 4), built by Franc. Galli da Bibbiena (d. 1739). In the 
arcades erected in 1745 is the valuable Museo Lapidario, or Museo 
Maffeiano, formed by Scipione Maffei (p. 224), containing Roman, 
Greek, and Oriental inscriptions, and ancient sculptures. Two of 
the best reliefs are built iuto the back-walls of the small houses 
adjoining the entrance (on the left, ^Esculapius and Hygieia, an 
Attic votive relief, 4th cent. B.C.). Visitors ring at the iron gate 
opposite the Gran Guardia (adm. 50 c). 

Passing through the gateway, we reach the Corso Vitt. Ema- 
nuele (PI. C, B, 4, 5), in which, at the corner of the Via Sant' 
Antonio, is a Statue of Michele Sanmicheli, 'grande nella architet- 
tura civile e religiosa, massimo nella militare', by Trojani. At the 
end of the Corso rises the handsome Porta Nuova (PI. B, 6) , by 
Sanmicheli. Outside this gate are the Stazione Porta Nuova (p. 221), 
the Candle Jndu striate , or Adige Canal, completed in 1888, and 
several factories. 

From the Porta Nuova an avenue leads to the N.W. to the 
*Porta del Palio (formerly Porta Stuppa; PI. A, 4), by Sanmicheli, 
once admired by Goethe. Outside the gate is the moat of the fortress, 
the bridge over which affords a fine view. — We now follow the 
Stradone di Porta Palio and the second cross-street on the left to — 

San Bernardino (PI. A, 3), of the 15th cent., formerly a mon- 
astery-church. We enter from the E. angle, through the pretty 
cloisters. Above the door to the left of the church is a fresco, 
*St. Bernardinus, by Cavazzola (if the church-door be closed, ring 
in the corner to the left). 

oftheAdige. VERONA. 37. Route- 229 

Inteeioe. 1st chapel on the right: Frescoes of legendary subjects by 
Giolfino. — 2nd altar on the right, Madonna and saints by Bonsignori 
(1485). — 4th chapel on the right: Domen. Morone, ceiling-frescoes and 
life of St. Anthony (restored). — 5th chapel : on the altar-wall, copies from 
Cavazzola (in the Museum); above, Christ on the Cross and SS. John and 
Mary, by F r. Morone (1498) ; on the left, Christ parting from his mother by 
Carolo, and three paintings from the Passion by Giolfino. — At the end to 
the right is the entrance to the "Cappella Pellegrini, by Sanmicheli (1557, 
restored 1793), with beautiful Renaissance decoration. — In the choir, to 
the left, Madonna with saints, by Benaglio. — Organ of 1481. On the 
organ-doors are SS. Bernardino and Francis, and (over the portal) SS. 
Bonaventura and Lodovico, by Fr. Morone. — The Cloistees and one 
of the chapels contain frescoes by Giolfino (early works). — In the Re- 
fectoey of the monastery, frescoes by Dom. Morone (f) , accessible only 
from the street. 

To the N. of this point lies *San Zeno Maggiore (PI. A, 2 ; reached 
by the Vicolo Lungo San Bernardino or also by following the new 
emhankment on the Adige, with its fine views, to the N.W. of the 
Castel Vecchio, p. 227), one of the finest Romanesque churches in 
N. Italy, of most noble proportions, restored since 1870. The interior 
of this flat -roofed basilica, which dates from the 11th cent., is 
supported by alternate columns and pillars. The nave in its present 
form was begun in 1138; the choir dates from the 13th century. 

The Poetal, the columns of which rest on lions of red marble, is 
embellished with reliefs of Scriptural subjects by Nicolaus and Wiligelmus 
(1139). Below, to the right, Theodoric, as a wild huntsman, is speeding 
headlong to the devil. At the top of the door-posts are the twelve month?. 
The doors are covered with rude bronze reliefs from the Bible and the 
life of St. Zeno. 

Inteeioe. In the corner to the right, an ancient octagonal font; behind 
it, a fresco of St. Zeno (14th cent.). The holy-water basin, by the 1st column 
on the right, rests on an inverted antique capital. Opposite is an ancient 
porphyry vase, 28 ft. in circumference; beyond it, a fine Gothic crucifix. 
— On the Choir Screen are marble statues of Christ and the Apostles (13th 
cent.), still retaining traces of colouring. On the wall below are ornaments 
and figures in coloured low relief. — To the left of the choir, frescoes of 
the 14th cent., under which are traces of others of the 12th; to the right, 
frescoes of the 11th and 13th centuries. To the right of the steps to the 
choir is an altar, flanked on each side with four monolithic columns of 
brown marble, resting on lions and bulls. To the right, above, is a 
painted marble figure of St. Zeno (d. 380), a fisherman and afterwards 
Bishop of Verona, ascribed to the 9th century. Gothic choir-stalls. Behind 
the high-altar is an admirable * Picture (covered) by Mantegna (1459): 
Madonna enthroned, with angels and saints ; on the left, SS. Peter, Paul, 
John, and Augustine; on the right, SS. John the Baptist, Gregory, Law- 
rence, and Benedict, in solemn attitude and full of individuality, with 
remarkably rich accessories. (The predella pictures are copies.) — 
The spacious Cetpt contains the tasteful bronze tomb of St. Zeno, from 
designs by the brothers Spazzi (1889), with seated figures of Religion 
Love, Faith, and Hope. 

The lofty battlemented Toicer on the N. side of the church, and the 
Cloisters with elegant double columns, are the last relics of a convent 
(suppressed in 1770) repeatedly inhabited by the medieeval German em- 
perors on their journeys to Rome. On the .top floor of the tower are 
some old Romanesque wall -paintings, and "in the cloisters is a small 
museum of Christian antiquities (fee to the well informed sacristan, 1/2-I fr.). 

To the W. of S. Zeno is the Porta San Zeno (PI. A, 1), erected 
in 1540 by Sanmicheli. 

230 Koute 37 . VERONA, a. Bight Bank of the Adiye. 

We now return from the Piazza Vitt. Emanuele (p. 227) to the 
N.E. to the Piazza delle Erbe hy the narrow Via Ntjoya Lastbicata 
and its prolongation, the Via Nuova (PI. E, 3), together forming 
the chief thoroughfare of the city (corso in the evening). 

In the Via della Scala, one of the S. side-streets of the Via Nuova, 
is the church of Santa Maria della Scala (PI. E, 3), with an early-Renais- 
sance portal and frescoes of the school of Vittore Pisano (in the bell 
chamber, to the right of the high-altar). — This street is prolonged by 
the Via San Cosimo, at No. 8 in which (Marchese Fumanelli) is a good 
replica of Seb. del Piombo's so-called 'Dorothea 1 at Berlin. 

In the Via Cappello, through which the tramway runs S. from 
the Piazza delle Erbe (PL E, 3), an old house (Nos. 19-25) on the 
left bears a marble tablet which is said to indicate the house of 
Juliet's parents (Capuletti; p. 228). The street then takes the 
name of Via San Sebastiano (PI. E, 3, 4), in which, adjoining 
the church of San Sebastiano (PI. F, 4), is the Biblioteca Comunale 
(open in winter 9-3 and 6-9, in summer 9-4), founded in 1860, 
and containing numerous records. 

In the Via Leoni (PI. F, 4), the prolongation of the same street, 
on the left, immediately beyond No. 1, is the Arco de' Leoni, part 
of a Roman double gateway, coeval with the Porta de' Borsari 
(p. 227), but of superior execution, bearing aninscription partially 
preserved. Behind it are remains of a still older arch. 

Near this is the Gothic church of San Fermo Maggiore (PI. E, 
F, 4), built at the beginning of the 14th cent, for the Benedictines 
and afterwards transferred to the Franciscans. The interesting facade 
is enriched with brick and marble. On the left side of the facade 
is the sarcophagus of Fracastoro, physician of Can Grande I., with 
ancient Veronese frescoes (14th cent.). 

The Interior, entered by the left side-door (visitors knock), has no 
aisles. Part of it is modernised. Fine old roof in larch-wood. Above 
the main entrance is a fresco of the early Veronese school, the Crucifixion, 
in polychrome frame. To the left is the monument of the Brenzoni, with 
sculptures by the Florentine Rosso (p. 225; 1420) •, above are much damaged 
frescoes by Vittore Pisano, the Annunciation. — 1st altar on the left, three 
saints by Torbido. — Over the side-entrance, fresco of the Crucifixion-, in 
the chapel to the left, Altar-piece by Carolo (1525), Madonna, St. Anna, 
and the Child in clouds, with four saints below. — In an adjoining space, 
behind a railing, is the monument of the physician Gir. della Torre, by 
Riccio (the bronze reliefs, now in the Louvre, are here replaced by copies). 
— Chapel on the left of high-altar, St. Anthony with four other saints, by 
Liberate. — 3rd altar on the right in the nave, Trinity, Madonna in clouds, 
Tobias and the angel, and a saint, by Franc. Torbido. 

b. Left Bank of the Adige (Veronetta). 
The Via Leoni ends at the iron Ponte delle Navi (PL F, 4), 
which was erected in 1893 on the site of two stone bridges destroyed 
by inundations of the Adige in 1757 and 1882. It affords a good 
survey of the choir and transept of San Fermo, and also up the river 
to the Castello San Pietro (p. 233). — A little way above the bridge, 
on what was formerly an island, stands the spacious church of San 

b. Left Bunk of the Adiye. VERONA. 37. Route. 231 

Tommaso (PI. F, G, 3, 4), without aisles, and with open roof, con- 
taining a fine altar-piece hy Girol. dai Libri: SS. Sebastian, Rochus, 
and Job (last altar on the right). 

Just below the bridge, to the left, is the noble *Palazzo Pompei 
(PI. F, 5), erected by Sanmicheli about 1530, presented by the 
family to the town in 1857, and now containing the Museo Civico 
(open in summer 9-4, in winter 9-3, on holidays from 10 a.m. ; adm. 
1 fr., gratis on the 1st Sun. of each month). 

The Gbound Floor contains natural history collections (tine fossils from 
Monte Bolca) and antiquities: Roman and Etruscan hronzes, marble sculp- 
tures and vases, coins, Roman silver-plate; prehistoric antiquities from the 
lake-dwellings of the Lago di Garda; mediaeval sculptures (some painted), 
several works by Innoc. Fraccaroli (1805-b2) , and casts of other modern 

The *Pinacoteca or picture-gallery, on the first floor, contains works 
chiefly of the Veronese school. Catalogues for the use of visitors. The 
rooms are overcrowded and have a general air of neglect. 

I. Room : (right) 70. Tiepolo, Monastic saints; 68. Bonifazio II., Noah and 
his sons; 52. Titian, Holy Family (injured); 49. Franc. Torbido (ascribed 
to Moretto). Tobias and the angel. On the opposite wall: 34. School of 
Perugino , Holy Family, with two angels; 31. School of Paolo Veronese. 
Baptism of Christ (injured). 

II. Room (right) : 156. In the style of Jacob Corneliszen (not Lucas van 
Leyden), Adoration of the Magi ; 148. Bonsignori, Madonna ; 153. Parmigia- 
nino, Holy Family; 152. Franc. Benaglio, Madonna. — 122. Cima da Coneg- 
liano, Madonna; IIS. Cesare da Seslo, Pietk; 115. M. Basaiti, St. Sebastian; 
114. Caroto, Holy Family (under Giulio Romano's influence); 119. Caroto, 
Madonna. — 99. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna (date, 1510, forged); 104. 
Style of Altdorfer (not Amberger), Portrait of the Vicar Kolb ; 97. Sir 
A. More (Ant. Mor), Portrait; 96. School of Raphael (ascribed by Morelli 
to Calisto Piazza), Holy Family; ~87. Mantegna, Madonna and two saints; 
102. P. Veronese (? ascribed by Morelli to Zelotti), Allegory of music; 95. 
School of Perugino, Adoration of the Magi; 86. School of Oiov. Bellini (sig- 
nature forged), Presentation in the Temple; 9