(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543. parts I to [XI]"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



■;: ; hrary in 




m BIBMORY OF 



FROM A GIFT 
TO STANFORD UNIVERSITY Bl 



'\\/ }• 



■<:v- 



LELAND'S ITINERARY IN 
WALES 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL AND SONS 
PORTUGAL ST. LINCOLN'S INN, W.C. 
CAMBRIDGE: DRIGHTON, BELL & CO. 
NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN CO. 
BO.MBAY : A. H. WHEELER & CO. 



THE 

ITINERARY IN WALES 

OF 

JOHN LELAND 

IN OR ABOUT THE YEARS 
•536—1539 

EXTRACTED FROM HIS MSS. 

ARRANGED AND EDITED 

BV 

LUCY TOULMIN SMITH 




LONDON 

GEORGE BELL AND SONS 

1906 



SI, I 




JOOC 



CHISWICK PRESS : CHARLES WHITTINGHAIf AND Ca 
TOOKS CX>URT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON. 



PREFACE 

In the course of preparing a new edition of Leland's 
Itinerary through England and Wales^ the scattered por- 
tions relating to Wales having been brought together, it has 
been suggested that these now possess a certain unity and 
^ ^ interest which would justify the issue of the Part on Wales 
I (f\'^ y a separate volume/ As a man of learning and of in- 
' defatigable industry in the collection of information and 

notes during his travels through the realm, journeys which 
occupied him about six years, John Leland has always held 
weight as the earliest of our local antiquarians, and there 
are few topographers who have not consulted his pages or 
felt the influence of the impetus given by his patriotic 
labours. To the Welshman no less than the Englishman the 
description of local details nearly four centuries ago con- 
cerning places known to him, however trivial, proves of 
keen historic and often of personal interest. 

John Leland, bom in London in 1506, was educated at 
St. Paul's School and at Christ's College, Cambridge; he 
also studied at Oxford and Paris, becoming a practised 
scholar and linguist. He took holy orders before 1525, but 
was an absentee from the benefices to which he was later 
presented. Before 1530 he was Library Keeper to King 
Henry VHI, and three years later was made the " King's 
Antiquary " while prosecuting his varied schemes of learn- 
ing. He is best known by the record of his notes and 
descriptions of England and Wales, called by John Stow 

* The contents of the present volume were printed by Thomas Heame 
in his editions of the Itinerary (2nd ed. 1744, vols, iv, v, vii), and of 
the Collectanea (2nd ed. 1774, vol. iv). See notes to pages I9 9, 38, 
127, 128. The part relating to Glamorganshire was reprinted by James 
A. Corbet in his edition of Rice Merrick*s Book of Glamorganshire 
Antiquities, London, 1S87. 



VI 



PREFACE 



Camentarta AngHet^ but christened Itinerary^ of John Inland 

by Thomas Burton (1598), which name it has since borne. 

He read the *' hisloriogniphes,'* and local chronicles in 
monasteries, gaining information from many sources, some 
probably official, as he went along. This is evident from 
the way in which he describes the boundaries of hundreds, 
lordships and commotes, from his lists of bridges, priories, 
owners of property, and other incidents in the counties, and 
from his regular attempts at tracing the courses of rivers. 
And scjnetimes it appears, judijing from the repetitions, and 
other indications, that he made some of these lists before 
journeying in the counties to which ibey refer* The con- 
tinuity of his narrative is therefore not definite; and it has 
been further injured by loss of parts of the original manu- 
script, and the shifting of other parts or pages in consequence 
of damp and decay before it was bound, John Leland died in 
155a, before he had put his description of England and 
Wales fully into shape. His manuscript collection u-ent 
through various hands^ and was copied in 1576 by John 
Stow, the London antiquary, while it was still almost entire, 
to which fact we owe the preservation of three "books*' 
which were afterwards lost, as well as of portions injured by 
decay* Besides the Itinerary in quarto volumes, some 
few portions of Leland's Coihctanca — four folio volumes 
conUiining a mass of notes and extracts, — may have been 
intended for use in the work; the extracts on the following 
pages 125 to 134, which fill up considerable omissions as to 
Wales, are from this source. These two original manuscripts 
by Leland and the copy by Stow (Tanner 464) are all now 
in the Bodleian Library, Oxford,' 

The presence amidst the Welsh matter in several places 
of pages relating to English counties bordering on Wales 
seems to indicate two things, that Leland entered the 
country through one or perhaps two of these counties — 



* From notes in the llailcmn MS. 6a66 in thr British Museum we 
learn tint Slow*s copy wm in (657 "in y'cuUody of M"^ RoU. Vaughnn 
of Ilcftgwri m Merioneth.'^ Arnon^* the liengwrt MSS. Dr J. G. Evans 
recently^ tunied over a parceE which on exammaiion 1 found lo l>e a 
irati&cnpt, much of il in Vaughan's own hanJ, made of the whole of 
Str>w's copy of LeUnd's liiuemry^ This i^ now known as Peniarlh 
ilS. 27J, paiU I, a. 



PREFACE vii 

Gloucestershire in the south, Cheshire in the north — and left 
it through Montgomeryshire, all very probable; and that 
he travelled through those parts which had belonged to 
the Welsh marches. Some of these pages, e.g. 99-104, 
and 65-67, treating of Gloucester, Hereford, and Shropshire, 
appear to have nothing to do with either of these points of 
view, but as those counties were actually under the juris- 
diction of the Court of the Council of the Marches of Wales 
no doubt Leland took them together. He lived in stirring 
times; the Reformation and the attacks upon church prop- 
erty were progressing, the Valor Ecchsiastiais was made in 
1534-35, the Acts for the suppression of monasteries were 
passed in 1536 and 1539 — sometimes he mentions an abbey 
or a monastery as suppressed. In 1535-36 was passed the 
important Act (27 Hen. VHI, cap 26) ** for lawes and justice 
to be ministred in Wales in like fourme as it is in this 
realme," by which the country was united to England, and 
the lordships forming the marches were distributed, partly 
constituting five new Welsh shires, partly added to those 
existing and to the English border shires. The new counties 
were Monmouth, Brecknock, Radnor, Montgomery, and 
Denbigh; Flint received additions in 1541 (33 Hen. VIII, 
cap. 13), the result was thirteen Welsh counties. The 
old shires of North Wales, viz., Anglesey, Carnarvon, and 
Merioneth (Venedotia) whose customs were to remain as 
before, formed the exemplar for five of the others. 

The new order of things is reflected in some of Leland's 
pages. He refers to " the new Act ": " Clun was a lordship 
marched by itself" (p. 53); "it apperithe in the Acte what 
lordshipps be adjoynid to the v new shires," while showing 
that Cherbury is now "adjecte" to Shropshire (p. 54); gives 
a reason why Llanstephan was " adject " to Pembrokeshire 
(p. 62), referring to the " old limites " of the same (p. 63), and 
the position of Llan ©ewi Brevi before the Act (p. 1 23). A 
comparison of the sections of the Act apportioning the 
lordships, hundreds, and commotes, with Leland's pages 
treating of the respective counties gives a fuller meaning 
to his details as to the transfer of certain lordships from 
one owner to another, e.g.^ pp. 55, 66, or of the boundaries 
and extent of numerous lordships which he can hardly have 
seen personally. The suggestion arises that he was at times 



VUI 



PREFACE 



furnished with oflficial papers, and that he had access to local 
records, "extents,'^ and other similar documents like those 
upon which the Act must have been founded, the returns 
for which would be fresh in the memory of many. One of 
these was the interesting early list of Cantrefa ' and com- 
motes, which he copied himself and inserted among other 
notes on Wales {here printed at the beginning, p. 5). This 
conjecture is strengthened by a study of the extract printed 
in Appendix B concerning Anglesey. Here is a rough list 
of " head parish churches " or rectories with thdr dependent 
chapelries throughout that island county, with a list parallel 
lo it giving the principal geographical features, both written 
by a copyist {perhaps Welsh), though annotated by Leland. 
The list of churches and chapels corresponds so nearly to 
the groups of churches with their chapels, in the three 
deaneries of Anglesey, which were returned in 1535 for the 
survey of Vaior Eccksiasikus as to furnish an interesting 
parallel to the portion of that record, while by the di- 
vergences which occur, the two documents may correct one 
another^ 

Leland is believed to have made his journeys in or about 
the years between 1536 and 1543; the references to the 
''New Act" of 37 Hen. VIII prove that his travels in Wales 
did not begin before that year, and may have been rather 
later, to which supposition the mention of Cherbury priory 
as "lately suppressid " (p. 40) adds force j and that hia 
journeys in North Wales at least took place before 1541 is 
indicated by his description of Flintshire as lying north of 
Molesdale {p. 73), a district which was added to Flintshire 
hy the Act of that year. And as tn mentioning other sup* 
pressed houses he speaks of the great abbey of Wigmore 
without alluding to its suppression (p. 48) which would be 
under the Act of 1539, we have here a further limit of date, 

* A cantrcf or hundred was a division of the county^ and cnntaincd 
twOj three* or more commotes. Leland^ who frequently descnl>es these 
districts, seems to have mistaken the commote for a hundred {see pp, 
79, 83, Sj), yet in the Contenis of AUn (perhaps written lalcr) he ck- 
plains **comot, i.e. qujirtfi pars caniarrdi *' (p. 129, coJ- 1). Tughcs 
iVehh Diftiiftpiry'^ [833, gives two c^>mmotcs to a cantref, so also the 

note lo the word in Act 37, Hen. VIII, tap. 26^ Record edition of 
Statutes. T!)e ancient list gives various numlxr** 

* As to Appendix II see further, p, %, 



PREFACE ix 

so that the Welsh journeys may be fairly placed as having 
been made between 1536 and 1539. It is difficult to say 
whether he took the whole of Wales in one journey or in 
several; the sequence of notes and narrative is so broken 
that it is impossible to think that he actually saw all or even 
most of the places of which he writes, except on the faith of 
his assertion in the New Year's letter written by him to the 
King in 1545.^ It seems however probable, after endeavour- 
ing to trace his route upon the map, that he entered Wales 
from two points, the one from Gloucestershire, crossing 
Severn by Austferry, the other from Shrewsbury; while he 
may also have come from Chester across the Dee after he 
had been round the Wirral. 

I offer this map with diflidence, from the difficulty and 
uncertauity of truly tracing Leland's route, in the hope that a 
tentative sketch may help to the understanding of his scheme. 
R^arding many places he states facts which point out his 
journey; of others the descriptions induce belief that he was 
there, but full coherence is wanting; so that out of the 
repetition of notes and narrative I have pieced together 
what appear the personal and quite possible lines of travel. 
He may have seen all the small islands, I do not feel 
sure he was in Anglesey himself. The Table of Counties 
and the Index may also help in this connection. I add an 
Index of Families and Owners. 

The text has been collated with the original, and where 
this is missing with StoVs copy; missing words and letters 
within [ ] are supplied from Stow and a few words within 
[ ] in italic are inserted from a copy ( Bodl. Gough, Gen, Top* 
2) made by Thomas Burton in 1628, who then possessed the 
originals. Burton made up the eighth volume of Leland's 
MS. from leaves which had dropped out from some quires 
of the other volumes (see after p. 23 note)* The footnotes 
within brackets are mine, the identifications with occasional 
remarks thereto I owe to the kindness of Dr. J. Gwenogvryn 

' " Yn yowr dominions . . . there is almoste nothcr cape nor bay, 
haven, creek or peere, river or confluence of rivers, breches, waschis, 
lakes, meres, fenn^r waters, montaynes, valleis, mores, hethes, forestes, 
chases, wooddes, cities, burges, castelles, principale manor placis, mon- 
asteries and colleges, but I have scene them." {^Itinerary ^ iteame's 2nd 
edition, 1744, vol. i, p. xxii.) 

b 



PREFACE 



Evans, It should be noted that the Englishman found the 
pronunciation and spelling of Welsh names in Tudor times 
pretty difficult; and though for the most part Leland's 
spellings agree with those of the Vaior and of the Act 27 
Ken, VII 1, cap. 26, occasionally he is the more correct, 

A few words are demanded by Appendix B. What is the 
meaning of the word J^tnt placed before the names of some 
of the churcheSj and why is it not before others? Hearne 
prints it as it is without explanation. Comparison with the 
Vai&r shows that it certainly is the equivalent of what is 
there called Rectoria^ and two scholars for whom I have the 
highest respect consider that Rent must be a mis-copylng of 
Rect., especially as no sums of money are given in Leland's 
document. But the copyist apparently knew what he was 
about, he uses other Latin words correctly, and in one in- 
stance he contracts the word thus, Ret (where the stroke 
means n) showing that he intended to write Rent. I venture 
on the following explanation: Rhent or rent in Pughe's 
Welsh Dictionary (1832) signifies an income^ pr&ducf^%x\^ 
the senses given to the verb rktntu show that it stands for 
money or value coming in. Rectoria^ i.t. rectory or benefice, 
meant legally a parish church with all its sources of in- 
come j' the chapel or chapels, built as necessity arose in the 
large parishes of old (Welsh or English)^ owed regular dues 
or oblations to the mother chiirch which formed part of its 
revenue,' The object of the Valor EcdesiasUcm being to 
ascertain (among other things) the standing value of each 
parish, it was there given under each Rectoria, the depend- 
ent chapels being grouped beneath. The Welsh draft re- 
lating to the parishes in Anglesey prefixed the familiar word 
Rent to each head church in order to indicate it as the one 
which received the income of the parish^ the mother church \ 
the other churches or chaiiels, except those specially appro- 
priated and the few free chapels, being subordinate or 
** annexed*'; and that Inland understood it so is proved by 
his note (p, 134), although his reckoning of 30 such churches 
is wrong and Mr. Griflfith's number of 31 is actually given. 

In our list the parish church is also followed by its chapel 

' "Rectoria, pro Integra cccksis. parocbiali cum omnibus syisjurihus, 

pr:wUi3d«imisalusque provenUium speciebus.** ^SpflmWs Glossary-) 

' See While Kennel fs Pmo^kiai AfttiquUks^ eci. 1695, pp. 594*59«S. 



PREFACE 



XI 



or chapels, thus Rent Llanvair PwllGwyngyll cum Llan 
Dysilio, Rent Llanidan cum capeiiis Llan £)einiol vab, Llan 
Edwen, and Llanvair y cwmmwd, and so on. The groups 
themselves are not in the same order as in the Vaior, In 
certain cases the items differ: thus, Rectory Aberfraw in the 
record has no annexed chapel, but this list gives it Capell 
Mair, Tal y llyn (p. 130), which is assigned by the Vaiof 
to Rectory Llan Dyvrydog (p. 133); Llan Allgo (p. 133) is 
the chapel to Rectory Llan Eigrad in the Valor^ reversing 
their rank ; the parts of Llan Jestyn, which, according to the 
Vaior(yo\. iv, p. 418), comprised Llan Ewida and Tynsilio 
are apparently scattered in this list, the one as Rent LI. 
Gwrda, the other as LI. Vihangel y Tinsiloy (Din Silwy, 
P- i33> 134)- The group of churches belonging to the 
priory of Penmon (two less than in the Vahr) viz., St 
Katerine Llanvaes, Rent LI. f)ona (not a Rectory in the 
Fa/or), Penrhos Llugwy and Bodewryd, are not here placed 
together. These and a few other divergences may indicate 
that the list is previous to the Fa/or and perhaps not 
faultless. 



TABLE OF WELSH COUNTIES. 

N.B, — The ancient list of Commotes in Wales, in a copy of the 
fourteenth century, and in LelancCs copy, occupies pp, I -9. 

Anglesey, pp. 52, 90, 128-134. 
Brecknock, pp. 9, 10, 104-113. 
Cardigan, pp. 56, 11 7-1 25. 
Carmarthen, pp. 57-61, 113-115. 
Carnarvon, pp. 78-90. 
Denbigh, pp. 69-72, 90, 93-99. 
Flint, pp. 67-69, 72, 73, 92. 
Glamorgan, pp. 15-38, 61, 127. 
Merioneth, pp. 76-78. 
Monmouth, pp. 12-15, 42-47. 
Montgomery, pp. 11,40, 53-55» 125-126. 
Pembroke, pp. 61-65, I'S-^iy* 
Radnor, pp. 10, 41, 42. 

ENGLISH COUNTIES (chiefly bordering on Wales). 

Cheshire, pp. 91, 92. 
Gloucestershire, pp. 39, 99-102. 
Herefordshire, pp. 47, 103-104, 
Oxfordshire, p. 39. 
Shropshire, pp. 50, 65-67, 73-76. 
Worcestershire, p. 40. 



LELAND'S ITINERARY IN 
WALES* 



[From Cotton MS. Domitian A VIII., Fos. 1 19-120 v^'.t] 

( Commod Consild. 
Cantrest Tegyngell < Commod Prestatun. 
( Commod Syndela. 



Wales, 
fo. 119. 



Beruedwlade. 



Clud.J 

Cantrest Ry- 
wynnaug. 

Cantrest Ros. 



( Comm. Llamerch. 
( Comm. Estrad. 

< Comm. Huethalet. 
( Comm. Isalet. 
l Comm. Huethe Dulas. 

< Comm. His dulas. 
( Comm. Creudyn. 

[*Into this Part the notes on Wales are brought together, JSrsf, the 
lists of Commotes, sec next note; secandf pages 9-12, 53-57> preserved 
by Stow, vol. V, fos. 115-118 (Heame, vii, 14-18); fAtrd, pages 12-38, 
Heame, iv, 31-55 (Leland's MS., Gen. Top. e 11, vol. iv., fos. 51-77 
[Stow, vol. iii., fos. 48-59, old numbering]), relating to Monmouth- 
and Glamorganshires ; these are followed by the body of Heame's 
print, voL v. (MS. voL v. Gen. Top. e 12), the first eighty-four pages 
of which are chiefly concerned with Wales. See after, pp. 38-126. 
The identifications of place-names in this Part are kindly supplied by 
Dr. J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Two appendices contain extracts from 
Leland's ColUctafua, For a table of pages on each county seebefore, 
p. vi.] 

[f These lists occupy two leaves in Leland s MS. v. , fos. 16 and 17, but 
they have been reversed in binding. Stow copies them correctly. The 
same lists with various spellings are foimd in one of the Cotton MSS., 
Domitian Atiii. , in the British Museum, which being written about 1400, 
b older than Leland, and may have been copied by or for him. Burton 
omits these Usts altogether. As the lists are of value to Welsh students 
and have some variations, both copies are printed here, firsts that from 
the Cotton MS., corrected by Dr. Evans; second, Leland's copy, with 
the corrections by Sir John Price on that MS. 

X Clwyd written over Clud in Dom. A viii., fo. 119.] 
B 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Wales. 



PowisMadocc 



Powis Men- 
nonwyn. 



fo. 119^ 



Mon. 



Snaudon. 



Cantrest Uston 
douer doe. 



Cantrest Maylor. 



Cantrest. 
[Trevonnen] 

Cantrest. 



Cantrest. 

Cantrest Alros- 
cly. 

Cantrest. 



Cantrest. 



Cantrest. 

Cantrest. 

Cantref Aber- 
frau. 

Cantref. 

^ Cantref. 

' Cantref Arle- 

lechwet. 
Cantref Dy- 

nody. 
Cantref Mey- 

ronit. 



( Comm. Estradelun. 

< Comm. Hobeii. 
Comm. Yael. 
Comm. Merfort. 
Comm. Unknan. 
Comm. Maelaur Says- 

neg. 
I Comm. Trefwern. 

< Comm. Croeshoswold. 
( Comm. Treuduon. 

I Comm. Vehendee. 

< Comm. Kynlleith. 

I Comm. Huchraedre. 
( Comm. Dynnael. 

< Comm. Edeymaun. 

I Comm. Glindeuerdoe. 
i Comm. Huchcoede. 
I Comm. Hiscoede. 
i Comm. Hisraedre. 

< Comm. Sendort. 

I Comm.Lanherch hudul. 
j^ Comm. Meycheyn. 

< Comm. Estrad Marchel. 
( Comm. Kereynaun. 

i Comm. Huchaues. 
( Comm. Hisaues. 
j Comm. Keueylaug. 
( Comm. [Madoc] 

{Comm. Huch Lywan. 
Comm. Hislywan. 
( Comm. Turkelyn. 
I Comm TaleboUeen. 
I Comm. Dindaethue. 
I Comm. Meneie. 
i Comm. Huchaf. 
I Comm. Hisaf. 

{Comm. Eydonyd. 
Comm. Ardudue. 
f Comm. Estimanneirus. 
I Comm. Titelebont.^ 



[•»• The scribe confuses « and n, c, i, and r, also c and o.— J. G. E.] 



IN WALES. PART VI 



Snaudon. 



Rung goe a 
Hauren. 



Keredigeaun. 



Estratewy. 



Cantref Lleyn. 

Cantref Penlyn. 

Cantref Anion. 

Cantref.* 

Cantref Melen- 
yd. 

Cantref Elvael. 

Cantref Penwe- 
dith. 

Cantref. 

Cantref. 
Cantref. 

Cantref Bachan. 
Cantref. 



Cantref Vaur. 



Comm. Ermayn. Wales. 

Comm. Dinllaen. 

Comm. Gauclogyon. 

Comm. Huch iiilIocIi. 

Comm. His meloch, 
, Comm. Nimconoe. 

Comm. Huchgurwey. 

Comm. Hisgurwey. 

Comm. GuerLh run cant. 

Comm. Kcry. 

Comm. Socdedugre- 

Comm. Soi;dintethon, 

Comm. SocdriwalL 
' Comm. Huch uenit. 

Comm. His MeriyL 

Comm. IJyfrynt seclat, 
^ Comm. Loethifnuc. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. Pennart 

Comm. Mabwy[nyon]. 

Comm. Caer Wedraus. 

Comm. Guynyenu. 
, [Comm. Hiscoedt] 
( Comm. Hyrurgyn. fa lao. 

-< Comm. Perueth. 

Comm. Hiskennen. 

Comm. Goer. 

Comm. Kedewely. 

Comm. Camwatllaun. 

Comm. Mallaen. 

Comm. Cayau. 

Comm. Maenaur they- 

lu [Teilaw]. 
, Comm. Ketheynaugc. 



[• The scribe has a flourish at the end of his final /which makes it 
sometimes into/, and later into something more than/. Read Cantrev 
throughout.— J. G. E.] [f MosUy cut off.] 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Wales. 



Estratewy. 



Breheienauc. 



< Cantref Vaur. 



Deneta. 



fo. iaoT«. 



I Comm. Mabeluye. 
< Comm. Mabudrid. 
( Comm. Withigada. 



{Comm. 
Comm. 
( Comm. 
< Comm. 
( Comm. 
( Comm. 
Cantref Theudo. < Comm. 
( Comm. 



Cantref Selif. 

Cantref Talga- 
rith. 



Cantref Kemeys. 
Cantref Henlyn. 

Cantref Guentha. 

Cantref. 
Cantref Penure. 

Cantref Ros. 

Cantref Penbid- 
iaug. 



f Comm. 
( Comm. 

{Comm. 
Comm. 
^ Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 
^ Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 

Comm. 



Cantre selif. 

Counod. 

Talgarith. 

Estradewy. 

Crughowel. 

Llowel. 

Tireraulf. 

Egluschyeil. 

Huch neuer. 
His neuer. 
Huch cuch. 
His cuch. 
Deilis k Penryn. 
Estholoef. 
Talegame. 
Amgoet. 
Plunynaug. 
Ebelfre. 
Llauhuadeyn. 
Castel Guys, 
Coedraht, 
Maenaur birr. 
Penuro. 
Hauerforde 
Castele Wall- 



Cantref Gorue- 
nith. 



mey. 
Comm. Castelle Garn. 
Comm. Munwe. 
Comm. Penkaer. 
^Comm. Rongveth a 

Tawe. 
Comm. Tir hundred. 
Comm. Rong neth ac 

Auan. 
Comm. Tir yarll. 
Comm. Coytif. 
Meanaur Gljrn Ogour 



IN WALES. PART VI 



Morgannok. 



Cantref Peny- 
chan. 



Cantref Gwcm- 
loge. 



' Coram. Meyskyn. Wales. 

Comm. Glyn Rodeney. 
Comm. Meanaur 

Taluan. 
Comm. Meanaur 

Ruthyn. 
' Comm. Yrr heid. 
Comm. Peruet. 
Comm. Edelegon. 
Comm. Heithaf. 
Comm. Menyth. 
Comm. Sengheneth- 

huch. 

(Comm. Hiscoed. 
Comm.Huchoedwe[nt]. 
Meanaur Trefcnig. 
Comm. Lebynyt. 
( Comm, Huchcoed. 
Cantref Guent. < Comm. Menyth. 
( Comm. Teirtref. 
Cantref Ergyn. 
Cantref Goch. 



[Leland's Copy of the foregoing.] 

( Commod Consild. 
Cantred Tetingel. < Commod Prestatum. 
( Commod Syndela. 

' Cantrest Diffrin j ^^™- S?^?^^"- 

Clud. i ^0°^- Ricihyn. 

( Com. Llamerth. 



Beruedwlade. 



Cantrest Riwin- j ^om. Estrad. 
n«„t, < Com. Huethalet. 

^' ( Com. Isalet. 

j Com. Hueth Dulas. 
Cantrest Ros < Com Isdulas. 
I Com. Creudin. 



MS. vol. ▼., 
fo. i6. 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Wales. 



Powis Madoc. . 



'Cantreth Uston 
douer doe. 

Cantrest Maylor. 

Cantrest 

Cantrest. 

Cantrest. 
^ Cantrestalroscly. 
Cantrede, 



Powis Menon- Cantrest 



wyn. 



Mone. 



Snawdune. 



Cantrest 

Cantrest. 

Cantrest Aber- 
fraw. 

Cantrest. 

^ Cantrefe. 

Cantrest Arle- 

lechwet. 
Cantrest Dy- 

nody. 
Cantref Mey- 

ronith. 



Com. Estradelun. 

Com. hobeum. 
( Com. yael. 
( Com. Merfort. 
i Com. Vnknan. 
( Com. Mailor Saysneg. 
j Com. Treswery. 

< Com. Crohesoswold. 
( Com. Trendrion. 

{Com. Vehendre. 
Com. Kinlleit. 
Com. Huchraedre. 
I Com. Dynnael. 

< Com. Edey[r]naun. 
( Com. Glindeuerdo[e]. 
' Com. Huch coite • 

Com. Hiscodoe. 
( Com Hisraeder. 

< Com. Sendort. 
( Com. Llanherch hudul. 
i Com. Meycheyn. 

-J Com. Estrat marchel. 
( Com. Kereynaun. 
( Com. Huchanes. 
( Com. Ishanes. 
I Com. Keueilang. 
I Com. Madoc. 
j Com. huch Lywan. 
\ Com. Islywan. 
( Com. Turkelin. 
I Com. Talebolleen. 
i Com Dinerdaethne. 
I Com. Meney. 
( Com. Huchaf. 
I Com. Hishaf. 
{ Com. Eydonid. 
( Com. Ardudue. 

{Com. Estimanueims. 
Come. Talelebont.t 



(♦ First written Huchcodoe.] It First written Tilelcbont. J 



IN WALES. PART VI 





Cantref Lleyn.*» 


Snawdune. 


Cantref Pen- 
llin.'» 




Cantref Auon.* 




Cantref. 


Rung goe a 
Hauren. 


Cantref Mclenid. 




Cantref Eluael. 




Cantref Penwe- 
dith. 


Cairdigeaun. - 


Cantref. 




Cantref. 




Cantref. 



. Ermayn. 
Dinllaen. 

s. Gauelogyon. 
Huchmeloc* 

, Hismel<H:h* 

. Nanconoe. 
Hachgurwey, 
Hi^gurwey.* 
Guerchumeauc* 

, Kery. 

. Soededugre. 

. Soedtniethon. 

, SoedriwaU. 

. Huchmenith. 

, Hismenith. 

. Dyfrynsedat, 
Loechifunt 



Wales. 



fo. 17. 



)m. Pennarth. 

)m. Malwy. 

)m. Caerwedraus. 

)m. Guynienun. 

)m. Hiscoed. 

)m. Hyrurgyn. 

)m. Perueth. 

)m. Hiskenne[n] 

)m. Goer. 

)iTi. Kedewely. 

)m. Camwatllan. 

)m. Mallaen. 

)m. Cayan. 

>m. Maenaurtheilnm. 

)m. Ketheynangt. 

[• There are a few corrections on this page in a later hand, said to 
be that of Sir John Price of Brecon, viz. (a) Ihyn for Lleyn, [b) Penlhyn, 
{€) Arvon, {d) ywch maelor, («) ismaelor, (/) Nanconoye, \g) is gurvey. 
Stow's copy follows most of these corrections.] 



Estratewy. 



Cantref Vachan. 



Cantref. 



Cantref Vaur. 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Wales. 



Estratewy. -J Cantref Vaur 



( 



Breheienauc. 



Deneta. 



( Com. Mabelnye. 
< Com. Mabudride. 
( Com. Withigada. 
( Com. Cantre selif. 
( Com. Commod. 
I Com. Talgarith. 
-J Com. Estradewy. 
I Com. Crughowel. 

Com. Llowel. 

Com. Tireraulf. 

Com. Egluschieil. 

Com. Huchneuer. 

Com. Hisneuer. 

Com. Huchcuth. 

Com. Hiscuth. 

Com. Deilis a penryn. 

Com. Escholoef. 

Com. Talegame. 

Com. Amgoeth. 

Com. Plymynanges. 
, Com. Ebelfre* 

{Com. Llanhuadein. 
Com. castel Gnys. 
Com. Coedraht. 
Com. Maenarbirt. 
Com. Penbro. 
Com. Hauerford. 
Com. castel Walluiey. 
Com. castel Garn. 
Com. Munwe. 
Com. Penkaer. 
' Com. Rhungneth a 

Thawc. 
Com. Mirhundred. 
Com. Rhungneth a 

Auon. 
Com. Miriarse. 
Com. Coitif. 
Com. [Meanaur Glyn 

Ogour].* 
[* MS. decayed, supplied from Cotton MS.] 



Cantref selif. 

Cantref Talga- 
rith. 



Cantref Theudo. 



Cantref Kemis. 
Cantref Henllin. 



CantrefGuentha. 



Cantref. 



Cantref Penryne. 



Cantref Ros. 

Cantref Pebi- 
diaug. 



Cantref Gorue- 
nith. 



IN WALES. PART VI 



Morgannog. - 



Cantref Peni- 
than. 



Cantref Ewein- 
loge. 



Cantref Guent. 



Cantref Guent. 

Cantref Ergyn. 
Cantref Goch. 



numbered). 



> Meyskyn. Wales. 

. Glyn Rodeney. (fo. i8 blank) 

. Meanafulr Talyuan. fo- i? (not 

. Meanaur Ruthyn. 

. Yrtheid 

. Peruet. 

. Edelegon. 

. Hetthaf. 

. Mennith. 

. Sengheneth huch. 

. iscoed. 

. Huchcoed wey. 

. Meanar Trefcrug. 

. Leuynit. 

. huchcoed. 

. Menith. 

. Teirtref. 



MARKET TOWNES IN BRECKNAUCHSHIRE.* 

Brenauch. 



Stow, ▼. 
fa 115. 

Brecknock- 
shire. 



[* The following pages I0-I2, 1. 8, and p. 53, 1. 20 to p. 65, treating 
of the counties from Brecon to Pembrok^hire (ending '* 3 miles from 
Tunge "), are found in Stow near the beginning of his copy of Lcland's 
▼oL ru. They occur between the notes on Bedford- and Worcestershires 
and those on Shropshire, and that this was the order in Leland's original 
quire is preyed by the appearance of the leaves. In Leland's vol. vii., 
fos. 7-31 are missing ; tos. 22-31 of his vol. v. not only fit ten of the 
missing fos. in figurmg and in order of subject according to Stow, but 
the marks left by damp upon these leaves exactly match those upon fo. 
32 and subsequent leaves in vol. vii. They were evidently placed in 
vol. V. when the manuscript was bound, perhaps to bring the Welsh 
notes together. These ten fos. 22-31 were thus printed by Heame in his 
▼ol. v., pp. 19-29 (here pp. 57-67; Uiey treat of the counties Carmarthen, 
Pembroke and Shropshire). But, though he was then using Stow, 
Heame only printed the previous notes on the counties Brecon to Car- 
digan (part of the lost fos. 7-21) when he reached vol. vii (pp. 14-18). 
The references to fos. by Heame and his editor in this confusing part 
are wrong. Stow apparently did not copy the passages from ** Corbet 
of Morton Corbet ** to "Cliorleton of Wombndge unc[le to] . . . ", 
pp. 65-67. 

In the present edition the sentences on Montgomeryshire, pp. 11, 12, 
have by an oversight been transposed from their right place on p. 53.] 



lO 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Brecknock" 
shire. 
Stow*s MS. 
vol. V. fo. 115 
(old fig.). 



PRIORIES IN BREKENAUCHSHIRE. 

Brechenauc Abbay a cell of monks a late longinge to 
Battaile. 

Lanhodeny a celle of Blake Chanons longinge to Lan- 
hodeny by Glocester undar Attere hille, in Walche cawlyd 
Menethe Cadair. 



CASTLES IN BREKNAUCSHIRE. 

Brechenauc. 

Penkelthe, caput Corileti. [Pengelli.] 

Dinas. 

RIVERS IN BREKENAUCSHIRB. 

Loke how far Wisch • ninnithe in this shire. 

Hodeney.* 

Lleueney* risith in Atterel hills. Thens into Brechenauc 
mere, cawUid in Walche Llin Seuathan. Thens into Wy about 
Glesbiri, the whiche is a 3 miles from the Hay. 



Radnor, 
shire. 



Stow, ▼• 
fa 1x6. 



RADENORSHIRB. 

New Radnor towne hathe be metly well wallyd, and in 
the walle appere the mines of iiii. gates. There is an olde 
churche stondynge now as a chapell by the castle. Not very 
farre thens is the new paroche churche buildyd by one 
William Bachefeld and Flory his wyfe. 

There goithe by the towne, as I remember, a broket 
cawlyd Somergil. 

The buildynge of the towne in some parte meatly good, 
in moste part but rude, many howsys beinge thakyd. The 
castle is in mine, but that a pece of the gate was a late 
amendyd. The towne was defacyd in Henry the fowrthe 
dayes by Owen Glindowr. 

Presteine, in Walche caullyd Llanandre,* is a very good 
market of come, to the whiche very many folks of Melen- 
nith resorte to by come, and bysyde this is no notable 
buildynge in the lordshipe of Presteine. The toune is waterid 
with Lug renninge by it. 

Knightton, in Walche cauUid Trebuclo,* is a praty towne 

» Wysc. ^ Hodni, corrupted into Hondu. 

• Lly vni. * Llan Andras. • Trev y clawiS. 



IN WALES. PART VI ii 

aftar the Walsche buildinge. The river of Teme goith on the Radnor- 
side of the toune, and (as I remembar) I saw a ryver in the •hire, 
othar syde. 

In Hye Eluelde • lordshipe within 2. miles west of Radenor 
is no market toune. The ruines of the castle of Colewine 
standithe in Hye Eluel, and is a 3. mils from Wy banke. 

Wy River in cowrse first cummithe to Aberhedon,*' then 
toward Payne and Colewine. 

In Low Eluel be 2. lordshippis, Abrehedon Castel the 
Kyng's hard by Wy. Paynes Castle about a 2. miles from 
Wy banke. 

Thus in bothe Elueldes be 3. lordships. 

Low Eluelde endithe in Wy banke right agayne Clifford 
on the othar banke of Wy. 

Northton lordship a membar of Radenor. At Northton 
selfe is a litle pilet or turret. 

In Melennith apere greate ruines of 2. castles. The one 
is cawUid Tynbot, set on a stepe crage a 3. miles from the 
abbay of Comehire, the whiche is also in Melennith. The 
othar is caulyd Keuenlles on the ryver of . . . ., nowdowne; 
it longyd to the Duke of Yorke. Rayader lordshipe longyd 
to the Duke of Yorke, it hathe nothar market towne, nor 
castle (as far as I cowld know). This Rayder is countyd as 
a member of the lordshipe of Radenor. 

Rayder, Comothuder and Wartreman liethe foote to foote. 

POWYSLANDE, MOUNTGOMERIKSHIRE. 

Montgomerike, in Walche Treualduine,^ standithe a mile Montgom- 
from Severn banke, and is servid with small rills cominge eryshirc. 
frome the hills hard by. The soyle of the ground of the 
towne is on mayne slaty roke, and especially the parte of the 
towne hillinge toward the castell, nowa-late reedified, whereby 
hathe bene a parke. Great ruines of the waulle yet apere 
ad vestigia of iiii. gates thus cawlyd, Kedewen Gate, Chyr- 
byry Gate, Arturs Gate, Kery Gate. In the waulls yet re- 
mayne broken towrets, of the wiche the whit towre is now 
moste notable. One paroche churche in Mountgomerike. 
There liethe a good plentifuU valley by the towne of come 
and grace. 

• Elvel. * Abercdw. • Trevaldwyn. 



12 



LELAND^S ITINERARY 



fo. 51. # 
Monmo^Jtth 



MontgoQQ^ Newton, v. mile fiom Montgomerike, is meately welle 

eryshife. buildyd after the Walche fascion. 

Llanindelas* xiii. miles by west Montgomery. There is a 
broke goinge into Severne not halfe a mile of* Llanidelas 
is about a iiii, mils from the hede of Severne. 

Mahenthle'* the second towne of Mongomerikeshire, and 
there ons a yere session to be kepte, a xvi. Walche miles 
from Montgomeri. 

WENTLLUGH [iN MOKMOUTH]. 

Wentllug'' is devidid from Venlissa by este with the ryver 
of Wiske, by south with the Severn Se, by west with the 
ryver of Remny to the very hedde of it, and toward the 
north northe est lye the hillts of High Wenteland. 

The lenght of Wentllugh "" is from the Severn Se to the hed 
of the lordship of Meridith, that is to say from south to 
northe about a xx. mile. 

Where it is most brodest from est to west it is not countid 
by estimation above S. miles, and in diverse places lesse. 

The soile by south toward Severn is sumwhat low and 
fulle of dikes to drene it. Ther is lightly great plenty of 
benes, and in divers [places f] it berith i other maner of 
come. 

And this low ground is from the causey or high-way that 
goit from Newport to Pont Remny by south to the Severne 
Se. The north side of the same high-way is stilje higher and 
higher to the northe. 

There is very litle wood yn this low part of WentUughe, 
FarU Bahan^ except at Parke Bahan*" 3. miles out of Newport, thorough 
"* " ^ the which the high-way lyith to Cairdif 

Castelle Behan* is a litle without the south side of this 
park, and is in ruine. It longid to the Duke of Bukkingham. 

This park has nother dere nor pale now, it is the Kinges 
by the lordship of Newport j and at Tredegar, wher Mr 
William Morgan, a man of 300. markcs of landes by yere 

i* LelflTid'a MS- vol. iv,^ see before, p. I, note *.] 
+ Supplied by Hcn^mc's editor, 2nd ed.) 



UiU Park. 



■ LUn Idlo*4. ^ Mftchyndeth. *> GwynllWg, 

^ Park Eychan, • Casicll Bj-chan. 



filii HoweL 



IN WALES. PART VI 13 

hath a very faire place of stone. It is a mile and a half from Monmouth 
Neuporte south west on the hither este side of Ebouith' Ry ver. •hire. 

Such part of Wenllugh as lyith up toward Cairleon is well 
pastured and woddi. 

Such part as lyith from Pont Remny along on the est ripe 
of Remny to Bedwes paroche vi. miles of by land ys much 
woddy, and in sum places bytwixt, as first in Llanuihengle 
paroche, and then in Maghen paroche joining to it is metely 
good come. Ponte Remny is a 2. miles from the Severn Se. 
Ther is a village by it caullid Rumney in Englisch, in Walsch 
Tredelerch. 

Thens on Remny ripe a mile upper is a fair valley caullid fo. 52. 
Diffrin Risca, going a 3. or 4. mile upward on the water, 
plentiful of wodde as it were a forest ground, myngelid with 
feldes, but having litle come. 

And from the hedde of this valley it is upward on Remny Fanum 
a 4. miles to Eggluis Tider uab Hohele, by rughe hilles and ^^f^^^, 
wilde valeis and plenty of wood. The hedde of Remney " " 
River is a 3. or 4. miles above this yn the hilles of High 
Wentelande. 

Thens cumme many springes, and taking one botom the 
brooke is caullid Kayach, and thens going into Diffrin Risca 
it is augmentid with Risca a brooke cumming ynto it oute of 
a paroche caullid Eggluis Ilan, and then doth it al here the 
name of Risca. Eggluis Ilan is yn Singhenith ^ in Glamorgan- 
shir a 4. mile of from Diffrin Risca. And cumming to 
Bedwes paroche it is caullid Remny, and by the same name 
into the Seveme Se. 

In the midle ground bytwixt Remny and Ebouith Ryver 
on the north side of the high way to Pont Remny the ground 
for the most parte is hilly, better for catelle then come. And 
there is a very high hille caullid Tuinbarkim. 

The ryver of Ebouith * risith yn a flat north montayne of 
High Wencelande, and strait cummith into a valley caullid 
Diffrin Serowy.® 

Ebowith goith into Wisk a mile and a half beneth New- 
port, and h^ a mile from the haven mouth of Wiske. 

There is a bridge of tymbre over Ebowith caullid Pont- 
Bessaleg a 2. miles above the confluence of Ebowith and 

• Ebbw. ^ Senghen^. ^ Sixhowy. 



14 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Monmouth- 
shire. 



fo. 53. 



^Visk : and over this bridg lyjth the high-way from Newport 
to Cairtaphe* This bridge is scant a. miles from Newporte 
toun, 

Newport is but 2. miles from Cairleon. From Neuport to 
the place wher Ebowith goith yn to Wisch Haven a good 
mile and a halfe. And then more then half a mile to the 
haven mouth. 

The bridges of Cairleon and Newport be booth of wood. 

From the haven mouth of Wisch to the mouth of Remny, 
wher no haven is or cnmming yn nieete for ship pes, a vi. 
miles. On this shore is no very notable thing. The bankcs 
of it be dyvid inough to defend the se for ragmg into the 
low ground of Wenceland, 

Newport is a bigge towne^ wherof that parte where the 
paroche chirch is stondith on a hillc. The chirch is S* 
Gunlle,* Olave in EngUsch. 

Ther is a great stone gate by the bridge at the este ende 
of the toun, a nother yn the mid3e of the town as in the 
High strete to passe thorough, and the 3. at the west end of 
the toune: and hard without it is the paroche chirch. The 
fairest of the toun is al yn one* streate. The toun is yn 



Ther was a house of religion by the key beneth the 
The cas telle is on the este side of the toun above the 



rume. 
bridg. 
bridge. 

Gentiimen in Wtnllugh. 

Morgan the chifeste of landes hath a very fair place at 
Tredeger, and a nother in the toun of Ntwporte. 

There is a nother of the Morgans a man of meane landes 
dwelling [at] Newport. 

There is a nother of the Morgans dwelling by Rerany at 
Maghen,'^ having a fair house. He had bene a man of fair 
landes, if his father had not devidid it partely to other of his 
sunnes, 

John Morgan at Lampeder paroch in irOw-Wenllugh. 

Roger Kemmeis, a man of a xl. markes of landes by yere, 
dwellith in Newporte toune. 

(* Leland repeats in Qttt by mialate,] 



drthH. 



^ Gunley m Bit. of LI. DAV = GwjDlliWf now St, Woohi, 
^ Machcn, 



IN WALES. PART VI 15 

Henry Kemeis dwellith at Maisglase • 3. miles from New- Monmouth- 

port by weste, a man of meene. shire. 

Davy Kemmeys a man of 40. li. lande dwellith a mile S?^" 

above Pont Remny. i^truAs. 

Thomas Lewys dwellith at Mairin * a 2. miles from Severn fo. 54. 
side. 



GLAMORGANSHIR. 

Glade * is in the Walsch a countery or a land. Qlamorgan. 

And this province or cuntery is often caullid Morganhog. ahirc. 

I take Moregan f to have the name of More, that is to say 
the se, onto the shore wherof it lyith. 

The kefinnithes J {confinia §) of Glamorgan ly thus. 

Remny is the marche on the est side of it. 

Cremline a litle broke is the march of the west part of it. 

The Severne Se boondith it from the mouth of Remny to 
the mouth of Gremlin. 

The rootes of the Blake Mountein marchith it by northe. 

From Pont Remny to the forde of Gremlin brooke, a mile 
from Swansey, is to the nerest way a 23. miles. Thus, a 
mile to [Gairjdif. To S. Nicolas village 4 mples.] To fo. 55. 
Gowbridge 4. miles. To Wenny Bridge, wher is a litle 
village, 4. miles. To Pont Newith on Ogor a mile. To 
Morgan Abbay 4. miles. To Britan Fery, caullid in Walsche 
Llanisauel,^ wher be a 3. or 4. houses and a chapel of ease 
on the hither side of Nethe Ryver, 3. miles. The trajectus 
at the flude is more then half a quarter of a mile over. Then 
to the ford of Gremlin broke 2. miles. 

To go thorough the midle of the countery as from est to 
west a 23. miles. From the ripe of Diffrin Risca to Taue * 
River, and there over Pont Erliesk, a great bridg of tymbre, 
3. miles. To Rotheney Vehan • water and over a bridge of 

[• /.^., Gwlad.] 

[t Morcant-uc is the old form, and Morcant is a man's name : it has 
nothing to do with Mor = sea. Mor-gen (sea-born) yields Morim as a 
proper name.] 

[i Kyffinieu.] 

[§ Leland wrote the gloss confinia over the Welsh word.] 



* Maes gl^. b Maerun, now Marshfield. 

« Llan SawyL * T4v, vulgo Taff. 

• RhoniSa Vcchan. 



i6 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Olain organ- wood 3. miles. To Penrise village, wher the pilgrimage was, 
sbirc, a mile. To Boullch Glauth ♦ a great rokky hille 6. miles* 

ToGUaCorrug'^aparochchirch 2, miles. To Abcr Pergom* 
a wild brooke 7. miles. This brok half a mik lower rennith 
into the est side of Tawy."^ This Tawy is heere a kefinith to 
[Glamorgan.] This way be many hilles, [woods good 
plentye] about the ryvers sydes : but few villages or come 
except in a few smaule valeys* 

The mountaines have sum redde dene, kiddes plenty, 
oxen, and shepe. 

This way lyith by estimation a midle it to the Severn Se a 
16. miles by south : and from the midle of this way agayn 
by north a to, miles, 

To go from est to west yn the highest part of Glamorgan- 
shir toward the rootes of the Blak Montayne is a xvi, miles 
of wild ground almost all. From the kefinnith yn Wence- 
land^thatisatKaedratntt 2. miles, FromCastelleMorlleys" 
toaplacecauUid Hirwen (long whit J)Urgan:'t where is, as 
in the lordship of Misken t in the paroch of Aberdayer,' a 
great race and bredth of horsis, 8. miles ; al by high hilles , 
and a mile from Hirwen Urgan is the forest of Lluid Coitc 
welle wooddld in the lordship of Miskin. From Hirwen Urgan 
fo. 56- onto Rigoist lordship* 4. miles. To YstradeGenleSj^'alorde- 

Crti/^j/a, ship in Cairmardineshir, 4, miles. This Genles a litle ryver is 
the kefinnith betwixt Cairmardin and Glamorganshir, and 
goith ynto Tawe,* as I hard, a 3, or 4. mile a this side Swansey 
in the est ripe. Istrad lordship is a x. miles from Swansey 
by north est by the Blak Mountayne. 

[* Bwlcli y Claw*. Over ihe // in BouUcb Leland wrote M, over 
Glauth he wrote tihAt as j gloiis.J 

[t Li^knd fuf Ihcr doIcs in tbe margin^ the corner of which b torn ; 

** Kae<iraine. The eggc of thomes. 

** Urgan, father to Istin lorde sumtyme of Morgan, 

*' Misltcn, the King lordship. 
In Rigoia is sum good corne* This Rigois is in Glin « ^ , • » 
.ty * . lordship . . , ♦ . having no issu oat ofthem***] 

t Written over Hirwen, ut.t Hir Wcun = Long Moor* 



* Glyn Corrwg. ^ Aber Pei^:wm. 

^ Cnslell Morleis* » Hirwen Wrgan. 

» Rhigos, a hamlet in Ystrad y Vodwg, 
* Tawi. 



« Tflwi. 
' Aber Dix. 
h Ystrad Gynkit, 



IN WALES. PART VI 17 

COMMOTES IN GLAMORGANSHIR. 

Kibworth* lyith, from the mouthe of Remny up to an Qlamorgao 
hiUe in the same commote cauUid Keven On, a 6. miles »hirc. 
from the mouth of Remny. This hille goith as a waulle 
over-thwart betwix the rivers of Thaue* and Remny. 

A 2. miles from this hille by south, and a 2. miles from 
Cairdif, be vestigia of a pile or maner place decayed at £g- 
luis Newith in the paroch of Landaf. 

In the south side of this hille was bom Richard William 
alias Crumwelle yn the paroche of Llan Isen. (See p. 137.) 

If Cairdif be not a commote in it self, it semith to be in 
Kibworth. 

Kibworth goith by the shore from the mouth of Remny to 
the mouthe of Taue a 2. miles and more. Splot a maner 
place longging to Baudrem, lyith from the mouth of Remny 
on the shore, and is taken as land holden of the Bisshop of 
Landaf, and resortith to the Bisshopes Court So it is in the 
commote of Kibworth, but not of the Court of it. 

Kibworth cummith from the mouth of Taue upstil by the 
est ripe of it a. good half mile above Cairdif, and there 
Landaf commote taketh the est ripe, and so kepith on stil 
to above Landaph Bridge, and then Kibworth taketh the est 
ripe of Taue agayn, and so goith up to the hille of Keven 
On and ther is the kefinith of Kibworth. 

In Kibworth a plain soile, saving Keven On, is good rye, 
barly, and otes, but litle whete. The beste wood in Kibworth 
is in Keven On as it were a forest grounde, and Cairdif is 
partely servid thens with wood. Ther be medowes by Remny 
and Taue rivers in this commote. 

Gtntilmen in Kibworth, 

John Guin Lewys half a mile above Remny Bridg a man 
of mene landes. 

John Willyam a mene man a quarter of a mile above 
Cairdif on Taue. 

Singhenith^ of sum is devidid into Iskaihach, and Huhe- fo. 57. 
Vaihach.'' 

Iskaihac begennith on the west side of Remny by Keven 
On, and goith up a 6. mile by north est by Diffrin Risca 

• Kibwr. ^ Tiv. « Sengheny« <» Is and Uch Kaiach 

C 



t8 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glamorgan- gnto Kaihac, And on the est side of Taue from Keven On 
^^^ to . . . 

In Isltiihac is Cair Filly Castelle selte emonge marisches, 
wher be minus waulles of a wonderful ihiknes, and toure 
kept up for prisoners as to the cbife holde of Singhenith. 
It is 3- miles nonh est from Landaf, and a. miles from the 
est ripe of Taue. 

Ther is within half a mile of Cairfilly by est a fair place 
caulJid Vanne^ wber Mr. Edward Lewys dwellilh. Other 
gentilmen of any fame be not yn al Singhenet, saving David 
Richarde dwelling at Kdthle Gare* in HuhkaihaCj and 
Mathew ap Rise Vehan in KelthJe Gare paroch also. 

Castelle Gogh * stondith on a high rok of a redde stone or 
ojle a 2, miles from Landaf upper on Taue: a quarter of a 
mile from the est ripe of Taue. 

Castelle Gough al yn ruine no bigge thing but high. It 
longith to the King and standilh by Keven On, 

Huhkaihac strecchith up on Taue by the est ripe from 
Kaihach to Morilays Castelle, and 2. miles upward by north 
north est to Kaedrayne, wher the kefinnith is betwixt High- 
Wenceland, Breknocshir and Huhkaihach parte of Singhenet, 

Mo relays Castelle* standi th in a good val!cy for corn and 
grasse, and is on the . , » ripe of Morelais Brooke. 

This castelle is in ruine and longith to the King. 

Morlays riveret cummilh by north est out of Brekenocshir 
hilles toward High-Wenceland, and so to Morerlays Castelle, 
and about a myle lower in a paroche caulhd Martyr^ it goilh 
into the est ripe of Taue {Martyr Teduil), 
fo. 58. The commote of Landaf teginnith at the west side of the 

^/ iouih, mouth of Taue^ and so rennith up by the marschy shore on 

Severn to the moutbe of Ley* River^ of sum yn Englisch 
caullid Ele. The mouthcs of these 2* ryvers be aljout a 
mile a sundre. The Bisliop's land in this commot is caullid 
Ter escop/ 
B^£sL This commote goith up apon the wesle shore of Taue a 

quartre of a mile above Landaf Bridge to a place caulhd 
Clauthe ([)iche)Cunstable.* And this is a ii* miles from the 
mouth of Taue, and sumwbat more. 



ikt higgi of 



^ nelligacr^ 

^ Mcribyr Tydvil 



»> Caslell Coch, 

^ Ijii, old form Elei. 



' Tir yr cscob* 



IN WALES. PART VI 



19 



By attest. 
Tilt he Coif h: 
totally in i he 
wood. 



Agayne the bridge of Landaf this commot goith over Qlamorgan- 
Taue, and kepith about a mile of lenght on the est ripe. **^«« 

And a this side Taue ther is a peace on Severn cauUid 
Splot, as mention is made in Kibworth Hundrede. 

This commote goith up on the est side of Ley, first to a 
stone bridge caullid Pont Lecwith a mile of : then to Pont 
Lay, a stone caullid yn Englisch Ele Bridg, a mile. Here 
it goith over Ele aboute a mile on the west ripe of wher 
Caire * paroch is. 

It goit from Lay Bridg by the esle ripe to Tilthecoit,* a 
praty village about half a mile. Half a mile above this on 
Lay est ripe is S. Pagan's paroche, and that is in the com- 
mote of Est Thawan. 

This commot at the north is scant 2. miles over from By north. 
Clauth Constable to S. Pagan's, and ther as in the midle it 
sumwhat touchith apon Miskin commote. 

In this commote is onely the castelle of Landaf, beyng the 
Bishop's palace. There is sum meatly good corn ground in 
sum places of this commote: and very good frute fororchardes 
at Tilcoyth.* 

There is very litle wood yn this commote. Wood is 
brought hither out of Meskyn. 

Gentilmen in Landaf Commot, 

Myles Mathew. A litle from Landaf Castelle waulles by 
south, it is like a pile and welle buildid. 

There is a nother mene gentilman of the Mathews in 
Caire paroche over Lay at Sweldon. 



MlSKlN COMMOTE, OR GLADE* MISKIN. fo. 59. 

This commote by est as it lyith rennith up a long by the By est, 
west side of Taue ^ Ryver, ontylle it cum to the place wher 
Kenon • ryveret cummith yn to Taue by the west ripe. This 
meating of Kenon with Taue is about a lo. mile above 
Clauth Cunstable. The ground on Taue ripe this way is 
very wooddy. Kenon Ryver goith into Taue above Parke 
Newith. 

There is an hille caullid Keven Glase' beyond Kenon 

» Kaer^. *> TwU Coed, now Fairwater, near Llan DSt. 

« Gwiad. d Tiv. • Kynon. ' Keven GlAs. 



20 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glamorgan- 
shire. 



By wesU 



By north, 

Bolgoid: thi 
btly of the 
wood. 
By south. 



fa 60. 

Fanum trium 
Sanctorum, 



half a mile, and it standith betwixte Kenon and Taue, and 
this is the keRnith betwixt Miskin and Singhenith. The 
ground betwixt Kenon and Penar hilly and woddy. 

There is a nother hille a 5. miles above this toward 
Breckenocshir caullid Penar, and ther is a limes also by est 
north est 

This commot lyeth by west from Ponterith Same • causey, 
that is fyve miles from the mouth of Lay, stille up apon the 
est ripe of Lay, to a place caullid Mehcydd,* wher Mehcydd* 
Ryver cumming out of the lordeship of Glin Rodeney ^ and 
goith into Lay by the est ripe. It is about a 4. mile from 
Pontrith Sam. Meatly good ground for corn to Pedware, 
and wood about Lay side. And then Miskyn kepith the 
hither, that is the est, ripe of Mechidd about a mile, and ther 
cummith a litle broke ynto Mechydd by the est ripe caullid 
Pedware. Then it folouith the est ripe of Pedware about a 
mile and a half to a place caullid Rethgough,^ wher is a 
brooke caullid Cledaugh,^ that a mile lower rennith into 
Rodeney by the west side or ripe of it. And Rodeney half 
a mile lower rennith into Taue. And then up by hilles and 
over Rodeney Water to Keven GuingiPa 3. miles, and thens 
a 7. miles to the hilles of Brekenok. 

This commot up in the land lyith by flat north apon 
Breknocshire from Penar, crosse over as from est to west 
to Bolgoid.f Al this way his hilles and woodes. 

This commot lyith by south from Clauth Constable to 
Pontrith Same as crose over from est to west a 4. miles by 
good corn and woodde. And al Meskyn the nerer it [lyith] 
to the south the frutefuller it [is.] 

Lantrissent Castelle, longgmg to the King as principal 
house of Miskin, lyith half a mile from the est ripe of 
Lay, and half a mile beneth the place wher Mihchidd brooke 
cummith into Lay. The castelle stondith on the toppe ot 

[* Leland wrote over the first Mehcydd a M, over the second if\ 
evidently the dd puzzled him. ] 

[t Bolgoid, corrected twice by Leland, to Bokoid and Bolgo^, the 
present form. The hand, a little further on, is Leland's mark, referring 
to the same places on p. 25.] 



Pont Rhyd Sarn. 

d Clydach. 



»> Glyn Rhon«a. « Rhyd goch. 

• Keven Gwyn. 



IN WALES. PART VI 21 

a hille, and ys in ruine. It hath beene a fair castel, and Glamorgan- 
had 2. wardes, and the inner dikid having emong other ^^^^* 
toures one great and high caullid Giguran.' And at this Gigbran: the 
castelle is the prison for Miskin and Giin Rodeney. There g^^^ ^'t^- 
were 2. fair parkes by south of Lantrissent now onpalid and 
without deere. There is now yren made in one of these 
parkes namid Glinog. 

There is a place 2. miles from Llantrissent by south est 
caullid Crege Castelle on the top of an hille, wher sum 
tokens of buildinges yet remayne. 

Ther hath beene sum auncient place at Galthe Caurde a 
mile by southe from Lantrissent. 

Gentiltnen in Miskin. 

George Mathew a man of praty lands dwelling at Rader 
half a mile above Clauth Constable by Taue. 

George Mathew hath a park with dere newly made 2. 
miles above Rader by north west. 

John Mathew at S. Nele a mile from Pontrith Same by 
este. 

Robert Mathew at Castelle Menach in Pentiraugh * paroch, Casiellum 
2. miles south from Llantrissent, and within [a quarjter of Mmachorum, 
a mile of Crege Castelle. M^)u^m. 

Mathew Gibon at Kentrebaine in the paroch of S. Fagan 
xl. mark. 

Lewys ap Lluelen a mene man of land at Rethlauar,* [in] 
S. Pagan's paroch, xx. li. Land. 

Gamage, a bastard of old Gamage of Coite,* a man of 
mene landes in Lanuair' a mile from Pont Rithsam by est 

Master Basset of Pencoit a man of xl. li. land hard by 
the New Park of George Mathew. 

GLIN ROTHENEY. 

The vale of Rotheney ' hath is limite by north on the rootes 
of the Blak Montayne. By est it lyith al on Miskin. By 
west it yoinith in sum place to the est ripe of Lay ; and it 
goith up farther by west on the est ripe of Ogor' River from 

• y Gigvran. *> Castell Mynach in Pentyrch. « Rhyd Lavar. 
<* Coety. • Llanvair. ' Rhonda. « Og^r. 



22 LELANDS ITINERARY 

Glamorgan- Mennith Kelthle haedd * to Boulghe Clauthe * v. miles a sun- 
shire, dre, and 4. miles above in the hilles is Breknokshir. By 
Haedd: barfy south it lyith a mile and a half on the side of the ryver of 
feeld. Mehcedd, and then it touchith half a mile oil Pedwarre 
brooke. 
fo. 61. Bothe Rodeney Vaur and Rodeney Vehan spring in the 
lordship of Glin. 

Rodeney within a 2. miles together. 
Rodeney Vaur risith by north west in a greate high rok, 
caullid Drissiog. 

Rodeney Vehan risith a mile above Castelle Nose° right 
by north west also : but nerer toward Miskyn lordship. So 
that Rodeney Vaur hed and strem lyith more west up into 
Wales. 

Castelle Nose is but a high stony creg in the top of an 
hille. 

The vale of Glin Rodeney by south is meatly good for 
barle and otes but little whete. There is plenty of wood. It 
hath but one hole paroch caullid Ystrate,** and a peace of 
Lantrissent paroche, and a pece of Llan Wonni * paroche. 



ESTE THAW AN COMMOTE. 

The south Est Thawan by south lyith on the Severn shore. From 

fftarck, the mouth of Lay, wher Penarth Pointe standith on the 

west side of it, to the mouthe of Thawan ' Ryver an eight 

miles: agayne the whiche mouth is the next passage to 

Minheved in Somersetshire. This trajectus is over Severn 

xvi. miles. 

Penarth is an hiUe or foreland into the Severn Se. 

A mile and a half above it is Scilley,* a praty havenet or 

socour for shippes. And here rennith Scylley a praty brooke 

into the se, and ther is a village caullid Scylley, scant half a 

mile from this haven muth : and the brook rennith thoroug 

the midle of it. The hedde of this is west north weste from 

Scylley village yn Weniio ** paroch in a welle waullid aboute 

on the north side of Weniio chirche, that is a 2. miles above 

• Myny« Gelli Iiai«. »> Bwlch y Claw«. • Castell NAs. 

* Vstrad y Vodwg. • Llan Wonno. ' Aber Thaw. 

« Sully. »» Wcnvo. 



IN WALES. PART VI 23 

Scylley village. On this brok • standith first Wenuo Cas- Glamorgan- 
telle a quarter of a mile by west from the hedde of it. Al ^^^* 
the buildinges of this Wenuo Castelle stonding on a litle hille ^^- ^^ 
is downe saving one toure and broken waules. It longgid 
to the Maleinfantes, wherof in remembraunce was one that 
was first husband to Mr. Herebertes mother of Swansey. The. 
King hath it now, and Dr. Carne farmith it of the King. 

The castelle of Greneston is 3. quarters of a mile lower 
on Scilley broke, and it stondith on the side of an hille a 
stone caste from the est ripe of Scilley. It is al in mine 
saving one high tower. The Lord Herbe[r]t is owner of it. 

The castel of Dinas Poys* is almost a mile lower, and 
stondith on a litle hille within a stone caste of the broke on 
the west side. This castelle is al in mine, and longith to 
the King. Scylley village is scant a mile lower. So that 
the course of the hole water is a 3. miles from the hedde to 
the se. 

There is good come and medow on booth sides of Scylley 
brooke, and good wood of boothe sides [till]t it cum to 
Dinas Poys. Lower to the se is none on it. 

From Scylley mouthe to Aberbarrey, wher cummith a litle 
rylle of fresch water to the Severn, is aboute a mile. 

The hedde of this rylle is scant a mile of by north est in 
a playn ground. 

On this bekke stondith the castelle of Barrey aboute a 
quarter of a mile beyond the west ripe of it. This castelle 

[• Fo. 61 ends with the words "On this brok." Fo. 62 has been 
taken out and is found, like others missing, in MS. vol. viii. paged 21, 22 ; 
printed here between * — *. As in the other cases, the old Bgures can 
oe read beneath the later. What is worse is that the rest of the figures 
of the leaves in the MS. vol. iv. following fo. 61 have been altered 
and written over by the same hand, making what is really fo. 63 into 
62, 64 into 63, and so on. Thus the foliation given by Heame and his 
editor from fo. 62 to fo. 76 is wrong. In making up vol. viii. Burton 
inserted a leaf after the leaf 62 of vol. iv. , on whicn he copied a few 
lines of the continuation on fo. 63, and then added the para^aph as to 
Gasper, Duke of Bedford, which is the last in MS. vol. iv., fo. 77 
(after p. 38). Hearne, however, was misled, and printed it in both 
places.] 

[t Leland lefl no blank, but Stow supplied the missing word.] 



• Dinas Powys. 



24 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glamorgan- 
shire. 



fo. 63. 



Tkf march 
by west. 



stondith on a litle hil, and most of it is in mine. Master 
S. John of Bedfordshir is lorde of it Maurice S. John, 
uncle to Syr John S. John, was owner of it. 

Right againe this brooke mouth lyith Barrey Isle. The 
passage into it at ful se is a flite shot over, as much as the 
Tamise is above the bridge. At low water ther is a broken 
causey to go over, or els* over the shalow stremelet of 
Barrey brooke on the sandes. 

The isle is about a mile in cumpace, and hath very good 
corne, grasse and sum wood. The ferme of it worth a x. li. 
a yere. 

There ys no dwelling in the isle, but ther is in the midle 
of it a fair litle chapel of S. Barrok, wher much pilgrimage 
was usid. 

Half a mile and more beyonde Aber Barrey is the mouth 
of Come Kydy/ This broke risithe fiat north a mile and an 
half from the place wher it goith ynto the Severn Se. There 
is no notable building on this rylle. The soile of boothe 
side of the ril in this valley hath good corn, grasse and 
wood. 

From Kiddey mouth, wher no enteraunce is for shippes, 
to the mouthe of Thawan a 3. miles by very principal good 
corn ground. At the mouth of Thawan shippe-lettes may 
cum ynto the haven mouth. 

The west marche goith up by Thawan side on the est 
ripe almost to Cowbridge, and that is a 4. miles of, and this 
ground is low aboute the ripe side, and ful of medowis and 
pasture grounde : and in sum places half a mile of from the 
ripe is summe woodde. 

Half a mile from the mouth of Thawan there cummith in 
by the est ripe of it a brooke caullid Kensan.^ 

The castelle of Fonmone standith on a litle hille in Pen- 
mark paroche, a quarter of a mile by est from the mouth of 
Kensan. 

This castelle yet stondith and longith to Sir John St. John. 

This Kensan '^ hath 2. heddes, wherof the north est is 
caullid Nantbrane,* the hedde wherof is in the paroch of 
Lluen Lithan.** 



• Cwm Kidi. 



^ Carvan. 

d St. l.ythans. 



^ Nant Bran, older Baraeo. 



IN WALES. PART VI 25 

This hedde is 3. miles from the confluence and more. Glamorgan- 
There [is] good pasture and come about it. shire. 

The other hedde risith at Bolston • village, Gal: Tresi- 
[mon], [by] north est more upward in Wales by west, a 3. fo. 64. 
miles from the confluence. First it cummith by Camellued 
ii. miles douneward to Mr. Ragelandes house on the est side 
of it Then thorough Llancaroiian * village 3. quarters of a 
mile. Then a quarter of a mile to the confluens wher the 
hole streame is cauUid Kensan. On both sides of this arme 
is good com and gresse. 

To cross over from Lancaroiian to the nex part of Thawan 
is a mile. 

The commot of Est Thawan cummith up by est from The est 
the mouth of Lay® on the west ripe of Lay, first to Cogan "^^^^ 
Pille almost a mile of, wher is a fair maner place on the 
ripe side longging to Mr. Herebert of Swansey, and then to 
Ponte Lecwith of stone scant a mile. Then to Pontlay, 
alias Elebridg,* of stone, wher Landaf commot cummith for 
a space over Lay on booth sides of the bridge. Then cum- 
mith in againe on Lay west ripe Est Thawan commote at 
S. Fagan's, wher be not past 2. or 3. houses of the village 
on that side, but they stande beyond the stone bridge on 
the est side of Lay, and there is the paroche, and the castel 
of S. Fagan standing in the midle of the village, and within 
a stone caste of the river. 

And here marke that Est Thawan yn this place occupiyth "Vi 
a 3. long mile by est north est on this ripe to a place 
cauUith Pont Rithsarn in Miskin.* 

The castelle of S. Fagan standith on a litle hille : and a 
part of it yet standith. It was about a 60. yere ago in the 
handes of one Davy Mathew : and then it cam by heires 
general to diverse copartioners. Baynon of the Forest of 
Dene hath a part of it. The paroch chirch of S. Fagan is 
now of our Lady : but ther is yet by the village a chapelle 
of S. Fagan sumtime the paroch chirch. 

Then to Llanpeder * on the same est ripe of Lay 2. miles. 

[♦ Sec note t. p. 20.] 



* BoDvilston, alias Tre Simwn. ^ Llan Carvan. ^ Lai or Ely. 
^ Ely bridge. • Peterston-super-Ely. 



26 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glamorgan- 
abire* 

to. 6s. 



Ther 15 a poore village and a bridge of stone a quarter of a 
mile of by west, and a castelle on plain ground on the 
water side almost al in mine* B[otler] and George Mathcw 
be lordes of the village. 

Look who is owner of the castelle* 

Pont Rithsarn is about a mile upward from Lampeder on 
Lay. 

Now to cum agayn to the west ripe of Lay over S^ Pagan's 
bridge. S> George a village lyith 3. quarters of a mile up- 
warde on the ripe, and there is a castelle hard by the ripe on 
the west north west side of the village. This castelle stondilh 
on plaine ground. It longgid to the Male-Infantes, wherof 
one was alyve within this 40, yeres. The castelle is now the 
Kinges ; and one Roger Herebert a bastard dwellith in it. 

And Este Thawan goith yet a 2. miles upper on this ripe 
to a paroche caullid Pendiluen/ and that is in the com mot 
of Tier Stuart." So that this upperst part of Est Thawan on 
the west ripe of Lay is right agay[n Lamjpeder on the est 
ripe of [Lay. 3 

The ground of Lay this way ys very good for come and 
grasse and metely woddy : and is as it were a fiat soile with- 
out any high hi lies. 

This commot touchith by north est on the lordeshtp of 
Terstuart, and by north west likewise on Terstuart. So that 
it passith not thuart over there from north est to north west 
a 5. miles. The soile is mcalely good for com and grasse, 
but not so good as it is on Lay and Thawaji ryvers sides.* 



fo. 66. 
by th£ Severn 



WEST THAWAN- 

Wcste Thawan liyth a long on the Severn shore from the 
mouth of Thawan Ryver to a lordeship caullid Terbrennine," 
and that is a 6. miles of. The ground by shore is sum what 
low, and hath good corne and gresse, but litle wood; yet is 
the ground much enclosid, 

Colhow is on the shore belwix thes 2, places a 2- miles 
above Thawan mouthe, and hither cummith sumtymc bootcs 
and shippeletes for socour 

[* Here follows a bbnk s^iace hcadad "Gcntilmen in Esi Thawiin* " J 



• Pen deu i\4yn. 



^Tuy Steward. 



* Tiry Brcnhin. 



IN WALES. PART VI 27 

Llan Iltuit* is 3. quarters of mile north weste into the Qlamorg^an. 
land from thb place. And thens resortith a rylle to shire. 
Colhow. 

There is a castelle abnost stonding on an even grounde 
half a mile from I^niltute by est north est caullid Llaniiais.^ * 
It is almost al doun. It longgith now to the King. It was in 
hominum memoria the Maleinfauntes, ther communely caullid 
the Malifauntes. There cummith a litle bekke within a 
stone caste of the castelle, and rennith on the west side of 
it. It risith by gesse halfe a mile by north west above the 
castelle of Lanliays : and passing by this castelle it goith 
into Colhow water by likelihod. 

From Colehow aboute a mile beyond upper by south west 
on Severn is S. Dinothes,^ a castel. It stondith on a meane 
hille a quarter of a mile from the Severn Se. In the which 
space bytwixt the castelle and the Severn is a parke of falow 
dere. There is a nother park of redde deere more by northe 
west from the castelle. The parkes booth and the castelle 
long to Stradeling a gentilman of very fair landes in that 
countery. Thins from the Severn shore againe S. Dinothes 
to the mouth of Alein a 3. miles. On the west side of the 
ripe of this brooke enterith Ter Brennine. 

This Alein risith by north est up into the land at a place 
caullid Llesbroinuith ^ (Scirpetum), about a 4. miles above 
the place wher it cummith by it self into Severn. 

Here marke that from the mouth of Alein to the mouth fo. 67. 
of Oxor River *" is a 3. miles along by south, and this is coun tid The south 
as a lordship by it self, and it was Syr Maurice Lounder's fxtrtofTer 
landes in King Henry the 2. days. Now it longith to the ^''^^^^^^ 
King by the dukedom of Lancaster. In this part of the 
shore is only a manor place caullid Dounereuen ' about the 
midle way. It longid a late to Boteler. The laste Boteler 
sister maried to Richard Vehan of Aberdourde is now heir 
of it. 

Al this south parte of Brennine lordship good for corne 
and gresse, but litle or no wood. 

[* Over Ucds is written y^//<f, as a gloss.] 



• Now Lantwit major. *> Llan Vaes. « St. Donit's. 

* Llyswomey. • Ogmor, vcl Ogwr. ' Dunravcn. 



28 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glamorgan* 

fthire. 

The ist part/ 

nine. 



fo. 6fi. 

li^at 'Jfta\i*an 
by Severn 
shore. 
TeryarUk^ 
the erla 



Teire Brennine* liyth up from the mouth of Ogor on the 
est ripe of Ogor to Fenbont {ende of the bridge), a bridge of 
stone a 3. mile of* 

Ogor CasteUe stand iih on the est ripe of Ogor on a playn 
ground a mile above the mouth of Ogor, and ys meatly wclle 
maintainid. In longgid ons to Lounder, now to the King, 

This est ripe of Ogor up from the mouth of it to Penbont ** 
hath good corn and gresse ground, but litle wood. 

Half a mile above Ogor Castelle cummith Wenny ^ R)^-er 
into Ogor by the est ripe. 

Wenny risith about a 5, or 6, miles by north est from this 
place, and cummith into Ogor by south west on the est ripe 
of it. 

Apon the est ripe of Wenny in Terbrennine a mile above 
the mouth of it lyith Wenny Priory, and a lii!e above on the 
same ripe is Cornetoun, and a litle upward is Milter Ouer 
[in*] the high-way^ and above this Milter Ower the land of 
both sides of Wenny is caullid Tershire, Milter Ow^er, 
Mile Golden^ is in the high-way betwixt Coubridge and 
Cornton. So that al the west ripe of Wenny from the 
mouth to the hedde is in Ter Coite,^ and a pece of the wesle 
ripe of it above Corneton is in West Thawan almost by a 3. 
miles upper H 

Ther ly by flat northe from Penbont a 2. paroches. Lan- 
devodug* and Llanginwire ' vi. miles of longging to Terbren- 
nine. But Ter Coite lyith bytwixt it and Terbrennine, 

West Thawan cummith in agayne at the west side of the 
mouth of Oggor, and so goith from the mouth of it a 4- 
miles on the west ripe above Fennebont, and there metlth 
with Teryarlth* The ground betwixt hath grasse, metly 
corn and litle wood. Saving that a mile from above Ogor 
mouthe the sandes of the se sore hurtith the ground 

Martyr Maur"" (Mr< Stradelings place), a fair manor place 



[* Inland here interlined his textj and stems to have ontiticd in. 
The ToUo^ving sentence t»c set in the margin, an aficrlhouyhtj with the 
glusa wrilten above Milftr 0%i^4r,\ 



• Tir y Brenhtn, 
d Tir C«ty. 
■ Tir yr larl!. 



** Bridgend^ 

• Llan Dyvodi*-g* 

* Mcrthyi Mawr. 



■ Ewenny, 
' LJanGcinori 



IN WALES. PART VI 29 

of stone, standith on this west ripe a mile above Ogor Glamorgan, 
mouth. •**^* 

At Penbont almost 2. mile upper ther is a village, wherof 
that part that stondith on the weste side of the bridg is 
caullid Castelle Newith, and is in West Thawan ; and that 
part of it that is on the est side of the bridge is caullid 
Henecastelle,* and is yn Ter brennine. 

From the mouth of Ogor to Newton Notes * on the south 
shore is a 4. miles. This is a prety village on the est ripe of 
Tidug : ^ and there is a station or haven for shippes. The 
ground betwixt hath meatly good corne and gresse, but litle 
wood. The shore is cliffy. 

. . . J^dugJ a litle brok [risith] out of a welle at Llanti- 
. . . a u. miles [by nor]th from Newton. 

From Newton to Kenfike ^ Ryver a vi. miles. Of these vi. 
miles 3. be hygh cliffes on the shore : the other low shore 
and sandy grounde. For the rages of Severn Se castith thcr 
up much sand. 

I hard one say that this Kenfik water is caullid Colebroke. 

Ther is a manor place caullid Sker a 2. miles from the 
shore wher dwellith one Richard Loughor a gentilman. 

There is good corne and gresse but litle wod by 3. or 4. 
miles from Newton toward Kenfik on the shore. Kenfike is 
a smaul broke, and cummith by estimation not past a 3. 
miles of, out of the mores there about. 

There is a litle village on the est side of Kenfik, and a 
castel, booth in mine and almost shokid and devourid 
with the sandes that the Severn Se ther castith up. 

Kenfik was in the Clares tyme a borow toun. It standith 
a litle within the mouth [of] Kenfik water. 

Morgan Abbay and village st[andith] a 2. miles of by 
north este. 

From Kenfik to Aber Avon a 2. miles by low shore, parte fo. 69. 
morisch and sandy with the rages of Severn. 

Ther is metly good wood about Aber Avon. 

There is a poore village on the west ripe of Avon about 
2. miles from the mouth of Avon. This village is caullid 
Abreavon.* The groundes about it be baren and sower. 

• H^n Gastell. ^ Newton Nottage. « Tythegstoo. 

d Kenffig. • Aber Avon. 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glamorgan- 
shire. 



IHthtT io 
Wtit Thiivsin 
an ii€VtrH^ 



This village lyith in the great high-way ihoroug Glamor- 
ganshir. There is an haven for shippes at the mouth of 
this Avon, 

Avon Ryver cum of 2. armes, wherof that that lyith 
north est is caullid Avon Vaur, and that that lyith north 
west is caullici Avon Vehaa They mete toglther at Lanui- 
hengle' about a 2. miles above Aberauon village. 

From the mouth of Avon to the mouth of Neth '' Ryver is 
aboute a ii. miles and a half, a] by low shore sbokld with 
Severn sandes and sum roorisch groundes. 

The litie toun and castelle of Neth stondith a 4, miles 
from the mouth of Neth, and the toun and castelle stondith 
on the est ripe of Neth. 

And on the west ripe a Ittle lower then the town of 
Neth was the Abbay of Nethe. 

On nother side of Nethe from the mouth thus far is any 
very good soile. Good pasture there is in sum places and 
woodde about Neth, Ther be colles half a mile above the 
toune of Nethe in a more^ and again a title beneth the 
toun almost in rip\a.'] 

There cummtth up shippelettes almost onto the toun 
of Neth from the Severn, Botes cum to the very bridge 
of tymbre that is sumwhat lower on the water then the 
town. 

At the very mouth of Nethe on the est side of it is a litle 
village of 3, or 4. houses caullid Britanne Fttry*' to passe to 
Swansey and Penbrolteshire, 

One Lysan a gentilman of auncicnt stole, but now of mene 
laJides about a ad, lu by the yere^ dwellith in the toune 
of Nethe. 

The Lysans say, that theire familie was there in fame 
afore the Conquest of the Normans* 

From the mouth of Neth to the mouth of Crimline Bek 
is aboute a 2. miles by low sandy shore, no villages betwixt 
or good groundex 

This Crimline Brooke is the //w^j betwbct West Thawan 
and Gower's lande, 

* Michoclfiton* ^ Nct(, oftgii^hni }itaXh^ <^ BiiUon Ferry, 



IN WALES. PART VI 31 

THE LIMITES OF WESTE THAWAN BY EST. Glamorgan- 

shire. 
From the mouth of Thawan Ryver up half a mile by the f^^ ^^^ 

west ripe standith a pile or manor place caullid Gilestoun 

and village of the same name : but it [is*] distant from the 

very ripe a quarter of a mile by west. One Giles, a gen- 

tilman of an auncient house yet having a hundreth markes 

of lande by the yere, is lorde of it. 

A very htle more upward is a stone bridg caullid Pont- 
newith. 

There is a quarter of a mile above this bridg a manor 
place hard on the ripe caullid Norchete. Mr. Stradeling 
sumtime lyith in it : and it is of his enheritaunce. 

And a quarter of a mile above Norchet is a litle from the 
ripe Castleton, a manor place, on a hille ascending from the 
ripe. And a late it longgid to one Hugh Adam a man of 
mene landes, whos doughter is now heir of it. 

Half a mile above Castelletoun is Treflemig, alias Flem- 
ingeston, and shortely Flemston.* And Fleming is lorde of 
it This Fleming is taken as one by descent of the 13. 
peeres of Glamorganshir. 

From Trefleming to Pontgigman a stone bridge half a 
mile. 

From Pontgigman to Pont He a bridg of stone 3. quarters Ponthi, 
of a mile. awiax. 

Thens half a mile to Llandouhe,* wher is a village and a 
castelle much in ruine on an hille. 

Syr Edwarde Came bought this lordship of the Erie of 
Wicester that now is. 

Againe this village is a bridge of stone caullid Pont Lan- 
douhe. Sum say that Douhe cam with Fagan and Divian 
from Rome into Britain. 

From Landouhe to Lanlithan*' village half a mile, and 
heere is a stone bridge. Moste of the village is on the west 
ripe. The other parte and the castel is on the est ripe. 

This castel longging to the King is yet partly standing, and 
is in Terstuard ** lordship, and kept as the prison for it. 

[• Supplied by Heame.] 



* Flimston. ^ I>lan Dough. « lu^q Blc^ian. 

d Tir y Steward. 



32 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glamorgan- 
shire. 



fa, 71* 



Porta Molett' 



Cowbridge is a quarter of a mile above Lanlithan. 

From the mouth of Thawan to Cowbridge a longe by the 
ripe self, and more by west from the ripe is very good come 
and gresse. 

As much of Cowbridge as is enclosid with the waull 
stondith on the est ripe and the bridge of ston there. 

The great suburbe of Coubridge is cispontem. 

The waulle of Cowbridge is a 3. quarters of a mile 
aboute. 

There be 3. gates in the waulle, the est, the west and 
Porte Meline ' by south. 

There is a chirch in the town. But the saying is, that 
Lanlithan is the hed paroch chirch to Cowbridge. 

The town self of Cowbridge standith in a valle. 

Penlline Castelle and village is almost a mile by west north 
west from Cowbridge. This castelle yet stondith and longith 
to Turbeville. 

There were a while ago 2. brethem of the Turbevilles, 
wherof the elder left a doughter and heyr ; the youngger 
left a sunne. The doughter was married to Loughor. After 
great strife the 2. Turbevilles childem partid the landes. 

A litle above Cowbridg on the este ripe cummith yn Ter- 
stuard. 



Gentilmen dwelling in Weste Thawan bytwixt Tliawdn and 
Alein. 

James Thomas dwelling at Lanviengle a mile flat north 
from Laniltute. 

The heir of the Cames (Richard) • at a place cauUid the 
Assche : and there is a park of falow deere. 

Edmunde Vanne dwellith in Laniltut, and he hath a house 
at Marcrosse almost a mile by west from Laniltute. 

Turbeville (James) * whos father was a bastard dwellith in 
Laniltute. 

Edward Stradeling yongger brother to the heir dwellith in 
Laniltute. He maried the doughter and heir of a younger 
brother of the Ragclandes. 



Forth y Vclin. 



IN WALES. PART VI 33 

John Thomas in Laniltute. Glamorgan- 

Syr Edward Came at Landoughe. ahirc. 

Thomas Ragelande of a yongger brother of the Ragelandes 
at Llesbroinith. 

There ly 3. lordshipes by north in Glamorganshir from fo. 72. 
the weste ripe of Lay River to the est ripe of Neth Ryver. 

Wherof the firste is Terstuarde, to the which Rithin lord- 
ship is as a membre lying on the west side of it. 

In Terstuard is meately plenty of corn and plenty of wood 
and good pasture, as in a ground that is set emonge high 
hilles. 

The castelle of Taleuan * is in this lordship, stonding on a 
level grounde. It is clerely in mine, and is distant 2. miles 
north est from Cowbridge, and a mile and a half from Thawan 
River, and almost 2. miles from Lay. 

This castelle and lordship is the Kinges, and there was a 
park by north from the castelle. There is no village hard 
joyning to this castelle. 

The secunde lordship lying by north is Tercoite,** and this 
joinith onto the west norUi west side of Terstuarde. This 
lordship is not fully so bigge as Terstuard. 

The south part of Tercoite is plentiful of com as in the 
paroch self of Coite. 

And este south este it hath good wodde, as in the parke 
self of Coite and Coide Muster." 

The west part of it hath metely good come and pasture. 

The north parte is sumwhat hilly and thereby lesse 
fmteful. 

The castel of Coite standith on a playn grounde a mile by 
north est from Penbont a good market toun standing on Ogor. 

Coite Castelle is also half a mile from the west ripe of 
Wenny, and a mile from the est ripe of Ogor. 

This castelle is maintainid, and sum say that it longgid 
ons to Payne, caullid for his mffeling there Diable. Now 
Gamage is lorde of it, and it is his principal house. 

The 3. lordship is Teryarlthe,** and is montanius and fo. 73. 
lesse fmteful then the other 2. lordshippes. It hath in 
diverse places good pastiures. 

• Tal y Van *» Tir Coety. o Coety and Coed y Mwstwr. 

d Tir larU. 

D 



34 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glamorgan, 
shire. 



And pleiitie of wood in Diffrin* 

Lleueny.^ This valley is a 3, miles by north from Morgan. 

Morgan is the best village of Teryarlth : and in it was an 
abbay of white nionkes. 

Leueny River risith in the paroche of Glin Corrug, and 
renning a a* miles receivith Corrug Broke, that from the 
hed cummith as far of: and thens Lleueny rennith a 7. 
miles lower into Ogor by the west ripe at a place cauUid 
Lansanfride 2. miles above Pennebonte. 

There is a broke in Teryarlthe cawllid Fred oil • a this 
(cfs) side Avon ; and goith thorough J>anginwid paroche. 



fo.74. 



CAIRTAPHE. 

The town self of Cairtaphe ** as the principale of al Gla- 
morganshire is well wanllid, and is by estimation a mile in 
cum pace* In the wauUe be 5. gates. First Portllongey> in 
Englisch the Ship Gate, flat south. Then Porte Dour, in 
Knglisch the Water Gate, by southe weste. Then Port 
Miskin by north west, so caullid bycause it ledith the way 
into the lordship of Miskin. Then Porte Siiighenith flat 
norths so caullid bycause that menne passe by it into Sing- 
henith. Then Porte Crokerton flat est, so cauUid of the 
Euburbe that joynilh hard to it. 

The castelle is in the north west side of the town waullc, 
and is a great thing and a strong, but now in sum ruine. 

Ther be 2. gates to entre the castelle, wherof the biggest 
is cauUid Sherehaul Gate, the other is cauUid the Escheker 
Gate- 
There is by Shirhaul Gate a great large tour caullid White 
Tour: wherin is now the Kinges armary. 

The Dungeon Towr is large and fain 

The castelle toward the toun by est and south is plaine, 
but it is dikid by northe, and by west it is defendid by Taphe " 
River. 

There be certein places in the castelle limitid to every 

[• Leland writes M over the IL] 



• Llyvni. *• Car<lifF. 

* Elsewhere LcUnd wntea Taue — Tiv^ vrhich is the correct fonn. 
The Etiglishmaa's Toil is supply a mispronunciation of Tif, Le, , Tiv. 



IN WALES. PART VI 35 

one of the 13.* peres or knightes that cam with Haymo Glamorgan- 
Erie of Glocester in King William Conquerors dayes and "hire, 
wan Glamorgane Cuntery. And eche of these be bound to 
the castelle garde. 

Ther be 2. paroche chirchis in the towne, wherof the 
principale lying sumwhat by est is one, the other of our 
Lady is by southe on the water side. 

There is a chapelle beside in Shoe-Maker streat of 
S. Ferine, and a nother hard within Meskin Gate side. 

Ther was a late a goodly mansion in the town caullid 
Place Newith.' 

The biggest suburbe of the town is caullid Crokerton, 
and ther was a house of Gray Freres. 

There is a nother suburbe but lesse without Portllongy.** 

The Blake Freres house was withowte Meskin Gate : and 
by side this is litle building there. 

BRIDGGES NOTABLE ON REMNY RIVER. fo. 75. 

Pont Bedwes (birche) of tymbre. Pont Llan Edern of Beawes, a 

timbre 4. miles lower, and Pont Remny of wood 3. miles Hrcke grove, 

lower. Thens a mile and a half to the Severn. ^^ ^J^*^* 

atreofbtrch, 

BRIDGES THAT BE NOTABLE APON TAPHE RIVER. 

Pont Rhehesk " of wood. Pont Newith of wood 3. miles 
lower. Pont Landafe of wood 4. miles lower. Pont Cairdife 
of wood a mile lower. 

The water of Taphe cummith so doun from woddy hilles, 
and often bringgith down such logges and trees, that the 
cuntery wer not able to make up the bridges if they were 
stone, they should be so often broken. 

BRIDGES ON RODENEV VAUR.* 

One of wood a quarter of a mile west from Penrise. 
Pont Kemmer* a 2. miles lower, and a litle beneth is the 
confluence. 

[* 12 is written over 13.] 



• PUs Newy». ^ Porth Uong^. • ?Roath. 

d Rhonda Vawr. • Pont Kymmer. 



36 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Glamorgan^ BRIDGES OK RODENEY VEHAN/ 

There be also a. smaul bridges of wood on Rodeney 
Vehan, wherof the first is againe Penrlse 3, quarters of a 
mtle of, the other is a htle above the confluence right againe 
the bridg on Rodeney Va[u]r. 

Ther is a bridge of wood on the hole [Rodejney caullid 
Pont Newith 2. miles beneth [the confl]uence ; and a quarter 
from the [place] wher it [goith] into Taphe. 

NOTABLE BRIDGGES ON LAY RIVER* 

Pont Eniselthlan" of wood. PonteRetheVevan^ofwooda 

tWiit, a mill£. mile and a half lower, Ponte Velin Vaur of wood a i. mile 

Dmfe/ais/u. lower, Duvekis** Broke cummith into Lay by the est ripe a 

quartet of a mile above Ponte Velin Vaur* This brooke risith 

a 4. miles of by est north este. And apon this brooke is 

Lcdan^brodi. a wood bridge cauUid Pont Rethe Ledan.* PontSeysan' 

(Saxon) of wood 2, miles lower. Font Gloun * of wood about 

a mile lower. Pont Kethe Gai'avelay,^ a very litle beneth 

this bridge is the confluence with Lay River. 

BRIDGES OK ALEIN. 

Pont Alcin of stone, and a* miles lower is Severn. Pont 
Risclidog of wood a mile lower than Pont Velin on I^y. 
Ponte Rethsaran of wood a mile and a du lower, Pont 
Lanpeder of 3. arches of stone a mik lower. Pont S* George 
of wood a mile and a quarter lower, Pont S. Fagan a stone 
bridge of 3. arches a mile lower, Pont Lay of 2, arches of 
stone, \^A>tgl^ Ele Bridge, a mile and a half lower, Pont 
l^ecwith of 3* [arches] of stone, a mile and a quarter [lower], 
Thcns a mile to Severn, 

fo. 76. BRIDGES NOTABLE ON THAWAN- 

Ponte Vain,* alias Cowbridge, of stone. Ponte Llanithan ^ 
of stone a quarter of a mile lower. Font Landoughe of 
stone 3. quarters of a mile lower, Ponte Meline He of stone 

» Rhonda Vechati* *> Pont Ynys y Ikn. " Rhyd Iwn* 

d Diwlts, • Rhyd Lydan. ' P. Seison. 

■ Foot y Clown. ^ P, Rhyd Gyvcil^ » Pont Vacn- 
^ Lui Blef^ian,. 



IN WALES. PART VI 37 

half a mile lower. Pont Kigman of stone a mile lower. Glamorgan 
Pont Newith of stone a mile lower and a half. And half a '^"^^ 
mile lower is Severn. 

BRIDGES ON RENSAN* BROKE. 

Ponte Kensan of a. arches of stone. Ponte Britoun of 
one arch of stone half a mile lower. 

Kensan risith flat este and goith into Thawan per ripam 
orient by south south west a litle from Aber Thawan. 

BRIDGES ON WENNY. 

Wcnny Bridge of stone. 

Wenny rennith by the est ripe into Ogor half a mile above 
Ogor Castelle. 

BRIDGES ON OGOR. 

Ponte Lansanfraide of timbre. 

Pennebont** of 4. arches of st[one a] • miles lower. 

Pont Newith of stone a mile and [halfe] lower, and a 
mile and a half to [Severn.] 

Garow, and Lleueny* brokes. 

On these be no very notable bridges. Garow risith by 
north in a place caullid Blaine Garow, and renning about a 
6. miles cummith into Ogor by the west ripe a. miles above 
Lansanfraide Bridge. 

Leueny risith by north weste in Glin Corrug paroche, and 
goith into Ogor by the weste ripe a quarter of a mile above 
Lansanfraid Bridge. 

BRIDGES ON AVON. 

Ponte Retheuenne,** the forde of the Waine, of timbre 
apon Avon Vaur about a mile above the confluence of bothe 
the Avons. 

Pont Inisavon of wood about a mile beneth the confluence, 

[* MS. torn here. Stow read a nUU^ but Leland's word is miUs % 
perhaps he wrote 2 miles.] 



* Car van. ^ Bridgend. Garw and LlyvnL 

* Pont Rhyd Ewenny. 



38 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



shirc. 



fo. 77^ 



Gloucciter- 
shtrCr 



BRIDGES ON NETH, 

Ponte Castelle Nethe of tymbre- 

There is a bridge of timbre an 8. miles above Nethe 
town at Rigos. 

Justine lord of Glamorganshir had great troble of Theo- 
dore Prince of Wales, 

Justine desired help of one Inon * a Walsch man borderer 
onto hym, promising to hyra his dough tter with greate 
landes. 

Inon got help of Haymo Erie of Glocestre, and had 12. 
or 13* knightes of his, and bette the Prince of Wales, 

Justine kept no promise with Inon, 

Wherefore Inon and the xii. knightes drave Justine away 
and occupied his landes. 

Inon had al the Walscherie for his parte, as up into the 
mountaines by north in Glamorganshire, as Glin Rotheney, 
Miskin, Sighenith, Glin Neth, and other partes toward the 
Blake Montaines, The landes of the xii. knightes were in 
the best part of Glamorganshir, as toward the [se], and this 
landes went to hei[res] onde[vidid} Inon*s part in the 
Walscherie was devidid by heires into peces, and so sone 
Eparkelid 

Lounders, Stradling, and Fleming be countid, as 5, of the 
xii, koightes. 

Lounders part came to the dukedum of Lancaster, 

Fleminges part cam to the Maleinfantes. And of late 
tyme Gaspar • Duke of Bedeford, being lord of Glamorgan- 
shire, the landes of the Maleinfantes, for lak of due issue, 
cam by exchete onto hym as lorde of the countery. Now 
they be the Kinges, 

Hayles Abbaye* Anno D. 1251** consummaia est €ccksia 

[* Burton's sitlenote on Leknd's voL viiL, fo* 2j, says, " Gaspw D, 
of Bedford died 21 Dec. 1495, 11 Hen» 7."] See ntiie *, p. 23. 

[t H<re com met! MS vol, v. of Lelfljid'a MS- Gen, Top, e 12^ fos* 
3'So (Stow, MS- Tanner 464, voU JL, fos, 1-33; the firsi poriion of 
llearne's toI, v.). The first leaf of Leland's original must nave been 
eoj-Jy lost, as it is wanting both in Slow and Burton. See before, p. i* 
note 'J 



• Emon. 



IN WALES. PART VI 39 

cum dormitoriOy ciaustro &* refectorio : expensis in operationi- Gloucester- 
bus octo marcarum tnillibus, shire. 

Pinoke Welle a mile from Hayles in radidbus de Cotes- 
walde to Nanton village, to Burton,* and sumwhat beneth 
Burton cummith into hit a water rising at Kensdale in 
Coteswald, and thens to Hinchwike, wherabowt yt rennith 
undre the grounde ; thens to Swelle village by Stow ; from 
Swelle to Slawghter, and so into Burton Water. Pinoke Wei 
is countid of sum for one of the farthest of Tamise heddes. 

Ther cummith a water from the partes of Rolriche,^ and Oxfordshire, 
so down not far from Cheping Northton to Bruem, as I 
suppose. 

Gumming from Chiping Norton to Stow in the Wold 
abowt the midde way is Adelsthorp and Horse Bridge by 
wher is a limes betwixt 

MARKET TOWNES IN THE WOLDE OF GLOCESTRESHIRB. 

Stow in the Wolde v. miles from Chipping Northton, and Gloucester- 
vii. or viii. from Heyles. shire. 

Camden a vii. northwest from Stow. 

Northlache a vii. miles from Stow [towne] southwest from 
Stow almost in the waye from Stow to Cicestre. 

[Fairford, wher Mr. Tame dwellith, a vii. miles from 
Northlage.] 

Cicestre.* 

Tetbiri. 

Cheltnam [a] market toun in the vale [v.] miles from 
Hayles [Abbaye.] 

Glocestre stand[ith] on a brooke that goith into Seveme. 

Oswaldus primum instituit canonicos secular es apudFersore, 

Posteafuit ibidem chorus monachorum. 

Rursus canonici inducti. 

Postea moncLchi per Edgarum, 

Elferus abstulii praedia monachis. 

Odda comes ejusfilius restituit. 

Monasterium conflagravit &* d monachis desertum est 

Monachi Westmonasterienses praedia usurpabant, 

Wada comes attulit relliquias S. Edburgae, 6* per Os- 
waldum episcopum Fulbrightus abbas inductus. 

» Bourton-on-the- Water. *> Rollwriqht. « Cirencester. 



40 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 






Worcester- 
sbirc. 



Montgom- 
eryshire, 



MardiiMM 



fo. 3, 



Thifaire 



Olney, alias Alney^ about Deorhirst in Glocester-shire, 
Deorhurst yet remainith in Glocestre-shire as a celle to 
Twekesbiri. 

Scargate • about Severn side repaired by Ethelfleda, 

Al tbe way that I rode betwixt Heyles and Persbore was 
meately here and iber wooddid. But from Persore to 
Wicestre, and thens almost to Tembyri," was better wodid, 
and yet in vales and sides of hilles good plenty of corne. 
And as for good medows and pastures in Wicestre lakketh 
no one. 

A ii, myles a this side Montgomeri in the way thens to 
Hisshoppes Castel is a river cumming owt of the vicine 
hilles, and is caullid Tatdbrooke. It risit owt of an hille 
side within a mile of Bisshops Toune, and goith into Kenlet 
in the vale by Montgomery. 

Martine Poole, meately large and plentiful of fische, is in 
a faire valle, and is lii. miles from Montgomery, and ii. myles 
from Chirberi Priori lately suppressid. 

In the midde way betwyxt Bishops Town and Mont- 
gomery [is a] prety rille ther [devidinge Caursland, a not- 
able parte of Shropshire from Chirbirhe hunderithe. This 
Caursland, somctyme longinge to the Duke of Buckyngham, 
croketh mervelously about the uppar parts of Shropeshire.] 

Offa*s Dike apperith manifestly by the space of a ii. miles 
almost in the midde way betwixt Bissbops Cas telle and 
Montgomery, and ther it is in one . .f not very far from the 
mote on a hille toppe as a iim€% betwixt Causelnnd lordship, 
or Montgomeri, and Herfordshire, and againe not far touchith 
alitle in Shirbyri" hundenth, and againe passith a litle by 
Caurseland. 

I hard also at Montgomery, that Offa's Dike apperith 
sumwhat about Radenor, and againe within a iil. myle of 
Osweslre. 

Cumming from Bisshops Castelle to Clunne lordshippe 
cummeth doune a greate woode grouing on a hille, and 
under the hille within a mile and a half of Bisshoppes 

[* LeUnd corrects Scar^aU to Scorgalt.^ 

[t LeIanJ appe^s to hfive iniended a small blank after the word on4 
(which occurs at the end of a lincjj Stow did not read tt so, bu( Burtor 
did] 



Tenbury, 



ChirbuTy, 



IN WALES. PART VI 41 

Towne is a riveret caullid Onke," and rennith by this wooddy Montgom- 
hille, and a quarter mile of a this side from Clunne Castelle «T»h"^« 
cummith into Clunne. Clunne risith .... and at Lenter- 
dine cummith into Teme 

Bytwixt Clunne and Knighton is a river caulid Cluide- Radnor- 
ford, that after a smaulle course of running cummeth into "l*"*' 
Teme. 

Teme River at Knightton devideth there Melennith* from 
Clunne lordshippe. 

Knighton, as I remembre, standith bytwixt ii. rivers. 

Teme cumming down from Knighton.* 

Teme risith in Melennith hilles a v. or vi. miles from 
Knighton, halfe a mile above a chapel caullid, as I re- 
membre, BosteL 

About half way bytwixt Knighton and [New] Radenor 
cummith Lugge owt of Melennith, and so doune to Pres- 
teine a good market town therabout deviding the lordship 
of Prestein longging to the King, and Lug Hameis lordship 
longging to the Baron of Burforde. 

[Steple-Castelle on Lug in Lug Hameis longynge to the Steple-Castle. 
Baron of Burford.] 

At Prestem towne and market most part of the cunteri of 
Melennithe fetche their come. 

Prestein in Walsche is caullid Llanandrew.® 

The Walsche Poole, a market toune, taketh name of a 
poole therby, meatly large and plentiful of fische. 

Montgomerike deflorichid by Owen Glindour. 

Radenor partely destroied by Owen Glindour, and the 
voice is there that after he wonne the castel he tooke a iii. 
score men that had the garde of the castel, and causid them 
to be heddid on the brinke of the castel yarde, and that sins 
a certen bloodeworth growith ther wher the bloode was 
shedde. 

Ther is a chapel at Radenor beside the paroch chirche in 
the chirch yarde. 

Radenor wolle ys moch praisid. 

[* Here were some words crossed through by Leland.] 



• Unk R. ^ Melleny«. « Uan Andras. 



42 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Radnor* 

«hlre. 



fas. 

Monmouth' 
shire. 



The valey about Radenor is veri plentiful of come and 
gresse, and the valey streccith up one way to Limstre, 

Limstre of sum is caullid in Walsche, Llinlini, of flex or 
hempe grouing therabout. But this is false. For it takith 
name ^ kom. 

The vale of Radenor goith one way toward Chestre^ and 
a nother toward Shreusbiri. 

Bi Old Radenor js an hille caullid Pencrage. 

Cumniing from Radenor to the Hay I lefte Old Radenor 
on the Hfte bond set on a hille a ii. miles from New Radenor. 
At Otd Radenor (as sum say) was ons a market kepte. Ther 
is yet a veri fair chirch and welle servld. 

Within a ii. myles from Radenor I cam over a broke 
caullid Wadele that goith into Lug» and a mile or ii. be- 
yonde that I lefte Huntingdon-Cast el a mile on the hfte 
bond. It longgid to the Duke of Bokingham. 

A mile or more beyond that I passid at New-Ch:rch over 
Arow that goith to Ltmstre. 

Arow risith not far from Glascumbe,* wher is a chirche 
but few houses* Thens [a good] mile it cummith to New- 
Chirchj [and then] thorough [the] fair parke of Huntingdon 
[Castle] 

[A too miles, or more, from New-Churche I sawpassynge 
by Paynes [Castle] a good mile of on the right 

The fery from Auste in Gloceslreshire to a village on the 
farther ripe of Severn, not far from S- Tereudacus ^ Chapel 
yn the mouth of Wy Ryver^ is a iii. myles over. 

Venceland ys devidid into ^ow, myddle, and hy. The 
principal towne of Low Venteland is Chepstow a ii. myles 
from Seveme shoore. Sum say that the old name of this 
towne is Strigulia. Sum think that Strigulia should be sum 
other place, because that the Lord Hereberl writeth hymself 
Ivord of Chepstow and Strigul, as of ii, diverse places. There 
appere a v, or vi. EngHsch myles from Chepstow yn a great 
wood syde under a hille very notable ruines of a castel 
cawlled Trogy^ wherby runneth a lyiie broke of the same 

[* L«ftf 4 lierc ensuing is blank.] 



* Giaic^m. ^ Teudiric, Lt. TheodonciofM&themt confused with 
S. Tcdfl's Chapel island,— L. T. S. 



IN WALES. PART VI 43 

name. The name of this castel sumwhat cummeth to the Monmouth- 
name of Strigulia, but it standeth, as they say there, in thlre. 
Mydde Venceland.' 

The towne of Chepstow hath bene very strongly waulled 
as yet welle doth appere. The wa[ulles] began at the ende 
of the great bridge over Wy, and so cam to the castel, the 
which yet standeth fayr and strong not far from the ruin of 
the bridge. In the castel ys one tower, as I hard say, be 
the name of Longine. The town now hath but one paroche 
chirche. The celle of a Blake Monke or two of Bermundesey 
by London was lately there suppressed. A [great] part of 
cumpace withyn the waulles is no[w con]verted to litle 
medows and ga[rdins.] 

Cairguent in Base Venteland* is iiii. [myles] from Chepstow 
in the way to Cairlion. Yt was sumtyme a fair and a large 
cyte. The places where the iiii. gates was yet appere, and the 
most part of the wal yet standeth, but al to minischyd and 
torne ; in the lower part of the walle toward a lytle valey 
standeth yet the mine of a stronge. . .• Within and abowt 
the waulle now be a xvi. or xvii. smaul howses for husbond- 
men, of a new making, and a paroche chirch of S. Stephyn. 
In the towne yet appere pavimentes of the old streates, and 
yn digging they finde fundations of greate brykes, tesseiiata 
pavimeniOy 6* numismata argentea simul &* aerea. A great 
lykelyhod ys that when Cairguent began to decay then began 
Chepstow to florisch. For yt stondeth far better as apon 
Wy there ebbyng and flowyng by the rage cummyng owt of 
Severn. So that to Chepstow may cum greate shjrppes. 

Porteskewin,** as I lernid, is bytwixte Chepstow and Cair- 
guent : ther goith a riveret to the Severn Se, and ther is one 
of the limites of the lenght of Wales. The other is Port- 
Hoyger by Holihed in Anglesey. 

Tyntem Abbay iii. myles from Chepstow abowt Wy side 
semeth to be [inj Base Venteland.' 

The castel of Calecoyth ^ longging to the Kinge is in Base 
Venteland toward the Severn shore not far from Matthem. 
At this castel, as sura say, was King Henry the vii. b^otten. 

[* Leland has a small blank here, emphasized by Stow.] 



• Gwentland. ^ Port Skewet. • Caldicot. 



44 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Monmouth- 
shire. 



Lao Vair' a castel yn Base Venteland a ii. myles almost 
north from Cairguent. 

Matthem ys a preaty pyle in Ease Venteland longging to 
the Bisshop of Landafe. 

The soyle of al Venteland is of a darke reddische yerth 
ful of slaty stones, and other greater of the same colon The 
countery is also sum what montayneus, and welJe replenishid 
with woodes, also very fertyle of corne, but men there study 
more to pastures the which be wel inclosed 



fo. 6. MYDDLE VENTELAND. 

Sum say that Cair Lion should be in Base Venteland, 
sum say nay. The Welschemen say that Cair Lion is but 
viii. myles from Chepstow, but in deade it may be counted 
xii. Englisch myles. It stondeth magnificently on the farthei 
side of Wische,*" one of the principal ryvers of South- Wales* 
So that very great shyppes might wel cum now to the town, 
as they did in the Romaynes tyme, but that Newport Bridge 
is a lette. Nevertheles bygge botes cummeth to the towne. 
The ruines of the walles of the town yet remayne, and also 
of the casteL 

Ther is opinion that the olde Romaine chirche was abowt 
Mr. , . . house, where I lay. There in digging apperid 
certen pain tinges on stonis. 

There were fownde a late by the castel certeyne paintid 
incrusiatnentes hard by the casteL 

In the towne is now but one paroche chirche, and that is 
of S. Cadocus. 

Sum wold that Cainiske, otherwise caullid Brenbygey,*^ 
should be the principal place of Mydle Venteland. The 
castel ther hath bene great, stronge and fair. The town by 
semeth not to [have] bene of any renown, Ther was a Jate 
an abbay [of] nunnes. Cairusk standeth on the farther side 
of Uske . * * myles from Cair Lion. 

The ruines of Castel Trogy within a Welsch myle [of] 
sum part of Wyske Ryver, a vin myles from Ch[epstow], and 
almost as much from Cairlion in the w[ay to Monemulh.] 

The castel of Trergreg^ a ii. myles from Cair Uske in 



* Llan Vair Diflcc»ed. 
« Bryn Buga = Usk, 



^ Wyac = Usk. 
* Tre y gnig* 



IN WALES. PART VI 45 

Middle Venceland. Yt is otherwyse communely cawlled Monmouth- 
Lan Kiby, bycawse it is in the paroche of S. Kiby. Bhlrt, 

Newport is in Wentlugh ■ a myle and more by foote path 
from Cairlion, and standeth on Uske, havyng a prety stronge 
town; but I marked not whyther yt were waulled or no. 
There is a very fair castel longging sumtyme to the Bukking- 
hams. But this great lordship, as the Walsch-men say, ys 
no part of the iii. Vencelandes, yet it is cawlled in Walsch 
Guentluge.* Wherfore yt might in description be welle 
yoined with Myddle Venteland. The lordship of Newport 
be likelyhod should strech to the ryyer of Remny,' limes 
Morganiae, • 

At Goldclif a iii. myles from Newport on the Severn shore 
was a priory of monkes of the French ordre, suppressed, and 
the landes given to Eton College. 

Ragland yn Myddle Venceland ys a very fair and a pleasant 
castel, viii. myles from Chepstow and vii. from Burgeveney.f 
The town by ys bare. Ther ly to goodly parkes adjacent to 
the castel. 

Lantemham Abbay of White Monkes a ii. myles from 
Cairlion lately suppressed. 

The hole lordslup of Abr^eveney maketh the cumpace 
of Hye Venteland. 

Abergeveney yt self is a faire waulled town, meately welle 

inhabited havyng paroch chirch. Ther is a fair castel. 

The lord of Burgeveney ys one of the auncyentest barons 
of the reualme4 

MUNMOUTH, MUNWEY* cambrict, fo. 8. 

Munmouth town ys waulled, and standeth yn the diocese 
of Herford as betwyxt ii. ryvers, Wy and Mone, of the which 
yt taketh name. Of thes ii. ryvers Wy to us standeth lower, 
and Mone*' hyer. Muro cingitur ea parte qua fluminibus 
non defenditur^ hoc est d parte aquilonari^ id est h porta 

[* Guenthhge, Leland is mistaken. The hundred is called after 
Gwynlliw — ^the oldest form being Guinliviuc. Gwent has nothing to do 
with it —J. G. E.] 

[t Leland corrected this to Abregaxfemy, i,e, Aber Gevenni.] 

[t Here three pages are blank.] 



• Gwynll^. * Rnmney. • Mynwy, Angiicistd Monnow. 



46 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Monmouth- 
shire, 



f<K 9. 



manachUa^ ei oritntaliu^ut ad ipsam fere ripam I'agae. Sed 
jam prae stnio^ muro fatUcente^ par% magna praesidii coUapsa 
fsf, manentidiis iamen adhu ma^is ruinis^ tt fossa alta. 
Rursjts d porta fnona^hka munts ad o^ndtntaUm parttm 
Monae flu, proUndifur. Fortai in muro 4"^ videlicet mona- 
c/uca^ orieniaiis^ Vagcnsis^ d Vaga sic dida^ Montnsis^ h Mona 
^u, quia super ponitm per quern Mona tramitur posita est 
Ultra qutm ponfem suburinum est in dioecest Landavettsi^ ubi 
olim erat parochiaiis S. Thomae sacra, nunc sacellum tantum 
eidem dicaium. In offido parochiaiis eccltsta tautnm uua^ quae 
contigua est coenobio monachorum Eenedictinorum. Casteiium 
vetus prope forum in colliado situm, ubi Henricus 5, natus est. 
Septus Danubiensis &*pravincia Claudiuna soiofonte Vagensi 
d Mona oppido disierminantur^ Mona iiberum oppidum^ 
difianis Lumnsis^ nee adjacefttis provinciae imperiis subjacet* 
Suburbia omnia Monae, nisi ta parte quafiuminibus tutantur^ 
aitissima fossa cinguftiur. Troia antiqua stdes Herebtrtorum 
plus minus quingeutts passibus d Monae suburbio distaL Extra 
poriam aquiionarem^ i.e. monachicam^ est Herchtnfeid^ Le, 
Campus Erinaceus^ regiuneuia eomitem Saiapiensem dominum 
agnoscens^ 

Tinttrn coenobium Barnardinorum in ulteriori rtpa Vaga/e 
quinque passuum millibus distans d Mona. 

The rokkes in North- Wales cawUed Venetia* beyng very 
hy, bare, and white, may properly be caulled in Latine Alpea 
VenetaCi 

The water of Severne corapaseth more then one half of 
Guenteland. 

Wye also a very great and famose river passeth thorough 
Ventlandj and at S, Tereudakes** Chapel enterelh ynto 
Severn* 

Other sraawl brokeleites in Base Venteland cummeth 
ynto Wy, 

Whisk "" River toucheth late per mediam Venianiam, and 
ys as a terminus to Breknokshire. 

Geveny risith 

Remeney^ is as a iimes to Myddle Venteland and Gla- 
morganshire. 



Venedolia. * S, Tech*s Chapelj ait ishuid— L. T< S* 

Wy»c ^ Rumney. 



IN WALES. PART VI 47 

Money* River rising in Ewesland* geteth a prety botoro Monmouth- 
at Trewen, a gentilman's place a x. myles from Monemuth, •^^'*' 
et tandem non procul ah urbe sui nominis Vagam petit, 

Castelles in Monemuth lordship. Monemuth, the Kinges, 
sumtyme of Lancastre dition. Skenford ^ Castel on the ryver 
of Money a iii. [mt'/es] above Monemuth. White Castel a 
iiii. myles from Monemuth, and a myle from Money River. 
Gresmont Castel a v. myles from Monemuth not far from 
the ripe of Money. Qui partes circa haec castella habitant 
nexios Monam mittunt, 

Herchinfeld® is a great lordship longging to the Erie of Hcreford- 
Shrewisbiry, and lieth betwyxt Monemuth and Herford, "hire, 
abowt a ii. myles from eche of them. On the one side 
aliuitur Vagaflu, 

Qdszxi fluviolus riseth yn a wood cawlled the Grege^ a vi. 
[miles] from Monemuth by north-west, as a husband-man 
told me, and goeth into Wye. 

They cary their prisoners to Castel Goderyce • sumwhat 
owt of Erchynfeld,* but longging to the Erie of Shreuisbyri. 

Gentylmen cawlled Minos be great possessors yn Erchyn- 
feld. 

The castel of Kilpek by Herchenfeld belongging to the 
Erie of Ormond. 

Erchenfeld is full of enclosures very [full] of come and 
wood. 

Cummynge from Monemuthe into Herford I passed over 
a large bridge of stone set on iiii. arches. This town is 
auncient, large and strongely walled, also having a mayne 
castel hard by the ripe of Wy. I take the castel to be of as 
great circuite as Windesore. The dungyn of the castel is 
hy and stronge, and yn the dyke not far from yt is a fair 
spring cawlled S. Ethelbertes Well. Withyn the castel of 
Hereford yn digging hath ben found non giganteae^ insolitae 
tamen^ magnitudinis ossa^ and hard by in ripa Vagae assidua 
alluvione apparent in ripa ejusdem magnitudinis ossa. The 
walle of the towne is cumpased with a dike alway filled with 
morisch water gethering and descending onto hyt. Certen 
mylles servid with this water causeth the town dikes alway 

» Mynwy, Ewias. *> Skenfrith, i,e, Ynys KynwreiiS. 

^ Archenfield, i,e. Erging. ^ ?Cnig. « Gooderich Castle. 



48 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Hereford- 
shire. 



fo. 10. 



to have water, els they wold often be dry. This water re- 
sorteth to the botom of Wy* Ther be in the towne iiii, 
paroche chyrches (one of them is yn the cathedral chirch) 
wherof certeyne be very fair, beside the cathedral chirche, 
the which is of a very strong building. S* Ethelbnght mar- 
tyred, as sum say, at Marden a . . . myles owt of the town, 
nat very far from the ruines of Sutton, wher yt is supposed 
that Offa lay (but 1 think rather that is palace was at Ken- 
kestre), was buried in the cathedral chirche ; hut syns that 
the Walschmen destroied the town in King Edward the 
Confessor's tyme his reliques have not bene sene ther, S. 
Thomas de Cantolupo Episcopus Herefor. Heth at this tyme 
in the chyrch rychely shrined. Ther be in the suburbes iL 
paroche chirche[s], a celle of Blak Monkes longing to Glo- 
cester Abbay, ii* houses of Freres Blak and Gray^ uiraque in 
suburhih. Sum say that the town toke the name thatyt hath 
now of an old forde or passage over \Vy, not far from the 
castel. Sura say that yt was cawUed Fernlege * or otherwise 
Fernhil, and the place wher the cathedral chirch is now was 
sumtyme a chapel of our Lady cawlled our Lady Chapel of 
Fernlege. 

ABBAVS IN HEREFORDSHIRE. 

A priory or celle of Blak Munkes longging to the howse 
of Glocester in the suburbes of Hereford. 

Lynebroke a place of nunnes withyn ii. myles of Wygmore, 
in the marches betwixt Herfordshire and Shrewisbiry-shire, 

Wigmore a great abbay of White Chanons within a myle of 
AVigraore town and castel, in the marche ground toward 
Shreuisbiry-shire. 

Feverlege sumtyme a religius howse of freres suppressed 
olim^ and the landes given to Wygmore and Lynebroke. 
Mortimers Erles of the Marches were founders of Wygmore, 
Lynebrook, and Feverlege, 

Acornbyrij* a howse of nunnes iii* \fnyks\ from Hereford, 
now suppressed. 

Leonmynstre a celle to Reading Blak Menkes, on the 
lyver of Lug, vii, myles from Hereford* 



[• **Sa/tus xt/(Vtf, u Mr, Taylor said." 
MS.] *■ Acoabuiy. 



Marginal note in LeUnd's 



IN WALES. PART VI 49 

Wormesley a house of Blak Chanons v. myles from Her- Hereford- 
ford in a wooddy cuntery. thm. 

Monemuth Priory of the French order in the diocese of 
Herfordshire, suppressed. 

Dour in Ewys ■ Land, a great house of Whyt Monkes, sup- 
pressed ; and therby runneth a broke cawUed Worme. In 
the diocese, but not in Herfordshire. 

Wy Rjrver goeth thorough al Herfordshire, by Bradwar- 
dine Castel of Syr Riclmrd Vehans, to Hereford viii, 
myles, to Rosse a market towne in Herfordshire. 

In Wy River be umbers, otherwise graylinges, yn Walsch, 
as I remembre, cawllid cau[gin.]* 

Lug risith hard by Melennith, and nere a chapel of owr 
Lady of Pylale, and so to Preston*' a market towne a ix. 
myles, to Leonmynstre a market town vii. myles, to Morde- 
ford a vii. myles of, and so ther ynto Wy iii. [miles] beneth 
Herford. 

Fromey a byg broke, sumtyme raging, cummeth by Brom- 
yard, as I remembre, and so ynto Lug, and abowt yt be very 
good pastures. 

Leonmynstre alluitur tribus fluviolis^ Lugia^ \Pinse\lo 
[PinfuUey], t tertii natninis non memini (Kenbroke). J Lugia 
parte oppidi inferiori utrumque in se rectpit, Pinselus paucis 
ab oppido [/ojx.] millibus oritur, 

Arow River goeth simiwhat nere Leonmynstre town, but 
not thorowgh yt, 

Arow risith betwyxt Eluethland ' and Melenithland, and 
thens goeth by Old Radenor, and by Huntingdon, sumtyme 
a lordship of the Duke of Bokingham's, and at the laste 
cummeth ynto Lug half a myle beneth Leonmynstre. 

The ryveret that cummeth by New Radenor is cawUed 
Somergille.§ One told me that Oney cam sumwhat towar[d] 
Ludlo-ward, but I dowte of that. — Syns I lemid that Oney* cam 

[* Caugwyn. The word is at the end of a line and partly cut o6El 
Stow copied it " Caytas," Burton " Cangin." 

[t Leiand appears to have corrected the first word by the second ; 
both are now gone, except lo at the beginning of the next line.] 

\X Leiand later wrote " Kenbroke '' over tertiu'\ 

[I Leiand first wrote Oney, but corrected it thus.] 



» Abbey Dore. ^ Presteigne. • Elvel-land. * Onny R. 

B 



50 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Hereford- 
shire. 

Shropshire. 
Alicu Temys. 



fo. II is blank, 
fo. 12. 

South 
Wales. 



intoTeme about Bromfeld a celle by Ludlo. — The dwellers 
of the towne say constantly that Oney cummeth not by 
Radenor. 

Of surety ii. brokes cum by Ludlo yn Shrewisbiri-shire, 
that is to say Temde, and Corve. Temde cummeth ynto 
Severn betwyt Powik and Wykceslre. 

The town of Ludlo is very propre, welle walled and gated, 
and standeth every way eminent from a botom. In the 
side of the town as a peace of the enclosing of the walle is 
a fair castel. Withyn the town even yn the mydle is one 
paroch chyrch. Withowt the wauUes be aliquot sacella^ and 
ii. howses of Freres Augustines and Carmelites. Among 
other gates of the town ther is Corve-Gate and Galford- 
Gate. 

The Bishop of Hereforde hath a castel of good strenketh 
yn the marches toward Shreuisbyri-shire cawlled Bisshops 
Castel, and ther to lieth a town cawlled Bisshopes Town, 
wher is wekely kept a very good market. 

ABBAIS AND PRIORIS IN SOUTH-WALIS. 

At Chepstow a litle priori aliquot monachorum Benedictin- 
orum^ a celle to Bermundesey at London. 

Tintarne an abbay of White Monkes on the ripe of Wy, 
about a v. miles from Chepstow. 

Monemouth a priori of Blake Monkes. 

Abregeveni a priori of Blake Monkes of the French ordre. 
Hamelinus de Barham, a Norman, was founder there. It 
stoode a late by the est gate in the suburbe. 

Uske a priory of nunnes at Cair Uske on the river side a 
flite shot from the castel. It is a v. miles upward on the 
river from Cairlleon. 

Grace of Dew an abbay of White Monkes stonding in a 
wood and having a rille running by hit. Veri good pastures 
be about this place. It stondith bytwixt Wisk and Rag- 
lande, iii. miles from Cairvisk* and iiii. from Raglande. 

Llantamam Abbay of White Monks stonding in a wood 
iii. miles from Cairlleon. 

Wenny* a iii. miles from Cowbridge a celle longging to 



Caerwysc 



*> Ewenny. 



IN WALES. PART VI 51 

Glocestre Abbaye foundid by Syr Jo[hn] Loudres lord of South 
Ogmore Castel by . . . Wales. 

Morgan* an abbay of White Monkes wher was a veri large 
and fair chirch. It stondith toward the se in the midde way 
almost betwixt Cowbridge and Nethe. 

Neth Abbay of White Monkes a mile above Neth town, 
standing also in the ripe of Neth. It semid to me the fairest 
abbay of al Wales. 

Kidwelly a priori of Blake Monkes containing the hedde 
paroche chirch of the town. It is a celle to Shirbume Abbay 
in Dorsetshire. 

Cairmardine^ a priori of Blake Chanons standing in Old 
Cairmardine on the river side. 

S. Cleres* vii miles from Cairmardine was a litle mona- 
steri suppressid and given to Alsoulen-College in Oxford. 

Teguin ar Taue** an abbay of White Monkes a x. miles 
from Cairmerdine. 

Ther was [a] celle of the order of monkes of S, Dogmaels 
in Caldey Island now suppressid. 

Penbrooke a celle of monkes longging to S. Albanes Montaine. 
Monastery. 

At Arforde West* a priori of Chanons. 

Pille, otherwise Pille Rose, a house of monkes of S. Dog- 
maels Order, standing in Rose Cimtery iiii. miles above 
Arford West apon the farther shore of the Haven of 
Mylford. 

The priori of Bonhomes caullid S. Dogmaels. 

Ther was a priori in Cairdigan toune, but in hit was but a fo. 13. 
ii. religiose menne Blak Monkes. It stondith yet, and is a 
celle onto Chertesey. 

Llan Lleyr a nunnery of White Nunnes in Cairdiganshire Fanum S. 
apon the brook of Aeron. It was a celle of Stratflur,' and (^^^'^^^ 
stoode from Stratflere x. miles in the hy-way to Cairdigan. 
The village hard by it is caullid Talesame* Greene. 

Strateflure an abbay of White Monkes on Tiue.** 

Aber Ayron is a iii. miles beneth Llanclere,* and ther he 
goith into the raaine. Peraventure Lleuys Morganne the 

* Margam. ^ Cannartheii, Priory Street ® St Gears. 

* Ty gwyn ar Diw. • Haverford West ' Ystrad fflur. 
» Tal y sarn. *» River Teivi. 

' Llan Lleyr. Lewis Morgan was not " deceived.*'— J* O. E. 



52 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



South 



L^ttgixomum. 



North 



barth was deceivid in this, taking it for Neuport. Ayron 
risith in a montaine by a chapel caullid Blatne PenniaU* 
This chapel longith to Llandewibrevij but it is in Cairdigan- 
shire over Tyue" a iii, or iiii, myles from Tyue ripe. 

Talley'^ a prtory of White Cbanons^ a iiii. miles from Aber- 
marleys, a castel of Sir Rhese ap Thomas almost standing 
in the midde way almost betwixt Brekenok and Cairn^ar- 
dine. 

Comehere'' an abbay of White Menkes stondith betwixt 
ii. great hilles in Melennith in a botom wher rennith a litle 
broolce. It is a vii^ miles from Knighton. The first founda- 
tion was made by Cadwathelan ap Madok' for Ix. monkes. 
No chirch in Wales is scene of snch lenght as the fundation 
of walles ther begon doth show ; but the third part of this 
worke was never finisched. At the howse was spoilid and 
defacid be Owen Glindoun 

Clunnok Vaur^a monasteri sumtime of White Monkes 
suppressid many yeres ago. But the original of this mona* 
steri was by S. Benow,* of whom mention is made in S, 
Wenefrides life. The Whit Monkes were of a newer fun- 
dation. Guithin, uncle to one of the princes of North^Vales, 
was the first giver of Clunnok village and place to Beunow, 
The chirch that is now ther with crosse isles is almost as 
bigge as S, David es, but it is of a new worke* The old 
chirch wher S. Eeunow byth is hard by the new. 

This Clunnok stondith almost on the shore of the maine 
sea X* miles above Cair Arvon *• toward the counteri of 
Lline.* 

Matravel Castel in Poisland," wher, as sum sai, was one of 
the princes palaces of Wahs as for the Prince of Poisland, 

In the depes in Mone' wher they digge turves be 
founde greate rootes of trees that serve men for wood. For 
after the trees wer cut doune sogging ycrth and mosse over- 
coverid them, and now the same yerth parid away for turves 
the o!d mayne rootes appere* 

Likewise at low water about al the shores of both shores 



• BlaeD pennil. ^ Kivtx Ttivj, 

« Talley, a contracted form of Tal y Uycheu, ^ Cwm hfr. 

• Cadwallon ap Madix:* ' Clynog Vawr. 

e Sl. Beirno. ^ Caer yn Arvon. ^ Ujiu 

k Mathravel tn PowbUnd, * Mon ^ Anulesej. 



IN WALES. PART VI 53 

of Aberdeui and Townen* Merioneth appere like rootes of North 
trees. Wales. 

Ther is in Mone as right againe Neuen tounne in Lline,** 
that is a kenning of, a little isle caullid Sainct Dunwen, a 
woman, and in this isle is the chirch of S. Dunwen. This 
isle is veri fertile of cunnies, and hath ii. fair welles. Ther 
is now a litle balk of sand cast up, the wich at low waters 
prohibitith the se to cum about. 

This isle is a iL mile from Henerosser.* 

Ther is by Conwey on the hither side of Conway water an 
arme like a peninsula, caullid Gogarth, liying against Prest- 
holme, and ther be the ruines of a place of the bisshops of 
Bangor. 

Kaeder* the chefe village of Mejennith, and Wy River fo. 14. 
rynneth by hit. fo. 15 blank. 

Walsche Poole v. miles from Montgomery, the best market Montgom- 
of Powisland. eryshirc. 

Clunne* was a praty market towne, and yet sometyme they 
keepe market there. Clun, alias Colunwye. 



Slow, v., 



CASTLES IN MONTGOMERIKESHIRB. 

Montgomerik. ^^^^^ ^ 

Walschpole had 2. Lorde Marchers castles within one fo. 117. 
wauUe, the Lorde Powis namid Greye, and the Lord Dudley 
caullyd Sutton ; but now the Lord Powys hathe bothe in 
his hond. The Walche Pole is in compas almoste as muche 
as [a *] litle towne. The Lord Duddeles parte is almoste 
fallen downe. The Lord Powys parte is meatly good. 

Clunne Castell longynge to the Erie of Anindal, sumewhat 
minus. It hath bene bothe stronge and well builded, vii. 
miles from Mountgomerik, and iii. from Bisshops Towne, and 
X. from Ludlo. 

Clune was a lordshipe marched by it selfe afore the new 
Acte. 

[♦ Added by L.T.S.] 



» Aber Dyvi and Towyn. 

^ Newn in Ll^n. St. Dwynwen, the patron saint of Llanddwyn 
Abbey, Newborough, Anglesey. 
« ? Hendre Rossyr = Newborough. * Rliaiadr. • Colunwy. 



54 



LELANDS ITINERARY 



Montgom- By Clune is a great forest of redde dere and roois long- 

cryHbifc, inge to the Lord of Arundell, and standinge in the lordshipe 

of Temecestre, thrwghe the whiche Tenie Ryver cummelhe 
longinge also to the Lord of Arundle, 

Dolveron Castle * ruinus in the lordshipe of Kidowcn apon 
an halfe mile or more from Severne, a iii. miit^s up Severne 
from Montgomery, and was the very chefe place of the 
hole lordshipe of Kidewen* 

CairDkolMsaiiii miles from Montgomerike. Itstondithc 
in Chyrbiry Hundred on a hiUe, and is motyd and diked 
lyke the mote a mile owt of Bysshops Towne. 

All Chirbyri Hundrid by the new Acte is adjecte to 
Shrobbschere, Afore the devisyon it was a member to the 
lordshipe of Montgomerike, and then Worthinge vilage, vi. 
mils from Montegomerike, was a lymes to Shropshire, but 
now Shrobbshere some way towchithe within a mile and a 
halfe of Montgomerik^ towne. 

It apperithe in the Acte what lordshipps be adjoynid to 
the V, new shires. 

Kenlet a preaty broke in the vale by Montgomerike* His 
cowrce is about vii. miles in lengthe^ and enteritbe into 
Seveme abowte a mile from Chirbyri Priory. 

Clunne Forest very faire and good game* 

Kery Forest, but no dere in it. 

Ktdowen Forest^ but no dere in it. 

Al the lordshipps set to Mongomerikeshire be for the 
moste parte mountainius, well woodid, and as they be usyd 
bettar for catell as gressy, then for corne ; yet about Walscb- 
poole and Montgomerik is good plenty of come. 

In Hye or Uper Powesland no rt he west ward toward Abre- 
ustwith** be 9. lordshipps, Arustle and Cauilioc/ 

In Rustle'* is no praty towne, or of any market, but 
Llanidles. Yet at poore Cairllcws'' hathe bene a market 
and borow privi^egid. 

In Cauilioc is none but Mahendif/ 

Powis borderithe one way apon North-Wals in Merionethe- 
shire as concerninge the limits of Cauilioc* lordshipe, and is 
in lengthe by gesse a xx. miles. For it is xvi. miles betwixt 

• Dol Vorwyn Castle. ^ Caer DigoU on **Long Mountain." 

• Aberystwith. ^ ArwistlL * Caer Sws* 
» MacbyotUth* • Keveliog. 



IN WALES. PART VI 55 

Cairllews and Mahenclif, and at the ends of eche of thes Montgom- 
places it extendith somewhat from the townes. cryshirc. 

Low Pois is in lengthe from Buttigton Bridge a 2. miles 
from the Walche Poole toward Shrobbsheri onto above. 

In all Hy Powis is not one castle that evidently aperithe 
by manifest ruins of waulls ; and they wer wont to bringe in 
tymes past in the old I^ord Duddley's dayes theyr prisoners 
to Walchepoole. 

And in Low Powis is but onely the castle of the Walche- Stow, t., 
poole. fo» i>8. 

PRIORIES. 

Llanlligan a veri litle poore nunneri about the border of 
Elidewyn and Nether Powis. 

Chirbiri a priori of Chanons in Chirbiri Hunderith 2. 
miles from Montgomerike. Muche of the stone and leade 
browght to repayre Montgomery. 

Strate Marcelle • Abbey. White Monkes in Lowe Powis 2. 
mils from the Walsche Poole, hard on the farthar banke of 
Seveme. 

Mastar Mitten of Shropshire now lord of Mouthey * lord- 
shipe set to Montgomerishire. 

Keri lordshipe, Kidowen lordshipe, Alcestlitle lordshipe, 
the lordshipe of Treelte, alias 3. townes, longe to Montgomeri, 
as partes or members of it, and be in the Kyng's hand. 

Arustle and Keuilioc lordshipps long also to the Kynge, 
late the Lorde Duddley's. 

Clunne and Temecester lordshipps longe to the Lord of 
Arundle. 

Al Nether Powis lordship with Walchepoole market and 
castel to the Lord Powis. 

Llanwordell dyd longe to the Lord Duddley, now to the 
Lord Powis. 

Dowder* lordshipe longid to the Lord Dudeley, now to 
Mastar Andrews of Oxfordshire. 

» Ystrad Marchell. *> Mow*wy. • Doy^wr. 



56 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cardigan- cairdiganshire. 

shire. ^ . ,. 

Cairdigan. 

Abreostuthe * hath bene waullyd, and hathe greate privi- 
legis, and is bettar market then Cairdigan. 

There is but a great hill bytwyxt Ostwith River and Strat- 
flure, so that ther is but distance of 2. miles bytwyxt the 
streames of Tyue** and Ostwith. 

Abow Strateflure cummithe owt of the mowntanes a wild 
watar, and goythe into Tyue.** The watar, as I hard say, is 
caullid Glesse rode ' 

There is a Lline** a iiii. miles from Stratflure caullyd Llin 
Tyue about .... in bredthe. Tyue cummithe out of this 
poole, so to Strateflure Abbay, and there aboute commithe 
in Glesrodeburne, sumwhat benethe the abbay. Glesrode 
risethe a 3. miles from Stratflure in the mountaynes in the 
hy way toward Buelthe. 

Tyue or evar he cum to Stratflure, takethe but a lytle 
botom, but fletithe and ragith apon stones as Glesrode dothe. 

And or Tyue cum to Stratflure he reseivithe a litle brooke 
caullyd Llinhiglande. 

Glesrode sometyme so rageth that he cariethe stones from 
there placis. 

Tyue goith from Stratflur to Tregaron a village a iiii. miles 
of on the hither side, and this commithe in a nothar brooke 
caullid Grose* that within a litle goithe into Tyue. 

Grifin Dun Justice of Cairraardine tolde me that ther is a 
place about Strateflure caullyd Cregnaullin,' as a stone or 
rokket from whens a man may se ix. llines.* 

ABBAVES AND PRIORIES IN CARDIGANSHIRE. 

Strateflur* apon Tyue xxiiii. miles of montaine ground from 
Brekenauc. 

Talley*" a priori of White Chanons in a valley within 3. 
mils of Abermarlais, and it stode in Carmardynshire. 

[* /.«., may see nine pools or lakes.] 



• Aber Ystwith. *> Teivi. • Glds ffrwd. 

* Llyn. • Crwys. ' Craig-nawllyn. 
» Ystrad Flur, or Strata Florida. *» Tal y Uycheu. 



IN WALES. PART VI 



57 



Landewi* breui a prety village and a college of xiiii. pre- Cardigan- 
bends longinge to S. David's. It stondithe 2. mils from »^*'*» 
Tregaron, and by Landewi rinnith a streme caullyd Breui.** 



MARKBTTES IN CAIRMARDINSHIRE. 

Cainnardine. 

CASTELLES IN CAIRMERDINSHIRE. 



Stow, v., 
fo. 119; 
Leland, v., 
fo. 22. 

Carmarthen- 
shire. 



Cainnardine. 

New Castel, alias bi the old name Elmelin,^ almost on the 
very banke of Tyue, but in Cairmardinshir, repairid or new 
buildid by Syr Rhese ap Thomas. In this lordship of £1- 
melin is other litle fair building. Ther is a litle forest by 
Elmelin, and a park was ther ons palid. 

Clare Castel mines hard by Saint Cleres Chirch vi. or vii. 
miles from Cairmairdin. 

Llanstufan in ostio Tevii^flu, 

Lachame in hostio Tauae flu. Taua a little lower goith TaU Lang- 
into Tewe.* It longid sumtime to the Erie of Northumbre- harm. 
land. 

(Loke here about for Lanamdeueri Castel/ 

For Dineuer Castel apon Tewi» on the same side of Tewi 
that Cairmardine-shire is. Here was sumtime a long streat, 
now minus. 

For Dryslin Castel apon Tewi* on the same ripe that 
Dineuer is. Drisloyn,* Dris [dyrys] inexplicabilis^ lloyn a 
busch.) 

Kerikennen' a iii. miles from Dineuer at the roote of Blake 
Montaine. 

[♦ Corrected to DrisUuen.] 



» Llan Dewi brevi. *> Brevi. 

* Emlyn, on the bank of the Teivi. 

^ Uan Stephan in ostio Towy. « The Tiv and the Towy. 

' Llan ym ddyyri = Llandovery, confused with Llanddowror. — L. T. S. 

« Dinevor on Towy. 

*» Dryslwyn upon Towy, 

^ Carreg Kennen. 



58 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Carmarthen- abbais and priories in cairmardinshire.* 

shire 

Cairmardin Priori of Blak Chanons, down. 
0' *3» Tegiiin ar Taue,* Bamardines, yet stondeth. 

Talley Priory, White Chanons. 

The Collegiate Chirch of ... . was translatid to Abre- 
guili ^ for vitiating of a maide, the Canons being killid or 
fleing for hit. 

Aberguili a collegiate chirche of xx. prebendes or mo 
longing to S. David's. And this is a lordeship of the Bisshop 
of S. David, lying amonge other lordshippes in DifTrin (valis) 
Tewe.* 

Llandilavar "* a lordship of the Bisshops of S. David a mile 
from Dinevor on the same side of the river that Dinevor is, 
but a mile above it. 

RIVERS in CAIRMARDlNESHIRE.t 

Tewi • risith in the montaines of Elennith, and cumming 
thens partith Cantermaur and Canteruehan by Laneneri,' by 
Dinevor, by Cairmardin, and by Landistufan » Castel into 
the se. 

Taua*" risith in the montaines of Presseleut not far from 
Teguin ar Taue, by the which it cummith, and so by S. 
Clares, and not far from Abercorran * and Talachame ^ it 
goith into the se. I hard ons that it risith in a montaine 
cauUid Wrenne Vaur * a iiii. miles from Cairdigeon." 

Cowe" Riveret runneth almost in the middel way bytwyxt 
Cairmardin and S. Clares. 

[♦ This page, like some others, is written in two inks ; heads were 
put in first and details written later.] 

[t Leland wrote **Giraldus'* ahove this paragraph and the next, 
evidently as his authority for the statements as to the Tewi and the 
Taua.] 

[X Preseleu, ignorantly written "Preselly." "Basselle'Ms written 
over the word.] 

a Ty gwyn ar D&v. ^ Aber Gwili, near Carmarthen. 

• Dyffryn Towy. * Uan Deilo vawr. « Towy. 

' Cantri mawr and Cantr^ bychan by ? Llan Dovery. 

« Llan Stephan. *» T&v. » Aber Cowyn. 

k Laughame. ' y Vrenni vawr. 

m Ceredigion = Cardigan. ^ Cowyn. 



IN WALES. PART VI 59 

I lernid ons that Kennenn Riveret risith in Blake Mon- Carmarihen- 
taine and goith into Tewi about Di never. shire. 

Kidwely, otherwise Cathgweli, i,e, Cattiiectus^ quia Cattus fo. 24. 
olim soUbat ibi iectum in guercu facere, alias iegi Cadweli, 
Ther is a litle toune now but newly made betwene Vendraith 
Vaure and Guendraith Vehan ■ rivers but hard apon Ven- 
draith Vehan. Vendraith Vaur is half a mile of. 

Ther is betwixt New Kidwelly and the Old but a bridge 
over litle Wendraith.*' The old toun is pretily wauUid, and 
hath hard by the waul a castel. The old town is nere al 
desolatid, but the castel is meately wel kept up. It longgid 
to the Duke of Lancastre. In the new toune is onely a 
Chirch of our Ladi, and by is the celle of Blake Monkes of 
Shirbume. Ther the prior is parson of our Ladi Chirch. 

I saw ther iii. gates, and over one of them was the ruine of 
a fair toun haul, and under, a prison. 

A peace of die new toune was lateli burn id. The new 
toune is three times as r^^ggel as the old. 



Sins the Haven [of] Vendraith Ve[han] decaied, the new 
toune is sore [de]caied. 

Cairmardine [ha]th incresid sins Kidweli Havin decaied. 

... e,* as I remembre, Alice of Lon[don] wife to one of 
[the] Dukes of Lancastre lay in the castel, and did a [re]- 
paration on hit. 

Reparation was done on the castel [agjaine the cumming 
of King Henry the VII. into [Wjencelande.® 

The castel is veri fair and doble waullid. 

The se flouith by Vendreth Vehan, flouith apon half a 
mile above the town of Kidwelley. 

Bothe Wendreth Vaur and Vehan goith into the se about 
a mile beneth the toune, al only a litle nesch of sand de- 
viding their mouthes. 

Ther lieth a long on eche side of Wendreth Vaur pittes, 
wher menne digge se cole. 

At Llanelthle,*^ a village of Elidwelli lordship, a vi. miles 

[* The missing word seems to he "Here." Stow omits these two 
paragraphs, marginal in the original.] 



• Gwendraeth vawr and Gwendraeth vechan. *> Gwendraeth. 

« Gwentland. « Llan Elli. 



6o 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Carmftrtlien- 



fo. 35, 



the habintans* digge coles^ elles scant in 
Ring coles for smith be 



from KidweU?, 
Kidwelly land. 

Ther be ii. maner of thes coles, 
blowid and waterid. 

Stones coles be sumlime waterid, but never blowen, for 
blowing extinguisbit them.t 

So that Vendwith Vaur* coles be stone coles; Llanethle* 
coles ring colis. 

In Kidwelli is litle wood, but in the very litle forest of 
Kidwelli within a mile of the town on Vendrath Veban. 

Lochor River partith Kidwelli land from West Gower 
lande. 

Penbre= a litle lordship longging to Kidwelli lande li, 
miles from Kidwelli by south est linyng. 

The foreland bytwixt the pointes of the mouthys of Ven- 
draethis is caullid Calicot, and this part of Kidwely land 
berith the best wooUe of Hye Walys* 

Toward the se side in Kidwelli land is good come- 

Eskenninge"^ commote hath no notable castel or goodly 
building or toune, and was in King (Edwarde) the (fourthes) J 
dayes a mere membre of Kidwelli lordship, but Syr Grif&n 
Nicolas, graundfatber to Sir Rhese ap Thomas, did by poure 
sum what sever them to take justice at Cairmardine and nat 
at Kidwelly. 

Camobthloo' commoth hath notber castel nor good 
tounne, Llanelthle is in this commote. So that yn al Kid- 
welly land be iii, commotes, Kidwely, Eskenning and Car- 
nolthlon.' 

Eskenning and Carnobthlon be names of commotes, Qot 
of tounnes or villages. 

Vendraith Vaur and Vendraith Vehan risith both in 
Eskenning commote, the lesse an eight milys of from Kid- 
welli, the other about a x. and hath but a litle nesche of 
sand betwixt the places wher thei go into the se. 

[* Su, but read *^ inhabitant*,"] 
[f Stow has "the h«it '* for " them."] 

IX The two words in ( ) were written by Leland and then struck 
through, but no others wntteti in their place. ] 



• Gwendwcth vawr* 
^ H Kennen. 



t» Lkn Elli. <? Penbrey* 

* Cartiwyllon commot*. 



IN WALES. PART VI 



6i 



Vendraith Vehan in one place cummith within iii. miles 
of Cairmardin. Nother of the Vendraithes cummith to ani 
notable place but to Kidweli. 

The next great streme that cummith more southerly into 
the Severn Se is Lochor,* and that I did well perceive at the 
mouth of Vendraithis. Lochor devidith Gower-Land from 
Kidwelli lordship. 

The next river by west to Vendraithes is Tewe,** that at 
Llanstufan ^ Castel a iii. miles of cummith into the Severn Se. 

The Severn Se at ful water betith on the point of Llan- 
stufan. At low water it is ii. good miles of. At ful se Taue * 
semith to cumme as it were to the mouth of Towe •* River, 
but at low water marke a man may perceive how it ha[steth] 
to the se on the sandis hard by Towe. 

Llanstufan is v. miles from Cairmardine, and about a iiii. 
miles above Llanstufan on the same ri[pej is a place or 
clif caullid Grene Castel, wher that shippes use to ly at 
ancre. Smaul balinggers ot[her]wise cum to Cairmardine. 

Beyond Llanstephan before the havin mouth liithabarre, 
so that shippis lightteli cum not in [withjowt a pilote. 

Ther is in Gower-Land* b)rtwixt Suansey and [Lojchor a 
litle promontori caullid Wormes Hedde, from the wich to 
Caldey is communely caullid Sinus Tinbechicus. 

From Swansey to Kidweli a xii. miles. 

From Kidweli to Tynbighe • a xvi. miles. 

Tinby ys a walled towne hard on the Severn Se yn Pen- 
brookeshire. Ther is a sinus and a peere made for shyppes. 
The towne is very welthe by marchaundyce : but yt is not 
very bygge having but one paroche chyrche. One thinge is 
to be merveled at. There is no welle yn the towne, as ytis 
saide, wherby they be forced to fech theyr water at S.John's 
withowt the towne. 

Mainopir, i.e. Mansio Pirrhi, is now communely cawlled 
Manober ' a towne of howsbondry, the parsonage wherof is 
impropered to Christes College yn Cambridge. The mines 
of Pirrhus Castel there, many walles yet standyng hole, do 
openly appere. This place is iii. myles fro Tynby, and 
almost as muche from Pembrook, but not in the hye-way, 

» Llwchwr. ^ Towy. « Llan Stephan. 

d Tiv. • Tenby, in Welsh Dinbych y pysgod. 

' Maenor Fir, ignonntly written Manor^Mr. 



Carmarthen- 
shire. 



Glamorgan- 
shire. 

[•See Appen- 
dix A.] 



fo. 26. 
Pembroke- 
shire. 



62 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Pcm broke > 

abire. 



io^ 27. 



fo. 2S 



for yt standeth nere the shore of the Severn Se* And agaynst 
this towne. or betwixt yt and Tinby, Uyth Inis pir, i>. Iiisula 
Pirrhi, alias Caldey, 

A good deale upward above Mil ford e Haven lyilh Great 
Scalmey *and Lytle Scalmey, one almost joyning toa nother, 
longing booth to the King, but not mha.h\lf:dj>r(?pt£rpira/as 
et ce/i indementiafn. Great Scalmcybath no howst^ in yt, as 
I remembre. M. Hogan said that therein is a chapel. The 
fermers bring over thither shepe and coltes of horses, the 
which feede very wildely there ; but the cokes taken fro thais 
be larger and belter fed then harted or apt for war, 

Schoukhold* Isle yoinith to Scaimey bygger isle then she, 
onli a passage for shippes deviding them. As I remembre 
it liyth souther then Scalme. These isles ly not far from the 
shore in the side of the mouth of Miheford Haven. 

Beyownd Scaimey farther ynto the ende of the Severn Se 
lieth a great blakke and hy rokke lyke an isle. 

Gresse Holme is a good way into the se, and is but smaulle 
and without habitation. 

Ramesey Isle conteinith iii. islettes, wherof the Bisshop of 
S* Davides is owner of the gretest, but the Cantor of S. Davids 
claytnith another of them. In them is good feeding for 
sheepe and horses. And the Archidiacon of Cairmardin the 5. 

Llanstufan Castel and lordship by the new Acte is remevid 
from Cairmardinshire and adject to Penbrookeshire, by cawse 
it longid in tymes past to the Erie of Penbrooke. 

Narbarthe * a litle preati piie of old Syr Rheses given onto 
hym by King Henri the VIII. Ther is a poore village. Nar- 
barth lordship cummeth almost from Est or Lower Gledy,* 
and so stil bi est nere onto Whitland wher Taue Water de- 
vidith it from Cairmardinshire. (In the statute caullid Her- 
berth,)* Grifilh Nicolas graundfathertoSyr Riseboute it of 
the Duke of Vork^ but after loste. By Narbarth is a litle 
forest cauUid Narbarth Foreste. 

Dueglevi' lordship is conteynid bylwixt the ii. rivers of 



[* Marginal note,] 



^ Skomer, ^ ?Skokam. 

* ClcSeu or Cle«iv» 

* Dcagle^Siv, ignorantly written " Dun gl eddy*" 



° Narberth, older form Aibeith, 



IN WALES. PART VI 63 

Glevi.* In this lordship or grounde be few or none notable Pcmbrokc- 
buildinges. Ther is a litle rille betuixt the ii. Gleves • cauUid ■*^^'^ 
Killell, i.e. Cultellus. 

Lannhadein lordship on the est side Gledi • wher is a castel 
buildid on a rokke longging to the Bisshop of S. David and 
a village by . . . 

Therby is also a forest of redde deere caullid Lloydarth.* 

Dewys land,® alias Pebidiauc,** and Canterdewy • bare of 
wood and meately plentiful of barly corne, and reasonably 
of al other come. 

Roche Castel longging to the Lorde Ferres and old Lan- 
geville knight of Bukinghamshire bytwyxt Harford West and 
S. Davids. 

Slebyche comaundry of the Rodes liith apon the Est Glevy • 
even adjoyning to the west parte of Narbarth lordship. 

Haverford West lordship hath the waullid toun of Haver- 
ford and castel. The water of Mylford Haven devidith the 
lordship from Penbrooke. In Haverford toun thre paroch 
chirches, one of them withowt the toune in \the\ suburbe. 
Blak Freres within the toune. Chanons without sup- 
pressid. 

Rose ' Market. The market is lost, and is now a poore 
village. It is as in the midde way bitwixt Arford West and 
Penbrok. 

Gualwin castel and lordship is perteining to Harford 
West. It longgid to the lord of Northumbreland, now to 
Perot. 

Harford lordship is in Roselande, and part of Rose ' lord- 
ship occupieth sum of Pembrokeshire. 

In the extreme part of Penbrokeshire after the old limites 
is a pore village caullid Angle touching hard apon Milford 
Haven. 

Toward this extreme part of Pembrokshire be the vestigia 
of Martine Castel. 

Marreys ' a faire place longging to the Eliottes. 

Betwixt the ii. Gleves* by Harford West is a litle ryveret 

• Cle«eu or Qc^iv. b Llwydarth. 

Dewi's land, i,e,^ St. Davids land. <* Pebidiog. 

• Cantr^; DewL ' Rhte. 
s ? Marros, or St. Mary's = Maen clochog. 



64 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Pembroke- caullid in Walsch [Kyllell] • in Englisch Knife. One beyng 
•Wre. requirid wher he lay al night answerid that he lay having a 

swerd on eche side of hjon, and a knife at his hart, alluding 
to the iii. rivers in the midle of whom he lay al night. 

Rowse* Lordship hath come sufficient, and to selle to 
other, and especially toward Milford Haven. There is wood 
also competent 

Roche Castel withowte faile is yn Rouselande. 

In Pebidiaucy 

The remayne tokins of Cairboias ® Castel standing by Alen 
ryveret about a quarter of a myle lower then S. D^vid on the 
same ryveret 

And sum say that there hath beene a castel at or aboute 
Port Maur,* but the tokens be not very evidente. 

There is a litle woode at Perskilly • an viiL [miles] from 
S. David, bytwixt Fischard' and it, and moch better at 
Treugam ' a 4. miles f 

There appere in dyvers partes of Pebidiauc hilles and 
dikes with bulwarkes of yerth as campes of men of warre or 
closures for catelle. 

The soile of Pebidiauc is stony, yet there is meatly good 
come. There is plenty of fisch bycause of the crekes. 

S. Davidislande. 

fo. 29« S. David-Land beginnith at NewguUe * a crek servid with 
bak fresche water. There is a bay afore this creke betwixt 
it and Milforde. 

There be divers other litle crekittes betwixte Newgalle 
and S. David Hedde, and againe betwixte S. David and 
Fischard' beside them that be written of heere. Newgull 6. 

(• Word supplied by Dr. J. G. Evans.] 
[t Foot of page torn.] 



* Rhds, icnorantly written Rowse and Roose. ^ Pebidiog. 

Ciegir Voia. Boia, a man's name, is stupidly confounded in the 
Ordnance map with the adjective mwya. 
^ Forth Mawr, at St. David's Head. 

• Cf. Preseleu Forest on the West CelSiv. ' Fbhguard. 
s Trevgam, foorteen miles west of St David's, on the CMiv. 

•» Newgale. 



IN WALES. PART VI 



65 



S. Reanus 
Abbas. 



mile from S. David in the midde way betwixt Herford* and Pembrokc- 
S. David. ^'^^' 

A 4. miles from Newgal upward on the shore is Solvach, 
otherwise Salverach, a smaul creke for ballingars and fischar 
botes. And hither resortith a litle fresch water. 

Thens to Porte Clays 3. miles, a litle havenlet, wither 
Alen that rennith thorough S. David Close cummith. 

This Porte Clais lyith a myle south weste from S. David. 

About a mile of is Port Maure, where is a greate sande 
with a shorte estuary into the lande. S. Stinans ^ Chapel is a 
mile strait weste from S. Davids, and ther is the Pass to 
Ramesey a myle of by water. This chapel is betuixt Port- 
clais and Porth Maur.* 

Then to Pendewi [or] S. David Hedde half a mile. 

To Llan Rean ^ paroche, a prebend, 3. miles, where is a 
litle creket. 

To Tredine 2. [miles.] Thens a peace of Llanrean paroch, 
wher the Bisshop of S. David hath a place, and heere is a 
litle creket. 

To Llanunda* paroche about a 4. miles having a creke. S. Gunda. 
Here about is hering fisshing 

Here Gueyn ' River devidith Pebidiauc from Fisschcard in 
Kemmeisland. 

To Fischarde a 4. miles. Here is a li[tle haven, havynge 
a re]sort of [shippis ] 

Syr John Talbot that maried Troutbeks heire dwellith in fo. 30 
a goodly logge on the hy toppe of Albrighton Parke, It is Shropshire, 
in the very egge of Shropshire 3. miles from Tunge.' 

Corbet of Morton Corbet viii. c. marke lande, it liith 
round about the shire. He hath a manor by La3rton Bussard 
in Bukinghamshir. 

Corbet of I-ee, 2. miles from Caurse Castel * of a yongger 
brother of Morton. It cam yn partely by manage, c. mark 
lande. 

Sum say that of late dayis Corbettes were owners of Caurse 
Castel. 



» Haverfordwest. *> St. Stinans = St. Justinian. 

<> Porth Mawr is several miles from Porth clais, but Porth llbky lies 
al)out a mile to the west. 

d Llan Rian. • Llan Wnda. 

' Gweun, ignorantly written Gwaen. * Tong. ^ Cawres Castle. 

F 



66 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Shropshire. Corbet of Langmer/ 4* miles from Sbrobsbyri toward 
Ludlo. Ther is a park^ xl, li. lande, 

Syr Richardc Mainewering of Higthfeld, a, miles from 
Whitchirch* 

John Dodde of Cloretey, a mile from Hightfetd,* a c- 
niarke. 

Syr Robert Nedam of Sheinton, 4 a marke lande- 

Croscvenour of Beleporte, 3. miles owt of Draiton Mar- 
ket. This man and Grosevenour of Ei[ton] Bote in Chestre 
cam of 2. yongger brethern of Grosevenour of Houme, whos 
V, doughtters and heires were maried 

Shakerley of Lancastre maried the [eldest daughter, and 
had] the manor of Houme. 

Newport of Archhaul a lordship of a c, 11 with park, 
and hath a c. li. lande by. This man, and Mitton of Cotton 
by Shrobsbyri had Syr John Eoroues landes in Shropshir 
and Warwiic. Mitton had his best house More Haul in 
War wics hire. 

Lelghton of Leighton. 

Leighton of Watelesborow* 

Leighton of Plasch a mile or 2. from Acton Burnel. 

Leighton of Rodimer 2. miles from Chorleton Castel,and 
is on Roden Ryven 

Mitton caullid lorde of Moutheyt* but I trow he be but 
steward to the King there. His house is at Cotton a quarter 
of a mile owt of Shreusbyri* 2. a mark lande* 

Trentam of Shropshire dwellid in the toune self, wher his 
best house was, a man of 1. It- lande* Now he hath sold his 
lande in Shropshir, and hath boute Rocestre Priory in 
Stafordshir on Dove. 

Thornes of Shreusbyri, I li. land* 

Onesloo of Oneslo, xL li. land 2. miles from Shreusbyri, 
to, 31, Oteley of Fichefert," 4* miles from Shousbyri and a mile 
from Acton Burnel, a c. li. lande, 

Skriven of Frodisley a mile from Acton Burnel, c. mark 
land. 

Lc of Longmer^ a fair manor and park, c. li. land, a mile 
from Acton Burnel. He is elder brother to Le that rnaned 
Lcig[h]ton's wif of Watelborow. 



ClovcTley, Tghtfeld. 
Pitch ford. 



^ Mow^wy in Nfcrioneth* 
** Longno*. 



IN WALES. PART VI 67 

Laken of Wyley,* wher is a park. 3. miles from Bridgnorth, Shropshire, 
3. c markes. 

Gateacre of Gataker, a c marke lande, 3. mile from 
Brigenorth. 

Wolrige of Dudmistre^ of Severne Bank. c. mark lande. 

Haughton of Becbyri, 4. miles from Brigenorth.. xL H. 
land. 

Yong of Caineton. c. mark. 

Vernoun of Hodenet Syr Henry Vemoun sun. 2. c markes 
by one of the heire of Ludlo. 

Cotton of Cotton, a 1. li. lande. 

Chorleton of Apeley hard by Wellington, 

Chorleton of Wombridge unc[le to] • • 

Englisch Maylor lyith altogether on the south side of Dee fo. 33. 
conteyning 3. paroches, Oureton,® Bangor Vaure,* Hanmere. Flintshire. 
The parodies be very greate, and they have sum chapelles. 
There was a praty pile or castel at Oureton yn auncient Ouretm 
tyme, the which was throuen doune by the violence of Dee Madok. 
Ryver chaunging his botom. For of olde tyme Dee ran half 
a mile from the castel yn a place of the valley caullid Whis- 
tan, where now is woode and ploughid grounde right agayne 
Oureton. The toune of Oureton hath had burgesses, but 
now there is not 20. houses. One parte of the diches and 
hille of the castel yet remaynith; the residew is in the botom 
of Dee. 

The next paroche lower on Dee is Bangor. And yet yn 
deede Oureton is but a membre to Bangor, and Dr. Knight 
is parsone of it This is Bangor wher the great abbay was. 
A parte of this paroch, that is as much as lyith beyond Dee 
on the north side, is yn Walsche Maylor, and that is as half 
the paroche of [Ban]gor. But the abbay stoode yn Yn[glyshe 
Mailor on the hither and south [side] Of Dee. And it \ii 
ploughid gro[wnd now] where the abbay was by th[e space' 
of a good Walsch myle, [and yet] they plough up bones of 
the [monkes, and in remembraunce] were digfgid up pecis 
of theyr clothes in sepulturs.] The abbay stoode in a faire 
valley, and Dee ran by it. The cumpace of it was as of a 

[• Foot of page torn. The next page and a whole leaf are blank.] 



Willey. •» Dudmaston. ® Overton. * Bangor Iscoed. 



68 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Flmtiblre,. wauUid toune, and yet remaynith the name of a gate caullid 
Forth Hogan* by north, and the name of a nother caullid 
Port Clays'* by south* Dee syns chaunging the botom ren- 
nith now thoroug the oiydlc betwyxt thes a gates^ one being 
a mile dim, from the other, and yn this giounde be ploughid 
ttp foundations of squarid stonys, and Romayne money is 
founde there* 

Beneth Bangor stil lower on the south side of Dee Ryver 
IS a paroche caullid Worthembret^ in Walch Guothumbr^ 
having a faire chirch, but as a membre to Bangor. 

Hanoiere paroche lyith south est on Oureton^ Bangor, 
and Worthembre ; but so that these 3. ly bitwixt it and Dee 
Ryver. And sum parte of this yoinith apon Whit-Chirche 
Market [a] paroche in Shropshire, but in the egge of Chester- 
shire, and apon Malpasse. This Hanmerc is a very large 
paroche, and hath a greate deaJe more riches then al the 
reside w of Englisch Maylor* 

In Oureton is meately good woode, come and pasture, 
and standith surawhat on hyer ground than Bangor or Wor- 
thembre, Bangor hath goode corne and pasture, but litle or 
no woode^ and lyith al yn [valleys, and in Worthembre] no 
woode [but good corne and pasture,] 
fa. 34 Hanitiere paroche hath good plenty of wood, corne, medow 
and pasture ; and by Han mere Chirch is a greate pole aboute 
a mile yn lenght, and half a myle >ti bredth. And every genlil- 
man hath there his fay re pooles. There is a xL gen til men yn 
this paroch that have praty landes. 

Pilston knight hath much land yn Hanmere, but his chefe 
howse is yn Worthembre paroche al a place caullid Emer- 
haule.^ 

Hanmere knight dwellith at Hanmer, and yn that paroch 
be aliqtwt of the Hanmers that hath landes. 

There is a greate more ♦ in Hanmore cawUid «f sum the 
Kennys. 

Dymok dweUiih at Haulton. 

Edward Pilston sunne to the knight dwellith yn Oureton 
paroche at CoitegoUe. 

[* Merc or lake.— Evans-] 



• Porth W|;an {Le.^ Cuocaun, modern Gwgan)* ^ Forth Klais. 

• Worthenbury. ^ Emral. 



IN WALES. PART VI 69 

Ellys ap Richard dwellith yn Bangor at Aire* on Dee south Flintshire, 
syde, a fair hous. 

John Broughton dwellith yn Worthembre paroche at 
Broughton. 

Al this Englisch Maylor tho [it ly] not hard on Flyntshire, 
but h[ath Walshe] Mailor betwixte it and [Flynt,] yet it 
longith to Flynte [shire, and they] cum to sessions to Flynte. 

Yet they have liberte in tfoken of] the olde castel to 
kepe a pfrisoner] 3. dayes at Oureton, and so to [send hym 
to Flynt.] 

Walch Maylor caullid yh Englisch Bromefeld lying on the Denbigh- 
north side of De, lower on Dee then Yale, and yoining hard •hire, 
apon Yale. It lyith est apon Holt Bridge, the which devidith 
Chestershire from Bromefelde. Flintshir liyth north on it 
DifTrin Ciuit ^ lyith west on it And Englisch Mailor, alias 
Mailor Sesneg, id est Saxonica^ lyith south on it. 

Bromefeld is a playne countery, and hath good plenty of 
wood, and goode come and pasture ; and se-coles at Har- 
wood, and at a place caullid the Mines. 

The best woode of Bromefeld is yn Ruabon, a bygge 
paroch, by part wherof De cummith. There is a good quarre 
of grinding-stonys yn Ruabon paroch. 

The Holt is a praty riche Walsche toune, govemid by a 
maire, having ons a yere a fair, but surely now no celebrate 
market. Yn it is a praty church, and a goodly castel. The 
chirch is but a chapel to Gresforde. 

Gresforde is as faire a chirche as Wrexham, having a steple 
of vii. score foote hy, beside the 4. pinnaclid towers * This 
chirch is a 2. miles from the • . bank of De . • . . 
cum • . • • litle . . • • chirch . . • • n to 
• • ifa • • • • th . . • • te • • • • he 
. . . t to . . . . ande.f 

Wrexham, treuly caullid Wrightelesham, is the onely market 
towne of Walsch Maylor, having a goodly chirch collegiate, 
as one of the fairest of all North-Wales, and is a 2. miles 

[• Leland has "Tower."] 

[t The margin here on which this passage was written is nearly de- 
stroyed. We cannot restore it from Stow, as he omits all the part 
betweea the first and second words " Wrexham."] 



• h\xh. »> Dyflfryn KIwyd. 



70 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Denbigh - 

shirc 



above the Holt on the same north side of the ryver< Tiiere 
longgith no prcbendes to it, though it be collegiatid. There 
be sum marchauntcs and good bokeler makers. There cum- 
mith a broke caullid Wenbro thorough the toune. Wrexham 
is 3. miles north from De Ryver. Ther be 2, oilker parochcs 
[(? in) Bromefeld, and so in all 4.] 



fa 35* 



Pe.' 

Alen. 



Waters m Bromtfild, 



Ruededoc Broke, having good trouttes, cummith in one 
place wiihyn a quarter of a myle of Wrexham, and goith 
ynlo De a mile above the Holte Castel> 

Abon that cummith by Ruabon" Chirch waul, and aftet 
renning lesse then a myle goith into Dee. 

Pylleston the knight hath a faire maner yn Gresforde 
paroch at Llay '' by marying an heyre doughter to one of the 
Ihmmere. 

John Eyton dwcllid yn Ruabon, 

John I'ylleston sergeant at armes hath a manor and place 
withyn half a myle of Wrexham at Marsche. 

Yale lordship yoinith to Bromefeld upon the farther side 
of De Ryver, and there is no parte of it on the hither side 
of Dee, There is in it a 4, or 5- paroches, wherof the moste 
famose is Llanarmon, Le. Fanum Germani, and Llan Tegla/ 
ix. Fanum Teclac. 

Create pilgremage and ofTering was a late to S. Armon* 

Uanegwhiste/ alias Vallis Crucis;, ys yn Vale half a myle 
from Dee ripe. 

Dinas Branc * Castd on a rokky hille stondith almost as 
neere as Vallis Crucis to Dee ripe, and going up on De 
water is sumwhat lower then the abbay. 

Owen Glindour had a place yn Yale apon the north side 
of De caullid Rngarth v. mile above Dinas Brane. 

Almost in the midle way betwixte Llanegwhist and 



■ Dyvtdwy = sacred yf^Xtx* 

* The Clywedoij flows south of Wrexham ami into the Hcc ft lit lie 
north of PjckhiU Hall. The bnx»klct flowing into the Dec ** a mile 
aljovt the HoUc Casiel" does not come anywhtre nenr Wreicham. 

* Rhiw AlHjn, ^ Llai. ' Llau Degla» 
' LUn EgvresiyL ■ Dims Brin. 



IN WALES. PART VI 71 

Rithyn • appere vestigia of a castel of Owen Glindour (as it Denbigh- 
is saide) caullid Keuen De,^ i,e, the bakke of the Blake sl^irc 
Hille, wher now shepardes kepe shepe. 

Chirk and Chirkland lye by south on De agayne Yale, 
so that De for a space devidith Yale and Chirke. 

The hole soile of Yale is rokky, and by that not thoroughly 
fruteful of come, yet yn diverse placis and valleyis betwixt 
hilles is meately good come, medow and pasture, and especi- 
ally for come aboute Llaneghwiste, and Llanarmon. 

In Yale ys plenty of kyne, shepe and gotes. 

John Llued * dwellith in Llan Teglas ^ paroche. 

Edwarde Llued* yn Llanarmon. 

There is meately good wopd yn the valley places of Yale, 
and especially at Llanegwhist, alias Vallis Cnicis. The 
montaynis of Yale standing north be baren of wood. The 
people there for the more part brenne turffis. 

De Ryver cummith by the side of Yale as limes betwixt fb. 36. 
it and Chirk. 

The greatest water beside De that is yn any parte of Yale 
is Alen that risith in Llin Alen.* This Alen rennith doune 
from weste to este firste to Llant^la, to Llanarmon, to Llan- 
uerrys yn Yale, thens into Molesdale lordship, at a place 
wherof caullid Hespalen * it rennith into the grounde by the 
space of a quarter of a myle, and there is a marche betwixt 
Moledale and Flynte, and after rising departith stille by v. 
Walsche miles in cumpase Molesdale from Flyntshire. Thense 
thorough Hope Dale, a lordship perteinins to Flynt Thens 
ynto Bromefeld, alias Mailor Camrege,' and half a mile 
beneth Holt-Bridg into De. This water hath mervelus good 
and greate trouttes. 

Chirke and Chirkelande lyith on the hither side by south 
of De agaynste Yale, and weste of it upper on De hither ripe 
lyith a commothe of Merionithshir caullid Demion,' and 
plaine south of this Chirke in sum place touchith Poys^ 
lande. There is never a market toun in this lordship. At 

[♦ Llwyd.] 



» Ruthin. ^ Kevcn dfl. « Llan De(;Ia. 

^ Alun, Llyn Alnn. * Hesp Alun, about a mile east of KjJkeiL 
' Maelor Gymraeg. s Edemioo. ^ Powis. 



72 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Denbigb- 



fo. 37- 



Chirk self be a few houses, and there is on a smaul hilk a 
mighty large and stronge castel with dyvers towers, a late 
welLe repayred by Syr Wylliam Siandeley, the Yerle of 
Darby's brother. 

There hath beene 9. parkes. One yet remaynith caullid 
Blake Park Kerioi^ Ryveret cummith on the south side of 
Chirk Casieh De Kyver is wythin a myle of the north side 
of it. 

The moste parte of Chirk and Chirkeland on the south 
toward Poys lande is great plenty of mervelus good woodde^ 
and thorough reasonable wood. Moch of the lordship ys 
hylJy, but yn valleys by De and Keriog good corne and 
niL^dow, and in sum other places. 

This lordeship or lordships in Walsch is caiillid GualnCt 
and is devidid into Low and Hy Guayne/ 

Gcnfiimtn of Chirke. 

Trevor dwelling in Chirk paroche at Place Newith.* 
Edwards sunne dwelling not far from Chirk CasteL 



Flintshire. MOLESDALE YK WALSCH CAULLID STREDALEN.* 

In Molesdale is but one greate paroche cauHid Plouhe 
(paroche) Wriotbegrig,** of sum communely Molesdale^ there 
longe 3. chappelles onto it. Sum say that Molesdale was ons a 
market toune. There be 2, fayres yet kept at Molesdale, but 
thewekelymarkel is decayed. Yet it hath the name of a maire, 
and a greate numbre of bouses be withowt token almost de- 
stroyed, and there hath beene3.streates,as Streate Byle/and 
Slreate Dadlede' in Walsch, in Englisch the Court House 
Streate, byside other liile lanes. Now in al be scant 40. 
houses. At the north ende of Byle Streate appere diches and 
hilles yn tokyn of an auncicnt castel or buildinge there. It 
is now caullid Mont Erenebyley,^and on the side of it isa fayre 
springe* Aien Ryver cummith withyn a bou shot of Moles- 
dale Chirche* And at the southc ende of the townc is a rylle 
caullid Houne, and sonc after rennith into Alen- 

■ Y Weun, ignonntly written " y Waen." 
^ Has NtwyB = Neir palace. « Ysrra<l Alun* 

^ Yr WySgui^ =i m^ns aft us. Tloughc ^ Tlwyv = Parish* 
* ?Ikili. ' Da<iku-dy. < Bryii y U;iIL 



IN WALES. PART VI 73 

Robert Edwardes a gentylman dwellith at ... on the Flintshire. 
side of Alen yn Molesdale, having plenty of wood and goodly 
medow by Alen side. The wood thens is caried to Chestre 
a vi. miles of. 

Moste parte of the paroch is meately level ground, having 
beside other thinges very good come. And there be cole 
pittes a 3. quarters of a mile from Molesdale toune. 

Ithel (Angl, Ellys) Griffith dwellith on the north side, scant 
a quarter of a mile from Molesdale toune at a place cauUid 
Lloen (grove) Egrine.* 

John Wenne ap Roberte dwellid at a stone tower caullid 
Broncoit,^ alias Regnaultes Towre, 3. quarters of a mile from 
Molesdale toune. There cummith a litle ryllet by this square 
toure caullid . . . and a quarter of a myle beneth the 
tour goith into Alen descending from west to este. 

There is a nother water in Molesdale caullid Avon Terrig 
almost as byg as Alen. Yet goyng from west to north-est it 
goith ynto Alen. Terrig Ryver cummith thorough a peace of 
Yale or it cum into Molesdale. 

There be other smauUe ryllettys yn Molesdale. So that 
by springges and rylles this paroch beyng yn lenght a v. 
myles is wel servid of water and of dyvers other good 
thinges. 

Molesdale lyith north on Hopesdale, and Yale lyeth west 
on it. Flyntshire lyith north on it, and Ardin" by est 

Hope, alias Quene Hope lordship, longging chefely to the fa 38. 
King. It conteynith but one paroche. The grounde ys hilly. 
In the valleys is meately good come. Alen Ryver cummithe 
thorough it. In it be also other obscure rylles. The toune 
of Hope now decayid was sumtime burgesid and privil^id, 
and is caullid yn Walsch Cairgorles.* Ther stonde yet greate 
walles of a castel set on hylle, wher be diggid good mille 
stonis of a blew girthe. 

Oswestre xii. miles north west from Shrobbesbyri. Shropshire. 

It is from Traflon,* alias the Walsche Pole, xii. miles. 

From Wrexesham x. miles. 

From White-Chirch in Shrobbeshire xii. miles. 

From Oswestre to Wrexham x. miles, and thens the by- 
way to Chester viii. miles. 

» Ll^yn Egrin. *> Brongoed. « Hawarden. 

* Cacr Gwrle. • Trallwng, ue., Welshpool. 



74 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Shropshire, From Ruthine xv> mile, and so to Denbigh v* mile. 

From Flynt Castelle xx. miles. 

From EUesmere, wher was a castelle, and very fair polis 
yet be, EUesmere hath a 4* streates of meately good build- 
ing, privilegid vrith ii* faires, but no cummun market now, 
fo. 39- The site of CroixoswaMe* is on a plain in a valley xii. 
long mUes by champain having almost no woodj north-weste 
from Shreusbyri, 

The cunipace of the towne withyn the waulle is aboute 
a mile. 

There be 4 gates, the New Gate** (Portnewitb) by south. 

The Blake Gate, alias Portdeet*" by south est toward 
Shrobsbyri, 

The 3. Beteriche Gate, unde et vtci nomen gua duett in 
urbern^ north est toward Chester. 

7'he 4 Wulliho Gate, alias Montain Gate, guia f€r earn ad 
Vicinos monUs itur quarta miiiiarii parte distarttes^ north 
west toward the mon tain e of Pen U in** in Merioiinulh.* 

There be no towers in the waullcs beside the gates. 

The lounne is diktd about and brokeltes ren yuto it 

The Chirch of S. Oswalde is a very faire leddid chirch 
with a great tourrid stcple, but it standilh without the New- 
Gate ; so that no chirch is there withyn the towne. This 
chirche was sumtime a monasterie caullid the White Minster. 
After tumid to a paroche chirch, and the personage impro- 
priate to the abbay of Shreusbyri. The cloister stoode in 
homimtm mtmoria ubt monument a monachorunu The place 
and streate wer the chirch standithe is caullid Stretllan." 

There be cbapelles clene without the suburbcs. One be- 
twixt Strati Ian' and Forth de'' {Sacdinm S^ Joan n is BapL), 
T\\^ sectmd without the same suburbe within a bow shot of 
S, Oswalde {*S* Ostiualdt Saceltum ubi tt Pons Osualdt), 
The 3. north est toward Chester (of S. Edilha). Ther be 
withyn the towne a x. notable streates. The 3, moste not- 
able streales be : the Crosse Streate, ubi cnix^ lapidea. The 

[* These phrases, He^cribin^ the position of the gate», are in the 
marijUi m the original MS,] 
t+ LclanU writes f^rxj 



■ Croes Oswdli, /.f., Oswald's tree* ^ Forth ncwy^, 

■ Forth dQ. <■ Fenllyo, • StryJ y llan ^Church Sirtitt, 



IN WALES. PART VI 75 

Bayly Streate, ubi forum maximum et mercatores. The 3. Shropshire. 
the New-Gate Streat. 

Domus Civicoy the Bouth HauUe of tymber, a fair house, 
standith by the castel. 

Madocus^ filius Meredoci^ Princeps Poisiae^ castrum^ ut ai- 
unff posuit. Extat turris in castro nomine Madoci. Et ibidem 
camera Richardi 2, regis, constructa post cadem Arundovalii 
iusce majestatis condemnoH. 

The houses withyn the towne of Oswestre be of tymbre 
and slatid. 

There is a bayly and sergiantes. 

Ther is a castelle sette on a mont be likelihod made by 
hand and dichid by south west betwixt Beterice Gate and 
Williho Gate, to the wich the town waul cummith. 

The towne standith most by sale of cloth made in Wales. 

There is a fre schole on the south west side of the chirch 
made by one Davy Holbeche a lawier, steward of the town 
and lordeship, and gave x. li. land to it Sum say that this 
David made David Yn yn London. 

There be 4. suburbes. The greatest wherin be iiii. streates, fo. 4a 
thus caullid, Stratellan ; the secunde suburbe strete Wulliho ;* 
the 3. Beteriche,** wher be many barnes for come and hay 
to the number of a vii. score several barnes. The 4. Blake 
Gate Streate, and ther be with other howses a xxx. barnes for 
corne longging to the tounes men. There goith thorowg the 
town by the crosse a broke cumming from a place caullid 
Simons Welle, a bow shot without the waulle by north-west. 
This broke* cummith in thorough the waulle betwixt Wul- 
liho Gate and New-Gate, and so renning thorough the 
towne, and goith oute under the Blak-Gate. 

S. Oswaldes Wei is a bow shot from S. Oswaldes Chirch 
in the feldes south west. Fabulantur aquilam brachium 
Oswaldi d stipi/e praeripuisse, sed excidisse ei quo loco nunc 
fons est superstitione nuper Celebris, Ther is a chapel over 
it of tymber and the fountein environed with a stone 
w[a]ll. 

[* In the margin Leiand has a note : " Cambr. Avon Crois.® Cros 
Brook. Fair walkcs about Sl Oswaldes Welle."] 



• Willow or Wallia. ^ Beatrice. • Avon Crwys. 



76 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Shropshire, 



i.€. vetvs 



[Fo* 41, 5<»: 
p. So, QOLe tj 

fo. 4J^'* 
Mertonelh- 



Ther is a brook cauUid Betterich, bycause it rcnnith 
thorough a bridglct of tymber at Betench-Gate. 

The 3. goyth under the stone bridges of Wulli-Gate, New- 
Gate and Blake-Gate, Then go they all 3* with Crosse Broke 
a mile lower by south west in to Morda Ryver. 

Morda rislth in a hille caulltd Llanvarda* wher was a chirch 
now decaid* Sum say [th]is was the paroch chirch of Os- 
wcstre. 

The soile about Oswestre ia playn, except toward the 
north west into Merionithshere fruteful of corne and grasse. 

There he wooddes toward Whitigton as in the lordshipe 
of Llouenhene* Dinas* in Witington Parke and yn Witing- 
ton More. 

Hene Dinas a quarter of a mile out of Oswestre north- 
west The toune or castelle of Hene Dinas*' standith apon a 
rounde billet aboute half a mile in cumpace. Ther be iii. 
greate diches in the botom of the billet cumpasing it, and 
in the toppe of the hille now grow great treas of oke. The 
commune people say that ther was a cite wilhyn those 
diches. I think rather a campe of men of war, wheras pera- 
venture was the campe when Penda and Oswaldes did fight. 
There is a nother hillet of caste yerih bytwixt it and Oswester 
not far from Dinas self. 

The town of Whitington is a gret mile north est from 
Hene Dinas. It is a village in a valley conteining a bun- 
derith houses, and hath a dichid round castelle not very 
large in the midle of the village. 

Hundredth of Merionithshire. 

Ardudwy strecchith from half Trailmaur to Ahermaw * on 
the shore xii. [myles.] At the mowth of Maw Kyvcr lyith a 
lille islet scant a bow shot over withowte habitation. At 
ebbe it is fresch water aboute^ and at fludde saU* 

There be dyver rivers yn this commot that entre the scl 

t* LcJand his in the margin *' Llouen a busch,*' and writes th just 
above tbc Lt OS LT ta indicale the pronunciatioD (which is wronc. — 
J. G, E.)] |^_^ 

• Lan Vorrlft. * Llwyn h^o dinas- « Hen Dinas = old fort. 
** Abcr Maw-Sach in ftiU ; conuacied in Welsh to Bermo^ aaid 
Stupidly AngLicL^d into Barmoatlk 



IN WALES. PART VI ^^ 

Harlauche * Castel and market toune yn this hundrede. Merioneth- 

Kemmer** Abbay is yn this hundrede. shire. 

Ther be a x. paroches yn it. 

This hundrede is devidid into 2. partes, Huwch Artro and 
Isseartro* of Artro River that goith into the se about a mile 
above Harleche that is yn Isse Artro. 

Kemmer [is] in Huwch Artro. 

This com mot nor no part of Merionithshire lyith in Crege 
Ery.** So that though this shire be montanius, yet is al 
Cregery yn Cairarvonshir. 

Wher this commot is longeste uplandwarde it [is] xvi. 
miles. 

Towarde the se side and low partes is summe good come. 

Meate good plenty of wood in this commot 

Talebonte* hundred touchith from Abermaw a litle upon fo. 43. 
the shore. The residew saving this point is yn the upland 
toward Keuiliauc yn Poyslande, and there justely marchith 
on Keuiliauc' It is a viii. mile yn lenght, and vi. yn bredth. 
The best come yn this is toward the se. It hatfi meately 
good plenty of wood. 

Dolgethle * is the best village in this commote. 

Commote Ystymaneir stretchith from the pont of Talebont 
to the very mouth of Deuy.' It is by the shore a ix. or x. 
miles. It cummith by March in Upland to the very bridge 
of Mahenclif,*^ and it yoinith also on Keuiliauc in Powis land. 

In this commote is Towen. 

This commote hath good come, but meanly woddid as 
toward Mahenclif. 

Wher now the wild se is at the mouth of Deuy, and farther 
into the se, were ons 2. commotes of good plentiful but low 
grounde caullid Cantre Gwaylode,* ue, terra demissa vel sub- 
sidens planitte^ now cleene eatin away. 

Commote Penthlline^ lyith al up in the lande, and marchith fo. 44. 

[* D61 Gell^ ''Dolgellhe*' was Leland's first spelling, copied by 
Stow.] 

• Harlech. ^ Kymmer Abbey, near Uan Illtud, 
® Uwch and Is Artra ^ Craig Eryri, !.#., Snowdon. 

• Tal y bonL ' Kyveliog or Kyyeilog. 
« Dyvi (Anglici^ Dovey). ^ Machynlleth. 

• Towyn. k Cantri 'r Gwaelod. See p. 9a 
» Penlfyn. 



78 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Merioneth- 
shire. 



Henetour^ i . 
veins turris. 



Carnarvon- 
shire. 



on Talebont, and Ardudwy, and Dernion* commotes of 
Merionithshire, and apon the lordship of Mouthey ^ yn Pois- 
lande, and apon parte of Denbighland. 

In this commote is Llin T^;gy' the hed of Dee 
Ryver. 

Bale** a litle poore market b yn this commote withyn a 
litle of the hedde of Llinnetegy. 

Much wood yn this commote. 

Litle corne. 

Plenty of pasture. 

There be great hilles yn this commote. 

Mouthey is now adject as a nother commote to Merionith- 
shire.* 

Deymion • commote lyith thus on the est side of Penth- 
line, and hath on the north side Denbighland, and Yale 
on the north est side, and hath on the south side Powys 
lande. 

Demion commote the beste woddid of al Merionith- 
shir. 

It hath yn the greate valley by De River good come. 

It bredith good horsis. 

In this commote ys the mine of Toure Kenuyn • {nomen 
viri) now caullid Yr hendwr. 

Owen Glyndour dwellid yn this commot 

Lluelin ap Irrwarth Droyndon ' Prince of al Wales, had 
Grifith. Grifith had Lluelin. Lluelin had Catarine his 
heire. Catarine had Eleanor. Eleanor had Helene and 
Catarine. This Helene was mother to Owen Glindoure. 
Catarine had Meredik.' Meredik had Owen. Owen had 
EdmundeErleof Richemonde,and Gasper Erie of Penbroke. 
Edmunde had Henry the VII. Henry was, as I hard, post- 
humus. 

In Cairarvonshire in Huwhcurvay ^ commote is Llin ed^ 

[* The words ** Mr. Griffith of Tcrmonc " are written above this 
note, as though he were the authority for the statement.] 



» Edemion. 

• Llyn Tegid, t.^., Bala lake. - «^«.<.. 

• Kynvyn. ' Lly welyn ap lorwerth Drwyndwn. 
t Meredith. ^ Uch Gwrvei. 



^ Mow^wy. 
d Bala. 



IN WALES. PART VI 79 

warchen,* wher [is] the Swymming Island, and ther of it hath Carnarvon. 
the name as of a suimming swarth of yerth. ahirc 

There be yn Cairarvonshire ix. hundredes or com- fo. 41. 
motes. 

Llechwedd issa and Creythyn.* Crethin is so much of the 
hundrede of Llechwedd issa as is on the hither side of 
Conwey* River. This hundrede strecchith on the shore 
of the salte water to a litle above Penmain Vaure" that 
is a 4. miles above Conway. Conway toune is yn this 
hundrede. 

Llechwed iha"* hundrede goith up on the shore onto Avon 
Gegyn • beyound Penryne wher Mr. Grifith dwellith. One 
of the notablest thinges in thfs commote is Abreguynne' 
Gregin, wher was a maner or litle pile of the Princes of 
Wales. 

Is curvay • hundrede stretchith from Abregyn ' by shore to 
Avon Guruay. In this hundrede is Bangor and Cair Arvon 
and Dolebaterne ^ Castel. In this hundred is token of an old 
manor place, Lies yn Dynorwek * wher one Syr Grifith Lloid 
lay in King Edwarde the First [tyme], and bringging hyni 
tydings of the byrth off Edward Cairarvon was rewardid with 
this lande as sum say. It is yn the middle of the hundrede. 
In the olde toun of Cair Sallog, alias Cairsaint ^ or Segent, 
appere parte of the old castel yn the old toune, of the wiche 
castel is faullen into the haven salt water. Within this hun- 
dred is Dinas Emerys.^ 

Hughegurvay "* hundered goith from above Guuay ■ Water 
onto Boulchryvel* the top of the hille by Vortigers ' Valley. 
Clunnok Vaur is yn this. 

[* Creu^yn. These two names are written in a different hand.] 
[t Uland has "with."] 



» Llyn y dywarchen. * Conwy. 

« Penmaen mawr. * Llechwed uduu 

• Grttgm. ' Abcr Gwyn gregyn* 
« Is Gwrvci. * Dolbadam. 

* tlfs in Dinorwig, k Caei^ Scint yn Arvon* 
> Dinas Emrys, near Bc^gelart. ■» Uch Gwrvei. 

n Gwrvei. o Bwlch yr Eivl. 
P Nant Gwrtheym in Pistil! parish. 



8o 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Carnarvon- 
•bire. 



The 3. com- 
motes touch 
ing Lleene.* 



!o. 42a. 



Dynllayen* hundrede goith up from 
Boulchrivel to a litle above the paroch of 
Penlleche.* Neujme* is yn this hundrede. 
Comote Mayne hundrede so caullid of a 
hille namid Uwch Mennith yn Llene.* 
Abredaron* and Berdesay is yn this, but 
the great parte* is the ground to the shore. 
Al Llene is as it were a pointe into the 
se, and yn the hole is 3. commotes, of the 
which this is the very point into the se. 

Gaflogeon hundrede goith from the ende 

of Uwch Mennith in commot mayne to- 

warde Traithmaur as far as Abreerche.' In 

this commot is Pulthely.' 

Hiujonith "* commote strecchith onto Traitmaure where 

Abreglasllynne * devidith. So that but parte of Traithmaur ^ 

is yn it. In this is Crekith^ Castel and Pooretoun. 

Nant Conwey hundrede is by the side of Conway Ryver, 
and goith upward to the hed of the ryver westward. In it 
be a V. paroches, Dolewithelan,t Penmachno, Bettus, Llan 
Rruchwin " and Treuereu. J 



fo. 47. Market Townes in Cairarvonshir. 

Conwey. 

Bangor yn Iscurvay hundred hath ii. fayres a yere, but 

[* In the MS. "but — parte" were crossed through by Leland, ap- 
parently by mistake, with other words preceding these.] 
[t D61 Wy«elan. " Wythel an Yrisch sainct^*— marginal note.] 
[t In order to bring the notes on Carnarvonshire together, the above 
passages, beginning with " There be yn Cairarvonshire ix. hundredes," 
have been transposed. In the original (fos. 41, 42) they immediately 

{>recede the " Hundredes of Merionithshire." Parts of some of these 
eaves in the MS. are blank, and the whole of fos. 45, 46.] 



• Dinllaen. »> Penllech. • Nevfn. 
d Ll^n. • Aber Daron. 

' Aber Erch (locally pronounced as^ BerehV 

« Pwll Heli, i.f., Brine pool. ^ EvionyiJ. 

* Aber Gloslyn. ^ Traeth Mawr. 

' Crickieth. "» Bettws,.LIan Rhychwyn, and Trcvriw. 



IN WALES. PART VI 8i 

skant a market every weke. There rennith a litle rj^lle Carnarvon, 
thorough Bangor. [See page 85, 1. 27. — J. G. E.] "hire. 

Cairarvon ' apon the hither side of Segent * River, in Is- 
curvay hundrede. 



Hotvsis of Religion, 

Conwey Abbey. 

Enisenthle.'' 

Bethkellarth.* 

A priory of White Freres by Bangor dedicate to 
Jesu. 

There were ons White Freres at Rithyn yn Diffrin 
Cluit. 

Mr. Garter told me that Gray of Rithin emong the armes 
of his auncetor gyvith the armes of the Lord Ruhan of 
Bretayne in [Fraunce. Wherefore loke] wither any of the 
[name] of the Rohans were ever lord of Ruthin,* or wither it 
toke name of hym. 

Al Cregeeryri' is forest. 

The best wood of Cairarvonshir is by Glinne Kledder,' and 
by Glin Llughy,'' and by Capel Kiryk, and at Llanperis. 
Meately good wood aboute Conwey Abbay, and Penmachno, 
and about Cotmore, and Coiteparke^ by Bangor, and yn 
other many places. 

In Llene and luionith ^ is litle wood. 

Cairarvonshire aboute the shore hath reasonable good 
corne, as abouth a myle upland from the shore onto Cairar- 
von. Then more upwarde be Eryri Hilles, and in them 
ys very litle come, except otes in sum places, and a 
litle barle, but scantly rye. If ther were the deere wold 
destroye it. 

But in Lleene and Hiuionith ^ is good corne, both by shore 
and almost thorough upland. 

* Camanron. ^ Seint, modem 8aint« 
« Ynys Enlli, 1.*., Bardscy. * BeiSgelart. 

* Ruthin = Rhu^ din, f.^., Red fortress. 

' Craig Eryri, t.«., Snowdon. t ? Glyn Lleder. 

^ Glyn Llug^. 

* Coetmor and Coed y Park, near Bethesda. 
k Ll^ and Eviony^. 

G 



82 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Carnarvon- 
shire. 

fo. 48. 



Ther is but a bridge 
betuixt thes two. 

In these 2. pooles 
be redde bely fisches 
caullid Thorgoughe,* 
id est, thori aut pectoris 
rtibei. There be also > 
of them yn Llin Tar- 
thennyne, and yn Llin 
Boladulinne.^ They 
be taken yn these 3. 
poles yn ordre, and 
taken yn one not sene 
yn the other.* 



Lynnes. 

Linne Dolbaterne® 
2. miles in lenght, and 
a dim, mile yn bredth. 

Linne Peris* alias 
Nant Manach ( Vallis 
tnonachus\\ a myle yn 
lenghte. Segentcum- 
mith first thorough 
Llinn Peris, and a bow 
shotte of 3mto Dol- 
batem Poole. 

Linne Doudhouc* 
as 



Al yn the 
paroch of 
Peris. V. 
miles est 
south est 
\ from Cair- 
arvon. And 
ly in valleis 
west north 
west from 
Llanperis. 



nothing so bigge 
Linne Perys. 

Boladulynne is yn Hugh Curvay' hundrede, a vi. miles 
beyounde. 

Llinne Tarthennyne** 4. or 5. miles from 
Cairarvon by south. It is a one mile yn 
lenght lying in a valley, and a dim. myle 
yn bredth. 

Linne dan cader erechiugi ' a quarter 
of a myle every way. 

Linne Dinas Emeris * a good mile in 
lenght, and a dim. mile in bredthe. 

Linne Guinanhal^ a good mile from 
Linne Dinas a myle long and a dim. in 
bredth. 

Llinn Lleddau * about a mille in lenght. 
Fonnon glase" yn Withaw yn the hyest parte by Est 
Eryri and nere Lleddau. Fonnon de Fonnon % Guase.* 



Cairarvon. 
Al these be yn 
the hunderede or 
commote of Is- 
curvay,andalthe 
greate Withaw"* 
Hille is holely in 
this commote. 
This hille is ^ ra- 
dicibus a 5. miles 
to the toppe. 



[* There is much interlineation on this fo. (48).] 
[t "Alias — roonachus" interlined.] 
\X This word redundant.] 



^ Torr goch. ^ Cwellyn lake and Bala deu-lyn. 

« Llyn D61 Badam. * Llyn Peris. • Llyn Dwythwch. 

' Uch Gwrvei. « Llyn dan gader yr Eurwrychyn. 

>» Y Wy*va, i.f., Snowdon. * Llyn Dinas Emrys. 

^ LIvn Gwynan (ignorantly written Gwynant). ^ Llydaw. 

» Fiynnon Las or Glaslyn yn y Wy*va. » Ffynnon y gwas. 



IN WALES. PART VI 



83 



Both in the par- 
och of Cairhene.** 



Llinne Ogweyne ' almost a mile yn lenght in Llechuueth 
vcha,^ Le, superior hundrede. 

Llinne Mam "" Avon a litle poole in Llechuuethe vcha also. 
Llinne Idwalle a smaule pole wher they say that Idwalle 
Prince of Wales was killid and drounid. Tis yn Nant Franco* 
valley. 

Llinne Dulinne* (Blak Poole*) not 
half a myle in lenght, ful of stones, in 
Llechuueht Issa/ ie. inferior hundrede. 
Linne Yge* almost a mile yn lenght 
in Llechuuet Issa hundrede. 
Llinne Colluid* a mile from Yge Poole southward a good 
mile yn lenght in Llechuuet Issa. Few or no pooles nother 
yn Llenan or yn Heuionith.* 

Linne Dolwithelanf paroche ' 
on a hille side in Nant Con- 
uuey hundrede. 

Linne Kledder ' (a litle ponde) 
Fonnon (Lughy), alias Linn 
Llughy, a quarter of a mile yn 
lenght. 

Linne Cravenant,*a good 2 

myles in lenght, a ii. miles south 

from Conwey Abbay in a valley. 

Llin Enog, Llin Else ® a litle 

distant asunder. 

Lin Riscog betuix Llughy and 
Kledder. 

Llin Ge[rion]ith a mile yn 
, lenght and more. 



Al yn Nant 
Conuuey 
hundrede '^ 



or com 
mote. 



Carnarvon- 
shire. 



Both in Llan 
Rough wyn" 
paroch.^ 



Marginal note] 
[t Above this word are written " Voyle yn, Angi, hille."] 

"Both" refers to Linne Cravenant and Lhn Gerionith, as the 
MS. shows. The other places are written on blanks and interlined.] 



• Llyn Ogwen. 
« Llyn Anavon. 
' Llechwe^ issa. 

* Llyn Cowlyd. 



b Llechwc* Ucha. 
Sec infra. * Nant Ffrancon. 

s Llyn Eigieu. 
^ Ll^ and EvionylS. 



• Dulyn. 
^ CaerRhihL 



1 Head Llyn Lleder (a litde pond), Ffynnon, alias Llyn Llugwy. 
■» Llan Rhychwyn. » Llyn Cravnant. « Llyn ElsL 



84 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Carnarvon- [Llin Thervenid* halfe a mile in lengthe, not far from 
shire. Gerionith.] 

fo. 48^. Castelles in Cair Arvonshirc. 

Hegannow yn Cryden.** 

Conwey. 

Tre Castel, alias Caste! Marchog • a Fonon. 

Treurewe ^ (a myle from Conwey Abbay) where Lluelen * 
lay that maried Jane, King John's doughtre. It stondich on 
Conwey and Treurewe rivers. 

Sinnodune a mile from Conwey. The fundation of a greate 
thing yet remayne there. 

Dolewythelan in Nant Conwey commote apon great 
Kledder • River a xiii. miles from Cairmainan ' by south este, 
and as much from Conway. 

Dolebaterne*^ a v. mile from Cairarvon by est south est 
hard by Llynne. 

Dolebaterne on a rok bytwixt 2. linnys.** There is yet a 
pece of a toure, wher Owen Gough,* brother to Lleulen, last 
prince, was yn prison. It is yn Iscurvay commot. 

Dinas Emeris. 

Cairarvon. 

Crikith. 

The Moode, in the paroche of Aber otherwise Llan Boduan,* 
wher Tussog Lluelin uab Gerwerde Trundon* had a castel or 
palace on a hille by the Chirch, wherof yet parte stondith. 
Syr Richard Syr Gul. Grifith hath a faire house at Penryne" a ii. myle a 
BukcU. ^his side Bangor. 

§ Wyllyam uab William dwellith at a place Gochichlan" a 
mile a this side Penryne. 

[* Eques = Marchog, written above it] 

[§ Slow omits from ** Wyllyam uab William " to " Hiuionith, p. 8$."] 



• Llyn Terweny^. *> Deganwy in CreuJSyn. « Trevriw. 
** Llywclyn. • Lleder. ' Maenan. 
8 Dol Badam, near Llan Beris. ^ " Linnys,'* ue., lakes. 

* Owen Goch. 

^ Aber Gwyngregyn = Llan Bodvan. The Mwd is an artificial 
mound. 
> Tywysog Llywclyn vab lorwerth drwyndwn. 
^ Penrhyn Castle. ^ Cwchwilan. 



IN WALES. PART VI 85 

Wylliam Cotmore* dwellith at Cotmore by Tale Linne Camarvon- 
Ogwein.'^ •^^' 

Pillesdon yn Cairarvon toune. 

John uab Madok uab Poel dwellith yn Lleene'' at 
Bodwel. 

John Wen uab Meridith dwellith at Gweder** a ii. bow 
shottes above Conwey toune on the ripe of Conwey Ryver. 
It is a praty place. 

Elys uab Mor[ic]he yn commoth Hiuionith yn Llan Morva 
paroche at Clannenne.* 

Grifith ap Robert [Vjehan' dwellith at Tale Henbont, t\e. 
veteris pontis^ in luionith. 

John Oen dwellith at Kegid an auncient house in Hiuio- 
nith.§ 

Conwey Ryver (risith in Llin Conwey) ;• the haven stondith fb. 49. 
by north and west. 

Avon Du^euelth' a 3. miles above Conwey, it risith in the 
montaynes a mile of, and goith by it self ynto Meney Salt 
Arme. (On this shore lyith Penmayn.)* This broke rennith 
bytwixt Penmayne Maur and Penmaine Vehan. 

Avon Llannuairuehan;'' it risith yn a montayne therby,and 
goith ynto the se a 2. miles above Duegeuelth.' 

Avon Aber a 2. large miles above that ; it risith yn a poole 
caullid Llin Mam {mater t) Avon,* a 3. mile of. 

Aber Ogweine a 2. good miles above that. 

Aber Gegyne,'' out of a monteine by, a myle above, and 
Bangar almost a mile above it. It stondith on Toronnen. 

Aber Poull : * a 3. into the lande it risith ; 4. mile beyond 
Bangor on Meney shore, where is a litle cumming yn for 
bootes by entering of it ynto Meney. 

Moileeton," a passage a litle shot above. There lyith fery 
bootes to go ynto Terre Mone.* 

[• These words are crossed through.] 
[t ''Mater'' interlined over " Mam.* 



• Coetmor. »> Tal llyn Ogwen. « Ll^n at Bodvel. 

d Gwydyr. • Pen Morva, Clenenn^. ' Vychan. Plas H^m 

t Dwygyvylchi. ** Lhinvair vechan. 

^ Lyn Anavon (in ordnance map). 

^ Al)er Cegin, now Port Penrhyn. * Aber pwlL 

» Moel y d6n. » Tlr M6n, i .*., Anglesey. 



86 



LELANDS ITINERARY 



Carnarvon- 
ehire. 



Guenwynmyrethj* />♦ Horsis Broke, 2. mile of, it risith at 
Guen win myrith Wei, a mile of, 

Thens to Cairarvon 4, mile. 

Segent'' Ryver rennith hard on the farther side of Cairar- 
von, as the shore side goith, and there cummith in praty 
shippis hard to the cast el side from Meney into Sainct. 
Cadnant Broke rising a 3, miles of cumrnith thorough the 
toune bridg of Cairarvon, and goith bi it self ynto Meney 
Arme, So that Cairarvon stondith bytwixt ii* ryvers. Both 
cum into Cadnant, 

There cummith a water caullid Avon Guirtiay* thorough 
a bridg caullid Bon tne with, a 2. [myle] above Cairarvon, and 
after cummith ynto Meney at South Crok a 2. miles of. 

South Croke is a 3, miles above Cairarvon, 

Againe South Croke by the mouth of Skeuernoc the se 
hath ete up a litle village on Cairarvon side. 

South Croke is the very point of Abremeney. The name 
of Abremeney is not passing a mile above Cairarvon, yet the 
water of sum is caullid Meney til Poulllhelly,'* 

Frode Skeuernok* a title broke a vi, miles above Abre- 
seynt,* On the farther side of it is a litle chapel cauilid 
Bethouse and 2. or 3, housis/ 

Lleuonbroke'' goith into the se a. mile above Skeuemok- 

Ueueny a great broke aboute a mile above cumming to 
the se* And ther is a paroche caullid Llane Lleueny.* 

There be 2. br[oks] betwixt Guiruay/ [An^Ucean Hav, . » - 
and Skeuernok, whereof the my die is the bygger, caul 1yd 
Colaide, and is ] 

There is a brooke a mile beyond Abre Lleueny goyng by 
it self into the se.f 

Clunnok Vaur a Arvon a great paroch, and the fayrest 
chirch yn al Cairarvonshire, as better then Bangor, is a mile 

I* LelflJid writes ihree dots under «/ and two over the first * in ihese 
two words; over them, **-^«jf^, a quik streme.*'] The Streamlet is Ffr*d 
Skvvarnogin Llan Dwrog> 

[t Mr, avans marks this as Dosoch,] 



■ Gwenwyn Meirch, 

H Pwll IlelL 

' ? J^lws Garmon. 

^ Llyvni; Han Llyvni, 



^ Seint or Saint. *" Gwrvet, 

' Aber Scint, 1./,, Carriiirvon. 
t ULvon. 



IN WALES. PART VI 87 

beyond it, and as far from the shore. There is a litle ryllet. Carnarvon- 
There is a broke more then a mile above Clunog cumming •hire 
in to the mayne se. 

Clunnog paroche is in commot Uch Curuay. 

Fro Clunnok Chirch to Llanael Hairen* Chirch a 4. miles 
in Uch Curuay commote. 

From Llan Aelheiren to Egluis EpisteP Chirch a 3 mile. 

The next paroche above Clunnok is Llan Aelhairen. 

The nex paroch onto it on the shore is Egluis EpistiP 
(Jistuia\ wher cummith downe owt of a rokkie a litle rylle as 
it were renning yn a pipe. This rok is cauUid Guortheren,* 
i.e, Vallis Vortegerni in Llene. And hither cam, as sum say, 
S. Bennow.*^ A peace of this roke is fallen, and valleith after 
a strange fascion. 

The next paroch on the shore is Treneuen. Treneuen* 
townelet is a 2. miles up the lande, and there is a 2 faires 
every yere, but no wekely market. Hitherto the counterey is 
montainyus. 

From Llan ' Egluis to Treneuen Chirch a 3. myles. 

There is a litle broke on the hither side of Treneuen. 

Avon Edeme, alias Girath,' a 2. miles above Treneuen. 

Ther be other smaul rilles betwixt it and Daron. 

From Treneuen to Abredaron a xii. milys. The grounde 
betwyt is sumwhat playne and hath 2. or 3. paroches, havyng 
very good plenty of come and grasse, but very litle woodde. 
They burne turffes, feme, and gorsses, otherwise cauUid 
fyrres. 

Bytwixt Vallis Vortegemi'' and Aberdaron the cumpase 
of the se gatherith a hed, and the se enterith at both 
endes. 

The smaule townelet of Abredaron, wher is a 30. or mo 
housis, is on the very farther ripe of Daron. The se is about 
a quartre of a myle of The paroche chirch is above almoste 
a mile on the shor as the salt water cumpasith aboute with 
a hedde. The chirche is cauUid in Walsch Llan engan Bren- 
ing,* id est^ Fanum Niniani Reguli, where was a late a great 

• Llan Aelhaiam. * Eglwys y PistylL • Craig Gwrtheyrn. 
d St. Beuno. • Trc Ncvin. ^ ? Llannor. 

« Geirch. >» Nant Gwrtheyrn. 

^ Llan Engan Vrenhin. A passage must be missing here as Llan 
Engan is about eight miles east of Aber Daron. 



88 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Carnarvon- pilgrimage. This paro[che JsJ al yn [Lleene,] and it endith 
shire. [Lleene."] 

[Ll]eene a xvi. miles by shore, xii mile by the hy way yn 
lengh. 

The bred of Llene an viii. mile. 

The hither ende of Llene by the shor cummith at a hil 
[cauUid Brith Rivil,** ubi Vallis Vortegerni.] 
fo. 50. The countery above Lleene is cauUid Heuionith. 

In Leene a mile above Fanum Niniani is Penrynde • a 
good haven roode. 

Almost a mile from Penryne de * yn Leene is Inis Tid- 
wale * a vi. acres yn cumpace. In it is a litle chirch desolate. 
Ther be kept shepe, and there be conys. It is a myle from 
Penryne lande by south est. 

Ther is an other islet betwixt it and the shore, cauUid 
Inis Mirach,* i,e, equorum^ having good grasse. 

Pollele ' Bay a poore market, now a late statlo opt, cartnis. 
The prince had a place there, as yet apperith. 

From Llan engan Brennine to Crikith about a xiiL myle 
by meatly playne ground, having reasonable good corne and 
pasture, but not like Lleene. There lyith betwixt Llan engan 
and Criketh a 3. or 4. parochis. At Crikith be a 2. or 3. 
poore houses, and there is a smaule rylle. There hath beene 
a franchisid toune, now clene decayed.* 

From Crikith to Trahtmaure' a 3. myle. Bytwyxt Traith- 
maure and Traith Vehan ^ a mile thorough a point of wood 
cauUid Penryn Duetith,* as yn the myddle, rennith at low 
water thorough the Traith Maur Warth, Glesse LUnne" 
Water, and dividith f Heuionith of Cairarvonshir from 
Merionithshire.J 

[• Stow. Leland has detayM.] [t Leland has dwitk,] 
[t "So 'tis corrected, (very unintelligibly) by Mr Leland, who had 
first of all written it thus : From Crikith to Traht Vehan a 3. myle. 
Bytwyxt Traith Vehan and Traith Maure above rennith as yn the 
myddle Glesse Llinne Water &c." — Heame, Stow does not help here. 
The difficulty lies with the words Traith Maur Warthy which are 
written in the margin without evident reference. But I believe this b 
right.— L. T. S.] 

• Legin=Lleyn = Ll^n. »> Bwlch yr Eivl. « Penrhyn D(L 
d St. Tudwars Island. • Vnys y Meirch. » Pwll-hcli. 

« Traeth Mawr. ^ Traeth bach. 

* Penrhyn deu-draeth. ^ (>las-lyn. 



IN WALES. PART VI 89 

Al Penrine * Pointe is in Merionithshire, and as much as Carnarvon 
is beyounde Gleslin on the warth of Traithmaure. ahirc. 

Credine * a commote of Cairarvonshire a this side Conwey 
River. 

This commote partely be Conwey R3rver, partely by the 
se is yn a maner as insulatid, and one way owte of Denbigh 
land the way is over a made causey over a marsch often 
overflowen. 

The cumpace of it, as I gesse, is an viii. miles. Yn lenght 
it is a 3. miles. 

In it is a 3. paroches. 

In it is very litle wood, and that is at Penrine [Little 
Orme's Head]. 

It berith very good come and grasse. 

There is northward in Credine a bay or rode very goode 
for shippis, and that greate, caullid Carrig Gonnyon,* An- 
glice White Stonys. H[ere] a mile up ynto the land appere 
greate mines of Hegannoye * Castel stondding on an hille, 
wher, as sum say, Mailgo Guined* dwellid and Lluelen 
Prince of North Wales. 

Place Penrine ' an auncient stone house by est north est 
on the shore longing to Mr. Poel of [Flint] shire. 

Cogarth ' almost clene doune on Conwey River shore be- 
twixt [here laye D] • 

Segent,"* as I hard say, risith at Lynne Dolebademe. This 
poole is a 3. miles yn lenght, yn sum place a mile broode, 
and yn divers places lesse and lesse. It lyith by Withow * 
Hille, and is distant a v. myle from Cairarvon toward south 
est from Cairarvon. 

Ogweyne risith at a place caullid Tale Llinne Ogweyne, a 
poole a V. mile above Bangor yn the est side of Withow. 

Conwey Ryver hedde is withyn a 3. myles of Penmachno 
Hille, andf this hille is a vi. or 7. miles from Conwey 
Abbey. 

[* Bottom of fo. 50 decayed. Stow omits this paragraph.] 
[t MS. an.^ 

» Pcnrhyn deu-draeth. *> Creu^yn. « Cerrig Gwynion* 

* D^[anwy. • Maelgwn GwynciJ. ' Penrnyn Castle, 

s Gogarih, t.«.. Great Orme's Head. ^ Seint or Saint 
» Y \Vy«¥a. 



90 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Carnarvon- 
shire. 



[*See Appen- 
dix B.] 



fo. 53. 
Denbigh- 
shire. 



Traith Vehan and Traith Maur be salt armes and crekes 
fedde with no notable fresch ryvers. 

Mr. Rouland Griffith tolde me that there were 2. com- 
motes betwixte Abredeuy • and Towen Merionith that were 
yn tymes paste plentyful of come and grasse, but lying low, 
and almost as level grounde, the se ful many a yere syns 
hath clene devourid them up, and now it is totally a sandy 
warth. 

He told me also that at the chyrch where he dwellith yn 
Anglesey,* by the commune fame of all the counterey, there 
was of auncient tyme an house of relligion. 

In tyme of mynde menne usid not in Termone** to seper- 
ate thejrr grounde, but now stille more and more they digge 
stony hillokkes yn theyre groundes, and with the stones of 
them rudely congestid they devide theyre • groundes after 
Devonshire fascion. 

In digging of these [they] digge up yn many places yerthen 
pottes with the mouthes turnid douneward, conteyning 
[a'fieres et ossa morfuorum.]f 

The bridge at Chester apon Dee. 

The toun of the Holt 5. miles by land from Chester, and 
there is a great stone bridge on Dee Ryver. 

Llangotlan ° is a ix. miles above the Holt, and there is a 
great stone bridge over Dee Ryver. 

Llan Gotlan village is on the south side, and Dinas Brane 
Castelle stondith apon an high hille on the north ripe of 
Dee a 3. quarters of a mile of. 

The castelle of Dinas Brane was never bigge thing, but 
sette al for strenght as in a place half inaccessible for enne- 
myes. It is now al in mine : and there in the rok side that 
the castelle stondith on bredith J every yere an egle. And 
the egle doth sorely assaut hym that distroith the nest, goyng 
doun in one basket, and having a nother over his hedde to 
defend the sore stripe of the egle. 

Llan Egwiste,** alias Vallis Cmcis, an abbay of Whit 

[* Leiand repeats theyre^ and in the next line but one he omits they,^ 

[t Here leaves 51, 52 are blank.] 

\X Leiand by a slip repeats ihis word.] 



» Aber Dyvi. 
« Llan Gollen. 



* Tlr M6n, #.*., Anglesey. 

* Llan Egwestyl. 



IN WALES. PART VI 91 

Menkes, was 3. quarters of [a myle] of by west north Denbigh- 
weste. •^^"• 

WYRALE.* fo. 54. 

Wyrale begynnith lesse then a quarter of a mile of the Cheshire, 
very cite self of Chester, and withyn a 2. bow shottes of the 
suburbe without the northe gate at a litle brooket cauUid 
Flokars Broke that ther cummith ynto Dee Ryver, and ther 
is a dok wherat at spring tide a ship may ly, and this place 
is cauilid Porte Poole. 

Half a myle lower ys Blaken Hedde, as an armelet of the 
grounde pointing oute At this is an olde manor place long- 
ging to the Erie of Oxforde, and theryn lyith sumtyme Syr 
(Jul. Norres. 

A mile be water lower hard on the shore is a litle village 
cauilid Sauheho.* 

Lesse then a mile lower is Crabho'' village. 

A myle lower is Shottewik Castelle on the very shore 
longging to the King : and therby ys a park. 

Shottewike townelet is a 3. quarters of a myle lower. 

And 2. mile lower is a rode in D[ee] cauilid Salthouse, 
wher again it [on the] shore is a salt house cotage. 

Then is Burton hedde, wherby is a village almost a mile 
lower than Salt [House.] 

ii. myles lower and more is Denwale Rode, and agayne it 
a farme place cauilid Denwaulle Haul. It longith to Mr. 
Smithe, and more up into the land is Denwaulle ^ village. 

ii. miles and more lower is Neston Rode, and ynward a 
mile ynto the land is Neston village. 

About a 3. miles lower is a place cauilid the Redde Bank, 
and ther half a mile withyn the land is a village cauilid 
Thrustington.* 

A mile and more lower is Waste Kirkeby a village hard 
on the shore. 

And half a mile lower is Hillebyri,' as the very point of 
Wyrale. 

This Hillebyri at the floode is al environid with water as 
an isle, and than the irajectus is a quarter of a mile over 
and 4. fadome depe of water, and at ebbe a man may go 

» A barbarixed form of KUgwri, ^ Sanghall. « Crabhall. 
* I>cnhill. • Thiiistaston. ' Hilbie Point. 



92 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Cheshire. over the sand. It is about a mile in cumpace, and the 
grounde is sandy and hath conies. There was a celle of 
monkes of Chestre, and a pilgrimage of our Lady of Hilbjnri. 

The barre caullid Chester Barre that is at [the] very mouth 
of the sandes spuid oute of Dee Ryver is an 8. or lo. mile 
west south west from Hilbyri. 
fo. 55. It is by estimation a xvi mile from the point of Hilbery 
to crosse strait over to the next shore in Lancastershire. 
For Lyrpoole* lyith a x. miles into the lande from the mouthe 
of Mersey Water, and lytle lak of xx. from the very barre of 
Mersey that lyith in the mayne se. 

From the poynt of Hylbyri to Lirpoole as it lyith withyn 
the lande a x. mile. 

From Hilbyri to cumpace about the shore of Wyral on 
Mersey side to Walesey* village on the very shore, wher men 
use much * to salten hering taken at the se by the mouth 
of Mersey, is a seven or eight miles. 

Thens a 2. myles to the fery house on Wyrale shore, and 
there is the trajectus proximus to Lyrpole a 3. miles over. 

Aboute half a quarter of [a] mile upward hard on Wyral 
shore is Byrk[et]* a late a priory of a xvi. monkes as a celle 
to Chester without any village by it. 

Al the shore grounde of Wyral apon De side ys highe 
bankid, but not veri hilly grounde. And so ys the bank of 
Wyrale onto Briket* on Mersey side. 

The trajectus from Hillebyri directely overthwart bytwixt 
Flint and Basingwark is at the ful se a vii. miles over. 

fo. 56. FLINTESHIR. 

Flintshire. The est parte of the paroche of Potuarry * is in Flintshire : 

and part of the same paroche toward the south ys yn Diffrin 
Cluid. 

Hoele communely caullid in Englische Poele ^ and, as sum 
say, it is the name that we caull t Hughe. 

Hoele was a gentilman of Flyntshir that by aundent ac- 
custume was wont to gyve the bagge of the sylver harpe to 

[* Lelnnd repeats use here.] 
[t ^a«///V/inMS.] 



• Liverpool. * Wallasey. « ? Birket R. 

d Bod Varri. • Poele or Powel=ap Howel, i.^., son of Howel. 



IN WALES. PART VI 



93 



the beste harper of North Walys, as by a privilege of his Flintshire, 
auncetors, dwellith at Penrine yn Flyntshir. He hath also 
a rumus castelet, or pile, at a place caullid Castel YoUo/ Castelium 
This word Yollo * is the same in Walsche that Lluelen ys, and LwLvku 
Ludovicus in Latine. 

Yollo ys 2. miles from Northob village a litle on the lift 
hand yn the highe [way] to Chester. 

Thisarte,* or Disarte, Castelle yn Flyntshire, by the name 
yn Walsche is thus expoundid. Thi is privativa particular 
as not. Sarte is stepe up. Not stepe or cliuing up, that is Disarte, 
to say playne. 

Rethelanj'^communely caullid Rudelan, cummith of Rethe, 
that ys to say roone color or pale redde, and glan, that is the 
shore ; but G when Glan is set with a worde praeceding G is 
explodid. 

About Glascoit {viridis sitvd) Hille, that is a 4. miles be- 
yond Rethelan, is the limes of Flintshir and Denbigh lande. 



DENBIGHE-LANDE. 



fo.S7. 



Commotes yn Denbigh-Land. Denbigh- 

Ise Dulesse and Hughe Dulesse,* both by northe toward •^*'*' 
Llan Elwy, alias S. Asaphe. 

And boothe be namid of Dullesse • a broke there rennyng. 

Ise Aleth and Hughe Aleth ' ly bothe flat weste toward t 
Conwey, and hath the name of Aleth Ryver. 

Kinemarth ' cummith from withyn a mile and a half of 
Ruthine to the very toune and castelle waul of Denbighe, 
and lyith most by south south est. 

Sum take the paroche self of Denbigh for a commote, and 
lyith much by este, and is a 4. mile yn cumpace or more. 

Sum say that afore the toune of Denbigh was made yt was 
y n Hughe Dulesse '^ commote, but sins of late tyme it hath be 
provid by pie to be a cort and commot of it self. 

There is no place yn al these commotes where the people 
dwelle vicatim, but al sparsim, saving at Denbighe toun self. 

[* DuleUsse in MS.) 

[t In the margin Leland has CisatetAia,] 



• Ewloe Castle. *> Yollo or lolo stands for Edward in Welsh. 
« Diserth. ^ Ru)S-1an. • Is Dulas and Uch Dulas. 

f Is Aled and Uch Aled. f Kinmeirch. b Uch Dulas. 



94 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Denbigh- 
shire. 



my tkifaid 



FHHUW 

Matiae 



to. S8. 



And yn al these commotes was no [howse] of priory or 
abbay, saving a place of White Freres at the very este ende of 
the toun of Deiibighe, 

There be diverse paroche chirches in eche of these com- 
motes, saving that if Denebigh paroch be a commote, iher is 
bijt one paroche chirch yn it, and that isS. Marcelles a mile 
and more out [of] the toune of Denbighe by est. 

Ther be ii, of ease by side withyn the toune self, wherof 
one is caullid S. Hilaries, very large and welle servid. 

Kinemarth* is the greatest rommot of al the resideu^and 
yet hath but a, or 3* paroches, Lan Rayhader/ that is a 7. 
miles in lenght, and LlaneinySj*' that is not al in Kynmarth, 
but parte in Diffrin Cluid. It is caullid Llaneinis, by cause 
the chirch is set betwixt the ryvcrs of Quid and Cluedog^ as 
in an isle. These ii* stremes ren ther withyn a quarter of a 
mile togither. 

Loke wither Llanvair Vadelen be not in Kinemarth. This 
paroche is caullid b Walsch Kertg Edndlon.* 

There is yn the est ende of Lan Raihader paroch very 
goodly come and grasse, but by west south west yt is baren 
and hilly with bogges. Wood inough yn Raihaider by north 
est- 

There is good com, as whete grounde, about Llaneinys, 
metely woddyd. 

Lanvair Vade[len] is much baren, [but] for otes withe 
[great] labor* No wood but turfe. Ful of hilles and bogges, 

The paroche self of Dencbighe is plentiful of come and 
gresse, but no great wood. 

Ise Dulesse ^is good for corne as whele, rye, peason and 
benes^ and hath very good fine pasture and medois, and 
hath litle wast ground yn it, and hath good woodde as in the 
lesse porke longging to Denbighe, and yn other places. This 
litle parke is caullid in Walsch Gorse(firres)nodiog.* There 
is a quane of harde stone. Its of a blakisch or sad marble 
color, much usid for ovens and chimeneis in this litle park: 
and there also they dig oute slate stones to kyver houses. 

Hughe Dulesse ** is less frutefui then Ise Dulesse, and more 
hylly and rokky, Ther is plenty of woodde in it. And the 



* Kinmcircb. ^ Llan Rh?iiadyr* 

* CU7d ond Gywedog* * Keriig y Drudion. 



« Linn Vtiys. 
' Is Dulai, 
^ Uch Dnla^. 



IN WALES. PART VI 95 

great park by Denbigh is, as I lernid, in this commote. This Denbigh- 
parke is cauUid in Walsche Moil evig,* that is to say of the •^^i*** 
balde hyndes. 

Other parkes then the a. aforesaid be not in Denbighe 
land. 

Ise Aleth * cummith to the very shore of Rethelan Bay. 

This bay bereth the name from Rethelan and the mouth 
of Cluide to the mouth of Conwey. 

These ii. paroches in Ise Aleth ly apon the shore : first 
Lan S. George next to the marches of Flyntshir, and more 
upper west to Credin • Abergele paroch, where be likelihod is 
a water caullid Gelle.*' 

The north part of Ise Aleth as to the shore is meetely 
fruteful of corne. The south part is hilly, good for gotes, 
and hath litle wood in respecte. 

Hughe Aleth •* cummith by weste onto Conwey Ryver bank 
agayn the towne self of Conway, and ther metith with Come 
Credine * a pece of Cairarvonshir cis Conwey River : and 
leving Credin on the north side of the shore, as on the right 
honde : and then goith on Conwey River bank up a litle by 
south south west, and then levyng Conwey bank it goith 
plain south and metith with Penthline ' lordship. 

In Hughe Aleth be many bogges, rokky hilles, and morisch fo. 59^ 
ground : and the soil is to cold to have good come, yet yn 
diverse places it berith otes and sum rye. It hath in sum 
places woodde. In these hilles be kept nete horse and shepe. 

This commote is the worst parte of al Denbigh land and 
most baren. 

In Kinemarch* commote be 2. places wher be likelihod 
hath beene sum castelettes or piles of defence. Uesguen- PalaHum 
Uean ^ is the one, and that is a 3. quarters of a myle owt of Vindoienae, 
Denbigh toward south in the way to Ruthine on the right 
bond. There apperith no building now, but great diches and 
hilles over growen with bussches. 

Place amedowe* is the other, wher is a great diche and a 
hille. The name [declarith] it to have beene the place [of 
an her]emite. [Wither ther hathe] beene [any ojther th[ing 
there it is out] of memorie. [There is nothing now] but a 

• Mod yr Ewig. »> Is Aled. G^i^. 

* Uch Aled. • Creu«yn. ' Pcnllyn. 

f Kinmeirch. ^ Ll^ Gwenllian. i PUs y Meadwy. 



96 



LELAND^S ITINERARY 



Denbigh- fox borow. [It IS a mile a!id] more from Denbigh [by south 
**^^«. iti the way to Ruthin on the lifte hand,] 

DEKBir.H TOUNE. 

After that King Edward had extinctid the Prince of Wales, 
anJ had holely al Wales in his possession he much studied 
to the fortification especially of North Wales, and the marches 
of it. And by this meane Lacy a man of greate estimation 
about Edwarde the I. had the land of Denby gyven onto hym. 

And I have hard ^ay that it was partely in consideration 
that he oiaried in the bloode of ihe Prince of North Wales, 
l^cy was a great lord marcher afore in E wis land * bering the 
name of Lacye* 

This Lacy firste began the tounof Denbigh, walling it and 
making a castelle there. Afore his tyme I cannot lerne that 
there was other toun or castelle. 

The toune and [castjel of Denbighe [stand]ith on a [craggy] 
hille, and is nere [a mile in cumpace,] and yspene orh[aiiari 
figura. The castelle lyith south on the toune : and the toun 
lyith to the castelle by north and est, 
fo. 60* In the toun be but 2^ gates, the Escheker Gate, and the 
Burges Gate. In the first was the lordes court kept : and 
P^atiaiafia. in the other the burgesis. The Eskeker Gate lyith play ne 
west, and the Eurgeses Gate plain north. 

These ii. gates as the cumpace of the waulle goith be a 
great flite shot one from the other : and betwixt them in the 
wauUe is never a tower. 

And from the Eskeker* Gate to the castel is neveratowrc: 
but ther is a galery out of the castd into it. 

These towers be in the toune waulle by est from the 
Burgeses Gate to the south est side of the castelle, 

[First a ^^^i\ ^uadrala [tower] cauUidf 

[t The bottom of this fo. 60 was damai^ed in Siow's time j after tlie 
word " caullid '* he writes "etc. lorne and defacid " (but ht ma.kes his 
etc. extend to more than four Lines at the top of the next piRgc, which 
are perfect, goingon at **ai ihktyme be scant")* ITie above (in italjc)^ 
p. 97t is supplictl from Huriun {a\ who scctns to have been able to 
read the scraps which were left* Thcie scraps d*^ not now ciistl the 
lower third of the [eaf is filled in wilh modem pAper.J 



» Ewias Lacy* 



IN WALES. PART VI 97 

[secondly the countes toure a goodly square tower of 2. loftes Denbigh- 
highe. The third the Goblin Hole semicirculari figura, the •^*'*«« 
leades of which in hominum memoria about a 80. y cares agoe 
were with tempest carried awaye^ as farre almost as St. Mar- 
celles thefaroche churchy and so it hath lyen uncovered^ 

There be 2. rounde toures beside. 

There hath beene diverse rowes of streates withyn the wald 
towne, of the which the most part be now doone in maner, 
and at this tyme there be scant 80. howsolders. There is a 
goodly and large chapel of ease in the old toune, of S. Hilarie, 
wither yet moste of the new toun yet cumme. 

I have not yet lernid the certente how this wallid toune 
decayed withyn, wither it were by fier or for lak of water, 
wherof there is litle or none, or for lak of good caryage into 
the toun standing sumwhat high and on rokky ground, I 
cannot surely telle. 

But the towne of Denbigh now occupied and yoining 
neere to the old toun hath beene totally made of later tyme, 
and set much more to commodite of cariage and water by 
many welles in it. And the encreace of this was the decay 
of the other. \At this present tyme the newe is 3. times as 

bigge as the oulde^ and is a mile and it lyeth 

all in one streete and in the market 

place wellbuildedy which is fay re, and large j and paved of late 
yeares, the confluence to the market on Tewesday is exceding 
great, St, Marcelles a mile ofwasparoche chirche to the ould 
towne, and so it is to the newe.'j* 

There is a chapelle of ease m the midle of the new towne, fo. 61. • 
of S. Anne. One Fleming was the builder of this, and yet 
it is caullid Capelle Fleming, and is of a good largenes. Ther 
was an almose house hard by this chapelle ex saxo quadrcUo 
made by the same Fleming. But now it is desolate. 

The new toune of Denbigh was clere defacid with fier by 
hostilite, a^D. 1468. Sum say that this was doone by the Erie 
of Penbroke. 

The castelle is a very large thing, and hath many toures 
yn it. But the body of the worke was never finishid. 

The gate house is a mervelus strong and great peace of 

[* Here again at bottom of fo. 60 vo Burton was able to read much 
on the torn pieces which Stow omitted. See last note.] 

H 



98 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Denbigh- 
shire. 



fa 62. 



Locus Aleiius, 



work, but the /as ftgi'a of it were never finischid. If they had 
beene, it might have beene countid emong the most memor- 
able peaces of workys yn England. It hath diverse wardes 
and dyverse portcolicis. On the front of the gate is set the 
image of Hen. Lacy Erie of Lincoln in his stately long robes. 

There is a nother very high towre and larg in the castelle 
caullid the Redde Towre. 

Sum say that the Erie of Lincoln's sunne felle into the 
castelle welle, and ther dyed : wherapon he never passid to 
finisch the castelle. 

King Edward the 4. was bes^d in Denbigh-Castelle : and 
ther it was pactid bytwene King Henry's men and hym that 
he should with life departe the reaulme never to retume. 
If they had taken King Edwarde there debellatutn fitisset 

There is every Sunday prayers made in S. Hilarie Chapelle 
for Lacey and Percy. 

Denbigh lande on sum places marcheth apon Cluide Ryver. 

Wher Cluid cummith niest to Denbigh toun it is 2. miles 
of by este. 

Loke here for Fonnon Dunoc* : S. Dunokes Welle a mighty 
spring that maketh a brok renning scant a mile. 

Cluedog* Ryver cummith ynto Cluid 4. mile lower by 

water, and 3. by land, and than ynto by west. 

It is Llanharder * paroche, of sum caullid S. Dunnokes, then 
Ruthin town on the weste ripe of it. 

Looke heere for these brokes. 

Brennig. 

Vehan. 

Alwein.** 

Ustrate* cummith within half a mile by south of Denbigh 
toun, and goith ynto Cluid ' by the west ripe almost againe 
Denbigh toun that is a 2. miles of. 

Aleth risith in lilin Aleth * poole an 8. miles west from 
Denbigh toun in the paroche of Llan Sannan, and rennith 
about an 8. miles towarde the north, and go ynto the south 
ripe of Elwy in Llan Heueth ^ * paroche, a 6. miles above S. 

[* Over Heueth Leiand wrote obtdiintie^ and in the margin Fanum 
obedientie,^ 



Ffynnon Dyvnog. 
Ystrad ' Clwyd. 



*> Clywedog. « Llan Rbaiadr. * Alwen. 
8 Alcd. ^ Elwy yn Llan Nevy«. 



IN WALES. PART VI 



99 



Asaph. So that the course of it goith [an 8.] miles by estima- Denbigh- 
tion. •^"•c 

Ther is a litle water caullid Merach Mirchion,* wherby, as 
sum saie, was Lorde Marach a Mirch[i]ons* place. It is 
Henellan [paroc]h. 

On the farther ripe of Elwy a 3. or 4. miles above S. 
Asaphes is a stony rok caullid Kereg thetylluaine,* ue, the 
rok with hole stones, wher a great cave is, having divers 
romes in it hewid out of the mayne rok. 

There is in the paroch of Llansannan in the side of a 
stony hille a place where ther be 24. holes or places in a 
roundel for men to sitte in, but sum lesse and sum bigger, 
cutte out of the mayne rok by manneshand, and there childem 
and young men cumming to seke their catelle use to sitte 
and play. Sum caulle it the round table. Kiddes use ther 
communely to play and skip from sete to sete. 

There is an hille with pasture in Guitheryn paroche in 
Denbigh lande caullid Penbere,** />. caput sepukri^ [wher] a 
stone like a flat stone of a grave lyith, and one, as it is sayde, 
lyith under it byried.* 



Market townes in Glocestreshire. 

Glocestre. 
Bristow. 
Cirecestre. 
Twekesbyri. 

Castelles in Giocestreshire. 
Glocestre. 

Sudely by Winchelcumbe. 
Cirecestre had a castel by lykelyhod. 
Bristow Castel. 



fo.64« 

Gloucester- 
shire. 



[* A blank leaf (63) occurs here ; the following leaves, 64-66 (relating 
to English counties, and ending with " Marden— Martyr's Hil," p. 104), 
were probably written by Leland earlier than the preceding ; the hand 
is closer, the ink much faded (not by damp). They seem to have been 
inserted by mistake in the midst of the Welsh notes.] 



* March Meirchion. 
« Karreg y tyllvaen. 



^ March ap Meirchion, 
^ Pen 6^ 



loo LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Gloucester- Ryvtrs in GlocestresMre. 

•Wre. Severn. 

Avon touchith at Twekesbiri. 

Another Avon at Bristow. 

Isis risith a iii. myles from Cirencestre not far from a vill- 
age cawlled Kemble within half a myle of the Fosse Way, 
betwixt Cirecestre and Bath. Thens it runneth to Latinelad* 
a 4. myles of, and so to Grekelad^ abowt a myle lower, sone 
after receyving Churn. 

Wher as the very hed of Isis ys, in a great somer drought 
appereth very litle or no water, yet is the stream servid with 
many ofspringes resorting to one botom. 

Chume at CiCQStre^ proprie Churncestre, a hard by Chestre- 
tOTi^improprie proChvLineioyfw. The principal hedde of Chum 
risith at Coberle, wher is the hed howse of Sir John Bridges. 
[It] is a vii. myles from Glocestre, and a five mvles or more 
from Cirecestre by the which yt [renneth, and] thens a vi. 
[myles] uno infra Greklad milliari yt goith [into Isis.] 

Communely thorough al Glocestershire there is [good] 
plenty of corn, pasture and wood, saving at Coteswold wher 
the great flokkes of sheepe be, and yet in sum places ther 
groweth fair corn. 

Glocestre where yt is not sufficiently defended by Severn 
ys waulled. The castel is of an wonderful old building, but 
no old Britons brykes yn yt, sed lapides plerumque quadrati. 
Of al partes of yt the hy towr in media area ys most strongest 
and auncient. Withowt dttplici fossa munitur. In the towne 
be [xi.] • paroche chirches, withowt t Blak Monkes yn the 
town. Blak Chanons lately withowt. 

An arow shot withowt the town toward Herford ys a long 
bridge of stone, under the which goeth a great arme of 
Severne, as I remembre, cawlled Owsebume. Yt breketh owt 
of the great streame above the town, and beneth yt goith 
againe into the mayne streame. The curse of yt is abowt a 
myle. So that it insulateth a goodly medow. 

Bristow apon Avon a greate cite, well waulled, having a 
fair casteL In yt is now, as I remembre, xviii. paroche 

[* Leland wrote no figure, Stow added it.] 
[t 5iV, but this word seems redundant.] 

» Latton. ■> Cikklade. 



IN WALES. PART VI loi 

chirches. S. Augustines, BlakChanons^.r/ra»»atf«ia; ibique Gloucestcr- 
in magna area sacellum^ in quo sepultus est, S fordanuSj •hire. 
unus ex discipulis AugusHni Anglorum apostoli, A howse 
withowt the wauUes, as I remembre, cawUed the Gauntes 
otherwise Bonhommes. [iiii.] howses of freres, of the wiche 
the White Freres place ys very fair. Avon Ryver abowt a 
quartre of a mile beneth the towne in a medow casteth up a 
great arme or gut by the which the greater vessels as mayne 
toppe shippes cum up to the towne. So that Avon doth 
peninsulate the towne, and vessels may cum of [bothe] 
sides of yt. 1 marked not wel whither ther cam any fresch 
water from the land to bete that arme. 

Avon goith into Severn at [-^«^]es Rode iii. [«iy/«] be- 
neth \Bristow'\ by land, and [vi.] by water. 

In the hilles about Bristow [towne be] found litle stones 
[of divers colours counterfetynge precious] stones. 

Cirecestre, corruptely for Churnecestre, peraventure of fo. 65. 
Ptoleme cawUed Coriminum,* stondeth in a botom apon the 
ryver of Churne. Be lykehod yn times past guttes were 
made that partes of Churn streame might cum thorow the 
cyte, and so to retume to their great botom. The cumpace 
of the old waul, cujus pauca adhuc extant vestigia^ was nere 
hand ii. myles. A man may yet walking on the bank of 
Churne evidently perceyve the cumpace of fundation of 
towers sumtyme standing in the waul ; and nere to the place 
wher the right goodly clothing mylle was set up a late by 
the Abbate, was broken down the mine of an old tower to- 
ward making of the mylle waulles, in the which place was 
fownd a quadrate stone fawllen down afore, but broken in 
aliquot frusta^ wherin was a Romaine inscription, of the 
which one, scantly letterd, that saw yt told me that he might 
perceyve Pont, Max. Among divers numismata fownd 
frequently there Dioclesian's be most fairest, but I cannot 
adfirme the inscription to have bene dedicate onto hym. In 
the middes of the old town in a medow was found a flore 
de tessellis versicoloribus^ and by the town nostris temporibus 
was fownd a broken shank bone of a horse, the mouth closed 
with a pegge, the which taken owt a shepard founde yt fillid 
nummis argenteis. In the south sowth west side of the waul 

[* There are small marks over and under the n which seem to mean 
deletion, and so the word would read Corimium,] 



I02 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Gloucester- be lykelyhod hath bene a castel, or sum other great building, 
Bhirc, the hilles and diches yet remayne. Sum say that it was the 

place wher sege was laide to the town, and not far thens is 
a sieepe rownd biry like a wind myl hill extra muros cawUed 
Grismundes Tower, for Gusmundes Tower, as theie say.* 
The place is now a waren for conys, and there hath be 
fownd mennes bones insolitae magnitudiniSy also to sepul- 
chres ex secto lapide. In one was a round vessel of leade 
covered, and in hit ashes and peaces of bones. More then 
iii. partes of the old town is now goodly medow ground. 
The iiii. part ys yet wel inhabited, having one paroche 
chirche very richely wrougt, and an abbay [of] Blak Chanons 
fundatore Henrico primo. But th[ere]afore was a great 
chirch of prebendaries. [In the] body of [the chirch] in a 
sepulchre crosse of [white mar]ble is this [inscription, Hic\ 
jacet Rembaldus [presbyter^ quondam hujus ecclesiae decanus^ 
et tempore Edwardi regis Angliae canceilarius.'] There is 
also a litle chapel as an almose house. 

The soyle in the stony feeldes abowt Cirecestre is more 
apt for barle then whete. 

Therabowt as in Coteswold is smawl plenty of wood ex- 
cept in few places kept of necessite.t 

Cummyng fro Glocester to Cirecestre almost yn the myd- 
dle way betwyxt wher the wood fayleth and champayne 
Fossa. countery toward Coteswold appereth, the faire old way made 

by the Britons ys very evidently seen, and so goeth as strayt 
as a line to Cirecester, and fro thens to Bathe. But sum 
wold that the way from Cirecester to Bath should be the very 
fosse^ and the way betwyxt Cirecestre toward Glocester to be 
an other of the iiii. wayes made by the Britons. The Abbat 
of Cirecestre told me that abowt Cirecestre should be crosse 
meating of al the iiii. wayes. 

At Litle Subbiri, alias Sodbiri, in Glocestreshire a xii. 

miles from Bristow as yt were by north est appereth on a 

hille a strong camp of menne of warre doble dichid. It is 

usid now to be sowen by Mr. Walche. 

fo. 66b Kenchester standeth a iii. myles or more above Hereford 

[* The words " tower, for — say," part of a marginal note crushed 
Into small space, are perhaps doubtfiil.] 

[t These two notes, written in the margin against the account of the 
ruined wall tower, p. loi, are more conveniently inserted here.] 



IN WALES. PART VI 103 

upward on the same side of the ryver that Herford doth; Hereford- 
yet is yt almost a myle fro the ripe of Wy. This towne is »hire. 
far more auncyent then Herford, and was celebrated yn the 
Romaynes tyme, as appereth by many thinges, and es- 
pecyally by antique mony of the Caesars very often fownd 
withyn the towne, and yn plowghyng abowt ; the which the 
people ther cawlleth Duarfes Mony. The cumpace of Ken- 
chestre hath bene by estimation as much as Herford, ex- 
cepting the castel, the which at Herford ys very spatiose. 
Peaces of the walles and turrets yet 2c^^xq prope fundamentay 
and more should have appered if the people of Herford 
town and other therabowt had not yn tymes paste pulled 
down muche and pyked owt of the best for there buildinges. 
Of late one Mr. Brainton buylding a place at Stretton a myle 
from Kenchestre dyd fetch much tayled stone there toward 
his buildinges. They told me ther that one M. Lingham ys 
owner both of Kenchester and Sutton. By lykelyhod men 
of old tyme went by Kenchester to Hay, and so to Breknoc 
and Cair Mardyn.* The place wher the town was ys al over 
growen with brambles, hasylles, and lyke shrubbes. Never- 
thelesse here and there yet appere ruines of buyldinges, of 
the which the folisch people cawUe on the King of Feyres 
Chayre. Ther hath ben fownd nostra memoria lateres Brit- 
anma\ et ex eisdetn canaUSy aquae ductus^ tessellata pavi- 
mentayfragmentumcatenulae aureae, calcar ex \auro\y* by side 
other strawng thinges. To be short, of the decaye of Ken- 
chestre Herford rose and florishyd. Withowt fayle Herford 
ys better set as hard apon Wy Ryver, and so nerer to the 
pastures. But 1 cannot perceyve that Hereford had any 
great begynning afore King Offas tyme, the which be sd 
likelyhod had a palace at Sutton. 

Sutton ys a iiii. myle from Hereford, wher appere notable 
ruines of sum auncyent, and great building. It is thowght 
ther and a great lykelyhod is that it was sumtyme the man- 
sion of King Offa, at such tyme as Kenchestre stood, or els 
Herford was abegynnyng. 

[• So Burton, which is supported by Stow*s erroneous ours, Heame 
has argetUOy but there is not room for the word, of which only a remains.] 



» Carmarthen. 



I04 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Hereford- 
sh ire. 



fo, 67* 
Brecknock* 

Bbire. 



Marden village is abowt a myle from Sutton, and harde 
by ys a hil wher, as men say, S. Ethelbncght was behedded. 
At the village now is a fair chirche dedicate to hym, I 
thynk verely that he was slayn at Sutton yn King Offa's 
howse- The name of Marden semeth to expresse the Mar- 
tyrs Hil* 

Breknocshire is very montanius, and in sum place very 
wooddy; netherthelesse in the vail es fruteful of corn, and 
especially of pastures, for the Walschmen yn tymes past, as 
they do almost yet, did study more to pasturage then tyilin^% 
as favorers of their consuele idilness. Among a1 the mon- 
laynes of that shire Blak Montayne is most famosei for he 
strecchith, as I have lerned, his rootes on one side within a 
iiii. or V. myles of Moncmuth, and on the other side as nere 
to Cairmerdin.* Though this be al one montayne> yet many 
partes of him have sundry names. Owt of this montayne 
springeth the heddes of liii. famose ryvers, that be diverse 
cowrsys thorowgh Sowth Wales at the last cum ynto the 
Severn Se, Ther be yn the shire diverse other litle rivers, 
of whom Giraldus wntelh at length, as Hodeney ** that giveth 
the old name to Breknoc, that is to say Aberhodeney," and 
Lleueney ■* that cummeth owt of Atterel Hylles, the wich be 
cawUed in Walsch Menetb e Cadatr,* id ast mcnUs alH insiar 
cathtdramm^ and so descendeth ynto Breknoc Mere, the 
which is a ii. myles in lengeth, and a myle or more in 
bredthe. This lake is cawUed in Walsche Llin Seuathan/ 
Here one thing is to be noted, that after a great reyne 
Lleueney cummeth owt of the raontaynes with such a rage 
that he bringethet t^e color of the dark redde sand with hym^ 
and ys sene by the color wher he violently passeth thorowgh 
the mere* Thens Lleueney renneth into Wy abowt Glasbyri 
a iii. myles from the Hay, the which is in the right way be- 
twixt Herford and Breknoc. Looke more diligendy for this 
lake apon Giraldus book cawlJed *'Itinerarium Cambriae." 



[• See note before, p- 99*1 

[t Stow, Lcland has bringging^^ 



» Carmarthen. ^ Hodni, nowHon^u. 

* Abtr Hodni, now corrupted into Abet HonSu, ^ IJyvni 

• Myny« y Gadeir. ' Llyn Syvfl«ati> 



IN WALES. PART VI 105 

In the lak be umbers, yn Walsche cangans, and great store of Brecknock- 
pykes, wherof many cum into Wy River. The Lake of shire. 
Brecnok ons frosen over, and than in a thaue breking, 
maketh mervelus noise [per] totam vidniam. 

The town of Breknoc is welle waulled, and hath a fair 
castel yoining to hit. The Duke of Bokingham was of late 
lord there. In the town be . . . paroche chirches, and 
withowt . . .* There a late was a celle of Blak Monkes 
longing to Batayle Abbay. 

Brekenok waullid. iiii. gates. Old Port superior, as the fo. 68. 
Hy Gate by north. West Gate by the Blake Freer. They 
be in the suburbe. Est Gate, Water Gate, Cambrice Por- 
thene hichca,* Le. superior, the Old Gate. Portbont,** Brid- 
gate, alias West Gate. Portissa^ the lower gate, alias Est 
Gate. Portdoure,* Water Gate, alias Portwiske. Beside thes 
gates is one without in the beginning of a suburbe caullid 
also Porthene." In the towne is a mighti great chapel (S. 
Mariae), with a large tour for belles of harde ston costely 
squared with the expences of a thousand poundes. 

The paroche was wher the priori was, and was afore ther S» Joannis 
or the priori was made, and yet is. It stondith north withowt Evangdistae, 
the waulle apon the ripe of Honddye.' 

The paroch of Llanuays.* Llan Chirch, vais extra^ ac si s, DavuSs. 
diceres extra muros. It standeth betwixt the river of Uske 
and Tyrtarelle ^ Brooke, that [is] about the lower ende of the 
toun of Brekenok. 

In the est suburbe ys an hospitale with a chapeL S, Catarim. 

The castel standith in the suburbe and is devidid from the 
toune by Hondeney * River, over the wich is a hy bridge of 
ii. arches to go into the castel, the wich is very large, strong, 
welle mainteynid ; and t^he keepe of the castel is very large 
and faire. Ther apperith digging, wher menne laborid to 
bring a peace of Hondy * about to insulate Brekenok with hit 
and Wiske. 

In the toune is a market twys a weeke Wensday and Satur- 
day. 

[* Two blanks left by Leland.] 



• Forth hen ucha. ^ Forth y Bont. • Forth issa. 

d Forth dVhr alias Forth Wysc. • Forth h^ 

' Hon^u. s LUn Vaes. ^ TaranelL ^ Hodni. 



io6 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Brecknock- 
shire. 



Suppressid. 
Monmouth- 
shire. 



Brecknock. 



There hath beene founde about the toune in the feeldes 
Romaine quenes. 

At the ende of the lower part of the castel cummith 
Honddey* into Uske as soone as Wske is ones* passid 
thorough the great bridge. 

Uske Bridge at Brekenoc was throuen doun by the [rage] 
of Wske water anno 26. Henrici 8. die 5. Hugonis, [It] was 
not by rain but by snow meltid that [cam out of] the mon- 
taines. The water [ranne a yarde above f the topj)e of the 
hy bridge, and the circle mark apperithe almost] to the midde 
waul of the Blake Freres [clo]istre. 

To the lordship of Brekenoc longgith but only the market 
of Brekenok. 

In al the lordship of Brekenoc was not in time of memori 
but the priori of Blake Monkes in Brekenok a cell to Bataile. 

Bamardus de novo mercatu was founder of hit. 

Llanthonddye ** a priori of Blake Chanons, ther cauUid 
Honddye Slade, stondith in the vale of Ewias xiiii. miles 
from Brekenok. But it is a nother Honddye* then that that 
cummith to Brekenok. This priori was fair, and stoode be- 
twixt ii great hilles. 

For the parte about Honddye Slade it J put be likelye- 
hodde Hochuyslade. 

Artures Hille is iii. good Walsche (almost v. Englisch) 
miles south west from Brekenok, and in the veri toppe of the 
hille is a faire wellespring. This hille of sum me is countid 
the hiest hille of Wales, and in a veri cleere day a manne 
may se from hit a part of Malvern Hilles, and Glocestre, and 
Bristow, and part of Devenshir and Cornwale. Ther \be\ 
other diverse hilles by Artures Hille, the wich, with hit, be 
communely cauUid Banne Brekeniauc.** 

Llin Seuathan ° is a iiii. myles by the south south est from 



[* Stow. Leiand has otu,'\ 

[t Stow. Burton has "ranne above," Heame prints "forward 
about," which must be wrong.] 

\X This phrase puzzled the copyists. Stow wrote "above" for 
"about," and he and Burton "is for "it," which seem better sense. 
But the MS. is clearly as in the text.] 



• HontSu. 



^ Bann^ Brycheinog. 



^ Llanthony. 



« Afon HontSu. 
• Llyn Sava^an. 



IN WALES. PART VI 107 

Brekenok. It is in bredth a mile, and a ii. miles of lenght, Brccknock- 

and wher as it is depest a xiii. fadom. On the one side wel «!»"•«• 

nere the ripe is a kinde of weedes that goith alonge the Llin, 

wherin the spaune hath socur, and also the greate fische. 

At great windes the water doth surge ther mervelusly. 

Lleueny cummith thorough this lake, no great river, and 

after great raine is parfightly seene of redde color in the 

middest of the lake. After that it is frosen and with thaue 

beginnith to breeke it makith such a noise that a man wold 

thinke hit a thunder. It berith as the principale fisch a great 

numbre of bremes, and they appeyre [in May] in mightii 

sculles, so that sumtime they breke [the large] nettes : and 

ons [frayed appereth not in the bryme of the watar that 

yere agayne.] It bereth also good pikes, and perches in fo. 69. 

greate numbre. Trowtes also, and cheuyns by cumming in of 

Lleueny. 

Menne fische there uniligneis^ and they be ver)' narow. 

The hedde of the lake wher Lleueny River cummith in is 
at Llanuihtngle (Michael) Kethedine.* 

The ende is at Llanuihengle Tale Llin.** TalepropHe 

Penkelthle* Castel ii. mile from Brekenok, ther on the fons, 
farther side of Uske. But ther is onely a faire medow by- 
twixt Uske and hit. Sum say that it longgid to the Mortimer. 
Syns the lordship was dividid betwixt the Duke of Boking- 
ham, and one of the Herebertes at Montgomeri. But the 
castel longgith to the Herebert. 

Blain Lleueni ^ in sum auncient writinges cauUid Eueri 
Castel, and Lleueni Water caullid Eueri Brooke. 

The honor of Blain Lleueni, iii. miles from Penkelthle, 
and V. from Brekenok, and within a mile of the mere, stand- 
ing in a valley ys in the Walsche Talegarth, wher is yet the 
shape of a veri fair castel now dekeiyi^g, and by was a borow 
town now also in decay. Both longgid to the Erie of Marche. 
Though Blaine Lleueni be in the Walsch Talegarth, yet 
the tenauntes kepe the Englische tenor. 

Llangors lordship in Talgarth is a membre to Blain 
Lleueny. 

Dinas Castel stondith a good mile from Blan Lleueni 

• Llan Vihangel Cathedine. « Pengelli Castle. 

^ Tal y llyn. ^ Blaen Uymi. 



io8 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Brecknock- 
shire. 



tni, miles from 
Brekenok, 



apon a topp of a notable hille. It is now minus almost to 
the hard ground. Ther be manifest tokins of iii. wardes 
waullid abowt. And therby was sumtime iii. parkes, and a 
forest. The parkes be down, but yet good plenty is ther of 
redde deere. The tenantes of Dinas hold of the Walsch 
tenor. It is set by like of one of the hilles caullid Chathe- 
drales. The people about Dinas did burne Dinas Castel 
that Oene Glindour • shuld not kepe it for his forteres. 

Part as sum say of Llinseuatan is in the Walsch Tal[e- 
gart], and part in Breknok lordship, [the whiche be devidid 
by Lleueni.]* 

In the Walsch Talgar** is no notable town nor castel be- 
sides thes. 

Lleueny risith in the Walsch Talegart hard by Blain 
Lleueny. 

In the Englisch Talegart is no notable building but a litle 
prison by Talegarth Chirch in the town, and Mr. William 
Vehans Esquiers place caullid Porthamal, i.e. Porta copiae^ 
half a mile from Talegarth Chirch in the valley. The howse 
hath a fair gate and a strong waul embatelid. 

Tretour,* a smaulle village stonding on a litle brooke, and 
within half a mile of Wiske. Ther is a prety castel longging 
now to the King, and therby also in the village is a fair 
place of Henry Vehan Esquier. 

Crekehouel** a preati tounlet (Cragus Hoelinus a mile 
from Tretour, and iiii miles from Abergeveni) stondith as in 
a valley apon Wisk, but by hit is an hille, and in the valley 
hard by the toune is a castel longging ons to the Paunsford, 
but now to the King. 

Tretour and Creghouel stand in Estrodewe • hundrede. 

The Hay x. miles bi est from Breknok. 

Glindama a lordship within a mile of the Hay. In it is no 
market toune nor castel; but at Llanigo' apperith a tour 
tanquam noxiorum custodiae deputata. 



[* Stow and Burton both have Lleveny, and this word fits the space 
whence the word is almost gone better than Heame*s reading Llin- 
siuaton^ which is too long.] 



» Owen Glynd^. 
d Crickhowel. 



^ Talgarth. 
• Yslrad yw. 



« Tretower. 
' Llanigon. 



IN WALES. PART VI 109 

Broynlles • (a place wher [russhis] grouith) Castel in the Brccknock- 
midde way betwix the Hay and Breknok. It standith in the 'hire, 
hundrede of Cantercely. [Brwyn-llyo = the Court of (the 
man) Brwyn.] 

Buelth apon Wy is a good market toun, and ther is a fair fo. 7a 
castel of the Kingts. This lordeship hath good plenti of 
woode. 

Lannedeu,^ a mile from Brekenok, a lordship of the 
Bisshops of S. David, wher was sumtime a veri place of the 
bisshops, now no thing but an onsemeli ruine. 

The Archidiacon of Brekenok hath a house even there, 
and that is also fallen doune for the more part. Giraldus 
makith mention of this house. 

Ther is a Llirme yn Low Eluel * within a mile of Paynes Radnor. 
Castel by the chirch caulled Llanpeder.* The Oinne is 
caullid Bougkdamallinne,* and is of no great quantite, but 
is plentiful of pike and perche and eles. 

Hene (Old) Wy had a course in Low Eluel not far from 
the chirch of Glasebiry, but now he hath suarvid his course 
a good but shotte of. Wher of old time he ran, is now a 
poole cawllid Henewy,' wher in now be greate luces and 
tenchis. The poole is of no greate quantite. At Clunne* 
in the low medow is a preati poole wherin be good luces and 
tenchis. 

Loogh (Poole) Tawe ** in Blake Montaine, wher sum say 
is the hedde of Tawe that cummith to Swansey, bredith no 
fische, and if fisch be cast into hit it dieth shortely. 

Part of Melennith is welle wooddid, the other is but scant. 
Ther is in Melennith plenty in sum places of com, and great 
plenty of gress. In Melennith is a good breed of horse on a 
montain caullid Herdoel.^ Ther be left al maner of catail al 
winter, and prove welle. 

Comothuder*" is a prety tounlet, and ther about is plenty 
of wood. 

Honddye * risith at a place caullid Blainhonddy (blain, a 
point), a vii. miles from Brekenok, and in Brekenok lord- 
ship, and rennith thorough a valley caullid Dyffrin Honddye. 

Wisk risith in Blake Montein '"ax. miles above Brekenoc 

» Brwynllys. »> Llanthew. « Elvel. <* Llanbedr. 

• ?Bwch dana. « Hfin Wy. « ClOn. l> Uwch Taw^ 

* ? Rhy« Hywcl. » Cwm Doy«wr. » HoniSu. « Y Van. 



no 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Brecknock- 
shire. 



fo, 71. 



fo. 72, 



toward Cairmadine,' and so rennith thoroug the litle forest 
and great forest of Brekenokj and so cumnijth thorough 
Redbryuu*^ (Redbreu, i.t, vadum fractum) Bridge to Breke* 
nok, to Aberconureg ^' a maner place of the Aubres, to Pen- 
kcUhlej*' to Creghoel, to Abregeveni, to Uske, Cairleonj 
Neuport* Sum say that the Vers Erles of Oxford wer caullid 
Aubres, 

Lleueni risith hard by Blainlleueni Castel, and so ^vithin 
a mile thorough Llin Seuathan by Broynlles Castelj and so 
hy Glasebiri into Wy at a place caullid Abrdlcueny. 

Brennik*' risith in one ofthe hilles cauUld Mennith e gader,' 
and rennith thorough EngUsch Talegarth and by Broynlles 
Castel into Lleueni at Aber Brennik. 

Brenych * risith a iii, miles from Brekenok at a place caullid 
Plain [Brenych*] and cummith into Wiske at Abrebrenych 
against Mr. Aubereis maner. 

Tertarith'' a great broke risith in the Banne Hilles a \\ 
miles from Brekenok, and cummith into Uske in Brekenok 
suburbe by a place caullid Trenewith. S. Oavid Chirch in 
the suburbe of Brekenok stoode ons on this brooke, and 
spillid aUuviom was remevid to an other place. 

The hilles cauUid in Walsch Mennith e gader^ appere La 
Talegarth about Dinas, and so to the places about Nant- 
honddy, and with sum part of thes montaines meate the 
greate hilles caullid Banne Erekeniauc/ and renneth in lenght 
to the Blake Montaine to my estimation apon an xviii. 
miles^t 

When I approchid nere the Hay, and began to discend 
from ihens 1 saw on the hither side of Wy a good mile from 
the Hay the castel of Clereho,* After passing over Wy 
River, the which for lak of good knowleg yn me of the 
fourde did sore troble my horse, I cam in crepuscuh to the 
Hay. 

The Hay stondith hard apon Wy, and yet sheuith the 



* Supplied by J. E« G- 



[+ The real of fo. 71 b blank.] 



* Carmarthen, 
^ PcngdlL 
■ Fryiuchi 



' Tlrcnnig, 
t TflnmeU 
^ CJyro* 



* Alter Cynvrig. 

* Banne Biycheinog. 






IN WALES. PART VI in 

token of a right strong waulle, having in hit iii. gates and Brccknock- 
a posterne. Ther is also a castel, the which sumtime hath ■^*« 
bene right stately. 

Within the toune is but one poore paroche. In the suburbe 
hard by Wy is a paroche chirch meately fair. Ther is also 
in the suburbe a chapel wher on a Sunday I hard Messe. 
Not far from the paroche chirch in the suburbe is a great 
rounde hille of yerth cast up by mennes hondes other for a 
wynd mille to stond apon, or rather for sum fortres of bataille. 

The toun of the Hay yet hath a market, but the toun 
within the waulles is wonderfully decaied. The ruine is 
adscribid to Oene Glindour. 

One shewid me in the town the ruines of a gentilman's 
place caullid Waulwine,* be whose meanes Prince Lluelin 
was sodenli taken at Buelth Castel, and ther beheddid, and 
his hedde sent to the Kinge. 

Dulesse ^ a prety river rising in the montannes about a iii. 
myles from Hay cummeth even thorough the toun, and 
strait into Wy without the est gate of the town. In feldes 
hard by in ploughyng hath be founde offtimes nutnismata 
Romanorum^ the wich ther communely be caulled the Jewis 
mony. 

The tounne longgid to the Duke of Bokingham. It per- 
teinith now to the Lord Staford his [sonne.] Artures Hille, 
and summe other of the [bank]nes veri manifestly apere to 
a man loking out [of th]e w[est gate] of Hay. 

Gumming to the midde way bytwixt the Hay and Breknok 
I left on the lift honde the great ruines of the castel of 
Broynlles in Canterceli,*^ and saw on the lifte bond also a 
ii. miles from Broynlles on the toppe of an hille the ruines 
of Dinas Castel. 

And then to Brekenok, wher nere to the toune I cam 
stille doune hilles, seing Honddye River and the foote, 
enterid into the suburbe of Brekenok by Porte Hene.* 

Going from Brekenok toward Llinseuathan a ii. miles out 
of Brekenok I saw the castel of Pengelthle, leving it on the 
lifte honde. And at the Llinnseuathan I saw on the right 
honde scant a mile of Blainlleueny * Castel. 

• Walwyn. ^ Dulas. « Cantr^-Seli. 

d Forth Han = Old Gate. • Blaen Llyvni. 



112 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Brecknock- 



f*73 



Going from Breknok to Englisch Talgarth Chirch, and so 
to Mr, William Vehans dwelling at Porthamal I iefte, almost 
at Talgarth Chirch, Broynlles almost a mile on the lifte 
hondcj and Dinas a ii. miles on the right bond. 

Gumming from Brekenok toward Llanameueri* within lesse 
then iii. miles I enterid into the great forest of Brekenok,* 
wher menne of late were not wont to passe without tolle of 
mony, and so thorough that a iii, [myle f] to the litle forest, 
leving Wisik alway on the right hond, and about the ende of 
the litle forest I saw a litle pile on Wiske strongh buUdid as 
a logge. The people say ther that it was buildid of a ladi, 
the wich also buildid much of Breknok Castel, caullid Malt 
Walbere, This was she that sum caul Matabrune, of whom 
so many fables be told as of a wiche (sagat). And about a 
mile thens I cam to Trecastel toune, sumtime a large bo row 
and market, now much in ruine, wherby yet apperith the 
ruines of a castel* In the botom of this toun rennith Luggun, 
a brooke rising a ii. miles of in a marisch on the side of an 
hille, and by Trecastel rennith into Wiske. Ther is builld- 
ing on the farther side of this river hard joining to Trecastelj 
and is caullid the Bisshops Toun, and it kepith Lawday at 
Llan[ddew] lordship a myle from Brekenok [as Trecastel 
dothe at Brekenok.] 

Then passing upwarde the hille a mile and more 1 left on 
the right honde Munnith du," the Blake Montainc, and a it. 
myles thens also on the lift hond apperid the place wher 
the river of Wiske doth springe, as owt of a fontaine or 
welle caullid Blainwiske* 

The ground from Trecastel to Llanameueri is hilli, for 
the most part baren of wood, but toward the valley wherin 
Llanameueri is set meately plentefu) of pasture and § corne. 

And here marke that not xxx. ye res ago ther was not her 
barley sowid in the lordship of Brekenok nor Llanameueri, 

[* **The forest is in Walsch cauHid Maificat, peravcnturc for Maia- 
Cajo,'* — Marginal ncU,\ 

[+ Omitted by Lclajid.] 

[t 5fl^ is written over wkh€^ us though in correction of the word. 
*'Sogo"bu*editiWelsh as an epithet of contempt to waids old women j 

[§ Stow. Leland has */for andJ^ 



■ Llan ym ^yvri^Llandovery. 



*• Mynyfi da* 



IN WALES. PART VI 113 

but the inhabitantes did by their barlei owt of the partes of Brecknock- 
Herfordshire, and moche other corne, wher as now thei have ahire. 
ynough for their oune use and also to selle. 

About a iii. [myles •] a this side Llanam[e]uery is a rillet of 
veri bare streame, wher is a limes betwixt the lordshippe self 
of Brekenok and Llanameueri. 

Trecastel is a ix. miles from Brekenok, and Breknok,t and 
Llanameueri is vi. miles thens. 

A litle or I cam to Llanameueri I passid over a brooke Carmarthen, 
caullid Guitherik,* whos course was not long or it cam into shire. 
Tewe,** not far from the toune of Llanamuery. 

Nor far of this brooke I cam over Brane * River that risith 
a xii. miles of, and cummith hard by the foote of Llana- 
meueri Castel. 

And even almost by hit passid over the litle brooke of 
Eueri,^ renning thoroug the middes of the toun of Llan- 
ameueri. So that the castel hath on the one side Brane River, 
and on the other Euery Brooke. 

Brane a litle beneth Castel, and also Euery goith into the 
great river of Tewe. 

Llanameueri a poore market, much standing by repears 
that cary fische from the quarters of Cairmardine to the 
lower partes of Wales, hath but one streate, and that poorely 
buildid of thatchid houses. To the tounlet longgith on 
chirch withyn, and a nother a quarter of a mile oute of the 
toune. 

Passing owt of Llanameueri within a ii. forow lenght I 
rode over the river of Tewe, the wiche ther oftentimes 
dronith in winter divers menne for lakke of a bridge, and 
thens or I cam to Abremarlais • iiii. miles of I passid over ii. 
brokes whereof the one was caullid Munneys. 

Marleis Broke maketh no great course, but cumming 
thorough the parke that he givith name onto goith into 
Tewi.** In Marleis Parke is a welle favorid stone place motid, 
new mendid and augmentid bi Sir Rhese ap Thomas. Ther 
now dwellithe Thomas ap Jonys an esquier. 

[* Stow. Leland omits.] [t These two words seem redmidant] 



• Gwy«erig. »» Towy. « BrAn. 

^ Uynu • Aber Marleis. 

I 



114 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Carmarthen- The grond bytwixt Llanameueri and Abremarlais is well 
shire. wooddid. 

I lemid at Llanameueri that Tewe cummith by Llangerik • 
in Powisland in the lordship of Arustle, and that is hedde 
is not far thens.* 

Gumming from Abremarlais a ii. miles toward Cairmardine 
I saw on the right bond about a iii. miles of the desolate 
Priori of White Chanons,communely cauUid Talley aliasy . . . 

Again forward to good miles more I rode doun into a 
greate botom wherin ranne the preti river of Dules and so 
into Tewe.* 

But or I came into the vale I espied on the right bond 
the castel of Dineuer * by estimation a iii. miles of in citeriori 
ripa Teuii,'' 

From this Dulesse * about a ii. mile farther I passid over a 
nother caullid And a iii. or iiii. miles be- 
yond that I roode over a nother riveret caullid Dules that 
goith into Tewe hard by Drislan Castel.' 
fo. 74. Dryslan (as I lernid) is as moch to say as a place ful of 
difficulte and encombrance to passe thorough. 

A iii. miles beyound this I passid over a great bridge, under 
the wich rennith the fair river of Cothey ' and not veri far into 
Tewe. 

And so thorow a litle valle, hi hilles being on eche side, 
onto Abreguile ^ a iii. miles or more, wher is a fair collegiate 
chirch of prebendaries longging to S. David. 

And a mile thens to Cairmardein. 

From Cairmardine to Cowen* Bridge. Cowen risith at 
Blaincowen*" a ii. miles or more above the bridge, and after 
into Taue"* River. 

From Cowen Bridge to Duddey * riveret From Duddey a 
flit shot of to Garthkiny" River that rennith under the townlet 
of Sainct Clare.* 

From thens to Whitland apon Taue • iiii. miles. 

[* Against this sentence Leland wrote "false."] 



• Llan Gurig. ^ Tal y Llycheu. « Towy. * Dinevor. 

• Dulas. ' Diyslwra Castle. « CothL *» Aber GwilL 

• Cowyn, ^ Blaen Cowyn. > DewL ™ Garthgynin. 
a St. Clears. <> Tiv. 



IN WALES. PART VI 115 

But or I cam to Whitland I passid over the brooke of Carmarthen 
Venny. 'Wrc 

As I here say ther is a forest by Llanandeuery.* 

But bytwixt Cairmardin and Whitland is in no place such 
plenti of wood as is at Whitland self standing in a vast wood 
as in a wildemes. Moch ground otherwise and hilles abowt 
hit baren of wood. 

From Whitland passing toward Llanfith ^ half a mile owt of Pembroke- 
Whitland I passid over the litle broke of Marleis, and so con- shire, 
tinuing my jorney by meane hilles and dales cam to Llanfith 
wherby the Bisshop of S. David's hath a place of stoone after 
castel fascion stonding on . • , Brooke that goith to the 
salt water by Penbroke. 

Bytwixt Whitland and Llanfeth is xii. Walsche miles, con- 
teining abowt an xviii. Englisch miles. 

Al the hy way betwixt Whitland and Llanfeth is almost 
hethy, yet on everi side [sum]what distant I sau in valleis 
and on hille sides good come. 

But the ground is sumwhat baren of wood, [as] al Pen- 
brookshire almost is, except wher a few parkes be. But the 
ground in divers partes of Penbrokeshire berith se coles, 
wherwith communely the people make fier and with firres, 
as thei do also about Cairmardine, though ther be better 
plenti of wood. Bi one of thes coles pittes being a iilL miles 
from Llanfith I cam. 

Also almost in the midde wai betwixt Whitland and Llan- 
feth I saw a place on the right hand as it wer a castel distant 
by estimation a iii. miles. 

And within a ii. miles of Llanfeth on the right bond I saw 
the castel of Carew repairid or magnificently buildid by 
Syr Rhese ap Thomas. It stondith by a creke of Milford 
Haven. 

From Llanfeth to Penbrok is but a good mile. 

Penbroke standith upon an arme of Milford, the wich 
about a mile beyond the towne creketh in that so that it 
almost peninsulatith the toune that standith on a veri maine 
rokki ground. 

The toune is welle wauUid and hath iii. gates by est, west 
and north, of the wich the est gate is fairest and strongest, 

* Llandovery; Uanddowror is meant ^ Llan-fiyiS, now Lamphey. 



ii6 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Pembroke- having afore hit a compasid tour not rofid, in the entering 
■^*'*- wherof is a portcolys ex soiidoferro. 

The castel stondith hard by the waul on a hard rokke, 
and is veri larg and strong, being doble wardid. In the 
utter ward I saw the chaumbre wher King Henri the VII. 
was borne, in knowlege wherof a chymmeney is new made 
with the armes and badges of King Henri the VII. In the 
botom of the great stronge rownd tower in the inner ward 
is a mervelus vault caullid the Hogan. The toppe of this 
round towr is gatherid with a rofe of stone almost in conum^ 
the top wherof is keverid with a flat mille stone. 

In the toune be a ii. paroche chirchis, and one in the 
suburbe. 

Montaine a celle of Blak Monkes in the suburbe is sup- 
pressid. 

The toune hath bene welle buildyd,* and the est suburbe 
hath bene almost as great as the toun, but now it is totally 
yn mine. 
fo. 75. Gumming from Llanfeth towarde Tinbighe • I rode by a 
ruinus waulle of a parke sumtime longging to Syr Rhese, 
now voide of dere. In the parke is veri litle or no hye 
woode, but shrubbis and fyrris, like as is in the ii. parkes 
about Carew, waullid with stones. 

The Chirch of S. Florein ** and tounlet is in a botom by the 
parke. 

A litle beyond this as more then half way betwixt Pen- 
broke and Tinbigh apperid the castel of Mainorpirrhe * a mile 
of on the right hande. It standith as it were betwixt to 
pointing hillettes, betwene the wich the Severn Se gulfith in 
almost the length of a quarter of a mile. 

Thens to Tinbigh. 

Tinbigh f town stondith on a main rokke, but not veri 
hy, and the Severn Se so gulfeth in about hit, that at the ful 
se almost the thirde part of the toune is inclosid with water. 
The toune is strongeli waullid, and welle gatid, everi gate 
having his portcolis ex solidoferro. But that gate that ledith 

[* Stow. Leiand wrote dui/d,] 

[t Leiand first wrote Dinbighf then corrected it.] 



• Dinbych= Tenby. ^ St Florence. 

^ Maenor Pir, vulgarly written Manorbier. 



IN WALES. PART VI 117 

to Cairmardin ward is most semeliest, as circulid without Pembroke- 
with an embatelid but open rofid towr, after the fascion ■^^'*- 
of the east gate of Penbroke. Without this gate is a preti 
suburbe. 

In the middes of the town is a faire paroche chirch. 

The toun it selfe lakkith fresch water, wherfore utuntur 
importata. 

From Tinbigh I went to the cole pittes on a hille topp ii. 
miles of, not far from the Seveme shore. And a good mile 
beyond them I roode thorough a wood not veri greate, 
but yet the fairest that I remembre that I saw in Penbrok- 
shire. 

Thens I enterid again into Whitland way. 

The nerest trajectus into Caldey is almost in the midde 
way bytwixt Mainorpirrhe and Tinbighe at a poynlet, and 
ther it is litle above a mile. 

[Beinge against Mainorpirrhe] I saw Lundey lying far of 
in the Severn Se. 

Gumming from Cairmardine toward Llandewibreui, a mile Carmarthen- 
owt of Cairmardine, I passid over Guily River,* and so ^hirc. 
folouid the curse of hit, having yt in sighte by the riding of 
iiii. or v. miles, marking divers litle brokes going into hit as 
into the botom of the valley. 

Then riding /^r aliquot miliaria I began to se Tyue ** River, 
and kept it stil in sight, riding stille by stony hilles and 
valleys, and passing thoroughe a wood of okes caullid 

and after by a prety Llin on the right bond 

cawllid Gogurne, and so leving also hard on the right bond 
Pencragan,'' a rokke so caullid bycawse it is a rounde coppid 
hil of stonis, cam a litle of into a vile cotage standing in a 
vale by Tiue to bayte. 

Thens I rode to Llandewy Breui ^ v. miles of (Landewi, as Cardigan- 
sum say, caullid Breui, bycause it stondith on Breuy Brooke), •hire 
betwixt the which places I saw a prety Llin not far from 
Tyui side caullid Llinpeder,*sumwhat bigger then Llingogum; 
but I saw out of neither of them any notable issue of 
water. 

I saw also a bridge or ii over Tiue. 

• GwiU. ^ Teivi. « Pencarreg. 

<* Llan Dewi Brevi. • ? Pencarreg Lake. 



ii8 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Cardigan* 
shire. 



IHnrith^, 



fou 76w 



Landewi Brebui is but a simple or poore village* I passid 
over a litle broke to entre into hit. It is set among mon- 
taines on every [side*] but by west, wher is the valley of 
Tiue, Tiue River is about half a mile of. The collegiate 
chirch of prebendaries standith sumwhat apon a by ground, 
but it is rude, Thens to Tregaron ii, miles, wher is^ chircti 
standin apon a round coppe of cast ye rib. 

By rennith a broke caullid [Brennig t] . , , * 

So passing under a hy hille side, I saw hard by on the lift 
honde a great fenny more, owt of the wich the inhabitantes 
therabout digge turfes for Tier, and by the same fenne is a 
fair llin cawUid Llinridde ii. miles from Straleflur. 

Straleflure^J is set round about with montanes not far 
distant, except on the west parte, wher Diffrin Tyue* is. 
Many hllles therabout hath bene well woddid, as evidently 
by old rotes apperith, but now in them is [almost no 
woode.] 

The causses be these ^ first the wood cut doun was never 
copisid, and this hath beene a great cause of destruction 
of wood thorough Wales* Secondly after cutting doun of 
wooddys the gottys hath so bytten the young spring that it 
never grew but lyke shrubbes. Thirddely men for the nonys 
destroied the great woddis that thei shuld not harborow 
theves. 

The chirch of Strateflere is larg, side Hid and crosse ilid 
By is a large cloyster, the fratry and infirmitoH be now mere 
ruines. The ccemiteri wherin the cunteri about doth buri is 
veri large, and mean el y waullid with stoone. In it be xxxix, 
great hue trees. The base court or camp afore the abbay 
is veri fair and large. The fundation of the body of ihe 
chirch was made to have bene 60, foote lengger then it is 
now. 



[* Ldand seems to have interKled sidt. Not in Slow*] 

[t J» G. Evans* The to wo of Tregaron is situated on Ihc Berwjti 

river, Bind the church is on the barks of the Brennig,] 

\X A marginal note here^ being a I the bottom comer of fo, 75, is 

much lotn. Hearne could read a few letters not now visible : *' [Strat] 

flcrof sum[ca]ijllidb)TiUse *,.,.. bytwixt it aad Fkre[BroVe)i 

of sum . , . * it Modern the *' ] 



■ Ystrad Fflflr* 



^ DyfFryn TcivL 



IN WALES. PART VI 119 

Thens I went a good half mile by Tiue Vale, and a mUe Cardigan, 
and a half up the craggi and stoni montaines to Llin Tyue,* Bliirc 
and ii. miles beyound hit, passing over Clarduy, to Creg- 
naulin.** If I had goone from thens a mile of to a hy hille I 
might have sene Penlinmon,* then distant a v. miles. The 
hilles bytwyxt Linne Tyue and Cragnaugllin were not in 
sight so stony as the hilles bytwyxt Stratfler and Llin Tyue. 

I standing on Creggenaugllin saw in no place within sight 
no woodd but al hilly pastures. 

From Strateflere I roode by rank, hylli and valley pastures 
a ii. Walsche miles, and so passing over Maknant * a wild 
brooke renning on rokkes and a nother whos name I re- 
membre not, cam to the thirde caullid Nantlluys,* and therby 
on the right bond I saw an hille caullid Crag John, and so 
over Melewen' River that therby in sight went ynto Ustwith ' 
River. 

Or I cam to Melewen I had riden bi the space of a iii. 
miles in Comeustwith.** 

From Melewen I enterid to the valley of Ustwith, so 
narowly with rokky montaines enclosid, that in wynter the 
streame occupieth al the botom of the valley. 

First entering this botom I saw on the right bond an hille "« 
caullid Me[nithduy.]* * 

The first river be side Tyue that I passid over was Clar- Blak Clare. 
due, that is to say Blak Clare, no great streame but cumming 
thoroug cragges. In the farther side of hit I saw ii. veri 
poore cotagis for somer dayres for catel, and hard by were 
ii. hillettes, thorough the wich Clarduy passith, wher they 
fable that a gigant striding was wont to wasch his hondes, 
and that Arture killid hym. The dwellers say also that the 
gigant was buried therby, and shew the place. 

Clarduy risith about half a mile from that place in a 
mares, and rennyng ii. Walsch milys in al goith into Clar- White Clar. 

[* Stow. The word, being at the right-hand bottom comer of fo. 76, 
is torn off in the original.] 



» Llyn Teivi. * Craig naw-llyn. 

« Pumlumon, i.e. Pump llumon=five points, vul^u-ly written Plin- 
limon. 
d Mochnant. • Nant-11^ ' Elwyn. « Ystwith. 

>> Cwm Ystwith. ^ Myny« du. 



120 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 






fo.7r 



wen. Clarwen* risith in a valley not far from Llinyuigin 
Velen, that is a good mile from CargnaulUnn. Aficr ihat 
Clarwen haih receivid Clarduy he renmth a iii. miles or he 
cum into Alen River, far bigger river then other* of the 
Ckrs. 

Alen"* River risith in the blain or upper part of Comeust- 
with in Cairdiganshire^ and renning Uil Walsch miles cum* 
mitb into Owy, cauUid in Englisch Wy^ ahtle beneth Rather 
gowy^ a market toun yn Comemytother,'' It is caullid Rather 
Owy bycause it stondith on \Vy River. But or ever I cam 
to Clarduy, that is about a iii. mile from Ystradfler, I passid 
per montes praeruptos^ per paludes tt trtvia zaxa^ and cam 
to Lhn TyuCi the wich is in cumpace a iii. quarters of a mile, 
being ii. miles be cast from Stratefiere, 

It is fedde fro hyer places with a litle broket, and issueth 
out againe by a smauUe gut. Ther is in it veri good trouttes 
and elys, and noe other fisch. 

From Clarduy to CragnauUinn is a good mile by est, and 
standing by a stone on the lop of this hille I saw v. poolis 
by south west, wherof the biggest is Llinn Helignant, shorter 
Ligiiante, having no other fisch but troutlcs and elys. One 
side of the poolesj [that] is the south side^ hath trouttes as 
redde as salmon. The west side hath white, likewise as hath 
Llin Tyue, This pole is seene to be fedde with no brooke, 
and hath a brooke issuing out of hym of his oune name^ and 
cummith into Tyue in the west side of Tyue half a mile 
above Siradfler. 

Llinnher," i* hngtn lacus^ for it is iii. quarters of a mile in 
lenght, having no great bredthe nor issue of brok owt of hit, 
but plentiful of trouttes and elys. 

Llinn Gorlan hath no issue, but berith elys and trouttes^ 

Llinngronn hath an issue, and semid to me hard yoinid to 
Llin Gorlan, 

Llin Tyue the fifte apperid also from Cragnaulin, but 
distant a mile from the other iiii, 

Nere about the Cragnaulin stone apperid other iii- pollis, 

£• Lcbnd wrote in txxtix of iktr after "other*"] 



* CUerwflQ. 

** Cwm DoyiSwr, 



» Elan. 



■ RhfllEidr Gwy. 
* Uyn Mr 



IN WALES. PART VI 121 

Llin Veryddon Vaur' having trouttes and elis but no broke Cardigan- 
cumming into hit or going owt. shire. 

Llinn Veryddon Vehan ^ having trouttes and elys, but no 
brok cumming into hit or going owt. 

Linduy,* i.e. iacus niger^ even under the botom of the hille 
side having trouttes and elys but no broke cumming into hit 
or going oute. 

Llinyuigin Velen ^ that is a mile from the stone by south 
west. Yuigin is to say a quaking more. Velen is yelow of 
the color of the mosse and corrupt gresse about hit. 

Of al these pooles none stondith in so rokky and stony 
soile as Tyue doth, that hath also withyn hym many stonis. 

The ground al about Tyue, and a great mile of toward 
Stratfler is horrible with the sighte of bare stones, as Creg- 
eryri • Montaines be. 

Llinne • 

Llinnllanabeder within half a mile of Llanbeder having Lacm 
trouttes and elys. petrinm. 

Llinnyrythe ' having trouttes and elys standinge by a great 
fenn in {the midde waye behvix] t 

Thes iiii. poles be in the lordship of Pennarth • longging to 
the principal of the Hoghans. The chefe toun of this lord- 
ship being in Cairdiganshire is Trecharon.** But the Abbate 
of Strateflere hath much landes in the same lordship, and 
thes iii. pooles longe to the Abbat of Stratflere. 

Llin Yridde ii. miles from Strateflere owt of whom goith 
a litle issue or brokeL I writ of this afore. 

Llinycregnant a bigge poole veri ful of trouttes and elys. 
It is from Strateflur a iii. by west toward Llanandeuery.' 

Llinne duy, i. iacus niger^ very deape and ful of trouttes 
and elys. It is iii. miles by south from Strateflur toward 
Buelth lordshippe. 

Linnygorres," not ii. miles from Llinduy. Gorsse in 
Walsche, a myer in Englisch. It hath trouttes and elys. 

[• Blank in MS.] [t Torn, at bottom of fo. 77.] 



» Llyn Gwery^on Vawr. *» Llyn Gweiy^n Vechan. 

« Llyn du. <* Liyn y Vigm velen. 

• Craig Eryri=Snowdon. ' Llyn y rhyd. 
t PenaHS. »» Tre Garon. 

* Llan-am-iSyvri. ^ LlynyGon. 



122 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 






fa 78, 



Radnor- 



A\ thes that be byfore Tave Dinn Llanabeder, and al thes 
that folow long to the Abbat of Strateflere. 

Lhnngynon apon a hy montaine iiii miles from Strateflure 
by south west, having trouttes and elys, and a Utle issue owt 
of hit, and goith into the broket that cummith owt of Llin 
Helignant. 

Llinn Creg lloydon ** v. myles or vi, from Stratfler toward 
Poysland. It hath an issue that goith into Elan or Alan Water, 
that goith into Wy. 

Llin Winge is almost yoinld Co Llinncrcglloydon, but it 
hath no issue. 

The river of Alan in the next part of hit is viii* miles from 
Strateflere, and ther parteth Cairdigan shire from the lord- 
ship of Rather or Co mem y to ther* ^ Rather is the chefe toun 
yn Comytother. 

Al the montaine ground bytwixt Alen and Strateflure 
longgeth to Stratefleere, and is almoste for wjlde pastures and 
breding grounde, in so much that everi man there about 
puttith on bestes as many as they wylle without paiyng of 
tnony. 

From Stratefler toward Lanandeueri is xviii. miles, of the 
Tvich xii. miles of montain grounde partely pasture soyle 
partely longgith to Strateflere^ and ther about partith Cairdi- 
ganshire from Cairmardineshire. For therhy hath Stratefler 
a graunge cauUid Nantbay in Cairmardineshire. 

Strateflur is xx. Walsch miles from Mahenclif,* and al the 
soile bytwyxt is montanius ful of pasture for a xvi* miles, 
but within a iiii. myles of Mahen[cltf] wooddy. 

From Stratefler to Llang>ric {Janutn Cyriaci) xii. miles. 
Llangyrik is in Arusteley** lordship in Poisland. AVy renning 
iherby devidith Cairdigan shire from Fowislande. Of these 
xii. miles viii> be monta[nius] ground longging to Stratefler, 
al for pasture. 

Betwixt Stratefler and Buelth toun xvi. of thes be vi. in 
in Cairdiganshire, the wichf Towe ' River devidith from Cair- 

[* Leland wrote Crtglh^don and then miscorrccted it into Crtg' 

[+ Leland repeats '* the wiche.*'] 



• Llyn Cerrig llwydcm. 

* MachynlleuiH 



^ Rhaindr or Cwm doy*wr* 
« Arwysili, * Towy- 



IN WALES. PART VI 123 

diganshire. Al this vi. miles is montayne ground for pasture, Cardigan- 
and longgith to Strateflure Abbay, but the pastures of thes •^"^ 
hilles be fre to the inhabitantes, as well as al other montaine 
pasture longging to Strateflere. 

The pastures of the montaynes of Cairdiganshire be so 
great that the hunderith part of hit rottith on the ground, 
and maketh sogges and quikke more by long continuance 
for lak of eting of hit. 

Afore the new Acte Llanduebreui ■ was a separate lordship, 
iimes on one side to Cairmardinshire, on the other side to 
Cairdiganshire. 

From Stratflur to Cairdigan xxx. but cauUid xxviii. 

Tiue^ devidith toward the mouth Pembrokshir from Cairdi- 
ganshire. 

From Cairdigan to Aberustwith a market toun ons waullid 
xxx. [miles.] 

From Aberustwith to Aberdeuy vi. miles. Deuy* devidith 
Cairdiganshire from Merionithshire in North Wales. 

Mahenclif in Poisland vi. miles from Aberdeui.* 

Llandewibreui xxiiii. miles from Cairdigan. fo. 79. 

The Abbat of Whiteland told me a meri tale of one that 
purchasid a licens by a color of ii. rivers about Powysland, of 
the wich (as I remember) soundid that in Walsch, that is in 
Englisch a hogge of ii. yeres, and the other a hogge of iii. 
yeres. 

Ther hath beene in times paste a greate mine digging for 
leade in Comeustwith* a vi. myles from Strateflur, wher is a 
graunge longging to Strateflure. But summe menne suppose 
that it sesid, bycawse the wood is sore wastith. 

A monke of Strateflur told me that for a certenty Newport Pembroke, 
in Kemmisland is caullid Tredraith in Walsch. 

Ther is a church caullid Llansanfride * vii. miles from 
Aberustwith upper to Cairdigan on the se side, and ther 
hath bene great building. But wither this was the Abbay of 
Llanfride of the wich mention is made in the booke " De 
Dotatione Ecclesiae S. Davidis," or no, I can not telle. 

Ther is a nother Llansanfrid in Comytother,' and peraven- 

• Llan Dewi Breri. *» TdvL « Dyvi . . . Aber Dyvi 
d Cwm Ystwith. 

• Llan San Ffrad, a little north of Aber Aeron. 
' Near Rhaiadr Gwy. 



T24 LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Cardigan* 

shire. 



fo. 



So. 



ture this is that Llansanfnde Nunneri made in a newer world, 
of the which Giraldus spekith, 

Ther halh bene great building atLlannjstyt,*a mile lower 
on the se hanke then Llansanfride Cairdigan shire, and sum 
suppose that ther hath bene a nunnery, 

Ustwith risith owt of a mares grounde cauUid Blaine Ust- 
with iii. miles from Llangibike" on Wy. Itis inComeustwith, 
and so rennith good vi. miles thorough Comeustwith, and a 
vi- or vii, mo miles to Abreustwith. 

Tyue* rennith from the hedde stil almost playne west 
ontille he touchith within a vi. miles of Cairmordin, and then 
turneth toward the northe* 

Towe** risith a iii- myles by south from Llinntyue' in a 
morisch ground, and halh no llin at his hedd, and by 
estimation rennith a xxii. miles or he cum to Llanamdeuery. 
He first rennith somwhat by souths and then a greate way hi 
west, and at the last turneth again e toward south. 

So about the midle of this Wstwith' botom that I ridde 
yn, being as 1 gesse a iiii, miles in l[ength], I saw on the right 
bond on a hille side CJo[th]moyne,' wher halh bene great 
digging for leade, the mdting wherof hath desiroid the 
wooddes that sumtime grew plentifulli therabout. I hard a 
marvelus tale of a crow fedd by a digger there, that tooke 
away his fed[er*s]* pursse, and wille the digger folowid the 
crow for his purs, the residew of his felows were oppressid 
in the pitte with a rnin* 

So leving Ustwith botom, and taking up a by hill I cam 
a mile of to a place wher I saw a greate grene place in a 
botom, owt of the wich morisch plot Ustwith doth rise, and 
withyn a flit shot of that 1 saw an other like plot, owt of the 
wich spring a litle riveret cumming to Wy that ranne a good 
mile benelh in a botom. 

So passing over Wy, and stiyng up a hill I lokid bak and 



[* Stow has Z^/^fr'/; the edge of this leaf 80 h damaged, and this 
word and some others are imperfect.] 



* Llan Rbystud. ^ LI an Gurig. 
^ Teivi runs first of aJl south and then westward, and nowhere gets 
within xi. miles of Carmarthen, 
** Towy. * Llyn Teivi, ' YatwJth, « C mityn. 



IN WALES. PART VI 125 

vuyd Penllummon the hed of Wye. It semid to me a veri Cardigan- 
hy montaine, and was distant by gesse a vi. miles. shire. 

From Strateflere to this place I saw almost nother wood 
nor come, but after the soile waxid stil pleasant, having fair 
medows, come and wood. 

So to Llan Kirik * apon Wy a good mile of, and ii miles Montgom- 
by come, wood and medows to Llan Ydlas * on Severn. cryshirc. 

There is not ii. miles betwixt the streames of Wy and 
Severn. 

Sum brokettes were bytwixt, but of smaulle name. 

To Llan dynnan * iiii. miles of on Severn by good corne 
ground and medows with veri much plenti of woodde. 

And like in the v. miles to Newton, wher at one side of 
the toune cummith a litle brooke ynto Severn. 

And yn like forme the [vi] myles to Mont[gommrye]. 
Bytwixt Newton and Montgomery I saw [on the] lift bond 
apon [a] woodd hille top [the] waulles now minus of [7b/- 
uarranY Castel. 

Going from Montgomerik to the Walsche Poole a v. myles 
of I passid over a forde of Severn. The soile betwixt dies 
to tounnes lakkith nother come nor woode, but the grounde 
about the bankes and valley of Severn there is most pleasaunt. 

The toune it self of the Walsch Pole is of one paroche 
wel buildid after the Walsch fascion. Gledding a riveret 
cummith almost by the chirch, and so to Severn that is a 
of. 

Castel Cough,* in Englisch Redde Castel, standith on a 
rokke of darke, redde colorid stone. It hath ii. seperatid 
wardes, wherof the one was the Lord Duddeleys. Now both 
long to the Lord Powys. 

By the castel is a faire palid park. Bituixt the tounne 
and Castel Cough is a preati llin or poole wherof the toun 
takith name. 

From the Walsche Poole to Albertbyri ' a vii. miles, hilly. 
The soile is wooddy,the valley comeful. By the hillis I passid 
over iii. or iiii. preaty brookis, whos names I know not. 

And wille I passid this way within a iii. miles of Walsch 
Pole I saw a veri notable hille beyound the valley on the 

* Llan Guhg. ^ Llan Idlos. ® Llan Dinam. 

^ D6I Vorwyn. • Castell Coch. < Alberbury (Shrops.). 



126 LELAND'S ITINERARY 

Montgom- lift bond having iii. toppes as iii. heddes rising owt of one 
eryshire. body. Tbes toppes I first espied d fronte about Neuton a 
xiiii. miles of, and after Shreusbiry and White Chirch passid, 
a xvL miles of I saw them againe i tergo. 

By this hille I roode by the lenght of a iii. miles, one of 
[the] toppes wherof being hyest is caulid Molegolua,* the 
wich is countid a limes of the farthest part of Powisland 
that way. The secunde is cauUid Bridin,^ being in Caurse- 
land. The name of the third* I know not, but communely 
thei be cauUid Brethin • Hilles. 

Not far from thes hilles enterith Sbropshir. So ther be 
limites of Pois, Caursland, and Shropshire. 

[* Leland corrected the first, but not the second use of this word, 
from Brithiu to Bridin,^ 



^ Mod y golnu ^ BreiiSen. « Keven y CastelL 



IND OF WELSH PART. 



i^ ^' 



APPENDIX A 

{See p. 6i) 

GOWER LAND.* 

The olde castel of Swineseye was builded or [rjepairid by Glamorgan- 
the Normans and destroied by Lluelen prince of Wales that ■hire, 
maryed King Johns dowghter. And it stoode by the bisshop 
of S. Dauids castel that now is there. 

A iii miles from Swinesey, communely cawillid in englisch 
Swansey, at the rode mowth of Tawe was a castel cawllid 
Est Wilthlunarde otherwise Ostermuth,* and of sum Mum- 
mess;^ there remaine mines of a castel destroied by prince 
Lluelin. 

Swansey is a market town and chief place of Gower lande. 

Moubray was lorde of Swansey and buildid the old castel, 
and be likelihod Ostermuth also for defence of the hauen. 

Almost in the middes of Gowerland a v miles from Suansey 
is the castel of Guible* that longid to the Delamers. 

Penrise ^ castel standith a iii miles from Swansey in the 
forest of Penrise. 

Lochor castel standith on the hither side of Lochor * riuer 
in the lordship of Cower. 

[* A leaf in Leland's hand, from his MS. of Calluiama, vol. iii., 
107 (Heame's edition of 1774, vol. iv., p. 94).] 



• Oystermouth. ^ Mumbles. « ?Weobly Castle^ 

* Penrice. ® Llwchwr river and cutle. 



lay 



APPENDIX B 

{See p. 90) 

The following notes on Mona or Anglesey, which supply 
a want in the Itinerary, are from Leland's Co/Zec/anea, a folio 
MS. in the Bodleian Library, Top. Gen. c. 3, vol. iii. pp. 96, 
97, 98 (printed by Heame, De Rebus Britannicis Collectanea^ 
second edition, London, 1774, vol. iv., pp. 85-90). The lists 
of places in both columns were first written out by a copyist, 
and afterwards were freely interlined and annotated by 
Leland; the pages are therefore not easy reading. 

Leland's description, beginning in the middle of the Menai 
Straits, goes round the island, with excursions into the in- 
terior ; parishes, chapels and towns are in the left-hand column ; 
the right contains the places on or connected with sea or 
fresh water that are more or less near the places successively 
met with in the left column; they comprise ferries, havens, 
estuaries, islands and rocks, rivers, brooks, lakes and marshes 
or moors. There is no proof that Leland himself made the 
journey; but the Mr. Griffith referred to at the end (p. 134) 
may be'the " Mr. Rouland Griffith " mentioned before, p. 90, 
as giving him information. 

Leland's explanatory notes on the margin of p. 96 of the 
MS. are here put below the text, pp. 1 29, 1 30. His interpreta- 
tions (sometimes erroneous) of names, generally written over 
the respective words, are here printed between ( ). In several 
cases Leland puts a corrective letter over the spelling of the 
copyist, as m over v^ th over dd^ w over <?, but as the copyist 
(probably a Welshman) was more often right, these super 
letters are here disregarded; they may be seen in Heame's 
edition. The words written by the copyist are printed in 
italic, those by Leland in roman type. I hope thus to have 
made these notes clear, and in some instances to have cor- 
rected errors in Heame's reading. Dr. J. G. Evans* identi- 
fications are along the foot of each page. 

L. T. S. 
1x8 



APPENDIX B 



129 



In nomine Jesu The contents of Mon alias Anglesey 



[parishes.] 

P. 96. Rent llan Vair y full* 
Gwinghill^ cum annex: Mair per 
se Maria sed alias Vair pro Mair 
sonant. 

Llan Dy5ilio\ (proprium no- 
men) is an islet at ful se conteining 
an acre or i j at the ebbe, sicco pede 
aditur. 

Re^tt Llan^ EdanX (Aidanus) 
cum annex: 

Uan 'Beniel% (Daniel) vah « (pro 
mab, paruus); erat ut fenint dis- 
cipulus Kibii, vel, ut quidam vo- 
lunt, Beunoi. 

JUan EdwenX (proprium no- 
men). 

LUm Vair\ yn y comoi^; i,e.f 
quarta pars cantaredi, i,e,, cen- 
turise. 

Rent Llan^ Kdinwen^ (Caina 
pulchra) cum annex, a prebend 
of Clunnoc vaur. 

Uan^ Caffo** discipulus Kibii. 

Rent Uan Pedyr (Petrus) y 
RosurW alias Nuburch,^ 

Rent Llan ^ -Dwyn tt (S. Dun- 
wen), libera capella. 

Rent Abetfraw §§ cum annex: 



[havens, islands, rivers, etc.] 
Porthaethwy (Porth, a fery) 
Menaiy Pull Keris\^ Periculosus 
vortex prope; Porthaethwi in 
Meney : it is a this side Portatho 
and ther was an old fery. 



Porth Cadncmt, Avon Cadnant 
a fresch broke. 

Aher Pwllfannog^ Avon Fan- 
nogt^ broke. 

Porth Bon (finis) y don • (thon, 
[=tonn] a waue); Porth Amyl^^ 
lytle ryU. 

Porth Tal y voyl,^ a fery of 
Meney to lond at Cairarvon. 



Aber Menad, fro hens ys the 
mayn see. 

Ahery Pwll, yt is by Aber Avon, 
a broke. 

Traeth Maltraeth^Porth bodion,^ 

Aber Fraw, Avon FraWy^ a 
broke. 



• Pull, puteus. t By the Meney. 

\ By Meney. § A mile or a ij fro Mene^. 

II Not fiEur fro Meney. IT A mile of nx> Meney. 

♦* More than a mylc fro Meney. tt A ij myle fro Abremeney. 

XX Adjacet ripe. §§ Almost by y* occean shoore. 



• Llanvair PwU Gwyngyll. * Llanidan. 

* Avon Vanog. • Ct. Moel y Don Ferry. 
« Tal-y-voel. h LUnvair y cwmmwd. 
k Llan Gaffo. ^ Newborough. 

'^ Modernized into Bodowen. 



* Llan Deiniol vab. 
' Porthaml. 

* Llan Geinwen. 
>^ Llan^wyn. 

o Ffraw nver. 



I30 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



[parishes.] 
Cafell: Mair^ (Maria) o Dindry- 
vol\ ij myles fro y« shore by north. 

Rent Uan^ KydwalacUr* cum 
annex: 

Uan Fi»rfaif(Mirianus)sacello; 
yt standeth bytwene Llan Cadwal. 
and the estuary of Maltraheth.** 

Rent Trefdraeth^ (oppidulum 
super sabulum), cum annex: (Beu- 
noo sacrum). 

Llan Kwyven^ (proprium no- 
men), just by the occean. 



[havens, islands, rivers, etc.] 
Llyn Ceran, the greatest lake 
yn the ysle, and Fraus^ cummyth 
owt of this poole. 



PoriA Gwyven, Av&n Kwyven* 
(G. Keueny), a broke. 

Forth y Llyswen (i.^., anguilla)» 
Avon y Llynuen^ a ryll. 

Towyn Trewen (town» white); 
Avon Trewen. 



Llyn Bodwino (lacus Bodwro^), 
Corse Vodwrog,* the name of a 
moore by Bodwine. 

Forth Traeth KrugyU. 

Llyn Fybai is the next poole yn 
bygnes to Llyn Coran. 



Rent Llan GristiolysX (Christi- 
olus Hoeli, ut ferunt, Armoricani 
filius, cum annex: 

Llan Kainwen vehan.B 

Rent Hen eglwys% (vetus 
ecclesia) cum annex: 

Llan Morhayarn^ (mare, fer- 
rum). 

Rent LUm Beulan (alias Pulan, 
proprium nomen), cum annex: 

Llan chyllched^ (proprium no- 
men). Llan Vair yn Llanerchy- 
nuddy 

Llan Vaylog^ (S. Maylog). Tale 
y Llyn (the ende of y« poole), ca- 
pella, 

Bettws y Grog^ (latine sacellum 
crucis), y Gluirchiog (an otyc 
place) alias dicitur, 

* Abowte a ij myles fro the occean. 

t Yt standeth by the inner part of Maltraeth. 

X A myle fro y® ynner part of Maltraeth, a good way within the isle. 

§ A iij [myle] fro y* shore almost by northewest 

» Tal y llyn Chapel. *» Ffraw river. « Uan Gadwaladr. 

* Malltraeth. • Llan Gwyven. 

' GwjTven. Leland seems to have thought that this brook was called 
like the Cevni river, Gevinus or Keveny. But they have no connection. 

K ? Cerrig-Ceinwen, near Llangristiolus. 

^ This refers to the church of Tre Walchmai which, Lewis says, is 
dedicated to St. Mordeym, while some MSS. give Morhayam. 

* Bodwrog. k Llechylched. 

' Leland corrected this to Llanechthvmedd. L. T. S. 
» Llan Vaelog. ^ Now Ceirchiog. 



APPENDIX B 



»3i 



[parishes.] 

Rent JJan Wenvautu^ (pro- 
prium nomen) cum annex: 

JJan Vihegel^ (Michael) yn 
Ytraethe, 

Llan Voir yn Daubwll^ (quasi 
ac si diceres inter duos puteos). 
Rent Kaer Kybi^ cum annex: 
Bodwrog, Capely Turre (tone). 
Llan Drygam (Trigam). 

Bodedem, 

Llan Sant Fraid^ (Brigida). 
Llan Wyn* (Guin) Gene (keney, 
catulus). 



P. 97. Rent Llan Vachraith ' 
(S. Macharius) cum annex: 

Llan Ygkenell^ (proprium no- 
men). 

Llan VigaU (Bigail, Vigil, 
communiter pastor). 

Rent llan Vaithlv'^ (magna 
turba militum) cum annex: 

Llan Vorogf- Og an harow. 

Rent Llan Ruthlade^ (tawny) 
cum annex: 

Llan Roydd Rys^ (spedeful), 
Bettws (sacellum) perwas (a swete 
servant). 

Han Flewyn ; Llan £>0gwel,'^ 



Rent Llan y Dausant^ (i,e, 
duorum S. Marcelli etMarcelliani). 



[havens, islands, rivers, etc.] 
Traeth Kleiviogy Avon Kleviog, 

Pont Trytbwnt;^ this is the 
brigge that givith passage ynto the 
isle of the Holy hedde. 



/W^A (passage) Llan Sant Fraid. 

Forth y Turr; Avony Turr, a 
ryl cummyng owt of a moore and 
y* torre by y^ Holy hed. 

Corse y Turr: Afynydd {mons) 
y Turr. 

Forth Kaer Gyhi; Oene Theo- 
dore was borne m the precinct of 
this place. Avon (faux) y Gaer 
(castle); this fresch broke cummeth 
yn to the haven of Holy hedde. 

Aber Glaslyn (blew poole). 

Aber Alaw (Alaunius); Avon 
Alaw cummyth owt of this moore 
Gorss-y-boly a moore. This is the 
next river of the isle to Gevinus ^ 
yn bignes. 

Forth Wen (white), Avonporth- 
wen. 
Forth Veline, a pretty brooke. 

Forth Swttan^ avon Sutton (a 
propre name of a giant)» a litle 
rille. 

Lfyn (a poole) Bodronyn, Forth 
Cajfiiant (concava vallis forte Cav- 
nant: Caffe, scapha, nant, vallis 
ubi rivulus labitur). 

Ynys (insula) yr Havocttyn (the 
dayri poole); this isle is as a 



« Trepont. 



* Llan-wenvaen, alias Rhoscolyn. 
^ Llan Vihangel yn-howyn. 
** Llanvair-yn-eubwll. 

• Kaer Kybi, 1.^., Holyhead. The ruins of the chapels of Lochwyd, 
St. Ffraid, Crorllys, Gwyngeneu and Towyn are in this parish. 

' Llan Vachreth. K Llanynghenedl. ^ Llan Vaethlo. 

» Cevni R. k Llan Vwrog. » Llan Rhy«lad. 

» Llan Rhwydiys. ^ ? Llan Dygwal-groes. 

^ Llanddeusant 



132 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



[PARISHES.] 

Llan Vairy Kaer Noy,^ 
Lion Babo (proprium nomen). 

Rent Llan K^c7/^// (Machutus). 



Rent Llan Padrig^ (Patricius), 
eccUsia appropriata monasterio de 
Can{tv]/ey. 



Rent Amylhaych s (frequens 
hogge). 

Llan Voir yn llan Ciddog^ 
(proprium nomen loci). 

Bettwsy Nawsaint (novem sanc- 
torum).^ 

Llan Lliane, ^ monachorum 
plur. 

Rent Llan y Trisainl^ (thrc 
saynctes)| cum anmx: 

Llachenvanvy, ^ 

Bettws Machwdo, Llan Llibio*^ 

Bettws Rcdygeidio,^ 



[havbns, islands, rivbrs, etc] 
rokket harde by y* shore. Forth r 
Havodlyn; ■ Avon r Havodlyn (a 
brooke). 

YGadair-y KderNoy (cathedra 
gigantis Noe), Forth y Gadair, 

Y Gam (nipes) y Kaer Noy, 
Tref Voysen (oppidum Moses). 
Afoel Gaer noy, 

Kraig Sydon (rupes nayifraga), 
Karyk Cyne, the daunper of the 
rokkes yn the se strait agajrnst 
Cair Noe. 

Ynys y Moel Roniaid^ (maxima 
insula Mona adjacens); this isle is 
not past ij myles fro Cbm Noe. 

Afaen Bigail^ (the stone of the 
shephard), a litle rokky isle. 

Forth ICamlyn (croked poole); 
Kamlyn^ azwn Kamlyn, 

Forth O^r, Atfon Ogor^ sum- 
tyme a wild brooke. Ynys Padric ' 
(insula Patricii prope Ogor). Ynys 
Llygod (a mowse). Llygoden. 

Forth Amylhwchfi^ avon Amyl- 
hwch (many swine). 

Corse (a moore) yA0/(abely), 
the name of a moore. 



■ Forth yr havod-lyn. * Llanvair yng-homwy. 

« The Skerries. * Macn Bugeil or " West Mouse." 

• Llan Badrig. ' Ynys Badrig or ** Middle Mouse." 

f Amlwch. ^ Amlwch harbour. 

^ A corrupt form of LI. Gadog, which is a chapel of ease (four miles 
south) of Amlwch. See Lewis, Top. Dictionary, 

^ There is a Bettws in Llan Badrig, not far from Forth "Llan- 
lliana." 

' The chapel of Llan Lleianeu, four miles west of Amlwch, and near 
Llan Badrig. 
«» Llantrisaint. » Llech CynvarwyiS. 

Near Bod Edem. P Alias Ceidio. 



APPENDIX B 



133 



[parishes.] 

Bodewtyd^ eccUsia appropriata 
monasttrio de Penman. 

Rent Uan Elian (iClianus falso 
Hilarius) cum annex: 

Bettws Rosbeirio (Rosia heth). 

Betiws y Cqydam*^ (Wodde, 
proprium nomen). 

Rent Uan Dyvrydog (S. Theri- 
dacus) cum annex: 

Uan Viken^l y Trefbardd^ 
(Michael, in villa vatum). 

Rent Uan AUgo cum annex: 
Llan Eigrad. 



Uan Vihengely TinsUoy^^ alias 
Ymhenrhos;fl^fv/nrt/. Prestolme, 

Rent Uan Dyffnan ^ cum annex: 

Uan Fayj/r' (magistri). Uan 
Vairyn Peniraeth B cum alia Uan 
Vair Ymathafam.^ 

Rent Uan Vihtngel yn Yskei- 
viog cum annex : 

Llan Finnan (Finnanus). 

Rent Uan £>ona^ (forte Don- 
atus) cum annex: 

Llan Saint y KcUerin "» appro- 
priat, Prestolme, 

P. 98. Prioratus de Prestolme^ 
alias de Penmon, 

Rent Uan Gwrda^ cum annex: 



[havbns, islands, rivbrs, btc.] 



PortA Elian (nomen S.) alias 
Saint Hylarys hay, Avon Elian, 



Porth Dulas^ Aber Lhdas^ Tra- 
eth LHtlas, 

Avon Dulas {i,e, niger cenileus), 
Duglessus, a brooke. Corse y 
Mant, a moore. 

Ynys Uigwy^ Porth Uigwy^ 
Avo[n] Uigwy, the name of a 
rille. 

Porth Voehre (Moilure, Moy- 
lydre, i,e,, tumulus villse) Avon 
Voelvre, 

Ytrath Coch^ (redde), PoHh 
Uottgdu (Llong, a shippe). Avon 
nomine incognitur. 

Corse Tygai (a moore, nomine 
oppidum); avon vawr (water, 
great) aiias Avon Kefniy 

Geuinus,^ flu. maximus totius 
insulse, and risith of iij litle stremes, 
and at Llan Geyeney ^ yt runneth 
ynonebotom, and so thorow Corse 
Tygay, and so thorow a marsch a 
ij mylis and then yn to the se, at 
a place cawled Maletraith.^ 

Ynys Seirioi;^ Porth Seiriol, 
alias Insula ecclesicutica. 



• G)edana. ^ Uan Vihangel Tre-r-beirdd. 

^ Leland has confused two churches here. Ihe one is LI. Vihangel 
Din Sylwy, and the other is [LI. Vihangel] Penrhos Llugwy, which is 
also on the coast, considerably to the north. 

* Red Wharf bay. • Llan Dyvnan. 

' Equated with Llanbedr Goch in some Wekh MSS. 
B Now Pentraeth: formerly it was called LI. Vair Betws Gereint, 
according to a Panton MS. 
^ Add Eithav. Leland wrote Ymothafru. * Cevni R. 

k Llangevni. * lA, Dona. ™ LI. Vaes. 

^ Malltraeth. ^ Penmon on the main island. 

P Puffin Island or Priestholm. 4 Llan Gawrdav, now Llangoed. 



134 LE LAND'S ITINERARY 

[PARISHES.] [HAVBNS, ISLANDS, RIVERS, ETC.] 

Lion lestyn. 

Rent Llan Ttgvan^ (bellus lo- Trtuih or Utvmn, 

ciis) cum annex. This b a 2 miles Theferi at Bumans,^ 

from Beumarisk yetus ^ and is the Am (bed) ryn (could), Savyn 

paroch chirch, for in Bewmarisch *^ ast^ (the mowth of v* byche). 
IS but a chapel of our lady. Here metyth the se ot Penmone 

Ca/^i/Ar^^aif^(Miganushere- and Meney, and thes waters the 
mita). wynd beyng hy rageth together. 

Capell mair or Duwmares.^ 

Rent Llan Saturn (S. Saturnus 
aut Satuminus). 

Rent Llan Gradiuel.^ 



I have here but 30 hedde paroche chirchis. Mr. Griffith ' rekenith 
31, and to reken the chapelles with them he countitb a 100 chirchis. 

The hundreds of Mone 
Menai^ Malltrayth^ Uivone^ Talbollion^ Torkelyn^t Tindaythoy. 

There be very good mylle stones of white redde blew and grene 
girthes, especially yn Tyndaythoy commote. There is good com- 
moditie for fisching about al terre Mone, but there lakkith cunning 
and diligence. 

* Llan Degvan. ^ Beaumaris. 
® Savn yr ast is the correct form. 

* Compare Wigan, between Pentraeth and Llan Ffinan. 

* Now Pen mynny^. ' See p. 9a 
f Llivon, Tal y bolion, Twrkclyn. 



INDEX OF GENTLEMEN AND LAND- 
OWNERS IN WALES' 



( Tk^ word ** family^** as here used, means thai there are several 
gentlemen of the name,) 



Adam, Hugh, Clapnorgansh,^ 31. 
Andrews, Mr., Oxfordsh,, 55. 
Arundel, £. of, Montgomery sh,, 
53,54- 

Bassett of Pencoit, Glamorgansh,^ 

21. 
Bedford, Gaspar, Duke of, Gla- 

morgansh,, 38. 
Brainton, Mr., Herefordsh,^ 103. 
Brecknock, Archdeacon of, 109. 
Broughton, John, Flintsh,^ 69. 
Buckingham, Duke of, 12,42,49, 

105, 107, III. 
Butler, Boteler, Glamorgansh., 27. 

Cadwallon ap Madog, 52. 
Cambridge, Ch. Coll., Pembroke- 

sh.y 61. 
Came, Sir Edw., Giamorgansh,^ 

3i» 32. 
Chorleton family, Salop, 66. 
Corbet family, Salop, 65, 66. 
Cotmore, William, Camarvonsh,, 

85. 
Cotton, Salop, 67. 

Delamere, Gower land, 127. 
Dodd, John, Salop, 66. 
Dudley, Lord Marcher, 53, 55, 
"5- 



Dun, Grifin, Justice of Carmar- 
then, 56. 
Dymock, Flintsh., 68. 

Edwards, Flintsh,, 73. 

Einon, a borderer to Glamorgan^ 

sh„ 38. 
Ellis ap Richard, Flintsh., 69. 
Elys uab Moriche, Camarvonsh., 

85. 
Eyton, John, Denhighsh,, 7a 

Ferres, Lord, Pembrokesh,, 63. 
Fleming of Glamorgansh., 31, 38. 

Gamage of Glamorgansh,, 21, 33. 

Gatacre, Salop, 67. 

Gibbon, Matnew, Glamorgansh,, 

21. 
Giles, of Gilestown, Glamorgansh,, 

31. 

Goch, Owen, 84. 

Grifith, Mr., Camarvonsh,, 79. 

GriHth, Sir William, Camarvon- 
sh,, ^i^, 

Griffith, Ithel (Ellis), Flintsh,, 73, 
89. 

Griffith, Rouland, Anglesey, 90, 

134 (?) 
Grosvenor family, Cheshire, 66. 



^ The names belonging to the portions of English counties noted in 
this Part are also included. 

«35 



136 LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Glyndwr, Owen, 52, 70, 71, 108; 
his pedigree, 78. 

Hamelin de Barham, a Norman 
founder, 50. 

Hanmer family, Flintsh,^ 68. 

Haughton, Salop^ 67. 

Herbert family, Btecknocksh, yioT^ 
Glamorgansh.^ 23, 25, 26, 42. 

Holbeche, David, a lawyer of Os- 
westry, 75. 

Howel, ap, Fiinish,, 92. 

Justine, lord of Giamorgansh,^ 
38. 

Kemmeis family, AfonmcutAsh, , 
14, 15. 

Lacy, Lord of Ewias, Denbighsh,^ 

96,98. 
Laken, Salop, 67. 
Lancaster, Duke of, Carmarthen- 

sh,y 59. 
Langeville, Pembrokesh,^ 63. 
Lee, Salop, 66. 
Leighton family, Salop, 66. 
Lewis family, Glamor gansh», 15, 

17, 18. 
Lingham, Htrefordsh,, 103. 
Lloid, Grifith, Camarvonsh,, 79. 
Lluelyn, Lewis ap, Glamorgansh. , 

21. 
Llwyd family, Denbighih,, 71. 
LIywel3m, Prince, 84, 89. 
Loudres, Sir John, lord of Og- 

more, 51. 
Lounder, Sir Maurice, Glanwr- 

gansh,, 27, 28, 38. 
Lysan of Neath, 30. 

Madok uab Poel, John uab, Car- 

narvonsh.y 85. 
Maelgwn Gwne*, 89. 
Mainewering, Sir Richard, Salop, 

Maleinfante, Mallfaunt, Glamor- 
gansh., 23, 26, 27, 38. 

Marach a Mirchion, lord, Den* 
bighsh., 99. 

Marche, E. of, 107. 



Mathew family, Glamorgansh, , 

19, 21, 26. 
Minos, Montnouihsh.f 47. 
Mitten, Mr., of Shropshire, Moni' 

gomerysh,, 55, 60. 
Morgan family, Monmouthsh,, 14. 
Morganne, Lleuys, the barth 

(bar«), 51. 
Moubray, lord of Swansey, 127. 

Nedam, Sir Robert, Salop, 66. 
Newport of Archhall, Salop, 66. 
Northumberland, Earl of 57. 

Onslow, Onesloo, Salop, 66. 

Omiond, £. of, 47. 

Oteley, Salop, 66. 

Owen, John, Camarvonsh,, 85. 

Payne, 1 1, Glamorgansh,, 33. 
Pembroke, Earl of, 62, 97 {see 

Herbert). 
Perot, Pembrokesh,, 63. 
Pillesdon, Camarvonsh., 85. 
Pilston family, Flintsh,, 68; Den- 

bighsh,, 70. 
Poel, Mr., Camarvonsh,, 89. 
Poel ap Hoel, Flintsh,, 92. 
Powys, Lord Marcher, 53, 55, 125. 

Ragland family, Glamorgansh,, 25, 
33. 

Rhese (Rise) ap Thomas, Carmar' 
thensh,, 52, 57, 60, \\y, Pem- 
brokesh,, 62, 115, 116. 

Rise Vehan, Mathew ap, 18. 

Richard, David, Glamorgansh,, 
18. 

St. David's, Bishop of, 58, 62, 65, 
115. 

St. John family, Glamorgansh,, 
24. 

Shrewsbury, Earl of, Monmouth- 
sh,, 47. 

Skriven, Salop, 66. 

Smith, Mr, Cheshire, 91. 

Stradeling, Glamorgansh,, 27, 28, 
3i» 32, 38. 

Stratflur Abbot, Cardigan, 12 1^ 

122. 



INDEX OF GENTLEMEN, ETC. 137 



Talbot, Sir John, Shropsh,, 65. 
Thomas fanuly, Glamorgansh,^ 32, 

33- 
Thomas ap Jon^rs, Carfnarthensh, , 

113- 
Thornes, Salop^ 66. 
Trentham, Salif^ 66. 
Turbeville family, Glamcrgansh^^ 

32. 

Tywysog Llywelvn vab lorwerth 
drwyndwn, 84. 

Vanne, Ciamifrgansh,^ 32. 
Vehan family, Giamorgansh,^ 18, 

27, 49. 
Vehan, Grifith ap Robert, Car- 
ftarvonsA,, 85. 



Vehan, William, BrecJhtocJksA,, 

112. 
Vernon, SaU/, 67. 

Wenn ap Robert, John, F/iu/sA,, 

73. 
Wen uab Meridith, Camarvonsh.^ 

85. 
William, Richard, alias Crum- 

well,* 17. 
William uab William, Camar- 

vonsA., 84. 
Wolrige, Sa/op, 67. 



Yong, SahPf 67. 
York, Duke of, 1 1. 



* Richard Williams, a/ias Crumwelle, was nephew to Thomas Crom- 
well, servant to Henry VIII, and ancestor in the third (generation to 
Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector. See John Morley's Li/e of Crom- 
Will, p. I. I owe this identification to the Hon. Miss Bruce, herself of 
a Glamorganshire family, and claiming connection with the Cromwells. 



INDEX OF PLACES 



Note. — All places named in the island of Anglesey are under the 
heading MOn, classified in two divisions. 



Abbeys and Priories, lo, 48, 50- 

53. 55. 8i- 
Aber Avan, Avon (Glamorgan), 

29, 30. 
Aberbarrey, 23. 
Aber Cegin r., 85. 
Aber Cowyn, 58. 
Aber C)mvrig, 1 10. 
AberdUr, Ab^rdare, 16. 
Aber Daron, 80, 87. 
Aberdourde, 27. 
Aber Dyvi, Aberdovey, 90, 123. 
Aberedw, Abrehedon, il. 
Aber Erch, 80. 
Aberfraw, 129. 
Aber Gevenni, Burgeveney, 45; 

priory, 50. 
Aber Glaslyn, 80, 131. 
Aber Gwili, near Carmarthen, 58, 

114. 
Aber Gwyn eregyn, house of 

Prince of Wales, 79. 
Aber Hodni, Aberhodeney, 104. 
Aber Marleis castle, 52, 113. 
Aber Maw^ach, Bannouth, 76, 77. 
Aber Menai, 86, 129. 
Aber Ogwen r., 85. 
Aber Pergwm brook, 16.' 
Aber Pwll r., 85. 
Aber Seint, or Carnarvon, 86. 
Aber Thaw, Thawan r., 22, 24, 



35. 26, 37. 
Aber Ystwith, 



56. 



Abreostuthe, 

"3- 
Abon r., 70. 

Aconbury (Herefordsh.), 48. 
Act, the new (27 Hen. VIII, c. 

26), 53. 54. 123. 



Acton Bumel (Salop), 66. 
Adelsthorpe and Horse bridge, 

Oxon, 39. 
Alan Water, 120, 122. 
Alberbury (Salop), 125. 
Albrighton Park (Salop), 65. 
Aled r., 93, 98; commotes, 93, 

95. 
Alein r., 27, 37. 
Aire, Bre, 1 10. 
Alr^ on Dee, 69. 
Alun, Alen r. (Denbighs. and 

Flint), 70; course of, 71, 73. 
Alwen r., 98. 
Amlwch (Mdn), 132. 
Angle village, 6. 
Anglesey. See M6n. 
Apley, Salop, 67. 
Archenfield. See Erging, 47. 
Ardudwy commote (Merioneth), 

Arow r., 42, 49. 

Arthur's Hill, 106, III. 

Artro r., hundreds Uwch and Is 

Artro, 77. 
Arwistli, Arustle, 54, 55, 1 14, 122. 
Atterel hills, Myny^ y Gadeir, 104. 
Aust ferry, Glouc., 42. 
Avon Crwjrs, Oswestry, 75. 
Avon Gregyn, 79. 
Avon Porth Wen (Mdn), 131. 
Avon river (Glamorgan), 30, 37; 

ditto (Gloucestersh.), 100. 
Ayron brook, 51, 52. 

Bala lake, 78. 

Bangor, Cam., 79, 80, 86. 

Bangor Iscoed, Flint, 67, 68. 



139 



140 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Bann^ hills, Bann^ Brycheiniog, 

no. 
Bardsey island, 80, 81. 
Barmouth. 5^AberMawiSach,76. 
Barrey, castle and rill, 23 ; isle, 24. 
Bassueg, pont, 13. 
Beaumaris (M on), 132, 134. 
Beckbury (Salop), 67. 
Be^gelart, 81. 
Bed was, Bedwes, 13. 
Bermondsey, cell of Black Friars 

at Chepstow, 43. 
Bettws, Rosl>eirio (M6n), 133. 
Bishop's Castle, Bishop's Town 

(Salop), 40, 50. 
Bishop's Town, near Trecastle 

(Brecknock), 112. 
Black Mountains, or Myny^ du, 

no. 
Blaen Cowyn, 114. 
Blaen HonSi, 109. 
Blaen Llyvni (Brecon), 107, ill. 
Blaen Pennal, 52. 
Blaen Wisk, 112. 
Bodwrog, Llyn and moor (Mdn), 

130. 
Bod Varri (Flint), 92. 
Bolgoed, 20. 
Bonvilston, Bolston alias Tre 

Simwn, 25. 
Bostel castle, 41. 

Bourton-on-the- Water (Oxon), 39. 
Bradwardine Castle, 49. 
Brftnr., 113. 

Brecknock, Brenauch, Brechenauc, 
9, 104, 112, 113; priories, 
ID, 105; castles, 10, 105; 
rivers, 10, 104. 
Brecknock forest, 112. 
Brecknock mere, ID, 104, 105. 
Brecknock town, 9, 105, 106. 
Brei^en, Bridin, 126. 
Brenhin, Brennine lordship, 27. 
Brennig r., 98, no, 118. 
Brevir.,57, n7. 
Bridgend or Penbont, 28, 29, 33. 
Bridges over rivers in Wales : 

Avon (Glamorgan), 37. 

Cothi, 114. 

Cowen bridge, 114. 



Bridges — continued. 
Dee r., at Chester, Holt, and 

Llangollen, 90. 
Diwl^s brook, 36. 
Ele, Elei, Lai, 18, 19, 25. 
Gloucester, laj. 
Hereford, 47. 
Holt brieve, 69. 
Karvan, Kensan brook, 37. 
Kidwelly, 59. 
Lay r., 19, 36. See Ele. 
Llandaff, 18. 
LInndovery lacks a bridge over 

theTowy, 113. 
Machynlleth, 77. 
Newport bridge, 44. 
Ne«, Neath r., 38. 
Ogwr, Ogorr., 37. 
Oswestry, 76. 
Peris, Llanberis, 82. 
Pont Gigman, 31. 

He, 31. 

Landough, Landouhe, 31. 

Lay, 19, 25. 

Lecwith, 19, 25. 

Newith, 15, 31, 36. 

Remny, 12, 13, 15, 35. 

Rhyd Sam, Ponterith Same, 
20, 21, 25, 26. 
Rhonda Vawr r. , 35. 

Vechan r., 36. 
Tav, Taphe r., 35. 
Teivir., 117. 
Thawan r., 31, 36. 
Usk r. at Brecknock, 106. 
Wennyr., 37. 
Bristol, 102. 
Britan, Britton Ferry, near Neath^ 

I5» 30. 
Bromefeld (Flint), 69. 
Bromfeld, Salop, 5a 
Bromyard (Herefords.), 49. 
Brongoed, near Mold, 73. 
Broughton (Flint), 69. 
Br^ynllys, Broynlles, 109, III. 
Bryn Buga=Usk castle, 44. 
Brynich r., no. 
Builth, 56, 109, 122. 
Buttington Bridge, 55. 
Bwlch y Claw^, 16, 22. 



INDEX OF PLACES 



141 



Bwlch yr Eivl, 79, 80, 88. 
Bychan, Bahan, Pork and Castle, 

12. 

Cadnant r., 86, (M6n), 129. 
Caer Digoll on Long Mountain, 54. 
Caer Gwent, Caerwent, 43. 
Cacr Gwrl^ or Hope, 73. 
Caer Lion, Cairleon, 13, 14, 44. 
Caerphilly, 18. 
Caer Sws, Cairllews, 54. 
CaerTaphe, i.«., Cardiff, 14, 17, 

34. 
Caer Wysc, Usk, 44; priory, 50. 
Caer yn Arvon, Carnarvon, 52, 

79, 81. 
Caldicot, Calecoyth, castle, 43. 
Caldy Isle, Inis Pir, 51, 61, 62, 

117. 
Camden (Glonc), 39. 
Cantri mawr, Cantr^ bychan (Car- 

marthensh.)* 58. 
Can tr^-Seli hundred, 109, ill. 
Capel Kiryk, 81. 
Cardiff, Cairtaphe, 14, 17, 34. 
Cardigan, 56, 58. 
Cardigan priory, 51 ; castle, 57. 
Cardiganshire Ll]ms, 120-122. 

See Lakes. 
Carew Castle (Pembrokesh. ), 1 1 5. 
Carmarthen, 59; priory, 51, 58. 
Carnarvon, 84. 

Carnarvonshire, castles and houses, 
84.85. 

Coetmor, near Tal Llyn Ogwen, 
85. 

Conway, 84. 

Cricdeth, 84. 

Clenenn^, Pen Morva parish, 85. 

Cwchwilan, 84. 

Deganwy in Creu^yn, 84, 89. 

Dinas Emeris, 84. 

Dolbadam, 84. 

Dolwythelan, 84. 

Gwydyr, 85. 

Kegid in EvionylS, 85. 

Ll^ at Bodvel, 85. 

The MM, Llan Boduan, 84. 

Penrhyn, 84, 89. 

Sinnodune, 84. 



Carnarvonshire — continued, 

Tal Hen Bont, 85. 

Tre Castle, Castle Marchog,84. 

Trevriw, castle and river, 84. 
Carnarvonshire Llyns, 82-84. See 

Lakes. 
Carnarvonshire rivers and brooks, 

85,86. 
Carnwyllon commote, 60. 
Carreg Kennen, 57. 
Carvan, Kensan r., 24, 25, 37. 
Cathedine, 107. 
Castleton Manor place, 31. 
Cawres, Causeland, Caurscland, 

40. 
Cawres Castle, 65. 
Ceredigion. See Cardigan, 58. 
Cerrig Gwynion, 89. 
Cheltenham, 39. 
Chepstow, 42, 43 ; priory, 50. 
Chester, 73. 

Chipping Norton, Oxon, 39. 
Chirbury priory, and hundred, 40^ 

54,55* 

Chirk lordship and castle, 71, 72. 

Chum r., 100, loi. 

Cirencester, 39, 102. 

Clardi^, Black Oarer., 119, 120. 

Clare Castle (Carmarthensh. ), 57. 
See St. Clear's. 

Clarwen r., 12a 

ClawiS Cwnstabl, 18, 19, 20. 

ClelSiv, Gledy, Glevi, londship and 
rivers, 62, 63. 

Clegir Voia castle, 64. 

Clenenn^ house, 85. 

Cloverley (Salop), 66. 

Cluidford r., 41. 

Clun (Brecknock), 109. 

Cliin, Clunne, Colunwy (Shrop- 
shire), 40, 41, 53, 54, 55- 

Clun forest, 54. 

Clwydr.,98. 

Clydach, Cledaugh, 20. 

Clynog Vawr, Clunnok, monas- 
tery and village, 52. 

Clyro, no. 

Clywedog r., 70, 98. 

Coal pits, 59, 60, 73; mines, 69, 
117. 



142 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Coch, castle, i8, 125. 

Coed y Mwstw r, 33. 

Coed y Park, 81. 

Coetmor, 81, 85. 

Cocty, Coite, 21 ; Tir, 28, 33. 

Coitegolle, 68. 

Colaide r., 86. 

Colebroke r., 29. 

Colewine, 11. 

Colhow, 26, 27. 

Commotes in Wales, list, 1-9. 

Conwy, Conway, 79, 80, 81, 84; 

r., 85, 89. 
Cornton, 28. 
Corrug, Glin, 34. 
Corve r. (Salop), 50. 
Cothi, 114. 

Cotton, near Shrewsbury, 66, 67. 
Cowbridge, 15, 28, 32. 
Cowyn r., j8, 114. 
Crabhall (Cheshire), 91. 
Craig Eryri, Snowdon, 77, 81, 82, 

121. 
Craig Gwrtheym, 87. 
Craig naw-llyn, 56, 119, 120. 
Crege castle, 21. 
Creu«yn, 79, 89» 95- 
Crickhowel, 108. 
Crickieth, 80, 84, 88. 
Crokerton, at Cardiff, 35. 
Crug. SeeGtege, 
Crwys, Crose r., 56. 
Crymlyn, Crimline r., 15, 30. 
Cwchwilan house or castle, 84. 
Cwm DoyiSwr, Comothuder, 

Comemytother, ii, 109, 120, 

122. 
Cwm hir, Comehire Abbey, 11, 

52. 
Cwm Kidi, Come Kydy, brook, 

24- 
Cwm Ystwith, 119, 123. 

Daron r., 87. 

Dee r., 67, 68, 70, 71, 91, 92. Sea 

Dyvrdwy, 72. 
Deerhurst, 40. 

Deganwy in Creu^yn, 84, 89. 
Denbighshire brooks or rivers, 98, 

99. 



Denbighshire conmiotes : 

Is Dulas and Uch Dulas, 93, 94. 

Is Aled and Uch Aled, 93, 95. 

Kinmeirch, 93, 94, 95. 

Denbigh town, 93, 94. 
Denbigh, parks near: 

Cors nodiog, 94. 

Moel yr Ewig, 95. 
Denbigh town, 96-98; commote, 

93.94- 
Denhall (Cheshire), 91. 
Deugle^iv lordship, 62. 
Dewi's land, St David's, 63; 

cantr^ Dewi, id. 
Dewir., 114. 

Dinas castle, 10, 107, no, in. 
Dinas Brin castle, 70, 90. 
Dinas Emeris castle, 84. 
Dinas Powys castle, 23. 
Dinevor castle, 57, 58, 114. 
Dinllaen commote, 80. 
Diserth, Disarte, castle in Flint, 

93- 
Dolbadam castle, 79, 84. 
Ddl Gelli, Dolgelly, 77. 
D61 Vorwyn, Dolveron, 54, 55, 

125. 
Dolwythelan castle, 84. 
Dore, Dour, abbey in Ewias, 49. 
DoyiJwr, 55. 
Drissiog, 22. 
Dryslwyn castle, 57, 114. 
Dudmaston (Salop), 67. 
Dulas r., 93, III ; commotes, 93, 

94- 
Dunraven, Dounereuen, 27. 
Dusoch r., 86. 
"Dvfygyyylctd r. , 85. 
Dyffryn, Glamorgan, 34. 
Dyffryn Klwyd, 69. 
Dyffryn Teivi, 1 18. 
Dyflfryn Towy, 58. 
E^i, Dovey r., 77, 123. 
I^rvrdwy or Dee r., 70, 72. 
Dyvrir., 113. 

Ebbw, EbouUh r., 13. 
E<1erne or Geirch r., 87. 
Edemion commote, 71, 78. 
Egluis Ilan, 13. 



INDEX OF PLACES 



143 



Egluis Newith, 17. 

Egluis Tidcr vab Howel, 13. 

Elan, Alen r., 120, 122. 

Ele bridge (Lai, Elei), 18, 19, 25. 

EUesmere (Salop), 74. 

Elvel land, High and Low, ii, 

49, 109. 
Elwy, Elwyn r., 99, 119. 
Emlyn castle, 57. 
Emral, Emerhaule, 68. 
Erging, Erchenfeld, 47. See Arch- 

enfield. 
Erliesk, Pont, 15. 
Eskenninge. See Is Kennen. 
Eviony^ commote, 80, 81, 88. 
Ewenny, Wenny, bridge, 15; 

river, 28, 37; priory, 28, 50. 
Ewias land, 47, 49, 96. 
Ewloe Ostle (Flint), 93. 

Papuan's, S., parish, 19. 
Fairford (Glouc. ), 39. 
Fairwater, near Llan Div (Llan- 

daff), 19. 
Femhill, Femlege (Monmouth), 

48. 
Fishguard, 64, 65. 
Flimston, FlemingestoD, Trefle- 

mig, 31. 
Fossil trees, 52, 53. 
Fraw r. (Mdn), 129, 13a 
Fredoll brook, 34. 
French order, the, priories of, 

Goldclif, 45 ; Monmouth, 49. 
Frodesley, Salop, 66. 
Fromey r., 49. 
Ffr^d Skyvamog in Llan Dwrog, 

Ffynnon Dyvnog, St. Dunock's 
Well, 98. 

Gadair-y-Kair Noy (Mdn), 132. 
Gaflogeon commote, 80. 
Galthe Caurde, 21. 
Garan r., 47. 
Garthgynnin, 114. 
Garw, Garow brook, 37, 
Gatacre, Salop, 67. 
Gelir., 95. 
Gelligaer, 18. 



Gilestoun, 31. 

Glamorganshire, confines of, I5» 

16. 
Glasbury, Glesbiri, 10, 104. 
Glascoit hill, Flint, 93. 
Glasc^^, 42. 

Glis-firwd, Glesrode r., 56. 
Glas-lyn, 88. 
Gleddmg r., 125. 
Glindama lordship, 108. 
Glin lordship, 22. 
Gloucester, 39, 100, loi; abbey, 

48. 
Gloucestershire, market towns and 

castles in, 99. 
Gloucestershire rivers: 
Avon, icx>. 
Chum, icx>, lOl. 
Isis, icx>. 
Glyn Corrwg, 16, 34. 
Glyn Ueder, 81. 
Glyn Llugwy, 81. 
Glyn Rhonda, Rodeney, 20. 
Gc^garth, Gt. Orme's Head, 53, 

89. 
Gogume, Llin, 117. 
Goldclif priory, given to Eton, 45. 
Goodrich castle, 47. 
Gower land, 127. 
Grace Dieu Abbey, near Caer 

Wysc, sa 
Green castle, Carmarthen^ 61. 
Grege wood, ?Crug, 47. 
Greneston castle, 23. 
Gresford, Flint, 69, 7a 
Gresmont castle (Monmouth), 47. 
Guitheryn (Denbi^hsh.), 99. 
Gwaelod, cantre Tost in the sea, 

77,90. 
Gwendraeth vawr and G. vechan 

rivers, 59, 60, 61. 
Gwentland, Venceland, Wcnce- 

or Wentland, 12, 13, 14, 42, 

45i 46, 59- 
Gwenwyn Meirch r., 86. 
Gweun, Gueyn r., 65. 
Gwili r., 117. 
Gwlid = district, 19. 
Gwrtheym, nant and craig, 79, 

87. 



144 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Gwrvei, Uch and Is, commotes, 

78, 79, 82. 
Gwrvei r., 79, 86. 
Gwydyr castle, 85. 
Gwy*erig r., 113. 
Gwynll^g, Wentllugh, 12, 14. 
Gynleis, Genles r., 16. 

Hamner, 67, 68. 
Harlech castle, 77. 
Harwood, Flint, coals at, 69. 
Haverford West, two priories, and 

monastery at Pill Rose, 51. 
Haverford West, lordship, town, 

and castle, 63, 65. 
Haulton, 68. 
Hayles Abbey (Gloucestersh. ), 38, 

39»40. 
Hay, the, castle, 10, 42, 104, 108, 

no. III. 
H£n Dinas, 76. 
H6n Eglws, 13a 
Han Gastell, 29. 
H^n Wy, 109. 
Hendri Rossirr, Newboroueh 

(M6n), S3. 
Herberth. .S^ Narberth, 62. 
Herdoel, ? Rhy* Hywel, 109. 
Hereford, town and castle, 47, 

48, 103. 
Hesp Alun, 71. 
Hcgries. See Havles. 
Hilbre Point (Cheshire), 91, 92. 
Hirwen Urgan, 16. 
Holt, castle and bridge, 69, 70, 71. 
Holyhead (M6n), 131. 
HontSu, Hodni, r., Hodeney, 10, 

104, loj, 106, 109. 
Hope lordship, 71, 73. 
Houne r., near Mold, 72. 
Howel and the harpers, 92. 
Huntingdon castle (Radnor), 42. 

Ightfeld (Salop), 66. 

Inis Pir, Caldv, 51, 61, 62. 

Is kennen, Eskenninge commote, 

60. 
Isis river, loa 

Kaedrain, 16, i8» 



Kaer^, C^re, 19. 

Kaer Kybi, Holyhead, 131. 

Kaiach, Is and Uch, 17, 18. 

Karregy tyllvaen (Denbighsh. ), 99. 

Kayach brook, 13. 

Kefni r. (Mdn), 133. 

Kegid in EvionyiS, 85. 

Keriog r., 72. 

Kemmesland (Pembroke), 6<, 123. 

Kenchester (Herefordsh.),45, 102. 

KenfHg r., 29; borough, 29. 

Kenlet r., 40, 54. 

Kennenn r., 59. 

Kensan. SeeCarnxL 

Kensdale in Cotswold, 39. 

Kerikennen (Carmarthensh.), 57. 

Kerrig y Drudion, 94. 

Kerry, Kery, forest and lordship, 

^ 54, 55. 

Keven Du, 71. 

Keven Gl&s, 19. 

Keven Gwyn, Guinzil, 2a 

Keven y Castell, 126. 

Keven On, 17. 

KevUiog. 54, 55» 77- 

Kibwr, Kibworth, 17. 

Kidwellv priory, 51; town and 

lordship, 59, 60, 61. 
Kidwyn, Kidowen, 54, 55. 
Kilgwri, 91. 
Kilpek castle, 47. 
Kinmeirch, 94. 
Knighton, Trebuclo, Trcv y 

clawdd, 10, 41. 
Kyllel rill, 63, 64. 
Kymmer Abbey, 77. 
Kynon, Kenon, 19, 2a 
Kynvyn, 78. 

Lai, Lay, Ley, Elei, r., 18, 19, 20, 

21, 33, 37. 
Lakes: 

Anavon, Mam Avon, 83, 85. 

Bala deu-lyn, 82. 

Cerrig Llwydon, 122. 

Cowlyd, 83. 

Craignant, 121. 

Craig, nawr, 56, 119, 12a 

Cravnant, 83. 

Cwellyn, 82. 



INDEX OF PLACES 



145 



Lakes — continued, 

Dan gader yr Eurwrychyn, 83. 

Dinas Emrys, 82. 

DOI Badarn, 82. 

Dolwithelan, 83. 

Dulyn, 83. 

Du, 121. 

Dwythwch, 82. 

Eigieu, 83. 

Elsi, 83. 

Enog, 83. 

Ffynnon y gwas, 82. 

Gerionilh, 83. 

Glaslyn yn y Wy^Sva, 82. 

Gogurne, 117. 

Gorlan, 12a 

Gronn, 12a 

GweryiJon Vawr, and Vechan, 
121. 

Gwynan, Gwynant, 82. 

Gynnon, 122. 

Helignant, Lignant, 120, 122. 

Htr, 120. 

Idwalle, 83. 

Llanbeder, 121. 

Lleder, 83. 

Liinpeder,? Pencarrcg, 117. 

Llin y Gors, 121. 

Llinnyrythe, y Rhyd, Ridde, 
118, 121. 

Llin y Virnn valen, 120, 121. 

Llugwy, 83. 

Llydaw, 82. 

Ogwen, 83, 8s. 

Peris, 82. 

Riscog, 83. 

Syva^an, 104. See Seuathan. 

Tarthennyne, 1.^., Cwellyn, 82. 

Teivi, 119, 124. 

TerwenyiJ, 84. 

Winge(?Wyr^), 122. 
Lamphey, Llanffy^, 115. 
Lannhadein, 63. 
Lantwit major, Llan Iltuit, Lanil- 

tute, 27, 32, 33. 
Laughame, 57, 58. 
Lead mines, 123. 
Legin. See Ll^n. 
Leominster, Limstre> Llinlini, 42, 
48. 49. 



Liverpool, 92. 

Llai, 70. 

Llan Andras, or Presteigne, 10, 41. 

Llan Armon, Yale, 70, 71. 

Llan Badrig, 132. 

Llanbedr (Brecknock), 109. 

Llanbeder Goch (Mdn), 133. 

Llanbeder (Monmouth), 14. 

Llan Beris, 81. 

Llan Ble^ian, Lanlithan, 31, 32. 

Llan Carvan, 25. 

Llan D&v, Llandaff, 17, 18, 19; 

commote, 18, 25. 
Llan Degla, Yale, 70, 71. 
Llan Deilo vawr, 58. 
Llan Dewi, 57, 109, 1 12. 
Llan Dinam, 125. 
Llan Dough, 31, 33. 
Llanddowror, 57, 115. 
Llandovery, Llan-ym-tSyvri, Llan- 

ameveri, 112, 113, 121, 122. 
Llan Dyvodwg, 2i8. 
Llan Egwestyl, Yale, 70, 71, 9a 
Llan EUi, 59, 60. 
Llan engan Brennine, 87, 88. 
Llanerchymedd (Mon), 130. 
Llanfihende (near Machen, Mon- 

mouthsh.)* 13. 
Llan Geinor, Llanginivire, 28. 
Llan Gollen, 90. 
Llan Gurig, 114, 122, 124, 125. 
Llan Idloes, Llanindelas, 12, 54, 

55» 125. 

Llanigon, 108. 
Llanlsen, 17. 
Llan Lleyr nunnery, Cardigan, 

51. 52. 
Llan Nevy«, 98. 
Llan Rhaiadr, 94, 98. 
Llan Rhystud, 124. 
Llan Rian, 65. 
Llan Sannan, 98, 99. 
Uan San Ffred, three churches, 

34, 123. 
Llan Sawyl ferry, 15. 
Llan Stephan on Towy r., 57, 58, 

61, 02. 
Llantemham abbey, 45, 50. 
Llanthony, Llanthonddye, Lanho- 

deny priory, 10, 106. 



146 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Llan Deiniol vab, 129. 

Llan Dewi Brevi, 57, 117, 118, 

Llanthew (Brecon), 109, 112. 
Llantrissent, 20; yGigvran tower, 

21 ; Glinog park, 21. 
Llan Vaes, 27, 105, I33« 
Llanvair, 21. 
Llanvair Discoed, 44. 
Llanvair PwU Gwyngyll, Menai, 

129. 
Llanvairvechan r., 85. 
Llanvihangel Cathedine (Brecon), 

107. 
Llanvihengle, Glamorgan, 30, 

31. 
Llan Vorda or Morda, 76. 
Llan Wnda, 65. 
Llan Wonni, 22. 
Llanwordell, 55. 
Llechwe^ issa and ucha commotes, 

. 79. 

Lligwy r. (M6n), 133. 

Llivon r., 86; in Mon, 134. 

Lloen Egrin, near Mold, 73. 

Lluid Coite, 16. 

Llwch Tawe, 109. 

Llwchwr, Lochor r., 60, 61 ; 

castle, 127. 
Llwydarth forest, 63. 
Llwyn h^n dinas, 70. 
Ll^, 52, 80, 81, 88. 
Ll^ at Bodvel, 85. 
Llyn Tegid or Bala lake, 78. 
Llyn rithe, 118. 
Llyvni, Lleveney r., 10, 34, 37, 

86, 104, 108 ; its course, I la 
Llyn y Dywarchen, 79. 
Ll^s Gwenllian (Denbighsh.)> 95* 
Llyswomey, Llesbroinuith, 27, 

33- 
Longnor, Salop, 66. 
Ludlow, 50. 
Lug Harneis, 41. 
Lug r., 10. 41, 48, 49. 
Luggun brook, 112. 
Lundy L, 117. 
Lynebrook (Marches), 48. 

Machen, Maghen, 13, 14. 



Machynlleth, Mahenthle, Mahen- 

dif, 12, 54, 77, 122, 123. 
Maelor, English, 67-69. 
Maelor Gynvraw;, 71. 
Maelor, Welsh, 67 ; or Bromefeld, 

69-71. 
Maen Bugail, West Mouse isle 

(M6n), 132. 
Maenan, Cairmainan, 84. 
Maenor Pir, Manorbier, 61, Ii6. 
Mais gUs, Maisglase, 15. 
Malltraeth (Mdn), 133, 134. 
March ap Meirchion, 99. 
Marden (Herefordsh.)» 104. 
Maigam, Morgan, abbey, 15, 29, 

51. 
Marros or St. Mary's, 63. 
Marshfield, Maerun, Mairin, 15. 
Martin Poole, 40; Martin castle, 

63. 
Mathem, 44. 

Mathravel castle, Powisland, 52. 
Maw r., 76. 
Mayne commote, 80. 
Mehcydd, place and river, 20, 22. 
Melenydd, Melennith, 11, 41, 49, 

52, 109. 
Menai, 129, 134; StraiU, 85, 86. 
Meridith lordship, 12. 
Merthyr Mawr, Martyr, 28. 
Merthvr Tydvil, Martyr Tedvil, 

Michaelston, Llanvihengle (Gla- 

mor|«m), 30. 
Milford Haven, 115; isles in, 62, 

63. 
Milter Ower, 28. 
Minehead (Somerset), passage to 

Aber Thaw, 22. 
Misken, 16, 19, 20, 21. 
Mochnant, 119. 
Moel y don, ferry across Menai, 

85, 129. 
Moel y golva, 126 
Mold, Molesdale lordship and 

town, 71, 72, 73. 
M6n, Tir Mdn, Anglesey, 129- 

134; fossil trees there, 52; 

other remains, 90; the six 

Hundreds of Mdn, 134. 



INDEX OF PLACES 



147 



Mdn, parishes and chapels: 
Amlwch, 132. 
Beaumaris chapel, 134. 
Bettws Ceidio, 133. 

y Coedana, 133. 

y Grog y Ceirchiog, 13a 

Machwdo, 133. 

Rosbeirio, 133, 
Bodewryd, 132. 
Hen eglwys, 130. 
Kaer Kybi, Holyhead, 131. 
Llachenvarwy, 132. 
Llan Allgo, 133. 

Babo, 132. 

Badrig, 132. 
Llanbedr Goch, 133. 
Llan Beulan, 13a 

ddeusaint, 131. 

Dry^am, 131. 

Dysilio, 129. 

Dyvrydog, 133. 
Llanerchymedd, 13a 
Llan Elian, 133. 
Llanengrad, 133. 
Llan Figail, 131. 

Finnan, 133. 

Flewyn, 131. 

Gadog, 132. 

Gadwaladr, 130. 

Gaffo, 129. 

Gawrday, Llangoed, 133. 

Geinwen, 129. 

Gcvni, 133. 

Gradivel, PenmynnyU, 134. 

Gristiolus, 130. 

Gwyngene, 131. 

Gwyven, 130. 
Llanidau, 129. 
Llan lestyn, 134. 

Lliano, 132. 

Llibio, 133. 

Rhwydrys, 1 3 1. 

Rhy«lad, 131. 

Te^an, IJ4. 

Demiol vab, 129. 

Bona, 133. 

Dwyn, 129. 

Dygwal-groes, 131. 

Dyvnan, 133. 
Llantrisaint, 13a. 



M6n, parishes and chapeU—^^if- 

tintud, 
Uan Sant Fraid, 131. 

Saturn, 134. 

Vachreth, 131. 

Vaelog, 130. 

Vaes, 133. 

Vaethlu, 131. 
Llanvair Betws Gereint, 1 33. 

Pwll Gwyngyll, 129. 

y cwmmwd, 129. 

yn eubwil, 131. 

yng-homwy, 132. 

yn Pentraeth, Llymathavarn 
Eithav, 133. 
Llan Vaystr, 133. 

Vechell, 132. 

Veirian, 13a 

Vihangel Din Silwy and LI. 
Vi. Penrhos Llugwy, 135. 

Vihangel Tre-r-beirdd, 133. 

Vihangel yn-howyn, 131, 

Vihangel yn Yskeiviog, 133. 

Vwrog, 131. 

Wenvaen, 131. 
Llanynghenedl, 131. 
Llechylched, 130. 
Prestholme, Penmon priory, 

133. 
Rhoscolyn, 131. 
Tal y llyn chapel, 13a 
Trevdraeth, 130. 
Tre Walchmai, St. Mordeym, 

I30« 
Wigan chapel near Llan Ffinan, 

134. 
Mdn, various places, and waters : 
Aber Alaw, 131. 

Glaslyn, 131. 

Menai, 129. 

y Pwll, 129. 
Amlwch harbour, 132. 
Avon Dulas, Duglessus, 133. 

Kefhi, Cevni r., 133. 

Porth Wen, 131. 

Suttan, 131. 

Vanog, 129. 

Veline, 131. 
Beaumaris ferry, 134. 
Bodwrog, Llyn and moor, 13a 



148 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Mon, various places, and waters 

—continued, 
Cadnant, porth and avon, 129. 
Corse y Nant, 133. 
Elian, St. (Hilary), porth and 

avon, 133. 
Fraw r., 129, 130. 
Gadair-y-Kaer Noy, Gam, 132. 
Ilavodlyn, ynys, porth, avon, 

131, 132. 
Holyhead, Avon y Turr, 131. 
Kamlyn, porth and Avon, 132. 
Kleiviog, Traeth and Avon, 131. 
Kraig Sydon, 132. 
Llanvair PwU Gwyngyll, Porth- 

aethwi, Menai, 129. 
Llangevni, 133. 
Lligwy, ynys, porth, and avon, 

133. 
Llygoden, 132. 
Llyn Bodronyn, 131. 

Goran, 130. 

Pybai, 130. 
Llyswen, porlh and avon, 130. 
Maen Bugail, West Mouse isle, 

132. 
Malltraeth, 133. 
Moelfre, porih and avon, 133. 
Moel y Don ferry, 85, 129. 
Nevyn in Ll^n, 53. 
Penryn Safn yr Ast, 134. 
Priestholm, Puffin isle, ynys 

Seiriol, 133. 
Porthamel, 129. 
Porth Bodowen, 129. 

CafTnant, 131. 

Gwyven, 130. 

Kaer Gybi, 131. 

Kamlyn, 132. 

Llan Sant Fraid, 131. 

Llongdu, 133. 

Ogor, 132. 

Traeth Krugyll, 130. 

y Turr, 131. 

Wen, 131. 
Skerries, isles, 132. 
Tal-y-voel, 129. 
Traeth Ar Llevain, 134. 
Traeth Maltraith, 129. 
Trath Coch, y, 133. 



M6n, various places, and waters 
— continued, 
Trev Voysen, Moses, 132, 
Trepont bridge, 131. 
Trewen, Towyn and Avon, 130. 
Turr, Corse y, and Mynydd y, 

131- 
Tygai, Corse, 133. 
Ynys Badrig, Little Mouse isle, 

132. 
Mone r., 45. 

Monmouth, 45, 47 ; priory, 50. 
Montgomery, ii, 4i> 53* 125. 
Montgomeryshire, additions to, 

54, 55. 
Morda, or Vorda r., 76. 
Mordeford, 49. 
Morgan. 5(f^Margam, also note t, 

p. 15. 
Morganhog, Morcantuc, Glamor* 

gansh., 15. 
Morleis castle, 16, 18. 
Morton Corbet (Salop), 65. 
Mow«wy, 55, 66, 78. 
Mumbles, Mummes, 127. 
M^d, The, Llan Boduan, 84. 
Mynwy, Monnow, Moner.(Ewias), 

45. 47. 
MyayTS du, the Black Mountain, 

112, 119. 
Myny^ Gelli hai^, Mennith Kel- 

thle, 22. 
Myny* y Gader, 1 10 bis* 

Nant-ll^s, 119. 
Nant Bay, 122. 
Nant Bran, 24. 
Nant Conway commote and its five 

parishes, 80. 
Nant Gwrtheym (Vortigem) in 

Pistill, 79, 87, 88. 
Nanthonddi, iia 
Narberth, Arberth, 62. 
Naunton, Glo*ster, 39. 
Neston (Cheshire), 91. 
Ne«, Neth, Neath, 15, 30, 33, 38, 

51- 
Ne«r.,38. 

Nevin, Camarvonsh., 80. 
New borough, Anglesey, 53, 129. 



INDEX OF PLACES 



149 



Newcastle Emlyn, 57. 
Newchurch, Radnor, 42. 
Newgale, 64, 65. 
Newith Castle, 29. 
Newith Park, 19. 
Newith Pont, 15, 31. 
Newport (Pemhroke), 123. 
Newport (Monmouth), 12, 14, 44, 

45. 
Newton (Montsomery), 12, 125. 
Newlon Nottage, Notes, 29. 
S. Nicholas* village (Glamor- 



gansh.), 15- 
rcnet 1 



Norcnet manor house, 31. 
Northleach (Glouc), 39. 
Northob, 93. 
Norton, Northton, 1 1* 
N6s castle, 22. 

OfTa^s Dike, 4a 
Ogwr castle, 28. 
Ogwr, Ogor r., 15, 21, 27, 28, 34, 

37. 
OIney (Gloucestersh.)f 40. 
Onke. See Unk. 
Onny r., 49. 
Onslow (Salop), 66. 
Orme*s Head, Little and Great, 

89. 
Oswestry, Croes Oswallt, 40, 74- 

76 ; distance from various 

places, 73. 
Overton (Flint), 67. 
Oystermouth, Osier muth, 127. 

Payne's castle, 42, 109. 
Pebidiog, 63, 64, 6$. 
Pedware r., 20, 22. 
Pembroke, 115, 116. 
Pembroke, cell of monks, 51. 
Penar hill, 20. 
Penbont, 28, 29, 33, 34. 
Pcnbrey, Kidwelly, 60. 
Pencarreg and lake, 117. 
Pcncoit, 21. 
Pencrag, 42. 

Pendewi, St. David's Head, 65. 
Pen-du-Lwyn, 26. 
Pengelli, Penkelthe castle, 10, 
107, no. III. 



Penllech, 80. 

Penllimmon mountain, 125* 

Penlline castle, 32. 

Penllyn commote, 74, 77. 

Penllyn lordship (Denbighsh.), 

95- 
Penmachno, 81, 89. 
Penmaen mawr and vychan, 85 
Penmon priory (M6n), 133. 
Penmynny*, 134, 
Pennartb, 22. 

Penrice and castle, 16, 127. 
Penrhyn, Flint, 93. 
Penrhyn (Carnarvon), 84, 89. 
Penrhyn deu-draeth, 88, 89. 
Penrhyn du, haven, 88. 
Penrhyn, Little Orme's Head, 89. 
Pentyrch, castle Mynach in, 21. 
Pershore (Worce«5tersh.), 39, 40. 
Peterston-super-Ely, Llanpedcr, 

25- 

Pinnock Well, one of the sources 

of Thames, 39. 
Pirrhus castle, Maenor Pir, 61. 
Pitchford (Salop). 66. 
Plds y Meudwy (Denbighsh.), 95, 
Plinlimmon, 119. 
Porthamal, 112. 
Porth Clais, Bangor, 68. 
Perth Clais, St. David's, 65. 
Porth Gwgan, Wgan, Hogan, 68. 
Port Hoyger, near Holyhead, 43. 
Porth Llongdu (MAn), 133. 
Porth Llongi at Cardiff, 35. 
Porth Mawr, St. David's Head, 

64, 65. 
Portskewet, 43. 
Powisland, High and Low, 1 1, 

54, 55. 71, 126. 
Preseleu, Presclly, Perskilly, 58, 

64. 
Presteigne, 10, 4T, 49. 
Priestholm, Puffin isle, 133. 
Pumlumon, Plinlimon, 119. 
Pwllheli, 80, 88. 

Radnor, New, 10, 41* 
Radnor, Old, 42. 
Radyr, Rader, 21. 
Ragarth, Yale, 7a 



ISO 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Ragland castle, 45; abbey near, 

50. 
Ramsey island, 65. 
Remney, Remny r., 13, 13, 14, 

IS. 17. 46; bridges over, 35. 
Remney, Pont, 12, 13, 15, 35, 
Rhaiadr, 11, 53, 122. 
Rhaiadr Gwy, 120, 123. 
Rhigos, 16, 38. 
Rhiw Abon, 69, 70. 
RhoniSa, glyn, Rotheney, 20, 21, 

22. 
RhoniSa Vechan, Rotheney Vehan, 



15, 22, 37. 
>ntSa 



Rhonda Vaur, 22, 36. 

Rhds, Rose, lordship and market, 

63, 64. 
Rhyd goch, Rethgough, 20. 
Rhyd Lavar, Rethlauar, 21. 
Rhyd-friw(?), Redbryuu, no. 
Risca, r. and dvffryn, 13, 15, 17. 
Rithin (?Ruthm), lordship, Gla- 

morgansh., 33. 
Roche castle, 63, 64. 
RoUwright, Oxon, 39. 
Ruabon. See Rhiw Abon. 
Rumney r. See Remney. 
Ruthin, Rithin (Denbighsh.), 71. 
Russian, Ruthlan, 93, 95. 

Saint Barrok, chapel, 24. 

Saint Beuno, 52. 

Saint Clear's, Clere's, monastery, 

Carmarthen, u, 57, 114. 
Saint David's, belongings of, 57, 

58, 62, 63, 64, 65. 
Saint David's land, 64. 
Saint David's Head, 64, 65. 
Saint Dogmael's, Caldy Island, 51. 
Saint Donat's, Dinothes, castle, 

27. 
Saint Dwynwen's isle, Mdn, 53. 
Saint Fagan, parish and castle, 21, 

2$, 26. 
Saint John of Jerusalem (or 

Rhodes). 5*^^ Slebech. 
Saint Lythans, 24. 
Saint Nele, 21. 
Saint Nicholas village (Glamor- 

gansh.), 15. 



Saint Stinan's Chapel, Justinian's, 

65. 
Saint Tudwall's island, 88, 
Saughall (Cheshire), 91. 
Scargate, 4a 

Schoukhold, ? Skokham isle, 62. 
Seint, Segant or Segent, r., 81, 

86,89. 
SenghenyiS, Singhenith, 13, 17, 

20,34. 
Seuathan, SyvaiSan Llyn, Breck- 
nock mere, 10, 104, 106, in. 
Severn r., 54, 55, 125. 
Severn "sea," 12, 13, 15, 29, 43, 

46, 61, 62, 116. 
Sherborne, Kidwelly, a cell of, 59. 
Shires, five new [Welsh], 54. 
Shotwick castle (Cheshire), 91. 
Shrewsbury, 66, 126. 
Shropshire, additions to,^ 54. 
Sinnodune castle, 84. 
Sirhowy, Serowy, dyffryn, 13. 
Skenfrith, Skenford, 47. 
Skerries, the, isles (M6n), 132. 
Skomer, Scalmey, Great and 

Little, islands, 62. 
Slebech commandery of Knights 

of St. John, 63. 
Solvach, Salverach, 65. 
Snowdon, Craig Eryn, y WyiSva, 

77, 81, 82, 121. 
Somergill brook, 10, 49. 
South Croke, 86. 
Splot, 17, 19. 
Steple-castle on Lug, 41. 
Stow-on -the- Wold, 39. 
Strata Florida. See Ystrad Flur. 
Strigulia, Chepstow, 42. 
Sudbury (Glottcestersh.), 102, 
Sully, Scilley, 22, 23. 
Swansea, Suansey, Swineseye, 30, 

61, 127. 
Sweldon, 19. 
Swell (Gloucestersh.), 39. 

Taidbrooke r., 40. 
Talgarth, 107, 108, no, 112. 
Tal Hen Bont, Plas Hen, 85. 
Tal y bolion, 134. 
Tal y bont, 77. 



INDEX OF PLACES 



151 



Tal y llychcu, Talley, priory, 52, 

56,58, 114. 
Tal y llyn, 107. 
Tal y sarn, 51. 
Tal y Van castle, 33. 
Taranell, r., 105, no. 
Tiv, Taue, Taphc, r., 15, 17, I9i 

20, 34, 57; course of, 58, 61; 

bridges over, 35. 
Taw^ 1 6* 
Teivi*r.,*52, 56, 117, I18, 124; 

lake, 56. 
Temde r., Salop, 50. 
Teme r., 41, 50. 54. 
Temecestre, 54, 55. 
Tenbury, 40, 
Tenby, Dinbych y pysgod, 61, 

116. 
S. Tereudacus* chapel, on isle in 

the Wye Estuary, 42, 46. 
Terrig r., 73- 
Tershire, 28. 

Tetbury (Gloucestersh.), 39- 
Tewi r. See Towy. 
Thawan, Est, 19, 22, 2^, 26. 
Thawan r. See Aber Thaw, 
Thawan, West, 26, 28, 29, 30, 31, 

32. 
Thurstaston, 91. 
Tinbecchius, sinus, 61. 
Tindarthoy, 134. 
Tinpath, Tynbot, castle, II. 
Tintcm Abbey, 43, 50. 
Tir Coety, 21, 28, 33. 
Tir M6n, Anglesey. See Mdn. 
Tir Steward, Tier Stuart, 26, 31, 

32, 33. 
Tir y Brenhin, 26, 27, 28, 29. 
Tir yr escob of Llandaflf, 18. 
Tir yr Jarll, Teryarlth, 28, 33, 34. 
Tong, Salop, 65. 
Towy, Tewi r., 57, 61, 113, 114, 

122, 123 ; course of, 58. 
Towyn, 77. 

Traeth Ar Lie vain (Mdn), 1 34. 
Traeth bach (Camarvonsh. ), 88. 
Traeth Coch, y (M6n), 133. 
Traeth Mawr (Carnarvon^), 80, 

88,90. 
Traeth Vehan, 90. 



Trallwng or Welshpool, 73. See 

Welshpool. 
Trecastle, 54, 112. 
Tredegar, 12, 14. 
Tredelerch, 13. 
Tredine, 65. 
Tredraith, 123. 
Treelte, 55. 
Treflemig, 31. 
Tregaron, 56, 57, 118. 
Trepont bridge (M6n), 131. 
Tretower, icS. 
Tre y grug or Llan Kiby (Llan 

Gibby), 44, 45. 
Trevaldwyn, 11. 
Trevdraeth (Mdn), 13a 
Trevgam, 64. 

Trevriw, castle and river, 84. 
Trev y claw%, la 
Trogv castle, 42, 44. 
TuinbarU*m, 13. 
Turr, Corse y and Mynydd y 

(M6n), 131. 
Twll Coed, Tilth Coit, 19. 
Twrkelyn, 134. 

Ty gwyn ar Ddv, abbey, 51, 58. 
Tyth^eston, Tidug, 29. 

Unk r., 41. 

Usk r., Wysc, WIsch (Monmouth), 
ic\ 12, 14, 44, 105, 106, 108. 
Usk. 5>^CaerWysc. 
Uwch Mynydd, Camarvonsh., 80. 

Vanne, 18. 

Vendreth vehan and vaur r., 59^ 
6a See Gwendraeth. 

Venedotia, Venetia, 46. 

Venny, 115. 

Ventland. See Gwentland, Wente- 
land. 

Vrenni vawr, Wrenne vaur moun- 
tain, 58. 

Wadele brook, 42. 
Wallasey (Cheshire), 92. 
Walwyn, in. 
Wales, limits of length, 43. 
Welshpool, 41, 53. 55, 73, 125. 
Wenny. See Ewenny. 



152 



LELAND'S ITINERARY 



Wenteland, Wenceland, 12, 13, 

14, 42, 43, 44, 45- 
WentUugh, ue Gwynll^g, 12, 14, 

45- 
PWeobly castle, in Gower, 127. 
Weun, Waen, Guayne or Chirk, 

72. 
Wenvo, 22. 
Whitchurch, 73. 
White Castle, Monmouth, 47. 
Whitington castle and village, 76. 
Whithmd, 62, 114, 115, 123. 
Wigan chapel near Llan Tinan 

(M6n), 134. 
Wigmore (Herefordsh.), 48. 
Willey (Salop), 67. 
Wirral, Wyrale (Cheshire), 91, 92. 
Withow Hill, 89. See Snowdon. 
Worcester, 40, 5a 
Worme brook, 49. 
Worme*s Head, 61. 
Wormcsley Abbey, 49. 
Worthenbury, Guothumbre, 68. 
Worthing village, 54. 
Wrexham, 69, 70, 73. 
Wye r., 10, 43, 45» 4^, 47, 49. 53» 

no, III, 120, 122, 124. 



Wynno, Llan, 22. 

Wysc r., Wisch, Whisk, Usk, i<s 

12, 44, 46, 105, 106; its 

course, 109, 112. 



Yale lordship, 69, 70, 71, 78. 
Ynys Badrig, Little Mouse isle 

(Mdn), 132. 
Ynys Enlli, Bardsey L, 81. 
Ynys Tudwal, 88. 
Ynys y Meirch, 88. 
Yr Wy*grOg, Wiioth^rig, 72. 
Ystrad Alun, 72. 
Ystrad r., Denbighsh., 98. 
Ystrad Dyvodwg, 22. 
Ystrad Flur, Strata Florida abbey, 

51, 118, 120, 122, 123, 125. 
Ystrad Gynleis, 16. 
Ystrad Marchell, $5. 
Ystrad y w hundred, 108. 
Ystwith, Ostwith, r., 56, 1 19, 

124. 
Ystymaneir commote, 77. 

Y Weun, Waen, Guayne or Chirk, 

72. 

Y WyiSva, Withow Hill, 89. 



CHISWICK PRESS : PRINTED BY CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND Ca 
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON. 



/ 




kSCuyrrfiPtrf^ InrniJ £jL3(^.l4r,^(j