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Full text of "IUCN Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas"

lUCN Directo 
NEOTR 

A 




W* 







m 











Commission on National 
Parks and Protected Areas 

International Union for 
Conservation of Nature 
and Natural Resources 



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lUCN Directory of Neotropical 
Protected Areas 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge 



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^-*- 



http://www.archive.org/details/iucndirectoryofn82iucn 



lUCN Directory of 
Neotropical Protected Areas 



lUCN Commission on National Parks 
and Protected Areas (CNPPA) 



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UNEP 




WWF 



Published for lUCN 



by 



TYCOOLY INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING LIMITED 

DUBLIN 



This Directory is published with the financial support of the World 
Wildlife Fund and in cooperation with UNESCO and the United 
Nations Environment Programme , as a contribution to the Global 
Environmental Monitoring System. 



All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, 
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any 
means, electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photo- 
copying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission in 
writing from the publisher. 



Published by: 

Tycooly International Publishing Ltd., 

6 Crofton Terrace, 

Dun Laoghaire, 

Co. Dublin, Ireland 

Tel: (+ 353-1) 800245, 800246 

Telex: 30547 SHCN EI 

First Edition 1982 

© Copyright 1982 International Union for Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources 

Computerset by Text Processing, Clonmel, Co. Tipperary, Ireland. 
Printed in Ireland by Mount Salus Press Limited, Dublin 4. 

ISBN 907567 63 Hardback 
ISBN 907567 62 2 Softcover 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD 

INTRODUCTION 

ANTIGUA 



vu 
1 



Diamond Reef 3 

Palaster Reef 3 

ARGENTINA 5 

Los Glaciares 3 

Nahuel Huapi 9 

Lanin 10 

LosAlerces n 

Perito Francisco P. Moreno 12 

Calilegua I3 

Baritu 14 

Tierra del Fuego 15 

Rio Pilcomayo 16 

Iguazu 17 

ElRey ^ 18 

Chaco 19 

Lago Puelo 20 

Lihuel Calel 21 

El Palmar 22 

Laguna Blanca 23 , 29 

Los Arrayanes 24 

Formosa 25 

Laguna de Pozuelos 26 

Petrified Forests 26 

Gulf of San Jose Right Whale Sanctuary 27 

San Guillermo 28 

BAHAMAS 31 

Inagua 32 

Exuma Cays 32 

Peterson Cay 33 

Union Creek 34 

Conception Island 35 

BARBADOS 36 

Barbados 37 

BELIZE 38 

Half Moon Caye 39 

Guanacaste Park 40 

Miscellaneous Crown Reserves 41 

BERMUDA 42 

BOLIVIA 43 

Isiboro Secure 46 

Huanchaca 47 

Bellavista 48 

CerroSajama 48 

Condoriri 49 

Las Barrancas 50 



Mallasa 



51 



Cerro Comanche " 

CerroMirikiri " 



Tunari 



Eduardo Avaroa 
UllaUlla 



54 



Manuripi Heath 5"* 



56 

57 



German Busch 58 

LagunasdelBeniyPando 58 

Huancaroma 59 

UllaUlla 60 

Pilon-Lajas 61 

BRAZIL 63 

Jau 66 

PicodaNeblina 66 

Amazonia 67 

Pacaas Novos 68 

Cabo Orange 69 

Araguaia 70 

Iguaqu 71 

Lenqois Maranhenses 72 

Emas 72 

Serra da Bocaina 73 

Serra da Capivara 74 

Serra da Canastra 75 

Chapada dos Veadeiros 76 

SaoJoaquim 77 

Brasilia 78 

Caparao 79 

Monte Pascoal 80 

Itatiaia 81 

Aparados da Serra 82 

Serra dos Orgaos 83 

Sete Cidades 84 

Tijuca 85 

Ubajara 86 

Lago Piratuba 87 

RioTrombetas 87 

Jaru 88 

Cara-cara 89 

Atol das Rocas 90 

Sooretama 91 

Una 92 

PocodasAnta 92s 

Nova Lombardia 93 

Corrego do Veado 94 

Serra Negra 95 

Anavilhanas 96 

Ique 97 

Uru^ui-Un 98a 

Maraca 98 

Rio Acre 99 

Maraca-Jipioca 100 

Taiama 101 

Aracuri-Esmeralda 102 

CHILE 103 

Laguna San Rafael 106 

Lauca 107 

Vicente Perez Resales 108 

Torres del Paine 109 

vi 



Puyehue HO 

Villarrica \ j j 

Cape Horn 112 

Los Paraguas and Conguillo 113 

Juan Fernandez 114 

IslaGuamblin 115 

LaCampana H^ 

Fray Jorge 117 

Rapa-Nui Hg 

Nahuelbuta 119 

COLOMBIA 121 

ElTupparo 124 

Sierra de la Macarena 125 

Paramillo 126 

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 127 

ElCocuy 128 

Cordillera de los Picachos 129 

Amacayacu 130 

NevadodelHuila 131 

Sumapaz 132 

Farallones de Cali 133 

Paramo de Las Hermosas 1 34 

Sanquianga 135 

Purace 136 

Katios 138 

Chingaza I39 

Tama 140 

Pisba " 141 

Munchique 142 

Los Nevados I43 

LasOrquideas I44 

Macuira I45 

Islade Salamanca 146 

Corales del Rosario 148 

Tayrona I49 

Cueva de los Guarcharos 150 

Arauca 151 

Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta 152 

Los Flamencos 153 

Iguaque I54 

LosColorados 155 

La Corota 156 

COSTA RICA 157 

LaAmistad 160 

Chirripo 161 

Corcovado 162 

BraulioCarrillo 163 

Santa Rosa 165 

Tortuguero 166 

Rincode! Viejo Volcan 167 

Palo Verde 169 

Volcan Poas 169 

Isla del Coco 171 

Irazu Volcano 172 

Barra Honda 173 

Cahuita 174 

Manuel Antonio 175 

Hitoy-Cerere 176 

Carara 177 

Monteverde Cloud Forest 178 

vii 



Guayabo, Pajaros & Negritos Islands 179 

Cabo Blanco 180 

Rafael Lucas Rodriguez 181 

CUBA 183 

DOMINICA 184 

MorneTroisPitons 186 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 187 

A. Bermudez 189 

J. del C.Ramirez 189 

del Este 190 

LosHaitises 191 

IsIaCabritos 192 

ECUADOR 193 

Galapagos 195 

Yasuni 196 

Sangay 197 

Machallila 198 

Cotopaxi 199 

Cayambe-Coca 200 

Cotachi-Cayapas 201 

Manglares-Churute 202 

EL SALVADOR 203 

Montecristo 204 

Laguna Jocotal 205 

FRENCH GUIANA 206 

Sinnamari 207 

Basse Mana 207 

Iletdu Grand Conetable 208 

GRENADA 210 

Grand Etang 212 

GUADELOUPE 213 

Guadeloupe 215 

GUATEMALA 216 

Tikal 218 

LakeAtitlan 219 

Rio Dulce 220 

El Rosario 221 

Pacaya Volcano 222 

University Biotope for the Conservation of the Quetzal 223 

GUYANA 225 

Kaieteur 227 

HAITI 228 

La Citadelle 229 

La Hotte 229 

La Selle 230 

Morne Desbarrieres 231 

Morne Mansinte 232 

Morne d'Enfer 232 

HONDURAS 234 

LaTigra 236 

TaulabeCave 237 

Olancho 238 

GulfofFonseca 239 

Guanaja/Bay Islands 240 

Cusuco 241 

viii 



Lake Yojoa 242 

Rio Platano 243 

JAMAICA 245 

MARTINIQUE 246 

Caravelle 248 

MEXICO 249 

Iztaccihuatl-Popocatepetl 252 

Lagunas de Zempoala 252 

Guerrero Negro/Ojo de Liebre Manuela 253 

Montes Azules 254 

Mapimi 255 

La Michilia 256 

MONTSERRAT 259 

Montserrat 260 

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES 261 

Washington-Slagbaai 263 

Christoffel 264 

Bonaire (Underwater Park) 265 

Flamingo Sanctuary 266 

NICARAGUA 267 

Saslaya 268 

Masaya Volcano 269 

PANAMA 270 

Darien - 271 

Soberania 272 

Portobelo 273 

Volcan Baru 274 

Altos de Campana 275 

Barro Colorado 276 

PARAGUAY 278 

Defensores del Chaco 280 

Tinfunque 281 

Teniente Encisco 282 

Caaquazu 283 

Cerro Cora 283 

Ybycui 284 

PERU 286 

Manu 289,306 

Huascaran 290, 308 

Cerros de Amotape 291 

Tingo Maria 292 

Cutervo 293 

Pacaya Samiria 294 

Salinas yAguadaBlanca 295 

Paracas 296 

Calipuy 297 

Junin 298 

Titicaca 299 

Pampa Galeras 300 

Lachay 301 

Huayllay 302 
Calipuy303 

Macchu Picchu 304 

Chacamarca 305 

Pampa de Ayacucho 306 

Noroeste 309 

ix 



Tambopata •'*" 

PUERTO RICO ^11 



Culebra 
Cabo Rojo 
Desecheo 



Ve-Vottier 



Valencia 



Bush Bush 



St Giles Islands 
SautD'Eau 



312 
313 
313 



Luquillo Experimental Forest 314 

Guanica State Forest ^'^ 

ST LUCIA ^18 

Castries Water Works 319 

Quilesse ^t,\. 



320 



De Suze Estate 321 

Dennery 322 

ST VINCENT 323 

SURINAME 324 

Wia-Wia 326 

Coppename River Mouth 327 

Galibi 328 

Sipaliwini ■'•^" 

Voltzberg-Raleighfallen 331 

Brinckheuvel 332 

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO 334 

Caroni 336 

Trinity Hill 337 



338 



Central Range 339 

Southern Watershed 340 



341 



Northern Range 342 

Morne L'Enfer 344 

Little Tobago 345 



346 

347 



Kronstadt Island 348 

Soldado Rock 348 

Bucco Reef/Bon Accord Lagoon 350 

TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS 352 

USA -Florida 353 

Everglades (World Heritage Site) 355 

Fort Jefferson 356 

Loxahatchee 357 

Florida Keys 358 

J.N. -Ding" Darhng 359 

Pinellas 361 

Pine Island 361 

Egmont Key 362 

Matlacha Pass 363 

Island Bay 364 

Caloosahatchee 364 

Passage Key 365 

URUGUAY 367 

Arequita 368 

Costa Atlantica 368 

Santa Teresa 369 

San Miguel 370 

Banados del Este 37 1 



VENEZUELA 
Canaima 
LaNeblina 



Jaua-Sarisarinama 



El Tama 



Mochima 



El Avila 
Peninsula de Paria 



Macaro 
Yacambu 



Cerro Santa Ana 



373 
376 
377 



Aguaro-Guariquito jyo 



379 



Yacapana jgQ 

Sierra dePerija 3gj 

Archipielago Los Roques 3g2 

Duida-Marahuaca 3g3 

Sierra Nevada 3g4 



385 



Henri Pittier 3g5 



387 



Guatop 3gg 

Medanos de Coro 3gQ 



390 
391 



Morrocoy 3^2 

Yurubi 3^3 

Laguna de Tacarigua 394 

Terepaima 395 

El Guacharo 2% 



397 
398 



Laguna de la Restinga 399 

Cueva de la Quebrada del Toro 400 

Cerro Copey 4qj 

Maria Lionza ' 4O2 

Laguna de las Marites 402 



404 



Cerros Matasiete y Guayamuri 4O5 

Las Tetas de Maria Guevara 4O6 

Aristides Rojas 407 

Alejandro de Humboldt 408 

Chorrera de Las Gonzalez 409 

Morros de Macaira 4IQ 

Cueva Alfredo Jahn 410 

Cerro Autana 411 

Piedra de Cocuy 412 

Juan Manuel deAguasBlancasyAguasNegras 413 

Chiriguare 4I4 

Cuare 4I5 

Isla de Aves 415 

VIRGIN ISLANDS (UK) 4I7 

Virgin Gorda Peak 418 

Sage Mountain 418 

Fallen Jerusalem 419 

West Dog Island 420 

Flamingo Pond 420 

Devil's and Spring Bay 421 

Wreck of the Rhone 422 

VIRGIN ISLANDS (US) 423 

Virgin Islands 425 

Buck Island 426 

Buck Island 427 

Green Cay 428 

INDEX 431 



XI 



FOREWORD 



The publication of the World Conservation Strategy in March 1980 marked an important turning point in 
the history of protected areas. This document defined conservation as 'the management of human use of 
the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining 
its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations.' Living resource conservation under 
this definition is seen to have three specific objectives: to maintain essential ecological processes and 
life-support systems; to preserve genetic diversity; and to ensure that utilization of species and ecosystems 
is sustainable. Conservation therefore is expected to make important contributions to social and economic 
development, and protected areas have a prominent role to play in this process. 

Now, more than ever before, the world needs protected areas which are designed, planned, and 
managed explicitly to bring benefits to people. And while the World Conservation Strategy contains what 
may appear to be a new approach, in fact the social and economic benefits of protected areas have long 
been recognized in the Neotropical Realm. National parks protect the water supply of Rio de Janeiro, 
provide the water to run the major industries of Venezuela, provide important sources of foreign 
exchange in Central America and the Caribbean, and provide a livelihood for many people in the 
Amazonian region of Brazil. 

The lUCN Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas, the first in lUCN's new series of protected area 
directories, contains details on some 90 percent of the protected areas of the Neotropical Realm, 
providing information on the very significant efforts that are being made by the nations of Latin America 
and the Caribbean in designing, planning, and managing a wide variety of protected areas for the benefit 
of their peoples. 

The Directory is a product of the Protected Area Data Unit (PADU), part of lUCN's Conservation 
Monitoring Centre in the UK. Working in close cooperation with the United Nations Environment 
Programme and the World Wildlife Fund, it is expected that additional directories will be produced at the 
rate of approximately one per year, with later editions containing increasingly more complete and useful 
information. 

All of the data is on the CMC computer, which will soon be able to provide information in a variety of 
configurations to scientists, national park planners, and development agencies. A development assistance 
organization, for example, may wish to know if the upstream watershed for a potential hydroelectric site is 
protected by a national park, or require detailed information to allow choices among various alternatives 
for an agricultural development project; agricultural researchers may need to know where the wild 
ancestors of domestic rubber or potatoes might be found in a protected area; and scientists may be 
interested in knowing which protected areas in the Amazonian rainforest contain armadillos which might 
be of use in leprosy research. 

Through making such information readily available in a useful form, lUCN will to be able to help ensure 
that development decisions will lead to a sustainable improvement in the standard of living of all people, 
and that protected areas will make their important contributions to society. 

International Union for Conservation Lee M . Talbot 

of Nature and Natural Resources Director General 



xm 



INTRODUCTION 

The rapid changes in economic and social development which have taken place in recent years have led 
to a number of new approaches to the protection of plant and animal species. In virtually all nations, the 
urgency to link natural area preservation to development through research, base-line monitoring, 
environmental assessment, genetic material maintenance, watershed management, environmental 
education, and the like, has led to a shift in management of natural areas; national parks are as important 
as ever, but there are now a number of additional categories of protected areas which are managed with 
different objectives for bringing benefits to society. These areas, many of which are include in the lUCN 
Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas, include Strict Nature Reserves, Managed Nature Reserves, 
Natural Monuments, Cultural Landscapes, Biosphere Reserves, and several others. 

With greatly increased responsibilities for helping ensure that social and economic development meets 
the real needs of society, protected areas are now receiving a significantly greater amount of support from 
governments, international development agencies, and local people. No longer just playgrounds for 
vacationers and means for conserving natural heritage, protected areas have become an inseparable part 
of the modern human ecosystem. 

The lUCN Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas is the first in a series of directories which will 
document the protected areas of the world and the increasingly important role they are playing in human 
society. Building upon the foundations of the United Nations List of National Parks and Equivalent 
Reserves (first published in 1961 and up-dated periodically since then) and the World Directory of National 
Parks and Other Protected Areas (1977), the new series will bring together basic information on virtually 
all of the national parks and other types of protected areas from around the world. The objectives of this 
series include: 

**Establishing the basis of a monitoring system which will help ensure that the specific objectives of 
each protected area are attained and continue to be attained; 

**Providing the basis for establishing priorities for future action; 

**Promoting the effective management of protected areas through making basic information widely 
available; 

**Providing a working tool for protected area managers, facilitating comparision between areas; 

**Stimulating increased interest in protected areas on the part of students, scientists, researchers, 
land-use planners, government officials, and the general public. 

The Neotropical Directory was compiled by members of lUCN's Commission on National Parks and 
Protected Areas (CNPPA) from the countries involved. Preparation of the sheets was coordinated by: 
Ricardo Luti for Argentina; Manuel Rios for Bolivia; Maria Teresa Jorge Padua and Paulo Nogueira Neto 
for Brazil; Allen Putney, D.G. Campbell, Bal Ramdial, and Ken Thelen for the Caribbean; Craig 
MacFarland for Central America; Juan Oltremari for Chile; Heliodoro Sanchez Paez for Colombia; S. 
Cuenas Salas and J. Reyes Rodriguez for Mexico; Marc Dourojeanni, Hilario Moreno, and Hernan 
Torres for Paraguay; Marc Dourojeanni for Peru; Rob Milne for the USA; and Cecilia de Blohm and 
Pedro Salinas for Venezuela. Each of these coordinators has relied on a network of individuals, too 
numerous to mention here, working in the field and in national park service headquarters. 

The draft sheets were presented at the 18th Working Session of the Commission, held in Lima, Peru, 
from 21 to 28 June 1981. The sheets were discussed and revised, and additional sheets were solicited to 
make coverage as complete as possible. Information which had been collected by UNESCO for it's Man 
and the Biosphere programme was also used. The sheets were then edited by Jeremy Harrison, Research 
Officer at lUCN's Protected Areas Data Unit, and his assistant Eileen Egginton; the overall flow of the 
data collection programme was controlled by Kenton Miller, Chairman of CNPPA, and administered by 
Jeffrey A. McNeely, Executive Officer of CNPPA. 

THE PROTECTED AREAS DATA UNIT 

CNPPA has been collecting information on protected areas for more than 20 years, ever since the 1959 
I United Nations resolution requested lUCN to form and maintain the United Nations List of National 
Parks and Equivalent Reserves. 

XV 



Table 1. Number of protected areas and total area protected in each of the 47 
Neotropical Provinces of Udvardy (1975) 



Name of Province 



1 


Campechean 


2 


Panamanian 


3 


Colombian Coastal 


4 


Guyanan 


5 


Amazonian 


6 


Madeiran 


7 


Serra do Mar 


8 


Brazilian Rain Forest 


9 


Brazilian Planalto 


10 


Vaidivian Forest 


11 


Chilean Nolhofagus 


12 


Everglades 


13 


Sinaloan 


14 


Guerreran 


15 


Yucatecan 


16 


Central American 


17 


Venezuelan Dry Forest 


18 


Venezuelan Deciduous Forest 


19 


Equadorian Dry Forest 


20 


Caatinga 


21 


Gran Chaco 


22 


Chilean Araucaha Forest 


23 


Chilean Sclerophyll 


24 


Pacific Desert 


25 


Monte 


26 


Patagonian 


27 


Llanos 


28 


Campos Limpos 


29 


Babacu 


30 


Campos Cerrados 


31 


Argentinian Pampas 


32 


Uruguayan Pampas 


33 


Northern Andean 


34 


Colombian Montane 


35 


Yungas 


36 


Puna 


37 


Southern Andean 


38 


Bahamas-Bermudan 


39 


Cuban 


40 


Greater Antillean 


41 


Lesser Antillean 


42 


Revilla Gigedo Island 


43 


Cocos Island 


44 


Galapagos Islands 


45 


Fernando de Noronja Island 


46 


South Trinidade Island 


47 


Lake Titicaca 



TOTAL 



Number 


Total Area 


of areas 


(hectares) 


3 


62,744 


6 


660,902 


6 


860,000 


25 


2,152,722 


16 


13,894,181 


I 


268,150 


6 


180,468 


12 


365,593 


I 


11,307 


5 


1,685,995 


4 


216,014 


14 


774,456 


4 


122,994 


3 


17,371 


2 


106,970 


22 


880,912 


27 


1,125,798 


12 


849,903 


3 


161,300 


3 


236,100 


6 


1,294,000 


6 


153,595 


3 


34,054 


2 


360,070 


8 


1,544,491 


5 


99,793 


3 


1,207,000 


3 


3,192,000 


I 


155,000 


12 


2,518,529 







5 


224,950 


9 


913,288 


8 


1,397,050 


6 


558,092 


15 


1,985,530 


18 


3,369,684 


4 


122,540 


4 


24,305 


7 


220,230 


15 


19,574 







1 


3,200 


1 


691,200 


1 


36,249 







I 


36,180 


319 


44,794,484 



XVI 



In 1979 CNPPA began to expand its information-gathering role by developing a more organized system 
of data collection. Coordinators for the various biogeographic provinces were appointed by CNPPA to 
compile detailed information about protected areas. At meetings in Costa Rica, Scotland, Cameroon, 
Peru, New Zealand and the USA and Canada, the coordinators presented data sheets on the protected 
areas in their parts of the world . Information on about three-quarters of the areas on the UN List has now 
been gathered, although the completeness of this information still varies widely. 

CNPPA also collects other information such as management plans, published papers, maps, species 
lists, brochures and so on, and details of the conservation and protected area systems within each country. 
To ensure that the information held is kept up-to-date, CNPPA is developing a three-year review and 
publication cycle. 

Such an increase in available information would be of limited use without an improved system for 
handling the data, so in May 1981 CNPPA (in cooperation with the United Nations Environmen: 
Programme and the US Nature Conservancy) inaugurated the Protected Areas Data Unit (PADU). This 
unit, which is part of lUCN's Conservation Monitoring Centre (CMC), is located at the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Kew, England, where the CMC computer has been installed; the CMC operates within the 
auspices of the UNEP Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS). PADU is responsible for the 
day-to-day collection of information on protected areas, and for filing that information both manually and 
on the computer in such a way that it can be retrieved on demand, in the most appropriate formai. 

By carefully assessing the coverage by protected areas of each biogeographical province on land or at 
sea, CNPPA will be able to identify gaps or weaknesses in the worldwide system of reserves; it will then be 
much easier to chart the development of new areas year by year, and to focus attention where it is most 
required. Table 1 gives an analysis of the current position in the Neotropical Realm, summarising the 
protected areas by biogeographical province (see below). By comparing these figures with Map 1, it is 
possible to estimate how well covered each of the provinces are by protected areas. If protected area cover 
can also be compared with information on centres of diversity, endemism or wild ancestors of domestic 
plants, it may bring to light previously hidden gaps in the system. 

One of the main advantages of using computerised data files to hold the basic information is the ease 
with which these files can be manipulated. Data items can be sorted and selected using any character or 
group of characters within the file. For example, lists can be produced of protected areas of over 100,000 
hectares within the Tropical Forest Biome in Latin America, or all protected areas established between 
1975 and 1980. Information in the files can also be quickly summarised for publication; volumes could be 
produced, for example, on protected areas containing tropical lain forest around the world, the protected 
areas of Brazil, or all the protected areas containing jaguars. 

APPLICATIONS OF THE MONITORING SYSTEM 

It is clear that each individual country has far more information on its own protected areas than could ever 

be handled by the unit, or published in the lUCN directories. Further, most countries have the capacity to 

establish computer systems and to maintain their own information in ways that meet their own needs. 

There are, however, a number of reasons for having an international 'macro-level" information system: 

**Many international development agencies, if provided with quick and large-scale overviews of 

certain protected areas questions, would be able to design their projects to enhance sustainable 

development and to avoid adversely affecting particularly sensitive areas. 

**IUCN, the World Wildlife Fund, and other international conservation agencies need a basis for 

determining high priority areas for allocation of scarce international conservation funds; such 

investments must be made on a rational basis, which is only possible when broad comparisons can 

be made. 

**UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme and the World Heritage Convention require 

global information, the former in order to ensure that representative areas of all biogeographic 

provinces are established as biosphere reserves, the latter in order to ensure that sites nominated 

to the World Heritage List are of truly 'outstanding universal significance'. 

**The international effort to promote protected areas requires a centralized source of information 

for publications, requests from journalists, and other promotional and publicity uses. 
**Scientists often need to make comparisons over the entire range of habitats or species ranges, 

requiring an international overview. 
**Plant breeders need to know where wild ancestors of domestic agricultural crops can be found in 

protected areas, in order to locate sources of genetic diversity for improving crop breeds. 
**Governments need to know what is being done in the field of protected areas management in 
other countries, in order to enhance their own efforts and to avoid repeating mistakes. 
PADU will produce nothing that could not have been produced by governments or members of the 

xvii 



CNPPA, given sufficient time and energy; the unit will provide only what is fed into it. but it will be able to 
produce the data very quickly and in many different configurations. It will not replace any of the human 
element in protected area management, but it will allow managers, development planners, 
conservationists, and scientists to be more efficient by providing the data needed, when it is needed, and in 
the form required. 

Most important, collecting and presenting protected areas information in a professional and competent 
manner demonstrates to governments, development agencies, and individuals around the world that 
national parks and reserves are valuable land-use tools for managing areas which should, for various 
reasons, be kept in a natural or semi-natural state. Making protected areas data more accessible will help 
to ensure that the reserves can play their proper role in the process of socio-economic development. 



WHAT THE DATA SHEETS CONTAIN 

Each of the contributors to this volume was asked to complete a standard form which contains the 
following data categories: 

NAME OF THE PROTECTED AREA: This is the name of the area given by the management authority, 
in the language of the data sheet (either English or Spanish). 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: This is the type of protected area, following the scheme of the lUCN 
( 1978) paper. Categories, objectives, and criteria for protected areas. This paper divides the 140 or so names 
that have been provided for various sorts of protected area into 10 categories, as follows; 

Category I - Scientific Reserves/Strict Nature Reserves 

These areas possess some outstanding ecosystems, features and/or species of flora and fauna of national 
scientific importance; they are generally closed to public access, recreation and tourism. They often 
contain fragile ecosystems or life forms, areas of important biological or geological diversity, or are of 
particular importance to the conservation of genetic resources. Size is determined by the area required to 
ensure the integrity of the area to accomplish the scientific management objective and provide for its 
protection. 

Natural processes are allowed to take place in the absence of any direct human interference. These 
processes may include natural acts that alter the ecological system or physiographic feature at any given 
time, such as naturally occurring fires, natural succession, insect or disease outbreaks, storms, 
earthquakes and the like, but necessarily exclude man-made disturbances. The educational function of the 
site is to serve as a resource for studying and obtaining scientific knowledge. 

Land-use control and ownership should in most cases be by central government. Exceptions may be 
made where adequate safeguards and controls relating to long-term protection is ensured and where the 
central government concurs. 

Category II - National Parks/Provincial Parks 

A national park is a relatively large area; (1) where one or several ecosystems are not materially altered by 
human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats 
are of special scientific, educational and recreational interest or which contains a natural landscape of 
great beauty; (2) where the highest competent authority of the country has taken steps to prevent or 
eliminate as soon as possible exploitation or occupation in the whole area and to enforce effectively the 
respect of ecological, geomorphological or aesthetic features which have led to its establishment; and (3) 
where visitors are allowed to enter, under special conditions, for inspirational, educational, cultural and 
recreational purposes. Governments are accordingly requested not to designate as 'national park': 

(1) A scientific reserve which can be entered only by special permission (Category I Strict Nature 
Reserve). 

(2) A natural reserve managed by a private institution or a lower authority without some type of 
recognition and control by the highest competent authority of the country. 

(3) A 'special reserve" as defined in the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and 
Natural Resources of 1968 (Categories III, IV, fauna or flora reserve, game reserve, bird 
sanctuary, geological or forest reserve, etc). 

x\ ill 



(4) An inhabited and exploited area where landscape planning and measures taken for the 
development of tourism have led to the setting up of "recreation areas' where industrialization 
and urbanization are controlled and where public outdoor recreation takes priority over the 
conservation of ecosystems (Categories V, VI, VII, and VIII, pare naturel regional, nature park, 
Naturpark, etc.). Areas of this description which may have been established as 'national parks' 
should be redesignated in due course. 

In general, exploitation of natural resources must be prohibited in an area which is to be considered a 
national park. Exploitation, in this sense, is considered to include the removal of mineral resources, 
timber and other vegetation, and animal life, or the development of dams or other structures for irrigation 
or hydroelectric power. Prohibition should extend to agricultural and pastoral activities, hunting, fishing, 
lumbering, mining, public works construction (transportation, communications, power, etc), and 
residential, commercial or industrial occupation. 

Certain exceptions to this general rule may be permitted: 

(1) Some of the activities included in the general prohibition must be permitted in those national 
parks and related reserves in which zones have been established to protect a cultural heritage 
(e.g. managed agricultural or pastoral landscape zones; villages, towns or urbanized area.' of 
historical or archaelogical interest, etc), since these activities form part of the heritage to be 
protected. 

(2) Sport fishing is regarded in the same category as sport hunting and should normally be excluded 
from national parks. In wilderness areas the continuance of sport fishing, where this has been a 
traditional practice, may be acceptable providing adequate fauna exist in other areas. Sport 
fishing may be accepted in zones developed for intensive recreational or touristic use. 

It is recognized that within the boundaries of certain national parks there are existing villages, towns, 
communication networks, and the on-going activities connected with them. Provided that these areas do 
not occupy a significant part of the land and are de facto zoned and so arranged that they do not disturb the 
effective protection of the remaining area, they can be included in a national park. 

Similar considerations apply in regard to private rights which existed before the reserve was created, 
such as residential rights or rights to practise agricultural, pastoral or mining activities, always provided 
that these rights are confined to a small part of the area. They should not be permanent and their 
redemption or termination should be anticipated in the long term. 

The general requirement against exploitation must be rigidly enforced. 

Management activities. Not to be considered under the category of exploitation are those activities 
necessary for the administration and management of the protected area, or for the reasonable 
development of a national park or provincial park as a site for pubUc outdoor recreation or tourism. 
Among these activities are the following: 

(1) Since public access is allowed in National Parks, the construction and maintenance of a road 
network, the setting aside of areas for public accommodation with consequent cultivation of 
gardens, the construction of recreation facihties, and related services must be permitted. 
However, accommodation, recreation facilities and the like should not be scattered throughout 
the protected area, and the area they occupy should be restricted to a minimum. They should be 
located in areas zoned for this purpose or preferably located outside the park. 
(1) The pubhc works necessary for the actual administration and management of the protected area, 
including staff housing, offices, access roads, gardens and so on, are permitted but should also be 
restricted to a minimum. 
(1) Management activities for the purpose of maintaining the desired flora or fauna are an essential 
ingredient in the conservation of protected areas in the managed natural zones and nature 
reserves and are permitted in them. These may include the removal of animals by shooting or 
capturing to maintain population levels, the removal of undesirable vegetation, and the use of 
controlled burning or grazing to maintain particular plant communities. 

Zoning: Areas to be designated as national parks should include areas here designated as 'Category I 
strict natural zones' and 'Category IV managed natural zones'. In addition, they could appropriately 
contain areas of the kind here placed in 'Category VII protected anthropological zones' or 'protected 
historical' or 'archaeological zones'. To be considered as national parks, however, they must be available 
for public visitation. This use could be combined with the primary function of nature conservation through 
a system of zoning. In this, one zone would be established in which roads or other access ways may be 
constructed, buildings or other structures to accommodate tourism and park administrative functions may 
be located, and in which appropriate recreational facilities mav be placed. This special 

xix 



tourism/administrative zone would not be one designated primarily for nature conservation, but would 
be so delimited and located as to create minimum interference with the nature conservation function 
of the park. National parks can also satisfy the public visitation function by establishment of 
wilderness areas over all or part of the national park, thus providing for limited tourism of a special 
kind. 

To qualify as a national park, in the lUCN sense, an area may consist of various combinations of zones, 
as follows: Wilderness zone only; Wilderness zone combined with strict natural zone, managed natural 
zone or both; any or all of the above zones combined with a tourist/administrative zone; any or all of the 
above zones combined with one or more zones classified as anthropological, archaeological or historical. 

Category III - Natural Monuments/Natural Landmarks 

This category normally contains one or several specific natural features of outstanding national 
significance such as geological formation, a unique natural site, animal or plant species or habitat which, 
because of uniqueness or rarity, may be threatened and should be protected. The specific feature to be 
protected ideally has little or no evidence of man's activities. These features are not of the size nor is there 
a diversity of features or representative ecosystems which would justify the area's inclusion as a national 
park. These areas have particular potential for public education and appreciation. Size is not a significant 
factor; the area should only be large enough to protect the integrity of the site. 

Although Category III areas may have recreational and touristic value, they should be managed in such 
a way that they remain relatively free from human disturbance. These areas may be owned and managed 
by either central or other government agencies or non-profit trusts or corporations, as long as there is 
assurance that they will be managed to protect their inherent features for tne long term. 

Category IV - Nature Conservation Reserves/Managed Nature Reserves/Wildlife Sanctuaries 

A Category IV area is desirable when protection of specific sites or habitats is essential to the continued 
existence or well-being of individual biotic species, or resident or migratory fauna of national or global 
significance. 

Although a variety of protected areas fall within this category, each would have as its primary purpose 
the protection of nature, and not the production of harvestable, renewable resources, although this may 
play a role in the management of a particular area. The size of the area or, in certain instances, seasons in 
which special management is necessary, will be dependent upon the habitat requirement or specific 
characteristics of the species to be protected. These need not require vast areas but could be relatively 
small, consisting of nesting areas, marshes, or lakes, estuaries, forest, or grassland habitats. 

The area may require habitat manipulation to provide optimum conditions for the species, vegetative 
community, or feature according to individual circumstances. For example, a particular grassland or heath 
community may be protected and perpetuated through a limited amount of livestock grazing. A marsh for 
wintering waterfowl may require continual removal of excess reeds and supplementary planting of 
waterfowl food, whereas a reserve for an endangered animal may need protection against predators. 
These areas may be developed in limited areas for public education and appreciation of the work of 
wildlife management. 

Ownership may be by the central government or, with adequate safeguards and controls in which 
long-term protection is ensured, by lower levels of government, non-profit trusts or corporations, or 
private individuals or groups. 

Category V - Protected Landscapes 

The range of areas that fall within this category is necessarily broad because of the wide variety of 
semi-natural and cultural landscapes that occur within various nations. This may be reflected in two types 
of areas: those whose landscapes possess special aesthetic qualities, which are a result of the interaction of 
man and land, and those that are primarily natural areas managed intensively by man for recreational and 
touristic uses. 

In the first case, these landscapes may demonstrate certain cultural manifestations such as: customs, 
beliefs, social organization, or material traits as reflected in land-use patterns. These landscapes are 
characterized by either scenically attractive or aesthetically unique patterns of human settlement. 
Traditional land-use practices associated with agriculture, grazing, and fishing would be dominant. The 
size of the area would be large enough to ensure the integrity of the landscape pattern. 

XX 



In the latter case, natural or scenic areas found along coastlines and lake shores, in hilly or mountainous 
terrain, along the shores of rivers, or inland, adjacent to important tourist highways or population centres, 
and offering scenic views and climatic variation, are often included. Many will have the physical qualities 
and potential to be developed for a variety of outdoor recreational uses with national significance. 

In some cases the land would be privately held and the use of either central or delegated planning 
control would likely be necessary to assist in the perpetuation of both the land use and life style. Means of 
subsidization, or other government assistance, might be required for external renovations or construction 
to disguise improvements in the standard of living while recognizing the dynamics of evolution of the land 
and its use . Efforts would be made to maintain the quality of landscape through appropriate management 
practices. In other instances the areas are established and managed under public ownership in perpetuity. 

Category VI - Resource Reserves (Interim Conservation Unit) 

Category VI areas will normally comprise extensive and relatively isolated and uninhabited areas having 
difficult access, or regions that are lightly populated yet may be under considerable pressure for 
colonization and greater utilization. In many cases, there has been little study or evaluation of these areas, 
and the consequence of converting these lands to agriculture, mineral or timber extraction, or the 
construction of roads, etc. is unclear. Similarly, use of the resources may not be appropriate because of the 
lack of technology, human or financial resource restrictions or alternate national priorities. Consequently, 
natural, social, and economic values are not sufficiently identified to permit the area to be managed for 
specific objectives or to justify its conversion to other land uses. Restricted access as implied so areas will 
normally require control, depending upon the pressures to enter and utilize the area. Some lands may be 
government-owned while others may be owned or administered by public corporations. 

Maintenance of existing conditions to allow for studies as to the potential use for the designated areas is 
a prerequisite. Protection, studies, and planning are envisaged as the major activities while under this 
short-term designation. No exploitation should occur, with the exception of use of resources by 
indigenous inhabitants. There is an acceptance of ongoing eco-sensitive activities. 

Category VII - Anthropological Reserves/Natural Biotic Areas 

Category VII areas are characterized by natural areas where the influence or technology of modern man 
has not significantly interfered with or been absorbed by the traditional ways of life of the inhabitants. 
These areas may be remote and isolated and their inaccessibility may be maintained for a considerable 
period of time. The societies are considered relatively unique and may be of particular significance to the 
maintenance of genetic diversity and/or for research into the cultural evolution of man. These are 
predominantly natural areas of which man is an integral component . There is a strong dependence of man 
upon the natural environment for food, shelter, and other basic material to sustain life. Extensive 
cultivation or other major modifications to the vegetation and animal life are not permitted. 

Category VIII - Multiple Use Management Areas/Managed Resource Areas 

A large area, containing considerable territory suitable for production of wood products, water, pasture, 
wildlife, and outdoor recreation. Parts of the area may be settled and may have been altered by man. 
Generally, these forest or other wildland areas do not possess nationally unique or exceptional natural 
features. 

Planning to ensure the area is managed on a sustained yield basis would be a prerequisite. Land 
ownership would be under government control. Through proper zoning, significant areas could be given 
specific additional protection. For instance, the establishment of wilderness-type areas is consistent with 
the purpose of these areas as would be setting aside nature reserves. Multiple use, in the context of 
Category VIII, is considered to be the management of all renewable surface resources, utilized in some 
combination to best meet the needs of the country. The major premise in the management of these lands is 
that they will be managed to maintain the overall productivity of the land and its resources in perpetuity. 

Category IX - Biosphere Reserves 

This category has been created by UNESCO in order to help involve research, education, and training in 
protected area management, and to expand the science of protected area management far beyond the 

xxi 



traditional protected area into the countryside. Each biosphere reserve will include one or more of the 
following: 

(a) representative examples of natural biomes; 

(b) unique communities or areas with unusual natural features of exceptional interest; 

(c) examples of harmonious landscapes resulting from traditional patterns of land use; and 

(d) examples of modified or degraded ecosystems capable of being restored to more natural conditions. 

A biosphere reserve must have adequate long-term legal protection. Each biosphere reserve will be 
large enough to be an effective conservation unit, and to accommodate different uses without conflict. 
Each reserve must be approved by the Man and the Biosphere International Coordinating Council before 
it can receive designation as a biosphere reserve. 

Each biosphere reserve will be zoned to provide direction as to its management. Four zones may be 
delineated as follows: (a) Natural or Core Zone; (b) Manipulative or Buffer Zone; (c) Reclamation or 
Restoration Zone; and (d) Stable Cultural Zone. 

Category X - World Heritage Sites (Natural) 

Sites listed on the World Heritage List can only be nominated by a country which is a Party to the World 
Heritage Convention, and include only areas of 'outstanding universal value.' The secretariat of the 
World Heritage Convention is provided by UNESCO; nominated sites are screened by lUCN in relation 
to the criteria established by the World Heritage Committee. 

According to the criteria established by the World Heritage Committee, natural properties to be 
considered for inclusion on the List must: 

(i) be outstanding examples representing the major stages of the earth's evolutionary history; 
(ii) be outstanding examples representing significant ongoing geological processes, biological 

evolution and man's interaction with his natural environment; 
(iii) contain unique, rare or superlative natural phenomena, formations or features or areas of 

exceptional natural beauty; 
(iv) be habitats where populations of rare or endangered species of plants and animals still survive. 
Nominations based solely on this criterion must ensure that critical elements of a species habitat 
are considered throughout the range required for survival of the species. 

It should be reaUzed that individual sites may not possess the most spectacular or outstanding single 
example of the above, but when the sites are viewed in a broader perspective with a complex of many 
surrounding features of significance, the entire area may qualify to demonstrate an array of features of 
global significance. All areas must also meet the criteria of 'integrity'. 

BIOGEOGRAPHIC PROVINCE: The Neotropical Realm covers all of South America, the Caribbean, 
Central America, Tropical Mexico, and the southern tip of Florida. The realm is further divided into 
Provinces, defined by significant differences in flora, fauna, and vegetation structure. These provinces are 
assigned geographic, ecological, or historically established names as appropriate; the provinces are 
presented on Map 1. Each of the provinces is characterised by one of the world's 12 Biomes, major regional 
ecological communities of plants and animals extending over a large natural area. 

Based on this system, each of the 47 Neotropical Provinces is given a three-number code, with the first 
number corresponding to the realm, the second to the province, and the third to the biome; 8.3.1, for 
example, is Tropical Humid Forest (biome 1) in the Colombian coastal Rainforest Province (province 3) in 
the Neotropical Realm (Realm 8). This code allows each protected area to be assigned a biogeographic 
context, and facilitates comparison of data on biomes, provinces, and realms. 

LEGAL PROTECTION: This covers both the degree of legal protection (eg., 100%), and special 
protection afforded to certain elements within the area. To qualify for the Directory a protected area must 
enjoy statutory legal protection establishing it as a permanently protected area and providing sufficiently 
strict safeguards to achieve the objectives of conservation of natural or of man-made landscapes. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Date and identification of the establishing decree or legislation. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Province, region, latitude and longitude (it is expected that a new 
method, based on the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid system, will be established shortly). 

ALTITUDE: The lowest and highest points of the area are included. 

xxii 



Map 1. Biogeographical provinces of the Neotropical Realm 

(Udvardy, 1975) 



-20 42 




1 


Campechean 


2 


Panamanian 


3 


Colombian Coastal 


4 


Guyanan 


5 


Amazonian 


6 


Madeiran 


7 


Serra do Mar 


8 


Brazilian Rain Forest 


9 


Brazilian Planalto 


10 


Valdivian Forest 


11 


Chilean Sothofagus 


12 


Everglades 


13 


Sinaloan 


14 


Guerreran 


15 


Yucatecan 


16 


Central American 


17 


Venezuelan Dry Forest 


18 


Venezuelan Deciduous Forest 


19 


Equadorian Dry Forest 


20 


Caatinga 


21 


Gran Chaco 


22 


Chilean Araucaria Forest 


23 


Chilean Sclerophyll 


24 


Pacific Desert 


25 


Monte 


26 


Patagonian 


27 


Llanos 


28 


Campos Limpos 


29 


Babacu 


30 


Campos Cerrados 


31 


Argentinian Pampas 


32 


Uruguayan Pampas 


33 


Northern Andean 


34 


Colombian Montane 



35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 



Yungas 

Puna 

Southern Andean 

Bahamas-Bermudan 

Cuban 

Greater Antillean 

Lesser Antillean 

ReviUa Gigedo Island 

Cocos Island 

Galapagos Islands 

Fernando de Noronja Island 

South Trinidade Island 

Lake Titicaca 



AREA: The area, expressed in hectares, included within the establishing legislation, plus any 
subsequent additions. The minimum surface area for inclusion in the Directory is 1,000 hectares and this 
must consist entirely of zones in which protection of nature takes precedence (e.g. strict natural zones, 
managed natural zones or wilderness zones). Zones developed or modified for administrative or touristic 
purposes are excluded in calculating the minimum area. Exceptions may be made for islands. 

LAND TENURE: Public (government-owned), freehold, private, etc. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Topography, climate, hydrology, and other physical features, particularly as 
they affect management of the area. 

VEGETATION: Dominant vegetation formation (eg., tropical rainforest), plus secondary formations; 
percentage coverage of each formation is included when possible. Dominant species are listed, along with 
any endangered species or species of particular economic importance. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, etc. which are of 
particular importance due to their dominance in the ecosystem, rarity, presence of important populations, 
etc. Where known, populations of the key species are provided. In each case species which are included in 
the lUCN Mammal Red Data Book Part 1 (Thornback, J. and Jenkins, M., 1982, lUCN, Gland), The 
lUCN Red Data Book, Volume 2 Aves (1978, 1979, lUCN, Morges) or the lUCN Amphibia-Reptilia Red 
Data Book Part 1, Testudines, Crocodilia and Rhynchochephalia (Groombridge, B., in press, lUCN, 
Gland) are marked (E), (R), (V) or (I) depending on whether they are classified as Endangered, Rare, 
Vulnerable or Indeterminate within those publications. 

ZONING: The system of zoning, where present, is described, with areas included in each zone. 

DISTURBANCES AND DEFICIENCIES: The major management problems are described, including 
such things as poaching, fires, agricultural encroachment, etc. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Major research which has been conducted in the area, along with on-going 
projects. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Presence of laboratories, study plots, housing for scientists, etc. 

PRINCIPLE REFERENCE MATERIAL: Major documents on the area, including the management 
plan, scientific monographs, popular books or articles, bibliographies, etc. 

STAFF: The numbers of individuals regularly working in the area, with job classification (e.g. 
Superintendent, ranger, guard, clerk). 

BUDGET: Annual budget, with year, in local currency and in US dollars (for ease of comparison). 
Other subventions, as from Unesco or WWF/IUCN. are also mentioned when relevant. 

LOCAL ADMINISTRATION: The name and address of the local administrative entity for the area. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: The name of the individual who prepared the sheet or 
coordinated its preparation; this individual will also be responsible for up-dating the sheet and should be 
sent any comments or corrections that need to be made. 



COUNTRY SHEETS 



As WELL AS the data sheets describing the situation in each individual protected area, there are also 
"Country Sheets' which give more information on the protected area system within each of the politcal 
units of the Neotropical Realm. Again the information is grouped under a series of headings. 

AREA: The area of the country, or political unit, as given in the Times Atlas of the World, Sixth Edition 
(1980). 

POPULATION: The population of the country or political unit as given in the Times Atlas unless more 
recent information is available. The date of the estimate is given in parentheses, and if a census is involved 
this is also mentioned. 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Basic details of the legislation dealing with the conservation 
units, and with the department or office responsible for running those units. Whenever possible the 

XX iv 



numbers of the laws or decrees and their dates are given. Information is also given on how new areas are 
established. 

PARKS AND RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: This gives rudimentary details on how the protected 
areas are run and by whom, including, whever possible, definitions of each of the categories of 
conservation unit used in that country. 

TOTAL AREA PROTECTED: The total in this section is calculated only from those areas which would 
be accepted on the United Nations List of Protected Areas (lUCN, in press), that is those areas protected 
in law by the highest competent authority, of over 1 ,000 ha (exceptions may be made in the case of islands) 
which are in management categories I-IV (see above). Biosphere Reserves are not included in this total as 
such. 

PROTECTED AREAS: Here the protected areas within the country are listed, in the order in which the 
individual data sheets will follow. There will not necessarily be a data sheet for every conservation unit 
listed. 

As for the data sheets on individual protected areas, this information is supplied by the CNPPa 
coordinators already mentioned above. Material was, however, incorporated from other sources as well, and 
special mention should be made of the paper by Wetterberg, G.B., Soares de Castro, C, Tresinari B. 
Quintao, A., Rocha Porto, E. (1978), Estado atual dos parques nacionais e reservas equivalentes na america 
do sul-1978, Brasil Florestal No. 36 (Out-Dez) Min. Agric. IBDF, Brasilia, in the English language edition 
published by the International Park Affairs Division of the US National Parks Service in 1980. 



THE NEXT STEPS 



This directory will never be 'complete.' As the first volume in the series, it already suffers from the 
growing pangs of youth; many of the sheets contain only sparse data, available literature has not been 
thoroughly screened and integrated, information has seldom been field-checked, and areas administered 
by provincial or regional governments have not been included. Further, much of the data, such as on 
personnel, budget, and management deficiencies, is 'perishable" and needs regular up-dating. 

It is also expected that the protected area in the Neotropical Realm will continue to grow in the coming 
years. In Brazil, for example, government policy is to add some 13,000,000 hectares to complete the 
country's protected area system. Significant additions are also expected from Peru. Ecuador, and 
Colombia. On the other hand, Chile is in the midst of a process of consolidation and realignment which 
will see a number of significant changes. 

CNPPA has developed a procedure for bringing the Directory up-to-date on a regular basis. 
Approximately every three years, the Commission will hold a meeting somewhere in the Neotropical 
Realm; about 12 months before the meeting, the existing data sheets will be sent to the coordinators for 
each country with a request to ensure that all information is accurate and up-to-date and to provide 
additional data on specific areas where such data would be useful and pertinent (for example, presence of 
wild species of plants which are related to domestic plants). Efforts will be made to fill any blanks in the 
data, integrate new findings from field projects, and collect information from new areas, ensuring that the 
second edition of the Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas will be a major step forward. 

In the meantime, the Research Officer at the Protected Areas Data Unit (Jeremy Harrison, PADU, 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, UK) will be collecting additional published information, 
receiving comments and suggestions on the basis of the information contained in the directory, and 
seeking ways and means of applying the data to real conservation problems on the ground. All 
contributions by readers will be very welcome. 

Kenton R. Miller 
Gland, Switzerland Jeffrey A. McNeely 

23 July 1982 Jeremy Harrison 



XXV 



ANTIGUA 



ANTIGUA 



AREA: 443 sq km. 

POPULATION: 73,500 (1979). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The Marine Parks are established and run under the Marine 
Parks Act, 1972. The Antigua National Trust Act (1972) also has provision for the setting up of parks, 
reserves and monuments. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The running of the marine parks is the responsibility of 
the Fisheries Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries. Presumably sites protected 
under the National Trust Act would be the responsibility of the Antigua National Trust. 

ADDRESS: Fisheries Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, Government 
Headquarters, St John's, Antigua. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 2,500 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

Marine Parks (hectares) 

1 Diamond Reef 2,000 

2 Palaster Reef 500 



BARBUDA 




V 



N 

A 



1 2 3 A 5 

1 I 1 — 1 — — ' — ' 

Scale Miles 



ANTIGUA 




W 



Key. 

V MARINE PARKS 



I 




Scale Miles 



ANTIGUA 3 

(1) Diamond Reef Marine Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1973. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Reef area lying about 5km off the north coast of Antigua; 17°15'N, 
61°50'W. 

ALTITUDE: -100 to Om. 

AREA: 2,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Shallow calcium carbonate banks and extensive patch coral reefs. 

VEGETATION: Calcareous algae, filamentous algae, and boring algae typical of patch reefs. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Typical Caribbean coral reef fauna. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Fisheries Department, Ministry of Agriculture, 
Lands, and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 16 June 1981. 



(2) Palaster Reef Marine Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 1973. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Reef area lying about 3km to the southeast of Cocoa Point , Barbuda ; 

17°30'N, 61°47"W. 

ALTITUDE: -50 to Om. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Shallow patch coral reefs. 

VEGETATION: Calcareous algae, filamentous algae, and boring algae typical of patch reefs. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Typical Caribbean reef fauna. 



4 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some fishing. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Fisheries Department, Ministry of Agriculture, 
Lands and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 16 June 198L 



ARGENTINA 



ARGENTINA 



AREA: 2,776,643 sq km. 

POPULATION: 27,000,000 (1980). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Law 22.35 of 12 December 1980 revised and modified the 
former Law of National Parks, Natural Monuments and National Reserves (law 18.594 of 6 February 
1970), its regulatory decree 637 of 1970, and the old National Parks Law 12. 103 of 1934, together with the 
more recent law on organization of the National Park Service (20.161/1972) and decree 2.81 1 of 1972. The 
'Administracion de Parques Nacionales' has extensive authority and responsibility for the conservation of 
flora, fauna and the establishment of National Parks, Natural Monuments and National Reserves. The 
Administration has the right to expropriate lands, regulate land use, seize equipment used in illicit 
activities and to discharge staff not adhering to the law. The law contains specific rules for the executive 
powers of the Service. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: There are three categories of conservation area 
included under these laws. The National Park is regarded as an area to be conserved in its primitive state 
with alterations only being made if they are necessary to ensure adequate control of visitors. Natural 
Monuments are defined as regions, objects, animals or plants which are of aesthetic, historic or scientific 
interest and which should receive absolute protection. The National Reserve is an area of interest for the 
conservation of ecological systems and also for the maintenance of transition zones of certain of the 
National Parks. It is also used as an independent conservation zone associated with a National Park when 
the legal status of National Park is not given due to the situation in that area. One other category of 
protected area, the Nature Reserve, is not defined in current legislation. This only applied to one area, 
Formosa Nature Reserve. Administracion de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Economia, has ultimate 
authority for the management of National Park lands. 

ADDRESS: Administracion de Parques Nacionales, Sante Fe 690, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 

REFERENCES: Cabrera, Angel L. y Willink, Abraham (1975). Biogeografia de America Latina. 
OEA, Washington. 

Correa Luna, Hugo y otros (1977). La Conservacion de la Naturaleza: los Parques Nacionales 
Argentinos. Servicio Nacional de Parques Nacionales, Buenos Aires. 3rd edition. 

Direccion General de Parques Nacionales (1972). Parques Nacionales Argentinos. Secretaria de 
Estado de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Nacion, Sante Fe 690, Buenos Aires, 72 pp. 

Erize, Francisco y otros (1981). Los Parques Nacionales Argentinos. INCAFO, Madrid. 

OEA (1979). La Conservacion de Ecosistemas Terrestres de Mayor Significacion en el Hemisferio 
Occidental. Seccion Latinoamerica. OEA, Washington. 

Publicaciones varias, informes, proyectos, circulares, etc. de la Administration de Parques Nacionales: 
reports, projects, verbal communications, etc. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 2,691,551 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Los Glaciares (World Heritage Site) 445,900 

2 Nahuel Huapi 330,000 

3 Lanin 194,600 

4 Los Alerces 187,500 

5 Perito Francisco P. Moreno 84,500 

6 Calilegua 76,000 

7 Baritu 72,439 

8 Tierra del Fuego 63,000 

9 Rio Pilcomayo 50,000 



lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

49,200 

44,162 

15,000 

14,100 

9,000 

8,500 

8,250 

1.000 



10,000 

428,100 

184,000 

154,100 

75,500 

30,500 

9,600 

6,300 

3,000 

1,200 

28,000 
10,000 

Wildlife Sanctuary 

1 Gulf of San Jose Right Whale Sanctuary* Unknown 

Biosphere Reserve 

1 San Guillermo 981,000 

Provincial Nature Reserve 

1 Laguna Blanca* 770,000 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



10 


Iguazu 


11 


El Ray 


12 


Chaco 


13 


Lago Puelo 


14 


Lihuel Calel 


15 


El Palmar 


16 


Laguna Blanca 


17 


Los Arrayanes 


Na 


ture Reserve 


1 


Formosa 


National Reserves 


1 


Nahuel Huapi 


2 


Lanin 


3 


Los Glaciares 


4 


Los Alerces 


5 


Perito Francisco P. Moreno 


6 


Lago Puelo 


7 


Iguazu 


8 


Laguna Blanca 


9 


El Palmar 


National Monuments 


1 


Laguna de Pozuelos 


2 


Petrified Forests 



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8 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Los Glaciares National Park & Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II, IV & IX (National Park, Managed Nature Reserve & Biosphere 
Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.11.2/8.37.12 (Chilean Nothofagus/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: The park is totally protected, the reserve partially. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 May 1937 by Law 13.895 and Decrees No. 105.433/37 and No. 125.596/38; 
Decree-Law 9.504 of 28 April 1945 and Law 19.292 of 11 October 1971. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southern Argentine Andes, southwest Santa Cruz Province, on the 

Chilean border; 49°15'-50°40'S, 73°W 

ALTITUDE: 200-3, 500m. 

AREA: Park: 445,900 ha. Reserve: 154,100 ha. 

LAND TENURE: The Park is government owned; so is most of the Reserve, though a few small 
settlements still remain. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Andean mountains with several spectacular sharp needle-like peaks and large 
lakes. Large glaciers, including some outstanding examples of glacier movement and erosion. Climate is 
cold and damp. 

VEGETATION: Andean-Patagonian forests. Principal species include southern beech Nothofagus 
antarctica, N. pumilio, N. betuloides (present over extensive areas) and N. dombeyi (southernmost 
distribution); Fuchsia magellanica. Winter's bark Drimys winleri, Ribes magellanicus . Berberis buxifolia. 
Pernettya mucronata and Philesia buxifolia. Patagonian steppe to the east and snow-covered mountains 
and glaciers to the west. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Rich fauna includes little armadillo Zaedyus p. pichiy, chinchilla mouse 
Euneomys sp. , mara Dolichotis patagonum, coypu Myocaster coypus santacruzae , tucotuco Ctenomys sp. , 
puma Felis concolor pearsoni, guanaco Lama guanicoe, southern Andean huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus 
(E); chinchillon Lagidium wolffsohni, grey fox Dusicyon griseus. skunk Conepatus humboldti; birds 
include lesser rhea Pterocnemia pennata, Patagonian tinamou Tinamotis ingoufi, night-heron Nycticorax 
n. obscurus, plumbeous rail Rallus sanguinolentus landbecki, rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia 
capensis australis, flying steamer duck Tachyeres patachonicus, ashy-headed goose Chloephaga 
poliocephala, magellanic woodpecker Campephilus magellanicus; snakes recorded include Bothrops 
ammodytoides. 

ZONING: A National Park and a National Reserve. Development is confined to the Reserve, which is 
subdivided into 3 zones. 

TOURISM: More than 9,000 visitors per year. Small hotels, camping and picnic areas in the Reserve. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Large areas have been burnt over by uncontrolled forest fires. 
Poaching of guanaco was previously a problem, but is practically curbed now. European hare Lepus 
europaeus and cattle cause problems. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Flora inventory. Vertebrate inventory. Meteorological observations. 
Observatory for atmospheric pollution. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Direccion General de Parques Nacionales (1959). Reductos 
Pristinos de la Naturaleza. Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Nacion, Santa Fe 690, 
Buenos Aires, 

Direccion General de Parques Nacionales (1972). Parques Nacionales Argentines. Secretaria de 
Estado de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Nacion, Santa Fe 690, Buenos Aires, 72 pp. 

STAFF: 1 Superintendent, 6 guards or rangers and 20 administrative staff and workers. 

BUDGET: US$ 416,033 in 1981 (salaries not included). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendencia, Parque Nacional Los Glaciares, 
Administracion de Parques Nacionales, Lago Argentine, Provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. 



ARGENTINA 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 
INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(2) Nahuel Huapi National Park & Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IV (National Park & Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.10.2/8.37.12 (Valdivian Forest/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: The park is totally protected, the reserve partially. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 9 October 1934 by Law 12. 103 and by a further Decree (8 April 1972), modified 
by Laws 14.487, 19.292 (11 October 1971), 20.594 and 21.602. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Argentine Andes, Neuquen and Rio Negro Provinces; 40°20-41°35'S 
and 7r-72°W. 

ALTITUDE: 720-3, 574m. 

AREA: Park: 428,100 ha. Reserve: 330,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: The park is Government owned (the original 7,500 ha donated by F.P. Moreno in 
1903). The Reserve is partially government and partially privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: This area is part of the Andean mountain chain, and includes several lakes 
and rivers. The western boundary is formed by the Chilean frontier. Geologically it is composed of tertiary 
rocks with volcanics, andesites and porphyrys. There are also numerous glacial features within the area 
including of course the lakes, and glacial erosion is evident on the cliffs of the San Pedro pensinula, and 
Victoria Island. Climate is temperate with a wide range in temperature, precipitation varying from 500 to 
3,000mm annually. 

VEGETATION: The eastern part has xerophytic Patagonian vegetation, the west temperate rain forest. 
Principal species include southern beech Nothofagus dombeyi, N. pumilio, N.antarctica, 'alerces' Fitzroya 
cupressoides, Chilean cedar Austrocedrus chilensis. Winter's bark Drimys winleri, Myrceugenella 
apiculata, Lomatia ferruginea, L. hirsuta, Alstroemeria aurantiaca. Fuchsia magellanica, bamboo 
Chusquea culeou, Mitraria coccinea and Embothrium coccineum. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: A limited variety of species but a good population of smaller animals. 
Principal species include southern Andean huemul Hippocamelus bisculus (E), opossum Dromiciops 
australis, southern river otter Lutra provocax (I), culpeo fox Dusicyon c. culpaeus, puma Felis concolor, 
tiger cat or kodkod F. guigna and pudu deer Pudu pudu. Avifauna includes blue-eyed cormorant 
Phalacrocorax a. atriceps (only known colony in fresh water), kelp gull Larus d. dominicanus . chucao 
tapaculo Scelorchilus rubecula, upland goose Chloephaga picta, torrent duck Merganetta armata, austral 
parakeet Enicognathus ferrugineus, Andean condor Vullur gryphus and green-backed firecrown 
Sephanoides galeritus. Amphibia include Hylorina sylvatica and Bufo spinolosus. 

ZONING: Subdivided into two zones - national park and national reserve, development being confined 
to the latter. The town of San Carlos de Bariloche, all smaller settlements and summer homes have now 
been zoned out of the park. The whole area is further subdivided into three zones: northern, central and 
southern, plus the Cerro Catedral Recreation Area. 

TOURISM: There are more than 350,000 visitors a year. Facilities include hotels, a visitors' centre, 
camping and picnic areas, cablecars, ski slopes and lifts. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Uncontrolled forest fires are a permanent threat. Introduced 
red deer Cervus elaphus, dama deer Dama dama, European wild boar Sus scrofa, mink Mustela vison, 
European hare Lepus europaeus and the Californian quail Lophortyx californica are still a problem. 
Cattle and other domestic animals roam in some portions of the reserve and the park. Nahuel Huapi lake 
in particular is being polluted by the city of Bariloche and other settlements and by ships and boats 
throwing oil and garbage into the waters. 



10 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies on the biology and distribution of the threatened Ultra provocax. 
Studies on the biology ofAegla (Crustacea, Decapoda). Experimental hreedingoi Pudu pudu. Control of 
Rosa eglanteria, a woody weed. Studies on the biology of Salvelinits fontinalis, the exotic stream trout. 
Studies of the exotic Mustela vison and its environmental impact. Flora inventory. Vertebrate inventory. 
Meteorological observations. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Training school for national park guards, also open to foreign 
participants. Patagonian museum in San Carlos de Bariloche with laboratories and exhibits of flora and 
fauna, and of geological and historical interest. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Direccion General de Parques Nacionales (1972). Parque 
Nacional Nahuel Huapi. Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Nacion, Sante Fe 690, 
Buenos Aires, 20 pp. 

STAFF: 1 superintendent, 40 guards and 147 administrative staff and workers. 

BUDGET: US$ 1,987,169 in 1981 (salaries not included). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendencia, Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, 
Administracion de Parques nacionales, San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(3) Lanin National Park and Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IV (National Park & Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.10.2/8.37.12 (Valdivian Forest/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: The park is totally protected, the reserve partially. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 March 1937 by Law 13.895, Decrees 105.433/37 and 125.596/38; 
Decree-Law 9.504/45; Law 19.292/71; Law 19.301. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Western Neuquen province in the Argentine Andes; 39°07'-40°44'S, 
71°07'-49'W. 

ALTITUDE: 600-3774m. 

AREA: Park: 194,600 ha. Reserve: 184,400 ha. 

LAND TENURE: The park is government owned. The reserve is still partly privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Located in the southern Argentine Andes, with the western border formed by 
the Chilean frontier. Mountainous, with the extinct volcano of Lanin one of the main points of interest. 
Features include several impressive lava fields, hot springs (60°-80°C) and glacial features, including a 
number of lakes (all of which are aligned in an east-west direction). 

VEGETATION: Andean-Patagonian forests. Principal species include Chile pine (monkey puzzle) 
Araucaria araucana. southern beech Nothofagus dombeyi, N. nervosa. N. obliqua and A', antarctica, Chile 
cedar Austrocedrus chilensis. Berberis sp., Embothrium coccineum. Cassia arnolhiana, Schinus crenatus, 
Aristoielia sp., Alstroemeria aurantiaca, Milraria coccinea, Mutisia decurrens and M. retusa. The lower 
areas are occupied by Patagonian steppe. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Principal mammal species include southern river otter Lutra provocax (I), 
opossum Dromiciops a. australis. rice rat Oryzomys longicaudatus philippic coypu Myocastor coypus 
melanops, the grey fox Dusicyon griseus gracilus, culpeo fox D. culpaeus, puma Felis concolor araucanus 
and tiger-cat or kodkod F. g. guigna. Avifauna includes white-tufted grebe Podiceps rolland chilensis, 
great grebe P. major. Andean condor Vultur gryphus. austral parakeet Enicognathus ferrugineus minor 
and white-crested elaenia Elaenia albiceps chilensis. Fish include southern pikelet Galaxias sp. and 
southern salmon Haplochiton sp. Amphibia include Rhinoderma darwini. 



ARGENTINA 



11 



ZONING: The whole area is divided into a northern, a central and a southern zone. The reserve is also 
subdivided into three zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: It is uncertain whether private holdings, stock-raising and 
forestry have now been totally excluded. Sport-fishing is another potentially disturbing factor. Exotic 
species include red deer Cervus elaphus. jabali (wild boar) Sus scrofa, European hare Lepus europaeus 
and rabbit Oryciolagus cuniculus, a recent invader from the northeast. Within the Reserve boundaries 
there are two hunting lots for exotic species, and this also has a disturbing impact on wildlife. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Flora inventory. Vertebrate inventory. Metereological observations. 
Control of the woody weed Rosa eglanteria. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 23 guards (rangers) and 56 administrative staff and workers. 

BUDGET: US$ 718,956 in 1981 (salaries not included) 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendencia, Parque Nacional Lanin, 
Administracion de Parques Nacionales, San Martin de los Andes, Neuquen, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(4) Los Alerces National Park and Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IV (National Park and Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.10.2/8.37.12 (Valdivian Forest/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 May 1937, Law 13.895, Decree 105.433; Decree-Law 9.504, 23 April, 1945; 
Law 19.292, 11 October 1971. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Chubut province in the Argentine Andes; 42°10'-20'S, 71°35'- 
72°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 400-2, 280m. 

AREA: Park: 187,500 ha. Reserve: 75,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Southern Andean mountains with the western boundary formed by the 
frontier with Chile. Glaciated mountains, lakes, rivers and montane forest. Some of the lakes reach almost 
700m in depth. Temperate climate, with variable precipitation increasing from east to west. 

VEGETATION: Andean-Patagonian forests. The park was created to protect the large stands of 
'alerces' Fitzroya cupressoides. Other species include southern beech Nothofagus dombeyi, N. pumilio, 
N. antarctica. Winter's bark Drimys winleri, Lomatia hirsuia. Myrceugenella spiculata, Podocarpus 
nubigena, Mutisia retusa, M. decurrens, Buddleia globosa. Fuchsia magellanica and Alstroemeria 
aurantiaca. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Principal mammal species are the opossum Dromiciops australis, the 
big-eared brown bat Histiotus montanus magellicanus , the long-clawed mouse Notiomus valdivianus . the 
grey fox Dusky on griseus gracilis, culpeo fox D. culpaeus. puma Felis concolor araucanus, tiger cat F. 
guigna, pudu deer Pudu pudu and Southern Andean huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus (E); birds include 
pied-billed grebe Podilymbus podiceps antarcticus, spectacled duck Anas specularis, bicoloured hawk 
Accipiter bicolor chilensis, caracara Milvago chimango temcoensis, Chilean flicker Colaptes pitius piiius, 
Falkland thrush Turdus falklandii magellanicus , buff-necked ibis Therislicus caudatus . white-sided hilistar 
Oreotrochilus leucopleurus , Chilean pigeon Columba araucana and chucao Scelorchilus rubecula; 



12 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

Amphibia include horned toad Bufo spinulosus. B. variegatus and Rhinoderma darwini. Fish include 
southern pike Galaxias sp., southern salmon Haplochiton sp., Patagonina sp. and South American perch 
Percichthys sp. 

ZONING: National park and national reserve, with all types of development being located in the 
reserve. 

TOURISM: More than 30,000 visitors per year. Hotels, camping, an administrative centre and a visitors' 
centre for environmental education are available. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: A large hydroelectric dam and station have been built in the 
park, flooding over a thousand hectares of forest and linking four lakes. Forest fires have been a problem. 
Grazing by domestic stock is reported to have been largely eliminated. European hare Lepus europaeus, 
jabali (wild boar) Sus scrofa and mink Mustela vison are causing problems in the area. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Vertebrate inventory. Studies of the exotic Mustela vison and its impact on 
the environment and wildlife. Flora inventory. Meterological observations. Project research on the 
control of 'rosa mosqueta' Rosa eglanteria, a woody weed. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Minimum. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Direccion General de Parques Nacionales (1959). Reductos 
Pristinos de la Naturaleza. Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Nacion, Sante Fe 690, 
Buenos Aires. 51 pp. 

STAFF: 2 field guides, 14 guards or rangers and 42 administrative staff and workers. 

BUDGET: US$ 512,798 in 1981 (salaries not included). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendencia, Parque Nacional Los Alerces, 
Administracion de Parques Nacionales, Futalafquen, Province del Chubut, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(5) Perito Francisco P. Moreno National Park and Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IV (National Park & Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.11.2/8.37.12 (Chilean Afo//jo/flgM.r/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 May 1937 by Law 13.895, Decrees 105.433/37 and 125.596/38; Decree 
118.660, 30 April 1942; Decree-Law 9.504, 28 April 1945; Law 19.292, 11 October 1971. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northwest sector of Santa Cruz province in the Argentine Andes; 

47°30'S, 72°40'W. 

ALTITUDE: 900-2,770m. 

AREA: Park: 84,500 ha. Reserve: 30,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Located in the Southern Andean mountains on the border with Chile, and 
including the divide between Pacific and Atlantic drainage. Mountainous irregular topography with 
glaciated landforms including moraines. Climate is cold with frequent snow during summer and strong 
westerly winds. Important anthropological and archaeological sites include Indian tombs and caverns with 
wall paintings. 

VEGETATION: Andean-Patagonian forest with tree line at about 1100m. Principal species include 



ARGENTINA j3 

southern beech Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica, Berberis cuneata and grassland of Festuca sp. , Poa 
sp. and Stipa sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Principal mammals are South Andean huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus (E), 
little armadillo Zaedyus p.pichiy, colpeo fox Dusicyon culpaeus magellanicus, puma Felis concolor 
patagonica, Geoffroy's tiger cat F. geoffroyi and guanaco Lama guanicoe. Birds include Andean condor 
Vultur gryphus, kelp goose Chloephaga h. hybrida, upland goose C. picta, red shoveler Anas platalea, 
blue-winged teal A. discors, dolphin gull Leucophaeus scoresbii, lesser Rhea Pterocnemia pennata, 
Patagonian tinamou Tinamotis ingoufi and white-bellied seedsnipe /If/agw malovinus. Fish species include 
southern lamprey Geotria sp., Patagonina sp., southern pikelet Galaxia sp. and South American perch 
Pericichthys sp. 

ZONING: A National Park zone and a National Reserve zone, with some development in the reserve 
area. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some disturbance in the eastern portion, due to cattle and 
sheep. Access is very poor, tourism being practically absent. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Scarce, and mainly on archaeology and anthropology. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: A ranger and a worker, no permanent staff. 

BUDGET: US$ 170,633 in 1981 (salaries not included). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendencia, Parque Nacional Los Glaciares, 
Administracion de Parques Nacionales, Lago Argentino, Provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(6) Calilegua National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.25.07 (Monte). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1979 by Decree 1.733. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Eastern Jujuy province, northwest Argentina; 23°30'S, 64°45'W. 

ALTITUDE: 450-3, 160m. 

AREA: 76,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Rugged, broken country with abrupt mountain ranges and narrow deep 
valleys, on the Sierra de Calilegua. There are many rivers and creeks which flow through the Rio San 
Francisco and finally into the Bermejo river. The mean temperature is 2rC, and annual precipitation 
1,000mm in the foothills, 2,000mm higher up. Fogs are common from 800-900m. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical rain forests, with transitional cloud-forests (yungas) up to 500m, and 
montane rain forest to 1,800m. Montane forest reaches 2,500m. Above this are montane grasslands with 
few and scattered trees. Principal species are whitewood Calycophyllum multiflorum, cedro salteno 
Cedrelo anguslifolia. tipa blanca Tipuana tipu, horco molle Blepharocalyx gigantea, mountain pine 
Podocarpus parlatorei. the fern Pteris deflexa and an abundance of epiphytes and climbers. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Northern Andean huemul Hippocamelus anlisensis (V), jaguar Panthera 



14 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

onca (V), capuchin monkey Cebus apella, squirrel Sciurus Ignitus and tayra Eira barbara. Among the birds 
are the fasciated tiger heron Tigrisome fasciatum, dusky-legged guan Penelope obscura, roadside hawk 
Rupornis magnirostris and stygian owl Asia slygius. Amphibia include Atelopus rubriventris and 
Gastroifieca chrisliani. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The national petroleum company is drilling 20 exploration pits 
in the northeastern area of the Park. At least 30% of the Park is in recovery after lumbering. Selective 
cutting was practised, so the best timber was taken away. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Evaluation of bird populations in the forest understorey. Flora inventory. 
Meteorological observations to be started. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: A ranger. 

BUDGET: US$ 191,488 in 1981 (salaries not included). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Administered by the Superintendent of the 
Parque Nacional El Rey. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(7) Baritu National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.25.07 (Monte). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1974, by Law 20.956 and Decree 12.534. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the northern sector of the province of Salta, northwest Argentina; 
22°30'S and 64°45'W. 

ALTITUDE: 700-2, 000m. 

AREA: 72,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Broken relief, with mountain peaks about 2,000m high. Many water courses 
which run along steep canyons and flow into the Bermejo River. The river forms the boundary of the park 
along the Bolivian border. Subtropical humid climate. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical rain forest on the mountains, with greater floristic richness than in the 
lowlands. Both Bolivian and Brazilian elements are present. Notable species include the giant cedars 
Cedrela balanse and C. lilloi, the tree fern Cyathea odonelliana. chonta palm Acrocomia chunta, 
whitewood Calycophyllum multiflomm, tipa blanca Tipuana tipu, horco molle Blepharocalyx gigantea 
and mountain pine Podocarpus parlatorei. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Tree porcupine Coendu prehensilis, sloth Bradypus boliviensis, jaguar 
Panthera onca (V), rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis, agouti Dasyprocla punctata. La Plata otter Lutra 
platensis (B) and margay Felis wiedii (V). Birds include Andean guan Penelope montagnii, red-faced guan 
P. dabbenei, golden-collared macaw Ara auricollis, Orinoco goose Neochen jubata, king vulture 
Sarcorhamphus papa and various eagle species (Accipitridae). 

ZONING: No information. 



ARGENTINA 15 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Very little disturbance, due to inaccessibility (because of its 
isolation it is most easily reached from the Bolivian side). A road is planned along its western border. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Evaluation of bird populations in the forest understorey. Flora inventory. 
Meteorological observations to be started. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: A ranger and a labourer. 

BUDGET: US$ 174,844 in 1981 (salaries not included). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Administered by the Superintendent of Parque 
Nacional El Rey. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(8) Tierra del Fuego National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.37.12 (Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1960 by Law 15.554. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The western part of Tierra del Fuego province, extreme southern 
Argentina, with the Chilean border forming the western boundary and the Beagle Channel the southern 
boundary; 54°50'S, 68°30"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 1,000m. 

AREA: 63,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government-owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Very rugged topography with mountains, valleys, rivers, lakes and glaciated 
areas. This is the only Argentine national park that has a shoreline. A temperate cold climate with 
frequent rain, fog and strong winds. Annual mean temperature for Ushuaia, the nearest town, is 5.4°C 
with a maximum monthly mean of 14.2°C and a minimum of -2.4°C. There are rehcts of former Indian 
occupation. 

VEGETATION: Forests of southern beech species Nothofagus pumilio. N. antarctica and N. betuloides. 
Other species include Berberis buxifolia, Embothrium coccineum. Winter's bark Drimys winter and 
crowberry Empetrum rubrum, and the whole area is very rich in mosses. The autumn colour of the forests 
is very impressive. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Good populations of guanaco Lama guanicoe and sea lions are reported, and 

the typical seabirds of these latitudes - petrels, albatrosses and penguins - are known to be well 
represented. Correa Luna (1977) also records South Andean huemul Hippocamelus bisculus (E), 
southern river otter Lutra provocax (I) and Dusicyon culpaeus, the culpeo fox (though not the hoary fox 
D. vetulus reported in the 2nd edition of the UN List. 

ZONING: A national park zone and an intensive use zone. 

TOURISM: A hostel and an administrative centre. Trails, boat trips, sport-fishing and skiing are all 
available, and there are further hotels in Ushuaia and Lapataia. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 



16 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: Only two units reported in 1966; no recent information to hand. 

BUDGET: Quoted as US$ 4,000 in 1966/67; no recent figures have been provided. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendente, Parque Nacional Tierra del Fuego, 
Servicio Nacional de Parques Nacionales, Lapataia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(9) Rio Pilcomayo National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.21.4 (Gran Chaco). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 September 1951, by Laws 14.073 and 17.915. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the Paraguayan border in Formosa province , northern Argentina; 

25°S, 58°W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-200m. 

AREA: 50,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government ownership; however over a third of the park area was previously 
reported as common or privately-owned land, and this still applies to a considerable section. There is an 
indigenous Indian population. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park is located at the confluence of the Pilcomayo and the Paraguay 
Rivers lying on the southern banks of those rivers. The plains are characterized by marshland, savannas, 
and palm forests with several smaller areas occupied by humid forests of the Chaco type. The climate is 
humid/subhumid hot in summer, with the annual average temperature being 23°C and annual average 
precipitation 1,200mm. 

VEGETATION: Marshlands, savannas, gallery forests and Chaco-type forest. The area is of particular 
interest because it is transitional between eastern chaco and rainforest. Principal species include the 
'Caranuba' palm Copernica alba, Caesalpinia melanocarpa, quebracho-wood Schinopsis balansae, 
Ruprechtia polystachya, ocotea suaveolens , Aslronium balansae, the mezquite species Prosopis nigra and 
P. alba. Acacia caven, Celtis spinosa, Tabebuia nodosa and T. ipe, Bromelia serva, Aechtnea disdchanta, 
Eupaiorium spp. and various cacti Cereus and Opunlia spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Relatively rich, including such mammals as maned wolf Chrysocyon 
brachyurus (V). La Plata otter Lutra plaiensis (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), opossum 
Didelphis azarae, coypu Myocastor coypus, crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, Dusicyon sp., coati Nasua 
n. cinerascens, puma Felis concolorosgoodi, Geoffroy's wild cat Felis geoffroyi and tapir Tapirus terrestris. 
Birds include greater rhea Rhea americana albescens, red-winged tinamou Rhynchotus r. rufescens. 
southern screamer Chauna torquata, comb duck Sarkidiomis melanotis, crested caracara Polybonis 
plancus, dusky-legged guan Penelope obscura, turquoise-fronted parrot Amazon aesiiva xanthopterix and 
various humming birds such as Hylocharis, Heliomaster and Chlorostilbon spp. OAS (1978) also record 
giant armadillo Priodontes giganieus (V) and jaguar Panthera onca (V). 

ZONING: Not clearly defined, but there is a national park zone, and also an intensive use zone near 
Laguna Blanca. 

TOURISM: Little developed; there is no accommodation although some facilities are planned and an 
administrative centre has been established. 



ARGENTINA j^ 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported, but so far as is known the park remains 
inadequately staffed despite the proximity of the town of Asuncion. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Direccion General de Parques Nacionales ( 1959) . Reductos 
Pristrmos de la Naturaleza. Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Naciona, Sante Fe 690, 
Buenos Aires. 51 pp. 

STAFF: The staff in 1966 was only an officer-in-charge and a guard and, although representations were 
made by ICNP, it is not known how far the situation has been improved. 

BUDGET: A figure of US$ 2,500 was quoted in 1967. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendencia, Parque Nacional Pilcomayo, 
Servicio Nacional de Parques Nacionales, Laguna Blanca, Formosa, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(10) Iguazu National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rainforest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: The park was officially created 9 October 1934 by Law 12. 103 with 55,000 ha, 
but creation was initiated as early as September 1909 by Law. 6.712. Modifications were made in 1971 and 
1972 by Decree-laws 18.991 and 19.478, while the National Reserve was created in 1979 by Decree-law 
18.801. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the border with Brazil and less than 5km from the Paraguayan 
frontier in Misiones Province, northern Argentina; 25° 36'S, 54°34'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-300m. 

AREA: National park: 49,200 ha. National Reserve: 6,300 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government-owned ; but it is uncertain whether the 500 ha of common land and 6000 
ha owned by the town of Puerto Iguazu on the western border of the park have yet been taken over. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The northern border is formed by the Brazilian frontier and the Iguazu river. 
The park has part of one of the world's largest and most impressive waterfalls (the other part being in 
Brazil) with a height of 80m extending over 2,700m. A basaltic plateau with red semi-lateritic soils. A 
humid subtropical climate with an annual mean temperature of 20°C. a summer mean of 33°C and a winter 
mean of 9°C. Annual rainfall is more than 2,000mm, distributed fairly evenly throughout the year; relative 
humidity often near 90%. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical wet forest, rich in lianes and epiphytes. Principal tree species include 
Cedrela tubiflora. Cordia trichotoma. Aspidosperma polyneuron, Myocarpys frondosus. Enierolobium 
contortisiliquum. Nectandra salgina. Ocotea puberula. Ficus monckii. Araucaria angustifolia . the palmito 
Euterpe edulis. angico gum tree Piptadenia rigida. the 'paino de seda" Chorisia speciosa and the bamboos 
Guadua trimii and G. anguftifolia. Epiphytes include species of Miltonia. Cateseium and Oncidium. The 
Bromeliaceae are represented by the genera Aechmea. Vriesea and Spanish moss Tillandisa. and other 
epiphytic species include the tree fern Dicksonia selowiana. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The mammals include La Plata otter Lutra platensis (V), ocelot Felispardalis 
(V) and jaguar Panihera onca (V), capuchin monkey Cebus paraguayanus , giant anteater Myrmecophaga 



18 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

tridactyla (V), tamandua Tamandua tetradactyla, crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus nigripes, coati 
Nasua solitaria, tiger-cat Felis tigrina (V), jaguarondi F. yaguarundi and tapir Tapirus terrestris. Among 
the birds are spotted nothura Nothura maculosa maculosa, white-necked heron Ardea cocci, 
black-fronted piping guan Aburriajacutinga (E), toco toucan Ramphastos toco albigularis and ferruginous 
pygmy owl Glaucidium b. brasilianum . Reptiles include the rattlesnake Crotalus t. terrificus, the pit viper 
or urutu Bothrops allernatus. and Cyclagras gigas, while amphibians are represented by Bufo marinus 
paraenemis. Fish include the leopard catfish Pimelodus maculatus and P. clarias. Correa Luna (1977) also 
records giant Brazilian otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V) , as well as black-capped capuchin Cebus apella and 
black howler Alouatta caraya. 

ZONING: National park zone with a totally protected (intangible) sub-zone; national reserve zone 
which includes the intensive use zone. 

TOURISM: Approximately 200,000 visitors in 1972 with numbers rapidly increasing. Facilities include 
an international airport, hotel, youth camp, camp and picnic grounds, kiosks, restaurants, an extensive 
network of trails, launches for boat trips and a small museum in the administrative centre located in the 
town of Puerto Iguazu. There are plans for more tourist facilities. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some illegal hunting and cutting of palmito Euterpe edulis for 
edible palm hearts. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Mainly on the ecology, flora and fauna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Servicio Nacional de Parques Nacionales (1972). Parque 
Nacional Iguazu. 9 pp. (stencilled report). 

STAFF: A superintendent, 48 guards and workers (1973). 

BUDGET: US$ 135,00 estimated for 1973. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Superintendent, Intendente, Parque Nacional 
Iguazu, Servicio Nacional de Parques Nacionales, Puerto Iguazu, Misiones, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(11) El Rey National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 24 June 1948 by Decree 18.800. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Salta province, northern Argentina, 80km east of Salta; 24°30'S, 
64°40'W. 

ALTITUDE: 1,000- 1,800m. 

AREA: 44,162 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The junction of the Chaco plains with the Andean region, it has varied and 
rough topography, difficult to penetrate. The abrupt start to the mountain effectively cuts the park off 
from Salta city. This inaccessibility has assisted in the protection of the area. Subtropical climate, but this 
is of course dependent on altitude. 

VEGETATION: Three vegetation zones: valley, higher slopes and ridges, with fringing forest in the 



ARGENTINA 



19 



gullies. Principal species include various mimosas Acacia aroma, A. caven, A. furcata, A. praecox, 
mezquite Prosopis alba, cacti such as Opuntia spp. and Cereus spp., Celtis spinosa, Erythrina falcata, 
Cercidium australe, Geoffroea decorticans, cedar Cedrela balansae, southern butternut Juglans australis, 
Sambucus peruvianus, Berberis laurina, Baccharis spp., Piptadenia macrocarpa, Pterogyne nitens, 
Chorisia insignia and the balsam Myroxylon peruiferum. Above 1600m alpine prairies and herbaceous 
prairies are predominant, interrupted by alders Alnus jorullensis var. spachi and mountain pines 
Podocarpus parlatorei. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mammals include La Plata Otter Lutra platensis (V), jaguar Panthera onca 
(V), vampire bat Desmodus r. rotundas, crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thorn enlrerianus, coati Nasua 
solitaria cinerascens, puma Felis concolor, tapir Tapir terrestris spegazzini and brocket deer Mazama 
simplicornis and M. rufa. Avifauna includes guans and piping guans Penelope spp., and Aburria spp., 
red-legged seriema Cariama cristata, buff-necked ibis Theristicws c. cardatus and ocellated piculet 
Picumnus dorbygnianus. Reptiles include rattlesnake Crotalus t. terrificus, Bothrops neuwiedii 
meeridionalis and the coral snake Micrurus lemnisacatus . 

ZONING: A national park zone and an intensive use zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: Two staff units plus labour force were reported in 1966; no recent information. 

BUDGET: Quoted in 1966/67 as US$ 6,000; but no up-to-date figures available. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendente, Parque Nacional El Rey, Servicio 
Nacional de Parques Nacionales, Salta, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(12) Chaco National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.21.4 (Gran Chaco). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 14 November 1954, by Law 14.366 (first measures in 1935). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park is in the Chaco province, in northern Argentina; 26°50'S, 

59°40'W. 

ALTITUDE: Not more than 200-300m. 

AREA: 15,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government-owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A plateau area with extensive savannas, humid forests and marshlands. There 
are areas of scenic interest with palm forests, and two lakes. Humid subtropical climate, with mean annual 
temperature of 22°C and with a mean annual precipitation of 400mm. 

VEGETATION: Humid eastern 'chaqueno' type, with lush vegetation, and including areas of palms and 
of prairies. Principal species include the quebracho Colorado Schinopsis balansae, mezquite species 
Prosopis alba, P. nigra and P. kuntzei. Caesalpinia melanocarpa. Copernica alba. Ruprechtia polystachya, 
Patagonia americana, Gleditsia amorphoides. Pisonia zapallo, Ziziphus mistol, Cereus spp., prickly pear 
Opuntia spp. and the epiphytic Spanish moss Tillandisa sp. 



20 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Except for insects, animal life is generally poor due to past human 
interference. However, the mammals recorded do include the maned wolf Chrysocyon brahcyurus (V). 
Also found are the mouse opossum Marmosa agilis. skunk Conepatus suffocans. Azara's fox Dusicyon 
gymnocerciis , Geoffroy's tiger cat Felis geoffroyi (V), tapir Tapiriis terrestris and brocket deer Mazama 
simplicornis and M. rufa. Birds include greater rhea Rhea americana, spotted nothura Nothura maculosa, 
undulated tinamou Crypturellus undulatus. jabiru stork Jabiru mycteria, southern screamer Chauna 
torquata. dusky-legged guan Penelope obscura and Chaco chachalaca Ortalis canicollis. 

ZONING: Not clearly defined, but includes a national park zone and an intensive use zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None currently reported, but illegal hunting has been reported 
in the past. The park was established to protect the "red quebracho" Schinopsis balansae which was 
exploited for extraction of tannin. This area is now being reclaimed. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: No recent information, but two units were reported in c. 1966, supplemented by occasional 
visits of inspection by staff from other parks. 

BUDGET: Quoted as US$ 2,500 in 1966/67; no up-to-date figures available. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendente, Parque Nacional Chaco, Servicio 
Nacional de Parques Nacionales, Provincia de Chaco, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(13) Lago Puelo National Park and Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IV (National Park & Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.10.2/8.37.12 (Valdivian Forest/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 16 February 1946 by Decree 4.822, and with modification 11 November 1971 by 
Law 19.292. First created in 1937 as an annexe of the Los Alerces National Park 40km to the south. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northwest sector of the province of Chubut , near El Solson and on the 

border with Chile; 42°10'S. 7r40"W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-3100m. 

AREA: National Park: 14,100 ha. National Reserve: 9,600 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Rugged mountain country, with sharp summits, glaciers, lakes and forests. 
Puelo River crosses the Andes and the lake eventually flows into the Pacific. Puelo Lake occupies one sixth 
of the total area. 

VEGETATION: Mixed humid forests of several species of Nothofagus with alerce Fitzroya 
cupressoides. Chile cedar Auslrocedrus chilemis. avellano Eugenia spp. . urmo Eucryphia cordifolia. tique 
Aetoxicum punctatum and deu Coriaha ruscifolia. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mammals include Southern Andean huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus (E), 
pudu Pudu pudu. culpeo fox Dusicyon culpaeus and coypu My ocas tor corpus. Among the birds are 
black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax. bicolored hawk Accipiter bicolor. chimango Milvago 
chimango. southern lapwing Vanellus chilensis and black-necked swan Cygnus melancoriphus . 



ARGENTINA 21 

ZONING: National Park and National Reserve. The Reserve is subdivided into two zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Slow recovery from old fire effects, which devastated large 
forested areas included today within both zones. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Flora inventory. Vertebrate inventory. Meteorological observations. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: 2 rangers. 

BUDGET: US$ 146,622 in 198L 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Parque Nacional Lago Puelo, Provincia del 
Chubut (under the Superintendent of Los Alerces National Park). 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(14) Lihuel Calel National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.25.7 (Monte). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 31 May 1977 by Decree 609. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the south of La Pampa province; 38°00'S, 65°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 600-750m. 

AREA: 9,900 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Plains, with the low hill range of Lihue Calel which are of volcanic rocks of 
Precambrian origin. Slopes are gentle to the north, more abrupt to the south. 

VEGETATION: Open low 'monte' scrub, the dominant species being jarilla or creosote bush Larrea 
divaricata, chanar Geoffroea decorticans, piquillin Condalia microphylla, una de gato Cercidium auslralis 
and a few calden Prosopis caldenia. Three species endemic to the sierra are cactus traicionero Opuntia 
peulcheana, Gaillardia cabrerae and Adesmia lihuelensis. The flora is more developed and richer than on 
the surrounding plains. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Jaguarundi Felis yagoaroundi (I), pampas cat Felis colocolo, skunk 
Conepatus chinga, viscacha Lagostomus maximus and cavia Micorcavia australis. Among the birds are 
turkey vulture Cathartes aura, martineta, crested tinamou Eudromia elegans, aplomado falcon Falco 
femoralis, burrowing parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus and campo flicker Colaptes campestris. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Cattle and goat used to graze on the hills. Wild boar Sus scrofa 

is the most important exotic species. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Flora inventory. Meteorological observations. The area is also of 
archaeological, ethnological and historical interest. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: A ranger-in-charge and a labourer. 



22 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

BUDGET: US$ 131,860 in 1981 (salaries not included). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Parque Nacional Lihuel Calel-Lihue Calel, La 
Pampa, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 
INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(15) El Palmar National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I & II (Strict Nature Reseve & National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.32.11 (Argentinian Pampas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 28 January 1966 by Law 16.802. Also known as Palmar de Colon National Park. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Entre Rios province, eastern Argentina, on the Rio Uruguay which 
forms the border with Uruguay; 32°30'S, 58°W. 

ALTITUDE: 50- 100m. 

AREA: Park: 8,500 ha. Reserve: 5,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: No information. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Undulating landscape with rocks, sandy areas, savannas and several rivers. 
There is a palm forest which is 200-800 years old. Archaeological remains include Indian tombs, pottery 
and bones. The climate is temperate subtropical, with a mean annual temperature of 18.6°C, and annual 
precipitation of 1181mm. 

VEGETATION: There are extensive stands of palm Butia yatay which the reserve was created to 
protect. The flora is typical of that of the subtropical Misiones region, with gallery forests along the rivers 
which are rich in epiphytes, aquatic vegetation in the 'Bajos' and areas of xerophytic vegetation. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The mammals include La Plata otter Lutra platensis (V), capybara 
Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and coypu Myocaster coy pus bonariensis , but none of these is as abundant as 
the viscacha Lagosiomus maximus which is particularly common in this park. Among numerous birds are 
the greater rhea Rhea americana albescens, pinnated bittern Botaurus pinnatus. wood stork Mycteria 
americana. maguari stork Euxenura maguari, buzzard eagle Geranaetus melanoteucus , savanna hawk 
Heterospizias meridionalis . vermilion flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus rubinus, mocking bird Mimus 
saturninus modulator, solitary black cacique Cacicus solitarius, long-tailed meadow lark Sturnella loyca, 
red-breasted cardinal Paroaria coronatus and hooded siskin Spinas magellanicus . Correa Luna (1977) also 
recorded jaguar Panthera onca (V). 

ZONING: Not clearly defined. They comprise a national park and a national reserve but not in the same 
way as in other Argentine parks where they form clearly demarcated zones. There are also intensive use 
zones. 

TOURISM: An administrative centre, camp sites and sport-fishing are available. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Grazing by cattle has caused problems for palm regeneration in 
the past, and much of the area is affected by overgrazing. Under protection natural recovery is gradual. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: In 1972, soon after responsibility for the park had been taken over by the National Parks 
Department and it was still being organized, the personnel comprised a superintendent, three guards and 
auxiliary staff. 



ARGENTINA 23 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendencia, Parque y Reserva Nacional El 
Palmar, Servicio Nacional de Parques Naciones, Provincia da Entre Rios, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNFFA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(16) Laguna Blanca National Park and National Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IV (National Park and Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 31 May 1940, by Law 13.895 and Decree 63.691. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Neuquen province, west central Argentina; 39°03'S, 70°20'W. 

ALTITUDE: 1275-1725m. 

AREA: National park: 8,250 ha. National reserve: 3 000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Mainly government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Typical treeless Patagonian steppe with crystalhne rocks: granites, diorites, 
basalts, porphyrys and metamorphics. Some sedimentary rocks with fossils of the genera Ostrea and 
Trigonia. The park and reserve surround the Laguna Blanca at 1,267m, which is surrounded by some 
forest. The cUmate is dry, with no more than 200mm of rain a year, and the whole area is subject to strong 
winds from the west. 

VEGETATION: Primarily xerophytic vegetation with grasses and dwarf shrubs. Species found within 
the park include Mulinum spinosum, Chuquiranga argentea, C. aurea, Nassauvia glomerulosa, N. 
axillaris, Doniophyton patagonicum, Collignaja integerrima, Lycium ameghioni, Prosopis patagonica, 
Schinus polygamus var. patagonicus , and grasses of the genera Stipa, Poa, and Festuca. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: This area is of particular interest for its avifauna, and was in fact established 
to protect the black-necked swan Cygnus melanocoryphus which is found here in great abundance. Other 
anatids found on the lake include the upland goose Chloephagapicta, shoveler Anasplatalea, crested duck 
Lophonetta specularoides, spectacled duck A. specularis, yellow-billed pintail A. georgica, rosy-billed 
pochard Netla peposaca, flying steamer duck Tachyeres patachonicus and blue-billed duck Oxyura 
australis. Other waterbirds include the grebes Podiceps rolland chilensis, P. major, P. occipitalis, and 
Podylimbus podiceps antarclicus, and the Andean flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis, while the 
wading birds include the two-banded plover Charadrius falklandicus , and the least seedsnipe Thinocorus 
rumicivorus . The area also has lesser rhea Pterocnemia pennata, black-crowned night heron Nyciicorax 
nycticorax obscurus, parasitic jaeger Stercorarius parasticius, and two species of gull, Larus maculipennis 
and L. dominicanus . Mammals include the mouse opossum Marmosa pallidior and the skunk Conepatus 
suffocans enuchus. 

ZONING: A national park zone and a national reserve zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There is a public road through the park along the lake shore. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Mainly on limnology, geology, vegetation, fauna and genetic studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la 
Nacion (1968). Anales de Parques Nacionales ll(2a) (99-303) 104pp. Administracion Nacional de 
Parques Nacionales, Buenos Aires. 

STAFF: 1 unit only in 1966; no further information. 



24 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

BUDGET: US$ 2200 in 1966/67; no recent figures. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendente, Parque Nacional Laguna Blanca, 
Servicio Nacional de Parques Nacionales, Provincia de Nequen, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1975. 



(17) Los Arrayanes National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.10.2/8.37.12 (Valdivian Forest/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 October 1971 by Law 19.292. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southwestern sector of the province of Neuquen; 40°47'-52' L, 
71°36'-40'W. 

ALTITUDE: 720-820m. 

AREA: 1,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Located on the Quetrihue Peninsula, Nahuel Huapi Lake. Fairly flat relief, 
with small elevations. Temperate-cold climate. Precipitation 1,300mm. 

VEGETATION: A practically pure community of arrayan Myrceugenella apiculata, which creates a 
spectacular forest because of the shape and reddish colour of the bark. Some individuals are over 300 years 
old. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Scarce. The species are the same found in the surrounding Nahuel Huapi 
National Park. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Excessive soil compaction by trampling of so many visitors 
affects germination and establishment of seedlings. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Flora inventory. Vertebrate inventory. Meteorological observations. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Direccion General de Parques Nacionales (1972). Parque 
Nacional Nahuel Huapi. Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Nacion, Sante Fe 690, 
Buenos Aires, 20pp. 

STAFF: A ranger. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Administered by the Superintendent of Nahuel 
Huapi National Park. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981 



ARGENTINA 25 

(1) Formosa Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.21.4 (Gran ChacoJ. 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1968, by Law 17.916. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northwest section of Formosa province on its southwestern border 
with Chaco province; 24°10'S, 62°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: 50-70m. 

AREA: 10,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Flat land, often flooded, with many lagoons, gullies and streams. The reserve 
is bounded to one side by the Teuco River, and to the other by the Teuquito River. Climate is semi-arid to 
subhumid in a neotropical-subtropical environment, with an annual average temperature of 22°C and 
annual average precipitation of 600mm. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical xerophytic forests, dominated by Schinopsis quebracho-colarado , 
Aspidosperma quebracho-bianco, Prosopis alba, algarrobis P. nigra, palo bianco Bulnesia sarmientoi, 
guayacan Caesalpinia paraguariensis and Acacia spp. There is also a good shrub layer, and a number of 
grassland clearings. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The noteworthy mammals include the maned wolf Chrysocvon brachyurus 
(V), giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), bush rabbit 
Pediolagus salinicola, viscacha Lagostomus maximus, skunk Conepatus chinga and the hairy armadillo 
Chaetophractus vellerosus. Birds include the cocoi heron Ardea cocci, plumbeous ibis Harpiprion 
caerulescens, jabiru stork Jabiru mycteria and muscovy duck Cairina moschata. Correa Luna (1977) also 
records maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (V) and the giant Brazilian otter Pteronura braziliensis(V), 
though the latter at least seems unlikely still to be found in the area (Thornback and Jenkins, 1982).' 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some settlers who were there before the creation of the 
reserve. Lumbering, overgrazing, burning and poaching. The objective of establishing the reserve was 
recovery of the fauna, and protection of plant cover. This park has previously been reported as being in a 
very bad state (Schaller and Tarak, 1976). 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Evaluation of bird populations in the forest understorey. Flora inventory. 
Meteorological observations. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Schaller, G.B. and A. Tarak. (1976). The Maned Wolf in 
Argentina. Part 1 of a report on a wildhfe survey in Northern Argentina and in the Emas National Park, 
Brazil. Unpublished Report. 
See also general reference list 

STAFF: 2 rangers, 2 administrative staff and 2 labourers. 

BUDGET: US$ 32,560 in 1981 (salaries not included). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Administered by the Superintendent of the 
Parque Nacional El Rey. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Jorge Morello. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981 



26 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Laguna de Pozuelos National Monument 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the northwest of Jujuy province; 22°15'-27'S, 65°56'- 66°03'W. 

ALTITUDE: 3, 500-3, 600m. 

AREA: 28,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Still privately owned, but due to be expropriated. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A salt water lagoon which occupies a depression between the Sierras de 
Cochinoca and Rinconada. Soil around the lagoon is coarse. Climatic conditions are severe, aridity being 
high, and winds are strong and almost constant. Thermal amplitude is very great during the day. 

VEGETATION: Open, low scrub, with a high percentage of barren ground. The main shrubs are tola 
Parastrephis lepidophylla, P. phylicaeformis , Fabiana densa and Adesmia spp. There are abundant forms 
of cushion plants , the most striking and hardiest of all being yareta Azorella compacta . Tough grasses like 
Stipa spp. and Festuca spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Vicuna Vicugna vicugna (V) is seen around the lagoon, but the main reason 
for the creation of the park is the protection of many bird species, especially waterfowl. There are some 
endemic species. Birds include greater flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber, Andean flamingo Phoenicoparrus 
andinus, puna flamingo P. jamesi, horned coot Fulica cornuta (R), giant coot F. gigantea, Andean goose 
Chloephaga melanoptera and Andean avocet Recurvirostra andina. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Grazing and browsing around the lagoon has been severe, and 
the vegetation shows symptoms of deterioration. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No information. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Administered by the Superintendent of the 
Parque Nacional El Rey. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(2) Petrified Forest National Monument 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.26.8 (Patagonian). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total 



ARGENTINA 27 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 5 May 1954, by Decree 7252. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Santa Cruz Province in Patagonia, southern Argentina; 47°45'S, 
68°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: Up to 400m. 

AREA: 10,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government-owned land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Patagonian steppe, semi-arid area with petrified forest of pre-Andean age 
(possibly 140 million years old). The trees are a species of araucaria (Araucaria mirabilis) and are in part 
still standing due to petrification by volcanic ash. Some trees measure more than 100m in length and 3.5m 
in diameter. The forest is of particular interest because it provides evidence that the humidity of this area 
was much higher before the formation of the Andes chain. 

VEGETATION: Typical xerophytic steppe vegetation, with stunted and spiny shrubs, and including 
Caesalpinia gilliesi, Berberis cuneata. Anthrophyllum rigidum, Chiliotrichium anelloides, Mulinum 
spinosum, Arantholippia seriphioi and Fragaria chiloensis. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The presence of guanaco Lama guanicoe and of the lesser rhea Pterocenmia 
pennata has been recorded, as have the pichis Zaedyus pichiy, and two foxes, the culpeo fox Dusicyon 
culpaeus and the Argentine grey fox D. griseus (Correa Luna, 1977). 

ZONING: Presumably inapplicable. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. The area is uninhabited and there is no tourist 
accommodation, although an administrative and visitors' information centre has been estabhshed. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: An officer-in-charge was appointed some years ago and he ran the visitors' centre. No recent 
information has been provided. 

BUDGET: Quoted as US$ 15,000 in 1966/67; up-to-date figures not available. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendente, Monumento Natural de Los Bosques 
Petrificados, Servicio Nacional de Parques Nacionales, Provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(1) Right Whale Wildlife Sanctuary, Gulf of San Jose 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.25.7 (Monte). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Decree of the Chubut Provincial Legislature. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 5 December 1974. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the Gulf of San Jose, Chubut province on the Patagonian coast; 
42°10'S, 64°46'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level. 

AREA: Not available, but certainly over 50,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: State owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The reserve incorporates the waters of Golfo San Jose and a 100m strip of land 



28 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

surrounding the gulf. The gulf is almost cut off from the sea by an arm of the Valdes Peninsula. 
VEGETATION: The park is in a region of thorn scrub. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The reserve protects the breeding, calving and mating areas of the right 
whale Balaena glacialis as well as the orca or killer whale Orcinus orca, elephant seals and other marine 
mammals and birds in the area. The breeding season for right whales is from September to April. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The current management does not include adequate 
regulations for effective control. Tourism and boating activities are allowed and are a noted source of 
concern for management. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: lUCN (1977). Proceedings of the Workshop on Cetacean 
Sanctuaries held at Tijuana and Guerrero Negro B.C. Mexico, February 1979, under the auspices of 
lUCN, UNEP and WWF (Project No. 1405). 

Other project reports for lUCN/WWF Project 1405. 

STAFF: No information. 
BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Government of Chubut Province, Casa de la 

Gobernacion, Av. da Fontaine 50, Rawson, Chubut, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti 
INFORMATION DATED: 1979. 



(1) San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.37.12 (Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Decree 2,164 of 22 June 1972, Decree 1,302 of 13 April 1973, Decree 3,376 of 
1976, all from the Province of San Juan. Established as a Biosphere Reserve in 1980. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The northwest sector of the San Juan province, western central 
Argentina, on the Cordillera de San Guillermo; 29°30'S, 69°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: l,000-6,000m. 

AREA: 981,000 ha, with a core zone of 42,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by the province. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: An arid range of mountain ridges and valleys close to the main chain of the 
Andes. There are no permanent surface watercourses. Soils are coarse. The climate is temperate in the 
foothills and very cold at higher elevations, with snowfalls. It is also very windy. 

VEGETATION: Open canopy of short and cushion shrubs, leaving a great proportion of exposed 
ground. Coarse grasses are present. Among the shrubs are species o{ Adesmia. Patrastrephia, Fabianu, 
Azorella and Ephedra. Among the herbaceous vegetation, species of Astragalus, Tropoelum, 
Glandularia. Phacelia. Siipa, Festuca and Deyeuxia. In the best conditions of soil and humidity, grassy 
steppes can be found, especially above 3,500m. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Protection of the vicuna Vicugna vicugna (V) is the main reason for the 



ARGENTINA 29 

creation of this reserve. Its isolation and the shortage of water has prevented hunters from getting into the 
area too often, so many vicuna herds can be found. Guanaco Lama guanicoe is also present in sizeable 
herds. Condor Vultur gryphus and other birds of prey, lesser rhea Pterocnemia pennata, and wild geese 
and ducks (Anatidae) can be seen. Foxes, various rodents (including Lagidium viscaia and Chinchilla 
brevicaudata) and mountain lion Felis concolor are also present in the reserve. 

ZONING: The core zone of 42,000 ha is strictly protected, while the remaining area corresponds to the 
manipulative and buffer zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Until recently some hunting took place in the southeastern 
portion of the reserve. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Global survey at a scale of 1 :250,000, with maps. Ecological survey of a pilot 
area, at a scale of 1:50,000. Studies on niche and behaviour of camelids. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Buildings for lodgings and research are being constructed. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Various reports and projects on the area. 

STAFF: An administrator, 2 technicians, 8 rangers, and a driver. 5 scientists cooperate, but on a 
temporary basis. 

BUDGET: Unknown. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jointly run by the Secretaria de Agricultura y 
Ganaderia de San Juan, the Subsecretaria de Recrusos Naturales Renovables y Ecologia Nacional, and 
the Subsecretaria y Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental Nacional. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ricardo Luti. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(1) Laguna Blanca Provincial Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 16 March 1979, by Decree E-No. 475. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Department of Belen, Catamarca province; 26°30'-27°00'S, 
66°30'-67°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 3, 200-5 ,500m. 

AREA: 770,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Only 70 ha are owned by the government, and a high altitude experiment station and 
Rangers" Headquarters are being built there. The rest of the area is privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A high plateau of the 'Puna' region, with a salty lagoon in the main 
depression. It is completely surrounded by mountain ranges. There are permanent streams, most of them 
freshwater, coming from the melting of ice and snow on the higher peaks. The climate is cold, arid and 
windy, with great daily variation in temperature. 

VEGETATION: Very open short shrub communities. Species of Adesmia. Fabiana, Farastrephia, 
Tetraglochyn and Neospartum, and tough grasses such as Festuca, Siipa. Deyeuxia and Sporobolus. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Vicuna Vicugna vicugna (V) in many herds totalling some 900 animals. 
Foxes, chinchillones and other rodents, mountain lion Felis concolor, Rhea sp., Andean condors Vultur 
gryphus and other vultures (Cathartidae), other birds of prey, flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) and ducks 
(Anatidae) are present. 



30 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ZONING: Zoning will soon be implemented, based on vegetation patterns and composition. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: A deal with the settlers who own the land is under way. An 
agreement to stop hunting and chasing vicunas was made over a year ago and the vicunas are a little more 
tame now. Sheep, cattle and llamas graze and browse heavily, and there are hundreds of semi-wild 
donkeys. Management techniques are being introduced in order to make the different uses compatible. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Plant and wildlife inventory. Behaviour of vicuna. Zonification and state of 
vegetation for management planning. Meteorological observations. Soil studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A section of the building now under construction will provide 
limited facilities soon. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Reports and projects on the area. Personal communications. 
Direct observations. 

STAFF: A technician in charge, 2 assistants and 6 workers. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion de Ganaderia de la Provincia de 

Catamarca, 4700 Catamarca, Argentina. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 
INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



BAHAMAS 31 



BAHAMAS 



AREA: 11,406 sq km. 

POPULATION: 225,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Bahamas National Trust Act 1959/1965. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Parks and Reserves are run under the auspices of the 
Bahamas National Trust. 

ADDRESS: Bahamas National Trust, PO Box N4105, Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas. 
TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 121,910 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Inagua 74,333 

2 Exuma Cays 45,584 

3 Peterson Cay* 1.62 

Managed Nature Reserves 

1 Union Creek 1,183 

2 Conception Island 810 

* This area is not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



32 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Inagua National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.38.13 (Bahaman-Bermudan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total, under the National Trust Act. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: April 1965. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Inagua Island; 20°55'-2ri5'N, 73°37'-73°10"W. 

ALTITUDE: -Im to 28m. 

AREA: 74,333 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Leased from Crown until 2062. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Primarily saline marsh and seasonally flooded salinas. A few small hills with 
stunted xerophytic coppice. Coral reefs and mangroves to the northwest. 

VEGETATION: Mainly buttonwood Conocarpus erectus and black mangrove Avicennia germinans in 
flooded areas. Higher ground has mixed broadleaf coppice, Inagua oak Biiceda buceras, poisonwood 
Metopiiim toxiferum. lignum vitae Guiacum sanctum and gumbo limbo Bursera simaruba. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are about 40,000 flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber, 50 pairs of 
spoonbills Platalea ajaja, 200 pairs of reddish-egrets Dichromanassa rufescens and approximately 500 
pairs of parrots Amazona leucochala bahamensis. Chrysemis malonei is an endemic turtle. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some illegal poaching of flamingos and other bird species by 
locals, but this is mostly controlled by the wardens. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ongoing and long-term research into the biology and ecology of the West 
Indian flamingo by Alexander Sprunt IV, Research Director of the National Audubon Society. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: One or two four-wheel drive vehicles; the Arthur Vernay Camp, 
which houses six. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Allen, R. P., Monograph on Flamingos, National Audubon 
Society, New York. 

Campbell, David G. (1979). The Ephemeral Islands, Macmillan, London. 

Klingel. The Ocean Isle, also titled in new editions, Inagua. 

STAFF: Two Bahamas National Trust Wardens, Sam and Jim Nixon, who are residents of 
Mathewtown, Inagua. 

BUDGET: About $25,000 per year. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Administered by the Bahamas National Trust, 
PO Box N4105, Nassau, Bahamas. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney/David G. Campbell 

INFORMATION DATED: 28 June 1979. 



(2) Exuma Cays Land-and-Sea Park 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.38.13 (Bahaman-Bermudan). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total, under the National Trust Act. 



BAHAMAS 33 

DATE ESTABLISHED: July 1958. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Those Exuma Cays between Shroud Cay (in the north) to Bell Island 
(in the south); 24°34'-27'N, 76°33'-45"W. 

ALTITUDE: Below sea level to several tens of metres above sea level. 

AREA: 45,584 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 99 year Crown Lease, with the exceptions of Bell Island, Little Bell Cay, Cistern Cay 
and Hall's Pond Cay, which are privately owned or leased. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Aeolian islands of Pleistocene origin; shallow calcium carbonate banks and 
extensive coral reefs. 

VEGETATION: Mangrove communities. The eastern sides of the cays are characterized by low canopy 
scrub dominated by Bumelia, Coccolobis spp. and RachicalUs; the western (leeward) sides of the islands 
have single canopied (5m) forest, dominated by Thrinax, Sabal and Bursera, high densities of epiphytic 
orchids such as Epidendrum spp. and bromeliads such as Tillandsia spp. and typical North Bahamas strand 
communities characterized by Uniola, Strumfia and Scaveola. Sargent's palm Pseudophoenix sargentii is 
noteworthy. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The threatened Allen's Cay rock iguana Cyclura cyclura inornata is found 
close to, but not actually within, the park. There are numerous fish and coelenterates, as well as coral 
reefs. The rare Bahamian hutia Geocapromys ingrahami was introduced into the park in 1973, and there 
were reported sightings in 1978. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Illegal hunting of iguanas by yachtsmen; illegal commercial 
fishing activities, including the use of chlorine bleach in spearfishing, a practice which disrupts the entire 
reef biota. Probable coral reef damage due to diving. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Report of the Exuma Cays Park Project (revised edition of 
1961) ed. by Carleton Ray, available from the Bahamas National Trust, 39pp. 

STAFF: Honorary Wardens, based in Nassau. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Administered by the Bahamas National Trust, 
PO Box N4105, Nassau, Bahamas. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney/David G. Campbell. 

INFORMATION DATED: 28 June 1979. 



(3) Peterson Cay Land-and-Sea Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.38.13 (Bahaman-Bermudan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Unknown. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: An offshore cay several miles east of Freeport/Lucaya, Grand 
Bahama Island. 

ALTITUDE: Below sea level to less than 5m above sea level. 



34 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

AREA: 1.62 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Crown Lease. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A low-lying aeolian cay of Pleistocene origin, with coral reefs. 

VEGETATION: Entirely strand vegetation. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: None. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Tourist Scuba divers and yachtsmen. There is no effective 
enforcement of by-laws. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Contact Underwater Explorers Society, Freeport, Grand 
Bahama Island. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Bahamas National Trust, PO Box N4105, Nassau, 
Bahamas. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 28 June 1979. 



(1) Union Creek 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.38.13 (Bahaman-Bermudan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Presumably under the National Trust Act. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: April 1965. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northwest Inagua Island; 2r7'-9'N, 73°32'-37"W. 

ALTITUDE: Around sea level. 

AREA: 1,813 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Crown Lease, expires 2062. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A mangrove-fringed extension of the ocean, walled off from the sea by 
cyclone and rock fencing. 

VEGETATION: Predominantly red mangroves Rhizophora mangle and turtle grass beds Thalassia 
tesludinum. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Captive green turtle Chelonia mydas (E) and loggerheads Caretta caretta 

(V). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Occasional poaching of sea turtles by locals and Dominican 
sailors. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: The Caribbean Conservation Corporation has supported research in green 
turtle physiology and ecology, most recently with the work of Karen Bjorndal, (PhD, University of 
Florida 1978). 



BAHAMAS 35 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: The New York Zoological Society has refurbished a crude 
house. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Consult Archie Carr, Florida University. 

STAFF: Inagua Park Wardens Sam and Jim Nixon oversee Union Creek. 

BUDGET: Partly derived from the Inagua Park budget; CCC has offered some warden support when a 
researcher is on the premises and to maintain the fence and wall. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Bahamas National Trust, PO Box N4105, Nassau, 
Bahamas. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR : Allen D. Putney/David G. Campbell. 

INFORMATION DATED: 28 June 1979. 



(2) Conception Island 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.38.13 (Bahaman-Bermudan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. The whole island is protected. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Unknown. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located between Cat Island and Rum Cay; 23°48'-52'N, 75°5'-8'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to less than 20m. 

AREA: 810 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Short-term Crown lease, renewable. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES.: Low-lying aeolian island of Pleistocene origin. 

VEGETATION: Extensive mangrove environments; strand vegetation. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Conception Island may be one of the major green turtle Chelonia mydas (E) 
nesting areas in the Bahamas. It is also an important stop for migrating birds. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Few, if any. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Bahamas National Trust, PO Box N4105, Nassau, 

Bahamas. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney/David G. Campbell. 

INFORMATION DATED: 28 June 1979. 



36 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



BARBADOS 



AREA: 430 sq km. 

POPULATION: 252,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The Marine Areas (Preservation and Enhancement) Act of 
1 March 1976, and presumably also the Barbados National Trust Act. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Parks and Beaches Commission, established 
under the Parks and Beaches Commission Act of 31 March 1970. The Commission is also responsible for a 
number of parks and beaches which do not meet the normal requirements of national park or protected 
area. 

ADDRESS: Parks and Beaches Commission, Government Headquarters, Bridgetown, Barbados, West 
Indies. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 250 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

Marine Park (hectares) 

1 Northeast Coast (proposed) 5,000 

Marine Reserve 

1 Barbados 250 



BARBADOS 37 

(1) Barbados Marine Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 November 1980. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: West coast of Barbados, between Sandy Bay and Heron Bay, 
extending 1km offshore; 13°10'N, 59°40'W. 

ALTITUDE: -50 to Om. 

AREA: 250 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area is dominated by two nearshore fringing reefs isolated by sandy bays 
on either side, a bar reef 600m offshore, and a recently sunken freighter lying in 120' of water about half a 
mile offshore. The shore is characterized by sandy beaches. The terrestrial section is primarily a park area 
with beach and picnic facilities. 

VEGETATION: Marine vegetation consists of 10-20 species of near-shore and encrusting coralline 
algae. The beach contains coconut Cocos nucifera, almond, Caribbean cherry, mahogany Swietenia sp., 
Austrahan pine and ornamental shrubbery. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Varied population of sponges, anemones, polychaetes, sea urchins and sea 
cucumbers, 35 species of coral, 400 species of reef fish, and 3 species of marine turtles (all of which are 
threatened). 

ZONING: The MV Stauronikita, an artificial reef; the underwater park with a scientific zone; a 
recreational zone (snorkeling, diving); two watersports zones (sailing, skiing, etc.); and the marine 
museum. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Freshwater outflow from Holetown River; 100m jetty causing 
beach erosion; difficulty in enforcement of laws. High tourist pressure. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Hurricane damage assessment; population dynamics; deep water 
sediments; marine pollution surveys carried out by students at Bellairs Research Institute of McGill 
University. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Bellairs Research Institute of McGill University offers good 
laboratory and living accommodation, reference library, darkroom, scuba equipment, small boats and a 
54' research vessel. The University of the West Indies Ave Hill Campus offers facilities and the reserve has 
its own equipment and facilities but a supervisor/biologist is needed. Marine museum contains marine 
aquaria and slide shows. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: CCA (1979). Management Proposal for Buccoo Reef. 

Henry, Dr Alan. Reef fishes and corals. Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada. 

lUCN (1976). An International Conference on Marine Parks and Reserves. lUCN Publications New 
Series No. 37, lUCN, Gland. 

Ray (1975). Critical Marine Habitats. 

Numerous taxonomic references. 

STAFF: One park supervisor/marine biologist; three park naturalists; six sea rangers; two lifeguards; 
and two secretaries/receptionists. 

BUDGET: 1980-81: 170,000 BE including building renovations, carpentry and opening costs and 
salaries. ^^ 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Parks and Beaches Commission, Ministry of 
Housing, Lands and Environment. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 6 October 1981. 



38 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



BELIZE 



AREA: 22,965 sq km. 

POPULATION: 149,000 (1979). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: No national parks or equivalent reserves legislation exists at 
present. However, a UN consultant recently made a survey of the country with a view to recommending 
areas to be set aside as national parks and reserves, and legislation is expected to follow. Under the Crown 
Lands Ordinance (Chapter 110 of the Laws of Belize, Revised Edition 1958, Section 6) the Minister of 
Agriculture and Lands has the power to reserve from sale or lease parcels of land (national) for special 
purposes. Forest Reserves for the protection of national forests are created by the Minister of Trade and 
Industry, by virtue of Chapter 1 15 of the Laws of Belize, Revised Edition 1958, Section 3. Fisheries and 
marine resources protection ordinances and areas are also created by the Minister of Trade and Industry. 
Various forestry, fisheries and wildlife protection laws exist. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Responsibility for the administration of forest reserves 
rests with the Chief Forest Officer. Responsibility for the administration of marine resources rests with the 
Fisheries Administrator. The Commissioner of Lands has delegated administrative responsibility for nine 
Crown Reserves to the Belize Audubon Society. 

ADDRESS: 

(a) Commissioner of Lands, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Belmopan, Belize. 

(b) Chief Forest Officer, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Belmopan, Belize. 

(c) Fisheries Administrator, Ministry of Trade and Industry, PO Box 148, Belize City, Belize. 

(d) Belize Audubon Society, PO Box 6, Belize City, Belize. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 4169.8 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

Natural Monument (hectares) 

1 Half Moon Caye 4,144 

Crown Reserves 

1 Guanacaste Park 21.0 

2 Little Guana Caye L6 

3 Small Mangrove Caye 0.8 

4 Doubloon Bank Caye 0.8 

5 Bird Caye 0.8 

6 Man-o-War Caye 0.8 

7 Small Mangrove Caye 0.4 

8 Small Mangrove Caye 0.4 

There are also 10 Forest Reserves with a total area of 418,994 ha. 



BELIZE 39 

(1) Half-Moon Caye Natural Monument 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHIC AL PROVINCE: 8.1.1 (Campechean) . 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: The island was established as a Crown Reserve Bird Sanctuary in 1928 and 
1978, by government decree; declared officially as a Natural Monument with a much larger area in 
February 1982. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The southeastern part of Lighthouse Reef (one of only three or four 
true coral atolls in the Caribbean/Atlantic); 17°13'N, 87°3rw. 

ALTITUDE: From below sea level to 1.5m. 

AREA: 4,144 ha. 

LAND TENURE: All national land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A small coral sand caye with accumulations of coral rock rubble, less than 40 
acres in size. There is a government lighthouse on the eastern end. Offshore are some beautiful, very high 
quality coral barrier reefs, with a sea wall and shallow coral gardens, and there are also areas of sand flats. 

VEGETATION: There are coconut palms Cocos nucifera along the beach and near the lighthouse on the 
eastern end. The principal tree utilized as a nest support for the red-footed boobies is Cordia sebestena, 
but Bursera simaruba and Bumelia retusa are also employed. The western end of the caye is dominated by 
those trees and shrubs. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The white phase of the red-footed booby Sula sula have nested here in 
thousands for over a hundred years (the current estimate is of 3,000-3,500 individuals). Magnificent 
frigatebirds Fregata magnificens also nest in good numbers. The nearby reefs and subtidal and intertidal 
zones are very rich in marine species. Green turtles Chelonia mydos (E) also nest on the beaches of the 
Caye. 

ZONING: None per se; however the booby colony itself has a trail leading to it and a small observation 
platform which visitors are supposed to use. A management plan is being prepared (1981). 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Raiding of the nesting colony for young birds and eggs by local 
fishermen. Uncontrolled selective collection of aquarium fish and ornamental molluscs from reef. 
Inadequately managed artesanal fisheries (conch and spiny lobster). Uncontrolled foreign-capital tourism 
threatening reefs and boobies was eliminated in 1979. The lighthouse area is not a problem. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None per se\ however an extensive ecological research (marine) 
programme is underway on Carrie Bow Caye by the Smithsonian Institution (1975-present). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None , but scientists could share the lighthouse keepers' quarters 
for short periods. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Ruetzler, K. (1975, 1976, 1977, 1978). Progress Reports: 
investigations of marine shallow water ecosystems: coral reef project, Carrie Bow Caye, Belize. 
Smithsonian Inst., Washington DC, Belize Audubon Society. 
1978, 1979, personal communications. 

STAFF: Three lighthouse keepers are acting as wardens for both land and marine areas, under new 
government decrees. 

BUDGET: Approximately US$ 20,000 for 1979-82, US$ 14,000 from WWF and other organisations and 
the remainder from the Government of Belize. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Fisheries Dept. and Belize Audubon Society, 
Belize City, Belize. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981 (with additions 24 February 1982). 



40 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Guanacaste Park (Bird Sanctuary) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.1.1 (Campechean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: None yet. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 15 September 1975 by Government Decree. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Central Belize; 17°15'N, 88°44'W. 

ALTITUDE: Approximately 50m. 

AREA: 21 ha. 

LAND TENURE: On a conditional free grant to the Belize Audubon Society (to be kept solely as a bird 
sanctuary). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Located at the confluence of the Belize River and its tributary Roaring Creek 
and bounded on the south by the Western Highway. Alluvial soils and limestone, with rainfall about 
2, 500-3, 000mm per year. 

VEGETATION: The main feature is a huge Enterolobium cyclocarpum which is very old and which 
escaped being made into a dugout canoe by the fact that it split and formed two trunks. This tree supports 
more than 35 different species of aerial plants, including a dozen species of orchids, several species of 
ferns, bromeliads, cacti and aroids. Other flora include Syngonium sp., Heliconia sp., Cecropia sp., 
Axnopus sp., Cedrela mexicana, Acrocomia mexicana, Colocarpum mammosum, Orbignya cohune, 
Ceiba pentandra. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Birds include the blue-gray, golden-masked, gray-headed, scarlet-rumped 
and crimson-collared tanagers {Thraupis episcopus, Tangara larvata, Eucometis penicillata. Ramphocelus 
passerinii. R. sanguinolenta) , several species of orioles (Icteridae) and hummingbirds (Trochilidae), 
black-faced ant thrush, green jay Cyanocorax yncas, lineated, golden-fronted, black-cheeked, 
smokey-brown and golden-olive woodpeckers (Dryocopus linealus, Melanerpes aurifrons. M. pucherani, 
Venilicornis fumigatiis . Piculus rubiginosus) and lesser swallow-tailed swift Panyptila cayennensis 
(nesting). Also present are iguanas and many species of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera). 

ZONING: None yet applied; the sanctuary has been fenced completely and has a nature trail, principally 

for bird-watching. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The area was partially disturbed in the distant past by selective 
logging, but is now fully protected. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Belize Audubon Society (1978-79). Personal communica- 
tion. 

STAFF: None; Belize Audubon Society members visit frequently to maintain area. 

BUDGET: A few hundred dollars per year for basic maintenance. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Belize Audubon Society. PO Box 6, Belize City, 
Belize. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



BELIZE 41 

Crown Reserves 

Little Guana Caye L6ha 

Small Mangrove Caye 0. 8 ha 

Doubloon Bank Caye 0.8 ha 

Bird Caye 0.8 ha 

Man-o- War Caye 0.8 ha 

Small Mangrove Caye 0.4 ha 

Small Mangrove Caye 0.4 ha 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildhfe Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.1.1 (Campechean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 6 September 1977, by Government Decree. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Coastal Belize. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 2m at the most. 

AREA: See above. 

LAND TENURE: All comprise national land managed by the Belize Audubon Society as Bird 
Sanctuaries (management responsibility having been vested in the Society by Government Decree). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: All are small mangrove islands, three in island lagoons, and one (Little Guana 
Caye) with a coral sand beach. Man-o- War Caye is on a patch reef. 

VEGETATION: Mostly red mangrove Rhizophora mangle, though Avicennia nitida and Laguncularia 
racemosa are also found, as are coconut trees Cocos nudfera. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: All the sanctuaries are nesting and roosting sites for wading birds, though the 
species vary. The roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja nests on the small unnamed reserve in northern Belize, 
but unfortunately has moved away from several of the others because of disturbance by hunters in the 
park. Doubloon Bank Caye is primarily a nesting site for storks Mycteria americana, but other birds are 
found including great egrets Egretta alba (which also nest on the unnamed Mangrove Caye), neotropical 
cormorants Phalacrocorax olivaceous, boat-billed heron Cochlearius cochlearius. anhinga Anghinga 
anghinga and cattle egret Bubulcus ibis. Bird Caye has all these species, and the white ibis Eudocimus 
albus. Little Guana Caye is the only place in the country where white ibis Eudocimus albus, reddish egret 
Dichromanassa rufescens and tri-coloured heron Hydranassa tricolor nest together, and the largest colony 
of reddish egrets in the Caribbean. The Man-o-war Caye is rather different, having nesting sites for brown 
booby Sula leucogaster (the only site in Belize), white-crowned pigeons Columba leucocephala and 
magnificent frigatebirds Fregata magnificens . 

ZONING: Each of the sites is managed as a bird sanctuary, but there is no internal zoning. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Occasional illegal hunting for birds' feathers and/or eggs. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None per se; the Belize Audubon Society does at least once-yearly 
inspections of the area, sometimes including bird counts. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Belize Audubon Society (1979). Personal communication to 
C. MacFarland. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: None 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Belize Audubon Society, PC Box 6, Belize City, 
Belize. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



42 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



BERMUDA (UK) 



AREA: 55 sq km. 
POPULATION: 57,000 (1978). 



We have no information on the current situation in Bermuda. Ray and 
McCormick in their Critical Marine Habitats Survey (lUCN/WWF Project 
1037) mentioned two Coral Reef Preserves under Governmental control, 
with protection from fishing, collection and damage. There is a Bermuda 
National Trust Act (1969) which was amended in 1970. 



BOLIVIA 



43 



BOLIVIA 



AREA: 1,098,575 sq km. 

POPULATION: 6,456,000 (1980). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Decree Law 12301 of 14 March 1975 (Wildlife National 
Parks, Hunting and Fishing Law) deals with the establishment of national parks and other protected areas, 
as well as with the protection, management and utilisation of wildlife in general. It has been noted, 
however, that the regulations had still not come into force in 1980. In 1977 the law was such that 
regulations could be published specifically for each protected area. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The protected areas system is the responsibility of the 
National Headquarters of Wildlife, National Parks, Hunting and Fishing, in the Centre of Forest 
Development of the Ministry responsible for agriculture and other rural affairs (in La Paz) and its eight 
regional departments. National Parks and Wildlife Reserves are sites necessary for the preservation, 
protection and management of wild animal populations to ensure their conservation. Wildlife Refuges 
and Sanctuaries would appear to be more closely geared to protecting particular species, resident or 
migratory, which scientific studies have shown to be in danger of extinction. 

ADDRESS: Jefatura Nacional de Vida Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca, Centro de 
Desarrollo Forestal, Minesterio de Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios, Avenide Camacho 1312 4to. 
Piso o Casilla 8124 - La Paz - Boh via. 



REFERENCES: 

Paris. 



Jungius, H. and R. Pujol, (1970). Bohvia National Parks and Reserves. UNESCO. 



TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 4,350,783 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 



National Parks 


1 Isiboro Secure 


2 Huanchaca 


3 Bellavista 


4 Cerro Sajama 


5 Condoriri 


6 Las Barrancas* 


7 Mallasa* 


8 Cerro Comanche* 


9 Cerro Mirikiri 


10 Tunari 


Nature Reserves 


1 Manuripi Heath 


2 Eduardo Avaroa 


3 una Ulla** 


4 German Busch 


5 Lagunas del Beni y Pando 


Forest Refuge 


1 Huancaroma 


Fiscal Reserves 


1 Cerro Tapilla 


2 Lagunas Alalay y Angostura 



(hectares) 

1,233,000 

541,200 

90,000 

29,940 

14,828 

347 

74 

47 

Unknown 

Unknown 

1,884,375 

400,000 

137,800 

98,640 

Unknown 



11,000 

Unknown 
Unknown 



44 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

Biosphere Reserves 

1 UUa Ulla** (200,000) 

2 Pilon-Lajas (100,000) 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 
** There are sheets for both the Biosphere Reserve, and the National Reserve. 



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46 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Isiboro-Secure National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Para defender las cuencas hidrograficas y la integridad de los recursos 
naturales renovables y las bellezas escenicas. No hay menciones especiales a la flora y fauna. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 22 noviembre 1965 (Decreto Ley 07401). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Centro de Bolivia. Departamentos de Beni y Cochabamba; 65°09' a 
66°55'W y 15°33' a 16°48'S. 

ALTITUDE: 3 ,600 a 300 m . s . n . m . 

AREA: 1,233,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Vertientes orientales de los Andes hasta los llanos beniafios. Fisiografia muy 
compleja propia de la transicion entre la ceja de selva y los llaiios. Paisajes ondulados, laderas empinadas, 
valles profundos, fajas de savanas, areas pantaiiosas. 

VEGETATION: 1.1.1.2. Montane/submontane rain forest con pequcnas sawanas, el nivel intermedio es 
de vegetaci'on lujuriante es mas bien 1.1.1.4 Cloud Forest. El nivel inferior es muy rico en especies y se 
caracteriza por la abundancia de palmas (Iriartea). Luego viene una zona de transicion entre el bosque y la 
savana no muy conocida. En las partes masbajasse encuentra5.7.7.J. Flood savanna con aboles aislados 
tales como Tabebuia y Jacaranda. A lo largo de los n'os se presenta 1.1.1.5. Riverine forest con palmas y 
otros aboles similares a los de las partes bajas de 1.1.1.2. Aproximadamente 2/3 del area corresponden al 
bosque montano/submontano y 1/3 a las savanas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Aves Psittacidos: Ara spp., Amazona; Rhampastidos; Cracidos: Penelope 
spp., Craxfasciolata, Pauxi unicornis similar a Mitu mitu; Sarcoramphus papa; Coragyps attratus. En las 
partes bajas en rios o lagunas: Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Anhinga anhinga, Chlorocereyle amazona, 
Ceryle torquata ; Sterna superciliaris , Rynchops nigra ; Casmerodius albus egretta , Leucophoix thula , A rdea 
cocoi; Jabiru mycteria; Platalea ajaja, Cairina moschata, Neochen jubata, etc. etc. Entre los mamiferos: 
Chironectes, Marmosa; Primates como: Aotus trivirgatus, Cebus, Saimiri, Ateles paniscus (V), Alouatta 
etc. Roedores: Mesomys, Dasyprocta, Cuniculus paca, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. Myrmecophaga 
tridactyla (V); Priodontes giganteus (V), entre los mas espactaculares, asi como: Mazama spp., 
Blastocerus dichotomus (V), Ozotocerus bezoarticusa Tapirus roulini y T. terrestris, Tayassu tajacu, 
Panthera onca (V), Felis concolor. Lutra platensis (V) y Sotalia fluviatilis. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Colonos espontaneos en la parte sur cerca al rio Yusama y en el 
norte. Cazadores furtivos rentados por curtiembres. Pistas de aterrizaje dejadas por la actividad 
petrolera. El Proyecto Hidrosaurios ubicado al Nor Este de la zona con programas de captura de saurios 
para repoblacion de otras lagunas fuera del parque. Un proyecto de carretera interdepartamental lo 
atravesaria de Ueverse a cabo, sin embargo, (junio 1980) no cuenta con apoyo presupuestario. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Realizado por instituciones extranjeras tal como la Universidad de 
Wisconsin (16 ornitologos el ano 1979) y nacionales (Universidad de Cochabamba). Existe un convenio 
entre la Universidad de Cochabamba y el Centro de Desarrollo Forestal (agosto 1979) para realizar 
actividades conjuntas en el area de los recursos naturales, con fines estrictos de investigacion. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: El campamento base del Proyecto Hidrosaurios ubicado en la 
Laguna Bolivia (N.E. del Parque Nacional). 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 

STAFF: 1 Jefe del Parque Nacional. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Sr. Hans Hoffman, Jefe del Parque Nacional 
Isiboro-Secure - Villa Tunari - Cochabamba. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M Rios. 



BOLIVIA 47 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(2) Huanchaca National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente prohibidas toda forma de ocupaci de tierras, de aprovechamiento 
forestal, caza y pesca comerciales o deportivas. Para proteger la flora y fauna amenazada de exterminio. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 28 junio 1979 (Decreto Supremo 16646). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Este de Bolivia . Provincia Velasco , Departamento Santa Cruz ; 60°2 1 ' 
a 60°48'W y 13°43' a 14°50'S. 

ALTITUDE: Altitud media 770 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 541,200 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Es una extensa mesa con una ligera pendiente hacia el este; sobre la mesa un 
relieve ondulado con lineas de drenaje que la disectan. El escarpe de la mesa forma un escalo namiento 
por erosi diferencial de los metasedimentos. Es un afloramiento de rocas cambricas (Escudo del Brasil) 
constituido por conglomerados y ortocuarcitos, area de gran valor geologico. Suelos varian de poco 
profundos a profundos en los valles, arenosos a areno francosos, color pardo oscuro a pardo amarillento 
claro. 

VEGETATION: Bosque perennifolio en los valles que circundan los pisos de drenaje. Hidrofitica en las 
lineas de drenaje. pastos naturales en los interflujos altos de la mesa. Especies forestales como Coratella 
americana, Hymenaea sp., Tecoma sp. Las zonas de vida en ella son: bosque muy humedo subtropical y 
bosque muy humedo montano bajo subtropical (Holdridge). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Area reportada como de abundante fauna. Con muy poca informac: 
disponible. Presentes: Tayassu pecari, Tapirus terrestris, Felis spp., Coendou sp. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificaci establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No conocidas, el area tiene un gran valor natural pues no ha 
sido aun alterada dada su lejania y dificultad de acceso. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No conocidos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Brockmann, Carlos, s/f. Anexo 1. Loscomplejosdetierradel 
oriente Boliviano. Programa ERTS-GEOBOL. La Paz. 98 pp (por publicarse). 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Enrique Jordan, Jefe Departamento de Vida 
Silvestre, Parques Naciales, Caza y Pesca, Casilla 3430 - Santa Cruz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



48 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Bellavista National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No fue posible establecerla. Aparentemente fue, inicialmente, una reserva 
forestal. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 27 febrero 1946 (instrumento legal no ubicado). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Norte de Bolivia. Provincia Nor Yungas. Departamento La Paz; 

67°35'W y 15°45'S. 

ALTITUDE: Sobre los 1,400 m.s.n.m. (oficial). 

AREA: 90,000 ha (oficial). 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Vertientes orientales de los Andes. 

VEGETATION: Propias de las siguientes zonas de vida (Holdridge): Bosque muy hiimedo montano 
bajo subtropical. Bosque muy hiimedo subtropical. Bosque humedo subtropical. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: No conocidos. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificaci establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Area sometida a intensa actividad forestal y a asentamientos 
espontaneos. Se extraen Cedrela y Juglans preferentemente. Nunca fue controlada. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Cross. Bradley (1979). Wildland management. S.R.B. 
Associates. 63 pp + anexos. Mimeo. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Oscar Mendez R . Jefe Nacional de Vida 
Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca, Avenida Camacho 1323 4to. Piso - La Paz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(4) Cerro Sajama National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36. 12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No expeci'fica. Se entiende proteccion a los recursos naturales con excepcion 
de las riquezas metaliferas. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 5 noviembre 1945 (Decreto Ley s/No). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Oeste de Bolivia. Provincia Carangas, Departamento Oruruo; 68°46' 

a 68°5rw, 18°0r a 18°10S. 

ALTITUDE: 4.500 a 6.542 m.s.n.m. 



BOLIVIA 49 

AREA: 29,940 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: La montana mas alta de Bolivia, se yergue solitaria sobre las planicies 
altiplanicas. Puede observarse desde mas de 100 kilometres a la redonda. Cubierta de nieves eternas. El 
cerro Sajama es un volcan del pleistocene inferior. En susfaldas, en las proximidades del pueblo de 
Sajama afloran aguastermales sulfurosas con temperaturas de 43°C. 

VEGETATION: Los bosques de Polylepis tarapacana que se ubicaban sobre los depositos 
coluviales-fluviales de sus faldas ban sido fuertemente deforestados quedando solo escasisimos 
ejemplares. Las areas pantanosas (bofedales) ubicadas a lo largo del rio Sajama (oeste inmediato del area) 
estan sobrepastoreadas. Gramineas y compuestas altoandinas en las partes rnas bajas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En las pampas alrededor del cerro Sajama se encuentran Pterocnemia 
pennata en donde no es raro, Vultur gryphus probablemente anida en el area. En el ri'o Sajama y lagos 
cercanos, fuera del area establecida, la avifauna andina es rica: Anas spp., Chloephaga melanoptera, 
Larus serranus. Buteo poecilochrous, Ptilosceles resplendens etc. Mamiferos como Cavia niata, Lagidium 
peruanum, Akodan, Phyllotis, Dusycion culpaeus. En las proximidades del area muy poca Vicugna 
vicugna (V). 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Bosques de Polylepis frecuentemente deforestados para 
producir carbon, afortunadamente parece que esta presion esta disminuyendo debido a una mayor 
accesibilidad a combustibles derivados de petroleo. Areas vecinas sobrepastoreadas. Vigilancia temporal. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Area de interes para el, recientemente creado institute de Ecologica de la 
Universidad Mayor de San Andres (La Paz). Algunos estudios botanicos, fitosociologia, han sido ya 
ejecutados. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 

STAFF: 1 Guarda Forestal temporal. 

BUDGET: Ninguno especifico. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Agr. Jorge Pardo, Director Regional - 
Centro de DesarroUo Forestal, Direcci'on Regional Oeste. Casilla 382 - Oruro. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio, 1980. 



(5) Condoriri National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total proteccion de la fauna andina y proteccion de las bellezas naturales de la 
Cordillera de los Andes. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 4 de julio 1942 (Decreto Supremo s/No). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Oeste de Bolivia. Provincia de Muriilo, Departamento de La Paz; 
68°04' a 68°irW, 16°ir a 16°23'S. 

ALTITUDE: 4,500 a 6,088 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 14,828 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Propiedad del estado. 



50 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Grupo andino delimitado por dos pasos hacia la region de las yungas o 
vertientes orientales. Caracterizado por los nevados Chacaltaya y Huayna Potosi, incluye lagunas alto 
andinas. El nevado Chacaltaya presenta laderas cubiertas de nieve aptas para deporte. 

VEGETATION: Corresponden a la tundra pluvial alpino subtropical. Se presentan zonas inundadas 
llamadas 'bofedales' y extensiones de praderas altoandinas dominadas por Siipas, Festuca y 
Calamafrostis . La Mayor parte del area es cubierta por nieve, cuando esta se derrite el area es 
principalmente coluvial. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En el area de lagunas altoandinas: Larus serranus. Anas spp., Chloephaga 
melanoptera. En los pajonales: Ptilosceles resplendens. Todo el area: Vultur gryphus (raro). Mamiferos 
muy pocos: Lagidium peruanum. 

ZONING: Ninguna zona establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Area de deportes: sky, la pista y el albergue administrados por 
el Club Andino Boliviano. No existente control sobre el ingreso de visitantes. Area de gran presion 
turi'stica. La Universidad Mayor de San Andres mantiene un laboratorio (5,150 m.s.n.m.) y areas con 
equipo especializado y de ceso prohibido al publico pero sin barreras. El area es visitada por recolectores 
de lajas (coluvio) y de nieve que se utilizan en la ciudad de La Paz, para la construccion y heladerias 
respectivamente. Acueductos de regulacion y lineas electricas en el sector sur. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Investigacfones fisicas a cargo del Laboratorio de Fisica Cosmica de la 
Universidad Mayor de San Andres. Equipo de Radiometria. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Laboratorio de Fisica Cosmica de la Universidad Mayor de San 
Andres (La Paz). 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Cross, Bradley (1979). Wildland Management, Reconnaiss- 
ance Survey J.R.B. Associates (mimeo). 

STAFF: Ninguno. El Club Andino Boliviano mantiene 2-3 obreros en el Albergue y en la pista de sky. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Oscar Mendez R., Jefe Nacional de Vida 
Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca, Avenida Camacho 1323 4to. Piso - La Paz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(6) Las Barrancas National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Terminantemente prohibido destruir la vegetaci'on , el pastoreo y la caza. Area 
destinada a reforestar parte del valle de Tarija con fines de control de erosion. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 agosto 1966 (Decreto Supremo 07807). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Sur de Bolivia. Provincia Cercado, Departamento de Tarija; 64°44'W 
y 2r30'S. 

ALTITUDE: 1,916 m.s.n.m. (promedio). 

AREA: 347.1 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Parte del valle de Tarija gravemente erosionado. Los suelos son sedimentos 
del fondo de un lago desecado en el cuaternario (2 millones de aiios). El regimen pluvial es caracterizado 



BOLIVIA 51 

por una gran intensidad de Iluvias en un tiempo corto seguida de una sequi'a profunda. La lluvia puede 
Uegar a 125 mm en un dia y a intensidades de 10L4 mm en una hora. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion nativa practicamente ha desapa recido por deforestacion y 
sobrepastoreo. El area es hoy un campo experimental para la reforestacion con especies forestales, 
arbustivas y hierbas, nativas y exoticas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: No conocidos. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion se ha establecido. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: El area es muy pequena y soporta un tipo de uso propio de un 
area experimental para recuperacion de tierras. Existen trabajos de urbanizacion resultantes de la 
expansion de la ciudad de Tarija. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Muy amplio en el campo de plantaciones forestales. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Provistas por las instalaciones complementarias del vivero 
forestal Las Barrancas. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 

STAFF: Propio de un vivero con capacidad para producir 1 .5 millones de plantas en 2 turnos. Minimo 20 
obreros. 

BUDGET: No determinado. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Parque Nacional Las Barrancas', Correo 
Central, Tarija. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(7) Mallasa National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No se expecifica ninguna medida sobre la flora o fauna. Es un area establecida 
para esparcimiento de los pobladores de La Paz. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 6 febrero 1956 (Decreto Supremo 4309). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Oeste de Bolovia, cercanias de La Paz; Provincia Cercado, 
Departamento La Paz. 68°13'W y 16°32'12'S. 

ALTITUDE: 3,300 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 74 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Una formaci'on muy bella conocida como el ' valle de la luna' . Los sedimentos 
periglaciales formados por arcillas muy deleznables han sido extranamente erosionados formando un 
paisaje extrano y muy atractivo. 

VEGETATION: El area es muy oequena y en ella se han establecido plantaciones de Eucalyptus con 
fines recreativos. Sehan introducido diversas especies de cactaceas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Ninguna especies digna de mencion. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Su tamano es muy pequeno. Constituye un ^rea recreacional. 
Dominado por especies exoticas. 



52 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguno. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 

STAFF: Ninguna. La municipalidad de La Paz tiene un guardian en el 'cactarium'. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Oscar Mendez R. Jefe Nacional de Vida 
Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca. Avenida Camaciio 1323 4to. Piso, La Paz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(8) Cerro Comanche National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Prohibicion de quema de pajonales, matorrales, etc. y de todo acto 
depredatorio de la flora y la fauna. Se establece la no interferencia con los trabajos de la cantera alii 
existente. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 3 mayo 1963 (Decreto Supremo 06454). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Oeste de Bolivia. Provincia Pacajes, Departamento La Paz; 68°25' a 
68°25'42'W, 16°57' a 16°58'S. 

ALTITUDE: 4,029 a 4,260 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 46.6 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Privada. La Ley establece un Consejo de Administracion formado por 1 
representante de Servicio Forestal y de Caza, 1 representante de la Direccion de Turismo, 1 representante 
del Cuerpo nacional de Carabineros y por el propietario. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Montana aislada no muyalta, ubicada a continuacion del Cerro Mirikiri, 
rodeada de tierras lianas o vallecitos. La montana es un afloramiento de diorita. 

VEGETATION: En las faldas la vegetacion es claramente dominada por Puya raimondii con una 
densidad nada comiin en la region. Otras especies interesantes son las cactaceas: Trichocereus 
bertramiamus y Tephrocactus pertlanti. Otras: Eupatorium, Senecio graveolens, Senecio iodopapus, 
Baccharis microphylla, Lepidophyllum quadrangulare . Cardium, Slipa ichu. Ephedra andina y 
bromeliaceas: Tillandsia. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En las puyas: Oreotrochilus estella. En toda el area: Phalcobaenus 
megalopterus, Plilosceles resplendens. Mamiferos: Lagidium peruamim. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida, no esta delimitada el area de la cantera, tal como ordena la 

ley. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: El Consejo de Administracion nunca se implemento, por 
consiguiente no esta delimitada la zona de extraccion que ejerce una constante influencia sobre la 
vegetacion . Se produce quema de las puyas y estas son bastante evidentes. Es un area de turismo cercana a 
la ciudad de la Paz. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguno. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 



BOLIVIA 53 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Oscar Mendez R., Jefe Nacional de Vida 
Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca. Avenida Camacho 1323 4to. Piso - La Paz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(9) Cerro Mirikiri National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No expecifica. Se entiende proteccion a los recursos naturales con excepcion 
de las riquezas metaliferas. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 5 noviembre 1945 (Decreto Let s/No). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Oeste de Bolovia. Provincia Pacajes. Departamento La Paz; 68°25' a 
68°26'30"W, 16°58' a 16°59'S. 

ALTITUDE: 4,059 a 4,205 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: No conocidos. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Montana de laderas suaves unida a montanas mas altas y casi rodeada por 
pequeiios valles o quebradas, erosion en surcos. 

VEGETATION: En los vallecitos. Probablemente 5. 1 .23. Tropical Short-grassland. Pradera alto andina 
con muestras evidentes de sobrepastoreo que dan paso a erosion en surcos. Vegetacion muy intervenida 
sin valor natural espcial. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Area con constante presencia humana que origina un alejamiento de la 
fauna. Aves como: Pliloscelens resplendens y mamiferos como: Lagidium peruanum estan presentes. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Debido a que nunca se implemento el control, el area ha 
sufrido accion de sobrepastoreo durante muchos atios. Constituye area de pastizales para algunos 
pobladores cercaiios, quienes, probablemente, los consideran suyos por tradicion. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguno. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing Oscar Mendez R., Jefe Nacional de Vida 
Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca. Avenida Camacho 1323 4to. Piso, La Paz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



54 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(10) Tunari National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Area destinada a reforestacfon con fines de control de erosion. Ninguna 
referencia a la flora y fauna. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 30 marzo 1962 (Decreto Supremo 06045). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Centro oeste boliviano. Provincia Cercado, Departamento 

Cochabamba; 66°08'W y 17°19'S. 

ALTITUDE: 2,800 a 4,400 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: No conocidos. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Laderas australes del macizo Tunari, con erosion presente y deslizamientos 
que afectan a la ciudad de Cochabamba. Incluye algunas lagunas andinas. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion original correspondia a la del bosque seco montano bajo subtropical y 
bosque hiimedo montano subtropical (Holdridge). Esta vegetacion fue fuertemente depredada, 
quedando algunos radales de Polylepis. Hoy en die el area es objeto de un programa de introduccion de 
especies exoticas Pinus spp. , Eucalyptus spp. , etc. y de recuperacion de nativas: Polylepis que se replanta 
sola o asociada con Pinus spp. Se producen pastos y arbustos nativos tambien. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna esta incrementando en funcion de la cobertura recuperada: 
Metropelia entre las aves y Silvilagus entre los mamiferos siendo considerado este ultimo como plaga 
forestal por los danos a la reforestacion. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Su tamano es pequeiio y constituye un area netamente de 
reforestacion. Hoy en dia es denominado Proyecto Integral Tunari, del Centro de DesarroUo Forestal. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: El Proyecto Integral Tuari esta acumulando informacion sobre 
comportamiento de especies forestales, micorrizas en el suelo y asociacion entre especies nativas y 
exoticas, principalmente. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Las de la Escuela Tecnica Forestal. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL No conocidos. 

STAFF: One Ing. Agr., Jefe del Proyecto Integral Tunari; 3 Guardas forestales; 42 Obreros forestales. 

BUDGET: No fue posible determinarlo. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Candido Pastor, Jefe Proyecto Integral 
Tunari - Casilla 3111 - Cochabamba. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(1) Manuripi Heath Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.6.1 (Madeiran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Terminantemente prohibida la caza comercial u deportiva hasta que se 



BOLIVIA 55 

realicen los estudios necesarios. Solo se permite la caza cientifica autorizada. las propiedades particulares 
se someteran a las limitaciones y disposici'ones del Ministerio de Agricultura. No se permiten 
asentamientos. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 20 diciembre 1973 (Decreto Supremo 11252). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Noroeste boliviano. Departamento de Pando; 66°00' a 69°00"W y 
10°55' a 12°30'S. 

ALTITUDE: 200 m.s.n.m. altitud media. 

AREA: 1,844.375 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Llanura aluvial, n'os de curso meandrico, se presentan meandros 
abandonados, cicatrices de meandros, cauces paralelos. Diferencia de nivel no mayor a 15 mts. Terrazas. 
Suelos de poco profundos a profundos, color dominante pardo oscuro. Ri'o Orthon con ancho de 80 a 100 
mts., profundidad maxima 10 mts. y ri'o Manueipi con ancho de 35 mts. y aguas oscuras. Rio Madre de 
Dios con ancho de 400 mts. inunda las terrazas recientes. Clima humedo. 

VEGETATION: Lowland rain forest vegetacion natural de bosque latifoliado perennifolio, 90 per cent 
de cubierta arborea, altura 30 mts. Estratos inferiores muy densos y enmarados. Se aclara un poco hacia el 
rio Madre de Dios. Los arbustos Uegan a tener 6 mts. de altura. Especies importantes Bombax, Scheelea 
princeps, Ficus ep., Guarea rusby, Ocotea sp., Hura crepitans, Sapium sp., Triplaris caracasama, Euterpe 
andicola, Copernica sp. Hacia el rio Madre de Dios las especies son: Cecropia peltata, Ochroma lagopus, 
Bulnesia sarmienti, Inga sp. , Tabebuia sp. , Orbignya phalerata, Astrocaryum chonta. Cedrela sp. Zona de 
vida bosque humedo subtropical (Holdridge). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Primates de valor cienti'fico como: Cebuella pygmaea, Saguinus labiatus, 
Saguiniis imperator y Callimico goeldi. Odocoilens dicholomus , sometido a fuerte presion onca estan 
entre los mamiferos mas saltantes. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Las margenes de los n'os Beni, Madre de Dios y parte del 
Manuripi son areas de colonizacion espintanea. Partes del area constituyen proyectos del Instituto 
Nacional de Colonizacion. Caza no controlada. No existe ningun control. Aparentemente existe un grupo 
nativo: Toronona al que es necesario definir y dimensionar. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No conocido. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Grimwood, I. y Whitmore, T. (1978). Bolivia. Informe 
lUCN. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Oscar Mendez R., Jefe Nacional de Vida 
Silvestre, Farques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca. Avenida Camacho 1323 4to. Piso - La Paz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



56 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(2) Eduardo Avaroa Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Terminantemente prohibida la caza comercial y deportiva hasta que el 
Ministerio de Agricultura realice los estudios. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 13 diciembre 1973 (Decreto Supremo 11239). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Sur de Bolivia. Provincia Sud Lipez. Departamento de Potosi; 

67°46"W y 22°12'S. 

ALTITUDE: 4,278 a 5,780 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 400,000 ha (1981). 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: lago de los Solares alto andino ubicado entre la Cordillera Occidental y la 
Cordillera de Lipez. El lago se ubica en una zona de puna seca y una variedad de zonas edaficas. 
Predomina el paisaje de planicie desertica con suelos pedregosos. Laguna de agua salada. Alimentado por 
deshielos de los nevados Tocorpuri y Tocotacare principalmente. Su coloraci'on se debe a la existencia de 
piroclasticos de color rojo. Poca alimentaci'on y mucha evaporacion. Activa vida de fitoplancton e 
insectos. Clima frio y seco. Temperatura media 10°, minima media de -3°, precipitation 100 mm anuales. 

VEGETATION: Las comiinidades vegetales presentan variedades de Lopidophyllum, Bacharis. 
Tetraglochin. Stipa, Fesiiica. Senecio, Ephedra. Cactaceas bajas: Tephrocactus . Bellas formaciones de 
Azorella compacta. Vegetacion propia del desierto subalpino templado y de la tundra seca alpina 
templada (Holdridge). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Aves: Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis. Phoenicopterus andinus, Phoenicop- 
terus jamesi , Chloephaga melanoptera , Recurvirosira andina. Pterocnemia pennata, Speotyto cunicularia, 
Meiropelia melanoptera. Mamiferos como: Vicugna vicugna (V)(muy pocas), Felis concolor, Felis 
colocolo, Dusycion culpaeus, Lagidium peruanum. Varios roedores. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Extraccion de yareta (Azorella), recoleccion de huevos de 

flamencos, caza y pesca. No existe control. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Area mundfalmente conocida. Ninguna investigacion como Reserva 
Nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Jungius H. y Pujol, R. (1970). Bolivia. National Parks and 
Reserves. UNESCO. Paris. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Oscar Mendez R., Jefe Nacional de Vida 
Silveslre, Parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca. Avenida Camacho 1323 4to. Piso - La Paz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



BOLIVIA 57 

(3) Reserva Nacional de Fauna Ulla Ulla 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Froteccion de la flora y fauna nativa en vias de extincion, ejecucion de la ley de 
prohibicion de la caza de vicuna. Sometimiento de todas las actividades agropecuarias al Ministerio de 
Asuntos Campesinos y Agropecuarios. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 7 enero 1972 (Decreto Supremo 10070). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Noroeste de Bolivia. Provincia Franz Tamayo, Departamento La 
Paz; 69°00' a 69°20'W y 14°45' a 15°25'S. 

ALTITUDE: Altitud media 4 ,300 m . s . n . m . 

AREA: 137,800 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal, presencia de pobladores tradicionales cuyos usos sobre la tierra son 
respetados. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: La pampa de Ulla Ulla es una de las mas altas y grandes areas de puna. 
Delimitada, al este por una cadena de montanas (promedio 5,900 m.s.n.m.). Lenguas glaciales dan lugar a 
lagunas alto andinas (Lagunas, Suches, Colocolo, Quella, Canahuma etc.). La Pampa que se origina en 
las montana se caracteriza por suaves pendientes para continuar en una emplia y plana pampa cortada por 
varias corrientes formando pequefias planicies inundadas. la pampa hacia el oeste presenta grandes 
extensiones igualmente inundadas, con algunas colinas aisladas. 

VEGETATION: La pampa dominada por pastos, de los cuales quedan muy pequefias areas sin 
sobrepastoreo, prob. 5.L2.3. Tropical short-grassland. En las zonas inundadas: Distichia muscoides, 
Senecio sp., Calamagrostis vicunarum. Werneria sp., etc. En general vegetacion propia de zonas de vida 
(Holdridge), bosque hiimedo subalpino Subtropical y tundra pluvial alpino Subtropical. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: 1,139 Vicugna vicugna (V) en 1979, y taruca Hippocamelus antisensis (V). 
Muchos roedores: Phyllotis sp., Lagidium sp., Akodon sp.; Felis concolor, Dusycion sp., Conepatus rex. 
Aves numerosas: Chloephaga melanoptera, Plegadis ridwayi. Anas spp., Gallinula chloropus. Fulica 
americana, Ptilosceles resplendens etc. 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: El area es administrada por INFOL con supervision, 
establecida en convenio, del Centro de Desarrollo Forestal, dentrol del Proyecto de DesarroUo Rural 
Integrado Ulla Ulla. La infraestructura y equipos asignados a esta Reserva Nacional son utilizados por 
INFOL en otras areas. Sobrepastoreo del area. Escaso personal de guardaparques. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Censos de la poblacion de vicunas. Analisis de la dinamica de poblaciones. 
Investigaciones de Etologia. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: 2 casas alojamiento para tecnicos. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Jungius, Hartmut (1971). The vicuna in Bolivia. Sanderdruck 
Aus. Z.f. Sdugetierkunde. Bd. 36 H. 3, 129-146. Verlag. Paul Parey. Hamburgo. 

STAFF: 1 Jefe de la Reserva Nacional; 6 Guardas de fauna. 

BUDGET: No fue posible determinarlo. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Sr. Juan Nogales, Reserva Nacional de Fauna 

Ulla Ulla. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rfos. 
INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



58 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(4) German Busch Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Terminantemente prohibida la caza comercial y deportiva en el area hasta que 
se dispongas estudios basicos. No se permiten asentamientos humanos nuevos. Las propiedades dentro 
del area quedan sujetas a las limitaciones y disposici'ones del Ministerio de Agricultura. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 20 diciembre 1973 (Decreto Supremo 11254). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Centre este boliviano. Provincia Ichilo, Departamento de Santa 
Cruz; 63°39' a 64°04'W y 17°34' a 17°55'S. 

ALTITUDE: 400 a 1,929 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 98,640 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Region conocida como las serranias del amboro. Terreno may irregular, 
pendientes fuertes, numerosas quebradas, el ri'o yapacani nace en esa region, ultimas estribaciones de las 
vertientes orientales andinas. Informacion climatica no disponible. 

VEGETATION: Limite sur de la region de las yungas. Vegetacion de las zonas de vida bosque muy 
humedo montano bajo Subtropical y bosque muy hiimedo Subtropical. Tipo I. II. 2. Moniane/submontane 
rain forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mamiferos como Mazama spp., Tayassu pecari, Panthera onca, Felis sp. 
Gran variedad de aves propias deyungas. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Penetracion de actividades forestales y colonizacion 
espontanea por el sur (hierba buena). No existe control establecido. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No conocido. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Enrique Jordan P. Jefe del Departamento de 
Vida Silvestre, parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca, Casilla 3430 - Santa Cruz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(5) Lagunas del Beni y Pando 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.6.1 (Madeiran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Se establece una veda (diciembre a julio) para la caza de caiman y lagarto. Se 
prohibe la caza de ejemplares menores de 1.50 mt. (caiman) y 1.20 mt. (lagarto). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 27 octubre 1961 (Decreto Supremo 05912). 



BOLIVIA 59 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Norte de Bolivia. Departamentos Beni y Pando. Todas las lagunas 
ubicadas en ellos; 61°30' a 69°40'W y 9°15' a 15°33'S. 

ALTITUDE: Alrededor de 200 m.s.n.m. (promedio). 

AREA: Dificil de precisar, incluye por lo menos 27 grandes lagunas ubicadas, en su mayoria, en el 
departamento de Beni. 

LAND TENURE: Estatal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Son las lagunas de los llafios o savanas del Beni, algunas de ellas muy extensas 
como las lagunas Rogagua, Rogaguado, Huatunas y San Luis, orillas con playa o boscosas inundadas o 
orillas movedizas cubiertas de plantas acuaticas densamente entrelazadas. 

VEGETATION: S.G. Aquatics. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Plecostomus, Ptergophichthys multiradiatus , Loricaria beni, Serrasalmidos 
etc. Caiman, Palliosuchus. 

ZONING: Ninguna zonificacion establecida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Los componentes de esta reserva nacional se hallan 
ampliamente dispersos, principalmente, en el departamento del Beni, lo cual dificultara el control, 
cuando este se implemente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Area visitada por expediciones cientificas, muy expecificas, desde 1921. 
Ninguna investigaci'on considerandola como area protegida. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocido. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Oscar Mendez R., Jefe Nacional de Vida 
Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Gaza y Pesca. Avenida Camacho 1323 4 to. Piso - La Paz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(1) Huancaroma Forest Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No se establecen medidas concretas. Se supone proteccion total a la vicuna. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 23 Julio 1975. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Centro este Boliviano. Provincia Cercado, Departamento de Oruro; 

67°23' a 67°30'W y 17°39' a 17°47'S. 

ALTITUDE: 3,800 m.s.n.m. altitud media. 

AREA: 11,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Privada. La ley no establece mecanismos para la administracion pero garantiza que ni 
el status legal juridico ni la propiedad de la hacienda Huancaroma son afectadas. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Area principalmente plana, influenciada por el rfo Desaguadero. que a veces 
inunda los terrenos adyacentes. Suelos salinos. 

VEGETATION: Las partes no cultivadas, conforman una pradera alto andins con manojos de ichu y 
presencia de Bromus sp. y Distichlys sp. El area cultivada lo es con alfalfa. 



60 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Fundamentalmente Vicugna vicugna (V) 181 ejemplares en 1979 (INFOL, 
informacion oficial). En las cercanias de la casa hacienda no muestran temor. 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: EI area es de ganaderia lechera para produccion de quesos, 350 
reses en total. Area irrigada de cultivo de pastes para ensilado. El personal de la hacienda, teoricamente, 
funge de guardas de fauna. No existe control especial. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Censos periodicos (INFOL). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Grimwood, I. y Whitmore, T. (1978). Bolivia, Informe 
lUCN. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: Ninguno. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Agr. Jorge Pardo, Director Regional, Centro 
de DearrroUo Forestal. Casilla 382 - Oruro. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: Julio 1980. 



(1) Reserva Biologica de Ulla Ulla 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Declared a national natural reserve for fauna by Supreme Decree. Hunting 
and the destruction of flora and fauna are totally prohibited. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: January 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Approximately 100 air-miles northwest of La Paz, the western 
boundary being the Peruvian border; 15°00'S, 69°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: 3000-5800m. 

AREA: 200,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Although as a reserve for fauna the territory is state property, certain areas in the 
plains belong to rural communities under the terms of the declaration concerning Agrarian Reform in 
Bolivia. However, this does not affect the science and technology policy for the territory. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Located in the higher parts of Bolivia, the reserve contains a combination of 
ecological formations including high plateau, tundra, high Cordillera, mountains, the headwaters of the 
Rio Euichi and Rio Turiopa, nine lakes, and a nival zone. The Apolobamba stands out as the chief 
mountain range along with the Cololo massif. Formations of the Yungas type, with its typical plant 
associations, are evolving east of the cordillera massif. 

VEGETATION: The area is rich in habitat diversity. There are Yungas areas in the north-east in which 
Gramineae such as Stipa spp. predominate, tundra areas in the high cordillera and high-mountain forest 
stands in parts of the western sector. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: On the high plateaux and the tundra, the fauna consists mainly of 
Camelidae. The vicuna Vicugna vicugna (V) is particularly important, with a population estimated at 600, 
and the alpaca population is 800,000. In the cordillera and the heads of valleys Odocoileus sp. and 
spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus (V) can be found. North Andean Huemul Hippocamelus antisensis 
(V) are also found in the reserve. Birds abound in the lakes where the predominant fish are trout 
(Salmonidae), which were introduced in the 1940s and are used for restocking other river basins in the 
interior of Bolivia. 



BOLIVIA 61 

ZONING: The habitat of the vicunas is regarded as the core area, the other ecological formations being 
concentric to it. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No agricultural activity is possible in any part of the zone owing 
to the persistent frosts and low temperatures. Consequently, the sole activity is the raising of alpacas, and 
to a lesser degree llamas. As the reserve is state property, the vicunas live in complete freedom. The 
human population is estimated at 800 inhabitants of Aymaran origin, who live in small settlements in the 
high plateaux, which are linked by precarious routes. The area could be an important tourist centre, but 
the present roads are virtually unusable. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A group of visiting scientists has conducted a recent study of the pasture 
land. The World Wildlife Fund has contributed to the protection of the vicunas by providing cabins and a 
vehicle for the small number of forest rangers. Because of the variety of habitat and ecological formations, 
the reserve is of exceptional importance for scientific research. Access to more distant parts of the reserve 
is difficult because of the poor roads. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: The most useful scientific literature is contained in the works 
of Koford, Franklin and Jungius. Annual inventories are produced of the vicuna and other fauna 
populations. 

STAFF: The area comes under the Department of Wildlife, National Parks, Hunting and Fishing of the 
Bolivian Ministry of Agriculture. It is supervised by four rangers who have received instruction in the 
'Pampas Galeras', Peru. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Att. Prof. Gaston Berjarano, Departmento de 
Vida Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Gaza y pesca, Casilla Correo 936, La Paz, Bolivia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: (Information received from Unesco). 



(2) Parque Nacional Pilon-Lajas 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.6.1 (Madeiran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: To be declared a national park under the general law on wildlife 12.301 of 14 
March 1975 (sic). We have no recent information on this area, which was not listed in information sent to 
us in July 1980. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: January 1977 as a Biosphere Reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the far eastern spur of the cordillera of the Andes; 15°0()'S, 
67°20'W. The nearest human settlement is San Borja, 70km from the western boundary of the park. 

ALTITUDE: 280-2000m. 

AREA: 100.000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: State property. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Highlands with mountain forests intersected by valleys. There are subtropical 
and tropical forests associated with Amazonian deposits, comprising a variety of plant associations and 
ecological environments characteristic of the different altitudes and degrees of humidity, etc. Landscapes 
of exceptional scenic beauty. 

VEGETATION: The flora of the reserve corresponds to the sub-hylean tropical vegetation with forest 
canopies containing emergents in some zones. Pioneer vegetation is to be found in some areas in 



62 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

association with climax types; characteristic mountain and valley forests are also present. The dominant 
families and genera are characteristic of the Amazon. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The typically Amazonian fauna abounds in arthropods, birds and reptiles, 
but includes only limited numbers of mammals and fish. The black spider monkey Ateies paniscus (V) has 
been seen in the park. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The area is at present virtually undisturbed by man. The only 
human settlement consists of a small indigenous population of Chimanes living in their traditional fashion. 
A road linking La Paz, Alto Beni, San Borja and Trinidad has been started, and constitutes one of the 
boundaries of the park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No scientific research has as yet been conducted in the area. As a national 
park it will serve essentially as a reserve for wildlife. However, owing to its climax conditions, all manner 
of biological, ecological and physical research could be envisaged. While facilities are lacking at present, 
the road under construction along one boundary and other public works will make the area easily 
accessible from La Paz or Beni. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Holz, G.S. and Bejarano, G. (In press). Final Report on the 
Project: Parque Nacional Pilon-Lajas. WWF Merges, Switzerland. 

STAFF: At present the scientific and administrative staff of the Department of Wildlife and National 
Parks of the Ministry of Agriculture of Bolivia collaborates with the scientific and executive personnel of 
the MAB Programme in Bolivia. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Professor Gaston Bejarano, Departmento Vida 
Silvestre, Parques Nacionales, Caza y Pesca, Ministerio de Agricultura, Casilla Correo 936, La Paz, 
Bolivia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Rios. 

INFORMATION DATED: (Information received from Unesco). 



BRAZIL g3 



BRAZIL 



AREA: 8,511,968 sq km. 

POPULATION: 121,113,084(1980). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The rules and criteria for the establishment of National 
Parks, Biological Reserves and National Forests are set down in the"Codigo Florestal Federal", Law 4771 
of 15 September 1965. The Law of Fauna Protection (Law 5197, 3 January 1967) also provides for the 
establishment of Game Reserves (none have been established to date), as well as other categories of 
biological reserves, and hunting reserves. The objectives and main administrative by-laws were 
established by"Regulamento dos Parques Nacionais Brasileiros", Federal Decree 84.017 of 21 September 
1979. The IBDF, which administers the National Parks and Biological Reserves, was created by 
Decree-Law 289 (28 February 1967). Ecological Stations are established under Federal Decree 84,973 (29 
July 1980), Law 6,902 (27 April 1981), and Federal Decree 86,061 (2 June 1981). 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The responsibility for management of National Park 
lands lies with the Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal (IBDF), Ministerio da Agricultura, 
and for the Ecological Stations with the Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente (SEMA) - Ministerio do 
Interior. 

National Parks are areas with exceptional natural attributes which have been set aside for the purpose of 
providing an integral protection for flora, fauna and scenic beauty. These areas are intended to be used for 
education, recreation and scientific research. Biological Reserves are areas where modification of any 
type is prohibited, except duly authorized scientific activity (this includes both hunting and introduction of 
wild or domesticated species). Protected Forests are resource reserves, some of which are intended to be 
used, and some of which may be reclassified in the future. Hunting Parks, which are also established under 
the Fauna Protection Law, are areas where hunting is permitted. (Wetterberg et al, 1978). 

The Ecological Stations are natural areas preserved for the purpose of offering basic infrastructure to 
universities for the promotion of comparative study between the situation encountered in these and 
neighbouring sites occupied by man (SEMA, 1977). 

ADDRESS: (a) Depto. de Parques Nacionais, Instituto Brasileiro de Desenvolvimento Florestal 
(IBDF), S.A.I.N. Av. 1/4 S/No., Brasilia, DF, 70.300, Brazil. Telephone (061) 1711 or 2120. 

(b) Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente (SEMA), Ministerio do Interior, 2° Andar, Esplanada dos 
Ministerios, Proje?ao 23, Brasilia, DF, Brazil. 

REFERENCES: Carvalho , J . C . D . M .( 1 98 1 ). The Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources in the 
Brazilian Amazonia. CVRD - revista Vol. 2, Special Edition. 

Final Report of the Meeting of Experts on Conservation of the Major Terrestrial Ecosystems of the 
Western Hemisphere, April 10-14 1978, San Jose, Costa Rica. Organization of American States. 
(FAG/MAB/UNESCO). 

lUCN/WWF Project 1584. Maned Wolf - Study of Ecology. 

lUCN/WWF Project 1614. Brazil, Primates. 

lUCN/WWF Project 1705. Ecology and Conservation of the Amazonian Manatee. 

lUCN/WWF Project 1717. Eastern Brazil, Research into Studies of Endangered Bird Species. 

Jorge Padua, Maria Teresa and Coimbra Filho, Addmar F. (1979). Los parques nacionais do Brasil. 

Jorge Padua, M.T., Magnanini, A. and Mittermeier, R.A. (1974). Brazil's National Parks. Gryx 
XII(4): 452-464. 

Mittermeier, R.A., Coimbra-Filho, A.F., Constable, I.D. and Rylands, A.B. (1981). Conservation of 
Primates in the Atlantic Forest Region of Eastern Brazil. Int. Zoo. Yearbook. 

Rylands. A.B., Ayres, J.M. and Mittermeier, R.A. (1981). Conservation of Primates in Brazilian 
Amazonia. Int. Zoo. Yearbook. 

SEMA (1977). Program of Ecological Stations. Ministry of the Interior, Special Environmental 
Agency. Brasilia (English language edition). 

Wetterberg, G.B., Soares de Castro, C, Tresinari, B., Quintao, A., and Rocha Porto, E. (1978). 
Estado atual dos parques nacionais e reservas equivalentes na america do sul-1978 Brasil Florestal No. 36 
(Gut-Dez) Min. Agric. IBDF. Brasilia, pp. 11-36. 



64 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 10,618,721 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Jau 2,272,000 

2 Pico da Neblina 2,200,000 

3 Amazonia 1,000,000 

4 Pacaas Novos 764,802 

5 Cabo Orange 619,000 

6 Araguaia 562,312 

7 Iguagu 170,086 

8 Lengois Maranhenses 155,000 

9 Pantanal Matogrosso 137,000 

10 Emas 131,868 

11 Serra da Bocaina 100,000 

12 Serra da Capivara 100,000 

13 Serra da Canastra 71,525 

14 Chapada dos Veadeiros 60,000 

15 Sao Joaquim 44,455 

16 Brasilia 28,000 

17 Caparao 16,194 

18 Monte Pascoal 14,000 

19 Itatiaia 11,943 

20 Aparados da Serra 11,307 

21 Serra dos Orgaos 9,370 

22 Sete Cidades 6,221 

23 Tijuca 3,300 

24 Ubajara* 563 

Federal Biological Reserves 

1 Lago Piratuba 395,000 

2 Rio Trombetas 385,000 

3 Jaru 268,150 

4 Cara-cara 61,126 

5 Atol das Rocas 36,249 

6 Sooretama 24,000 

7 Una 11,400 

8 Poco das Antas 5,063 

9 Nova Lombardia 4,350 

10 Corrego do Veado 2,400 

11 Serra Negra 1,100 

Ecological Stations 

1 Anavilhanas 350,000 

2 Ique 200,000 

3 Urugui-Una 135,000 

4 Maraca 92,000 

5 Rio Acre 77,500 

6 Maraca-Jipioca 70,000 

7 Taiama 12,000 

8 Aracuri-Esmeralda* 272 

State Parks 

1 Jacupiranga* 150,000 

2 Rio Doce* 35,712 

3 Ilha do Cardoso* 22,500 

4 Caraguatatuba* 13,770 

5 Campos do Jordao* 8,172 

6 Jaiba' 6,211 

7 Vila Veiha* 3,122 

8 Ibitipoca* 1,488 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



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66 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Jau National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 24 September 1980 by Federal Decree 85,200. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Amazonas State, 150km west-northwest of Manaus; 0r40'-03°00'S, 
6r25'-63°50'W. 

ALTITUDE: Less than 100m. 

AREA: 2,272,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A large river flat with some areas of tableland and deeper valleys cut by 
several of the western tributaries of the Rio Negro. 

VEGETATION: Palm trees, open tropical forest, dense tropical forest, campinarana grassland. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Black-head uakari Cacajao melanocephalus (V), the tamarin Saguinus 
inustus, common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, widow monkey Callicebus torquatus, white-fronted 
and black-capped capuchins Cebus albifrons and C. apella, douroucoulis^o/i« trivirgatus, saki Pithecia 
pithecia, red howler Alouatta seniculus, jaguar Panthera onca (V), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), 
Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (V) macaws Ara spp. and various Amazonian fish. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: find info. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Rylands, A.B. (1980-81). Conservation of Amazonian 
Primates. Unpd. Rpt. 
Maps. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: BR-319, Kml, Distrito Industrial, CEP 69,000, 
Manaus AM. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(2) Pico da Neblina National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5 1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 5 June 1979 by Federal Decree 83,550. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northeast Amazonas State between the Rio Negro and the 
Venezuelan border; 0r0O'-0°20'S, 65°15'-66°50"W. 



BRAZIL 67 

ALTITUDE: 100-3,014m. 

AREA: 2,200,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: A large part of the area is title-free. Indians are present, but there are no proclaimed 
Indian Reserves. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Amazonas-Orinoco interfluvial plateau contains rock faults of the 
Guyanan complex and sedimentary rocks of the Roraima group. The Roraima sedimentary plateau is the 
most elevated area of the park , containing the 3 ,014m Pico da Neblina and has blocks of the inselberg type 
with tabular faults. The Rio Branco - Rio Negro pediplain was caused by erosion that exposed the base of 
the block constituting the Guyana Craton (Precambrian rocks). 

VEGETATION: Caatinga of the upper Rio Negro, a dense arboreal formation characterized by Caraioa 
taquari, Clusia cf. columaris, Mauritia flexuosa. Open arboreal formation characterized by Humiria 
balsamifera, Eperua purpurea, Hevea rigidifolia. Dense tropical forest with Micropholis guianensis, 
Licania membranacea, Swartzia viridifolia, Pouteria engleri, Qualea albiflora, Astrocaryum mumbaca. 
Open tropical forest with Orbygnia cf. racemosa, Puteria guianensis, Carvocar glabrum. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Black-headed uakari Cacajao melanocephalus (V), the red-headed tamarin 
Saguinus midas, common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, widow monkey Callicebus torquatus, 
black-capped capuchin Cebus apella, white-fronted capuchin C. albifrons, douroucoulis Aotus irivirgatus, 
black saki Chiropotes satanas, long-haired spider monkey Ateles belzebuth (V), red howler Alouatta 
seniculus. bush dog Speothos venaticus (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga 
tridactyla (V), black hawk-eagle Spyzaetus tyrannus, Guianan cock-of-the-rock Rupicola rupicola, black 
curassow Crax alector, marial guan Penelope marial. 

ZONING: The park is contiguous with the Venezuelan Serrania La Neblina National Park. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Very limited access because of remoteness; park without 
implementation. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Indication of Pleistocene refuges by Haffer (1969/74); Prance (1973); 
Brown (1976). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Radar images (1:250,000); survey of natural resources and 
mapping at a scale of 1:100,000 executed by Project Radambrasil. Rylands, A.B. (1980-81). 
Conservation of Amazonian Primates. Unpd. Rpt. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: BR, 319 -Km 1, Distrito Industrial Cx. Postal 185 
- 69,000 - Manaus - AM. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(3) Amazonia National Park 
(also known as Tapajos National Park) 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (77%). 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 19 February 1974, by Federal Decree. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southern Para and southeastern Amazonas states; 3°42'-4°50'S, 

47°21'-56°22'W. 



68 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ALTITUDE: 19-200m. 

AREA: 1,000,000 ha, though Carvalho (1981) records this park as extending to 1,258,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Part IBDF and part privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A large plain dissected by the River Tapajos which contains small hills with 
vertical slopes. 

VEGETATION: Rainforest, submontane forests and open tropical forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Includes the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus, black caiman 
Melanosuchus niger (E), yellow spotted sideneck turtle Podocnemis unifilLs (V), South American river 
turtle P. expansa (E), river dolphins Ina geoffroyensis and Sotalia fluviatilis , osprey Pandion haliaetus, 
harpy eagle Harpia harpy ia (R), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), Amazonian manatee Trichechus 
inunguis (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), bush dog Speothos venaticus (V) and jaguar 
Panthera onca (V). Primates include the tassel-eared marmoset Callithrix h. humeralifer (E), white 
marmoset C. argenlata leucippe (V), common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, dusky titi Callicebus 
moloch, white-fronted and black-capped capuchins Cebus albifrons and C. apella, two species of saki 
Pithecia hirsutus and Chiropotes albinasus (V), the nocturnal douroucoulis Aotus trivirgalus, long-haired 
spider monkey Ateles belzebuth marginatus (V), red-handed howler Aloutta belzebuL and possibly the 
black spider monkey /Ire/es paniscus chamek (V) and woolly monkey Lagothrix lagothrica (V). There are 
differences between the two sides of the river which make both important faunistically . While C. albifrons 
and P. hirsutus are only found on the western side, for example, C. albinasus is only found to the east. 

ZONING: Intangible, Primitive, Extensive, Intensive, Special, Recuperation and Historical-Cultural 
zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Lack of personnel, unresolved land ownership problems and 
insufficient funding. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Worm studies and a taxonomic study of Amazon dragonflies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Lodging is available for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Management plan, radar maps (1:250,000); satellite maps 
(1:100,000). Preliminary survey of amphibians and a summary of amphibian research in Amazonia NP; 
bird survey; lUCN/WWF Project 1345 Amazon National Park - Master Plan. 

STAFF: 1 director, 8 park guards. 2 general workers, 4 administrative personnel. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 6,000,000.00 (1981). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Raimundo Nonato Russo Filho, Director of 
Amazonia National Park - Rodovia Transamazonica, Estrada de Itaituba para Jacareacange Km 53 
Itaituba, Para, 68,180 Brazil. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(4) Pacaas Novos National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30. 10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 21 September 1979 by Federal Decree 84,019. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Rondonia Federal Territorv on the western extension of the Brazilian 
plateau; 10°1 1'-l TSO'S. 62°30'-64°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-1.126 m. 



BRAZIL 69 

AREA: 764,802 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Steep-sided, flat-topped mountains comprising three major chains - the 
Pacaas Novos, the Uopianes and the Moreira Cabral Mountains. 

VEGETATION: Cerrado, open tropical forest and tropical forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Jaguar Panthera onca (V), puma Felis concolor, black-tailed marmoset 
Callithrix argentata, common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, dusky titi Callicebus moloch, American 
tapir Tapirus terrestris, a species of brocket deer Mazama sp. and a pit viper Lachesis sp. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Access to the park area is difficult. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Maps; System Plan for Brazil's Conservation Units. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 70,000,000. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Av. Pinheiro Machado, Porto Velho, Rondonia - 
CEP: 78,900. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(5) Cabo Orange National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 15 July 1980 by Federal Decree 84,913. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Amapa Federal Territory; 04°26'-03°30'N, 5r09'-5r35'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-200m. 

AREA: 619,000 ha, 120,000 of which is marine. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by the Territory. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Marine flats and riverside flats. 

VEGETATION: Mangroves, grassland, cerrado/forest ecotone and dense tropical forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Green turtle Chelonia mydas (E), leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea 
(E), scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber, greater flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber, Amazona spp., Amazonian 
manatee Trichechus inunguis, (V), Caribbean manatee T. manaius (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), 
common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, puma Felis concolor, capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Access to the park is difficult. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No information. 



70 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 1,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Secretaria de Agricultura do Amapa, Av. 
Mendon^a Furtado 53, Macapa Amapa. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 
INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(6) Araguaia National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 31 December 1959 by Federal Decrees 45,570 and altered by Decree 68,873 (5 
July 1971) and 71,897 (1 March 1973). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Ilha do Bananal, 750km northwest of Brasilia, west central region, 
Goias state; 9°00'-10°50'S, 49°56'-50°37'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-240m. 

AREA: 562,312 ha (2,000,000 ha were proposed in the original act (the entire Ilha di Bananal) but the 
effective size was still only 3000 ha in 1972). 

LAND TENURE: It is hoped that ownership of land will be transferred to Goias state soon. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park includes part of the 2,000,000 ha island of Bananal, the largest 
fluvial island in the world, a flat area of Quaternary period fluvial sediments on Mesozoic sandstones 
between the main and minor branches of the Araguaia River. It is subject to seasonal flooding, and 
contains several permanent lakes. 

VEGETATION: A transition zone between the woody savanna or 'Cerrados' and Amazon forests with 
gallery forests along the river banks. Scattered marshland, and often seasonally flooded grassland. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fauna, like the vegetation, is transitional, and includes giant anteater 
Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (V), bush dog Speothos venaticus (V), 
giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), puma Felis concolor, marsh deer 
Blastocerus dichotomus (V), pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoariicus, American tapir Tapirus terreslris, 
harpy eagle Harpia harpyia (R), hyacinthine macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, anaconda Eunectes 
murinus. South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa (E) and arapaima Arapaima gigas. lUCN 
(1977) also record giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V) and black-fronted piping guan Aburria 
jacutinga (E). 

ZONING: Intangible, Primitive, Extensive Use, Intensive Use, Recuperation, and Special Use Zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Protection is not enforced, with free-ranging domestic animals 
present, land tenure problems and poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Housing is available for scientific research workers. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Cartography 1:50,000; aerial photos; Parque Nacional do 
Araguaia - Informe Turistico by Humberto de Miranda Bastes; Management Plan. 

STAFF: 1 director, 1 technician, 12 park guards. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Levi Vargas, Director of the Park, Rua 229, No. 
95 Setor Universitario, 74.000 Goiania-Goias. 



BRAZIL 71 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 
INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(7) Igua^u National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rain Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (98%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 10 January 1939 by Federal Decree 1,035, amended by Decree 6,587 (14 June 
1944). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: South region, Parana State, close to the Argentinian and Paraguayan 
borders; 25°05'-25°41'S, 53°40'-54°38'W. 

ALTITUDE: 150-740 m. 

AREA: 170,086 ha, but only 134,000 ha were effective in 1972. 

LAND TENURE: Mostly owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: At the confluence of the Igua^u and Parana Rivers, this area is generally flat 
with red semi-lateritic soils which are nutrient poor. The Iguagu Falls in the lower part of the park drop 80 
m over 2700 m and are formed by the Igua^u river, which is cutting a giant staircase down a Triassic basalt 
flow. Humid subtropical climate, with over 2000 mm rainfall per annum, and a relative humidity of 
80-90%. Annual mean temperature 20°C. 

VEGETATION: The lower park is subtropical rainforest rich in tree ferns (Cyatheaceae) and epiphytes 
with species of Ilex, Podocarpus, Aspidosperma, Cedrela and Philodendron. The upper part is humid 
subtropical deciduous forest with stands of the Brazilian pine Araucaria angustifolia (here at its western 
limit) , with two palms, the Assai palm Euterpe edulis and wild coconut palm Cocos romanzoffiana, and the 
imbuya Phoebe porosa. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), La Plata otter Lutra plalensis (V), 
ocelot Felis pardalis (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), puma Felis concolor, margay Felis wiedii (V), brocket 
deer Mazama rufina, American tapir Tapirus terrestris, collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, white-lipped 
peccary T. peccari, great dusky swift Cypseloides senex, solitary tinamou Tinamus solilarius, ornate 
hawk-eagle Spizaetus ornatus, red-breasted toucan Ramphastos dicolorus and harpy eagle Harpia harpy ia 
(R). Jorge Padua etal (1974) also record bush dog Speothos venaticus (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga 
tridactyla (V), pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoarticus, black-fronted piping guan Aburria jacutinga (E), 
glaucous macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus (E), and the vinaceous-breasted and red-spectacled parrots 
Amazona vinacea and A. petrei (V). lUCN (1977) also record black howler monkey Alouatta caraya, 
capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, puma Felis concolor, black hawk-eagle Spitzaetus tyrannus, 
chimango caracara Milvago chimango, crested caracar Polyborus plancus brasiliensis, white-tailed trogon 
Trogon viridis, rufous ovenbird Furnarius rufus, broad-nosed cayman Caiman latirostris (E), dwarf 
cayman Paleosuchus palpebrosus and the urutu viper Bothrops alternata. 

ZONING: Primitive, Extensive, Intensive, Recuperation, Special, Cultural-Historic, Intangible zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There are two federal highways and a large private hotel within 
the park. Enforcement of boundaries is a major problem. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A tree survey. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Housing is available for scientists, and there is a museum which 
includes laboratory facilities. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Aerial photographs; maps of park; park lists of flora and 
fauna; management plan. 

STAFF: 1 director, 10 administrative staff, 15 park guards, 17 general workers. 



72 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

BUDGET: Cr$ 10,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Adilson Simao, Administrator of Iguagu National 
Park - 85,890 - Foz do Iguaqu - Parana - PR. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(8) LenQois Maranhenses National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.29.10 (Babacu). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 1981 by Federal Decree 86,060. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Maranhao State; 02°20'-02°45'S, 42°45'-43°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-50m. 

AREA: 155,000 ha, of which 12,000 ha is marine. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by the Navy and the Union. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Dunes region. 

VEGETATION: Mangroves and 'restingas'. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Some shore and marine birds. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No information. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: System plan of Brazil's Conservation Units. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Av. Jaime Tavares, 25 - C. Postal 276, Sao Luiz, 
Maranhao - 65,000. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 4 June 1981. 



(10) Emas National Park 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30. 10 (Campos Cerrados). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (98%). 



BRAZIL 73 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 January 1961 by Federal Decree 49,874 and altered by Decree 70,375 (6 
April 1972). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Centre west region, state of Goias near the Mate Grosso border; 

17°50'-18°15'S, 52°30'-53°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 650- 1 ,000m . 

AREA: 131,868 ha, but effectively only 79,000 ha prior to 1972. 

LAND TENURE: Mainly owned by IBDF, but two private areas remain to be acquired. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Large areas of slightly undulating grasslands on Triassic sedimentary 
sandstones in which there are basalt and diorite intrusions. The area forms a watershed and there are many 
springs and watercourses, draining mainly to the east. 

VEGETATION: Cerrado, wet grasslands, murunduns grasslands, brejo, vereda, mesophytic forest of 
interfluves, gallery forest. The cerrado scrub, which covers the vast majority of the park, is the best 
example of this type of vegetation in Brazil. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fauna is typical of central Brazilian 'savanna' and high densities of 
pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoarticus, giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V) and greater rhea Rhea 
americana, can be seen within the park. Others include giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V), maned 
wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (V), La Plata otter Lutra platemis (V), marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus 
(V), collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, puma Felis concolor, ocelot Felis pardalis (V), jaguar Panthera onca 
(V), capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, bare-faced curassow Craxfasciolata. crested eagle Morphnus 
guianensis (R), blue and yellow macaw /Ira ararauna, white-tailed hawk Buteo albicaudatus , king vulture 
Sarcoramphus papa, spotted nothura Nothura maculosa, red-winged tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens, 
undulated tinamou Crypturellus undulatus. Jorge Padua et al (1974) also record giant otter Pteronura 
brasiliensis (V), and bush dog Speothos venaticus (V) has also been recorded. There are also many termite 
mounds, and glow-worms or fireflies are known to swarm in great numbers at certain times. 

ZONING: Recuperation, Intangible, Primitive, Extensive, Intensive, and Special zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Uncontrolled fires, insufficient funds and water pollution. 
Most of the fires are set deliberately by ranchers outside the reserve, but get out of control. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Study of armadillos and anteaters; bird survey. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Housing is available for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Management plan prepared by Dr Goetz Schuerholz 
(lUCN/WWF Project 1346), cartography, aerial photographs. 

STAFF: 1 director, 5 park guards, 1 general worker. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 2,500,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Heber Silva de Oliveira, Director of Emas 
National Park - Rua 229, No. 95 - Setor Universitario - 74,000 - Goiania - GO. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(11) Serra da Bocaina National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8 7.1 (Serra do mar). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial (14%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 4 February 1 97 1 , by Federal Decree 68, 1 72 with alterations by Decree 70,694 (8 
June 1972). 



74 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast region, states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo on the 

Atlantic coast; 22°40'-23°22'S, 44°25'-44°57'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-2, 150m. 

AREA: 100,000 ha, though this was not effective in 1972. 140,000 ha were planned in the original act. 

LAND TENURE: Part privately owned and part IBDF owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Includes an offshore island, a small bay and sandy and rock beaches along the 
coast, the deeply cut valleys leading up to the Serra da Bocaina plateau, with plains above 1800m which are 
noted for the granitic batholiths and rounded gneiss blocks exposed on the surface. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rainforest up to about 1800 m, then upland forests and gallery forests 
dominated by Araucaria angustifolia and Podocarpus spp. merge into the plateau grasslands. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fauna is typical of the Atlantic coastal forest and includes woolly spider 
monkey Brachyteles arachnoides (E), buffy-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix aurita (E), brown howler 
monkey Alouatta fiisca (I), American tapir Tapirus terrestris, capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, 
jaguar Panthera onca (V), vinaceous-breasted parrot Amazona vinacea, solitary tinamou Tinamus 
solitarius, red-capped parrot Pionopsitta pileata, bare-throated bellbird Procnias audicollis. harpy eagle 
Harpia harpyia (R), black hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus, ornate hawk-eagle S. ornalus, black-fronted 
piping guan Aburria jacutinga (E), blue-bellied parrot Triclaria malachitacea, tegu Tupinambis teguixin. 
Jorge Padua etal(\91A) also record giant and La Plata otters Pteronura brasiliensis (V) and Lutra platensis 
(V) and giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Land tenure problems, and high degree of modification. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information, though lUCN (1977) noted that the plateau area had been 
studied. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Property ownership survey, plant survey. 

STAFF: 1 director, 1 administrator, 3 park guards and 10 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 2,300,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mario Augusto Bernardes Rondon, Director of 
Serra da Bocaina National Park - Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 607-12° andar - 17,540 - Rio de Janeiro - 
RJ. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(12) Serra da Capivara National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.20.4 (Caatinga). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (95%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 5 June 1979 by Federal Decree 83,548. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast Piaui State, 220km south of Floriano; 08°30'-08°50'S, 
42°20'-42°40'W. 

ALTITUDE: 250-650m. 

AREA: 100,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: The land is being transferred from state to national ownership. 



BRAZIL 75 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Physlographically the area is connected with the Piaui and Bom Jesus do 
Gurgeia regions of the north-east basin. Geomorphologically it consists of a plain created under the 
semi-arid chmate of the late Tertiary or Pleistocene, with tabled areas that have been subject to erosion. 
Extensive plateaux with borders delimited by arenitic cliffs are most common on the south-east side of the 
park. 

VEGETATION: Dense brush caatinga with a predominance of Astronium urundueva. Schinopsis 
brasiliensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa. Mimosa sp., Caesalpinia sp., Neoglaziovia variegata, Cereus 
gounellii. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Ocelot Felis pardalis (V), bush dog Speothos venaticus (V), rock cavy 
Kerodon rupestris, red-legged seriema Cariama cristata, and a species of Tropidurus lizard. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There is a villa within the park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Radar images (1:250,0000); mapping (1:100,000), executed 
by DSG; analysis of the early (BC) rock paintings. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Avenida Coronel Costa Araujo, 1567 - Bairro 
Joquei Club Cx. Postal 80 - 64,000 Teresina - PL 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(13) Serra da Canastra National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rain Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 3 April 1972 by Federal Decree 70,355. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North-east region, Minas Gerais state, 270km west of Belo 
Horizonte; 20°10'-20°20'S, 46°15'-47°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: 800- 1,300m. 

AREA: 71,525 ha, though this was not effective in 1972 and has been reduced by over half since the 
publication of the World Directory (lUCN, 1977). 200,000 ha were planned in the original act. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A plateau with steep walls or escarpments, at the source of the Sao Francisco 
River. 

VEGETATION: Highland grassland, rocky grasslands, cerrado, grasslands with short shrubby growth. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga 
tridactyla (V), rhea Rhea americana, red-legged seriema Cariama cristata, buff-necked ibis Theristicus 
caudalus, Nothura spp. , giant armadillo Priodonles giganteus (V). lUCN (1977) records a number of other 
species, but with the reduction in size many of these may no longer be found within the park. 

ZONING: Recuperation. Special, Primitive, Extensive and Intensive zones. 



76 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Fires (seriously damaged by fire in 1982) ; illegal cattle grazing. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ecological studies of the maned wolf including radio telemetry; study of 
giant anteaters; survey of park mammals. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Lodging is available for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dietz, J.M. (1980). Ecological studies of the Maned Wolf in 
the Serra da Canastra National Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, South America. lUCNAVWF Project 
1584. July 1978-June 1980. Final report to lUCN/WWF. 

Other reports for lUCN/WWF Project 1548. 

Shaw, J.H. and Carter, T.S. (1980). Giant Anteaters. Natural History 89(10): 62-67. 

Park management plan; aerial photographs; resource survey. 

STAFF: 1 director, 5 administrative staff, 7 park guards, 5 general workers. 
BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Oliveiro de Almeida Soares, Director of Serra da 

Canastra National Park - Rua 1° de Janeiro, no. 110 - Sao Roque de Minas, Minas Gerais. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 
INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(14) Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial (33%), but not effective at all until after 1972. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 1 January 1961 by Federal Decree 49,857 (as Tocantins NP) but was not yet in 

effect in 1972 when it was altered by Decree 70,492 (11 May 1972). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: West central region, Goias state, about 200km north of Brasilia; 

13°50'-14°12'S, 47°24'-47°58'W. 

ALTITUDE: 400- 1,784m. 

AREA: 60,000 ha (reduced since the World Directory was published in 1977). 625,000 ha were proposed 
in the original act. 

LAND TENURE: A land tenure survey is currently being conducted. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The topography of the Veadeiros high plain is flat with shallow soils, and areas 
of exposed rock. Quartzite and sandstone predominate, with pegmatite fissures in the rock. The highest 
mountain in Goias state. Pico do Pouso Alto, lies within the park. 

VEGETATION: Grasslands (campos) and scrub forests (cerrado), with dense gallery forest in the more 
humid valleys. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoarticus. greater rhea Rhea americana. 
hyacinthine macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthimis . muscovy duck Cairina moschata. white-tailed hawk 
Buteo albicaudatiis, king vulture Sarcoramphus papa. American tapir Tapirus terrestris. capybara 
Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, collared peccary Tayassu tajacu. puma Felis concolor, ocelot Felis pardalis 
(V), jaguar Panthera onca (V). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Lack of park buildings; land tenure problems, but the reserve is 
isolated with difficult access. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 



BRAZIL 77 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Botanic survey maps. 

STAFF: 1 director, 6 park guards, 2 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 23,000,000 in 198L 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Fernando Jesus Oliveira, Director of Chapada 
dos Veadeiros National Park, Rua 229 Lotes 7 e8 - 74,000 Goiana - Goias. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(15) Sao Joaquim National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.7.1 (Serra do mar). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: None. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 6 July 1961 by Federal Decree 50,992. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: South region, Santa Catarina state, 175km southwest of 
Florianopolis; 28°04'-28°19'S, 49°22'-49°39'W. 

ALTITUDE: 800-2,000m. 

AREA: 44,455 ha, though this was not in effect in 1972. 49,300 ha were proposed in the original act. 

LAND TENURE: Part privately owned and part Santa Catarina state owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Part of the southern Brazilian plateau, undulating with deeply cut valleys, and 
mainly formed from decomposed basalt overlain by sandstone and some glacial clays. There is usually 
snowfall during a few days of each winter, creating exceptional conditions in an otherwise tropical regime. 

VEGETATION: High altitude grassland dominates the plateaux. Pine gallery forests with candelabra, 
or Parana pine Araucaria angustifolia in the upper valleys, and subtropical forest in the lower areas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La Plata otter Lulra platensis (V), ocelot Felis pardalis (V). azure jay 
Cyacorax caeruleus, swallow-tailed kite Elanoides forftcatus, vinaceous-breasted parrot Amazona 
vinacea. lUCN (1977) also records giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), pampas deer Ozotocerus 
bezoarticus and the ornate hawk-eagle Spizaetus ornatus. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There are land tenure problems, and lUCN (1977) reported 
many lumber mills in the area despite protection against lumbering which should be in force. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A land survey is in progress. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No information. 

STAFF: 1 technician and 8 park guards. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jose Dilvei Baldin - Director - Av. Mauro Ramod 
no. 187 - Ed, Nacional - Cx. Postal 660 - CEP. 89,000 - Florianopolis - SC. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



78 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(16) Brasilia National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 November 1961, by Federal Decree 241. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northeastern region to the northeast of the Federal District; 

15°35'-15°45'S, 47°55'-48°05"W. 

ALTITUDE: 700- 1,300m. 

AREA: 28,000 ha (30,000 ha were proposed in the original act). 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF, the boundaries being fixed and fenced. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Undulating high plateau of quartzite and limestone with springs and caves. 
There is a mean annual temperature of 20.6°C and an annual rainfall of 1675mm. Numerous of the springs 
and a reservoir in the park supply the capital with drinking water. Winds are predominantly from the east. 

VEGETATION: Upland tree savanna or cerrado and campo cerrado with gallery forests around the 
springs and watercourses. The Buriti palm Maurilia vinifera is found within these forests along with 
members of the Velloziaceae. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (V), pampas deer Ozotocerus 

bezoarticus, giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), greater rhea Rhea americana, red-legged 
seriema Cariama crisiala, osprey Pandion haliaetus, king vulture Sarcoramphus papa and crowned eagle 
Harpyaliaetus coronatus. Jorge Padua et al (1974) also record bush dog Speothos venaticus (V), giant otter 
Pteronura brasiliensis (V), giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V) and two seed finches, Oryzoborus 
crassirostris and O. angloensis. lUCN (1977) record most of these, along with black howler monkey 
Alouatta caraya, forest rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis, Juscelinomys candangus. cavy Galea spixii, spotted 
tinamou Nothura maculosa, lesser yellow-headed vulture Calhartes burrovianus urubutinga, burrowing 
owl Speotylo cunicularia, toco toucan Ramphastos toco, curl-crested jay Cyanocorax cristatellus , and the 
fer-de-lance Bothrops jararaca, musurana Pseudoboa cloelia and tegu Tupinambis teguixin. 

ZONING: Intangible, Primitive, Extensive, Intensive, Special and Recuperation zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The park is very close to the capital city. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Bird-banding studies, rodent studies, studies on anteaters and armadillos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Lodging for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Brasilia NP bird check-list, fish survey, termite survey, 
marmoset behaviour study, management plan, aerial photographs, survey made by CODEPLAN. 

STAFF: 1 director. I technician, 8 administrative staff, 36 park guards, 23 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 4,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Luiz Van Beethoven Benicios de Abreu , Director 
of Brasilia National Park - Setor de Areas Isoladas Norte - Via EPIA - Brasilia - D.F. - CEP - 70,000. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



BRAZIL 79 

(17) Caparao National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rain Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 24 May 1961 by Federal Decree 50,646. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast region, states of Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais; 
20°22'-20°40'S, 41°40'-42°20'W. 

ALTITUDE: 997-2,890m. 

AREA: 16,194 ha, though the effective size was only 5,000 ha in 1972. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Mountainous terrain of the Serra do Caparao on the northernmost edge of the 
Serra do Mar, largely composed of Precambrian gneissic granites and with continuous elevations above 
2500m, culminating with Pico da Baneira at 2890m. Oceanic influence produces higher precipitation on 
the eastern slopes. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rain forest up to about 1800m, then high open grassland with alpine 
communities above 2400m. There is rain forest on both sides of the divide, but that on the Minas Gerais 
side has no oceanic influence. The alpine communities consist largely of members of three families, the 
Ericaceae, Melastomaceae and Myrtaceae. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Margay Felis wiedii (V), black-pencilled marmoset Callithrix penicillata, 
nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus , woolly spider monkey Brachyteles arachnoides (E), forest 
rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis , paca Agouti paca. crab-eating racoon Procyon cancrivorus , small-billed 
tinamou Crypturellus parvirostris , turkey vulture Cathartes aura, rusty-margined guan Penelope 
superciliaris , rufous-tailed antbird Drymophila genei, Itatiaia spinetail Oreophylax moreirae. The 
buffy-headed marmoset Callithrix flaviceps (E) possibly also occurs here (WWF/IUCN Project 1614). 
Jorge Padua et al (1974) also record giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V), maned wolf Chrysocyon 
brachyurus (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V) and pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoarticus, 
while lUCN (1977) also record brocket deer Mazama americana, saffron toucanet Andigena balloni and 
the red- ruffed crow Pyroderus scutatus. 

ZONING: Primitive, Extensive Use, Intensive Use, Historical-Cultural, Recuperation and Special Use 
zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Lack of funding, insufficient personnel and park buildings. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Snake studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Management plan, aerial photographs, maps. 

STAFF: 1 director, 2 administrative staff, 13 park guards, 3 general workers. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Pithagoras Ottoni Cardoso, Director of Caparao 
National Park, Avenida Catarina EUer, 708 - Caixa Postal 17 - 36,976 - Presidente Scares - Minas Gerais. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



80 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(18) Monte Pascoal National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 November 1961 by Federal Decree 242. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North-east region, Bahia State, 150km north of the border with 
Espirito Santo; 16°45'-16°55'S, 39°08'-39°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-586m. 

AREA: 14,000 ha (decrease in size since publication of World Directory 1977, as over 7,000 ha was given 
to Pataxos Indians in August 1980). The original size was 22,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: IBDF owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area presents a variety of physical features, including dunes, mangroves, 
lagoons, barrier beaches and small hills of Pre-cambrian rock, rising to the 586m of Monte Pascoal. 

VEGETATION: Southern Bahian hydrophilic forest, grasslands, mangrove swamps, sand bank, cipo 
forests (forest with many lianas and bamboo thickets, but poor in epiphytes). Forest trees include the 
Brazilian rosewood Dalbergia nigra. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Masked titi CalUcebus personatus melannochlr (V). black-capped capuchin 
Cebus apella robustus, opossum Didelphis sp. , Felis spp. , maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (E), American 
tapir Tapiriis terrestris, collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, jaguar Panthera onca (V), bare-throated bellbird 
Procnias nudicollis, blue-cheeked parrot Amazona rhodocorhyta, king vulture Sarcoramphus papa, 
harpy eagle Harpia harpyia (R), solitary tinamou Tinamus solitarius. dusky-legged guan Penelope 
obscura. red-billed curassow Crax blumenbachi, ornate hawk-eagle Spizaetus ornatus and black 
hawk-eagle S. tyrannus. Other sources list a number of other species, but because of the reduction in size 
of the park it is not known whether they now occur within the boundaries. 

ZONING: Intangible, Primitive, Extensive, Intensive, Recuperation and Historical-Cultural zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Insufficient staff and funds; lack of park buildings. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Floristic studies by the Botany Department, Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau, 
Itabura, BA. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Management plan; aerial photographs; cartography; studies 
on the vertebrate fauna. 

STAFF: 1 administrator, 10 park guards and 1 general worker. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 2,000,000 for 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ed. Suerdick - Avenida Estados Unidos 14 - 4° 

andar - Salas 4-5/4-7 - 40,000 - Salvador - Bahia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 
INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



BRAZIL 81 

(19) Itatiaia National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.7.1 (Serro do mar). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (90%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 14 June 1937 by Federal Decree 1,713. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: South-east region, 150 km north-west of Rio de Janeiro in the State of 
Rio de Janeiro; 22°29'-22°45'S, 44°45'W. 

ALTITUDE: 816-2,787m. 

AREA: 1 1 ,943 ha, but only 10,000 ha were effective in 1972. 12,000 ha were proposed in the original act. 

LAND TENURE: Mostly owned by IBDF, with a few hectares still under private ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Mountainous topography with vast rock faces, deep valleys and gigantic 
boulders. The area includes part of the plateau of the Serra da Mantiqueira at 2200m and rises to 2787m at 
the Pico do Itatiaiucu (the summit of Agulhas Negras). The Serra da Mantiqueira is a major eruptive 
massif predominantly composed of alkaline nephelitic rocks of igneous origin dating from the upper 
Cretaceous. The park includes a few lakes and marshes at lower levels. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rainforest rich in lianas, lichens, ferns, orchids and begonias up to about 
1600m and pine forests {Araucaha angmtifolia) in the valleys up to about 2000m. Highland grasslands and 
forests, and shrub savannah, with montane flora including many endemics, the monotypic Itataia 
cleistopetala being particularly of note. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Harpy eagle Harpia harpyia (R), black-fronted piping guan Aburria 
jacutinga (E), red-capped parrot Pionopsitta pileata, the dusky-legged guan Penelope obscura, brown 
tinamou Crypturellus obsoletus, black and gold cotinga Tijuca atra, the black-capped capuchin Cebus 
apella nigritus, masked titi Callicebus personatus nigrifrons (V), possibly the woolly spider monkey 
Brachyteles arachnoides (E), crab-eating racoon Procyon cancrivorus. Boa constrictor, and tegu 
Tupinambis teguixin. Jorge Padu et al (1974) also record the maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (V), La 
Plata otter Lutra platensis (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), maned sloth Bradypus 
torquatus (E), solitary tinamou Tinamus solitarius and black hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus. The 
buffy-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix aurita (E) now appears to have disappeared from the park, as has the 
brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca (I). lUCN (1977) also record lesser anteater Tamandua tetradactyla, 
coati Nasua nasua, ocelot Felis pardalis (V), ornate hawk-eagle Spizaetus ornatus, turkey vulture 
Cathartes am ruficollis, king vulture Sarcoramphus papa, toco toucan Ramphastos toco, short-tailed ant 
thrush Chamaeza campanisona brevicauda, magpie tanager Cissopis leveriana, jararaca viper Bolhrops 
jararaca, coral snake Micurus corallinus, iguanid lizard Tropidurus torquatus, snake-necked tortoise 
Hydromedusa maximiliani and the blacksmith tree-frog Hyla faber. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Small private farms and a hotel within the park. Much of it was 

damaged by fire in 1982. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Social wasps and evolution. Systematics and ecology of neotropical plant 
genera. Frog studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A natural history museum and lodging for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Management plan in preparation. Cartography (1:10,000); 
aerial photographs. 

STAFF: 1 director, 1 biologist, 24 rangers, 6 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 2,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jose Ribamar de Souza - Director - R. Pacheco 
Leao 2040, Rio de Janeiro - R.J. - CEP. 20,020. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



82 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(20) Aparados da Serra National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.9.2 (Brazilian Planalto). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial (56%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 17 December 1959 by Federal Decree 474,466, with modifications by Decree 
70,296 (17 March 1972) although the park is only now being implemented. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southern region, southeast Santa Catarina State and northeast Rio 
Grande do Sul, 120km northeast of Porto Alegre; 29°15'-29°25'S, 50°00'-50°15'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-900m. 

AREA: 1 1 ,307 ha. 13,000 ha were proposed in the original act, but the effective size was still only 3,550 
ha in 1972. 

LAND TENURE: Mainly IBDF but part privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The South Brazilian plateau and coastal ranges terminate abruptly in this area 
in cliffs up to 500m high, exposing basalt flows. The plateau is undulating with small swampy areas, and 
springs and streams originating from the tops of the undulating high plain which cut deeply into the cliffs of 
the plateaux, creating high waterfalls (including the 400m falls of the Canyon of Itaimbezinho). 

VEGETATION: Southern plains grasslands and Atlantic pine forests with the Brazilian pine 
Podocarpus latifolia. The park protects the only two species of Brazilian conifer, the Parana pine 
Araucaria angustifolia and the Podocarpus (Araucaria being at the southeastern limit of its range). 
Vegetational succession is forming peat bogs in many of the small pools and lakes on the plateau. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Includes the azure jay Cyanocorax caeruteus, yellow-legged tinamou 
Crypturellus noctivagus , crested eagle Morphnus guianensis (R), yellow-billed pintail Anas georgica, 
long-tailed cinclodes Cinclodes pabsti, dusky-legged guan Penelope obscura, vinaceous-breasted parrot 
Amazona vinacea, and red-capped parrot Pionopsitta pileata among the birds. Mammals include giant 
anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), black-capped capuchin Cebus apella. and brown howler monkey 
Alouatta fusca (I). lUCN (1977) also record the opossum Didelphis marsupialis aurita, giant armadillo 
Priodonles giganleus (V), seven-banded armadillo Dasypus septemcinctus. La Plata otter Lutra platensis 
(V), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), pampas cat Felis concolor pajeros, pampas deer Ozotoceros 
bezoarticus, chimango carcara Milvago chimango. rufous oven-bird Furnaria rufus, urutu viper Bothrops 
alternata and snake-eating snake Rachidelus brazili. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Private farmlands, insufficient funding and lack of 
administrative buildings. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Maps, mammal survey and plant survey. 

STAFF: 1 director, 3 park guards. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 70,000,000 to solve the lands problem. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Antonio Rabelo Lara - Director - Itaimbezinho - 
Cambara do Sul - RS. CEP 95.480. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



BRAZIL 83 

(21) Serra dos Orgaos National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.7.1 (Serra do mar). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial (25%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 30 November 1939 by law Decree 1,822. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast region Rio de Janeiro state, 55km northwest of the centre 
of Rio de Janeiro; 22°24'-22°32'S, 42°59'-43°06"W. 

ALTITUDE: 410-2,263m. 

AREA: 9,370 ha, but only 5,000 ha were effective in 1972. 

LAND TENURE: Part IBDF and part privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Steep relief on the edge of a giant fault block composed mainly of granite and 
gneiss, forming a chain of geological monuments that give the appearance of organ pipes, including the 
famous Dedo de Deus (Finger of God) peak. 

VEGETATION: Luxuriant and varied due to the wide range of altitude . Lower levels have tropical rain 

forest rich in lianas, ferns and epiphytes (including orchids and bromeliads). The upper slopes have 
montane grasslands, a notable species being the endemic Prepusa hookeriana (Gentianaceae) which 
occurs on the peak of Pedro do Sino. Brush and small trees occur in sheltered areas in the montane zone, 
the trees being covered with lichens and mosses. 

TOURISM: Facilities include footpaths, nature trails, mountain huts and a restaurant. Good 
mountaineering. Large numbers of visitors. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Black howler monkey /I /oMoHa carava, black-capped capuchin Cebiis apella 
nigrilus, collared peccary Tayassu tajacii, ocelot Felis pardalis (V), maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (E), 
green winged saltator Saltator similos and a species of pit viper Bothrops sp. The La Plata otter Lutra 
platensis (V) has also been recorded, and the woolly spider monkey Brachyteles arachnoides (E) possibly 
still occurs here, but the buffy-tufted-ear marmoset Callithrix aurita (E) now appears to have disappeared 
from the park. (lUCN/WWF Project 1614). Jorge Padua et al (1974) also record La Plata otter Lutra 
platensis (V), solitary tinamou Tinamits solitarius. ornate and black hawk-eagles Spizaetus ornatus. S. 
tyrannus, and the black-fronted piping guan Aburria jacutinga. lUCN (1977) also record philander 
opossum Caluromys philander, opossum Didelphis marsupialis, masked titi Callicebus personatus (V), 
paca Cunicuhis paca. agouti Dasyprocta agouti, yellow-legged tinamou Crypturellus nociivagus, mantled 
hawk Leucopyernis polionota (I), spot-winged wood-quail Odontophorus capueira, black and yellow 
rat-snake Spilotes pullatus, the colubrid snake Dryadophis bifossatus, the iguanid lizard Urostrophus 
vautieri and the horned frog Ceratophrys dorsata (though the titi was not found during investigations 
under the lUCN/WWF project). 

ZONING: Intangible, Primitive, Extensive Use, Intensive Use, Cultural-Historic, Recuperation, 
Special Use Zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Uncontrolled visiting in the lower intensive zone. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Some entomological studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Lodging is available for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Flora and fauna lists; cartography 1:20,000 scale; aerial 
photographs; management plan; a study on the maned sloth Bradypus torquatus. Apparently a 
considerable bibliography exists. 

STAFF: 1 director, 6 administrative staff, 12 park guards, 16 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 2,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mario dAmato, Director of Serra dos Orgaos 
National Park, Avenida Rotariana S/No Alto Teresopolis - Rio de Janeiro CEP. 25, 950. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



84 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(22) Sete Cidades National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (90%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 8 June 1961, by Federal Decree 50,744. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northeast region. State of Piaui, about 150km south-southwest of 
Parnaiba; 04°05'-04°15'S, 41°30'-41°45'W. 

ALTITUDE: 150-300m. 

AREA: 6,221 ha, but only 5,051 ha were effective in 1972. 77,000 ha were planned in the original act. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Flat plateaux of Cretaceous sandstones forming tables of soft relief on one 
side and precipitous cliffs on the other. The strangely eroded sandstone outcrops give the park its name 
from their resemblance to ancient man-made constructions. The climate is semi-arid with an annual 
rainfall of 1200mm, a mean temperature of 26°C and predominantly easterly winds. 

VEGETATION: Grassland savanna (caatinga) and cerrado scrub are predominant, with gallery forest 
containing Amazonian type palms such as the buriti Mauritia vinifera, and Copernicia cerifera. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Rhea Rhea americana, puma Felis concolor, black howler monkey Alouatta 
caraya, green iguana Iguana iguana, pit viper Crotalus durissus. Jorge Padua et al (1974) also record 
bearded bellbird Procnias averano, banded cotinga Cotinga maculata, maned wolf Chrysocyon 
brachyurus (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes 
tricinctus and pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoarticus, and lUCN (1977) also record ashy opossum Marmosa 
cinerea, lesser anteater Tamandua tetradactyla, punare Cercomys cunicularis, rocky cavy Kerodon 
rupestris. jaguarondi Felis yaguaroundi (I), brocket deer Mazama spp., red-legged seriema Cariama 
cristata, picazuro pigeon Columba picazuro, sun parakeet Aratinga solstitialis and tegu Tupinambis 
teguixin. 

ZONING: Extensive, Intensive, Special and Recuperation Zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No recent information, but lUCN (1977) reported undefined 
boundaries, lack of staff and of access and visitor facilities. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Base house for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Botanical listing; management plan; cartography (1:10,000); 
aerial photographs; preliminary studies on the fauna. 

STAFF: 1 director, 3 administrative staff, 19 park guards. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 3,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Avenida Coronel Cost Araujo, 1567 - Bairro 
Joquei Clube Cx. Postal 80 - 64,000 - Teresina - PI. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



J 



BRAZIL 85 

(23) Tijuca National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.7.1 (Serra do mar). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (90%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 6 July 1961 by Federal Decree 50,925 as the Rio de Janeiro National Park, 
renamed 8 February 1967 when altered by Decree 60,183. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast region Rio de Janeiro state, virtually within the city of Rio 
de Janeiro; 22°55'-23°00'S, 43°11'-43°19'W. 

ALTITUDE: 80-1, 021m. 

AREA: 3,300 ha, though only 2,700 ha were effective in 1972. 

LAND TENURE: Part IBDF and part privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: On the slopes of the Tijuca massif which is composed predominantly of 
gneissic-granite rock. The park contains the Corcovado Peak on which stands the famous statue of the 
Redeeming Christ. Dune and beach areas. 

VEGETATION: Mainly reafforested with local tropical species since 1862 when the state began to buy 
back the coffee plantations. These areas all look very similar to the true rainforest which covers about 5% 
of the area, despite their 300 years of cultivation. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Includes the following, mainly reintroduced, species: ochre-marked 

parakeet Pyrruhura cruentata (R), black-fronted piping guan Aburria jacutinga (E), dusky-legged guan 
Penelope obscura, maned sloth Bradypus torquatus fE), common marmoset Callithrix jacchus and 
black-capped capuchin Cebus apelta nigritus. Leontopithecus rosalia (E) and Alouatta fusca (I) both 
occurred in the park at one time but are now extinct there. lUCN (1977) also recorded a number of 
primates, black-pencilled marmoset Callithrix penicillata, weeper capuchin Cebus nigrivittatus , woolly 
spider monkey Brachy teles arachnoides (E), though none of these have been reported in the recent 
literature. lUCN (1977) also record the three-toed sloth B. tridactylus, Ingram's tree squirrel Sciurus 
ingrami, tayra Eira narnara, Allamand's grison Galictis vittata. solitary tinamou Tinamus solitarius, 
channel-billed toucan Ramphastos vitellinus ariel, bare-throated bellbird Procnias nudicollis, 
swallow-tailed masikin Chiroxiphia caudata, jararaca viper Bothrops jararaca. a colubrid snake Chironius 
carinatus, ground boa Tropidophis paucisquamis and three frogs, Ceratophrys boiei, Zachaenus parvulus 
and Dendrophyrniscus brevipollicatus . 

ZONING: Primitive, Extensive Use, Intensive Use, Cultural-Historic, Recuperation, Special Use 
Zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The park is located in an urban area with 5 million inhabitants 
and suffers from uncontrolled visiting and insufficient funds. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: An experimental effort to reintroduce the assai palm Euterpes edulis; insect 
studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Coimbra-Filho, A.F. and Aldringhi, A.O. (1972). 
Reestablecimento da Fauna do Parque Nacional Tijuca. IBDF Brasil Forestal 11: 19-33. 
Management plan, maps, species Hsts. 

STAFF: 1 director, 20 administrative staff, 77 park guards. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Antonio Domingos Aldrighi, Director, Rua 
Major Rubens Vaz no. 122 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ CEP. 22,470. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



86 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(24) Ubajara National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.20.4 (Caatinga). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 30 April 1959, by Federal Decree 45,954 with alteration by Decree 72,144 (26 
April 1973). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northwest region, Ceara state, 200km west of Fortaleza; 

03°48'-03°51'S, 40°53'-40°55"W. 

ALTITUDE: 231-870m. 

AREA: 563 ha, though only 64 ha were effective in 1972 (4,000 ha were proposed in the original act). 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Limestone formations with steep cliffs and caves, on the edge of the Ibiapaba 
sandstone escarpment. The park is particularly noted for the Ubajara cave. Moisture-laden winds bring an 
annual precipitation of 1548 mm and summer temperatures range from 2rC to 16°C, when the north-east 
trade winds predominate. 

VEGETATION: Thorny scrub of the caatinga type on the foothills, and savanna type vegetation or 
cerrado scrub forest on the summits. The steeper slopes in between are densely forested with many 
Amazonian species. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Paca Cuniculus paca, agouti Dasyprocta agouti, tree porcupine Coendu 
villosus. hoary fox Dusky on vetulus, white-eared opossum Didelphis albiventer. rock cavy Kerodon 
rupestris, tataupa tinamou Cryplurellus tataupa, black-chested buzzard-eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus . 
lUCN (1977) also record opossum Didelphis marsupialis aurila, six-banded armadillo Euphractus 
sexcinctus, tree porcupine Coendu villosus, cavy Cavia aperea, crab-eating dog Cerdocyon thous, 
crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorous , margay Felis weidii (V), many parrots (Psittacidae), jararaca 
viper Bothrops jararaca, bushmaster Lachesis muta and tegu Tupinambis teguixin. 

ZONING: Primitive, Extensive Use, Intensive Use, Recuperation and Special Use. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: A road crosses the park; there is inadequate cave illumination, 
lack of general personnel and inadequate funding. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Lodging for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Maps; management plan; plant survey; speleological studies 
on the park caves. 

STAFF: 1 director, 2 administrative staff, 8 park guards, 7 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 1,600,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Raimundo de Silveira C. Filho, Director of 
Ubajara National Park, Rodovia da Confian^a (CE-75). S/No - 62.350 - Ubajara - CE. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



I 



BRAZIL g7 

(1) Lago Piratuba Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4 1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 16 July 1980. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Amapa Federal Territory; 0r50'-0r27'N, 49°40'-50°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-200ni. 

AREA: 570,500 ha (Carvalho (1981) records this site as being of 395,000 ha only). 

LAND TENURE: Owned by the Territory. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Pre-Cambrian marine flats, marshy and containing the Lago Piratuba. 

VEGETATION: Mangroves, grasslands, cerrado scrubland and tropical forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Red-handed tamarin Saguinus midas, black-capped capuchin Cebus apella, 
probably the pale-headed saki Pitheciapithecia, giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), giant otter 
Pteronura brasiliensis (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), puma Felis concolor, Caribbean manatee 
Trichechus manatus (V), American tapir Tapirus lerrestris, harpy eagle Harpia harpyia (R), greater 
flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber, green turtle Chelonia my das (E), spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus 
crocodilus (V), anaconda Eunectes murinus, bushmaster Lachesis muta. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Access to the reserve is difficult. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No information. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 1,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Secretaria de Agricultura do Amapa - Av. 
Mendonga Furtado. 53 - Macapa - Amapa. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(2) Rio Trombetas Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (90%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 21 September 1979 by Federal Decree 84,018. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Para State, 400km northeast of Manaus; 0r00'-0r45'S, 56°15' 
57°05'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-1 00m. 

AREA: 385,000 ha. 



88 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

LAND TENURE: Part IBDF and part privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: River flats and small tablelands near the confluence of the Rio Trombetas and 
Rio Maquera, and including the Jacare Lake. 

VEGETATION: Lake vegetation, riverside forest and dense tropical forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Black spider monkey Ateles paniscus paniscus (V), bare-face tamarin 
Saguinus bicolor (I), red-handed tamarin S. midas, common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, 
black-capped capuchin Cebus apella, weeper capuchin C. nigrivittatus , pale-headed saki Pitheciapithecia, 
the black saki Chiropotes satanas, red howler /I /oMa«a seniculus. La Plata otter Lutra platensis (V), giant 
otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), Amazonian manatee 
Trichechus inunguis (V), large-billed tern Phaetusa simplex, spotted sandpiper Tringa macularia, piranha 
Serrasalmus brariati and a heavy concentration of the arraw or South American river turtle Podocnemis 
expansa (E). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Illegal hunting, insufficient reserve buildings and personnel. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Taxonomic studies of flies; biological, ecological and management studies 
on arraws; bat, mammal, bird and reptilian surveys; frog studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Lodging is available for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: The Jacare Lake limnology maps. 
Reports and publications arising from the above surveys and studies. 

STAFF: 1 director, 1 administrator, 10 reserve guards, 8 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 6,000,000 in 198L 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Av. Conselheiro Furtado 1303, Belem - PA. CEP: 

66,000. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 
INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(3) Jaru Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.6.1 (Madeiran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 July 1979, by Federal Decree 83,716. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North-east Rondonia Territory. 

ALTITUDE: No information. 

AREA: 268,150 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: No information. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rainforest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus (V), black-tailed marmoset Callithrix 
argentata, common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureiis, dusky titi Callicebus moloch. white-fronted and 
black-capped capuchins Cebus albifrons and C. apella, dourocoulis Aoius trivirgatis, saki Pithecia hirsuta, 
the white-nosed saki Chiropotes albinasus (V), black spider monkey Ateles paniscus (V), red howler 
Alouatta seniculus and woolly monkey Lagothrix lagothricha{\). 



BRAZIL 89 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Access to the Reserve area is difficult. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No information. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Av. Pinheiro Machado, 1523 - Porto Velho - 
Rondonia - CEP 79,000. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(4) Cara-Cara Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 28 May 1971 by Federal Decree 68,091. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: West central Mato Grosso State; 17°25'-17°53'S, 57°22'-57°41"W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-350m. 

AREA: 61,126 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Mato Grosso plain or 'Panatanal' consisting of marsh swamp with many lakes 
in an area which was once desert. On the western border are hills rising to 350 m and in the north the 
Reserve is bordered by the Serra do Amolar and several large lakes. Low-lying areas are subject to 
seasonal flooding. 

VEGETATION: Extensive grassland, 'Cerrado' scrub savanna, gallery forests and areas of secondary 
regrowth, or capoeiras. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Hyacinthine macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus , wood stork Mycteria 
americana, Jabiru stork Jabiru mycteria, spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus, American tapir Tapirus 
terrestris. Jaguar Panthera onca (V), puma Felis concolor, tree porcupine Coendu prehensilis, tamandua 
Tamandua tetradactyla, cavy Cavia aperea, marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus (V). Jorge Padua et al 
(1974) also record maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (V), giant and La Plata otters Pteronura 
brasiliensis (V) and Lutra platensis (V), bush dog Speothos venaticus (V), giant armadillo Priodontes 
giganteus (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), marsh and pampas deer Blastocerus 
dichotomus (V) and Ozotocerus bezoarticus. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Illegal caiman hunting and smuggling, no reserve guards, 
insufficient ground remains above water all year to make necessary building possible. It has been 
suggested that the reserve should be enlarged to include the higher ground to which the animals retreat 
when the reserve is flooded (Schaller and Carvalho de Vasconcelos, 1976) and recent personal 
communications suggest this may have been done recently. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Schaller, G.B. and Carvalho de Vasconcelos, J.M. (1976). 



90 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

The status of some large mammals in Goias and Mato Grosso States of Brazil. Report to IBDF. 
Maps. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Av. Jaime Figueiredo 550 - Cx. Postal no. 031 - 

78,000 - Cuiaba - MT. 

NAME OF CNFFA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(5) Atol das Rocas Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.45.13 (Fernando de Noronja Island). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 5 June 1979 by Federal Decree 83,549. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: About 200km northeast of the coast of Rio Grande do Norte State; 

03°45'-03°56'S, 33°37'-33°56'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-3m. 

AREA: 36,249 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Transferred from the Navy to IBDF ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Annular reef located in the warm equatorial currents, with two small islands 
of 34.6 ha and 31.5 ha. Winds blow from the east. The average air temperature is 26.8°C with easterly 
winds and the water temperature at the surface is 26.7°C. 

VEGETATION: Ground vegetation consists of three plant species, two of which are grasses. The 
vegetation is heavily utilized by breeding birds. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Green turtle Chelonia mydas (E), hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata 
(E), blue-faced booby Sula dactylatra, brown booby S. leucogaster, sooty tern Sterna fuscata, brown 
noddy Anous siolidus. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Lack of fresh water is the main problem for the reserve 
administration. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Navy publications. Information can be found in various 
Brazilian research and educational institutes. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No. information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Rua Alexandrino de Alencar , 1 399 - Caixa Postal 
280 - 59,000 - Natal - RN. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



BRAZIL 91 

(6) Sooretama Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rain Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 21 September 1943 by Federal Decree 14,977 to include the Seca Forest 
Reserve (IBDF Protocol 1415/70). Present status IBDF Protocol 939 (6 June 1969). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the coast, 120km northeast of Vitoria, southeast region of Espirito 
Santo; 19°10'-19°17'S, 40°00'-40°15'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-30m. 

AREA: 24,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Flat country with Tertiary and Quaternary sediments typical of coastal 
Espirito Santo. 

VEGETATION: The reserve protects a remnant of the tropical deciduous forest which once occupied 
extensive areas on this coast. There are examples of both Amazonian and littoral floras, both species of 
assai palm Euterpe oleracea and E. edulis occur within the reserve, and other species include Paratecoma 
peroba, the rosewood Dalbergia nigra, the cedar Cedrela fissilis and the milk tree or maqaranduba 
Mimusops elata. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Masked titi Callicebus perwnatus (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga 
tridactyla (V), maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (E), jaguar Panthera onca (V), giant otter Pteronura 
brasiliensis (V), giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V), solitary tinamou Tinamus solitarius, 
racket-tailed coquette Discosura longicauda, red-billed curassow Crax blumenbachi (E) . Jorge Padua etal 
(1974) also record thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus (I), harpy eagle Harpia harpyia (R), 
black hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus. black-fronted piping guan Aburria jacutinga (E), banded and 
white-winged cotingas Cotinga maculata and Xipholena atropurpurea (V), and the large-billed and lesser 
seed finches Oryzoborus crassirostris and O. angolensis. lUCN (1977) record yapok Chironectes minimus, 
collared peccary Tayassu tajacu. yellow-legged tinamou Crypturellus noctivagus, red-breasted toucan 
Ramphastos dicolorus, bushmaster Lachesis muta and wood tortoise Geochelone denticulata. lUCN 
(1977) also note that many humming birds (Trochilidae) have been identified in the area. 

ZONING: Special Use, Recuperation, Integral Protection, Primitive and Conflict Use Zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Lack of personnel and financial resources for maintenance and 
conservation; illegal hunting; a federal highway which passes through the park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Lodging is available for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Cartography (1:50,000); aerial photographs; management 
plan. 

STAFF: 1 director, 22 park guards, 3 general workers. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Gilberto Freire de Matos - Director, esquerda a 
35 km Linhares - ES - CEP. 29,900. Telephone: 3-00113 (0272). 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



92 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(7) Una Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.7.1 (Serra do mar). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial (35%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 10 December 1980. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Bahia State, 150 icm south-southwest of Salvador; 15°05'-15°15'S, 
39°00'-30°15'W. 

ALTITUDE: 40-123m. 

AREA: 11,400 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Part IBDF and part privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Hillside country and flats. 

VEGETATION: Tropical forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: One of the principal reasons for establishing the reserve was to protect the 
golden-headed lion tamarin Leontopithecus chrysomelas (E) and thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys 
subspinosus (I). The area also contains puma Felis concolor, cavy Cavia aperea, parrots of the genus 
Amazona, Lachesis sp. and perhaps the masked titi Callicebus personatus melanochir (V), black-capped 
capuchin Cebus apella xanthosternos and the marmoset Callithrix kuhlii. All four species of monkey are 
apparently at quite low densities. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Invasion for cocoa planting and timber exploitation has 
probably affected about half of the reserve (see WWF/IUCN Project 1614). Lack of sufficient personnel. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Floristic studies carried out by the Botany Department, Centro de 
Pesquisas do Cacau, Itabuna, BA. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No information. 

STAFF: 4 reserve guards, 1 general worker. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ed. Suerdick, Av. Estados Unidos 14, salas 405 a 
407, 40,000 Salvador BA. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(8) Pogo das Antas Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rain Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (65%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 March 1974 by Federal Decree 73,792, and added to in 1975. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast region, Rio de Janeiro state, 120km east of Rio de Janeiro, 
in the coastal foothills of the Serra do Mar; 22°30'-22°33'S, 42°15'-42°19'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-1 98m. 



BRAZIL 93 

AREA: 5,063 ha (originally 3,000 ha). 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The topography is relatively flat with small valleys and low hills, composed of 
Pre-Cambrian granites and gneisses with deep latosolitic decomposition into silty sand soils on the hills, 
while in the valleys there is a covering of Quaternary hydromorphic soils. Climate is tropical with a warm 
wet season from October to April, and rainfall concentrated in June, July and August when Atlantic air 
masses reduce the average air temperatures. 

VEGETATION: Atlantic tropical rainforest, rich in species. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The reserve was declared to protect the endangered golden Hon tamarin 
Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia. Green (1980) believed that the reserve had a population of at the most 75 
animals. Woolly spider monkey Brachyteles arachnoides (E), brown howler monkey Alouatta fusca 
damitans (I), black-capped capuchin Cebus apella nigritus, maned sloth Bradypus torquatus (E), 
black-eared parrotlet Touit melanonota, solitary tinamou Tinamus solitarius, black-fronted piping guan 
Aburria jacutinga (E), small-billed tinamou Crypturellus parvirostris and dusky-legged guan Penelope 
obscura. lUCN (1977) also include the pampas and marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomiis (V) and 
Ozotocerus bezoarticus, but considering the disturbances detailed below it is possible that these species 
are no longer to be found in the reserve. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There is inadequate protection, a railroad and highway cut 
through the reserve, and a dam under construction which will flood a significant part of the area. The dam 
construction is also having a deleterious effect on the park. There are also land tenure problems and 
farming activities which prevent forest regeneration. It would seem likely that unless there is a major 
effort to improve protection of this reserve in the near future the animal for which it was declared will 
become extinct in the wild. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Butterfly studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information, but a centre was certainly planned. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERL\L: Management plan, map, lion marmoset studies, mammal 
survey. 

Green, K.M. (1980), An assessment of the Poco das Antas Reserve, Brazil, and prospects for survival 
of the golden lion tamarin Leontopitechus rosalia rosalia. Unpd. report. 

Thornback, J. and Jenkins, M. (1982). The lUCN Mammal Red Data Book Part 1. lUCN, Gland. 

Project reports for lUCN/WWF Project 1614 (Mittermeier et al). 

STAFF: A director based in Rio de Janeiro, 8 reserve guards, 2 general workers. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Dionizio Moraes Pessamilio - Diretor, Rua 
Pacheco Leao, 2040 Rio de Janeiro - CEP. 20,020. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(9) Nova Lombardia Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rain Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total, with no tourists allowed within the area. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 20 September 1948 under Estate Decree 55, given to government by Espirito 
Santo State Law 976 (10 December 1955), now under IBDF Protocol 1414 (17 April 1970). 



94 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast region, Espirito Santo State, 50km northwest of Vitoria; 
19°46'-19°55'S, 40°30'-40°35'W. 

ALTITUDE: 500- 1,200m. 

AREA: 4,350 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Very broken terrain with steep slopes and shallow soils in the northernmost 
bastion of the Serra do Mar. 

VEGETATION: Semi-deciduous tropical rainforest, with about 85% of the Bromeliaceae and 
Orchidaceae found in Espirito Santo present within the park. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Red-capped parrot Pionopsitta pileata, racket-tailed coquette Discosura 
longicauda. brown violet-ear Colibri delphinae granwalti, hooded visor-bearer Augasles lumachellus and 
large-billed seed finch Oryzoborus crassirostris . The reserve also protects one of the largest populations of 
the buffy-headed marmoset Callithrix flaviceps (E) which is endemic to this part of Brazil, the masked titi 
Callicebus personatus (V), the brown howler monkey Alouattafusca (I), the black-capped capuchin Cebus 
apella nigritus, and possibly also the woolly spider monkey Brachyteles arachnoides (E). Maned sloth 
Brady pus torquatus have also been recorded from the park, as have thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys 
subspinosus (I) and lesser seed finch Oryzoborus angolensis (Jorge Padua et al, 1974). lUCN (1977) also 
record solitary tinamou Tinamus solitarius and black-fronted piping guan Aburria jacutinga (E). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Insufficient personnel and funding. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Survey of marmoset population as part of lUCNAVWF project 1614. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Some limited facilities exist. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Aerial photographs. 

STAFF: 1 director, 1 administrator, 4 reserve guards. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Estrada de Santa Tereza a Nova Lombardia Km 7 
- Santa Tereza - ES, CEP - 29650. Telephone: 3-0013. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(10) Corrego do Veado Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: September 1948 by State Decree 55, passed to Federal Government by State 
Law 976 (10 December 1955), then given present status under IBDF Protocol 1415 (17 April 1970). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast region, northern Espirito Santo; 18°19'-18°31'S, 
40°11'-40°14'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-1 00m. 

AREA: 2,400 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area is flat with sandy soils. 



BRAZIL 95 

VEGETATION: Semi-deciduous tropical rainforest with large trees and low density subforest. Coastal 
dunes. The reserve protects important stands of a number of timber trees including Paratecoma peroba, 
the rosewood or jacaranda Dalbergia nigra, Platymenia reticulata and Astronium fraxinifolium. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fauna is similar to that of Sooretama Reserve and includes maned sloth 
Brady pus torquatus (E), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis 
(V), white-fronted marmoset Callithrix geoffroyi, black-capped capuchin Cebus apella robustus, solitary 
tinamou Tinamus solitarius, black-fronted piping guan Aburria jacutinga (E) and hook-billed hermit 
Ramphodon dohrnii (E). Jorge Padua et a/ (1974) also record harpy eagle Harpia harpyia (R), red-billed 
curassow Crax blumenbachii (E), racket-tailed coquette Discosura longicauda, banded cotinga Cotinga 
maculata (V), white-winged cotinga Xipholena atropurpurea (V), large-billed and lesser seed finches 
Oryzoborus crassirostris and O. angolensis and the onychophoran Peripatus, which lUCN (1977) records 
as being represented by several species. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Insufficient employees and lack of infrastructure. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Aerial photographs. 

STAFF: 1 technician, 2 park guards. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Antiga Estrada Pinheiro a Concei?ao da Barra 
Km 17 - Pinheiros - ES. CEP: 29,980. Telephone: 3-0013 (0272). 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(11) Serra Negra Federal Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.20.4 (Caatinga). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 7 July 1950 as a Forest Reserve by Federal Decree 28,348, present status under 
IBDF Protocol 1416 (17 April 1970). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northeast region of Pernambuco State, 350km west of Recife; 

08°37'-08°45'S, 37°56'-38°05'W. 

ALTITUDE: 800-950m. 

AREA: 1,100 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by IBDF. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park is located on an isolated upland block or inselberg, where there are 
remnants of a primitive forest. 

VEGETATION: Tropical forest island, surrounded by 'caatinga' thorn savanna with water sources, or 
brejos. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Savanna hawk Heterospizias meridionalis, little chachalaca Ortalis motmot 
guttata, rusty-margined guan Penelope superciliaris and ocelot Felis pardalis (V). 

ZONING: No information. 



96 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Lack of personnel and reserve buildings. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Investigations of flora and fauna from Recife University. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No information. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Delegacia Estadual do IBDF en Pernambuco, 
Av. 17 de agosto, 1057 - Casa Forte - 50,000 - Recife - PE. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Maria Tereza Jorge Padua. 

INFORMATION DATED: 20 May 1981. 



(1) Anavilhanas Ecological Station 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North region, Amazonas State, 100km northwest of Manaus; 
02°00'-03°02'S, 60°27'-6r07"W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-50m. 

AREA: 350,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by SEMA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: An archipelago in the Rio Negro about 90km long and 15km wide at the 
widest point, with an area of 'terra firma' of about 250,000 ha to the north. The archipelago is almost 
completely flooded in the rainy season. 

VEGETATION: Humid lowland forest ecologically divided into 'terra firma' forest and marshy forest. 
The forest bordering the stream is subject to partial inundation which affects the floristic content. This is 
known as igapo. On the high ground the forest gives way to a more savanna type of vegetation with lichens 
and groves of palms (Campinararmas). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (V), capybara Hydrochoerus 
hydrochaeris , collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, black spider monkey Aleles paniscus paniscus (V), 
red-handed tamarin Saguinus midas, common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus , black-capped capuchin 
Cebus apella, weeper capuchin C. nigrivittatus, douroucoulis Aotus trivirgatus, pale-headed saki Pilhecia 
pithecia, black saki Chiropotes satanas, red howler Aloualta seniculus and broad-nosed cayman Caiman 
latirostris (E). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some deforestation. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: River manatee project based in Manaus; termite survey; ichthyofauna 
survey. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There is lodging available for scientists and a laboratory. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Radar images; maps; research reports. 

STAFF: 1 administrator, 2 park guards, 1 general worker. 



BRAZIL 97 

BUDGET: Cr$ 3,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: SEMA - Coordenadoria de Estaqoes Ecologicas - 
Ministerio do Interior - 2° Andar, Esplanada dos Ministerios, Proje§ao 23 - Brasilia - DF. 

NAME OF CNFFA COORDINATOR: Paulo Nogueira Neto. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 July 1981. 



(2) Ique Ecological Station 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Mid-west region, Mato Grosso State, 500km northwest of Cuiaba; 
ir30'-12°02'S, 58°04'-59°53'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-400m. 

AREA: 200,000 ha (Carvalho (1981) records the size of this reserve as 220,000 ha). 

LAND TENURE: Owned by SEMA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Undulating high plain, including part of the Serra do Norte, and part of the 
northern bank of the upper Jururena River (a tributary of the River Tapajos) and the Ique River. Sandy 
soils unfit for agriculture. 

VEGETATION: Mainly cerrado with tropical Amazon forest along the river. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Jaguar Panthera onca (V), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), black 
spider monkey Ateles paniscus (V), common squirrel minkey Saimiri sciureus, dusky titi Callicebus 
moloch, black-capped capuchin Cebus apella, white-fronted capuchin C. albifrons, douroucoulis y4o»« 
Irivirgatus, the saki Pitfiecia hirsutus, red howler Alouatta seniculus and woolly monkey Lagothrix 
longothricha (V). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No information. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Termite survey. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There is lodging available for scientists and a laboratory. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Maps and research reports. 

STAFF: 1 administrator, 2 park guards, 3 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 2,730,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: SEMA - Coordenadoria de Estagoes Ecologicas - 
Ministerio do Interior - 2° Andar - Esplanada dos Ministerios - Projecao 23 - Brasilia - DF. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Paulo Nogueira Neto. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 July 1981. 



98 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Uru^ui - Una Ecological Station 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.20.4/8.30.10 (Caatinga/Campos Cerrados). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 198L 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southwest region, Piaui State, 250km southwest of Floriano; 

8°37'-9°10'S, 44°55'-45°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-400m. 

AREA: 135,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by SEMA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Plateau in the Serra do Urugui, between the Urugui and Riozinho Rivers. The 
area is characterised by large plateaux, valleys and intermittent rivers. Sandstone escarpments, sometimes 
reaching 80m. 

VEGETATION: Cerrado on the plateaux with areas of dry scrubby caatingas. Gallery forests along the 
rivers with some palm species. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Puma Felts concolor. white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari, giant armadillo 
Priodontes giganleus (V). Also recorded are giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), maned wolf 
Chrysocyon brachyurus (V), muscovy duck Cairina moschata, Marcgrave's black-winged bellbird 
Procnias averano, lesser seed finch Oryzoborus angolensis, large-billed seed finch O. crassirostris , rhea 
Rhea americana, caymans Caiman spp., turtles Testudo tabulata, pit vipers Bothrops jararaca and 
rattlesnakes Crotalus terrificus (SEMA 1977). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No information. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Maps and research reports. 

STAFF: 1 administrator, 2 park guards, 1 general worker. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 6,010,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: SEMA - Coordenadoria de Estaqoes Ecologicas - 
Ministerio do Interior - 2° Andar - Esplanada dos Ministerios - Projeqao 23 - Brasilia - DF. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Paulo Nogueira Neto. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 July 1981. 



(4) Maraca Ecological Station 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.28.10 (Campos Limpos). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North region, Roraima Federal Territory, 100km northwest of Boa 

Vista; 3°15'-35'N, 6r22'-58'W. 



BRAZIL 99 

ALTITUDE: Less than 100m. 

AREA: 92,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by SEMA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area includes parts of the Rio Uraricuera and Rio Uraricaa, and a large 
island within the Rio Uraricuera on the edge of the Guiana Highlands. The island is periodically flooded. 

VEGETATION: Transition zone between grasslands and tropical Amazon forest. Dense formations of 
buriti palms Maitritia vinifera and swamps covered with luscious hydrophilous vegetation due to the high 
water levels. Also found are rosewood /I n'fta sp. , itauba Mezilaums sp. , laurel Oco/ea, jenny wood Cordia 
goeldiana and cedrela Cedrela sp. There are also a number of interesting bromeliads and orchids. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), 
black spider monkey Aleles paniscus (V), red-handed tamarin Saguinus midas, widow monkey Callicebus 
torquatus, black-capped capuchin Cebus apella, weeper capuchin C. nigrivittatus, pale-headed saki 
Pithecia pithecia, black saki Chiropotes satanas, black-headed uakari Cacajao melanocephalus (V), red 
ho-wler Alouatta seniculus , collared peccary Tayassu tajacu and various parrots (Psittacidae). Giant otters 
Pteronura brasiliensis (V), tapirs Tapirus terrestris, caymans Caiman spp. have also been recorded 
(SEMA 1977), as have scarlet macaw Ara macao, ring-tailed coati Nasua nasua, white-fronted capuchin 
Cebus albifrons, woolly monkey Lagothrix lagithricha (V), common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, 
great egret Egretta alba, black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Jabiru stork Jabim mycteria 
and the snake Boa constrictor (Marigo, 1979). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Minor modifications by man. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies on blackflies (Simulidae). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There is lodging available for scientists and a laboratory. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Marigo, L.C., (1979). Estacao Ecologica de Maraca- 
Roraima, Revista Geografica Universal (Edicao especial). Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente 
(SEMA). 
Maps, research reports. 

STAFF: 1 administrator, 3 park guards, 2 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 4,500,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: SEMA - Coordenadoria de Estagoes Ecologicas - 
Ministerio do Interior - 2° Andar - Esplanada dos Ministerios - Projegao 23 - Brasilia - DF. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Paulo Nogueira Neto. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 July 1981. 



(5) Rio Acre Ecological Station 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North region, Acre State, on the borders with Peru and Bolivia; 

10°45'-11°05'S, 70°00'-30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-200m. 

AREA: 77,500 ha (Carvalho (1981) records the size of this reserve as 73,000 ha). 



100 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

LAND TENURE: Owned by SEMA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Plateau in the foothills of the Andes. 

VEGETATION: Palms, open tropical Amazon forest with bamboo substratum. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Jaguar Panthera onca (V), pygmy marmoset Cebuellapygmaea, black spider 
monkey Ateles paniscus (V), sloths Bradypus spp., giant otter Pteronura brasiknsis (V), capybara 
Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris . South American river turtle or arraw Podocnemis expansa (E), black 
cayman Melanosuchus niger (E), great white egret Egretta alba, Jabiru stork Jabiru mycteria, harpy eagle 
Harpia harpyia{R) and razor-billed curassow Mitu mitu. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No information. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Estudos Inicais de Implanta§ao da Esta§ao Ecologica do Rio 
Acre'. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: SEMA - Coordenadoria de Estaqoes Ecologicas - 
Ministerio do Interior - 2° Andar - Esplanada dos Ministerios - Projeqao 23 - Brasiha - DP. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Paulo Nogueira Neto. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 July 1981. 



(6) Maraca-Jipioca Ecological Station 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North region, Amapa Federal Territory, just north of the Mouths of 
the Amazon; l''50'-2°15'N. 50°17'-40'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-50m. 

AREA: 70,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by SEMA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Maraca-Jipioca Islands are of Quaternary age with muddy, monotonous, 
fiat landscapes. There are no beaches and the water is muddy. 

VEGETATION: Tropical forest on the Tesos", mangroves and flooded grasslands. 30% of the South 
Maraca island is covered by mangroves (which protect the eastern shore) as is all of Jipioca Island. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber, jaguar Panthera onca (V), roseate 
spoonbill Platalea ajaja. scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber, Caribbean manatee Trichechus manatus (V), red 
brocket deer Mazama americana. giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), capybara Hydrochoerus 
hydrochaeris, black-capped capuchin Cebus apella, common squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus, black 
cayman Melanosuchus niger (E). 

ZONING: No information. 



i 



BRAZIL 101 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Modification by man in clearing fields, and in fishing. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Lodging is available for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Radar images; maps; 'Estudos de Implantagao da Estagao 
Ecologica Maraca-Jipioca, (1978). 

STAFF: 1 administrator, 3 park guards. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 8,000,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: SEMA - Coordenadoria de Estagoes Ecologicas - 
Ministerio do Interior - 2° Andar - Esplanada dos Ministerios - Projeqao 23 - Brasilia - DF. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Paulo Nogueria Neto. 
INFORMATION DATED: 9 July 1981. 



(7) Taiama Ecological Station 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Mid-west Mato Grosso State, 250km southwest of Cuiaba; 16°50'S, 

57°23'-30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-50m. 

AREA: 12,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by SEMA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: In the basin of the upper Rio Paraguai. 

VEGETATION: Pantanal of the Mato Grosso type. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Dracaena paraguayensis, broad-nosed cayman Caiman latirostris (E), 
capybara Hydrochoeriis hydrochaeris , giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V) and marsh deer Blastocerus 
dichotomus (V). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Minor modifications by man. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Soil survey; preliminary faunal survey; morphometric characterization of 
vegetation. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There is lodging available for scientists and a laboratory. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Maps and research reports. 

STAFF: 1 administrator, 3 park guards, 2 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 110,200 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: SEMA - Coordenadoria de Estaqoes Ecologicas - 
Ministerio do Interior - 2° Andar - Esplanada dos Ministerios - Projeqao 23 - Brasilia - DF. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Paulo Nogueira Neto. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 July 1981. 



102 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(8) Aracuri-Esmeralda Ecological Station 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rain Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 June 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: South region, Rio Grande do Sul state, 90km south of Florianopolis; 
28°12'-28'S, 51°10'-11'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-1, 200m. 

AREA: 272 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by SEMA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Mountain region within the Serra do Mar with excessive gravel and shallow 
soil, due largely to wind erosion. The site is relatively close to the coast, and rainfall averages between 
1,550 and 2,500mm, falling throughout the year. Annual average temperature of 17. TC. 

VEGETATION: Native grasslands with isolated clumps of Araucaria angustifolia forest which also 
contain cinnamon-bark trees Ocotea spp. and Nectandra spp. These clumps are normally found on the 
lowlands where the soil is more fertile. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Red-spectacled parrot Amazona petrei which congregate in these forests 
every year to feed on the Araucaria seeds. Agouti Dasyprocta agouti, brocket deer Mazuma spp., tapiti 
Svlvilagus brasiliensis and 140 species of bird including the azure jay Cvanocorax coerulea have also been 
recorded (SEMA, 1977). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some deforestation took place before the acquisition of the 
area by SEMA. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Hemiptera survey; investigation of vertebrate biotic communities; 
cytotaxonomic and cytogenic studies of Rodentia; genetic and ecological studies on Lepidoptera; 
abundance and distribution of vascular epiphyta; action of fire on young Araucaria community; 
systematics, ecology and evolution of South American plant genera. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There is lodging available for scientists and a laboratory. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Aerial photographs; maps; research reports. 

STAFF: 1 research director, 1 administrator, 2 park guards, 4 general workers. 

BUDGET: Cr$ 2.600,000 in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: SEMA - Coordenadoria de Esta^oes Ecologicas - 
Ministerio do Interior - 2° Andar - Esplanada dos Ministerios - projeqao 23 - Brasilia - DP. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Paulo Nogueira Neto. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 July 1981. 



CHILE 



103 



CHILE 



AREA: 756,943 sq km. 
POPULATION: 11,390,190 (1981). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The Law of Woodlands, Supreme Decree 4363 of 1931 , and 
the Forest Law, Decree 656 of 1925, enabled the government to establish national parks and other 
reserves with the purpose of protecting certain species of tree, and conserving scenic beauty. Supreme 
Decree 531 of 1967 (of the Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores) subsequently defined National Parks and 
other reserves and specified their roles, conforming with the Convention on Nature Protection and 
Wildlife Preservation in the Western Hemisphere (Washington, 1940). Chilean conservation units have 
undergone a recent reorganisation and consolidation. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Legal responsibility for the protected areas as vested 
on the Agricola y Ganadero of the Ministerio de Agricultura. Nevertheless this organisation, through a 
1971 agreement, delegates administration to the Corporacion Nacional Forestal (CONAF). National 
Parks are large areas protected by the highest competent authority which have not been significantly 
altered by exploitation, and in which animal and plant species, geomorphological sites, or habitats are of 
special scientific, educational and/or recreational interest They may also contain areas of high landscape 
value. National Monuments are regions, objects or living species of either historic or scientific value, or of 
aesthetic interest, which are protected absolutely. Scientific Reserves are areas specifically established for 
their natural resources research potential. There are also National Fauna Refuges and Forest Reserves. 

ADDRESS: Corporacion Nacional Forestal, Departamento de Conservacion del Medio Ambiente, Av. 
Bulnes 285, Santiago de Chile. 

REFERENCES: Araya, P. (1976). Criterios y Metodologia para enfrentar la Investigacion en los 
Parques Nacionales de Chile. Depto. Conser. del Medio Ambiente, CONAF, Chile. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 3,084,588 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Laguna San Rafael 1,350,123 

2 Lauca 520,000 

3 Vicente Perez Rosales 220,000 

4 Torres del Paine 163,000 

5 Puyehue 104,017 

6 Villarrica 65,400 

7 Cape Horn 63,093 

8 Los Paraguas and Conguillo 46,000 

9 Juan Fernandez 18,300 

10 Isla Guamblin 10,625 

11 La Campana 10,000 

12 Fray Jorge 9,959 

13 Rapa-Nui 6,800 

14 Nahuelbuta 5,932 

15 Pali Aike 3,000 

National Reserves 

1 Cerro Castillo 179,550 

2 Nuble 55,948 

3 Alto Bio-Bio 35,190 

4 Malalcahuello 29,530 

5 Laguna Parrillar 20,814 



104 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

13,775 

13,500 

11,168 

9,095 

2,150 

1,230 

(1,380,613) 

(520,000) 

(163,000) 

(18,300) 

(9,845) 

This area includes Laguna San Rafael National Park and the former El Guayaneco National 
Park. 



6 Nalcas 


7 Magallanes 


8 China Muerta 


9 Lago Penuelas 


10 Coyhaique 


National Monuments 


1 Los Alerzales 


Biosphere Reserves 


1 Laguna San Rafael 


2 Lauca 


3 Torres del Paine 


4 Juan Fernandez 


5 Fray Jorge 




^3^ 



-Key. 

D NATIONAL PARKS 
A NATIONAL MONUMENTS 
<1 BIOSPHERE RESERVES 



106 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Laguna San Rafael National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IX (National Park and Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8 10.2 (Valdivian Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1959 (Supreme Decree 457). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located in General Carrera and Capitan Prat Provinces; 46°39'S, 

73°32'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-4,058m. 

AREA: 1,350,123 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Approximately a third of the park consists of northern Patagonian fields. The 
climate is harsh with 3,000mm of rain a year and a mean temperature of 8°C. 

VEGETATION: Dominated by Nothofagus pumilio forests, Pilgerodendron uvifera and evergreen 
forests composed of Nothofagus nitida, Laurelia philippiana, Weinmania trichosperma, Podocarpus 
nubigenus and Dritnys winteri, together with other tree species. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Among the mammals present are Lutra provocax (I), Pudu pudu, puma 
FelLs concolor and fox Dusicyon sp. The avifauna is diverse and includes the black-necked swan Cygnus 
melancoryphus and ducks such as Anas georgica, A. flavirostris and A. silibatrix. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Some preliminary studies have been carried out on flora, fauna and the 

geological history of the glaciers. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A meterological station has been built recently. An old hotel 
which has been partially destroyed will be used for future studies. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Heuser,C. (1961). American Geographical Society Southern 
Chile Expedition in 1959. Am. Geog. Soc. No. 4. 

Lawrence (1961). Recent glacial variations in South America. Technical Report. Am. Geog. 
Soc. No. 4. 

Universidad de Chile de Valparaiso (1978). Tripologia de la vegetacion y caracterizacion de la fauna del 
Parque Nacional San Rafael. 

STAFF: Two park guards. 

BUDGET: For personnel, administration, patrols and preliminary development studies. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mario Vildosola Y., Corporacion Nacional 
Forestal XI Region, Casilla 412, Coyhaique, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 12 June 1981. 



CHILE 107 

(2) Lauca National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IX (National Park & Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Originally the Lauca Forest Reserve, but declared a National Park of Tourism 
on 11 August 1970 (Decree 270, Ministry of Agriculture). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 160km from Arica in the province of Paninacota; 18°30'S, 69°15'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2,000-6,350m. 

AREA: 520,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National, except for a few indigenous inhabitants. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A high plateau, with an average altitude of 4,500m. There are important 
watersheds in the park, with rivers flowing both into the Pacific Ocean and down into Bolivia. An arid 
climate, with mean temperatures of between 4 and 5°C. Mean annual temperature is 1°C at an altitude of 
4400m. Mean annual precipitation is 335.5mm at the same altitude. 

VEGETATION: The park has three dominant vegetation types: tolar Baccharis tola, Fabiana, 
Chuquiraga and Mutisia, Polylepis tarapacana and cacti (Opuntia and Cereus); Andean steppe, with two 
associations, the perennial Andean meadowland with the genus Oxycloe dominant, associated with 
Gentiana, Hipochoeris, Hysela and various members of the Gramineae (of xerophytic nature); and 
llaretal, characterized mainly by Laretia spp. with examples of Polylepis tarapacana. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are 150 species of birds, notably giant coot Fulica gigantea, Andean 
gull Larus serranus and 3 species of flamingoes. Among the mammals are diverse rodent species, yet few 
carnivores. The most abundant mammal is the guanaco Lama guanicoe, together with the domestic llama 
Lama glama, domestic alpaca Lama pacos, the vicuna Vicugna vicugna (V) and the northern huemul 
Hippocamelus antisensis (V). 

ZONING: Primitive zone (17.2%), Extensive Use zone (18.2%), Intensive Use zone (9.4%), 
Historic/Cultural zone (48%), Recuperation zone (5.2%), and Special Use zone (2%). 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some areas are affected by human use; canals and the 
construction of railroads has caused erosion. These correspond to the zone classified as the natural 
recuperation zone. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Most research has been done on the vicuna, but it is sporadic. The 
management plan and proposed programme are complete. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Torres, H., Hernandez, L. and Weber, C. (1978). 
Management Plan for Lauca National Park. Technical Publication No. 5. CONAF, Santiago, Chile. 

STAFF: 1 Administrator and 2 park guards. 

BUDGET: Solely for observation and enforcement of park rules. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion Regional, Corporacion Nacional 
Forestal, Arica, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 June 1981. 



108 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Vicente Perez Resales National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.11.2 (Chilean Nothofagus). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1926 (Decree 552, Ministry of Lands and Colonization). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the province of Llanquihue; 4rS, 72°W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-3, 554m. 

AREA: 220,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 19% of the area is privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park includes a series of volcanoes and a total of 14 independent water 
systems, draining principally to Lake Todos los Santos. There is a cold temperate climate, with mean 
annual precipitation around 4,000mm. 

VEGETATION: Predominantly evergreen forests, including damp woodland with an upper storey of 
Nothofagus dombeyi and woodlands of Aextoxicon punctatum and N. dombeyi. The lower storeys are 
heterogenous and variable, predominantly Myrtaceae. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Not very abundant, though diverse. 33 species of mammals and 117 species 
of birds have been identified, some in concentrated populations. Most are typical species of the region, 
though the park does contain some subspecies due to transitions in latitudinal distribution - examples 
include Felis concolor araucana and F. c. patagonicus. 

ZONING: According to the management plan, 85% of the park is a primitive zone. There are also 
extensive use, natural recuperation, intensive use and special use zones. Proposed boundary changes are 
currently being studied. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The main management problems are in the central zone of the 
park. Privately owned lands must be used in conjunction with the objectives of the park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Scarce. Sporadic efforts are made to investigate the flora and fauna. 
Recently there have been some general studies of the limited resources. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Oltremari , J . . Paredes , G . , Martinex , O . and Real , P .( 1981 ) . 
Redelimitacion y reclasificacion de parques nacionales y reservas forestales. Aplicacion al Parque 
Nacional Vicente Perez Rosales y a las Reservas de Chiloe. Proyecto PNUD/CONAF/FAO. Santiago de 
Chile. 

STAFF: 3 park guards. 

BUDGET: For patrols, and staff salaries. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Gerardo Elzo, Corporacion Nacional Forestal, X 
Region, Puerto Montt, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 11 June 1981 



CHILE 109 

(4) Torres del Paine National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IX (National Park & Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.37.12/8.11.2 (Southern Andean/Chilean Nothofagus) 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 13 May 1959 by Supreme Decree 383, and extended by Supreme Decree 90 (13 
March 1975). April 1978 as a Biosphere Reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Named after three rocky peaks in the Paine mountain mass, this park 
is located in the province of Ultima Esperanza, 142km north of Puerto Natales. Bounded to the north by 
Argentina, to the south by Puerto Natales, to the east by the Bernardo O'Higgins National Park, and to 
the west by cattle pastures; 49°21'-51°08'S, 73°07'-74°52'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-2,346m, with a lot of the land over 2,000m. 

AREA: 163,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by the Chilean government and administered by the National Forest 
Corporation (CONAF). There is a single private holding (Cerro Paine). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A region of extensive plains, with many ridges, crags, glaciers, waterfalls, 
rivers, lakes and lagoons. The Grey, Tyndall and Balmaceda glaciers are remains of a system once much 
more extensive. They are still retreating, the most spectacular retreat being that of the glacier feeding 
Lake Dickson (an average of 17m a year between 1897 and 1943). Annual precipitation ranges from 
250-1500mm. There are strong winds in summer. Mean monthly temperatures in the Rio Paine sector 
range from 2.6-10.4°C but this area, having a distinct microclimate, cannot be considered as 
representative. 

VEGETATION: The tablelands and plains in the west are part of the Patagonian-Fuegian steppe . Those 
areas where lenga Nothofagus pumilio is present appear to be part of the evergreen forests of Verano, and 
extend to the west as far as the foot of the mountains. The mountain areas belong to the alpine treeless 
zone. The following are the most widespread plant associations, arranged according to biotic province. 
Pre-Andean scrublands: Pre-Andean xerophytic scrub association, MuUnetum spinosi: mesophytic scrub 
association, Escallonietum rubri; dwarf shrub dysclimax association, Pernettyetum mucronati. Magellanic 
deciduous forests: Magellanic deciduous forest association, Nothofagetum pumilionis; Magellanic mixed 
forest association of Nothofagus pumilio and N. betuloides. Patagonian steppe: Patagonian steppe 
association. Festucetum gracillimi; association of Festuca gracillima and Baccharis magellanica; scrub 
association of Mata Negra, Verbenetum tridentis; also halophytic and meadow communities. Andean 
desert: desert and sub-desert communities. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are about 106 species of birds, some of which are endangered in Chile, 
such as Coscoroba coscoroba and Pterocnemia pennata . Agelaius thilius has only recently been discovered 
in the Cape Ultima Esperanza area. The most representative birds are Geranoaetus melanoleucus , Buteo 
polyosoma, Polyborus plancus, Camphephilus magellanicus , Falco sparverius, Vuhur gryphus, Falco 
peregrinus. Anas sibilatrix, Cygnus melancoryphos , Phoenicopterus chilensis. There are 24 species of 
mammals: the bats Myotis chiloensis and Histiotus montanus, the edentates Zaedyus pichiy and 
Chaetophractus villosus, the rodents Notiomys macronyx, Eligmodontia elegans, Phyllotis darwini and 
Euneomys petersoni, the canids Dusicyon griseus and D. culpaeus, the mustelids Conepatus humboldtii 
and Lincodon patagonica. The puma Felis concolor is a key species in control of the population of smaller 
mammals, and is found in well-protected, wooded areas. Geoffrey's cat Felis geoffroyi (V) is also present. 
There are about 570 guanaco Lama guanicoe in the park, and the northern huemul Hippocamelus bisulcus 
(V) has disappeared from the area, but may be reintroduced. Among Amphibia are Bufo variegatus and 
Pleurodema bufonina, and among Reptilia Liolaemus lineomaculatus , L. magellanicus, L. dorbignyi, 
Diplolaemus darwini and D. bibroni. 

ZONING: The Management Plan distinguishes the following zones: primitive zone, extensive use zone, 
intensive use zone, regenerative zone, special use zone. All are available for scientific research. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Much has been damaged in clearing the land for rearing 
domestic stock. This is now being stopped and the lands are being restored. Two species have been 
introduced: Lepus europaeus and, to control it, Dusicyon griseus. 



no rUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research has already been carried out on a catalogue of the flora and fauna 
(including the actual distribution and situation of the species) and the preparation of an ecological map. 
Ecological research on the population of the guanaco Lama guanicoe and red fox Dusicyon culpaeus has 
been carried out, and an evaluation of the effect of the puma on the sheep remaining in the park (Toro 
Lake area) has been made. Research is currently being carried out on plant succession, reintroduction of 
Hippocamelus bisulcus, and population structure of the European hare and its impact on the park. 
Geological research and preparation of a geological map is proposed, and studies are planned on condor, 
eagle, Magellanic ostrich, Coscoroba swan, black-necked swan, flamingo and fish. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Abello, O. (1977). Informe Tecnico de Trabajo No. 12, 
CONAF-XIIa, Region Magallanes. (Manuscript). 

Cardenas, R. (1976). Sinopsis Ecoiogica del Parque Nacional 'Torres del Paine', CONAF-XIIa, 
Region Magallanes. (Manuscript). 

CONAF (1975). Plan de Manejo Parque Nacional 'Torres del Paine'. Doc. Tec. de Trabajo, No. 19, 
CONAF, Chile. 

Cunazza, C. (1976). CONAF-XIIa, Region Magallanes. (Stencil). 

Pisano, E. (1974). Ans. Inst. Pat., 5: 59-104. 

Rau, J. (1977). Doc. Tec. de Trabajo. (Manuscript). 

Rau, J. (1977). CONAF-XIIa, Proyecto de Investigacion 2, Region Magaflanes. 

Rau, J. and Abello, O. (1977). Ans. Inst. Pat.. Punta Arenas (in press). 

STAFF: 1 director, 1 chief park guard, 7 park guards, 3 assistant guards, a chief and a technical assistant 
in environmental education, 1 ecologist and 2 other research workers, 2 landscape architects, 1 technician, 
15 permanent workers, 3 drivers and several other miscellaneous employees. 

BUDGET: US$ 500,000 a year. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Corporacion Nacional Forestal (CONAF), XII 
Region (Magallanes and Antarctica Chilena), Area de Ultima Esperanza, Casilla 41, Puerto Natales, 
Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 11 June 1981. 



(5) Puyehue National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.10.2/8.11.2 (Valdivian forest/Chilean Nothofagus). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1941 (Decree 374, Ministry of Lands and Colonization). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 40°40'S, 72°05'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-2,236m. 

AREA: 104,017 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 70% fiscal, 30% privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Located on the Andean mountain chain in the province of Osorno, and 
including several inactive volcanoes and an important network of rivers. The temperature varies from 8°C 
to 15°C, while the average annual precipitation is around 3,000mm. 

VEGETATION: Predominantly evergreen woodland of Nothofagus, particularly A', pumila, but also 
dominated at times by N. dombeyi, N. nitida and N. betuloides. N. pumilio is also frequently found in 
association with N. antarctica. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Three mammals are typical of the southern region, Pudu pudu, coypu 



CHILE 111 

Myocastor coypus and puma Felis concolor. The birds are diverse, including both residents and migratory 
birds. Especially noteworthy are the aquatic birds of the mountain lake region. 

ZONEVG: The management plan is being revised to include ideas to open a large portion of the park to 
recreation in a natural setting. It may be feasible to combine a unique natural setting with intensive use. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There are conflicts with private landowners. The possibility of 
delimiting new boundaries is being studied. The inspectors are given little latitude to work with. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Most research is related to vegetation. Recently there have been some very 
basic fauna studies aimed at reintroducing the native species. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Limited to administration installations. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Oltremari, J.. Paredes, G. and Schlegel, F. (1980). 
Alternative delimitation of Puyehuye National Park boundaries. Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdiva, 
Chile (including bibliography with 30 references). 

STAFF: 1 administrator and 4 park guards. 

BUDGET: Remuneration for personnel and building maintenance. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Gerardo Elzo, Corporacion Nacional Forestal, X 
Region, Puerto Montt, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 11 June 1981. 



(6) Villarrica National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.37.12/8.22.5 (Southern Andean/Chilean Araucaria). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1940 (Decree 2236, Ministry of Lands and Colonization). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located in the provinces of Cautin and Valdiva; 39°30'S, 7r40'W. 

ALTITUDE: 750-3, 776m. 

AREA: 65,400 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Fiscal. There are 23 occupants (3 with certificates). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park is composed of a chain of three volcanoes, Lanin, Quetrupillan and 

Villarrica, the latter being active. 

VEGETATION: The monkey puzzle or Chilean pine Araucaria araucana is found here in association 
with Nothofagus obliqua and N. alpina. There are also woodlands of A^. pumilo and N. dombeyi, and 
communities of Podocarpus nubigenus. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Most of the interesting animals are to be found in the southern part of the 
park. Among the mammals Dusicyon sp., coypu My ocastor coypus , southern pudu Pw^/u pwrfu and puma 
Felis concolor are of interest, while the avifauna is diverse (the woodland birds being of particular 
interest). 

ZONING: Most of the park is classified as a primitive zone. There are small areas classified as extensive 
use zones, natural recuperation zones and intensive use zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Very few considering the size of the park. Some terrestrial 
areas have recuperated from the effects of forest fires. The presence of untitled settlers on the land creates 
fairly minor problems. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Quite sparse, except some general studies of park management, although 
the existing flora, fauna and the volcanoes offer good possibilities. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 



112 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Castro, A., Tienken, A., Sebok, P. and Valdivieso, L. 
(1974). Guia de Manejo y Desarrollo del Parque Nacional Villarrica. Universidad Austral de Chile, 
Valdivia, Chile. 

STAFF: 1 administrator and 2 park guards. 

BUDGET: For maintenance and regulation control. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Santiago Gomez L., Corporacion Nacional 
Forestal, IX Region, Temuco, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 11 June 1981. 



(7) Cape Horn National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.26.8 (Patagonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1945 (Decree 995, Ministry of Lands and Colonization. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The islands Wollastone and L'Hermite in the department of Tierra del 
Fuego, at the extreme southern end of Chile; 55°45'S, 67°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: From sea level to about 1000m. 

AREA: 63,093 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Fiscal. 

VEGETATION: Dominated by thick low plants and tubers. The evergreen woodlands are confined to 
small valleys. Noteworthy species are Nothofagus nitida and N. antarctica which are stunted in growth 
form here. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The habitat is especially good for marine mammals such as the otter Lutra 
felina (which inhabits coastal areas), southern sea lion Otaria bryonia and South American fur sea 
Arctocephalus australis. Birds are typical of the southern littoral zones, with an abundance of Pelecanoides 
sp., kelp gull Larus dominkanis and a great diversity of other species. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mauricio Rosenfeld, Corporacion Nacional 
Forestal XII Region, Punta Arenas, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 12 June 1981. 



CHILE 113 

(8) Los Paraguas-Conguillo National Park 
(administered as one unit) 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.22.5 (Chilean Araucaria Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1940 (Decree 1682, Ministry of Lands and Colonization). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the province of Cautin; 38°40'S, 7r42'W. 

ALTITUDE: 800-3, 124m. 

AREA: 46,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Fiscal except for 5%. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Situated on the Andean mountain range and including an active volcano with 
a double crater (which last erupted in 1957). The climate is rigorous with precipitation close to 2,000mm 
per year and the mean temperature 10°C. 

VEGETATION: Predominantly mixed woodland of Chilean pine Araucaria araucana with species of 
Nothofagus, located in the transition zone. The smaller plant species are sparse, and consist principally of 
Berberis sp., Chusquea sp., Ugni molinae and Festuca sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fauna is of low diversity. Interesting mammals are Pudu pudu, Felis 
guigna, puma F. concolor and fox Dusicyon sp. Among birds, the presence of Vultur gryphus, 
Campephilus magellaninus and Enicognatus leptorhynchus is of note. 

ZONING: There is a preliminary management plan which makes most of the park a primitive zone, and 
includes a natural recuperation zone, and intangible zone, an intensive use zone and an extensive use 
zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There is some disturbance from neighbouring properties, and 
in some sectors it is relatively extensive with the outbreak of forest fires, especially in the Los Paraguas 
region. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: There are possibilities for significant studies of the connection between 
geomorphology and vegetation. Currently the reintroduction of native animals is being studied. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: One for the study of native fauna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: CONAF/FAO (1974). Management Plan of Conguillio-Los 
Paraguas National Park. National Forestry Corporation (internal document). 

STAFF: 1 administrator and 4 park guards. 

BUDGET: For a visitors' centre, control and administration. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Santiago Gomez L., Corporacion Nacional 
Forestal, IX Region, Temuco, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 11 June 1981. 



114 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(9) Juan Fernandez National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IX (National Park & Biosphere Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 5.4.13 (Southeastern Polynesian). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Decree 103, 16 January 1935, declared Juan Fernandez Archipelago as a 
National Park. Decree 1310, 18 August 1954, limits livestock raising and exploitation of forests; Decree 
619, 15 September 1954, prohibits hunting. Accepted as a Biosphere Reserve in January 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The whole of the Archipelago consisting of Robinson Crusoe, 
Alexander Selkirk and Santa Clara Islands and all the islets in the area, except for 44km (the town of San 
Juan Bautista). 650km from the Chilean coast in the Pacific ocean; 33°41'S, 78°47'-80°47'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-1, 650m. 

AREA: 18,300 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 97% state property, the rest private. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The archipelago is of volcanic origin, with deep ravines and rugged mountain 
ranges. There are various types of lava, some 400m deep. The climate is maritime with average monthly 
temperatures fluctuating by less than 6°C. 75% of rain occurs during the winter. 

VEGETATION: 70% of the species are endemic and there are 50 species of fern. Robinson Crusoe 
Island is characterized by steppe, with Stipa fernandeziana and Piptochaetium bicolor; evergreen scrub 
with Chilean myrtle Ugni selkirkii and the tree fern Blechnum cycadifolium; subantarctic forest with 
masatierra luma Nothomyrica fernandeziana, naranjilla Fagara mayu, winter's cinnamon Drimys winteri 
var. confertifolia, the palm Juania australia, michay berberry Berberis corymbosa and Juan Fernandez 
apple tree Bohemeria excelsa in the lower reaches, and Cuminia fernandeziana, C. eriantha and Gunnera 
peltata higher up. Alexander Selkirk Island is characterized by grasses such as Stipa, Anthoxanthum and 
Nassella, wild tobacco Nicotiana cordifolia, the endemic Eryngium sarcophylum and rare examples of 
hardwoods such as Sophora fernandezianum and Myrceugenia schulzei. The rare endemics Solanum 
robinsonianum, Denroseris liloralis and Denmdroseris pruinata can be found on Santa Clara. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are a few native species and some introduced . The Juan Fernandez fur 
seal Arctocephalus philippi (V) is the most important mammal. Birds include the Juan Fernandez 
cachudito Anaeretes spizitornis fernandezianus, the Juan Fernandez remolinera Cinclodes oustaleti, the 
masafura rayadito Aphrastura masafuerae, the masafuera eaglet Buteo polyosoma exsul, the Juan 
Fernandez humming bird Sephanoides fernandensis , the Juan Fernandez buzzard Falco sparverius 
fernandensis and the nuco Asia fiammeus suinda. The marine fauna is very rich and diverse, including the 
lobster Vasus frontalis (which sustains the economy of the island), the Juan Fernandez cod Hectoria 
oxygeneios, the atherine Basilichthys fernandezianum, the white sea-bass Scianea fasciata , horse mackerel 
Trachurus murphy and the hake Merluccius gayi. 

ZONING: In accordance with the management plan, the most important zone is the primitive one, 
followed by the intangible zone, the extensive use zone, the natural recuperation zone, the special use 
zone and the intensive use zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Livestock grazing is causing erosion. Introduced animals 
include the goat Capra hircus var. fernandeziana, the rat Rattus norvegicus, the rabbit Orcytolagus 
cuniculus, the coatimundi Nasua narica, the four-eyed sapito Pleuroderma thaul and the vineyard snail 
Helix pomatia. There has been selective felling, especially of the Chonta palm Juania australis and the 
sandalwood tree Santalum fernandezianum, the latter becoming extinct. Certain native species are now 
being replanted. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: This is important to help develop management plans for maintaining the 
diversity of the endemic flora and fauna. So far research is scarce, and has been in relation to the 
importance of the resources. There is an annual fauna survey. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Gay, C. (1974). La Isla de Juan Fernandez. Mus. Nac. Hist. 
Nat. Sen: Educ. No. 9: 6-16. 
Gutierrez, A., Mann, G., Merino, R., Thelen, K.D., and Dalfelt, A. (1976). Plan de manejo Parque 



CHILE 115 

Nacional Juan Fernandez. Documento Tecnico de Trabajo, No. 22, Proyecto FAO/RLAT tf-199. 
Santiago de Chile. 

Johoe, G. (1896). Estudios sobre la flora de las Islas de Juan Fernandez. Santiago de Chile. 

Kuschel, G. (1961). Composition and relationship of the terrestrial faunas of Easter, Juan Fernandez, 
Desventuradas and Galapagos Islands. Tenth Pacific Science Assocation, University of Hawaii, 
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA., pp. 79-95. 

Munoz Pizarro, C. (1969). El Archipielago Juan Fernandez y la Conservacion de sus Recursos 
Renovables. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Ser. Educ. No. 9, pp. 17-70. 

Philippi, R.A. (1956). Sobre Juan Fernandez. Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 4, Vol. Ill: 87. 

Skottsberg, C. (1920-1953). The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island. Botany Vol II, 
1-960. Uppsala. 

STAFF: 1 administrator, 2 rangers, 10 permanent workmen and 10 temporary workmen. 

BUDGET: US$ 20,000 for the control of rabbits, and also for personnel and control procedures. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ricardo Meza, Corporacion Nacional Forestal, V 
Region, 3 Norte 541, Vina del Mar, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 
INFORMATION DATED: 10 June 1981. 



(10) Isla Guamblin National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.10.2 (Valdivian forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1967 (Decree 321, Ministry of Agriculture). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the western edge of the Archipelago de Los Chonos near the 
coastal province of Aysen; 44°50'S, 75°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-2 18m. 

AREA: 10,625 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Fiscal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A flat island on the edge of the Pacific Ocean. 

VEGETATION: Dominated by evergreen species. The Chilean endemic hardwood Tepualia stipularia, 
which is found on the island, has a more stunted growth form than its conspecifics on the continent, and the 
inner isles. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There is a low diversity of mammals, but these include two species of 
pinniped of importance to the fur trade, the southern sea lion Otaria bryonia and the South American fur 
.seal Arctocephalus australis. There is an abundance of marine birds, and particularly interesting amongst 
these are the Magellanic diving petrel Pelecanoides magellani, giant fulmar Macronectes giganteus, 
Wilson's storm-petrel Oceanites oceanicus and kelp gull Larus dominicanus, but there are many others. 

ZONING: None has been established. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Few of significance. Some alteration in the type of fauna has 
been reported, due to marine contamination from petrol tankers. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Slight, although there are prospects for research on the fauna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: CONAF. Documentos Internos de Parques Nacionales en la 
XI Region. Corporacion Nacional Forestal, Coyhaique, Chile. 



116 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

STAFF: No permanent staff. 

BUDGET: For patrols. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Corporacion Nacional Forestal, XI Region, 
Casilla 412, Coyhaique, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 12 June 1981. 



(11) La Campana National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.23.6/8.11.2 (Chilean Sclerophyll/Chilean Nothofagus). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1967 (Law 16.699). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located in the province of Quillota, 40km from the city of Vina del 
Mar; approximately 33°S, 7ri5'W. 

ALTITUDE: l,900-2,222m. 

AREA: 10,000 ha approximately. 

LAND TENURE: Mainly privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Containing hills ranging from 1,900m to 2,222m in height, generally with a 
north exposure. 

VEGETATION: Sclerophyllous woodlands in the semi-humid region of the central zone, with 
Cryptocarya alba and Peumus boldus. In the more humid areas is hydrophilous woodland with Drimys 
winteri and Persea lingue. The presence of Jubaea chilensis is noteworthy. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Important species are red fox Dusicyon culpaeus and Lagidium viscacia. 
Among the birds are Mivalgo chimago, wild pigeon Columba araucana and Sephanoides sephanoides , but 
in general the diversity is poor. 

ZONING: None yet established. A definitive planning scheme is scheduled for 1981. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Most of the land is privately owned, but as there is no chance 
for it to be used for agriculture it has remained largely unaltered. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Plants and animals have been studied, specifically in their relationship to 
the climate. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: The University of Chile Geography Department has a 
meterological station here. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Ahumada, Miguel ( 1981 ) . Zoning for La Campana National 
Park. National Forestry Corporation, V Region, Vina del Mar, Chile. 

STAFF: 3 park guards. 

BUDGET: Mainly for control and monitoring of disturbance. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ricardo Meza, Director Regional V Region, 
Corporacion Nacional Forestal, Vina del Mar, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 11 June 1981. 



1 
J 



CHILE 117 

(12) Fray Jorge National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IX (National Park & Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.23.6 (Chilean Sclerophyll). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: On 29 March 1941 by Decree 728 all three sites were declared National Parks. 
Modifications were made by Decrees 318 and 326 of 1 June 1967. It was accepted as a Biosphere Reserve 
by the MAB Bureau in June 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The area comprises the Fray Jorge, Talinay and Punta del Viento 
National Parks, situated in the IVth Region, the province of Limari, and the municipality of Ovalle; 
450km north of Santiago and 1 10km south of La Serena. The park extends along the range of mountains 
forming the Cordillera de la Costa; 30°34'S, 71°11"W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-762m. 

AREA: 9,959 ha. 

LAND TENURE: State property. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park is situated in the mountainous Andean coastal complex which 
extends between the River Elqui in the north to the Aconcagua in the south. There are two kinds of 
topography, coastal plains and mountainous hinterland. The coastal plains have terraces of marine and 
pluvi-marine origin. The cHmate is of a modified desert type. The average monthly temperature is 14.4°C 
with a maximum of 18.6°C. South-westerly winds prevail except in the winter, when the wind blows from 
the north. As the moist sea breezes blow up over the coastal range, an almost continual cloud cover is 
formed over the peaks, accompanied by increased precipitation. There are no permanent rivers or creeks 
in the park, but a few springs exist. 

VEGETATION: The park is situated in the area bordering the scrub formations and semi-desert coastal 
steppes on the one side, and the tree and shrub formations of the Cordillera de la Costa in the Central 
Region, on the other. The most important feature of this National Park is the presence of the most 
northerly forest in Chile. The Fray Jorge forests are green 'oases' surrounded by semi-arid lands; they 
have some features in common with the hygrophilous forests of the south (Valdiviano forest). The 
vegetation of the park (east to west) includes: a zone of semi-desert shrub formations with herbaceous 
species such as broom Gutierrezia paniculata, furze Chuquiraga ulicina, and shrubs such as the incense 
tree Flourensis thurifera, the puscana Proustia pungens, the palo negro Cassia stipulacea and guaiacum 
Porlieria chilensis; a zone with northern exposure containing Cactaceae, intermingled with varilla 
Adesmia angustifolia and palo negro; an inner-valley zone with a shrub association of varilla and broom; a 
wooded zone dominated by copses of olivillo Aextoxicon punctatum and arrayan macho Rhaphithamnus 
spinosa, and separated by areas of shrub and pasture vegetation such as romerollo Lythrum hyssopifolia, 
pasto salado Distichlis spicata, cuerno de cabra Haplopappus foliusus , berberry Berberis spp., boUen 
Kageneckia oblonga and palo bianco /uc/j^/a lycioides; and a coastal zone of varilla, puscana and carden 
Puya chilensis. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The park shelters almost all the Mediterranean species typical of Chile. 
Among the great variety of birds are the partridge Nothoproctaperdicaria, turtle-dove Zenaida auriculata, 
starling Pezites militaris, thrush Tardus falklandii, goldfinch Diuca duyca, lark Mimus thenca. austral 
blackbird Curaeus curaeus, and the wild pigeon Columba araucana. There is little variety in the mammals, 
the most noteworthy being the red fox Dusicyon culpaeus, the quique Galictis cuja and the chingue 
Conepatus chinga. Large numbers of rodents are found, but there are few Batrachia or other amphibians. 
Introduced exotic fauna of importance include the quail Lophortyx californica and the hare Lepus 
europaeus. The Chilean Llama Lama guanicoe has become extinct in this region, and this may also be true 
of the chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera. 

ZONING: None at present, but consideration is being given to the following management zones: 
inaccessible zone, primitive zone, zone for intensive use, zone for extensive use, zone for special use. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The reserve has remained in its natural state. There is no 
evidence of farming, intensive stock-raising or exploitation of the forest though there has been some 
introduction of livestock from adjacent land. 



118 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Priority will be given to research projects relating to management 
programmes for the park . Research priorities include study of the micro-climate , the vegetation , the fauna 
and the ecology in general; evolutionary study of the forest and its degradation; feasibiUty study of 
reintroducing species which previously existed in the region, such as the Chilean llama Lama guanicoe and 
the chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera; study of plant succession; study of the natural regeneration of the desert 
area. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Arevalo, O. (1975). Parque Nacional Fray Jorge. Coquimbo, 
Chile, CONAF. 

CONAF (1974). Management Plan for Fray Jorge National Park. Report No. 17. Project 
FAO/RLAT/TF 199, Santiago, Chile. 

Follmann, G. and Weisser, P. Oasis de Neblina en el Norte de Chile. Offprint, Boletin de la U. de Chile 
Vol. 67, Santiago de Chile. 

Giles, P.C. (1963). Flora con valor economico de la Provincia de Coquimbo. Edition Conorte. 

Munoz, P.C. and Pisano, E. (1947). Estudio de la vegetacion y flora de los Parques Nacionales Fray 
Jorge y Talinary. Agriculture Tecnica VII, 2: 70-190. 

Philippi, F. (1930). Una visita al bosque mas boreal de Chile. Boletin del Museo Nacional, 13: 96-105, 
Santiago de Chile. 

Skottsberg, G. Apuntes de la flora y vegetacion de Fray Jorge. Coquimbo, Chile. 

STAFF: An administrator, a ranger and eight workmen. 

BUDGET: For administration and control. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Guido Soto, Corporacion Nacional Forestal, 
IV-Region, Lincoyan 300, Los Vilos, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 June 1981. 



(13) Rapa-Nui National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 5.4.13 (Southeastern Polynesia). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1935 by Decree 103, Ministry of Lands and Colonization. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On Isla de Pascua (Easter Island), an island in the Pacific ocean; 
29°09'S, 109°26'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-300m. 

AREA: 6,800 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Fiscal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: An island located 3,600km off the Chilean coast, with enclosed freshwater 
lakes, volcanic craters and eroded coastlines. The climate is warm, subtropical maritime, with an average 
annual precipitation of 1140mm. 

VEGETATION: There are 150 species of plants, 45 of which are indigenous and typical of the tropics, 
but despite the tropical climate the whole island is now covered mainly by grassland. Sophora toromiro 
was noteworthy, being the only species of tree or shrub known on the island in historic times. 
Unfortunately this species is now generally regarded as extinct in the wild (Lucas and Synge, 1978). The 
major cover of the dense steppe lands is by species of Stipa and Nasella, the other species being 
introduced. 



i 



CHILE 119 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are four species of terrestrial birds and three of marine birds, 
including Fregata nubor, the red-tailed tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda and the Kermadec petrel 
Pterodroma neglecta. There are no mammals except introduced rodents and carnivores. The only 
noteworthy reptiles are three species of marine turtles which occasionally visit the park. 

ZONING: Intangible, primitive, extensive use, intensive use, service and special use zones. A large 
proportion of the extensive use zone (second in importance to the intangible zone) conforms to the 1976 
Management Plan proposals. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Alteration by archaeological investigation, and erosion and 

damage caused by visitors. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Very limited, unfortunately, as the cultural resources are important and of 
great interest, especially archaeological. Implementation of the Management Plan is necessary, 
particularly inventory and mapping of the archaeological remains; moreover time is needed for 
restoration projects. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: CONAF (1976). Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Rapa 
Nui. Documento Tecnico de Trabajo No. 20. Proyecto FAG/RLAT/TF 199. Corporacion Nacional 
Forestal, Santiago de Chile. 

STAFF: One administrator. 

BUDGET: Assigned to cover the cost of management. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ricardo Meza, Corporacion Nacional Forestal, V 
Region, Vina del Mar, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 June 1981. 



(14) Nahuelbuta National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.22.5 (Chilean Araucaria Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1939 (Decree 15, Ministry of Lands and Colonization). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Malleco province; 37°45'S, 73°W. 

ALTITUDE: 950- 1,570m. 

AREA: 5,932 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Fiscal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Gently undulating terrain on the high plain of the coastal hills. Climate is 
temperate with mean precipitation of 1200mm per year and temperatures around 13°C, the maximum 
temperature being in January. 

VEGETATION: Dominated by Araucaria araucana, Noihofagus obliqua, N. dombeyi, N. antarctica 
and N. pumilo. In the transition woodlands it is possible to find Laurelia philipiana, Weinmania 
trichosperma and Eucryphia cordifolia, among others. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Noteworthy mammals are Pudu pudu, red fox Dusicyon culpaeus, grey fox 
D. griseus, Conepatus chinga, puma Felis concolor and numerous rodents. The avifauna is diverse and 
approximately 50 species typical of the region have been identified. 

ZONING: The management plan (1970) identifies 4 zones: one reserved for scientific study, a natural 
recuperation zone and recreational and transition zones. 



120 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: In some sectors there is a problem of forest exploitation. It is 
intended to maintain these sectors for regeneration. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Practically nonexistent, although the resources are important. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Ferriere, G. (1963). Aspectos ecologicos del Parque 
Nacional Nahuelbuta. Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad de Chile. 

Servicio Agricola y Ganadero (1970). Plan de Manejo y DesarroUo del Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta. 
Div. Forestal, Santiago de Chile. 

STAFF: 1 administrator and 1 park guard. 

BUDGET: For park guards. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Santiago Gomez L., Corporacion Nacional 
Forestal, IX Region, Temuco, Chile. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Juan Oltremari A. 

INFORMATION DATED: 11 June 1981. 



COLOMBIA 121 



COLOMBIA 



AREA: 1,138,907 sq km. 
POPULATION: 28,000,000 (1980). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The basic principles concerning the estabhshment of 
National Parks in Colombian law were fixed in Law 2a of 1959. Decree 2420 of 1968 created the Institute 
de DesarroUo de los Recursos Naturales Renovables, now the Institute Nacional de los Recursos 
Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente (INDERENA), and ascribed to it the function of declaring and 
administering the national parks and reserves. In 1971 a statute was promulgated on the conservation units 
of the National Parks system, which included the basic rules for the management, administration and 
development of the areas. Decree Law 2811 of 18 December 1971 defines the Colombian Code of 
Renewable Natural Resources and Protection of the Environment (part of which defines conservation 
areas and their purposes). Decree of 16 March 1977 regulates this code in relation to the areas of the 
national parks system. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: INDERENA receives preliminary information from 
the Colombian Academy of Exact Science, Physics and Biology in order to declare areas of the parks 
system. New areas are established by means of an agreement of the Directiva. The Penal Code recently 
promulgated establishes prison sentences for those who invade territory of the National Parks. National 
Parks are defined in Colombia as large areas with ecological integrity where plant or animal species, 
geomorphological complexes, historical or cultural areas with scientific, educational, aesthetic or 
recreational value of national importance can be retained (under an adequate management regime) for 
their perpetuation. Sanctuaries are areas set aside specifically to preserve species or communities of wild 
animals to conserve genetic resources. Colombia also has Natural Reserves, 'Unique Natural Areas' 
(which would appear to correspond to Natural Monuments) and Parkways (which are protected 
landscapes along roadways). 

ADDRESS: Division de Parques Nacionales, INDERENA, Bogota, Colombia. 
TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 3,958,750 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 El Tuparro 548,000 

2 Sierra de la Macarena 501,350 

3 Paramillo 460,000 

4 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 383,000 

5 El Cocuy 306,000 

6 Cordillera de los Picachos 286,000 

7 Amacayacu 170,000 

8 Nevado del Huila 158,000 

9 Sumapaz 154,000 

10 Farallones de Call 150,000 

11 Paramo de Las Hermosas 125,000 

12 Sanquianga 89,000 

13 Purace 83,000 

14 Los Katios 72,000 

15 Chingaza 50,000 

16 Tama 48,000 

17 Pisba 45,000 

18 Munchique 44,000 

19 Los Nevados 38,000 

20 Las Orquideas 32,000 

21 Macuira 25,000 



122 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

21,000 

18,700 

15,000 

9,000 

90,000 

23,000 

7,000 

6,700 

1,000 

8 

Biosphere Reserves 

1 Cinturon Andino Cluster (855,000) 

2 El Tuparro (548,000) 

3 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (383,000) 

* This area is not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



22 


Isla de Salamanca 


23 


Corales del Rosario 


24 


Tayrona 


25 


Cueva de los Guarcharos 


Sanctuaries 


1 


Arauca 


2 


Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta 


3 


Los Flamencos 


4 


Iguaque 


5 


Los Colorados 


6 La Corota* 



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124 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Parque Nacional Natural EI Tuparro 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.27.10 (Llanos). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Agosto 1970 como Territorio Faunistico y desde 1980 como Parque Nacional 
con su superficie ampliada. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Llanos Orientales. Comisaria Especial del Vichada, Limite Oriental 
el rio Orinoco; 5°00'-34'N y 67°52' - 69°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 125-250 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 548,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Pertenece a la Nacion el 99.9% . Al ampliar la superficie de la Reserva en el ano 1980 y 
con el objeto de buscar limites arcifinios se incluyeron unos colonos que ocupan el 0. 1 per cent del Parque. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Topografia completamente plana con pequenas ondulaciones (serranias) y 
algunos afloramientos graniticos en su limite oriental. Algunas zonas permanecen inundadas durante 
parte del ano. La temperatura media anual oscila alrededir de los 28°C y precipitacion promedio de 2,000 
m.m. El Parque esta delimitado por los rios Orinoco - Tomo y Tuparro. 

VEGETATION: El 85% de su superficie esta cubierta por sabanas con predominio de Paspalum spp., 
Stipa spp. y Andropogon sp. Algunas de estas sabanas oresentan un arbolado tipo Bosque abierto 
compuesto por: Curatella americana. Bowdichia virgiloides, Byrsonima spp. y Caraipa llanorum. Los 
Bosques en su gran mayoria riparios o de galeria encierran especialmente Calophyllum spp., Couma 
macrocarpa,Jesseniapolycarpa, Tecoma sp. , Hymenae courbaril y Boursera spp. Se destaca igualmente la 
presencia de los 'Morichales' formaciones homogeneas de Mauritia flexuosa. El pasto dominante de las 
sabanas es Andropogon bicorne. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Se destaca la presencia de especies en vias de extincion como: Pteronura 

brasiliensis (V), Crocodylus intermedius (E), Panthera onca (V), F. concolor y Priodontes giganteus (V). 
Entre los otros mamiferos existen: Odocoileus virginianus , Tapirus terrestris, Hydrocfiaerus hydrochaeris, 
varias especies de primates, felidos y canidos. Entre las aves encontramos Chauna chavarria, Aguilas 
(Accipitridae), Loros (Psittacidae), Gallito de roca Rupicola rupicola. Dentro de los reptiles existen 
ademas babillas Caiman crocodilus (V), Eunecies murinus y varias especies de tortugas. 

ZONING: No se ban establecido. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Practicamente no existe ninguna. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Inventarios de fauna y flora. Investigacion sobre Bioecologia de: 
Odocoileus virginianus. Estudios sobre ecologia de primates especialmente Cebus albifrons y C. apella. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Existe un pequeno Laboratorio en el Centre Administrativo. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Defler, T. (1979). On the Ecology and behaviour of Cebus 

albifrons in eastern Colombia: Primates 20 (4): 475-402. 

Defler, T. (1980). Notes on interactions between the Tayra (Eira barbara) and the white-fronted 
capuchin {Cebus albifrons). Journal of Mammalogy. 

Vincelli, Paul C. (1980). Estudio de la Vegetacion del Tuparro. INDERENA. 

STAFF: 1 Zootecnista - Jefe del area, 1 Ingeniero Forestal - Auxiliar del Jefe, 14 Guardaparques y 15 
Obreros y Celadores. 

BUDGET: 6,900,000 pesos Colombianos en el ano 1980 y 3,800,000 pesos Colombianos en el primer 
semestre de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional El Tuparro - INDERENA - 
Villavicencio - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



COLOMBIA 125 

(2) Parque Nacional Natural La Macarena 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Noviembre 1948 comi Reserva Biologica. En el ano 1971 se cambio su status a 
Parque Nacional Natural y se redujo la superficie. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Orinoquia Colombiana - Departamento del Meta; 2°15' - 3°00'N 
73°00' - 74°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-2,500 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 501,350 ha. 

LAND TENURE: La totalidad es de la Nacion. Sin embargo, por la demanda por nuevas tierras 
laborables y el incremento de vias de acceso existen en la Macarena un gran numero de colonos que estan 
causando muy serios disturbios a esta valiosisima reserva. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: La Sierra es una cordillera aislada de 120 kilometres de longitud y 30 
kilometros en su arte mas ancha, su flanco occidental esta constituido por gigantescos escarpes, el oriental 
presenta laderas disectadas por numerosos valles; en el eje central existen mesas con faldas casi 
perpendiculares Geomorfologico y bioticamente puede considerarse le Macarena como el mas occidental 
de los tepuyes. En las partes bajas el clima es tropical humedo con temperatura media de 25°C. 

VEGETATION: Hacia el Sur de la Sierra se encuentran sabanas casmofitas y fruticetos en los cuales 
predominan pequenos arbolitos de follajhe coriaceo (Vgr. Brysonyma y Roupala). En las sabanas 
predominan especies de Xyris y plantas insectivoras {Drosera y Utricularia), pero la especie sobresaliente 
es un endemismo: Vellozia macarenensis . En las colinas y microvalles se encuentra una selva 
moderadamente desarroUada con abundancia de palmeras {Mauritia flexuosa; Jessenia polycarpa; 
Socratea exorrhiza), en el arbolada sobresalen espeices de gran porte como Ficus insipida y Sterculia 
macarenensis y S. pojoira. En las vegas se encuentra una vegetacion exuberante con presencia 
sobresaliente de Ceiba pentandra, Tabebuia sp., Anacardium excelsum y consociaciones locales de 
Guadua angustifolia. Las laderas de las montanas estan cubiertas de selvas humedas perennifolias. Hacia 
las partes mas altas el porte del bosque se reduce y achaparra progresivamente aumentando la presencia 
de epifitos debido a la presencia de nieblas y aparecen elementos netamente Andinos como Weinmannia 
pinneta. Dentro de la vegetacion acuatica cabe destacar la presencia de Macarenia clavigera que es un 
genero endemico. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna presenta elementos Andino Orinocenses, Amazonicos, 
endemicos, exclusivos y Guayanenses consistentes en relictos de una antigua biota de gran interes 
zoo-geografico. Se destaca la presencia de varias especies incluidas en el 'Red Data Book': Lagothrix 
lagothricha (V), Pteronura brasiliensis (V), Tremarctos ornatus (V), Priodontes giganteus (V), Panthera 
onca (V), Felis pardalis (V); Crocodylus intermedius (E), Caiman crocodilus (V). 

ZONING: No se han definido. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: La colonizacion espontanea esta realizando alteraciones 
significativas al derribar el bosque para el establecimiento de cultivos varios y para ganaderia. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Se han efectuado estudios sobre biologia animal, geologia, taxonomia 
animal y vegetal, y flora. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Amador, C.R.; Idrobo, J.M.; Olivares, Antonio (1966). 
Parque y Reserva Biologica Nacional de la Macarena. Rev. Nal. de Agricultura No. 732. 

Dahi, George (1960). Nematognathous fishes collected during the Macarena Expedition 1959. 
Novedades Colombiano: 1(5): 302-317. 

Guillard, T. (1942). The Cordillera Macarena, Colombia. Geographical Review 23, 3: 462-470. Bibliot. 
Instituto Ciencias Naturales Universidad Nacional de Bogota. 

Olivares, Antonio; Mozo, M; Teobaldo (1968). Reserva nacional de la Macarena Universidad Nal. de 
Colombia - INCORA, Bogota. 

mAba Silva, Fernando; Van der Hammen, Thomas (1959), Sobre la geologia de la parte sur de la 
Macarena. No. de Minas y Petroleo, Serv. Geologico Nal. Inf.. No. 132, Bogota. 



126 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Jefe, 13 Guardaparques, 6 Operarios. 

BUDGET: 4,100,000 pesos Colombianos 1980 y 2,487,000 primer semestre de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Natural La Macarena. 
Oficina INDERENA - Villavicencio - Meta. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(3) Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.3.1 (Colombian Coastal). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Localizado en la Cordillera Occidental, Municipios de Tierralta, y 
Montelibano del Departamento de Cordoba, e Ituango, Dabeiba y Peque del Departamento de 
Antioquia; 7°8' - 8°6'N y 75°36' - 76°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-3,950 m. 

AREA: 460,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: La mayor parte pertenece a la Naciona, aun cuando hay en el area una minima parte 
en manos de colonos y otra en manos de tribus indigenas (Embera - Katios, 800 a 1,000 indigenas, cuyas 
actividades las realizan sin mayor perturbacion). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Parque incluye el Macizo de Paramillo y sectores meridionales de las 
Serranias de Abibe, Ayapel y San Jeronimo. En el Parque se hallan las cabeceras de los rios Sinu y San 
Jorge. Se trata de una area humeda o muy humeda, donde los periodos secos no son acentuados y 
probablemente tienen escasa incidencia. 

VEGETATION: El area se halla cubierta de selvas humedas, con un sector de paramo hacia las cumbres 
del Macizo con especies endemicas tan caracteristicas como Aragoa occidentalis y Espeletia occidentalis. 
En los bosques de la planicie y colinas bajas del piso termico calido son notables el 'Caracoli' o 'Aspave' 
Anacardium excelsum. el 'Abarco' Cariniana pyriformis , 'Canime' Copaifera officinalis y 'Dormilon' o 
'Orejero' Enterolobium cyclocarpum. Alto grado de endemismo particularmente en el area de sectores 
montanosos por encima de los 1,000 metros de altura. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: El area pertenece al refugio pleistocenico del Sinu, definido por Haffer, 
como un activo centre de especiacion y a la vez nucleo de endemismos, que bajo las condiciones ecologicas 
de periodos recientes ha permitido el intercambio de biotas cisandinas e internadinas con biotas del Choco 
y de America Central, constituyendo un verdadero nucleo biogeografico. Valga citar casos de simpatria 
relevante como; Tapirus bairdii (V), Tapirus terrestris y Ortalis cinereiceps, Ortalis garrula. Existe un 
colibri endemico (Eriocnemis vestitus pramillo). 

ZONING: No estan definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen algunas alteraciones debido a la agricultura de 
antiguos colonos ubicados en la margen del rio Verde y en menor escala las producidas por tribus 
indigenas Ambera - Katios. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Infortunadamente no sen realizado estudios botanicos, faunisticos y 
ecologicos que el area demanda. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Consorcio Alto Sinu (1977). Informes. 
Integral Ltda Ingenieros Consultores (1963). Estudio Fisico de la Hoya del Rio Sinu. 



COLOMBIA 127 

STAFF: No hay en la actualidad personal destacado en el area. 

BUDGET: No se cuenta con fondos para el efecto. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: No existe, su pueden dirigir a INDERENA, 
Division de Parques nacionales - Bogota - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(4) Parque Nacional Natural Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 1964 inicalmente y en 1977 amphada la superficie. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Costa norte de Colombia, en jurisdiccion de los Departamentos del 

Magdalena, Guajira y Cesar; 10°43' - 11°16'N y 73°10' - 74°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: a 5,800 m. 

AREA: 383,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion en su gran mayoria y de comunidades indigenas. Un porcentaje muy 
pequeno 4% en poder de colonos ubicados por debajo de los 500 metros. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Cubre todos los pisos termicos de Colombia, con relieve muy quebrado y 
fuertes pendientes. El area encierra los nacimientos de importantes rios como el Cesar, Don Diego, 
Palomino, Aracataca y Tucurinca. La maxima elevacion corresponde al pico Simon Bolivar (mayor altura 
de Colombia). La Sierra es la unica montana intertropical con nieve pertpetua, que se levanta desde el 
borde del mar. Con un gran valor arqueologico (Recientemente se descubrio las mas grandes ruinas, 
testigos de asentamientos de tribus Kogui, Arjuacos y Tayrona, Uamada la Ciudad Perdida). Incluye 
efectos de glaciacion, circulos glaciales y morrenas terminales y rocas pulimentadas. Los picos nevados 
denominados por los Indigenas Chundua, son considerados lugares sagrados. 

VEGETATION: Representa una cliserie que se extiende desde la subhygrophytia somegatermico hasta 
el piso nivel pasando por conjunto de bosques nublados y paramo propiamente. Elementos sobresalientes 
de la flora son: Trupillo Prosopis juliflora, Guayacan Bulnesia arborea, Resbalamono Bursera simaruba, 
Ebano Caesalpinia ebano, Yopo Albizzia colombiana, Saman Samanea soman, Orejero Enlerolobium 
cyclocarpum. En el paramo son caracteristicos las especies de Frailejon Espeletia glossophyllum y E. 
subnerifolia , arborescentes ramificados hasta de 4-5 metros, que al igual que otros elementos bioticos 
relevan pronunciada afinidad con la Sierra de Merida. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Muchas especies endemicas, entre otras una Rana Geobatrachus walkari y 
S>2cpo Ateloipus carrikeri y el Venado Mazama americana carrikeri. Hay una buena poblacion de Condores 
Vullur gryphus y aves como: Soledades Pharomachrus sp., Aguilas reales Harpia harpya (R), Cinclodes 
fuscus oreobates. Tardus fuscatercacozelus, Campylopierus phainolephus etc. En mamiferos sobresalen 
Pumas Felis concolor, Tigres Panthera onca (V), Oso Hormiguero Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V) y el 
caracteristico Raton Thomasomys laniger. 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen predios de colonos que realizan actividades de 
agricultura y ganaderia, en terrenos que Ugan hasta los 600 metros de altura. Actualmente se esta 
ejerciendo control para evitar ampliacion de estas actividades. Recientemente se constituyo una reserva 
indigena que cubre casi toda la superficie del Parque como medida para proteger la escaza poblacion 
indigena establecida alii hace muchos anos y evitar entrada al area de colonos. La actividad desarroUada 



128 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

por los indigenas no causa mayores problemas. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Se han efectuado varias exploraciones cientificas para estudios 
especialmente sobre aves, flora y arqueologia, Actualmente el Instituto Colombiano de Antropologia esta 
adelantando estudios en las ruinas recientementes descubiertas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No desarrollados en el area. Sin embargo existen posibilidades 
de alojamiento en las cabanas de vigilancia. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Herrman, Reimen. Las Causas de la Sequia Climatica en la 
Region Costanera de Santa Marta - Colombia. En revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias 
Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales. 

Grimwood, Ian (1968). Reports and Recommendations on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National 
Park, the Isla Salamanca National Park, the Tayrona National Park and the Macarena National Reserve. 

Mertins, Gunter. Anotaciones sobre un Programa para la Proteccion del Paisaje en la vertiente 
noroeste de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Mitt. Inst. Colombo Aleman. Santa Marta. 

Morello, Jorge ( 1976) . Primer borrador de ideas para el Proyecto de Ecodesarrollo del Macizo de Santa 
Marta, CIFCA-INDERENA. Bogota. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Agronomo, Jefe del Proyecto, 5 Guardaparques (Indigenas Arhuacos), 3 
Operarios (Indigenas Arhuacos). 

BUDGET: 2,900,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1,872,000 pesos Colombianos en el primer semestre 
de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada de Santa 
Marta - INDERENA - Santa Marta - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(5) Parque Nacional El Cocuy 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Localizado en el eje actual de la Cordillera Oriental, Municipios de 
Chita, Cubara, El Cocuy, Guican, La Salina, Tama y Tamara, Departamentos de Boyaca, Intendencia de 
Arauca y Casanare; 6°11'-56'N y 72°12'-27'W. 

ALTITUDE: 500-5,400 m. 

AREA: 306,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion un 97 per cent. Solo un 3 per cent en su flanco oriental se halla en manos 
de colonos. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: AUi se situa un conjunto de nevados permanentes muy proximos entre si y que 
hacen parte de la Divisoria Andina Continental. El Parque representa una transeccion del eje Andino 
Oriental, que cubre las cimas mas altas y estribaciones desde su misma base (Orinoquia) ca. 500 m. en el 
piedemonte de la Cordillera Oriental. Procesos de glaciarismo son muy evidentes. Existen lagos de origen 
glaciar y nacen alii varios rios tributarios del Arauca y Casanare. Su flanco oriental incluye terrazas altas 
cubiertas de selva representativas de la planicie del piedemonte Uanero y orinocense. 

VEGETATION: Solo se han hecho reconocimientos por encima de 2,500 m.s.n.m. Esquematicamente 
se tiene que aproximadamente a los 500 m hay sabana natural con Curatella americana y selva de 
piedemonte, con pronunciadas afinidades floristicas amazonicas, integradas con selvas nublusas en las 
laderas, que tienen extremada diversidad de especies, hasta el limite inferior del paramo. En alturas de 



COLOMBIA 129 

unos 2,500 metros hacia arriba el bosque corresponde a la conclimax del Weinmannion. El paramo 
presenta predominio de gramineas (Calamagrostis, Festuca, Stipa, Sprobolus, etc.) con varias especies de 
frailejones {Espeletia colombiana, E. lopezii, E. jimenez-quezada), bosquetes de paramo Polylepis, 
Valeriana, Senecio etc. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Condores Vultur gryphus, Torcazas Zenaida auriculata, Muscisaxicola 
alpina quesadae, Grallaria quitensis alticola, Trigillos Felts wiedii (V), Cusumbos Nasua nasua y Oso de 
Anteojos Tremarctos ornatus (V). 

ZONING: No se han delimitado. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen predios de particulares que realizan algunas 
actividades de ganaderia y agricultura especialmente en el flanco occidental de la reserva 3 per cent del 
total. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existen varias investigaciones especialmente sobre geologia, glaciologia, 
etnologia, ecologia vegetal e inventarios cualitativos de flora y fauna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Cleef, Antoine M. (1977). Secuencia Altitudinal de la 
Vegetacion de los Paramos de la Cordillera Oriental. 

Cleef, Antoine M. (1977). Sinopsis de las Comunidades Vegetales de los Paramos de la Cordillera 
Oriental. 

Hernando, Romero (1973). Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias. Vol XIV, Aves de la 
Sierra Nevada del Cocuy. 

Kraus, Erwin y van der Hammen, Thomas (1960). Las Expediciones de Glaciologia de A.G.I, a las 
Sierras de Santa Marta y del Cocuy. I.G.A.C. 

STAFF: 1 Jefe del area, Ingeniero Forestal, 4 guardapaiques, y 2 operarios. 

BUDGET: 2,100,000pesosColombianos- 1980y l,088,600pesosColombianosenelprimersemestrede 
1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe del Parque Nacional Natural El Cocuy - 
INDERENA - Tunja - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(6) Parque Nacional Natural Cordillera de Los Picachos 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane) 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Ubicado parte en el eje de la Cordillera Oriental y parte en el ramal 

denominado Cordillera de los Picachos, en los Departamentos del Meta y Huila e Intendencia de 
Caqueta, municipios de San Juan de Arama, Algeciras, Guacamayas y San Vicente del Caguan; 2°27' - 
3°05'N y 74°15'-54"W. 

ALTITUDE: 250 a 3,600 m. 

AREA: 286,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Terrenos de propiedad de la Nacion, pero existen algunos problemas con colonos en 
via de solucion debido principalmente a la inadecuada cartografia, disponible hasta la fecha reciente. Se 
requiere una redelimitacion del area, pues por lo dicho se incluyeron areas colonizadas y dejaron de 
incluirse areas virgenes. 



130 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: La Sierra forma el divorcium aquarum entre la Orinoquia y la Amazonia. 
Topografia muy rugosa con zonas bajas de colina. Es un pequeno ramal de la Cordillera Oriental que se 
extiende desde el Cerro Triunfo en el sentido SE/NW y alcanza elevaciones superiores a 3,000 metros. 

VEGETATION: La cobertura vegetal consta de selvas humedas, con presencia de frailejonales 
Espeletietuni en las partes altas. Entre los 300 y 600 metros se encuentran especies tales como: Abarco 
Cariniana priformis, Ceiba pentandra, Anacardium excelsum y Cedrela sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La region esta practicamente inexplorada, sin embargo, se sabe de la 
presencia de especies tales como Danta Tapirus terrestris y T. pinchaque, y se han visto Condores Vultur 
gryphus y Lagothrix lagothricha lugens (V). 

ZONING: No se han definido. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Debido a la no claridad de los linderos como consecuencias de 
cartografia deficiente existe en el area actividad agricola y ganadera, con asentamientos de colonos que 
hacen extraccion de madera. Una redelimitacion del area traera como consecuencia sin reducir la 
superifice extraer areas alteradas significativamente e incluir otras hacia la vertiente de la Orinoquia que 
se hallan en estado virgen. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Muy poco explorada el area. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No se conoce. 

STAFF: No hay actualmente. 

BUDGET: Aun no designado. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Director Regional INDERENA - Neiva - 
Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(7) Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1975. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En el extremo sur de la Amazonia Colombiana, Municipio de Leticia, 
Comisaria del Amazonas. Delimitado por el Rio Amacayacu, Quebrada Cahuinas, Rio Cotuhe, 
quebradas Muneca, Matamata y Rio Amazonas; 3°02'-47'S y 69°59' - 70°25'W. 

ALTITUDE: Promedio 100 m. 

AREA: 170,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion un 99.98 per cent y 0.2 per cent en posesion de colonos e indigenas 
Ticunas. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Planicie aluvial terciaria, disectada formando relieve ondulado suave con 
colinas bajas, temperatura media anual de 24°C y la precipitacion excede un poco de los 3,000 mm. Con 
excepcion de una elevacion que constituye la divisoria de aguas de las cuencas Putumayo y Amazonas, las 
alturas no pasan de 100 metros s.n.m., presentandose zonas pantanosas distribuidas en depresiones de 
poca extension. 

VEGETATION: El bosque climax del area pertenece a la higrofitica Isomegatermico. En las 



COLOMBIA 131 

depresiones aparece una Oxyhygrophytia caracterizada por volador o munguba Pseudobombax munguba 
o de buruti, canangucha Mauritia sp. que cuando el nivel de agua del no Amazonas sube al maximo da 
paso a comunidades hidrofitas tales como Eichornia pistia y Victoria amazonica. En los sectores 
temporalmente inundables son caracteristicos el capinuri Ogodeia sp., Calycophyllum spruceanum y 
Ficus insipida. En la selva no inundable que presenta dosel elevado con arboles hasta de 40 metres, 
emergen la Ceiba Ceiba pentandra, Terminalia amazonica, Cedrelinga catenaeformis , Caraoa guianensis 
etc. Es importante la presencia dentro del area de la especie mas fina de caucho Hevea quianensis var. 
lutea. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: No existen en el area estudios o levantamientos faunisticos, pero sobresalen 
en ella Tigre Panthera onca (V), Tigrillos Felis wiedii (V), manati Trichechus manatus (V), Nutria Lutra 
sp., varias especies de primates, Lagothrix lagothricha (V), el Paujil Crax alector, Loros, Pericos, Pavas y 
Tucanes. En reptiles se destacan la Anaconda Eunectes murinus gigas y el Caiman Negro Melanosuchus 
niger (E). 

ZONING: No estan definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Hay alteracion en una pequenisima area del parque, 
especialmente en las riberas del Rio Amazonas y cerca a la desembocadura del Rio Amacayacu. Existen 
en el area 2 caserios indigenas con 40 casas y 280 personas dedicadas al cultivo de yuca, platano, maiz y 
pina, pero que en realidad es may poco el dano que estan causando al Parque. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Solo se han efectuado en el area algunos inventarios parciales de fauna y 
flora. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No desarroUados. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: IGAC (1977). Algunos aspectos de la degradacion de los 
suelos y la colonizacion en el area 'Amazonica'. Bogota. 
IGAC (1977). Informes varios, Proyecto Radargrametrico del Amazonas. Bogota. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Forestal, Jefe del area, 5 guardaparques y 4 obreros. 

BUDGET: 3,000,000 de pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1,775,000 pesos Colombianos primer semestre de 
1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Amacayacu, INDERENA, 
Leticia - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(8) Parque Nacional Natural Nevado del Huila 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.33.12 (Northern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Junio 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Cordillera Central, Departamentos del Tolima, Huila y Cauca; 2°47' - 
3°29'N y 75°48' - 76°12'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2.600 a 5,750 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 158,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Un 90% de la Nacion el resto en manos de colonos. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Parque incluye el Nevado del Huila, volcan con una elevacion de 5,750 
metros que muestra cierta actividad. La reserva comprende pisos termicos templados, frio y de paramo. 



132 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

VEGETATION: Las laderas estan cubiertas por un bosque higrofitico frecuentemente nublado 
micromisofito, dominado en amplios sectores por consociaciones de Quercus humboldtii, asociaciones 
con predominio de Weinmannia spp. , Podocarpus spp. , cuyo dosel llega hasta los 30 o 40 metros de altura. 
Se encuentran tambien Palmas de Cera Ceroxyton spp. , correlativamente de manera inversa con la altura 
disminuye el porte del bosque para bosques densos v. gr. Clethra ferruginea y especies asociadas alcanzan 
elevaciones de 3.600-3,800 metros. En el paramo parece ser dominante Espelettia hartwegiana, cuyas 
caulirosulas alcanzan 5-8 metros de altura. Por encima del paramo existe una faja de arenales subnivales 
con algunas pocas especies arbustivas y herbaceas. La flora del Parque es aun muy poco conocida, sin 
embargo, en anos recientes se ha descrito de alii un considerable numero de especies nuevas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La zona del Parque es especialmente rica en aves, sobresalen el Condor 
Vultur grypfius, el Aguila Real Accipiler collaris, Danta de Paramo Tapirus pinchaque (V), Oso Negro 
Tremarclos ornatus (V) , Venado de Paramo Odocoileus virginianus goudoli y varias especies de primates. 

ZONING: No se han determinado. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen predios de particulares que realizan algunas 
actividades agropecuarias incompatibles con el Parque, asi como tambien una alta presion sobre el bosque 
a la altura de los 2,600 metros. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Solo se han efectuado exploraciones y no existen estudios que puedan ser 
mencionados. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No se conoce. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Forestal, Jefe del area, 3 Guardabosques, 1 Obrero. 

BUDGET: 1,400,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1,097,000 pesos Colombianos primer semestre de 
1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe del Parque Nacional Nevado del Huila - 
INDERENA - Neiva. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(9) Parque Nacional Natural Sumapaz 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park) 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Ubicado en la Cordillera Oriental, Jurisdiccion del Distrito Especial 
de Bogota, Municipios de Cabrera, San Bernardo, Arbelaez, Gutierrez, Pasca, Departamento de 
Cundinamarca; Acacias, Guamal y San Luis de Cubaral, Departamento del Meta y Colombia, del 
Departamento del Huila; 3°45' - 4°10'N y 74°10'-30"W. 

ALTITUDE: 1,500-4,600 m. 

AREA: 154,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: La mayoria de los terrenos son baldios, lo que equivale decir que pertenecen a la 
Nacion. Existen areas cultivadas con papa y otras dedicadas a ganaderia. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Se trata de un macizo montanoso situado en el eje de la Cordillera Oriental, 
cuya maxima elevacion se situa en el Cerro Nevado (4,600 m). llamado asi por mostrar la mayor parte del 
ano un casquete de nieve. Los grandes escarpes sobresalientes constituyen nudos hidrograficos donde 
nacen rios como el Cabrera, Sumapaz y Guape. Se presenten morrenas asociadas generalmente con flujos 



COLOMBIA 133 

de lodo y depositos fluvio glaciales, circos glaciales con escarpes pronunciados que encierran lagunas y 
valles en forma de 'U'. Se encuentran ademas grandes declives en laderas orientales que pertenecen a la 
Orinoquia y en las occidentales que pertenecen a la Hoya de Magdalena. 

VEGETATION: Las estrivaciones del Macizo estan cubiertas de selvas nubladas con gran riqueza 
fioristica. Entre los 3,200 y 3,600 m el bosque es reemplazado por vegetacion de paramo con predominio 
de Calamagrostis spp., Festuca spp., Eragrostis spp. etc., entremezcladas con subarbustos y otras 
herbaceas, con frailejones Espeletia spp. y en algunos sitios con Azorella spp., Distichia tolimensis, 
Wermeria spp. etc. En lugares protegidos aparecen bosques nanomicrofitos con Polylepis cocuyensis y 
Senecio vacciniodes . En alturas de mas de 4,000 metres de altura sobre arenales y suelos esqueleticos hay 
especies como Senecio niveo-aureus , Senecio rufescens etc. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Aparentemente subsisten Condores Vultur gryphus, ya que hay registros de 
que alii anidaban, Danta de Paramo Tapinis pinchaque (V), Oso de Anteojos Tremarctos ornatus (V), 
Ave Chirriador endemico de alii Cistothorus apollinari y otras aves como Oxyura jamaicensis , Gallinago 
stricklandii, Grallaria quitensis alticola y Cinclodes fuscus oreobates. Existen alii hasta 3,800 a 4,000 
metros Camaleon Phenacosaurus paramorun, Lagartijas Stenocerecus trachycephalus y una rana Hyla 
labialis krausi. 

ZONING: No existen en la actualidad. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen predios de particulares que realizan actividades de 
agricultura y ganaderia, incompatibles con los abjetivos de la reserva y pajonales en los paramos que han 
sido abjeto de quemas, el area alterada puede equivaler aproximadamente a un 20 per cent del total. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Hay varies reconocimientos geologicos, floristicos, faunisticos y 
arqueologicos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Hettner, Alfred (1892). La Cordillera de Bogota. 
INGEOMINAS (1962). Boletin Geologico Vol. X. 

STAFF: Solo a partir de 2o. semestre de 1981 , comenzara a hacer reconocimientos 1 Ingeniero Forestal, 
quien tiene responsibilidad comartida por dirigir la planificacion del manejo de esta area con la direccion 
de otra (Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza). 

BUDGET: No existe 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Proyecto Parques Nacionales Chingaza - 
Sumapaz, INDERENA, Regional Cundinamarca, Bogota, Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(10) Parque Nacional Natural Los Farallones de Cali 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.3.1 (Colombian Coastal). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1968. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En el eje de la Cordillera Occidental, Municipios de Jamundi, Cali, 
Dagua y Buenaventura, Departamento del Valle; 02°57' - 3°25'N y 76°34' - 77°02'W. 

ALTITUDE: 400-3,800 m. 

AREA: 150,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Aproximadamente 90 per cent de la Nacion y 10 per cent en posesion de colonos. 



134 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El nudeo del Parque lo constituyen los Uamados Farallones de Cali, conjunto 
de grandes elevaciones aisladas dentro de la Cordillera occidental que alcanzan su mayor altura sobre la 
divorcia entre las laderas (occidentales) del Pacifico y la Cuenca del Rio Cauca en la ladera occidental 
nacen varios rios de importancia como el Anchicaya y el Naya, dentro de los cuales y fuera del Parque se 
han establecido 2 hidroelectricas, Alpie de la ladera oriental se situa la ciudad de Cali estimada en 
1,500,000 habitantes. 

VEGETATION: El area en mas de 70 per cent esta cubierta de selvas que se extienden desde el 
piedemonte del Litoral Pacifico con precipitaciones de 8,000 m, con endemismos como los de varias 
especies de Cecropia. Este compleso se Integra con selvas nubladas insuficientemente explorades que 
incluyen entre otras comunidades el Quercetum. y que a los 3.200-3,300 metros son reemplazados por un 
tipo de vegetacion analoga floristicamente y fisionomicamente a las comunidades de Paramo pero con 
ausencia de Espeletia spp. y alto grado de endemismos como Viola cuatrecasasii . Entre las Cecropias es de 
destacar la Cecropia megastachya. cuyas hojas tienen un diametro de 2 metros aproximadamente, siendo 
quizas el arbol de mayor superficie foliar conocido. Endemismos sobresalientes figuran dentro de los 
bosques nublados de la ladera. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La diversidad faunistica del Parque es extremada, dada la varoedad 
macroclimatica y la representacion de elementos de origen altoandino y de elementos 'subtropicales" de 
probable origen plio-pleistocenico a partir de elementos de la biota humeda del Litoral Pacifico y de otros 
con difusion principalmente del piso termico del Valle interandino. Aun no se han realizado suficientes 
exploraciones, sin embargo, dentro de los elementos sobresalientes figuran Tremarctos ornatus (V), 
Oryzomys munchiquensis, Gallito de Roca Rupicola peruviana sanguinolenta, Golondrinas 
Nothiochelidun flavipes. 

ZONING: No se han definido. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen predios de particulares que realizan actividades de 
agricultura y ganaderia. y actualmente con el control, esta actividad se esta restringiendo. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existen inventarios cualitativos de flora y fauna especialmente en el flanco 
oriental. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Aun no desarrollados. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Varios informes ineditos de Universidad del Valle y 

Corporacion Autonoma Regional del Valle del Cauca, sobre flora y fauna. 

STAFF: 1 Biologo, 1 Interprete, 4 guardabosques de la Corporacion Autonoma Regional del Valle del 
Cauca. 

BUDGET: Existe pero no se conoce el dato exacto a la fecha. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Corporacion Autonoma Regional del Valle del 
Cauca C.V.C. - Cali - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(11) Parque Nacional Natural Las Hermosas 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.33.12 (Northern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Localizado en la Cordillera Central laderas E y W, Municipios de 
Palmira. Tulua. Buga. Cerritos y Pradera. Departmaneto del Valle y Chaparral y Rio Blanco 
Departamento del Tolima; 03°29'-55'N y 75°41' - 76°04'W. 



COLOMBIA 135 

ALTITUDE: 2,500-4,000 m. 

AREA: 125,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 90 per cent propiedad de la Nacion y un 10 per cent en manos de colonos y propiedad 
privada. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: En el area existen tres formaciones geologicas: rocas intrusivas, metamorficas 
y formaciones modernas procedentes del neovolcanismo. Su topografia es escarpada con un gran numero 
de lagunas en pequenos valles. Alii se originan rios importantes come el Anamichu, Rioblanco, Amoya, 
Tulua, Ambeima, fuentes principales para hidroelectricas, riego y consume humano de varias 
poblaciones. 

VEGETATION: Existen dos tipos de vegetacion bien definida el bosque extendido en forma irregular 
sobre todo en las partes mas bajas del Parque entre 2,500-3,000 metres, y en las partes pretegidas de las 
corrientes de aire y a los lados de las corrientes de agua, y donde sobresalen especies come Pino 
colembiano Podocarpus rospiggliosii, Palma de Cera, arbol Nacional de Colombia y en via de extincion 
Ceroxilon quinduense, Weinmannia y el tipo Paramo con Espeletia sp. Dryopteris felix-max un helechc 
mache enano, chilco Bacharis floribunda y musges del genero Sphagnum. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Dentro de los mamiferos las especies mas notorias son: Danta de Paramo 
Tapirus pinchaque (V) con una muy buena peblacion, en via de extincion, ese de Anteojes Tremarctos 
ornatus (V) tambien en peligre de extincion, el venado Mazama rufina, Guagua Loba Dinomys branickii. 
En aves: Pato de Torrentes Merganetta armata y Pate Rabudo Anas acuta, Gallinago nobilis y Amazona 
mercenaria. 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Quemas, extraciones esporadicas de madera efectuadas per los 
propietarios y colonos que aun viven en el area. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Se han efectuado inventaries de fauna y flora, per parte de la Universidad 
del Valle y un Voluntario del Cuerpo de Paz. Se proyecta un estudio detallado de la Danta {Tapirus 
pinchaque). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Downer, Craig (1978). Informe sobre la visita al Parque 
Nacional Natural Las Hermosas. C.V.C. Cali. 

Mosquera, Jose Maria (1979). Importancia del Parque Nacional de las Hermosas en la Agricultura del 
Tolima. Ibague, en Carta del Tolima No. 27-28, Julio y Agosto 1979. 

STAFF: No hay destacado en el area, con frecuencia guardabosques de areas vecinas realizan 
inspecciones de control. 

BUDGET: Aun no designado. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Corperacien Autonema Regional del Valle 
C.V.C, Cali Colombia y Direccion Regional Tolima, INDERENA, Ibague, Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodere Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(12) Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.3.1 (Colombian Coastal). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Literal pacifico, Municipie de Mosquera, Departamento de Narino; 

2°22'-43'N y 78°06'-37'W. 



136 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ALTITUDE: Desde metres hasta 100 metros. 

AREA: 89,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Baldios pertenecientes a la Nacion , pero con presencia de colonos dedicados al aserrio 
de madera (10% del area). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Parque incluye la Isla de Sanquianga y la desembocadura del rio del mismo 
nombre . , La region pertenece algeosinclinal de Bolivar. Los terrenos son pianos de origen aluvial , en gran 
parte pantanosos e influenciados por las mareas que alcanzan hasta 5 metros. Tambien existen colinas 
bajas con superficies de colmatacion. Entre el nivel maximo de baja mar y maximo de pleamar e encuentra 
la formacion de 'esteros'. Clima isomegatermico con precipitacion anual alrededor de 4,000,m.m. 

VEGETATION: Se puede establecer una zonacion bastante definida: a) Playas arenosas del literal bajo 
con herbaceas; b) Manglares con Rhizophora spp., Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa y 
Pelliciera rhizophorae . c) Natal ecotonal sin influencia salina con Mora oleifera. Mora megistosperma, 
asociado con 'Naidi' Euterpe spp., que invade orillas de rios come subserial; d) Guandal con Carapa 
guianensis, bosque extraido y e) Terrazas con una asociacion mixta donde predomina Virola spp. y 
Camnosperma sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Poco estudiada en el area. Sobresalen aves acuaticas incluidas migratorias. 
Area de enorme productividad piscicola, se destaca la 'Piangua' Area spp. . Se presentan comunidades de 
Chiguiros Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris y Zainos Dycotyles tajacu. 

ZONING: No definida. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen algunos aserradores en el area que ocupan 
aproximadamente un 10 per cent de la misma, y que estan causando serias alteraciones al extraer especies 
madereras valiosas. Estos aserrios estaban establecidos al crearse el Parque y actualmente se estan 
efectuando controles para lograr su erradicacion del Parque . Existen posibilidades de ampliar la superficie 
del Parque incluyendo una gran area en estado virgen. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existen reconocimientos de vegetacion y en la actualidad se esta 
desarrollando un estudio ecologico. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Aun no se han desarrollado. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Banco, Gandero (1967). Estudio Socioeconomico de la Costa 
Sur del Pacifico. 

Woketel, Roberto (1961). Mapa geologico del Occidente de Colombia. 

Estudios varios sobre potencial maderero de la zona del sur del Pacifico Colombiano. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Forestal Jefe del Proyecto, 2 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: 2,000,000 de pesos Colombianos 1980 y 2,100,000 pesos Colombianos 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe del Parque nacional Sanquianga - 
INDERENA - Tumaco - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(13) Parque Nacional Natural Purace 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.33 12 (Northern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1961 ratificado en 1968. Ampliada su superficie 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Cordillera Central. Macizo Colombiano o estrella fluvial de 



COLOMBIA 137 

Colombia. Municipios La Plata, Argentina, San Agustin, San Jose de Isnos del Departamento del Huila; 
Purace y San Sebastian, Departamento del Cauca; r50'-2°24'N y 76°07'-37'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2,500-5,000 m. 

AREA: 83,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: En su gran mayoria de la nacion. Aproximadamente unas 3,000 hectareas de 
propiedad privada ocupada por colonos. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Cordillera volcanica de Purace, con un volcan active 7 crateres mas, 
afloramientos de aguas termales. Nacimientos de los rios Magdalena, Cauca y Caqueta (tres de los mas 
importantes de Colombia). En el Parque hay unas treinta lagunas y un buen numero de cascadas. El clima 
se caracteriza por un regimen monomodal en la vertiente este, y bimodal en la occidental. La temperatura 
oscila entre 10°C y 0°C y la precipitacion de 1,200 a 2,500 mm por ano. 

VEGETATION: Encierra varias formaciones vegetales especialmente paramo y bosque muy humedo 
montano bajo. Entre las especies arboreas son caracteristicas: Encenillo Weinmannia pubescens, Roble 
Quercus humboldti, Sietecueros Tibouchina lepidota, Arrayan Myrcia popayanensis, Canelo de paramo 
Drymis granadensis y uvito de monte Cavendishia pubescens. En el paramo sobresalen: Espeletia 
hartwegiana, Distichia tolimensis, Lupinus alopecuroides , Calamagrostis sp. Hay tuberas y tremedales de 
Sphagnum sp. En las depresiones y lugares protegidos de las partes altas entre 3,400-3,800 metros se 
encuentra Escallonia sp., Hypericum sp. y Puya sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: El Parque tiene singular importancia por su fauna endemica y por la 
proteccion de especies en peligro de extincion como son: Oso de anteojos Tremarctos ornatus (V) con una 
muy buena poblacion, tal vez la mas grande del Pais, el venado conejo Pudu mephistophiles (I), Danta de 
paramo Tapirus pinchaque (V). Otros mamiferos presentes son: Puma Felis concolor, Cusumbos Nasua 
nasua y Tigrillo Felis yaguaroundi (I). Entre las aves descuellan el Condor de los Andes Vultur gryphus, 
Gallito de roca Rupicola peruviana, Pato de los torrentes Merganetta armata colombiana, Aguila Oroaetus 
isidori. Soledad Pharomachrus mocinno y Guacharos Steatornis caripensis. 

ZONING: Preliminarmente se han definido como Intangible, de alta densidad de uso, de recuperacion 
natural y de amortiguacion fijada en 1 km de ancho alrededor eel Parque. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen predios de particulres que realizan actividades de 
agricultura y ganaderia pero que se les controla para evitar ensanchamientos. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existen estudios sobre la avifauna del area, inventarios de flora y estudios 
geologicos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No desarroUados pero se les ofrece alojamiento en las casetas de 
los guardaparques. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Hubach, Enrique (1952). Informe sobre los alrededores de 
Purace. 

Roldan, Roque y Londono, Edgar (1975). Estudio Socioeconomico y Juridico del Resguardo de 
Purace. (Cauca). INCORA, Bogota. 

Milliman, James (1971). Aves del Parque nacional del Purace. Voluntario del Cuerpo de Paz. Popayan. 

STAFF: 1 Jefe del Proyecto - Ingeniero Forestal, 2 Auxiliares Tecnicos, 10 Guardaparques y 15 
Obreros. 

BUDGET: 7,300.000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 4,725,000 en el primer semestre de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe del Parque Nacional de Purace - 
INDERENA - Popayan - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



138 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(14) Parque Nacional Natural Los Katios 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.3.1 (Colombian Coastal). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1973. Ampliada su superficie 1980. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Norte del Departamento del Choco entre la linea de frontera 
Colombo Panamena y la margen izquierda del Rio Atrato incluyendo las cienagas de Tumarado al este del 
mismo rio y entre los rios Cacarica , Perancho y Peye . Municipios de Riosucio - Choco y Turbo , Antioquia ; 

7°42'-56'N y 77°03'-19'W. 

ALTITUDE: 50-600 m. 

AREA: 72,000 hectares. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion. (Actualmente se estan adquiriendo 50 mejoras de colonos, el 
presupuesto esta asegurado y quedara el Parque libre de habitantes.) 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Topografia plana ondulada y accidentada. Se extiende a lo largo de las 
estribaciones de la Serrania del Darien. Comprende el Rio Atrato considerado el mas caudaloso del 
mundo. Parte del llamado Tapon del Darien se halla dentro del Parque. Por el area del Parque pasara la 
Carretera Panamerocana en un tramo aproximado de 30 kilometros. Segun su fisiografia el area se divide 
en llanuras aluviales con terrazas bajas inundables, llanuras aluviales con terrazas altas poco inundables, 
colinas bajas hasta 250 metros y colinas hasta 600 metros y area de pantanos (Cienagas de Tumarado y 
Tapon del Darien). 

VEGETATION: En las orillas del Rio Atrato, se pueden apreciar consociaciones de a) Espejo de Agua, 
especies flotantes como Oreja de Mula Eichhornia azurea, Lechuguilla Pistia sp. ; b) La zona margina de 
los pantanos del Tapon del Darien - Cienagas de Tumarado predomina Montrichardia arborescens 
llamado Arracacho y que tiene rizomas con brotes lignificados y la Hierba Arraigada Polygonum 
acuminatum; c) El panganal zona estable de enraizamiento y lignificacion verdadera donde se aprecia la 
condominancia de Pangana Raphia taedigera. Erythrinafusca, Pachira aquatica, Prioria copaiferia y Ficus 
dendrocida; d) Catival que es una consociacion de Prioria copaifera 'Cativo', frecuente en terrenos bajos e 
inundables, con algunas epifitas y helechos. En el interior del Parque se hallan consociaciones de a) Guipo 
o Ceiba Bonga Cavanillesia platanifolia. b) Consociaciones secundarias con Ochroma lagopus, Cecropia 
spp. y Cochlospermum vitifolium y c) Brosimum utile y Costilla elastica. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Es la unica area Suramericana donde habita un buen numero de especies 
faunisticas de Centro America y entre ellos pueden citarse Heteromys desmarestianus y Ortolis 
cinereiceps. El area es refugio de especies en via de extincion como la Danta o Macho de Monte Tapirus 
bairdiiCV), Tigre Panthera onca (V) , Nutria Lutra sp. y Babilla Caiman crocodilusiV). Unas 250 especies 
de aves se ban registrado en el Parque. 

ZONING: No definidas aun. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Las areas que fueron ocupadas por colonos y propiedades 
privadas y que ya se adquirieron se hallan en via de recuperacion. Aun estan dentro del Parque 
establecidos algunos cultivos de colonos que se estan adquiriendo para tener al final del ano de 1981 el area 
completamente saneada. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Se han efectuado estudios de fauna de vertebrados con enfasis en avifauna, 
estudios preliminares de vegetacion y estudio socioeconomicos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Existe un Centro Administrativo con capacidad para alojar 
personal cientifico. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Barbosa, Cesar (1980). Estudio de Comunidades Vegetales y 
Algunas de sus Relaciones con Primates en el Parque Nacional Natural Los Katios. INDERENA. 
Bogota. 

INDERENA (1981). Informe de labores de 1980 y Proyecciones 1981. Proyecto ICA-INDERENA- 
USDA. Division Parque Nacionales. 

Organizacion de los Estados Americanos (1978). Proyecto Darien. Estudio para la Orientacion de 
Desarrollo Integral de la Region del Darien Colombiano. Republica de Colombia. Medellin. 



COLOMBIA 139 

STAFF: 1 Director de Proyecto, 1 Pagador, 1 Almacenista, 15 Auxiliares entre obreros y celadores en la 
parte administrativa. En la parte operativa: 1 Ingeniero Forestal, Jefe del Parque, 1 Biologo, 2 Auxiliares 
tecnicos, 12 Guardaparques, 30 Obreros, incluidos celadores y cocineros. 

BUDGET: 41,500,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 25,500,000 pesos Colombianos en 1981. El Parque 
Nacional Katios hace parte de un proyecto general para evitar el paso de la Fiebre aftosa a Norteamerica, 
mediante Convenio con el Gobierno de los Estados Unidos, quien ha venido financiando en parte el 
mismo. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Director Proyecto ICA-INDERENA-USDA. 
INDERENA. Turbo. Antioquia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(15) Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En la Cordillera Oriental, Departamentos de Cundinamarca y Meta, 
Municipios de Fomeque, Quetame, La Calera, Guasca junin, Gachala. El Calvario y Restrepo; 
04°21'-43'Ny 73°35'-56'W. 

ALTITUDE: Entre 800 a 3,800 m. 

AREA: 50,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion en un 90 per cent aproximadamente, el resto en manos de particulares 
con propiedad y colonos. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Sobre la Cordillera Oriental. La mayor parte del area esta por encima de los 
2,500 metros de altura, pero en las estribaciones boscosas de la Orinoquia se encuentran elevaciones 
menores de 1,000 metros. La topografia es muy accidentada y en la zona de paramo existen lagunas, 
morrenas y otras evidencias de accion glacial . En el area se situan las cabeceras de rios importantes para el 
abastecimiento de aguas de Bogota y piedemonte llanero. 

VEGETATION: La flora mas sobresaliente esta representada por Weinmannia pubescens, 
Befariaglauca, Alnus jorullensis, Gynopsis paramuna, Hypericum sp., Espeletia uribei, frailejon 
endemico y que alcanza hasta 1 1 metros de altura. Existen tambien un Graminoidetum, caracterizado por 
los generos Festuca y Calamagrosiis. En las partes mas bajas prosperan palmas de los genero Euterpe, 
Geonoma y Schellea. En los valles pantanosos prospera el musgo Sphagnum. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna es variada, dentro de los mamiferos sobresalen: Oso de Anteojos 
Tremarctos ornatus (V), Venado Colorado Mazama rufina, Cusumbo Nasua nasua, Mono Aullador 
Alouatta seniculus y una subespecie endemica de Ardilla Sciurus granatensis griseimembra. Entre las aves 
cabe mencionar: Pava Azul Penelope montognii. Anas flaviroslris, Cinclus leucocephalus y Dendroica 
fusca. 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen alteraciones por sobrepastoreo y quemas. La 
Exmpresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogota esta adquiriendo los predios que pasaran a manos del 
Estado. Existe una fabrica de cemento cerca del Parque que contamina aguas. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Se han efectuado varias colecciones de aves y botanicas. Tambien se ban 
realizado estudios hidrometricos y geologicos. 



140 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Aun no desarrollados. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Camargo, G. Luis Alfredo (1971). El Paramo como Parque 
nacional y Museo al Aire Libre. lU Jornada Latinoamericana de Parques nacionales. INDERENA, 
Medellin, Colombia. 

Wallace D. McKay (1978). Nuevos Registros y Observaciones de Aves en el Parque Nacional Natural 
Chingaza. INDERENA, Bogota. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Jefe de Proyecto y 5 guardabosques. 

BUDGET: 1,200,000 pesos Colombianos 1980 y 4,044,000 pesos Colombianos 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Chingaza, INDERENA, 
Regional Cundinamarca - Bogotas - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(16) Parque Nacional Natural Tama 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En la Cordillera Oriental, Municipio de Toledo, Departamento del 
Norte de Santander; 7°92'-27'N y 72°02'-28'W. 

ALTITUDE: 350-3,600 m. 

AREA: 48,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion, con presencia de colonos que ocupan un 5 per cent del area 
aproximadamente . 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Su relieve es de ondulado a quebrado. Cubre tres cuencas hidrograficas 
importantes, correspondientes a los rios Oira, Tachira y Arauca, separados entre si por los divorcios de 
agua de Cruz de Piedra y la cuchilla La Aurora. Cubre varies pisos termicos desde el paramo hasta el 
templado en su extreme sur que constituye la cabecera o piedemonte llanero. 

VEGETATION: Cobertura vegetal formada por bosque humedo del piso termicofrio. vegetacion de 
paramo y estribaciones cubiertas por bosques correspondientes al piso templado. Cuenta con notables 
endemismos floristcos Vgr. Espeletia chardonii. En general las especies mas representativas del Parque 
entre otras son: Tibouchina lepidopta, Podocarpus rospligliosii. Bursera graveolens , Ladembergia 
magnifolia, Diplostephium revolulus, Espeletia hartwegiana . Weinmannia spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Sobresalen el roedor Thomasomys hilophilus endemico del area y el Gallito 
de Rocs Rupicola peruviana aequatorialis, con limite N.E. de distribucion en el Parque. Dentro de las 
especies observadas se hallan Oso Negro Tremarctos ornatus (V), Lagothrix lagothricha (V), Guartinaja 
Dinomys branickii. Lutra sp. , Potosflavus, Andigenas nigrirostris, Aguila Pandion haliaetus, Guacharos 
Steatornis caripensis y Gallinago sp. 

ZONING: Una zonificacion preliminar del Parque identifico: Zona de amortiguacion. Area de 
recreacion o de alta densidad de uso, Area de ambientes naturales sobresalientes. Area primitiva o 
intangible y Area de recuperacion natural. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: En un 5% el area esta aproximadamente alterada parcialmente 
por la accion de colonos que se hallaban en el area antes de su establecimiento como Parque. Cultivos de 
subsistencia y ganaderia. 



J 



COLOMBIA 141 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Solo se conocen de dos exploraciones cientificas desde creado el Parque, de 
muy poca duracion, especialmente para colecciones de aves y ranas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Se desconoce, sin embargo en INDERENA se poseen varies 

informes de actividades desarrolladas y de planes prelinares de manejo. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Forestal, Jefe del Area, 4 Guardabosques, 2 Obreros. 

BUDGET: 2,000,000 de pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 2,418,000 pesos Colombianos en el primer 
semestre de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe del Parque Nacional Natural Tama. 
INDERENA - Cucuta - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(17) Parque Nacional Natural Pisba 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Localizado en la Cordillera Oriental, Jurisdiccion de los Municipios 
de Mongua, Socha, Tasco, Jerico, Pisba y Socota en el Departamento de Boyaca; 5°44' - 6°00'N y 
72°26'-43'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2,000-4,000 m. 

AREA: 45,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: La mayor parte pertenece a la Nacion. Existen algunos terrenos que tienen propiedad 

privada y algunos colonos establecidos hace varies anos. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Parque esta dominado escencialmente por formas resultantes de la accion 
tectonica y de accion glaciar pleistocenica. Dentro de el estan las cuencas altas receptoras de los rios 
Pauto, Tocaria y Cravojur en el Oriente y por su franja occidental tiene drenaje la cuenca del Rio 
Chicamocha. Las temperaturas medias anuales estan entre 6°C y 10°C, con lluvias abundantes durante 
todo el ano. 

VEGETATION: La mayor parte del area boscosa corresponde a la consociacion del Weinmannia y el 
resto a bosques mixtos micromesofilos con dosel de 15-25 metres y bosdques micronanofilos de 
subparamo con dosel de 3-6 metres. Gran parte del area se halla cubierta per paramos con significativos 
enclaves de turbera y come en otros de la Cordillera Oriental hay alte grade de endemismo come: 
Espeletia oswaldianay Aragoa dugandiana entre otras. El matorral enano de Loricaria complanata esta en 
el limite inferior del superparame aseciade con Racocarpus purpurascens y etras especies de briofites en 
suelos estables. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna del Parque es pece cenecida per falta de estudie, se han registrado 
entre otras especies en el area: Oso de Anteojos Tremarctos oniatus (V), Venados Odocoileus virginianus 
goudotii y una rana endemica del Departamento de Beyaca Miceforonia nana. El Parque hace parte de un 
corredor cuaternario de intercambio de elementes biotices entre los Andes Venezelanes, Andes 
Orientales y elementes Andines Meridienales. 

ZONING: No estan definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existe pastoreo en el paramo baje e algunos cultivos 
especialmente de papa. Extraccion de lena. 



142 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: En los dos ultimos anos se han efectuado reconocimientos de corta duracion 
con colecciones de flora y algunos batracios, cuyos informes estan ineditos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Cleef, Antoine M. (1977). Secuencia Altitudinal de la 
Vegetacion de los Paramos de la Cordillera Oriental. 
INGEOMINAS (1953). Fosfatos del Paramo de Pisba. Boletin Geologico, Vol No. 3. 

STAFF: No tiene. 

BUDGET: No se ha designado. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion Regional Boyaca - INDERENA - 
Tunja - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(18) Parque Nacional Natural Munchique 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.3.1 (Colombian Coastal). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Localizado en la Cordillera Occidental Municipio del Tambo, 
Departamento del Cauca; 2°28'-50'N y 75°36' - 76°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: De 500-3,000 m. 

AREA: 44,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion 95% y 5% de propiedad privada. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Comprende diversos pisos termicos. En su territorio se encuentran varias 
corrientes de agua dentro de las cuales las mas importantes son rios San Joaquin, Mechengue y Aguaclara. 
La topografia es de pendientes fuertes y los suelos compuestos per basaltos y disposicion de cenizas 
volcanicas en las partes altas. El area presenta ramales de la Cordillera Occidental o contrafuertes como 
las serrnias Sigui, La Paz y Pena Fiera. El clima va de isomicrotermico hasta el isomegatermico bajo la 
influencia de los vientos del Pacifico. La precipitacion en las partes mas altas es de 3,000 m.m. anuales y 
aumenta considerablemente con la disminucion de altura. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion corresponde a una Hydrophytia isomegatermica isomesotermica e 
isomicrotermica, que equivale a bosque pluvial montano, bosque muy humedo montano bajo y bosque 
pluvial tropical y subtropical. Sonresalen las siguientes especies: Billia columbiana, Tibouchina mollis, 
Quercus humboldtii, Hieronyma colombiana, Casearea nitida y Couma macrocarpa entre las aboreas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Por la diversidad de especies de la avifauna puede considerarse el area como 
una de las mas importantes del pais, considerando los varios pisos termicos que encierra y su ubicacion. Se 
destacan en el area el Colibri endemico de alii Eriocnemis mirabilis, Corbatudo Cephalopteros 
penduligera, Toropavo Pyroderus scutatus, Aguila Real Oroaetus isidori y Pharomachrus spp. Entre los 
mamiferos mas conocidos en el area estan Puerco Espin Echinoprocta rufescens, Tigrillo Felis pardalis 
(V), Venado Mazama americana y Puma Felis concolor. 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen colonos ubicados en los extremes Suroriental (Rio 
Mechengue) y Nororiental (Rio San Joaquim) que han alterado el area en parte con actividades de 
ganaderia y en una muy baja escala con agricultura. Estos colonos se hallaban en el Parque con 
anterioridad a su declaratoria. Esta area ocupada hace parte practicamente de la zona de amortiguacion 
(buffer zone), no definida completamente. 



COLOMBIA 143 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Se han efectuado serios estudios con enfasis en la avifauna, y otros de 
caracter botanico. Informacion deficiente. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No estan desarrollados. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Acero, Enrique (1979). Determinaciones Botanicas del 
Parque Nacional Munchique. Universidad Distrital de Bogota, Facultad de Ingenieria Forestal. 

Alvaro, Lobo A. (1978-1979). Informes de Actividades Parque Nacional Munchique. INDERENA. 

Townsend, Wendy R. (1980). La Fauna del Parque Nacional Munchique. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Forestal, jefe del area, 5 Guardabosques, 3 Obreros. 

BUDGET: 2,700,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1 ,742,000 pesos Colombianos en el primer semestre 
de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Naional Munchique, INDERENA, 
Popayan, Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(19) Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.33.12 (Northern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1973. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Cordillera Central, Municipios de Casablanca, Villa Hermosa, 
Murillo, e Ibague en el Departamento del Tolima, Santa Rosa de Cabal y Pereira en el Departamento de 
Risaralda, Villa Maria, Departamento de Caldas y Salento, Departamento de Ouindio; 4°36'-57'N y 
75°15'-30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2,600-5,400 m. 

AREA: 38,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 60% aproximadamente es de la Nacion y otro 40% se halla en manos de colonos y en 
propiedad privada, pero afortunadamente esta ultima porcion no tiene vocacion aagropecuaria sino 
netamente protectora en su gran mayoria, sin embargo, realizan cultivo de papa y mantienen ganado. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Se encuentran dentro del Parque varios volcanes nevados. El Ruiz, El Cisne, 
Santa Isabel, Tolima y el Quindio. El asentamiento de la vegetacion se efectua sobre arenas que reposan 
sobre material igneo. Pueden apreciarse estratos de lava con diferentes espesores asi como podsoles 
ferricos, podsoles de paramo, suelos de turbera ranqueriformes y yerma andina. La conformacion de cada 
volcan es diferente. La importancia hidrografica es relevante, puesto que alii se originan rios que 
abastecen las principals poblaciones cafeteras del pais y sus cuencas hidrograficas superiores se protegen 
en la reserva. Varias lagunas y afloramientos termales ocurren alii. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion en general esta caracterizada por 4 tipos diferentes:a) Bosque andino, 
ubicado entre 2,500 y 3,200 metres con especies de aliso Alnus, Jorullensis, encenillo Weinmannia 
pubescens, Chasque Chusquea scandens , palmas de cera Ceroxylon quinduensis y Ceroxylonferrugineum, 
Laurel de Cera Myrica pubescens; b) Subparamo entre 3,500 y 3,900 metros, donde la vegetacion es una 
mezcla del limite superior del bosque de niebla y el paramo propiamente dicho, las especies comunes son: 
Hypericum laricifolium, Baccharis genistelloides. Senecio formosus , Myrica pubescens , Rumex acetosella 
y el helecho/aweson/a sp. ; c) Paramo propiamente dicho donde sobresalen Calamagrostis y Festuca entre 
las Gramineas y Espeletia hartwegiana: d) Superparamo localizado entre 4,200 y 4,600 con temperaturas 
bajo 0°C con vegetacion pobre, dispensa y disociada sobre suelo arenoso y grava, representada por 
Senecio canescens, Senecio gelidus y Agrostis nigritella. 



144 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Las especies de mayor importancia que se encuentran en esta area son el Ave 
de los barrancos Momotus momota; se caracteriza esta especie por anidar en los perfiles de la carretera, se 
puede encontrar hasta los 4,500 m.s.n.m. El Papamoscas del Nevado Muscisaxicola alpina lelega a 
remontar hasta los 4,800 m.s.n.m. Entre los mamiferos tenemos: Oso de Anteojos Tremarctos ornatus 
(V), Danta de paramo Tapirus pinchaque (V), Venado Conejo Pudu mephistophiles (V) y Conejo 
Sabanero Sylvilagus brasiliensis. Entre las aves: Trogon de Montana Trogon masssena. Soledad 
Pharomachrus pavoninus. Tangara de Cabeza Amnarilla Tangara xanthocephala. Colibri Pardo 
Coeligena coeligena. Colibri Pico de Esoada Ensifera ensifera, Caza Moscas Myophobus flavicans , Falso 
Carpintero Dendrocincla tyrannina, Torcaza coUareja Columba fasciata. Aguila Real Buteo fuscencens, 
Aguila de cola blanca Buteo albicaudatus . Pato de paramo Anas flavirostris, Pato de los torrentes 
Merganetta armata, Pato Colorado Oxyura jamaicensis , Gallito de roca Rupicola rupicola. 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen tierras de propietarios privadas y otras de colonos 
establecidos con anterioridad a la creacion del Parque y dedicados a ganaderia y cultivo de papa. La mayor 
parte de las tierras poseidas por particulares corresponden a pastos naturales, rastrojos, arenales y zonas 
no aptas para desarroUos agropecuarios. Se estan haciendo esfuerzos para adquirir estas tierras, para lo 
cual se ha determinado establecer un fondo economico con caracter exclusive para ese proposito y 
buscando contribuciones del Estado y de los particulares. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existe un estudio fitogeografico y geologico. Actualmente se esta 
realizando un estudio fitosociologico y se estan montando estaciones meteorologicas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: De fraume, Melida y Perez, Oscar (1977). Parque Nacional 
Natural Los Nevados, Estudio Fitogeografico. Santa Marta. 

Herrd, Darrel (1974). Glacial and Volcanic geology of the Ruiz - Tolima volcanic complex, Corillera 
Central. Washington - Universidad de Washington. 

INDERENA - Division de Parques Nacionales (1981). Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados. 
Descripcion - Problematica, Plan de Accion. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Agronomo, Jefe del Proyecto, 4 Guardaparques, 1 Obrero. 

BUDGET: 2,700,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 2,248,000 primer semestre de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Los Nevados - 
INDERENA - Manziales - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(20) Parque Nacional Natural Las Orquideas 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.33.12/8.3.1 (Northern Andean/Colombian Coastal). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Marzo 1973. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Noroeste del Pais, cordillarea Occidental. Municipios de urrao. 
Frontino y Abriaqui, Departamento de Antioquia; 6°3r-42'N y 76°08'-25'W. 

ALTITUDE: 300 a 3,850 m. 

AREA: 32.000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion o Gobierno 90% y 10% de colonos y propietarios. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Topografia agreste y accidentada. Su parte mas elevada es el Alto de Musinga 
(3,850) que presenta en su ladera occidental laderas muy suaves. Alii estan los valles del rio Calles v 



COLOMBIA 145 

Carauta y el majestuoso canon del Rio Venados. Suelos desarrollados a partir de depositos volcanicos y 
materiales metamorficos y sedmientarios. Es importante resaltar la importancia de la proteccion en el 
Parque de cuencas superiores de rios que mas abajo tienen utilizacion para consumo humano e industrial. 

VEGETATION: Siguiendo la clasificacion de L. Holdridge en el existen las formaciones vegetales. 
Bosque muy humedo tropical, pluvial, subtropical, pluvial montano bajo y pluvial montano, sobresalen 
en general las siguientes especies: Cacao de monte Pachira acuatica, Tabebuia rosea, roble Quercus 
humboldtii. Ceiba Ceiba sp.,, Balso Ochroma lagopus, Guamos Inga spectabilis. Pino romeron 
Podocarpus sp. , Palma de cera Ceroxylon sp. y Sietecueros Tibouchina sp. . En el paramo representado se 
hall el frailejon Speletia occidentalis . Gran variedad de musgos, helechos, anturios, epifitos y parasitas. El 
Parque debe su nombre a las Orquideas, que en este son numerosas e incluyen especies de los generos 
Cattleya odontoglossum. Oncidiutn, Masde vallia, Epidendrum, Maxillaria, Elleantus. Pleurothallis , 
Stanhopea, Angulosa y Peristeria. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: El area por los diversos pisos termicos es bastante rica en especies faunisticas 
y reducto de algunas que se encuentran en via de extincion como el Oso Tremarctos ornatus (V). En aves 
valga mencionar Buteo magnirostris , Piaya cayana, Andigena nigrirostris , Trogon collaris y Pyroderus 
sciitatus y en mamiferos se ban reportado Didelphis marsupialis, Microsciurus sp. y Sciurus granatensis 
entre otros. 

ZONING: No definidas aun. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen actividades agricolas y ganaderas realizadas por 
colonos ubicados en margenes de algunos rios antes de la creacion del Parque. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existen inventarios parciales para colecciones e identificacion taxonomica 
de fauna y flora, pero estos pueden considerarse completamente insuficientes. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Barajas, Alberto (1971). Ubicacion y delimitacion del 
Parque Nacional Las Orquideas. INDERENA. Medellin. 

Ospina, Mariano (1973). Bases para la planeacion y desarrollo del Parque Nacional Las Orquideas. 
Antioquia. Colombia. 

STAFF: Ingeniero Forestal Jefe del Proyecto, Guardaparques y 3 obreros. 

BUDGET: 2,500,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1 ,851 ,000 pesos Colombianos en el primer semestre 
de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Las Orquideas - 
INDERENA - Medellin - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(21) Parque Nacional Natural Macuira 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Localizado en el extreme Noreste de la Peninsula de la Guajira; 

12°02'-15'N y 7ri4'-26'W. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: De 0-80 m. 

AREA: 25,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: En su totalidad de la Nacion. 



146 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Serrania de 25 kilometros de ancho, rodeada de tierras bajas, planas y aridas, 
que se extiende desde llanuras deserticas hasta 800 metros. Dada su ubicacion y elevacion intercepta los 
vientos alisios que vienen del N.E. , provocando un frente de condensacion y de nieblas en la ladera N.E. 
Los cerros de la serrania son muy inclinados y separados unos de otros por terrenes erodados. Las 
quebradas que nacen en la serrania se convierten en torrentes impasables en epocas de invierno. La 
precipitacion es de unos 800 m.s.n.m. al ano 'Es una Isla en el Desierto'. 

VEGETATION: La parte mas septentrional de Suramerica con vegetacion humeda. En la serrania hay 5 
tipos de bosques: Monte espinoso, endunas arenosas muy seco deciduo, sobresalen Bursera simaruba y 
Lonchocarpus punctatus , bosque seco siempreverde en el que se destaca Clusia rosea, bosque ripario en 
las margenes de los riachuelos con arboles como Crataeva tapia y bosque nublado con numerosas epifitas y 
que es el mas rico en especies, en terminos generales dentro de las que sobresalen Randia formosa, 
Rapanea guianensis y Cordia macuirensis , endemica del area. Si tiene certeza de por lo menos 12 especies 
mas endemicas de alii. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En el area se destaca una poblacion aislada y escasa de babilla Caiman 
crocodilus (V), primates del generoAlouatta, avifauna excepcionalmente rica con 7 subspecies endemicas 
de la region, ademas tigrillos, armadillos y ardillas. 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Muy pocas y que deben controlarse especialmente debido a 
pastoreo de ganado y chivos. El 90 por ciento del bosque en general se halla sin perturbacion. El resto es 
secundario. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existen colecciones botanicas y de avifauna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No desarrollados. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Sugden, Andrew M. y Bernal, Henry (1978). Informe sobre 
algunos aspectos de la conservacion y ecologia de la Serrania de Macuira. 

STAFF: 1 Jefe de area Ingeniero Forestal que comparte responsabilidad para el manejo de otra area y 
dos guardaparques. 

BUDGET: Primer semestre de 1981 1,000,000 de pesos Colombianos. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Macuira - INDERENA - 
Riohacha - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Mayo 15 1981. 



(22) Parque Nacional Natural Isla de Salamanca 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1964 y Ratificado 1969. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Costa del Caribe, Norte de Colombia, Departamento del Magdalena, 
Municipios de Sitio Nuevo y Pueblo Viejo; 10°57'-ir6'N y 74°22'-58"W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-8 m. 

AREA: 21,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 90% de la Nacion. El 80% se halla en propiedad privada y un 2% ocupado por 
colonos. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Isla formada por depositos en su mayoria de origen lacustre o del acarreo 
fluvial o marine. Delta estuario del Rio Magdalena. Su extremo Noroeste hace parte de las Bocas de 



COLOMBIA 147 

Ceniza, actual desembicadura del rio mencionado. El sector Oriental se inicio con una hilera de islillas 
separadas entre si por canales que con el tiempo debido al aporte de sedimentos y de arenas, conchas y 
detritos marinos permitio la union de esas islas. El sector Occidental esta constituido por varias cienagas, 
formadas a partir de un abanico de brazos del rio Magdalena, comunicadas por una red de canales y 
rodeadas en su mayor parte por manglares. Existen playas arenosas con formacion local de dunas. 

VEGETATION: El Parque se caracteriza por varias comunidades:a) Oligohalinas con muy escasa 
tolerancia a la salinidad representada por Erythrina fusca y Typha dominguensis; b) Bosque seco y 
espinosorepresentado entre otrasespecies por y4cac/a/ar«e5/a/ja, Prosopis juliflora, Pereskia guamacho, 
Opuntia wentiana, Acanthocereus pentagonus y Stenocereus griseus; c) Bosques de playa con Coccoloba 
uvifera y Guaicum officinale; d) Comunidades halofiticas, representadas por Rhizophora mangle, 
Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa y Conocarpus erectus entre los mangles y por Balis maritima 
y Sesuvium portulacastrum; e) Pastizales de Sporobolus. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Una gran riqueza en avifauna con 170 especies sobresaliendo el colibri 
endemico Lepidopyga liliae, Molothrus armenti, pato real Cairina moschata, pato cucharo Platalea ajaja, 
garzon soldado Jabiru mycteria. El grupo mas diversificado entre los mamiferos son los Quiropteros. 
Dentro de los carnivoros figuran Panthera onca (V), Felis yagouaroundi (I) y Procyon lotor. En los 
manglares son frecuentes los monos colorados Alouatta seniculus seniculus. Trichechus manatus (V) . Hay 
en la Isla una muy buena representacion de reptiles, peces y anfibios. 

ZONING: Area primitiva intangible que ocupa aproximadamente un 70 per cent del parque en su 
extremo occidental, area de recuperacion natural, area de recreacion general exterior y area de uso 
intensivo o alta densidad de uso. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Carretera comercial atravieza el Parque. Linea de alta tension 
electrica. Red de gaseoducto, bajo tierra que causo alteracion de vegetacion. Ruptura del balance 
halohidrico como consecuencia de sedimentacion de canns, internipcion de los flujos de agua por efecto 
de construccion de la carretera, fuertes sequias, evapotranspiracion mayor que precipitacion, entrada de 
agua de mar a las cienagas del litoral, todo lo cual ha producido condiciones de hipersalinidad hasta el 
punto que aproximadamente 1,700 hectareas de mangle se hallan totalmente muertas. Por otra parte aun 
existen en la Isla un buen numero de colonos dedicados a la agricultura de pancoger y en el extremo Sur 
Oriental (200 ha) se proyecta construir un complejo industrial. En proximos dias se efectuara una gran 
accion de dragado de los canos y construccion de obras civiles a traves de la carretera con el proposito de 
restablecer las condiciones originales permitiendo un mayor flujo de agua dulce y asi poder reducir la 
salinidad. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existen estudios obre la avifauna, moluscos, flora, insectos y algunas 
colecciones cientificas sobre mamiferos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No desarrollados, pero en el Estacion de 'Los Cocos', hay 
posibilidad de alojamiento para cientificos. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Franky, Simon y Rodriguez, Pedro (1976). Parque Nacional 
Isla de Salamanca. INDERENA. 

Hernandez, Jorge y Sanchez, Heliodoro (1979). Sinopsis de la problematica del Balance Halohidrico en 
el Parque Nacional Isla de Salamanca, con particular referenda a los flujos de agua preexistentes. 
INDERENA. 

Miller, K.R. (1968). El programa de manejo y desarroUo de los Parques Nacionales de la C.V.M., 
Colombia. Estudio de preinversion para el DesarroUo Forestal en los Valles del Magdalena y del Sinu. 
Proyecto PNUD-FE: CVM-FAO. IICA. Turrialba, Costa Rica. 

STAFF: Jefe del area, 1 Ingeniero Argonomo, 8 guardaparques, 15 obreros. 

BUDGET: 6,100,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 3,325,000 primer semestre de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe de Proyecto Parque Nacional Isla de 
Salamanca - INDERENA - Santa Marta. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



148 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(23) Parque Nacional Corales del Rosario 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8. 17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Litoral Caribe, Municipio de Cartagena, Departamento de Bolivar 
(Archipielago del Rosario) al sur de Cartagena; 10°04'-14'N y 75°37'-53'W. 

ALTITUDE: metros a menos 50 metros (area marina y submarina). 

AREA: 18,700 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 100 per cent de la Nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Comprende una plataforma coralina, quizas la mas importante de Colombia 
con aguas de poca profundidad que se extiende desde el Noreste de la Isla de Baru hasta el Archipielago 
del Rosario, incluyendo la faja de manglar que se encuentra al oeste de la Isla mencionada. Los arrecifes 
coralinos se localizan sobre base de arrecifes subfosiles de una edad de 5,000-10,000 anos. El Parque se 
halla rodeando las denominadas Islas del Rosario. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion terrestre del Parque se caracteriza piincipalmente por manglares 
(Avicennia nitida y Lagiincularia racemosa) ubicados en la margen oeste de la Isla de Baru (unica area 
terrestre incluida en el Parque). En el Parque hay una gran riqueza en las praderas submarinas de 
Thalassia testudinum, que se forman es fondos arenosos de poca profundiad y en las numerosas algas 
Cloroficias. Feoficeas y Rodoficeas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En su estudio sobre el area Ptaff senala que alii hay 5 1 especies y formas de 
corales y posteriores analisis han llegadado a determinar que existen 60 especies. La sucesion tipica 
dominante se caracteriza por Acropora palmala, A. cervicornis, Porites pontes, P. astreoides, Agarica 
tenuifolia y Montastrea annularis. En el area queda aun una buena representacion de el Caracol Strombus 
gigas. Muchas especies de peces, moluscos y crustaceos complementan la fauna del area, ademas de 
especies de la avifauna como algunas migratorias que anidan alii Pelecanus occidentalis y Fregata 
magnificens . 

ZONING: No aun definidas. Se tienen ya proyectos de delimitacion para areas intangibles y de 
recreacion general exterior. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: El Parque tiene algunos impactos debido al turismo que llega a 
las islas circundantes. Los principales causantes de danos son gran actividad de construcciones en las islas, 
que arrojan desperdicios al agua, contaminacion con aguas negras, pesca ilicita por visitantes y natives y 
un trafico de lanchas que atenta contra los arrecifes. Actualmente el control esta siendo estricto y se tiene 
una reglamentacion especial. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: El area ha sido afortunadamente bastante estudiada y cada dia hay mas 
entusiasmo por desarroUar estudios detallados alii. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: La Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano tiene una sede 
en la ciudad de Cartagena para la Facultad de Ciencias Marinas y que por otra parte el INDERENA tiene 
un Centre Investigaciones Pesqueras en la misma ciudad. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Institute de Investigaciones Marinas de Punta de Betin 

(1977). Informe sobre la situacion Ecologica general de las Islas del Rosario. Santa Marta. 

Ptaff, R. (1969). La Scleractinia y Milleporina de las Islas del Rosario. Mit.. Inst. Colombo Aleman 
Invest. Cient. 3.17-24. Santa Marta. 

Duque, Fernando. Jefe Parque Nacional Corales del Rosario. Informes varies sobre la situacion 
ecologica del Parque Nacional Corales del Rosario. 1979-1980-1981. 

STAFF: 1 Biologo Marino, Jefe del Parque, 3 guardaparques, 3 obreros. 

BUDGET: 3,200,000 pesos Colombianos 1980 y 1,924,000 pesos Colombianos primer semestrede 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Corales del Rosario. 
INDERENA. Cartagena. 



COLOMBIA 149 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 
INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(24) Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8. 17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1964 y Ratificado 1969. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Municipio de Santa Marta, Departamento del Magdalena. Litoral 
Caribe, al oriente de la ciudad de Santa Marta; iri6'-23'N y 73°53' - 74°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-900 m. 

AREA: 15,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: La mayoria pertenece a la Nacion. Aun existen 30 predios en manos de propietarios 
privados y que equivalen aproximadamente a 1,500 h a. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Litoral marino con predominio de acantilados con presencia de playas de 
regular amplitud y plataformas submarinas adyacentes con 'praderas" submarinas y arrecifes coralinos, 
varias bahias o ancones protegidos con abanicos aluviales. El resto corresponde a topografia accidentada 
(laderas en general descendiendo de S-N) la mayor parte de los cursos de agua son temporales, una gran 
parte del area presenta vestigios arqueologicos de la cultura Tayrona. 

VEGETATION: Aproximadamente el 90% se halla cubierto por vegetacion natural, y que comprende 
desde bosque humedos semicaducifolios hasta matorral xerofitico. Localmente existen algunos 
manglares, sobresalen varios endemismos de la region de Santa Marta como Melocactus sp., Mimosa 
martensis y del Litoral Caribe vgr. Caesalpinia ebano, Scheleamagdalenica . En el bosque seco se 
encuentran colinas bajas con Haematoxylon sp., Platymisciumpinnatum, Pereskia colombiana, vegas de 
quebradas y rios con Astroniun graveolens , Samanea soman, Hura crepitans y Bursera simaruba y en el 
bosque humedo se encuentran Poulsenia armata, Ficus magdalenica, Anacardium excelsum y Cufodontia 
cur rani. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Se calcula que existen no menos de 80 especies de mamiferos que incluyen un 
buen numero de cuiroptera, el Jaguar Panthera onca (V), paca Cuniculus paca, Cerdocyon thous, zaino 
Tayassu tajacu, mono Colorado Alouatta seniculus seniculus. Unas 250 especies de aves y 50 de reptiles. 
Ademas hay playas de nidacion de tortugas marinas incluyendo la Carey Eretmochelys imbricata (E), 
ademas se han registrado 50 especies de corales. 

ZONING: La zonificacion incluye zona intangible, de recuperacion natural, de recreacion general 
exterior, de alta densidad de uso, historico cultural y de amortiguacion. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: 30 predios de particulares que estan aprovechando cocoteros y 
realizan actividades agropecuarias. Algunos Pescadores que ilicitamente utilizan dinamita. Existen una 
carretera pavimentada que atraveso parte del area inicialmente determinada intangible. Los visitantes 
causan algunos disturbios especialmente por contaminacion con basuras. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Varios estudios sobre los vestigios arqueologicos de la cultura Tayrona. Se 
han hecho levantamientos geologicos, edafologicos, fitosociologicos e inventarios cualitativos de fauna 
(Planton marino, equinodermos, moluscos, crustaceos, insectos y vertebrados). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Estacion biologica marina en la Bahia de Gayraca. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: La bibliografia es muy variada y dispersa, las mas relevante 
como guia se cita: 

Franky, Simon y Rodriguez, Pedro (1967). Un enfoque para la problemat'.ca del desarrollo del Parque 
Nacional Tayrona. CVM. Santa Marta. 58 pp. 



150 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

Grimwood, I.R. (1968). Reports and recommendations on the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta National 
Park, the Isla Salamanca National Park, the Tayrona National Park, the Macarena National Reserve. 

Hernandez, Jorge C. y Rodriguez, Pedro (1975). Estudio Ecologico de la vegetacion del Parque 
Nacional Tayrona - INDERENA. 

INDERENA (1972). Division de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre. El Parque Nacional Tayrona 
para Colombia. Tomo II. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Forestal Jefe del Parque, Un agronomo asistente de vigilancia, 1 Biologo, 2 
auxiliares tecnicos, 13 Guardaparques y 20 Operarios. 

BUDGET: 12,000,000 de pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 6,712,000 pesos Colombianos en el primer 
semestre de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parque Nacional Tayrona - INDERENA - 
Santa Marta - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(25) Parque Nacional Natural Cueva de los Guacharos 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.33.12 (Northern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Noviembre 1961 - Ampliacion de su superficie en diciembre de 1975. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Cordillera Oriental, Departamento del Huila; r32'N y 76°04'W. 

ALTITUDE: 1,700-3,500 m. 

AREA: 9,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: En su totalidad de propiedad del Gobierno. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Se destacan en el Parque la existencia de grandes cuevas formadas a traves de 
los anos por la accion del Rio Suaza, dentro de las cuales a su vez se encuentran formaciones geologicas 
especiales. La temperatura media anual es de 16°C y la precipitacion de 3,100 mm. El relieve en general 
escarpado. 

VEGETATION: El Parque esta caracterizado por la existencia de un bosque humedo nublado en el cual 
sobresalen la presencia de Trigonobalanus excelsa especies endemica y unico sitio en el neotropico donde 
se ha encontrado el genero Trigonobalanus; igualmente se encuentra: Podocarpus rospigliosi; P. 
oleifolius; Quercus humboldti; Cedrela mejicana, C. montana; Juglans neotropica. A partir de los 3,000 
metros el bosque es reemplazado por vegetacion tipica de paramo. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Se destaca la presencia del Guacharo Steatornis caripensis, Gallito de Roca 
Rupicola peruviana, Tremarctos ornatus (V), Tapirus pinchaque (V), Lagothrix lagothricha (V), Finamus 
osgoodi. 

ZONING: No se han definido. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen algunas zonas del Parque alteradas por explotaciones 
agropecuarias, sin embargo, estos terrenos han sido adquiridos por el Gobierno y seran dedicados a su 
recuperacion natural. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Inventarios de flora y fauna. Estudios dendrologico de las especies 
arboreas. Estudio sobre biologia del Guacharo {Steatornis caripensis) . . Estudio bioecologico del Gallito 
de Roca {Rupicola peruviana). 



COLOMBIA 



SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 



151 



PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERLVL: Gertler, Paul (1979). The Birds of Cave of the Oilbirds 

National Park. 

Henao, Jesus (1979). Informe de Labores - INDERENA. 

Kysha Kewch, Roman (1973). El Guacharo, Steatornis caripensis del Parque nacional Cueva de Ids 
Guacharos - INDERENA. 

STAFF: 1 ingeniero forestal, Jefe del Proyecto; 4 guardaparques; 5 obreros. 

BUDGET: 4,600,000 pesos Colombianos en el ano 1980 y 1 ,706,000 pesos Colombianos primer semestre 
de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe del Parqye Nacional Natural Cueva de los 
Guacharos - INDERENA - pitalito, Huila. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(1) Santuario de Fauna y Flora Arauca 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.27.10 (Llanos). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Llanos Orientales de Colombia, Intendencia de Arauca, Municipio 

del mismo nombre; 6°36'-53'N y 7r05'-25"W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-400 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 90,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Un 30% esta ocupada por colonos. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: La totalidad del area es plana y comprende una Uanura aluvial de desborde, 
las partes sobresalientes estan constituidas por los diques naturales y las salidas de madre de los canos y 
rios antiguos. La temperatura media anual es de 27°C y la precipitacion de 2,200 mm. 

VEGETATION: El area incluye selvas de piedemonte de la Cordillera Oriental junto con sabanas, 
bosques de galeria y zonas pantanosas. En las selvas sobresalen: Higueron Ficus insipida, Ceiba Tolua 
Bombacopsis quinatum, Ceiba Ceiba pentandra, Guayacan Tabebuia sp., en los bosques de galeria se 
destacan las consociaciones de moriche Mauritia flexuosa y en las vegas de los rios las consociaciones 
Guadua angustifolia. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Pueden observarse facilmente grandes grupos de Chiguiros Hydrochaerus 
hydrochaeris, Venados Odocoileus virginianus y bandadas de patos y garzas de diferentes especies. 
Sobresalen asi mismo dentro del area; Tigres Panthera onca (V), Pumas Felis concolor, Perro de Agua 
Pteronura brasiliensis (V), Nutria Lutra longicaudis, Danta Tapirus terrestris, babillas Caiman crocodilus 
(V) y una muy reducida poblacion de Crocodylus intermedius (E). 

ZONING: No se han determinado. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Las causadas por explotaciones agricolas. Existe ademas una 
gran presion sobre el recurso bosque. El area sera atravesada por una carretera. El area ha sido 
parcialmente colonizada. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No se han realizado. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 



152 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: FAO (1964). Reconocimiento Edafologico de los Llanos 
Orientales. 

Cano, M. ( 1964). Reconocimiento de suelos de las zonas piloto de Arauquita, Fortul y Saravena. FAO. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero, 4 Guardaparques, 1 Obrero. 

BUDGET: 1,700,000 de pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1,181,000 de pesos Colombianos en el primer 
semestre de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Santuario Fauna y Flora Arauca. 
INDERENA - Arauca. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(2) Santuario de Fauna y Flora Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Extreme S.S.W. de la Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta. 
Departamento del Magdalena; 10°40'N y 74°3rW. 

ALTITUDE: Maximo 20 m. 

AREA: 23,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 95% de la Nacion, 5% propiedad privada. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Corresponde a un sector de la Uanura aluvial de origen reciente dentro del 
primitivo delta del Rio Magdalena que incluye oantanos, bosques pantanosos, cienagas, canos y bosques 
no inundables. El area esta localizada en un piso termico calido isomegatermico, semiarido con dos 
periodos humedos y dos secos en el ano. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion esta caracterizada por Manglar (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia 
germinans y Laguncularia racemosa). Asociaciones de pantano con Typha sp. y Eichhornia y bosque 
inundables con presencia de Erythrina fusca y Bosque no inundable con una gran diversidad de especies 
Ficus primoides. Ficus dendrocida, Broximum sp., Ceiba pentandra. Bosque de transecion 
higrotropofito-subxerofito con predominio de caducifolias. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En el area sobresalen las siguientes especies: Zorra Manglera Procyon lotor 
punmilus. Mono Colorado Alouatta seniculus, micobajo Cehiis albifrons. Jaguar Panthera onca (V), 
Manati Trichechus manatus (V), Guacharaca Ortalis garrula, Pato Cucharo Platalea ajaja, Chavarria 
Chauna chavarria, Patos (Anatidae) y varias aves migratorias. Caiman Crocodylus acutus (E), Babilla 
Caiman crocodilus fuscus (V), Iguana Iguana iguana. Ademas de gran diversidad de peces. 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Solamentes algunos Pescadores que realizan actividades ilicitas 
a espaldas de guardaparques y algunos propietarios que practican la ganaderia. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Inventario preliminar de aves y vertebrados. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: INDERENA ( 1978-80) . Informes tecnicos de las Divisiones 

de Fauna terrestre y de Parques Nacionales. 



COLOMBIA 153 

STAFF: Ingeniero Forestal, Jefe del Proyecto. 4 operarios y 4 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: 1,200,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1,395,000 pesos Colombianos primer semestre de 
1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Santuario Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta - 
INDERENA - Santa Marta - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(3) Santuario de Fauna Los Flamencos 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. Cubre todos los aspectos. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Litoral Caribe, Municipio de Riohacha. Departamento de la Guaiira; 
ll°45'Ny 72°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: Nivel del Mar 0-5 m. 

AREA: 7,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Pertenece a la Nacion a excepcion de unas 100 ha donde hay algunos habitantes. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Area constituida por lagunas salobres marismas y cienagas costeras. El 
complejo de cienagas esta comunicado con el mar por la Boca de Navio Quebrada, con clima semiarido 
isomegatermico, de temperatura media anual aproximadamente de 28°C, regimen biestacional de lluvias 
con dos 'veranos' (Diciembre - Abril y Julio - Agosto). 

VEGETATION: En los sectores exentos de influencia salina, consta de un bosque subxerofito con 
predominio de leguminosas Mimosoideae, tales como Prosopis juliflora. Acacia farnesiana. Cactaceae 
como Stenocereus griseus, Pilosocereus russellianus, Pereskia guamacho y Capparidaceae como Capparis 
spp. El resto de vegetacion herbacea con pastizal halofilo de Sporobolus virginianus. Batis maritima y 
semiarbustiva halofila con manglar Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans y Laguncularia racemosa. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Corresponde a la que caracteriza algunos sectores del Litoral Caribe de 
Colombia y Venezuela con elementos tales como Mazama gouazoubira, Sylvilagus floridanus . Columba 
corensis. Icterus icterus, Crotalus durissus, etc. Es un lugar importante como punto de escala para 
migraciones aviarias especialmente de aves acuaticas.Poblaciones de Flamencos Phoenicopterus ruber, 
especie que motivo el nombre de la reserva, habitan alii. 

ZONING: No existen. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: El area praticamente se halla sin alteraciones. Existen algunas 
viviendas de indigenas Pescadores en el area. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No se han realizado especificamente en el area. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: INDERENA . Informes ineditos de las Divisiones de Fauna 

Terrestre y Parques Nacionales. 

STAFF: 1 Jefe de area, Ingeniero Forestal, 1 guardaparque y 1 operario. 

BUDGET: 320.000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1,300, 000 pesos Colombianos en el primer semestre de 
1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Parques Nacionales Flamencos - Macuira, 
INDERENA, Riohacha, Colombia, 



154 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 
INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(4) Santuario de Fauna y Flora Iguaque 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Junio 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En la Cordillera Oriental, Departamento de Boyaca, Jurisdiccion de 

los municipios de Tunja, Arcabuco y Villa de Leyva; 5°35'-44'N y 73°22'-30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2,400-3,600 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 6,700 ha. 

LAND TENURE: La mitad de la tierra es de propiedad particular, pero por las caracteristicas 

fisiograficas y de altitud solo una parte de esta es explotada economicamente con cultivos de papa y 

pastoreo, la otra mitad pertenece a la Nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El area corresponde a un anticlinal vaciado en comba en cuyo senso se 

encuentran pequenas lagunas de origen glacial, una de ellas llamada Iguaque tiene especial valor cultural 

por ser considerada en la mitologia chibcha, el sitio donde se origino la humanidad. El relieve es quebrado 

y escarpado. Los flancos del anticlinal son de pendiente fuerte. El clima presenta una graduacion en 

sentido Sur-Norte , comenzando con una zona semidesertica hasta la humeda en la parte norte que soporta 

un bosque nublado. Hay predominancia de fosiles marines cretaceos. 

VEGETATION: En los extremos Sur y sureste donde predomina un clima seco y suelos superficiales, la 
vegetacion esta constituida por asociaciones subxerofiticas con especies de cactaceas Opuniia sp. , Opuntia 
tunicata y Mammillaria bogotensis y praderas secas de baja cobertura. El extremo Norte lo caracteriza un 
bosque nublado con enclaves de robledal Quercus spp.,Alnus joruUensis, Podocarpus sp. y Cinchona sp. 
En la parte alta sobre los 2,800 m aparece un bosque mixto arbustivo con presencia de Weinmannia sp., 
Clusia sp. y Diplostephiun . De los 3,200 m en adelante este bosque es reemplazado por vegetacion de 
paramo con predominio de frailejones endemicos regionales (Espeletia muyska, E. tunjana y E. 
pleiochasia) . 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna del area no ha sido estudiada mucho y dentro de esta sobresalen 
Venado cachienvainado Odocoileus virginianus goudoti, tinajo Agouti taczanowskii, zorros Urocyon 
cinerercargentens, Cerdocyon thous apollinari, Aguilas Geranoaetus melanoleucus y Oroaetus isidori. 

ZONING: No se han definido. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen actividades agricolas y ganaderas incompatibles con 
los objetivos del Santuario. I 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Existe un inventario parcial de la fauna y estudio general sobre la 
vegetacion. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Informes varios Division Parques Nacionales, INDEREN A. 

STAFF: 1 Ingeniero Forestal Jefe del Proyecto, 4 Guardabosques, 2 Obreros. 

BUDGET: 2,100,000 pesos Colombianos en 1980 y 1,340,000 pesos Colombianos en el primer semestre 
de 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe del Santuario de Fauna y Flora Iguaque - 
INDERENA - Tunja - Colombia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 



COLOMBIA 155 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



(5) Santuario de Fauna y Flora Los Colorados 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Ubicado en el Departamento de Bolivar, Municipio de San Juan 
Neponuceno; 9°57'N y 75°07'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-250 m. 

AREA: 1,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: El area ha permanecido conservada como una propiedad ejidal de la comunidad de 
San Juan Neponuceno, por disposiciones legales desde la colonia. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Se trata de una montana con pendientes moderadas a fuertes, situada en la 
Serrania de San Jacinto, que constituye el mas importante relicto de bosque dentro del sector 
septentrional de dicha serrania. 

VEGETATION: La totalidad de la reserva se halla cubierta de bosques subhigrofiticos con dosel de 
25-30 metros con predominio de especies arboricas perennifolias salvo en el estracto emergente. La biota 
climacica de la Serrania de San Jacinto se caracteriza por afinidades que pueden trazarse con la biota 
Chocoana en abrupto contraste con la biota tropofila y con tendencia a xerofila que define la mayor parte 
del litoral Caribe de Colombia, esto es la provinica biotica 8.27.4. de Udvardy (Salvo el Macizo de la 
Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta). Existen algunos elementos endemicos tan caracteristicos como el Palo de 
Vela Parmentiera stenocarpa. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: El area debe su nombre a los monos Colorados /1/oMfltta seniculus seniculus. 
La serrania corresponde al limite septentrional dentro de Colombia de afinidad hidrofila relacionada con 
la biota pacifico y los refugios pleistocinicos del Sinu (cf. Parque Nacional de Paramiilo) y del Nechi. 
Merecen mencion especies elementos tales como el Paujil Crax alberti (V), el Galbulido endemico 
Brachygalba lugubris carmenensi y la presencia de Alouatta palliata aequatorialis . 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Extraccion de hojas tiernas de palmeras de Iraca Carludovica 
palmata y de palma estera Astrocaryum malybo, para labores de artesania y de bejucos ]ara cesteria y 
extraccion de lena removiendo productos muertos por parte de la comunidad local. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Reconocimientos preliminares de flora y fauna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Mejia, Arturo C. (1977). Informe de Comision a San Juan 
Neponuceno. Abril de 1977. INDERENA. Bogota. 

STAFF: No existe especifico. La comunidad se encarga de la conservacion. 

BUDGET: No se ha establecido. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: INDERENA - Bogota. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



156 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(6) Santuario de Flora La Corota 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.33.12 (Northern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Municipio Pasto, Departamento de Narino, dentro de la laguna de la 
Cocha o Lajo Guamuez; 10°06'N y 77°08'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2,770-2,780 m. 

AREA: 8 ha. 

LAND TENURE: De la Nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Isla en la Laguna de La Cocha, con relieve piano a ondulado y con diferencias 
de altura entre su parte mas cerca a la laguna y su parte mas alta de 10 metros, Temperatura media de 1 TC 
y precipitacion promedia de 2,000 m.m. el ano. 

VEGETATION: Es un bosque primario de la formacion Bosque miy humedo montano bajo, 
caracterizado por arboles, arbustos, hierbas, musgos, bejucos, orquideas y liquenes. Sobresalen las 
siguientes especies: Aliso Alnus jorullensis, Encenillo Weinmannia tomentosa, motilon Hieronima 
colombiana, Trompito Boconia frustescens , Rubus floribundus y Esperomeles glabrata. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: No existen registros de mamiferos en el area y no se conocen datos de la 
avifauna que tiene alii su habitat. 

ZONING: No definidas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Solamente lo limpado para construir unos senderos de 
interpretacion. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Inventario preliminar de flora. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Estacion biologicas con una cabana. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocido. 

STAFF: 1 Guardabosque. 

BUDGET: El sueldo del Guardabosque 200,000 pesos Colombianos. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Director Regional del INDERENA - Narino - 
INDERENA - Pasto. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Heliodoro Sanchez Paez. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 15 1981. 



COSTA RICA 157 



COSTA RICA 



AREA: 50,899 sq km. 

POPULATION: 2,111,000(1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The Forestry Law of 25 November 1969 and the 
modifications of it in 24 August 1977 Law establishing the National Park Service provide that national 
parks and reserves can be created by executive decree; once created the limits can be altered only by a 
Congressional Law. The National Park Service has the right to recommend the creation of new parks and 
reserves and the expropriation of lands, set up and administer funds derived from entrance fees and 
special taxes, enter and inspect rural properties, seize vehicles, arms or equipment used for any illegal 
activities, etc. , in accordance with the provisions of these laws. The laws also define the responsibilities of 
the Park Service and general prohibitions against certain activities by visitors to the parks and reserves. 
Separate additional legislation empowers the Ministry of the Economy to issue special bonds for payment 
of lands to be expropriated for parks and reserves. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The National Park Service has existed since 24 August 
1977 with equivalency to a General Directorate of the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock (from 
1969-1977 it was a Department within the General Forestry Directorate of the same Ministry). It has 
responsibility for all the parks and reserves except for the Monteverde Cloud Forest Biological Reserve 
and Rafael Lucas Rodriguez National Wildlife Refuge (see individual sheets). Forestry Law 4465 of 25 
November 1969 defined national parks as"regions or areas. . . that for their scenic beauty or the national or 
international importance of their wildlife are to be set aside for the recreation and education of the public, 
for tourism or for scientific research"( Article 74). National Monuments are relatively small areas of lesser 
natural or historical value, or those which protect a particular resource of special importance. Biological 
Reserves are areas containing ecosystems/species largely unaffected by man where the ecological 
processes can follow their own courses with as little interference as possible. Other types of reserve also 
exist. The Servicio de Parques Nacionales, MAG, does not have a fixed annual budget for each of the 
parks and reserves under its own administration. Rather the overall budget is adjusted to meet priorities 
throughout the year. For 1981 the approximate budget for the Park Services system will be US$ 1,720,602 
for all normal operations and US$ 590,760 for land acquisition (special bonds). In addition, some US$ 
75,000-100,000 is expected from international donations for projects (WWF/IUCN, RENARE, etc.). 
Also various other preinvestment planning funds, major bank loans and loans for other projects are 
underway or expected for certain individual wildland units. These last ones are indicated in the individual 
area sheets. 

ADDRESS: Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Apartado 10094, 
San Jose, Costa Rica. 

REFERENCES: Boza, M. A. (1978). Los Parques Nacionales de Costa Rica. INCAFO, Madrid. 224 pp. 
Boza, M.A. and Mendoza, R. (1981). The National Parks of Costa Rica. INCAFO, Madrid. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 567,113 ha. - — ^ '^ / ^A 3cZ f^a ■• 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 La Amistad (International) 250,000 

2 Chirripo 43,700 

3 Corcovado 41,789 

4 Braulio CarriUo 32,000 

5 Santa Rosa 21,500 

6 Tortuguero 18,947 

7 Rincon de la Vieja 11,700 

8 Palo Verde 9,647 

9 Volcan Poas 4,000 
10 Cocos Island 3,200 



158 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

11 Irazu Volcano 2,400 

12 Barra Honda 2,296 

13 Cahuita 1,700 

14 Manuel Antonio* 690 

Biological Reserves 

1 Hitoy-Cerere 9,004 

2 Carara 7,600 

3 Monteverde Cloud Forest 4,500 

4 Guayabo, Pajaros and Negritos Islands 147 

National Reserve 

1 Cabo Blanco 1,172 

Wildlife Sanctuary 

1 Rafael Lucas Rodriguez 7,000 

24 Anthropological Reserves with a total of 295,338 ha. 
17 Forest Reserves with a total of 335,273 ha. 

* This area is not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 




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160 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) La Amistad National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: None yet in Panama. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: The presidents of Costa Rica and Panama jointly declared intent to establish 
the park on 3 March 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park lies across the Panamanian/Costa Rican border, within 
Limon and Puntarenas Provinces in Costa Rica, and Boscas de Toro and Chiriqui Provinces in Panama; 
8°50'-9°32'N, 82°38'-83°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-3 ,550m. 

AREA: Approximately 450,000 ha (200,000 ha in Panama, 250,000 ha in Costa Rica). Final boundaries 
and size to depend on the planning efforts to be carried out during the last part of 1981. 

LAND TENURE: Mostly government land in both countries, but catastral surveys are incomplete. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Cordillera de Talamanca, where the proposed park will be located, is the 
highest and wildest non-volcanic mountain range in Central America. The Cordillera runs from near 
Cartago province in Costa Rica to an area near Volcan Baru in Chiriqui Province, Panama. A series of 
peaks, massifs, small valleys and slopes, swampy Sphagnum areas, paramos, important Atlantic and 
Pacific watersheds, waterfalls and other features of the landscape lie within the proposed park boundaries. 

VEGETATION: Of the 20 life zones of Costa Rica, at least nine occur in the park; the numbers are 
similar for Panama. The area includes lowland tropical wet rainforest to cloud and paramo forests. Most of 
the main crest lies within the Montane Rainforest life zone, characterized by mixed oak forest - a dense, 
low and heavily covered forest with bryophytes, ferns, bromeliads, orchids and other epiphytes. Below 
2,500m the Lower Montane Rainforest life zone is encountered and the forest is generally more mixed. On 
high points along the ridge, at elevations above 2,900-3, 100m, there are frequently stands of paramo, 
swamps and Aretostaphylos arbustoides. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Signs of tapirs, possibly of a species as yet unrecorded for Costa Rica Tapirus 
lerreslris, are abundant at Cerros Utyum, Kamurk and Fabrega on the Costa Rican side but near the 
Panamanian border. Bothrops negrivisidis. a green and black high altitude viper that has been rarely seen 
or collected, is present. The resplendent quetzal Pharomacrus mocinno (V) is present in the park as are 
many other species. 

ZONING: None yet. Over the next two years RENARE (Panama), Servicio de Parques Nacionales 
(Costa Rica), the CATIE Wildlands and Watershed Unit and probably other agencies from each country 
will conduct natural and cultural resource inventories and elaborate a management plan for the area. 

DISTURBANCES AND DEFICIENCIES: On both sides there are several Indian Reservations near or 
contiguous with the area plus several large farms within the initially proposed boundaries. Land squatters 
on the Pacific side in Costa Rica are known to exist. The situation is still being investigated in Panama. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Several studies have been carried out dealing mainly with vegetation and 

geological items. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Weber, H. (1959). Los Paramos de Costa Rica y su 
concatenacion fitogeografica con los Andes Suramericanos. Institute Geografico Nacional. 67 pp. 

Weston, A.S. (1981). Paramos,cienegasandsubparamosforest in the eastern part of the Cordillera de 
Talamanca. Tropical Science Centre. 14 pp. 

STAFF: None yet; RENARE Panama and National Park Service of Costa Rica will assign personnel to 
work part-time with CATIE personnel on management plan. 

BUDGET: The governments of Costa Rica and Panama have assigned US$ 600,000 for resource 
inventory and management planning for 1981-83. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: None yet; best to contact J.M. Rodriguez, 
Director del Servicio de Parques Nacionales, MAG, San Jose, Costa Rica, or D. Tovar, Subdirector, 
Direccion Nacional de Recursos Naturales Renovables, Panama, or C. MacFarland, Head, 



COSTA RICA 161 

Wildlands and Watershed Project, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 
NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 
INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(2) Chirripo National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 July 1975 by congressional law 5773. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the south central part of the Cordillera de Talamanca; 9°20'-38'N, 
83°20'-34'W. 

ALTITUDE: l,220-3,819m. 
AREA: 43,700 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law. Some small peripheral private holdings are 
still being purchased. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The highest mountain in Costa Rica is the central feature of the park. There 
are extensive paramos and cloud forests, and a system of lakes of glacial origin (formed during the 
Pleistocene), which with a number of other glacial features are found above 3,400m. The park protects a 
large watershed system and a very diverse fauna and flora. The rocks of the Chirripo Range are largely 
igneous in origin, and include quartz diorite, grained diorite, and smaller amounts of granite. Chirripo 
Peak is of grained diorite, and diorite rocks with a surface layer of fine-grained granite. Some areas of the 
paramo are frequently flooded during the rainy season, while in the dry season the only source of water is 
in the glacial lakes. 

VEGETATION: i) Lower Montane Rainforest; ii) Montane Rainforest; iii) Subalpine Rain Paramo, 
with the treeline at 3,300m. The paramo has four types of vegetation: a) small shrub stratum (with stunted 
shrubs growing no higher than 4m); b) the chusqueatum (with the endemic dwarf bamboo SwaUenochloa 
sublessellata) ; c) the graminetum (occupying clearings in the dwarf bamboo) ; d) fissure vegetation (on the 
rocks and in rock cracks). The other life zones have various oaks Quercus spp. as the predominant trees. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Among the mammals are Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), jaguar Panthera 
onca (V), puma Felis concolor, red brocket Mazama americana and rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis. 
Bolitoglossa subpalmata, a salamander, is very common. Among the birds are the volcano junco Junco 
vulcani, sooty robin Tardus nigrescens. red-tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis. rose-throated hummingbird 
Selasphorusflammula, wren-thrush Zeledonia coronata and barred parakeet Bolborhynchus lineola in the 
paramo and quetzals Pharomachrus mocinno (V) in good numbers at lower elevations in the cloud forest. 
The fauna of the paramo is fairly poor when compared with the forested areas. 

ZONING: None yet applied; a team of professors and students from the Universidad Nacional de Costa 
Rica is currently working on the first phase management plan. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The only noteworthy disturbance was a fire in March 1976 
which burned approximately 90% of the paramo. It is recovering. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A general inventory of natural resources is being done by Universidad 
Nacional Team, and the same group is studying regeneration of burned-over paramo in permanent 
quadrats. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Very limited; there is a fairly extensive system of primitive trails 
and three small shelter huts in various locations. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Chaverri, A.. Vaughan, C. and Poveda, L.J. (1976). Informe 



162 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

de la gira efectuada a! macizo de Chirripo a raiz del fuego ocurrido en marzo de 1976. Univ. Nacional, 
mimeo, 27 pp. 

Vaughan, C. (1979). Various personal communications to C. MacFarland. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 6 guards and a labourer. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Franklin Somarribas (Superintendent), Parque 
Nacional Chirripo, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNFPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(3) Corcovado National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 24 October 1975 and 30 September 1976 by executive decrees 5357 and 6385 
respectively. Though still within the park, Cano Island was declared a biological reserve on 9 March 1978 
under law 6215. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the Peninsula de Osa in Puntarenas province , southwestern Costa 

Rica; 8°30'N, 83°35"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 750m. 

AREA: 41,789 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A rainforest with densely forested coastal hills, estuaries, marshy plains, 
rivers and beaches. The coastal plains are composed of Quaternary alluvial deposits, while the highlands 
are made up of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Cretaceous. The park also includes the Isla del 
Cano, of about 320 ha, which has some archaeological importance. The rainfall varies from a minimum of 
3800mm/year on the coast to 5500mm/year in the interior lowlands and probably goes up to 6500mm or 
more at higher altitudes. Rainfall data are estimations by Tosi (1975) based on the vegetation 
characteristics. 

VEGETATION: Based on the vegetation characteristics, the park has been divided into four 
associations: a) hilly forest: trees of up to 65m high and diameters of up to 1.5m. There are about 100 
species of trees and palms per hectare, b) lowland forest: in the gallery forest in this association 
Anacardium excelsum is the dominant tree species and sometimes attains a height of 50m; there are about 
45 tree species per ha. Other species present are Termonalis lucida, Ficiis spp., Brosimum panamense , 
Virola surinamensis and the palm Cryosophila guagara. c) poorly drained marshes, lagoons and forest in 
the lowlands. The tree species that occur here are Carapa guianensis, Ficus spp., Pterocarpus officinalis, 
Hernandia didymantha , Bravaisia integerrima, Cecropia spp. , Euterpe spp. and pure stands of the swamp 
palm Raphia taedigera. d) estuaries with species like Mora excelsa and the mangroves Rhizophora mangle 
and Avicennia nitida. On the beaches can be found the coconut palm Cocos nucifera, mahoe Hibiscus 
tiliaceus, wild cacao Herrania purpurea and coco palm Chrysobalanus icaco. The island is largely forested. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Four species of sea turtle annually visit the beaches of Corcovado to lay eggs. 
These are the olive Ridley turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (E), green turtle Chelonia mydas (E), the 
hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (E) and leatherback Dermochelys coriacea (E). The mammal species 
most frequent in the park are Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), collared peccary Tayassu tajacu and red 
brocket Mazartia americana; all of these are the natural food source of the jaguar Panthera onca (V). 



COSTA RICA 163 

Also recorded are the tiger cat Felis tigrina (V), ocelot F. pardalis (V), margay F. wiedii (V) and 
jaguarundi F. yaguaroundi (I) amongst the cats, and the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V) 
(Boza and Mendoza, 1981). Geoffrey's spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi (V) is found in the park, and the 
Central American or red-backed squirrel monkey Saimiri oerstedi (E) is found in the 'Reserva de Cuenco 
Corcovado" (see Thornback and Jenkins, 1982) - presumably the Corcovada Natonal Park. Two 
noteworthy reptile species are Crocodylus acutus (E) and Caiman crocodilus fuscus (V). The bird fauna is 
represented by the harpy eagle Harpia harpyja (R) and boat-billed heron Cochlearius cochlearius. The 
1 ,000 ha freshwater marsh which floods during the rainy season is also a refuge for many waterfowl (as well 
as reptiles and amphibians). In total some 285 species of bird have been recorded within the park, along 
with 139 species of mammal, 116 of amphibians and reptiles (including 42 frogs) and 16 freshwater fish. 
The invertebrate fauna is also very diverse, and includes numbers of large butterflies of Papilio, Coligo, 
Morphus and Anaea spp. 

ZONING: A zoning system is being elaborated for the park. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Access is difficult, but for some years part of the area was 
occupied by squatters who deforested about 5% for agriculture and animal husbandry activities. This area 
is now recuperating. Due to the new extension of the park, several upper watersheds were included, which 
were traditionally the principal locations used for mines by 'coligalleros' (gold prospectors). This 
extension has caused some problems for the park. The administration is putting emphasis on control of the 
coligalleros and reduction of their activities within the park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: For several years research was carried out in an area named Rincon, near 
the park, principally by students training in tropical ecology from different universities of the United 
States and other countries. There has been an increased use of the park by numerous researchers during 
the last three years. Lists have been published of the species of trees, mammals, birds, amphibians and 
reptiles. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There are minimum facilities but several field stations are under 
construction and there are now five different sites with minimal facilities. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Tosi, J. (1975). La Cuenca de Corcovado en la Peninsula de 
Osa. lUCN/WWF. Centro Cientifico Tropical, San Jose, 18 pp. 

Vaughan, C. (1979). Plan Maestro del Parque Nacional Corcovado. Tesis Magister Scientie, CATIE, 
Turrialba, 380 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 13 guards and nine labourers. 

BUDGET: The Park Service will receive approximately US$ 70,000 for further refinement of the 
management plan, followed by major funding of its implementation as part of a major integral 
development project of the entire Osa Peninsula (World Bank loan funds). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Maria Elena Mora (Superintendent), Parque 
Nacional Corcovado, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(4) Braulio Carrillo National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 27 April 1978, by executive decree 8357-A. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park is located in the highlands of the Central Plateau, about 
25km north of San Jose; 10°10'N, 84°00"W. 



164 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ALTITUDE: 500 to 2,900m. 

AREA: 32,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Mostly government lands; expropriation of the remainder is in progress. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park has erosive formations of great dimensions, including canyons, 
gorges and V-shaped valleys. The rocks are predominantly of volcanic origin and the park contains two 
dormant volcanoes, Barba and Cacho Negro. The topography is very steep and broken, with great 
altitudinal range. The area has a very wet climate, and there are many streams, waterfalls and several 
lakes. 

VEGETATION: The major types are: i) Premontane Rainforest, ii) Lower Montane Rainforest, iii) 
Tropical Humid Forest, iv) Premontane Humid Forest, v) Montane Rainforest. The flora is very diverse, 
and in the first two vegetation types there is in some areas a proliferation of all kinds of epiphytes and other 
herbaceous plants and bushes. 84% of the area is covered by primeval forest, and 5% by secondary forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Among the mammals are Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), mantled howler 
Alouatta palliata, white-throated capuchin Cebus capucinus, Geoffrey's spider monkey Ateles geoffreoyi 
(V), red brocket Mazama americana and probably all five species of Central American felids, four of 
which are classed as vulnerable in the lUCN Mammal Red Data Book (Thornback and Jenkins, 1982). 
Over 500 species of bird have been recorded in the park, including the Montezuma oropendola 
Gymnostrinops montezuma, Gray's robin Tardus grayi, the black-faced solitaire Myadestes melanops and 
the quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno (V). The fauna is extremely diverse, but needs inventory and further 
study. 

ZONING: None yet developed. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: A new road is being constructed through the centre of the 
entire park. This is causing extensive slides. One of the principal objectives of the park will be to minimize 
the road's impact and use it to best advantage for park studies. There is a small amount of deforestation for 
agriculture and animal husbandry on some borders but this is coming under control. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Very little in the area per je; some basic natural resources inventory work is 
now being carried out by Universidad de Costa Rica professors and students. There is extensive biological 
literature of the research conducted at the nearby 'La Selva' field station. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None in the area per se, but the 'La Selva' field station, which 
belongs to the Organization of Tropical Studies (OTS), is relatively close. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Chaves, G. (1978). Alhunas consideraciones sobre los 
posibles problemas biogeograficos sobre la cuenca del Rio Sucio. Unpublished thesis. 

Rojas, M. (1979). Plan preliminar de desarroUo: Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo. Unpublished 
manuscript. 

STAFF: A superintendent, two assistant superintendents, eight guards and five labourers. 

BUDGET: The Park will receive approximately US$ 2,500,000 1981-85 for the preparation of a 
management plan, interpretative-environmental education plan and the implementation of those plans, 
under an AID-Government of Costa Rica project on management of natural resources. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jose Manuel Cartin, Parque Nacional Braulio 
Carrillo, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



COSTA RICA 165 

(5) Santa Rosa National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 20 March 1971, by executive decree 1562-A, though part of the area was 
protected earlier as a national monument (1 July 1966 by law 3394). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The Park is located on the Pacific coast in the northwest province of 
Guanacaste, 30km northwest of Liberia (the provincial capital). The eastern border is marked by the 
Pan-American highway, the western by the Pacific Ocean; 10°44'-55'N, 85°34'-43'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 319m. 

AREA: 21,500 ha (including 11,600 ha of Murcielago area). 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: About 40% of the park is flat, the remainder hilly. The annual rainfall is about 
2,000mm and the mean annual temperature is 28.2°C. During the rainy season (May to November) many 
lagoons of different sizes are formed. There are about 5km of white beaches on the Pacific Ocean. 
Volcanic rock of high calcium carbonate underlies the western region; sedimentary sandstone occurs on 
the coastal flank. Salt flats or 'salinas' are found along littoral lowlands. The original Hacienda was one of 
the first and most important cattle ranches of the region and dates back to before 1751. In 1856 it was the 
site of the 'Battle of Santa Rosa' . The House ("Casona") of Hacienda Santa Rosa has become the historical 
landmark of the successful 'Campaign of 56-57" in which Costa Rica upheld her independence. 

VEGETATION: Dry forest life-zone {sensu Holdridge) including savannas with some forest, gallery 
forest, estuaries and 5km beach. Main vegetation types: 1) mixed deciduous forest with Calycophyllum 
candidissimum, Bombacopsis quinatum, and Luehea Candida among the dominants, and with fig trees 
Ficus sp. and rosewood Dalbergia retusa also represented; 2) evergreen gallery forests along streams and 
behind the occasionally flooded zone (estero); 3) savannas of the exotic jaragua grass Hyparrhenia rufa 
with scattered trees of Byrsoriima crassifolia and Curatella americana; 4) oak forests and savannas with 
Quercus oleiodes dominant; and 5) mangroves Rhizophora mangle , Avicennia nitida, Conocarpus erectus 
and Laguncularia racemosa. There is also beach vegetation, and areas of calabash Crescentia sp. forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Due to the rapid clearing of the Guanacaste landscape for timber and 
subsequent use of pasture , Santa Rosa National Park will soon be one of the last large tracts of originally 
widespread tropical dry forest and lowland. Since the establishment of the park, the increment of some 
animal populations has been notable, the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus particularly so. Other 
mammal species which are gradually regaining their previous status are white-lipped peccary Tayassu 
pecary, collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), white-face monkey Cebus capucinus 
and the spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi (V) (apparently the park is the last refuge of the subspecies /I. g. 
frontatus); howler monkey Alouatta palliata, collared anteater Tamandua tetradactyla, jaguar Panthera 
onca (V), margay Felis wiedii (V), jaguarundi F. yagouaroundi (I) and ocelot F. pardalis (V) are also 
found within the park. The avifauna is well represented in the area. Among the bird species the following 
are the most common: scarlet macaw Ara militaris, rufescent tinamo Crypturellus cinnamomeus, 
spot-bellied bobwhite Colinus leucopogon, great curassow Crax rubra, crested guan Penelope 
purpurascens , blue-winged teal Anas discors, roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja, thick knee Burhinus 
bistriatus. parrots Amazona albifrons. anhinga Anhinga anhinga, jabiru Jabiru mycteria, ibis Eudocimus 
albus and the laughing falcon Herpetotheres cachinnas. In the estuaries small individuals of Caiman 
crocodilus fuscuslV) and Crocodylus acutus (E) have been observed. On the Naranjo and Nancite 
beaches during the breeding and mating season (August to December) in 1971, over 288,000 turtles 
arrived to nest. The majority of them were the Pacific Ridley turtle Lepidochelys oli\'aceae{E). The Pacific 
green turtle Chelonia my das (E), the leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea (E) and the hawksbill 
Eretmochelys imbricata (E) also use the beaches quite extensively to nest. There are numerous crabs 
around the mangrove swamps, and sea snakes are frequently washed up on the shore. 

ZONING: The park is zoned as follows: 1) historic zone, including the large old house (Casona), one 
museum and an old stone corral; 2) recreation zone with some facilities for picnics (drinking water, tables, 
fireplaces, sanitary services, etc.) on two sites, one close to the old house and the other near Naranjo 
beach; 3) education zone, which has a nature trail with interpretative signs located in the deciduous forest. 



166 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

and many other signs along the main road explaining different historical, faunal and vegetative aspects; 4) 
protected or biological zone, including most of the park and the beaches; 5) administration zone, located 
about 1km from the old house, and covering 2 ha; housing for the staff of the park is located here. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: In the past there were problems with rather constant invasions 
of cattle from neighbouring ranches, frequent forest fires in the dry season and turtle egg collecting and 
poaching. These are now all under control and only occasional illegal hunting is a problem. The new 
addition of the Murcielago Ranch area is completely deforested because of the cattle ranching activities. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Corcovado National Park and Santa Rosa National Park are the two 
conservation units most utilized by national and international researchers in the country. Research has 
been dealing with local fauna, savanna succession and effects of fire, and behaviour, ecology of the Ridley 
turtle Lepidochelys olivacea and bat feeding. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A research centre, including herbarium, library, projection 
room and dark room. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Miller. K.R. and von Borstel, K.R. (1968). Proyecto Parque 
Nacional Historico Santa Rosa, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Instituto Costarricense de Turismo, Instituto 
Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas de la OEA, 76 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, three guides, 15 guards and 2 labourers. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Sigifredo Marin (Superintendent), Parque 
Nacional Santa Rosa, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(6) Tortuguero National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 7 September 1970, executive decree 1235-A and 28 October 1975, law 5680. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the Atlantic coast in the Tortuguero plains of Limon state; 

10°22'-32'N, 83°23'-34'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 299m. 

AREA: 18,947 ha, and the sea within the territorial waters. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law (the few small remaining private lands are 
being purchased now). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Include beach, estuary and rainforest, the latter covering 140 sq km of palm 
swamps (crossed by many narrow canals or 'canos') and a long series of hills called 'Lomas de Sierpe". The 
rocks are all of recent origin, with the Sierpe Peaks being composed of Quaternary volcanic activity, and 
the plains of Quaternary alluvium, apparently formed by a coalescence of deltas. The climate is hot and 
one of the wettest in Central America, with about 5,000mm annual rainfall and virtually no dry season. 
The mean annual temperature is close to 25°C. 

VEGETATION: The flora is very diverse, with large areas of relatively undisturbed heterogeneous 
tropical wet forest, some almost pure stands of 'cativo" Prioria copaifera and the swamp palm Raphia 
taedigera. Other species present are Carapa guianensis, Virola spp. . Pamaclethra macroloba. Rhizophora 



COSTA RICA 167 

mangle and Coccoloba uvifera. Coconut trees Cocos nudifera are very abundant on the beaches, as are the 
seeds of the purple beach bean Mucuma sloanii. Much of the land is flooded for part if not all of the year, 
and grasses (Gramineae), sedges (Cyperaceae) and herbaceous plants are particularly abundant in these 
areas. The water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes on which the manatee feeds is the most common aquatic 
plant in the park. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: It is thought that populations of manatee Trichechus manatus (V) still occur 
in the park. The beaches of the park are extensively used for nesting by the Atlantic green turtle Chelonia 
my das (E), making the park one of the most important areas on the Caribbean coast of America for the 
conservation of this species. Other sea turtle species which visit this area are the hawksbill Eretmochelys 
imbricata (E) and the leatherback Dermochelys coriacea (E). Loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (V) has 
also been recorded here, but only once in 15 years of observation. Also found are tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), 
(which is particularly abundant in the swamp palm groves), jaguar Panthera onca (V), puma F. concolor, 
ocelot F. pardalis (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V) and kinkajou Potos flavus. The 
following bird species are some of the notable ones; green macaw Ara ambigua, king vulture 
Sarcoramphus papa, green ibis Mesembrinibis cayennensis . olivaceous cormorant Phalacrocorax 
olivaceus and the anhinga Anfiinga anhinga. Among the fish recorded here is the gar Atractosteus tropicus 
which is unusual because of the bony ganoid scales which cover its body. There are also a number of crabs 
which are particularly abundant, Ocypode quadratus (on tree trunks), Geocarcinus lateralis and 
Cardisoma guanhumi (on the canal banks). 

ZONING: None yet applied. A preliminary management plan has been drawn up providing two 
alternative zoning schemes. The Costa Rican Park Service is currently reviewing and revising the plan. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Egg collecting and turtle hunting are still a problem in the park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research on turtles, and in particular on Chelonia mydas, has been carried 
out here for more than 20 years by Archie Carr of the University of Florida (USA). There has also been 
some work done on vegetation, fishes, lizards and the dynamics of Raphia stands. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There is a large field station that offers some minimum facilities. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Caldwell, D.D., Ogren, L.H. and Giovannoli, L. (1959). 
Systematic and ecological notes on some fishes collected in the vicinity of Tortuguero, Caribbean coast of 
Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 7-33. 

Carr, A. (1967). Caribbean green turtle; imperilled gift of the sea. National Geographic 131 (6): 
876-890. 

Carr, A. and Hirth, H. (1962). The ecology and migration of sea turtles, 5. Comparative features of 
isolated green turtle colonies. Amer. Mus. Novitates No. 2091, 42pp. 

Morris, D. ef a/ (1978). A management plan for the use and development of Tortuguero National Park: 
Preliminary draft. 

STAFF: A superintendent, an assistant superintendent, a biologist, 14 guards and 2 labourers full time. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Franklin Chaves, Parque Nacional Tortuguero. 
Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(7) Rincon de la Vieja National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8. 16.4 (Central American). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 22 April 1974, law 5398. 



168 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located in the 'Cordillera Voicanica de Guanacaste', Guanacaste 
province, in the northwestern part of Costa Rica; 10°35'N, 85°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 640 to 1,916m. 

AREA: 11,700 ha. 

LAND TENURE: The government has initiated land expropriation from those people who have land 
titles, and the resettlement of squatters. Some of the area is still privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The main feature of the park is the Rincon de la Vieja volcano that, with the 
Cerro Santa Maria, forms the larger mass of the cordillera. The volcano has three craters, (each one 
displaying collapse characteristics), and one lagoon. The last eruption was observed over 10 years ago, but 
some fumarole activity still occurs in one of the craters. In the base of the volcano are several minor craters 
or pailas (from 0.5m to 10m in diameter) with mud in ebullition; 32 rivers and 16 intermittent streams 
originate in the vicinity of the volcano, and flow into Tempisque, a river of enormous importance for 
irrigation of agricultural land in the province. The dry season occurs from August to December, and 
annual rainfall is about 2,500mm. Very diverse flora and fauna. 

VEGETATION: Four different kinds of forest are present: a) Tropical Wet Forest where Quercus spp. 
(in the poor and eroded soil), Spondias spp., Achras sapota, Cedrela adorata, Rhedia edulis and 
Enterolobium cyclocarpum are common species, b) Premontane Moist Forest, floristically very rich, c) 
Premontane Rainforest with very rough topography, d) Lower Montane Rainforest where stands of 
Clusia spp. occur, sometimes mixed with a few other species (including palms). This forest is cloudy and 
wet all year and the trees are dwarfed because of the strong winds and the sandy soils. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The area is one of the last forest refuges remaining in the Guanacaste 
province. The quetzal Pharomachrns moccino (V) is present, among many other bird species (estimated 
at over 200 species), and humming birds (Trochihdae) are common. Mammals, amphibians and reptiles 
are abundant and it is known that the threatened jaguar Panthera onca (V) is found in the park. So far 
there are no detailed lists of the fauna from this area. 

ZONING: None yet applied. A management plan was elaborated in 1978 and is now being reviewed and 
revised by the Costa Rican Park Service. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Due to the agricultural and animal husbandry practices, the 
lower and middle parts of the area were heavily deforested. These activities have been stopped since the 
park was established (save for occasional minor disturbances due to cattle grazing) and processes of 
regeneration are underway (though this is slow because of the poor soils). 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Salas, S. ( 1971). Parque Nacional Rincon de la Vieja, mimeo, 
15 pp. 

Sanford, R. and Chaves, L. (1976). Plan de accion para el Parque Nacional Rincon de la Vieja, mimeo, 
10 pp. 

Various authors (1978). Plan de Proteccion, Uso y DesarroUo del Parque Nacional Rincon de la Vieja. 
Preliminary draft. Servicio Parques Nacionales de Costa Rica. 

STAFF: A superintendent. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Herman Haug (Superintendent), Parque 
Nacional Rincon de la Vieja, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San 
Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



COSTA RICA 169 

(8) Palo Verde National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 13 June 1980 by executive decree 11541-A. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Guanacaste province; 10°25'N, 84°22'W. 

ALTITUDE: 3-200m. 

AREA: 9,647 ha, contiguous with the 7,000 ha Rafael Lucas Rodriguez Wildlife Refuge. 

LAND TENURE: The government is in the process of expropriating the land by law. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: As for the Rafael Lucas Rodriguez Wildlife Refuge. A complex of small to 
medium size lagoons cover a large area of the park . Many of them are connected when the Rio Tempisque 
floods during the rainy season. Much of the area is marshy. The mean annual temperature is 27°C and 
rainfall 1,300- 1,500mm. 

VEGETATION: Resource inventories have not yet been carried out, but the vegetation is quite similar 
to that of Rafael Lucas Rodriguez Wildlife Refuge. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: This park is a refuge for waterbirds, and many species, resident and 
migratory, are present in the lagoons. Presumably the fauna is the same as that occurring in the Rafael 
Lucas Rodriguez Wildlife Refuge. 

ZONING: No management plan or zoning scheme has yet been developed. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Not yet identified. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Organization for Tropical Studies (1971). The Book, GTS. 
San Jose, Costa Rica, 350 pp. 

STAFF: None have yet been designated. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Mir.isterio de 
Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981 



(9) Volcan Poas National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 23 December 1970, by law no. 4714. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the central highlands, 60km by road from the capital, San Jose, and 
about 10km west of Braulio Carrillo National Park; 10°10'-14'N; 84°12'-16'W. 

ALTITUDE: 1 ,600-2 ,708m (summit of volcano) . 



170 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

AREA: 4,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law (mostly) ; some private holdings in peripheral 

areas and in northern and southern sections. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The volcano is in the northwestern corner of the Central Valley and part of the 
Cordillera Central. Poas, of Pliocene origin, exhibits five craters, four ancient and one still active. The 
latter is easily reached and from it another ancient, lagoon-filled crater at a higher elevation is within 
walking distance. Recent activity has been documented since 1828, with especially strong eruptions 
recorded for the periods 1888-1895, 1903-1912 and 1952-1954. The rock strata consist of andesites and 
basalt. Average annual rainfall is 1,750mm, and mean annual temperature varies between 12°C and 15°C 
according to elevation. There is much cloud and occasional frost, especially during the drier period of 
January to April. 

VEGETATION: Lower montane and montane wet (cloud) forests, characterized by several species of 
tall natives oaks, Quercus spp., with the smaller Clusia odorata, Didymopanax pittieri and Wimannia 
pinnata reaching the higher fringes. Many species of epiphytic orchids and bromeliads, ferns and mosses 
are well represented, as well as aquatics such as Isoetes storkii. Other notable members of the flora include 
Podocarpus standleyii, P. oleifolius. Magnolia poasana, Gunnera insignis, and tree ferns of the genera 
Cyathea and Alsophyla. Areas affected by recent volcanic activity support low, tangled scrub with Clusia 
odorata, Vaccinium consanguineum and Escallonia poaensis. An interesting plant succession has been 
taking place near the crater since its last major eruption in 1954. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Of the mammals, the endemic Poas mountain squirrel Syntheosciurus 
poasensis is fairly common. Species formerly more abundant in the area out now rarely observed include 
brocket deer Mazama americana and collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, but it is doubtful whether any 
Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V) or jaguar Panthera onca (V) still occur. In general, the fauna is rather 
impoverished due to the isolation of the mountain caused by intensive agriculture at lower elevations, but 
the birds are interesting and the quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno (V) can still be seen in the vicinity. 

ZONING: These include: i) strict nature reserve zone covering about two-thirds of the park and denied 
to public access; ii) outdoor recreation zone with roads, trails and other recreation facilities for tourist use, 
including the park centre; iii) service zone; iv) interpretative zone with extensive interpretative facilities 
being developed. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Cattle grazing still occurs on privately held portions of the 
park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A number of studies have been done, particularly on vulcanology and 
geomorphology, but also some on the flora and fauna. Accessible year-round by road from San Jose. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Boza Loria, M. A. (1968). Plan de Manejo y desarrollo para 
el Parque Nacional Volcan Poas, Costa Rica. Tesis Mag. Sc. Turrialba, Costa Rica, Instituto 
Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas de la OEA (Quotes references to scientific publications). 

Macey, A. (1975). The vegetation of Volcan Poas National Park, Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 23 (2): 
230-255. 

Putney, A. (1974). Plan de Interpretacion: Parque Nacional Volcan Poas. Documento Tecnico de 
trabajo No. 12, Proyecto FAO, RLAT/RF. 199, 84 pp. 

Sanchez, J.M. , Mena, Y. and Morales, R. (1980). Plan para el Desarrollo del Programa Interpretativo. 
SPN/CATIE. 72 pp. 

Sanchez, J.M., Mena, Y. and Morales, R. eds. (1980). Parque Nacional Volcan Poas: Plan para el 
desarrollo del programa interpretativo. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Informe Tecnico No. 3, 72 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, an assistant superintendent, 6 guides, 5 guards and 3 labourers. 

BUDGET: The Park Service is in the final stages of implementing a loan of approximately US$2,500,000 
for development of parts of the park (access roads, visitors' centre, trails etc.) and a second loan is under 
negotiation. Both loans are from the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Luisa Alfaro, Superintendent, Parque Nacional 
Volcan Poas, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, Costa 
Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



COSTA RICA 171 

(10) Cocos Island National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPfflCAL PROVINCE: 8.43.13 (Cocos Island). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 July 1978, by executive decree no. 8748-A. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: An island in the Pacific ocean, about 500km west of Costa Rica and 
630km northeast of the Galapagos Islands; 5°30'-34'N, 87°0r-06'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 900m. 

AREA: 3,200 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Entirely government land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park includes the main island plus ten islets nearby offshore. There are 
imposing cliffs (some up to 90m) covered with thick vegetation, and many rocky crags and islets. Inland 
the terrain is mountainous with numerous streams and rivers. The island is composed of volcanic 
agglomerates, tuffs and chiefly of lava flows. Annual rainfall is estimated at 7,000mm, and there is no dry 
season. There are two safe bays; Wafer Bay is more attractive to visitors but Chatham Bay is more 
sheltered with a small rocky beach. This island has been known to mariners and cartographers since the 
first half of the sixteenth century; it was a stopping place of pirates, privateers and whaling vessels. 

VEGETATION: The vegetation of the island is all Premontane Rainforest, Basal Belt Transition. It has 
two major associations, the littoral zone with Erythinafusca, Cocos nucifera. Anonna glabra and several 
ferns (up to about 50m) and the mountain zone with Saccoglottis spp., Euterpe spp., Lauraceae, 
bromeliads, orchids, mosses and ferns. There are many endemic species, but endemism is not as high as in 
the Galapagos. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Two endemic lizards, Anolis townsendi and Sphaerodactylus pacificus, but 
no amphibians. Seven species of land birds, which include Buiorides virescens, Pandion haliaetus, 
Coccyzus ferrugineus , Nesotriccus ridgwayi and Pinaroloxias inornata (the famed 14th species of Darwin's 
finches, family Geospizidae; the other 13 occur in the Galapagos Islands), and many marine birds 
including both the magnificent and greater frigate birds Fregata magnificens and F. minor. There are no 
native mammals, but the early settlers of the island brought domestic animals such as cats and pigs, which 
have established sizeable feral populations. There are also several species of freshwater fish. Many of the 
native faunal species are endemic. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: It is not known to what extent introduced mammal species may 
be disturbing the native fauna and flora. A number of cultivated plants were also introduced. Up to the 
recent past Cocos was visited more or less regularly by passing vessels and yachts, and littering and other 
minor disturbances were common; this is now under control. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Over the years a number of taxonomic-level studies have been done, 
particularly on ferns, birds and lizards; however in total there has been very little research. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Gomez, L.D. (1975). Contribuciones a la pteridologia 

costarricense. Brenesia (6): 19-57. 

Hertlein, L.G. (1963). Contribution to the Biogeography of Cocos Island. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 32 (8): 
219-289. 

Slud. P. (1967). The Birds of Cocos Island (Costa Rica). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 134 (4): 263-295. 

STAFF: 3 guards. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de 
Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981 



172 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(11) Irazu Volcano National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: V (Protected Landscape). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 30 July 1955, by law 1917. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the central highlands , Cartage province , about 10km due northeast 

in a straight line from the city of Cartago; 9°58'N, 83°50'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2, 900-3 ,432m (summit of the volcano). 

AREA: 2,400 ha approximately (final limits are still not fixed; this hectarage is based on the law which 
established that a 2km radius around all Cost Rica volcanoes are National Parks). 

LAND TENURE: About two-thirds government land; the rest private holdings. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The volcano has five craters. The only present signs of activity are fumaroles 
located on the northwest slopes, though previous eruptions have covered the surrounding lands with 
millions of tons of ash. On the slopes of the mountains there are areas of impressive cliffs. In the rainy 
season several lagoons form in the bottom of the craters. 

VEGETATION: After the last eruptions (1963-65) the vegetation in the zone above the tree line was 
completely destroyed. It has now largely recovered, especially the beautiful shrub association of 
Vaccinium consanguineum, Arctostaphylous rubescens and Pernettia coriacea. Below the timber line oak 
forest, mostly Quercus coslarricensis , is the dominant vegetation type in non-cleared areas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Most noteworthy are the birds such as the rose-throated hummingbird 
Selasphorus flammula, volcano junco Junco vulcani, mountain robin Tardus nigrescens, Dendrocopus 
villosus, black guan Chamaepetes unicolor, band-tailed pigeon Columbafasciata, Diglossa plumbea and 
quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno (V). Among the mammals are Sciurus sp. , Sylvilagus brasiliensis, coyote 
CanLs latrans, Mexican porcupine Coendu mexicanus and brocket deer Mazama americana. In general the 
fauna is scarce and not obvious to the general observer. 

ZONING: A new management plan was elaborated by a SPN/CATIE team. The document, still in draft 
form, has been revised by SPN personnel. This plan recommends a change of management category from 
National Park to National Monument, including in the same unit the 500 ha Ricardo Jimenez National 
Recreation Area. 

TOURISM: The area is very scenic and used heavily for tourism. A good road connects the volcano with 

the cities of Cartago and San Jose. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Below the tree line (about 3,100m) much of the area around 
60% of the flanks of the craters is very disturbed (they are mostly private lands for diary cattle and some 
potato farming) and dairy farming is increasing in the least disturbed areas to the north and northeast. A 
large number of television and radio relay antennas exist on the crater rims. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Considerable research has been done on the geology of the area; very little 
on biological aspects. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: CATIE/Servicio de Parques Nacionales (1981). Plan de 
Manejo y Desarrollo del Monumato Nacional Volcan Irazu. 180 pp (draft). 

STAFF: A superintendent, a guide, 7 guards and 2 labourers. (Note: The Costa Rica Tourism Institute 
was in charge of the area until about two years ago; the Park Service began active management in 1978). 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Gerado Chaves (Superintendent), Parque 
Nacional Volcan Irazu, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



COSTA RICA 173 

(12) Barra Honda National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 20 August 1974, by law 5583, the boundaries being fixed by executive decree 
5558 on 5 October 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located in Nicoya Peninsula, 12 km northeast of Nicoya, Guanacaste 
Province; 10°8'-12'N, 85°20'-25'W. 

ALTITUDE: 20-575m. 

AREA: 2,296 ha. 

LAND TENURE: All the lands are private property and the area still lacks a survey to allow 
expropriation proceedings to begin. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Park has several limestone-capped hills and they form a series of 
crescent-shaped ridges. There are a number of beautiful caves, varying from vertical shafts or pits, to 
enlarged rifts, to dome-like chambers. Other limestone features such as potholes and springs are also 
common. The dry season lasts about 6 months; annual rainfall is about 1,800mm and mean annual 
temperature 28°C. 

VEGETATION: The natural vegetation is semi-deciduous, with broadleaf-evergreen and broadleaf- 
deciduous trees. Due to the presence of a distinct dry season, the dominant vegetation is coarse grass with 
low trees and shrubs in stands of varying density. Climbing vines and epiphytes are numerous. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Due to previous and actual agricultural practices, the area does not have a 
very rich fauna. However, there are notable populations of mammals such as howler monkey Alouatta 
palliata, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus and birds such as great currassow Crax rubra, black 
vulture Coragyps atratus, bicoloured hawk Accipiter bicolor, white-tailed hawk Buteo albicaudatus and 
magpie-jay Calocitta formosa. Ocelot Felis pardalis (V) and tiger cat F. tigrina (V) have also been 
recorded by park staff. Several species of bats inhabit the caves, and the cave fauna is in fact fairly 
abundant, also including several species of cricket, beetle, snail, salamander, rat, birds and fish. 

ZONING: No management plan or zoning scheme yet elaborated. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There is considerable disturbance, especially due to cattle 
grazing and other agriculture. The area should perhaps be surveyed to determine if 'National Park' is the 
most appropriate classification. The caves have remained fairly undisturbed, largely because of the lack of 
horizontal entrances. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Several studies have been done on the geology of the caves and limestone 
hills. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Mora, S. (1978). Estudio geologico de los cerros Barra 

Honda y Alkrededores. San Jose, Univ. de Costa Rica. 173 pp. 

Wells, S.G. (1974). Report on the geologic reconnaisance of the Cerros Barra Honda. University of 
Cincinnati, Cincinnati. USA. mimeo. 29 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent and 2 labourers. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Sergio Leon, Superintendent, Parque Nacional 
Barra Honda, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, Costa 
Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



174 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(13) Cahuita National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 24 September 1970, by executive decree 1236-A. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park is south of the town of Cahuita in southeastern Limon 
province on the Atlantic coast; 9°40'-48'N, 82°45'-50"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 10m. 

AREA: Total 1,700 ha (with 1,100 ha of land, and 600 ha of water/coral reef). 

LAND TENURE: The terrestrial part is mostly under private ownership; the government is 
expropriating lands. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park follows the shoreline of the Caribbean for approximately 10km. 
There is a currently forming fringing reef 6.5km long and about 300m from the beach (this is the only 
extensive coral reef in Costa Rica). The Punta Cahuita is formed on emergent ancient coral. The bedrock 
of the terrestrial sector is Pleistocene alluvial sandstone. The cHmate is hot and wet with annual rainfall 
close to 3,500mm, mean annual temperature about 25°C with a brief dry season between January and 
February. 

VEGETATION: An almost undisturbed tropical moist forest association is found on the point itself with 
the following tree species: Prioria copaifera, Carapa guianensis, Anacardium excelsum and Calophyllum 
brasiliense. In the old abandoned cocoa plantations Cordia alliodora and Hura crepitans are the dominant 
species. A pure stand of swamp palm Raphia taedigera occupies the southwest corner of the park and 
coconut palm Cocus nucifera lines the stretch of beach. The marine vegetation includes areas of turtle 
grass Thalassia sp., and a total of about 120 species of seaweeds. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Common mammals include the howler monkey Alouattapalliata, three-toed 
sloth Bradypus tridactylus, red squirrel Sciurus granatensis and the margay subspecies Felis wiedii pirrensis 
(V). Some of the bird species frequent in the area are the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis , green ibis 
Mesembrinibis cayennensis, great skua Catharata skua, bridled tern Sterna anaethecus, sooty tern S. 
fuscata, green macaw Ara ambigua, white-collared manakin Manacus candei, the long-tailed tyrant 
Colonia colonus and various species of ant-wrens Myrmothercula spp. Among the many reptile species 
represented here are the basilisk Basiliscis vittatus and the famous fer-de-lance Bothrops asper. The 
Atlantic hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (E) feeds on turtle grass, which grows in association with 
horny corals and sponges. Closer to the reef edge brain corals predominate with squirrel and surgeon fish, 
lobsters, stinging and short-spined urchins and polychaete worms. Horny corals and snappers are common 
on the seaward face of the reef. Wellington (1974) found 34 species of coral in the park. Crabs are 
abundant, both on the beach and in the freshwater streams. 

ZONING: A team composed of personnel of the Costa Rican National Park Service and CATIE have 
developed a master plan. The document is now under review by Park Service personnel. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: In the recent past a considerable area was cleared for cocoa and 
bananas ; this is no longer permitted . Harvesting of coconuts is allowed along the beach , but causes no real 
problems. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: An extensive marine resouces inventory has been completed. Several 
additional studies on terrestrial flora and fauna are carried out each year by visiting scientists. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Rustic, simple laboratory facilities and skiffs with outboard 
motors for marine research are available. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Cordoba Jaramillo, T. (1967). Estudio sobre los recursos 
sociales de la region cacofera de Cahuita en la zona altantica, Costa Rica. Tesis Mag. Sc. Turrialba, Costa 
Rica: Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas. 

Lemieuz, G. (1969). Oportunidades para el desarrollo turistico del litoral atlantico al sur de Puerto 
Limon, Costa Rica. Tesis Mag. Sc. Turrialba, Costa Rica: Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas. 

Wallis, Orthello L. (1972). The significance of Cahuita National Monument. Departamento de Parques 
Nacionales, San Jose, Costa Rica. 



COSTA RICA 175 

Wellington, G.M. (1974). An ecological description of the marine and associated environments at 
Monumento Nacional Cahuita. San Jose, Subdireccion de Parques Nacionales. 81 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 4 guides, 5 guards and two labourers. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Juan Miguel Sanchez (Superintendent), Parque 
Nacional Cahuita, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFariand. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(14) Manuel Antonio National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 15 November 1972, by law 5100. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park is located on the Pacific coast, 7km south of Quepos in 
Puntarenas Province; 9°23'N, 84°09'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 100m. 

AREA: 690 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Lands being purchased by government expropriation. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Most of the area consists of a string of wide, white, sandy beaches with high 
chffs, offshore islands and a background of lush tropical forest. The beaches are covered with sand derived 
from coral. The main rock types are of Cretaceous origin, with limestone cliffs and islands, and some 
pillow lavas. Only has 3 months of dry season, with about 3,900mm of annual rainfall. Mean annual 
temperature is 26.6°C. 

VEGETATION: The area is located on the transition belt between the tropical very wet forest and 
tropical wet forest life zones. The common tree species in the area are Hymenaea courbaril, Ficus spp., 
Bursera simaruba, Ceiba pentandra, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Cedrela adorata and rosewood 
Dalbergia retusa. There are several swampy places where mangrove tree species such as Rhizophora 
mangle and Avicennia nitida grow. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The zone where the park is located is accepted as the northern limit of 
squirrel monkey Saimiri oerstedii distribution; also found is the white-faced monkey Cebus capucinus. 
There are over 200 species of birds, including Swainson's toucan Ramphastos swainsonii and brown 
pelican Pelecanus occidentalis. Along the rocky areas many invertebrates such as urchins, sponges, brittle 
stars and a variety of molluscs can be found. Fishes include the yellow and black striped sergeant major 
Abudefduf saxitilis , damsel fish Eupomacentrus acapulcoensis and trunkfish Acanthostracion sp. There 
are some small corals offshore. 

ZONING: A new management plan (1981) defines six different use zones for the park, moving the 
camping zone away from the beach, and other public use opportunities. The zones are intangible, 
primitive, extensive use, intensive use, recuperation and special use. The marine area of the park is not yet 
zoned due to lack of basic information. The plan also calls for various buffer zones adjacent to the park 
including a major one for controlled tourism-recreation development on an adjacent beach. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some contamination from nearby hotels and housing, and the 
area is rather small for effective protection. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Survey studies/inventories of the terrestrial flora and vegetation and the 



176 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

marine resources are now being contracted with the Tropical Science Centre. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Segura, F. (1976). Analisis critico del Parque Nacional 
Recreativo Playas de Manuel Antonio y proposicion de un plan maestro para su uso y proteccion. M.S. 
Tesis, Univ. Costa Rica, 75 pp. 

Servicio de Parques Nacionales y CATIE (1981). Plan de Manejo y Desarrollo del Parque Nacional 
Manuel Antonio. 120 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 4 guides, 5 guards and 3 labourers. 

BUDGET: Approximately US$ 70,000 has been obtained from the National Planning Office for 
scientific surveys/inventories mentioned above and detailed site and construction planning based on the 
management plan. The Central American Bank for Economic Integration will probably provide US$ 
500,000 for the first stage of the plan's implementation (1982-83). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Juan Dobles, Superintendent, Parque Nacional 
Manuel Antonio, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(1) Hitoy-Cerere Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 4 April 1978, by executive decree 8351-A. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the lower slopes of the Talamanca Cordillera, on the Atlantic side 
of southeastern Costa Rica; the reserve lies between the Braulio Carrillo and Cahuita National Parks; 
9°35'N, 83°05'W. 

ALTITUDE: From 300 to 1,025m. 

AREA: 9,004 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Mostly governmental; some private holdings to be expropriated. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The reserve hes nestled amongst three Indigenous Reserves (Estrella, 
Talamanca and Telire) and consists of the very broken, steep topography of the lower Talamanca 
Cordillera slopes. It is a nearly quadrangular area surrounded by steep mountains, and has a single outlet 
to the Valle de Estrella. 

VEGETATION: Not yet adequately investigated, but presumed to consist mostly of undisturbed 
Premontane Humid Forest and Tropical Humid Forest; presumed to have a rich flora. A number of trees 
of some economic importance are found within the reserve, including the wild cashew Anacardium 
excelsum, andiroba Carapa guianensis, Santa-Maria Calophyllum brazilienbse. Aspidosperma 
megalocarpum and the balsa Ochroma lagopus. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Not yet adequately investigated, but assumed to have a rich, undisturbed 
fauna typical of such forests, most of the five species of felids, Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), several 
monkeys etc. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some minor deforestation in a few settled areas, but mostly 
undisturbed. 



COSTA RICA 177 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None yet. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Bonilla, A. (1979) and Glick, D. (1979) pers. comm. to C. 
MacFarland. 

STAFF: A superintendent and 3 parks guards. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Guillermo Mata, Superintendent, Reserva 
Biological Hitoy-Cerere, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San 
Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(2) Carara Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 30 April 1978, by executive decree 8491-A. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Inland from the Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific coast, due west of San Jose, 
and southwest of the city of Orotina; 9°45'-57'N, 84°32'-45'W. 

ALTITUDE: 10 to 638m. 

AREA: 7,600 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A hilly region located in the Pacific lowlands, in which a number of streams 
and rivers develop. The rocks are mainly oceanic basalt, basalt agglomerate, sandstones, limestones, 
diabase and gabbro, laid down predominantly in the Cretaceous. These are in many cases overiain by 
more recent sediments. The upland area is highly faulted, with faults lying on a northeast -southwest line. 
There is a great climatic variety within the reserve, and this coupled with the altitudinal range means that 
the area is of special scientific interest. The area serves as a refuge for many threatened wildlife species 
because of the degradation of the surrounding land. It is also of some cultural importance and contains 
numerous cacique tombs. 

VEGETATION: Tropical Humid Forest and Tropical West Forest . The area is still little investigated but 
presumably has a very diverse flora. Wild senna Cassia reticulata (Caesalpinaceae) is found here, the 
leaves of which are used by the indigenous people to fight a skin disease and to treat rheumatism. The 
avocado Persea americana is also present, along with fruits of the genus Inga and the coyol palm 
Acrocomia vinifera and the butternut tree Caryocar costaricense. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Among the mammals are white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, howler 
monkey Alouatta palliata, spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi (V), white-lipped peccary Tayassu tajacu and 
collared peccary T. pecari. Presumed to contain many others plus a diverse fauna in general, but still little 
investigated. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Problems with illegal hunters have been reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Some preliminary work has been carried out, particularly on the flora, and 
the National Park Service and National University are developing a joint programme of research and 
fieldwork. 



178 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Bonilla. A. (1979). Plan preliminar de la Reserve Carara. 
Unpublished manuscript. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 3 guards and 2 labourers. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lucrecia Monterrosa (Superintendent), Reserva 
Biologica de Carara, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(3) Monteverde Cloud Forest Biological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1972. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the Cordillera de Tilaran, Guanacaste Province, northwestern 
Costa Rica; 10°23'N, 85°46'W. 

ALTITUDE: From 1,400- 1,870m. 

AREA: 4,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: The land is owned by the Tropical Science Centre, which is managing the area. The 
Tropical Science Centre will give the ownership rights of the Reserve to the Costa Rican Park Service in 
the future. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A cloud forest on the top of a mountain range, in the Continental watershed 
divide. It is one of the few cloud forests left in Costa Rica. The topography varies from undulating to 
rough. In the forest there is a constant rainfall due to the high amount of condensation produced by the 
clouds when they reach the foliage of the trees. The total annual rainfall is the area is from 3,800 to 
6,000mm, and the annual average temperature is about 18°C. 

VEGETATION: The life zones represented in the area are: Premontane Wet Forest. Premontane Rain 
Forests, Lower Montane Wet Forest, Lower Montane Rain Forest. Part of the crest of the mountain range 
is formed by elfin woods. The more frequent species in the reserve are Clusia spp., Hillia spp., Cecropia 
polyphlebia, Brunellia coslaricensis, Quercus spp., Persea schiedeana, Persea americana, Ficus spp., 
Panopsis costarricensis , Capapris pseudocacao , Matayba oppositifolia, Pithecelobium brenessi, 
Utricularia spp., Chusquea spp. and Heliconia spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The endemic golden frog Bufo periglenes is the most peculiar animal in the 
reserve. Some feathers found and properly identified indicate that there is a population of oilbird 
Streatornis caripensisecies known to occur only in South America and Trinidad. Other interesting bird 
species are quetzal Pharomachrus moccino (V), harpy eagle Harpia harpyja (R), ornate hawk-eagle 
Spizaetus ornatus, black guan Chamaepetes unicolor, green macaw Ara ambigua, umbrella bird 
Cephalopterus glabricollis, three-wattled bellbird Procnias tricarunculata, azure-hooded jay Cyanolyca 
cucullata and the wren thrush Zeledonia coronata. There is also a large diversity of mammal species 
including Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), white-lipped peccary Tayassu tajacu. brocket deer Mazama 
americana, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus , margay Felis wiedii (V), jaguarundi F. yaguaroundi 
(I), ocelot F. pardalis (V), puma F. concolor, jaguar Panthera onca, giant anteater Myrmecophaga 
tridactyla (V), white-faced monkey Cebus capucinus, spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi (V) and the howler 
monkey Alouatta villosa (I). 



COSTA RICA 179 

ZONING: No management plan or zoning scheme. There is a network of nature trails that cross the 
reserve in all directions. Some trails are not for use by regular visitors, only visiting scientists and staff. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported save for minor problems with palm-heart 
collecting during Easter week; some recently acquired lands are recuperating. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Many studies have been carried out by researchers and students, 
particularly on birds and vegetation. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There is a new field station with complete facilities (dormitory, 
food and laboratory space). Two shelters in the forest provide rustic facilities. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Anon. (1975). Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve Tropical 
Science Centre. 5 p (mimeographed). 
Tosi, J. (1975). Parque Nacional Cordillera de Tilaran lUCN/WWF Tropical Science Centre. 17 pp. 

STAFF: An administrator, 1 guard and 3 workers. 

BUDGET: During 1975-77 the Reserve was financed by WWF with US$ 1 1 ,500 each year. For new land 
acquisitions WWF helped with US$ 68,000 in 1976. Other donations per year total about US$ 3,000, plus 
approx. US$ 5,000 in entrance fees. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Dr Joseph A. Tosi, Director, Tropical Science 
Centre, Apartado 8-3870, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(4) Guayabo, Pajaros and Negritos Islands 
Biological Reserves 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 28 February 1973, by executive decree 2858-A (Guayabo and Negritos) and 28 
April 1976, by executive decree 5963-A (Pajaros). 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Four islands in Nicoya Gulf, northwestern Costa Rica. Guayabo is 
about 8km south of Puntarenas Port, Negritos (two islands) is 16.5km and Pajaros 13km northwest of 
Puntarenas. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 100m. 

AREA: 147 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: They are all rocky islands, most notable for their large sea bird rookeries, 
which have fairly difficult accessibility. There is a dry season of about six months, and the islands are 
largely protected from the extremes of weather and ocean within the Nicoya Gulf. 

VEGETATION: Tropical dry forest (moist province transition) with the original forest very disturbed or 
destroyed; however, they still have some trees such as coconut Cocos nucifera, Ficus sp., Bombacopsis 
quinatum, Spondias mombin, Cedreka mexicana, Sterculia apetala and Tabebuia sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Marine birds such as the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis, magnificent 
frigatebird Fregata magnificens, brown booby Sula leucogaster and anhinga Anhinga anhinga. The 
western Negritos Island is surrounded by coral reefs. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 



180 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: One labourer. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de 
Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(1) Cabo Blanco National Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 21 October 1963, by executive decree 10. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The Cabo Blanco Reserve is at the southernmost tip of the Nicoya 
Peninsula on the Pacific coast of the province of Puntarenas, and includes the island of Cabo Blanco; 
9°31'-36'N, 85°3'-12'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 355m. 

AREA: 1,172 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The rugged terrain of the reserve, bounded by the Pacific Ocean, is mainly 
formed of sedimentary limestone bedrock of Miocene origin. The island of Cabo Blanco, which gave its 
name to the reserve, is about 1 .6km south of the peninsula and about 1 ,000 ha in area. In the dry season its 
rocks turn white from guano. The beaches are mainly rocky, and there are many caves. The climate is 
tropical humid, but with a distinct dry season between December and March. Rainfall is estimated at 
2,500mm a year and the mean annual temperature is about 26°C-27°C. 

VEGETATION: The original vegetation consists of about 80% lowland seasonal forest, 20% 
drought-deciduous tropical lowland forest. Of this forest cover only 15% is primary and 20% secondary, 
the remaining 65% being at various stages of earlier successional growth (1962). Among the dominant tree 
species are Calycophyllum candidissimum, the Sapodilla plum Achras zapota (used for making a gum), 
logwood Haematoxylon campechianum, pochote Bombacopsis quinatum, capulen Muntingia calabura, 
cow tree Brosimum costaricanum and Tabebuia pentephylla. There are many species of epiphytic tree 
orchids and bromeliads. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mammals include the howler monkey Alouatta villosa, paca Agouti paca, 
spotted agouti Dasyprocta punctata and variegated squirrel Sciurus variegatoides. Threatened species 
reported are Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V) and jaguar Panthera onca (V). There are also records of two 
other monkeys, a local race of spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi frontatus{V) and the white-throated 
capuchin Cebus capuchinus, and four cats, the margay Felis wiedii (V), jaguarondi F. yaguaroundi (I), 
ocelot F. pardalis (V) and puma F. concolor, but all still need scientific confirmation. There are large 
breeding colonies of frigate birds Fregata magnificens and pelicans, probably well over 1,000 in number. 

ZONING: None, the whole area being a strict nature reserve. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported at present, but widespread evidence of shifting 
agriculture in the past. 



COSTA RICA 181 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No special programme yet begun. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Albertin, W. et al (1962). The Southern Tip of the Nicoya 
Peninsula in Costa Rica. Turrialba, Costa Rica. Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences. 

Wagner, P.L. (1958). Nicoya: A cultural geography. Berkley, Cahfornia: University of California 
Press. 

STAFF: A superintendent and 3 guards. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jose Abel Barroso, Superintendent, Reserva 
Nacional Cabo Blanco, Servicio de Parques Nacionales, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, San Jose, 
Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(1) Rafael Lucas Rodriguez Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 30 April 1978, by executive decree 8492-A (as Palo Verde Refuge) renamed 1 
October 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Near the mouth of the Tempisque River, Guanacaste province; 

10°20'N, 84°22'W. 

ALTITUDE: 3-230m. 

AREA: 7,000 ha. Contiguous with the 9,647 ha Palo Verde National Park. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated land by law. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A large chain of medium-size lagoons (many of them cut-off river meanders) 
which form a single body of water during the rainy season because of the flooding of the Tempisque River. 
The annual temperature is 27°C and annual rainfall is 1,300-1, 500mm, with a dry season of six months 
(December- April). Strong winds occur during the dry season. 

VEGETATION: Characteristic vegetation includes Andira, Astronium, Apeiba, Achras, Albizzia, 
Brosimum, Bombacopsis, Cordia, Couepia, Calycophyllum, Chlorophora, Cedrela, Dalbergia, 
Enterolobium, Ficus, Genipa, Luehea, Pithecelobium, Platymiscium , Nectandiz, Sweetia, Swietenia, 
Samanea, Inga, Hymenaea and Acacia. Parkinsonia aculeata, a short tree, is abundant in some of the 
flooded areas. The site is located in the tropical dry forest life zone (Holdridge). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: This site is of vital importance in the pan- American migration route. Many 
waterfowl species visit this lagoon, principally during the rainy season. The species characteristic of this 
area include: the jabiru Jabiru mycteria, wood stork Mycteria americana, roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja, 
white ibis Eudocimus albus, bare-throated tiger-heron Tigrisoma mexicanus, white-faced tree duck 
Dendrocygna viduata, black-bellied tree duck Dendrocygna autumnalis, blue-winged teal Anas discors 
and the northern shoveler Anas clypeata. Other noteworthy animal species present in the area are the 
American crocodile Crocodylus acutus and several mammals including howler monkey Alouatta villosa, 
spider monkty Ateles geoffroyi, opossum Didelphis marsupialis . red squirrel Sciurus variegatoides , coyote 
Canis lairans and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. A number of cat species have also been 
recorded. 

ZONING: A master plan for management and development has recently been finished. It establishes six 



182 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

use zones with the scientific or primitive zone being the largest, covering nearly 90% of the refuge. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: For many years the area has been used as a cattle ranch, and the 
cattle have invaded and disturbed some patches of forest. Illegal hunting and poaching have been and still 
are being practised. During the rainy season (May-November) surface transportation is not feasible, but 
the refuge can be reached by aeroplane utilizing a short airstrip adjacent to the field station, or by boat 
from Bolson through the Tempisque River. Rice, sugar and cotton are all grown in the surrounding 
countryside, and problems are expected from the associated pesticide input. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Several researchers and biology students associated with the Organization 
for Tropical Studies, with headquarters in Costa Rica, have published papers on forest ecology, biology of 
different species of mammals, birds, reptiles and insects, after field studies carried out in this area. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: This is a field station constructed by the Organization for 
Tropical Studies with some facilities (laboratory, kitchen, dormitories, electricity, water, etc.). 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: MAG-UNA-CATIE (1981). Plan de Manejo y DesarroUo 
del Refugio Nacional de Fauna Rafael Lucas Rodriguez, 150 pp. 
Organizaton for Tropical Studies (1971). The Book, OTS. San Jose, Costa Rica, 350 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 3 guards and 6 labourers. 

BUDGET: See country sheet. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Guillermo Canessa, Superintendent, Depar- 
tamento de Vida Silvestre, Direccion General Foresta, MAG, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



CUBA 



183 



CUBA 



AREA: 114,524 sq km. 

POPULATION: 9,464,000 (1976). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: No information. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: No information. 

ADDRESS: Unknown 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 24,305 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Reserves (hectares) 

1 Cupeyal 10,260 

2 El Cabo 7,535 

3 Jaguani 4,932 

4 Cabo Corrientes 1,578 



184 



lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



DOMINICA 



AREA: 751 sq km. 

POPULATION: 77,083 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The National Parks and Protected Areas Act No . 16 of July 
1975 provides the legal basis for a park system. Cabrits is at present partially protected under the Forestry 
Law. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The above act makes provision for a National Park 
Service to administer and manage the National Park System. However, the Forestry Division continues to 
shoulder responsibiUties until the Park Service can be financed. 

ADDRESS: Forestry Division, Botanical Gardens, Roseau, Dominica. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 6,840 ha. 



PROTECTED AREAS: 



National Parks 

1 Morne Trois Pitons 

2 Cabrits (proposed) 

Forest Reserve 

1 Norte 



(hectares) 

6,840 

Unknown 

22,000 




J<ey. 
NATIONAL PARK 



186 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Morne Trois Pitons National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 14 August 1975, by act of legislature. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 8 miles east of Roseau, South Central Dominica; 15°20'N, 61°20'W. 

ALTITUDE: 500-1220m. 

AREA: 6,840 ha. An extension to the park - the Archbold Preserve (396 ha) - is held in trust by the US 
Nature Conservancy, and will be included in the park at a later date. 

LAND TENURE: Over 99% is publicly owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Basaltic spike-like remains of a former volcano rising to approximately 
1,400m, within 8km of the sea. The area is of Miocene origin, and is characterised by precipitous slopes 
and deeply incised valleys. It contains many fumaroles, hot springs, mud pots, sulphur vents and the 
world's second largest boiling lake. Rainfall is 7620mm per annum at the summit of the park, 6310mm in 
the foothills. 

VEGETATION: 10% of the park is composed of elfin woodland at the tops of the mountains, in an area 
which is constantly in mist and very windy. There are many ferns, mosses and lichens on the stunted trees; 
45% montane formation with tall spindly trees with small crowns. Variations occur, depending on 
topography, but the commonest tree is probably the 'Resinier montagne' Podocarpus coriaceus; 15% 
rainforest below 790m with very luxuriant growth (mainly on the foothills); and 30% secondary forest in 
areas which were once cleared. Cyathea arborea and Miconia guianensis are common in the succession. 
This is the largest area of unaltered cloud, rain and moist forest in the Lesser Antilles. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The siffleur montagne or Dominican mountain bird Myadestes genibarbis, 
Sisserou parrot Amazona imperialis and red-necked parrot Amazona arausiaca are present. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: One small inholding in the Freshwater Lake area; a water 
diversion channel at Freshwater Lake. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research has been undertaken on geothermal potential and on the flora and 

fauna of the park. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Honychurch, P.N. (1978). Brochures on different facets of 
the park (Concept and Purpose, Geology and Soils, Wildlife, Vegetation and Water). Dominica National 
Park Service. 

Thorsell, J.W. and Wood, George (1976). Dominica's Morne Trois Pitons National Park. Nature 
Canada 5(4). 

STAFF: 2 technicians, a ranger and a guard full-time; a ranger and 3 guards part-time; 8 occasional 
labourers. 

BUDGET: US $ 80,000. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: While the Park Service is being formed and 
financed, the Forestry Division continues to hold responsibility for the park. Dominica National Park 
Office, Victoria Street, PO Box 149, Roseau, Dominica. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 March 1979. 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 



187 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 



AREA: 48,441 sq km. 

POPULATION: 5,124,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Law #4389 (19 February 1956), Law #5066 (24 December 
1958), Law #409 (26 May 1976), Law #644 (14 May 1974), and Law #1311 (16 September 1975) are the 
laws establishing the individual parks. Law 67 of 20 November 1974 created the Direccion Nacional de 
Parques. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Direccion Nacional de Parques, which reports 
directly to the President's Office, has as its principal objective the conservation, in a pristine condition of 
representative samples of existing ecosystems in the country for the use of these resources to benefit 
present and future generations. 

ADDRESS: Direccion Nacional de Parques, Apartado 2487, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 

REFERENCES: Parques Nacionales en la Republica Dominicana. Direccion Nacional de Parques. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 219,800 ha. (though this may be decreased to only 211,800 ha 
with the reduction in size of the Los Haitises National Park). 

PROTECTED AREAS: 



National Parks 


(hectares) 


1 Armando Bermudez 


76,600 


2 Jose del Carmen Ramirez 


76,400 


3 del Este 


43,400 


4 Los Haitises (Boundary and size change likely) 


20,800 


5 Isla Cabritos 


2,600 



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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 189 

(1) Armando Bermudez National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 19 February 1956, by Law #4389. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The northern slopes of the Cordillera Central, in the provinces of La 
Vega, Santiago and Valverde, 170 km northwest of Santo Domingo; 19°05'N, 71°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: 500-3, 087m. 

AREA: 76,600 ha, contiguous with the J. del Carmen Ramirez National Park of 76,400 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal Government. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The rugged northern slope of the Cordillera Central includes Duarte Peak, 
the highest point in the Caribbean, and the major watersheds of the northern part of the country. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical wet, montane and lower montane forest. The lower elevations are 
characterized by broadleaved hardwoods, while pines Pinus occidentalis are characteristic of higher 
elevations. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Haitian solenodon Solenodon paradoxus (E) - a small insectivore, the 
Hispaniolan parrot Amazona ventralis. Hispaniolan parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan trogon 
Temnotrogon roseigaster, plain pigeon Columba inornata, ground warbler Microligea palustris and several 
reptiles. All the above are endemic to the island except the plain pigeon, which is also found in Cuba and 
Jamaica. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Past agricultural incursions along some park boundaries. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: 21. 

BUDGET: RD$ 48,400. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion Nacional de Parques, Apartado 2487, 
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 25 November 1980. 



(2) Jose del Carmen Ramirez National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8 40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 24 December 1958, by Law #5066. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the southern slopes of the Cordillera Central, in the provinces of 
San Juan de la Maguana, Azua and La Vega, 180km northwest of Santo Domingo; 19°00'N, 7r00'W. 



190 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ALTITUDE: 700-3,087m. 

AREA: 76,400 ha, contiguous with the Armando Bermudez National Park of 76,600 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal Government. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The southern slopes of the Cordillera Central are the source of several major 
watersheds, and includes part of Pico Duarte, the highest mountain in the Antilles. 

VEGETATION: Lower montane moist, wet and rain forest, montane wet forest including stands of 
western pine Pinus occidentalis, broadleaf forests and moist savannahs. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Endemic Haitian solenodon Solenodon paradoxus (E), Hispaniolan parrot 
Amazona ventralis, Hispaniolan parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan trogon Temnotrogon 
roseigaster, golden swallow Kalochelidon euchrysea, plain pigeon Columba inornata, ground warbler 
Microligea palustris and several reptiles. 

ZONING: Wilderness area for the present. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Past agricultural incursions along some park boundaries. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: 19. 

BUDGET: RD$ 48,080. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 25 November 1980. 



(3) del Este National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 16 September 1975 by law #1311. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southern Dominican Republic, in the province of Altagracia, 
including the peninsula to the southeast of La Romana and the island of Saona; 18°15'N, 68°45'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 50m. 

AREA: 43,400 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal Government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Low coastal limestone substrate including several cave systems of 
anthropological importance. The park includes the offshore island of Saona, which is also flat except for 
the northeast coast which has cliffs. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical dry forest, subtropical moist forest and transition forest are the life zones 
as defined by Holdridge. Trees found in the park include the mahogany Swietenia mahogani. There are 
coastal mangroves, particularly in the south on the mainland, with the four mangrove species common in 
the Caribbean, Rhizophora mangle, Conocarpus erectus, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia 
germinans. There are also beaches with coconut palms Cocos nucifera. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Endemic solenodon Solenodon paradoxus (E), Hispaniolan hutia 
Plagiodontia aedium (I), Hispaniolan parrot Amazona ventralis, great lizard cuckoo Saurothera merlini, 
Hispaniolan woodpecker Melanerpes striatus, broad-billed tody Todus subulatus, flat-billed vireo Vireo 



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 191 

nanus, striped-headed tanager Spindalis zena and iguana Cyclura cornuta. This is a major nesting site for 
white crowned pigeon Columba leucocephala. The manatee Trichechus manatus (V) also occurs 
occasionally off the coast, and leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (E) nest on the park beach. There 
are also several species of coral in the park. 

ZONING: The master plan designates strict natural zones, managed natural zones, wilderness zones, 
protected anthropological zones and tourist/administrative zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The adjacent marine area is not yet protected. Depletion of 
lobster and conch by overfishing; hunting of manatee. Slash and burn cultivation. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Study of reptiles on Saona Island; studies of native and migratory birds in 
the park. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional del Este . Dirrection de 
Nacional Parques. 

STAFF: 15. 

BUDGET: RD$ 45,078. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion Nacional de Parques, Boca de Yuma, 
Provincia Altegarcia, Dominican Republic. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 25 November 1980. 



(4) Los Haitises National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 26 May 1976, by Law #409. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: At the southwest end of the Bay of Samana, in the provinces of Duarte 
and El Seibo; 19°00'N, 69°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 227m. 

AREA: 20,800 ha (likely to be decreased). 

LAND TENURE: Federal Government. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Unique karstic formation of many abrupt hills including coastal limestone 

caves. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical moist and wet forests. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Include the endemic solenoden Solenodon paradoxus (E) and hutia 
Plagiodontia aedium (I), red-tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis , the endemic Hispaniolan parrot Amazona 
ventralis and Hispaniolan woodpecker Melanerpes striatus, and the great lizard cuckoo Saurothera 
merlini. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The original park is heavily disturbed by local agriculture. It is 
now in the final stages of a boundary change that will provide a park of 12,800 ha. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 



192 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: 19. 

BUDGET: RD$ 48,660. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion Nacional de Parques, Apartado 2487, 
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 25 November 1980. 



(5) Isla Cabritos National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: May 14 1974, by Law #664. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In Lake Enriquillo, Neiba Province; 18°30'N, 7r40'W. 

ALTITUDE: 46m below sea level to 20m below sea level. 

AREA: 2,600 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal Government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The sanctuary covers the arid island of Cabritos in the hyper-saline lake of 
Enriquillo, between the Sierras of Neiba and Bahoruco. Unusual landforms include fossilized coral beds. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical dry forest characterized by mesquite, giant milkweed and several cactus 

species. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Breeding and resting grounds for American crocodile Crocodylus acutus 
(E), habitat for the endemic iguanas Cyclura cornuta and Cyclura ricordi, feeding and resting grounds for 
the flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber and many migratory bird species. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Diversion of water for agriculture in the surrounding hills is 
slowly drying out the lake. The passing of hurricanes and tropical storms sometimes replenishes the lake 
level for short periods. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: An ongoing research project on the American crocodile in the lake is being 
carried out by the Dominican Museum of Natural History, funded by the World Wildlife Fund. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: 8. 

BUDGET: RD$ 38.317. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion Nacional de Parques, Apartado 2487, 
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 25 November 1980. 



ECUADOR 193 



ECUADOR 



AREA: 455,502 sq km. 

POPULATION: 8,000,000 (1979). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The Law of National Parks and Reserves, Decree #1306, 
27 August 1971 provides for the management of the parks system by the Forest Service in collaboration 
with the National Tourist Office and the General Fisheries Directorate. Charges and group sizes are fixed, 
and illegal acts are specificed. These include carrying arms, removing plants or animals, use of sirens or 
radios, overflying etc. The Law on the protection of the wildlife and Icthyological Resources, Decree 
#818, 17 November 1970, and Interministerial Agreement #322, 26 July 1979, are also relevant. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Administration of the National Parks and Reserves is 
the responsibility of the Department of Natural Areas and Wildlife, which is part of the National Forestry 
Programme of the Ministry of Agriculture. National Parks are extensive areas established by executive 
decree where plant or animal species, habitats or geological forms are found which are of national 
significance for science, education, recreation and tourism. The area is permanently maintained, and 
exploitation or occupation prevented. Ecological reserves are areas of 10,000 hectares or more which are 
established by executive decree and which, similar to the parks, are of particular importance because of 
plant or animal species, habitats or geological formations, but which in this case are protected 
predominantly for education and research. Fauna Reserves are areas specifically maintained for wildhfe 
species, and in which sport or subsistence hunting may be allowed. National Recreation Areas are 
primiarily established for recreation and tourism. 

ADDRESS: Departamento de Areas Naturales y Vida Silvestre , Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, 
Quito - Paraguay. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 1 ,990,200 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Galapagos (World Heritage Site) 691,200 

2 Yasuni 400,000 

3 Sangay 370,000 

4 Machalilla 35,000 

5 Cotopaxi 34,000 

Ecological Reserves 

1 Cayambe-Coca 350,000 

2 Cotacachi-Cayapas 45,000 

3 Manglares-Churute 35,000 

Faunal Reserve 

1 Cuyabeno 30,000 

Geobotanical Reserve 

1 Puluahua* 2,000 

National Recreation Areas 

1 Cajas* 27,000 

2 El Boliche* 1,077 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



COLOMBIA 



PACIFC 
OCEAN 








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1 
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\ 
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3 50 

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Key. 

n NATIONAL PARKS 

O ECOLOGICAL RESERVES 

O FAUNAL RESERVES 

/\ NATIONAL RECREATIONAL AREA 



ECUADOR 195 

(1) Galapagos 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & X (National Park & World Heritage Site). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.44.13 (Galapagos Islands). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Mayo 14 1936. Ratificada con Decreto No. 17, Julio 4 1959. 

GEOGRAPfflCAL LOCATION: 1000 km de las costas del Ecuador; aproximadamente TSO'N - r30'S 
y 89°20'W - 9r50'W. 

[After final establishment of the boundaries in 1968, 88% of the land area of the archipelago has been 
included in the Park]. 

ALTITUDE: 0-1,700 metres. 

AREA: 691,200 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Propiedad del estado. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Archipelago esta constituido de 13 islas grandes, 19 pequenas y muchos 
islotes y rocas. A excepcion de 2 islas del Norte, el resto se levantan de una plataforma submarina poco 
profunda. Las islas de mayor edad presentan aspecto bajo, piano u ondulado, con grandes acantilados. La 
mayoria son mas jovenes, compuestas de volcanes y conos menores, flanqueados de grandes extensiones 
de lava negra o cafe. En algunos lugares, de las costas, la erosion marina y las fallas ocasionaron 
precipicios y playas de lava, coral o arena de conchas. El paisaje incluye lagunas en crateres, fumarolas, 
tubos y campos de lava. 

VEGETATION: Cerca de 650 especies y subspecies nativas, de las que 36 per cent son endemicas. 250 
especies introducidas (mayoria en areas pobladas). En el litoral predominan manglares Rhizophora 
mangle, Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa y Sesovium sp. En la zona seca: cactus, 
especialmente Brachycereus , Jasminocereus thouarsii, Opuntia sp ; tambien Bursera graveolens, Croton 
escouleri. En la zona humeda, Scalesa sp., Psidium galapagenium y Pisonaftoribunda. Ademas, existe la 
zona de la Miconia robinsoniana. En las partes mas altas ciperaceos, gramineas y helechos (especialmente 
Cyanthea weatherbyana). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna endemica esta constituida por invertebrados, reptiles y aves; pocos 
mamiferos y ausencia de anfibios. Todos los reptiles, excepto 2 especies to tortuga marina son endemicas; 
incluyen la tortuga gigante Geochelone elephantopus (E) con 11 subespecies en las diferentes islas. 
Iguanas terrestres Conolophus subcristatus y C. pallidus. y manndiS Amblyrhynchus cristatus; grannumero 
de lagartijas Tropidurus sp. y salamanquesas Phyllodactilus sp.. Las aves iuncluyen 13 especies de 
pinzones de Darwin Geospiza sp., cormoran Nannopterum harrisi, pinguino de Galapagos Spheniscus 
meniculus, gaviota de lava Larus fuliginosus , flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber, cucubes Nosomimus sp.. 
Mamiferos representados por 2 generos de ratas Oryzomys y Nesoruzomys; murcielagos Lasiurus sp.; 
lobo marino Zalophus californianus; foca peletera Arctocephalm australis galapagoensis . 

ZONING: El Plan de Manejo senala las siguientes: Uso Intensive (visitantes); Uso Extensive (con mas 
restricciones); Uso Especial; Primitva y Primitiva-Cientifica. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: En algunas islas, producias por plantas y animales 
introducidos. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Permanentemente, misiones cientificas e investigadores individuales de 
todo el mundo realizan trabajos relacionados con la biologia y geologia del Archipielago. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: La Estacion Cientifica Charles Darwin, establecida en 1964 
(Puerto Ayora) dispone de faccilidades para la investigacion (laboratories, bibliotecas, vivienda, medics 
de transporte etc.). 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Black, Juan (1973). Galapagos Archipielago del Ecuador. 

Porter, D.E. (In Press). Galapagos Islands Red Data Bulletin. 

Thorton, I. (1971). Darwin's Islands: A Natural History of the Galapagos. Natural History Press, New 
York. 

White, A. y Epler, B. (eds.) (1972). Galapagos Guide. Imprenta Europa, Quito. 

Plan Maestro para la Proteccion y Uso del Parque Nacional Galapagos. UNDP/UNESCO ECU/68/013, 
UNDP/FAO ECU/71/522/ Documento de Trabajo Quito, 1964. 



196 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

STAFF: 1 superintendente, 3 profesionales, 6 tecnicos, 55 guardaparques y 2 administrativos. 

BUDGET: s/ 7,000,000 sucres. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lcdo. Fausto Cepeda, Superintendente Parque 
Nacional Galapagos, Puerto Ayora, Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: A. Ponce. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 18, 1981. 



(2) Yasuni National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Acuerdo #322, Julio 26, 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Region Amazonica (Provincia del Napo): 0°26'05'-l°08'42'S y 
75°25'50'-76°40'48'W. 

ALTITUDE: 300-400 metres. 

AREA: 400,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 100 per cent del Estado. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Area representiva de la region Amazonica; incluye las cuencas de los rios 
Yasuni y Nashino. Pequenas elevaciones en el occidente corresponden a la formacion de terrazas fluviales 
del Cuaternario. Hacia el Este, el terreno es mas homogeneo yu piano, con abundancia de pantanos entre 
los que se destacan infinidad de lagunas. 

VEGETATION: No se tiene todavia un conocimiento detallado de las caracteristicas de la flora en una 
area donde predominan el bosque humedo y muy humedo tropical. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Estudios muy generales realizados establecen la presencia de predadores 
correspondientes a la cima de la piramide de consumo ecologico: jaguar Panthera onca (V), harpia Harpia 
harpyla (R), puma Felis concolor. Esto demuestra condiciones optimas de las poblaciones faunisticas. 

ZONING: No estan determinadas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No se han reportado. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Grupos o expediciones han realizado investigaciones sobre aspectos muy 
especificos de su flora y, principalmente, de la fauna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Se ha elaborado un proyecto ara la instalacion de una estacion 
cientifica en esta area. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Vreugdenhil, D. (1979). Inventariode las Areas Silvestresde 
la Cuenca Amazonica Ecuatoriana. Direccion de Desarrollo Forestal. UNDP/FAQ ECU/71/527. 
Documento de Trabajo No. 29. Quito. 

STAFF: 1 profesional, 1 tecnico, 4 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: s/ 800,000 sucres. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lcdo. Flavio Coello, Intendente Parque Nacional 
Yasuni, Francisco de Orellana, Prov. de El Napo, Ecuador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: A. Ponce. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 18, 1981. 



ECUADOR 197 

(3) Sangay National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1/8.35.12 (AmazonianA'ungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Junio 16, 1975 Acuerdo Interministerial #0190, Ratificado con Acuerdo No. 
322 de Julio 26, 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Estribaciones orientales de la Cordillera Real de los Andes; 

1°27'-2°15'S y 78°03'-78°31W. 

ALTITUDE: 800-5,400 metres. 

AREA: 370,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 100 per cent del Estado. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El area comprende los 'altos andes' (Cordillera Real) con sus montes nevados 
y uno volcan permanentemente activo; topografia escarpada y muchos riscos y picos rocosos. A 
continuacion las serranias orientales, con montana bajas junto a immensos abanicos aluviales, cortados 
por los canones de los rios que rompen la cordillera y se dirigen hacia el Oriente. For ultimo, la gran 
planicie Amazonica regada por infinidad de rios. 

VEGETATION: La diversidad de zonas de vida permite la presencia de un amplio rango floristico. En 
las zonas mas altas predominan los liquenes y biofitas; mas abajo bosques homogeneos de Polylepis sp., 
Buddleia incana. Miconia salicifolia, Myrtus communis etc. En zonas mas bajas y humedas, Podocarpus 
oleofolius, Alnus jurullensis , Cedrela odorata, entre muclias otras especies. En el bosque muy humedo 
subtropical, infinidad de especies maderables, Cordia alliodora, Nectandra sp., Ocotea sp., Cedrela rosei, 
Inga sp., Ochroma lagopus etc. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Se encuentran varias especies incluidas en el Libro Rijo de la lUCN. Danta 
Tapirus pinchaque (V) y T. terrestris; leopardo Panthera onca (V); tigrillo Felis pardalis (V), F. wiedii (V); 
puma Felis concolor; oso de anteojos Tremarctus ornatus (V); venado Odocoileus virginanus; cervicabra 
Mazama rufina; ciervo enano Pudu mephistophiles (I). Infinidad de aves, sobresalen gallo de la roca 
Rupicola peruviana ecuatorialis , Ara sp., condor Vultur gryphus; Buteo sp. etc. 

ZONING: El Plande Manejo dispone las sigientes zonas: a) Uso Intensivo; b) Uso Especial; c) De 
Recuperacion Natural; d) Primitiva - Cientifica; e) Primitiva. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Presion por parte de los grupos colonizadores localizados en la 
periferie del Parque; especialmente en zonas del Sur y Sur-Oriente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Expediciones cienticas nacionales y extranjera realizan investigaciones 
relacionadas con geologia y vulcanismo. Se ha comenzado a orientar la investigacion a aspectos de fauna y 
flora. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Al momento ninguna; estan proyectados para el futura 
inmediato. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Macey, A. et al (1976). Sangay, Un Estudio de Alternativas 
de Manejo, Direccion de Desarrollo Forestal, World Wildlife Fund. Quito. 

Schurholz, G. et al. (1980). Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Sangay. Direccion de Desarrollo 
Forestal, World Wildlife Fund. Quito. 

STAFF: 2 superintendente, 5 tecnicos, 12 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: s/ 1,850,000 sucres. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lcdo. Miguel Mejia, Superintendente Parque 
Nacional Sangay, Ministerio Agricultura y Ganaderia, Riobamba, Ecuador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: A. Ponce. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 18, 1981. 



198 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(4) Machalilla National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.19.4 (Ecuadorian Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 80 per cent. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Acuerdo Interminsterial #322, Julio 26, 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Region litoral de la Prov. de Manabi; incluye las Islas de la Plata y 
Salango. Parte Continental; l°2r-l°40'S y 80°38'-80°50'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-700 metres. 

AREA: 35,000 ha. Incluidas Islas y 2 millas de mar a lo largo de todas las costas del Parque. 

LAND TENURE: 80 per cent del Estado; el resto de particulares y colonos. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: La parte continental comprende la region costanera con extraordinarios 
ambientes marinos; suaves playas rodeadas de vegetacion natural y separadas por espectaculares 
formaciones de acantilados. En el Sur se interna hacia el continente, ascendiendo a un ramal de la 
Cordillera de Chongon y Colonche que contiene las ultimas muestras de bosque seco ecuatorial. La Isla de 
la Plata esta a 25 km de la costa y Salango a 1 km de distancia. 

VEGETATION: En las zonas mas altas y humedas, la vegetacion es exuberabte, con bosques siempre 
verdes; predominan Cecropia sp. , Ochroma lagopus, Ficus sp. , Miroxilum balsamo, y muchas palmaceas. 
En las zonas secas, cerca a las costas los bosques contienen especies maderables de gran valor: Tabebuia 
chrisantha. Prosopis juliflora. Acacia macrocantha , Cordia lutea. etc. La zona de transicion, de duelos 
pianos, presenta Ziziphus thyrsiflora, Samanea soman, Ceiba pentaendray C. triachistandra, Cavanillesia 
sp., etc. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Las zonas mas altas constituyen refugio para la fauna; principalmente se 
observa: venado Odocoileus virginianus , Mazama rufina. sahino Tayassu tajacu, T. albirostris, guanta 
Cuniculus paca; armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus . perezoso Bradypus tridactylus, cuchucho Nasua nasua, 
tigrillos o gatos Felis pardalis (V), F. wiedii (V). Varios reptiles, sobresale la boa Boa constrictor imperator 
y la iguana. 

ZONING: Zonificacion preliminar (se esta elaborando el Plan de Manejo): a) Primitiva; b) 
Primitiva-Cientifica; c) Uso Extinsivo; d) Uso Intensivo; e) Uso Especial. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Sensible alteracion de los recursos flora y fauna en aquellas 
zonas con asentamientos humanos dentro del Parque. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Permanentes estudios arqueologicos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Putney, A. y Villa, J. (1976). Estudios de Alternativas de 
Manejo, Area Circundante a Puerto Lopez y Machalilla. Direccion de Desarrollo Forestal, 
UNDP/FAO-ECU/71/527, Documento de Trabajo No. 27. Quito. 

STAFF: 1 profesional-superintendente, 2 tecnicos, 6 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: s/ 1,500,000 sucres. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Cesar Proano, Intendente Parque Nacional 
Machalilla, Puerto Lopez, Manabi - Ecuador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: A. Ponce. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 18, 1981. 



ECUADOR 199 

(5) Cotopaxi National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.33.12 (Northern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 90 per cent. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Acuerdo #259-A, Agosto 15, 1975. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Cordillera Real de los Andes; 0°33'22'-0°44'S y 78°34'0'W. 

ALTITUDE: 3,300-6,000 metres. 

AREA: 34,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 50 per cent del Estado, 50 per cent particular. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Comprende la zona que circunda al volcan Cotopaxi (volcan activo mas alto 
del mundo); con los volcanes Ruminahui y Sincholagua forma un traingulo que encierra paramos extensos 
que recogen aguas provenientes de los tres nevados. Toda la zona tiene condiciones geologicas 
extraordinarias, constituyendo un paisaje variado en el cual sobresalen una serie do morros y lomas en 
medio de bastas planicies. 

VEGETATION: Constituida por la flora caracteristica del paramo, representado especialmente por el 
romerillo Hyperium laricifolium, Brachyotum lepidifolium, Chuquiragua lancifolia; Polylepis incana, P. 
coriacea-y Arbustos de hojas coreaceas: pumamaqui Oreopanax argentata, carrasquillo Berberis 
rigidifolia, quishar o arbol de Dios Buddleia incana. Grandes parjonales con gramineas dominantes: 
Festuca sp., Calamagrostis sp., junto a las gramineas existen varias las Cyperaceas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Especies caracteristicas del paramo y algunas de zonas mas bajas que han 
buscado proteccion en areas protegidas. Entre los mamiferos: venado Odocoileus virginanus, cervicabra 
Mazama rufina, lobo Dusicyon culpaeus reissi, puma Felis concolor, zorro Coneptus semistriatus , conejo 
Sylvilagus brasilensis. Entre las aves: condor Vultur gryphus, gavilan Buteo peocilochrus , torcaza 
Columba fasciata, pato de paramo Anas flavirostris. 

ZONING: Zonificacion provisional (se esta elaborando el Plan de Manejo) a) Zona de Uso Intensivo; b) 
Uso Especial; c) Recuperacion. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Actividades agropecuarias realizadas anteriormente en varias 
zonas del Parque han producido alteraciones en sus recursos; situacion que se ha controlado desde la 
declaratoria y varias areas estan en proceso de recuperacion. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Especialmente relacionada con vulcanismo. Las Universidades han 
comenzado ha realizar estudios en varios aspectos referentes a la biologia. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Departamento de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre 
(1976). Parque Nacional de Altura 'Cotopaxi'. Documento Tecnico de Trabajo. Quito 

Lovato, A. et al. (1969). Planificacion de Un Parque Nacional en la Zona Adyacente al Volcano 
Cotopaxi. Tesis Ing. Agr. Universidad Central del Ecuador. Quito. 

Mills, K. (1975). Flora de la Sierra; Un Estudio en el Parque Nacional Cotopaxi. Ciencia y Naturaleza 
(Ecuador) 16(1): 15-44. 

STAFF: 1 profesional superintendente, 1 tecnico, 8 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: s/ 1,650,000 sucres. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Marcello Collantes, Intendente, Parque 
Nacional Cotopaxi, Latacunga, Ecuador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: A. Ponce. 
INFORMATION DATED: Junio 18, 1981. 



200 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12/8.5.1 (Yungas/Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 100 per cent. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Decreto No, 818, Nov 17, 1970; Acuerdo 322, Julio 26, 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Estribaciones Orientales Cord. Real de los Andes; 0°19'42'N - 

0°22'02'S; 77°22'-78°14'34'W. 

ALTITUDE: 800-5,900 metres. 

AREA: 350,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 98 per cent del Estado; 2 per cent particular. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Comprende tres zonas fisiograficas bien definidas: la Cordillera Real, una 
Seccion de la deominada Region Subandina del Oriente y la llanura Amazonica. El area presenta en toda 
su extension grandes diferencias de nivel; pendientes fuertes y abruptas entre las cuales se encuentran 
valles profundos y estrechos. Esta irregularidad disminuye hacia el oriente conforme se acerca la region 
Amazonica. 

VEGETATION: Las formaciones vegetales son variadas, de acuerdo con la diversidad de zonas de vida 
que van desde el bosque humedo tropical a la formacion Alpina. Se pueden citar unas pocas especies 
principales: Guarea sp., Ocotea sp., Dyalyanthera sp., Neclandra sp., Cedrela sp., Hyeronima 
macrocarpa, Eugenia sp. En las Partes altas, la vegetacion de paramo representado por: gramineas 
(especialmente Festuca, Stipa y Calamagrostis); Polylepis sp., Miconia sp. etc. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna igualmente es variada y abundante. Entre los mamiferos: oso de 
anteojos Tremarctos ornatus (V), tejon Nasua nasua, tigrillo FelLs wiedii (V), puma Felis concolor, jaguar 
Panthera onca (V), venado Mazama americana, Hippocamelus antisensis (V), zongo-zongo Callicebus 
cuprous, cariblanco Cebus apella macrocephalus . Aves: condor Vultur gryphus , gallo de la pena Rupicola 
peruviana aequatorialis , papagayo Ara severa castaneyfrons . 

[The northern huemul Hippocamelus antisensis (V) may not in fact be found in Ecuador according to 
correspondents quoted in the Mammal Red Data Book (Thornback and Jenkins, 1982)]. 

ZONING: El Plan de Manejo senala las siguientes: a) Intangible; b) Primitiva; c) Use Extensive; d) Uso 
Intensive; e) Uso Especial. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Presion por parte de colonizadores localizados en la periferie. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ha comenzado a realizarse, por parte de universidades, con referenda a la 
biologia. Aspectos vulcanologicos se ban estudiado desde hace mucho tiempo. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No se disponen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Paucar, M. y Reinoso, G. (1978). Estudio de Alternativas de 
Manejo y Plan de Ordenamiento de la Reserva Ecologica Cayambe - Coca. Tesis de Grado, Universidad 
Central del Ecuador. Quito. 

STAFF: 1 profesional-superintendente, 3 tecnicos, 8 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: s/ 1,900,000 sucres. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Gustavo Honojosa, Intendente Reserva 
Ecologica Cayambe - Coca, Cayambe, Ecuador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: A. Ponce. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 18, 1981. 



ECUADOR 201 

(2) Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPfflCAL PROVINCE: 8.3.1 (Colombian Coastal). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 100 per cent. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Decretos Ejecutivos 1468; 29 Ago. 1968 y #818, 17 Nov. 1970. Acuerdo #322, 
26 Jul. 1979. 

GEOGRAPinCAL LOCATION: Cordillera occidental de los Andes, hasta la zona literal. 

0°17'32'-0°50'45'N y 78°18'30'-78°55'58'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-4,500 metres. 

AREA: 45,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Aprox. 98 per cent del Estado; 2 per cent particular. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El area comprende la parte alta de la Cordillera Occidental, los declives 
occidentales y la zona baja o literal de la Provincia de Esmeraldas. En la primera parte sobresalen los 
macisos volcanicos del Cotacachi, Yanaurco y Pilabo; la parte baja acumula infinidad de rios que 
desembocan en el Ocean Pacifico; esta zona es de gran pluviosidad y constituye una muestra caracteristica 
del Bosque Tropical. Incluye importantes lagunas en su parte alta. 

VEGETATION: La flora del Area es muy variada, de acuerdo a las diversidades do zonas de vida. Se 
pueden citar las siguientes espesices representativas: balsa Ochroma lagopus, cana guada Guada 
augustifolia, cuangare Dialyanthera sp., chalyiande Virola sp., chanul Humira procera, guabo Inga sp., 
guayacan Minquartia punctata, macarey Hieronyma chocoensis, nato Mora megistosperma, tangare 
Carapa guianensis. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: De una gran diversidad de fauna se citan las siguientes especies: venado 
Mazama americana, tigrillo Felis partialis (V), F. wiedii (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), saino Tayassu 
tajacu. Entre los reptiles, la tortuga Chelonia mydas (E). 

ZONING: No esta zonificada. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Asentamientos humanos en algunos sitios de la Reserva. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Esporadicamente se realiza, especialmente en la zona baja (litoral). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: En el campamento de Borbon existe alojamiento que, 
eventualmente, se ha destinado a este proposito. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Ortiz, F. (1977). Estudio de Alternativas de Manejo de la 
Reserve 'Cotachaci - Cayapas'. Direccion Desarrollo Forestal. Quito. 

STAFF: 1 profesional intendente, 2 tecnicos, 6 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: s/ 1,260,000 sucres. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Ruth Quezada, Intendente de la Reserva 
Cotacachi - Cayapas, Cotacachi, Ecuador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: A. Ponce. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 18, 1981. 



202 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Manglares-Churute Ecological Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.19.4 (Ecuadorian Dry Forest). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: 70 per cent. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: Acuerdo #322, Julio 26, 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Manglares del Golfo de Guayaquil y Cordillera de Churute. 

2°19'40'-2°36'09'S y 79°34'11'-79°49'24"W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-500 metres. 

AREA: 35,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 98 per cent del Estado; 2 per cent particular. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: La parte alta esta formada por una ramificacion de la Cordillera Churute, de 
topografia bastante irregular, con pendientes que disminuyen su intensidad al acercarse a la costa, en 
donde el terreno es piano con ligeras depresiones; termina en la zona de manglares, importantes por ser 
una de las pocas muestras de este ecosistema estuarino, sin gran alteracion. 

VEGETATION: Las partes mas altas se presenta la balsa Ochroma lagopus, pechiche Vitex gigantea, 
laurel Cordia alliodora, guayacan Tabebuia chrysantha, balsamo Myroxilon balsamo. En la zona de 
manglares: mangle rojo Rhizophora mangle, mangle bianco Leguncularia racemosa, mangle negro 
Avicennia nitida. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En la parte alta son comunes: zorro Dedilphis marsupiales, peresozo 
Brady pus tridactylus, venado Odocoileus virginianus. En la zona de transicion son comunes la iguana 
verde Iguana iguana, boa Boa constrictor, tortuga de poza Chelydra serpentina. 

ZONING: No esta zonificada. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Instalacion de camaroneras en manglares cercanos a la 
Reserva. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No se ha generalizado. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No existen. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Universidad Estatal de Guayaquil (1978). Estudio de 
Alternativas de Manejo del Area Manglares - Churute. Direccion de DesarroUo Forestal. Quito. 

STAFF: 1 tecnico encargado de la Reserva, 2 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: s/ 750,000 sucres. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Per. For. Fredy Zambrano, Intendente de la 
reserva Ecologica Manglares Churute - Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Guayaquil - Ecuador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: A. Ponce. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 18, 1981. 



EL SALVADOR 203 



EL SALVADOR 



AREA: 20,865 sq km. 

POPULATION: 4,233,800 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Under the Forestry Law (1973) there is one section 
(Chapter 5, articles 45, 46, 47 and 48) that regulates protected areas, forest reserves, national parks and 
equivalent reserves and provides for their establishment and management. In June 1974 a Unit of National 
Parks and Wildhfe was estabHshed within the Forestry and Fauna Service. Ministerial Decree 236 of April 
1981 created a new National Parks and Wildlife Service, and transferred all mandates included in Forestry 
Law about National Parks and Wildlife Management to the new service. There are no areas yet declared 
by law within El Salvador, although strong protective measures are already being taken in the four areas 
mentioned below, and in the Bosque El Imposible and Barra de Santiago (two mangrove areas). 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Within the Renewable Natural Resources Directorate 
there exists the National Parks and Wildhfe Service which is responsible for the management of national 
parks and equivalent reserves. The National Institute of Tourism (INSTU) has a Department of National 
Parks and Recreation Centres (Turicentros); it has under its control the Cerro Verde National Park and 
has elaborated a master plan for Deinninger National Park. The Unidad de Parques Nacionales y Vida 
Silvestre does not have fixed annual budgets for each park and reserve under its administration, rather the 
overall budget is adjusted to meet priorities throughout the year. 

ADDRESS: Francisco Serrano, Director, Servicio de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, Direccion 
General de Recursos Naturales Renovables, MAG, San Salvador, El Salvador. 

REFERENCES: Daughtery, H.E. (1973). Conservacion ambiental en El Salvador; recomendaciones 
para un programa de accion nacional. M.S., 60 pp. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: No parks or reserves are legally established yet. Due to the 
recently implemented Agrarian Reform by the government the National Parks Service intends to at least 
triple the number of conservation units in the next few years. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Montecristo (proposed) 1,990 

2 Cerro Verde 800 

3 Deinninger 200 

Wildlife Sanctuary 

1 Laguna Jocotal (proposed) 1 ,000 



204 DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Montecristo National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: Proposed National Park. 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madeiran-Cordilleran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Under management and protected but not yet legally established. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park is on the international border between Guatemala and El 

Salvador; 14°26'N, 89°22"W. 

ALTITUDE: From 1,600 to 2,418m. 

AREA: 1,990 ha approximately. 

LAND TENURE: The majority of the land is privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Montecristo is the last remaining patch of virgin forest in the country. There 
are three main peaks: Cerro Brujo (2,140m), Cerro Miramundo (2,394m), and Cerro Redondo and Cerro 
Montecristo (2,418m). This area is the wettest of El Salvador with annual rainfall over2, 000mm. The daily 
temperature oscillates from 10°C to 15°C. 

VEGETATION: There are two main forest associations. The first is the pine-oak association that goes 
from 1,000 to 2,100m. Today, there are only a few patches of forest of this association, the species being 
Pinus oocarpa and Quercus spp. Other species in this association are the sweet gum Liquidambar 
styraciflua, Perymenium spp., Clethra vulcanicola, Nectandra sinuata and Cedrela mexicana. The other is 
the cloud forest dominated by oaks Quercus spp. and several species of Lauraceae. There is a large 
diversity of plants, including orchids, epiphytes, lichens and ferns. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The Montecristo forest is the last remaining habitat for species of wildhfe 
that have been exterminated in the lowlands; among others the following mammal species occur in the 
area: the Guatemala howler mor\\^ty Alouatta villosa (I), brocket deer Mazama americana, white-lipped 
peccary Tayassupecari. The following bird species, which are in danger of extinction, are present: quetzal 
Pharomacrus moccino (V), Penelopina nigra and Dry abates villosus. Among the species threatened in the 
country but still found in the area are the following mammals: spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi (V), 
Mexican tree porcupine Coendu mexicanus, central American cacomistle Bassariscus sumichrasti , spotted 
skunk Spilogale putorius, hooded skunk Mephitis macroura. hog-nosed skunk Conepatus leuconatus, 
puma Felis concolor and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus . Among the bird species: white-faced 
quail dove Geoyrtrygon linearis albifascies, band-tailed pigeon Columba fasciata , barred owl Strix varia 
fulvescens, garnet throated hummingbird Lamprolaima rhami, green violetear Colibri thalassimus , 
collared trogon Trogon collaris, blue-throated motmot Aspatha gularis, emerald toucanet Aula 
corhynchus prasinus , Fernandina's flicker Colaptes fernindinae mexicanoides , mountain wren Troglodytes 
solsfiitialis , black-billed thrush Turdus ignobilis, black-throated jay Cyanolyca pumilo and spot-crowned 
woodcreeper Lepidocolaptes afftnis. 

ZONING: Not yet established. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Subsistence agriculture activities had invaded the cloud forest 
from 1,800 to 2,100m, eliminating much of the pine-oak forest association, prior to establishment of 
protection and management activities. Recovery will be slow. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A few basic studies on the avifauna and orchids. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Daughtery, H.E. (1973). Conservacion ambiental en El 
Salvador; recomendaciones para un programa de accion nacional. M.S., 60 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent and 8 guards. 

BUDGET: This park does not have a specific budget (see country sheet). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Manuel Benitez, Jefe Unidad de Parques 
Nacionales y Reservas Equivalentes, Servicio de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, DIGERENARE, 
MAG, Canton El Matasano, Soyapango, El Salvador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 



J 



EL SALVADOR 205 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 198L 



(1) Laguna Jocotal Wildlife Sanctuary 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: Proposed Wildlife Sanctuary. 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: None (no legislation yet). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1978. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park is located in the San Miguel Department; approximately 
13°19'N, 88°15'W. 

ALTITUDE: Approx. 100m. 

AREA: 1,000 ha approx. 

LAND TENURE: Mostly privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A eutrophic lake located at the base of the San Miguel Volcano. The land 
around the lake is completely covered by an old lava flow. 

VEGETATION: The life zone in the area is sub-tropical moist forest. The forest around the lake was 
removed many years ago, but there are still some small patches of secondary forest and a swampy area 
surrounds the lake completely, with some short vegetation on it. No inventory exists of the vegetation 
species that occur in the area. There are a few pools in the lake free of aquatic vegetation; the majority of 
the lake is covered by a species of grass and water hyacinth. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The main objective of this refuge is the protection of local and migrating 
waterfowl, including fulvus tree duck Dendyocygna bicolor, black-bellied tree duck D. autumnalis, 
muscovy duck Cairina moschata, mallard Anas platyrhynchos , blue-winged teal A. discors, northern 
shoveler A. clypeata, lesser scaup Aythya afftnis, masked duck Oxyura dominica, jacana Jacana spinosa, 
grey moorhen Gallinula chloropus, purple gallinule Porphyrula martinica and American coot Fulica 
americana. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The major problem is that the small tributaries of the lake carry 
pesticides used in the surrounding cotton plantations. Living around the lake are 300 families, 120 of those 
living from the daily fish they catch. These fishermen are allowed to use the lake, but with some regulations 
specifically made for them. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Some basic studies on the waterfowl have been carried out. To increment 
the population of the tree duck, there was a small project to locate artificial nest cages on the trees for their 
use. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None. 

STAFF: A superintendent and 4 guards. 

BUDGET: No specific budget. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Manuel Benitez, Jefe Unidad de Parques 
Nacionales y Reservas Equivalentes, Servicio de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, DIGERENARE, 
MAG, Canton El Matasano, Soyapango, El Salvador. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



206 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



FRENCH GUIANA 



AREA: 90,000 sq km. 

POPULATION: 59,000 (1977). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: As a 'department' of France, this territory has the same 
legislation as that country, namely law 60.708 of 22 July 1960, which applies to the establishment of 
National Parks, and the law of July 1976 (Loi sur la protection de la nature) which applies to all aspects of 
conservation, including reserves. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Direction Departementale de I'Agriculture in 
Cayenne, and Museum d'Historie Naturelle in Paris. 

ADDRESS: (a) Direction Departementale de I'Agriculture, Cayenne, Guyana Francaise. 
(b) Museum d'Historire Naturelle, 57 rue Cuvier 75005, Paris, France. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: No reserves have been legally established yet. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Sinnamari 25,000 

2 Basse Mana 35,000 

3 Ilet du Grand Conetable 4 



FRENCH GUIANA 207 

(1) Reserve Naturelle de Sinnamari 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyan;in) 

LEGAL PROTECTION: None as yet. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Central coast, close to the town and river of the same name; 5°30'N, 
52°50'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level. 

AREA: 25,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Coastal wetland, and mainly forming a mangrove swamp. The reserve will 
also include the rocky Battures Islands. 

VEGETATION: Mainly mangrove forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber within the mangroves, and many sea birds on 
the islands. 

ZONING: Most of the reserve is strictly protected, but it includes one small area which is open to 
visitors. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Report on Fauna of French Guiana presented by the ORSTOM (Office de 
la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre Mer), Cayenne. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Report on Fauna by ORSTOM. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: No information. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1979. 



(2) Reserve Naturelle de Basse Mana 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: None as yet. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the northwest coast, above the lower Mana River and up to its 
mouth at Maroni; 5°45'N, 53°40"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level. 

AREA: 35,000 ha approximately (though OAS 1979 give a proposed area of 90,000 ha). 

LAND TENURE: Public land. 



208 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Coastal wetland. The area is flat and low with a hot humid climate and 
1 ,500mm of precipitation per year. There are salt and freshwater swamps and many streams. There is firm 
land on the Quaternary marine sediments. 

VEGETATION: Mostly 'wet savannahs' (Cyperaceae), with marshes, swamp forest, and some 
mangrove swamps. There are some areas of mesophytic forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: 6,000 laying leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (E) were spotted in 
1977. Birds include flamingoes (Phoenicopteridae), herons (Ardeidae) and Anatidae. 

ZONING: Most of the area (approx. 30,000 ha) will be protected, except for an artificial channel built in 
1973 for shrimp breeding, where tours will be organized. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Traditional hunting would be allowed over all but 2,000 ha of 
the reserve. There is some risk of disturbance from an agricultural project (rice). Natural sea erosion is 
lowering the turtle-nesting areas creating dangers from flooding, and consequent death of the eggs. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre Mer, 
Cayenne): Fauna of French Guiana. Also Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, especially on turtles. 

SPECLVL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See ORSTOM and Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: No information. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1979. 



(3) Ilet du Grand Conetable 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: None as yet. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Offshore island, situated off the extreme northeastern coast. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level. 

AREA: 4 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Rocky islands. 

VEGETATION: Scarce. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Large numbers of seabirds, including frigate birds Fregata spp. 

ZONING: Sanctuary. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: It is hoped that the proposed legislation will prevent 
disturbances caused by photographers. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d'Outre 
Mer), Cayenne. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 



FRENCH GUIANA 209 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: ORSTOM. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: No information. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1979. 



210 



lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



GRENADA 



AREA: 344 sq km. 

POPULATION: 106,406 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Forest, Soil and Water Conservation Ordinance, Chapter 
129 of 1 August 1949. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Forestry Division of the Ministry of Agriculture . 

ADDRESS: Botanical Gardens, St Georges, Grenada. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: The only conservation area about which we have information 

is a Multiple Use Management Area. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 



Forest Reserve 

1 Grand Etang 



(hectares) 
1,544 



i 



N 




5^ «T 



Key 

® FOREST RESERVE 



12 3 

1 I I — I 

Scale Miles 



212 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Grand Etang Forest Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: VIII (Multiple Use Management Area). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1910. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Mountains in the south central portion of the island, about 7km 
northeast of St Georges; 26°06'N, 61°42"W. 

ALTITUDE: 300-765m. 

AREA: 1,544 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Wholly government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Steep mountainous terrain of volcanic origin, including two major peaks and 
the 15 ha Grand Etang Crater Lake. The area was severely damaged by a hurricane in 1955, causing 
numerous landslips and blowdown of vegetation. 

VEGETATION: Palm brake at the higher elevations, montane and lower mountain rainforest at the mid 
and lower elevations. Landslide areas covered over with ferns and Cecropia spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The introduced mona monkey Ceropithecus mono. 

ZONING: The northern 35% of the reserve is zoned for strict protection while the remainder is zoned 
for multiple use forestry. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Many of the worst damaged areas of the 1955 hurricane have 
been reforested, most of these by exotic species. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None. 

STAFF: 7 rangers and 55 labourers. 

BUDGET: About US$ 10,000 during 1979. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 12 March 1979. 



GUADELOUPE 213 



GUADELOUPE (France) 



AREA: 1,799 sq km. 

POPULATION: 317,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: As a 'department' of France, this territory has the same 
legislation as that country, namely Law 60.708 of 22 July 1960, which applies to the establishment of 
National Parks, and the law of July 1976 (Loi sur la protection de la nature) which appUes to all aspects of 
conservation, including reserves. The proposed Guadeloupe National Park is currently protected as a 
Nature Park. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Parks and reserves are under the control of the French 
Ministere de la QuaUte de la Vie, Direction de la Protection de la Nature. In Guadeloupe, the Office 
National des Forets, Mission d'Etudes pour la Creation du Pare Naturel de la Guadeloupe is also 
responsible for parks and reserve administration. 

ADDRESS: (a) Office National des Forets, Jardin Botanique, Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe. 

(b) Ministere de la Qualite de la Vie, Direction de la Protection de la Nature, Service des 
Pares et Reserves, 13 Boulevard du General Leclerc, 92521 Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: There are about 16,800 ha of Nature Park on Basse Terre in 
what will eventually become part of the Guadeloupe National Park. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Park (hectares) 

1 Guadeloupe (proposed) 21,500 

Flora Reserves 

2 Cretes dc village et Beaujendre (proposed) 600 

3 Pitons du Nord (proposed) 3,000 





< 

Q- 



< 

o 

■z. 



i 







5!! 




GUADELOUPE 215 

(1) Pare National de la Guadeloupe 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 60% proposed. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed, and expected to be established during 1982. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Central part of the mountain of Basse Terre and a mangrove/marine 
area in the 'Grand Cul-de-Sac Marin', Grand Terre; 16°20'N, 6r40'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-1 467m. 

AREA: 21,500 ha (of which 4,700 ha are in the Grand Cul de Sac). 

LAND TENURE: Public land 20,300 ha; private land 1,200 ha. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Volcanic formation with the active volcano of Soufriere (1467m). The marine 
area includes coral reef formations, sea grass beds and mangrove swamp. 

VEGETATION: Moist forest on higher mountains; rain forest covering most of the central part of the 
park. Pitons of mesophytic and xerophytic forest on slope. Mangrove (both freshwater with Pterocarpus 
officinalis and saltwater with Rhizophora). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Racoon Procyon minor and agouti Dasyprocta molli. Wading birds, 
especially Rallus longirostris manglecola, in the mangrove. A beetle Dynastis herales in the rainforest. The 
marine area includes mangrove, sea grass beds and reefs, and it has a concentration of the most interesting 
species of biotopes (cassis Lyria archeri are the most interesting but molluscs are threatened). This 
projected park also includes a nesting site for turtles, Ilet Fazin. Three species are found in the marine 
section of the park: hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (V), green turtle Chelonia my das (E) and 
leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea (E) (rarely). 

ZONING: Three intensive use (recreation and interpretation) areas in the central part; strict protection 
(no use except with authorization) in 5,000 ha of the central area and 700 ha of the marine area. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: In part of the central zone of the Park (it will be extended to a 
maximum of 2,000 ha) there is significant pollution from agriculture, the sugar cane industry and soHd 
waste disposal in the mangrove/sea grass bed areas. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: DGRST: La Mangrove et sa Zone Cotiere (The Mangrove and its Coastal 
Zone). Research under way. (INRA-CVAG-Museum d'Histoire naturelle de Paris). Flora: Jacques 
Fournet, INRA. 

SPECL\L SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (National 
Institute for Agronomical Research), Domaine Anclos, Petit Vourg, Station de Zoologie; and CUAG 
Point Families, Pointe-a-Pitre, VER Sciences. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Fournet, Jacques (1978). Flore des Antilles Francaises. 
INRA. 

ONF and ADEEAR (1972). Pare Naturel de Guadeloupe. Jardin Botanique, Basse-Terre. 
ONF (1977). Pour un Pare National de Guadeloupe. 

STAFF: None at present. 

BUDGET: None at present. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mission pour la creation du Pare National de la 
Guadeloupe, Maison des Forets, Jardin Botanique, 97.009, Basse-Terre. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1979. 



216 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



GUATEMALA 



AREA: 108,888 sq km. 

POPULATION: 6,621,000(1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Article 108 of the Constitution of the Republic establishes 
the basis for protection of nature. Proposals exist for the estabhshment of a single administration under 
the Guatemalan Institute of National Parks and Equivalent Reserves. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: At present National Parks are administered under 
various agencies. The National Institute of Archaeology has the ultimate authority for Tikal National 
Park. The Department of National Parks and WildUfe within the National Forestry Institute (INAFOR) is 
by law the agency in charge of management of the National Parks, although in practice it has no activities 
or action applied in the field yet. The Biology School of San Carlos University owns and is managing the 
Quetzal Conservation Biotope near Purulha. The Guatemalan Institute of Tourism (INGUAT) has the 
ultimate authority for management of Rio Dulce National Park. 

ADDRESS: (a) Instituto Nacional de Arqueologia, Guatemala City, Guatemala. 

(b) Departamento de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, Instituto Nacional Forestal 
(INAFOR), Guatemala City, Guatemala. 

(c) Escuela de Biologia y Farmacia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala City, 
Guatemala. 

(d) Instituto Guatemalteco de Turismo, Guatemala. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 57,600 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Tikal (World Heritage Site) 57,600 

2 Lake Atitlan* 13,000 

3 Rio Dulce* 24,200 

4 ElRosario* 1,030 

Natural Monument 

1 Pacaya Volcano* 2,000 

University Biotope for Conservation of the Quetzal* 900 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION, the national parks 
and natural monument because of the disturbances in the areas concerned, the Quetzal 
Reserve because of its size. 



1 



N», 



cc^[sf 



MEXICO 



I 








HONDURAS 



EL SALVADOR 



PACIFIC OCEAN 



Key. 
D 

o 



NATIONAL PARKS 
NATURAL MONUMENTS 



218 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Tikal National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park & World Heritage Site). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.1.1 (Campechean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 26 May 1955. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Pet6n department, northeastern Guatemala; 17°06'45'-17°20'15'N, 
89°30'35'-89°44'55'W. The ruins are at 17°13'03'N, 89°37'07'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-250m. 

AREA: 57,600 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: An undulating area of Cretaceous and Caenozoic sedimentary rocks. 
Features include hills, lakes and a chain of swamps. The park's main attraction is the ruined city of the 
Maya Indians. This has temples, pyramids, houses and sculptures; large areas are still to be excavated. 
The climate is warm and humid with l,500-2,000mm rainfall from September to February and in June. 
Annual mean temperature is 23°C. 

VEGETATION: Dry tropical and subtropical forests in the transition area from wet to dry conditions. 
Abundant palms, epiphytes, orchids and bromeliads are present. Common tree species include cedar 
Cedrela angustifolia, West Indian mahogany Swietenia macrophylla, Manilkara achras, Vitex guameri, 
Aspidosperma megalocarpon, Guarea exelsa, bread-nut tree Brosimum alicastrum, Calophyllum 
brasiliense, Cryosophila argentea, the palm Sabal may arum, Bursera simaruba, Protium copal and Acacia 
farnesiana. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: 54 species of mammal occur, including mantled howler monkey Alouatta 
palliata nigra, spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), lesser 
anteater Tamandua tetradactyla, dwarf anteater Cyclopes didactylus, three-toed sloth Bradypus 
Iridactylus, nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus , squirrel Sciurus yucatanensis, pocket gopher 
Heterogeomys hispidus, raccoon Procyon sp. , brown coati Nasua narica, kinkajou Potosflavus, tayra Eira 
barbara, long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata, hooded skunk Mephitis macroura, otter Lutra annectens, 
puma Felis concolor, margay F. wiedii (V), ocelot F. pardalis (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), Baird's tapir 
Tapirus bairdii (V) which is limited by water availability, collared and white-lipped peccaries Tayassu 
tajacu and T. albirostris, white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus and red brocket deer, Mazama 
americana sarterii. Avifauna includes 303 species, representing 63 of the 74 families in Guatemala. 
Reptiles and amphibians include the threatened Crocodylus moreletii (E) and other crocodiles, nine 
families of amphibian and six genera of turtles. 38 species of non-poisonous snakes occur and poisonous 
snakes include coral snake Micrurus diastema sapperi, four species of Bothrops and two sub-species of 
rattlesnake Crotalus. A rich invertebrate fauna, especially arthropods. 

ZONING: Not specifically defined. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some illegal hunting and theft of archaeological remains. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Mainly on the evolution of Mayan Indian culture by the University of 
Florida. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A simple laboratory for archaeological research and a library. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Anon (1973). Tikal National Park, Guatemala. A master 
plan for protection and use. United States National Parks Service, AID. (Secretaria de Planificacion 
Economica, Apendice: factibilidad economica 1973). 

Curley, M. A. , Dary, M. and Morales, P. A.H. (1973). Inventario Preliminar de los Recursos Naturales 
Renovables de Guatemala. 343 pp. 

Guatemala, Consejo Nacional de Planificacion Economica (1973). Tikal National Park. A master plan 
for protection and use. US National Parks Service. 218 pp. 

Powell, D.R. (1970). A report on the development and management of the Tikal National Park. 
National Park Service, US Department of the Interior, Division of International Affairs. Mission to 
Guatemala. 218 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 36 technicians and 15 guards in 1973. 



GUATEMALA 219 

BUDGET: No recent information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Jefe Proyecto Arqueologico Tikal. Instituto 
Nacional de Arqueologia y Historia (INAH), Guatemala City, Guatemala. C.A. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(2) Lake Atitlan National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: VI (Resource Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madeiran-Cordilleran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. The establishment decree protects only the lake, not its shores or other 
surrounding land areas. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 26 May 1955, by Presidential Decree. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Department of Solola, 70km from Guatemala City. 

ALTITUDE: 1,562m. 

AREA: 13,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The main feature is the lake itself and it is surrounded by three volcanic peaks, 
Pico San Pedro, Pico ToUman and Pico Atitlan. The dry season runs from November to May and the rainy 
season from May to November. The mean annual temperature varies from 18°C to 22°C. 

VEGETATION: No information available. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There is a small population of grebe Podylimbus gigas which is endemic to 
the lake and is specially protected in a small sanctuary. The quetzal Pharomachrus mocinno (V) is present 
on the higher peaks of the surrounding volcanoes, though these are not protected by the park. 

ZONING: None apart from the small grebe sanctuary; no management plan exists. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The surrounding area is heavily populated by Indians as well as 
by mestizos. The area is a popular place for the construction of summer homes and because of the modern 
development the shores are becoming notably contaminated. Construction of private homes and hotels is 
increasing rapidly as are problems due to erosion and pollution. Several decades ago an exotic fish (bass) 
was introduced to the lake. There is no functioning protection. Further problems are being caused by the 
lowering of the lake level which is damaging the habitat of the grebe. This is thought to be a result of 
faulting in the underlying rocks. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Some studies have been made on the Atitlan grebe Podylimbus gigas and 
tourism development and its potential. The area badly needs a natural and cultural resources survey and 
management plan to be elaborated. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There is a rustic field station and a number of both modest and 
more expensive hotels in the area. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: LaBastille, A. (1974). Ecology and management of the 
Atitlan Grebe, Lake Atitlan, Guatemala. 66 pp. 

STAFF: Three resources guards (INAFOR). 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Instituto Nacional Forestal, Guatemala City, 
Guatemala. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. MacFarland. 



220 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(3) Rio Dulce National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: VI (Resource Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPfflCAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 26 May 1955 by Presidential Decree. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Part of the lower Rio Polochio watershed, 275km from Guatemala 
City in Izabal Department (Livingston and Los Amantes), on the coast of eastern Guatemala; 
15°30'-15°55'N, 88°40'-89°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 1,267m. 

AREA: 24,200 ha; but no exact boundaries have been fixed, and the size was only recorded as 10,000 ha 
by OAS (1979). 

LAND TENURE: Private land. The rivershore, although government land, is settled. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park includes the Sierra de Mico, Lake Izabal and the mouth of the Rio 
Dulce on the Atlantic coast. The Tio Polochio flows through a 300-400m high canyon and elsewhere forms 
meanders. Geologically it is composed of serpentine, sandstones, marine sediments and alluvial deposits. 
Some of these rocks are rich in molluscan and other fossils. The climate is warm, tropical humid with a 
mean annual precipitation of 2,970mm. 

VEGETATION: Humid tropical and sub-tropical rainforest and low montane wet forest. Most of the 
ecosystems have been altered but some virgin stands of primary forest still remain. Palms are abundant 
and the native pine Pinus caribaea is present. Other species include the mahogany Swietenia mahogani, 
cedar Cedrela mexicana, Vochisia guatemalensis , Virola koschnyi and Calophyllum brasiliense. The area 
around 'EI Golfete" has an ecosystem unique for Guatemala. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mammals include spider monkey A teles geoffroyi (V) among other 
monkeys, raccoon Procyon lotor, ocelot Felis pardalis (V) and jaguar Panthera onca (V), manatee 
Trichechus manatus (V), Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus . 
303 species of resident birds have been recorded. The reptilian and amphibian fauna is rich, and includes 
Crocodylus moreleti (E) and C. acutus (E), and the terrapins Kinosternon acutum and K. cruentatum, 
Chelydra rossignomi, Dermatemys dawi and others. Snakes include the coral snake Micrurus sp. , tropical 
moccasin or copperhead Agkistrodon bilineatus, fer-de-lance Bothrops sp. and rattlesnake Crotalus 
terrificus durissus. A rich fish fauna includes 28 families such as the Lepidosteidae, Cyprinodontidae, 
Cichlidae, AnguiUidae and Sygnathidae. 

ZONING: None; however INGUAT's (Institute Guatemalteco de Turismo) plan can serve as a basis 
for re-examining the classification of the area and a more detailed management plan. According to OAS 
(1979) the objective of this park is to protect the Natural Monument of the same name. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Several small settlements, much deforestation and illegal 
hunting. There is no functioning protection and no management. Nickel mining is planned. The city of 
Livingston, although within the park, is not quoted as having much impact. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies by Florida and Oklahoma Universities of fish and insect faunas and 
limnology. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Curley, M.A., Dary, M. and Morales, P.A.H. (1973). 
Inventario preliminar de los Recursos Naturales Renovables de Guatemala. 343 pp. 

Guatemala, Institute Guatemalteco de Turismo (1976). Plan Maestro para el DesarroUo Turistco del 
Area del Lago de Izabal y la Bahia de Amatique. Informe de Progreso. 103 pp. 



GUATEMALA 221 

STAFF: An honorary lake guard. A military patrol boat passes daily. 
BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: INGUAT (Instituto Guatemalteco de Turismo) 
Guatemala City, Guatemala. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(4) El Rosario National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: VI (Resource Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.1.1 (Campechean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 18 October 1980 by Presidential Decree. 

GEOGRAPfflCAL LOCATION: Peten Department. 

ALTITUDE: Unknown. 

AREA: 1,030 ha. 

LAND TENURE: National land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: No information available. 

VEGETATION: No information available. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: No information available. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No information available. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECLVL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No information available. 

STAFF: No information available. 

BUDGET: No information available. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Instituto Nacional Forestal, Guatemala, 
Guatemala. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 
INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



222 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Pacaya Volcano Natural Monument 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument) - though considering the deficiencies of the 
area mentioned below this category must be in doubt. 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 121.12 (Madeiran-Cordilleran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 20 July 1963 by Presidential Decree. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 45km south of Guatemala City and 38km from Escuintia City; 

14°20'-34'N, 90°34'-38'W. 

ALTITUDE: 1,300-2, 600m. 

AREA: 2,000 ha approximately. 

LAND TENURE: 75% of the land is privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Pacaya volcano is active and has several old craters with obvious lava 
flows. Precipitation reaches 2,000mm per year (June to September are the wettest months). The mean 
daily temperature ranges from 15°C to 20°C. Winds are generally northeasterly, making the southern zone 
the wettest area of the park, and the relative humidity averages 80% . The soils are shallow and of low to 
medium fertiUty. 

VEGETATION: Broadleaf and coniferous species occur in the area. 24 genera of orchids have been 
recorded, these being heavily exploited in the area. The vegetation is divided into different altitudinal 
types: up to 1,500m the characteristic species are Annona muricata, Ceiba pentandra and Cupressus 
lusitanica; between 1,500m and 2,100m Cedrela pacayana (probably tanduzii), Eurya theoides and 
Fraxinus hondurensis are frequently found; above 2,100m the endemic Quercus pacayana, Alnus 
jorullensis . Pinus pseudostrobus and P. oocarpa are to be found in small stands on the northern and 
southwestern flanks of the volcano. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The more common mammals are coyote Canis latrans. opossum Didelphis 
marsupialis, grey fox Vulpes cinereoargenteus . kinkajou Potosflavus. long-tailed weasel Mustelafrenata, 
large pocket gopher Orthogeomys grandis. squirrels Sciurus spp. and eastern cottontail Silvilagus 
floridanus. Sporadically it is possible to find white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus . racoon Procyon 
lotor, southern coati Nasua nasua. tayra Eira barbara. southern spotted skunk Spilogale angustifrons, 
hooded skunk Mephitis macroura, margay Felis wiedii (V) and jaguarondi F. yaguaroundi (I). Among the 
bird species are band-tailed pigeon Columbafasciata, ground doves Columbina sp. , Oreopoleia sp. , Buieo 
sp., Falco sp. and the owl Ciccaba sp. 

ZONING: According to the master plan (1975) the park is divided into five zones. The primitive zone 
includes more than 50% of the park and is located near the main crater and the lava flows which cover the 
southern side of it; it also includes the forest of Cerro Grande and Cerro Chiquito. The extensive use zone 
covers a small area that surrounds the Laguna de Calderas and the forest along the trail to San Franciso de 
Sales and an area along the trail from Cerro Grande to Calderas. The intensive use zone is a relatively 
small and flat area, and covers a small belt along the main road between Calderas and San Francisco de 
Sales. The special use zone covers a small area in San Francisco de Sales village. The natural recuperation 
zone covers the Cerro Hoja de Queso located on the northern side of Laguna Calderas, and also covers the 
slopes of Cerro Chico y Cerro Grande and an area near the village of San Francisco de Sales. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The area around the volcano is inhabited by approximately 100 
famiUes, and intensive cultivation of corn takes place on the slopes, the higher parts being used for 
pasture. There is some shifting cultivation and migration into the area because of the poor fertility 
conditions of the soil. Wildlife populations have been much reduced due to hunting. Because of the 
deforestation the run-off on the slopes is causing heavy erosion affecting the Lago Amatitlan and other 
rivers of the volcano's watersheds. In the last 15 years there have been two major forest fires, both being 
started by volcanic activity. There is no functioning protection or management. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Some basic studies on fauna and flora have been carried out. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: FAO/INAFOR (1974). Plan de manejo para el propuesto 
Monumento Natural Volcan Pacaya, Guatemala. 54 pp. 



GUATEMALA 223 

STAFF: None. 
BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Instituto National Forestal, Guatemala City, 
Guatemala. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



University Biotope for the Conservation of the Quetzal 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madeiran-Cordilleran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: July 1977. 

GEOGRAPIUCAL LOCATION: Department of Baja Verapaz, 2km east and 2.5km south from 
Purulha village in the Sierra de las Minas range. 

ALTITUDE: l,580-2,348m. 

AREA: Approximately 900 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by the University of San Carlos . 640 ha were donated to the Biology School of 
the San Carlos University by the Municipality of Salama, Baja Verapaz; the remainder was purchased. It 
is planned to increase the size of the biotope to about 3,000 ha, incorporating some national and private 
lands that are still covered by virgin forest, and which are contiguous to the southern and western limits of 
the biotope. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area has a very rough topography, the regular slope inclination being 
between 45° and 60°. There are two mountains, Cerro Quisis or Geomaya (2,348 m) and Cerro Carpintero 
or La Cumbre (2,011 m). The Colorado River runs through the area and has a beautiful waterfall. The 
average annual rainfall is approximately 3,660mm, distributed mostly from May to January. 

VEGETATION: The life zone (Holdridge system) in the biotope is lower montane rainforest (cloud 
forest). The more common species that occur in the area are Podocarpus oleifolius, Alfaroa costaricensis , 
Engelhartia sp., Billia hipocastanum. Magnolia guatemalensis , Brunellia sp., Lysiloma bahamensis, 
tree-ferns of the genus Cyathea, Quercus purulhana and Alchornea latifolia. The dominant vegetation is 
broadleaf type but there are scattered small stands of two pine species, Pinus pseudostrobus and P. 
oocarpa. The average height of the tallest trees is over 30m. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The quetzal Pharomachrus moccino moccino (V) is the most important bird 
species and the main objective of the establishment of the biotope. Approximately 60 other species of 
birds have been identified. At least 24 species of mammals are known from the area but only a squirrel 
Sciurus griseoflavus and the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus are abundant. 'Common' ones include 
howler monkeys Alouatta sp., another squirrel Sciurus deppei, Mexican porcupine Coendu mexicanus, 
weasel Mustela frenata and ringtail cat Jentinkia sumichrasti. Most other species are rare because of 
previous hunting in and especially around the area. Reptile, amphibian and invertebrate species are 
diverse and still under study. 

ZONING: Provisional zoning applied: a) small administrative, visitor reception and scientific facilities 
area at entrance to reserve; b) interpretation zone; one 3 km nature trail; one 1 km nature trail; c) 
conservation zone (the majority of the reserve, only approved scientific study allowed); d) buffer zone 
(several metres wide fenced strip all around reserve) Detailed management and interpretative plans will 
have been drawn up in 1979. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None now; area well protected. 



224 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Numerous studies in past few years on reptiles, amphibians, vegetation 
associations, orchids, hepatics, trees etc. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A cabin for visiting scientists with room for 8-10, storeroom, 
guards' cabins, parking area, laboratory under construction and water and toilets being installed. Studies 
are only allowed when approved by the University of San Carlos Biology School (who require a detailed 
proposal). 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dary, M. (1977). Programa de desarroUo y de investigacion 
para el Biotopo Universitario para la conservacion del Quetzal, Ano 1978. Univ. de San Carlos, mimeo, 
83 pp. 

Dary, M. and Ponciano, I. (1980). Plan de Manejo del Biotopo Universitario para la Conservacion del 
Quetzal, Guatemala, 175 pp (borrador mecanografiado). 

Klein, E. (1979). La mastofauna superior de Biotopo Universitario para la Conservacion del Quetzal, 
Purulha, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala: un estudio introductorio con recomendaciones para manejo. Univ. 
de San Carlos y CATIE, 77 pp. 

STAFF: A resident director, chief guard, 4 resources guards, 5 general guards and 8 labourers. 

BUDGET: Approximately US$ 30,000-40,000 per year (1980-81) and increasing, all from the University 
of San Carlos. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Mario Dary, Director, Biotopo Universitario 
para la Conservacion del Quetzal, Escuela de Biologia, Universidad de San Carlos, Guatemala. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



REPUBLIC OF GUYANA 225 



REPUBLIC OF GUYANA 



AREA: 214,969 sq km. 

POPULATION: 829,000 (1979). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The legislation dates from 1929. Legislation establishing a 
National Parks Commission was enacted in February 1979. The Parks Commission becomes the authority 
for identifying, classifying, establishing, maintaining, and enforcing security measures in accordance with 
the law, and its work is to commence shortly. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Parks Commission of the Ministry of Energy and 
Natural Resources. 

ADDRESS: Parks Commission, c/o Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Brickdam, Georgetown, 
Guyana. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 11,655 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Park (hectares) 

1 Kaieteur ' 11,655 



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REPUBLIC OF GUYANA 227 

(1) Kaieteur National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1929 as a nature reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On Pacaraima Plateau in central western Guyana; 5°00'N. 59°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-500 m. 

AREA: 11,655 ha. 

LAND TENURE: State owned lands. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Granitic rock and sedimentary sandstone mesas, with spectacular gorges and 
rapids. The Kaieteur Falls of 225m are found within the park. Soils are sandy. The park is located in the 
west central zone with a mean temperature of 26°C and a variation of 2-3°C. Annual rainfall is 2500mm. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rainforest in galleries on the banks of the main rivers Potaro, Muro Muro and 
Elinku. Savannahs on the mesas, and dry forests dominated by Eperua sp. on the sandy soil. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Jaguar Panthera onca (V) , ocelot Felis pardalis ( V) , tapir Tapirus terrestris, 
boa constrictor Constrictor constrictor, and a very rich bird life. The black spider monkey Ateles paniscus 
(V) is also found in the park. 

ZONING: There is controlled mining of gold and diamonds around the rivers and streams. Camp sites, 
recreation and service areas are available. The forested area is partially accessible by trails. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Hunting and fishing by itinerant local population and 
small-scale mining. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Mainly on local fauna including avifauna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None - to be established by the Parks Commission in 
conjunction with the National Science Research Council. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: A warden and 3 assistants. 

BUDGET: Approximately US$ 10,000 provided by the State (1978?). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: District Administration Offices, Ministry of 
Regional Development, Mahdia, Potaro. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



228 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



HAITI 



AREA: 27,749 sq km. 

POPULATION: 4,833,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Decree of 18 March 1963 on National Parks and Natural 
Areas, which provides the legal basis for the establishment of protected areas and provisionally sets aside 
seven areas as National Parks. This law does not stipulate the administrative responsibility for the areas. 
The law of 3 February 1976 on National Forest Reserves is also relevant. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: This is the responsibility of the Natural Resources 
Division of the government department responsible for agricuUure, natural resources and rural 
development, and also the planning department of the Institute for the Protection of the National 
Inheritance. 

ADDRESS: (a) Departement de 1' Agriculture, des Ressources Naturelles et du Developpement 
Rural, Division des Ressources Naturelles, Damien, Republique d'Haiti. 
(b) Departement du Plan , Institut de Sauvegarde du Patrimoine National (ISPAN) , Place 
du Champ de Mars, Port au Prince, Republique d'Haiti. 

REFERENCES: Woods, Charles A. and Rosen, Richard C. (1977). Evaluation biologique d'Haiti. 
Statut du Plagiodontia aedium (I) et Solenodon paradoxus (V) . Recommendations en ce qui concerne les 
preservations naturelles et les pares nationaux. Department of Zoology, University of Vermont, 
Burlington, Vermont, USA. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: Only one area (La Citadelle) is firmly established in law, and 
this area does not meet the requirements as set out in the introduction to this volume. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 La Citadelle 250 

2 La Hotte (proposed) 3,200 

3 La Selle (proposed) 4,000 

4 Morne Desbarrieres (proposed) 2,800 

5 Morne Mansinte (proposed) 1,500 

6 Morne d'Enfer (proposed) 1,500 



HAITI 229 

(1) La Citadelle 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater AntiUean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 18 March 1968. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Mount 'Bonnet a I'Eveque', Commune de Milot; 19°36'N, 72°14'W. 

ALTITUDE: Approximately 900- 1 ,000m . 

AREA: 250 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: No information. 

VEGETATION: Secondary forest with a large number of introduced species. A reforestation 
programme is projected. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: No information. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No management or control. Deforestation. Illegal hunting. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: None in the field. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Institut pour la Sauvegarde du Patrimoine 

National. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 
INFORMATION DATED: June 1980. 



(2) La Hotte (proposed) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (Proposed National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No Information. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southern Peninsula, approximately 18°30'N, 74°W. 

ALTITUDE: l,000-2,347m. 

AREA: 3,200 ha approximately. 

LAND TENURE: Public land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The second highest mountain of Haiti. 

VEGETATION: Mesophitic forests, tropical rainforests and pine forests {Pinus occidentalis). Small 
areas of cloud forest. 



230 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Agouti Plagiodontia aedium (I), possibly nez longue Solenodon paradoxus 
(V), musician Myadestes genibarbis, calceon rouge Temnolrogon roseigaster and Hispaniolan parrot 
(jacquot) Amazona ventralis. 

ZONING: No Information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Deforestation, essentially for wood and charcoal. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No Information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No Information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Woods, Charles A. and Rosen, Richard C. (1977). 
Evaluation biologique d'Haiti. Statut du Plagiodontia aedium (I) et Solenodon paradoxus (V). 
Recommendations en ce qui concerne les preservations naturelles et les Pares Nationaux. Department of 
Zoology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA. 

STAFF: No Information. 

BUDGET: No Information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Departement de 1' Agriculture, des Ressources 
Naturelles et du Developpement Rural, Damien, Haiti. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1980. 



(3) La Selle (proposed) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (Proposed National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: No Information. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 18°20'N, 72°W. 
ALTITUDE: 1 ,600-2 ,674m . 
AREA: Approximately 4,000 ha. 
LAND TENURE: Public land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Calcareous relief. A large mountain range including the highest peak of Haiti. 

Various spectacular geological features. 

VEGETATION: Cloud forest, rainforest, pine forests (Pinus occidentalis). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Agouti Plagiodontia aedium{l), nez longue Solenodon paradoxusCV), 
Hispaniolan parakeet Aratinga chloroptera. La Selle thrush (ouete-ouete noir) Turdus swalesi, ground 
warbler (petit chitte) Microligea palustris, Antillean siskin (petit serin), Carduelis dominicensis and 
white-winged crossbill (bee croise) Loxia leucoptera. 

ZONING: No Information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Timber exploitation (pines), wood exploitation for charcoal, 
illegal hunting. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No Information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No Information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Woods, Charles A. and Rosen, Richard C. (1977). 
Evaluation biologique d'Haiti. Statut du Plagiodontia aedium et Solenodon paradoxus. Recommenda- 



HAITI 231 

tions en ce qui concerne les preservations naturelles et les pares nationaux. Department of Zoology, 
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA. 

STAFF: No Information. 

BUDGET: No Information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Departement de 1' Agriculture, des Ressources 
Naturelles et du Developpement Rural, Damien, Haiti. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1980. 



(4) Morne Desbarrieres (proposed) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (Proposed National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No Information. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southern Peninsula, 18°25'N, 74°08'W. 

ALTITUDE: l,000-2,007m. 

AREA: Approximately 2,800 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: No Information. 

VEGETATION: This area contains most of the forest-types which ought to be protected in Haiti (pines, 
rainforest, mesophytic etc.). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Agouti Plagiodontia aedium (I), nez longue Solenodon paradoxus (V), 
sharp-shinned hawk Accipiter striatus and Hispaniolan parrot (jacquot) Amazona ventralis. 

ZONING: No Information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Uncontrolled fires and deforestation. Illegal hunting. Wood 
exploitation. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No Information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No Information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Woods, Charles A. and Rosen, Richard C. (1977). Statut du 
Plagiodontia aedium (I) et Solenodon paradoxus (V). Recommendations en ce qui concerne les 
preservations naturelles et les Pare Nationaux. Department of Zoology, University of Vermont, 
Burlington, Vermont, USA. 

STAFF: No Information. 

BUDGET: No Information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Departement de I'Agriculture des Ressources 
Naturelles et du Developpement Rural, Damien, Haiti. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1980. 



232 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(5) Morne Mansinte (proposed) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (Proposed National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPfflCAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antiilean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No Information. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 18°22'N, 74°24'W. 

ALTITUDE: 500-1, 089m. 

AREA: 1,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Partly private. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Calcareous plateau, with various forms of karstic relief. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rainforest and secondary forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Agouti Plagiodontia aedium (I), nez longue Solenodon paradoxus (V) and 
red-necked pigeon (ramier cou-rouge) Columba squamosa. 

ZONING: No Information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Numerous 'provision plots' in the lower parts of the area 
selected. Timber exploitation. Illegal hunting. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No Information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No Information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Woods, Charles A. and Rosen, Richard C. (1977). 
Evaluation biologique d'Haiti. Statut du Plagiodontia aedium (I) et Solenodon paradoxus(V). 
Recommendations en ce qui concerne les preservations naturelles et les pares nationaux. Department of 
Zoology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA. 

STAFF: No Information. 

BUDGET: No Information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Departement de T Agriculture, des Ressources 
Naturelles et du Developpement Rural, Damien, Haiti. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1980. 



(6) Morne d'Enfer (proposed) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (Proposed National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antiilean). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: No Information. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 
GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 18°20'N, 72°20'W. 
ALTITUDE: 1,000- 1,939m. 
AREA: 1,500 ha approximately. 
LAND TENURE: Public land. 



HAITI 233 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Calcareous plateau, with cliffs. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rainforests. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Agouti Plagiodontia aedium (I), nez longue Solenodon paradoxus (V), 
Hispaniolan parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Antillean siskin Carduelis dominicensis, white-winged 
crossbill (bee croise) Loxia leucoptera, sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus and Hispaniolan parrot 
(jacquot) Amazona ventralis. 

ZONING: No Information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES : UncontroUed fires and deforestation. Illegal hunting (most of 
the species mentioned above are legally protected - Decree 31 March 1971 on the regulation of Hunting - 
but there is no control). 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No Information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No Information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL : Woods, Charles A. and Rosen, Richard C. (1977). 
Evaluation biologique d'Haiti. Statut du Plagiodontia aedium (I) et Solenodon paradoxus (V). 
Recommendations en ce qui concerne les preservations naturelles et les pares nationaux. Department of 
Zoology, University of Vermont, Burhngton, Vermont, USA. 

STAFF: No Information. 

BUDGET: No Information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION : Departement de I'Agriculture Ressources 
Naturelles et du Developpement Rural, Damien, Haiti. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR : Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1980. 



234 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



HONDURAS 



AREA: 112,087 sq km. 
POPULATION: 3,483,388 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The Forestry Law, Decree 85 of 1972, gives responsibility 
for development of national parks and equivalent reserves to the Ministry of Natural Resources, and 
establishes a methodology for their selection and development. Specific decrees establishing several forest 
reserves have also been enacted. Decree 103 of 1974 established the Honduran Forest Development 
Corporation (COHDEFOR) and nationalized the forest industry and all trees with economic value. The 
General Directorate for Renewable Natural Resources (REN ARE), in charge of park and reserve 
development within the Ministry of Natural Resources, submitted in March 1979 new legislation creating 
a national protected wildlands system and declaring several new areas as national parks or equivalent 
reserves. Several of these decrees were approved in 1980; the others are still being reviewed. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Wildlife and Environmental Resources 
Department of the General Directorate for Renewable Natural Resources administers protected areas 
with the cooperation of the Honduran Institute of Tourism and COHDEFOR. COHDEFOR administers 
the Olancho Hardwood Forest Reserve and has active watershed protection programmes in the Lake 
Yojoa Multiple Use Area and Cusuco National Park. The Instituto Hondureno de Antropologia e 
Historia and the Instituto Hondureno de Turismo jointly manage the Copan Ruins National Park. 

ADDRESS: (a) Direccion General de Recursos Naturales Renovables, Barrio Guacerique, Boulevard 
Toncontin, Comayaguela, D.C. Honduras. 

(b) COHDEFOR, Edificio Midence Soto, Tegucigalpa, D.C. 
Honduras. 

(c) Instituto Hondureno de Antropologia e Historia and the Instituto Hondureno de 
Turismo, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 57,581 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 La Tigra 7,571 

2 Copan Ruins (World Heritage Site)* 65 
National Monument 

1 Taulabe Cave 10 
Forest Reserves 

1 Olancho* 1,000,000 

2 Gulf of Fonseca 50,000 

3 Guanaja (proposed) 23,800 

4 Cusuco (proposed) 15,000 
Multiple Use Area 

1 Lake Yojoa* 34,628 

Biosphere Reserve 
1 Rio Platano (350,000) 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



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236 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) La Tigra National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madrean-Cordilleran) . 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 15 August 1980 by decree law 976. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the mountains of south central Honduras; 10°07'-10°16'N, 
87°04'-87°09"W. 

ALTITUDE: l,360-2,290m. 

AREA: 7,571 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Approximately 70% national lands; the remainder to be purchased by the 
government. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park includes all of the higher elevations of the San Juancito mountains, 
from which flow a number of streams harnessed to provide potable water for Tegucigalpa. Extremely 
steep slopes are found throughout the reserve. 

VEGETATION: Mainly moist forest and subtropical moist forest (Holdridge system). The lower 
elevations to 1,800m are covered by a sweet gum - Ocote pine Liquidambar styriciflua - Pinus oocarpa 
association. Above 1,800m is a mixed hardwood cloud forest association with oaks Quercus spp., wild 
avocados Lauralacea, and Clusia spp. as dominants. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are four species of cats, margay Felis wiedii (V), puma F. concolor, 
jaguarundi F. yaguaroundi (I) and ocelot F. pardalis (V) and collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, and quetzal 
Pharomachrus mocinno (V) are also present. 

ZONING: The Management Plan for the park (1978) delimits primitive, extensive use, intensive use and 
special use zones for the park and a buffer zone around it. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There is a lack of adequate patrolling and enforcement and 
encroachment of slash and burn agriculture along boundaries. Military radio communication towers have 
been erected on one of the highest peaks in the park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Specific studies are underway on the quetzal and collared peccary. General 
resource inventories for all cultural and natural resources have been completed. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A research laboratory is scheduled to be outfitted in 1982 or 
1983. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Barborak, James R., Wild, Kenneth and Bustillo, Jaime 
(1978). Plan Maestro para la Proteccion y Uso del Parque Nacional La Tigra. Depto. de Vida Silvestre y 
Recursos Ambientales. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 45 pp. 

Pena, Marcial et al. {\911). Investigacion de los Recursos Naturales y Culturales de la Montana La 
Tigra. Depto. de Vida Silvestre. Tegucigalpa D.C., Honduras. 77 pp. 

Wild, Kenneth (1978). Plan de Interpretacion y Uso Publico del Parque Nacional La Tigra. 
Departamento de Vida Silvestre y Recursos Ambientales. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 33 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 2 guards and 3 labourers. 

BUDGET: A one-time donation of US$ 200,000 by the Honduran Forestry Development Corporation 
has just been approved to finance implementation of the park master plan. Annual operating budget of $ 
50,000 will probably be assigned in the near future. The budget from RENARE for 1981 is approximately 
US$ 20,000. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Wilberto Aguilar, Jefe, Depto. de Vida 
Silvestre y Recursos Ambientales, DIGERENARE, Barrio Guacerique #1536, Comayaguela, 
Tegucigalpa D.C., Honduras. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



HONDURAS 237 

(1) Taulabe Cave National Monument. 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madrean-Cordilleran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 100% in effect. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: A decree establishing the National Monument was submitted in March 1979; 
approval was expected soon, but we have no recent information. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Near the town of Taulabe in the department of Comayagua, along the 
major internal highway; 14°36'N, 87°55"W. 

ALTITUDE: Cave entrances at approximately 700m. 

AREA: Approximately 10 ha. 

LAND TENURE: The major cave entrance is located on a government right of way; a decree recently 
submitted would nationalize other entrances. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The caves of Taulabe contain at least 3km of passage-ways; 930m have been 
surveyed in the main cave entrance, and it is possible that entrances are interconnected in one cave system. 
The caves occur in Cretaceous limestone ( Atima formation) . Outstanding varieties of speleothems occur, 
such as helictites, columns, stalagmites, stalagtites and flowstone, ranging in colour from crystalline to 
blood red. Rooms of up to 30m in height occur. 

VEGETATION: The Holdridge subtropical humid life zone is represented. Extensive grazing and slash 
and burn agriculture has greatly altered the vegetation of the area at the surface; predominant trees 
include the Caribbean pine Pinus caribbea and Cecropia spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: A number of bat species and a large number of arthropods occur in the caves. 
No blind species have as yet been encountered. 

ZONING: A management plan for the caves is now being prepared that will establish a zoning plan 
within and outside of the major cave entrances. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Lack of a decree establishing the caves as a national monument 
has held up development and protection of the caves; this problem is expected to be resolved soon. 
Vandalism within the caves has resulted in severe damage to speleothems near the cave entrances. 
Construction companies have quarried near the cave entrances, and the use of dynamite has caused some 
damage to cave formations near one major entrance. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Surveys of the principal cave passageway began in November 1978. As of 
March 1979, 930m of passageways had been mapped, with good prospects for eventually mapping at least 
3km of passageways in known cave areas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No special scientific facilities are available at present. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: At present only expedition reports and maps are available for 
the area; a master plan for its development was scheduled to be completed by mid-1979. 

STAFF: A hunting and fishing inspector is stationed at the major cave entrance on weekends; public 
security police guard the major cave entrances at other times. 

BUDGET: US$ 1,500 for 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Wilberto Aguilar, Chief, Wildlife and 
Environmental Resources Department, RENARE, Barrio Guacerique, Boulevar Toncontin, 
Comayaguela D.C., Honduras. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



238 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Olancho Hardwood Forest Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: VI (Resource Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPfflCAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Decree 120 of 1966 created the Olancho Forest Reserve. Decree 103 of 1974 
created the National Forestry Development Corporation (COHDEFOR) and nationalized forests in the 
departments of Olancho and Colon in Eastern Honduras. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 14°15'-16°00'N, 85°00'-86°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-1, 200m. 

AREA: Approximately 1,000,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Almost all national lands. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Patuca River, the second largest river in the country, flows through the 
reserve and is bounded by mountain ranges up to 1,300m in elevation. Rainfall ranges from less than 
1,500mm in dry areas to over 2,500mm at higher elevations. 

VEGETATION: The Forest Reserve was established especially to protect large areas of forest belonging 
to the Holdridge Humid Tropical Forest Ufe zone, with important lumber species such as mahogany 
Swietenia sp., San Juan, Spanish cedar Cedrela sp. and laurel present. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Fauna includes harpy eagle Harpia harpyja (R), the five Honduran cats, 
jaguar Panthera onca (V), ocelot Felis pardalis (V), margay F. wiedii (V), puma F. concolor and 
jaguarundi F. yaguaroundi (I), Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus 
and both scarlet and military macaws Ara macao and A. militaris. 

ZONING: COHDEFOR is establishing a zoning plan designed to limit further encroachment by 
colonists on forested areas not appropriate for agricultural uses. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Large-scale colonization by peasants from other parts of 
Honduras and resulting forest destruction is the major problem. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: DIGERENARE is conducting studies on the biology of white-tailed deer in 
the reserve; COHDEFOR is conducting forest inventories; the national catastral programme is 
conducting vegetation surveys. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None available at present. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: COHDEFOR has completed a forest resource inventory 
report and a study of feasibility of forest exploitation for the zone. 

STAFF: COHDEFOR staff include a forest engineer, 5 technicians and an adviser. 

BUDGET: COHDEFOR budget of $ 265,000 annually (1979). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Director, Olancho Hardwood Forest Protection 
Project, COHDEFOR, Edificio Midence Soto, Tegucigalpa D.C., Honduras. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



HONDURAS 239 

(2) Mangrove Reserve of the Gulf of Fonseca 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: TotaL 

DATE ESTABLISHED: A decree of 13 October 1958, declared all mangrove zones in the Gulf of 
Fonseca as a Forest Reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the coast of southern Honduras; 13°30'N, 87°15'-45'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 10m. 

AREA: 50,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Almost entirely government lands. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The reserve includes the entire zone of mangrove on the coast of the Gulf of 
Fonseca. 

VEGETATION: As described by Carr (1950) the dominant vegetation is red mangrove Rhizophora 
mangle with black mangrove Avicennia sp., white mangrove Laguncularia sp., buttonwood Clorocarpus 
sp. and manchineel Hippomane mancinella on drier sites. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Large numbers of Pacific Ridley sea turtles Lepidochelys olivacea (E) nest 
on the beaches in the area. Small populations of American crocodile Crocodylus acutus (E) and brown 
caiman Caiman crocodilus fuscus (V) exist throughout the area. There are commercially important 
populations of clams and many fishes in the zone. The reserve is an important nutrient source and 
"nursery" for commercially important fishes and shrimps in the Gulf of Fonseca. 

ZONING: None at present. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Mangroves are used as firewood and fuel wood in the 
salt-making industry in the Gulf of Fonseca, and notable destruction has begun in recent years. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A turtle research programme was initiated by the Fisheries Department of 
DIGERENARE in 1977. 

SPECL\L SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None at present. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: COHDEFOR has completed forest inventory reports for the 
mangrove areas. 

STAFF: No separate assigned staff on the park from COHDEFOR; REN ARE has four inspectors 
assigned to the area. 

BUDGET: No separate budget. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Wilberto Aguilar, Jefe, Depto. de Vida 
Silvestre y Recursos Ambientales, DIGERENARE, Barrio Guacerique #1536, Comayaguela, 
Honduras. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



240 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Guanaja Forest Reserve/Bay Islands National Park (proposed) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (Proposed National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial (50%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Decree 5 of 10 May 1960 established the Guanaja Forest Reserve. The Ley de 
Pesca, decree 154 of 29 May 1959 declares coral reefs as protected areas. Legislation establishing 
wildlands and coral reefs of the Bay Islands as a National Park to be submitted in 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the western Caribbean Sea, 30-50km north of the Honduran 
mainland; 16°05'-32'N, 85°47'-87°01'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 413m. 

AREA: 23,800 ha terrestrial plus approximately 10,000 ha marine (reefs). 

LAND TENURE: The marine area is government owned, the terrestrial area mostly private land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Bay Islands consist of three major islands, Roatan (12,740 ha), Guanaja 
(5,616 ha) and Utila (4,160 ha), along with about 70 smaller cays and islands. Utila is relatively flat and is 
located on the continental shelf while Roatan and Guanaja are surrounded by deep waters and 
characterized by steep topography. Rainfall on the islands averages around 1,580mm per year. 

VEGETATION: The main forest type is coniferous, consisting of Pinus caribbea dominated areas. The 
principal watersheds have been badly deforested on most islands and an active integral management is 
needed. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Endemic species of opossum Marmosa ruatanka ruatanica and agouti 
Dasyprocta ruatanica occur on Roatan. Each island has one endemic race of Centurus woodpecker, a 
subspecies of C. aurifrons on Roatan and Utila and a subspecies of C. pygmaeus on Guanaja. Four other 
species of birds are represented by endemic races on the islands: Buteo magnirostris , Buteogallus 
anthracinus , Ortalus vetula and Myiarchus tyrannulus. Five other species of birds present on the islands do 
not occur on the Honduran mainland. Small numbers of hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (E) and green 
Chelonia mydas (E) sea turtles and several species of endemic reptiles and amphibians are found on the 
islands. 

ZONING: No zoning plan is in effect at present; however Olivier (1977) and Robert R. Nathan 
Associates et al. (1975) both proposed zoning plans for the islands. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Problems include lack of a comprehensive land use 
management plan for the islands, manifested in watershed destruction, coral reef degradation and 
reduction in populations of many wildlife species. Enforcement of existing statutes is totally lacking. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Roatan is often visited by university coral reef study groups from the USA, 
but little of their research is published or widely disseminated. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: DIGERENARE has a marine biology laboratory on the north 
coast of Honduras at La Ceiba, and research is concentrated on economically important marine fish and 
arthropods. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Nathano, Robert R. and Associates, et al. (1975). A 
Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of the Tornasal-Copan-Roatan Project. Presented to the 
Institute Hondureno de Turismo. Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 

Olivier, Santiago R. (1977). Informe de la Mision de PNUMA/PNUD. FONDETUR, Tegucigalpa 
D.C., Honduras. 

Rix, Carl Frederick (1972). A preliminary study on the north reef of Roatan. Master's Thesis, 
North-eastern lUinois University. 

STAFF: DIGERENARE has two hunting and fishing inspectors on the islands. COHDEFOR is 
considering the establishment of a watershed management programme on Roatan with an initial staff of 
two. 

BUDGET: For RENARE approximately US$ 8,000 annually (1979). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Wilberto Aguilar, Jefe, Depto. de Vida 
Silvestre y Recursos Ambientales, DIGERENARE, Barrio Guacerique #1536, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 



HONDURAS 241 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 
INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(4) Cusuco National Park (proposed) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (Proposed National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madrean-Cordilleran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Decree 179 of 20 May 1959, establishes the Cusuco Forest Reserve and 
recommends its development as a national park. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The reserve is located in the Sierra de Omoa in northwestern 
Honduras, near the Guatemalan frontier and just inland from the Caribbean. It lies in the Honduran 
department of Cortes and Santa Barbara, less than 15km west of the second largest city in Honduras, San 
Pedro Sula (population 150,000 in 1978); 15°22'-15°44'N, 87°55'-88°19"W. 

ALTITUDE: From near sea level to 2,270m. 

AREA: Approximately 15,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Probably over 90% national land; no catastral survey completed yet. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Steep slopes predominate throughout the park, and Cerro Cusuco at 2,270m 
is the outstanding physical feature The Rio Cusuco, which has a waterfall of over 50m, and several smaller 
streams begin on its slopes. Average temperatures range from about 18°C to 25°C depending on altitude. 
Rainfall averages of 2,000-2,500mm/year are recorded at nearby stations. 

VEGETATION: Holdridge system: lower montane very humid forest, humid subtropical forest and 
very humid tropical forests are represented in the park. Vegetation ranges from Pinus oocarpa forests at 
lower elevations on the slopes on the south side of the park through Pinus pseudostrobus-Liquidambar 
styriciflua forests from 1,500 to over 2,000m, with evergreen cloud forest species including Clusia spp., 
various Lauraceae and Quercus at the highest elevations. The humid tropical forest life zone is found on 
the north slopes of the park, with common species including cedar Cedrela spp. , mahogany Swietenia spp. 
and other valuable hardwoods. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: All five Honduran cats, puma Felis concolor, margay F. wideii (V) , ocelot F. 
pardalis (V), jaguarundi F. yaguaroundi (I) and jaguar Panthera onca (V) are found in the park along with 
Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V), the collared peccary Tayassu tajacu and the quetzal Pharomachrus 
mocinno (V). 

ZONING: A comprehensive land use plan for the entire Sierra de Omoa, of which Cusuco National Park 
is a part, has been prepared by the Watershed Management Division of COHDEFOR. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Slash and burn agriculture has destroyed much of the forest 
areas surrounding the park and coffee growers are infringing on the middle elevation forests up to 1 ,700m. 
A new decree is necessary changing the status of the area from reserve to a national park, to allow 
RENARE formally to assume management of the area. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: COHDEFOR has completed land use, slopes, and forest 
cover maps for the area, RENARE published in 1979 an inventory report for the area and a master plan 
for its development, and COHDEFOR published a land use plan for the entire Sierra de Oma in 1979. We 
do not have details of either report, or their recommendations. 

STAFF: The municipality of San Pedro Sula maintains forest guards in the park and COHDEFOR has a 
fire control brigade stationed near the park boundaries. 



242 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

BUDGET: The area has no separate assigned budget from COHDEFOR, RENARE or the municipality 
of San Pedro Sula at present, although an estimate of combined expenditures is approximately US$ 7,000 
per year. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Wilberto Aguilar, Jefe, Depto. de Vida 
Silvestre y Recursos Ambientaies, DIGERENARE, Barrio Guacerique #1536, Comayaguela, 
Honduras. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(1) Lake Yojoa Multiple Use Area 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: VIII (Multiple Use Management Area). 

BIOGEOGRAPfflCAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madrean-Cordilleran) . 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: On 13 November 1971, Decree 71 declared the watershed as a forest reserve 
zone. New legislation has been submitted which will enlarge the reserve to include two more watersheds 
diverted into the lake. 

GEOGRAPfflCAL LOCATION: West central Honduras; 14°45'-57'N, 87°53'-88°07'W. 

ALTITUDE: 600-2,744m. 

AREA: 34,628 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Mixed; detailed catastral survey not completed. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The dominant physical feature of the watershed is Lake Yojoa, with an area 
of 79 sq km, the only large freshwater lake in Honduras. Average annual rainfall at stations within the lake 
watershed varies from 2,300 to 3,200mm, increasing from south to north. Annual average temperature for 
stations in the watershed is 22.7°C, although temperatures are considerably colder on the high peaks 
which surround the lake, and which include Cerro Santa Barbara, at 2,744m the second highest peak in 
Honduras. 

VEGETATION: Very humid subtropical forest (Holdridge system) covers areas in the watershed up to 
1,500m. Most of the vegetation in this zone has been altered by slash and bum agriculture. The lower 
montane very humid forest covers areas of the reserve from 1 ,500 to 2 ,500m and remains largely in pristine 
condition, with typical species including sweet gum Liquidambar styriciflua, oaks Quercus spp. and pine 
Pseudostrobus spp. Above 2,500m on Cerro Santa Barbara an Abies, Cupressus, Pinus ayacahuite 
association occurs. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: A great variety of aquatic birds frequent Lake Yojoa. Quetzals 
Pharomachrus mocinno (V) are found on the highest peaks, along with kinkajou Potus flavus and Baird's 
tapir Tapirus bairdii (V). The introduced largemouth bass is the predominant fish species of the lake, 
supporting both commercial and sport fisheries. 

ZONING: A model zoning plan detailing agricultural, touristic, urban and protected areas has been 
devised for the reserve but its implementation must await passage of the revised decree for the reserve. A 
separate decree which would delimit Cerro Azul as a national park, Cerro Santa Barbara as a biological 
reserve , and other areas of the watershed as a wildlife refuge and national recreational area, will have been 
submitted in 1979. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Problems include campesino invasions of virgin areas, lake 
contamination from mining operations, fertilizer and pesticide runoff, and lack of control of the bass 
fishery. An artificial canal and several diversion dams have enlarged the watershed of the lake; outflow is 
used for electricity generation. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: COHDEFOR (National Forestry Development Corporation) has 



HONDURAS 243 

conducted forest inventories in the watershed; the National Forestry School's Lancetilla Experiment 
Station is conducting botanical surveys of wild areas of the watershed; DIGERENARE is conducting 
research on the biology of black bass in the lake as well as water quality investigations and general resource 
inventories of the wild areas of the reserve. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: COHDEFOR maintains a forestry camp at El Zapote north of 
the lake, available for investigators. The National Forestry School is located at nearby Siguatepeque, with 
a well-equipped laboratory. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Bertancourt, Jorge A. and Dulin, Paul, eds. (1978). Plan de 
Uso Multiple Lago de Yojoa (Segunda Ease), Proyecto Inter-Institucional. COHDEFOR, RENARE, 
CATIE, FAO, UNDP. 196 pp. 

STAFF: RENARE has staff of two hunting and fishing inspectors and a wildlands planning adviser; 
COHDEFOR has a staff of several inspectors and labourers. 

BUDGET: Information unavailable as of this date. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Wilberto Aguilar, Jefe, Depto. de Vida 
Silvestre y Recursos Ambientales, Direccion General de Recursos Naturales Renovables 
(DIGERENARE), Barrio Guacerique #1536, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFariand. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(1) Rio Platano Biosphere Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Decree of 13 November 1960, established the Ciudad Blanca Archaeological 
Reserve (approx. 500,000 ha). Decree Law 977 of 15 August 1980, established the Biosphere Reserve. 
Protected by Decree 79, which establishes the area between the above geographical coordinates as the 
National Archaeological Park Ciudad Blanca. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: May 1979 as a Biosphere Reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: A belt of approximately 15 x 150km oriented north-south, situated in 
the departments of Gracias a Dios, Colon and Olancho and bordering the Caribbean in the north; 

15°15'-15°57'N, 84°35'-85°30"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 1,326m. 

AREA: 350,000 ha approximately. 

LAND TENURE: Almost entirely national land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The topography is varied with mountains occupying 75% of the area, rising to 
1326m (Punta Piedra), and flanking the Platano River which bisects the reserve. The upper two thirds of 
the river course are through mountainous terrain, while the lower reaches form part of the Caribbean 
coastal plain. There are remarkable rock formations and a waterfall of 500m. The remainder is flat or 
undulating with wet areas, and grasslands subject to winter flooding. There are a number of lagoons and 
part of the river is subterranean, disappearing from view below huge basalt rocks. Annual precipitation is 
approximately 3000mm with an average annual temperature of 26.6°C. 

VEGETATION: The majority of the reserve lies within the humid tropical life zone of Holdridge, with 
less than 10% of the area representing the very humid subtropical life zone. Vegetation types range from 
pine savannahs with Pinus caribbea the principal tree, mangroves and swamp forest fringing the coastal 
lagoons, gallery forest along the Platano river and major tributaries, and large areas of evergreen 
hardwood forest. The flora is not well known, but dominant species are coconut Cocos nucifera, Inga spp. , 
Cecropia spp., Lonchocarpus spp., Albizzia carbonaria, bamboo, Ceiba pentandra, Chusquea spp. and 



244 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

Chamaldorea spp. In the higher mountains mahogany Swietenia macrophylla, Tabebuia spp., cedar 
Cedrela odorata, Bursera simaruba and Chisia salvinii are found. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: About 39 species of mammals, 377 species of birds and 126 of reptiles and 
amphibians. Threatened species include the giant anteater Myrmecophagu tridactyla (V), Baird's tapir 
Tapirus bairdii (V), jaguar Panthera onca (V), ocelot Felis pardalis (V), puma F. concolor, margay F. 
wiedii (V), jaguarundi F. yaguaroundi (I), Central American otter Lutra longicaudis, manatee Trichechus 
manatus (V), red brocket deer Mazama americana, harpy eagle Harpia harpyia (R), scarlet macaw Ara 
macao, military macaw A. militaris, American crocodile Crocodylus acutus (E) and brown caiman 
Caiman crocodilus fuscus (V). 

ZONING: In the Reserve Development Plan , natural (core) , buffer or manipulative , and stable cultural 
zones are proposed. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: A high proportion of the area is natural. It contains a small 
group of Paya Indians (17 people) and 1500 Miskito Indians, both of great ethnographical importance. 
There is some illegal hunting, plundering of archaeological remains and a threat of timber exploitation. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: There have been some scientific investigations but much remains to be 
done. Basic inventories of the natural and cultural resources of the area have been completed, as well as 
more detailed anthropological and archaeological surveys. The legend of a white city (Ciudad Blanca) has 
been neither confirmed nor refuted. There are no road communications; access is by water or air. An 
'Operation Drake' type of expedition is being planned to the area. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A small environmental education centre is located near the 
mouth of the Platano river, and will provide lodging and simple support facilities for visiting scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Carr, A.F. (1950). Outline for classification of animal 
habitats in Honduras. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Vol. 94, Art. 10. New York. 

Davis, L.I. (1972). Afieldguide to the birds of Mexico and Central America. University of Texas Press, 
Austin and London. 

DIGERENARE y CATIE (1978). La Cuenca del Rio Platano, La Mosquitia, Honduras: Estudio 
prehminar de los recursos Naturales y Culturales de la Cuenca y un Plan para el DesarroUo de una Reserva 
de la Biosfera en la region del Rio Platano. 133 pp. 

DIGERENARE y CATIE (1980). Plan de Manejo de la Reserva de la Biosfera, Rio Platano. 200 pp. 

Direccion General de Minas e Hidrocarburos-Honduras (1966). Inventario nacional de Recursos 
Fisicos. 

Institute Geografico Nacional (1974). Mapa geologica de la Republica de Honduras. 

MoUna, R.A. (1975). Enumeracion de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba, Vol. 19, No. 1. Tegucigalpa. 

Monroe, B.L. (1968). A distributional survey of the birds of Honduras. Ornithological Monograph No. 
7, The American Ornithological Union. 

STAFF: A coordinator-superintendent, a resident director and 4 wardens. 

BUDGET: For 1980-81, US$ 100,000 (US$ 60,000 donation from WWF). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mr Jose A. Ramirez, Coordinator- 
Superintendent, Deptoi. de Vida Silvestre y Recursos Ambientales, DIGERENARE, Barrio 
Guacerique #1536, Tegucigalpa, Honduras. 

NAME OF CNFFA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



JAMAICA 245 



JAMAICA 



AREA: 11,425 sq km. 

POPULATION: 2,109,400 (1977). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The Beach Control Law of 1955 provides for the 
establishment of 'Marine Parks', the Fisheries Industries Act of 1975 provides for the estabhshment of 
'Fish Sanctuaries', and the Forest Law of 1950 provides for the establishment of 'Forest Reserves'. The 
conservation plan includes nine areas which should be called national parks, but these areas are not yet 
afforded adequate protection. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Conservation and Recreation Division of the 
Natural Resources Conservation Department is responsible for running the Marine Parks, the Fisheries 
Division of the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for Fish Sanctuaries, and the Forest Department of 
the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for the Forest Reserves. 

ADDRESS: No Information. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 337 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: ^ 

Marine Parks (hectares) 

1 Ocho Rios 278 

2 Montego Bay 59 

Fisheries Sanctuaries 

1 Old Harbour* 1,036 

2 Port Royal Cays* 518 

There are also 95 Forest Reserves with a total area of 113,310 ha. 

* No sheets were provided on the Jamaican Fisheries Sanctuaries or Forest Reserves, so it has 
been assumed that these sites are either resource reserves or multiple use management areas. 
They have not been included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



246 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



MARTINIQUE (France) 



AREA: 1,101 sq km. 

POPULATION: 316,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: As a 'department' of France, this territory has the same 
legislation as that country, namely Law 60.708 of 22 July 1960, which applies to the establishment of 
national parks, and the law of July 1976 (Loi sur la protection de la nature) which applies to all aspects of 
conservation, including reserves. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The reserves are under the control of the French 
Ministfere de la Qualite de la Vie (Direction de la Protection de la Nature); in Martinique, the only reserve 
is under the management of the Pare Naturel Regional, which has no conservation means of its own. 

ADDRESS: Pare Naturel Regional, Ancienne Caserne Bouille, Fort-de-France, Martinique. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 517 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

Natural Reserve (hectares) 

1 Caravelle 517 



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248 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Reserve Naturelle de la Caravelle 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Unknown. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 March 1976. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Half of the 'Caravelle' Peninsula in the centre of the northeast-facing 

coast; 14°40'N, 60°58"W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-200m. 

AREA: 517 ha, within a larger regional Nature Park. 

LAND TENURE: Predominantly public land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A highly dissected peninsula dominated by cliffs, beaches and reefs. 
Calcareous sediments (of coral origin) with volcanic substratum (labra dorite, and basalt - partly in 
hexagonal columns). 

VEGETATION: Mangrove/coastal vegetation and xerophytic forest; with Coccoloba grandifolia, 
Pirsonia fragrans, Tabebuia heterophylla , Fagara martinicensis , Boursera simaruba, Syderoxylon 
petidissimum and Byrsomina coriacea. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: White-breasted trembler Ramphocinclus brachyurus is found only in the 
endemic forest. Also noteworthy are the Martinique oriole Icterus bonana. Lesser Antillean bullfinch 
Loxigilla noctis (endemic), the Zenaida dove Zenaida aurita aurita (endemic to the Lesser Antilles), 
scaly-breasted ground dove Columbina passerina trochila and Caribbean elaenia Eleania martinica. This 
area is very important for migratory species. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No active management and no control. It has recently been 
proposed to add a marine area to this reserve. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Centre Universitaire des Antilles de la Guyane VER Sciences, Pointe 
Fouillole, Pointe-a-Pitre: M. Jacques Porterop. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL Pinchon, R. (1963). Les Oiseaux; Faune des Antilles 
Francaises. Fort de France. 

Porterop, J. Presqu'ile de la Caravelle, PN Regional de la Martinique. Editions Delroisse, 113 rue de 
Paris, 92 Boulogne-Billancourt, France. 

STAFF: One gamekeeper. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Pare Naturel Regional de la Martinique, 
Boulevard de Verdun, 97200 Fort de France. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1979. 



MEXICO 249 



MEXICO 



AREA: 1,972,355 sq km. 

POPULATION: 66,944,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Parks are established by Presidential Decree under sections 
of the Ley Organica de la Administracion Pubhca Federal, the Ley Federal de Caza, the Ley Forestai, and 
the regulatory decree of the Forestry Law, Declarations are published in the Diario Oficial. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADNONISTRATION: Responsibility for the national parks can be vested in 
one of four government agencies, the Secretary of Agricuhure and Hydraulic Resources has the majority, 
but there are also more with the Secretary of Human Settlements and Public Works, one with the 
Secretary of Tourism, and two with the Federal District of Mexico. One of the serious problems of the 
management and administration of the Mexican National Parks system is the fact that operation of the 
parks can be delegated to as many as 14 separate Secretariats (Ley Federal Organica de la Administacion 
Publica, Diario Oficial, 29 de Diciembre de 1976). This can lead to a certain lack of coordination. Not all of 
Mexico's National Parks are accepted as national parks in the international sense. 

ADDRESS: (a) Subsecretaria Forestai y de la Fauna, Insurgentes sur, 476, Piso Doce, Mexico D.F., 
Mexico. 

(b) CONOPAN, Secretaria de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras Publicos, Colonia 
navarrete, Mexico D.F., Mexico. 

REFERENCES: Gallina T., Maria Pia and Sangri N., Luis (1979). Bellezas Naturales de Mexico. 
INCAFO, Madrid. 

Goebel, J.M. and Meganck, R.A. (1981). Mexico's National Parks: An update and management 
problem analysis. In Woodpower - New perspectives of forest usage. Ed. Tablot, J.J. and W. Swanson. 
Pergamon Press. 

Reyes Rodriguez, Juan Jose A. Estrategia para la Conservacion de los Recursos Naturales. 229pp. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 550,308 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Nevado de Toluca 51,000 

2 La Malinche 45,711 

3 Iztaccihuatl — Popocatepetl 25,679 

4 Nevado de CoUma 22,200 

5 Canon de Sumidero 21,789 

6 Pico de Orizaba 19,750 

7 Zoquiapan y Anexas 19,418 

8 Bosencheve 15,000 

9 Langunas de Chacahua 14,187 

10 Cofre de Perote 11,700 

11 Lagunas de Montebello 6,002 

12 Cascada Bassaseachic 5,803 

13 Constitucion de 1857 5,009 

14 Lagunas de Zempoala* 4,669 

15 Insurgente Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon 4,648 

16 El Chico 1,835 

17 Insurgente Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla 1,760 

18 Grutas de Cacahuamilpa 1,600 

19 Isla Isabela 194 

National Reserves 

1 Silvestre Has 120,800 



250 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

Faunal Reserves 

1 Ria Celestum 59,130 

2 Rio Lagartos 47,840 

Wildlife Reserves 

1 Cedros Island 1,000 

2 Guadalupe Island 1,000 

Cetacean Sanctuary 

1 Guerrero Negro/Ojo de Liebre Manuela 40,000 

Research & Biological Stations 

1 Chamela 1,584 

2 Los Tuxtlas 1,000 

Biosphere Reserves 

1 MontesAzules (331,200) 

2 Mapimi (100,000) 

3 La Michilia (35,000) 



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252 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Iztaccihuatl-Popocatepetl National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madrean-CordiUeran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 100%. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 October 1935. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the states of Mexico, Puebla and Morelos. 

ALTITUDE: Reaching approximately 4,800m. 

AREA: 25,679 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Part national and part public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area consists of Sierra Nevada and the two volcanoes of Iztaccihuatl and 
Popocatepetl (the latter, at 5452m, the second highest volcano in Mexico). Climate is 
temperate-subhumid from 3250 to 4000m and cold above 4000m, with permanent snow above 4700m. The 
rainy season lasts from May/June to November/December, with the winter being dry. 

VEGETATION: Abies religiosa - Pinus montezumae - P. ayacahuite forest is found between 2700 and 
3300m , with Pinus hartwegii forest between 3000 and 4000m. From 4000-4300m are high mountain 
grasslands or 'zacatonales' oiFestuca tolucensis and Calamagrostis tolucensis. Above 4300m the grassland 
species change to Festuca livida and Afenaria bryoides. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The endangered teporingo Romerolagus dizai (E) is found within the park. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No information. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No Information. 

STAFF: Seven staff, including guards and administrative personnel. 

BUDGET: $ 507,000. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Secretaria de Asentamientos Humanos y Obras 

Publicas y Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidraulicos. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ing. Juan Jose A. Reyes Rodriguez. 
INFORMATION DATED: July 1981. 



(14) Lagunas de Zempoala National Park 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madrean-CordiUeran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Incomplete (60%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 30 September 1936. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the border of Mexico and Morelos states. 

ALTITUDE: Reaches over 3900m. 



MEXICO 253 

AREA: 4669 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Communal ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The principal features are the seven lakes on the lava formations of Huilote 
volcano, known as the 'Lagunas de Zempoala'. The mean altitude is 2900m with peaks between 3300 and 
3900m in height. Mean annual temperature is 12°C at 2800m, 5°C at 4000m. Rainfall averages 
1200-1500mm per annum. 

VEGETATION: In order of increasing altitude, vegetation consists of oak forest containing Quercus 
caudicans - Q. rugosa, Pinus forest, and oyamed Abies religiosa forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Two threatened species , endemic to a small part of Mexico and found in the 
park, are the 'covejo teporingo' or 'zacatuche' Romerolagus diazi (E) and the 'raton de los volcanes' 
Nestomodon alstoni. The 'ajolote" Rhyacosiredon zempoalensis is an amphibian endemic to the park and 
the snake 'vibora de cascabel diadema' Crotalus transversus is endemic to this locality. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No information. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECLiL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATEIUAL: Ramirez, P.J. (1969). Contribucion el estudio de los 
Mamiferos del Parque Nacional Lagunas de Zempoala, Morelos, Mexico. In Andes Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. 
Autonoma de Mexico, no. 40., Serie Zoologia (2). 

STAFF: 10 administration personnel. 

BUDGET: $ 1,217,000. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion General de Reservas y Areas de 
Recreacion, Sarh. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Ing. Juan Jose A. Reyes Rodriguez. 
INFORMATION DATED: July 1981 



(1) Parque Naturel de la Balein Gris, Guerrero Negro/Ojo de Liebre 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.8.7 (Sonoran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Presidential decree. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 January 1972. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (also known as Scammon's Lagoon) and 
Guerrero Negro Lagoon, Baja CaHfornia; 28°00'S, 114°20'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level. 

AREA: Surface of lagoons approximately 40,000 ha (not calculated). 

LAND TENURE: A strip of land is involved but area not defined. 25,000 ha of Mexican waters. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The lagoons are physically separated by a low saltmarsh area; the salt content 
of the water varies between 356 and 450ppm. Offshore sand banks are included. 

VEGETATION: Surrounding lands are arid desert with less than 2" rain per year. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Grey whale Eschrichtius gibbosus at an estimated population of 11,000; 
approximately 2,000 whales mate and calf in the lagoons between December and April. Three species of 



254 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

rails were noted, clapper rails Rallus longirostris levipes (V), Virginia rails Rallus limicola and Sora rails 
Porzana carolvia (common); also recorded were snowy plovers Charadrius alexandrinus and godwits 
Limosa. 

ZONING: No zoning, but regulations by the Secretary of Public Works prohibit overflying, tourist 
launches and motorboats which might disturb the habitat. Three major management zones are seen as 
applicable to the area - the core area of lagoon and adjacent saltmarshes, a buffer zone of land around the 
lagoons, and a development zone or zones in which all development for management and tourist facilities 
would be located. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: A potential threat could be continued expansion of the salt 
operations which ship 5,000,000 tons annually and are the major industry for the community, but there is 
no evidence of disruption at this time. Oil drilling has taken place with three holes producing nothing. The 
reserve is surrounded by a National Park which is not effectively managed. 

TOURISM: This is seen as a major future function of the park and an important move towards fostering 
awareness of the importance of cetaceans generally. Viewing towers, anchored rafts and other viewing 
facilities, with controlled visitor access, may be provided though careful planning is required. It has been 
proposed that the development zone should have facilities such as parking space, hotels, restaurants, tent 
and mobile camping areas and picnic areas, along with staff housing and other management facilities. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A bilateral agreement between the USA and Mexico through the National 
Marine Fisheries Service, undertaken by Dr Ken Norris, University of California Santa Cruz, and Dr 
Barbara Javor, G.N. Salt Works (biologist). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None within the reserve, but a laboratory at the Salt Company 
has been made available. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Grey Whale Studies by Dr Norris. 

Lionel Patino Talmentes (Fundacion Medio Ambiente). Mexican/USA Grey Whale Conservation 
Committee, Milton Kaufmann (Monitor International). 

WWF/IUCN Project 1405. International System of Cetacean Sanctuaries. Various reports. 

STAFF: Mr Mario Rueda, a volunteer conservationist with some degree of government authority, is 
known as the Honorary Administrator, Guerrero Negro. 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mr Mari Rueda, Ado Postal 139, Guerrero 
Negro. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: S. Cuenas Salas. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 February 1979, with recent additions made by PADU, March 1982. 



(1) Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.1.1 (Campechean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Created by Presidential Decree. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Created a biosphere reserve by Presidential Decree of 12 January 1978. 
Approval by MAB Bureau May 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In Chiapas state in south-east Mexico, between the Lacantum amd 
Locania rivers; 16°09'-16°53'N, 90°30'-91°45'W. 

ALTITUDE: 350- 1400m. 

AREA: 331,200 ha. 



MEXICO 255 

LAND TENURE: Federal land, communal land and some private land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Ranges of small hills and valleys with rivers and small lakes on calcareous 
soils. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rainforest at lower altitudes; pine forest above. The reserve and surrounding 
forest contain some 500 species of tree. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are a number of important species of mammal: jaguar Panthera onca 
(V), margay F. wiedii (V) and ocelot F. pardalis (V), collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, Baird's tapir 
Tapirus bairdii, spider monkey Ateles geoffroyi (V) and howler monkey Alouatta palliata. Also 
Crocodylus moreleti (E), harpy eagle Harpia harpyja (R), scarlet macaw Ara macao and great curassow 
Crax rubra. The area was an important Pleistocene refuge. 

ZONING: No zoning has yet been established inside the biosphere reserve, but it is surrounded by a 
forest reserve of 2,612,300 ha. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There was some Maya settlement in the area. More recently 
the forest has been exploited for chichle and mahogany, but has not been seriously altered by this. There is 
now pressure from shifting cultivators in the south-west. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: There have been surveys of geology, soils, archaeology, mammals, birds, 
insects, plants and soil fauna; and there are plans for cooperative research between the government and 
the universities. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: There are no research facilities yet, but a laboratory is planned. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: A book is in press in which available information is 
assembled. 

STAFF: None full-time, but five researchers part-time. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Programme MAB Mexico, Secretaria Forestal y 
de la Fauna, c/o Secretaria de Agricultura et Recursos hidraulicos, Insurgentes Sur No. 476, Mexico D.F. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: S. Cuenas Salas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Information received from Unesco. 



(2) Mapimi Biosphere Reserve 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.9.7 (Chihuahuan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: For the time being, all hunting has been voluntarily suspended, especially that 
of the desert tortoise. The peasants supervise observancy of this ban. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: January 1977 as a Biosphere Reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Situated north-east of the town of Ceballos in the point formed by the 
boundaries of the states of Durango, Chihuahua and Coahuila. The reserve lies in a hollow or basin 
surrounded by small mountain ranges running more or less parallel from north to south in the large 
catchment area known as Bolson de Mapimi; 26°29'-52'N, 103°56"W. 

ALTITUDE: 1100-1350m. 

AREA: No legal boundaries have been fixed. Work has begun on an area of 20,000 ha regarded as the 
core zone. 

LAND TENURE: There are various common public lands and ranches. A company has been formed 
under the direction and authority of the Government of the State of Durango and the scientific direction of 



256 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

the Institute of Ecology. It comprises the public authorities and graziers in the area and the appropriate 
federal authorities. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Alluvial deposits predominate, consisting of recent Pleistocene gravels, clays 
and muds. Outcrops of igneous rock from the tertiary period and volcanic rocks (rhyolites, andesites and 
basalts) are also found. There are isolated mountains and extensive interconnected plains, and a spring in 
the core zone. The average annual rainfall is 200mm; the mean monthly temperature varies between 
11.2°C and 28.4°C. 

VEGETATION: The reserve belongs to the Chihuahua arid zone, with a large quantity of endemics. 
Microphyllous shrub species give the reserve its characteristic plant determining the general physiognomy 
of the area, together with fleshy-leaved species (Agave spp., Hechtia spp.), thick-stemmed species 
{Pastinaca spp.) and large expanses of grass Hilaria mutica. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The pronghorn Antilocapra americana disappeared a few years ago. The 
mule deer Odocoileus hemionus, the giant tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus (E), the coyote Canis 
latrans, the lynx Felis rufus and the puma F. concolor are characteristic. There is a rich fauna adapted to 
the arid conditions. 

ZONING: There is a core zone surrounded by a buffer area. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The region has been little disturbed, except for sporadic 
hunting and, to a lesser degree, extensive stock raising. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Several institutions (foreign and domestic) are already undertaking a large 
number of studies. Examples include the study of herpetofauna, exophysiology of dominant reptile 
species, study of the biology of the desert tortoise, study of the biology of raptorial birds, and regeneration 
of desert vegetation after over-grazing, fire and various types of human activity. With the help of 
associations of bee-keepers, it is planned to subsidize certain young 'ejidatarios' (communal farmers) so 
that they can learn the techniques of bee-keeping based on the flowers of desert plants. At San Ignacio 
there is a camp near the only spring in the zone, and a laboratory is being built in the 20 ha of desert 
belonging to the Institute of Ecology, San Ignacio. Light aircraft and motor vehicles will be readily 
available from the Government of the State of Durango and camping equipment has been provided by the 
Secretariat for the National Heritage. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Martinex, O. Enrique and Morello, J. (1976). El Medio 
Fisico y las Unidades Fisonomico-Floristicas del Bolson de Mapimi. Institute of Ecology, Mexico. 

Informes del Programa Nacional Indicativo de Ecologia Tropica; (1976). National Board of Science and 
Technology, Mexico. 

STAFF: 14 research workers, 8 research assistants and technicians, and 7 students are engaged in 
research work. The protection of the reserve is the responsibility of the peasants. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Instituto de Ecologia. Apartado postal 18-845, 
Mexico 18, D.F., Mexico. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: S Cuenas Salas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Information received from Unesco. 



(3) La Michilia Biosphere Reserve 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 1.21.12 (Madrean-Cordilleran) . 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Complete protection of fauna and flora throughout the core zone. 
Stock-raising and controlled hunting in the buffer zone. 



MEXICO 257 

DATE ESTABLISHED: January 1977 as a Biosphere Reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: To the south of the town of Durango in the Sierra de Michis, a branch 
of the Sierra Madre Occidental. On the north-east is the town of Vicente Guerrero, on the west the village 
of Mezquital, and on the south-east the Sierra de Urica, which is the boundary between the States of 
Durango and Zacatecas. 23°27'N, 104°15'W. 

ALTITUDE: 2250-2850m. 

AREA: 7000 ha of core zone (the reserve proper) and approximately 35,000 ha of buffer zone. 

LAND TENURE: The reserve proper (Cerro Blanco) is owned by the government of the State of 
Durango who will transfer it to the Institute of Ecology. The buffer zone contains the communal farm 
(Ejido) of San Juan de Michis and ranches owned by small graziers. An association is being formed, under 
the control of the government of the State of Durango and the scientific direction of the Institute of 
Ecology, to coordinate the activities of the communal farm and the small graziers in order to protect the 
fauna and flora and to test new systems for the management of the natural resources. The appropriate 
federal authorities will participate in this association. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Sierra de Michis consists of igneous rock of the Tertiary period. The 
geological basis of the La Michilia area is acid rock (tuff). Particularly in the reserve proper, the 
topography is marked by a high degree of relief. The deep soils are sandy clay, and on the slopes are stony. 
There are several ephemeral streams and lagoons, besides the two permanent streams. Laurel to the west 
and Temascal to the south-east. There are also marshy meadows in the core area. The annual rainfall 
ranges between 500mm and 700mm, and the average annual temperature varies between 12°C and 28°C. 

VEGETATION: A pine and holm oak forest takes up the greater part of the reserve proper and the 
buffer area, consisting of associations of Pionus lumholtzii and Quercus rugosa, with Arctostaphylos 
polifolia and Juniperus durangensis. There are also holm oak and pine forests with associations of Quercus 
chihuahuensis, Q. siderofila, Q, fulva, Pinus arizonica, P. engelmanni and P. ayacahuite. Generally 
speaking, where the soil is not very deep, on the slopes, it is covered with chaparral vegetation 
characterized by dense dumps oi Arctostaphylos pungens , isolated species of Quercus potosina and Q. 
rugosa. There are also natural pastures oiAristida spp., Panicum spp., Bromus spp., Senecio spp. and 
Stevia spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Two species of native fauna have decreased to the point where they are very 
rare: black bear Ursus americanus (which was hunted until about 15 years ago) and wolf Canis lupus 
(occasionally hunted). The important species are white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, puma Felis 
concolor, collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, coyote Canis latrans and turkey Meleagris gallopavo. Otter 
Lutra longicaudis is found in the stream Temascal. A few examples of military macaw Ara militaris 
remain. 

ZONING: The Cerro Blanco core zone is the reserve proper. There is an adjacent buffer zone of 
mountains and plains to the north-east, east and south-east of the reserve. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The Cerro Blanco contains natural formations which remain 
unaltered. The rest of the area shows some signs of disturbance following hunting, very restricted farming, 
utilization of the forest and some stock raising. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Four Mexican and two foreign institutions are involved in research at La 
Michilia. Present studies include the feeding habits of the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus, 
development of new crops such as strawberries, the agricultural potential of the area, its ornithology and 
botany. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A house near Cerro Blanco has been made available by Mr 
Eduardo de la Pena, and another on the communal farm of San Juan de Michis. Transport facilities are 
provided by the government of the state. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Informes del Programa Nacional Indicativo de Ecologia 
Tropical (1976). National Board of Science and Technology, Mexico. 

Baker, R. and Keever, J. ( 1962). Mammals of the Mexican State of Durango. Publ. Mus. Mich. State 
Univ. Biol. Ser. 2: 25-146. 

Galina, S., Serrano, V. and Mau Ma, E. Estudio sobre el venado cola-blanca. Institute of Ecology, 
Mexico. 

STAFF: 29 research workers, 2 research assistants and 5 students. The inhabitants of the zone cooperate 
in the protection of the reserve. 



258 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Instituto de Ecologia, Apartado Postal 18-845, 
Mexico 18, D.F., Mexico. 

NAME OF CNFFA COORDINATOR: S. Cuenas Salas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Information received from Unesco. 



MONTSERRAT 259 



MONTSERRAT (UK) 



AREA: 98 sq km. 

POPULATION: 12,160 (1977). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: In process of being drafted. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Montserrat National Trust. 

ADDRESS: Montserrat National Trust, Box 332, Plymouth, Montserrat, West Indies. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: There are no areas established yet. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Park (hectares) 

1 Montserrat (proposed) 810 



260 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Montserrat National Park (proposed) 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: Proposed National Park (II). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: None. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Proposed. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the southern mountain of the island; 16°42'N, 62°12'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-800m. 

AREA: 810 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 70% privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Area covers Castle Peak and Chances Peak, the highest peaks on the island, 
which are volcanic in origin. Active thermal springs and sulphur vents. Rainfall is 60-100". 

VEGETATION: Cloud forest with smaller areas of moist forest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Habitat of threatened Montserrat oriole Icterus oberi. 

ZONING: None as yet. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: About 30% of the area proposed has been altered for 
agriculture at one time or another. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Montserrat National Trust. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 12 October 1979. 



NETHERLANDS ANTILLES 261 



NETHERLANDS ANTILLES 



AREA: 1,020 sq km. 

POPULATION: 238,000 (1979). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: No general legislation on parks or reserves with the 
exception of a law, accepted but not yet effective, on establishing Underwater Parks ('marine reserves'). 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: No governmental organization, but a private one, 
'Netherlands Antilles National Parks Foundation' ('Stichting Nationale Parken Nederlandse Antillen', 
called 'STINAPA'). 

ADDRESS: p. a. CARMABI, PO Box 2090, Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 10,000 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Washington-Slagbaai, Bonaire 5,900 

2 Jamanota, Aruba (proposed)* 3,000 

3 Christoffel, Curacao 1,500 

4 Josefdal, Curacao (proposed)* 15 

Underwater Park 

1 Bonaire 2,600 

Sanctuary 

1 Flamingo Sanctuary, Bonaire* 55 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



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NETHERLANDS ANTILLES 263 

(1) Washington-Slagbaai National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: May 1969, enlarged in September 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northwest tip of Bonaire; 12°17'N, 68°23'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level up to 241m. 

AREA: 5900 ha (400 ha having been added in 1977). 

LAND TENURE: One part owned by the Government but managed by STINAPA, the other part 
owned and managed by STINAPA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: In the northeast, north, west and southwest bordered by the sea, in the south 
by the Oil Terminal BOPEC, and in the east by privately owned land. The coastal fringe is of coral 
limestone, the central part volcanic (Upper Cretaceous). There are several large landlocked bays (good 
feeding grounds for flamingos and wading birds). An old Plantation House in dilapidated state can be 
found at the Boca of Slagbaai. The wet season is October to January, and annual rainfall is 532mm. Mean 
temperature is 27.6°C, mean maximum 31.2°C and mean minimum 24.2°C. 

VEGETATION: Saltflat vegetation: mangroves, Batis maritima and Suriana maritima. Limestone 
plateau: Metopium brownei and Coccoloba swartsii. Washikemba formation vegetation: Haematoxylon 
brasiletto, Opuntia wentiana, Opuntia curassavica (endemic), Croton flavens , Acacia tortuosa, Prosopis 
juli-flora and candle cacti (one endemic species). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: This park is a refuge for a threatened yellow-shouldered parrot Amazona 
barbadensis rothschildi (reduced to only 100 birds in 1978), the brown-throated parakeet Aratinga 
pertinax xanthogenius and the pearly-eyed thrasher Margarops fuscatus bonairensis (all endemic - though 
there is some query as to whether rothschildi is a valid subspecies oi Amazona); Phalacrocorax olivaceus, 
brown noody Anous stolidus, 1 lizard species (2 of them endemic) and about 30 landsnail species (half of 
which are endemic). The supersaline landlocked bays are feeding grounds for flamingos 
(Phoenicopteridae), herons (Ardeidae), stilts (Recurvirostridae), wading birds, terns (Laridae) etc. The 
coral reefs along the coast are of exceptional beauty. 

ZONING: In 40% of the park area goats are present (about 1 per ha); in the other part there are a few 
goats (about 1 per 10 ha). 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Poaching of goats (no problem for the park!), iguanas, noddies 
(at night, when they roost on the cliffs of the north coast), and - worst of all - almost all juvenile parrots 
belonging Amazona barbadensis rothschildi (which were sold for $50). 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Parrot research Amazona barbadensis rothschildi. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A small dormitory and a car. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Field Guide National Park Washington, Bonaire, (1979). 
'STINAPA' Series no. 9. 

STAFF: 3 surveyors. 

BUDGET: US$ 20,000 per year. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mr Tom Van Hof, together with a Park Board of 
STINAPA. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: September 1979. 



264 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Christoffel National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: June 1978. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the northwest tip of Curacao; 12°20'N, 69°08'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 375m. 

AREA: 1500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Land owned by the Island Government, park managed by STINAPA. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: In the northeast bordered by the sea, in the east, south and west bordered by 
privately owned plantations, in the northwest and north bordered by inhabited areas. Coastal fringe: coral 
limestone; next zone: diabase; central zone: Knip formation (deepsea sediments raised by tectonic 
movement) in the limestone grottos along the coast. In the eastern part Indian signs are present. The 18th 
century Plantation House Savonet, together with many barns and sheds and corals, is of extreme beauty. 
Wet season is October to January, and annual rainfall is 574mm. Mean temperature is 27.5°C, mean 
maximum 30.9°C and mean minimum 25.2°C. 

VEGETATION: Limestone plateau: Metopium bronei and Coccoloba swartsii; diabase vegetation: 
Haematoxylon brasiletto, Condolia henriquesi (endemic), Opuntia wentiana, Croton flavens. Acacia 
tortuosa. Prosopis juliflora and candle cacti. Knip formation vegetation with some endemic trees: Sabal 
spp., Xylosma arnoldoi, Sorocea arnoldoi, Ficus brittonii, Aulomyrcia curassavisa and others, and 4 
orchid species, 3 Tillandsia species. Ananas comosus and Anthurium spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The following species all breed in the park: white-tailed deer Odocoileus 
virginianus (possibly a threatened endemic subspecies), the cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus nigronuchalis 
(endemic), white tailed hawk Buteo albicaudatus, crested bobwhite Colinus cristatus, Tyto alba bargei (an 
endemic subspecies which is almost extinct), and brown-throated parakeet Aratinga pertinax pertinax 
(endemic). Also found are 5 dove species, 7 lizards (2 of them endemic), 1 snake (endemic) and 30 
landsnails (half of which are endemic). 

ZONING: 11 small areas are fenced off against goats, for a natural reforestation experiment. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Picking of plants, especially orchids (mostly by Europeans) 
and poaching of goats (no problem!) and of iguanas by local people. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: 1) Natural reforestation experiment (in areas fenced off from goats); 2) 
Study of the plague of the (introduced) rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora); 3) Quantitative study of the 
influence of goats on the vegetation. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Facilities of the Caribbean Marine Biological Institute 
(CARMABI), Curacao, including cars, dormitory, library etc. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Stoffers, A.L. (1956). The vegetation of the Netherlands 
Antilles. Studies Flora Curacao no. 1, Utrecht. 

Stoffers, A.L. (1962). The Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, vol. 1. 

Annual reports of STINAPA, published in the "STINAPA" series. 

STAFF: One manager (Dick Hoogerwerf) and 3 park rangers. 

BUDGET: US$ 75,000 per year. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mr Dick Hoogerwerf and a Park Board of 
STINAPA. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: September 1979. 



NETHERLANDS ANTILLES 265 

(1) Bonaire Underwater Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8. 17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 90%. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: May 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: All around the islands of Bonaire and Klein Bonaire; 12°02'-12°18'N, 
68°12'-68°25'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level down to -60m. 

AREA: About 2,600 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Territorial waters owned by the Government. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Very stable physical conditions; salinity 36% , temperature 26°C in February 
and up to 28°C in September. There are almost no nutrients, and the water is extremely clear and poor in 
plankton. Torrential rains may bring fresh water and mud from the land into the sea, but this disturbance is 
rather rare . In the lee of the trade winds the water is very calm; the eastern shoreline is almost the only one 
with wave action. A submarine reef terrace between and 10m is followed by a steep reef slope of 40° 
down to at least 30m. Lac Bay is a shallow lagoon. 

VEGETATION: In the 750 ha lake are found mangroves and Thalassia . The fringe along the coast has all 
types of algae: Sargassum in the tidal zone, calcareous algae (reef builders) in the tidal zone and deeper, 
filamentous algae, zooxanthellae in coral tissue, and boring algae. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: An extremely rich coral reef fauna consisting of all elements also found 
elsewhere in the Caribbean. Unique because of its unspoiled character. 

ZONING: None until now but, in the future, some damaged reefs will be closed for guided tours for 
about 3 months, for recovery if necessary. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some spearfishing and coral picking (although prohibited by 
law), but at this moment no serious threat; anchoring, which is of increasing importance; sewage, oil spills 
etc., of local importance; unintentional disturbance, touching corals, whirling up sand etc., of local 
importance. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: The Park Management, in close cooperation with the Caribbean Marine 
Biological Institute in Curacao (CARMABI) is engaged in coral research, especially related to park 
management techniques. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Karpata Ecological Centre with wet and dry laboratories with 
basic equipment. A small dormitory, motorboat, car and some underwater equipment. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: About 250 papers published by CARMABI , many of them in 
Studies Fauna Curacao, Utrecht. Also personal communications from Tom Van Hof. 

STAFF: Eric Newton (Park Manager), Franklin Winklaar and Christie Dovale. 

BUDGET: US$ 70,000 per year (quoted in 1979). Quoted in May 1982 as 275,000 Dutch guilders for 4 
years. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Both staff members and an Underwater Park 
Board provoided by STINAPA. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: May 1982. 



266 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Flamingo Sanctuary 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: November 1969. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: At the southern tip of Bonaire; 12°02'30'N, 68°15"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level. 

AREA: 55 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Owned by International Antillean Salt Co ( AISCO) and supervised by the Flamingo 

Sanctuary Commission, p. a. AISCO, Bonaire. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Formerly part of the vast Pekelmeer but, since 1969, surrounded by the Solar 
Salt Works of AISCO . By means of a dike around the area, and a pump, the water in the Sanctuary can be 
drained and kept at a certain level. Soil consists of coral debris, coral sand and mud. 

VEGETATION: Almost barren. Under water is a sparse algal vegetation in and on top of the muddy 
bottom. In the dry parts there is no visible vegetation. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: One of the four breeding sites left in the Caribbean for the red flamingo 
Phoenicopterus ruber ruber. The number of breeding pairs varies widely; there have been years without 
any breeding (1944-1950) , but there are also years when 2150 breeding pairs are present. The average may 
be about 1000 pairs per breeding season. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Overflying sportplanes (although prohibited by law) in the 
breeding season, resulting in the birds leaving their nests, often without returning. Intruders - sometimes 
poachers, but mostly photographers and ornithologists! also disturb breeding, resulting in unhatched eggs 
and starving juveniles. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Since 1959, there has been regular scientific research, first by Jan Rooth, 
and since 1975 also by Bart de Boer, on food habits, availability of foods, migration, breeding behaviour, 
mortality etc. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. No visitors or scientists are allowed to enter the Sanctuary 
during the months when the flamingos are breeding. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: de Boer, B.A. (1979). Flamingos on Bonaire and in 
Venezuela (STINAPA Documentation Series no. 3). 

Rooth, J. (1965). The flamingos on Bonaire. Utrecht. 

Rooth, J. (1976). Ecological aspects of the flamingos on Bonaire (STINAPA Documentation Series no. 

ID- 
STAFF: Rene Hakkenberg (Manager of AISCO) controls the Sanctuary. 

BUDGET: About US$ 4,000 per year. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Mr Hakkenberg, AISCO. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: September 1979. 



NICARAGUA 267 



NICARAGUA 



AREA: 148,005 sq km. 

POPULATION: 2,217,500 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The new government of Nicaragua has established by 
decree the National Park Service (7 March 1980) under the auspices of the Instituto Nicaraguense de 
Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente (IRENA) (created by law, 24 August 1979). There are only two parks 
with specific legislation: Volcan Masaya National Park (23 May 1979) and Saslaya National Park (27 
March 1971). 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The institution specifically given responsibility to 
protect National Parks and Reserves is the National Park Service, which is also in charge of recreation 
areas. 

ADDRESS: (a) Dr Jorge Jenkins, Director General, Instituto Nicaraguense de Recursos Naturales y 
del Ambiente (IRENA), Managua, Nicaragua. 

(b) Ing. Enrique Cedeno, Director Servicio de Parques Nacionales, IRENA, Managua, 
Nicaragua. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 17,300 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Saslaya 11,800 

2 Masaya Volcano 5,500 

Natural Resources Reserve 

1 Bocay— Waspuk— Wawa (proposed)* 1,100,000 



268 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Saslaya National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Protection afforded by National Park status is said to have the support of the 
local inhabitants. Hunting, fishing, cutting of forest and farming within the area are prohibited. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: About 75km southwest of Bonanza and 34km west of Siuna in the 
hinterland of the Department of Zelaya; 13°45'N, 83°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-1, 594m. 

AREA: 11,800 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A complex of old volcanic peaks of which the highest , Cerro Saslaya ( 1 ,594m) 
dominates the centre of the park; the other peaks within the park boundary, ranging in height from 1,150 
to 1,350m, are named El Inocente, Albondiga, Garrapata, El Toro, La Pimienta and El Hormiguero. 
Numerous small streams cascade from the mountains into the Rio Wani, which bounds the park on the 
north and is an upper tributary of the Rio Prinzapolka. The climate is very wet and hot, hence the dense 
tropical rain forest clothing much of the area. 

VEGETATION: Lowland tropical rainforest gives way at higher elevations to cloud forest and, in the 
summit area, elfin cloud forest, which have never been disturbed or exploited. An inventory of the flora is 
in progress, but no details are yet available. Initial field visits indicate many new species and an extremely 
diverse flora. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Due to habitat diversity there is a rich fauna, the mammals including the 
howler monkey Alouatta villosa (I), white-throated capuchin Cebus capucinus. Central American spider 
monkey Ateles geoffroyi (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), ocelot Felis pardalis (V), 
jaguar Panthera onca (V), Central American tapir Tapirus bairdi (V), white-lipped peccary Tayassu 
albiroslris, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus and red brocket deer Mazama americana. Among the 
many interesting birds are great tinamou Tinamus major, green and scarlet macaws Ara ambigua and A. 
macao, parrots Amazona spp., the quetzal Pharomachriis mocinno (V), keelbilled toucan Ramphastos 
sulfuratus and three-wattled bellbird Procnias tricarunculata. 

ZONING: None; no resource inventory or management plan yet. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Hitherto almost none, but with the increase of population and 
a steady movement from west to east, farmers practising swidden or shifting cultivation have entered the 
lowlands bordering the park, and unless the park is properly managed and protected they are likely to 
trespass over its boundaries within the near future. The new road from the Pan-American highway to Pto. 
Cabezas on the Atlantic coast passes close to the area. On a recent field trip (February 1979) 51 families 
were counted with small agricultural holdings near the park's southern border. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Only initial visits for flora surveys to date. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Neill, D. (1978). La vegetacion del Parque Nacional Cerro 
Saslaya. Herbario Nacional de Nicaragua, report, 3 pp. 

Personal communications: Gutierrez, C. (1978-79); Incer, J. (1978-9); Morales, R. (1979). 

STAFF: No personnel have been assigned to the park. The administration of the park is directed from 
the central offices of the Park Service of IRENA in Nicaragua. 

BUDGET: No budget has been allocated. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ing. Enrique Cedeno, Director, Park Service, 
IRENA, Managua, Nicaragua. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



NICARAGUA 269 

(2) Volcan Masaya National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8. 16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 23 May 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 20km southeast of Managua; ir54'-12°00'N, 86°08'-15'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-635m. 

AREA: 5,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Totally owned by the Government of Nicaragua. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area consists of a huge caldera, with two volcanic cones containing a total 
of three craters, one of which is permanently active. Large lava flows extend over most of the caldera and 
the flanks of the volcano . On the eastern edge of the park is the large Laguna de Masaya which is the water 
source for many small towns and villages in the area. The climate is dry tropical; average annual 
temperature is 25°C and rainfall 1,600mm. 

VEGETATION: The flora and vegetation are characteristic of dry tropical forests and savannahs of 
Nicaragua, but due to the scant, poor soil, hot winds and very dry conditions, the shrubs and trees are 
more dwarfed, branched and lignified than the same species in other dry forests. The dominant trees are 
Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Ficus spp., Cordia alliodora, Bursera simaruba, Bombacopsis quinata and 
Acrocomia vinifera. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fauna, particularly mammals, is not particularly abundant due to past 
hunting pressure, but seems to be recovering now. 

ZONING: Both detailed management (master) and interpretative plans exist and they are being rapidly 
implemented (approximately 60% complete at time of writing). The zoning scheme includes i) intangible 
zone, ii) primitive zone, iii) extensive use zone, iv) intensive use zone, v) special use zone and vi) natural 
recuperation zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: There are still some problems with firewood collecting and 
poaching of wildlife (particularly deer), but these are greatly diminished. Small areas formerly grazed by 
cattle and used for subsistence farms are now recovering. Due to the recent civil war the management and 
protection activities of the park were stopped for several months, resulting in some invasions of squatters 
and other disturbances within the park. All these problems are now under control. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Various studies have been carried out, including many on geology and some 
on orchids and general flora. A wildlife survey (particularly mammals) and management 
recommendations have recently been completed. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERL\L: Atwood, J. (1975). A report on the orchids of Volcan Masaya 
and the Masaya Lava flow. Dept. bot. Michigan State Univ: mimeo. 

Incer, J. (1975). Plan Maestro para el establecimiento y Manejo del Area del Volcan Masaya como 
Parque Nacional, CATASTRO. UCA, IGN, Banco Central, Nicaragua, 108 pp. 

McBirney, A. (1956). The Nicaraguan Volcano Masaya and its Caldera. Trans. Amer. Geoph. Union. 

STAFF: A superintendent, a chief warden, 8 guides/park guards and 12 general guards. 

BUDGET: US$ 2,000,000 from Banco Central for 1977-80, and an additional contribution of 
approximately US$ 500,000 from Public Works and Agriculture Ministeries. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Reinaldo Arostegui, Superintendent, Volcan 
Masaya National Park, Banco Central de Nicaragua, Apto. 2252, Managua, Nicaragua. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



270 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



PANAMA 



AREA: 77,080 sq km. 

POPULATION: 1,718,700(1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Law #12 of 25 January 1975 created the Natural Renewable 
Resources Directorate and established its general functions in wildlands conservation. Law #39 of 
September 1966, the General Forestry Law, provides for the declaration of Special Forest Reserves, for 
scientific, educational, historic, touristic, recreational or other reasons and includes public parks, 
biological reserves, recreation areas etc. The Torrijos-Carter Treaty on the Panama Canal established the 
Barro Colorado Natural Monument (BCNM). 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Natural Renewable Resources Directorate (RE- 
NARE). The Panamanian Institute of Tourism is managing the Portobelo National Park, in collaboration 
with RENARE. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) is managing the BCNM. 

ADDRESS: (a) Departamento de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, Direccion General de 
Recursos Naturales Renovables (RENARE). 

(b) Ministerio de Desarrollo Agropecuario (MIDA), Apartado 2016, Panama City, 
Panama. 

(c) Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI), PO Box 2072, Balboa, Panama. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 660,902 ha approx. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Darien (World Heritage Site) 597,000 

2 La Amistad (International) (proposed)* 200,000 

3 Soberania 22,000 

4 Portobelo 17,364 

5 Volcan Baru 14,322 

6 Altos de Campana 4,816 

Natural Monuments 

1 Barro Colorado 5,400 

Anthropological Reserve 

1 Comarca San Bias Unknown 

* This area is not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



PANAMA 271 

(1) Darien National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II & X (National Park & World Heritage Site). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.2.1 (Panamanian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 7 August 1980, and accepted as a World Heritage Site in 1981. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park is located in the province of Darien; 7°10'-8°30'N, 

77°20'-78°20'W. 

ALTITUDE: From sea level to 1500m. 

AREA: 597,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Over 90% national land; the rest is occupied for traditional agriculture by Chocoe ana 
Cuna Indians. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: This park covers about 80% of the international border between Panama and 
Colombia. The Pacific tides (from 3.8m to 6.1m) affect the Chucunaque and Tuira rivers for many 
kilometres inland twice daily. There are beaches, rocky coasts, freshwater marshes and swamps. The 
mean annual temperature is 26°C, and annual rainfall is 2,500-3,500mm on the Atlantic side and 
l,800-2,500mm in the central part of the area and on the Pacific side. There are two groups of indigenous 
people within the park, the Choco people, and the more traditionally organised Cuna Indians. 

VEGETATION: The Darien forests have been characterized by scientists as the most diverse 
ecosystems of tropical America, and they are still relaiively undisturbed. The most conspicuous and 
common species in the area is the 'cuipo' Cavanillesiaplatanifolia. Premontane and montane forest occurs 
above 200m altitude, and these forests include several types of botanically interesting ecosystems, 
including cloud forest and the elfin forest of Cerro Pirre. The wetland forest along the Chucunaque and 
Tuira rivers is often covered by pure stands of 'cativo' Priona copaifera, this species being the most utilized 
timber tree in the region. There are some mangroves along the Pacific coast, the more common species 
being Rhizophora mangle, Avicenia nitida, Laguncularia racemosa. Mora oleifera and Pterocarpyus 
officinalis. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There have been few studies on the fauna. Among the mammals present in 
the area can be mentioned the bush dog Speothos venaticus (V), giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla 
(V), capybara Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris , douroucoulis Aotus trivirgatus, brown-headed spider monkey 
Atelesfusciceps, ocelot Felis pardalis (V) and Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (V). The harpy eagle Harpia 
harpyia (R) is also found here, as are the crocodilians Caiman crocodilus fuscus (V) and Crocodylus acutus 
(E). 

ZONING: None yet applied. The Master Plan proposed the following zones: absolute conservation 
zone, cultural zone (subdivided into cultural conservation sub-zone and active cultural sub-zone) and 
development zone. It is expected that this will require revision as more detailed ecological, ethnological 
and socio-economic data are gathered. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: This area constitutes the only remaining gap in the entire 
Pan-American Highway, which is under construction and will bisect the park. Precautions and regulations 
for its potential impact have been taken. The towns of El Real and Boca de Cupoe are very close to the 
area and the majority of their inhabitants have small farms inside the park. There are very hmited areas of 
agriculture and disturbed forest near the Chocoe and Cuna Indian villages, principally along river courses. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Only a few studies have been pubhshed. These deal mainly with the flora, 
vegetation and general ecology of the area. The area has not yet been well studied. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None per se, but RENARE has constructed administration/ 
living-quarters in Yaviza, near the park. This is the provisional administrative centre for the park and can 
receive limited scientific use. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dalfelt , A . and Morales, R . , eds ( 1 978) . Plan Maestro para el 
establecimiento y manejo del Parque Nacional Darien, Panama. RENARE, COPFA, CATIE. 213 pp. 

lUCNAVWF Project 1648. Proposed Darien National Park. 

Morales, R. and MacFarland, C (1979). Plan Operativo para el Parque Nacional Darien, 1979-81. 
RENARE/CATIE. 35 pp. 



272 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

Morales, R. and MacFarland, C. eds. (1979). El Manejo conjunto de la zona fronteriza del Darien. 
Primera Reunion Colombo-Panamena. CATIE, Informe Tec. No. 5 1980. 52 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent and three forest inspectors. 

BUDGET: In 1979 US$ 10,100 from RENARE, US$ 5,000 from WWF; 1980 US$ 15,000 RENARE, 
US$ 17,000 WWF; 1981 US$ 20,000 RENARE, US$ 25,000 WWF, US$ 10,000 other Panamanian 
government sources. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Biol. Ramon Alvarado, National Parks and 
Wildlife Department, RENARE, Apartado 2016, Ciudad de Panama, Panama. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(3) Soberania National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.2.1 (Panamanian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. The recreational areas will be managed by STRI (Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute) and become a National Monument in 1979. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 March 1979, by Presidential Decree. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The park occupies a major section of the eastern bank of the Panama 
Canal, and is 2km from Barro Colorado Island; 9°05'-17'N, 79°35'-50'W. 

ALTITUDE: 20-200m. 

AREA: Approximately 22,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area is contiguous with several small forested peninsulas (800 ha in total) . 
It is mostly composed of flattish areas and low rolling hills, but with some steep areas of 45°-70°. 
May-December is a very wet season and January-April is the dry season. Average annual rainfall is 
probably around 3,500mm, and the average annual temperature about 28°C. 

VEGETATION: Primarily covered by mature lowland tropical rainforest (Very Wet Tropical Forest in 
the Holdridge System) , with some sections covered by 60-70 year old secondary growth forest. The flora is 
estimated at a minimum of 1,500 species. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There is a vertebrate fauna of at least 650 species, 560 of them birds. 20 of 
those 650 are currently listed as endangered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and CITES. The highest 
one-day bird count in the world (333 species) was made in these forests in 1976. A rich invertebrate fauna 
is expected, but has still been little studied. 

ZONING: The Management Plan establishes the following zoning: intangible zone, primitive zone, 
intensive use zone, extensive use zone, special use zone and recovering zone. The park includes several 
small Canal Zone settlements and the Summit horticultural gardens with a small zoo and good 
recreational areas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Over the past 15 years encroachment on the area by 
'campesinos' has increased notably, and several thousand hectares at least have been cut and burned for 
agricultural use. There is extreme danger that this will sharply increase in the future. Illegal hunting is also 
quite common. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: There has been some research over the years, but nothing extensive. 
However, the similar forests, fauna and flora of Barro Colorado Island are probably the most extensively 
studied tropical forests in the world; since 1923, hundreds of scientific studies have been conducted there. 
Soberania is easily accessible by train and paved road. 



PANAMA 273 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None per se; however STRI has extensive facilities on nearby 
Barro Colorado Island. Some old hunting club facilities in the 'Pipeline Road' area could be renovated for 
basic research facilities. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Grandi, C, Morales, R. and MacFarland, C. (1980). Plan 
Operativo Parque Nacional Soberania, 1980-81. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 15pp. 

Hidalgo, Y., MacFarland, C, and Grandi, C. (1981). Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Soberania 
RENARE/CATIE. 200 pp. 

REN ARE (1979). Various personal communications. 

STRI (1979). Various personal communications. 

US AID (1978). Panama Project Paper; Watershed Management, Dept. of State, AID, Washington 
DC. 71 pp + 11 annexes. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 15 wardens and 10 general workers. 

BUDGET: US$ 500,000-700,000 for 1979-83 as part of Government of Panama (RENARE) - US AID 
(loan funds) Watershed Management Project. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Professor Dimas Botello, Director Parque 
Nacional Soberania, RENARE, MIDA, Apdo. 2016, Panama, Panama. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(4) Portobelo National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.2.1 (Panamanian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 22 December 1976, by Legislative Decree #91. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: This park is located in the Portobelo District, Province of Colon; 

9°47'-9°39'N, 79°47'-79°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: From sea level to 979m (Cerro Bruja). 

AREA: 17,364 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 73% national lands, 20% private lands, 7% government farms. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area has about 70km of coastline with many bays, islands, mangroves and 
swampy areas. Historically Portobelo Bay is the most important feature of the park. This site was selected 
by the Spaniards to build a fortification to defend the port from where gold brought from Peru by land was 
shipped to Spain. Some remains of this fortification still exist in the area. Some of the ruins of the complex 
(houses, church, customs building, canons, military fortifications) are well preserved. 

VEGETATION: Following the system of Holdridge there are four life zones in the park: 1) Tropical 
Moist Forest, 2) Tropical Wet Forest, 3) Premontane Wet Forest, and 4) Premontane Rain Forest. 
Besides the dense and heterogeneous forest existing in the area there are large swampy areas covered by 
mangroves. The annual precipitation is 4,800mm, and the mean temperature 25.9°C. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Because of the existence of different ecosystems inside the park, a good 
diversity of species and a healthy population of animals are expected. The several coral formations along 
the coast indicate a rich marine fauna. The hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (E) periodically uses 
the beaches of the park to nest. 

ZONING: The zoning recommended in the Management and Development Plan has not been 
implemented yet. It includes proposals for the following: primitive, extensive use, intensive use, 
historical-cultural and special use zones. 



274 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Inside the park there is a human population of approximately 
5,000 people, who produce severe disturbances in the park from agriculture, hunting, pollution etc. The 
colonial fortification ruins are occupied by Portobelo town, causing considerable physical damage to the 
ruins. Aesthetically, the mixture of beautiful old ruins and modern poorly-constructed houses is not 
pleasant, nor does it coincide with the purposes of the park. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A few general surveys of flora , vegetation , fauna and natural resources have 
been carried out by L.R. Holdridge, G. Budowski and E.C. Webster. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dalfelt, A., Thelen, K., Tovar, D., Guerra, C. and Sanjur, 
A. (1975). Plan de Manejo y Desarrollo para el propuesto Parque Nacional Portobelo, Panama. 
FAO/PNUD/IPAT/ RENARE. 83 pp. 

N de la Rosa, G.C. and Varela, C.E. 91977). Caracteristicas socio-economicas de la comunidad de 
Nuevo Tonosi (Portobelo). RENARE, Panama. 91 pp. 

Tovar, D. (1972). Estudio preliminar para el Plan de Manejo del Propuesto Parque Nacional 
Portobelo, RENARE. Panama. 

STAFF: The Panamanian Institute of Tourism (IP AT) and RENARE have approximately 5 guards and 
1 social worker in the area. 

BUDGET: US$ 17,290 from RENARE for 1979, plus an unknown amount from IPAT. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Instituto Panameno de Turismo (IPAT), Panama 
City, Panama; RENARE, Apartado 2016, Panama City, Panama. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(5) Volcan Baru National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.16.4 (Central American). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 24 June 1976 by decree no. 40. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the mountains of western Panama, approximately 15 miles from the 
Costa Rican border; 8°45'-52'N, 82°29'-37'W. 

ALTITUDE: 1,544-3, 475m. 

AREA: 14,322 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Almost all government land, but approximately 15% is occupied by squatters. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Volcan Baru, the highest mountain in Panama, is situated in the Talamanca 
Mountains. It is also known as Volcan de Chiriqui. The entire area is of volcanic origin, the mountain 
being an 'old' eroded volcano. The rocks are mainly andesites and pumice, and there are several crater 
formations. The climate is sub-tropical, with a wet season (May-December) and a dry season 
(December- April). Average annual rainfall at 2,000m above sea level is 4,000mm; average annual 
temperature at the same altitude is 20°C. 

VEGETATION: There are two vegetation types identified by the Holdridge system, Premontane Wet 
Tropical Forest and Montane Wet Tropical Forest. Cloud and elfin forest at higher elevations is 
spectacular with large numbers of epiphytes. The dominant trees are various oaks, especially Quercus 
copeyensis. 'Llanos' (grassy plains) are found at lower levels on the arid poorly weathered soils of some of 
the old larva flows. Subalpine plants are common near the park, where the vegetation is of a unique 
tropical subalpine paramo type. 



PANAMA 275 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The park has a very rich avifauna and among notable species are quetzal 
Pharomachrus mocinno (V) and great curassow Crax rubra. Notable mammals include collared peccary 
Tayassu tajacu, agouti Cuniculus paca, southern coati Nasua nasua, puma Felis concolor and red brocket 
deer Mazama americana. A number of threatened species have been recorded here in the past, or are 
likely to be found here, but no recent information was available when this sheet was edited. 

ZONING: The Management Plan, including recommendations for zoning and management of 
surrounding areas, was completed June 1981. The zoning of the park includes intangible, primitive, 
extensive use, intensive use, recuperation and special use zones. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Estimates indicate that approximately 500 families have small 
agricultural plots inside the park. Clearing of land (deforestation) and fires are a serious and increasing 
problem. Illegal hunting is common. Overall integral management of the watershed is crucially needed. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Considerable research on flora and vegetation is being carried out by 
Missouri Botanical Garden. Avian studies have been done by A. Wetmore and H. Loftin, and a general 
survey carried out in early 1972 by A. LaBastille. The Management Plan includes an extensive 
compilation of information on biophysical and socio-economic aspects of the park and surrounding areas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None; however, nearby hotels in Boquete and Cerro Punta 
provide a good logistical base for research in the park. There are numerous trails in the park. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Holdridge, L.R. and Budowski, G. (1965). Report of an 
ecological survey of the Republic of Panama. Caribbean Forester 17: 92-110. 

LaBastille, A. (1973). An ecological survey of the proposed Volcan Bam National Park, Republic of 
Panama. lUCN Occ. Paper No. 6, 77 pp. 

MacFarland, C. and Zadroga, F. (1981). Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Volcan Baru y 
Recomendaciones sobre la ordenacion de la region adyacente. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 276 pp. -I- 
4 apendices. 

STAFF: A superintendent, 2 inspectors and 2 wardens, all part-time, and with other functions in the 
province. 

BUDGET: US$ 8,840, in 1979 from the Panamanian Government (RENARE); one of two major 
Volcan Baru watersheds (Rio Caldera) will receive approximately US$ 1,000,000 over the next five years 
as part of the RENARE-US AID Watershed Management Project (GOP and AID financing). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Sr. Aquilino Sanjur, Director, Parque Nacional 
Volcan Baru, RENARE, MIDA, Apartado 2016, Panama City, Panama. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(6) Altos de Campana National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAFHICAL PROVINCE: 8.2.1 (Panamanian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 April 1977, by law 35. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the Pacific coast, 60 km southwest of Panama City; 8°39'-44'N, 
79°49'-57'W. 

ALTITUDE: 250-1, 034m. 

AREA: 4,816 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Approximately 65% government land, 35% private holdings (about 300 persons have 
land inside the park). 



276 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The area is composed entirely of steep slopes (45°-75°) and the base rocks are 
volcanics and intrusives. The area is one of the major sources of water for the Panama Canal watershed. 
There is a wet season of 9 months, and a dry season of 3 months; average annual rainfall is 2,700mm. and 
average annual temperature 21-22°C. 

VEGETATION: Premontane Humid Tropical Forest and Montane Tropical Forest (Holdridge system) . 
About 50% of the area is primary forest, the remainder secondary forest, except approximately 500 ha in 
agricultural use. The most common tree species are Didymopanax morototoni, Tabebuia guayacan, 
Cordia alliodora, Swartzia panamensis and Bursera simarouba. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fauna is relatively abundant. Over 175 species of birds have been 
recorded for the park. Common mammals include the opossums Caluromys derbianus and Didelphis 
marsupialis, the white bat Diclidurus virgo and the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundas, collared 
peccary Tayassu tajacu and red brocket deer Mazama americana. A sizeable population of the golden frog 
Atelopus zeteki exists in the park. 

ZONING: The management plan calls for the following zones: 1) intangible zone, 2) primitive zone, 3) 
extensive use zone, 4) intensive use zone. Zoning has only been slightly implemented. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Substantial problems have been caused by forest fires (usually 
set by local inhabitants) and cutting of forest for agriculture. Illegal hunting is common. These problems 
are increasing every year. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Various studies of flora, vegetation and fauna, but the area is still not well 
studied. Some of the principle papers are by H. Loftin and L.R. Holdridge. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. There is a small administrative centre sometimes 
available for use by scientists. 

PRINCU>AL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Morales, R , MacFariand, C. and Chang, R. (1979). Plan 
Operativo del Parque Nacional Altos de Campana 1979-81. 34 pp. 

Tovar, D., Dalfelt, A. et al. (1975). Plan de manejo y Desarrollo de Parque Nacional 'Altos de 
Campana'. RENARE, MIDA, Panama. 48 pp. 

STAFF: A superintendent, a technician and 2 labourers. 

BUDGET: US$ 278,713 for 1979-83 as part of the Watershed Management Project (principally Panama 
Canal Watershed) to be carried out by RENARE (financed by the Government of Panama and US AID 
loan funds). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Lie. Camilo Grandi . Jefe del Servicio de Parques 
Nacionales, RENARE, MIDA, Apartado 2016, Panama City, Panama. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFariand. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



(1) Barro Colorado Natural Monument 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Scientific Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.2.1 (Panamanian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Barro Colorado Island has been protected since 1924. The entire monument 
was estabhshed on 1 October 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located in and around one portion of Gatun Lake (Panama Canal); 
9°6'-9°irN, 79°50'-79°48'W. 

ALTITUDE: 26-171m. 

AREA: 5,400 ha approximately (with a core area of 1,600 ha). 



PANAMA 277 

LAND TENURE: 100% government land. Under the terms of the Torrijos-Carter Panama Canal 
Treaty, the management is placed under the care of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) 
at least until 1999. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Artificial islands, peninsulas and bays produced by the construction of the 
Panama canal and the consequent creation of Gatun Lake. Annual average temperature at 45m is 28°C 
and annual average precipitation at 45m is 2500mm. 

VEGETATION: Essentially the same as for Soberania National Park: see sheet for that park. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Outstanding number of bird species and other groups of animal life. 
Essentially the same as for Soberania National Park: see sheet for that park. Including spider monkey 
Ateles geoffroyi (V) (reintroduced in 1961 - free-ranging group now increasing), ocelot Felis partialis (V), 
margay F. wiedii (V), jaguarondi F. yagouaroundi (I), otter Lutra longicaudis, mantled howler >l/owa«a 
palliata and Geoffrey's tamarin Saguinus oedipus all at stable population level. 

ZONING: A very preliminary zoning scheme exists to determine where different types of research 
(strictly observational, limited, collecting allowed, heavier manipulation) may be conducted. STRI 
intends to prepare a long term management plan some time during 1981 or 1982. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some small portions of some of the peninsulas (which were 
added to Barro Colorado Island to form the Monument per se) were used for agriculture until October 
1979. Those are now in recuperation. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: This area is probably the most intensively investigated (as regards biology 
and ecology) in the tropics, having been visited and studied by hundreds of biologists for more than fifty 
years. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A research station with laboratories, dormitories, houses, a 
dining hall, small shops, lake transport, etc. for up to 25-30 researchers at a time, is located on Barro 
Colorado Island. There is an environmental training/education programme. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Management plan. Hundreds of papers have been published 
on many aspects of the ecology and biology of the fauna, flora, communities etc. of Barro Colorado Island. 
More hmited work has been done on the surrounding peninsulas, in Soberania National Park. 

STAFF: A resident director, a chief warden and 6 wardens plus support staff (cooks, secretary, etc.). 
The scientific facilities on Barro Colorado Island are run by 22 professional staff, 51 mid-level, 13 guards 
and 30 labourers. 

BUDGET: Information not available. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Dr Ira Rubinoff, Director, Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute. (STRI), PO Box 2072, Balboa, Panama, tel. 52 5539. Ing. Humberto Ocana, 
Director, BCNM, STRI, PO Box 2072, Balboa, Panama. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Craig MacFarland. 

INFORMATION DATED: 15 June 1981. 



278 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



PARAGUAY 



AREA: 406,750 sq km. 

POPULATION: 2,804,703 (1977 census). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The National Forestry Service was created by the forestry 
law, law 422 of 23 November 1973, and its regulatory Decree 11.681 (6 January 1975) estabhshed the 
Department of Forest Management, National Parks and Wildlife. This Decree also refers to the selection 
of areas for national park status, their use, management and administration. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: This is the responsibility of the Department of Forest 
Management, National Parks and WildUfe within the National Forestry Service. There are, however, 
other dependencies in the Ministry of Defence, Institute of Rural Welfare and elsewhere which hold 
certain responsibilities over the same areas. National Parks are defined as intangible or wild areas in which 
all utilisation of natural resources is prohibited. National Reserves are areas which are of scientific value 
because of the natural resources found there. National Protected Forests may have a variety of roles, and 
may have been established for conservation, watershed protection or even for economic reasons (i.e. price 
regulation). WildUfe refuges are areas managed for the protection of individual species of groups of 
species (resident or migratory). 

ADDRESS: Servicio Forestal Nacional, Departamento de Manejo de BosqUes, Parques Nacionales y 
Vida Silvestre, Tacuari 443, 4to Piso, Asuncion, Paraguay. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 1,239,538 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Defensores del Chaco 780,000 

2 Tinfunque 280,000 

3 Teniente Encisco* 40,000 

4 Caaquazu 6,000 

5 Cerro Cora 5,538 

6 Ybycui 5,000 

7 Salto del Guaira* 900 

National Reserve 

1 Kuriy 2,000 

2 Cerro Lambare* 3 

Protected Forests 

1 Yakui 1,000 

2 Nacunday 1,000 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



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280 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Parque Nacional Defensores del Chaco 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.21.4 (Gran Chaco). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: 100%. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 6 de Julio de 1975 por Decreto No. 16,806. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Chaco Boreal; 20°S, 60°30W'. 

ALTITUDE: 100 metres promedio sobre el nivel del mar. 

AREA: 780,000 ha 

LAND TENURE: Propiedad estatal la totalidad del area. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Parque Nacional esta ubicado en la region noreste del pais, a una distancia 
de 830 kilometres por carretera de la capital, Asuncion. La region donde se ubica el Parque se denomina 
Chaco que constituye una vasta llanura aluvial flanqueada por los rios Paraguay y Pilcomayo, cubierta por 
bosques bajos y arbustos espinosos. La topografia es plana, la altura es de 100 metros promedio a 
excepcion del cerro Leon de 350 metros. Las lluvias se producen con mayor intensidad en los meses de 
Diciembre a Abril y el promedio anual varia entre 500 y 800mm. La temperatura media anual es de 26°C 
con altas variaciones extremas, 7°C invierno y 42°C en verano. 

VEGETATION: Es de caracter xerofitico y esta constituida por un bosque seco con arboles de madera 
dura cuya distribucion evita las tierras elevadas por ser estas demasiado secas. Las especies arboreas mas 
notables son los quebrachos Aspidosperma quebracho bianco, Schinopsis balansae (quebracho Colorado), 
tambien abunda el samuhu el palo borracho Chorisia sp. el algarrobo Prosopis sp. , el palo santo Bulnesia 
sarmientii, el guayacan Caesalpinia paraguariensLs . 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: El chaco representa una region biogeografica de especiales caracteristicas y 
algunas especies destacan por su exclusividad como el Pecari del Chaco Catagonus wagneri (V) 
descubierto para la ciencia solo en 1974 (Wetzel, 1974) y tambien las aves corredoras Cariamidae Chunga 
burmeisteri. Algunas de los mamiferos mas comunes ademas del Catagonus con los pecaries Tayassu 
tajacu y Tayassu pecari, el tapir Tapirus terrestris tambien el armadillo de tres bandas Tolypeutes matacus, 
armadillo de neuve bandas Dasypus novemcinctus un roedor como la mara Dolichotis salinicola. un 
lagomorpha Silvilagus brasiliensis , algunos monos Aotus trivirgatus y Callicebus, y Myrmecophaga 
tridactyla (V). Carnivoros como el jaguar Panthera onca (V), ocelote Felis pardalis (V), el puma F. 
concolor. el tigrillo F. wiedii (V), y el zorro de monte Cerdocyon thous. Entre los anfibios interesantes 
estan Lepidobalrachus, Ceratiophrys, y Phyllomedusa sauvagei y Reptiles Bolhrops spp. 

ZONING: Existen: i) zona intangible, ii) zona primitiva, iii) zone de uso extensivo, iv) zone de uso 
intensivo, v) zone de uso especial, vi) zona de recuperacion. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No conocidos. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Inventario Biologico Nacional (fauna y flora). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: 1 casa para guardaparque y administracion. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Torres, H. (1978). Conservacion y Manejo de la Fauna 
Silvestre del Parque Nacional Defensores del Chaco. UNFAO. Doc. de Trabajo No. 2, 6/PAR/6702/T. 

STAFF: 1 administrador, 4 guardaparques, 2 empleados. 

BUDGET: No especificado, el SFN entrega fondos para alguna necesidades del Parque. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Silvino Gonzalez, Administrado Parque Nacional 
Defensores del Chaco, Servicio Forestal Nacional Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, 
Paraguay. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni y H. Torres. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 enero de 1980. 



PARAGUAY 281 

(2) Parque Nacional Tinfunque 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.21.4 (Gran Chaco). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Propiedades privadas forman casi todo el Parque Nacional. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 4 de Marzo de 1966 por Decreto No. 18.205. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Departamento Presidente Hayes; 24°30'S, 59°W. 

ALTITUDE: 100 metros sobre el mar aproximadamente. 

AREA: 280,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Privada, casi toda la superficie del Parque esta formada por estancias particulares y no 

hay terrneos estatales. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Parque Nacional se encuentra en la region noreste, bordeando la ribera 
norte del rio Pilcomayo, en un sector que permanece inundad durante todo el ano, dando lugar a la 
formacion de extensos pantanos. Otro gran sector del parque, lo constituyen vastas llanuras secas de una 
cubierta vegetal formada por pastos y arbustos. Las lluvias oscilan entre los 500 y los 800 milimetros 
anuales distribuidos principalmente en los meses de verano y con temperaturas medias anuales de 26°C. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion se caracteriza por la predominancia de una sabana herbacea donde 
aparecen algunas gramineas, la palma de caranday Copernica australis es la especie forestal mas 
abundante. En algunos sectores aparecen una densa formacion arbustiva en la que se identifican algunas 
cataceas y bromehaceas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Los mamiferos presentes muestran algunas diferencias respecto a otras 
unidades de conservacion de la region occidental del pais, destacando una relativa abundancia de 
carpinchos Hydrochoerus . la presencia probable del ciervo de los pantanos Blastrocenis dichotomus (V) y 
del coipo Myocastor coypus. Tambien se encuentra el pecari Tayassu. el armadillo gigante Priodontes 
giganteus (V), la mara Dolichotis y venados Mazama. Las aves son abundantes y presentan una grean 
diversidad de especies, gran parte de los cuales son migratorias y destacan el jabiru Jabiru mycteria, el 
flamenco Phoenicopterus . la espatula Platalea, el chaja Chauna torquata, patos Cairina y Anas. El reptil 
de mayor importancia es el yacare Caiman. 

ZONING: No hay. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: El Parque Nacional ha sido creado sobre terrenos de propiedad 
particular formados por numerosas estancias cuya actividad economica es la ganaderia extensiva de 
vacunos. El creciente numero de ganado domestico ha traido como consecuencia un abundante contagio a 
los animales silvestres de enfermedades que causan estragos entre las poblaciones, como la fiebre aftosa y 
otros. No se conocen los limites del parque y tampoco el numero de estancias que se encuentran dentro. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No hay. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No hay. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No hay. 

STAFF: No hay. 

BUDGET: No hay. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: No hay. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni y H. Torres. 

INFORMATION DATED: Enero de 1980. 

OBS: Estos informes son tentativos, una vez realizado el viaje al predio del 
Parque en los meses de Julio-Agosto (1982) se confirmara estos informes. 



282 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Parque Nacional Teniente Encisco 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.21.4 (Gran Chaco). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: No tiene decreto de creacion oficial. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: No hay. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Departamento de Nueva Asuncion en la region del Alto Chaco; 

22°30' S, 61° 62'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100 metros sobre el mar aproximadamente. 

AREA: Se ha propuesto 40,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Propiedad estatal la totaUdad del area. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El parque nacional esta unido a la Capital Asuncion por la carretera 
Transchaco, las Uuvias oscilan entre los 500 y 800 miUmetros anuales que se distribuyen entre los meses de 
Noviembre a Abril. La temperatura media anual es de 26°C. Se ha propuesto una superficie de 23,000 ha, 
el limite oeste de 23 kilometros corre paralelo a la ruta transchaco, el limite norte y sur son 
perpendiculares a la misma carretera y se extienden en 10 kilometros, y su hmite este tiene la misma 
longitud del lado oeste configurando un gran rectangulo. 

VEGETATION: El tipo de vegetacion orediminante es le bosque xerofilo con un estrato herbaceo de 
gramineas y numerosas cactaceas y bromehaceas. Los especies arboreas mas caracteristicas son los 
quebrachos colorados Schinopsis, por lo general asociados con el quebracho bianco Aspidosperma 
quebracho bianco, el palo borracho Chorisia y, varias especies de Prosopis. Son muy frecuentes dos 
cactaceas Opuntia quimilo y Cereus coryne y algunas bromeliaceas espinosas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Entre los marsupiales encontramos a la zarigueya Didelphis azarae, y en los 
carnivores al lobo de crin Chrysocyon brachyurus (V) uno de los animales mas representatives de la 
region, al jaguar Panthera onca (V), al puma Felis concolor, algunos monos, como el aullador/4/oMaffa, el 
mirikina Aotus trivirgatus, y el mono de noche Cebus. Entre los cervidos destaca el venado rojo Mazama 
americana, se encuentra tambien el armadillo gigante Priodontes giganteus (V), el oso hormiguero 
Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V). Pero el mamifero de mayor relevancia es el pecari del Chaco Catagonus 
wagneri (V) especie endemica que fue descubierta para la ciencia hace solo unos anos y cuya poblacion es 
abundante en el propuesto parque nacional. Las aves mas tipicas son las cariamidae Chunga burmeisteri y 
Cariama cristata. Tambien se encuentran la charata Ortalis, el jabiru7afc/>M mycteria, garzas Egretta. loros 
Amazona y algunos carpinteros Chrysoptilus . Los reptiles son diversos y numerosos siendo los principales 
la tortuga de tierra Testudo, las boas Constrictor, Epicrates, algunas viboras como la cascabel Crotalus y 
Bothrops. Los anfibios son tambien numerosos y hay dos especies endemicas, Leptodactylus laticeps y 
Ceratophrys pierotti. Existe un pez pulmonado Lepidosiren paradoxa. 

ZONING: No hay. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Actividades petroleras pasadas han dejado huellas y 
materiales. Hay caza ilegal pero es pequena la cantidad de denuncias. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No hay. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: 1 casa para administracion y guardaparques. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERLVL: Torres, H. (1979). Bases para el desarrollo del Parque 
Nacional Teniente Enciso con enfasis en sus recursos faunisticos. UNFAO/SFN 6/PAR/6702/T. 

STAFF: 1 guardaparque. El ejercoto comparte el control y vigilancia con un pequeno destacamento. 

BUDGET: No especificado, el SFN entrega fondos para algunas necesidades del Parque. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: No hay. Contacto con Servicio Forestal Nacional, 
Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia. Tacuari 443, Piso 3° Asuncion, Paraguay. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni y H. Torres. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 de Enero de 1980. 



PARAGUAY 283 

(4) Parque Nacional Caaquazu 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.8.2 (Brazilian Rain Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 100%. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 23 de Febrero de 1973 por Decreto No. 20.933. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Departamento de Caazapa; 26°S, 56°W. 

ALTITUDE: 150-480m sobre el mar. 

AREA: 6,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Propiedad estatal la totalidad del area, pero se desafectara 5,000 ha que seran 
destinadas a explotacion forestal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Parque se halla irrigado por afluentes del rio Parana y rio Paraguay. La 
superficie del parque es plana en su mayor parte , separadas por cordilleras bien definidas . La precipitacion 
anual es 1,600mm y la temperature media dea ano 22°-23°C. 

VEGETATION: El Parque incluye muchas especies forestales de gran interes economico y de primera 
calidad entre las que destacan el cedro Cedrela sp. y lapacho Tabebuia sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna ha sido perseguida intensamente y la actividad forestal provoca 
disturbios en las poblaciones de animates. Las especies mas frecuentes son el coati Nasua, el mono 
Alouatta y Cebus tambien el zorro Dusycion. Entre los reptiles Crotalus, Bothrops y lagarto Tupinambis. 

ZONING: Se ha propuesto: i) zona intangible, ii) zona de recuperacion, iii) zona de uso especial, iv) 
zona de uso extensivo. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Al sur y oeste del parque existen muchas zonas ya alteradas por 
la agricultura, ganaderia y explotacion forestal. Una casa de guardaparque. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No hay. 

SPECL4L SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERLU.: Wetterberg, Gary B. (1977). Marco general para planes de 
manejo para unidades del sistema de parques nacionales paraguayos con aplicacion practica en el Parque 
Nacional Caaguazu. Doc. de Trabajo No. 15 UN FAO - PAR/72/001. 

STAFF: No hay. 

BUDGET: No hay. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: No hay. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni y H. Torres. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 de Enero de 1980. 



(5) Parque Nacional Cerro Cora 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.30.10 (Campos Cerrados). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 11 de Febrero de 1976 por Decreto 20.698. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Departamento de Amambay; 2r30 'S, 6rw. 

ALTITUDE: 250-470m sobre el mar. 



284 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

AREA: 5,538 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Propiedad estatal la totalidad del area. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El area del Parque Nacional se caracteriza por la presencia de cerros aislados 
y abruptos algunos de los cuales superan los 450 metros, valles de vegetacion baja y numerosos rios y 
arroyos completan el paisaje. El clima se caracteriza por una precipitacion que oscila entre los 1,200 y 
1 ,600mm aunque existe una marcada estacion seca desde Mayo a Setiembre. La temperatura media anual 
varia de 21° a 25°C. 

VEGETATION: Predominan los bosques alto con arboles de 20 a 30m y sabana con un estrato bajo de 

hiervas y pastos y estrato superior de palmeras cortas y arbustos bajos, estrato arbustivo importante y otro 
herbaceo muy rico en leguminosas y gramineas. Destacan el lapacho Tabebuia, y el palo rosa 
Aspidosperma poly neuron. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna es muy escasa, pero destacan los marsupiales Monodelphis y 
Didelphis, mono Aloualla. Algunos carnivoros como el zorro Dusycion. Tambien el venado Mazama 
americana y el aguti Dasyprocta. Las aves son abundantes y las mas comunes son Columba, Zenaida, 
algunas Psitticiformes como Amazona, Forpus y Pipile. Cuculiformes como Guiraguira. tambien picaflor 
Hylocharis y algunas rapaces como Buteo. Accipiter y Parabuteo. Los reptiles mas comunes son Crotalus, 
Bothrops y el lagarto verde Ameiva. 

ZONING: Existen: i) zone primitiva intangible, ii) zona primitiva, iii) zona de recreacion intensiva, iv) 
zone de recreacion extensive, v) zona historica, vi) zone de recuperacion, vii) zona de uso especial. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: El Servicio Forestal y el Ministerio de Defensa comparten la 
administration del parque, faltando coordinacion entre ambos; hay colonos que estan dentro del Parque y 
sacas de madera. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Inventario Biologico Nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No hay. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Plan de Manejo y DesarroUo del Parque Nacional Cerro Cora 
(en estado de publicacion). 

STAFF: 1 administrador, 3 guardaparques y 2 empleados auxiliares. 

BUDGET: No especificado, el S.F.N, entrega fondos para algunas necesidades, tambien hay una caja 
chica del parque. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Carmelo Rodriguez, Administrador Parque 
Nacional Cerro Cora, Servicio Forestal Nacional; Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia. Tacuari 443 
Piso 4to. Asuncion, Paraguay. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni y H. Torres. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 de Enero de 1980. 



(6) Parque Nacional Ybycui 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.6.1 (Madeiran). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: 70 per cent. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 16 de Mayo, por Decreto No. 32772. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Esta ubicado en el Departamento de Paraguari; 25°30'S, 57°W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-400 metros sobre el mar. 

AREA: 5,000 ha. 



PARAGUAY 



285 



LAND TENURE: Estatal, pero todavia hay algunos colonos dentro del parque que son duenos de su 
tierra, los cuales son trasladados en etapas a otros sitios indernizandolos por sus tierras. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Parque esta ubicado en el Departamento de Paraguari, a 151 kilometres de 
Asuncion la capital del pais. El area se caracteriza por la presencia de colinas de pendiente suave y por 
valles con arroyos y vertientes permanentes. Los cursos de agua mas importantes lo forman los arroyos 
Corrientes y Mina, a los que en su recorrido se agregan otros afluentes. Las colinas mas altas tienen una 
altura de 350 a 400 metros sobre el mar. La precipitacon promedio anual es de 1,500mm y tiene una 
estacion mas seca en el invierno y precipitaciones abundantes en el verano. La temperatura media varia 
entre los 22° a 24°C. 

VEGETATION: Esta formado por arboles de 20 a 30 metros de altura, con estratos de arboles menores y 
un suotobosque denso de bambies y de helechos arborescentes. No se advierten especies dominantes y 
comparten el terreno una gran diversidad de especies en densidades que varian de lugar a lugar. La 
superficie del bosque alto tiene 1,000 ha y representa la ultima muestra forestal no alterada totalmente en 
todo el Departamento de Paraguari. Destacan las especies lapacho Tabebuia ipe, timbo Enterolobium 
controtisiliquuon, kupay Copaifera langsdorfii, Myrtaceae, Myricaria baporeti. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Entre los mamiferos destacan el opossum Monodelphis y la comadreja 
Didelphis, el capuchin o Kai Cebus apella, el mono auUador Alouatta, el osito lavador Procyon 
cancrivorus, el coendu Coendou spinosus, pecari o kure-i Tayassu tajacu y la tamandua Tamandua 
tetradactyla. Entre las aves destacan el Mbigua Anhinga, tucan Pteroglossus ramphastos. Entre los 
reptiles, Bothrops, Micrurus. El pez mas tipico es el dorado Salminus que completa su ciclo biologico al 
Uegar al arroyo Corriente dentro del Parque. 

ZONING: Existen: i) zona primitiva intangible, ii) zona primitiva, iii) zona de recreacion intensiva, iv) 
zona de recreacion extensiva, v) zona historica, vi) zona de recuperacion, vii) zone de uso especial. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: La presencia de colonos dentro del Parque. En un sector del 
Parque, existen algunos problemas con animales domesticos y practicas de agricultura. Con respecto a la 
caza algunos colonos cazan para uso de subsistencia (proteina). 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Inventario Biologico (fauna y flora). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No hay. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Plan de Manejo y Desarrollo Conceptual del Parque 

Nacional Ybycui. Doc. No. 5 FAO/RLAT/TF/199, 1973. 
Plan de Manejo del Parque Nacional Ybycui (en proceso de publicacion). 

STAFF: 1 administrador, 2 guardaparques y 4 empleados auxiliares. 

BUDGET: No especificado, el SFN entrega fondos para algunas necesidades del Parque, como asi 
tambien se cuenta de vez en cuando con una caja chica. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Servicio Forestal Nacional, Departamento de 
Manejo de Bosques, Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre. Tacuari 443 Edificio Patria. Asuncion, 
Paraguay. Ing, Agr. Miguel A. Martini, Administrador del Parque Nacional Ybycui. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni y H. Torres. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 de Enero de 1980. 



286 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



PERU 



AREA: 1,285,215 sq km. 

POPULATION: 16,000,000 (1980). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The two main laws dealing with the establishment and 
running of protected areas are the Decree Law 21 147 of 5 May 1975 (Forestry and Wildlife Law) and the 
Supreme Decree 160-77- AG of 31 March 1977 (Regulations of units of conservation). Conservation units 
are also dealt with in the Agrarian Reform Law 17716 (1969) which states that National Parks and Forests, 
Forest Reserves and archaeological zones declared by law are not to be considered for land distribution 
under the reform law. Conservation units are considered to be public domain, and hence acquired rights 
do not exist relative to them. How this applies to some reserves is unclear from our current information. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Direccion General Forestal y de Fauna of the 
Ministry of Agriculture was responsible for the usual technical activities of the National Parks 
administration under Decree Law 19608 (21 November 1972) and managed some of the parks, while the 
regional organisations of the Ministry were responsible for managing the rest. Since 1981, however, 
INFOR (Instituto Nacional Forestal y de Fauna) has had responsibility for executive management of the 
whole national system of conservation units. Of approximately ten different categories of protected area 
recognised in Peruvian law the present volume contains details of four. The national park is an area 
intended for protection of its flora, fauna and scenic beauty so that it remains in a completely natural state. 
National Reserves are areas where wildlife species of national conservation interest are protected. Under 
some conditions wildlife in these areas can be utilised. National Sanctuaries protect species or 
communities of certain plants or animals in a natural state. They can also protect natural formations of 
scientific or landscape interest. Historical Sanctuaries protect in a natural state those areas important in 
Peruvian history. Other designations include National Forest, Hunting Reserve, Communal Reserve, 
Fishery Reserve and Protection Forest. 

ADDRESS: (a) Direccion General Forestal y de Fauna, Ministerio de Agricultura, Natalio Sanchez 
220 (3er. Pisdo), Lima, Peru, 
(b) Instituto Nacional Forestal y de Fauna, Lima, Peru. 

REFERENCES: Dourojeanni, Marc and Ponce, Carlos F. (1978). Los parques nacionales del Peru, 
INCAFO, Madrid. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 4,295,499 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

(hectares) 

1,532,806 

340,000 

91,300 

18,300 

2,500 

1,387,500 

366,936 

335,000 

64,000 

53,000 

36,180 

6,500 

5,070 

6,815 



National Parks 


1 Manu 


2 Huascaran 


3 Cerros de Amotape 


4 Tingo Maria 


5 Cutervo 


National Reserves 


1 Pacaya Samiria 


2 Salinas y Aguada Blanca 


3 Paracas 


4 Calipuy 


5 Junin 


6 Titicaca 


7 Pampas Galeras 


8 Lachay 


National Sanctuaries 


1 Huayllay 



PERU 287 

2 Calipuy 4,500 

Historica] Sanctuaries 

1 Macchu Picchu 32,592 

2 Chacamarca 2,500 

3 Pampa de Ayacucho* 300 

Biosphere Reserves 

1 Manu (1.881,200) 

2 Huascaran (399,239) 

3 Noroeste (135,000) 

* There is also the Tambopata Natural Wildlife Reserve of 5,500 ha. 

* This area is not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



''-» 



V, 



ECUADOR 



L. 



COLUMBIA 






/ 

/ 









BRAZIL 




PACIFIC 
OCEAN 



Key. 

D NATIONAL 
NATIONAL 
NATIONAL 
HISTORICAL 



O 

o 



PARKS 
RESERVES 
SANCTUARIES 
SANCTUARIES 



BIOSPHERE RESERVES 







100 

L_ 



200 

L_ 



300 
I 



Scale, km. 



PERU 289 

(1) Manu 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1/8.35.12 (AmazonianA'ungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion total de los ecosistemas. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 29 de Mayo de 1973, mediante Decreto Supremo 0644-73-AG. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 7r45'W, 12°00'S. Vertientes orientales de los Andes y Seiva baja, 
principalmente (incluye tambien porciones de las tierras altas de los Andes). Departamentos de Cuzco y 
Madre de Dios. 

ALTITUDE: 500-4,500 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 1.532,806 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Terrenes del estado (grupos natives migratorios). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Fisiografia variada desde las tierras altas (punas) hasta la selva baja, plana, 
pasando por la tipica fisiografia abrupta de las yungas. Incluye, principalmente, la cuenca (media y alta) 
del rio Manu. Debido a su amplia cobertura de ecosistemas los parametros climaticos son amplios: una 
temperatura media anual de 20°C a 24°C (en la selva baja) hasta 5°C (en las partes mas altas). La 
precipitacion rankea desde 1,500 mm hasta mas de 8,000 mm. El material geologico pertenece 
principalmente a las facies continentales sedimentarias. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es pripia de las formaciones bosque muy humedo (prob. la mas grande), 
bosque pluvial, bosque pluvial semisaturado, y paramo pluvial, en los pisos basal, montano bajo, 
montano y subalpino de la region latitudinal subtropical y una pequena representacion del bosque muy 
humedo premontano tropical. En sus bosques muy humedos destaca la presencia de Swietenia sp. y 
Cedrela sp. arboles de maderas finas, Phytelephas macrocarpa (castano). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Entre su fauna destacan: Tremarctos ornatus (V), Mazama chunyi, 
Priodontes giganteus (V) , Lutra incarum, Panthera onca (V), Melanosuchus niger{E) (todas especies muy 
raras o vulnerables) [tambien red uakari Cacajo calvus (V), Pteronura brasiliensis (V) y ocelote Felis 
pardalis (V)]. Su riqueza en aves es tambien muy grande. Opisthocomus hoatzin, Ara spp., Cacicus cela. 

ZONING: Ninguna (plan maestro probable en corto tiempo). 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Probables interferencias con la prospeccion petrolera en un 
futuro cercano. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Varios: sobre Melanosuchus niger, aves, primates por parte de 
universidades extranjeras. Sobre Pteronura brasiliensis por la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. 
Varias antropologicas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Estacion biologica en la laguna Cashu. Los puestos de vigilancia 
tambien son utilizables. Vehiculos terrestres y acuaticos. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Ruiz, Gustavo ( 1979) . Fundamentos y programa de manejo 
para uso publico del Parque Nacional Manu. Tesis para optar el titulo de Ingeniero Forestal. UNA La 
Molina. 183 pp. 

STAFF: 3 profesionales, 2 tecnicos, 27 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: 1979: approx. US$ 65,000; 1980: US$ 100.000; 1981: aprox. US$ 160,000. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: ORDEMAD - Parque Nacional Manu, Huayna 
Capac 146 - Urb. Huanchacc - Cuzco - Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



290 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(2) Huascaran 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion de los ecosistemas de la cordillera blanca y de los monumentos 
arqueologicos. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 de Julio de 1975 mediante. Decreto Supremo 622-75- AG. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Sierra Central del Peru, Departamento de Ancash; 77°18' W, 
09°20' S. 

ALTITUDE: 3,200-6,768 m. 

AREA: 340,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del Estado y comunidades campesinas. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Fisiografia propia de las altas montanas de los Andes. Presencia caracteristica 
de nevados, los mas altos del Peru, 27 montanas mas altas de 6,000 m, que dan nombre a la cordillera 
(Cordillera Blanca). El Huascaran, 6,768 m.s.n.m. es la montana mas alta del Peru. La temperatura 
media anual debe estar alrededor de 3°C (las minimas llegan a -30°C), la precipitacion media anual debe 
estar alrededor de 884 mm. El material geologico es principalmente formado por los sedimentos 
pertenecientes al Jurasico superior marino y plutones del Cretaceo Terciario que conforman el batolito 
andino. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es propia de las formaciones bosque humedo Montano, en sus partes 
mas altas, paramo muy humedo Subalpino y de la tundra pluvial Alpino; de la region Tropical (Sistema 
Holdridge). Destacan los bosques de Polylepis incana y Buddleia sp. asi come los rodales de Puya 
raimondii. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mamiferos, Hippocamelus antisensis (V), Tremarctos ornatus (V), Vicugna 
vicugna (V), Felis concolor, entre las de mas importantes. Aves como: Vultur gryphus , varias especies de 
patos, entre ellas Merganetta armata. 

ZONING: Ninguna oficial (areas preliminares para camping y algunos senderos y senales). 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Pastoreo realizado por los hanitantes de los alrededores, 
recoleccion de hielo, basura en las rutas de montanistas y caminantes. Infraestructure de control 
insuficiente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Varias sobre montanas, lagunas y glaciares principalmente. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: 1 albergue (montanistas, eventualmente cientificos). 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Ministerio de Agricultura (1974). Informe tecnico para 
establecer los limites provisionales del parque nacional Huascaran. Zona Agraria III. Mimeo. Huaraz. 

STAFF: 1 profesional, 3 guardaprques, 1 administrativo, 7 obreros. 1 puesto de vigilancia. 
Destacamento de la Policia Forestal. 

BUDGET: Hasta 1980: 13,000,000 soles (aprox. 40,000 US$). 1981: 7,000,000 soles (aprox. US$ 
18,000). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: ORDENOR-CENTRO, Direccion Regional 
Agricultura y Alimentacion - Proyecto Parque Nacional Huascaran - Av. Las Americas s/No - Telefono 
2128 7 2102 Huaraz. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



PERU 291 

(3) Cerros de Amotape 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.19.4 (Ecuadorian Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion total de los ecosistemas y de especies animales y vegetales en vias 
de extincion, de especies valiosas forestales y de fauna silvestre caracteristica de los bosques del N.O. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 22 de Julio de 1975, mediante Decreto Supremo 0800-75-AG. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Costa Norte de Peru, Departamentos de Tumbes y Piura; 80°37' W, 
04°05' S. 

ALTITUDE: 200-1,613 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 91,300 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del Estado. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El area es caracterizada por la cadena de cerros conocido como 'Cerros de 

Amotapes'. Su relieve es muy variado. Su temperatura media anual es de alrededor de 24°C y la 
pricipitacion media anual 900 mm. El material geologico pertenece principalmente a las facies marinas 
sedimentarias del Siluro-devoniano, constituyendo la base del paleozoico. Su litologia consiste de 
esquistos, cuarcitas oscuras y pizarras negras. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es propia de las formaciones monte espinoso, bosque muy seco; 
tropicales y bosque seco, monte espinoso; Premontano (Sistema Holdridge). Es de destacar la presencia 
de Prosopis juliflora y Bombax sp. y Tillandsia sp., Loxopterygiun huasango, Capparis angulata y 
Caesalpinea corymbosa. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Probable ocurrencia de los ultimos ejemplares de Crocodylus acutus(E), asi 
como: Iguana iguana, Bothrops sp.; aves como Vultur gryphus, Sarcoramphus papa, Burhinus 
superciliaris (Huerequeque), Aratinga wagleri (loro cabeza roja), mamiferos como Odocoileus 
virginianus , Tayassu tajacu, Felis concolor, Eira barbara, Sciurus stramineus y probable ocurrencia 
estacional de Felis pardalis (V) y Pamhera onca (V). 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Pastoreo extensivo, tala y probablemente caza debido a la 
ausencia de patrullaje. Infraestructura de control muy defucuebte. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No tiene. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Brack, A. , Rios, M. y Reyes, F. (1973). Evaluacion y bases 
para el establecimiento de un coto de caza y un Parque Nacional en la Cordillera de los Amotapes. 
Ministerio de Agricultura y Universidad Nac. Agraria. 52 pp. Lima, Peru. 

STAFF: Ninguno por la administracion nacional. Un destacamento de la Policia Forestal. 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Region Agraria I - Piura, Jose Olaya 197 - Piura, 
Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



292 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(4) Tingo Maria 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion del ecosistema y especialmente de Steatornis caripensis. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 12 de Mayo 1965, mediante Ley No. 15574. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Vertientes orientales de los Andes del Centre, Departamento de 
Huanuco; 75°59'30"W. 09°16'15"S. 

ALTITUDE: 1,500-2,500 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 18,000 ha (estimadas). 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del Estado y asentamientos agricolas. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Fisiografia accidentada, pendientes que en general superan el 40 per cent. 
Numerosos riachuelos, quebradas y manantiales. Cavernas y/o grutas. Temperatura media anual de 
aproximadamente 22°C y precipitacion media anual de 3,300 mm. El material geologico pertenece tanto a 
la facies marina sedimentaria como a la facies continental sedimentaria. En el primer caso del 
Triasico-Jurasico inferior a medio (grupo pucara), en el segundo caso corresponden al Permiano medio a 
superior (grupo mitu). 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion corresponde al bosque muy humedo subtropical. Por lo menos existen 
96 spp. de arboles, 17 spp. de palmeras y 31 spp. de arbustos. Destacan Cinchona sp. (cascarilla), 
Calycophyllum spruceanum (capirona negra), Cedreka fissilis. Heisteria pallida (chuchuhuasi), Croton 
spp. (sangre de grado) y palmas como Mauritia vinifera, Euterpe precatoria. Jessenia sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna es reducida en especies y numero. Destacan aves como: Steatornis 
caripensis (guacharo), Rupicola peruviana y probablemente Momotus momota; mamiferos como Felis 
pardalis (V) y Felis yagouarundi (V), muy raros en el area; Saimiri sciureus, Saguinus fuscicollis y 
probablemente Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V). Tambien Tremarctos ornatus (V) (Thornback and Jenkins, 

1982). 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Interferencias serias por agricultores dedicados al cultivo de 
cacao, cana y coca. Su tamano es muy pequeno para asegurar la proteccion de los ecosistemas. 
Infraestructura de control deficiente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Algunas relativas a espeleologia, biologia y ecologia en la cueva de las 
lechuzas (Steatornis caripensis). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dourojeanni, M. yTovar, A. (1972). Evaluaciony bases para 
el manejo del Parque Nacional de Tingo Maria. Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. La Molina. 71 
pp. 

STAFF: 3 obreros (1 caseta de ingreso). 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Region Agrarua XI Huanuco. Paucarbamba 
s/No. Cal y Canto - Huanuco - Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



PERU 293 

(5) Cutervo 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Conservacion de la flora y fauna de la llamada Cordillera de Tarros. 
Especialmente proteccion de Streatornis caripensis. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 8 de Setiembre de 1961, mediante Decreto Ley 13694. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Vertientes Orientales de los Andes del norte, Departamento de 
Cajamarca; 78°47'00"W, 06°14'00"S. 

ALTITUDE: 2,200-3,500 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 2,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del estado. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Fisiografia accidentada propia de la selva alta. Cavernas y riosubterraneo. La 
temperatura media anual debe estar alrededor de 12°C y la precipitacion media anual alrededor de 1,500 
mm. El material geologico pertenece a las facies marinas sedimentarias y volcanico-sedimentarias y 
pertenece tanto al cretaceo medio a superior como al triasico-jurasico inferior a medio. La primera de 
ellas esta constituida de calizas de color gris claro a negro, areniscas calcareas y silicosas, conglomerados, 
etc. La segunda consiste de flujos lavicos y piroclasticos interpuestos conareniscas, lutitas y calizas. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es propia de las formaciones bosque muy humedo Montano y bosque 
humedo monyano bajo. Destacan Chinchona sp. (cascarilla), Podocarpus sp., Alnus jorulensis (aliso), 
Juglans sp., etc. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Entre las aves: Streatornis caripensis (guacharo), Rupicola peruviana; entre 
los mamiferos: Tremarctos ornatus (V), Mazama americana, Tayassu tajacu y, probablamente, Tapirus 
pinchaque (V). 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Tala de bosques, caza y pastoreo ilegales por parte de los 
pobladores cercanos. (Cutervo: 5,000 h., Socota: 600 h., San Andres: 200 h. y Santo Tomas: 600 h.). Su 
tamano es muy pequeno para asegurar la proteccion de los ecosistemas. Infraestructura de control 
inexistente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Brack, A. y Vilchez, S. (1974). Informe sobre la situacion 
actual del Parque Nacional Cutervo. Direccion General Forestal y Caza. 24 pp. + mapas. Lima, Peru. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Region Agraria IX - Caj amarca, Calle Atahualpa 

311 - Cajamarca, Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 
INFORMATION DATED: June, 1981. 



294 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Pacaya Samiria Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion de especies en vias de extincion y aprovechamiento de recursos 
naturales. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 26 Febrero 1977, mediante Decreto Supremo 06-72-PE. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Selva baja en el ambito de la extensa depresion que ocurren entre los 
rios Maranon y Ucayali, Departamento de Loreto; 74°30'W y 5°00'S. 

ALTITUDE: 125-800 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 1,387,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del Estado, existen 4 caserios en el area. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tierras de selva baja, correspondientes a las cuencas bajas del rio Maranon y 
rio Ucayali. La temperatura media anual debe estar alrededor de 26°C y la preciptacion total media anual 
alrededor de 3,000 mm. El material geologico tipico de la facies continental sedimentaria del cuaternario 
reciente y que estan constituidos principalmente por depositos aluviales y fluviales. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es propia del bosque humedo Tropical con un bosque de estructura 
vertical compleja y heterogenea. Destacan: Ceiba samauma (lupuna), Inga sp. (shimbillo), Cedrela 
odorata, palmeras como Scheelea sp. (shapaja) y Phytelephas macrocarpa (yarina). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna es muy rica y variada, primates: Cebus apella, Lagothrix sp., 
Saimiri sciureus , Saguinus fuscicollis , Ateles paniscus; reptiles: Caiman sclerops, Melanosuchus niger (E), 
Podocnemis unifilis (V) y P. expansa (E), Testudo denticulala; mamiferos acuaticos como: Inia 
geoffroyensis , Sotalia fluviatilis y Trichechus inunguLs (V). Aves como: Anhima cornuta (camungo), 
Pandion haliaetus (aguila pescadora), etc. y peces como Arapaima gigas (paiche). 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Presencia de actividades agropecuarias en las zonas limitrofes 
riberenas (rio Maranon y rio Ncayali). Infraestructura de control deficiente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: El Proyecto Primates realiza evaluaciones en el area. Varias sobre recursos 
de aguas continentales, especialmente en Arapaima gigas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: La infraestructura de control puede ser aprovechada (2 puestos 
de control). 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Hofmann, R. y Ponce, C. (1968). La Reserva nacional para 
Manej de la fauna y la Estacion Regional de Biologia Amazonica Samiria y Pacaya. Fundamentos para su 
establecimiento. Servicio Forestal y de Caza. Lima, Peru. 

STAFF: 2 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: ORDELORETO - Region Agraria XVI - Pebas 
350 - Iquitos - Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



PERU 295 

(2) Salinas y Aguada Blanca Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12/8.37.12 (Puna/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion del ecosistema para el desarroUo de Vicugna vicugna, 
Hippocamelus antisensis y otros. Proteccion de Polylepis y paisajes. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 9 de Agosto de 1979, mediante Decreto Supremo No. 070-79 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 7ri6'W, 16°04'S; tierras altas de la sierra sur del Peru, volcanoes, 
nevados y quebradas. Departamentos de Arequipa y Moquegua. 

ALTITUDE: 3,500-5,848 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 366,936 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Comunidades campesinas (11 caserios). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tierra propia de praderas altoandinas, enmarcadas o cruzadas por 
imponentes nevados y volcanoes. Relive, entonces, variado, y debido a ello y a las diferencias de altitud la 
temperatura media anual rankea entre menos de 3°C y 9°C y la precipitacion total anual media entre 200 y 
500 mm. El material geologico pertenece principalmente a las facies continentales sedimentarias, 
volcanicas y volcanicas-sedimentarias, en el primer caso del terciario inferior-medio y del cuaternario 
reciente, en el segundo caso del terciario medio a superior y cuaternario. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es propia de las formacions tundra humeda y tundra muy humeda 
Alpinas, paramo humedo y matorral desertico Subalpinos y matorral desertico montano; todas de la 
region Subtropical. Importantes son los bosques de Polylepis sp. (Quenoa) y las praderas alto andinas con 
Festuca sp., Parastrephia sp., Astragalus sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Se encuentran Vicugna vicugna (V)(l,363 ind. 1980). Hippocamelus 
antisensis (V), Phoenicopterus ruber, Phoenicopterus andinus, P. jamesi y varias otras aves altoandinas. 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Actividades agropecuarias tradicionales que deben ser 
reguladas por el Ministerio de Agricultura. Infraestructura de control deficiente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. Los censos de especies de la fauna 
por el Proyecto Especial de Utilizacion Racional de la Vicuna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Un local alquilado en la localidad de Imata. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Ministerio de Agricultura Informe Preliminar de Estudios 
Oficio 28-75-DIFF-SUDREN-ZA-VI-MAG del 26 de Mayo 1975. 

STAFF: Ninguno de la administracion nacional; 2 profesionales, 2 guardaparques, 3 obreros del 
Proyecto Especial de Utilizacion Racional de la Vicuna. 

BUDGET: Cubierto por el Proyecto Especial de Utilizacion Racional de la Vicuna (aprox. US$ 52,000 
en el ano 1980). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Av. Alfonzo Ugarte S/N, Edificio Colegio San 
Jose, Region Agraria VI - Arequipa - Tel. 24222-90. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1980, updated April 1981. 



296 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Paracas Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.24.7 (Pacific Desert). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion total de especies en peligro de extincion. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 25 de Setiembre 1975 mediante Decreto Supremo 1281-75-AG. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 76°15'S, 14°00'S. Desierto costero y area marina circundante. 
Departamento de lea. 

ALTITUDE: 0-786 m . s . n . m . 

AREA: 335,000 ha. 217,594 ha aguas marinas y 117,406 ha tierra firme. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del estado. 2 pequenas caletas de Pescadores (215 personas). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tierras planas o ligeramente onduladas, los cerros mas elevados hacia el mar, 
linea de costa abrupta (barrancos) playas pedregosas o arenosas generalmente angostas. 2 islas y 
numerosos islotes. 2 bahias amplias. Temperatura media anual alrededor de 18.7°C y precipitacion media 
anual alrededor de 2 mm. Material geologico del carbonifero y depositos recientes del cuaternario. 

VEGETATION: Vegetacion practicamente inexistente, pequenas extensiones de Distichlis spicata y 
Sesuvium portulacastmm en las cercanias del mar. Vegetacion de 'lomas' muy rala en los cerros mas altos 
de la Peninsula de Paracas, Cressa (ruxilensis, Tillandsia sp., Spergularia sp.. Solarium ferreyrae . Varias 
especies de plantas acuaticas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Fauna terrestre muy escasa: Dusycion sechurae (zorro de costa) y 
Tropidurus peruvianas (lagartija) principalmente. Fauna de vida marina y aves muy rica: Arctocephalus 
australis, Otaria flavescens, Lutra felina entre las mas vulnerables. Chelonia mydas (E) y Dermochelys 
coriacea (E) entre las tortugas marinas. Aves como: Phalacrocorax, Sula y Pelecanus (aves guaneras), 
Spheniscus homboldtii, Larosterna inca y Phoenicopterus ruber entre las mas destacables y Vultur gryphus 
entre las mas espectaculares. 

ZONING: El Plan Maestro considera: Zona Restringida (25 per cent), Zona Recreacion (7 per cent). 
Zona Primitiva (3 per cent). Zona Servicios (min. 1 per cent) y Zona de Utilizacion Directa (65 per cent). 
Se ofrece un circuito para automoviles, senderos pedestres, miradores, senales. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Interferencias con Pescadores por el uso de dinamita, 
vandalismo por motocichstas en restos arqueologicos, saturacion de las areas recreacionales en ciertas 
epocas. Infraestructura de control deficiente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Sobre aves migratorias, marinas, condor. Arqueologicas. Biologia y 
ecologia de loboa marinos. Geologia. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: La infraestructura de la administracion puede utilizarse para 
fines cientificos. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Tovar, A., Rios, M. et al. (1979). Plan Maestro Reserva 
Nacional de Paracas. Direccion General Forestal y Fauna. UNA La Molina y Cooperacion Tecnica de 
Nueva Zelandia. 29 pp. + anexos + mapas. Lima, Peru. 

STAFF: 1 profesional, 2 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: 1979: aprox. US$ 20,000; 1980: aprox. US$ 29,000; 1981: aprox. US$ 80,000. La 
Cooperacion Tecnica de Nueva Zelandia ha financiado algunas estructuras. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Region Agraria VI - lea - Calle Municipalidad 228 
- lea - Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



PERU 297 

(4) Calipuy Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.37.12 (Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion de Lama guanicoe con fines de manejo racional. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 8 Enero de 1981 per Decreto Supremo 004-81-AA. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 78°29'W, 8°34'30"S. Sierra Central del Peru, al norte del rio Santa. 
Departamento de La Libertad. 

ALTITUDE: 800-3,600 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 64,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del Estado y de comunidades campesinas (SAIS Libertad No. 18 Calipuy), 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tierras de los Andes Centrales del Peru, relieve variado, quebradas, rios. 
Temperatura media anual ITC y precipitacion media anual 500 mm. El material geologico pertenece 
principalmente al terciario volcanico indiviso (grupo Calipuy) el que aflora y yace sobre la formacion 
Huaylas con tope erosionado y cubierto por formaciones del cuaternario. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion pertenece a aquella propia del matorral desertico en los pisos 
Premontano, montano bajo y Montano y a la estepa Montano (Sistema Holdridge). Destacan: Verbena 
clavata, Baccharis sp., Calliandra exponsa etc. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: El area ha sido establecida para la proteccion de Lama guanicoe, una 
especie, hoy, en peligro de extincion, asimismo estan presentes Tremarctos ornatus (V) y Vultur gryphus 
ambas en situacion vulnerable. 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Existen asentamientos humanos (9 familias), el area es 
dedicado a la agricultura y pastoreo en aquellas zonas que lo permiten. Infraestructura de control 
inexistente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Franklin, W. (1975). Guanacos in Peru. Oryx XII(2): 
191-202. 

STAFF: Ninguna por la administracion nacional; 1 guarda y 1 obrero proporcionados por la SAIS. 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Region Agraria III - Las Libertad - Avda. Larco 
338 - Trujillo. Telefono 244711. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



298 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(5) Junin Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion de la flora y fauna para su posterior aprovechamiento racional. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 7 de Agosto 1974, mediante Decreto Supremo 0750-74-AG 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 76°07'30"W, 1 TOO'S. Terrenos pianos inundables, pampa, y el lago de 
Junin (espejo de aprox. 15,000 ha). Departamentos de Junin y Pasco, en la sierra central del Peru. 

ALTITUDE: 4,000-4,125 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 53,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras de 12 comunidades campesinas. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Situada en la pampa de Junin, una extensa planicie de la que el lago y sus areas 
influenciadas cubre una cuarta parte. Su temperatura media anual debe estar alrededor de 4°C y su 
precipitacion media anual alrededor de 800 mm. El material geologico corresponde a las facies 
continentales sedimentarias propias del cuaternario reciente. 

VEGETATION: En el area inundada: algas macroscopicas, plantas sumergidas y emergentes como 
Scirpus rigida y Scirpus californicus (mirme). En las areas inundables: Distichia muscoides, Calamagrostis 
rigescens, Poa spp., Stipa ichu, Lemna sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Peces: Orestias spp. (Challhua), Pygidium oroyae (bagres). Anfibios: 
Batrachophruncus macrostomus y B. brachydactylus , Bufo spinulosus. Aves: Podiceps taczanowskii y P. 
occipitalis y P. chilensis (zambullidores), Phoenicopterus ruber, Plegadis ridgwayi (yanavico), 
Chloephaga melanoptera, etc. Mamiferos como Cavia tschudii. 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Contaminacion de las aguas por relaves de las minas. El lago 
sufrira un cambio importante en su nivel al desarrollarse el proyecto de transvase de las aguas del rio 
Mantaro, hacia el Pacifico. Infraestructura de control muy deficiente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Varias sobre fauna y flora. Especialmente estudios de impacto ecologico 
para el proyecto del transvase mencionado. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: La sede administrativa. en el pueblo de Ondores, cuenta con 

oficina y alojamiento para seis personas. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dourojeanni, M. et al. (1968). Observaciones preliminares 
para el Manejo de Aves Acuaticas de Lago Junin. En: Revista Forestal del Peru II (2) pp. 3-52. Lima. 

STAFF: 1 tecnico. 

BUDGET: No tiene, es manejado por la Subdireccion Forestal y de Fauna de Huancayo. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Distrito Forestal de Ondores - Ondores - Junin - 
Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



PERU 299 

(6) Titicaca Scientific Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.47. 14 (Lake Titicaca). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Para la utilizacion racional de la flora y fauna y conservacion de sus recursos y 
paisajes. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 31 de octobre de 1978, mediante Decreto Supremo 185-78-AA. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Sector Ramis: 69°45'55"W, 15°18'00"S: Sector Puno 69°56'03"W, 
15°44'00"S. Comprende el area de totorales (inundada) y espejo de agua de sectores del norte y centro del 
lago Titicaca. Departamento de Puno. 

ALTITUDE: 3,814 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 36,180 ha. Sector Ramis: 7,030 ha. Sector Puno: 29,150 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Al estado. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El lago de Titicaca es de origen tectonico, aproximadante de la era terciaria, 
formaba parte, con el lago Poopo, el antiguo lago Bollivian. La temperatura de sus aguas varia entre 9°C y 
14°C. En los sectores reservados se encuentran las mejores representaciones de los totorales. 

VEGETATION : Vegetacion sumergida : Elodea potamogeton , Nostoc sp . , varias algas ; florante : Lewna 
sp. (lenteja de agua) anfibias: Scirpus totora y Scirpus rigida. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Peces: Orestias spp. , Pygidium sp. (Suche), Salmo gairdnieri (introducida). 
Batracios: Bufo spinulosus, Gastritgeca marsupieta (rana). Aves: Phoenicopterus ruber, Phoenicoparrus 
sp. , Anas spp. , Fulica spp. , Lophonetta specularioides , Nycticorax nycticorax, Podiceps epp. , Theresticus 
caudatus. En la zona de influencia mamiferos como Cava tschudii. 

ZONING: El Plan Maestro contempla, para el sector Ramis: Zona de Servicios, Zona de Recreacion, 
Zona de Utilizacion Directa (100 per cent). Para el sector Puno: Zona de Servicios (min. per cent). Zona 
de Recreacion (2.8 per cent). Zona de Recuperacion (16.4 per cent) y Zona de Utilizacion Directa (80.8 
per cent). Infraestructura como centros de visitantes, senales y senderos se encuentrea, planeada, para set 
ubicada en las tierras cercanas propiedad de comunidades. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Utilizacion excesiva de los totorales. Resistencia de los 
campesinos a la racionalizacion del uso de la totora que se va contrarrestando con las labores de charlas. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Principalmente sobre productividad de la totora y calculos de la cosecha 
anual. Otras sobre batracios. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: UNA La Molina. CEPID. (1979). Plan Maestro Reserva 
Nacional Titicaca. Centro de Estudios y Proyectos de Inversion y Desarrollo de la UNA. 149 pp + anexos 
+ mapas. Lima, Peru. 

STAFF: 2 profesionales, 3 tecnicos. 

BUDGET: 1980: aprox. US$ 35,000; 1981: aprox. US$ 47,000. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: No tiene infraestructura administrativa , depende 
del ORDEPUNO - Direccion Regional de Agricultura - Jr. Moquegua - Puno - Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



300 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(7) Pampas Galeras Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion total de Vicugna vicugna. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 18 de Mayo de 1967 mediante Resolucion Suprema 157-A. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 74°23'W, 14°42'S. Praderas altoandinas. Departamento de 
Ayacucho. 

ALTITUDE: 3,950-4,500 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 6,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 8 comunidades nativas. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tierras ligermante onduladas de los altos andes. Quebradas y rios que se 
cargan en epoca de lluvias. Terrenos pedregosos. Temperatura media alrededor de 5°C y precipitacion 
media anual de 800 mm. El material geologico es fundamentalmente de las facies continentales 
sedimentarias formado por depositos morrenicos y fluvioglaciares que se hallan rellenando depresiones y 
hondonadas constituidas por conglomerados y arcillas, formando las pampas del altiplano. 

VEGETATION: El conjunto de la Reserva Nacional esta caracterizado por una estepa de gramineas con 
grupos aislados de pequenos arbustos y relictos de bosques de Polylepis sub quinque folia y Buddleia 
coriacea, estrato bajo tapizado de hierbas. Festuca dolychophylla, Slipa ichu, Senecio spinosus, Azorella 
sp., Pycnophyllum sp., Distichia muscoides, Parastrephia lepidophylla. Son por lo menos 151 especies. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Vicugna vicugna (V)(4,415 ind. en 1980), Vultur gryphus, Felis concolor, 
Dusycion culpaeus, Felis jacobita (R), Ptilosceles resplendens, Phalcobaenus albogularis. 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Sobre pastoreo y efectos de una sequia larga (4 anos). 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Varias sobre comportamiento de Vicugna vicugna, Dusycion culpaeus; 
sobre las comunidades vegetales y sobre la situacion de los pastizales, principalmente. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Estacion cientifica, laboratorio, alojamiento, museo de sitio, 
vehiculos. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Tovar, O. (1973). Comunidades Vegetales de la Reserva 
Nacional de Vicunas de Pampa Galeras. Publ. Mus. Hist. Natur. Javier Prado. Serv. B. Bot. , No. 27, pp. 
1-32. Lima. 

STAFF: De la administracion nacional: guardaparques 4. Del Proyecto Especial Utilizacion Racional 
de la Vicuna: 11 profesionales, 4 administrativos y 30 guardaparques. 

BUDGET: Del Proyecti Especial Utilizacion Racional de la Vicuna. Presupuesto total del Proyecto 
1980: US$ 622,858. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Subproyecto Pampa Galeras PEURV. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



PERU 301 

(8) Lachay Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.24.7 (Pacific Desert). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion de la formacion vegetal 'Lomas' la regulacion del pastoreo y la 
reconstitucion de la vegetacion. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 21 de Junio de 1977, mediante Decreto Supremo 310-77-AG. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 77°21'W, 11°22'S. Cerros costeros de baja altitud expuestos a las 
neblinas procedentes del mar. Departamento de Lima. 

ALTITUDE: 100-500 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 5,070 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del estado. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Relieve variado, cerros, quebradas secas todo el ano. La temperature media 
anual debe estar alrededor de 17°C la precipitacion media anual debe ser menor de 100 mm. La fuente 
principal de agua proviene de la condensacion de la neblina en las hojas de la vegetacion y/o rocas. El 
material geologico esta formado por rocas plutonicas principalmente que conforman el liamado Batolito 
de la costa, asi como depositos cuaternarios recientes. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es resultado de la asociacion atmosferica en las formaciones del desierto 
y matorral desertico subtropicales. Desta can Carica candicans, Capparis angulata y Caesalpinea tinctorea. 
En las laderas-orientales: Armatocereus sp., y Opuntia sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna esta representado esencialmente por aves: Speotyto sp., es 
visitante ocasional el condor Vultur gruphus , algunos reptiles entre los que destaca Bothrops picta (jergon 
de costa) y mamiferos como Dusicyon sp. y Conepatus rex. Antiguo residente era Odocoileus virginianus 
el ultimo de los cuales fue cazado en 1931. 

ZONING: El Plan Maestro considera; Zona Proteccion I y II (17 per cent); Zona Recuperacion (10 per 
cent); Zona de Uso Intensive (3 per cent) y Zona Primitiva (70 per cent). Se cuenta con caseta de ingreso, 
centro de visitantes, areas de picnic, senderos senalizados, camping es prohibido. Ademas, oficina, 
carpinteria y almacen. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Infiltraciones de ganado vacuno en epoca de lomas (pastoreo). 
Infraestructura de control deficiente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Varias sobre productividad primaria y captadores de neblina a cargo de 
universidades nacionales. Programa de reforestacion en ejecucion con especies nativas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Las instalaciones de la administracion y de visitantes pueden ser 
utilizadas por investigadores. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Tovar, A., Rios, M. et al. (1979). Plan Maestro Reserva 
Nacional de Lachay. Direccion General Forestal y de Fauna, UNA La Molina y Cooperacion Tecnica de 
Nueva Zelandia. 40 pp. + figuras. Lima, Peru. 

STAFF: 2 guardaparques, 2 obreros. 

BUDGET: No tiene presupuesto. La Direccion General Forestal y de Fauna apoya con su presupuesto. 
La Cooperacion Tecnica de Nueva Zelandia ha financiado algunas estructuras. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Direccion General Forestal y de Fauna - 
Direccion de Conservacion - Natalion Sanchez 220 (3er. Piso) - Lima - Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



302 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Huayllay Natural Monument 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion de las formaciones geologicas y recuperacion del ecosistema. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 7 de Agosto de 1974, mediante Decreto Supremo 0750-74-AG. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 76°19'W, 10°56'S. Cerros muy erosionados y pradera alto andina en 
sus faldas. Departamento de Pasco. 

ALTITUDE: 4,100-4,543 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 6,815 ha 

LAND TENURE: Tierras de 8 comunidades y 1 empresa comunal. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Cerros de las tierras altas de los Andes Centrales, espactacularmente 
erosionados, probablemente por el agua o intemperismo. Ubicados hacia el osete de la llamada meseta de 
Bombon. El conjunto visto de lejos de la impresion de un gigantesco bosque. La temperatura media anual 
debe estar alrededor de 5°C y la precipitacion total media anual debe ser 800 mm. El material geologico 
propio de las facies continentales volcanicas y volcanicas sedimentarias del terciario superior al 
cuaternario, constituidos por tufos blancos y brechoides, las rocas son blandas y facilmente erosionables. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es propia del paramo muy humedo subalpino Tropical: el pajonal de 
puna con Calamagrostis vicunarum y Stipa ichu ademas de Plantago rigida (champa). Algunos arboles de 
Polylepis sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mamiferos: Lagidium peruanum (vizcacha), Conepatus rex (zorrino) y 
Dusicyon culpaeus (zorro). Aves: Chloephaga melanoptera (huallata), Larus serranus, Ptilosceles 
resplendens (lique lique), Colaptes rupicola (gargacha). 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Pastoreo por las comunidades. Infraestructura de control 
inexistente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Buenaventura, M. (1978). Plan Maestro Santuario Nacional 
Huayllay. Tesis para optar el titulo de Ingeniero Foresta. U.N. Centro. Huancayo. 

STAFF: No tiene. 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Depende de la Reserva nacional de Junin - Distro 
Forestal Ondores, Ondores - Junin - Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981 



PERU 303 

(2) Calipuy Natural Monument 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion total de un rodal muy denso de Puya raimnondii. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 8 de Enero de 1981 mediante Decreto Supremo 004-81-AA. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 78°17'W, 08°20'30"S. Sierra Central del Peru, al norte del Rio Santa, 
10 km al norte de la Reserva Nacional de Calipuy, Departamento de La Libertad. 

ALTITUDE: 3,600-4,300 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 4,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras de la SATS 'Libertad No. 18 Calipuy'. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tierras de los Andes Centrales del Peru, relieve cariado, presencia de varias 
quebradas. Temperatura media anual larededor de 6°C y precipitacion media anual de alrededor de 750 
mm. El material geologico pertenece al terciario volcanico indiviso (grupo Calipuy) formado por una 
potente serie de rocas volcanicas, cubierta por formaciones del cuatemario. At 2,400 m.s.n.m. annual 
mean temperature is 10°C, rainfall 500 mm. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion pertenece a aquella propia del bosque humedo, en sus partes mas altas y 
del paramo muy humedo Subalpino, de la region Tropical (Sistema Holdridge). Siemdo de destacar la 
presencia de lo que se considera el rodal mas denso de Puya raimondii, bromeliacea con una altura de 
alrededor de 10 m. 4,000-5,000 ejemplares). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: El area ha sido establecido en funcion basica de la proteccion de la Puya 
raimondii es probable la ocurrencia de Vultur gryphus y Tremarctos ornatus, (V). 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Actividades tradicionales agropecuarias, principalmente 
pastoreo, eestas de acuerdo con el Decreto de establecimiento pueden proseguir y pueden ser reguladas 
por el Ministerio de Agricultura. Infraestructura de Control inexistente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Franklin, W. (1975). Guanacos in Peru. Oryx XII(2): 
191-202. 

STAFF: Ninguna por la administracion nacional, 1 guarda y 1 obrero proporcionados por la SAIA (el 
mismo asignado a la Reserva Nacional Calipuy). 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Region Agraria III - La Libertad - Avda. Larco 
338 - Trujillo. Telf. 244711. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



304 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Macchu Picchu Natural Monument 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion total del ecosistema, especialmente de fauna en vias de extincion. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 8 de Enero de 1981, mediante Decreto Supremo 001=81-AA. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 72°35' W, 12°12'S. Partes mas altas de las vertientes orientales de los 
Andes (ceja de selva). Departamento de Cuzco. 

ALTITUDE: 1,452-3,600 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 32,592 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 4 predios (Mandorpampa, Quente, Torontay y S, Rita-Quente). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Relieve accidentado, cuenca alta del rio Urubamba, la temperatura media 
anual debe estar alrededor de 16°C y la precipitacion total media anual entre 1,500 y mas de 3,000 mm. El 
material geologico es caracteristicos de facies marinas sedimentarias y plutones. En el primer caso propios 
del ordoviciano constituido por esquistos, pizarras y cuarcitas y, en el segundo propios del 
cretaceo-terciario. At 2,500 m 10.2°C, 2,171.3 mm rainfall. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es propia del bosque humedo y del bosque muy humedo montano bajo 
de la region Subtropical, asi destacan: Weinmania sp., Podocarpus sp., Phragmites ep., Ocotea sp., 
Nectandra sp. , Cecropia sp. , helechos: Cyathea sp. y palmeras: Geromoina spp. , Cedrela sp. , Guasca sp. , 
Riupala sp., Polylepis spp., Puy raimondii. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna es muy interesante: Tremarctos ornatus (V), Mazama chunyii, 
Rupicola peruviana, Lutra incarum, Mustelafrenata, Felis colocolo y Felis pardalis (V), Boa spp., Vultur 
gryphus etc. 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Deforestacion por tala; las estructuras de la central 
hidroelectrica de Macchu Picchu son demasiado contrastantes. Infraestructura de control inexistente. 
Grazing and agriculture. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Un pequeno museo de sitio que podria servir. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Plan COPESCO 1974. Centro de Servicios del Parque 
Nacional Macchu Picchu. 114 pp. 

STAFF: No tiene. 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Region Agraria IX, Cuzco, Matara 394 - Cuzco, 
Peru, Telefono 2970-63. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



PERU 305 

(2) Chacamarca 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: V (Protected Landscape). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion del escenario de la batalla de Junin. Se regulan las actividades 
tradicionales. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 7 de Agosto de 1974, mediante Decreto Supremo 0750-74-AG. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 75°58"W, 11°12'30"S, pampas de Junin, Departamento de Junin. 

ALTITUDE: 4,000-4,125 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 2,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Comunidades campesinas de Chichausiri. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tierras planas de los altos Andes, las pampas de Junin que forman parte de la 
meseta de Bombon. La temperatura media annual alrededor de 5°C y la precipitacion total media anual 
alrededor de 800 mm. El material geologico al cuaternario reciente siendo depositos morrenicos y fluvio 
glaciares que se hallan rellenando depresiones y hondonadas, constituyendo las pampas del Altiplano, el 
material es formado de conglomerados y arcillas. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion es propisa del paramo muy humedo subalpino tropical y es el tipico 
pajonal de puna: Calamagrostis sp., Festuca sp., Stipa sp., Distichia muscoides, Plantago rigida, 
Hypochoeris sp., Gentiana prostata, etc. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna mas importantc. Cavia tschudii. Dusky on culpa, Ptilosceles 
resplendens, Attagis gayi, Nothoprocta pentlandi, Conepatus rex, Lagidium peruanum, Theristicus 
caudatus, Plegadis ridgwayi, Chloephaga melanoptera. 

ZONING: Ninguna 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No existe infraestructura de control, depende de la Reserva 
Nacional de Junin . Actividades agropecuarias tradicionales que debe regular el Ministerio de Agricultura. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. Depende de la Reserve Nacional de Junin. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dourojeanni, M. (1968). El Lago de Junin come centre de un 
circuito turistico por las provincias de Huarochiri, Canta, Junin y Pasco. Revista Forestal del Peru II (2): 
53-68. Lima. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Depende de la administracion de la Reserva 
Nacional de Junin. Distrito Forestal Ondores - Ondres, Junin - Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



306 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Pampa de Ayacucho 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: V (Protected Landscape). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.36.12 (Puna). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proteccion del escenario de la Batalla de Ayacucho. Se regulan las actividades 
tradicionales. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 14 de Agosto de 1980, por Decreto Supremo 199-80-AA. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 74°06'30"W, 13°01'52"S. Departamento de Ayacucho. Sierra Sur del 
Peru. 

ALTITUDE: 3,250-3,800 m.s.n.m. 

AREA: 300 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras del estado y de la comunidad campesina. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tierras altas del Peru, temperatura media anual 13°C y precipitation media 
anual de 750 m. Tierras planas en las faldas del cerro Condorcunca. El material geologico pertenece al 
volcanico Ayacucho (terciario) superior el que constituye una facie volcanica posterior a la fase de 
plegamiento del Miocenio tardio. 

VEGETATION: Vegetacion de pradera altoandina: Stipa ichu, Calamagrostis sp., Poa sp., Plantago 
sp.. Ephedra americana, Trifolium amabile y Alchemilla pinnata, principalmente. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En situacion indeterminada: Tinamotis pentlandi, Nothura maculosa, 
Nothoprocta ornata, Nothoprocta pentlandi, Falco sparverius, Phalcobaenus albogularis, Vanellus 
resplendens , Thinocorus orbignyeanus. 

ZONING: Ninguna. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Actividades agropecuarias tradicionales que debe regular el 
Ministerio de Agricultura. Infraestructura de control inexistente. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ninguna bajo la administracion nacional. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguno. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Ministerio de Agricultura. Informe 056-80-DC-DGFF del 17 
de Abril de 1980. 

STAFF: Ninguno. 

BUDGET: No tiene. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Region Agraria XVI - Ayacucho - Subdireccion 
Forestal y de Fauna - Avenida 28 de Julio No. 622 - Ayacucho - Telf. 2124. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: June 1981. 



(1) Manu Biosphere Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1/8.35.12 (AmazonianA'ungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Manu National Park was established in 1973 by Supreme Decree 644-73- AG, 
and is fully protected. Manu National Forest was estabhshed by Supreme Resolution 442-1973, and the 
rational use of timber is permitted. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: January 1977. 



PERU 307 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located in the provinces of Manu and Paucartambo, in the 
departments of Madre de Dios and Cuzco respectively. The area is bounded on the north and east by the 
Divortium Aquarum, separating the catchment basins of the Rivers Piedras and the Camisea from the 
River Manu. It also includes the Manu National Forest, the left bank of the River Alto Madre de Dios and 
the Atalaya-Tres Cruces highway. iri9'-13°02'S. 71°07'-72°26"W. 

ALTITUDE: 240-4000m. 

AREA: 1,881,200 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Both Manu National Park and Manu National Forest are state property. The area 
between the National Park, the National Forest and the left bank of the River Alto Madre de Dios is state 
property which can, following negotiation, be made over to the Agrarian Sector (Agrarian Reform, etc.). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Contains the ecological formations of the Andes, and nearly all the ecological 
formations of eastern Peru; humid forest, humid subtropical forest, very humid subtropical forest, and 
very humid low mountain forest, with their respective flora and fauna; consequently this area is the most 
exclusive and representative in the Amazon basin. The biosphere reserve includes the whole of th-t 
hydographic catchment area of the River Manu and part of the catchment area of the River Alto Madre de 
Dios. In the tropical humid forest the average annual temperature is 24°C and the rainfall is between 2,000 
and 2,500mm. In the subalpine humid formations, the average temperature is from 3° to 6°C, and the 
annual precipitation 1,000mm (Tosi's classification, 1960). 

VEGETATION: As the reserve extends from the Andes to the Amazon, its ecology is extremely varied. 
The following species are regarded as the most important: cedar, mahogany, capirona, cetico, lupuma, 
quinilla. There are also numerous species of palms, grasses, shrubs and epiphytes. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There is an interesting contrast between the species living in the high 
mountains and those living in the plains. Among the most important are the following: anteater, wolf 
('lobo de rio'), tigrillo, jaguar Panthera onca (V), coloured deer, sachavaca, grey deer, twelve species of 
primates, boa, black lizard, white lizard, numerous species of snakes including vipers, and a total of 422 
species of birds including royal condor, sparrowhawk, macaw, cashew bird, herons, owls and the jabiru 
stork. The indigenous fishes are well represented in the rivers. 

ZONING: The area of the reserve containing the National Forest and part of the National Park 
constitutes the core zone; the buffer zone comprises the area of land traditionally used for agriculture and 
stock-raising. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The catchment basin of the River Manu is one of the few forest 
areas unaffected, or very httle affected, by man. Only in the buffer zone have activities such as timber 
felling and hunting been carried out by the local communities. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies conducted at the Coscha Cashu and Panahua Biological Station 
have been concerned with wildlife, as well as the indigenous Machiguenga community living in the park 
(bio-anthropological studies). Studies should be intensified for the purpose of evaluating natural 
resources for their adequate management. In addition, the protection of the National Park will allow 
comparative studies with zones modified by man. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: At present, there are no scientific facilities available, but the 
Sierra zone is relatively accessible, being only six hours by road from Cuzco. However, the distance to the 
lower forest zone by outboard motor boat requires 16 hours (2 days). 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Grimwood, J.R. (1971). Proposition de limites definitivos del 
Parque Nacional del Manu. 

Hofmann, R. and Ponce del prado, C. El Gran Parque Nacional del Manu. Informe no. 17, Ministerio 
de Agricultura, Lima. 

Ruiz, Pereyra, G. , Alvarez, E. and Agreda, S. (1974). Informe de viaje al Parque Nacional del Manu. 
Universidad Nacional Agraria, La Molina. 

STAFF: Manu National Park has 3 permanent technicians, 8 service helpers and 17 control officers. 

BUDGET: No Information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ministerio de Agricultura, Direccion General de 
Forestal y de Fauna. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: Compiled from material supplied by Unesco. 



308 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(2) Huascaran Biosphere Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12/8.37.12 (Yungas/Southern Andean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Huascaran National Park has no legal basis as a Biosphere Reserve. It was 
established by decree D.S. AG-622-75-AG under the law on forests and wildlife D.L. no. 21147. 

ALTITUDE: 2500-6768m. 

AREA: 399,239 ha in total; 340,000 ha in the Huascaran National Park; 39,590 ha in the northern 
modified zone; 19,460 ha in the southern modified zone; 189 ha in the Predio Luna modified zone. 

LAND TENURE: The majority of the National Park belongs to the State. It contains five properties 
conceded to the SAIS Atusparia and seven farming communities. The northern modified zone is entirely 
occupied by farming concerns, while the southern is occupied by small graziers. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Cordillera Blanca, the highest tropical mountain range in the world, has 
27 snow-capped peaks 600m above sea level, internationally famous for mountaineering. There are deep 
ravines with rushing torrents formed from rivers and glaciers, 48 lagoons containing more than one million 
cubic metres of water, and 30 glaciers. The lowest points in the reserve are in the Grand Cataract near the 
northern boundary; the highest point is the peak Huascaran South. 

VEGETATION: The following plant formations are found in the reserve: nival, alpine fluvial tundra, 
very wet subalpine paramo and wet mountain forest. Puya raimondii is abundant. Other plants include 
Bromeliceae, mountain orchids (Orchis, Masdevakua), relict forests of Polylepis spp. and Gynoxys spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The spectacled bear Tremarctos ornatus (V), puma Felis concolor incarum, 
mountain cat Felis colocolo pajeros, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus and the vicuna Vicugna 
vicugna (V) are important indigenous species. All of these have been heavily hunted. Among the birds the 
most noteworthy are the cordillera hawk Buteo poecilochrous, the condor Vultur gryphus and the giant 
hummingbird Patagonia gigas peruviana. 

ZONING: The Huascaran National Park serves as core area and the modified zones buffer. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Permanent human settlement is not possible because of the 
severe cHmate and difficult topography. The area is only used periodically for pasturing. There is a small 
mining industry which is proving increasingly uneconomic. The main changes have been caused by the 
ravages of fires in clearing land for pasture, the litter left by mountaineering expeditions and by intensive 
hunting of the spectacled bear, vicuna and white-tailed and other deer. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research has been conducted on the geography, glaciology, flora and fauna 
of the area. Studies are needed of energy flow (primary productivity) and the population dynamics of 
various species. Landscapes and archaeological sites also need to be restored. A feasibility study should be 
carried out on the possibility of opening the Huascaran National Park to the public. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Accommodation in the form of refuges is available along certain 
lagoons and ravines in the park, administered by Electro Peru or the Ministry of Agriculture. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Egeler, A. and De Booy, T. (1956). Geology and Petrology 
of the Southern Cordillera Blanc, Peru. Netherlands. 

Kinzl, H. and Schneider, E. (1950)/ Cordillera Blanca. Innsbruck, Austria, 178pp. 

Llosa, F. (1972). Ruella 10-Chavin-Huaylas. Asociacion de Artes y Estudios Experimentales, Lima, 
Peru. 96pp. 

Ponde del Prado, C. (1971). Resumen de los Parques Nacionales y Reservas Equivalentes del Peru. 
DGFC, 51pp. 

Slaymaker, River C. and Rourke, M. Informe Tecnico para establecer los hmites provicionales del 
Parque Nacional-Huascaran. 
Weberbauer (1945). El Mundo Vegetal de los Andes Peruanos. Ministry of Agriculture, Lima. 766pp. 

Yauri, M. (1972). Ancash o la Biografia de la immortalidad. Lima, 189pp. 

STAFF: 1 director, 1 technical assistant, 2 rangers, 2 patrol men, 1 driver, 1 secretary. 
BUDGET: No Information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Ministerio de Agricultura Zona III, Huaraz, 
Oficina Parque Nacional Huascaran. 



PERU 309 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 
INFORMATION DATED: Compiled from material supplied by Unesco. 



(3) Noroeste Biosphere Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.19.4 (Ecuadorian Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Amotape Hills National Park was established by Supreme Decre*-^ 
0800-75- AG and is fully protected. El Angolo Hunting Preserve was established by Supreme Resolution 
0164-75-AG, and rational use of fauna is permitted. Tumbes National Forest was estabUshed by Supreme 
Decree 007-8-7-57, and the rational use of timber is allowed. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: January 1977 as a Biosphere Reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the departments of Tumbes and Piura on the north coast of Peru, 
bordering on the frontier of Ecuador and including the massif of the Amotape or Brea hills; 3°24'-6°22'S, 
79°12'-8r20'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-1, 613m. 

AREA: 226,300 ha including Cerros de Amotape National Park (91,300 ha). El Angolo Hunting 
Preserve (65,000 ha), and Tumbes National Forest (70,000 ha). 

LAND TENURE: All state property. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The biosphere reserve embraces the mountain range known as the Amotape 
or Brea Hills, broken by the River Tumbes. There are also temporary streams, with pools that last 
throughout the dry period. The average annual temperature is 25°C and average annual rainfall 400mm. 
There are lithosols on the slopes and sandy soils on the lower hills and plains. 

VEGETATION: There are relicts of dry forests in the north-east, with species of silk-cotton tree Ceiba, 
lignum vitae, cedars, lion's ear, Cactaceae, Bromeliaceae and Orchidaceae. This area also has the only 
mangrove swamps in Peru. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Typical fauna of the Amazon and the Pacific province are found in the 
reserve, along with species endangered at the regional and national level. These include jaguar Panthera 
onca (V), ocelot Felis wiedii (V), howler monkey and machin bianco, sloth, wild cat, grey deer, coloured 
deer, coypu Hydrochoerus hycrochoeris , Andean condor Vultur gryphus, royal condor, parrots, turkey 
hens and many other endemic species, American crocodile and boa. 

ZONING: The National Park, being fully protected, represents the core zone, with the National Forest 
and Hunting Preserve forming the buffer zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Most the whole of the area remains relatively undisturbed by 
man. The lower area in the west has been affected by timber felling, hunting and extensive grazing. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: This is the only area in Peru where the flora and fauna of dry forests can be 
studied. The main topics for research are the ecology and conservation of dry forest fauna, primates of the 
north-west, reproduction and restocking of the American crocodile, the carob tree plantation ecosystem, 
the management of species for afforestation of devastated areas, and effects of grazing by goats on dry 
areas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Brack, A., Rios, M. and Reyes, F. (1973). Evaluacion y 
Bases para el establecimiento de un Coito de Gaza y un Parque Nacional en la Cordillera de los Amotapes. 
Ministry of Agriculture, Lima. 
Chapman, F.M. (1926). The Distribution of Bird-Life in Ecuador. Bull. Amer. Mm. Nat. Hist. 55: 784. 

STAFF: There is a staff of 14 for the protection and management of the reserve. 



310 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Zona Agraria 1 - Piura, Ministerio de 
Agricultura, Piura, Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: Compiled from material supplied by Unesco. 



(1) Tambopata Natural Wildlife Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.35.12 (Yungas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: No information. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1977. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: About 40km south of Puerto Maldonada near the confluence of the 
Rio la Torre and Rio Tambopata, Madre de Dios Province; 12°50'S, 69°25'W. 

ALTITUDE: Averages 260m. 

AREA: 5,500 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government land, but managed by a private company with tourist interests. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The reserve is on the east bank of the Tambopata River, with small streams 
3-5m below the adjacent land, and old meanders perhaps 10m below the adjacent levees. Further 
upstream is a series of low remnant hills. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical moist forest, with one of the commonest trees being the brazil nut 
Bertholletia excelsa. The levees and hills support impressive, species-rich forests with some trees over 40m 
tall. The flatlands between streams have scattered trees and an abundance of bamboo. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: An exceptionally rich bird fauna (533 species) including six macaws and ten 
parrots (Psittacidae), eight toucans (Ramphastidae) and the swallow-tailed kite Elanoides forficatus. 
Other species of note include the giant river otter Pteronura brasiliensis (V), jaguar Pantheraonca (V) and 
black caiman Melanosuchus niger (E), and evidence has been seen of the bush dog Speothos venaticus (V). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No information. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Two biologists/naturalists are paid all expenses and given accommodation 
in return for acting as guides. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: Provided by the managing company, Peruvian Safaris. 

BUDGET: Provided by the managing company. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Peruvian Safaris, Explorer's Inn, via Puerto 
Maldonado, Madre de Dios, Peru. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: M. Dourojeanni. 

INFORMATION DATED: August 1981. 



PUERTO RICO 311 



PUERTO RICO 



AREA: 8,897 sq km. 

POPULATION: 3,319,000 (1977). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Conservation units in Puerto Rico would be established 
under the relevant United States legislation. National Parks and other categories of lands within the 
National Park system would be established by individual acts of Congress, except National Monuments 
which could be created by the President on Federal lands, by proclamation under the authority of the 
Antiquities Act of 8 June 1906. The National Park Service was established by the act of 25 August 1916. 
State Parks and Reserves are established under separate state legislation. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Administrative and regulatory authority over the 
National Parks system is delegated to the National Parks Service through the Secretary of the Interior by 
the act of 25 August 1916 and subsequent acts of Congress (as set forth in Title 16, Code of Federal 
Regulation). The National Wildlife Refuges are administered by the US Fisheries and Wildhfe Service, 
which is also responsible to the US Department of the Interior. The forests are the responsiblity of the 
Puerto Rico Forest Service, Department of Natural Resources, under Puerto Rico's forest law 133 of 1 
July 1975. The Secretary of Natural Resources, under authority of law 23 of June 1972 and law 70 of May 
1976, has the responsibihty of developing hunting regulations as well as protecting and enhancing wildlife 
in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. 

ADDRESS: of the main offices are given, but Puerto Rican offices exist. 

(a) Director, National Park Service, US Department of the Interior, Washington DC 
20240, USA. 

(b) Division of Refuge Management, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 18th and C Streets 
NW, Washington DC 20240, USA. 

(c) Forest Service, US Department of Agriculture, South Building, Room 4238; 
Washington DC 20013, USA. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 430 

National Wildlife Refuges (hectares) 

1 Culebra 284 

2 Cabo Rojo* 238 

3 Desecheo 146 

Biosphere Reserves 

1 Luquillo Experimental Forest (11,340) 

2 Guanica State Forest (4,015) 

* This area is not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



312 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Culebra National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 27 February 1909. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: All the islands surrounding the main island of Culebra, Puerto Rico, 
except Cayo Norte; 18°20'N, 65°20'W. 

ALTITUDE: 5- 145m. 

AREA: 284.1 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Approximately 17 small islands or cays, all of volcanic origin, make up the Culebra 
Refuge. Most of the islands are hilly and have limited vegetation; some are barren rock. The mean 
temperature is 27°C. 

VEGETATION: Subtropical dry forest. Only remnants of the original native forest remain due to 
overgrazing and bombing. Some coastal scrub, low shrubs, grasses, sedges, mangroves and cactus species 
are present. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Sooty terns Sterna fuscata, brindled terns Sterna anaethetus, brown boobies 
Sula leucogaster I. , magnificent frigatebirds Fregata magnificens rothschildi , red-billed tropicbirds 
Phaethon aethereus and white-tailed tropicbirds Phaethon lepturus nest on the refuge islands. Endangered 
brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis , hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (E), leatherback turtle 
Dermochelys coriacea (E), loggerhead Caretta caretta (V) and green turtle Chelonia mydas (E) are also 
present. 

ZONING: Rural and agricultural. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Illegal poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Danforth, Stuart T. Supplementary Account of the Birds of 
the Virgin Islands including Culebra and Adjacent Islet pertaining to Puerto Rico, with notes on their food 
habits. Jour. Agric. UPR. 

Kepler and Kepler (1978). The Sea Birds of Culebra and its Adjacent Islands, Puerto Rico. The Living 
Bird. 

Other reference material available at Refuge headquarters. 

STAFF: None on site - administered through Cabo Rojo NWR. 

BUDGET: Funded under Cabo Rojo NWR. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, Caribbean Islands NWR, PO 
Box 510, Boqueron, PuertoRico 00622. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne 

INFORMATION DATED: 26 January 1981 



PUERTO RICO 313 

(2) Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8 40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 3 June 1974. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In the extreme southwest of Puerto Rico; 67°10'N, 17°95'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-18m. 

AREA: 237 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The refuge is upland in character, lying along a low coastal plain with a few 
gently rolling hills overlooking the southwest point of Puerto Rico. Soils are clay and sandy. The climate is 
hot and dry with a mean temperature of 27°C. 

VEGETATION: Characterized by a mesquite Prosopis juliflora savanna with palo verde Parkinsonia 
aculeata, ucar Bucida buceras and guayacan Guaiacum officinale. One rare tree occurring on the refuge is 
the violet tree Polygala cowellii and Corinella pauciflora is an uncommon shrub. Other plants include 
Tephrosia cathartica, T. cinerea, Verbesia encelioides, Desmanthus virgatus and Ipomoea indica. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Birds commonly found on the refuge are the smooth-billed ani Crotophaga 
ani, greater Antillean grackle Quiscahis niger, American kestrel Falco sparverius, red-tailed hawk Buteo 
jamaicensis , hooded mannikin Lonchura cucullata, yellow-faced grassquite Tiaris olivacea and the 
yellow-shouldered blackbird Agelaius xanthomas (V), which has an estimated population of 20 birds. 

ZONING: Rural and agricultural. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Space for storage and/or scientific studies. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Reference material is available at the refuge headquarters. 

STAFF: Two full-time staff and two youth programmes (five year-round and 12 summer employees). 

BUDGET: Approximately US $80,000 per year. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, Caribbean Islands National 
Wildlife Refuges, Refuge Manager, PC Box 510, Boqueron, Puerto Rico 00622. Location: Carr. 301, Km 
5.4, Corozo, Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne 

INFORMATION DATED: January 1981 



(3) Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 19 December 1912. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 20km west of Puerto Rico in the Mona Passage. 18°23'N, 67°29'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 208m. 



314 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

AREA: 145.7 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The refuge is an extremely rugged and rocky volcanic cone that rises abruptly 
from deep ocean waters. The shorelines are rocky with few short, narrow beaches, and rise as cliffs or as 
very steep slopes to several peaks. There is no available water supply on the island as the cUmate is hot and 
dry. 

VEGETATION: The typical vegetation is seasonal deciduous woodland dominated by gumbo limbo 
Bursera simaruba and a thorny cactus scrub including Opuntia spp., Harrisia postoricensis and 
Mammillaria nivosa, except for the coastal communities, where there are succulent shrubs and an 
occasional grassy area of Panicum maximum or Aristida sp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are three endemic species of reptiles: Anolis desechensis , Ameiva 
desechensis and Sphacredactylus levinsi. The brown booby Sula leucogaster, red-footed booby Sula sula 
and magnificent frigatebird Fregata magnificens nest on the island. 

ZONING: Rural and agricultural. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Predation upon seabird colonies by Rhesus monkeys; illegal 
poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Morrison and Menzel . Adaptation of a Free-ranging Rhesus 
Monkey Group for Division and Transplantation. Wildlife Monographs, Nov. 1972. 

Woodbury, Martorell and Garcia. The Flora of Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico. Jour. Ag. 
UPR-LV-4-71. 

More information available at the Cabo Rojo Refuge headquarters. 

STAFF: Administered from Cabo Rojo NWR. 

BUDGET: Funded under Cabo Rojo NWR. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, Caribbean Islands National 
Wildlife Refuges, Refuge Manager, PO Box 510, Boqueron, Puerto Rico 00622. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne 
INFORMATION DATED: January 1981 



(1) Luquillo Experimental Forest (Caribbean National Forest) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: The area is managed by the United States Forest Service (USFS) as both a 
National Forest and Experimental Forest and is protected from hunting and from large scale habitat 
disturbance. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: June 1976. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located within the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico, 
approximately 35km east of San Juan. 18°21'N, 65°45'W. 

ALTITUDE: 150-1080m. 

AREA: 11340 ha. (largest tract of contiguous ownership on the island). 

LAND TENURE: Publicly owned (federal) area. Private inholdings total 50 ha. 



PUERTO RICO 315 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The topography is mountainous and six major river systems begin in the 
mountains. Waterfalls and cascades are common. Soils are generally acid clays, and four soil series (Los 
Guineos, Rough Stoney Land, Yunque, and Guayabota) comprise 70% of the area. Often these soils are 
shallow and/or stoney and are not suitable for cultivation. Above 600m, soils are frequently saturated. The 
climate is warm and wet. On foothills and slopes below 600m, annual precipitation is 1760-2500mm, mean 
temperature above 15°C. On peaks and high ridges above 800m, precipitation exceeds 3700mm and 
temperature averages 19°C. Weather data available in Briscoe (1966). 

VEGETATION: The park contains the largest remnant of undisturbed forest vegetation of several forest 
types. Four vegetation types are generally recognized. On the lower elevations, the lower montane 
rainforest (Beard, 1944) or the subtropical wet forest (Holdridge, 1947; Ewel and Whitmore, 1973) is 
found. This is the most diverse forest; it contains 3 strata, and the emergent stratum is up to 35m. Shrubs 
and herbs are unimportant. Dacryodes excelsa is the dominant tree; Sloanea verteriana and Manilkara 
bidentata are other prominent species. The montane thicket (Beard) or the subtropical rainforest 
(Holdridge) is found in the valleys and gentle slopes above 600m elevation. This type has two strata and a 
canopy layer less than 15m; Colorado Cyrilla racemiftora is the dominant tree. The palm brake (Beard), 
Sierra palm Euterpe globosa, is associated with unstable soils. The elfin woodland or dwarf forest is a 
unique forest at the highest elevations. The tree canopy varies from 6m in height to less than Im on the 
most exposed peaks. Trees are festooned with mosses and epiphytes. Details of biotic and abiotic 
environment available in Wadsworth (1951). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The diversity of birds within the forest is relatively low; a checklist of 
breeding birds prepared for the National Forest contains only 35 species. The Puerto Rican parrot 
Amazona vittata (E) is the only parrot native to US territory still extant. Fewer than 25 parrots remain in 
the wild, and all are found in the Caribbean National Forest. An intensive research and management 
effort is underway to save the species. Bats are the most common and conspicuous mammal. Other 
mammals found within the Forest are the introduced Indian mongoose Herpes tes mungo, the black roof 
rat Rattus rattus, the wharf rat R. norvegicus and feral cats Felis catus. The Puerta Rican boa Epicrates 
inornatus has not been well studied and little is known of its habitat requirements, distribution, and hfe 
history. 

ZONING: Within the forest, 2800 ha are designated for timber management, 2330 ha designated as 
research tracts. Special areas include the Bano de Oro Research Natural Area, a 745 ha tract of virgin rain 
forest representing the major forest types in which only non-destructive research activities are allowed and 
long-term protection is the goal. The buffer zone includes areas devoted to timber management and 
recreation. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The core of the National Forest represents original Spanish 
Crown land and was never inhabited. The Natural Area is within this zone and thus serves as an 
undisturbed baseline community. The fringe areas of the forest were subjected to farming or timber 
removal. Following purchase, these areas were planted and silviculture is now being practised. Recreation 
is a major activity within the forest, but almost all of the estimated 1,000,000 visitations were in the road 
corridors and in a single 15 ha picnic area. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: The USFS has conducted research within the forest since 1932, with many 
results published in the Caribbean Forester. Other significant research includes the Atomic Energy 
Commission (now ERDA) and the Nuclear Centre of the University of Puerto Rico programme of 
ecological research begun in 1963 and including the El Verde radiobiology project (reported by Odum and 
Pigeon, 1970). A modified programme continues with emphasis on hydrological research. Research in the 
dwarf forest was conducted by the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University (e.g. , Howard, 1968). At the 
Institute of Tropical Forestry (ITF) a new programme of research in the natural forest was begun in 1975. 
Proposed research includes studies of productivity, stand development, impacts of timber harvest on 
residual stands and recovery of stands following harvest, and ecological life histories of tree species. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: The El Verde Field Station provides a permanent base with easy 
access for research in the Luquillo Mountains. Both laboratory and housing are available. Laboratory and 
office space, a nursery and workshop are available at ITF headquarters in Rio Piedras. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Beard, J.S. (1944). Climax vegetation in tropical America. 
Ecology 25: 127-158: Briscoe. C.B. (1966). Weather in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. ITF 
Research paper 3: Ewel, J.J. and Whitmore, J.L. (1973). The ecological life zones of Puerto Rico and the 
US Virgin Islands. Forest Service Research Paper ITF-18: Holdridge, L.R. (1947). Detemination of 
world plant formations from simple climatic data. Science 105: 367-368: Howard. R.A. (1968). The 
ecology of an elfin forest in Puerto Rico. 1. Introduction and composition studies. Jour. Arnold 



316 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

Arboretum 50: 225-267: Odum, H.T., Pigeon, R,F, (Eds.) 1970. A tropical rainforest: a study of 
irradiation and ecology at El Verde, Puerto Rico. USAEC, TID-24270: Wadsworth, F.H. (1951). Forest 
management in the Luquillo Mountains. I. The setting. Caribbean Forester 12(3): 93-114. 

STAFF: ITF research staff, 7 scientists and 10 support personnel. 

BUDGET: No Information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Director, Institute of Tropical Forestry, PO Box 
AQm Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 00928. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: Derived from information supplied by Unesco. 



(2) Guanica State Forest 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.40.13 (Greater Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Under the provisions of administrative bulletin no. 5 of 22 December 1919, 
Governor Arthur Yager assigned 2078.9 ha to create the original Guanica Forest Reserve. In subsequent 
years more lands were acquired by various means, adding the balance to make up the 4,015.5 ha which 
today comprises the total area of the reserve. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 22 December 1919 as a forest reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Located on the southwestern coast of Puerto Rico, about 30km west 
of Ponce; 17°55'30"N, 67°05'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 228m. 

AREA: 4,015 ha. 

LAND TENURE: The forest is pubhcly owned by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico 
Land Authority holds title to 942 ha, but these are managed by the Department of Natural Resources 
which owns the remaining land. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Include mangroves and beaches. A man-made cave of historical value is 
located near Camp Borinquen in the forest's eastern segment. 

VEGETATION: Eight plant associations have been described for the Guanica Forest (Lugo et al., 
1978). The upland associations consist of a deciduous forest (2345.7 ha), a semi-evergreen forest (718.2 
ha) and a scrub forest (581 .4 ha). The saline and beach associations consist of mangrove (25.9 ha), salt fiats 
(9 ha) and beach and headland thicket (85.5 ha). Human or disturbed associations consist of plantations 
(31.1 ha) and savannas (55.6 ha). The more structurally complex forest types are the deciduous and 
semi-evergreen forests, although transitions from one type to another are gradual. The tallest trees in 
Guanica are found in the semi-evergreen forest. The most abundant tree species in the deciduous forest 
are Exostema caribbaeum and Pisonia albiia which together account for about 70% of the basal area. 
Succulent plants, mainly cacti, grow at lower elevations, where exposed limestones become virtually the 
only substrate for plant growth. Over 700 species of plants have been reported for the Guanica Forest. Of 
these, 246 are trees, 48 are considered rare or endangered and 16 are only found within the forest 
boundaries. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: According to Kepler and Kepler ( 1970) , the diversity of birds in the Guanica 
Forest is greater than that in the Luquillo National Forest. Total bird density in Guanica is also greater. 
Nine of Puerto Rico's 14 endemic bird species occur in Guanica Forest. These are the Puerto Rican lizard 
cuckoo, the Puerto Rican emerald hummingbird, the Puerto Rican tody, the Puerto Rican woodpecker, 
the Puerto Rican flycatcher, the Puerto Rican vireo, the Puerto Rican bullfinch, the yellow-shouldered 
blackbird and the Puerto Rican whippoorwill. The latter two are endangered species. The forest also 
supports an important herpetofauna that includes such rare and endemic forms as Amieva wetmori and 
Anolis cooki. Two specimens of the extremely rare Puerto Rican toad Bufo lemur were taken from the 



PUERTO RICO 317 

forest in 1975. Two species of bats, Antibeus jamaicensis and Brachyphylla cavernarum, occur in a cave 
located within the forest's boundaries. This cave is the only known habitat on the main island of Puerto 
Rico for two cave adapted aquatic invertebrates, Typhlata monae and an eyeless Stygiomysius shrimp. 

ZONING: Little information, about 30 ha of the forest consists of plantations (mainly Swietenia 
mahogani). The road and trail system consists of approximately 57km. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: For the past 50 years the Guanica Forest has been protected 
from such activities as charcoal cutting, goat grazing and subsistence farming. During the late 1930s and 
early 1940s the Civilian Conservation Corps built nearly all of the existing buildings, roads and trails. 
There are five permanent structures of significant size, including an office building and the forest ranger's 
residence. Recreational facilities consisting of several concrete and wood structures are located at Cana 
Gorda, Tamarindo and Jaboncillo beaches. Typically, but not exclusively, the Guanica Forest serves the 
recreation needs of people living in eight nearby municipalities - a combined population total of over 
330,000 people. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No information. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: These are presumably available, but we have no information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Not listed. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Not available. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne 

INFORMATION DATED: 1981. 



318 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



ST LUCIA 



AREA: 616 sq km. 

POPULATION: 121,469 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Forest, Soil and Water Conservation Ordinance, Chapter 
25, 1 June 1946. A National Parks Ordinance is in preparation. The St Lucia National Trust of 1975 is 
presumably also relevant. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The St Lucia Forestry Division is responsible for 
managing the reserves. 

ADDRESS: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Castries, St Lucia. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 1,600 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

Nature Reserve (hectares) 

1 St Lucia 1,600 

Forest Reserves 

1 Castries Water Works* 1,208 

2 Quilesse* 854 

3 Ve— Vottier* 200 

4 De Suze Estate* 108 

5 Dennery* 148 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 



ST LUCIA 319 

(1) Castries Water Works Forest Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: Unknown. 

BIOGEOGRAPfflCAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 June 1946. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North central portion of the island , about 7km southeast of Castries ; 
14°0'N, 60°56'W. 

ALTITUDE: 170-700m. 

AREA: 1,208 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Very steep slopes of the central mountainous portion of the island. Provides 
water for the town of Castries. 

VEGETATION: Montane and lower montane rainforest with Dacryodes-Sloanea associations 
dominant. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Semper's warbler Leucopeza semperi (E) and the iguana Iguana iguana. 

ZONING: The area is zoned for selective felling. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Squatters have entered the area and cleared isolated patches 
for agricultural use. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Forest Management Plan for St Lucia. 

STAFF: 1 forest guard and 1 forestry assistant, both part-time. 

BUDGET: Guard salaries. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 24 July 1979. 



(2) Quilesse Forest Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: Unknown. 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 June 1946. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: More or less at the centre of island, 18km south of Castries; 13°51'N, 
60°59'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-944m. 

AREA: 854 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 



I 



320 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Primary and secondary rain forest. Mountainous terrain of volcanic origin. 

VEGETATION: Primary and secondary rainforest with Dacryodes-Sloanea associations dominant, 
cloud forest, several species of rare orchids. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: St Lucia parrot Amazona versicolor (E), St Lucia black finch Melanospiza 
richardsoni, rufous-throated solitaire Myadestea genibarbis, St Lucia oriole Icterus laudabilis. 

ZONING: The area is partially zoned for strict protection and partially for selective felling. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some areas have been logged by selective felUng. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Research on St Lucia parrot. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: St Lucia Forest Management Plan. 

STAFF: A forest assistant and a forest guard. 

BUDGET: Staff salaries. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Foresty Division, Ministry of Agriculture. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 24 July 1979. 



(3) Ve-Vottier Forest Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: Unknown. 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 June 1946. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Close to the island's centre, about 20km south of Castries; 13°51'N, 
60°58'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-613m. 

AREA: 200 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Mountainous terrain of volcanic origin. 

VEGETATION: Primary and secondary rainforest with Dacryodes-Sloanea associations dominant. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: St Lucia parrot Amazona versicolor (E), rufous-throated solitaire Myadestes 
genibarbis, St Lucia black finch Melanospiza richardsoni and St Lucia oriole Icterus laudibilis. 

ZONING: Zoned for strict protection and selective felling. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some squatters are in the area. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: St Lucia Forest Management Plan. 

STAFF: A forest assistant and a forest guard. 

BUDGET: Staff salaries. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture. 



ST LUCIA 321 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 
INFORMATION DATED: 24 July 1979. 



(4) De Suze Estate Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: Unknown. 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 June 1946. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Central west St Lucia, about 21km south of Castries; 13°50'N, 
60°57'W. 

ALTITUDE: 200-612m. 

AREA: 108 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Primary and secondary rainforest (see Castries Water Works Reserve). 
Mountainous terrain of volcanic origin. 

VEGETATION: Primary and secondary rainforest with Dacryodes-Sloanea associations dominant. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: St Lucia parrot Amazona versicolor (E) , rufous-throated solitaire Myadestes 
genibarbis, St Lucia black finch Melanospiza richardsoni and St Lucia oriole Icterus laudibilis. 

ZONING: Zoned for selective felling. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Squatters occupy small portions of the reserve. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: St Lucia Forest Management Plan. 

STAFF: A forest guard part-time and a forest assistant part-time. 

BUDGET: Staff salaries. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 24 July 1979. 



I 



322 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(5) Dennery Forest Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.41.13 (Lesser Antillean). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 June 1946. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Central eastern portion of island, about 13km southeast of Castries; 

13°55'N, 60°55'W. 

ALTITUDE: 70-353m. 

AREA: 148 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Steep terrain around Mount Beaujolais to the east of the central mountains. 

VEGETATION: Primary and secondary evergreen and semi-evergreen forest; primary rainforest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: St Lucia oriole Icterus laudabilis. 

ZONING: This area is zoned for strict protection. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The area has experienced some clearing for agriculture in the 
past, but this has been stopped. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: St Lucia Forest Management Plan. 

STAFF: A forest guard part-time and a forest assistant part-time. 

BUDGET: Salaries of staff. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 24 July 1979. 



ST VINCENT 323 



ST VINCENT 



AREA: 389 sq km. 
POPULATION: 113,000(1979) 

We have no information on the current situation in St Vincent. 



I 



324 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



REPUBLIC OF SURINAME 



AREA: 163,820 sq km. 

POPULATION: 391,000(1978) 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The first game sanctuary was established by Resolution in 
1953 based on the Police Penal Ordinance of 1942. But the principles of nature conservation were first 
formulated and embodied into law in the Nature Protection Ordinance of 1954 (GB No. 26) and provide 
the legal basis for establishment of nature reserves by Resolution. The Forest Ordinance of 1947 also 
allows for the establishment of Forest Reserves. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Forest Service of the Ministry of Development has 
a Nature Conservation Department, which is responsible for running the parks and reserves. The Chief 
Conservator is assisted by the Foundation for Conservation of Nature in Suriname (STINASU), a private 
non-governmental organization. Nature reserves are established on public lands, which, in the opinion of 
the advisory commission, are of scientific, aesthetic or cultural value. These may not necessarily be sites of 
exceptional interest, but will include sites which are regarded as representative samples of landscape or 
vegetation types. 

ADDRESS: (a) Forest Service, PO Box 436, Paramaribo, Suriname. 
(b) STINASU, PO Box 436, Paramaribo, Suriname. 

REFERENCES: Augustinus, P.G.L. (1978). The Changing ShoreUne of Suriname. 

Schultz, J. P. (1968). Nature Preservation in Suriname - a review of the present status. Suriname Forest 
Service, Paramaribo, PO Box 436. 

Schultz, J. P., Mittermeier, R.A. and Reichart, H.A. (1977). Wildlife in Suriname. Oryx XIV(2): 
133-144. 

Mittermieier, R.A. (1977). Distribution, synecology and conservation of Suriname monkeys. PhD 
Thesis, Harvard University, USA. 

Roosmalen, M.G.M. van (1980). Habitat preferences, Diet, Feeding Strategy and Social Organization 
of the black spider monkey Ateles paniscus paniscus (Linnaeus 1978) in Suriname. Rijksinstituut voor 
Natuurveheer - Rapport 80/13 Leersum. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 582,000 ha. 



PROTECTED AREAS: 



Nature Reserves 


1 Wia-Wia 


2 Coppename River Mouth 

3 Gahbi 


4 Eilerts de Haan 


5 Tafelberg 

6 Sipaliwini 

7 Voltzberg — Raleighvallen 

8 Brinckheuvel 


Nature Park 


1 Brownsberg 



(hectares) 

36,000 

12,000 

4,000 

220,000 

140,000 

100,000 

56,000 

6,000 

8,000 



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O NATURAL RESERVES 
6 NATURE PARK 



326 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Wia-Wia Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 96 1 . 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 25km west of Galibi, covering 53km of coast and extending 6.9km 
inland; 6°50'N, 54°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: Near sea level. 

AREA: 36,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federally owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Tidal mud flats, shoals, sand and shell beaches, salt water and brackish ponds, 
and lakes. There are also about 14,000 ha of offshore sandbars and mudflats included within the reserve. 
Most of the beaches are in cyclical succession because of the alternating processes of abrasion and 
sedimentation, with most of the sediment originating in the Amazon. Several old sand/shell beaches have 
been left behind inland and are now forested. 

VEGETATION: Herbaceous beach vegetation with Hibiscus tiliaceus and Tfiespesia populnea, mature 
mangrove forest ■with Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa, scattered mangroves in brackish 
to fresh water, grass swamps including various species of grass and sedge, and the fern Acrostichum 
aureum, and with coast mud-grass vegetation and mangrove on the mudflats. Mangrove vegetation can be 
found within the reserve in most of the stages of succession. The littoral ridge wood includes species such 
as Crataeva tapia and Cereus hexagonus. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The reserve was declared to protect Bigisanti Beach, which is a nesting site 
for green turtle Chelonia my das (E), leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea (E), and ohve Ridley 
Lepidochelys olivacea (E). Hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata (E) are also found, but they are rare 
here as at Galibi, and only one loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (V) has been recorded nesting (Schultz et 
al, 1977). Giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V) is present. It is also the feeding grounds for numerous 
indigenous and migrant waterbirds including herons and egrets (Ardeidae), storks (Cicioniidae), ducks 
(Anatidae), roseate spoonbills Platalea ajaja, and flamingoes Phoenicopterus ruber; with breeding 
colonies of herons, egrets, scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber, and black-bellied tree ducks Dendrocygna 
autumnalis and large numbers of breeding Bahama (or whitecheeked) pintails Anas bahamensis. There 
are also numerous migrant waders (or shorebirds) including plovers (Charadriidae), turnstones /I renana, 
yellowlegs and sandpipers Tringa, and willets Catoptrophorus semipalmatus. Gulls and terns (Laridae), 
and skimmers (Rynchopidae) are also present in large numbers. White-tailed deer Odocoileus americana 
and black spider monk&y Ateles paniscus (V) are found within the reserve, and there is habitat for jaguar 
Panthera onca (V). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Extensive research on turtle nesting and its periodicity, geomorphology 
(and in particular study of the coastal beach processes), estuarine ecosystems (flora, vegetation, 
hydrobiology) and ornithology. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Guesthouse for research workers at Matapica. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: 2 game wardens and 5 labourers. 

BUDGET: US$ 20,000 per annum. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forest Service. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 March 1979. 



REPUBLIC OF SURINAME 327 

(2) Coppename-Mouth Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHIC AL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan) . 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: Protected since 1953, but established as a reserve since 1966. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: At the mouth of the Coppename River, central coast; 5°50'N, 
55°50'W. 

ALTITUDE: Near sea level. 

AREA: 10,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federally owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Wide tidal mud flats, lagoons and brackish herbaceous swamps, in the estuary 
of the Coppename and Saramacca Rivers, and along the Atlantic coast. Sand beaches and ridges. 

VEGETATION: Coastal mudgrass vegetation with Spartina brasiliensis , various types of young and old 
stages of mangrove forest with Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa, salt water ponds and 
shallow lagoons with Sesuvium portulacastrum. Bads maritima, and Sporobolus virginicus. Coastal beach 
vegetation with Hibiscus tiliaceus, Thespesia populnea and A. germinans, and littoral ridge wood with 
Crataeva tapia and Cereus hexagonus. In the estuary the species change because of the freshwater 
influence. The short grass and fern swamps include two species of sedge Eleocharis mutata and Cyperus 
articulatus, and in the estuarine mangroves the Avicennia and Laguncularia species are joined by 
Rhizophora mangle, and the palm Euterpe oleracea. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The reserve was primarily established to protect nesting colonies and 
roosting sites of a number of herons, spoonbills and ibises: the Lousiana or tricoloured heron Egretta 
tricolor, the little blue heron E. caerulea, the yellow-crowned and black-crowned night herons Nycticorax 
violaceus and N. nycticorax, the great egret and snowy egret E. alba and E. thula, scarlet ibis Eudocimus 
ruber and roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja. The boat-billed heron Cochlearius cochlearius has also been 
recorded here . A number of migrant birds such as the magnificent frigatebird Fregata magnificans and the 
black skimmer Rhynchops nigra visit the reserve , as well as a number of the species of shorebird recorded 
for the Wia Wia Nature Reserve. The black spider monkey Ateles paniscus (V) is also present and the 
Caribbean manatee Trichechus manatus (V) has been reported. Giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V) 
is also found. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Ornithology. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: 1 game warden and 2 guards. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forest Service. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 March 1979. 



I 



328 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Galibi Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 1969. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the mouth of the Marowijne River, which forms the frontier with 

French Guiana in the northeast corner of the country; 5°45'N, 54°W. 

ALTITUDE: Near sea level. 

AREA: 4,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: All federally owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Mud banks, sandy beaches and mangrove forests predominate in this 
low-lying coastal reserve. 

VEGETATION: There are three main vegetation types, mature mangrove forest with Avicennia 
germinans and Lagunaria racemosa, mixed xerophytic coastal woodland (rich in cacti) and brackish 
short-grass swamp with Cyperus articulatus and Eleocharis mutata (and Typha angustifolia, Phragmites 
ausiralis and Leersia hexandra further into the estuary). Freshwater also affects the mangrove 
associations, and Rhizophora mangle increases in numbers. There are also various types of beach 
vegetation with species such as Ipomoea pes-caprae, Canavalia maritima. Hibiscus dliaceus, Thespesia 
populnea, and the mangrove A. germinans, and littoral ridge savanna/woodland with Paspalum 
maritimum, Chrysobalanus icaco and Clusia panapanari in the savanna areas, and Crataeva tapia and 
Cereus hexagonus in the wood. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The reserve was established to protect the Eilanti Beach, one of the most 
important Atlantic nesting beaches for the Pacific Ridley or olive turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (E), and 
one on which mass nesting aggregrations occur. Two other turtle nesting beaches, Galibi and Baboensanti 
are also protected. Green turtle Chelonia mydas (E) and leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea (E) also 
nest here (the latter particularly on Baboensanti Beach), and caymans Caiman crocodilus crocodilus 
(V)are found in the area. Black spider monkey Ateles paniscus (V) is also reported and giant armadillo 
Priodontes giganteus (V) is found. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported, but there is tourism, and fishing is practised by 
aborigionals from the beach (OAS, 1979). Egg exploitation was severe in the past. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Extensive research has been carried out on turtle nesting and on 
geomorphology. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: A game warden and 6 labourers. 

BUDGET: US$ 20,000 per annum. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forest Service. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 9 March 1979. 



REPUBLIC OF SURINAME 329 

(4) Eilerts de Haan Gebergte Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1966, 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southwestern Suriname, 3°20'N, 56°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-lOOOm. 

AREA: 220,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federally owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Largest of Suriname's reserves, the major part of which is a granitic mountain 
ridge, characterised by steep hills and ridges. The whole ridge is an example of a rejuvenated erosional 
landscape, the rocks (which are of Precambrian age) having been uplifted again in recent geological time. 

VEGETATION: The ridge is covered with primaeval evergreen seasonal rainforest, and lower montane 
rainforest. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Black spider monkey Ateles paniscus (V) was reported here by Mittermeier 
(1977) and giant armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V) is present. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Only on the geology. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forest Service. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 March 1979. 



(5) Tafelberg Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1966. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Central Suriname; 4°00'N, 56°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 500- 1025m (above a plain at 300m). 

AREA: 140,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federally owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Tafelberg is a flat topped Table Mountain', the only extensive remnant 
of the Proterozoic Roraima Formation in Suriname . The mountain is composed of sandstone with a cap of 



L 



330 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

conglomerate, and forms a high sandy mesa about 5,000 ha in extent which is delimited by steep scarp 
slopes on which there are a number of high waterfalls. The surrounding area consists of a forest-covered 
pediment, again sandstone, but with the underlying granitic basement rocks nearer to the surface. 

VEGETATION: Soils are shallow and much of the reserve is covered by scrub savanna and dry 
evergreen forest/woodland. At higher elevations there is a semi-montane rainforest, while marsh forest is 
also found within the area wherever drainage is impeded. There are a number of endemic plant species 
known from the Tafelberg. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Little known, though there have been studies carried out on birds and 
amphibians. Black spider monkey Aieles paniscus (V) is reported by Mittermeier (1977) and giant 
armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V) is present. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies have been made of the geology and flora, and there are collections 
of birds and amphibians. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forest Service. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 March 1979. 



(6) Sipaliwini Savanna Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1971. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the border of Suriname and Brazil; 2°00'N, 56°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: Somewhere between 200 and 500m. 

AREA: 100,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: No information, but presumably government owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Part of the extensive Paru savanna of Brazil, the undulating terrain of 
Sipaliwini includes large boulders, inselbergs and solitary hills. The underlying rocks include volcanites 
(dacites and rhyolites), granites, diorites and quartzdiorites, and the soils are shallow. The whole area is 
part of the Corantijn River basin, and is drained by the Sipaliwini River. 

VEGETATION: Savanna and gallery forests, with isolated forest patches, and swampy areas where 
drainage is poor. Early studies of the area (Van Donselaar, 1965) suggested that the plant associations 
found here were unique for the Paru-Sipaliwini savannas, showing more affinities to the Rupununi-Rio 
Blanco savannas of Brazil and Guyana. In addition a relatively high proportion of the species (25%) are at 
their northern distribution in the Sipaliwini savanna. The area has never been pastured, but the savanna 
has undoubtably been frequently burned in the past. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Giant anteater Myrmecophaga thdactyla (V), giant armadillo Priodontes 
giganteus (V) and savanna fox Dusicyon thous, with tapir Tapirus terrestris in the moister areas. Black 



REPUBLIC OF SURINAME 331 

spider monkey Ateles paniscus (V) is reported by Mittermeier (1977). The fish fauna has been reported to 
be rich , and there are numerous birds characteristic of the savanna , some of which are found nowhere else 
in the country (and some nowhere else north of the Amazon). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies have been conducted on geology, geomorphology , flora, part of the 
fauna and the archaeology of the area. There are also a number of maps available for the area showing 
geology (1:100,000), geomorphology (1:500,000) and topography (1:100,000). 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Cheap accommodation for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Donselaar, J. van. (1976). Rapport over een botanische 
orientatietocht naar de savanna in het gebied van de boven-Sipaliwini. Report to the Forest Service and to 
WOTRO. 18 + 16 pp (typescript). 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forest Service. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 March 1979. 



(7) Voltzberg-Raleighvallen Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1961. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: North central Suriname, 4°45'N, 56°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 50-360m. 

AREA: 56,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federally owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Gently undulating with granitic hills and inselbergs rising 100 to 250m above 
the surrounding forest. There are many waterfalls and rapids, and the reserve includes the specatular 
Raleigh Falls, a braided system of boulder strewn rapids and falls in the Coppename River. 

VEGETATION: Tropical lowland rainforest covers much of the land, with a characteristic xerophytic 
vegetation on the granite outcroppings which includes a number of endemic species. The rocks in the 
rivers are partially vegetated, and the species found there include several endemic members of the 
Podostemaceae, an unusual family of Angiosperms (resembling bryophytes or algae) which are only 
found growing on rocks in the rushing water of rivers and cataracts. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The forest fauna includes parrots and macaws (Psittacidae), toucans 
(Ramphastidae), jacamars (Galbulidae), trogons (Trogonidae) and many other species of bird. There are 
also eight species of monkey (all the species recorded in Suriname), including black spider monkey Ateles 
paniscus{V). Jaguar Panthera onca (V), ocelot Felis pardalis (V) and other forest cats Felis spp., giant 
armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V), bush dog Speothos venaticus (V) and probably giant otter Pteronura 
brasiliensis (V) are all present. The reserve also contains prime nesting sites for a number of colony nesting 
birds associated with water, scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber, roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja, and magnificent 
frigatebird Fregata magnificens (OAS, 1979). 

ZONING: No information. 



332 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies of the succession and phytosociology of the xerophytic vegetation of 
the granitic outcroppings. Geological inventory, and studies of the weathering processes of exposed 
granite. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A major research centre is planned for the Raleighvallen area. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: A park manager and an assistant manager, 2 guards and 10 labourers. 

BUDGET: US$ 50,000 per annum. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forest Service. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 March 1979. 



(8) Brinckheuvel (Saban-Pasi) Nature Reserve 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1961. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 100km south of Paramaribo; 5°15'N, 55°20'W. 

ALTITUDE: 70m. 

AREA: 6,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federally owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Low, pebble-covered, residual subgreywacke and conglomerate ridges and 
hills of Precambrian age belonging to the Guyanan shield. The ridges are separated by flat alluvial areas, 
and the whole area lies between the Saramaca and Suriname Rivers. The three hills of the reserve are 
covered by a bleached sand, the remains of the highest terrace of the White-Sand series. The reserve was 
established to protect an area which is of particular geological and pedological interest. 

VEGETATION: Most of the area is covered by one-layered sedge grass, orchard savanna and savanna 
bush communities of the Saban-Pasi type, while on the bleached sand is found savanna vegetation of the 
Cassipora type. The savanna is understood to be of pyrogenic origin. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Tapir Tapirus terrestris. black spider monkey Ateles paniscus (V) and giant 
armadillo Priodontes giganteus (V). 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported, but if secondary succession is being controlled 
there are likely to be some problems encountered in trying to maintain a savanna type vegetation by fire. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Geology, geomorphology and vegetation studies. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: None. 

BUDGET: None. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forest Service. 



REPUBLIC OF SURINAME 333 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 
INFORMATION DATED: 9 March 1979. 



(1) Brownsberg Nature Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1969. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Situated at edge of Brockopondo Reservoir, 130km south of 
Paramaribo; 4°50'N, 55°20'W. 

ALTITUDE: 500m. 

AREA: 8,400 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Held by STINASU on long-term lease from the government. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Steep forest-clad slopes with creeks and waterfalls. The park includes part of 
the Brownsberg plateau lying at about 500m, which is covered by a bauxite carapace. 

VEGETATION: Tropical rainforest and woodland/mesa on the bauxite of the plateau, and to the 
northwest of Lake Brockopondo. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There is a great variety of birds and seven species of monkeys are known 
from the park. Agoutis (Dasyproctidae) and brocket deer {Mazama) are common, and jaguar Panthera 
onca (V), ocelot Felis pardalis (V) and other cats {Felis sp.) are found. Black spider monkey Ateles 
paniscus (V) is reported by Mittermeier (1977). The area is also of interest for studying insects and 
amphibians. For these reasons the Nature Park was initially considered as an 'educational reserve'. 

ZONING: No information. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Continuing research programme underway. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Study camps for environmental education and cheap group 
accommodation for scientists. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: A park manager, 4 assistant managers and 12 labourers. 

BUDGET: US$ 65,000. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: STINASU (though ultimate responsibility 
presumably remains with the Forest Service). 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Allen D. Putney. 

INFORMATION DATED: 10 March 1979. 



334 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 



AREA: 5,128 sq km. 

POPULATION: 1,133,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Under the Conservation of Wildlife Ordinance no. 16 of 
1958, 13 Game Sanctuaries have been established. The Chief Game Warden, with the approval of the 
Minister, may add to, delete, or change the boundaries of these Game Sanctuaries. Hunting is prohibited 
in Game Sanctuaries but other activities such as timber exploitation may take place. Areas which are part 
of a Forest Reserve or Crown Land may be declared by the President to be 'prohibited areas' under the 
Forest Ordinance of 1950 which prohibits any unauthorized entry. In addition, the Marine Areas 
(preservation and enhancement) Act, 1970, allows marine areas to be protected 'restricted areas". No 
legislation provides the necessary authority to establish and manage national parks. Also relevant is the 
Town and Country Planning Ordinance of 1960, the Land Acquisition Ordinance of 1947 and the State 
Land Ordinance of 1950. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The responsibility for the management of Wildlife 
Sanctuaries lies with the Forestry Division of the Ministry of Agriculture , Lands and Fisheries . Legislation 
which provides for the establishment of reserves and other protected areas does not specify that 
management be such as to restrict use to ensure adequate protection of the resources. This has lead to 
destruction of natural habitat and recreation potential in many reserves and sanctuaries. Forest reserves 
are geared towards production of forest products. The marine areas act, while providing for protection 
and use of sites, cannot be used to create parks, and does not provide any management infrastructure. 

ADDRESS: Forestry Division, Long Circular Road, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

REFERENCES: Thelen, K.D. and S. Faizool (1980). Policy for the Establishment and Management of a 
National Park System in Trinidad and Tobago. Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and 
Fisheres, Port of Spain, Trinidad. 

Wildlife Conservation Committee (1972). The Wildlife Sanctuaries of Trinidad and Tobago. Ministry 
of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, Trinidad and Tobago. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 16,805 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

Wildlife Sanctuaries (hectares) 

1 Caroni* 7,900 

2 Trinity Hill 6,486 

3 Valencia 2,736 

4 Central Range 2,128 

5 Southern Watershed 1,852 

6 Bush Bush 1,536 

7 Northern Range 937 

8 Morne L'Enfer 334 

9 Little Tobago ' 101 

10 St Giles Islands 29 

11 Saut D'Eau* 10 

12 Kronstadt Island 5 

13 Soldado Rock 1 

Forest Reserve 

1 Los Santos* 62,000 

* There is also the Buccoo Reef/Bon Accord Lagoon Restricted Area of 650 ha. 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 






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336 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Caroni Swamp 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: Unknown. 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Partial (5%). 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1936, and decommissioned in 1982. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: West coast of Trinidad, southeast of Port of Spain; 10°31'-10°37'N, 
61°25'-61°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: Near sea level. 

AREA: 7,900 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Sanctuary is all low-lying swampy soil which is flooded by the high spring 
tides. This land, on which stands the mangrove forest, is interrupted by lagoons and numerous channels 
which drain westwards to the Gulf of Paria. 

VEGETATION: The vegetation in the Sanctuary area consists entirely of mangroves which produce 
trees up to 24m high in places. Four species of mangroves occur; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle is 
the most abundant, occupying the edges of the water channels and covering the small islands in the lagoon. 
This species grows on the muds and produces a dense mass of supporting roots, some of which extend into 
the channels and provide settlement area for a prolific epifauna. Within the mangrove forest, away from 
the channels where the muds are more consolidated, the black mangrove Avicennia germinans forms 
dense stands of low trees carpeted below by the aerial roots or pneumatophores. The black mangrove 
gives way to regions where the soil is very compact and water movements are minimal. Under these 
conditions the mangroves die. leaving barren expanses. The white mangrove Laguncularia racemosa is 
fairly common also but normally grows in association with either of the other species, and rarely forms 
pure stands. There is an absence of ground vegetation, although some ferns appear where there are 
artificial embankments. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fauna of the mangrove forest is rich and varied. 138 species of birds have 
been recorded in the Caroni Swamp; the majority of these can be seen in the Sanctuary throughout the 
year. 54 of these birds are known to nest here, including the scarlet ibis Eudocimiis ruber. About 220,000 
ibis occur in the swamp at the present time and can be seen feeding on the mud flats or roosting in the 
mangrove trees during most of the year. Many of the other species are water birds like herons, ducks, 
egrets and ospreys, although doves, orioles and flycatchers are also common. A few mammals are found in 
the Sanctuary, although they are nowhere common. These include the mangrove dog or crab-eating 
racoon Procyon cancrivorous . the silky anteater or 'Poor Me One" Cyclopes didactylus and various tree 
rats. The alligator Caiman sclerops, once common in the swamp, is now an occasional visitor to the 
Sanctuary. The submerged prop roots of the red mangrove support dense growths of the edible mangrove 
oyster Crassostrea rhizophorea, together with mussels, barnacles, hydroids. sponges, tunicates. tube 
worms and other sedentary marine or estuarine species. Crabs abound on the mud flats and on the muddy 
mangrove forest floor. Especially abundant are the fiddler crabs Uca sp.. the mangrove tree crab Aratus 
pisonii and two species which are used for food, the hairy crab Ucides cordatus and the blue crab. The 
river's lagoons and water channels are rich in edible fish including grouper Mycteroperca sp., tarpon 
Tarpon atlanticus, mullet Mugil sp.. snapper Lutganiis sp. and catfish. 

ZONING: About 202 ha of the Reserve is zoned as prohibited area', which restricts entry. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Danger of pollution from external sources, hunting and 
poaching, land development. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A number of research projects concerning the flora and fauna of the swamp 
are at present in progress, some in conjunction with the University of the West Indies, ffrench (1966) has 
reported on the use of mangroves by birds in Trinidad. The natural history of the scarlet ibis has been 
extensively studied in the swamp by ffrench (ffrench and Haverschmidt. 1970) and a report on the general 
ecology of the area has been prepared by Bacon (1970) who also described the edible shellfish. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Bacon. P.R. (1970). Ecology of the Caroni Swamp. Trinidad 
Government Printing Office. 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 337 

1979. Proposed Management and Development Plan for the Caroni Swamp National Park, Division of 
Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Fisheries, Trinidad and Tobago. 

STAFF: A manager and 4 game wardens are assigned to the area. 

BUDGET: $250,000 per year (US$ 100,000). 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Division of Forestry Ministry. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(2) Trinity Hill Wildlife Sanctuary 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 1 June 1934. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeastern portion of the country, Trinity Ward in the county of 

Mayaro; 10°04'-10°12'N, 6r04'-61°ll'W. 

ALTITUDE: 15-300m. 

AREA: 6,486 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Trinity Hills, which form part of the Southern Range of hills, run across 
the south of the sanctuary, parallel to the sea coast. The highest point of the Southern Range, Mount 
Derrick, is found here, with an elevation of 304m. The Kapur Ridge runs north from the Trinity Hills on 
the eastern border of the sanctuary, and its does not rise above 95m. Elsewhere in the sanctuary the 
country is undulating land between 15 and 60m high. Due to its topography, the area is well drained. The 
Kapur ridge forms a watershed between the Pilote River and its tributaries flowing eastwards, and the 
Blackwater, Lucy, Stone, Petite and Grande Rivers and their tributaries which flow westwards into the 
Moruga River. The Hiiarie and La Table Rivers, as well as a number of minor streams, rise on the 
southern slope of the Trinity Hills and flow southwards. The soils are mainly sands, loams and clays 
derived from the erosion of tertiary sediments. The fertility and drainage of the soils are moderate 
although some areas experience desiccation and occasional rocks appear at the surface or in the profile. 

VEGETATION: The sanctuary is covered by tropical forest of the crappo-guatecare association. It 
shows two distinct facies, however, which occur in different locations; one is characterized by bois mulatre 
Pentaclethra macroloba and carat Sabal glaucescens and the other is mora Mora excelsa forest. The 
commonest large trees in the Bois Mulatre-Carat forest areas are crappo Carapa guianensis and wild 
chataigne Pachira />75/gn/s, with guatecare Eschweilera subglandulosa in third place among acurel Trichilia 
oblanceolata, rosemacho Crudia glaberrima and redwood Gaurea guara. Bois mulatre Pentaclethra 
macroloba is the chief tree of the canopy layer over large areas and throughout this forest type the 
characteristic palm, and most abundant lower storey plant, is carat Sabal glaucescens. It appears that the 
mora Mora excelsa has invaded this area in relatively recent times and has not yet reached the limits of its 
distribution in the southern range hills. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: 16 mammals, other than rats and mice, have been recorded, including all the 
game mammals such as lappe Agouti paca, agouti Dasyprocta aguti, collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, 
nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus and red brocket deer Mazama americanus together with 
anteaters, porcupines Coendu prehensilis, manicous, tayras Eira barbara and squirrels. The ocelot Felis 
pardalis (V) is now rare if not completely absent, but troops of both the capuchin Cebus albifrons and 
howler monkeys Alouatia seniculus still survive. The reptiles include morocoys Geochelone denticulata, 
galaps Geomyda punctularia, alligators Caiman sclerops, iguana Iguana iguana, matte Tupinambis 



L 



338 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

negropunclatus, zandolie Ameiva ameiva and twenty-four-hours lizards Polyorous marmorata; snakes 
include the bushmaster Lachesis muta, fer-de-lance Bolhrops atrox, macajeul Constrictor constrictor, 
black cribo Clelia clelia, green horsewhip Leptophis ahaetulla and machete Drymobius boddaerti. 31 birds 
have been recorded in the sanctuary to date, but the number of species living there is probably much 
higher. Most of them are common forest birds, but two species are of special interest. These are the rare 
mountain quail-dove Geotrygon linearis and the paui Pip He pip He (E), which was thought to be extinct in 
Trinidad. The only reUable record in recent years of the paui, which is endemic to the country, is from the 
Trinity Hill areas. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Exploration for oil, involving cutting and clearing; poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None known. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No special allocation is made to the sanctuary. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division , Ministry of Agriculture , Lands 
and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(3) Valencia Wildlife Sanctuary 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: June 1934. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northeast of Trinidad in the county of St Andrews; 10°36'-10°39'N. 
61°06'-6ril'W. 

ALTITUDE: 7.5-15m. 

AREA: 2,736 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The topography is flat with undulations ranging from 7.5 to 15m above sea 
level. Terrace deposits of fine sands cover most of the area and consist of between l-3m of loose and 
overlaying cemented gravel, which forms an indurated pan. Drainage is imperfect with the land surface 
characterized by a hogwalled micro-relief. The soils of the river flats are of a silty clay. The area is well 
served by the Barro, Turure and La Seiva rivers which flow in a southerly direction through the sanctuary. 

VEGETATION: The natural forest, according to Beard (1946) was partly a Crappo-Guatecare 
association, in which mora Mora excelsa, olivier Terminalia amazonia, crappo Carapa guianensis and 
mahoe Sterculia caribaea made up the dominants, and partly a galba-palm swamp forest. In the latter areas 
galba Calophyllum lucidum, timite Manicaria saccifera, palma-real Jessenia oligocarpa and manac 
Euterpe sp. were the common trees. Now the whole area can be divided into mora forests, mixed forests, 
and scrub forests. The scrub and burnt areas are now being converted to pine forests. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory has recorded 50 species of birds in 
this area. All are birds typical of lowland forest, such as doves, antbirds, manakins, flycatchers and 
tanagers, but they are not peculiar to this area. Other animals which have been recorded in this sanctuary 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 339 

include deer Mazama americana, quenk Tayassu tajacu, agouti Dasyprocta agouti, tatoo Dasypus 
novemcinctus , matte Tupinambis negropunctatus . iguana Iguana iguana, morocoys Geochelone 
denticulata and several species of snakes. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The area is significantly disturbed by timber harvesting, the 
establishment of pine plantations, quarrying and poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No specific budget for wildlife protection in the area. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands 
and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(4) Central Range Wildlife Sanctuary 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1934. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Northwest portion of the Central Range in counties Caroni, St 
Andrew and Nariva; 10°24'-10°27'N, 6ri2'-6ri6"W. 

ALTITUDE: 180m. 

AREA: 2,128 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Typically rolling hill country reaching to just over 200m in places. It is well 
watered and well drained as the Talparo and Tumpuna Rivers and most of their tributaries have their 
sources in the Sanctuary. These rivers flow north westwards to join the Caroni River. The forest soil is a 
shallow, sticky, yellow clay directly overlying bedrock which frequently outcrops through it. There is no 
humus horizon, although a thin layer of leaf litter lies on the surface year round. The rock outcrops are of 
marly limestone which is strongly calcitised. Drainage is very rapid because of the steepness of the slopes 
and the permeabihty of the rock. 

VEGETATION: The vegetation of the region is basically rainforest in which crappo , guatecare and carat 
are prominent, but the low rainfall and the excessive drainage on the limestone hillsides combine to 
produce a somewhat xerophytic association. In this association acurel, moussara and foguier are the 
dominant trees although cedar Cedrela mexicana, poui Tabebuia sp., mahoe Sterculia caribaea, balata 
Mimusops balata and silk cotton Ceiba pentandra occur at intervals. This produces an open forest type 
with the canopy at 6-12m, with occasional emergent trees of 30m or more. Lianes are well developed, but 
epiphytes only weakly so, and palms are frequent. There is a shrub layer with Apehlandra but little ground 
vegetation. Forest clearings are taken over by balisier Helisonia sp. and aroids like Xanthosomajacquinii. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Many of the common forest mammals are found in the Central Range 
Sanctuary. These include game mammals such as deer Mazama americana. armadillo Dasypus 
novemcinctus, agouti Dasyprocta agouti, lappe Agouti paca and quenk Tayassu tajacu and, although no 



340 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

census has been taken there, these are thought to be relatively abundant. Troops of both the red howler 
Alouatla seniculus and Trinidad capuchin monkey Cebus albifrons are seen there regularly. The bird life of 
the Sanctuary has not been documented but is typical of the Central Range, that is, containing a high 
variety of species without the higher montane birds found in the Northern Range. Manakins, flycatchers 
and antbirds are common, along with trogons Trogon strigilatus, woodpeckers and toucans Ramphastos 
vitellinus. The pawi Pipile pipile (E) has also been reported here. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Exploitation of native forestry, introduction of teak 
plantation, and poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No special allocation to the management of the sanctuary. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture , Lands 
and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(5) Southern Watershed Wildlife Sanctuary 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGR APHIC AL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan) . 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1934. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southwestern portion of the country in the county of St Patrick; 10°03' 
to 10°06'N, 61°27'-61°31'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-138m. 

AREA: 1,852 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The hills of the Southern Range, with gentle slopes to the north and south, run 
along the centre of the sanctuary. Altitudes vary from sea level along the Columbus Channel to 138m at 
Devil's Knoll, Morne Diablo Trignometric Station No. 131. Most of the area lies between 15m and 45m 
high. The sanctuary is covered by a patch mixture of seven different types of clay soils. These have slow to 
moderate drainage and are susceptible to landslides and erosion of denuded soil. 

VEGETATION: The Southern Watershed Sanctuary has a semi-deciduous tropical forest of the 
acurel-mousara association in which the carat palm is also abundant. The dominant trees are acurel 
Trichilia oblanceolata, mousara Brosimum alicastnim and cedar Cedrela mexicana, among which a 
number of other valuable timber trees are found. These include fustic Chlorophora tinctoria, species of the 
Lauraceae, acoma Sideroxylon quadriloulare, black fiddlewood Vitex divaricata, cypre Cordia alliodora 
and black poui Tabebuia rufescens. Others found occasionally are the white fiddlewood Vitex capitata, 
saltfishwood Machaerium robinifolium, naked Indian Bursera simaruba and hog plum Spondias monbin, 
and among the smaller trees of the lower canopy, white grape Coccoloba venosa, obi Trichilia trinitensis, 
wild guavas (Myrtaceae), wild orange Swartzia simplex and carat Sabal glaucescens. One noticeable 
feature of this forest is the extraordinary variation in dominant tree type from point to point. This is 
probably due to past human interference. The ground vegetation layer is virtually absent in wide 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 341 

areas and the soil bare. The thick carpet of dead leaves produced each year is rapidly decomposed, leaving 
little visible humus. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mammals are fairly common in the sanctuary; in addition to the smaller 
agouti Dasyprocta agouti, manicou, squirrels and rats, these include the deer Mazama americana, tatoo 
Dasypus novemcinctus, matapel Tamandua longicaudata and tiger cat Felb pardalis{V). Lizards and 
snakes are abundant and the alligator and freshwater turtles, the morocoy Geochelone denticulata and 
galap Geomyda punctularia, are fairly common in the streams. Among the more conspicuous lizards are 
the Iguana and the Matte and the snakes recorded include the macajeul Constrictor constrictor, green 
horsewhip Leptophis ahaetulla and machete Drymobius boddaerti and the poisonous bushmaster Lachesis 
muta and fer-de-lance Bothrops atrox. Toucans, Amazon parrots and parakeets are included among the 
varied bird fauna of the Southern Watershed Sanctuary. Some of the more interesting birds to be seen are 
the blue-headed parrot, the cravat Tanagra trinitatis and the black and white woodpecker Phloecaster 
melanoleucus . 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Introduction of teak plantations, poaching and squatting have 
caused disturbances in portions of the sanctuary. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None known. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No specific budget allocation. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands 
and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(6) Bush Bush Wildlife Sanctuary 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1968. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Nariva Swamp in east central Trinidad; 10°23'-10°24'N, 6r06'- 
61°01'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-3m. 

AREA: 1536 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Sanctuary includes not only low-lying swampy areas but also firm ground , 
known as Bush Bush and Bois Neuf islands, with true hardwood forests. The swamp receives its waters 
from the Navet, Bois Neuf and Guatacara rivers, which drain the eastern slopes of the Central Range. In 
the rainy season there is a considerable amount of water in the swamp, which makes Bush Bush 
inaccessible except by boat through a narrow canal. At the height of the rainy season the island is only 3m 
above the surrounding swamp. The water level drops considerably in the dry season and there have been a 
few dry seasons when it was possible to reach the island by foot with relative ease. The soil is sandy and as 
such is well drained. Rainfall averages about 250 cm annually. 



342 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

VEGETATION: Bush Bush island is a true hardwood forest and resembles Beard's description of an 
'Evergeen seasonal forest: Crappo Guatacare type". The main canopy is at about 21-24m, with a few 
emergents reaching to 30 m. There is a secondary canopy of 12-15m, consisting of timite palms, while the 
forest floor is made up of timite and seedling trees. Some of the hardwoods were cut prior to 1960 and 
occasional fires have occurred from time to time in the northern part of the island, but the forest has not 
changed appreciably. Towards the eastern boundary of the island, and in the swamp proper, are 
magnificent stands of swamp bloodwoods and moriche palms, while the open swamp consists of a dense 
matting of grass. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Considering the size of the area, an extremely rich and varied fauna is to be 
found. Both species of monkey which are known to exist in Trinidad - the red howler Alouatta seniculus 
and the weeping capuchin Cebus albifrons - are present in this sanctuary. 57 other species of mammals 
(including 32 species of bats) have been collected, seen or deduced to be present by staff members of 
TRVL. Among these are three species of opossums, the three-toed anteater and two-toed anteater 
Cyclopes didactylus, and 13 species of rodents, which include the agouti Dasyprocta agouti, lappe Agouti 
paca and the tree porcupine. Some 34 families, representing 171 species, of birds have been recorded in 
the area. Dominant species include the manakins, tanagers, antbirds, woodcreepers and the very 
vociferous parrots. Among the reptiles, the zandolie Ameiva ameiva and matte Tupinambis 
negropunctatus are the most common. However, caymans Caiman sclerops, commonly referred to as 
'alligators' , are by no means rare . Although 1 1 species of snakes have been seen or collected , including the 
andiconda punectes murinus, only one is poisonous, the fer-de-lance or mapepire balsain Bothrops atrox. 
The fish fauna has not been adequately studied, but the cascadura Hoploternum littorale is common. 
Amongst the invertebrates, only the blood-sucking species of insects and arachnids have been studied. Of 
these, the mosquitoes predominate with about 92 species being recorded. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Poaching of wildlife by hunters. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: In 1959, staff members of the Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory (TR'VL) 
made exploratory trips into Bush Bush forest with a view to setting up a field station to study the endemic 
cycle of yellow fever virus. The small size of Bush Bush island with its relatively undisturbed habitats, 
lends itself readily to such a study. Staff members of TRVL worked in the area almost exclusively for 
nearly a decade, but scientists from other organizations, notably the New York Zoological Society, also 
worked in the area on short-term projects. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No information. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Downs, W., Aitken, T.H.H., Worth, G.B., Spence, C.B. 
and Jonkers, A.H. (1968). Arbovirus studies in Bush Bush Forest, Trinidad, WI. 1959 - December 1964. 
Description of the study area. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 17: 224-236. 

STAFF: Periodic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No special allocations. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands 
and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(7) Northern Range Wildlife Sanctuary 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 1935. 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 343 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: An area located in the westerly portion of the range of mountains 
extending east to west along the northern coast; ir87'N, 6r25'W. 

ALTITUDE: 304-935m. 

AREA: 937 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Northern Range Sanctuary, popularly known as the El Tucuche Reserve, 
is in the county of St George, bounded at the northern end of the Maracas Valley, north of St Joseph. The 
bulk of the reserve includes the summit of El Tucuche, Trinidad's second highest mountain, and adjacent 
Naranjo, but it also extends to the western side of Piedra Blanca at the head of the Caura Valley and along 
a narrower spur which extends downwards on the northern face of the same peak in the general direction 
of Las Cuevas Bay. The entire area is characterised by steep slopes and free drainage. Some of the 
northern slopes, particularly around the El Tucuche ridge and Naranjo, are precipitous and the entire 
area, with the exception of the actual summit of El Tucuche, is covered by vegetation. The cHmate of the 
reserve is mild by Trinidad standards. Rainfall is high, however, ranging up to approximately 350cm per 
year. There are no large rivers in the sanctuary, but there are numerous gullies and waterfalls which run 
seasonally. The soils of the sanctuary are comparatively thin layers of loam lying over schists. In some 
places there are massive outcrops of schist and on the southwestern slopes may be found deposits of 
magnetite ore. 

VEGETATION: The two types of natural vegetation found are lower montane rainforest and montane 
rainforest. The former accounts for the greater part of the natural vegetation of the El Tucuche Reserve. 
Approximately 40 species of trees have been identified. Three of these are dominant - boisgris Licania 
ternatensis , mahoe Sterculia caribaea and serrette Brysonima spicata. Epiphytes are fairly common but are 
largely confined to the canopy, and palms are present but not common. Ferns are particularly abundant on 
the floor of the forest and there are a few epiphytic forms. Tree ferns are common in this area. Montane 
rainforest (cloud forest or elfin woodland) is essentially very similar in composition to the lower montane 
rain forest, except that the trees are very much smaller and the species number is much lower. In the 
montane rainforest of the El Tucuche Sanctuary, which is confined to a comparatively small patch on the 
lee side of the peak extending southward into the Maracas Valley, the trees are rarely higher then 15m. 
Ferns, mosses, orchids and aroids are all abundant and frequently festoon the vegetation at all levels. In 
contrast to the lower montane rainforest the species number does not exceed 15 and the dominant forms 
are bois bande Roupala montana and mountain guatecare Eschweilera trinitensis. Some of the more 
interesting plants include the giant bromeliad Glomeropitchirnia erectiflora, which may be found on the 
ground and epiphytically, Epidendrum nocturnum - an orchid which grows in profusion on trees along the 
switchbacks, and the giant Utricularia, which may be found among the Selaginella growing on the banks of 
the trail at the summit. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: At El Tucuche, while deer and monkeys have disappeared from sectors of 
the sanctuary and while lappe Agouti paca and agouti Dasyprocta agouti are becoming scarce, tatoo 
Dasypus novemcinctus are still relatively abundant. On the summit of El Tucuche the golden tree frog 
Amphodus auratus can be found. This frog is apparently confined to the summit, living in the bromehads 
which occur there, and is found nowhere else in the world. Also on the Tucuche trail can be found, or 
rather heard, the giant earthworm Megascolex sp., which may measure up to 35cm in length. Interesting 
birds are the band-tailed pigeon Columba fasciata, the orange-billed nightingale-thrush Catharus 
auranthiirostris and the blue-capped tanager Thraupis cyanocephala, which are all distinctly local, 
occurring in the sanctuary only above 820m. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Fires and poaching occur in the Sanctuary. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No significant studies known. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No special allocation. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands 
and Fisheries. 



344 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 
INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(8) Morne I'Enfer 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 1958. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Situated in the southwest corner of Trinidad in the county of St 

Patrick; 10°08'-10'N, 61°33'-37'W. 

ALTITUDE: To 90m. 

AREA: 334 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The topography throughout the area is gently undulating with hills nowhere 
exceeding 90m in elevation. The soils, which are of sedimentary origin, are made up of sands and silts with 
intercalations of clay and contain abundant lignites. The sands are usually well bedded and varve-Iike in 
appearance . A noticeable feature, however, is the frequent occurrence of black patches of discoloured soil 
which seem to indicate either oil residues or seepage. 

VEGETATION: The forests here have been heavily exploited and/or destroyed in the past. The present 
vegetation comprises principally secondary forest growth of the following species: jereton Didymopanax 
morototoni, laurier (Lauraceae), mahoe Sterculia caribbaea, crappo Carape guianensis, bloodwood 
Pterocarpus sp., pois doux , Tepinet Fagara sp., silk cotton Ceiba pentandra, bois dorme Guazuma 
ulmifolia and immortelle . Except for the last four mentioned, the majority of the other trees do not 
exceed 12" in diameter. On the periphery of these small acreages of forests created by the numerous roads, 
the following species predominate: bois flot Ochroma pyrimdale, keskadee Vismia sp., cocorite 
Maximiliana elegans, roseau Bactris major, balisier Helisonia sp., cashibou Calathea sp., bamboos and 
mangoes. The many trees present must be the result of seed dispersal by man during the early days of oil 
exploration in the area. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The breaking up of the area into small parcels has adversely affected the 
game animals inhabiting the sanctuary. Nevertheless, there are still some tatoo, quenk, agouti, porcupine 
and manicou left in the region. The sanctuary abounds with bird life which includes doves, parrots, 
parakeets, humming-birds, woodpeckers, tanagers, toucans Ramphastos vitellinus and yellowtails 
Psarocolius decumanus. In fact, the continuous chirpings, whistlings, bird calls and bird movements are 
pleasant and soothing in this environment which is studded with storage tanks, pipe lines, oil wells and 
black stagnant pools of oil residues. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The area has been leased to oil companies with surface rights, 
oil exploration is intensive and there are more than 225 wells within the sanctuary. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None known. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrolling. 

BUDGET: No special allocation. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands 
and Fisheries. 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 345 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 
INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



1 

L 



(9) Little Tobago 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1928. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 1 mile off the northeast coast of Tobago near Speyside; 
ll°17'-iri8'N, 60°29'-60°31"W. 

ALTITUDE: 137m. 

AREA: 101 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 100% state ownership on condition it be maintained as a sanctuary for the bird of 
paradise. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The island is vaguely star-shaped, about 101 ha in extent, and is extremely 
hilly with steep sea-cliffs in many places, though the highest point is below 137m. Geologically it is from 
the Cretaceous period, with a shallow soil covering. Though there are no permanent ponds, a small spring 
flows throughout the year. The rainfall is less than 250cm per annum, and the prevailing winds across the 
sea have a considerably drying effect upon the vegetation. 

VEGETATION: The island is mostly covered with deciduous seasonal forest, with trees averaging 12m 
in height. Most common are the fan-palm Coccothrinax sp. and the naked indian tree Bursera simaruba, 
while on the ground the aroid Anthurium is abundant. In addition, many introduced trees are common, 
including the papaya Carica papaya, banana and other fruit trees. On the cliff sides particularly much 
cactus is in evidence, along with the shrubby plants such as Plumbago and the strangler fig Clusia sp. At 
one time the Sea Island cotton Gossypium sp. was cultivated on the island and a few scattered plants 
remain. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: After a period when Sea Island cotton was grown, the island came into the 
hands of Sir William Ingram. Being concerned for the survival of birds of paradise, which were then being 
decimated in the East Indies by the plume trade. Sir William imported from the Aru Islands, off New 
Guinea, 48 individuals of the greater bird of paradise Paradisea apoda. which were liberated on Little 
Tobago in 1909. In 1928, Sir William Ingram's heirs presented the island to the Government of Trinidad 
and Tobago, on condition that the island be kept as a sanctuary for the birds of paradise. Much 
controversy has raged over the fate of the birds of paradise. A study and investigation (1967) by J.J. 
Dinsmore, concluded that it is by no means certain that even half of the original stock of 48 birds survived 
liberation, though three more individuals were added by 1912. Certainly some birds bred, for individuals 
in immature plumage have been seen over the years, though no certain nest of the species has ever been 
found. Estimates now are that seven birds survive. Apart from the greater bird of paradise and the wild 
fowl Gallus gallus, 58 species of other birds have been recorded on Little Tobago, 33 of them breeding. Of 
particular interest are the seabirds, represented by sizeable colonies of Audubon's shearwater Pufftnus 
ijerminieri, red-billed tropic-birds Phaethon aethereus, brown boobies Sula leucogaster, laughing gulls 
Lams atricilla and sooty, noddy and bridled terns Sterna fuscata. Anous stolidus and S. anaethetus. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some poaching occurs within the Sanctuary. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies have been carried out regarding the bird of paradise. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Housing accommodation for scientists is available on the island. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dinsmore, J.J. (1967). The Ecology and Behaviour of the 



346 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

Greater Bird of Paradise on Little Tobago Island. Zoology Department, University of Wisconsin, 
Unpublished thesis. 

Gilliard, G.T. (1958). Feathered Lancers of Little Tobago. National Geographic Magazine 1142: 
428-440. 

STAFF: 1 game warden. 

BUDGET: No special management appropriation. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division , Ministry of Agriculture , Lands 
and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(10) St Giles Islands 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1968. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: About 1km off the northeast coast of Tobago; ll°20'-ir22'N, 
60°30'-60°33'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-105m. 

AREA: 28.8 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership (on condition it be maintained as a wildlife sanctuary). 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The island is steep sloped, rising to about 105m, and is covered with thick 
masses of cacti, low bush and trees. 

VEGETATION: Most of the trees are deciduous , some being as high as 9m . There is no steady source of 
fresh water, and during the dry season the vegetation becomes extremely parched. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The islands support one of the most important seabird breeding colonies in 
the southern West Indies, particularly as regards the larger species. The magnificent frigatebird or 
man-o-war Fregata magnificens and the red-footed booby Sula sula breed in some numbers on the main 
island, and there are also considerable colonies of brown boobies Sula leucogaster, noddy terns Anous 
stolidus, red-billed tropic birds Phaethon aethereus and Audubon's shearwaters Pufftnus ijerminieri. 
Various other seabird species probably also breed on the main island or the outlying rocks, but breeding 
has not been confirmed to date. In addition 24 species of land-birds have been recorded from the main 
island. 

ZONING: No entry without special permission. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies of bird life have been accomplished. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Dinsmore, J.J. and ffrench. R.P. (1969). Birds of St Giles 
Islands, Tobago. Wilson Bulletin: 460-463. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No special allocation. 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 347 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands 
and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(11) Saut d'Eau 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 
BIOGEOGRAPfflCAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 1935. 

GEOGRAPmCAL LOCATION: The island lies less than 1km off Trinidad's north coast, due north of 

Maraval; 10°46'N, 61 31'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 106ni. 

AREA: 10 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Despite its size, the island rises fairly steeply to 106m with sheer, craggy cliffs 
at the shore. Landing may be effected at a sheltered spot to the south, but even this can be quite 
dangerous. 

VEGETATION: Mainly deciduous forest typical of Trinidad's northwestern peninsula, but there are 
also considerable areas of low scrub and coarse grass with scattered thorn bushes (and a few large trees up 
to 18m in places). 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Saut d'Eau has been a wildlife sanctuary since 1935, in order to protect 
Trinidad's only breeding colony of brown pelicans Pelicanus occidentalis . These pelicans build large nests 
in the bigger trees and breed during the first half of the year. In a good year, perhaps 100 breeding pairs 
may raise young, but often the number is considerably smaller. The island's inaccessibility prevents much 
poaching but it also precludes protection through wardens. Apart from the pelicans, 26 other species of 
birds have been recorded on Saut d'Eau, many of them probably breeding. Of special interest is the 
chestnut-collared swift Cypseloides rutilus, which nests under overhanging cliffs a few feet above high tide 
level, and the rufous-necked wood-rail Aramides axillaris, which is rare in Trinidad. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Occasional poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies of bird life have been accomplished. 

SPECL\L SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: ffrench, R.P. (1969). The Avifauna of Saut d'Eau Island, 
Journal of the Trinidad Field Naturalists Club. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No special allocation. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



348 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(12) Kronstadt Island 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1940. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Diego Martin ward. County of St George; 10°39'N, 61°37"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 46m. 

AREA: 4.8 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The island is irregular and knoblike in shape without any beaches. The soils 
are thin and reddish brown in colour. Outcrops of weathered limestone rock with hollowed portions and 
sharp projections are ubiquitous. There are no springs or streams and the rainfall is less than 135cm per 
annum, but some of the plants and weathered rocks are capable of collecting small amounts of water. 

VEGETATION: Supports a low scrub forest consisting of hardy plants with spines and thick leaves. The 
principal species are several types of cacti , some shortboled naked indian trees Bursera simaruba , stunted 
cypre Cordia alliodora coppices, a few tree and ground orchids and a few savonnette Lonchocarpus 
punctalus and silk cotton trees Ceiba pentandra. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: A few species of birds have been seen on the island, including kiskadees 
Pitangus sulphuratus, screech owls Otus choliba, bananaquits Coereba flaveola, blue tanagers and the 
rufous-necked wood-rail Aramides axillaris. There are also many ground and tree lizards, particularly 
iguanas Iguana iguana, which inhabit the thick cacti growth interspersed with shrubby trees on the 
southeast portion of the island. Scorpions, and centipedes, were once common here, but are now rare. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Quarrying and poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None known. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No special allocation. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Lands 
and Fisheries. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



(13) Soldado Rock 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Wildlife Sanctuary). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1934. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 10km west of Icacos Point, on the extreme southwestern tip of 
Trinidad; 10°03'N, 62°00'W. 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 349 

ALTITUDE: 36m. 

AREA: 1 ha. 

LA^fD TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The island has an area of about 1 ha, but rises abruptly with steep rocky cliffs to 
36m. It is mainly limestone, a very large boulder from the Eocene and Paleocene periods lying in younger 
beds, probably from the Miocene. The two main rock masses of the island are connected by a ridge, with 
silts heavily laden with guano from generations of sea bird colonies. Apart from its importance as the only 
major seabird breeding site belonging to Trinidad, Soldado Rock is of extreme interest to geologists, 
being the type locality for certain formations. Though it suffered considerable damage when it was used as 
a target for bombing and machine gun practice during World War II , it still has much to offer the geologist. 
In addition fossil beds may be seen in various places. Annual rainfall is low, probably less than 725cm, and 
in the dry season the island becomes extremely parched. 

VEGETATION: The island is treeless, and the vegetation consists entirely of five species; the low shrub 
Plumbago is common on the sides of the ridge, and there are scattered plants of purslane Portulaca sp., 
two grasses and a sedge. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The island's main attraction as a wildlife sanctuary is the sea bird colony. 
Two species in particular, the sooty tern Sterna fuscata and the brown noddy Anous stolidus, also a tern, 
nest in considerable numbers between March and July. The brown noddy nests on the rocks at the water's 
edge or on the chff ledges. Though it is mostly absent during the day in the non-breeding months, many 
individuals return to roost on the island at night. Other seabirds include the large royal tern Thalasseus 
maximus and the sandwich tern Thalasseus sanvicensis , but their breeding has been sporadic. A common 
breeding land-bird is the gray-breast martin Progne chalybea, a swallow which nests in rock crevices in 
some hundreds, leaving the island by day to feed over Trinidad or Venezuela. Brown pelicans Pelicanus 
occidentalism magnificent frigatebirds Fregata magnificens and brown boobies Sula leucogaster also roost 
on the island in variable numbers, and various other species visit the island intermittently, over 20 having 
been recorded altogether. The incidence of certain land-birds previously thought to be sedentary indicates 
a degree of local movement between Trinidad and the mainland of South America. In addition to the 
birds, the island has a small population of iguana lizards Iguana iguana, which prey on the terns, a small rat 
Zygodontomys sp. , to which a new subspecies has recently been described from the island, and a variety of 
invertebrate fauna. The large toad or crapaud Bufo marinus has been found on the island, possibly 
introduced via the large floating islands of water-hyacinth which are swept into the Gulf of Paria from the 
river Orinoco when it floods early in the wet season. 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Poaching. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None known. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: See general reference list. 

STAFF: Sporadic patrols by game wardens. 

BUDGET: No special allocation. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Division of Forestry. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 

INFORMATION DATED: March 1979. 



350 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Buccoo Reef/Bon Accord Lagoon Restricted Area (Tobago) 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: I (Strict Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Proclaimed as a restricted area by the Government; the taking of fish and any 
species of other marine fauna is regulated under Act 39 of 1966 (ch. 25, no. 9). Act 1 of 1970 regulated 
entry. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: About 1972. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: A reef located on a shallow shelf extending from the southwestern end 
of Tobago; ITIO'N, 60°50'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level and below to 1 or 2m. 

AREA: 650 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Public ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: An arc of reef extends from Sheerbird Point, Tobago, northwards and 
westwards, to approximately 1.6km north of Pigeon Point. This outer windward reef has a shallow 
rampart facing the prevailing NE-SW trade winds , and has only one break in the form of a channel near the 
northern end. The reef flat behind the breaker zone is extremely shallow with coral detritus forming 
islands in places at low tide. Sand-bottomed lagoonal flats with water averaging 2m in depth lie in a 
number of sharply defined basins which are devoid of Hving coral. The best stands of living coral occur on 
the northeastern windward reef facing Buccoo Bay. Bon Accord lagoon lies between the eastern end of 
Sheerbird Point and Pigeon Point and is partly landlocked. 

VEGETATION: A remarkable forest of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle fringes Bon Accord Lagoon 
and forms a zone up to 70m wide with some trees being up to 15m high. This is either due to the age of the 
forest or to optimum growing conditions. A zone near Pigeon Point was damaged by Hurricane Flora and 
a further area has been cleared for development. The mangrove provides an important habitat for marine 
and terrestrial fauna. Extensive patches of turtle grass Thalassia spp. occur in Bon Accord Lagoon. 
Halimeda opuntia is an abundant alga on the reef and is an important sand building plant in the Buccoo 
Reef area. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The fish fauna is typical of West Indian coral reefs including butterfly and 
angel fish (Chaetontidae), surgeon fish (Acanthuridae), trigger fish (Balistidae) and parrot fish 
(Scaridae). Larval forms of game fish are also common. Invertebrates include the spiny lobster Palinurus 
argus and queen conch Strombus gigas. Buccoo Reef is composed of dense elkhorn coral Acropora 
palmata, with large clumps of fire coral Millepora complanata . The fore-reef on the windward side has rich 
and varied populations of Montastrea, CollophylUa and Siderastrea, together with finger coral Poritea 
furcata and extensive staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis. 

ZONING: None; the entire area is a strict nature reserve. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

TOURISM: Considerable numbers of visitors throughout the year. Boats (including those with glass 
bottoms) take visitors from Buccoo Bay and Store Bay to reef areas at low tide. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: General surveys were conducted in 1967 and 1969. Studies have been 
carried out on reef structure, sedimentation and water movement; also remote sensing data analysis, part 
of a unique project using this technique for ecological planning. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: These are available through the University of the West Indies, 
St. Augustine, Dept. of Biological Sciences. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Environmental Systems Corporation. Remote Sensing Data 
Analysis for an Ecological and Planning Study for Bon Accord/Buccoo area, Tobago. E.S.C, PO Box 
2525, Knoxville, Tennessee 37901. 

Goreau,T.F. (1967). Buccoo Reef and Bon Accord Lagoon, Tobago, Observations. University of the 
West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Report to the Ministry of Planning and Development, Trinidad. 

Wood, H. (1964). Survey of Buccoo Reef. Fishery Research Dept., Ministry of Tobago Affairs. 

STAFF: No information. 



TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 35I 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Fisheries Division, Tobago, Trinidad and 
Tobago. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Bal Ramdial and Ken Thelen. 
INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



352 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 



TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS (UK) 



AREA: 430 sq km land above water with a 8,580 sq km 'bank' between tideline and 100m fathom curve 

POPULATION: 7,000 (1978) on 13 islands. 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The National Parks Ordinance and Regulations were 
approved by State Council in 1976. Control of parks is by the Chief Minister. There is no parks 
department; legislation is enforceable through the Fisheries Department and Department of Public 
Works. Marine and Land Park areas have been designated by the Temporary National Parks 
Commission; to date. State Council has not gazetted the list of parks, reserves and sanctuaries. Also 
relevant may be the Planning and Development Ordinance (1967), the Wild Birds Protection Ordinance 
(1916), and the Protection of Historic Wrecks (1974). 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Full responsibility for parks is under the Chief Minister 
subject to review by the British Governor. Marine Reserves are controlled via the Fisheries Department 
under the Fisheries Protection Ordinance of 1976. 

ADDRESS: Chief Minister, National Parks Affairs, Government Office, Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos 
Islands, British West Indies. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: None officially. 

PROTECTED AREAS: The following areas have been recommended: 

As National Parks 

Chalk Sound Cays, Providenciales 

Five Cays 

Conch Bar Caves, Middle Caicos 

Iguana Cay, East Caicos Iguana Cay, East Caicos 

Joe Grant's Cay, East Caicos 

Long Cay, South Caicos 

Six Hills Cays, South Caicos 

Gibb, Penniston and Round Cays, Grand Turk 

South Caicos Salinas, South Caicos 

As Underwater National Parks 

Whaley Cut and Northwest Reef, Providenciales 

Blue Hills Reef 

Leeward Going Through Reef 

Bottle Creek Reef, North Caicos 

Booby Rocks 

South Caicos Harbour Reefs, South Caicos 

Reefs between Penniston, East, and Pear Cays, Grand Turk 

Hawkes Nest Reef, Grand Turk 

North East Reef, part of Grand Turk 

As National Reserves 

All small cays south and south-east of Grand Turk in Great Sand Cay. 

All cays less than V2 mile diameter in the Caicos Islands (not in White, French and Bush Cays 

mentioned elsewhere). 

West Caicos Islands 

As Wildlife Sanctuaries 
White Cay, Bush Cay and French Cay, Caicos Islands 
Small cays south end of Lorimer Creek, Middle Caicos 
Three Marys Cays, North Caicos 



U.S.A. FLORIDA 353 



U. S. A. - Florida 



AREA: 151,670 sq km (about 20% of which is in the Neotropical Realm). 

POPULATION: 8,421,000(1976). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: National Parks and other categories of lands within the 
National Park system are established by individual acts of Congress, except National Monuments which 
can be created by the President on Federal lands, by proclamation under the authority of the Antiquities 
Act of 8 June 1906. The National Park Service was established by the act of 25 August 1916. State Parks 
and Reserves are established under separate state legislation. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: Administrative and regulatory authority over the 
National Parks system is delegated to the National Parks Service through the Secretary of the Interior by 
the act of 25 August 1916 and subsequent acts of Congress (as set forth in Title 16, Code of Federal 
Regulation). The National Wildlife Refuges are administered by the US Fisheries and Wildlife Service, 
which is also responsible to the US Department of the Interior. 

ADDRESS: (a) Director, National Park Service, US Department of the Interior, Washington DC 
20240, USA. 

(b) Southeast Regional Office, National Park Service, 75 Spring Street SW, Atlanta, 
Georgia 30303, USA. 

(c) Division of Refuge Management, US Fish and Wildlife Service, 18th and C Streets 
NW, Washington DC 20240, USA. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: The total area protected in Florida in the Neotropical Realm is 
692,208 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

(hectares) 
566,796 

41,967 
19,083 

62,897 

60,067 

2,000 

152 

119 

101 

59 

9 

4 

4 

566,796 

Biosphere Reserve 

1 Everglades (includes Fort Jefferson) 585,867 



National Park 


1 Everglades (Word Heritage Site) 


National Monument 


1 Biscayne 


2 Fort Jefferson 


National Wildlife Refuges 


1 Loxahatchee 


2 Florida Keys 


3 J.N. 'Ding' Darling 


4 Pinellas 


5 Pine Island 


6 Egmont Key 


7 Matlacha Pass 


8 Island Bay 


9 Caloosahatchee 


10 Passage Key 


National Preserve 


1 Big Cypress 




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U.S.A. FLORIDA 355 

(1) Everglades National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II, IX & X (National Park, Biosphere Reserve & World Heritage 
Site). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 6 December 1947. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southern tip of Florida peninsula, 14km from Florida City. The park 
is bounded to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, on the south and southeast by the Florida Keys and includes 
most of the waters of Florida Bay. The Biosphere Reserve includes Fort Jefferson NM; 25°20'N, 81°W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 2m. 

AREA: 566,796 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The park is a shallow basin tilted to the southwest and underlain by extensive 
Pleistocene limestones with oolitic and bryozoan facies (the latter largely composed of Schizoporella 
floridans). The limestone is overlain with variable thicknesses of marl and peat, minimizing water loss 
downwards. Lake Okeechobee in the north overflows periodically, inundating two-thirds of the park. 
Florida Bay has over 2,000 sq km of water with an average depth of 1 .5m and a maximum of 3m, composed 
geologically of anastomosing mudbanks and unconsoUdated calcareous sediments over the limestones. It 
is one of the most active areas of modern carbonate sedimentation. Temperatures are moderate, rarely 
freezing in winter and reaching 21-35°C in summer, with annual precipitation often over 1270mm. 
Hurricane force storms occur. 

VEGETATION: There are five vegetation types: hammocks or tree islands (8,100 ha) of mature 
hardwoods especially mahogany Swietenia mahagoni; mangrove forests (93,150 ha) of red mangrove 
Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and black mangrove Avicennia nitida; pinelands (8,505 ha,) 
on elevated limestone outcrops, with an admixture of local slash pine Pinus elliotti var. densa; bayheads 
(10,125 ha) with isolated stands in depressions or on slight elevations of species such as bald cypress 
Taxodium distichum or the willow Salix caroliniana; and in the north and east, sawgrass prairies and tree 
savanna (3,240 ha) dominated by sedge Cladium jamaicensis. There are also five types of aquatic 
vegetation, inland freshwater 'rivers' (188,325 ha) including flood savannas; small scattered ponds; 
brackish water marshes; coastal marshes (43,740 ha); and the marine sector with turtle grass Thalassia 
testudinum. shoal grass Lanthera wrighiii and manatee grass Syringodium filiforme dominant. The more 
notable algae are Caulerpa in deeper water and the family Codiaceae, the latter playing an important role 
in calcifying the substrate for encrusting by Rhodophyceae and coralline algae. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The Everglades protect 400 species of land and water vertebrates, excluding 
fish. 25 native mammals occur, including the round-tailed muskrat Neofiber alleni struix, mink Mustela 
vison evergladensis , Florida cougar Felis concolor coryi (E), the manatee Trichechus manatus (V). Over 
300 bird species, many of limited distribution in the USA, have been recorded, notably the Everglades 
kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (R), short-tailed hawk Buteo brachyurus, bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus 
(E), osprey Pandion haliaetus, peregrine Falco peregrinus (V), great white heron Ardea herodias, reddish 
egret Dkhromanassa rufescens, wood ibis Mycteria americana. roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja, mangrove 
cuckoo Coccyzus minor and many species typical of the Caribbean region. There are 60 known species of 
reptiles and amphibians, including the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis , the endangered 
American crocodile Crocodylus acuius (E) and Atlantic green turtle Chelonia my das my das (E). 

ZONING: Strict natural areas and managed natural areas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The park is largely undisturbed wilderness. Before its 
establishment lumbering and farming took place within the present boundaries, but the logged areas have 
recovered to a near natural state and the farmed areas are being reclaimed through a resource 
management programme. 30-50 park personnel and 50-120 concession personnel live in the park. 
Man-made structures consist mainly of housing, maintenance and administration buildings. A private 
concessionaire maintains a marina and a lodge. Water management has affected the park water supply, 
and population growth and urban development have affected water quality and wildlife habitats. 

TOURISM: Over a million visitors a year from 1966-1978 and over 850,000 in 1979 and 1980. There are 



356 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

campsites and trails. Each year about 24,000 students take part in Environmental Education programmes. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Although there has been extensive documented research on the natural 
resources of the Everglades, there are still several areas of critical resource management requiring study. 
Water management manipulations may be having extensive effects on animal and plant populations, fire 
behaviour, and the estuarine fisheries. The park immediately adjoins a large metropolitan area so 
resource management techniques are needed to alleviate pressures caused by urban growth. A research 
staff of about 20 scientists and technicians works on hydrology, wildlife and endangered species 
management, fire ecology, plant ecology, and fisheries. Fort Jefferson NM offers excellent research 
possibilities on coral reef ecology, bird migration, and fisheries; there is an excellent scientific data record 
for the Dry Tortugas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: A study collection and a reference library. A research building 
was due to be completed in 1977 and there are plans to implement a computerized data-information 
system. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Over 100 reference works have been published, but there is 
no single comprehensive account of the natural history. 

STAFF: 90 full-time, 45 part-time and 100 seasonal staff. 

BUDGET: Approximately US$ 5,000,000 for administration, protection, natural science studies, 
interpretation and maintenance in 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Superintendent, Everglades National Park, PO 
Box 279, Homestead, Florida 33030. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: January 1981. 



(2) Fort Jefferson National Monument 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (Natural Monument and Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1935. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: All of the Dry Tortugas Islands and the surrounding shoals and waters 
in the Gulf of Mexico, 110km west of Key West; 24°40'N, 82°52'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 1.5m. 

AREA: 19,071 ha, including 16 ha of land. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Dry Tortugas are a cluster of seven coral reefs. Soils are saline, and there 
is no fresh water on the islands. Temperatures are very hot, with long periods of drought and frequent 
storms. The Monument includes the ruins of the old garrison of Fort Jefferson. 

VEGETATION: There are less than 50 species of native terrestrial plants, including buttonwood 
Conocarpus erectus, bay cedar, seagrape, sea lavender, purslane, and sea oats, all typical of the east coast 
of Florida. Introduced plants include coconut Cocos nucifera, date palms, tamarind, Australian pine, 
gumbo limbo and century. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The marine life is rich and varied , and the islands were named after the great 
number of turtles originally found there. Although numbers have declined, green turtle Chelonia mydas 
(E), hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata (E) and loggerheads Caretta caretta (V) can still be observed. Also 
found are terrapins, corals, several species of sponges, seafans, anemones, spiny lobsters and a great 
variety of reef fish. Larger fish include amberjack, grouper, wahoo, tarpon, shark and barracuda. The 



U.S.A. FLORIDA 357 

keys, which he across one of the principal flyways from the United States to South America, attract many 
migratory birds. A colony of about 100,000 sooty terns Sterna fuscata nests on Bush Key, together with a 
smaller colony of brown noddies Anous stolidus. Roseate terns Sterna dougalli occasionally also nest on 
Bush, Hospital and Long Keys. Other birds include frigatebirds, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, 
and occasionally blue-faced boobies and brown boobies Sula leucogaster. 

ZONING: Bush Key is closed in the bird nesting season (March to September). All keys except Garden 
and Loggerhead Keys are closed during the turtle season (May to the end of September). The Fort 
Jefferson National Monument is part of the Everglade Biosphere Reserve. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Green turtle hatchlings have been released on the Monument beaches in an 
effort to enlarge populations. The Monument offers excellent research possibihties on coral reef ecology, 
bird migration, and fisheries. There is an excellent scientific data record for the Dry Tortugas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Modest accommodation is available. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: No information. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: The Superintendent, Everglades National Park, 
Box 279, Homestead, Florida 33030, USA. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 
INFORMATION DATED: 1982. 



(1) Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Hunting and fishing are permitted. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1951. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Southeast of Lake Okeechobee in the south Florida Everglades; 
26°30'N, 80°10'W. 

ALTITUDE: 13-17 m. 

AREA: 145,635 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership and under lease from the state of Florida. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The refuge is typical Everglade habitat, surrounded by levees established by 
SFWMD for flood control and water management. 

VEGETATION: There are four vegetation types: three islands contain dahoon holly Ilex cassine, redbay 
Persea borbonia and wax myrtle Myrica cerifera; sawgrass communities; wet prairies with Tracey's beak 
rush Rhynchospora tracyi, Eleocharis spp. and maidencame Panicum hemitomon; and slough with white 
waterlily Nymphaea odorata and freshwater aquatics. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: There are 22 mammals, including the round-tailed muskrat Neofiber alleni 
struix. river otter Lutra canadensis and Florida cougar Felis concolor coryi (E), and approximately 250 
species of birds, including the Everglade kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (E), osprey Pandion haliaetus, white 
heron Ardea herodias, wood ibis Mycteria americana. sandhill crane Grus canadensis . There are also 
approximately 50 species of reptiles and amphibians including alligator Alligator mississippiensis and 
eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais couperi. 



358 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ZONING: There are managed public use areas, intensive management areas and closed natural areas. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The effects of flood control canals, pollution, the impact of 
pesticides and aquifer depletion resulting from agriculture, and the effects of population growth and urban 
sprawl. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Several studies are currently being undertaken with university and other 
collaboration. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Minor reference material. 

STAFF: 12 permanent personnel and up to 6 seasonal temporary employees. 

BUDGET: Approximately US $366,000 for administration and maintenance; approx. US $700,000 in 
current constitution contracts. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, Loxahatchee NWR, Route 1, 

Box 278, Boynton Beach, Florida 33437. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 
INFORMATION DATED: February 1981. 



(3) Florida Keys National Wildlife Refuges: 

National Key Deer Refuge 

Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge 

Key West National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4. (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Resource is protected, but non-consumption use such as wildlife observation 
and photography is allowed. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: National Key Deer Refuge - 1 February 1954; Great White Heron NWR - 27 
October 1938; Key West NWR - 8 August 1908. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: All three refuges are loated in the Lower Florida Keys, Monroe 
county, Florida; 81°N, 24°W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 3m. 

AREA: 60,066.82 ha. 

LAND TENURE: All land is owned by the federal government, with the exception of 302.33 ha leased 
from the National Audubon Society. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Florida Keys are situated on a large coral reef comprised of Miami oolite 
limestone and Key Largo limestone. This rock is covered by 2.5-5cm of top soil. The Keys climate is 
tropical and frost-free, with temperatures very seldom dropping below 8°C. Rainfall averages around 
1.150mm per year with the majority falling between April and October. 

VEGETATION: There are four distinct plant communities. Mangrove swamps (2,753.27 ha) consist 
almost entirely of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle. Buttonwood/mangrove shrublands (417.63 ha) 
contain buttonwood Conocarpus erectus, white mangrove Laguncularia racemosa and black mangrove 
Avicennia germinans. Hardwood hammocks (approximately 143.72 ha) contain gumbo limbo tree 
Bursera simaruba, Florida poison tree Metopium toxiferum sea grape Coccoloba uvifera and blackbead 
Pithecellobium unguis-cati. The pine hammocks (574.89 ha) are comprised of slash pine Pinus caribbaea, 
brittle thatch palm Thrinax microcarpa and Florida silver palm Coccothrinax argentala. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Seven threatened species can be found on the refuges, 350-400 key deer 



U.S.A. FLORIDA 359 

Odocoileus virginianus davium (R), 10 southern bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus (E), 
8,000 eastern brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis , 10 peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus (V), 
200 American alligator Alligator mississippiensis, 4 American crocodile Crocodylus acutus (E), and 125 
eastern indigo snake Drymarchon corais couperi. Florida manatee Trichechus manatus (V) is found in the 
water surrounding the refuge. Mammals indigenous to the keys include racoon Procyon lotor incatus, 
marsh rabbit Sylvilagus palustris, eastern woodrat Neotoma floridana, cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus and 
black rat Rattus rattus. Over 250 species of birds use the refuge, including great white heron Ardea 
herodias, reddish egret Dichromanassa rufescens, roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja, white-crowned pigeon 
Columba leucocephala and mangrove cuckoo Coccyzus minor. There are 28 species of reptiles and 
amphibians, including five endangered species of sea turtles, Atlantic Ridley Lepidochelys kempi (E), 
Atlantic loggerhead Caretta caretta caretta (V), Atlantic green Chelonia my das my das (E), Atlantic 
leatherback Dermochelys coriacea coriacea (E) and Atlantic hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata 
(E). Local types include mangrove water snake Natrix fasciata compressicauda. Key mud turtle 
Kinosternon bauri bauri and mangrove terrapin Malaclemys terrapin thizophorarum. 

ZONING: Approximately 2,490.28 ha have been set aside as a Wilderness Area. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Development and population growth of the surrounding area 
have hampered refuge operations. Public use disturbances such as camping, Httering and feeding of 
wildlife, along with unauthorized use of insecticides for mosquito control, have all become an increasing 
problem. 

TOURISM: Over 74,000 visitors during 1980. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: One research project is currently being conducted, but several more are 
planned for the future with most centring on key deer research. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: The refuges have a small herbarium containing approximately 
500 specimens and a very small reference Hbrary. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: The largest collection of publications, research papers etc. 
can be found in the refuge reference library. 

STAFF: 3 permanent full-time employees, 1 permanent part-time employee and 1 temporary employee 
(1 year term). 

BUDGET: Over US $148,000 for 1981. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, National Key Deer Refuge, PO 
Box 510, Big Pine Key, FL 33043. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: February 1981. 



(3) J.N. 'Ding' Darling National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Fishing, crabbing and oystering permitted. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: December 1945. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Sanibel, Lee county, Florida; 25°26'N, 82°05"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 3m. 

AREA: 2,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The refuge consists mostly of mangroves, swamp, marshes, saltwater bays 



360 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

and mudflats, much of the area being covered by daily tides. Bailey Tract (40 ha) consists of freshwater 
marsh and impoundments. Perry Tract (1 .4 ha) consists of beach, marsh, water and forest. The Point Ybel 
area has sandy uplands with trees and 4,000ft of beach. The underlying sediment is composed of shell, 
sand and silt. Temperature is warm most of the year, varying from 37°C in summer to below 0°C in winter, 
and the area is subject to hurricane force winds. 

VEGETATION: There are six vegetation types. Beach and strand vegetation (2%) consists of plants 
adapted to changing conditions and salt spray such as Atriplex arenaria, Chamaesyce mesembryanthemifo- 
lia, Cenchrus incertus, Dactyloctenium arenaria, Iva imbricata, Sporobolus virginicus, Uniolapaniculata, 
Yucca aloifolia, Caesalpinia bonduc, Dalbergioa ecastophyllum, Lantana involucrata, Suriana maritima 
and Scaevolaplumieri. Mangrove forest (85%) is dominated by red mangrove Rhizophora mangle, white 
mangrove Laguncularia racemosa, black mangrove Avicennia germinans and Conocarpus erecta. 
Freshwater marsh (5%) contains Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthefolius, Acrostichum damaeaefolium , 
Cladium jamaicense, Spartina bakeri, Typha angustifolia and Typha domingensis. Coastal dry hammock 
(4%) is dominated by live oak Quercus virginiana. cabbage palm Sabal palmetto, sea grape Coccoloba 
uvifera, gumbo limbo Bursera simaruba and strangler fig Ficus aurea, and other common plants are 
Polypodium polypodiodes , Tillandsia usneoides, T. utriculata, T. fasciculata, Encyclia tampensis and 
Vittaria lineata. Tropical hammocks are characterized by tropical hardwood trees which include Bursera 
simaruba, Mastichodendron foetidissimum, Coccoloba uvifera, Delonix regia, Zanthoxylum fagara and 
Citrus aurantiifolia, all of which are scattered randomly, and shrubs such as Ardisia escallonioides , 
Capparis cynophallophora, Chiococca alba, Erythrina herbacea, Pithecellobium unguis-cati and Randia 
aculeata. The ruderal community areas (4%) are disturbed sites and contain plants such as Baccharis 
halimifolia, Bidens pilosa, Hyssopifolia sp., Chloris glauca, Cyperus ligularis, Physalis angustifolia, 
Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthefolius and Vigna luteola. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mammals occurring in the refuge include the racoon Procyon lotor, opossum 
Didelphis marsupialis, otter Lutra canadensis, manatee Trichechus manatus (V) and armadillo Dasypus 
novemcintus. Reptiles found include Amercan alligator Alligator mississipiensis , American crocodile 
Crocodylus acutus (E), Atlantic loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (V), gopher tortoise Gopherus 
polyphemus (V) and eastern indigo snake Dymarchon carais couperi. The most notable of the avifauna are 
the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis, mottled duck Anas fulvigula, bald eagle Haliaeetus 
leucocephalus (E), osprey Pandion haliaetus, reddish egret Dichromanassa rufescens, wood stork 
Mycteria americana, roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja, sandwich tern Thalassus sandvicensis , black 
skimmer Pynchops nigra, mangrove cuckoo Coccyzus minor, smooth-billed ani Crotophaga ani, grey 
kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis and black-whiskered vireo Vireo altiloguus. 

ZONING: The refuge boundary and wilderness areas are identifiable. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The use of heavy equipment to eradicate dense stands of 
Brazilian pepper leaves areas temporarily bare of vegetation. 

TOURISM: 750,000 visitors annually. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: A study of bird usage, submerged vegetation, mangrove growth and fish 
habitation of the refuge impoundent is being carried out by refuge personnel. A collection of fish 
specimens is currently being undertaken. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: Six full-time, two part-time and one temporary employee. 

BUDGET: US$ 173,000 annually. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, J.N. 'Ding' Darling National 
Wildlife Refuge, PC Drawer B, Sanibel, Florida 33957, USA. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: January 1981. 



U.S.A. FLORIDA 361 

(4) Pinellas National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (National Wildlife Refuge). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 18 January 1956. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Tampa Bay, Pinellas county, Florida; 27°41'N, 82°41"W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 2m. 

AREA: 152 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: This refuge consists of two mangrove islands. Tarpon and Indian Keys. Both 
have been altered by mosquito control activity and spoil from adjacent channel dredging. Some exotic 
plants have encroached on the various spoil sites. 

VEGETATION: 75% red mangrove Rhizophora mangle, 25% black mangrove Avicennia germinans, 
1% Washington palm Washingtonia robusta, 1.5% Australian pine Casuarina equisetifolia, 1.5% 
Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthefolius . 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Tarpon Key is a nesting rookery for eastern brown pelicans Pelecanus 
occidentalis , cormorants Phalacrocorax penicillatus , great egrets Egratta alba, snowy egrets Leucophoyx 
thula, great blue heron Ardea herodias, little blue herons E. caerulea and Louisiana herons E. tricolor. 

ZONING: The boundary of this refuge is marked by signs. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Occasional disturbance by boats approaching too close to the 
keys. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: An assistant refuge manager is stationed in the area and is responsible for the day-to-day 
administration of this refuge. 

BUDGET: Funded by J.N. 'Ding' Darling NWR. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, J.N. Ding' Darling National 
Wildlife Refuge, PC Drawer B, Sanibel, Florida 33957. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: February 1981. 



(5) Pine Island National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1908. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Pine Island, and other neighbouring islands, Florida; 26°40'N, 
8ri7'W. 



362 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ALTITUDE: 0-2m. 

AREA: 118.8 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: This refuge is composed of several islands with upland ridges and low-lying 
mangrove areas that are flooded daily. The temperature is warm most of the year. The area is subject to 
hurricane force winds. 

VEGETATION: Red mangrove Rhizophora mangle, black mangrove Avicennia germinans and 
Brazilian pepper Schinus terebinthefolius are the dominant plants. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis nest by the hundreds in this refuge. 

ZONING: The refuge boundary is identifiable. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Dense growth of Brazilian pepper crowds out native plants on 
the upland ridges. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: Administered by the staff of J.N. 'Ding' Darling National Wildlife Refuge. 

BUDGET: Funded by the above Refuge. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, J.N. Ding' Darling National 
Wildlife Refuge, PO Drawer B, Sanibel, Florida 33957. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: January 1981. 



(6) Egmont Key National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 10 July 1974. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: At the entrance to Tampa Bay, Hillsborough county, Florida; 

27°36'N, 82°45'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 3m. 

AREA: 101.17 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A barrier island which has been completely altered. This island was 
developed into Ford Dade in the Spanish-American War era. It is laced with old roads and cluttered with 
crumbling buildings and fortifications. Completely surrounded by good beaches, the island is a popular 
recreational area. 

VEGETATION: 17% sea oats Uniola paniculata, 65% cabbage palms Sabal palmetto, 10% coin vines 
Dalbergia ecastophyllum, 8% Australian pine Casuarina equisetifolia. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta (V), Florida box turtle Terrepene Carolina 
baud, gopher tortoise Gopherus polyphemus (V) and eastern diamondback rattlesnake Crotalus 
adamanteus. Brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis and a variety of wading birds utilize the beaches. 

ZONING: The boundary of this refuge is marked with official boundary signs. 



U.S.A. FLORIDA 363 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Two exotic plants , Casuarina and Schinus , are encroaching on 
the habitat. This invasion is restricting the growth of native species. Pubhc use is damaging the dune 
ecosystem. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: An archaeological survey was conducted by staff from the University of 
South Florida in 1977. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: An archaeological survey of Egmont Key National Wildlife 
Refuge, Hillsborough County, Florida (refuge files). 

STAFF: Administered by the staff of J.N. 'Ding' Darling NWR. 

BUDGET: Funded by the above Refuge. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, J.N. 'Ding' DarUng National 
Wildlife Refuge, PO Drawer B, Sanibel, Florida 33957. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: February 1981. 



(7) Matlacha Pass National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1908. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Florida; 26°00'N, 82°02'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-2m. 

AREA: 59.2 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Small islands in salt water habitat. 

VEGETATION: Red mangrove Rhizophora mangle is the dominant plant. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis nest here. 

ZONING: The refuge boundary is identifiable. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: Administered by the staff of J.N. 'Ding' Darling NWR. 

BUDGET: Funded by the above Refuge. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, J.N. Ding' Darling National 
Wildlife Refuge, PO Drawer B, Sanibel, Florida 33957. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: January 1981. 



364 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(8) Island Bay National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 
BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 
LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 
DATE ESTABLISHED: 23 October 1908. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On the north side of Charlotte Harbour, Charlotte county, Florida; 

24°46'N, 82°11'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 5m. 

AREA: 8.09 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Upland portions of a small island chain and two Caloosa Indian middens. 

VEGETATION: 35% cabbage palm Sabal palmetto, 10% sea grape Coccoloba uvifera, 5% false mastic 
Mastichodendronfoetidissimum, 10% gumboWmbo Burserasimaruba,5°/o nicker bean Caesalpinia crista, 
10% sea oxeye Borrichia frutescens, 5% prickly pear Opuntia striata, 10% black mangrove Avicennia 
germinans. 5% coin vine Dalbergia ecastophyllum, 5% cat claw Pithecellobium ungis-cati. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The refuge is used primarily as a daytime roosting site by colonial nesting 
birds. 

ZONING: The boundary of this refuge is marked with official boundary signs. It is a component of the 
National Wilderness System. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The exotic plants Schinus and Casuarina are encroaching but 
control measures are being carried out. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None Hsted. 

STAFF: Administered by the staff of J.N. 'Ding' Darling NWR. 

BUDGET: Funded by the above Refuge. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, J.N. Ding' Darling National 
Wildlife Refuge, PO Drawer B, Sanibel, Florida 33957. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: February 1981. 



(9) Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuge 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12 4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1908. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Florida; 26°40'N, 81°48'W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-3m. 

AREA: 4 ha. 



U.S.A. FLORIDA 365 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: This refuge consists of three islands of fresh, brackish water habitat with 
upland ridges. 

VEGETATION: Cabbage palm Sabal palmetto, sea grape Coccoloba uvifera, prickly pear Opuntia 
compressa, red mangrove Rhizophora mangle, white mangrove Laguncularia racemosa and black 
mangrove Avicennia germinans are the dominant plants. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Alligators Alligator mississippiensis have been known to use this refuge. 

ZONING: Boundary areas are clearly marked. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECLVL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: Administered by the staff of J.N. 'Ding" Darling NWR. 

BUDGET: Funded by the above Refuge. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, J.N. Ding' Darling National 
Wildlife Refuge, PO Drawer B, Sanibel, Florida 33957. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: January 1981. 



(10) Passage Key National Wildlife Refuge 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IV (Managed Nature Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.12.4 (Everglades). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 10 October 1905. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Tampa Bay, Manatee county, Horida; 27°33'N, 82°44'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to Im. 

AREA: 4.04 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Federal government ownership. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A low, constantly shifting sandbar, variable in size depending on the 

dynamics of Passage Key Shoals. 

VEGETATION: At times this refuge is devoid of vegetation, but on occasions the following species have 
been observed: sea oats Uniola paniculata, railroad vine Ipomoea pes-caprae, sea purslane Sesuvium 
portulacastrum, Australian pine Casuarina equisetifolia, red mangrove Rhizophora mangle and black 
mangrove Avicennia germinans. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The following species are known to nest on this refuge: black skimmer 
Rhynchops nigra, least tern Sterna albifrons, American oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus , laughing gull 
Larus atricilla and loggerhead turtle Caretta caretla (V). 

ZONING: The boundary of this refuge, which is a component of the National Wilderness System, is 
marked. The refuge is closed to public landing annually from 1 April to 1 September. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Occasional high storm tides inundate the refuge and destroy 
bird production. 



366 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: An assistant refuge manager is stationed in the area and is responsible for the day-to-day 
administration of this refuge. 

BUDGET: Funded by J.N. 'Ding' Darling NWR. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Refuge Manager, J.N. Ding' Darling National 
Wildlife Refuge, PO Drawer B, Sanibel, Florida 33957. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: R. Milne. 

INFORMATION DATED: February 1981. 



URUGUAY 367 



URUGUAY 



AREA: 186,925 sq km. 

POPULATION: 2,864,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: Protection of all parks, monuments and forests is controlled 
from the Forestry Law of 16 November 1968. Decree 269/967 of 27 April 1967 incorporates the National 
Park Department into the Ministry of Agriculture (Ministerio da Ganaderia y Agricultura) under the tit.'e 
Direccion Forestal, Parques y Fauna. This Department is in charge of all the national parks and 
monuments, apart from Santa Teresa and San Miguel, which come under the Ministerio de Defensa 
Nacional. The Department has the right to expropriate lands, and to inspect and seize vehicles, 
instruments and arms employed in illicit activities. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: There are various types of protected forest in 
Uruguay, along with lands declared as national parks and monuments. National Parks are defined as areas 
set aside for tourism, recreation, science and culture and which cannot be exploited except to further these 
aims. The Direccion Forestal, Parques y Fauna has the ultimate authority for management of territory 
within national parks. 

ADDRESS: Direccion Forestal, Parques y Fauna, Ministerio de Ganaderia y Agricultura, Montevideo, 
Uruguay. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 30,593 ha. 

PROTECTED AREAS: 

(hectares) 

National Park 

1 Arequita 1,000 

National Monuments 

1 Costa Atlantica 14,250 

2 Dunas 1,000 

Natural Monuments and Parks 

1 Santa Teresa* 3,290 

2 San Miguel* 1,238 

Fauna Refuge 

1 Laguna Castillos 8,000 

National Forest 

1 Rio Negro 1,815 

Biosphere Reserve 

1 Banados del Este (200,000) 



368 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Arequita 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.32.11 (Uruguayan Pampas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1964. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 10km north of Minas, Lavalleja Province; 34°12'S, 55°13'W. 

ALTITUDE: 40-240m. 

AREA: 1,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated land; some land still in course of expropriation. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Two flat-topped mountains separated by the upper reaches of the Santa Lucia 
river are a main feature of the area. The geology of the area is of interest and there are a number of caverns 
in various parts of the Park. The mountains are composed of quartzite. 

VEGETATION: The flora is indigenous, with a notable forest of Phytolacca dyaica. Much of the area 
has been grazed and has been invaded by myrtle, mimosa and algaroba Prosopis spp. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: These include crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus, grison Galictis cuja 
furonax. La Plata otter Lutra platemis (V) and pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoarlicus (V). 

ZONING: None as yet but proposed zones include a recreation zone, an intensive use zone and a 
wilderness zone. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: None reported at present. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Mainly on geology. A vegetation study is being undertaken. 

SPECUL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: 6 guards and workers. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Intendent, Parque Nacional Arequita, Direccion 

Forestal, Parques y Fauna, Ministerio de Ganaderia y Agricultura, Montevideo, Uruguay. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Jorge Morello. 
INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(1) Costa Atlantica 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (National Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.32.11 (Uruguayan Pampas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 16 September 1942, by Decree as Cabo Polonio National Park. Extended 2 
June 1966 by decree No. 266/966. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: On Cabo Polonio, on the Atlantic coast, Rocha Province; 34°20'S, 

53°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 60m. 

AREA: 14,250 ha. (along 26km. of coast line). 

LAND TENURE: 80% of the area is private land under expropriation. 



URUGUAY 369 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: The boundaries extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the eastern shore of 
Laguna Castillos . Most of the area consists of sand dunes , reaching 60m in height . There are some swampy 
dune slacks and long beaches of white sand border the sea, culminating at the cape where there is a 
lighthouse and a sealing station. There are several small offshore islands. 

VEGETATION: An area of marshland has been designated as a faunal reserve. Another area, set aside 
as a forest reserve, has been planted for dune stabilization and timber production with Corsican pine Pinus 
maritima. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Mammals include Azara's opossum Didelphis azarae, six-banded armadillo 
Euphractus sexcinctus , capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris , coypu Myocastor coypus, lesser grison 
Galictis cuja. La Plata otter Lutra platensis (V), tiger cat Felis geojfroyi (V), margay F. wiedii (V) and 
pampas cat F. colocolo. Marine mammals include South American sea-lion Otaria byronia and fur seal 
Arctocephalus australis. The marsh deer Blastoceros dichotomus (V) and pampas deer Ozotoceros 
bezoarticus (E) are also present. More than 150 bird species have been recorded, including the rhea Rhea 
americana intermedia, grebes Podiceps rolland chilensis. P. major and Podilymbus podiceps, magnificent 
frigate bird Fregata magnificens, whistling heron Syrigma sibilatrix, greater flamingo Phoenicopterus 
ruber, black-necked swan Cygnus melancoryphus , tree ducks Dendrocygna bicolor and D. viduata, 10 
other duck species (Anatidae), 9 species of raptor, a wide range of shorebirds such as two-banded plover 
Charadrius falklandicus , red knot Calidris canutus and Wilson's phalarope Steganopus tricolor, gulls 
(Laridae) , kingfishers ( Alcedinidae) and numerous passerines including some sparsely distributed species 
such as the marsh seedeater Sporophila palustris. 

ZONING: i) National Dune Monument; ii) reafforestation and stabihzation zone; iii) faunal reserve of 
lake and marshes; iv) beach zone with settlement and sealing. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The coypu are hunted for fur, grazing takes place and the 
sea-lions are exploited. Fishing is also allowed. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Studies of sea-lion biology, wildlife research, introduction of new species, 
archaeology. 

SPECLVL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: None listed. 

STAFF: One forestry engineer responsible for the land area; labour force of 11. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Supervisor, Jefe de Distrito Forestal IV, 
Direccion Forestal, Parques y Fauna, Ministerio de Ganaderia y Agricultura. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Jorge Morello. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(1) Santa Teresa 



MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (National Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.32.11 (Uruguayan Pampas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1927. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Rocha Province , Atlantic coast, 40 km northeast of Castillos; 33°58'S, 
53°29'W. 

ALTITUDE: Sea level to 50m. 

AREA: 3,290 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands. 



370 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: An area between the sea and the Laguno Difunto o Negra, originally reserved 
for dune stabilization. There are some beautiful beaches and a main feature is a well maintained fortress 
dating from the 18th century colonial war. Monthly mean temperatures range from 10°C to 22°C. 

VEGETATION: Almost entirely made up of exotic species including pines Pinus spp. , Eucalyptus spp. , 
palms and many others. However, there are still some areas of marshland supporting original vegetation. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Species still able to survive in the plantations and marshland include 
capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris . coypu Myocastor coypus. La Plata otter Lutra platensis (V), 
margay Felis wiedii (V) and brocket deer Mazama simplicornis. 

ZONING: A zone for cattle production and an administrative zone; the whole area is open to visitors. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Occasional forest fires; many introduced plant species. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Mainly on archaeology. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Arredondo, H. (1958). Santa Teresa y San Miguel. La 
restauracion de las fortalezas, la formacion de sus parques. El Siglo, Montevideo, Uruguay. 

Martinez, M.V. (1947). Los fantasmas de Santa Teresa: evocaciones de Rocha. Barriero y Ramos, 
Montevideo, Uruguay. 

STAFF: Administered by an honorary commission with 5 members (2 civilian and 3 military). 85 
military and civilian workers. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Superintendent, Parque Nacional Santa Teresa, 
Ministerio de la Defensa Nacional, Montevideo, Uruguay. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Jorge Morello. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(2) San Miguel 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: III (National Monument). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.32.11 (Uruguayn Pampas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Total. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 1927. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: 10km west of the Brazilian border town of Chui and 15km from the 
Atlantic coast, Rocha province; 33°41'S, 53°30'W. 

ALTITUDE: 20-60m. 

AREA: 1,238 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Government expropriated lands by law. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: A hilly and stony area, situated between the rivers flowing into the southern 
end of the vast Lagoa Mirim. The park includes a well-restored fort dating from the 18th century boundary 
disputes between Spain and Portugal. 

VEGETATION: The vegetation consists mainly of xerophytes but has been considerably modified by 
very many years of grazing by introduced domestic stock. Species include urunday Astronium urundeuva 
and quebracho Schinopsis spp. , both belonging to the Anacardiaceae . There are also a number of exotic 
species. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, coypu Myocastor coypus and 
Azara's fox Dusicyon gymnocercus still occur. A breed of domestic crioUo maintained in the area. 



URUGUAY 371 

ZONING: None yet established. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Some illegal hunting, grazing and trapping of coypu for fur. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: None. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: None. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Arredondo, H (1958). Santa Teresa y San Miguel, La 
restauracion de las fortalezas, la formacion de sus parques. El Siglo, Montevideo, Uruguay. Illustrated. 

STAFF: Varies from 8-9 in summer to 19-20 in winter (1973). This is made up of both the military and 
labourers. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Superintendent, Parque Nacional San Miguel, 
Ministerio de la Defensa Nacional, Montevideo, Uruguay. (Park is administered by an honorary 
commission of 5 members.) 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Jorge Morello. 

INFORMATION DATED: 1977. 



(1) Banados del Este 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: IX (Biosphere Reserve). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.32.11 (Uruguayan Pampas). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: This area is said to contain some 30,500 ha in National Parks that are governed 
by law no. 9841 (4 July 1935) concerning the protection of flora and fauna. It is unclear to which areas this 
refers. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: June 1976 as a Biosphere Reserve. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: In eastern Uruguay, on the BraziUan frontier; 32°-35''S, 53°-55°W. 

ALTITUDE: 0-50m. 

AREA: 200,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: 30% state property; 70% privately owned. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Four important rivers flow through Banados del Este into the Merim Lagoon; 
the Yaguaton, Tacuari, Olimar and San Luis. Grey panosol fields, normally under water, produce a great 
floral variety. The soils are peaty with high acidity. Annual average rainfall in the zone is 1100mm, most 
abundant in winter, and the temperature ranges between 8°C and 28°C. 

VEGETATION: This is the only area in the country where the 'butia' palms Butia yatay growing in these 
soils are protected. They form an almost pure association. Dominant in the herbaceous community are 
Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Gramineae {Scirpus californicus, Typha spp., Zizaniopsis bonaerensis, Scirpus 
giganteus etc . ) . There are also a variety of psammophilous plants and extensive stands of the conifer Pinus 
atlantica along the coast. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: The indigenous fauna remains almost intact except that the marsh deer 
Blastocerus dichotomus is now locally extinct. There are large colonies of coypu Myocastor coypus and 
capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris , while giant otter Pteronura brasilensis (V) are less abundant. 
Perhaps more important, however, is the tremendous wealth of the avifauna, which includes species such 
as the red-legged seriema Caraima crislata, black-necked swan Cygnus melanocoryphus, coscoroba swan 
Coscoroba coscoroba and muscovy duck Cairina moschata. In addition, this zone is one of the most 
important in the southern hemisphere for the study of migratory birds in their movements from north to 
south. Examples are the American golden plover Pluvialis dominica dominica from the Arctic, the 
albatross Diomedea sp., the petrels (Procellaridae) and the penguins (Spheniscidae). 



372 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

ZONING: None. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: The ecosystem is threatened with serious changes as stock 
raising gradually gives way to rice-growing. This has led to an attempt to dry the lake areas and alter the 
water levels in the flood zones. Uncontrolled tourism is also exerting increasing pressure. The 
implementation of a plant to channel the lagoons and marshes flowing into the sea would have irreversible 
consequences for the environment. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Among the basic problems, concerning which an ambitious plan for 
research has been undertaken, the following may be mentioned: a) dry-season pastures for the 
development of stock raising; b) water regulation in periods of flooding and drought; c) control of bird 
migration and reintroduction of extinct species; d) epidemiological research into furuncular myiasis. All 
this ecological research is important for the countries in the temperate zone having wetlands. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: The whole area of the eastern marshes is provided with a good 
road network and accommodation facilities for groups of scientists working there. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Instituto Nacional para la Preservacion del Medio Ambiente 
(1973). Informe sobre 'Banados de Rocha'. 

Melendo, Mariano (1974). Informe Mision Espanola. 

Sombroek, W.G. (1969). Soil studies in the Merim Lagoon basin. 

STAFF: A small technical staff is available for isolated studies. 

BUDGET: No information. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Presidente, Instituto Nacional para la 
Preservacion del Medio Amniente, s/c Luis Cavia 3046, Montevideo, Uruguay. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: Jorge Morello. 

INFORMATION DATED: Derived from information from Unesco. 



VENEZUELA 373 



VENEZUELA 



AREA: 912,047 sq km. 

POPULATION: 13,122,000 (1978). 

PARKS AND RESERVES LEGISLATION: The conservation and utilization of natural resources in 
Venezuela is controlled under the Forstry, Soils and Water Law of 30 December 1965. This gives the 
Council of Ministers the power to establish protected areas by Executive Decrees, which can only be 
reversed by Congressional Act. The law also includes a clause specifying procedures, penalties and 
sanctions. This law is regulated by Decree 1333 of 1 1 February 1969. Decree 2117 of 12 April 1977 partially 
reformed this Regulatory Law. The Organic Environment Law of 7 June 1976 established conservation as 
an important factor in the development of the country, stating that conservation, defence and 
improvement of the environment will include: 

'The creation, protection, conservation and improvement of national parks, forest reserves, 
natural monuments, protected zones, virgin region reserves, watersheds, national 
hydrological reserves, refuges, sanctuaries and reserves of wildlife, recreation parks of 
open-air or intensive use, green areas in urban centres or any other land area subject to a 
special regime in benefit of the ecological equilibrium and of the collective well-being'. 
In April 1977 the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources was established, and 
on 13 October 1977 the Direccion de Parques Nacionales within that Ministry. 

PARKS AND RESERVES ADMINISTRATION: The Direccion de Parques Nacionales is responsible 
for the running of the protected areas. This was previously the responsibility of the Directorate of 
Renewable Natural Resource Management within the Ministry of Agriculture. National Parks are sites of 
natural scenic beauty of with an important flora and fauna which are utilised for recreation, education, 
tourism and/or scientific research. National Monuments are regions, objects or animal or plant 
populations of aesthetic, scientific or historic value which are given absolute protection. Wildlife Reserves 
are areas set aside specifically for management of wild animal populations, and may have controlled 
hunting. Other definitions include Protective Zones, Forest Reserves, Wildlife Refuges and Sanctuaries, 
Hydrological Reserves and Virgin Region Reserves. 

ADDRESS: Instituto Nacional de Parques, Direccion de Parques Nacionales, Avenida Francisco de 
Miranda, Parque del Este, Caracas 1062, Venezuela. 

REFERENCES: Garcia A., Ing. Agr. Jose and Steyermark, Dr Julian (1977). Los parques nacionales de 
Venezuela, INCAFO, Madrid. 

Gondelles, R. (1977). Los Parques Nacionales de Venezuela. 

Inparques (1978). Parques Nacionales y Monumentos Naturales de Venezuela. 

TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION: 7,691,537 ha. 
PROTECTED AREAS: 

National Parks (hectares) 

1 Canaima 3,000,000 

2 LaNeblina 1,360,000 

3 Aguaro-Guariquito 569,000 

4 Jaua-Sarisarinama 330,000 

5 Yapacana 320,000 

6 Sierra de Perija 295,288 

7 Sierra Nevada 267,200 

8 Archipielago Los Roques 225,153 

9 Duida-Marahuaca 210,000 

10 El Tama 139,000 

11 Henri Pittier 107,800 

12 Mochima 94,935 



374 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

13 Guatopo 92,640 

14 Medanos de Coro 91,280 

15 EI Avila 85,192 

16 Peninsula de Paria 37,500 

17 Morrocoy 32,090 

18 Yurubi 23,670 

19 Laguna de Tacarigua 18,400 

20 Terepaima 16,971 

21 El Guacharo 15,500 

22 Macareo 15,000 

23 Yacambu 14,800 

24 Laguna de la Restinga 10,700 

25 Cueva de la Quebrada del Toro 8,500 

26 Cerro el Copey 7,130 

Natural Monuments 

1 Maria Lionza 9,690 

2 Laguna de las Marites 3,674 

3 Cerro Santa Ana 1,900 

4 Cerros Matasiete y Guayamuri 1,672 

5 Las Tetas de Maria Guevara 1 ,672 

6 Aristides Rojas 1,630 

7 Alejandro de Humboldt* 181 

8 Chorrera de Las Gonzalez* 126 

9 Morros de Macaira* 99 

10 Cueva Alfredo Jahn* 58 

11 Cerro Autana* 30 

12 Laguna de Urao* 29 

13 Piedra de Cocuy* 15 

Faunal Refuges 

1 Juan Manuel de Aguas Blancas y Aguas Negras 227,795 

2 Chiriguare 44,500 

3 Cuare 11,825 

4 Isla de Aves 4 

* These areas are not included in TOTAL AREA UNDER PROTECTION. 




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376 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(1) Parque Nacional Canaima 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.4.1 (Guyanan). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente protegido. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 12 junio 1962 por Decreto Ejecutivo No, 770. Gaceta Oficial No, 26210, 13 
Junio 62. Amplicacion: Decreto No. 1.137, 9 Septiembre 67. Gaceta Oficial No, 30.809, 1 Octobre 75. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En el Sur-Este de Escudo de Guayana; en jurisdiccion del Estado 
Bolivar, Distritos Piar y Roscio; 6°26'-9°39'N, 60°38'62°54'W. 

ALTITUDE: 450-2,810m. 

AREA: 3,000,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Imponente altiplanicie con enormes mesetas de paredes verticales, conocidas 
con el nombre de Tepui. Esta conformada por las rocas mas antiguas de la geocronologia venezolana 
(1,000 millones de anos de edad); principalmente areniscas y lutitas en estratos horizontales con 
inyecciones de rocas igneas (diques y sills de diabasa). Las mesetas mas importantes son: Roraima 
(2,810m), Auyantepui, Chimantatepui y Acopantepui. En la altiplanciie de la Gran Sabana el clima es 
templado con una temperatura media anual de 24.5°C y una precipitacion media anual de 2,578mm; en las 
cimas de los tepuis la temperatura puede bajar hasta casi 0°C durante la noche. El Rio Caroni, con sus 
numerosos afluentes. que provienen del parque es aprovechado para alimentar el Ambalse de Guri, que 
suministra de ergia electrica a gran parte del pais. Ademas de las dos grandes caidas de agua (salto Angel y 
salto Kukenam que son la primera y la segunda mas alta del mundo) en el parque hay muchas otras. 

VEGETATION: Las formaciones vegetales mas importantes son: sabanas y morichales; bosque 
humedo tropical, humedo premontano, muy humedo premontano, muy humedo montano bajo y pluvial 
montano. La vegetacion se caracteriza por presentar especies endemicas y plantas carnivoras como: 
Heliamphora sp., Drosera roraime y Utricularia humboldtii. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: De la clase mamiferos, cinco especies amenazadas de extincion; estas son: 
oso hormiguero gigante Myrmecophaga tridactyla (V), armadillo gigante Priodontes giganteus (V), nutria 
gigante amazonica Pteronura brasiliensis (V), yaguar Panthera onca (V) y cuanaguaro Felis pardalis (V). 
Otros mamiferos: comadreja Mustela frenata , zorro cangrejero Procyon cancrivorus, pereza de tres dedos 
Bradypiis variegatus, varias especies de monos, reptiles y ofidios. Avifauna variada; especies endemicas. 

ZONING: Zonificacion especificada en el Plan Maestro; actualmente en reformulacion. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Deterioro ambiental por explotacion minera, incendios, tala 

de arboles, actividades agricolas de subsistencia y caceria. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Se han realizado estudios sobre: conservacion de cuencas hidrograficas, 
geomorfoliga, geologia, suelos, vegetacion y fauna. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Facilidades de apoyo para investigadores en los sitios conocidos 
como Parupa y Laguna de Canaima. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: M.A.C. - Corpoturismo - Nat. Park Service (1974). Parque 
Nacional Canaima, Plan Rector. 

Miller, K.R. (1963). A Proposed Plan for the Development of Canaima National Park, Venezuela, 
based upon National, Regional and Local Influence. Thesis, University of Washington. 

STAFF: 1 Superintendent, 1 Ing. Forestal y 1 Geografo. 

BUDGET: 150,466 Bs. Ano Fiscal 1982. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Oficina Administrativa: Edf. Mimu, Urb. Alta 
Vista Sur, Puerto Ordaz (Gerencia de Desarrollo Regional C.V.G.) 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. de Nlohm y P. Salinas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 1982. 



VENEZUELA 377 

(2) Parque Nacional La Neblina 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente protegido. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 12 Diciembre 1978. Decreto Ejecutivo No. 2927, Gaceta Oficial No. 2417 
(Ext), 7 marzo 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En el extremo Sur del Escudo de Guayana. Dentro de la jurisdiccion 
del Departamento Rio Negro, Territorio Federal Amazonas: 0°37'-l°50'N, 65°12'-66°32'W. 

ALTITUDE: 100-3,014m. 

AREA: 1,360,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la Nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: La Neblina es la mayor elevacion (3,014m), conocida en el continente 
Suramericana al Este de la Cordillera de los Andes. De la constante nuvosidad que cubre la serrania se 
deriva el nombre de la misma. Los estratos de roca arensica que estricturan el macizo de la Neblina 
presentan plegamientos y pertenecen a la formacion Roraima (edad Precambrica); tambien forman parte 
de la constitucion geologica rocas igneas del Complejo Granitico de Amazonas. El relieve tiene profundos 
valles, entre los que se destaca el Canon Grande del Rio Bario. La temperatura depende de la altura y 
varia entre 8°C y 27°C. La precipitacion media anual es superior a 3,000mm. Los rios mas importantes son: 
Baria, Yatua y Siapa, que son afluentes del Brazo Casiquiare. 

VEGETATION: Dadas las caracteristicas del relieve y el aislamiento geografico, la vegetacion es muy 
variada y tiene un acentuado endemismo. En los sectores bajos, bosque humedo tropical. Sobre las cimas 
de la montana, bosques achaparrados {Bonnetia sp.) y estensas alfombras de musgo Sphagnum sp. Plantas 
carnivora: Heliamphora sp. Numerosas especies endemica como: Neblinaria celiae, arbiusto que solo se 
conoce en el Cerro La Neblina; Cottendorfia savannensis (Bromeliaceae); numerosas especies de 
orquideas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: No se ha realizado un inventario de la fauna que habita en el parque. Sin 
embargo, en los sectores bajos del bosque humedo tropical y los bosques en la base de la montana se sabe 
de la existencia de las siguientes especies: danta o tapir Tapirus terrestris, cunaguaro Felis pardalis (V), 
yaguar Panthera onca (V), varias especies de monos. Ofidios: Boa esmeralda Corallus caninus, anaconda 
Eunectes murinus gigas, mapanare verde Bothrops bilineatus. Aves: Trepador pico negro Xlphocolaptes 
promeropirhynchus neblinae, pauji nocturno Nothocrax urumutum. 

ZONING: No ha sido zonificado. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No conocidos. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Estudios botanicos y geologicos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No conocidos. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Brewer-Carias,C. (1978). La vegetacion del MundoPerdido. 
Fund. Eugenio Mendoza. 

STAFF: No conocidos. 

BUDGET: No conocidos. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Inparques, Direccion de Parques Nacionales. Av. 
Francicso de Miranda, Parque del Este, Caracas 1062, Venezuela. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. de Blohm y P. Salinas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 1982. 



378 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(3) Parque Nacional Aguaro-Guariquito 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.27.10 (Llanos). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente protegido. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 7 marzo 1974. Decreto Ejecutivo no. 1686. Gaceta Oficial No. 30349, 1 1 marzo 
1974. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Llanos Centrales sur del Estado Guarico, Distritos Infante y Mirande; 
70°43'-8°53'N, 66°18'-59'W. 

ALTITUDE: 34-220m. 

AREA: 569,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la nacion y privada. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Area representativa de los Llanos Venezolanos. El relieve es bastante 
uniforme y no presenta elevaciones salva pequenas terrazas adyacentes a los cursos de agua. El clima es 
calido y presenta dos estaciones muy marcadas: La seca de noviembre a marzo y la lluviosa de abril a 
octubre. La temperatura media es de 28°C, con maximas de 38°C. Las corrientes de agua que atraviesan el 
parque tienen su origen en rios que nacen en el Cordillera de la Costa, siendo los principales el Aguaro y el 
Guariquito, que es el principal colector del drenaje natural. 

VEGETATION: Conformada por la sabana tropical graminiforme, en la que apraecen en forma aislada 
ciertas especies arboreas y formaciones boscosas mas continuas y espesas en las margenes de los rios. En 
los bancos-punto altos de las sabanas - la vegetacion esta compuesta por muchos tipos de gramineas como 
el tupuquen Sporobolus indicus, el gamelotillo paspalum plicalulum, y los gencros Axonopus , Aristida, 
Eragrostis. En los esteros y bajios se encuentran asociaciones tuipicas de plantas espinares como la barinas 
Cassia aculeata, la dormidera Mimosa pigra, la cachita Raudia armata, la espina de bagre Hydrolea 
spinosa. El moriche Mauritiaflexuosa, palma dominante en las zonas voscosas llamadas selvas de gakeria. 
El morichal es una formacion tipica de los llanos de Venezuela. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: En las corrientes fluviales vive una gran variedad de especies acuaticas como 
el pavon Cicla ocellaris, morocoto Colossoma macropomus , temblador Electrophus electricus, bagre 
dormilon Hemisorubium platyrhynchus . Se encuentran mamiferos como el chiguire Hydrochoerus 
hydrochoeris, el mono araguato Alouatta seniculus, el oso hormihuero gigante Myrmecophaga tridactyla 
(V), el venado matacan Mazama america, el yaguar Panthera onca (V), el cunaguaro Fells pardalis (V). 
Rica y variada avifauna, con mas de diez especies de garzas. Entre los reptiles encontramos la iguana 
Iguana iguana, la baba Caiman crocodilus fuscus (V), el caiman Crocodylus intermedius (E), la tortuga 
arrau Podocnemls expansa (E). 

ZONING: No tiene zonificacion. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Actividades de ganaderia y cultivo. Explotaciones petroleras. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Estudios de la fauna, especialmente sobre el chiguire, el caiman, el gavilan 
sabanero. Estudios de gramineas, chaparro y el moriche. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 

STAFF: 1 Superintendente, 1 Perito Forestal y 3 Guardaparques. 

BUDGET: 380,000 Bs. Ano Fiscal 1982. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Oficinas Coordinacion Region Central-Los 
Llanos, Parque Zoologico Las Delicias, Maracay, Estado Aragua. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. de Blohm & P. Salinas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 1982. 



VENEZUELA 379 

(4) Jaua-Sarisarinama National Park 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 12 Diciembre 1978, Decreto Ejecutivo No. 2978. Gaceta Oficiai No. 2417 
(Ext), 7 marzo 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En el Escuao de Guayana, especificamente en el Sur-Oeste del Estadc 
Bolivar, en jurisdiccion del Distrito Cedeno; 4''14'-5°03'N, 64°00'-45"W. 

ALTITUDE: 500-3, 400m. 

AREA: 330,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El relieve se caracteriza por presentar tres tepui (mesetas de Pantepui): 
Jaua-Jidi, la mas extensa del parque; Sarisarinama-Jidi; y Guanococo-Jidi. Las rocas de estos relieves 
residuales son principalmente areniscas dispuestas en estratos horizontales, pertenecientes a la 
Formacion Roraima. Las cumbres de las mesetas se caracterizan por presentar extensiones planas en 
algunos sectores, y en otros, superficies surcadas por profundas grietas. Sobre la Meseta de Sarisarinama 
se localizan las mayores simas de colapso formadas en roca arensica, lo que constituye un fenomeno unico 
en el mundo; la mayor de estas simas tiene 400 metros de diametro y profunidad, Lluvias abundantes, mas 
de 3,000mm al ano; temperaturas que oscilan entre 24°C y 12°C. En Sarisarinama nacen los rios 
Canaracuni, Pauo y parte del Aresi; en Jaua tienen su cuenca alta los rios Marajano y Adawa (afluente del 
Caura); en Guanacoco nace el rio Curumu. 

VEGETATION: Bosque humedo tropical en los terrenos bajos. Bosque achaparrado, Bosque de galeria 
y sabanas (algunas especies vegetales: Euterpe sp., Bonetia jauaensis , Brocchinia acuminata, Panicum 
curvifolium); y una selva mas desarrollada en el interior de las simas (Sarisarinama). Entre la flora de las 
mesetas se han identificado plantas nuevas y numerosas especies endemicas; de estas se pueden citar: 
navia cardonae, Melagena jauaensis, Cecropia steyermarkii, Sloanea cavicola, y otras que en total soman 
81 especies endemicas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna del parque aun no ha sido inventariada, sin embargo se puede 
suponer la existencia de una variada fauna relacionada con el bosque humedo tropical. Tampoco existe un 
inventario completo de la fauna que habita sobre las mesetas, donde es posible que se encuentran especies 
zoologicas nuevas. Las investigaciones han detectado sobre las mesetas la presencia de Letis nero 
(lepidoptero) y una nueva especies de coleoptero Deltochilum bordoni. 

ZONING: No ha sido zonificado. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Investifaciones botanicas, zoologicas, geologicas y espeleologicas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ningunas. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales, No. 132/133, 

Tomo XXXII. Caracas, Venezuela. 

Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleologia Vol. 5 - No. 1. 

Steyermark, J. A. y Brewer-Carias, Ch. (1976). La Vegetacion de la Cima del Macizo de Jaua. 

Szcerban, E. y Urbani, F. (1974). Carsos de Venezuela. Parte 4: Formas Carsicas en areniscas 
Precambricas del Territorio Federal Amazonas y Estado Bolivar. 

STAFF: No conocidos. 

BUDGET: No conocidos. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Inparques, Direccion de Parques Nacionales, Av. 
Francisco de Miranda, Parque del Este, Caracas 1062, Verfezuela. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. de Blohm y P. Salinas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 1982. 



380 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(5) Parque Nacional Yapacana 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente protegido. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 12 Diciembre 1978. Decreto Ejecutivo No, 2980, Gaceta Oficial No. 2417, 7 
marzo 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En el sector Oeste del Escudo de Guayana, Departamento Atabapo 
del Territorio Federal Amazonas: 3°30'-4°05'N, 66°33'-67°03'W. 

ALTITUDE: 80-1345m. 

AREA: 320,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El Cerro Yapacana constituye un relieve residual con forma de meseta tipica 
del Pantepui (areniscas de la formacion Roraima). El Tepui se levanta abruptamente desde la penillanura 
que se extiende entre los rios Orinoco y Ventuari, donde es la mayor elevacion. Temperaturas 
comprendidas entre 19°C y 27°C; precipitacion media anual superior a 3,000mm. El rio Yagua es uno de 
los mas importantes del parque, y vierte sus aguas al rio Orinoco; otros afluentes del parque Uevan sus 
aguas, al rio Ventuari. 

VEGETATION: En la penillanura que rodea al Cerro Rapacana se extiende el bosque humedo tropical, 
bosque denso inundado y sabanas. En las sabanas se encuentra el genero Pentamerista, unico 
representante en el mundo de la familia Tetrameristaceae conocido solamente en Malasia, donde esta 
representada por el genero Tetramerista. Ademas de Oentameristam se encuentran otras especies 
endemicas nuevas para la ciencia. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: No se ha realizado un inventario de la fauna silvestre que habita en el 
parque. 

ZONING: No ha sido zonificado. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No conocidos. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Investigaciones botanicas y geologicas. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No conocidos. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: No conocidos. 

STAFF: No conocidos. 

BUDGET: No conocidos. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Inparques, Direccion de Parques Nacionales, Av. 
Francisco de Miranda, Parque del Este, Caracas 1072. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. de Blohm y P. Salinas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 1982. 



VENEZUELA 381 

(6) Parque Nacional Sierra de Perija 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.3.1 (Colombian Coastal). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente protegido.. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 12 Diciembre 1978, Decreto Ejecutivo No. 2983. Gaceta Oficial no. 2,417, 7 
marzo 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Cordillera de Perija, Distrito Perija y Colon del Estadi Zulia: 

9°05'-10°20'N, 71°50'-72°23"W. 

ALTITUDE: 80-3400 metros. 

AREA: 295,288 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la nacion y privada. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Su estructura esta dominada por f alias que ie dan caracrer abrupto. Este 
conjunto de bloques montanosos se elevan bruscamente sobre la depresion de Maracaibo. Clima humedo 
con temperaturas que oscilan aproximadamente entre los 26°C y 6.3°C, precipitaciones de mas de 
2,000mm. Importante reserve hidrologica. 

VEGETATION Bosques nublados y vegetacion de paramo en las partes altas de la montana. Entre las 
especies mas comunes podemos citar: mijao Anacardium excelsum, cedro amargo Cedrela mexicana, 
palma de cera Ceroxylum sp., yagrumo Cecropia sp., cucharon Gyranthera caribensis, araguaney 
Tabebuia chrysantha, pino aparrado Podocarpus oleifolius, helechos arbreos, orquideas, araceas, 
bromelias. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Constituye un rico reservorio de fauna silvrestre: el mono capuchino Cebus 
nigrivitatus , mono araguato Alouatta seniculus, oso melero Tamandua tetradactyla, cachicamo Dasypus 
novemcinctus , rata mochilera Heteromys anomalus, oso frontino Tremarctos ornatus (V), lapa Agouti 
paca, cunaguaro Felis pardalis (V), puerco espin Coendu prehensilis . Entre las aves podemos mencionar: 
el gaban Mycteria americana, rey de los zamuros Sarcoramphus papa, gavilan palomero Mierastur 
zanothrax, aguila negra Buteo albonotatus , pauji copete de piedra Pauxi pauxi, alcaravan Belonopterus 
cayannensis, tucustio azul Klais guimeti. 

ZONING: No tiene zonificacion. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: La Sierra de Perija esta habutada por pequenas comunidades 
de tribus de indios motilones. El area relativamente plana, presenta problemas de ocupacion por parte de 
pequenos y medianos agricultores. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: No conocidos. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: No conocidos. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Kasmera' Bulletin, Universidad del Zulia. 

STAFF: 1 Superintendente y 1 Perito Forestal. 

BUDGET: 190,879 Bs. Ano Fiscal 1982. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Oficina Coordinacion Region Zuliana, Av. El 
Milagro Paseo El Lago, Maracaivo, Estado Zulia. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. de Blohm y P. Salinas 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 1982. 



382 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(8) Parque Nacional Archipielago Los Roques 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.17.4 (Venezuelan Dry Forest). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente protegido. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 9 agosto 1972, Decreto Ejectuivo No. 1062. Gaceta Oficial No. 29833, 18 

agosto 1972. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Isals del Caribe Venezolana. Al norte de la Costa Central; 

11°42'-12°04'N, 63°30'-67°00'W. 

ALTITUDE: Nivel del mar-120m. 

AREA: 225,153 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: El relieve presenta rasgos muy sobresalientes entre los que destacan la gran 
barrera de arrecifes, numerosas islas y cayos. Predominas una acentuada raidez interrumpida por 
chubascoc ocasionales y por u periodo de Uuvias mas intenso desde septiembre hasta enero. La media 
anual de temperatura es aproximadamente de 27.3°C. En ninguna de las islas y cayos hay corrientes de 
agua superficial, ni depositos de aguas subterraneas con posibilidades de aprovechamiento. 

VEGETATION: En las colinas del Gran Roque aparece una comunidad vegetal tipicamente xerofita, 
donde abundan las camefitas como la hierba de vidrio Sesuvium portulacastrum. Aoarecen con frecuencia 
especies como el tabaco de pescador Tournefortia gnaphalodes . En la zona costera los tipos de plantas mas 
habituales son los manglares donde predominan los generos Rhizophora y Avicennia. En los fondos 
marinos prospera la valiosa Thalassia testudinum, formando praderas donde se refugian la tortuga verde y 
la carey. En los arrecifes viven en asociacion simbiotica con el coral especies del algas como la Halimeda 
fabulosa y el Penicillus capitatus. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: Solo un escaso numero de especies terrestres ha logrado adaptarse a las 
condiciones de este medio hostil. Entre los reptiles podemos encontrar la iguana Iguana iguana, el lagarto 
negro Gymnodactylus lemniscatus, el mea-mea G. antillensis, la salamandra Phyllodactylus rutteni. No 
existe ningun mamifero, asi como tampoco se ha constatado la presencia de ofidios. La avifauna es muy 
rica en especues nidificantes y migradoras; pudiendose enumerar: los pajaros bobos Sula leucogaster, 
varias especies de gaviotas, la garza pechiblanca Egretta tricolor, la tijereta de mar Fregata magnificens, la 
garza rojiza E. rufescens. De la fauna marina podemos mencionar como especies mas representativas: la 
cachama amarilla Holocanthus ciliaris, el candil Amyris ignea, cachicato Haemulon sciurus, el navajon 
azul Acanthurus coeraleus, la cachua Basilistes vetula. 

ZONING: Existe una zonificacion preliminar en proyecto del Plan Maestro. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: Ocupacion por parte de Pescadores que realizan actividades de 
subsistencia. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Estudios de geologia. Ministerio de Energia y Minas. Biologia, Fundacion 
La Salle de Ciencias Naturales. Ornitologia, Museo Phelps. Edafologia, Ministerio de Agricultura y Cria. 
Estudios sobre e! zooplancton, cultivos de crustaceos, moluscos, etc., realizados por la Fundacion 
Cientifica Los Roques. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: En Cayo Dos Mosquines se encuentra ubicada la Estacion 
Biologica de la Fundacion Cientifica Los Roques. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Cobe de Berany, T., Edwald, J., and Cadima, E. (1972). La 
pesca de la Lagosta en el Archipielago 'Los Roques'. Informe Tecnico No. 43, Caracas. 

Fundacion Cientifica Los Roques (series of reports 1-9, 1971-1973). 

Phelps, W.H., and Phelps Jr., W.H. (1950). Las Aves de Las Islas Los Roques y las Aves y descripcion 
de un nuevo canario de mangle. Boletin de la Soc. Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales: 76. 

Tamayo, F. (1972). El Atolon de Los Roques. Informe inedito. Caracas. 

Yibirin, C, Jordan, F., Puzick, P. (1975). Parque Nacional Archipielago Los Roques. Plan Rector. 
MAC. 

STAFF: 1 Superintendente y 3 Guardaparques. 

BUDGET: 258,093 Bs Aiio Fiscal 1982. 



VENEZUELA 383 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Oficinas Coordinacion Region Nor-Oriental, 
Avenida Libertador, Quinta Roca, Maturin, Estado Monagas. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C de Blohm y P. Salinas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 1982. 



(9) Parque Nacional Duida-Marahuaca 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.5.1 (Amazonian). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente protegido. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 12 Didicembre 1978. Decreto Ejecutivo No. 2981. Gaceta Oficial No 2417 
(Ext), 7 marzo 1979. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: En el Escudo de Guayana, en jurisdiccion del Departamento 
Atabapo, Territorio Federal Amazonas; 3°05'-50'N, 65°12'-55'W. 

ALTITUDE: 250-2,580m. 

AREA: 210,000 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la nacion. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Los cerros Duida y Marahuaca son mesetas de paredes verticales (tepui) 
constituidas por estratos de roca arenisca de la Formacion Roraima (edad Precambrica). Las 
temperaturas varian entre 28°C en los sectores bajos a 10°C en las cimas de las mesetas. El Parque protege 
parte de las cuencas de los rios Iguapo, Padamo y Cunucunuma, afluentes del rio Orinoco. 

VEGETATION: La vegetacion se caracteriza por su flora endemica, abundante y variada. Bosque 
humedo tropical y sabanas en los sectores ubidcados a menor altitud. Bosques de piso templado en las 
bases de los tepui. Bosque achaparrados y densos sobre la cima de las mesetas. Las ultimas investigaciones 
botanicas arrojan un total de 167 generos de criptogamas vascularea y fanerogamas (10 generos nuevos): 
Amphiphyllum, Tyleria, Tateanthus, Mycerinus, Chorisepalum , Gleasonia, Suidania, Tylerpapus, S. 
Tenopadus. Guidaca; 169 especies nuevas en las paredes del Duida. Desde La Esmeralda, en el rio 
Orinoco, hacia la base de esta ultima meseta unas 200 especies nuevas. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna es muy variada, destacandose entre los mami*'eros: yaguar 
Panthera onca (V), danta o tapir Tapirus terrestris, diversas especies de monos, etc. Aves: juan feo 
Nonnula rubecula duidae, amazilia colimorada Amazilia viridigaster duidae, pico chato gargantiblanco 
Platyrynchus mystaceus duidae y muchas especies de la avifauna. Son abundantes los reptiles y anfibios. 

ZONING: No tiene zonificacion. 

DISTURBANCES OR DEFICIENCIES: No conocidos. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: Estudios sobre vegetacion, fauna y geologia. 

SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC FACILITIES: Ninguna. 

PRINCIPAL REFERENCE MATERIAL: Phelps, W.H. La Avifauna de Pantepui. Bo. Soc. Venezolana 
de Ciencias Nalurales. 

STAFF: No conocidos. 

BUDGET: No conocidos. 

LOCAL PARK OR RESERVE ADMINISTRATION: Inparques, Direccion de Parques Nacionales, Av. 
Francisco de Miranda, Parque del Este, Caracas 1062. 

NAME OF CNPPA COORDINATOR: C. de Blohm y P. Salinas. 

INFORMATION DATED: Junio 1982. 



384 lUCN DIRECTORY OF NEOTROPICAL PROTECTED AREAS 

(7) Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada 

MANAGEMENT CATEGORY: II (National Park). 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE: 8.34.12 (Colombian Montane). 

LEGAL PROTECTION: Totalmente protegido. 

DATE ESTABLISHED: 2 mayo 1952. Por Decreto Ejecutivo No, 393. Gaceta Oficial No. 22381 , 2 de 
mayo de 1952. 

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: Sistema Montanooso de Los Andes, Sierras Nevada de Merida y de 
Santo Dimongo. Distritos Rangel, Lubertador y Campo Elias del Estado Merida y Distritos Bolivar y 
Pedraza del Estado Barinas; 8°54'-26'N, 70°38'-71°17'W. 

ALTITUDE: 600-5 ,007m. 

AREA: 267,200 ha. 

LAND TENURE: Tierras propiedad de la nacion y privada. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES: Unica zona del pais con caracteristicas alpinas y cumbres cubiertas de nieve 
durante todo el ano. El relieve presenta pendientes abruptas, sobre todo hacia la vertiente meridena. 
Rocas igneas y metamorficas de gran antiguedad (edad precambrica). Posee las montanas mas aatas del 
pais. El clima es tropical en los sectores bajos de la vertiente del Edo. Barinas; a medida que se asciende la 
temperatura es menor, hasta llegar a las cumbres mas altas donde impera el clima gelido, con 
temperatures por debajo de 0°C. La precipitacion media anual supera los 1,000m. Numerosas lagunas 
originadas por el retroceso de los glaciares. Redes hidrograficas que drenan hacia los rios Chama y 
Orinoco. 

VEGETATION: La gran variedad de altitudes determina la diversidad de formaciones vegetales. En los 
sectores bajos (vertiente de Edo. Barinas) se desarrolla el bosque humedo tropical. Le siguen, en orden 
ascendentes: selva nublada; paramo cuya especie mas representativa es el Frailejon Espeletia sp. y 
bosques de coloradito Polylepis sericea. 

NOTEWORTHY FAUNA: La fauna no esta distribuida uniformemente en todo el parque sino que 
tiende a concentrarse en la vertiente sur. El parque constituye el refugio para algunas especies que se 
encuentran en peligro de extincion como el oso frontino