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BELGIUM AND HOLLAND, with 8 Maps and 17 VX^^.A^ 

Sixth Edition. 1881. . 5/^rks. /^ 


Seven Mountains, Moselle, Volcanic Eipel, Vosges Mts., Black 
Forest, etc.), with 22 Maps and 19 Plans. Seventh Edition. 1880. 6 marks. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 25 Maps and 33 Plans. Seventh 

Edition. 1881. 6 marks. 

gary AND Transylvania, with 13 Maps and 24 Plans. 

Fourth Edition. 1880. G marks. 

THE EASTERN ALPS, including the Bavarian High- 
lands, THE Tyrol, SaLZKAMMERGUT, etc. with 21 Maps, 
10 Plans, and 7 Panoramas. Fourth Edition. 1879. 6 marks. 

Ravenna, an^ the Island of Corsica, and routes to Italt 

THROUGH Fkance, SWITZERLAND, AND AusTKiA , with 8 Maps and 
32 Plans. Filth Edition. 1879. 6 marks. 

CENTRAL ITALY and ROME, with 7 Maps, 27 Plans, and 

a Pandi-aina of Rome. Seventh Edition. 1881. 6 marks. 

SOUTHERN ITALY, SICILY, and Excursions to the 
LiPARi Islands, Tunis (Carthagej, Sardinia, Malta, and 

Corfu, with 24 Maps and 14 Plans. Seventh Edition. 1880. 7 marks. 

LONDON and its ENVIRONS, including Brighton, the 

Isle of Wight , etc. with 4 Maps and 14 Plans. Third 
Edition. 1881. 6 marks. 

NORWAY AND SWEDEN, with 15 Maps and 3 Plans. 1879. 

9 marks. 

PARIS AND ITS ENVIRONS, with Routes from London 

TO Paris, and from Paris to the Rhine and Switzerland. With 

10 Maps and 30 Plans. Seventh Edition. 1881. 6 marks. , 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent Parts of Italy, / 

Savoy, and the Tyrol, with 24 Maps, lO Plans, and 9 Panoramas. t 

Eighth Edition. 1879. 7 marks. / 

THE EAST. LOWER EGYPT, with the Fa yum and the j 
Peninsula of Sinai, with le Maps, 29 pians, 7 views, and 76 

Vignettes. 1878. 15 marks. 

PALESTINE AND SYRIA, with 18 Maps, 43 Plans, 

1 PaiKirama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20 marks. 


English, German, French, and Italian. 3 marks. 

June 1881. 


(Comp. p. xi.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 
















































































































































71 12 











































7' 2 

















































Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French metre system has been in use throughout the country, but the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglia) is still sometimes preferred to the new kilo- 
mitre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly Vstlis, of an English 
mile. The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 M. 44 yds.; the 
Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. 

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With 8 Maps and 32 Plans. 



All rights reserved. 

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With 8 Maps and 32 Plans. 



All rights reserved. 

'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.' 



Lhe objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists of 
three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the trav- 
eller with some information regarding the culture and art of 
the people he is about to visit, as well as regarding the nat- 
ural features of the country, to render him as independent as 
possible of the services of guides and valets-de-place, to pro- 
tect him against extortion, and in every way to aid him in 
deriving enjoyment and instruction from his tour In one of 
the most fascinating countries in the world. The Handbook 
will also , it is hoped , be the means of saving the traveller 
many a trial of temper ; for there is probably no country in 
Europe where the patience is more severely taxed than in 
some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is founded on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place , he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from numerous correspondents , which he 
gratefully acknowledges, has in many cases proved most 

The present volume, corresponding to the ninth German 
edition, has, like its predecessor, been thoroughly revised and 
considerably augmented. Its contents have been divided into 
groups of routes arranged historically and geographically 
(Piedmont , Liguria , Lomhardy , Venetia , The Emilia , and 
Tuscany), each section being provided with a prefatory outline 
of the history of the district. To Professor A. Springer the 
Editor is indebted for the introductory article on Art, which 
has special reference to Northern Italy and Florence, and for 


most of the art-historical notices prefixed to the description 
of the larger towns and the principal picture-galleries. The 
admirable works of Messrs. Croice cmd Cavalcaselle have also 
been laid extensively under contribution. 

The Maps and Plans , upon which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre) , and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii) . The 
Populations are given from the most recent official sources, 
and in some cases may appear over-rated, from the fact of 
the returns applying to the political districts. 

Hotels (comp. p. xviii). Besides the modern palatial and 
expensive establishments, the Handbook also contains a se- 
lection of modest, old-fashioned inns, which not uufrequently 
afford good accommodation at moderate charges. The asterisks 
indicate those hotels which the Editor has reason to believe 
from his own experience, as well as from information supplied 
by numerous travellers, to be respectable, clean, and reason- 
able. The value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, 
varies according to circumstances, those prefixed to town 
hotels and village inns signifying respectively that the 
establishments are good of their kind. At the same time the 
Editor does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasion- 
ally be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or 
even mentioned. The average charges are stated in accor- 
dance with the Editor's own experience , or from the bills 
furnished to him by travellers. Although changes frequently 
take place , and prices generally have an upward tendency, 
the approximate statement of these items which is thus 
supplied will at least enable the traveller to form an estimate 
of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel proprietors , tradesmen , and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and courtesy 
towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commend- 
ation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly ex- 


Introduction. p^^^ 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period and Plan of Tour xii 

III. Language xiv 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage .... xiv 
V. Beggars xv 

VI. Prices and Gratuities xv 

VII. Railways xvi 

VIII. Hotels xviii 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie xix 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc xx 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph xxi 

XII. Climate. Health xxii 

XIII. Dates of Recent Events xxiii 

XIV. History of Art, by Prof. A. Springer xxv 

(At the end of the book is an Index to the names of the artists men- 
tioned in this sketch and throughout the volume.) 

Route I- Routes to Italy. P^ge 

1 . From Paris to Nice by Lyons and Marseilles .... 1 

1. From Strassburg (Bale) to Lyons 4 

2. From Geneva to Lyons 5 

3. Vaucluse 11 

4. From Tarascon to St. Remy 11 

5. From Tarascon to Nimes and Montpellier 11 

6. Hyeres 19 

2. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis .... 21 

1. From Geneva to Culoz 22 

2. From Bussoleno to Susa 24 

3. From Martigny to Arona on the Lago Maggiore (and 
Milan) over the Simplon 24 

4. From Lucerne to Bellinzona and Lugano over the St. 
Gotthard 27 

5. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen 33 

1. From Coire to Biasca by the Lukmanier 37 

2. From Coire to Bellinzona by the Bernardino Pass . . 37 

6. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner , . . . 38 

1. From Trent to Riva on the Lago di Garda .... 43 

2. From Trent to Bassano by the Val Sugana .... 43 

7. From Vienna to Trieste. Semmering Railway ... 45 

-^iii CONTENTS. 

Route Page 

II. Piedmont 53 

8. Turin 54 

1. The Superga 66 

2. From Turin to Torre Pellice by Pignerol .... 66 

9. From Turin to Aosta 66 

10. From Turin to Milan by Novara 69 

1. From Santhia to Biella 69 

2. From Vercelli to Alessandria 70 

3. From Novara to Gozzano 71 

Jl. From Turin to Piacenza by Alessandria 72 

From Tortona to Novi 72 

12. From Turin to Genoa 72 

a. Via Alessandria 72 

1. From Asti to Mortara (Milan) 73 

2. From Alessandria to Savona 73 

b. Via Rra and Savona .......... 74 

1. Carignano 75 

2. From Cavallermaggiore to Alessandria ... . . 75 

3. From Carru to Mondov\ 75 

III. Liguria 77 

13. Genoa ; 78 

14. From Genoa to Nice. Riviera di Ponente 92 

15. Nice and its Environs '. 101 

16. From Nice to Turin by the Col di Tenda . . . . . 107 

1. Certosa di Val Pesio. Baths of Valdieri .... 108 

2. From Savigliano to Saluzzo 109 

17. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante 109 

From Avenza to Carrara 113 

IV. Lombardy 115 

18. Milan 116 

19. From Milan to Lecco or Como. The Brianza .... 134 

20. Lake of Como 138 

The Lake of Lecco. . 145 

21. From the Lake of Como to the Lago Maggiore. Varese. 
Lugano' and the Lake of Lugano 145 

1. From Como to Laveiio by Varese ...... 146 

2. From Como to Luino by Lugano 147 

3. From Mei\aggio by Porlezza to Lugano 151 

22. Lagd Maggiore. From Arona to Milan and to Genoa . . 152 

1. From Arona to Milan 158 

2. From Arona to Genoa 158 

3. From Milan by Vigevano to Mortara (Genoa) . . . 158 

23. From Stresa to Varallo. Monte Mptterone. Lake of Orta 159 

24. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) by Pavia. Certosa di 
Pavia 162 

1. From Pavia to Alessandria via Valenza 165 

2. From Pavia to Brescia via Cremona 166 

3. Fnim Pavia to Piacenza via. Codogno 166 

25. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona 166 

From Cremona to Piacenza 168 


Route Page 

26. From Milan to Bergamo 169 

From Lecco to Brescia via Bergamo . 171 

27. From Milan to Verona 171 

28. Brescia 172 

29. From Brescia to Tirano in the Valtellina. Lago d'Iseo. 
Monte Aprica 177 

30. The Lago di Garda 180 

From Riva to Mori 181 

Excursions from Riva 182 

V. Venetia 184 

31. Verona 186 

32. From Verona to Mantua and Modena 194 

33. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 199 

The Baths of Recoaro. From Vicenza to Schio . . . 202 

34. Padua . . .... . . . 203 

35. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to Bassano . . 210 

Excursion to the Villa Giacomelli 210 

36. Venice 212 

Murano. Torcello. Chioggia 259 

37. From Venice to Trieste 260 

a. By Land, via Udine 260 

1. Belluno 261 

2. From Udine to Chiusaforte 262 

3. Aquileia 262 

b. Sea Voyage to Trieste 263 

VI. The Emilia 264 

38. From Milan to Bologna. Piacenza. Reggio .... 266 

Yelleia. Correggio. Canossa 268, 270 

39. Parma 270 

40. Modena 276 

Vignola. Road from Modena to Pistoja 279 

41. From Padua to Bologna 279 

Arqua. Adria. Cento 280, 281 

42. Ferrara 282 

43. Bologna 286 

44. From Bologna to Ravenna 302 

45. From Bologna to Florence 312 

Boscolungo. The Old Road 313 

VII. Tuscany 314 

46. From (Genoa) Leghorn to Florence by Pisa and Empoli 316 

47. Pisa 320 

48. From Pisa to Florence by Lucca and Pistoja .... 330 

The Baths of Lucca 335 

49. Florence 341 

50. Environs of Florence 415 

a. Viale dei Colli. Piazzale Michelangelo 416 

b. S. Miniato 417 

c. Poggio Imperiale. Torre del Gallo. Villa of Galileo . 417 


Route Page 

d. Certosa in the Val d'Ema 418 

e. Bello Sguardo 419 

f. Monte Oliveto 419 

g. The Cascine. Villa Careggi. Villa Petraia .... 419 

h. Fiesole 420 

i. Monastery of S. Salvi 422 

k. Vallombrosa 423 

1. Camaldoli and Alvernia 424 

VIII. Corsica 427 

Ajaccio 429 

From Ajaccio to S. Bonifacio, and to Bastia by the E. Coast 431 

From Ajaccio to Bastia 431 

Corte and the Monte Rotondo 433 

Bastia 434 

From Bastia to Capo Corso, S. Fiorenzo, and Calvi . . 434 

Index 436 

List of Artists 457 

Maps and Flans. 

1. General Map of N. Italy : before the title-page. 

2. Environs of Nice: R. 15; between pp. 104, l(fe. 

3. Lakes of Como and of Lugano : RR. 19, 20, 21 ; between pp. 138, 139. 

4. Lago Maggioee and Lago d'Orta : RR. 21, 22, 23 ; between pp. 152, 153. 

5. Lago di Garda: R. 30; between pp. ISO, 181. 

6. Environs of Florence: R. 50; between pp. 416, 417. 

7. Island of Corsica : between pp. 426, 427. 

8. Railway Map of N. Italy : after the Index. 

Plans of: — 
1. Avignon. 2. Bergamo. 3. Bologna, with Environs. 4. Brescia. 5, 
Cremona. G. Ferrara. 7. Florence. S. Genoa, with Environs. 9. Leg- 
horn. 10. Ldcca. 11. Lyons. 12. Mantua. 13. Marseilles. 14. Milan. 
15. Modena. 16. Nice. 17. Nimes. 18. Novara. 19. Padua. 20. Parma 
21. Pavia, with Environs. 22. Piacenza. 23. Pisa. 24. Pistoja. 25. 
Ravenna, with Environs. 26. Reggio, with Environs. 27. Trent. 
28. Trieste, with Environs. 29. Turin, with Environs. 30. Venice 
with Environs. 31. Verona. 32. Vicenza. 


M. = Engl. mile. 

hr. = hour. 

inin. = minute. 

N. = north , northwards , 

S. = south, etc. 

E. = east, etc. 

W. = west, etc. 
R. = room. 
B. = breakfast. 
D. = dinner. 
A. = attendance. 
L. = light. 

Distances. The number prefixed to the name of a place on a railway 
or hiiih road Indicates its distance in English miles from the starting- 
point of the route or sub-route. 

Asterisks. Objects of special interest, and hotels which are believed 
worthy of special commendation, are denoted by asterisks. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree ; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.' 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits, but, as a rule, it need not exceed 
that incurred in other much frequented parts of the continent. The 
average expenditure of a single traveller, when in Italy, may be 
estimated at 25-30 francs per day, or at 12-15 francs when a pro- 
longed stay is made at one place ; but persons acquainted with the 
language and habits of the country may easily restrict their ex- 
penses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as members of a 
party effect a considerable saving by sharing the expense of guides, 
carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (iira or /"ranco) contains iOO centesimi ; 
1 fr. 25c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark = 50 Austrian kreuzers. The 
precious metals are rarely seen in Italy. In copper (bronzo or rame) 
there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi. Apiece of 5c. is 
called a soldo, or sow, and as the lower classes often keep their ac- 
counts in soldi, the traveller will find it useful to accustom himself 
to this mode of reckoning. See also the Money Table opposite the 

Banknotes. Since the introduction of a paper currency during 
the war of 1866, at a compulsory rate of exchange, gold and silver 
have entirely disappeared from ordinary circulation, and bulky bun- 


dies of small notes have taken their place. For these the purses used 
in most other countries are quite unsuitahle , but one adapted for 
the purpose may be bought in Italy for li/2-2fr. ; in addition to 
which a strong pouch for copper -will be found useful. The end- 
less variety of banknotes with which the country was formerly 
inundated has been replaced by the Biglietti Consorziali (I/2, 1, 2, 
5, 10, and 20 lire), issued in common by six banks (the BancaNa- 
zionale , the Banca Nazionale Toscana , the Banca Toscana In- 
dustriale e Commerciale, the Banca Romana, the Banca di Napoli, 
and the Banca di Sicilial, to which the right of issuing paper money 
has been restricted. The traveller should be on his guard against 
the forged imitations of these notes which are occasionally met with. 

Exchange. English circular notes, as well as gold and silver, 
are worth considerably more than Italian banknotes of nominally the 
same value. Of late years th'j gain on the exchange has averaged 
about 10 per cent (a napoleon, for example, realising about 22 fr., 
and a sovereign 271/2 fr.). If the traveller makes a payment in gold 
he is entitled to decline receiving banknotes in exchange, unless the 
difference in value be taken into account , but the full rate of ex- 
change is rarely given except by respectable money-changers (^'cam- 
biavaluta'y As a rule, those money-changers are the most satis- 
factory who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of exchange. 
The traveller should always be provided with an abundant supply 
of small notes (1, 2, and 5 fr.), as it is often difficult to change 
those of large amount. "When a railway fare has to be paid it is a 
wise precaution to be provided with the exact sum beforehand in 
order that mistakes or imposition may be prevented. Besides the 
small notes, i-1 V2 fr. in copper should also be carried in a separate 
pocket or pouch. 

Best Monet fob, the Tour. Circular Notes, obtainable at the 
principal English banks, form the proper medium for the transport 
of large sums, and realise the most favourable exchange. English 
and German banknotes also realise more than their nominal value. 
A moderate supply of French Gold will also be found desirable. 
Sovereigns are received at the full value (about 26-28 fr.) by the 
principal hotel-keepers, but not in out-of-the-way places. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding lOf., are 
now granted by the English Post Office at the following rates : up 
to 21., 9d. ; 5L, Is. Qd. ; IL, 2s. 3d. ; iOl., 3s. These are paid in 
gold. The identity of the receiver must sometimes be guaranteed 
by two well-known residents, but an exhibition of the passport 
often suffices. The charge for money orders granted in Italy and 
payable in England is 40 c. per ii. sterling. 


II. Period and Plan of Tour. 
Season. As a general rule the spring and autumn months are 
the best season for a tour in N. Italy , especially May and Sep- 
tember, before or after the heat of summer has attained its climax. 
Winter in Lombardy and Piedmont is generally a much colder 
season than it is in England, but Nice and the whole of the 
Riviera, Pisa, and Venice afford pleasant and sheltered quarters. 
The height of summer can hardly be recommended for travelling. 
The scenery, indeed, is then in perfection, and the long days are 
hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising traveller; but the 
fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom fail to impair the physical and 
mental energies. This result is not occasioned so much by the 
intensity as by the protracted duration of the heat , the sky being 
frequently cloudless and not a drop of rain falling for many weeks 
in succession. The heat generally moderates about the end of 
August, when the first ohowers of autumn begin to refresh the 
parched atmosphere. 

Plan. The traveller's movements must of course be regulated 
in accordance with the objects he has in view, and with the time 
and money at his command. The chief centres of attraction in 
N. Italy are Milan, Venice, Genoa, and Florence. The follow- 
ing short itinerary, beginning at Turin and ending at Nice, though 
very far from exhaustive of the beauties of N. Italy, includes most 
of the places usually visited, with the time required for a glimpse 
at each. 

From Turin (R. 8) to the Lago Maggiore, Lago di Lugano, 

and Lago di Como (RR. 19-22) 3 

To Milan (R. 18) and excursion to Pavia (the Certosa, 

R. 24) 2 

From Milan via Bergamo and Brescia to Verona (R. 31) . 1 
Excursion from Desenzano or Verona to the Lago di Qarda 

(R. 30) 1 

From Verona to Padua (RR. 33, 34) 1 

From Padua to Venice (R. 36) 4 

From Venice via Ferrara to Bologna (R. 43) .... 2 
Excursions from Bologna to Ravenna (R. 44), 1 day, and 
to Modena (R. 40) and Parma (R. 39), IV2 day . . 21/2 

From Bologna to Florence (R. 45) 7 

From Florence to Pisa (RR. 48, 47) 1 

From Pisa to Genoa (R. 13), and excursion to Pegli (Villa 

Pallavicini, p. 92) 2 

From Genoa to Nice (R. 14) 1 

The traveller who enters Italy from Switzerland or Austria , or 
intends to return through either of these countries , will have no 
difficulty in framing his itinerary with the aid of the map. The 
Simplon, the St. Ootthard, the Bernardino, the Sfliigen, and the 


Brenner are all interesting routes , of which the Simplon and the 
Spliigen are generally considered the finest in point of scenery, 
while the Brenner, being traversed by a railway, is the most con- 

The luxurious character of the Italian climate, vegetation, and 
scenery, the soft richness of the language , and the courtlier man- 
ners of the upper classes will strike the traveller most forcibly if 
he approaches Italy for the first time from German Switzerland 
or the Tyrol, the characteristics of which are of a harsher and 
rougher type. In this case he is recommended to quit the country 
via Nice (1 day), Cannes (V2*lay), Marseilles (i day), Aries (1/2 day), 
Nimes (1 day), Avignon (1 day), and Lyons (R. 1), all of which 
are worthy of a visit, even after Italy. 

ni. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds on his 
journey. Is is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian 
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such 
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay ^alla Inglese' by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Rome and some of the main routes ; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, and who dislike being im- 
posed upon, a slight acquaintance with the language of the country 
is indispensable. 7 

lY. Passports. Custom-House. Luggage. 
Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers, 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. In the remote 
neighbourhoods , too , where the public safety demands a more 
rigorous supervision, the traveller is sometimes asked for his cre- 

t ^Saedeker^s Manual of Conversation in English, French, German, and 
Italian, -with Vocdbnlary, etc.'' (Stereotype Edition), which is specially 
adapted for the use of travellers, with the addition of a pocket-diction- 
ary, will soon enable the beginner to make himself understood. — 
A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons unac- 
quainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; y before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, i, 0, u are pronounced ah, a. ee, o, 00. — In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella' or 'Lei\ with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with 
the ord pers. pi). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' 
by those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usual mode 
of address among the Neapolitans, but is generally regarded as inelegant 
or uncourteous. 


dentials, but this remark is scarely necessary in regard to the dis- 
tricts embraced in this volume of the Handbook. The Italian po- 
lice authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

Custom-House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
custom-houses is generally lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the ar- 
ticles chiefly sought for. At the gates of most of the Italian towns 
a tax (dazio consumo) is levied on comestibles, but travellers' 
luggage is passed at the barriers (limite daziario) on a simple 
declaration that it c iitains no such articles. 

Luggage. If x^ossible , luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods-train , as it is liable to damage , pilferage , and undue 
custom-house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in 
this way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and 
send him the keys. As a rule it is advisable, and often in the end 
less expensive , never to part from one's luggage , and to super- 
intend the custom-house examination in person. 

V. Beggars. 
Begging, which was countenanced and encouraged under the 
old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those na- 
tional nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. The 
present government has adopted energetic measures for its suppres- 
sion, but hitherto with only partial success. The average Italian 
beggar is a mere speculator, and not a deserving object of charity. 
The traveller should therefore decline to give anything, with the 
words, 'non c'e niente', or a gesture of refusal. If a donation be 
bestowed, it should consist of the smallest possible copper coin. 
A beggar, who on one occasion was presented with 2c. and thanked 
the donor with the us-ual benedictions, was on another presented 
with 50 c. , but this act of liberality, instead of being gratefully 
accepted, only called forth the remark in a half-offended tone: 
'Ma, Signore, e molto poco ! ' 

VI. Prices and Gratuities. 

Italian sellers are very apt to demand a much higher price than 
they will ultimately accept; but a knowledge of the custom, which 
is based upon the presumed ignorance of one of the contracting par- 
ties, practically neutralises its effect. Where tariffs and fixed charges 
exist, they should be carefully consulted ; and when a certain aver- 
age price is established by custom, the traveller should make a pre- 
cise bargain with respect to the article to be bought or the service 
to be rendered , and never rely on the equity of the other party. 
In cases of dispute the traveller who is not thoroughly acquainted 
with the language should be careful not to engage in a war of words 
in which he is necessarily at a great disadvantage. 

Many shops now profess to have fixed prices, but even in these 


cases it is usual to offer two-thirds or three-quarters only of the 
price demanded. The same rule applies to artizans, drivers, and 
others. 'Non volete?' (then you will not?) is a remark which gener- 
ally has the effect of bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. 
Purchases should never be made by the traveller when accompanied 
by a valet-de-place. These individuals, by tacit agreement, receive 
from the seller at least 10 per cent of the purchase-money, a bonus 
which of course comes out of the pocket of the purchaser. 

The traveller should always be abundantly supplied with cop- 
per coin in a country where trifling donations are in constant 
demand. Drivers, guides, and other persons of the same class in- 
variably expect, and often demand as their right, a gratuity (buona 
mano, mnncia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fumata) in addition to the 
hire agreed on , varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous 
to a franc or more. The traveller need have no scruple in limiting 
his donations to the smallest possible sums, as liberality frequently 
becomes a source of annoyance and embarrassment. Thus, if half- 
a-franc is bestowed where two sous would have sufficed , the fact 
speedily becomes known , and the donor is sure to be besieged by 
numerous other applicants whose demands it is impossible to satisfy. 

In Northern Italy the traveller will now find comparatively few- 
causes for complaint, as the system of fixed charges is gradually 
being introduced at the hotels and the shops. He will generally 
find the people with whom he comes in contact civil and obliging, 
and if he has some acquaintance with the language he will rarely 
meet with attempts at extortion. 

VII. Railways. 

Northern Italy is now overspread with so complete a network of 
railways that the traveller wiU seldom use any other conveyance, 
except on the Alpine routes and on the lakes. The rate of travel- 
ling is very moderate, and the trains are often behind time. The 
first class carriages are tolerably comfortable, the second are inferior 
to those of the German railways, and resemble the English and 
French, while the third class is chiefly frequented by the lower 
orders. Among the expressions with which the railway-traveller 
will soon become familiar are — '■pronti! (ready), '■partenza^ 
(departure), 'sj camhia convoglid' (change carriages) , and '■uscitd' 

When about to start from a crowded station , the traveller will 
fiiid it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets. In addition to the fare, a tax of 5 c. is payable 
on each ticket, and the express fares are 20 per cent higher 
than the ordinary. It is also very important to be at the station 
early, as, in accordance with the regulatioTis, the ticket-office closes 
5 min. , and the luggage-office 1/4 hr. before the departure of the 


train. At the end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscita, 
except in the case of the very large stations, where they are collected 
before the passengers alight. 

The traveller should, if possible, know the weight of his lug- 
gage approximately , in order to guard against imposition (1 kilo- 
gramme = about 21/5 lbs.). No luggage is allowed free, except 
small articles (which must not exceed 20 X 10 X 12 inches) taken 
by the passenger into his carriage. Porters who convey luggage to 
and from the carriages are sufficiently paid with a few sous, where 
there is no fixed tariff. Those who intend to make only a short 
stay at a place, especially when the town or village lies at a con- 
siderable distance from the railway, had better leave their heavier 
luggage at the station till their return (^dare in deposito , or de- 
positare; 10 c. per day for each article). 

The best collection of time-tables is the '■Indicatore Vfficiale 
delle Strade Ferrate', etc. (published monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo 
at Turin ; price 1 fr.), with which every traveller should be pro- 
vided. A smaller edition, confined to the railways of N. Italy (Fer- 
rovie dell'Alta Italia), is also issued. 

Through Tickets to various parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal railway stations ; by Messrs. Cook & Son, Fleet 
Street ; etc.), in Paris, and at many of the principal towns in Ger- 
many and Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, 
and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of luggage free. Tickets 
from Italy to Switzerland, Germany, etc. must be partly paid for 
in gold , even banknotes with the exchange added being refused. 
Luggage may be registered either to the traveller's final destination 
or to any one of the stations for which there are separate coupons 
in his ticket-book. Travellers about to cross the frontier in either 
direction are strongly recommended to superintend the custom-house 
examination of luggage in person. 

CiECULAB, Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 
Italy, the Italian lakes, etc., available sometimes for 50 days, may 
be purchased in London, in France, and in Germany, as well as in 
Italy, at a reduction of 45 per cent (but without a free allowance of 
luggage). For Northern Italy there are upwards of twelve different 
circular tours , for which 10-30 days are allowed, and which are 
described in detail in Pozzo's 'Indicatore Ufficiale'. These tickets 
require to be stamped at the office at each fresh starting-point. 
If the traveller quits the prescribed route, intending to rejoin it 
at a point farther on, he should give notice of his intention to the 
capostazione of the place where he leaves the railway. 

Return Tickets may often be advantageously used for short 
excursions, but they are generally available for one day only. It 
should also be observed that if the traveller alights at a station short 
of his destination he forfeits the rest of his ticket for the direction 
in which he is proceeding. In returning the ticket is not avail- 

Baf.deker. Italy I. 5th Edit. b 

xviii HOTELS. 

able unless he starts from the end-station for which the ticket 
was issued. 

VIII. Hotels. 

FiEST Class Hotels, comfortahly fitted up, are to be found at 
all the principal resorts of travellers in Northern Italy, most of them 
having fixed charges: room 2'/2-5 fr-, bougie 75 c. to 1 fr. , atten- 
dance (^exclusive of the 'facchino' and porter) Ifr., table d'hote 
4-6 fr. It has of late become customary to add 25 c. to the charge 
for table-d'hote for the ice supplied to cool the beverages ! For a 
prolonged stay an agreement may generally be made with the land- 
lord for pension at a more moderate rate. Visitors are expected 
to dine at the table d'hote ; otherwise the charge for rooms Is apt 
to be raised. The cuisine is a mixture of French and Italian. The 
charge for the use of the hotel omnibus from the station to the 
hotel is so high (l-li/2fr.), that it is often cheaper to take a cab. 
Payment of the bill in gold is not obligatory. 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian In their ar- 
rangements, and are rarely very clean or comfortable. The charges 
are little more than one -half of the above. They have no table 
d'hote, but there is generally a trattoria connected with the house, 
where refreshments d, la carte, or a dinner a prezzo fisso, may be 
procured at any hour. These inns will often be found convenient 
and economical by the voyageur en garQon, and the better houses 
of this class may even be visited by ladies. As a rule , it is 
advisable to make enquiries as to charges beforehand. A dinner, 
for example at 2-3 fr. may be stipulated for , and in arranging as 
to the charge for a room the servizio e candela should not be for- 
gotten. Exorbitant demands may generally be reduced without dif- 
ficulty to reasonable limits, and even when no previous agreement 
has been made an extortionate bill may sometimes be successfully 
disputed, though not without lively discussion. At the smaller inns 
a fee of 1 fr. per day is usually divided between the waiter and 
the facchino , or less for a prolonged stay. Copper coins are never 
despised by such recipients. 

Hotels Gahnis and Private Apartments are recommended for 
a prolonged stay. A distinct agreement as to rent should be made 
beforehand. When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a written 
contract on stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid of some 
one acquainted with the language and customs of the place (e. g. 
a banker), i7i order that 'misunderstandings' may be prevented. 
For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, 
linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal, and other 
details will generally suffice. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age, dirt 
being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the bril- 
liancy of their climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this 
-shortcoming in hotels and lodgings of the best class ; but those who 


quit fhe beaten track must be prepared for privations. Iron bed- 
steads should if possible be selected, as tbey are less likely to har- 
bour the enemies of repose. Insect-powder (polvere di Persia, or 
Keating's) or camphor somewhat repels their advances. The zan- 
zare, or gnats, are a source of great annoyance, and often of suffer- 
ing, during the autumn months. Windows should always be care- 
fully closed before a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin 
curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds , masks for the face , and 
gloves are employed to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious 
intruders. The burning of insect powder over a spirit lamp is also 
recommended, and pastilles may be purchased at the principal 
chemists' for the same purpose (see p. 213), A weak dilution of 
carbolic acid in water is efficacious in allaying the discomforts oc- 
casioned by the bites. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants (trattorle) are chiefly frequented by Italians and 
gentlemen travelling alone, but those of the better class maybe 
visited by ladies also. Dinner may be obtained a la carte , and 
sometimes a prezzo fisso, at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., 
for 2-5 fr. ; the waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. The diner 
who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable limits should 
refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill of ftire. 
Besides the old-fashioned trattorie a number of 'restaurants' of a 
better class have recently been opened in some of the larger towns. 
The cookery is generally French, and the charges and arrangeinents 
are similar to those in other European cities. The waiter is called 
cameriere , but the approved way of attracting his attention is by 
knocking on the table. 

A late hour for the chief repast of the day should be chosen in 
winter, in order that the daylight may be profitably employed , but 
an early dinner is preferable in summer when the midday heat pre- 
cludes exertion. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants. 

Minestra or Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Santh, soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Onocchi, small puddings. 
Riso con piselli, rice-soup with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Maccaroni al burro, with butter; al 

pomidoro, with tomatas. 
Mama, boiled beef. 
Fritto, una Frittwa, fried meat. 
Frittata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vilello, or di mongana, 


Bistecca, beefsteak. 

Coscietto, loin. 

Testa di vitello, calf's head. 

F&gato di vitello, calfs liver. 

Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 

Costoletta alia minuta, veal -cutlet 

with calves' ears and truffles. 
Patate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 
Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Principi alia tavola, or piattini, hot 

Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 
Presciutto, ham. 

( I,* 



Giardinelto or frutta, fruit-desert. 
Orosiata di /rutti, fruit-tart. 
Crosiata di pasta sfoglia , a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Pera, pear. 
Mele, apples. 
Persiche., peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or portogallo, orange. 
Fiiiocchio, root of fennel. 
Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

(the Italian is made without). 
Formaggio, cacio, 

Salami, sausage. 

Polio, or poUastro, fowl. 

Gallinaccio, turkey. 

Umido, meat with sauce. 

Slv/atino, ragout. 

Frbe, vegetables. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Leniicchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Pave, beans. 

Fagiiiolini, Corned, French beans. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Sendpe, hot mustard. 

0i7WcAe, oysters (good in winter only) . 

Wine {nero or rosso, red; bianco, white; doloe, sweet; asciulto, dry; 
del paese , wine of the country) is usually placed on the table in large 
bottles at the Tuscan restaurants and charged for according to the quan- 
tity drunk. In the larger towns the visitor is asked if he wishes un 
mezzo Vitro or un quinto (Vsth litre; also called hicchiere). 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch, and in the evening 
by numerous consumers of ices. 

Caffh nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (10-15 c. per 
cup). Caffi latte is coftee mixed with milk before served (20-30 c); or 
caff'e e latte, i. e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred (35- 
40 c). Mischio, a mixture of coffee and chocolate (20-30 c), is considered 
wholesome and nutritious. 

'The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks, and 
eggs {iwva da here, soft; taste, hard; uova al pialto, fried). 

Ices (sorbetto or gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the 
cafes at 30-90 c. per portion; or half a portion (mezzo) may be ordered. 
Granita, or half-frozen ice {limonata, of lemons; aranciata, of oranges), is 
much in vogue in the forenoon. The waiters, who expects a sou or more, 
according to the amount of the payment, are apt to be inaccurate in chang- 
ing money. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the larger 
cafes, English rarely. 

Cigars in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad ; those 
under 3-4 soldi hardly smokable. Good imported cigars may be 
bought at the best shops in the large towns for 25-60 c. each. — 
Passers-by are at liberty to avail themselves of the light burning 
in every tobacconist's, without making any purcliase. 

X. Sights, Theatres, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12. 30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p. m. Visitors may inspect the works of art 
even during divine service, provided they move about noiselessly, 
and keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are ofliciating. On 
tlie occasion of festivals the works of art are often entirely concealed 
liy the temporary decorations. The verger (sagrestano, or nonzolo) 
receives a fee of 30 c. - '/o fr- from a single traveller , more from a 
party, if his services are required. 


Museums , picture-galleries , and otter collections are usually 
open from 10 to 3 o'clock. By a law passed in 1875 all the col- 
lections which belong to government are open on week-days at a 
charge of 1 fr., and on Sundays (and sometimes on Thursdays also} 
gratis. They are closed on the following public holidays : New 
Year's Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the Monday and Tuesday during 
the Carnival, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Ascension Day, Whit- 
sunday, Fete de Dieu (Corpus Christi) , the Festa dello Statuto 
(first Sunday in June), Assumption of the Virgin (15th Aug.), and 
on Christmas Day. A good many other days are also sometimes ob- 
served as holidays, such as the Thursday before the Carnival and 
the day sacred to the local patron saint. 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 5-6 fr. per 
day. They are generally respectable and trustworthy, but, as they 
are seldom good judges of what is really worth seeing, the traveller 
should specify to them the places he desires to visit. Their services 
may generally well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed 
for time. Purchases should never be made, nor contracts with vet- 
turini or other persons drawn up , in presence or with the aid of a 
commissionnaire, as any such intervention tends considerably to in- 
crease the prices. 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8, 8.30, 
or 9, and terminate at midnight or later, operas and ballets being 
exclusively performed. The first act of an opera is usually suc- 
ceeded by a ballet of three acts or more. Verdi is the most popular 
composer. The pit (platea), to which the ^biglietto d'ingresso' gives 
access, is the usual resort of the men , while the boxes and some- 
times the stalls (scanni chiusi, sedie chiuse, poltrone, or posti distinti) 
are frequented by ladies. A box (palco) must always be secured 
in advance. — A visit to some of the smaller theatres, where 
dramas and comedies are acted, is recommended for the sake of ha- 
bituating the ear to the langiiage. Performances in summer take 
place in the open air, in which case smoking is allowed. — The 
theatre is the usual evening-resort of the Italians , who never ob- 
serve strict silence during the performance of the orchestra. The 
instrumental music is rarely good. 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 

Letters (whether 'paste restante', Italian '■ferma in posta\ or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting card instead of giving his name 
orally. Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. — Letters of 15 grammes (1/2 oz., 
about the weight of three sous) to any of the states included in the 

xxii CLIMATE. 

postal union (now comprising the whole of Europe) 25 c. ; post-card 
(cartolina postale) 10 c. ; hook-packets 5 c. and upwards, according 
to weight ; registration-fee (raccomandazione) 30 c. 

Letters hy town-post 5 c. ; throughout the kingdom of Italy 20 c. 
prepaid, or 30c. unpaid. Post-card 10 c, with card for answer 
attached 15 c. Book-packets, 20 c. per 40 grammes (II/3 oz.}. 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily from 8 or 9 a. m. 
to 10 p. m. (also on Sundays and holidays) ; in smaller places it is 
generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Telegram of 20 words to London 9fr. , to other parts of Great 
Britain 10 fr. , France 4, Germany 5, Switzerland 8, Austria 3 or 
4, Belgium 5, Denmark 71/2- Russia 11, Sweden 8, Norway 81/2 fr. 
— To America from S^/^fr. per word upwards, according to the 

Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 words Ifr. , each additional 
word 10 c. ; telegrams with special haste fieieprammiMr^entiV, which 
take precedence of all others , whether for inland or foreign places, 
may he sent at five times the ahove rates. 

XII. Climate. Health. 

Climate. Most travellers must in some degree alter their mode 
of living whilst in Italy , without however implicitly adopting the 
Italian style. Inhahitants of more northern countries generally 
become unusually susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should 
not omit to be well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. 
Carpets and stoves, to the comforts of which the Italians generally 
appear indifferent, are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect 
in winter is an absolute essential for delicate persons , and highly 
desirable for the robust. Colds are most easily caught after sunset, 
and in rainy weather. Even in summer it is a wise precaution not 
to wear too light clothing. 

Exposiire to the summer-sun should be avoided as much as pos- 
sible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and foreigners (Inglesi) 
alone walk in the sun , Christians in the shade. Umbrellas , or 
spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to protect the whole 
eye are best), may be used with advantage when a walk in the sun is 
unavoidable. Blue veils are recommended to ladies. Repose during 
the hottest hours is advisable, and a moderate siesta is often refresh- 
ing. Windows should be closed at night. 

Health. English and German medical men are to be met with 
in the larger cities. The Italian therapeutic art does not enjoy a 
very high reputation in the rest of Europe. English and German 
chemists, where available, are recommended in preference to the 
Italian. It may, however, be wise, in the case of maladies arising 
from local causes, to employ native skill . Foreigners frequently suffer 


from diarrhoea in Italy, which is generally occasioned by the un- 
wonted heat. The homoeopathic tincture of camphor may be men- 
tioned as a remedy, but regulated diet and thorough repose are the 
chief desiderata. 

XIII. Chronological Table of Becent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. 

22. Charles Albert enters Milan. 

22. Republic proclaimed at Venice. 

May 15, Insurrection at Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('Re Bomba'J. 

29. Radetzky's victory at Curtatone. 

30. Radetzky defeated at Goito ; capitulation of Peschiera. 
July 25. Radetzky's victory at Custozza. 

Aug. 6. Radetzky's victory at Milan. 

9. Armistice. 
Nov. 15. Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. 

25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Febr. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. 

17. Republic proclaimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. 
March 16. Charles Albert terminates the armistice (ten days' campaign). 

23. Radetzky's victory at Novara. 

24. Charles Albert abdicates (d. at Oporto on 26th July) ; 
accession of Victor Emmanuel II. 

26. Armistice ; Alessandria occupied by the Austriaus. 

31. Haynau conquers Brescia. 

April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. 

11. Reaction at Florence. 

30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 
May 11. Leghorn stormed by the Austrians. 

15. Subjugation of Sicily. 

16. Bologna stormed by the Austrians. 
July 4. Rome capitulates. 

Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. 
22. Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 
1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. 

June 4. Battle of Magenta. 

1859. June 24. Battle of Solferino. 

July 11. Meeting of the emperors at Villafranca. 
Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma, Modena, Romagna). 

22. Annexation of Tuscany. 

24. Cession of Savoy and Nice. 
May 11. Garibaldi lands at Marsala. 

27. Taking of Palermo. 
July 20. Battle of Melazzo. 
Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. 

18. Battle of Castelfldardo. 

29. Ancona capitulates. 
Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. 

21. Plebiscite at Naples. 
Dec. 17. Annexation of the principalities, Umbria, and the two Sicilies. 

1861. Febr. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months'' siege. 
March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of king of Italy. 
June 6. Death of Cavour. 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between France and Italy. 
1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. 


1866. July 5. Cession of Venetia. 

20. Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana. 

1870. Sept. 12. Occupation of the States of the Church by Italian troops. 
20. Occupation of Rome. 

Oct. 9. Rome declared the capital of Italy. 
1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II.; accession of Humbert I. 

Feb. 7. Death of Pius IX. 

Feb. 20. Election of Leo XIII. 

Italian Art. 

An Historical Sketch by Professor A. Springer. 

One of the primary objects of the enlightened traveller in Italy 
is usually to form some acquaintance with its treasures of art. 
Even those whose usual avocations are of the most prosaic u^jctoky 
nature unconsciously hecome admirers of poetry and art in 
Italy. The traveller here finds them so interwoven with scenes of 
everyday life, that he encounters their impress at every step , and 
involuntarily hecomes susceptible to their influence. A single visit 
can hardly suffice to enable any one justly to appreciate the 
numerous works of art he meets with in the course of his tour, nor 
can a guide-book teach him to fathom the mysterious depths of 
Italian creative genius, the past history of which is particularly at- 
tractive; but the perusal of a few remarks on this subject will be 
found materially to enhance the pleasure and facilitate the researches 
of even the most unpretending lover of art. Works of the highest class, 
the most perfect creations of genius, lose nothing of their charm by 
being pointed out as specimens of the best period of art; while 
those of inferior merit are invested with far higher interest when 
they are shown to be necessary links in the chain of development, 
and when, on comparison with earlier or later works, their relative 
defects or superiority are recognised. The following observations, 
therefore, will hardly be deemed out of place in a work designed to 
aid the traveller in deriving the greatest possible amount of enjoy- 
ment and instruction from his sojourn in Italy. 

The two great epochs in the history of art which principally 
arrest the attention are those of Classic Antiquity, and of the olj^^ssic^^^nd 
16th century, the culminating period of the so-called Renais- Kenais- 
sance. The intervening space of more than a thousand years sance 
is usually, with much unfairness , almost entirely ignored ; ekiods. 
for this interval not only continues to exhibit vestiges of the first 
epoch, but gradually paves the way for the second. It is a common 
error to suppose that in Italy alone the character of ancient art can 
be thoroughly appreciated. This idea dates from the period when no 
precise distinction was made between Greek and Roman art, when 
the connection of the former with a particular land and nation, 
and the tendency of the latter to pursue an independent course 
were alike overlooked. Now , however , that we are acquainted. 
with more numerous Greek originals, ajid have acquired a 


deeper insight into the development of Hellenic art, an indis- 
criminate confusion of Greek and Roman styles is no longer to be 

Greek and apprehended. We are now well aware that the highest per- 
RoMAN fection of ancient architecture is realised in the Hellenic 

Styles dis- temple alone. The Doric order, in which majestic gravity is 
uisHED. gxpressed hy massive proportions and symmetrical decoration, 
and the Ionic structure , with its lighter and more graceful char- 
acter, exhibit a creative spirit entirely different from that mani- 
fested in the sumptuous Roman edifices. Again, the most valuable 
collection of ancient sculptures in Italy is incapable of affording so 
admirable an insight into the development of Greek art as the sculp- 
tures of the Parthenon and other fragments of Greek temple -archi- 
tecture preserved in the British Museum. But, while instruction is 
afforded more abmidantly by other than Italian sources, ancient art 
is perhaps thoroughly admired in Italy alone , where works of art 
encounter the eye with more appropriate adjuncts, and where climate, 
scenery, and people materially contribute to intensify their impres- 
siveness. As long as a visit to Greece and Asia Minor is within the 
reach of comparatively few travellers, a sojourn in Italy may be recom- 
mended as best calculated to afford instruction with respect to the 
growth of ancient art. An additional facility, moreover, is afforded by 
the circumstance , that in accordance with an admirable custom of 
classic antiquity the once perfected type of a plastic figure was not 
again arbitrarily abandoned, but rigidly adhered to, and continually 
reproduced. Thus in numerous cases, where the more ancient 
Greek original had been lost, it was preserved in subsequent copies ; 
and even in the works of the Roman imperial age Hellenic creative 
talent is still reflected. 

This supremacy of Greek intellect in Italy was established in a 
Greece twofold manner. In the first place Greek colonists intro- 

BDPKEME IN duced their ancient native style into their new homes. This 
■^'- is proved by the existence of several Doric temples in Si- 
cily, such as those of Selinunto (but not all dating from the same 
period ), and the ruined temples at Syracuse, Girgenti, and Segesta. 
On the mainland the so-called Temple of Neptune at Pcestum, 
as well as the ruins at Metapontum, are striking examples of the 
fully developed elegance and grandeur of the Doric order. But, in 
the second place, the art of the Greeks did not attain its \iniversal 
supremacy in Italy till a later period, when Hellas, nationally ruined, 
had learned to obey the dictates of her mighty conqueror, and the 
Romans had begun to combine with their political superiority the re- 
finemeiits of more advanced culture. The ancient scenes of artistic 
activity in Greece (Athens for example") became re-peopled at 
the cost of Rome; Greek works of art aiid Greek artists were in- 
troduced into Italy ; and ostentatious pride in the magnificence of 
booty acquired by victory led by an easy transition to a taste for 
such objects. To surround themselves with artistic decoration thus 


gradually became the universal custom of the Romans , and the 
foundation of public monuments came to he regarded as an in- 
dispensable duty of government. 

Although the Roman works of art of the imperial epoch are 
deficient in originality compared with the Greek , yet their roman 
authors never degenerate into mere copyists, or entirely re- Aechitec- 
nounce independent effort. This remark applies especially to tuke. 
their Abchitectukb. Independently of the Greeks, the ancient Italian 
nations, and with them the Romans, had acquired a knowledge of 
stone-cutting, and discovered the method of constructing arches 
and vaulting. "With this technically and scientifically important 
art they aimed at combining Greek forms, the column supporting 
the entablature. The sphere of architecture was then gradually ex- 
tended. One of the chief requirements was now to construct edifices 
with spacious interiors , and several stories in height. No precise 
model was afforded by Greek architecture , and yet the current 
Greek forms appeared too beaxitiful to be lightly disregarded. The 
Romans therefore preferred to combine them with the arch-prin- 
ciple, and apply this combination to their new architectural designs. 
The individuality of the Greek orders, and their originally un- 
alterable coherence were thereby sacrificed, and divested of much 
of their importance ; that which once possessed a definite organic 
significance frequently assumed a superficial and decorative charac- 
ter; but the aggregate effect is always imposing, the skill in blend- 
ing contrasts, and the directing taste admirable. The lofty gravity 
of the Doric Style f must not be sought for at Rome. The Doric 

+ Those unacquainted with architecture will easily learn to distinguish 
the dift'erent Greek styles. In the Doric the shafts of the columns 
(without bases) rest immediately on the common pavement, in the Ionic 
they are separated from it by teases. The flutings of the Doric column 
immediately adjoin each other, being separated by a sharp ridge, while 
those of the Ionic are disposed in pairs, separated by broad untluted 
intervening spaces. The Doric capital, expanding towards the summit, 
somewhat resembles a crown of leaves, and was in fact originally adorned 
with painted representations of wreaths; the Ionic capital is distinguished 
by the volutes (or scrolls) projecting on either side, which may be re- 
garded rather as an appropriate covering of the capital than as the cap- 
ital itself. The entablature over the columns begins in the Doric style 
with the simple, in the Ionic with the threefold architrave; above which 
in the Doric order are the metopes (originally openings, subsequently 
receding panels) and triglyphs (tablets with two angular grooves in front, 
and a half groove at each end, resembling extremities of beams), and in 
the Ionic the frieze with its sculptured enrichments. In the temples of 
both orders the front culminates in a pediment. The so-called Tuscan, 
or early Italian column, approaching most nearly to the Doric, exhibits 
no decided distinctive marks; the Corinthian, with the rich capital 
formed of acanthus-leaves , is essentially of a decorative character only. 
The following technical terms should also be observed. Temples in 
which the columns are on both sides enclosed by the projecting walls 
are termed 'in antis' (antse = end-pilasters); those which have one ex- 
tremity only adorned by columns , prostyle ; those with an additional 
pediment at the back, supported by columns, amphiprostyle ; those entirely 
surrounded by columns , peripteral. In some temples it was imperative 

xxviii ITALIAN ART. 

column in the hands of Roman architects lost the finest features 
of its original character, and was at length entirely disused. The 
Ionic column also, and corresponding entablature, were regarded 
with less favour than those of the Corinthian order, the sumptuous- 
ness of which was more congenial to the artistic taste of the 
Romans. As the column in Roman architecture was no longer 
destined exclusively to support a superstructure, but formed a 
projecting portion of the wall, or was of a purely ornamental 
character , the most ornate forms were the most sought after. The 
graceful Corinthian capital, consisting of slightly drooping 
acanthus-leaves, was at length regarded as insufficiently enriched, 
and was superseded by the so-called Roman capital (first used 
in the arch of Titus) , a union of the Corinthian and Ionic. An 
impartial judgment respecting Roman architecture cannot, however, 
be formed from a minute inspection of the individual columns, 
nor is the highest rank in importance to be assigned to the Roman 
temples, which, owing to the different (projecting) construction of 
their roofs, are excluded from comparison with the Greek. Atten- 
tion must be directed to the several - storied structures , in which 
the tasteful ascending gradation of the component parts , from 
the more massive (Doric) to the lighter (Corinthian), chiefly 
arrests the eye ; and the vast and artistically vaulted interiors, as 
well as the structures of a merely decorative description , must 
also be examined , in order that the chief merits of Roman art 
may be understood. In the use of columns in front of closed 
walls (e. g. as members of a facade), in the construction of domes 
above circular interiors, and of cylindrical and groined vaulting 
over oblong spaces, the Roman edifices have served as models to 
posterity, and the imitations have often fallen short of the originals. 
It is true that in the districts to which this volume of the Hand- 
book is devoted, the splendour and beauty of ancient art is not so 
prominently illustrated as in Rome or S. Italy. Nevertheless N. 
Italy also contains many interesting relics of Roman architecture 
(such as the Amphitheatre at Verona, the Triumphal Arches at Aosta 
and Susa, etc.), and though the smaller local collections of Lom- 
bardy and Tuscany may not detain the traveller long, he will un- 
doubtedly find ample food for his admiration in the magnificent 
antique sculptures at Florence (the Niobe Group, the ApolUno, the 
formerly over-rated Medicean Venus, etc.). — Upper Italy and Tus- 

that the image of the god erected in the cella should be e.xposed to the 
rays of the sun. In this case an aperture was left in the ceiling and 
roof, and such temples were termed hypffithral. Temples arc also named 
tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastylc, etc. according to the number of columns 
at each end. — A most attractive study is that of architectural mouldings 
and enrichments, and of those constituent members which respectively in- 
dicate superincumbent weight, or a free and independent existence. 
Research in these matters will enable the traveller more fully to appreciate 
the strict harmony of ancient architecture. 


cany stand, on the other hand, in the very forefront of the artistic 
life of the middle ages and early Renaissance, and Venice may 
prondly boast of having brilliantly unfolded the glories of Italian 
painting at a time when that art had sunk at Rome to the lowest 
depths. In order, however , to put the reader into a proper point 
of view for appreciating the development of art in N. Italy, it is 
necessary to give a short sketch of the progress of Italian art in 
general from the early part of the middle ages onwards. 

In the 4th century the heathen world, which had long been in 
a tottering condition, at length became Christianised, and a Chbistian 
new period of art began. This is sometimes erroneously re- Period 
garded as the result of a forcible rupture from ancient ^^ -^^'''• 
Roman art, and a sudden and spontaneous invention of a new style. 
But the eye and the hand adhere to custom more tenaciously than 
the mind. While new ideas, and altered views of the character of 
the Deity and the destination of man were entertained, the wonted 
forms were still necessarily employed in the expression of these 
thoughts. Moreover the heathen sovereigns had by no means been 
unremittingly hostile to Christianity (the most bitter persecutions 
did not take place till the 3rd century), and the new doctrines were 
permitted to expand, take deeper root, and organise themselves in 
the midst of heathen society. The consequence was, that the trans- 
ition from heathen to Christian ideas of art was a gradual one, and 
that in point of form early Christian art continued to follow up the 
tasks of the ancient. The best proof of this is afforded by the 
paintings of the Roman Catacombs. These were by no means ori- 
ginally the secret, anxiously concealed places of refuge of the pri- 
mitive Christians, but constituted their legally recognised, publicly 
accessible burial-places. Reared in the midst of the customs of 
heathen Rome, the Christian community perceived no necessity to 
deviate from the artistic principles of antiquity. In the embellish- 
ment of the catacombs they adhered to the decorative forms handed 
down by their ancestors; and in design, choice of colour, grouping 
of figures, and treatment of subject, they were entirely guided by 
thq customary rules. Even the sarcophagus-sculptures of the 4th 
and 5th centuries differ in purport only, and not in technical treat- 
ment, from the type exhibited in the tomb-reliefs of heathen Rome. 
Five centuries elapsed before a new artistic style sprang up in the 
pictorial , and the greatly neglected plastic arts. Meanwhile archi- 
tecture had developed itself commensurately with the requirements 
of Christian worship, and, in connection with the new modes of 
building, painting acquired a different character. 

The term Basilica-Sttlb is often employed to designate early _ 
Christian architecture down to the 10th century. The name Chukch 
is of great antiquity, but it is a mistake to suppose that the Arciiitec- 
early Christian basilicas possessed anything beyond the mere tube. , 
name in common with those of the Roman fora. The latter struc- 


tiires, which are proved to have existed in most of the towns of the 
Roman empire, and served as courts of judicature and public as- 
sembly-halls , differ essentially in their origin and form from the 
churches of the Christians. The forensic basilicas were neither fit- 
ted up for the purposes of Christian worship, nor did they, or the 
heathen temples, serve as models for the construction of Christian 
churches. The latter are rather to be regarded as extensions of the 
private dwelling-houses of the Romans, where the first assemblies 
of the community were held, and the component parts of which 
were reproduced in ecclesiastical edifices. The church, however, 
was by no means a servile imitation of the house, but a free devel- 
opment from it, of which the following became the established 
type. A small portico borne by columns leads to the anterior court 
(atrium), surrounded by colonnades and provided with a fountain 
(cantharus) in the centre; the eastern colonnade is the approach to 
the interior of the church, which usually consisted of a nave and 
two aisles, the latter lower than the former, and separated from it 
by two rows of columns, the whole terminating in a semicircle (ap- 
sis). In front of the apse there was sometimes a transverse space 
(transept); the altar, surmounted by a columnar structure, occupied 
a detached position in the apse ; the space in front of it , bounded 
by caru^elli or railings , was destined for the choir of offlcia,ting 
priests, and contained the two pulpits (ambones) where the gospel 
and epistles were read. Unlike the ancient temples, the early 
Christian basilicas exhibit a neglect of external architecture, the 
chief importance being attached to the interior, the decorations of 
which, however, especially in early mediaeval times, were often pro- 
cured by plundering the ancient Roman edifices, and transferring 
them to the churches with little regard to harmony of style and 
material. The most appropriate ornaments of the churches were the 
metallic objects, such as crosses and lustres, and the tapestry be- 
stowed on them by papal piety ; while the chief decoration of the 
walls consisted of mosaics, especially those covering the back- 
ground of the apse and the 'triumphal' arch which separates the 
apse from the nave. The mosaics, as far at least as the material 
was concerned, were of a sterling monumental character, and con- 
tributed to give rise to a new style of pictorial art; in them an- 
cient tradition was for the first time abandoned, and the harsh and 
austere style erroneously termed Byzantine gradually introduced. 
Christian art originated at Rome, but its development was 
actively promoted in other Italian districts, especially at Ravenna, 

where during the Ostrogothic suproma(7 (493-552), as well 
Byzantink ^g under the succeeding Byzantine empire, architecture 

was zealously cultivated. The basilica-type was there more 
highly matured, the external architecture enlivened by low arches 
and projecting buttresses, and the capitals of the columns in the 
interior appropriately moulded with reference to the superincum- 


bent arches. There, too, the art of mosaic painting was sedu- 
lously cultivated, exhibiting in its earlier specimens (in S. Gio- 
vanni in Fonte and S. Nazario e Celso) greater technical excellence 
and better drawing than the contemporaneous Roman works. At 
Ravenna the Western style also appears in combination with the 
Eastern, and the church of S. Vitale (dating from 547) may be 
regarded as a fine example of a Byzantine structure. 

The term 'Byzantine' is often misapplied. Every work of the 
so-called dark centuries of the middle ages, everything in archi- 
tecture that intervenes between the ancient and the Gothic, every- 
thing in painting which repels by its uncouth , ill-proportioned 
forms, is apt to be termed Byzantine ; and it is commonly supposed 
that the practice of art in Italy was entrusted exclusively to By- 
zantine hands from the fall of the Western Empire to an ad- 
vanced period of the 13th century. This belief in the universal 
and unqualified prevalence of the Byzantine style , as well as the 
idea that it is invariably of a clumsy and lifeless character, is 
entirely unfounded. The forms of Byzantine architecture are 
at least strongly and clearly defined. While the basilica is a 
long -extended hall, over which the eye is compelled to range 
until it finds a natural resting-place in the recess of the apse, 
every Byzantine structure may be circumscribed with a curved 
line. The aisles, which in the basilica run parallel with the 
nave, degenerate in the Byzantine style to narrow and in- 
significant passages; the apse loses its intimate connection with 
the nave, being separated from it; the most conspicuous feature 
in the building consists of the central square space, bounded 
by four massive pillars which support the dome. These are the 
essential characteristics of the Byzantine style , which culminates 
in the magnificent church of S. Sophia, and prevails throughout 
Oriental Christendom, but in the West, including Italy, only 
occurs sporadically. With the exception of the churches of S. Vi- 
tale at Ravenna, and St. Mark at Venice, the edifices of Lower 
Italy alone show a frequent application of this style. 

The Byzantine imagination does not appear to have exercised a 
greater influence on the growth of other branches of Italian growth 
art than on architecture. A brisk traffic in works of art or Art in 
was carried on by Venice, Amalfi , and other Italian towns, Italy. 
with the Levant ; the position of Constantinople resembled that of 
the modern Lyons ; silk wares , tapestry , and jewellery were most 
highly valued when imported from the Eastern metropolis. By- 
zantine artists were always welcome visitors to Italy , Italian con- 
noisseurs ordered works to be executed at Constantinople, chiefly 
those in metal, and the superiority of Byzantine workmanship 
was universally acknowledged. All this, however, does not justify 
the inference that Italian art was quite subordinate to Byzantine. 
On the contrary , notwithstandina; various external influences , it 


underwent an independent and unbiassed development, and never 
entirely abandoned its ancient principles. A considerable interval 
indeed elapsed before the fusion of the original inhabitants with 
the early mediaeval immigrants was complete, before the aggregate 
of different tribes , languages , customs, and ideas became blended 
into a single nationality, and before the people attained sufficient 
concentration and independence of spirit to devote themselves 
successfully to the cultivation of art. Unproductive in the pro- 
vince of art as this early period is, yet an entire departure from 
native tradition, or a serious conflict of the latter with extraneous 
innovation never took place. It may be admitted, that in the 
massive columns and cumbrous capitals of the churches of Upper 
Italy, and in the art of vaulting which was developed here at an 
early period , symptoms of the Germanic character of the inhabi- 
tants are manifested, and that In the Lower Italian and especially 
Sicilian structures , traces of Arabian and Norman influence are 
unmistakable. In the essentials, however, the foreigners continue 
to be the recipients; the might of ancient tradition, and the natio- 
nal idea of form could not be repressed or superseded. 

About the middle of the 11th century a zealous and proniis- 
RoMAN- ^"S artistic movement took place in Italy , and the seeds 
ESQUE were sown which three or four centuries later yielded so 
Style, hixuriant a growth. As yet nothing was matured, nothiiig 
completed, the aim was obscure, the resources insufficient ; mean- 
while architecture alone satisfied artistic requirements , the at- 
tempts at painting and sculpture being barbarous in the ex- 
treme ; these, however, were the germs of the subsequent devel- 
opment of art observable as early as the 11th and 12th centuries. 
This has been aptly designated the Romanesque period (11th- 
13th cent.}, and the then prevalent forms of art the Ro- 
manesque Style. As the Romance languages , notwithstanding 
alterations, additions, and corruptions, maintain their relation of 
daughtership to the language of the Romans, so Romanesque art, 
in spite of its rude and barbarous aspect, reveals its immediate 
descent from the art of that people. The Tuscan towns were the 
principal scene of the prosecution of mediaeval art. There an in- 
dustrial population gradually arose, treasures of commerce were 
collected, independent views of life were acquired in active party- 
conflicts, loftier common interests became interwoven with those 
of private life, aTid education entered a broader and more enlight- 
ened track; and thus a taste for art also was awakened, and 
.Tsthctic perception developed itself. When Italian architecture 
of the Romanesque period is examined, the difference between its 
character and that of contemporaneous northern works is at once 
apparent. In the latter the principal aim is perfection in the 
construction of vaulting. French, English, and German churches 
are unquestionably the more orgaJiically conceived, the individual 

ITALIAN ART. xxxiii 

parts are more inseparable and more appropriately arranged. But 
the subordination of all other aims to that of the secure and ac- 
curate formation of the vaulting does not admit of an unrestrained 
manifestation of the sense of form. The columns are apt to be 
heavy, symmetry and harmony in the constituent members to be 
disregarded. On Italian soil new architectural ideas are rarely 
found, constructive boldness not being here the chief object ; on the 
other hand, the decorative arrangements are richer and more grate- 
ful, the sense of rhythm and symmetry more pronounced. The cathe- 
dral of Pisa, founded as early as the 11th century, or the church 
of S. Miniato near Florence, dating from the 12th, may be taken 
as an example of this. The interior with its rows of columns, the 
mouldings throughout, and the flat ceiling recall the basilica-type; 
while the exterior, especially the fa(;ade destitute of tower, with 
the small arcades one above the other, and the variegated colours 
of the courses of stone , presents a fine decorative effect. At the 
same time the construction and decoration of the walls already 
evince a taste for the elegant proportions which we admire in later 
Italian structures ; the formation of the capitals, and the design of 
the outlines prove that the precepts of antiquity were not entirely 
forgotten. In the Baptistery of Florence (S. Giovanni) a definite 
Roman structure (the Pantheon) has even been imitated. A pe- 
culiar conservative spirit pervades the mediaeval architecture of 
Italy; artists do not aim at an unknown and remote object; 
tlie ideal which they have in view, although perhaps instinctive- 
ly only, lies in the past; to conjure up this, and bring about 
a Renaissance of the antique , appears to be the goal of their 
aspirations. They apply themselves to their task with calmness 
and concentration, they indulge in no bold or novel schemes, but 
are content to display their love of form in the execution of details. 
What architecture as a whole loses in historical attractien is 
compejisated for by the beauty of the individual edifices. While 
the North possesses structures of greater importance in the history 
of the development of art, Italy boasts of a far greater number of 
pleasing works. 

There is hardly a district in Italy which does not boast of 
interesting examples of Romanesque architecture. At Verona we 
may mention the famous church of St. Zeno with its sculp- rqman- 
tured portals. In the same style are the cathedrals of Fer- esque 
rara, Modena, Parma, and Piacenza, the church of S. Am- Churches. 
brogio at Milan, with its characteristic fore-court and facade, and 
that of S. Michele at Pavia, erroneously attributed to the Lombardi. 
Tuscany abounds with Romanesque edifices. Among these the palm 
is due to the cathedral of Pisa, a church of spacious dimensions in 
the interior, superbly embellished with its marble of two colours 
and the rows of columns on its fa(;ade. To the same period also 
belong the neighbouring Leaning Tower and the Baptistery. The 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. C 


churches of Lucca are copies of those at Pisa. Those of Florence, 
however, such as the octagonal, dome-covered baptistery and the 
church of S. Miniato al Monte, exhibit an independent style. 

The position occupied by Italy with regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture is thus rendered obvious. She could not entirely 
Sttle^ ignore its influence, although incapable of according an un- 
conditional reception to this, the highest development of 
vault-architecture. Gothic was introduced into Italy in a mature 
and perfected condition. It did not of necessity, as in France, 
develop itself from the earlier (Romanesque) style, its progress 
cannot be traced step by step ; it was imported by foreign archi- 
tects (practised at Assisi by the German master Jacob), and 
adopted as being in consonance with the tendency of the age ; it 
found numerous admirers among the mendicant orders of monks 
and the humbler classes of citizens, but could never quite dis- 
engage itself from Italianising influences. It was so far transformed 
that the constructive constituents of Gothic are degraded to a de- 
corative office, and the national taste thus became reconciled to it. 
The cathedral of Milan cannot be regarded as a fair specimen of 
Italian Gothic, but this style must rather be sought for in the 
mediseval cathedrals of Florence, Siena, Orvieto, in the church of 
S. Petronio at Bologna, and in numerous secular edifices, such as 
the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence , the communal palaces of me- 
diaeval Italian towns, and the palaces of Venice. An acquaintance 
with true Gothic construction, so contracted notwithstanding all its 
apparent richness, so exclusively adapted to practical requirements, 
can certainly not be acquired from these cathedrals. The spacious 
interior, inviting, as it were, to calm enjoyment, while the cathe- 
drals of the north seem to produce a sense of oppression, the pre- 
dominance of horizontal lines, the playful application of pointed 
arches and gables , of finials and canopies, prove that an organic 
coherence of the different architectural distinguishing members was 
here but little considered. The characteristics of Gothic architecture, 
the towers immediately connected with the facade, and the promi- 
nent flying buttresses are frequently wanting in Italian Gothic edi- 
fices, — whether to their disadvantage, it may be doubted. It is not 
so much the sumptuousness of the materials which disposes the 
spectator to pronounce a lenient judgment, as a feeling that Italian 
architects pursued the only course by which the Gothic style could 
be reconciled with the atmosphere and light, the climate and nat- 
ural features of Italy. Gothic lost much of its peculiar character 
in Italy, but by these deviations from the customary type it there 
became capable of being nationalised , especially as at the same 
period the other branches of art also aimed at a greater degree of 
nationality, and entered into a new combination with the funda- 
mental trait of the Italian character, that of retrospective adherence 
to the antique. 


The apparently sudden and unprepared-for revival of ancient 
ideals in the 13tli century is one of the most interesting phenomena 
in the history of art. The Italians themselves could only revival 
account for this hy attributing it to chance. The popular of Ancient 
story was that the sculptor Niccolo Pisano was induced hy^^'^ Ideals. 
an inspection of ancient sarcophagi to exchange the prevailing style 
for the ancient, and indeed in one case we can trace back a work of 
his to its antique prototype. We refer to a relief on the pulpit in 
the Baptistery at Pisa, several figures in which are borrowed from 
a Bacchus vase still preserved in the Campo Santo of that city 
(pp. 323, 326). Whether Niccolo Pisano was a member of a local 
school or was trained under foreign influences we are as yet unable 
to determine. His sculptures on the pulpits in the Baptistery of 
Pisa and the Cathedral of Siena introduce us at once into a new 
world. It is not merely their obvious resemblance to the works 
of antiquity that arrests the eye ; a still higher interest is awakened 
by their peculiarly fresh and lifelike tone, indicating the enthu- 
siastic concentration with which the master devoted himself to his 
task. During the succeeding period (Pisan School] ancient character- 
istics were placed in the background, and importance was attached 
solely to life and expression (e.g. reliefs on the facade of the 
Cathedral at Orvieto). Artists now began to impart to their com- 
positions the impress of their own peculiar views, and the public 
taste for poetry, which had already strongly manifested itself, was 
now succeeded by a love of art also. 

From this period (14th century) therefore the Italians date the 
origin of their modern art. Contemporaneous writers who ob- Rigg qf 
served the change of views, the revolution in sense of form. Modern 
and the superiority of the more recent works in life and ex- ^^'^• 
pression, warmly extolled their authors, and zealously proclaimed 
how greatly they surpassed their ancestors. But succeeding genera- 
tions began to lose sight of this connection between ancient and 
modern art. A mere anecdote was deemed sufficient to connect 
Giotto di Bondone (1276-1336), the father of modern Italian art, 
with Giovanni Cimabue (d. after 1302), the most celebrated re- 
presentative of the earlier style. (Cimabue is said to have watched 
Giotto, when, as a shepherd-boy, relieving the monotony of his 
office by tracing the outlines of his sheep in the sand, and to have 
received him as a pupil in consequence). But it was forgotten 
that a revolution in artistic ideas and forms had taken place at 
Rome and Siena still earlier than at Florence, that both Cimabue 
and his pupil Giotto had numerous professional brethren , and 
that the composition of mosaics, as well as mural and panel- 
painting, was still successfully practised. Subsequent investigation 
has rectified these errors, pointed out the Roman and Tuscan 
mosaics as works of the transition-period, and restored the Sienese 
master Duccio, who was remarkable for his sense of the beauti- 


ful and the expressiveness of his figures, to his merited rank. 
Giotto, however, is fully entitled to rank in the highest class. The 
amateur, who before entering Italy has become acquainted with 
Giotto from insignificant easel-pictures only, often arbitrarily 
attributed to this master , and even in Italy itself encounters 
little else than obliquely drawn eyes , clumsy features , and 
cumbrous masses of drapery as characteristics of his style, will 
regard Giotto's reputation as ill-founded. He will be at a loss 
to comprehend why Giotto is regarded as the inaugurator of a 
new era of art, and why the name of the old Florentine master 
is only second iii popularity to that of Raphael. The fact is that 
Giotto's Giotto's celebrity is not due to any single perfect work of 

Influence, art. His indefatigable energy in different spheres of art, the 
enthusiasm which he kindled in every direction, and the develop- 
ment for which he paved the way, must be taken into consideration, 
in order that his place in history may be iinderstood. Even when, 
in consonance with the poetical sentiments of his age, he embodies 
allegorical conceptions, as poverty, chastity, obedience, or displays 
to us a ship as an emblem of the Church of Christ, he shows a 
masterly acquaintance with the art of converting what is perhaps 
in itself an ungrateful idea into a speaking, life-like scene. 
Giotto is an adept in narration, in imparting a faithful reality to 
his compositions. The individual figures in his pictures may fail 
to satisfy the expectations, and even earlier masters , such as 
Duccio, may have surpassed him in execution, but intelligibility 
of movement and dramatic effect were first naturalised in art by 
Giotto. This is partly attributable to the luminous colouring 
employed by him instead of the dark and heavy tones of his 
predecessors, enabling him to impart the proper expression to 
his artistic and novel conceptions. On these grounds there- 
fore Giotto, so versatile and so active in the most extended spheres, 
was accounted the purest type of his century, and succeeding 
generations founded a regular school of art in his name. As 
in the case of all the earlier Italian painters, so in that of Giotto 
and his successors, an opinion of their true merits can be formed 
from their mural paintings alone. The intimate connection of the 
picture with the architecture, of which it constituted the living 
ornament, compelled artists to study the rules of symmetry and 
harmonious composition, developed their sense of style, and, as 
extensive spaces were placed at their disposal, admitted of broad 
and unshackled delineation. Almost every church in Florence 
boasted of specimens of art in the style of Giotto, and almost ev- 
ery town in Central Italy in the 14th century practised some 
branch of art akin to Giotto's. The most valuable works of this style 
arc preserved in the churches of S. Croce (especially the choir- 
chapels) and ,S. Maria Novella at Florence. Beyond the precincts of 

\ the Tuscan capital the finest works of Giotto are to be found at.<48Si>i 

ITALIAN ART. xxxvii 

and in the Madonna dell' Arena at Padua, where in 1306 he exe- 
cuted a representation of scenes from the lives of the Virgin and 
the Saviour. The Campo Santo of Pisa affords specimens of the 
handiwork of his pupils and contemporaries. In the works on the 
walls of this unique national museum the spectator cannot fail to 
he struck by their flnely-conceived, poetical character (e.g. the 
Triumph of Death), their sublimity (Last Judgment, Trials of Job), 
or their richness in dramatic effect (History of St. Rainerus, and of 
the Martyrs Ephesus and Potitus). 

In the 15th century, as well as in the 14th, Florence continued 
to take the lead amongst the capitals of Italy in matters of art. 
Vasari attributes this merit to its pure and delicious atmo- Florence, 
sphere, which he regards as highly conducive to intelligence a Ckadle 
and refinement. The fact, however, is, that Florence did **^ -'^^'''^• 
not itself produce a greater number of eminent artists than other 
places. During a long period Siena successfully vied with her in 
artistic fertility, and Upper Italy in the 14th century gave birth to 
the two painters d'Atanzo and Altichieri (paintings in the Chapel 
of S. Giorgio in Padua), who far surpass Giotto's ordinary style. On 
the other hand, no Italian city afforded in its political institutions 
and public life so many favourable stimulants to artistic imagina- 
tion, or promoted intellectual activity in so marked a degree, or 
combined ease and dignity so harmoniously as Florence. What 
therefore was but obscurely experienced in the rest of Italy, and 
manifested at irregular intervals only, was generally first realised 
here with tangible distinctness. Florence became the birthplace 
of the revolution in art effected by Giotto , and Florence was the 
home of the art of the Renaissance, which began to prevail soon 
after the beginning of the_15th century and superseded the style 
of Giotto. 

The word Renaissance is commonly understood to designate a 
revival of the antique ; but while ancient art now began to rknais- 
influence artistic taste more powerfully, and its study to be sance 
more zealously prosecuted , the essential character of the Cultuke. 
Renaissance consists by no means exclusively, or even principally, 
in the imitation of the antique ; nor must the term be confined 
merely to art , as it truly embraces the whole progress of civili- 
sation in Italy during the 15th and 16th centuries. How the 
Renaissance manifested itself in political life , and the different 
phases it assumes in the scientific and the social world , cannot 
here be discussed. It may, however, be observed that the Re- 
naissance in social life was chiefly promoted by the 'humanists', 
who preferred general culture to great professional attainments, 
who enthusiastically regarded classical antiquity as the golden 
age of great men , and who exercised the most extensive in- 
fluence on the bias of artistic views. In the period of the Re- 
naissance the position of the artist with regard to his work , and 

xxxviii ITALIAN ART. 

the nature and aspect of the latter are changed. The education and 
taste of the individual leave a more marked impress on the work of 
the author than was ever before the case; his creations are pre-emi- 
nently the reflection of his intellect ; his alone is the responsibility, 
his the reward of success or the mortification of failure. Artists 
now seek to attain celebrity, they desire their works to be examined 
and judged as testimonials of their personal endowments. Mere 
technical skill by no means satisfies them, although they are far 
from despising the drudgery of a handicraft (many of the most emi- 
nent quattrocentists having received the rudiments of their education 
in the workshop of a goldsmith), the exclusive pursuit of a single 
sphere of art is regarded by them as an indication of intellectual 
poverty, and they aim at mastering the principles of each different 
branch. They work simultaneously as paiiiters and sculptors , and 
when they devote themselves to architecture, it is deemed nothing 
unwonted or anomalous. A comprehensive and versatile education, 
united with refined personal sentiments, forms their: loftiest aim. 
This they attain in but few instances, but that they eagerly aspired 
to it is proved by the biography of the illustrious Leon Battista 
Alberti, who is entitled to the same rank in the 15th century, as 
Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th. Rationally educated, physically and 
morally healthy , keenly alive to the calm enjoyments of life, and 
possessing clearly defined ideas and decided tastes, the Renaissance 
artists necessarily regarded nature and her artistic embodiment 
with different views from their predecessors. A fresh and joyous love 
of nature seems to pervade the whole of this period. She not only 
afforded an unbounded field to the scientific, but artists also strove 
to approach her at first by a careful study of her various pheno- 
mena. Anatomy , geometry , perspective , and the study 
of'thk're- °^ drapery and colour are zealously pursued and practically 
NAissANCE applied. External truth, fidelity to nature, and a correct 
Artists to rendering of real life in its minutest details are among the 
ATURE. necessary qualities in a perfect work. The realism of the re- 
presentation is, however, only the basis for the expression of life- 
like character and present enjoyment. The earlier artists of the 
Renaissance rarely exhibit partiality for pathetic scenes, or events 
which awaken painful emotions and turbulent passions, and when 
such incidents are represented, they are apt to be somewhat exagger- 
ated. The preference of these masters obviously inclines to cheerful 
and joyous subjects. In the works of the 15th century strict faith- 
fulness, in an objective sense, must not be looked for. Whether the 
topic be derived from the Old or the New Testament, from history or 
fable, it is always transplanted to the immediate present, and adorn- 
ed with the colours of actual life. Thus Florentines of the genuine 
nati07ial type are represented as surrounding the patriarchs, visiting 
Elizabeth after the birth of her son, or witnessing the miracles of 
Christ. This transference of remote events to the present bears a 


striking resemblance to the na'ive and not unpleasing tone of the 
chronicler. The development of Italian art, however, by no means 
terminates with mere fidelity to nature, a quality likewise displayed 
by the contemporaneous art of the North. A superficial glance at 
the works of the Italian Renaissance enables one to recognise the 
higher goal of imagination. The carefully selected groups of digni- 
fied men, beautiful women, and pleasing children, occasionally 
without internal necessity placed in the foreground , prove that at- 
tractiveness was pre-eminently aimed at. This is also evidenced by 
the early-awakened enthusiasm for the nude, by the skill in dispo- 
sition of drapery, and the care devoted to boldness of outline and 
accuracy of form. This aim is still more obvious from the keen 
sense of symmetry observable in all the better artists. The indi- 
vidual figures are not coldly and accurately drawn in conformity 
with systematic rules. They are executed with refined taste and 
feeling ; harshness of expression and unpleasing characteristics are 
sedulously avoided , while in the art of the North physiognomic 
fidelity is usually accompanied by extreme rigidity. A taste for 
symmetry does not prevail in the formation of the individual figure 
only ; obedience to rhythmical precepts is perceptible in the dispo- 
sition of the groups also, and in the composition of the entire work. 
The intimate connection between Italian painting (fresco) and 
architecture naturally leads to the transference of architectural rules 
to the province of pictorial art , whereby not only the invasion of a 
mere luxuriant naturalism was obviated , but the fullest scope was 
afforded to the artist for the execution of his task. For, to discover 
the most effective proportions , to inspire life into a scene by the 
very rhythm of the lineaments , are not accomplishments to be 
acquired by extraneous aid; precise measurement and calcu- 
lation are here of no avail ; a discriminating eye , refined taste, 
and a creative imagination , which instinctively divines the appro- 
priate forms for its design , can alone excel in this sphere of art. 
This enthusiasm for external beauty and just and harmonious pro- 
portions is the essential characteristic of the art of the Renaissance. 
Its veneration for the antique is thus also accounted for. At first 
an ambitious thirst for fame caused the Italians of the 15th and 16th 
centuries to look back to classical antiquity as the era of illus- Study 
trious men, and ardently to desire its return. Subsequently, of the 
however, they regarded it simply as an excellent and appro- Antique 
priate resource, when the study of actual life did not suffice, and an 
admirable assistance in perfecting their sense of form and symmetry. 
They by no means viewed the art of the ancients as a perfect whole, 
or as the product of a definite historical epoch, which developed 
itself under peculiar conditions ; but their attention was arrested by 
the individual works of antiquity and their special beauties. Thus 
ancient ideas were re-admitted into the sphere of Renaissance art. 
A return to the religious spirit of the Romans and Greeks is not of 


course to he inferred from the veneration for the ancient gods shown 
during the humanistic period ; belief in the Olympian gods was ex- 
tinct; but just because no devotional feeling was intermingled, 
because the forms could only receive life from creative imagination, 
did they exercise so powerful an influence on the Italian masters. 
The importance of mythological characters being wholly due to the 
perfect beauty of their forms , they could not fail on this account 
pre-eminently to recommend themselves to Renaissance artists. 
These remarks will, it is hoped, convey to the reader a general 
CiiARACTEu-idea of the character of the Renaissance. Those who ex- 

isTics OP amine the architectural works of the 15th or 16th century 
SANCE should refrain from marring their enjoyment by the not al- 
Arciii- together justifiable reflection, that in the Renaissance style 

TECTURE. no new system was invented, as the architects merely em- 
ployed the ancient elements, and adhered principally to tradition 
in their constructive principles and selection of component parts. 
Notwithstanding the apparent want of organisation, however, great 
beauty of form, the outcome of the most exuberant imagination, 
M'ill be observed in all these structures. 

Throughout the diversified stages of development of the suc- 
ceeding styles of Renaissance architecture, felicity of proportion is 
invariably the aim of all the great masters. To appreciate their 
success in this aim should also be regarded as the principal task of 
the spectator, who with this object in view will do well to compare 
a Gothic with a Renaissance structure. This comparison will prove 
to him that harmony of proportion is not the only effective element 
in architecture ; for, especially in the cathedrals of Germany, the 
exclusively vertical tendency, the attention to form without regard 
to measure , the violation of precepts of rhythm , and a disregard 
of proportion and the proper ratio of the open to the closed cannot 
fail to strike the eye. Even the unskilled amateur will thus be 
convinced of the abrupt contrast between the mediaeval and the 
Renaissance styles. Thus prepared, he may, for example, proceed 
to inspect the Pitti Palace at Florence , which , undecorated and 
unorganised as it is, would scarcely be distinguishable from a rude 
pile of stones, if a judgment were formed from the mere descrip- 
tion. The artistic charm consists in the simplicity of the mass, 
the justness of proportion in the elevation of the stories, aiul the 
tasteful adjustment of the windows in the vast surface of the fa- 
cade. That the architects thoroughly understood the resthetical 
effect of symmetrical proportions is proved by the mode of con- 
struction adopted in the somewhat more recent Florentine palaces, 
in whi(;h the roughly hewn blocks (rustica) in the successive stories 
recede in gradations, and by their careful experiments as to whether 
the cornice surmounting the structure should bear referen<;e to the 
highest story , or to the entire facade. Tlie same bias manifests 
itself in Rramante's imagination. The Cancellcrin is justly 


considered a beautifully organised structure ; and when, after the 
example of Palladio in churcli-fa^ades, a single series of columns 
was substituted for those resting above one another, symmetry of 
proportion was also the object in view. 

From the works of Brunelleschi (p. xlii), the greatest master of 
the Early Renaissance, down to those of Andrea Palladio of Vi- 
cenza(p. xliii), the last great architect of the Renaissance, the works 
of all the architects of that period will be found to possess many 
features in common. The style of the 15th century may, however, 
easily be distinguished from that of the 16th. The Flor- Early Re- 
entine Pitti, Riccardi, and Strozzi palaces are still based on naissance. 
the type of the mediaeval castle , but other contemporary creations 
show a closer affinity to the forms and articulation of antique art. 
A taste for beauty of detail , coeval with the realistic tendency of 
painting, produces in the architecture of the 15th century an exten- 
sive a^jplication of graceful and attractive ornaments, which entirely 
cover the surfaces, and throw the real organisation of the edifice into 
the background. For a time the true aim of Renaissance art appears 
to have been departed from ; anxious care is devoted to detail instead 
of to general effect ; the re-application of columns did not at first 
admit of spacious structures; the dome rose but timidly above the 
level of the roof. But this attention to minutiae, this disregard of 
effect on the part of these architects, was only, as it were, a re- 
straining of their power, in order the more completely to master, 
the more grandly to develop the art. 

There is no doubt that the Renaissance palaces (among which 
that of Urbino, mentioned in vol. ii. of this Handbook, has always 
been regarded as pre-eminently typical) are more attractive than the 
churches. These last, however , though destitute of the venerable 
associations connected with the mediaeval cathedrals , bear ample 
testimony to the ability of their builders. The churches of Northern 
Italy in particular are worthy of examination. The first early Re- 
naissance work constructed in this part of the country was thefagade 
of the Certosa ofPavia, a superb example of decorative architecture. 
Besides the marble edifices of this period we also observe structures 
in brick, in which the vaulting and pillars form prominent features. 
The favourite form was either circular or that of the Greek cross 
(with equal arms), the edifice being usually crowned with a dome, 
and displaying in its interior an exuberant taste for lavish enrich- 
ment. Of this type are the church of the Madonna della Croce near 
Crema and several others at Piacenza and Parma (Madonna della 
Steccata). It was in this region thatBRAMANTE prosecuted the studies 
of which Rome afterwards reaped the benefit. Among the secular 
buildings of N. Italy we may mention the Ospedale Maggiore at 
Milan, which shows the transition from Gothic to Renaissance. The 
best survey of the palatial edifices built of brick will be obtained 
by walking through the streets of Bologna (p. 286). 


The visitor to Venice will have an opportnnity of tracing within 
a very limited space the progress of Renaissance architecture. The 
church of S. Zaccaria is an example of early Renaissance still in 
conflict with Gothic, while the richly coloured church of S. Maria 
dei Miracoli and the Scuola di S. Marco exhibit the style in its 
perfection. Foremost among the architects of Venice must he 
mentioned the Lombardi, to whom most of the Venetian buildings 
of the 15th cent, are attributed; but we shall afterwards advert to 
the farther progress of Venetian architecture (p. xliii). One of the 
most famous architects of N. Italy was Fra Gioconuo of Verona, a 
monk, philologist (the discoverer of the letters of the younger Pliny'), 
a botanist, an engineer, and a thoroughly well trained architect, who 
at a very advanced age, after the death of Bramante, was summoned 
to Rome to superintend the building of St. Peter's. 

Examples of early Renaissance architecture abound in the towns 
of Tuscany. At Florence, the scene of Filippo Brunelleschi's 
labours (1379-1446), the attention is chiefly arrested by the church 
of S. Lorenzo (1425), with its two sacristies (the earlier by Brunel- 
leschi , the later by Michael Angelo , which it is interesting to 
compare), while the small Cappella dei Pazzi near S. Croce is also 
noticeable. The Palazzo Rucellai is also important as showing the 
combination of pilasters with 'rustica', the greatest advance achieved 
by the early Renaissance. Siena, with its numerous palaces, Pienza, 
the model of a Renaissance town , and Vrbino also afford excellent 
examples of the art of the Quattrocentists, but are beyond the limits 
of the present volume. While all these different edifices possess 
many features in common , they may be classed in a number of 
groups, differing in material and various other characteristics, and 
entirely relieving them from any reproach of monotony. 

The early Renaissance is succeeded by Bramante's epoch (1444- 
1514), with which began the golden age of symmetrical construr- 
Zenith tion. With a wise economy the mere decorative portions 
OF THE Re- were circumscribed , while greater significance and more 
NAissANCE. jnarked expression were imparted to the true constituents 
of the structure, the real exponents of the architectural design. 
The works of the Bramantine era are less graceful and attractive 
than those of their predecessors, but superior in their well defined, 
lofty simplicity and finished character. Had the Church of St. Peter 
been completed in the form originally designed by Bramante , we 
could have pronounced a more decided opinion as to the ideal of the 
church-architecture of the Renaissance. The circumstance that the 
grandest work of this style has been subjected to the most varied 
alterations (and vastness of dimensions was the principal aim of the 
architects) teaches us to refrain from the indiscriminate blame which 
so commonly falls to the lot of Renaissance churches. It must at 
least be admitted that the favourite form of a Greek cross with 
rounded extremities, crowned by a dome, possesses concentrated 


unity, and that the pillar-construction relieved by niches presents 
a most majestic appearance; nor can it he disputed that in the 
churches of the Renaissance the same artistic principles are applied 
as in the universally admired palaces and secular edifices. If the 
former therefore excite less interest, this is not due to the in- 
feriority of the architects, hut to causes beyond their control. The 
great masters of this culminating period of the Renaissance were 
Raphael, Baidassake Pekuzzi, the younger Antonio da Sangallo 
of Rome, Michele Sammicheli of Verona [p. 187), Jacopo Sanso- 
viNO of Venice, and lastly Michael Angelo. The succeeding gene- 
ration of the 16th century did not adhere to the style introduced hy 
Bramante, though not reduced by him to a finished system. They 
aim more sedulously at general effect, so that harmony among the 
individual members begins to be neglected ; they endeavour to arrest 
the eye by boldness of construction and striking contrasts ; or they 
borrow new modes of expression from antiquity, the precepts of 
which had hitherto been applied in an unsystematic manner only. 

The traveller will become acquainted with the works of Bramante 
and his contemporaries at Rome (see vol. ii. of this Hand- jtamous Re- 
book), but there are other places also which possess important naissance 
examples of the 'High Renaissance' style. At Florence, for Bhildings. 
example, are the Palazzo Pandolfini and the Palazzo Uguccioni, 
both of which are said to have been designed by Raphael ; the 
Court of the Pitti Palace by Bart. Ammanati ; the Palazzo Serristori 
and the Palazzo Bartolini by Baccio d'Agnolo. We must also 
mention Mantua as the scene of the architectural labours of Giulio 
Romano (p. 195) , Verona with its numerous buildings by Sam- 
micheli (e. g. the Palazzo Bevilacqua) , and Padua , where Gio- 
vanni Maeia Falconbtto (1458-1534) and Andrea Riccio , or 
properly Bkiosco (S. Giustina) flourished. At Venice the Renais- 
sance culminated in the first half of the 16th cent, in the works of 
the Florentine Jacopo Sansovino (properly Tatti , 1477-1570), 
and at Genoa in those of Galeazzo Alessi (1500-72) of Perugia 
(e.g. S. Maria in Carignano). 

In the middle and latter half of the 16th cent, Venice, Genoa, 
and Vicenza were zealous patrons of art. To this period Akchi- 
belongs Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518-80 ; p. 200), tectdre at 
the last of the great Renaissance architects, whose Venetian Venice. 
churches (S. Giorgio Maggiore and Redentore) and Vicentine palaces 
are equally celebrated. The fundamental type of domestic archi- 
tecture at Venice recurs with little variation. The nature of the 
ground afforded little scope for the caprice of the architect, 
while the conservative spirit of the inhabitants inclined them to 
adhere to the style established by custom. Nice distinctions of style 
are therefore the more observable, and that which emanated from 
a pure sense of form the more appreciable. Those who have been 
convinced by careful comparison of the great superiority of the 


Biblioteca (in the Piazzetta) of Sansoviiio over the new Procurazie 
of Scamozzi, although the two edifices exactly correspond in many 
respects, have made great progress towards an accurate insight into 
the architecure of the llenaissance. 

Much, however, would be lost by the traveller who devoted his 
Minor attention exclusively to the master-works which have been 

WoKKs OF extolled from time immemorial, or solely to the great mon- 
■^^'^- umental structures. As even the insignificant vases (ma- 

jolicas , manufactured at Pesaro , Urbino , Gubbio , and Castel- 
Durante) testify to the taste of the Italians, their partiality 
for classical models, and their enthusiasm for purity of form, so 
also in inferior works, some of which fall within the province of a 
mere handicraft, the peculiar beauties of the Renaissance style are 
often detected , and charming specimens of architecture are some- 
times discovered in remote corners of Italian towns. Nor must the 
vast domain of decorative sculpture be disregarded, as such works, 
whether in metal, stone, or stucco, inlaid or carved wood (intarsia), 
often verge on the sphere of architecture in their designs, drawing, 
and style of enrichment. 

On the whole it may be asserted that the architecture of the Re- 
naissance , which in obedience to the requirements of modern life 

SccLPTDRE manifests its greatest excellence in secular structures, cannot 

OP THE Re- fail to gratify the taste of the most superficial observer. 

N.ussANCE. '\^ii]] the sculpture of the same period, however, the case is 
different. The Italian architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries 
still possesses a practical value and is frequently imitated at the 
present day ; and painting undoubtedly attained its highest con- 
summation at the same period ; but the sculpture of the Renais- 
sance does not appear to us worthy of revival, and indeed cannot 
compete with that of antiquity. Yet the plastic art, far from 
enjoying a lower degree of favour, was rather viewed by the ar- 
tists of that age as the proper centre of their sphere of activity. 
Sculpture was the first art in Italy which was launched into the 
stream of the Renaissance, iii its development it was ever a step 
in advance of the other arts, and in the popular opinion possessed 
the advantage of most clearly embodying the current ideas of the 
age, and of affording the most brilliant evidence of the re-awakened 
love of art. Owing probably to the closeness of the connection be- 
tween the plastic art of the Renaissance and the peculiar national 
culture, the former lost much of its value after the decline of the 
latter, and was less appreciated than pictorial and architectural 
works, in which adventitious historical origin is obviously less im- 
portant than general effect. In tracing the progress of the sculpture 
of the Renaissance, the enquirer at once e.ncounters serious devia- 
tions from strict precepts, and numerous infringements of lestheti- 
cal rules. The execution of reliefs (ionstitutes by far the widest 
sphere of action of the Italian sculptors of the 15th century. 


These , however , contrary to immemorial usage , are executed 
in a pictorial style. Lorenzo Ghibkrti (1378-1455), for ex- 
ample, in his celebrated (eastern) door of the Baptistery of Flo- 
rence , is not satisfied with grouping the figures as in a painting, 
and placing them in a rich landscape copied from nature. He 
treats the background in accordance with the rules of perspective; 
the figures at a distance are smaller and less raised than those in 
the foreground. He oversteps the limits of the plastic art, and 
above all violates the laws of the relief-style, according to which 
the figures are always represented in an imaginary space, and the 
usual system of a mere design in profile seldom departed from. 
In like manner the painted reliefs in terracotta by Luca della 
RoBBiA (1400-82) are somewhat inconsistent with purity of plastic 
form. But if it be borne in mind that the sculptors of the Renais- 
sance did not derive their ideas from a previously defined system, 
or adhere to abstract rules, the fresh and life-like vigour of their 
works (especially those of the 15th century) will not be disputed, 
and prejudice will be dispelled by the great attractions of the 
reliefs themselves. The sculpture of the Renaissance adheres as 
strictly as the other arts to the fundamental principle of repre- 
sentation ; scrupulous care is bestowed on the faithful and at- 
tractive rendering of the individual objects ; the taste is gratified 
by expressive heads, graceful female figures , and joyous children ; 
the sculptors have a keen appreciation of the beauty of the nude, 
and the importance of a calm and dignified flow of drapery. In 
their anxiety for fidelity of representation , however , they do not 
shrink from harshness of expression or rigidity of. form. Their 
predilection for bronze-casting, an art which was less in vogue in 
the 16th cent. , accords with their love of individualising their 
characters. In this material , decision and pregnancy of form are 
expressed without restraint, and almost, as it were, spontaneously. 
Works in marble also occur, but these generally trench on the pro- 
vince of decoration, and seldom display the bold and unfettered 
aspirations which are apparent in the works in bronze. 

The churches have always afforded the most important field for 
the labours of the Italian sculptors, some of them, such as S. Croce 
at Florence , Frari and S. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice , and the 
Santo at Padua, forming very museums of Renaissance sculpture. 
At the same time many of the wealthier families (the Medici and 
others) embellished their mansions with statuary , and the art of 
the 'sculptor was frequently invoked with a view to erect a fitting 
tribute to the memory of some public benefactor (such as the 
equestrian statues at Venice and Padua~). 

At Florence , the cradle of Renaissance sculpture , we become 
acquainted with Ghiberti and Della Robbia, who have been Scdlptoes 
already mentioned , and with the famous Donatello (pro- op the Re- 
perly Donato di Niccolo di Betti Bardi, 1386-1466), who naissance. 


introduced a naturalistic style, which, though often harsh, is full 
of life and character. The Judith Group In the Loggia de' Lanzi 
is an exaggerated and unpleasing example of this style, the master 
having aimed at the utmost possible expressiveness, while the lines 
and contours are entirely destitute of ease. Among Donatello's 
most successful works on the other hand are his statue of St. George 
(^in Or S. Michele, which also contains his Peter and Mark; p. 369) 
and his Victorious David in bronze in the MuseoNazionale (p. 377), 
a collection invaluable to the student of the early Renaissance. The 
reliefs on the two pulpits in S. Lorenzo and the sculptures in the 
sacristy of that church (p. 394) should also be inspected. Dona- 
tello's finest works out of Florence are his numerous sculptures in 
S. Antonio at Padua. 

The next sculptor of note was Andbea Verrocchio (1435-88). 
Most of the other masters of this period (Antonio Rossellino, 
Ming da Fibsolb, Desiderio da Settignano) were chiefly oc- 
cupied in the execution of tombstones , and do not occupy a 
position of much importance; but the life and sense of beauty which 
characterise the early Renaissance are admirably exemplified in the 
works of the comparatively unknown Matted Civitali of Lucca 
(1435-1501; Altar of St. Regulus in the Cathedral, p. 313). 
Important Florentine masters of the first half of the 16th cent, 
were Giov. Franc. Rustici (1474- 1550?), who was perhaps inspir- 
ed by Leonardo, and particularly Andrea Sansovino (1460-1529), 
the author of the exquisite group of Christ and the Baptist in the 
Baptistery at Florence, of superb monuments at Rome (in the choir 
of S. Maria del Popolo), and of part of the sculptures which adorn 
the Santa Casa at Loreto. Northern Italy also contributed largely 
to the development of the plastic art. The Certosa at Pavia , for 
example, afforded occupation during several decades to numerous 
artists, among whom the most eminent were Giovanni Antonio 
Amadeo (sculptor of the huge monuments in the Cappella CoUeoni 
at Bergamo), and, at a later period, Cristoforo Solari, surnamed 
II Gobbo ; Venice gave birth to the famous sculptor Alessandro 
Leoi'ardi (d. 1521); Riccio or Bbiosco wrought at Padua; Agos- 
TiNO BusTi, iL Bambaja (p. 126) and the above-mentioned Cristo- 
foro Solari, were actively engaged at Milan; and Modena 
afforded employment to Mazzoni and Begarelli (p. 276), artists 
in terracotta, the latter of whom is sometimes compared with 

Of the various works executed by these masters , Monumental 
Tombs largely predominate. While these monuments are often of 
a somewhat bombastic character, they afford an excellent illus- 
tration of the high value attached to individuality and personal 
culture during the Renaissance period. We may perhaps also fre- 
quently take exception to the monotony of their style, which 
remained almost unaltered for a whole century, but we cannot fail 


to derive genuine pleasure from tlie inexhaustible freshness of 
imagination displayed within so narrow limits. 

As museums cannot convey an adequate idea of the sculpture 
of the 15th century, so the picture galleries will not afford an 
accurate insight into the painting of that period, f Sculp- painting 
tures are frequently removed from their original position, of the Cm- 
many of those belonging to the Florentine churches, for Qdecento. 
example , having been of late transferred to museums ; but mural 
paintings are of course generally inseparable from the walls which 
they adorn. Of the frescoes of the 15th century of which a record has 
been preserved, perhaps one-half have been destroyed or obliterated, 
but those still extant are the most instructive and attractive ex- 
amples of the art of this period. The mural paintings in the church 
del Carmine ( Cappella Brancacci) a.t Florence are usually spoken of 
as the earliest specimens of the painting of the Renaissance. This 
is a chronological mistake , as some of these frescoes were not com- 
pleted before the second half of the 15th century; but on material 
grounds the classification is justifiable, as this cycle of pictures may 
be regarded as a programme of the earlier art of the Renaissance, 
the importance of which it served to maintain, even during the age 
of Raphael. Here the beauty of the nude was first revealed , and 
here a calm dignity was for the first time imparted to the individual 
figures, as well as to the general arrangement ; and the transform- 
ation of a group of indifferent spectators in the composition into a 
sympathising choir, forming as it were a frame to the principal act- 
ors in the scene , was first successfully effected. It is, therefore, 
natural that these frescoes should still be regarded as models for 
imitation, and that , when the attention of connoisseurs was again 
directed during the last century to the beauties of the pre-Raphaelite 
period, the works of Masaccio (1401-1428) and Filippino Lirpi 
(1457-1504) should have been eagerly rescued from oblivion. 

A visit to the churches of Florence is well calculated to convey 
an idea of the subsequent rapid development of the art of painting. 
The most important and extensive works are those of Do- 
MENico Ghirlandajo (1449-94) : viz. frescoes in S. Trinita, ^lobeTce!' 
and those in the choir of S. Maria Novella, which in spright- 
liness of conception are hardly surpassed by any other work of the 
same period. (The traveller will find it very instructive to compare 
the former of these works with the mural paintings of Giotto in S. 
Croce, which also represent the legend of St. Francis, and to draw 
a parallel between Ghirlandajo's Last Supper in the monasteries 
of S. Marco and Ognissanti, and the work of Leonardo.) In the 
Dominican monastery of S. Marco reigns the pious and peaceful 
genius of Fea Giovanni Angelico da Fiesoie (1387-1455), who, 

+ The best works on this subject are Crowe & Cavalcaselle's History of 
Painting in Italy, and History of Painting in North Italy. 

xlviii ITALIAN ART. 

though inferior to his contemporaries in dramatic power, vies with 
the best of them in his depth of sentiment and his sense of beauty, 
as expressed more particularly by his heads, and who in his old 
age displayed his well matured art in the frescoes of the chapel of 
St. Nicholas in the Vatican. 

Although the Tuscan painters exhibit their art to its fullest 
extent in their mural paintings, their easel-pictures are also well 
worthy of most careful examination ; for it was chiefly through 
these that they gradually attained to perfection in imparting beauty 
and dignity to the human form. Besides the two great Florentine 
galleries (Ufflzi and Pitti), the collection of the Academy (p. 387) 
is also well calculated to afford a survey of the progress of Floren- 
tine painting. 

Beyond the precincts of Florence, Benozzo Gozzoli's charming 
scenes from the Old Testament on the northern wall of the Campo 
Painting in Santo of Pisa, truly forming biblical genre-pictures, and his 
otherParts scenes from the life of St. Augustine in S. Gimignano, 
oFTuscANr. j-jLippo Lippi's frescoes at Prato (p. 340), Piero della. 
Fkancesca's Finding of the Cross in S. Francesco at Arezzo, 
and lastly Ltjca Signorklli's representation of the Last Day in 
the Cathedral at Orvieto, afford a most admirable review of the 
character and development of Renaissance painting in Central Italy. 
Arezzo and Orvieto should by no means be passed over, not only 
because the works they contain of Piero della Francesca and Luca 
Signorelli show how nearly the art even of the 15th century ap- 
proaches perfection, but because both of these towns afford an im- 
mediate and attractive insight into the artistic taste of the mediaeval 
towns of Italy. Those who cannot conveniently visit the provincial 
towns will find several of the principal masters of the 15th century 
united in the mural paintings of the Sistine Chapel At Borne, where 
Sandro Botticelli, a pupil of the elder Lippi, Cosimo Rosselli, 
Dom. Ghirlandajo, Signorelli, andPerugino have executed a number 
of rich compositions from the life of Moses and that of Christ. 

But an acquaintance with the Tuscan schools alone can never 
suffice to enable one to form a judgment respecting the general 
Other progress of art in Italy. Chords which are here but slightly 
Schools, touched vibrate powerfully in Upper Italy. The works of 
Andrea Mantegna (1431-1506; at Padua and Mantua) derive 
much interest from having exercised a marked influence on the 
German masters Holbein andDiirer, and surpass all the other works 
of his time in fidelity to nature and excellence of perspective 
(p. 195). — The earlier masters of the Venetian School ( Vivarini, 
Crivelli) were to some extent adherents of the Paduan school, to 
which Mantegna belonged, but the peculiar Venetian style, mainly 
founded on local characteristics, and admirably successful in its rich 
portraiture of noble and dignified personages, was soon afterwards 
elaborated by Gentile Bellini (1421-1507) and his brother Gio- 


VANNi (1426-1516), sons of Giacomo (comp. p. 219). — The Um- 
brian S<;liool also, which originated at Giibbio, and is admirably re- 
presented early in the 15th century by Ottaviano Nelli, blending 
with the Tuscan school in Gentile da Fabriano, and culminating 
in its last masters Pietro Vannucci, surnamed Perugino (1446- 
1524), and Bernardino Pinturicchio (1454-1513), merits attention, 
not only because Raphael was one of its adherents during his first 
period , but because it supplements the broader Florentine style, 
and notwithstanding its peculiar and limited bias is impressive in 
its character of lyric sentiment and religious devotion (e. g. Ma- 

The fact that the various points of excellence were distributed 
among different local schools showed the necessity of a loftier union. 
Transcendent talent was requisite in order harmoniously to union op 
combine what could hitherto be viewed separately only, different 
Ths 15th century, notwithstanding all its attractiveness, Schools. 
shows that the climax of art was still unattaiued. The forms em- 
ployed, graceful and pleasing though they be, are not yet lofty and 
pure enough to be regarded as embodiments of the highest and 
noblest conceptions. The figures still present a local colouring, 
having been selected by the artists as physically attractive , rather 
than as characteristic and expressive of their ideas. A portrait style 
still predominates , the actual representation does not appear 
always wisely balanced with the internal significance of the event, 
and the dramatic element is insufficiently emphasised. The most 
abundant scope was therefore now afforded for the labours of the 
great triumvirate, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo Buonar- 
roti, and Raphael Santi, by whom an entirely new era was in- 

Leonardo's (1452-1519) remarkable character can only be tho- 
roughly understood by means of prolonged study. His comprehensive 
genius was only partially devoted to art ; he also directed Leonardo 
his attention to scientific and practical pursuits of an entirely da Vinci. 
different nature. Refinement and versatility may be described as 
the goal of his aspirations; a division of labour, a partition 
of individual tasks were principles unknown to him. He laid, 
as it were , his entire personality into the scale in all that he 
undertook. He regarded careful physical training as scarcely less 
important than comprehensive culture of the mind ; the vigour of 
his imagination served also to stimulate the exercise of his intellect; 
and his minute observation of nature developed his artistic taste and 
organ of form. One is frequently tempted to regard Leonardo's 
works as mere studies , in which he tested his powers, and which 
occupied his attention so far only as they gratified his love of 
investigation and experiment. At all events his personal impor- 
tance has exercised a greater influence than his productions as 
an artist, especially as his prejudiced age strenuously sought to 
Baedeker. Italy I. 5tli Edit. il 


obliterate all trace of the latter. Few of Leonardo's works 
have been preserved in Italy , and these sadly marred by neglect. 
A reminiscence of his earlier period, when he wrought under 
Andrea Verrocchio at Florence, and was a fellow-pupil of Lo- 
renzo m Credi, is the fresco (Madonna and donor) in S. Onofrio 
at Rome. Several oil-paintings, portraits. Madonnas, and composed 
works are attributed to his Milan period, although careful research 
inclines us to attribute them to his pupils. The following are 
the most famous of his pictures in the Italian galleries : — in the 
Ambrosiana of Milan the Portrait of Isabella of Arragon, wife of 
Giov. Galeazzo Sforza; in the Palazzo Pitti the Ooldsmith and the 
Monaca (both of doubtful authenticity) ; in the Ufflzi the Portrait 
o/'/i»nsei/" (certainly spurious) z.\\Aih& Adoration of the Magi, which 
last, though little more than a sketch, bears full testimony to the 
fertility of the artist's imagination ; and lastly, in the Vatican Gal- 
lery, the St. Jerome (in shades of brown). The traveller will also 
find Leonardo's drawings in the Ambrosiana exceedingly interesting. 
The best insight into Leonardo's style, and his reforms in the art of 
colouring, is obtained by an attentive examination of the works 
of the Milan school (Luini, Salaino ; p. 119), as these are far better 
preserved than the original works of the master, of which (his 
battle-cartoon having been unfortunately lost with the exception of 
a single equestrian group) the Last Supper in S. Maria delle Grazie 
at Milan is now the only worthy representative. Although now a 
total wreck, it is still well calculated to convey an idea of the new 
epoch of Leonardo. The spectator should first examine tlie delicate 
equilibrium of the composition , and observe how the individual 
groups are complete in themselves, and yet simultaneously point to 
a common centre and impart a monumental character to the work ; 
then the remarkable physiognomical fidelity which pervades every 
detail, the psychological distinctness of character, and the dramatic 
life , together with the calmness of the entire bearing of the 
picture. He will then comprehend that with Leonardo a new era 
in Italian painting was inaugurated , that the development of art 
had attained its perfection. 

The accuracy of this assertion will perhaps be doubted by the 
amateur when he turns from Leonardo to Michael Angelo (1474- 
MioHAEL 1563). On the one hand he hears Micliael Angelo extolled 
ANiiKLo. as the most celebrated artist of the Renaissance, while 
on the other it is said that lie exercised a prejudicial influence 
on Italian art, and was the precursor of the decline of sculpture 
and painting. Nor is an inspection of this illustrious master's 
works calculated to dispel the doubt. Unnatural and arbitrary 
features often appear in juxtaposition with what is perfect , pro- 
foundly significative, and faithfully conceived. As in the case of 
Leonardo, we shall find that it is only by studying the master's bio- 
graphy that we can obtain an explanation of these anomalies, atid 


reach a true appreciation of Michael Angelo's artistic greatness. 
Educated as a sculptor, he exhibits partiality to the nude, and 
treats the drapery in many respects diiferently from his professional 
brethren. But, like them, his aim is to inspire his figures with life, 
and he seeks to attain it by imparting to them an imposing and im- 
pressive character. At the same time he occupies an isolated position , 
at variance with many of the tendencies of his age. Naturally pre- 
disposed to melancholy, concealing a gentle and almost effeminate 
temperament beneath a mask of austerity, Michael Angelo was con- 
firmed in his peculiarities by the political and ecclesiastical circum- 
stances of his time, and wrapped himself up within the depths of 
his own absorbing thoughts. His sculpture most clearly manifests 
that profound sentiment to which however he often sacrificed sym- 
metry of form. Ilis figures are therefore anomalous , exhibiting a 
grand conception, but no distinct or tangible thoughts, and least of 
all the traditional ideas. It is difficult now to fathom the hidden 
sentiments which the master intended to embody in Ms statues and 
pictures; his imitators seem to have seen in them nothing but massive 
and clumsy forms, and soon degenerated into meaningless mannerism. 
The dece; tive effect produced by Michael Angelo's style is best ex- 
emplified by some of his later works. His Moses in S. Pietro in Vincoli 
is of impossible proportions ; such a man can never have existed ; the 
small head, the huge arms, and the gigantic torso are utterly dis- 
proportionate ; the robe which falls over the celebrated knee could 
not be folded as it is represented. Nevertheless the work is grandly 
impressive; and so also are the Monuments of the Medici in S. 
Lorenzo at Florence, in spite of the forced attitude and arbitrary 
moulding of some of the figures. Michael Angelo only sacrifices 
accuracy of detail in order to enhance the aggregate effect. Had 
so great and talented a master not presided over the whole , the 
danger of an inflated style would have been incurred , the forms 
selected would have been exaggerated, and a professional mannerism 
would have been the result. Michael Angelo's numerous pupils, in 
their anxiety to follow the example of his Last Judgment in the Sis- 
tine, succeeded only in representing complicated groups of unnat- 
urally foreshortened nude figures, while Baccio Bandinelli, think- 
ing even to surpass Michael Angelo , produced in his group of 
Hercules and Cacus (in the Piazza della Signoria at Florence) a 
mere caricature of his model. 

Michael Angelo lived and worked at Florence and Eome alter- 
nately. We find him already in Rome at the age of 21 years (149G), 
as Florence, after the banishment of the Medici, offered no favour- 
able field for the practice of art. Here he chiselled the Pielci and 
the Bacchus. In the beginning of the 16th cent, he returned to his 
home, where he produced his David and worked on the Battle Car- 
toon (Florentines surprised while bathing by the Pisans), which has 
since disappeared. In 1505 the Pope recalled him to Rome, but 



the work entrusted to him there , the Tomb of Julius II. , was at 
this time little more than begun. The Ceiling Paintings in the 
Sistine Chapel ahsorhed his whole attention from 1508 to 1512. 
After the death of Julius , his monument was resumed on a more 
extensive scale. The commands of the new pope, however, who 
wished to employ the artist for the glorification of his own family, 
soon brought the ambitiously designed memorial once more to a 
standstill. From 1510 onwards Michael Angelo dwelt at Carrara 
and Florence, occupied at first with the construction and embellish- 
ment of the Fafade of S. Lorenzo, which was never completed, and 
then with the Tombs of the Medici. This work also advanced very 
slowly towards maturity, and at last the artist, disgusted with the 
tyranny of the Medici, set up in their places those of the statues which 
were finished, and migrated to Rome (1539). His first work here 
was the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel, his next the erection 
of the scanty fragments of the tomb of Pope Julius. His last years 
were mainly devoted to architecture (St. Peter's). 

Amateurs will best be enabled to render justice to Michael 
Angelo by first devoting their attention to his earlier works, 
among which in the province of sculpture the group of the Pieta 
in St. Peter's occupies the highest rank. The statues of Bacchus 
and David (at Florence) likewise do not transgress the customary 
precepts of the art of the Renaissance. Paintings of Michael 
Angelo's earlier period are rare ; the finest , whether conceived 
in the midst of his youthful studies, or in his maturer years, is iin- 
questionably the ceiling-painting in the Sistine. The architectural 
arrangement of the ceiling, and the composition of the several 
pictures are equally masterly ; the taste and discrimination of the 
painter and sculptor are admirably combined. In God the Father, 
Michael Angelo produced a perfect type of its kind ; he under- 
stood how to inspire with dramatic life the abstract idea of the 
act of creation, which he conceived as motion in the prophets 
and sibyls. Notwithstanding the apparent monotony of the 
fundamental intention (foreshadowing of the Redemption), a great 
variety of psychological incidents are displayed and embodied in 
distinct characters. Lastly, in the so-called Ancestors of Christ, 
the forms represented are the genuine emanations of Michael 
Angelo's genius, pervaded by his profound and sombre senti- 
ments, and yet by no means destitute of gracefulness and beauty. 
The decorative figures also which he designed to give life to his 
architectural framework are wonderfully beautiful and spirited. 
The Last Judgment, which was executed nearly thirty years later 
(in 1541 according to Vasari), Is not nearly so striking as the 
ceiling-paintings, owing in a great measure to its damaged condi- 
tion. — Among Michael Angelo's pupils were Sebastian del 
PiOMBO (the Venetian) , Marckllo Venusti , and Daniele da 



Whether the palm he due to Michael Aiigelo or to Raphael (1483- 
1520) among the artists of Italy is a question which formerly gave 
rise to vehement discussion among artists and amateurs, r^ph^j-l 
The admirer of Michael Angelo need, however, by no means 
he precluded from enjoying the works of Raphael. We now know 
that it is far more advantageous to form an acquaintance with 
each master in his peculiar province, than anxiously to weigh 
their respective merits ; and the more minutely we examine their 
works, the more firmly we are persuaded that neither in any way 
obstructed the progress of the other , and that a so-called higher 
combination of the two styles was impossible. Michael Angelo's 
unique position among his contemporaries was such, that no one, 
Raphael not excepted , was entirely exempt from his influence ; 
but the result of preceding development was turned to the best 
account , not by him , but by Raphael , whose susceptible and 
discriminating character enabled him at once to combine different 
tendencies within himself, and to avoid the faults of his pre- 
decessors. Raphael's pictures are replete with indications of pro- 
found sentiment, but his imagination was so constituted that 
he did not distort the ideas which he had to embody in order 
to accommodate them to his own views, but rather strove to iden- 
tify himself with them , and to reproduce them with the utmost 
fidelity. In the case of Raphael, therefore, a knowledge of his 
works and the enjoyment of them are almost inseparable , and 
it is difficult to point out any single sphere with which he was 
especially familiar. He presents to us with equal enthusiasm 
pictures of the Madonna , and the myth of Cupid and Psyche ; in 
great cyclic compositions he is as brilliant as in the limited sphere 
of portrait-painting; at one time he appears to attach paramount 
importance to strictness of style , architectural arrangement, sym- 
metry of groups, etc. ; at other times one is tempted to believe that 
he regarded colour as his most effective auxiliary. His excellence 
consists in his rendering equal justice to the most varied subjects, 
and in each case as unhesitatingly pursuing the right course , both 
in his apprehension of the idea and selection of form , as if he had 
never followed any other. 

Little is known of Raphael's private life , nor is it known by 
what master he was trained after his father's death (1494). In 
1500 he entered the studio of Perugino (p. xlix), and probably soon 
assisted in the execution of some of the works of his prolific master. 
That he rendered some assistance to Pinturicchio in the execution 
of the frescoes at Siena (in 1503, or perhaps as late as 1504) ap- 
pears certain from their points of resemblance with some of his 
drawings. Of Raphael's early, or Vmbrian period there are examples 
in the Vatican Gallery (Coronation of Mary) and the Brera at Milan 
(^Sposalizio of the Madonna, 1504). On settling at Florence (about 
1504) Raphael did not at first abandon the style he had learned at 


Perugia , and -which he had carried to greater perfection than any 
of the other Umbrian masters. Many of the pictures he painted 
there show that he still followed the precepts of his first master ; 
but he soon yielded to the influence of his Florentine training. 
After the storm raised by Savonarola had passed over, glorious days 
were in store for Florence. Leonardo, after his return from Milan, 
and Michael Angela were engaged here on their cartoons for the 
decoration of the great hall in the Palazzo Vecchio ; and it was their 
example, and more particularly the stimulating influence of Leo- 
nardo , that awakened the genius and called forth the highest 
energies of all their younger contemporaries. 

The fame of the Florentine school was at this period chiefly 
Raphael's maintained by Fra Bartolommeo (1475-1517) and Andrea 
Florentine del Sarto (1487-1531). The only works of Bartolommeo 
CoNTEMPo- -which we know are somewhat spiritless altar-pieces, but they 
BARiEs. exhibit in a high degree the dignity of character, the tran- 
quillity of expression, and the architectural symmetry of grouping 
in which he excelled. His finest pictures are the Christ with the four 
Saints, the Descent from the Cross (or Piet^), the St. Mark in the Pitti 
Gallery, and the Madonna in the cathedral at Lucca. The traveller 
would not do justice to Andrea del Sarto, a master of rich colouring, 
were he to confine his attention to that artist's works in the two 
great Florentine galleries. Sarto's Frescoes in the Annunziata 
(court and cloisters) and in the Scalzo (History of John the Baptist, 
p. 391) are among the finest creations of the cinquecento. Such, 
too, was the stimulus given to the artists of this period by their 
great contemporaries at Florence that even those of subordinate 
merit have occasionally produced works of the highest excellence, 
as, for instance, the Salutation of Axbertinelli and the Zenobius 
pictures of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo in the Uffizi. The last masters of 
the local Florentine school were Pontormo and Angelo Bronzino. 

Raphael's style was more particularly influenced by his relations 
to Fra Bartolommeo, and the traveller will find it most interesting 
to compare their works and to determine to what extent each derived 
suggestions from the other. The best authenticated works in 
Italy of Raphael's Florentine period are the Madonna del Granduca 
(Pitti), the Madonna del CardmcZto (Uffizi), the' Entombment [Gal. 
Borghese in Rome), the Predelle in the Vatican, the portraits of 
Angelo and Maddalena Doni (Pitti) , and the Portrait of himself 
(Uffizi). The Portrait of a Lady in the Pitti gallery is of doubtful 
origin , and the Madonna del Baldacchino in the same gallery was 
only begun by Raphael. 

When Raphael went to Rome in 1508 he found a large circle 

Raphael's 0* notable artists already congregated there. Some of these 

Roman were deprived of their employment by his arrival, including 

Period, ^j^g gienese master Giov. Antonio Bazzi, surnamed II So- 

DOMA, whose frescoes in the Farnesina (unfortunately not now ac- 


cessiblej vie with Raphael's works in tenderness and grace. A still 
more numerous circle of pupils, however, soon assembled around 
Raphael himself, such as Giulio Romano, Perino del Vaga, An- 
drea DA Salerno, Polidoro da Caravaggio , Timoteo della 
ViTE, Garofalo, Franc. Penni, and Giovanni da Udine. Attend- 
ed by this distinguished retinue, Raphael enjoyed all the honours 
of a prince, although, in the Roman art world, Bramante (p. xliij 
and Michael Angela occupied an equally high rank. The latter did 
not, however, trench on Raphael's province as a painter so much as. 
was formerly supposed, and the jealousy of each other which they 
are said to have entertained was probably chiefly confined to their re- 
spective followers. Raphael had doubtless examined the ceiling of 
the Sistine with the utmost care, and was indebted to Michael Angelo 
for much instruction ; but it is very important to note that he neither 
followed in the footsteps, nor suffered his native genius to be biassed 
in the slightest degree by the example of his great rival. A signal 
proof of this independence is afforded by the Sibyls which he painted 
in the church of S. Maria della Pace in 1514, and which, though 
conceived in a very different spirit from the imposing figures in the 
Sistine, are not the less admirable. In order duly to appreciate the 
works produced by Raphael during his Roman period, the traveller 
should chiefly direct his attention to the master's frescoes. The 
Stanze in the Vatican, the programme for which was obviously 
changed repeatedly during the progress of the work, the Tapestry, 
the Loggie, the finest work of decorative art in existence, the Dome 
Mosaics in S. Maria del Popolo (Capp. Chigi), and the Galatea and 
Myth of Psyche in the Farnesina together constitute the treasure be- 
queathed to Rome by the genius of the prince of painters. (Farther 
particulars as to these works will be found in the second vol. of 
this Handbook.) 

Many, and some of the best , of Raphael's easel-pictures of his 
Roman period are now beyond the Alps. Italy, however, still pos- 
sesses the Madonna della Sedia, the most mundane, but most 
charming of his Madonnas (Pitti], the Madonna delV Impannata 
(Pitti), the Madonna col Divino Amore (Naples), the Madonna di 
Foligno and the Transfiguration (in the Vatican), St. Cecilia (Bo- 
logna), and the Young St. John (Ufflzi). The finest of his portraits 
are those of Pope Julius II. (Pitti; a replica in the Ufflzi) and 
Leo X. with two Cardinals (Pitti ; a copy by Andrea del Sarto at 
Naples). Besides these works we must also mention his Cardinal 
Bihhiena (Pitti), the Violin-player (in the Pal. Sciarra at Rome), 
the Fornarina, Raphael's mistress (in the Pal. Barberini at Rome), 
and the Portrait of a Lady (Pitti, No. 245), which recalls the 
Sistine Madonna. 

After Raphael's death the progress of art did not merely come 
to a standstill, but a period of rapid Decline set in. The conquest 
and plundering of Rome in 1527 entirely paralysed all artistic effort 


for a time. At first tliis misfortune proved a boon to other parts of 

Italy. RaphaeFs pupils migrated from Rome to various pro- 
Decline*^ vincial towns. Giulio Romano , for example, entered the 

service of the Duke of Mantua, embellished his palace with 
paintings, and designed the Palazzo del Te (p. 198), while Perino 
DEL Yaga settled at Genoa (Pal. Doria). These offshoots of Raphael's 
school, however, soon languished, and ere long ceased to exist. 

The Northern Schools of Italy , on the other hand , retained 
their vitality and independence for a somewhat longer period. At 

Bologna the local style , modified by the influence of Ra- 
K ITALT*^ phael. was successfully practised by Bart. Ramenghi , sur- 

named Bagnacatallo (1484-1542). Ferrara boasted of 
LoDOYico Mazzolino (1481-1530), a master of some importance, 
and Dosso Dossi ; and at Verona the reputation of the school was 
maintained by Gianfranc. Garoto. 

The most important works produced in Northern Italy were those 

of Antonio Allegri, surnamed Correggio (1494?-1534), and of 

r.^„»^^^T„ the Venetian masters. Those who visit Parma after Rome 

and Florence will certainly be disappointed with the pic- 
tures of Correggio. They will discover a naturalistic tendency in 
his works, and they will observe, not only that his treatment of 
space (as in the perspective painting of domes) is unrefined, but 
that his individual figures possess little attraction beyond mere 
natural charms, and that their want of repose is apt to displease and 
fatigue the eye. The fact is, that Correggio was not a painter of all- 
embracing genius and far-reaching culture, but merely an adept in 
chiaroscuro, who left all the other resources of his art undeveloped. 
In examining the principal works of the Venetian School, how- 
ever, the traveller will experience no such dissatisfaction. From the 

school of Giovanni Bellini (p . xlviii) emanated the greatest re- 
^'sThool^ presentatives of Venetian painting — Giorgione , properly 

Barbarella (1477-1511), whose works have unfortunately 
not yet been sufficiently well identified , the elder Palma (1480- 
1528) , and Tiziano Vecellio (1477-1575) , who for nearly three 
quarters of a century maintained his native style at its culminating 
point. These masters are far from being mere colorists; nor do they 
owe their peculiar attraction to local inspiration alone. The enjoy- 
ment of life and pleasure which they so happily pourtray is a theme 
dictated by the culture of the Renaissance (a culture possessed in 
an eminent degree by Titian, as indicated by his intimacy with the 
'divine' Aretino). Their serene and joyous characters often recall 
some of the ancient gods , showing the manner in which the artists 
of the Renaissance had profited by the revived study of the antique. 
Properly to appreciate Titian it is of importance to remember how 
much of his activity was displayed in the service of the different 
courts. His connection with the family of Este began at an early 
period ; he carried on an active intercourse with the Gonzagas at 


Mantua, and executed numerous pictures for them. Later he basked 
in the favour of Charles V. and Philip II. of Spain. The natural 
result of this was that the painting of portraits and of a somewhat 
limited cycle of mythological subjects engrossed the greater part of 
his time and talents. That Titian's genius, however, was by no 
means alien to religion and deep feeling in art, and that his imagi- 
nation was as rich and powerful in this field as in pourtraying 
realistic and sensually attractive forms of existence, is proved by 
his numerous ecclesiastical paintings , of which the finest are the 
Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (p. 254), the Presentation in the Temple 
(p. 236), and the Assumption (p. 233) at Venice. The St. Peter 
Martyr, another masterpiece, unfortunately fell a prey to the 

Owing to the soundness of the principles on which the Venetian 
school was based , there is no wide gulf between its masters of the 
highest and those of secondary rank , as is so often the case in the 
other Italian schools ; and we accordingly find that works by Lo- 
renzo Lotto, Sebastian del Piombo, the Bonifacio's, Pokde- 
NONE, Paris Bordone , and Tintoretto frequently vie in beauty 
with those of the more renowned chiefs of their school. Even 
Paolo Caliari , surnamed Veronese (1528-88), the last great 
master of his school, shows as yet no trace of the approaching 
period of decline , but continues to delight the beholder with his 
delicate silvery tints and the spirit and richness of his compositions 
(comp. p. 220). 

Correggio, as well as subsequent Venetian masters, were fre- 
quently taken as models by the Italian painters of the 17th century, 
and the influence they exercised could not fail to be de- 
tected even by the amateur, if the entire post-Raphaelite Decline'' 
period were not usually overlooked. Those, however, who 
make the great cinquecentists their principal study will doubtless 
be loth to examine the works of their successors. Magnificent de- 
corative works are occasionally encountered, but the taste is 
offended by the undisguised love of pomp and superficial man- 
nerism which they generally display. Artists no longer ear- 
nestly identify themselves with the ideas they embody; they 
mechanically reproduce the customary themes, they lose the desire, 
and finally the ability to compose independently. They are, more- 
over, deficient in taste for beauty of form, which, as is well known, 
is most attractive when most simple and natural. Their technical 
skill is not the result of mature experience, slowly acquired and 
justly valued : they came into easy possession of great resources of 
art, which they frivolously and unworthily squander. The quaint, 
the extravagant, the piquant alone stimulates their taste ; rapidity, 
not excellence of workmanship, is their aim. Abundant specimens 
of this mannerism, exemplified in the works of Zxjccaro, u'Arpino, 
Tempesta, and others, are encountered at Rome and Florence 


(cupola of the cathedral). The fact that several works of this 
class produce a less unfavourable impression does not alter their 
general position , as it is not want of talent so much as of con- 
scientiousness which is attributed to these artists. 

The condition of Italian art, that of painting at least, improved 
to some extent towards the close of the 16th century, when there 

was a kind of second efflorescence, known in the schools as 
^"^ vivAL ^^^ 'revival of good taste', which is said to have chiefly 

manifested itself in two directions , the eclectic ajid the na- 
turalistic. But these are terms of little or no moment in the study 
of art, and the amateur had better disregard them. This period of art 
also should be studied historically. The principal architectural mon- 
uments of the 17th century are the churches of the Jesuits, which 
unquestionably produce a most imposing effect; but the historical 
enquirer will not easily be dazzled by their meretricious magni- 
ficence. He will perceive the absence of organic forms and the 
impropriety of combining totally different styles, and he will steel 
himself against the gorgeous, but monotonous attractions of the 
paintings and other works of the same period. The bright Renais- 
sance is extinct, simple pleasure in the natural and human is ob- 
literated. A gradual change in the views of the Italian public and 
in the position of the church did not fail to influence the tendencies 
of art, and in the 17th century artists again devoted their energies 
more immediately to the service of the church. Devotional pictures 
now became more frequent, but at the same time a sensual, 
naturalistic element gained ground. At one time it veils itself in 
beauty of form, at another it is manifested in the representation of 
voluptuous and passionate emotions ; classic dignity and noble 
symmetry are never attained. Cbist. Allori's Judith should be 
compared with the beauties of Titian, and the frescoes of Annibale 
Carracci in the Palazzo Farnese with Raphael's ceiling-paintings in 
the Farnesina, in order that the difference between the 16th and 
17th centuries may be clearly understood ; and the enquirer will be 
still farther aided by consulting the coeval Italian poetry , and ob- 
serving the development of the lyric drama or opera. The poetry of 
the period thus furnishes a key to the mythological representations 
of the School of the Carracci. Gems of art, however, were not un- 
frequently produced d uring the 1 7th century, and many of the frescoes 
of this period are admirable, such as those by Guiuo Rkni and 
DoMENicHiNO at Rome. Beautiful oil-paintings by various masters 
are also preserved in the Italian galleries. Besides the public col- 
lc(;tions of Bologna , Naples , and the Vatican and Capitol , the 
private galleries of Rome are of great importance. The so-called 
gallery-pieces, figures and scenes designated by imposing titles, and 
painted in the prevailing taste of the 17th century, were readily re- 
ceived, and indeed most appropriately placed in the palaces of the 
Roman nobles, most of which owe their origin and decoration to that 


age. This retreat of art to the privacy of the apartments of the great 
may be regarded as a symptom of the universal withdrawal of the 
Italians from puhlic. life. Artists, too, henceforth occupy an isolated 
position, unchecked hy public opinion, exposed to the caprices of 
amateurs, and themselves inclined to an arbitrary deportment. 
Several qualities, however , still exist of which Italian artists are 
never entirely divested ; they retain a certain address in the 
arrangement of figures, they preserve their reputation as ingenious 
decorators, and understand the art of occasionally imparting an 
ideal impress to their pictures ; even down to a late period in the 
18th century they excel in effects of colour, and by devoting 
attention to the province of genre and landscape-painting they may 
boast of having extended the sphere of their native art. At the 
same time they cannot conceal the fact that they have lost all 
faith in the ancient ideals , that they are incapable of new and 
earnest tasks. They breathe a close, academic atmosphere, they 
no longer labour like their predecessors in an independent and 
healthy sphere, and their productions are therefore devoid of ab- 
sorbing and permanent interest. 

This slight outline of the decline of Italian art brings us to 
the close of our brief and imperfect historical sketch, which, be 
it again observed, is designed merely to guide the eye of the 
enlightened traveller, and to aid the uninitiated in independent 
discrimination and research. 

Contents of Article on Italian Art : 


Art of Antiquity : the Greeks and Romans xxv 

The Middle Ages : Early Christian Art xxix 

Byzantine style xxx 

Romanesque style , . . xxxli 

Gothic style xxxiv 

Niccolo Pisano, Giotto xxxv 

The Renaissance xxxvii 

Architecture xl 

Early Renaissance xlii 

High Renaissance xliv 

Sculpture xlvii 

Painting : 

fTuscan Schools xlvii 

XV. Cent. I Upper Italian Schools. The Venetians . xlviii 

lUmbrian School xlix 



[Leonardo (la Vinci .... . , xlix 

J Michael Angelo and liis pupils ... 1 

XVI. Cent. ^ j|j^p)jjg[^ tjig contempovaries, ami pupils lili 

]Correggio Ivi 

^Venetian masters Ivi 

End of the XVI., and XVII. Cent. : Mannerists, Naturalists, 

Eclectics Ivii 

I. Routes to Italy. 

1. From Paris to Nice by Lyons and Marseilles. 

Railway to Jrarseilles , 536 M. , in 24 (express in IG'/j) lirs. ; fares 
106 tV. 30, 79 fr. 75, 58 fr. 45c. (Express from Paris to Lyons, 318 M., 
in 91/4, ordinary trains in 123/4 hrs.-, fares 63 fr. 5, 47 fr. 30, 34fr. 70c.) — 
From Lyons to Marseilles, 218 M., express in 6V4-8'A Irs., first class only; 
fare 43 fr. 30c. From Marseilles to Nice, 140 M., express in 51/2-6 hrs.: 
fares 27 fr. 70, 20 fr. 75 c. 

Soon after quitting Paris the train crosses the Marne, near its 
confluence with the Seine , and near the station of Charenton , the 
lunatic asylum of which is seen on an eminence to the left. To 
the right and left of (i^/2 M.) Maisons-Alfort rise the forts of Jvry 
and Charenton, which here command the course of the Seine. 9'/2 M. 
Villeneuve St. Georges is picturesquely situated on the slope of a 
wooded hill. 

The beautiful green dale of the Teres is now traversed. Pictur- 
esque country houses , small parks , and thriving mills are passed 
in rapid succession. 

11 M. Montgeron. The chain of hills to the left, and the plain 
are studded with innumerable dwellings. Before (13 M.) Brunoy 
is reached the train crosses the Yeres , and beyond the village 
passes over a viaduct commanding a beautiful view. 

The train now enters the plain of La Brie. I6Y4M. Combes-la- 
Ville; 191/2 M. Lieusaint; 24 M. Cesson. The Seine is again reached 
and crossed by a handsome iron bridge at — 

28 M. Melun (Grand Monarque ; Hotel de France), the capital 
of the Departement de Seine et Marne, an ancient town with 
11,200 inhab. , the Roman Methalum, or Melodunum, pictur- 
esquely situated on an eminence above the river, 1/9 M. from the 
station. The church of Notre Dame, dating from the 11th cent., 
the church of St. Aspais, of the 14th cent. , and the modern Gothic 
H6tel-de-Ville are fine edifices. 

After affording several picturesque glimpses of the Seine valley, 
the train enters the forest of Fontainebleau. 32 M. Bois-le-Roi. 

87 M. Fontainebleau (Hotels de France et d'Angleterre, de lEu- 
rope , de la Chancellerie , de Londres , de I'Aigle Noir , du Cadran 
Bleu, etc.) is a quiet place with broad, clean streets (11,600 inhab.}. 
The *Palace , an extensive pile , containing five courts , is almost 
exclusively indebted for its present form to Francis I. (d. 1547}, 
and abounds in interesting historical reminiscences. It contains a 
series of handsome saloons and apartments (fee 1 fr.}. The *Forest 

Baedekkb. Italy I. 5th Edit. 1 

2 Route 1. TONNERRE. From Paris 

occupies an area of 42,500 acres (50 M. in circumference) and affords 
many delightful walks. (For farther details, see Baedeker's Paris.) 

40 M. Thomery is celebrated for its luscious grapes (Chasselas 
de Fontainebleau). 41 1/2 M. Moret, picturesquely situated on the 
Loing , which here falls into the Seine , has a Gothic church of 
the 12th-15th cent, and a ruined chateau once occupied by Sully. 
To the right runs the railway to Montargis , Nevers , Moulins, and 
Vichy. The line crosses the valley of the Loing by a viaduct of 
thirty arches. 

491/2 M. Montereau (Grand Monarque; Buffet), picturesquely 
situated at the confluence of the Seine and Yonne. (Branch-line 
to Flamhoin , a station on the Paris and Troyes line.) 

The train ascends the broad and well cultivated valley of the 
Yonne. Stat. Villeneuve-la-Guiard, Champigny , Pont- sur- Yonne. 

72'/2 M. Sens (Hotels de VEcu, de Paris), the ancient capital of 
the Senones , who under Breunus plundered Rome in B.C. 390, 
is a quiet town with 12,000 inhabitants. The early Gothic *Cathe- 
dral (St. Etienne), dating chiefly from the 13th cent. , is an im- 
posing edifice, though somewhat unsymmetrical and destitute of 

Next stations Villeneuve- sur -Yonne, St. Julien du Sault, Cczy. 
90 M. Joigny (Due de Bourgogne), the Joviniacum of the Romans, 
is a picturesque and ancient town (6300 inhab.) on the Yonne. 
96 M. Laroche lies at the confluence of the Y'onne and Armanfon, 
and on the Canal de Bourgogne. Branch-line hence to Auxerre. 

About 6 M. from St. Florentin is the Cistercian Abbey of Pon- 
tigny, where Thomas k Becket passed two years of his exile. 
Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, banished by King John, and 
other English prelates have also sought a retreat within its walls. 

122 M. Tonnerre (Lion d'Or; Bail. Restaurant) , a town with 
5500 inhab., picturesquely situated on the Arman^on. The church 
of St. Pierre , on an eminence above the town , built in the 12th- 
16th cent. , commands a pleasing prospect. — Chablis, 81/2 M. to 
the S.W., is noted for its white wines. 

127 M. Tanlay boasts of a fine chateau in the Renaissance style, 
founded by the brother of Admiral Coligny. At Ancy-le-Franc there 
is a very handsome Chateau, erected in the 16th cent, from designs 
by Primaticcio. From stat. Nuits-sous-Ravieres a branch-line runs to 
ChCdillon-sur- Seine. Montbard, birthplace of Buffon (1707-1788), 
the great naturalist , contains his chateau and a monument to his 
memory. 159 M. Les Laumes. 

Beyond Blaisy-Bas the line penetrates the watershed (1326 ft.) 
between the Seine and the Rhone by a tunnel, 21/2 M. long. 
Between this point and Dijon is a succession of viaducts, cuttings, 
and tunnels. Beyond stat. Malain , with its ruined chateau, the 
line enters the picturesque valley of the Ouche , bounded on the 
right by the slopes of the Cote d"Or. Stations Velars, Plombieres. 

to Nice. DIJON. /. Route. 3 

197 m. Dijon (Hotels de la Cloche, de Bourgogne, du Jura; 
Buffet), with 48,000 inhal)., the ancient Divio, once the capital of 
Burgundy, now that of the Departement de la Cote d'Or, lies at the 
confluence of the Ouche and the Souzon. The dukes of Burgundy 
resided here down to the death of Charles the Bold in 1477. 

The Rue Guillaume leads from the station to the Hotel de Ville, 
once the ducal palace, but remodelled in the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies. The two towers and the Salle des Gardes are almost the only 
ancient parts. The Museum, containing valuable collections of 
pictures , antiquities , engravings , etc. , is open to the public on 
Sundays, 12-4, on Thursdays, 12-2, and daily on payment of a fee. 

*Notre Dame, to the N. of the Hotel de Ville, is a Gothic church 
of the 13th cent., of very picturesque exterior. The principal por- 
tal is a beautiful Gothic composition. The interior is also interest- 
ing. One of the chapels of the transept contains a black image of 
the Virgin dating from the 11th or 12th century. 

St. Benigne, the cathedral, to the S. of the Porte Guillaume, an 
interesting building , was erected in 1271-88. The plan resembles 
that of Byzantine churches. The two towers in front are covered 
with conical roofs, and a wooden spire, 300 ft. in height, rises over 
the transept. 

In the vicinity are St. PMlibert, of the 12th cent. , now a maga- 
zine, and St. Jean, of the 15th cent., disfigured with bad paintings. 

The Castle, to the N. of the Porte Guillaume, now in a half- 
ruined condition, was erected by Louis XI. in 1478-1512, and 
afterwards used as a state-prison. Beyond the Porte Saint Bernard 
stands the modern Statue of St. Bernard (d. 1153), who was born at 
Fontaine, a village near Dijon. 

Dijon is the centre of the wine-trade of Upper Burgundy ; the 
growths of Gevroy , including Chambertin, and of Vougeot, Nuits, 
and Beaune are the most esteemed. 

During the Franco-German war of 1870-71 Dijon was twice 
occupied by the Germans. 

Dijon is the junction of the line via Dole and Mouchard to Ponlarlier, 
where it diverges to the left (N.E.) to Neuchatel, and to the right (S.B.) 
to Lausanne {Geneva) and Sierre. Comp. R. 3. 

The line to Macon crosses the Ouche and the Canal de Bourgogne 
(p. 2), and skirts the sunny vineyards of the Cote d'Or, which pro- 
duce the choicest Burgundy wines. At Vougeot is the famous Clos- 
Vougeot vineyard. Near Nuits-sous-Beaune a battle was fought 
between the Germans and the French in Dec. 1870. 

2I8V2 M. Beaxme (Hotel de France) , with 11,000 inhab., on 
the Bouzoise , deals largely in Burgundy wines. Notre Dame, a 
church of the 12th and i5th cent., has a fine but mutilated portal. 

2221/2 M. Meursault. From Chagny a branch-line diverges to 
Autun, Nevers, and Creuzot. The train passes through a tunnel 
under the Canal du Centre, which connects the Saone and the Loire, 
and enters the valley of the Thalie. Stat. Fontaines. 


4 Route 1. MACON. From Paris 

238 M. Ch5.1on-sur-Sa6ne (Hotels du Clievreuil, du Commerce), 
with 20,900 iiihab., situated at the junction of the Canal du Centre 
with the Saone , contains little to interest the traveller. The 
express trains do not touch Chalon, the branch-line to which di- 
verges from the junction Chalon-St. Cosme. Branch -lines hence 
to Lons-le-Saulnier and to Dole. 

The line follows the right bank of the Saone ; to the left in the 
distance rises the Jura , and in clear weather the snowy summit 
of Mont Blanc, upwards of 100 M. distant, is visible. 254 M. Tour- 
nus (5500 inhab.) possesses a fine abbey-church (St. Philibert). 

274 M. Mfi,con (*Hdtels de V Europe^ des Champs Elysees , du 
Sauvage; Buffet) , the capital of the Department of the Saone and 
Loire , with 18,000 inhab. , is another great centre of the wine- 
trade. The remains of the cathedral of St. Vincent are partly in the 
Romanesque style. Macon was the birthplace of Lamartine. — 
The line to Culoz (Geneva, Turin) diverges here to the left; see 
R. 2. 

The line continues to follow the right bank of the Saone. Scen- 
ery pleasing. The stations between Macon and Lyons , thirteen in 
number, present little to interest the traveller. 

318 M. Lyons, see p. 5. 

Fkom Stuassbukg (Bale) to Ltons by MUUiausen and Bourg. (Rail- 
way from Strassburg 1o Belforl , 100 M., express in 5V4 lirs. ; fares Mm. 
70, 10m. 50 pf. — From Belfovt to Lyons, 207 M. , in 12 lirs. ; fares 41 fr. 
15, 30 fr. 85 c.) — From Strassburg (and from Bale) to Miilhausen , see 
Baedeker''s Rhine. The German frontier station, 89V2 M. from Strassburg, 
is AUmiinsterol , and the French frontier-station is (99 M.) Belfori, where 
the Paris line diverges. Bclfort (8000 inhab.), a fortress on the Savou- 
reuse, erected by Vauban under Louis XIV., was taken by the Germans 
after a protracted siege in Feb. 1871. The train now traverses a pictur- 
esque, undulating district ; to the left rise the spurs of the Jura. At SM- 
court, several engagements took place between Gen. Werder's army and 
the French under Bourbaki in .Ian. 1871. Stat. MonthHiard belonged to 
the German Empire down to 1793. Beyond stat. Voujaucourt the line follows 
the Doubs, which it crosses several times. Beyond stat. L'' Isle-sur-le- 
Douls the train passes through several tunnels. A number of unim- 
portant stations ; then — 

159 M. Besanpon ("Hotel du A^ord; Hotel de Paris), the ancient Ve- 
sontio, capital of the Franche Comte, with 47,000 inhab., a strongly forti- 
fied place, situated in a wide basin on the Doubs, which flows round the 
town and once rendered it an important military point, as described by 
Csesar (De Bell. Gall. i. 38). 

The Museum , established in a modern building in the Place de 
TAbondance , contains a Christ on the Cross by Diirer, and a Descent 
from the Cross by Bronzino. The Lihrarv , founded in 1694 , contains 
100,000 vols, and about 1800 MSS. The Palais Gmiivelle, a handsome 
structure in the Renaissance style, was built in 1530-40. The Cathedral 
OF St. Jean contains paintings by Sebastian del Piombo and *Fra Bar- 
tolommeo. An admirable view is obtained from the Citadel, which was 
constructed by Vauban. The Porte Noire, a triumphal arch, and the Porte 
TailUe, on the river, originally part of an aqueduct, are interesting Roman 

184 M. Mouchard , junction of the lines from Dijon and Dole, and 
from Pontarlier (Neuchatel and Lausanne). — At (21G M.) Lons le Saulnier 
a line diverges to Chalon. 

254 M. Bourg (p. 21); scenery thence to (307 M.) Lyons uninteresting. 

4 Route 1. MACON. From Paris 

238 M. Ch&lon-sur-Saone (Hotels du Chevreuil, du Commerce), 
with 20,900 iiihab., situated at the junction of the Canal du Centre 
with the Saone , contains little to interest the traveller. The 
express trains do not touch Chalon, the branch-line to which di- 
verges from the junction Chalon-St. Cosme. Branch-lines hence 
to Lons-le-Saulnier and to Dole. 

The line follows the right hank of the Saone ; to the left in the 
distance rises the Jura , and in clear weather the snowy summit 
of Mont Blanc, upwards of 100 M. distant, is visible. 254 M. Tour- 
nus (5500 inhab.) possesses a fine abbey-church (St. Philibert). 

274 M. MS,con. (* Hotels de V Europe, des Champs Elysees , du 
Sauvage; Buffet) , the capital of the Department of the Saone and 
Loire , with 18,000 inhab. , is another great centre of the wine- 
trade. The remains of the cathedral of St. Vincent are partly in the 
Romanesque style. Macon was the birthplace of Lamartine. — 
The line to Culoz (Geneva, Turin) diverges here to the left; see 
R. 2. 

The line continues to follow the right bank of the Saone. Scen- 
ery pleasing. The stations between Macon and Lyons, thirteen in 
number, present little to interest the traveller. 

318 M. Lyons, see p. 5. 

From Stkassbukg (Bale) to Ltons by Mulhausen and Bourg. (Rail- 
way from Strassburg to Belfovt , 100 M., express in 5'/4 lirs. ; fares 14m. 
70, lOiu. 50pf. — From Belfort to Lyons, 207 M. , in 12 lirs. ; fares 41fr. 
15, 30 fr. 85 c.) — From Strassburg (and from Bale) to Miilhausen, -see 
Baedeker''s Rhine. The German frontier station, 891/2 M. from Strassburg, 
is AUmiinsterol , and the French frontier-station is (99 M.) Belfort, where 
the Paris line diverges. Belfort (8000 inhab.), a fortress on the Savou- 
reuse, erected by Vauban under Louis XIV., was taken by the Germans 
after a protracted siege in Feb. 1871. The train now traverses a pictur- 
esque, undulating district; to the left rise the spurs of the Jura. At Sh-i- 
cotirt, several engagements took place between Gen. Werder's army and 
the French iinder Bourbaki in Jan. 1871. Stat. MonthHiard belonged to 
the German Empire down to 1793. Beyond stat. Voujaucourt the line follows 
the Daubs , which it crosses several times. Beyond stat. L^ Isle-svr-le- 
Douhs the train passes through several tunnels. A number of unim- 
portant stations ; then — 

159 M. Besanpon ('Hotel du Nord; Hotel de Paris), the ancient Ve- 
sontio, capital of the Franche Comte, with 47,000 inhab., a strongly forti- 
fied place, situated in a wide basin on the Doubs, which flows round the 
town and once rendered it an important military point, as described by 
Csesar (De Bell. Gall. i. 38). 

The Museum , established in a modern building in the Place de 
TAbondance , contains a Christ on the Cross by Diirer, and a Descent 
from the Cross by Bronzino. The Library, founded in 1694, contains 
100,000 vols, and about 1800 JISS. The Palais Granvelle, a handsome 
structure in the Renaissance style, was built in 1530-40. The Cathedral 
OF St. Jean contains paintings by Sebastian del Piombo and -'Fra Bar- 
tolommeo. An admirable view is obtained from the Citadel, which was 
constructed by Vaulian. The Porle Noire, a triumphal arch, and the Porte 
TailUe, on the river, originally part of an aqueduct, are interesting Roman 

184 M. Moucliard , junction of the lines from Dijon and Dole, and 
from Pontarlier (Neuchatel and Lausanne). — At (216 M.) Lous Ic Saulnier 
a line diverges to Chalon. 

254 M. Bourg (p. 21); scenery thence to (307 M.) Lyons uninteresting. 




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to Nice. LYONS. 1. Route. 5 

From Geneva to Lyons, 104 M., railway in 51/4 -6'/2 hrs. (fares 20fr. 
65, 15fr. 50, llfr. 35c.). From Geneva ^to Amberieu , see p. 22. The 
Lyons line diverges here from that to Macon and proceeds towards the 
S.W. Picturesque district, presenting a series of pleasing landscapes. 
Beyond stat. Leyment the train crosses the Ain, commanding a beautiful 
glimpse of the valley of that stream. Then several unimportant places. 
Near Lyons the line intersects the suburbs of La Croix Rousse and La 
OuilloUere, and soon reaches the extensive terminus (at Lyon-Perrache). 

Lyons. — Hotels. *Gkand Hotel de Lyon (PI. a), Eue de Lyon 
16, in the Parisian style, with restaurant, cafe, etc., R. 3, L. 1, A. Ifr. ; 
'Grand Hotel Collet (PI. b) , Rue de Lyon 62, 1). 5, B. 2fr. ; "Hotel 
DE l'Europe (PI. c) , Rue de Bellecour 1 ; Gr. Hot. de Toulouse et de 
Strasbourg, Cours du Midi; Hotel du Havre et du Luxembourg, Rue 
Gasparin 6, near the Place Bellecour, R. 2, pension 8fr. ; Gr. Hot. de 
Bellecour, Place Bellecour, formerly Louis-le-Grand; Gr. Hot. de la 
PosTE , Rue de la Barre 3; Hotel du Globe, Rue Gasparin 21; Grand 
Hotel des Beaux Arts (PI. d) ; Hotel des Negociants (PI. e); Hotel 
Michel (PI. h) ; Hotel de Milan (PI. k) ; Hotel de France, Rue de 
FArbre Sec, near the Museum. 

Cafe-Kestaurant. Maderni, Rue de Lyon 19, and Place de la Bourse. 

Cabs, per drive 1 fr. 50 c. , 1st hour 2 fr. , each following hour 1 fr. 
50 c. ; from midnight to 7 a.m. per drive 1 fr. 65, per hour 2 fr. 50 c. — 
Omnibus from the station to the town 50, with luggage 75 c. ; hotel- 
omnibus I-IV2 fr. 

Post Office, Place Bellecour (open from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m.). — En- 
glish Church Service, resident chaplain. 

Lyons, the Sincient Lugudunum, which after the time of Augustus 
gave its name to one-third part of Gaul , and the birthplace of the 
Roman emperors Claudius and Caligula, is now the second city, and 
the most important manufacturing place in France , with 326,000 
inhab., silk being its great staple commodity. Lyons is an archi- 
episcopal see. As an episcopal residence it is mentioned as early as 
the 2nd century. 

The situation of the city at the confluence of the Rhone and 
Saone is imposing. The Saone is crossed by ten, the Rhone by 
seven bridges. Lyons is one of the best built towns in France. 
Great alterations have taken place within the last 30 years, so that 
the general aspect of the city is modern. It consists of three 
distinct portions , the original town on the tongue of land between 
the Rhone and Saone, the suburbs of Les Broteaux and La Ouillo- 
tiere on the left bank of the Rhone, and the suburb of Vaise on the 
right bank of the Saone. The military defences of the city consist 
of a wide girdle of eighteen forts. 

The beauty of the situation and the extent of the city are best 
appreciated when viewed from the **Height of Fourviere (PI. 25 ; 
E, 4), crowned by its conspicuous church. The hill is ascended 
by several different paths, and also by a wire-rope railway, which 
starts near the Cathe'drale St. Jean (PI. 41 ; E, 4). On the slope 
are a number of fragments of Roman masonry , with explanations 
attached to them , which however are not to be implicitly trusted. 
The church of Notre Dame de Fourviere (PI. 25) , a modern 
structure, contains a highly revered 'miraculous' image of the Vir- 

6 Route 1. LYONS. From Paris 

gin (visited by upwards of IY2 million pilgrims annually) and nu- 
merous votive tablets. THe tower commands a magnificent View 
(fee 25 c. ; visitors may ascend to the statue) ; and a still finer 
prospect may be obtained from the neighbouring Observatory (fee 
50 c. ; restaurant). At the feet of the spectator lie the imposing 
city, with the two rivers and their bridges, and the well cultivated 
district in the neighbourhood ; to the E. in fine weather Mont Blanc, 
90 M. distant, is sometimes visible ; farther S. the Alps of Dau- 
phine , the Mts. of the Grande Chartreuse and Mont Pilat , and to 
the W. the Mts. of Auvergne. 

The Cathedral of St. Jean Baptiste (PI. 41 ; E, 4) on the right 
bank of the Saone, adjoining the Palais de Justice, dates from the 
12th-14th centuries. The Bourbon chapel (1st on the right), erected 
by Cardinal Bourbon and his brother Pierre de Bourbon, son-in-law 
of Louis XI., contains some fine sculptures. 

On the left bank of the Saone, about 1/2 M. lower down, is sit- 
uated the church of the Abbey cVAinay (PL 24 ; F, 4), one of the 
oldest in France, dating from the 10th cent., the vaulting of which 
is borne by four antique columns of granite. 

In the Ptace des Terreaux (PL D, 3), in which the Hotel de Ville 
and the Museum are situated, Richelieu caused the youthful Mar- 
quis de Cinq-Mars , who for a short period was the favourite of 
Louis XIII. , and his partisan De Thou to be executed as traitors, 
12th Sept., 1642. Numerous victims of the Revolution perished 
here by the guillotine in 1794, after which the more wholesale 
system of drowning and shooting was introduced. The Hotel de 
Ville (PL 62), a handsome edifice built by Maupin in 1647-55, 
has been recently restored. 

The Palais des Beaux Arts, or Museum (PL 69 ; D, 3), is open 
to visitors from 11 to 4, oti Sundays and Thursdays gratis, on other 
days for a gratuity (25-30 c. in each of the different sections). 

Under the arcades of tlie spacious Court, are some remarkable 
Roman antiquities, a taurobolium (sacrifice of oxen), altars, inscriptions, 
sculptures, etc. 

The Picture Gallery is on the first floor. Salle des Anciens Maitres : 
in the centre four Roman mosaics, representing Orpheus, Cupid and Pan, 
and the games of the circus. Among the pictures may be mentioned: 
Terburg, The Message; Palma Qiovane , Scourging of Christ; 'Pieiro 
Pertigino, Ascension, one of this master's finest works, painted in 1495 
for the cathedral of Perugia, and presented to the town by Pius VII. ; 
Sebastian del Piombo , Christ reposing; Ouercitw, Circumcision; Perugino, 
SS. James and Gregory ; 'Old copy of Dilrer's Madonna and Child 
bestowing bouquets of roses on the Emp. Maximilian and his consort, a 
celebrated picture containing numerous figures, painted by the master for 
the German merchants at Venice in 1506 (p. 247; original at Prague). 
There are also works by Rubens and Jordaens, A. del Sarto, the Car- 
racci, and others. — On the floor above the Galerie des Pkintres 
Ltonnais: Bonnefond, Portrait of Jacquard, inventor of the improved 
loom, born at Lyons in 1752, died 1834; Paul and Hippolyte Ftandrin, 
and others. 

The MustE ARcmioLOGiQUE, also on the first floor, contains the brazen 
"'Tables Claudicnnes', or tablcta (found in 1528) with the speech delivered 

to Nice. VIENNE. I. Route. 7 

by the Emperor Claudius before the Senate at Rome in the year 48, in 
defence of the measure of bestowing citizenship on the Gauls -, in the central 
saloon , antique and mediseval bronzes , coins , trinkets , and various cu- 
riosities. — There is also a Mi/see d'Histoire Natttrelle here, and a Librarij. 

The second floor of the Palais du Commerce et de la Bourse 
(PI. 68 ; D, 3) contains the Musee d'Art et d' Industrie, founded in 
1858 ; the specimens in illustration of the silk-culture are partic- 
ularly instructive. 

The Civic Library (PI. 6 ; D, 3) possesses 180,000 vols, and 
2400 MSS. In the neighbouring Place Tholozan rises the bronze 
Statue of Marshal Suchet, 'Due d'Albufera' (born at Lyons 1770, 
d. 1826), by Dumont, and the Place Sathonay (PI. D, 4) is adorned 
with a fountain and a statue of Jacquard (see above), executed by 

Two magnificent new streets, the Rue de Lyon (PI. D, E, 3) 
and the Rue de I' Hotel de Ville (PI. D, E. 3) lead from the Hotel 
de Ville to the *Place de Bellecour (formerly Louis le Grand ; PI. 
E, 3), one of the most spacious squares in Europe, and adorned 
with an Equestrian Statue of Louis XIV. by Lemot. — The Rue de 
Bourbon leads thence to the Place Perrache with the station of 
that name, abutting on the wide Cours du Midi (PI. F, 4), which 
is planted with rows of trees. 

Beyond the station, and occupying the point of the tongue of 
land between the rivers, is the suburb Perrache, named after its 
founder (1770), and rapidly increasing in extent. (From the station 
to the confluence of the rapid Rhone and sluggish Saone, IV4 M.) 

If time permits, the traveller should visit the *Parc de la Tete 
d'Or, on the left bank of the Rhone (PI. B, C, 1, 2; 1 M. from the 
Place des Terreaux), laid out in 1857, and containing rare plants, 
hothouses, and pleasure-grounds in the style of the Bois de Bou- 
logne at Paris. 

The Rail-way to Marseilles (Gare de Perrache) descends the 
valley of the Rhone, which flows on our right. 

337 M. Vienne (Hotel du Nord ; Hotel de la Paste), the Vienna 
Allobrogum of the ancients, with 24,800 iuhab., lies on the left 
bank of the Rhone, at the influx of the Gere. Several interesting 
mementoes of its former greatness are still extant. The so-called 
*Temple of Augustus, of the Corinthian order (88 ft. long, 49 ft. 
wide, 56 ft. high), with 16 columns, and hexastyle portico, is ap- 
proached from the ancient forum by twelve steps, in the middle of 
which stands an altar. The temple was used in the middle ages as 
a church, but has been restored as nearly as possible to its original 
condition. The ancient abbey -church of *St. Pierre, of the 6th 
cent., altered in the 18th and now restored, contains a museum of 
Roman antiquities. — The *Cathedral of St. Maurice (between the 
temple of Augustus and the bridge across the Rhone), begun at the 
close of the 11th cent., but not completed till 1515, possesses a 

» Route 1. VALENCE. From Paris 

fine facade of the transition period. — On the high road, 1/4 M. S. 
of the town , stands an archway surmounted hy an obelisk called 
the *Plan de VAiyuille, which once served as the meta (goal) of a 

A small part only of Vienne is visible from the railway , which 
passes under the town by a tunnel. Immediately beyond the town 
rises the Plan de I'Aiguille , mentioned above. The banks of the 
Rhone rise in gentle slopes, planted with vines and fruit-trees. On 
the right bank, at some distance from the river, towers Mont Pilat 
[3750 ft.), a picturesque group of mountains, at the base of which 
lie the celebrated vineyards of La CoteEotie. — 356 M. St. Rambert 
d'Albon (branch-line to Grenoble). — 373'/2 M. Tain, where the 
valley of the Rhone contracts ; on the left rises the extensive 
vineyard of Ermitage, where the well known wine of that name is 
produced. In the distance to the left the indented spurs of the 
Alps are conspicuous , above which in clear weather the gigantic 
Mont Blanc is visible. Tain is connected by means of a suspen- 
sion-bridge with Tournon, on the opposite bank, a small town with 
picturesque old castles of the Counts of Tournon and Dukes of 

On our left, in the direction of the Little St. Bernard, now 
opens the broad valley of the turbid Isere, which is also traversed 
by a railway to Grenoble. In September, B.C. 218, Hannibal 
ascended this valley with his army, and crossed the Little St. 
Bernard into Italy. 

384 M. Valence ( Hotel de France), the Valentia of the ancients, 
once the capital of the Duchy of Valentinois , with which the in- 
famous Cffisar Borgia was invested by Louis XII. , is now the 
chief town of the Department of the Drome , with 20,000 in- 
habitants. — On the right bank lies St. Peray, famous for its wine. 

411 M. Montelimar. The ancient castle of the once celebrated 
Monteil d'Adhemar family rises on an eminence from the midst 
of mulberry-trees. The line here quits the Rhone ; the plain on 
the right expands. 

443 M. Orange (*H6tel de la Paste), 3 M. from the Rhone, 
the Arausio of the Romans and once a prosperous and important 
place. In the middle ages it was the capital of a small prin- 
cipality, which , on the death of the last reigning prince without 
issue in 1531, fell to his nephew the Count of Nassau, and 
until the death of William III. (d. 1702), King of England, con- 
tinued subject to the house of Nassau-Orange. By the Peace of 
Utrecht, Orange was annexed to France, and the house of Nassau 
retained the title only of princes of Orange. The antiquarian 
should if possible devote a few hours to the interesting Roman re- 
mains at Orange. On the road to Lyons, '/4 M. N. of the town, is 
a ^Triumphal Arch, with three archways and twelve columns, pro- 
bably dating from the close of the 2nd century. On the S. side of the 

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to Nice. AVIGNON. 1. Route. 9 

town, at the foot of an eminence, lies the *Roman Theatre, 118 ft. 
in height, 338 ft. in length, with walls 13 ft. in thickness (con- 
cierge 1/2-^ fr.}. The admirably preserved wall of the stage still 
contains the three doors by which the actors entered; most of the 
tiers of seats for the spectators, however, have entirely disappeared. 
The acoustic arrangement of the structure is admirable. Scanty 
remnants of a Circus adjoin the theatre. The height above the 
theatre , once occupied by the citadel of Orange which was de- 
stroyed by Louis XIV., affords a good survey of the neighbourhood. 
On the promenade is a statue of the Comte de Gasparin (d. 1862). 

Beyond Orange the line traverses a plain, at a considerable 
distance from the Rhone and the mountains , where olives begin 
to indicate the proximity of a warmer climate. — From (455 M.) 
Sorgues a branch-line runs to Carpentras (10'/2 M. ; Hot. de la 
Poste), the Palais de Justice of which contains a Triumphal Arch 
01 the 3rd century. 

461 M. Avignon (*ndtel de VEurope, PI. a, D. 5; B. li/o, 
A. 3/4 fr. • Hotel du Luxembourg, PL b ; Louvre, PL c ; all 3/4M. from 
the station, omnibus 50-75 c; best Cafes in the Place), the Avenio 
of the Romans, who established a colony here B. 0. 48. It afterwards 
belonged to the Burgundians, then to the Franks, became the cap- 
ital of the County ofVenaisin, lost its independence to Louis VIII. 
in 1226, fell into the hands of Charles of Anjou in 1290, was the 
residence of the popes from 1309 to 1377, seven of whom , ffrom 
Clement V. to Gregory XL, reigned here (the latter transferred his 
seat to Rome in 1377), and continued subject to the pontifical sway 
until it was annexed to France by the Revolution in 1791. The 
population sunk from 70,000 in the reign of Louis XIV. to 17,000 
at the Revolution, but has again increased to 38,000. 

The town lies on the left bank of the Rhone, a little above 
the influx of the Durance , and is connected with Villeneuve 
on the opposite bank by a suspension-bridge. The old city-walls, 
constructed in 1349-68 of massive blocks of stone, with towers at 
intervals of 100-150 yds., are admirably preserved and testify to 
the former importance of the place. 

The town is commanded by the abrupt Rocher des Doms (rupes 
dominorum), 300 ft. in height, which is surmounted by the Cathe- 
dral of Notre Dame, (PL 10), a structure of the 14th cent., re- 
cently restored. The portico is of considerably earlier origin. The 
church contains the handsome *Monument of Pope John XXII. 
(Euse of Cahors, d. 1334), and that of Benedict XII. (d. 1342) in 
the left aisle. The square tower behind the Cathedral, called La 
Olaciere, was formerly employed as a prison of the Inquisition, 
and during the Days of Terror in 1791 became the place of exe- 
cution of several innocent victims of the Revolution. 

In the vicinity of the cathedral rises the *Papal Palace (PL 3 ; 
E. 2), now used as a barrack, a lofty and gloomy pile, erected by 

10 Route 1. AVIGNON. From Paris 

Clement V. and his successors, with hnge towers and walls 100 ft. 
in height. The faded frescoes in the Chapelle du St. Office were 
executed by Simone Menimi of Siena (d. 1339). Rienzi was in- 
carcerated here in 1351 in the Tour des Oubliettes , at the same 
time that Petrarch was entertained in the palace as a guest. 

Pleasant grounds have been laid out on the hill near the cathe- 
dral. The best point of view is a rocky eminence in the centre. 
The **Prospect, one of the most beautiful in France, embraces the 
course of the Rhone and its banks ; Villeneuve on the opposite bank, 
with its citadel and ancient towers ; in the distance towards the 
N.W. the Cevennes; N.E. MontVentoux; E. the Durance, resem- 
bling a silver thread, and beyond it the Alps ; below the spectator 
the tortuous and antiquated streets of Avignon. On the prome- 
nades is a statue to Jean Althen, erected in 1846, out of gratitude 
to him for having in 1766 introduced the cultivation of madder, 
which now forms the staple commodity of the district (used ex- 
tensively in dyeing the French red military trowsers). 

At the base of the Rocher des Doms lies the Place de I'Hotel de 
Ville (PI. D, 3), with a number of handsome modern edifices. In 
front of the Theatre (PL 36) are statues of Racine and Moliere; the 
medallions above represent John XXII. and Petrarch. The ad- 
joining Hotel de Ville (PL 24) possesses a quaint clock with figures 
which strike the hours. In front of it stands a Statue of Crillon 
(PL 34), erected in 1858 to this celebrated soldier (d. at Avignon 
in 1615); the pedestal bears his motto, ^Fais ton devoir . 

In the Rue Calade is the *Musee Calvet (PL 26 , C, 3 ; open 
daily, custodian 1 fr.), containing a few ancient pictures, num- 
erous works of the Vernet family, who were natives of Avignon 
(Joseph, the painter of sea-pieces, his son Carle, and his celebrated 
grandson Horace) , several small works of art , coins , etc. — The 
Library contains 80,000 vols, and 2000 MSS. 

In the garden at the back of the Museum a monument was 
erected in 1823 by Mr. Charles Kensall to the memory of Petrarch's 
Laura. Her tomb was formerly in the Eglise des Cordeliers, but 
was destroyed with the church during the Revolution. 

In 1326, Francesco Pelrarca, then 22 year.9 of age, visited Avignon, 
and beheld Laura de Noves, who was in her 18th year, at the church of 
the nunnery of St. Claire. Her beauty impressed the ardent young 
Italian so profoundly, that, although he never received the slightest token 
of regard from the object of his romantic attachment, either before or 
after her marriage with Hugues de Sade , he continued throughout his 
whole lifetime to celebrate her praises in songs and sonnets. In 1334 he 
quitted Avignon for Vaucluse, travelled in France , Germany , and Italy, 
and returned to Avignon in 1342 (with his friend Cola di Rienzi), where 
he found Laura the mother of a numerous family. She died in 1348, 
bowed down by domestic affliction. Petrarch lived till 1374, and long 
after Laura's death dedicated many touching lines to her memory. 

The long and intimate connection of Avignon with Rome, as 
well as its reminiscences of Petrarch , may be said to invest the 
town with an almost Italian character. The whole of Provence in- 

to Nice. NIMES. 1. Route. 11 

deed recalls the scenery of the south more than any other district 
in France. 

Avignon is a very windy place. The prevailing Mistral often blows 
with great violence, and has given rise to the ancient saying : 
Avenio ventosa, 
Sine vento venenosa. 
Cum vento fastidiosa. 

The *Fodntains op Vaucldse may easily be visited in the course of 
an afternoon with the aid of the Avignon - Cavaillon branch - railway. 
After several unimportant stations , the train reaches Vlsle sur Sorgue 
(in I-I1/2 hr. ; fares 2 fr. 90, 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 65 c). Thence drive or walk 
up the valley of the Sorgue, following its sinuosities towards Mont Ven- 
toux, to the (3 M.) village of Vaucluse (Hotel de Laure). A footpath 
leads hence in 1/4 hr. into the Vaucluse ravine, a rocky gorge, above 
which the ruined castle of the Bishops of Cavaillon rises on the right. At 
its extremity the sources of the Sorgue emerge from a profound grotto, 
at one time in precipitate haste, at another in gentle ripples. This spot 
is mentioned by Petrarch in his 14th Canzone, 'Chiare, fresche e dolci 

Soon after quitting Avignon the train crosses the hroad hed 
of the often impetuous and turbid Durance^ the Roman Druentia. 

474 M. Tarascon (Hotel des Empereurs) , with 12,400 inhab., 
once the seat of King Rene of Anjou , the great patron of min- 
strelsy, whose lofty old castle and above it the Gothic spire of the 
church of St. Marthe (14th cent.) arrest the traveller's attention. 
— On the opposite bank, and connected with Tarascon by a bridge, 
is situated the busy town of Beaucaire, commanded by an ancient 
castle of the Counts of Toulouse. 

From Takascon to St. U&my (10 M., branch line in 40 min. ; one- 
horse carr. for the excursion 10 fr.). On the site of the ancient Glanum, 
'/2 M. above the small town, are situated two interesting "Roman Mon- 
uments. One of these, 53 ft. in height, resembling the celebrated mon- 
ument of Igel near Treves, was erected by the three brothers Sextus, 
Lucius, and Marcus Julius to the memory of their parents , and is con- 
structed of massive blocks of stone in three different stories. This magnifi- 
cent relic belongs to the time of Csesar. Adjacent to it is a half ruined 
^'Triumphal Arch, also adorned with sculptures. 

Continuation of the line to Marseilles, see p. 13. 

Railway prom Tarascon to Nimes in 8/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 30, 
2 fr. 45 , 1 fr. 80 c). The train crosses the Rhone to Beaucaire 
(see above) and passes several unimportant stations. 

I6I/2 M- Nimes. — Omnibus to the hotels 1/2 fr., cab 1 fr. — -Hotel 
Du Luxembourg (PI. a; F, 4), in the Esplanade, well spoken of, R. 3, A. 
ifr. ; '■■Hotel Manivet (PI. c; E, 4), opposite the Maison Carree, moderate; 
Hotel du Midi (PI. d; D, 3), Place de la Couronne ; Cheval Blanc (PI. b; 
E, 4), opposite the Arena. Good Caf^s in the esplanade, opposite the Arena 
and the Maison Carre'e. 

Nimes, the ancient Nemausus , capital of the Gallic Arecomaci, 
and one of the most important places in Gallia Narbonensis, is now 
the chief town of the Department of the Gard. The town, which 
numbers 15,000 Protestants among its present population of 60,000, 
has several times been the scene of fierce religious struggles, espe- 
cially during the reign of Louis XIV. 

12 Route 1. NIMES. From Paris 

The town is surronnded by pleasant Boulevards, which termin- 
ate in the Esplanade , adorned with a handsome modern fountain- 
group (representing the city of Nemausus, with four river-deities). 
— The *Museum, in the liue St. Antoine, contains a collection of 
Roman antiquities (rich in inscriptions), a library, and about 200 pic- 
tures, including several good works chiefly by modern French artists. 

The extremely interesting Roman antiquities are not far distant 
from the station. We first reach the *Arena, or Amphitheatre (PI. 
3; E, 4), consisting of two stories, each with 60 arcades, together 
74 ft. in height. The exterior is in excellent preservation. The in- 
terior contains 32 tiers of seats (entrance on the W. side, where 
a notice indicates the dwelling of the concierge ; 50 c), and could 
accommodate 23,000 spectators; longer axis 145, shorter 112 yds., 
height 74 ft., inner arena 76 by 42 yds. ; upper gallery about V4M. 
in circumference. 

The founder is unknown, but is conjectured to have been the emperor 
Antoninus Pius, about B.C. 140, whose ancestors were natives of Nemau- 
sus. The four original entrances are still traceable. Doors in the pave- 
ment of the arena lead to the (modern) 'souterrain\ the ceiling of which 
is supported by beams. In the middle ages the Arena was employed by 
the Visigoths and afterwards by the Saracens as a fortress. Extensive 
works of restoration are now going on, especially in the interior and on 
the E. side of the exterior, as the Arena is still used for the exhibition 
of bull-fights (but of a bloodless character). 

The next object of interest is the *Maison Carrie (PL 19 ; D, 3), 
a well preserved temple (83 ft. long , 42 ft. wide) , with 30 Corin- 
thian columns (10 detached, 20 immured), dating from the reign of 
Augustus, or, more probably, of Antoninus Pius, employed as a 
church in the middle ages and subsequently as a town-hall. This 
temple was connected with other buildings , the foundations of 
which still exist, and in all probability constituted part of the an- 
cient forum, like the similar Temple of Augustus at Vienne (p. 7). 

From the Maison Carree the visitor should next proceed by the 
Boulevards and the canal to the Jardin de la Fontaine, where the 
*Nymphaeum [PI. 2S\ E, C, 2), formerly supposed to be a. Temple of 
Diana, is situated. This fine vaulted structure, with niches for the 
reception of statues, has partly fallen in ; it contains statues, busts, 
architectural fragments, etc., from the excavations which have been 
made here. The nature of the extensive ruins behind the Nym- 
phseum cannot now be ascertained. Here , too , are the Roman 
*Baths excavated by Louis XIV. They contain a large peristyle 
with low columns, a number of niches , a basin for swimming, and 
the spring by which Nimes is now supplied with water. Well kept 
pleasure-grounds in the rococo style adjoin the baths. (The con- 
cierge at the E. entrance to the garden keeps the keys of the Nym- 
phieum and the Baths ; 1 fr.) 

Beyond the spring rises a hill with promenades , surmounted by 
the *2'ourr«a(7ne (turris magna ; PL 30; C, 1), a Roman structure, 
variously conjectured to have been a beacon-tower, a temple, or a 

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to Nice. MONTPELLIER. /. Route. 13 

treastiry (keys at a small red house , to the right on the way from 
the baths, ahout 200 paces below the summit). It was more pro- 
bably a monumental tribute to some illustrious Roman. The tower 
Is of octagonal form, and is ascended by a modern staircase of 140 
steps. The *View from the summit well repays the ascent ; it em- 
braces the town and environs , as far as the vicinity of the estuary 
of the Rhone, and the distant Pyrenees to the W. The extent of 
the ancient Nemausus is distinctly recognised hence ; two of the an- 
cient gates , the Porta Augusti (PI. 23 ; F, 3) and the Porte de 
France (PI. 24 ; D, 4, 5) are still partly preserved. The former, 
discovered in 1793 , has four entrances and bears the inscription : 
Imp. Caesar. Diyi. F(ilius) Avgvstys. Cos. xi. Trie. Pot. Por- 
TAs. MvROS. QvE. Col. Dat., signifying that Augustus provided 
the colony of Nemausus with gates and walls in the year B.C. 23. 
The other gate is of simpler construction , and one arch of it only 
is preserved. 

ExcDKsioN TO THE PoNT Du Gakd , 14V2 M. , Uninteresting country, 
by carr. in 2 hrs. One-horse cavr. there and back 12 fr. (from the Hotel 
du Luxembourg). Or the traveller may avail himself of one of the omni- 
buses which run to EemouUns several times daily, as far as La Foux., 
whence a road on the right bank of the Gard leads to the far-famed 'Ponf 
(li/z M.), at a small house near which refreshments may be obtained. 

The ■"' Pont du Gard , a bridge and aqueduct over the Gard, which 
descends from the Cevennes, passing the town oi Alais with its extensive 
iron-works , is one of the grandest Roman works in existence. The 
desolate rocky valley of the Gard is bridged over by a threefold series 
of arches (the lowest 6, the next 11, and the highest 35 in number) which 
present a most majestic appearance. Agrippa, the general of Augustus, 
is supposed to have been the founder. The object ol this structure was 
to supply Nimes with water from the springs of Airan near St. Quentin 
and Ure near Uzes, a distance of 25 M. Several arches are also seen to the 
N. of the Pont du Gard, and other traces of the aqueduct still exist nearer 
the town. The bridge for carriages was added to the Roman aqueduct 
in 1743. 

Beyond Nimes the train traverses the broad and fertile plain on the 
S. of the Cevennes, and in 1V2-2 hrs. reaches — 

Montpellier {HoUl Nevet), capital of the Department of the Herault, 
an industrial town with 55,600 inhab., and the seat of a university found- 
ed in 1196. The finest point in the town is the '-Promenade du Peyrou, an 
extensive terrace planted with lime-trees, with an equestrian Statue of 
Louis XIV., and the Chateau d'Eau. Fine view hence; in clear weather 
the summit of the Canigou in the Pyrenees is visible. The Jardin des 
Plantes is the oldest in France. The Mus^e Favre contains a picture- 
gallery of some value , the gem of which is a 'Portrait of Lorenzo de' 
Medici by Raphael. The public Library possesses a few interesting MSS. 
and other curiosities. 

From Tarascon (p. 11) to Arles the railway skirts the left 
bank of the Rhone. The country, which Is flat, and planted with 
the vine and olive , presents a marked southern character. The 
manners and unintelligible patois of the inhabitants differ materially 
from those of N. France. The peculiar softness of the old Pro- 
venfal language employed by the Troubadours may still be traced. 
S is pronounced here like sh (e. g. pershonne), ch like s (serser for 

14 Route 1. ARLES. From Paris 

cherclier). These characteristics , as well as the vivacious and 
excitable temperament of the natives , betoken the gradual transi- 
tion from France to Italy. 

483 M. Aries (*H6tel du Nord; Hotel du Forum), the Arelate or 
Arelas of the ancients , once one of the most important towns in 
Gaul, is now a somewhat dull place (26,400 inhab.) on the Rhone, 
24 M. from its mouth. It is connected with Trinquetaille on the 
opposite bank by a bridge of boats. 

The principal sights of Aries , for which 3-4 hrs. suffice , are 
all within easy distance from the hotels : to the E. St. Trophime, 
the extensive Museum, and the Theatre of Augustus ; N. the Am- 
phitheatre, and S.E. the Champs-Elyse'es. 

In the Place of the Hotel de VUle, which was erected in 1673, 
rises an *Obelisk of grey granite from the mines of Estrelle near 
Fre'jus (p. 19), an ancient monument of unknown origin, found in 
the Rhone in 1676. 

In the vicinity stands the *Cathedral of St. Trophime (Trophi- 
mus is said to have been a pupil of St. Paul), founded in the 6th 
or 7th cent., possessing an interesting Romanesque *Portalofthe 
12th or 13th cent. , of semicircular form, supported by twelve columns 
resting on lions, between which are apostles and saints (St. Tro- 
phimus, St. Stephen, etc.) ; above it Christ as Judge of the world. 

The Intekiok contains little to interest the visitor, with the [ex- 
ception of several sarcophagi and pictures. — On the S. side (entered 
from the sacristy) are the 'Cloisters, with round and pointed arches 
and remarkable capitals, dating from various epochs. The N. side is in 
the half antique style of the Carlovingian period (9th cent.), the E. side 
dates from 1221, the W. side (the most beautiful) from 1389, and the S. 
side from the 16th century. 

The *Museum , established in the old church of St. Anna, 
contains numerous antiquities found in and near Aries. The 
following relics deserve special mention: *Head of Diana (or 
Venus); Augustus (found in 1834); recumbent Silenus with pipe, 
once used as a fountain-figure ; and sarcophagi from the ancient 
burial-ground (see below), etc. 

The *Theatre (commonly called that of 'Augustus'), a most pic- 
turesque ruin, is in a very dilapidated condition. The most perfect 
part is the stage- wall, which according to the ancient arrangement 
had three doors. In front of it was a colonnade, of which two col- 
umns, one of African, the other of Carrara marble, are still stand- 
ing. The opening for the letting down of the curtain is distinctly 
recognisable. The orchestra, paved with slabs of variegated marble, 
contained the seats of persons of rank. The lower tiers only of the 
seats of the ordinary spectators are preserved. 

The theatre once possessed a second story, indications of which arc 
observed when the ruin is viewed from the Saracens' Tower (in the 
direction of the public promenade). The dimensions of the building when 
perfect were very extensive (breadth from N. to S. 337'/2 ft.) , and the 
effect it produces is extremely striking. 

The * Amphitheatre is larger than that of Nimcs (p. 12), but in 

to Nice. ARLES. 1. Route. 15 

inferior preservation. It is about 500 yds. in circumference ; the 
longer axis is 150yds., the shorter 116yds. long; the arena 75yds. 
long and 43 yds. wide. It possessed five corridors and forty-three 
tiers of seats, holding 25,000 spectators. The two stories of 60 
arches, the lower being Doric, the upper Corinthian, present a most 
imposing aspect. The entrance is on the N. side. 

The Intekiok (the concierge lives opposite the N. entrance) was for- 
merly occupied by a number of dwellings tenanted by poor families, but 
these have been almost entirely removed since 1846-47. After the Roman 
period the amphitheatre was employed by the Goths, then by the Sara- 
cens, and again by Charles Martel (who expelled the latter in 739), as a 
stronghold, two of the four towers of which are still standing. A stair- 
case of 103 steps ascends the W. tower, which commands a pleasing sur- 
vey of the neighbourhood. The vaults beneath the lowest tier of seats 
served as receptacles for the wild beasts, the gladiators, etc. They com- 
municated vi'ith the arena by means of six doors. The spectators of high 
rank occupied the front seats and were protected from the attacks of the 
wild animals by a lofty parapet. Bloodless bull-fights are now occasion- 
ally exhibited here. 

In the Place du Forum , the site of the ancient market-place, 
two granite pillars and fragments of a Corinthian pediment are still 
seen (near the Hotel du Nord). 

On the S.E. side of the town are the Champs Elysees (Aliscamps), 
originally a Roman burying-ground, consecrated by St. Trophimus 
and furnished by him with a chapel. In the middle ages this 
cemetery enjoyed such celebrity that bodies were conveyed hither 
for sepulture from vast distances. It is mentioned by Dante in 
his Inferno (9, 112): '<Sj come ad Arli , ove Rodano stagna, . . . 
fanno i sepolcri tutto il loco varo\ ('As at Aries where the Rhone 
is dammed, .... the graves make the whole ground uneven'.) 
To this day many ancient sarcophagi are still to be seen in the 
environs of the curious old church , although after the first Re- 
volution great numbers were sold to relic-hunters from all parts 
of the world. 

From Arles to Montpellier (p. 13) a branch-line runs in V/2 hr. 

Below Aries begins the flat delta of the estuary of the Ehone called 
the lie de la Camargue. It is protected against the incursions of the sea 
by dykes , and is employed partly as arable and partly as pasture land, 
which supports numerous flocks and herds. A canal, constructed in 1864-71, 
admits vessels to the estuary of the Rhone, which had previously been 

Between Aries and Salon the line intersects the stony plain of 
Crau , which the ancients mention as the scene of the contest of 
Hercules with the Ligures. Near St. Chamas the line skirts the 
long Etang de Berre, an extensive inland lake on the right. From 
(519 M.) Rognac, a branch-line diverges to Aix, the ancient Aquae 
Sextiae. Beyond (525 M.) Pas-des-Lanciers the train traverses the 
longest tunnel in France, nearly 3 M. in length, on emerging from 
which it passes some grand rocky scenery. The sea now comes in 
sight, and the rocky islands of Chateau dUf, Ratonneau, etc. are 
seen rising from the Gulf of Marseilles. 

16 Route 1. MARSEILLES. From Paris 

536 M. Marseilles. — Arrival, ffotel Omnibuses at the station 
(Vz-l'/zfr.). Cabs ('voituves dc la gare"), with two seats, 1 pers. Ifr. 25; 
with four seats, 1 pers. Ifr. 75c.; each pers. additional 25c.; each 
trunk 25c. — Carriages in the town ('voitures de place"), one-horse, per 
drive Ifr., per hour 2fr. ; two-horse, I'A and 2V4fr. ; from midnight till 
6 a.m., one-horse I'/a and 2V2, two-horse 2 and 3fr. 

Hotels. 'Hotel Noailles (PI. c; D, 3), 'Grand Hotel pd LonvRE et 
DE LA Paix (PI. a; D, 3), with 250 rooms and a lift principal facade 
facing the S., '-Grand Hotel de Marseille (PI. b; D, 3), with hoist, all 
three in the Rue de Noailles , and fitted up in the style of the great 
Parisian hotels, rooms from 2fr. upwards, table d'hote at 6 p.m. 5fr., 
B. IVzfr., A. and L. I'/afr. ; "Hotel dd Petit Louvre (PI. d; D, 3), 
Rue Cannebiere 16, R. 2, A. and L. 1, omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel du Ldxembourg 
(PI. e; D, 3), Rue St. Ferre'ol 25; Hotel des Colonies, Rue Vacon; 
Hotel des Princes (PI. g ; D, 3), Place de la Bourse (formerlv Place Royale") ; 
Hotel d'Italie (PI. i ; I), 3), at the harbour; Hotel de Rome (PI. k ; D, 3), 
patronised by Roman Catholic clergy. — Bouillabaisse^ a good fish. — 
The white wines usually drunk are Chablis, Graves, and Sauterne. 

Cafes. The Cannebiere contains a great number of handsome cafes 
in the Parisian style. 

Post Office, Rue Grignan 53 (PI. 37; E, 3). — Telegraph Office, Rue 
Pavce-d'Amour 10. 

Steamboats to Ajaccio (Corsica), Algiers, Genoa, Naples, Palermo, 
Malta, etc. 

Sea Baths, handsomely fitted up, in the Anse des Catalans (PI. E, 6), 
on the E. side of the town, below the conspicuous former Residence Im- 
periale , which is now a hospital; also warm seawater-bath::, douche, 
vapour, etc., for gentlemen and ladies. Adjacent, a large *H6tel, with 
restaurant. Omnibus to or from the town 30 c. The Bains du Roucas 
Blanc (PI. H, 4), somewhat more distant, arc also well fitted up and 
contain similar baths; hotel and pension in connection. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain. 

Marseilles , with upwards of 300,000 inhal)., the capital of the 
Department of the Embouchures of the Rhone, is the principal sea- 
port of France , and the depot of a brisk maritime traffic with the 
East, Italy, and Africa. 

Massilia was a colony founded about B.C. 600 by Greeks from Phoceea 
in Asia Minor, who soon became masters of the sea, defeated the Car- 
thaginians in a naval battle near Corsica, and stood in friendly alliance 
with the Romans as early as B. C. 390. They also established new colonies in 
their neighbourhood, such as Tanroeis (near Ciotat), Olbia (near Hyeres), 
AntipoUs (Antibes), and Nicaea (Nice) , all of which, like their founders, 
adhered to the Greek language, customs, and culture. M<assilia maintained 
this reputation until the imperial period of Rome, and was therefore treat- 
ed with leniency and respect by Julius Csesar when conquered by him, 
B.C. 49. Tacitus informs us that his father-in-law Agricola, a native of 
the neighbouring Roman colony of Forum Julii (Frejus), found, even under 
Claudius, ample opportunities for completing his education at Massilia 
in the Greek manner, for which purpose Athens was usually frequented. 
The town possessed temples of Diana (on the site of the present cathedral), 
of Neptune (on the coast), of Apollo, and other gods. Its government was 
aristocratic. After the fall of the W. Empire Marseilles foil successively 
into the hands of the Visigoths, the Franks, and Arelate; it was de- 
stroyed by the Saracens, restored in the 10th cent, and became subject to 
the Vicomtes de Marseille; in 1218 it became independent, but .shortly af- 
terwards succumbed to Charles of jVnjcm. In 1481 it was united to France, 
but still adhered to its ancient iiriviU-gos, as was especially evident in 
the wars of the Ligue, against Henry 1\'. In 1G60 Louis XIV. divested the 
town of its privileges, so that it retained its importance as a sea-port only. 
In 1720 and 1721 it was devastated by a fearful pestilence. During the 
revolution it remained unshaken in its allegiance to royalty and was there- 


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to Nice. MARSEILLES. /. Route. 17 

fore severely punished. In 1792 hordes of galley-slaves vyere sent hence 
to Paris, where they committed frightful excesses. It vras for them that 
Rouget de VIsle, an officer of engineers, composed the celebrated Afarseil- 
laise, 'Allons, enfants de la patrie'', which subsequently became the battle- 
hymn of the republican armies. 

The docks and quays (comp. plan) are very extensive. The 
harbour has been extended to four times its former size since 1850, 
notwithstanding which there is still a demand for increased accom- 
modation. In 1853 the Port de la Joliette was added to the Ancien 
Port, and is now the starting-point of most of the steamboats. The 
Bassin du Lazaret and d'Arenc were added next, in 1856 the Bassin 
Napoleon (now NationaVj, and recently the Bassin de la Gare Mari- 
time. Other extensions are projected. 

The old harbour is long and narrow. Its entrance is defended 
by the forts of St. Jean and St. Nicolas. — Near the former is the 
Consigne (PI. 6 ; D, 5 ; entrance by the gate, fee 50 c), or office of 
the 'Intendance Sanitaire' (quarantine authorities). 

The principal hall contains several good pictures : Horace Vernet., The 
cholera on board the frigate Melpomene; David, St. Rochus praying to 
the Virgin for the plague-stricken, painted in Rome, 1780; Giiirin, The 
Chevalier Rose directing the sepulture of those who have died of the 
plague; Piiijet, The plague at Milan, a relief in marble; Gerard, Bishop 
Belsunce during the plague of 1720; Tanneurs, The frigate Justine return- 
ing from the East with the plague on board. 

A few paces farther N. is the Cathedral (PL C, D, 5), a new 
edifice constructed of alternate courses of black and white stone, in 
a mixed Byzantine and Romanesque style. The towers are sur- 
mounted by domes, designed by Vaudoyer. The terrace commands 
a pleasant survey of the Bassin de la Joliette. — To the E. , in 
front of the old harbour, is the former 'Re'sidence Impe'riale', now 
Chateau du Pharo, a hospital (PI. E, 5). In the vicinity are the 
sea-baths (p. 16). 

*La Cannebiere (PI. D, 3), a broad and very handsome street, 
intersects the town from W. to E. , from the extremity of the 
Ancien Port to the centre of the town where the ground rises. In 
this street, a few paces from the harbour, stands the Bourse, with a 
portico of Corinthian columns, erected 1854-60. 

A short distance further the Cours (PI. C, D, 3) is reached on 
the left, a shady promenade generally thronged with foot-pass- 
engers, at theS. end of which stands the statue of Bishop BeZsMnee, 
who during the appalling plague in 1720, which carried off 40,000 
persons, alone maintained his post and faithfully performed the 
solemn duties of his calling. — From this point the Rue d'Aix 
ascends to the Arc de Triomphe (PI. 1 ; C, 3), erected in 1823, and 
afterwards adorned with representations of Napoleonic battles in 
relief by Ramey and David d' Angers. 

We now return to the Cannebiere. Opposite the Cours opens 
the Cours des Fleurs, continued by the Rue de Rome and the Pro- 
MENAUE uu Prado, wMch is 2V2M. in length (comp. PI. F, G, H, 1). 
In the latter, at the point where it turns to the S.W., lies the 

Baedekek. Italy I. 5th Edit. 2 

18 Route 1. MARSEILLES. From Paris 

Chateau des Fleurs, the property of the Rifle-shooting Cluh, while at 
its end, close to the sea, is the Chateau Borely, situated in an ex- 
tensive park, and containing a valuable Musee des Antiques (Egyp- 
tian, Phoenician, Greek, and Roman inscriptions and antiquities). 

To the left in the Cours des Fleurs at the entrance to the nar- 
row Rue de la Pahid , is a fountain , adorned with an insignificant 
bust of Pierre Puqet , the celebrated sculptor , who was a native of 
Marseilles (1622-94). 

At the E. end of the Boulevard de Longchamp rises the new 
and handsome *Musee de Longchamp (PI. 34; B, 1), consisting of 
two extensive buildings connected by a colonnade of the Ionic 
order, adorned with a fountain in the centre. The right wing 
contains the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle ; in the other is the Musee 
des Beaux Arts , containing several good pictures (Perugino , Ma- 
donna and Saints; Murillo , Capuchin Monk; Holbein, portrait, 
retouched, and others). 

The well-kept grounds at the back of the Museum extend to 
the Jardin des Plantes {^Zoological Garden; PI. A,B,1 ; adm. 50 c). 

*ViEw. The best survey of the town and environs is afforded 
by the church of *Notre Dame be la Garue (PI. F, 3), situated 
on an eminence to the S. of the old harbour, an ancient shrine, 
rebuilt from designs by Esperandieu in 1864. The highly ornate 
interior contains an image of the Virgin and innumerable votive 
tablets presented by those who have been rescued from shipwreck 
or disease. The terrace in front of the church, and especially the 
gallery of the tower (154 steps), which contains a huge bell, 10 tons 
in weight , and is to be crowned with a large figure of the Virgin, 
command an admirable survey of the extensive city , occupying the 
entire width of the valley , the innumerable white villas (hastides) 
on the surrounding hills , the harbour and the barren group of 
islands at its entrance, with the Chateau d'lf, where Mirabeau was 
once confined (also mentioned in Dumas' Monte Christo), and part 
of the Mediterranean. Several different paths ascend to this point 
from the old harbour, terminating in steps , a somewhat fatiguing 
climb. The full force of the prevailing Mistral (see p. 11), or 
piercing N.AV. wind, the scourge of Provence, is often felt here. 

The following drive of several hours is recommended. Ascend the 
Promenade die Prado (see above; PI. F, G, 1), pass the Chateau des Fleurs 
(1*1. 11, 1), descend to the sea, and return to the town by the picturesque 
Chemin de Ceinture (or la Corniche), on which lies '*Sest. Roubion, beauti- 
fully situated. 

Railway from Marseilles to Nice (140 M., in b^j-i-l^lt hrs. ; 
fares 27 fr. 70, 20 fr. 75, 15 fr. 20 c.). The interesting route at first 
traverses rocky defiles at some distance from the sea, and, farther 
on, cx)mmands striking views. Several tunnels. — 23 M. La dotal, 
charmingly situated on the coast , and the most beautiful point on 
the whole journey. 

to Nice. TOULON. 1. Route. 19 

4:2 m. TovLlon (Grand Hotel, near the station ; Victoria; Croix 
cVOr ; Railway Restaurant), the war-harbour of France for the Medi- 
terranean, with 77,100 inhab., possesses a double harbour, protect- 
ed by eleven forts which crown the surrounding heights. In 1707 
the town was besieged in vain by Prince Eugene, and in 1793 the 
inhabitants surrendered to the English Admiral Hood. In De- 
cember of that year it was gallantly defended by a small body of 
English soldiers against an enemy of tenfold number , but was at 
last taken by storm. The attack was conducted by Buonaparte, 
lieutenant of artillery, then 24 years of age. Beautiful *View from 
the hill on which stands the fort of La Malgue. 

Beyond Toulon the train quits the coast and winds through the 
Montagues des Maures to the N.E. 48 1/2 M. La Pauline. 

Bkanch-line to (6 M.) HrfeKEs in 24 minutes. The small town of 
Hyeres (Hotels des Ambassadeurs, de V Europe, des lies d'Hyeves, all three 
open throughout the year; des lies d'Or; des Hespirides ; d'' Orient; du Pare; 
du Louvre ; des Etrangers ; de la Miditerranie, less pretending, well spoken 
of), lies 3 M. from the sea, on the slope of the lofty Mts. des Maures, 
but not sufficiently protected from the Mistral (see p. 11). It is much 
visited as a winter -residence by persons suffering from pulmonary com- 
plaints. Beautiful gardens and a fine avenue of palms. The Islands of 
Hyeres (the Sloechades of the ancients) are a group of rocky islands and 
cliffs near the coast. The largest of them are the lie du Levant or Titan, 
Portcros, PorqueroUes, and Bagueau. Some of them are fortified and in- 
habited, but they do not enjoy so mild a climate as Hyeres itself, being 
more exposed to the wind. The peninsula of Oiens, which may be visited 
from Hyeres by carriage (about 20fr.), affords a charming view of the 

85 M. Les Arcs, whence a branch-line runs to Draguignan. 

98 M. Frejus (Hotel du Midi), a small town with 3000 inhab., 
the ancient Forum Julii , founded by Julius Caesar , contains a 
number of Roman remains , an amphitheatre , archway (Porte 
Doree) , and aqueduct , none of which possess much interest. 

J 01 M. St. Raphael, delightfully situated in a ravine on the 
coast At the small harbour of this place Napoleon landed in 
Oct., 1799, on his return from Egypt. Here, too, after his abdi- 
cation, he embarked for Elba, 28th April, 1814. The line tra- 
verses a romantic , rocky district , occasionally affording charming 
glimpses of the numerous bays of the coast. Then four tunnels. 

123 M. Cannes. — Hotels, upwards of fifty in number, of which 
a few only need be mentioned. Near the sea : Splendide Hotel, with 
lift; Hotel de Geneve; Gkand Hotel de Cannes (the most handsomely 
fitted up); Hotel Gray & d'Albion ; Bead Rivage ; Gonnet; delaReine; 
DE la Plage; des Princes, D. 5, B. I'/^fr., well spoken of; de la 
MfeDiTERRANfiE ; DES Quatre-Saisons ; Hotel-Pension Suisse. On the road 
to Frejus (towards the W., frequented by English visitors) : Bead Site, 
lately ^enlarged , R. from 2 f r. , lift ; dd Pavillon ; de Bellevde ; 
d'EstiSkiSl ; DD Sqdare-Bkougham. — In the interior of the town: Hotel 
DU NoRD; DE LA PosTE, Rue d'Antibes. — In the Cannet quarter: Hotel 
DE France ; dd PufiNix ; *d'Alsace-Lorraine ; de Peovence ; Victoria ; 
DD Paradis ; DE l'Eueope ; DU LoDVRE , near the station. — In the B. 
quarter : Hotel Bead-SiiJoue ; Hotel et Pension Montfledet ; Hotel de 
LA Califoknie. 

Pensions. Towards the E. : St. Charles; de LfiKiNS; des Anges. On 


20 Route 1. CANNES. From Paris 

the Route d'Antibes: Thuillier; Anne Th6r6se; Augusta. — In the Can- 
net quarter: Richmond; Anglaise; Bel-Aib; de la Paix; d'Angletekre. 
— To the W. : Pension Italienne ; des Grangers ; de la Terrasse ; de 
St. Rook (chiefly frequented by English visitors). 

The charges at the Pensions vary from S to 14 fr. per day, at the 
hotels from 12 to 20 fr. and upwards. Private apartments are easily obtained. 
Engagements are usually made for the whole season , from October to 
May, the rent being 1200-2000 fr. and upwards. Cannes is considered a 
somewhat expensive place. 

Cafes. Ccfi des Allees, in the Cours ; de Paris ; de la Rotonde, in the 
Boulevard de la Plage. 

Carriages. One-horse carr. 1 fr. 25, two-horse ifr. 50c. per drive; 
2fr. 50 and 3fr. per hour; one-horse carr. for two persons only, some- 
what less. 

English Church Service. Also Preshyterian Service. 
Cannes, a small but rapidly increasing town with 12,000 inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the Golfe de la Napoule, is indebted to 
its sheltered situation for its repute as a wintering-place for con- 
sumptive and delicate persons. It is protected by the Esterel Mts. 
(see above) from the N. and N.W. winds. 

The town consists of a main street, parallel with which, along 
the coast , runs the Boulevard de la Plage , terminating on the W. 
in the Cours , a 'place' with promenades and fountains. The most 
sheltered situation is the space between the N. side of the town 
and the village of Le Cannet. The W. end of the town is chiefly 
occupied by English families (the English Churcli is situated here). 
The best French society is also well represented. 

The old town lies at the foot of the Mont Chevalier , on which 
the parish church rises , and from which the pier closing the S.W. 
side of the harbour extends. Fine view from the top. 

Opposite the Cap de la Croisette , the promontory which sepa- 
rates the Golfe de la Napoule from the Golfe de Jouan , rise the 
lies de Lerins. On Sainte Marguerite , the largest of these , is 
situated Fort Monterey (poor inn) , in which 'the man with the 
iron mask' was kept in close confinement from 1686 to 1698, and 
recently well known as the prison of Marshal Bazaine (from 26th 
Dec. 1873 to the night of 9th Aug. 1874 when be effected hia 
escape). The island commands a fine survey of Cannes and the 
coast. On the island of St. Honorat rise the ruins of a fortified 
monastery and church (boat there and back 10-12 fr.). 

The Environs of Cannes are delightful , and studded with 
numerous villas. On the Frejus road (to the W.) is the Chateau 
des Tours, the property of the Due de Valiombrosa, with a beautiful 
*Oarden, to which visitors are admitted. Another walk may be made 
towards the E. to the Cap de la Croisette, where the Jardin des 
Jlesperides, with its fine orange phmtations, is situated. A somewhat 
more fatiguing excursion is to the Chapel of St. Antoine on the 
road to Vallauris, which commands an admirable view. Visits may 
also be paid to Mougins, the monastery of St. Cassien, and the ruin 
of Napoule. The active pedestrian should walk to the rocky nest 
of Auribeau , and thence to Mouans, on the railway from Cannes 

to Nice. ANTIBES. 1. Route. 21 

to Grasse, or to Grasse itself. From Grasse an easy trip may be 
made to Le Bar , near which is the interesting Gorge de Courmes. 
The vegetation is luxuriant, but lemon-trees are not common here. 
Orange-trees are principally cultivated for the sake of the blossoms, 
which form an important article of commerce. 

Beyond Cannes the line passes Golfe Jouan ; a column marks 
the spot where Napoleon bivouacked on the night after his arrival 
from Elba, 1st March, 1815. 

128 M. Antibes (Hotel de France) , the ancient Antipolis , a 
colony of the Massilians , is now a small , but busy seaport (6000 
inhab.), beautifully situated on a promontory, and commanding a 
charming view of the sea , the Bay of Nice, and the Alpes Ma- 
ritimes. A pier constructed by Vauban connects it with several 
islands in the vicinity. The Cap d' Antibes (Hotel), 21/4 M. from 
the town , should be visited for the sake of the beautiful view 
which it affords. — This portion of the line traverses a remark- 
ably rich and attractive district. It soon crosses the Var (Varus ; 
station), an impetuous mountain - torrent , which in modern, as 
well as ancient times formed the boundary between France and 
Italy , until in 1860 Nice was ceded to France , and the frontier 
removed farther to the E. 

140 M. Nice, see p. 101. From Nice to Genoa, see R. 14. 

2. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis. 

496 M. Kailwat in 22-301/2 hrs. (fares 100 fr. 20, 74 fr. 35, 54 fr. 25 c.). 

From Paris to Macon (274 M.), see R. 1. The railway here 
quits the Lyons line and turns to the left , crosses the Saone , and, 
at Stat. Pont-de-Veyle, the Veyle. In front and to the left a view 
of the Jura is obtained. The next place of importance is — 

2971/2 M. Bourg (Hotels de I'Europe , du Midi , de France), 
with 14,000 inhab. , the ancient capital of Bresse, situated on the left 
bank of the Reyzousse, ^/^ M. from the station. The church of Notre 
Dame de Bourg, erected in the 15th -17th cent., in a variety 
of styles , contains several pictures , sculptures , and fine wood- 
carving. On the promenade Le Bastion is the ^Monument of 
Bichat (d. 1802), who once studied at Bourg, by David d'Angers. 
The house in which Lalande (d. at Paris in 1807) was born is 
indicated by a tablet with inscription. — Bourg is the junction 
of the line to Lyons, Mouchard, Besan^on, and Miilhausen, which 
is the direct railway between Lyons and Strassburg (comp. p. 4). 

The celebrated ''Church of Brou, in the florid Gothic style, erected 
in 1511-36 by Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, is situated 
l'/2 M. from the town. It contains the sumptuous "Monuments of the 
foundress , the Duke Philibcrt of Savoy her husband , and Margaret of 
Bourbon, her mother-in-law. Her well-known motto '■Fortune infortune 
forte une\ may be seen in difi'erent parts of the church. 

The line intersects the forest ofSeillon. Near Stat. Pont d'Ain 
the Ain is crossed. 

22 Route 2. CTJLOZ. From Paris 

317 M. Amberien, a pleasant little town on the Albarine , sit- 
uated at the base of the Jura Mts., is the jvinction for Lyons (p. 5). 

The train now continues to ascend the valley of the Albarine. 
To the left lie the ruined castles of Vieux-Mont-Ferrnnd and St. 
Germain. Beyond St. Ramhert de Joux the valley becomes wilder 
and more imposing. The line quits the Albarine at stat. Tenay, and 
enters a sequestered valley to the right , where Les Hopitaux is 
situated. Near Rossillon are a few fragments of an ancient strong- 
hold. Beyond a tunnel , i/s M. in length, the lakes of Pugieu are 
observed on the right. Beyond two small stations the train next 
reaches the valley of the Rhone near — 

348 M. Culoz (774 ft. ; Hotel Folliet; *Rail. Restaur.), at the 
base of the Colomhier (5032 ft.), the junction of the Geneva line. 

From Geneva to Cdloz (41 V2 M.) railway in l^A-S'/s hrs. (fares 8fr. 10, 
6fr., 4fr. 45c.). The line follows the right bank of the Rhone, on the 
slopes of the Jura Mts. Beyond CoUonges, the fifth station, the Rhone flows 
throujih a narrow rocky valley, confined between the Jura and Monl 
Vuiiac/ie, and commanded by the Fort de VEcliise , which rises far above 
on the right. The line quits the defile by the long Tunnel du Credo 
(2V3 M.), crosses the grand Valserine Viaduct, and reaches (20'/2M.) Bellegarde 
(Poste), at the influx of the Valserine into the Rhone (French custom- 
house examination). The latter here forms a species of rapid, known as 
the Perte du Rhone, where the water is occasionally lost to view. Sta- 
tions Pyrimont, Seyssel, and Guloz. 

The train crosses the Rhone, and at stat. Chdtillon reaches the 
Lac du Bourget (12 M. in length, I1/2M. in breadth), the E. bank 
of which it follows. Several tunnels and tine views. 

363 M. Aix-les-Bains (850 ft.; * Grand Hotel d'Aix , *Venat; 
*H6tel de I'Europe; *GuUland et de la Poste, less expensive; and 
many others), the Aquae AUobrogum or Aquae Gratianae of the 
Romans, is a celebrated watering-place with 4400 inhab. (8000 
visitors to the baths annually), possessing sulphur-springs (113° 
Fahr.), adapted for internal and external use. The large new 
Etablissement Thermal, with baths and pump-room, deserves in- 
spection. In the place in front of it rises a Roman triumphal arch 
of the 3rd or 4th cent. ; the other scanty relics of the Roman period 
(fragments of a temple and of baths) are almost all within the pre- 
cincts of private property and not easily accessible. — Pleasant ex- 
cursion by steamboat to '* Haute- Comhe, a Cistercian Abbey on the 
N.W. bank of the Lac du Bourget. The church contains a number 
of handsome monuments erected to Princes of Savoy. 

The line quits the lake and traverses the broad valley of the 
Laisse ; to the left the beautifully wooded slopes of the Mont d'Azi 
and the Dent de Nivolet (5025 ft.). 

370 M. Chambery (883 ft. ; Hotel de France ; Hotel des Princes; 
Hotel de la Paix^ is the capital of the Department of Savoy, with 
18,500 inhab., and an archiepiscopal see. A square tower and 
remnants of the fa(;ade of the old palace of the Dukes of Savoy, 
erected in 1230, still exist. On the Promenade is the Monument 

to Turin. MODANE. 2. Route. 23 

of General de Boigne (d. 1830} , adorned with life-size figures of 

The line traverses a picturesque district , passing the ruined 
castles of Bdtie and Chignin. — 377 M. Les Marches is the junc- 
tion for the branch-line to Grenoble , which enters the valley of 
the Isere (or Valley of Graisivaudan') to the right. From Grenoble 
to Marseilles by railway in 12 hrs. 

380 M. Montmelian. The ancient castle , of which scanty frag- 
ments now alone exist, was long the bulwark of Savoy against 
France. The train crosses the Isere. — 385 M. St. Pierre d'Al- 
bigny ; the town lies opposite on the right bank , commanded by 
the ruins of the Chateau of Miolans. Near (388 M.) Chamousset 
the line turns to the right , and traverses the valley of the Arc 
(Vallee de Maurienne), which here joins the Isere. Beyond (393 M.) 
Aiguebelle , which is grandly situated , the Arc is crossed (in the 
vicinity, on the left bank , the extensive iron mines of St. George 
des Hurtihres). Between stations Epierre and La Chambre the train 
passes through a tunnel. 

413 M. St. Jean de Maurienne. — 421 M. St. Michel (2330 ft.). 
The train crosses the Arc several times. Numerous tunnels (nine 
between St. Michel and Modane). — 427 M. La Praz (3137 ft.). 

431 M. Modane (3468 ft. ; Hotel International; Rail. Restau- 
rant, dear, D. 41/2 f""-) is the seat of the French and Italian custom- 
house authorities (change carriages). 

The train (best view on the right) describes a wide curve round 
the village, and passing through two short tunnels, enters, beyond 
the small village of Fourneaux, the great *Moiit Cenis Tunnel, by 
which the Col de Frejus (8338 ft.) is penetrated in a S.E. di- 

The tunnel (8 M. in length; N. entrance 3802 ft., S. entrance 4163 ft. 
above the sea-level; height in the centre 4245 ft., depth below the sur- 
face of the mountain 4093 ft.) was begun in Jan. 1861 and completed in 
Dec. 1870, under the superintendence of the engineers Sommeiller, Grandis, 
and Grattoni. Its total cost was 75,000,000 fr. The ingenious boring- 
machines, constructed for the purpose, were worked by compressed air. 
From 15C)0 to 2000 workmen were constantly employed on each side. 
The tunnel is 26 ft. wide, 19 ft. high , and almost entirely lined with 
masonry. It is lighted by lanterns placed at intervals of 500 metres, and 
the distances are given in kilometres. The carriages are lighted with 
gas. The air in the tunnel, although somewhat close, is not unpleasant, 
even when the windows are left open. The transit occupies 30 minutes. 
, The now deserted Mont Cents Koad, which continues to ascend the 
valley of the Arc, was constructed by Fabbroni in 1802-5, during the 
reign of Napoleon I. The culminating point of the Mont Cenis (6950 ft.) 
lies 17 M. to the E. of the tunnel which was therefore hardly appro- 
priately called after the mountain. The road then descends to Susa (p. 24), 
about 40 M. from Modane. 

At the S. end of the tunnel is (443 M.) stat. Bardonecchia 
(4127 ft.). Two tunnels. Stat. Beawiard. Near stat. OmZx (3497 ft.), 
the Roman Villa Martis , the line enters the valley of the Dora 
Riparia. (A road to the S.W. leads hence to Cesanne at the con- 

24 Route 2. SUSA. 

fluence of the Dora and Ripa , and over the Mont Oenevre to the 
French fortress of Brianfon on the Durance; comp. p. 66.) 

The train traverses the picturesque valley of the Dora. Be- 
yond a bridge and two tunnels , we reach stat. Salberirand (3302 
ft.). The river again is crossed. Before the next station (Chiomonte), 
nine tunnels are traversed. To the left, between the second and 
third, a glimpse is obtained of the small town of Exilles with the 
frontier fortress of that name ; farther on, a fine waterfall. — 453 M. 
Chiomonte , or Chaumont (2526 ft.). Then a number of tunnels 
and aqueducts. The valley contracts and forms a wild gorge (Le 
Gorgie) , of which beautiful views are obtained, with the Mont Ce- 
nis road winding up the hill on the farther side , and the Roche- 
melon, Roche-Michel, etc. towering above it. "When the valley ex- 
pands , Susa with the arch of Augustus comes in sight on the left 
(see below). — 456'/2 M. Meana (1949 ft.), 1 M. from Susa, lies 
324 ft. higher than the latter. Three tunnels. The train then 
descends through beautiful chestnut woods , and crosses the Dora. 
462 M. Bussoleno. 

A short branch-line runs hence to Susa (1625 ft.; Motel de France; 
Soleil), a small and ancient town, the Roman Segusio, situated on the 
right bank of the Dora. A garden on the W. side of the town contains 
a '^Triumphal Arch , 44 ft. in height , 39 ft. in width, and 23 ft. in depth, 
with projecting Corinthian columns at the corners and sacrificial scenes on 
the frieze, erected according to the inscription in A.D. 8. There are 
also a few other Roman relics. The church of S. Giusto dates from 
the 11th century. On the opposite bank of the Dora rises the fort La 
Brunette , which was destroyed by the French in 1798. 

Next stations Borgone (where the Dora is crossed) , S. Anto- 
nino , Condove , and S. Ambrogio , high above which , on a rocky 
eminence to the right, rises the abbey of S. Michele delta Chiusa, or 
La Sagra , remarkable for a peculiar property of its tombs which 
convert dead bodies into natural mummies. At stat. Avkjliana the 
valley expands into a broad plain. Stations Rosta , Alpignano, 

496 M. Turin, see p. 54. 

3. From Martigny to Arona on the Lago Maggiore 
(and Milan) over the Simplon. 

i23'/2 M. Railway from Martignv to (48 M.) Brieg in 2V"-3 hrs, (fares 
9fr. 40, Gfr. 20, 4fr. 70c.). Diligence from Brieg over the Simplon 
to Domo d'Ossola (40 M.) once daily in gs/j hrs. ((fare 16 fr. 35, coupe 
19 fr. 65 c.); from Donio d'Ossola to Arona (35V2 M.) once daily in 6 hrs. 
(fare 8fr. 85, coupe 14fr. 75c.). — Two-horse Carriage from Brieg to 
the Lago Maggiore (Baveno, Stresa, Pallanza) about 150fr. and gratuity 
(return-carriages cheaper). The night is usually spent at Domo d'Ossola. 

Martigny (1558 ft. ; *H6tel Clerc ; Hotel de la Tour; *Grande- 
Maison-Foste ; ''Hotel du Mont Blanc . moderate) , is a busy little 
town in summer, being the starting-point of the Great St. liernard 
and Chamouny routes. 

BRIEG. 3. Route. 25 

The Railway runs in a straight direction past the Baths of 
Saxon to Riddes, where the Rhone is crossed. 

151/2 M. Sion, Ger. Sitten (1709 ft.; *Poste; du Midi), with 
4895 inhab., the capital of the Canton du Valais, has an important 
appearance in the distance with the picturesque castles of Tour- 
billon, Majoria, and Valeria towering above it. 

25'/2 M. Sierre, Ger. Siders (1765 ft. ; Hotel Bellevue ; Poste), 
picturesquely situated on a hill. — Beyond Sierre a tunnel is 

27 M. Salgesch, French Salquenen. The rocks have been 
blasted in several places for the construction of the railway. The 
train passes through two short tunnels, and crosses the Rhone. 

301/2 M. Leuk-S'usten, Fr. Loueche-Souste (2044 ft. ; Hotel de 
la Souste), station for the Baths of Leuk. The important looking 
old village of Leuk , with its castle and towers, lies high on the 
opposite slope. — SS'/o M. Turtman, Fr. Tourtemagne (2080 ft.), 
at the mouth of the Turtman Valley. — 35 M. Gampel. — 381/2 M. 
Raron, Fr. Rarogne, at the mouth of the Bietschthal. — The line 
crosses the Visp, which has covered a great part of the valley with 

42 M. Vispach or Visp, Fr. F%e (2155 ft. ; *Post ; *Sonne ; 
*Railway Restauranf) , picturesquely situated at the entrance to 
the Visp Valley, at the head of which rises the snow-clad Balfrin 
(12,474 ft.). Beyond Vispach the line again approaches the Rhone. 
48 M. Brieg, Fr. Brigue (2244 ft.; *H6tel des Couronnes et 
Poste, R.21/2, D. 41/2 fr.; *Angleterre, D.4fr.), a well-built little 
town , with a chateau with four towers. The railway terminates 

The SiMPLON Route , properly so called, which begins here, 
was constructed by order of Napoleon in 1800-1806, and was the 
first carriage-road across the Alps from Switzerland to Italy, and, 
after the Brenner, the first great route across the Alps. In con- 
struction it is less imposing than the Spliigeu, but its scenery is 
much liner. The road quits the valley of the Rhone at Brieg, and, 
ascends in numerous windings. 

9 M. Berisal (5006 ft.), the Third Refuge (*H6tel de la Poste, 
R. 2 fr.). Above the Fourth Refuge (5645 ft.) a retrospect is 
obtained in clear weather of the Bernese Alps (to the N.), from 
which the huge Aletsch Glacier descends. The part of -the road 
between the Fifth Refuge (6358 ft.) and the culminating point 
is the most dangerous during the period of avalanches and storms. 
The road passes through the Kaltwasser Glacier Gallery (6460 ft.), 
over which the stream issuing from the glacier is precipitated into 
the depths below, forming a waterfall which is visible through a 
side opening. The road then passes through two other galleries. 
From the Sixth Refuge (6540 ft.) a splendid final view is enjoyed 
of the Bernese Alps ; far below in the Rhone Valley lies Brieg. 

26 Route 3. SIMPLON. From Martigny 

The Simplon Pass (6595 ft.) is 6 M. from Berisal. About 
3/4 M. beyond the summit is the Hospice (no payment demanded 
for hospitality , but travellers should contribute at least as much 
to the poor-box as they would have paid at an hotel) , a spacious 
building founded by Napoleon , but not completed till 1825. A 
broad, open valley, bounded by snow-capped heights and glaciers, 
forms the highest portion of the Pass. The imposing Raut Glacier 
is a conspicuous object on the mountains to the S. ; to the E. rises 
the Monte Leone (11,690 ft.). The Old Hospice, a lofty square 
tower now tenanted by herdsmen, lies far below the new road. 

201/2 M. Simplon, Ger. Simpeln, Ital. -S'empjone (4856 ft. ; *Poste, 
R. and A. 2fr. ; *Hdtel Fletsclihorn). The road now describes a long 
curve to the S. , which pedestrians may cut off by a rough path regain- 
ing the road at the Alqaby Gallery, where the most interesting part 
of the Simplon route begins. It leads through the *Ravine of Gondo, 
one of the wildest and grandest in the Alps , becoming narrower 
and more profound at every step, until its smooth and precipitous 
walls of mica-slate completely overhang the road , below which 
rushes the impetuous Diveria. The most remarkable of the cut- 
tings by which the road penetrates the rocks is the Gallery of 
Gondo , a tunnel 245 yds. in length , constructed by Napoleon in 
1805 and fortified by the Swiss in 1830. At the end of the tunnel 
the Fressinone (ov Alpienbach) forms a line waterfall, which is cross- 
ed by a slender bridge. On both sides the rocks tower to a dizzy 
height of 2000 ft. The dark entrance of the tunnel forms a striking 
contrast to the white foam of the falling torrent. This magnificent 
*Alpine Scene , especially when viewed at a distance of 40-50 
paces, surpasses the Via Mala. Gondo (2818 ft.) is the last Swiss 
village ; V2M. beyond it is the Italian boundary-column. S. Marco, 
1/4 M. farther, is the first Italian village. 

29 M. Iselle (2175 ft.; Po'^ta) is the seat of the Italian 
custom-house. The valley, although now less wild, continues to be 
extremely picturesque. It unites with the broad and fertile valley 
of the Tosa (or Toce) at the bridge of Crevola, 100 ft. in height, 
below which it is called the Val d'Ossola. The characteristics of 
the scenery are thoroughly Italian. 

40 M. Domo d'Ossola (1000 ft. ; Grand Hotel de la Ville ct 
Poste, high charges; Hotel d'Espagne, K. 3, L. ^f^, A. ^/4fr. One- 
horse carr. to Baveno 25, to Brieg 60 fr. ; diligence twice daily to 
Pallanza on Lago Maggiore, 6fr.), a small town with 3300 inhab., 
beautifully situated. Near (4 M.) Villa, the Antrona Valley opens 
on the right; then (3 M.) Pallanzeno, and (3 M.) Masone, opposite 
which opens the Anzasca Valley. The Tosa is crossed. 

48 M. Vogogna (*Corona , unpretending), a small town, at 
the base of precipitous rocks. The next villages are (IV2 M.) Pre- 
mosello , Cuzzago , and {^i^/2'M.') Migiandone , where the Tosa is 
crossed by a flve-arched stone bridge. 

to AroTM. BAVENO. 3. Route. 27 

56 M. Omavasso (Italia ; Croce Bianca). The marble-quarries 
in the vicinity yielded the material of which the cathedral of Mi- 
lan is built. To the S. a road leads through the valley of the 
Strona, which falls into the Tosa near Gravellona, to Orta (p. 160). 
— Near Feriolo, the next village, situated in a most luxuriant dis- 
trict, covered with olive-groves, maize-fields, vineyards, chest- 
nuts, and flg-trees, the road passes an extensive granite quarry, 
where the columns of the restored Basilica S. Paolo Fuori Ic Mura 
near Rome were hewn, and soon reaches the S.W. bank of Logo 
Maggiore (R. 22), from which in the distance rises the Isola Madre, 
the most N. of the Borromean Islands. 

62 M. Baveno (* Bellevue ; *Beau-Rivage; Simplon) is a 
steamboat station, but not a post-station, so that a seat in the dili- 
gence is not always prociirable. Travellers from the Simplon 
usiially visit the Borromean Islands from this point (comp. p. 155). 
Queen Victoria resided at the Villa Clara here from 31st March 
to 23rd April, 1879. The road , most of which rests on buttresses 
of granite and solid masonry , skirts the lake and leads by Stresa 
(p. 156), Belgirate, Lesa, and Meina, to — 

751/2 M. Arona, see p. 157. Railway to Milan, see p. 158; to 
Genoa, see p. 158; to Turin by Novara, see p. 158 and R. 10. 

4. From Lucerne to Bellinzona and Lugano over 
the St. Gotthard. 

126 M. Steamboat from Lucerne to Fluelen (and back) 6-7 times daily 
in 2V4-23/4 hrs. (fares 4fr., 2fr. 30c.). — From Fluelen to Biasca (station) 
Diligence three times daily in summer, and once in winter, in 13'/2 hrs. 
(22 fr. 15 c., coupe 25 fr. 45 c.). The afternoon diligence from Fluelen 
stops for the night at Andermatt. — Railway (St. Gotthard Line) from 
Biasca to Locarno via Bellinzona in 13/4 hr. ; fares 4fr. 10, 2fr. 90 c. 
(steamboat from Locarno to Arena). — The direct route to Milan is via 
Lugano, to which the Swiss Diligence will continue to run from Bellin- 
zona until the completion of the Monte Cenere tunnel (4V4 hrs. ; fare 
4fr. 90c., coupe 6fr. 40c.). Railway from Lugano to Como and Milan, 
see pp. 147, 134. Tickets for this route may be procured at the post- 
office of Lucerne (where coupe-places are most easily secured) , or on 
board the steamboat. Travellers are cautioned against forwarding their 
luggage across the frontier (comp. Intrnd. vii.). — Extea-Post from Fliielen 
to Biasca, with two horses 152fr. 10c. , with three horses 212fr. 50c., 
with four horses 272fr. 90c. 

The Carkiage Tariff of the Canton Uri, which the drivers are apt to 
disregard, fixes the following charges: carriage and pair to Airolo l(jOfr., 
to Faido 120fr., to Biasca 150fr., and a fee. Application for a carriage 
had better be made to the innkeeper, but the traveller should be on his 
guard against extortionate demands, especially on the Italian side. The 
drivers are prohibited from changing horses. T-hc night is usually spent 
at Andermatt or Hospenthal. 

St. Gotthard Railway. The St. Gotthard line, commenced in 1872, will 
consist of the Lucerne, Fliielen, Airolo, Bellinzona, and Locarno , the Bellin- 
zona , Lugano , and Como, and the Bellinzona, Magadino, and Pino lines. 
The great St. Gotthard Tunnel is 91/4 M. in length (i. e. about I'A M. 
longer than the Mont Cenis Tunnel) , extending from Geschenen (p. 29) on 
the N. side to Airolo (p. 31) on the S. side. This stupendous work was 
completed in 1880, and the whole line is to be opened in 1882. 

28 Route 4. LUCERNE. From Lucerne 

Lucerne. — -Sohweizekhof; *Luzeenek Hof; *H6tel National; 
•■■-Beaukivage ; 'Angleterre; *Ctgne ; '"Hotel dd Bigi, all near the 
steamboat-pier. *H6tel dd Lac, and *St. Gotthakd, both near the station. 
♦Balances, on the Beuss. — Engel, Adler, Rossli, Poste, Mohr, all 

Lucerne , the capital of the canton of that name , with 14,500 
inhab., is situated at the efflux of the Reuss from the Lake of 
Lucerne. The view from the Schweizerhof- Quai is strikingly 
beautiful. The celebrated *Lion of Lucerne, designed by Thor- 
valdsen, to the N., outside the Waggis Gate and 1/4 M. from the 
Schweizerhof, and the new Museum in the town-hall are the 
principal attractions in the town. Walks and excursions, see Bae- 
deker's Switzerland. 

The *Lake of Lucerne (1433 ft.) , or Lake of the Four Forest- 
Cantons (viz. Uri, Schwyz, Untcrwalden, Lucerne), is unsurpassed 
in Switzerland, and perhaps in Europe , in the beauty and magni- 
ficence of its scenery. It is nearly cruciform in shape; length from 
Lucerne to Fliielen 27 M., greatest width about 8 M. 

The Steamboats start from the railway station and touch at 
the Schweizerhof Q'l'iy, on the opposite bank , before their final 
departure. Strikingly picturesque retrospect of the town , as the 
quay is quitted. As the vessel proceeds, the Rigi on the left, Pila- 
tus on the right , and the Biirgenstock and Stanser Horn opposite 
the traveller are the most conspicuous mountains. To the left of 
Pilatus, the Majestic Bernese Alps (Schreckhorner, Monch, Eiger, 
Jungfrati) gradually become visible. 

A view is soon obtained of the Lake of Kussnacht to the left, 
and of the Alpnacher See to the right. The steamer soon reaches 
(on the left) Waggis, in a very fertile district, at the foot of the Rigi 
(5906 ft.). The next village is Vitznau, the terminus of the Rigi- 
railway (see Baedekers Sivitzerland). 

Two promontories, aptly termed the Nasen (noses) , the one a 
spur of the Rigi , the other of the Burgenstock , here extend far 
into the lake and appear to terminate it. The bay towards the W. 
beyond this strait takes the name of the Lake of Buochs, from the 
village of Buochs on the right, above which rise the Buochser Horn 
(5934 ft.) and Stanser Horn (6231 ft.). 

To the right Beckenried. Then, on the opposite bank, Gersau 
(*IIotel MuUer). 

To theE. rise the bald summits of the two Mythen (6244 ft. and 
5954 ft.) , at the base of which , 3 M. inland , lies the small town 
o{ Schwyz. To the right, Treib. Opposite, on the E. bank of the 
lake, at the mouth of the Muotta, is situated ZJrunnen (*Waldstiltter 
Hof; *Adler); on the hill *Kurhaus Axenstein and Hot. Axenfels. 
Near Brunnen begins the S. arm of the lake , called the Lake 
of Uri, the grandest part of the lake , with mountains rising al- 
most perpendicularly on both sides. At the sharp angle which here 
abuts on the lake, rises the Mythenstein, a pyramid of rock, 80 ft. 

to Como. FLUELEN. 4. Route. 29 

in height , bearing an inscription in honour of Schiller. A little 
farther on, at the base of the Seelisberg, lies the Riitli , a meadow, 
memorable as the spot where, as the story goes, on the night of 
7th Nov., 1307, the first Swiss league (between Uri , Schwyz, 
and Unterwalden) was solemnly concluded. A little beyond it, on 
the opposite bank, rises the Axenberg (3353 ft.) , at the base of 
which nestles the Chapel of Tell amid rock and wood. It stands on 
the Tells-Platte , a ledge of rock on the margin of the lake, where 
Tell is said to have sprung out of Gessler's boat when overtaken 
by a storm. Above it runs the *Axenstrasse, a highly picturesque 
road , leading from Brunnen to Fliielen , hewn in many places 
through the solid rock. 

27 M. (from Lucerne) Fliielen, Ital. Flora {IJrnerhof, D. 4fr.; 
Flilelerhof; Adler ; *Kreuz) is beautifully situated at the S. end of 
the Lake of Lucerne, at the mouth of the Reuss. 

281/2 M. Altorf (1466 ft. ; *AcUer or Post, R. 2 fr. ; '""Schlussel ; 
Lowe), the capital (2700 inhab.) of the canton of Uri, rebuilt after 
a destructive lire in 1799, is the place where Tell is said to have 
aimed his arrow at the apple on his son's head. 

The road crosses the impetuous Schdchenbach, and at the Kius, 
opposite Erstfeld, approaches the Reuss. To the left rise the Kleine 
Windgelle or Seivelistock (9846 ft.) and the Grosse Windgelle or 
Kalkstock (10,463 ft.). Towards Silinen , which lies to the right 
of the road, a line view of the Bristenstock (10,089 ft.) is obtained. 

371/2 M. Amsteg (1759ft.; *Stern or Post; Kreuz; Hirsch) lies 
picturesquely at the foot of the Bristenstock and at the mouth of 
the Maderaner Thai. 

The St. Gotthard Route , properly so called , begins at the 
new bridge over the Reuss a little beyond Amsteg. It was construct- 
ed in 1820-32 by the cantons of Uri and Ticino. The scenery sur- 
passes that of the other great Alpine routes. The road at first 
gradually ascends on the left bank of the Reuss, which flows in its 
deep channel far below. Beyond Intschi (2168 ft.), a village 1 1/2 M. 
from Amsteg, a fall of the Intschialpbach is passed. The road next 
crosses the rapid Meienbach. 

45 M. Wasen (2779 ft. ; *mtel des Alpes ; * Ochs ; * Krone) is 
picturesquely situated on a height. To the right of the Reuss bridge 
is a beautiful fall of the Rohrbach, near Wattingen. We now cross 
the fifth bridge, the 'Schonibriicke' (3212 ft.). To the W. of (21/2 
M.) Geschenen (3488 ft. ; *H6tel Geschenen; Rossli), 21/4 M. from 
Wasen , opens the valley of the Geschenen-Reuss, terminated by 
the grand Dammafirn. 

About 1 M. beyond Geschenen, below the Vordere, or Hdderli 
Briicke, is the N. entrance to the great St. Gotthard Tunnel (p. 
27) , to which visitors are not admitted. Here begins the dark and 
rocky defile of the *Schollenen. On both sides rise vast and almost 
perpendicular walls of granite , at the base of which dashes the 

30 Route 4. ANDERMATT. From Lucerne 

impetuous Reuss. The road -winds upwards and crosses numerous 
bridges. Pedestrians may cut off most of the curves hy the old 
bridle-path. This part of the road is much exposed to avalanches, 
and is carried past the most dangerous spot by a gallery or tunnel, 
80 yds. in length. 

The *Devil's Bridge (4593 ft.), in the midst of a scene of wild 
desolation , is now reached (872 M. from Geschenen). The Reuss 
here forms a beautiful fall, about 100 ft. in height, the spray of 
which bedews the bridge above. The old moss-grown bridge below 
is disused. In 1799 this spot was the scene of fierce struggles 
between the French and Austrians, and a month later between 
the French and Russians. 

Immediately beyond the bridge the road passes through the 
JJrner Loch, a tunnel 70 yds. long, cut through the solid rock in 
1707, but not accessible to carriages until it was enlarged when the 
new road was constructed. The Valley of Vrsern , which the road 
enters beyond the tunnel , forms a striking contrast to the bleak 
region just traversed. This peaceful dale , watered by the Reuss, 
and surrounded by lofty and partially snow-clad mountains , was 
probably a lake before the Reuss had forced a passage through the 

521/2 M. Andermatt, orUrsem, Ital. Orsera (4738 ft. ; '^'Belle- 
vue; *St. Gotthard; *Drei Kbnige ; *Oberalp; Hotel-Pension Nager ; 
Krone'), IY2 M. from the Devil's Bridge, is the principal village in 
the valley. The Oberalp route to the valley of the Vorder-Rhein 
and Coire, diverges here to the left. 

541/2 M. Hospenthal (4800 ft. ; *Meyerhof ; *Lowe), derives its 
name from a former hospice. The Furca road to Realp and the 
Rhone Glacier diverges here to the right. 

The St. Gotthard road now ascends in numerous windings 
through a desolate valley , on the left bank of that branch of the 
Reuss which descends from the Lake of Lucendro (6831 ft. ; not 
visible from the road), and crosses the river for the last time by 
the liodont Bridge, I1/4 M. from the summit of the Pass of St. 
Gotthard (6936 ft.). It then leads between several small lakes 
and traverses a dreary valley , enclosed by the barren peaks of the 
St. Gotthard group. 

621/2 M. Albergo del S. Gottardo (6867 ft.), 1/4 M. beyond the 
pass, a large, gloomy Italian inn ; opposite is the *H6tel du Mont 
Prosa (post and telegraph station), adjoining which is the Hospice 
for poor travellers. Pedestrians may descend to Airolo in 2 hrs. 
Snow often lies on the pass throughout the summer. 

About 1/2 M. below the hospice the road crosses that branch 
of the Ticino, which flows from the Layo di Sella on the E. (not 
visible from the road). Near the 1st Refuge, Cantoniera S. An- 
tonio, the road enters the Val Tremola, a dreary valley I1/2 M. 
long , into which avalanches are frequently precipitated in winter 

to Como. AIROLO. 4. Route. 31 

and spring. Beyond the third Cantoniera di Val Tremola, an ex- 
tensive *View of the green valley of the Ticino ( Valle Leventina) 
down to Quinto is obtained. To the right opens the Val Bedretto, 
from which the W. arm of the Ticino descends. 

TO M. Airolo, Ger. Eriels (3868 ft. ; *Posta ; *H6tel Airolo), 
the first village where Italian is spoken , in great part rebuilt 
after a fire in 1877. On the left opens the Val Canaria. The 
road enters the Stretto di Stnlvedro , a defile which in 1799 was 
defended by GOO French against 3000 Russians , and passes by 
means of rock - hewn galleries through four parallel ridges which 
descend to the Ticino. On the right bank , 1 M. below the ravine, 
is the beautiful waterfall of the Calcaccia. 

We next pass Piotta, Ambri, Fiesso; 6 M. farther, beyond the 
poor inn of Dazio Grande (3110 ft.), the mouth of a second *Ravine 
is reached. The Ticino has here forced a passage through the 
Monte Piottino, and precipitates itself in a succession of *Cataracts 
through the gloomy ravine into which the road descends close to 
the falls. To the right, near Fa'ido, where the culture of the vine 
begins, is a beautiful fall of the Piumogna. 

81 M. Faido (2365 ft.; * Angela; ""Prince of Wales; Hdtel 
Vella^, a village of thoroughly Italian character , is the capital of 
the Leventina. Beautiful scenery, with numerous campanili in 
the Italian style peeping most picturesquely from the surrounding 
heights. Cascades on both sides of the road ; that of the *Cribiasca 
resembles a veil in form. Huge masses of rock lie scattered about, 
interspersed with fine chestnut-trees. Luxuriant vines, chestnuts, 
walnuts, mulberries, and fig-trees now remind the traveller of his 
proximity to 'the garden of the earth, fair Italy'. The vines ex- 
tend their dense foliage over wooden trellis - work supported by 
stone pillars, 6-10 ft. in height. Where the road descends in wind- 
ings to the bottom of the valley, the Ticino forms another beau- 
tiful fall, spanned by a bridge over which the road passes. Beyond 
Giomico (1325 ft. ; Cervo ; Corona) is another picturesque water- 
fall on the right, called La Cramosina. 

91 M. Bodio (1086 ft. ; Posta ; Aquila). Beyond Polleggio 
(978 ft.) the Val Blegno opens to the left. The valley of the Ticino 
now expands and takes the name of Riviera, or river-valley. Fre- 
quent inundations render the district unhealthy. 

94 m. Biasca (*Hdtel de la Gare; *Grand Hotel Biasca, Vnione, 
in the village ; Railway Restaurant), is at present the terminus of 
the St. Gotthard line. The station lies 1 M. to the S. of the village. 
A series of oratories leads hence to the Petronella Chapel, which 
commands a fine view. 

The Railway from Biasca to Bellinzona and Locarno 
traverses the very hot and dusty valley of the Ticino close to the 
base of the richly cultivated E. slopes of the mountains. — 41/2 M. 
Osogna (965 ft.), at the foot of an abrupt and rocky height. Near 

32 Route 4. BELLINZONA. 

Cresciano, on the left, are several picturesque waterfalls. — 71/2 M. 
Ctoro{_1017ft.}, at the foot of the mountain of that name (8760 ft.), 
with the monastery of S. Maria on the hill-side. — 10 M. Cas- 
tione; on the left, farther on, opens the Val Mesocco (Bernardino 
route, pp. 37, 38), whence descends the Moesa, which is crossed 
by the railway. 

121/2 M. (106 1/2 from Lucerne) Bellinzona (777 ft. ; *Poste et 
Pension Suisse ; Hotel de la Ville ; * Angela , moderate ; Railway 
Restaurant}, the capital of the canton of Ticino, with 2600 in- 
hah., presents a strikingly picturesque appearance when viewed 
from a distance, but the charm is dispelled when the town is 

The three picturesque Castles were once the residence of the bailiffs 
of the three ancient confederate cantons. The largest, the Castello Grande, 
on an isolated hill to the W., belonged to Uri; of the other two, towards 
the E., the lower, Jl Castello di Mezzo, belonged to Schwyz, and the 
Castello Corbario or Corbi (1502 ft.), the upper, now a ruin, to Unter- 
walden. The Castello Grande is now used as an arsenal and prison; 
visitors are admitted to the court and gardens to see the beautiful view 
(fee to the guide). Another admirable point is the loftily situated pil- 
grimage-chapel of jS. Maria della Salute. 

The lower valley of the Ticino forms a wide plain, enclosed by 
lofty mountains. I4V2 M. Giubiasco ; 171/2 M. Cadenazzo. The 
high-road to Lugano ascends to the left (see below) ; the road in 
a straight direction leads to Magadino (p. 153). — The train crosses 
the Ticino beyond Cugnasco. 21 1/9 M. Gordola. It next crosses 
the Verzasca, which dashes forth from a gorge on the right, and, 
farther on, skirts the Lago Maggiore. — 251/2 M. (II91/2 M. from 
Lucerne) Locarno, see p. 153. 

The High Road from Bellinzona to Lugano leaves the valley 
of the Ticino near Cadenazzo (see above), and winds upwards for 
41/2 M. among chestnut and walnut-trees on the slopes of Monte 
Cenere(see below), commanding a succession of *Views of Bellinzona 
and the Ticino Valley, the influx of the Ticino into the Lago Mag- 
giore , the N. end of that lake, and Locarno. On the summit of 
the pass (1814 ft.) stands the Osteria Nuova (inn). The road 
then descends through the fertile valley of the Lcgnana to — 

10 M. Bironico (1420 ft.), where the Legnana unites with the 
Vedeggio, a stream coming from Mte. CamoghS; the combined river 
is called the Agno. 

The Monte Camog}i& (7303 ft.), which may be ascended from Bellinzona 
or Bironico in 6-7 hrs., commands a magniflcent '-'View of the broad plain of 
Lombardy, the lakes, and the Alps. The summit oi Monte Cewere (3777 ft ), 
reached by an easy ascent from the Osteria Nuova in 2 hrs., also cou.- 
mands an admirable view. 

Beyond Bironico the scenery of the Agno valley is picturesque 
and the soil fertile; the double-peaked Mte. Camoghc is kept con- 
stantly on the left. 3^/4 M. Taverne Superiori ; 1/4 M. *Taveme 
Jnferiori; 21/2 M. Cadempino; 1 M. Vezia (view from the church 

COIRE. 5. Route. 33 

of Madonna di S. Martino). As we descend via Massagno towards 
(l'/2 M.) Lugano, the beauty and fertility of the country increase. 
The hill and shrine of Monte S. Salvatore first become visible ; 
then the lake , in the clear green water of which the beautiful out- 
lines of the mountains are rellecte!l. The road passes several hand- 
some villas and soon reaches the town with its flat-roofed houses. 
On the high ground to the right lies the station. 
19 M. Lugano (932 ft.), see p. 148. 

5. From Coire to Colico over the Spliigen. 

751/2 M. Diligence from Coire to Colico twice daily in summer in 
161/4 hrs. (coupe 27 fr. 90c., interior 24fr. 5c.). Extka Post from Coire 
to Colico with two horses 160 fr. 10 c, with three horses 235 fr. 75 c. 
Through-tickets from Coire to Milan, Genoa, Florence, etc. 

Coire, Gcr. Chur, Ital. Coira (1936 ft.; *Steinbock, outside 
the town ; *Lukmanier, near the station ; *St€m ; Bother Lowe, near 
the post-oflice; Sonne), situated on the Plessur, I1/2M. from its 
confluence with the Rhine, is the capital of the Canton of the Ori- 
sons, or Graubiinden, with 7500 inhab., and an episcopal resi- 
dence. Within the 'Episcopal Court', which is surrounded by walls 
and rises above the town , are the Cathedral of St. Lucius , the 
oldest part of which is said to date from the 8th cent, (choir 1208, 
nave consecrated in 1282), the mediajval Episcopal Palace (a passage 
in the upper floor of which is decorated with a Dance of Death 
ascribed to Holbein?), and a few Roman remains. 

The Diligence Road from Coire ascends the broad valley of 
the Rhine. The scenery is uninteresting as far as Reichonau. On 
the opposite bank of the river , at the base of the Calanda, lies the 
village of Felsbery, which was partly destroyed by a landslip in 
1850. The road passes through the thriving village of Ems, near 
the ruins of the old castle of Hohenems, and crosses the Rhine by a 
temporary bridge erected in the place of an older one burned down 
in 1880, before reuching — 

6 M. Reicheuau (1936 ft. ; *Adler), a group of houses at the 
confluence of the Vorder and Hinter-Rhein. The chateau of M. 
de Planta afforded refuge in 1794 to Louis Philippe , then Duke 
of Chartres. 

A second covered wooden bridge crosses the Vorder - Rhein, 
immediately before its confluence with the Hinter-Rhein. Through 
the valley of the Vorder-Rhein a post-road, not crossing this bridge, 
but branching off to the right , on the left bank of the Vorder- 
Rhein , leads to Disentis and Andermatt (p. 30). The road soon 
ascends for a short distance, and passes the villages of Bonaduz and 
Rhdzilns. The Domleschg Valley, Romansch Domgiasca, which we 
follow as far as Thusis, on the right (E.) bank of the Rhine (the 
W. side of which is csXIqA Heinzenb erg , 01 Montagna), is remarkable 
for its fertility and its numerous castles. Some of the villages are 

Baedekek. Italy I. 5th Edit. 3 

34 Route 5. THUSIS. From Coire 

quite Romansch, others German ; some are Roman Catholic, others 

Between the Bridge of Rothenbrunnen and Katzis are the castles 
of Juvalta^ Ortenstein, Paspels, Canova, Rietberg, and Fiirstenau 
on the right, and that of Kealta on the left bank. Towards Katzis 
(2185 ft.) the scenery is particularly fine. To the S. rises the 
snow-clad summit of the Piz Curver (9760 ft.) ; beyond this , to 
the left, lies the Schyn Pass, with the majestic Piz St. Michel 
(10,371 ft.) in the background; to the N. the Ringelspitz (10,659 
ft.) and the Trinserhorn (9934 ft.). Near Thusis, above the vil- 
lage of Masein, rises the castle of Tagstein. 

16 M. Thusis, Romansch Tusaun (2448 ft.; *Via Mala; 
*Adler or Post; *H6tel and Pension Rhaetia), lies at the confluence 
of the Rhine and the Nolla , the turbid water of which tinges the 
Rhine for a considerable distance. Interesting view from the bridge 
over the Nolla. In the background of the valley towers the barren 
Piz Beverin (9843 ft.). 

Beyond Thusis the valley of the Rhine is apparently terminated 
by lofty mountains. The entrance of the ravine of the Rhine is 
guarded on the right bank by the ruined castle of Hohen-Rhdtien, 
or Hoch-Realt. Prior to 1822 the bridle-path from Thusis ascended 
the valley of the Nolla on the right bank through forest , and en- 
tered the gorge below Rongellen (see below). The path through the 
gorge, the celebrated *Via Mala, was then only 4 ft. wide, and 
followed the left bank. The new road was constructed in 1822. 
The limestone-rocks rise almost perpendicularly on both sides to a 
height of 1600 ft. At the Kdnzli, a little way from the entrance 
of the ravine, there is a line retrospect. About IY2 M. from 
Thusis is the Verlorne Loch, a tunnel 50 yds. long, penetrating 
the projecting rock. Before reaching it the road passes beneath 
a huge overhanging cliff. At the point, beyond the tunnel, where 
the side-wall ceases and the wooden railings recommence, a view of 
the brawling torrent is obtained. The retrospective *View, through 
the narrow and gloomy defile, of the solitary tower of Hohen-Rhae- 
tien and the sunny slopes of the Heinzenberg beyond is very striking. 

Near the (3/4 M.) post-house of Rongellen the gorge expands, 
but soon again contracts. The road crosses the river three times at 
short intervals. The scene is most imposing in the vicinity of the 
*Second Bridge (2844 ft.), built in 1738, 1 M. from Rongellen. The 
Rhine, 260 ft. below the road, winds through a ravine so narrow 
that the precipices above almost meet. At the third bridge, built 
in 1834, about 1 M. farther, the Via Mala ends. 

The road now enters the more open Valley of Schams , the 
green meadows and cheerful cottages of which present a pleas- 
'ant contrast to the sombre defile just quitted. To the S. in the 
background are the peaks of the Hirli (9373 ft.). Above the old 
bridge the Rhine forms a small waterfall. The first village in the 

to Colico. ANDEER. 5. Route. 35 

valley of Schams (6 M. from Thusis) is Zillia , Roman. Ciraun 
(3061 ft. ; Post), with the oldest church in the valley. On the 
hill to the right, on the left bank of the Rhine, stands the ruined 
castle oi Fardiin, or La Turr. Farther down is the village otDonat, 
above which towers the Piz Beverin. 

231/2 M. Andeer (3212 ft. ; *Krone, or Hotel Fravi) is the 
principal village in the valley, with 600 inhabitants. Near it stands 
the tower of Castellatsch. Fine view of the valley from the church, 
built in 1673. 

The road ascends in windings , passes the ruins of the Baren- 
burg , and enters the *Roffna Ravine , a gorge 3 M. in length, in 
which the Rhine forms a series of waterfalls. Near the entrance 
the Averser Rhein descends from the Ferrera Valley and joins the 

Towards the end of the gorge , an ancient bridge crosses the 
Rhine. Farther on, a rocky gateway (Sassa Plana), 16 yds. in 
length, is passed. The open Alpine landscape of the Rheinwald- 
thai (Val Rhein) is now disclosed; to the right is the village of 
Suvers (4673 ft.); opposite rise the Pizzo Uccello (8911 ft.) and 
the Einshorn (9650 ft.) ; to the left of the Spliigen, near the Uc- 
cello , is the Tambohorn (10,748 ft.); to the W. the Zapporthorn 
(9803 ft.), etc. 

321/2 M. Spliigen, Roman. Spluga (4757 ft. ; *H6tel Bodenhaus 
or Post^, the capital of the Rheinwaldthal, is a busy place, owing to 
its position at the junction of the Spliigen and Bernardino routes. 
The latter (p. 37) here runs to the W. The Spliigen route turns 
to the left, crosses the Rhine , and ascends in windings , passing 
through a tunnel 93yds. in length. Retrospect of the barren Kalk- 
berg rising above Spliigen. The road then enters a bleak valley 
and ascends on the W. side by numberless zigzags , passing a soli- 
tary Refuge, to the summit of the Spliigen Pass {Colmo dell' Orso; 
6946 ft.) , lying between the precipitous Tambohorn , or Schnee- 
horn (10,748 ft.) to the W., and the Surettahorn (9925 ft.) to 
the E. This narrow ridge forms the boundary between Switzer- 
land and Italy. The pass , which was known to the Romans, was 
traversed down to 1818 by a bridle-path only. The road was con- 
structed by the Austrian government in 1819-21. About 2/4 M. 
beyond the pass is the Dogana (6247 ft.) , the Italian custom- 
house, at the head of a bleak valley surrounded by lofty mountains. 

The road now descends by numberless zigzags along the E. 
slope, being protected against avalanches by three long galleries. 
Beyond the second gallery a beautiful view is obtained of Isola and 
the old road, destroyed by an inundation in 1834. The new road 
avoids the dangerous Liro gorge between Isola and Campo Dolcino. 
Beyond Pianazzo, near the entrance to a short gallery, the Madesimo 
forms a magnificent waterfall , about 700 ft. in height , which is 
best surveyed from a small platform by the road-side. 


36 Route 5. CHIAVENNA. From Coke 

50 M. Campo Dolcino (3457 ft.) consists of two large groups 
of houses. The first coiitaius the church, surrounded by ash-trees, 
and the 'Campo Santo'. At the second, V2 M. farther, is the Croce 
cCOro Inn (moderate). Tlie Lira Valley is strewn which fragments 
of rock, but the wildness of the scene is softened by the luxuriant 
foliage of the chestnuts lower down, from which rises the slender 
white campanile of the church of Madonna di Gallivaggio. Near 
S. Oiacomo there are whole forests of chestnuts, which extend far 
up the steep mountain slopes. The vineyards of Chiavenna soon 
begin, and the rich luxuriance of Italian vegetation unfolds itself 
to the view. 

58V2 M. Chiavenna, Ger. Clefen or Claven (1090 ft. ; *Hdtel 
Conradi, near the post-offlce, R. 3, D. 5, S. 31/2, B. lV2fr-; Chiave 
d'Oro), the Roman Clavenna, an ancient town with 4100 inhab., is 
charmingly situated on the Maira, at the mouth of the Val Bregaglia, 
through which the road to the MalojaPass and the Engadine leads. 
Opposite the post-offlce, on the road , are the extensive ruins of a 
castle, formerly the property of the De Salts family. Picturesque 
view from the castle-garden or ^paradiso' (fee 72^.), which extends 
along an isolated vine-clad rock. — S. Lorenzo, the principal church, 
near the post-offlce, has an elegant slender clock-tower or campa- 
nile, rising from the old Campo Santo, or burial-ground, with its ar- 
cades. The Battisterio contains an ancient font adorned with reliefs. 

The road to Colico at first traverses vineyards ; farther on , the 
effects of the inundations of the Maira, and its tributary the Liro, 
which joins it below Chiavenna, become apparent. Near — 

65 M. Riva the road reaches the Lago di Eiva, or di Mezzola, 
which , before the construction of the road, travellers were obliged 
to cross by boat. This piece of water originally formed the N. bay 
of the Lake of Como , but the deposits of the Adda have in the 
course of ages almost entirely separated the two lakes , and they 
are now connected by a narrow channel only. The road skirts the 
E. bank of the lake, in some places supported by embankments and 
masonry, in others passing through galleries, and crosses the Adda. 
The ruins of the castle of Fuentes , erected by the Spaniards in 
1603 , and destroyed by the French in 1796, are now seen on the 
right. It was formerly situated on an island , and considered the 
key of the Val Tellina. Before reaching Colico the road is joined 
by the Stelvio route from the left. 

751/2 M. Colico (722 ft.; Isola Bella, Angela, both in the Italian 
style; Ristoratore della Posta, on the lake), is situated at the N.E. 
extremity of the Lake of Como (R. 20). From Colico to Como, see 
pp. 139-144. 

to Colico. HINTERRHEIN. 5. Route. 37 

From Coire to Biasca by the Lukmanier. 

76 M. Diligence in summer daily in 15hrs.-, fare 27 fr. 85c. 

From Coire to (6 M.) Reichenau., see p. 33. The road, one of the 
most picturesque in Switzerland, ascends the valley of the Vorder-Rhein, 
which is plentifully sprinkled with castles. Numerous villages and ham- 
lets are passed. At &/i M.) Trins rises the ruined castle of H<jhentrins. 

13 M. FHms (3616ft.), a small and ancient town. — The pensions of 
Waldhanser, 1 M. farther, are in great request in summer. — At Schleuis 
(2507 ft.) is the chateau of Lowenherg. 

2OV2 M. Ilanz (2355 ft. ; Oherali^ ; Lukmanier)., magnificently situated 
at the mouth of the Lugnetz Valley. — To the right, near the village of 
Waltenshwg , are the ruins of Jorgenherg. The Rhine is crossed near 
Tavanasa., and again near Zignau or Rinkenberg. The Rinkenberg bridge 
commands one of the finest views in the valley. 

32 31. Trons (2822ft.; Krone; Zum Todi). — At Somvix the valley of 
the same name opens on the S. The road between Somvix and Disentis 
is remarkable for the boldness of its construction. Several tributaries of 
the Rhine are crossed. 

38V2 M. Disentis (3773ft.; '-Disentiser Ho/; "mtel Corulrau, zur Post; 
^ Hotel Condrau., zur Krone)., a market-town with a Benedictine Abbey, 
situated at the confluence of the Medelser, or Mittel-Rhein, and the Vor- 
der-Rhein. The Lukmanier road ascends the valley of the former, while 
the road to Andermatt (p. 30) leads through the Vorder-Rhein valley. 

The New Road over the Lukmanier Pass (opened in 1878) crosses the 
Vorder-Rhein just above its confluence with the Mittel-Rhein, and enters 
the " Val Medel , the profound and wild ravine of the latter stream. 
Eleven tunnels are passed through before Curaglia is reached, and numerous 
magnificent views are enjoyed. At the end of the ravine the road crosses 
to the right bank of the Rhine. 

4172 M. Curaglia (4370 ft.; Post), at the entrance to the Val Platta. 
— 46 M. Platta (4528ft.; Post). Several hamlets are passed. — 48V2 M. 
Perdatsch {bf^'iii.)., a group of hovels, at the mouth of the Val Cristallina. 
The road ascends by a long bend to St. Gion (5298 ft.), and then gradually 
mounts to the hospice of — 

50 M. S. Maria (6043ft.; Inn, tolerable). About I'A M. farther, the 
road crosses the summit of the Lukmanier (6289 ft.), the boundary be- 
tween the Grisons and Canton Licino, and, with one exception (the Maloja, 
5941 ft.), the lowest of the Alpine passes from Switzerland to Italy. The 
road is now level for some distance, and then leads high above the 
Brenno, on the precipitous N. side of the Val S. Maria., being hewn at 

E laces in the face of the rock. The road next descends to (4'/2 M.) the 
ospice of Camperio (4028 ft.), where it crosses the Brenno. 

68 M. Olivone (2927ft.; -Hdtel Bolla), the highest village in the Val 
Blegno, picturesquely situated. — The road descends on the left bank of 
the Brenno, passing numerous villages. The lower part of the Val Blegno 
is monotonous. 

76 M. Biasca., see p. 31. The station is 1 M. to the S. of the village. 

From Coire to Bellinzona by tbe S. Bernardino Pass. 

76 M. — Diligence from Coire to Bellinzona once daily in summer 
in 16hrs. (fare 26 fr. 15, coupe 30 fr. 15 c.). Carriages are changed at 
Spliigen, where coupe places cannot always be secured. 

From Coire to Spliigen, 32V2 M., see pp. 33-35. — The Bernardino 
Road, constructed in 1819-23, ascends from the village of Spliigen (4757ft.) 
to the W., in the uppSr Rheinwaldthal, or Val Rhein, on the left bank of 
the Hinter-Rhein to — 

38V2 M. HJnterrhein (5302 ft.; Post), the highest village in the valley. 
The source of the Hinter-Rhein (7270 ft.), which issues from the Rheinwald 
or Zapport Glacier, may be reached hence in 3V2 hrs. The road crosses the 
Rhine, about V2 M. beyond the village, and then winds up the steep S. 
slope of the valley, finally leading through a bleak upland glen to the 

38 Route 5. MESOCCO. 

S. Bernardino Pass (676S ft.), which was known to the Romans, and was 
called the Vogelberg down to the 15th century. When S. Bernardino of Siena 
preached the gospel at that period in this region , a chapel was erected 
on the S. slope and gave its name to the pass. The small Lago MoesoJa 
(2 hrs. from Hinter-Uhein) lies on the summit of the pass (Inn). From 
the S. end of the lake issues the 3/oesa, which the road follows down to 
its confluence with the Ticino above Bellinzona. The new road descends 
in numerous windings , crossing lower down to the right bank of the 

491/2 M. S. Bernardino (5335ft.; 'Hotel Broceo; Ravizza; Sesteffanis), 
4 M. from the summit of the pass, the highest village in the Val Mesocco, 
or Mesolcina. Several waterfalls are observed. T^ear S. Giacomo the road 
again crosses the river, and then descends rapidly to — 

53 M. Mesocco, or Cremeo (2559ft.; Toscani; '-Desteffanis), a charming- 
ly situated village, where walnut-trees, chestnuts, vines, and maize- 
fields begin to indicate the Italian nature of the climate. On a rocky 
eminence to the left of the road , V2 M. below Mesocco , stand the im- 
posing ruins of the Chdteau of Mesocco with its four towers, which was 
destroyed by the inhabitants of the Grisons in 1526. Beyond (2 M.) 
Soazza (2067 ft.) the bottom of the valley is reached, and the road becomes 
level. Near the second bridge below Soazza the Buffalora forms a fine 
cascade near the road. Near Caibiolo is another waterfall. 

68 M. Cama (1260 ft.). The next villages are Leggia and Grono, the 
latter at the entrance to the Val Calanca. 

71 M. Roveredo (974ft.; Posla; Grace; "Angelo), the capital of the 
lower Val Mesocco, with the ruined castle of the Trivulzio family. 

S. Vittove (882ft.) is the last village in the Grisons, Lumino the first 
in the Canton Ticino. On this side the bridge over the Moesa the road 
unites with the St. Gotthard route (p. 32). Below the confluence of the 
Moesa and the Ticino lies Arhedo^ where a battle was fought in 1422 be- 
tween the Milanese and the Swiss, in which 2000 of the latter fell. 

76V2 M. Bellinzona, a station on the line to Locarno, on the Lago 
Maggiore, see p. 32; diligence to Lugano, sec p. 32. 

6. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner. 

1641/2 M. Railway in 9V2-12 hrs.; express fares 15 fl. 91, 11 fl. 84 kr. ; 
ordinary 13 fl. 32, 9 fl. 99, 6 fl. 66 kr. (these arc the fares in silver, to 
which is added a trifling stamp duty, and, if they are paid in paper, the 
difterence in value between silver and paper). Views on the right as far 
as the summit of the Brenner. Information as to through-tickets, see 
Introd. vii. 

The Brenner, the lowest pass over the principal chain of the Alps, is 
traversed by the oldest of the Alpine routes , which was used as early as 
the Roman period, and rendered practicable for carriages in 1772. The 
railway, opened in 1867, one of the grandest modern works of the kind, 
affords the most direct communication between Germany and Italy. Within 
a distance of 78 M. the lino is carried through 22 tunnels, and over 60 
large and a number of smaller bridges. The greatest incline, 1:40, is 
between Innsbruck and the culminating jjoint. 

Innsbruck (1912 ft.; *Tiroler Hof ; *Europdischer Hof, both 
near tlie station ; *Ooldene Sonne, *6oldener Adler, in the town ; 
*Hirsch, second-class), see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. The train 
passes the Abbey of Wilten (on the right) and penetrates the hill 
of Isel by a tunnel 750 yds. in length. It then passes throngh an- 
other tunnel, and crosses to the right bank of the Sill, on which it 
ascends. On the S. rises the Waldraster-Spitze (8907 ft.). Five 
tunnels. Beyond (5 M.) Patsch (2550 ft.), the valley becomes 
narrower and wilder. Four more tunnels. The Sill is crossed twice. 

BRIXEN. 6. Route. 39 

12 M. Matrei (3241 ft.), with the chateau of Trautson, the prop- 
erty of Prince Auersperg, is charmingly situated. — 14 M. Steinach 
(3430 ft.}; the village lies on the other side of the valley, at the 
mouth of the Gschnitzthal. — The train now ascends a steep incline, 
crosses the Schmirner Thai in a wide curve above the village of 
Stafflach (two tunnels), and runs high above the profound ravine 
of the Sill to (191/2 M.) Gries (4100 ft.). It then, in another curve, 
passes the small green Brennersee, and reaches — 

23 M. Stat. Brenner (4485 ft.), on the summit of the pass, the 
watershed between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. View limited. 
The Sill, which rises on the N. side of the pass, falls into the Inn ; 
the Eisack, rising on the S. side, descends to the Adige. The train 
follows the course of the Eisack and soon stops at (2(3 M.) Brenner- 
bad (4353 ft. ; *Logirhaus), a small bath-establishment. It then 
descends rapidly by means of a long embankment and through two 
tunnels to stat. Schelleberg (4065 ft.), where it turns into the 
Pftersch-Thal. Here it enters the N. slope of the valley by a curved 
tunnel, 800 yds. long, from which it emerges in the opposite direc- 
tion , soon reaching (33 M.) Gossensass (3481 ft. ; *Brauhaus), 
which lies 584 ft. below Schelleberg. This is one of the most in- 
teresting parts of the line , and is most striking when seen in the 
reverse direction. — The train now runs high above the Eisack, 
passing at places through wild rocky scenery , and enters the broad 
basin in which lies — 

361/2 M. Sterzing (3107 ft. ; *Post; *Schwarzer Adler; *i?ose,- 
Stoetter's Hotel, at the station), a clean and picturesque little town 
with curious old buildings and arcades, deriving its prosperity from 
mines formerly worked here. 

The train now crosses the Pfitscher Bach ,■ on the left rises the 
castle of Sprechenstein , and on the right bank of the Eisack , the 
ruins of Thumhurg and Reifenstein are visible. — 401/2 M. 
Freienfeld. The train crosses the Eisack ; on the left bank rises the 
ruined castle of Welfenstein (said to be of Roman origin), and the 
village of Mauls. — Beyond (45 M.) Grasstein the train enters the 
narrow defile of Mittewald , where the French were defeated in 

The lower end of the defile, called the Brixener Klause, near 
Unterau (2460 ft.), is strongly fortified by the Franzensfeste, 
which was constructed in 1833, and commands the Brenner route. 
Franzensfeste (471/2 M. from Innsbruck) is the junction for the 
Pusterthal line (for Carinthia) ; the station (*Rail. Restaurant, 
D. 1 fl. 20 kr.) lies at some distance from the fortifications. The 
vegetation now assumes a more southern character, vineyards and 
chestnuts gradually appearing. 

541/2 M. Brixen, Ital. Bressanone (1833 ft. ; *Elephant, adjoining 
the post-office, 1/2 M. from the station), was for nine centuries the 
capital of a spiritual principality, which was dissolved in 1803, 

40 Route G. BOTZEN. From Innsbruck 

and is still an episcopal residence. Most of the churches date from 
the 18th cent., and are unimportant. At the S.W. end of the town 
is the Episcopal Palace with an extensive garden. 

The train next crosses the Eisack by a lofty iron bridge ; on 
the right, above, lies Tschotsch ; on the left, the pleasant village of 

61 1/2 M. Klausen (1676 ft. ; *Lamm ; Post), consisting of a single 
narrow street, is situated in a defile, as its name imparts. The 
Benedictine monastery of Seben, on the right, commands a very 
striking view. It was once a Rhffitian fortress , then a Roman fort 
under the name of Sabiona, afterwards an episcopal residence down 
to the 10th cent., and finally a baronial castle. 

Below Klausen the valley contracts. The line skirts precipitous 
porphyry cliffs. On the heights above extend fertile plains, 
sprinkled with numerous villages. 641/2 M. Waidbruck (1520 ft. ; 
Sonne), at the mouth of the Grodener Thai. On the left, high 
above, rises the Trostburg, the property of Count Wolkenstein. 

The train crosses the Grodenerbach, and then the Eisack in a 
narrow valley enclosed by abrupt porphyry rocks , called the Kun- 
tersweg after the first constructor of the road. — 691/2 M. Atzwang 
(1244 ft. ; *Post} , at the mouth of the Finsterbach. "Several tun- 
nels. 74 M. Blumau, at the mouth of the Tierser Thai. On the 
right bank are the vine-clad slopes of the Bozener Leltach; another 
tunnel is passed through, and the train crosses to the right bank 
of the Eisack near the village of Kardaun, at the opening of the 
Eggenthal. The train now enters the wide basin of Botzen, a district 
of luxuriant fertility, resembling a vast vineyard. 

78 M. Botzen, or Bozen , Ital. Bolzano (860 ft.; *Kaiser- 
krone, in the Musterplatz, R. from 80 kr., *H6tel Victoria, near the 
station; Mondschein; Erzherzog Heinrich; Kruutner ; Schivarzer 
Greif), with 9400 inhab., the most important commercial town in 
the Tyrol , is beautifully situated at the confluence of the Eisack 
and the Talfer , which descends from the Samthal on the N. The 
background towards the E. is formed by the strikingly picturesque 
dolomite mountains of the Val di Fassa; to the W. rises the long 
porphyry ridge of the Mendola. The Gothic Parish Church of the 
14th and 15th cent, has a W. Portal, with two lions of red marble, 
in the Lombard style. Beautiful open tower , completed in 1519. 
On the E. side is the new Cemetery. — The Calvarienberg (25 
min. walk ; beyond the Eisack bridge cross the railway to the right) 
commands a fine view of the town and environs. — Gries (1 M. from 
the station) , in a sheltered situation on the right bank of the Tal- 
fer , has of late years become a winter-resort for invalids (several 
large hotels). 

Beyond Botzen the train crosses the Eisack, which falls into the 
Etsch (or Adige) 4 M. below the town. The latter becomes navigable 
at (85 M.) Branzoll (Ital. Bronzollo). In the distance, to the right, 

to Verona. TRENT. 6. Route. 41 

rises the dilapidated castle of Sigmundskron, and the wooded range 
of the Mittelberg, which separates the vine-covered plain of Eppan 
from the valley of the Adige. Beyond (88. M) Auer (Ital. Ora), near 
Gmund, the train crosses the river ; to the right lies the Kalterer 
See; ahove it, on the hill, Kaltern, with its famous vineyards. — 
92 M. Neumarkt , Ital. Egna. Roads to the Fleimserthal diverge at 
Aiier and Neumarkt. On the slopes to the right lie the villages of 
Tramin, Kurtatsch, and Margreid. — 97 M. Salurn on the left 
bank of the river, commanded by a ruined castle on an apparently 
inaccessible rock. — The Rocchetta Pass to the right leads to the 
Val di Aon. Mezzo Tedesco and Mezzo Lombardo (or Deutsch and 
Wdlsch-Metz), situated on different sides of the pass, separated by 
the Noce, are both Italian. 

102 M. S. Michele , or Wdlsch- Michael , with a handsome old 
Augustinian monastery (suppressed), is the station for the Val 
di Non. The train again crosses the Adige. 107 M. Lavis on the 
Avisio, which here descends from the Val Cembra. This impetuous 
torrent with its different ramifications is crossed above its junction 
with the Adige by a bridge 1000 yds. in length. 

113 M. Trent. — -Hotel Trento (PI. a), R. Ifl. 20, A. 25, L. 50kr. ; 
*H6tel de la Ville (PI. c.) , both near the station. In tlie town: *Ed- 
iioPA (PI. b) ; ViTToRiA (PI. d). Of the second class : Agnello d'Oko, near 
S. Pietro; Aqdila Bianua , near the castle. — Restaurants. "AlV Isola 
Nuova, at the station ; Frassoni., at the theatre. — Cafes : Europa ; Specchi ; 
Nones. — Carriages may be hired of F. Gennari, the postmaster: with 
one horse to Arco, 8fl., with two horses 14, with three, 20 fl.; to Riva 
9, 16, or 22 fl 

Trent (685 ft.), or Trento, Lat. Tridentum, with 17,000 inhab., 
formerly the wealthiest and most important town in the Tyrol, 
founded according to tradition by the Etruscans, and mentioned by 
Strabo , Pliny, and Ptolemy, possesses numerous towers, palaces of 
marble, dilapidated castles, and broad streets , and bears the im- 
press of an important Italian town. The Piazza del Duomo in par- 
ticular presents a very imposing appearance. 

The *Cathedral, founded in 1048, begun in its present form in 
1212, and completed at the beginning of the 15th cent., is a 
Romanesque church surmounted by two domes. The portal, as at 
Botzen, is adorned with a pair of lions (p. 40). In the S. transept 
are several old monuments , half-faded frescoes , and on the wall 
the porphyry tombstone of the Venetian general Sanseverino, 
whom the citizens of Trent defeated and killed at Galliano (p. 44) 
in 1487. In the Piazza of the cathedral, which is embellished with 
a Fountain, are the Courts of Justice, and the Torre di Piazza. 

S. Maria Maggiore, where the celebrated Council of Trent sat 
in 1545-63 , contains a picture , on the N. wall of the choir, with 
portraits of the members of the council, and an excellent organ 
dating from 1534. Adjoining the S. side of the choir is a column 
dedicated to the Virgin , erected in 1855 on the 300th anniversary 
of the meeting of the Council. 

42 Route 6. 


From Innsbruck 

The Museum in the Municipio , Via Larga, near the cathedral, 
contains a collection of bronzes and other antiquities from S. Tyrol, 
Egyptian antiquities, majolicas, Japanese curiosities, etc. 

To the E. of the town, and N. of the large Piazza d'Armi, is 
situated the extensive chateau of Buon Consiglio, formerly the seat 
of the Prince-Bishops of Trent, and now a barrack, which contains 

remains of ancient frescoes. The colossal, circular Torre di Augusto 
is supposed to date from the time of the Romans. 

Among the numerous old palaces, the painted facades of which 
ill conceal the poverty within, may be mentioned Palazzo ZambeUi, 
opposite the Hotel Europa, dating from the 16th cent, (fine view 
from the garden), and Palazzo Tabarelli, in the Contrada del Teatro, 
said to have been built from designs by Bramante. 

The rocky eminence of Verruca, or Dos Trento, on the right 
bank of the Adige, was fortified in 1857, and affords a fine point 
of view (permission from the commandant necessary). The terrace 
of the Capuchin Church on the E. side of the town also commands 
a good view. 

to Verona. ROVEREDO. 6. Route. 43 

From Trent to Riva on the Lago di Garda, a walk of 9 hrs., very 
fatiguing in hot weather. Omnibus once daily, usually at 9 a.m., fare 
2fl. ; carriage, see p. 41. 

This route is far preferable to the direct railway-journey to Verona 
(see p. 44) on account of the charming scenery of the Lago di Garda. 
The traveller from Botzen, whose time is limited, may shorten the route 
by taking the railway as far as stat. Mori (p. 44), and driving thence to 
(10 M.) Riva (see p. 181). 

The road crosses the Adige, traverses the suburb Pie di Castello, and 
winds round the S. slope of the Dos Trento (p. 42). A wild and rocky 
defile (Bucco di Vela) is now entered, the upper end of which (3 M.) is 
closed by a newly erected fort. Traversing the bleak mountain ridge, 
the road reaches (I'/a M.) the small village of Cadine (1715 ft.); to the 
right in the valley lies the village of Terlago with its small lake (1320 ft.), 
at the base of the precipitous Monte Oazza (6515 ft.). The road now de- 
scends to (I1/2 M.) Vigolo-Baselga and (3 M.) Vezzano (Croce, with garden, 
good wine, R. 50, A. 30, B. 42 kr. ; Stella), the principal place between 
Trent and Arco. At (IV2 M.) Pademione, at the mouth of the Vol 
Cavedine, where we observe the first olive trees, the Lake of Toblino 
becomes visible. The road crosses the narrowest part of it by a bridge, 
and skirts the N. bank; to the left, on a promontory, rises the pictur- 
esque castle of Toblino, the property of Count Wolkenstein (the castel- 
lan keeps good wine). Below (3 M.) Le Sarche (Inn unpretending but 
dear) , where the Sarca emerges from a gorge , and the road to Giu- 
dicaria diverges, the Sarca is crossed by a bridge. Next (IV2 M.) Pietra 
Murala. Near (IV2 M.) Drb is the ruined Castello di Drena on an emi- 
nence to the left. The road, which has hitherto led through a bleak and 
rocky wilderness, now traverses a more fertile district. (3 M.) Arco 
(300 ft. ; -Curhaus, with 80 rooms, 'pension' 21/2-5 fl. ; "Corona; ''Hut. Gruseh; 
Olivo; Pension Rirchlechner), with a handsome parish-church with metal- 
clad domes, has of late become a favourite winter resort for invalids, 
owing to its sheltered situation. New chateau belonging to Archduke 
Albrecht of Austria. To the N., on a precipitous rock (400 ft.), rises the 
Chateau of Arco, which during the Spanish War of Succession was de- 
stroyed by the French (key kept by the gardener. Via degli Ulivi al 
Castello ; 40-50 kr.), — Interesting excursion from Arco towards the W. 
to Tenno, see p. 182. — The road now leads through the broad, beautiful 
valley (to the left the Monte Brione, to the right Tenno) to &U M.) Riva 
(comp. p. 181). 

From Trent to Bassano by the Val Shgana, 57 M. Diligence three 
times daily in 4 hrs. from Trent to (21 M.) Borgo , the last starting at 
2 p.m. (Ifl. 50kr. ; one-horse carr. 5fl.); twice daily from Borgo by Pri- 
molano to Bassano in 6 hrs. (21/2 fl. or 6fr.). This direct route to Venice 
(although not the most expeditious) traverses the beautiful Venetian Moun- 
tains. The road, which ascends immediately beyond Trent, enters the 
narrow valley of the Fersina, and is partially hewn in the rocks or sup- 
ported by buttresses of masonry. The narrowest part is defended bv an 
Austrian fortification. 

71/2 M. Pergine (1578 ft. ; Fratelli Voltolini), a considerable market 
town, commanded by the handsome castle of that name. The road now 
crosses a range of hills. Retrospect to the left of the castle of Pergine, 
to the right of a small portion of the Lale of Caldonazzo. The small 
Lago di Levico is then skirted to — 

Levico (Hotel Bellevue, Concordia, Stabilimento, Pension Svizzera, all 
with table-d'hote), a small watering-place with mineral baths, frequented 
by Italians from May to September. The Val Sugana , watered by the 
Brenia, begins at Levico, its capital being — 

21 M. Borgo (1230 ft.; *Croce), on the N. side of which rises the ruined 
castle of Telvana, with the remains of a second castle high above it. 
Below the town is the beautiful chateau of Ivano , belonging to Count 

Near Grigno the valley of Tesino opens to the N., watered by the 
Origno. Beyond Grigno the valley is confined between lofty cliffs which 

44 Route 6. ALA. 

barely leave room for the road. The Austrian custom-house is at Le 
Tezze, the Italian s/i M. beyond it. In a rocky cavity beyond (2'/4 M.) — 

38 M. Primolano, is situated the ruined castle of Covelo , a mediaeval 
stronghold. About 1 M. farther the Cismone descends from the Val Pri- 
miero. 7 M. Yalslagna is inhabited chiefly by stravsr-hat makers. 

Near (5 M.) Solagna the ravine of the Brenta expands. About I'/a M. 
farther the road turns a corner, and a view is obtained of a broad plain 
with large olive-plantations in V7hich lies the picturesque tov^n of — 

57V2 M. Bassano, see p. 211. 

Beyond Trent the railway continues to traverse the broad and 
fertile valley of the Adige. To the S.W. of Trent, on the right 
bank, is the village of Sardagna, with a considerable waterfall. 
117 M. Matarello. On a height near (123 M.) Calliano rises the 
extensive castle of Beseno , the property of Count Trapp. The 
rocky debris here are the result of a landslip. 

127 M. Roveredo (680 ft. ; Corona), a town with 11,000 in- 
hab., is noted for its silk-culture. The most remarkable building 
is the old Castello in the Piazza del Podesta. — Road to Schio, see 
p. 203. 

The lower part of the valley of the Adige, down to the Italian 
frontier, which yields abundance of fruit and good red wine, is 
called the Val Lagarina. On the right bank lies Isera, with vine- 
yards, numerous villas, and a waterfall. On the left bank, to the 
E. of the railway, near Lizzana, is a castle, which about the year 
1302 was visited by Dante when banished from Florence. The 
train follows the left bank of the Adige. 

130 M. Mori; the village lies in a ravine on the opposite bank, 
on the road leading to Riva, and is famed for its asparagus. — 
Omnibus to Riva (IOV2 M.), see p. 181. 

Near S. Marco the line intersects the traces of a vast landslip, 
which is said to have buried a town here in 833, and is described 
by Dante (Inferno xii. 4-9). At (133 M.) Serravalle , a fort which 
once guarded the deflle, the valley contracts. 

138 M. Ala (415 ft. ; Vapore), a place of some importance, pos- 
sesses velvet-manufactories which once enjoyed a high reputation, 
and is the seat of the Italian and Austrian custom-house authorities. 
Those who have forwarded luggage by this route to or from Italy 
should take the precaution to enquire for it at the custom-house 
here. Halt of Y2 ^^- — Avio is the last station in the Austrian 
dominions. The village, with a well preserved chateau of Count 
Castelbarco, lies on the right bank of the Adige. 

Peri is the first Italian station. The Monte Baldo (7280 ft.) on 
the W. separates the valley of the Adige from the Lago di Garda. 
Stat. Ceraino. The train now enters the celebrated Chiusa di 
Verona, a rocky deflle in which in 1155 Otho of Wittelsbach pro- 
tected against the Veronese the retreating German army under Fre- 
derick Barbarossa. On an eminence on the right bank lies Rivoli, 
which was stormed several times by the French in 179G and 1797 
under Massena, and afterwards gave him his ducal title. 

SEMMERING. 7. Route. 45 

Next stations Domegliarh, Pescantina , and Parona. The train 
crosses the Adige , reaches the Verona and Milan line at S. Lucia 
(p. 172), and then the station of — 

163 M. Verona, see p. 186. 

7. From Vienna to Trieste. Semmering Railway. 

358 M. Austrian S. Railway. Express (1st, in winter 1st and 2nd class) 
in 15 hrs. (fares 33 fl. 76, 25 fl. 12 kr.); ordinary trains in 22-23 hrs. 
(fares 28 tl. 26, 21 fl. 20, 14 n. 13 kr). 50 lbs. of luggage free, provided 
it is at the station at least V2 hr- before tlie departure of the train ; 
otherwise the whole is liable to be charged for. — Best views generally 
on the left. For farther particulars, see Baedeker^s Eastern Alps. 

The station of the S. Railway is between the Belvedere and the 
Favorite 'Lines', or boundaries of the city. The train, soon after 
starting, affords a good survey of Vienna, and the broad plain with 
its innumerable villas and villages , as far as the hills of the 
Leitha, to the S. 3 M. Hetzendorf, with an imperial chateau. On 
the hills to the right, near (8 M.) Brunn, are several artificial ruins. 
— Near (91/2 M.) Modling, the Bruhl, a picturesque rocky valley, 
opens on the W., and a branch- line diverges to the E. to the im- 
perial chateau and park of Laxenburg. Stations Ountramsdorf and 
Gumpoldskirchen, famous for its wines. A short tunnel is passed. 
16 M. Baden (695 ft. ; *H6tel Munsch ; Stadt Wien), with hand- 
some villas , celebrated for its warm mineral springs, the Roman 
Thermae Pannonicae. Beautiful environs (Calvarienberg, Helenen- 

I8V2 M. Voslan (800 ft. ; *H6tel Back), which yields the best 
Austrian wine, is also frequented as a watering-place (74° Fahr.}. 
The next stations are Kottinghrunn , Leobersdorf (where the 
barren Sclmeeberg , 6808 ft., rises on the right), Felixdorf, and 

30 M. Neustadt, or Wienerisch-Neustadt (930 ft.; Hirsch; 
Kreuz), with 20,000 inhab., is an important manufacturing town. 
On the E. side lies the old ducal Castle of the Babenberg family, 
converted in 1752 into a military academy. 

On the right beyond Neustadt the Schneeberg is visible almost 
from base to summit; on the left rises the Leitha range. On the 
hills to the right , in the distance , stands the well - preserved 
castle of Sebenstein, the property of Prince Liechtenstein. — 35 M. 
St. Egyden ; 39 M. Neunkirchen, a manufacturing place ; then Ter- 
nitz and Potschach. On the height to the left, near Gloggnitz, rises 
the castle of Wartenstein. Schloss Gloggnitz on the hill, with its 
numerous windows, was a Benedictine Abbey down to 1803. 

At (461/2 M.) Gloggnitz (1426 ft. ; *Kaffehaus ; *Alpenhorn), 
begins the imposing ^Semmering Railway , one of the most inter- 
esting lines in Europe (best views on the left), completed in 1853. 
In the valley lies the green Schwarzau, with the imperial paper- 

46 Route 7, GRATZ. From Vienna 

factory of Schleglmuhl. On the left the three-peaked Sonnwend- 
stein; to the W. in the back -ground the Raxalp. The line de- 
scribes a wide circuit round the N. side of the valley to (51 M.) 
Payerbach (1513 ft.; Mader ; Rail. Restaurant, with beds), and 
crosses the Valley of Reichenau by a viaduct with 13 arches, 300 
yds. long. The train now ascends rapidly on the S. slope of the 
valley (gradient 1 : 40). Beyond two short tunnels, it skirts the 
Gotschakogel, and beyond two more tunnels reaches (57 M.) Klamm 
(2254 ft.), with a half-ruined castle of Prince Liechtenstein, on a 
rocky pinnacle, once the key of Styria. Far below runs the old 
Semmering road ; several factories , and the white houses of 
Schottwien , nestling in a narrow gorge, are visible. The train now 
skirts the Weinzettelwand by a long gallery and reaches (61 M.) 
Breitenstein (2544 ft.). Two more tunnels are traversed, and the 
ravines of the Kalte Einne and the Vntere Adlitzgraben crossed by 
lofty viaducts. After three more tunnels the train reaches — 

64 M. Semmering (2884 ft.). In order to avoid the remain- 
ing part (360 ft.) of the ascent, the train penetrates the highest part 
of the Semmering, the boundary between Austria and Styria, by 
means of a tunnel nearly 1 M. in length , the middle of which is 
the culminating point of the line (2890 ft.) and then descends 
rapidly on the N. slope of the peaceful dale of the Froschnitz to 
(68 M.) Spital and (73 M.) Miirzzuschlag (2195 ft. ; *Brauhaus ; 
*Elephanti Rail. Restaurant), an old town on the Miirz. 

The train now follows the picturesque , pine-clad valley of the 
Milrz , containing numerous forges. 79 M. Krieglach ,• 82y2 M. 
Mitterdorf, the latter with extensive gun-manufactories. On the 
right rises the chateau of Piichl, with its four towers, and beyond, 
the ruins of Lichtenegg. Stations Kindberg and Kapfenberg with the 
castles of these names. Near stat. Bruck rises the ancient castle of 

98 M. Bruck (1589 ft. ; *Bernauer, at the station) is a small 
town at the confluence of the Miirz and the Mur , with an old 
castle. The train now enters the narrow valley of the Mur. 104 M. 
Pernegg, with a large chateau. Near Mixnitz there are interesting 
stalactite caves. The forges of (113'/2 M.) Frohnleiten on the right 
bank and the castle of Pfannberg on the left belong to Prince Lob- 
kowitz. Schloss Rabenstein on the right bank is the property 
of Prince Liechtenstein. The train next passes the Badelwand, 
and skirts the river by means of a rocky gallery of 35 arches, 
above which runs the high road. llS'/a M. Peggau possesses silver 
and lead mines. 

The train crosses the Mur. 121 M. Klein-Stiibing, with a hand- 
some chateau ; 124 M. Grativein. Near (126 M.) Jwrfcjirfor/", on an 
eminence to theW., rises the picturesque Gothic pilgrimage-church 
of Strassengel with handsome towers. The train now skirts a 
height, at the foot of which rises the castle of OiJsting, the prop- 

to Trieste. MARBURG. 7. Route. 47 

erty of Count Attems , a favourite resort of the Gratzers , and 
enters the fertile basin in which Gratz is situated. In the fore- 
ground rises the Schlossberg. 

131 M. Gratz (1068 ft.). — Hotels on the right bank of the Mur : 
'Elephant, E. If!. 10, L. 20, A. 35, B. 65, omnibus 30 kr.; *Oesterreich- 


— On the left bank : ''Erzherzog Johann ; Kaisekkrone. 

Gratz, the capital of Styria, picturesquely situated on both banks 
of the Mur, which is here crossed by four bridges, with nearly 90,000 
inhab., is one of the pleasantest provincial capitals of Austria. The 
fortiiications have recently been removed, and their site is now 
occupied by the handsome Ringstrasse and the Stadtpark. — The 
*Schlossberg, which rises about 400 ft. above the river, commands 
one of the finest *Views in Austria , embracing the course of the 
Mur and the populous valley, enclosed by picturesque mountains. 
On the S. side of the hill rises the handsome Clock- Toiver , and 
in front of the Swiss house the Statue of Fieldmarshal Baron v. 
Welden (d. 1853), in bronze, by Gasser. — The Gothic Cathedral, 
dates from 1446, and the copper-clad dome was added in 1663. 
In front of the Landes- Theater rises a bronze Statue of Emperor 
Francis I. , designed by Marchesi ; in front of the Stadthaus is a 
Statue of Archduke John, by Ponninger. 

The train proceeds through the broad valley of the Mur, at 
some distance from the river. 1341/2 M. Puntigam; on the hills to 
the right rises the castle of Premstetten ; on the left, beyond (139 M.) 
Kalsdorf, the castle of Weisseneck. Near (144 M.) Wildon the 
Kainach is crossed by a wooden bridge ; on the height above rise 
the ruins of Ober- Wildon; to the right are the outskirts of the 
Schwanberg Alps. 148 M. Lebring. To the right, near (153 M,) 
Leibnitz, is the archiepiscopal chateau of Seckau ; farther on , the 
castle of Labeck to the left. The train next crosses the Sulm by an 
iron chain-bridge and approaches the Mur. 158 M. Ehrenhausen, 
with the chateau of the same name , and the mausoleum of the 
princes of Eggenberg on a wooded height to the right. 160 M. 
Spielfeld, with a handsome chateau of Count Attems. 

The line quits the Mur and enters the mountainous district 
which separates the Mur from the Drave. On the watershed a 
tunnel, 700 yds. in length, and near (1671/2 M.) Possnitz a viaduct 
of equal length are traversed. 

172 M. Marburg (880 ft.; *Wohlschlager ; Stadt Wien ; Stadt 
Meran; *Rail. Restauranf) is an important town with 11, 000 inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the Drave, and the junction of the lines 
to Villach and Franzensfeste. To the S.W. extends the long vine 
and forest-clad Bacher-Gebirge. A pleasing view is obtained from 
the train as it crosses the Drave ; on the right bank are the extensive 
locomotive works of the S. Railway. Traversing a broad plain, with 
the slopes of the Bacher Mts. on the right, we next reach (179 M.) 
Kranichsfeld, with an old chateau , and (183 M.) Pragerhof, the 

48 Route 7. LAIBACH. From Vienna 

junction for the line to Kanizsa and Ofen. The train now enters a 
region of lower hills, and traverses two tunnels. 189 M. PiJltschach, 
at the foot of the Wotsch (3218 ft."), on the N. slope of which are 
situated the picturesque ruins of the Carthusian monastery of Seitz. 

The German language is now replaced by a Slavonic or Wend 
dialect. The train winds through a sparsely peopled district. The 
valleys are generally narrow and picturesque, the mountains richly 
wooded , with occasional vineyards and fields of maize. Several 
small stations and foundries are passed, and an extensive view of 
the Sannthal , a populous and undulating plain , bounded by the 
Sulzbach Alps, is at length suddenly disclosed. 

213 M. Cilli (787 ft.; Erzherzog Joliann; Kaiscrkrone) , an 
ancient town of some Importance, founded by p]mp. Claudius (Clau- 
dia Celleia), contains several Roman reliefs and memorial slabs on 
the town-walls. On a wooded height in the vicinity stands the 
ruined castle oWbercilli; on the slope to the N.E. lies theLazarist 
mo]iastery of St. Joseph, with its two towers. 

The train crosses the green Sann , and enters the narrow and 
wooded valley of that stream. The most picturesque part of the 
whole line is between Cilli and Sava. 219 '/2 M. Markt Tufjfer, 
with a ruined castle. 224 M. Romerhad (which memorial stones 
prove to have been known to the Romans), also called Teplitza (i. e. 
'warm bath'), a beautifully situated watering-place. 

228 M. Steinbriick (*Rail. Restaurant; 25 min. allowed for 
express passengers to dine in going to Vienna), a thriving village 
on the Save, or Sau , which here unites with the Sann , is the 
junction for the line to Agram and Karlstadt. The train now runs 
for 1 hr. in the narrow valley of the Save, enclosed by lofty lime- 
stone cliffs, which often barely afford space for the river and rail- 
way. Stations Hrastnigg (with valuable coal - mines) , Trifait, 
Sagor (the first place in Carniola), and Sava. 

The valley now expands. At Littai the Save is crossed. Scen- 
ery still very picturesque. Stations Kressnitz, Laase. At the 
influx of the Laibach into the Save , the line quits the latter and 
enters the valley of the former. The lofty mountain-range to the 
N.W. is that of the Julian or Carnian Alps. 274 M. Salloch. 

267 M. Laibach (940ft.; StadtWien; Elephant; Europa; *Rail. 
ReAaurant), Slav. Ljubljana, on the Laibach, the capital of Car- 
niola , with 25,000 inhab. , is situated in an extensive plain en- 
closed by mountains of various heights. An old Castle, now used 
as a prison , rises above the town. The Cathedral, an edifice in 
the Italian style , is decorated with stucco and numerous frescoes 
of the 18th century. 

The line now traverses the marshy Laibacher Moos by means 
of an enibankment , 1^/^ M. in length , and crosses the Laibach, 
which becomes navigable here , although hardly 3 M. below the 
point where it issues from the rocks near Oberlaibach. Near 


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to Trieste. TRIESTE. 7. Route. 49 

(281 M.) Franzdorf the line crosses a lofty viaduct, and enters a 
more mountainous district. — 292 M. Loitsch (1555 ft. ; Post or Stadt 
Triest). About 15 M. to theN.W. of Loitsch are the rich quicksilver 
mines of Idria. — 300 M. Rakek , S'/., M. to the S.E. of which is 
the Zirknitzer See , enclosed by lofty mountains. Then (308 M.) 
Adelsberg(1798ft. ; *Gr. Hot. Adelsberg ; *Krone), Slav. Posto/na. 

The celebrated -'Stalactite Caverns, known in the middle ages and 
accidentally re-discovered in 1816, are 3/4 M. W. of Adelsberg. All the 
fees are fixed by tariff, and are somewhat high for a single visitor (from 
2 (1. 30 kr. to 21 fl., according to the illumination), but less when shared 
by a party. Brilliant illumination is necessary in order to produce a 
satisfactory effect. A visit to the grotto occupies 2V2-3 hrs., or if pro- 
longed to the Belvedere 4 hrs. Temperature 48° Fahr. Entrance 1 M. 
from the station. Fuller particulars, see Baedeker's Eastevn Alps. 

The train now traverses a dreary, inhospitable plain, strewn 
with blocks of limestone, called the Karst (Ital. Carso'), extending 
from Fiume to Gorizia (p. 262}. The train (2 hrs. by express from 
Adelsberg to Trieste) threads its way through this wilderness of 
stones, crosses the Poik at (311 M.) Prestranek , and beyond 
(316 M.) St. Peter (branch-line to Fiume) passes through six 
tunnels. Stations Lesece, Divazza (2V2 M. to the S.E. are the 
grottoes of S. Canziari), Sessana (1627 ft.). The train descends 
to Prosecco and (348 M.) Nabresina (Hotel Boswirth), where the 
line to Venice by Udine diverges (R. 37), and affords a magni- 
ficent *View of the blue Adriatic, Trieste, and the Istrian coast 
(views to the right). The slopes are planted with olives , flg-trees, 
and trellised vines. — 353 M. Grignano, the last station , is not 
above 11/2 M. below Prosecco in a straight direction. On the Punta 
Grignana, which here projects into the sea, is situated the hand- 
some chateau of Miramari^. 52 ; station). Before reaching (358 M.) 
Trieste the train enters a tunnel, 906 ft. in length, which termi- 
nates at the station. 

Trieste. — Hotels. Hotel de la Ville (PI. a), R. 1V2-5 £1. ; *H6tel 
Delokme, opposite the Exchange, R. IV2 A-, L. 30, B. 30, omn. 40 kr. ; 
EuROPA (PI. c), V4 M. from the station, R. 1-1 V2 A., with restaurant; Aquila 
Neka, with a good restaurant (beer) ; Albergo Daniel (PI. e), good restau- 
rant; LocANDA Grande (PI. b), in the Pescheria; Hotel Garni, Piazza 
Grande 5, with baths. — Sardone, Brcmzino , Tonina., and Barbone are 
good sea-fish. Prosecco is a half-efferveseing wine like that of Asti (p. 73); 
Refosco, a very dark sweet wine; the ordinary wines are Terrano and 
IstrianOj usually drunk with an admixture of water. 

Cafes. HStel de la Ville (see above); Liilce , Degli Specchi, Piazza 
Grande ; AW Europa Felice, in the Pescheria ; Stella Polare ; Caffi Adriatico, 
near the post-office , and others. — Restaurants. Stein/elder Bierhalle., 
Piazza della Borsa ; Berger, opposite the Aquila Nera ; Ponte Rosso ; Borsa 
Vecchia; Re d'' Ungheria ; Birreria Vecchia; Cervo d'Oro; Berger (Belvedere)., 
in the old town below the castle , good view from the ga den. — Osterie 
in the Italian style : AlV Adriatico, Via di Vienna ; Risaldir Canal Grande ; 
Nina Ferrari, in the old town. 

Fiacres. From the station to the town, one-horse 60, kr., two-horse 
IV2 fl. ; from the town to the station 40 kr. or 1 fl. ; drive in the town, 
Vi hr. 30 or 45 kr. , 1/2 hr. 50 or 80, Vi ^r. 75 kr. or 1 fl. 10 kr., 1 hr. 
1 fl. or 1 fl. 80 kr., each additional 1/4 hr. 20 or 30 kr., at night 5 kr. 
more per V4 hr. ; luggage 15 kr. per box. — Omnibus from the station to 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 4 

50 Route 7. TRIESTE. From Vienna 

all the hotels 20, at night 30 kr. — Tramway from the station, past the 
Tergesten, and through the Corso to the Giardino Pubblico, Boschetto, 
and Campo Marzo. — Porter's charge, up to 110 lbs. 20 kr. 

Steamboats to Jluggia, Capo d'Istria, and Pirano, several times daily ; 
small vissils to Parenzo, Rovigno, and Pola, daily. Steamboats of the 
Austrian Llciyd to Venice (see p. 263) three times weekly, via Istria and 
Dahiialia ; to Fiume tveice weeklv, etc. 

Post Office, PI. 26 (D, 2). — Telegraph Office, Via della Dogana, No. 926. 

Baths. Oesterreicher , near the Artillery Arsenal; Hotel de la Yille ; 
warm salt and fresh-water baths at both. Turkish baths at the Bagni 
Russi., near the public gardens. — Sea-baths at the Bagno Maria, opposite 
the Hotel de la Ville ; Bagno Buckler ; Military Swimming Bath, below the 
lighthouse, to the left. Ferry to the baths 3 kr. each way (a single person 
G kr.). — Boats i-li/i A- per hour. 

Public Gardens. One by S. Antonio Vecchio; another in the Piazi^A 
Grandi •. a third, the Giardino Pubblico, by the Boschetto (Cafe). 

Theatres. Teatro Grande (PI. 21), opposite the Tergesteo ; Teatro 
Filodraiiuuatico (PI. 23), French and German plays sometimes performed ; 
Armonia(¥\. 24), dramas and operas; Politeama Rossetti, on the Acquedotto. 

Railway Station, a handsome structure, 1 M. from the Exchange, near 
the ijuay. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain. 

Trieste, the Tergeste of the Romans, situated at the N.E. 
extremity of the Adriatic , is the capital of lUyria and the most 
important seaport of Austria (pop. 70,000, incl. villages 123,000). 
It was made a free harbour by Emp. Charles VI. in 1719, and may 
bo termed the Hamburg of S. Germany. Every European nation, and 
also the United States, has a consul here. The population is very 
heterogeneous, but the Italian element predominates in the city. 

The Harbour is the centre of business. It is entered and quitted 
by 15,000 vessels annually, of an aggregate burden of one million 
tons. The quays have been greatly extended within the last few 
years to meet the increasing requirements of the shipping trade. 
The Lighthouse on the S.W. Molo Teresa is lOG ft. high. 

The New Town, or Theresienstadt, adjoining the harbour, is laid 
out in broad, well-paved streets with handsome houses, and is in- 
tersected by the Canal Orande (PI. 5; D, 3, 4), which enables 
vessels to discharge their cargoes close to the warehouses. At the 
end of the Canal is the church of S. Antonio Nuovo (PI. 7; D, 3), 
built in 1830 by Nobile in the Greek style. 

Adjacent to the Hotel de la Ville towards the S. is the *Gkkbk 
Church (5. Niccolh dei Greci, PI. 10; E, 4; divine service 0-8.30 
a.m. and 5-7 p.m.~), with its two green towers, sumptuously fitted 
up. To the left of the Hotel de la Ville is the Palazzo Carciotti, 
with a green dome, and in the vicinity, near the Ponte Rosso, a 
new Servian Church. 

A few paces farther , in a S.E. direction, is the *Tkrgbstko 
(PI. 25 ; E, 4), an extensive pile of buildings, on the outside of which 
are shops, atid in the interior a glass gallery in the form of a cross, 
where the Exchange (12-2 o'clock) is situated. The Reading Room 
of tlie exchange is well stocked with newspapers (visitors admitted). 
The principal part of the edifice is occupied by the offices of tho 

to Trieste. TRIESTE. 7. Route. 51 

'Austrian Lloyd\ a steamtoat-compaiiy established in 1833, by 
which the postal service and passenger traffic between Austria and 
the E. Mediterranean and India are undertaken. 

In the Piazza della Borsa (PI. E, 4), where the old Exchange 
is situated, stands a Neptune group in marble, and a Statue of Leo- 
pold /., erected in 1660. — In the Piazza Grande is the new Muni- 
cipio (PI. 11 ; E, 4], containing the handsome hall of the provincial 

The Corso (PI. E, 3, 4), the principal street of Trieste, together 
with the two piazzas just mentioned, separates the new town from 
the old. The latter, nestling round the hill on which the castle 
rises, consists of narrow and steep streets, not passable for carriages. 
To the left on the route to the cathedral and the castle is situated 
the Jesuits' Church [S. Maria Maggiore, PI. 9 ; F, 4), containing 
a large modern fresco by Sante. To the W., a few paces higher up, 
is the Piazzetta di Riccardo , named after Richard Cceur de Lion, 
who is said to have been imprisoned here after his return from 
Palestine. The Area di Riccardo (PI. 2) is believed by some to 
be a Roman triumphal arch, but probably belonged to an aqueduct. 

The *Catteuiiale S. Giusto(P1. 8; F, 3) consisted originally of 
a basilica, a baptistery, and a small Byzantine church, dating from 
the 6th cent., which in the 14th cent, were united so as to form 
a whole. The tower contains Roman columns , and six Roman 
tombstones (busts in relief) with inscriptions are immured in the 
portal. The facade is adorned with three busts of bishops in 
bronze. The altar-niches of the interior contain two ancient mo- 
saics, representing Christ and Mary. The Apostles in the left bay, 
under the Madonna, are Byzantine (6th cent.). Some of the capi- 
tals are antique, others Romanesque. 

A disused burial-ground adjoining the church is now an open- 
air Museum of Roman Antiquities (Pl. 16), those on the upper 
terrace having been found at Trieste, those on the lower at Aqui- 
leia (key kept by the sacristan of the cathedral, 50 kr.). Winckel- 
mann , the eminent German archreologist, who was robbed and 
murdered by an Italian at the Locanda Grande in 1768, is interred 
here, and a monument was erected to him in 1832. 

Fouche, Due d'Otranto, once the powerful minister of police of 
Napoleon I., died at Trieste in 1820, and was interred on the 
Terrace in front of the church. Fine view thence of the town 
and sea. 

On the slope of the hill opposite the Cathedral rises the Arme- 
nian Catholic Church, a Byzantine edifice. — The new Protestant 
Church, in the Piazza Carradori, was completed in 1874. 

In the Piazza Lipsia is the Nautical Academy (PI. 1 ; G, 5), 
containing the Municipal Museum, the chief attraction of which is 
a complete collection of the fauna of the Adriatic. In the same 
piazza is the sumptuously furnished Palazzo Revolt ella, containing 


52 Route 7. CAPO D'ISTRIA. 

the municipal Picture Gallery (visitors admitted). — The Piazza 
Giuseppe, which opens towards the Molo of that name (PI. F, G, 
5, 6), is embellished with a *Monument to Emperor Maximilian of 
Mexico (d. 1867), in bronze , designed by Schilling, and erected 
in 1875. The unlortunate prince, who was a rear-admiral in the 
Austrian navy, generally resided at Trieste before he undertook his 
ill-starred expedition to Mexico. 

A long avenue, skirting the coast and commanding a succession 
of beautiful views, leads on the E. side of the town, past the Villa 
Murat, the Lloyd Arsenal, and the Gas -Works, to Servola (comp. 
Plan, 1, 7-4). 

The extensive * Wharves of the Lloyd Co., opposite Servola 
(4'/2 M.) , may be visited daily, except holidays , Sundays, and 
between 11 and 1 o'clock (guide V2-I A-)- 

On the road to Zaule , famous for its oyster-beds , are the 
handsome Cemeteries. 

Another pleasant walk is along the Acquedotto through a pretty 
valley to the Boschetto , a favourite resort (large brewery). From 
the Boschetto a shady road leads to the Villa Ferdinandea (restau- 
rant), adjoining which is the Villa Revoltella, with park and chapel, 
commanding a charming view of the town, the sea, and the coast. 

A very pleasant excursion (railway station , see p. 50 ; carr. 
3 fl., boat 3 fl.) may be made to the chateau of *Mieamak, formerly 
the property of Emp. Maximilian of Mexico (see above), charmingly 
situated to the N.W. near Grignano, and commanding a liTie view 
of Trieste, the sea, and the coast. The park is open to the public 
daily. The sumptuously furnished Chateau is shown to visitors 
(Sunday afternoons excepted) on application to the steward (fee 
1/2 fl.). — Barcola (restaurant) is a favourite resort, halfway be- 
tween Trieste and the chateau. 

ExcDKsioNS. To ' Oplschina (3 M.; Hotel all' Obelisco), commanding a 
beautiful view of the town and the sea ; Servola (see above) ; <S'. Giovanni ; 
the grotto of Corniale, 9 M. to the E. ; to Lipizza (imperial stables), etc. — 
A very interesting excursion , occupying one day (starting early in the 
morning), is by steamer (p. 50) to Muggia; over the hill on foot (beau- 
tiful view from the top) to Oltre (1 hr.), thence by boat (15 kr.) to Capo 
d'Istria {Ciliii di Trieste; liadetzky; Cafte in the principal Piazza). The 
town itself, situated on an island, with 7500 inhab., is the Justinopolis of 
the Romans, and is connected with the mainland by a stone embank- 
ment. The chief objects of interest are the Cathedral, the Palazzo Pubblico, 
occupying the site of a temple of Cybelc, and the extensive salt-works. 
We now proceed by the road on the shore, passing Semedella, to (3M.) 
/sola (good Refosco wine), and (6 M. farther) Pirano, and return to Trieste 
by steamer in the evening. — About 2 M. from Pirano lies the sea-bath- 
ing place of S. Lorenzo, established in 1864 , a handsome building in an 
extensive park. 

From Trieste to Venice, see R. 37 ; to Pola, Flume, and Dal- 
matia, see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

II. Piedmont. 

This district 'at the foot of the mountains'', end ised on three sides 
by the Alps and Apennines, and separated from Lombardy by the Ticino, 
embraces, according to the present division, the provinces of Turin, No- 
vara, Ctmeo, and Alessandria, with 3,054,071 inhab., and an area of about 
11,400 sq. M. It consists of lowlands flanking the banks of the Po and 
its tributaries, which yield rice and maize, and of highlands where ex- 
cellent wine and silk are produced, and lastly of a bleaker mountain 
region of forests and pastures. The earliest Inhabitants were Celtic and 
Ligurian tribes, who were but slowly influenced by Roman culture; and 
it was not till the reign of Augustus that the subjugation of the higher 
valleys was completed. The Dialect of the people still retains traces of 
their ancient affinity with the French; itiMS, pieuve, instead of the Italian 
piovere, om for uoino, coeur for cuore, sitd for citta, rason for ragione, 
plassa for piazza. This patois is universally spoken , even by the higher 
classes , and is unintelligible to strangers. Throughout Piedmont the 
traveller will find that French will carry him quite as far as Italian. 

The HiSTORT of the country is closely interwoven with that of its 
dynasty. The House of Savoy (or Casa Sahauda) , a family of German 
origin, professing even to trace their descent from the Saxon Duke 
Wittekind, the opponent of Charlemagne, first became conspicuous among 
the nobles of Upper Burgundy about the year 1000. Humbert I. (d. about 
1050) is generally regarded as the founder of the dynasty. In 1101 his 
descendants were created imperial counts of Savoy by Henry IV., and by 
judiciously espousing the cause of the pope and the emperor alternately, 
they gradually succeeded in extending their supremacy over Turin, Aosta, 
Susa, Ivrea, and Nice. In consequence of a law passed by Amadeus 7., 
the Great, in 1367, which settled the succession on the male line in the order 
of primogeniture, and constituted Chambery the seat of government, the 
subdivisions of the country were at length united. In 1416, during the 
reign of Amadeus VIII., the counts became Dukes of Savoy. Situated 
between the two great mediaeval powers of France on one side , and 
Austria and Spain on the other, the princes of Savoy frequently changed 
sides, and although sometimes overtaken by terrible disasters , they con- 
trived to maintain, and even to extend their territory. At one period 
the greater part of the Duchy was annexed to France , but Emmanuel 
Pkilibert ('Testa di Ferro', 1553-80) restored it to its original extent, being, 
as regards internal organisation also , its second founder. Under his son 
Charles Emmanuel I. (1580-1630) the Duchy again became dependent on 
France. From the sons of this prince is descended the elder branch of 
the family , which became extinct in 1831 , and the younger Carignano 
line, which succeeded to the throne in the person of Carlo Alberto. The 
following dukes were Vittorio Amadeo I. (1630-37), Francesco Giacinlo 
(1637-38), Carlo Emanuele II. (1638-75), and Vittorio Amadeo II. (1675- 
1730). The last of these , having boldly allied himself with Austria dui-- 
ing the Spanish War of Succession , managed to throw off the French 
suzerainty (1703) ; he obtained Sicily as his i-eward, which island, however, 
he was afterwards obliged to exchange for Sardinia (1720), and in 1713 
assumed the title of King, which was subseqtiently coupled with the name 
of the latter island. His successors were Carlo Emanuele III. (1730-73), 
and Vittorio Amadeo III. (1773-96). After the battle of Turin (p. 66) the 
Piedmontese princes directed their attention to Prussia , which served as 
a model for the organisation of their kingdom. In both countries the 

54 Route 8. TURIN. - 

military and feudal element preponderated, and both were obliged to 
succumb to the new powers evolved by the French revolution. Carlo 
Emanuele IV. (1796-1802) was deprived of all his continental possessions 
by the French in 1798, and restricted to the island of Sardinia, which 
was protected by the English fleet. Vittorio Emanuele I. (1802-21) was at 
length reinstated in his dominions, with the addition of Genoa, by the 
Congress of Vienna. The Napoleonic period had swept away the feudal 
institutions of Piedmont, and had bequeathed in their stead many of the 
benefits of modern legislation, and high military renown. It is therefore 
intelligible that the clerical reaction, which set in with the king's return, 
gave rise to an insurrection which caused the king to abdicate, and 
which had to be quelled by Austrian troops. His brother Carlo Felice 
(1821-31) adhered faithfully to Jesuitical principles, and lived on the 
whole in accordance with his motto, 'Non sono re per essere seccato". 
With him the older line of the House of Savoy became e.xtinct, and was 
succeeded by the collateral line of Carignano (p. 53; 27th April, 1831). 
Carlo Alberto (b. 1798), who had been educated at a French military 
school, and had headed the insurrection of 1821, was protected by France 
and Russia against the attempts of Austria to deprive him of his claims 
to the throne. His own experiences , and the force of circumstances, 
rendered him an implacable enemy of Austria. With him began the 
national development of Piedmont, although his efforts were not always 
consistent. The liberals called him the 'Re Tentenna' (the vacillating), 
while in 1843 he himself described his position as being '• between the 
daggers of the Carbonari and the chocolate of the .lesuits\ On 6th 
Jan. 1848 Count Cavour made the first public demand for the establish- 
ment of a constitution , and on the 7th Feb. the king , half in despair, 
yielded to the popular desires. The insurrection in Lombardy at length 
induced him to become the champion of national independence , and to 
give vent to his old enmity against Austria (23rd March), but one year 
later his career terminated with his defeat at Novara (23rd March, 1849). 
He then abdicated and retired to Oporto, where he died in a few months 
(26th July). It was reserved for his son Vittono Emanuele II. (b. 1820, 
d. 9th Jan. 187s) finally to give effect to the national wishes of Italy. 
The present king is Umherto I. (b. 14th Blar., 1844). 

8. Turin, Ital. Torino. 

Arrival. The principal railway-station at Turin is the Stazione Cen- 
Irale , or Porta Nnova (PI. E, 4, 5) , in the Piazza Carlo Felice , at the 
end of the Via Roma , a handsome edifice with waiting-rooms adorned 
with frescoes , and the terminus of all the lines. — Travellers to Milan 
may take the train at the Stazione Porta Susa (PI. C, 3, 4), at the end 
of the Via della Cernaia, the first stopping place of all the trains of the 
Novara-Milan line (omnibuses and carriages meet every train) , or at the 
Stazione Succursale, on the left bank of the Dora. — Station of the branch 
line to liivoli in the Piazza dello Statuto (PI. 0,2); of that to Cirii-Lanzo 
between the Piazza Emanuele Filiberto and the Ponte Mosca (PI. E, 1). 

Hotels. *EuROPA (PI. a; E, 2), Piazza Castello 19; *Grand Hotel de 
Turin (PI. b; E, 4, 5), opposite the central station ; *H6tel de la IjIGukie 
(PI. c; F, 4), Via Carlo Alberto; 'Hotel Fedeu (PI. d; F, 3), Via S. 
Francesco di Paola 8; Hotel Tkombetta (PI. e ; E, 3), Via Roma 29, Piazza 
S. Carlo; Grand Hotel d'Angleterre (PI. f; E, 3, 4), Via Roma 31, and 
Via Cavour 2. All these are of the first class, with similar charges : R. 
from 3, B. 1V2-2, D. generally at 5 o'clock 4-5, L. 1, A. 1, omnibus I'/afr. 
— The following are more in the Italian style, and have trattorie con- 
nected with them: Albekgo Centrale (PI. g; E, 2), Via delle Finanze; 
Bonne Femmb (PI. h; E, 4), Via Barbaroux 1 ; Hotel Sbisse (PI. i ; E, 4), 
Via Sacchi 2, near the central station, R. from 2Vi, B. I'/i, H. with 
wine 4'/j fr., L. 60, A. 60 c. ; these three well spoken of. Caccia Reale 
(PI. k; E, 2), Piazza Castello 18; Hotel de France et de la Concorde 
(PI. 1 ; F, 2, 3), Via di Po 20 ; Tke Couone (PI. m ; E, 2), Via S. Tommaso 3 ; 


\.Mxadxania, deReBelLe^Arti 


2. " ■' Militare. 

. r.2. 

■\. " " deUe Sciaize 

. E.3. 

it.Ji-meria Reale, 


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27. Carlo Jib erto 


2S. Umanuele riliberto . . 

. £.3. 

Z%.&ioherti E.F.3. 

'iO.Loffreaujfe £.4. 

'ii.Paleocapa, E.4. 

yi.Siccardi '0.2. 

33.Jfet?eo drico r.2. 

34. ; ,. zndvjrtriale F.3. 

"ih.OspedalediS.Gio-r. Battz.ita F.3. 
Palazzi . 

ifi.Cccri^Tuuu) F.3. 

"il.diCUUi E.2. 

28. del Diica, di Qenava . E.2. 

39JK"ad<Z7?ia: E.2. 

¥) .di, Ma^iitrati' Suprem. D.2. 

'^X.Municipdle D.E.2. 

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ii.dfUe^ Torri E.2. 

iS./'yrfa F.3. 

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VI .Sinagoga, . &.2. 


m.d'Jngennes F.3. 

iS.Cariffnano E.3. 

50.G€rii/u} G-.3. 

^\.Jazional£ . T.i. 

hZJleffio F.2. 

53.A).9yD(i T.3. 

'a^-. Scribe F.2. 

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\).G^r.Edtel djs, Turin 
C .Satel de lOL Liffurie. 
t.Eotel Feder . . . 
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. 'F.4, 
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. E.2 


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i.Sotel E.4. 

]L.Cacd(v Reale E.2. 

1 .Sotel de France & 

de. la, Concorde F. 2.3. 

va^.Tre Carane E.2. 

Tl.Doqana' -recchia E.2. 

Vaguer c Detes, leipilg . 

Cafea. TURIN. 8. Route. 55 

DoGANA Veochia (PI. n; E, 2), Via Corte d'Appello 4, near the Palazzo 
di Citfa, R. IV2, h. V2 fr-, A. 60, omnibus 60 c, well spoken of; Villk db 
BoLOGNE, Corso Principe Amedeo. — The Grissini, a kind of bread in 
long, thin, and crisp sticks, form a speciality of the place. Best wines: 
Barbera, JSarolo, Nebiolo, and GrignoUno. 

Restaurants. Cambio , Piazza Carignano 2, much frequented in the 
morning, best Italian wines ; Paris^ Via di Po 21 ; Bifo , Via Roma 13 5 
Trattoria di Piazza S. Carlo., D. 3 fr., in a room on the upper floor; Me- 
ridiana., Galleria Geisser, Via S. Teresa 6 (Vienna beer) ; Due Indie , Via 
Guasco 4; in the last two Italian, in the others French cuisine. Good 
Restaurant also at the Stazione Centrale. — Good Piedmontese Wine at the 
Trattoria d'Oriente., Via Lagrange, and at the Goccania, Via Dora Grossa. 
Cafes. '-'Ca/^ de Paris, Via di Po 21; ''S. Carlo, Piazza S. Carlo 2; 
Nazionale, Via di Po 20; Madera, Via Lagrange 10; "Romano, by the 
Galleria deir Industria Subalpina, in the Piazza Castello (cafe chantant in 
the evening); Caffi delta Borsa, Via Roma 25; Liguria, Corso del Re, near 
the station. — Confectioners. Bass, Baratli tb Milano , both in the Piazza 
Castello, S. side. — Beer. At the above mentioned '-Gaffi Romano; Lumpp, 
at the corner of Via deir Arsenate and Via Alfleri ; in the Birreria, Via 
di Dora Grossa 5. 

Cabs, or Cittadine , stand in most of the piazzas and in the streets 
leading out of the Via di Po. Per drive (corsa) 1 fr., at night (12-6 a.m.) 
1 fr. 20 c; first 1/2 hr. 1 fr., first hour (ora) 1 fr. 50 c, each following 
V2 hr. 75 c. , at night I1/2 fr. and 2 fr.; each trunk 20 c. — Two-horse 
carriage 50 c. more in each case. 

Tramways. From the Piazza Castello (PI. E, F, 2); 1. By the Via 
Lagrange to the Barriera di Mzza (PI. F, 6); 2. To the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele, across the bridge over the Po, and to the right to the Barriera 
di Piacenza (PI. H, 5), and on to Moncalieri; 3. Across the bridge as in 
the last route and then to the left to the Barriera di Casale (PI. H, 2) 
and Madonna del Pilone; 4. By the Via Dora Grossa to the Barriera del 
Martinetto (PI. A, 2); 5. By the Via Milano and the Piazza Emanuele 
Filiberto to the Ponte Mosca (PI. E, 1) and the Borgo Dora. — From the 
Piazza Vittokio Emanuele (PI. G, 3) : 1. By the Via S. Teresa to the 
Piazza dello Statuio (PI. C, 2); 2. By the Corso del Re to the Piazza 
Solferino (PI. D, E, 3). — From the Piazza Emanuele Filibekto (PI. E, 1) 
by the Corso Maurizio, the Via Rossini, etc., to the Corso del Valentino 
(PI. F, 5). 

Consuls. British, Via di S. Filippo 20. American, Via de' Fiori 19. 
Post Office, Via d'Angennes 10. Telegraph Office, Via d'Angennes 8. 
Booksellers. Loescher, Via di Po 19, with circulating library of Eng- 
lish, French, German, and other books; Casanova, Via Accademia delle 
Scienze. — Fine Arts Warehouse: Cerruti, Galleria Subalpina (p. 56). 

Military Music in the Piazza Castello every afternoon ; on Sundays 
12-2, in summer in the Giardino Reale , in winter in the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele; in the Piazza d'Armi in summer during the Corso. — The 
chief promenades are the avenues of the Piazza d'Armi. 

Baths. Via Provvidenza 40; Bagni di S. Carlo, Via Roma 22; Bagni 
di S. Giuseppe, Via S. Teresa 21; Bagni Cavour, Via Lagrange 22. Bath 
11/4-1 V^fr., with fee of 20c. — Swimming Bath (scuola di nuoto) above the 
old bridge over the Po (PI. G, 3; 60c.). 

Theatres. Teatro Regio (PI. 52) , in the Piazza Castello , with seats 
for 2500 , generally open during Lent and the Carnival only (admission 
3fr., reserved seats 6fr.); Carignano (PI. 49), in the Piazza of that name, 
for Italian comedies, open the greater part of the year ; D^Angennes (PI. 48). 
Via Borgo Nuovo, Rossini (PI. o3) , Via di Po 24, these two for plays in 
the Piedmontese dialect; Scribe (PI. 54), Via Zecca 29, French, etc. 

English Church Service performed in a chapel at the back of the 
Tempio Valdese (PI. 18). 

Principal Attractions : Armoury (p. 57), Picture Gallery (p. 59) and 
Museum of Antiquities (p. 59), monuments in the cathedral (p. 61), view 
from the Capuchin monastery (p. 65). 

56 Route 8. TURIN. Palazzo Madama. 

Turin (785 ft.) , the Roman Augusta Taurinorum, founded by 
tlie Taurini, a Ligurian tribe , destroyed by Hannibal B.C. 218, 
and subsequently re-erected , was the capital of the County of 
Piedmont in the middle ages , and in 1418 became subject to the 
Dukes of Savoy , who frequently resided here. From 1859 to 
1865 it was the capital of Italy and residence of the king. Turin, 
the seat of a university, and of a military academy , is situated in 
an extensive plain on the Po , which receives the waters of the 
Dora Riparia below the city. The plain of the Po is bounded on 
the W. by the Graian and Cottian Alps, and on the E. by a range 
of hills rising on the right bank, opposite the city (hill of the Ca- 
puchins, p. 65; Superga, p. 66). Turin has always been the focus 
of the national struggles for unity, and by the industry and per- 
severance of its citizens has recovered from the severe losses conse- 
quent on the removal of the court. The population in 1877, in- 
cluding surrounding villages, was 214,200, of the town itself about 
195,000 (in 1377, 4,200; in 1631, 36,447; in 1799, 80,752; and 
in 1848, 130,849). 

Turin is conspicuous among the principal cities of Italy for the re- 
gularity of its construction. Its plan presents rectangular blocks of houses 
(Isole), long, broad, straight streets (formerly called Contrcide, now Vie), 
wide squares, and numerous gardens. Its history explains this. The 
plan of the old town, with slight variations, is ascertained to be the same 
as that of the colony founded by the Emperor Augustus. It formed a rec- 
tangle of 1370 ft. in length, and 2210 ft. in breadth, and is now inter- 
sected by the Via di Dora Grossa, which runs between the Piazza Castello 
and the Via delta Consolata. It had four principal gates, of which the 
Porta Palatina, to the N. (in the Palazzo delle Torri, PI. 44) still exists. 
The whole town was comprised within this circumference during the middle 
ages, until in the 17th cent., under the princes of Savoy, a systematic 
extension of the city was begun in accordance with the original plan. 
The fortifications constructed by Francis I. in 1536, and finally the siege 
of 1706 cleared away most of the old buildings, and gave the town its 
present appearance. The fortilications were demolished by the French 
when in possession of the city and environs in 1801, and the citadel bad 
to give place to the railway in 1857. 

The spacious Piazza Castello (PL E, F, 2), with the Royal 
Palace, forms the centre of the town. From this point the busiest 
streets diverge : — the Via Roma, the Via di Bora Grossa, and the 
broad and handsome Via di Po, leading to the bridge over the Po, 
and flanked by arcades (Portici), containing shops, the handsomest 
of wliich are near the Piazza Castello (those in the direction of the 
Po, towards the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, being inferior). These 
arcades present a busy and brilliant scene in the evening , when 
lighted by gas. The University in the Via di Po , see p. 63. — 
In the S.E. angle of the Piazza Castello is the new Galleria dell' 
Industria Subalpina , containing cafes, a large birreria, and concert 
rooms, which is worthy of a visit , though inferior to the arcade at 
Milan. The other end of the arcade is in the Piazza Carlo Alberto 
(p. 58). 

The Palazzo Madama (PI. 39 ; E, 2), the ancient castle, a lofty 

Armoury. TURIN. 8. Route. 57 

and cumbrous pile in the centre of the Piazza Castello , is the only 
mediieval structure of which Turin boasts , and was erected by 
William of Monferrat, when master of the town in the latter half of 
the 13th century. It owes its present name to the mother of King 
Victor Amadeus II. , who as Dowager Duchess ('■Madama ReaW ) 
occupied the building , and embellished it in 1718 by the addition 
of a handsome double flight of steps and the fa(;ade with marble 
columns on the W. side. The two original towers on the E. side 
are still standing ; two others on the W. side , one of which is 
intended for an observatory, are concealed by the facade. Down to 
1865 the Palazzo Madama was the seat of the Italian senate, and it 
now contains several institutions. — In front of the Palace stands a 
Monument to the Sardinian Army (PI. 24) by Vine. Vela, erected by 
the Milanese in 1859, and representing a warrior in white marble 
defending a banner with his sword. In relief, Victor Emmanuel on 
horseback at the head of his troops. 

On the N. side of the Piazza Castello is situated the Palazzo 
B.eale, or Royal Palace (PI. 43 ; E, 2), erected about the middle of 
the 17th cent. , a plain editice of brick , sumptuously fitted up in 
the interior. The palace-yard is separated from the Piazza by a gate, 
the pillars of which are decorated with two groups in bronze of 
Castor and Pollux , designed by Abbondio Sangiorgio in 1842. To 
the left in the hall of the palace, to which the public are admitted, 
in a niche near the staircase, is the 'Cavallo di Marmo', an 
equestrian statue of Duke Victor Amadeus I. (d. 1637); the statue 
is of bronze, the horse in marble; below the latter are two slaves. 
The steps have recently been magnificently embellished ; among the 
statues those of Emmanuel Philibert, by Varni, and Carlo Alberto, 
by Vela, deserve special notice. The royal apartments are generally 
accessible in the absence of the king. 

The long S.E. wing of the edifice (Galleria Beaumont) contains' 
the *RoYAL Armoury {^Armeria Reale; PI. 4; E, 2; entered from 
the arcade, first door to the right when approached from the palace), 
opposite and to the N.E. of the Palazzo Madama. It is open to the 
public on Sundays, 11-3 o'clock , and daily at the same hours by 
tickets (obtained between 11 and 3 o'clock at the office of the secre- 
tary of the Armoury, on the ground-floor). The collection is very 
choice and in admirable order (custodian V2"l fr.). 

In the centre of Room I. are a bronze statuette of Napoleon I., the 
sword he wore at the battle of Marengo , a quadrant he used when a 
young officer, two French regimental eagles , and two kettle-drums cap- 
tured at the battle of Turin in 1706. Numerous models of modern 
weapons; in a cabinet near the window, Prussian helmets; then Japanese 
and Indian weapons and armour. A cabinet on the right contains gifts 
presented to Victor Emmanuel by Italian towns, a sword presented by Rome 
in 1859, a gilded wreath of laurel by Turin 1860, and a sword in 1865, 
on the occasion of the Dante Festival ; in the centre, the favourite horse 
of Charles Albert ; Piedmontese flags from the wars of 1848-49 over the 
cabinets. The long Hall contains, on the right, a gigantic suit of armour 
worn at the Battle of Pavia by an equerry of Francis I. of France ; be- 

58 Route 8. TURIN. Palace Garden. 

yond it, in front of the chimney-piece, a choice and very valuable collec- 
tion of 32 battle-axes, a sword executed by Benvenuto Cellini (?), and some 
finely ornamented helmets of the 15th and 16th centuries. Under glass, 
a 'Shield by Benvenuto Cellini (?), embossed, and inlaid vifith gilding, re- 
presenting scenes from the war of Marius against Jugurtha. The finest 
suits of armour are those of the ISrescian family Martinengo, three on 
the left and one on the right. Adjacent is an ancient rostrum in the form 
of a boar's head, found in the harbour at Genua. At the end of the hall 
are the armour of Prince Eugene, the saddle of Emp. Charles V. in red 
velvet, and the beautiful armour of Duke Emanuel Philibert. (A small 
adjacent room is occupied by a very valuable Collection of Coins, trinkets, 
mosaics, carved ivory, etc., and is entered from the library.) On the 
right, as the long hall is re-entered, we observe, under glass, the sword 
of St. Maurice, the sabre of Tipoo Sahib, etc. In the cabinet A are 
Roman weapons, helmets, and the eagle of a legion. In the cabinet F, at 
the top , the sword of the Imperial General Johann v. Werth (d. 1652), 
bearing a German inscription in verse. 

On the floor below is the Private Library of Victor Emmanuel (shown 
daily 9-4), in which geographical, historical, and genealogical works are 
particularly well represented. It also contains a valuable collection of 
drawings (by Leonardo, Michael Angelo, and Venetian masters). 

The Palace Garden ( Giardmo Reale; PI. E, F,2), entered from 
the arcade opposite the Palazzo Madaraa, Is open daily in summer 
(1st May to 1st Oct.) 11-3, on Sundays and festivals 12-2; mil- 
itary music, see p. 55. Fine view of the Superga. Connected with 
the Oiardino Reale is a well - stocked Zoological Garden (open to 
the public Mon. and Thurs. ; to strangers daily on application 
at the palace). — The Cathedral, which adjoins the palace on the 
W., see p. 61. 

In the Piazza Cakignano , near the Piazza Castello , to the S., 
rises the Palazzo Carignano (PI. 36; F, 3), with its curious brick 
ornamentation, erected in 1680. The Sardinian Chamber of Depu- 
ties met here from 1848 to 1860, and the Italian Parliament from 
1860 to 1865. The handsome facade at the back, towards the 
Piazza Carlo Alberto, was built in 1871 from the designs of Bollati 
and Ferri. 

The rooms used by the parliament are now devoted to the Natural 
History Collections formerly in the Academy (open to the public every 
week-day 10-4, in winter 10-3). The collection is divided into the Zoolo- 
ijicnl and Comparative Anatomy Section and the Palaeontological, Geological, 
and Mineralogical Section. The former contains a fine array of birds 
and insects , and a collection of the vertebrates of Italy arranged in a 
separate gallery. The palfeontological division contains a fine collection 
of fossil mollusca from the tertiary formations , and the skeletons of a 
gig.antic armadillo (Glpptodon Clavipes) from Rio de la Plata, and other 
antediluvian animals. 

In the Piazza Carignano , in front of the palace , stands the 
finely-executed marble statue of the philosopher and patriot Gio- 
berti (PI. 29), by Albertoni, erected in 1859. 

The Piazza Caulo Albkuto (E. side of the Palazzo Carignano) 
is emb(^llished with a bronze monument of King Charles Albert 
(PI. 27), designed by Marochetti, and cast in London. The pedestal 
stands on four steps of Scottish granite ; at the corners below 
are four colossal statues of Sardinian soldiers ; above them are four 
allegorical female figures , representing Martyrdom , Freedom, 

Picture Gallery. TURIN. 8. Route. 59 

Justice, and Independence. The Piazza Carlo Alberto is connected 
with the Piazza Castello by the Galleria Subalpina, mentioned at 
p. 56. 

In the vicinity, at the corner of the Piazza Carignano and the 
Via deir Accademia No. 4, is the Palazzo dell' Accademia delle 
Scienze (PI. 3; E, 3), containing a picture-gallery and museums 
of natural history and antiquities. To the right on the Ground- 
FiiOOB are the Egyptian, Roman, and Greek sculptures; on the 
FiEST Floor, the smaller Egyptian antiquities ; on the Second 
Floor (98 steps), the picture gallery. These collections are open 
daily 9-3, adm. 1 fr.; on Sund. 11-3, gratis. 

Museum of Antiquities (Miiseo Egizio e di Antichita Greco- Romane). — 
Hall I. contains large Egyptian sphynxes, figures of idols and kings, sarco- 
phagi, reliefs; over the sitting figure of Sesostris is an inscription in hon- 
our of the celebrated Parisian Egyptologist Champollion. Hall II. : 
Egyptian statues and late Greek works found in Egypt; on the right a 
good torso , on the left four figures placed round a column , bearing the 
name ofProtys the sculptor. Minerva, over life-size. In the centre of the 
room ''Mosaics found at Stampacci in Sardinia, representing Orpheus with 
his lyre, and a lion, goat, and ass, probably the animals listening to him. 
— The visitor now enters the — I. Gallery to the left. In the centre, 
statue of a youth , Hercules killing the snakes (in Greek marble), Ama- 
z(m (in black marble), Cupid asleep. Posterior wall, Jupiter, Marsyas 
and Olympus. 

The Small Antiquities are on the Second Floor, and consist of mum- 
mies, papyrus writings, scarabees, trinkets, vases, and porcelain statu- 
ettes and terracottas, many of which are Graeco-Eoman. In the centre of 
the second room is the formerly celebrated Tabula Isiaca, found in the 
pontificate of Pope Paul III. (d. 1549) in the Villa Caffarelli at Rome, a 
tablet of bronze with hieroglyphics and figures partially inlaid with 
silver. Attempts to decipher the characters elicited the most profound 
and erudite explanations and conjectures from the savants of three cen- 
turies, but it has been recently proved that the tablet is spurious, having 
been manufactured at Rome in the reign of Hadrian. The celebrated 
papyrus with fragments of the annals of Manetho, (a list of the kings of 
Egypt down to the 19th dynasty),discovered by Champollion, is also pre- 
served here. 

On reaching the corridor we turn to the left and proceed (through a 
room containing antiquities from Cyprus. Beyond, on the left, Is the 
room devoted to Roman Sculptures : in the middle , heads of poets and 
philosophers; along the window-wall, busts of emperors; in the corner to 
the left, colossal female head (Venus), found at Alba in 1839, head of 
Antinous, etc. On the riffht are the Grreco-Etruscan Vases and Terra- 
cottas ('Head of Medusa, Mercury and a youth, Olympus from the group 
already mentioned, graceful dancing nymphs), and the Bronzes, including 
a tripod and a 'Silenus , found near Turin, head of Caligula, and -'Mi- 
nerva, found in the Versa near Stradella in 1829. 

The *Picture Gallery ( Pinacoteca) consists of 15 rooms con- 
taining upwards of 514 paintings. This collection, being of recent 
date , cannot boast of a very distinct character like most of the 
other Italian galleries; but it affords the traveller an excellent 
opportunity of becoming better acquainted with the works of 
Gaudenzio Ferrari (1484-1549), in which we can distinctly trace 
Leonardo's inspiration , coupled with the influence of the Umbrian 
school (Nos. 49 and 54). Sodoma (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, 1447- 
1549), who originally belonged to the Lombard school, is also well 

60 Route 8. TURIN. Picture Gallery. 

represented by tliree pictures. Lorenzo di Credi's (1459-1537) Ma- 
donna, No. 103, of this master's best period , shows that he was 
influenced by Leonardo. The Madonna della Tenda was not painted 
by Raphael himself, and the Madonna by I'itian is also a copy, like 
so many other pictures in this gallery. Numerous and important 
works of the old Netherlandish school, such as : 359. Petrus Cris- 
tas; 358. Memling; 340. Sketch by Rubens; 338, 351, 363, 384. 
by Van Dyck. (Catalogue 1 fr. 25 c.). 

1. Room. Princes of the House of Savoy and battle-pieces. Beginning 
on the right: ten of the battles fought by Prince Eugene, by Huchten- 
hurgh; thirteen portraits of members of the House of Savoy; 28. Horace 
Vernet, King Charles Albert; 29,31. Clouet; 26,30. Van Dyck; 4. Van 
Schuppen^ Prince Eugene on horseback. 

II., III., IV. Rooms contain works of the school of Vercelli and Mon- 
ferratu, of no great value. Room II.: *49. Gaiidenzio Ferrari, St. Peter 
and donor; 50. Sodoma, Holy Family; 50 bis. Macrino d'Alba, Madonna and 
saints (1492); 54. Ferrari, Descent from the Cross. Room HI. : *55. Sodoma, 
Madonna and saints. Room IV.: 90. Landscape hy Massimo d" Azeglio (d. 1866). 

V. Room. 93. Fra Angelico da Fiesole (?), Madonna; 94, 96. Adoring 
angels, by the same ; 97. PoUajuolo , Tobias and the angel ; 98. Sandra 
BoUicelli, Same subject; 99. Madonna, with Christ and angels, by the 
same; 101. Fr. Francia, Entombment; 103. Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna and 
Child ; 106. Bugiardini, Holy Family ; 108 bis. After Raphael , Portrait of 
Pope Julius II. in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence ; 111. School of Leonardo 
da Vinci, Madonna and John the Baptist; 118. Girolamo Savoldo, Holy 
Family; 121. FranciaMgio , Annunciation; 122. Franc. Pemni, Good copy 
(1518) of Raphael's Entombment in the Palazzo Borghese at Rome ; 127 bis. 
Clovio, Entombment; 129. After Titian, an old copy. Pope Paul III.; 130. 
Paris Bordone, Portrait of a ladv. 

VI. Room. 132. Bonifacio ,' noly Family; 137, 138, 142, 143. Andrea 
Schiavone, Mythological scenes; 140. Antonio Badile, Presentation in the 
Temple; 152. Rinaldo Mantovano , God the Father; "157. Paolo Veronese, 
The Queen of Sheba before Solomon; 158. Annibale Carracci, St. Peter; 
161. Caravaggio, Musician. 

VII. Room. 163. Guido Reni, John the Baptist; 166. Badalocchio, St. 
Jerome with the skull; 174. Spagnoleito, St. Jerome; 177, 178. Albani, Sal- 
macis and the hermaphrodite ; 189 bis. Christ at Emmaus, after Titian 
(original in the Louvre). 

VIII. Room. Porcelain-paintings by Constaniin of Geneva, copied from 
celebrated originals; Luca della Rohhia, Adoration of the Infant Saviour. 

IX. Room. Fruit and flower-pieces; 227. by Mignon, 228. by De Ileem. 
— Then a corridor with inferior works. 

X. Room. *234. Paolo Veronese, Mary Magdalene washing the Saviour's 
feet ; 236. Guido Reni, Group of Cupids ; 237, 238. Poussin, Waterfall, Cas- 
cades of Tivoli ; 239, 242. Guercino, S. Francesca, Ecce Homo ; 244. Orazio 
Gentileschi, Annunciation; 251. Slrozzi, Homer. 

XI. Room. 257, 258. Sassoferralo , Madonnas, the first called 'della 
Rosa'; 260, 264, 271, 274. Albani, The four Elements ; 276. Carlo Bold, Ma- 
donna ; 284, 288. Bernardo BelloUi, Views of Turin ; 293. Tiepolo, Allegory, 
a sketch; 295. Maratla, Madonna; 299, 300. Angelica Katifmann, Sibyls. 

XII. Room. Netherlands and German school : 306. Engelbrechtsen, 
Passion ; 309. Adoration of the Magi in the style of Hieron. Bosch (15th 
cent.); 319. Brmjn, Portrait of Calvin (?); 322. Paul Bril, Landscape; 325. 
Goltz, Warriors; -388. Van Dyck, Children of Charles I. of England; 340. 
Rubens, Sketch of his apotheosis of Henry IV. in the Uffizi; 351. Van 
Duck, I'rincc^ss Isal)ella of Spain. 

XIII. KiKiM, containing the gems of the collection: 355. Mantegna, 
Madonna and saints ; *358. Hans Memling, Seven Sorrows of Mary, the count- 
erpart (jf the Seven Joys of Mary at Munich, a chronological composition 
of a kind much in vogue among northern artists ; 359. Petrus Cristus, 

Cathedral. TURIN. 8. Route. 61 

Madonna; *363. Van Dyck, Prince Thomas of Savoy, a fine portrait; 364. 
D. Tenters, Tavern ; 366. Wouwerman, Cavalry attacking a bridge ; 368. D. Ten- 
iers, Younger, The music-lesson ; 369. Sandro Botticelli, Triumph of Chastity; 
■373. Raphael, Madonna della Tenda (a very fine picture, but the original 
is at Munich); 375. Donatello , Madonna (relief); 376. Sodoma, Lucretia 
killing herself; '377. Paul Potter (1649), Cattle grazing; 377 bis. Jan Livens, 
Man asleep ; 378. Jan or ' Velvet' Brevghel , Landscape with accessories ; 
379. Frans Mieris , portrait of himself ; 380. Jan Breughel, Quay; -383 
bis. Murillo , Capuchin; '384. Van Dyck, Holy Family, by far the finest 
vifork of this master in Italy, painted under the influence of Titian; 385. 
Honlhorst (Oherardo delle Notti) , Samson overcome .by the Philistines; 
*386. H. Holbein, Portrait of Erasmus; 389. /. Rmjsdael , Landscape; 
391. Gerard Dou, Girl plucking grapes; 392. Velazquez, Philip IV. of 
Spain ; 393. Ruhens (?), Holy Family ; 394. C. Netscher, Scissors-grinder. 

XIV. Room. 410. Floris, Adoration of the Magi; 417. School of Rubens, 
Soldier and girl ; 420. Wouwerman, Horse-market ; 435. Gerard Dou , Por- 
trait ; 434 bis. Jacob Ruysdael , Landscape ; 428. Teniers , Younger, Card- 
Players; 450. School of Rembrandt, Portrait of a Rabbi; 458. Schallen, 
Old vi^oman ; 470 bis. Murillo, Portrait of a boy. 

XV. Room. 478, 483. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes; 481. Bourguignon, 
Battle; 484 bis. Netscher, Portrait of Moliere. 

The spacious Piazza S. Carlo (PI. E, 3; 587 ft. long, and 
264 ft. wide), which adjoins the Academy, is emhellished with the 
equestrian *Statue of Emmanuel Philibert (PI. 28), Duke of Savoy 
(d. 1580), surnamed 'Te<e de Fef, in bronze, designed by Maro- 
chetti, and placed on a pedestal of granite, with reliefs at the sides. 
On the W. side the Battle of St. Quentin , gained by the duke 
under Philip II. of Spain against the French in 1557 ; on the E. 
side the Peace of Cateau-Cambre'sis (1558), by which the duchy 
was restored to the House of Savoy. The duke as '■'pacem redditurus' 
is in the act of sheathing his sword (his armour preserved at the 
armoury is placed in the same attitude). 

The Via Roma leads from the Piazza S. Carlo to (N.) the Piazza 
Castello (p. 56), and (S.) to the Piazza Carlo Felice (p. 63) 
and the railway-station. — To the left in the Via dell' Ospedale is 
the Exchange (PI. 6 ; F, 3), and adjoining it, a Museo Industriale 
Italiano (P\. 34; F, 3), with a technological collection. Farther on 
is the large Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista (PI. 35; F, 3) with 557 
beds. — The cross-street leads in a N. direction to the Piazza 
Caklo Emanuelb II. (PI. F, 3), with a handsome *Monumeiit to 
Cavour (PI. 26) , by Dupre of Florence , erected in 1873 : grateful 
Italy presenting the civic crown to Cavour, who holds a scroll in his 
left hand with the famous words 'libera chiesa in libero stato' ; the 
pedestal is adorned with allegorical figures of Justice, Duty, Policy, 
and Independence ; the reliefs represent the return of the Sardinian 
troops from the Crimea , and the Paris Congress. — In the Via 
Cavour, at the corner of the Via Lagrange, is the house (PI. 7) in 
which Count Cavour was born in 1810 (d. 1861) , with a memorial 

Adjoining' the Palazzo Reale (p. 57) on the W. side rises the 
Cathedral of S. Giovanni Battista (PL 10; E, 2), occupying the site 

62 Route 8. TURIN. Palazzo di Cittd. 

of three ancient churches erected in 1492-98 by Meo del Caprino 
(of Florence, from Baccio Pintelli's design?), with a marble facade 
in the Renaissance style. 

The Interior consists of a nave and aisles , a transept , and an octa- 
gonal dome in the centre, Over the W. Portal is a copy of Leonardo da 
Vinci's Last Supper (p. 129). Over the second altar on the right are 18 
small pictures, blackened with age, by Deferrari (not Alb. Diirer). Fres- 
coes on the ceiling modern. The seats of the royal family are on the left 
of the high altar. 

Behind the high altar is situated the 'Cappella del SS. Sudario (open 
during morning mass till 9 o'clock) , approached by 37 steps to the right 
of the high altar, constructed in the 17th cent, by the Theatine monk 
Guarini. It is a lofty circular chapel of dark brown marble, contrasting 
strongly with the white monuments, separated from the choir by a glass 
partition, and covered with a curiously shaped dome. This is the burial- 
chapel of the Dukes of Savoy, and was embellished by King Charles 
Albert in 1842 with statues in white marble and symbolical figures to the 
memory of the most illustrious members of his family: (r.) Emmanuel 
Philiberl (d. 1580), 'restitutor imperii', by Marchesi; Prince Thomas (d. 
165G) 'qui magno animo italicam libertatem armis adseruit nee prius dimi- 
care destitit quam vivere', by Gaggini; Charles Emmanuel II. (d. 1675), 
by Fraccaroli; Amadeus VIII. (d. 1451), by Cacciatori. The chapel also 
contains the marble monument of the late Queen of Sardinia Maria 
Adelaide, consort of Victor Emmanuel (d. 1855), by Revelli. The peculiar 
light from above enhances the eil'ect. In a kind of urn over the altar is 
preserved the SS. Sudario, or part of the linen cloth in which the body 
of the Saviour is said to have been wrapped. — The door in the centre 
leads to the upper corridors of the royal palace, which are used as a 
public thoroughfare. 

Corpus Domini (PI. 12; E, 2), not far from the cathedral, was 
erected in 1607 by Vitozzi, and derived its name from a miracle of 
the Host in 1453. The church was restored in 1753 by Count 
Alfieri , then 'decurione' of the city, and lavishly decorated with 
marble, gilding, and paintings. — In the adjacent church of S. 
Spirito, Rousseau, when an exile from Geneva, at the age of 16, 
was admitted within the pale of the Roman Catholic Church in 
1728, but he again professed himself a convert to Calvinism at Ge- 
neva in 1754. 

The Palazzo di Cittk (PI. 37; E, 2), the seat of the mu- 
nicipality, and containing a library, was erected in 1659. The 
IMazza in front of it is adorned with a monument to Amadeus VI. 
(PI. 25), surnamed the ^conte verde" , the conqueror of the Turks 
and restorer of the imperial throne of Greece (d. 1383), a bronze 
group designed by Palayi, and erected in 1853. The marble sta- 
tues in front of the portico of the Palazzo di Cittk (town-hall) of 
(l.J Prince Eugene (p. 66; d. 1736) and (r.) Prince Ferdinand 
(d. 1855), Duke of Genoa and brother of Victor Emmanuel, were 
erected iii 1858 ; that of King Charles Albert (d. 1849) in the co- 
lonnade to the left was erected in 1859 ; that of King Victor Em- 
manuel, to the right, in 1860. Opposite these statues are several 
Memorial Tallets bearing reference to the late wars and annexations. 

In the Piazza Sayoia (PI. D, 2) rises the '■ Monumento Sic- 
cnrdV (PI. 32), an obelisk 75 ft. in height, erected in 1854 to com- 

University. TURIN. 8. Route. 63 

memorate the abolition of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, named after 
Siccardi, minister of justice, on whose suggestion it was erected 
with the consent of the king and Chambers. The names of all the 
towns which contributed to the erection of the monument, are in- 
scribed on the column. 

The Via della Consolata leads hence to the church of — 

LaCousolata (PI. 11; D, 2), containing a highly revered Ma- 
donna , and formed by the union of three churches ; the present 
structure in the 'baroque' style of the 17th cent. , was erected by 
Guarini in 1679, and decorated by Juvara in 1714. The chapel to 
the left below the dome contains the kneeling statues of Maria 
Theresa, Queen of Charles Albert, and Maria Adelaide, Queen of 
Victor Emmanuel (both of whom died in 1855), erected in 1861. 
The passage to the right of the church is hung with votive pic- 
tures. — The piazza adjoining the church is adorned with a granite 
column surmounted with a statue of the Virgin, erected in 1835 to 
commemorate the cessation of the cholera. 

Returning to the Piazza Savoia and crossing the Corso Siccardi, 
we reach the new Giardino della Citadella (Pl.D, 2,3), where sta- 
tues were erected in 1871 to Brofftrio (d. 1866), the poet and 
orator, and in 1873, on the opposite corner, to the jurist J. B. 
Cassini. — Farther on, in the triangular Piazza Pietro Micca (PI. 
D, 3), at the corner of the Via della Cernaja, is a monument in 
bronze , erected in 1864 in memory of Pietro Micca , the brave 
'soldato minatore', who at the sacrifice of his own life saved the 
citadel of Turin, on 30th Aug., 1706, by springing a mine when 
the French grenadiers had already advanced to the very gates. 
Nearly opposite rises the statue of Count Alex. La Marmora (d. 1855 
in the Crimea). 

The Piazza Solfeeino (PI. D , E, 3) is embellished with an 
equestrian statue of Duke Ferdinand of Genua (p. 62), by Bal- 
zico , erected in 1877 ; the prince is represented as commanding 
at the battle of Novara. 

In front of the imposing Central Station (p. 54 ; PL E, 4, 5) 
extends the Piazza Caklo Felice, in which it is intended to erect 
a colossal monument in memory of the completion of the Mont 
Cenis tunnel. The bronze statue of Massimo d'Azeylio, the patriot, 
poet, and painter (d. 1866), by Balzico , was cast at Munich, and 
erected in 1873. This large piazza is adjoined by two smaller 
ones , the Piazza Paleocapa to the W. , adorned with the statue 
of the minister of the same name (PL 31), and the Piazza La- 
grange , with the statue of Count Lagrange , the mathematician 
(d. 1813 at Paris; PL 30). 

In the Via di Po (p. 56) which leads to the S.E. from the Piazza 
Castello, on the left, is the University (PL 57; F, 2), with a hand- 
some court in the late Renaissance style , with two arcades, one 

64 Route ,V. TURIN. Museo Civico. 

above the other. It contains a Museo Lapidario of Roman anti- 
quities, chiefly inscriptions. Marble statues have been erected here 
to Carlo Enianuele III., and to Vittorio Amadeo II. (at the en- 
trance), to Prof. Riberi (d. 1861), and Dr. L. Gallo (d. 1857). On 
the corridor of the first floor are busts of celebrated professors and 
a large allegorical group presented by Victor Emmanuel. The Li- 
brary (open to the public daily, 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. in summer, and 
9-4 and 7-10 p. m. in winter ; closed in Sept.), numbers 200,000 
vols, and contains a number of valuable manuscripts from Bobbio 
and rare editions (Aldi). The University (founded in 1404) has at 
present a staff of 85 professors, and numbers about 1500 students. 

No. 6, to the right in the Via dell' Accademia Albertina, is the 
Accademia Albertina delle Belle Arti (PI. 1; F, 3; shown on week- 
days on payment of a fee). It contains a small collection of pic- 
tures; among them a Madonna ascribed to Raphael, a cartoon by Leon, 
da Vinci, and '24 cartoons by Gaudenzio Ferrari. 

The Via Montobello , the next cross-street , leads to the new 
Synagogue (PI. 47; G, 2), begun by Antonelli in 1863, but after- 
wards discontinued for lack of funds , and now being finished at 
the expense of the city ; it is a square building resembling a tower, 
with a singular facade consistiiig of several rows of columns, and 
will when finished be the loftiest in Turin (354 ft.). 

In the Via di Gaudenzio Ferrari , No. 1 , is situated the Museo 
Civico (PI. 33 ; F, 2), containing the civic collections (open to the 
public on Sun. and Thnrs. 11-3, on other days by paying a fee of 
1 fr.). These collections comprise ethnological and prehistoric ob- 
jects , medic-eval scxilptures and a copy of the Bucentaur (ground 
floor) , modern paintings and sculptures (first floor), and small ob- 
jects of medifcval .-nd Renaissance art, paintings and mementoes 
of Massimo d'Azeglio, and an interesting collection of stained glass 
(second floor). 

The former Oiardino del Ripari , on the site of the old fortifi- 
cations , is now superseded by new streets and squares in course 
of construction. The squares in this new quarter are adorned with 
several monuments, such as that to the Dictator of Venice, Dan- 
tele Manin (d. 1857), beyond the Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista, 
representing the Republic Venice, holding in her right hand a 
palm-branch, and leaning, with her left, on the medallion portrait 
of Manin. Also statues of Cesare Balbo (d. 1583), the minister and 
historian, of Bava, the Piedmontcsc general, and, nearer the 
Piazza Maria Teresa (PI. G, 3), of General Oucjl. Pepe (d. 1853), 
the brave defender of Venice in 1849. 

An avenue leads from the Piazza Vittorio Enianuele, along the 
bank of the river, to the chain-bridge (PI. G, 4), constructed in 
1840. In the Via S. Lazzaro, diverging to the right, is situated the 
church of — 

S. Massimo (PI. 15 ; F, G, 4), bniltin 1849-54 in the style of a 

Cemetery. TURIN. 8. Route. 65 

Roman temple, surmounted by a dome. The facade is adorned with 
statues of the Four Evangelists. Good modern frescoes in the in- 
terior, and several statues by Albertoni. 

In the Corso del Re, which leads from the iron bridge to the 
Piazza Carlo Felice, on the left, is the handsome Protestant Church 
iTempio Valdese; PI. 18, F 4; see p. 66), completed in 1854, the 
first erected at Turin since the establishment of religious toleration 
in 1848. 

A favourite promenade , especially in the evening , is the 
*Nuovo Giardino Pubblico (PI. G, 4, 5), above the iron bridge on 
the left bank of the Po (Cafe). It comprises the Botanical Garden, 
and extends beyond the royal chateau Jl Valentino , a turreted 
building of the 17th cent., now occupied by the Polytechnic 
School ('Scuola superiore d'applicazione degli Ingegneri'). In the 
adjacent Corso Massimo d'Azeglio is the Tiro Nazionale, a well 
equipped rifle-range. 

Opposite the spacious Piazza Vittorio Emanuele (seep. 56; 
PI. G, 3) the Po is crossed by a Bridge of five arches, constructed of 
granite in 1810. (Above the bridge are the swimming-baths, p. 55.) 
Beyond the bridge, on the right bank of the river is a flight of 32 
steps ascending to the spacious dome-church of Gran Madre di 
Dio (PL 14 ; H, 3), erected in 1818 in imitation of the Pantheon 
at Rome, to commemorate the return of King Victor Emmanuel I. 
in 1814. The groups sculptured in stone on the flight of steps are 
emblematical of Faith and Charity. The lofty columns of the por- 
tico are monoliths of granite. — A few hundred yards farther is the 
Villa della Regina , now a school for the daughters of officers who 
have fallen in battle, commanding a fine view of the town. 

Following the Via di Moncalieri to the right , we reach the 
wooded hill on which rises the Capuchin Monastery, 11 Monte 
(PI. H, 3, 4), 1/4 hr.'s walk from the bridge. Two paths ascend 
the hill, the wider of which, to the left, is preferable, being shady 
and unpaved. The terrace in front of the church (which should be 
visited in the morning, as the evening light is dazzling) commands 
a fine *Survey of the river, city, plain, and the chain of the Alps in 
the background , above which (right) the snowy summit of Monte 
Rosa (15,217 ft.) is prominent, then the Grand-Paradis (13,780 ft.), 
and Monte Levanna (11,942 ft.); farther W. the valley of Susa 
(p. 24), S. Michele della Chiusa (p. 24), rising conspicuously on 
a hill (1042 ft.), above it the Roche-Melon (11,660 ft.) to the right 
of Mont Cenis, and farther S.W. Monte Viso (12,670 ft.). This 
hill of the Capuchins has always been a point of great importance 
in the military history of Turin , and was fortified down to 1802. 

The Cemetery (Campo Santo, open 12-4 o'cl. in winter in fine 
weather ; in March and April 1 - 5 ; in summer 3-8 ; in Sept. and 
Oct. 2-4 only; single cab fare), IV2 M. N.E. of Turin, and reached 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 5 

bb Route 9. IVREA. 

from the Ponte delle Benne by a shady avenue (the road to Chi- 
vasso, see p. 69), deserves a visit. The front part is enclosed by 
a wall with arches, while the more interesting portion beyond is 
surrounded by arcades covered with small domes. To the left by 
the wall in the first section is the tomb of Silvio Pellico (d. 1854} ; 
in the other section we observe the names of many celebrated 
modern Italians, such as d'Azeglio, Bava, Brofferio, Gioberti, Pepe, 
and Pinelli. A separate space on the N. side is reserved for the 
interment of non-Romanists. 

The Superga (2555 ft.), tlie royal burial-church, a handsome edifice 
with a colonnade in front, and surmounted by a dome, conspicuously situ- 
ated on a hill to the E. of Turin, is well worthy of a visit, and commands 
a splendid view (comp. the Map, p. 55). The building vi'as begun in 1718, 
from designs by Juvara, and was completed in 173i (closed 12-2). Ad- 
jacent are a seminary for priests and a trattoria. — It was near the 
Superga that the famous battle of Turin between the Italians and French 
was fought , 7th Sept. 1706 , in which the latter were signally defeated, 
and by which the House of Savoy regained the Duchy, which was created 
a kingdom in the Peace of Utrecht, 1713. It is said that Prince Eugene 
reconnoitred the hostile camp from this height before the commencement 
of the battle, and that , observing symptoms of irresolution in their move- 
ments, he observed to Duke Amadeus II. '■II me semble , que ces gens-la 
soiit a demi baUiis\ The latter, it is said, on this occasion vowed to erect 
a church here in honour of the Virgin , in case of his success in the 
battle. An annual thanksgiving still takes place in the church on 8th Gept. 

Pedestrians require three good hours to reach the Superga. The 
plcasantest way is to take the tramway as far as the Madonna del Piloiie, 
about 1 M. below Turin, where donkeys (somarelli, 1-3 fr.) may be en- 
gaged for the ascent of the hill. Two-horse carriage from Turin and 
back, 25 fr. 

ExcDKsioN from Turin to the Valleys of the Waldenses ( ValUes Vau- 
doises), extending along the French frontier, about 30 M. to the S.W. 
The well-known and interesting Protestant communities (about 25,000 
souls) who have occupied these valleys for 600 years, have steadily ad- 
hered to the faith for which they were formerly so cruelly persecuted. 
Their language is French. Railway from Turin to Pignerol (Ital. Pine- 
rolo) in IV2 hr. (fares 3fr. 45, 2fr. 60, 1 fr. 75c.); omnibus thence once 
daily in 1 hr. (fare Ifr. ; one-horse carr. there and back 7V2 fr.) to la 
Tour, Ital. Torre Pellice , formerly Torre Luserna (UOurs; Lion d" Or), 
the chief of these communities, which possesses excellent schools. — From 
Pignerol a road ascends the valley of the Clusone by Perosa and Fenes- 
trelle , a strongly fortified place , to the Monl Oenivre and the French 
fortress of Brian^on in the lofty valley of the Durance. At Cesanne this 
road unites with that from Susa. 

9. From Turin to Aosta. 

Si M. Railway to Ivrea (39 M.) in 2 hrs. (fares 7fr. 5, 4fr. 95, 
3l'r. 45 c.). Diligence thence to Aosta (42 M.) in 9 hrs. 

From Turin to (18 M. ) Chivasso, see p. 69. Between the de- 
pressions of the lower mountains the snowy summits of the Grand- 
Paradis are conspicuous; farther to the E., Monte Rosa is visible. 

At Chivasso carriages are changed. — 22 M. Montanaro, 27 M. 
Caluso, and 27 M. Stramblno, villages of some importance. 

39 M. Ivrea (768 ft. ; Europa , in the Dora promenade ; 
*Universo), a town with 9300 inhab., is picturesquely situated on 

VERREX. 9. Route. 67 

the Dora Baltea (Frencli Doire), on the slope of a hill crowned by 
an extensive and well-preserved ancient Castle, with three lofty 
towers of brick, now a prison. Adjacent is the modern Cathedral, 
the interior of which was restored in 1855. An ancient sarcophagus 
adorns the adjoining Piazza. Ivrea was the ancient Eporedia, 
which was colonised by the Romans, B.C. 100, in order to command 
the Alpine routes over the Great and Little St. Bernard. Pleasant 
walk to the Madonna del Monte (pilgrimage church) and the lake 
of S. Giuseppe with a ruined monastery (1 hr.). 

Ivrea may be regarded as one of the S. gateways to the Alps. The 
luxuriantly fertile valley, here IV2 M. in breadth , is flanked with 
mountains of considerable height. The Road skirts the Dora 
Baltea the whole way to Aosta. On a height to the right stands 
the well-preserved, pinnacled castle of Montalto (a waterfall near 
it); several other ruins crown the hills farther on. The vines 
which clothe the slopes are carefully cultivated. The road leads 
through the villages of Settimo-Vittone and Carema. At — 

11 M. (from Ivrea) Pont St. Martin (Rosa Rossa) the road 
crosses the Lys torrent, which descends from Monte Rosa. The bold 
and slender bridge which crosses the brook higher up is a Roman 
structure. This and the ruined castle here are most picturesque 
features in the landscape. Several forges are situated on the bank 
of the Dora. 

Beyond Donnaz the road ascends rapidly through a profound 
defile. On the left flows the river, on the right rises a precipitous 
rock. The pass is terminated by the picturesque *Fort Bard (1019 
ft.), which stands on a huge mass of rock in a most commanding 
position. The fort was taken in 1052 by Duke Amadeus of Savoy 
after a long and determined siege , and in May , 1800, before the 
battle of Marengo, it was most gallantly defended by 400 Austrians, 
who kept the whole French army in check for a week. 

The new road , hewn in the solid rock, no longer leads by the 
village of Bard, but follows the course of the Dora, below the fort. 
On the left opens the Val di Camporciero, or Champorcher. 

19 M. Verrex (1279 ft.; Ecu de France, ox Paste; *Couronne) 
lies at the entrance of the (r.) Val de Challant. 

The valleys of Aosta and Susa (p. 24) were alternately occu- 
pied by the Franks and the Lombards , and belonged for a con- 
siderable period to the Franconian Empire, in consequence of which 
the French language still predominates in these Italian districts. 
Bard is the point of transition from Italian to French , while at 
Verrex the latter is spoken almost exclusively. 

Above Verrex the valley expands. The ruined castle of St. 
Germain, loftily situated, soon comes into view. The road ascends 
through the long and steep *Defile of Montjovet. The rock-hewn 
passage is supposed to have been originally constructed by the 
Romans. The Doire forms a succession of waterfalls in its rugged 


68 Route 9. AOSTA. 

channel far below. The small village of Montjovet , on the roofs 
of which the traveller looks down from the road , appears to cling 
precariously to the rocks. The castle of St. Germain is again 
visible from several different points of view. 

As soon as the region of the valley in which Aosta is situated 
is entered , a grand and picturesque landscape , enhanced by the 
richest vegetation , is disclosed. The Pont des Salassins (see 
below), a bridge crossing a profound ravine, commands a magnifi- 
cent view. On the left rises the castle of Vsselle. 

Near St. Vincent (Lion d'Or; Ecu de France") is a mineral 
spring and bath-establishment. Then (l'/2 M. farther) — 

271/2 M. Ch&tillon (1738 ft.; Hotel de Londres ; Liond'Or, poor), 
the capital of this district, possessing a number of forges and hand- 
some houses. To the N. opens the Val Tournanche, through which 
a bridle-path leads to the Theodule Pass (10,899 ft.) and Zermatt 
(see Baedeker's Switzerland). 

The road is shaded by walnut and chestnut-trees and trellised 
vines. The wine of Chambave, about 3 M. from Chatillon , is one 
of the best in Piedmont. A slight eminence here commands an 
imposing retrospect; to the E. rise several of the snowy summits of 
Monte Rosa, on the right the Castor and Pollux (Les Jumeaux), on 
the left the bold peak of the Matterhorn and the Theodule Pass (see 
above). The background towards the "W. is formed by the triple- 
peaked Ruitor. 

To the left, at the entrance of the valley of Chambave, stands 
the picturesque castle of Fenis. The poor village of Nus , with 
fragments of an old castle, lies midway between Chatillon and Aosta. 

A footpath leads from Villefranche to the castle of Quart on the 
hill above (now a hospital) and descends on the other side. Beau- 
tiful view from the summit. 

42 M. Aosta (1912 ft.; *H6tel du Montblanc, at the upper end 
of the town, on the road to Courmayeur ; Couronne, in the market- 
place), the Augusta Praetoria Salassorum of the Romans, now the 
capital (7800 inhab.) of the Italian province of that name, lies at 
the confluence of the Buttier and the Doire, or Dora Baltea. The 
valley was anciently inhabited by the Salassi , a Celtic race , who 
commanded the passage of the Great and the Little St. Bernard, 
the two most important routes from Italy to Gaul. They frequently 
harassed the Romans in various ways , and on one occasion plun- 
dered the coffers of Cfesar himself. After protracted struggles the 
tribe was Anally extirpated by Augustus , who is said to have 
captured the whole of the survivors , 36,000 in number, and to 
have sold them as slaves at Eporedia. He then founded Aosta to 
protect the high roads, named it after himself, and garrisoned it 
with 3000 soldiers of the Pr;ctorian cohorts. The antiquities which 
still testify to its ancient importance are the Town Walls, flanked 
with strong towers, the double S. Oate, resembling the Porta Nigra 

CHIVASSO. 10. Route. 69 

of Treves in miniature, a magnificent Triumphal Arch constructed 
of huge blocks and adorned with ten Corinthian half-columns, the 
half-huried arch of a bridge, the ruins of a basilica, etc. The prin- 
cipal relics may be seen in 1/2 ^"^^ ^6 follow the principal street 
towards the E., and soon reach the Roman Gate and the Trium- 
phal Arch. Proceeding from the latter in a straight direction we 
cross the new bridge over the Buttier, a few paces beyond which 
is the Roman Bridge, at first scarcely recognisable, the construction 
of which is best seen by descending and passing below it. 

The modern Cathedral possesses a singular Portal , with fres- 
coes; above it the Last Supper in terracotta, gaudily painted. 
Near the church of St. Ours are cloisters with handsome early 
Romanesque columns. Modern Town Hall in the spacious Piazza 
Carlo Alberto, or market-place. 

The 'Becca di Nona (10,354 ft.), which rises to the S. of Aosta, com- 
mands a superb view of the Alps. Good bridle-path to the summit. Two- 
thirds of the way up is the Alp Comboh (simple fare) ; on the top is a new 
refuge hut. 

From Aosta over the Oreat St. Bernard to Martigny (p. 24), and from 
Aosta to Courmayeur and round Mont Blanc to Cfiamouny, and excursions 
to the Qraian Alps, see Baedeker's Switzerland. 

10. From Turin to Milan by Novara. 

931/2 M. Railway in 33/4-51/2 hrs. (fares 17 fr., 11 fr. 90, 8 fr. 55 c). — 
The seats on the left afford occasional glimpses of the Alps. — Stations 
at Turin, see p. 54. 

The Dora Riparia is crossed , then the Stura between stations 
Succursale di Torino and Settimo (whence a tramway runs towards 
the N. to Rivarolo'), and beyond it the Malon and Oreo, all tribu- 
taries of the Po. — 15 M. Brandizzo. 

18 M. Chivasso (Moro) lies near the influx of the Oreo into the 
Po. Branch-line hence to Ivrea, see p. 66. Beyond stat. Torrazza 
di Verolan the Dora Baltea (p. 67), a torrent descending from 
Mont Blanc, is crossed. Stations Saluggia, Livorno, Bianze, and 

37 M. Santhih possesses a church, restored with taste in 1862, 
and containing a picture by Gaud. Ferrari in ten sections. 

Bkanch-Line to Biella, I8V2 M., in 1 hr. , by Salussola, Vergnasco, 
Sandigliano , and Candelo. — Biella (Albergo delta Testa Qrigia; Albergo 
Centrale) , an industrial town and seat of a bishop, possesses streets with 
arcades and a fine cathedral in a spacious Piazza , where the episcopal 
palace and seminary are also situated. The palaces of the old town, rising 
picturesquely on the hill, are now tenanted by the lower classes. Celebrat- 
ed pilgrimage-church of the Madonna d''Oropa, 8 M. farther up the valley 
(omnibus thither). On the way to it two finely situated hydropathic 
establishments are passed. 

The train skirts the high road. — 401/2 M. S. Oermano. 

491/2 M. Vercelli (Tre Re; Leone d'OroJ, an episcopal residence 
with 26,000 inhabitants. The church of S. Cristoforo contains pic- 
tures by G. Ferrari and B. Lanini, by the former a *Madonna and 
donors in an orchard. S. Caterina also contains a work of Ferrari. 

70 Route 10. 


The library of tlie cathedral contains a number of ra,re and ancient 
MSS. A statue of Cavour was erected in the market-place in 1864. 

Branch-Line to Alessandria, 35 M., in 2 hrs. (fares 6fr. 35, 4fr. 45, 
3fr. 20c0- Stations Asigliano , Perlengo, Balzola, beyond which tlie i'o 
is crossed. — 14V2 M. Casale (Albergo delV Angela, Leon d'Oro), the an- 
cient capital of the Duchy of Monferrato , which afterwards belonged to 
the Gonzagas. The interesting Romanesque Cathedral contains several 
good paintings (by G. Ferrari and others), and sculptures by Lombard 
masters. The church of ;S. Domeiiico, in the Renaissance style, the Pa- 
lazzo di Citth, with its handsome colonnade, and other palaces are also 
worthy of inspection. Casale is the junction of the Asti and Mortara line 
(see p. 73). — The following stations are Borgo S. Marlino, Giarole, Va- 
leiiza (see p. 159), Valmadonna, and Alessandria (see p. 73). 

The train crosses the Sesia (p. 161); to the left rise the Alps, 
among which the magnificent Monte Rosa group is most conspic- 
uous. 521/2 M. Borgo Vercelli, 57 M. Ponzana. 

63 M. Novara (*Rail. Restaurant; Albergo d' Italia, R. 2, B. 1, 
L. V2j a. 3/4, omnibus V2 ft-, well spoken of; Tre Re), an epis- 
copalf[residence and formerly a fortress, with 30,900 inhab., was 


ll 12S00 i^^ 

MAGENTA. 10. Route. 71 

the scene of a victory gained by the Austrians under Radetzky 
over the Piedmontese in 1849, in consequence of which Charles 
Albert abdicated. A walk through the town is interesting. 

From the station we proceed in a straight direction along the 
Via Vittorio Emanuele , passing a Monument of Cavour, by Dini, 
and then turn to the right to the church of S. Gaudenzio, erected 
by Pellegrini about 1570, the stately tower of which rises con- 
spicuously over the town. The church is built without aisles, in 
imitation of S. Fedele at Milan, and contains several good pictures 
by Gaudenzio Ferrari (2nd chapel on the left). The tower, ascend- 
ed by 300 steps, commands a very extensive prospect, most pictur- 
esque in the direction of the Alps. 

The Cathedral, a Renaissance structure with nave and aisles 
upon an old Roman foundation , connected with the Baptistery by 
an atrium or entrance-court, is a picturesque pile. The market- 
place is surrounded by colonnades. — In front of the theatre is a 
marble statue of Charles Emmanuel III., by Marches!. — The Mer- 
cato, or Corn Exchange, near the Porta Torino, is a handsome 
building, surrounded with colonnades. — In the Corso di Porta 
Genova, near the Palazzo Civico, is a monument to Charles Albert. 

The celebrated philosopher Petrus Lombardus (d. 1164 as Bishop of 
Paris), surnamed the 'Magister Sententiaruni'' and a pupil of Abelard, was 
born near Novara about 1120. 

Bkanch-Line to Gozzano, 2272 M., in IV4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 85 c, 
2 fr. 5 c). Stations Caltignaga , Momo , Borgomanero (a thriving town), 
Gozzano (near it Bolzano, an episcopal chateau with a church and sem- 
inary) ; omnibus hence to Buccione (see p. 160). 

At Novara the Turin and Milan line is crossed by that from 
Arena to Genoa (p. 158). Frequent changes of carriage. 

69 M. Trecate. Near iS. Martina the line crosses the Ticino by 
a broad and handsome stone bridge of eleven arches , which the 
Austrians partially destroyed before the battle of Magenta. 

Farther on, the Naviglio Orande, a canal connecting Milan with 
the Ticino and the Lago Maggiore , is crossed (comp. p. 118). On 
the right , before (77 M.) Magenta is reached, stands a monument 
erected to Napoleon III. in 1862, to commemorate the victory gained 
by the French and Sardinians over the Austrians on 4th June, 
1859, in consequence of which the latter were compelled to evac- 
uate the whole of Lombardy. A number of mounds with crosses in 
a low-lying field opposite the station mark the graves of those who 
fell in the struggle. A small chapel has been erected on an 
eminence in the burial-ground, and adjoining it a charnel-house. 

The line intersects numerous fields of rice , which are kept 
under water during two months in the year. The next stations are 
Vittuone and Rhb (p. 158), where the line unites with that from 

931/2 M. Milan (see p. 116). 


11. From Turin to Piacenza by Alessandria. 

117 M. Railway in 4-8 hrs.; fares 21 fr. 30, 14 fr. 90, 10 fr. 60 c. 

From Turin to Alessandria, 57 M. , see R. 12. Beyond Alessandria 
the train traverses the Battle-field of Marengo (p. 74). 62 M. 
Spinetta, a little to the N.W. of Marengo. — 65 M. S. Giuliano. 
The train then crosses the Scrivia, and reaches (70 M.) the small 
town of Tortona (Croce Bianca) , the ancient Dertona, -with a Ca- 
thedral erected by Philip II. in 1584, containing a remarkably 
tine ancient sarcophagus. 

Bbanch-Line to Novi (p. 74), IIV2 M. , by stat. Pozzuolo , in 35-45 
min. (2fr. 15, 1 fr. 55, 1 fr. 10 c). 

The train traverses a fertile district, and near stat. Ponte- 
curone crosses the impetuous Curone. — 81 M. Voghera (Italia; 
Albergo del Popolo), a town with 15,400 inhab., on the left bank 
of the Staffora (perhaps the ancient Iria), was once fortified by 
Giov. Galeazzo Visconti. The old church of S. Lorenzo, founded in 
the Uth cent. , was remodelled in 1600. From Voghera to Milan 
via Pavia, see R. 24. 

On the high road from Voghera to the next station Casteggio, 
to the S. of the railway , is situated Montebello , where the well 
known battle of 9th June, 1800 (five days before the battle of Ma- 
rengo) , took place , and on 20th May , 1859, the first serious en- 
counter between the Austrians and the united French and Sar- 
dinian armies. Casteggio , a village on the Coppa , is believed to 
be identical with the Clastidium so frequently mentioned in the 
annals of the wars of the Romans against the Gauls. 

The train skirts the base of the N. spurs of the Apennines. 
Stations -S. Giuletta, Broni, Stradella. At (981/2 M.) .Arena-Po it 
enters the plain of the Po. — 103 M. Castel S. Giovanni is situated 
in the ex-Duchy of Parma. The last stations are Sarmato, Rotto- 
freno , and S. Niccolh. The last, in the plain of the Trebia, is 
memorable for the victory gained by Hannibal, B. C. 218, over the 
Romans, whom he had shortly before defeated near Somma. 
117 M. Piacenza, see p. 266. 

12. From Turin to Genoa. 

a. Vi& Alessandria. 

103 M. Railway in 41/4-53/4 hrs.; fares 18 fr. 80, 13 fr. 50, 9fr. 40 c. 

The line , the construction of which was zealously promoted by 
Count Cavour in order to bring Genoa into closer relations with 
Turin (opened in 1853), at first proceeds towards the S., at some 
distance from the left bank of the Po. Near (5M.) Moncalieri, where 
the line turns to the E. , the river is crossed by a bridge of seven 
arches. On a height above Moncalieri, which is picturesquely 
situated on the hill-side, rises the handsome royal chateau, where 
Victor Emmanuel 1. died in 1823. A final retrospect is now ob- 

ALESSANDRIA. 12. Route. 73 

tained of the hills of Turin, and, to the left, of the principal snowy 
summits of the Alps. At (8 M.) Trofarello hranch-lines diverge 
to Savona (p. 74) and Cuneo (p. 108), and to Chieri. Stations Cam- 
biano, Pessione, Villanuova, Villafranca, Baldichieri, S. Damiano. 
The line then crosses the Borbone, and reaches the valley of the 
Tanaro, on the left bank of which it runs to Alessandria. 

351/2 M. Asti (Leone d'Oro ; Albergo Reale), the ancient Asia, 
with 33,500 inhab. , and numerous towers , the birthplace of the 
dramatist Alfieri (d. 1803), is famous for its sparkling wine and its 
horticulture. The left aisle of the Gothic Cathedral, erected in 1348, 
contains (in the 2nd chapel) a Madonna with four saints by a master 
of the school of Vercelli, and (in the 3rd chapel) a Sposalizio, pro- 
bably by the same. — The adjacent church of S. Giovanni (the 
sacristan of the cathedral keeps the key) is built above an ancient 
Christian basilica, part of which has again been rendered accessible, 
and is borne by monolithic columns with capitals bearing Christian 
symbols (6th cent.). The Piazza is adorned with a Statue of Al- 
fieri, by Vini, erected in 1862. Near Porta Alessandria is the small 
Baptistery of S. Pietro (11th cent.), an octagonal structure, borne 
by short columns with square capitals , and surrounded by a low, 
polygonal gallery. On the right and left, at some distance from the 
town , rise vine-clad hills which yield the excellent wine of Asti. 

From Asti to Moetara (Milan) 46 M. , in 3V2-4 hrs. — Stations un- 
important; (29 M.) Casale, see p. 70; Mortara, see p. 158. — Feom Asti 
TO Castagnole (p. 75), 13 M., in 3/4 hr. 

Next stations Annone, Cerro, Felizzano, Solero. The country 
is flat and fertile. Before Alessandria is reached, the line to Arona 
(p. 158) diverges to the N. The train now crosses the Tanaro by a 
bridge of 15 arches, skirts the fortifications, and reaches — 

56V2 M. Alessandria (Hotel deVVnivers, R. 2, B. IV2 fr- ; 
Europa; Italia; ^Railway Restaurant), a town with 58,000 inhab., 
situated on the Tanaro in a marshy district, and only remarkable as 
a fortified place. It was founded in 1168 by the Lombard towns 
allied against the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa , and named after 
Pope Alexander III., with the addition of dellapaglia, i.e. of straw, 
perhaps because the first houses were thatched with straw. — Ales- 
sandria being a junction of several lines, carriages are generally 
changed here. Railway to Vercelli by Valenza , p. 70 ; to No vara 
and Arona, pp. 158, 159; to Milan by Mortara and Vigevano, see 
p. 158; to Pavia by Valenza, see p. 165; to Piacenza, Parma, Bo- 
logna, etc., see RR. 11 and 38; to Cavallermaggiore, see p. 75. 

Fkom Alessandria to Savona (via Acqui), 65 M. , in 41/4-43/4 hrs. 
(fares 11 fr. 94, 8fr. 40 c., 6 fr.). — As far as Cantalupo the line is the 
same as to Bra and Cavallermaggiore (see p. 75). — 21 M. Acqui (Al- 
hergo del Moro)^ the Aquae Statielae of the Romans, an episcopal town on 
the Bormida with 11,200 inhab., is well known for its mineral waters, 
which resemble those of Aix-la-Chapelle in their ingredients and effects. 
The Cathedral, with its double aisles, dates from the 12th century. Near 
Acqui the Austrians and Piedmontese were defeated by the French in 
1794. Good wine is produced in the vicinity. — The line ascends the 

74 Route 12. NO VI. From Turin 

valley of the Bormida , passing throngh ten tunnels. Stations Terzo, Bi- 
stagno, Ponti, ifontecfiiaro, Spigno (with silk and wool factories), Merana, 
Picma, Degu, RocclieUa, and Cairo. — 52 M. S. Giuseppe di Cairo , see 
p. 76. — 65 M. Savona, see p. 93. 

Tte line crosses the Bormida , which a short distance below 
Alessandria falls into the Tanaro. Ahout I1/4 M. E. of the hridge, 
in the broad plain between the Bormida and the Scrivia, is situated 
the small village of Marengo , near which , on 14th June , 1800, 
was fought a battle which influenced the destinies of the whole 
of Europe. The French were commanded by Napoleon, the Austrians 
by Melas. The battle lasted 12 hrs., and the French lost Desaix, 
one of their best generals. — 63 M. Frugarolo. 

70 M. Novi {*La Sirena ; branch-line to Pavia and Milan via 
Tortona and Voghera, see pp. 71, 72, and R. 24; to Piacenza, see 
R. 11), situated on the hills to the right, commanded by a lofty 
square tower, was the scene of the victory gained by the Austrians 
and Russians under Suwarow over the French on 15th Aug., 1799. 
At (75 M.) Serravalle the train enters a mountainous district. — 
79 M. Arquata, with a ruined castle on the height. Between this 
point and Genoa there are eleven tunnels. The train threads its 
way through profound rocky ravines (la Bocchetta), traversing lofty 
embankments, and several times crossing the mountain-brook (Scri- 
via). The scenery is imposing and beautiful. — 83 M. Jsola del 
Cantone; on the height to the right the ruins of an old castle. 

891/2 M. Busalla (1192 ft.), the culminating point of the line, 
is the watershed between the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian Sea. 

The last long tunnel, the Galleria dei Giovi, is upwards of 2M. 
in length, and descends towards the S. Then several short cuttings. 
The landscape becomes more smiling ; the hills , planted with 
vines and corn, are sprinkled with the villas of the Genoese. 

To the right, on the loftiest summit of the mountain near 
(951/2 M.) Pontedecimo (282 ft.), rises the white church of the Ma- 
donna de'Ua Guar dia. QSM. Bolzaneto, and (lOOM.) Bit'aroio. The 
railway now crosses the Polcevera, the stony channel of which is oc- 
casionally filled with an impetuous torrent, by a handsome new bridge 
with 9 arches. On the summits of the heights to the left are towers 
belonging to the old fortifications of Genoa. The last stat. (IOII/4M.) 
S. Pier d" Arena is a suburb of Genoa (p. 90), where travellers pro- 
vided with through-tickets to or from Nice change carriages. On 
the right are the lighthouse and citadel, below which the train 
enters the town by a tunnel. On the right, before the station is 
entered, is the Palazzo del Principe Doria. 

103 M. Genoa, see p. 78. 

b. Vi& Brk and Savona. 

From Turin to Savona, 97 M., in 5V4-7 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 70, 11 fr. 70 
8fr. 45c.); thence to Genoa, 27V.2 M., in V/2-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr., 3 fr. 50 
2 fr. 50 c). Finest views to the right. 

From Turin to Trofarello, 8 M., see p. 72. — 121/2 M. Villastellone. 

to Genoa. MONDOVI. 12. Route. 75 

A road crossing the Po leads hence to the W. to (472 M.) Carignano, a 
town with 7800inhab., and several handsome churches, situated on the 
high road from Turin to Nice. <S. Oiovanni Baiiista was erected by Count 
Alfieri ; S. Maria delle Grazie contains a monument to Bianca Palaeolo- 
gus, daughter of Guglielmo IV., Marquis of Montferrat, and wife of Duke 
Charles I., at whose court the 'Chevalier Bayard' was brought up. — 
Carignano, with the title of a principality, was given as an appanage to 
Thomas Francis (d. 1656), fourth son of Charles Emmanuel I., from whom 
the present royal family is descended. 

18 M. Carmagnola, with 13,200 inhab. 

Carmagnola was the birthplace (1390) of the celebrated Condottiere 
Francesco Bassone, son of a swine-herd, usually called Count of Carmag- 
nola, who reconquered a considerable part of Lombardy for Duke Filippo 
Maria Visconti, and afterwards, as Generalissimo of the Republic of Venice 
conquered Brescia and Bergamo , and won the battle of Macalo (1427). 
At length his fidelity was suspected by the Council of Ten, and he was be- 
headed between the two columns in the Piazzetta (p. 225) on 5th May, 
1432. Bussone's fate is the subject of a tragedy by Manzoni. 

A direct line hence to Brk is projected, with a view to cut off 
the circuit by Cavallermaggiore. — 231/2 M. Racconigi, with a royal 
chateau and park, laid out in 1755 by Le Notre, the favourite resi- 
dence of Carlo Alberto (d. 1849). 

28 M. Cavallermaggiore (Italia; Buoi Rossi), with 5000 inhab., 
is the junction of the lines to Saluzzo and Cuneo (p. 108). 

31 M. Madonna del Pilone. — 36 M. Brh, the largest place on 
the line, with 14,300 inhab., is the junction for Alessandria. 

From Cavalleemaggioke to Alessandria, 61 M., in 21/4 hrs. (fares 11 fr. 
15, 7 fr. 80, 5 fr. 60c.). — 8 M. Bra, see above. — I2V2 M. Vittoria, whence 
a pleasant excursion may be made to the royal palace of PoUenzo, with 
the remains of the Roman town of Pollentia. — lO'/z M. Alba, with 
10,600 inhabitants. The cathedral of S. Lorenzo dates from the 15th cen- 
tury. — Next stations Neive, Castagnole (p. 73), Costigliole, S. Stefano Belbo, 
on the Belbo , the valley of which the train traverses for some distance ; 
Canelli, Calamandrana, and Mzza di Monferrato, whence a good road leads 
to Acqui (p. 73). Stat. Incisa , situated on the Belbo , a considerable dis- 
tance from the railway. Then Castelnuovo, Bruno, Bergamasco , Oviglio, 
Cantalupo , and (61 M.) Alessandria, see p. 73. 

41 M. Cherasco , not visible from the line , lies at the confluence 
of the Tanaro and the Stura. The train ascends the course of the 
former. Stations Narzole, Monchierro, Farigliano. — 89 M. Carrii. 

Branch -Line to Mondovi, 9 M., in 40 min. (fares 1 fr. 65, 1 fr. 15, 
85c.). — Uondovi ( Croce di Malta; Tre Limoni d'Oro), a town with 18,0(X) 
inhab., on the EUero, with a cathedral of the 15th cent., and a loftily 
situated old tower, is the best starting point for a visit to the imposing 
* Cavern of Bossia , in the Valle di Corsaglia. A carriage may be hired 
at one of the inns at Mondovi for Frabosa , 9V2 M. to the S. of Mondovi, 
whence a lighter 'calessa' conveys travellers to the cavern (each member 
of a party 7-8 fr. for the whole drive). The cavern is shown from the 
beginning of June to the end of October (admission 2'/4 fr. ; no gratuities). 

62 m. Niella. — 68 M. Ceva, on the Tanaro, an industrial place 
with an old castle under which the train passes by a tunnel. 

The train now begins to cross the Maritime Alps, and reaches the 
most imposing part of the line. Between this point and Savona are 
numerous viaducts and no fewer than 28 tunnels. The train quits 
the valley of the Tanaro and ascends. Beyond (72 M.) Sale it 
passes through the Oalleria del Belbo, a tunnel upwards of 3 M. in 

76 Route 12. CENGIO. 

length, and the longest on the line. — 79 M. Cengio, in the valley 
of the Bormida di Millesimo. 

841/2 M. S. Giuseppe di Cairo , on the Bormida di Spigno, 
through the valley of which the train descends to Acqui (p. 73). 

Tunnels and viaducts now follow each other in rapid succession, 
the loftiest of the latter being 137 ft. high. — 93 M. Santuario di 
Savona, a pilgrimage church with a large hospice for poor devotees, 
founded in 1537. 

97 M. Savona, see p. 93. 

III. Liguria. 

The Maritime Alps and the immediately contiguous Apennines (the 
boundary between which is near Savona, about 20 51. to the W. of Genoa) 
slope gently northwards to the Po in the form of an extensive rolling 
country, and descend abruptly towards the sea to the S. The narrow 
RiviEKA, or coast-district, expands at a few points only into small plains. 
The cultivated land climbs up the hill-sides in terraces, sheltered from the 
N. wind, and enjoying a fine sunny aspect. While the mean temperature 
at Turin is 53V3° Fahr., it is no less than 61° at Genoa; and again, while 
the temperature of January averages 31° at the former, and occasionally 
falls below zero, it averages 46° at the latter, and is rarely lower than 
23°. — The climate of tbe Riviera is therefore milder than that of Rome, 
and is even favourable to the growth of the palm. 

As the country differs in many respects from Piedmont, so also do its 
Inhabitants, while their Genoese dialect, which is difficult for foreigners 
to understand, occupies a middle place between the Gallic patois of Upper 
Italy and that of Sardinia. The historical development of the two countries 
has also been widely different. The natural resource of the Ligurians, or 
the inhabitants of the Riviera, was the sea, and they were accordingly known 
to the Greeks at a very early period as pirates and freebooters. To what 
race the Ligurians belong has not yet been ascertained. As _ the Greek 
Massalia formed the centre of trade in S. France, with Kice as its extreme 
outpost towards the E., so Genoa constituted the natural outlet for the 
traffic of the Riviera. During the 3rd cent. B.C. Genoa became subject 
to the Romans, who in subsequent centuries had to wage long and obstinate 
wars with the Ligurians, in order to secure the possession of the military 
coast-road to Spain. As late as the reign of Augustus the Roman culture 
had made little progress here. At that period the inhabitants exported 
timber, cattle, hides, wool, and honey, receiving wine and oil in exchange. 
In the 7th cent, the Lombards gained a footing here, and thenceforth the 
political state of the country was gradually altered. The W. part with 
Nice belonged to the Provence, but in 1388 came into the possession of 
the Counts of Savoy , forming their only access to the sea down to the 
period when they acquired Genoa (1815). 

The Var^ which the Emp. Augustus had declared to be the boun- 
dary between Italy and Gaul, continued to be so down to 1860, when, as 
a reward for services rendered by Napoleon III., Italy ceded to Franco 
the districts of Savoy (4316 sq. M.) and Nice (1436 sq. M.). While the loss 
of Savoy, though the cradle of the dynasty , was not severely felt owing 
to the notorious French sympathies and clerical propensities of the in- 
habitants, the cession of Nice was regarded by the Italians as a national 
injury. The E. part of the Riviera now forms the Province of Porto 
Mawizio, 488 sq. M. in area, with 131,000 inhab. , adjoining which is the 
Province of Genoa , 1669 sq. M. in area , with 750,100 inhabitants. These 
provinces once constituted the Republic op Genoa, which in the 13th cent, 
became the mistress of the W. part of the Mediterranean, and afterwards 
fought against Venice for the supremacy in the Levant. Genoa's greatness 
was founded on the ruin of Pisa. The Tuscan hatred of the Genoese was 
embodied in the saying — 'Mare senza pesce , montagne senza alberi, 
uomini senza fede, e donne senza vergogna', and Dante (Inf. xxxiii. 151-53) 
addresses them with the words -^ 

78 Route 13. GENOA. Hotels. 

'AhJ, Genovesi, uomini diversi 
D'ogni costume, e pien d'ogni magagna; 
Perche non siete voi del mondo spersi?' 
Modern historians describe the character of the Genoese in the middle- 
ages in a similar strain. The whole energy of the Genoese seems indeed 
to have been concentrated on commerce and the pursuit of gain. Notwith- 
standing their proud naval supremacy , they participated little in the 
intellectual development of Italy, and neither possessed a school of art, 
nor produced any scholars of eminence. When at length the effete re- 
public was incorporated with Piedmont, it became the representative of 
radical principles as contrasted with the conservatism of the royalist terri- 
tory. G-iwseppe Mazzini, the chief leader of the national revolutionary 
party, was born at Genoa in 1808, and Garibaldi, though born at Nice 
(1807), was the son of a Genoese of Chiavari. The rivalry of the once 
far-famed republic with the upstart Turin , and of the restless harbour 
population with the stolid Piedmontese, have of recent years been pro- 
ductive of very notable results. Modern Genoa has, moreover, regained its 
ancient mercantile importance, and it is in the possession of the Ligurian 
coast that the maritime power of Italy chiefly lies. 

13. Genoa, Italian Genova^ French Genes. 

Arrival. There are two stations at Genoa. The Stazione Piazza Principe 
(Restaurant) , or principal station (for Alessandria , Turin, Spezia, Pisa, 
and for Savona and Nice) , is in the Piazza Acquaverde (PI. D, i, 2 ; the 
goods-station only is in the Piazza del Principe). The arrangements are 
admirable. A long row of omnibuses in the covered hall awaits the arri- 
val of the trains. — The second station, called Stazione Piazza Brignole 
(PI. H, 4) , at the end of the Via Serra, and connected with the first by 
means of a tunnel below the higher parts of the town, is the first place 
where the Spezia and Pisa trains stop. — Travellers arriving at Genoa by 
sea, and wishing to continue their journey by rail without delay, may 
immediately after the custom-house examination , which takes place on 
the quay, book their luggage there for their destination (taking care to 
entrust it to a facchino of the dogana , fee 20 c., and not to an un- 
authorised bystander) , and thus save much troable. 

Hotels. 'Gkand Hotel Isotta, Via Roma 7 (PI. F, 4), pleasantly 
situated, with an elevator, D. incl. wine 5 fr. ; '-'Hotei, Trombetta (PI. a; 
1", 3), once the Palace of the Admiralty, entrance Via Bogina 9, D. excl. 
v/iiie 5fr. ; "Hotel de la Ville (PI. c ; E, 3) ; "Hotel d'Italie «fe Croix de 
MAf.TE (PI. b; E, 3); 'Hotel des Quatre Nations (PI. d; E, 3). Average 
charges at these: R. from 3, B. IV2, L- and A. 2, omnibus l-l'A fr. — 
AiiiERGo Di Genova (PI. h; F, 4), near the Teatro Carlo Felice, R. 3, 
B. 11/2, A. 1, D. 5, L. 1/2, omnibus 1 fr. ; Hotel de France (PI. g; E, 3), 
R. from 3-4, D. incl. wine 41/2, B. I1/2, omnibus 1 fr., A. 60, L. 60 c.; 'Ho- 
tel de Londres, near the principal station, R. 2V2, D. with wine 4V2, 
A. and L. iV2, B. IV2 fr. ; Albekgo di Milano, Via Balbi 34, near the 
Palazzo Reale; Vittoria (PI. k ; E, 2), Piazza dell' Annunziata 16; Rebec- 
ciiiNo, Via Nuovissima, well spoken of, with trattoria; Albeugo & Trat- 
toria della Nuova CJonfidenza , Via S. Sebastiano 13; *H6tel Smith 
(English landlord), near the exchange. Via Ponte Reale, unpretending, R. 
13/4-2'/2, L. ','2, A. 1/2, B. 1 fr. 

Cafes. 'Cafi Roma , by the Teatro Carlo Felice, at the corner of the 
new Via Roma; "Stabilimenlo delle Nazioni, Via Roma and Galleria Mazzini; 
Concordia, Via Nuova, opposite the Palazzo Rosso (PI. 25; p. 8G), hand- 
somely fitted up and cool, music frequently in the evening ; 'Cafi d'Jtalie, 
with a brilliantly illuminated garden, open in summer only, at Acqua Sola 
(p. 90); Cafi de France, Via Carlo Felice; Cafi Rossini, Piazza Fontane 
Morose, and others. — The larger cafes are also restaurants, and some of 
them give dinners at a fixed charge (Stabilimento delle Nazione from 3'/2, 
Roma, Concordia, Italie 5, France 2V2 fr.). 


" : A^^=z 

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Theatres. GENOA. 13. Route. 79 

Restaurants: Uniane, Piazza Campetto 9; Borsa, Via S. Luca, inexpen- 
sive. — Beer: Monsch, Via S. Sebastiano, Munich beer; Klainguti, opposite 
the Teatro Carlo Felice, Vienna beer; Birreria Viennese, Via Roma. 

Cabs (a tariff in each) in the town : By day At night. 

Per drive 1 — 2 — 

Per hour 1-50 2.50 

Each additional half-hour — 75 1.50 

Small articles of luggage are free ; trunk 20 c. — The night-fares are reck- 
oned from midnight. 

Tramway Cars (comp. the Plan) run from the Piazza dell' Annunziata 
by the Via Balbi, Piazza Acquaverde, and Via Milano (halting-places at 
the Palazzo Doria and at the tunnel under the Caserma di S. Benigno) to 
S. Pier d' Arena , and thence in the one direction to Sestri Ponente and in 
the other to Rivarolo. Fare to station Doria 10, the tunnel 20, S. Pier 
d'Arena 25, Sestri 40 c. — Omnibus from the Piazza Carlo Felice to the 
two stations, 20 c, etc. 

Steamboats: to Leghorn every week-day; to Civitd, Vecchia, to Naples, 
to Marseilles, to Nice, and to Sardinia by Leghorn several times weekly. 
Embarkation in each case 1 fr. for each person, including luggage. 

Baths. At fWe Palazzo Spinola, Salita S. Caterina, adjoining Bossola's 
music shop , handsomely fitted up ; others at Via delle Grazie 11 , and 
Piazza Sarzano 51. — Sea Baths by the Molo Vecchio (PI. D,E, 4); by 
the Cava and the Strega (PI. F, G, 6), farther S.; also by the lighthouse 
(Lanterna; PI. A, 4), but in July and August only, poorly fitted up. Swim- 
mers are recommended to bathe from a boat. Sea-bathing places on the 
Eiviera, see pp. 92 and 110. 

Post Office (PI. 49; F, 4), in the Galleria Mazzini, open 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
— Telegraph Office in the Palazzo Ducale (PI. 22). 

Theatres. Carlo Felice (PI. 36) , built in 1827, one of the largest^ in 
Italy, holding nearly 3000 persons; parterre 3, fauteuil 5 fr.; open during 
the carnival only; operas performed here. — Paganini (PI. 42), Strada 
Cafi'aro 10. — PoUteama (PI.' 41), by the Villa Negro. 

Military Music in the park of Acqua Sola (p. 90), daily in summer, 
7-8 p.m., and on Sundays at 2 p.m. also, except during the great heat. In 
winter, during three months, the band plays occasionally in the Piazza 
Deferrari (p. 84). 

Photographs. Alfred Noack, Vico del Filo 1, upstairs, not far from 
the cathedral of S. Lorenzo, good selection of views of N. Italy; Arnulf, 
Via Nuovissima 12; Mangiagalli, Via Nuovissima 7. 

Consulates. English, Salita di S. Caterina; American, Salita de' Cap- 
puccini, near the Acqua Sola. 

Physicians : Dr. Breiting, corner of the Salita Sta. Maria della Sanifa 
(PI. G, 3, 2) ; Dr. Kerez, Viale Mojon 2 (diverging from the Via Serro to 
the N., PI. G, 4). — Dentist: Mr. Charles S. Bright, Via Assarotti 14, 
2nd floor. 

Bookseller : Hermann Steneberg, Via Roma 4. — Goods-Agents: C. Jung- 
hans , Salita S. Matteo 19; C. Ruepprecht , at the back of the church of 
S. Luca. 

Crystallised Fruits at Pietro Romanengo's, Strada Soziglia. 

English Church Service in the church in the Via Goito (Rev. E. Bay- 
ley). Presbyterian Church, Via Peschiera, ofl" the Via Assarotti. 

Principal Attractions. Walk in the morning on the Gran Terrazzo 
(p. 82); walk through the Via S. Lorenzo past the Cathedral (p. 82) to 
the Piazza Nuova ; ascend to the Madonna di Garignano (p. 84) and return 
to the Piazza Fontane Morose. Then through the Via Nuova (p. 85), and 
visit the Palazzi Rosso (p. 86) , Durazzo (p. 88) , and Balbi (p. 88 ; the 
mansions of the Genoese noblesse are generally shown between 11 and 4 
o'clock, and probably earlier in summer), the Monument of Columbus (p. 89), 
and the Palazzo Doria (p. 90), and devote the afternoon to a drive to the 
Campo Santo (p. 91) , after which the evening may be spent in the park 
of Acqua Sola (p. 90). "Villa Pallavicini, see p. 93. 

The situation of Genoa, rising above the sea in a wide semi- 


GENOA. 13. Route. 79 

Kestaurants: Unione, Piazza Campetto 9; Borsa, Via S. Lnca, inexpen- 
sive. — Beer: Monsch, Via S. Sebastiano, Munich beer; Klainguti^ opposite 
the Teatro Carlo Felice, Vienna beer ; Birreria Viennese, Via Roma. 

Cabs (a tariff in each) in the town : By day At night. 

Per drive 1 — 2 — 

Perhonr 1.50 2.50 

Each additional half-hour — 75 1.50 

Small articles of luggage are free ; trunk 20 c. — The night-fares are reck- 
oned from midnight. 

Tramway Cars (comp. the Plan) run from the Piazza dell' Annunziata 
by the Via Balbi, Piazza Acquaverde, and Via Milano (halting-places at 
the Palazzo Doria and at the tunnel under the Caserma di S. Benigno) to 
S. Pier d' Arena , and thence in the one direction to Sestri Ponente and in 
the other to Rivarolo. Fare to station Doria 10, the tunnel 20, S. Pier 
d'Arena 25, Sestri 40 c. — Omnibus from the Piazza Carlo Felice to the 
two stations, 20 c, etc. 

Steamboats: to Leghorn every week-day; to Oivitk Vecchia, to Naples, 
to Marseilles, to Mce, and to Sardinia by Leghorn several times weekly. 
Embarkation in each case 1 fr. for each person, including luggage. 

Baths. At the Palazzo Spinola, Salita S. Caterina, adjoining Bossola's 
music shop, handsomely fitted up; others at Via delle Grazie 11, and 
Piazza Sarzano 51. — Sea Baths by the Molo Vecchio (PI. D, E, 4); by 
the Cava and the Strega (PI. F, G, 6), farther S.; also by the lighthouse 
(Lanterna; PI. A, 4), but in July and August only, poorly fitted up. Swim- 
mers are recommended to bathe from a boat. Sea-bathing places on the 
Riviera, see pp. 92 and 110. 

Post Office (PI. 49 ; F, 4), in the Galleria Slazzini, open 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
— Telegraph Office in the Palazzo Ducale (PI. 22). 

Theatres. Carlo Felice (PI. 36), built in 1827, one of the largest in 
Italy, holding nearly 3000 persons; parterre 3, fauteuil 5 fr.; open during 
the carnival only ; operas performed here. — Paganini (PI. 42) , Strada 
Caffaro 10. — Politeama (PI. 41), by the Villa Negro. 

Military Music in the park of Acqua Sola (p. 90), daily in summer, 
7-8 p.m., and on Sundays at 2 p.m. also, except during the great heat. In 
winter, during three months, the band plays occasionally in the Piazza 
De/errari (p. 84). 

Photographs. Alfred Noaclc, Vico del Filo 1, upstairs, not far from 
the cathedral of S. Lorenzo, good selection of views of N. Italy; Arnulf, 
Via Nuovissima 12; Mangiagalli, Via Nuovissima 7. 

Consulates. English, Salita di S. Caterina; American, Salita de' Cap- 
puccini, near the Acqua Sola. 

Physicians : Dr. Breiting, corner of the Salita Sta. Maria delta Sanita 
(PI. G, 3, 2) ; Dr. Kerez, Viale Mojon 2 (diverging from the Via Serro to 
the N., PI. G, 4). — Dentist: Mr. Charles S. Bright, Via Assarottl 14, 
2nd floor. 

Bookseller : Hermann Steneberg, Via Roma 4. — Goods-Agents: C. Jung- 
hans , Salita S. Matteo 19; C. Ruepprecht , at the back of the church of 
S. Luca. 

Crystallised Fruits at Pietro Romauengo's, Strada Soziglia. 

English Church Service in the church in the Via Goito (Rev. E. Bay- 
ley). Presbyterian Church, Via Peschiera, off the Via Assarotti. 

Principal Attractions. Walk in the morning on the Gran Terrazzo 
(p. 82); walk through the Via S. Lorenzo past the Cathedral (p. 82) to 
the Piazza Nuova; ascend to the Madonna di Carignano (p. 84) and return 
to the Piazza Fontane Morose. Then through the Via Nuova (p. 85), and 
visit the Palazzi Rosso (p. 86), Durazzo (p. 88), and Balbi (p. 88; the 
mansions of the Genoese noblesse are generally shown between 11 and 4 
o'clock, and probably earlier in summer), the Monument of Columbus (p. 89), 
and the Palazzo Doria (p. 90), and devote the afternoon to a drive to the 
Campo Santo (p. 91) , after which the evening may be spent in the park 
of Acqua Sola (p. 90). -Villa Pallavicini, see p. 93. 

The situation of Genoa, rising above the sea in a wide semi- 

80 Route 13. GENOA. History. 

circle, and its numerous palaces, justly entitle it to the epithet of 
'La Superha'. The city is surrounded by extensive fortifications, 
dating from the beginning of the 17th cent., which have recently 
been strengthened. From the lighthouse on the W. side, where the 
large barrack of S. Benigno affords quarters for 10,000 men, a 
broad rampart extends at some distance from the town up the hill, 
past the Forte Begato (1618 ft.) to the Forte dello Sperone (1693 ft.), 
the highest point, and then descends past the f'orte Castellaccio 
(1253 ft.) to the mouth of the Bisagno which falls into the sea to 
the E. of Genoa, a circuit of about 91/2 M. in all. The heights 
around the town are crowned with ten detached forts. 

Genoa is the chief commercial town in Italy , and contains 
130,000 inhab., or with the neighbouring suburbs 163,200. The 
annual imports are valued at 330 million francs, the exports at 
70 million. Of the imports about one-third is from England, and 
the rest chiefly from France and North America. 

From a very early period Genoa has been famous as a sea-port, and 
even in the time of the Romans it formed an outlet for the products of 
the extensive Ligurian coast-district. The town is believed to derive its 
name from the fact that the sea penetrates into the land here somewhat 
in the shape of a knee (genu). The most flourishing period of Genoa 
began in the middle ages, when the citizens successfully defended them- 
selves against the Saracens. In 1119 they waged a victorious war against 
Pisa, which was then the mistress of the Tyrrhenian Sea. From that 
date the rival cities were almost permanently at war down to 1284, when 
a terrible naval battle took place between them at Meloria, on which 
occasion the Genoese captured 29 Pisan galleys, and sank 7 others. From 
that disaster Pisa never recovered, and Genoa now obtained the supre- 
macy over the W. islands, Corsica, and nominally over Sardinia also. 
At a still earlier period she had participated in the Crusades, and secured 
to herself a busy trade with the Levant. She also possessed settlements 
at Constantinople and in the Crimea, in Syria and Cyprus, at Tunis and 
Majorca. The rivalry of the Genoese and Venetians was a fruitful source 
of wars and feuds during the 12-14th centuries , which at length were 
terminated by a decisive victory gained by the latter in 1380. 

The internal history of the city was no less chequered than the ex- 
ternal. The party conflicts between the great families of the Doria and 
Spinola (Ghibellines) on one side, and the Grimaldi and FiescM (Guelplis) 
on the other , led to some extraordinary results. The defeated party 
used, at the expense of their own independence, to invoke the aid of 
some foreign prince, and accordingly we find that after the 14th cent, 
the kings of Naples and France , the counts of Monferrat , and the dukes 
of Milan, were alternately masters of Genoa. Nor was this state of 
matters materially altered by the revolution of 1339, by which the e.v- 
clusive sway of the nobility was overthrown, and a Doge invested with 
the supreme power. In the midst of all this confusion the only stable 
element was the mercantile Banco di S. Giorgio, which had acquired ex- 
tensive possessions , chiefly in Corsica , and would have eventually ab- 
sorbed the whole of the republic and converted it into a commercial 
aristocracy, had not Genoa lost its power of independent development by 
becoming involved in the wars of the great powers. Andrea Doria (p. 90), 
the admiral of Emperor Charles V., at length restored peace by the estab- 
lishment of a new oligarchic constitution , and the unsuccessful conspir- 
acy of Fieschi in 1547 was one of the last instances of an attempt to 
make the supreme power dependent on unbridled personal ambition. The 
power of Genoa was, however, already on the wane. The Turks con- 
quered it? Oriental possessions one after another, and the city was sub- 

Harbour. GENOA. 13. Route. 81 

jected to severe humiliations by its powerful Italian rivals, as well as by 
the French, who took Genoa" in 1684, and by the Imperial troops by 
whom Genoa was occupied for a few days in 1746. In 1736 the ambition 
of Theodore de Neuhof^ a Westphalian nobleman , occasioned great dis- 
quietude to the republic. He was created king by the inhabitants ot 
Corsica, who had been subjects of Genoa, but now threw off their yoke 
(comp. p. 428). The Genoese pronounced the newly elected king guilty 
of treason, in consequence of which the usurper fled, and, with the aid of 
the French , they succeeded in re-establishing their supremacy over Cor- 
sica, but were soon afterwards (1768) obliged to cede the island to their 
new ally. After the battle of Marengo (1800) Genoa was taken posses- 
sion of by the French. In 1805 it was formally annexed to the Empire 
of France , and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Sardinia. 

The beauty of its situation , and the interesting reminiscences 
of its ancient magnificence, render a visit to Genoa very attractive, 
especially to the traveller who is visiting Italy for the first time. 
To the historian of art the Renaissance palaces of the Genoese 
nobility are objects of extreme interest, surpassing in number and 
magnificence those of any other city in Italy. 

Many of these buildings were erected by Oaleazzo Alessi (a pupil of 
Michael Angelo , born at Perugia 1500 , d. 1672) , whose example was 
generally followed by subsequent architects. In spite of occasional de- 
fects, the architecture of the city is of an imposing and uniform char- 
acter, and great ingenuity has been displayed in employing an unfavour- 
able and limited site to the best advantage. The palaces moreover con- 
tain a considerable number of works of art, while Rubens^ who resided at 
Genoa in 1606-8, and Van Dyck at a later period, have contributed lo 
preserve the memory of many members of the noblesse. The native 
school of art, however, never rose to importance, and was far from being 
benefited by the zeal of its artists in painting facades. The chief painters 
were Luca Cambiaso (1527-85), Bernardo Strozzi ^ surnairied II Cappuccino 
or Prete Genovese (1581-1644), Giov. Batt. Paggi^ and Benedetto Castiglione. 

The *Harbour (Porto) consists of a semicircular bay, about 2 M. 
in diameter, which is protected from the open sea by two long and 
substantial piers. That on the E. is the Molo Vecchio , with the 
small old lighthouse and the Porta del Molo , erected by Galeazzo 
Alessi in 1550; that on the W. the Molo Nuovo , adjoining which 
rises the new lighthouse , or Lanterna , with its dazzling reflectors 
410 ft. above the sea-level. The summit, reached by 375 steps, 
commands a fine view, especially by evening light (fee 1 fr.), and 
the arrangements of the interior may also be inspected. 

The Duke of Galliera (d. 1876) having presented 20 million 
francs for the improvement of the harbour, on condition that the 
government and the city would advance the remainder of the re- 
quired sum, extensive alterations have begun to take place here. 
On the Cava, below Carignano (PL F, 5, 6), a large new Molo is to 
be constructed, while the present Molo Nuovo is to be so lengthened 
that it will continue to be the outer pier. Extensive quays con- 
nected by rails with the main line are also projected , with a view 
to enable the largest vessels to unload without lighters. 

On the E. side of the present harbour, near the Piazza Cavour 
and the Via Vittorio Emanuele (PI. E, 4), lies the enclosed Porto 
Franco with its extensive bonded -warehouses (visitors admitted). 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 6 

82 Route 13. GENOA. «. Lorenzo. 

Tlie Dogana (PI. 3 ; E, 3) occupies the building of the former Banco 
di S. Giorgio (p. 80). The large hall is embellished with statues of 
men who have deserved well of the town, some of them of the 15th 
century. On the upper floor are the Archives. 

The central part of the harbour is bordered by a lofty wall with 
arcades , the marble platform of which , called the *Terrazzo di 
Afarmo, 20 paces in width, affords an excellent promenade, especially 
early in the morning. There are two approaches to the terrace, 
one opposite the Hotel de la Ville (PI. c ; E, 3 ; known as the 'Scala 
dellaRotonda'), and another to the N., opposite the Hotel des Quatre 
Nations (PL d; E, 2, 3), both of which are closed at dusk. — A 
row in the harbour, for which numerous boatmen offer their ser- 
vices, is also recommended (2 fr. per hour for 1-4 persons, but a 
bargain should be made). 

Near the S. end of the Via Vittorio Emanuele, on the E. side, is the 
small Piazza Cattaneo, with the palace of that name, a room in which 
contains eight pictures by Ka/j Diick. — Not far from this point is the 
church of Sta. Maria di Castello (PI. 16; E, 4), occupying the site of an 
ancient Roman castle , and mentioned in history as far back as 10i2. It 
contains several pictures by Genoese painters ; in the transept is a Ma- 
donna by Justus (.VAUamaijna, 1451 (under glass). 

Instead of walkiiig through the noisy and bustling streets near 
the Terra/zo di Marmo, the traveller is recommended to take the 
following route. Leaving the piazza of the station, we descend by 
a lane opposite the corner of the Hotel de Londres to the Via di Pre 
(PL D, E, 2), which we follow. We then cross the Piazza della 
Darsena, from which the Via della Fontana leads, to the left, to the 
Annunziata (p. 87), and follow the Via del Campo (PL E, 2, 3). 
An inscription at the back of the fountain in the small Piazza 
Vacchero, obliquely opposite the Hotel d'ltalie (Pl.b; E,3), records 
that Giulio Cesare Vacchero , who had conspired along with the 
Duke of Savoy against the Republic, was executed here. From 
the Piazza Fossatello (PL E, 3) the Via LomcUini leads to the left 
to the Annunziata (p. 87). — Following the Via di Fossatello and 
the Via S. Luca , — in a side street to the left of which is the 
church of ;S. Siro (PL 18; E, 3), erected in 1570, modernised in 
1820 , containing statues by Taddeo , and frescoes by Giov. Batt. 
Carlone, — we next reach the Piazza Banchi, in which is 
situated the Exchange (Loggia de' Banchi, Borsa, PL 7; E, 3), 
erected at the end of the 16th cent, from plans by Alessi, and 
adorned with a sitting figure of Cavour in marble by Vine. Vela. 
— The narrow but handsome *Via degli Orefici (PL E, F, 3 ; at the 
beginning of which , on the right , is a door with an interesting 
Adoration of the Magi in relief, of the middle of the 15th cent.), 
and then the Via Luccoli, lead to the Piazza delle Fontane Morose 
(p. 85). To the S. of the Exchange we traverse the Via S. Pictro 
della Porta to the Via S. Lorenzo, and the Piazza S. Loufnzo, in 
which rise the new Banca Nazionale(l'\. 5), and the cathedral of — 

*S. Lorenzo (PL 'J ; K, F, 4), erected in 1100 on the site of an 

S. Ambrogio. GENOA. 13. Route. 83 

earlier edifice, and subsequently so much altered, that it now 
presents three distinct styles, the Romanesque, the French Gothic, 
and the Renaissance. The lower part of the facade, which consists 
of alternate courses of black and white marble , was constructed in 
the 13th cent, in the style peculiar to the French churches; the 
two lower of the recumbent lions with which it is adorned on the 
right and left of the steps, are modern. The sides of the principal 
portal are decorated with good reliefs representing the early 
history of Christ (end of 13th cent.); the sculptures in the lunette, 
Christ and the emblems of the four evangelists , with the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Lawrence below them , are inferior works of the 
same period. The sculptures at the entrances to the aisles are of 
the r2th century. 

The Intekior, constructed in 1307 , is borne by ttie columns of the 
earlier church. Beyond the massive substructure of the towers , which 
forms a kind of atrium, lies the nave with its aisles, covered with cylindrical 
vaulting <ind a dome (which last was constructed by Alessi in 1567J, and 
borne by sixteen Corinthian columns of coloured marble and four buttresses, 
above which is another series of columns alteruiating with pillars. On the 
right, over the second side-portal, is the monument of a bishop of 1336 with 
reliefs and statues, the sarcophagus being supported by four lions. In the 
chapel to the right of the choir a Crucifixion by Fed. Baroccio, and statues 
by P. Francavilla. In the choir, handsome stalls with inlaid-work by 
Franc. Zabello. In the chapel to the left of the choir a statue and six 
pictures by L. Camhiaso. In the left transept, seven statues by Gugl. della 
Porta. — The second chapel to the left of the entrance , that of *S. Gio- 
vanni Battista, erected in 1451-96, contains in a stone area of the 13th 
cent, (below the altar) relics of John the Baptist, brought from Palestine 
during the Crusades. The six statues at the sides and the reliefs above 
them are by Matleo CivUali (d. 1501); the Madonna and John the Baptist by 
Andrea Sansoviiio (1503) ; the canopy and the other sculptures by Giacomo 
and Guglielmo della Porta (d. 1532). The external decoration of the chapel 
is in the Gothic style, with admirable reliefs above (not easily seen ; best 
light in the afternoon). — In the sacristy is preserved the Vaso Catino, 
the vessel out of which the Saviour and his disciples are said to have 
partaken of the paschal lamb, and in which Joseph of Arimathea is said 
to have caught some drops of the blood of the Crucified (a fine glass vessel, 
captured by the Genoese at Cesarea during the Crusades, shown by per- 
mission of the municipio only), and other precious relics. 

Farther on in the Piazza Nuova is S. Ambrogio (PI. 12 ; F. 4), 
a church of the Jesxiits founded by Genoese nobles , and overladen 
with showy decorations of the close of the 16th century. 

3rd Altar on the right : Assumption by Guido Rent. High-altar-piece, 
the Circumcision, by Jiubens. The four black monolith columns are from 
Porto Venere (p. 112). First chapel on the left, Martyrdom of St. Andrew, 
by Semiiio, the Elder. 2nd Altar on the left; Rubens, St. Ignatius healing 
a man possessed of an evil spirit. 

In the same piazza is situated the Palazzo Ducale (PI. 22 ; F,4), 
now Palazzo della Prefettura ; on the upper part of the facade are 
six statues of captives, above which are trophies. This edifice, the 
ancient residence of the doges, was founded at the close of the 
13th cent., but was entirely remodelled in the 16th, and modern- 
ised in 1777 after a great fire. The handsome flight of steps is 
by Rocca Pennone (1550). 

84 13. Route. GENOA. 5. Maria. 

This is the best starting point for a visit to the church of S. 
Maria in Carignano, situated on one of the highest points at the S.E. 
end of the city, and affording the hest general survey of Genoa. 
Opposite the Palazzo Diicale we follow the Salita Pollajuoli, ascend 
the Stradone Agostino to the right, cross the Piazza Sarzano to the 
left, and proceed to the right through the Via al Ponte Carignano to 
the Ponte Carignano, a bridge across a street nearly 100 ft. below, 
leading direct to the church. 

*S. Maria in Carignano (PI. 13; F, 5; 174 ft. above the sea- 
level), begun in accordance with designs by Oaleazzo Alessi in 
1555, but not completed till 1603 (principal portal of the 18th 
cent.), is an imitation of Bramante's original plan of St. Peter's at 
Rome, and is remarkable for its harmonious proportions. The baroque 
statues below the dome are by Puget , Parodi , and David ; the 
paintings by Piola, Maratta, Guercino, Procaccini, and Cambiaso. 
The *ViKW from the highest gallery of the dome (368 ft. above the 
sea ; 119 steps to the first gallery, thence to the top 130, ascended 
by an easy and well-lighted staircase), embraces the city, harbour, 
and fortifications , and the well peopled coast (W. the Riviera di 
Ponente , E. the Riviera di Lev ante) , bounded on the S. by the 
vast blue expanse of the Mediterranean. (Sacristan 25 c. ; his 
attendance for the ascent is unnecessary; best light in the 

From the Piazza Nuova we proceed to the left through the Via 
Sellai (PI. F, 4) to the Piazza Dkferrae,! (with a palace of that 
name, of the 18th cent., on the left), formerly Piazza S. Domenico 
(79 ft. above the sea). 

From this piazza the Salita di S. Watteo , the second side-street to 
the left, leads to the small church of S. Matteo (PI. 14), originally 
Gothic (1278), which contains numerous reminiscences of the Doria fa- 
mily, the facade being covered with inscriptions to their memory. The 
interior was altered in 1530 by the Florentine Gianantonio Montorsoli, who 
was invited to Genoa by Andrea Doria, and who, with his assistants, 
executed the whole of the fine sculptures with which the church is embel- 
lished. Above the high-altar is Doria's sword. To the left of the church 
are handsome cloisters with double columns, dating from 1308-10, with 17 
ancient inscriptions relating to the Dorias, and remains of two statues 
of Andrea Doria (by Montorsoli, 1548) and one of Gianetto Doria (1577), 
which were mutilated during the Revolution in 1797. — A palazzo oppos- 
ite, the lower half of which is covered with black and yellow marble, 
bears the inscription, ^Senat. Cons. Andreae de Oria, patriae liberatori 
munus publicum\ 

To the right in the Piazza Deferrari is situated the Teatro Carlo 
Felice (PI. 36), built in 1826-28 (see p. 79). Adjacent is the — 

Accademia delle Belle Arti (PI. 1 ; F,4). The vestibule below 
contains mediaeval sculptures from the suppressed church of S. 
Domenico. On the first floor is the BibUoteca Civica, well stocked 
with modern works (about 40,000 vols. ; open daily), and on the 
second floor a Picture Gallery (shown by the custodian). 

Via Nuova. GENOA. 13. Route. 85 

The copying-room leads to a large saloon with ancient pictures, still 
unarranged, some of them only being numbered, chiefly by German and 
early Netherlands masters. The finest are: 69. Last Supper; 19. St. An- 
thony; *20. Two saints; 68, 97, 99. Miracles of St. Philip. Then 28 (9). 
Manfredino da Pistoja (1292), Annunciation, Christ in the house of Martha; 
"21. Umbrian School, Crucifixion; A7it. Scarini, Entombment; L. Cambiaso, 
Holy Family. In the centre modern statues. Next a circular room and 
a saloon with large pictures by Genoese painters (Piola, Deferrari, Ferrari, 
Fiasella , etc.), and lastly two rooms with sculptures, chiefly modern 
(MusEO Pkincipe Odone), and several others containing casts. 

The Via Giulia leads from the academy towards the E. to the 
Porta degli Archi. On a terrace to the left of the gate stands 
S. Stefano (PI. 11 ; G,4}, a Gothic church the oldest parts of which 
date from the end of the 12th century. Above the high altar the 
*Stoning of Stephen by Giulio Romano, one of his best works, taken 
(1530) to Paris by Napoleon in 1811, but restored in 1815. From 
the back of the church we may proceed to the left to the Acqua- 
sola (p. 90), or to Carignano to the right (p. 84). 

Two broad streets lead towards the N.E. from the Piazza Defer- 
rari : to the right the new Via Roma, and to the left the Via Carlo 
Felice. The Via Roma (PI. F, 4) soon reaches a new piazza, con- 
taining the principal entrance to the Galleria Mazzini (PI. 43), and 
about to be embellished with a statue of the great agitator of that 
name. The Salita S. Caterina ascends hence to the right to the 
Acquasola Promenade (see p. 90), while the Via Roma is carried 
through the promenade, unfortunately cutting off an angle of the 
interesting old Palazzo Spinola (Via Caterina, No. 14), and is 
continued by the Via Assarotti, which leads to the loftily-situated 
Piazza Manin (p. 91). 

On the left side of the Via Carlo Felice, No. 12, is the Palazzo 
Pallavicini (PI. 26 ; F, 3), now the property of the Durazzo family 
(p. 88). — We next come to the Piazza uelle Fontane Morose 
(PI. F, 3). No. 17 in the piazza is the Pai. delta Casa, originally 
Spinola, adorned with five honorary statues in niches, of the 15th 
cent. ; No. 27 is Pal. Lud. Stef. Pallavicini, sumptuously fitted up. 

Near the Piazza Fontane Morose begins a broad line of streets 
built in the 16th cent., extending to the Piazza dell' Acquaverde 
near the railway- station, under the names of Via Nuova, Via Nuo- 
vissima, and Via Balbi , and forming one of the chief arteries of 
modern traffic. In these streets are situated the most important 
palaces and several churches; some of the former should be visited 
for the sake of their magnificent staircases , which are among the 
most remarkable objects in Genoa. — On each side of these loftily 
situated streets a complete labyrinth of narrow lanes , occupied by 
the lower classes, descend to the left to the harbour , and ascend 
the hill on the right ; here, too, the traveller will observe many 
interesting buildings. 

The first of these main streets is the *Via Nuova (PL F, 3), 
which is flanked by a succession of palaces on both sides. On the 

8b Route 13. GENOA. Pal. Rosso. 

riglit, No. 1, is the Palazzo Ces. Cambiaso, with a few pictures of 
the 16th and 17th cent, of the Italian and Netherlands schools. On 
the left, No. 2, Palazzo Gambaro, formerly Camhiaso. Right, No. 3, 
Palazzo Parodi, erected in 1567-81 by Gal. Alessi for Franco Ler- 
caro, containing frescoes by LucaCambiasn,-and others. Left, No. 4, 
*Palazzo Cataldi, formerly Carega, erected about 1560 for Tobia 
Pallavicini. Right, No. 5, Palazzo Spinola, by Gal. Alessi, possess- 
ing an imposing vestibule, staircase, and colonnaded court, and a 
few pictures , chiefly of the Genoese (Luca Oambiosa) and Bologna 
schools, an equestrian portrait, and a Madonna by Van Dyck. Left, 
No. 6, Palazzo Giorgio Doria, containing several frescoes by Luca 
Cambiaso and other pictures (Castiglione, Shepherd and shepher- 
dess ; Van Dyck, Portrait of a lady). 

Left, No. 10, Palazzo Adorno, also by Gal. Alessi (?), contains 
several good pictures by Rubeiis, Palma Vecchio, Bassano, Bordone, 
Seb. del Piombo, Mantegna(".0, and others, but is not always shown 
to visitors. 

Left, No. 12, Palazzo Serra, by Alessi, remodelled in the interior 
by De Wailly (d. 1798) and Tagliafico, contains a fine hall. 

Right, No. 9, Palazzo del Municipio (PI. 23), formerly Doria 
Tursi, erected by Rocco Lurago (16th cent.), has a handsome 
staircase and court, ingeniously adapted to the rising ground on 
which it stands. 

The Vestibule is adorned with five frescoes from the life of the Doge 
Grimaldi, and a statue of Mazzini in marble. — In the large ConNciL 
Chamber on the upper floor are portraits of Columbus and Marco Polo in 
mosaic. In the adjacent room a Madonna between two saints , by Gerard 
David of Bruges (not Van Ej-ck), and a Crucifixion with SS. Mary and 
.Tohn, by a good early Netherlands master (not Diirer); two other pictures 
inferior. Two letters of Columbus; large bronze tablet of A.D. 117, record- 
ing the judgment of Roman arbiters in a dispute between Genoa and a 
neighbouring ca,stle. A cabinet to the left contains the violin of Paganini. 

Left, No. 18, *Palazzo Rosso (PI. 25), so named from its red 
colour, of the 17th cent., formerly the property of the Brignole- 
Sale family, with its valuable contents, a library, ai\d ^Picture 
Gallery (open 10-3, Mon. and Thurs. free , other days 1 fr.), was 
presented to the city of Genoa in 1874 by the Marchesa Maria 
Brignole-Sale , wife of the Marchese Deferrari , Duke of Galliera 
(p. 81), and by their son Filippo. 

Ascending the handsome staircase, wc pass through an Aniisala, or 
ante-chamber, into the Camera delle Arti Liberam, which, like the 
following rooms, derives its name from the subject of the ceiling paint- 
ings (by Carlone, Parodi, De Ferrari, and others), and contains thi-ee 
portraits of Doges of the Brignole family, of the 17th and 18th centuries. 
— Traversing a small room {Alcova), we enter the principal saloons. 
I. Stanza pella GiovENTii: "Guercino, Cleopatra; Andrea del Sarto, Holy 
Family, a replica of the picture in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence (No. 8t ; 
p. 409). — II. Salone, the ceiling adorned with family armorial bearings; 
pictures by Genoese masters. — III. Stanza della Pkimavkra : Paris Bor- 
done, Portrait of a Venetian lady; Titian, Portrait of an old man; Diirer, 
Portrait of a young (5erman, painted at Venice in 15UG, but unfortun- 
ately much damaged; "Moretlo, Portrait of a botanist (1533), an effective 
work, recalling Sebastian del Piombo by the dark-gveen shading of the 

Pal. Bianco. GENOA. 13. Route. 87 

flesh-tints and its breadth of execution; -Van Dyck, Marchese Giulio 
Brignole-Sale on horseback ; TiiiloreUo, Doge ; Van Dt/ck, Prince of Orange ; 
Titian, Philip II. of Spain; "Fa?( i)ycA, Marchesa Paola Brignole-Sale; Jac. 
Bassano, Father and son ; Van Di/ck, Bearing of the Cross ; ~ Paris Bor done. 
Portrait of a man. — IV. Stanza d'Estate : Luca Giordano, Chlorinda 
liberating Olyntho and Sophronia; Paolo Veronese, Adoration of the shep- 
herds (a sketch); Lticas of Ley den (?) , 'Portrait, and St. Jerome; Cara- 
vaggio. Raising of Lazarus ; "Guido Reni, St. Sebastian ; Lanfranco, Bearing 
of the Cross. — V. Stanza d'Autunno: Leandro Bassano , Portrait; Boni- 
facio, Adoration of the Magi; Guido Reni, Madonna; Guercino , Madonna 
enthroned ; Giov. Bellini (more probably Bernardino Licinio da Pordenone, 
brother of the more celebrated master), Portrait of Franciscus Philetus. — 
VI. Stanza dell'' Inverno : "Paolo Veronese, Judith ; Jac. Bassano, Penitent 
thief on the cross; Paris Bordone, Portrait of a lady; -Van Bi/ck, The 
tribute-money, recalling Titian's picture at Dresden; Rubens, Portrait of 
an old man ; School of Leonardo da Vinci, John the Baptist ; Procaeeini, 
'Santa Conversazione'; Murillo (?), Holy Family; Paris Bordone, Holy 
Family; Pellegro Piola, Holy Family. — VII. Stanza della Vita dell' 
UoMo : ■■- Van Dyck, Portrait ; * Van Dijch, The Marchesa Geronima Brignole- 
Sale with her daughter; Paolo Veronese, Portrait of a lady. Annunciation; 
Garofalo, Madonna and saints. — Catalogues for the use of visitors. 

No. 13, opposite the Palazzo Rosso, is the Palazzo Bianco, 
erected in 1565-69 , which was also for a long period the property 
of the Brignole-Sale family, but was afterwards inherited by the 
Marchese De Ferrari. The name has been given to it by way of 
contrast to the 'red palace' opposite. 

In the CoREiDOK on the ground-floor, Janus and Jupiter, statues by 
P. Prancavilla, a follower of Giov. da Bologna, both failures (1585). — 
On the First Floor is the Marchese C. Donghi's valuable collection of 
smaller works of art, chiefly cameos, and several pictures. — Here, 
also, is a Pictore Gallery, formed by the zealous collector Dr. Giacomo 
Peirano, and containing about 200 works, many of them dating from the 
17th cent., several of which are interesting, although the celebrated names 
attached to some of the works may be questionable. The gem of tlie 
collection is a variation of "RaphaeVs Madonna of the Alva family (now 
in St. Petersburg), and named 'Madonna della Rovere', from the oak 
under the shade of which the holy family is reposing; the probability that 
the work is genuine is thought to be strengthened by the fact that it 
was originally at Savona, the birthplace of Pope Julius II. (Rovere); Dii- 
rer''s Adam and Eve is painted from the famous engraving executed by that 
master in 1504. A Madonna by Giov. Bellini, a Lucrczia by Marco d" Oggionno, 
and several works by Francia , Murillo , Zurharan , Rembrandt , and the 
pictures of Cambiaso, Strozzi, and other Genoese masters also deserve no- 
tice. The gallery is open daily, 11-4, except on Sundays and festivals. 

Crossing the small piazza In front of these palaces, we enter the 
Via Nuovissima (PI. E, 3). At the end of this street to the left. 
No. 13, is the *Palazzo Balbi, by Gregorio Petondi (18th cent.), 
through which a fine view is obtained of the lower lying Via Lo- 
mellini. — In the Piazza dei Forni , obliquely opposite, are the 
old Zecca or mint, an old Palazzo Lomellini, now the Istituto 
Tecnico , and the Palazzo Centurioni , richly embellished with 
marble, and containing several pictures. 

In the Piazza dell' Aununziata (PI. E, 2) is the Capuchin 
church of *S. Annunziata (PI. 10), erected in 1587, with a portal 
borne by marble columns, the brick facade being otherwise un- 
finished. It is a cruciform structure with a dome , the vaulting 
being supported by twelve fluted and inlaid columns of white marble, 

88 Route 13. GENOA. Palazzo Balbi. 

richly gilded and paiuted. This is the most sumptuous church at 

In the broad and handsome Via Balbi (PI. E, 3), on the right, 
No. 1, is the *Palazzo Marcello Durazzo (PL 20), formerly FUippo 
Durazzo, or detla Scala, erected in the 17th cent, by Bartolommeo 
Bianco of Como for the Balbi family. This edifice is remarkable 
for its handsome facade with an imposing gateway and balcony, its 
fine vestibule, and the superb staircase (on the left), added by 
Andrea Tagliafico at the close of the 18th century. On the first floor 
is the *GaUeria Durazzo- PaUavicini, formed by uniting a collection 
formerly here with another from the Palazzo Pallavicini (p. 85), 
and shown daily, 11-4. 

Crossing the Aniisala, which contains modern busts of the Durazzo- 
Pallavicini family, we first enter the Salone, a hall with Bolognese works 
of the 18th cent, representing scenes from the life of Achilles. The 
gallery also possesses numerous paintings of the 17th cent, by the Carracci, 
Guido Reni, Domenichino, and other masters of the Bologna school, of which 
we enumerate the most interesting only. We proceed to the right, W. 
wing. I. Room: Vw' Dyck, Two portraits of children; 'Rubens^ Philip IV. 
of Spain; Titian, Ceres and Bacchus; Caravaggio, Cupid and Psyche. — - 
II. Room: Genoese works of inferior value. — III. Room: Bern. Strozzi, 
surnamed II Cappuccino, Mater Dolorosa; Lucas of Leyden, Entombment, 
and Virgin with saints and the donor and his wife , a winged picture ; 
A. Diirer, Repose on the Flight to Egypt; Juc. Ruysdael, Landscape, with 
figures by Wouwermnn. — IV. Room: Andrea del Sarto , The Magi; 
Perino del Vaga, Caritas; Rubens, Portrait of Ambrogio Spinola. We next 
visit the rooms in the E. wing. V. Room : School of Andrea del Sarto, 
Madonna and Child; Paolo Veronese, Betrothal of St. Catharine; Perino 
del Vaga, Holy Family; Van Dyck, Portrait; Tintoretto, Portrait of the 
Marchese Agostino Durazzo; Rubens, Portrait of himself. — VI. Room: 
Genoese masters, such as: II Cappuccino, VoHr&H of a prelate; also, Titian, 
Mary Magdalene, a genuine replica of an oft-recurring subject, the landscape 
only free from retouching. — VII. Room: Guercino, Mucins Scaevola; Lucas 
of Leyden, Descent from the Cross; Diirer (?), Holy Family; Van Dyck, 
James I. of England with his family. — VIII. Room: Schidone, Madonna; 
After Raphael, Madonna (original in Kaples). — The other rooms , which 
also contain several pictures , are generally closed. Two silver vases by 
Benvenuto Cellini are likewise worthy of inspection. — The library con- 
tains 7000 vols., including many specimens of early printing. 

To the right, in the corner of the colonnaded court, is the approach 
to the office, where permessi for the Villa Pallavicini at Pegli were form- 
erly issued, and where enquiries may be made (see p. 92). 

On the left side, No. 4, is the*Palazzo Balbi-Senarega(Pl. 19), 
begun early in the 17th cent, by Bart. Bianco, and afterwards en- 
larged by Pier Ant. Corradi. It still belongs to the family who 
built it, and after whom the street is named. The superb court, 
surrounded by Doric colonnades, affords a beautiful glimpse of the 
orangery. The Picture Gallery on the first floor is worthy of a 
visit; admission daily, 2-4. 

I. Room, adorned like the others with ceiling paintings by Genoese 
artists. Van Dyck, Francesco Maria Balbi on horseback; Bern. Strozzi, 
Joseph explaining the dream. — II. Room. Titian, St. Jerome; Rubens, 
Christ and SI. John as children. "Titian, Madonna with St. Catharine, St. 
Doininicus, :in(l llic donors. 

'This charming picture of the time of the bacchanals (about 1520) is 
thrown out of focus by abrasion, washing, and repainting; but is still 

Pal. ReuLe. GENOA. 13. Route. 89 

pleasing on account of the grace of the attitudes and the beauty of the land- 
scape'. — Crowe and Cavcdcaselle. 

Gaud. Ferrari, Holy Family; Van Di/ck, Madonna with the pomegranate 
(della Melagrana); Michael Angela (?), Gethsemane. — III. Room. Three 
"Portraits of the Balbi family by Van Dyck (the head of Philip IV. in the 
equestrian piece is said to have been substituted by Velazquez for that of 
the Balbi, who had meanwhile been banished). — IV. Room. Caravaggio, 
Conversion of St. Paul; portraits by Tintoretto ., Allori, Van Dyck, and 
Holbein (?); then, Lucas of Leyden f?;. Madonna and Nativity. — V. Room. 
Four children, sketches by Perino del Vaga; small pictures by Schiavone ; 
market-place, by one of the Bassanos. — VI. Gallery. Perino del Vaga, 
Holy Family; ~ Van Dyck, Holy Family; Meniling (?), Christ on the Cross; 
Fra Filippo Lippi (?), Communion of St. Jerome ; Titian (?), Portrait of 

On the right side of the street, No. 5, is the *Palaz20 dell' 
University (PL 54), begun as a Jesuit college hy Bart. Bianco in 
1623, and erected into a university in 1812. The rich court and 
staircase are prohahly the finest structures of the kind at Genoa. 
The building contains a library, a natural history museum, a small 
botanical garden, and several bronzes by Giovanni da Bologna. 

Next, on the left, No. 6, Pal. Durazzo, with a simple colonnade. 

Left, No. 10, Palazzo Reale (PL 21 ; E,2), erected in the 17th 
cent, by the Lombard architects Franc. Cantone and Giov. Ang. 
Falcone for the Durazzo family, and extended by Carlo Fontana of 
Rome at the beginning of the 18th cent., was purchased in 1815 
by the royal family, and restored by Carlo Alberto in 1842. It con- 
tains handsome staircases and balconies and sumptuously furnished 
apartments (shown daily , except when the royal family is in resi- 
dence). The pictures and antiquities are of no great value. 

Ante-Chamber: Battle-pieces by Burrasca. Room on the right: Van 
Dyck, Portrait of a lady ; good portrait of the Lombard school, attributed 
to Leon, da Vinci; Perino del Vaga, Holy Family. To the right a hand- 
some gallery with rococo-painting and a few ancient and modern statues : 
OB the right, Apollo and ApoUino, on the left, Mercury ; at the end, Rape 
of Proserpine by Schiaffino. On the left are three small rooms; the second 
contains a Crucifixion by Van Dyck ; the third , 'Adulteress by Moretto. 
The throne-room is adorned with two large pictures by Ltica Giordano. 

The terrace commands a fine view of the city and harbour. 

In the Piazza Acquavekdk (PL 47 ; D, 1) rises the Statue of 
Columbus, who is said to have been born at Cogoleto (p. 1)3) in 
1459. It was erected in 1862, and stands on a pedestal adorned 
with ships' prows. At the feet of the statue, which rests on an 
anchor, kneels the figure of America. The monument, which con- 
sists entirely of white marble, is surrounded by allegorical figures 
in a sitting posture, representing Religion, Geography, Strength, 
and Wisdom. 

Between these are reliefs of scenes from the history of Columbus , with 
the inscription of dedication : ^A Cristoforo Colombo la Patria\ and 'dm- 
nato mi mondo lo avvinse di perenni benifizi ulV antico^. — [On the house 
No. 9, Via Carlo Alberto, near the Piazza della Darsena (p. 82; PI. K, 2), 
a niche contains a small Statue of Colmnbtis, with the inscription, '■Dissi, 
volli, credi, ecco nn secondo sorger nuovo dalV onde ignote mondo\] 

Around the monument are grounds containing date-palms, 
dwarf-palms, and other specimens of tropical vegetation. Opposite 

90 Rmite 13. GENOA. Acqua Sola. 

is the Palazzo Faraggiana, with a marble frieze represoTiting scenes 
from the life of Columbus, and an inscription. 

In the Piazza del Principe (PI. C, D, 1, 2), to the W. of the 
station, No. 4, is situated the long *Pala2zo Doria (PI. 24), pre- 
sented in 1522 to Andrea Doria, the 'padre della patria' (d. 1560, 
at the age of 95). It was remodelled in 1529 from designs by Giov. 
Ang. Montorsoli, and adorned with frescoes by Perino del Vaga, a 
pupil of Raphael. 

The long Latin inscription on the side next the street records that 
Andrea dWria, admiral of the Papal, Imperial, French, and native fleets, 
in order to close his eventful career in honourable repose , caused the 
palace to be rebuilt for the use of himself and his successors. His 
praises were thus sung by Ariosto — 'qucsto e quel Doria, che fa dai 
pirati sicnro il vostro mar per tutti i lati\ — The finest of the Frescoes 
by Perino del Vaga (restored in 1845)), which in many respects recall the 
paintings of Raphael, are those on the ceiling, vaulting, and lunettes of 
the great entrance-hall , representing scenes from Roman history ; a cor- 
ridor hung with portraits of the Doria family, a saloon with a large ceil- 
ing-painting representing Jupiter overthrowing the Titans, and a room 
with the love adventures of Jupiter. The Titan saloon also contains a 
portrait of the aged prince with his favourite cat, and a superb chimney- 
piece. The elder branch of the Doria family, to whom the palace now 
belongs, generally resides at Rome. 

The garden of the palace , extending towards the harbour, 
contains an extensive Loggia with arcades. The gardens on the 
hill opposite, with a statue of Hercules ("// Gigante) in a niche, 
also belong to the estate. 

Farther on, in the direction of the Molo Nuovo, stretches the 
new and shadeless Passo Nuovo promenade, which, together with 
the Via Milano (PI. C, B, 2) , runs above the extensive railway 
magazines (Maggazzini Generali), and commands a line *View. — 
In this road, beyond the railway, lies the Palazzo dello Scoglietto, 
the property of Sign. Vitale Rosazza, the charming gardens of which 
also command a line view (gardener, 1 fr.). 

The Molo Nuovo and the Lighthouse, see p. 81. 

On the coast, farther to the W., lies the suburb of Sampierdarena, or 
S. Pier d' Arena (cab with one horse 2, with two horses 2V2 fr.), with 
17,000 inhab. and numerous palaces and gardens , including the Palazzo 
Siiiiiola, and the Palazzo Scassi, formerly Imperial!, with a pleasant 
garden , both probably erected by Gal. Alessi. The church of S. Maria 
della Cella contains frescoes of the Genoese school. There is a large sugar 
refinery here. — Railway station , see p. 74 ; tramway, see p. 7'J. 

The most favourite promenade is the small park of *Acqua 
Sola (PI. G, 3, 4; 137 ft. above the sea), adorned with a fountain, 
situated on an eminence at the N.E. end of the town (approached 
most CDUveuiently from the Piazza delle Fontane Morose by the 
Salita S. Caterina). The grounds were laid out in their present 
form on part of the old ramparts of the town in 1837. During the 
military concerts (p. 79) on Sunday afternoons the grouiuls are 
crowded. Pleasant views to th(! E. and S., ttiu^st towards the sea. 

To the N. of Acqua Sola is the *Villa Negro (PI. 46 ; reached 
from the Piazza Mazzini , or from theViaNuova, by the Salita 

Cninpo Santo. GENOA. 13. Route. 91 

delle Battistiiie), the property of the city, and open to the pnblic, 
with a well-kept garden , a small museum of Natural History 
(open on Sundays), and the beginnings of a Zoological Garden. 
Winding promenades ascend hence to a bastion at the back of the 
villa, about 150 ft. above Acqua Sola, commanding a fine survey of 
the city, the harbour, and environs. — The walk may be pleasantly 
extended thus : from Acqua Sola proceed to the S. by Mura S. 
Stefnno, then by Mura Sta. C'hiara (turn to the left and follow the 
town walls), Mura del Prato (to the left, below, is the Manicomio, 
or lunatic asylum), and then by Mura delle Cappuccine, and Mura 
delta Strega, to the Piazza delta Cava (PI. F, 6). From this point 
we may proceed either to S. Maria in Carignano (p. 84), or to the 
Molo Vecchio (p. 81). 

The Via di Circonvallazione , a magnificent route on the hills 
at the back of the (own, which will vie in beauty with the Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele at Naples, is now approaching completion. It 
begins on the E. at the Piazza Manin (PI. H, 3 ; 328ft. above the 
sea-level), and leads thence along the slope, across a viaduct and 
in long windings , under various names (Corso Sol ferino , Corso 
Magenta, Corso Paganini), to the Albergo dei Poveri (PI. E, F, 1, 
2; 318 ft. above the sea), a hospital founded in the 17th cent., and 
last extended in 1835, accommodating 1300 persons. Thence it 
descends to the Piazza Annunziata (PI. E, 2 ; p. 87). It is to be 
continued to the Piazza Acquaverde. — Another fine street in 
course of construction is the Via di Circonvallazione al Mare, lead- 
ing from the harbour to the mouth (foce) of the Bisagno. 

The ''•'Campo Santo (^Cimitero di Staglieno, opened at 10 a.m.), 
situated on the slope of the valley of the Bisagno, I1/2 M. from 
the town, is reached from the Piazza Deferrari (p. 84) by the Via 
Giulia, Via S. Vincenzo, and Porta Romana (PL H, 4; cab there 
and back 5 fr. ; omnibus 30 c). It was laid out with considerable 
taste in 1867, and contains several good *Moniiments. One of the 
finest is that of March. Tagliacarne in the lower row on the right, 
above No. 359. The whole arrangement of the cemetery is in- 
teresting, as also the rotunda in the upper row, the internal gallery 
of which is borne by monolithic columns of black marble. At the 
upper end of the cemetery, on the left, is the tomb of Giuseppe 
Mazzini (d. 1872). — The large pipes which are seen crossing the 
valley to the side belong to the water-works of the city. 

Excursions. To the W. to Pegli C'Villa Pallavicini), a station on the 
railway, see p. 92, or reached in ii/4 hr. by carriage (with two horses 
7 fr.). To the E. to /S. Margherita (by railway), and thence to Portofino, 
see p. 110. 


14. From Genoa to Nice. Riviera di Ponente. 

116 M. Railway in 6V2-8 hrs. ; fares 21 fr. 55, 15 fr. 26, 10 fr. 90 c. in gold. 
A slight saving is eflected by booking to the frontier-station Ventimiglia 
only (fares 17 fr. 20, 12 fr. 5, 8 fr. 60 c. in paper), where there is ample time 
to procure a new ticket. — Steamboat several times weekly. 

The -Cakiuage Road along the charming Riviera di Ponente, the famous 
Route de la Corniche, will however still be preferred by many travellers, 
if not for the whole distance, at least for the most beautiful parts of the 
route, especially where the view is lost in passing through the numerous 
railway-tunnels , as between Savona and Loano , and between San Remo 
and Nice. This journey is very attractive. The road affords a delightful 
succession of varied landscapes , traversing bold and lofty promontories, 
wooded hills, and richly cultivated plains near the coast. At some places 
it passes precipitous and frowning cliffs , the bases of which are washed 
by the surf of the Mediterranean, while the summits are crowned with 
the venerable ruins of towers, erected in bygone ages for protection against 
pirates. At other places extensive plantations of olives, with their gro- 
tesque and gnarled stems, bright green pine-forests, and luxuriant growths 
of figs , vines , citrons , oranges , oleanders , myrtles , and aloes meet the 
view, and even palms are occasionally seen (at S. Remo and Bordighera). 
Many of the towns are picturesquely situated on gently sloping heights 
(Porto Maurizio, S. Remo, Bordighera, Ventimiglia); others, commanded 
by ancient strongholds and castles , are perched like nests among the 
rocks (Roccabruna, Eza). Small churches and chapels peering from the 
sombre foliage of cypresses , and gigantic grey pinnacles of rock rising 
proudly above the smiling plains , frequently enhance the charms of the 
scenery. Finally, the vast expanse of the sea, with its ever varying hues, 
forms one of the chief attractions. At one time it is bathed in a flood 
of sunshine, at another its beautiful blue colour arrests the eye; or while 
the shore immediately below the spectator is lashed with wild breakers, 
the snowy crests of the waves are gradually softened to view in the purple 

The railway skirts the coast, and runs parallel with the high 
road as far as Savona. The numerous promontories are penetrated 
by tunnels. 21/2 M. S. Pier d' Arena, see pp. 90, 74 ; Sl/iM. Comi- 
(/ii(mo (*Grand Hotel Villa Rachel ; Albergo della Confidenza, on 
the road from Cornigliano to Sestri), with numerous villas , well 
adapted for a prolonged stay in the months of April and May. 

5 M. Sestri Ponente (10,500 inhab.) also possesses a number of 
villas , a church adorned with frescoes , and busy wharves (tram- 
way, see p. 79). The Villa Rossi has a beautiful garden. The 
'■Urotta of Sestri has been known for two centuries. The hotel is 
recommended for a visit of some duration (pension 8 fr.). 

6 M. Fegli {^Orand Hotel de Pegli, formerly Palazzo Lomellini, 
with garden , pension 9-11 fr. ; Hotel Garyini; these two on the 
coast ; *H6tel d'Anyleterre, near the station; Cafe- Restaurant Bor- 
rlni, pension 6-7 fr.), a small sea-bathing place, with 7300 inhab., 
which attracts numerous visitors from Genoa, is adapted, like Corni- 
gliano and Sestri, for a resting-place on the way to the favourite 
wintering places on the Riviera. A number of pleasant villas are 
also situated here , such as the Villa Rostan , with grounds in the 
English style, Villa Elena Doria , and particularly the beautiful 
* Villa Pallavicini, which forms a favourite object for an excursion 

SAVONA. 14. Rovte. 93 

from Genoa (comp. p. 91 ; visitors are admitted on entering their 
names in the visitors' book ; no admittance after 2 or 3 p.m.). 

The villa is immediately to the left on leaving the station. One of 
the gardeners (fee 1-2 fr. for 1 person, more for a party) of the Marchesa 
conducts visitors through the grounds and park, which extend to a con- 
siderable height on the slopes rising from the coast, and display a 
rich profusion of oleanders, azaleas, camellias, etc. Several points of 
view afford delightful prospects of Genoa, the sea, coast, and mountains. 
On the highest of these points stands a castle in the mediaeval style 
with a tower, which affords an extensive and magnificent panorama. 
Around it are indications of a simulated siege , the mausoleum of the 
fallen commandant, and the ruin-strewn burial-place of his heroes. Far- 
ther on is a stalactite grotto with a subterranean piece of wafer, over 
which visitors are ferried , and a striking glimpse under the bridge 
of the lighthouse of Genoa and the sea; kiosques in the Pompeian, Tur- 
kish, and Chinese style, obelisk, fountains, etc. may also be inspected. 
The gardens also contain examples of the coffee, vanilla, cinnamon, 
pepper, sugar-cane, camphor, and other tropical plants, some of them 
remarkably fine. 

8 M. Prh, another small ship-building place ; 9 M. Voltri (Al- 
bergo Svizzero), with 13,900 inhab., which carries on a consider- 
able traffic in 'confitures', situated at the mouth of the Ceruso in 
a fertile plain sprinkled with villas. 

Beyond Voltri numerous tunnels and bridges. 13V2 M. Aren- 
eano; beautiful retrospect of the coast as far as Genoa. 16 M. 
Cogoleto, the supposed birthplace of Columbus (p. 89). The house 
in which he is said to have been born, now a poor tavern, bears 
the inscription : — 

Bospes, siste gradum. FuU hie lux prima Colmnbo ; 

Orbe viro majori Tieu nimis arcta domus! 
Unus erat mundus. '■Duo sunt', ait ille. Fuere. 

20^2 M. Varazze, or Voragine, a town with 8000 inhab., is a 
considerable ship-building place. The coast on both sides of it is 
rocky, and there are numerous cuttings and tunnels. 

23 M. Celle ; 25 M. Albissola, at the mouth of the Sansobbia, 
and — 

271/2 M. Savona (Rail. Restaurant; Albergo Svizzero; Roma; 
Italia), a town with 26,300 inhab., the capital of the Montenotte 
department under Napoleon I., is charmingly situated amidst lemon 
and orange gardens. The harbour, commanded by a fort, presents 
a busy scene. The Cathedral of 1604 contains several good pic- 
tures. The handsome theatre, erected in 1853, is dedicated to the 
poet Chiabrera (1552-1637), a native of the place. The church of 
Madonna degli Angeli affords a fine view of the town. Savona was 
the birthplace of the popes Sixtus IV. and Julius II. (della Rovere). 
Santuario di Savona, see p. 76. 

From Savona to Turin, see pp. 74-76; to Alessandria, see p. 73. 

31 M. Vado. On this side of the extensive Capo Bergeggi a fine 
*Retrospect of the Riviera as far as Genoa is enjoyed. Then a 
tunnel and galleries, through the arches of which the sea and the 
small island of Bergeggi are seen. The construction of the line 
was attended with much difficulty here, and several long tunnels 

94 Route 14. ONEGLIA. From Genoa 

are traversed. 35 M. Spotomo ; 37 M. Noli, a small town shaded 
by dense olive-groves, with the ruins of a castle. 

42 M. Finalmarina is the seaport and principal part of the town 
of Finale , which consists of three different villages. To the right 
lies Boryo , the oldest j)art, with a castle and a cathedral with 
double columns of white marble , a dome , and rich gilding; and 
farther to the K. is Finalpia. — 45'/2 M. Pietraligure , with the 
ruins of a castle in the middle of the village. 48 M. Loano ; to the 
right of the line are two suppressed monasteries, of which Monte 
Camielo , the higher , erected by the Dorias in 1609 , commands a 
line view. The large twelve-sided church of the village was also 
erected by the Dorias. Beyond (50 M.) Ceriale , with its ancient 
fortifications , the mountains recede. The line now quits the coast 
and traverses olive groves, vineyards, and orchards. 

53 M. Albenga (Alberyo Reale) , the Albiyaunum of the Ro- 
mans, an ancient town and episcopal residence. About 1/4 M. 
to the E. of the town are extensive remains of the Ponte Lungo, 
a Roman bridge. Several chateaux of the old noblesse with lofty 
towers; cathedral with towers and elegant facade, all of brick. 
— To the left, from the sea, rises the rocky island of Gallinara, 
crowned with a tower. 

The train crosses the Centa and skirts the promontory of S. 
Croce. Several tunnels. 57 M. Alassio (Grand Hotel cVAlassio ,• 
Hotel de Rome), a seaport and summer bathing-place, with 4800 
inhab. and orangeries containing palm-trees. 59'/2 M. Laiyueylia ; 
beautiful retrospect of the wild Capo della Croce. The train 
penetrates the prominent Capo delle Mele by means of a long tunnel, 
and enters a valley thickly planted with olives. 62 M. Piyna-An- 
dora ; the village of Andora lies on the hill to the right ; then 
several tunnels. 641/2 M. Cervo , picturesquely situated on the 
slope; then (66 M.) Diano Marina, in a fertile plain; to the right, 
inland , Diano Castello. — ■ The train enters a more extensive 
coast district, in which Oneglia and Porto Maurizio are situated. 

6!}'/2 M. Oneglia (Rail. Restaurant; Alberyo del Vapore) , a 
beautifully situated town, with 8000 inhab. and a shallow harbour. 
The prison near the station somewhat resembles a church. 

The train crosses the broad stony bed of the Impero, which the 
road crosses to the left by a neat suspension-bridge. — 71 M. Forto 
Maurizio (Hotel de France) , a town with 7900 inhab. and a good 
harbour, most picturesquely situated in the midst of dense olive- 
groves, and frequented of late as a winter residence. This town 
is the seat of the authorities of the district. 

74 M. S. Lorenzo. The low, massive towers which now rise at 
intervals along the coast to the right of the line , some of which 
have been converted into dwelling-houses, were erected for the 
defence of the (;ountry against Saracen marauders in the Oth and 
10th centuries. 78'/'2 M. Uivaliyure. To the right on the hill stands 

to Nice. SAN REMO. 14. Route. 95 

the fortified S. Stefano , beyond wMcli the broad Val Taggia is en- 
tered. The train crosses the Taggia and stops at (79'/2M.)the station 
of that name (the village lies 3 M. up the valley). Beyond the next 
short tunnel a valley opens on the right commanding a charming 
vievy oiBussana, romantically perched on a rock. The village oppos- 
ite to it is Poggio, which first becomes visible. The train now pass- 
es through the Capo Verde by means of a tunnel and reaches — 

85 M. San Kemo. — Hotels and Pensions. On the W. Side of the 
Town: *Grand Hotel delaPaix, near the station, in a fine open situ- 
ation (pension SV2-I2 fr.) ; *Gkand Hotel be Londkes ; '-'Hotel di San Remo, 
near the station, D. excl. wine 4, L. ^/i, A. 1/2 fr.; ''Hotel Bellevue, 
expensive; Hotel de Eice; Gkand Hotel Royal, a handsome new build- 
ing, finely situated; Hotel 1'aradis, ''West End Hotel, formerly Pen- 
sion Rose, with garden , both in well-sheltered situations; behind the 
last. Hotel des Anglais, with garden; Grand Hotel Palmieri , facing 
the S., still unfinished; Hotel de France, formerly Pension .Joly , some- 
what exposed, but well spoken of. — In the principal street of the lower 
town {Via Vittorio Emanuele): Hotel Grande Bretagne (Italian style); 
Pension Suisse, from 7fr., well spoken of; Hotel Beadsejour, Via Gio- 
berti ; Pension Tatlock.— • On the E. Side of the Town: Hotel Mediter- 
ran^e, well spoken of, pension 9-13 fr.; '•''Hotel Victoria, farthest from 
the station, but with S. aspect; both these have gardens extending down 
to the sea. Nearer the town: -Hotel d''Angleterre ; 'Hotel de Nice; 
Hotel d'Allemagne, less pretending, well spoken of; Pension Bottcher 
(formerly Molinari), 7-11 fr.; Villa Lindenhof, well spoken of, open in 
summer also. — The charges at San Remo are now generally as high as 
at Mentone. Payment cannot be legally exacted in gold unless previously 
stipulated for (comp. Introd., p. xviii), but in engaging rooms the prices 
are generally understood to be in gold. 

Apartments. The choice of small suites of pi-ivate apartments is an- 
nually increasing. They are to be found in the Via Gioberti, Vittorio 
Emanuele (Casa Escoffier , Casa del Cireolo Internazionale, and in the 
former Hotel Royal), in the Via Feraldi, in the Oorso Garibaldi (Villa 
Corradi, Villa Luigi), and in the new street near the station. Others may 
be hired in the interior of the town, but these are less desirable, owing 
to the coldness of the street. Villas abound; rent for the winter 1000- 
7000 fr. (list at Mr. "W. Congreve''s , the English vice-consul. Via Privata), 
including furniture and the other requisites for housekeeping (with regard 
to which, however, a distinct bargain is necessary). A more moderate 
vent than that advertised is generally taken. Situation shovild be care- 
fully considered where invalids are concerned, and a S. aspect is essential. 

Restaurant. Briatizi, Rigollet, Maison Doree, all in the Via Vitt. Ema- 
nuele , where regular diners may subscribe. — Cafes. "Europien., Via 
Vitt. Emanuele, cup of coffee 20c., Vienna beer 30c., Nuremberg beer 
35c.; International., also in the Via "Vitt. Emanuele; Garibaldi. 

Beading Room at the Cireolo Internazionale., where balls and concerts 
are also given ; subscription for the winter 50, per quarter 30, per month 12 fr. 

Physicians. English, Drs. Dauheny ., Freeman, and Hassall; German, 
Drs. V. Brunn, Goltz, and Biermann; Italian, Drs. Ajcardi, Ameglio, Onclti, 
and Panizzi. — English Chemist., Via Vittorio Emanuele, Casa Rubino ; 
Pharmaeie Internationale , at the corner of the Via Vitt. Emanuele and Via 
Feraldi ; Italian, Panizzi (a good botanist). Via Palazzo. — Baths., at Dr. 
C/ian"eto7j'« Etablissement llydrotherapique, 10 min. to the E. of the Hotel 

Post Office in the Via Vitt. Emanuele 9, in the Pension Suisse. 
Telegraph Office , Corso Garibaldi 7, at the E. end of the town. 

Bankers. Asquasciati, Rubino., both in the Via Vitt. Emanuele. 

Shops. Gandolfo, bookseller. Via Feraldi. In the Via Palazzo, the 
old main street of the town, the shops are often better and less expensive, 

96 Route 14. SAN REMO. From Oenoa 

although less showy, than those in the Via Vitt. Emanuele, the new main 
street. Among the specialties of the place are inlaid wood (depot oi Mile. 
Nicolas) and the perfumes manufactured by Ajcardi. 

English Vice-Consul. Mr. Walter Congreve, Via Privata. 

Music : alternately in the Giardino Pubblico and the Giardino dell' 
Imperatrice, 3 times weekly. — Teatro Amedeo. Operas are performed 
from 1st Jan. to Easter. 

Carriages. Per drive in the town , with one horse 1 fr. , with two 
horses 1 fr. 50 c. ; per hour 2 or 3 fr. ; if luggage over 40 lbs. , each bo.x 
50c.; one-horse carriage to Mentone 30fr. — Donkey per day 5, half-day 
3fr. , and gratuity. — Boat per hour for 1 person Ifr. , for several 2fr. 
and gratuity. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Snn Remo , although apparently a small place, contains 11,000 
inhab. , densely crowded in the older parts of the town, which 
consist of a labyrinth of quaint and narrow laTies , flights of steps, 
archways, lofty and sombre houses, and mouldering walls. The 
arches by which the houses are connected high above the streets 
are intended to give them stability in case of earthquakes. The 
town, which was formerly fortified , stands on a hill between two 
short valleys , and the houses rising one above another receive 
their modicum of light and air from the back only. Castigliuoli, 
a smaller quarter on the W. side, is similarly situated. 

The E. part of the town terminates in an eminence approached 
by broad roads shaded by cypresses , commanding charming views 
of the bay and mountains , and crowned with the white dome- 
covered church of the Madonna delta Costa , in front of which 
there is a large hospital for lepers. On a more prominent point 
stands the Villa Carbone , with a low octagonal tower (fee 1/.2 fr.), 
the panorama from which conveys a good idea of the peculiarities 
of the situatioi\. The island of Corsica is visible in the distance 
to the S. 

Another walk may be taken to the W. pier of the small har- 
bour , which is defended by the fort of St. Tecla , erected by 
the Genoese, and now used as a prison. A survey from the npper 
platform of the Molo will convey aii idea of the sheltered position 
of the town, which renders the climate as genial as that of Mentone 
and has brought the place into notice as a winter residence for 
invalids. In front of the spectator rises a hill in an almost regular 
semicircle around the town, sloping upwards from the Capo Nero 
by La Colla to its culminating point in the Piano Carparo and 
Monte Bignone , which attain a height of nearly 4000 ft. , ajid 
descending thence to the Capo Verde , the summit of this barrier 
being nowhere more than 4 M. distant in a straight liiie. The 
N. winds are therefore entirely excluded from this favoured spot, 
especially as a double range of Alps rises behind the town a little 
farther back, while at the same time the violence of the E. and W. 
winds is much broken. In the rich vegetation of this nook the 
olive predominates, aTid the hills above are chiefly clothed with 
pines. Country-houses and churches peep from amidst the olive 

to Nice. BORDIGHERA. Id. Route. 97 

groves in every direction , the highest being at San Romolo at the 
footof theBignone, to which the few visitors who remain thronghout 
the summer resort in order to escape from the heat. Several fine 
palms rise in the principal street of the lower and modern part of 
the town , and others in the 'palm-quarter' of the old town , and 
other places (comp. below). 

Walks numerous and pleasant , but occasionally rough. Near the 
station are the Giardino Piibblico , containing palms, eucalyptus, etc., and 
a small fountain, and the Corso Mezzogioriio, which terminates towards the 
W. in the Giardino deW Imperatrice, a garden recently laid out under the 
auspices of the Empress of Russia. The most sheltered walk higher up 
in the basin is the Berigo Road. — A beautiful point of view easily reached 
is the "Madonna della Ovardin on the Capo Verde, returning by Poggio. 

— To S. Romolo 3 hrs., an excursion for which a donkey may be hired. 
About 2 hrs. higher rises the Monte Bignone (4235 ft.), which commands 
a beautiful panorama of the sea to the S. and the Maritime Alps to the 
N., on the way back from which the Piano del Re, a celebrated point of 
view, may also be visited. — Good roads lead to Ceriana and to Taggia. 

— To La Colla. by Ospedaletti (see below) 2 hrs.; or direct, by a very 
ancient road, 3 M. 

The train passes through a tunnel \inder the Cafo Nero., while 
the road winds over the promontory at a considerable height. — 
881/2 M. Ospedaletti is also the station for the loftily situated 
(1 hr.) La Colla, the town-hall of which contains a valuable pic- 
ture-gallery. A view is now soon obtained of the palm-groves of — 

92 M. Bordighera. — Hotels. -Hotel Bordighera, with a garden 
of palms, pens, from 8 fr. ; -Hotel d'Angleterre, good cuisine, pens. 10 fr. ; 
Hot. Bellevue, Windsor, Beaurivage, pens. 7-9 fr. ; Pens. Anglaise; Pens. 

Physicians: Ilr. Goodchild and Dr. Ckristeller. 

English Church, Eev. P. C. Wodefiouse. 

Bordighera is situated on a hill projecting into the sea, and 
consists of an upper and a lower quarter. Beautiful *View from the 
top of the hill (from the terrace of the small Cafe Cadama, pension 
5-6 fr., to the left as the picturesque upper part of the town is 
entered), embracing the bay of Ventiniiglia, Mentone, and Monaco 
as far as the Esterels , with groves of palms in the foreground 
(Phoenix dactylifera, the fruit of which seldom ripens sufficiently 
here to be edible). A considerable trade is carried on here in palm 
branches and young palm-trees. The palm-garden of Sign. Moreno 
is worthy of a visit. The climate is almost as mild as that of Men- 
tone and San Remo, but is more bracing and equable, and invalids 
frequently come here for change of air, and even to spend the 
whole winter. Excursion to the neighbouring Dolceacqua with the 
ancestral chateau of the Dorias of Genoa, and to Pigna. 

Farther on , to the right of the line , is the Protestant school 
of Vallecrosia , immediately beyond which a brook is crossed, and 
a glimpse of the Maritime Alps obtained. 94V2 M. Ventimiglia 
(*Rail. Restaurant ; Hotel de I'Europe), where passengers' luggage is 
examined at the French custom-house. The town, which is an Ita- 
lian frontier-fortress, with 8000 inhab., lies very picturesquely on 
a hiU beyond the Roja , a stream whose broad stony channel the 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 7 

98 Route 14. . MENTONE. From Genoa 

line crosses farther on. The train passes through a tunnel and 
approaches the sea. View limited. — [On this part of the route 
the scenery is much finer on the road than on the railway. The 
road ascends gradually and is guarded hy forts at the highest point. 
In descending it commands an extensive view of the French coast, 
and passes through several villages , affording several fine retro- 
spects. On a hill to the right are the ruins of a Roman fort. Mor- 
tola, with its church , farther on, stands picturesquely on a rocky 
eminence. The road then skirts a gorge and ascends to the last 
height, where a view of Mentone is disclosed. Immediately beyond 
this point is the Italian dogana. On the hill to the right lies Gri- 
maldi. Charming country-houses with lemon and orange-gardens 
and luxuriant vegetation are now passed. The deep gorge crossed 
hy the Pont St. Louis forms the boundary of France.] — 

1011/.2 M. Meutone, French Menton. — Hotels and Pensions. 
On the W. Bay. (1.) At some distance from the soa. Quartier St. Benoit et 
Urbana: *H6tel des Iles Bkitanniques, well fitted up; adjacent, 'Hotel 
National, new and also admirably fitted up, with a lift ; *Hotel du Louvke, 
pension on the 1st floor 15, 2nd floor 13, 3rd floor 11 fr. ; Hotel de Ve- 
NiSE; Pension Centkale ; -Hotel d'Orient, finely situated; Hotel des 
Etrangeks; Pension des Princes; Hotel des Ambassadedrs. Quartier 
St. Eoche: Hotel M6diterran6e; Hotel d'Angleterre (Villa Burnabat). 
Central District; Hotel Royal, adjoining the Cercle ; *Hotbl de Turin; 
Hotel Bristol; Hotel de France, commercial. On the Turin road: 
Hotel du Parc, convenient for a short stay; Pension dd Nord, frequented 
by Scandinavians; 'Pension Scisse ; Pension Comfortable; Pension des 
Grangers, with a large garden. — (.2) On the Promenade du Midi, near 
the sea: 'Hotel du Pavillon , patronised by English and Americans; 
Hotel Splendide; Pension de Londees; Hotel de Russie et d'Alle- 
magne ; 'Pension Camous; Pension Am£ricaine ; Pension Condamine; 
Pension Franco -Belge ; 'Pension Anglo- AMiiRiCAiNE; Hotel West- 
minster; 'Hotel Victoria, recommended for a prolonged stay, not so 
suitable for passing travellers ; 'Grand Hotel de Menton ; 'Hotel du Midi. 

On the E. Bay: Hotel de la Grande Bretagne ; 'Hotel d'lTALiE, 
with pleasant garden , patronised by the English , and 'Hotel Bellevde, 
both situated above the high-road; 'Hotel de la Paix; 'Hotel des 
Anglais, frequented chiefly by English; 'Grand Hotel, with large gar- 
den; 'Pension Beau-Site ; 'Hotel Beaurivage; 'Hotel Mirabeau; 'Pen- 
sion Gaberel, in the Villa Manna; 'Pension St. Maria. — Pension 8-15 fr. 
per day, exclusive of fires and lights. 

All the hotels and pensions are closed during summer, with the ex- 
ception of the Hotel du Pare and those in the Quartier St. Roche and 
the Central District. 

In both bays there are also numerous (150) charmingly situated and 
sometimes handsomely furnished villas, a list of which may be obtained 
of the agent T. Amarante, who draw.s up contracts for a lease, takes inven- 
tories of furnishings, and compare.s them again when the visitor leaves. 
The rents vary from 1000 to 7000 fr. and upwards for the season. Private 
apartments for the season, from 400 fr. upwards, are also to be had, where 
the visitor may have his own 'menage', and live less expensively than at 
a pension. Choice of situation, comp. p. 95. 

The Cercle PhWiarmon ique coniains a reading-room, and frequently 
gives balls and concerts ; subscription 60 fr. for the seascm, ladies 48 fr. ; 
per month 15 fr., ladies 12 fr. 

Restaurants. Cafe de la Paix; Cafi de Paris; Restaurant du Cercle. — 
Confectioner : Humpelmeier, in the .Tardin Public. 

Physicians. I)rs. Bennet, Marriott, and Siordel, English ; I)rs. Boltini 
and Farina., Italian; Drs. Stiege, Jessen and v. Cube, German; Dr. Taver- 

to Nice. MENTONE. 14. Route. 99 

ree!/, French Swiss. — Chemists : AlbertoUi, Qras, and Farraud, who make 
up English and German prescriptions during the winter. 

Post Office, Rue Gavini. — Telegraph Office: Avenue Victor Emanuell9. 

Bankers: Martini (Biov'es & Co.); Franc, /"oimaro (Engl, vice-consul); 
Adamin Boltini. — Bookseller: Giocdaw, with reading-room and circulating 
library. — Photographers : Ostroga , Rue Partonneaux ; An/ossi , Avenue 
Victor Emanuel. 

Husic thrice weekly in winter from 2 to 3 p.m., on Sunday at the 
Cercle, on Tuesday and Thursday in the Jardin Public. 

Omnibuses through the town during the season from the Quartier 
Garavent to the Quartier Madonna, every hour, 50c. 

Carriages. Drive in the town, with one horse, P/t fr., with two 
horses 13/4 fr.; per hour 2'/2 or 3'/2 fr. ; for half-a-day one-horse 8-10, per 
day 12-15 fr., two-horse 25 fr.; to Monaco with one horse, 6fr. — Don- 
keys 5 fr. per day, 21/2 fr. for half-a-day, and gratuity. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Mentone, a small town with 5600 iiihab., formerly belonging 
to the principality of Monaco, and afterwards under the Sardinian 
supremacy , was annexed to France in 1860. It is charmingly 
situated on the Bay of Mentone, which is divided into the Bale de 
I'Est and the Bate del' Quest by a rocky promontory, and being 
protected by a girdle of rocky mountains from the N. winds , is 
considered one of the most favourable spots for a winter-residence 
on the Riviera di Ponente (mean temperature about 3° Fahr. 
higher than at Nice ; a cold wind , however , generally prevails 
towards noon, especially at the point where the valley opens to- 
wards the W. bay). The vegetation is luxuriant, consisting chiefly 
of orange and lemon groves interspersed with gnarled carob-trees 
(ceratoria siliqua), figs, olives, etc. The Promenade du Midi and 
the Jardin Public are favourite walks in the afternoon. The ruin- 
ed castle on the above mentioned rocky promontory , which has 
been converted into a burial-ground, affords a fine view, embracing 
S. Agnese on a lofty hill, erected for defence against the Saracens. 
Another picturesque point is the monastery of S. Annunziata, to 
which a tolerable path ascends (in l/o ^r.) from the Turin road (to 
the left immediately beyond the railway). Pleasant and sheltered 
walks may also be taken to the Vallee Gorbio (also practicable for 
driving), Vallee Cabrole, and Vallee de Menton, and to the Cap 
Martin, which bounds the Bay of Mentone on the W. ; another to 
Grimaldi (p. 98), to the E., immediately beyond the frontier 
bridge, where a tower in Dr. Bennet's garden commands a fine view ; 
another to Mortola (p. 98), where admission is granted to Mr. 
Hanbury's beautiful garden. 

Attractive excursions from Mentone to Monti and the Cascades, and 
thence to Castiglione and Sospello (p. 107). — Also by (4 M.) Castellar to 
the summit of the Berceau (3-4 hrs.) ; magnificent prospect, embracing the 
mountains of the coast, the blue expanse of the Mediterranean, and Corsica 
in the distance (guide advisable; Louis Jouan of Mentone, donkey-hirer, 
recommended; the last ^/thr. must be accomplished on foot).. — To 
S. Agnese, situated on a serrated ridge of rock (Locanda , bad), 2 hrs., 
returning by (2 hrs.) Gorbio and Roccdbruna to Mentone (in 4-5 hrs. more). 
From S. Agnese the '■Aiguille'' may be ascended in 2-272 hrs., a higher 
point than the Berceau, also commanding a fine view. — To Camporosso 


100 Route 14. MONACO. 

situated S'/z M., and Dolce Acqua, 7 M. inland from Ventimiglia (p. 97). — 
Comp. also p. 106. 

The Road from Mentone to Nice, 19 M. (by carr. in 3 hrs. ; 25-30 fr., 
2-3 fr. gratuity), the .lo-called ^Roiite de la Corniche'^ traver.tes the most 
beautiful part of the Riviera, and is far preferable to the railway. It ascends 
through the most luxuriant vegetation , and commands a charming retro- 
spect of Mentone and the coast as far as Bordighera. Then, as the top of 
the first liill is gained, a view of Monaco (see below), to which a road de- 
scends to the left. To the right of the road, higher up, Jioccabnina (see below) 
is visible. Then Turbia with its huge Roman tower, now a mere shell, the 
remains of the Tropaea Avgnsti (whence the name 'Turbia'), erected to com- 
memorate the subjugation of the Ligurian tribes (A.D. 13). Another very 
beautiful view is enjoyed here. To the E. the wild mountains and the 
entire coast from Ventimiglia to Bordighera ; W. (view in this direction 
from a point a few steps above the tower) the Mediterranean, the French 
coast near Antibes , the island of St. Marguerite , the Montagues de TEs- 
terel, and other distant coast-hills. The road now enters a bleak moun- 
tain-district. On the left is £za (p. 101), a group of grey and venerable 
houses with a white campanile, perched on an isolated rock rising abrupt- 
ly from the valley. The culminating point of the road is now reached, 
and the wooded promontory of SI. Jean (p. 107), Beaulieu (p. 106), and Villa- 
franca (p. 106) become visible. Beyond these a view is obtained of the 
beautiful valley of Nice (p. 101), with its villas, monasteries, villages, and 
green hills. 

The Kailway from Mentone to Nice skirts the coast the whole 
way , and affords very inferior views to the magnificent and lofty 
carriage -road. It crosses the Borigli, penetrates Capo Martino 
(see above) by means of a tunnel , and stops at stat. Cabbe- 
Roquebrune. The village (Ital. Roccabruna) lies on the hill to 
the right, in the midst of orange and lemon groves, commanded by 
a ruined castle. 105 1/2 M. Monte Carlo, station for the Casino of 
Monaco (see below). 

107 M. Monaco. — Hotels. *H6tel de Paris , on a grand scale, 
adjoining the Casino; adjacent. Hotels Beau-Rivage and de Russie; 
Hotels des Bains and Condamine, in the quarter La Condamine, near 
the station and the sea; Angleterre, Avenue du Monte Carlo: 

Carriage from the station to the town IV2, per hr. 3fr. ; two-horse 
carr. to Kiee 30 fr. 

Monaco , picturesquely situated on a bold and prominent rock, 
is the capital (1500 inhab.) of the diminutive principality of that 
name, to which Mentone and Roccabruna also belonged down to 
1848. The princes, who were anciently renowned for their naval 
exploits, exercise sovereign rights, but the customs and post-ofttce 
are in the hands of France. The palace (shown on Tuesd., 2-4 
p. m.), which is adorned with frescoes, contains a suite of sumptu- 
ously furnished apartments, and possesses a fine garden. Pleasant 
promenades extend round the rocky point , which commands a 
beautiful view of the sea-coast to the E., particularly striking by 
evening light. Visitors are attracted to Monaco by the mildness 
of the climate in winter, and by the sea-bathing in summer, but 
the chief inducement to many is the 'tapis vert' at the Casino, 
which stands on a promontory to the E. of the town, surrounded by 
beautiful grounds (caf^, music twice daily; classical concerts on 
Thursdays) , and commanding a fine view (Casino station , see 

Hotels. NICE. 75. Route. 101 

above). The garden of the Villa Walewska, open in winter on 
Thursdays from 1 to 5, is worthy of a visit. 

Beyond Monaco the train passes through three long and several 
shorter tunnels. Ill M. Stat. Eza; the village, situated on an 
isolated rock on the right , high above the line , was once a 
stronghold of Saracen freebooters, who levied contributions on the 
surrounding district. 

1121/2 M. Beaulieu (p. 106). — 1 131/2 M. Villafranca (p. 106). 
The train now enters the valley of the Paglione by means of a 
tunnel nearly 1 M. in length , crosses the stream , passes through 
another tunnel , and reaches the station of (116 M.) Nice on the 
right bank of the river. 

15. Nice and its Environs. 

Comp. Mcq), p. 104. 

Hotels. In the Promenade des Anglais : *Hotel des Anglais , "Dn 

Luxembourg, de la MfeDiTERRANtE , de Rome , all first class. — By the 

Jardin Public : *Grande Bretagne, ''Angleterre. — On the Quai Massena 

(Quai des Palmiers) : ''Hotel de France, R. 6, A. and L. 2, omnibus lV2fr. 

— Quai St. Jean Baptiste : '-'Cosmopolitan Hotel (Chauvain), R. 5, L. & A. 
2, D. 6, omnibus 2fr. ; Hotel de la Paix; '^Grand Hotel. — In the Boule- 
vard Carabacel : Hotel de Paris ; Europe et AMfiRiQUE ; Perino ; ''Hotel 
Bristol ; '-Hotel de Nice, well situated ; Hotel Carabacel. — In the Boule- 
vard Bouchage : Hotel Windsor; Hotel Julien-, Hotel d'Albion, pens. 
10 fp. — In the Avenue Beaulieu : *Hotel et Pension Raissan. — Avenue 
de la Gare : 'Iles Britanniques; Hotel des Empereurs ; Hotel HelvS- 
TiQDE ; Hotel des Deux Mondes ; "Hotel de l'Univers ; Hotel des Alpes ; 
Maison DoRfeE. — In the Boulevard Longchamp : '='Hotel Pauadis. — Rue 
St. Etienne : Hotel du Louvre. — Avenue Delphine: '''Hotel et Restau- 
rant Du Midi, near the station; Beau-Site ; '^de Russie. — Place Massena : 
Hotel MeublS;. — Rue des Ponchettes : Hotel et Pension Suisse, on the 
sea, R. & A. 3, B. 11/2 fr. — On the Quai du M»idi : '*H6tel Victoria, with 
a beautiful view. — In the old town: '^' Hotel des Princes, Rue des Pon- 
chettes ; Hotel d'York, Place St. Dominique ; '^'Hotel des Etrangeks, Rue 
du Pontneuf, frequented by passing travellers. — In the Rue de France : 
Hotel et Pension Tarelli, Hotel du Parc, and Hotel Croix de Marbre. 

— Most of the hotels are closed from the beginning of summer till the 
end of September. The Grand Hotel and Hotels Chauvain, de l'Univers, 
Suisse , des Etrangers , and Tarelli remain open throughout the whole 
year. — In resisting the exorbitant demands sometimes made by the inn- 
keepers on the death of one of their guests , the traveller will receive 
efficient aid from the local authorities. 

Pensions. In the Promenade des Anglais : "Pension Rivoir, Pension 
Anglaise. In the Rue de France : P. de la Metropole^ -P. Marret, "P. Roghi. 
Rue Longchamp: "P. St. Etienne. Rue St. Etienne: ''Pension Millet, 10-12 fr. 
Petite Rue St. Etienne : " Pension Internationale. Avenue Delphine : "P. Royale. 
Boulevard Carabacel : Pension Geneve. At Cimies: P. Anglaise (Villa Garin), 
"P. Cimies. — The usual charge at these houses is 7-12 fr. per day. 

Kestaurants. In the Avenue de la Gare : 'Restaurant Frangais ; Res- 
taurant des Deux Mondes ; -'Maison Doree ; "Restaurant Suisse, "Atniricain. 
Rue Croix de Marbre : London House. Rue Macarani : Trois Suisses. In 
the Corso : Restaurant du Cours , du Commerce. Place Massena: Restaurant 
National, well spoken of. — Cafes. De la Victoire, Place Massena|; Orand 
Cafi, in the Grand Hotel; "Cafi Amiricain , in the Corso. Ices: the best 
at Rumpelmeier^s ; also at the Maison Doric and Cafi Amiricain (see above). 

— Preserved Fruits: Miiller , Place St. Dominique; Fea, Avenue de la 
Gare; Escoffier, Place Massena. — The Beer is seldom good; best at the 

102 Route 15. 




One- horse, 
with 4 seats. 

with 4 seats. 































Brassserie Cenirale , and in the Brasserie de Slrasbourg , both in the Rue 
du Temple. Also in most of the restaurants and cafes; glass 30-40 c. 

Bakers. Renz, Rue Paradis, German. Diedrich., Place Grimaldi. 

Cabs are stationed in the 
Place Charles Albert, Place Mas- 
sena. Boulevard du Pont Vienx, 
and other places. 

Vcr Drive in the town (exclusive 

of some villas) 

From the station to the town 

the following charges are 

for 1 pers. in the smallest 

cabs, and for 2 pers. in the 

others, without luggage . . 
Each additional pers., as also 

each larger article of lug- 
gage , or drive from one 

hotel to another 

Per hour 

loVilla/ranca, Orotte St. Andr^, 

there and back with a stay 

of V2 hr 

Tramway from the Place Massena to the railway station and Magnan 
Bridge every 20 min., to St. Maurice every 40 min. 

Omnibuses cross the town in several directions (25 c); from the station 
to the town 30 c. ; trunk 25, hat-box 10 c. ; to Villafranca and Beaulieu 
every 2 hrs., 30 c, starting from the Pont Vieux, left bank of the Paillon. 

Horses may be hired of Mgio, Boulevard Charles-Albert 2, and Rue 
St. Francois de Paule; Mouton, Rue Pastorelli, etc.-, 6-10 fr. for a ride of 
3-4 hrs. In winter a horse may be hired by the month for 250-350 fr., in 
summer for less. — Donkeys generally 4 fr. (but in the height of the season 
sometimes 5fr.) per day, and 1 fr. for the attendant; half-day 2fr. 

Markets in the Cours (8-11 a.m., sale of flowers); by the cathedral; 
in tin; I'luoL' St. Francois. — Fish-market at the back of the Cours. 

Booksellers. Librairie Oalig7ifmi,Ql\i^i Massena 15 (branch-establishment 
of tlu- WLll-kuiiwn Paris firm; English and French books), with circulating 
library and reading-room; Librairie Etrangere oi Barbh'y Frires, with cir- 
culating library, Jardin Public 7. VisconlVs reading-room, Rue du Cours, 
with garden ; Fleurdeli/s, Avenue de la Gare 5 ; Joiigla, Rue Masse'na 18. 

Post Office, Rue St. Francois de Paule (PI. D, 4), 7 a.m. to 6, in 
summer to 7 p.m. ; Sund. 7-12, 4-6 only. — Telegraph Office, Rue du Pont 
Neuf, adjoining the Prefecture; another office in the Place Grimaldi. 

Physicians. Drs. Gurney , Marcet, Crosb;/, and West, English. Drs. 
Ziirc/ier, Lippert^ Cammerer, 3.nA. Mayrhofer ; I)rs. Jatilzon, a.ndProll, homwo- 
pathists, all German. — Dentists: Hall (American), Preterre, both in the 
I'lacc Massena; Pieux., Quai Masse'na; Mnck, Rue Massena 30. — Chemists: 
Pharmacie Anglaise, Quai Massena; Draghi, Rue de France; Fonqite, Bou- 
levard ilu Pont Vieux; Leonctni, Place St. Etienne ; Vigon^ Rue Gioffredo ; 
I'iKtnnarie Alxarienne, Rue Gioffredo 1 : Sue, Avenue dc la Garc. — Mineral 
Waters : Claud. Rue Massena 26. 

American Consul : Mr. W. H. Vesey. 

Bankers. Lacroix, Rue du Cours; Caisse de Credit, Rue Gubornatis. 
Baths. Warm Baths: Bains des Quatre Saisons, Place du Jardin 
Public; Hai/is de Macarani., Place Grimaldi ; Bains Mass&na, Rue Ma.ssena. 
Turkish Baths: Ilammam de Nice, Place Grimaldi and Rue de la BufVa. 
Sea-baUis opposite the Promenade des Anglais, 1 fr. 

Shops. The best are on the Quai St. Baptiste and the Quai Mas- 
sena. 'Marqucterie' (inlaid wood -work): Oimellc Fils , tt Co., Quai St. 
.lean Baptiste 9; Rueger, Rue du Pont Neuf3, and others. Photographers: 
Blanc, Promenade des Anglais; Ferret, Rue Gioffredo. 

Casinos. Cercle Massena, Place Massena; Cercle Mfditerranfc, formerly 

Climate. NICE. 15. Route. 103 

the Casino, Promenade des Anglais, embellished with the armorial bear- 
ings of different states; Cercle Philharinonique., Rue Pont Nenf. 

Theatres. Thidtre National., Eue St. Francois de Paiile, Italian opera; 
TMdtre Fran^ais, Rue du Temple, operas, comedies, etc. 

Military Music daily in the Jardin Public, 2-4 o'clock. 

Steamboats (companies : Fraissinet , Place Bellevue 6 , on the quay ; 
Florio ; Valery Freres el Fils, Quai Lunel 14) to Genoa, Marseilles^, and 
Corsica (Bastia, see p. 427). 

House Agents , Samaritani , LaMs , Dalgoulte , and Jougla , to whom 
a percentage is paid by the proprietors. A more advantageous bargain 
may therefore be made without their intervention. Houses and apartments 
to let are indicated by tickets. A single visitor may procure 1-2 furnished 
rooms for the winter in the town for 300-700 fr. ; suites of apartments 
are let for 1000-5000 fr. , villas for 3000-8000 fr. and upwards. 

The hirer should not take possession until a contract on stamped paper 
has been signed by both parties, containing stipulations with regard to 
damage done to furniture and linen , compensation for breakages , etc. 
This is the only way to avoid the disputes which are apt to arise on the 
termination of the contract. Nice has the reputation of being an expensive 
place, but it is at the same time possible to live here, as in other large 
towns, more economically than in places like Cannes or Mentone. At the 
pensions situated at a distance from the sea, but in well-sheltered spots, 
the charges are comparatively moderate. 

English Churches in the Rue de France , and in the Rue St. Michel ; 
service also at Carabacel. Scotch Church , corner of Boul. de Longchamp 
and Rue St. Etienne. 

Climate. The bay of Nice is sheltered from the N., N.E., and N.W. 
winds by the lower terraces of the Maritime Alps (culminating in Mont 
Chaiive, Italian Monte Calvo, 2672 ft.), a natural barrier to which it owes 
its European reputation for mildness of climate. The mean winter tem- 
perature is 10-15" Fahr. higher than that of Paris , summer temperature 
5-10° lower. Frost is rare. The Mistral, or N.W. wind, the scourge of 
Provence, is seldom felt, being intercepted by the Montagues du Var and 
de rEsterel. The E. wind, however, which generally prevails in spring, 
is trying to delicate persons. The most sheltered situations are the Bou- 
levard Carabacel and the Quartiers Brancolar and Cimies , in the last of 
which the air is generally pure and free from dust. Three different 
climatic zones are distinguished and recommended to different classes of 
patients, viz. the neighbourhood of the sea, the plain, and the hills. Sunset 
is a critical period. As the sun disappears, a sensation is often felt as 
if a damp mantle were being placed on the shoulders , but this moisture 
lasts 1-2 hours only. The rainy season usually begins early in October and 
lasts about a month. — The result of the observations made at the 
Meteorological Station, which was established in 1877, are posted up on 
the band-kiosk in the Jardin Public. 

Nice, Ital. Nizza, the capital (52,300 inhab.) of the French De- 
partement des Alpes Maritimes , was founded hy the Phocian in- 
hahitants of Marseilles in the 5th cent. B.C., and named Nicaea. 
Down to 1388 it belonged to the County of Provence, and afterwards 
to the Dukes of Savoy ; in 1792 it was occupied hy the French, in 
1814 restored to Sardinia, and in 1860 Anally antiexed to France 
together with Savoy. Nice was the birthplace of the French general 
Masse'na (in 1758) and of Giuseppe Garibaldi (in 1807). The dia- 
lect of the natives is a mixture of Proven(;al and Italian. 

In winter Nice is the rendezvous of invalids as well as persons 
in robust health from all parts of Europe, especially from England, 
Russia, and Germany, who assemble here to escape from the rigours 
of a northern winter. In summer the town is deserted. 

104 Route 15. NICE. Jardin Public. 

Nice is beautifully situated on the broad Bale des Anges, which 
opens towards the S., at the mouth of the Paglione , or Paillon 
(& small stream , frequently dried up). The broad and stony bed 
of the river, with handsome quays on each bank, bisects the town. 
On the left bank is the Old Town , with its narrow , dirty lanes, 
which however have been superseded by better streets near 
the shore (Boulevard du Midi and Promenade du Cours). On 
the riglit bank is the Strangers' Quarter, which already surpasses 
the old town in extent , and is intended to occupy the entire space 
bounded on the W. by the brook Maynan , and on the N. by the 
railway (the Quartier de la Croix de Marbre stretches along the 
coast to the W., the Boiilevard Carabacel and the Quartiers Bran- 
colar and Ciuiies to the N.E. along the bank of the Paillon). 

Near the station is a beautiful alley of Eucalyptus trees (Euca- 
lyptus Globulus). In the Avenue de la Gare , leading from the 
station to the town, rises the still unflnished church of Notre Dame, 
erected by Lenormant of Paris in the Gothic style. — A Marble Cross 
in the Rue de France , commemorating the meeting of Charles V. 
and Francis I. in 1538, which was effected through the intervention 
of Pope Paul III., has given its name (Croix de Marbre) to this 
quarter of the town. — The Square, a broad space formed by 
covering in the Paillon between the Pont Vieux ami Pont Neuf , is 
embellished by a Statue of Massena (p. 103) in bronze, erected in 
1867; in front Clio is represented on the pedestal writing his name 
on the page of history ; at the sides are reliefs. — The Town Library 
(40,000 vols., open daily 10-3, on Sundays 10-12 o'clock). Rue St. 
Francois de Paule 2, contains a few Roman antiquities (milestones, 
etc.), and a natural history cabinet. 

The Jardin Public (PI. D, 4 ; military music, see p. 103) at the 
embouchure of the Paillon , and the *Promenade des Anglais ad- 
joining it on the W., which was laid out by i^nglish residents in 
1822-24, and greatly exteiided in 1862, are the principal resorts of 
visitors. These grounds stretch along the coast for I'/o M., as far 
as the brook Maynan, and are bordered with handsome hotels and 
villas (at the beginning of the promenades is the Cercle Medi- 
terrane'e, mentioned p. 103). On the left bank of the Paillon, which 
is crossed here by the Pont Napole'nn , they are continued by the 
Boulevard du Midi, which is planted with palms. 

To theE. of the town rises the Castle Hill, 320 ft. in height (PI. 
F, 4; ascent from the N. or E. side, 20 min.), crowi\cd by the ruins 
of a castle destroyed by the Duke of Berwick under Louis XIV. in 
1706, now converted into beautiful grounds, where palms, oranges, 
cypresses, and aloes flourish in profusion. The platform on the 
summit, erected in honour of Napoleon III., commands an admirable 
view in every direction : S. the Mediterranean; W. the coast, the 
promontory of Antibes , the two lies de Lerins , the jiiouth of the 
"Var (which down to 1860 formed the boundary between France and 

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Environs of Nice. NICE. 15. Route. 105 

Sardinia), below the spectator Nice itself; N. the valley of the 
Paglione, the monasteries of Cimies and St. Pons, in the distance 
the castle of S. Andre, Mont Chauve, the Aspremont, and the Alps ; 
E., the mountains, Fort Montalban , and the promontory of Mont- 
boron (p. 106). The S. slope of the castle-hill, which descends 
precipitously towards the sea, is called the Rauba Capeu ('hat- 
robber', owing to the prevalence of sudden gusts). — The Ceme- 
teries, with the exception of the English , are on the N. side of the 

At the base of the castle-hill on the E., where a house opposite 
the dogana was destroyed by a landslip in the winter of 1871, lies 
the small Harbour (PI. F, 4), called Limpia from an excellent spring 
(limpida) which rises near the E. pier. It is accessible to small 
vessels only ; those of large tonnage cast anchor in the bay of Villa- 
franca (p. 106). The Place Bellevue, adjoining the harbour, is 
embellished with a Statue of Charles Felix, King of Sardinia, in 
marble, erected in 1830. 

To the N. of the town are the villas Chateau Neuf and Orangini, 
both in the Quartler Brancolar. 

The Environs of Nice , with their attractive villas and luxur- 
iant vegetation, afford a variety of beautiful excursions. 

The Franciscan monastery of Cimies, Ital. Cimella, is situated 
3 M. to the N. of Nice. The best, although not the shortest route 
to it is by the new road ascending to the E. from the Boulevard 
Carabacel (PI. E, 2), which on the top of the hill intersects the site 
of a Roman Amphitheatre (210 ft. long, 175 ft. wide). About 1/4 M. 
to the right from the cross-road, immediately beyond the amphi- 
theatre, we reach the monastery (two pictures by Brea in the cha- 
pel), re-erected in 1543 after its destruction by the Turks. It 
stands on the site of the Roman town of Cemenelium , to which the 
above-mentioned amphitheatre and a quadrangular structure , com- 
monly called a ^Temple of Apollo', belonged. Traces of baths and 
other buildings have also been discovered. 

The Villa Clary, to which the public are admitted, below Ci- 
mies, on the road to St. Andre', possesses the finest orange and 
lemon-trees at Nice and many rare plants. 

A good carriage-road ascends on the right bank of the Paglione 
to the (40 min.) monastery of St. Pons, founded in 775 on the spot 
where St. Pontius, a Roman senator, suffered martyrdom in 261. 
It was destroyed by the Saracens in 890, and the present edifice 
erected in 999. The treaty by which the County of Nice was an- 
nexed to the Duchy of Savoy was concluded here in 1388. The 
chateau of St. Andre (restaurant, closed in summer), which is reach- 
ed in '/o lir. more, built in the 17th cent., is now unoccupied. About 
1/4 hr. farther up the valley is the insignificant grotto Les Cluses 
de St. Andre, or rather a natural bridge over a brook , crossed by 

106 Route 15. TORRETTA. Environs of Nice. 

the road. An avenue of cypresses leads from the chateau to the 

The excursion may be extended still farther in this direction. 
From the Grotto of St. Andre' we follow the Torretta road in the de- 
solate rocky ravine a little farther , and then ascend to the left by 
the new road in several windings to the village of Falicon , the 
highest point of which affords an admirable view. — From Falicon 
we may either return by the road to the S. to Nice (or by the less 
beautiful and very steep, but shorter path via Cimies) , or proceed 
farther towards the N. to *Aspremont, O'/a'^- f''*^™ Nice. The road 
is good the whole way, and commands a fine view. NearAspremont 
we obtain an excellent *Survey of the valley of the Var and of 
the Alps. 

Farther up the valley of St. Andre, 7 M. from Nice, lies the 
antiquated village of Torretta , with the picturesque ruin of that 
name (Fr. La Tourette^. The tower of the castle commands a very 
singular survey of the sterile mountain scene , especially of Mont 
Chauve, the Aspremont, and the deserted village of Chateau Neuf, 
perched on a barren ridge of rock ; to the S. Montalban and the sea. 

About 11/2 M. farther is the dilapidated village of Ch&teau 
Neuf, founded on the ruins of old fortificatious, and probably used 
in the 15th and 16th cent, by the inhabitants of Nice as a refuge 
from Turkish invaders. It has recently been abandoned by most 
of its inhabitants on account of the want of water. It is 5 M. distant 
from Torretta, and affords another line view. 

To the E. of the harbour La Limpia rises the Kontboron , a 
promontory 890 ft. in height, which separates Nice from Villafranca. 
The summit, which is reached in l'/.2 hr., commands an extensive 
prospect. The mountains of Corsica are visible towards the S. in 
clear weather. 

The Road to Villafranca (2 M.; comp. PI. G, 4), constructed 
by the French government , leads round the promontory of Mont- 
boron and passes a number of villas, the most conspicuous of which 
is the Villa Smith , a red building in the Oriental style. Near this 
village the new '■'"Route Forestiore de Montboron' ascends to the 
left, commanding a superb view of Nice and the numerous villas 
of the environs ; it traverses the whole of the hill of Montboron, 
leads round the Fort Montalban , and at length unites with the old 
road to Villafranca. — *ViUafranca, Fr. Villefranche (carr. from 
Nice, see p. 102; rowing-boat 10 fr.), very beautifully situated on 
the Bay of Villa frnnca , which is enclosed by olive-clad heights, 
founded in 1295 by Charles II. of Anjou , king of Sicily, is now 
a station of the Mediterranean squadron of the French fleet. Railway 
station at Villafranca (sec p. 101) close to the sea. 

If we follow the road for i^j-i M. farther, a road to the right, 
crossing the railway by a stone bridge, will lead us to (^/4 M.) 
Beaulieu (rail. stat. to the left of the bridge, see p. 101), an in- 

SOSPELLO. 16. Route. 107 

significant village situated in the midst of rich plantations of olives, 
figs, carob-trees (p. 99), lemons, and oranges. Many of the olive- 
trees are remarkably large, one of them measuring 22 ft. in circum- 
ference. Beaulieu lies in a wide bay, bounded on the S. by the 
long peninsula of St. Jean. At the foot of the latter lies the village 
of S. Oiovanni , or St. Jean (dear inn) , i^/^ M. from Beaulieu , a 
favourite resort of excursionists from Nice. Tunny fishing is suc- 
cessfully carried on here in February, March, and April. At the 
extremity of the peninsula are the ruins of an old Saracenic castle, 
destroyed in 1706 in the reign of Louis XIV. (see p. 104), and the 
ruined chapel of St. Hospice. Instead of proceeding to St. Jean by 
the above route , the traveller may be ferried across the bay to the 
creek of Passable (60 c), and thence cross the peninsula on foot to 
St. Jean. 

On the W. Siue of Nice pleasant walks may be taken in the 
valley of the Magnan (p. 104), in which a road ascends to (2 M.) 
the church of La Madeleine. The beautiful , sheltered banks of 
the Var, which falls into the Bale des Anges, 3^/4 M. to the W. of 
Nice, are also worthy of a visit (one day; carr. with two horses, 
20-25 fr.; also a railway station, comp. p. 21). 

16. From Nice to Turin by the Col di Tenda. 

I4OV2 M. — Mkssageries to Cuneo (861/2 M.) in 18-22 brs. (fares 25 
and 22 fr.). Railway from |Cuneo to Turin (54 M.) in 3hrs. (fares 9fr. 
95c., 7fr., 5fr.). — Ofjice at Nice in the Hotel de TUnivers (p. 101), not 
far from the French theatre ; at Turin, in the Via Cavour. 

This is a very attractive route, especially for those coming from Turin. 
The views during the descent from the Col di Tenda to the Mediterranean 
are strikingly beautiful. In winter the road is often impassable for a 
considerable time. 

The road leads from Nice, on the bank of the Paglione, through 
the villages of La Trinitci- Vittoria and Drappo , beyond which it 
crosses and quits the river. 

12 M. (from Nice) Scarena, Fr. Escarhie. The road hence to 
Sospello traverses a sterile and unattractive district. The barren 
rocks which enclose the bleak valley are curiously stratified at 
places. The road ascends to the Col di Braus (4232 ft.). To 
the S., on a lofty rock to the right, is seen the castle of Chdtillon, 
or Castiglione. At the foot of the pass on the E. lies — 

251/2 M. Sospello, French Sospel (1174 ft.; Hotel Carenco), sit- 
uated in the valley of the Bevera (affluent of the Roja, see below), 
in the midst of olive-plantations, and surrounded by lofty moun- 
tains. A new road leads from Sospello to Mentone. The road 
now ascends to the Col di Brouis (2871 ft.). Near the summit of 
the pass a final view is obtained of the Mediterranean. Scenery 
unattractive, mountains bleak and barren. Then a descent to — 

38 M. Giandoia (1250 ft. ; Hotel des Etrangers ; Poste), in a 

108 Route 16. CUNEO. 

grand situation at the base of lofty rocks. Breglio, a town with 2500 
inh. and the ruined castle oiTrivella, lies lower down on the right. 

The road now ascends the narrow valley of the Roja, which 
falls into the sea near Ventimiglia (p. 97). Saorgio, rising in ter- 
races on a lofty rock on the right, with the ruins of a castle in the 
Oriental style, destroyed by the French in 1792, commands the 
road. On the opposite side is a monastery of considerable extent. 
The valley contracts , so as barely to leave roonv for the river and 
the road between the perpendicular rocks. Several small villages 
are situated at the points where the valley expands. Beyond 
(43 M. 3 Fontana the road crosses the Italian frontier. The southern 
character of the vegetation now disappears. 48 M. S. Dalmazzo, 
where an old abbey is fitted up as a hydropathic establishment, 
frequented in summer by some of the winter residents of Nice. 

5OV2M. Ten(/(f (Hotel Royal; Hotel Impe'rial) lies at the S.base 
of the Col di Tenda. A few fragments of the castle of the unfor- 
tunate Beatrice di Tenda (comp. Binasco, p. 162) are picturesquely 
situated on a rock here. 

The road traverses a dreary valley by the side of the Roja and 
ascends by 69 zigzags on the barren mountain, passing several re- 
fuges, to the summit of the Col di Tenda, or di Cornio (6145 ft.), 
where the Maritime Alps (W.) terminate and the Apennines (E.) 
begin. The view embraces the chain of the Alps from Mont Iseran 
to Monte Rosa ; Monte Vise is not visible from the pass itself, but 
is seen a little beyond it, near the 4th Refuge. The descent is very 
steep. The road follows the course of the Vertiianagna to — 

75'/2 M. Limone (3668 ft.; Hotel de la Poste), an Italian excise- 
station, and then becomes more level. The valley of the Ver- 
managna, which is now traversed, is at some places enclosed by 
wooded heights , at others by precipitous limestone cliffs. To the 
the left rises the magnilicent pyramid of the Monte Viso (12,670 ft.). 

Stations Robillante, Roccavione, Borgo S. Dalmazzo, and — 

867.2 M. Cuneo, or Coni (1499 ft.; Alhergo delta Barra di Ferro, 
good cuisine; Alhergo di Superga), a town with 21,800 inhab., at 
the confluence of the Stura and the Gesso , once strongly fortified. 
After the battle of Marengo the works were dismantled in accor- 
dance with a decree of the three consuls and were converted into 
pleasure-grounds. The Franciscan Church, like most churches of 
tills order beyond the Alps , is in the Gothic style (12th cent.). 
Pleasant walk to the Madonna deyli Angeli, at the confluence of 
tlie Gesso and the Stura. 

About 7 M. S.E. of Cuneo, in the Val Plisio, is the romantically sitvi- 
atcd Certosa di Val Fesio, now used as a hydropathic establishment, also 
l'r<'(iuented as quarters for the summer by persons in search of retire- 
ment. — In the Val di Gesso, about 15 M. S.W. of Cuneo, are the Baths 
of Valdieri. 

The Railway to Turin intersects the fertile plain, bounded on 
thi! W. by the Maritime Alps , and, farther distant, the Cottian 

SAVIGLIANO. 17. Route. 109 

Alps, and on the E. by the Apennines. Centallo, the first station, 
with 4900 inhab. , possesses remains of mediaeval walls and 
towers. "Ne-s-t station La Maddalena; then (101 M.) Fossano, an 
episcopal residence, with 17,000 inhab., on the left bank of the 
Stura , beautifully situated on an eminence, with ramparts and a 
mediajval castle. 

1081/2 M. Savigliano (Corona) is a pleasant town on the 
Macra , enclosed by old fortifications. The principal church 
contains pictures by Mtilmari (1721 -93), a native of Savigliano, 
surnamed Carraccino, as an imitator of the Carracci. 

Bkanch-Line to Saluzzo, 10 M. (halfway station Lagnasco), in 1/2 lir. 
(fares 1 fr. 85, 1 fr. 30, 95 c). Saluzzo is the capital of the province 
(formerly a marquisate) of that name, with 15,800 inhabitants. The higher 
part of the town, with its precipitous streets, affords a line prospect over 
the Piedmontese plain. A monument was erected here in 1863 to Silvio 
Pellico, the poet (d. 1854), who was born here in 1788. 

At (114 M.) CavaUermaggiore the line unites with the Turin 
and Savona railway, see p. 75. — WO'/o M. Turin, see p. 54. 

17. From Genoa to Pisa. Riviera di Levante. 

1041/2 M. Railway in 4'/2-7V4 hrs. (fares 19fr., 13fr. 30, 9fr. 50c.). 
— Some of the trains start from the Stazione Piazza Principe at Genoa, 
stopping, with the exception of the express, at the Stazione Piazza Brignole, 
while others start from the latter station. — The finest views are from 
the side of the train opposite that on which passengers enter at Stazione 
Piazza Principe. Beyond Nervi, however, the view is greatly circum- 
scribed by the numerous tunnels, which iilso make it dangerous to stretch 
the head out of the carriage window. 

Genoa , see p. 78. The train backs out of the Stazione Piazza 
Principe, and then starts in the opposite (E.) direction, passing- 
through a long tunnel under the higher parts of the town (transit 
of 4-5 min.). 

2 M. Stazione Piazza Brignole , where there is generally a 
prolonged stoppage. — To the left we obtain a view of the fortress- 
crowned heights around Genoa (comp. p. 80). 

The train , which at places runs parallel with the road, now 
follows the *RiviERA ui Levante , which is less remarkable for 
luxuriant vegetation than the Riviera di Ponente (p. 92) , but 
presents almost more striking scenery. The line is carried through 
the numerous promontories by means of cuttings and tunnels, of 
which last there are no fewer than eighty, some of them of consid- 
erable length. The villages generally present a town-like appear- 
ance , with their narrow streets and lofty and substantial houses, 
closely built on the narrow plain of the coast , or in short and 
confined valleys, and mostly painted externally as at Genoa. 

The train crosses the Bisagno, generally an insignificant brook, 
and passes through the hill on which S. Francesco d'Albaro is 
situated by means of a tunnel. — 4 M. Sturla. To the right 
stretches the beautiful expanse of the Mediterranean ; to the left we 
enjoy a view of the olive-clad slopes of the Apennines , sprinkled 

110 Route n. NERVI. From Genoa 

with country houses. A tunnel. — 5 M. Quarto. A tunnel. — 
^M. Quinto, with numerous villas , and dense lemon plantations, 
among which rise several line palm-trees. Three tunnels. 

7Y2 ^- Nervi. — Hotels. 'Hotel et Pension Anglaise, pens, in 
winter 10-12fr. ; *H6tel Victoria, near the station and the sea; Albebgo 
RiSTORANTE Di Neuvi, unpretending. — Pensions Faijaux^ Ceruti, Roeder, 
and others. — Furnished Villas 200-600 fr. monthly. Information from 
Signor Ccruti and the hotel-keepers. The physician should be consulted 
in taking a dwelling for an invalid. 

Physicians. Zij-. Thomas, Castello Ponzone; Dr. Schelelig, Pension 
Anglaise. — Chemist: Gallo, in the main street. 

Post Office, at Gallons drug-store in the chief street. Telegraph Office 

Nervi, a small town with 5400 inhab., surrounded by lemon- 
groves , has of late come into notice as a winter residence, owing 
to its sheltered situation and mild climate. Nervi, Quinto, and 
Sturla, are frequented by Italians in summer for the sake of the 
sea-bathing, in spite of the rocky nature of the coast. Among the 
handsome villas the finest are Villa Gropallo (the beautiful park 
of which is open to visitors at the Pension Anglaise), Villa Serra, 
Villa Croce, and the pagoda-like Villa Ponzone, all surrounded with 
well-kept grounds containing orange-trees, aloes, palms, and other 
varieties of luxuriant vegetation. A stroll should be taken along 
the rock-bound and picturesque sea-beach. Another pleasant walk 
is along the road to the church of >S. Ilario, halfway up the Monte 
Oiugo, which commands an admirable view of the Riviera di Le- 
vante as far as the picturesque headland of Portoflno and of the 
Riviera di Ponente with the Maritime Alps in the background. 

Many of the beauties of the scenery are lost to railway travellers 
owing to the numerous tunnels through which the train now passes. 
9 M. Bogliasco ; 10 M. Pieve di Sort; 11 M. Sor), where we obtain 
a noble survey of the sea and the valley from the viaduct (in three 
stories) which passes high above the town and the rivulet. — 21 M. 
Recco ; I41/2 M. Camogli , on the coast to the right. [The village 
of Rata, situated on the height, and commanding an admirable 
view towards Genoa, is about 2 M. from Camogli by the road; from 
it we easily attain the summit of the promontory of Portofino 
(11)30 ft. ; see below), which alTords a magnificent survey of the 
whole Gulf of Genoa.] The train passes through the long Tunnel 
of Rata , which penetrates the promontory of S. Margherita, and 
reaches the fertile plain with its numerous villas , and the bay of 

17'/.} M. S. Margherita (Bellevue, with garden) lies on the coast 

A beautiful Excursion may be made hence by boat (4fr.), or by walking 
along the coast, to (3 JI.) Portofino., a small seaport concealed behind the 
Monlefino, with two old castles, now the property of Mr. Urown, the Eng- 
lish consul , one of which , situated at the extreme point of the promon- 
tory ('/-J !»■• fniin PortoDno) commands a splendid prospect. Halfway to 
PortoiiDO is the suppressed monastery of Cervara, where, after the battle 

to Pisa. 

RAPALLO. 17. Route. Ill 

of Pavia, Francis I. of France, when detained here by contrary winds on 
the iourney from Genoa to Madrid, was once imprisoned. 

191/2 M. Rapallo (Hotel de VEurope, well spoken of, R. 21/2 fr., 
L. 60, A. 60c., pension 7-10 fr.; Albergo della Posta), a small 
seaport with 10,800 inhab., who carry on a brisk trade in olive-oil. 
Near it is the pilgrimage church of the Madonna di Montallegro. 
— 21 M. Zoagli, prettily situated. 

2472 M. Chiavari {Fenice, mediocre, R. 3, B. 1, L. 1/2 1 A.. 
1/2 fr.; Trattoria delNegrino, with garden), a town with 12,100 in- 
hab. , is situated at the mouth of the EnteUa, where the mountains 
recede in a wide semicircle. Chiavari manufactures lace and light 
chairs (sedie di Chiavari) , and possesses silk factories and ship- 
building yards. 

251/2 M. Lavagna, a ship-building place , is the ancestral seat 
of the Counts Fieschi. Sinibaldo de' Fieschi, professor of law at 
Bologna , and afterwards elevated to the papal throne as Pope 
Innocent IV. (1243-54), the powerful opponent of Enip. Frederick 
II., was born here. Count Giovanni Luigi de' Fieschi, well known 
in history as the conspirator against the power of the Doria family 
(1547) at Genoa, was also a native of Lavagna. The train passes 
through a long tunnel and reaches — 

28'/2 M. Sestri Levante (Jiwropa,- Italia, unpretentious), pic- 
turesquely situated on a bay which is terminated by a promontory. 

The High Road from Sestri to Spezia, which is far superior to the rail- 
way in point of scenery (carriage and pair, 45 fr.), turns inland and ascends 
the scantily wooded mountains in long windings, affording fine retrospects 
of the peninsula and valley (the village in the latter is Casarza). Farther 
on, the village of Bracco becomes visible on the left; then to the right 
a view is again disclosed of the sea, near which the road leads. The 
village on the coast below is MonegUa (see below). Then a gradual 
ascent through a somewhat bleak district to the Osteria Baracca (2236 ft.), 
whence the road descends into a pleasant valley in which lies the village 
of Baracca. After a slight ascent it next traverses a well cultivated 
district to Pogliasca (Europa), in the valley of the impetuous Vara, an 
affluent of the Magra , which falls into the sea near Sarzana. The road 
skirts the broad , gravelly channel of the river for some distance , then 
diverges to the left and enters a wooded tract, in which beautiful chestnuts 
predominate. Beyond Baracca the sea does not again come into view, 
until the last height before Spezia is attained, whence a magnificent 
prospect is enjoyed of the bay and the precipitous mountains of Carrara, 
or Alpi Apiiane, as the whole range is called. 

Beyond Sestri the mountains recede from the sea, which the 
train also leaves for a short time. A great number of tunnels are 
now passed through in rapid succession ; several fine views of the 
sea and the coast to the right. 3572 M. MonegUa lies close to the 
sea; 3772 M. Deiva, a village at the entrance to a side-valley; 
40 M. Framura; Ai^/o M. Bonassola; 43 M. Levanto (Albergo Na- 
zionale, pens. 5-6 fr.), a small town of 5000 inhab., with partially 
preserved fortifications , a small Giardino Pubblico , and well- 
equipped marine baths. Again a succession of tunnels. 46 M. 
Monterosso; 48 M. Vernazza; 50 M. Corniglia; 51 M. Manarola; 
5172 M. Biomaggiore. Before reaching Spezia the train passes 

112 Route 19. LA SPEZIA. From Genoa 

through four more tunnels , the last of which is very long (transit 
of 7 min.l- 

57 '/.J M. La Spezia. — Hotels. ''Ckoce di Malta, E. 31/2, D. incl. 
wine 4V2, A. 1, L. ' -j, omnibus 1, pens. 10-12 fr. ; 'Italia, with a large 
garden, R. 2-5, B. l'/4, dej. 21/2, I>. 4, L. '/2, A. ^/t, omnibus '/4, pension 
in winter 7-9 fr. ; 'Gkand Hotel Spezia, near the railway station. These 
three all command a view of the sea. — Albergo Nazionale , in the 
Giardino Pubblico, with restaurant , Italian, good cuisine; Locanda della 
Gran Bretagna, commercial; Posta, Corso Cavour. 

Cafes. ~Cafi del Corso, near the Giardino Pubblico; ~Elvetico, near 
the Teatro Civico. 

Chemist. Fossali, Via del Prione. 

Baths. Warm baths at the two first named hotels, and adjoining the 
Hotel Italia. — Sea-batJis in summer on the beach to the K., 50 c. 

Post Office in the Corso Cavour (8-12 a. m. and 2-6 p. m.). — Telegraph 
Office: Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, and Via Fossi 7 (open till midnight). 

Boat with one rower, 1 fr. per hour. 

La Spezia, a town with 26,100 inhah. , is charmingly situated 
at the N.W. angle of the Golfo della Spezia, between two rocks 
crowned with forts, and possesses one of the largest, safest, and 
most convenient harbours in Europe , the Lunai Partus of the Ro- 
mans. Since 1861 La Spezia has been the chief war harbour of 
Italy, and extensive improvements are now being carried out. The 
Royal Dockyard on the S.W. side of the town, constructed by Gen- 
eral Chiodo, to whom a statue has been erected at the entrance, 
is a large establishment, 150 acres in extent (admission on written 
application to the Comando Generale della Darsena). The marine 
artillery magazines in the bay of /S. Vito cover an area of 100 acres. 
Spezia is also a trading place of some importance. In summer the 
sea-baths, and in winter the mildness of the climate attract numer- 
ous visitors. The air is genial and humid, and the vegetation of a 
southern character. The olive-oil of the environs is esteemed. Plea- 
sant walks on the coast. 

A delightful Excursion may be made to Porto Venere on the W. 
side of the bay (two-horse carriage in 1' 2 hr., 10 fr. ; boat in 2-2'/2 hrs., 
8-10 fr. ; the former preferable), on the site of the ancient Porliis Veneris. 
A most charming prospect is enjoyed from the ruins of the church of S. 
Pietro, rising above the sea, and supposed to occupy the site of the 
old temple of Venus. Opposite lies the fortified island of Palmaria. Beau- 
tiful excursions may also be taken on the E. side of the bay, to S. 
Terenzo and Lerici, to which a screw-steamer runs thrice daily (Ifr.), 
starting from the Molo of the bay. 

Four tunnels. — Qi^jo'^. Areola, with a conspicuotis campanile. 
The train passes through another long tunnel, and crosses the broad 
Magra, which in ancient times formed the boundary between Italy 
and Liguria. 

67 '/2 M. Sarzana, Rom. Sergiana , or Luna Nova, from its 
having superseded the ancient Luna, with the picturesque forti- 
flcation of Sarzanella, constructed by Castrticcio (\istracani , and a 
handsome Cathedral in tlie Italian Gothic style , begun in 1355. 
Pop. 10,000. 

In 1467 the place foil into the hands of the Florentines under Lorenzo 

to Pisa. SARZANA. 17. Route. 113 

de' Medici, from whom it was again wrested by Charles VIII. of France ; 
it subsequently belonged to the Genoese, and then to the Sardinians. 
Sarzana was the birthplace of Pope Nicholas V. (Tommaso Parentucelli, 
1447-55), a great patron of learning, and the founder of the library of the 
Vatican. The Buonaparte family is also said to have been settled in the 
Lunigiana, near Sarzana, before they transferred their residence to Corsica. 

The environs are very fertile. Among the mountains to the 
left the white rocks and gorges of the neighbouring marble-quarries 
are visible. To the right a fine retrospect of the Bay of La Spezia. 

Between Sarzana and the next stat. Avenza are the ruins of 
Luna, situated on the coast. This old Etruscan town fell to decay 
under the Roman emperors , and was destroyed by the Arabs in 
1016 ; its episcopal see was transferred to Sarzana in 1465. The 
site of the ancient t^wn is still marked by the ruins of an amphi- 
theatre and circus. From the town of Luna the district derives 
its name of La Lunigiana. 

741/2 M. Avenza is a small town on the brook of that name, 
above which rises an old castle of Castruccio Castracani , of 1322, 
with bold round towers and pinnacles. On the coast to the right 
is a small harbour for the shipment of the Carrara marble. 

Branch Railway from Avenza, 12 min. (3 M. ; fares 60, 40, 30 c.) to — 

Carrara (Locanda Nazionale, with the Trattoria del Giardinetto, in the 
principal .street on the right; travellers are cautioned against spending the 
night here, as the mosquitoes are insufferable). A visit to the celebrated 
and interesting quarries requires 3 hrs. at least. Guides demand 5fr., 
but will generally reduce their charge to 2-3 fr.; for a mere superficial 
survey their services may be dispensed with. Leaving the station , we 
turn to the right and follow the street in a straight direction , past the 
theatre, to the Piazza, which is adorned with a statue of the grand- 
duchess Maria Beatrice, over life-size, erected in 1861. The bridge to 
the left at the end of the piazza should then be crossed , and the road 
with deep ruts, ascending on the right bank of the Torano, followed. 
At (1/4 M.) a group of houses a path diverges to the right to extensive 
quarries of an inferior kind of marble, but we continue to follow the 
road , passing numerous marble cutting and polishing works. Beyond 
the village of Torano , round which the road leads, the first mines, 
recognisable by broad heaps of rubbish, are situated on both sides of the 
valley. The blocks are detached , drawn out by oxen, and rolled down 
the hill. The finer description is called marmo stattiario. About 400 
mines with 6000 workmen are at present in operation. The working 
hours are from 5 a. m. to 2 or 3 p. m.; the forenoon is therefore the 
best time for a visit (a supply of copper coins is desirable). A horn is 
blown as a signal when the rock is about to be blasted. The mines of 
Monte Crestola and M. Sagro yield the best and largest blocks. The mines 
of Fantiscritti, 3 M. from Carrara , were worked by the ancient Romans. 

The town of Carrara contains the studios of numerous sculptors (Lazze- 
rini, Franchi, Pellicia, Bonanni, etc.), some of which should be visited. Most 
of the inhabitants obtain their livelihood by working the marble. The 
following churches should also be inspected : S. Andrea, in a half Ger- 
manic style of the 13th cent., like the cathedral of Monza, with inter- 
esting facade and good sculptures ; Madonna delle Grazie, with sumptuous 
decorations in marble. The Accademia delle Belle Arti contains many 
copies trom antiques, as well as works by sculptors of Carrara and 
several Roman antiquities found in the mines of Fantiscritti , e.g. a 
*Basrelief of Jupiter with Bacchus. The piazza in front of the Academy 
is embellished with a statue of Pellegrino Rossi of Carrara, the papal 
minister, murdered at Rome in 1848. 

78Y2 M. Massa (Quattro Nazioni) , formerly the capital of 

Baedekek. Italy I. 5th Edit. 8 

114 Route 17. PIETRASANTA. 

the Duchy of Massa-Carrara, which was united with Modeua in 
1829, with 18,800 inhab., is pleasantly situated amidst mountains, 
and enjoys a mild climate. The Palace was once occupied hy Na- 
poleon's sister Elisa Bacciocchi when duchess. The marhle- 
quarries here are very valuable, rivalling those of Carrara. 

Country fertile and well cultivated. The picturesque ruins 
of the castle of Montignoso become visible on an abrupt height 
to the left. — 83 M Querceta ; 3 M. to the left is the village of 
Serravezza, frequented as a summer-resort, with marble-quarries. 

85 M. Pietrasanta (Vnione; Europa), a small town with ancient 
walls, beautifully situated among gentle slopes, was besieged and 
taken by Lorenzo de' Medici in 1482. The church of S. Martina (II 
Duomo), begun in the 13th cent. , with additions extending down 
to the 16th cent., contains a pulpit and sculptures by Staggio Stagi. 
Ancient font and bronzes by Donatella in the Battisterio. Cam- 
panile of 1380. S. Agostino, an unfinished Gothic church of the 
14th cent., contains a painting by Taddeo Zacchia, of 1519. The 
pinnacled Toion Hall is situated in the Piazza, between these two 
churches. Quicksilver mines in the vicinity of Pietrasanta. 

Near (91 M.) Viareggio [Hotel Anglo- Americain, well spoken 
of, pens. 5, in summer 7fr.; Albergo del Commercio, good cuisine ; 
*H6tel de Russie ; Alb. d' Italia ; Corona d' Italia), a small town on 
the coast, and a favourite sea-bathing place, the line enters the 
marshy plain of the Serchia, crosses the river beyond (94 M.) Torre 
di Lago, and reaches — 

1041/2 M. Pisa (p. 320). To the left at the entrance are seen the 
cathedral, the baptistery, and the campanile. The station is on the 
left bank of the Arno. 

IV. Lombardy. 

The name of the Germanic tribe which invaded Italy in 568, is now 
applied to the country between the Alps and the Po, which is separated 
from Piedmont by the Ticino , and from Venetia by the Mincio. It is 
divided into the eight provinces of Como, Milano, Pavia, Sondrio^ Ber- 
gamo^ Cremona, Brescicu and Mantova, covering an area of about 9000 sq. 
M., and containing 3,623,000 inhabitants. The name was once applied to a 
much larger tract. Lombardy has not inaptly been likened to an 
artichoke, the leaves of which were eaten off in succession by the lords 
of Piedmont; thus in 1427 they appropriated Vercelli, in 1531 Asti, in 
1703 Val Sesia, in 1736 Alessandria, Tortona , and Novara, and in 1743 
Domo d'Ossola. The heart of the country, if we continue to use the 
simile, would then be the Distkict of Milan, or the tract lying between 
the Ticino, Po , and Adda. The three zones of cultivation are the same 
as in Piedmont, viz. the region of pastures among the mountains, that 
of the vine , fruit-trees , and the silk-culture on the lower undulating 
country and the slopes adjoining the lakes, and that of wheat, maize, 
and meadows in the plains, the yield of these last being, however, far 
more abundant than in Piedmont. The summers are hot and dry, rain 
being rare beyond the lower Alps , and falling more frequently when 
the wind is from the E. than from the W., as the moisture of the latter 
is absorbed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. The land, however, 
is more thoroughly irrigated than that of any other district in Europe, 
and the servitude of aquae ductvs, or right to conduct water across the 
property of others, has been very prevalent here for centuries. A failure 
of the crops indeed is hardly possible , except when the summer is 
unusually cold. Meadows yield as many as twelve crops in the year, 
their growth being unretarded by the winter. The so-called Parmesan 
cheese is one of the well-known products of Lombardy. In the middle 
ages the importance of Milan was due to its woollen industries, but sheep- 
breeding has in modern times been superseded by the silk-culture, an 
industry which has so materially increased the wealth of the country, 
that it used to be said during the Austrian regime, that the army and the 
officers lived on mulberry leaves , as their produce alone sufficed to pay 
the land taxes. Under these circumstances the population is unusually 
dense, being about 330 persons to the sq. mile, exclusive of the capital. 
The central situation, and the wealth of the country, have ever ren- 
dered it an apple of discord to the different European nations. In the 
earliest period known to us, it was occupied by the Etruscans, an Italian 
race, which about the 6th cent. B.C. was subjugated or expelled by 
Celts from the W. These immigrants founded Mediolanum (Milan), and 
traces of their language still survive in the modern dialect of the coun- 
try. It was but slowly that the Italians subdued or assimilated these 
foreigners, and it was not till B.C. 220 that the Romans extended their 
supremacy to the banks of the Po. In the following century they consti- 
tuted Gallia Cisalpina a province , on which Cfcsar conferred the rights 
of citizenship in B.C. 46. Throughout the whole of the imperial epoch 
these regions of Northern Italy formed the chief buttress of the power of 
Rome. Since the 4th cent. Milan has surpassed Rome in extent, and, 
in many respects, in importance also. It became an imperial residence, 
and the church founded here by St. Ambrosius (who became bishop in 
374), long maintained its independence of the popes. The Goths, and 
afterwards the Lombards, made Pavia their capital, but their domination, 
after lasting for two centuries, was overthrown by Charlemagne in 774. The 
Lombard dialect also contains a good many words derived from the German 


(thus, bron, gasi, grU, pib, smessor, stord, and stosa, from the German Brun- 
nen , Gast, Greis, Ptlug, Messer, storen, and stossen). The crown of 
Lnmbardy was worn successively by the Franconian and by the German 
Kings, the latter of whom, particularly the Othos , did much to promote 
the prosperity of the towns. When the rupture between the emperor 
and the pope converted the whole of Italy into a Guelph and Ghibelline 
camp , Milan formed the headquarters of the former , and Cremona those 
of the latter party , and the power of the Hohenstaufen proved to be no 
match for the Lombard walls. The internal dissensions between the 
nobles and the townspeople, however, led to the creation of several new 
principalities. In 1287 Matteo degli Visconti of Milan (whose family 
was so called from their former office of 'vicecomites'' , or archiepiscopal 
judges) was nominated 'Capitano del Popolo", and in 1294 appointed gov- 
ernor of Lombardy by the German King. Although banished for a time 
by the Guelph family Delia Torre, both he and his sons and their poster- 
rity contrived to assert their right to the Signoria. The greatest of this 
family was Giovanni Galeazzo, who wrested the reins of government from 
his uncle in 1385, and extended his duchy to Pisa and Bologna, and even 
as far as Perugia and Spoleto. Just, however, as he was preparing at 
Florence to be crowned king of Italy , he died of the plague in 1402, 
in the 55th year of his age. On the e.xtinction of the Visconti family in 
1447, the condottiere Francesco Sforza ascended the throne, and under his 
descendants was developed to the utmost that despotism which Leo de- 
scribes as 'a state in which the noblest institutions prosper when the 
prince is a good man; in which the greatest horrors are possible when 
the prince cannot govern himself; a state which has everywhere thriven 
in Mohammedan countries, but rarely in the middle ages in other Christian 
countries besides this'. In 1494 when Lodovico il Mora induced Charles 
VIII. of France to undertake a campaign against Naples, he inaugurated 
a new period in the history of Italy. Since that time Italy has at once 
been the battlefield and the prey of the great powers of Europe. Lodo- 
vico himself, after having revolted against France and been defeated at 
Novara in 1500, terminated his career in a French dungeon. In 1.525 the 
battle of Pavia constituted Charles V. arbiter of the fortunes of Italy. In 
1.535, after the death of the last Sforza, he invested his son, Philip "ll. of 
Spain , with the duchy of Milan. In 1713 the Spanish supremacy was 
followed by the Austrian in consequence of the War of Succession. On 
four occasions (1733, 1745, 1796, and 1800) the French took possession of 
Milan, and the Napoleonic period at length swept away the last relics of 
its mediEEval institutions. Although Napoleon annexed the whole of 
Piedmont, Genoa, Parma, Tuscany, and Rome (about 36,000 sq. M. of 
Italian territory) to France, the erection of a kingdom of Italy contrib- 
uted materially to arouse a national spirit of patriotism. This kingdom 
embraced Lombardy, Venice, S. Tyrol, Istria, the greater part of the 
Emilia, and the Marches (about 32,0(X) sq. M.). Milan was the capital, 
and Napoleon was king , Ijut was represented by his stepson Ettgkne 
Beaiiliarnais. The Austrian Supremacy , which was restored in 1815, proved 
irreconcilable with the national aspirations of the people. By the Peace 
of Zurich (10th Nov. 1859), Lombardy, with the exception of the district 
of Mantua, was ceded to Napoleon III., and by him to Sardinia. 

18. Milan, Ital. Milam. 

Arrival. The RaiUcay Station , a handsome and well arranged struc- 
ture, is decorated with frescoes by Pagliano , Induno and Casnedi, and 
with sculptures by Vela, Strazza, Magni, and Tabacchi. Omnibuses from 
most of the hotels are in waiting (fare l-l'/zfr.). Fiacre from the station 
to any part of the town I'/ifr. (also at night), each article of luggage 
25 c. — Omnibus to the cathedral 25c. — Porterage to the town for lug- 
gage under 100 lbs. 50 c., according to tarilV. 

Hotels. -GitAND HoTKL PB i,A ViLLE (PI. a; F, 6), Corso Vittorio Ema- 
nucle, opposite the church of S. Carlo; 'TIotel Cavouk, in the Piazza 


5 i!-?^>""^^^^*tFlt^ 


MILAN. 18. Route. 117 

Cavour (PI. E, F, 4), near the station, expensive; *Grand Hotel de Milan 
(PI. h; E, 5), Via Alessandro Manzoni 29; *Gean Bketagna & Reichmann 
(PI. d; D, 6), Via Torino; Hotel Royal (PI. b ; E, 6), Via Tre Re, well 
spoken of. All these are of the first class; average charges: R. 3fr. and 
upwards, B. IV2, D- 5, L. and A. 2, omnibus iVzfr. — The following are 
good second-class hotels : " Eukopa (PI. e ; E, 5, 6), CorsoVittorio Emanuele 
9; '■'Hotel Manin, Via Manin , near the Giardini Pubblici; *Roma, Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele 7 (with restaurant, no table d'hote), R. 2V2, A. 2/4, 
L. 3/4, omnibus Ifr. ; '^Pozzo, Via Torino (PI. D, 7,6), R. 21/2, D. at 6 p.m. 
4V2fr., L. 60c., B. l'/2, omnibus ifr.; Francia, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
19, D. 4, B. I'Afr., L. 60, A. 60 c., well spoken of; -Centkal (PI. f; 
E, 6), Via del Pesce; "Bella Venezia (PI. g; E, 5), Piazza S. Fedele ; 
*Ancora, Via Agnello and Corso Vitt. Emanuele; 'Leone, Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele, at the corner of the Via Durini. Italian hotels, with restaurants: 
Trois Suisses, Via Larga 16, R. 21/2, B. IV2, omnibus ifr., A. 70, L. 60c.; 
Hotel Pension Suisse, commercial; Falcone, well spoken of; *Rebecchino, 
Via S. llargherita; Fieenze , Via Principe Umberto , near the station; 
IsoLA Bella, outside the Porta Nuova, well spoken of; 'Aqdila, Via S. 
Margherita, unpretending ; Passerella, Corona d'Italia, *Biscione, Piazza 
Fontana, to the S.E. of the cathedral, R. from lV2fr. 

Restaurants ( Traltorie). "Biffi, Gnocchi, in the Galleria Vittorio Ema- 
nuele (see below); Cova (see below); "Rebecchino, Via S. Margherita, near 
the Piazza del Duomo , an old established house, founded in 1699. The 
above-mentioned second-class hotels are also restaurants. Jsola Botta, out- 
side the town, by the Triumphal Arch (p. 133), a favourite resort on Sun- 
days and holidays. Fiaschetteria Toscana, near the W. branch of the 
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele; good Tuscan wine. 

Cafes. "Cova, with a garden. Via S. Giuseppe, near the Scala, con- 
certs in the evening (10 c. added to the charge on each refreshment, ex- 
cept on Sundays when the charge of admission is 50 c.); "Bi/fi and 
"Gnocchi, both in the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele, concerts in the evening; 
Martini, Piazza della Scala; 'Europa, Corso Vitt. Emanuele, near the Ho- 
tel de la Ville (concerts every evening); several cafes in the Giardini 
Pubblici (p. 132) ; clelle Coloiine, Corso Venezia 1. Dejeuner a la fourchette 
may be procured at most of the cafe's; also good beer in glasses (tazza, 
30c.; tazza-grande, 50c.). — Ices (^sorbelto, and '■pezzi duri'' or ices frozen 
hard) are not to be had before 4 p.m. ; at an earlier hour, ^granita\ or half- 
frozen, is in vogue. — Panelone is a favourite kind of cake, especially at 
the time of the Carnival. 

Beer. Birreria Nazionale , a large establishment in the Via Carlo 
Alberto, on the W. side of the Piazza del Duomo (Vienna beer) ; --Stocker, 
Galeria Vitt. Emanuele ; Birreria Mazzola , Corso Vittorio Emanuele (Ba- 
varian and Vienna beer); ''Trenk, Galleria de' Cristoforis (p. 132). 

Baths. Corso Vittorio Emanuele 17 , clean and not expensive ; Via 
Pasquirolo 11, etc. — Swimming-Baths : " Bagno di Diana (Pi. 60), outside 
the Porta Venezia (skating-rink in winter) ; Bagno Nazionale , outside the 
Porta Ticinese ; Bagno di Castelfidardo, with a separate basin for ladies. 
Via Castelfldardo, near the Porta Nuova. 

Cabs C Broughams"; a tariff in each vehicle). Per drive by day or 
night Ifr. ; from the station to the town, lV4fr. ; half-hour Ifr., per hour 
lV2fr. ; each article of luggage 25 c. 

Omnibuses from the Piazza del Duomo every 5 min. to the different gates, 
the names of which are painted on the omnibus, 10 c, to the railway- 
station 25c.; the most frequented are the '■Porta Ticinese' and the '■Porta 
Garibaldi'' lines. A saving of time is often efl'ected by using these vehicles. 

Tramways. To Monza, see p. 134. From the Piazza Castello, at the 
end of the Via Cusana (PI. D, 5), to Saronno. From the Strada di Circon- 
vallazione, between the Porta Principe Umberto and Porta Venezia, to 
Gorgonzola and Vaprio. On the last two lines the cars are drawn by 

Post Office (PI. 68), Via Rastrelli 20, near the cathedral, at the back 
of the Palazzo Reale , open from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. — Telegraph Office 
(PI. 69), near the Borsa, Piazza dei Mercanti 19, first floor. 

118 Route 18. MILAN. Theatres. 

Theatres. The Teatro della Scala (PI. 62), the largest in Italy after 
the S. Carlo theatre at Naples, was built in 1T78, and holds 3600 spectators. 
The opera and ballet are excellent, but performances take place during 
the Carnival only; the interior is worthy of inspection (Ifr.). Teatro 
alia Canobhiana (during the Carnival only; PI. 63), with ballet; Teatro 
Manzoni (PI. 64; E, 5), near the Piazza S. Fedele, elegantly fitted up, per- 
formances sometimes in French. Teatro dal Verme (PI. 65), operas and 
ballets in summer and autumn, dramas, comedies, and ballets during the 
Carnival. — The Teatro Castelli, Via Palermo (PI. E,2), is now used as a 

Bankers. Finck & Sckerbivs , Via Andegari; Mack., Wiegel., & Keutzer, 
Via Orso 16; Mylius & Co., Via Clerici 4; Ulrich & Co., Via Bigli 21; 
Weill, Schott Figli, & Co., Via Pietro Verri 7. — Money-Changer: A. Grisi, 
Piazza Mercanti. 

Booksellers. F. Sacchi & Figli (formerly Artaria), Via S. Margherita; 
Iloepli , Galleria de' Cristoforis ; G. Brigola, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 26; 
A. Vallardi, Via S. Margherita; Dumolard, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 21. 

Shops. The best are in the Corso and the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. 
The Aux Villes d'ltalie. Via Carlo Alberti , near the Piazza del Duomo, 
is an establishment in the style of the large Magasins at Paris. The Silk 
Industry of Milan, in which upwards of 200 considerable firms are en- 
gaged, is very important. The following are noted retail dealers: Ver- 
nazzi, Corso Vittorio Emanuele, adjoining the Hotel de la Ville; Ostiago, 
Via S. Radegonda, a little to the N. of the Cathedral. — Marbles: Bianchi, 
Galleria Vitt. Emanuele. — Antiquities : Berlini, Via S. Damiano 40. — 
Optician : Fries, Via S. Margherita 7. 

Physician, English : Dr. Francis Cozzi, Via Monforte 6. — Chemist : 
Zambelletti, Piazza S. Carlo, Corso Vitt. Emanuele. 

Cigars. The Spaccio Normale, or government shop, is in the Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele, at the corner of Via Pasquirolo, by the Hotel de la Ville, 
where genuine havanas are also sold. 

Permanent Art Exhibition : Via S. Primo, open daily. 

English Church Service, Vicolo San Giovanni della Conea 12. 

Principal Attractions; Cathedral, ascend to the roof ; Galleria Vittorio 
Emanuele; Brera (picture-gallery); Arco della Pace ; S. Maria delle Grazie 
and Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper; S. Ambrogio , the oldest of the 
churches; Auibrosiana (pictures); Piazza de' Mercanti ; the new cemetery; 
between 6 and 7 p.m. walk through Corso Vittorio Emanuele to and 
beyond the Porta Venczia. 

Milan (390 ft.), surnamed '■la grande\ the Mediolanum of the 
Romans, which was rebuilt after its total destruction in 1162 hy 
the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, is the capital of Lombardy, the seat 
of an archbishop and one of the wealthiest manufacturing towns in 
Italy, silk and woollen goods being the staple commodities. It is 
situated on the small river Olona, which however is navigable and 
is connected by means of the Naviylio Grande (p. 71) with the 
Ticino and Logo Maggiore, by the Naviglio di Pavia with the Ticino 
and the Po, and by the Naviglio della Martesana with the Adda, the 
Lake of Como, and the Po. The town is 7 M. in circumference, 
and contains 200,000 inhab. , or , including the suburbs , about 

The favourable situation of Milan in the centre of Lombardy has al- 
ways secured for it a high degree of prosperity. Under the Romans it 
was one of the largest cities in Italy (p. 115), but owing to its repeated de- 
struction hardly a trace of that period has been left. Its heroic struggles 
against the German emperors are well known. With the e.xception of S. 
Ambrogio and a few other churches , the city was totally destroyed in 
1162 by the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, but in 1167 it was rebuilt 
by the allied cities of Brescia, Bergamo, Mantua, and Verona. It waa 

Cathedral. MILAN. 18. Route. 119 

afterwards ruled by the Visconli (1312-1447), then by the Sforza family 
(1447-1535). Under the supremacy of the latter it attained the zenith of its 
reputation as a patron of art , having been the residence of Bramante 
from 1476 to 15(X), and of Leonardo da Vinci from 1494 to 1516. The most 
eminent of Leonardo's pupils who flourished here were Bernardino Luini, 
Cesare da Sesto, Giov. Ant. Boltraffio , Marco da Oggionno, Andrea Salaino, 
and Oaudenzio Ferrari. — Milan with the rest of Lombardy afterwards fell 
into the hands of the Spaniards , and in 1714 fell to Austria. In 1796 
it became the capital of the ^Cisalpine Republic", and then (down to 1815) 
that of the Kingdom of Italy. The bloody insurrection of 17th May, 1848, 
compelled the Anstrians to evacuate the city, and the patriotic agitations 
which ensued were happily ended by the desired union with the new 
kingdom of Italy in 1859. 

No town in Italy has undergone such marked improvement as Milan 
since the events of 1859. — In the province of Art it has raised itself to 
the highest rank in the kingdom. Sculpture is here carried on to such 
an extent as to have become almost a special industry. The Milanese 
Sculptors take great pride in their technical skill, and in effective 
imitations of nature. Among the best known sculptors are Magni, Peduzzi, 
Tandardini, Barzagfii, Argenti, Calvi, and Baccaglia. — Painting is 
represented by Fr. Hayez , Induno , Bianchi, Mussini, Passini, and others, 
but most of these artists seem to cultivate the modern Parisian style, and 
to be entirely oblivious of their gloriovis old national traditions. 

The old part of the town, a portion of which consists of narrow 
and irregular streets, is enclosed hy canals, beyond which suhurhs 
(borghi), named after the different gates (Porta Venezia, Comasina 
or Garibaldi, Sempione, etc.), have sprung up. 

The focus of the commercial and public life of Milan is the 
*Piazza del Duomo (PI. D, E, 6) , which was formerly cooped up 
between insignificant lanes, but has recently been much extended, 
and is now enclosed by imposing edifices designed by Giuseppe 
Mengoni (p. l'2i), and still partly unfinished, forming with the 
cathedral a striking architectural whole. 

The celebrated **Cathedral (PI. 5), dedicated ' Mariae NascentV, 
as the inscription on the facade announces, and as the gilded statue 
on the tower over the dome also indicates, erected in the Gothic 
style , is regarded by the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the 
world , and is, next to St. Peter's at Rome and the cathedral at Se- 
ville , the largest church in Europe. The interior is 159 yds. in 
length, 61 yds. in breadth; nave 155 ft. in height, 17 yds. in 
breadth. The dome is 220 ft. in height , the tower 360 ft. above 
the pavement. The roof is adorned with 98 Gothic turrets , and 
the exterior with upwards of 2000 statues in marble. The structure, 
which was founded by the splendour-loving Gian Galeazzo Visconti 
in 1386, perhaps after the model of the Cologne cathedral, pro- 
gressed but slowly owing to the dissensions and jealousies of the 
Italian and Northern architects, whereby it was impossible to attain 
uniformity in the execution. Enrico di Gamodia (Heinrich von 
Gmiind), one of the numerous competing architects from France and 
Germany, has erroneously been called the builder of the cathedral. 
The whole was finished in its principal parts at the close of the 
15th century in accordance with the designs ot Francesco di Giorgio 
(dome) , and Giov Ant. Omodeo , excepting the ornamentation of 

120 Route 18. MILAN. Cathedral. 

the facade (doors and windows), which was executed in the Renais- 
sance style hy Pellegrino Tibaldi in the middle of the I6th century. 
In 1805 Napoleon caused the works to be resumed, and the tower 
over the dome to be added , and at the present day additions and 
repairs are constantly in progress. 

The church is cruciform in shape , with double aisles , and a 
transept also flanked with aisles. The Interior is supported by 
52 pillars, each 12 ft. in diameter, the sximmits of which are ad- 
orned with canopied niches with statues instead of capitals. The 
pavement consists entirely of mosaic in marble of different col- 
ours. The vaulting is skilfully painted in imitation of perforated 

Interior. By the principal inner portal are two huge monolith col- 
umns of granite from the quarries of Baveno (see p. 27). The band of 
brass in the pavement close to the entrance indicates the line of the 
meridian. South Aisle : Sarcophagus of Bishop Heribertus Antimianus 
(d. 1045), with crucifi.v. Gothic monument of Marcus de Carellis (d. 1394). 
South Transept (W. wall): Monument of the brothers Giacomo and Ga- 
l)riele de' Medici, erected by their brother Pope Pius IV. (1564), the three 
bronze statues by Leone Leoni (Aretius). Tickets for the roof (25 c, see 
below) are obtained near this monument; the staircase leading to the dome 
is in the corner of the side-wall. The altar of the Oftering of Mary (E. wall 
of S. transept) is adorned with fine Reliefs by Agostino Busii (Bambaja; 
p. 120); adjacent is the Statue of St. Bartholomew by Marcus Agrate (end 
of 16th cent.), anatomically remarkable, as the saint is represented flayed, 
with his skin on his shoulder, and bearing the modest inscription 'non 
me Praxiteles sed Marcus fin.xit Agratus". 

The door of the S. Sacristy (to the right, in the choir) is remarkable 
for its richly sculptured Gothic decorations. (The "Treasury here maybe 
inspected , fee 1 fr. ; among other valuables it contains life-size statues 
in silver of S. Ambrogio and S. Carlo Borromeo, and the ring and staff 
of the latter.) — A little farther on is the marble Monument of Cardinal 
Marino Carraccioli (d. 1538), by whom Emp. Charles V. was crowned at 
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520. The fourth of the handsome new Gothic con- 
fessionals is for the German, French, and English languages. The stained 
glass in the three vast choir windows , comprising 350 representations of 
scriptural subjects, were executed by Alois and Giov. Bertini of Guastalla 
during the present century; most of them are copies from old pictures. 
Before the N. Sacristy is reached, the Statue of Pius IV. is seen above, 
in a sitting posture, by Angela Siciliano. The door of this sacristy is also 
adorned with fine sculptures in marble. 

By the E. wall of the N. Transept is an altar with the Crucifixion 
in high relief, by Ant. Prestinari. In the centre of this transept, in front 
of the altar, is a valuable bronze "Candelabrum, in the form of a tree, 
executed in the 13th cent., and decorated with jewels, presented by Giov. 
Ball. Trivulzio, in 1562. 

North Aisle : Altar-piece , painted in 1600 by Fed. Baroccio, repre- 
senting S. Ambrogio releasing Emp. Theodosius from ecclesiastical penal- 
tics. Upon the adjoining altar of St. Joseph, the Nuptials of Mary, by F. 
Ziicdiero. The following chapel contains the old wooden Crucijix vfhich 
S. Carlo Borromeo bore in 1576, when engaged, barefooted , in his mis- 
.sions of mercy during the plague. Under the next window is a Monument^ 
with a relief of the Virgin in the centre, by Marchesi; on the right and 
left the two SS. John by Monli. Not far from the N. side door is the 
Font, consisting of a sarcophagus of S. Dionysius, but appropriated to 
its present use by S. Carlo Borromeo. The canopy is by Pellegrini. 

In front of the choir , below the dome , is the subterranean Cappella 
S. Carlo Borromeo (p. 157), with the tomb of the saint; entrance opposite 
the doora to the sacristy, to the N. and S. of the choir (open in summer 

Galleria Vitt. Eman. MILAN. 18. Route. 121 

5-10, in winter 7-10 a.m.; at other times Ifr.; for showing the relics of 
the saint 5 fr.). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the *Rooi' and 
Tower of the Cathedral. The staircase ascends from the corner of 
the right transept (ticket 25 c. ; map of town and environs 1 1/2 fr- ; 
open till an hour before sunset, in summer from 5 a.m.). As single 
visitors are not now admitted, except when other visitors are already 
at the top, a party of two or more must be made up (comp. p. 324). 
The visitor should mount at once to the highest gallery of the tower 
(by 194 steps inside and 300 outside the edilice). A watchman, 
generally stationed at the top, possesses a good telescope. The finest 
views of the Alps are obtained early. 

View. To the extreme left (S.W.), Monte Vise, then Mont Cenis 
(p. 23); between these two, the less lofty Superga (p. 66) near Turin; 
Mont Blanc, Great St. Bernard; Monte Rosa, the most conspicuous of all; 
to the left of the last the prominent Matterhorn ; then the Cima di Jazi, 
Strahlhorn, and Mischabel ; N.W. the Monte Leone near the Simplon ; 
the Bernese Alps; N. the summits of the St. Gotthard and Spliigen, 
and E. in the distance the peak of the Ortler. S. the Certosa of Pavia 
(p. 162) is visible, farther E. the towers and domes of Pavia itself, in 
the background the Apennines. 

To the S., opposite the cathedral, stands the Palazzo Reale (PI. 
48) , built on the site of a palace of the Visconti in 1772, adorned 
with frescoes by A. Appiani, B. Luini, and Hayez, and containing 
a handsome ballroom (Sala delle Cariatide), etc. — Adjoining it, on 
the E., is the large Archiepiscopal Palace (^Arcivescovado ; PI. 49), 
by Pellegrini (1565), containing a handsome court with a double 
colonnade and marble statues (Moses and Aaron) by Tandardini. 

The W. side of the Piazza del Duomo is skirted by the Via 
Carlo Alberto (see p. 131), beyond which, to the N.W., lies the 
Piazza de' Mercanti (see p. 127). 

On the N. side is the imposing new palatial facade which forms 
the entrance to the *Galleria Vittorio Emanuele (PI. 40 ; E, 5, 6), 
connecting the Piazza del Duomo with the Piazza della Scala. This 
is the most spacious and attractive structure of the kind in Europe. 
It was built in 1865-67 by the architect Gius. Mengoni, one of 
the most gifted of modern Italian architects, who unfortunately 
lost his life by falling from the portal (finished in 1878) in 1877. 
The gallery, which is said to have cost 8 million fr. (320,000i.), 
is 320 yds. in length, 16 yds. in breadth, and 94 ft. in height. 
The form is that of a Latin cross, with an octagon in the centre, 
over which rises a cupola 180 ft. in height. The decorations are 
well-executed and bear testimony to the good taste of the Milanese. 
The octagon is adorned with frescoes, representing Europe, Asia, 
Africa , and America , while the frescoes on the entrance-arches 
are emblematic of Science, Industry, Art, and Agriculture. The 
gallery contains handsome shops, and is lighted in the evening by 
2000 gas-jets. The circle of gas-jets in the dome is lighted by a 
small engine set in motion by clockwork, which does its work in 
11/2 min., and attracts numerous spectators. 

122 Route 18. MILAN. Piazza della Scala. 

The gallery is adorned with 24 statues of celebrated Italians : at the 
entrance from the Piazza del Duomo, Arnold of Brescia and G. B. Vico ; 
in the octagon, on the right, Cavour, Emmanuel Philibert (p. 61), Vittore 
Pisano, Gian Galeazzo Visconti (p. 116) ; Romagnosi (p. 127), Pier Capponi, 
JIacchiavelli, Marco Polo ; Raphael, Galileo, Dante, Michael Angelo ■■, Volta, 
Lanzone, Giov. da Procida, Beccaria; at the right lateral outlet Ben o 
de' Gozzadini and Columbus, at the left lateral outlet Ferruccio and 
Monti: at the entrance from the Scala, Savonarola and Ugo Foscolo. 

The Piazza, della Scala (PI. E, 5) is einbellistied with the 
^Monument of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) hy Magni, erected 
in 1872. The statue of the master in Carrara marble, over life-size, 
stands on a lofty pedestal, surrounded hy Marco da Oggionno, Cesare 
da Sesto , Salaino , and Boltraftio , four of his pupils , and adorned 
with copies of his principal works in relief. — In the piazza, to the 
W. of the statue, is the Teatro della Scala (p. 118); to theE. is the 
large Palazzo del Marino, in which the Municipio (Pi. 52} has been 
established since 1861 , erected in 1555 from designs by Galeazzo 
Alessi, with a massive facade (S.E. side) and interesting court. 

Beyond it is the Jesuit church of S. Fedele (PI. 15) in the 
Piazza of that name, erected by S. Carlo Borromeo in 1569 from 
designs by Pellegrini, containing a sumptuous high altar. The ad- 
joining Palazzo del Censo ed Archivio, formerly the Jesuit college, 
contains part of the government archives, chiefly documents relat- 
ing to the history of Milan. 

We next proceed from the Piazza della Scala to the N. by the 
Via S. Giuseppe (Pi. E, D, 5) and Via di Brera to the Brera. In the 
Via del Monte di Piet^ , the second side-street on the left , is the 
handsome new Cassa di Risparmio , or savings-bank , an imitation 
of the Palazzo Strozzi at Florence. 

The *Brera (P1.50;D,4; Via di Brera 28), or Palazzo delle 
Scienze ed Arti , formerly a Jesuits' College , contains the Picture 
Gallery, the Library of the Academy founded in 1170 (200,000 vols.; 
open daily), a Collection of Coins (50,000) , the Observatory, a col- 
lection of Casts from the antique, and an Archaeological Museum. 

The handsome Court by Ricchini contains statues in marble of 
the political economist Count Pietro Verri, the architect Marchese 
Luigi Cagnola (d. 1833), Tommaso Grossi, the mathematicians 
Gnbrio Piola and Fra Bonaventura Cavalieri (d. 1047), and Carlo 
OltaiHO Castiglione. In the centre of the court is a bronze statue 
of Napoleon J., as a Roman emperor, by Canova, considered one of 
his finest works. By the staircase, to the left, the statue of the 
celebrated jurist Beccaria (d. 1794), who was the tirst to call in 
question the justice of capital punishment; to the right, that of the 
satirist Gius. Parini (d. 1799), professor of rhetoric at the college 
of the Brera. 

The ^Picture Gallery (Pinacoteca), which contains about 600 
works, is open daily from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. (on holidays from 12, 
in winter and on Sundays till 3); admission 1 fr., Sundays and 
Thursdays gratis. 

Brera. MILAN. 18. Route. 123 

The gem of the collection is Raphael's Sposalizio (No. 305), 
the chief work of his first or Umhrian period. The numerous 
pictures of the Lomhard school, and particularly the frescoes sawn 
out of churches, are also very valuable. The drawing of the head 
of Christ for the last Supper (No. 308) shows with what beauty 
Leonardo could Invest his figures. Among the oil-paintings, 
No. 89 by Bernardino Luini is a very meritorious work, and among 
the frescoes, Nos. 46 and 51, by the same master. The most in- 
teresting works of the early Italian school are No. 155 by Gentile 
da Fabriano, and No. 187 by Mantegna. The collection also affords 
an instructive survey of the progress of Carlo Crivelli (who flourish- 
ed in 1468-93 ; 3rd and 8th rooms) , a master who connects the 
Paduan school with that of Venice. The most notable works of 
the latter school are No. 164 by Gentile Bellini, Nos. 278 and 291 
by Giovanni Bellini, and No. 294 by Cima da Conegliano ; and of 
a later period No. 205 by Bonifacio, No. 244 by Titian, and Nos. 
249, 250, 251 by Lorenzo Lotto. No. 453 by Domenichino, and 
No. 328 by Guercino , represent the Italian masters of the 17th 
century. The most important works of foreign schools are No. 444 
by Rubens, Nos. 439 and 443 by Van Dyck, and No. 446 by Rem- 
brandt. Each picture bears the name of the painter. Catalogue 
1 fr. 25 c. 

I. and II. Ante-Chambers : 1-70. Frescoes by Ferrari, Bra- 
mantino, Foppa, Marco da Oggionno, and particularly by Bernar- 
dino Luini, some of them approaching the genre style (Nos. 1, 10, 
12), scenes from the life of Mary (4, 18, 42, 50, 52, 66), *Ma- 
donna with St. Anthony and St. Barbara (46), Angels (13, 25, 44, 
48, 53, 65), and St. Catharine borne by angels (51); Gaudenzio 
Ferrari, Adoration of the Magi (24). 

Room I. : 72. Borgognone, Coronation of the Virgin ; 84. Zenale, 
Madonna, with the four great church fathers , SS. Jerome, Gre- 
gory , Augustine , and Ambrose, and the donors, Lodovico Mero, 
his wife Beatrice, and his two children; S5. Salaino, Madonna 
with saints ; *89. B. Luini, Madonna; 93. Marco da Oggionno, Fall 
of Lucifer; 95. B. Luini, Madonna with saints; iOS. Andrea 
Solario, surnamed da Milano , Madonna and saints; 104. Gau- 
denzio Ferrari, Martyrdom of St. Catharine; 113. Ben. Crespi, Cir- 
cumcision of Christ; 136. Nuvoloni, The artist's family. 

Room II. : 155. Gentile da Fabriano, Madonna enthroned ; 158. 
Antonio and Giovanni da Murano , Madonna, with the Child and 
saints; *161. Carlo Crivelli, SS. Jerome and Augustine; *163. 
Bart. Montagna, Madonna enthroned, with angels playing on in- 
struments and saints, one of the artist's masterpieces. 

*165. Gentile Bellini, Preaching of St. Mark at Alexandria. 

In this piece we 'perceive tliat tlie art of Gentile (brother of Giovanni) 
on the eve of his death was better than it had ever been before. . . . The 
composition is fine, the figures have the individuality which he imparted, 

124 Route 18. MILAN. Brera. 

and the whole scene is full of stern and solid power. — '■History of Paint- 
inij ill Xofth ltaly\ by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

168. Palma Vecchio, Adoration of the Magi; 169. Giovanni da 
Vdine, St. Ursula and her virgin attendants; 171, 177. Giacomo 
liaibolini, Madonna with saints ; 178. Mazzola, Portrait of a man , 
182. Garofalo, Descent from the Cross ; 184. Giov. -Sunti (RaphaeVs 
father), Annunciation; 185. C. Crivelli, Crucifixion. *187. An- 
drea Mantegna , Large altar-piece in twelve sections, at the top 
Madonna and St. John weeping over the dead body of Christ, 
helow St. Luke and four other saints, painted in 1454, and a proof 
of the early maturity of the artist, then 23 years old. 188. Ci7na 
da Conegliano, SS. Peter Martyr, Augustine, and Nicholas of Bari; 
*189. C. Crivelli, Madonna and Child; 191. Timoteo Viti, Annun- 
ciation, with John the Baptist and St. Sebastian. 

Room III. : *'202. Moretto, Madonna on clouds, SS. Jerome, 
Anthony Abbas , and Francis of Assisi , a work of lively and in- 
tellectual expression and vigorous colouring; 204. Paolo Veronese, 
Baptism of Christ; *205. Bonifacio (The Elder? ; d. 1540), Find- 
ing of Moses in the ark of bulrushes, in the style of Giorgione ; 
208. Paris Bordone, Baptism of Christ; 209. Paolo Veronese, 
Christ in the house of the rich Pharisee; 211. Bonifacio, Christ 
atEmmaus; 213. Tintoretto, Pieta ; P. Veronese, 215. SS. Gregory 
and Jerome, 216. Adoration of the Magi, 217. SS. Ambrose and Au- 
gustine ; 221. Calisto Piazza, Madonna and saints; *223. Paolo 
Veronese, SS. Anthony Abbas, Cornelius, and Cyprian, a monk, 
and a page, the finest 'conversazione' piece (see p. 232) by this 
master; 225. P. Veronese, Last Supper; 237, 238. Paris Bordone, 
Madonnas; 226. Tintoretto, SS. Helena, Macarius, Andrew, and 
Barbara; 230. Girol. Savoldo, Madonna' and saints. 

Room IV. : 233. Vine. Catena, St.' Stephen ; 235. Moretto, 
Assumption of the Virgin. 

Lorenzo Lotto (p. 170), *249. Portrait of a woman, *250, 251. 
Portraits of men. 

'The fine-chiselled features (of No. 249), extremely pure in drawing, 
charm liy their mild expression. A delicate but healthy complexion is 
displayed in warm sweet tones of extraordinary transparence ; and masterly 
transitions lead the eye from opal lights into rich and coloured shadows. 
A half length in the same collecticm represents a man of lean and buny 
make with a swallow-tailed beard, a grey eye, close set features, and a 
grave aspect. ... A third half length, companion to these, oflers another 
variety of type and execution. A man stands at a table in a pelisse with 
a fox skin collar; he is bareheaded and bearded. His right hand rests 
on the table and grips a handkerchief. The ruddy skin of the face is 
broken with touches now warm now cold by which the play of light and 
rellections is rendered with deceptive truth'. — C. d- C. 

257. Giov. Batt. Moroni, Madonna and saints; *244. Titian, 
St. Jerome, a characteristic example of his later style, painted 
about 1560; 243, 245. Titian, Heads of old men. 

Room V. : 257. Montayna, Madonna and saints ; Vitt. Carpaccio, 
258. Presentation in the Temple, 260. Betrothal of the Virgin ; 265. 

Brera. MILAN. 18. Route. 125 

Liberate da Verona, St. Sebastian ; 269. Francesco Verla, Madonna 
and saints ; Franc, da Ponte, surnamed Bassano, 270. Descent 
from the Cross, 271. Winter, 273. Autumn. 

Room VI. : 277. C. CrivelU, Madonna and saints ; Giov. Bellini, 
299. Madonna, *278. Pietk, an early and genuinely impassioned 
work; 282. Vitt. Carpaccio, St. Stephen and the scribes; 284. 
Palma Vecchio (?), St. Helena and Constantino, St. Rochus and 
St. Sebastian; 288, 289. C. Crivelli, Saints; *29i. Giov. Bellini, 
Madonna ; *294. Cima, St. Peter, St. Paul, and John the Baptist. 

Room VII. : 300. Andrea Solario , Portrait ; 303. Cesare da 
Sesto, Madonna. 

301. Mantegna, Pietk, painted about 1474. 

'It is a picture in which JIantegna's grandest style is impressed, 
foreshortened with disagreeable boldness, but with surprising truth, 
studied from nature, and imitating light, shade, and reflection with a 
carefulness and perseverance only equalled by Leonardo and Diirer; dis- 
playing at the same time an excess of tragic realism, and a painful un- 
attractiveness in the faces of the Marys.' — C. <£• C. 

**305. Raphaels far-famed Sposalizio, or the Nuptials of the 
Virgin, painted in 1504 for the church of S. Francesco in Citta di 
Castello, where it remained till 1798. 

The composition closely resembles that of the Sposalizio of Perugino 
(now at Caen), in whose studio Raphael then worked. 'In both paintings 
the top is rounded, and in both a small polygonal temple, a charming 
forecast of Bramante's buildings, rises in the background. The central 
part of the foreground is occupied by the long-bearded high priest, who 
joins the hands of the bridal pair; Mary is attended by a group of graceful 
virgins, while near Joseph stand the rejected suitors, the most passionate 
of whom breaks his shrivelled wand. A closer examination of Raphael's 
work, however, divulges so many points of divergence, as to make the 
observer almost oblivious to its Peruginesque character. The transposition 
of the bride and bridegroom with their attendant groups to opposite 
sides of the canvas is a purely external difference and one of little signi- 
ficance, but the conception and drawing of the individual figures and the 
more delicate disposition of the grouping reveal the original and peculiar 
genius of the younger artist'. — '■Raffael und Michelangelo', by Pvof. An- 
ton Springer. 

Luca Signorelli , 304. Madonna, 306. Scourging of Christ; 
Gentile da Fabriano , 309. St. Jerome, 307. St. Dominic ; **308. 
Leonardo da Vinci, Study for the head of Christ in the Last 
Supper; *310. Giotto, Madonna, the central part of an altar-piece 
of which the wings are at Bologna (p. 299) ; 319. 'II Bersaglio 
degli Dei' (shooting-match of the gods), a sketch attributed to 
Raphael, but apparently marked as a work of Michael Angelo by 
Raphael's own hand. 

Room VIII: 321. Guido Reni, SS. Paul and Peter ; 323. Albani, 
Dance of Cupids ; 326. Garofalo, Madonna and Child; *328. Guer- 
cino, Abraham andHagar; *331. Fr. Franeia, Annunciation ; 332. 
Guido Reni, An Apostle. 

Room IX : 343. Eobbema, Mountain landscape ; 349, 350. Bern. 
Bellotto (Canaletto), Landscapes; 369. Sal. Ruysdael, Landscape; 
374. W. van Mieris, Esther; 359. Tom. Wyck, Alchemist; 364. 
Jan Brueghel, Setting out for market ; 381. Snyders, Stag hunt. 

126 Route 18. MILAN. Brera. 

RoomX: *387. Velazquez, Dead monk; 388. Salvator Rosa, 
St. Paul the Hermit ; 398. Oaspar Poussin, John the Baptist as a 
child; 399. Pietro da Cortona, Madonna, the Child, and saints; 
Suhleyrds, 403. St. Jerome , 404. Crucifixion ; 412. Sassoferrato, 
Madonna ; 429. Raphael Mengs, Portrait ; 438. Jansens van Ceulen, 
Portrait; *439. A. van Dyck , Madonna and Child, with St. An- 
thony of Padua ; 440. Jacob Jordaens , Ahraham's sacrifice ; 443. 
Van Dyck , Portrait;' *444. Rubens , Last Supper, a late work of 
admirable colouring, hnt 'somewhat coarse; 445. A. van Dyck, 
Portrait; *446. Rembrandt, VoTtTait, painted in 1632; 450. Mostert, 
St. Catharine. 

Room XI : 476. Longhi, Madonna and saints ; *453. Domen- 
ichino, Madonna and saints. 

Room XII : By the window. Bust of Manzoni by Strazza and 
Girl reading by Magni. 

To the left , farther on, are several rooms containing modern 
pictures, sketches of academicans, casts from the antique, Renais- 
sance and modern sculptures. (An annual exhibition of art takes 
place in these rooms, generally in September.) — Room XIII. : 
570. Ascribed to Paolo Veronese, Last Supper. — Room XX : Ca- 
nova, Vestal Virgin ; *Thorvaldsen, Monument of Andrea Appiani, 
Three Graces , and Cupid. — Room XXIV. (the last) contains 
two copies of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, that 'ai fresco' by 
Marco d'Oggionno being the best. — Returning hence to the ante- 
chamber , the visitor enters the Galleria Oggioni to the right : 
813. Luini, Holy Family ; 762. Crivelli, Coronation of Mary (1493) ; 
797. Ouido Reni (?), St. Jerome. 

The Museo Archeologico on the ground-floor (admission daily 
10-3, 50 c. ; Sundays 2-4, free ; entrance in the small Piazza di 
Brera, or through a passage to the right on the ground-floor) con- 
tains a small collection, imperfectly arranged, of antique, mediae- 
val, and Renaissance sculptures and ancient frescoes, chiefly found 
at Milan, or collected from churches now destroyed. The finest 
works are those of Agostino Busti, with the enigmatical surname 
of II Bambaja (born about 1470). Nothing is known about this 
master, except that he was one of the best Italian sculptors of the 
16th cent. , and his skill seems to have been inherited by the 
Milanese statuaries of the present day (p. 119). 

I. Room. Wall of the door (right) : I. Tomb-relief (Greek work- 
manship); adjoining it a Renaissance 'putto' between inscriptions and 
sculptures. Window-wall : Mediseval sculpture from the tympanum of 
a church ; Gothic bell of 1352. Next wall : Roman and mediteval archi- 
tectural fragments. Fourth wall: Portions of the monument of Gaston 
de Foix (who fell at the battle of Ravenna in 1512, see p. 312), from 
the monastery of S. Marta, the most important being ^E.) a recumbent 
figure of the hero by Ba?»6rtj?rt. P. Monument of Lancino Curzio (d. 1513), 
by tlie same master. F. Marble framework of a door from the Casa 
Medici , attributed to Michelozzo. In the corner, C. Monument of Bishop 
Bagareto by Bambaja. — By the pillars to the right, and between them: 
Ancient Eoman sarcophagus; T. Roman cippus. Last pillar: 'Fragment 

Bibl. Ambrosiana. MILAN. 18. Route. 127 

of a cippus , a youth leaning on a stafif (Greek). By the pillars, and 
between them: to the right, Head of Zeus (nose modern); to the left, An- 
cient head in terracotta. H. Torso of Venus with the dolphin. B. Monument 
of Regina della Scala, wife of Bernabo Visconti. In the centre: A. Large 
monument of Bernabo Visconti (d. 1385) , from S. Giovanni in Conca, 
erected during his lifetime (1354), resting on twelve columns, and richly 
gilded; on the sarcophagus are reliefs, in front the four evangelists, at 
the back the coronation of Mary ; at the sides the Cruciti.xion and a Pieta ; 
above , the equestrian statue of the deceased. — II. Room. On the right, 
suits of armour and bronze implements from the graves of Gauls discovered 
near Sestri Calende in 1867; in the cabinets, relics from tombs excavated 
in the Nuovo Giardino Pubblico, terracottas , crystal , objects in ivory, 
etc. ; also vases and Egyptian antiquities. On the walls are nine ancient 
frescoes, one of them in the style of Giotto. 

A little to the W., in the Piazza del Carmine, is the Gothic 
church of S. Maria del Carmine (PL 20; D, 5) of the 15th cent., 
now modernised, containing a Madonna in fresco by Luini. 

To the W. of the Piazza del Duomo , beyond the Via Carlo Al- 
berto (p. 131), lies the *Piazza de' Mercanti (PI. 69; D. 6}, the 
central point of the medlcEval city, and formerly provided with 
live gates. In the centre of the Piazza is the building which 
was formerly the Palazzo della Ragione , a large hall erected in 
1228-33 by the podestk (or mayor) Tresseno , to whom an eques- 
trian statue was erected on the S. side with the inscription, 'qui 
solium struxit, Catharos ut debuit ussit' (the Cathari were a heret- 
ical sect). The ground-floor is now the corn-exchange, above which 
is the Archivio Notarile. On the N. side of the piazza is the ancient 
Palazzo della Citth with a tower, erected in the 16th century, with 
the exchange on the ground-floor; on the S. side is the Loggia degli 
Osii, erected in 1315, adjoining which is the telegraph office. 

We proceed hence to the S.W. (by the Via degli Orefici to the 
left) to the Via and Piazza della Rosa. 

The celebrated *Biblioteca Ambrosiana (PI. 3 ; D , 6), open 
on week-days 10-3 o'clock (fee 1 fr. ; picture-gallery, or Pinacoteca, 
open to the public on Wed., IO-21/2; entrance from the reading- 
room to the right in the court), contains 160,000 vols, of printed 
books, and 8,000 MSS. and palimpsests, or codices rescripti, some 
of them very valuable. Director: Cav. Sacerdote Ceriani, the 
Orientalist. The library was founded in 1609 by the archbishop 
Cardinal Federigo Borromeo, to whom a statue was erected in front 
of the building in 1865. 

The CoDKT contains ancient inscriptions and a statue of G. D. Romag- 
nosi (d. 1835), the teacher of constitutional law, and author of the criminal 
code for the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy (1806). Adjoining the porter's 
lodge: Mocking of Christ, a fresco by Luini. 

The Siblioteca contains among other treasures the Codice Atlantico, 
being a collection of original drawings and MSS. of Leonardo da Vinci; 
yirgil with marginal notes by Petrarch; fragments of a MS. of Homer 
illuminated, of the end of the 4th cent.; a number of miniatures; 
letters of S. Carlo Borromeo , Tasso, Galileo, Liguori , etc. Then, Christ 
crowned with thorns, al fresco, Bernardino Luini; Cupid in marble , R. 
Schadow ; several reliefs and bust of Byron by Thorvaldsen ; mosaics, coins, 

128 Route 18. MILAN. 5. Maurizio. 

old woodcuts, and drawings by celebrated masters. — First Floor. First 
door on the left — 

Cabinet of Bronzes, containing busts of Canova 'and Thorvaldsen, the 
latter by the master himself, and pictures of no great value: 46. Raphael 
Meiigs, Pope Clement XIII.; 41. Giorgione (?), St. Sebastian; 24. Lorenzo 
Lotto, Madonna; Adoration of the Magi, attributed to Luca d'Olanda (Lucas 
of Lei/dcn); models of Trajan's column and the obelisks at Rome. — Second 
tloor to the left : entrance to the — 

Pinacoteca. I. and II. Room, Engravings. — III. Room: without a num- 
l)er, Aniiibale Carracci, A colossal Mary from the Assunta of Correggio; 80. 
Ambrogio Borgognone, Madonna enthroned and saints; without a number, a 
small picture groundlessly attributed to Raphael; 82. Oirol. Mazzuola, 
Annunciation; without a number, Botticelli., Madonna with angels; Rubens, 
Lofs Daughters ; Bosso Dossi , Washing of the feet ; 96. Lower Rhenish 
Master , Madonna and Child. — The space to the right contains four 
landscapes , carefully painted by ' Velvet-Brueghel' by order of Cardinal 
Federigo Borromeo. — The first door to the left leads to the — IV. Room 
of the Drawings : immediately to the left, *Pen-and-ink sketches by A. 
Diirer (Samson and the Philistines , 1510 ; Coronation of Mary). In the 
5th frame , sketches by Leonardo da Vinci , the tinest the "Female Head 
at the top to the left : Maria Sforza , second wife of Maximilian. By 
the window : A. Mantegna, Triumph of Caesar. Opposite wall : drawings 
by and after Michael Angela (a frame with drawings for the Sistine Chapel). 
4th wall , above : part of Raphael's cartoon of the Battle of Constantine, 
unfortunately half obliterated. — V. Room : entrance wall , Copy of Leo- 
nardo da Vinci's Last Supper hy Andrea Banchi; to the left, 137. Bernar- 
dino Luini^'PoTiTait-hea.d; Salaino, John the Baptist; Leonardo da Vinci (?), 
Portrait of a man, said to be Gian Galeazzo Sforza ; Luini, Heads of the 
Saviour and St. John, Holy Family; '-Leonardo da FiMci, Portrait of Bianca 
Maria Sforza, one of the few authenticated works by this great master; 
on the window wall, drawings by Leonardo da Vinci; Romanino (attributed 
to Giorgione), Holy Family; 4th wall, drawings by Leonardo and Luini, 
and "Raphael's Cartoon of the 'School of Athens', which should be care- 
fully studied. The dilapidated condition of the fresco in the Vatican 
makes this cartoon of great interest and v.ilue , since here only do we 
gain the full key to the artistic motives of the painter. The deviations 
of the fresco from the cartoon , with the exception of the sitting figure 
added at the foot of the staircase, are unimportant. — The Adoration of 
the Shepherds ascribed to Titian is an early copy of the original at Ma- 
drid, nor are any of the other 'Titians' genuine. 

At the back of the library is the venerable church of iS. Sepolero 
( in. 32 ; D, 6), dating from the 11th century. The Via del BoUo leads 
hence to the W. to the Piazza S. Borromeo, in which are situated 
the Palazzo Borromeo, the small church of iS. Maria Podone, and a 
statue of S. Carlo Borromeo. — The Via S. Borromeo and the Via 
S. Maria alia Porta next lead to tlie Corso Magenta, on the left 
side of which rises the small church of S. Maurizio (PI. 27 ; C, 5, 6), 
or Monastero Maggioro, erected in 1503-1519 by Giov. Dolcebuono, 
a pupil of Bramante , containing *Frescoes by Luini , the best of 
which are near the high altar. — Opposite , to the right , is the 
Palace of the DucaLitta (PI. 55), whose picture gallery was sold in 
1866, with a handsome court. 

Farther on in the Corso Magenta, not far from the Porta Magenta 
(formerly Vercellina), on the right, is situated the church of — 

*S. Maria deUe Grazie (PI. 22 ; ]^, 5, 6), an abbey-church of 
the 15th cent. , the Gothic nave of which alone belongs to the 

8. Ambrogio. MILAN. 18. Route. 129 

original structure. The choir , transept , and dome are attributed 
to Bramante, who, as is well known, first carried out his principle 
of centralising the building, an idea which formed the highest ar- 
chitectural aim of the Renaissance , in Upper Italy, and partic- 
ularly at Milan. The dome, resting on quadrangular substruc- 
tions, is externally a handsome edifice , displaying originality 
of design , and is embellished with ornamentation in terracotta, 
while internally its proportions are strikingly effective (Burck- 

The 4th chapel on the right contains frescoes by Oaudenzio Ferrari 
(on the right the Crucitixion , on the left Christ crowned with thorns, 
Christ scourged), executed in 1542, his last works, and an altar-piece 
(Descent from the Cross) by Caravaggio. In the 6th chapel frescoes by 
Fiamingo. To the right, on the organ above , a Madonna by Luini. In 
the N. aisle John the Baptist by Bugiardini; the sacristy contains two 
frescoes by Lvini, and good wood paintings on the cabinets. 

In the N.E. angle of the small piazza to the W. of this church 
is the entrance to the refectory of the suppressed monastery of 
Sta. Maria delle Grazie (now a cavalry-barrack) , containing the 
celebrated **Last Supper of Lbonarbo ua Vinci, painted before 
1499 (shown daily 9-4 , admission 1 fr. ; on Sundays, 1*2-3, and 
Thursdays gratis ; visitors knock at the door to the right ; the 
'custode del cenacolo' is generally to be found in the refectory). The 
picture is unfortunately in bad preservation, chiefly from having 
been painted on the wall in oils. A fresco by Donato Montorfano 
(Crucifixion) of 1495, opposite the Last Supper, is in much better 

Deplorable as is the condition of the Last Sapper, the chief work 
executed by Leonardo during his stay at Milan, the original alone ex- 
hibits to its full extent the emotions which the master intended to exr 
press, and which even the best copies fail to reproduce. The motive of 
the work has been well explained by Qoethe: 'The shock by which the 
artist represents the company at the sacred repast as deeply agitated has 
been produced by the Master's words, One of you shall betray me. They 
have been pronounced ; the whole party is in dismay, while he himself 
bows his head with downcast eyes. His whole attitude, the motion of 
his arms and hands , all seem to repeat with heavenly resignation, and 
his silence to confirm, the mournful words — It cannot be otherwise. 
One of you shall betray mel' Comp. also p. 1. 

The Via delle Oche and the Via S. Vittore lead hence to the 
S.E. to the Piazza S. Ambrogio, with the church of — 

*S. Ambrogio (PI. 7; B, C, 6), founded by St. Ambrose in the 4th 
cent, on the ruins of a temple of Bacchus, and dating in its present 
Romanesque form, with its peculiar galleries, from the 12th century. 
In front of the church is a fine atrium of the 9th cent. , surrounded 
by arcades with ancient tombstones, inscriptions , and half-obliter- 
ated frescoes of the 12th century and earlier. The gates of this church 
are said to be those which St. Ambrose closed against the Emp. 
Thcodosius after the cruel massacre of Thessalonica (389). There is 
a portrait of the saint on the left side of the principal entrance. 
The Lombard kings and German emperors formerly caused them- 

Baedekek. Italy I. 5th Edit. 9 

130 Route 18. MILAN. S. Lorenzo. 

selves to be crowned here with the iron crown , which since the 
time of Frederick Barbarossa has been preserved at Monza (p. 134). 

Interiok. On the right and left of the side entrance on the right : 
frescoes t)y Oaiidenzio Ferrari., representing the Bearing of the Cross, the 
three Maries, and the Descent from the Cross. 2nd Chapel on the righ. 
(Cappella delleUame): a kneeling '"Statue of St. Marcellina, by Pacetli. 
5th Chapel on the right : -Legend of St. George , frescoes by Bernardino 
Lanini. In the entrance to the sacristy is the Cappella S. Satire with 
mosaics of the 5th century. 6th Chapel : Madonna with St. John and 
Jerome, by Luini. Below the pulpit is an early Christian sarcophagus 
of the 6th cent., said to be that of Stilicho. The canopy over the high 
altar, which is adorned with reliefs of the 8th cent., recently gilded, is borne 
by four columns of porphyry. The high altar still retains its original deco- 
ration intact, consisting of reliefs on silver and gold ground (in front), 
enriched with enamel and gems, executed in the Carlovingian period by 
Volfoinus, a German (covered, shown only on payment of 3 fr.). In front 
of the high altar is the tombstone of Emp. Lewis II. (d. 875). The choir 
contains an ancient episcopal throne. By the high altar is an *Ecce 
Homo, al fresco, by Luini., under glass. In the Tribuna "Mosaics of the 
9th cent., earlier than those of St. Mark's at Venice: Christ in the centre, 
at the sides the history of St. Ambrose. — At the entrance to the Crtpt, 
Christ among the scribes, a fresco by Borgognone. The modernised crypt 
contains the tombs of SS. Ambrose, Protasius, and Gervasius. The brazen 
serpent on a column in the nave is said to be the one which was raised 
by Moses in the wilderness. 

A little to the S.E. is situated the spacious Macello Piibblico or 
slaughter-house (PI. A, B, 7). 

The Via Lanzone (with the Palazzo Visconti on the left) leads 
hence to the Corso ni Porta Ticinese, in which we proceed to the 
right in the direction of the gate. On the left we soon perceive a 
large ancient *Colonnai)E (PI. 57; C, 7) of sixteen Corinthian col- 
umns , standing detached from other buildings, the most important 
relic of the Roman Mediolantim, near which is the entrance to — 

*S. Lorenzo ( PI. IS), the most ancient church in Milan. Whether 
the handsome interior once formed the principal hall of the thermae, 
or of a palace of Maximian (4th cent.), to which the above mentioned 
colonnade belonged, or a very ancient Christian place of worship, 
like S. Vitale at Ravenna, is uncertain. It was subsequently altered 
at least three times, the last time by Martino Bassi in the 16th 
century. It is octagonal in form, and covered with a dome. On 
the four principal sides are large semicircular apses in two stories, 
each borne by four columns alternately octagonal and round, and 
the whole structure is simple and dignitied. At the back of the 
high altar is the Cappella S. Ippolito, contaitiing the tomb of Maria 
Visconti. To the right of the church is the Chapel of St. Aqui- 
linus, containing mosaics of the 6th and 7th cent. (Christ and 
the apostles), and an ancient Christian sarcophagus supposed to be 
that of the founder, the Gothic king Ataulph (411-16). The 
entrance to the chapel is adorned with an antique marble coping. 

I'.y the Porta Ticinese , farther H., rises the ancient church of 
S. Eustorgio (PI. 14; C, 8), founded in the 4th cent., re-erected 
in the tfotliic style by Tosano Lomhardo in 1'278, and restored in 
the bad taste of the 17th cent, by Richini. The 'bones of the Magi', 

S. Alessandro. MILAN. 18. Route. 131 

to whom the church was dedicated , were formerly deposited here, 
but were presented to the city of Cologne by Frederick Barbarossa 
after the conquest of Milan in 1162. At the back of the choir is a 
chapel in the best Renaissance style by Michelozzo (after 1462), 
containing the tomb of St. Peter the Martyr by G. Balduccio of 
Siena ; the frescoes on the high altar, representing scenes from the 
life of the Magi (1347), and from the Passion , and also the monu- 
ment of Stefano Visconti, are by the same master. 

S. Maria presso S. Celso (PI. 21; D, 8), near the Porta Lo- 
dovica , possesses a liandsome atrium attributed to Bramante, and 
a facade of which the upper part was constructed by Oaleazzo 
Alessi. On the right and left of the portal are Adam and Eve by 
Sloldo Lorenzi. 

In the Interior is a picture by Paris Bordone, St. Jerome adoring the 
Child (2nd altar on the right); Gaiideiizio Ferrari, Baptism of Christ (be- 
hind the high altar); Borgognone, Madonna adoring the Child, surrounded 
by John the Baptist, St. Rochus, and the donors of the picture (1st cha- 
pel on the left); above it, Sassoferrato, Madonna. The 2nd chapel on the 
left contains a sarcophagus with the relics of St. Celsus. 

Adjacent to this church is S. Celso, a Romanesque edifice, par- 
tially removed in 1826. 

The CoESO S. Celso (PI. D, 7, 8) leads back from this point 
to the interior of the city. To the right in the Piazza S. Eufemia 
is the church of that name (PI. 13 ; D, 7), dating from the 5th 
cent. , but entirely modernised in the 17th , with an Ionic colon- 
nade. Farther towards the N. is situated — 

S. Alessandro (PI. 6 ; D, 6 ; in the Via Amedei, to the right) 
erected in 1602, the most sumptuously decorated church in Milan, 
but destitute of works of art. High altar adorned with precious 

We return by the Via Lupetta and the Via di Torino to the 
Piazza del Duomo. To the right in the Via Caklo Alberto is 
the small church of S. Satiro (PI. 31; D, 6), founded in 829, and 
re-erected by Bramante and his pupil Suardi in the 15th cent. ; 
the octagonal *Sacristy contains a handsome frieze halfway up the 
wall , with a gallery above it, and niches by Bramante below. 

To the S. in the Piazza del Duomo, opposite the cathedral, are 
the Palazzo Reale and the Archiepiscopal Palace, both already men- 
tioned (p. 121). Adjacent is the Piazza Fontana (PI. E, 6), 
with a fountain in red granite. Beyond it , in front of the Palazzo 
di Giustizia (PI. 67; E, 6) is the statue of Beccaria (d. 1794 ; comp. 
p. 122) by Grandi, erected in 1871. 

The Via Brolo leads hence to the S. to the Piazza S. Stefano, 
with the simple Renaissance church of that name (PI. 34; E, F, 6). 
The Via dell' Ospedale leads S.W. to the Corso di Porta Romana. 

The *Ospedale Maggiore (PI. 46; E, 7), a vast and remarkably 
fine Gothic brick structure, begun in 1457 by Antonio Filarete 
of Florence, is one of the largest hospitals in existence, and con- 


132 Route 18. MILAN. Giardini Pubblici. 

tains no fewer than nine courts. The extensive principal court, 
surrounded by arcades, is by Richini (17th cent.); the court to the 
right of it is ascribed to Bramante. The edifice is entirely covered 
externally with terracotta, in a style frequently observed in other 
Milanese buildings, but its facade, with its rich window-mouldings, 
is superior to any other structure of the kind at Milan. In the chapel 
are two paintings by Francesco da Vico , containing portraits of 
Francesco and Bianca Maria Sforza, the founders of the hospital. 

Farther on, to the S. (entrance in the Corso Porta Romana), is 
the church of S. Nazaro (PI. 29; E, 7), with pictures by Bern. 
Lanini (*Martyrdom of St. Catharine), and a handsome carved altar. 

On the N.E. side of the cathedral begins the broad and bustling 
*Corso Vittorio Emanuele (PI. E, F, 6, 5), which, with its pro- 
longation the Corso Porta Venezia, leads to the Giardini Pubblici 
and the station. This is the principal business street in Milan, 
containing the best shops. On the left side is the church of — 

S. Carlo Borromeo (PI. 12 ; F, 6), a rotunda in the style of the 
Pantheon at Rome, 156 ft. in height, consecrated in 1847. It con- 
tains two groups in marble hy Pompeo Marchesi, and modern stained 
glass by Jose Bertini (the finest on the right of the entrance: S. 
Carlo Borromeo visiting persons sick of the plague). 

The adjacent Oalleria de Crista f oris , now occupied with shops, 
was erected by Pizzala in 1830-32. 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Via Monforte , is 
the small church of .S. Babila (PI. 10; F, 5), which is supposed to 
occupy the site of an ancient temple of the sun. In the Via Monforte 
is situated the Palazzo di Prefettura (PI. 53 ; F, G, 5), with a modern 
facade. — To the S. of this point, in the Via del Conservatorio, is 
the church of S. Maria della Passione (PI. 24 ; G, 6), of the 15th 
cent., with a spacious dome by Crist. Solari, surnamed II Gobbo 
(1530), and paintings by B. Luini, Gaud. Ferrari, etc. The 
Conservatoire of Music occupies the old monastery buildings. 

The Corso Vittorio Emanuele is prolonged to the Porta Venezia 
by the Corso di Porta Vknezia (PI. F, G, 5, 4). On the left, on 
this side of the canal, is the Archiepiscopal Seminary (PI. 61) with 
a fine court by Gius. Meda (16th cent.), with double colonnades, 
the lower Doric, the upper Ionic. Then, more to the left, Nos. 
59-61, the Pal. Ciani (PI. 54), completed in 1861, with rich 
ornamentation in terracotta. Opposite, on the right, is the Pal. 
Saporiti (PI. 56), another modern building, with Ionic columns, 
reliefs by Marchesi, etc. 

The *Giardini Pubblici (PL F, 4), between the Porta Venezia 
and the Porta Nuova, much extended in 1861, and containing fine 
avenues and several sheets of water, are the favourite promenade 
of the Milanese, especially on Sunday afternoons. The broad chest- 
nut avenue on the N. side, extending between these two gates, and 

Museo Civico. MILAN. 18. Route. 133 

planted on the old ramparts (BastioneJ, is a fashionable drive to- 
wards sunset. A broad flight of steps ascends to the older part of 
the gardens, opened in 1785, in the centre of which is the Salone 
(PI. F, G, 4), a square building containing the new municipal Mu- 
seo Artistico (open daily 1-4, adm. 1 fr., Sundays 20c.). 

Gallery and Room I. : Drawings by early and modern masters. — 
Room II. : Works of the Milan school of the ITth cent. ; the large town 
banner of St. Ambrose; coins, chiefly Milanese from the Roman period 
onwards ; fine medals. — Rooms III. and IV. : Modern paintings ; bust of 
Manzoni by Slrazza. — Room V.: Ceramic collection, old and modern 
Fayence , porcelain , glass , wood-carvings , woven fabrics. — Room VI. : 
Old paintings, attributed to Antonello da Messina, Covreggio, Guido Rent, 
Bassano, Lotto, etc.; modern sculptures. — Room VII.: Models by Pom- 
peo Marchesi. Canova (Hebe), and others. 

The New Giardino Pubblico between the Via Palestro and 
Via Manin, contains a small zoological garden, and is adorned with 
a statue of the Milanese poet Carlo Porta and an Italia by Puttinati. 
— In the Piazza Cavour, outside the S.W. entrance, rises a bronze 
statue of Cavour by Tabacchi on a lofty pedestal of granite. Clio 
is represented in front registering his name in her tablets , and 
at the back is the date 1865. — The Villa Reale (PI. 70; F, 4), a 
plain modern building in the Via Palestro, contains a few works 
of art. 

In the Via Manin, to the W., is the Museo Civico (PI. 43; F, 4 ; 
admission on Tues., Wed., and Sat., 11-3 o'clock, V2fr.; on Thurs. 
gratis), containing natural history collections : on the 1st floor 
palaeontology and ethnography (also a phrenological collection) ; on 
the 2nd floor zoology, comprising one of the finest collections of 
reptiles in Europe, founded by Jan (d. 1866). At the entrance are 
busts of Jan and Cristoforis, former directors. 

At the N.W. angle of the city lies the spacious Piazza d'Armi 
(PI. B, C, 4), or drilling-ground, 783 yds. long and 748 yds. wide, 
with the Castello , once the seat of the Visconti and the Sforza, 
and now a barrack. The corner-towers and part of the walls 
connecting them on the S.W. side are the sole remains of the 
original building. The adjoining Arena (PL 2; C, 3, 4), a kind of 
circus for races, etc. , constructed under Napoleon I., can accom- 
modate 30,000 spectators (fee 1/2 fr.). 

Opposite the castle , on the N.W. side of the Piazza is the 
*Arco del Sempione, or Arco della Pace (PI. 1 ; B, 3, 4), a triumphal 
arch in the Roman style constructed entirely of white marble from 
designs by L. Cagnola , begun in 1804 by Napoleon as a termi- 
nation to the Simplon route (p. 25), and completed by the Emp. 
Francis in 1833, when the dedication and decorations were altered. 

For the Latin inscriptions formerly placed on the side next the town 
in honour of the Emperor Francis, the following have been substituted. 
On the town side: 'Alle speranze del regno italico auspice Napoleone I. 
i Milanesi dedicarono Tanno 1807 e francati da servitii felicemente re- 
stituirono Tanno 1859\ On the outer side: 'Entrando coir armi gloriose 
Ilapoleone III. e Vittorio Emanuele II. liberatori, Milano esultante cancello 

134 Route 19. MONZA. From Milan 

da questi marini le impronte servili e vi scrisse Tindipendenza d'ltalia 

On the platform is the goddess of Peace in a chariot with six horses, 
lay Sangiovgio; at the corners Victories on horseback. Side towards the Town: 
on the riglit and left of the inscription, the river-gods of the Po and Ticino. 
On the left under the cornice, the entrance of Emp. Francis into Milan in 
1825, above it the battle of Kulm, below it the surrender of Dresden. 
On the right the foundation of the Lombard and Venetian kingdom, above 
it the passage of the Rhine, below it the taking of Lyons, all by Pompeo 
Marchesi. Below the great arch the conclusion of the 'Holy Alliance'' 
in two reliefs. On the W. side the battle of Arcis-sur-Aube , E. the vic- 
tory of Lyons, by Marchesi. Side towards the Country: river-gods of the 
Tagliamento and Adige , by Marchesi. Under the cornice on the left the 
Congress of Vienna, Institution of the order of the Iron Crown, Taking of 
Paris •, right, Peace of Paris, Entry of the Allies into Paris, Entry of General 
Neipperg into Milan 1814. 

To the N.W. of the city lies the new *Cemetery {^Cimitero 
Monumentale ; PI. C, 1, 2), designed hy C. Macciachini , 500 acres 
in area, enclosed by colonnades, and one of the finest 'campi santi' 
in Italy. The nnmerous and handsome monuments, among which 
tliose of the Sonzogno , Turttti , BramviUa, and Cicogna families 
deserve special mention , form an admirable museum of modern 
Milanese sculpture. In the last section is situated the 'Tempio di 
Cremazione', for the burning of dead bodies, presented to the iown 
in 1876. Fine view of the Alps. 

19. From Milan to Lecco or Como. 

The Brianza. 

Railway fkom Milan to Como, 30 M., in 1^/4 hr. (fares 5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 85, 
2 fr. 55 c). Through-tickets may be obtained at the railway station of 
Milan for Como, Tremezzina, Cadenabbia, Bellagio, Menaggio, and Colico. 
— From Milan to Lecco , 32 M. , railway in 1^4-2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 85, 
4 fr. 10, 2 fr. 95 c). — From Milan to Monza a tramway-car also runs in 1 hr., 
starting hourly from the church of S. Babila (PI. 10; F, 5), on the Corso 
Venezia (chief halting-place, outside the Porta Venezia, PI. G, 4). Fare in- 
side i fr., outside (50 c. 

The lines to Como and Lecco follow the same direction as far as 
Monza, traversing a fertile plain, luxuriantly clothed with vineyards, 
mulberry- plantations , and fields of maize, and intersected by 
innumerable canals and cuttings for purposes of irrigation. 
4'/2 M. Sesto-S. Giovanni. 

8 M. Monza (Falcone; Alb. del Castello, near the station) is a 
town with '2(),000 inhabitants. Leaving the station and following 
the Via Italia to the right, we reach the *CATHEr)RAL, the chief 
object of interest. It was erected in the 14th cent, in the Lombard 
Gothic style by Marco di Campione on the site of a church found- 
ed in 595 by the Lombard queen Theodollnda, and contains dou- 
ble aisles and transept, flanked with chapels on both sides. 

Intkkiok. In the left transept is the plain sarcophagus of Queen Tlieo- 
dolinda; in the E. transept reliefs of the 13th cent., supposed to represent the 
coronation of Emp. Otho III., or that of llc^nry III. — In a casket forming 
the centre of a richly decorated cross over the altar, to the right of the 

to Lecco. SEREGNO. 19. Route. 135 

choir, is preserved the celebrated Ikon Ckown , with which 34 Lombard 
kings were crowned. This venerable relic was last used at the coronation 
of the Emp. Charles V., of Napoleon in 1805, and of Emp. Ferdinand I. in 
1838. It consists of a broad hoop of gold adorned with precious stones, 
round the interior of which is a thin strip of iron , said to have been 
made from a nail of the true Cross brought by the empress Helena from 
Palestine. In 1859 it was carried off by the Austrians, but after the peace 
of 1866 was restored to its former repository. (Fee for seeing the crown, 
5 fr.) — The Tkeasukt contains several objects of historical interest : a hen 
with seven chickens in gold, representing Lombardy and its seven pro- 
vinces, executed by order of Queen Theodolinda; the queen's crown, fan, 
and comb; two silver loaves, presented by Napoleon I. after his coronation; 
the cross which was placed on the breast of the Lombard kings at the 
moment of their coronation ; goblet of Berengarius ; diptychs (ivory tablets 
with reliefs), etc.; then, in a cabinet outside the treasury, the mummy 
of one of the Visconti , who died in 1413. The treasury is shown for a 
fee of 1 fr. for 1-2 pers. ; it also contains a model of the iron crown. 

The Broletto , or town-hall, of the 13th cent., with round 
arched windows and tower, is believed to he part of a palace of 
the Emp. Frederick I. and the Lombard kings. The royal Summer 
Palace near Monza is a large building with an extensive and 
beautiful park , traversed by the Lambro. The church of the 
Madonna di Tirano contains frescoes by Luini , Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
and Cesare da Sesto. 

The lines to Como and Lecco divide at Monza. The latter line 
skirts the S.E. slopes of the beautiful range of hills of the Brianza 
(p. 137), studded with numerous villas of the wealthy Milanese. — 
121/2 M. Arcore; 15>/2 M. Vsmate. From (19 M.) Cernusco-Merate 
a pleasant excursion may be taken to the lofty Montevecchia, situated 
towards the N.W. (IY2 ^^- '■> t^e church of Montevecchia commands 
an excellent view of the Lombard plain, Milan, Gremona, Novara, 
and part of the Brianza, etc.; good wine, but a poor inn; pleasant 
return route byMissaglia, with a guide, I'^hr.; thence by carriage 
to Merate ; fine views). The village of Merate (Albergo del Sole), 
situated IM. from the station, was formerly fortified; pretty villas. 
— 21 M. Olgiate-Molgora ; then a tunnel, beyond which a pleasing 
view of the valley of the Adda is obtained to the right. The train 
descends, crosses the stream by an iron bridge, joins the Lecco and 
Bergamo line at (271/2 M.) station Calolzio, and reaches (32 M.) 
Lecco in 10 min., see p. 145. 

The railway from Monza to Como runs to the N.W., affording 
pleasant views, to the right, of the fertile Brianza (p. 137), 
with its numerous country-residences. The train passes through 
several tunnels. 12^/2 M. Desio; I41/2 M. Seregno, a town with 
7300 inhab., the starting point for a visit to the Brianza (p. 137). 

Farther on , the long , indented Monte Resegone rises on the 
right. — 18 M. Camnago, 241/2 M. Cucciago. Above (28M.) Camer- 
lata rises the lofty old tower of the Castello Baradello, which was 
occasionally occupied by Frederick Barbarossa. — 30 M. Como ; 
omnibus from the station to the quay 30 c. , included in through 
tickets. (Continuation of the railway to Lugano, see p. 147.) 

136 Route 19. COMO. From Milan 

Como. ■ — -Hotel Volta ; 'Italia, R. from 2, D. incl. wine 5, A. 3/4, 
L. 3/4 fr., both at the harbour, with cafes and restaurant ; Alb. del Cai'- 
PELLo, adjoining the Hut. Volta, good Italian cuisine. — Cafi Cavour, near 
the quay; "Trattoria di frasconi Con/alonieri, at the end of the street lead- 
ing straight from the harbour; Baths in the lake by the Giardino Pubblico, 
to the left, outside the pier. 

Como (705 ft.), the capital of a province, with 24,200 inhab., 
and considerable silii factories , the birthplace of the elder and 
younger Pliny and of the electrician and philosopher Volta (d. 1826 ; 
whose Statue by P. Marchesi is on the W. side of the town near 
the quay), lies at the S. end of the S.W. arm of the Lake of Como, 
and is enclosed by an amphitheatre of mountains. 

The *Cathkdral, begun in the Lombard Gothic style in 1396, 
and altered in the Renaissance style by Tommaso Rodari (choir, 
transept, outside of nave ) in 1513-21, is built entirely of marble, 
and is one of the best in N. Italy. The dome is modern. The 
greater part of the beautiful plastic ornamentation is by Rodari 
and other contemporary Lombard artists. Over the beautiful N. 
portal are reliefs (adoration of the Magi) and statuettes (Mary 
with S. Abbondio, St. Protus, etc.). At the sides of the principal 
entrance are statues of the elder and the younger Pliny, erected in 

Interior. The gaudy vaulting , restored in 1838 at a cost of 
600,000 fr. , destroys the effect of the fine proportions , which resemble 
those of the Certosa near Pavia (p. 16'2). The windows of the portal 
contain good modern stained glass, representing the history of S. Abbon- 
dio ; there are others to the right of the entrance and in the choir. — To 
the right of the entrance is the monument of Cardinal Tolomeo Gallio . a 
benefactor of the town, erected in 1861. Farther on, to the right, 3rd 
'Altar, di S. Abbondio, with handsome wotid-earving, and scenes from the 
life of the saint; adjoining the 'Adoration of the Magi, by Bern. Luini, and 
the Flight into Egypt , by Gaud. Ferrari. Over the altar of St. Jerome 
a Madonna by B. Luini. in the N. Tkanskpt the Altare del Crocefisso of 
1498, with a fine statue of St. Sebastian. In the Choik the Apostles , by 
Pompeo Marchesi. The Sacristy: contains pictures by Guido Reni, Paolo 
Veronese, etc. In the Left Aisle, the altar of the Mater Dolorosa with an 
Entombment by Tommaso Eodari (1498). At the Altare di S. Giuseppe : 
G. Ferrari, Nuptials of the Virgin, in style resembling Raphael ; B. Luini, 
Nativity; St. Joseph, a statue by P. Marchesi, and a basrelief below, 
the last work of this master; at the entrance the busts of Pope Inno- 
cent XI. (Odescalchi) and Carlo Kavelli, bishop of Como. 

Adjoiiiitig the church is the Toivn Hall (Broletto), constructed 
of alternate courses of different-coloured stones, and completed in 
1215. Behind the cathedral is the Theatre, erected in 1813. The 
church of -S. Fedele, of the 10th cent., is in a remote part of the 
town. The Porta del Torre, a massive flve-storied structure, is 
also worthy of note. 

On the promenade outside the town is the church Del Cro- 
cefisso, richly decorated with marble and gold, of the 17th cent.; 
1/4 br. farther, to the left, on the slope of the mountain, is the fine 
old Basilica S. Abbondio of the 11th century. — The Castello Ba- 
radello (p. 145), reached by a tolerable footpath in 1/2 l»r-> is an 
excellent point of view, 

to Como. 

BRIANZA. 19. Route. 137 

Walk on the E. bank of ihe lake. Two roads lead from Como along 
the slopes on the E. bank. The lower passes several hamlets and villas. 
The upper (after 40 min.) affords a view of magnificent snow-mountains 
towards the W., and leads by Capo-Vico, Sopra-Villa, and Cazzanore (all 
in the parish of Blevio), leaving the Villa Pliniana (p. 140) far below, to 
(3 M.) JRiva di Palanzo (oateria on the lake) , whence the traveller may 
cross to the steamboat-station Carate on the opposite bank. Or the walk 
may be shortened by descending to (2V-j hrs.) Torno (steamboat-station). 

The Brianza. 

Briama is the name of the undulating, grassy, partially wooded, and 
extremely fertile tract, 12 M. in length, 6 M. in breadth, extending 
between the Seveso and the Adda., and stretching to the >f. to the trian- 
gular peninsula which divides the Como and Lecco lakes. The soil is 
very fertile, and the whole district studded with villas peeping out from 
vines, orchards, and mulberry plantations. In the centre are several 
small lakes (Lago d\4.nnone ., Piisiano, Alserio , Segrino ., and Montorfano). 
Two main roads traverse the Brianza; from S. to N. the road from 
Seregno to Bellagio, from W. to E. another from Como to Lecco, both of 
which meet at Inclno, not far from Erba. 

From Seregno (p. 135) to Bellagio, about 25 M. It is advisable to 
take a carriage as far as Canzo (12 M.; an omnibus runs from Seregno to 
Canzo every evening; one-horse carriage 5-7 fr.), to pass the night there, 
and to walk to Bellagio next morning. The road leads by Paina, and 
Villa Romand, to the pretty village of Inverigo; on an eminence rises the 
* Rototida, one of the prettiest villas in the Brianza, with a park and ad- 
mirably kept garden , and commanding an extensive view. The Villa 
Crivelli is famous for its cypresses. Farther on, the villages of Tregolo 
with a new church, Tabiago, with the ruins of a castle, and Mvnguzzo, 
with the Villa Mondolfo, once a fortified castle. 

Where this road crosses that from Lecco to Como at Incino, near Erha 
(p. 138), lie two of the lakes mentioned above, W. the Lago d" Alserio, 
E. the Lago di Pusiano. The road now enters a more mountainous 
district, and the scenery becomes more attractive. Caslino , possessing 
considerable silk-factories (filatoje) , rises picturesquely on the slope of 
the hill. The road follows the course of the small river Lamlro. 

Canzo ('Croce di Malta, the first house on the left; a pleasant liqueur, 
called Vespetro , is manufactured at Canzo) is almost contiguous to Asso, 
l'/4 M. beyond , numbering together 3200 inhabitants. At the entrance of 
Asso is a large silk-manufactory (Casa Versa). 

The road now gradually ascends for a considerable distance in the 
picturesque valley of the Lambro, the Vall' Assina , the slopes of which 
are well wooded ; it passes through several villages , (2 M.) Lasnigo, 
(2 M.) Barni, and Magreglio, where the ascent becomes more rapid ; first 
view of both arms of the Lake of Como from the eminence near the 
(11/4 M.) Chapel. 

Delightful "Survey of the entire E. arm to Lecco and far beyond, 
from the back of the first church of (IV4 M.) Civenna, with its graceful 
tower. The road now runs for 21/4 M. along the shady brow of the moun- 
tain, which extends into the lake at Bellagio ; beyond the chapel the 
following striking views are obtained: the W. arm of the lake (of Como), 
the Tremezzina with the Villa Carlotta and Cadenabbia, the E. arm 
(Lake of Lecco) , a large portion of the road on the E. bank, the entire 
lake from the promontory of Bellagio to Domaso (p. 144) , and the rising 
ground with the Serbelloni park. 

The road winds downwards for about 3 M., passing the Villa Giulia 
(p. 143) on the right, and, ^/-z M. from Bellagio, the churchyard of that 
place , containing the monument of the painter Carlo Bellosio, several of 
whose pictures are to be seen at Bellagio. From Civenna to the hotels 
at Bellagio on the lake (p. 141) 2 hrs. walk. 

A longer route, whicli will reward the pedestrian, is by the Konte 
S. Frimo (5586 ft.). Ascent from Canzo with a guide in 4-5 hrs., descent 

138 Route '20. LAKE OF COMO. 

to Bellagio 3 hrs. Magnificent panorama from the summit, comprising 
the Brianza as far as Milan , and the Lake of Como to the N. as far as 
the Alps from Monte Rosa to the Spliigen. 

From Como to Erba and Lecco, diligence daily in 3 hrs. (steamer, 
see below). The road quits Como bj' the Porta Milanese and ascends the 
hills to the E. The view of the lake is concealed by the beautifully 
wooded Monte S. Maurizio. The church of Camnago ., a village to the 
N. of the road, contains the tomb of Volta (p. 136). Farther on , to the 
S. of the road, is the sharp ridge of Monlorfano near a small lake. Near 
Cassano is a curious leaning campanile. Beyond Albesio a view is disclosed 
of the plain of Erba ( Pian d'Erba) and the lakes of Alserio , Pusiano, 
and Annone, above which the Corni di Canzo (4512 ft.) and the Resegone 
di Lecco (6161 ft.) rise on the E. 

Near (IOV2 M.) Erba (1017 ft.; /n«), a small town in the luxuriantly 
fertile 'Pian d'Erba', are several handsome villas ; the Villa Amalia on the 
W. side commands a charming view of the Brianza. Near /yici/io, with 
its lofty Lombard campanile, once stood the Forum Licini of the Romans, 
mentioned by Pliny together with Como and Bergamo. 

Before the road crosses the Lambro , which is here conducted by an 
artificial channel to the Lago di Pusiano, the road from Seregno to Bellagio 
diverges to the right. Penzano on the N. bank of the Lago di Pusiano is 
next reached, and then Pusiano itself. To the K. a beautiful glimpse of 
the ValV Assina (see below) and the Corni di Canzo, and, to the S., of 
the Brianza. Near Civale is the double Lago d^Annone (E. rises the Rese- 
gone di Lecco) , connected by the Ritorto , which the road follows , with 
the Lake of Lecco. The latter is reached at Malgrale, on the W. bank, 
a place with numerous silk-factories. Opposite to it lies Lecco (see p. 145). 

20. Lake of Como. 

Plan of Excursion. The most beautiful point on the Lake of Como is 
Bellagio (p. 141), which is admirably situated for a stay of several days 
and for short excursions. — The Lakes of Como and Lugano (p. 148) and 
the Lago Maggiore (p. 152) may be visited from Milan most expeditiously 
as follows : train in 2 hrs. to Como (Cathedral) ; proceed by steamboat in 
the afternoon in IV2 hr. to Cadenabbia or Bellagio, and spend the night 
there. In the evening and next morning visit Villa Carlotta, Serbelloni, 
and Melzi; by steamboat in 1/4 hr., or by rowing-boat, to Menaggio; 
thence by omnibus in 2 hrs. to Porlezia , in time for the steamboat 
which starts for Lugano (p. 151), arriving early enough to leave time for 
the ascent of Monte S. Salvatore. From Lugano diligence to Luino in 
the morning in 2^/4 hrs.; steamboat from Luino in I'/a hr. to the Borromean 
Islands , thence in 1 hr. to Arona. Railway from Arona to Milan , see 
p. 158. Taken in a reverse direction this excursion is even more to be 
recommended, as Bellagio, which is the great point of attraction, ter- 
minates it. The Cjkculak Torn Tickets (see p. xvii) issued for this ex- 
cursion are economical and convenient, but their holders must be prepar- 
ed to lose a little time, as they are bound to use the steamer from Lu- 
gano to Ponte Tresa (starting every afternoon). 

Steamboat twice or thrice daily from Como to Colico in 372 hrs. (fares 
4 fr. 50, 2 fr. 40 c.) ; once or twice daily from Como to Lecco in 3'/2 hrs. ; 
twice or thrice daily from Lecco to Colico in 3-3V2 hrs. Stations between 
Como and Colico : Cernobbio, MoUrasio, Torno, Caraie (pier), Palanzo e Pognana, 
Torrigia. Nesso, Argegno (pier). Sola, Campo, Lezzeno, Lenno, Azzano, Tremetzo 
(pier), Cadenabbia (pier), S. Giovanni, Bellagio (pier), HGtel Yiclorin (pier), 
Menaggio (pier), Varenna, Gitlana, Bellano, Rezzonico, Dervio, Cremia, Dongo, 
Musso, Gravedona, Domaso, Colico; tickets (gratis) for the ferry-boats at- 
tached to the steamboat-tickets. Between Cadenabbia, or Menaggio, and 
Bellagio, the steamboat is the cheapest conveyance, especially for single 
travellers. Those who embark at intermediate stations between Como 
and Colico procure a ticket at the pier; otherwise they arc liable to 
be charged for the wliDle distance from Como or Colico. 

4 . -4 ^ ti- fe^ f-t -^ \'' '"?i° * • <^ f ■^' 

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1_ 'i!i.^_iii: 

LAKE OF COMO. '20. Route. 139 

Tickets are issued on board the steamers for the Come and Milan 
railway and for the corresponding diligences, which give the passenger the 
advantage, e.g. on arriving at Colico, of having the first claim to scats. 
The mails are carried by handsome Saloon Steamers, with good restaurants. 

Bo-wing-boats (barca). First hour IV2 fr. for each rower, 3 fr. for 
two, and 41/2 fr. for three, each additional hour 1 fr. each rower. From 
Bellagio to Cadenabbia and back (or vice-versa) 3, with 2 rowers 4 fr. ; 
Bellagio-Menaggio and back 4 fr. ; Bellagio- Varenna and back 4 fr. ; Bel- 
lagio-Villa Carlotta and back 2V2 fr. •, Bellagio, Villa Melzi, Villa Carlotfa, 
and back 4 fr. — One rower suffices , unless the traveller is pressed for 
time; a second may be dismissed with the words 'basta uno ! ' When 
travellers are not numerous , the boatmen readily reduce their demands. 
In addition to the fare, it is usual to give a '■huonamano'' of 1/2 fr. or 1 fr. 
according to the length of the excursion. 

The *Lake of Como (699 ft.), Italian Lago di Como or II Lario, 
tlie Lacus Larius of the Romans , is extolled by Virgil (Georg. ii. 
159), and is in the estimation of many the most beautiful lake in 
N. Italy. Length from Como to the N. extremity 30 M., from the 
Punta dl Bellagio (p. 143) to Lecco I22/3 M.; greatest width be- 
tween Menaggio and Varenna nearly 21/0 M. ; greatest depth 1929 ft. 

Numerous gay villas of the Milanese aristocracy, surrounded by luxuri- 
ant gardens and vineyards, are scattered along the banks of the lake. In 
the forests above, the brilliant green of the chestnut and walnut contrasts 
strongly with the greyish tints of the olive, which to the unaccustomed 
eye bears a strong resemblance to the willow. The mountains rise to a 
height of 7000 ft. The scenery of the lake, as seen from the deck of the 
steamboat, though on a far grander scale, faintly resembles that of the 
Rhine , the banks on both sides being perfectly distinguishable by the 
traveller. At Bellagio (p. 141) the lake divides into two branches, 
called respectively the Lakes of Como (W.) and Lecco (E.). The Adda 
enters at the upper extremity and makes its egress near Lecco. The W. 
arm has no outlet. — The industrious inhabitants of the banks of the lake 
are much occupied in the production and manufacture of silk. Many 
young artisans (masons and carpenters chiefly) emigrate from this district 
to Cuba and the Spanish- American islands , whence they return to their 
native land as soon as they have accumulated enough to enable them to 
purchase a small property. — The lake abounds in fish , and trout of 
20 lbs. weight are occasionally captured. The 'Agoni' are small , but 

The prospect from the quay at Como is limited , but as soon as 
the steamer has passed the first promontory on the E. the beauty 
of the lake is disclosed to view. 

W. Bank. 

Borgo Vico , the N.W. suburb 
of Como, with the Villas Sa- 
poriti , Salazar, and Mondolfo. 
At the N. end of the Borgo rises 
the large VilUi Raimondi. 

Villa Tavernola, beyond the 
mouth of the Breggia. Villa 
Cima, in a beautiful park. 

Cernobbio (Alb. del Ceiitro, 

f Como. 

E. Bank. 

Borgo S. Agostino , the N.E. 
suburb of Como. On the hill 
above is the village of Brunato, 
commanding a fine view. 

Beyond the promontory (with 
the Villa Cornaggia^ we obtain a 
view of Blevio, with its numerous 
villas, including those of Mylius, 
Ricordi , and Taglioni , with a 

140 Route 2y. 



W. Bank. 
pens. 5V2"^V2f''0 ^^ * consid- 
erable village , with the villas 
Belinzaghi, Baroggi, etc. 

The Villa d'Este was opened in 
1876 as a * Hotel on a large 
scale , connected with which is 
the former Hotel de la Reine 
d'Angleterre (pension 9-10 fr.). 
A pleasant park extends up the 
hill. — High ahove lies the 
church of Rovenna. — Villa 

Villa Passalacqua , with its 
numerous windows, resembles a 

Near Moltrasio is a picturesque 

Vrio ; then Carate (Alb. Lario), 
with the Monte Bisbino (4390 ft.) 
in the background. — Villa Vo- 
lobiano, a green and red building. 
The lofty pyramid was erected to 
the memory of Dr. Frank, a pro- 
fessor of Pavia (d. 1851), with 
money left by him for the pur- 
pose. — Laylio , with Villa An- 
tongina, formerly Gaggi. 

Villa Galbiati, gaily painted ; 
then Torrigia. 

Next, Britnno, embosomed in 

Argegno, at the mouth of the 
Inlelvi Valley. 

Sala, with the small island of 
iS. Giovanni, or Comacina , fre- 
quently mentioned in the annals 
of mediaeval warfare, now occu- 

E. Bank. 

Swiss cottage, formerly the prop- 
erty of the famous danseuse, 
now belonging to her son-in-law 
Prince Trubetzkoi. Villa Pasta 
was the residence of the cele- 
brated singer (d. 1865). 

Villa Taverna, formerly Tanzi. 

Torno is surrounded by villas. 

Villa Pliniana at the end of 
the bay , at the entrance of a 
narrow gorge , a gloomy square 
edifice, erected in 1570 by Count 
Anguissola, one of the four con- 
spirators who assassinated Duke 
Farnese at Piacenza, is now the 
property of the princess Belgio- 
joso. It derives its name of 
Pliniana from a neighbouring 
spring which daily changes its 
level , a peculiarity mentioned 
by Pliny. Extracts from his 
works (Epist. iv, 30; Hist. Nat. 
ii. 206) are inscribed on the 
walls of the court. 

Quarsano and C arena. 

Nesso, at the foot of the Piano 
del Tivano (3742 ft.), Nesso So- 
pra, and Nesso Sotto; near the 
latter in a rocky gorge is a water- 
fall of considerable height, fre- 
quently dry in summer. 

Near Lezzeno is one of the 
deepest parts of the lake. 

Villa Besenna. 

S. Giovanni , with the Villa 

Villa Poldi, bearing the family 

of Como. 


20. Route. 141 

W. Bank. 
pied by a small church. Monte 
Legnone, and Monte Legnoncino 
(p. 144) are distinctly visible 
towards the N.E. 

Campo lies in a bay formed by 
the promontory oi Lavedo, which 
here projects far into the lake. 
On its extremity glitters the Villa 
BalManello, with its colonnade, 
the property of Count Arcomati. 

2Veme2so (*Albergo Bazzoni)is 
situated in the beautiful district 
called the Tremezzina. 

Villa Carlotta, see below. 

Cadenabbia {*Bellevue, with 
restaurant ; *Belle-Ile ; *Britan- 
nia , pens, from 7 fr. ; Pension 
^ Restaurant Cadenabbia , 6-7 fr. 
a day ; Cafe Lavezzari), halfway 
between Como and Colico. In the 
vicinity (S.W.), in a garden slop- 
ing down to the lake, stands the 
celebrated * Villa Carlotta, or 
Sommariva , from the Count of 
that name to whom it formerly 
belonged. In 1843 it came into 
the possession of Princess Albert 
of Prussia, from whose daughter 
Charlotte (d. 1855) it derives its 
present appellation. The widower 
of the latter, Duke George of 
Saxe-Meiningen, is the present 
proprietor. Visitors ring at the 
entrance to the garden and 
ascend the broad flight of steps, 
where they are received by the 
intendant (1 fr. , but more for 
a party). 

Interior. The Marble Hall con- 
'ains a frieze decorated with cele- 
brated -'Reliefs by T/wrvaldsen, re- 
presenting the Triumph of Alexan- 
der (for which a sum of nearly 
375,000 fr. was once paid by Count 
Sommariva) ; also several statues 
by Canova (Cupid and Psyche, Magda- 
lene, Palamedes, Venus); Paris by 
Fontana; bust of Count Sommariva; 
Mars and Venus, by Acqtiisti; Cupid 

E. Bank. 

name of the Gonzagas , contains 
the mausoleum of the last of the 
race, in the form of a round Ro- 
manesque temple. Fine view. 
Villa Melzi, see below. 

Bellagio. — 'Grande Bretagne, 
and 'Grand Hotel Bellagio , for- 
merly Villa Frizzo7ii, both well fitted 
up, and the property of companies; 
*Genazzini; these three beautifully 
situated on the lake ; R. 3 fr. and 
upwards, B. I1/2, D. 5 (at Genazzini's 
inch wine), A. 1, L. 1, omnibus 1 fr. ; 
pension according to agreement, 
even for a few days, 10-12 fr.. at 
Genazzini's 7-11 fr.; 'Grand Hotel 
& Pension Villa Serbelloni, on the 
hill in the beautiful park mentioned 
at p. 142, commanding a line view, 
a dependanceof the Grande Bretagne, 
with the same charges, but inferior 
in comfort. — Of less pretension: 
"Hotel Florence ; 'Hotel et Pension 
Suisse; both on the lake. Albergo 
DEL Vapore , moderate. — Rowing 
Boats, see p. 139. 

Bellagio (708 ft.), a small towa 
with 3000 inhab. , at the W. base 
of the promontory which sep- 
arates the two arms of the lake, 
is perhaps the most delightful 
point among the lakes of Upper 
Italy. About 1/2 M. to the S. 
of the village is the *Villa Melzi, 
erected by Albertolli in 1810-15, 
for Count Melzi d'Erile, who was 
vice-president of the Italian Re- 
public in 1802, and was made 
Duke of Lodi by Napoleon in 
1807. It now belongs to his 

42 Route -20. 



W. Bank. 

giving water to pigeons, by Bien- 
aime , etc. The Billiard Room 
contains casts, and a small frieze 
in marble on the chimney-piece 
representing a Bacchanalian pro- 
cession, said to be an early work 
ol" Thorvaldsen. — In the Garden 
Saloon several modern pictures {Ha- 
ycz , Romeo and Juliet \ Lordon, 
Ath'alie), and a marble relief of Na- 
poleon when consul, by Lazzanni. 

The 'Garden, which stretches to 
the S. to Tremezzo, and to the N. 
towards the Hotel de Bellevue, con- 
tains the most luxuriant vegetation; 
on the S. side of the Villa is a 
splendid magnolia ; pleasant view 
towards Bellagio (attendant 1/2 fr."). 
Behind the 'Milan' hotel rises 
II Sasso S. Mnrtino, a rock on 
which stands the Madonna di S. 
Martina, a small church, com- 
manding a beautiful view; ascent 
i 1/2 hr. , path destroyed by tor- 
rents at places. 

The Monte Colaiga or Crociotie, a 
more lofty mountain to the W., 
commands a striking view of the 
Monte Rosa chain, the Bernese Alps 
and Mont Blanc, the lakes and the 
plain of Lombardy (a fatiguing as- 
cent of 6-7 hrs. ; guide 5 fr. ; in order 
to avoid the heat the traveller should 
start at 2 or 3 a.m.)- 

E. Bank. 
grandson the Duca di Melzi(open 
on Thursdays and Sundays, cards 
of admission 1 fr.). 

Interior. In the vestibule co- 
pies of ancient busts in marble by 
Canova; bust of the present pro- 
prietor by Vela; statue of the son 
of the duca, by Pessina; David, 
by FraccaroU; Innocence, by Pan- 
diani, etc. The walls of the follow- 
ing rooms are embellished with 
appropriate frescoes. In the 2nd 
Room a bust of Michael Angelo 
by Canova. 3rd R. : Bust of Mi- 
chael Angelo by himself (?) ; Ma- 
donna by Bern. Luini. 4th R. : Co- 
molli, Eugene Beauharnais, vice- 
roy of Italy; "Appiani, Napoleon I. 
as president of the Italian Republic. 
5th R. : Ceiling frescoes by Bossi. 
representing Parnassus ; statuettes 
by Marchesi; chimney-piece \>y Thor- 
valdsen with medallion-portraits of 
celebrated Italians. 5th R. (Flower- 
Room) : Canova, Bacchante. 

The 'Garden (attendant '/^ fr.) 
exhibits all the luxuriance and fra- 
grance of southern vegetation (magni- 
ficent magnolias, camellias, cedars, 
Chinese pines, gigantic aloes, etc.). 
The Chapel contains monuments 
in marble to the two former pro- 
prietors, and to the mother of the 
present duke, by Neasi. In another 
part of the garden, Dante and Bea- 
trice, by Comolli; colossal busts of 
Madame Lsetitia , mother of Napo- 
leon 1., and the empress Josephine, 
by Canova. 

Higher up stands the *Villa 
Serbelloni (now Hotel and Pen- 
sion'), the park of which com- 
mands an exquisite View, es- 
pecially of the Lake of Leceo, 
probably the tinest on the lake 
(admission '/a f^.). Charming 
glimpses of Varenna, Villa Bal- 
bianello, Carlotta, etc. Beautiful 
flowers and plants in the garden 
of the hotel, and a grove of 
palm trees. — The belvedere of 
the ViUa Belmonte , the prop- 
erty of an Englishman, com- 
mands another fine view (ad- 
mission Vi ff-)- — ^ ^'"^^ *° 

of Cotno. 


20. Route. 143 

W. Bank. E. Bank. 

the. S., in the direction of the 
Lake of Lecoo, is the Villa 6iu- 
lia, the property of Count Blome 
(visitors admitted). — Excursion 
to the Monte S. Primo, an ascent 
of 4 hrs., see p. 137. 
Here, at the Punta di BellcKjio, the two arms of the lake, the 
Lago di Como and the Lago di Lecco (p. 145), unite. 

Menaggio (*Grand Hotel Vit- 
toria , beautifully situated , 11. 
3 fr., pleasant Italian hotel, with 
a special steamboat station ; Co- 
rona) possesses an extensive silk 
manufactory, to which visitors 
are admitted. On the lake, S. 
of the village, is the handsome 
Villa Mylius. A road leads hence 
to Porlezza on the Lake of Luga- 
no (9M.; omnibus daily, 11 a.m., 
see p. 151). 

On an eminence (1/2 tr.), 
near the church of Loveno (*Inn), 
stands the Villa Vigoni, former- 
ly Mylius, commanding a mag- 
nificent *ViE-w of Bellagio, Me- 
naggio, and of the three arms of 
the lake. 

The villa contains some admirable 
works in marble by modern Italian 
sculptors, reliefs by Thorvaldsen (Ne- 
mesis) and Marchesi; in the garden- 
saloon a 'Group by Argenti, the pro- 
prietress with her children. 

The steamer next passes a 
wild , yellowish-brown cliff , II 
Sasso Rancio ('the orange-rock'), 
which is traversed by a danger- 
ous footpath. This route was un- 
dertaken in 1799 by the Rus- 
sians under General Bellegarde, 
on which occasion many lives 
were lost. 

S. Abbondio is the next village. 

Rezzonico with Villa Litta, and 
the picturesque ruins of a for- 
tress of the 13th century. 

Varenna (*AlbeTgo Reale ; Ho- 
tel Marcioni), is charmingly sit- 
uated on a promontory , sur- 
rounded by gardens (Isimbardi , 
Lelia, Venini), at the mouth of 
the Val d'Esino, commanded by 
the lofty ruins of the Torre di 
Vezio, with a small village and a 
beautiful view. In the vicinity, 
especially towarls the N., some 
remarkable galleries have been 
hewn in the rock for the passage 
of the Stelvio road. Most of the 
marble quarried in the neigh- 
bourhood is cut and polished in 
the town. 

About 3/4 M. to the S. of Va- 
renna the Flume Latte ('milk 
brook', from its colour) is preci- 
pitated in several leaps from a 
height of 1000 ft. , forming an 
imposing cascade in spring, but 
generally dried up at other sea- 

Oittana is the station for the 
hydropathic establishment of 
Regoledo, situated 500 ft. above 
the lake. 

Bellano (Roma) lies at the 
base of Monte Grigna (7254 ft.), 
at the mouth of the Val Sassina, 
which is traversed by a bridle- 
path to Taceno (thence road to 

44 Route W. 


W. Bank. 

Cremia with the handsome 
church of S. Michcle (altar-piece 
*St. Michael, by Paolo Vero- 
nese) ; then Pianello. 

On rocks rising precipitously 
above Musso are situated the 
ruins of three castles, Rocca di 
Musso , the residence of Giov. 
Giac. de' Medici in 1525-31, 
'the castellan of Musso', who from 
this castle ruled over the entire 
LakeofComo. Then Donpo, with 
a monastery. Above it, on the 
height to the right, lies Oarzeno, 
whence a somewhat neglected 
path crosses the Passo di S. Jorio 
to [9 hrs.) Bellinzona. 

Gravedona (Hotel del Sasso) 
is picturesquely situated at the 
mouth of a gorge (1600 inhab.). 
The handsome Palazzo del Pero 
with four towers, at the upper 
end, was built by the Milanese 
Cardinal Gallio. Adjoining the 
venerable church of S. Vineenzo 
rises the Baptisterium, an inter- 
esting building of the 12th cent. , 
containing two Christian inscrip- 
tions of the 5th century. 

Domaso, charmingly situated, 
possesses several handsome vil- 
las, particularly the Villa Calde- 
rara and Villa Velasquez. 

From Colioo to Ciiiavenna Swiss diligence (also an omnibus, 2'/2 fr.) 
twice daily in 3 hrs.; thence daily (twice in summer) over the Spliigcn 
to CoiRE (R. 5) in 13V2 lira. — From Colico to Sonuuio in the Vallellina 
diligence once daily in 5 hrs. 

E. Bank. 
Lecco via Inlrobbio). The Pio- 
verna forms a waterfall (197 ft.) 
before reaching the lake [Orrido 
di Bellano ; bO c). A monument 
to Tom. Grossi , the poet, who 
was born at Bellano in 1790 (d. 
1853), by Tandardinl, was un- 
veiled here in 1876. 

Dervio, at the mouth of the 
Varrone, is situated at the base 
of the abrupt Monte Legnone 
(8566 ft.) and its spur Monte 
Legnoncino (4951 ft.). 

Corenno, Dorio, and Ogliasca 
are the following villages. 

Colico (Angelo; Isola Bella; 
both in the Italian style ; Re- 
staurant de la Paste , good), 
comp. p. 36. The Monte Legnone, 
mentioned above , may be as- 
cended hence without difficulty 
in 7-8 hrs. 

LEGCO. 20. Route. 145 

Lake of Lecco. 

From Como to Lecco by Bellagio steamboat twice daily; From Colico 
TO Lecco, twice daily, see p. 138. 

The S.E. arm ot the Lake of Como is worthy of a visit, although 
inferior in attraction to the other parts. Lecco is charmingly situated. 
The precipitous and formerly almost inaccessible E. bank of the lake is 
traversed by a road constructed in 1832 and carried along the rocks at 
places with the aid of embankments, tunnels, and galleries. Three of the 
latter near Olcio are together 1000 yds. in length. It affords admirable 
views of the lake. 

The steamboat rounds the Punta di Bellagio; on the height 
above is situated the garden of the Villa Serbelloni, and adjoining 
it are the Villa Giulia (p. 143) and the village of Visgnola. Then 
Limonta, and opposite to it (left) Liema and Sornico, (right) Vassena 
Onno, (left) Olcio, and Mandello on a flat promontory. On the op- 
posite bank (right) lies the small town of Pare , separated from 
Malgrate by the promontory of iS. Dionigio. Malgrate itself lies at 
the entrance of the Val Madrera, through which a road to Como 
leads by Erba (p. 138). The lake gradually contracts into the river 
Adda, by which it is drained, and is crossed by the Ponte Grande, 
a stone bridge often arches, constructed in 1335 byAzzone Visconti, 
and furnished with fortified towers at the extremities. 

(Albergo d' Italia; Croce di Malta, both in the Italian 
style; *Due Torri; Leond'Oro; Corona), an industrial town with 
7500inhab., at the S. end of the E. armof the Lake of Como, is admir- 
ably described in Manzoni's 'I Promessi Sposi'. Pleasant walks to 
the hill of Castello and the pilgrimage-church on the Monte Baro. 

A little below Lecco the Adda again expands into the Lago di Garlate, 
and further down, into the small Lago di Olginate. A navigable canal con- 
nects Trezzo with Milan. — Railway from Lecco to Milan, see pp. 134, 135. 

From Lecco to Bergamo, 20'/2 M., railway in IV4 br. (fares 3 fr. 75, 
2fr. 65, ifr. 90 c.), see p. 171. 

21. From the Lake of Como to the Lago Maggiore. 
Varese. Lugano and the Lake of Lugano. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 138, 152. 
1. From Como to Laveno by Varese. 
31 M. Diligence (not recommended) between Como and Varese (I8V2M., 
in about 4 hrs.) twice, between Varese and Laveno (I2V2 M., in 21/2 hrs.) 
once daily. The road does not quit the Italian territory. 

Railway from Milan to Varese, 3772 M., in 21/4 hrs. (fares 6fr. 80, 
4fr. 80, 3fr. 45 c.). As far as Gallarate, see p. 158; the following stations 
are Albizzate and Gazzada. 

Como, see p. 136. The road ascends through the long S. suburb 
of S. Bartolommeo, skirts the base of an eminence surmounted by 
the ruins of the Castello Baradello, and leads to Camerlata (p. 135). 
It then turns E. to Rebbio, Lucino, and Lurate Abbate, traversing 
a luxuriantly fertile district with numerous villas of the aris- 
tocracy of Milan. At Olgiate the road attains its culminating 
point (900 ft. above the Lake of Como) , whence a view of Monte 
Rosa, the Simplon chain, and other Alps is obtained. The road 
Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 10 

146 Route 21. VARESE. From Como 

next passes the villages ot Solbiate &ni Binago, descends rapidly 
by Malnate, and crosses the Lanza, near its influx into the Olona, 
and farther on, the Olona itself. 

Varese. — Hotels. *Grand Hotel Varese (Excelsior), a large new 
establishment, formerly the Villa Recalcati, in an open situation outside 
the town, with fine views, omnibus at the station. — In the town: Ec- 
uopa; Axgelo; Stella; Leon d'Oro. 

Cafes. Siberia, Pini. 

Diligences to Como and Laveno. see p. 145; to Mendrisio (p. 147) from 
the Iinpresa Varesina fan establishment where carriages may also be hir- 
ed) ; by Tradate to Saronno (from the Angelo ; tramway thence to Milan, 
see p. IIT), both once daily ; to Porlo-Ceresio (p. 151), twice daily in I'/s It. 

Railway to Milan, see above. 

Varese (1306 ft. above the sea-level) is a thriving place with 
13,100 inhab. and silk, paper, furniture, and other manufactories. 
In summer the pleasant environs attract a number of wealthy Mi- 
lanese families, who possess villas here and in the neighbourhood. 
The principal church of S. Vittore, which was rebuilt about 1600, 
with a tower 246 ft. in height, contains a St. George by Crespi, 
and a Magdalene by Morazzone. Among the villas may be men- 
tioned : Palazzo Veratti, known as La Corte, on the Laveno road ; 
Villa Ducale Litta, on the road to Biume Superiore ; Villa Ponti, 
to the N.E., on the road to Biume Inferiore ; then, near the latter 
village. Villa Litta Modignani, which still bears traces of a skirmish 
fought here on 26th May, 1859 ; Villa Taccioli, Poggi, and others. 

Walks. To the Colle Campiglio, I'/s M. to the S. , on the road to 
Masnago and Laveno, commanding a fine view ; to S. Albino, i^t M. to 
the S. of Varese, with a view of the lake; to the Lago cli Varese (Ostcria 
della Schiranna), 2V2 M. ; then, skirting the lake, to Gropello, Ollrona, 
VoUorre (where there is an old monastery of the Canonici Lateranensi 
containing interesting Romanesque cloisters), and Gavirate, 1^/2 M. (see 
p. 147). 

The most interesting excursion, however, is by S. Ambrogio and Fo- 
gliardi to the -Madonna del Konte, a celebrated resort of pilgrims, S'/a M. 
to the N.W. (carriage-road to Fogliardi, then a bridle-path). Fourteen 
chapels or stations of various forms, adorned with frescoes and groups in 
stucco, have been erected along the broad path , by which the monastery 
and church on the mountain (2841 ft.) are attained. The view hence is 
not less celebrated than the peculiar sanctity of the spot. The small 
lakes of Comabbio, Biandrone, and Monate, that of Varese, two arms of 
the Lago Maggiore , part of the Lake of Como , and the expansive and 
fruittul plain as far as Milan are visible. — A far more comprehensive 
view, including the glacier-world also, is obtained (best by morning-light) 
from the Tre Croci (396G ft.), 1 hr. N.W. of the Madonna. Several tav- 
erns adjoin the monastery. Donkeys and guides (unnecessary) are to be 
found at the foot of the mountain. Comp. map, p. 152. 

About 61,2 M. to the S.E. of Varese, not far from the road to Bizzo- 
zero and Tradate (Saronno and Slilan; diligence, see above), lies Castig- 
lione d'Olona, with 15C0 inhab. (no tolerable inn). The Collegiate church 
and the adjacent Baptistery contain frescoes by MafoUno (1428); those 
in the former represent scenes from the lives of Mary and SS. Stephen 
and Laurence; those in the latter, from the life of John the Baptist. 
These frescoes are interesting in the history of art, as several frescoes in 
the Cappella Brancacci at Florence (p. 403) were formerly ascribed to 

The road to Laveno leads by Masnago and Casciago , and 
ascends to Luinale, whence a beautiful view S.W. is obtained of 

toLuino. MENDRISIO. 21. Route. 147 

the Lake of Varese and the small adjacent Lake of Biandrone, 
and also of the farther distant lakes of Monate and Comabiio. The 
next villages are Barrasso and Comerio, the latter with a number 
of pleasant villas , whence the road, passing near the N.W. ex- 
tremity of the Lago di Varese , gradually descends to Gavirate. In 
the vicinity of the latter are quarries of the 'marmo majolica', a 
kind of marble used for decorative purposes. For a short distance 
the road commands a view of Monte Rosa. Cocquio and Gemonio 
are situated to the right of the road. Farther on, the Boesio, which 
flows through the Val Cuvio, is crossed, and, beyond Cittiglio, its 
right bank skirted. The road then leads past the S. base of the 
Sasso del Ferro to — 

Laveno (p. 154), a steamboat station. — Boat to the Borromean 
Islands and Pallanza with 3 rowers 10-12 fr. ; to Isola Bella 1 1/2 hr., 
thence to Isola Madre in 20 min., to Pallanza in 20 min. more. 

2. Fkom Como to Luino by Lugano. 

From Como to Lugano, 2OV2 M., railway in IV4 hr. (fares 3fr. 30, 
2fr. 35, Ifr. 65c.). — From Lugano by Ponte Tresa to Luino, about 15 M., 
Swiss diligence once daily in 2^/4 lirs. (fare 3fr. 15, coupe 3fr. 70 c.); or 
steamboat to Ponte-Tresa in IV4 hr., and diligence thence to Luino in 
2 hrs. (circular tour tickets available for the latter route only). Carriage 
and pair from Lugano to Luino 20, with one horse 10-12 fr.; in the reverse 
direction a return carriage (from Luino) may often be hired at a cheaper 
rate. The Italian custom-houses are at Chiasso and Fornasette (p. 151). 

The traveller should note that Italian Paper Money is not taken on 
Svifiss territory. 

Como, see p. 136. The railway runs behind the BorjfoFico (p. 139), 
and through a long tunnel under the Monte Olimpino. At (41/2 M.) 
Chiasso (^Angela or Posta), the first Swiss village, luggage is examin- 
ed and carriages generally changed. 6'/2 M. Balerna. Tunnel. 

91/2 M. Mendrisio (1191 ft.; *H6teL Mendrisio, R. 21/2 fr.), a 
small town with 2400 inhab., 1/2 M. from the station. Comp. the 
Map, p. 138. 

The *Monte Generoso (5561 ft.; Monte Gionnero, or Monte Calvaggione)., 
the Rigi of Italian Switzerland, is frequently ascended from Mendrisio; to 
the hotel in 3 hrs., thence to the summit in IV2 hr. more. Mules (6fr.), light 
mountain cars (for 1 pers. 10 fr., there and back 16 fr. with buonamano), 
and guides (unnecessary) may be hired at Mendrisio. The bridle-path (for 
the most part paved, and not recommended to pedestrians) ascends by the 
wine-cellars of Salorino in zigzags (pedestrians may take the path to the 
left, 20 min. beyond Mendrisio, pass the church on the terrace, and pro- 
ceed to So7nmazzo, keeping the valley on the right) to a wooded dale, at 
the entrance of which there is a spring by the wall on the left; at the 
source of the brook at the upper end (2 hrs.) is a second spring. The path 
then leads through a sparse wood to the (i-l'A hr.) 'HStel du Giniroso 
(R. 272-31/2, L. and A. IV2, Lunch 21/2, D. 5 fr.) the property of Dr. Pasta 
of Mendrisio, a comfortable house with post and telegraph offices, and well 
adapted for a prolonged stay; V4 hr. farther, beyond the ridge, are the 
chalets of Cassina., where a fine breed of cattle is reared. From the hotel 
to the summit a steep ascent of IV2 hr., past several peaks of the Generoso. 
The *ViEW embraces the lakes of Lugano, Como, Varese, and the Lago 
Maggiore, the populous plains of Lombardy, and to the N. the entire Al- 
pine chain from the Monte Viso to the Bernina. — The Monte Generoso 


148 Route 21. LUGANO. From Como 

may also be ascended from Maroggia (see below); pleasant bridle-path by 
Roiio (*H6tel Rovio, where horses and guides may be hired) to the top 
in 4 hrs.; or from Balerna by Mttggio (to which there is a carriage-road) 
and Scudelatte to the summit in 4-4V2 hrs. 

At (12 M.) Capolago (Inn on the lake) the line reaches the *Lake 
of Lugano, or Lago Ceresio (892 ft.), the scenery of which is little 
inferior to that of its more celebrated neighhours Como and Mag- 
giore. In the vicinity of Lugano the banks are picturesquely 
studded with villas and chapels, and planted with the vine, fig, 
olive, and walnut. The W. side of the S. arm also presents 
several delightful points of view. The scenery of the E. arm of the 
lake (p. 151) is wild and deserted. 

The train now skirts the lake, at first on the E. bank, affording 
charming views. Beyond (M'/.i M.) Maroggia two tunnels arc 
traversed. Near Bissone the lake is crossed from E. to W. by 
means of an unsightly stone dyke, 1/2 ^- i" length, 26 ft. in width, 
completed in 1846, along which the line is constructed; at each 
end is an arch for the passage of vessels. — 16 1/2 M. Melide is 
situated on a promontory on the W. bank of the lake. The white 
dolomite, of which the mountains chiefly consist here, changes near 
Melide to dark porphyry, and as .^. Martina is approached, there is 
a gradual transition to shell-limestone. The line penetrates the 
N.E. spur of the Monte S. Salvatore by a short and a long tunnel, 
and crosses the valley of the Tassino by a viaduct, 130 ft. high. 
Fine view to the right of the town and lake of Lugano. — 20'/o M. 
Lugano is at present the terminus, but the line is being continued 
to Bellinzona (p. 32). The station is beautifully situated above the 

Lugano. — Hotels. "Hotel du Parc, in the suppressed monastery 
of S. Maria degli Angioli, on the S. side of the town, with a pleasant 
garden and several dependencies, R. 3-5, L. 1, B. IV2, D- 5, A. 1, omnibus 
l'/2fr., pension in summer 9fr. and upwards, but less in winter; 'Hotel 
Washington; "Hotel Suisse; "Hotel Lugano; "Bellevue, on the lake; 
*Brocca, with garden, D. 4'/2-5V2fr. ; Hotel de la Couronne, cheaper; Ho- 
tel i>u Panorama, ^/t M. to the S., with view, moderate. 

Restaurants. '''Brocca, with garden (see above); Concordia and Ameri- 
cana^ both on the lake. 

Lake Baths of the Societa Salvatore adjoining the Hotel Bellevue, and 
Bagiii Galleggianti by the Hotel du Pare (for swimmers, 1 fr. with towels). 
Physician : Dr. 'Cornils. 

Post and Telegraph Offices, behind the Hotel Bellevue. 
Diligence to Luino once daily in 2'/2 hrs.; steamboat-tickets for Lago 
Maggiore are also issued at the office; to Bellinzona (railway to Biasca, 
and diligence thence to Lvcerne by the St. Gotthard) three times daily; 
to Coire by the Bernardino once daily. 

Railway Station, »/4 M. above the town (footpath shorter than the 
road). Diliiionce tickets arc issued at the railway station, and passengers 
are convoved gratis to the office of the diligence. 

Steamboat to Porlezza twice daily, S'/a or Ifr. ; to Ponte Tresa (p. 151), 
3 or I'i-fr. silver (Italian paper not taken). — Tickets are issued on board 
the steamboat for the omnibuses from Porle/.za to Jlenaggio, Porto to 
Varese, and Ponte Tresa to T.iiino. 

Boats to Porle/.za (p. 151) with one rower 7fr., two 12fr., three 
leVxfr. ; to Ostino 6, 10, or ISfr., incl. fee. At the hotels, one rower 

to Luino. LUGANO. 21. Route. 149 

2 fr. , two rowers 3 fr. for the first hour, each additional hour, IV2 and 
2 fr. respectively. 

Carriages. To Luino with one horse 12, two horses 20 fr., Bellinzona 
16 or 30, Varese 16 or 30 fr. (driver's fee extra). 

English Church Service at the Hotel du Pare. 

Lugano (932 ft.), with 6024 inhat)., is charmingly situated on 
the lake of the same name, and enjoys quite an Italian climate (the 
agave blooming here in the open air). It is a very pleasant place 
for a lengthened stay ; the environs possess all the charms of Italian 
mountain scenery ; numerous villages and country-seats are scatter- 
ed along the margin of the lake , and the lower hills are covered 
with vineyards and gardens, contrasting beautifully with the dark 
foliage of the chestnuts and walnuts in the background. To the 
S., immediately above the town, rises the Monte S. Salvatore, 
wooded to its summit; among the mountains towards the N. the 
double peak of the Monte Camoghe (7303 ft. ; p. 32) is con- 

The interior of the town with its arcades, workshops in the 
open air , and granite-paved streets, is also thoroughly Italian in 
character. On market-day (Tuesday) a variety of picturesque 
Italian costumes and characteristic scenes may be observed here. 

The once numerous monasteries of Lugano have been suppress- 
ed with the exception of two. The most important was that of S. 
Maria degli Angioli , now the Hotel du Pare. The adjacent church 
contains beautiful *Frescoes by Bern. Luini. 

The painting on the wall of the screen , one of the largest and finest 
ever executed by Luini , represents the -Passimi of Christ , and contains 
several hundred figures , arranged according to the antiquated style in 
two rows. In the foreground, occupying the upper part of the wall, 
stand three huge crosses , at the foot of which we perceive Roman war- 
riors, the groups of the holy women, and St. John, and the executioners 
casting lots for the garments. Above, on a diminished scale, from left to 
right, are Christ on the Mount of Olives, Christ taken prisoner, the 
Scourging, the Bearing of the Cross, the Entombment, and the Ascension, 
all immediately adjacent. Although the style of the composition strikes 
one as old-fashioned, especially after seeing Leonardo's works, the eye 
cannot fail to be gratified by the numerous beautiful details. The St. 
Sebastian and St. Rochus , below , between the arches , are particularly 
fine. To the left, on the wall of the church, is the Last Supper, a picture 
in three sections, formerly in the Lyceum, and in the 1st Chapel on the 
right is a Madonna, both also by Luini. 

S. Lorenzo, the principal church, on an eminence (fine view 
from the terrace), probably erected by Tommaso Rodari at the 
end of the 15th cent., has a tastefully adorned marble facade. 

Adjoining the Theatre are the old government buildings (now 
the Hotel Washington), with a cool and pleasant colonnaded court. 
The hall contains a monument to the architect Canonico di Tes- 
serete, and a marble bust of General Dufour. 

A small temple at the Villa Tanzina , where suites of apart- 
ments may be hired, 1/4 M. S. of the Hotel du Pare, contains a bust 
of Washington, 'magnum saeculorum decus\ — The Villa Beause- 
jouT, charmingly situated near the Hotel du Pare, of which it is 

150 Route 2i. MONTE S. SALVATORE. From Como 

now a d^pendance, has a beautiful and very extensive garden, 
containing fine cedars , magnolias, camellias, etc. — Superb view 
from tbe tower in tbe garden of the Villa Enderlin, to which access 
is permitted by the proprietor. 

The beautiful *Parfc of M. Ciani, extending along the N. bay of 
the lake about 1/2 M. from the Hotel du Pare , is always open to 
visitors (gardener 1 fr.). 

On the broad quay opposite the Hotel du Pare is a Fountain 
with a Statue of William Tell, 8 ft. in height, in white sandstone, 
designed by Vine. Vela, and erected in 1856. 

Delightful excursion to =" Monte S. Salvatore (2982 ft.), ascent 2 hrs., 
descent IV2 hr., guide (4fr.) superfluous (coiup. Map, p. 138); horse 9fr., 
mule 8fr. , incl. fee. About 10 min from the Hotel du Pare, between a 
detached house and the wall of a garden, a good paved path diverges to the 
right from the road to Slelide (see below); 2 min. farther, where the path 
divides, we go not to the right, but straight on to the houses; be- 
tween these the road ascends, past the handsome and conspicuous (25 min.) 
Villa Marchino, to (5 min.) the village of Pazzallo, from which Monte 
Rosa is visible through a mountain-gorge. Here the path diverges to the 
left from the broad road , passes through the gateway of the fourth 
house, and leads to the left by a stony but easy ascent in IV2 hr. to the 
Pilgrimage Chapel on the summit (refreshments and a few beds at the 
small house near the top). The "View embraces all the arms of the Lake 
of Lugano, the mountains and their wooded slopes, especially tUcce above 
Lugano, sprinkled with numerous villas. To the E. above Porlezza is 
Monte Legnone (p. 144), to the left of which, in the extreme distance, are 
the snow-peaks of the Bernina; N. above Lugano the double peak of 
Monte Camoghe (p. 32), to the left of this tbe distant mountains of St. 
Gotthard; W. the chain of Monte Rosa, with the Matterhorn and other 
Alps of the Valais. This view is seen to best advantage in the morning, 
when Monte Rosa gleams in the sunshine. The construction of a carriage- 
road and of a hotel on the summit is projected. In descending, the route 
through Carona and Melide (somewhat longer) may be chosen. 

A Drive (or Steamboat Journey , p. 151) round the Moxte S. Salva- 
tore (4V2 hrs.) is much recommended. We proceed by ('/s hr.) Pamhio, 
where a monument by Vela has been erected near the church of S. 
Pietro to Capt. Carloni , who fell at Somma Campagna in 1848, to (1 hr.) 
Figino , where we approach the W. arm of the lake. The road then skirts 
the lake and passes round the Monte Arbostora to (3/4 hr.) Jforcote, charm- 
ingly situated and commanded by a ruined castle (view from the top), 
and to (1 hr.) Melide. Thence to Lngano , by the high road. — The 
churchyard of S. Abbondio , 1 M. to the W. of Pambio (see above) , con- 
tains a fine monument of the Torriani family, a woman praving, by Vela. 

The ascent of -Monte Bre (3100 ft.), to the N.E. of Lugano, is another 
easy excursion, scarcely less interesting than that to Mte. S. Salvatore. 
(It is advisable to take a guide from Bre.) A road runs inland towards 
several mills at the foot of the mountain. Thence a broad and well- 
constructed path winds upwards to the right to the small village of 
Desago, passing a few groups of houses. Above Desago the path divides; 
both routes are broad, and well-constructed, leading round the mountain 
to the village of liri on its fartlicr side (Inn, bread and wine only). 
The route to the right, above the lake, is very beautiful, while that 
to the left commands a fine inland view. Near the church of Bre a 
narrow forest-path ascends to the summit of the mountain. This path also 
divides; the branch to the right traverses the highest crest of the hill, 
that to the left leads to a spur of the mountain in the direction of Lu- 
gano. The summit may be attained by either. The view of the several 
arms of the Lake of Lugano, especially in the direction of Porlezza, 
and the surrounding mountains, is remarkably fine. Lugano itself is not 

to Luino. PORLEZZA. 21. Route. 151 

visible from the summit, but from the above-mentioned spur a good view 
of it may be obtained. From Lugano to Bre about IV2 hr. ; from Bre to 
the summit about 1 hr. 

Uonte Caprino, opposite Lugano, on the E. bank of the lake, is much 
frequented on holidaj'S by the townspeople, who possess wine-cellars (can- 
tine) in the numerous cool grottoes by which the side of the mountain is 
honeycombed. These receptacles are guarded by numerous huts , which 
from a distance present the appearance of a village. Good wine of icy 
coolness may be obtained here ('Asti' recommended), and there is also 
a brewery. 

Excursion to the *GroUo of Osteno , see p. 152 ; — to Bellinzona, see 
p. 32. 

Beyond Lugano the road gradually winds upwards to the W., 
turns S. past the small Lafee of Muzzano, crosses the Agno , leads 
through the (3 M.) village of that name (967 ft.) , and a short 
distance farther reaches the W. arm of the Lake of Lugano. Near 
Magliaso the lake is quitted, hut another of its hays is touched near 
(3 M.) Ponte Tresa. This hay, which is so completely enclosed hy 
mountains as apparently to form a distinct lake ; is connected with 
the Lake of Lugano hy a narrow channel only. The Tresa, which 
here emerges from the lake and forms the frontier hetween Switzer- 
land and Italy, falls into the Lago Maggiore, ^/iM. S."W. of Luino. 
It is crossed hy a hridge at Ponte Tresa. 

Steamboat from Lugano to Ponte Tresa in l'/4hr., a pleasant trip 
round the Monte S. Salvatore. The stations are Campione (1.), Bissone 
(1.; p. 148), Melide (r. ; p. 148), Brusin-Arsizio Q.), Morcote (r-; P- 150), 
Porto- Ceresio (1.; omnibus in IV2 hr. to Varese, p. 146), Brtisin- Piano (1.), 
and lastly Po7iie Tresa. 

The road follows the course of the Tresa as far as the Italian 
frontier at Fornace and Fornasette , where luggage is examined ; 
it then descends, and soon affords a view of the Lago Maggiore. 

15 M. Luino, see p. 154. 

3. From Menaggio by Poelezza to Lugano. 

Omnibus from Menaggio to Porlezza in 2 hrs. (fare 3fr. 60c.); one- 
horse carriage 6-8 fr.; two -horse 12 fr. From Porlezza to Lugano 
Steamboat (twice daily there and back; Tuesdays three times) in one 
hour (fare 21/2 or 1 fr. in silver) ; boat with one rower 7, with two 12, 
with three I6V2 fr. ; bargaining necessary. 

The journey from Menaggio to Porlezza (9 M.) is also recom- 
mended to pedestrians , as the road leads through a succession of 
imposing and attractive mountain-scenes. The Villa Vigoni(p. 143) 
lies to the right of the road (N.). The retrospect from the height 
near Croce, 2 M. from Menaggio, is delightful. Towards the W., 
on the left the Monte Crocione , and opposite to us the Monte Oal- 
higa (5630 ft.) rise precipitously from the lake. The road then de- 
scends to the small Lago del Piano and the village of Tavordo. 
Thence to Porlezza l'/4 M. more. 

Porlezza (^Inn on the lake), with 12,000 inhah., is situated at 
the N. end of the Lake of Lugano. Attempts at extortion are 
frequently made here hy the fraternity who prey upon travellers. 

Soon after Porlezza is quitted, the Monte S. Salvatore (p. 150) 

152 Route 22. LAGO MAGGIORE. 

becomes conspicuous to the S.W. The steamer touches at Osteno 
(^Inii on the lake), on the left. 

The interesting ''Grotto of Osteno may easily be visited from Lugano 
with the aid of the steamboat bound for Porlezza (disembarking at 
Osteno, and returning by the next boat). The grotto is 7 min. from the 
landing-place; the boatman is to be found in the village. The mouth 
of the gorge , in which there are two small waterfalls , is near a pro- 
jecting rock. Visitors embark in a small boat and enter the grotto, 
the bottom of which is entirely occupied by the brook. The narrow 
ravine, through which the boat now threads its way, is curiously 
hollowed out by the action of the water. Far above, the roof is formed 
by overhanging bushes, between which an occasional glimpse of blue sky 
is obtained. The gorge, which is terminated by a waterfall, resembles 
that of Pfalfers, and is equally imposing, although shorter. 

Opposite, Oil the N. bank, are the villages of Chna. Cresogno, 
and Albogasio; farther on, at the foot of Monte Bre (p. 150), 
Gctndrid, beautifully situated, with hanging gardens, lofty arcades, 
vine-terraces, etc. The S. arm of the lake now opens ; to the left 
lies Monte Caprino with its wine-cellars ; the steamer rounds the 
promontory of Castagnola and reaches Lugano (p. 148). 

22. Lago Maggiore. 

From Arena to Milan and to Genoa. 

Steamboats ply on the lake 3 times daily during the summer: from 
Locarno to Arona in 5 hrs., from Luino to Isola Bella in 2 hrs., from 
Isola Bella to Arona in ii/4 hr. ; fares from Locarno to Arona 4fr. 80 and 
2fr. G5'c., from Luino to Isola Bella 1 fr. 85 and Ifr. 15 c., from Isola 
Bella to Arona Ifr. 50 and 90c., landing and embarking included. The 
Steamboats are the best and cheapest conveyance to Isola Bella, especially 
for a single traveller (4-6 times daily; from PallanzaGO, from Baveno 50, 
from Stresa 40 c.). The hours of starting mentioned in the time-tables are 
not always rijjidly adhered to, and in foggy weather the steamboats leave 
Isola Bella and some other stations untouched. — Stations (those at which 
the steamers do not touch regularly are printed in Italics): Magadino, Lo- 
carno, Ascona (smsM boat station), Brissago, Cannobbio, Maccagno, Luino, 
Cannero, Oggebbio, Ghiffa (small boat station), Porto Valtravaglia, Laveno 
(touched at on every trip but one). Intra, Pallanza, Siina, Feriolo, Ba- 
veno, Isola Bella (small boat station), Stresa, Belgirate, Lesa, Meina, 
Angera, Arona. Restaurants on board the steamers tolerable and mod- 

Boats. Travellers coming from the Simplon usually take a boat at 
Baveno (pp. 27, 155) to visit the Borromean Islands. The charge for an 
excursion not exceeding 2 hrs. is fixed for each rower at 2i/2fr. ; for 1-3 
pers. 2 rowers, for 4-6 pers. 3, more than 6 pers. 4 rowers, so that the 
half-hour's passage to Isola Bella is somewhat expensive. — Half-way be- 
tween Stresa and Baveno, opposite the island, there is a ferry, where 1-2 
fr. is exacted for a passage of scarcely 10 min., the boatmen at lirst demanding 
5fr. The passage from Stresa costs 2fr. for each rower; the return-trip 
must be paid for by time, 2fr. for each rower for the first hour and 50 c. 
for each additional V'2 lir. (small gratuity also expected). 

Railwat from Arona to Milan, see p. 158; to Novara and Oenoa, see 
p. 158. — From Locakno to liellinzoiia and Biasca, see pp. 31, 32; in 
correspondence with which a diligence crosses the St. Gotthard to Lucerne 
in 16 hrs. (R. 4); from Bellinzona to Coire over the Bernardino, see II. 5. 

Diligence from Arona twice daily in 6 hrs. to Donio d'Ossola (p. 20), in 
correspondence with the diligence over the Simplon (R. 3). — From Luino 
Swiss diligence daily in 2V4 hrs. to Lugano (R. 21). — Tickets issued 
on board the steamers. 


1 52 Route 22. LAGO MAGGIORE. 

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Lago Maggiore. LOCARNO. '22. Route. 153 

The *Lago Maggiore (646 ft. , greatest depth 2800 ft.), the Lacus 
Verbanus of the Romans, is 37 M. in length and averages 41/2 M. 
in width. The canton of Ticino possesses only the N. hank for a 
distance of 9 M. ; this portion of the lake is also called the Lake of 
Locarno. The W. bank beyond the brook Valmara , and the E. 
bank from Zenna belong to Italy. Its principal tributaries are on 
the N. the Ticino (Tessin), on the W. the Tosa, on the E. the 
Tresa , flowing from the Lake of Lugano. The river issuing from 
the S. end of the lake retains the name of Ticino. The N. banks 
are bounded by lofty mountains , for the most part wooded, whilst 
the E. shore towards the lower end slopes gradually away to the 
level of the plains of Lombardy. The W. bank affords a succession 
of charming landscapes. The water is of a green colour in its N. 
arm, and deep blue towards the S. 

At the N.W. angle of the lake, at the influx of the Ticino, 
lies Magadino (Bellevue, on the lake), consisting of Upper and 
Lower Magadino, at which, since the opening of the railway to Lo- 
carno (p. 32), the steamers only touch once daily. — Opposite to 
it, on the W. bank, lies — 

Locarno [682 ft.; *Grand Hotel Locarno, with garden and 
view; *Corona, on the lake; *Albergo Svizzero, in the piazza, 
moderate; Caffe del S. Gottardo , adjoining the Corona), with 
2700 inhab., the terminus of the railway mentioned at p. 32, 
situated at the mouth of the Maggia , the deposits of which have 
formed a considerable delta. Politically Locarno is Swiss, but the 
character of the scenery and population is thoroughly Italian. The 
Collegiate Church contains a good picture (Descent from the Cross) 
by Cerisi. The handsome (former) Government Buildings are situated 
in a large 'piazza' and public garden. The pilgrimage-church of 
*Madonna del Sasso (1168 ft.), on a wooded eminence above the 
town, commands a remarkably line view. The busy market held at 
Locarno every alternate Thursday affords the visitor an opportunity 
of observing a variety of costumes of the peasantry of the neigh- 
bourhood. Great national festival on 8th Sept., the Nativity of 
the Virgin. 

The W. bank of the lake, to the S. of Locarno, is studded 
with country-houses, villages, and campanili. On the bank of 
the lake runs the new carriage-road from Locarno to Pallanza ; in 
the angle lies Ascona with its castle and seminary ; higher up , ^n 
the slope , Roneo. Passing two small islands , we next reach Bris- 
sago (*Albergo Antico; Alb. Brissago) , a delightful spot, with 
picturesque white houses conspicuous from a great distance, and an 
avenue of cypresses leading to the church. The slopes above the 
village are covered with fig-trees, olives, and pomegranates, and 
even the myrtle flourishes in the open air. — On the E. bank, 
opposite, is situated Pino, on a grassy slope. 

S. Agata and Canobbio (^Hotel Canobbio, R. 1V2-3, pens. 6fr. ; 

154 Boute 22. LUINO. Logo Maggiore. 

Albergo delle Alpi^ are on Italian territory. The latter is one of 
the oldest and most prosperous villages (2600 inhah.) on the lake, 
situated on a plateau at the entrance of the Val Canobbino , and 
overshadowed by richly-wooded mountains. In the church Delia 
Pieth, the dome of which is ascribed to Bramante, is a Crucifixion 
by Gaud. Ferrari. 

Pleasant walk of V2 hr. up <he beautiful Val Canobbino to the hydro- 
pathic establishment of La Salute, and thence to the (20 min.) Orrido, a 
wild rocky scene with a bridge and in spring a waterfall. 

The boat now steers for the E. bank, and touches at Maccagno, 
whence a walk of 2 hrs. may be taken to the loftily situated Lago 
Delio (new inn; extensive view). — Farther on, Casneda, in a 
■wooded ravine ; then — 

Luino (Hotel du Simplon , pension 8fr.; Posta; Vittoria), with 
the Palazzo Crivelli surrounded by pines , the station for Lugano 
(p. 148), and a favourite summer resort on account of the beauty 
of its environs. The Piazza Garibaldi is adorned with a statue 
of that hero. — A.bout ^'2 M. to the S., at the mouth of the Mar- 
gorabbia, lies Germignaga , with the large silk-spinning (filanda) 
and silk-winding (fllatoja) factories of Cesare Bozotti and Co. of 

On the W. bank rise two grotesque-looking castles (Caslelli di 
Cannero), half in ruins, the property of Count Borromeo. In the 
15th cent, they harboured the five brothers Mazzarda, notorious 
brigands, the terror of the district. — Cannero is beautifully situated 
in the midst of vineyards and olive-groves , -which extend far up 
the slopes of the mountain. The W. bank is clothed with the 
richest vegetation, and studded with innumerable white houses 
and a succession of picturesque villages. 

The small villages of Oggehbio and Ghiffa on the W. bank, and 
Porto Valtravaglia on the E., are only touched at by some of the 
steamers. In a wooded bay l3eyond the last lies Calde, with the 
ancient tower of the Castello di Calde on an eminence. Then , to 
the E., — 

Laveno (*Posta; Mora; Stella), a village of some importance, 
beautifully situated in a bay at the mouth of the Boesio, formerly 
a strongly fortified harbour for the Austrian gunboats (to Varese 
seep. 146). Fort Garibaldi, i^/oM. from Laveno, commands a 
charming view of the lake and the mountains beyond. — Behind 
Laveno rises II Sasso del Ferro (5918 ft.), the most beautiful 
mountain on the lake, commanding a magnificent view of the lake, 
the plain as far as Milan , and the Monte Rosa chain. The five- 
peaked summit of Monte Rosa is also visible from this part of 
the lake. 

As the boat approaches Intra , the Villa Prina becomes visible. 
The valley, which here opens to the W., suddenly discloses a strik- 
ingly picturesque view of the N. neighbours of Monte Rosa : first 
the Strahlhorn , then the Mischabel and Simplon. They are lost 

Lago Maggiore. BORROMEAN ISLANDS. 22. Route. 155 

to view as the steamboat turns the point between Intra and Pal- 
lanza , hut soon re-appear and remain visihle until Isola Bella is 
reached. From the island itself they are hidden by the mountains 
of the valley of the Tosa. 

Intra. (Hotel- Pens. Intra; Vitello e Leon d'Oro; Agnello), a 
flourishing town (5000 inh.) with manufactories, chiefly belonging 
to Swiss proprietors, is situated on alluvial soil, between two moun- 
tain-streams, the S. Giovanni and S. Bernardino. The *Villa Fran- 
zosini, 11/2 M. to the N., possesses a beautiful garden, containing 
a magnificent magnolia, 65 ft. in height. Attractive ascent of 
11/2 lir. from Intra to Premeno, which commands a fine Alpine view. 

On the promontory of S. Remigio , which may be ascended 
from Pallanza or Intra in 1/2 hr., stands a church on the site of an 
ancient Roman temple of Venus. Adjacent is the Villa S. Remigio, 
the property of Mrs. Brown (visitors kindly admitted; splendid 
view from the balcony, embracing the whole lake and extending 
to the Monte Rosa). The little Isola S. Giovanni, one of the Borro- 
raean group , with its chapel, house, and gardens, is the property 
of Count Borromeo. 

Pallanza. — Hotels. * Gkand Hotel Pallanza, a large house, beauti- 
fully situated, R. 31/2 -5, B. I3/4, D. 5, L. and A. lV2fr. ; omnibus from 
the quay; warm bath 2V2, lake bath l'/2fr. ; pension in April and May 
8V2-I2, in summer 7V2-IOV2 , September and October 8-IIV2, winter 6V2- 
972 fr. — Hot. Gakoni; 'Posta; Italia; S. Gottardo. 

Boat with one rower to the Isola Madre IV2, with two 3fr., to Isola 
Bella 21/2 or 4V2; to both islands 872 or 6, to Stresa 21/2 or 4, to Laveno 
21/2 or 4'/2, to Luino 6 or 10 fr., etc. 

Diligence to Domo d'Ossola in 5 hrs. , twice daily. 

Pallanza, a thriving little town vnth 3200 inhab., delightfully 
situated opposite the Borromean Islands, commands a beautiful 
view of them, the lake , and the Alps to the N. The nursery 
gardens of Rovelli, Cerutti, and others deserve a visit (fee ^/^-i fr.). 
Pleasant walk by the new road round the Monte Rosso , ascend- 
ing by the brook S. Bernardino as far as the old Roman bridge 
o{ Santino (IY2 hr.). 

The lake here forms an extensive bay, 41/0 M. long and 21/4 M. 
wide, running in a N.W. direction, at the N. extremity of which 
is the influx of the impetuous Tosa (Toce). On its N.E. bank 
lies Suna, on the S.W. Feriolo, where the Simplon route (p. 27) 
quits the lake ; the steamboat does not always touch at these two 
stations. —Then Baveno (*Grand Hotel Bellevue ; *Beaurivage, 
both with gardens; Sempione), a small town with 1900 inhabi- 
tants. The handsome Villa Clara (proprietor Mr. Henfrey) was 
occupied by Queen Victoria for some weeks in the spring of 1879. 
This is the usual starting-point of travellers from the Simplon for 
a visit to the — 

*Borromean Islands. The steamers touch only at the most S. 
of these, the Isola Bella, which with the Isola Madre is the property 
of the Borromeo family. Between these lies (W.) the Isola del 

156 Route 22. STRESA. Logo Maggiore. 

Pescatori, or Superiore, the property of the fishermen who inhabit 
it ; to the N. is the Jsola S. Giovanni mentioned above. 

In the 17th cent. Count Vitalio Borromeo (d. 1690) erected a 
chateau on *Isola Bella and converted the barren rock into beauti- 
ful gardens , rising on ten terraces iOO ft. above the lake , and 
stocked with lemon-trees , cedars , magnolias , cypresses , orange- 
trees, laurels, magniticent oleanders, and other luxuriant products 
of the south. The view is very beautiful (evening light most fa- 
vourable). Shell-grottoes, fountains (dry j, mosaics, and statues meet 
the eye in profusion, but in questionable taste. The Chateau, which 
is quite disproportionate to the size of the island , is richly deco- 
rated , and contains a collection of pictures more numerous than 
valuable. The N. wing is in ruins. The view through the arches 
of the long galleries under the chateau is very striking. A ser- 
vant hurries visitors through the apartments (fee 1/2 " 1 f^- lor 
each pers., a party in proportion), and consigns them to a gardener, 
who shows the garden with equal dispatch for a similar fee. Ad- 
joining the chateau is the *H6tel du Dauphin, or (R. 2 fr. 
and upwards, D. 4, pension, 8-9 fr.). Excursion of 2 hrs. by boat 
to the other islands with one rower l^/i-, with two 5 fr. 

The *Isola Madre on its S. side resembles the Isola Eella, 
and is laid out in seven terraces with lemon and orange-trellises ; 
on the upper terrace is an uninhabited 'Palazzo' (beautiful view). 
On the N. side, there are charming walks in the English style, with 
most luxuriant vegetation (fee 1 fr.). — The Isola del Pescatori 
is entirely occupied by a small fishing-village , the single open 
space being just sufficient for drying the nets. 

The scenery around the Borromean Islands rivals that of the Lake of 
Como in grandeur, and perhaps surpasses it in softness of character. Monte 
Rosa is not visible ; the snow-mountains to the N.W. are the glaciers and 
peaks of the Simplon; of the nearer mountains the most conspicuous are 
the white granite-rocks near Baveno (p. 27). The traveller coming from 
the N. cannot fail to be struck with the loveliness of these banks, studded 
with innumerable habitations, and clothed with southern vegetation (chest- 
nuts, mulberries, vines, figs, olives); the extensive lake with its deep blue 
waters and beautiful girdle of snowy mountains combining the stern 
grandeur of the High Alps with the charms of a southern clime. Rousseau 
at one time intended to make the Borromean Islands the scene of his 
'Nouvelle Heloise', but considered them too artificial for his romance, in 
which human nature is pourtrayed with such a masterly hand. 

The steamboat now steers S. to — 

Stresa. — Hotels : *H6tel des Iles BoRROMftES, with beautiful garden 
and diligence-office, 1/.2 M. from the landing-place, R. from 3, B. l'/2, 
L. and A. 2, D. 5 fr. , pension (room 2-3fr. extra) in summer 9-10, in 
winter 6-7 fr. ; -Hotel dk Milan, with garden, near the steamboat-pier, 
R. 2'/'-', D. 41/2, L- and A. IV2, pension G-7fr. — Albergo Reale Bolon- 
GAUo, Italian, R. and L. 2-3, B. 1, D. 4, pens. 6-7 fr.; Italia. 

Boat (barca) with one rower 2fr. for the first hour, and 50 c. for each 
additional '/2 hr. Comp. p. 152. 

Carriage. To Domo d'Ossola with one horse 15-20 fr., with two horses 
30-35f'r. ; to Arona with one horse 6fr. ; carriages for the Simplon route 
to Bricg may also be procured. 

Lago Maggiore. ARONA. 22. Route. 1 57 

Stresa (1200 inhab.) is situated on the coast, opposite the Isola 
Bella. The handsome Rosminian Monastery halfway up the moun- 
tain is now a college. Beautiful cypresses in the Churchyard. Among 
the finest villas in the environs are the Villa Bolongaro, the pro- 
perty of the Duchess of Genoa, hy the church , and the Villas Ca- 
sanova, Imperatori, Collegno , and Durazzo. — Ascent of Monte 
Motterone, see p. 159. 

As the boat steers its course along the W. bank , the con- 
struction of the high-road, in many places supported by piers of 
masonry, attracts attention owing to the difficulties which had to be 
overcome. The banks gradually become flatter, and Monte Rosa makes 
its appearance in the W. The next place on the W. bank is — 

Belgirate (*H6tel and Pension Belgirate, formerly Borromeo, a 
large new establishment), with 700 inhab., surrounded by the 
villas Fontana, Principessa Matilda, Pallavicini , and others. — 
Then follow Lesa and Meina (Albergo Zanetta), and, on the E. bank, 
Angera, where the boat touches once a day only. The handsome 
chateau above the village belongs to Count Borromeo. The steamer 
finally stops at the station beyond Arona. 

Arona {*Italia, diligence - office ; * Albergo Reale; Alb. San 
Goltardo, all three on the quay, R. 2, A. 3/4 fr. ; Cafe adjoining the 
Albergo Reale ; Cafe du Lac , near the quay) , an ancient town on 
the W. bank, about 3 M. from its S. extremity, with 3200 inhab., 
extends upwards on the slope of the hill. In the principal church 
of S. Maria , the chapel of the Borromean family , to the right of 
the high altar, contains the *Holy Family as an altar-piece , by 
Gaudenzio Vinci (1511), a master rarely met with (or Gaud. Fer- 
rari ?) ; it is surrounded by five smaller pictures , the upper re- 
presenting God the Father, at the sides eight saints and the do- 

On a height overlooking the entire district, 1/2 b'^- ^- of the 
station and pier, is a colossal * Statue of S. Carlo, 70 ft. in 
height, resting on a pedestal 42 ft. high, erected in 1697 in honour 
of the celebrated Cardinal , Count Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of 
Milan (born here in 1538, died 1584, canonised 1610). 

The head, hands, and feet of the statue are of bronze, the robe of 
wrought copper. Kotwithstanding its enormous dimensions, the statue is 
not devoid of artistic merit. The various parts are held together by iron 
cramps attached to a pillar of masonry in the interior. By means of lad- 
ders, kept in readiness in the neighbourhood (fee), the lower part of the 
robe can be reached on the W. side , and the interior entered. The 
enterprising visitor may now climb to the head of the statue, which will 
hold three persons; but the suffocating heat and the number of bats 
render the ascent far from pleasant. 

The adjacent church contains a few relics of S. Carlo. The 
extensive building in the vicinity is an Ecclesiastical Seminary. 

158 Route 22. MORTARA. 

From Arona to Milan. 

42 31. Eailwat in 2V4-2'/2 hrs.; fares 7fr. 65, 5fr. 35, 3fr. 85 c. 

The line follows tte S. bank of the lake, crosses the Ticino 
(Tessln), the boundary between Piedmont and Lombardy, and, down 
to 1859 , also the boundary between Sardinia and Austria. — 
51/2 M. Sesto-Calende (Posta), at the S.E. extremity of the Lago 
Maggiore, at the efflux of the Ticino; 10 M. Vergiate; 12 M. 
Somma, where P. Corn. Scipio was defeated by Hannibal, B.C. 218. 

17 M. Gallarate (the junction of the Varese line , p. 145) , a 
town with 8000 inhab., at the S.E. base of a range of hills which 
form the limit of the vast and fruitful Lombard plain, planted with 
maize , mulberries , and vines. 21 M. Busto Arsizio , the church 
of which, designed by Bramaute , contains frescoes by Gaudenzio 
Ferrari. 24 M. Legnano, where Frederick Barbarossa was defeated 
by the Milanese in 1176 ; the principal church contains a fine altar- 
piece, one of the best works of Luini. — 271/2 M. Parahiago; 33 M. 
Rhh (p. 71) , with the church of the Madonna dei Miracoli by 
Pellegrini. — 38 M. Musocco. 

42 M. Milan, see p. 116. 

From Arona to Genoa. 

Ill M. Railway in 5V2-7'/2 hrs.-, fares 20fr. 20, 14 fr. 15, 10 fr. 15 c. 
At the Mortara station this line is joined by another coming from Milan, 
on which the through trains from Milan to Genoa run: Fkom Milan to 
Genoa, 104V2 M., in 5-7V2 hrs.; fares 17 fr. 30, 12 fr. 10, 8 fr. 70 c. (Rail- 
way by Voghera, see R. 24.) 

6 M. Borgo-Tieino; 8 M. Varallo-Pombia; 13 M. Oleggio (to 
the right a fine glimpse of the Monte Rosa chain). The line tra- 
verses a flat district. — 15'/2 M. BeUinzago. 

23 M. Novara (p. 70), where the Arona-Genoa line intersects 
that from Milan to Turin (R. 10); from Novara to Turin. 2V4-4 hrs. 

31 M. Vespolate; 831/2^. Borgo-Lavezzaro. — 39 M. Mortara, 
a town with 7800 inhabitants. The church of S. Lorenzo contains 
several pictures by Ciespi, Lanini, Procaccini, and Gaud. Ferrari 
(Madonna with SS. Rochus and Sebastian). — To the right and 
left are numerous fields of rice , which are laid under water dur- 
ing two months in the year , intercepted here and there by maize 
fields and mulberry trees. 

At Mortara a direct line to Milan diverges. From Milan to Mobtara, 
32V2 M., in 1-13/4 hr. (fares 6fr., 4fr. 20, 3fr. 5c.). Stations Corsico, 
Gagyiano , and Abbiategmsso. Crossing the Ticino , the train reaches 
Vigevano (Albergo Reale), with 19,500 inhab., a town of some importance 
in the silk-trade, and possessing a spacious market-place surrounded by 
arcades. Then (32'/2 M.) Mortara, see above. 

41 M. Olevano; 451/2 M. Valle; 47 M. Sartirana; 51 M. 
Torre-Beretti (railway to Pavia, see p. 165). 

To the left the long chain of the Apennines forms a blue line 
in the distance. The line crosses the Po by means of a bridge of 
twenty-one arches. 

MONTE MOTTERONE. 23. Route. 159 

531/2 M. Valenza, a town with 10,200 inhab., formerly fortified, 
containing a catliedral of the 16th cent, (route to Pavia, see p. 165 ; 
to Vercelli, see p. 70). — ■ The train next passes through a tunnel 
11/3 M. in length. — 571/2 M. Val Madonna; several pictur- 
esquely situated small towns lie on the chain of hills to the right. 
The Tanaro is then crossed. 

631/2 M. Alessandria; thence to Genoa, see pp. 73, 74. 

23. From Stresa to Varallo. 
Monte Motterone. Lake of Orta. 

Three days suffice for a visit to this district , which , though seldom 
visited, is one of the most beautiful of the S. Alps. Travellers from the 
Simplon (R. 3) should , after visiting the Borromean Islands , begin this 
excursion at Stkesa (p. 156) and terminate it at Arona. From Stresa or 
Isola Bella by the Motterone to Orta 9, from Orta (or rather from Pella) 
to Varallo 41/2 bra. walking; from Varallo to Arona 5, to Novara 6 hrs. 

A Guide (to the summit of Monte Motterone 5-6, to Orta 8 fr.; donkey 
and attendant to Orta 12 fr. and fee) can hardly be dispensed with. Mules 
at Orta at high charges. — The ascent of the Motterone is fatiguing , as 
the descent must be made the same day , hut presents no difficulty and 
is very attractive. 

The Lago Maggiore is separated from the Lake of Orta by a long 
mountain ridge, which is crossed by a footpath from (Stresa (p. 156) 
in 5-6 hrs. via Gignese, Cairo, and Armeno (where the high road is 
reached) to Orta (see below). — Farther to the N. this mountain 
culminates in the grassy Monte Mottekone. The path from Stresa 
(guide desirable , see above) ascends opposite the Isola Bella , at 
first through a chestnut grove ; then, above the village of Someraro, 
over fern-clad and grassy slopes , passing several chalets shaded by 
lofty trees, and leading to the W. to a small church, where it turns 
to the right. Thence to the summit 1 hr. more. 

The extensive prospect commanded by the summit of * Monte 
Motterone (4891 ft.) , or Margozzolo, which may be called the Rigi 
of the S. Alps, embraces the entire amphitheatre of mountains from 
Monte Rosa to the Ortler in the Tyrol. A panorama may be bought 
at Stresa or Orta for 31/2 fr- 

To the right of Monte Rosa appear the snow-mountains of Monte Moro, 
Pizzo di Bottarello, Simplon, Monte Leone, Gries, and St. Gotthard; farther 
E. the conical Stella above Chiavenna, and the long, imposing ice-range 
of the Bernina, which separates 1bc Val Bregaglia from the Valtellina. 
At the spectator's feet lie seven diilcrent lakes, the Lake of Orta, Lago di 
Mergozzo, Lago Maggiore, Lago di Munate, Lago di Comabbio, Lago di Bian- 
drone , and Lago di Varese; farther to the right stretch the extensive 
plains of Lombardy and Piedmont, in the centre of which rises the lofty 
cathedral of Milan. The Ticino and the Sesia meander like silver threads 
through the plains, and by a singular optical delusion frequently appear 
to traverse a lofty tableland. The simultaneous view of the Isola Madre 
in Lago Maggiore and the Isola S. Giulio in the Lake of Orta has a re- 
markably picturesque efl'ect. — The mountain itself consists of a number 
of barren summits, studded with occasional chalets, shaded by trees. At 
its base it is encircled by chestnut-trees , and the foliage and luxuriant 

1 60 Route 23. ORTA. From Stresa 

vegetation of the landscape far and wide impart a peculiar charm to the 

In descending from Monte Motterone to Orta we soon reach a 
broad bridle-path, which (guide now unnecessary) leads in2i/2hrs. 
to Armeno (Inn) , situated on the high road. We now follow the 
road to (2M.) Mlasino, and (l^/oM.) to RonchetWs Pension (Posta), 
near which a path ascends to the right in 10 min. to the Sacro Monte 
(see below), and (3/4 M.) Orta. 

Orta (1220 ft. ; *Hdtel S. Giulio, in the market-place and on the 
lake, R. & A. 31/2, D- 4:7-2 fr- 5 Leon cCOro, also on the lake; Due 
Spade , at the back of the piazza , on the road to the Sacro Monte ; 
one-horse carr. to Gravellona 8fr.), a small town, with narrow 
streets paved with marble slabs, and a handsome villa of the Mar- 
quis Natta of Novara (at the S. entrance) , is most picturesquely- 
situated on a promontory extending into the Lake of Orta at the 
base of a precipitous cliif. On the lake (1^/4 M. in breadth, 71/2 M. 
in length), which of late has been officially called Zayo Cusio, after 
its ancient name, a steamer plies thrice daily, touching to the S. of 
Orta , at the station of Buccione (whence an omnibus runs to the 
Gozzano railway station, p. 71), and on the N. proceeding by Pella 
(see below), Pettenasco, Konco, and Oira to Omegna at the N. end 
of the lake. From Buccione to Omegna in II/2 tr., fare 1 fr. 20 c. 

Above Orta rises the Sacro Monte (ascent from the principal piazza, or 
through the garden of the Villa Natta, on which route a fee is expected for 
the opening of the upper gate) , a beautifully wooded eminence , laid out 
as a park, on which 20 chapels were erected in the 16th cent, in honour 
of S. Francis of Assisi, each containing a scene from the life of the saint. 
The life-size tigures are composed of terracotta, highly coloured, with a 
background al fresco; as a whole, though destitute of artistic worth, the 
representations are spirited and effective. The best groups are in the 
i3th, 16th, and 20th chapels, the last representing the canonization of the 
saint and the assembly of cardinals. The 'Tower on the summit of the 
hill commands an admirable panorama; the snowy peak of Monte Rosa rises 
to the W. above the lower intervening mountains. The '■Eremita del Monte'' 
expects a fee of 1 fr., for showing the above-mentioned three chapels. 

Opposite Orta rises the rocky island of S. Giulio, covered with 
trees and groups of houses (boat there and back 1 fr.; also steamboat 
station). The Church , founded by St. Julius , who came from 
Greece in 379 to convert the inhabitants of this district to Christian- 
ity, has been frequently restored; it contains several good reliefs, 
some ancient frescoes, a handsome pulpit in the Romanesque style, 
and in the sacristy a Madonna by Gaudenzio Ferrari. 

On the W. bank of the lake , opposite the island , the white 
houses of the village of Pella (small Cafe) peep from the midst of 
vineyards and groves of chestnut and walnut-trees. Boat from Orta 
to Pella Ifr. with one rower; steamboat, see above). 

A path towards the S. winds upwards from Pella, through a grove of 
chestnut and fruit trees , in I'/'i hr. to the Madonna del Sasso, the pictur- 
esque church of the village of Boletto. An open space by the church, on 
the brink of a precipice several hundred feet above the lake , commands 
a fine prospect. 

to Varallo. VARALLO. 23. Route. 161 

From Pella over the Colma to Varallo 5 hrs. (donkey 7, or, to 
the Colma only, 81/2 fr.; guide unnecessary). A steep path ascends 
the hill to the W., traversing luxuriant gardens (vines, figs, pump- 
kins , and fruit-trees] ; after 12 min. we avoid the ascent to the 
right. In 1 hr. (from Pella) we reach Arola, at a small chapel 
beyond which we must again avoid the ascent to the right ; the path 
pursues a straight direction and soon descends. The PeUino, a moun- 
tain-torrent , descending from the Colma, forms (5 min.) a pictur- 
esque waterfall. Beautiful retrospective views of the lake. The path 
now ascends through a shady wood , between disintegrated blocks 
of granite which crumble beneath the touch, to the Col di Colma 
(21/2 hrs. from Pella), a ridge connecting Monte Pizzigone with 
Monte Ginistrella. The prospect of the Alps is beautiful, embrac- 
ing Monte Rosa , the lakes of Orta and Varese , and the plain of 
Lombardy. The whole route is attractive. In descending on the 
W. side (to the right) the traveller overlooks the fruitful Val Sesia, 
with its numerous villages. The path, again traversing groves of 
chestnut and walnut-trees, carpeted with turf and wild-flov/ers, 
now leads through the ValDuggia to (Ihr.) Civiasco and (1 hr.) — 

Varallo (1515 ft. ; *Jtalia ^- Posta; *Croce Bianca, moderate; 
Falcone Nero) , the principal village (3100 inhab.) in the valley of 
the Sesia, a stream rising on the Monte Rosa , and one of the chief 
tributaries of the Po , into which it flows beyond Casale (p. 70), 
but frequently dry in summer. A bridge with three arches crosses 
the river. The old town and the Sacro Monte are very picturesque 
when seen through the arches of the bridge. — The collegiate 
church contains an altar-piece representing the Nuptials of St. Ca- 
tharine by Gaudenzio Ferrari, who was born here in 1484 (d. 1549 ; 
p. 59). The churches of *S. Maria delle Grazie (in the choir), 
S. Maria di Loreto, and S. Marco also contain frescoes by this mas- 
ter (those in the last being of his earlier period). 

The *Sacro Monte, the object of numerous pilgrimages, rises in the 
immediate vicinity of the town. It is attained in '/4 hr. by a path shaded 
by beautiful trees, but the enjoyment is somewhat marred by the im- 
portunities of beggars. The summit, surmounted by a chapel and crucifix, 
commands a magnificent view of the surrounding mountains towering one 
above another. Besides the church there are a great number of Chapels 
or Oratories on the summit and slopes of the Sacro Monte, many of them 
buried among the trees, containing scenes from the life of the Saviour, in 
terracotta, with life-size figures arranged in groups. Each chapel is devoted 
to a different subject; the 1st, for example, to the Fall, the 2nd to the 
Annunciation, and so on to the 46th , containing the Entombment of the 
Virgin. Some of the frescoes by Pellegrino Tibaldi and Gaudenzio Ferrari 
are worthy of inspection. This '■Nuova Gerusalemme net Sacro Monte di 
Varallo'' was founded by Bernardino Caloto , a Milanese nobleman , with 
the sanction of Pope Innocent VIII. As a resort of pilgrims, it did not 
come into vogue until after the visits of Cardinal Borromeo (p. 157) in 1578 
and 1584, from which period most of the chapels date. 

Varallo is admirably adapted as head-quarters for excursions 
to the neighbouring valleys , which are very attractive and easily 
accessible (comp. Baedekers Switzerland). 

Baedekek. Italy I. 5th Edit. H 

162 Route 24. CERTOSA DI PAVIA. From Milan 

A carriage-road (^omnibus twice daily) descends the picturesque 
valley of the Sesia to (G M.) Borgo Sesia, (7^/2 M.) Romagnano 
(Posta); then, quitting the Val Sesia, by Sizzano, Fara, and Briona 
to Novara (p. 70). 

24. From Milan to Voghera (Genoa) by Pavia. 
Certosa di Favia. 

110 M. Railway in 6-8 hrs.; fares 20fr. 10, 14fr. 10, lOfr. 10c. (to 
Pavia only, 22V2 M., in 1 hr. ; fares 4fr. 10, 2fr. 85, 2fr. 5 c.). No ex- 
press-trains between Milan and Genoa, except on the Vigevano, Alessandria, 
and Genoa line, see p. 158. 

A visit to the Certosa and the town of Pavia may be conveniently com- 
bined with the journey to Genoa by taking the early train to the Certosa, 
visiting Pavia in the afternoon, and proceeding to Alessandria in the 
evening. The striking scenery of the Apennines on the line between Novi 
and Genoa should, if possible, be traversed by daylight. 

Those who desire to visit both the Certosa and Pavia from Milan are 
recommended to take a return-ticket to Pavia, alight at the station Certosa 
di Pavia, walk to the (V4 hr.) Certosa, return to the Certosa station, pro- 
ceed thence to Pavia (new ticket necessary, 90 or 60c.), inspect the town 
(in about 3 hrs.), and return direct to Milan. — One-horse carriage from 
Pavia to the Certosa 4-5 fr., there and back 6fr., a pleasant journey of 
50 min., skirting a canal. 

Milan , see p. 116. The train to Pavia at first follows the Pia- 
cenza line, and then diverges to the S.W. before stat. Rogoredo is 
reached. The country is flat; underwood and rice-llelds are tra- 
versed alternately. — 91/2 M. Locate; I2V2 M. Villamaggiore. 

On the road , to the W. of the line , lies Binasco , a small town with 
an ancient castle, in which, on 13th Sept., 1418, the jealous and tyrannical 
Duke Fil. Maria Visconti caused his noble and innocent wife Beatrice 
di Tenda (p. 108) to be executed. 

171/2 M. Gv.inzano, or Stazione delta Certosa (Osteria deila ' 
Stazione , tolerable) , whence we follow the path planted with 
willows, and skirt the long garden-wall of the monastery towards 
the right (walk of 1/4 hr.). A visit to the Certosa occupies l>/2 hr. 
(fee of 1 fr. to the 'sagrestano'). 

The *Certosa di Pavia , or Carthusian monastery, the splendid 
memorial of the Milan dynasties (p. 116), founded in 1396 by Gian 
Galeazzo Visconti, and suppressed under Emperor Joseph II., was 
restored to its original destination in 1844 and presented to the 
Carthusians, a few of whom were left here after the recent sup- 
pression of the Italian monasteries for the sake of control and the 
guidance of visitors. A vestibule, embellished with sadly damaged 
frescoes by Bern. Luini (SS. Sebastian and Christopher), leads to a 
large inner court, at the farther end of which rises the celebrated 
facade of the church. 

The **Facade , begun in 1473 by Ambrogio Borgognone , is 
perhaps the most masterly creation of its kind of the 15th century. 
Its design, independent of the antique orders of architecture, is in 
the graduated Lombard-llomanesque style of church-fronts, with 

to Genoa. CERTOSA DI PA VIA. 24. Route. 163 

projecting pillars and transverse arcades, -wMle within these well- 
deflned structural features it embraces a wonderful and judiciously 
distributed wealth of ornament (Burckhardt). Thirty of the most 
distinguished Lombard masters from the 15th to the 17th cent, 
have had a share in its embellishment, the most eminent of whom 
are: Ant. Amadeo uni Andr. Fusina (15th cent.); Giacomo delta 
Porta and Agostino Busti, surnamed II Bambaja (p. 126, to whom 
the principal portal is ascribed), and Cristoforo Solari, surnamed 
IL Gobbo. This is unquestionably the finest decorative work of the 
kind in N. Italy, although inferior to the facades of the cathedrals 
of Orvieto and Siena, especially as the upper part is wanting. 

The body of the church, begun in 1396 by Marco di Campione 
in the Gothic style, consists of a nave with aisles and 14 chapels, 
and is surmounted by a dome, borne by ten slender columns. The 
Interior (to which ladies are now admitted) is sumptuously and 
tastefully fitted up. The handsome coloured enrichments were 
probably designed by Borgognone , and the pavement of modern 
mosaic is also worthy of notice. 

The Chapels and altars are richly adorned with valuable columns 
and precious stones. 2nd Chapel on the right: good altar-piece in six 
sections by Macrino d'Alba (1496); 4th Chapel on the right, Crucifixion 
by Ambrogio Borgognone; 5th Chapel on the right, St. Sirus with four 
saints, by the same. The 2nd Chapel on the left (counting from the en- 
trance) formerly contained a picture by Perugino in six sections, of which 
the central part, above, representing *God the Father, is alone original, 
the other parts being now in France and England. The other frescoes and 
paintings by Borgognone, Procaccini, Ouercino , Bianchi, Crespi, father and 
son, and others are of no great value. 

The transept and choir are separated from the rest of the church by 
a beautiful Screen of iron and bronze. Right Transept : magnificent '-'Monu- 
ment of Giangaleazzo Visconti, designed in 1490 by Galeazzo Pellegrini, but 
executed chiefly by Antonio da Amadeo and Giacomo della Porta , and not 
completed till 1562. Left Transept : Monuments of Lodovico Moro and 
his wife -Beatrice d'Este (d. 1497), by Crist. Solari. — The *Choir con- 
tains a fine altar with carving of the 16th century. The *Choir-stalls are 
adorned with figures of apostles and saints, from drawings by Borgognone. 
The four handsome bronze candelabra in front of them are by Libera 
Fontana. The old sacristy to the left of the choir contains a beautifully 
carved ivory altar-piece in upwards of 60 sections by Leonardo degli Ubriachi 
of Florence (16th cent.). 

The door to the right of the choir, handsomely framed in marble, 
leads to the Lavatorio, which contains a richly adorned fountain and 
(on the left) the Madonna and child in fresco by Bern. Luini. To the right 
of the lavatory is a small burial-place. 

The Sagrestia Nuova , or Oratorio , is entered from the S. end of 
the transept: *Altar-piece, an Assumption \>y Andrea Solario , but the 
upper part is said to have been painted by GiuUo Campi of Cremona. 
Over the door. Madonna enthroned, by Bart. Montagna; the side pictures 
by Borgognone. 

The front part of the -Cloisters (della Fontana) possesses slender 
marble columns and charming decorations in terracotta. Fine view hence 
of the side of the church and the right transept with its trilateral end. The 
Refectory is also situated here. — Around the large Cloisters , farther 
back , are situated the 24 small houses occupied by the few remaining 
monks, each consisting of three rooms with a small garden. 

The battle of Pavia, at which Francis I. of France was taken 


164 Route 24. PA VIA. From Milan 

prisoner hy Lannoy, a general of Charles V., took place near the 
Certosa on 24th Feb. 1525. 

22'/2 M. Pavia, junction of different lines (see pp. 165, 166). 

Pavia. — Ckoce Bianca, E. 2, omnibus V^fr. ; Lombahdia-, Pozzo, 
near the bridge over the Ticino; Tke Re. — Ca/i Demetrio, Corso Vittorio 

Cab per drive 80 c., per hour I'/'ifr. — Omnibus to the town 25 c. 
Pavia, with 28,100 inhab., capital of the province of the same 
name, situated near the confluence of the Ticino and the Po, the 
Ticinum of the ancients, subsequently Papla, was also known as 
the Cittcl di Cento Torri from its numerous towers, of which only a 
few still exist. In the middle ages it was the faithful ally of the 
German emperors, until it was subjugated by the Milanese, and it 
is still partly surrounded by the walls and fortifications of that 
period. At the N. end of the town is situated the Castle, erected 
by the Visconti in 1360-69, now used as a barrack. 

Leaving the railway-station, we enter the Corso Cavour (PI. 
A, 4) through the Porta Borgorato or Marengo (in a wall to the 
right is the statue of a Roman magistrate), and following the Via 
S. Giuseppe to the right reach the Piazza del Duomo. 

The Cathedral (PI. 4; B, 4), rising on the site of an ancient 
basilica, begun in accordance with a design by Bramante, and con- 
tinued by Cristoforo Eocchi in 1486, but never completed, is a vast 
circular structure with four arms. 

In the Interior, on the right, is the sumptuous "Area di S. Agostino, 
adorned with 290 figures (of saints, and allegorical), begun, it is supposed, 
in 1362 by Bonino da Campiglione , by whom the figures on the tombs of 
the Scaliger family at Verona (p. 189) were executed. To the right 
of the entrance is a wooden model of the church as originally projected. 
The gateway to the left of the church is in the late-Romanesque 
style. Adjoining it rises a massive Campanile, begun in 1583. 

"We may now proceed to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, a street 
intersecting the town in a straight direction from N. to S., from the 
Porta di Milano to the Porta Ticinese , and leading to the covered 
Bridge (14th cent. ; a pleasant promenade with picturesque view) 
over the Ticino, which is here navigated by barges and steamboats. 
A chapel stands on the bridge, halfway across. 

S. MiCHELE (PI. 7; B, 5), to which the third side-street to the 
right leads (coming from the bridge), a Romanesque church errone- 
ously ascribed to the Lombard kings, belongs to the latter part of the 
11th cent., and is now undergoing restoration. The facade is adorned 
with numerous very ancient reliefs in sandstone, in ribbon-like 
stripes, and a curious gabled gallery. The nave and aisles are 
supported by eight pillars , from which rise double round arches. 
The short choir , under which there is a crypt, terminates in an 
apse. Over the centre of the transept rises a dome. The pillars 
of the nave bear traces of ancient frescoes. The interior has lately 
been restored. 

■eograph, Anstalt t 

GeofiTgLjilL Anat -r.'Wagii^r-u.I'efces.Xerpza^ 

to Genoa. PAVIA. 24. Route. 165 

The traveller may now ascend the Corso Vitt. Emanuele to the 
University (PL 31 ; B, 4), founded in 1361 on the site of a school 
of law, which had existed here since the 10th century. The build- 
ing is much handsomer than that of Padua ; the quadrangles of the 
interior are surrounded hy handsome arcades and embellished with 
numerous memorial-tablets, busts, and monuments of celebrated 
prjfessors and students. In the first court is a marble statue of the 
mathematician Antonio Bordoni (d. 1864), in the second a statue of 
Volta and three memorial reliefs of professors attended by students. 

The Corso next leads in a N. direction, past the Theatre, to the 
Castle mentioned at p. 164 (PI. C, 3), containing a handsome court 
of the 14th century. 

At the back of the university lies the Ospedale Civico, and 
farther E., in the Contrada Canepanova the church of S. Maria 
Incoronata di Canepanova (PI. 15; C, 4), a small dome -covered 
structure designed by Bramante (1492). — More to the N., at the 
corner of the Contrada del Collegio Germanico , is the Romanesque 
church of iS. Francesco (PI. 8; C, 4), dating from the 14th cent., 
with aisles and choir in the pointed style. In the vicinity stands 
the Collegio Ghislieri (PI. 18; C, 4), founded in 1569 by Pius V. 
(Ghislieri), a colossal bronze statue of whom has been erected in 
the piazza in front. On the E. side of the Piazza Ghislieri is the 
Instituto di Belle Arti, containing collections of natural history, 
antiquities, etc. 

In the Contrada del Gesu, to the W. of the university, to the 
right, is t\ie Jesuits Church (PI. 11 ; B, 4). — In the Contrada Ma- 
laspina is the Casa Malaspina, at the entrance to the court of which 
are busts of Boethius and Petrarch. The interior contains a small 
collection of engravings and paintings. 

Boethius, when confined here by the Emperor Theodoric, composed his 
work on the 'Consolation of Philosophy'', and Petrarch once spent an 
autumn here with his daughter and son-in-law. His grandson, who died 
at the Casa Malaspina, was interred in the neighbouring church of S. Zeno. 
A short poem of Petrarch in allusion to this event, in six Latin distiches, 
is one of the many inscriptions on the wall opposite the entrance. 

The Contrada del Gesu terminates in the Piazza del Carmine, 
in which is situated the church of S. Maria del Carmine (PI. 6), 
a brick edifice of fine proportions, flanked with chapels, and dating 
from 1375. 

The most interesting building in the S.E. part of the town is 
the Collegio Borromeo (PI. 16 ; C, 5, 6), with its beautiful court, 
founded by St. Carlo Borromeo in 1563 ; the vestibule is decorated 
with frescoes by Fed. Zuccari. 

From Pavia to Alessandria via Valenza , 4OV2 M., by railway in 
3 hrs. (fares 7fr. 40, 5fr. 20, 3fr. 75c.). The line crosses the Ticino and 
intersects the LomelUna, or broad plain of the Po, in a S.W. direction. 
Stations Cava-Cartonara, Zinasco, Pieve-Allignola , Sannazzaro , Ferrera, 
Lomello, Mede, Castellaro, Torre-Beretti, Valenza; see p. 158. Hence to 
Alessandria and Genoa, see p. 158, and pp. 70, 73, and 74. 

166 Route 25. CREMA. 

From Pavia to Brescia via Cremona, 771/2 M., railway in 5hrs. (fares 
14 fr. 5, 9fr. 85, 7fr. 5 c.)- — None of the stations are worthy of note 
except Cremona itself, but this line affords the most direct communication 
between Genoa and Verona (on the Brenner Railway). 

The line intersects the fertile plain watered by the Po and the Olona. 
Stations Motta San Damiano^ Belgiojoso, with a handsome chateau; near 
Corteolona the Olona is crossed. Then Miradolo ^ Chignolo on a small 
tributary of the Po, Ospedaletto, and Casalpusterlengo , where the line 
unites with that from Piacenza to Milan (R. 38). — 29'/2 M. Codogno pos- 
sesses large cheese manufactories ; the line to Piacenza diverges here to the 
S. (p. 266). Near Pizzig?ietlone, a fortified place, the Adda, which is here 
navigable , is crossed. This district is considered unhealthy. Stations 
Acquanegra and Cava Tigozzi. 

47 M. Cremona (see below) is a terminus , from which the train 
backs out. To Treviglio (Milan and Bergamo) and Mantua, see R. 25. 

From Cremona to Brescia the line proceeds due N., following the 
direction of the high road , through a flat district. Stations Olmeneta, 
Robecco-Pontevico, where the Oglio, a considerable affluent of the Po, is 
crossed. Verolanuova, Manerbio; then across the Mella to Bagnolo and 
S. Zeno Folzano. 

771/2 M. Brescia, see p. 172. 

From Pavia to Piacenza via Codogno (p. 266), 37'/2 M., railway in 
2 hrs., if no delay takes place in Codogno (fares 6 fr. 85, 4fr. 80, 3fr. 45 c.). 
Piacenza, see p. 266. 

From Patia to Voghera, 19 M., in 2/4 hr. (fares 3fr. 10, 2fr. 
20, Ifr. 60 c.). The train crosses the Ticino, the Po, and a small 
tributary of the latter. Stations Cava Manara , Bressana , Cal- 

Voghera^ and journey to Tortona, see p. 72 ; Novi, and jour- 
ney to Genoa, see p. 74. 

25. From Milan to Mantua via Cremona. 

100 M. Railway in 5-6 hrs.; fares ISfr. 20, 12fr. 75, 9fr. 20c. 

From Milan to (^20 M.) Treviglio, see p. 169. Our train diverges 
here from the main line to the S.E. — 241/0 M. Caravaggio, birth- 
place of the painter Michael Angelo Amerighi da Caravaggio (1569- 
1609), with the pilgrimage-church of the Madonna di Caravaggio. 
— 30 M. Casaletto- Vaprio. 

341/2 M. Crema, an industrial town (7800 inhab.), and episcopal 
residence , with an ancient castle. The Cathedral possesses a line 
Romanesque facade, and contains a St. Sebastian by Vine. Civerchio 
(at the second altar on the left). The church of S. Maria delle 
Grazie is adorned with interesting frescoes. — About 3/^ M. from 
the town stands the circular church of S. Maria della Croce, with 
effective subsidiary buildings in brick, built about 1490 by Oiov. 
Batt. Battagli of Lodl, a contemporary of Bramante. The interior, 
which is octagonal in form, is adorned with paintings by Campi. 

40 M. Castelleone; 45 M. Soresina; 50 1/2 M. Casalhultano ; 
541/2 M. Olmeneta ,• 61 M. Cremona, the station of which is outside 
the Porta Milanese. 

Cremona. — Sole d'Oro (PI. a), *Italia (Pi. b), both mediocre; 

CREMONA. 25. Route. 167 

Cappello (PI. c). — Cab per drive Vzfr-i tor V2 hr. 1 fr., for each additional 
V2 hr. 1/2 fr. 

Cremona, the capital of a province and an episcopal see, with 
26,500 inhab., lies in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Po. The 
spacious streets and piazzas bear testimony to its ancient importance. 

The original town was wrested by the Romans from the Gallic Ceno- 
mani and colonised by them at various periods , the first of which was 
at the beginning of the second Punic war (B.C. 218). It suffered seri- 
ously during the civil wars, and was several times reduced to ruins, but 
was restored by the Emp. Vespasian. The Goths and Lombards, especial- 
ly King Agilulf, as well as the subsequent conflicts between Guelphs 
and Ghibellines, occasioned great damage to the town. Cremona espoused 
the cause of Frederick Barbarossa against Milan and Crema, and after- 
wards came into the possession of the Visconti and of Francesco Sforza, 
after which it belonged to Milan. On 1st Feb., 1702, Prince Eugene 
surprised the French marshal Villeroi here and took him prisoner. In 
1799 also theAustrians defeated the French here. 

The manufacturers of the far-famed Violins and Violas of Cremona 
were Andr. and Ant. Amati (1590-1620), the two Guarneri (1552-80 and 
1717-40), and Stradivari (1670-1728). 

Cremona was the birthplace of Sofonisbe Angtissola (1535-1626), who, 
like her five sisters, practised the art of painting, and was highly esteemed 
by her contemporaries. She afterwards retired to Genoa, and even in her 
old age attracted the admiration of Van Dyck. In the 16th cent. Cremona 
possessed a school of art, of its own, which appears to have been inQuenced 
by Romanino especially, and also by Giulio Romano. 

In the Piazza Grande (PI. F, 4) rises the Torrazzo, a tower 
397 ft. in height, said to be the loftiest in Italy, erected in 1261- 
84, connected with the cathedral by a series of loggie. The snm- 
mit commands an extensive prospect. — Opposite the tower is 
the Gothic *Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 12") of 1245 (restored), containing 
a few pictures by masters of the Cremona school, and a richly 
decorated chimney-piece in marble by G". C. Pedone (1502). Ad- 
jacent is the *Palazzo de' GiureconsuUi, of 1292, now a school. 

The *Cathedral (PL 3; F, 4), of 1107, in the German-Lombard 
style, has a rich fa(;-ade embellished with columns. 

The Interior with its aisles and transept, also flanked with aisles, 
is covered with frescoes executed by various representatives of the school 
of Cremona, such as Boccaccino (1500), father and son, and the later masters 
Campi, AUobello, Bembo, and Gatti. On the left wall : above the first four 
arches of the nave, Boccaccino the Elder, Life of the Virgin, depicted in 
eight scenes ; 51h arch, Bonifazio Bembo, The Magi, and Presentation in 
the Temple; beyond the organ, Altobello di Melone, Flight into Egypt, and 
Massacre of the Innocents; above the last arch, Boccaccino, Christ teaching 
in the Temple. The colossal figures in the apse are also by Boccaccino. 
Right wall, above the arches : Altobello, Last Supper, Christ washing the 
feet of the Disciples, Christ on the Mount of Olives, Christ taken by the 
soldiers, Christ before Caiaphas ; above the 4th arch, Cristoforo Moretto 
Cremonese, Christ led out to be crucified. Scourging of Christ; 5th arch, 
Romanino, Crown of Thorns, Ecce Homo; above the last three arches, 
towards the facade, 'Pordenone's three celebrated Passion Scenes , Christ 
before Pilate, Christ and Veronica, Christ nailed to the Cross. On the 
front wall are a colossal Crucifixion and Entombment by Pordenone. — 
The two pulpits are embellished with important Lombardic reliefs, taken 
from an old altar, and ascribed to Amadeo. 

In the vicinity are the octa.gona\ Battistero (PL 1 ; F, 4) of 1167, 
and the Cnmpo Santo (PL 2), with curious and very ancient 

168 Boute 25. CREMONA. 

mosaics ; among these are Hercules and Nessus ; Piety wounded by 
Cruelty ; Faith tearing out the tongue of Discord, etc. (entrance 
to the right of the cathedral , No. 10). 

From the Palazzo Pubblico to the W. the Contrada Ariberti 
leads to the Palazzo Reale (formerly 4Za di Ponzone), which contains 
natural history and other collections, a cabinet of coins, and a few 
pictures (open daily 9-3 , except Sundays). Farther up the Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele, in the second cross-street to the left, is the 
richly painted church of S. Pietro al Ph (PI. 10; D, E, 5), designed 
by Ripari in 1549-70, and containing pictures by Ant. Campi, Bern. 
Oattl, and others. — We then return by the Contrada Bassa to 
S. Ayostino e Giacomo in Braida (PI. 6 ; D, 3) of the 14th cent., 
with paintings by Perugino (6th chapel on the right , *Madonna 
and two saints, 1494) and Galeazzo Campi. 

We next walk through the Contrada S. Margherita (passing on 
the right the small church of that name, built and embellished 
with paintings by Giulio Campi) to the Piazza Garibaldi (PI. C, 
D, 2) with the church ofS. Ayata (PI. 5 ; choir adorned with earlier 
and better frescoes by Giulio Campi'), whence the Corso di Porta 
Milano leads in a N.W. direction to the gate of that name and to 
the station. 

Among the numerous handsome palaces of Cremona may be 
mentioned the Pal. S. Secondo, the Palazzo Crotti (formerly Rai- 
mondi) , containing sculptures by Pedone , the Pal. Stanga a S. 
Vicenzo, and the Palazzo Dati (now part of the large hospital), 
with its fine court and staircase. 

About IV2 M. to the E. of the town, not far from the Mantua road, 
is the church of S. Sigismondo, containing frescoes and pictures by Campi., 
Boccaccino, and other Cremona masters; "Altar-piece by Giulio Campi, re- 
presenting the Madonna with saints, and below, Francesco Sforza and his 
wife, the founders of the church. — Near the village of Le Torri lies the 
beautiful Villa Sacerdoti. 

From Cremona to Brescia or Pavia, see p. 166. 

From Cremona to Piacenza (diligence daily in 5 hrs.). The road inter- 
sects the plain on the right bank of the Po, after having crossed the river 
with its numerous islands, and leads by Monticelli, S. Nazzaro, and Caorso, 
where the river formed by the Chiavenna and Riglio is crossed. Near Rou- 
carjlia we cross the Niire and soon reach Piacema (p. 266) to the W. 

66 M. Villetta-Malagnino ; 70 M. Gazzo and Pieve S. Giacomo; 
75 M. Torre de' Picenardi; 79 M. Piadena ; 81 M. Bozzolo , with 
4400 inhab. and an old castle belonging to the Gonzaga family. 
Before reaching (88 M.) Marcaria, a town with 8800 inhab., the 
train crosses the Oglio. — 931/2 M. Casteliucchio. 

About 2^/2 M. to the E. of Casteliucchio, and 5 M. from Mantua, is 
situated the church of S. Maria delle Orazie, founded in 1399, a famous 
resort of pilgrims, and containing a number of curious votive oITerings in 
the form of life-si/.e figures in wa.v, bearing the names of 'Charles V\ 'Fer- 
dinand I', 'Pope I'ius II', the 'Connetable de Bourbon', and others. Also 
a few monuments. 

The train now crosses the Mincio. — 100 M. Mantua, see 
p. 194. 

N in .Si * in M in in c^ 

i ri -if t>i pi N M N 

! rJ P t/' ti S o .y 

-s e ; s- P c N 

1^- i '-^ 4 1 1 

-J CM C -< ■'5 tc f- 

26. From Milan to Bergamo. 

32 M. Railway in IV4 lir. (fares 5fi-. 90, 4fr. 15, 2fr. 95 c.)- Finest 
views to the left. 

Milan, see p. 116. — 7 M. Limito ; 12 M. Melzo. At (16 M.) 
Cassano, a considerable village, with a number of palatial looking 
bouses, the train crosses the blue Adda. 20 M. Treviglio (branch- 
line to Cremona, see II. 25 ; direct line to Verona, see p. 171). 
26 M. Verdello; 321/2 M. Bergamo. 

Bergamo. — Hotels. 'Albekgo d'Italia , B. from 2, B. li/->ir.; 
Cappello d'Oko, unpretending. — Trattoria Giardineiio, by the Porta S. 
Agostino, with garden and view. Caffi Centrale. — Cabs: 2V2fr. per hour. 

Bergamo (1246 ft.), the ancient Bergomum, which belonged to 
the republic of Venice from 1428 to 1797, is now a provincial 
capital with 36,000 inhab., and one of the busiest of the smaller 
trading and manufacturing towns in Italy. The once far-famed fair 
(Fiera di S. Alessandro, lasting from the middle of August to the 
middle of September) has now lost its importance. The town con- 
sists of two distinct parts, the old and the new. The New Town 
(Borgo S. Leonardo and Borgo S. TomasoJ, with its woollen, silk, 
and other manufactories, the Corso, the interesting piazza where 
the fair is held , the new Prefettura , and a recently completed 
Protestant church, lies in the plain. 

The Old Town (Citta) , beautifully situated on the hills and 
containing many interesting houses of the early and late Renaissance, 
is connected with the lower town by the Strada Vittorio Emanuele. 
The Promenade affords a fine view of the richly cultivated plain 
and the beautiful amphitheatre formed by the surrounding 
mountains, particularly those to the N.E. The Castle (PI. A, 1), 
rising on the hill to the N.W. above the town, commands a still 
finer prospect. 

In the market-place (I1/4 M. from the railway-station), now 
the Piazza Garibaldi, is situated the Palazzo Nuovo (PL 8; C, 2), 
the seat of the municipal authorities , erected in the Renaissance 
style by Scamozzi, but unfinished. Opposite to it is the library in 
the Gothic Palazzo Vecchio , or Broletto , the ground-floor of which 
consists of an open hall supported by pillars and columns. Near it 
are the Monument of Torquato Tasso (whose father Bernardo was 
born at Bergamo in 1493), and a handsome fountain. 

At the back of the'Broletto rises the church of S.Maria Maggiore 
(PL 6; B, C, 2, 3), erected in 1173 in the Romanesque style, with 
ancient portals supported by lions on the N. and S. sides. Adjoin- 
ing the N. portal is the rich Renaissance facade of the chapel of 
the Colleoni. 

The Interior (entrance on the S. side) contains some ancient pictures, 
fine *Carved work on the choir stalls by the Bergamasque Giov. Franc. 
Capo Ferralo, and admirable inlaid wood (intarsia) by Fra Damiano. This 
church also contains the monument of the celebrated composer Donizetti 

1 70 Route 26. BERGAMO. 

of Bergamo (d. 1S48) , by Vine Vela, and, opposite, that of his teacher 
Giov. Simone Mayr (d. 1845). — The facade of the adjoining 'Cappella 
CoUeoni (shown by the sagrestano of the church), in the early Renaissance 
style, is lavishly adorned with coloured marbles and sculpturing. In the 
interior, which has been much altered, is the monument of the founder 
Bartolommeo Colleoni (d. 1475; p. 255), by G. Ant. Amadeo , which is 
deservedly considered one of the best Renaissance sculptures in Lombardy. 
The reliefs represent the Bearing of the Cross, Crucifixion, and Descent 
from the Cross; below runs a frieze of Cupids, above which are the An- 
nunciation, the "Nativity, and the Magi; and on the summit is the gilded 
equestrian statue of Colleoni; adjacent, the much smaller, but beautifully 
e.xecuted monument of his daughter Medea. Above the altar, to the right, 
are some fine sculptures ; to the left, a Holy Family by Angelica Knnfmann. 

The adjoining Cathedral (PI. C, 2, 3) was built from the designs 
of C. Fontana in the second half of the 17th cent., on the site of 
an earlier edifice. At the first altar to the left is a Madonna and 
saints hy O. B. Moroni, a pupil of Moretto; the choir contains a 
Madonna hy Savoldo. The adjacent Baptistery, a Renaissance 
structure, is best viewed from the passage leading to the sacristy, 
in which are three pictures by Lorenzo Lotto. 

On the slope of the hill, in the street leading to the lower town, 
is situated the Accademia Carrara (PI. 11 ; E, 2), a school of art 
containing a picture-gallery (Pinacoteca Lochis ; open to the public 
daily from 30th Aug. to 18th Sept. ; during the rest of the year on 
the 1st Sun. and 3rd Thurs. of each month ; shown at other 
times on application to the custodian). 

I. Room: 4. Giov. Bellini, Pieta; 19. Cosimo Tuva, Madonna; 28. Ve- 
lazquez, Portrait. — II. R. : 69. Vif(. Carpaccio, Birth of the Virgin ; 79. 
Leandro Bassano, Monk praying; 95. Moretto, Holy Family; 97. Paolo 
Veronese, St. Christina; 75. Civetta, St. Christopher. — III. R. : 200. Man- 
tegna (?), Resurrection; 218. Bart. Vivarini, Madonna; 204. Basaiti, Por- 
trait; 205. Caroto, Adoration of the Magi; 213. Boltraffio, Madonna; 212. 
Buonconsiglio, St. Sebastian ; 194. Crivelli, Madonna ; 209. Barthol. Venetus, 
Madonna; 210. Giot>. Bellini, Ma.iojinn; 192. Mantegna, Portrait, a late work; 
='190. B. Luini, Madonna; 187. Giorgione (? probably of Romanino's school). 
Portrait; 146. Girolamo da Santacroce, Madonna and saints; 166. Zenale, 
St. Ambrose,- '154. Loi: Lotto, Adoration of the Infant Christ, painted 
about 1531 (one of the most enticing and dainty pictures of the master, 
almost unexcelled for its treatment of textures of all shades and sub- 
stances. — C. <t-C.); 146. A. Previtali, Madonna; 156. -Palma Vecchio, Ma- 
donna with the Jlagdalene and .lohn the Baptist; 161, 165. Cariatii, St. 
Catharine and St. Stephen; 128. Cima (?), Six saints; '135 Raphael (?), St. 
Sebastian (with clothes, contrary to the tradition); this interesting picture 
is supposed to be an early work of Raphael , but is more probably by 
Eiisebio di S. Giorgio, a pupil of Perugino; 104. Fr. Francia, Bearing of 
the Cross; -"106. Diirer, Same subject in grisaille, with lights in white. — 
(tAlleria Cakkara: I. R.: Inditferent pictures. — II. R.: 222. Lor. Lotto, 
Marriage of St. Catharine; 201. Bonifacio, The Magi. — III. R., on the 
right: 237. A. Palmezzano, Presentation in the Temple; 128. Previtali, Ma- 
donna; '187. Mantegna, Madonna. In the last Room: Bronzino, Last Supper. 

The eminent painter Lorenzo Lotto (b. after 1480 ; d. at Loreto 
Iftni), whose style is closely analogous to that of the Venetian 
school, was probably a native of Bergamo. Good examples of his 
works are possessed by the churches of "Sf. Bernardino (high altar- 
piece of 1521), -S. Bartolommeo (in the choir, 1506), ^<f. Michele 
Arcanyelo or Pozzo Bianco (Visitation, fresco above the door of a 

PESCHIERA. 27. Route. 171 

chapel), and S. Spirito (Madonna enthroned with four saints, 1521). 
— The principal church of Alzano, a little to the N.E. of Bergamo, 
also contains a valuable painting by this master. 

From Lecco to Brescia via Bergamo. 

51 M. Railway in 3-3V2 hrs. ; fares 9fr. 30, 6fr. 50, 4fr. 65 c. 

Lecco, see p. 145. — 4 M. Calolzio, see p. 135; 9 M. Cisano; 
14 M. Mapello ; 16 M. Ponte S. Pietro, with a tasteful church and 
an old castle. The train now crosses the Brembo, which issues 
from the Valle Brembana. — 2O1/2 M. Bergamo. — Near (25 M.) 
Seriate, the <SerJo is crossed. 28 M. Oorlago; 31^/2 M. Grumello, 
beyond which the Oglio, descending from the Lago d'Iseo, is crossed. 

— 34 M. Palazzolo, where a branch-line diverges to Paratico 
(p. 177). Picturesque glimpse of the village in the valley to the 
left with its slender towers. — 39 M. Coccaglio, with the monastery 
of MonV Orfano on a height; 40 M. Rovato ; 44 M. Ospitnletto. 

— 51 M. Brescia, see p. 172. 

27. From Milan to Verona. 

94 M. Railway in 41/2-51/2 hrs. ; fares 17 fr. 10, 12 fr. 5, 8fr. 60 c. 

From Milan to (20 M.) Treviglio, junction for the lines to Cre- 
mona (p. 166) and Bergamo (p. 169), see p. 169. — 23 M. Vida- 
lengo. Beyond (251/2 M.) Morengo, the train crosses the Serio, a 
tributary of the Adda. 28 M. Romano ; 32 M. Calcio. The Oglio, 
which issues from the Lago d'Iseo, is now crossed. 861/2 M. Chiari, 
an old and industrious town of 9500 inhab., with a library. 40 M. 
Rovato, junction of the Bergamo and Brescia line described above. 
44 M. Ospitaletto. 

51 M. Brescia, see p. 172. 

The slopes near Brescia are sprinkled with villas. — 561/2 M. 
Rezzato, beyond which the Chiese is crossed ; 62 M. Ponte S. Marco. 
Beyond (66 M.) Lonato a short tunnel and a long cutting. 

A long viaduct now carries the line to (68 M.) Desenzano (p. 
180). The train affords an admirable survey of the Lago di Garda 
and the peninsula of Snrmione (p. 180). 

In this district, extending from the banks of the lake to a point 
considerably beyond Guidizzolo (on the road from Brescia to Mantua), tlie 
fiercely contested Battle op Solfekino was fought on 24th June, 1859, 
between the united French and Italian armies and the Austrians. The 
defeat of the latter led shortly afterwards to the Peace of Villafranca 
(p. 194). The village of Solferino (Inn , good red wine ; guides) lies on 
the heights to the S., about 5 M. from the railway; carriage from stat. 
Desenzano, there and back, 15 fr. 

771/2 M. Peschiera (station 2/4 M. from the town, comp. p. 183), 
with 2600 inhab., lies at the S.E. end of the Lago di Garda, at 
the efflux of the Mincio, which the train crosses. On 30th May, 
1848, the place was taken by the Piedmontese after a gallant 
defence by the Austrian General Rath (d. 1852). 

172 Route 28. BRESCIA. 

8O1/2 M. Castelnuovo ; 85 M. Somma-Campagna ; then S. Lu- 
cia (to the right a campanile covered with zinc) , a village which 
was gallantly defended by the 10th Austrian rifle battalion in 
1848. 92 M. Verona Porta Nuova. 94 M. Verona, see p. 186. 

28. Brescia. 

Hotels. *Albekgo d'Italia; Albebgo Reale, Fenice, in the Piazza 
del Duomo; Tokre di Londra; "Gambero, Piazza del Teatro, unpretend- 
ing, K. 2, I). 4, B. 1, omnibus Vzfr. ; Cappello. 

Cafes. Several adjacent to the theatre and in the Piazza del Duomo. — 
Beer at WiiltrerS, near the Porta Torlunga (PI. G,4). 

Cabs (Cittadine): 85 c. per drive, I'/afr. per hour. 

Railway from Brescia by Cremona to Pavia, see p. 166; to Bergamo 
and Lecco, see p. 171; to Verona and to Milan, see p. 171. 

Brescia (515 ft.), the ancient Brixia, which was conquered by 
the Gauls and afterwards became a Roman colony, vied with Milan 
at the beginning of the 16th cent, as one of the wealthiest cities 
of Lombardy, but in 1512 was sacked and burned by the French 
under Gaston de Foix, after an obstinate defence. Five years 
later it was restored to the dominions of Venice, to which it 
belonged till 1797, but it has never recovered its ancient impor- 
tance. On 1st April, 1849, the town was bombarded and taken by 
the Austrians under Haynau , and some of the buildings still bear 
traces of damage done on that occasion. 

Brescia is beautifully situated at the foot of the Alps, and its 
numerous fountains of limpid water lend it an additional charm. 
It is now a manufacturing place with 35,500 inhab., the capital of 
a province, and the residence of a bishop. Iron wares, and partic- 
ularly weapons (hence 'Brescia armata') form the staple com- 
modities, and a considerable number of the firearms used by the 
Italian army are made here. The woollen, linen, and silk manu- 
factories are also worthy of mention. 

Brescia occupies a place of no little importance in the history of art 
from having given birth to Alessandro Buonvicino, surnamed II Moretto 
(1498-1555), who appears to have studied exclusively at his native place, 
and whose teacher is said to have been Floriano Ferramola of Brescia. It 
has been asserted that he was influenced by Titian and the Roman scht)ol, 
but for this there is no reason. Like the Veronese masters, he is distin- 
guished from the Venetian school , with which he has generally been 
classed , hy the comparative soberness of his colouring ('subdued silvery 
tone'), notwithstanding which he vies with the Venetians in richness and 
brilliancy, while he sometimes reveals the possession in full degree of the 
ideality of the golden period of art. Buonvicino began his career as a 
painter in his 18th year. He rarely extended the sphere of his labours 
beyond his native place, and Brescia is therefore abundantly stored with 
his works. The churches here (such as S. Clemente, p. 175) display his 
fertility, both as a painter 'al fresco' and in oils, forming quite a museum 
of his" pictures. S. Giovanni Evangelista (p. 174), S. Nazaro c Celso 
(p. 176), and the Gallcria Tosio (p. 174) all contain admirable specimens 
of his powers. Another eminent master of the school of Brescia , and a 
contemporary of Buonvicino, was Oirol. Romanino (1485-1566). — Brescia 
also contains Several interesting antiquities (p. 175). 

From the station the town is entered at its S.W. corner by the 


-Sat.paqSs S 2iS?K 


■1^1 ^ 

ril I 


Broletto. BRESCIA. 28. Route. 173 

Porta S. Nazaro (PI. A, 6), whence the Corso Viitorio Emanuele leads 
N.E. to the Piazza Vecchia and the Piazza del Duomo. 

The *Duomo Nuovo (PI. 5 ; D, 4), or episcopal cathedral, begun 
in 1604 by Lattanzio Gamhara (but the dome not finally completed 
till 1825), is one of the best churches of its period. 

Intekior. By the first pillar on the right is the large *Monument of 
Bishop l?ava (d. 1831) , with groups in marble and a relief by Monti of 
Ravenna; by the first pillar on the left the monument of Bishop Ferrari. 
T he second altar on the right is adorned with modern statues in marble 
o f Faith by SeUtroni , and Hope , by Emamieli , and a modern painting, 
Christ healing the sick, by GregoleUi. Then (3rd altar on the right) a 
sarcophagus with small *High-reliefs, date about 1500, containing '■Corpora 
D. D. Apollonii et Philastri\ transferred hither in 1674 from the crypt of 
the old cathedral. — High altar-piece an Assumption by ZoboU, designed 
by Conca. In the dome the four Evangelists, high reliefs in marble. 

Passing through a door between the 2nd and 3rd altar, we 
descend by 25 steps to the Duomo Vecchio (PI. 6 ; D, 4), generally 
called La Rotonda, situated on the low ground to the S. of the 
Duomo Nuovo (shown by the sacristan of the new cathedral who 
lives at the back of the choir of the latter). This massive structure 
is circular, as its name imports, with a passage round it, surmount- 
ed by a dome , and resting on eight short pillars in the interior. 
The substructure is very ancient (9th cent.), while the dome and 
cupola (Romanesque) date from the 12th century. The transept 
and choir with lateral chapels at the back were added at a very 
early period. On both sides of the pulpit are statues by Alessandro 
Vittoria. At the second altar on the right is the monument of 
Bishop Lambertino (d. 1349) with reliefs. Altar-piece, an *As- 
sumption by Moretto (1526). — Below the dome is the crypt, or 
Basilica di S. Filastro, supported by 42 columns. 

Opposite the E. side of the Duomo Nuovo is the entrance to 
the *Biblioteca Quiriniana {Bihlioteca Comunale, PI. 19; D,4; fee 
1/2 fr-)> comprising 40,000 vols. , bequeathed to the town in 1750 
by Cardinal Quirini. Several curiosities are preserved in a sep- 
arate cabinet. (Admission daily, except "Wed. and Sund., 11-3, in 
winter 10-3; vacation from 24th Dec. to 1st Jan. and from 1st 
Oct. to 2nd Nov. ; closed on high festivals, and during the carnival.) 

A Book of the Gospels of the 9th cent, with gold letters on purple 
vellum; a Koran in 12 vols., adorned with miniatures and gilding; a 
'Cross 4 ft. in height ( Croce Magna), of gold, decorated with gems of 
different periods (Pegasus, Nymphs, Muses), and portraits of the Empress 
Galla Placidia and her children Honoria and Valentinian III., resembling 
modern miniatures, the whole a most valuable specimen of the work- 
manship of the 8th century. The Lipsanoteca, carved in ivory, a cross 
composed of the sides of an ancient reliquary, with scriptural scenes , of 
the 4th or 5th century. The Dittico Quiriniana, carved in ivory, presented 
by Pope Paul II., and other diptychs (ivory tablets with reliefs). An old 
Book of the Gospels, and a Harmony of the Gospels by Eusebius (10th 
cent.), with miniatures; a MS. of Dante on parchment, with miniatures; 
a Petrarch of 1470 with various illustrations CPetrarca figurctto'') and 
written annotations; a Dante with notes, printed at Brescia in 1487. 

The Broletto (PL 2; D, 3), adjoining the cathedral on the N., 

174 Route 28. BRESCIA. Palazzo Comunale. 

is a massive and spacious building of the 12tli cent. , but was 
afterwards so much altered that its original form has been almost 
entirely obliterated. It was anciently the seat of the municipal 
authorities, and now contains the courts of justice. Part of it is 
used as a prison. The campanile on the S. side, called La Torre 
delPopolo, belongs to the original edifice. — A well preserved 
fragment of Gothic architecture in the street ascending hence, with 
circular windows and brick mouldings, is also interesting. 

To the W. , not far from the Broletto , extends the interesting 
Piazza Yecchia, in which rises the *Palazzo Comunale (PI. 16; 
C, 3j, usually called La Loggia, the town-hall of Brescia, erected by 
Formentone of Brescia in 1508 on the ruins of a temple of Vulcan, 
with a 'putto' frieze by Jacopo Sansovino and window mouldings by 
Palladio, of the latter half of the 16th century. The interior was 
half destroyed by a tire in 1575. The exterior of this imposing 
structure is almost overladen with enrichments. On the ground 
floor is a deep hall resting on columns ; in front are pillars with 
columns in the wall. In the angles of the arches is a series of 
busts of Roman emperors as medallions. The upper floor recedes 
considerably. The handsome adjacent building on the right , the 
Archivio e Camera NotariLe, is probably also by Formentone. (The 
traveller should walk round the whole building.) 

On the opposite side of the Piazza, above the arcade, rises the 
Torre dell' Orologio, or clock-tower, with a large dial marking the 
hours according to the Italian computation (twice 1 to 12). The 
bell is struck by two iron figures as at Venice (p. 225). — To the 
left rises a Monument, erected by Victor Emmanuel in 1864 to 
the natives of Brescia who fell during the gallant defence of their 
town against the Austrians in the insurrection of 1849. — The third 
side of the piazza is occupied by the Monte di Pieth (formerly the 
Priyioni), a plain Renaissance building with a handsome loggia. 

Not far from the Piazza Vecchia is the church of *S. Giovanni 
Evangelista (PI. 11; C, 3), containing several admirable pictures. 

We begin on the right. Srd Altar: "Moretio , Massacre of the Inno- 
cents, a youthful work, conceived in the spirit of Raphael. Jligh-Altar: 
'Morelto, John the Baptist, Zacharias, St. Augustine, and St. Agnes; in 
the centre the Madonna; above, God the Father and a prophet, unfor- 
tunately damaged by retouching. — At the next Altar: "Oiov. Bellini, 
Pieta; the frescoes on the right are by Moretto (youthful works of 1521, 
showing the influence of Raphael) : Collecting the manna, Elijah, the Last 
Supper, Two Evangelists, and prophets above; those on the left are by 
HomaniHO: Raising of Lazarus, Mary Magdalene before Christ, the Sacra- 
ment, two Evangelists, and prophets above. At the next altar: liomanino, 
Nuptials of Mary, freely treated. In the Battistero: "Francesco Francia, 
The Trinity adored by saints. 

Proceeding to the E. from the Piazza Vecchia, and straight 
past the N. side of the Broletto, we come to a small piazza, to 
the left in which is the entrance to tlie '"Museo Patrio (PI. 17; 
E, 3 ; shown daily, 10-3, in summer 10-4, on payment of a fee of 
50 c. ; open to the public free on the first (Sunday in each month and 

Galleria Tosio. BKESCIA. 28. Route. 175 

on each Sun. and Thurs. in August; visitors knock at tlie door), 
established in a Corinthian temple of Hercules (?), which was ex- 
cavated in 1822. The temple, which, according to inscriptions, was 
erected by Vespasian in A.D. 72 (Tempio di Vespasiano), stands on 
a lofty substructure with a projecting colonnade of ten columns and 
four pillars to which the steps ascend. The substructions, portions 
of the steps, and the bases and parts of the shafts of the columns, 
in white marble , are still well preserved. The Cella consists of 
three sections, each of which was dedicated to a different god (per- 
haps Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva). 

The pavement of the Pkincipal Hall has been restored with the aid 
of the original remains. An ancient mosaic has also been placed here. 
By the walls are altars and Roman inscriptions from the province. The 
Room on the right contains mediaeval and other curiosities , ornaments, 
the monument of Count Pitigliano , weapons , medals (those of tha Napo- 
leonic period very numerous). In the Central Room and the Room on 
the left are ancient sculptures , including some interesting marble busts 
and a relief of a naval battle ; the most valuable of all, however, is a 
fine statue of "'Victout, excavated in 1826, a bronze figure about 6 ft. in 
height, with a silver-plated wreath of laurel round her head, a (restored) 
shield, on which she is about to write, in her left hand, and a (restored) 
helmet under her left foot. This is one of the most admirable specimens 
of the ancient plastic art now in existence. Also a number of coins and 
medals, ornaments, busts in gilded bronze, fragments of a colossal figure 
from a temple, portions of sarcophagi, decorated breastplate of a horse, etc. 

The Street opposite the museum descends to a small piazza, 
from which a street to the left leads to S. Clemente. Remains of an 
ancient edifice are built into the wall of the house No. 285 in the 
small piazza. 

S. Clemente (PI. 20 ; E, 4) is a small church containing the 
tomb of Moretto (p. 172 ; immediately to the left) and five of his 
works : 

On the right, 2nd altar, SS. Cecilia, Barbara, Agnes, Agatha, and 
Lucia: a charming composition, in which the repellant attributes of 
martyrdom are handled with such marvellous naivete as almost to assume 
an attractive air (C. & C). On the left, 1st altar, St. Ursula; 2nd altar, 
St. Jerome praying : 3rd altar, Abraham and Melchisedech, both spoiled 
by retouching. 'High altar-piece, Madonna with St. Clement and other 
saints, peculiarly arranged. 

The *GaUeria Tosio (or Pinacoteca Municipale, PL 21 ; E, 4), 
situated a little to the S. of S. Clemente, in the Contrada Tosio, 
Quartiere VIU., No. 596 (admission same as to the Museo Patrio, 
see above), bequeathed with the palace to the town by Count Tosio, 
contains a number of ancient and modern pictures , drawings , en- 
gravings, modern sculptures, etc. in a series of a small apartments. 
The most valuable of its contents are a number of paintings by 
Moretto (p. 172). 

In a room on the Ground-Floor, the Laocoon, a group in marble by Fer- 
rari; bust of Galileo hy Monti; copies of Canova's colossal busts of himself 
and Napoleon , by Gandolfi ; Moretto iBuonvidno) , Virgin enthroned and 
Saints, from the church of St. Afra. 

First Floor. In the ante-chamber a bust of Count Tosio by Monti, 
drawings , and frescoes by Ronianino. Handsome inlaid reading-desk by 
Fra Raffaele da Brescia (i6th cent.). 

176 Route 28. BRESCIA. S. Afra. 

I. Room (immediately to the left of the entrance): 2. Fra Bartolommeo 
(more probably Sogliani), Holy Family; 3. Moretto, Annunciation; 6. Mo- 
retto. Portrait; 13. Caravaggio, Flute player; 16. Portrait in the style of 
Giorgione; miniatures and drawings. 

II. Room; 1. Mombello, Presentation in the Temple; 4. Moroni (pupil 
of Moretto), Portrait (1560); "10. Lor. LoUo, Nativity, "a scene, the pleasing 
nature of which is dignifled by the nobleness of the angelic forms'; 13. 
Fr. Francia, Madonna; 14. Moretto., Herodias. — *16. Moretto, The Dis- 
ciples at Emmaus : — 'The picture is of a deep warm tone and rich sub- 
stantial handling with types in which form is less striking for selection 
than earnestness. A very decided realistic feeling prevails in the out- 
spoken nature of the movements and expressions, which have the strong 
and straightforward bluntness of middle or poor class life. . . . Moretto 
strives to give the Saviour, whose face is really not above the common, 
a calm and settled air. ... He comes exceptionally near Titian here by 
vigorous realism and a happy introduction of varied incident and motive 
thought'. — C. <i; C. 

III. Room: 1. Andrea del Sarto , Holy Family (sadly damaged); 18. 
Moretto, Descent of the Holy Ghost; *22. Raphael, Christ with the crown 
of thorns and stigmata, teaching (1505); 21. Ann, Carracci, St. Francis; 
Si. Cesare da Sesto (?), Youthful Christ. — The cabinets contain inter- 
esting engravings, old woodcuts, and drawings {A. DUrer). — In the Passage 
a bust of Eleonora d'Este, by Canova; drawings; in the adjacent cabinet, 
a boy treading out grapes , by BartoUni. — Corridor with engravings. — 
IV. Room : Modern pictures. — V. Room : Barmzi, Silvia, statue in marble, 
from Tasso. — VI. Room : 11, 19. Mass. d'Azeglio, Landscapes. — In the 
Chapel a statue of the youthful Saviour, by Marchesi. — VIII. Room: 
■1. Day, '3. I^ight, by T/iorvaldsen. — IX. Room. Sculptures: 1. Frances- 
c/ietli, Dante's Beatrice; 3. Baruzzi, Sappho; i. Franceschetti , Flora; 18. 
Tandardini, Bather ; Gherardo of Ohstal, Sacrifice of Isaac ; Oandolfi (after 
Thorvaldsen), Genius of music; *8. Thorvaldsen, Ganymede; 9. Pampaloni, 
Boy praying. — The other rooms contain modern pictures. 

S. Afra (PL 1; E, 5), situated in the street leading from 
the Museo Patrio, was erected in 1580 on the site of a temple of 
Saturn, but has been entirely modernised. 

1st altar on the right, Bagnadore, Nativity of Mary ; 2nd altar, Franc. 
Ba.'<saiiO , Baptism of S. Afra; 3rd, Passerotti, Assumption; above the S. 
door: Brztsasorci, Martyrdom of several saints; 4th altar, Procaccini, Vir- 
gin, S. Latinus, S. Carlo, and many other saints, a confused crowd of 
figures, all of the same size. High altar-piece, by Tintoretto, Ascension, in 
which the blue of the sky is the predominant colour. Over the N. door, 
* Titian , Christ and the adulteress (generally covered). Over the N. 
altars: Alessandro Magama, Christ in the house of Simon the Pharisee; 
"P. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. Afra (in the foreground, among the be- 
headed martyrs, is the head of the painter); Palma Giovine , Brescian 

S. Nazaro e Celso (PI. 13; B, 5), near the gate leading to the 
railway-station, erected in 1780, contains several good pictures. 

lli'^h altar-piece by Titian, in five sections, the Resurrection being 
tlie principal subject, on the right St. Sebastian, on the left St. Nazarus 
and SI. Cclsus with the portrait of Averoldo , the donor of the picture; 
above these the Annunciation (1522). This work was delivered in 1522, 
and long remained an object of study to the artists of the Brescian school 
(C. A- C). Over the 2nd altar on the left, "Coronation of the Virgin, with 
SS. Jlichael, Joseph, Nicholas, and Francis below, by Moretto (1541): — 'In 
elegance of proportion, in sympathising grace of attitude and pleasant 
characteristic faces, this altar-piece is the very best of its kind, cold per- 
haps in silver-grey surface but full of bright harmimy and colour' (C. & C). 
Over the 3rd altar on the right, Ascension of Christ (1541), over the 4th 
altar on the left, Nalivily, with S. Nazaro and S. Colso, also by Moretto, 
sadly damaged. 

LAGO D'ISEO. 29. Route. 177 

Madonna dei Miracoli (PI. 22 ; B, 5), near S. Nazaro, a small 
church with four domes and richly decorated fa(;ade in the early 
Renaissance style, was erected at the end of the 15th cent.; 1st 
altar on the right , a *Madonna and Child , with St. Nicholas , by 
Moretto (1539), a work of a most pleasing and beautiful nature, 
exhibiting the technical powers of the master at their highest. 

S. Maria delle Grazie (PI. 23; A, 2), near the Porta S. Gio- 
vanni, contains two good works by Moretto: over the 4th altar on 
the right St. Antony of Padua and St. Antonius the Hermit, and 
over the high altar a Nativity of Christ. — Another fine work by 
Moretto (St. Margaret") is in the church of St. Francesco, which 
also contains (on the high-altar) a *Madonna, with six Franciscan 
monks, by Romanino. — The churches of S. Maria Calchera, S. Giu- 
seppe, and Vescovado also possess pictures by Moretto. 

About 1/2 M. from the Porta S. Giovanni (PI. A, 3) lies the 
pretty Campo Santo, to which an avenue of cypresses leads from the 
high road. 

29. From Brescia to Tirano in the Valtellina. 
Lago d'Iseo. Monte Aprica. 

Distance about 81 M. From Brescia a post-omnibus daily at an early 
hour, halting at Pisogne (1 hr.) and at Breno (1 hr.) , and arriving at. - 
Edolo in the evening. Diligence from Edolo to Tirano also daily in 6 hrs. 

This route is recommended to travellers who are already acquainted 
with the Lake of Como, and who desire to reach the upper Val Tellina 
and the Stelvio or Bernina (R. 5). The scenery from Iseo onwards is 
beautiful the whole way. 

A new Branch Railway, diverging at Palazzolo (p. 171} , connects the 
Lago d'Lseo with the Milan and Venina line (6 M. in 25 min. ; fares Ifr. 
15, 80, 60c.). Paratico, its terminus, lies on the left bank of the Oglio, 
opposite Sarnico (see below). Intermediate station, Capriolo. 

The Milan road is followed from Brescia to — 

12 M. Iseo (Leone) , situated on the lake of that name , a 
busy little town. Steamboat twice daily from Sarnico (Leone 
d'Oro), at the S.W. end of the lake, to Iseo and Lovere (see below) 
and back, in correspondence with the diligences between Grumello 
(p. 171) and Sarnico, Brescia and Iseo, and Lovere and Edolo; 
from Sarnico to Lovere, 2^/4 hrs. (fares 2fr., 1 fr. 40 c.). 

The *Lago d'Iseo {Lacus Sebinus, 620 ft. above the sea-level), 
about 15 M. in length from N. to S., about 1000 ft. deep in the 
centre , and averaging I1/2 M. in breadth , somewhat resembles an 
S in form. The Oglio enters the lake between Pisogne and Lovere 
and emerges from it near Sarnico. The scenery vies in beauty 
with that of the Lago di Garda , the soil is admirably cultivated, 
and the vegetation of a luxuriant, southern character. The Mezz- 
Isola, an island I1/2 M. in length, consisting of a lofty ridge 
descending precipitously on the E. side (at the S. E. base of which 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 12 

178 Route 2'J. BRENO. From Brescia 

lii'S Peschiera d'lseo, and at tlie N.W. base Siviano, two fishing- 
villages), rises picturesquely and boldly in the middle of the lake. 
Opposite Peschiera lies the islet of S. Paolo. 

The new rock-hewn *Road on the E. bank, beginning at Sale 
Marazzino and terminating at Pisogne, a distance of 6 M. , is little 
inferior in boldness to that on the banks of the Lake of Como. 
It is carried through a number of galleries and supported by solid 
masonry. Immediately to the left lies the lake, while the rocks 
rise precipitously on the right, overhanging the road at places. From 
Iseo it winds through a succession of vineyards, which cover the 
valley and its slopes, and reaches the bank of the lake at Sulzano, 
opposite the island mentioned above. On the mountain, far above, 
is seen the white church of S. Rocco ; then the ruins of the 
monastery of S. Loretto on a rock in the lake. Sale Marazzino 
(Albergo della Posta), consisting of a long row of houses, is the 
largest village on the road. Next Marone, at the W. base of 
Monte Guglielmo [6414 ft. ; ascent 4 hrs. , beautiful view), and — 

24 M. Pisogne (Alhergo Grisoni), at the N. E. end of the lake. 
Towards the end of this part of the route the scenery is strikingly 
beautiful, especially where the lake terminates in a rounded bay, 
and where Lovere (S. Antonio, or Posta; Leone d'Oro; Roma), 
with its busy harbour, which before the construction of the road 
afforded th.e sole outlet to the industry of the Val Camonica , lies 
picturesquely on the N. bank. The church of the Madonna dell' 
Assunta contains several pictures by Moroni, and a monument by 
Canova. The long and handsome Palazzo Tadini , a conspicuous 
point in the distance, contains a collection of antiquities, pictures, 
and natural history specimens. — Omnibuses between Lovere and 
Edolo, and Lovere and Bergamo (p. 169). 

The road now quits the lake and traverses a fertile, alluvial 
tract. To the left flows the Oglio, a considerable river, which is 
crossed at Darfo. The road skirts the W. side of the valley, 
which presents the usual characteristics of the valleys of the S. 
Alps, yielding rich crops of maize, grapes, mulberries, etc., 
aud enclosed by lofty, wooded mountains. The dark rocks (ver- 
rucano) here contrast peculiarly with the light triassic forma- 

At Cividate the Oglio is crossed by two bridges. On the height 
a very picturesque deserted monastery. Near Breno a broad hill, 
planted in numerous terraces with vines and mulberries, and 
surmounted by a ruined castle, rises from the valley. 

38 M. Breno {Pellegrino; Italia, poor) is the capital of the Val 
Vamunica, which is 36 M. in length , extends from Lovere and 
Pisogne to the Monte 2'onuZe(see below), and produces a considerable 
ijuantity of silk and iron. 

The road now crosses a mountain-torrent descending from 
Monte Pizzo, the indented crest of which peeps from an opening 

to Tirano. EDOLO. 29. Route. 179 

oil the right. A massive mountain of basalt here extends towards 
the road, and columnar basalt is visible at places near the summit. 
Beyond Capo di Ponte (1374 ft.) the character of the scenery 
gradually changes. The valley contracts, maize and mulberries 
become rarer, while numerous chestnut-trees flourish on the slopes 
and in the valley itself. The road ascends slightly. 

541/2 M. Edolo (2287 ft. ; Due Mori ; Gallo , uninviting) , a 
mountain- village possessing iron - works , lies on the Oylio , here 
descending from the rocks, and is overhung on the E. by the Monte 
Aviolo. (Diligence to Tirano, 8 hrs. ; one-horse carriage in 6 hrs., 
10 fr.; to Lovere in 9 hrs., 15 fr.) 

The ToNALE RoDTE, diverging here to the N. E. to the Monte Tonale 
(6345 ft.), leads on the E. side of the Monte Tonale, which forms the 
boundary between Lonibardy and the Tyrol, through the Val di Sole (Sulz- 
berg) and Yal di Non (Nonsberg), wMch descend to S. Michele for Wiilsch- 
Michael) , a station on the railway from Botzen to Verona (p. 41), in the 
valley of the Adige. 

The new road to Tirano, which crosses numerous bridges and 
rests almost entirely on masonry, gradually ascends from Edolo on 
the N. slope of the Val di Corteno, affording pleasant retrospects of 
the ValCamonica, and the snow-peaks of theAdamello in the back- 
ground. 41/2 M. Cortenedolo (the village opposite , on the right 
bank of the Corteno, is Santicolo), then (2i/2 M.) Galleno, whence 
a path to the N. leads over the Monte Padrio in 3 hrs. to Tirano. 
The road next crosses to the right bank of the Corteno , and re- 
crosses it again at the small village of S. Pietro , not far from the 
summit of the (6 M.) Passo d'Aprica (4049 ft.). About 3/^ M. 
beyond the pass, near the poor village of Aprica, stands the new 
*Albergo dell' Aprica. 

A view of the Val Tellina , with Sondrio in the background, 
is now soon disclosed. The broad, gravelly bed of the Adda and 
the devastations frequently caused by the stream are well sur- 
veyed hence. Several of the snowy peaks of the Bernina come in 
view to the N. ; lower down , above Tresenda , rises the square 
watch-tower of Teglio. On the road is the Belvedere (Inn), 11/2 M. 
from Aprica. Fine *View of the valley of the Adda. 

The admirably constructed road now descends through plan- 
tations of chestnuts , in a long curve , to La Motta ; it finally 
reaches the bottom of the valley of the Adda by means of two 
tunnels, and crosses the river near Tresenda. From Tresenda to Ti- 
rano about 6 M. more. Tirano (1506 ft.; Posta or Angelo ; Due 
Torri, with the post-offlce ; Stelvio^ is a small town with old man- 
sions of the Visconti , Pallavicini , and Sails families, which has 
often suffered from inundations of the Adda. Those whose desti- 
nation is Sondrio (1139 it. ; *Posta ; Maddalcna), capital of the 
Valtellina, need not proceed lirst to Tirano, but carriages are seldom 
to be obtained at Tresenda. Comp. Baedeker s Eastern Alps. 

12 = 


30. The Lago di Garda. 

steamboat. W. Bank, between Desenzano and Riva: dep. from 
Dcsenzano daily at 1. 50 p.m., arr. at Riva at 6 p.m. ; dep. from Riva 
at 5 a.m., arr. at Desenzano at 9.15 a.m. (fares 4fr. 35, 2fr. 40 c). Stations 
Said, Madenio, Gargnaiio, Tignale, Tremosine, Limotie, Kiva. — E. Bank, 
belvs-een Riva and Peschiera, every day except Tuesday : dep. from Riva 
at 5.40 a.m. , arr. at Peschiera at 9.40 a.m. ; dep. from Peschiera at 1.20 
p.m., arr. at Riva at 5.10 p.m. (fares 5 fr. 10, 2fr. 90 c.). Stations Torbole, 
Malcesine, Assema, Castelletto , Toi-n, Garda, Bardolino, Lazise, Peschiera. 
(On Tuesday the steamboat of the H. bank, starting from Riva at 4.35 a.m., 
plies from La/.ise to Desenzano instead of to Peschiera, and returns by 
the same route, leaving Desenzano at 1.25 p.m.). — Restaurant on board 
the steamers ; payment to be made in Italian money. 

The Lago di Garda (226 ft.), the Lacus Benacus of the Homaiis, 
the largest of the N. Italian lakes, is 37 M. in length, and I'/o- 
10 M. broad; area 189 sq. M., depth in many upwards of 
1000 ft. The whole lake belongs to Italy, except the N. extremity 
with Kiva, which is Austrian. 

The lake is rarely perfectly calm, and in stormy weather is almost as 
rough as the sea, a circumstance recorded by Virgil (Georg. ii. 160). The 
blue water, like that of all the Alpine lakes, is remarkably clear. The 
carpione, or salmon-trout, which attains a weight of 25 lbs., the triitta, or 
trout, I-IV2 lb., the lagone, and the sardene are excellent fish. 

The banks , although inferior in attraction to those of the Lake of 
Como, present a great variety of beautiful landscapes, enhanced by the 
imposing expanse of the water. The shores of the S. half are flat and well 
cultivated , but they become bolder between Capo S. Yigilio and a point 
to the N. of Salt), where the lake contracts. The vegetation is luxuriant, 
especially on the more sheltered W. bank. Even the sensitive lemon 
arrives at maturity here, but the trees require to be carefully covered in 
winter. This is accomplished with the aid of numerous white pillars of 
brick, 8-20 ft. in height, erected at regular intervals, and united by trans- 
verse beams at the top. The fruit is more bitter and aromatic than that 
of Sicily, suffers less from carriage, and keeps longer. Price in plentiful 
seasons 3-4 fr. per hundred, but frequently as high as 10 fr. 

Desenzano (Mayer's Hotel, Posta Vecchia, both Italian and very 
indifferent; *Alb. (S' Ristor. alle Due Colombe, moderate"), a small 
town with 4300inhab., at the S.W. angle of the lake, is a railway 
station (p. 171). Omnibus from the steamboat to the train 50 c, 
luggage 25 c. 

To the E., not quite half-way to Peschiera (p. 171), is the 
narrow promontory of Sermione, projecting 3 M. into the lake, 
which here attains its greatest breadth. 

A pleasant excursion may be made thither by boat or by carriage 
((J 31. from Desenzano), but the road is not recommended to walkers. 
The fishing village (poor locanda) adjoins the handsome ruin of a castle 
of the Scaligers (p. 186). We then cross the olive-clad height, past the 
little church of S. Pietro , to (1 W.) the extremity of the peninsula, 
where we obtain a charming view. On the hill are remains of baths, 
and on the promontory are relics of a building extending out into the 
lake, which are said to have belonged to the country house of Catullus, 
who wrote his poems here ('Sirmio peninsularum insularumque ocellus''). 

The SxKAMnoAT steers near the W. bank, but docs not touch at 
tlie small villages of Monif/a and Manerba. Opposite the promon- 
tory of S. Viyilio (p. 183) it next passes the small Isola di S. Bia- 
yio and the beautiful cresciMit-shaped Isola di Garda, or dei Frati, 

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R1Y.V* ' 

Lago di Oarda. RIVA. 30. Route. 181 

the property of the Marchese Scotti of Bergamo. The latter was 
fortified by the Italians in 1859, but the works have since been 
removed. The steamer now steers to the W. and enters the bay 
of Salo (Gambero ; Sirenaj , a delightfully situated town with 
3400 inhab., surrounded with terraces of fragrant lemon-groves. 
The Monte S. Bartolommeo , at the foot of which the town lies, 
affords a charming view, especially by evening light. (Diligence 
to Brescia, see below.) Gardone is the next village ; then Ma- 
derno, on a promontory extending far into the lake , with an old 
basilica with Roman inscriptions on the walls. Beyond rises the 
Monte Pizzocolo. Farther on are Toscolano, Cecina, and Bogliaco, 
with a large country-residence of Count Bettuno. Most of the 
lemon- gardens belong to members of the Italian noblesse. Then 
Gargnano (*Cervo , unpretending) , an important looking place 
(4100 inhab.) in the midst of lemon and olive plantations, and 
one of the most attractive points on the lake (diligence twice daily 
to Brescia by Salo, Gavardo, and Rezzata). 

The mountains now become loftier. The small villages of 
Muslone, Piovere, Tignale, and Oldese are almost adjacent. Then 
Tremosme, on the hill, scarcely visible from the lake, to which 
a steep path ascends on the precipitous and rocky bank. In a bay 
farther on are seen the white houses of Limone, another lemon and 
olive producing village. The Austrian frontier is passed a little 
beyond La Nova , and a view is soon obtained of the Fall of the 
Ponale and the new road (see below). 

Siva. — *Albekgo Tkaffellini al Sole d'Oro , beautifully situated 
on the lake, R. from 80 kr., D. IV2 fl., B. 50, L. and A. 50 kr., pension in 
winter 2V2 fl. ; Hotel Kern, K. 1 fl., B. 40, L. and A. 30 kr. ; 'Hotel-Pen- 
sion AU Lac, with pleasant garden; Hotel Bavieea, with beer saloon. 

C'a/e Andreis, and Ca/e Tschurtsc/ieiUhaler, both under the arcades on 
the quay. — Beer in the Hotel Baviera (see above) and in the gardens 
outside the Porta S. Marco and the Porta S. Michele. 

Bat/is in the lake to the W., beyond the barrack. 

Omnibus to Mori, see below, starting from the Cafe Andreis. 

Riva, a busy harbour with 5000 inhab., is charmingly situated 
at the N. end of the lake , at the base of the precipitous Rocchetta. 
The Church of the Minorites, outside the Porta S. Michele, erected 
in the 16th cent, and adorned with gilding and stucco mouldings, 
contains several altar-pieces by Guide Reni, Palma Vecchio, and 
others. The Parish Church in the town possesses several modern 
pictures and frescoes. The watch-tower of La Rocca on the lake, 
fortified anew since 1850, at present a barrack, and the old Castello, 
high on the mountain to the W., erected by the Scaligers, greatly 
enhance the picturesqueness of the place. The situation of Riva is 
sheltered and healthy , the heat of summer being tempered by the 
lake. Private apartments may be procured on moderate terms. — 
Luggage is examined at Riva on the arrival and departure of the 
steamboats by Austrian and Italian officials respectively. 

From Riva to Mori (p. 44; lO'/a M.), a station on the Trent and 

1 S2 Route 30. VALLE DI LEDRO. Lago di Garda. 

Verona line, omnibus thrice daily in 21/2 hrs. (fare 80, coupe 90 kr.), 
two-horse carriage T'/z A-, one-horse 4 fl. The road, which is recommended 
to pedestrians in cool weather, leads through yorftoZe C'Bertolini ; *01ivo), 
a harbour on the N.E. bank of the lake, and then ascends to the left to 
Nago, whence, before entering the fort, a magnificent "Retrospect of the 
lake is obtained. The road next traverses a wild and stony mountain 
ridge, skirts the picturesque little Luke of Loppio (666 ft.), and reaches the 
village of Loppio. The village of Mori is at some distance from the station. 

ExcuKsioNS. To the 'Fall of the Ponale (1 hr.), best accomplished by 
boat (there and back 2 fl. and fee). The waterfall itself, which is formed 
by the Ponale shortly before it flows from the Val di Ledro into the lake, is 
insigniticant, but its surroundings are picturesque. We disembark at the 
pdint where the disused bridle-path from the Ledro valley reaches the 
lake, ascend a little, passing some ruined houses, and beyond the old 
bridge, just below the fall, reach the best point of view. — The walk to 
the fall by the new *Road is also interesting. It leads at a considerable 
height along the rocky precipices of the W. bank , through a succession 
of tunnels and cuttings, to the Val di Ledro. At the point where it turns 
to the right into the valley , a path descending to the left , then ascend- 
ing, and again descending, leads to the waterfall, and commands the most 
beautiful views (shade in the afternoon). 

The Monte Brione (1184 ft.), a hill 1 hr. to the E. of Eiva, affords 
a fine survey of the valley and almost the entire lake. The easiest ascent 
is from the N. side. The small village of La Grotia , at the foot of the 
Monte Brione, V/2 M. from Riva (by S. Alessandro), is a favourite after- 
noon resort. 

A pleasant excursion may be made towards the N.W. to (I'/zM.) Var- 
rone, where there is a wild and picturesque 'Gorge with a fine waterfall, 
lately made easily accessible (attendant 20 kr. for each person; ring at the 
mill). The excursion may be continued by Cologna to (2'/4 M.) Tenno, 
from the old castle of which a charming view is enjoyed. The road then 
traverses richly cultivated uplands, at a considerable height, and leads 
by Varignano to (41/2 BI-) Arco (p. 43). 

The Monte Baldo, a range 45 M. in length, which separates the Lake 
of Garda from the valley of the Adige , is best ascended from Nago (see 
above). The Allissimo di Nago (6970 ft.), the summit towards the N. 
and the most beautiful point, is reached hence in 5-6 hrs. (with guide). 
Extensive panorama, comprising a great portion of Upper Italy, the lake, 
the valley of the Adige, and the snow-mountains of the Adamello, Presa- 
nella, and the Ortler. — The ascent of the Monte Maggiore, or Telegra/o 
(72S0 ft.), the central point, from Ton-i or Garda (p. 183), via Caprino, in 
7 hrs., is fatiguing. 

The Valle di Ledro alTords another [interesting excursion (carriage to 
Pieve and Ijack 5 fl.; diligence daily at 3 p. m.). Beginning of the route 
the same as to the Fall of the Ponale (sec above). The road then turns 
to the W. into a green valley, and leads by Biacesa, Molina, the pretty 
Lago di Ledro (2135 ft.), and Mezzolago on its N. bank, to (o'/i M- from 
Riva) Pieve di Ledro (Albergo alia Torre). — At Bezzecca, V* M. beyond 
Pieve, opens the Val Concei, with the villages of ('/< hr.) Engiiiso and 
(V4 hr.) Lenzumo (thence back to Riva direct, by the Mte. Tratta and 
C'ampi, in 31/2 hrs.). From Bezzecca the road leads by Tiariio, and through 
the sequestered Val Ampola, to (9 M.) Storo (Cavallo Bianco) in the Val 
Bona, or Chiese, in which, 3 M. higher, lies Condino (Torre), the capital 
of S. Giudicaria. 

Beyond Storo, and about I'/zBL below the bridge over the Chiese, the 
road crosses the Caffaro near Lodrone (Austrian and Italian frontier), and 
reaches (l'/2 M.) the Lago d'ldro, 6 M. long, V^ M. broad, the W. bank 
of which it skirts. Opposite (3V4 M-) Anfo, with the mountain-castle 
Roeca d^Anfo, lies the small village of Idro. At (3 M.) Lavenone, at the 
S. end of the lake, begins the picturesque Val Sabbia, of which the capi- 
tal is (3 M.) Ve.tt07>e (Tre Spade). At (3 M.) Barghe the road divides; 
that to the E. leads by Sabbio, Vobarno, and Volciano to (12 M.) Salb on 

Lago di Garcia. MALCESINE. 30. Route. 183 

the Lago di Garda (p. 181); that to the W. to Preseglie and through the 

Val Garza to (15 M.) Brescia (p. 172). 

About 10 mill, after the steamboat (p. 180) has quitted Riva, 
the fall of the Ponale, mentioned p. 182, comes into view. Torbole 
(p. 18'2) lies to the left. The steamer now steers S. to Mal- 
cesine (^2100 inhab.), a good harbour on the E. bank, with an 
old castle of Charlemagne , which was afterwards a robbers' 
stronghold. Goethe , while sketching this ruin , narrowly escaped 
being arrested as a spy by the Venetian government. The castle 
has since been restored. Beyond it is the rock of Isoletto , then 
Cassone, and a little farther the small island of Trimelone. The 
next places of importance are Castello , S. Giovanni, Castelletto, 
all belonging to the parish of Brenzone , Montagna (somewhat in- 
land), and Torri. The banks gradually become flatter. The pro- 
montory o{ San Vigilio, sheltered from the N. wind by the Monte 
Bnldo (p. 182), extends far into the lake, and is the most beauti- 
ful point of view on the E. bank. The surrounding hills are 
planted with vines, olives, and fig-trees. The village of Garda 
(l500 inhab.), beautifully situated in a bay at the influx of the Te- 
sino, which descends from the Monte Baldo , gives its name to the 
lake. The chateau belongs to Count Albertini of Verona. To the 
S. iiL tlie distance is the peninsula of Sermione (p. 180). The next 
places are BardoUno (2500 inhab.) with a harbour, Cisano, and La- 
zise (3100 inhab.), another harbour. 

Peschiera (see p. 171), at the efflux of the Mincio from the lake, 
is a station on the Milan and Verona railway. The station is on the 
E. side of the town, not far from the landing place. 

V. Venetia. 

The N.E. part of Italy, named II Veneto after the ancient Veneli, 
is divided into the nine provinces of Verona, Viceiiza, Padova, Rovigo, 
Venezia, Treviso, BelUmo, and Udine. Its area, 9059 sq. M. , is slightly 
larger than that of Lombardy, while its population of 2,790,300 souls is con- 
siderably smaller. The vifestern and larger portion of the country, between 
the Mincio and Piave, is indeed about as thickly peopled as the eastern 
and less prosperous part of Lombardy between the Adda and the Mincio ; 
but the FriiiU, or ancient county of Forum JuUi, the border-land to the 
E. of the Piave, consists of very inferior soil, owing to the debris brought 
down by the Alpine streams. The '■ Furlanians\ the poor inhabitants of 
the Friuli, speak a patois of their own. 

The Venetian Dialect no longer contains traces of the Gallic ele- 
ment like that of the districts from Piedmont to the Romagna, which 
were once conquered by the Celts. It boasts, however, of having been 
frequently used by men of letters, as for example by Goldoni in his co- 
medies, and is the softest of all the Italian dialects, the flattening and 
elision of the consonants being very common. Thus nevode for nipote, 
suar for svdare, /ago for fiioco, sior for signore; and another characteristic 
is the conversion of g into 2, as zente for genie, zorno for giorno , mazore 
for maggiore. The history of the country has always been influenced by 
the proximity of the sea, and the peculiar formation of the coast. In the 
lower part of its course the Po differs widely from all the other rivers 
in Europe. Its fall is very gradual, being for a considerable distance 2^/3 
inches only, and latterly little more than V4 inch per English mile. To- 
wards the end of its course, moreover, it receives numerous tributaries. 
The result is that the adjacent districts are much exposed to inundations, 
a danger which has to be averted by the construction of huge dykes; and 
these works frequently require to be raised, as the bed of the river is 
constantly rising. The Po, together with the Adige, Bacchiglione, Brenta, 
and other coast rivers, terminate in a vast delta which extends along the 
whole coast of Venetia. The quantity of alluvial deposit is so great, that the 
beds of these streams are continually undergoing change and subdivision. 
Thus the ancient seaport of Hatria now lies IS'/'i M. from the coast, and 
while the Po formerly flowed totvards the S., it has formed its present 
embouchure since 1150. The extensive lagoons (lagune), separated from 
the sea by narrow strips of land (lidi), and connected with it by outlets, 
would render the whole coast uninhabitable, were it not for the slight 
ebb and flow of the tide (mean diflerence l>/2 ft.J, which is perceptible 
in the Adriatic, and prevents malarious exhalations. This extensive allu- 
vial territory, which reminds one of Holland, called into activity the in- 
genuity and enterprise of its inhabitants at an early period, and a temper- 
ate and conservative character has thus been imparted to their 

The Veneti, with whose language and nationality we arc unacquaint- 
ed , kept entirely aloof from the immigrating Celtic tribes. The seaports 
of llatria and Spina, at the mouths of the Po, carried on a considerable 
trade at an early period , and several canals on a large scale were con- 
structed as early as B.C. 380. In the 3rd cent, the Veneti together with 
the Cunomani, a Celtic tribe which occupied Brescia and Verona, entered 
into an alliance with Rome. While the Eomanisation of Lombardy and 
I'icilmoiit was attended with violent struggles, it was rapidly efTccted here 
without opposition. The Eoman colony of Aquileia was founded as early 
as 181 B. C., and the boundary of Italy was thus laid down at the point 
to which it still extends. Owing to its industries, cattle breeding, and 


agriculture , Venetia prospered greatly under the emperors. Padua was 
the wealthiest town in Italy next to Kome, and was rivalled in W. Eu- 
rope by Cadiz alone, as it numbered during the reign of Augustus no 
fewer than 500 citizens of knightly fortune (1. e. upwards of about 45000- 
The city was afterwards destroyed by Attila, and then razed to tho ground 
by the Lombards, and a similar fate befel Altinum, an important com- 
mercial town in the Lagoons , and Aquileia , which in ancient times was 
of a similar importance as the modern Trieste. The Romans sought re- 
fuge from their Lombard conquerors in the islands of the Lagoons. Re- 
moved from Teutonic influences, and under the protection of the Byzan- 
tine Empire, the most famous of mediaeval states took its rise here from 
apparently insignificant beginnings. Its earliest history is involved in 
obscurity. The first Dux or Doge is said to have been Pmducius Anufeslvs 
(d. 716). In 809 the islands warded off an attack of King Pepin , the son 
of Charlemagne, and virtually threw oft' the yoke of the Eastern emper- 
ors. At this period the inhabitants were crowded together in the is- 
lands of Rivoalto, Malamocco, and Torcello, which were the most secure. 
Rivoalto was selected as the seat of government, and here accordingly the 
city of Venice was founded. Angelus Parlicipothis (819) is said to have 
been the first doge whose residence occupied the site of the present P..- 
lace of the Doges. Situated between the Byzantine and Franconian em- 
pires, Venice became a connecting link between the trade of both, and 
the great depot of the traffic between the East and the West. In 828 a 
Venetian fleet brought the body of St. Mark to Venice, and thenceforth 
the Venetians revered him as their tutelary saint, using his emblem, the 
lion (Rev. iv. 7) as their cognizance , and his name as synonymous with 
the republic, while their supreme official functionary was styled 'Procu- 
rator of St. Mark\ In the interests of her commerce Venice was at length 
induced to make foreign conquests. These were at lirst confined to the 
Istrian and Dalmatian coasts for the purpose of procuring timber and 
suppressing piracy. The rivalry that sprang up with Genoa during the 
Crusade led the Venetians to obtain a footing in the Levant, and to 
establish extensive colonies. At the same time the constitution of the 
state developed into a rigorous oligarchy, which with terrible impartial- 
ity contrived to keep both the nobility and people in check, and effectu- 
ally to curb the national desire for liberty. In the neighbouring towns 
the supreme power rested on a foundation altogether different. The re- 
publics had been overthrown by the despots, who, supported by merce- 
nary troops and the favour of the lower classes, had founded principali- 
ties in the modern sense of the word. Such were the Visconti in Milan., 
the Scala in Verona., the Carrara in Padua, the Gonzaga in Mantua, and 
the Este in Ferrara. The danger of collision with warlike princes , and 
the support they afforded to every attempt to overthrow the Venetian 
constitution, led to their own downfall. Venice, having made conquests 
on the mainland (terra ferma) for the sake of her own safety , soon be- 
came one of the chief Italian powers, and was thus involved in all the 
interminable wars caused by the rivalry of the different states. She ob- 
tained permanent possession of Treviso in 1339, Yicenza in 1404, Padua 
and Verona in 1405, Udine in 1420, Brescia in 1426, Bergamo in 1428, 
Crema in 1454, and Rovigo in 1484. In the market-places of these towns 
the lion of St. JIark was erected as a token of their subjugation, and Ve- 
netian nobles were appointed their governors. The district thus conquer- 
ed extended to about 13,200 sq. M., besides the Dalmatian possessions 
(4250 sq. M.) and the settlements in the Levant. Napoleon at length over- 
threw the Republic, which had long been in a tottering condition. On 
15th and 16th May, 1797, Venice was occupied by French troops under 
Baraguay d''Hilliers, this being the first occasion on which it had ever 
been captured by an enemy. In the Peace of Campoformio (1797) it was 
adjudged to Austria, but by the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, the Austrians 
were compelled to cede it to the Kingdom of Itali/. On the fall of Napo- 
leon it was again awarded to Austria, to which it belonged down to 1866, 
when in consequence of the events of that year it was finally incorporated 
with the Kingdom of Italy. 


31. Verona. 

Arrival. There are two stations at Verona: (1) The Stazione Porta 
Vescovo (or Porta Vescovile; P1.H,6,7), the central station for the trains of 
all the lines, about U/2 M. to the E. of the Piazza Bra; (2) The Stazione 
Porta If nova (PI. B, 6), where the ordinary trains only stop, 3/4 M. to the 
S. of the Piazza Bra, convenient for travellers for Ala, Milan, and Man- 
tua. — The traveller about to leave the country should provide himself 
in good time with gold (comp. Introd. vii.. Railways), as the money 
changers at the station exact an exorbitant premium 

Hotels. Hotel Royal des Deux Touks (delle Due Tor ri; PI. 46, F 3)< 
R. from 3, I). 5, B. IV2, L. 3/4 omn. 1 fr., with baths; Hotel de Londres 
(Torre di Londru; PI. 47, E 3), both in the centre of the town; Hotel 
Rainer al Gran Paeigi , on the Corso , near the Piazza delle Erbe , R. 
IV2-2V2, D. 33/4, A. 3/4 fr- — Italian houses: "Albeego Cola (also called 
8. Lorenzo ; PI. 49, D 3), with trattoria, prettily situated on the Adige, Riva 
di S. Lorenzo, in the third narrow street W. of the Porta Borsari, R. 2-3, 
L. 1/21 A. 1/2, omnibus 3/4 fr. ; *Colomba p'Oro (PI. 48; D, 4), in the street 
of that name, close to the Piazza Bra, R. 2V2, L. ^/i , omn. 1 fr. ; Aquila 
^Tera, R. IV2, B. l'/4 fr., A. 60 c. ; Regina d'Ungheria, near the Piazza 
delle Erbe, unpretending, well spoken of; Alb. d'Italia , near the Porta 
Vescovo (PI. H, 5). 

Eestaurants. -Birrer'ta Saver al Giardino S. Liica (with baths), to 
the S.W. of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, on the right, outside the gate ; 
'Trattoria Cola, and the other Italian inns; Crespi, near the Ponte delle 
Navi (p. 192). — Cafes (cup of coflee 20 c., 'pasta' to eat with it, 10 c). 
Europa and * Vittorio Emanuele in the Piazza Bra, where a military band 
plays every evening. "Caffi Dante, Piazza de' Signori. 

Fiacres, called 'Broughams'. Per drive 75 c, per hour I72 fr., each 
additional hr. 1 fr. 25 c. ; in the evening 30 c. per hr. more. From the 
station to the town and vice-versa 1 fr. These fares are for 1-2 pers.; for 
each additional pers. one-third more. — Omnibus from the station to the 
town 30 c. 

Bookseller. H. F. Miitister., in the Via Nuova (p. 187). 

The Sights of Verona maybe seen in one day: begin with the Arena 
and Piazza Bra, then cross the Adige to the Palazzo Pompei (on the way 
to which is iS. Pernio Maggiore, p. 192), return by the Via Leoni to the 
Piazza de" Signori, with the tombs of the Scaligers; see S. Anastasia, and 
the Cathedral, and cross the Ponte di Ferro to S. Giorgio; drive along the 
Corso, from the Porta Borsari to the Porta Stuppa and S. Zeno, and finally 
to the Giardino Giusti. 

Verona (157 ft.), an ancient town founded by the Ehaetians and 
Etruscans , afterwards occupied by the Gauls , and then a Roman 
colony, the Bern of old German traditions, was the residence of the 
Lombard princes in the middle ages , and afterwards suffered 
severely from the contests of the Giielphs and Ghibellines, until 
a happier era dawned under the auspices of the <Scrti((7ers (_i260- 
1389). Mastino I. della Scala, elected PodestJl in 1260 and Cap- 
itano del Popolo in 1262, was the founder, and Can Grande 
(1308-29) the most eminent member, of this illustrious family. In 
1389 Giangnleazzo Visconti, Lord of Milan, made himself master of 
Verona, and through his widow the city came in 1405 into the pos- 
session of Venice, to which, with short interruptions, it remained 
subject down to the end of the Kepublic. The town, with 66,000 
inhab. and a garrison of 6000 men, situated at the base of the Alps, 
on the rapid Adige, which is crossed by five bridges, is the most im- 
portant fortress, and next to Venice the principal to«rn in Venetia. 

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Arena. VERONA. 31. Route. 187 

In the history of Architecture Verona is a place of considerable 
importance, not only on account of its mediseval buildings, but as the 
birthplace oi Michele Sammicheli (1484-1554), the most famous military 
architect of Upper Italy, who imparted to the palaces some of the features 
of fortified castles, and of Fra Giocondo (1435-1514), one of the most 
typical masters of the Renaissance, whose works are to be found at Venice, 
Paris, and Rome. In judging of the Verona palaces, we must bear in 
mind that it was customary here , as at Genoa and other towns to adorn 
the facades with paintings. The painted facades of houses near S. Fermo, 
the Porta Borsari, Piazza delle Erbe (p. 188), the Palazzo Tedeschi (p. 191) 
and others, recall the style of Paduan masters of the 15th cent. , and are 
perhaps traceable to the influence of Mantegna. — The most distinguished 
Veronese Painters of the 15th cent, were Vittore Pisano (Pisanello) , Lt- 
berale da Verona , Fr. Morone, and particularly Girolamo dai Libri (1474- 
1556). The artists of a later period , such as Paolo Cagliari , surnamed 
Veronese (1532-88), belong more properly to the Venetian school. 

The *Arena (_P1.24; D,4; entrance from the W. side by the 
arcade No. V; fee 25 c.) bounds on the N.E. side the Piazza Brk 
(Praedium) , or Vittorio Emanuele, the principal square of Verona. 
This celebrated amphitheatre , probably erected under Diocletian 
(A. D. 284), is 106 ft. in height, 168 yds. long, 134 yds. wide (the 
arena itself 83 yds. long, 48 yds. wide), circumference 525 yds. 
Around the amphitheatre rise 45 tiers of steps, 18 inches in height, 
26 inches in width, of grey marble (modern), on which it is cal- 
culated that 25,000 spectators could sit, and 70,000 stand. Of the 
external wall a fragment only, which appears never to have been 
completed, is still standing. It is an interesting fact that the pillars, 
which were probahly left rough undesignedly, afterwards became a 
model for the favourite 'rustica' pillars of the Renaissance. The ar- 
cades, 72 in number, are let by the town at high rents to traders of 
every description. In the interior of the Arena a small theatre is us- 
ually established. — The Via Nuova, terminating near the Arena, and 
paved with massive blocks of stone is one of the principal thorough- 
fares of the town, leading N.E. to the Piazza delle Erbe (see p. 188). 

The S. side of the Bra is bounded by the Gran Guardia Antica 
(PL 35 ; D, 4 ; now a corn-magazine) , or old guard-house , and the 
Gran Guardia Nuova (PI. 36; D, 4), now the Mtinicipio, erected 
in 1840. To the W., in the arcades of the spacious Palazzo Guas- 
taverza (by Sammicheli) are the cafes mentioned at p. 186. — By 
the Portone, or principal gate , is an ancient tower of the Scaligers. 
The W. corner is occupied by the Teatro Filarrnonico (PI. 41 ; C, 4). 
In the court towards the Piazza Bra, under the arcades erected by 
Pompei in 1745, is situated the valuable Museo Lapidario (PI. 29), 
collected and described by Scipione Maffei , containing Roman, 
Greek , and Arabic inscriptions , Roman and Greek basreliefs and 
statues , ancient Christian sarcophagi , and a bust of Maffei. The 
museum is shown by the custodian of the Teatro Filarmonico, who 
lives in a side-street at the back of the theatre, No. 1. 

Several streets lead from the Piazza Brk towards the N. to the 
CoRso Cayour (PI. C, D, E, 3), the principal street of the town , in 
which a number of handsome palaces are situated (see p. 190). In 

188 Route 31. VERONA. Piazza dei 8 ignori. 

the Corso, about midway, rises the Porta de' Borsari (PI. D, 3), 
an ancient triumphal arch or town gate , occupying the whole 
hreadth of the street, consisting of two entrance-archways, with 
two galleries above them , and a fa^^ade towards the outside of the 
town, erected under the Emperor Gallienus in A.D. 265. 

The Corso leads to the N.E., straight to the once busy centre of 
mediaeval life. On the right it tirst reaches the Piazza delle Erbe 
(Pl.E, 3), the fruit and vegetable market, formerly the forum of 
the KepubLic, and one of the most picturesque piazzas in Italy. At 
the upper end of it rises a Marble Column , which bore the lion of 
St. Mark down to 1797 to indicate the supremacy of the Republic 
of Venice. Opposite is the Palazzo Maffei, now Trezza , with a 
fayaile overladen with enrichment, and a curious spiral staircase in 
the interior. The Fountain is adorned with a statue of 'Verona', 
part of which is ancient. The Tribuna , with its canopy supported 
by four columns , in the centre of the Piazza , was anciently used 
as a seat of judgment. Many of the surrounding houses are adorned 
with frescoes in the style which was so popular in N. Italy during 
the 15th and 16th centuries. Some of them have been recently 
restored, such as the Casa Mazzanti near the column, and the Casa 
dei Merc.anti (1301), embellished with a statue of the Madonna. — 
Witli regard to the Via Cappello or S. Sebastiano and Via Leoni, 
leading ti the S.E. to the Ponte Nave, see pp. 191, 192. 

Opposite the Casa Mazzanti rises the Tower of the Municipio, 
about 320 ft. in height. A short street to the left of the latter 
leads to the *Piazza dei Signori (Pl.E, 3), a small square paved 
with flag-stoi\es, and surrounded by imposing editices. — Im- 
mediately to the right is the Palazzo della Rayione (seat of the 
assize-courts), with an interesting and very picturesque court, 
founded in 1183, and lately restored and extended. 

In the angle diagonally opposite is situated the Old Town Hall, 
or *Palazzo del Consiglio (PI. 34), usually called La Loggia, 
erected before 1500 by Fra Giocondo da Verona (p. 187), and 
restored in 1873, with coloured and gilt ornaments ; above are live 
statues of celebrated natives of ancient Verona : Cornelius Nepos, 
Catullus ('Mantua Virgilio gaudet , Verona CatuUo' : Ovid. — 
'Tantum magna suo debet Verona Catullo, quantum parva suo 
Mantua Virgilio': Martial), Vitruvius, the younger Pliny, and 
yEmilius Macer, the poet and friend of Virgil. In the interior of 
the loggia are busts of celebrated Veronese of mediaeval and modern 
times. On the upper lloor are several apartments which have been 
tastefully restored (porter in the court). 

In the middle of the piazza rises a marble Statue of Dante, 
who, as recorded by the inscriptions on the monument and on the 
palace adjoining the Loggia at a right angle, found an asylum here 
with the Scaligers after his banishment from Florence in 1310, 
by Zanoiii, erected in 1865. — Opposite is the Pal. de' Giure- 

Cathedral. VERONA. 31. Route. 189 

consulti, erected in 1263, but altered in tlie 16tli century. A small 
adjacent side-street contains a picturesque fountain. 

The passage opposite the entrance to the Piazza delle Erbe 
leads direct to the modernised Romanesque church of S. Maria 
Antica (PI. il"), and the imposing Gothic *Tombs of the Scaligers, 
or delta Scala family , who for upwards of a century were presi- 
dents of the republic of Verona. The ladder, which forms their 
crest, recurs frequently on the elaborately executed railings. 

The largest of the monuments, that at the corner of the street, was 
executed by Bonino da Campiglione for Can Signorio (d. 1375) during his 
life-time. It consists of a sarcophagus resting on a pedestal supported by 
columns of moderate height, over which rises a canopy crowned with an 
equestrian statue of the prince. On the square columns in the middle are 
six Chi'istian heroes , in niches higher up are the Christian virtues. On 
the other side, next to the Piazza dei Signori, is the monument of Mastino II. 
(d. 1351), another sarcophagus with canopy and equestrian statue. Besides 
these two principal monuments there are several other large sarcophagi of 
different members of the family, among which is that of Can Grande II., 
who was assassinated in the public streets by his brother Can Signorio in 
1359. Over the church-door the sarcophagus and equestrian statue of Can 
Grande (Francesco delta Scala, d. 1329), the patron of Dante ; adjoining it, 
also on the church wall, that of Giovanni della Scala (d. 1350); lastly that 
of Mastino I. (d. 1277; the custodian lives in a house to the right of the 
entrance to the church, fee 30c.). 

In the vicinity, at the E. end of the Corso Cavour, rises *S. 
Anastasia (PL 1 ; r,3), a line Gothic church begun about 1261, 
with a brick facade , a portal subsequently covered with marble, 
ancient sculptures in the lunette, and a fresco of the 14th century. 

The Interior, borne by 12 circular columns, is remarkable for boldness 
and symmetry of proportion; the vaulting is painted in the late Gothic 
style. On the two first pillars, as supporters of the basin for consecrated 
water, 'are two beggars f / Gobbi) in white and grey marble, that on the left 
executed by Gabriels Caliari, father of Paolo Veronese, that on the right 
by Aless. Eossi in 1591. The chapel of the Pellegrini, on the right by the 
high altar, is adorned with reliefs of the 14th cent., representing the history 
of Christ from the Nativity to the Resurrection, and contains two mon- 
uments of the Pellegrini in red marble. In the choir, to the left, is the 
monument of General Sarega (1432). The chapels on the right and left of 
the choir contain good frescoes of the 14th and 15th centuries. 

To the left of the church , over a gateway adjoining the small 
church otS. Pietro Martire(Pl. 15), is the dark marble sarcophagus 
of a Count Castelbarco, and in the gateway three others, the third 
of which is adorned with a good relief of the Madonna. 

The Cathedral (PI. 4; E, 2) is an imposing Gothic structure of 
the 14th cent., with choir and Romanesque fa(^ade of the 12th cen- 
tury. Behind the columns of the handsome portal are Roland and 
Oliver, the two paladins of Charlemagne, in half-relief. The columns 
in front rest upon griffins. The interior, which consists of nave and 
aisles, with eight pillars, contains an elegantly wrought rood-loft 
of marble, designed by Sammicheli. Over the 1st altar on the left 
is an *Assumption by Titian, painted about 1543. 

'Without the majestic grandeur of the Assunta of the Frari (p. 233), 
this fine composition is striking for its masterly combination of light and 
shade and harmonious colours with realistic form and action'. — C. <t C, 

190 Route 31. VERONA. S. Zeno Mayyiore. 

The arches of the handsome Cloisters rest on double columns of 
rod marble in two stories, one above the other (entrance to the left 
of the facade, then turn to the left again opposite the side-entrance). 

To the N. of the choir rises S. Giovanni in Fonte, the ancient 
Baptistery, of the 12th cent. The adjacent Vescovado (PI. 45) con- 
tains the Biblioteca Capitolare with its precious MSS. (palimpsests), 
among which Niebuhr discovered the Institutiones of Gains. 

On the left bank of the Adige , to which the Ponte Garibaldi 
leads (toll 2 c), is situated S. Giorgio in Braida (PI. 10 ; E, 1, 2), 
completed in 1604 from designs attributed to Sammicheli, sur- 
mounted by a dome, and containing some admirable pictures. 

On the W. wall, over the door, Baptism of Christ, by Tintoretto; 
1st altar on the left, St. Ursula and her companions, the Saviour above, 
painted in 1545 by Franc. Caroto; 4th altar on the left, *Madonna with 
two saints, God the Father above, three angels vi'ith musical instruments 
below, by Girolamo dai Libri (1529); 5th altar on the left, St. Cecilia, by 
Moretto. To the right in the choir the Miracle of the Five Thousand, by 
Paolo Farinati; to the left, the Shower of manna, by Fel. Briisasorci, both 
painted in 1603. High altar-piece. Martyrdom of St. George, by P. Vero- 
nese, a masterpiece of the highest rank : — 'Paolo treats the scene as 
much as possible as if it were one which actually happened, restrains the 
pathos within the bounds of moderation, avoids any excess of realism, 
and thus retains the power of exhibiting his gorgeous colouring in the 
most triumphant abundance'. — ( BurckhardV s '■Cicerone'). 

Following the Corso Cavour (PL D, C, 3) from the Porta Bor- 
sari (p. 188) in a S.W. direction, we observe on the loft. No. 19, 
the *Palazzo Bevilacqua, by Sammicheli ; then on the right. No. 38, 
the Palazzo Portalupi, and, on the same side, No. 44, the Palazzo 
Canossa, also by Sammicheli, but with an attica added in. 1770. 
On the right we then reach the Castello Vecchio (PI. C, 3), the 
ancient palace of the Scaligers , now an arsenal , connected with 
the opposite bank of the Adige by a handsome bridge (not 
accessible) constructed in the 14th century. — The street called 
lligasta S. Zeno diverges here to the right. (S. Zeno, see below.) 

At the end of the W. continuation of the Corso is the *Porta 
Stuppa (or Palio; PL A, 4), the finest of the gates of Verona 
erected by Sammicheli. 

The Via S. liernardino (PL B, 3) leads to the monastery and 
church of S. Bernardino (PL 3 ; entrance from the E. corner, 
through a pleasing monastery-court; if the church-door is closed, 
ring in the corner to the left, adjoining the church). In the choir, 
to the left, is a Madonna with saints, by BenayUo. To the right 
of the high altar is the entrance to the *Cappella dei Pelleyrini, by 
Sammicheli, one of the finest of the circular buildings of the Re- 
naissance, witli the antique forms cleverly and beautifully executed. 

*S. Zeno Maggiore(Pl. 23; B, 2) is a Romanesque church of 
noble iiro|(orli(ins. The nave in its present form was begun in 
113'J; the choir dates from the 13th cent. ; the projecting portal 
rests on lions of red marble. The church was lately restored. 

S. Zeno Maggiore. VERONA. 31. Route. 191 

The Portal is embellished with marble reliefs of scriptural subjects 
executed about 1178, from the creation of woman and the Fall to the 
Betrayal by Judas and the Crucifixion. The hunting-scene to the right in 
one of the lower sections is known as tRe 'Chase of Theodoric\ an allusion 
to his having embraced the heretical Arian doctrines. The doors, of the 
same or a still earlier period , consisting of a number of small brazen 
plates with reliefs (the oldest very rudely executed) , are said to have 
been presented by Dukes of Cleve (on the Rhine). 

The Interior is borne by alternate pillars and columns. To the left 
of the entrance is a large ancient vase of porphyry, 28 ft. in circumference. 

— On the choir screen are statues of Christ and the 12 Apostles, in marble, 
some of them painted, supposed to be coeval with the reliefs on the portal. 

— The walls to the left of the choir are covered with frescoes of the 14th 
cent., behind which are traces of others of the 12th; to the right are 
frescoes of the 11th and 13th centuries. To the right of the steps to the 
choir is an altar, on each side of which are four columns of brown 
marble, resting on lions and bulls, each in one block. — To the right in 
the Choir, above the crypt, is the very ancient painted marble figure of 
St. Zeno, Bishop of Verona (about 9th cent.), holding his episcopal 
staff and (as patron-saint of fishermen) a fishing-rod with a silver fish. — ■ 
Behind the high altar is a fine -Picture (covered) by Mantegna (1460), 
in excellent preservation, but unfortunately hung too high. On a throne 
of stone in the middle of a colonnade sits the Madonna with the Infant 
Christ, with angels playing on instruments at her side and on the steps. 
In the left wing are SS. Peter, Paul, John, and Augustine; in the right 
wing are SS. John the Baptist, Gregory, Lawrence, and Benedict. The 
striking effect of this great work is enhanced by remarkably rich accesso- 
ries. (The three lower pictures are copies.) 

The approach to the spacious Cktpt, in accordance with the ancient 
plan which has been followed in the restoration of the building, occupies 
the entire width of the church. It contains the tomb of St. Zeno and 
ancient sculptures and frescoes ; the capitals of the 40 columns are mediaeval, 
some of them bearing the name of the sculptor. 

A door in the N. aisle leads to the admirably preserved ''Cloisters, 
with elegant double columns and a projecting structure, restored (accord- 
ing to an old inscription) as early as 1123. Immediately to the right two 
tombstones are recognised as pertaining to the Scaliger family by the 
ladder represented on them. — On the S. side of the church is a small 
disused Churchyard, whence a general view of the church with its cam- 
panile of 1045 (restored in 1120) is best obtained. At the entrance to a 
disused Mausoleum, with a sarcophagus and two columns (descent by 12 
steps), a stone bears the inscription, '■Pipini Italiae regis, Magni Caroli 
imperatoris filii piissimi sepiilcruni\ Adjacent is a very large Roman sarco- 

We next visit the S. E. Quarters of the town. To the S. E. 
of the Piazza delle Erbe (p. 188) runs the Via S. Sebastiano or 
Cappello (PL E, 4), in which a hat over the gateway of a court 
opposite the Palazzo Sambonifazi is said to indicate the house of 
Juliet's parents (Capuletti ; p. 194). — Farther on, the Via Scala 
diverges to the right, leading to the church of S. Maria della Scala 
[PI. 20, E, 4), founded by Can Grande in 1324, and containing the 
tomb of Scipione Maffei (d. 1755), the learned antiquarian. Ad- 
joining the church is the Palazzo Tedeschi , with a painted facade. 
— Close to the church of ^. Sebastiano (PI. 18; E, 4) is the Bi- 
blioteca Comunale (open in winter 9-3 and 6-9 , summer 9-4), 
founded in 1860, which contains numerous documents from the 
suppressed monasteries. 

192 Route 31. VERONA. Museo Civico. 

The Via Lboni, the S. prolongation of the Via S. Sebastiano, 
leads to the Ponte delle Navi. In this street, on the left, at the 
corner of the C'orticella Leoni , and huilt into the side of a house 
rises the *Arco de' Leoni , the half of a Roman double gateway, 
coeval with the Porta de' Borsari , but more delicately executed, 
and bearing an inscription partially preserved. 

A little farther is the Gothic church of S. Fermo Maggiore 
(PI. 6; E, 4), erected at the beginning of the 14th century. The 
architecture of the exterior , with its facade of brick , enriched 
with marble, is worthy of inspection. 

The Interiok is modernised; beautiful old ceiling in walnut-wood, 
and remains of good frescoes of the 14th cent, by Zevio, Fra Martina^ 
and Pisanello, the finest being a Crucifixion over the left side entrance. 
To the left of the entrance is a Resurrection carved in wood; the chapel 
adjoining the left transept contains the monument of the physician Giro- 
lamo delta Torre by Riccio (the originals of the bronze reliefs were 
carried off by the French, and are in the Louvre) ; in the chapel to the 
left of the choir a Madonna with saints, by Franc. Btionsignori (1484). 
The Cappella del Sagramento contains (left) an aUarpiece by Caroto, 
painted in 1528; above are the Virgin and St. Anna, below are John 
the Baptist, St. Sebastian, and other saints. 

The Ponte delle Navi (PI. E, 4) in the vicinity, which commands 
a good survey of S. Fermo , was erected to replace a bridge across 
th(; Adige, which was destroyed by an inundation in 1757. 

Immediately to the right beyond the Adige, at the beginning of 
the promenade, is the *Palazzo Pompei alia Vittoria (PI. SGi/.j; 
E, 5), an interesting edifice by Sammicheli, presented by the family 
to the town, and now containing the Museo Civico (fee 1 fr.^. 

On the Ground Floor are several rooms containing casts, antiquities, 
chiefly from excavations in the old theatre near the Porta Pietra , and 
fossils from the Monte Bolca. 

The Finacoteca or picture-gallery, on the first floor, contains works 
principally of the Veronese school. The first and second rooms contain 
the Galleria Bernasconi, presented to the town by Dr. Bernasconi. 

I. Room: (right) 70. Tiepolo, Saints; 52. Cesave VeceUio, Madonna; 50. 
Tintoretto, A Doge; 34. Pervgino, Madonna; ^^33. Paolo Veronese, A Vene- 
tian VFoman. 

II. Room: (right) 148. Franc. BiionsignoH, Madonna; 138. (above the 
door) Oirolamo dai Lihri, Madonna; 147. (above the door) Vine. Catena, 
The Magi; 155. Fr. Fraticia, Madonna with two saints; 153. Parmeggianino, 
Holy Family; 115. M. Basaiti, St. Stephen; 122. Ctma, Madonna ; 113. Tin- 
toretto, The" plague at Venice; 120. Perugino, Madonna; 90. Vitt. Pisanello, 
Madonna and Christ; 87. Mantegna, Madonna; 104. Amberger, Portrait of 
the 'Scholar Falb' ; 86. Bellini, Presentation in the Temple; 95. Adoration 
of the Shepherds, attributed to Raphael, a charming picture of the Umbrian 
school; "94. Fra Bartolommeo, Head of Christ; 93. Correggio, Head of a 
child; 79. B. Montagna, Two bishops. 

III. Room: Four pictures by Andrea Schiavone; 202. Copy of the picture 
by P. Veronese in S. Giorgio (p. 190); 200. Giovanni Bellini, Madonna; "'199. 
Moretto, Madonna; 189. Oiolfino, Achilles at Scyros; 182. ifoco«e. Madonna. 

IV. Room (to the left of the 1st): (right) 258. Drawing bv Mantegna; 
252. Oiolfino, Madonna; 257. Paolo Veronese, Entombment; 259. School of 
Raphael, Holy Family; 272. Franc. Caroto, Adoration of the Child; *240. 
Paolo Veronese, Portrait of Gualtieri, 1556. 

V. Room: "293. Girolamo dai Libri, Adoration of the Child; 296. Paolo 
Moranda, surnamed Cavazzola, Christ and St. Thomas ; 307. Cima, Madonna 
and saints : 274. Paolo Veronese, Music, a fresco transferred to canvas : 

8. Maria in Organo. VERONA. 31. Route. 193 

275. Cavazzola, Madonna with two saints (1522), 'the finest production of 
the Veronese school in the first quarter of the 16th century'; 276. Girolamo 
dai Libri, Sladonna and saints, 1530; 278. Same, Madonna and saints in a 

VI. Room: 334. C. Crivelli, Madonna and Christ; 331. Turone, Altar- 
piece, of 1360; 339. Turone, Scenes from the Old Testament in thirty pictures 
on a golden ground ; 344. Giacomo Bellini (father of Giovanni), Large Cru- 
cifixion; 347. Beiiaglio, Altar-piece; -318-320. Cavazzola, Passion (1517), 
the best being the Descent from the Cross, Bearing of the Cross, and Crown 
of Thorns. 

We return hence through the 5th and 6th rooms, and enter (to the 
right) the — VII. Room: Is^thing noteworthy. — VIII. Corridok with 
engravings, some of them by Agostino Carracci, Rembrandt, and Dilrer. — 
IX., X., and XI. R. : Nothing of importance. — XII. Room (to the left of 
the 11th) : Frescoes by Martino da Verona, Giolfino, and Paolo Veronese. 
An adjacent room without a number contains two large pictures of scenes 
from the history of Verona: 220. P. Farinati , Battle of the Veronese 
against Fred. Barbarossa at Vigasi in 1164; 224. F. Brusasorci, Victory of 
the Veronese over the inhabitants of the banks of the Lago di Garda in 
849. — XIV., XV., XVI. R. : Nothing important. 

Outside the Porta S. Vittcria (^Pl. F, 5, 6) is tlie Cimitero, with 
a Doric colonnade and lofty dome-church. The summit of the ped- 
iment is adorned with a marble group of Faith, Hope, and Charity, 
by Spazzi. 

S. Maria in Organo (PL 12 ; F, G, 3), situated near the island 
in the Adige , was erected from designs by Sammicheli in 1481 ; 
the fa(;.ade of 1592 is unfinished. 

To the right of the entrance, above the fourth altar to the left : Ma- 
donna with four saints, by >Savoldo. The chapel on the right of the choir 
contains frescoes by Giolfino ; a wooden 'Candelabrum, by Fra Giovanni 
da Verona, who belonged to the monastery of this church. The '-Choir- 
stalls in the Choir with intarsia (views of the town above, arabesques 
below), of 1499, and the reading-desk, are by the same master. The seats 
in front of the high-altar contain landscapes by Cavazzola and Brusasoi-ci. 
Similar works by the same masters are in the Sacristy on the right wall. 
The left wall is adorned with paintings in a more elaborate style, by Fra 
Giovanni, and with a Madonna and saints embowered in lemon and fig-trees, 
by Giralomo dai Libri; the ceiling contains frescoes by Francesco Morone. 

S. Nazzaro e Celso (Pi. 13 ; G, 4) is built in the Renaissance 
style, with traces of the Gothic. The Cappella di S. Biagio contains 
damaged frescoes by Falconetto (processions of Nereids in the dome) 
and Bart. Montagna of Vicenia (history of St. Blaise). The two 
pictures on the 1st altar to the left, representing SS. John the 
Baptist andBenedictus, Nazarus andCelsus, are by the latter master. 

A fine *ViEW of Verona and its environs, the Alps and the 
distant Apennines , is obtained from the Giardino Giusti on the 
left bank of the Adige (Pi. G, 4 ; always accessible ; ring at a gate 
on the right; fee 50c.), containing a few Roman antiquities, but 
chiefly noted for its numerous and venerable cypresses , some of 
which are 400 - 500 years old and 120 ft. in height. The cam- 
panili of S. Lucia and S. Massimo are conspicuous. 

The view is still finer from the Castello S. Pietro (PL G, 2) ; 
ascent near the Ponte delta Pietra, built by Fra Giocondo (p. 187 ; 
permission obtained at the commandant's office at the entrance), 
the ancient castle of Theodoric the Great , the 'Dietrich of Bern' 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 13 

194 Route 32. MANTUA. 

of German lore. It was entirely remodelled by Oaleazzo Visconti 
in 1393, destroyed by the Frencb in 1801, and refortified by the 
Austrians in 1849. At its base, immediately below the bridge, are 
the remains of a semicircular antique Theatre (^Pl. 37), excavated 
in the court of a private house , and interesting to antiquarians. 

Within a closed garden (visitors ring at the gate facing them, 2-3 
soldi) in the Vicolo Franceschine , a side-street of the Via Cappuccini 
(PI. D, 6), is situated the suppressed Franciscan Monastery, where a par- 
tially restored chapel contains a rude sarcophagus in red Verona marble, 
called without Ihe slightest authority the Tomba di GiiiUelta, or 'Tomb of 
JulieV (fee 25 c.). The whole scene is prosaic and unattractive. Shake- 
speare's play of 'Romeo and Juliet' is founded on events which actually 
occurred at Verona. 'Escalus , Prince of Verona' was Bartolommeo della 
Scala (d. 1303). The house of Juliet's parents, see p. 191. 

At the village of S. Michele, IV4 M. from the Porta Vescovo, is the 
circular church nf Madonna di Campagna, planned by Sammicheli but 
constructed after his death. 

32. From Verona to Mantua and Modena. 

63 M. Railway in 21/3-33/4 hrs. (fares llfr. 85, 8fr., 5fr. 75c.); to 
Mantua (25 M.) in I'/a hr. (fares 4fr. 60, 3fr. 20, 2fr. 30c.). — This is the 
must direct line between Germany and Central Italy, and is the route 
traversed by the express trains to Florence and Rome. 

Verona, see p. 186. The line traverses a richly cultivated plain, 
varied occasionally with wood. Fields of rice are passed near Man- 
tua. — 6 M. Dossobuono. 

At Dossobuono the Vekona and Rovigo Railway diverges (63 M. in 
33/4-474 hrs. ; fares llfr. 50, 8tr. 5, 5fr. 80c.). Stations Vigasio, /sola della 
Scala, Bovolone, Cerea. — 3372 M. Ltgnago, a town of 14,100 inhab., for- 
tified by the Austrians after 1815 to defend the passage of the Adige, and 
forming one member of the celebrated Quadrilateral, the other towns of 
which were Verona, Peschiera, and Mantua. — Stations Villabartolomea, 
Castagnaro, Badia, Lendinava, Fratta, Costa. 63 M. Jiovigo, see p. 280. 

101/2 M. Villafranca, with an ancient castle , where the pre- 
liminaries of a peace between France and Austria were concluded 
on 11th July, 1859, after the battle of Solferino. About 5 M. to 
the N.W. lies Custozza , where the Italians were defeated by the 
Austrians in 1848 and 1866. 

14 M. Mozzecane; 18 M. Roverbella; 221/2 M. Snnt. Antonio. 
— The train now passes the Citadel of Mantua, where .Andreas 
Ilofer , the Tyrolese patriot, was shot by order of Napoleon on 
20th Feb., 1810. The citadel and the town are connected by the 
Aryine Mulino (a. bridge constructed in 1257), which divides the 
laki's, formed here by the Mincio, into the Layo Superiore (W.), 
and the Layo di Mezzo (E.). 

25 M. Mantua. The station lies near the Porta Pradella (PI. 
A, 3, 4). 

Mantua. — Hotels. A«uila d'Ono; Crock Vkkdk, or Fknice, R. 
2-3, A. 1, L. 3 4, , minibus I'/gfr.; Agnkllo d'Oro, unpretending, all three 
in the Contrada Croio Verde (PI. C, 4). — The traveller is not recom- 
incndid to spend the night at Mantua, as the mosquitoes here are extremely 
truulilcsome. — A stay of 4-6 hrs. is enough to give a satisfactory idea of 


•9 l\<xn tita . 

MANTUA. 32. Route. 195 

the town. The traveller should engage a cab at the station for 1 hr., 
drive to the (12 min.) Palazzo del Te, which may be seen in V2 br., and 
then drive to S. Andrea or the Cathedral. 

Cafe Parlenope, opposite the Croce Verde (cup of coffee 15 c). 

Cab per drive 75c., first hr. Ifr. 50c., each following 1/2 br. 50c. 

Mantua , Ital. Mantova , a very ancient town founded by the 
Etruscans, witli 25,350 inhab. (3000 Jews), is a provincial capital 
and strongly fortified place, bounded on the N.W. by the Lago 
Superiore, on the N.E. by the Lago di Mezzo, on the E. by the Lago 
Inferiore, and on the S. and S.W. by marshy land, which in case 
of a siege is capable of being laid under water. 

Mantua is mentioned in ancient times as the home of Virgil , who is 
said to have been born at the village oi Pieiole (the ancient Andes?), 3 M. 
to the S.E., but it was not till the middle ages that it became a place 
of importance. In the conflicts of the Hohenstaufen period the town em- 
braced the cause of the Guelpbs. In 1328 the citizens elected Lnigi, Lord 
of Gonzaga, as the 'Capitano del Popolo', and to him the town was in- 
debted for its prosperity. The Gonzagas fought successfully against Milan 
and Venice, and succeeded in extending their territory, while they were 
the liberal patrons of art and science. In 1530 Federigo II. was raised to 
the rank of duke by Charles V., and in 1536 was invested with the 
county of Monteferrat"o (d. 1540) ; the chief monument of his reign is the 
Palazzo del Te (p. 198). In 1627, when Charles de Nevers, a member of 
a French collateral line , took possession of the throne , the Mantuan war 
of succession broke out, and the Emperor Ferdinand II. declared the fief 
forfeited. On 18th July, 1630, Mantua was taken by storm and sacked by 
the Austrians. Although the emperor, being hard pressed by the Swedes, 
was obliged to conclude a peace in 1631, the town never recovered from 
this blow. Carlo IV., the last duke, having taken the French side in the 
Spanish war of succession , was declared an outlaw in 1703 , and Monte- 
ferrato was awarded to Piedmont, while Mantua was annexed to Austria, 
and afterwards became the chief support of the Imperial domination in 
Italy. After a long and obstinate defence by General Wurmser, the fortress 
capitulated to the French on 2nd February 1797. In accordance with the 
Peace of Villafranca the Austrians retained Mantua, although deprived of 
the rest of Lombardy, but they were compelled to cede it to Italy in 1866. 
Mantua was the scene of the labours of two great Renaissance Pain- 
ters. One of these was Anueea Mantegna, who was born at Padua in 
1431, and entered into the service of Lodovico Gonzaga in 1460. The 
principal work of his earlier period is preserved in the church of the 
Eremitani at Padua. In the life of his compositions, and in the fidelity 
of his characters, he rivals the best of his contemporaries, while he sur- 
passes them in accuracy of perspective, and in his refined taste for beauty 
of landscape. He died at Mantua in 1506. When RaphaeFs pupils were 
dispersed after his death, Giulio Romano (1492-1546), the most eminent of 
them, established himself at Mantua, where he attained so high a reputa- 
tion as an architect and painter, that Mantua has been called the 'town 
of Giulio Romano'. In imitation of Raphael's work in the Farnesina, he 
here composed mythological decorative paintings, which, though far in- 
ferior to their prototype, are attractive from the richness of the motives 
and the sensuous magnificence of the composition, and are important ow- 
ing to the influence which they exercised on later art. Primaticcio, and 
Niccolb delV Abbate , pupils of Giulio Romano who were educated here, 
were afterwards summoned to Fontainebleau, and thus formed a connect- 
ing link between the French and the Italian Renaissance. Giulio Romano's 
works must also have exercised no slight influence on the style of Rubens, 
who spent several years at Mantua. 

The traffic of the town is chiefly confined to the arcades of the 
Contrada Croce Verde (PI C, 4) and the Piazza delle Erbe (PI. D, 4), 


1 96 Route 32. MANTUA. from Verona 

near S. Andrea. Beyond the latter, in a small piazza in front of 
the Camera di Commercio (PI. 3), is a Statue of Dante, erected in 

A little farther on is the Piazza S. Pietro (PI. D, 3), in the 
centre of which rises a monument to the political martyrs of the 
year 1851. Here are situated the Cathedral, the Palazzo Vescovile 
(PI. 12), and, on the right, the former palace of the Gonzagas. 

The Cathedral of S. Pietro (PL e), a church with double aisles, 
and a transept covered with a dome, and flanked with two rows of 
chapels, possesses an unplcasing modern facade and a huge un- 
linished tower of much earlier origin. The interior was skilfully 
remodelled from designs by Giulio Romano. The nave has a fine 
fretted ceiling. On the left of the passage leading to the *Cappella 
deir Incoronata is a bust of Ant. Capriano, 1574. 

The N.E. angle of the piazza is occupied by the old ducal palace 
of the Gonzagas, now called the *Corte Reale (PI. 5) , and partly 
used as barracks. The building was begun in 1302 by Guido Buo- 
nacolsl , and was afterwards altered and embellished with frescoes 
by Giulio Romano by order of Federigo II. 

The custodian's room (second large gate on the right) , the Uffizio 
DELLA ScALCHERiA , is adomed with hunting-scenes by pupils of Giulio 
Romano, but the Diana over the chimney-piece is by himself (d. 1546). 
— On the Upper Floor is a large saloon containing portraits of the Gon- 
zagas by Bibbiena. Then the Stanze dell' Imperatrice, a suite of apart- 
ments in which Raphael's tapestry, now at Vienna, was formerly preserved. 
The Dining -Room is adorned with allegorical figures of the rivers and 
lakes around Mantua; the windows look into a garden on the same level. 
The ''Sala dello Zodiaco, with allegorical and mythological representations 
of the signs of the zodiac by Giulio Romano (Napoleon I. once slept in this 
room) ; then three Stanze dell' Impeeatore, containing copies of the 
tapestry formerly here, painted on the walls by Canepi. The Pictdre 
Gallery contains nothing worthy of note; to the left, by the door, a good 
bust of a Gonzaga by Bernini. The Ball Room (Sala degli Specchi) is 
embellished with frescoes by the pupils of Giulio Romano. — In another 
part of the palace is the charming Casierino f'i'') of the celebrated 
Isabella Gonzaga of Este; in an adjoining room her motto, '■nee spe nee 
metti'. We next pass through a series of handsomely decorated rooms in 
the most varied styles, the must remarkable of whicli are the Saletta dei 
Makmi, Camera di Giove, the Appartamento and Sala di Troja, with 
line ^Paintings by Giulio Romano, a dilapidated but handsome gallery (view 
of the lake) , and lastly three small rooms with frescoes in the style of 

On the N.E. side of the palace is the R. Teatro di Corte (PI. 13). 
The vaulted passage between tlie two leads to the Piazza della Fiera, 
in which rises the Castello di Corte (PL E, 3) , the old castle of 
the Gonzagas. The church of <S. Barbara (PL c) to the S. also be- 
longs to this imposing mass of buildings. 

Part of the castle is now used as Archives (open during office hours 
only), and part of it was a prison during the Austrian supremacy. Most 
of the frescoes by Andrea Mantegna (1474), which once adorned the rooms, 
are now obliterated. The only ones which have been preserved and 
restored are those on two walls of the Camera degli Sposi (first floor), 
representing the "^Family of the Gonzagas with their courtiers: on the 
loft, Lodovico Gonzaga 'with his wife Barbara of Hohenzollern ; on the 
right, Lodovico meeting his son Cardinal Francesco at Rome. On the 

to Modena. MANTUA. 32. Route. 197 

ceiling i3 an illusive painting, consisting of an apparent opening, at which 
Cupids and girls are listening. 

*S. Andrea (PI. a ; C, D, 3, 4), in the Piazza delle Erbe, a 
church of very imposing proportions, the finest in Mantua , was 
erected in 1472 from designs by the Florentine Leon Battista 
Alberti, but the dome was not added till 1782. The white marble 
facade, with its spacious portico, resembles that of an ancient 
temple ; adjoining it is a square tower, built of red brick, and sur- 
mounted by an elegant octagonal superstructure with a Gothic 
spire. The summit affords a good survey. 

The Interior, 110 yds. in length, is covered vs^ith massive barrel 
vaulting, the panels of which are partly painted. 1st Chapel on the right : 
Arrivabene, St. Antony admonishing the tyrant Ezzelino (painted in 1844). 
At the sides are frescoes representing Hell , Purgatory , and Paradise 
according to Dante. — 3rd, Cappella S. Longino: on the left, Sarcophagus 
with the inscription : 'Longini ejus, qui latus Christi percussit, ossa'. To 
the right is the sarcophagus of Gregorius of Nazianzus. The frescoes, designed 
by Giulio Romano., represent the Crucifixion; below is Longinus; on the 
opposite side the finding of the sacred blood. The saint is said to have 
brought hither some drops of the blood of Christ. — The Right Transept 
contains the monument of Bishop Andreasi (d. 1549), executed in 1551 by 
Clementi, a pupil of Michael Angelo. The swan is the heraldic emblem in 
the armorial bearings of Mantua. — Choir , Martyrdom of St. Andrew, a 
fresco by Anselmi, a pupil of Paolo Veronese. In the corner to the left by 
the high altar is the marble figure of Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga, founder 
of the church, in a kneeling posture. The Burial Chapel, beneath the 
high altar, where the drops of the sacred blood were preserved , contains 
a marble crucifix and an interesting statue of the Jladonna and Child, 
carved in wood. — Left Transept. Chapel on the left: Monument of 
Pietro Strozzi, with caryatides, designed by Giulio Romano (best seen 
from the middle of the nave). Another monument, with the recumbent 
figure of a Count Andreasi, was also designed by G. Romano. — The first 
small chapel to the left of the W. portal contains the tomb of the painter 
Andrea Mantegna (d. 1506) , with his ''Bust in bronze. — The walls are 
covered with frescoes of different periods. 

In the vicinity to the N.W. is a very extensive space, planted 
with trees and bounded by the Lago di Mezzo on the N. (drill- 
ground), called the Piazza Vikgiliana (PI. C, D, 2, 3), adorned 
with a bust of Virgil (p. 195) , and containing a handsome arena, 
the Teatro Virgiliano (PI. 16), which is used for open-air perfor- 
mances on summer evenings. Beyond the theatre, from the parapet 
towards the Lago di Mezzo, a superb view of the Tyrolese Alps is 
enjoyed in clear weather. 

The Accademia Virgiliana di Scienze e Belle Arti (PI. 1 ; D, 4) 
contains frescoes, sculptures, and casts of little value. Behind it is 
the Liceo (PI. 6 ; D, 4) with a Library (a room of which contains, 
above the doors, the portraits of the Gonzaga family, and a Trinity, 
by Rubens, cut into two parts) and the Museum. 

The museum contains some very valuable antiques. Near the entrance, 
326. Bust of Euripides and that of an unknown Greek poet, erroneously 
called Virgil. To the right of the entrance, torso of a Minerva; busts of 
emperors; 16. Sarcophagus with the myth of Medea ; 31. Funeral, an ar- 
chaic relief; 36. Torso of Venus ; 39. Sarcophagus with a battle of the 
Amazons; 198. in the centre (opposite), "Torso of Venus in Greek 
marble; Bacchic figures on a square pedestal; 69. Relief, perhaps from a 
Roman triumphal arch ; in the centre , opposite , "176. Sleeping Cupid, 

198 Route 32. MANTUA. 

by Michael Angela. In the adjoining room , on the right , the so-called 
'seat of Virgir and inscriptions. We now return to the galleries. Win- 
dow-wall, 148. Greek cippus; votive feet. Wall on the left, 171. Sarco- 
phagus with Selene and Endymion ; 180. Torso of a gladiador; 187. Large 
Bacchic relief. In the middle, *210. Archaic Apollo ; at the end of the 
galleries, by the window, 276. Roman tomb-relief, father and son. On the 
side-wall, 309. Warriors sacrificing, a Greek relief; in the centre, 237. 
Youthful Mercury. — The lower rooms of the Accademia contain a small 
collection of sculptures, including some interesting busts in terracotta, and 
a relief with two portraits from a chimney-piece. 

A short distance hence, immediately beyond the Porta Pusterla, 
the S.W. gate, is situated the *Palazzo del Te (PI. 11; B, 7; con- 
tracted from Tajetto) , erected by Giulio Romano , and containing 
in comparatively small apartments some of that master's largest 
frescoes. Antechamber, to the right of the entrance , the sun and 
moon. 1st Room to the left, the favourite horses of Duke Frederick 
Gonzaga ; 2nd Room : myth of Psyche and Bacchanalians ; 3rd 
Room : representation of the zodiac; 4th Room : fall of Phaeton and 
numerous smaller pictures; then a fine open loggia, and several 
rooms with beautiful friezes in stucco (triumphal procession of 
Emperor Sigismund and trains of children) by Primaticcio ; next 
the celebrated *Saln de Giganti, with the fall of the giants, whose 
figures are 14 ft. in height ; and lastly several cabinets, charmingly 
decorated in the style of Raphael, and an oblong bathing -room 
with shell-ornamentation. On the other side of the garden is the 
Casino delta Grotta, with its tiny but exquisite apartments and 
its grotto encircling a small garden. 

Vasarfs interesting description of the Sala de' Giganti may be freely 
rendered as follows : — 'Eccentric and talented, Giulio wished to show here 
what he could do. He accordingly determined to adapt the walls of a 
corner room in the palace for his painting , and thereby to deceive the 
human eye as much as possible. After he had given to this part of the 
palace, which stands on marshy ground, foundations of double the usual 
height , he caused a large round chamber with thick walls to be built 
upon them, the four corners outside being strong enough to bear a heavy 
vaulting. He then caused doors , windows , and chimney-pieces to be 
erected so much out of the perpendicular , that they really seemed as if 
they would fall, and after he had built the room in this strange fashion, 
he began to paint it in the most singular conception imaginable , repre- 
senting .lupiter hurling his lightnings at the giants'. The execution of 
these paintings is chiefly due to Rinaldo Mantovano. 

Giulio Romano's House, and the Palazzo delta Giustizia, with 
its colossal Ilerniie , built by him , are in the Contrada Larga 
(PI. 15, 5). 

FitOM JI.VNTUA TO CltEMONA, SCC pp. 166-8. 

The train reaches the Po at (32 M.) Borgoforte , once an im- 
portant toto-de-pont , the fortifications of which were blown up by 
the Austriatis in 1866, and crosses the river by an iron bridge. 

37 M. Suzzara; A2 M. Reggiolo- Gonzaga. 

About 6 M. to the W., on the road from Mantua to Reggio, lies Gua- 
8talla(/'o.s<«), a small town not far from the Po, with 11,300 inhab., which 
in the 16th cent, gave its name to a principality of the Gonzagas, Dukes 
of Mantua. These princes became extinct in 1746, and their territory fell to 

VICENZA. 33. Route. 199 

Parma. In the market-place is the bronze Statue of Ferdinand I. Gonza- 
ga (d. 1557 at Brussels), by Leone Lconi. — At about the same distance from 
the station, to the E., on the old road from Verona to Bologna, is situat- 
ed Kirandola, once the capital of a duchy which belonged to the Pico 
family, a town with broad streets and picturesque, antiquated buildings. 
It was originally under the jurisdiction of the abbey of Nonantola and 
the Countess Matilda, and after many vicissitudes came into possession 
of the Counts of Pico, who retained their supremacy for upwards of 
three centuries. Count Giovanni Pico (1463-94) was remarkable for his 
ability and learning. Alexander I. (1619) was the first of the family who 
bore the title of Duke of Mirandola and Concordia. Francesco Maria, the 
last duke , sold his dominions to Modena in 1710. The old Palace of the 
dukes, the Cathedral, and the church of Gesii should be visited. 

46 M. Rolo-Novi. — 53'/2 M. Carpi [Aibergo Leon d' Oro, in 
the market-place), a town of 18,200 iuhab., with an old Castle of 
the Pico family, in whose duchy the town was, and a Cathedral, 
built by Bald. Peruzzi 'according to the rules of Vitruvius' (at the 
3rd altar to the left a S. Carlo Borromeo by Peranda). — 58 M. 
Soliera. — 63 M. Modena (p. 276). 

33. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza. 

72 M. Railway in 3-5 hrs. (fares 13 fr., 9fr. 10, 6fr. 50c.). Finest 
views generally to the left. 

Verona, see p. 186. The train crosses the Adige, and traverses 
an extremely fertile district, covered with vineyards, mulberry 
trees, and fields of maize, and intersected with irrigation trenches. 

Near S. Michele, on the left, stands the pinnacled castle of Mon- 
tario, formerly the property of the Scaliger family (p. 189). — 4 M. 
S. Martino. The mineral springs of (71/2 M.) Caldiero , which 
attract many visitors, were known to the Komans. Villanuova, 
with the castle of (Soave , once belonging to the Scaligers , on the 
height to the left , presents a good picture of a mediaeval fortified 

13 M. S. Bonifacio. Arcole, 31/0 M. to the S. , was the scene 
of the battle of 15th-17th Nov., 1796, between the Austrians under 
Alvinczy and the French under Bonaparte, Massena, Augereau, and 
Lannes. — 16 M. Lonigo ; the village lies 41/.7 M. S.E., at the W. 
base of the Monti Berici, a chaiii of volcanic, wooded hills. — 
20 M. Montebello. Beautiful view towards the mountains; the 
handsome chateau belongs to Count Arrighi. To the left , on the 
hill, the castles of the Montecchi; then stat. Tavernelle. 

30 M. Vicenza. — Hotels. -Roma, in the Corso, near the Porta Castello, 
with a beer-garden, R. 2, A. '/a fi'- ; Stella d'Oko , in the Corso ; Due 
Mori e Gkan Pakigi, good cuisine ; Ai Tre Garofani , both in the Con- 
trada delle Due Ruote, a side-street of the Corso. 

Caffi' Principe Umberto and Caff^ Nazionale , in the Corso ; Garibaldi, 
Piazza de' Signori; "Raihcay Restaurant. 

Vicenza , the Vicetia of the ancients, the capital of a province, 
with 37,200 inhab., lies at the N. base of the Monti Berici (see 
above), on both sides of the Bacchiglione, near its confluence with 
the Hetrone, Though the houses for the most part are crowded, the 

200 Route 33. VICENZA. From Verona 

town possesses many interesting palaces , to which half a day may 
profitably be devoted. 

Vicenza, like all larger towns of N. Italy, boasted in the i5tli cent, 
of a School of Painting, which, though it was influenced by Mantegna, 
and never produced masters of the highest rank, yielded results of consid- 
erable importance. The earliest master of note was Giovanni Speranza, 
who, however, was soon surpassed by Bariolommeo Montagna (who 
flourished here in 1484-1523). The gallery and the churches (the Cathe- 
dral, S. Corona, and S. Lorenzo) of Vicenza contain works by the latter, 
and he is represented at Padua and Verona also. His compositions are 
strongly realistic, and he shows a predilection for muscular figures, and 
for colouring of a rich brownish tint. His drapery is ungraceful, but, 
like that of Diirer, boldly defined. His son, Benedetto Montagna., was 
unimportant, but his contemporary Giovanni Bvonconsiglio (d. 1530), a fol- 
lower of Antonello da Messina, has produced some pleasing works. In 
the 16th cent. Vicenza lost its importance in the history of painting, but 
attained a high reputation in the province of Aechitectdue, having given 
birth to Andrea Palladio (1518-1560), the last great architect of the Re- 
naissance, the chief sphere of whose operations was his native town. By 
his study of the antique in Rome he was enabled to effect a revival of 
vchat may be termed the ancient language of forms, and he made it his 
endeavour to exhibit in his buildings the organic connection between the 
dilTerent members. The chief characteristic of his school consists in a 
studious adherence to impressive simplicity of form, and a very sparing 
indulgence in the lavish enrichments in which the early Renaissance 
was too apt to revel. His finest churches are at Venice , but his most 
numerous palaces are at Vicenza, to which they impart a uniform and 
handsome appearance. 

The town is entered by the W. gate , the Porta del Castello 
(PL C, 4"). Immediately by the entrance, on the right, is the 
Palazzo Gusano (now Hotel de la Villel ; adjacent, to the right, in 
the S.W. angle of the Piazza Castello is the Casa del Diavolo (Pal. 
Giulio-Porta), a large unfinished palace by Palladio. We next 
follow the long Corso Principe Umberto. On the left the new church 
of S. Filippo Neri (PL 16^. — A short cross-street opposite, on the 
right, leads to the Duomo (PL 10; D, 4), consisting of a broad and 
low -nave with wide vaulted arches, the aisles having been con- 
verted into chapels, a choir considerably raised above the rest of 
the church and covered with a dome , and a crypt below it. To the 
right in the piazza is the Vescovado or episcopal palace, the court of 
which to the right contains beautiful, but uncompleted arcades. 
Opposite to it is the Casino. 

The Via Garibaldi, or the short Contrada del Monte, to the right 
of the Corso (opposite which is the Contrada Porto with numerous 
palaces), leads to the handsome Piazza de' Signori, with two col- 
umns of the Venetian period. Here rises the ^Palazzo del Consiglio, 
or naailica(Fl. 40; D, 3, 4), with a double series of grand and beauti- 
ful open arcades , the lower with Doric, the upper with Ionic col- 
umns, surrounding the Palazzo delta Ragione (town-hall). These 
arcades, begun in 1549, are one of Palladio's earliest works. The 
slender red tower is 265 ft. in height. Adjacent is the Tribunate. 
— Opposite the Basilica is the unfinished Loggia del Detegato, 
or Palazzo Preftttizio (PL 47), also by Palladio (1571), adjacent to 

to Venice. VICENZA. 33. Route. 201 

which Is the Monte diPieth. In the Piazza, near the Basilica, stands 
a good Statue of PaUadio in marble, by Gajassi, erected in 1859. 

On the left, at the E. end of the Corso , is the small Casa di 
PaUadio (PL 8; E, 3), the facade of which was once painted; then 
to the right, in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, the — 

*Museo Civico (PL 39 ; E, 3 ), established in the Palazzo Chiere- 
gati, one of Palladio's finest edifices, which was seriously injured 
in 1848, but restored in 1855 (open daily 9-4, i/^-itr.'). 

On tlie Ground Flook, Roman antiquities from an ancient theatre, 
among wliich two female statues only deserve mention. — The Upper Floor 
contains the -Pinacoteca (the names attached to the pictures are not 
always reliable). Ante-chamber: 2. Jac. da Ponte, Senators kneeling 
before the Madonna; 38. Girol. dal Toso, Madonna with SS. Catharine 
and Apollonia. The cabinets contain ancient terracottas and bronzes, 
mediseval coins, etc., and the shoes worn by the Doge of Venice on the oc- 
casion of his nuptials with the sea (p. 228). — I. Room : Venetian School, 37. 
Marriage of St. Catharine; 48. Madonna with Christ. — II. Room: 8. Titian, 
Madonna; *54. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna with St. Jerome and John 
the Baptist, an early work , executed in 1489 , before he had abandoned 
tempera for oil , the figures of good proportions, agreeable form, and 
firm outline (C. d- C); 57. Campagnola, Holy Family in a landscape; 
15. Sdiool of Bellini (with a spurious inscription). Madonna ; 28. Marco 
Palmezzano , Pieta. — III. Room : 14. Cima da Conegliano (or Andr. del 
Castagno?'), Angel of the Last Judgment; *1. German School, Crucifixion 
(comp. No. 315 in the Academy at Venice); 2. Bernardino da Murano, 
Madonna enthroned and four saints. — IV. Room : Bart. Montagna, *2. 
Madonna enthroned, with four saints and three angels; 3. Nativity of 
Christ; 8. Presentation in the temple; 18. Madonna enthroned, with St. 
Jerome and John the Baptist; 20. Biioncvnsiglio, Pieta. — V. Room. Por- 
traits: 7. by Gentile Bellini; *24. by Vitt. Carpaccio. — The following 
rooms contain engravings; in the last there are drawings and manuscripts 
of PaUadio. — Returning to the ante-room, we may finally visit two 
rooms with pictures of inferior value. The Natural History Collection 
contains some fine fossils: a fish, a palm, a crocodile, etc., most of them 
found in the neighbourhood of Vicenza. 

In the vicinity is the *Teatro Olimpico (PL 51; E, 3 ; fee V2fr.), 
designed by PaUadio, but not completed till 1584, after his death. 
It was inaugurated by the performance of the 'ffidipus Tyrannus' 
of Sophocles. PaUadio is said to have adhered to the directions 
given by Vitruvius with regard to the construction of ancient 
theatres, but the result differs materially from what would have 
been anticipated. The perspective of the stage is very remark- 
able ; it is closed by a facade adorned with statues, through three 
doors in which a glimpse of the distant landscape is obtained. 
The original orchestra in front of the stage is 5 ft. below the 
present wooden floor. 

Besides the above mentioned , the following structures of Pal- 
ladio may also be noticed: Palazzo Porto-Barbarano (PL 34; D, 3), 
Tiene (PL 48; D, 3), Valmarano (PL 49; D, 3), Porto Colleoni 
(PL 45), and the Rotonda (see p. 20*2). 

The church of S. Corona (PL 12; E, 3), a brick edifice with 
a plain Lombard facade, contains Five Saints by Bart. Montagna 
(2nd altar to the left), a *Baptism of Christ by G. Bellini (3rd altar 
to the left; about 1495), an Adoration of the Magi by P. Veronese 

202 Route 33. VICENZA. 

f3rd altar to the right), and a handsome monument in a chapel to 
the right of the choir. — S. Lorenzo (PI. 19; C, 3), in the Contrada 
di S. Lorenzo, has a Gothic facade which deserves notice, and con- 
tains (on the left) the tomb of B. Monlngna (p. 200), by whom 
the altar-piece on the 3rd altar to the right, representing SS. Lo- 
renzo and Vincenzo , was painted. — S. Stefano (PI. 29 ; D, 3) 
contains, over the 3rd altar to the left, a large *Altar-piece hy 
Palma Vecchio, the Madonna with SS. Lucia and George, an ad- 
mirable example of the latest period of the master, among whose 
finest creations the two saints must be reckoned. 

A walk to the pilgrimage-church of Madonna del Monte on the 
Monte Berico is recommended in the morning before the heat of 
the day, or in the afternoon when the arcades afford shade. The 
route is either through the Porta S. Giuseppe (before passing through 
which the *Ponte S. Michele, PI. D, E, 4, crossing the Retrone, by 
Palladio, is seen on the right), or immediately to the right from the 
railway-station, past the Villa Karolyi (PI. D, E, 5) and across the 
railway, to the arcade leading to the church, a passage resting on 
180 pillars, and 715 yds. in length, which was sharply contested 
in 1848 by Italian irregular troops , who had fortified the hill with 
its villas, and the Austrians. To the left, beyond a bend in the 
arcade, a view is obtained of Palladio's Villa Rotonda. The church 
of the Madonna del Monte (PL 24; D, 6, 7) is in the form of a 
Greek cross with a dome. The present left transept was the original 
church, erected in 1428, and adorned with pictures by Montagna. 
The old refectory of the monastery (shown by the sacristan) contains 
the Banquet of Gregory the Great by Paolo Veronese, which was 
entirely torn to pieces in 1848, but has been restored with the aid 
of the copy in the Pinacoteca. Behind the church is a monument 
to those who fell here in 1848 ; to the right an Italia Liberata 
dedicated to them by the municipio of Vicenza. Pleasant view 
hence (tolerable tavern). 

On the hill of S. Sebastiano, at the E. base of Monte Berico 
(not visible from the road thither), I1/2 M. from the town, is 
situated the celebrated *Ilotonda, or Villa Rotonda Palladiana ( PL 
G, 7) of the Marchesi Capra, a square building with an Ionic colon- 
nade, surmounted by a pediment on each of the four sides. In 
the centre is a circular hall with a dome. 

The Cimetero (PL F, 1) contains the grave of Palladio (d. 1580). 

The chalybeate Baths of Recoaro (Georgetti, ReaU Stabilimeiito, at 
the springs; Europa, Posla, Trel/enei-o, in the village), about 25 M. N.W. 
of Vicenza (by carr. in 4 hrs. ; diligence 6-7 fr.; carr. with one horse 12, 
with two horses 20fr.) are annually frequented by 7-8000 visitors. The 
Italian Alpine Club has fitted up a station for guides at Uccoaro, in order 
to facilitate c.xcur.sions in the vicinity. 

A Branch-Line (20 M. in l-l'/i br. ; fares 3fr., 2fr., 1 fr. 25c.), re- 
cently opened, runs from Vicon/.a to the N. by Dueville and Thiene, (Alb. 
della Luna), with a chateau adorned with frescoes by Faolo Veronese., to 
Bchio (G()5 ft.; IlOlel Itnllarin (ilia Ci-oce d'Oro, R. I'/zfr. ; Stella (VOro), 
a town with 9100 inhab. and extensive wool factories, the largest belong- 

PADUA. 34. Route. 203 

ing to Signer A. Rossi, who has founded here a workmen's colony like 
that at Mulhouse. Schio is an admirable starting-point for excursions. — 
From Schio a good road ascends the valley of the Leogra to the (12 M.) 
Passo del Pian della Fugazza (drive of l^/i hr.), which forms the boun- 
dary between Italy and the Tyrol, and thence descends the valley of the 
Leno to Roveredo (27V2 M. from Schio; p. 44). 

Poiana is the only station between Vicenza and Padua. Coun- 
try flat. To the S. in the distance , the Monti Euganei (p. 279). 

49 M. Padua, see below. 

To the left, as the train proceeds, the Tyrolese Alps are per- 
ceived in the distance. Near stat. Ponte di Brenta the line crosses 
the Brenta ; at stat. Dolo a lofty, slender campanile ; at (61 M.) 
Stat. Marano an arm of the Brenta is crossed. From [66 M.) Mestre 
the line to Trieste by Udine diverges to the N. (R. 37). Venice, 
with its dark blue line of towers and churches rising from the sea, 
now gradually comes into view. The islands with their groups of 
houses appear to float in the water. The line passes Fort Malghera 
and two large barracks on the left, and reaches the immense Bridge, 
(222 arches, length 21/3 M., breadth 28 ft.), by which the train 
crosses the Lagune in 8 min. and reaches the station of (71 '/2 M. 
Venice (see p. 210). 

34. Padua, Ital. Paclova, Lat. Patavium. 

Hotels. *H6tel Fanti Stella d'Oro (PI. a; F,3), in the Piazza dei Noli, 
now Garibaldi, R. from 3, B. iV2, D. 5, L. and A. lV4fr. ; "Croce d'Oro 
(PI. b; F, 4), in the Piazza Biade, now Cavour, with baths, R. 2V2, om- 
nibus 3/4^ A. •/s-V^fr., good cuisine, and moderate charges; Aqdila Nera 
(PI. c ; F, 3, 4), in the same piazza and belonging to the same proprietor, 
opposite Cafe Pedrocchi; Paradiso, adjoining the Hotel Fanti ; Dde Croci 
BiANCHB , opposite S. Antonio; "Albergo del Sole d'Oro, Via S. Matteo 
1150, to the K. of the Via S. Fermo (PI. F, 3), unpretending. 

Cafes. 'Pedrocchi (PI. 28; E, F, 4), opposite the University, an 
imposing edifice with halls and columns of marble; 'Vittoria , in the 
Piazza Unita d'ltalia (or de' Signori). — Restaurants. Gasparoito, at the 
back of the Catfe Pedrocchi; Birreria di Franc. Stoppato , Via Ere- 

Cabs. '■Broughams' are those with one horse : to or from the station 
1 fr. , luggage 40 c, 1/2 hr. IV2 fr., 1 hr. 2 fr. , drive in the town 50 c, 
at night 25 c. more. Omnibuses from the hotels meet each train. 

Sights. The following walk is recommended. Proceed straight through 
the Porta Codalunga (PI. G, H, 3) , then turn to the left past the church 
of / Carmini {~Scvola adjacent) to the Ponte Molino and the Strada Mag- 
giore, follow the latter to the Piazza de'' Signori (or Unita d'ltalia), 
turn into the Piazza dei Frutti to the left, pass through the Sala delta 
Ragione to the Piazza delle Erbe , see the Cafi Pedrocchi on the left , turn 
to the right to the Strada di S. Lorenzo and (where there is a direction 
'al Santo') again to the right into the Selciato di S. Antonio leading to 
the * Santo (Scuola, S. Giorgio, Miiseo Civico); then back to the Cafe 
Pedrocchi, pass through it, and cross the Piazza Cavovr and Piazza Gari- 
baldi to the right to the ''Eremitani and *S. Anniinziata. 

Padua, the capital of a province, with 66,200 inhab., situated 
on the Bacchiglione which flows through it in several branches, 
occupies an extensive area. Its tortuous streets are generally flanked 

204 Route 34. PADUA. S. Antonio. 

with low and narrow '■Portic'i' or arcades , but many of the more 
important thoroughfares have recently been widened by the re- 
moval of the portici on one side. Some of the numerous bridges, 
which cross the different arms of the river, date as far back as the 
time of the Romans. Padua enjoys the reputation of being the 
cheapest town in N. Italy. 

Padua (races its origin to Antenor, the mythical King of Troy, and 
brother of Priam, and in the reign of Augustus was the wealthiest town 
in Upper Italy. At a later period all the ancient monuments were de- 
stroyed during the immigration of the barbarian hordes. In the middle 
ages" the town took the part of the Guelphs , and in 1318 appointed Ja- 
copo da Carrara to the Signoria. The princes of this family were much 
harrassed by the princes of Verona and the republic of Venice, and were 
at length obliged to succumb in 1405, when the town was annexed to 
Venetia. The University, founded by the Emperor Frederick II. in 1238, 
rendered Padua a very famous seat of learning throughout the whole of 
the middle ages. 

In the History of Art Padua is also a place of importance, its re- 
putation as the great focus of Italian science having attracted artists from 
many other places. Thus the Florentine masters Giotto, Donatella, F. Lippi, 
and Uccelli, found abundant occupation here. The school of art found- 
ed here by Squarcione in the first half of the 15th cent, exhibits a strange 
bias towards scholastic elements. Squarcione, though not a professional ar- 
tist, made a valuable collection of works of art during his travels, and 
caused a number of young artists to make drawings from these models. 
The greatest Paduan master was Andrea Mantegna (p. 195), and the 
school exercised no inconsiderable influence on that of Venice. The 
austere style peculiar to the Paduan pictures is perhaps due to the doc- 
trinal mode in which the artists were instructed, and to their predilection 
for richness of decoration, for which Squarcione's collection doubtless 
supplied abundant models. 

*S. Antonio [PI. 1 ; D, 4), the Basilica of St. Anthony of Pa- 
dua (d. 1231 ; a contemporary of St. Francis of Assisi). commonly 
known as 'II Santo', is supposed to have been designed by 
Niccolo Pisano in 1237, but was not begun till 1256. The 
principal part of the church was completed in 1307, the re- 
mainder not before 1475 (when the domes were raised); the 
whole was restored in 1749 after a fire. This vast structure with 
its seven domes is larger than S. Marco at Venice. Over the 
portal of the facade, which is 117 ft. in width, stands a statue of 
the saint; in the lunette Madonna with SS. Bernardino and Antonio, 
a fresco by Mantegna. The church is 100 yds. in length, 49 yds. 
in width across the transepts, and 123 ft. high in the centre. The 
nave and aisles are supported by twelve pillars ; the semicircular 
choir contains eight clustered columns and a series of eight chapels ; 
at the back of the choir is the Santuario, in the 'baroque' style, con- 
taining the treasury of St. Antony. 

The Interior, now whitewashed , was probably once covered with 

At the entrance, in the nave on the right and left, are two handsome 
benetiers, with statuettes of St. John the Baptist and Christ, dating from 
the beginning of the 16th centurv. 

Right Aisle. By the 1st pillar a -Madonna in Trono with SS. Peter, 
Paul, Bernard, and Anthonv, an altar-pioce by Antonio Roselli of Bergamo. 
— 1st Chapel: Altar with reliefs in bronze by Donatello, representing the 

Scuola del Santo. PADUA. 34. Route. 205 

miracles of St. Anthony ; on the left the sarcophagus of General Gattamelata 
(p. 206), and on the right, that of his son. 

Right Transept. ''Cappella S. Felice^ restored in 1773, with frescoes 
from the history of Christ and St. James, by AUichieri da Zevio and Jac. 
cCAvanzo , painted in 1376, and a handsome altar of 1503. 

Left Transept. ''Cappella del Santo, designed by Sansovino; the facade 
has four columns and two elegant corner pillars adorned with reliefs by 
Matteo and Tommaso Garvi; between the five arches are the Evangelists. 
The walls are embellished with nine ■Reliefs of the 16th cent., represent- 
ing scenes from the life of St. Anthony : (beginning to the left of the altar) 
*1. Ordination of St. Anthony, by Antonio Minelli (1512); 2. Resuscitation 
of a murdered woman, by Giovanni Maria Padovano; *3. Resuscitation of 
a youth, by Oirolamo Campagna; 4. A suicide surrounded by women, by 
Sansovino; 5. Resuscitation of a child, begun by Dcinese Cattaneo, and 
completed by Campagna ; 6. Tvllio Lombardo , Discovery of a stone in 
the corpse of a miser instead of a heart (1525) ; 7. Tullio Lombardo, Cure 
of a broken leg; 8. Miracle with a glass, begun by Padovano, and finished 
by Stella; '9. St. Anthony causes a child to bear testimony in favour of 
its mother, by Antonio Lombardo. — The bones of the saint repose beneath 
the altar, which is also adorned with many votive tablets. Two mag- 
nificent silver candelabra, borne by angels in marble. The white and 
golden ornamentions on the vaulting, designed, according to Burckhardt, 
by Falconetto or Jacopo Sansovino, and executed by Tiziano Minio , are 
of great beauty. — On the N. side of the choir is the Cappella del 
B. Luca Bellvdi, a pupil of S. Anthony, with frescoes representing the his- 
tory of St. Philip and St. James the Less, painted by Giov. and Ant. Pado- 
vano in 1382, and restored in 1786; the walls are covered with numerous 
votive paintings. 

Left Aisle. Large monument of the Venetian Admiral Caterino Cor- 
nelia (d. 1674), with two figures as supporters, two prisoners in fetters, 
and the life-size statue of the admiral by Giusto le Curt; "Monument of 
Antonio de" Roy.celUs (d. 1466), of an architectural character; by the last 
pillar (1st from the W. portal) the monument of Count Sicco ; opposite to 
it is the last altar , that of St. Stanislaus , with a vault which once be- 
longed to the kingdom of Poland; adjacent to it is a relief by Luigi Fer- 
rari to the memory of the Princess Jablonowska (d. 1846). 

In the Choir are twelve reliefs in bronze , representing scenes from the 
Old Testament, most of them executed by Vellano , a pupil of Donatello, 
at the end of the 15th century. The features of the full-length figure of St. 
Anthony are said to be faithfully represented. The reliefs on the altar and 
the symbols of the four evangelists on the right and left are by Donatello. 
Adjacent to the altar is a bronze "Candelabrum, ili/2 ft. in height, by 
Andrea Riccio , adorned with a variety of Christian and heathen repre- 
sentations (1507). The 'Crucifix in bronze, with the Virgin and the tutelary 
saints of Padua, is by Donatello; the marble work is attributed to Giro- 
lamo Campagna. Above the door at the back of the ambulatory is a terra- 
cotta relief of the Entombment, by Donatello. 

Kave. By the 2nd pillar on the left the 'Monument oi Alessandro Con- 
tarini (d. 1553) , General of the republic of Venice , with six slaves as 
supporters. By the opposite pillar (2nd on the right) is the simple and chaste 
monument of Cardinal Bembo (d. 1547) ; by the 4th pillar on the left the 
monument of the Venetian Admiral Hieronymus Michael (d. 1557). The 
Sackistt contains some mosaics in wood by the brothers Canossa (15th 

The Cloisters , entered from the S. aisle (several monuments and 
frescoes in the style of Giotto in the passage) , with their wide and lofty 
pointed arches , contain a number of ancient tombstones. 

The Sanctdart (admission 6 fr.), added to the church in 1690, con- 
tains a valuable collection of admirable ''Goldsmith's Work of the 15th and 
16th centuries, including the marshal's baton of Gattamelata, a reliquary 
with the tongue of St. Anthony, a Gothic censer, and a credence plate. 

The * Scuola del Santo (PI. 25; D, 4), adjoining the church, 

206 Route 34. PADUA. Museo Civico. 

the assembly-hall of the hrotherhood of St. Anthony, is adorned with 
seventeen frescoes representing, like those in the Cappella del 
Santo (_p. 205) , scenes from the life of the saint. Several of them 
are by Titian, who at the time of their execution (1511) had trans- 
ferred his residence to Padua, probably in consequence of the de- 
pressed state of Venice after the war with the League of Cambrai. 
Written catalogue for the use of visitors ; best light in the after- 
noon ; fee 25 c. 

By early Paduan masters Nos. 4, 8, and 10; by Domenico Campagnola, 
chosen by Titian as his assistant, Nos. '2, 3, 9, and 17; by Titian^ No. '1. 
St. Anthony giving speech to a child; 11. The saint s.aves a woman who 
is threatened with death by her jealous husband; 12. Healing of a youth. 
The rest are painted by pupils of Titian. 

'No doubt the frescoes at Padua are creations of a master and a co- 
lourist, yet the same master did many times better in oil, and unless we 
suppose that the walls of the Santo are so changed as to have lost all 
trace of their original beauty, we must believe either that Titian trusted 
too much to his assistants, or that he disliked fresco as a craft altogether. 
Venice in the person of her greatest craftsman was so far below Florence 
that she could not produce a fresco painter equal to Andrea del Sarto, 
while Florence on the other hand never produced a colourist equal to 
Titian.' — Crowe and Caralcaselles Titian. 

The ancient Cappella S. Giorgio, adjacent, contains twenty- 
one admirable frescoes of 1377 by Jacopo d'Avanzo and AUichieri, 
discovered in 1837 by E. Forster. 

To the right, below, is the legend of St. Lucia, above it the legend 
of St. Catharine ; to the left, above and below, the legend of St. George. 
Altar-wall: Crucifi.\iou, Coronation of the Virgin. Wall of the door: 
Flight into Egypt , Adoration of the Magi , Nativity. Afternoon light 
most favourable. 

In front of the church is the equestrian *Statue of Erasmo da 
Narni, surnamed Gattamelata, commander of the army of the 
Republic of Venice in 1438-41, cast in bronze by Donatello . the 
first great specimen of bronze-casting of the modern period of Italian 
art, erected in 1443. 

To the right of the church of S. Antonio, established in the 
S.W. cloisters of the suppressed monastery, is the Museo Civico 
(PI. 49 ; D, 4), containing the civic library, and (till the new build- 
ing is ready) the Pinacoteca ('/a fr-)- 

1. Santa Croce , Mary as the Queen of Heaven (after Diirer) ; 3. Soc- 
caccino, Madonna with SS. Lucia and Catharine; 12. Lor. Lotto (1) , Ma- 
donna and saints; 8. Bonifacio, Same subject; IS. 5«5ai<i, Madonna (freely 
retouched); 67. Paris Bordone, Christ and Mary Magdalene; 137. Santa 
Croce, Madonna ; 144. Bellini (?), Portrait ; 657. Squarcione, St. Jerome and 
other saints; Padovanino , 768. Judith, 769. Bathsheba, 633. Portrait of 
himself; 710. Garofalo, Holy Family; 673. Palmezzano , Madonna; 654. 
Tiepolo, S. Patrizio; 615. Paolo Agapiti da Sassoferrato , Madonna with 
saints ; 549. Leandro Bassano, The Doge Memmo ; llomanino, 765. Madonna 
and saints, ^1215. Madonna enthroned with four saints, a masterpiece (in 
its original frame). — The Museo contains some fine specimens of Majo- 
lica. — The Botlacin Collection, also contained here, consists of Romano- 
Kgyptian and Mexican antiquities, Kenaissance, coins and medals, 
modern paintings, and modern sculptures (Woman drawing, and Woman 
readin;,', liy Mayni ; Spring, by Vela; Girl praying, by Camerone). 

Jn the Via del Santo, No. 3950 (to the E. of S. Antonio), in the 

Eremitani. PADUA. 34. Route. 207 

midst of a neglected garden , stands the dilapidated Palazzo Gius- 
tiniani., Ituilt by Falconetto for Luigi Coniaro in 1524, and finely 
embellished with frescoes and plastic ornamentation in stucco. 

*Eremitani (PI. 12; F, 4), an Augustiiiian church of the middle 
of the 13th cent., judiciously restored of late, with painted vault- 
ing of wood, is a very long building, destitute of aisles, columns, 
and pillars. 

On the right and left are two old monuments of Princes of Carrara, 
the ancient lords of Padua, in a style peculiar to this town. — The walls of 
the Choir are covered with indiSerent frescoes by Ouariento (beginning 
of 15th cent.), representing scenes from the history of the Augustinian 

The *Cappella S. Jacopo e Ckistofouo, adjoining the right transept, 
is embellished with celebrated frescoes, forming one of the finest existing 
specimens of Upper Italian art. Although now considerably damaged, 
these pictures are still very attractive, while their decorative parts show 
that the School of Squarcione , from which they emanated , was indebted 
for many suggestions to its study of the antique. The Evangelists on the 
ceiling are the poorest, and probably the earliest part of the work. The 
four upper sections on the wall on the right are also by inferior artists; 
the St. Christopher with the Infant Christ is by Bono; the two highest 
scenes, representing St. James as a worker of miracles, and St. James be- 
fore the king, are by an unknown master (Zoppo '?) ; the adoration of the 
giant saint (central section on the right) is by Ansuino da Forli. The 
paintings on the wall and vaulting of the recesses of the choir , are by 
Niccolb Pizzolo , an able master of Padua, who died young. By far the 
most important of all these works are the -Pictures with which Andrea 
Mantkgna completed the cycle in the second half of the 15th century. 
The left wall presents to us the life of St. James from his calling to his 
execution. The lower scenes exhibit greater ability and maturity than the 
upper , so that we can almost trace the master's progress step by step. 
The Execution and Burial of St. Christopher, the last pictures on the right 
wall, also by Maniegna, are sadly injured. — The large altar-relief of the 
Madonna and saints in terracotta, by Giov. da Pisa , a pupil of Donatello 
who worked for a considerable time at Padua, has visibly influenced the 
painters of the frescoes. 

The chapel to the right of the high altar contains a Coronation of 
Mary of the school of Giotto. 

The Sacristy (entrance to the left of the choir) contains an altar- 
piece by Guido Reni (covered), representing John the Baptist, and a Pieta, 
a monumental relief, by Canova. 

On the N. side of the Piazza in front of the church is the 
entrance (if closed, ring at the large wooden gate ; fee 72^^-) to 
the *Madoniia dell' Arena {Annunziata , PI. 2; G, 4), situated in 
an oval garden which shows the outlines of an ancient amphi- 
theatre. The chapel, which is oblong in form, was erected by Scro- 
vegno, a Paduan architect, in 1303, and its walls and vaulting are 
completely covered with a series of **rrescoes by Giotto , most of 
which are well preserved (restored by Botti). The period of their 
execution is determined by the fact that Dante and Giotto met at 
Padua in 1306. Morning light is the most favourable. 

These frescoes represent the History of tue Virgin and Christ, as 
narrated in the apocryphal Proto-Evangelium and in the New Testament, 
and end, according to ancient custom, with the Last Judgment painted 
on the entrance-wall. The last work is much injured, and was probably 
executed more by Giotto's pupils than by the master himself, whose hand 
is unmistakeably revealed only in the graceful figure of Christ at the top, 

208 Route 34. PADUA. Cathedral. 

surrounded by apostles, angels, and saints. The paintings on the side- 
walls are arranged in four rows, one above another. The Uppermost 
Kow (beginning to the right of the choir-arch) relates the history of the 
Virgin from the rejection of Joachim's sacrifice to Mary's bridal pro- 
cession. The Birth of the Virgin and the Presentation of the Virgin in 
the Temple are marked by much delicacy of treatment. — The Second 
Kow begins with the Annunciation (choir-arch), and depicts the youth of 
Christ and the events of his ministry up to the driving of the money- 
changers out of the Temple. The finest scenes are the Adoration of the 
Atagi^ the Flight into Egypt, and the Entry into Jerusalem. — The highest 
fiight of Giotto's imagination is seen in some of the paintings in the 
Third Kow , which is mainly occupied with the scenes of the Passion. 
The representation of the beginning of Christ's sorrows by the Corruption 
of Judas (to the left of the choir-vrall) is a fine dramatic touch. In the 
Crucifixion Giotto has not only surpassed all his predecessors in the no- 
bility of his conception of the person of the Uivine Sufl'erer , hut has 
added a most afl'ecting and pathetic feature in the numerous cherubs, 
who show every degree of sympathy and sorrow. The gem of the whole 
series, however, is the Pietd, or the dead body of Christ wept over by 
the Virgin and her friends. The tone of the composition is in admirable 
keeping with its tragic content. — The Lowest Kow consists of allegori- 
cal figures of the Virtues and Vices in grisaille, and leads up naturally 
to the Last Judgment, the Vices standing on the same side as Hell, the 
Virtues on that of Paradise. The painting of Christ enthroned with 
angels, above the choir-arch, shows that Giotto was as much at home in 
portraying forms of placid gracefulness as in the domains of passion and 
emotion. — The Frescoes in the Choir (Glorification of the Virgin) are 
by a later hand, and of little importance. (Photographs from the origi- 
nals may be purchased of Naya at Venice, 3 fr. each, see p. 215.) — At 
the back of the altar is the monument of the founder of the church, Gio- 
vanni Pisano, 1321. 

Near the Porta Codalunga , in the vicinity , is the church of 
I Carmini (Pi. 6; G, 3), with a dome and large choir witii six 
chapels on each side, and an unfinislied fac^ade. — In the adjacent 
open space rises a monument to Petrarch, erected by the town on 
18th June, 1874, the 500th anniversary of his death. 

On the right is the *Scuola del Carmine (PI. 24 ; G, 3 ; now a 
baptistery; sacristan in the cloisters), witli sadly damaged frescoes 
from the lives of Christ and SS. Joachim, Anna, and Mary. 

Left, Titian, Meeting of Joachim and Anna, executed still earlier than 
the frescoes in the Scuula del 8anto (p. 206), 'a hasty vrork unworthy of 
the master' ; Girolamo da Santa Grace, Kirth of Mary, Presentation in the 
Temple, Purification, and Sposalizio; the others by Paduan masters. *A1- 
tar-piece, Madonna and Child in an attitude of benediction, by Palma 

The Palazzo Giustiniani, Via Pensio, contains a private picture 
gallery, including several portraits by Titian (among others the 
sketches for the portraits of Philip II. and Francis I.). 

The Cathedral (PI. 11; E, 2), with a plain facade, -n-as built by 
Righelto and Ddln Valle about 1550. The Baptistery (PI. 3; E, 2), 
adjoining it on the N., a brick structure of the 12th cent., is adorned 
with frescoes of 1380 by Giov. and Ant., or by Giusto Padovano. 

The Palazzo della Ragione (PI. 37; E, 3), briefly known as II 
Salone, situated between the Piazza delle Erbe and the Piazza de' 
Frutti (or P. del Peronio), a 'Juris Basilica' as the inscription re- 
cords, was erected in 1172-1219. It is celebrated for its great //aW, 

University. PADUA, 34. Route. 209 

witli vaulted wooden ceiling , formed by the removal of two divi- 
sion-walls after a fire in 1420, and perliaps the largest in Europe, 
91 yds. in length, 30 yds. in breadth, and 78 ft. in height. 

This hall contains a large wooden model of a horse by Bonatello, 
which has given rise to various conjectures, hut was probably used by 
the artist as a model for the horse in the monument of Gattamelata (it close- 
ly resembles the third horse to the right on St. Mark's at Venice, 
p. 222, which was probably the prototype). Behind the horse is the tomb- 
stone of T. Livius Halys, a freedman of the family of the historian Livy, 
who is believed to have been born at Abano (p. 279). The walls are ad- 
orned with about 400 pictures in fresco, painted soon after 142U by Giov. 
Mireiio and others (frequently retouched), representing the influence of the 
constellations and the seasons on mankind (custodian '/z fr.). 

Under the loggia towards the Piazza dei Frutti, and that towards 
the Piazza delle Erbe, both added in 1306, are Roman antiquities, 
chiefly inscriptions. 

The following palaces also merit inspection : the Palazzo del 
Podesta or del Municipio (PL 39; E, 3), 16th cent., in the Piazza 
delle Erbe ; the modern Palazzo delle Debite in the same Piazza ; 
and the Pal. del Capitaneo (PI. 38 ; E, 2, 8), with a clock-tower, in 
the Piazza de' Signori (now the Piazza Unitk d'ltalia) , which was 
the seat of the Capitano, or governor, during the Venetian supre- 
macy, and now contains the university library. 

The Loggia del Consiglio, or Gran Guardia, in the Piazza 
de' Signori (^Pl. p], 3), by Biagio Rossetti, is a very elegant 
example of the early Renaissance style, possessing a deep vestibule 
with an open arcade above a broad and lofty flight of steps. 

The University (PI. 47 ; E, 4), opposite the Caf^ Pedrocchi, 
is established in a building called 'II Bb' , from a tavern which 
once existed in the vicinity with the sign of the ox. Below the 
handsome colonnades in the court, erected in 1552 by Jac. San- 
sovino, are numerous inscriptions and armorial bearings of disting- 
uished 'cives academicV. 

Padua has also dedicated a number of monuments to the 'audi- 
tores PatavinV , or students of the university, who distinguished 
themselves in after-life. A double series of statues adorn the 
*Prato della Valle (PL C, 3 , 4), now called the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele II., originally a grassy dale, now a promenade. In the 
inner row to the left, No. 76. Steph. Bathori, 75. John Sobieski 
'qui Patav. academ. alumnus ingenio, patriam rex etc. illustr.' ; 
in the external row Tas^o, Ariosto , Petrarch, Galileo. A few of 
these statues only possess artistic value, such as those of Poleni 
and Capello by Ganova. This spacious Piazza presents a busy 
scene at the time of the fair (fiera), which begins on the festival 
of St. Anthony (13th June} and lasts for a fortnight. 

On the W. side of the Prato is the Loggia Amulea (PL 40), a 
modern Gothic structure, used by the judges at the horse-races 
held on the Prato annually , on i2th June. Below are the marble 
Statues of Dante and Giotto, by Vincenzo Vela. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 14 

210 Route 3d. PADUA. 5. Giustina. 

Inscriptions: 'A Dante poeta massimo di patria concordia propugna- 
tore festeggiando Italia il 6 cenfenario dal suo natale Padova gloriosa di 
sua dimora p. 1865", and, 'a Giotto per lo studio del vero rinovatore della 
pittura amico di Dante lodato nel sacro poema Padova da suoi affreschi 
illustrata p. 1865'. 

To the S.E. of the Prato is situated the church of *S. Giustina 
(PI. 16; C, 4), an edifice of strikingly noble and imposing pro- 
portions, completed in 1516 by Andrea Riccio or Briosco. The un- 
adorned facade of brick is approached by a handsome flight of 
twelve steps, of the entire breadth of the structure. The interior 
consists of a nave and aisles , bordered on each side by a row of 
chapels. The aisles are roofed with barrel vaulting, the nave with 
three flat domes. The transept and choir are terminated by semi- 
circular recesses and surmounted by four lofty cupolas. 

The church is paved with black, yellow, and red marble. In the left 
transept is the sarcophagus of St. Luke, in the right transept that of St. 
Matthew. Over the high altar, which contains the tomb of St. Justina, 
is the 'Martyrdom of St. Justina, by Paolo Veronese. Magnificently carved 
'Choir-stalls from drawings of Campagnola (1552), in 50 different sections, 
each representing a subject from the New Testament above, and one 
from the Old below. In the chapel on the right of the choir is represented 
the Virgin with the body of Christ, at the sides John and Mary Magda- 
lene, a large group in marble by Parodi (ITth cent.). The old choir, the 
sole remnant of the original church, also possesses fine carved stalls. 

In the vicinity is the Botanic Garden (PI. 32; C, 4), founded 
in 1545 and one of the oldest in Europe, well stocked with trees 
peculiar to the south. 

Excursion to the Euganean Sills, see p. 279. 

35. From Vicenza to Treviso. From Padua to 

FRO.M Vicenza to Treviso, 37 M., railway in 2V4 hrs. ; fares 5fr. 50, 
4fr., 2fr. 40 c. 

Vicenza, see p. 199. — 8 M. S. Pietro in Gu ; 10 M. Carmi- 
gnano, beyond which the Brenta is crossed; l'2i/.2 M. Fontaniva. 

14 M. Cittadella, a town of 8900 inhab. and the junction for 
the Padua and Bassano railway (see below). The Cathedral con- 
tains a Last Supper by Jacopo Bassano. — 18 M. San Martino 
di Lupari. 

22 M. Castelfranco, a pleasant country-town , in the centre of 
which rise the towers and walls of its old castle , was the birth- 
place of the painter Giorgio Barharella, surnamed II Giorgione 
(about 1467-1511). Behind the high altar of the Cathedral is a 
■■"Madonna with SS. Francis and Liberale by that master; in the 
sacristy are frescoes of Justice, Prudence, Time, Fame, and four 
Cupids, by Paolo Veronese, an early work brought from the Villa 
Soranza. Sig. Dom. Tescari possesses a collection of pictures, 
which includes several by early Venetian masters and a female 
portrait by Giorgione. 

Castelfranco is the most convenient starting-point for a visit to the 
Villa ciaconu-lli, near Afaser, which may tie reached by a carriage vvilh 

BASSANO. 35. Route. 211 

one horse in 1^/^ hr. A small detour may be made so as to include the 
Villa Faiizolo , which contains some frescoes by P. Veronese., imperfectly 
restored. — The 'Villa Giacomelli, formerly called the Villa Manin and 
often spoken of as the Villa Mash; after the neighbouring village, was 
erected by Palladio, and is celebrated for its frescoes by Paolo Veronese., 
executed for the Venetian patrician Marcantonio Barbaro , and ranking 
among the best works of the master. A series of mythological represen- 
tations and scenes from social life, grandly conceived, are here presented 
to us, while a number of the illusive figures so frequently used in the 
art of a late period are intmduced. Such are, immediately by the en- 
trance , a girl and a page, who through a half-opened door apparently 
watch the persons entering. The dining-room with its fantastically- 
painted architecture is adorned with representations of Ceres with her 
train and Cupids. The ceiling of the great hall is decorated with paint- 
ings of the Councils of the Gods, and the Feast of the Gods on Mount 
Olympus. Those who wish to obtain a good idea of a patrician abode 
of the luxurious 16th cent, should not omit to make this excursion. The 
chapel attached to the villa contains ornamentation in stucco by Al. Vit- 
toria. — The return-drive may be made via Monte Belluna (Corona) to 
Istrana (see below) in P/i hr. 

2572 M. Albaredo; 30 M. Istrana; 33 M. Paese ; 37 M. Tre- 
viso, see p. 260. 

From Padda to Bassano, 30 M., railway in 13/4-2V4 hrs. ; fares 4 m. 20, 
3 m. 15, Ifr. 95 c. 

Padua, see p. 203. The train crosses the Brenta. 3 M. Vigo- 
darzere; 7M. Campodarsego ; 9 M. S. Oiorgio delle Pertiche; 12 M. 
Camposampiero, with 2700 inhab. ; 16 M. Villa del Conte. 

2OV2 M. Cittadella, see p. 210. 

25 M. Rossano ; 26 M. Ros^. 

30 M. Bassano (*S. Antonio ; Hondo) , a charmingly situated 
town with 14,700 inhah., the seat of a bishop, and surrounded by 
old ivy-clad walls. The houses of the market-place show some in- 
teresting remains of the early facade painting which was so common 
in the towns of the Venetian Terra Ferma (comp. p. 260}. 

Near the market is the Civic Musbum (open during the middle 
of the day; adm. at other times by fee), containing a number of 
works by the Da Ponte family, most of whom acquired the sur- 
name of Bassano from their birthplace. 

Room I. : Francesco Bassano (farther of Jacopo), Sladonna with SS. Pe- 
ter and Paul; Jacopo Bassano (1510-92; the most eminent of this group 
of artists, who all paint in his manner), Nativity of Christ, and St. Val- 
entine baptising a dumb girl-, Leandro Bassano (d. 1623 ; son of Jacopo), 
Portrait of the Podesta Capello. — Room II : Voogd, Landscape, formerly 
in the possession of Canova. — Room III. : The original models for Ca- 
nova's Venus and Hebe, and casts of Canova's works. — An adjoining 
room contains a collection of relics of the artists. 

In proceeding from the Museum to the Cathedral, we pass the 
Piazza del Terraglio, which commands a noble prospect of the 
town, the river, and the Alps. Just beyond the bridge, to the 
right, is a small cafe with a balcony. 

The Cathedkal contains several works by Jacopo Bassano. 

Near its N. entrance rises the once fortified tower of Ezzelino, 
the cruel Ghibelin leader, now partly occupied by ecclesiastics of 
the cathedral, and affording a lovely view. 


212 Route 36. VENICE. 

The Villa Rezzonica, IY2 M. from the town, contains, amongst 
other works of art, an oil-painting by Canova, representing the 
Death of Socrates. In the suburb of Borgo Leone lies the Villa 
Parolini, with a beautiful park. 

Bonaparte defeated the Austrians under Wurmser at Bassano on Sept. 
Stb, 179G, four days after the battle of Roveredo , having marched hither 
from Trent in two days. The covered w^ooden bridge over the Brenta 
occupies the place of one which the French blew up on that occasion. 
— In 1S09 Napoleon elevated the district of Bassano into a duchy and 
conferred it upon his secretary of state Marel. 

Fossagno, Canova s birthplace, is beautifully situated at the base of 
the Monte Grappa^ 12 M. N.E. of Bassano. A good road to it leads by 
Romano, the birthplace of Ezzelino, and Crespano. The church, in the 
form of a circular temple, and designed by Canova, contains his tomb, an 
altar-piece painted by him, and a handsome bronze relief of the Entomb- 
ment. The church and the bridge at Crespano (see above), which crosses 
the river by a single arch (118 ft. in span), were built with funds be- 
queathed by Canova for the purpose. The Palazzo, as his house is called, 
contains models and casts of his works. 

From Bassano to Tkent, diligence thrice daily in lOhrs., see p. 43. 

36. Venice, Italian Venezia. 

Arrival. The Railway Station is on the N.W. side of the town , at 
the end of the Canal Grande (PI. B, C, 2 ; the town office is by the Ponte 
dei Pignoli; comp. Introd. vii). — Good order is maintained at the station. 
An official at the egress assigns a gondola to the traveller on being told 
his destination. An ample supply of gondolas and 'Omnibus-boats' is al- 
ways in waiting; but the latter are not recommended, being slow, often 
crowded, and aflording no view. Gondola from the station to any part of 
the city 1 fr., each box 15 c.; with two rowers double these charges. A 
second generally profl'ers his services , but may be dismissed with the 
words 'basta uno!' — Gondola tariff for those who arrive by sea, see 
p. 214. — Omnibus Boats ply, on the arrival of every train, from the 
station to the Riva del Carhone (near Ponte Bialto) and the Piazzetta. Fare 
25 c., gratuity 5 c., each heavier article of luggage 15 c.; the porter 
belonging to the boat, who conveys luggage to the hotel , also e-xpects 
a fee. Omnibus boats to the station (in 20 min.) start from the Molo , E. 
of the Piazzetta, 3/-i l"". before the departure of each train (their station 
is by the first bridge, the Ponte della Paglia, close to the Bridge of Sighs). 
— Small cafe at the station. 

Hotels (table-d'hote usually at 5 or 6 p.m.). 'Grand Hotel Royal (Dan- 
lELi ; PI. a, F 4), in the old Palazzo Bernardi, well situated, at the be- 
ginning of the Riva degli Schiavoni , E. of the Palace of the Doges, with 
the dependance Beaurivage, also on the Riva degli Schiavoni; D. 5fr. 'Eu- 
Hoi'A (PI. b; F,4), in the former Palazzo Giustiniani, on the Grand Canal, 
opposite the Dogana di Mare and near the Piazza of St. Mark. Both 
expensive. -Hotel Britannia (PI. c; E, 4), in the Palazzo ZucclieUi, on 
the Grand Canal, opposite S. Maria della Salute. "Victoria (PI. g; E, 4), 
B. 3, D. 5, B. IV2, L. and A. IV2 fr. , situation less favourable. Grand 
Hotel (PI. o ; E, 4, 5). — -S. Marco (PI. e ; F, 4), in the Piazza of St. Mark, 
in the old Procuratic , R. 3-4, D. 4-5 fr. ; "Italia (PI. h; E, 4), S. Mois6, 
with one side facing the Canal Grande, R. from 2V2, D. 5, B. IV2, A. 8/4, 
pens. 9fr. ; "Hotel Bauer (PI. m; E, 4), S. Moise, Calle Lunga, with re- 
staurant; these two last belong to the same proprietors; "Luna (PI. f ; 
F, 4), opposite the royal garden, close to the S.W. side of the Piazza of 
St. Mark, R. 2V2, T>. 4, pens. 9fr., A. 70 c.; "Bellevuk (PI. d; F.4), N. 
side of the Piazza of St. Mark, adjoining the Clock Tower, R. 34 fr., h. 
Vi-1, A. 1, D. 4fr. ; "Citta di Monaco (I'l. 1; F, 4), on the Canal Grande, 
not far from the Piazza of St. Mark, I). 4 fr. ; Albergo Okientale, with 

» c 


U j,^ 

212 Route 36. VENICE. 

The Villa Rezzonica, 1^2 M. from the town, contains, amongst 
other works of art, an oil-painting by Canova , representing the 
Death of Socrates. In the suburb of Borgo Leone lies the Villa 
ParoUni, with a beautiful park. 

Bonaparte defeated the Austrians under Wurmser at Bassano on Sept. 
Stli, 1790, four days after the battle of Roveredo , having marched hither 
from Trent in two days. The covered wooden bridge over the Brenta 
occupies the place of one which the French blew up on that occasion. 
— In 1809 Napoleon elevated the district of Bassano into a duchy and 
conferred it upon his secretary of state Marei. 

Fossagno, Canova s birthplace, is beautifully situated at the base of 
the Monte Grappa, 13 M. N.E. of Bassano. A good road to it leads by 
Romano, the birthplace of Ezzelino, and Crespano. The church, in the 
form of a circular temple, and designed by Canova, contains his tomb, an 
altar-piece painted by him, and a handsome bronze relief of the Entomb- 
ment. The church and the bridge at Crespano (see above), which crosses 
the river by a single arch (118 ft. in span) , were built with funds be- 
queathed by Canova for the purpose. The Palazzo, as his house is called, 
contains models and casts of his works. 

From Bassano to Trent, diligence thrice daily in lOhrs., see p. 43. 

36. Venice, Italian Venezia. 

Arrival. The Railway Station is on the N.W. side of the town , at 
the end of the Canal Grande (PI. B, C, 2 ; the town office is by tne Ponte 
dei Pignoli; comp. Introd. vii). — Good order is maintained at the station. 
An official at the egress assigns a gondola to the traveller on being told 
his destination. An ample supply of gondolas and 'Omnibus-boats' is al- 
ways in waiting; but the latter are not recommended, being slow, often 
crowded, and atlording no view. Gondola from the station to any part of 
the city 1 fr., each box 15 c.; with two rowers double these charges. A 
second generally proffers his services, but may be dismissed with the 
words 'basta unoP — Gondola tarifl' for those who arrive by sea, see 
p. 214. — Omnibus Boats ply, on the arrival of every train, from the 
station to the Eiva del Carbone (near Ponte Rialto) and the Piazzetta. Fare 
25 c., gratuity 5 c., each heavier article of luggage 15 c.; the porter 
belonging to the boat, who conveys luggage to the hotel, also expects 
a fee. Omnibus boats to the station (in 2U min.) start from the Molo , E. 
of the Piazzetta, V-i t"". before the departure of each train (their station 
is by the first bridge, the Ponte della Paglia, close to the Bridge of Sighs). 
— Small cafe at the station. 

Hotels (tablo-d'hote usually at 5 or 6 p.m.). "GKANn Hotel Rotal (Dan- 
lELi; PI. a, F4), in the old Palazzo Bernardi, well situated, at the be- 
ginning of the Riva degli Schiavoni , E. of the Palace of the Doges, with 
the dependance Beaiirivage, also on the Riva degli Schiavoni; D. 5 fr. '-Eu- 
uoi'A (PI. b; F,4), in the former Palazzo Oiustiniani, on the Grand Canal, 
opposite the Dogana di Mare and near the Piazza of St. Mark. Both 
expensive. 'Hotel Britannia (PI. c; E, 4), in the Palazzo Zucchelli, on 
the Grand Canal, opposite S.Maria della Salute. ^Victoria (PI. g; E, 4), 
K. 3, U. 5, B. 11/2, L. and A. IV2 fr. , situation less favourable. Grand 
Hotel (PI. o ; E, 4, 5). — 'S. Marco (PI. e ; F, 4), in the Piazza of St. Mark, 
in the old Procuratie , R. 3-4, D. 4-5 fr. ; "Italia (PI. h; E, 4), S., 
with one side facing the Canal Grande, R. from 2^/2, U. 5, B. I'/a, ^^- 'A, 
pens. 9fr. ; "Hotel Baber (PI. m; E,4), S. Moise, Calle Lunga, with re- 
staurant; these two last belong to the same proprietors; "Luna (PI. f; 
F, 4), opposite the royal garden, close to the S.W. side of the Piazza of 
St. Mark, R. 2V2, I>. 4, pens. 9fr., A. 70 c.; "Bellevuk (PI. d; F.4), N. 
side of the Pia/.za of St. Mark, adjoining the Clock Tower, R. 34 fr., h. 
■'/A-i, A. 1, 1). 4fr. ; "Citta di Monaco (PI. 1; F, 4), on the Canal Grande, 
not far from the Piazza of St. Mark, 1). 4 fr. ; Albkrgo Ouientale, with 



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Boats. VENICE. 36. Route. 213 

the Restaurant Caj^pello Nero., in the Piazza of St. Mark, Procuratie 
Vecchie, R. from 2 fr. ; Hotel Pension Suisse, on the Canal Grande, 
opposite S. Maria della Salute; Univekso, in the Palazzo JBrandoUn, Ca- 
nal Grande, adjoining the academy, R. and A. 3-5, D. 4fr., well spoken 
of; Hotel d'Angleterke (formerly Laguna), Riva degli Schiavoni. — 
-' Aurora (PI. p; G, 4) and Sandwirth, both on the Riva degli Schiavoni, 
commanding a view, are unpretending but respectable German inns. — 
Vapore (PI. i ; F, 4), in the Blerceria , S. Gallo (PI. k ; F, 4), and Ca- 
valletto, all three near the Piazza S. Marco, are tolerable Italian inns 
with restaurants. 

Hotels Garnis. National (German) and Ang. Fabris, both on the 
Riva degli Schiavoni; Scatti, Calle del Ridotto ; All' Orologio , in the 
Merceria, adjoining the clock tower (p. 225); Leon Bianco, to the N.W. 
of the Piazza of St. Mark. — 'Pension Anglaise, in the Palazzo Giustinian 
Vescovi., on the Canal Grande, moderate. 

Private Apartments are easily obtained. The rents of those on the 
Grand Canal and the Riva degli Schiavoni are the highest. The Fondamenla 
delle Zattere is a quiet and pleasant situation (e. g. in the Calle del Ri- 
dotto , R. 1-2 fr. per day, 30-50 fr. per month). It is usual to pay for 
one month in advance , before which the tenant is recommended to see 
that every necessary arrangement is made, Hutto compreso\ 

Travellers are cautioned against sleeping with open windows on account 
of the gnats. Mosquito-curtains (zanzariere) afiford the best protection 
against these pertinacious intruders. Pastilles Cfldibus contro le zanzare'), 
sold by the chemists, are generally effectual in dispersing them. — Drinking- 
water is bad at Venice; new water-works are projected. 

Restaurants ( Trattorie). "Caffi Quadri, first floor, in the Piazza S. 
Marco; ''Restaurant on the Lido (see p. 259); others, where beer is obtain- 
able, see below. In the Italian style: "S. Gallo (PI. k; see above), with 
an open court; "Cappello Nero, in the Piazza S. Marco, sixth entry to the 
left of the clock ; Gitta di Firenze, good wine, Calle del Ridotto, opposite 
the Europa; *<S. Moisi, near the Hotel Italia; 'Cavalletio , at the back of 
the Hotel S. Marco; Vapore; Bella Venezia, and others. — The wines of 
Cyprus and Samos are among the best at Venice (sold by Giacomuzzi^ 
Calle Vallaressa, near the S. W. corner of the Piazza of St. Mark). 

Beer. ''A. Sreher, at the N. corner of the Piazza S. Marco , with a 
good restaurant; "Bauer and Griinwald (Hotel Bauer, see p. 212); and also 
at the Birrerie near the Campo S. Angelo, S. Polo, and at many of the 

Cafes. In the Piazza of St. Mark, S. side: "Florian, good ices; * Gaffe 
Svizzero. N. side: Degli Specchi; "Quadri (recommended for breakfast); 
"Cafe Giardino Reale, to the right of the Piazzetta, beautifully situated. 
After sunset hundreds of chairs and small tables are placed in front of 
these cafes for the accommodation of customers. — Strangers are often 
importuned by flower-girls, hawkers, musicians, etc. — The cafes on the 
Riva degli Schiavoni are also much frequented, and somewhat cheaper. 

Boats take the place of cabs at Venice. The light , old Venetian 
Gondola, with a low black canopy or cabin (felze) and black leather seat, 
accommodates 1-4 persons. They are painted black in conformity with a law 
passed in the i5th century. The Barca, a modern institution, is a larger 
craft, open at the sides, covered with coloured material, and accommo- 
dating six or more persons. The heavy indented iron prow (ferro), resembling 
a halberd, is partly intended to counterbalance the weight of the rower, 
and partly as a measure of the height of the bridges, which cannot be 
passed unless the ferro, the highest part of the craft, clears them. The 
rower himself is hailed as '■Poppe'', from the poppa on which he stands. 

'■Cccvar il Felze'' means 'to take off the covering or cabin'. The 
shouts of the gondoliers on turning a corner are peculiar, e. g. gia i (boat 
ahead!), premh (pass to the right!), stall (pass to the left!), etc. 

Charges. Gondola for 1-4, or a barca for 1-6 persons, with one rower 
(barcajuolo), according to the tariff of 1872, a copy of which the gondolier 
is bound to exhibit if desired, for the first hour, or for each trip, bij dap 
or by night, 1 fr., for each additional hour 50 c. (but a fee is expected in 

214 Route 36. VENICE. Bnihf. 

addition to these low fares), for the whole day (of 10 hrs.) 5 fr. To or 
from the station, see p. 212. From the steamers to the Piazzetta (two 
rowers required) 40 c, luggage 15 c. For short distances a bargain should 
be made. For a second roicer double the ordinary fare is charged. One, 
however, suffices for the gondola, and even for the barca if not heavily 
laden C-basta uno^), unless greater speed than usual is desired. For a longer 
distance, however, such as to the Lido, two rowers are desirable, and in 
this case a bargain may be made with the gondolier for a second. — The 
islands of Murano, S. Lazzaro, and Lido are included in the tarifl". — For 
longer distances the charge per hour and per gondolier is 10 c. more. For 
public festivities a bargain must be made. Officious loiterers who assist 
passengers to disembark expect a gratuity of a few centimes. 

The principal station of the gondolas is by the Piazzetta (p. 225; PI. F, 4). 
The traveller selects a suitable boat without regarding the importunities 
of the boatmen, whereupon the owner will soon present himself. If the 
gondola is hired by the hour, which is the most advantageous mode for 
sight-seeing, the passenger shows his watch, saying ^alV ora\ The 
highest demands are generally made at the Piazzetta and Riva and in the 
vicinity. It need hardly be observed that the intervention of a com- 
missionaire or a waiter in the hiring of a boat causes the fare to be con- 
siderably raised. If any difficulty arises it is best to apply to a policeman 
(Guardia municipale). 

The gondoliers are, as a class, respectable and trustworthy, and a 
small gratuity goes far towards securing their good offices. 

Ferries ( Traghetli) across the Grand Canal (5 c, after dusk 8 c, comp. 
Plan); from the Fondamenta Nuove to Murano, 30c., and to Mazzorbo 
(Torcello, p. 259); from the Fondamenta delle Zattere to the Giudecca, 
15 c. ; from the Molo (Piazzetta) to the Giudecca 20 c. , to II Kedentore 
30 c, to the Punta delta Salute 15 c, to S. Giorgio Maggiore 15 c; from 
the Molo to the Giardini Pubblici (evening included) 50 c. 

Guides ('Guides Autorise's') are to be met with before 9 a.m. or about 
8 p.m. in the Piazza of St. Mark. Each hotel generally has its own guide. 
Parties of visitors are frequently formed by the guides, who undertake to 
conduct them to all the principal sights of Venice at a charge of 4 fr. each 
person, which includes gondola-fares, gratuities, etc., but, as the number 
is usually unlimited, this wholesale system cannot be recommended, the 
members of the party being entirely deprived of their independence. The 
traveller, alone, or accompanied by a few friends, will find it far preferable 
to have a guide at his own disposal. In this case the fee, including all 
expenses, is about 20 fr. (i.e. 5 fr. for the guide and 15 fr. for gondolas, 
fees, etc.). 

It must, however, be observed that the aid of the Handbook, coupled 
with a slight acquaintance with the Italian language, will enable the 
traveller entirely to dispense with a guide. The principal objects of interest 
should be visited in a definite order, such as that suggested below, and 
the most direct routes ascertained from the Plan, in order that the proper 
orders may be given to the gondolier at each stage of the route. Much 
also can be done on foot with the aid of the Plan. The route from the 
Piazza di S. Marco to the station is indicated by notices on the street 

Consulates. American, S. Maria del Rosario, Fondamenta Venier 709; 
British, S. Maria del Giglio, Calle Gritti o del Campanile 2439; French, 
S. Stefano, Calle Giustiniano 2891; German, S. Benedetto, Pal. Memmo, 
3949; also others for all the principal European states. 

Baths of every description (also for swimming: galleggiante) sfe situated 
at the mouth of the Grand Canal, but are used during the three summer- 
months only. Ferry from the Piazzetta to the baths 10c. ; the word '^bagno" 
is a sufficient direction to the gondolier. Swimmers (Ifr.) ask at the 
establishment for a ticket for the '■vascd' (basin); a separate bath (I'/afr.) 
is a '■camerino' ; common bath for ladies (sirene) 1 fr. 40 c. ; separate bath 
for ladies 3fr. No gratuities expected. The best time for bathing is about 
high tide, the water at low tide being shallow and muddy. — The baths 
on the Lido arc much pleasantcr. In summer a steamboat plies every hour 

Steamboaln. VENICE. 36. Route. 215 

(in the height of the season every half-hour) between the Riva degU Schia- 
voni and the Lido in 12 min., returning after a halt of V2 hr. (Tickets must 
be procured before embarking, 30 c. ; there and back, including the bath, 
11/2 fr.) From the landing-place to the baths a walk of 10 min. (omnibus 
25 c.). Bath 1 fr. (for ladies to the left, for gentlemen to the right), less 
to subscribers ; for taking care of valuables 10 c. Connected with the 
baths is a favourite "Ca/d Restmirant, where a band plays on summer 
evenings till 10 o'clock. — Warm Baths at most of the hotels , and at 
Chitarin''s (salt-water), near S. Maria delta Salute, IV2-2 fr. 

Booksellers. MUnster, Piazza of St. Mark, S.W. corner; Colombo Coen, 
Procuratie Vecchie 139. 

Photographs: A'ai/a, in the Piazza of St. Mark, views of Venice, 
from the smallest at about 50 c. to the large and expensive size (28 by 
36 inches), copies from drawings IV2, from original pictures 4 fr. ; Ponti, 
also in the Piazza of St. Mark. 

Post Office iUffizio della Posta; PI. 96, F 3), to the N. of the Piazza 
of St. Mark (route beyond the Merceria indicated by hands at the street- 
corners, pointing out the 'Via alia Posta'). Zeiter -boxes in the Piazza of 
St. Mark, at the Ufflzio del Lloyd, etc. — Telegraph Office (PI. 106-, 
F, 4), to the W. of the Piazza of St. Mark. 

Steamboats: To Trieste three times weekly, see p. 263; to Chioggia 
(Societa Lagunare), see p. 259; to Alexandria in Egypt, a vessel of the 
P. & O. Co. once weekly. The offices of these companies are in the Piaz- 
zetta, and in the Piazza of St. Mark, under the new Procurazie. 

Theatres. La Fenice (PI. 100; E, 4), the largest in Venice, is capable 
of accommodating 3000 spectators ; internal arrangements worthy of in- 
spection; performances from Christmas to Easter. The following are used 
throughout the whole year, except in September: Apollo (PI. 101; E, 3), 
Rossini (PI. 102; E, 4), Cam.ploy (S. Samuele; PI. 104, D4), and Malibran 
(PI. 103; F, 3). In winter Marionette Tlieatre, Calle Lunga, S. Moise (6-9 p.m.). 

Shops. (The recommendations and even the attendance of valets-de- 
place or boatmen have the eft'ect of greatly increasing the prices ; comp. 
Introd. V.) The best are in the Piazza of St. Mark, in the Merceria (p. 225), 
and in the Frezzaria, entered from the W. end of the Piazza of St. Mark, 
opposite the church. The Venetian pearls and jewellery enjoy a high 
reputation; bracelets, necklaces, and other ornaments in mosaic, glass, 
and shells are also well executed here, and are suitable for presents or re- 
miniscences. Many of the shopkeepers take two-thirds or even one-half of 
the price first demanded. — The most extensive Manufactories of Mosaic 
are those of Dr. Salviati, S. Maria del Giglio, and the Compagnia de" Vetri 
e Musaid di Venezia e Muratio, Campo S. Vito, both on the Canal Grande. 

— Crystal-wares, liubbi, 8. Giovanni Crisostomo; Tommasi e Gesolmini, S. 
Fosca (both on the Canal Grande) ; Dalmedico, Merceria delF Orologio, 
218. — Antiquities and objects of art, Guggenheim, Pal. Balbi, on the 
Canal Grande, by the Pal. Foscari (p. 240; entrance in the Campo S. 
Toma) ; Ricchetti, also on the Grand Canal; Aless. Clerle , Ponte dei Dai 
848; C. Znber, Canal Grande 2177. — Venetian lace, antique at Ruggieri's, 
near S. Gallo; modern at the Societa, di Merletfi, Campo S. Zaccaria. 

— Money-Changers : Gaetan Fiorentini, Bocca di Piazza 1239, opposite the 
Telegraph Office. 

Exhibition of Art in the Palazzo Mocenigo S. Benedetto, adm. 40 c. 

English Church Service, Palazzo Contarini degli Scrigni, Grand Canal, 
near the iron bridge. — Scotch Presbyterian Church on the Grand Canal, 
not far from S. Maria della Salute. 

The Climate of Venice is tempered by the proximity of the sea and 
the Lagune. Invalids who intend wintering in Venice should be partic- 
ular as to a S. aspect. The quietest apartments are to be found in the 
Fondamenta delle Zattere (PI. C, D, 5). — Chemist: Farmacia Zampironi, 
near S. Moise, W. of the Piazza of St. Mark. — Physicians: Dr. Keppler, 
Campo S. Maurizio, 2808; Dr. Kurz, Calle Fimbera 951 (S. Marco); Dr. Ri- 
chetti, Ponte dei Consorzi 4392 ; Dr. Levi. 

During the Carnival no other city in Italy, Rome excepted, presents 

216 Route 36. VENICE. Plan of Visit. 

so busy and animated a scene as Venice. The Piazza S. Marco is then 
converted into a kind of vast ball-room. Balls also take place in the Bi- 
dotto and the Teatro Fenice. 

Plan of Visit. A stay of 3-4 days may suffice when time is limited, 
in which case the following plan is recommended, but it may be extended 
or modified at discretion. 

Afternoon, or Evening of arrival. In order to gratify their first curiosity, 
and obtain a general idea of the peculiarities of Venice, travellers are 
recommended to undertake a preliminary voyage from the Piazzetta along 
the Grand Canal (see p. 239) to its extremity (near the railway-station is 
the church Begli Scalzi, see p. 243, which may now be visited on 
account of its remoteness from the other points of attraction) ; then under 
the iron bridge to the Canal di Mestre, to the left of which is the Jews' 
quarter (the Gfiello , inhabited by the lowest classes); back hence by the 
Grand Canal to the Ponte Rialto., where the gondola should be quitted. 
Then walk through the Merceria to the Piazza of St. Mark. The whole 
expedition will occupy 2-2V2 hrs. 

Ist Day. -S. Marco (p. 222); "Palace of the Doges (p. 225); "S. Gior- 
gio Maggiore (p. 257; ascend campanile); "Redentore (p. 257); ~S. Sebastiano 
(p. 258). 

2nd Day. Pal. Emo Treves (p. 239); S. Maria delta Salute (p. 252); 
"Accademia delle Belle Arli (p. 231) ; *,S. Stefano (p. 251) ; "Fran (p. 248) ; 
'Scuola di S. Rocco (p. 250). 

3rd Day. S. Salvaiore (p. 246) ; Pal. Vendramin (p. 243) ; Museo Correr 
(p. 243) ; -Madonna delV Orto (p. 253) ; Gesuiti (p. 253) ; S. Maria de" Mi- 
racoli (p. 255). 

4th Day. "S. Zaccaria (p. 245) ; S. Maria Formosa (p. 245) ; *S. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo (p. 254); S. Francesco delta Vigna (p. 256); Arsenal (p. 231; 
open till 3 p.m.) ; Giardini Pubblici (view, p. 258). 

Lastly ascend the Campanile of S. Marco (p. 224). 

Those who make a longer stay may proceed to the Lido (sea-baths, 
p. 259), and make excursions to the N. to Murano and Torcello (p. 259; 
5 hrs. there and back); to the S. to Malamocco and Chioggia (p. 259). — 
Every leisure hour should be devoted to S. Marco and its environs. 

Admission is generally obtained to the — 

Churches from 6 a.m. till 12 or 1 o'clock , after which application 
must be made to the sacristan (nonzolo, fee 50c.), for whom one of the 
officious loungers in the neighbourhood may be sent (5 c.). 

-'Academy (p. 231) daily 10-3; admission on week-days 1 fr., on Sun- 
days and holidays gratis; closed on New Year's Day and Easter Sunday 

■Arsenal (p. 231), on week-days, 9-3; closed on Sundays and holidays. 
'"Palace of the Doges (p. 225), on the same days, and at the same hours 
as the Academy, adin. Ifr., to the dungeons 20c. more; guide quite un- 
necessavv; information may be obtained from the custodians. 

■■■■Museo Correr (p. 243), Mond., Wed., Sat., 10 4. 

The Private Palaces (" Vendramin, Emo- Treves^ Fini- Wimpfen, Pesaro) 
are generally shown between 9 or 10 a.m. and 3 or 4 p.m. When the 
proprietors are residing in them, application should be made on the day 
previous to the visit, but this formality is often dispensed with (fee to 
attendant Ifr., to porter 25-50 c). 

History. For the early history of Venice, sec p. 185. The foundation 
of the greatness of Venice" as an eastern power was laid by the Doge 
Enrico Dandolo (1192-1205), who conquered Constantinople in 1204. In 
consequence of this the Byzantine Empire was divided , and Venice ob- 
tained possession of numerous places on the coasts of the Adriatic and 
the Levant, from Dura/./.o to Trebisond, and also of jnost of the islands 
of the Greek Arcliipelago, including Candia. During the process of con- 
i|uering and ruling these new territuries there gradually arose a class of 
aristocrats or nobles (Xohili), who declared themselves hereditary in 1297 

History. VENICE. 36. Route. 217 

and shut out the rest of the people from all share in the government. 
The supreme authority lay with the Great Council (Consiglio Maggiore)., 
which consisted of all members of the noble families above the age of 
twenty. The executive was entrusted to a Doge or Duke., and six coun- 
sellors, with whom was also associated the Council of the Pregadi. At a 
later period the Pregadi were combined with the higher officials to form 
the Senate. The Avvogadori di Comune watched that the powers of office 
were used in a constitutional manner. After the conspiracy of 1310 the 
highest authority became vested in a secret Council of Ten (Consiglio dei 
Died) , who kept the whole administration of the city and also the man- 
agement of its foreign policy entirely under their control. From this 
council the Inquisition was developed in the 16th century. 

Under the successors of Enrico Dandolo the republic underwent severe 
contests with Genoa, which occasioned the loss of many of the Venetian 
conquests in the East, but at length terminated in the total defeat of 
Genoa in 1352, by the Doge Andrea Dandolo. His successor Marino Falieri 
contemplated the overthrow of the aristocratic form of government, but his 
scheme was discovered, and he was beheaded on 17th April, 1355. Diiring 
the reign of Andrea Contarini (1367-82) Padua, Verona, Genoa, Hungary, 
and Naples formed an alliance against Venice. In 1879 the Genoese took 
possession of Chioggia, but were surrounded in the Lagune and compelled 
to surrender, 24th June, 1380. Peace was concluded in 1381. In 1386 
Antonio Venier (1382-1400) took possession of the island of Corfu , then of 
Durazzo, Argos, etc. Under Michele Steno (1400-14) the Venetian general 
Malatesta conquered Vicenza, Belluno, Feltre, Verona, and Padua (1405); 
in 1408 the republic gained possession of Lepanto and Patras, and in 1409 
of Guastalla, Casalmaggiore , and Brescello. In 1421 Tommaso Mocenigo 
waged war successfully against Hungary. In 1416 the Venetian fleet under 
Loredan defeated the Turkish at Gallipoli , and in 1421 subjugated all 
the towns of the Dalmatian coast, so that Venice was now in possession 
of the entire coast district from the estuary of the Po as far as the 
island of Corfu. 

Mocenigo's successor was Francesco Foscari (1423-57). In 1426 Brescia 
fell into the hands of the Venetian general Carmagnola , but in 1431 his 
successful career was terminated in consequence of a suspicion of treason, 
and in 1432 he was executed. In 1449 the Venetians gained possession 
of Crema, but were unable to prevent the elevation of Sforza to the 
dignity of Duke of Milan (1450). A sad ending awaited the long and glo- 
rious career of Foscari. Becoming an object of suspicion to the Council 
of Ten , and weakened by contentions with the Loredani and other pri- 
vate feuds, he was deposed in 1457 and died a few days afterwards. — 
Under Cristoforo Moro (1462-71) the Morea was conquered by the Turks. 
In 1480, in consequence of the renunciation of Catharine Cornaro, wife of 
King James of Cyprus, this island came into the possession of Venice, and 
in 1483 the republican dominions were farther augmented by the island 
of Zante. 

The close of the 15th cent, may be designated as the culminating point 
of the glory of Venice. It was now the grand focus of the entire commerce 
of Europe, numbered 200,000 inhab. , and was universally respected and 
admired. Its annual exports were valued at 10 million ducats, 4 millions 
of which were estimated as clear profit. It possessed 300 sea-going vessels 
with 8000 sailors, and 3000 smaller craft with 17,000 men, as well as a 
fleet of 46 galleys carrying 11,000 men , who maintained the supremacy 
of the republic over the Mediterranean. But already, in the middle of 
the 15th cent., an event had taken place, which cast an ominous shadow 
on the future of the Republic ; the capture of Constantinople by the 
Turks in 1453 completely xmdermined the supremacy of Venice in the 
East. The crowning blow, however, was the discovery of the new sea 
routes to India at the close of the century, by which its commerce was 
diverted to the Portuguese. However 'the arts, which had been gradually 
rising to perfection , shed a glorious sunset over the sinking form of the 

The opening of the 16th cent, was signalised by new losses. In 1503 

218 Route 36. VENICE. History. 

Venice signed a humiliatinf: peace with Bajazet II., in which she sur- 
rendered the whole of the Jlorea. The League of Cambray, formed by 
the Pope , the Emperor, and the kings of France and Arragon against 
Venice in 1508, and the victory of the French at Agnadello in 1509 occa- 
sioned serious losses to the republic. The wars between Emp. Charles V. 
and Francis I. of France (1521-30) were also very prejudicial to Venice, 
but its power was undermined most of all by its constant strugjjle 
against the advance of the Osman empire. In 1540 Nauplia, the islands 
of Chios , Paros , and others were lost , and in 1571 Cyprus , notwith- 
standing its brave defence by Bragadino. In the naval battle of Lepanto 
(1st Oct., 1571) the Venetian fleet greatly distinguished itself. In 1659 the 
island of Candia was conquered by the Turks. In 1684 the Venetians 
under Francesco Morosini and Konigsmarck were victorious in the Morea, 
and conquered Coron , Patras, Corinth, etc.; in 1696 and 1698 they again 
defeated the Turkish fleets , and by the Peace of Carlowitz in 1709 they 
retained possession of the Morea ; but in 1715 the Turks reconquered the 
peninsula, and in 1718 were confirmed in their possession by the Peace 
of Passarowitz. 

From this period Venice ceases to occupy a prominent position in the 
history of Europe. It retained its N. Italian possessions only, observed a 
strict neutrality in all the contests of it5 neighbours, and continued to 
decline in power. On the outbreak of the French Eevolution Venice at 
first strenuously opposed the new principles ; on the victorious advance 
of the French it endeavoured to preserve its neutrality , and repeatedly 
rejected Buonaparte's proposals of alliance. Irritated by this opposition, 
the French broke off their negotiations and took possession of the citv on 
16th May, 1797. The last doge was Lod. Manini (1788-97). By the Peace 
of Campo Formio (1797) Venetia was adjudged to Austria, and by that of 
Pressburg (1805) to the kingdom of Italy. In 1814 Venice was again de- 
clared Austrian, and remained so until 1848, when a revolution broke out, 
and the citizens endeavoured to re-establish their ancient republican form 
of government, under the presidency of Daniele Manin. Their renewed 
independence, however, proved most disastrous and short-lived. The city 
was torn by internal dissension , and at the same time besieged by the 
Austrians. After a siege of 15 months it was compelled to capitulate to 
Radetzkp, in August, 1849, a victory which cost the Austrians upwards of 
20,000 soldiers. The war of 1859 did not atVect the supremacy of Austria 
over Venetia, but its re-union with Italy was at length effected by the 
events of 1866. 

In the History of Art Venice has shown herself as independent of, 
and distinct from the mainland , as are her situation and her political 
history. The sensation of novelty experienced by the traveller who visits 
Venice for the first time, even after having seen the whole of the rest of 
Italy, will also be felt by those who begin to study her art. The earliest 
monuments of Venice at once betray the fact that her greatness was 
founded on her Oriental commerce. The church of St. Mark is in the 
Byzantine style , the oldest mosaics bear a Byzantine impress , and the 
same type is observable in other briinches of art. Even during the period 
of Gothic Art the Venetians did not adopt the same forms as the rest of 
Italy. In the building of their churches several architects from the main- 
land (including perhaps Mccold fisano) appear to have been summoned to 
their aid. Their palaces, which, like those of Upper Italy, generally form 
the chief examples of Gothic, particularly that of the Doges, exhibit 
a very peculiar character. They usually possess a large entrance colon- 
nade, a loggia on the upper floor with a number of windows close together 
in the middle, wings, treated rather as spaces for the reception of paint- 
ings , and everywhere abundance of decoration and colour. Examples of 
this style are the Cd d''Oro, and the Palazzo Foscari. At a later period the 
Renaissance Architecture, which did not become naturalised till the end 
of the 15th cent., was still more zealously cultivated. In point of size 
the early Renaissance buildings at Venice bear no comparison with those 
of Tuscany, but are more richly decorated, and the palaces retain the 
articulation peculiar to the earliest period. At a later date, when art 

History. VENICE. 36. Route. 219 

began to decline, the Venetian architecture resisted the influences of 
bad taste longer than that of Central Italy. Among the most important 
Venetian architects were several members of the Lombardi family, 
Jacopo Sansovino of Florence (1477-1570), Antonio da Ponte, and lastly 
Andrea Palladia of Vicenza (1518-1580), who inaugurated a new era, 
especially in church architecture, by limiting the facade to a single range 
of massive columns. Palladio's chief successors were Scamozzi and Longhena. 

In the province of Sculpture the master who designed the statuary on 
the Palace of the Doges (perhaps Fil. Calendario) was the most famous of 
the middle ages. About the middle of the 15th cent, the growing taste 
for monumental tombs afforded abundant employment to the sculptors, and 
from the studios which now sprung up issued the numerous magnificent 
monuments which still fill the churches of Venice. The names of the 
Bregni or Rizzi, of the Lombardi (probably not natives), and of Alessaiidro 
Leopardo, are the most important. At a later period Jacopo Sansovino 
was the leading master here , both as a sculptor and an architect. 
His works, though often designed chiefly for pictorial efi"ect, are far more 
pleasing than those of Michael Angelo's school. His pupils were Girolamo 
Campagna and Alessandro Vittoria (d. 1607). 

The Venetian Painters did not begin to attract universal attention 
till the beginning of the 16th century. In the 14th cent, they were far in- 
ferior to those of the other Italian schools, and though Giotto was engaged 
for a considerable time at the neighbouring Padua, they were unaffected 
by his influence. In the 15th cent, the most noted masters at Venice were 
Giovanni, also named Alamannus, Antonio, and Bartolommeo Vivarini, who 
were known as the Muranese. An event of great importance, which took 
place about 1473, was the visit to Venice of Antonello da Messina, who 
introduced painting in oils, the method best adapted for giving full scope 
to the Venetian love of rich colouring. After the impulse given to the 
Paduan school by the labours of Squarcione, its style was more or less 
zealously adopted by the Venetian masters Carlo Crivelli , Jacopo Bellini, 
father-in-law of Mantegna, and others. As a master of the pure Venetian 
type we must next mention Giovanni Bellini (1426-1516; a son of Jacopo, 
like Gentile, 1421-1507), who may be regarded, both in the style of his 
compositions (such as his 'sacra conversazione", a peaceful and yet ex- 
pressive group of saints with the Madonna), and his conception of female 
figures , as the precursor of the glorious prime of Venetian painting. 
One of his contemporaries was Yitlore Carpaccio (d. after 1519), a lively 
pictorial narrator, and to his school belonged Cima da Conegliano (who 
flourished about 1489-1508), Catena, and Marco Marziale. 

The first of the great masters was Giorgione (Barbarella, 1477? -1511), 
but unfortunately few of his works are authenticated (the most impor- 
tant being an altar-piece at Castelfranco, a portrait at Rovigo, a Famiglia 
in the Palazzo Giovanelli at Venice , and a Concert in the Palazzo Pitti 
at Florence). The peculiar glow of his colouring, an attribute which 
seems rather to be natural to him than acquired from others , imparts 
even to his isolated half-figures an unwonted life and poetical charm. 
The first artist who fully developed that type of female beauty in which 
a simple and natural enjoyment of life is so admirably expressed, was 
Jacopo Palma ( Vecchio, 1480-1528). Surpassing all his fellows in reputation, 
in fertility, and in the length of his career, next comes the great Tiziano 
Vecelho (1477-1575). His finest frescoes are in the Scuola del Santo and 
Scuola del Carmine at Padua, and though most of his oil-paintings are 
distributed throughout the galleries of Europe, several of his most strik- 
ing works, especially in the province of religious composition , are still 
preserved at Venice. 

Such was the vitality and vigour, and so great the resources of the 
Venetian School at this period, that even masters of secondary importance 
frequently produced works of almost unrivalled excellence. Those who 
chiefly call for notice are Sebastiano del Piombo (1485-1547), who was 
afterwards influenced by the fascinating proximity of Michael Angelo, 
Rocco Marconi, Lorenzo Lotto, Bonifacio, Giovanni Antonio (da) Pordenone 
(d. in 1539), whose carnation tints are unsurpassed, and Paris Bordone 

220 Route 36. VENICE. Situation. 

(1500-70), whose portraits rival those of Titian. A prominent master of a 
somewhat younger generation was Jacopo Tintoretto (Robusti, 1518-94), who 
squandered his eminent abilities on superficial works, and in his eiiger- 
ness for effect threw away the rich golden tints which formed a dis- 
tinctive characteristic of his school. Paolo Caliari, surnamed Veronese, 
(1528-86), on the other hand, though more material in his conceptions, 
and frequently confining himself to mere representations of actual life, 
was a faithful adherent to the traditions of his predecessors. Among the 
last masters of note were the Bassaiio's, Palma Giovane , and Padovanino, 
after whose time the Venetian school became extinct. In the 18th cent., 
however, we must mention Tiepolo (A. 1770), a spirited decorative painter, 
Antonio Canale, an architectural painter, and his pupil JSern. Belotto, both 
surnamed Canaletto, who were much admired by their contemporaries. 

Venice, situated in 45° 25' N. latitude, lies 21/2 M. from the 
mainland in the Lagune, a shallow part of the Adriatic about 25 M. 
in length and 9 M. in width. The 15,000 houses and palaces of 
Venice are situated on three large and 114 small islands, formed 
by 150 canals, connected by 378 bridges (most of them of stone), 
and altogether about 7 M. in circumference. The population which 
had dwindled from 200,000 to 96,000 after its dissolution as an 
independent state (1797), amounts now to 128,000, of whom, how- 
ever, one-fourth are paupers. Its trade has again been on the in- 
crease since the middle of the century, and Venice is now one of 
the greatest seaports on the Adriatic. 

The lagune are protected from the open sea by long sand-hills 
(lidi), which again are strengthened by means of bulwarks (ynurazzi) 
of solid masonry, averaging 30 ft. in height and 40-50 ft. in width. 
On the side next the Lagune the Murazzi are perpendicular, 
while towards the sea they descend in four terraces. The Murazzi 
on the Lido from Pelestrina to Chioggia (p. 259) date from the 
last period of the republic. The Diya of Malamocco, a pier which 
extends for a distajice of 1 1/4 M. into the open sea, was constructed 
by the Austrian government after 1825 , in order to prevent the 
harbour from becoming choked with mud. The Lagune are connected 
with the open sea by means of four entrances , of which those of 
the Lido and Malamocco alone are available for vessels of heavy 
tonnage. The steamers usually enter by the Porto di Lido, but in 
stormy weather occasionally by that of Malamocco. 

The Lagoons are called either 'lagune vive', or Hagune morte', 
about one half of them belonging to each class. In the former the 
tide rises and falls about 2 ft. ; the latter, shallower, and situated 
nearer the mainland, are unaffected by the tide. Venice is situated 
ill the 'laguna viva'. At high water innumerable stakes, protrud- 
ing from the water in groups of the most varied form , mark the 
situation and shape of the low sand -islands which surround the 
city on every side , forming a complicated network of navigable 
channels, most of them accessible to small boats only. 

Most of the houses rise immediately from the canals (rii), or 
are separated from them by narrow streets only , here called (as 

Piazza of St. Mark. VENICE. 36. Route. 221 

in Spain) calli (^sing. il calle), and paved with broad slabs of stone, 
or sometimes with brick or asphalt. These lanes form a laby- 
rinth from which the stranger will frequently And it difficult to 
extricate himself; none, however, but walkers can form an adequate 
acquaintance with the picturesque nooks of the city and the char- 
acteristics of its inhabitants. The following description is so 
arranged that many of the sights can be visited on foot, but all 
the principal buildings may also be visited by boat. Gondola- 
travelling is very pleasant, and is of course far preferable to 
walking for expeditions of any length. 

The **Piazza of St. Mark, usually called 'La Piazza' (the other 
open spaces being 'campi'), is a square paved with blocks of 
trachyte and marble, 192yds. in length, and on theW. side 61, and 
on the E. 90 yds. in breadth. On three sides it is enclosed by 
imposing structures, which appear to form one vast marble palace, 
blackened by age and exposure to the weather; on the E. it is 
bounded by the Church of St. Mark and the Piazzetta (p. 225). 
These palaces were once the residence of the nine 'procurators', the 
highest officials of the republic after the Doge, whence their appel- 
lation of Procuratie. The Procuratie Vecchie, or N. wing , were 
erected at the close of the 15th cent, by Bartolommeo Buon. The 
Procuratie Nuove, or S. wing, were begun by Scamozzi in 1584. 
The latter now serve, in conjunction with the adjoining building 
(formerly a library, p. 225), as the Palazzo Reale, and contain 
handsome modern apartments and several good ancient and mod- 
ern pictures (entrance under the New Procuratie ; custodian 1 fr. 
for 1-3 pers.). The modern edifice on the W., called the Atrio, 
or Nuova Fabbrica , was erected under Napoleon in 1810, partly 
on the site of the former church of S. Geminiano. The ground-floors 
of these structures consist of arcades, in which the cafes and shops 
mentioned at pp. 213, 215 are established. — The Piazza of St. 
Mark is the grand focus of attraction at Venice. On summer even- 
ings, after sunset, all who desire to enjoy fresh air congregate here. 
The scene is most animated towards 8 p.m., especially on the even- 
ings when the military band plays (Sundays , Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, 8-10 o'clock), when the Piazza is sometimes 
thronged until after midnight. On other evenings the crowd dis- 
perses about 10 o'clock. In winter the band plays on the same days, 
2-4 p.m., and the Piazza is then a fashionable promenade. Early in 
the morning a few visitors to the cafes may be seen sipping their 
coffee, but these are rarely natives of Venice. The Venetians 
themselves are seldom visible at a very early hour, and the Piazza 
is comparatively deserted except at the hours just mentioned. The 
Piazza with its adjuncts presents a strikingly imposing appearance 
by moonlight. 

A large flock of Pigeons resorts daily to the Piazza at 2 p.m. to be 
fed. According to tradition. Admiral Dandolo, while besieging Candia at 
the beginnine of the 13th cent., received intelligence from the island by 

222 Route 36. VENICE. S. Marco. 

means of carrier-pigeons, which greatly facilitated its conquest. He then 
despatched the birds to Venice with the news of his success, and since 
that period their descendants have been carefully tended and highly re- 
vered by the citizens. They nestle in the nooks and crannies of the sur- 
rounding buildings, and are generally seen in great numbers in the 
evening, perched on the facade of St. Mark's. 

The three lofty Flagstaff's (PiU) in front of the church, rising from 
pedestals resembling candelabra, executed by Aless. Leopardo in 
1505, once bore the banners of the kingdoms of Cyprus, Candia, 
and the Morea, to commemorate their subjugation by the republic. 
On Sundays and festivals the Italian colours are now hoisted here. 

**S. Marco (PI. 17; E, 4), the Church of St. Mark, the tutelary 
saint of Venice , whose remains are said to have been brought by 
Venetian citizens from Alexandria in 828, was erected in 976-1071 
in the Romanesque -Byzantine style peculiar to Venice, and 
decorated with lavish and almost Oriental magnificence during sub- 
sequent centuries. The facade received some additions in the Go- 
thic style in the 14th century. The form of the edifice is that of a 
Greek cross (with equal arms^, covered by a Byzantine dome in the 
centre and one at the extremity of each arm. Around the W. and 
part of the N. transept is a vestibule covered by a series of smaller 
domes. Externally and internally the church is adorned with five 
hundred columns of marble , the capitals of which present an ex- 
uberant variety of styles. The most remarkable are eight detached 
columns in the vestibule, four at each of the lateral portals on the 
W. side, with peacocks and lions. The mosaics cover an area of 
45,790 sq. ft. , and the interior is also profusely decorated with 
gilding, bronze, and Oriental marble. The aggregate effect is highly 
picturesque and fantastic. The mosaics, some of which are said to 
have been executed as far back as the 10th cent., belong chiefly 
to the 12th and 16th centuries, and afford interesting evidence of 
the aptitude of the earliest Venetians for pictorial composition. — 
Since 1807 St. Mark's has been the cathedral of Venice, a dignity 
which formerly belonged to S.Pietro di Castello (p. 258). 

Over the principal portal are *Four Horses in gilded bronze, 5 ft. in 
height , which were long supposed to be the work of a Greek master 
(L^jsippjis), but are now believed to be of Roman workmanship, probably 
of the time of Nero. They are finely executed, and are especially valuable 
as the sole e-xisting specimen of an ancient quadriga preserved intact. 
They probably once adorned the triumphal arch of Nero , and afterwards 
that of Trajan. Constantine caused them to be conveyed to Constantinople, 
whence the Doge Dandolo brought them to Venice in 1204. In 1797 they 
were carried by Napoleon I. to Paris, where they afterwards occupied the 
summit of the triumphal arch in the Place du Carrousel. In 1815 they were 
brought back to Venice by the Emp. Francis and restored to their former 

Facade. -Mosaics in the arches , best surveyed from the steps of the 
flagstafls. Below, over the principal entrance, the Last Judgment, executed 
in 1836, on the right the Embarkation of the body of St. Mark at Alexandria, 
and its Disembarkation at Venice, both executed in 1660; on the left the 
Veneration of the saint, of 1728, and the Church of St. Mark into which the 
relics are conveyed, of the 13th century. — Above are the four horses in 
front of the great arched window, on the left and right are four mosaics 

S. Marco. VENICE. 36. Route. 223 

of the 17th cent., Descent from the Cross, Christ in Hell, Resurrection, 

Entrance Hall (Atrio), the whole breadth of the church: the vault- 
ing consists entirely of Mosaic, of which the older portion (12th cent.) 
represents Old Testament subjects, beginning on the right: 1st Dome, 
Creation of the World, and Fall of Man; in the following arch the De- 
luge-, 2nd Dome, over the entrance to the church, St. Mark, executed in 
1545 from a design by Titian. — The three red slabs commemorate the 
reconciliation between the Emp. Fred. Barbarossa and Pope Alexander 
III., which was effected here on 23rd July, 1177, through the mediation of 
the Doge Seb. Ziani. According to an old tradition the emperor kneeling 
before the pope said , '-non tibi sed Petro\ to which the pope replied , '■et 
miki et Petro\ — In the next arch, Koah, and the Building of the tower 
of Babel; 3rd Dome, History of Abraham; 4th (corner) Dome, Joseph's 
dream, Joseph sold by his brethren, and Jacob's lament; 5th and 6th 
Domes, Joseph in Egypt; 7th Dome, History of Moses. 

Interior, 86 yds. in length, 70 yds. in width, with five domes and 
an apse. The large Entrance Doors are of bronze, that on the right in the 
Byzantine style, and that in the centre of the 12th century. Above the latter. 
Mosaics: Christ, Mary, and St. Mark. The mosaics in the three domes of 
the nave illustrate the doctrine of the Trinity: God the Father with Da- 
vid, Solomon and the prophets; the Ascension of Christ; the Descent of 
the Holy Ghost. The beautiful stone mosaic Pavement of the 12th cent, is 
now being skillfully repaired. By the screen, on the right and left of 
the approach to the high altar, are two Pulpits in coloured marble, 
each placed on seven columns in accordance with the ancient custom. 
On the Screen are "Fourteen Statues in marble (of 1393) , representing 
St. Mark, Mary, and the twelve Apostles, with a gilded Crucifix. — 
The Left Transept contains two handsome bronze Candelabra of 1520; 
above, on the left, a Mosaic of 1542, representing the genealogy of Mary ; 
adjoining it are some fine Byzantine mosaics. — The Right Transept 
also contains two bronze Candelabra, of the end of the 16th century. 

On the arched Parapet on each side of the Choir are three reliefs in 
bronze , by Sansovino (d. 1570) , representing events from the life of St. 
Mark. On the parapet of the Stalls are the four Evangelists in bronze, 
by Sansovino, and four Fathers of the church, by Caliari (1614). 

The High Altar (AUare Maggiore) stands beneath a canopy of verde 
antico, borne by four columns of marble (with reliefs of the Uth cent.). 
The Pala d'Oro, enamelled work with jewels, wrought on plates of gold 
and silver, executed at Constantinople in 1105, constitutes the altar-piece, 
which is uncovered on high festivals only, or, at other times , for a fee 
of 6 fr. (It was originally intended to embellish the front of the altar.) 
Under the high altar repose the relics of St. Blark , as the marble slab 
at the back records. — Behind the high altar is a second altar with four 
spiral columns of alabaster, of which the two white ones in the middle are 
semi-transparent, and are said to have once belonged to the Temple of 

The Sacristt (Sagrestia), to the left, contains some fine mosaics on the 
vaulting ; cabinets with inlaid work of 1523 ; on the door leading from the 
high altar, reliefs in bronze by Sansovino (1556); to the right of the handle 
is the portrait-head of the maker of the door; in the right corner the head 
of Titian. Entrance to the Crypt, see below. 

To the right of the high altar : Cappella di S. Clemente, with altar- 
relief of the 16th cent., representing SS. Nicholas, James, and Andrew, 
and the Doge Andr. Gritti. 

In the right aisle, close to the principal entrance, is the Battistero, in 
the centre of which is a large bronze font of 1545 ; above it is John the 
Baptist. Also the monument of the Doge And. Dandolo (d. 1354). The stone 
over the altar is from Mt. Tabor. To the left of the altar the head of John 
the Baptist, of the 15th cent. ; below it is the stone on which he is said 
to have been beheaded. — From the Baptistery we enter the *Cappella 
Zeno, containing the handsome "Monument of Cardinal Giambattista Zeno 
(d. 1501), wrought entirely in bronze; on the sarcophagus is the figure of 

224 Route 30. VENICE. S. Marco. 

the cardinal , over life-size ; below are the six Virtues. The 'Altar and 
canopy are also cast in bronze , with the exception of the frieze and the 
bases of the columns. Over the altar are groups in bronze, of the Sladonna, 
St. Peter, and John the Baptist; on the altar itself a relief of the Re- 
surrection. To the right and left two lions in coloured marble. 

In the right transept is the entrance to the Treasury ( Tesoro di S. Marco, 
open on Mondays and Fridaj'S 121/2-2 o'clock, except on festivals), containing 
candelabra by Benvenuto Cellini; cover of the books of the Gospels from 
the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople, decorated with gold and jewels ; 
a crystal vase with the 'Blood of the Saviour'; a silver column with a 
fragment of the 'True Cross'; a cup of agate with a portion of the 'skull 
of St. John'; the sword of the Doge Morosini; cuneiform writings from 
Persepolis ; an episcopal throne of the 7th cent., said to be that of St. 
JIark; and a number of other curiosities. 

The Crvpt, freed from water and restored in 1868 (but still often 
underwater), also deserves a visit; open 12-2 o'clock, entrance by the first 
door to the right in the Sacristy (see above); at other hours it is shown 
by the sacristan. To the right a well executed Christ in relief by San- 

A walk (sacristan 1/2 fr.) round the Galleet inside the church is 
strongly recommended in order that the mosaics may be more closely 
inspected. The ascent is from a door to the right in the principal porta), 
which the sacristan opens. The gallery on the outside of the church 
should then be visited for the sake of examining the bronze horses. 

On the N. side of St. Mark's, under the arch of the transept, 
is a marhle sarcophagus borne hy lions, executed by Borro, and 
containing the remains of Daniele Manin , the president of the re- 
ptiblic in 1848, which were brought from Paris in 1868. — On the 
wall here are placed numerous ancient Byzantine reliefs in marble 
(Madonna, etc.), brought from the East by Venetians. 

On the S. side of the church (comp. p. 225) are two short square 
*Columns, inscribed with Greek characters, brought hither in 1256 
from the church of St. Saba at Ptolemais, which was destroyed by 
the Venetians. From the Pietra del Bando , a block of porphyry at 
the S.W. corner, the decrees of the republic were anciently pro- 
mulgated. Two curious Reliefs in porphyry are immured by the 
entrance to the Palace of the Doges , representing two pairs of 
knightly and armed figures embracing each other. They are said 
also to have been brought from Ptolemais, atid have given rise to a 
great variety of conjectures, the most recent being that they re- 
present four emperors of Byzantium of the 11th cent., and once 
adorned the pedestal of an equestrian statue. 

Opposite St. Mark's, to the S.W., rises the isolated square 
^Campanile (II Campanile di S. Marco), 322 ft. in height, which is 
always open to the public (doorkeeper 15 c. for each pers. on enter- 
ing). It was founded in 911, restored in 1510, and finally completed 
in 1591, the upper part and the spire having been constructed by 
Bartolommeo Buon. The ascent by a winding inclined plane of 38 
bends, and finally by a few steps, is easy and well-lighted. The 
watchman at the summit is provided with a telescope and opens the 
door to the second gallery for a trifling gratuity. The*View comprises 
the city, the Laguno (comp. p. 220), the Alps, and part of the 
Adriatic; W. the Monti Euganoi near Padua (p. 279), rising above 

Clock Tower. VENICE. 36. Route. 225 

the Lagune; E. in clear weather the Istrian Mts., rising ahove the 
Adriatic, a magnificent spectacle towards sxmset. The ascent of 
the campanile is recommended to the traveller, hoth for a prelimin- 
ary survey, and as an appropriate termination to his visit to Ven- 
ice. — The Loggetta, or vestibule, on the E. side of the campanile, 
erected by Sansovino in 1540 and lately restored, once served as a 
waiting-room for the procurators, whose offjce it was, during the 
sessions of the great Council, to command the guards. The bronze 
statues of Peace, Apollo, Mercury, and Pallas, and the reliefs on 
the coping by Sansovino, and also the Bronze Doors, cast in 1750, 
deserve inspection. 

The Clock Tower (La Torre delV Orologio), on the opposite side, 
at the E. end of the old Procuratie, erected by Pietro Lombardo in 
1496, rises over a gateway, resembling a triumphal arch, restored 
in 1859. On the platform are two Vulcans in bronze , who strike 
the hours on a bell. The custodian of the clock, who lives in the 
building, shows and explains the mechanism (fee 1/2 fr.). The 
entrance is under the archway to the left, where it is indicated by 
a notice. The Merceria (p. 215), the principal commercial street 
of Venice, quits the Piazza of St. Mark here, and leads to the Ponte 
Rialto (p. 242). 

From the S.E. corner of the Piazza of St. Mark to the Lagune, 
extends the *Piazzetta (PI. F, 4), which is bounded on the W. by 
the former Library, and on the E. by the Palace of the Doges. 

The *Library (Antica Libreria di S. Marco), which now belongs 
to the royal palace, begun by Sansovino in 1536 , is a magnificent 
structure of the 16th cent., and one of the finest secular edifices in 
Italy. In plan the structure consists of a double colonnade with 
arches and embedded columns. In the upper colonnade the arches 
rest upon smaller, additional columns of the Ionic order. The 
effect is so fine, that Sansovino may be fairly said to have justi- 
fied the liberty he has taken in enlarging the metopes at the ex- 
pense of the triglyphs and architrave, and in some other points 
(Burckhardt). — In the direction of the Lagune are two Granite 
Columns, brought by the Doge Michiel from Syria in 1120, and 
erected here in 1180; one of them bears the Winged Lion of St. 
Mark, the emblem of the tutelary saint of Venice ; the other is 
surmounted by St. Theodore on a crocodile, the patron of the ancient 
republic, placed there in 1329. This used to be the place of 
execution, and is now the headquarters of the gondoliers (comp. 
p. 214). On the Lagune, between the Library and the Royal Garden, 
is situated the Zecca or Mint, which was also built by Sansovino in 

The **Palace of the Doges (Palazzo Ducale, PI. 60), the W. 
side of which, 82 yds. in length, looks towards the Piazzetta, aud 
the S. side, 78 yds. in length, towards the Molo, was founded in 
800, afterwards destroyed five times, and as often re-erected in 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 15 

22G Route 36. VENICE. Pal. of the Doges. 

a style of greater magnificence than before. The reconstruction 
begun in 1341 from the designs of Filippo Calendario was carried 
out under the superintendence of Pietro Baseggio. The facade 
was restored in the Gothic style in 1424-42. The whole building 
is undergoing restoration. On the W. and on the S. side the 
palace is flanked by two colonnades of 107 columns (36 below, 
71 above), one aboj^e the othrr , with pointed vaulting. The 
mouldings of the upper colonnade, 'La Loggia'', are remarkable 
for their richness. From between the two columns of red marble 
(9th and 10th from the principal portal) in the Loggia, the Ee- 
public anciently caused its sentences of death to be published. 
The capitals of the short columiis below are richly decorated with 
foliage, figures of men and animals, etc. On the corner-pillar by 
the portal are interesting representations of Numa Pompilias, 
Scipio, the Emperor Trajan judging the cause of a woman , and of 
Justice , with inscriptions. Above these is a group representing 
the Judgment of Solomon. At the corner towards the Lagune, 
Adam and Eve. (Porphyry-reliefs on the corners to the left, see 
p. 224.) The fine Portal adjoining St. Mark's, constructed of 
marble of different colours in 1439, in the Gothic style with a Re- 
naissance tendency, and recently restored, is called the Porta delta 
Carta, from the placards formerly exhibited here to announce the 
decrees of the republic. Justice is represented in the tympanum. 

The *CouRT, begun at the close of the 15th cent, by Antonio 
Bregno and Antonio Searpagnino , but only partially completed, 
has an admirable finished facade on the E. side. The unsym- 
metrical form of the court was probably rendered necessary by the 
previous existence of surrounding buildings. Within one of the 
highest windows to the left was the prison of the poet Count 
Silvio Pellico in 1822, before he was conveyed to the Spielberg at 
Briinn. In the centre of the court are two Cistern-fronts in bronze, 
dating from 1556 and 1559. To the right, on the facade of the 
Clock Tower, is a statue of the Venetian general Duke Francis 
Maria I. of Urbino (d. 1625). The other statues are antique, but 
freely restored. The charming small facade farther E., perhaps the 
best, is by Guglielmo Bergamasco (1520). 

The *Scala dei Giganti, the flight of steps by which the palace 
is entered, derives its name from the colossal statues of Mars and 
Nt!ptune at the top, executed by Sansovino in 1554. It was on 
the highest landing of these steps that the coronation of the doges 
used to take place. Opposite the landing are statues of Adam and 
Eve, by Antonio Rizzo (1462). 

The *Intkriob, of the Ducal Palace (admission , see p. 216) 
also forms a noble specimen of Venetian art. Had not the fire in 
1577 destroyed so many paintings, we should have been able here 
to trace the whole progress of Venetian art during its golden era. 
The earliest Venetian painters devoted their energies to the church 

Pal. of the Doges. VENICE. 36. Route. 227 

of St. Mark, but the great masters of the loth and 16th cent, were 
chiefly occupied in embellishing the Palace of the Doges. Their 
works having unfortunately perished , the edifice now forms a mu- 
seum of later masters only, such as Tintoretto, Palmn Giovane, and 
Paolo Veronese, but, nevertheless, it still presents a brilliant and 
most attractive array of the Venetian painters, so far as their ener- 
gies were enlisted in the service of the state. 

We ascend the Scala del Gigaiiti. Around the upper colonnade 
are placed the busts of a number of Venetian scholars, artists, and 
doges. The first staircase is the richly decorated Scala d'Oro, con- 
structed by Battista Franco under the superintendence oiSansovino 
and completed in 1577, which was once accessible to those only 
whose names were entered as Nobili in the Golden Book. By this 
staircase we ascend on week-days (admission Ifr., payable at the 
second landing) direct to the upper story, where we enter the Atrio 
Quadrato. In this case we traverse the narrow passage to the left, 
visit the apartments described at p. 229, and afterwards descend to 
the middle story. 

The next staircase , the Scala del Censori , which forms the 
entrance to the apartments on Sundays and festivals, first leads to 
the First Floor, which contains the Library (on the left; p. 228j, 
the Sala del Maggior Consiglio (in a straight direction ; see below), 
and the Archaeological Museum (on the right ; p. 228j. 

I. 'Sala del Maggior Consiglio (door generally open; if not, ring). 
In this large hall (55 yds. long, 26 yds. broad, 47 ft. high), the Nobili, 
whose names were entered in the 'Golden Book', and who constituted 
the highest authority in the Republic, formerly sat. In 1848-49 the House 
of Representatives under the Dictator Manin also met here. On the frieze 
are the portraits of 76 doges, beginning with Angelo Participocio (d. 827) ; 
on the walls 21 large pictures by Bassano, Faolo Veronese, Tintoretto, etc., 
painted to commemorate the achievements of the Republic. On the K. 
wall Jae. Tintoretto's Paradise, said to be the largest oil-painting in the 
world, containing a perplexing multitude of figures, several of the heads 
of which are admirably done. — The Historical Pictures consist of two 
series. The first illustrates in a somewhat boastful style the life of the 
Doge Sebastiano Ziani (1173-79), who accorded an asylum to Pope Alexan- 
der III. when at variance with the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and 
(in league with the towns of Lombardy) resisted the imperial demands. 
The second series depicts the exploits of the Doge Enrico Dandolo (p. 216). 
As works of art they are somewhat tedious. 

The first series begins on the upper part of the wall to the right of 
the entrance, and runs to the left in the direction of the opposite end of 
the rooms; 1. Meeting of Pope Alexander III. and the Doge Ziani at the 
Monastery delta Oarita, and — 2. Parting audience of the amuassadors of the 
Pope and the Doge on their departure for Parma, both by pupils of Paolo 
Veronese; 3. (over the window) Presentation of the consecrated candle, 
by Leandro Bassano ; 4. Ambassadors of the Pope and the Doge presenting 
to Fred. Barbarossa at Pavia a petition for a cessation of hostilities , by 
Jacopo Tintoretto; 5. The Pope presenting a sword to the Doge, by Franc. 
Bassano; 6. (over the window) Departure of the Doge with the papal bene- 
diction, by Paolo Fiammingo; 7. Battle of Salvore (Pirano), defeat of the 
Imperial lleet, and capture of Utho, 1177, by Dom. Tintoretto; 8. (above 
the door) The Doge presenting the son of the Emperor to the Pope, by 
Andrea Vicenlino; 9. Pope Alexander grants permission to the captive Otho 
to repair to his father in order to negotiate a peace, by Palma Giovane; 

228 Route 36. VENICE. Pal. of the Doges. 

10. Fred. Barbarossa kneeling before the Pope (p. 223), by Federigo Zvc- 
raro-., 11. (over the door) Conclusion of peace between the Pope, the Doge, 
and the Emperor, at Ancona, by Oirolamo Gambaralo ; i'2. The Pope pre- 
sents gifts to the Doge, including the ring, the symbol of supremacy with 
which the Doge annually 'wedded the Adriatic', 1177? by Gitdio dal Moro. 

The cycle of pictures in honour of the Doge Dandolo also begins on 
the entrance wall, to which we return after having inspected the first 
series. They run from left to right as follows : 1. The Doge and French 
Crusaders swear an oath of alliance at St. Mark's in 1201, for the purpose 
of liberating the Holy Land, by Giov. Le Clerc ; 2. Storming of Zara in 
1202, by Andrea Viceniino ; 3. Surrender of Zara to the Crusaders in 1202, 
by Dom. TintoreUo (placed over the door to a balcony, which affords a 
line 'View of the Lagune and the islands of S. Giorgio and Giudecca); 4. 
Alexius, son of the dethroned Greek Emp. Isaac Angelus, invoking the 
aid of the Venetians in behalf of his father in 1202, by Andrea Vicentino ; 
5. Taking of Constantinople by the Venetians and French, 1204, by Dom. 
Tintoretto; 6. Second taking of Constantinople, 1204, by Dom. Tintoretto; 
7. Count Baldwin of Flanders elected Greek Emp. in the church of St. 
Sophia, 1204, by Andr. Vicentino; 8. Coronation of Baldwin by the Doge 
Enrico Dandolo, 1204, by Aliense. (Above this, a black tablet on the frieze 
among the portraits of the Doges bears the inscription: Mic est locus Ma- 
rini Falethri decapilati pro criminibus; comp. p. 217.) — Lastly, as an ad- 
ditional picture: *9. Return of the Doge Andr. Contarini from the victory 
over the Genoese fleet near Chioggia, 1378, by Paolo Veronese. — The 
ceiling paintings , which also represent battles fought by the Venetians, 
are by Paolo Veronese^ Sassano, Jac. Tintoretto, and Pulma Oiovane; the 
'Fame of Venice (next to the entrance) is by Paolo Veronese. 

The CoEKiDOR contains a bust of the Emp. Francis. — The Sala dello 
Serutinio, or Voting Hall, is decorated similarly to the preceding saloon. 
On the frieze are the portraits of 39 doges, down to Lodovico Manin (1797). 
On the wall of the entrance: "^Last Judgment, by Palma Giovane. On the 
left wall, towards the Piazzetta : 1. Victory of the Venetians over King 
Roger of Sicily in 1148; 2. Subjugation of Tyre under Domenico Dlichieli 
in 1125; 3. (over the door to the balcony, which affords a good survey 
of Sansovino's library) Victory of Dom. Michieli over the Turks at Jaffa 
in 1123; 4. Victory in the lagoons over Pipin , son of Charlemagne, in 
811 ; 5. Siege of Venice by Pipin in 809. — • Opposite the entrance: Monument 
to the Doge Francesco Morosini 'Peloponnesiacus', who in 1684 - 90 con- 
quered the Morea and Athens (p. 218). — On the right wall: 6. Lazaro 
Mocenigo conquers the Turks, near the Dardanelles in 1657; 7. (over the 
window towards the court): Destruction of Margaritino in 1571; 8. Battle 
of Lepanto, in the same year; 9. (over the second window) Conquest of 
Cattaro in Dalmatia during the war against Genoa in 1378 ; 10. Re-capture 
of Zara in 1346. — On the ceiling several other scenes from the history 
of the Republic. 

The celebrated Library of St. Mark, containing many rare MSS. and 
beautiful miniatures, and also some ancient cameos (two heads of Zeus), 
is open to the public daily from 10 to 3 (Sundays and holidays excepted). 
Among its chief treasures is the "Breviario Grimani, embellished with 
miniatures by Hans Memling, Lievin de Wide, and other Netherlandish 
painters "f the 15tb century. — The extensive and choice Collection of 
Coins is shown by special permission only. 

II. The Archseological Museum, established in 1846 in the apart- 
ments in which the doges resided till the close of the 16th cent., contains 
ancient sculptures in marble, of Greek and Roman origin, most of which 
were brought home as booty by the Venetians from their various cam- 

I. Room: 94. One of the Dioscuri, a portrait statue; 90. Colossal 
Minerva; "85. Bacchus and a satyr; °80. Apollo reposing; 70, 68. Elegant 
candelabra-bases, with armed cupids; '■'51, 56. Muses from the Amphitheatre 
of Pola; 46. Dancing Silenus; 35. Cupid bending his bow; 32. Boy with a 
t'oose, a fountain-ligiire: 29. Venus and Cupid. 

U. Kuom: 169. llcrinaiihroditc, fraiiment of a sidrited group; "148. 

Pal. of the Doges. VENICE. 36. Route. 220 

Rape of Ganymede, freely restored; *153. Gaul sinking from exhaustion; 
■145. Dead Gaul lying on his shield; *144. Gaul, in his last desperate 
struggle ; these three resemble the Dying Gladiator in the Capitol at Rome 
and similar statues at Naples, and probably belonged to the groups de- 
dicated to the Acropolis of Athens by Attains, King of Pergamos, about 
B.C. 239, after his victory at Sardes in Asia Minor over the invading 
Gauls; 138. Leda with the swran ; 133. Apollo ; 113,187. Two comic masks; 
IC^. Cupid bending his bow, in Parian marble. — The chimney-piece dates 
from the end of the 15th century. 

III. Room: old maps; among them the celebrated "Map of the 
World by the Camaldulensian monk Fra Mauro, 1457-59; six tablets of 
carved wood by Haji Mehemet of Tunis (1559) , representing the globe ; 
Plans of Venice of 1500 and 1728. The next room is entered by a door 
to the right. — IV. Room: 190. Warrior sacrificing; 195. Fragment of a 
sarcophagus, rape of Proserpine ; 196. Another with the destruction of the 
children of Niobe ; 220. Greek tomb relief; 222. Centaurs fighting, and a 
female Centaur asleep; 231. Fragment of a Greek frieze, battle of the 
Greeks and Trojans around the ships ; 239. Four-sided base of a candelabrum. 
We now return to the 3rd room, from which the next is entered to the 
right. — V. Room; chiefly busts of emperors, the best being 292. Vitel- 
lius; 250,299. Bacchantes; 245. Replica of the archaic Diana at Naples. 
— To gain admission to the last rooms (closed), which contain interesting 
bronzes, application must be made to the director. 

The Upper Floor contains the apartments in which the 
authorities of the republic once held thSir meetings, and which 
are still in a great measure preserved in their ancient splendour. 
The following description begins by the entrance from the Scala 
dei Censori. (On the upper landing we turn to the left ; to the 
right is the Instituto di Scienze.) — Those who ascend by the 
Scala cVOro (the staircase used on week-days, comp. p. 227) first 
enter the Atrio Quadrato, from which they proceed to the Sala delle 
Quattro Porte, Sala del Senate, and the following rooms, till they 
reach the Anticollegio, whence they visit the Stanza dei Tre Capi 
del Consiglio and the remaining rooms in the reverse order from 
that given below. They then descend from the Sala della Bussola 
by the Scala dei Censori to the first floor. 

I. Sala della Bussola, once the ante-chamber of the three Inquisitors 
of the Republic ; by the entrance is an opening in the wall , formerly 
decorated with a lion's head in marble, into the mouth of which (Bocca di 
Leone) documents containing secret information were thrown. This apart- 
ment contains two pictures by AUense: on the right, Taking of Brescia, 
1426, and on the left. Taking of Bergamo, 1427; chimney-piece by Sanso- 
vino. — In a straight direction we next enter the — 

II. Sala del Consiglio dei Dieci. On the wall of the entrance , Pope 
Alexander III. and the Doge Ziani, the conqueror of Emp. Fred. Bar- 
barossa, by Bassano ; opposite, the Peace of Bologna, concluded in 1529 
between Pope Clement VII. and Emp. Charles V., by Marco Vecellio ; on 
the ceiling, in the right hand corner, portraits of an old man and a hand- 
some woman, by Paolo Veronese, restored. Large modern ceiling paintings. 
Fine putto frieze. — We now retrace our steps through the Sala della 
Bussola and enter (to the right) the — 

III. Stanza dei Tre Capi del Consiglio, with ceiling-paintings (an angel 
driving away the vices) by Paolo Veronese ; chimney-piece by Sansovino ; 
caryatides by Pietro da Said ; on the left. Madonna and Child , two saints 
and Doge Leon. Loredano, by Catena. — A passage leads hence to the — 

IV. Atrio Quadrate, into which the Scala dWro leads, with a ceiling- 
painting by Tintoretto, representing the Doge Priuli receiving the sword 
of justice. On the walls eight portraits of senators. 

230 lirjute :i(l. VENICE. Pal. of the Doges. 

V. Sala delle Q,uattro Porte, restiircd in 1869; doors designed hy Pal- 
ladio , 1575; left, Verona conquered by the Venetians, 1439, by Giov. 
Contarini ; right, the Doge Ant. Grimani kneeling before Religion, by Titian; 
left, the Arrival of Henry III. of France at Venice, by Andrea Vicentino; 
the Doge Cicogna receiving the Persian ambassadors in 1585, by Carletto 
Caliari. Magnificent ceiling. — Through the door on the right we now 
enter the — 

VI. Sala del Senate. Over the throne. Descent from the Cross by 
(Hacomo Tintoretto; on the wall, the Doge Franc. Venier before Venice, 
the Doge Cicogna in presence of the Saviour, Venetia on the Lion against 
Europa on the Bull (an allusion to the League of Cambray, see p. 218), 
all three by Palma Giovcine; the Doge Pic'ro Loredano imploring the aid 
of the Virgin, by Gincomo Tintoretto. Ceiling-painting: Venice, Queen of 
the Adriatic, by Domenico Tintoretto. 

Beyond this room (to the right of the throne) is the Ante-Chamber 
to the chapel of the doges, containing five pictures of little value. — 
In the Chapel over the altar a Madonna by Sansovino. To the left of the 
altar: Paris Bordone., Pieta; 'Paolo Veronese., Forest landscape with 
accessories ; Cima da Conegliano (?), Madonna in a landscape ; Early 
Flemish Artist, Mocking of Christ; Giorgione (?), Christ in Purgatory; 
"Bonifacio., Christ teaching (three pictures brought from the Palazzo Reale 
in 1875); then (to the right of the door). Crossing of the Red Sea, wrongly 
ascribed to Titian. To the right of the altar is a staircase descending to 
the private dwelling of the Doge; on the wall of the landing, St. Christopher, 
a fresco by Tiiian. — We return through the Sala del Scnato and enter 
to the right the — 

Sala del CoUegio. Over the door, the Nuptials of St. CathariHC (be- 
low, the Doge Franc. Dona); to the left of it. Virgin in glory (with the 
Doge Kiccolo da Ponte) , Adoration of the Saviour (with the Doge Alvise 
Mocenigo), all three by Tintoretto ; over the throne a memorial picture of 
the Battle of Lepanto, *Christ in glory (below, the Doge Venier, Vene- 
tians, St. Mark, St. Justina, etc.), both by Paolo Veronese; opposite, the 
Prayer of the Doge Andrea Gritti to the Virgin , by Tintoretto. Ceiling- 
paintings, Neptune and Mars, Faith, Venetia on the globe with Justice and 
Peace, all by Paolo Veronese. 

AnticoUegio : left, '^'Rape of Europa, by Paolo Veronese ; Jacob's return 
to Canaan, by Bassano; Forge of Vulcan , Mercury with the Graces, op- 
posite to it Blinerva driving back Mars, and Ariadne and Bacchus, all 
four by Tintoretto. Ceiling-painting, Venetia enthroned, by Paolo Vero- 
nese, much damaged. 

The handsome E. side of the Palace of the Doges towards the 
canal, which presents a more harmonious appearance than the W. 
side, and has a basement of facetted stone, is connected with the 
Carceri or Prigioni, constructed in 1512-97 hy Giov. da Ponte, by 
means of the lofty Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri; PI. 97). 
The Piombi, or prisons under the leaden roof of the Palace, were 
destroyed in 1797, but a torture-chamber has recently been restored 
to satisfy the curiosity of tourists. The Pozzi, or half-ruined dun- 
geons on the farther side of the narrow canal on the E. side of the 
Palace, with the place of execution for political criminals, may 
also be inspected, and are full of sombre interest (entrance from 
the first floor). 

A good survey of the Bridge of Sighs is obtained from the Ponte 
dellfi Piiiilid, which connects the Molo with the adjacent — 

Riva degli Schiavoni (PI. F, (t, 4), a quay paved with un- 
polished slabs of marble, and presenting a busy scene. Sailors of all 
nations, from the vessels which lie in the vicinity, and numerous id- 

Academy. VENICE. 36. Route. 231 

lers, are soeii lounging here or congregated at the cafes. — The 
church of S. Maria della Pieta, situated about the centre of the 
Riva, contains a *Christ in the house of the Pharisee by Moretto 
(in the high choir, above the principal entrance), and a Coronation 
of Mary by Tiepolo (on the ceiling). From the Riva a view is ob- 
tained of the Giardini Pubbtici, mentioned at p. 258. 

If we diverge from the Riva to the left, by the church of S. 
Biagio (PL 6), which contains a monument to Admiral Angelo 
Emo by Ferrari-Toretti, the teacher of Canova, and skirt the broad 
canal, we soon reach the entrance gate of the - 

*Arsenal (PI. 3; H, 4; admission daily, 9-3, except on Sun- 
days and festivals, on presenting a visiting-card), which at the time 
of the Republic employed 16,000 workmen, but now 2000 only. 
The decline of Venice is nowhere so apparent as here. At the outer 
entrance (handsome gateway of 1460) are the four antique lions, 
brought here in 1687 from the Pirsus ; the large one on the left, 
the body of which is covered with inscriptions no longer legible, 
is conjectured once to have stood on the battle-fleld of Marathon. 

iNTEKioK (entrance by crossing the court to the left). First Floor: 
Interesting collection of models of ships of all periods, including a model 
and the scanty remains of the Bucentoro, a vessel destroyed by the French, 
from which the Doge was wont annually on Ascension Day to throw the 
ring (p. 228) into the Adriatic, which he thus symbolically wedded ; model 
of the system of piles on which the city is to a great extent built. — 
Second Floor: Fine collection of weapons; by the entrance, statue of Vit- 
tore Pisano (1380); monument to Admiral Angelo Emo (d. 1792), by Canova; 
several trophies of historical interest, banners from the battle of Lepanto, 
armour of former doges, of the Condottiere Gatf amelata, and of Henry IV. 
of France ; revolvers and breech-loaders of a primitive description of the 
16th cent., a finely executed culverin of steel, adorned with reliefs, in- 
struments of torture , iron helmet found near Aquileia, bust of Napoleon 
of 1805. (Explanatory inscriptions on each object; gratuities forbidden.) 

Beyond the bridge, near the Direzione Generale , stands the 
Monument of Count von der Schulenburg, marshal in the Venetian 
service (d. 1747). 

The **Accademia delle Belle Arti (PI. 1 ; D, 5), In the sup- 
pressed Scuola delta Carith, the assembly-hall of this brotherhood, 
on the Grand Canal, opposite the S. extremity of the iron bridge 
(p. 240) and 1/.2 M. from the Piazza of St. Mark, may easily be 
reached on foot (comp. p. 252). The entrance is in the cloisters, 
to the left, whetice we ascend to the first floor. (Admission, see 
p. 216.) Permission to copy is easily obtained at the office. The 
numbers over the doors apply in each case to the next room. — 
Catalogue, 1 fr. 

The gallery contains almost exclusively pictures by Venetian 
masters. The general public will be most interested in the works 
of the time of Bellini and the following period, as well as in the 
historical pictures by Gentile Bellini and Carpaccio in the XVI. 
Room, exhibiting a lifelike picture of ancient Venice, the brilliant 

232 Route 36. 



colours of -which cause us to forget the poverty of the execution 
and waut of inspiration which characterise the individual ttgures 
as well as the groups. It is instructive to compare these paintings 
with the manner in which Florentine artists of the same epoch 
arranged their groups and described historical events. Attention 
must be drawn to the numerous pictures of Giovanni Bellini (Nos. 
38, 94, and others), representing the assemblage of saints sur- 
rounding the throne of the Madonna ('sacra conversazione'), to the 
beauty of the nude figures, and to the powerful and imposing, 
though not very saintlike male figures. A picture by Boccaccino 
da Cremona (No. 132), a little known master of the earlier school, 




1 1 1 



. Corridor 






v,u| 1 











1 ' 


is one of the best of that period. Giorgione's Storm at sea (No. 37) 
is of doubtful authenticity, and moreover much damaged. Palma 
}'eccliio is not represented here by his best works. On the other 
hand Rocco Marconi s Descent from the Cross (No. 405) is one of 
his finest efforts. Titian's masterpiece , the Assumption of the 
Virgin (No. 24), requires no comment; the glowing rapture of the 
apostles, the jubilant delight of the angels, the beaming bliss of 
the Madonna, the magnificence of the colouring, cannot fail to 
strike the eye of every beholder. The gallery comprises what is 
perhaps the earliest known work of this master, and his last, un- 
completed creation : tlie Visitation, and the Descent from the Cross. 
The Presentation in the Temple (No. 487) is very attractive owing 
to the spirited character of tlie grouping, and the beauty of the 

Academy. VENICE. 36. Route. 233 

individual figures. Bonifacio'' s wealtli of colour is displayed in the 
Adoration of the Magi (No. 57), and in the History of the Rich Man 
(No. 500). The Miracle of St. Mark (No. 45) by Tintoretto, and 
the Supper in the house of Levi (No. 547) by Paolo Veronese, are 
specially interesting. 

Beyond the Corridor, which contains numerous architectural 
drawings, we pass through an ante-chamher containing sculptures 
(I. Adonis by Rinaldo Rinaldi, III. Adonis by Jacopo de Martini), 
and enter the — 

Saxa I, DEGLi Antichi Dipinti. Ancicut pictures, the hand- 
some original frames of which should be noticed. 1. Bart. Vivarini, 
Mary and four saints, painted in 1464; 4, 6. (belonging to each 
other), Marco Basaiti, St. James and St. Anthony ; 5. Lorenzo 
Veneziano and Franc. Bissolo , Altar-piece in sections, in the 
centre the Annunciation, above it God the Father (1358); 8. Gio- 
vanni and Antonio da Murano, Coronation of the Virgin in an 
assembly of saints, in the centre 'putti' with instruments of torture 
(1440); 10. Bartolommeo Vivarini, St. Matthew; 11. Vincenzo 
Catena, St. Augustine; 14. Bart. Vivarini, St. Barbara (1490) ; 
18. Alwise Vivarini, St. Anthony; 21. Bartolommeo Vivarini, Sta. 
Clara ; *23. Giovanni d'Alemagna and Antonio da Murano, Ma- 
donna enthroned, with four Fathers of the church (1446), interest- 
ing also on account of the peculiar architecture. 

Sala II, dell' Assunta , the ceiling richly gilded , in the 
lunettes portraits of painters of the Venetian school, painted in 
1849-55, the light unfavourable (the visitor requires to shade his 
eyes from the glare of the windows). Opposite the staircase : — 

**24. Titian, Assumption (Assunta), painted in 1516-18 for 
the Frari (p. 248), whose high altar it once adorned. 

The present position of the picture is very unfavourable. 'Neither 
the place nor the light is that for which Titian intended it ; and the con- 
trast between the radiance of the sky and the darkness round the tomb 
is lost on the one hand, whilst coarseness of outline and foreshortening 
— unseen in. the gloom of a church — are forced unfairly into view. 
Yet few pictures impress us more even now with the master's power. . . . 
There is nothing so remarkable in this enchanting picture as the contrast 
between the apparent simplicity of the results, and the science with which 
these results are brought about. Focal concentration is attained by per- 
spective science, applied alike to lines and to atmosphere, at the same 
time that a deep and studied intention is discoverable in the subtle 
distribution of radiance and gloom. . . . Something indescribable strikes 
us in the joyful innocence of the heavenly company whose winged units 
crowd together singing, playing, wondering and praying, some in light, 
some in half light, others in gloom, with a spirit of life moving in them 
that is quite delightful to the mind and the eye. Like the bees about 
their queen this swarm of angels rises with the beauteous apparition of 
the Virgin, whose noble face is transfigured with gladness, whose step is 
momentarily arrested as she ascends on the clouds , and with upturned 
face and outstretched arms longs for the heaven out of which the Kternal 
looks down. To this central point in the picture Titians invites us by all 
the arts of which he is a master. . . . The apostles we observed are in 
shade. An awfully inspired unanimity directs their thoughts and eyes 
from the tomb round which they linger to the circle of clouds beauti- 

231 Route 36. VENICE. Academy. 

fully supported in its upward passage by the iloating shapes of the 
ani^L'ls." The lifelike semblance of nature in these forms and the mar- 
volb us power with which their various sensations of fear, devotion, re- 
verent wonder, and rapture are expressed, raise Titian to a rank as 
high as that held by Raphael and Michaelangelo. — C. d- C. 

Farther on, to" the right : 25. Tintoretto., The Fall. *31. Marco 
Bamiti, Call of the Sons of Zehedee, painted in 1510, and mark- 
ing, along with No. 534 in Room XVI. (painted in the same year), 
the highest level reached by Basaiti, before he adopted the style 
of Bellini. 32. Tintoretto, Madonna and Child, with three senators. 

*33. Titian, Entombment, his last picture, with which he was 
engaged at the time of his death, in his 99th year, completed by 
Palma Giovane in 1576, as the inscription records. 

'It may be that looking closely at the 'Pieta', our eyes will lose 
themselves in a chaos of touches; but retiring to the focal distance, they 
recover themselves and distinguish all that Titian meant to convey. In 
the group of the Virgin and Christ — a group full of the deepest and 
truest feeling — there lies a grandeur comparable in one sense with that 
which strikes us in the 'Piota' of Michaelangelo.' — C. <t C. 

34. Bonifacio, SS. Anthony and Mark ; 35. Titian(;^), Visitation 
(if genuine, his earliest work extant) ; 36. Tintoretto, Resurrection, 
and three senators ; 37. Giorgione (?), Storm at sea. 

*38. Gioi:. Bellini, Madonna enthroned in a richly decorated 
niche, with (1.) St. Francis, Job, St. .John, and (r.) SS. Sebastian, 
Dominique, and Louis, and three angels on the steps of the throne ; 
this is one of the master's finest works. 

'Finely thcmght out is the concentration of light on the Virgin seated 
with the babe on her knee. ... By means essentially his own, Bellini 
was here creating for the Venetian sch(uil something distantly akin to 
the ecstatic style of Angelico. . . . The 'canon' of Venetian art is truly 
stated to have been laid down in this picture.' — C. d- C. 

39. Palma Giovane, Vision from the Apocalypse ; 40. Palma 
Giov., The four horsemen of the Apocalypse ; *45. Tintoretto, St. 
Mark releasing a condemned slave; 47. Padovanino, Marriage of 
Cana ; 49. Bonifacio, St. Francis and the Apostle Paul ; 50. Boni- 
facio, The adulteress before Christ; 51. Tintoretto, Portrait of the 
Poge Luigi Mocenigo; 52. Catena, Scourging of Christ ; 53. Tin- 
toretto, Madonna and Child, with SS. .Joseph, Mark, and Jerome, 
and the portrait of the doge ; 54. Paolo Veronese, Virgin in glory, 
below is St. Dominicus, distributing crowns of roses to the pope, 
emperor and king, doges, cardinals, etc. (difficult to see); *55. 
Bonifacio, Solomon's judgment (1533); *57. Bonifacio, Adoration 
of the Magi; 59. Palma Vecchio, Assumption; 60. Rocco Marconi, 
Christ, Peter, and John; *62. Paolo Veronese, Scourging of St. 
Christina; 63. Tintoretto, Death of Abel. 

Sala III. (adjoining the Assunta on the right): Marble bust of 
(riov. Bellini. Late Venetian masters of no great merit. The 
foUnwiTig are temporarily placed here : Cima da Conegliano, Tobias 
and the angel; *Vittorc Carpaccio (according to Mr. Crowe; form- 
erly attributed to Giovanni BeUini), The Supper at Enimaus, from 
S. Salvatore (p. 246). The ceiling paintings are by Tintoretto. 

Academy. VENICE. 36. Route. 235 

vSala IV. (to the left, up the staircase), academic assembly-hall 
with several reliefs and numerous old drawings, among which 
those hy Leonardo da Vinci and the so-called sketch-hook of Ra- 
phael are particularly interesting. — As some of the rooms were 
formerly closed on certain days, the numbering of the rooms does 
not correspond with the order in which they are now traversed. 
We next enter — 

Sala. XVII. : 582. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna and saints; 
586. Bonifacio, Temptation of SS. Benedict and Sebastian. 

*593. Palma Vecchio, Peter and saints. 

'None of Palma's works was executed with more energy and force 
than this. ... In keeping with forcible attitudes and movements are the 
solid Ijreadth and substance of the impast, the large cast and unusually 
line style of the drapery, the massively modelled surfaces, the grand shapes, 
and clean articulations.' — C. d- C. 

572. Bonifacio, Adoration of the Magi ; 575. Tintoretto, Two 
senators. — We next inspect the three small adjoining rooms, 
turning first, by the second door to the right, into — 

Sala XVIII. : Modern pictures by professors and pupils of the 

Sala XIX. : Pictures of the 18th cent., most of them mediocre: 
644. Antonio Canale , surnamed Canaletto , Architectural piece ; 
656, 661. Carriera, Portraits in chalks. 

Sala XX. : Modern pictures: 671. Ant. Zona, Meeting of 
Titian and Paolo Veronese. — We now return to Sala XVII. and 
from it enter — 

Sala XVI. : **547. Paolo Veronese, Jesus in the house of Levi 
(1572), a masterpiece of the artist , who has treated the historical 
incident merely as a pretext for delineating a group of handsome 
figures in the full and unfettered enjoyment of existence (Burck- 
hardt). 545. Lazzaro Sebastiano, Antonio Riccio congratulated by 
his friends. 543. Gentile Bellini, Miraculous cure of Pietro di Lu- 
dovigo through the fragment of the Cross, an interior, originally 
painted, like the two other large pictures on canvas , Nos. 529 
and 555, for the Scuola di S. Giovanni Evang. (1500), where a 
relic of the Cross was formerly revered ; the walls were hung with 
these pictures In the same way as with tapestry, a circumstance 
which accounts for many peculiarities in the composition. *534. 
Marco Basaiti, Jesus at Gethscmane. 

*Vittore Carpaccio, Nine scenes from the legend of St. Ursula, 
painted in 1490-95 for the Scuola di S. Ursula in Venice. 

539. The ambassadors of the pagan king of England bring to King 
Maurus, father of S. Trsula, the proposals of their master for the hand 
of his daughter; 533. S. Ursula's vision; 537. The ambassadors depart 
with the answer that the bride desired the postponement of the marriage 
for three years, in order to make a pilgrimage to Rome; 549. Return of 
the aml]as.<!adors to England and their report to the king; 542. Double 
picture, representing the Departure of the English monarch, who has re- 
solved to share in the pilgrimage, and his Meeting with Ursula (on ship- 
board) ; 546. Ursula, her companions, and the prince receive the blessing 
of Pope Cyriacus ; 544. Arrival of S. Ursula at Cologne ; 554. Martyrdom 

236 lioute 36. VENICE. Academy. 

of the saint and her virgins , who are pierced with arrows ; 560. Apo- 
theosis of S. Ursula. — The style in which the legend is narrated is al- 
most too simple, but interesting on account of the admirable perspective 
and faithful rendering of real life. The traveller who has visited Belgium 
cannot fail to compare this work with the celebrated shrine of S. Ursula 
at Bruges , painted by Hans Jlemling about (he same time (1489) for the 
Hospital of St. John there. The execution of the northern artist is ten- 
der and graceful , almost like miniature-painting , while the extensive 
canvases of his Venetian contemporary are vigorous, almost coarse in 

o29. Gentile Bellini , Miraculous finding of a fragment of tlie 
'True Cross', wMcli had fallen into the canal ; *564. Carpaccio, 
Healing of a lunatic, with the old Rialto bridge In the background ; 
561. Alwise Vivarini, Madonna with saints; 559. Carpaccio, Mar- 
tyrdom of the 10,000 Christians on Mt. Ararat, painted in 1515; 
*55o. Gentile Bellini, Procession in the Piazza of St. Mark, painted 
in 1496 (showing the appearance of the Piazza at that date, differ- 
ing materially from its present form) ; 55'2. Carpaccio , St. Anna 
and St. Joachim between St. Louis and St. Ursula. 

Sala XV. : *bOO. Bonifacio, Banquet of Dives; *idb. Rocco 
Marconi, Descent from the Cross; 494. L. Bassano, liaising of La- 
zarus ; 493. Carlo Caliari , Same subject ; *492. Paris Bordone, 
The fisherman presenting the Doge with the ring received from 
St. Mark , probably the most beautiful ceremonial picture in 
existence (Burckhardt). — *490. Pordenone , The glory of S. Lo- 
renzo Giustiniani, with John the Baptist, St. Francis, St. Au- 
gustine, and three other figures. 

The composition unites all the peculiar qualities of the master, and 
we can see that a supreme eftort has been made to produce a grand im- 
pression. The work, however, cannot be put on a level with the great 
creations of Titian. — C. & C. 

489. P. Veronese , Salutation ; 488. Carpaccio , Circumcision 
[1510). — *487. Titian, Presentation in the Temple. 

'It was not to be expected that Titian should go deeper into the per- 
iod from which he derived his gospel subject than other artists of his 
time. ... It was in the nature of Titian to represent a subject like this 
as a domestic pageant of his own time, and seen in this light it is ex- 
ceedingly touching and surprisingly beautiful. JIary in a dress of celesti- 
al blue "ascends the steps of the temple in a halo of radiance. She pauses 
on the first landing place, and gathers her skirts , to ascend to the sec- 
ond. . . . Uniting the majestic lines of a composition perfect in the bal- 
ance of its masses with an ell'ect unsurpassed in its contrasts^ of light 
and shade, the genius of the master has laid the scene in palatial archi- 
tecture of grand simplicity. . . . The harmony of the colours is so true 
and ringing, and the chords are so subtle, that the eye takes in the scene 
as if it were one of natural richness, unconscious of the means by which 
that richness is attained. ... In this gorgeous yet masculine and robust 
realism Titian shows his great originality, and claims to be the noblest 
representative of the Venetian school of colour'. — C. <C' C. 

486. Pordenone, Madonna of Carmel and saints; 481. Pado- 
vanino, Descent of the Holy Ghost; Canova's original model of 
the group of Hercules and Lichas; 473. Pielro da Cortona, Daniel 
in the lions' den; 524. Bonifacio, Massacre of the Innocents; 
*519. Paolo Veronese, Madonnn and saints ; 516. Bonifacio, Christ 

Academy. VENICE. 36. Route. 237 

and the Apostles; 513. Heirs of P. Veronese (i. e. produced after 
the death of Veronese in his studio, which was maintained by his 
sons), Banquet at the house of Levi ; *505. Bonifacio, Christ en- 
throned, surrounded by saints (1530); 503. Tintoretto, Madonna 
and Child, with four senators. 

Sala IX. (long corridor) : 352. Tommaso da Modena, St. Catha- 
rine (1351); 349. Antonello da Messina, 'L'Addolorata', a weeping 
nun in a brown hood ; 338. Michael Mierevelt, Portrait of a general ; 
337. Bissolo, Madonna and four saints ; 332. Girolamo da Santa- 
croce. Madonna and Child with saints; 326. Bonifacio, Madonna 
and saints ; 324. Pordenone , Angels among clouds ; 319. Titian, 
Portrait of Jacopo Soranzo , damaged; 318. Gregorio Schiavone, 
Madonna; 315. Cornelis Engelbrechtsen, Crucifixion; 313. Giow. 
Bellini, Madonna; 312. Lorenzo Canovizio, Christ in the house of 
the Maries ; 306. Tinelli, Portrait of a man ; 298. Michael Angelo 
Caravaggio, Chess-players ; 295. Tintoretto, Portrait of Antonio 
Capello; *281, *280. Hondekoeter, Victorious cock, Hen and 
chickens; 356. Antonello da Messina, Madonna. — We now pass 
through the door to the right and then turn to the left into — 

Sala X. : 361. Montagna, Madonna and saints ; 365. Andrcq, 
Schiavone, Madonna and Child with the infant John and three 
saints. — *366. Titian, John the Baptist in the wilderness, 
painted about 1536 and formerly an altar-piece in 8. Maria Mag- 

'As a solitary figure this Baptist embodies all the principles of move- 
ment inculcated in this 16th century. It is a splendid display ol mus- 
cular strength and elasticity combined with elevation in a frame of most 
powerful build'. — C. it C. 

367. Bassano, Holy Family; 368. Bonifacio, Adoration of the 
Magi ; *372. G. Bellini, Madonna and the Child asleep. 

Sala XI. and XII. chiefly contain early Italian masters of the 
13th and 14th centuries, interesting to the student of art. 

Sala XIII. Pinacoteca Renter (presented in 1850 by the 
widow of Count Bernard Ilenier) : Francesco Vecellio (brother of 
Titian), Madonna and Child with John the Baptist; 421. Cima da 
Conegliano, Madonna and Child. 

*424. Giov. Bellini, Madonna with St. Paul and St. George 
(painted after 1483). 

'Unrivalled for its extreme precision of drawing, its breadth of light 
and shade, easy cast of drapery, and bright enamel of colour'. — C <fc C. 

425. Tintoretto, The adulteress before Christ; *429. Cima, 
Entombment; 432. School of L. da Vinci, Jesus and the scribes. 
*436. Giov. Bellini, Mary, Magdalene, and Catharine : 'the three 
women are characterised by an extraordinary union of dignity, 
earnestness, and beauty' (C. ($' C). 

Sala XIV. : *446. L. Bassano, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
*452. Garofalo, Madonna transfigured and four saints (1518); 
*456. Cima, Christ with SS. Thomas and Magnus ; 464. Tintoretto, 

238 Route 36. VENICE. Academy. 

Senator; 465. Titian, Portrait of Antonio Capello (1523; conip. 
No. 295, Sala IX}. 

We now return to Sala IX. and thence enter Corridor II., 
which contains architectural drawings. This corridor Is adjoined 
on the left by — 

Sala VIII., which contains pictures from the Manfrin Gallery 
(p. 244) : 255. Antonello da Messina, Portrait ; 258. Jac. Savoldo, 
Two hermits; 259. Niccolb di Pietro, Madonna enthroned (1394); 
201. Moretto, St. Peter; 264. Antonello da Messina, Christ scour- 
ged ; 266 , 268. Netherlandish portraits ; 270. Venetian School, 
Portrait of an old woman ; 272. Marescalco, Three saints ; *273. 
Andrea Mantegna , St. George, the head classically shaped, the 
workmanship line and minute; 274. Jan Steen, Genre -picture 

We now traverse the first corridor to the ante-room with sculp- 
tures (p. 233), and then turn to the left into — 

Sala V., the pictures in which were presented by Count Con- 
tarini in 1843 : 84. Palma Vecchio, Christ and the Syrophenician 
woman ; 88. After Raphael, Holy Family. 

*94. 6iov. Bellini, Madonna and Child, painted in 1487. 

'We know not which to admire most, the noble gravity of the mother, 
or the pulsation of life in the child. Bellini certainly never so com- 
pletely combined relief with transparence, or golden tinge of flesh with 
rich and tasteful harmony of tints'. — C. <i- C. 

96. Marco Marziale, Supper at Emmaus (1506); 101. Qiov. 
Bellini, Madonna; 107. Sassoferrato , St. Cecilia; 110. Andrea 
Cordegliaghi (or perhaps Pordenone), Madonna with St. Catharine 
and St. John; 117. Pierfrancesco Bissolo, Body of Christ mourned 
over by angels ; 124. Bened. Diana, Madonna with John the Bap- 
tist and St. Jerome ; 125. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna with John 
the Baptist and St. Peter; *132. Boccaccino da Cremona, Madonna 
and saints; 133. Polidoro Veneziano, Madonna and Child, with 
John the Baptist and angel; 151. Jacques C allot , Market at Im- 
pruneta near Florence, a large picture with numerous figures and 
groups; 164. Callot, Pont Neuf at Paris (these two doubtful); 155. 
Schlavone, Circumcision; 186. iJissoZo, Madonna. In the centre, 
Dzedalus and Icarus, executed by Canova when 21 years of age. 

Sala VI, Gabinktto Contarini, containing 66 small pictures : 
Nos. 229, 230, 231, 241, 242, 243, all by Pietro Longhi, are in- 
teresting as affording samples of the Venetian costumes and habits 
of last century. Also: 191. Antonio Badile, The Samaritan wo- 
man at the well ; 234-238. Giov. Bellini, Allegories. The series 
of pictures attributed to Callot are probably copies. 

Sala VJI. contains groups of Ethiopian slaves in ebony, bear- 
ing Japanese vases, executed about the middle of last century, 
and other sculptures. 

Canal Orande. 


36. Route. 239 

The **Canal Grande ('Canalazzo'), tlie main artery of the 
traffic of Venice, nearly 2 M. in length, and 33-66 yds. in width, 
intersects the city from N.W. to S.E., dividing it into two unequal 
parts, and resembling an inverted S in shape. The Canal Grande 
occupies the same position at Venice as the Corso at Rome , the 
Toledo at Naples , or the Boulevards at Paris. Numerous gondolas 
and other craft are seen here gliding in every direction, but little 
or no commercial traffic is carried on, as the water is too shallow 
for sea-going vessels. Handsome houses and magnificent palaces 
rise on its banks , for it is the street of the Nobili, the ancient 
aristocracy of Venice. A trip on the canal is extremely interesting; 
the distance from the Piazzetta to the station may be traversed in 
less than i/-2 hr. , but ^/^-i hr. at least should be devoted to it 
in order to obtain a glimpse at the principal palaces in passing. 
The gondolier points out the most important edifices. The posts 
(pali) were formerly the distinguishing marks of the palaces of the 
nobles , and are still so to some extent , being painted with the 
heraldic colours of their proprietors. The following, beginning from 
the Piazzetta, are the most striking. 


Dogana di Mare (PL 37j, the 
principal custom-house , erected 
by Benoni in 1682 ; the vane sur- 
mounting the large gilded ball 
on the summit of the tower is a 
gilded Fortuna. 

Seminario Patriarcale (PI. 99 ; 
open every afternoon), contain- 
ing a collection of statues, archi- 
tectural fragments, etc., a col- 
lection of coins , a library , and 
the small Gallery Manfredini. 

To the left, 'Madonna and Child 
with a saint and an angel with a 
lyre, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci; 
two small pictures, Christ and Mary 
Magdalene, and the Samaritan wo- 
man, probably by Filippino Lippi. 

S. Maria delta Salute (PI. 22), 
see p. 252. 

Pal. Dario-Angarani (Pi. 59), 
in the style of the Lombardi 
(15th cent.). 

Pal. Venter, a grand building, 
but the ground-floor only com- 

Palazzo Giustiniani, now the 
Hotel Europa (PI. b), in the 
pointed style of the 15th century. 
Pal. Eino-Treves (PI. 61); in 
one of the apartments is a *Group 
of Hector and Ajax , over life- 
size , Canova's last work (fee 
1 fr.). 

Pal. Tiepolo-Zucchelli(VL 91), 
now Hotel Britannia. 

Pal. Contarini, 15th century. 

*Pal. Contarini-Fasan(P[.b2), 
restored in 1857, and — 

Pal. Ferro (PI. 47) , now the 
Grand Hotel (New York), both 
handsome structures in the point- 
ed style of the 14th century. 

240 Route 36. 


Canal Grande. 


Pal. Da Mula , pointed style 
of the 15tli cent, (now a glass 
manufactory, p. 215). 

Pal. Zkhy-Esterhazy (PI. 95). 

Pal. Manzoni - Angarani (PI. 
78), of the period of the Lom- 
bard! (15th cent.), formerly an 
edifice of great magnificence, and 
the sole palace which stood in a 
feudal relation to the republic, 
now in a dilapidated condition. 

Ibon Bridge, coiistruf 

Campo delln Cnrita. 

Accademia delle Belle Arti (PI. 
1), see p. 231. 

Pal. Gamlutrn, of the 17th 

Palazzi Contarini degli Scrigni 
(PI. 51), one, erected by Sca- 
mozzi, of the 16th, the other of 
the 15th cent. ( the picture-gallery 
formerly here has been presented 
to the Academy, see p. 238). 

Pal. dell Ambasciatore , loth 

*Pal. Rezzonico (PI. 88), the 
property of Count Zelenski , a 
spacious structure of the 17th 
and 18th cent., erected by Lon- 
ghena and Massari. 

Two Pal. Giustiniani (PI. 68), 
in the pointed style. 

*Pal. Foscari (PI. 66; called 
the Pal. Giustiniani before the 
addition of the upper story by the 
Doge Francesco Foscari), in the 
pointed style of the 15th cent., 
a handsome structure , situated 
at the point where the Canal 
turns to the F., containing the 
,S<-uola Superiore di Commercio. 


Pal. Fini-Wimpffen (PI. 62), 
now incorporated with the Grand 

*Pal. Corner della Ca Grande 
(PI. 54), erected by Jac. Sanso- 
vino in 1532, with spacious in- 
ner court, now the seat of the 

Pal. Barbaro, 14th century. 

''Pal. Cavalli (PI. 50) , in the 
pointed style of the 15th cent., 
with fine windows, the property 
of P)aron Franchetti, who has re- 
stored it. 

Church of 5. Vitale. 

ted in 1854 (toll 2 c.). 
Campo S. Vitale. 

Pal. Giustinian-Lolin (PI. 69), 
of the 17th cent., the property of 
the Duchess of Parma. 

Cd, del Duca , a house begun 
for the Duke of JMilan, but left 
unfinished by order of the Re- 

Pal. Malipiero, Renaissance. 

Pal. Grassi (PI. 72), of the 
18th cent., restored by the late 
Baron Sina. 

Pal. Moro-Lin (PI. 82), 17th 
cent., erected by Maz/.oni. 

*Pal. Contarini delle Figure (PI, 
53), in the early Renaissance 
style, 1504-64, with shields 
and trophies suspended from the 

Pal. Moceniyo (PI. 81), three 
contiguous palaces, that in the 
centre occupied by Lord Byron in 
I81H; that on the N. (PI. 80) 

Canal Grande. 


36. Route. 241 


Pal. Balhi (PL 42), a Renais- 
sance structure, erected by iliess. 
Vittoria, a pupil of Sansovino. 
This part of the Canal , and 
especially the two palaces, are a 
favourite subject with artists. 

Pal. Grimani (PI. 70) in the 
early Renaissance style. 

Pal. Persko (PI. 831. 

Pal. Tiepolo (PL 92), begin- 
ning of 16th century. 

*Pal. Pisania -S. Paolo(Pl.86\ 
in the pointed style of the 14th 
century. The celebrated picture 
of Darius and Alexander, by 
Paolo Veronese , formerly here, 
is now in England. 

Pal. Barbarigo della Terrazza 
(PI. 43) was once celebrated for 
its picture-gallery, which became 
the property of the Emp. of Russia 
in 1850. 

Pal. Grimani, erected by one 
of the Lombardi in the Renais- 
sance style. 

Pal. Bernardo (PL 46), in the 
pointed style. 

*Pal. Papadopoli , formerly 
Tiepolo-Sturmer (PL 90), in the 
Renaissance style. 

Pal. Pisani-Moretta , pointed 

Baedeker. Italy I. 5th Edit. 

contains the Exhibition of Art 
mentioned at p. 215 (with Ti- 
tian's picture , The Saviour's 

Pal. Garzoni, 15th century. 

*Pal. Corner Spinelli (PL 56), 
early Renaissance, in the style of 
the Lombardi. 

Pal. Cavalli , in the pointed 
style of the loth century. 

*Pal. Grimani (P. 71b), a Re- 
naissance edifice, chef d'oeuvre 
of Michele Sammicheli, middle of 
the 16th cent. , now the Corte 

*Pal. Farsetti (PL 65, origin- 
ally Dandolo~] , in the Venetian 
style of the 12th cent., with an 
admixture of Byzantine and 
Moorish features, now occupied 
by the municipal offices (Muni- 

*Pal. Loredan (PL 74) , coeval 
with the last, with coloured in- 
crustation, was once the resi- 
dence of king Peter Lusignan of 
Cyprus , husband of Catharine 
Cornaro (comp. Pal. Corner, p. 
243), whose armorial bearings 
are seen on different parts of the 
edifice ; now occupied by muni- 
cipal offices. 

Pal. Dandolo (PL 58), early 
Gothic , once the unpretending 
residence of the celebrated Doge 
Enrico Dandolo (p. 227 ; small 
cafe' on the ground-floor). 

*Pal. Bembo (PL 45), in the 
pointed style of the 14th century. 

Pal. Manin (PL 77), with 

242 Route 36. 


Canal Grande. 

Left. Right. 

facade by Jac. Sansovino , 16th 
cent., was the property of the 
last Doge Lod. Manin , who on 
the approach of the French in 
May, 1797, resigned his office ; 
it is now the Banca Nazionale. 

The *Ponte di Rialto (i.e. 'di rivo alto'; PL E, 3), 
built in 1588-91 by Antonio da Ponte, 158 ft. long, 46 ft. wide, 
consists of a single marble arch of 74 ft. span and 32 ft. in height, 
resting on 12,000 piles. It is situated midway between the Dogana 
di Mare and the railway-station, and down to 1854 (p. 240) was the 
sole connecting link between the E. andW. quarters of Venice. On 
the right bank, near the bridge, is the Fish Market, abundantly sup- 
plied on Fridays. On the left is the Fruit and Vegetable Market, 
where excellent fruit may generally be purchased in the morning. 
On the left bank are also situated the Fabbriche Vecchie