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lUCN Directory 
of South Asian 
Protected Areas 



Compiled by The World Conservation Monitoring Centre 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian 
Protected Areas 



lUCN - THE WORLD CONSERVATION UNION 

Founded in 1948, lUCN - the World Conservation Union - is a membership organisation 
comprising governments, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), research institutions, and 
conservation agencies in 120 countries. The Union's objective is to promote and encourage the 
protection and sustainable utilisation of living resources. 

Several thousand scientists and experts from all continents form part of a network supporting 
the work of its six Commissions: threatened species, protected areas, ecology, sustainable 
development, environmental law and environmental education and training. Its thematic pro- 
grammes include tropical forests, wetiands, marine ecosystems, plants, the Sahel, Antarctica, 
population and sustainable development, and women in conservation. These activities enable 
lUCN and its members to develop sound policies and programmes for the conservation of 
biological diversity and sustainable development of natural resources. 



WCMC - THE WORLD CONSERVATION MONITORING CENTRE 

The World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) is a joint venture between the three 
partners in the World Conservation Strategy, the World Conservation Union (lUCN), the World 
Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the United Nations Environment Programme (IJNEP). Its 
mission is to support conservation and sustainable development by collecting and analysing 
global conservation data so that decisions affecting biological resources are based on the best 
available information. 

WCMC has developed a global overview database of the world's biological diversity that 
includes threatened plant and animal species, habitats of conservation concern, critical sites, 
protected areas of the world, and the utilisation and trade in wildlife species and products. 
Drawing on this database, WCMC provides an information service to the conservation and 
development communities, governments and United Nations agencies, scientific institutions, 
the business and commercial sector, and the media. WCMC produces a wide variety of specialist 
outputs and reports based on analyses of its data. 



lUCN Directory of South Asian 
Protected Areas 



Compiled by 

Michael J.B. Green 

World Conservation Monitoring Centre 

lUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas 



With financial support from 
Norwegian Agency for International Development 



lUCN - THE WORLD CONSERVATION UNION 

1990 



Published by: lUCN-The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, UK. 

Prepared by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and published with financial support 
from the Norwegian Agency for International Development 

A contribution to GEMS - the Global Environment Monitoring System. 



^ 



Copyright: 



1990 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 



Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non- commercial purposes is authorised 
without prior permission from the copyright holder. 

Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without the prior written 
permission of the copyright holder. 

Citation: lUCN (1990). lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. xxiv + 294 pp. 

ISBN: 2-8317-0030-2 

Printed by: Unwin Brothers Woking, U.K. 

Coverphotos: Sundarbans, Bangladesh/India, Rangdum S. (proposed), India, 

Horton Plains N.P., Sri Lanka, by M.J.B. Green. Lalsohanra N.P.', 
Pakistan by Mauri Rautkari/WWF. 

Cover design by: Jo Taylor, lUCN Publications Services Unit 

Compiled by: Michael J.B. Green. 



Available from: 



lUCN Publications Services Unit 

219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, U.K. 



The designations of geographical entities in tiiis book, and the presentation of tiie material, do 
not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of lUCN, WCMC or other 
participating organisations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its 
authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Foreword i 

Introduction iii 

Acknowledgements iv 

Managing information on protected areas at WCMC vii 

Information sheets: guidelines to their contents ix 

Infonnation sheets on protected areas systems ix 

Information sheets on protected areas xi 

References xv 

Annex 1 Categories and management objectives of protected areas . . xvi 
Annex 2 lUCN threatened species categories xvii 

BANGLADESH 1 

Map of protected areas of Bangladesh 6 

Summary of protected areas of Bangladesh 7 

Bhawal National Park 9 

Char Kukri-Mukri Wildlife Sanctuary 10 

Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary 12 

Hail Haor Wildlife Sanctuary 14 

Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary 16 

Himchari National Park 18 

Madhupur National Park 20 

Pablakhali Wildlife Sanctuary 23 

Rampahar-Sitapahar Wildlife Sanctuary 26 

Ramsagar National Park 27 

Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary 28 

Sundarbans East, West and South Wildlife Sanctuaries 31 

Teknaf Game Reserve 38 

INDIA 43 

Summary of protected areas of India 54 

PAKISTAN 69 

Map of national parks of Pakistan 76 

Map ofwildlife sanctuaries of Pakistan 77 



Map of game reserves of Pakistan 78 

Summary ofprotected areas of Pakistan 79 

Askor Nallah Game Reserve 86 

Astore Wildlife Sanctuary 87 

Baltistan Wildlife Sanctuary 88 

Bund Khush Dil Khan Game Reserve 90 

Chashma Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 91 

Chassi/Baushdar Game Reserve 94 

Chitral Gol National Park 95 

Danyor Nallah Game Reserve 97 

Drigh Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 99 

Hab Dam Wildlife Sanctuary 101 

Hadero Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 103 

Haleji Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 105 

Hawkes Bay/Sandspit Beaches 108 

Hazar Ganji-Chiltan National Park 110 

Head Islam/Chak Kotora Game Reserve 113 

Indus River Game Reserve 115 

Kala Chitta Game Reserve 117 

Kalabagh Game Reserve 119 

KandarDam 121 

Kargah Wildlife Sanctuary 122 

Keti Bundar North and South Wildlife Sanctuaries 123 

Khabbeke Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 126 

Kharar Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 128 

Kheshki Reservoir 130 

Khunjerab National Park 130 

Kilik/Mintaka Game Reserve 135 

Kinjhar (Kalri) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 136 

Kirthar National Park 139 

Lai Suhanra National Park 144 

Langh (Lungh) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 148 

Machiara Game Reserve 150 



Malugul Dhand 152 

Manshi Wildlife Sanctuary 154 

Margalla HUls National Park 156 

Naltar Wildlife Sanctuary 159 

Nar/Ghoro Nallah Game Reserve 160 

Nazbar Nallah Game Reserve 161 

Nemal Lake Wildlife Sanctuary 163 

Pakora Game Reserve 165 

Rasool Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary 166 

Satpara Wildlife Sanctuary 168 

Sher Qillah Game Reserve 169 

TandaDam 171 

Tangir Game Reserve 173 

Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary 174 

Thanadarwala Game Reserve 176 

Zangi Nawar Game Reserve 178 

Ziarat Juniper Wildlife Sanctuary 180 

SRI LANKA 183 

Map of protected areas of Sri Lanka 192 

Summary ofprotected areas of Sri Lanka 193 

Bellanwilla-Attidiya Marshes Sanctuary 196 

Bundala Sanctuary 198 

Chundikkulam Sanctuary 201 

Flood Plains National Park 202 

Gal Oya National Park, Senanayake Samudra Sanctuary 206 

Gal Oya Valley North-east and South-west Sanctuaries 206 

Giant's Tank Sanctuary 210 

Hakgala Strict Natural Reserve 211 

Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary, including 

Rocky Islets (Ambalangoda) Sanctuary 214 

Horton Plains National Park 216 

Hurulu Forest Reserve 220 

Kalametiya Kalapuwa Sanctuary 222 



Kokilai Sanctuary 224 

Lahugala Kitulana National Park 226 

Maduru Oya National Park 228 

Minneriya-Giritale Sanctuary 232 

Peak Wilderness Sanctuary 234 

Polonnaruwa Sanctuary 237 

Ritigala Strict Natural Reserve 239 

Ruhuna (Yala) National Park, Yala Strict Natural Reserve 242 

Seruwila-Allai Sanctuary 247 

Sigiriya Sanctuary 249 

Sinharaja National Heritage Wilderness Area 250 

Somawathiya Chaitiya National Park 256 

Tirikonamadu Nature Reserve 259 

Uda Walawe National Park 261 

Udawattekele Sanctuary 263 

Victoria-Randenigala-Rantambe Sanctuary 265 

Wasgomuwa National Park 267 

Wilpattu National Park and Wilpattu North Sanctuary 271 

Wirawila-Tissa Sanctuary 275 

Yala East National Park 277 

Geographical index 279 

Taxonomic index 281 



FOREWORD 



The Indomalayan Realm, corresponding approximately with tropical Asia, represents one of the 
biggest paradoxes in conservation. On the one hand, it extends over a number of densely settled 
nations, including three of the world's most highly populated (China, India and Indonesia), 
while, on the other, it supports perhaps the richest and most diverse biological communities on 
earth - moist tropical forests. The wealth of plant and animal species is due to many factors: 
great topographic diversity from sea level to the Himalayas, an enormously varied climate from 
the dry Thar desert to the world's wettest areas, and to plate tectonics which are responsible for 
the mosaic of shifting land masses and island archipelagos. The peripheral regions have gained 
much of their flora and fauna from the neighbouring cold Palaearctic, the hot, dry Afrotropics, 
and to a lesser extent from the Australian realm. But Indomalaya is the richest of these redms, 
at the heart of which Ues its tropical forests - the "world's rain forests of grandest structure and 
of probably greatest richness in both animal and plant life" (T.C. Whitmore, Tropical rainforests 
of the Far East, 1975). The most diverse ponion is Malesia, which is estimated to contain over 
25,000 species of plants (about 10% of the world's total) and about 3(X) mammal species. 

Protected areas are predominantly natural areas established and managed in perpetuity, through 
legal or customary regimes, primarily to conserve their natural resources. Despite the acute 
pressures of rapidly increasing human populations, more and more protected areas are still being 
declared in the Indomalayan Realm. Here, it is worth remembering that the concept of protecting 
natural areas in tropical Asia is very ancient and may have taken root in the Indian sub-continent, 
where the practice of affording special protection to patches of forest can be traced back several 
thousand years to hunter-gatherer societies. Many hundreds of 'sacred groves', so-called 
because they are dedicated to deities, still exist today. 

Traditional conservation practices, of 'locking away' areas are becoming increasingly 
inappropriate, however, due to ever-mounting human pressures on natural resources. They are 
being superceded by more strategic approaches, enshrined in the World Conservation Strategy 
(1980) and based on managing natural areas to support sustainable development. The 
fundamental contribution of protected areas to sustainable development was reaffirmed by 
participants at the 3rd World Congress on National Parks held in Bali, Indonesia (1982). In the 
Bali Action Plan, a target was set for 10% of each terrestrial ecosystem to be under some form 
of protection to stem the trend towards species depletion. This recommendation, considered to 
be realistic for many countries, has since been endorsed by UNEP and the Brunddand 
Commission. 

The way in which protected areas networks have been rapidly developed in the Indomalayan 
Realm over the last few decades bears testimony to their importance being increasingly 
recognised by governments, aid agencies, non-governmental organisations and the public. In 
this directory for the South Asian region, the status of existing networks in Bangladesh, India, 
Pakistan and Sri Lanka is described as fully as the available information permits. In the case of 
India, protected areas are not individually described because the Ministry of Environment and 



Forests is supporting the production of a series of state directories. These are being prepared by 
the Environmental Studies Division of the Indian Institute of Public Administration, and follow 
on firom the Directory of National Parks and Sanctuaries in India produced in 1985. 

The lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas is the third in a series of regional directories 
prepared by the Protected Areas Data Unit, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, in 
collaboration with the lUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. It builds on 
the foundation provided by the United Nations List of National Parks and Equivalent Reserves 
(first published in 1961 and periodically updated since then) and the World Directory of National 
Parks and Other Protected Areas (1975, 1977), and a draft Directory oflndomalayan Protected 
Areas presented at the 25th Working Session of the lUCN Commission on National Parks and 
Protected Areas held in Corbett National Park, India in February 1985. Further directories 
covering other parts of the world are planned for publication in time for the 4th World Congress 
on National Parks and Protected Areas, to be held in Venezuela in February 1992. The goal of 
the next Congress will be to further promote the effective management of the world's natural 
habitats. Basic information on protected areas, such as is provided in these directories, is a 
prerequisite for assessing the contribution of protected areas to the conservation of biological 
diversity and, ultimately, to sustaining human society. 



Samar Singh 

Vice-Chairman, Indomalayan Realm 

lUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas 



INTRODUCTION 



As recognised by participants at the 3rd World National Parks Congress, the ready availability 
of comprehensive good-quality information on the world's protected areas is essential to a wide 
range of international organisations, governments, protected area managers, voluntary bodies 
and individuals. Such information is a prerequisite for assessing the coverage and status of 
protected areas from regional and global perspectives. Moreover, monitoring protected areas is 
vital to ensure that those areas allocated to conserve the world's natural resources meet the needs 
of society. 

The World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) is gradually expanding its capabilities as 
an international centre for information on protected areas, which is managed by its Protected 
Areas Data Unit (PADU). As part of the WCMC core programme, PADU is gradually compiling 
a series of regional protected areas directories, with priority addressed to tropical countries where 
much of the world's biological diversity is to be found. Past work has been focussed on the 
Neotropics and Afrotropics, culminating in protected area directories published for each of these 
realms. Efforts have subsequently been concentrated on the Indomalayan Realm, beginning 
with the production of a draft Directory of Indomalayan Protected Areas circulated for review 
to participants at the 25th Working Session of the lUCN Commission on National Parks and 
Protected Areas held in Corbett National Park, India in February 1985. Since then, the original 
material has been extensively revised and up-dated, with the incorporation of much additional 
material, commensurate with WCMC's developing capabilities. 

The Directory of South Asian Protected Areas is the first in a series of volumes covering the 
Indomalayan Realm. It is due to be followed by a second volume for Mainland South-east Asia, 
already drafted and reviewed but awaiting funds for publication. It is anticipated that further 
volumes in this series will cover Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, but these have yet to 
be drafted. 

The present volume covers the protected areas systems of Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri 
Lanka. Summary data are presented for all protected areas known to exist in these countries but 
only 100 properties are described in detail. This is largely a reflection of the availability of 
information, documentation on many of the less significant properties (often the smaller sites) 
being non-existent or not easily obtainable. That said, all 12 existing protected areas in 
Bangladesh and over half (36) of Sri Lanka's properties are described. Descriptive information 
for Pakistan is less comprehensive but the main protected areas are covered, with the exception 
of a few of the more recently notified national parks. No attempt has been made to compile 
descriptive information on Indian protected areas because such initiatives are abeady underway 
in-country. The Government of India has already supported the production of a Directory of 
National Parks and Sanctuaries in Indiail9S5), and a series of state directories is now being 
prepared by the Environmental Studies Division, Indian Institute of Public Administration. 



lU 



The way in which information on protected areas is managed at WCMC is described in the next 
chapter, and the structure and contents of the standard- format information sheets are outlined in 
the subsequent chapter. The directory is organised into chapters for each country. Each chapter 
comprises a description of the national protected areas system, accompanied by a summary Ust 
and map of protected areas, and is followed by descriptions of individual properties in 
alphabetical order. Geographical and taxonomic indexes enable the reader to refer quickly to 
individual properties and plant or animal species, respectively. 



Acknowledgements 



This directory has benefited from a tremendous amount of cooperation from within the South 
Asian region, highlighted in the case of the Sri Lankan authorities by the convening of a meeting 
specifically to review draft material. Many people have contributed to the preparation of the 
directory through reviewing or compiling material and providing new information. Their 
assistance is greatly appreciated. Those who spring to mind in the final hours of its preparation 
are listed below under respective country chapters. To others, whose contributions may have 
been overlooked inadvertently in the course of time, sincere apologies are due. 

Bangladesh Mr Abdul Wahab Akonda (Department of Forests- Wildlife, Government of 
Bangladesh), Mr John Blower (FAO Consultant), Mr G.S. Child (Forestry Department- Wildlife 
and Protected Area Management, FAO), Dr Zakir Hussain (Department of Forests, Government 
of Bangladesh), Mr Fazlul Karim (Society for Conservation of Nature & Environment, 
Bangladesh), Dr Md Ali Reza Khan (Al Ain Zoo and Aquarium, Abu Dhabi), Dr M Salar Khan 
(Bangladesh National Herbarium), Dr Egbert Pelinck (Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken, 
Netherlands), Mr S.A. Rahman (Department of Forests-Wildlife, Government of Bangladesh), 
Dr Sultan H Rahman (Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies), Mr Haroun Er Rashid 
(Polli Unnayan Sangstha, Bangladesh), Mr S.M. Saheed (Soil Resources Development Institute, 
Bangladesh), Mr R.E. Salter (lUCN Consultant). Particular thanks are due to Mrs M. Nazneen 
Mansur-Azim (lUCN I*rogramme Coordinator, Bangladesh) for her efforts in helping with the 
collection of information, and to Dr Monowar Hossain (Multidisciplinary Action Research 
Centre, Bangladesh) for coordinating in-country review of draft material. 

India Mr A G Oka (Department of Environment, Forests & Wildlife, Government of India), 
Mr H S Panwar (Wildlife Institute of India), Dr M.K. Ranjitsinh (Department of Environment, 
Forests & Wildlife, Government of India), Dr WA. Rodgers (Wildlife Institute of India). In 
particular, a strong link has been developed with the Environment Studies Division, Indian 
Institute of Public Administration and its database on Indian protected areas, thanks to the help 
of Dr Shekhar Singh and Mr Ashish Kothari. 

Pakistan Mr James Burt (formerly World Pheasant Association-Pakistan), Dr Abdul Aleem 
Chaudhry (Wildlife Department, Government of the Punjab), Mr Peter Conder (UK), 
Mr D.M. Corfield (formerly Asian Study Group, Islamabad), Mr Guy Duke (International 
Council for Bird Preservation), Mr W.D. Edge (Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research 
Unit, USA), Mr I.R. Grimwood (Kenya), Mr Mazhar Hussain (Capital Development 
Authority-Environment Directorate, Islamabad), Mr Al Lee (World Pheasant 



IV 



Association-Pakistan), Mrs Aban Marker Kabraji (lUCN, Pakistan), Mr Mumtaz Malik 
(formerly Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, US A), Mr Z.B. Mirza (WWF-Pakistan), 
Dr Yasin J Nasir (National Herbarium, Islamabad), Dr B.W. O'Gara (Montana Cooperative 
Wildlife Research Unit, USA), Prof G. Pilleri (Hirnanatomisches Institut, Switzerland), 
Mr Abdul Latif Rao (National Council for Conservation of Wildlife, Government of Pakistan), 
Mr Per Wegge (lUCN Consultant), Dr M. Woodford (lUCN Consultant). In particular! 
considerable assistance has been received from Mr M. Hamid Ali (National Council for 
Conservation of Wildlife, Government of Pakistan), Mr Ghulam Rasul (Wildlife Warden, 
Northern Areas and compiler of a directory entided National Parks and Equivalent Reserves in 
Northern Areas of Pakistan) and Mr T.J. Roberts (UK). 

Sri Lanka Dr K.R. Ashby (University of Durham, UK), Mr J.D.N. Banks (formerly Ceylon 
Bird Club), Dr Cyrille Barrette (University of Laval, Canada), Mr J.W Bright (US National Park 
Service, Colorado), Mr R.D.A. Burge (formerly University of Durham, UK), 
Mr S.R.B. Dissanayaka (Department of Wildlife Conservation, Government of Sri Lanka), 
Mr A.B. Fernando , Prof. I.A.U.N. Gunarilleke (University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka), 
Dr A.H.M. Jayasuriya (National Herbarium, Sri Lanka), Mr Childers Jaywardana (Department 
of Wildlife Conservation, Government of Sri Lanka), Dr R.P. Jayewardene (Natural Resources, 
Energy & Science Authority of Sri Lanka), Mr R.I.C. Kuruppu (Mahaweli Environment Project, 
Government of Sri Lanka), Ms M. J.McDermott (formerly Oxford Forestry Institute, UK), Major 
General M. Madawela (formeriy Department of Wildlife Conservation, Government of Sri 
Lanka), Mr V.R. Nanayakkara (Forest Department, Government of Sri Lanka), 
Mr A.S.A. Packeer (Mahaweli Environment Project Consultant, Government of Sri Lanka), 
Mr Sherley Perera (Department of Wildlife Conservation, Government of Sri Lanka), 
Mr S Sahajananthan (Forest Department, Government of Sri Lanka), Mr Charles 
Santiapillai (WWF-Indonesia, Bogor), Mr David Sheppard (National Parks and Wildlife 
Service, New South Wales, Australia), Mr H.D.V.S. Vattala (Department of Wildlife 
Conservation, Govemment of Sri Lanka), Mr S. Wazeer (Department of Wildlife Conservation, 
Government of Sri Lanka), Ms S.M. Wells (Consulant, UK), Dr W.L. Wemer (University of 
Heidelberg, West Germany). The timely support of Dr S.W Kotagama (Department of Wildlife 
Conservation, Govemment of Sri Lanka) and Dr N. Ishwaran (Division of Ecological Sciences, 
Unesco) in organising a workshop at which the Sri Lanka material was reviewed is particularly 
acknowledged. Special thanks are also due to Mr M.A.B. Jansen (US Mission to Sri Lanka) for 
preparing some of the Sri Lanka material, and to Mr T.W. Hoffmann (Ceylon Bird Club) for 
extensive review comments and provision of a considerable amount of published and 
unpublished documentation. 

A number of present and previous staff of PADU have been involved in the preparation of this 
directory. The first preliminary draft, presented at the 25th Working Session of the lUCN 
Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, Corbett National Park, India, 1985 was 
prepared by my predecessor Sally Ward. Other technical assistance has been provided by Harriet 
Gillett and James Paine, with secretarial support from Clare Billington and Alison Suter. 
Particular thanks are due to Jeremy Harrison, mentor and facilitor, and also Head of PADU. 
Others in WCMC who have contributed their expertise include Mike Adams, Steve Davis, Brian 
Groombridge, Tim Inskipp, Martin Jenkins, and Duncan Mackinder, and also Richard Grimmett 
and Tim Johnson from the International Council for Bird Preservation, and Derek Scott from 
the International Waterfowl and Wetiands Research Bureau. The support of our colleagues at 
lUCN headquarters is also acknowledged, notably Vitus Fernando, Jeffrey McNeely and 



James Thorsell. The final copy was prepared for publication by Jo Taylor, lUCN Publications 
Services Unit, and Alison Suter helped with proofreading. 

Funds for publishing this directory have been provided by the Norwegian Agency for 
International Development, and financial assistance towards the final preparation of the Sri 
Lanka material has been received from the World Heritage Fund. 

Not withstanding the significant contributions of those mentioned above, errors and omissions 
must remain the responsibility of the compiler. Corrections and additional material is always 
very welcome and can be sent to PADU at the address below. 

Michael J B Green 

WCMC Protected Areas Data Unit 

219(c) Huntingdon Road 

CAMBRIDGE CB3 ODL 

United Kingdom 

Tel. 0223 277314 

Fax 0223 277316 

Tlx 817036 SCMUG 



VI 



MANAGING INFORMATION ON PROTECTED 

AREAS AT WCMC 



Institutional background 

The lUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas (CNPPA) has been actively 
involved in tiie collection and dissemination of information on protected areas ever since it was 
set up in 1960 to serve as the "leading international, scientific and technical body concerned 
with the selection, estabUshment and management of national parks and other protected areas". 
Over the years CNPPA's information management role increased to the extent that in 1981 it set 
up the Protected Areas Data Unit to undertake this service. Support for this Initiative was 
forthcoming from the United Nations Environment Programme, as part of its Global 
Environmental Monitoring Programme. Originally part of the lUCN Conservation Monitoring 
Centre, PADU is now an integral part of the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, restructured 
in July 1988 as a joint venture between the three partners in the World Conservation Strategy, 
namely lUCN-The World Conservation Union, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and die 
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 

Objectives 

WCMC aims to provide accurate up-to-date information on protected area systems of the world 
for use by its partners (lUCN, WWF and UNEP) in the support and development of their 
programmes, other international bodies, governmental and non-governmental organisations, 
scientists and the general public. Such information covers the entire spectrum of protected areas, 
from national parks and sanctuaries established under protected areas legislation or customary 
regimes to forest reserves created under forestry legislation. It also includes privately-owned 
reserves in which nature is protected. 

PADU has an integral relationship with CNPPA. In particular, PADU is responsible to CNPPA 
for producing the United Nations List ofNational Parks and Protected Areas (19^2, 1985, 1990), 
which is periodically generated from its protected areas database currently totalling some 20,000 
records. This database, together with supporting documentation, includes comprehensive 
information on natiuul sites designated under international conventions and programmes, 
namely the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 
(World Heritage Convention), Convention on Wetiands of International Importance especially 
as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention), and Unesco Man and Biosphere Programme. Thus, 
PADU cooperates closely with the Division of Ecological Sciences, Unesco, in maintaining 
information on Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage Sites accorded by the MAB Secretariat 
and World Heritage Committee, respectively. Likewise, it is responsible to the Ramsar Bureau 
for managing information on Ramsar Wetiands. 



vn 



Information capture, management and compilation 

Information is collected from official sources, viz. national agencies responsible for 
administering protected areas, and other sources through a global network of contacts ranging 
in profession from policy-makers and administrators to land managers and scientists. It is also 
obtained from published and unpublished literature. Regional CNPPA meetings and other 
relevant scientific and technical meetings provide valuable opportunities for making new 
contacts and collecting fresh information. 

Information, ranging from books, reports, management plans, scientific papers, and maps, is 
stored as hard copy in manual files. Basic data on individual protected areas are extracted and, 
after verification, entered in a protected areas database. This computerised database can be used 
for generating Usts of protected areas meeting pre-defined criteria, together with summary 
statistics, as well as performing more complex tasks. In addition, boundaries of protected areas 
are gradually being digitised, using a Geographic Information System, in order to be able to 
generate computerised mapped output. The raw information is also used for compiling 
information sheets on national protected areas systems (protected areas systems information 
sheets) and on individual protected areas (protected areas information sheets). These 
information sheets are compiled according to standard formats developed over the years by 
PADU in collaboration with CNPPA, details of which are given elsewhere in this directory. 

Dissemination of information 

Compiled information is periodically published in the form of regional or thematic directories, 
with sections on individual countries comprising a protected areas system information sheet, a 
protected areas list with accompanying map, and a series of protected areas information sheets 
covering at least the more important properties. Prior to releasing or publishing documents, 
draft material is circulated for review by relevant government agencies and experts to help ensure 
that compiled information is accurate and comprehensive. Regional and thematic directories 
published to date are as follows: 

lUCN Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas (1982) 

lUCN Directory of Afrotropical Protected Areas (1987) 

MAB Information System: Biosphere Reserves: Compilation 4 (1986) 

Biosphere Reserves: Compilation 5 (1990) 

Directory of Wetlands of International Importance (1987, 1990) 

Protected Landscapes: Experience around the World (1987) 

Information is also made available to a wide range of users, including international organisations, 
governments, protected area managers, conservation organisations, commercial companies 
involved in natural resource exploitation, scientists, and the media and general public. It may 
be consulted by arrangement. Material may be prepared under contract: for example, PADU 
regularly provides UNEP with summary data on protected areas for its biennial Environmental 
Data Report. PADU is experimenting with providing outside users with direct access to its 
protected areas database. Trials have been ongoing with the US National Park Service since 
1986 and it is hoped to be able to extend this service to other users in due course. PADU is also 
able to disseminate information through the CNPPA Newsletter and Parks magazine. In the case 
of the latter, PADU has recently assumed responsibility for compiling Clipboard in which world 
news on protected areas is featured. 



vm 



INFORMATION SHEETS: 
GUIDELINES TO THEIR CONTENTS 



Information Sheets on Protected Areas Systems 



COUNTRY ^ 

- Full name of country or political unit, as used by the United Nations (1982) 

AREA 

- Area of country or political unit according to the Times Atlas of the World (^Seventh 
Edition, 1986), unless otherwise stated (with full reference). Terrestrial and marine 
components are distinguished, if appropriate. 

POPULATION 

- Population of country or political unit and its rate of natural increase according to the 
Population Reference Bureau, Washington DC, whose data are based on those of the 
United Nations Statistical Office. Year of census or estimate is indicated in parentheses. 
If another soiu-ce has to be used, it is cited. 

GNP 

- Gross national product in US dollars, with year in parentheses, of country or political unit 
according to the Population Reference Bureau. 

POLICY AND LEGISLATION 

- Information on aspects of die constitution that are relevant to protected areas 

- Details of national policies that relate to nature conservation, particularly with respect to 
the protection of ecosystems. Policies relating to environmental impact assessments and 
national/ regional conservation strategies are oudined. 

- Brief historical account of national legislation and traditions that relate to the estab- 
lishment of the protected areas system, with dates and numbers of acts, decrees and 
ordinances. Legislation covering forestry and other resource sectors is included, in so far 
as it provides for protected areas establishment. Procedures for the notification and 
declassification of protected areas are summarised. 

- Oudine of legal provisions for administering protected areas. 



1 In the case of countries with federal systems of government, a single information sheet describes 
the protected areas system at both federal and state levels, except in the case of geographically 
disjunct regions . 



IX 



- Legal definitions of national designations of protected areas, together with the names of 
the authorities legally responsible for their administration, are summarised. National 
designations are cited in the original language or transliterated, followed in brackets by 
the English translation as appropriate. Details of activities permitted or prohibited within 
each type of protected area and penalties for offences are outlined. 

- Reviews of protected areas policy and legislation are noted with deficiencies in prevailing 
provisions highlighted. 

INTERNATIONAL ACTIYITIES 

- Participation in international conventions and programmes (World Heritage and Ramsar 
conventions, MAB Programme, UNEP Regional Seas Programme) and regional agree- 
ments (African, ASEAN, Berne, FAO Latin American/Caribbean Technical Cooperation 
Network, South Asian Cooperative Environmental Programme, South Pacific, Western 
Hemisphere) relevant to habitat protection is summarised, with details of dates of 
accession or ratification etc. 

- Outiine of any cooperative programmes or transfrontier cooperative agreements relevant 
to protected areas 

ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT 

- All authorities responsible for the administration and management of protected areas are 
described, including a brief history of their establishment, administrative organisation, 
staff structure, budget and any training programmes. Authorities responsible for different 
types of protected areas are clearly distinguished. 

- Outline of the role of any advisory boards 

- Cooperative agreements between management authorities and national or foreign univer- 
sities and institutes, with details of any research underway or completed. 

- Details of non-governmental organisations concerned with potected areas, including 
reference to any national directories of voluntary conservation bodies 

- Effectiveness of protected areas management, noting levels of disturbance and threats to 
the national network. Attention is drawn to any sites registered as threatened under the 
World Heritage Convention, or by the lUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected 
Areas. 

SYSTEMS REVIEWS 

- Short account of physical features, biological resources, and land use patterns, including 
the extent and integrity of major ecosystems. (Appropriate sources of information include 
lUCN's Plants in Danger, protected areas systems reviews, and weUand and coral reef 
directories.) 

- Brief historical account of nature conservation, so far as it relates to the establishment and 
expansion of the national protected areas network. Emphasis is given to any systems 
reviews or comprehensive surveys of biological resources, with details of major recom- 
mendations arising from such studies. 

- Threats to the protected areas system beyond the control of the management agencies are 
outiined. 

OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION (optional) 

- Tourism and other economic benefits of the protected areas system, if applicable 

- Other items, as appropriate 



ADDRESSES 

- Names and addresses (with telephone, telex and FAX nos, and cable) of authorities 
responsible for administering protected areas, including the title of the post of the chief 
executive) 

- Names and addresses (with telephone, telex and FAX nos, and cable) of non-govemmental 
organisations, including the title of the post of the chief executive, actively involved in 
protected areas issues 

REFERENCES 

- Key references (including all cited works) to the protected areas system, in particular, and 
nature conservation, in general, are listed. Those not seen by the compiler are marked as 
'unseen'. 

DATE 

- Date of last extensive 'review' and the most recent 'update' 

DOCUMENT 

- Reference number of the file in which the document is held on computer. 



2 

Information Sheets on Protected Areas 



COUNTRY 

- Short name of country or political unit, as used by the United Nations (1982) 

NAME 

- The name of the property or properties (including any collective name, if applicable), as 
designated in the original language or transliterated. Where appropriate, the English 
translation is given undemeath. In the case of transliteration, standard systems are used. 

lUCN MANAGEMENT CATEGORY 

- The property is assigned to the most appropriate lUCN management category (see Annex 1) 
in collaboration with the lUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. 

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL PROVINCE 

- The biogeographical code, followed by the name of the province in brackets (after 
Udvardy, 1975) 



2 Sheets contain irtformation on individual protected areas or clusters of such properties that form 
discrete conservation units. 'No information' is entered under any heading for which no data are 
available. 



XI 



GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION 

- The general location of the property within the country, including province and/or 
administrative district, proximity to major towns and/or topographical features, and means 
and ease of access. The location of different units is described, if applicable. 

- The boundary of the property is briefly described, its relation to any significant political 
boundaries noted, and geographical coordinates are given. 

DATE AND HISTORY OF ESTABLISHMENT 

- The date of establishment, together with the act, decree or ordinance number of the original 
and subsequent legislative articles relating to its establishment Proposed extensions or 
upgradings are detailed. 

- A brief chronological history of previous designations, together with details of subsequent 
additions (including their sizes in hectares). 

- If applicable, dates of inscription as World Heritage Site, Biosphere Reserve, Ramsar 
Wetland or other appropriate international and regional designations are given. 

AREA 

- The best estimate of total area in hectares (ha), together with sizes of individually gazetted 
units, if applicable. If this differs from the total area as notified, the discrepancy is 
indicated. The extent of terrestrial and marine components is specified, if appropriate. 

- Contiguous or otherwise associated protected areas are noted and their sizes given in 
hectares (ha) in parentheses, including any lying across international borders. 

LAND TENURE 

- Land ownership (e.g. state, provincial, freehold, private, customary etc.), including sizes 
or proportions of respective areas if owned by several authorities 

ALTITUDE 

- Maximum and minium altitude in metres (m) 

PHYSICAL FEATURES 

- General description of abiotic features, covering geology, topography, geomorphology, 
soils and hydrology 

CLIMATE 

- Seasons, annual precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperatures, with respect to 
altitude if appropriate. Other outstanding climatic features are noted. 

VEGETATION 

- Main vegetation types are briefly described, including their approximate coverage and 
state of preservation. Characteristic species are noted. 

- Communities and species of particular interest, including endemic, globally threatened 
(see Annex 2), economically important and potentially economically important (e.g. crop 
relatives), and invasive or introduced species. Any nationally threatened species of direct 
relevance to management are also mentioned. 

- References to vegetation descriptions and species inventories are included in the above. 

NB Names of genera and families are based on Mabberley (1987). 



xu 



FAUNA 

- Mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish and invertebrate faunas are described in relation 
to the different habitats, with emphasis on dominant, endemic, globally threatened (see 
Annex 2), economically important, and introduced or re-introduced species of particular 
interest. Where relevant, information is given on the use certain species make of habitats 
for breeding, stopover, migration, etc. Population sizes are given in the case of key 
species, with details of trends over specified periods of time. 

- References to species inventories are included in the above. 

NB Scientific nomenclature of species is based on Honacki et al. ( 1 982) for mammals, Moroney 
et al. (1975) for birds. Frost (1985) for amphibians. Nelson (1984) for fishes and Parker (1982) 
for invertebrates. The preparation of a taxonomic reference for reptiles is being coordinated by 
The Association of Systematics Collections. 

CULTURAL HERITAGE (if relevant) 

- Archaeological features and cultural monuments 

- Ethnic groups and their traditions 

- Historical features 

LOCAL HUMAN POPULATION (if relevant) 

- Size of the human population resident, transhumant or nomadic within the property, 
together with details of the number and distribution of settlements 

- Livelihoods of local populations are briefly described in relation to any zonation of the 
property, with details of land use (e.g. numbers of livestock and amount of land under 
permanent or shifting cultivation). 

- Land use is described for the area surrounding the property, particularly as it impinges on 
the integrity of the property. 

VISITORS AND VISITOR FACILFTIES (if relevant) 

- Annual number of visitors, together with proportions of nationals and foreigners for the 
latest year. Total revenue accruing from tourism is also indicated. Significant trends over 
specified periods of time are noted. 

- Types of accommodation available on site (or nearby), with details of location and amount 
if it is particularly limited 

- Availability and location of interpretation programmes, including visitor centres, educa- 
tional facilities and museums 

- Any other recreational facilities of particular interest 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND FACILITIES 

- A brief historical account of research undertaken, together with details of ongoing studies. 
Bibliographies, if compiled, are cited. 

- Laboratories and other facilities, including accommodation, available to scientists 

CONSERVATION VALUE 

- Geological, scenic, biological, cultural and socio-economic values of the property, and 
justification for its conservation 

- In the case of World Heritage sites, all natural and cultural criteria are outlined, based on 
the lUCN evaluation of the nomination submitted to the World Heritage Committee. 



Xlll 



CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT 

- A brief history of the conservation of the property, including any reasons for its original 
establishment where these differ from its present conservation value. Any legal provisions 
specific to the protection of the property are mentioned, together with details of activities 
(e.g. hunting, fishing, grazing) specifically permitted or prohibited. 

- Administrative structure and management, including location of main facilities (e.g. 
headquarters) 

- Management objectives, as drawn up in the management plan, and their degree of 
implementation. (The existence or absence of a management plan or 'statement of 
objectives' is noted and, if appropriate, the authority responsible for its implementation.) 

- Major management activities (e.g. controlled burning, culling) 

- Any system of zonation, including function and size of zones 

- Significant training, interpretative and extension programmes 

- Recommendations, particularly those made in the management plan, for future conserva- 
tion and management of the property 

MANAGEMENT CONSTRAINTS 

- Past and current problems are briefly described, such as invasive species, poaching, fire, 
pollution, disease, agricultural encroachment, impact of tourism, relationship between 
management authorities and local people, lack of trained manpower or equipment, and 
proposed developments (e.g. roads, dams), with emphasis on the main types of threat and 
their extent. Threats from within and outside the property are distinguished. 

- If a property is registered as threatened by the lUCN Commission on National Parks and 
Protected Areas or under any national or international convention (e.g. World Heritage), 
details are provided. 

STAFF 

- Numbers of staff allocated to each position and, if applicable, details of voluntary staff 
for the latest year, with trends if significant 

BUDGET 

- Annual budget for the latest year (in parentheses) in local currency, and in US dollars for 
ease of comparison. Capital (e.g. construction of facilities) and recurrent (e.g. salaries) 
costs are distinguished. Significant trends are noted. 

- Financial support from outside sources 

LOCAL ADDRESSES 

- Names and addresses (with telephone, telex, FAX nos, and cable) of the local authorities 
responsible for the day-to-day administration and management of the property, including 
the title of the post of the chief executive (i.e. park warden or equivalent) 

- Names and addresses (with telephone, telex, FAX nos. and cable) of any local non- 
govemmental organisations directly involved in the protection and management of the 
property, including the title of the post of the chief executive 

REFERENCES 

- Key references, including management plans, rep>orts, scientific monographs, bibliog- 
raphies and handbooks, in addition to other scientific papers or popular articles and books 
specifically about the property. Particularly relevant references not available for consult- 
ation are also listed and cited as 'unseen'. 



XIV 



DATE 

- Date of last extensive 'review' and the most recent 'update' 

DOCUMENT 

- Reference number of the file in which the document is held on computer. 



REFERENCES 



Frost, D.R. Ed. (1985). Amphibian species of the world: a taxonomic and geographical 

reference. Allen Press and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas, 

USA. 735 pp. 
Honacki, J.H., Kinman, K.E. and KoeppI, J.W. (1982). Mammal species of the world: a 

taxonomic and geographic reference. Allen Press and The Association of Systematics 

Collections, Lawrence, Kansas, USA. 694 pp. 
lUCN (1984). Categories and criteria for protected areas. In: McNeely, J.A. and Miller, K.R. 

(Eds), National parks, conservation, and development. The role of protected areas in 

sustaining society. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. Pp. 47-53. 
lUCN (1988). 1988 lUCN Red List of threatened animals. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and 

Cambridge, UK. 154 pp. 
Mabberley, D.J. (1987). The plant-book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 706 pp. 
Morony, J J. Jr, Bock W.J. and Farrand Jr (1975). Reference list of the birds of the world. 

American Museum of Natural History, New York. 207 pp. 
Nelson, J.S. (1984). Fishes of the world. John Wiley, New York. 
Parker, S.P. (1982). Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 volumes. McGraw 

HUl, New York. 
Udvardy, M.D.F. (1975). A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. lUCN 

Occasional Paper No. 18, Morges, Switzerland. 48 pp. 
United Nations (1982). Names of countries and adjectives of nationality. Terminology Bulletin 

No. 327. 



XV 



ANNEX 1 
Categories and management objectives of protected areas 



I Scientific Reserve/Strict Nature Reserve: to protect nature and maintain natural pro- 
cesses in an undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative examples of the 
natural environment available for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, 
and for the maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state. 

n National Park : to protect natural and scenic areas of national or international significance 
for scientific, educational and recreational use. 

in Natural Monument/Natural Landmark: to protect and preserve nationally significant 
natural features because of their special interest or unique characteristics. 

IV Managed Nature Reserve/Wildlife Sanctuary: to assure the natural conditions necess- 
ary to protect nationally significant species, groups of species, biotic communities, or 
physical features of the environment where these require specific human manipulation for 
their perpetuation. 

V Protected Landscape or Seascape: to maintain nationally significant natural landscapes 
which are characteristic of the harmonious interaction of man and land while providing 
opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism within the normal life 
style and economic activity of these areas. 

VI Resource Reserve: to protect the natural resources of the area for future use and prevent 
or contain development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment 
of objectives which are based upon appropriate knowledge and planning. 

Vn Natural Biotic Area/ Anthropological Reserve: to allow the way of life of societies living 
in harmony with the environment to continue undisturbed by modem technology. 

Vni Multiple-Use Management Area/Managed Resource Area: to provide for the sustained 
production of water, timber, wildlife, pasture, and outdoor recreation, with the conservation of 
nature primarily oriented to the support of economic activities (although specific zones 
may also be designated within these areas to achieve specific conservation objectives). 

IX Biosphere Reserve: to conserve for present and future use the diversity and integrity of 
representative biotic communities of plants and animals within natural ecosystems, and to 
safeguard the genetic diversity of species on which their continuing evolution depends. 

X World Heritage Site: to protect the natural features for which the area is considered to 
be of World Heritage quality, and to provide information for world-wide public enlightenment. 

Abridged from lUCN (1984) 



XVI 



ANNEX 2 
lUCN Threatened species categories 



Species identified as threatened by lUCN are assigned a category indicating the degree of threat. 
Definitions are as follows: 

(Ex) Extinct: species not definitely located in the wild during the past 50 years. 

(E) Endangered: taxa in danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if causal factors 
continue operating. 

(V) Vulnerable: taxa believed likely to move into the 'Endangered' category in the near future 
if causal factors continue operating. 

(R) Rare: taxa with small world populations that are not at present 'Endangered' or 'Vulner- 
able' but are at risk. 

(I) Indeterminate: taxa known to be 'Endangered', 'Vulnerable' or 'Rare' but where there 
is insufficient information to say which of these categories is appropriate. 

(K) Insufficiently known: taxa that are suspected, but not definitely known, to belong to any 
of the above categories because of lack of information. 

(T) Threatened: threatened is a general term to denote species which are 'Endangered', 
'Vulnerable', 'Rare', 'Indeterminate' or 'Insufficiently known'. It is used to identify taxa 
comprised of several sub-taxa which have differing status categories. 

(C) Commercially Threatened: taxa not currently threatened with extinction but most or all 
of whose populations are threatened as a sustainable resource, or will become so unless 
their exploitation is regulated. 



Abridged firom lUCN (1988) 



xvu 



BANGLADESH 

Area 144,000 sq.km 

Population 114,700,000(1989) Natural Increase 2.8% per annum 

GNP US$ 160 per capita (1987) 

Policy and Legislation Environmental policy in Bangladesh is based on the following three 
broad principles: precautionary, whereby harm to the environment is avoided; originator, 
whereby the costs of ameliorating damage to the environment are borne by those responsible; 
and cooperation, whereby relevant bodies are involved in planning for environmental protection 
(Rahman, 1983). 

The need for an explicit national policy on environmental protection and management has been 
repeatedly highlighted (B ARC, 1987), and is presendy under consideration by the government. 
Objectives of such a policy will be as follows: to create, develop, maintain and improve 
conditions under which man and nature can thrive in productive and enjoyable harmony with 
each other; to fulfill the social, economic and other requirements of present and future gener- 
ations; and to ensure the attainment of an environmental quality that is conducive to a life of 
dignity and well-being (Rahman, 1983). 

Environmental impact assessment for anticipating adverse impacts has not yet been incorporated 
into the development planning process, nor is it a mandatory requirement of project-approving 
agencies. According to government policy, sanctioning agencies should ensure that project 
proposals contain adequate environmental safeguards but, in practice, this is not strictly followed 
(BARC, 1987). 

Bangladesh has completed the first phase of a national conservation strategy aimed at integrating 
conservation goals with national development objectives and overcoming identified obstacles 
to sustainable development (BARC, 1987). Some twenty sectors in the current Third Five Year 
Plan are identified for critical analysis during a second phase, including the conservation of 
genetic resources, and wildlife management and protected areas. The Bangladesh Agricultural 
Research Council, Ministry of Agriculture is the lead agency for the implementation of Phase 
II which began in October 1989. 

There is no national wildlife conservation policy. The Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) 
Order, 1973, promulgated under Presidential Order No. 23 on 27 March 1973 and subsequently 
enacted and amended in two phases as the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) 
Act, 1974, provides for the establishment of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, game reserves 
and private game reserves. A national park is defined as a comparatively large area of 
outstanding natural beauty, in which the protection of wildlife is paramount and to which the 
public may be allowed access for recreational and educational purposes. A wildlife sanctuary 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

is an area closed to hunting and maintained as an undisturbed breeding ground, primarily for the 
protection of all natural resources, including vegetation, soil and water. A game reserve is an 
area in which the wildlife is protected but hunting is allowed on a permit basis. Under Article 
23, cultivation, damage to vegetation, killing or capturing wild animals within a radius of 1 .6km 
outside its boundary, and pollution of water is not allowed in either a national park or wildlife 
sanctuary. Entry or residence, introduction of exotic or domestic species of animals and lighting 
of fires is prohibited in wildlife sanctuaries, but not national parks. By contrast, firing of guns 
or other forms of disturbance to wild animals is prohibited in national parks, but not wildlife 
sanctuaries. No specific rules are detailed for game reserves. The Article makes provision, 
however, for the Government to relax any of these prohibitions for scientific, aesthetic or other 
exceptional reasons, and to alter the boundaries of protected areas. Under Article 24, provision 
is made for the establishment of private game reserves upon application by the landowner. The 
owner of a private game reserve may exercise all the powers of an officer provided under the 
Act. Proposals are being drawn up to strengthen the existing legislation, largely through raising 
fines and terms of imprisonment for offences. 

Conservation, use and exploitation of marine resources are provided for under the Territorial 
Water and Maritime Zones Act, 1974. According to provisions in this Act, conservation zones 
may be established to protect marine resources from indiscriminate exploitation, depletion or 
destruction. At present, there is no legal provision for the management of coastal zones. 

The Forest Act, 1927 enables the government to declare any forest or waste land to be reserved 
forest or protected forest. Activities are generally prohibited in reserved forests; certain 
activities, such as removal of forest produce, may be permitted under license in protected forests 
while others, such as quarrying of stone and clearing for cultivation, may be prohibited. The 
rights of government to any land constituted as reserved forest may be assigned to village 
communities, with conditions for their management prescribed by government. Such forests 
are called village forests. Under the Forest (Amendment) Ordinance, 1989, penalties for 
offences committed within reserved and protected forests have been increased from a maximum 
of six months imprisonment and a fine of Tk 500 to five years imprisonment and a Tk 5,000 
(US$ 1,700) fine. In accordance with the National Forest Policy, adopted in 1979, effective 
measures will be taken to conserve the natural environment and wildlife resources. The Policy 
does not, however, deal explicitiy with the need to set aside special areas as protected forests, 
as distinct from productive forests, to preserve genetic diversity and maintain ecological 
processes within the context of sustainable development (BARC, 1987). 

Other environmental legislation less specifically related to protected areas is reviewed elsewhere 
(DS/ST, 1980; Rahman, 1983). 

International Activities Bangladesh is party to the Convention concerning the Protection of 
the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention) which it accepted on 
3 August 1983. No natural sites have been inscribed to date. Bangladesh participates in the 
Unesco Man and Biosphere Programme. Apart from a couple of reserved forests proposed as 
candidate sites by the Bangladesh MAB National Committee in the late 1970s, there does not 
appear to have been any significant development in recent years. A proposal to become a party 
to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat 
(Ramsar Convention) was submitted to the erstwhile Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry by 
the Forest Department and awaits approval. It is proposed to nominate the Sundarbans mangrove 



Bangladesh 

forests as a wetland of international importance, in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the 
Convention (Rahman and Akonda, 1987). 

Administration and Management Wildlife conservation, including the management of 
protected areas, is the responsibility of the Forest Directorate within the new Ministry of 
Environment and Forests formed in 1989. Previously, the Forest Directorate came under the 
Ministry of Agriculture and Forests while the former Department of Environmental Pollution 
Control, concerned largely with environmental pollution, was under the Ministry of Local 
Government and Rural development 

In 1976 a Wildlife Circle was established within what was then known as the Forest Department, 
with specific responsibility for wildlife matters under the charge of a Conservator of Forests 
responsible directiy to the Chief Conservator of Forests. A $13.3 million scheme, entitled 
"Development of Wildlife Management and Game Reserves", was incorporated within the 
country's First Five Year Plan, but reduced to $92,000 in the subsequent Two Year Approach 
Plan (Olivier, 1979). The Wildlife Circle was subsequently aboUshed in June 1983, allegedly 
in the interests of economy and following the recommendations of the Inam Commission. The 
post of Conservator of Forests (General Administration and Wildlife) remains but the incumbent 
has many other administrative duties unrelated to wildlife. Following its general down-grading 
within the Forest Department, wildlife conservation has become the theoretical responsibility 
of the various divisional forest officers (Blower, 1985; Husain, 1986). Separate staff are 
deployed for protection purposes in a number of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries (Sarker 
and FazlulHuq, 1985). 

The Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation)(Amendnient) Act, 1974 also provides for the estab- 
lishment of a Wildlife Advisory Board, which was set up in 1976 under the chairmanship of the 
Minister of Agriculture. The Board is supposed to approve important wildlife management 
decisions and directives (Olivier, 1979). Although it still exists, it does not appear to be a 
dynamic force (Blower, 1985; BARC, 1987). 

In view of the low priority accorded to protected areas, a Task Force was formed by the Ministry 
of Agriculture in 1985 to identify institutional and other measures needed to improve current 
provisions for wildlife conservation. Recommendations of the Task Force, submitted to the 
government in July 1986, await approval by the competent authority. They include a plan to 
immediately revive the erstwhile Wildlife Circle, review Phase n of the Wildlife Development 
Project and secure protection of 5% of the total land area of the country for conservation purposes 
(Rahman and Akonda, 1987). 

The principal non-governmental conservation organisations within the country are the Society 
for Conservation of Nature and Environment (SCONE), which is mainly concerned with 
environmental pollution, and the Wildlife Society of Bangladesh. Pothikrit, based in Chunati, 
and PolU Unnayan Sangstiia (POUSH), founded in 1984, are both involved in promoting the 
adoption of sound management practices in and around protected areas. Their efforts are 
presendy focussed on Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary and Teknaf Game Reserve. 

Given that wildlife resources are vested largely in reserved forests, their conservation has in the 
past been diametrically opposed to forest management practices. Few, if any, protected areas 
are effectively managed and protected. Lack of personnel trained in wildlife conservation is a 
further handicap (Olivier, 1979; Gittins and Akonda, 1982; Khan, 1985). The very low priority 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

apparently now accorded to wildlife conservation is reflected in the recent abolition of the 
Wildlife Circle, the reassignment of staff to normal duties, the lack of any separate financial 
provision within the Forest Directorate ' s budget and the now moribund Wildlife Advisory Board 
(Blower, 1985). 

Systems Reviews Some 80% of Bangladesh is lowland, comprising an alluvial plain cut by 
the three great river systems (Ganges-Padma, Brahmaputra- Jamuna and Meghna) that flow into 
the Bay of Bengal. Typically, at least one-half of the land is inundated annually, with one-tenth 
subject to severe flooding. The entire flood plain was well-vegetated, but much of the forest 
has been replaced by cultivations and plantations in recent decades due to mounting pressure 
from human populations. Here, the only extensive tract of forest remaining is the Sundarbans. 
Hills are confined chiefly to the east and south-east, notably the Chittagong Hills where forest 
cover is among the most extensive in the country. 

According to the 1987 Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, forests cover 2. 1 million hectares or 
14.7% of total land area but this represents neither the area under forest nor that under the control 
of the Forest Department (Rashid, 1989). In 1980, Gittins and Akonda (1982) estimated 
remaining natural forest to be 4,782 sq.km (3.3%) and scrub forest 9,260ha (6.5%). Actual forest 
cover is presently estimated to be 1 million hectares or 6.9% of total land area, a reduction of 
more than 50% over the past 20 years (WRVCEDE, 1990). 

The major forest types are mangrove, moist deciduous or sal Shorza robusta, restricted to the 
Madhupur Tract and northern frontier with Meghalaya, and evergreen forests found in the eastern 
districts of Sylhet, Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts. A small amount of freshwater swamp 
occupies the basins of the north-east region. 

Wetlands, variously estimated as covering between seven and eight million hectares or nearly 
50% of total land area, support a variety of wildlife, as well as being of enormous economic 
importance (Scott, 1989). 

The only known coral reef is around Jinjiradwip (St Martin's Island) in the Bay of Bengal. It is 
reputed to be a submerged reef but little is known about it (UNEP/IUCN, 1988). 

Conservation efforts began in 1966, prior to independence, when the Government of Pakistan 
invited the World Wildlife Fund to assess its wildlife resources and recommend measures to 
arrest their depletion. Two expeditions were mounted (Mountfort and Poore, 1967, 1968) and 
the severity of the situation confirmed, whereupon the Government was urged to appoint its own 
Wildlife Enquiry Committee. The committee was established in 1968 and by 1970 had drafted 
a report. That part relating to East Pakistan was published as a separate report (Government of 
East Pakistan, 1971). Considerable progress was made with the establishment of several 
protected areas (Mountfort, 1969), research undertaken on the Sundarbans tiger population of 
East Pakistan (Hendrichs, 1975), and technical input from UNDP/FAO (Grimwood, 1969). 
Then, in 1971, came the War of Liberation which inevitably disrupted subsequent progress. In 
spite of political instability, however, the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) Order was pro- 
mulgated in 1973 and an ambitious programme of wildlife management developed, followed 
by the formation of a Wildlife Circle in 1976 and further technical assistance from UNDP/FAO 
(OUvier, 1979). Economic constraints, however, have subsequently been responsible for the 
loss of much of this initiative (Blower, 1985). 



Bangladesh 

The existing system of protected areas has recently been reviewed (Green, 1989). It is not 
comprehensive, having been established with little regard to ecological and other criteria, and 
falls well below the target of 5% recommended by the erstwhile Ministry of Agriculture Task 
Force. Some effort has been made to include representative samples of the major habitats but, 
for example, marine and freshwater areas have been largely neglected (Olivier, 1979; Gittins 
and Akonda, 1982; Khan, 1985; Rahman and Akonda, 1987). Priorities to develop the present 
network of protected areas are identified in the lUCN systems review of the Indomalayan Realm 
(MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1986) and further recommendations are made in the Corbett 
Action Plan (lUCN, 1985), many of which are based on earlier recommendations by Olivier 
(1979). More recently, wetiands of conservation value have been identified (Scott, 1989). Of 
outstanding importance is the need to prepare a plan for the development of the country's 
protected areas network. 

Addresses 

Conservator of Forests (General Administration and Wildlife), Office of the Chief Conservator 

of Forests, Bana Bhawan, Gulsham Road, Monakhali, DHAKA 12 (Cable FORESTS; Tel. 

603537) 
Chief Conservator of Forests, Forest Directorate, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Bana 

Bhawan, Gulshan Road, Monakhali, DHAKA 12 (Cable FORESTS) 
Polli Unnayan Sangstha, 43 New Eskaton Road, DHAKA (Tlx 642639 OCl^J; Tel. 402801, 

406628) 
Pothikrit, CHUNATI VILLAGE, Chittagong District 
Secretary General, The Society for Conservation of Nature and Environment, 146 Shanti Nagar, 

DACCA 17 (Cable ENVIRON DHAKA; Tel. 4091 19) 
General Secretary, Wildlife Society of Bangladesh, c/o Department of Zoology, University of 

Dhaka, DHAKA 1000 

References 

BARC (1987). National conservation strategy for Bangladesh. Draft prospectus (Phase I). Ban- 
gladesh Agricultural Research Council/IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 154 pp. 
Blower, J.H. (1985). Sundarbans Forest Inventory Project, Bangladesh. Wildlife conservation in 

the Sundarbans. Project Report 151. ODA Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, 

UK. 39 pp. 
DS/ST (1980). Draft environmental profile on Bangladesh. Science and Technology Division, 

Library of Congress. Washington, DC. 98 pp. 
Gittins, S.P. and Akonda, A W. (1982). What survives in Bangladesh? Oryx 16: 275-281. 
Government of East Pakistan (1971). Report of the Technical Sub-committee for East Pakistan 

of the Wildlife Enquiry Committee. Dacca. 
Green, M J.B. (1989). Bangladesh: an overview of its protected areas system. World Conservation 

Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK. 63 pp. 
Grimwood, I.R. (1969). WildUfe Conservation in Pakistan. Pakistan National Forestry Research 

andTraining Project RtpoitNo.n. FAQ, Rome. 31pp. 
Hendrichs, H. (1975). The status of the tiger Panthera tigris (Linne, 1758) in the Sundarbans 

mangrove forest (Bay of Bengal). Saugetierkundliche Mitteilungen lli: 161-199. 
Husain, K.Z. (1986). Wildlife study, research and conservation in Bangladesh. Eleventh .Annual 

Bangladesh Science Cortference Section 2: 1-32. 
lUCN (1985). The Corbett Action Plan for protected areas of the Indomalayan Realm. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 23 pp. 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 




Protected areas of Bangladesh 

Numbers correspond to those in the summary. 



Bangladesh 



Summary of Protected Areas of Bangladesh 



National designation 

Name of area and map reference 

National Parks 

1 Bhawal* 

2 Himchari* 

3 Madhupur* 

4 Ramsagar* 

Subtotal (% total land area) 



Wildlife Sanctuaries 

5 Char Kukri-Mukri* 

6 Chunati* 

7 Pablakhali* 

8 Rema-Kalenga* 

9 Sundarbans East* 

10 Sundarbans South* 

1 1 Sundarbans West* 



lUCN Management 
category 



V 

Unassigned 

V 

Unassigned 



Area 

(ha) 



5,022 
1,729 
8,436 

52 

15^39 



Year 
notified 



1982 
1980 
1982 
1974 

(0.1%) 



IV 


40 


1981 


IV 


7,764 


1986 


rv 


42,087 


1983 


IV 


1,095 


1981 


rv 


5,439 


1977 


rv 


17,878 


1977 


IV 


9,069 


1977 



Subtotal (% total land area) 

Game Reserves 

12 Teknaf* 

Subtotal (% total land area) 

Proposed 

13 HaUHaor Wildlife Sanctuary* 

14 Hazarikhil WUdlife Sanctuary* 

15 Rampahar-Sitapahar Wildlife Sanctuary* 

TOTALS 

Existing areas (% total land area) 

Proposed areas (% total land area) 



83^69 



(0.6%) 



vm 


11,615 


1983 




11,615 


(0.1%) 


Proposed 
Proposed 
Proposed 


1,427 
2,903 
3,026 






110,226 


(0.8%) 




7356 


(0.1%) 



Locations of protected areas are shown in the accompanying map. 
* Site is described in this directory. 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Khan, M.A.R. (1985). Inuturc conservation directions for Bangladesh. In: Thorsell, J.W. (Ed.), 

Conserving Asia' s natural heritage. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 114-122. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. (1986). Review of the protected areas system in the Indo- 

Malayan Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 284 pp. 
Mountfort, G. (1969). Pakistan's progress. Oryx 10: 39-43. 
Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1967). The conservation of wildlife in Pakistan. World Wildlife 

Fund, Morges, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 27 pp. 
Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1968). Report on the Second World Wildlife Fund Expedition to 

Pakistan. World Wildlife Fund, Morges, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 25 pp. 
Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO 

Project No. BGD/72/(X)5. Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. 121pp. 
Rahman, S. (1983). Country monograph on institutional and legislative framework on environment, 

Bangladesh. UN/ESCAP and Government of Bangladesh. 76 pp. 
Rahman, S.A. and Akonda, A.W. (1987). Bangladesh national conservation strategy: wildlife and 

protected areas. DepartmentofFoiestry, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Dhaka. Unpub- 
lished report. 33 pp. 
Rashid, H. Er (1989). Land use in Bangladesh: seleaed topics. Bangladesh Agriculture Sector 

Review. UNDP Project No. BGD/87/023. Pp. 106-155. 
Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Protected areas of Bangladesh. In: Thorsell, J.W. 

(Ed.), Conserving Asia's natural heritage. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 36-38. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
UNEP/IUCN (1988). Coral reefs of the world. Volume 2: Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf UNEP 

Regional Seas Directories and Bibliographies. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambidge, 

UKAJNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 389 pp. 
WRI/CIDE (1990). Bangladesh environment and natural resource assessment. Draft for review. 

World Resources Institute/Centre for International Development and Environment, Washington 

DC. 86 pp. 



Date July 1984, updated August 1990 



Bangladesh 



BHAWAL NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category V (Protected Landscape) 

Biogeographical Province 4.03.01 (Bengalian Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies in Dhaka Forest Division, about 40km north of the capital city 
of Dhaka, fh)m where it is easily accessible throughout the year by road. 24°01 'N, 90°20'E 

Date and History of Establishment Established and maintained as a national park since 1974 
but not officially declared as such until 1982, under the Bangladesh WildUfe (Preservation) 
(Amendment) Act, 1974. 

Area 5,022ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Up to 4.5m 

Physical Features The topography is characterised by low hills which rise 3.0-4.5m above the 
surrounding paddy fields. These hills or ridges, locally known as 'chalas', are intersected by 
numerous depressions or 'baids'. The soil is yeUow-red, comprising sandy clay mixed with 
magniferous iron ores. 

Climate Conditions are moderate, the coldest and hottest months being January (down to 10°C) 
and April (up to 37*C), respectively. The cold season lasts from November to January. Mean 
annual rainfall is 2500mm, most of which falls in the monsoon between June and September. 

Vegetation Most of the original sal Shorea robusta forest has been destroyed. It has been 
protected from further destruction and now, due to extensive regeneration, coppiced and seedling 
sal covers 90% of the area (Womersley, 1979; Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Fauna Mammal diversity is low. Species include fox Vulpes bengalensis, jackal Canis aureus, 
small Indian civet Viverricula indica, wild boar Sus scrofa and black-naped hare Lepus 
nigricollis. The avifauna is siimlar to that found in Madhupur National Park (Sarker and Fazlul 
Huq, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Some 2,0(X) people reside and cultivate land in the national park. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Public usage is intense, with 25,(XX) visitors recorded at 
weekends (Womersley, 1979). Accommodation includes four rest houses and two cottages. 
Recreational and educational facilities include some 25km of trails, an artificial lake, two ponds 
and two observation towers. 



lUCN Directory trfSoulk Asian Protected Areas 

Scientific Research and Facilities A wildlife survey was earned out by the Forest Directorate 
in 1981 (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Conservation Value Bhawal is not an important wildlife conservation area but, being close to 
a large urban centre, it is valued for recreational purposes (Olivier, 1979). 

Conservation Management Recreational and educational facilities were improved and de- 
veloped under the management of the Forest Department, but plans were subsequendy discon- 
tinued. Forestry operations are limited to re-forestation of damaged areas (Olivier, 1979; 
Womersley, 1979; Saricer and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Management Constraints The original forest vegetation has been removed and wildlife 
severely depleted. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO Project 

BGD/72AX)5. FAO, Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. 121 pp. 
Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife 

sanctuaries and game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Working Session of lUCN's 

Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 

1985. 5 pp. 
Womersley, JJS. (1979). Botanic Garden Dacca, commercial horticidtural forest botany and 

nationalparks. UNDP/FAO Project BGD/72/005. FAO, Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. 

71pp. 

Date May 1987, updated August 1990 



CHAR KUKRI-MUKRI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.03.01 (Bengalian Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies on Char Kukri-Mukri Island, in southern Charfession Upazilla, 
Bola District, some 130km from Barisal Town in the Gangetic E>elta of southem Bangladesh. 
21*55'N,90*38'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1981 under the Ban- 
gladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974. Also referred to as Charfession 
Wildlife Sanctuary. 



10 



Bangladesh 

Area 40ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude No information 

Physical Features Char Kukri-Mukri, lying in the outer Gangetic Delta, is a small low-lying 
island (2,500ha) with extensive mudflats. At high tide much of it is under water, apart ftom 
agricultural land. The sanctuary is dissected by small khals or creeks (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 
1985; Scott, 1989). 

Climate Rainfall is heavy and humidity high due to the influence of the Bay of Bengal. Mean 
annual rainfall is likely to be in the region of 2790mm, with 80% falling in the monsoon from 
June to September, as recorded on the Sundarbans coast (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). 

Vegetation Comprises mangrove forest. Patches of hogla Typha elephantina and horgoja 
Acanthus illicifolius occur in places; keora Sonneretia apetala is widespread; and khalisha 
Aegiceras mains is also present A thick growth of the small spiny 'tamfiilkanta' tree covers 
much of the sanctuary (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Fauna Common mammals include fishing cat Felis viverrina and Oriental smaU-clawed otter 
Aonyx cinerea. More than eight species of heron breed in the sanctuary. Other waterfowl 
include egrets, bitterns and grey pelican Pelecanus philippensis. All three monitor species 
known for Bangladesh are reported from this sanctuary, Varanus salvator, V. bengalensis and 
V. flavescens (Saricer and Fazlul Huq, 1983). Further details of the waterfowl are given by Scott 
(1989). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The sanctuary is not inhabited but the south-west of the island is 
setded and plantations cover 1 ,500ha. Much of the surrounding land has been cultivated (Sarker 
and Fazlul Huq, 1985; Scott, 1989). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Some preliminary floral and faunal surveys have been 
undertaken (Scott, 1989). 

Conservation Value Char Kukri-Mukri is an important wetland site (Scott, 1989). 

Conservation Management The best area of mangrove forest in the island is included within 
the wildlife sanctuary. No forestry activities are carried out in the mangroves apart for the 
purpose of conserving wildlife populations (Scott, 1989). 

Management Constraints No information 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 



11 



WCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Local Addresses No information 

References 

Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife 

sanctuaries and game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Working Session of lUQ^'s 

Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 

1985. 5 pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Seidensticker , J. and Hai, M. A. ( 1983). The Sundarbans Wildlife Management Plan: conservation 

in the Bangladesh coastal zone. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 120 pp. 

Date May 1987, updated August 1990 



CHUNATI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.04.01 (Burman Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies about 70km south of Chittagong Port, Chittagong and Cox's 
Bazaar districts. The eastern boundary is formed by the Chittagong- 

Cox's Bazaar Highway. 22-08 '-22*53 'N, 9r58'-92'05'E 

Date and History of Establishment Formerly part of the reserved forests of Chittagong Forest 
Division, the area was designated a wildlife sanctuary on 8 March 1986 (Notification No. 
XII/For-I/84/174). 

Area 7,763.97ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Up to 90m 

Physical Features The sanctuary is bisected along its north-south axis by a range of hills, some 
60-90m high. Spurs projecting from this range are separated by deep ravines. The area is drained 
by four major streams. 

Climate No information 

Vegetation The area used to support subtropical semi-evergreen forest, dominated by garjan 
Dipterocarpiis spp. Associates were ratkan Lophopetalum spp., jam Syziiun spp., uriam Man- 
gifera spp., chapalish Artocarpiis spp., simul Salmalva spp., korai Albizia spp. and toon Cedrela 
spp. Bamboos and grasses were profuse. Much of the original vegetation has been heavily 
disturbed through commercial exploitation, illegal felling and encroachment (Jalil, n.d.). 



12 



Bangladesh 

Fauna Wildlife populations arc depleted due to heavy disturbance to the habitat. Some 26 
species of mammals are reportedly present, including rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta, common 
langoT Presbytis entellus, Hoolock gibbon Hylobates hoolock (V), dhole Cuon alpinus (V), fox 
Vulpes bengalensis, leopard Panthera pardus (T), tiger P. tigris (E), Indian elephant Elephas 
maximus (E), Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak and sambar Cervus unicolor (Ahmed, n.d.). 
A resident herd of 15 to 30 elephant is present, as well as a dozen of the nationally rare serow 
Ccpricornis sumatraensis. Tiger Panthera tigris (E), last recorded in 1983, may also be present 
(lUCN, 1990). 

Some 40 species of birds have been recorded, including a variety of birds of prey, pheasants and 
fish-eating species (Ahmed, n.d.). 

Cultural Heritage 'Chuna' means chosen and, according to legend, Chunati was chosen by 
members of Shah Shuja's caravan who remained in the area while the Prince continued his 
journey to Arakan to flee from his brother, Aurangzeb. The history of the region has since been 
recorded in Persian by scholars from the region (Rahman, 1989). 

Local Human Population Surrounding areas are settied. About 500 households distributed 
among 10-12 villages depend on the sanctuary's wood resources as a source of income (lUCN, 
1990). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities A preliminary inventory of the mammals and birds has 
been compiled (Ahmed, n.d.). 

Conservation Value Chunati lies at the northern edge of one of the most dense tropical rain 
forests in Bangladesh. It supports a rich flora and fauna and its diminishing resources are vital 
for tiie poor and landless (Rahman, 1989; lUCN, 1990). 

Conservation Management A citizens committee, known as Pothikrit, was responsible for 
persuading the government to declare the area a wildlife sanctuary. Since then, Pothikrit has 
been raising the level of awareness among the poor and landless farmers about the need to 
conserve forest resources. For example, poor people dependent on the sanctuary's wood 
resources have been engaged in forestry activities in peripheral areas to plant and raise trees. In 
time, this may ease pressure on the sanctuary and adjacent forests (Anon., 1990; lUCN, 1990). 

Chunati has not been subject to any management regime since its inception. Plans have been 
drawn up, however, to restore the sanctuary to its original condition but await sanctioning. 
Priorities include die provision of adequate staffing and quarters, development of pastures and 
waterholes for wildlife, and construction of visitor facilities (JaUl, n.d.). 

Management Constraints Encroachment has been a persistent problem in and around the 
sanctuary. The forest has been cleared for cultivation by wealthy land-owners. Timber and 
firewood resources have been legally and illegally extracted for many years, this being the major 
cause of depletion and loss of wildlife habitat. Timber traders represent a strong vested-interest 
group and are located near the sanctuary. Impoverished fuelwood gatherers have also tradition- 
ally depended on the resources of the sanctuary, as it represents their major source of income, 
particularly outside the agricultural season. In addition, wildlife is under constant threat fiom 



13 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

chronic hunting and poaching. The Forest Department has so far proved to be ineffective in 
arresting deforestation and the decline of wildlife within the sanctuary and, at present, there is 
no management plan. Unless new management measures are implemented soon, it is anticipated 
that the sanctuary will be destroyed within 15 years. These constraints are addressed in a project 
proposed by lUCN (1990) to assess the forest resources in Chunati and the dependence of the 
local people on them, and to prepare a management plan. 

Staff Presently staffed by one honorary wildlife warden but one assistant conservator of forests, 
one forest ranger, one forester, forest guards and honorary wildlife wardens are proposed 
(Jalil, n.d.). 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Divisional Forest Officer, Chittagong Forest Division 

References 

Ahmed, M. (n.d.). Introducing the Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary. Forest Research Institute, 
Chittagong. Unpublished report. 6 pp. 

Anon. (1990). Participatory forestry. Bangladesh Environmental Newsletter 1(1): 5. 

lUCN (1990). Applied research and management plan for Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary, Chitta- 
gong. Bangladesh. Project Proposal. 8 pp. 

Jalil, S.M. (n.d.). Chunati Game Sanctuary. Chittagong Forest Division. Unpublished report. 4 pp. 

Rahman, S.H. (1989). About Pothikrit and Chunati. Unpublished paper presented at the 
Seminar on Forest Resoiu-ces Management, Chittagong, February 1989. 4 pp. 

Date July 1989, updated August 1990 



HAIL HAOR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category Proposed 

Biogeographical Province 4.09.04 (Burma Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Hail Haor, a wetland, lies 3km north-west of Srimangal and 14km 
south-west of Moulavi Bazar in Moulavi Bazar District, Sylhet. 24°18'-24'26'N, 9r38'- 
91*45'E 

Date and History of Establishment No existing conservation status 

Area An area of l,427ha is proposed for designation as a wildlife sanctuary. The area of the 
wetland varies from a minimum of 3,643ha in the dry season to a maximum of 8,906ha in the 
rainy season. 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude c. Sm 



14 



1 



Bangladesh 

Physical Features Comprises a large shallow lake in a saucer-shaped depression, bounded in 
the south, east and west by low hills and in the north by the plains of the Manu and Kushiaia 
rivers. The haor is almost encircled by a chain of tea estates and natural forest blocks. Gopla 
River flows through the wetland in a north- south direction. The lake floods during the rainy 
season to a maximum depth of 3m, and almost dries up during the dry season. Land exposed 
as the water level recedes is converted to rice paddies. Much of the lake's surface is overgrown 
with lotus and water hyacinth. 

Climate Conditions are subtropical monsoonal, with a mean annual rainfall of approximately 
4000mm. Temperatures at Srimangal normally vary between a maximum of 32.8°C and a 
minimum of 9.0° C. 

Vegetation The aquatic vegetation includes Typha elephantina, Trapa bispinosa, Nelumbo 
nucifera, Hygrorhiza aristata, Eichhornia crassipes and species of Utricularia, Ceratophyllum, 
Vallisneria, Hydrilla, Najas, Potamogeton, f^ymphoides, Pistia, Lemna and Azolla. Plant 
communities in adjacent areas include Bambusa spp., Musa spp., Mangifera indica, Erythrira 
spp. and Crataeva nurvula. 

Fauna In the 1960s, it was estimated that some 100,000 lesser whistling duck Dendrocygna 
javanica, 1,000 fulvous whisding duck D.bicolor and 40,000-50,000 migratory ducks fre- 
quented the lake in early winter. In recent years, however, the number of Anatidae visiting the 
lake has decreased dramatically, although there may still be 1 0,000- 1 5 ,000 ducks present in late 
November and even larger numbers in late February and March. Lesser whistling duck and 
cotton pygmy goose Nettapus coromandelianus are common residents, breeding at small lakes 
and ponds throughout the region and congregating in large numbers at Hail Haor during the cold 
season. Fulvous whisding duck is a cold season visitor, usually arriving in January and 
sometimes in very large numbers. Much the commonest migrant ducks are garganey Anas 
querquedula, northern pintail A. acuta, and northern shoveler A. clypeata, although common 
teal A. crecca and pochard Aythya nyroca sometimes occur in large numbers. Gadwall Anas 
strepera, spotbill duck A. poecilorhyncha and tufted duck Aythya fuligula are regular visitors in 
small numbers. Bar-headed goose Anser indicus was formerly a regular winter visitor to the 
area, but now occurs only as an occasional passage migrant in flocks of up to 40 birds. Greylag 
goose Anser anser, ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea, comb duck Sarkidiornis melanotos, 
teal Anasfalcata, mallard A . platyrhynchos, red-crested pochard Netta rufina, common pochard 
Aythya ferina and Baer's pochard A. baeri have been recorded as rare visitors. Hail Haor is also 
important for many other species of waterfowl such as little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, litUe 
cormorant Phalacrocorax niger, Indian pond heron Ardeola grayii, cattie egret Bubidcus ibis, 
little egret Egretta garzetta, intermediate egret E. intermedia, great egret E. alba, water cock 
Gallicrex cinerea, moorhen Gallinula chloropus, purple swamphen Porphyria porphyria, 
common coot Fulica atra, pheasant-tailed jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus, bronze-winged 
jacana Metopidius indicus, painted snipe Rostratula benghalensis, red-wattied lapwing Vanellus 
indicus, a wide variety of migratory shorebirds, and whiskered tern Chlidonias hybrida. 
Open-bill stork Anastomus oscitans is a regular visitor, and the rare Goliath heron Ardea goliath 
and Blyth's kingfisher Alcedo hercules have been recorded. Birds of prey include osprey 
Pandion haliaetus, Eurasian marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus and pied harrier C. melanoleucos. 

Other wildlife known to occur in the area includes a variety of snakes, monitor lizards, freshwater 
turtles, tortoises and frogs. Fishes include Catla catla, Labeo rohita, L. calbasu, L. gonius, 
Cirrhina mrigala, Barbus spp., Wallago attu, Mystus tengra, M. aor, Oampokpabda, Gadusia 



15 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



chapra, Clupea spp., Notoptenis notopterus, Clarius batrachus, Heteropnuestesfossilis, Chan- 
na spp., Anabas testudineus and Colisafasciota. Freshwater shrimps of the genus Macrobra- 
chium are common. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Fishing is the principal activity, but this is declining due to large 
portions of the lake basin being leased to local people for cultivation. During the dry season, 
aquatic vegetation is collected for the preparation of compost There is also a considerable 
amount of legal and illegal hunting at the lake. Surrounding areas are under cultivation, mainly 
for rice. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Some research has been carried out on the waterfowl 
populations, notably a study by the Forest Department in 1980 and a survey by scientists from 
the Bangladesh Zoological Society in 1985. Mashu Kabir made regular observations of the 
Anatidae between 1973 and 1987. Botanical studies have also been carried out 

Conservation Value Hail Haor is one of the most important wetlands in the Sylhet Basin for 
both resident and migratory waterfowl. The lake is particularly important as a refuge in periods 
of drought, when many other wetlands in the area dry out completely. 

Conservation Management The Forest Department has established a centre for the protection 
of waterfowl from illegal hunting and trapping. 

Management Constraints The level of the wedand is rising as a result of increased siltation 
caused by soil erosion in the water catchment area, and large areas of the lake basin are being 
converted to agricultural land. There is considerable disturbance to waterfowl populations from 
hunting, fishing and agricultural activities throughout the year. Very heavy huiiting pressure on 
both resident and migratory species of waterfowl reportedly occurred in the winter of 1984/85. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directiy from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, S witzeriand and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date March 1989, updated August 1990 



16 



Bangladesh 



HAZARIKHIL WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category Proposed 

Biogeographical Province 4.04.01 (Burman Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies in the Ramgarh-Sitakunda forests, 45km north of Chittagong 
Port in south-east Bangladesh. 9r40'E, 22°40'N 

Date and History of Establishment Proposed as a wildlife sanctuary in 1967. Maintained 
since the mid-1970s by the Forest Directorate. 

Area 2,903ha. According to a report by the Divisional Forest Officer, the proposed area is 
2,033ha (OUvier, 1979). 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Mean altitude is 350m. 

Physical Features The terrain is irregular, comprising ridges from which numerous spurs 
protrude in various directions. Soils vary from clay to clay-loam on level ground, and from 
sandy loam to coarse sand on the hills. The sandy soil is often impregnated with iron. 

Climate Conditions are moist tropical. Mean annual rainfall is 3000mm, falling mainly 
between June and September (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Vegetation Comprises evergreen and semi-evergreen forests. Predominant tree species are 
Dipterocarpus spp., Artocarpus chaplasha, Tetrameles nudiflora, Cedrela toona, Mesuaferrea, 
Eugenia spp., Ficus spp. ds\AAlbiziaprocera. The undergrowth is dominated by bamboos and 
Eupatorium odoratum (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Fauna Mammals known to be present include rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta, capped langur 
Presbytis pileata, dhole Cuon alpinus (V), sloth bear Melursus ur sinus (I), wild boar Sus scrofa 
and Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). Hoolock gibbon 
Hylobates hoolock (V), leopard Panther a pardus (T), and Phayre's leaf monkey Presbytis 
phayrei may also be present (Olivier, 1979), as may sambar Cervus unicolor (S.M. Saheed, pers. 
comm., 1989). Indian python Python molurus (V) is reported to be present but low in number 
(Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 



17 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Scientific Research and Facilities Limited census of the wildlife has been undertaken (Olivier, 
1979). 

Conservation Value The area is reportedly rich in wildlife (Olivier, 1979). 

Conservation Management Though not yet notified a wildlife sanctuary, forestry operations 
have been suspended (SarkerandFazlul Huq, 1985) and some 12km of the boundary demarcated 
(OUvier, 1979). 

Management Constraints No information 

Staff Quarters for staff have been constructed (Olivier, 1979) but the present level of staffing 
is not known. 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO Project 

BGD/72/005. FAO, Forest Research Instimte, Chittagong. 121 pp. 
Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife 

sanctuaries and game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Working Session of lUCN 's 

Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 

1985. 5 pp. 

Date May 1987, updated August 1990 



HIMCHARI NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.04.01 (Burman Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies 1.5km to the south of Cox's Bazar township in the Chittagong 
Hill Tracts. Forms part of Cox's Bazaar Peninsular Reserved Forest 2r22'N, 92*02'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a national park in 1980 under the Bangladesh 
Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974. Previously established as a reserved forest 
under the Forest Act, 1927 and subsequently declared a game reserve, with an area of 2,331 ha. 

Area l,729ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude No information 



18 



Bangladesh 

Physical Features The terrain is iiregular with steep-sided hills aligned in a north-to-south 
direction, and bounded on the west by the Bay of Bengal. Soils comprise clay loams and loams 
on hills, and sands along beaches. 

Climate Conditions are moist, himiid and maritime, with little temperature variation. Rainfall 
is high, falling mainly between May and October. 

Vegetation Characteristically comprises tropical semi-evergreen forest, which is dense and 
multi-storeyed. Deciduous trees predominate in the upper canopy, common species including 
Albizia procera, Artocarpus chaplasha, Salmalia malabarica and Sterculia alata. The 
sub-canopy is dominated by a great variety of evergreeo species including Quercus, Castanopsis, 
Eugenia, Lannea, Lagerstroemia and Amoora spp. The undergrowth consists mainly of bamboo 
(Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Fauna Mammals include gibbon Hylobates hoolock (V), capped langur Presbytis pileatus, 
rhesus macaque Macaco mulatta, IcopaidPantherapardus (T), dhole Cuon alpinus (V), leopard 
cat Felis bengalensis, jungle cat F. chaus, fishing cat F. viverrina, sloth bear Melursus ursinus 
(I), elephant Elephas maximus (E), Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak and wild boar Sus scrofa 
(Sarker and Fazlul Hug, 1985). Hog-badger /4rcto/i)a collaris and pangolin Mams sp. may also 
be present (S.M. Saheed, pers. comm., 1989). There are many species of birds. The reptile 
fauna is rich and includes Indian python Python molurus (V) (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value Limited due to the poor quality of the habitat and its isolation (Olivier, 
1979). 

Conservation Management Blocks 34, 35 and 37 (totalling 2,331 ha) were originally recom- 
mended as a 'Class A' national park (Government of East Pakistan, 1971). In the event. Blocks 
35 and 37, which still contained commercially valuable forest, were rejected in favour of Blocks 
30, 32 and 33, which consisted of poor-stature, partiaUy-logged, semi-swamp forest whose 
further exploitation had been abandoned. Thus, not only does the area afford poor habitat for 
wildlife, but it is isolated from all other forests within the division (Oliver, 1 979). A development 
scheme prepared for the park and to be executed by the Divisional Forest Officer has not yet 
been approved (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Management Constraints The park is encroached by hundreds of villagers entering daily to 
cut timber (Rashid, 1990). 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Divisional Forest Officer, Cox's Bazaar Forest Division 



19 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



References 



Government of East Pakistan (1971). Report of the Technical Sub- committee for East Pakistan 

of the Wildlife Enquiry Committee. Dacca. 
Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO Project 

BGD/72/(X)5. FAO, Forest Research Institute, Oiittagong. 121 pp. 
Rashid, H. Er (1990). Note on an environmental study visit to Cox's Bazar in February 1990. 

Unpublished report. Polli Unnayan Sangstha, Dhaka. 5 pp. 
Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife 

sanctuaries and game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Woriting Session of lUCN's 

Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 

1985. 5 pp. 

Date May 1987, updated August 1990 



MADHUPUR NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category V (Protected Landscape) 

Biogeographical Province 4.03.01 (Bengalian Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Situated in the Madhupur tract (Mymensingh Forest Division), some 
1 60km north of the capital city of Dhaka and 32km south-west of Mymensingh Town. The park 
is bounded by the Mymensingh-Tangail road to the south-east, forest to the north-west and by 
agricultural land and settlements on other sides. It is easily accessible throughout the year and 
is bisected by an 8km-long semi-metalled road from Rasulphur to Dokhola. 24"'45'N, 90°05'E 

Date and History of Establishment First established as a national park in 1962 but not 
officially declared as such until 1982, under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amend- 
ment) Act, 1974. Received special protection as a vested forest in 1959 under the provisions of 
the East Pakistan Private Forest Ordinance, 1959. 

Area 8,436ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Rises up to 15m above sea level. 

Physical Features The local topography is characterised by flat topped ridges, known locally 
as 'chalas', intersected by numerous depressions or 'baids'. Two small rivers, Banar and 
Bangshi, flow through the eastern and western portions of the park, respectively. Soils are 
mostly pale brown to yellow-red (acidic) clay-loams to clays on 'chalas' and grey, silty 
clay-loams to clays in valleys. 

Climate Conditions are moderate, with April the hottest month (maximum of 37*C) and 
January the coldest (minimum of 10*C). The cold season lasts from November to February. 
Mean annual rainfall is 2500mm, most of which falls between June and September. 



20 



Bangladesh 

Vegetation Some 40% of the forest cover comprises sal Shorea robusta in association with 
Dillema pentagyna, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Adina cardifolia, Miliusa velutina, Lannea 
grandis, Albizia spp., Bauhinia variegata, Spondias mangifera, Buteafrondosa andBarringto- 
nia acutangula. Species commonly occurring in the undergrowth include Eupatoriwn odora- 
twn, Pennisetum setosum. Asparagus racemosus and Rauwolfia serpentina (Saricer and Fazlul 
Huq, 1985). Some areas are planted with Tectona grandis. Cassia siamea, Morus spp., 
Temdnalia arjuna, Syzygium cumini and Lagerstroemia speciosa. A total of 149 tree species 
has been recorded (Akonda et al., 1989). 

Fauna The area used to be rich in wildlife, but Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis (E) 
disappeared in the last century and, more recendy, tiger Panthera tigris (E), leopard Panthera 
pardus (T), elephant Elephas maximus (E), aU species of deer native to Bangladesh, wild buffalo 
Bubalus bubalis (E), and peafowl Pavo sp. have become locally extirpated (Reza Khan, 1985). 
Characteristic mammal species still remaining include rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta, capped 
IsMgarPresbytispileatus (V) (formerly one of the densest populations surviving in Bangladesh), 
jackal Canis aureus, fox Vulpes bengalensis, small Indian civet Viverricula indica, wild boar 
Sus scrofa, Irrawaddy squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus, porcupine Hystrix indica and black- 
naped hare Lepus nigricollis (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985; Khan, 1985). The capped langur 
population is thought to have declined in recent years - 548 individuals were counted in 1986 
(Akonda et al., 1989). Species inventories of 21 mammals and 29 reptiles have been compiled 
by Akonda et al. (1989). Clouded leopard Neofelis nebulosa (V) and Indian python Python 
molurus (V) may also be present (S.M. Saheed, pers. comm., 1989). 

Some 140 species of birds were recorded in 1974-1975 by Hossain and Hoque (cited in Akonda 
etal., 1989), of which 116 are residents and 24 migrants. According to Khan (1985), about 200 
species are present. - 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Some 4,500 Garos (tribals) were allowed to settle inside the park 
(Mountfort and Poore, 1968) but about 850 families have been resettled (Womersely, 1979). In 
1989 there were some 14,000 Garos within the paik,plus additional numbers of Bengalis. Rice 
is grown in low-lying areas, and pineapples and cassava on higher ground for commercial 
consumption. The surrounding area is densely populated (Green, 1989). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There are three rest houses and a youth hostel providing 
overnight accommodation. Seven picnic spots have been provided by the Forest Directorate. 
The zoo is in a poor state. Visitor use is high, with many bus loads of holiday makers appearing 
on pubUc holidays (OUvier, 1979; Womersley, 1979; Green, 1989). 

Scientifle Research and Facilities A wildlife survey was carried out by the Forest Directorate 
in 1981 (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). The capped langur population has been censused at 
various times, latterly in 1986 (Akonda et al, 1989), and a preliminary ecological study 
undertaken (Stanford, 1989). 

Conservation Value Madhupur features and best remaining patch of sal forest in Bangladesh 
(Khan, 1985). It is also important for its capped langur population (Akonda et al., 1989) 



21 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Conservation Management The forests of Madhupur were formerly rich in wildlife and were 
a favourite tiger-hunting area (Olivier, 1979). By 1967, however, the area had lost much of its 
value for wildlife, owing to considerable disturbance, but its potential for recreation and 
education was recognised (Mountfort and Poorc, 1968). Subsequently, it was recommended 
that Madhupur be established as a 'Class B' national park to provide "recreational and 
educational interest for the youth and people of urban areas" (Government of East Pakistan, 
1971). In 1974-75 a programme was initiated to preserve the wildlife and to provide recreational 
and educational facilities for the local people and other visitors. With the establishment of the 
national park, all flat areas suitable for growing paddy were excised and 850 families of Garos 
were resettied (Womersley, 1979). 

Trees have been planted in disturbed areas and an artificial lake created for migratory waterfowl 
(Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). Madhupur warrants conservation priority over other areas of 
sal forest It needs to be enlarged and brought under an effective wildlife management regime 
(Khan, 1985). 

Management Constraints Management has always been problematic due to the large number 
of Garos settied in the park. Only about 1 ,300ha is under effective management, the rest of the 
park is in the hands of the Garos. The situation may improve with the recent tightening of the 
forestry legislation, with much heavier penalties for illicit felling. Also, initiatives are underway 
to enable local people to benefit from the paric's resources (Green, 1989). 

Staff A total of 60 staff, including two range officers and one deputy ranger, administers the 
three ranges (Headquarters, Dokhola and Arankhola). 

Budget Tk 12 lakh (US$ 40,000) is budgeted for staffing tiie three ranges (1989). 

Local Addresses Officer-in-Charge, Madhupur National Park Headquarters, P.O. Gobtali, 
District Mymensingh 

References 

Akonda, A.W., Rashid, S.M.A. and Stanford, C.B. (1989). Capped langur {Presbytis piteatus) in 
the Madhupur National Park. In: Karim, G.M.M.E., Akonda, A.W. and Sewitz, P. (Eds), 
Conservation of wildlife in Bangladesh. German Cultural Institute/Forest Department/Dhaka 
University/WildlifeSocietyofBangladeshAJnesco, Dhaka. Pp. 169-176. 

Government of East Pakistan (1971). Report of the Technical Sub-Committee for East Pakistan 
of the WUdilfe Enquiry Committee. Dacca. 

Green, M J.B. (1989). Bangladesh trip report. World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge. 
7 pp. 

Khan, M.A.R. (1985). Future conservation priorities for Bangladesh. Paper prepared for the 25th 
Working Session of lUCN's Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett 
National Park, India. 4-8\Fel»uary 1985. 15 pp. 

Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1968). Report on the Second World WildUfe Fund Expedition to 
Pakistan. Unpublished report. Pp. 23-24. 

Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO 
Project BGD/72/005. FAG, Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. 121pp. 

Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife 
sanctuaries and game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for die 25th Working Session of lUCN 's 
Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 
1985. 5 pp. 



22 



Bangladesh 

Stanford, C.B. (1989). The conservation of capped langur (Presbytis pileatus) in Bangladesh. In: 

Karim, G.M.M.E., Akonda, A.W. and Sewitz, P. (Eds), Conservation of -wildlife in Bangladesh. 

German Cultural Institute/Forest Department/Dhaka University/Wildlife Society of Ban- 

gladeshAJnesco, Dhaka. Pp. 90-93. 
Womersley, J.S. (1979). Botanic Garden Dacca, commercial horticultural forest botany and 

nationalparks. UNDP/FAO Project BGD/72/005. FAO, Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. 

71 pp. 

Date May 1987, updated August 1990 



PABLAKHALI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category TV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.09.04 (Burma Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies at the northern end of Kaptai Reservoir in the south-eastern part 
of Kassalong Reserve Forest in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, some 1 12km from Rangamati Town. 
The western boundary is formed by Kassalong River. 23°08'N, 92°16'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1983 under the Ban- 
gladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974. First established as a game sanctuary 
in June 1962. 

Area 42,087ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from 100m to 300m. 

Physical Features The topography comprises a complex of hills and valleys aligned north- 
south, with spurs branching from the ridges. The hills are rugged and steeply sloping to the 
north, and smaller with gender slopes to the south. Some 3,885ha in Working Unit I have been 
under water since 1963, following the construction of a dam at Kaptai as pan of the Kamafuli 
hydro-electric project (Olivier, 1979). Soils are typically clay or clay loams in die valleys, and 
pale brown to yellow-red (acidic) clay loams and loams in die hills with localised concretions 
of iron-manganese. 

Climate Conditions are typically sub-tropical widi a long dry season lasting from November 
to May. Mean annual rainfall is 2500mm. Mean temperature ranges from 23°C in December 
to 35*C in May. Humidity is high throughout the year. 

Vegetation Three forest types can be distinguished. Tropical wet evergreen forest commonly 
occurs in valleys and on sheltered slopes wiUi a plentiful water supply. The irregular canopy, 
characterised by emergent trees, is dense and rich in species. Typical trees include civit 
Swintoniafloribunda, garjan Dipterocarpus spp., Pterygota alata, Quercus spp. and Castanop- 
sis spp. Tropical semi-evergreen forest, the most extensive forest type in the sanctuary, includes 



23 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

a significant proportion of deciduous canopy species. The predominant tree genera are Diptero- 
carpus, Mangifera, Amoora, Cinnamomum, Syzygium, Tetrameles, Artocarpus, Salmalia and 
Albizia. Tropical moist deciduous forest is confined to new alluvial areas near rivers and streams. 
The trees are scattered and interspersed with extensive patches of khagra and nal grassland and 
stands of wild banana. Characteristic tree genera include Albizia, Salmalia, Terminalia and 
Ficus. Bamboo grows beneath the canopy of aU three forest types (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Fauna According to reports in old district gazetteers, Kassalong Valley used to be rich in 
wildlife, with tiger Panthera tigris (E), two species of rhinoceros Rhinocerotidae spp., gaurfio^ 
gaurus (V) and banteng B.\javanicus (V) present in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tiger, 
gaur and banteng were last seen in the early 1970s (Khan, 1985), but tiger and also leopard 
Panthera pardus (T) are reported to still occur (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). Most important 
is the small population of Asian elephant Elephas maximus (E) that commonly uses the southern 
part of the sanctuary, probably because of the mosaic of habitats and permanent water supply 
(Olivier, 1979). Many other large mammals are present, including rhesus macaque Macaca 
mulatta, capped langur Presbytis pileata, Hoolock gibbon Hylobates hoolock (V), dhole Cuon 
alpinus (V), small cats, otters and wild boar Sus scrofa (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985), and also 
Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak and sambar Cervus unicolor (Olivier, 1979). Hague (1989) 
lists 61 species of mammals recorded in the late 1970s. 

Some 133 bird species have been recorded from the sanctuary (Husain, 1975). This total 
includes 25 species previously reported by Mountfort (1969). Following the formation of Kaptal 
Reservoir and with the continuing reduction of former wintering grounds in Sylhet and 
Mymensingh, the sanctuary supports increasing numbers of resident and migratory waterfowl 
(Olivier, 1979), notably little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, a variety of herons and egrets, 
common moorhen Gallinula chloropiis, common coot Fulica atra and Asian openbill stork 
Anastomus oscitans (Scott, 1989). White-winged wood duck Cairina scutulata (V) used to be 
common but the population has declined in recent years, most probably due to systematic 
clear-felling of primary forest and its replacement with commercially viable timber species 
(Khan, 1986). Some five pairs were present up to 1979, but the status of the species has since 
become uncertain owing to political disturbances (Khan, 1985). Khan (1986) estimates there to 
be some 20 pairs within an area of 240 sq.km in and around the sanctuary. 

Of the reptiles, Indian python Python molurus (V) is common (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Part of the sanctuary has been allotted to settlers firom the plains. 
Rebel tribal groups operate in the area (Khan, 1985). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Access to the Chittagong Hill Tracts has been restricted since 
1982 for security reasons. There are two rest houses. 

Scientific Research and Facilities The elephant population was surveyed by the Forest 
Directorate in 1978 (Olivier, 1979; Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). The stattis of white-winged 
wood duck was first investigated by Husain (1975, 1977) and subsequently by Khan (1986) 
between 1978 and 1981. Its population dynamics and breeding behaviour were examined by 
an university smdent in 1976-1977 (Saricer and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 



24 



Bangladesh 

Conservation Value Pablakhali contains some of the finest lowland forest remaining in 
Bangladesh and is also an important wetland site (Scott, 1989). 

Conservation Management Under the working plan, due to expire in 1988/1989, the sanctuary 
is divided into two working units. Some 25,900ha are allotted to Working Unit I, in which 
wildlife is protected and forestry operations are prohibited. In the remaining area allotted to 
Working Unit 11, it is intended that wildlife preservation proceed alongside normal forestry 
operations. Working Unit I comprises some 3,885ha of reservoir, l,554ha of teak plantation 
and 20,461ha of natural forest This is nowhere more than 5km wide and runs north-south along 
die eastern edge of Working Unit H; to the east is unclassed state forest, which has been heavily 
disturbed by local hill tribesmen. Conversion of Working Unit n to plantations has been 
proceeding steadily (Olivier, 1979). 

Some 7,770ha (Compartments 23-30) within Working Unit I were proposed as an elephant 
sanctuary, but the area was considered far too small and devoid of much suitable habitat. This 
proposal is thought to have arisen as a result of the Technical Sub-Committee of the Wildlife 
Enquiry Committee having originally proposed Compartments 23-30 as Pablakhali Wildlife 
Sanctuary (Olivier, 1979). 

Management prescriptions include strict protection of the wildlife and provision of artificial 
feeding sites, waterholes and salt-licks. It was planned to limit forestry operations to thinning 
of existing plantations and impose a three- year cycle for collection of bamboo (Olivier, 1979). 

Management Constraints Few of the original management prescriptions have proved possible 
to implement. Rice was cultivated beside the reservoir, grass cut for fodder and thatching 
material, and cattie roamed freely inside the sanctuary. Most serious is the encroachment on the 
narrow strip of natural forest running north-south. In many places, this had either gone or been 
reduced to a few hundred metres in width, thereby isolating the smaller southern part of the 
sanctuary from the rest and threatening the free movement of elephants to and from preferred 
feeding areas (Olivier, 1979). In the mid-1980s the government began to lease out forest lands, 
both within the sanctuary and neighbouring areas, to plains-dwellers for settlement at the rate 
of 2.5ha per family, as a counter-measure to tribal insurgency. This policy is very detrimental 
to wildlife, and much encroachment has resulted. Locals hunted white-winged wood ducklings 
with dogs in 1981 and this practice may be continuing (Khan, 1986). 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Divisional Forestry Officer, Chittagong Hill Tracts (North) Forest Division 

References 

Haque, M.N. (1989). The mammalian fauna of Pablakhali Wildlife Sanctuary. In: Karim, 

G.M.M.E., Akonda, A.W. and Sewitz, P. (Eds), Conservation of wildlife in Bangladesh. 

German Cultural Institute/Forest Department/Dhaka University/Wildlife Society of Ban- 

gladeshAJnesco, Dhaka. Pp. 133-139. 
Husain, K.Z. (1975). Birds of Pablakhali Wildlife Sanctuary. (The Chittagong HiU Tracts). 

Bangladesh Journal of Zoobgy 3: 155-157. 
Husain, K.Z. (1977). The white-winged wood duck. Tigerpaper 4(1): 6-8. 



25 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Khan, M.A.R. (1985). Future conservation directions for Bangladesh. In: Thorsell, J.W. (Ed.) 
Conserving Asia's natural heritage: the planning and management of protected areas in the 
Indomalayan Realm, lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Pp. 114-122. 

Khan, M.A.R. (1986). The threatened white-winged wood duck Cairina scutulata in Bangladesh. 
Forktail 2: 91-101. 

Mountfort, G. (1969). The vanishing jungle. Collins, London. 286 pp. 

Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangaladesh. UNDP/FAO 
Project BGD/72/005. FAO, Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. 121pp. 

Sarker and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and 
game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Working Session of lUCN's Commission 
on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 1985. 5 pp. 



Date June 1987, updated March 1989 



RAMPAHAR-SITAPAHAR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category Proposed 

Biogeographical Province 4.04.01 (Burman Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies 48km north-east of Chittagong Port Approximately 22*30'N, 
92*20'E 

Date and History of Establishment Presently classified as reserved forest, Rampahar-Sita- 
pahar has not yet been designated a wildlife sanctuary under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preser- 
vation)(Amendment) Act, 1974 but has been maintained as such by the Forest Department since 
1973 (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Area 3,026ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude No information 

Physical Features Comprises low, gently sloping hills which arc steeper in Sitapahar block 
than Rampahar block. The Kamaphuli River flows through the area. Soils are clays or clayey 
loams in valley bottoms and mosdy pale brown (acidic) clay loams and loams on hills (Sarker 
and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Climate Conditions are typically sub-tropical with a long dry season from October to May. 
Mean temperatures vary from 24*C in December to 35*C in May. Mean annual rainfall is 
2500mm. 

Vegetation Comprises evergreen and semi-evergreen forests. Predominant tree species are 
Dipterocarpus spp., Artocarpus chaplasha, Tetrameles nudiflora, Cedrela toona, Mesuaferrea, 
Eugenia spp., Ficus spp. and Albizia procera (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 



26 



Bangladesh 

Fauna Mammals include capped langur Presbytis pileatus, sloth bear Melursus ursinus (I), 
Indian muntjac Muntiacusmuntjak and sambar Cervus unicolor. Reptiles include python Fython 
molurus (V) (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value No information 

Conservation Management Maintained as virgin forest by the Forest Department. 

Management Constraints No information 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife 
sanctuaries and game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Working Session of lUCN's 
Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 
1985. 5 pp. 

Date March 1989, updated August 1990 

RAMSAGAR NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.03.01 (Bengalian Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies in Dinajpur District, about 9km from Dinajpur Town, in the 
extreme north-west of Bangladesh. 25*40'N, 88*30'E 

Date and History of Establishment First established in 1960 but not officially notified as a 
national park until 1974. 

Area 52ha 



27 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude No information 

Physical Features Ramsagar is a lake surrounded by high embankments. The embankments 
are flat-topped ridges, which slope gentiy down to the lake, and cover 50% of the area. The soil 
is red-yellow clay (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Climate No information 

Vegetation Forest is absent. The flora consists ofomamental and fruit trees (Sarker and Fazlul 
Huq, 1985). 

Fauna The diversity of mammals, birds and reptiles is low; such species as are present occur 
widely throughout the country (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage It is believed that the lake was excavated by King Ramnath, Maharaja of 
Dinajpur, before the Battle of Plassey. 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There is one rest house, and five picnic sites have been 
constructed by the Forest Department. 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value Minimal 

Conservation Management It was originally recommended that Ramsagar be developed as a 
' Class B ' national park for purposes of recreation and education (Government of East Pakistan, 
197 1). Subsequently, under a separate development plan, the site was proposed as a recreation 
centre (Olivier, 1979). Information concerning the present management is not available. 

Management Constraints No information 

Staff/ Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Government of East Pakistan (1971). Report of the Technical Sub-Committee for East Pakistan 

of the Wildlife Enquiry Committee. Dacca. 
Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO I*roject 

BGD/72/005. FAO, Forest Research Instimte, Chittagong. 121 pp. 
Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife 

sanctuaries and game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Working Session of lUCN's 

Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 

1985. 5 pp. 

Date May 1987, updated August 1990 

28 



Bangladesh 



REMA-KALENGA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.09.04 (Burma Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated in the Tarap Hills of Sylhet District in eastern Bangladesh, 
adjacent to the international border with India. The sanctuary is difficult to reach, particularly 
in the monsoon season. 24'05'N,9r37'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1981 under die Ban- 
gladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974, having previously been part of 
Kalenga (Tarap Hill) Forest Reserve. 

Area l,095ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude No information 

Physical Features The Tarap Hills are dissected by numerous valleys, separated by ridges 
rising some 50m above them. The hills are generally low and gentiy sloping. Soils range from 
clay loams on level ground to pale brown (acidic) clay loams and loams on the hills. Red sandy 
clay contains granules of magniferous iron ore. 

Climate Conditions are warm and humid, with a mean annual rainfall of 2800mm, most of 
which falls between June and September. April and May are the warmest months, and December 
and January are the coolest (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Vegetation Comprises tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 
1983). The flora is very rich (Mountfort and Poore, 1968). 

Fauna Five species of primate are present, namely slow loris Nycticebus coucang, rhesus 
macaque Macaca mulatta, pig-tailed macaque M. nemestrina, capped langxir Presbytis pileata 
and dusky langur P. phayrei. Other mammals include jackal Canis aureus, Indian muntjac 
Muntiacus muntjak, wild boar Sus scrofa, porcupine Hystrix indica and black-naped hare Lepus 
nigricollis (Sarker andFazlul Huq, 1985). Capped langxir, leopard Pantherapardus (T), muntjac 
and several species of squirrel were numerous, at least one tiger Panthera tigris (E) was recorded, 
sambar Cervus unicolor were occasionally seen, and it was in this region that the Asiatic golden 
cat Felis temmincki (I) was sighted during the Second World Wildlife Fund Expedition to 
Pakistan (Mountfort and Poore, 1968). Dhole Cuon alpinus (V) and at least one species of bear 
are also reported to have been present (Olivier, 1979). 



29 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

The primary forest harboured a great variety of birds, including kalij pheasant Lophura 
leucomelana, red junglefowl Gallus gallus, scarlet-breasted trogon Trogon sp. and many species 
of pigeons, barbets, sunbirds, flycatchers and flowerpeckers (Mountfort and Poorc, 1968). 

Reptiles include Indian Python Python molurus (V) (Sarker and Fazlul Huq, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There is a rest house belonging to the Forest Department 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value The sanctuary contains the last remaining patch of primary forest in the 
Sylhet region. Even this has been considerably reduced in extent since 1967 (Olivier, 1979), 
when some 2,072-2,590ha within Kalenga (Tarap Hill) Forest Reserve were originally recom- 
mended for total protection as a wildlife sanctuary. The rest of this forest reserve was under 
teak monoculture (Mountfort and Poore, 1968). By 1978, primary forest existed only in 
Compartment 8 (l,036ha) (OUvier, 1979). 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints No information 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1968). Report on the Second World Wildlife Fund Expedition to 

Pakistan. Unpublished report. 25 pp. 
Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO Project 

BGD/72/005. FAO, Forest Research Instimte, Chittagong. 121 pp. 
Sarker and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and 

game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Working Session of lUCN's Commission 

on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 1985. 5 

pp. 

Date May 1987, updated August 1990 



30 



Bangladesh 



SUNDARBANS EAST, WEST AND SOUTH WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.03.01 (Bengalian Rainforest) 

Geographical Location The three wildlife sanctuaries lie on disjunct deltaic islands in the 
Sundarbans Forest Division of Khulna District, close to the border with India and just west of 
the main outflow of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers. Sundarbans West lies between 
the Raimangal and Malancha rivers at 2142'-2147'N, 8912'-8918'E; Sundarbans South, 
including Putney Island, lies between the Malancha and Kunga rivers at 2144'-2155'N, 
8919'-8928'E; and Sundarbans East consists of that portion of Compartment 6 lying between 
the Katica and Supati Khals (creeks) at 2150'-2157'N, 8945'-8950'E. All thi^ sanctuaries air, 
bounded to the south by the Bay of Bengal. 

Date and History of Establishment All three wildlife sanctuaries were established in 1977 
under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974, having first been 
ga2etted as forest reserves in 1875. The entire Sundarbans is reserved forest, established under 
the Forest Act, 1927. 

Area Sundarbans West 9,069ha 

Sundarbans South 17,878ha 

Sundarbans East 5,439ha 

A proposed extension to Sundarbans East would enlarge its total area to 18,538ha (Blower, 
1985). Sundarbans National Park (133,010ha), a World Heritage Site, lies to the west in India 
but is not contiguous with Sundarbans West Wildlife Sanctuary in Bangladesh. 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from sea level to 3m. 

Physical Features The Sundarbans, covering some 10,000 sq.km of land and water, is part of 
the world's largest delta (80,(XX) sq.km) formed from sediments deposited by three great rivers, 
the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna, which converge on the Bengal Basin (Seidensticker and 
Hai, 1983). The total area of the Bangladesh Sundarbans is 5,771 sq.km, of which 4,071 sq.km 
is land and the rest water (Christensen, 1984). 

The land is moulded by tidal action, resulting in a distinctive physiography. The whole area is 
intersected by an intricate networic of interconnecting waterways, of which the larger channels 
of often a mile or more in width run in a generally north-south direction. Innumerable small 
khals drain the land at each ebb. Rivers tend to be long and straight, a consequence of the strong 
tidal forces and the clay and silt deposits which resist erosion. Easily eroded sands collect at the 
river mouths and form banks and chars, which are blown into dunes above the high-water mark 
by the strong south-west monsoon. Finer silts are washed out into the Bay of Bengal but, where 



31 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

they are protected from wave action, mud flats form in the lee of the dunes. These become 
overlain with sand from the dunes, and develop into grassy middens. This process of island 
building continues for as long as the area on the windward side is exposed to wave action. With 
the formation of the next island further out, silt begins to accumulate along the shore of the island 
and sand is blown or washed away (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Apart from Baleswar River, 
which flows into the Bay of Bengal just east of Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary, the 
waterways carry little freshwater as they are cut off from the Ganges, the outflow of which has 
shifted from the Hooghly-Bhagirathi channels in India progressively eastwards since the 17th 
century. They are kept open largely by the diurnal tidal flow (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). 

Alluvial deposits are geologically very recent and deep. The soil is a silty clay loam with 
alternate layers of clay, silt and sand. The surface is clay except on the seaward side of islands 
in the coastal limits, where sandy beaches occur. In the eastern part of the Sundarbans the surface 
soil is soft and fertile, whereas it is harder and less suitable for tree growth in the west 
(Choudhury, 1968). The pH averages 8.0 (Christensen, 1984). 

Climate Rainfall is heavy and humidity high (80%) due to the proximity of the Bay of Bengal. 
About 80% of the rain falls in the monsoon, which lasts from June to October. Mean annual 
rainfall varies from about 1800mm at Khulna, nonh of the Sundarbans, to 2790mm on the coast. 
There is a six-month dry season during which evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation. Con- 
ditions are most saline in February- April, the depletion of soil moisture being coupled with 
reduced freshwater flow from upstream. Temperatures rise from daily minima of 2-4''C in winter 
to a maximum of about 43°C in March and may exceed 32°C in the monsoon. Storms are 
common in May and October-November and may develop into cyclones, usually accompanied 
by tidal waves of up to 7.5m high (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Climatic data for Khulna arc 
summarised by Christensen (1984). 

Vegetation The mangroves of the Sundarbans are unique when compared to non-deltaic coastal 
mangrove forest. Unlike the latter, the Rhizophoraceae are of only minor importance and the 
dominant species are sund'ri Heritiera fames, from which the Sundarbans takes its name, and 
gewa Excoecaria agallocha. The reason for this difference is the large freshwater influence in 
the north-eastern part and the elevated level of the ground surface. The Sundarbans can be 
classified as moist tropical serai forest, comprising a mosaic of beach forest and tidal forest 
(Champion, 1936). Of the latter, there are four types: low mangrove forests, tree mangrove 
forests, salt-water //enV/era forests and freshwater //ennera forests. Choudhury (1968), on the 
basis of water salinity, recognises three zones. Sundarbans East falls within the freshwater zone, 
which is dominated by HXfames. Gewa occurs in varying amounts, and passur Xylocarpus 
moluccensis and kankra Bruguiera gymnorrhiza occur in more frequently flooded areas. The 
understory comprises singra Cynometra ramiflora on dry soils, amur Amoora cucullata on 
moister soils and goran Ceriops decandra especially in the more saline areas. Sundarbans South 
lies in the moderately salt-water zone, in which Excoecaria agallocha is dominant. It is mixed 
with Heritiera and has a dense understory of Ceriops. Xylocarpus is more frequent in this zone. 
Sundarbans West occurs within the salt-water zone, which supports sparse E.\agallocha, a dense 
understory of Ceriops, and dense patches of hantal palm Phoenix paludosa on drier soils. 
Dhundal and passur Xylocarpus spp., and Bruguiera occur sporadically throughout the area. 
Sund'ri and gewa cover most of the Sundarbans but Oryza coarctata, Nypa fruticans and 
Imperata cylindrica are prevalent on mud flats (Khan, 1986). Large stands of keora Sonneratia 
apetala are found on newly accreted mudbanks and provide important wildlife habitat (R.E. 
Salter, pers. comm., 1987). 



32 



Bangladesh 

An account of the flora of the mangrove forest of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta is given by 
Prain (1903). Seidensticker and Hai (1983) report a total of 334 plant species, representing 245 
genera, present in the Bangladesh portion of the delta, and list principal woody and herbaceous 
species. Chaffey and Sandom (1985) provide a detailed list of trees and shrubs in the Bangladesh 
portion. Islam (1973) provides an account of the algal flora of the mangroves. 

Fauna The Sundarbans is the only remaining habitat in the lower Bengal Basin for a great 
variety of f aunal species. The presence (or former presence) of at least 40 mammal species has 
been documented (Sarker, 1986). Of these, no less than five spectacular species, namely Javan 
rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus (E), water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (E), swamp deer Cervus 
duvauceli (E), gzxaBos gaums (V) and probably hog ^er Axis porcinus have become locally 
extirpated since the beginning of this century (Salter, 1984). The only primate is rhesus macaque 
Macaca mulatto, considered by Blower (1985) to number in the region of 40,000 to 68,2CX), 
based on surveys by Hendrichs (1975) and Khan (1986), respectively, as compared to the much 
higher estimate of 126,220 derived by Gittins (1981). 

The Sundarbans of Bangladesh and India support one of the largest populations of tiger Panthera 
tigris (E), with an estimated 350 in that of the former (Hendrichs, 1975). Again, Gittins' estimate 
of 430-450 tigers may be over-optimistic (see Blower, 1985). Spotted deer Cervus axis, 
estimates of which vary between 52,600 (Khan, 1986) and 80,000 (Hendrichs, 1975), and wild 
boar 5«5 scrofa, estimated at 20,000 (Hendrichs, 1975), are the principal prey of the tiger, which 
also has a notorious reputation for man-eating. Of the three species of otter, smooth Indian otter 
Lutra perspicillata, estimated to number 20,000 (Hendrichs, 1975), is domesticated by fisher- 
men and used to drive fish into their nets (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Other mammals include 
three species of wild cat, Felis bengalensis, F. chaus and F. viverrina, and Gangetic dolphin 
Platanista gangetica, which occurs in some of the larger waterways. Species accounts and a 
check-list are given by Salter (1984). 

The varied and colourful bird-life to be seen along its waterways is one of the Sundarbans' 
greatest attractions. Over 270 species have been recorded (Scott, 1989), including about 95 
species of waterfowl (Scott, 1989) and 38 species of raptors (Sarker, 1985b). Among the many 
which may be readily seen by the visitor are no less than nine species of kingfisher, including 
brown-winged and stork-billed kingfishers, Pelargopsis amauroptera and P. capensis, respec- 
tively; the magnificent white-bellied sea-eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster which, at a density of 
one individual per 53.1km of waterways (Sarker, 1985), is quite common; also the much rarer 
grey-headed fish eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus, Pallas 's fish-eagle Haliaeetus ieucoryphus 
and several other raptors. Herons, egrets, storks, sandpipers, whimbrel, curlew and numerous 
other waders are to be seen along the muddy banks and on the chars or sandbanks which become 
exposed during the dry season. There are many species of gulls and terns, especially along the 
coast and the larger waterways. Apart from those species particularly associated with the sea 
and wetlands, there is also a considerable variety of forest birds such as woodpeckers, barbets, 
shrikes, drongos, mynahs, minivets, babblers and many others (Salter, 1984). Further details of 
the avifauna are given by Scott (1989). 

Some 45 reptile species and 11 of amphibians have been recorded (Sarker, 1986). Of these 
mugger Crocodylus palustris (V) is now extinct, probably as a result of past over-exploitation, 
although it still occurs in at least one location nearby (R.E. Salter, pers. comm., 1987). Estuarine 
crocodile C. porosus (E) still survives but its numbers have been greatiy depleted through 
hunting and trapping for skins. There are also three species of monitor, Varanus bengalensis. 



33 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



V.flavescens and V. salvator, and Indian python Python molurus (V). Five species of marine 
turtle, namely loggerhead Caretta caretta (V), green Chelonia mydas, hawksbill Eretmochelys 
imbricata, olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea and leatherback Dermochetys coriacea, have been 
recorded from Bangladesh waters in the Bay of Bengal and are reported to occur along the 
Sundarbans coast River terrapin Batagur baska (E) is also present The eighteen recorded 
snake species include king cobra Ophiophagus hannah and spectacled cobra Naja naja, three 
vipers and six sea-snakes (Salter, 1984). 

Over 120 species of fish are reported to be commonly caught by commercial fishermen in the 
Sundarbans (SeidenstickerandHai, 1983). According to Mukheijee (1975) only brackish water 
species and marine forms are found in the Indian Sundarbans, freshwater species being totally 
absent This may be assumed to apply also to the Bangladesh Sundarbans, except possibly in 
the eastern portion where there is freshwater in Bales war River. Mention should also be made 
of mud-skippers or gobys which occur in large numbers and are a characteristic feature of 
mangrove swamps. 

Crustacea account for by far the largest proportion of animal biomass, with an estimated 40 
million kg of fiddler crabs and 100 million kg of mud crabs (Hendrichs, 1975). The nutrient-rich 
waters of the Sundarbans also yield a considerable harvest of shrimps, prawns and lobsters. The 
area supports a varied insect population including large numbers of honey-bees, honey and 
beeswax being among the economically important products. It appears, however, that the insect 
life of the Sundarbans has so far been little studied. 

Cultural Heritage There is archaeological evidence of earlier human occupation on the deltaic 
islands. The human settiements are indicative of the former presence of abundant fiteshwater, 
both from the Ganges and finom non-saline ground water. Human occupation ceased in the 17th 
century, reportedly due to pirate attacks (Christensen, 1984). 

Local Human Population There are no villages in the Sundarbans, but it provides a livelihood 
at certain seasons of the year for an estimated 300,(XX) people, working variously as wood-cutters, 
fishermen, and gatherers of honey, golpatta leaves iNipafruticans) and grass. Fishermen come in 
their boats from as far away as Chittagong and establish temporary encampments at various sites 
along the coast, where they remain until the approach of the monsoon season in April before 
returning to Uieir homes. Apart from the large numbers of people employed by contractors in 
the commercial exploitation of sund'ri and other tree species, the local people are themselves 
dependent on the forest and waterways for such necessities as firewood, timber for boats, poles 
for house-posts and rafters, golpatta leaf for roofing, grass for matting, reeds for fencing and 
fish for their own consumption. The season for collecting honey and wax is limited to two and 
a half months commencing annually on 1 April. Thousands of people, having first obtained 
their permits from the Forest Department, enter the forest in search of bee nests which are 
collected and then crushed to extract the honey and wax. The total quantity of these commodities 
collected during the 1983 season was 232 tonnes, which at a market price of 30 Tk (US$ 1) per 
ser (approximately 0.9 kg) represents an appreciable source of income to local communities 
(Blower, 1985). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Few tourists visit the Sundarbans due to the difficulty and cost 
of arranging transpon and to the lack of suitable accommodation and other facilities. The area 
has no potential for mass tourism but it does offer obvious possibilities for limited special-interest 
tourism from October to April or May. The use of launches equipped with catering and sleeping 



34 



Bangladesh 

facilities is considered more practicable than permanent land-based facilities and would provide 
greater flexibility. There is, however, a large well-equipped rest house belonging to the Port 
Authority at Hiron Point, Sundarbans South Wildlife Sanctuary, and a smaller one belonging to 
the Forest Department at Katka in Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary (Blower, 1985). 

Scientific Research and Facilities Considerable research has been carried out on the Sundar- 
bans ecosystem and its wildlife. A three-month field study of tiger, concentrating on the problem 
of man-eating, and other vertebrates and invertebrates, was undertaken by Hendrichs (1975) in 
1971. Other faunal surveys include those of Gittins (1981) and Khan (1986) for rhesus macaque. 
Khan (1986) for spotted deer, Saiker and Saiker (1986) for birds, and Saiker (1985a, 1985b) 
and Sarker and Sarker (1985) for birds of prey. Further details of wildlife studies and surveys 
can be foimd in a synopsis compiled by Salter (1984), 

Conservation Value The mangrove forests of the Sundarbans are among the richest and most 
extensive in the world. The Bangladesh portion, covering 6% of total land area, represents over 
half of the country's remaining natural forest The forests and waterways support a wide range 
of fauna, including a number of species threatened with extinction. As one of the most 
biologically productive of all natural ecosystems, it is of great economic importance as a source 
of timber, fish and numerous other products (Blower, 1985). 

Of the three wildlife sanctuaries, Sundarbans East appears to be most valuable in terms of 
diversity of habitat and scenic attraction but is considered too small to be effective. It is luiclear 
whether or not the small island known locally as Putkadya, about 2km offshore, is included 
within this sanctuary but it should be in view of its suitability as habitat for waders and as a 
nesting site for marine turties. Sundarbans West and Sundarbans South would seem to be of 
adequate size (Blower, 1985). 

Conservation Management Sundarbans East is administered from offices at Katka and Tiger 
Point, and Sundarbans South from Hiron Point No office has yet been established within 
Sundarbans West There are no recognised local rights within the reserved forest entry and 
collection of forest produce being subject to permits issued by the Forest Department The 
Department may issue hunting licences under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) 
(Amendment)Act, 1974, but in practice none is issued and the whole Sundarbans is thus effectively 
closed to legal hunting. Under the provision of this Act, various activities are prohibited within 
the wildlife sanctuaries, including inter alia residence, cultivation of land, damage to 
vegetation, hunting, introduction of domestic animals and setting of fires. Any of these 
prohibitions may be relaxed, however, for scientific purposes, aesthetic enjoyment or "improve- 
ment" of scenery (Blower, 1985). 

The Sundarbans has been the subject of a series of successively more comprehensive working 
plans since its declaration as reserved forest, the most recent of which points out the importance 
of the tiger in controlling the spotted deer population, and also mentions the intention of 
establishing compartments 3-7 as a 'game sanctuary', a total area of some 52,320ha (Choudhury, 
1968). In the event, when Sundarbans East was eventually established it included only a part 
of Compartment 6, only one-tenth of the area originally proposed. A likely explanation is that 
the recommended areas contain high-quality timber relative to that gazetted, indicating that 
Sundardans East was chosen on the basis of its xmimportance to forestry, rather than value to 
wildlife. Sundarbans South and West may have been selected for the same reason, as timber 
within both sites is of lower quality (Olivier, 1979). A plan relating specifically to wildlife 



35 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



conservation was prepared under the joint sponsorship of the World Wildlife Fund and the 
National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution (Seidensticker and Hai, 1983). Emphasis is 
directed towards managing the tiger, together with all wildlife, as an integral part of forest 
management that assures the sustainable harvesting of forest products and maintains this coastal 
zone in a way that meets the needs of the local human population. The Sundarbans Forest 
Development Planning Mission, carried out by FAO in conjunction with the Bangladesh Forest 
Department in February-May 1984, collected all available data related to the use and manage- 
ment of forest products, wildlife and fisheries, assessed development potential and prepared 
proposals for further integrated development and conservation of the natural resources of the 
area (Christensen, 1984; Salter, 1984). More recently. Blower (1985) reviewed wildlife con- 
servation in the Sundarbans Reserved Forest as part of the Sundarbans Forest Inventory Project, 
carried out by the Bangladesh Forest Department and the Land Resources Development Centre 
of the UK Overseas Development Administration. The main purpose of the project is to provide 
the necessary data on which to base future exploitation of the forest for sustainable use of timber, 
fuelwood and other forest produce, with due consideration to wildlife conservation and the social 
amenity value of the area. It has been recommended that the Sundarbans be managed as a single 
unit with full protection afforded to both wildlife and habitat in the wildlife sanctuaries, and with 
forest resources exploited at sustainable levels but wildlife protected elsewhere in the reserved 
forest. The establishment of intermediate buffer zones, in which disturbance is kept to a 
minimum through restriction of access, is recommended in areas peripheral to sanctuary 
boundaries. A new working plan is due to be prepared, based on data collected by the project, 
and is expected to include detailed prescriptions concerning the conservation and management 
of the sanctuaries (Blower, 1985). Formulation of a strategy and integrated plan for the sustained 
multiple-use, conservation and management of natural resources in the Sundarbans Reserved 
Forest is due to commence shortly with funding from UNEP (Project: BGD/84/056/AA)l/12). 

Management Constraints A long-term ecological change is taking place in the Sundarbans, 
due to the eastward migration of the Ganges, abandonment of some distributaries, diversion of 
water and withdrawals for irrigation. (Up to 40% of the dry season flow of the Ganges has been 
diverted upstream, following the completion of the Farraka Barrage in India in 1974.) Decreased 
freshwater flushing of the Sundarbans results in increased saline intrusion, particularly in the 
dry season. Concern has been expressed about recent indications of apparent deterioration in 
the flora, including localised die-back of sund'ri, commercially the most valuable of tree species. 
Top-dying of sund'ri is most likely associated with the decrease in freshwater flow, either as a 
direct effect of increasing salinity or other associated edaphic changes. A gradual replacement 
of Heritiera with Excoecaria, therefore, is a likely long-term effect (Christensen, 1984). While 
deterioration in the vegetation is already well-documented (International Engineering Company, 
1977, 1980) and is the subject of continuing study, no anention has yet been given to the possible 
effects which these changes might have on the fauna. It is perhaps significant, however, that 
the stocking of spotted deer appears lower in western areas, where salinity is highest, than in the 
east where it is lowest. Oil spills are another potential threat and could cause immense damage, 
especially to aquatic fauna and seabirds and probably also to the forest itself (Blower, 1985). 

Cyclones and tidal waves cause some damage to the forest along the sea-face, and are reported 
to result occasionally in considerable mortality among spotted deer. The most immediate threat 
is over-exploitation, both of timber resources, which may have aheady taken place, and also of 
the fauna. Agricultural encroachment has already occurred to a limited extent on the eastern 
and western boundaries and, with increasing population pressure in surrounding settled areas, 
could reach serious proportions unless checked. Fishermen's camps are a major source of 



36 



Bangladesh 

disturbance. There is extensive hunting and trapping, not only by fishermen and woodcutters 
but also reportedly by naval and military personnel from Hiron Point in Sundarbans South 
Wildlife Sanctuary (Blower, 1985). A total of 1 18 offences was recorded and over 3,300m of 
deer nets removed between 1981/82 and 1986/87 (Habib, 1989). The capture of adult marine 
turtles and Batagur in fishing nets and their subsequent killing and marketing for food is a 
potentially serious problem (R.E. Salter, pers. comm., 1987). 

The Sundarbans has been notorious for its man-eating tigers since the 17th century. Numbers 
of reported deaths has varied from to 47 (mean = 22. 1 ) per annum during the period 1 947- 1983 
(R.E. Salter, pers. comm., 1987). In 1988, 65 deaths were reported during a four-month period 
(The Guardian, 28 December 1988). Noting that tigers that hunt man like any other prey 
occurred only in the south and west, Hendrichs (1975) hypothesised on a possible linkage 
between high salinity levels, due to the absence of freshwater, and man-killing. This is not 
substantiated by more recent analyses, which suggest that man-killing may be at least partly 
correlated with the availability of easy prey (humans) and the frequency of man-tiger interactions 
(Salter, 1984; Siddiqi and Choudhury, 1987). 

Staff Sundarbans East: one deputy ranger, one forest guard; Sundarbans South: one forest 
ranger, two forest guards; Sundarbans West: one deputy ranger, one forest guard. Staff are 
responsible for the protection of the sanctuaries but, in practice, they are involved primarily with 
collection of revenue and other normal Forest Department duties (Blower, 1985). 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Assistant Conservator of Forests, Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary, 
Sarankhola, Khulna District; Assistant Conservator of Forests, Sundarbans South Wildlife 
Sanctuary, Nalianala, Khulna District; Range Officer, Sundarbans West Wildlife Sanctuary, 
Burigoalini, Khulna District 

References 

Blower, J. (1985). Sundarbans Forest Inventory Project, Bangladesh. Wildlife conservation in the 
Sundarbans. Project Report 151. Overseas Development Administration, Land Resources 
Development Centre, Surbiton, UK. 39 pp. 

ChafTey, D.R. and Sadom, J.H. (1985). Sundarbans Forestry Inventory Project. A glossary of 
vernacular plant names and afield key to trees. Overseas Development Administration, Land 
Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, UK. 23 pp. 

Champion, H.G. (1936). A preliminary survey of the forest types of India and Burma. Indian Forest 
Record (Nevj Series) 1: 1-286. 

Choudhury, A.M. (1968). Working plan of the Sundarban Forest Division for the period from 
1960-61 to 1979-80. Vol.1. Govemmentof East Pakistan, Forest Department, Dacca. 82 pp. 

Christensen, B. (1984). Ecological aspects of the Sundarbans. FO: TCP/BGD/2309 (Mf). FAO, 
Rome. 42 pp. 

Gittins, S.P. (1981). A survey of the primates of Bangladesh. Unpublished report. Fauna Preser- 
vation Society, London. 64 pp. 

Habib, M.G. (1989). Wildlife management of the Sundarban - a case study. In: Karim, G.M.M£., 
Akonda, A.W. and Sewitz, P. (Eds), Conservation of wildlife in Bangladesh. German Cultural 
Institute/Forest Department/Dhaka University/Wildlife Society of Bangladesh/Unesco, Dhaka. 
Pp. 161-168. 

Hendrichs, H. (1975). The status of the tiger Panthera tigris (Linne, 1758) in the Sundarbans 
mangrove forest (Bay of Bengal). Saugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 23: 161-199. 



37 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Husain, K.Z. Sarker, S.U. and Rahman, M.M. (1983). Summer birds of the Sundarbans' 
'NUkamal Sanctuary', Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 11(1): 48-51. 

International Engineering Company (1977). Special studies. Bangladesh Water Development 
Board, Dacca. 

International Engineering Company (1980). Southwest regional plan. Bangladesh Water Devel- 
opment Board, Dacca. 

Islam, A.K.M.N. (1973). The algal flora of the Sundarbans mangrove forests, Bangladesh. Ban- 
gladesh Journal of Botany 2{2): 11-36. 

Khan, M.A.R. (1986). Wildlife in Bangladesh mangrove ecosystem. Journal of the Bombay 
Natural History Society 83: 32-48. 

Mukherjee, A.K. (1975). The Sundarbans of India and its biota. Journal of the Bombay Natural 
History Society 12: 1-20. 

Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO Project No. 
BGD/72/(X)5. Forest Research Institute, Chittagong. 121 pp. 

Salter, R.E. (1984). Integrated development of the Sundarbans, Bangladesh: status and utiUzation 
of wildlife. FO: TCP/BGD/2309(MF). Report No. W/R0034. FAO, Rome. 59 pp. 

Sarker, S.U. (1985a). Ecological observation on the endangered whitebeUied sea eagle Haliaeetus 
leucogaster (Gmelin) in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. In: Symposium on endangered marine 
animals and marine parks. Vol. 4. Endangered and/ or vulnerable other marine invertebrates 
and vertebrates. Paper No. 58. Marine Biological Association of India, Cochin. 

Sarker, S.U. (1985b). Density, productivity and biomass of raptoral birds of the Sundarbans, 
Bangladesh. Proceedings ofSAARC Seminar on Biomass Production, 15 April 1985, Dhaka. 
Pp. 84-92. 

Sarker, S.U. (1986). Management of wildUfe in the Sundarbans, Bangladesh. Paper presented at 
the International Seminar cum Workshop on Wildlife Conservation in Bangladesh, Dhaka, 1-4 
December 1986. 7 pp. 

Sarker, S.U. and Sarker, NJ. (1985). Birds of prey and their conservation in the Sundarbans 
mangrove forests, Khulna, Bangladesh. ICBP Technical Publication No. 5. Pp. 205-209. 

Sarker, S.U. and Sarker, NJ. (1986). Status and distribution of birds of the Sundarbans, Ban- 
gladesh. The Journal of Noami 3: 19-33. 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A Directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Seidensticker, J. and Hai, M.A. (1983). The Sundarbans Wildlife Management Plan: conservation 
in the Bangladesh coastal zone. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 120 pp. 

Siddiqi, N.A. and Choudhury, J.H. (1987). Maneating behaviour of tigers {Panthera tigris Linn) 
of the Sundarbans - twenty-eight years' record analysis. Tigerpaper 14(3): 26-32. 

Date February 1987, updated August 1990 



TEKNAF GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category VIII (Multiple Use Management Area) 

Biogeographical Province 4.04.01 (Burman Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies 80km south of Cox's Bazaar in the Teknaf Peninsula of 
south-eastern Bangladesh. Stretches from Thainkhali in the north to Teknaf township in the 
south, all of which is within Cox's Bazaar Forest Division. 2r00'N, 92*20'E 



38 



Bangladesh 

Date and History of Establishment Teknaf is a reserved forest which was declared a game 
reserve in 1983 under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974. It 
includes an area formerly referred to as the Thainkhali Game Reserve (7,770ha) (Government 
of Bangladesh, 1973). 

Area ll,615ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from 5m to 700m. 

Physical Features The terrain is rugged, with undulating hills aligned in a north-to-south 
direction and bordering the Bay of Bengal to the west Soils on the hills are predominantly pale 
brown (acidic) clay loams and loams developed firom shales and siltstones. Perennial water 
courses, known as 'charas', in the forested hilly areas are the only dependable source of water 
for elephants in the vicinity. 

Climate Moist tropical maritime conditions prevail, with a mean annual rainfall of 4060mm 
and mean humidity of 81.2% (Khan and Rashid, 1983). 

Vegetation Comprises evergreen and semi-evergreen secondary forests, which have regener- 
ated following clear-felling, and teak Tectona grandis plantations. The tropical wet evergreen 
forest is characterised by chapalish Artocarpus chaplasha, telsur Hopea odorata, chundul 
Tetrameles nudiflora, pitraj Amoora wallichi, uriam Mangifera longipes, civit Swintoniaflori- 
bunda, toon Toona ciliata and jam Syzygium spp. It is now confined to deep valleys and shaded 
slopes with good water supplies. The dense multi-storeyed semi-evergreen forest, typical of the 
peninsula, ranges in height from 20m to 45m. The top canopy, which includes several deciduous 
species, is characterised by baitta garjan Dipterocarpus scaber, telya garjan D. turbinatus, dulya 
garjan D. alatus, koroi Albizia procera, chukka k'oroi A. chinensis, chapalish, uriam, civit, 
shimul Bombax ceiba andS. insigne, handarholla. Duabanga grandiflora and narikeli Sterculia 
alata. The second storey is dominated by evergreens, such as batna Quercus sp., jam, Casta- 
nopsis sp., jarul Lagerstroemia speciosa, bena Macaranga denticulata, kamdeb Calophylum 
polyanthum, hargoza Dillenia pentagyna, dharmara Pterospermum personatum, moos P. pa- 
niculata, Sterculia villosa, S. colorata, konak Schima wallichii, nageshwar Mesuaferrea, bahera 
Terminalia bellerica, haritaki T. chebula, champa Michelia champaca, gamar Gmelina arborea 
and bot Ficus spp. Saplings predominate below the second storey, together with adaliya 
Meliosmapinnata, naricha Musaramentacea, dormala Callicarpa arborea, goda Vitex glabrata, 
kestoma and kechua Glochidion spp., sheora Streblus asper, jalpai Elaeocarpus spp. and bela 
Semicarpus anacardium. The undergrowth of both evergreen and semi-evergreen forests is 
dominated by bamboo, the commonest species being muli Melocannia bambusoides, mitenga 
Bambusa tulda, kaliserri Oxytenanthera auriculata, daloo Teinostachyum dulooa and orah 
Dendrocalamus longispathus (Khan and Rashid, 1983). 

Fauna Teknaf Peninsula still has quite a rich fauna. Moreover, it provides a vital refuge for 
elephant Elephas maximus (E), estimated in 1982-1983 to number 101, of which 71 resided 
within an area of 55,0(X)ha and the rest came from the Arakan area of Burma (Reza Khan and 
Rashid, 1983). Other mammals include rhesus macaque Macaca mulatta, capped langur 
Presbytis pileata, Hoolock gibbon Hylobates hoolock (V), sloth bear Melursus ursinus (I), 
hog-hadgcT Arctonyx collaris, crab-eating mongoose Herpestes urva, civets (Viverridae), small 



39 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

cats Felis spp., flying squirrel Petaurista sp. and Malayan giant squirrel Ratufa bicolor (Khan, 
1985a). Ungulates present in that part of the park which used to be known as Thainkhali Game 
Reserve include Indian muntjac Muntiacits muntjak, sambar Cervus unicolor and wild boar Siis 
scrofa (Olivier, 1979). Leopard Panthera pardus (T) and possibly dhole Cuon alpinus (V) are 
also present (Olivier, 1979). 

The avifauna is diverse and includes kalij pheasant Lophura leucomelana, fruit pigeons, 
hombills and woodpeckers (Khan, 1985a). 

Reptiles include Malayan box turtle Cuora amboinensis, uncommon in Bangladesh, Indian 
pyUion Python molurus (V) and monitor Varanus sp. (Khan, 1985a). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population There are 25-30 villages within the forests of the Peninsula and 
some 50 villages on their peripheries. Local people, who are largely dependent on forest 
resources for their livelihood, grow rice, millet, vegetables and pan in the valleys (Khan and 
Rashid, 1983). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The reserve has potential for tourism, particularly since Cox's 
Bazaar, renowned as being the only health resort in the country, is a tourist centre (Khan and 
Rashid, 1983). There are two rest houses in the vicinity, at Inoni and Teknaf (Olivier, 1979). 

Scientific Research and Facilities The elephant population was studied between May 1982 
and April 1983 (lUCNAVWF Project 3038) and a management strategy developed to conserve 
the species (Khan and Rashid, 1983). 

Conservation Value Teknaf Peninsula contains the most important tracts of evergreen and 
semi-evergreen forests in south-eastern Bangladesh (Khan and Rashid, 1983) and about one 
third of the country's total elephant population, estimated at 300 animals (Khan, 1985b). The 
Peninsula is also an important wetland site (Scott, 1989), although the wetlands themselves lie 
outside the reserve. 

Conservation Management The reserve was established to protect the elephant population, 
but the Forest Department continues its operations in the area. Preliminary recommendations 
for elephant management include: replacing clear-felling with selective felling; replanting 
cleared areas with indigenous species of trees; establishing corridors to facilitate movement of 
elephants and other wildlife between cleared areas; and controlling encroachment, grazing by 
livestock and extraction of bamboo (Khan and Rashid, 1983). 

Management Constraints There has been considerable pressure on minor forest products from 
the coastal people who either fished or grew pan Piper betle. Removal of the forest understorey, 
to meet local demands for timber, firewood and bamboo, has interfered with natural regeneration. 
Large areas of forest have been turned into plantations (teak) and, since 1976, Burmese refugee 
camps have had a severe local impact on forests (Womersley, 1979). Most accessible areas on 
the Peninsula have been clear-felled or subjected to shifting cultivation, with the result that litUe 
virgin forest remains. Regeneration is hindered, due to the pressure of livestock and other forms 
of disturbance, and the vegetation is changing towards a drier scrub-forest or savannah, 
characterised by sungrass Imperata cylindrica, bhat Clerodendrum infortunatum, Lantana 



40 



Bangladesh 

camara, Eupatorium odoratum, Melostoma sp. and others. The main elephant food, bamboo, 
has largely been extracted and replaced by unpalatable plants, such as Lantana and Eupatorium. 
This has probably been responsible for the increased raiding of crops, particularly by solitary 
elephants. Oil palm has recenfly been introduced to a 4,000ha area but is damaged by migratory 
elephants and, to a much greater extent, by porcupines. In 1978-1983, over 400ha of forested 
land was encroached by villagers with the authority of the Forest Department and others. 
Bamboo is extracted at an estimated rate of 10,000 canes per week, and some 8,000 cattle and 
water buffalo are taken daily into the forests for grazing, except possibly from January to April 
(Khan and Rashid, 1983). 

Staff Forest guards 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Government of Bangladesh (1973). Development of wildlife management and game reserves. 

Forest Department, Dacca. 
Olivier, R.C.D. (1979). Wildlife conservation and management in Bangladesh. UNDP/FAO Project 

BGD/72/005. FAO, Forest Research Instimte, Chittagong. 121 pp. 
Khan, M.A.R. (1985a). Future conservation directions for Bangladesh. In: Thorsell, J.W. (Ed.) 

Conserving Asia's natural heritage: the planning and management of protected areas in the 

Indomalayan Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Pp. 114-124. 
Khan, MA.R. (1985b). Mammals of Bangladesh. Nazma Reza, Dhaka 92 pp. 
Khan, M.A.R. and Rashid, S.M.A. (1983). Developiuent of an elephant management plan for the 

Cox's Bazar Forest of Bangladesh. Unpublished report to WWF/IUCN, Gland. 13 pp. 
Sarker, N.M. and Fazlul Huq, A.K.M. (1985). Country report on national parks, wildlife 

sanctuaries and game reserves of Bangladesh. Prepared for the 25th Working Session of lUCN's 

Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India. 4-8 February 

1985. 5 pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A Directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 
Womersley, J.S. (1979). Botanic Garden Dacca, commercial horticultural forest botany and 

national parks. UNDP/FAO Project BGD/72/005. FAO, Forest Research Instimte, Chittagong. 

71pp. 
WWF/IUCN Project No. 3033. Bangladesh, Cox's Bazar Forest, elephant management plan. 

Date May 1987, updated August 1990 



41 



INDIA 

Area 3,166,830sq.km 

Population 835,000,000 (1989) Natural Increase 2.2% per annum 

GNP US$300 per capita (1987) 

Policy and Legislation A commitment to protect and enhance the environment is enshrined 
within India's Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act, 1977, as follows: 

"The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests 
and wildlife of the country." (Article 48 A); and 

"It shall be the duty of every citizen of India ... (g) to protect and improve the natural environment 
including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures." 
(Article 51 A). 

There is no provision, however, which enables the union government to enact legislation 
pertaining to environmental issues that is uniformly applicable to all states and union territories. 
In addition to the separate federal and state jurisdiction, there exists a concurrent list of legislative 
powers which, since 1976, includes inter alia forests and the protection of wild animals and 
birds. The concurrent list gives over-riding power to the federal government but executive 
authority lies with the state governments (Dwivedi and Kishore, 1984). The constitutional 
directives have provided a strong basis for the enactment of legislative measures for environ- 
mental protection. The need to integrate environmental considerations with economic develop- 
ment was explicitly articulated for the first time in the 4th Five- Year Plan, 1969-1974 (Biswas 
and Bannerjee, 1984). There is no statutory requirement for environmental impact assessment 
at present but a mechanism has been initiated whereby assessment is an integral part of the 
planning process, with appraisals of major projects being the responsibility of the Department 
of Environment, Forests and Wildlife (Dwivedi and Kishore, 1984). Among the recommenda- 
tions of the Tiwari Committee, a high-powered committee appointed by the government in 
February 1980 to suggest administrative and legislative reforms to improve environmental 
protection in the country, was the introduction of environment protection in the concurrent list 
of the Constitution. 

The National Environment Policy envisages conservation and development, as well as equity 
among the people sharing the environment, but these tend to be mutually incompatible under 
much of the existing legislation (Singh, 1985). India is in the process of formulating a national 
conservation strategy. 

The protection of wildlife has a long tradition in Indian history. Wise use of natural resources 
was a prerequisite for many hunter-gatherer societies which date back to at least 60(X) BC. The 



43 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



most notable of such traditions are sacred groves, totally inviolate to any human interference, 
and village groves where only limited use by members of the community is permitted. Many 
of these are still in existence. Extensive clearance of forests accompanied the advance of 
agricultural and pastoral societies in subsequent millenia, but an awareness of the need for 
ecological prudence emerged and many so-called pagan nature conservation practices were 
retained (Gadgil, 1989). Among the earliest provisions for the establishment of protected areas 
are those codified in the Arthasashtra, India (321-300 BC), written by Kautilya, reputedly the 
Prime Minister of King Chandra Gupta Maurya. Prescriptions included rules for the adminis- 
tration and management of forests, and provisions for three classes of forests, namely those 
reserved for the king, those allocated for ascetics and those for the public which could be used 
only for hunting purposes. Kautilya is also the first-recorded person to have advocated the 
creation of 'Abhayaranyas', or sanctuaries for wildlife. The following century, during the reign 
of Emperor Ashoka, the first-recorded conservation measures for wildlife were enacted, and 
reserves were established for wild animals (Singh, 1986; Mitra, 1989). Hindu, Moslem and, 
latterly, British rulers continued these traditions in subsequent centuries, setting up reserves for 
privileged hunting over much of India. As more and more land became settled or cultivated, so 
these hunting reserves increasingly became refuges for wildlife. Many of these reserves were 
subsequendy declared as national parks or sanctuaries, mostly after Independence in 1947. 
Examples include Gir in Gujarat, Dachigam in Jammu & Kashmir, Bandipur in Kamataka, 
Evarikulum in Kerala, Madhav (now Shivpuri) in Madhya Pradesh, Simlipal in Orissa, and 
Keoladeo, Ranthambore and Sariska in Rajasthan. The fact that the great majority of the Indian 
population is vegetarian (devout Hindus and Jains) has undoubtedly helped to preserve that part 
of India's natural heritage which remains today (Singh, 1985; Gadgil, 1989). 

Following Independence, a number of states (Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & 
Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Mysore, Punjab, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu) enacted 
wildlife preservation acts, while others (Assam, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal) continued to 
enforce the Government of India Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, 1912. National paric 
acts were enacted by a few states but only five national parks were established under these acts, 
namely Kanha, Bandhavgarh and Shivpuri in Madhya Pradesh, Taroba in Maharashtra and 
Hailey (now Corben) in Uttar Pradesh. The Hailey National Park Act of 1936 was probably the 
first law in India intended for the exclusive protection of wildlife and its habitat (IBWL, 1970; 
Kothahetal., 1989). 

A National Wildlife Policy for India was first formulated by an Expert Committee of the Indian 
Board for Wildlife in 1970 (IBWL, 1970). A major aim was to reserve at least 4% of the total 
land area for wildlife, both plants and animals - an objective which has recendy been exceeded. 
Much of this policy was subsequendy enshrined in the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. The 
Act provides the necessary uniform legislation for the establishment of protected areas and has 
since been adopted by all states and union territories. Provisions include inter alia the 
constitution of state wildlife advisory boards and the notification of sanctuaries, national parks, 
game reserves and closed areas by state governments. A sanctuary is defined as an area of 
"adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance." 
Setting up a sanctuary involves settling all private rights, either allowing them to continue or 
acquiring them after adequate compensation. Hunting, entry with any weapon, causing fire, and 
using substances potentially injurious to wildlife are prohibited, while fishing and grazing by 
livestock may be allowed on a controlled basis. Permission to enter or reside in a sanctuary may 
be granted by the Chief Wildlife Warden for purposes of photography, scientific research, 
tourism and transaction of lawful business with any person residing in a sanctuary. A national 



44 



India 



park is defined similarly to a sanctuary. Similar provisions apply but hunting and cattle grazing 
are prohibited. In addition, exploitation or removal of any wildlife, or its habitat, is prohibited 
within a national parte. Moreover, only a completely unencumbered area, in which all rights 
have become vested in the state government, can be declared as a national park. Once 
established, its boimdaries may not be altered except through a resolution passed by the state 
legislature. A game reserve is an area in which only licensed hunting is permitted, and a closed 
area is one which is closed to hunting for such periods as may be specified in the notification. 
State-owned land leased or otherwise transferred to Central Government may be declared as a 
sanctuary or national park by the federal authority. 

The basis to present nature conservation policy in India is the National Wildlife Action Plan 
(Department of Environment, n.d.). Drawing on the World Conservation Strategy launched by 
lUCN in March 1 980, the Bali Action Plan arising from the 3rd World Parks Congress in October 
1982 and the World Charter for Nature adapted and proclaimed by the United Nations General 
Assembly in October 1982, it was adopted by the Government of India in October 1983 on the 
recommendation of the Indian Board for Wildlife. Objectives include the establishment of a 
representative network of protected areas and development of appropriate management systems 
(together with the restoration of degraded habitats), and the adoption of a National Conservation 
Strategy. 

The Indian Forest Act, first enacted in 1865 and succeeded by a more comprehensive act in 
1927, provides significant protection to wildlife through the provision for reserved and protected 
forests to be established in any forest or waste lands belonging to the government, or over which 
the government has proprietary rights. Some states enacted their own forest legislation after the 
National Forest Policy was announced in 1952, while others amended the Act to suit their own 
requirements. Activities prohibited within reserved forests include: making fresh clearings or 
breaking up land for cultivation; kindling or cairying fire; trespass and cattle grazing; felling or 
otherwise damaging any tree; quarrying stone, burning lime or charcoal; removing forest 
produce; and hunting, shooting, fishing, trapping and poisoning water. In general, activities 
prohibited within reserved forests are subject to regulations in protected forests. In addition, in 
protected forests, any trees, class of trees or portion of forest may be temporarily closed to all 
forms of exploitation, including the quarrying of stone and burning of lime. The Act also makes 
provision for the rights of government over land constituted as reserved or, in the case of a few 
states, protected forest to be assigned to village communities. Such village forests are subject 
to all provisions of the Act that relate to reserved (or protected) forests. The Forest (Conserva- 
tion) Act was promulgated in 1980 to stem the indiscriminate diversion of forest land to 
non-forestry purposes. Under this Act, no forest land can be de-reserved or diverted to 
non-forestry purposes without the approval of Central Government. Other initiatives include a 
moratorium, imposed since 1983, on the felling of trees at altitudes of 1 ,000m and above 
(Ministry of Forests and Wildlife, 1985). The 1952 National Forest Policy was superceded by 
a new National Forest Policy (Resolution No. 3-1/86 FP) on 7 December 1988. Objectives 
include the maintenance of environmental stability, conserving the nation's natural heritage by 
preserving remaining natural forests, preventing soil erosion and denudation of catchment areas, and 
creating a mass people's movement with the involvement of women to achieve such aims and 
minimise pressure on existing forests. A target has been set for one-third of the total land area of the 
country to be under forest, as originally stipulated in the 1952 National Forest Policy, but in the hills 
and mountainous regions the target is two-thirds. In addition, forest management must provide 
'corridors' to link protected areas and thereby maintain genetic continuity between artificially 



45 



WCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

sq)arated subpopulations of migrant wildlife. Also, full protection of the rights and concessions 
of tribals and poor people dependent on forests is advocated (Government of India, 1988). 

A selected list of other environmental legislation is given in A Second Citizen's Report (CSE, 
1985). Of particular note is the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, which provides a focus for 
environmental issues in the country and plugs loopholes in the existing legislation (Ministry of 
Environment and Forests, 1987a). 

Inadequacies in the existing nature conservation legislation are reviewed by Dwivedi and 
Kishore (1984) and by Singh (1986). The recognition of only wild animals and birds, without 
reference to plants, is an important omission from both the Wild Life (Protection) Act and the 
Constitution. Uniform and comprehensive forest legislation is urgentiy needed, with emphasis 
on forest conservation rather than the existing system of resource exploitation. Both acts are 
currently under revision. 

International Activities India ratified the Convention concerning the Protection of the World 
Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention) on 14 November 1977. Five natural 
sites have been inscribed on the World Heritage List to date, namely Kaziranga, Keoladeo, 
Sundarbans and Nanda Devi national parks and Manas Sanctuary. 

India acceded to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Water- 
fowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) on 1 October 198 1 , at which time Chilka Lake and Keoladeo 
National Park were designated as wedands of international importance. Four more sites (Harike, 
Logtak, Sambhar and Wular lakes) were designated on 23 March 1990. 

Participation in the Unesco Man and Biosphere Programme began in 1972 with the constitution 
of the Indian National MAB Committee. The Indian Biosphere Reserves Programme will 
operate within the ambit of existing state and federal legislation; separate legislation for 
biosphere reserves is not envisaged (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 1987b). Thirteen 
potential biosphere reserves have been identified, of which the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is the 
first to have been established but has yet to be nominated for inclusion in the international 
biosphere reserve network. 

Administration and Management The Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife 
within the Ministry of Environment and Forests was created in September 1985. It serves as the 
administrative focus within Central Government for planning, promoting and coordinating 
environmental and forestry programmes, including the preservation and protection of wildlife 
and the biosphere reserve programme (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 1987a). Pre- 
viously, wildlife management was the responsibility of the Forest Department within the 
Ministry of Agriculture. Following recommendations made by the Tiwari Committee, a separate 
Department of Environment was constituted on 1 November 1980 to which wildlife management 
was transferred in September 1982. This Department became part of a new Ministry of 
Environment and Forests, constituted under Presidential Notification No. 74/2/1/85-Cab. dated 
4 January 1985. At that time, the Ministry consisted of two departments, namely Environment 
and Forests & Wildlife, but these were merged later that year (Government of India, n.d.; 
Ministry of Environment and Forests, 1986, 1987a). Departments of environment have also 
been set up in a number of states (Biswas and Bannerjee, 1984). 



46 



India 



Wildlife, together with forestry, has traditionally been managed under a single administrative 
organisation within the forest departments of each state or union territory, with the role of Central 
Government being mainly advisory. There have been two recent developments. Firsdy, the 
Wild Life (Protection) Act has provided for the creation of posts of chief wildlife wardens and 
wildlife wardens in the states to exercise statutory powers under the Act. This has largely been 
responsible for the creation of wildlife wings within each state headed by a chief wildlife warden. 
Under this Act, it is also mandatory for the states to set up state wildlife advisory boards. 
Secondly, the inclusion of protection of wild animals and birds in the concurrent list of the 
Constitution, has provided the Centre with some legislative control over the states in the 
conservation of wildlife (Pillai, 1982). GuideUnes specifying that the management of protected 
areas should be under the remit of the wildlife wings were issued by Central Government in 
1975, but progress in implementing them was slow. This prompted Central Government to 
threaten cessation of Hnancial assistance to states which had not transferred protected areas to 
their respective wildlife wings. The situation has since improved, all states and union territories 
with national parks or sanctuaries having set up wildlife wings. However, by 1987, three states 
(Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu) had not transferred control over any protected area 
to their respective wildlife wings, while eight others (Bihar, Gujarat, Kamataka, Maharashtra, 
Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal) had transferred only some of their 
national parks and sanctuaries (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 1987a; Kothari et al., 
1989). Management of protected areas in individual states and union territories is summarised 
by Pillai (1982). 

The Indian Board for Wildlife under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister, is the main advisory 
body to the Government of India on wildlife matters. First constituted in 1952 as the Central 
Board for Wildlife, it was later re-designated as the Indian Board for Wildlife. Among its various 
achievements, it has been instrumental in the formulation of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, the 
establishment of many new protected areas (including tiger reserves), and in the formation of 
separate departments for wildlife conservation both at the Centre and in the states. State wildlife 
advisory boards have been constituted under statutory provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) 
Act to advise state governments (Saharia and Pillai, 1982). 

The administration of Project Tiger, initiated as a Central Sector Scheme in 1973, is overseen 
by a Steering Committee headed by the Minister of State for Environment and Forests. The 
Director is responsible for coordinating the Project within Central Government. Execution of 
the Project is the responsibility of the chief conservators of forests in the relevant states, witii 
tiger reserves managed by field directors. The Project's present status is that of a centrally- 
sponsored scheme, with costs shared equally between the union and state governments (Panwar, 
1982). 

Training in wildlife management is undertaken at the Wildlife Institute of India, which became 
an autonomous institution of the Ministry of Environment and Forests with effect from 1 April 
1986. Its objectives include training in protected areas management, research and extension 
services, building a computerised wildlife information system, and providing advisory services. 
The Institute offers a one-year post-graduate diploma course for forest officers, a three-month 
certificate course for forest rangers and an M.Sc. Wildlife Biology course (WE, 1987). 

There are many non-governmental organisations involved in nature conservation. The oldest is 
the Bombay Natural History Society, established in 1 883 and currendy comprising about 3,(XX) 
members. Whereas work undertaken in its early years was concentrated on collecting, ident- 



47 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

ifying and documenting India's flora and fauna, the emphasis has shifted to conservation- 
oriented research in recent decades, particularly threatened species and habitats. Long-term field 
studies are based in a number of protected areas, such as Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan), 
Mudumalai Sanctuary (Tamil Nadu) and Dalma Sanctuary (Bihar). The Society's Journal of 
the Bombay Natural History Society is widely circulated in India and overseas. 

World Wide Fund for Nature-India (formerly World Wildlife Fund-India), established in 1969, 
has quickly developed to become the largest non-governmental nature conservation organisation 
in India, with 20 branches and a total staff of about 130. Its activities include ecological research 
and surveys, policy reviews, conservation projects, nature education and responsibility to the 
Ministry of Environment and Forests for environmental information relating to federal and state 
legislatures, NGOs and the media. Two recent initiatives underway are the establishment of the 
Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre and the launch of a Community Biodiversity 
Conservation Movement. 

The Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, constituted in January 1984, has rapidly 
emerged as one of the most progressive and influential conservation bodies in India. It has 150 
regional chapters spread over India's 32 states and union territories, the ultimate goal being to 
establish achapter in each district. Its aim is to develop an awareness among the public of India's 
cultural and natural heritage and to promote its conservation. The Trust set up a Natural Heritage 
Cell in May 1985 which promotes land-use planning and management in areas of critical 
conservation importance. 

The Centre for Science and Environment aims to publicise topical environmental issues, as well 
as promoting people's participation in environmentally-sound rural development Its findings 
are documented in its citizens' reports, two of which have been published to date (CSE, 1982, 
1985). 

Other national conservation organisations include the Wildlife Preservation Society of India, 
founded in 1958 and publisher of the journal Cheetal. Another is the Indian Society of 
Naturalists, which publishes Environmental Awareness. Details of some 700 environmental 
non-governmental organisations can be found in a directory produced by WWF-India. 

Protected areas are often poorly managed, with little consideration given to the local people 
living in and around them (Singh, 1986). The legal, ecological and management status of 
protected areas has recentiy been examined by the Environment Studies Division, Indian 
Institute of Public Administration (Kothari et ai, 1989). The study was commissioned by the 
National Committee on Environmental Planning in 1984 and sponsored by the Ministry of 
Environment and Forests. The survey shows, for example, that only 40% of 52 national parks 
and 8% of 209 sanctuaries have completed legal procedures for their establishment. Only 43% 
of national parks and 28% of sanctuaries surveyed have management plans; in many cases they 
are cursory documents and have never been approved by the state government. Many of the 
deficiencies in protected areas management reflect a lack of commitment of resources on the 
part of state governments. For example, in 1983-84, expenditure on protected areas was 1.5% 
of forest department budgets. The Environmental Studies Division is currentiy engaged in a 
series of in-depth studies of management issues in a selection of India's major protected areas. 

Systems Reviews India is a nation of extraordinary diversity, the seventh largest and second 
most populous in the world. Its relief can be conceptualised in terms of three well-defined 



48 



India 

regions: the Himalayan mountain system along its northern margin; the Gangetic Plain, which 
extends some 2,400km from Assam in the east to the Punjab in the west and southwards to the 
Rann of Kutch in Gujarat; and the Deccan Plateau which is flanked on either side by the Western 
Ghats and Eastern Ghats (Mani, 1974). Its rich diversity of ecosystems, which range from 
tropical rain forests to deserts, and from marine and coastal systems to high mountains, support 
an estimated 5-8% of the world's known flowering plant and animal species, of which a 
significant proportion are endemic (Gadgil and Meher-Homji, 1986). Important centres of 
biological diversity, particularly for plants, are the Western Ghats, north-eastern India and the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Nayar, 1989). 

Forest once covered most of India but much of it has been destroyed or severely degraded as a 
result of human population pressures, particularly in the fertile lowlands which are among the 
most densely populated areas in the world. For example, 4.1 million hectares of forest were 
cleared mainly for agriculture between 1951 and 1980 (Vedant, 1986; Singh, 1986). Probably 
less than 1% of the total land area is covered by primary forest (Mani, 1974). Forests are 
estimated to have covered 64.01 million hectares in 1985-1987, or 19.5% of total land area 
comprising 11.5% dense forest (at least 40% crown density), 7.8% open forest (at least 10% 
crown density) and 0.1% mangrove forest (FSI, 1989). 

The total area of wetiands (excluding rivers) in India is 58,286,000ha, or 18.4% of the country, 
70% of which comprises areas under paddy cultivation. A total of 1,193 wetlands, covering an 
area of 3,904,543ha, were recorded in a preliminary inventory coordinated by the Department 
of Science and Technology, of which 572 were natural. In a recent review of India's wetiands, 
93 are identified as being of conservation importance (Scott, 1989). 

Coral reefs occur along only a few sections of the mainland, principally the Gulf of Kutch, off 
the southern mainland coast, and around a number of islands opposite Sri Lanka. This is due 
largely to the presence of major river systems and the sedimentary regime on the continental 
shelf. Elsewhere, corals are also found in the Andaman, Nicobar and Lakshadweep groups, 
although their diversity is reported to be lower than in south-east India (UNEP/IUCN, 1988). 

Historically, conservation in India stems mainly from the creation of large forest reserves in the 
late 19th and early 20th centuries to safeguard timber, soil and water resources. Superimposed 
on this network of reserved forests has been a much smaller number of national parks and 
sanctuaries where the value of the biological resource has persuaded authorities to reduce the 
level of forest product utilisation (Rodgers, 1985). Both the adoption of a National Policy for 
Wildlife Conservation in 1970 and the enactment of the Wild Life (Protection) Act in 1972 lead 
to significant growth in the protected areas network. The networic was further strengthened by 
a number of national conservation projects, notably Project Tiger, initiated on 1 April 1973 by 
the Government of India with support from WWF (IBWL, 1972; Panwar, 1982), and the 
Crocodile Breeding and Management Project, launched on 1 April 1975 with technical assistance 
from UNDP/FAO (Bustard, 1982). Project Tiger has been acclaimed as an internationally 
outstanding conservation success story. Its achievements and shortcomings are reviewed by 
Panwar (1984) and Singh (1986). More recendy, the Government of India has initiated a Snow 
Leopard Conservation Scheme along the lines of Project Tiger, but with the emphasis on 
resolving conflicts between wildlife and resident human populations without having to relocate 
villagers from within protected areas (Ministry of Environment and Forests, 1987a). 



49 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

In fulfillment of one of the major objectives of the National Wildlife Action Plan (Department 
of Environment, n.d.), the existing protected areas system has been reviewed and plans 
formulated for a comprehensive network which covers the full range of biological diversity in 
the country (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988). In mid-1987, there were 426 national parks and 
sanctuaries covering a combined area of 109,652 sq.km, or 3.3% of the country. Major gaps in 
the network included inadequate representation ( 1 %) of the following biotic provinces: Ladakh, 
South Deccan, Gangetic Plains, Assam Hills and Nicobars. Recommendations in the review 
bring the total number of protected areas to 65 1 , covering 151 ,342 sq.km or 4.6% of the country. 
Particular emphasis is given to protecting sites of high species diversity and endemism, as well 
as ecologically fragile areas. These proposals supercede previous recommendations emanating 
from the Corbett Action Plan (lUCN, 1985) and the lUCN systems review of the Indomalayan 
region (Mackinnon and Mackinnon, 1986). They also endorse the earlier work of Gadgil and 
Meher-Homji (1986), in which representation of the main vegetation types of India within the 
protected areas network is assessed. A number of states are now implementing many of the 
recommendations made in the protected areas plan, to the extent that total coverage by national 
parks and sanctuaries now exceeds 4%. 

Addresses 

Joint Secretary (Wildlife), Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife, Ministry of 

Environment and Forests, Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex, Lxxii Road, hJEW DELHI 

1 10 003 (Cable: PARYAVARAN. NEW DELHI; Tlx: 3163015 WILD IN; Tel: 306156) 
Inspector-General of Forests, Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife, Ministry of 

Environment and Forests, Paryavaran Bhawan, CGO Complex, Lodi Road, NEW DELHI 

1 10 003 (Cable: AGRINDIA, NEW DELHI) 
Director, Project Tiger, Bikaner House, New Delhi- 1 1001 1 
Director, Wildlife Institute of India, PO New Forest, Dehra Dun 248 006 (Cable: WILDLIFE; 

Tlx 585238 PRES IN, 585258 FRIC IN; Tel. 27021-8, 28760, 27724) 
Chief Wildlife Warden. P O Chatham, PORT BLAIR. Andaman & Nicobar 744 101 (Union 

Territory) 
Conservator of Forests (Wildlife). HYDERABAD. Andra Pradesh 500 004 
Chief Wildlife Warden. ITANAGAR. Arunachal Pradesh 791 1 1 1 
Chief Conservator of Forests and Chief Wildlife Warden, Retabari. GUWAHATI, Assam 788 

735 
Chief Wildlife Warden. PO Hinoo, RANCHI. Bihar 834 002 
Divisional Forest Officer and Chief Wildlife Warden. Estate Office. Sector 17. CHANDIGARH 

160 017 (Union Territory) 
Chief Wildlife Warden, SILVASSA. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 396230 (Union Territory) 
ADM and Chief Wildlife Warden, Room 39. 1st Floor. Western Wing, Tis Hazari. DELHI 1 10 

054 (Union Territory) 
Conservator of Forests and Chief Wildlife Warden, Wildlife and Parks Division. Junta House, 

3rd Hoor. PANAJI. Goa 403 001 
Chief Conservator of Forests and Chief Wildlife Warden, Kothi Annexe. BARODA. Gujarat 

390 001 
Chief Wildlife Warden. Kothi 70. Sector 8. PANCHKULA. Haryana 134 109 
Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife) and Chief Wildlife Warden. Talland, SIMLA. Himachal 

Pradesh 171 002 
Chief Wildlife Warden. Tourist Reception Centre. SRINAGAR. Jammu & Kashmir 190 001 
Chief Wildlife Warden, 1 1 Floor, Aranya Bhawan. 18th Cross. Malleshwaram. BANGALORE, 

Kamataka 560 003 
Additional Chief Conservator of Forests and Chief Wildlife Warden. TRIVANDRUM, Kerala 

695 001 



50 



India 



Administrator, Via KAVARATTI, Lakshadweep 673 555 GJnion Territory) 

Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife) and Chief Wildlife Warden, Forest Department, 1st 

Floor, B-Wing, Satpura Bhawan, BHOPAL, Madhya Pradesh 462 001 
Chief Wildlife Warden, Nature Conservation, MS, NAGPUR, Maharashtra 440 001 
Chief Wildlife Warden, PO Sanjenthong, IMPHAL, Manipur 795 001 
Chief Wildlife Warden, Risa Colony, SHILLONG, Meghalaya 793 003 
Chief Wildlife Warden, AIZAWAL, Mizoram 796 001 
Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife), DIMAPUR, Nagaland 797 1 12 
Additional Conservator of Forests (Wildlife) and Chief Wildlife Warden, 315 Kharvel Nagar, 

BHUBANESHWAR,Orissa751 001 
Chief Wildlife Warden, PONDICHERRY 605 001 (Union Territory) 
Chief Wildlife Warden, Punjab SCD 2463-64, Sector 22C. CHA^fDIGARH, Punjab 160 022 
Chief Wildlife Warden, Van Bhawan, Bhagwan Das Road, JAIPUR, Rajasthan 302 001 
Conservator of Forests (Fish and Wildlife) andChief Wildlife Warden, GANGTOK, Sikkim 737101 
Additional Conservator of Forests (Wildlife) and Chief Wildlife Warden, 571 Tiruchi Road, 

COIMBATORE. Tamil Nadu 641 045 
Chief Conservator of Forests and Chief Wildlife Warden, P O Kunjaban, AGARTALA, Tripura 

799 006 
Chief Wildlife Warden, 17 Rana Pratap Marg, LUCKNOW, Uttar Pradesh 226 001 
Chief Conservator of Forests and Chief Wildlife Warden, P- 1 6 Exchange Place Ext., New CTT 

Building, CALCUTTA, West Bengal 700 073 
Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS), Curator, Hombill House, Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, 

BOMBAY 400 023 (Cable: HORNBILL; Tel. 243869, 244085) 
Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), Director, F6 Kailash Colony, NEW DELHI (Tel. 

6438109) 
Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH), Director-Natural Heritage, 71 

Lodi Estate, NEW DELHI 1 10 003 (Tel. 61 1362, 618912, 616581) 
Indian Society of Naturalists (INSONA), Oza Building, SALATWADA, Baroda 390 001 
Wildlife Preservation Society of India, Honorary Secretary, 7 Astley Hall, DEHRA DUN (Tel. 

5392) 
Worldwide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India), Secretary General, Secretariat, 172-B Lodi 

Estate, NEW DELHI 1 10 003 (Fax 626837; Tel. 616532, 693744) 

References 

Biswas, D.K. and Bannerjee, P.K. (1984). Environmental programmes of the Govemment of bidia. 

In: Singh, Shekhar (Ed.), Environmental policy in India. Indian Institute of Public Administra- 
tion, New Delhi. Pp. 97-115. 
Bustard, H.R. (1982). Crocodile breeding project. InSaharia, V.B. (Ed.), WtW///e j/i/mi"a. Natraj 

Publishers, Dehra Dun. Pp. 147-163. 
CSE (1982). The state of India's environment 1982. Afirst citizens' report. Centre for Science and 

Environment, New E>elhi. 
CSE (1985). The state of India's environment 1984-85. A second citizens' report. Centre for 

Science and Environment, New Delhi. Pp. 343-351. 
Department of Environment (n.d.). National Wildlife Action Plan. Govemment of India, New 

Delhi. 28 pp. 
Dwivedi, O.P.and Kishore, B. (1984). India's environmental policies: areview. In: Singh, Shekhar 

(Ed.), Environmental policy in India. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. 

Pp. 47-84. 
FSI (1989). The state of forest report 1989. Forest Survey of India, Govemment of India, Dehra 

Dun. 50 pp. 



51 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Gadgil, Madhav (1989). The Indian heritage of a conservation ethic. In: AUchin, B., Allchin, F.R, 

and Thapar, B.K. (Eds), Conservation of the Indian Heritage. Cosmo Publishers, New E>elhi. 

Pp. 13-21. 
Gadgil, Madhav and Meher-Homji, V.M. (1986). Role of protected areas in conservation. In: 

Chopra, V.L. and Khoshoo, T.N. (Eds) Conservationfor productive agriculture. Indian Council 

of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. Pp. 143-159. 
Gadgil, Madhav and Meher-Homji, V.M. (1986). Localities of great significance to conservation 

of India's biological diversity. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal 

Sciences/Plant Sciences) Supplement 1986: 165-180. 
Government of India (n.d.). Department of Environment: a profile. Government of India, New 

Delhi. 23 pp. 
Government of India (1988). National Forest Policy 1988. Ministry of Environment and Forests, 

Government of India, New Delhi. 13 pp. 
IBWL (1970). Wildlife conservation in India. Report of the Expert Committee. Indian Board for 

Wildlife, Government of India, New Delhi. 149 pp. 
IBWL (1972). Project Tiger. A planning proposal for preservation of tiger (Panthera tigris tigris 

Linn.) in India. Indian Board for Wildlife, Government of India, New Delhi. 1 14 pp. 
lUCN (1985). The Corbett Action Plan for protected areas of the Indomalayan Realm. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. 23 pp. 
Kothari, A., Pande, P., Singh, S., Variava, D. (1989). Management of national parks and 

sanctuaries in India: a status report. Environmental Studies Division, Indian Institute of Public 

Administration, New Delhi. 298 pp. 
Kothari, A., Pande, P., and Singh, S. (Eds) (1990). Directory of national parks and sanctuaries 

in Himachal Pradesh. Environmental Studies Division, Indian Institute of Public Administra- 
tion, New Delhi. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. (1986). Review of the protected areas system in the Indo- 

Malayan Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 284 pp. 
Mani, M.S. (Ed.)(1974). Ecology and biogeography in India. Junk, The Hague. 
Ministry ofEnvironment and Forests (1985). India. Country Report 1985. Presented to DC World 

Forestry Congress. Government of India, New Delhi. 53 pp. 
Ministry ofEnvironment and Forests (1986). Annual report 1985-86. Government of India, New 

Delhi. 57 pp. 
Ministry of Environment and Forests (1987a). Annual report 1986-87. Government of India, 

New Delhi. 73 pp. 
Ministry of Environment and Forests (1987b). Biosphere reserves. Government of India, New 

Delhi. 250 pp. 
Mitra, D.K. (1989). Note on the ancient history of nature and wildlife conservation in India. Zoo's 

Print 4{12): 13. 
Nair, S.C. (n.d.). Natural resources conservation and development in Andaman and Nicobar 

islands. Department of Environment, New Delhi. 76 pp. 
Nayar, M.P. (1989). In situ conservation of wild flora resources. Paper presented at National 

Symposium on the Conservation of India's Genetic Estate, New Delhi, 3-4 November 1989. 

19 pp. 
Fanwar,H,S.(1982). Project Tiger. Jn:Sahan!i,W.B. (Ed.), Wildlife in India. Natraj Publications, 

Dehra Dun. Pp. 130-137. 
Panwar, H.S. (1984). What to do when you've succeeded: Project Tiger, ten years later. In: 

McNeely, J.A. and Miller, K.R.(Eds.), ffational parks, conservation and developmeru: the role 

of protected areas in sustaining society. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC. Pp. 

183-189. 
Pillai, V.N.K. (1982). Status of wildlife conservation in states and union territories. In: Saharia, 

V.B. (Ed.), Wildlife in India. Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun. Pp. 74-91. 
Rogers, W.A. (1985). Biogeography and protected area plarming in India. In: Thorsell, J.W. (Ed.), 

Conserving Asia's natural heritage. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Pp. 

103-113. 



52 



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Saharia, V.B. and Pillai, V.N.K. (1982). Organisation and legislation. In Saharia, V.B. (Ed.), 

Wildlife in India. Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun. Pp. 53-73. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Singh, Cbhatrapati (1985). Emerging principles of environmental laws for development In: 

Bandopadhyay, J., Jayal, N.D., Schoettli, V., Singh, Cbhatrapati (Eds), India's environment: 

crises and responses. Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun. F*p. 247-275. 
Singh, Samar (1985). Protected areas in India. In: Thorsell, J.W. (Ed.), Conserving Asia's natural 

heritage. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Pp. 11-18. 
Singh, Samar (1986). Conserving India's Natural Heritage. Natraj Publishers, Dehra Dun. 219 pp. 
UNEP/IUCN(1988). Coral Reefs of the World Volume II .Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf UNEP 

Regional Seas Directories and Bibliogr^hies. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UKAJNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 389 pp. 
Variava,D. and Singh, S. (1985). Directory ofnational parks and sanctuaries in India. Directorate 

of Wildlife F*reservation, Govemment of India, New Delhi. 
Vedant, C.S. (1986). Comment: afforestation in India. Ambio 15: 254-255. 
WII(1985). The Biogeogr^hy Project ofthe Govemment of Lidia. First Report. Wildlife Institute 

of India, Dehra Dun. 23 pp. 
WII(1986). The Biogeography Project of the Govemment of India. ThirdReport. Wildlife Institute 

of India, Dehra Dun. 14 pp. 
WII (1987). Ammal report 1986-87. WildUfe Institute of India, Dehra Dun. 58 pp. 



53 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Summary of Protected Areas of India 



National/International designation 
Name of area 

Ramsar Wetlands 



lUCN Management Area Year 

category (ha) notified 



Keoladeo National Park 

World Heritage Sites 

Kaziranga National Paric 
Keoladeo National Park 
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary 
Nanda Devi National Park 
Sundarbans National Park 



n 



2,873 



1972 



X 


42,996 


1985 


X 


2,873 


1985 


X 


39,100 


1985 


X 


63,033 


1982 


X 


133,010 


1984 



ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS UNION TERRITORY 



National Parks 

Marine (Wandur) 

Middle Butten Island 

Mount Harriet Island 

North Butten Island 

Saddle Peak 

South Butten Island 
Sanctuaries 

Arial Island 

Bamboo Island 

Barren Island 

Battimalve Island 

Belle Island 

Benett Island 

Bingham Island 

Blister Island 

Bluff Island 

Bondoville Island 

Brush Island 

Buchanan Island 

Chanel Island 

Cinque Island 

Clyde Island 

Cone Island 

Cnx;odile (Lohabairack) 

Curiew (B.P.) Island 

Curlew Island 

Defence Island 

Dot Island 



n 


28,150 


1983 


n 


65 


1979 


II 


4,622 


1979 


n 


44 


1979 


n 


3,255 


1979 


II 


4 


1979 


rv 


5 


1987 


IV 


5 


1987 


IV 


810 


1977 


IV 


223 


1985 


IV 


8 


1987 


IV 


346 


1987 


rv 


8 


1987 


IV 


26 


1987 


rv 


114 


1987 


IV 


255 


1987 


rv 


23 


1987 


IV 


933 


1987 


IV 


13 


1987 


IV 


951 


1987 


IV 


54 


1987 


IV 


65 


1987 


rv 


10,600 


1983 


rv 


16 


1987 


IV 


3 


1987 


rv 


1,049 


1987 


IV 


18 


1987 



54 



India 



Dottrel Island 
Duncan Island 
East (Inglis) Island 
East Island 
Egg Island 
Entrance IslandS 
Rat Island 
Gander Island 
Goose Island 
Gurjan Island 
Hump Island 
Interview Island 
James Island 
Jungle Island 
Kwangtung Island 
Kyd Island 
Landfall Island 
Latouche Island 
Mangrove Island 
Mask Island 
Mayo Island 
Megapode Island 
Montogemery Island 
Narcondum Island 
North Brother Island 
North Island 
North Reef Island 
Oliver Island 
Orchid Island 
Ox Island 
Oyster Island- 1 
Oyster Island-2 
Paget Island 
Parkinson Island 
Passage Island 
Patric Island 
Peacock Island 
Pitman Island 
Point Island 
Potanma Island 
Ranger Island 
Reef Island 
Roper Island 
Ross Island 
Rowe Island 
Sandy Island 
Sea Serpent Island 
Shark Island 
Shearme Island 



IV 


13 


1987 


IV 


73 


1987 


IV 


355 


1987 


IV 


611 


1987 


IV 


5 


1987 


IV 


96 


1987 


rv 


936 


1987 


IV 


5 


1987 


IV 


1 


1987 


rv 


16 


1987 


IV 


47 


1987 


IV 


13,300 


1985 


IV 


210 


1987 


IV 


52 


1987 


IV 


57 


1987 


IV 


800 


1987 


IV 


2,948 


1987 


rv 


96 


1987 


rv 


39 


1987 


IV 


78 


1987 


IV 


10 


1987 


rv 


13 


1985 


IV 


21 


1987 


IV 


681 


1977 


IV 


75 


1987 


IV 


49 


1987 


IV 


348 


1977 


rv 


16 


1987 


IV 


10 


1987 


IV 


13 


1987 


IV 


8 


1987 


rv 


21 


1987 


IV 


736 


1987 


IV 


34 


1987 


IV 


62 


1987 


IV 


13 


1987 


IV 


62 


1987 


IV 


137 


1987 


rv 


307 


1987 


rv 


16 


1987 


rv 


426 


1987 


rv 


174 


1987 


IV 


146 


1987 


rv 


101 


1987 


rv 


1 


1987 


IV 


158 


1987 


IV 


78 


1987 


IV 


60 


1987 


IV 


785 


1987 



55 



IV 


106 


1987 


IV 


36 


1987 


IV 


3 


1987 


IV 


73 


1987 


IV 


124 


1987 


IV 


117 


1987 


rv 


161 


1977 


IV 


42 


1987 


IV 


1,170 


1987 


IV 


44 


1987 


IV 


31 


1987 


IV 


409 


1987 


IV 


229 


1987 


IV 


169 


1987 


IV 


321 


1987 


IV 


104 


1987 


IV 


1,683 


1985 


IV 


3 


1987 


IV 


96 


1987 


IV 


29 


1987 


IV 


39 


1987 


IV 


640 


1987 


IV 


11 


1987 


IV 


47 


1987 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Sir Hugh Rose Island 
Sisters Island 
Snake Island- 1 
Snake Island-2 
South Brother Island 
South Reef Island 
South Sentinel Island 
Spike Island- 1 
Spike IsIand-2 
Stoat Island 
Surat Island 
Swamp Island 
Table (Delgarao) Island 
Table (Excelsior) Island 
Talabaicha Island 
Temple Island 
Tillanchong Island 
Tree Island 
Trilby Island 
Tuft Island 
Turtle Island 
West Island 
Wharf Island 
White Cliff Island 

Subtotal 81,650 

A^a)RA PRADESH STATE 

Sanctuaries 
Coringa 
Etumagaram 
Kawal 
Kinnersani 
Kolleru 
Lanjamadugu 
Manjira 

Nagaijunasagar Srisailam 
Neelapattu 
Pakhal 
Papikonda 
Pocharam 
Pranhita 
Pulicat 
Rollapadu 
Siwaram 
Srivenkateswara 

Subtotal 673,605 



56 



IV 


23,570 


1978 


IV 


81,259 


1953 


IV 


89,228 


1965 


IV 


63,540 


1977 


IV 


90,100 


1963 


IV 


3,620 


1978 


IV 


2,000 


1978 


IV 


35,689 


1978 


IV 


453 


1976 


IV 


86,205 


1952 


IV 


59,068 


1978 


IV 


12,964 


1952 


IV 


13,603 


1980 


IV 


58,000 


1976 


IV 


614 


1988 


IV 


2,992 


1978 


IV 


50,700 





ARUNACHAL PRADESH STATE 



India 



National Parks 

Mouling 

Namdapha 
Sanctuaries 

D'Ering Memorial 

Itanagar 

Mehao 

Pakhui 

Subtotal 
ASSAM STATE 



n 


48,300 


1986 


n 


198,524 


1983 


IV 


19,000 


1978 


rv 


14,030 


1978 


IV 


28,150 


1980 


rv 


86,195 


1977 



394,199 



National Parks 
Kaziranga 

Sanctuaries 
Bamadi 
Dipor Beel 
Garampani 
Laokhowa 
Manas 
Nameri 
Orang 
Pabha 
Pobitora 
Sonai Rupai 

Subtotal 

BIHAR STATE 



II 



42,996 



143,582 



1974 



IV 


2,622 


1980 


rv 


4,000 


1989 


rv 


600 


1952 


IV 


7,014 


1979 


rv 


39,100 


1928 


rv 


13,707 


1985 


rv 


7,260 


1985 


rv 


4,900 




rv 


3,883 


1987 


IV 


17,500 


1934 



National Parks 

Palamau 
Sanctuaries 

Bhimbandh 

Dalma 

Gautam Budha 

Hazaribagh 

Kabar 

Kaimur 

Koderma 

Lawalang 

Mahuadaur 

NagiDam 

NaktiDam 

Palamau 

Parasnath 



n 



21,300 



1986 



rv 


68,190 


1976 


rv 


19,322 


1976 


IV 


25,948 


1976 


IV 


18,625 


1976 


IV 


20,400 


1986 


IV 


134,222 


1978 


rv 


17,795 


1985 


rv 


21,103 


1978 


rv 


6,325 


1976 


IV 


209 


1983 


rv 


20,640 


1985 


rv 


76,700 


1976 


IV 


4,923 


1984 



57 



IV 


3,584 


1978 


IV 


875 


1978 


IV 


874 


1978 


IV 


46,160 


1978 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Rajgir 
Topchanchi 
Udaipur 
Valmikinagar 

Subtotal 507,195 

CHANDIGARH UNION TERRITORY 

Sanctuaries 

Sukhna IV 2,542 

Subtotal 2,542 

DELHI UNION TERRITORY 

Sarwtuaries 

Indira Priyadarshini IV 1,320 

Subtotal 1^320 

GOA STATE 

Natiortal Parks 

Bhagwan Mahavir H 10,700 1978 

Sanctuaries 

Bhagwan Mahavir 

Bondla 

Chorao 

Cotigao 

Subtotal 37,032 

GUJARAT STATE 

National Parks 

Bansda 

Gir 

Marine (Gulf of Kutch) 

Velavadar 
Sanctuaries 

Barda 

Dumkhal 

Gaga 

Gir 

Hingolgadh 

Jessore 

Kachchh Desert 

Khijadiya 



58 



rv 


14,852 


1967 


IV 


800 


1969 


IV 


180 


1988 


IV 


10,500 


1968 



n 


2,399 


1976 


n 


25,871 


1975 


n 


16,289 


1982 


n 


3,408 


1976 


IV 


19,931 


1979 


IV 


44,818 


1982 


IV 


333 


1987 


IV 


115,342 


1965 


IV 


654 


1980 


IV 


18,066 


1978 


IV 


750,622 


1986 


IV 


605 


1981 



] 



India 



Marine (Gulf of Kutch) 
Nal Sarovar 
Narayan Sarovar 
Rampura 
Ratamnahal 
Wild Ass 

Subtotal 

HARYANA STATE 



rv 


29,303 


1986 


rv 


12,082 


1969 


rv 


76,579 


1981 


rv 


1,501 


1988 


rv 


5,565 


1982 


IV 


495,370 


1973 



1,618,738 



Sanctuaries 
Bhindawas 
Bir Shikargah 
Chautala 
Chhilchhila 
Nahar 
Sultanpur 

Subtotal 

HIMACHAL PRADESH STATE 



IV 


513 


1986 


rv 


1,093 


1975 


rv 


11,396 


1987 


rv 


43 


1986 


rv 


212 


1987 


IV 


121 


1971 



13,378 



National Parks 

Great Himalayan 

Pin Valley 
Sanctuaries 

Bandli 

ChaU 

Churdhar 

Daranghati 

Darlaghat 

Gamgul Siya-Behi 

Gobind Sagar 

Kalatop& Khajjiar 

Kanawar 

Khokhan 

Kias 

Kugti 

Lippa Asrang 

Majathal 

Manali 

Naina Devi 

Nargu 

Pong Dam 

Raksham Chitkul 

Renuka 

Rupi Bhabha 

Sechu Tuan Nala 



II 


60,561 


1984 


n 


80,736 


1987 


rv 


3,947 


1962 


IV 


11,004 


1976 


rv 


5,659 


1985 


IV 


2,701 


1962 


rv 


9,871 


1962 


rv 


10,546 


1949 


rv 


12,067 


1962 


IV 


3,069 


1949 


rv 


6,157 


1954 


rv 


1,760 


1954 


rv 


1,220 


1954 


rv 


33,000 


1962 


IV 


2,953 


1962 


IV 


3,164 


1962 


IV 


3,127 


1954 


rv 


3,719 


1962 


rv 


24,313 


1962 


IV 


32,270 


1983 


rv 


3,827 


1962 


rv 


478 


1964 


IV 


85,414 


1982 


IV 


65,532 


1962 



59 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Shikari E)evi 


IV 


7,119 


1962 


Shilli 


IV 


202 


1963 


Simbalbara 


IV 


1,720 


1958 


Simla Water Catchment Area 


I 


951 


1958 


Talra 


IV 


3,616 


1962 


Tirthan 


IV 


6,825 


1976 


Tundah 


IV 


41,948 


1962 



Subtotal 



531^55 



JAMMU & KASHMIR STATE 



National Parks 

City Forest 

Dachigam 

Hemis High Altitude 

Kishtwar 
Game Reserves 

Bohu 

Bcx)dhkharbu Chakar 

Brain 

Chashul Wetland 

Daksum 

Dara 

Gaurana Wetland 

Honlei Wetland 

Hygam 

Jawahar Tunnel 

Kanji 

Khanguid 

Khirram 

Khrew 

Kokarian Wedand 

Koritaroh 

Limber 

Lung Nag 

Mirgrind Wetiand 

Nadoora Wetiand 

Nangachantar Wetiand 

Noorichang Wetiand 

Pampore-Kranchoo Wetiand 

Panyar 

Pargawal Wetiand 

Sabu Chakar 

Sangral Wedand 

Shallabug Wetiand 

Shang 

Shikargah 

Sudh Mahadev 



Unassigned 


907 




n 


14,100 


1981 


n 


410,000 


1981 


n 


31,000 


1981 


Unassigned 


1,974 


1981 


Unassigned 


1,200 


1981 


Unassigned 


1,870 




Unassigned 


1,500 


1981 


Unassigned 


5,000 




Unassigned 


3,000 




Unassigned 


80 


1981 


Unassigned 


700 


1981 


Unassigned 


1,400 




Unassigned 


1,799 


1981 


Unassigned 


10,000 


1981 


Unassigned 


4,910 




Unassigned 


2,800 




Unassigned 


4,410 




Unassigned 


2,023 


1981 


Unassigned 


1,166 




Unassigned 


1,200 




Unassigned 


40,000 




Unassigned 


300 




Unassigned 






Unassigned 


1,529 


1980 


Unassigned 


200 


1981 


Unassigned 


500 




Unassigned 


1,600 




Unassigned 


4,918 


1981 


Unassigned 


1,500 


1981 


Unassigned 


696 


1981 


Unassigned 


700 


1981 


Unassigned 


8,000 


1981 


Unassigned 


2,800 




Unassigned 


10,165 


1981 



60 



India 



Thain 

Tsomarari Wetland 
Sanctuaries 
Baltal 

Changthang 
Gulmarg 
Hirapora 
Hokarsar 
Jasrota 
Karakoram 
Lachipora 
Limber 
Nandini 
Overa 
Overa-Ani 
Ramnagar 
Surinsar-Mansar 
Tongri 
Trikuta 



Unassigned 


1,889 


1981 


Unassigned 


1,000 


1981 


IV 


20.300 


1987 


IV 


400,000 


1987 


IV 


18,600 


1987 


rv 


11,000 


1987 


IV 


1,000 




rv 


406 


1987 


rv 


180,000 




rv 


8,000 


1987 


rv 


2,600 


1987 


rv 


3,372 


1981 


rv 


3,237 


1981 


rv 


42,500 


1987 


rv 


1,290 


1981 


rv 


3,958 


1981 


rv 


2,000 




rv 


310 


1981 



Subtotal 



1,275,409 



KARNATAKA STATE 



National Parks 

Anshi 

Bandipur 

Bannerghatta 

Kudrcmukh 

Nagarahole 
Sanctuaries 

Adichuncha Nagiri 

Arabithittu 

Bhadra 

Biligiri Ranga Swamy Temple 

Brahmagiri 

Cauvery 

Dandeli 

Ghataprabha 

Melkote Temple 

Mookambika 

Nugu 

Pushpagiri 

Ranebemiur 

Ranganthittu 

Sharavathi Valley 

Shettihally 

Someshwara 

Talkaveri 



II 

n 
n 
n 
n 

rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 

IV 

rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 
rv 



25,000 


1987 


87,420 


1974 


10,427 


1974 


60,032 


1987 


64,339 


1975 


84 


1981 


1,350 




49,246 


1974 


32,440 


1974 


18,129 


1974 


51,051 


1987 


572,907 


1975 


2,979 


1974 


4,982 


1974 


24,700 


1974 


3,032 


1974 


10,292 


1987 


11,900 


1974 


67 


1940 


43,123 


1974 


39,560 


1974 


8,840 


1974 


10,500 


1987 



61 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Tungabadra 
Subtotal 
KERALA STATE 

National Parks 

Eravikulam 

Periyar 

Silent Valley 
Sanctuaries 

Aralam 

Chimony 

Chiimar 

Idukki 

Neyyar 

Parambikulam 

Peechi Vazhani 

Peppara 

Periyar 

Shenduruny 

Thattekkad Bird 

Wynad 

Subtotal 
MADHYA PRADESH STATE 

National Parks 

Bandhavgarh 

Fossil 

Indravati 

Kanger Ghati 

Kanha 

Madhav 

Panna 

Pench 

Sanjay 

Satpura 

Van Vihar 
Sanctuaries 

Achanakmar 

Badalkhol 

Bagdara 

Bamawapara 

Bhairamgarh 

Bori 

Gandhi Sagar 

Ghatigaon Great Indian Bustard 



IV 



22,422 
1,154^22 



n 


9,700 


1978 


n 


30,500 


1982 


n 


8.952 


1980 


IV 


5,500 


1984 


IV 


10,500 


1984 


IV 


9,044 


1984 


IV 


7,700 


1976 


IV 


12,800 


1958 


IV 


28,500 


1973 


IV 


12.500 


1958 


IV 


5,300 


1983 


IV 


47,200 


1950 


IV 


10,032 


1984 


IV 


2,500 


1983 


IV 


34,444 


1973 



285,172 



n 


44,884 


1968 


m 


27 


1983 


n 


125,837 


1978 


n 


20,000 


1982 


n 


94,000 


1955 


n 


15,615 


1959 


n 


542,666 


1981 


n 


29,286 


1977 


n 


193,801 


1981 


n 


52,437 


1981 


Unassigned 


445 


1979 


rv 


55,155 


1975 


IV 


10,435 


1975 


IV 


47,890 


1978 


IV 


24.466 


1976 


IV 


13.895 


1983 


IV 


51.825 


1977 


IV 


36.862 


1974 


IV 


51,200 


1981 



62 



India 



Gomarda 

Karera Great Indian Bustard 

Ken Gharial 

Kheoni 

Narsingarh 

National Chambal 

Noradehi 

Pachmarhi 

Palpur (Kuno) 

Pamed 

Panpatha 

Pench 

Phen 

Ratapani 

Sailana 

Sanjay (Dubri) 

Sardarpur 

Semarsot 

Singhori (Sindhari) 

Sitanadi 

Son Gharial 

Tamor Pingla 

Udanti 



IV 


27,782 


1972 


IV 


20,221 


1981 


rv 


4,500 


1981 


IV 


12,270 


1982 


rv 


5,719 


1974 


IV 


42,300 


1978 


IV 


118,696 


1975 


rv 


46,086 


1977 


rv 


34,468 


1981 


rv 


26,212 


1983 


rv 


24,584 


1983 


rv 


11,847 


1977 


IV 


11,024 


1983 


rv 


68,879 


1976 


rv 


1,296 


1983 


rv 


36,459 


1975 


rv 


34,812 


1983 


IV 


43,036 


1978 


IV 


28,791 


1976 


IV 


55,336 


1974 


rv 


4,180 


1981 


rv 


60,852 


1978 


rv 


24,759 


1983 



Subtotal 



2,154335 



MAHARASHTRA STATE 



National Parks 

Gugamal 

Nawegaon 

Pench 

Sanjay Gandhi 

Tadoba 
Sanctuaries 

Andhari 

Aner Dam 

Bhimashankar 

Bor 

Chandoli 

Chaprala 

Gautala Autram 

Great Indian Bustard 

Jaikwadi 

Kalsubai Harishchandragad 

Kamala 

Katepuma 

Koyna 

Malvan 



n 


36,180 


1987 


n 


13,388 


1975 


n 


25,726 


1975 


n 


8,696 


1983 


II 


11,655 


1955 


rv 


50,900 


1986 


IV 


8,294 


1986 


rv 


13,100 


1985 


IV 


6,110 


1970 


rv 


30,900 


1985 


rv 


13,500 


1986 


rv 


26,100 


1986 


IV 


849,644 


1979 


rv 


34,105 


1986 


rv 


36,200 


1986 


rv 


448 


1968 


IV 


1,500 




rv 


42,400 


1985 


IV 


2,912 


1987 



63 



IV 


159,733 


1985 


IV 


15,281 


1969 


rv 


10,010 


1986 


IV 


32,462 


1986 


IV 


7,000 


1986 


IV 


37,200 


1958 


rv 


217 


1980 


IV 


1,100 


1985 


IV 


30,481 


1970 


IV 


17,752 


1969 



n 


4,000 


1977 


n 


4,130 


1982 


IV 


18,480 


1989 




26,610 





lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Melghat 

Nagzira 

Nandur Madmeshwar 

Painganga 

Phansad 

Radhanagari 

Rehekuri 

Sagarcshwar 

Tansa 

Yawal 

Subtotal 1,522,994 

MANIPUR STATE 

National Parks 

Keibul Lamjao 

Sirohi 
Sanctuaries 

Yagoupokpi Lokchao 

Subtotal 
MEGHALAYA STATE 

National Parks 

Balphakram H 22,000 1986 

Nokrek n 6,801 1985 

Sanctuaries 

Bagmara IV 2 1984 

NongkhyUem IV 2,900 1981 

Siju IV 518 1979 

Subtotal 32,221 

MIZORAM STATE 

Sanctuaries 

Dampa IV 68,100 1985 

Subtotal 68,100 

NAGALAND STATE 

Sanctuaries 
Fakim 
Intanki 
Puliebadze 



IV 


642 


1983 


IV 


20,202 


1975 


IV 


923 


1979 



64 



India 



Rangapahar IV 470 1986 

Subtotal 22,237 

ORISSA STATE 

National Parks 

North Simlipal 11 84,570 1978 

Sanctuaries 

Balimela 

Balukhand 

Bhitar Kanika 

Chandaka Dampada 

Chilka 

Debrigarh 

Hadgarh 

Kapilasa 

Karlapat 

Khalasuni 

Kondakameni 

Kotgaiii 

Kuldiha 

Lakhari 

Mahanadi Baisipalli 

Nandankanan 

Saptasajya 

Satkosia Gorge 

Simlipal 

Sunabeda 

Ushakothi 

Subtotal 683,838 

PUNJAB STATE 

Sanctuaries 
Abohar 
Bir Bunerheri 
Bir Gurdial Pura 
Bir Motibagh 
HarikeLake 

Subtotal 25324 

RAJASTHAN STATE 

National Parks 

Desert H 316,200 1981 

Keoladeo n 2,873 1981 



65 



IV 


16,000 




IV 


7,200 


1984 


IV 


17,000 


1975 


IV 


22,000 


1982 


rv 


1.553 


1987 


IV 


34,690 


1985 


IV 


19,160 


1978 


IV 


12,600 


1970 


rv 


25,500 


1969 


rv 


11,600 


1982 


rv 


43,000 




IV 


39,950 


1981 


rv 


27,275 


1984 


rv 


11,835 


1985 


IV 


16,835 


1981 


Unassigned 


1,402 


1979 


IV 


2,000 


1970 


rv 


79,552 


1976 


rv 


135,500 


1978 


rv 


44,213 


1983 


IV 


30,403 


1987 



IV 


18,824 


1975 


rv 


829 


1952 


rv 


847 


1977 


rv 


524 


1952 


rv 


4,300 


1982 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Ran tham bore 
Sari ska 
Sanctuaries 

Bandh Baretha 

Bassi 

Bhensrodgarh 

Dairah 

Jaisamand 

Jamwa Ramgarh 

Jawahar Sagar 

Keladevi 

Kumbhalgarh 

Mount Abu 

Nahargarii 

National Chambal 

Phulwari 

Ramgarh Bundi 

Sanjjangaiii 

Sariska 

Sawai Mansingh 

Shergarh 

Sita Mata 

Sunda Mata 

Tal Chapar 

Todgarh Raoli 

Van Vihar 



n 


39,200 


1980 


n 


27,380 


1982 


IV 


19,276 


1985 


IV 


15,290 




IV 


22,914 


1983 


IV 


26,583 


1955 


IV 


5,200 


1956 


IV 


30,000 


1982 


IV 


10,000 


1980 


IV 


67,600 


1983 


IV 


57,826 


1971 


IV 


28,884 


1960 


IV 


5,000 


1980 


IV 


28,000 


1983 


IV 


51,141 


1983 


IV 


30,700 


1982 


IV 


519 


1987 


IV 


49,200 


1958 


IV 


10,325 


1984 


IV 


9,871 


1983 


IV 


42,294 


1979 


IV 


10,700 




IV 


710 


1962 


IV 


49,527 


1983 


IV 


5,993 


1955 



Subtotal 
SIKKIM STATE 



963,206 



National Parks 

Khangchendzonga 
Sanctuaries 

Fambong Lho 

Kyongnosla 

Maenam 

Singba 



n 



84,950 



1977 



IV 


5,160 


1984 


IV 


401 


1984 


IV 


3,534 


1987 


IV 


3,250 


1984 



Subtotal 
TAMIL NADU STATE 



97,295 



National Parks 

Guindy 

Indira Gandhi 

Marine (Gulf of Mannar) 
Sanctuaries 

Anamalai 



Unassigned 


271 


1976 


n 


11,808 


1989 


n 


623 


1986 



IV 



84,935 



1976 



66 



India 



TV 


22.358 


1976 


TV 


61 




IV 


32,155 


1940 


rv 


7,846 


1982 


IV 


56,738 


1962 


rv 


1.726 


1967 


rv 


46,102 


1980 


rv 


48,520 


1988 


rv 


30 


1925 


rv 


13 


1977 



rv 


38,954 


1988 


IV 


858 


1988 


rv 


1,853 


1987 


rv 


17.056 


1987 



Kalakad 

KarikiU 

Mudumalai 

Mukurthi 

Mundanthurai 

Point Calimere 

Pulicat 

Srivilliputhur 

Vedanthangal 

Vettangudi 

Subtotal 313,186 

TRIPURA STATE 

Sanctuaries 
Gumti 
Roa 

Sepahijala 
Trishna 

Subtotal 58,721 

UTTAR PRADESH STATE 

National Parks 

Corbett 

Dudwa 

NandaDevi 

Rajaji 

Valley of Flowers 
Sanctuaries 

Askot 

Binsar 

Chandra Prabha 

Govind Pashu Vihar 

Hastinapur 

Kaimur 

Katamiaghat 

Kedarnath 

Kishanpur 

Mahavir Swami 

National Chambal 

Nawabganj 

Ranipur 

Samaspur 

Sohagabarwa 

Sonanadi 

Subtotal 737,944 



67 



n 


52.082 


1936 


n 


49.029 


1977 


I 


63.033 


1982 


n 


83.153 


1988 


n 


8.950 


1982 


IV 


600 


1986 


rv 


4.559 


1988 


rv 


7.800 


1957 


rv 


95.312 


1954 


rv 


2.073 


1986 


rv 


50.075 


1982 


rv 


40.009 


1976 


rv 


97,524 


1972 


rv 


22,712 


1972 


rv 


540 


1977 


rv 


63.500 


1979 


rv 


225 


1984 


rv 


23.031 


1977 


rv 


799 


198 


rv 


42.820 


1987 


rv 


30,118 


1987 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



WEST BENGAL STATE 

National Parks 

Neora Valley 

Singalila 

Sundarbans 
Sanctuaries 

Ballavpur 

Bethuadahari 

Bibhutibhusan 

Buxa 

Chapramari 

Gorumara 

Halliday Island 

Jaldapara 

Lothian Island 

Mahananda 

Narendrapur 

Parmadan 

Raiganj 

Ramnabagan 

Sajnakhali 

Senchal 

Subtotal 
TOTALS 

National parks (% total land area) 
Sanctuaries (% total land area) 
Games reserves (% total land area) 



n 


8,689 


1986 


n 


7,860 


1986 


I 


133,010 


1984 


Unassigned 


202 


1977 


rv 


120 


1980 


IV 


64 


1980 


IV 


31,452 


1986 


rv 


960 


1976 


IV 


862 


1984 


IV 


583 


1976 


IV 


11,563 


1941 


IV 


3,885 


1976 


IV 


12,722 


1976 


IV 


11 


1982 


IV 


198 




IV 


128 


1985 


IV 


14 


1981 


IV 


36,234 


1976 


rv 


3.860 


1976 



252,417 



3,524,8S6 


(Ll%) 


9,981,364 


(3.2%) 


120,829 


(0.0%) 



Note: Maps showing the locations of national parks and sanctuaries are presented for each state 
in Rodgers and Panwar (1988), and other summary data can be found in Variava and Singh 
(1985). No further details of Indian protected areas are given in this directory because the 
Environmental Studies Division, Indian Institute of Public Administration is in the process of 
producing a series of protected areas directories for each state. The first for Himachal Pradesh 
has recently been published (Kothari et al., 1990), and others for the Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands, Gujarat and Kamataka are forthcoming. 



68 



\ 



PAKISTAN 

Area 803,940 sq.km 

Population 1 10,400,000 (1989) Natural Increase 2.9% per annum 

GlNfP US$350 per capita (1987) 

Policy and Legislation Environmental protection and ecology are included in the concurrent 
legislative list of Pakistan's 1973 constitution. This initiative, together with the formation of an 
Environment and Urban Affairs Division in 1973, was largely responsible for the enactment of 
the Environment Protection Ordinance, 1983. The Ordinance is a landmark in Pakistan's 
legislation and represents official recognition of a holistic approach to environmental issues 
(Mumtaz, 1989). It provides for the control of pollution and preservation of a comprehensive 
national environmental policy, and filing of detailed environmental impact statements by 
proponents of projects likely to adversely affect the environment. The main drawback of the 
Ordinance, however, is its much narrower scope - focussing on anti-industrial pollution - than 
was envisaged in the original draft, which included legal provisions for the protection of 
Pakistan's natural resource base (Mumtaz, 1989). 

A significant step towards meeting the environmental challenge was taken in 1988, with the 
support of lUCN, by initiating the National Conservation Strategy development process. A 
secretariat has been set up in the Environment and Urban Affairs Division (Ministry of Housing 
and Works), which reports to a high-level steering committee comprising representatives of eight 
ministries directly concerned with natural resources, and five from the private sector. The NCS 
development process represents an unique policy review of economic issues and their collective 
impacts on the environment. Public consultations are an integral part of this review and planning 
exercise (Kabraji, 1986; Mumtaz, 1989). As part of the review process, a national workshop 
was held in 1986 (lUCN/GOP, 1987). The first phase of the development process, namely the 
formulation of Pakistan's NCS, was completed in 1990 (JRC, n.d.). 

Early Hindu and Muslim rulers, recognising the inadvisability of uncontrolled hunting, were the 
first to set aside game reserves wherein hunting was restricted during breeding seasons. By the 
late 16th century, the Mughals had codified regulations pertaining to hunting and these policies 
were adopted by succeeding Sikh and British administrations (ALIC, 1981). Indiscriminate 
exploitation of forest resources during the 19th century led to the realisation of the need for a 
forest policy. Although not of direct relevance to Pakistan, the first forest policy directive issued 
by the Government of India was in the form of a Memorandum (3 August 1 855) for the protection 
and extraction of teak. It restricted the rights of forest dwellers to conserve the forests. 
Government of India Circular No.22-F (19 October 1894) represented a more comprehensive 
forest policy statement, which emphasised management of forests for timber production, 
watershed protection and maintenance of productive capacity. It also provided guidelines on 
basic principles associated with rights of people living adjacent to forest lands (Mumtaz, 1989). 



69 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Among the first pieces of legislation that directly benefited wildlife were the rules and regulations 
formulated in Sind under the Indian Forest Act in 1887 and later incorporated in the Bombay 
Forest Manual. Under this legislation, forests were protected from grazing by livestock but 
hunting was not legally controlled. Hunting and other forms of resource exploitation were 
subsequently controlled within areas declared as reserved or protected forests under the Indian 
Forest Act, 1927, the tide of which was changed to Pakistan Forest Act, 1927 following 
Pakistan's adoption of the act after partition in 1947 (Ferguson, 1978; Rao, 1984). The 1927 
Act sought to "consolidate the law relating to forests, the transit of forest produce and the duty 
leviable on timber and other forest produce." It further "empowers the government to set aside 
forests reserves, appoint officers charged with the management of those territories, enforce rules 
governing the use of forests, determine the degree to which timber and other products may be 
exploited, and regulate the movement of cattle upon these lands. Moreover, the Act authorises 
the Government to punish violators of the stipulations contained in it." The 1927 Act has since 
been amended by the West Pakistan Goats (Restriction) Ordinance of 1 959 and the West Pakistan 
Goats Restriction Rules of 1961, which enable the government to protect rangelands from 
grazing damage by goats through limiting their numbers and movements. 

The 1927 Act is not conservation-oriented, commercial forestry interests being foremost. 
Subsequent forest policy, under the directives of 1955, 1962 and 1980, has attempted to bring 
forests under sound scientific management and included provisions for the creation of national 
parks to conserve major ecosystems, but it has not been successful (Mumtaz, 1989). The need 
to reassess and redefine policy is being addressed by the Forest Department, following on from 
a recent evaluation of Pakistan's forest policy at an international seminar organised by the 
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives in 1989. 

Wildlife conservation legislation inherited from British India was superceded by the now 
obsolete West Pakistan Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1959 and the West Pakistan Wildlife 
Protection Rules, 1960 issued under that ordinance. Apart from prohibiting the kilUng of certain 
species of fauna, this legislation made provision for the declaration of game sanctuaries, in which 
hunting was prohibited, and game reserves, in which hunting was controlled under license, but 
did not protect the habitat against settlement, cultivation, grazing and other forms of exploitation. 
Furthermore, both the West Pakistan Wildlife Protection Ordinance and the Pakistan Forest Act 
applied only to the setded areas of Pakistan (i.e. the flood plains of the Kabul and Indus rivers 
and all the land to the east of them); neither were applicable to the Special/Tribal Areas, which 
constituted most of the mountainous half of the country to the west of the Indus and where much 
of Pakistan's remaining wildlife was to be found (Grimwood, 1969). 

A Wildlife Enquiry Committee was set up in 1968 to review inter alia the existing conservation 
legislation, based on recommendations by World Wildlife Fund (Mountfort and Poore, 1967, 
1968). Legislation was drafted by this committee (Government of Pakistan, 1971) and, with 
minor modifications, was subsequendy adopted at provincial level through the provision of 
various acts and an ordinance, namely: Sind Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972, Punjab 
Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management) Act, 1974, Baluchistan 
Wildlife Protection Act, 1974, and North-West Frontier Province Wildlife (Protection, Preser- 
vation, Conservation and Management) Act, 1975. Separate laws were passed for the Northern 
Areas, Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir and Federal Capital Territory of Islamabad. These are 
the Northern Areas Wildife Preservation Act, 1975, Azad Jammu and Kashmir Wildlife Act, 
1975 and the Islamabad Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management) 
Ordinance, 1979 (Rau, 1984). This is the first time in the history of Pakistan's wildlife legislation 



70 



Pakistan 

that an attempt has been made to provide for the conservation of habitat (although limited to 
protected areas) and species other than game species. 

All of these statutes provide for the creation and management of national parks, wildlife 
sanctuaries (synonymous with wildlife reserves in the Northern Areas Act), game reserves 
(synonymous with controlled hunting areas in the Northern Areas Act) and, in the case of the 
Punjab, North- West Frontier Province and Islamabad legislation, private game reserves. A 
national park is a comparatively large area of outstanding scenic merit and natural interest, 
wherein the primary objective is to protect the landscape, flora and fauna in its natural state and 
to which the public are allowed access for purposes of recreation, education and research. No 
hunting or trapping of animals or birds is permitted. Harvesting of forest produce on a sustained 
basis is allowed provided national park values are not jeopardised. Construction of access roads, 
accommodation facilities and public amenities should be carefully planned so as not to impair 
the primary objective of a park's establishment. A wildlife sanctuary is an area set aside as an 
undisturbed breeding ground, primarily for the protection of all natural resources, to which public 
access is prohibited or regulated. Whereas settlement and grazing by domestic livestock is 
allowed in national parks (see Grimwood, 1972, for a discussion of the implications arising from 
this aspect of the legislation), such activities are prohibited within wildlife sanctuaries. A game 
reserve is an area wherein controlled hunting and shooting is permitted on a permit basis. A 
private game reserve is an area of private land set aside by its owner for the same purpose as a 
game reserve. Parts of areas protected under some statutes may be denotified under pressure 
for agricultural extension or land development (Ullah, 1970; Government of Pakistan, 1971; 
Rao, 1984; Khan and Hussain, 1985). To date, there are no notified private game reserves but 
a number exist in Baluchistan (e.g. Goth Raisani, Serajabad, Nasirabad area) and Sind (e.g. 
Khairpur), where there is no legal provision for their establishment, and in Punjab (e.g. 
Kalabagh). Existing wildlife legislation is reviewed by Rao (1984). Model legislation (Pakistan 
Wildlife Protection Act) is currently being prepared by the National Council for Conservation 
ofWildlife (Rao, 1987). 

International Activities Pakistan ratified both the Convention Concerning the Protection of 
the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Convention) and the Convention on 
Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) on 
23 July 1976. No natural sites have been inscribed to date under the World Heritage Convention. 
Nine wetlands were designated at the time of Pakistan's ratification of the Ramsar Convention, 
of which two (Kandar Dam and Kheshki Reservoir) are no longer considered to be of interna- 
tional importance (Scott, 1989). Pakistan participates in the Unesco Man and Biosphere 
Programme, but there does not appear to have been any significant development in recent years. 
Pakistan also participates in the South Asian Cooperative Environmental Programme. 

Administration and Management Originally, the Game Department was responsible for 
administering the West Pakistan Wildlife Protection Ordinance up until 1967, when it was 
absorbed into the Forest Department (Grimwood, 1969). Following the recommendations of 
the Wildlife Enquiry Committee (Government of Pakistan, 1971), a National Council for 
Conservation of Wildlife was established on 7 July 1974 within the then Federal Ministry of 
Food and Agriculture. It has an advisory board, and is responsible for co-ordinating central and 
provincial government effort in the formulation and implementation of wildlife policies. The 
Inspector General of Forests is assisted by a Conservator of Wildlife, who acts as an adviser on 
wildlife, but the actual management of wildlife is handled by the provincial forest (wildlife) 
departments. Sind, Punjab and Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir have separate wildlife 



71 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

administrations, but in North- West Frontier Province, Baluchistan and Northern Areas wildlife 
is administered by branches of the respective forest departments. In practice, forest staff look 
after wildlife in reserved or protected forests, and wildlife staff are responsible for protecting 
wildlife in other protected areas and elsewhere. In North- West Frontier Province, wildlife staff 
are responsible for wildlife everywhere. Within the Federal Capital Territory of Islamabad, the 
Directorate of Horticulture is responsible for the administration of protected areas. Legal 
provision has been made for the creation of wildlife management boards to approve wildlife 
policies and monitor development activities in Punjab, Sind, North- West Frontier Province and 
Islamabad. Sind has an effective wildlife management board, while those of North-West 
Frontier Province and Punjab are progressing. Boards exist in Baluchistan, Azad State of Jammu 
& Kashmir and Northern Areas but only in an advisory capacity. That for Islamabad is not yet 
active. Provision has also been made for the appointment of honorary officers to help implement 
wildlife legislation in all areas except Baluchistan and Islamabad. The idea was first introduced 
in Sind in the 1970s and proved to be very successful in Kirthar National Park, resulting in the 
recovery of markhor and other large mammal populations. It has since been adopted in Punjab 
and Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir, with the appointment of local dignitaries as honorary 
game wardens invested with considerable legal power to help enforce the law within protected 
areas (Ferguson, 1978; NCCW, 1978; Roberts, 1983; Rao, 1984). 

The Environmental Protection Ordinance is enforced by the Pakistan Environment Protection 
Council, but this has not yet been formed. The Council is also responsible for estabUshing a 
national environmental policy, providing direction to conserve renewable and expendable 
resources and ensuring that environmental considerations are incorporated within national 
development plans and policies. Administration of the Ordinance is the responsibility of the 
Pakistan Environment Protection Agency. Provincial Environment Protection Agencies have 
been set up, but other implementation procedures have yet to be streamlined (Mumtaz, 1989). 

Among the non-governmental organisations involved with conservation is the Pakistan Wildlife 
Conservation Foundation, a registered charity established in 1979. Its president is appointed by 
a resolution of the National Council for Conservation of Wildlife. A main objective is to promote 
wildlife conservation activities through provision of funds in accordance with the policies of the 
National Council for Conservation of Wildlife. The International Union for Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources (The World Conservation Union) has a regional office in Karachi. 
Field programmes concerned with protected areas management issues are focussed on 
Korangi/Phitti Creek in the Indus Delta, juniper forests in Baluchistan and Khunjerab National 
Park in the Northern Areas. World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan (formerly World Wildlife 
Fund-Pakistan) has offices in Lahore and Karachi. Two bodies are concerned specifically with 
promoting the conservation of pheasants, namely the World Pheasant Association (Pakistan) 
and the Pheasant Conservation Forum. 

Emphasis on the management of national parks has been given to the development of recreation 
facilities for tourists rather than nature conservation as, for example, in Lai Suhanra and Margalla 
Hills national parks. Management categories need to be modified (Grimwood, 1972; Rao, 1984), 
perhaps by the introduction of nature reserves and country parks to replace wildlife sanctuaries. 
Protected and reserved forests continue to be managed under forest working plans after being 
designated national parks or wildlife sanctuaries, thereby undermining the purpose of their 
re-notification. Hunting in game reserves is not controlled on a sustained yield basis, permits 
being issued arbitrarily and subject to political influence (Rao, 1984). The Government of 
Punjab, however, has restricted the number of shoots under an amendment to the Punjab Wildlife 



72 



Pakistan 

Act (Khan and Hussain, 1985). Weak enforcement of the law is an overall constraint, but also 
safeguards against habitat degradation within protected areas are inadequate (Rao, 1984). 

Systems Reviews Predominantly arid and semi-arid, Pakistan is a land of great contrasts. 
Nearly 60% of the country consists of mountainous terrain and elevated plateaux; the rest is 
lowland, generally below 300m. The highlands comprise: the Himalaya and adjacent mountain 
ranges to the north, rising to 8,61 Im at the top of K2, the worid's second highest peak; the central 
Sulaiman Range and its southern extensions (Ras Koh, Siahan and Kirthar ranges); and the 
western Baluchistan Plateau. The lowlands comprise the Indus River plain and a narrow stretch 
of coastline bordering the Arabian Sea. 

Pakistan is poor in forests. In 1984, they comprised 1.3 million ha of productive forests and 3.0 
million ha of protective forests, covering 4.8% of the country, and were estimated to be shrinking 
at the rate of 1% per year (Government of Pakistan, 1984). In North-West Frontier Province, 
however, forests are more extensive and cover 1 1.8% of total land area (Nawaz, 1985). 

Pakistan possesses a great variety of wetlands distributed throughout much of the country. 
Inland waters cover 7.8 million ha, over half of which comprises waterlogged areas, seasonally 
flooded plains and saline wastes. Coastal mangrove swamps cover at least 260,0(X)ha. Pakis- 
tan's wetlands are important for waterfowl, particularly those of the Indus Valley - a major 
wintering ground for a wide variety of central and northern Asian species, as well as being of 
socio-economic value (Scott, 1989). 

Most of Pakistan's remaining wildlife is to be found in the mountainous country west of the 
Indus, where human pressure has not been as great as in the plains. The two regions of 
outstanding importance are the Himalayan and Karakoram massifs in the extreme north and the 
desert in the south-west of the country (Grimwood, 1969). To the east of the Indus, Hazara 
Division in North-West Frontier Province and several areas in Punjab have a considerable 
amount of wildlife (M.M. Malik, pers. comm., 1987), as doe« the Neelum Valley in Azad State 
of Jammu & Kashmir (G. Duke, pers. comm., 1990). Wildlife resources and their exploitation 
have been reviewed for Baluchistan (Roberts, 1973; Mian and O'Gara, 1987; Groombridge, 
1988) and Sind (Roberts, 1972). Major irrigation systems, built to tap the water resources of 
the Indus and its tributaries to meet the demands of an increasing human population, have 
resulted in the disappearance of extensive tracts of the original tropical thorn scrub, riverine 
swamp and forest in the plains (Roberts, 1977). In a recent review of critical ecosystems in 
Pakistan, Roberts (1986) identifies the Indus riverine zone, and the Chaghai Desert and juniper 
forests of Baluchistan as being of unique ecological interest and international conservation 
importance. 

Prior to 1966, Pakistan had taken no significant steps towards establishing a protected areas 
network. That year, at the invitation of the Government of Pakistan, the World Wildlife Fund 
carried out a survey of the country's wildlife resources and recommended measures to arrest 
their deterioration (Mountfort and Poore, 1967, 1968). These included the estabUshment of two 
large national parks and eight wildlife sanctuaries. This initiative was followed by the constitu- 
tion of a Wildlife Enquiry Committee in 1968, which made further recommendations for the 
establishment of 4 national parks, 18 wildlife sanctuaries and 52 game reserves (GOP, 1971). 
These recommendations have been substantially exceeded: 4 national parks, 44 wildlife sanc- 
tuaries and 65 game reserves had been declared by 1978 (ALIC, 1981). During the period 
1968-1971, various techincal assistance was received from the Food and Agricultural Organi- 



73 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



sation of the United Nations, which latterly included the appointment of an adviser to the Wildlife 
Enquiry Committee (Grimwood, 1969, 1972). 

Protected areas have been created haphazardly, often in the absence of any criteria for their 
selection, and boundaries drawn with little or no ecological basis. Priorities to develop the 
existing network of protected areas are identified in the lUCN systems review of the 
Indomalayan Realm (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1986) and further recommendations are 
made in the Corbett Action Plan (lUCN, 1985). While most major habitats are represented 
within the existing protected areas system (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1986), a comprehens- 
ive systems review has never been carried out at the national level. Clearly, this is a priority in 
order to plan the further development of Pakistan's protected areas network. 

Addresses 

Conservator (Wildlife), National Council for Conservation of Wildlife, Ministry of Food, 
Agriculture and Cooperatives, 485 Street 84, G-6/4 ISLAMABAD (Cable AGRIDIV; Tbc 
5844 MINFA PK; Tel. 829756) 

Wildlife Warden, Wildlife Wing, Forest Department, Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir, MU- 
ZAFFARABAD (Tel. 18) 

Divisional Forest Officer (Wildlife), Forestry & Wildlife Department, Government of Baluchis- 
tan, Spinny Road, QUETTA (Tel. 71298) 

Director, Environment Directorate, Capital Development Authority, Sitara Market, ISLAMA- 
BAD (Tel. 826397) 

Conservator of Forests, Northern Areas, PO Box 501, GILGIT (Tel. 360) 

Conservator (Wildlife), Forest Department (Wildlife Wing), Government of NWFP, Shami 
Road, PESHAWAR (Tel. 73184) 

Conservator of Forests (Parks & Wildlife), Wildlife Department, Government of Punjab, 2 Sanda 
Road, LAHORE (Tel 61798/63947) 

Conservator of Forests (Wildlife), Sind Wildlife Management Board, Aiwan-e-Saddar Road, PO 
Box 3722, KARACHI 1 (Tel. 523176) 

Inspector-General of Forests, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives, Room 323, Block 
B, Pakistan Secretariat, ISLAMABAD (Cable AGRIDIV; Tlx 5844 MINFA PK; Tel. 
825289) 

lUCN (The World Conservation Union), Country Representative, 1 Bath Island Road, KARA- 
CHI 75530 (Tlx 24154 MARK PK; Tel. 573046/79/82) 

Pakistan Wildlife Conservation Foundation, 485 Street 84, G-6/4 ISLAMABAD (Cable AG- 
RIDIV; Tlx 5844 MINFA PK; Tel. 829756) 

Pheasant Conservation Forum, Secretary, c/o National Council for Conservation of Wildlife, 
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Cooperatives, 485 Street 84, G-6/4 ISLAMABAD (Cable 
AGRIDIV; Tlx 5844 MINFA PK; Tel. 829756) 

World Pheasant Association (Pakistan), Chairman, 7 Aziz-Bhatti Road, The Mall, LAHORE 

WWF-Pakistan, 1 Bath Island Road, KARACHI 75530 (Tlx 24154 MARK PK; Tel. 
573046/79/82) 

WWF-Pakistan, Director, P.O. Box 5180, LAHORE (Tbc 44866 PKGS PK; Fax 370429; Tel. 
851174,856177) 

References 

ALIC (1981). Draft environmental profile: the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. US Agency for 
Intemational Development/US National Park Service/US Man and the Biosphere Secretariat. 
Arid Lands Information Centre, Office of Arid Lands Studies, University of Arizona, Tucson, 
USA. 227 pp. 



74 



Pakistan 



Ferguson, D.A. (1978). Protection, conservation, and management of threatened and endangered 

species in Pakistan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington DC. Unpublished report. 62 pp. 
GOP (1971). Summary of Wildlife Enquiry Committee Report. Printing Corporation of Pakistan 

Press, Islamabad. 44 pp. 
GOP (1984). Forest watershed, range and wildlife management in Pakistan. Pakistan Forest 

Institute, Peshawar. Unpublished report. 18 pp. 
Grimwood, I.R. (1969). Wildlife conservation in Pakistan. Pakistan National Forestry Research 

andTraining Project ReponNo.n. UNDP/FAO, Rome. 31pp. 
Grimwood, I.R. (1972). Wildlife conservation and management. Report No. TA 3077. FAO, 

Rome. 58 pp. 
Groombridge, B. (1988). Baluchistan Province, Pakistan: a preUminary environmental profile. 

lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, UK. Unpublished report. 104 pp. 
lUCN (1985). The Corbett Action Plan for protected areas of the Indomalayan Realm. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 23 pp. 
lUCN/GOP (1987). Towards a national conservation stategy for Pakistan. Proceedings of the 

Pakistan Workshop 1986. Asian Art Press, Lahore. 367 pp. 
JRC (n.d.) Towards sustainable development: the Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. 

Journalists' Resource Centre, lUCN Pakistan, Karachi. 
Kabraji, A.M. (1986). A national conservation strategy for Pakistan. In: Carwardine, M. (Ed.), The 

nature of Pakistan, lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 69-71. 
Khan, A. and Hussain, M. (1985). Development of protected area system in Pakistan in terms of 

representative coverage of ecotypes. In: Thorsell, J.W. (Ed.), Conserving Asia's natural 

heritage. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 60-68. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. (1986). Review of the protected areas systems in the 

Indo-Malayan realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. 284 pp. 
Mian, A. and O'Gara, B.W. (1987). Baluchistan and wildlife potentials. University of Baluchistan, 

Quetta, Pakistan and University of Montana, Missoula, USA. Draft manuscript. 32 pp. 
Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1967). The conservation of wildlife in Pakistan. World Wildlife 

Fund, Morges, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 27 pp. 
Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1968). Report on the Second World Wildlife Fund Expedition to 

Pakistan. World Wildlife Fund, Morges, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 25 pp. 
Mumtaz, K. (1989). Pakistan's environment: a historical perspective. In: Shirkat Gah-Women's 

Resoiu-ce Centre, Pakistan's environment: a historical perspective and selected bibliography 

with annotations. Journalists' Resource Centre-IUCN Pakistan, Karachi. Pp. 7-38. 
National Council for Conservation of Wildlife (1978). Wildlife conservation strategy: Pakistan. 

National Council for Conservation of Wildlife, Islamabad, Pakistan. Unpublished report. 73 pp. 
Nawaz, M. (1985). National parks and reserves for Pakistan's North West Frontier Province. Parks 

10(1): 6-7. 
Rao, A.L. (1984). A review of wildlife legislation in Pakistan. MSc. thesis. University of Edinburgh, 

Edinburgh, UK. 66 pp. 
Rao, A.L. (1987). Nature conservation in Pakistan. In: Towards a national conservation strategy. 

Pp. 223-250. 
Roberts T J. (1972). A brief examination of ecological changes in the province of Sind and their 

consequences on the wildlife resources of the region. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 22: 89-96. 
Roberts, T J. (1973). Conservation problems in Baluchistan with particular reference to wildUfe 

preservation. Pakistan Journal of Forestry Ti: 117-127. 
Roberts, T J. (1977). The mammals of Pakistan. Ernest Benn, London. 361 pp. 
Roberts, T J. (1983). Problems in developing a national wildUfe policy and in creating effective 

natural parks and sanctuaries in Pakistan. Paper presented at Bombay Natural History Society 

Centenary Seminar. Powai, Bombay, December 1983. 9 pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Ullah, Ch. I. (1970). National parks, past, present and future. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 20: 

361-368. 



75 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 




National Parks of Pakistan 

Numbers correspond to those in the summary. 



76 



Pakistan 




Wildlife Sanctuaries of Pakistan 

Numbers correspond to those in the summary. 



77 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 




Game Reserves of Pakistan 

Numbers correspond to those in the summary. 



78 



Summary of Protected Areas of Pakistan 



Pakistan 



National/International designation 
Name of area and map reference 

Biosphere Reserves 

95 Lai Suhanra National Park* 
Ramsar Wetlands 



lUCN Management Area 
category (ha) 



IX 31,355 



Year 
notified 



1977 



144 
150 

107 

156 



90 



Drigh Lake Wildlife Sanctuary* 

Haleji Lake Wildlife Sanctuary* 

Kandar Dam* 

Khabbeke Lake Wildlife Sanctuary* 

Kheshki Reservoir* 

Kinjhar(Kalri) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary* 

Malugul Dhand* 

Tanda Dam* 

Thanadarwala Game Reserve* 



AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR 

Wildlife Sanctuaries 

1 Salkhala 
Game Reserves 

2 Ghamot 

3 HUlan 

4 Machiara* 

5 Moji 

6 Mori Said Ali 

7 Phala/Kuthnar 

8 Qazi Nag 

9 Vatala 
Unclassified 

10 Neelum Valley National Park 

Subtotal 



IV 
IV 

Unassigned 

IV 

Unassigned 

IV 

Unassigned 

Unassigned 

Unassigned 



IV 



Proposed 



164 

1,704 

251 

283 

263 

13,468 

405 

405 

4,047 



810 



1976 
1976 
1976 
1976 
1976 
1976 
1976 
1976 
1976 



1982 



Unassigned 


27,283 


1982 


Unassigned 


423 


1982 


Unassigned 


13,537 


1982 


Unassigned 


3,861 


1982 


Unassigned 


243 


1982 


Unassigned 


324 


1982 


Unassigned 


4,832 


1982 


Unassigned 


450 


1982 



50,953 



BALUCHISTAN 



National Parks 

11 Dhrun 

12 Hazar Ganji-Chiltan* 

13 Hingol 

Subtotal 



II 


167,700 


1988 


V 


15,555 


1980 


II 


165,004 


1988 



348,259 



79 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Wildlife Sanctuaries 


14 


Buzi Makola 


15 


Chorani 


16 


Dureji 


17 


Gut 


18 


Kachau 


19 


Khurkhera 


20 


Koh-e-Geish 


21 


Kolwah Kap 


22 


Maslakh 


23 


Raghai Rakhshan 


24 


RasKoh 


25 


Sasnamana 


26 


Shashan 


27 


Ziarat Juniper* 


Subtotal 


Game Reserves 


28 


Bund Khush Dil Khan* 


29 


Gogi 


30 


Kambran 


31 


Warn 


32 


Zangi Nawar* 


33 


Zawarkhan 



IV 


145,101 


1972 


IV 


19,433 


1972 


IV 


178,259 


1972 


IV 


165,992 


1983 


IV 


21,660 


1972 


IV 


18,345 


1972 


IV 


24,356 


1969 


IV 


33,198 


1972 


IV 


46,559 


1968 


rv 


125,425 


1971 


IV 


99,498 


1962 


IV 


6,607 


1971 


rv 


29,555 


1972 


IV 


37,247 


1971 



951,235 



Unassigned 


1,296 


1983 


Unassigned 


7,773 


1962 


Unassigned 


211,433 


1983 


Unassigned 


10,364 


1962 


Unassigned 


1,060 


1982 


Unassigned 


3,887 


1963 



Subtotal 

Unclassified 

34 Astola Island (Haft Talar) 

35 Chagai-Seistan Desert 

36 Goth Raisani Game Reserve 

37 Jiwani Beaches 

38 Ormara Beaches 

39 Nasirabad area 

40 Pasni Coastline 

41 Serajabad Game Reserve 

FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY 

National Parks 

42 Margalla Hills* 
Wildlife Sanctuaries 

43 Islamabad 
Games Reserves 

44 Islamabad 



235,813 



Recommended 

Recommended 

Private 

Recommended 

Recommended 

Private 

Recommended 

Private 



V 17,386 

IV 7,000 

Unassigned 69,800 



1980 
1980 
1980 



80 



NORTHERN AREAS 



Pakistan 



National Parks 


45 


Khunjerab* 


Wildlife Sanctuaries 


46 


Astore* 


47 


Baltistan * 


48 


Kargah* 


49 


Naltar* 


50 


Satpara* 


Subtotal 


Game Reserves 


51 


Askor Nallah* 


52 


Chassi/Baushdar* 


53 


Danyor Nallah* 


54 


KUik/Mintaka* 


55 


Nar/GhoroNaUah* 


56 


Nazbar Nallah* 


57 


Pakora* 


58 


Sher Qillah* 


59 


Tangir* 



n 



226,913 



185^36 



1975 



IV 


41,472 


1975 


rv 


41,457 


1975 


IV 


44,308 


1975 


rv 


27,206 


1975 


IV 


31,093 


1975 



Unassigned 


12,955 


1975 


Unassigned 


37,053 


1975 


Unassigned 


44,308 


1975 


Unassigned 


65,036 


1975 


Unassigned 


7,255 


1975 


Unassigned 


33,425 


1975 


Unassigned 


7,515 


1975 


Unassigned 


16,842 


1975 


Unassigned 


14,251 


1975 



Subtotal 



238,640 



NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE 



National Parks 

60 Ayubia 

61 ChitralGol* 

Subtotal 



V 

n 



1,684 
7,750 

9,434 



1984 
1984 



Wildlife Sanctuaries 

62 Agram Basti 

63 Borraka 

64 Manglot 

65 Manshi* 

66 Sheikh Buddin 

Subtotal 



IV 


29,866 


1983 


rv 


2,025 


1976 


IV 


715 


1976 


IV 


2,321 


1977 


IV 


15,540 


1977 



50,467 



Game Reserves 

67 Bagra 

68 Bilyamin 

69 Darmalak 

70 DroshGol 

71 GehraitGol 



Unassigned 


2,560 


1987 


Unassigned 


4,047 


1974 


Unassigned 


9,788 


1987 


Unassigned 


2,061 


1979 


Unassigned 


4,800 


1979 



81 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



72 Ghorazandi 


Unassigned 


6,649 


1987 


73 GoleenGol 


Unassigned 


49,750 


1982 


74 Indus River 


Unassigned 


81,000 


1987 


75 Jabbar 


Unassigned 


13,288 


1987 


76 KachaMarai 


Unassigned 


5,300 


1984 


77 Makhnial 


Unassigned 


4,148 


1977 


78 Maraiwam 


Unassigned 


5,300 


1984 


79 Nizampur 


Unassigned 


780 


1976 


80 PuritGol/ChitralChinarGol 


Unassigned 


6,446 


1979 


81 QalandarAbad 


Unassigned 


8,490 


1980 


82 Rakh Saniaran 


Unassigned 


4,200 


1986 


83 RakhTopi 


Unassigned 


17,600 


1984 


84 Resi 


Unassigned 


5,050 


1976 


85 Shewaki-Chukhtoo 


Unassigned 


11,379 


1987 


86 Shina-Wari Chapri 


Unassigned 


1,000 


1974 


87 Sudham 


Unassigned 


11,500 


1984 


88 Swegali 


Unassigned 


1,820 


1984 


89 Teri/Isak Khumari 


Unassigned 


19,966 


1987 


90 Thanadarwala* 


Unassigned 


4,047 


1976 


91 Tooshi 


Unassigned 


1,545 


1979 


92 Totalai 


Unassigned 


17,000 


1984 


93 Zarkani 


Unassigned 


12,800 


1984 



Subtotal 



312,314 



PUNJAB 



National Parks 

94 Chinji 

95 LalSuhanra* 



n 

V 



6,095 
37,426 



1987 
1972 



Subtotal 

Wildlife Sanctuaries 

96 Bajwat 

97 Bhakkar Plantation 

98 Changa Manga Plantation 

99 ChashmaLake* 

100 Chichawatni Plantation 

101 Cholistan 

102 ChumbiSurla 

103 Daphar 

104 Depalpur Plantation 

105 Fateh Major Plantation 

106 Kamalia Plantation 

107 Khabbeke Lake* 

108 Khanewal Plantation 

109 KhararLake* 

110 Kundian Plantation 



43,521 



IV 


5,464 


1964 


Unassigned 


2,124 


1986 


Unassigned 


5,064 


1986 


IV 


33,084 


1974 


Unassigned 


4,666 


1986 


IV 


660,949 


1981 


IV 


55,945 


1978 


IV 


2,286 


1978 


Unassigned 


2,928 


1986 


Unassigned 


1,255 


1986 


Unassigned 


4,397 


1971 


Unassigned 


283 


1967 


Unassigned 


7,213 


1986 


IV 


235 


1971 


Unassigned 


7,800 


1986 



\ 



82 



Pakistan 



111 Machu Plantation 


Unassigned 


4,109 


1986 


112 Mitha Tiwana Plantation 


Unassigned 


1,116 


1986 


113 Nemall^ke* 


IV 


486 


1970 


1 14 Rajan Shah Plantation 


Unassigned 


2,110 


1986 


115 Rasool Barrage* 


IV 


1,138 


1974 


116 Sodhi 


IV 


5,820 


1983 


117 Taunsa Barrage* 


IV 


6,567 


1972 


118 Tehra Plantation 


Unassigned 


339 


1978 


Subtotal 




815378 




Game Reserves 








119 Abbasia 


Unassigned 


10,067 


1979 


120 Bahawalpur Plantation 


Unassigned 


514 


1978 


121 Bheni 


Unassigned 


2,068 


1955 


122 BhonFazil 


Unassigned 


1,063 


1978 


123 Chaupalia 


Unassigned 


9,857 


1960 


124 Cholistan 


Unassigned 


2,032,667 


1974 


125 Daulana 


Unassigned 


2,429 


1979 


126 Diljabba-Domeli 


Unassigned 


118,106 


1972 


127 GatWala 


Unassigned 


5,883 


1978 


128 Head Islam/Chak Kotora* 


Unassigned 


3,132 


1978 


129 Head Qadirabad 


Unassigned 


2,850 


1978 


130 Indo-Pak Border 


Unassigned 




1980 


131 KalaChitta* 


Unassigned 


132,611 


1983 


132 Kathar 


Unassigned 


1,141 


1978 


133 KhariMurat 


Unassigned 


5,618 


1964 


134 KotZabzai 


Unassigned 


10,118 


1978 


1 35 Pirawala Kikarwala 


Unassigned 


506 


1978 


136 Rahri Bungalow 


Unassigned 


5,464 


1978 


137 Thai 


Unassigned 


71,306 


1978 



Subtotal 



2,415,400 



Unclassified 

138 Kalabagh Game Reserve* 



Private 



1,550 



1966 



SIND 



National Parks 

139 Kirthar* 
Wildlife Sanctuaries 

140 BijoroChach 

141 Cut Munarki Chach 

142 Dhoung Block 

143 Dograyon Lake 

144 DrighLake* 

145 GhondakDhoro 

146 GullelKohri 



II 



308,733 



1974 



IV 


121 


1977 


IV 


405 


1977 


IV 


2,098 


1977 


IV 


648 


1978 


IV 


164 


1972 


IV 


31 


1977 


IV 


40 


1977 



83 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



147 Gulsher Dhand 

148 HabDam* 

149 HaderoLake* 

150 HalejiLake* 

151 Hilaya 

152 Keti Bunder North* 

153 Keti Bunder South* 

154 Khadi 

155 KhatDhoro 

156 Kinjhar(KaIri)Lake* 

157 KotDinghano 

158 Lakht 

159 Langh (Lungh) Lake* 

160 Mahal Kohistan 

161 Majiran 

162 MarhoKohri 

163 Miani Dhand 

164 MohabatDero 

165 Munarki 

166 Nara Desert 

167 Norang 

168 RunnofKutch 

169 Sadnani 

170 Samno Dhand 

171 ShahLanko 

172 Takkar 



IV 


24 


1977 


IV 


27,219 


1972 


IV 


1,321 


1977 


IV 


1,704 


1977 


IV 


324 


1977 


IV 


8,948 


1977 


IV 


23,046 


1977 


IV 


81 


1977 


IV 


11 


1977 


IV 


13,468 


1977 


IV 


30 


1977 


IV 


101 


1977 


Unassigned 


19 


1977 


IV 


70,577 


1972 


IV 


24 


1977 


IV 


162 


1977 


IV 


57 


1977 


IV 


16 


1977 


rv 


12 


1977 


IV 


223,590 


1980 


IV 


243 


1977 


IV 


320,463 


1980 


IV 


84 


1977 


IV 


23 


1977 


IV 


61 


1977 


IV 


43,513 


1968 



Subtotal 



738,628 



Gan 


le Reserves 


173 


Deh Jangisar 


174 


Deh Khalifa 


175 


Deh Sahib Saman 


176 


Dosu Forest 


177 


Hala 


178 


Indus River* 


179 


Khipro 


180 


Mando Dero 


181 


MirpurSakro 


182 


Nara 


183 


Pai 


184 


Surjan, Sumbak, Eri and Hothiano 


185 


Tando Mitha Khan 



Unassigned 


314 


1965 


Unassigned 


429 


1965 


Unassigned 


349 


1966 


Unassigned 


2,312 


1973 


Unassigned 


954 


1965 


Unassigned 


44,200 


1974 


Unassigned 


3,885 




Unassigned 


1,234 


1972 


Unassigned 


777 


1965 


Unassigned 


109,966 


1962 


Unassigned 


1,969 


1976 


Unassigned 


40,632 


1976 


Unassigned 


5,343 





Subtotal 



212,364 



Unclassified 

186 Hawkes Bay/Sandspit Beaches* 

1 87 Khairpur Game Reserve 



Recommended 
Private 



84 



188 Pir Mahfooz Game Reserve 

189 Pir Pagara Game Reserve 



Private 
Private 



Pakistan 



TOTALS 

National parks (% total land area) 
Wildlife sanctuaries (% total land area) 
Game reserves (% total land area) 
TOTAL PROTECTED AREA 



954,246 (1.2%) 
2,749,054 (3.4%) 
3,535,284 (4.4%) 
7,238,584 (9.0%) 



♦Site is described in this directory. 

Locations of most protected areas are shown in the accompanying maps. 
Date August 1986, updated September 1990 



85 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



ASKOR NALLAH GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Situated in Baltistan District, 105 and 137 km by road from the towns 
of Skardu and Gilgit, respectively. Approximately 35°10'N, 75°04'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve in on 22 November 1975. 

Area 12,955ha 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 1,424m to 4,242m. 

Physical Features Occupies the entire Askor Nallah and contains rugged and precipitous 
slopes. The area is composed of meta- sedimentary, sedimentary and various types of igneous 
rocks. Schistose, quartzite and other quaternary lake deposits, alluvium and stream gravels are 
present (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Mean annual precipitation ranges from 76mm to 102mm, mostly in the form of snow. 
Winters are dry and severe, while summers are mild (Rasul, 1985). 

Vegetation Includes species of juniper Juniperus, birch Betula and willow Salix. Ground flora 
comprises Artimesia and a variety of grasses (Rasul, 1985). 

Fauna Large mammals include markhor Capra falconeri (V), ibex C. ibex and snow leopard 
Panthera uncia (E). Avifauna includes chukar partridge Alectoris chukar, snow partridge Lerwa 
lerwa and snowcock Tetraogallus sp. (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value No information 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection. Local inhabitants enjoy 
concessions to collect fallen dead wood, cut grass and graze livestock (Rasul, 1985). 



86 



Pakistan 

Management Constraints Poaching is a problem due to the shortage of manpower (Rasul 
1985). 

Staff One game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,000 p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 



ASTORE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 



lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in the catchment area of Astore Nallah, between Nanga Parbat 
(8,126m) to the west and the Plains of Deosai to the east, and about 1 1 km from the town of 
Bunji. Approximately 35°38'N, 74°40'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary on 22 November 1975. 

Area 41,472ha. The sancmary is contiguous to Baltistan Wildlife Sanctuary (41,457ha) to the 
north-west. 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 1,212m to 6,060m. 

Physical Features Comprises rugged and precipitous terrain, mostly composed of meta- 
sedimentary rocks, schistose gneiss and quartzite intruded by some basic dykes. The area 
contains a sequence of sedimentary and meta-sedimentary and several types of igneous rocks. 
Late cretaceous sediments overlay the green stone complex, while quaternary deposits, lake 
deposits, stream gravel and alluvium cover the bed rock in valleys (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Mean annual precipitation is 254-38 1mm, most of which falls as snow from November 
to January. Rain falls during the months of March, April and May, whilst August, September 
and October are the driest months. July and August are the hottest months (Rasul, 1985). 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include Fraxinus, Olea, Juniperus, kail, Picea, Julgoza, Lonicera 
dcnARosa. Artemisia is prominent among the herbs, along with a variety of grasses. 



87 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Fauna Large mammals include markhor Caprafalconeri (V), ibex C. ibex, musk deer Moschus 
chrysogaster (V), snow leopard Panthera uncia (E), brown bear Ursus arctos, lynx Felis lynx, 
wolf Canis lupus (V) and fox Vulpes vulpes. Avifauna includes a variety of game birds, such 
as chukar Alectoris chukar, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa, snowcock Tetraogallus sp., monal 
pheasant Lophophorus impejanus, raptors and vultures (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities None. 

Conservation Value The site was originally proposed as part of a much larger national paric 
on account of the spectacular scenery and large mammal populations (Mountfort and Poore, 
1968). 

Conservation Management There is no management plan. Local people enjoy concessions 
to extract timber and firewood, graze livestock and cut grass (Rasul, 1985). 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower, poaching and encroachment (Rasul, 
1985). 

Staff One range forest officer, one game inspector and one game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 66,000 p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1968). Report on the Second World Wildlife Fund Expedition to 

Pakistan. WWF, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 25 pp. 
Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. WildUfe 

Division, Northem Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 



BALTISTAN WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Baltistan District, 193km and 48km from the towns of Skardu 
and Gilgit, respectively. Approximately 35°36'N, 75°08'E 



88 



Pakistan 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary on 22 November 1975 

Area 41,457ha. The sanctuary is contiguous with Astore Wildlife Sanctuary (41,472ha) to the 
south-east. 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 1,515 to 5,527m. 

Physical Features The sanctuary lies in Rondu Valley where the terrain is rugged, with 
precipitous mountain slopes. Rocks are meta-sedimentary, schistose and quartzite and also 
include a sequence of sedimentary, meta-sedimentary and igneous types. Quaternary lake 
deposits, stream gravel and alluvium are present in valleys. The major source of water is glacial 
meltwater, springs and snow (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Conditions are dry temperate. Annual precipitation is 76- 102mm, most of which falls 
as snow during the months of November, December and January. Winters are severe (Rasul, 
1985). 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include kail, Picea, Juniperus, Olea, Fraxinus, Lonicera and 
Artemisia (Rasul, 1985). 

Fauna Large mammals include markhor Caprafalconeri (V), ibex C. ibex, musk deer Moschus 
chrysogaster (V), urial Ovis vignei, snow leopard Panthera uncia (E), brown bear Ursus arctos, 
wolf Canis lupus (V) and fox Vulpes vulpes. Avifauna includes a variety of game birds, such 
as chukar Alectoris chukar, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa, snowcock Tetraogallus sp., raptors 
and vultures (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value The sanctuary supports populations of a variety of threatened animal 
species. 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection. No management plan exists 
for the area. People living within an 8km radius of the sanctuary enjoy concessions to extract 
timber and firewood, graze livestock and cut grass (Rasul, 1985). 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower, poaching and encroachment. 

Staff One range forest officer, one game inspector and one game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs66,0(X)p.a. (1985) 



89 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Local Addresses No information 



References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 



BUND KHUSH DIL KHAN GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.20.08 (Anatolian-Iranian Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies in an inland drainage basin in the hills, 50km north-north-west 
of Quetta, Pishin District. 30°36'N, eeMS'E 

Date and History of Establishment The reservoir was declared a game reserve in 1983. 

Area l,296ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Baluchistan) 

Altitude 1,460m 

Physical Features Comprises a water storage reservoir, with fringing reed-beds and several 
small islands constructed about 50 years ago to provide water for irrigation purposes. The 
reservoir is fed by local rainfall and seasonal flood waters from the surrounding hills. Depth of 
water is 2m-3m, but in dry years much of the reservoir dries out and only small scattered pools 
remain. 

Climate Conditions are arid sub-tropical, with hot summers, cool winters and a short rainy 
season in summer. Mean annual rainfall is approximately 200mm. Temperatures range from a 
minimum of - 10°C to a maximum of 35°C. 

Vegetation Comprises reed beds with Phragmites karka and Typha angustata. Surrounding 
areas are cultivated. 

Fauna The wetland is a breeding area for spotbill duck Anas poecilorhyncha and purple 
gallinule Porphyria porphyria, a very important staging area for migrating black stork Ciconia 
nigra, crane Grus grus, ducks and shorebirds, and an important wintering area for ducks and 
coot Fulica atra. Shelduck Tadorna tadorna and marbled teal Marmaronetta angustirostris 
have nested, and over 10,000 ducks and coots have been recorded in winters when water levels 
have been high. Over 4,800 waterfowl were recorded in mid- January 1987, including 3,200 
mallard Anas platyrhynchos and nearly 1,000 common pochard Aythyaferina. Further details 
of the waterfowl are given in Scott (1989). 



90 



{ 



Pakistan 



Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The reservoir provides water for irrigation and human consumption, 
and outdoor recreation. Surrounding areas are cuhivated and grazed by livestock. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Annual mid- winter waterfowl counts have been carried out 
in recent years. 

Conservation Value The wetland is an important wintering, staging and breeding area for a 
variety of waterfowl. 

Conservation Management No management plan exists. It has been proposed that the reserve 
be upgraded to a wildlife sanctuary. 

Management Constraints The reservoir is silting up and the extent of wetland habitat is 
decreasing. There is a considerable amount of illegal waterfowl hunting as well as disturbance 
from settlements around the reservoir. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



CHASHMA LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category FV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies on the Indus River 25 km south-west of Mianwali. 32°25'N, 
7r22'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1974 and re-notified in 
July 1984. 

Area 33,084ha 



91 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of the Punjab). Adjacent areas are partly state- 
owned and partly privately owned. 

Altitude 225m 

Physical Features Chashma is a large reservoir which was completed in 1971. It comprises 
bunds (embankments) which, at low water levels, divide the reservoir into five shallow lakes, 
each of up to 250ha in area. Maximum flooding occurs in spring; as the water recedes, exposed 
land is leased to local farmers for agricultural purposes. The depth of the five lakes varies from 
0.2m in the dry season to 8.0m at the height of the flood season; the depth of the main river 
channel varies from 4.6m to 8.8m. The pH value ranges from 6.5 to 7.2. 

Climate Conditions are dry sub-tropical, with hot summers and cool winters. Annual rainfall 
varies from 3(X)mm to 5(X)mm . Mean maximum temperature in June is 4 TC and mean minimum 
in January is 4.5°C. 

Vegetation The aquatic vegetation consists of Hydrilla verticillata, Nelumbium speciosum, 
Nymphaea lotus, Typha angustata, Phragmites karka, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saccharum 
spontaneum, Vallisneria spiralis andZannichelliapalustris. The natural vegetation of the region 
is a mixture of subtropical semi-evergreen scrub and tropical thorn forest, with species such as 
Olea ferruginea. Acacia modesta, A. nilotica. Adfiatoda vasica, Dodonea viscosa, 
Gymnosporea royleana, Prosopis cineraria, Reptonia buxifolia, Salvadora oleoides, Tamarix 
aphylla, T. dioica, Zizyphus mauritiana, Z. nummularia, Chrysopogon aucheri, Lasiurus 
hirsutus, Heteropogon contortus and Panicum antidotale. Prosopis glandulosa has been intro- 
duced to the area. Most of the natural thorn forest on the plains to the east of the Indus has been 
cleared for agricultural land and for irrigated plantations of Dalbergia sissoo and other species. 

Fauna The wetland regularly supports over 50,0(X) Anatidae and coots in mid- winter, and in 
some years many more. Over 1 14,(XX) birds were present in January 1975, and about 1(X),(XX) 
in January 1987 and January 1988. The most abundant species are wigeon Anas penelope, teal 
A. crecca, pintail A. acuta, pochard Aythya ferina and coot Fulica atra. There is a small 
wintering flock of greylag goose Anser anser, and bar-headed goose A. indicus occasionally 
occurs on passage and in winter (recent maxima of 277 in 1982 and 65 in 1985). Peak counts 
have included: 1,8(X) great egret Egretta alba, 13,(XX) wigeon, 1,250 gadwall A. strepera, 
16,300 teal, 3,900 mallard A. p/aryr/i>'/2c/io5, 10, 100 pintail A. acM/a, 2,300shovelerA. clypeata, 
25,000 ^pochaid. Aythya ferina, 3,1(X) tufted 6.\ic]fiA.fuligula and 61,500 cootFulica atra. Other 
regular winter visitors include great crested grebe Podiceps cristatus, black-necked grebe 
P. nigricollis, cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and many species of shorebirds, gulls and terns. 
The wetland is also an important staging area in spring and autumn for cranes Grus grus and 
Anthropoides virgo. Further details of the waterfowl are given by Scott (1989). 

Indus dolphin Platanista indi (E) occurs in some stretches of the Indus upstream of the barrage 
and has been recorded at Chashma, but no estimate of its population size is available. Other 
mammals present in the area include wild boar Sus scrofa, hog deer Axis porcinus, jackal Canis 
aureus and smooth-coated otttr Lutra perspicillata. 

The fish fauna is rich and includes Gadusa chapra, Notopterus notopterus, N. chitala, Catla 
catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, C. rebo, Abeo rohita, L. microphthalamus, Puntius ticto, P. stigma, 
Barilius vagra, Wallago attu, Rita rita, Bagarius bagarius, Mystus aor, M. seenghala, Heterop- 



92 



Pakistan 



neustes fossilis, Eutropiichthys vacha, Nandus nandus, Mastacembelus armatus, M. pancalus, 
Ambassis noma, A. ranga and Channapunctatus. Other aquatic fauna includes Hirudinaria sp., 
Palaemon dayanus, P. lamarrei, Rana tigrina, Kachuga smithi, Trionyx gangeticus and Lisse- 
mys punctata. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The local people fish in the lake and harvest reeds (Phragmites 
karka, Typha angustata and Saccharwn spp.) for use in cottage industries. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Annual mid- winter waterfowl counts have been carried out 
since 1971. The status of the Indus dolphin is currently being assessed by the Punjab Wildlife 
Department and Zoological Survey Department. 

Conservation Value The wetland is a very important staging and wintering area for a wide 
variety of waterfowl. It is also of socio-economic importance for flood control, storage of water 
for irrigation, generation of electricity and fisheries production (some 636 metric tonnes of fish 
were harvested in 1984). The marsh vegetation supports a local weaving industry and the barrage 
also provides excellent opportunities for scientific research and conservation education. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints There were plans to construct a large storage dam upstream of 
Chasma at Kalabagh, but these have been shelved. The construction of this dam would have 
affected the water regime at Chashma Barrage and limited its use for water storage. Fishing 
activities at the wetland and livestock grazing cause a considerable amount of disturbance. The 
marked fluctuations in water level and harvesting of reeds have an adverse impact on the aquatic 
vegetation. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



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CHASSI/BAUSHDAR GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Gilgit District, 160km by road from the town of Gilgit. 
Approximately 36'11'N, 7r55'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game sanctuary on 22 November 1975 

Area 37,053ha. Contiguous to Nazbar Nallah Game Reserve (33,177ha). 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 2,878m to 5,151m. 

Physical Features The terrain is generally flat, with barren cliffs and scree slopes. Sedimentary 
and meta-sedimentary rocks and a sequence of quartzite, schistose and limestone are present. 
Baushter Nallah is perennial. 

Climate Conditions are dry temperate. Annual precipitation ranges from 127mm to 254mm, 
most of which falls as snow. Winters are severe and long, while summers are short and mild. 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include stunted Juniperus, Fraxinus, Betula, Salix and Rosa. 
Herbs include Artemisia, Stipa and other grasses. 

Fauna Large mammals include ibex Capra ibex, snow leopard Panthera uncia (E), brown bear 
Ursus arctos and fox Vulpes vulpes. Of the avifauna, there are a variety of game birds, such as 
chukar Alectoris chukar, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa and snowcock Tetraogallus sp. (Rasul, 
1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value No information 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection and the reserve is completely 
closed to hunting and shooting. No management plan exists at present. Local inhabitants enjoy 
concessions to extract firewood, graze livestock and cut grass (Rasul, 1985). 



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Pakistan 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower and poaching. 
Staff One game watcher (1985) 
Budget Rs 10,000 p.a. (1985) 
Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 



CHITRAL GOL NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category n (National Park) 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Chitral, the northernmost district of North- West Frontier 
Province, about 3km west of Chitral Town. Approximately 35°50N, 7r47'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a national park in 1984. Originally established 
as a private hunting reserve in 1880 by the Mehtars, the ruling family of the former State of 
Chitral. Subsequently declared a wildlife sanctuary on 23 December 1971 (Akbar, 1974). 

Area 7,750ha 

Land Tenure The entire Chitral Gol became state property in 1975, except for 8ha of cultivated 
land and several houses which still belong to the ex-Mehtar (Malik, 1985). 

Altitude Ranges from about 1,500m at Hyrankot to 4,979m above Dunduni Gol; 24 peaks 
exceed 3,000m. 

Physical Features Chitral Gol is a narrow valley, its gorge running for some 18km before 
broadening out into a basin surrounded by high peaks. Numerous tributaries drain into the 
Chitral Gol, which flows southwards into the Kunar River. Parent rock comprises shale and 
limestone from which are derived fairly fertile soils of up to a metre in depth on gentle slopes. 
The soil is porous and fragile, easily eroded by rainwater. 

Climate Conditions are dry temperate and not influenced by the monsoon. CUmatic data are 
available from Chitral Town (1,436m) where mean annual rainfall is 462mm, with a range of 
between 218mm (1905) and 675mm (1931). Mean annual temperature is 16.8°C, ranging from 
a maximum of 43.3°C to a minimum of 1 2.2°C. Most of the park is under snow from December 
until March (Akbar, 1974; Malik, 1985). 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Vegetation The dry temperate oak Querciis ilex forest of lower altitudes merges into temperate 
coniferous forest above 2,4(X)m, with the addition of Cedrus deodara and Pinus gerardiana. At 
higher altitudes, pine is replaced by Juniperus macropoda scrub. Above the tree-line at 3,350m 
occiu" Salix ^p.. Viburnum cotonifolium and Juniperus communis, along with numerous herbs 
(Akbar, 1974; Aleem, 1977a). 

Fauna Chitral is famous for its markhor Capra falconeri (V). Schaller and Mirza (1971) 
estimated 100-125 in 1970, and Aleem (1976) 225 in 1975. A more recent estimate indicates a 
population size of 650 (Malik, 1985). Other ungulates, such as ibex Capra ibex and urial Ovis 
vignei, occur in very small numbers, as do black bear Selenarctos thibetanus (Aleem, 1977a; 
Malik, 1985). The status of snow leopard Panthera uncia (E) changed from tenuous security 
in 1970 to seriously threatened by 1974 (Schaller, 1976). The species does not appear to be 
resident, visiting the park occasionally (Malik, 1985). Wolves Canis lupus (V) are seen less 
frequently following restrictions on grazing by livestock (Malik, 1985). 

Game birds include Himalayan snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis, a small remnant popula- 
tion of Himalayan monal pheasant Lophophorus in^ejanus, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa and 
Tock partridge Alectoris graeca (Akbar, 1974; Khan, 1976; Malik, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population None - the five families remaining in the park with their 40 catde 
and 500 goats were evicted in December 1984. Seven villages with 3(X) families occur on the 
periphery of the park but their associated 100-150 cattle and 3,(X)0-4,(X)0 sheep and goats are 
no longer allowed to seasonally graze inside the park (Malik, 1985). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Include two hunting lodges, originally built by the Mehtars. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Large mammal populations were surveyed in the 1970s 
(Schaller and Mirza, 1971; Aleem, 1976; Schaller, 1976). The impact of grazing by domestic 
livestock on the vegetation, soil and wildlife has been examined (Aleem, 1977a). There are no 
research facilities. 

Conservation Value The park is representative of an ecosystem that is unique in Pakistan. 

Conservation Management Originally declared a wildlife sanctuary in order to protect the 
markhor. Objectives are to: preserve the landscape in its natural state, along with indigenous 
flora and fauna; manage wildlife populations, particularly the markhor, to maximise their 
production; and to develop facilities for research and tourism. Top priority has been given to 
controlling poaching and the government has decided to acquire all private lands and houses 
within the park. Concessions for firewood have been withdrawn in the case of inhabitants of 
villages peripheral to the park. Persons affected by these measures are receiving financial and 
other compensation to help offset losses, and former residents are being given preference for 
employment opportunities in the park. A special project to develop the park is planned to last 
until June 1988 at a cost of 4.8 million rupees. Apart fix)m improving facilities (roads, footpaths 
and visitor accommodation), game reserves will be established in areas adjacent to the park to 
act as buffer zones (Malik, 1985). 



96 



PaJdslan 

Management Constraints Former management problems associated with land tenure, live- 
stock grazing, firewood collection and poaching have largely been alleviated (Malik, 1985). 
There is some concern about the markhor population which is presendy managed for trophy 
hunting. In die 1985/86 winter, four permits (at US$ 10,(XX) each) were issued to Shikar Safari 
Club International by the Conservator of Wildlife (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm.). 

Staff Deputy ranger, head wildlife watcher and 12 wildlife watchers (1985) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Divisional Forest Officer (Wildlife), Chitral Gol National Park, Chitral, 
North- West Frontier Province 

References 

Akbar, A. (1974). Chitral Gol Sancmary for markhor. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 24: 209-212. 

Aleem, A. (1976). Markhor in Chitral Gol. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 26: 117-128. 

Aleem, A. (1977a). The ecological impact of domestic stock on Chitral Gol Game Sanctuary, 
Pakistan. Tigerpaper 4(3): 26-29. 

Aleem, A. (1977b). Population dynamics of markhor in Chitral Gol. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 
27: 86-92. 

Beg, A.R. and Ilahi Bux (1974). Vegetation of scree slopes in Chitral Gol. Pakistan Journal of 
Forestry 24(4). (Unseen) 

Khan, Y.M. (1976). A comprehensive report on wildlife resources (wildlife population census) of 
Chitral. Forest Department, Peshawar. Unpublished report. 1 1 pp. 

Malik, M.M. (1985). Management of Chitral Gol National Park, Pakistan. In: McNeely, J.A., 
Thorsell, J.W. and Chalise, S.R. (Eds), People and protected areas in the Hindu Kush - 
Himalaya. King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation and International Centre for Inte- 
grated Mountain Development, Kathmandu. Pp. 103-106. 

Schaller, G.B. (1976). Mountain mammals in Pakistan. OryJt 13: 351-356. 

Schaller, G.B. and Mirza, Z.B. (1971). Observations on urial and markhor in West Pakistan. New 
York Zoological Society, New York. Unpublished report. 4 pp. 

WWF/IUCN Project 562. Chitral Gol Reserve, Pakistan. 

Date July 1986, updated August 1990 



DANYOR NALLAH GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Gilgit District, 6km from the town of Gilgit. It is accessible 
only by bridle patii. Approximately 35°55'N, 74''07'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve on 22 November 1975. 

Area 44,308ha 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 1,454m to 7,575m. 

Physical Features The topography is undulating and rugged. In some places there are steep, 
precipitous slopes, becoming gentler at their upper limits. There are sedimentary, meta- 
sedimentary and igneous rocks with schist, quartzite and limestone. Alluvial deposits and 
stream gravels arc also present in valleys (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Conditions are dry temperate. Mean annual precipitation is 76- 102mm, most of which 
falls as snow during the months of November, December and January. 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include kail, Picea, Salix, Juniperus, Olea, Pistacia, Hippophae, 
Fraxinus, Rosa and Betula. Ground flora comprises Artemisia, Haloxylon, Stipa and other 
grasses (Rasul, 1985). 

Fauna Large mammals include markhor Capra falconeri (V), ibex C. ibex, urial Ovis vignei, 
snow leopard Panthera uncia (E), and fox Vulpes vulpes. Avifauna includes a variety of game 
birds, such as chukar Alectoris chukar, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa, snowcock Tetraogallus sp. 
and vultures (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value No information 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection and hunting is banned. No 
management plan exists for the area. Local people have concessions to collect firewood and 
timber and to also graze livestock. 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower and poaching. 

Staff One game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,0(X) p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves innorthern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife \ 

Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 
Date September 1988 



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Pakistan 



DRIGH LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Situated in Sind Province about 32km north-west of Larkana. The 
eastern boundary of the sanctuary is defined by an earthem bund constructed to help retain the 
water, and the northern boundary by the Larkana-Qanber road. Approximately 68°05'E, 
27°34'N 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in October 1972 under 
Section 14 of the Sind Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972. Designated a Wetland of Interna- 
tional Importance at the time of Pakistan's ratification of the Ramsar Convention on 23 July 
1976. 

Area 164ha of lake, surrounded by a buffer zone of 5km radius. (NB The area is given as 
182ha in the management plan.) 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind). Public rights of access are limited to 
the public thoroughfare, which passes through the northern end of the lake, and a dirt road which 
runs just outside the western boundary of the sanctuary. 

Altitude 50m 

Physical Features Drigh is a small, slightly brackish lake with extensive marshes on the flood 
plain of the Indus River. Formerly an ancient arm of the Indus, it now lies about 30km from the 
river. The lake is situated in a region of cultivated plains, generally divided into small fields for 
rice cultivation. The limestone and sandstone hills of the Kalat Range lie some 80km to the 
west. In 1977, the clay and silt soils of the region were heavily impregnated with salts following 
heavy flooding. The lake is fed by monsoon rains, several small streams entering along the 
western side, and by water from a small canal to the north. There is no oudet channel. During 
the dry pre-monsoon period in early summer, some parts of the lake dry out. The lake has 
decreased in size in recent years as a result of the diversion of flood water for irrigation purposes, 
and is now almost completely overgrown with emergent vegetation. 

Climate Conditions are arid subtropical. Mean rainfall for the region is 178mm, most of which 
falls during the monsoon season. Summers are hot with maximum temperatures up to 49°C in 
the shade. Winters are cold with a mean minimum of 2.2°C in January. Prevailing winds are 
north-east in winter and west-south-west in May-September (Sorley, 1968). 

Vegetation Comprises dense growths of aquatic vegetation including Cyperus alternifolius, 
Hydrilla verticillata, Najas minor, Scirpus littoralis, Ipomoea aquatica, Juncus articulatus, 
J. maritimus, Nymphaea lotus, Potamogeton pectinatus, Typha angustata and Tamarix dioica. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Much of the wetiand has become overgrown with Typha and Tamarix in recent years. High 
ground within the sanctuary is covered with Saccharum sp. 

Fauna Drigh is a breeding area for a variety of resident waterfowl, a very important roosting 
site for night heron Nycticorax nycticorax, and formerly a very important wintering area for 
ducks and common coot Fulica atra. Over 32,000 ducks and coots were present in January 
1973, but numbers then declined rapidly as the area of open water diminished. Less than 7,000 
ducks and coots were present in 1975 and 1976, and only 820 were recorded in January 1987. 
However, large numbers of ducks were again present in the winter of 1987/88. Over 17,400 
waterfowl were recorded in mid- January 1988, including: 6,500 common teaMnay crecca, 2,750 
common pochard Aythyaferina, and 3,560 tufted duck A . fuligula. Very large numbers of night 
heron have roosted in the marshes for many years. About 1,500 were present in January 1987, 
and over 2,750 in January 1988. Details of other waterfowl known to occur in the sanctuary are 
given by Scott, 1989. The sanctuary is rich in birds of prey such as osprey Pandion haliaetus, 
Eurasian marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, greater spotted eagle Aquila clanga, tawny eagle 
A. rapax and imperial eagle A. heliaca. Little is known about the other fauna of the sanctuary. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Rice cultivation is the principal activity in surrounding areas. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There is a rest house just outside the western boundary. 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities Regular mid-winter counts of the waterfowl have been 
carried out by the Sind Wildlife Management Board since the early 1970s. There are no scientific 
facilities. 

Conservation Value Drigh is an important breeding area for waterfowl but, with the partial 
drying out of the lake, its value as a wintering area for ducks has diminished (Roberts, 1984). 

Conservation Management Cultivation of land, destruction of vegetation, hunting, shooting 
and trapping are prohibited. A management plan was prepared in 1977, in accordance with 
which objectives are: to provide optimum conditions for the large numbers of resident and 
migratory birds, particularly waterfowl; to provide for a limited amount of shooting on special 
occasions; and to provide facilities for scientists and the public to study and enjoy the wildlife 
(Conder, 1977). Recommendations for improved management include the construction of an 
embankment around the sanctuary with sluices to facilitate the control of water levels, and 
provision of observation towers and other facilities for visitors. 

Management Constraints The diversion of water for irrigation purposes has resulted in lower 
water levels in the sanctuary. The area of open water has decreased in recent years, and much 
of the wetland is now overgrown with dense stands of Typha and Tamarix. Grazing pressure is 
reported to be heavy inside the sanctuary. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Divisional Forest Officer, Larkana, Sind Province 



100 



Pakistan 



References Unless otherwise indicated, information is taken directly from Scott (1989). 

Conder,PJ.(1977). Lake Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary (Management Plan). lUCNAVWF Project No. 

1360. 11pp. 
Roberts, T J. (1984). Brief review of the status of wedands in Pakistan. 10th Asian Continental 

Section Conference, ICBP, Cambridge. UnpubUshed report. 6pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzeriand and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Sorley, H.T. (1968). The former Province ofSind (including Khairpw State). Gazetteer of West 

Pakistan. Publication of the Government of West Pakistan. 809 pp. (Unseen) 

Date August 1986, updated August 1990 



HAB DAM WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 04.15.07 (TharDesen) 

Geographical Location Lies on the Hab River, 40km north of Karachi, on the border between 
Baluchistan and Sind provinces. 25°15'N, 67°07'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1972. 

Area 27,219ha. It is contiguous with Kinhar National Park (308,733ha). 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind). Adjacent areas are privately or com- 
munally owned. 

Altitude 150m 

Physical Features Hab Dam is a large water storage reservoir constructed in 1981. The Hab 
River rises in the Kirthar Range of eastern Baluchistan, and enters the Arabian Sea just west of 
Karachi. The water level in the reservoir fluctuates widely according to rainfall in the water 
catchment area; the maximum depth is 46m and the average drawdown 19m. 

Climate Conditions are arid sub-tropical, with very hot summers, mild winters, and a mean 
annual rainfall of less than 200mm. 

Vegetation There is reported to be an extensive growth of aquatic vegetation, but no details 
are available. The natural vegetation of the surrounding areas is open forest dominated by Olea 
ferruginea and Acacia Senegal in association with Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis cineraria. Acacia 
jacquemontii, Zizyphus nummularia. Euphorbia caudicifolia, Cymbopogon jwarancusa, 
C. schoenanthus, Lasiurus hirsutus and Eleusine compressa. 

Fauna Some 48,500 waterfowl were present in January 1987, and over 53,500 in January 1988. 
Maximum counts included up to 2,870 Uttle grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, 2,200 white pelican 
Pelecanus onocrotalus, 2,400 wigeon Anas penelope, 1,570 mallard A. platyrhynchos, 2,150 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



pintail A. acuta, 1,200 shoveler A. dypeata, 9,300 pochard Aythya ferina, 5,800 tufted duck 
A.fuligula and 32,000 coot Fulica atra. 

The dam holds about 100 mugger Crocodylus palustris (V), and there are tentative plans to 
commercially ranch crocodiles (M. Woodford, pers. comm., 1990). The reservoir has been 
stocked with a variety of exotic fishes such as Labeo rohita, Cyprinus carpio and Tilapia 
mossambica. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Hab Dam is used for fishing and has the highest fishery potential 
of the smaller reservoirs in Pakistan. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Some mid-winter waterfowl counts have been carried out 
in recent years. 

Conservation Value Hab Dam is an important staging and wintering area for grebes, pelicans, 
ducks, cranes and coots. It also supplies drinking water to Karachi City and water for irrigating 
agricultural land in Lasbella District, Baluchistan. 

Conservation Management There are plans to intensify the management of the sanctuary and 
to develop the area as a resort for outdoor recreation. Reafforestation is required in the water 
catchment area to reduce erosion and sustain stream flow throughout the year. 

Management Constraints Fishing activities cause some disturbance to waterfowl. The dam 
has had a detrimental effect on the ecology of the estuarine system downstream. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A ^rectory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, S witzeriand and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



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Pakistan 



HADERO LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Situated in Sind Province about 85km east of Karachi, Hadero is 
accessible via the Makli Hills-Thatta- Jungshahi metalled road. It is within 6km of Haleji Lake 
Wildlife Sanctuary and about 16km to the south-west of Kinjhar Lake Wildlife Sanctuary. 
67°52'E, 24°49'N 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in March 1977 under 
Section 14 of the Sind Province Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972. First protected as a game 
sanctuary on 2 October 1971 under Section 15 of the West Pakistan Wildlife Protection 
Ordinance, 1959. 

Area 1,321 ha 

Land Tenure The lake and stony desert to the north and west are state-owned (Provincial 
Government of Sind). 

Altitude 60m 

Physical Features The lake, probably no deeper than 1.5m, is a natural body of water set in a 
shallow depression on the edge of the stony desert. The bedrock is composed primarily of 
alternating layers of limestone and sandstone; the long peninsulas which jut out into the lake are 
capped by layers of limestone, while the lower lying areas of desert have exposed outcrops of 
sandstone. The northern and western shores are rocky and sandy, and border on stony desert; 
the southern and eastern shores are gently shelving, with saline mud and silt in an area of 
abandoned cultivation. The lake is fed by the SLM drain, which links up with the Jam Branch 
Canal, and by a few small streams on the north shore. There is no outlet. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical monsoonal with hot summers and cool winters. Mean 
annual rainfall for the region is about 185mm, most of which falls in the monsoon season. 
Temperatures range from a maximum of 47^ in the shade in summer to a mean monthly 
minimum of 2.2°C in winter. Prevailing winds are north-east in December- January and 
west- south- west in May-September (Sorley, 1968). 

Vegetation There is relatively little aquatic vegetation, apart from extensive beds of Potamoge- 
ton pectinatus and, at the southern end of the lake near the mouth of the SML drain, fringing 
beds ofJuncus maritimus and stands of Tamarix dioica. Natural vegetation in the surrounding 
area includes tropical thorn forest dominated by Acacia nilotica on the plains and Olea 
-A. Senegal forest on the hills. 



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Fauna The lake regularly held between 10,000 and 20,000 waterfowl in mid- winter during the 
early 1970s, since when numbers have increased. In January 1987, almost 49,000 birds were 
present, and in January 1988, the number of birds exceeded 55,000. Maximum counts include: 
1,370 great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, 15,000 Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope, 1,900 
common teal A. crecca, 4,000 northern pintail A. acuta, 1,700 northern shoveler A. clypeata, 
4,900 tufted duck Aythya fuligula, 6,200 common pochard A.ferina and 24,000 common coot 
Fulica atra. Further details of the waterfowl are given by Scott (1989). Birds of prey are 
common, particularly osprey Pandion haliaetus. The stony deserts around the lake support 
wintering populations of Houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata and cream-coloured courser 
Cur sarins cursor. Further details of the avifauna are given by Scott (1989). 

The lake is reported to be well stocked with fish (Conder, 1977). Tilapia has been introduced 
and attracts good numbers of cormorants and pelicans (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Kalri Village lies adjacent to the south-west comer of the lake. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities None 

Scientific Research and Facilities Mid-winter waterfowl counts have been carried out 
regularly since 1971. 

Conservation Value The lake is an important wintering area for a variety of waterfowl, notably 
pelicans, flamingos, ducks and coots. It also provides excellent opportunities for research. 

Conservation Management Hunting, shooting and any other forms of disturbance to the 
wildlife is prohibited but commercial and sport fishing are permitted. A management plan was 
prepared in 1977, according to which the principal objective is to protect natural habitat in and 
around the lake in order to provide optimum conditions for the wide variety of resident and 
migratory birds, particularly waterfowl. Recommendations include the establishment of a 
no-fishing and no-boating zone in the north-east comer of the lake, banning of quarrying 
activities close to the sanctuary, and inclusion of some stony desert within the sanctuary. The 
stony desert to the north and west has a fauna and flora of special interest, and is covered by a 
Protection Ordinance. 

Management Constraints Fishing and boating activities cause considerable disturbance to 
the waterfowl, and there have been reports of illegal hunting. In particular, the activities of 
Mohanas (fisherman tribe) living beside the lake are a constant source of disturbance to 
waterfowl (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). There has been some excavation of roadstone 
materials within the sanctuary, and the landscape of surrounding hills has been marred by 
indiscriminate quarrying of limestone and dumping of unusable stone. 

Staff The appointment of a sanctuary warden, two to three deputy sanctuary wardens, and 
seven assistant wardens to cover both Haleji and Hadero wildlife sanctuaries and replace the 
existing game watchers has been recommended (Conder, 1977). 

Budget No information 



104 



Pakistan 



Local Addresses No information 

References Unless otherwise indicated, information is taken directiy from Scott (1989). 

Conder, PJ. (1977). Lake Hadero Wildlife Sanctuary (Management Plan). lUCNAVWF Project 

No. 1360. 7pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Sorley, H.T. (1968). The former Province ofSind (including Khairpur State). Gazetteer of West 

Pakistan. Publication of the Government of West Pakistan. 809 pp. (Unseen) 

Date August 1986, updated August 1990 



HALEJI LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies in Sind Province some 75km east of Karachi and 16km from the 
town of Thatta. Access is via a 5km long track leading off the main Karachi-Thatta highway at 
the 47th mile post 67°47'E, 24°48'N 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in March 1977 under 
Section 14 of the Sind Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972. Together with Chateji Dhand, first 
protected as a game sanctuary on 2 October 1971 under Section 15/1 of the West Pakistan 
Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1959 (Notification No: 26(2)20 AA & FT(FT)/71). Designated 
a Wetiand of International Importance at the time of Pakistan's ratification of the Ramsar 
Convention on 23 July 1976. 

Area l,704ha of lake, surrounded by a buffer zone of 5km radius which was extended from 
1.6km in 1975 (Notification No. WL & FT(DCF-GEN/75). Chateji Dhand lies within the 
boundaries of the sanctuary. 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind) 

Altitude 60m 

Physical Features Haleji is a perennial freshwater lake, with associated marshes and adjacent 
brackish seepage lagoons, set in a stony desert of limestone and sandstone bedrock. Originally 
a saline lagoon formed by seasonal rainwater collecting in a shallow depression, the lagoon was 
converted into a reservoir in the late 1930s to provide an additional water supply for Karachi. 
The salt water was drained, bunds (embankments) constructed around the lake, and the Jam 
Branch Canal carrying water from Kinjhar Lake diverted to it. This canal remains the principal 
source of water. The lake is drained by a link canal in the south-west comer. Maximum deptii 
is 5-6m and the water level fluctuates by 1 .0- 1 .5m. Salinity is 0. 1 -0.2 p.p.t. and pH ranges from 
6.5 to 8.0. The bunds surrounding the lake carry a road lined with trees. Beyond are three 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

brackish seepage lagoons, originally the borrowpits from which the earth was removed to 
construct the bunds. The lagoons are fed by the monsoon rains, water discharged from the main 
lake via the by-pass regulator, and possibly seepage through the bunds. To the west of the lake, 
the land rises by about 12m and is capped with limestone. To the north, the land is more fertile 
but elsewhere water-logging and saline soils preclude agriculture. A short distance to the 
north-east in the vicinity of Kalri Village lies Chateji Dhand, a smaller lake about 3.2km long, 
1 .6km wide and up tol .8m deep. This normally only floods after exceptionally heavy monsoons 
but can be filled from Haleji Lake via the by-pass regulator. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical monsoonal. Mean annual rainfall for the region is 
178mm, most of which falls during the monsoon season. Summers are hot with maximum 
temperatures of up to 49°C in the shade. Winters are cold with a January mean minimum of 
2.2°C. Prevailing winds are north-east in December- January and west-south-west in May- 
September (Sorley, 1968). 

Vegetation The lake supports abundant aquatic vegetation including extensive beds oiPhrag- 
mites karka, Typha angustata, Ipomoea aquatica, Cyperus sp., Scirpus littoralis and Polygonum 
barbatum, and patches of Nymphaea lotus and Eichhornia crassipes. Submerged aquatic 
vegetation includes Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus, P. lucens, Vallisneria spiralis, 
Hydrilla verticillata, Najas minor, Lemna minor, Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum 
spicatum. Juncus maritimus grows around the brackish seepage lagoons. Ornamental trees such 
as Acacia nilotica, Ficus sp. and Casuarina sp. have been planted on the bunds around the lake. 
The natural vegetation of surrounding areas includes Acacia Senegal, Tamarix dioica. Commi- 
phora mukul, Prosopis cineraria. Euphorbia caudicifolia, Eleusine compressa, Pennisetum sp., 
Salvadora oleoides and species oiCymbopogon, Calotropis, Alhagi, Zizyphus, Salix, Sagittaria 
and Salsola. 

Fauna Mammals known to be present include mongooses Herpestes spp., jackal Canis aureus, 
wild boar Sus scrofa and black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis. 

A wide variety of migrant waterfowl, particularly ducks and common coot Fulica atra, use Haleji 
Lake and the surrounding seepage lagoons. The sanctuary is also a breeding area for herons and 
egrets, cotton pygmy goose Nettapus coromandelianus (up to 55), spotbill ducV-Anaspoecilor- 
hyncha (up to 60), purple swamphen Porphyrio porphyria (up to 1,470), and pheasant-tailed 
jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus (up to 850). Many thousands of night heron Nycticorax 
nycticorax Toost in the marshes. During the 1970s, the sanctuary regularly held between 60,000 
and 100,000 ducks and coots in mid-winder. Over 53,000 waterfowl were present in early 
January 1987, and over 103,000 in late January 1988. Maximum counts of wintering birds have 
included: 1 , 1 60 littie grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, 2,020 great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, 
12,800 Eurasian wigeon Anas penelope, 6,000 common teal A. crecca, 1,300 spotbill duck, 
2,700 gadwall A. strepera, 1,230 mallard A.platyrhynchos, 6,800 northern pintail A. acuta, 
7,9(X) northern shoveler A. clypeata, 9,300 common pochard Aythya ferina, 9,000 tufted duck 
A . fuligula, 76,600 common coot, and 2,0(X) whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus. Further details 
of the waterfowl are given in Scott (1989). 

The sanctuary is particularly rich in birds of prey, the commonest species being osprey Pandion ^ 
haliaetus and marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus. At least 20 other species have been recorded i 
including Brahminy kite Haliastur indicus, Pallas's fish eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus, white- 
tailed eagle H. albicilla, pallid harrier Circus macrourus, greater spotted eagle Aquila clanga. 



106 



Pakistan 



imperial eagle A. heliaca, tawny eagle A. rapax, red-necked falcon Falco chicquera and pere- 
grine falcon F. peregrinus. Some 222 species of birds have been recorded by TJ. Roberts in 
the immediate vicinity of Haleji Lake and these are listed in Khan and Haleem (1986). 

The lake supports a small population of the mugger Crocodylus palustris (V). Common cobra 
Naja naja, water snakes and common monitor Varanus bengalensis also occur. 

The fish fauna includes Notopterus notopterus, N. chitala, Gadusia chapra, Labeo gonius, 
L. rohita, L.fimbriata, Catla catla, Europhiichthys vacha, Mystus gulio, M. tengara, M. aor, 
M. vittatus, Channa marulius, C. striatus, C. punctatus, Nandus nandus, Puntius (Barbus) 
sarana, P. ticto, P. stigma, Badis badis, Glossogobius spp., Crossocheilus latins, C. mrigala, 
Ambassis noma, A. ranga, Rasbora rasbora, R. daniconius, Xenentodon cancila and Mastacem- 
belus armatiis. Tilapia mossambica, Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idellus have been 
introduced. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population There are four small villages and several nomadic settlements 
within the buffer zone (Conder, 1977). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There are rest houses at Haleji Camp belonging to the Karachi 
Development Authority and a local tea house by the entry gate (Conder, 1977). An impressive 
information centre, with restaurant and observation tower, has been established by the Sind 
Wildlife Management Board and this was inaugurated in February 1982. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Mid-winter waterfowl counts have been conducted regu- 
larly since 1971 by the Sind Wildlife Management Board and Zoological Survey Department, 
and a limnological survey carried out by Karachi University. A project to study the common 
monitor has been initiated by the Zoological Survey Department in collaboration with the US 
Fish and Wildlife Service. 

Conservation Value Haleji and the surrounding seepage lagoons are an internationally 
important staging and wintering area for a variety of waterfowl. Situated only a short distance 
from Karachi, the sanctuary provides excellent opportunities for conservation education and 
scientific research. 

Conservation Management The main purpose of the lake is to supply Karachi with freshwater 
for about 1 5 days in the year, usually in April when the canal from Kinjhar Lake, which normally 
supplies Karachi, is being cleaned out. The sanctuary is managed by the Sind Wildlife 
Management Board in agreement with the Karachi Development Authority, according to a 
management plan prepared by Conder (1977). Objectives outlined in the management plan are: 
to protect the habitat for the benefit of the large numbers of resident and migratory birds, 
particularly waterfowl: and to provide facilities for naturalists and interested members of the 
public to study and enjoy the wildlife. Shooting, cutting and lopping of trees, boating, 
commercial fishing and reed cutting for thatch are prohibited but angling is permitted under 
license to the Karachi Development Authority. The lake is dredged from time to time to remove 
silt from the channel along its eastern and southern sides. The extensive Phragmites beds have 
been cut annually since 1977, except near the tail regulator where there was a large roost of night 
herons. The roost has since been abandoned due to harassment by house crows Corvus splendens 



107 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

(TJ. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). The Karachi Development Authority is proposing to build 
another reservoir alongside Haleji. 

Management Constraints There have been some incidences of unauthorised access, illegal 
fishing, hunting and cutting of trees at Haleji Lake, and considerable disturbances from nomadic 
settlements and illegal hunting at Chateji Dhand which is easily accessible from the Jungshahi- 
Thatta road. Recently, university scientists reported to a local Karachi newspaper their concern 
about plastic bags littering the fringe of the lake, dead turtles and the uncontrolled growth of 
Hydrilla and Typha (Dawn, 18 July 1989). 

Staff No recent information. It has been recommended that a sanctuary warden, two or three 
deputy sanctuary wardens and seven assistant sanctuary wardens replace existing game watchers 
to cover both Lake Halji and Lake Hadero (Conder, 1977). 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Unless otherwise indicated, information is taken directly from Scott (1989). 

Conder, PJ. (1977). Lake Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary (Management Plan). lUCNAVWF Project 

No. 1360. 15 pp. 
Khan, S.I. (1985). A note on the birds of prey of Haleji Lake and its surrounding areas. Records 

of the Zoological Survey of Pakistan 10: 75-80. 
Khan, M.K. and Haleem, I. (1988). Haleji Lake: where all Gods creatures enjoy the right to live. 

Sind Wildhfe Management Board, Karachi. 25 pp. 
Roberts, T. (1984a). Pakistan's wildlife today. World Wildlife Fund Monthly Report, January 1 984. 
Roberts, T J. (1984b). Brief review of the status of wetlands in Pakistan. 10th Asian Continental 

Section Conference, ICBP, Cambridge. UnpubUshed report. 6 pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzeriand and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Sorley, H.T. (1968). The former Province of Sind (including Khairpur State). Gazetteer of West 

Pakistan. Publication of the Government of West Pakistan. 809 pp. (Unseen) 

Date August 1986, updated August 1990 



HAWKES BAY/SANDSPIT BEACHES 

lUCN Management Category Recommended 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies on the Arabian Sea coast and stretches from Manora Point, at the 
mouth of Karachi harbour, westwards as far as Buleji Point. 24°47'-24''52'N, 66°50'-66*59'E 

Date and History of Establishment Recommended as a reserve for marine turtles. 

Area 20km stretch of beach and c. 2,0(X)ha of tidal creeks 



108 



Pakistan 



Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind) 

Altitude Sea level 

Physical Features Comprises a gently sloping sand beach, with open sandy approaches amd 
some submerged rocks offshore. The eastern part of the beach (Sandspit) is entirely sand; the 
western part (Hawkes Bay) has some rocky areas. The beaches are backed by a narrow, low 
primary dune ridge, behind which is a complex of sandy plains and tidal marshes. The beach 
platform is high enough to remain above the high tide mark at all times of the year except during 
the monsoon when it can be inundated by high tides. 

Climate Conditions are arid subtropical with temperatures remaining high throughout the year. 
Mean annual rainfall is 125mm, and mean annual temperature 32°C. 

Vegetation Dunes are consolidated in patches by Ipomoea pescaprae and grasses; the sandy 
plains support Acacia; and the tidal marshes are dominated by mangrove Avicennia marina. 

Fauna The beach is a very important nesting site for green sea turtle Chelonia mydas (E) and 
olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea (E); Kabraji and Firdous (1984) estimated that some 6,000 
green sea turtle and 200 olive ridley came to the beach to nest each year during the period 
1 98 1 - 1 983. Thirty two-species of shorebirds have been recorded, including crab plover Z)ro/mw 
ardeola. The commonest species are snowy plover Charadrius alexandrinus, lesser sand plover 
C. mongolus, sanderling Calidris alba, little stint C. minuta and dunlin C. alpina. Over 52,000 
waterfowl were recorded in mid- January 1975, including at least 5,000 snowy plover and sand 
plover, 1,650 pintail Anas acuta, 2,000 little stint, 20,000 dunlin, 10,(XX) unidentified small 
shorebirds and 7,880 black-headed gull Larus ridibundus. No comparable censuses have been 
carried out since 1975, but 2,100 and 1,700 waterfowl were recorded during partial surveys in 
January 1987 and January 1988, respectively. 

Cultural Heritage Turtle meat and eggs are not considered religiously desirable to eat by the 
local Muslims, but eggs are sometimes used in indigenous medicines (Kabraji and Firdous, 
1984). 

Local Human Population Areas of urban development exist along the northern and eastern 
shores of the creek system. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There are many holiday houses along the beach, which is used 
for recreation and fishing. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Marine turtles have been surveyed by Salm (1981) and 
their conservation requirements assessed by Kabraji and Firdous ( 1 984). The Zoological Survey 
Department is carrying out a research project on the shorebirds of the Karachi coast. 

Conservation Value The site is of international importance for green sea turtle. The creek 
system is one of the most important areas for wintering, passage and summering shorebirds in 
Pakistan, and also supports significant numbers of cormorants, flamingos, ducks, gulls and terns. 
It has been recommended that the property be declared a turtle reserve (Salm, 1981). 



109 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Conservation Management A marine turtle conservation project, initiated by WWF and 
implemented by the Sind Wildlife Management Board, has been in operation since 1980. One 
of the main aims of the project has been to protect turtle eggs from depredation; this has been 
achieved by collecting eggs from the wild, hatching them in enclosures, and then releasing the 
hatchlings into the sea. The beaches are patrolled and feral dogs are controlled to reduce 
predation levels. The project also includes a conservation education component. 

Management Constraints The beaches are a prime recreational site for the citizens of Karachi. 
Settlements are springing up along the beach, and the levels of disturbance and pollution are 
continually increasing. Principal threats to the marine turtles are disturbance from recreational 
activities and predation by humans and feral dogs. Turtles and their hatchlings frequentiy lose 
direction and orient themselves towards the bright lights of Karachi City to the north-east. The 
mangroves have been severely denuded as a result of grazing by camels and cutting for fodder, 
and there is a considerable amount of domestic and industrial pollution in the creek system. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Sind Wildlife Management Board, P O Box 3722, Stratchen Road, Karachi 1 

References Unless otherwise indicated, information is taken directiy from Scott (1989). 

Kabraji, A.M.andFirdous, F.(1984). Conservation of mrtles: Hawkesbay and Sandspit, Pakistan. 

WWF-Intemational/Sind Wildlife Management Board, Karachi. Unpublished report. 52 pp. 
Salm, R.V. (1981), Coastal resources in Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan: description, use and 

management. US Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. Pp. 91-95. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



HAZAR GANJI-CHILTAN NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category V (Protected Landscape) 

Biogeographical Province 2.20.08 (Anatolian-Iranian Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies in Baluchistan Province, some 20km south-west of the provincial 
capital of Quetta. The boundaries of die original area of 12,561 ha are described in the 
management plan (Rana, 1981). 29''59'-30''07'N, 66°24'-66''54'E 

Date and History of Establishment Notified a national park on 15 January 1980 (Notification 
No. SOA(IV) 133/79-Forest Vol.D- Hazar Ganji was originally declared a state forest in 1890 
and Chiltan a protected forest in 1964. Hazar Ganji was subsequently notified a game reserve 
in 1959 and later declared a wildlife sanctuary (Rana, 1981; Rafiq, 1985). 



110 



Pakistan 



Area 15,555ha. The original area of 12,561 ha, comprising Hazar Ganji State Forest (2,201 ha) 
and Chiltan Protected Forest (10,360ha) (Rana, 1981), was extended to 13,761 ha in the early 
1980s (Shafique, 1984) and subsequendy to its present size. There are plans to increase the area 
to about 150,000ha (Rafiq, 1985). 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Baluchistan) 

Altitude Ranges from 1,680m to 3,313m (Chiltan Peak). 

Physical Features The area is mountainous with precipitous slopes divided by ravines. The 
Chiltan Hills and Hazar Ganji Range lie west and east, respectively, of the north-soudi Chiltan 
divide. Bedrock is sedimentary limestone and soils on the flats are sandy loam (Rafiq, 1985). 

Climate Mean annual precipitation is 200-225mm, most of which falls in winter when snow 
remains on the higher peaks from December until the end of March. Temperatures rise to a 
maximum of 40°C in summer and fall to a minimum of -12°C in winter (Rafiq, 1985). 

Vegetation Forest cover is sparse and generally confined to gullies (Rana, 198 1). Scrub forest 
occurs at low altitudes, with an open canopy of Pistacea khinjak, P. cabulica and Fraxinus 
xanthoxyloides, and a second storey oiSophora griffithi, Artemisia maritima, Prunus brahuica. 
Ephedra sp., Holoxylon griffithi and Perovskia striplicifolica (Shafique, 1984). Juniperus 
macropoda occurs in the higher reaches of the park. The fencing along the southern border of 
the park has had a dramatic effect on the recovery of the vegetation, with many showy flowers 
in spring, such as Gentiana livieri, Ixiolirion montanum, Ferrula oopoda and Salvia spp. (T.J. 
Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). Some 225 plant species have been recorded by the Botany 
Department of the University of Baluchistan (Shafique, 1984). 

Fauna The Chiltan Hills harbour the largest remaining population of Chiltan markhor Capra 
falconeri chialtanensis (V). In the 1950s it was said to exceed 1,200 (Rana, 1981), but in 
November 1970 the population was estimated to number about 200, based on a total count of 
107 individuals (Schaller and Mirza, 1971). Subsequendy, Mirza (1975) counted 168 animals. 
The population is presentiy estimated at about 300 (Valdez, 1988). The Suleiman markhor C.f. 
jerdoni (V) is also present in the northern part of the Chiltan Range and a few urial Ovis orientalis 
still survive on the western slopes between l,5(X)m and 2,100m (Shafique, 1984). Carnivores 
include hyaena Hyaena hyaena and fox Vulpes vulpes. Three species of sand rat are present: 
Meriones persicus above 1,830m, and lower down M. libycus and M. crassus occur in more 
exposed places (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). 

The scops owl Otus scops is present and sympatric with striated scops owl O. brucei. Other 
noteworthy birds include common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, European bee-eater Mero/?^ apias- 
tur, rock partridge Alectoris graeca, European nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus unwini, long- 
billed pipit Anthus similis, orphean warbler 5y/v/a hortensis, variable wheatearOenanthepicata, 
blue rock thrush Monticola solitarius, stonechat Saxicola torquata, and Lichtenstein's desert 
fmch Rhodospiza obsoleta (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). 

Cultural Heritage Neighbouring areas are inhabited by Shahwani tribals. 

Local Human Population No information 



111 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The national park is accessible by road from Quetta and attracts 
many visitors. Facilities include a museum, picnic spots and accommodation in rest houses. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Preliminary surveys of the flora have been undertaken by 
the Botany Department of the University of Baluchistan. The dynamics of rodent populations 
in Hazar Ganji have been studied by the Vertebrate Pest Research Institute, University of 
Karachi. The status of the Chiltan markhor population was assessed by Schaller and Mirza 
(1971) and subsequently by Mirza (1975). The Forest Department has agreed to establish a 
captive population of Chiltan markhor for taxonomic studies and to provide stock for possible 
re-introduction programmes (Valdez, 1988). A hut is available for visiting scientists. 

Conservation Value The park is most important as a refuge for the largest remaining 
population of Chiltan markhor. 

Conservation Management Although a state forest for many decades, the forests of Hazar 
Ganji were never exploited on a commercial scale. Nevertheless, the habitat became degraded 
and wildlife populations reduced due to over-exploitation . Park development began in 1978. 
Objectives outiined in the management plan include protecting the wildlife, improving and 
restoring its habitat and improving the amenity value of the area for the benefit of the residents 
of Quetta. Efforts to protect the park, including the erection of 30km of boundary fencing, have 
resulted in a marked recovery of the vegetation and an increase in the Chiltan markhor 
population. Other initiatives include planting of fodder trees and high-yielding nutritious grasses 
on the flats and the provision of waterholes and two reservoirs. Livestock grazing and wood 
cutting are prohibited but the Shahwanis are allowed to collect the fruit of shina Pistacea khinjak 
(Rana, 1981; Shafique, 1984; Rafiq, 1985). A system of zonation is proposed with recreation 
zones of varying intensities of use, a wilderness area and special areas of scientific importance. 
Adjoining areas within an 8km radius of the national park will serve as a buffer zone within 
which shooting will be prohibited (Rana, 1981). 

Management Constraints The ecosystem, fragile on account of the aridity, was heavily 
over-exploited up until 1977 when controls were introduced. The vegetation is recovering as 
witnessed by the sharp contrast between the healthy vegetation within the park and the eroded 
landscape beyond (Shafique, 1984). The Forest Department's plans to extend the area of the 
park to about 150,000ha is likely to conflict with the interests of the local human population 
(Rafiq, 1985). 

Staff No information 

Budget Annual expenditure of Rs 1.2 lakhs increasing to 3.6 lakhs proposed for the period 
1981/82-1985/86 (Rana, 1981). 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Mirza, Z.B. (1975). A census of Chiltan markhor Copra hircus in Chiltan Range, Quetta. Pakistan 

Journal of Zoology 7: 214-216. 
Rafiq, M. (1985). Management of Chiltan-Hazraganji National Park in Baluchistan. In: McNeely, 

J.A., Thorsell, J.W. and Chalise, S.R. (Eds), People and protected areas in the Hindu Kush- 



112 



Pakistan 



Himalaya. King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation and International Centre for Inter- 
grated Mountain Development, Kathmandu. Pp. 101-102. 

Rana, M.M. (1981). Management plan ofHazar Ganji-Chiltan National Park. National Council 
for Conservation of Wildlife, Islamabad. 55 pp. 

Schaller, G.B. and Mirza, Z.B. (1971). Observations on urial and markhor in West Pakistan. New 
York Zoological Society, New York. Unpublished report. 4 pp. 

ShaFique, M. (1984). Hazaraganji-Chiltan National Park. World Wildlife Fund Pakistan Newslet- 
ter. 3(4): 8-10. 

Valdez, R. (1988). Wild Caprins of Pakistan. A report. Caprinae News 3{\): 2-6. 



Date August 1986, updated August 1990 



HEAD ISLAM/CHAK KOTORA GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4. 1 5.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies 30km south-east of Vehari. 29''50'N, 72°34'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve in 1978 and re-notified in 1983. 

Area 3,132 ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of the Punjab). The reservoir is under the 
authority of the provincial Irrigation Department; adjacent agricultural land is privately owned. 

Altitude 139m 

Physical Features Head Islam is a water storage reservoir on the Sutlej River, from which 
water is distributed by canal for irrigation purposes. Two embankments project out into the 
reservoir and hold back shallow lagoons as the water level in the main river channel recedes. 
The combination of shallow water areas, rich aquatic vegetation and wet agricultural land 
provides excellent habitat for waterfowl during the autumn migration season. The lagoons dry 
out completely towards the end of December, however, when the area becomes less suitable for 
wintering birds. The depth of water in the main channel varies from 3m to 6m, and that in the 
seepage lagoons from 0.1m to 3m. 

Climate Conditions are dry sub-tropical, with an annual rainfall of 200-300mm. Minimum 
temperatures in January range from 5.5°C to 18°C, and maximum temperatures in June from 
32-C to 46'C. 

Vegetation Aquatic vegetation includes Hydrilla verticillata, Juncus sp., Nelumbium specio- 
sum, Phragmites karka, Potamogeton spp., Typha angustata, Zannichellia palustris, Desmos- 
tachya binata and Cynodon dactylon. Land around the reservoir is mainly under cultivation for 
cotton, rice, wheat, sugarcane and fodder crops. The natural vegetation of the surrounding plains 
is tropical thorn forest with Acacia nilotica, Prosopis cineraria, Tamarix aphylla, T. dioica. 



113 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Salvadora oleoides, Capparis aphylla, Zizyphus nummularia, Aristida mutabilis, Cynodon 
dactylon, Eleusine compressa and Pennisetum divisum. 

Fauna Some 1,150 waterfowl were recorded in early January 1987, with a high species 
diversity. Counts included 140 little grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis, 125 cormorant Phalacroco- 
rax niger, 180 herons and egrets of 5 species, 110 spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, 190 common 
coot Fulica atra, 38 black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus and small numbers of various 
species of ducks and shorebirds. Similar numbers of birds were present in January 1988. 

Mammals include hog deer Axis porcinus, greatly reduced in number, jackal Canis aureus, 
jungle cat Felis chaus, wild boar Sus scrofa and black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis. Gharial 
Gavialis gangeticus (E) formerly occurred in the main river channel, but disappeared after the 
construction of a dam upstream. 

Fishes include Ambassis noma, A. ranga, Bagarius bagarius, Catla catla, Channa marulius, 
C. punctatus, Cirrhinus mrigala, C. reba, Heteropneustes fossilis, Labeo calbasu, L. micro- 
phthalmus, L. rohita, Mastacembelus armatus, Mystus aor, Nandus nandus, Notopterus chitale, 
N. notopterus, Puntius sophore, P. ticto, Rita rita and Wallago attu. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The reservoir is used for fishing and as a water supply for 
surrounding areas. Land exposed at low water levels is leased for the cultivation of cotton, rice, 
wheat and fodder crops. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Annual mid-winter waterfowl counts have been carried out 
in recent years. 

Conservation Value The wetland is an important staging area for migratory waterfowl, 
particularly Anatidae and shorebirds, during the autumn migration season. Most birds depart 
when the seepage lagoons dry out in December. The reservoir is an important source of water 
for irrigation and supports a small commercial fishery. The site has some value for outdoor 
recreation, including bird-watching and boating. 

Conservation Management It has been proposed that ownership of the area be transferred 
from the Irrigation Department to the Wildlife Department, and that the area be managed as a 
wildlife sanctuary in the interests of its hog deer, partridges Francolinus spp. and waterfowl. 
There is no management plan. 

Management Constraints Agricultural activities around the seepage lagoons and fishing in 
the reservoir disturb the waterfowl, and there is some illegal hunting. The wide fluctuations in 
water level make the site less attractive for waterfowl during winter. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 



114 



Pakistan 



Local Addresses No information 



References Information is taken directiy from: 



Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUO^I, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



INDUS RIVER GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category No category assigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Comprises a 170km stretch of the Indus River between Guddu and 
Sukkur barrages in Sind Province. 27°40'-28°26'N, 68°53'-69°46'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve on 24 December 1974 (Govern- 
ment of Sind Notification No. WL & FT (DCF-GEN-767) 74). 

Area 44,200ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind) 

Altitude SOm 

Physical Features The Indus and its main tributaries are perennial, the volume of water 
discharged varying in relation to seasonal melrwater and rainfall. The maximum volume (50%) 
of the annual discharge of the Indus is observed in the summer monsoon months of July- 
September and only 15% in the winter season from October to March, when its width varies 
from 50m to 1km, its current speed from 0.1 to 1.5m per sec and its depth is not less than 6m. 
As a result of the very gentie gradient of the Indus in the Punjab and Sind, and the enormous 
quantity of detritus borne downstream, the river bed is raised above the level of the surrounding 
plains. The river bed comprises mud and sand. Owing to the high amount of detritus, the water 
is extremely turbid and the visual range from the surface downwards is only about 5cm (Pilleri 
and Zbinden, 1973-1974). 

Climate Water temperature in winter ranges from a minimum of 12°C at night to a daytime 
maximum of 24*C, while the air temperature varies from 2°C to 35°C (Pilleri and Zbinden, 
1973-1974.) 

Vegetation The following plants are associated with areas of inundation and marshland along 
the Indus: Saccharum spontaneum, Phragmites communis, Tamarix dioica, Typha elephantina, 
T. angustata, Arundo donax, Paspalum ditichum and Erianthus spp. The freshwater flora is 
limited to planktonic forms. 



115 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Fauna The Indus dolphin Platanista indi (E) is a blind cetacean endemic to the Indus River 
and found in greatest numbers between Guddu and Sukkur barrages. About 150 were censused 
in January 1974 (Pilleri and Zbinden, 1973-1974), 187 in April-May 1977 (Pilleri and Bhatti, 
1978), 241 in May 1978 (Pilleri and Bhatti, 1978), 292 in June 1979 (PUleri and Bhatti, 1980), 
346 in April 1980 (Bhatti and Pilleri, 1982) and 429 in 1986 (Khan, 1986). There is some doubt 
as to the comparability of these census data due to differences in the reliability of survey 
techniques; neverthless, it is believed that the population has actually increased following the 
strict protective measiu-es afforded to the species since 1974 (Khan and Niazi, 1989). Other 
aquatic vertebrates include turtles {Kachuga smithii, Trionyx gangeticus and Lissemys punctata) 
and gharial Gavialis gangeticus (E), which locally is almost extinct. Aquatic birds include large 
colonies of Laridae and egrets. Common species of fish are mali Wallago attu, singari Macrones 
aor and marakho Catla buchanani, all of which are taken by the Indus dolphin (Pilleri and 
Zbinden, 1973-1974). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Mohanas (Mohammedans of the Jubbah caste) used to catch 
dolphins, being mainly dependent for their livelihood on the sale of dolphin oil for medicinal 
purposes and on its meat for food. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities None 

Scientific Research and Facilities The Indus dolphin population has regularly been censused 
since 1974. In 1977, a research project to identify the species conservation requirements was 
initiated by World Wildlife Fund, with support from the Volkart Foundation in Karachi, and 
subsequently financed by Sind Wildlife Management Board (Khan, 1981). 

Conservation Value The reserve was established for the protection of the Indus dolphin. 

Conservation Management Construction of a series of barrages across the Indus River, to 
supply energy and facilitate irrigation of the Sind Desert, had split the Indus dolphin population 
into completely isolated groups. Development of irrigation systems in the middle and upper 
reaches of the river had drastically lowered the water level further downstream, making 
conditions unsuitable for the species. With the added pressure of hunting, numbers had declined 
to a perilously low level. On 23 December 1974, all hunting of the Indus dolphin in the waters 
of Sind Province was prohibited (Notification No. WL & FT (DCF-GEN-762)74) and, on 24 
December 1974, the waters of the Indus River between Guddu and Sukkur barrages were 
declared a game reserve. The species is now well protected within the reserve and no incidences 
of poaching have been reported in recent years (Pilleri and Bhatti, 1978; Bhatti and Pilleri, 1982). 
The status of the Indus dolphin further upstream in Punjab Province, however, is critical and it 
has been recommended that the adjacent stretch of the Indus ftiom above Guddu Barrage to 
Taunsa Barrage be established as a reserve (Pilleri and Bhatti, 1980; Khan and Niazi, 1989). 

Management Constraints At least 50 Indus dolphins are estimated to have been taken from 
between Sukkur and Guddu each year (Pilleri and Zbinden, 1973-1974) but poaching is now 
under control (Pilleri and Bhatti, 1978; Bhatti and Pilleri, 1982). There is no large-scale 
commercial fishing, although a great number offish are caught in pools left after flooding. This 
and limited human recreational activity (e.g. bathing) do not seem to be detrimental to the 
dolphins. Several stretches of the river now dry up in winter and habitat is being reduced as 



116 



Pakistan 



increasing amounts of water are withdrawn for irrigation purposes. Increasing pollution of the 
Indus from domestic sewage and industrial waste may represent a serious long-term threat (Ali, 
1986). 

Staff One divisional forest officer/research officer and four game watchers (1980) 

Budget Rs 100,000 per year (1981) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

AH, A.A. (1986). The Indus dolhin. In: Carwardine, M. (Ed.), The nature of Pakistan: a guide to 

conservation and development issues No. 1 lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 72 pp. 
Bhatti, M.U. and Pilleri, G. (1982). Status of the Indus dolphin population {Platanista indi Blyth, 

1859) between Sukkur and Guddu barrages in 1979-1980. Investigations on Cetacea 13: 

245-252. 
Khan, K.M. (1980-1986). Annual reports of Indus dolphin project. Sind Wildlife Management 

Board, Karachi. (Unseen) 
Khan, K.M. (1981). Wildlife management in Sind. Paper presented at lUCN/SSC Technical 

Meeting, New Delhi, February 1981. Pp. 7-8. 
Khan, K.M. and Niazi, M.S. (1989). Distribution and population status of the Indus dolphin, 

Platanista minor. In: Perrin, W.F., BrowneU, R.L. Jr, Zhou Kaiya and Liu Jiankang (Eds), 

Biology and conservation of the river dolphins. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 77-80. 
Pilleri, G. (1972). Field observations carried out on the Indus dolphin Platanista indi in the winter 

1972. Investigations on Cetacea 4: 23-29. 
Pilleri, G. (1980). Secrets of the blind dolphin. Sind Wildlife Management Board, Karachi. 

(Unseen) 
Pilleri, G. and Bhatti, M.U. (1978). Status of the Indus dolphin population (Platanista indi Blyth, 

1859) between Guddu Barrage and Hyderabad in 1978. Investigations on Cetacea 9: 25-38. 
Pilleri, G. and Bhatti, M.U. (1980). Status of the Indus dolphin (Platanista indi Blyth, 1859) 

between Sukkur and Taunsa barrages. Investigations on Cetacea 11: 205-214. 
Pilleri, G. and Zbinden, K. (1973-1974). Size and ecology of die dolphin population (Platanista 

indi) between the Sukkur and Guddu barrage, Indus Rivers. Investigations on Cetacea 5: 59-69. 
WWF/IUCN Project 1221. Indus dolphin - ecological study. 

Date July 1986, updated August 1990 



KALA CHITTA GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category No category assigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated in the Kala Chitta Hills of Punjab Province, about 60km 
south-west of Islamabad and 20km south-east of Campbellpur. Approximately 33°38'N, 
72'31'E 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve in 1983, having previously been 
protected as a reserved forest. 

Area 132,611ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind) 

Altitude Ranges from 250m to 710m. 

Physical Features Kala and Chitta are two distinct ranges. Parent rocks are limestone and 
sandstone. The soil is thin and shallow in limestone areas but adequate for tree growth. That 
in sandstone areas is devoid of humus and supports only xerophytes (Aleem, 1977). 

Climate Conditions are subtropical continental. Base on meteorological data for a 40-year 
period from Campbellpur, mean annual precipitation is 584mm, with nearly 50% falling in 
July-September, monthly mean maximum temperature is highest (40.8°C) in June, and monthly 
mean minimum temperature is lowest (2.2°C) in January (Aleem, 1977). 

Vegetation The Kala Chitta Hills are covered by dry subtropical broad-leaved forest. In 
limestone areas, Oleacuspidata is dominant on northern aspects and Acacia modesta on southern 
aspects (Champion, Seth and Khattak, 1965). 

Fauna The area is important for Punjab urial Ovis orientalis punjabiensis and chinkara Gazella 
gazella. In January 1976, some 47 urial were counted and 20-25 chinkara estimated within an 
area of 50 sq.km. Carnivores include jackal Canis aureus, Bengal fox Vulpes bengalensis, 
yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula and leopard Panthera pardus (T). The black-naped 
hare Lepus nigricollis is also present (Aleem, 1977). 

Birds of prey include lanner falcon Falco biarmicus and peregrine falcon F.peregrinus. 
Common game birds are chukar partridge Alectoris chukar, see-see partridge Ammoperdix 
griseogularis and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerianus (Aleem, 1977). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The area is sparsely populated (Aleem, 1977) but it is grazed by 
some 3,000 sheep, goats, cattle and camels (Pakistan Forest Institute, 1977). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities The urial population was censused on January 1976 and 
the vegetation sampled for palatible species (Aleem, 1977; Pakistan Forest Institute, 1977). It 
was subsequently censused in the winter of 1985/1986 by a team from the University of 
Edinburgh. 

Conservation Value The reserve supports small populations of Punjab urial and chinkara. 

Conservation Management Shooting of urial is prohibited. Grazing conditions are good, 
with little sign of overgrazing. The available forage was considered adequate to support 
domestic livestock and wild ungulate populations in 1976 (Aleem, 1977). 



118 



Pakistan 



Management Constraints The vegetation is subject to felling and cutting practices, and 
poaching is commonplace (Aleem, 1977). Recent reports indicate that the urial population has 
been decimated (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Aleem, A. (1977). Punjab urial in Chak Jabbi Area - Kala Chitta Range. Pakistan Journal of 

Forestry 21: nO-U%. 
Champion, H.G., Seth, S.K. and Khattak, G.M. (1965). Forest types of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest 

Institute, Peshawar. 
Pakistan Forest Institute (1977). Annual Progress Report 1915-16. Pp. 19-21. 

Date July 1986, updated August 1990 



KALABAGH GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned (Private) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies at the western extremity of the Salt Range some 30km south-east 
of Kalabagh Town. Approximately 32°50'N, 7 1° 38 'E 

Date and History of Establishment Originally created a reserve in 1966 by the late Nawab 
of Kalabagh and recognised as such by the international conservation community (Mountfort 
and Poore, 1968). The reserve has not been notified a private game reserve under the Punjab 
Wildlife (Protection, Preservation, Conservation and Management) Act, 1975. 

Area Approximately l,550ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of the Punjab). The land is leased from the 
government by the Malik family. 

Altitude Approximately 300- 1,000m 

Physical Features Hills rise gentiy from a flat plain, then enter a rugged area of small plateaux, 
whose edges drop vertically to boulder- strewn stream beds of sharply tilted strata of rock and 
limestone bluffs, and culminate in a series of ridges (Schaller and Mirza, 1974). 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Climate Conditions are arid, with an annual rainfall of 500mm or less, most of which falls in 
July and August. Temperatures reach 40°C or more during the hot season (Schaller and Mirza, 
1974). 

Vegetation Comprises Acacia scrub woodland, dominated by A. modesta which grows scat- 
tei^ on the slopes and along stream beds often in association with Salvadora oleioides, Zizyphus 
nummularia and other trees. Shrubs are sparse, except in some ravines and high ridges where 
Dodonaea viscosa is prominent. Grasses include Aristida depressa, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, 
Eleusine flagellifera and Cymbopogonjawarancusa (Schaller and Mirza, 1974). 

Fauna The reserve is noted for its large populations of Punjab urial Ovis orientalispunjabiensis 
and chinkara Gazella gazella bennetti. Populations of both species have been reduced or 
extirpated throughout much of their former range elsewhere in Pakistan. About 500 urial 
inhabited tiie reserve in 1970 (Schaller and Mirza, 1974), and 75-100 chinkara were recorded 
witiiin an area of 7.5 sq. km in 1970-1974 (Schaller, 1976). Carnivores include jackal Canis 
aureus and fox Vulpes vulpes, but leopard Panthera pardus (T) was eliminated from the area 
prior to 1970 (Schaller and Mirza, 1974; Schaller, 1976). Blackbuck Cervus cervicapra has 
been introduced to the reserve as part of a national effort to re-establish the species in Pakistan 
(Anon., 1987). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The land is grazed by livestock belonging to the Malik family. 
Lower slopes and a few level terraces are partially cultivated but most of the area is too arid and 
rocky for anything except livestock grazing (Schaller and Mirza, 1974). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There is a rest house belonging to the Malik family. 

Scientinc Research and Facilities Schaller and Mirza (1974) conducted a one-month beha- 
vioural study of the Punjab urial in 1970, and Schaller (1976) also made some preliminary 
observations of chinkara over a three-month period in 1970-1974. 

Conservation Value Kalabagh's scenery is imposing. The reserve represents the last remain- 
ing refuge of the Punjab urial in the Salt Range and holds the largest known population. 

Conservation Management The reserve was created specifically to protect the Punjab urial 
(Mountfort and Poore, 1968), but wildlife inhabiting the property of the late Nawab of Kalabagh 
had been protected for at least the previous 30 years (Schaller and Mirza, 1974). Livestock 
belonging to the Malik family are raised in the reserve but managed in the interests of wild 
ungulate populations. 

Management Constraints Poaching is a persistent problem, particularly in die more isolated 
mountainous areas, and sometimes involves the armed forces. Even when offenders are brought 
to trial, little or no action is taken by the relevant authorities (M.A. Khan, pers. comm., 1986). 

The world's largest dam was due to be constructed on the Indus just above Kalabagh township. 
With access to the construction site planned via the reserve, it was anticipated that the wildlife 
would be heavily poached (M.A. Khan, pers. comm., 1986). The project proved to be very 
controversial and has since been shelved for the time being (Hussain, 1988; Mumtaz, 1989). 



120 



Pakistan 



Staff Several game guards (1986) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Kalabagh Estate, District Mianwali, Punjab 

References 

Anon. (1987). Pakistan restores blackbuck. Oryx 21: 251. 

Hussain,Z.(1986). The Kalabagh Dam. In: Carwardine, M. (Ed.), T/ie namre o/PaJbi/an. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 60-61. 
Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1967). The conservation of wildlife in Pakistan. WWF, Merges, 

Switzerland. Unpublished report. 27 pp. 
Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1968). Report on the Second World Wildlife Fund Expedition to 

Pakistan. AVWF, Morges, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 25 pp. 
Mumtaz, K. (1989). Pakistan's environment: a historical perspective. In: Shirkat Gah-Women's 

Resource Centre, Pakistan's environment: a historical perspective and selected bibliography 

with annotations. Journalists' Resource Centre-IUCN Pakistan, Karachi. Pp. 18-22. 
Schaller, G.B. (1976). A note on the population of Gazella gazella bennetti. Journal of the Bombay 

Natural History Society 73: 209-21 1. 
Schaller, G.B. and Mirza, Z.B. (1971). Observations on urial and markhor in West Pakistan. New 

York Zoological Society and Punjab University. Unpublished report. 4 pp. 
Schaller, G.B. and Mirza, Z.B. (1974). On the behaviour of Punjab urial {Qvis orientalis 

punjabiensis). In: Geist, V. and Walther, F. (Eds), The behaviour of ungulates and its relation 

to management. lUCN, Morges. Pp. 306-323. 

Date August 1990 



KANDAR DAM 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies south-east of Kohat. 33°36'N, 7r29'E 

Date and History of Establishment Designated a Wetland of International Importance at the 
the time of Pakistan's ratification of the Ramsar Convention on 23 July 1976. 

Area 251 ha 

Land Tenure State (Government of North-West Frontier Province) 

Altitude 255m 

Conservation Value Kandar is a small water storage reservoir of minor importance for 
waterfowl as a staging and wintering area. Only 90 waterfowl were recorded in January 1987, 



r 



121 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

and only two birds (greenshank Tringa nebularia) were seen in January 1988. It is no longer 
considered to be of sufficient importance to merit designation as a Ramsar site. 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 



KARGAH WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in the Northern Areas, 5km from the town of GilgiL Approxi- 
mately 35°56'N, 74°06'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary on 22 November 1975. 

Area 44,308ha 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 1,5 15m at the mouth of Kargah Nullah to 4,242m at Chilali. 

Physical Features The sanctuary comprises the catchment area of the Kargah Nullah. The 
meta-sedimentary and sedimentary sequence includes slates, quartzites, limestone and gneiss of 
pre-Carboniferous age. There are granodiorite and horn-blended granite intrusions. Igneous 
rocks are post Permo-Carboniferous in age (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Annual precipitation in the valley is 152-203mm, most of which falls as snow during 
the severe winter months of December and January. June and July are the hottest months (Rasul, 
1985). 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include Fraxinus, Salix, Olea, Pistacia, Juniperus, kail, Picea, 
Betula, Rosa and Daphnes oleides. Ground cover consists oi Artemisia, Stipa, Haloxylon and 
other grass species. 

Fauna Large mammals include markhor Caprafalconeri (V), ibex C. ibex, musk deer Moschus 
chrysogaster (V) and snow leopard Panther a uncia (E). The avifauna includes chukar Alectoris 
chukar, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa and snowcock Tetraogallus sp. Monal pheasant Lopho- 
phorus impejanus is seen occasionally (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 



122 



Pakistan 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No infonnation 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value The sanctuary provides a refuge for a variety of threatened mammals. 

Conservation Management No management plan exists. Wildlife is afforded fuU protection. 
People living near the forest and in the town of Gilgit enjoy concessions to extract firewood and 
graze livestock. Residents of Kargah benefit from timber for domestic use (Rasul, 1985). 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower, poaching and agricultural 
encroachment. 

Staff One game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,000 p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northem Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 



KETI BUNDAR NORTH AND KETI BUNDAR SOUTH 
WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES 



rUCN Management Category FV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Situated in the Outer Indus Delta, south-east of Karachi. 23°45'- 
24°45'N,67°10'-68°15'E 

Date and History of Elstablishment Both Keti Bundar North and South were declared wildlife 
sanctuaries in 1977. They lie within Keti Bundar North Protected Forest (80,487ha) and Keti 
Bundar South Protected Forest (183,616ha), respectively. 

Area Keti Bundar North Wildlife Sanctuary: 8,948ha 

Keti Bundar South Wildlife Sanctuary: 23,046ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind) 

Altitude Sea level 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Physical Features The Outer Indus Delta is a vast complex of tidal river channels and creeks, 
low- lying sandy islands, mangrove swamps and intertidal mudflats stretching for over 150km 
from near Korangi Geek in the north-west to Sir Creek on the Indian border. In the south-east, 
the landward edge of the mangrove forest borders on the vast salt flats of the Great Rann of 
Kutch. The water levels and salinities in the delta fluctuate widely according to the flow of the 
Indus. 

Climate Conditions are arid subtropical, with a mean annual rainfall of 204mm, a mean relative 
humidity of 76%, a mean air temperature of 28.8°C, a mean mud temperature of 28. TC, and a 
mean siuface water temperature of 27.8°C. 

Vegetation The Outer Indus Delta supports extensive mangrove forests consisting almost 
entirely of Avicennia marina (99.9%). There are some localised patches of Ceriops tagal, 
particularly in the Shahbunder area in the south-east. Aegiceras corniculatum formerly occurred 
in the delta, but has now been almost exterminated from the Sind coast. Salsola foetida and 
marram grass Ammophila sp. grow on some of the sandy islands. The dominant seaweeds are 
species of Ulva and Enteromorpha. 

Fauna The mangrove forest provides nesting sites for several species of herons and egrets, the 
intertidal mudflats support major concentrations of wintering shorebirds, and the brackish 
lagoons behind the mangroves sometimes hold large numbers of ducks and flamingos. Species 
recorded regularly in the area include Dalamatian pelican Pelecanus crispus, cormorant Phala- 
crocorax carbo, western reef heron Egretta gularis, little egret E. garzetta, great egret E. alba, 
grey heron Ardea cinerea, white spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, greater flamingo Phoenicopte- 
rus ruber, oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus, avocet Recurvirostra avosetta, little ringed 
plover Charadrius dubius, Kentish plover C. alexandrinus, Mongolian plover C. mongolus, 
godwit Limosa limosa, bar-tailed godwit L. lapponica, whimbrel Numenius phaeopus, curlew 
N. arquata, redshank Tringa totanus, greenshank T. nebularia, sanderling Calidris alba, little 
stint C. minuta, dunlin C. alpina, curlew sandpiper C.ferruginea, Indian black- headed gull 
Larus brunnicephalus, black-headed gull L. ridibundus, herring gull L. argentatus, lesser black- 
backed gallL.fiiscus, Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia, gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica, 
common tern Sterna hirundo and little tern S. albifrons. 

Three species of cetaceans, plumbeous dolphin Sousa plumbea, finless porpoise Noemeris 
phocaenoides and bottle-nosed dolphin Turciops aduncus, have been recorded in the delta 
region. Jackal Canis aureus occurs on some of the islands and feeds on sand rat Meriones 
hurrianae. Saw- scaled viper Echis carinatus also survives on some of the islands. Seven species 
of sea-snakes have been reported, the commonest being Enhydra schistosa, Hydrophis cyan- 
ninctus and Microphalophus gracius. 

Mudskippers Periophthalmus sp. are abundant throughout the mangroves. Other species offish 
recorded in the Shah Bundar area include Nematalosa nasus, Anodontosoma chacuada, Thryssa 
hamiltonii, T. purava, T. malabarica, Mugil tade, M. subviridis, Liza vaigiensis, Polynemus 
plebeius, Pomadasys argyreus, Jhonius belangerii, Pampus argenteus, Platycephalus scaber 
and Euryglossa orientalis. Fishes known to occur elsewhere in the delta include Culpea chapra, 
C. Hie, C.ftmbriata and Synaptura orientalis. 



124 



Pakistan 



Common invertebrates include crabs of the genus Uca; shrimps of the genera Penaeus and 
Metapenaeus; and squids of the genus Sepia. Ghost crabs Ocypoda rotundata and Neptunus 
pelagicus arc abundant on the sandy islands. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population There are many small fishing villages and other settlements in the 
delta and extensive agricultural lands to the north. Mangroves are grazed by domestic livestock 
(cows, buffaloes and camels) and also cut for cattle fodder. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities A major programme of research is currently being de- 
veloped with a view to the preparing a management plan for the Indus Delta. The Zoological 
Survey Department has recently initiated a detailed study of the mangrove forest and its 
vertebrate fauna in the Shahbunder area. 

Conservation Value The delta contains by far the the most extensive tracts of mangrove forest 
in Pakistan, with large areas still in a relatively undisturbed condition. It is also an extremely 
important area for both resident and migratory waterfowl of a wide variety of species. The 
mangrove ecosystem is of considerable importance as a breeding and nursery ground for both 
shrimp and fin fish, which support a major fishery along the coast of Sind. Mangroves also 
provide protection against storms and tidal waves, and under proper management could be an 
extremely valuable fodder and timber resource. 

Conservation Management A management plan for the mangrove forests has been prepared 
by the Sind Forest Department, but has yet to be implemented. A project for the management 
of the mangrove ecosystem of the Indus Delta has been drawn up in collaboration with 
TUCNAJNEP, and is currently being considered by the Government of Pakistan. The main 
objective of the project is to check and reverse the problems of over-exploitation and pollution. 

Management Constraints Major threats to the Indus Delta are pollution, over-exploitation of 
the mangrove and fishery resources, and increasing salinity. The Indus River and its distribu- 
taries carry an immense load of urban, industrial and agricultural effluents into the coastal 
wetlands. Excessive grazing pressure and the large-scale cutting of mangroves for fodder have 
already denuded much of the mangrove vegetation in peripheral areas. Over-fishing, especially 
in the breeding season, is posing a serious threat to the sustainability of the resource over the 
long term. The freshwater flushing of the mangroves has been disrupted as a result of the 
construction of barrages on the Indus River and diversion of water for irrigation. The resultant 
increasing salinity may now be threatening the continued survival of the mangrove forest. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 



125 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



References Information is taken directly from: 



Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



KHABBEKE LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned) 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies in the Salt Range, 10km north-east of Nowshera and 38km 
north-north-west of Khushab, Khushab District. 32°37'N, 72° 14'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1967 and re-notified on 
17 November 1975. Designated a Wedand of International Importance at the time of Pakistan's 
ratification of the Ramsar Convention on 23 July 1976. However, the wildlife sanctuary is due 
to be denotified because of changes in its ecological character and the decline in numbers of 
wintering waterfowl. 

Area 283ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of the Punjab). Adjacent agricultural land is 
privately owned, and the forests and range lands in the watershed are communally owned. 

Altitude 978m 

Physical Features Khabbeke is a shallow brackish lake which is fed by local rainfall and 
several intermittent streams rising in the surrounding hills. The water level has risen by 30-60cm 
in recent years, increasing the lake's size and decreasing its salinity. Its maximum depth is now 
about 10.5m. A salinity of 5.2 p.p.t. was recorded in April 1987, and a pH of 7.2 in January 
1987. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical with hot summers and cool winters. Annual rainfall 
varies from 300mm to 800mm. Temperatures range from a mean minimum of 0.5''C in January 
to a mean maximum of 36°C in June. 

Vegetation Aquatic vegetation includes Carexfedia, Hydrilla verticillata, Juncus sp., Phrag- 
mites karica, Potamogeton crispus, Saccharum spontaneum, Typha angustata, Vallisneria 
spiralis and Zannichellia palustris. The natural vegetation of the region is a mixture of 
subtropical semi-evergreen forest and tropical thorn forest, with species such as Acacia modesta, 
Adhatoda vasica, Dodonea viscosa, Gymnosporia royleana, Oleaferruginea, Reptonia buxifo- 
lia, Tamarix aphylla, Withania coagulans, Zizyphus mauritiana and Z. nummularia. Most of 
the natural vegetation around the lake has been cleared for agriculture. 



126 



Pakistan 



Fauna As many as 8,700 waterfowl were recorded in the early 1970s, but numbers have fallen 
drastically in recent years. No white-headed duck Oxyura leucocephala (V) or greater flamingo 
Phoenicopterus ruber have been recorded for several years, and only 1 00 waterfowl were present 
in January 1986. During censuses in January 1987 and January 1988, respectively, 1,390 and 
2,310 waterfowl were counted. 

Mammals and amphibians known to occur in the area include jackal Canis aureus, fox Vulpes 
vulpes, Indian hare Lepus nigricollis and frog Rana tigrina. Introduced fishes include Labeo 
rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idella. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The lake now supports a commercial fishery. It is also used for 
domestic washing and illegal hunting. Principal activities in surrounding areas are agriculture 
and livestock grazing. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Mid-winter waterfowl censuses have been carried out 
annually since 1971. 

Conservation Value The lake used to be a very important wintering area for white-headed 
duck, and a regular wintering area for greater flamingo and many other species of waterfowl. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints Changes in the salinity and water level have altered the ecology of 
the lake, and this has been compounded by large-scale stocking with herbivorous fish species. 
It is believed that direct competition between the introduced fishes and waterfowl for food has 
been responsible for the decline in waterfowl numbers in recent years. Fishing activities cause 
a considerable amount of disturbance to waterfowl, particularly in November when wintering 
birds first arrive at the lake. There is some illegal hunting. Pollution from domestic waste is 
also reported to be a problem. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



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KHARAR LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category FV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies on the plains to the south of the Ravi River, 20km north-east of 
Okara, Okara District 30°53'N, 73°35'E 

Date and History of Establishment The lake was first designated as a wildlife sanctuary in 
1971; the sanctuary was re-notified in June 1983. 

Area 235ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of the Punjab) 

Altitude IgOm 

Physical Features Kharar is a shallow brackish/saline lake, with associated brackish marshes. 
It was created in 1945 as a result of water-logging, and is fed by local run-off and seepage from 
adjacent irrigated agricultural land. During the flood season, excess water from adjacent land 
is diverted to the lake, causing a reduction in salinity. The depth of water varies from 0.2m to 
3.0m. A pH value of 8.0 was recorded in October 1986. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical, with a mean annual rainfall of 225mm. Mean 
minimum temperature in January is 9.5°C, and mean maximum in June is 35''C. 

Vegetation Aquatic vegetation includes Carexfedia, Chara sp., Cynodon dactylon, Hydrilla 
verticillata, Juncus sp., Phragmites karka, Potamogeton spp., Saccharum spp., Typha angustata 
and Zannichellia palustris. Surrounding areas are mainly under cultivation for cotton, rice, 
wheat, and sugar cane. The natural vegetation of the surrounding plains is tropical thorn forest 
with species such as Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis cineraria, Zizyphus mauritiana, Z. nummularia. 
Acacia nilotica, Crotolaria burhia, Aeruajavanica, Suaedafruticosa, Salsolafoetida, Eleusine 
compressa and Panicum antidotale. Pennisetum typhoides and Triticum aestivum are widely 
cultivated. 

Fauna Over 66,(X)0 waterfowl were recorded in mid- January 1987, of which the most 
numerous species were wigeon Anas penelope (3,870), gadwalM. strepera (5,860), teal A. crec- 
ca (21,200), pintail A. acuta (8,730), shoveler/\. clypeata (3,600), cootFulica atra (12,600) and 
^pochdud Ay thy a ferina (10,300). A particularly noteworthy winter visitor is white-headed duck 
Oxyura leucocephala (V), with 48 recorded in 1987. 

Mammals known to occur in the area include wild boar Sus scrofa, jackal Cards aureus, jungle 
cat Felis chaus and black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis. 



128 



1 



Pakistan 

Fishes include Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngo- 
don idella and Wallago ami. Other aquatic fauna includes Hirudinaria sp., Rana tigrina and 
Trionyx gangeticus. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Annual mid- winter waterfowl counts have been canied out 
since 1971. The Punjab Fisheries Department has been conducting a study of the fishes and 
gathering data on salinity levels. 

Conservation Value The lake is an important wintering area for waterfowl, particularly 
Anatidae, and a staging area for migratory shorebirds. It is one of three wetlands in Pakistan 
where the threatened white-headed duck winters in significant numbers. The wetland supports 
an important fishery, and provides excellent opportunities for scientific research, conservation 
education and nature-oriented recreation. 

Conservation Management In 1984, the Fisheries Department initiated a three-year project 
to develop the fishery resources of the lake. Exotic fish species are being introduced for 
recreational purposes. 

Management Constraints The diversion of flood waters into the wetland causes wide 
fluctuations in water level and sudden changes in Scdinity. Although there are no immediate 
plans to drain the area, the lake is situated in the midst of agricultural land and could be drained 
at a later date. Fishing activities cause some disturbance to waterfowl, and the harvesting of 
aquatic vegetation may be excessive. Poaching has declined somewhat since the wetland was 
declared a wildlife sanctuary. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



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KHESHKI RESERVOIR 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies on the Kabul River, 40km east of Peshawar. 34°02'N, 72°01 'E 

Date and History of Establishment Designated a Wetland of International Importance at the 
time of Pakistan's ratification of the Ramsar Convention on 23 July 1976. 

Area 263ha 

Land Tenure State (Government of North-West Frontier Province) 

Altitude 300m 

Conservation Value Kheshki is a small water storage reservoir with some firinging reed beds. 
It is only of minor importance as a staging and wintering area for small numbers of migratory 
waterfowl. It is so degraded that it is no longer considered a wetland habitat and, therefore, does 
not merit designation as a Ramsar site. Counts of waterfowl have never exceeded 500, and only 
220 birds were recorded in January 1987. Moreover, the lake is polluted with effluents from a 
nearby paper mill and sugar refinery, and is subject to considerable disturbance from human 
activities in the area. 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



KHUNJERAB NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category n (National Park) 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Situated 269km north-east of Gilgit, in the former Hunza State. The 
park lies in the upper Khunjerab and Shimshal valleys in the extreme north-east of the Northern 
Areas. Its northern and eastern boundaries follow the Pakistan-China border, its southern 
boundary is delineated by the divides between the upper Shimshal Valley and Hisper and other 
glaciers while its western boundary is more irregular. Starting at the northern end, the western 



130 



Pakistan 



boundary includes the Dhi Valley and the mouth of the Ghujerab Valley, then runs eastwards 
along the divide between the Ghujerab and Shimshal drainages, finally dipping southwards to 
include the upper Shimshal Valley. 36°50'N, 75'35'E 

Date and History of Establishment Designated a national park on 29 April 1975. 

Area Officially cited as 226,9 1 3ha but this figure is considered to be an underestimate (Wegge, 
1988). It is recommended that the park be enlarged in the south-west to include the whole of 
the Shimshal Valley (Wegge, 1988). The park is adjacent to Taxkorgan Natural Reserve 
(l,400,000ha) in China. 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas). Local people enjoy traditional 
grazing rights. 

Altitude Ranges from about 3,200m at the entrances to the paric to over 6,000m. Over half of 
the park is above 4,000m (Wegge, 1988). Khunjerab Pass, the gateway to China via the 
Karakoram Highway, is at 4,934m. 

Physical Features The physiography of the park can be divided into three main parts: in the 
north, the Khunjerab Valley with its narrow nullahs opens out into undulating meadows near 
the Pass; in the centre, the Ghujerab River drains the high mountain massifs and glaciers of the 
Chapchingal and Ghujerab; and in the south, the Shimshal Valley with its many impressive 
glaciers. The main Khunjerab, Shimshal and Ghujerab rivers flow westwards and drain into the 
Hunza River. All the waterways are perennial but the upper reaches freeze during the winter 
fall in temperatiffe. There is a variety of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. Soils 
are generally shallow and immature, containing fragments of rocky material, drifted sand and 
clay. They are formed mainly by deposition of glacial material carried downstream in large 
quantities. Soils are deeper in the upper Khunjerab Valley and support good meadows. 
Cloudbursts and ice-falls from glaciers frequently wreak havoc in the area. Rivers and streams 
become blocked by debris, and subsequent flooding occurs when the water breaks through these 
blockades. 

Climate The nearest meteorological station is at Misgar, which is about 32km from the park 
entrance in a separate valley towards the south-west Conditions vary considerably with altitude. 
Winter is long and severe and summer is cold and dry. The minimum temperature during winter 
(December and January) is -12°C. July and August are the hottest months, with a mean 
temperature of 14°C. Most precipitation falls during the winter. 

Vegetation Following the classification of Beg (1975) and Roberts (1977), four main vegeta- 
tion types can be distinguished. Permanent snowfields and cold desert cover an estimated 
25-30% of the park, mainly above 4,000m. The latter is very sparsely vegetated by species such 
as Salix spp., Potentilla desertorum, Mertensia tibetica and a few grasses and sedges. Alpine 
meadows (20% total cover) are confined to level ground and depressions above 3,500m and 
along glaciers. They are generally rich in plant biomass due to an adequate moisture regime and 
are therefore important food habitats for both domestic and wild herbivores. Sedges and grasses 
dominate, but forbs such as Potentilla spp., Saxifraga sibirica. Primula macrophylla, Sedum 
spp. and Polygonum spp. are also common. Sub-alpine scrub and birch forest (20% total cover) 
occur as narrow belts along stream bottoms and in ravines throughout most of the altitudinal 
range of the park. Characteristic species are birch Betula utilis, wUlow Salix spp., tamarisk 



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Myricaria germanica, buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides and water-dependent forbs and grami- 
noids. Alpine dry steppe (15-20% total cover) is found at medium and low elevations on 
south-facing and dry slopes not covered by sub-alpine scrub and forest. It is sparsely vegetated 
by junipers Juniperus spp. and Artemesia spp. 

Fauna A total of 15 mammal species is known to reside in the park and several others are likely 
to be present (Wegge, 1988). Marco Polo sheep Ovis ammon polii (I), now one of the rarest 
mammals in Pakistan, occurs in the vicinity of Khunjerab Pass. According to the Mir of Hunza, 
the population was around 400 but had dropped to below 180 by the time of the completion of 
the Karakoram Highway (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1988). A herd of almost 75 Marco Polo 
sheep was recorded in the spring of 1984 (Islam and Islam, 1984) and park staff saw at least 50 
crossing the Pass in May 1989 (P. Wegge, pers. comm.). The species also occurs in the 
headwaters of Karchanai Nullah in the north-west comer of the park, where 28 females and 
young were sighted in June 1986 (Nissar Ullah Beg, cited in Wegge, 1988). Pakistan's only 
population of bharal Pseudois nayaur occurs at the western limit of its range in the upper 
Ghujerab and Shimshal valleys (Schaller, 1974). The Shimshal population had declined to an 
alarming extent because of hunting (Rasool, 1981), but it has responded to subsequent protection 
measures and a total of 170 was tallied in 1986 (Rasul, 1986). Wegge (1988) recorded 133 
bharal within less than 40 sq. km of the Chatpert drainage, and estimates a total population of 
1,500-2,000 animals for the upper Ghujerab, Pamir and Chatpert Kiang Equus kiang used 
occasionally to visit the Shimshal Pass area from China (Schaller, 1974). There are reliable 
reports of a small population of 20-25 animals between the lower Baraldo and Mustagh rivers 
on the Pakistan side of the border (Rasul, 1988; Wegge, 1988). Sncw leopard Panthera uncia 
(E) is considered to be common. There is recent indirect evidence that the park supports one of 
the densest snow leopard populations in Asia (Wegge, 1 988). Also present are fox Vulpes vulpes, 
wolf Canis lupus (V), which preys on Marco Polo sheep and domestic livestock, brown bear 
Ursus arctos, considered to be threatened with extinction in Pakistan (Schaller, 1974), alpine 
weasel Miistela altaica, over 2,000 ibex Capra ibex, widely distributed and abundant in the park 
but absent from neighbouring China, brown hare Lepus capensis and a variety of rodents 
including long-tailed mstrmoi Marmota caudata (Rasool, 1981; Mallon, 1987; Wegge, 1988). 
There are local reports indicating that wild dog Cuon alpinus (V) is present (P. Wegge, pers. 
comm., 1989). 

Mallon (1987) recorded 66 bird species from the paric and adjacent area. Additional records are 
given by Wegge (1988) and T.J. Roberts (pers. comm., 1988). Game birds such as Himalayan 
snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis and chukar Alectoris chukar are common (Rasool, 1981; 
Wegge, 1988). 

Cultural Heritage A useful account of Hunza culture and history is given by Bamber et al. 
(1984). The economy has always been primarily based on subsistence-level farming. With the 
completion of the Karakoram Highway, the degree of acculturation has been considerable. Since 
1970, many people have resettled in Gilgit and men have sought employment elsewhere, some 
40% spending 5 years or more away from the Hunza Valley and often in the army. The Aga 
Khan Foundation, which aims to benefit the religious and secular life of Ishmaeli muslims and 
the wider community, is having an increasing role in the development of the region and has 
essentially replaced that of the Mir who traditionally played a central part in Hunza life. 

Local Human Population There are no permanent settlements, although a few shepherds move 
between different localities inside the park throughout the year. The nearest village is Shimshal 



132 



Pakistan 



on the park boundary, with 120 households and 1,000-1,200 people. Road maintenance gangs 
live more or less permanently along the Karakoram Highway inside the park. Some 8,000 
domestic stock from seven villages south of the park graze its pastures during the summer. 
Grazing rights in the Dih and Barakhun valleys in the north are allocated by the former Mir. In 
the Shimshal catchment, there are an estimated 8,000 goats, 2,000 sheep, 1,500 cattle and 500 
yaks at a density of 10 animals per sq.km during the three-month summer (Wegge, 1988). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Khunjerab Valley, accessible from the Karakoram Highway, 
receives more and more visitors each year, but numbers are still low. Shimshal Valley remains 
relatively inaccessible and receives 30-50 tourists annually. There are three economy-style 
lodges/hotels at Passu on the Karakoram Highway. An access road to Shimshal is under 
construction; when finished, this attractive mountain valley is expected to become very popular 
among tourists (Wegge, 1988). 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities The wildlife was surveyed in 1974 (Schaller, 1974, 1976). 
Censuses of large mammal populations have been conducted on a regular basis since 1978 
(Rasool, 1981). In autumn 1987 the park was included in a preliminary survey of the large 
mammals of northern Hunza, as part of Operation Raleigh (Mallon, 1987). Recently, in 
October-November 1988, Wegge (1988) assessed the status of natural resources and land use 
practices with a view to identifying management priorities. 

Conservation Value The park was established primarily to protect Marco Polo sheep and snow 
leopard, besides preserving the high mountain environs in a near undisturbed condition. It is 
also the only known refuge for kiang in Pakistan. With the construction of the Karakoram 
Highway over the Khunjerab Pass and establishment of Taxkorgan Natural Reserve across the 
border in 1984, the foundation for an international peace park was laid, giving Khunjerab added 
conservation significance. 

Conservation Management A 12km zone in the vicinity of Khunjerab Pass was closed for 
domestic stock grazing in order to protect Marco Polo sheep (Rasool, 1981). Little or no 
development of park infrastructure or management took place until 1988 when a Directorate of 
Khunjerab National Park was formed as a semi-autonomous organisation within the Forest 
Department of the Administration of Northern Areas (Wegge, 1988). A workshop was held in 
the park in 1989 to draft a managment plan; this has yet to be finalised. There are plans to 
develop the park, including 162ha of reafforestation (Rasul, 1985). Wegge (1988) suggests that 
the park be zoned into core, protected and hunting areas, with all activities prohibited in the core 
zone, grazing and fuelwood collection allowed in protected zones, and controlled hunting and 
other activities permitted in the hunting zone. The establishment of a hunting programme, 
including subsistence hunting, would help compensate for restrictions on previous grazing 
rights. High priority actions identified by Wegge are: cooperating with Chinese authorities for 
the joint protection of Marco Polo sheep and kiang, controlling hunting and grazing in the 12km 
protection zone by the Pass, instigating a 'no-stop' regulation for motorists travelling between 
Kuksil and the Pass (to reduce disturbance to Marco Polo sheep), providing adequate transport 
and equipment for field staff, and undertaking thorough field studies of Marco Polo sheep and 
kiang to assess their status and habitat requirements. 

lUCN is developing a sustainable forestry project in the upper Hunza Valley as part of the Aga 
Khan Rural Support Programme (lUCN, 1987). In the long term, this should help to reduce the 
depletion of forest resources in and around the park. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Management Constraints Some 66km of the Karakoram Highway runs through the park. 
This has contributed to the decline of Marco Polo sheep, largely as a result of hunting and general 
disturbance. Further disturbances are anticipated now that Pakistan and China have signed an 
agreement to establish a trade-free zone on the Chinese side of the Khunjerab Pass. Some 
pastures are overgrazed, including those within the 12km protected zone where restrictions on 
livestock have been violated. Dlegal hunting still takes place but at insignificant levels, that of 
Marco Polo sheep by Pakistanis having stopped. Over-collection of fuelwood has also con- 
tributed to degradation of vegetation cover in some areas. Snow leopard accounts for a 
significant offtake of livestock, thought to be about 10% annually. Relatively few snow leopards 
are killed in retaliation because it is difficult and time-consuming (Wegge, 1988). The construc- 
tion of a motorable road up the Shimshal Valley will have an enormous impact on the bharal 
population unless protection measures are adequately enforced. The presence of a permanent 
police quarters within the park is a source of friction, particularly as police regularly hunt ibex 
(T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1988). 

Staff Total field staff is 14, comprising one park ranger, six game watchers and seven 
chowkidars (Wegge, 1988). 

Budget Rs 0.3 million (1985) 

Local Addresses Director, Directorate of Khunjerab National Park, Gilgit. (Field staff are 
stationed at Dih under the charge of a field ranger.) 

References 

Bamber, J., Bishop, K., Holmes, R., Mayers, J. and Thomas, P. (1984). The Cambridge 

Karakoram Expedition 1984. Final report. Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge. 92 pp. 
Islam, S-U and Islam, Z. (1984). Sighting of Marco Polo sheep in Khunjerab. WWF-Pakistan 

Newsletter?,: 11-13. 
lUCN (1987). Sustainable forestry development in die Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, 

Northern Areas, Pakistan. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 85 pp. 
Mallon, D. (1987). Asurvey of the large mammals of northern Hunza Unpublished report. 8 pp. 
Rasool, G. (1981). Khunjerab National Park. Divisional Forest Office, Gilgit. Unpublished report. 

5 pp. 
Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 

Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 
Rasul, G. (1986). Population status of blue sheep in Shamshal Valley. WV/F-Pakistan Newsletter 

5: 1-2. 
Rasul, G. (1988). Tibetan wild ass - verging on extinction. Unpublished report. 4 pp. (Unseen) 
Schaller, G.B. (1974). The Marco Polo sheep in Pakistan. New York Zoological Society, New 

York. Unpublished report. 5 pp. 
Schaller, G.B. (1976). Mountain mammals in Pakistan. Ory^ 13: 351-356. 
Schaller, G.B., Li HongTalipu, Lu Hua, Ren Junrang, Qiu Mingjiang and Wang Haibin (1987). 

Status of large mammals in the Taxkorgan Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Biological Conservation 

42:53-71. 
Wegge, P. (1988). Assessment of Khunjerab National Park and environs, Pakistan. lUCN, Gland, 

Switzerland. Unpublished report. 25 pp. 
Date July 1986, updated August 1990 



134 



Pakistan 



KILIK/MINTAKA GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Hunza, Gilgit District, on the Pakistan-China border, 225km 
from the town of Gilgit. The nonhem boundary runs along the international border between 
Kilik and Mintaka passes. Access is from Misgar Village by bridlepath. Approximately 
36°56'N, 75°04'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve on 22 November 1975. 

Area 65,036ha 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 4,545m to 6,060m. 

Physical Features The main north-south-oriented valley is forked, with the Kilik and Mintaka 
passes lying at the head of each branch. The terrain is rugged and mountainous. There is a 
variety of sedimentary, metaraorphic and igneous rocks, and a mixture of rock and mineral 
deposits (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Temperatures at higher elevations remain below freezing point for most of the year. 
Winters are severe, and summers cold and dry. Most precipitation is in the form of snow. 

Vegetation Higher altitudes are devoid of higher plants. Lower areas contain patches of 
Juniperus, Artimesia, Haloxylon, Salix and a variety of grasses (Rasul, 1985). 

Fauna Large mammals include Marco Polo sheep Ovis ammonpolii (I), ibex Capra ibex, snow 
leopard Panthera uncia (E), brown bear Ursus arctos, wolf Canis lupus (V) and fox Vulpes 
vulpes (Rasul, 1985). In 1974, only a few Marco Polo sheep from neighbouring China were 
reported to frequent the vicinity of Kilik Pass. At that time, ibex were the most numerous 
ungulate with 59 recorded between Murkshi and KiUk Pass (Schaller, 1974). The avifauna 
includes a variety of game birds, such as chukitr Alectoris chukar, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa 
and snowcock Tetraogallus sp., and raptors and vultures (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population In 1974, the Kilik Pass area was frequented by some 3,0(X) head of 
livestock belonging to the Mir of Hunza and people of Misgar (Schaller, 1974). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Scientific Research and Facilities The Kilik Pass area was surveyed by Schaller (1974) in 
November 1974. 

Conservation Value The reserve is particularly important as a refuge for Marco Polo sheep, 
in view of which it has been recommended that the reserve be included within Khunjerab 
National Park (P. Wegge, pers. comm., 1989). 

Conservation Management The area was first proposed as a game reserve, with provision for 
licensed hunting of Marco Polo sheep and ibex, in an attempt to conserve these species (Schaller, 
1974). Wildlife is now afforded full protection. Local people enjoy concessions to collect 
firewood and graze livestock. There is no management plan, but limited manpower is available 
for protecting the area (Rasul, 1985). 

Management Constraints Marco Polo sheep in particular, and also ibex populations had 
dwindled by the early 1970s due to severe hunting pressures. In addition, habitat of the former 
species was heavily disturbed and overgrazed by domestic livestock (Schaller, 1974). 

Staff The staff of Khunjerab National Park are responsible for the game reserve. 

Budget Included in annual budget for Khunjerab National Park (Rs 0.3 million in 1985). 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 

Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 
Schaller, G.B. (1974). The Marco Polo sheep in Pakistan. New York Zoological Society, New 

York. Unpublished report. 5 pp. 

Date September 1988, updated August 1990 



KINJHAR (KALRI) LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies in Thatta District, Sind Province about 1 1 3km by road east-north- 
east of Karachi. Its southern end is about 19km north of the town of Thatta on the Hyderabad 
Road. 68°03'E, 24°56'N 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in March 1977 under 
Section 14 of the Sind Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972. First protected as a game sanctuary 
in 1971, under Section 15/1 of the West Pakistan Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1959. The 
sanctuary was initially surrounded by a buffer zone of 1.6km radius, but this was increased to 



136 



Pakistan 



5km in July 1975. Designated a Wetland of International Importance at the time of Pakistan's 
ratification of the Ramsar Convention on 23 July 1976. 

Area 1 3,468ha of lake surrounded by a buffer zone of 5km radius. It has been recommended 
that the boundaries of the sanctuary should be extended up to the canal along the Thatta- 
Hyderabad road (Conder, 1977). 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind) 

Altitude 70m 

Physical Features This is the largest freshwater lake in Pakistan, having been created from 
two smaller lakes, namely Kinjhar and Kalri, in the 1930s following the construction of a dam 
at Chilia Bangla and a 13km-long bund (embankment) along the east side. The lake is set in the 
stony desert, which is composed of alternating layers of fossil-bearing limestone and sandstone. 
Higher ground, often forming peninsulas, is usually capped with limestone. Much of the 
low-lying western shore is predominantly sandstone. Generally, the strike of the limestone beds 
forming the peninsulas is north-nonh-east to south-south-west, the beds dipping gently to the 
west. The eastern sides of the peninsulas feature steep escapments. The lake is fed from the 
north-east comer by the KB feeder and by many small seasonal streams on the west and north 
sides. The only outlet from the lake is through the dam and via the Jam Branch Canal in the 
south-east comer. There are three seepage lagoons beyond the new canal, constructed in 
1976/1977. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical monsoonal. Mean annual rainfall for the region is 
178mm, falling mainly during the monsoon season. Summers are hot, with maximum tempera- 
tures reaching 49°C in the shade. Winters are cold with a January mean of 2.2°C. PrevaiUng 
winds are north-east in December- January and west-south-west in May-September (Sorley, 
1968). 

Vegetation Comprises extensive beds of Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Juncus 
articulatus, and a rich growth of submerged and floating aquatic vegetation including Hydrilla 
verticillata, Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus, Polygonum barbatum, Nymphaea lotus, 
Vallisneria spiralis and Zanniche Ilia palustr is. Tamarix dioica grows along the shoreline. The 
natural vegetation of the region is tropical thom forest, with species such as Acacia nilotica, 
A. Senegal, Commiphora mukul, Prosopis cineraria. Euphorbia caudicifolia, Cenchrus ciliaris, 
Salvadora oleoides and Dicanthium annulatum. 

Fauna Mammals known to occur in the area include jackal Canis aureus, fox Vulpes vulpes, 
mongoose Herpestes sp. and black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis. 

Some 65 species of waterfowl have been recorded. Breeding species include night heron 
Nycticorax nycticorax (up to 5,000), cotton pygmy goose Nettapus coromandelianus (up to 
1,290), purple swamphen Porphyrio porphyria, and pheasant- tailed jacana Hydrophasianus 
chirurgus. Mid-winter counts in the 1970s produced totals of between 50,000 and 150,000 
waterfowl. Over 135,000 birds were present in January 1987, and over 205,000 in January 1988. 
Maximum counts include the following: 1,580 great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, 1,640 
little cormorant P. niger, 4,500 gadwall Anas strepera, 20,500 Eurasian wigeon A.penelope, 
3,500 common teal A. crecca, 1,950 northern pintail A. acuta, 1,680 northem shoveler A. cly- 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

peata, 23,000 common pochard Aythya ferina, 22,000 tufted duck A.fuligula, and 131,000 
common coot Fulica atra. Many birds of prey have been recorded, marsh harrier Circus 
aeruginosus being particularly common. 

Reptiles include cobra Naja naja. 

The fish fauna is rich and includes Ambassis nana, Badis sp., Puntius (Barbus) sarana, P. ticto, 
P. sophore, Catla catla, Channa sp., Cirrhinus mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Gadusia 
chapra, Glossogobius spp.,Labeo rohita, L. gonitis, L. fimbriata, Notopterus notopterus, N. chi- 
tala, Rasbora rasbora, Tilapia mossambica and Xenentodon cancila. 

Cultural Heritage Pir Amir, an Ishmaeli shrine, is a prominent landmark on the northern shore. 

Local Human Population There are some 1 5 villages on the edge of the lake whose inhabitants 
depend to some extent on fishing for their livelihood (Conder, 1977). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities A tourist complex, comprising rest houses, restaurant and 
theatre, is being established by the Pakistan Tourist Development Corporation at Hillaya 
(Conder, 1977). 

Scientific Research and Facilities Annual mid-winter waterfowl counts have been conducted 
since 1971 and the avifauna has been well documented. The zooplankton has been studied, 
particularly copepods which have a significant role in the food-chain of fishes and other higher 
consumers (Baqai and Rehona, 1973, 1974). 

Conservation Value Kinjhar is an extremely important breeding, staging and wintering area 
for a wide variety of waterfowl. It is also an important source o '' -irinking water for Karachi and 
supports a major fishery. Being close to the capital, it offers excellent opportunities for 
nature-oriented recreation, conservation education and research. 

Conservation Management The sanctuary is administered according to a management plan 
prepared by Conder (1977). Commensurate with the primary management objective of provid- 
ing Karachi with its freshwater supply, the habitat should be protected for the benefit of the large 
numbers of resident and migratory birds, particularly waterfowl, and facilities provided for the 
public to observe and learn more about the wildlife. Hunting is prohibited but not commercial 
fishing, rights to which are contracted out by the Karachi Development Authority. Bathing and 
other activities likely to pollute the lake are restricted by the Authority. Conder has recom- 
mended that the sanctuary be enlarged to include the three seepage lagoons between RD 10 and 
38, and that management activities be concentrated on these lagoons rather than the main lake 
where fishing is a major disturbance. 

Management Constraints Fishing acitivties are a source of almost continuous disturbance to 
waterfowl: some of the larger villages have up to 30 boats in operation and there are 56 large 
circular nets set permanentiy in the lake. There is also some encroachment by grazing cattie, 
and an increasing amount of disturbance from recreational activities (Conder,1977). 

Staff It has been recommended that game watchers be replaced by a sanctuary warden, two or 
three deputy sanctuary wardens and 10 assistant sanctuary wardens, and that a research biologist 
be appointed (Conder, 1977). 



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Budget No infonnation 

Local Addresses No information 

References Unless otherwise indicated, infonnation is taken directly from Scott (1989). 

Baqai, I.U. and Rehana, I. (1973). Seasonal fluctuation of firesh-water copepods of Kinjher Lake, 

Sind, and its correlation with physico-chemical factors. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 5: 165-168. 
Baqai, LU. and Rehana, I. (1974). Quantitative and quahtative studies of the fresh water calanoid 

zooplankton of Kinjher Lake. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 6: 69-72. 
Conder, PJ. (1977). Lake Kinjhar Wildlife Sanctuary (Management Plan). lUCNAVWF Project 

No. 1360. 12 pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Sorley, H.T. (1968). The former Province of Sind (including Khairpur State). Gazetteer of West 

Pakistan. F*ublication of the Govemment of West Pakistan. 809 pp. (Unseen) 

Date August 1986, updated August 1990 



KIRTHAR NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category n (National Park) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies 80km north of Karachi in the south-west of Sind Province, within 
Karachi and Dadu districts. It comprises the south-east extension of the Kirthar Range, to the 
west of the River Indus. The western boundary is the provincial border between Sind and 
Baluchistan. 25°10'-26°05'N, 67°10'-67°55'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a national park on 3 1 January 1974 (Government 
of Sind Notification No. WL & FT (S01-DCF-993)74). Attempts to restrict the decline in 
wildlife date back to the Sind Wild Birds and Wild Animals Protection Act of 1940, and possibly 
even earlier, when game guards were privately employed by families owning land in the Kirthar 
region. Much of what is now the park was originally classified as government wasteland, but 
in 1965 that area lying in Karachi District was reclassified as protected forest. Most of the tract 
was declared a game reserve in 1970 and Murri Mongthar a wildlife sanctuary in 1971. The 
present area (excluding a small strip of land in the south-west and a block in the north-east comer, 
to the east of Suk Nai) was declared a wildlife sanctuary on 28 October 1972 under the Sind 
Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972. 

Area 308,733ha. The park is part of a 447,161ha protected areas complex, being contiguous 
with Mahal Kohistan Wildlife Sanctuary (70,577ha) to the south and Hab Dam Wildlife 
Sanctuary (27,2 19ha) to the south-west. Surjan, Sumbak, Eri and Hothiano Game Reserve 
(40,632ha) lies just to the east of the park. 



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Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Sind). In 1972, 66,793ha of land were leased 
by the government for cultivation and stock grazing and 35,874ha were privately owned 
(Holloway and Khan, 1973). The present status of these lands is not known. 

Altitude Ranges from about 70m at Hab Dam to 1 ,004m on Karchat Mountain, which is at the 
south-eastern extremity of the Kirthar Range. 

Physical Features Comprises a number of north-south-aligned hill ranges separated by wide, 
undulating valleys. Drainage in the north and central sectors follows a south-westerly direction 
via the Baran Nadi to the Indus River and thence to the Arabian Sea. The west-central and 
south-west regions are drained by the Mahr and Hab rivers, respectively, which follow a 
southerly course to the sea. Principal geological formations are calcareous. Limestone predomi- 
nates in the hill ranges and recent calcareous deposits are common in the valleys. Sandy 
limestones, shales, sandy shales and sandstones also occur throughout the range, particularly in 
the south-west and lower foothills. Grey sandstones occur together with limestone in the 
north-east. Underground water, which has been tapped in mtmy places, tends to be brackish in 
limestone and fresh in sandstone formations. The abundance of foraminiferous, lamellibranch, 
echinoid, gastropod and arthropod fossils is evidence that the Kirthar Range once formed the 
bed of the Tethys Sea. Soils contain fragments of rocky material, much of which is limestone. 
They contain about 90% sand and 10% clay at the surface. Considerable erosion has occurred 
on the plateaux, hill flanks and plains but good soil depths remain in the valleys and depressions 
protected from wind or running water. 

Climate There are four climatic seasons: winter (December-March), summer (April- June), 
monsoon (July-September) and autumn (October-November). There is no meteorological 
station within the park but data are available from nearby at Thano Bula Khan, for the period 
March 1955 to September 1959, and from Hyderabad. Mean annual precipitation is 150- 
200mm, most rain falling in July and August. Drought conditions, with less than 25mm of rain, 
occur at least once every ten years and during 1979-1982 no rain was recorded in the park. 
Temperatures are often extreme, exceeding SS'C during most of the summer in Thano Bula 
Khan. Humidity is lowest in summer and highest in the monsoon. Strong, dry and dessicating 
winds prevail during much of the year, except in July and August (Holloway and Khan, 1973). 
Plans are underway to establish one or two meteorological stations at Karchat or Khar. 

Vegetation Open communities of deciduous xerophytic trees and shrubs are predominant. 
Three principal communities have been recognised: Acacia arabica-Indigofera oblongifolia- 
Zizyphus nummularia, a post-climax, closed community that often occurs on mesic sites such 
as seasonally-flooded depressions; Capparis decidua-Prosopis spicigera-Commiphora mukul, 
a climax community which occurs on sites with deep sandy soils with weak structure and low 
calcium, magnesium and carbonate content at the surface; and Euphorbia caudicifolia-Grewia 
tenax-Acacia Senegal, a sub-climax community associated with shallow loamy soils, with low 
carbonate and high potassium content. There is evidence that this region was fairly humid and 
supported tropical forest up until about 500 BC (Holloway and Khan, 1973). In common with 
arid regions in general, species diversity is relatively low. Holloway and Khan list some of the 
trees, shrubs and herbs found in the park. 

Fauna Some 30 species of mammals have been recorded (W.D. Edge, pers. comm., 1987), of 
which 26 are listed by Holloway and Khan (1973). There is a good variety of predators but 
larger species are either extremely rare, such as the wolf Canis lupus (V) and striped hyaena 



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Pakistan 



Hyaena hyaena, or may have become locally extirpated, such as leopard Panthera pardus (T) 
(the last leopard was shot in 1977) and caracal Felis caracal. Approximately 500 wild goat 
Capra hircus occurred on Karchat Mountain in 1970-1971, out of an estimated total population 
of 1,200 in the park and nearby Suijan, Sumbak, Eri and Hothiano Game Reserve. About 70 
urial Ovis orientalis were recorded on the Murri Mongthar mountain ranges in 1971 and small 
numbers on Karchat, Dunbar and Kambhu mountains. Chinkara Gazella gazella occurred in 
low numbers on the plains and hill flanks. In 1977, 1,480 wild goat and 430 urial were counted 
in the park and 2,141 chinkara in the park and adjacent Suijan, Sumbak, Eri and Hothiano Game 
Reserve (Mirza and Asghar, 1980). There are now over 5,000 wild goat, about 1,250 urial and 
less than 150 chinkara in the park, and a further 400 wild goat and 70 urial in the game reserve 
(M. Woodford, pers. comm., 1990). 

Of the 58 species of birds identified by T.J. Roberts (Holloway and Khan, 1973), long-legged 
huzzsrd Buteo rufinus, Bonelli's hawk-eagle Nisaetusfasciatus, imperial eagle Aquila heliaca, 
tawny eagle Aquila rapax, cinereous vulture Aegypius monachus, griffon vulture Gypsfulvus, 
lammergeier Gypaetus barbatus, lagger falcon Falcon biarmicus, red-headed merlin Falco 
chicquera, kestrel Falco tinnunculus, see see partridge Ammoperdix griseogularis, grey par- 
tridge Francolinus pondicerianus, stone curlew Burhinus oedicnemus, Indian sand grouse 
Pterocles exustus, coronetted sand grouse P. coronatus, painted sand grouse P. indicus, eagle 
owl Bubo bubo, Sind pied woodpecker Dendrocopos assimilis, Hume's chat Oenanthe al- 
boniger, brown rock pipit Anthus similis and striped bunting Emberiza striolata are noteworthy. 
Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos has also been recorded (T. J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). Apart 
from ocean birds and many waterfowl, most species recorded by Roberts et al. (1986) in the 
Karachi and lower Sind area occur in the park. 

Freshwater turtles (Trionychidae) probably still occur in Hab River and starred tortoise Geo- 
chelone elegans inhabits the Hab Valley. Other reptiles likely or known to be present are 
Dunsterville's gecko Stenodactylus orientalis, garden lizard Calotes versicolor, spiny-tailed 
lizard Uromastix hardwickii, red-throated agama Agama rubigularis, desert monitor Varanus 
griseus (V), yellow monitor V.flavescens, three-toed skink Mabuya macularia, Indian python 
Python molurus (V), saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, Sind krait Bungarus caerulens and royal 
rat snake Spalerosophis diadema. Mugger Crocodylus palustris (V) is almost extinct from the 
stretch of the Hab River bordering the park but it survives further upstream in Baluchistan 
(Holloway and Khan, 1973). There are about 100 mugger in Hab Dam, where there are tentative 
plans to establish a commercial crocodile farm (M. Woodford, pers. comm., 1990). Other 
reptiles recorded by W.D. Edge (pers. comm., 1987) include common monitor Varanus 
bengalensis, Indus toad Bufo andersoni, skittering frog Rana cyanophlyctis, warty rock gecko 
Gymnodactylus kachhensis, Persian gecko Hemidactylus pers icus, Indian fringe-bed sand lizard 
Acanthodactylus cantoris, brilliant agama Agama agilis, A. nupta, Afro-Asian sand snake 
Psammophis schokari, Indian sand boa Eryx johni, Mediterranean dwarf skink Ablepharus 
pannonicus and orange-tailed skink Eumeces schneideri. 

Despite their seasonality, few of the larger rivers ever dry up completely. Thus fish and other 
aquatic life are able to survive the dry season in deep pools of water which collect at bends and 
depressions in the river bed. A number of species of fish, principally of the carp Cyprinidae 
family, have been recorded from the Kirthar Range (Holloway and Khan, 1973). 

Cultural Heritage Archaeological remains of habitation near Koh-Tarash date back to 
pre-Islamic and even pre-historic periods (3500BC). The presence of a number of tombs at 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Taung, similar in design to those at Makli Hills in southern Sind, suggests that the area has been 
settled for at least several hundred years. Rannikot Fort, covering an area of about 47 sq.km in 
the north-eastern tip of the park, is reputedly the largest fort in the world and provides a 
remarkable example of the defence system of the late Muslim rulers of Sind (Haleem and Khan, 
n.d.). 

Local Human Population In 1989 the resident human population in the park was approxi- 
mately 16,000, distributed among 118 permanent villages, and about 64,000ha of park land was 
under cultivation (M. Woodford, pers. comm.)- This is significantly higher than in the early 
1970s when the resident population totalled about 10,500, with an additional 3,000 migrant 
herdsmen present from July/August until November/December. At that time there were 93 
permanent villages in the park and a further 124 settlements temporarily occupied by herdsmen 
for part of the year. Stock grazing was the most widespread form of land use and greatly in 
excess of carrying capacity. In the post-monsoon season of 1971 domestic livestock totalled 
27,749 cows, 588 buffalo, 77,497 sheep, 86,277 goats, 5,731 camels, 1,480 donkeys and 226 
horses. Some 102,667ha of land was privately owned or leased from the government, of which 
1 14ha were under permanent cultivation and the rest subject to shifting cultivation (HoUoway 
and Khan, 1973). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Despite its proximity to Karachi, the park receives only 2-3 
visitors per month (M. Woodford, pers. comm., 1990). The best season to visit is from 
mid-October to mid- March. There are visitor centres at Karchat and Khar, both of which are 
run by the Sind Wildlife Management Board. The centres offer cottage and dormitory accom- 
modation and guides are available. There are some 671km of unmetalled roads within the park, 
most of which are negotiable only by four-wheel drive vehicle. 

Scientific Research and Facilities The behaviour and ecology of the wild goat and urial have 
been studied (Schaller and Laurie, 1974; Edge and Olsen-Edge, 1989; Edge era/., 1989,in press). 
Wildlife counts, initiated by the Forest Department in 1970, are still undertaken. The fossil 
fauna has been studied by the Geology Department of the University of Sind. Extensive 
botanical collections have been made within the park and its environs, notably by the University 
of Karachi. An ecological survey of the park was begun in 1981 with financial support from 
WWF-Pakistan (Ahmad, 1982). There are no research facilities but accommodation is available 
for visiting scientists. 

Conservation Value Kirthar is an area of outstanding beauty and cultural heritage which 
provides important habitat for a variety of mammals, birds and reptiles characteristic of the arid 
subtropics. 

Conservation Management There is an out-of-date management plan, according to which 
management objectives are: to conserve native fauna, flora and scenic features in perpetuity; 
and to promote regulated use of the natural resources and historic cultural sites for aesthetic, 
educational, recreational and scientific purposes. A system of zonation has been recommended, 
with zones of varying intensity of use by visitors buffered by wildlife sanctuaries and a game 
reserve (in which controlled hunting should be allowed) on the periphery. Full protection of 
core areas in the mountainous region, including cessation of grazing by domestic livestock, has 
enabled the habitat and its ungulate populations to recover. It is recommended that residents 
should ultimately be provided with the opportunity to move to better managed rangelands or 
cultivated areas peripheral to the park; meanwhile, to prevent encroachment by outsiders, no 



142 



Pakistan 



further extension of land under cultivation should be allowed (Holloway and Khan, 1973; 
Kemiani and Khan, 1985). Resettiement is now considered unreahstic; a more appropriate 
strategy might be to re-define the park's boundaries in the light of prevailing socio-economic 
constraints (M. Woodford, pers. comm.). Assistance from World Bank may be forthcoming as 
part of a possible environmental programme in Pakistan. 

In October 1984, 15 hld^khucV. Antilope cervicapra from the USA were brought to Khar visitor 
centre for captive propagation (Haleem and Khan, n.d.). It is planned to introduce the species 
to the park but most potential blackbuck habitat is overused by the human population 
(M. Woodford, pers. comm., 1990). 

Management Constraints In the past, considerable damage has been caused by cultivation, 
overgrazing, wood cutting and overhunting. Encroachment has been controlled in the more 
strictly preserved mountainous region, but elsewhere it remains a serious problem. 

Staff Office staff comprise a park director, an assistant and four others. Field staff total two 
park managers, two park rangers and 102 others including wildlife watchers (1989). 

Budget Rs 900,000 per year (approximately US$ 8,500) in 1981. The development plan as 
envisaged will cost Rs 24,500,000 (Kermani and Khan, 1985). 

Local Addresses Park Director, Kirthar National Park, Karchat 

References 

Ahmad, M. (1982). Study of bioecology of Kirthar National Park: a WWF-Pakistan project. World 

Wildlife Fund Pakistan Newsletter 1(2): 6. 
Edge, W.D. and Olson-Edge, S.L. (1989). Ecology of wild goats and urial in Kirthar National Park. 

Final Report. University of Montana, Missoula, USA. 
Edge, W.D., Olson-Edge, S.L. and Ghani, N. (1989). Response of wild goats to human disturbance 

near a waterpoint in Kirthar National Park, Pakistan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History 

Soc/gfy 85: 315-318. 
Edge, W.D., Olson-Edge, S.L. and Ghani, N. (in press). Biology and behaviour of wild goats and 

urial at a waterpoint in Kirdiar National Park, Pakistan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History 

Society. 
Haleem, I and Khan, M.K. (n.d,). Kirthar National Park - the great outdoors next door to Karachi. 

Oscar Advertising Company, Karachi. 
Holloway, C.W. and Khan, M.K. (1973). Management plan for Kirthar National Park, Sind, 

Pakistan, 1973-78. Sind Wildlife Management Board, Karachi. 53 pp. 
Kermani, W.A. and Khan, M.K. (1985). Protected areas and local populations in Kirthar National 

Park, Pakistan. In: McNeely, J. A., Thorsell, J. W. and ChaUse, S.R. (Eds), People and protected 

areas in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation and 

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu. Pp. 59-61. 
Mirza, Z.B. and Asghar, M. (1980). Census of Sind ibex (Copra hircus blythi) and some estimate 

of population of Chinkara (Gazella gazella) in Kirthar National Park and Sumbak Game 

Reserve, Sind. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 12: 268-271. 
Roberts, TJ., Passburg, R. and Van Zalinge, N.P. (1986). A checklist of birds of Karachi and 

lower Sind. WWF-Pakistan, Karachi. 37 pp. 
Schaller, G.B. and Laurie, A. (1974). Courtship behaviour of the wild goat. Z. Saugetierkunde 

39:115-127. 

Date July 1986, updated August 1990 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



LAL SUHANRA NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category V and EX (Protected Landscape and Biosphere Reserve) 

Biogeographjcal Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies in the south-east of Punjab Province, 32kni north-east of 
Bahawalpur City along the Bahawalpur-Bahawalnagarroad, from where the park is accessible. 
Approximately 27°30'N, 72°20'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a national park on 26 October 1972 (Govern- 
ment of Punjab Notification No. SOF (EXT)XII-23/72), following recommendations made by 
the Wildlife Enquiry Committee in 1971. The plantation has been a reserved forest since 5 July 
1947 although its legal status appears to be uncertain (Masud, 1980). The Cholistan Desert was 
originally preserved as a hunting ground by the nawabs of the former state of Bahawalpur. 
Subsequently, in 1968, it was declared a game reserve. Designated a biosphere reserve in 1977. 

Area 37,426ha. Originally, the park comprised an area of 3 1 ,355ha, of which 20,932ha were 
desert, 8,488ha irrigated forest plantation and l,934ha reservoir (Masud, 1980); it was due to 
be enlarged by 22,680ha. 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Punjab) 

Altitude 110m 

Physical Features The Cholistan Desert is relatively flat and interspersed With sand dunes up 
to 1 ,(XX)ha in extent and 4m in height, some of which are unstable. It is crossed by the dried-up 
bed of the Hakra River and features an important wetland, Patisar Lake (see Scott, 1989 for 
further details). The lake (l,935ha), originally built as a storage reservoir, is fed by the Desert 
Branch of the Bahawal Canal and also receives excess water from irrigated land nearby. The 
depth of the water table (3- 12m below ground level) varies directly with the distance from 
Bahawal Canal. Soils are predominantly sandy loam, with clay flats (dhars) between the sand 
dunes (Masud, 1980). 

Climate Conditions are arid subtropical/continental, characterised by low sporadic rainfall, hot 
summers, low relative humidity, high evaporation rates, strong summer winds and mild winters. 
There are five distinct seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-April), summer 
(May-October), autumn (November) and monsoon (July and August). Climatic data are 
available from Bahawalpur. During the period 1946-1962, mean annual precipitation was 
214mm, mean monthly maximum temperature highest (46.rC) in May and mean monthly 
minimum temperature lowest (-0.2°C) in January (Masud, 1980). 

Vegetation The main plant communities include tropical thorn forest, dominated by Acacia 
nilotica, Suaeda-Salsola scrub and riverine Tamarix forest. The plantation, which is irrigated 
by the Desert Branch of the Bahawal Canal, consists mainly of shisham Dalbergia sisso, together 



144 



Pakistan 



with toot Morus alba, kikar Acacia arabica, frash Tamarix articulata, jal Salvadora oleoides, 
jand Prosopis spicigera, karir, and jandi Prosopis glandulosa. Of the numerous herbs, khubal 
Cynodon dactylon and puth kanda Achyranthes aspera are important. Dense stands of kana 
Saccharum spontaneum grow along the margins of Patisar Lake and Salvinia nutans covers 
much of the shallower waters (Sheikh, 1982). Some 135 species of plants have been recorded 
in the park, 39 of which are known for their medicinal properties (Anon., n.d.). 

Fauna Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra became virtually extinct in the Cholistan Desert but the 
species has been re-introduced within large enclosures, together with chinkara Gazella gazella, 
nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus, hog deer Cervus porcinus and Indian rhinoceros Rhinoceros 
unicornis (Roberts, 1975; Sheikh, 1982). Other mammals present include long-eared hedgehog 
Hemiechinus auritus, wolf Canis lupus (V), jackal C. aureus, Bengal fox Vulpes bengalensis, 
fox V. vulpes, ratel Mellivora capensis, otttr Lutra perspicillata, small Indian civet Viverricula 
indica, Indian grey mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus, caracal Felis caracal, jungle cat 
F. chaus, desert cat F. libyca, wild boar Sus scrofa, Indian crested porcupine Hysterix indica 
and black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis (Masud, 1980). 

Patisar Lake regularly holds between 10,000 and 30,000 ducks and common coot Fulica atra 
in mid-winter. Over 13,00 waterfowl were present in January 1987, of which the most numerous 
species were mdWdccd. Anas platyrhynchos (1,410), common ^(xhaxdAythyaferina (4,5(X)) and 
common coot (5,300) (Scott, 1989). The lake used to support a small population of marbled 
teal Marmaronetta angustirostris but this duck has not been seen in the area for many years. 
An unsuccessful attempt was made to re-introduce the species in 1970 using birds provided by 
the Waterfowl Trust, Slimbridge, UK (Bokhari, 1970b). The park supports a large population 
of birds of prey including osprey Pandion haliaetus, Pallas 's fish eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus, 
marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, greater spotted eagle Aquila clanga, imperial eagle A . heliaca, 
and tawny eagle A. rapax. Noteworthy land birds include great Indian bustard Ardeotis 
nigriceps (V), a rare resident, and houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata, a winter visitor (Scott, 
1989). Over 160 species have been recorded by T. J. Roberts (pers. comm., 1986). 

Reptiles include turtles, tortoise, monitors Varanus spp., lizards of the genus Calotes, cobra No/a 
naja, saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, krait Bungarus sp., watersnake, gamasnake Boiga sp., 
wolfsnake Lycodon sp. and John's sand boa Eryxjohni. 

The lake contains large fish populations of carp (Cyprinidae), catfish (Siluriformes), catla Catla 
catla, murrel Ophicephalus marulius, rohu Labeo rohita, mullet Vallago attu, mirgal Cirrhina 
mirgala and trikanda Rota rita. Other species known to occur are listed by Scott (1989). 

Cultural Heritage There are archaeological remains of an ancient civilization which once 
flourished along the Hakra River. 

Local Human Population About 20 families cultivate some 810ha of land in the vicinity of 
Patisar Lake. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There is a visitor centre and children's park near the main 
entrance. Overnight accommodation is available at Hermitage Rest House by the reservoir, the 
Irrigation Department's lodge on Whispering Hill and at the new tourist hut beside the Desert 
Branch Canal. Other facilities include four camp sites, two watch towers, two fishing sites and 
boating on the lake (Masud, 1980; Shah, 1984). 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Scientific Research and Facilities The availability and selection of food by blackbuck has 
been studied (Mirza and Waiz, 1973). A study of the behaviour of chinkara and blackbuck is 
in progress, jointly supported by Punjab Government and US Fish & Wildlife Service. Prelimi- 
nary observations have been made on houbara bustard (Mirza, 1985). 

Conservation Value The area was first identified as being suitable for breeding blackbuck and 
as an important wetland site in 1966 (Mountfort and Poore, 1967), since when its conservation 
status has progressively been upgraded. Patisar Lake is a very important wintering area for 
waterfowl, particularly ducks, and a staging ground for large numbers of birds, especially in 
autumn (Scott, 1989). 

Conservation Management The park is fully protected; furthermore, hunting and cutting of 
vegetation is prohibited within a 5km radius of the park's boundary (Sheikh, 1982). It is 
managed according to objectives outlined in the master plan (Masud, 1980). These include 
protecting and restoring the endemic fauna and flora, providing recreational and educational 
facilities for the local people (and also for tourists) and accommodating scientific research. A 
system of zonation has been proposed, whereby the entire Cholistan Desert is incorporated 
within a wilderness zone in which development is not permitted, enclosures established for the 
blackbuck breeding programme are included within special areas to which entry is restricted, 
and the Desert Branch Canal is encompassed within recreation zones of varying intensities of 
use. A new management plan has since been prepared by Khan and Chaudhry ( 1987) and submitted 
to the authorities for approval. The plantation is being managed for commercial purposes according 
to objectives outlined in the working plan (Qazi, 1967). Of the additional 5,100ha earmaiked 
plantation by 1987/88, l,862ha has already been planted with trees (Shah, 1984). 

A programme to re-introduce blackbuck to the park began in 1970 with an initial shipment of 
10 animals (seven females and three males) from a Texas ranch. (These blackbuck were the 
descendants of 35 blackbuck presented to Texas in 1940 by the late Amir of Bahawalpur.) 
Survival of young proved to be low and so, in 1980, a further five females and one male, donated 
by Copenhagen Zoo, were added to the stock, since when numbers had increased to some 48 by 
1982. Another breeding nucleus was established in a separate enclosure in 1982 with animals 
from Copenhagen Zoo and Western Plains Zoo, New South Wales (Ahmad, 1983; Aleem, 1978; 
Sheikh, 1982). 

Management Constraints The plantation comprises mostly introduced species, including the 
dominant shisham, toot, simal Salmalia malabaricum and Eucalyptus spp.. Problems of 
encroachment exist in several places and some areas continue to be cultivated. The reservoir 
could be expanded in the future with the increased demand for water to irrigate the Cholistan 
Desert as it becomes more extensively populated (Masud, 1980). 

Staff Comprises an administrator with an office wing of 1 1 staff, a forestry wing of 71 staff 
(including one divisional forest officer, three range officers, 10 foresters and 18 forest guards) 
and a wildlife wing of 12 staff (including one assistant game warden, one game inspector, three 
game watchers and two fishery watchers) (Shah, 1984). 

Budget No recent information. Rs 5,368,000 were provided by the provincial government for 
the period 1975/76 to 1978/79. 



146 



Pakistan 



Local Addresses Administrator, Lai Suhanra National Park Head Office, Bahawalpur, Punjab 
Province 

References 

Ahmad, Ashiq (1983). A note relating to some problems with the re-introduced blackbuck at Lai 

Suhanra in Bahawalpur. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 33: 87-90. 
Aleem, Abdul (1978). Re-introduction of blackbuck in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 28: 

11-115. 
Anon (n.d.). List of plants, medicinal plants, reptiles, mammals and avifauna of Lai Sohandra 

National Park. Unpublished. 14 pp. 
Bokhari, A.S. (1970a). Re-introduction of blankbucks (Antilope crevicapra) in Lai Sohanra Game 

Sanctuary of Bahawalpur District. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 20: 393-5. 
Bokhari, A.S. (1970b). Re-introductoin of marbled teals (Anas angustirostris) in Lai Sohanra Game 

Sanctuary (District Bahawalpur). Pakistan Journal of Forestry 20: 383-386. 
Khan, A.A. and Chaudhry, A. Aleem (1987). Management plan for Lai Suhanra National Park. 

Punjab Wildlife Department. UnpubUshed report. 
Masud, R.M. (1980). Master plan for Lai Suhanra National Park, Bhawalpur-Pakistan 1980 to 

1985. National Council for Conservation of Wildlife in Pakistan, Islamabad. 55 pp. 
Mirza, Z.B. (1985). A note on houbara bustards in Cholistan, Punjab. Bustard Studies No. 3. Pp. 

43-44. 
Mirza, Z.B. and Waiz, A. (1973). Food availabiUty for blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) at Lai 

Suhanra Sanctuary, Pakistan. Biological Conservation 5: 119-122. 
Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1967). Report on the 1966 World Wildlife Fund Expedition to 

Pakistan. World WUdlife Fund Project 311. Pp. 18-19. 
Qazi, I.A. (1967). Working plan for irrigated plantations of Bahawalpur Forest Division (1964-65 

to 1983-84). Mananagor, Government Printing Press, Bahawalpur. 
Roberts, T. (1975). Blackbucks return to Pakistan. In: Sitwell, N. (Ed.) The World Conservation 

Yearbook. The Danbury Press, UK. Pp. 50-55. 
Roberts,!. (1984). Pakistan's wildlife today. WorldWildlife Fund Monthly Reportjanuary, 1984. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Shah, M.H. (1984). Lalsuhanra National Park, Bahawalpur-Punjab, Pakistan. Unpublished Report. 

5 pp. 
Sheikh, K.H. (1982). Lai Suhandra National Park. WorldWildlife Fund-Pakistan Newsletter A-6: 

4-8. 
WWF/IUCN Project 474. Lai Suhanra National Park - reintroduction of blackbuck. 

Date August 1986, updated August 1990 



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LANGH (LUNGH) LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category UA 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Situated in Sind Province, 19kni west of Larkana from which it is 
accessible by metal road. An unmetalled road runs along the northern and western boundaries 
of the sanctuary and in one part actually passes through it. 68°03'E, 27°30'N 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary 1972 (Notification No. 
26(2) SWL & FT/72) and re-notified in 1980. 

Area 19ha (formerly lake) surrounded by a 47ha buffer zone of 5km radius 

Land Tenure Land within the sanctuary belongs to the state (Provincial Government of Sind), 
which in 1977 was in the process of purchasing the surrounding buffer area from private 
landowners. 

Altitude 50m 

Physical Features The lake was formerly part of the Indus river-bed, now 32-48km to the east. 
It Ues in the fertile silt soils (comprising about 20% sand and 80% clay and silt) of the Indus 
flood plain. The area of open water is 20-30m across. Land surrounding the lake is generally 
flat, with the limestone and sandstone hills of the Kalat Range some 80km to the west in 
Baluchistan. The flood plain is divided into small fields, which are irrigated by a network of 
canals and used mainly for growing rice. The lake is fed by monsoon rain, and water also enters 
via a small canal to the north. Apparendy there is no outlet channel. The boundary of the 
sanctuary is partly surrounded by a bund which helps to retain the water. Parts of the lake 
normally dry out in the summer months. 

Climate Conditions in the region are extreme, with temperatures reaching 47°C in the shade 
in summer and falling to a mean minimum of 2.2°C in January. Mean annual rainfall is about 
178mm, most of which falls in the monsoon season. Prevailing winds are north-east in winter 
and west-south-west in May-September (Sorley, 1968). 

Vegetation There were three principal habitat types: open water, formerly the arm of the Indus, 
with stands of Typha angustata and Juncus spp. on the edge; swamp, dominated by Tamarix 
dioica; and areas dominated by Juncus spp. which were rice fields prior to being flooded in the 
early 1960s (Conder, 1977). In recent years, water supplies have been diverted for use elsewhere 
and the lake has become completely overgrown with Typha and Tamarix (Scott, 1989). 

Fauna The lake used to support very large numbers of waterfowl in addition to large 
populations of non-migratory species and Palaearctic migrant warblers of the genera Acroce- 
phalus, Hippolais, Phylloscopus and Sylvia (Conder,1977). Up to 200 mallard Anas platyrhyn- 



148 



Pafdslan 



chos, 25,000 common teal A. crecca, 200 garganey A. querquedula, 500 gadwall A. strepera, 
19,000 northern pintail A. acuta, 8,000 northern shoveler A. clypeata, 40 marbled teal A. angus- 
tirostris (one of the rarest Palaearctic ducks to visit the Indian subcontinent), 50 tufted duck 
Aythyafuligula, 3,000 common pochard/4. /er/na and the occasional ferruginous duck A . nyroca 
were recorded during counts in 1973-1977. The lake was also important for other waterbirds, 
notably night herons Nycticorax nycticorax, with up to 1,100 recorded. Other species included 
great coTmorantPhalacrocoraxcarbo, Indian cormorant P. fUscicollis, little cormorantP. niger, 
darter Anhinga anhinga, grey heron Ardea cinerea, purple heron A. purpurea, pond heron 
Ardeola grayii, great egret Egretta alba, intermediate egret E. intermedia, little Egret E. garzet- 
ta, glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus, as well as a variety of waders including painted snipe 
Rostrulata benghalensis, white-tailed plover Chettusia leucurus and pheasant-tailed jacana 
Hydrophasianus chirurgus. Birds of prey included osprey Pandion haliaetus, greater spotted 
eagle Aquila clanga, imperial eagle A. heliaca, tawny eagle A. rapax, white-tailed eagle Ha- 
liaeetus albicilla, Brahminy kite Haliastur indus, black kite Milvus migrans, long-legged 
buzzard fiwreo rufinus, pallid harrier Cj>cm5 macrourus, marsh harrier C. aeruginosas and saker 
falcon Falco cherrug. The Tamarix area was an important wintering ground for many smaller 
birds, including Palaearctic warblers. Nothing has been documented about the other fauna. The 
only waterfowl present in January 1987 were 27 herons and egrets and 12 shorebirds. In January 
1988, there were about 200 birds, mainly cormorants, herons and egrets (Scott, 1989). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There is one rest house. 

Scientific Research and Facilities The waterfowl has been regularly censused since the early 
1970s. There are no research facilities. 

Conservation Value The lake was an important staging and wintering area for a wide variety 
of waterfowl (Conder, 1977), but the wetland has almost completely disappeared and it is no 
longer of importance to waterfowl (Roberts, 1984; Scott, 1989). 

Conservation Management A management plan was prepared by Conder (1977), according 
to which objectives were: to conserve and protect the natural habitat to provide optimal 
conditions for the large numbers of resident and wintering birds, particularly waterfowl; to 
provide for a limited amount of shooting on special occasions; and to provide facilities for 
scientists, naturalists and interested members of the public to study and enjoy the wildlife without 
disturbing it. 

Management Constraints The lake has shrunk considerably in area as it is no longer 
maintained by regularly diverting water. Disturbance by grazing livestock is excessive. 

Staff Honorary district game warden, game inspector and game watchers (1977) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Divisional Forest Officer, Larkana, Sind Province 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



References 



Conder, PJ. (1977). Lake Langh Wildlife Sanctuary (Management Plan). lUCNAVWF Project 

No. 1360. 13 pp. 
Roberts, TJ. (1984). Brief review of the status of wetlands in Pakistan. 10th Asian Continental 

Section Conference, ICBP, Cambridge. Unpublished report. 6 pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Sorley, H.T. (1968). The former Province ofSind (including Khairpur State). Gazetteer of West 

Pakistan. Publication of the Government of West Pakistan. 809 pp. (Unseen) 
Date August 1986, updated August 1990 



MACHIARA GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies in Muzaffarabad District of Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir. 
34*31'-34°34'N, 73°32'-73°39'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve in 1982. 

Area 13,537ha 

Land Tenure State (Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir). Traditional grazing rights are exercised 
by the local people. 

Altitude Ranges firom 2,134m to the peak of Mushan at 4,733m (Roberts, 1984). 

Physical Features The sanctuary encompasses the watershed of Machiara Nullah, a tributary 
of the Neelum River. 

Climate Conditions are temperate. Meteorological data are available from Naran which lies 
at about 1,000m in the adjacent Kaghan Valley. Here, annual precipitation is 1340mm, of which 
almost 60% falls between February and April. Mean monthly maximum and minimum 
temperatures range from 3.3°C and -6.9°C, respectively, in January to 25.6''C and 12.6°C in 
August (Khan, 1989). 

Vegetation Deciduous forest occurs at lower altitudes (2,400-2, 8(X)m). It is dominated by 
almost pure stands of horse chtsinal Aesculus indica, with the occasional walnut Juglans regia, 
ash Fraxinus sp., and maple Acer caesium, and an understorey of Parrotiopsisjacquemontiana, 
Jasminium humile and Berberis spp. Middle altitudes support dense mixed foiests, with oak 
Quercus semecarpifolia on more exposed ridges (near the westernmost limit of this Himalayan 
oak) and a dense shrub layer ofLonicera webbiana, Abelia triflora. Viburnum cotinifolium and 
V. nervosum in the steeper ravines. Cedar Cedrus deodara grows alongside blue pine Pinus 
excelsa on drier southern slopes, and silver fir Abies pindrow and spruce Picea smithiana occur 
on northern or moister slopes. Birch Betula utilis is predominant above 3,300m, with extensive 

150 



Pakistan 



patches of creeping juniper Juniperus communis and, in damper areas, dense clumps of willow 
Salix denticulata. Alpine pastures, with patches of dwarf rhododendron Rhododendron antho- 
pogon, extend to the snowline (Roberts, 1984; Duke, 1988). 

Fauna Machiara is noted for its diverse fauna. Large mammals include common langur 
Presbytis entellus, yellow-throated marten Martes flavigula, leopard Panthera pardus (T), 
brown bear Ursus arctos, Himalayan black bear Selenarctos thibetanus, Himalayan musk deer 
Moschus chrysogaster (V), and ibex Copra ibex. Rhesus macaque Macaco mulatta, wolf Canis 
lupus (V), and snow leopard Panthera uncia (E) are also reported to be present (Roberts, 1984; 
Grimmett, 1987; Duke, 1988). 

Roberts (1984) and Duke (1988) each recorded some 40 species of birds during brief surveys, 
but most Western Himalayan species are likely to be found in the reserve (G. Duke, pers. comm.). 
Machiara is the second most important known refuge of western tragopan Tragopan melanoce- 
phalus (E). Islam and Crawford (1987) recorded a minimum of 22 birds within their 8 sq.km 
study area. Koklass pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha, Himalayan monal Lophophorus impejanus, 
possibly cheer pheasant Catreus wallichii (E) and snow partridge Lerwa lerwa are also present 
(Roberts, 1984; Duke, 1988). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Machiara Village lies outside the reserve, but there are a number 
of temporary settlements on the periphery and within the reserve which are used by Bakarwal 
herdsmen during the summer months (Roberts, 1984; Duke, 1988). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities None 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities The wildlife has been briefly documented by Roberts 
(1984), Grimmett (1987) and Duke (1988). Pheasant populations were censused by Qayyum 
(1980) in 1977-1979. More detailed studies of the western tragopan have been conducted by 
Islam (1983, 1985, 1987) and Islam and Crawford (1984-1985, 1987). 

Conservation Value Machiara is considered to be one of the most important protected areas 
in Pakistan. Its Himalayan forests are relatively intact and support a diverse assemblage of faunal 
species characteristic of the temperate zone. The reserve is a particularly important refuge for 
the endangered western tragopan, and also for Himalayan musk deer (Roberts, 1984). 

Conservation Management There is no management plan for the reserve. The wildlife wing 
of the Provincial Forest Department, aware of the international importance of Machiara, is 
planning to upgrade the reserve to wildlife sanctuary status. Plans have stalled due to difficulties 
with settling existing grazing, felling and shooting rights (Grimmett, 1987; Duke, 1988). It has 
been recommended that ultimately Machiara should be extended as far east as Kuttan and 
designated a national park, both to provide a large enough area to support a viable population 
of western tragopan and to serve as a corridor for the species to disperse to and from the Kaghan 
and Neelum valleys to the west and east, respectively (Grimmett, 1987; Islam and Crawford, in 
press). Machiara is included in the ICBP/Pakistan Himalayan Jungle Project, which will focus 
on core area protection, associated rural development, training of wildlife staff and conservation 
education (G. Duke, pers. comm., 1990). 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Management Constraints The activities of graziers result in considerable disturbance to the 
vegetation and wildlife within the reserve (Roberts, 1984; Duke, 1988). 

Staff One wildlife watcher 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Range Officer, Forest Office, Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu & Kashmir 

References 

Duke, G. (1988). A short note on Machiara Game Reserve. Unpublished report. 7 pp. 
Grimmett, R. (1987). Notes on a visit to Machiara Game Reserve, Pakistan. Unpublished report. 

2 pp. 
Islam, K. (1983). Distribution, habitat and status of the western tragopan in Pakistan. In: Proceed- 
ings ofJeanDelacourllFCB Symposium on Breeding Birds in Captivity, California. Pp. 37-44. 
Islam, K. (1985). Habitat use by western tragopans in northeastem Pakistan. MS thesis, Oregon 

State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 
Islam, K. (1987). Status and distribution of the western tragopan in northeastem Pakistan. In: 

Savage, C.D.W. and Ridley, M.W., Pheasants in Asia 1982. World Pheasant Association, 

Lower Basildon, UK. Pp. 44-51. 
Islam, K. and Crawford, J.A. (1984-1985). Brood habitat and roost sites of western tragopan in 

northeastem Pakistan. World Pheasant Association Journal 10: 7-14. 
Islam, K. and Crawford, J.A. (1987). Habitat use by western tragopans Tragopan melacocephalus 

(Gray) in northeastem Pakistan. Biological Conservation 40: 101-1 15. 
Islam, K. and Crawford, J.A. (in press). Summary of western tragopan project in Pakistan with 

recommendations for conservation of the species. In: Ridley, M. (Ed.), Pheasants in Asia 1986. 

World Pheasant Association, Basildon, UK. 
Khan, M. (1989). Revised working plan for Palas forests of Kohistan Forest Division. NWFP 

Forestry Pre-in vestment Centre, Peshawar. 
Qayyum, S.A. (1980). The status of pheasants in Azad Jammu and Kashmir with special reference 

to the westem tragopan. Paper presented to the Conference on Game Animals, Peshawar. 4 pp. 

Date August 1990 



MALUGUL DHAND 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies in the Kurram River valley about 20km north-west of Lakki in 
Bannu District. 32°46'N, 70°51'E 

Date and History of Establishment Malugul Dhand has no protected status but was designated 
a Wetland of International Importance at the time of Pakistan's ratification of the Ramsar 
Convention on 23 July 1976. 

Area 405ha 



152 



Pakistan 



Land Tenure State (Government of North-West Frontier Province) 

Altitude 305-390m 

Physical Features Malugul Dhand is a dead arm of the Kurram River which fills up during 
the spring floods to form a shallow brackish/saline lake, about Im deep. The lake usually dries 
up during the dry season. The wetland also receives some water from seepage of nearby 
irrigation canals. The pH value is 8.5. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical, with very hot summers and cold winters. Mean 
maximum temperature in June is 42°C, and mean minimum in January is 0.5°C. Mean annual 
rainfall is 338mm. 

Vegetation Dominant aquatic plants include Typha angustata, Phragmites karka, Trigonella 
monantha. Phyla nodiflora and species of Chara, Chenopodium and Cyperus. Woodland in the 
area is dominated by Prosopis cineraria and Tamarix aphylla. 

Fauna Up to 350 ducks, mainly wigeon Anas penelope, teal A. crecca, mallard ^4. platyrhyn- 
chos and pintail /4. acuta, have been recorded at Malugul Dhand in mid- winter, along with small 
numbers of white stork Ciconia ciconia, black- winged stilt Himantopus himantopus and several 
other species of shorebirds. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Most of the land surrounding Malugul Dhand is cultivated. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Malugul Dhand is a popular area for outdoor recreation. 

Scientific Research and Facilities The Pakistan Forest Institute carried out mid-winter 
waterfowl counts at Malugul Dhand in 1979 to 1981, and the Zoological Survey Department 
has conducted annual counts since then. 

Conservation Value Malugul Dhand is important for waterfowl. It also provides opportunities 
for outdoor recreation, including sport hunting. 

Conservation Management The wetland is managed by the provincial Wildlife Department. 

Management Constraints Numbers of waterfowl have fallen drastically in recent years due 
to livestock grazing and recreational activities. Salinity levels have increased as a result of 
extensive irrigation in the area. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 



153 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



References Information is taken directly from: 



Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



MANSHI WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Kaghan Valley on the east bank of the Kunhar River, 12km 
north of Paras Village in Hazara District, North- West Frontier Province. It is close to the border 
with Azad State of Jammu & Kashmir. The sanctuary is accessible via Paras along a very poor 
track, which is impassable during winter snow. 34°48'N, 73''34'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1977. Originally 
designated a reserve for a five-year period ending in 1973. 

Area 2,321ha. Forms part of Manshi Reserved Forest. 

Land Tenure State (Government of North-West Frontier Province) 

Altitude Exceeds 4,000m 

Physical Features The Kaghan Valley, through which flows the Kunhar River, is steep-sided 
and aligned north-south. Surrounding ridges form a natural amphitheatre, opening to the south 
and broken only in the north-west where a side valley leads up to Mount Musa-ka-Mussallah. 

Climate No information 

Vegetation Lower Kaghan Valley is characterised by Himalayan moist temperate forest, with 
oak Quercus dilatata, sycamore Acer caesiimi, poplar Populus ciliata, yew Taxus baccata and 
•wdlxmiJuglans nigra predominant and some scattered blue pine Pinus wallichiana, cedar Cedrus 
deodar, spruce Picea smithiana and silver fir Abies alba. This vegetation type is replaced by 
dry temperate coniferous forest in the upper reaches, where blue pine forest is interspersed with 
cedar, spruce and silver fir. Above 2,500m are alpine meadows, with a rich herbaceous flora, 
including an abundance of peony Paeonia sp. (Wayre, 1971; Roberts, 1977). 

Fauna The mammals have not been surveyed, but arc known to include common langur 
Presbytis entellus and Royle's pika Ochotona roylei (Wayre, 1971). Himalayan black bear 
Selenarctos thibetanus, Himalayan musk deer Moschus chrysogaster (V) and occasionally 
leopaid Panthera pardus (T) arc also prcsent (M.M. Malik, pers. comm., 1987). The avifauna 
is rich in species. Therc is prime habitat for koklass pheasant Pucrasia macrolopha and monal 
pheasant Lop/wp/wrjAS impejanus, both of which are numerous (Wayre, 1971; T.J. Roberts, pers. 



154 



Pakistan 



comm., 1986). The sanctuary is one of the few known breeding locations in Pakistan for 
white-bellied redstart Hodgsonius phoenicuroides. Long-legged buzzard Buteo rufinus and 
lammcrgQierGypaetus barbatus also breed here (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). Five species 
offish occur in Kaghan Valley but their distribution within the sanctuary is not specified (Mirza 
andHussain, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population There are no permanent settlements within the sanctuary but Gujars 
live lower down in the valley. These graziers spend the summer (June-July) in the sanctuary 
with their cattle, buffalo, goats and sheep (Wayre, 1971). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There is a Forest Department rest house and youth hostel at 
Sharan. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Parts of Manshi Forest Reserve were surveyed for pheasants 
in 1971 (Wayre, 1971). 

Conservation Value This part of Manshi Forest Reserve was recommended as being the most 
suitable area in Kaghan Valley for protecting high-altitude-pheasants. The relative inaccessi- 
bility of the valley, coupled with the presence of snow during winter, facilitates protection of 
the sanctuary. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints The lower reaches of Kaghan Valley are the site of a West 
German-funded project to produce virus-free seed potatoes. A large area of forest has been 
cleared within the forest reserve and camps established for imported local labour, all of which 
are jeopardising the integrity of the sanctuary (T.J. Roberts, pers. comm., 1986). Grazing by 
domestic livestock is not controlled. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Range Officer, Balakot Range, NWFP Forest Department 

References 

Mirza, M.R. and Hussain, S. (1985). A note on the fish fauna of Kaghan Valley, Pakistan, widi 

itie record of Schisturanalbanti. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 17: 101. 
Roberts, TJ. (1977). The Mammals of Pakistan. Ernest Benn, London. Pp. 6-7. 
Wayre, P. (1971). Pheasant conservation in Pakistan. WWF Project 1563. Pp. 17-21. 

Date July 1986, updated August 1990 



155 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



MARGALLA HILLS NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category V (Protected Landscape) 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Comprises the hill ranges immediately to the north of the Federal 
Capital of Islamabad. 33°48'N, 73'10'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a national park on 27 April 1980 under Section 
21(1) of the Islamabad Wildlife (Protection, Conservation and Management) Ordinance, 1979. 
Prior to 1960, much of the area was reserved forest. Subsequently, it was declared a wildlife 
sanctuary under the West Pakistan Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1959. 

Area 17,386ha. The park comprises compartments 2-5, 7-23, 28, 30-38(i) and 41(ii) of 
Margalla Forest Reserve, compartments 1 -25 of the Military Grass Farm and various other lands 
making a total area of 14,786ha, together with Rawal Lake and a surrounding buffer area of 2km 
from the high water mark. Rawal Lake is not contiguous with the rest of the park, the intervening 
area constituting part of Islamabad Game Reserve (69,800ha). 

Land Tenure State (Federal Government). Land transferred to the Capital Development 
Authority in 1961, when Islamabad was declared the capital of Pakistan, includes 4,794ha of 
reserved forest, 3,315ha managed by the Military Farm Authorities and 3,636ha under private 
ownership (Masud, 1979). 

Altitude Ranges between 456m and 1,580m. 

Physical Features The topography is rugged, with numerous valleys and many steep and even 
precipitous slopes. The area is drained by the River Kurang and its tributaries, which flow into 
the River Soan. Rocks are Jurassic and Triassic in age, limestone being characteristic of the 
Margalla Range (though shales, clays and sandstones are also present). Soils are dark, with a 
high mineral content, and are capable of supporting good tree growth despite being shallow. 

Climate Lying in the monsoon belt, the area experiences two rainy seasons. Winter rains last 
from January until March and summer rains from July until September. Based on climatic data 
from Rawalpindi for 195 1 to 1965, mean annual rainfall is 95 1mm and mean monthly maximum 
and minimum temperatures range from 1 6.9°C to 40. 1 °C and from 3. 1 °C to 24.7°C, respectively 
(Masud, 1979). 

Vegetation The two distinct types of vegetation are subtropical dry semi-evergreen forest and 
subtropical pine forest. The former is dominated by phulai Acacia modesta and kao Olea 
ferruginea, associated with sanatha Dodonaea viscosa, granda Carissa spinarum and ber 
Zizyphus jujuba, and having an undergrowth of bhekar Justicia adhatoda, gunger Sageratia 
thea, mullah Zizyphus nummularia and khokhal Myrsine africana. About 50 species of grass 
are present, the most common being dhauloo Chrysopogon serrulatus, palwan Bothrichloa 



156 



Pakistan 



pertusa, survala Heteropogon contortus, maniara Pennisetum orientale and loonder Themeda 
anthera. Introduced ornamental tree species include: silver oak Grevillea robusta, gulenishtar 
Erythrina suberosa, jacaranda Jacaranda mimosoefolia, bottle brush Callistemon viminalis, 
sakar Ehretia laevis, chir pine Pinus roxburghii. Cassia glauca, Porgania glabra and Eucalyptus 
sp. Subtropical pine forest occurs above 1,000m, chir pine Pinus roxburghii being the charac- 
teristic canopy species with an undergrowth of Myrsine africana, Woodfordiafruticosa, Berberis 
lycium and granda Carissa spinarum. Forests are well-stocked on cooler aspects but those on 
the hotter southern slopes with poor soils are sparse and mixed with scrub. 

Fauna Margalla Hills are unique in Pakistan, being rich in Sinohimalayan fauna, some species 
(especially birds) of which are at the western extremity of their distribution. Larger mammals 
are known to include rhesus macaque Macaca mulatto, leopard P anther a pardus (T), wild boar 
Sus scrofa, Indian muntjac Munitacus muntjak and goral Nemorhaedus goral. Noteworthy birds 
include white-eyed buzzard Butastur teesa, lannar falcon Falco biarmicus, black- shouldered 
kite Elanus caeruleus, kalij pheasant Lophura leucomelana, black partridge Francolinus fran- 
colinus, sirkeer cuckoo Taccocua leschenaultii, jungle nightjar Caprimulgus indicus, long-tailed 
nightjar C. macrurus, lesser golden-backed woodpecker D/nop/uw benghalense and lanceolatcd 
jay Garrulus lanceolatus. A list of mammals and birds beUeved to be found in the park is given 
in the master plan (Masud, 1979). Further details ofthe avifauna can be found in Corfield (1983). 
Cheer pheasant Catreus wallichi (E), reared at Dhok Jewan and Jabri, are being released into 
the park. The re-introduction programme is being carried out by the World Pheasant Association 
in collaboration with the Capital Development Authority (Howman, 1985; Anon., 1987). 

Cultural Heritage There are a number of historical and religious sites but their importance 
needs to be evaluated. Shah Faisal Mosque lies outside the southern boundary of the park. 

Local Human Population Shadarah is the only village remaining in the park; it is due to be 
relocated. Formerly, there were over a dozen villages inside the park, and the residents of 
Phulgran retained traditional rights to graze cattle in compartments 1 & 6 of Margalla Reserved 
Forest (Masud, 1979). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Large numbers of residents from Islamabad and Rawalpindi, 
as well as foreigners, visit the park due to its proximity to the capital. There is a small zoo near 
the park entrance which will eventually be transferred to Islamabad Zoo and located in Islamabad 
Game Reserve. A visitor centre is planned for Daman-E-Koh, providing lounge accommodation 
and an information service. Lodges, camping grounds and picnic sites are also planned and the 
provision of a chair lift may be considered. 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities The wildUfe was surveyed in December 1977 by WWF in 
collaboration with the National Council for Conservation of Wildlife. The avifauna is well- 
documented (Corfield, 1983). 

Conservation Value In its report of 197 1 , the Wildlife Enquiry Committee recommended that 
the park should be established in the interests of the people of Islamabad. It is also an extremely 
important watershed for the capital. With regard to its fauna, Margalla Hills is one ofthe richest 
areas for birds in Pakistan. 

Conservation Management Margalla Hills has been managed by the Capital Development 
Authority since 1961 when it was declared a 'green' area. Reserved forests, rakhs (military grass 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

fanns) and chaks (private holdings) have since been taken over by the Authority. Much of the 
original forest has been removed, even prior to the transferral of the forests to the Forest 
Department in the late 19th century (Elahi, 1970), but is gradually reverting to its original 
condition under the present management regime. The loss of grass habitat on southern slopes 
(former rakhs) is likely to be associated with the disappearance of cheer pheasant and the 
difficulties experienced in trying to re-introduce it (Young, 1986). 

Objectives outlined in the master plan include restoring the vegetation and wildlife to its previous 
condition, stopping erosion, conserving the water supply and meeting the increased demand for 
outdoor recreation through the development of proper visitor facilities (Masud, 1979). A system 
of zonation, based on areas of varying intensities of visitor use, has been proposed to facilitate 
management This includes a 3,l(X)ha enclosure for captive breeding and re- introduction 
purposes, and wilderness areas (comprising 70% of the park area) in which development is 
permitted. It is proposed that the park be surrounded by a buffer zone of 8km, in which shooting 
is prohibited. An enclosure, with a 14km perimeter, is due to be sited in Dhoke Jewari Valley, 
as part of a plan to re-introduce muntjac and goral to the park. 

Management Constraints Being adjacent to Islamabad, the park is subject to very high levels 
of use by visitors. Illegal grazing and collection of fuelwood are persistent problems. Large- 
scale planting of ornamental trees by the Horticultural Directorate detract from the integrity of 
the area (Masud, 1979). 

Staff One deputy director, one assistant director, one veterinary officer, six range officers, 1 1 
foresters, 43 forest guards, approximately 60 permanent labourers and an additional 120 casual 
labourers in April- June for fire-control work (1986) 

Budget Recurrent expenditure (including upkeep of the zoo) of Rs 4.7 million is met by the 
Capital Development Authority; capital expenditure of Rs 2 million for the re-introduction of 
goral, chinkara, cheer pheasant and development of public amenities is met by this Authority 
and the National Council for Conservation of Wildlife in equal proportions (1986). 

Local Addresses Deputy Director, Margalla Hills National Park, Capital Development Auth- 
ority, Sitara Market, Islamabad 

References 

Anon. (1987). Summary of radio tracking of cheer pheasants in the Margalla Hills, Pakistan. World 

Pheasant Association News 15: 16-17,20-21. 
Corfield, D.M. (1983). Birds of Islamabad, Pakistan and the Muree Hills. Asian Study Group, 

Islamabad. 
Elahi, M. (1970). Working plan for the scrub forest of Rawalpindi District: 1966-67 to 1975-76. 

Government Printing Press, Lahore. (Unseen) 
Howman, K.C.R. (1985). Cheer pheasant release project Margallah Hills, Pakistan. Review of 

cheer pheasant reintroduction programme in Margallah Hills, Islamabad, Pakistan. World 

Pheasant Association News 1: 8-10. 
Masud, R.M. (1979). Master plan for Margalla HiUs National Park, Islamabad, Pakistan 1979 to 

1984. National Council for Conservation of Wildlife, Islamabad. 48 pp. 
Roberts, T. (1984). Pakistan's wildlife today. World Wildlife Fund Monthly Report. January, 1984. 
Young, L. (1986). Foresthistory of the Margalla Hills. Draft report. 3 pp. 

Date July 1986, updated August 1990 



158 



Pakistan 



NALTAR WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies close to Hunza Valley in northern Pakistan, 45km from the town 
of Gilgit. Approximately 36°07'N, 74°14'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary on 22 November 1975. 

Area 27,206ha. Contiguous to Sher Qillah Game Reserve (16,842ha) and Pakora Game 
Reserve(7,515ha). 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 1,972m to 5,926m at Shanni Glacier. 

Physical Features Naltar Valley lies at about 3,000m and is aligned in a north-west to 
south-east direction, with mountains on either side rising to about 5,8(X)m (Winser and Winser, 
1985). This fluvio-glacial valley follows the southern limbs of the Kailas Range for about 24km 
until its confluence with the Hunza River. The profile of the upper portion is glacial and typically 
'U'-shaped, while that of the lower portion is 'V'-shaped due to river erosion. The meta- 
sedimentary and sedimentary sequence includes slates, quartzites, limestone and gneiss of 
pre-Carboniferous age. There are green stone, granodiorite and horn-blended granite intrusions. 
Igneous rocks are post Permo-Carboniferous in age. Late Cretaceous sediments overlay the 
green stone complex in Yasin Valley. The upper reaches of the Naltar River freeze during winter 
(Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Annual rainfall ranges from 254mm to 381mm. Winter is severe (Rasul, 1985). 

Vegetation The area falls within the dry temperate zone, but because of high rainfall supports 
luxuriant forests and ground cover (Rasul, 1985). Trees and shrubs include species oiPistacia, 
Oka, Fraxinus, Sageratia, Eurotia, Juniperus, Picea, Betula, Salix and Populus. Herbs include 
Artemisia, Stipa and Haloxylon. 

Fauna Large mammals include markhor Capra falconeri (V), ibex C. ibex, snow leopard 
Panthera uncia (E), brown bear Ursus arctos, fox Vulpes vulpes, wolf Canis lupus (V), stone 
marten Manes foina and leopard cat Felis bengalensis (Rasul, 1985). Some 35 species of birds 
have been recorded (N. MacCallum, pers. comm.). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population There are a number of settlements in Naltar Valley, those higher 
up being used only in summer (Winser and Winser, 1985). 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities An expedition from Aberdeen University carried out 
ecological studies on the pika Ochotona roylei and choughs Pyrrhocorax spp., and made 
collections of mosses, spiders and pseudo-scorpions (Winser and Winser, 1985). 

Conservation Value Naltar is part of a protected areas complex which is important for a variety 
of threatened mammal species. 

Conservation Management Wildlife is given complete protection. People residing within an 
8km radius of the sanctuary enjoy concessions to extract timber and firewood, graze livestock 
and cut grass. A conservation management plan and plan for the establishment of a mini-zoo 
are being prepared (Rasul, 1985). 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower, poaching and agricultural en- 
croachment (Rasul, 1985). 

Staff One game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,(X)0 p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 

Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 
Winser, N. and Winser, S. (Eds) (1985), Expedition Yearbook 1984. Expedition Advisory Centre, 

London. Pp. 111-112. 

Date September 1988 



NAR/GHORO NALLAH GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Baltistan District, about 26km by road from the town of 
Skaidu. Approximately 35°06'N, 75°12'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve on 22 November 1975. 

Area 7,255ha 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 



160 



Pakistan 



Altitude Ranges from 2,424m to 4,242m. 

Physical Features The terrain is rugged and precipitous. Stream deposits of alluvium and 
gravel cover valley bottoms. Sedimentary, meta-sedimentary and igneous rocks are present 
(Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Conditions are dry temperate. Annual precipitation is 76- 102mm, with most falling 
as snow. Winters are severe and summers mild (Rasul, 1985). 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include Juniperus, Betula, Salix and Fraxinus. Ground flora 
consists oi Artemisia and various grass species (Rasul, 1985). 

Fauna Large mammals include ibex Capra ibex, musk deer Moschus chrysogaster (V) and 
snow leopard Panthera uncia (E). The larger birds include chukar Alectoris chukar, snow 
partridge Lenva lerwa, snowcock Tetraogallus sp. and various raptor species (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value No information 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection and the reserve is closed to 
hunting. Local people enjoy concessions to collect firewood, graze livestock and cut grass. 

Management Constraints Include shortage of staff and poaching. 

Staff One game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,(XX)p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 



NAZBAR NALLAH GAME RESERVE 



lUCN Management Category Unassigned 



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JUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Yasin Tehsil of Gilgit District, 137km by bridle path from 
Gilgit Town. Approximately 36*22'N, 73°19'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve on 22 November 1975. 

Area 33,177ha. The reserve is contiguous to Chassi/Baushdar Game Reserve (37,053ha). 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 2,039m to 5,212m. 

Physical f*eatures The Nazbar catchment area includes numerous side nullahs with rugged, 
undulating topography. 

Climate The climate is dry, with an annual precipitation of 127-254mm, most of which falls 
as snow. Winters are severe and summers mild (Rasul, 1985). 

Vegetation Trees include Juniperus (sporadic and stunted), Salix , Rosa, Fraxinus and Populus 
Ground flora includes Artemisia, Stipa and other grasses. 

Fauna Large mammals include ibex Capra ibex, snow leopard Panthera uncia (E), lynx Felis 
lynx and fox Vulpes vulpes. Larger birds include chukar A/ecrom chukar, snow partridge Lenva 
lerwa, snowcock Tetraogallus sp. and various raptors and vultures (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Local inhabitants cultivate in the lower part of the reserve and graze 
livestock in the upper part (Rasul, 1985). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value No information 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection. Local inhabitants enjoy 
concessions to extract firewood and timber for domestic use, graze livestock and cut grass. There 
is no management plan (Rasul, 1985). 

Management Constraints Include shortage of staff and poaching. 

Staff One game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,000 p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 



162 



Pakistan 



References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 



Date September 1988 



NEMAL LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies 29 km east-north-east of Mianwali. 32°41 'N, 7 1 °49'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1970, and re-notified in 
January 1979. 

Area 486ha 

Land Tenure The lake is state-owned (Provincial Government of the Punjab). Adjacent 
agricultural land is privately owned, and forested hill slopes and range lands are state-owned 

Altitude 352m 

Physical Features Nemal is a shallow brackish lake, partly impounded by a dam in one comer, 
and fed by a small spring and several intermittent streams rising in the low hills of the Salt Range 
to the south-east. Maximum depth of the lake is 5.8m, and the mean 4.6m. The water level 
fluctuates widely, and is partially controlled by the removal of water for irrigation. The water 
is slightiy saline (3.2 p.p.t. in 1964), and has a pH value of 7.3. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical, with an annual rainfall of between 300mm and 6(K)mm. 
Minimum temperatures in January range from TC to 5''C, and maximum temperatures in June 
from 40°C to 45°C. 

Vegetation Aquatic vegetation consists of Carex fedia, Hydrilla verticillata, Juncus sp., 
Phragmites karka, Potamogeton crispus, Saccharum spontaneum, Typha angustata and Zanni- 
chelliapalustris. The natiu^ vegetation of the region is a mixture of subtropical semi-evergreen 
scrub and tropical thorn scrub with species such diS Acacia modes ta, A . nilotica, Adhatoda vasica, 
Dodonea viscosa, Gymnosporia royleana, Oleaferruginea, Prosopis cineraria, Reptonia bux- 
ifolia, Salvadora oleoides, Tamarix aphylla, T. dioica, Zizyphus mauritiana, Z. nummularia, 
Chrysopogon aucheri, Lasiurits hirsutus, Heteropogon contortus and Panicwn antidotale. 
Prosopis glandulosa has been introduced to the area. Most of the land adjacent to the lake has 
been cleared for agriculture. 

Fauna The lake was an important wintering area for Anatidae, with between 2,000 and 5,000 
birds present in mid- winter in the early 1970s. Smew Mergus albellus and white-headed duck 



163 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Oxyura leucocephala (V) were regular winter visitors in small numbers, with maximum counts 
of 79 and 1 27 respectively. The number of birds visiting the lake has decreased, however, since 
the construction of Chashma Barrage on the Indus River. A flock of up to 50 greylag goose 
Anser anser continues to winter in the area, along with small numbers of a wide variety of other 
waterfowl. Further details are given in Scott (1989). 

Mammals known to occur in the area include jackal Canis aureus, fox Vulpes vulpes and 
black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis. Fishes include Catla catla, Channa marulius, Cirrhinus 
mrigala, Cyprinus carpio, Salmofaria, Tilapia mossambica and Labeo rohita. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Sulphur springs along the irrigation canal attract visitors 
seeking medicinal treatment. 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities Mid- winter waterfowl counts have been carried out since 
1971. 

Conservation Value The lake supports a variety of waterfowl but is no longer important as a 
wintering area for ducks. It supports a commercial fishery and provides opportunities for 
outdoor recreation, as well as being imponant for irrigation. 

Conservation Management Protection of the sanctuary has improved considerably since its 
re-notification. Fishing is permitted under licence from the Punjab Fisheries Department. The 
Department has recently developed a project to improve stocks of commercially important 
species. Livestock are grazed on the surrounding range land, and some leases have been granted 
to mine in the nearby hills. 

Management Constraints Fishing, grazing and agricultural activities around the lake cause 
some disturbance to waterfowl. The wide fluctuations in water level and changes in salinity 
may be having a detrimental effect on the habitat. There is some illegal hunting. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, S witzeriand and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181 pp. 

Date August 1990 



164 



Pakistan 



PAKORA GAME RESERVE 

rUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Gilgit District, 97kni by road from the town of Gilgit. The 
reserve is located in Ishkuman, 47km from Gakuch Punial. Approximately 36°24'N, 73°53'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve on 22 November 1975. 

Area 7,515ha. The reserve is contiguous to Naltar Wildlife Sanctuary (27 ,206ha). 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 2,333m to 4,848m. 

Physical Features Pakora Nullah is very narrow at its mouth, which is flanked by steep slopes. 
Higher up it opens out, giving way to gentle slopes. Schist, quartzite and limestone are present 
in sedimentary, meta-sedimentary and igneous rocks (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Conditions are dry temperate. Annual precipitation ranges from 127mm to 254mm, 
most of which is in the form of snow. Winters are severe and summers cool (Rasul, 1985). 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include Juniperus, Fraxinus, Olea and Rosa. Artemisia, Stipa 
and other grasses are present (Rasul, 1985). 

Fauna Large mammals include ibex Capra ibex, snow leopard Panthera uncia (E), v/o\iCanis 
lupus (V) and fox Vulpes vulpes. Larger birds include chukai Alectoris chukar, snow partridge 
Lerwa lerwa, snowcock Tetraogallus sp. and various raptors and vultures (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value The reserve is part of a protected areas complex which is important for 
a variety of threatened mammal species. 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection. Local inhabitants enjoy 
concessions to extract firewood and timber and graze livestock. The reserve is completely closed 
for hunting. No management plan exists. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower and poaching. 
Staff One game watcher (1985) 
Budget Rs 10,000 p.a. (1985) 
Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 

RASOOL BARRAGE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated on the Jhelum River, 30km downstream firom Jhelum and 
52km west-north-west of Gujrat. The reservoir abuts the Salt Range to the north-west and 
cultivated plains to the south-east. SIMS'N, 73°33'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1974. It was re-notified 
in September 1984. 

Area l,138ha 

Land Tenure The reservoir is state owned (Provincial Government of the Punjab). The hills 
to the north-west are state-owned, and agricultural land to the south-east is privately owned. 

Altitude 190m 

Physical Features Comprises a water storage reservoir with associated marshes and extensive 
sand banks, created by the damming of the Jhelum River for irrigation purposes. Shallow 
lagoons are maintained by two embankments, which hold back the water as the level of the main 
channel falls. The water level fluctuates by about 2m, its maximum depth is 6.5m. The pH 
value varies between 6.8 and 7.2. 

Climate Conditions arc subtropical monsoonal, with hot summers and cool winters. Annual 
rainfall varies firom 200mm to 500mm. Mean minimum temperature in January is 5.5°C, and 
mean maximum in June 40°C. 

Vegetation Aquatic vegetation includes Carexfedia, Hydrilla verticillata, Nelumbo nucifera, 
Nymphaea lotus, Phragmites karka, Potamogeton crispus, P.pectinatus, Typha angustata. 



166 



Pakistan 



Vallisneria spiralis and Zannichellia palustris. The hills of the Salt Range to the north-west 
support subtropical semi-evergreen forest dominated by Oleaferruginea, Acacia modesta and 
Dodonea viscosa. The natural vegetation of the plains to the south-east is tropical thorn forest 
with species such as Acacia nilotica, Capparis decidua, Prosopis cineraria, Tamarix aphylla, 
Zizyphus mauritiana, Z. nummularia, Calotropis procera, Eleusine compressa, Erianthus sp., 
Panicum antidotale and Saccharum spp. Dalbergia sissoo and Acacia nilotica have been 
extensively planted alongside roads and agricultural land. 

Fauna Mid-January waterfowl censuses in 1987 and 1988 produced totals of 52,400 and 
43,000, respectively, of which the most numerous species were: wigeon Anas penelope (nearly 
1,000), teal A. crecca (12,375), pintail Anas acuta (15,050), pochard Aythyaferina (8,480), and 
coot Fulica atra (18,000). Further details of the waterfowl are given by Scott (1989). 

Mammals known to occur in the area include wild boar Sus scrofa, jackal Canis aureus and 
jungle cat Felis chaus. Hog deer Axis porcinus is believed to have been extirpated from the 
region. 

The rich fish fauna includes Notopterus notopterus, Labeo rohita, L. gonius, L. microphthalmus, 
Barilius vagra, B. chilwa, Cirrhinus mrigala. Tor tor, Puntius ticto, Catla catla, Channa 
marulius, Cyprinus carpio, Salmofaria, Eutropiichthys vacha, Mystus bleekeri, M. seenghala, 
Macrognathus aculeatus, Mastacembelus pancalus, Bagarius bagarius, Sisor rabdophorus, 
Gagata cenia and Sicamugil cascasia. Other aquatic fauna includes Hirudinaria sp., Palaemon 
dayanus, P. lammarrei, Rana tigrina, Kachuga smithi and Lissemys punctata. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Fishing is permitted under licence, and reeds and rushes are 
harvested for local cottage industries. Adjacent areas are used for cattle grazing, forestry and 
agriculture. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Mid-winter waterfowl counts have been carried out 
regularly since 1974. 

Conservation Value The shallow lagoons provide excellent wintering habitat for large 
numbers of waterfowl, mainly Anatidae. The reservoir is important for flood control and as a 
source of water for irrigation. It supports an important fishery, and has considerable potential 
for scientific research and education. 

Conservation Management The reservoir is under the control of the Irrigation Department. 
Since the re-notification of the sanctuary in 1984, the level of protection has improved. Stringent 
measures are now being taken to manage the area. 

Management Constraints Fishing activities cause some disturbance to waterfowl. There are 
occasional incidences of illegal hunting. 

Staff No information 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



SATPARA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Baltistan District, 3km from the town of Skardu. Approxi- 
mately 35° 12'N, 75°07E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary on 22 November 1975. 

Area 31,093ha 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 2,691m to 4,242m. 

Physical Features The site consists of the catchment area of Satpara Nullah and lake, and 
borders on the Deosai Plains. The terrain is rugged with scree slopes. Sedimentary and 
meta-sedimentary rocks with schist and quartzite, as well as various types of igneous rocks, are 
found in the area. Stream deposits of alluvium and gravel occur in valley bottoms (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Conditions are dry temperate. Annual precipitation is 76- 102mm, most of which falls 
as snow in December and January. Winters are dry and severe, while summers are mild 
(Rasul, 1985). 

Vegetation Comprises stunted juniper Juniperus, birch Betula and Rosa. (Rasul, 1985). 

Fauna Large mammals include ibex Capra ibex, musk deer Moschus chrysogaster (V) and 
urial Ovis vignei. Larger birds include chukar Alectoris chukar, snowcock Tetraogallus sp., and 
a variety of raptors and vultures. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 



168 



Pakistan 



Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value The site was originally proposed as part of a much larger national park, 
on account of its spectacular scenery and large mammal populations (Mountfort and Poore, 
1968). 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection. Local people enjoy conces- 
sions to collect fallen dead wood for fuel and graze livestock. No management plan exists for 
the area (Rasul, 1985). 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower. 

Staff One game watcher under the control of a Forest Range Officer (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,000 p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses Forest Range Officer, Wildlife Headquarters, Skardu 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 

Division, Northem Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 
Mountfort, G. and Poore, D. (1968). Report on the Second World Wildlife Fund Expedition to 

Pakistan. World Wildlife Fund, Merges, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 25 pp. 

Date September 1988 



SHER QILLAH GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Ghizer Forest Division about 48km from the town of Gilgit. 
Approximately 36°24'N, 73°53'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve on 22 November 1975. 

Area 16,842ha. The reserve is contiguous to Nalter Wildlife Sanctuary (27,206ha). 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northem Areas) 

Altitude Ranges from 1,983m to 5,818m. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Physical Features The terrain is rugged and mountainous. Sedimentary, meta-sedimentary 
and a sequence of quartzite, slate and limestone rocks are present, all with intrusions of 
granodiorite and horn-blended granite of Tertiary age (Rasul, 1985). 

Climate Conditions are dry temperate. Annual precipitation varies from 254mm to 381mm, 
most of which falls as snow during the severe winter. 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include kail, Picea, Juniperus, Betula, Salix, Fraxinus and Olea. 
Herbs include Haloxylon, Artemisia and Stipa (Rasul, 1985). 

Fauna Large mammals include markhor Copra falconeri (V), ibex C. ibex, snow leopard 
Panthera uncia (E), brown bear Ursus arctos, lynx Felis lynx and fox Vulpes vulpes. Larger 
birds include chukar A/ecfom chukar, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa, snowcock Tetraogallus sp. 
and a variety of raptors and vultures (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value The reserve falls within a protected areas complex which is important 
for a variety of threatened mammal species. 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded complete protection and the area is closed to 
hunting. Local people enjoy concessions to collect firewood and timber for domestic use and 
for livestock grazing. No management plan exists at present. 

Management Constraints Include shortage of manpower and poaching. 

Staff One game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,000 p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 



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TANDA DAM 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies east of Barh Village, 7km west of Kohat. The wedand is bounded 
by the cultivated areas of Shahpur to the south and Bai to the west. 33°35'N, 7r22'E 

Date and History of Establishment Designated as a Wedand of International Importance at 
the time of Pakistan's ratification of the Ramsar Convention on 23 July 1976. 

Area 405ha. According to Scott (1989) the area of the dam is 644ha. 

Land Tenure State (Government of North- West Frontier Province) 

Altitude 528m 

Physical Features Tanda is a small freshwater reservoir which lies in a shallow valley 
surrounded by hills rising to 700m. The reservoir is fed by the Kohat Toi and local run-off. Mud 
banks are exposed at low water levels. Mean depth is about 30.5m, the water level fluctuating 
according to local rainfall and flooding of the Kohat Toi. The pH value is 6.5. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical, with an annual rainfall of 250-760mm (average 
300mm). Temperatures range from 0°C to 20°C in winter, and from 24°C to 45°C in summer. 

Vegetation There is very litUe submerged vegetation and there are no large areas of marsh 
vegetation. Aquatic vegetation consists of Cyperus sp.. Phyla nodiflora. Polygonum plebejum, 
P. glabrum, Pulicaria crispa and Typha angustata. The natural vegetation of the region is 
tropical thorn forest intergrading with dry subtropical broad-leaved forest. Dominant species 
include Acacia modesta, Dodonea viscosa, Adhatoda vasica, Withania coagulans, Sageretia 
theezans, Rhazya stricta, Zizyphus nummularia and Z. mauritiana. Parkinsonia aculeata, 
Prosopis glandulosa and Tamarix dioica have become naturalised in the area. Much of the 
natural vegetation around the reservoir has been cleared for agriculture. 

Fauna The reservoir is a wintering area for small numbers of migratory waterfowl, notably 
black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis, great crested grebe P. cristatus, great egret Egretta 
alba, grey heron Ardea cinerea, shelduck Tadorna ferruginea, teal Anas crecca (up to 180), 
mallard A . platyrhynchos (up to 780), pintail A . acuta, pochard Aythyaferina (up to 1 80), tufted 
duck A.fuligula and black- winged stilt Himantopus himantopus. Other birds recorded in the 
area include black partridge Francolinus francolinus, Indian grey francolin F. pondicerianus 
and white-breasted kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis. 

Mammals include jackal Canis aureus, wolf C. lupus (V), fox Vulpes bengalensis and black- 
naped hare Lepus nigricollis. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Fishes include Catla catla, Cirrhiniis mrigala, Channa marulius, Cyprinion sp., Cyprinus 
carpio, Labeo rohita, Salmofaria, Tilapia mossambica and Tor tor. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Activities include fishing, recreation and harvesting of reeds 
(Typha) for a small cottage industry. Livestock graze the marshes, and the surrounding area is 
cultivated. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities Mid-winter waterfowl counts were carried out by the 
Pakistan Forest Institute from 1978 to 1981, and have been undertaken annually since then by 
the Zoological Survey Department. Regular censuses need to be carried out during the migration 
seasons because the wetland may be more important as a staging than a wintering area for 
waterfowl. 

Conservation Value Tanda Dam is an important wintering and staging area for waterfowl. 
The reservoir provides a source of water for irrigation, and serves a valuable function in flood 
control. It supports a small fishery, and provides opportunities for outdoor recreation. 

Conservation Management Administration and management of the wetiand is the responsi- 
bility of the provincial Wildlife Department. A four-year project for the afforestation of the 
water catchment area was initiated in 1984, and a reserved forest area of 162ha has been 
established in the adjacent hills. The area has been proposed as a wildlife sanctuary. The 
Fisheries Department has established a fish hatchery at the reservoir. Despite stocking, fish 
production is low because of the paucity of aquatic vegetation. 

Management Constraints Fishermen are a constant source of disturbance to the waterfowl, 
and disturbance from recreational activities could become a problem in the future. Livestock 
grazing and the cutting of reeds are excessive. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



172 



Pakistan 



TANGIR GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.38.12 (Himalayan Highlands) 

Geographical Location Lies in Diamer District on the boundary with Swat, some 1 13km and 
274kni from the towns of Chilas and Gilgit, respectively. It is accessible only by foot. 
Approximately 35 °36'N, 73° 24'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve on 22 November 1975. 

Area 14,25 Iha 

Land Tenure State (Administration of Northern Areas). Some land is privately owned. 

Altitude Ranges from 1,5 15m to 4,545m. 

Physical Features Terrain is mostly mountainous with rugged, steep slopes. Rocks are 
igneous, sedimentary and meta-sedimentary, with schist, quartzite and limestone deposits. 

Climate Annual rainfall ranges from 254mm to 381mm. Snow falls during the severe winter 
months of November and December, and light showers are characteristic of the summer 
monsoon season. Summers are mild (Rasul, 1985). 

Vegetation Trees and shrubs include Olea, Quercus, Pistacia, Lonicera, Salix, Betula, Junipe- 
rus, Pinus gerardiana. Deodar andRosa. Ground flora comprises Ferula, Artemisia, Stipa and 
other herbs. 

Fauna Large mammals include markhor Capra falconeri (V), snow leopard Panthera uncia 
(E), Himalayan black heai Selenarctos thibetanus, fox Vulpes vulpes, wolf Canis lupus (V) and 
lynx Felis lynx. Of the avifauna, there are a variety of pheasants, including chukar Alectoris 
chukar, snow partridge Lerwa lerwa, snowcock Tetraogallus sp. and monal pheasant Lopho- 
phorus impejanus (Rasul, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value The reserve supports a variety of threatened mammal species. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Conservation Management Wildlife is afforded full protection. Hunting is banned. Local 
inhabitants enjoy concessions to graze livestock, cut grass and collect firewood and timber for 
domestic use. There is no management plan (Rasul, 1985). 

Management Constraints Include shortage of staff and poaching. 

Staff One game watcher (1985) 

Budget Rs 10,000 p.a. (1985) 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Rasul, G. (1985). National parks and equivalent reserves in northern areas of Pakistan. Wildlife 
Division, Northern Areas, Forest Department, Gilgit. 36 pp. 

Date September 1988 



TAUNSA BARRAGE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.15.07 (Thar Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies behind a barrage on the Indus River near the town of Taunsa, 
20km nortii-west of Kot Adu, Muzaffargarh District 30''42'N, 70°50'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1972 and re-notified in 
April 1983. 

Area 6,567ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of the Punjab) 

Altitude 139m 

Physical Features Taunsa Barrage was constructed for irrigation purposes. Five embankments 
project into the reservoir and retain shallow lagoons as the water level in the main river channel 
recedes. The depth of water in the main channel varies from 5.0m to 11. 5m, depending on flood 
levels; in die seepage lagoons it varies from 0.2m to 5.0m. The pH value is 6.5-7.0. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical, widi an annual rainfall of 2(X)-450mm. Mean 
minimum temperature in January is 4.5-5.5°C, and mean maximum in June is 42.0-45.0'C. 

Vegetation The aquatic vegetation in the seepage lagoons includes Carex fedia, Hydrilla 
verticillata, Nelumbium speciosum, Nymphaea lotus, Phragmites karka, Potamogeton crispus. 



174 



Pakistan 



P.pectinatus, Ranunculus aquatilis, Saccharum spontaneum, Typha angustata, Vallisneria 
spiralis and Zannichellia palustris. Much of the land adjacent to the reservoir is cultivated, 
mainly for cotton, sugar cane, wheat and fodder crops. Riverine forest along the Indus is 
dominated by Dalbergia sissoo and Populus euphratica, in association with Tamarix dioica. 
Other natural vegetation includes Acacia nilotica, Prosopis cineraria, Pisum arvense, Salsola 
barysoma, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine compressa and Panicum antidotale. 

Fauna Up to 430 bar-headed goose Anser indicus were recorded in the early 1970s, but 
numbers have shown a serious decline in recent years. Lesser whistling duck Dendrocygna 
javanica is a common breeding summer visitor. The rare marbled teal Marmaronetta angusti- 
rostris is a regular passage migrant and winter visitor in small numbers. Over 24,000 waterfowl 
were present in mid-January 1987, the most numerous species including: Eurasian wigeon Anas 
penelope (2,780), common teal A. crecca (4,880), northern pintail A. acuta (1,660), common 
pochard Aythya ferina (4,690), common coot Fulica atra (7,510). Further details of the 
waterfowl are given in Scott (1989). 

Mammals include small numbers of Indus dolphin Platanista indi (E), smooth-coated oiXsi Lutra 
perspicillata and hog deer Axis porcinus. Other mammals include jackal Canis aureus, jungle 
cat Felis chaus, wild boar Sus scrofa and black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis. Reptiles include 
gharial Gavialis gangeticus (E), two adults having been reported at the barrage in about 1980. 

Fish species known to inhabit the river and lagoons include Ambassis noma, A. ranga, Bagarius 
bagarius, Barilius vagra, Catla catla, Channa marulius, C.punctatus, Cirrhinus mrigala, 
C. reba, Eutropiichthys vacha, Heteropneustes fossilis, Labeo calbasu, L. microphthalmus, 
L. rohita, Mastacembelus armatus, M. pancalus, Mystus aor, M. seenghala, Nandus nandus, 
Notopterus chitale, N. notopterus, Puntius sophore, P. ticto, Rita rita and Wallago attu. Other 
aquatic fauna includes Hirudinaria sp., Rana tigrina, Kachuga smithi, Hardella thurgi, Geocle- 
mys hamiltonii, Trionyx gangeticus, Lissemys punctata and Natrix piscator. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Land exposed at low water levels is leased to local farmers for 
cultivation during the dry season. The reservoir is used for fishing and recreation, and its reeds 
are harvested. Surrounding land is cultivated, grazed and used for forestry. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientiflc Research and Facilities Mid-winter waterfowl censuses have been carried out 
regularly since 1973. The Punjab Fisheries Department has conducted research on the fishery 
resources, and a joint project on the Indus dolphin is being developed by the Punjab Wildlife 
Department and the Zoological Survey Department. A study of migrant cranes is due to 
commence shortly. 

Conservation Value The wedand is a very important wintering area for waterfowl, notably 
Anatidae, a breeding area for several species, particularly lesser whistling duck, and a staging 
area for cranes (Grus grus and Anthropoides virgo) and shorebirds. It is also the most important 
wintering area in Pakistan for bar-headed goose and an important refuge for Indus dolphin. The 
reservoir supplies water for irrigation, and supports a fishery worth more than one million rupees 



175 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

per year. It also provides excellent opportunities for scientific research and conservation 
education. 

Conservation Management No management plan exists. The Punjab Wildlife Department 
plans to erect nest-boxes for lesser whistling duck. 

Management Constraints The main threat to the wetland at present is the occasional burning 
of vegetation in the seepage lagoons. Fishing activities and illegal hunting by local people cause 
some disturbance, and there have been reports of waterfowl drowning in fishing nets. There is 
a proposal to construct a new flood barrage further upstream on the Indus, and this could result 
in reduced water levels at Taunsa Barrage. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



THANADARWALA GAME RESERVE 



lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 4.08.04 (Indus-Ganges Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies at the junction of Gambilla and Kurram rivers, 15km east of 
Lakki in Bannu District. 32'37'N, 7r05'E. 

Date and History of Establishment Thanadarwala was declared a game reserve in 1976, and 
subsequently designated a Wetland of International Importance at the time of Pakistan's 
ratification of the Ramsar Convention on 23 July 1976. 

Area 4,047ha 

Land Tenure The wetland is under communal ownership; surrounding areas are owned by 
local villagers. 

Altitude 303m 

Physical Features Thanadarwala comprises a shallow, fresh to brackish seepage lagoon and 
an extensive marshy area. The depth of water fluctuates from 0.1m to 1.5m according to the 



176 



Pakistan 



supply of flood water from the two rivers, their levels rising in March and again in July- 
September. The pH value is 9.0. Surrounding areas are mostly saline. 

Climate Conditions are dry subtropical, with a mean annual rainfall of 250mm. Temperatures 
range from 4°C to 18°C in winter and from 25°C to 47°C in summer. 

Vegetation The marsh vegetation includes Tamarix dioica, Typha angustata, Phragmites 
karka, Cyperus laevigatas, Kochia indica, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperata cylindrica and 
species of Chara, Launaea, Phoenix, Potamogeton, Ranunculus and Saccharum. Much of the 
surrounding area is cultivated for wheat and other crops. The natural vegetation of the region 
is tropical thorn forest, with dominant species including Prosopis cineraria, Tamarix aphylla, 
Zizyphus nummularia, Calligonumpolygonoides, Rhazya stricta, Aeruajavanica, Chenopodium 
album. Cassia obovata, Heliotropium sp., Tribulus terrestris, Asphodelus tenuifolius, Cenchrus 
ciliaris and Dactyloctaenium scindicum. 

Fauna The reserve is a wintering area for great egret Egretta alba and Anatidae, notably 
shelduck Tadornaferruginea, teal A/ww crecca, mallard A. platyrhynchos, shoveler ^4. clypeaia, 
pochard Aythyaferina and ferruginous duck A. nyroca. Waterfowl recorded during the mid- 
January censuses in 1987 and 1988 included up to 600 shorebirds of eight species and small 
numbers of three species of Ardeidae, white stork Ciconia ciconia, three species of Anatidae 
and purple swamphen Porphyria porphyria. Other fauna includes agamid Uromastix sp. and 
common monitor Varanus bengalensis. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Activities include cutting of Typha and Saccharum for a local 
cottage industry, and hunting (shooting and trapping) of waterfowl. Surrounding areas are 
cultivated and grazed by livestock. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Mid-winter waterfowl counts were carried out by the 
Pakistan Forest Institute in 1979-1981, and have been undertaken annually since then by the 
Zoological Survey Department. 

Conservation Value Thanadarwala is important for waterfowl and under proper management 
could become important for fish conservation. 

Conservation Management Information about the management of the property is not avail- 
able. Proposals have been made for the reclamation of saline soils for agriculture, and for the 
afforestation of saline and water- logged areas. There are also plans for a watershed management 
project to control erosion and reduce siltation. 

Management Constraints Include hunting, cutting of aquatic vegetation and excessive 
grazing by domestic livestock (goats, sheep, cattle and camels). Salinity levels are increasing, 
and there is a possibiUty that the wetland will be drained if pubUc pressure for the reclamation 
of land continues to increase. 

Staff No information 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date August 1990 



ZANGI NAWAR GAME RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category Unassigned 

Biogeographical Province 2.20.08 (Anatolian-Iranian Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies 48km west-south-west of Nushki in Chaghi District, northern 
central Baluchistan Province. 29°27'N, 65'47'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a game reserve in 1982. 

Area l,060ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Baluchistan) 

Altitude 975m 

Physical Features Zangi Nawar is a brackish wedand which lies in a desolate region of stony 
peneplain alternating with low ridges of sedimentary rocks. The lake comprises a chain of 
lagoons extending some 12.8km along an east-west axis. It is surrounded on all sides by high, 
windblown sand dunes and fed by the Bohr Lora, which drains the hills to the north-east. The 
surface area and depth of the lake fluctuate widely according to rainfall. After heavy rains the 
lake covers some 2,070ha at a mean depth of 1.07m, while in the summer months it shrinks to 
some 770ha at a mean depth of 0.9m. The water is saline, with a pH of 9.2 and dissolved solids 
of mostiy bicarbonates (Roberts, 1984, 1985). 

Climate Conditions are arid subtropical, with a mean annual rainfall of 76mm at Nushki. There 
is no monsoon influence nor any season of reliable rainfall but showers usually occur in winter 
and spring. Mean temperatures in the hottest months of June and July are around 39.6'C, 
reaching a maximum of 42°C, and in January and February are 3.3°C, falling at night to as low 
as -4*C (Roberts, 1984, 1985). 

Vegetation The shores are fringed with a deciduous tamarisk Tamarix articulata, while die 
numerous lagoons and islets are covered by reedbeds of Phragmites karka, die dominant 
emergent vegetation in the lake, and stands of reedmace Typha angustifolia. The lake is 
eutrophic; its bottom is carpeted with green algae and the aquatic ■weeARuppia maritima, along 



178 



Pakistan 



with smaller patches of Potamogeton pectinatus, forms a mat on the surface. Sand dunes 
surrounding the lake support thinly scattered clumps of the xerophytic grass Eleusine compressa 
and stunted bushes of the woody Calligonum polygonoides (Roberts, 1984, 1985). 

Fauna Zangi Nawar is the only known wetland in the Indian sub-continent visited by whooper 
swan Cygnus cygnus in recent decades. It is the breeding home of probably the major population 
of marbled teal Marmaronetta angustirostris (over 250 in 1984) within the region, including 
adjacent Afghanistan and Iran, and is the only known breeding locality for white-tailed lapwing 
Vanellus leucurus (25). Large numbers of little grebe Tachybaptus mficollis (4,(XX)), coot 
Fulica atra (2,(XX)) and moorhen Gallinula chloropus (4,5(X)) also breed at the lake. The number 
of birds occurring on the lake during autumn and spring passage is more than double the 
mid-winter estimate of 22,(X)0 duck and 66,(XX) coot. Other notable species recorded include: 
peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus (V), marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus (over 50) and white- 
eyed pochard Aythya nyroca (over 30). Roberts (1984, 1985) lists both visiting and breeding 
species recorded during his 1984 visit. 

Mammals present in the vicinity of the lake include: jackal Cams aureus, brush-footed jerboas 
Jaculus blandfordi and desert pipistrelle Pipistrellus kuhli. Reptiles include Central Asian 
monitOT Vararuis griseus caspiusQf), yellow-speckled toad agama Phrynocephalus luteoguttatus(V), 
Turkestan plate-tailed gecko Teratoscincus scincus, reticulate desert lacerta Eremias acuti- 
rostris and leaf-nosed viper Eristicophis macmahoni (Roberts, 1984, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The immediate area surrounding the lake is uninhabited except for 
a few Afghan refugee camps along the western shore. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities None 

Scientific Research and Facilities Avifaunal surveys have been carried out by Christison 
(1941) and Roberts (1984, 1985). 

Conservation Value Zangi Nawar is a wildfowl refuge of international importance. It is a 
vital staging area for migrant waterfowl, as well as an important breeding area for a host of 
unusual Palaearctic birds and an impressive number of Palaearctic wintering visitors, due to its 
rich and diverse planktonic and micro-crustacean faima and the absence of alternative wetlands 
within a radius of at least 3(X)km (Roberts, 1984, 1985). It has been recommended that the 
reserve be designated a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention 
(Scott, 1989). 

Conservation Management A management plan has yet to be prepared. Protection is reported 
to be ineffective. Staff are few and poorly equipped, lacking transport facilities and equipment. 
Plans are being developed to provide a permanent water supply for the lake to maintain the 
wetland habitat (Scott, 1989). 

Management Constraints The wetland can dry up almost completely during periods of 
prolonged drought, as in January 1985 when it shrunk from about l,0(X)ha to just over 5 ha. At 
such times, birds become concentrated and are particularly vulnerable to poaching (Ahmad, 
1986). Roberts (1984, 1985) found ample evidence of illegal shooting on islets in the lake, while 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

in February 1985 Ahmad (1985) observed that duck were virtually absent from the lake due to 
high hunting pressure. Settlements have been established on the western borders of the lake, 
and water from the stream feeding the lake is now being used for domestic consumption and for 
irrigation (Scott, 1989). 

Staff Four game watchers (1984) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Chief Conservator of Forests, Department of Forestry, Nushki, Chaghi 
District 

References 

Ahmad, A. (1985). Recent tragedies with the waterfowl population on some of their wintering 

habitats in Pakistan. WWF-Paldstan Newsletter 5(2): 4-8. 
Christison, A.F.P. (1941). Notes on the birds of Chagai. Ibis 1941: 531-556. 
Roberts, T J. (1984). Zangi Nawar - portrait of an unique lake in the desert. World Wildlife Fund 

Pakistan Newsletter X'i-Y 9-14. 
Roberts, TJ. (1985). Zangi Nawar - portrait of a unique lake in the desert. Jounal of the Bombay 

Natural History Society 82: 540-547. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 

Date July 1986, updated August 1989 



ZIARAT JUNIPER WILDLIFE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 2.20.08 (Anatolian-Iranian Desert) 

Geographical Location Lies in the vicinity of Ziarat, Sibi District, some 90 km east-north-east 
of Quetta. Approximately 30°24'N, 67°44'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1971. Originally 
afforded some protection as reserved forest. 

Area 37,247ha 

Land Tenure State (Provincial Government of Baluchistan) 

Altitude Ranges from about 2,000m to 3,487m (Khalifat) 

Physical Features The tract is mountainous. In general, soils are shallow and poor, derived 
from Siwalik conglomerates, sandstones and shales. They comprise calcareous clay-loams 
overlying mainly soft shale (Khan, 1977; Khan, 1980). 



180 



Pakistan 



Climate Conditions are of the dry Mediterranean type, with an annual rainfall of 250-350mm, 
depending on altitude. Mean maximum and minimum temperatures, respectively, are highest 
in July/August (c. 27°C) and lowest in January (c. I'C). Winds are predominantly northerly and 
average 132km per hour (Khan, 1977; Khan, 1980). 

Vegetation Mountain valleys and slopes at 2,200m support pure stands of Junipenis macro- 
poda (excelsa), with specimens up to 1 .5m in girth at the base and many known to be over 2,500 
years old (HafizuUah Khan, cited in Roberts, 1986). In the more sheltered ravines or on moister 
northern slopes, there is some admixture of Fraxinus xanthoxyloides and Pistacia cabulica, 
while the more conspicuous shrubs scattered among the junipers are almond Prunus eburnea, 
Berberis baluchistani, Lonicera hypoleuca, Rosa beggeriana, Buddleia crispa and Cotoneaster 
pruinosa (Stewart, 1982). A conspicuous feature of the landscape are the numerous spiny 
hassock-shaped plants, such as Astragalus spp., Onobrychis spp. and Acantholimon spp. Spring 
is mariced by a variety of bulbs colouring the landscape, with Ferula oopoda, foxtail lily 
Eremurus stenophylla. Iris spp.. Allium spp. and Tulipa spp. (Roberts, 1986). Details of the 
plant communities are given by Khan (1980). 

Fauna The area has no endemic vertebrate species but has acted as a corridor for southwards 
invasion of Sino-Himalayan species able to cope with the harsh dry climate. Himalayan black 
bear Selenarctos thibetanus and markhor Capra falconeri (V) both occur as distinctive sub- 
species, as well as such birds as streaked laughing thrush Garrulax lineatus, Simla black tit 
Parus rufonuchalis and bar-tailed tree creeper Certhia himalayana. Little known Central Asian 
species include Pallas 's catFelismanul, of which an erythristic form is frequent, marbled polecat 
Vormela peregusna and Afghan pika Ochotona rufescens. There are many representatives of 
the western Palaearctic fauna with restricted distributions, including forest dormouse Dryomys 
nitedula, migratory hamster Cricetulus migratorius and breeding birds such as black redstart 
Phoenicurus ochruros and red-billed chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. Other breeding birds 
include white-winged grosbeak Mycerobas carnipes, olivaceous leaf warbler Phylloscopus 
griseolus, plain leaf warbler P. neglectus and white-cheeked tit Aegithalos leucogenys. Reptiles 
include Persian homed viper Pseudocerastes persicus and Caucasian rock agama lizard Aegi- 
thalos Caucasia (Roberts, 1986). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Studies of the juniper forests include those of Repp and 
Khan (1960), Khattak (1963), Ali (1966) and Repp and Beg (1966). Other research includes 
surveys of the vegetation of Khalifat in 1977 to identify good markhor habitat (Khan, 1980), 
and of a 27-year old exclosure at Bastargi (Khan, 1977). 

Conservation Value The juniper forests of north central Baluchistan are identified as one of 
three critical ecosystems of international importance in Pakistan (Roberts, 1986). They are 
believed to have been the most extensive in the world (A.S. Swathi, cited in Roberts, 1986) and, 
according to the Baluchistan Gazetteer of 1908, covered 29,267ha of reserved forests at the 
beginning of this century. These forests support an unique flora and fauna, having a combination 
of Sino-Himalayan elements as well as Central Asian and Irano-Turanian affinities. The area 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



offers intriguing insights into corridors of range extension for the zoogeographer and adaptation 
to extreme climatic conditions for the ecologist (Roberts, 1986). 

Conservation Management There is no management plan. 

Management Constraints The juniper forest is severely depleted, with very litde natural 
regeneration occurring due to heavy grazing pressure from sheep and goats. Cutting of trees for 
fuelwood by the local people is not restricted but there is no large-scale commercial exploitation 
of juniper timber (Roberts, 1986). In an attempt to control infestation of parts of the juniper 
forest by dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium oxycedri, the government has in recent years ordered 
the felling of over 5,(XX) juniper trees (HafizuUah Khan, cited in Roberts, 1986). 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

All, Zulfiqar (1966). A note on silvicultural characteristics of/, macropoda Boiss. Proceedings 

of the 2nd Silvicultural Conference, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar. 197-202. 
Khan, M. Hakim (1980). Plant communities of the Jumper forests in Khalifat, Ziarat (Baluchistan). 

Pakistan Journal of Forestry 'iO: 167-175. 
Khan, S. Maqsood (1977). Evaluation of twenty seven year Bastargi exclosure in Ziarat juniper 

forests in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 27: 190-197. 
Khattak, G.M. (1963). Working plan foiJuniperus forest of Quetta Civil Division from 1961-1962 

to 1975-1976. Government Printing Press, West Pakistan, Lahore. 1 15 pp. 
Repp, G.L and Beg, A.R. (1966). PreUminary ecological observations in the juniper forests of 

Ziarat, Baluchistan. Proceedings of the 2nd Pakistan Silvicultural Conference, Pakistan Forest 

Institute, Peshawar: 245-253. 
Repp, G.I. and Khan, A.A. (1960). Studies on the vegetation and ecological pathology in the Ziarat 

juniper forests. Unesco Technical Report No. 9. 
Roberts, TJ. (1986). Critical ecosystems in Pakistan. Report to World Resources Institute, 

Washington D.C. Unpublished. 10 pp. 

Date March 1988 



182 



SRI LANKA 

Area 65,610 sq.km 

Population 16.9 million (1989) Natural Increase 1.6% per annum 

GNP US$ 400 per capita (1987) 

Policy and Legislation The 1978 Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri 
Lanka provides the foundation for the government's policies on conserving the environment. 
According to Chapter 6 Article 27(14) of the Constitution, "The State shall protect, preserve a^id 
improve the environment for the benefit of the community", and under Article 28F it is 
recognised that: "The exercise and enjoyment of rights and freedom is inseparable from the 
performance of duties and obligations and accordingly, it is the duty of every person in Sri Lanka 
to protect nature and conserve its riches." 

The National Environment Act, 1980, provides a legal and institutional framework for 
coordinating environmental agencies and policies under the Central Environmental Authority. 
A serious drawback of the Act, however, is the lack of legal provisions to ensure compliance 
with environmental requirements. The Central Environmental Authority is also responsible for 
developing guidelines for environmental impact assessments, with appraisal, approval, and 
monitoring of development projects delegated to 15 Project Approving Agencies under various 
ministries. Environmental impact assessments were made mandatory for all development 
projects in 1984, but only the Coast Conservation Department has made provisions to enforce 
compliance with such assessments (Jansen, 1989). A synopsis of a national conservation 
strategy for Sri Lanka has recendy been prepared by a task force under the Central Environmental 
Authority (CEA, 1988). It includes directions for the establishment of a comprehensive system 
of protected areas and, in the forestry sector, for the identification of forests for protection by 
statute. 

Conservation of nature and culture are ancient traditions in Sri Lanka. King Pandukabaya 
marked out sanctuaries for aborigines, who always enjoyed royal protection, in the 4th century 
BC. One of the world's first wildlife sanctuaries was established in the 3rd century BC by King 
Devanampiyatissa in whose reign Buddhism was introduced to the country. Succeeding kings 
continued to uphold the Buddhist precept of forbidding the killing of any form of life, as is 
recorded on rock inscriptions throughout the country. In the 12th century AD, King Kirti- 
Nissanka-Mala proclaimed that no animals should be killed within a radius of seven gav 
(35.7km) from the city of Anuradhapura. Large tracts of forest, such as Udawattekele and 
Sinharaja, were protected as reserves by Sri Lankan rulers, sometimes serving as refuges for 
themselves, and privileged hunting was enjoyed from the earliest times in preserves specifically 
created for such purposes. It was not until 1885, however, with the enactment of the Forest 
Ordinance (No. 10), that legal provision was made to protect wildlife through the establishment 
of sanctuaries, first Yala (Block II of Ruhuna National Park plus the strict natural reserve) in 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



1900 and then Wilpattu in 1905 (Hoffmann, 1969; Crusz, 1973; Gour-Tanguay, 1977; Padmalal, 
1989). 

Game sanctuaries were abolished with the passing of the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance 
(No. 2) in 1937. This Ordinance, last amended in 1970, makes provision for national reserves, 
embodying only crown land, and sanctuaries, comprising both crown and private land. Full 
protection is afforded to wildlife in both reserves and sanctuaries, but in sanctuaries the habitat 
is totally protected on land belonging to the state while traditional human activities may continue 
to be practised on privately-owned land. Three categories of national reserve, viz strict natural 
reserve, national park and intermediate zone, were identified in the original legislation and a 
further two, viz natiu^e reserve and jungle corridor, were introduced in an amendment to the 
Ordinance in 1964. All national reserves enjoy total habitat protection, with entry by permit 
only. The highest level of ecosystem preservation is afforded to strict natural reserves, with 
entry permitted only for scientific research. National parks provide for visitor entry (by permit) 
exclusively for observing the flora and fauna. Nature reserves are similar to national parks except 
that human activities traditionally permitted on crown land are allowed to continue. Jungle 
corridors provide for the safe movement of wildlife, particularly migratory elephant, in areas 
where human activity is permitted. Intermediate zones were formerly envisaged as buffer zones, 
providing for controlled hunting, but this category has since been deleted from the latest revision 
of the Ordinance. Activities prohibited within strict natural reserves, national parks and 
sanctuaries include: hunting, killing or removing any wild animal; destroying the eggs or nests 
of birds and reptiles; and disturbing the wild animals or interfering with the breeding of any 
animal. Other activities prohibited in strict natural reserves and national parks are: felling or 
otherwise damaging any plant; breaking up land for cultivation, mining or any other purpose; 
kindling or carrying fire; and possessing or using any trap, explosive or poison to damage plant 
or animal life. National reserves and sanctuaries may be declared, altered or abolished by 
ministerial order. The Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance is administered by the Department 
of Wildlife Conservation. 

The need for a wildlife conservation policy has long been recognised (Hoffmann, 1973). A new 
National Policy for Wildlife Conservation was approved by the Cabinet in June 1990. Eleven 
specific policy items are identified, of which the following relate specifically to protected areas: 
to formulate a manifesto of varied objectives which would suit each area declared for protection; 
to reassess ways and means of enabling existing and proposed protected areas to meet their 
objectives; to identify and control sustainable uses of resources within protected areas that are 
compatible with their objectives; to permit sustained multiple use of resources within protected 
areas, and zone protected areas accordingly; and to effectively manage protected areas to 
maintain their resource potential at natiu^al levels. It is proposed that this policy should be 
incorporated into an effective Conservation Act, which should be sufficientiy flexible to permit 
a variety of conservation practices as advocated in the policy, but should provide strong punitive 
measures aginst those who wilfully destroy national wildlife reources through personal greed or 
prospects of commercial gain (DWC, n.d.). 

The national forest policy dates back to 1929, since when it has been modified in the 1970s and 
later in 1980 (Pushparajah, 1985). A salient feature of the present policy is "To maintain, 
conserve and create forests for the preservation and amelioration of the environment, soil and 
water resources and for the protection of the local fauna and flora when they are required for 
aesthetic, scientific, historical and socio-economic reasons." The Forest Ordinance No. 16, 
1907, as amended by Act No. 13 of 1966, makes provision for the establishment of reserved 



184 



Sri Lanka 

forests and village forests, and for the protection of forests and their products. The primary 
function of the Ordinance, however, has always been to provide for the controlled exploitation 
of timber. Both reserved and village forests may be declared, altered or abolished by ministerial 
order. The term reserved forest is interpreted as including plantations and chenas (cultivations 
established under slash-and-bum practices). Activities prohibited within reserved forests in- 
clude: trespass by persons or their cattle; felUng trees or collecting forest produce; poisoning 
water; quarrying stone and burning Ume or charcoal; making fires or fresh clearings; breaking 
up land for cultivation or any other purpose; constructing temporary or permanent buildings, 
sawpits, or roads; and pasturing cattle, hunting, shooting or fishing in contravention of any 
ministerial regulations. Any portion of a forest may be constituted a village forest for the benefit 
of a village community. Activities prohibited within vUlage forests include: poisoning of water, 
and injuring by fire or other means any tree listed in Schedule I of the Ordinance. Management 
of village forests, including pasturing of cattle, is subject to ministerial regulations. 

To overcome the inherent weaknesses in the Forest Ordinance, the National Heritage Wilderness 
Areas Act, No. 3 was passed in 1988. Any piece of state land having unique ecosystems, genetic 
resources or outstanding natural features (including the habitat of threatened species) may he 
declared a national heritage wilderness area by the minister, subject to the approval of the 
president and endorsement by parliament. Other provisions include the acquisition of land, the 
preparation of a management plan by the competent authority (Conservator of Forests) in respect 
of areas declared under the Act, and the over-riding of anything contradictory in the provisions 
of any other written law other than the Constitution. Entry to a national heritage wilderness area 
is by permit and restricted for purposes of observing the fauna and flora or conducting scientific 
research. Both the Forest Ordinance and National Heritage Wilderness Areas Act are adminis- 
tered by the Forest Department. 

Other legislation concerned with the conservation of natural resources is reviewed by Crusz 
(1973), Gour-Tanguay (1977), NPS (1985), Jansen (1989) and, in the case of marine resources, 
UNEP/IUCN (1988). Special attention has been given to coastal and marine areas under the 
Coast Conservation Act (No. 57), 1981, which provides for the protection of the coast from 
erosion or encroachment by the sea and includes the planning and management of development 
activity within the coastal zone, defined as the area between 300m landwards of the mean high 
water line and 2km seawards of the mean low water line (Wijewansa, 1985). Under this Act, 
which is administered by the Coast Conservation Department, sites can be designated as critical 
habitats for protection (non-development areas). 

In general, much of the legislation relating to natural resources has not kept abreast with the 
changing needs of society and is oriented towards the exploitation rather than sustainable use of 
such resources. Some laws have suffered from a lack of implementation for social, economic 
or political reasons, while others have remained fragmentary, with responsibilities spread among 
a multiplicity of agencies and institutions (Jansen, 1989). In the case of the Fauna and Flora 
Protection Ordinance, the lack of any criteria to differentiate between the various designations 
of protected area has resulted in inconsistent application of this system of classification. The 
national park designation, for example, has been used for some areas which are uninhabited and 
others, notably in the Mahaweli development area, which have a human population (Bere, 1959; 
Alwis, 1969; NPS, 1985). The Ordinance is being amended to provide inter alia for the creation 
of new categories of reserve, such as buffer zones, refuges, wetlands and marine reserves, and 
to enhance the present grossly inadequate penalties for infringements (Hoffmann, 1983; Jansen, 
1989). 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

International Activities At the international level, Sri Lanka has entered a number of 
obligations and cooperative agreements related to conservation. It is party to the Convention 
concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (World Heritage Conven- 
tion) which it accepted on 6 June 1980. One natural site, Sinharaja National Heritage Wilderness 
Area, has been inscribed to date and initiatives are underway to nominate several more natural 
sites. 

Sri Lanka became a contracting party to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance 
especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention) on 15 (October 1990, at which time 
Bundala Sanctuary was included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance established 
under the terms of the Convention. 

Sri Lanka participates in the Unesco Man and Biosphere Programme (Bharathie, 1979). To date 
47 national biosphere reserves have been declared by the Forest Department, of which Sinharaja 
and Hurulu are designated as part of the international biosphere reserve network. 

Sri Lanka is one of seven countries cooperating in the South Asian Cooperative Environmental 
Programme, which was launched in the 1980s to ameliorate the environment in the region, 
particularly regarding montane, mangrove, island and marine ecosystems, through legislation, 
education and training (Rau, 1984). 

Administration and Management Under the provisions of the Fauna and Flora Protection 
Ordinance, the Department of Wildlife Conservation is responsible for wildlife conservation 
and protected areas management. The Department was set up in 1949 as the Wildlife Conser- 
vation Department, prior to which all matters relating to wildlife fell within the remit of the 
Forest Department. The first warden (director) was appointed in December 1950, and the 
Department became fully functional as an independent unit in 1957 (Bere, 1959; Alwis, 1969). 
Originally under the Ministry of Lands and Land Development, and subsequentiy the Ministry 
of Tourism and Shipping (1970-1977) and Ministry of State (1960s and 1980s), the Department 
of Wildlife Conservation was transferred to the Ministry of Lands, Irrigation and Mahaweli 
Development in 1989. It is headed by a director, under whom are three deputy directors in 
charge of administration, technical, and veterinary and research divisions, respectively. Field 
staff are deployed mostiy in the national reserves and marginally outside them. The Department 
has recentiy taken on responsibility for the Mahaweli Environment Project, begun in 1982 as 
part of the Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme. The Mahaweli Environment 
Project has been concerned with the development and management of a system of protected 
areas in the Mahaweli Ganga and adjacent river basins. The Department is presentiy being 
re-structured in view of the urgent need to upgrade and develop its services. A five-year 
development plan has been prepared for submission to donor agencies for funding (Kotagama 
era/., 1990). 

The Forest Department, under the provisions of the Forest Ordinance, is inter alia responsible 
for the protection and management of natural and plantation forests, including any declared as 
biospere reserves. It is headed by a conservator of forests, supported by seven deputy conser- 
vators of forests, 13 assistant conservators of forests, anda number of foresters and forest rangers. 
The recent Forestry Master Plan, 1985-2020 (Jaakko Poyry International Oy, 1986) has received 
much criticism because of its bias towards the exploitation of timber and fuelwood, with little 
regard to the ecological, hydrological, social and aesthetic values of forests (Fernando and 
Samarasinghe, 1988; Jansen, 1989). In response to public agitation, the Plan was reviewed by 



186 



Sri Lanka 



lUCN and a conservation strategy for natural vegetation types is now due to be incorporated 
into the Plan. In the meantime, an immediate moratorium on further selective logging or 
conversion to other any form of land use has been recommended, until such time as natural 
forests are evaluated with regard to their conservation value in maintaining biological diversity 
and environmental stability (lUCN, 1989). 

Conservation of natural resources outside protected areas falls wiihin the mandate of a number 
of other agencies. The Coast Conservation Department, Ministry of Fisheries, is responsible 
for planning and managing activities within die coastal zone, including die conservation of 
marine and coastal resources. Similarly, the National Aquatic Resources and Research Agency, 
set up under the National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency Act (No. 54), 
1981, is concerned inter alia with the management and conservation of aquatic resources in the 
inland waters, 200-mile exclusive economic coastal zone and in the deep seas. The Natural 
Resources, Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka was set up to coordinate scientific activity 
within the country and to advise the President on matters pertaining to the application of science 
and technology. It has ten working committees, including one for natural resources, and also 
functions as the focal point for international activities in science and technology. The National 
MAB Committee, for example, is placed under this authority. The Central Environmental 
Authority, created in 1981, was intended to be at the apex of governmental agencies concerned 
with environmental matters. Included within its mandate has been the preparation of a national 
conservation strategy. To date it has served largely in an advisory capacity, its effectiveness 
having been limited by its inability to influence the actions of agencies outside its own Ministry 
of Lxx;al Government and Housing (Jansen, 1989). 

Non-governmental organisations have recentiy played an active role in mobilising public 
opinion and lobbying government on national conservation issues, often successfully as in the 
case of the Sinharaja rain forest or die national Forestry Master Plan. They have also direcUy 
supported various conservation programmes, complementing the work of government agencies. 
Most non-governmental organisations are registered with the Central Environmental Authority. 
Some of the more important ones are represented on various national committees, such as the 
Fauna and Flora Advisory Committee, and the Environmental Council of the Central Environ- 
ment Authority. 

By far the largest and oldest conservation non-governmental organisation is the Wildlife and 
Nature Protection Society. Originally established on 23 May 1894 to cater for sport-hunting 
interests, and later incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1968, the Society has become increas- 
ingly concerned with the conservation of the island's biological resources through negotiation 
and cooperation with the state. The Society has about 4,000 members. It produces a biannual 
wildlife journal, Loris. More recentiy, in 1980, March for Conservation was set up to focus 
attention, through education, training and research, on the rapid degradation of the island's 
natural resources. Its particular strength lies in the university basis of its 300 members, providing 
it with a strong research capability. Members have undertaken research in the Sinharaja rain 
forest, national parks, coastal zones and the Mahaweli development area. The organisation 
publishes scientific literature on natural resource issues, and has been instrumental in forming 
rural-based conservation societies, particularly in the vicinity of the Sinharaja rain forest. The 
Nation Builders Association is a rural-based organisation, composed largely of village youth 
and involved in forestry activities mainly in Kandy District. The Sri Lanka Environment 
Foundation provides the legal teeth to the non-governmental environmental movement. It 
comprises a group of young lawyers with a mandate to protect the country's natural resources 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

from damaging activities through legal action. Other non-govemmental organisations include 
the Sri Lanka Assocation for the Advancement of Science, which provides a forum for scientists 
of all disciplines to promote and advance the sciences, and the Ceylon Bird Club, which has 
maintained bird records for nearly 50 years and has organised mid-winter waterfowl counts since 
1983. Limited fmancial resources and the lack of time of volunteer members to devote to the 
conservation effort is a serious constraint. A step in the right direction was taken in 1985 when 
a number of these voluntary groups joined together under the umbrella of the Sri Lanka 
Environment Congress in order to pool their resources to generate a more powerful and united 
front to the environment movement Further details of these and other voluntary organisations 
are given elsewhere (Hoffmann, 1969; Wijewansa, 1985; Jansen, 1989). 

There are a number of constraints to the effective protection of reserves. Both the Department 
of Wildlife Conservation and the Forest Department are severely handicapped by a lack of 
financial resources to administer such areas effectively. Forest reserves, in particular, are often 
unstaffed with the result that few of the smaller ones exist on the ground, while many of the 
larger ones are heavily encroached. Enforcement measures are handicapped by the absence of 
clear-cut boundaries that are easily recognisable on the ground. Lack of local involvement in 
protected areas is limiting their effectiveness. Political interference is a further obstacle to 
natural resource conservation (Anon., n.d.; Hoffmann, 1983; Jansen, 1989). 

Systems Reviews Sri Lanka became an island probably in the late Miocene. It consists of a 
south-central massif, rising to some 2,500m, surrounded by a coastal plain which encompasses 
about 75% of the total geographic area. The massif has a major influence on the climate, with 
conditions ranging from wet in the south-west to dry in the north and east. Radiating from this 
massif is a network of major rivers (Fernando, 1984). These features are largely responsible for 
the wide variety of ecosystems present in Sri Lanka and the associated rich diversity of plants 
and animals, many of which occur in the wet zone and are endemic (Wijesinghe et al., 1989). 

The pattern of land use has been strongly influenced by the different climatic zones. The first 
major changes in land-use patterns took place during the colonial era when forests in the wet 
zone were cleared for cultivation of coconut and rubber in the lowlands and coffee, later to be 
replaced by tea, in the uplands (Jansen, 1989). The wet zone, which receives in excess of 
2540mm of rainfall per year, is now densely populated and intensively used for agriculture, with 
little potential for further expansion. The dry zone, on the other hand, until about the 1 3th century 
AD the centre of a highly advanced civilisation based on irrigated agriculture, receives less than 
1905mm of rainfall annually, is sparsely populated and offers the greatest opportunities for 
agricultural expansion in conjunction with irrigation schemes. In the face of a lack of food, 
overpopulation and unemployment in the wet zone, the former colonial government devised a 
scheme under the Land Development Ordinance, 1935, to translocate peasant farmers and the 
unemployed from the wet zone to the dry zone (Drijver et al., 1985). After independence, the 
Sri Lankan government developed the scheme into the much more ambitious Mahaweli 
Development Programme, with the accelerated phase scheduled for completion in 1986-1987. 
This is one of the largest development schemes ever undertaken in South Asia, with 360,000ha 
of land in the basins of the Mahaweli Ganga and the south-eastern rivers irrigated for agricultural 
purposes for the benefit of nearly one million people to be settled in the area (Wijewansa, 1985). 
A major limiting factor, however, is the availability of water which will be enough for year-round 
irrigation of only 200,000ha (Perera, 1984). 



188 



\ 



Sri Lanka 

The main forest types are the tropical wet evergreen (below l.OOOm) and montane (above 
l,(XX)m) forests of the wet zone, tropical moist/wet semi-evergreen forests of the intermediate 
zone, tropical dry mixed evergreen forests of the dry zone and semi-evergreen thorn forest of 
the arid zone. Large tracts of forest have been cleared during the last hundred years to 
accommodate the growing human population, which has risen from 3.5 million in 19(X) through 
5 million in 1950 to nearly 15 miUion by 1980. Natural forest cover has dwindled rapidly from 
an estimated 89% in 1889 to 46.5% in 1956 and 28% in 1981-1983 (Nanayakkara, 1987). The 
annual rate of deforestation of closed forest (3.5%) was among the highest in the world for the 
period 1981-1985 (Repetto, 1988). It has been estimated from the Forest Cover Map produced 
by the Survey Department in 1981, which is based on satellite imagery supplemented by 
ground-truthing, that natural forest cover had shrunk to 24.9% by 1981, of which only 1.5% 
comprised lowland wet- zone forest, biologically the most valuable forest type. This estimate is 
lower than the later figure of 28% natural high forest for mid-1983 derived from the FAO 
inventory (Forest Department, 1986). According to the latest available data, natural forest cover 
is about 22% (Somasekaram, 1988). 

The wetlands of Sri Lanka comprise a variety of coastal and inland systems, ranging from 
estuaries, lagoons and mangroves to rivers, villus and tanks (reservoirs). Many of the tanks date 
back 1 ,500 years when they formed part of an intricate irrigation system for rice cultivation. In 
recent decades, several large reservoirs have been constructed as part of large-scale hydro-power 
and irrigation projects, notably in the Mahaweli catchment area. There are over 10,000 tanks 
in Sri Lanka, of which 3,500 are considered to be significant water bodies. Only 60 of these 
exceed 3(X)ha in size. The wetlands support a variety of wildlife, as well as being of socio- 
economic importance, particularly for irrigation purposes (Scott, 1989). 

Coral reefs are reported to be most extensive off the eastern coast, although the Basses off the 
south-east coast and those of Dutch Bay off the north-west coast are among the most spectacular. 
Reef resources are reviewed in UNEP/IUCN (1988). 

The present growing awareness of the need to conserve the island's natural resources can be 
traced back to at least 1873 when the colonial government warned against the replacement of 
natural forests with plantations in view of its serious impact on the climate (Hooker, 1873 cited 
in Jansen, 1989). Many years later, in 1938, a law prohibiting the clearing of forests above 
1,500m was enacted. Despite such efforts, forests continued to be maximally exploited for 
timber until the 1960s. A major initiative begun in the early 1980s was the provision of a network 
of protected areas under the Mahawali Environment Project to mitigate the impact of the 
Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme (Jansen, 1985). This initiative followed in the 
wake of environmental assessments carried out by TAMS (1981,1982), and needs for environ- 
mental action were subsequently identified in a study commissioned by the European Com- 
munity (Driver et al, 1985). 

Sri Lanka currendy has a fairly extensive system of protected areas, covering over 12% of its 
total land area, but it is not comprehensive. I*riorities to develop the existing network are 
identified in the lUCN systems review of the Indomalayan Realm (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 
1986), and specific recommendations are made in the Corbett Action Plan (lUCN, 1985). While 
most habitats are represented within the existing protected areas system, most of the major 
conservation areas lie within the dry zone. Coverage of tropical wet evergreen and hill forests 
is still far from adequate (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1986). Here lie a number of floristically 
important regions, such as the forests of Kottawa, Hinidumkanda, Kanneliya and Gilimale, 



189 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

which have not been allocated for conservation (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1990). In the case 
of the Knuckles Range, it is to be the subject of a conservation plan. Demarcation of protected 
areas in the wet zone is considered to be a high priority in the new national wildlife conservation 
policy (DWC, n.d.). Other gaps in the network include coastal and marine protected areas, the 
only one established to date being Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary (Kotagama et al., 1990). In 
the dry zone, important areas with inadequate conservation status include the Samanalawewa 
area in the Walawe Ganga basin and the core of the Minneriya-Giritale Nature Reserve (T.W. 
Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1990). Clearly, these and other deficiencies in the existing network 
need to be addressed through a comprehensive systems review which has never been carried out 
at the national level. 

Addresses 

Director, Department of Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Lands, Irrigation and Mahaweli 

Development, 82 Rajamalwatte Road, BattaramuUa, COLOMBO 6 (Cable WILDLIFE; 

Tel. 566601) 
Chief Conservator of Forests, Forest Department, Ministry of Lands, Irrigation and Mahaweli 

Development, 82 Rajamalwatte Road, BattaramuUa, COLOMBO 6 (Tel. 566631-3) 
Director, Coast Conservation Department, New Secretariat, Maligawatte, COLOMBO 10 
Central Environmental Authority (CEA), Director General, Maligawatta New Town, 

COLOMBO 10 (Tel. 549455/6, 437488/9) 
Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka (NARESA), Director General, 

47/5 Maitland Place, COLOMBO 7 (Tel. 596771-3) 
Ceylon Bird Club, Chairman, PO Box 11, COLOMBO (Cable LANKABAUR; Tlx 21204 

BAURCO CE; Tel. 20551) 
March for Conservation, c/o Department of Zoology, University of Colombo, Minidas 

Kumaratunga Mawatha, Colombo 3 (Tel. 549136) 
Sri Lanka Environment Foundation, Coordinating Secretary, 215, G-2/5 Park Road, 

COLOMBO 5 
Wildlife and Nature Conservation Society of Sri Lanka, President, Chaitiya Road, Marine Drive, 

Fort, COLOMBO 1 (Tel. 25248) 

References 

Alwis, L. de (1969). The national parks of Ceylon: a guide. Department of Wildlife Conservation, 

Colombo. 89 pp. 
Anon. (n.d.). Draft environmental report on Sri Lanka. Paper presented at 25th Working Session 

of lUCN's Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas. Corbett National Park, India, 

4-8 February 1985. 
Anon. (1988). Management policies for national parks, nature reserves and sanctuaries in Sri Lanka. 

Draft. 10 pp. 
Here, R.M. (1959). Someof the wild life problems of Ceylon. Oryjc 5: 126-137. 
Bharathie, K.P. Sri (1979). Man and Biosphere Reserves in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Forester 14: 

37-40. 
CEA (1988). The national conservation strategy for Sri Lanka: a synopsis. Central Environmental 

Authority, Colombo. 28 pp. 
Crusz, H. (1973). Nature conservation in Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation 5: 199-208. 
Drij ver, C, Toornstra, F. and Lionel Siriwardena, S.S. A. Mahaweli Ganga Project in Sri Lanka: 

evaluation of environment problems and the role of settler-households in conservatioru Centre 

for Environmental Studies, State University of Leiden. 77 pp. 
DWC (n.d.). A national policy for wildlife conservation of Sri Lanka. Department of Wildlife 

Conservation, Ministry of Lands, Irrigation and Mahaweli Development. 11 pp. 
Gour-Tanguay, R. (Ed.)(1977). Environmental policies in developing countries. Erich Schmidt 

Verlag, Berlin. Pp. 818900/00-81900/10. 



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Sri Lanka 



Guntilleke, I.A.U.N. and Guntilleke, C.V.S. (1990). Threatened woody endemics of the wet 

lowlands of Sri Lanka and their conservation. Biological Conservation 55 (in press). 
Fernando, C.H. (Ed.)(1984), Ecology and biogeography in Sri Lanka. Dr W. Junk, the Hague. 

505 pp. 
Fernando, R. and Samarasinghe, S.W.R. de A. (1988). Forest conservation and the forestry 

master plan for Sri Lanka - a review. Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka, 

Colombo. 76 pp. (Unseen) 
Forest Department (1986). A national forest inventory of Sri Lanka 1982- 85. GOSL/UNDP/FAO 

Project SRL/79/014. Forest Department, Colombo. 238 pp. 
HofTmann, T.W. (1969). The Wildlife Protection Society of Ceylon: some historical reflections on 

the occasion of its 75th anniversary. Loris 11: 1-13. 
Hon'mann, T.W. (1973). The need for a policy. Loris 1 1 : 10-15. 
HofTmann, T.W. (1983). Wildlife conservation in Sri Lanka: a brief siu^^ey of the present status. 

Bombay Natural History Society Centenary Seminar (1883-1983). Powai, Bombay, India, 6-10 

December 1983. 
lUCN (1985). The Corbett Action plan for protected areas of the Indomalayan Realm. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 23 pp. 
lUCN (1989). Forest Sector Development Project: Environmental Management Component. 

lUCN-The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. Unpublished report. 42 pp. 
Jansen, M. (1985). A network of national parks for Sri Lanka. Tigerpaper 12(1): 4-7. 
Jansen, M. (1989). Sri Lanka - biological diversity and tropical forests. Status and recommended 

conservation needs. Revised version US AID/Sri Lanka, Colombo. Unpublished Report. 70 pp. 
Jaakko Poyry International Oy (1986). Forestry Master Plan for Sri Lanka. Forest Resources 

Development Project, Ministry of Lands and Land Development. Unpublished. 146 pp. 
Kotogama, S.W., Fernando, V.P. and Ishwaran, N. (1990). A five-year development plan for the 

wildlife conservation and protected area management sector of Sri Lanka. Ministry of Lands, 

Irrigation and Mahaweli Development, Colombo. 50 pp. 
MacKinnon, J. and MacKinnon, K. (1986). Review of the protected area system in the Indoma- 
layan Realm. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UKAJNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 284 pp. 
Nanayakkara, V.R. (1987). Forest history of Sri Lanka. In: Vivekanandan, K. (Ekl.), 1887-1987 

100 years of forest conservation. Forest Department, Colombo. (Unseen) 
NFS (1985). Policy recommendations for national reserves and sanctuaries of Sri Lanka. Draft. 

Department of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 32 pp. 
Padmalal, U.K.G.K. (1989). Some aspects of wildlife management and conservation in Sri Lanka. 

In: Karim, G.M.M.E., Akonda, A.W. and Sewitz, P. (Eds), Conservation of wildlife in Ban- 
gladesh, German Cultural Institute/Forest Department/Dhaka UniversityAVildlife Society of 

BangldeshAJnesco, Dacca. Pp. 71-78. 
Perera, N.P. (1984). Natural resources, settlements and land use. In C.H. Fernando (Ed ), Ecology 

and biogegoraphy in Sri Lanka. Dr W. Junk, The Hague. Pp. 453-492. 
Pushparajah, M. (1985). Forest policy and management of wet zone forests. Sri Lanka Forester 

17: 6-8. 
Rau, A.L. (1984). A review of wildlife legislation in Pakistan. M.Sc. thesis. University of 

Edinburgh, Edinburgh. 66 pp. 
Repetto, R. (1988). Theforestfor the trees? Government policies and the misuse of forest resources. 

World Resources Institute, Washington. 105 pp. 
Scott, D.A. (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 

1,186 pp. 
Somasekaram, T. (Ed.) (1988). The national atlas of Sri Lanka. Survey Department, Colombo. 
TAMS (1980). Environmental assessment - Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme. 

Volume 2. Terrestrial Environment. Tippets, Abbet, McCarthy and Stratton, New York. 

(Unseen) 



191 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 




Protected Areas 



- Exi s t ing 



Propos ed 



2 7/38 




53/28 



33 32 



I I indicates protected area where the boundary is not shown 



Protected Areas of Sri Lanka 

Numbers correspond to those in the summary 



192 



Summary of Protected Areas of Sri Lanka 



Sri Lanka 



National/International designation 
Name of area and map reference 

Biosphere Reserves 

Hurulu Forest Reserve* 
17 Sinharaja Forest Reserve* 

Ramsar Wetlands 

21 Bundala Sanctuary* 

World Heritage Sites 

17 Sinharaja National Heritage 
Wildemess Area* 

National Parks 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



1 



Flood Plains * 
Gal Oya * 
Horton Plains * 
Lahugala Kitulana * 
Maduru Oya * 
Ruhuna (Yala)* 
Somawathiya Chaitiya * 
Uda Walawe * 
Wasgomuwa * 
Wilpattu * 
Yala East * 

Subtotal (% total land area) 



Strict Natural Reserves 

12 Hakgala* 

13 Ritigala* 

14 Yala* 

Subtotal (% total land area) 

Nature Reserves 

15 Minneriya-Giritale 

16 Tirikonamadu * 

Subtotal (% total land area) 



lUCN Management Area 
category (ha) 



DC 
EX 



IV 



rv 

IV 



512 
8,864 



6,216 



8,864 



7,529 
25,019 

32^48 



Year 
notified 



1977 
1978 



1990 



1988 



II 


17,350 


1984 


n 


25,900 


1954 


II 


3,160 


1988 


II 


1,554 


1980 


n 


58,850 


1983 


II 


97,878 


1938 


II 


37,762 


1986 


II 


30,821 


1972 


n 


37,063 


1980 


n 


131,693 


1938 


n 


18,149 


1969 



460,180 (7.0%) 



I 


1,142 


1938 


I 


1,528 


1941 


I 


28,904 


1938 



31,574 (0.5%) 



1988 
1986 

(0.5%) 



193 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



National Heritage Wilderness Areas 

17 Sinharaja* 

Subtotal (% total land area) 

Jungle Corridors 

18 NUgala 

Subtotal (% total land area) 

Sanctuaries 

19 Anuradhapura 

20 Buddhangala 

21 Bundala* 

22 Chundikulam * 

23 Gal Oya Valley North-East* 

24 Gal Oya Valley South-West * 

25 Galway's Lands 

26 Giant's Tank* 

27 Great Sober Island 

28 Hikkaduwa Marine * 

29 Honduwa Island 

30 HoragoUa 

3 1 Kalametiya Kalapuwa * 

32 Katagamuwa 

33 Kataragama 

34 Kegalle 

35 Kimbulwanoya 

36 Kokilai* 

37 Kudumbigala 

38 Little Sober Island 

39 MadhuRoad 

40 Mahakandarawewa 

41 Maimbulkande-Nittambuwa 

42 Mihintale 

43 Minneriya-Giritale * 

44 Padaviya Tank 

45 Pallekele-Kahalla-Balaluwewa 

46 Pallemalala 

47 Parapuduwa Nuns Island 

48 Parititivu Island 

49 Peak Wilderness * 

50 Pigeon Island 

51 Polonnaruwa* 

52 Ravana Ella 

53 Rocky Islets (Ambalangoda)* 

54 Sagamam 

55 Senanayake Sanfiudra * 

56 Seruwila-Allai * 



rv 


7,648 


1988 




7,648 


(0.1%) 


Unassigned 


10.360 


1970 




10360 


(0.2%) 


rv 


3,501 


1938 


rv 


1.841 


1974 


rv 


6,216 


1969 


rv 


11,150 


1938 


rv 


12,432 


1954 


rv 


15,281 


1954 


IV 


57 


1938 


rv 


3,941 


1954 


IV 


65 


1963 


IV 


45 


1979 


rv 


8 


1973 


rv 


13 


1973 


rv 


712 


1984 


IV 


1,004 


1938 


rv 


838 


1938 


rv 


113 


1941 


rv 


492 


1963 


rv 


2,995 


1951 


IV 


4,403 


1973 


IV 


6 


1963 


rv 


26,677 


1968 


IV 




1966 


IV 


23 


1972 


IV 


1,000 


1938 


rv 


6,693 


1938 


rv 


6,475 


1963 


rv 


21,690 


1989 


rv 


14 


1942 


rv 


190 


1988 


IV 


18 


1973 


IV 


22,380 


1940 


IV 


5 


1974 


IV 


1,523 


1938 


rv 


1,932 


1979 


rv 


1 


1940 


IV 


616 


1963 


IV 


9,324 


1954 


IV 


15,540 


1970 



194 









Sri I/inka 


57 Sigiriya* 


IV 


5,099 


1990 


58 Sri Jayewardenepura 


rv 


449 


1985 


59 Tangamalai (Adhisham) 


IV 


132 


1938 


60 Telwatte 


IV 


1,424 


1938 


61 Trincomalee Naval Headworks 


IV 


18,130 


1963 


62 Udawattekele * 


IV 


111 


1938 


63 Vavunikulam 


IV 


4,856 


1963 


64 Victoria-Randenigala-Rantambe * 


IV 


42,087 


1987 


65 Welhella-Katagille 


IV 


134 


1949 


66 WUpattu North * 


IV 


624 


1947 


67 Wirawila-Tissa * 


IV 


4,164 


1938 


Subtotal (% total land area) 




256,424 


(3.9%) 


Proposed 








21 Bundala* 


Proposed 


6,216 




68 Lunugamvihira 


Proposed 


21,500 




69 Riverine 


Proposed 


921 




70 Bellanwila-Attidiya Marshes* 


Proposed 


60 




71 Dutch Bay (+ Portugal Bay) 


Proposed 






TOTALS 








Existing areas (% total land area) 




798,734 


{Xl.1%) 


Proposed areas (% total land area) 




28,697 


(0.4%) 



Locations of most protected areas are shown in the accompanying map. 
*Site is described in this directory. 



References (cont) 

TAMS (1981). Environmental plan of action - Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme. 

Tippets, Abbet, McCarthy and Stratton, New York. (Unseen) 
UNEP/IUCN(1988). Coral reefs of the world. Volume 2: Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UKAJNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. 389pp. 
Wijesinghe, L.C.A. de S., Guntilleke, I.A.U.N., Jayawardana, S.D.G., and Guntilleke, C.V.S. 

(1989). Biological conservation in Sri Lanka (A national status report). Natural Resources, 

Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 64 pp. 
Wijewansa, R.A. (1985). Sri Lanka: natural resources expertise profile. CDC/IUCN Gland, 

Switzerland. Unpublished report. 130 pp. 



195 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



BELLANWILLA-ATTroiYA MARSHES SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category Proposed 

Biogeographical Province 4.02.01 (Ceylonese Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Situated on the coastal plains of the wet zone in the south-eastern 
outskirts of Colombo, east of Attidiya, Colombo District, Western Province. 6°50'N, 79°54'E 

Date and History of Establishment Proposed as a sanctuary by the Department of Wildlife 
Conservation. 

Area 60ha 

Land Tenure The marshes are state owned; surrounding areas are mostly privately owned. 

Altitude Sea level 

Physical Features Comprise a complex of shallow freshwater ponds, marshes and seasonally 
flooded grasslands, with scattered shrubs and small trees. Bolgoda Canal divides the marshes 
into almost equal portions. Numerous shallow pools and muddy areas have been created by 
water buffalo. The area was cultivated for rice until 1980, but has since reverted to marshland. 

Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal. 

Vegetation Open water areas are almost entirely covered by Salvinia sp. and Eichhornia 
crassipes. Most of the marsh is covered with low reeds and grasses, with some patches of tall 
reeds and bushes. 

Fauna The marsh supports small numbers of a wide variety of waterbirds, and is an important 
roosting site for herons and egrets. Some 43 species of waterfowl were recorded in 1986 and 
1987. These included several species scarce in Sri Lanka, such as Indian cormorant Phalacro- 
coraxfuscicoUis, blue-breasted banded rail Rallus striatus and ruddy-breasted crake Porzana 
fiisca, as well as grey pelican Pelecanusphilippensis, black bittern Ixobrychusflavicollis, painted 
stork Mycteria leucocephala, Asian open-billed stork Anastomus oscitans. Oriental ibis Thres- 
kiornis melanocephalus, spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Indian whistling duck Dendrocygna 
javanica, water cock Gallicrex cinerea, purple swamphen Porphyria porphyria (a common 
breeding bird), pheasant-tailed jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus, painted snipe Rostratula 
benghalensis and a variety of migratory shorebirds. 

Mammals include otter Lwrra sp., mongoose Herpestes sp., jackal Canis aureus and mouse deer 
Tragulus meminna. Mugger Crocodylus palustris (V) is present (Sumanasena, n.d.). Thirty- 
nine species of fishes have been recorded, including four of Sri Lanka's endemic species. The 
marsh is also rich in butterflies (52 species including nine endemics) and dragonflies (37 species). 



196 



Sri Lanka 

Cultural Heritage No infonnation 

Local Human Population Less than 20 people live in the marshes, but over 10,000 live in the 
immediate vicinity. Activities include fishing for finfish and shrimps, livestock grazing (water 
buffalo and cattle), and cutting of reeds and shrubs for fiiel. The surrounding areas are settled 
or cultivated. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Members of the Young Zoologists' Association in 
Colombo carried out an ecological study of the marsh in 1986-1987. 

Conservation Value The marshes are among the most important of the few remaining wetlands 
around Colombo. Because of their easy access and close proximity to Colombo, they have 
excellent potential for conservation education and scientific research. 

Conservation Management Various recommendations for managing the proposed sanctuary 
have been outiined by Gunawardana (1988). 

Management Constraints Effluents from a nearby garment factory are discharged into 
Bolgoda Canal, resulting in high fish mortality. Several species of fishes, including two of Sri 
Lanka's endemic species Aplocheilus dayi and Ehiwara fluviatilis, and the economically 
important freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have been almost exterminated firom 
the marshes. The dumping of domestic waste along adjacent roads has also contributed to the 
pollution. Most of the larger trees have been cut down for firewood. There is a considerable 
amount of hunting of large waterbirds, using snares, nets and catapults, and some egg-collecting. 

Staff None 

Budget None 

Local Addresses None 

References Unless otherwise indicated, information is taken direcUy from Scott (1989). 

Gunawardana, J. (1988). A general assessment of the Bellanwila-Attidiya Marshes. Ceylon Bird 

Club, Colombo. Unpublished report. (Unseen) 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzeriand and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Sumanansena, A.H. (n.d.) Bellanwila-Attidiya Marshes. Department of Wildlife Conservation, 

Colombo. Unpublished report. 2 pp. 

Date September 1990 



197 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



BUNDALA SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographicai Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies on the south coast in South Province, about 274km from 
Colombo. Stretches from the vicinity of Bundala Village in the east to that of Hambantota 
township in the west. Part of the northern boundary is contiguous with the A2 main road. 
6°07'-6°14'N, 8r07'-8ri7'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary on 5 December 1969 (Gazette No. 
44,883). Designated a Wetland of International Importance at the time of Sri Lanka' s ratification 
of the Ramsar Convention on 15 October 1990. 

Area 6,216ha 

Land Tenure Land is state owned, except for the lands along the northern boundary between 
Koholankala and Pallemalala released to villagers for settlement, and the paddy fields at 
Koholankala and Malala. Bundala, Koholankala, and Mahalewayas have been leased to the 
National Salt Corporation for salt production. 

Altitude Ranges from sea level to 10m. 

Physical Features The sanctuary contains five shallow, brackish lagoons with salt pans in 
three, interconnecting channels and marshes including the adjacent coast. The easternmost 
lagoon, Bundala Lewaya, was originally a brackish lagoon of about 520ha in extent, separated 
from the sea by a natural sand-bar and with a mean depth of less than Im. A large part of this 
lagoon has now been converted to salt pans by a series of earth bunds, and developed as a saltern. 
Immediately to the west is Emilikala Kalapuwa, a finesh/brackish lagoon of about 430ha. It is 
l-2m in depth, and overflows into Malala Lagoon via a natural channel. Malala Lagoon, in the 
middle of die sanctuary, is about 650ha in extent, fresh/brackish, and l-2m in depth. It is fed 
by the Malala Oya, which receives drainage water from both the Walawe Multipurpose Irrigation 
Development Scheme and the Kirindi Oya Irrigation Settiement Scheme. Thus, fresh water 
inflow to Embilikala and Malala lagoons has increased considerably with the result that 
fluctuating salinity levels have adversely affected their ecology. Malala Lagoon, which is 
separated from the sea by a naturally-formed sand-bar, only drains into the sea during floods or 
when the sand-bar is breached by local fishermen to facilitate fishing in the lagoon. Koholankala 
Lewaya, about 390ha in extent, drains into Mahalewaya (260ha) in the extreme west of the 
sanctuary. Koholankala Lewaya and Mahalewaya have been almost totally developed for salt 
production. Both lagoons are less than Im deep and subject to wide fluctuations in water level. 
Salinity in Koholankala Lewaya exceeds 30 p.p.L during dry periods. The terrain surrounding 
the lagoons is generally flat, with sand dunes along the coast and sparse dry evergreen Acacia 
scrub inland. Fresh water springs are found along the dune belt. 



198 



Sri Lanka 



Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal, with a mean annual temperature of 27°C. Annual 
rainfal ranges from 9(X)mm to 1300mm, with an extensive dry period from May to September. 

Vegetation The phytoplankton in all the lagoons is dominated by blue-green algae, such as 
Microcystis, Nostoc and Oscillatoris, while hydrilla abound in Embilikala and Malala. Marshes 
and streams contain water hyacinth, water lilies and reed beds of Typha javanica. The arid 
vegetation consists largely of grass flats studded with Acacia scrub, comprising andara Dich- 
rostachys cinerea, kukuruman Randia dumetorum, eraminiya Ziziphus sp., Ceymnosporia 
emarginata, karamba Carissa spinarum, Capparis zeylanica and Cassia spp., and stands of 
forest scrub, comprising mailaiBauhinia racemosa, mallittan Salvadorapersica, -weeraDrypetes 
sepieria, palu Manilkara hexandra and less frequently satin Chloroxylon sweetania, kohomba 
Azadirachta indica and divul Feronia limonia. 

Fauna The forest still harbours a few elephant Elephas maximus (E), and migratory herds of 
up to 80 animals have been seen in the area (Banks and Banks, 1985). Other mammals include 
endemic toque macaque Macaca sinica, common langur Presbytis entellus, jackal Canis aureus, 
leopard Panthera pardus (T), fishing cat Felis viverrinus, rusty-spotted cat Felis rubiginosa, 
mongoose Herpestes spp., wild boar Sus scrofa, mouse deer Tragulus meminna, Indian muntjac 
Muntiacus muntjak, spotted deer Cervus axis, sambar C. unicolor, black-naped hare Lepus 
nigricollis, Indian pangolin Manis crassicaudata and porcupine Hystrix indica (N. Ishwaran, 
pers. comm., 1986.). 

Noteworthy amphibians include the endemic frog Bufo athukoralei. Among reptiles, mugger 
Crocodylus palustris (V), estuarine crocodile C. porosus (E), common monitor Varanus ben- 
galensis and star tortoise Testudo elegans have been recorded (Banks and Banks, 1986). Reptiles 
also include python Python molurus (V), rat snake Pytas mucosus, endemic flying snake 
Chrysopelea taprobana, cat snakes Boiga spp. and whip snakes Dryophis spp. (Banks and 
Banks, 1986; M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). The beach along the coastal belt is a favourite 
nesting ground for sea turdes. 

The sanctuary is the home of every species of waterbird resident in the country and, during the 
northern winter, it is the final destination for countless numbers of waders of most species 
recorded in Sri Lanka. The rare black-necked stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus is an infrequent 
visitor. Vagrants turn up occasionally and among those reliably reported from the area are 
Caspian plover Charadrius asiaticus, common ringed plover C. hiaticula, spotted redshank 
Tringa erythropus, terek sandpiper Xenus cinereus, red knot Calidris canutus, broad-bUled 
sandpiper Limicola falcinellus, buff-breasted sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis, red-necked 
phalarope Phalaropus lobatus, spoon-billed sandpiper Eurynorhynchus pygmaeus, common 
avocet Recurvirostra avosetta and Eurasian oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus. Both white- 
bellied sea-eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster and brahminy kite Haliastur indus are breeding 
residents (Banks and Banks, 1986, pers. comm., 1986). Up to 2,0(X) greater flamingos Phoeni- 
copterus roseus have been seen during the north-east monsoon (A.B. Fernando, pers. comm., 
1990). Details of waterfowl counts are given by Scott (1989). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population From time immemorial the lagoons have supported a subsistence 
fishery for the local inhabitants. Village cattle are also allowed to graze in the sanctuary; dead 
wood is gathered from the periphery for use as fuel; and medicinal herbs and honey are collected 



199 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

by the people living on the edge of the sanctuary. Rice is grown on the northern shores of 
Embilikala, Malala and Koholankala, but the crop often fails due to high salinity levels. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities From 20 to 30 parties visit the sanctuary in jeeps daily. Visitors 
may walk in the sanctuary. The National Salt Corporation has a circuit bungalow at Bundala 
Lewaya. Accommodation is available outside the sanctuary at Tissamaharama, Wirawila and 
Hambantota, from where jeeps can be hired. There used to be an airstrip at Wirawila suitable 
for two-seater aircraft. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Numerous waterfowl and shorebird censuses have been 
carried out. A National Sea Turtle Conservation Project was started at Bundala in 1987 by the 
National Aquatic Resources Agency with the support of the Department of Wildlife Conserva- 
tion. A research hut was constructed and preUminary surveys undertaken, but suspended 
temporarily mid- 1988 due to security problems. 

Conservation Value Bundala is the most important wetland for birds in Sri Lanka outside the 
Northern Province. Its lagoons are among the most important wintering areas for migratory 
shorebirds in the country, regularly accommodating over 15,000 shorebirds at any one time. It 
is the last refuge of the greater flamingo in this part of the island, as well as being important for 
elephant and a variety of threatened reptiles. Dense thorny scrub provides a natural barrier to 
the gale-force winds that would otherwise accelerate desertification in this arid countryside. 

Conservation Management The sanctuary was established largely to protect migratory 
waterfowl, an initiative which originally attracted a considerable outcry from sportsmen (Anon. 
1964). At present, fishing in the lagoons and visitation for study, observation and photography 
are permitted without any restriction. A proposal has been made to upgrade the sanctuary to a 
national park, but, in view of the traditional activities presently enjoyed by the local people and 
the salt production operations of the National Salt Corporation, it is felt that initially the sanctuary 
should be upgraded to a nature reserve and human activities controlled to some extent. While 
more wildlife staff need to be stationed at strategic locations in the area to afford it the necessary 
protection, it is also important to provide some basic facilities for campers and other visitors for 
study and observation of wildlife, photography and particularly bird watching. It is also of 
paramount importance to restore two or three small waterholes with windmill-operated tube 
wells and create freshwater sources for wUdlife. 

Management Constraints The degree of protection afforded to the sanctuary is limited. Apart 
from the traditional activities of the local people, such as subsistence fishing in the lagoons, 
grazing livestock and collecting fuelwood, other activities such as fishing by migrant fishermen, 
mining, collection of mollusc shells for Ume and tourism have increased considerably in recent 
years. A firing range, recently opened in the sanctuary by the Sri Lanka Air Force, has been 
closed down following representations by the Department of Wildlife Conservation and other 
conservation bodies. The Department has also been successful in stopping the Ceramic 
Corporation issuing permits for mining molluscs from beds in the sanctuary, but one or two 
private lime kilns still continue to operate at Fallemalala. While poaching, cutting and removal 
of timber, and encroachment of land are minimal, uncontrolled tourism is the source of much 
disturbance. Tour operators, based at Tissamaharama and Hambantota, harass elephants and 
drive off the tracks for the benefit of their clients. Recendy, a foreign tourist was trampled and 
killed by a bull elephant. 



200 



Sri Lanka 



Staff One senior wildlife ranger based at Hambantota, and one range assistant and three game 
guards based in Bundala Sanctuary 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Senior Wildlife Ranger, Bundala Sanctuary, Southern Headquarters, Depart- 
ment of Wildlife Conservation, Hambantota 

References Information is taken firom the Ramsar nomination, unless otherwise indicated. 

Anon. (1964). Proposed bird sanctuary at Bundala Loris 10: 107-112. 

Banks, J. and Banks, J. (1985). Bundala Bird Sanctuary. Ceylon Bird Club, Colombo. Unpub- 
lished fact sheet. 1 p. 

Banks, J. and Banks, J. (1986). Sri Lanka - a note on some birdwatching areas. Oriental Bird Club 
Bulletin 3: lS-22. 

Perumal, S.K. (1985). Bundala: an ornithologist's paradise. Loris 17: 57. 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date April 1986, updated September 1990 



CHUNDIKKULAM SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated at the base of the Jaffna Peninsula, east of Elephant Pass, 
Jaffna District, Northern Province. 9°26'-9°32'N, 80°24'-80°37'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary for birds under the Fauna and Rora 
Protection Ordinance on 25 February 1938. 

Area ll,150ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Sea level 

Physical Features Comprises a large brackish lagoon with some fringing mangroves and 
seagrass beds. The lagoon was saline, having once formed part of the Jaffna Lagoon system. 
The extensive Government saltern (salt producing area) on the western side of Elephant Pass 
causeway has permanentiy disrupted the former tidal connection between Chundikkulam and 
Jaffna lagoons. With the closure of Elephant Pass causeway at the west end, the salinity of the 
lagoon is said to have decreased, and large areas now dry out during the dry season (April to 
September). Numerous small streams enter the lagoon along its southern shore. 

Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal. 



201 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Vegetation Consists of mangrove swamps and seagrass beds, with plantations of palms 
Palmyra and scrub forest in surrounding areas. 

Fauna The avifauna includes a wide variety of waterfowl, notably painted stork Mycteria 
leucocephala. Oriental ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, mi- 
gratory ducks, coot Fulica atra, migratory shorebirds, gulls and terns. Waterfowl observed in 
the winter of 1982/1983 included 4,000 pintail Anas acuta and 6,300 garganey A. querquedula. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Activities include prawn fishing, salt production and cultivation of 
palms in adjacent areas. The lagoon supports a subsistence fishery. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Some waterfowl censuses have been carried out. 

Conservation Value The sanctuary is of great importance for a wide variety of waterfowl. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints The isolation of the lagoon from tidal influence has undoubtedly 
had major ecological consequences, but these have never been studied. A salt water exclusion 
scheme was started but later abandoned. There are plans to revive the scheme again, but the 
Ceylon Bird Club has strongly protested against this initiative prior to assessing carefully 
environmental impact. The sanctuary has never been adequately protected, and has been open 
to a variety of abuses. Parts of the lagoon are used for aquacultiu^, and the surrounding forests 
are being cleared. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date September 1990 



FLOOD PLAINS NATIONAL PARK 



lUCN Management Category n (National Park) 
Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 



202 



Sri Lanka 

Geographical Location Spans the Mahaweli Ganga in Polonnaruwa District, North Central 
Province. The township of Manampitiya lies just outside the eastern boundary of the park, a 
stop-over on the Batticaloa-Polonnaniwa road and on the railway which pass through the park. 
7*57'-8'04'N, 8r03'-8rirE 

Date and History of Establishment Created a national park on 7 August 1984. 

Area Covering 17,350ha and lying in the Mahaweli protected areas complex, it links Wasgo- 
muwa National Park (37,063ha) to the south with Somawathiya Chaitiya National Park 
(37,762ha) to the north. 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from 20m to 60m, with an occasional rock outcrop. 

Physical Features The Mahaweli Ganga flows from south to north through the centre of the 
park. The flood plains of rich alluvial soil flanking the river are characterised by numerous 
shallow marshy depressions known as 'villus'. The prolonged periods of inundation of these 
low-lying areas, together with the nutrients carried in by the water, are largely responsible for 
the exceptionally high level of net primary productivity (Jansen, 1981). In addition to being 
flooded in the wet season, the villus are also inundated during the dry season because the 
headwaters of the Mahaweli Ganga experience the south-west monsoon at this time of year. Up 
until the recent diversion of the Mahaweli Ganga for irrigation purposes, the villus were 
particularly important as dry season grazing areas (Ishwaran, 1985). 

Climate Being in the dry zone, there is only a north-east monsoon from October to late- January. 
This is followed by a dry season lasting from May to September. 

Vegetation Saturated soils and flooding prevent tree growth and enhance the growth of 
water-tolerant grasses and aquatic plants. The vegetation of the villus shows definite patterns 
of zonation, with creeping grasses, such as Cynodon dactylon, and essentially terrestrial annual 
plants on the margins; hydrophobic species, such as Alternanthera sessilis. Polygonum spp., 
berudiyanilla /u5^ia£a repens, kankun Ipomoea aquatica, diyahabaralaMo/ioc/iona hastata and 
Scirpus grossus, and grasses, such as gojabba Hygrorhyza aristata, Brachiaria mutica, Echi- 
nochloa colonum, Paspalum vaginatum, Digitaria longflora and Paspalidium spp., further 
inwards; floating plants, such as kekatiya Aponogeton crispum, A. natans and Nymphoides sp., 
occur along with Nelumbo nucifera in deeper water, and an association of manel Nymphaea 
stellata and the submerged floating plant Ceratophyllum demersum in the deepest water. 
Common floating forms found in all zones are water lettuce Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia molesta, 
diya nidikumba Neptuma oleracea and ikiliya Trapa bispinosa. The original riverine forest on 
the levees has been almost completely removed to make way for tobacco fields. Between the 
levees and the marshes of the villus, the vegetation resembles that of swamp forests, due to 
periodic inundation, with species such as kumbuk Terminalia arjuna, helamba Mitragyna 
parvifolia, makulu Hydnocarpus venenata, mee Madhuca longifolia and mudilla Barringtonia 
asiatica being the most common. Clumps of rattan (cane) Calamus rotang are also common in 
the area. About 25 plants of a rare herb Pentapetes phoenicea are foimd at three different sites 
in the swamp forest (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1985). The vegetation of the flood plains is further 
described by Scott (1989). Elsewhere, there is monsoon forest on higher ground and gallery 
forest along river banks. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Fauna The rich vegetation in the villus attracts large numbers of grazing animals and birds and 
supports a higher annual biomass than any other type of habitat within the Accelerated Mahaweli 
Development Project area. The flood plains, with their abundant supply of water and grasslands, 
are an important habitat for elephant Elephas maximus (E), as well as providing a corridor for 
elephants ranging between Somawathiya Chaitiya and Wasgamuwa national parks. Other 
mammals commonly encountered in the flood plains are fishing cat Felis viverrina, jungle cat 
F. chaus, rusty-spotted cat F. rubiginosus, jackal Canis aureus, wild boar Sus scrofa, Indian 
muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, sambar Cervus unicolor, spotted deer C. axis and water buffalo 
Bubalus bubalis (E). The marshes support a large population of reptiles including natricine 
water snakes, mugger Crocodyluspalustris (V) and estuarine crocodile C. porosus (E). Import- 
ant fish species of the villus are climbing perch Anabas testudineus, snake heads Ophiocephalus 
striatus and O. parulius, freshwater shark Labeo sp., branded etroplus Etroplus surantensis, 
butter catfish Ompok bimaculatus and the introduced tilapia Tilapia mossambica. The flood 
plains are particularly important for the diversity and abundance of their avifauna, particularly 
migrant birds. It is estimated that around 75 species winter in the marshes of the flood plain. 
Commonly seen migrants are marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis, wood sandpiper T. glareola, 
Asiatic golden plover Pluvialis dominica, garganey Anas querquedula, osprey Pandion ha- 
liaetus and black-tailed godwit Limosa limosa. Common residents are eastern large egret 
Egretta alba, little egret Egretta garzetta, cattle egret Bubulcus ibis, painted stork Ibis leucoce- 
phalus, pond heron Ardeola grayii, eastern grey heron Ardea cinerea, pheasant-tailed jacana 
Hydrophasianus chirurgus, purple coot Porphyrio porphyria, Indian darter Anhinga rufa, litde 
cormorant Phalacrocorax niger, Indian shag P.fuscicollis, Indian cormorant P. carbo sinensis, 
brahminy kite Haliastur indus, painted snipe Rostratula benghalensis, black-winged stilt 
Himantopus himantopus and red-wattied lapwing Vanellus indicus (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 
1985). Further details of the avifauna are given by Scott (1989). 

Cultural Heritage There is no special evidence of historical ruins. This section of the 
Mahaweli Ganga was connected to the ancient irrigation network in the vicinity. On the right 
bank of the river, at the edge of Mutugalla Villu, are ruins of an ancient cave monastery with 
inscriptions dating back to between the 2nd and 7th century BC. 

Local Human Population Muslim migrants have traditionally cultivated tobacco along the 
river banks, but at increasingly intense levels. More recendy, brick-making has been introduced 
from the west coast, and in 1987 the Housing Development authority built eight houses in the 
Manampitiya area of the park for its workers. Other settlements within the park include an army 
camp and boutiques. Dairy Farming, fishing, and cane extraction also contribute to the local 
economy (Jansen, 1981; Hoffmann, 1988; R.L.E. Kuruppu, pers. comm., 1990). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There are no facilities as yet but bungalows and campsites are 
planned. 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value The park is central to the integrity of the Mahaweli system of protected 
areas, both for its unique villus and as a corridor for wildlife migration between grazing lands 
in Wasgomuwa and Somawathiya Chaitiya national paries. It is particularly important for the 
long-term survival of elephants within the Mahaweli catchment Together with the adjacent 
Somawathiya Chaitiya National Park, Flood Plains provides a refuge for a wide variety of 
resident and migratory waterfowl (Scott, 1989). 



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Sri Lanka 

Conservation Management There is an overall systems plan for protected areas within the 
Mahaweli region (NPS, 1986) but, as yet, there is no management plan for Flood Plains National 
Park. For purposes of management, it is proposed that the northern half of the park is treated as 
part of Somawathiya Chaitiya National Park and the southern half as part of Wasgomuwa 
National Park (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Management Constraints Dam construction on the Mahaweli Ganga will inevitably decrease 
water flow and thereby reduce the magnitude and duration of flooding downstream. This 
dramatic change in the water regime of the villus will transform the rich grasslands into poor 
quality grazing grounds, which in turn will be detrimental to the wildlife. This has been accepted 
as an unavoidable consequence of the Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme. 

The park was added to the lUCN/CNPPA Register of Threatened Protected Areas of the World 
in 1989, in view of its integrity being severely threatened by increasing levels of exploitation of 
its resources by settlers from far-off townships such as Kuliyapitiya. Over 200 tobacco plots, 
each 1.2ha in area, were set up within the park, apparently with the approval of the Department 
of Wildlife Conservation, and an additional 230 plots have been unofficially established by 
migrants (Anon., 1985). About 6,000 halmilla saplings are used for fencing the perimeter of 
each plot, irrigation of plots by an ingenious lifting technique erodes the banks of rivers, and 
fuelwood is used for curing the tobacco. Brick-making is rampant and also relies on fuelwood 
resources for baking bricks. Elephants have fallen into the holes created by the hundreds of 
kilns and died. Thousands of dairy cattle roam the villus (Hoffmann, 1988; C. Santiapillai, pers. 
comm., 1986). These activities are due to be phased out, or strictly controlled, to enable the 
ecosystem to recover, but little action has been taken under the Mahaweli Environment 
Programme to date. Effective management is hampered by political and security problems in 
the region. 

Staff One game ranger (1990) 

Budget The park budget is being planned with help from US- AID. 

Local Addresses Assistant Director, Flood Plains National Park, Department of Wildlife 
Conservation, Mahaweli Environment Project, Polonnaruwa New Town, Polonnaruwa District, 
North Central Province 

References 

Anon. (1985). Animals dumb wimesses in natinal park. The Island. 11 August 1985. 

Hemapriya, B.H. Ed. (1983). Mahaweli projects and programmes. Ministry of Lands and Land 

Development and Ministry of Mahaweli Development, Columbo. 102 pp. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1978). Down the Mahaweli. Loris 14: 377-343. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1988). The Flood Plains National Park. Unpublished report. 11 pp. 
Ishwaran, N. (1985). Ecology of the Asian elephant in Sri Lanka. Ph.D. thesis. Michigan State 

University, East Lancing, USA. (Unseen) 
Jansen, M. (1981). Villus of the floodplains of die Mahaweli Ganga. Loris 15: 337-340. 
Jansen, M. (1985). Anetworkof national parks of Sri Lanka. Tigerpaper 12: 4-7 . 
NPS (1986). Systems plan. Mahaweli national parks region. US National Park Service/Department 

of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 44 pp. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Date November 1985, updated September 1990 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



GAL OYA NATIONAL PARK, SENANAYAKE SAMUDRA SANCTUARY, 

GAL OYA VALLEY NORTH-EAST SANCTUARY AND 

GAL OYA VALLEY SOUTH-WEST SANCTUARY 



lUCN Management Category 

Gal Oya National Park: n (National Park) 

Senanayake Samudra Sanctuary: IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Gal Oya Valley North-East Sanctuary: IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Gal Oya Valley South- West Sanctuary: IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lie in the south-east of the island, in Eastern and Uva provinces. The 
town of Amparai is adjacent to the eastern extremity of Gal Oya Valley North-East Sanctuary, 
and Sellaka-Oya is near to Gal Oya Valley South- West Sanctuary. Gal Oya National Park 
encompasses Senanayake Samudra Sanctuary. 7°0r-7°22'N, 8r20'-8r39'E 

Date and History of Establishment The national park and three sanctuaries were all estab- 
lished by the Gal Oya Development Board on 1 2 February 1 954, mainly to protect the catchment 
area of Senanayake Samudra Reservoir, and handed over to the Department of Wildlife 
Conservation in 1965. Two tanks (small lakes), Amparai and Konduwatawana, which used to 
be sanctuaries prior to the region coming under the authority of the Gal Oya Development Board, 
are now included within Gal Oya Valley North-East Sanctuary. Boundaries of die proposed 
Nilgala Jungle Corridor, which is intended to link the protected areas complex with Madura Oya 
National Park to the north-west, were marked out in August-October 1985. 

Area Gal Oya National Park: 25,9(X)ha 

Senanayake Samudra Sanctuary: 9,324ha 

Gal Oya Valley North-East Sanctuary: 1 2,432ha 

Gal Oya Valley South-West Sanctuary: 15,281ha 

The total area of the protected areas complex is 62,936ha. It is proposed to link Gal Oya National 
Park with Maduru Oya National Park (58,850ha) via Nilgala Jungle Corridor (10,360ha). 

Land Tenure Gal Oya National Park and Senanayake Samudra Sanctuary are state owned. 
Some land in Gal Oya Valley North-East and Gal Oya Valley South- West sanctuaries is private, 
the rest belongs to the state. 

Altitude Ranges from about 30m to over 500m. Senanayake Sumadra lies at about 80m. The 
top of Govindahela, the highest point in the area but outside the protected areas complex, is at 
573m. 

Physical Features Comprises the catchment of the Senanayake Samudra, a large waterbody 
with an impressive backdrop of rocky, forested hills. Two general zones can be distinguished. 
To the east the peneplain is low (30-80m) and broken by a few solitary remnants of erosion and 



206 



Sri Lanka 

many smaller (15-30m) bare rocks known as turtle-backs. Westof a line passing approximately 
from Divulana via Inginiyagala to Buddama, the peneplain is higher (150-250m) and clusters 
of erosion fragments form the dominant relief. Erosion fragments have one or more steep sides 
of bare rock but most have at least one side with gentle, invariably boulder-strewn, forested 
slopes. The Gal Oya basin consists of the Gal Oya and three lesser streams which flow eastward. 
The Gal Oya was dammed at Inginiyagala in 1948 to form Senanayake Samudra, and the other 
two streams have since been dammed (McKay, 1973). Senanayake Samudra has a maximum 
depth of 33.5m and a catchment area of about l(X),000ha. The water is fresh, with a pH of 6.8 
(Scott, 1989). Geologically, the area consists mainly of the Vijayan series, a variety of Lower 
Palaeozoic gneissic rocks. Soils are predominantly reddish brown, with alluvium along river 
beds (Panabokke, 1967). 

Climate The area falls within the dry zone, and is subject mainly to the influence of the 
north-east monsoon. Mean annual rainfall for Gal Oya National Park was 1766mm in 1967-1976 
(Ishwaran, 1981). 

Vegetation About 45% of Gal Oya National Park is forest, 33% savanna, 9% grassland, and 
2% chena (forest disturbed by shifting agriculture). The rest (10%) consists of waterbodies. 
The forest is generally evergreen, of medium stature (30-40m) with a dense closed canopy layer 
dominated by Artocarpus sp., Berrya cordifolia. Euphorbia longana, Mangifera zeylanica and 
Diospyros spp. Shrub and sapling layers comprise Mallotus repandus, Polyalthia spp. and Celtis 
cinnamomea, among others. The savanna (Sinhalese: talawa), is found mainly in the west. 
Dominant species of tree are Terminalia chebula, T. bellirica and Pterocarpus marsupium, all 
of which have products of medicinal importance. Shrubs include Phyllanthus emblica and 
Ziziphus sp. The dominant ground vegetation consists of tall, perennial grasses, the commonest 
of which are Cymbopogon confertiflorus andlmperata cylindrica. Themeda sp. is more patchily 
distributed. The grassland, which occurs mostiy around waterbodies, is entirely secondary. 
Annuals, such as Eragrostis and Eleusine, tend to be common on low lying areas which are 
flooded for long periods annually. In the higher areas, which may not be submerged every year, 
perennials, such as Cynodon dactylon and Brachiaria sp., are more common. The reservoir 
supports relatively few aquatic macrophytes. Coelosphaerium, Microcystis and Melosira are 
abundant in the phytoplankton (Scott, 1989). A vegetation map of the park has been produced 
(McKay, 1973) based on aerial photographs taken in 1956 and published by the Ceylon Survey 
Department (Scale 1: 31680). More recent material is available. 

Fauna A total of 32 species of terrestrial mammals has been recorded in the Gai Oya region 
(McKay, 1973). The most prominent species are common langur Presbytis entellus, endemic 
toque macaque Macaca sinica, leopard Panthera pardus (T), sloth bear Melursus ursinus (I), 
elephant Elephas maximus (E), wild boar Sus scrofa, three species of deer and water buffalo 
Biitalus bubalis (E). The size of the elephant population, estimated at 260-300 animals 
including adult males (McKay, 1973), has probably remained much the same over the last ten 
years, although in Gal Oya Valley North-East Sanctuary numbers may have decreased by about 
160 (Vancuylenberg, 1974) to just under 100 elephants (Ishwaran, 1981). 

Of the more than 300 species of birds which occur regularly in Sri Lanka, 150 have been observed 
in the Gal Oya region (McKay, 1973). Particularly noteworthy is red-faced malkoha Phoeni- 
cophaeus pyrrhocephalus, endemic to Sri Lanka and South India, and endemic Sri Lanka 
spurfowl Galloperdixbicalcarata (Atapattu and Wickremasinghe, 1974). The endemic painted 
francolin Francolinus pictus ssp., for which this area is the last refuge (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



comm., 1989), and brown-capped babbler Pellorneiun fuscocapillum are also present. Two 
ecological categories of birds deserve mention. First are the large numbers of fish-eating birds 
which occur in and around the tanks. Besides the numerous pelicans (notably Pelecanus 
philippensis), cormorants (three species), herons and fishing eagles (Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus 
and Haliaeetus leucogaster), there are large numbers of Brahminy kites Haliastur Indus around 
Senanayake Samudra and the occasional migrant osprey Pandion haliaetus. The second group 
consists of frugivorous birds, such as hombills Tockus griseus and Anthracoceros coronatus, 
pigeons Ducula aena and Treron spp., parrots Psittacula spp. and Loriculus beryllinus, and 
barbets Megalaima spp. 

Among the reptiles present, mugger Crocodylus palustris (V) is locally common in tanks and 
irrigation ditches and common monitor Varanus bengalensis is abundant in drier areas. Rat 
snakes Ptyas mucosas, python Python molurus (V) and the venomous snakes Naja naja and 
Vipera russelli are common. Several species of gekko are present and agamids Calotes spp. and 
s\a.vkMabuya sp. are abundant. Freshwater turtles Melanochelys trijuga and Lissemys punctata 
are numerous in irrigation canals, and star tortoise Testudo elegans is present. Amphibians 
include Bufo melanostictis, Rana tigrina, R. limnocharis,R. gracilis and Rhacophorus cruciger 
(McKay, 1973). Freshwater fish include mainly Wallago attu valleya, and introduced carps 
(Cyprinidae), gouramis (Belontiidae) and Tilapia mossambica. Of the invertebrate fauna, only 
those forms of particular importance to the elephant, such as termites and biting arthropods, are 
mentioned by McKay. 

Cultural Heritage Gal Oya is the only valley in Sri Lanka which can claim to have given 
shelter to Sinhala kings in three different locations; namely to King Tissa at Digha Vapi in the 
2nd century BC, to King Buvanekabahu on the summit of Govindahela in the 13th century, and 
to the self-proclaimed King Dore Swamy at Nilgala in the 19th century. The Digha Vapi Dagoba, 
built in the 2nd century BC to mark the spot where the Lx)rd Buddha is supposed to have sat 
during his last visit to Sri Lanka, attracts thousands of pilgrims (Szechowycz, 1958). The hilly 
country in the west was one of the last strongholds of the Veddas. Henebedde Cave near 
Vadinagala has a drip ledge and contains a Brahmin inscription (Hoffmann, 1978). Near the 
cave are a moonstone, guardstone and balustrade stone. Ruins of an ancient stnjcture are close 
by. 

Local Human Population The park is uninhabited, the small settlement of aboriginal Veddas 
on the northern boundary having been evacuated. Some 2,000 villagers lived in the neighbour- 
ing Gal Oya South- West Sanctuary in 1954; subsequent efforts by the authorities to resettle 
them have so far failed. The valley area below the reservoir has been developed intensively for 
agricultural purposes under the Gal Oya Development Scheme begun in 1949. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The park is largely undeveloped for tourism. Accommodation 
is not available within any of the protected areas, but there is a Wildlife Department bungalow 
at Engal Am and rest houses are available outside the paric at Inginiyagala and Amparai. Boats 
can be hired on Senanayake Samudra. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Extensive research was conducted in 1967-1969 (McKay, 
1973) as part of an elephant study programme organised by the Smithsonian Institute. Sub- 
sequent work has also been focused on the elephant population (Vancuylenberg, 1977; Ishwaran, 
1981, 1983). There are no research facilities. 



208 



Sri Lanka 

Conservation Value The park was established to protect the catchment area of the Senanayake 
Samudra, constructed as part of a development scheme to open up some 162,000ha of forest for 
agricultural and industrial purposes. It is considered to be among the most scenically beautiful 
landscapes in Sri Lanka (Hoffinann, 1973). Senanayake Samudra supports an important fishery, 
with fish production estimated at 873 metric tonnes per year, and is a valuable source of water 
for irrigation (Scott, 1989). 

Conservation Management The paric is buffered by sanctuaries on all but its western 
boundary. Nilgala Jungle Corridor in the north-west is planned to provide a route for elephants 
moving between Gal Oya and Maduru Oya national parks. Similarly, in the south, a corridor 
for elephants is proposed, to link Gal Oya and Yala East national parks via Lahugala-Kitulana 
National Park. These corridors were planned some ten years back but no progress has been 
made in recent years. 

Management Constraints Subsistence hunting, collection of food, medicinal products and 
fuelwood from the forests and cattle grazing are traditional activities of the local people. Burning 
of grasslands to improve pastures for cattle, illicit gemming along water bodies, collection of 
rattan and poaching are particular problems. Inadequate protection of the catchment area from 
settlement and gemming has led to massive erosion and siltation of the Senanayake Samudra 
(Department of Wildlife Conservation, pers. comm., 1990). A joint venture between the 
Department of Wildlife Conservation and a private company (Tiger Tops Jungle Lodge) to 
construct a 50-bed safari lodge in the park (Atapattu and Wickremasinghe, 1974) was approved 
by the Cabinet, but subsequently shelved following objection by the Wildlife and Nature 
Protection Society (Fernando, 1983). 

Staff Park warden with a staff of 41, including 4 game rangers (1985) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Park Warden, Gal Oya National Park, IDQ 2, Inginiyagala, Amparai 

References 

Alwis, L. de (1978). Some wild life reserves in danger of destruction. Department of Wildlife 

Conservation, Colombo. Unpublished report. 5 pp. 
Atapattu, S. and Wickremasinghe, C.S. (1974). Sri Lanka's Gal Oya National Park: aspects and 

prospects. Biological Conservation 6: 219-222. 
Fernando, R. (1983). WUdlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Personal 

communication to G. Lucas. WWF, Kew Gardens, UK. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1973). The Gal-Oya National Park. Loris 13: 70-79. 
Ishwaran, N. (1981). Comparative study on elephant populations in Gal Oya, Sri Lanka. Biological 

Conservation^: 303-313. 
Ishwaran, N. (1983). Elephant and woody-plant relationships in Gal Oya, Sri Lanka. Biological 

Conservationld: 255-270. 
McKay, G.M. (1973). Behaviour and ecology of the Asiatic elephant in southeastern Ceylon. 

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 125: 1-109. 
Norris, C.E. (1956). A new wildlife reserve in Ceylon: Gal Oya National Park and sanctuaries. 

Oryx 3: 212-213. 
Panabokke, C.R. (1967). Soils of Ceylon and fertiliser use. Ceylon Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Colombo. 



209 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Scott, D. A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Szechowycz, R.W. (1958). The past history of Gal Oya Valley. Loris 8: 87-93. 

Vancuylenberg, B.W.B (1974). The feeding behaviour of the Asiatic elephant in south-eastern 
Ceylon. M.Sc. thesis. University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya. 

Vancuylenberg, B.W.B (1974). Feeding behaviour of the Asiatic elephant in relation to conserva- 
tion. Biological Conservation 12: 33-54. 



Date May 1986, updated September 1990 



GIANT'S TANK SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Gey lonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated on the coastal plain of north-western Sri Lanka, about 5km 
from the sea near Murukkan, 18km south-east of Mannar, Mannar District, Northern Province. 
8°52'N, 80°02'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary on 24 September 1954. 

Area 3,941 ha 

Land Tenure The tank is state owned; surrounding areas are panly state owned and partly 
private. 

Altitude Less than 25m 

Physical Features The sanctuary includes an ancient tank (water storage reservoir), now 
heavily silted. The tank is fed by an ancient canal, recently restored, which carries water firom 
Malwatu Oya River (Aruvi Aru). It has a catchment area of 9,850 ha, a maximum depth of 3.2m, 
and a pH of 7.5. The water level fluctuates widely according to irrigation needs and monsoon 
rainfall. 

Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal with mean annual rainfall of 1051mm and mean 
annual temperature of 27.8°C. 

Vegetation The tank is surrounded by rice paddies and dry scrub forest. There are few aquatic 
macrophytes; the phytoplankton includes Oscillatoria, Microcystis and Hyella. 

Fauna Elephant Elephas maximus (E) occurs in the vicinity of the tank. Details of the avifauna 
are limited. An estimated 11,0(X) ducks were present in 1965, including 1,000 cotton pygmy 
goose Nettapus coromandelianus. In February 1984, 1,800 wigeon Anas penelope and 1,100 
garganey A. querquedula were recorded. Comb duck Sarkidiornis melanotos has been reported. 



210 



Sri Lanka 



Commercially important fishes include Labeo dussumieri, Puntius sarana (abundant), Puntitius 
dorsalis, Ompok bimaculatus, Heteropneustes fossilis, Tilapia mossambica and Ophicephalus 
striatus. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The tank is used for fishing, as a domestic water supply and for 
irrigation. It supports an important fishery; production is estimated at about 200 metric tonnes 
per year. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities Some studies have been carried out at the tank, mainly on 
the fisheries. 

Conservation Value The tank is known to be important for a variety of waterfowl and 
shorebirds. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints Siltation, due to forest clearance in surrounding areas, and eutro- 
phication are the main problems. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date September 1990 



HAKGALA STRICT NATURAL RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category I (Strict Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies 6km south-east of Nuwara Eliya in Central and Uva provinces. 
6*53'-6'57'N, 80°46'-80°50'E 

Date and History of Establishment Designated a strict natural reserve on 25 February 1938. 
The adjacent botanical gardens were founded in 1860. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Area l,142ha. Contiguous to Hakgala Botanical Gardens 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from about 1 ,650m to 2, 178m, at the top of Hakgala Peak. 

Physical Features The reserve lies on the south bank of the Sita-EIiya and consists almost 
entirely of the Hakgala massif with its three prominent peaks, among the highest in the country. 
These are said to resemble the jaw of an elephant, hence the Sinhalese name hak (jaw) and gala 
(rock) (Alex Sylva, 1986). Soils are red-yellow podzols. 

Climate Mean annual rainfall is 2400mm. Rain falls on 211 days of the year (Meijer, 
1980/1981). 

Vegetation Consists of botanically-rich montane cloud forest which is noted for its endemic 
archaic Monimiaceae Hortonia floribunda and abundance of orchids. Common species are 
keena Calophyllum walkeri, Syzygium irotundifolium and Elaeocarpus montanus. The under- 
growth consists of various species of niloo Strobilanthes. Two forest types have been described: 
dwarf forest, characterised by low-growing species such as Osbeckia buxifolia; and a taller forest 
(10-20m), comprising Rhododendron zeylanicum and Actinodaphne speciosa (Meijer, 
1980/1981). 

Fauna Mammals include a variety of endemics such as purple-faced langur Presbytis senex, 
toque macaque Macaco sinica, Sri Lanka spiny rat Coelomys mayori, Sri Lanka bi-coloured rat 
Srilakmys ohiensis, Kelaart's long-tailed shrew Feroculusferoculus, Sri Lanka long-tailed shrew 
Crocidura miya and Pearson's long-clawed shrew Solisorex pearsoni (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 
1986). Other mammals include leopard Panthera pardus (T), fishing cat Felis viverrina, wild 
boar Sus scrofa, sambar Cervus unicolor, highland flying squirrel Ratufa macroura, large Sri 
Lanka flying squirrel Petauristapetaurista and grizzled pipistrcl Pipistrellns mordax. Elephant 
Elephas maximus (E) was still present in 1939 (Werner, 1988). 

Amphibian species include endemics such as Bufo kelaarti, Rhacophorus cruciger, R. micro- 
tympanum, Philautus schmardanus, Ramanella palmata and Microhyla zeylanica, along with 
Rana limnocharis and Hylarana temporalis. Among the noteworthy reptiles are the following 
endemics: Uropeltis melanogaster, Rhinophis blythi, Aspidura brachyorrhas, A. trachyprocta, 
viper Hypnale nepa, geckos such as Calotes nigrilabris, Cophotis ceylanica and Ceratophora 
stoddarti, and skinks such as Sphenomorphus striatopunctatus (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

The avifauna is varied and of high endemicity. Noteworthy species include mountain hawk 
eagle Spizaetus nipalensis, endemic junglefowl Gallus lafayettei, wood pigeon Columba tor- 
ringtoni, highland nightjar Caprimulgus indicus, endemic blue magpie Kitta ornata, endemic 
yellow-eared bulbul Pycnonotus penicillatus, endemic brown-capped hahhltr Pellorneumfits- 
cocapillum, endemic rufous babbler Turdoides rufescens, endemic dusky-blue flycatcher Mus- 
cicapa sordida, endemic Sri Lanka warbler Bradypterus palliseri, endemic Sri Lanka airenga 
Myiophonus blighi, spotted-winged thrush Zoothera spiloptera, blackbird Turdus merula and 
endemic hill white-eye Zosterops ceylonensis. Commoner birds include orange minivet Peri- 
crocotusflammeus, small minivet P. cinnamomeus, black bulbul Hypsipetes madagascariensis, 
common scimitar babbler Pomatorhinus horsfieldii, grey-headed flycatcher Culicicapa cey- 
lonensis, pied bush chat Saxicola caprata and scaly thrush Zoothera dauma. A large number 



212 



Sri Lanka 

of migrant bird species visit the area, of which the most interesting include India pitta Pitta 
brachyura, brown ^ycdXchtr Muscicapatatirostris, Kashmir red-breasted flycatcher M. subru- 
bra, Indian blue chat Erithacus brunneus, pied ground thrush Zoothera wardii, hill munia 
Lonchura kelaarti and large-billed waxbltr Phylloscopus magnirostris (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 
1986). 

Cultural Heritage Many prominent peaks are sites of Hindu worship. The nearby Sita Eliya, 
a Hindu temple, on the main Nuwara Eliya- Welimada road, has a tradition which goes back to 
the legend of Rama and Sita, the 'Ramayana' (Alex Sylva, 1986). 

Local Human Population The reserve was uninhabited, but huts and houses have been built 
by encroachers (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1989). 

Visitors and "Visitor Facilities There is a well-maintained trail to the summit, but no other 
facilities. There is a circuit bungalow belonging to the Department of Agriculture inside the 
botanical gardens. Hotel accommodation is available at Nuwara Eliya. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Scientific facilities are available at the botanical gardens. 

Conservation Value Hakgala is an important but isolated reserve for cloud forest, which 
supports a diverse fauna including a number of endemics. Its small size and isolation, however, 
jeopardise its long-term viability. 

Conservation Management The Department of Wildlife Conservation is in the process of 
evicting encroachers. 

Management Constraints Illicit felling by vegetable farmers (J. Banks, pers. comm., 1986; 
Werner, 1988a) and die-back of the cloud forest (Werner, 1988b) are threatening the existence 
of this small reserve. Restriction on entry to the reserve firom the botanical gardens is not 
enforced. 

Staff Five (1985) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Park Warden, Horton Plains National Park, Ohiya, via Haputala 

References 

Alex Sylva, J. (1986). Exploring the forest-cloud heights of Hakgala. Sri Lanka Wildlife 2: 21-23. 

Meijer, W. (1980/1981). The preservation and study of the montane flora of the Nuwara-Eliya 

region. Phyta 2: 21-24. 
Werner, W.L. (1988a). Human impact on natural environment in the Central Highlands of Sri 

Lanka. Uruversitas 30: 29-37. 
Werner, W.L. (1988b). Canopy dieback in the upper montane rain forests of Sri Lanka. Geo 

Journal 17: 245-248. 

Date April 1986, updated September 1988 



213 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



HIKKADUWA MARINE SANCTUARY, INCLUDING 
ROCKY ISLETS (AMBALANGODA) SANCTUARY 



lUCN Management Category 

Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary: IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Rocky Islets Sanctuary: IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.02.01 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies on the south-west coast in Southern Province, approximately 
65km south of Colombo and north of Galle. The marine sanctuary is located at 6°08'N, 80°05'E 
and Rocky Islets Sanctuary at 6°09'N, 80°08'E. 

Date and History of Establishment Created a marine sanctuary on 18May 1979 (Gazette No. 
37). The boundaries are based on those of a previous 'Fishery Protected' area declared under 
Section 26 of the Fisheries Ordinance on 3 March 1961 (Gazette No. 12304). Rocky Islets was 
previously declared a sanctuary on 25 October 1940 (Gazette No. 8675). The first steps towards 
establishing the area as a marine park have been taken by the National Aquatic Resources Agency 
(UNEP/IUCN, 1988). Protection is partial: whereas removal of coral, sand or other substance 
from the area is prohibited under the Crown Lands Ordinance, Sections 63 and 66 (Salm, 1975a), 
fish are not legally protected. The terrestrial parts of Rocky Islets Sanctuary are protected under 
the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance, Gazette No. 8675. 

Area 45ha, including Rocky Islets Sanctuary (1.2ha) 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Sea level 

Physical Features The reef at Hikkaduwa extends about 130m seawards before dropping 
sharply to soft substrate at 7- 10m. In the north the reef is separated from the shore by a 3-4m 
deep channel, whereas in the south the reef flat abuts direcdy onto the shore. Spur and groove 
formations are found on the seaward face of the reef, particularly in the southern part. Rocky 
Islets comprises a small cluster of rocks several hundred metres offshore. Just beyond Rocky 
Islets and at a depth of about 20m is a series of sandstone reefs, scattered with occasional coral 
colonies and gorgonians (Mergner and Scheer, 1974). Further details of the reef structure are 
given in UNEP/IUCN (1988). 

Climate No information 

Vegetation Rocky Islets is devoid of vegetation. Inshore, reefs feature a narrow band of 
seagrass before a Halimeda zone. On seaward slopes, the algae Halimeda and Caulerpa may 
be common (UNEP/IUCN, 1988). 



214 



Sri Lanka 



Fauna A full description of the coral fauna is given in UNEP/IUCN (1988). Coral reefs in the 
lee of Rocky Islets were still intact and flourishing in 1981; others were in less good condition 
(Jonklaas, 1981). The islets used to be an important roost for seabirds until the number of visiting 
holiday-makers increased. Fish are abundant and include a wide variety of reef species, with 
68 recorded to date (De Silva and Rajasuriya, 1985). 

Cultural Heritage None 

Local Human Population Rocky Islets is uninhabited but the coastal area is heavily populated 
as the reef lies off the holiday resort of Hikkaduwa. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The area receives numerous visitors as Hikkaduwa is a major 
tourist resort with about 150 hotels along the sea front. There are at least three dive operators 
(Hughes, 1985), organised boat tours, and excursions in glass-bottom boats (Jonklaas, 1981). 

Scientific Research and Facilities These are the only reefs in Sri Lanka which have received 
detailed biological study (Mergner and Scheer, 1974), and in 1985 they were surveyed by the 
National Aquatic Resources Agency. They were once visited by a student cruise ship (Jonklaas, 
1981), but educational use of the reefs has since lapsed (R.D.A. Burge, pers. comm., 1986). 

Conservation Value Hikkaduwa is of high scientific and recreational value. Rocky Islets was 
originally protected for its seabird colonies (De Silva and Rajasuriya, 1985). 

Conservation Management There is no management plan, but it has been recommended that 
the area should be managed as a marine paric, rather than sanctuary, with two zones for general 
use, one of which would cover Rocky Islets Sanctuary, and one for research (De Silva and 
Rajasuriya, 1985). Other recommendations are made by Jonklaas (1981). 

The sanctuary is not protected. Its boundaries were once demarcated by two buoys but these 
were swept away and have not been replaced since 1966 (De Silva and Rajasuriya, 1985). 
Supervision of the sanctuary should be the responsibility of the village council under the 
Department of Wildlife Conservation but there is currentiy no wardening (S.M. Wells, pers. 
comm., 1986). A sign in the grounds of the Coral Gardens Hotel indicates that spearfishing, 
and coral and shell collecting are prohibited. In early 1986, some fishermen using dynamite 
were apprehended as a result of action taken by one of the commercial diving operators. The 
reserve is mentioned in tourist leaflets but otherwise is not publicised (Hughes, 1985). 

Management Constraints Reefs in the lee of Rocky Islets Sanctuary were intact and flour- 
ishing in 1981, but there was some damage from recreational activities (Jonklaas, 1981). Fish 
collecting was taking place in the 1970s and Salm (1975b) noted a paucity of small, colourful 
reef fish of the type caught extensively for the aquarium trade. Visitor impact on the reefs may 
not be severe but damage to corals by breakage is evident (Hughes, 1985). Coral is damaged 
by boats, through anchoring and pollution in the reef lagoon. Damage to coral has also been 
recorded adjacent to a freshwater outiet polluted by coconut husk retting (De Silva and 
Rajasuriya, 1985). The reefs have apparentiy been stripped of shells; local shops, hotels and 
people sell both shells and corals (Jonklaas, 1981) although corals no longer seem to be sold on 
the beach (S.M. Wells, pers. comm., 1986); spiny lobster has also been overcollected by 
glass-bottom boat operators for sale to customers on board (De Silva, 1985). Spearfishing is 
common (Hughes, 1985) and the larger territorial fish are said to be scarce (Jonklaas, 1981). 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Seabirds no longer visit Rocky Islets Sanctuary due to excessive numbers of visitors. Coral 
quarrying is extensive in the region and many of the buildings use crushed corals as hard standing 
(Hughes, 1985); erosion of the coast is becoming a serious problem. 

Staff None 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses None 

References 

De Silva, M. W.R.N. (1985). Status of the coral reefs of Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the 5th 

International Coral Reef Congress, Tahiti 6: 515-518. 
De Silva, M.W.R.N. and Rajasuriya, A. (1985). Management plans for the proposed marine park 

at Hikkaduwa. Paper presented at 41st Annual Session of Sri Lanka Association for Advance- 
ment of Science, 9-13 December. 
Jonklaas, R. (1981). Hikkaduwa Reef Sanctuary. Lorn 15: 293-294. 
Hughes, T.G. (1985). Report to lUO^ Conservation Monitoring Centre on trip to Sri Lanka. 

Unpublished. 1 1 pp. 
Mergner, H. and Scheer, G. (1974). The physiographic zonation and the ecological conditions of 

some south Indian and Ceylon reefs. Proceedings of the 2nd International Coral Reef 

Symposium, Brisbane 2: 3-30. 
Salm, R.V. (1975a). Critical marine habitats of the northern Indian Ocean, including Sri Lanka, 

Western India and Pakistan. Unpublished report. 
Salm, R.V. (1975b). A preliminary survey of existing and potential marine parks and reserve sites 

in Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan. Paper distributed at the lUCN Regional Meeting on Marine 

Parks and Reserves, Teheran, 1975. 
UNEP/IUCN(1988). Coral reefs of the world. Volume 2. Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UKAJNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. Pp. 327-329. 

Date May 1986, updated December 1988 



HORTON PLAINS NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category D (National Park) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies about 32km south of Nuwara Eliya in the Central Highlands of 
Central Province. 6°47'-6*50'N, 80°46'-80°50'E 

Date and History of Establishment Upgraded to national park status on 16 March 1988, 
having previously been created a nature reserve on 5 December 1969. Like other catchments 
in the hills, the area had previously received some protection under an administrative order issued 
in 1873, which prohibited clearing and felling of forests above 5,000 ft (1,524m). This was 
based on the advice of the botanist Sir Joseph Hooker, who urged the then Colonial Government 
"to leave all Montane Forests above 5000 ft. undisturbed" (Wijewansa, 1983). The place is 



216 



Sri Lanka 

named after Sir Robert Horton, a former British Governor, who travelled to the area to meet the 
Ratemahatmaya of Sabaragamuwa Province in about 1836 (Anderson, 1982). 

Area 3,160ha. Adjoins the eastern edge of Peak Wilderness Sanctuary (22,380ha). 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from about 1,800m to 2,389m at the top of Kirigalpota. The plateau, at 
2,100m, is the highest tableland in Sri Lanka. 

Physical Features Horton Plains comprises a gently undulating highland plateau at the 
southern end of the central mountain massif of Sri Lanka. It is dominated to the north by Mount 
Totupolakanda (2,357m) and to the west by Mount Kirigalpota (2,389m), Sri Lanka's third and 
second largest peaks, respectively. Tributaries of three major rivers originate from within the 
reserve, the Mahaweli Ganga flowing to the north, the Kaleni Ganga to the west and Walawe to 
the south. Belihul Oya, a small stream feeding the Walawe, tumbles over a cliff as a large and 
spectacular waterfall. Rocks are of Archaean age, belonging to the high series of the pre-Cam 
brian, and include khondalites (metasediments) and chamokites. They have been subject to 
folding and plication on a vast scale in pre-Cambrian times (Jayasekera, 1970). The red-yellow 
podzols are characterised by a thick, black, organic layer at the surface (Wijewansa, 1983). 

Climate Annual rainfall in the region is about 2540mm (Wijewansa, 1983), but for Horton 
Plains may exceed 5000mm (Romayeke and Balasubramaniam, 1989). Rain occurs throughout 
most of the year but there is a dry season fix)m January to March. Temperatures are low, with 
an annual mean temperature of \3°C, and ground frost is common in February (Silva, 1982). 

Vegetation The plateau supports grassland fringed and interspersed with patches of dense 
montane cloud forest. The forest canopy grows to about 20m and is dominated by the endemic 
keena Calophyllum walkeri, in association with varieties of Myrtaceae (Syzygium rotundifolium 
and 5. sclerophyllum) and Lauraceae {Litsea, Cinnamomum and Actinodaphne speciosa). 
Strobilanthes spp. (Acanthaceae) dominate the undergrowth, except when in competition with 
dwarf bamboo {Indocalamus and Ochlandra spp.). The dense nature oi Strobilanthes vegetation 
inhibits the development of a herb layer. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa bushes characteristically grow 
along the forest margins and near the summits of mountains . ' Pamas ' or plains vegetation occurs 
above 1,500m. Tussock grasses, such as Chrysopogon zeylanicus and Cymbopogon conferti- 
florus, predominate except in damp hollows where pure stands of Chimonobambusa 
(Arundinaria) densifolia have developed. A rich herbaceous flora flourishes on the pamas with 
numerous species of both temperate (e.g. Ranunculus, Pedicularis, Senecio, Gentiana and 
Alchemilla) and tropical (e.g. Eriocaulon and the rare endemic daffodil orchid Ipsea speciosa) 
origin. Gordonia sp. and Rhododendron arboreum, now common on the plateau, have spread 
to Sri Lanka via the mountains of southern India from the Himalayas (Werner and Schweinfurth, 
1985). Ramayeke and Balasubramanian (1989) have recorded 54 woody species, of which 27 
(50%) are endemic to Sri Lanka, 21 (39%) are restricted to the forests of South India and Sri 
Lanka, and the remaining six species (11%) are ubiquitous to the forests of South-East Asia. 
The cloud forest features a number of wild relatives of cultivated plants, such as pepper, guava, 
tobacco and cardamon. 

The origin of the montane grasslands has long been debated (Chambers, 1980), some workers 
(Pearson, 1899; Holmes, 195 1; Werner, 1982; Wijewansa, 1983) opining that the grasslands are 



217 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

an artificial community created by forest clearance and maintained by burning, while others 
(Szechowycz, 1954; Rosayro, 1961 ; Hoffmann, 1987) consider them to be the natural vegetation 
of these uplands. Such opposing views are to some extent reconciled by Perera (1969) who 
maintains that the grasslands comprise several communities, those of dry slopes having been 
created by forest clearance and maintained by burning and grazing, and those of depressions 
being natural communities where conditions are too wet to allow the development of forest. 
Frost and soil erosion may be additional limiting factors (Werner, 1982). 

Fauna Elephant Elephas maximns (E) disappeared from the region some 50 years ago, or 
earlier. Mammals which still occur in reasonable numbers include Kelaart's long-clawed shrew 
Feroculusferoculus (a monotypic genus endemic to the montane regions of Sri Lanka), slender 
loris Loris tardigradus (absent from neighbouring Peak Wilderness Sanctuary), endemic toque 
macaque Macaca sinica, purple-faced langur Presbytis vetulus, rusty-spotted cat Felis rubigi- 
nosus, fishing catF. viverrinus, leopard Pantherapardus (T) (estimated at 30 individuals), wild 
boar 5M.S scrofa, otter Lutra lutra, stripe-necked mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Indian spotted 
chevrotain Tragulus meminna, Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, sambar Cervus unicolor and 
long-tailed giant squirrel Ratufa macroura (Werner and Schweinfuith, 1985; Wilson, 1988). 

The contiguous areas of Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and Horton Plains National Park contain 
all 21 bird species endemic to Sri Lanka, of which the following are recorded only for Horton 
Plains : Sri Lanka blue magpie Kitta ornata, dusky blue flycatcher Muscicapa sordida, Sri Lanka 
white-eye Zosterops ceylonensis and Sri Lanka wood pigeon Columba torringtoni (Werner and 
Schweinfurth, 1985). Other endemics include Sri Lanka spurfowl Galloperdix bicalcarata, Sri 
Lanka junglefowl Gallns lafayettei, yellow-fiionted barbet Pycnontus penicillatus, rufous bab- 
bler Turoides rufescens, Palliser's warbler Bradypterus palliseri and Bligh's whistling tiirush 
Myiophoneus blighi (J.D.N. Banks, pers. comm., 1986). Numerous birds overwinter in the 
highlands, migrating from Europe and northern Asia. Swifdet Collocalia sp. and Alpine swift 
can be seen circling over the patnas, as can various raptors such as crested serpent eagle Spilornis 
cheela and mountain hawk eagle Spizaetus nipalensis, black-winged kite Elanus caeruleus, 
peregrine Falco peregrinus, and various species of harriers and buzzards. 

Among reptiles are snake Aspidura brachyorrhos and the widespread agamid Calotus nigrila- 
bris. 

The only fish is the introduced rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. The distribution of the endemic 
freshwater shrimp Caridina singhalensis is believed to be confined to a 10km stretch of river 
within Uie park (Silva, 1982). 

Cultural Heritage Stone tools dating back to the Balangoda culture of prehistoric times have 
been found in the area. The Sinhalese settied in the lowlands up to an altitude of 700m, 
sometimes frequenting higher altitudes to dig for gems or iron ore, graze cattie, construct 
irrigation canals and fell trees for timber. Several pamas existed at that time in regions above 
1,800m (W. Baker, cited in Werner, 1982). 

Local Human Population None 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Accommodation is available at Ginihiriya (Anderson) Lodge 
and Farr Inn (an old hunting lodge built by Thomas Farr early this century and now run by die 



218 



Sri Lanka 



Ceylon Hotels Corporation), and there is a rest house belonging to the Department of Wildlife 
Conservation. Camping and fishing is allowed on a permit basis. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Faunal studies include research on purple-faced langiu- 
(Rudran, 1979) and freshwater shrimp (Silva, 1982). The structure of the vegetation and 
die-back phenomenon has been examined by Werner (1988) and Ramayeke and Balasubrama- 
niam (1989). 

Conservation Value Horton Plains, its surrounding forests and the adjoining Peak Wilderness, 
constitute Sri Lanka's most important catchment area. The plains are also of outstanding scenic 
beauty and conservation importance, containing most of the habitats and endemic plants and 
animals representative of the country's wet and montane zones (Hoffmann, 1987). The western 
slopes support the most extensive area of montane cloud forest surviving in the country (Werner 
and Schweinfurth, 1985). 

Conservation Management Horton Plains formed part of a large system of similar plains and 
dense forest including the Bopats, Agrapatnas, and Moon and Elk plains, which were discovered 
by British residents at the beginning of the last century. Between 1831 and independence in 
1948, Horton Plains became hunting grounds for sambar and, to a lesser extent, elephant and 
wild boar. During this time the lower slopes were gradually cleared and converted to coffee and 
subsequentiy tea plantations; Horton Plains and Peak Wilderness are now isolated by a contigu- 
ous belt of plantations and settiements. In the late 1960s the Department of Agriculture 
established an extensive seed potato farm. About half of the open plains were under potato 
cultivation by 1977, when the farm was closed down. Potato fields have since reverted to 
grassland but former land use practices remain evident (Hoffmann, 1987). Following the recent 
upgrading of Horton Plains to national park status, there are plans to re-introduce the elephant 
(Wilson, 1988). 

Management Constraints A fairly recent phenomenon, first observed in Totupolakanda and 
reported by Perera ( 1 978), is the dying of the cloud forest on all peripheral aspects of the plateau 
(Ratnayeke and Balasubramaniam, 1989). This has reached serious proportions, with a 50% 
reduction of forest cover in some places (Hoffmann, 1988a). Water deficit is believed to be the 
main cause of the die-back, droughts having become noticeably more frequent during the last 
few decades. Regeneration of cloud forest is impeded by frost, which may be becoming 
increasingly more severe (Werner, 1988; Ratnayeke and Balasubramaniam, 1989). Other 
problems include increasing distiu-bance from visitors, poaching deer for meat, increased 
gemming around Governor's Pool, annual fires caused by miscreants and localised spread of 
introduced exotics such as black wattle Acacia mollissima (Hoffmann, 1987, 1988a; Wilson, 
1988). 

Staff One park warden, one deputy park warden, two wildlife range assistants, eight wildlife 
guards and ten ancillary staff, housed since the 1970s in the old potato plantation workers 
buildings. 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Park Warden, Horton Plains National Park, Ohiya, via Haputala 



219 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



References 

Anderson, G. (1946). Horton Plains. Lorn 4: 307-308. (Unseen) 

Anderson, G. (1982). Horton Plains. Loris 16: 7. 

Chambers, M.R. (1980). Horton Plains - to bum or not to bum. Loris 15: 181-183. 

Gramen, L.H. (1977). The significance of the indigenous flora in the areas of the Mahaweli 

complex. Sri Lanka Forester 13: 9-18. 
Hoffmann, T. (1986). Horton Plains: bring back the elephants. Sri Lanka Wildlife 3/4: 13. 
Hoffmann, T. (1987). The Horton Plains. Unpublished report. 6 pp. 
Hoffmann, T. (1988a). Horton Plains. Unpublished report. 3 pp. 
Hoffmann, T. (1988b). Report on the southern and western boundaries of the Peak Wilderness 

Sanctuary. Unpublished report to Secretary, Ministry of State. 10 pp. 
Holmes, C.H. (1951). The grass, fern and savannah lands of Ceylon. Their nature and ecological 

significance. Paper No. 28. Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford. 
Jayasekera, R.D.B. (1970). Horton Plains. Loris 12: 79-81. 
Pearson, H.W. (1899). The botany of the Ceylon montane grasslands. Journal of the Linnaean 

Society 34: 300-325 and 35: 430-463. 
Perera, W.R.H. (1978). Thotupolakanda - an environmental disaster? Sri Lanka Forester 13: 

53-55. 
Ratnayeke, S. and Balasubramaniam, S. (1989). The stmcture and floristic composition of the 

montane forest in the Horton Plains, Sri Lanka. Institute of Fundamental Studies, Colombo, Sri 

Lanka Unpublished report. 14 pp. 
Rosayro, de R.A. (1961). The nature and origin of secondary vegetational communities in Ceylon. 

Ceylon Forester 5: 23-49. 
Rudran, R. (1970). Aspects of die ecology of two subspecies of purple-faced langurs {Prebytis 

senex). M.Sc. thesis. University of Ceylon, Colombo. 211pp. (Unseen) 
Rudran, R. (1979). Whoops! Animal Kingdom %2{5): 19-22. 
Silva, de K.H.G. (1982). Aspects of the ecology and conservation of Sri Lanka's endemic freshwater 

shrimp Caridina singhalensis. Biological Conservation 24: 219-231. 
Szechowycz, R.W. (1954). Some observations on climate, soil and forest climax. Ceylon Forester 

1:131-141. 
Werner, W.L. (1982). The upper montane rain forests of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Forester\5:\\9-\29. 
Werner, W.L. (1988). Canopy dieback in the upper montane rain forests of Sri Lanka. Geo Journal 

17: 245-248. 
Werner, W.L. and Schweinfurth, U. (1985). Naturreservate im Hochland der Insel Ceylon (Sri 

Lanka): Peak WUdemess imd Horton Plains. Natur und Museum 115: 65-76. 
Wijewansa, R.A. (1983). Horton Plains: a plea for preservation. Loris 16: 188-191. 
Wilson, J. (1988). Sri Lanka declares a new national park. Ory* 22: 193-194. 



Date May 1986, updated September 1990 



HURULU FOREST RESERVE 



lUCN Management Category VIU and IX (Multiple Use Management Area and Biosphere 
Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies within Hurulu Forest between mile j)osts 120 and 122, along the 
Trincomalee-Colombo main road in Nordi Central Province. 08*05 '-08*20'N, 80'47 '-80*55 'E 



220 



Sri Lanka 

Date and History of Establishment Part of the forest reserve was declared a biosphere reserve 
in January 1977. 

Area The 5 12ha biosphere reserve is surrounded by some 25,500ha of forest reserve. 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from 90m to 150m. 

Physical Features The terrain of the forest reserve is flat to gently undulating and forms a 
long, shallow basin between discontinuous parallel ridges to the east and west. Main rock types 
are crystalline limestones, quartzites and chamockites. The whole of the central basin is drained 
by the Alut Oya, Halmilla Oya and Gal Oya (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Climate Mean annual rainfall is 1600mm. Mean annual temperature is 27.3°C. 

Vegetation The forest reserve contains tropical dry evergreen forest, with a typically layered 
structure comprising an upper canopy of moderately large trees, a sub-canopy and a distinct herb 
layer. The upper canopy is comparatively dense, about 15-20m in height and interrupted at 
intervals by emergents, of which satin Chloroxylon swietenia and palu Manilkara hexandra are 
typical. Other common species are wira Hemicyclia sepiaria, which comprises about 30% of 
the trees in the forest, ebony Diospyros ebenwn, penela Sapindus emarginatus, kuma Glenica 
unijuga, v/clang Pterospermum canescens, milla Vitex pinnata and halmilla fierrya cordifolia. 
The sub-canopy is characterised by species such as korakaha Memecyclon spp., kunumella 
Diospyros ovalifolia and weliwenna Dimorphocalyx glabellus (M. Jansen, pers. comm. 1986). 
Some 17 shrub species have been identified, together with 41 herbaceous species, of which the 
orchid Dendrobium maccarthiae is noteworthy. 

Fauna Mammals include pygmy white-toothed shrew Suncus etruscus, common langur 
Presbytis entellus, endemic toque macaque Macaca sinica, loris Loris tardigradus, sloth bear 
Melursus ur sinus (I), jackal Canis aureus, rusty-spotted cat Felis rubiginosus, Indian fishing cat 
F. viverrina, Indian grey mongoose Herpestes edwardsi, Indian brown mongoose H.fuscus, 
ruddy mongoose H. smithi, leopard P anther a pardus (T), elephant Elephas maximus (E), water 
buffalo Bubalus bubalis (E), wild boar Sus scrofa, Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, sambar 
Cervus unicolor, spotted deer C. axis, porcupine Hystrix indica, pangolin Manis crassicaudata, 
black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis and bandicoot rat Bandicota sp. (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 
1986). 

The avifauna includes mainly forest species such as endemic Sri Lanka junglefowl Gallus 
lafayettei, rare rufous woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus, endemic spiufowl Galloperdix 
bicalcarata, blue-faced malkoha Rhopodytes viridirostris, raquet-tailed drongo Dicrurus para- 
diseus, grey hombill Tockus griseus and Malabar pied hombill Anthracocerus coronatus (M. 
Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The reserve is uninhabited. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 



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Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value The forest fauna includes a variety of endemic birds. 

Conservation Management The site is partially protected under the provisions of the Forest 
Ordinance. The forest reserve surrounding the biosphere reserve acts as a buffer zone. About 
3,000ha of the forest reserve has been replanted with exotic teak Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus 
camaludensis and the indigenous margosa Azaradicta indica (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Management Constraints Areas within the reserve have been logged and are subject to chena 
(shifting cultivation). 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Divisional Forest Officer, North Central Division, Trincomalee 

References 

Bharathie, K.P. (1979). Man and biosphere reserves in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Forester 14: 37-40. 
lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (1986). Biosphere reserves. Compilation 4. Unesco, Paris. 
P. 355. 

Date August 1986, updated December 1988 



KALAMETIYA KALAPUWA SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.02.01 (Ceylonese Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Lies on the south coast, about 20km west of Hambantota, Hambantota 
District, Southern Province. 6°05'-6°06'N, 80°56'-80'59'E 

Date and History of Establishment Renotified a sanctuary on 28 June 1984 after a prolonged 
campaign by conservation bodies, having originally been declared a sanctuary in 1940 and 
subsequently de-notified in 1946 because of opposition from local people. 

Area 712ha 

Land Tenure The lagoons are state owned; surrounding areas are partly state owned and partly 
private. 

Altitude Sea level 



222 



Sri Lanka 



Physical Features The wetland comprises two coastal lagoons west of the mouth of the 
Walawe Ganga. Lunama Kalapuwa is a brackish lagoon with extensive mangrove swamps; 
Kalametiya Kalapuwa is a permanent, slightly brackish lagoon with abundant aquatic vegetation 
and a mangrove fringe. Both are fed by several small streams, and have maximum depths of 
2-3m. 

Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal. 

Vegetation Includes mangrove swamps at both lagoons, and reed beds and abundant sub- 
merged aquatic vegetation at Kalametiya Kalapuwa. The mangrove vegetation at Kalametiya 
is in good condition, with a full range of successional stages. There are rice paddies, other 
cultivated land, grassland, scrub and coconut plantations in surrounding areas. 

Fauna Kalametiya Kalapuwa supports breeding colonies of pelicans, herons, egrets, and 
open-billed stork Anastomus oscitans, and large wintering populations of migratory ducks and 
shorebirds. It is the only place in Sri Lanka where glossy ibis Plegadis falcinellus has been 
regularly reported in recent years. A flock of 26 was observed in 1982, and smaller numbers- 
have been reported on several occasions since then. Some 5,000 ducks were recorded in January 
1983, but few were present in the following year, presumably because of heavy hunting pressure. 
Waterfowl recorded during mid-winter censuses in 1986, 1987 and 1988 included 560 herons 
and egrets of nine species (mainly cattle egret Bubulcus ibis and little egret Egretta garzetta) 
and 2,000 garganey Anas querquedula, 1,000 American golden plover Pluvalis dominica and 
1 ,000 Mongolian plover Charadrius mongolus. At least 1 7 other species of migratory shorebirds 
have been recorded in small numbers. 

Lunama Kalapuwa is also an important wintering area for migratory ducks and shorebirds, 
although numbers are usually much smaller than at Kalametiya. Waterfowl recorded during 
mid- winter censuses in January 1987 and January 1988 included 1,200 garganey, along with 
small numbers of five species of herons and egrets, 13 species of migratory shorebirds and four 
species of terns. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Activities include fishing, especially for prawns, shifting cultiva- 
tion, rice cultivation and excavation of shells in adjacent areas. The lagoons formerly supported 
important prawn fisheries, but these have declined in recent years. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The nearest accommodation is at Tangalla, some 1 6km distant. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Mid-winter waterfowl censuses have been carried out in 
recent years. The Ministry of Fisheries maintains a circuit bungalow at the nearby village of 
Gurupokuna. 

Conservation Value Both Kalametiya Kalapuwa, in particular, and Lunama Kalapuwa arc 
important wetlands for both resident and migratory waterfowl. 

Conservation Management No information 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Management Constraints The area of open water in both lagoons has decreased by more than 
50% during the past 30 years, mainly because of siltation. Further growth of mangroves at 
Kalametiya has accelerated the process of siltation. Other threats include disturbance from 
fishing activities, excavation of mollusc shells for use in lime kilns, reclamation of land for rice 
cultivation, and pollution by pesticides originating from the agricultural Walawe Development 
Scheme to the north. Excessive hunting was reported to be a problem prior to re-notification of 
the Sanctuary in 1984. 

During the late 1950s or early 1960s, excess freshwater from Uda Walawe Reservoir was 
diverted into Kalametiya Kalapuwa. Subsequently, a groyne and canal were constructed to 
ensure drainage of water from the lagoon into the sea. As a result, the salinity was permanently 
depressed and the recruitment of penaeid prawn post-larvae and fish severely obstructed. The 
fishery that existed prior to these changes collapsed, and now fishing is only a marginally 
important subsistence activity. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, S witzeriand and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date September 1990 



KOKILAI SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated on the north-east coast, south-east of Nayaru Lagoon and 
north-west of Pulmoddai, MuUaitivu and Trincomalee districts. Northern and Eastern provinces. 
8°56'-9°03'N, 80°52'-80°58'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary on 18 May 1951. 

Area Full Supply Level (approximately 2,995ha) 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Sea level 

Physical Features Kokilai is a large estuarine lagoon with extensive seagrass beds and some 
small patches of mangrove swamp and mudflats, particularly along the western and southern 

224 



Sri Lanka 



shores. The lagoon is fed by several small streams and is Unked to the sea by a narrow, seasonally 
tidal channel. For much of the year the channel is blocked by a sand bar. The maximum depth 
near the mouth of the channel is about four metres. The water is brackish, with the salinity 
increasing to about 30 p.p.t. seasonally. 

Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal. 

Vegetation There are extensive seagrass beds and some mangrove swamps. The lagoon is 
surrounded by cultivated land and scrub, with some patches of open forest. 

Fauna Waterfowl include pelicans, cormorants, herons, egrets, storks, ducks and migratory 
shorebirds, but no recent information is available. The lagoon was once famous as a wintering 
area for large numbers of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population The lagoon is situated in a densely populated region with many 
small villages. Activities include prawn fishing, rice cultivation and some shifting cultivation 
in surrounding areas. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value The lagoon is known to be a very important site for a wide variety of 
waterfowl. 

Conservation Management The degree of protection is reportedly very low. 

Management Constraints In some years, the connection with the sea remains permanendy 
blocked by a sand bar, preventing recruitment of penaeid post-larvae. Regular marinal breaching 
is required to sustain shrimp productivity. Parts of the lagoon are used for aquaculture, and the 
adjacent patches of forest are being cleared for cultivation. The lagoon supports a major prawn 
fishery. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date September 1990 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



LAHUGALA KITULANA NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category n (National Park) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies in the basin of the Heda Oya, 16kni inland from the coastal town 
of Pottuvil in Eastern Province. The Pottuvil-Moneragala trunk road runs through the south- 
eastern sector of the park. 6'53'-6°55'N, 8r40'-8r42'E 

Date and History of Establishment Created a national park on 31 October 1980, having 
originally been established as a sanctuary on 1 July 1966. 

Area l,554ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude No information 

Physical Features The terrain is flat with occasional rock outcrops. The park features three 
tanks, Lahugala (243ha), Kitulana and Sengamuwa, which ultimately drain into the Heda Oya. 
These tanks are largely silted up and support an abundance of beru grass. 

Climate Mean annual rainfall is 1650mm (McKay, 1973). There are two dry periods: from 
May to October and from mid- January to March. The north-east monsoon lasts from November 
to the end of December (Banks and Banks, 1985). 

Vegetation Lying in the dry zone, the vegetation surrounding the tanks is dry mixed evergreen 
forest with scrub. Common species include weera Drypetes sepiaria, palu Manilkara hexandra, 
halmilla Berrya cordifolia, milla Vitex pinnata, satin Chloroxylon swietenia and ehala Cassia 
fistula. Beru Sacciopelsis interrupta, a tall reedy grass, covers the tanks. Rivers are fringed by 
gallery forest. 

Fauna Lahugala is traditionally used as a feeding ground by elephant Elephas maximus (E). 
Herds of up to 150, attracted by the beru grass, were a common sight at Lahugala Tank during 
July and August in the 1980s (G.V. Samarkoon, pers. comm.). Other mammals include endemic 
toque macaque Macaca sinica, common langar Presbytis entellus, sloth hear Meliwsus ursinus 
(I), jackal Canis aureus, rusty-spotted cat Felis rubiginosa, fishing cat F. viverrina, leopard 
Panthera pardus (T), wild boar Sus scrofa, Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, spotted deer 
Cervus axis, sambar C unicolor, pangolin Manis crassicaudata and black-naped hare Lepus 
nigricollis. 

The avifauna is diverse and includes a variety of waterfowl, and the usual dry zone forest birds. 
Wetland species include pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus, purple heron Ardea purpurea, painted 
stork Mycteria leucocephala, lesser adjutant stork Leptoptilos javanicus, teal Anas sp., white- 



226 



Sri Lanka 

bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster, grey-headed fishing eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus, 
common kingfisher Alcedo attfus, stork-billed kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis and white- 
breasted kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis. The last recorded sighting of comb duck Sarlddiornis 
melanota, now thought to be extinct in Sri Lanka, was at Lahugala (Banks and Banks, 1985). 
Other birds include the rare red-faced malkoha Phoenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus and the 
endemic Sri Lanka spurfowl Galloperdix bicalcarata. 

Amphibians include frogs such as the endemic Birfo athukoralei, Rana limnocharis, Rhacopho- 
rus maculatus, Kaloula pulchra and Microhyla rubra. Noteworthy reptiles include python 
Python molurus (V), rat snake Pytas mucosas, flying snakes Chrysopelea spp., cat snakes Boiga 
spp., whip snakes Dryophis spp. and Russell's viper Vipera russelli (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 
1986). 

Cultural Heritage Nearby is the historic site of Magulmahavihara, built for the occasion of 
King Kavantissas' marriage to Vihavamaha Devi. 

Local Human Population None within the park, but there is a small settlement on the 
boundary. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Accommodation was available at Lahugala Lodge, but this has 
been destroyed during the recent civil unrest. Other accommodation can be found at Pottuvil. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Some research on elephant ecology and behaviour was 
conducted in 1967-1969, as part of the Smithsonian Institute's elephant study programme 
(McKay, 1973). 

Conservation Value The paric constitutes one of Sri Lanka's smallest but most valuable 
conservation areas for elephants and endemic birds. 

Conservation Management It is proposed to create jungle corridors to link Lahugala with Gal 
Oya and Yala East national parks. 

Management Constraints Poaching, timber extraction for house construction, fiielwood 
collection and grazing by livestock persist on a limited scale (Department of Wildlife Conser- 
vation, pers. comm., 1990; Katugaha, 1982). A major potential threat is the proposed Heda Oya 
Scheme and development of the lower Uva Basin, which will result in an expansion of cultivated 
land and further isolate the park and its elephant population (Hoffmann, 1977). 

Staff Twenty staff, headed by a ranger (1985) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Park Warden, Lahugala, Amparai District 

References 

Banks, J. and Banks, J. (1985). Lahugala National Park. Ceylon Bird Club, Colombo. Unpub- 
lished fact sheet. 1 pp. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1977). Major threat to oldest wildlife reserve. Loris 14: 133-137. 
Katugaha, H.I.E. (1982). Lahugala revisited. Loris 16: 64, 65, 102. 



227 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

McKay, G.M. (1973). Behaviour and ecology of the Asiatic elephant in southeastern Ceylon. 
Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 125: 1-109. 

Date May 1986, updated September 1990 



MADURU OYA NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category n G^ational Paric) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location The park lies between the Polonnaruwa-Batticaloa road and Mahiy- 
angana-Padiyatalawa road in the districts of Amparai, Badulla and Polonnaruwa and spans the 
border between Eastern and Uva provinces. It is surrounded on the west and north by Mahaweli 
development areas and on the south and east by teak plantations and jungle, which is subjected 
to repeated slash-and-bum practices. Main access, from the north, is 25km by road from 
Mannampitiya, located on the Polonnaruwa-Batticaloa highway. 7°23'-7°35'N, 81*05'- 
8r20'E 

Date and History of Establishment Notified a national park on 9 November 1983 (Gazette 
No. 270/9) under the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance, having been acquired from crown 
lands pursuant to the Mahaweli Authority Act, 1979. 

Area 58,850ha. The park was extended in the east from its original size of 51,468ha on 
16 September 1985 (Gazette No. 367/3) in order to provide additional habitat for wildlife and 
to ensure protection of the immediate catchment of the NDK reservoir. It is proposed to link 
the park with Gal Oya National Park (25,900ha) in the south via Nilgala Jungle Coiridor 
(10,360ha). 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Most of the park lies between 30m and 150m. Maximum altitude is 685m. 

Physical Features Degradation of the pre-Cambrian rock has resulted in the formation of a 
mature mantled and undulating peneplain, broken by a number of prominent remnants of erosion 
(rock outcrops and ridges). The dominant topographic feature is the 8km-long range of rocky 
mountains in the south-west of the park. The geological regime comprises alluvium deposits 
and Miocene limestone. Red earth, relatively fertile but easily eroded, is the predominant soil 
type. Waterbodies, constituting over 15% of the park, include the Maduru Oya (6,100ha), 
Ulhitiya (2,300ha), Ratkinda (l,100ha), NDK (800ha) and Henanegala (700ha) reservoirs and 
tributaries of the Mahaweli and Maduru Oya river systems (MEP/DWLC, 1985, 1987a). 

Climate Conditions are influenced largely by the north-east monsoon, or Maha, which lasts 
from October to late-January. Mean annual rainfall is 1650mm. Annual evapotranspiration 
rates normally exceed precipitation levels. Mean annual temperature is about 27*C 
(MEP/DWLC, 1987a). 



228 



Sri Lanka 

Vegetation The park is located entirely within Sri Lanka's dry zone, although its southern edge 
borders on the intermediate zone. The climax community of the area is tropical dry mixed 
evergreen forest, characterised by weera Drypetes sepiaria, buruta (satin) Chloroxylon sweite- 
nia, palu Manilkara hexandra, velang Pterospermum canescens, divul (wood apple) Feronia 
limonia, ehela Cassia fistula and weliwenna Dimorphocalyx glabellas. However, a major part 
of the forest within the park had been heavily exploited in the past for shifting cultivation. This 
has resulted in areas of secondary vegetation and vast stretches of open plains, dominated by 
the grasses illuk Imperata cylindrica, guinea grass Panicum maximum and Pennisetum species. 
The herbaceous stage is succeeded by shrubs, such as Lantana camara, Ziziphus species and 
Cassia auriculata. The thicket stage is characterised by Trema rientalis. Among the first trees 
to appear is Pterospermum canescens, followed by Drypetes sepiaria and Manilkara hexandra. 
Madiu-a Oya Dam is surrounded by parkland, maintained by periodic fires. A rare and endemic 
tree Vatica obscura, the only species of the Dipterocarpaceae to occur in the dry zone, is found 
in restricted locations on the banks of the Maduru Oya and Gallodai Aru. A large plantation of 
teak Tectona grandis, an exotic, is included in the north-eastern part of the park (M. Jansen, 
pers. comm., 1985; MEP/DWLC, 1987a). 

Fauna The park is important for its rich wildlife, which includes a variety of endemic species. 
Threatened species of mammal include elephant Elephas maximus (E), of which there were 
150-250 prior to the park's establishment, sloth bear Melursus ursinus (I), leopard Panthera 
pardus (T) and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (E). Other mammals include slender loris Loris 
tardigradus, toque macaque Macaca sinica, a Sri Lankan endemic, common langur Presbytis 
entellus, jackal Canis aureus, fishing cat Felis viverrina, wild boar Sus scrofa, Indian muntjac 
Muntiacus muntjak, spotted deer Cervus axis and sambar C. unicolor. Small mammals include 
porcupine Hystrix indica, black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis, Indian pangolin Manis crassicau- 
data, squirrels, rats and mice. The rich aquatic avifauna includes painted stork Mycteria 
leucocephala, white-bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster, grey pelican Pelecanus philip- 
pensis, great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and little cormorant P. niger. Noteworthy forest 
species are the endemic Sri Lanka junglefowl Callus lafayettei, the rare broad-billed roller 
Eurystomus orientalis (possibly the only location in the dry zone), common tailor-bird Ortho- 
tomus sutorius, shama Copsychus malabaricus, black-hooded oriole Oriolus xanthornus and 
woodpecker Dendrocopos nanus. Red-faced malkoha Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus, en- 
demic to Sri Lanka and S. India, is also present. Reptiles include tortoise Geochelone elegans, 
common monitor Varanus bengalensis, water monitor V. salvator, python Python molurus (V), 
kiait Bungarus spp., common cobra No/a naja, mugger Crocodylus palustris (V) andestuarine 
crocodile C. porosus (E). Of fishes, barbs Barbus spp., giant gourami Osphronemus goramcy 
(possibly introduced), snakeheads Channa spp., catfish (Siluriformes) and tilapia Tilapia 
mossambica (an exotic) are predominant in the reservoirs (M. Jansen, 1984; M. Jansen, pers. 
comm., 1985; MEP/DWLC, 1987a). 

Cultural Heritage Ruins at Henanigala, KudawUa, Gurukumbura, Uluketangoda, Werapoku- 
na and several other places include ancient Buddhist shrines, temples, dagobas, statues and 
hermitages from different eras in Sri Lankan history. An ancient sluice on the old breached 
earthen bund of the Maduru Oya was discovered recently. The sluice, consisting of stone slabs 
and bricks, is about 30ft high, 30ft wide and 2 19ft long. The upper sluice was built in two stages, 
the first of which dates back to before the 6th century BC. The lower sluice is believed to be 
even older. Another ancient bund, known as Watawala Kandiya, is situated 23km south of the 
Maduru Oya Dam. Ruins of an ancient dewalaya are at Verapokuna in the south. Early Brahmin 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

inscriptions, fix)m the first to third century BC, have been discovered at Kandegamakanda 
(MEP/DWLC, 1985). 

Veddas, aboriginals, numbering less than a thousand people, lived in Kandeganwela, Kotatala- 
wa, Dambana and other places in the park prior to its declaration. The temple of Mahiyangana, 
of great religious significance to the Veddas, is located outside the park. The Veddas, believed 
to have descended from King Vijaya and Queen Kuwana, were present in Sri Lanka long before 
the arrival of the Sinhalese from India in 543 BC. Traditionally hunters and gatherers, they have 
increasingly relied on small scale cultivations for their livelihood (MEP/DWLC, 1985; Hemi- 
priya, 1985). Families living at Dambana have retained a traditional lifestyle to some extent 
(Uragoda, 1969). 

Local Human Population A few Vedda families still reside in the south-west of the park. 
Legal action has been taken and it is likely that they will be resettled in the Mahaweli area 
(Department of Wildhfe Conservation, pers. comm., 1990). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The park is due to be opened to the public shortly (Department 
of Wildlife Conservation, pers. comm., 1990). A full range of visitor facilities and accommo- 
dation are nearing completion. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Studies of the elephant population under WWF/IUCN 
Project 1783 (Ishwaran, 1985) were instrumental in the park's establishment. An environmental 
impact assessment, sponsored by US-AID, has been carried out by TAMS (1980). Further 
research requirements, as applied to management, have been identified (MEP/DWLC, 1985). 
The Open University of Colombo and the Eastern University, Batticaloa, are conducting studies 
on the flora and fauna (Scott, 1989), and the Department of Wildlife Conservation on the 
avifauna (S.R.B. Dissanayaka, pers. comm., 1990). Some facilities for scientists are available 
at Kandeganwila. 

Conservation Value As well as providing a refuge for wildlife, particularly elephants, this 
new park is designed to protect the immediate catchments of five reservoirs, developed under 
the Accelerated Mahaweli Programme. Conservation of these catchments is crucial to the 
success of the project. 

Conservation Management A draft management plan was prepared in October 1985 
(MEP/DWLC, 1985) and subsequendy revised during a series of planning and development 
workshops, culminating in a final plan in June 1987 (MEP, DWLC, 1987a). Objectives extend 
beyond maintaining biological diversity and water quality and quantity to habitat enrichment, 
reforestation, developing waterholes in dry areas and reducing exotic fauna and flora, notably 
teak and Salvinia. Socio-economic objectives include developing visitor facilities, expanding 
the conservation education programme within the local community and providing it with benefits 
from the park. The park consists of a complex of ecosystems, both natural and man-modified, 
and has been divided into natural, cultural resource and development zones, with a surrounding 
buffer zone to facilitate management. Plans to develop the administrative infi^structure are 
based on the park's division into three management units, two of which (Ulhitiya and Bogama) 
will be administered from new ranger stations. The third, Madura Oya Range, will be admin- 
istered from park headquarters, to be established just south of the complex built to service the 
construction of the dam and now occupied by the army (MEP/DWLC, 1987b). Once military 



230 



Sri Lanka 



use of the area ceases, it is proposed that this facility is returned to MEP/DWLC control 
(MEP/DWLC, 1987a). 

Management Constraints An increase in spontaneous colonisation of land in the parte by 
persons hoping to obtain title deeds to land under the Accelerated Mahaweli Programme resulted 
in considerable disturbance to the wildlife. Forests were cut and burned, cash crops grown and 
homes built in the park. The squatters, numbering about 1,500, have since been moved to newly 
established Mahaweli settlements (Jansen, 1984). As part of the Accelerated Mahaweli Pro- 
gramme, 70 Vedda families from the villages of Kandeganwila, Kotabankina, Keragoda and 
Koteyaya have been resettled nearby at Henangala (Hemapriya, 1983), but the head of the 
community, Tissahami, has opted to remain (MEP/DWLC, 1985). The removal of Veddas has 
been much publicised (Anon, 1984; M. Colchester, 1984). Hunting is a major threat Feared 
consequences of the Accelerated Mahaweli Programme include conflicting interests between 
wildlife and settiers in sections of the park that abut the development area: elephant and wild 
boar damage and raid crops, while livestock and other domestic animals trespass into the park. 
The new road connecting Maha Oya through Aralaganwila to the existing road near Polannaruwa 
bisects the north-eastern part of the park. Construction of dams, tunnels and roads has resulted 
in badly scarred landscapes, particularly at Henanegala, Enderawetamulla and along the Maha 
Oya-Ardaganwila highway. All of these sites have been recommended for reclamation. The 
steep-sided irrigation channels are a hazard to wild (and domestic) animals, which occasionally 
fall into them and are unable to climb out Maduru Oya Reservoir is covered with the noxious 
floating weed Salvinia molesta. Measures for its physical eradication are underway 
(MEP/DWLC, 1985, 1987a). The Sri Lankan army has appropriated a portion of the park at its 
north entrance (Hoffmann, 1987). 

Staff One park warden, four rangers, five range assistants, 38 game guards and ancillary staff 
(1990) 

Budget Funds are being provided by US-AID through the Mahaweli Environment Project up 
until 1991. The budget for 1986 includes estimates for capital investment (Rs 3,080,000), 
natural resources development (Rs 1,910,000), equipment (Rs 1,482,625), technical assistance 
including training (Rs 3,687,500 for all four national parks within the Mahaweli development 
area) and recurrent costs (Rs 5,340,0(X)). The total cost of funding the park development 
schedule is estimated to be Rs 26,448,000 (MEP/DWLC, 1987a). 

Local Addresses Warden, Maduru Oya National Park, Madura Oya, Aralaganwila 

References 

Anon. (1984). Proposed Maduru Oya National Park. Communication to H. Jungius. lUCN, Gland, 

Switzerland. 
Colchester, M. (1984). Survival Intemational for the Rights of Threatened Tribal People, London. 

Personal communication to J. Harrison. lUCN, Cambridge, UK. 
Hemapriya, B.H. (1983). Mahaweli projects and programme. Ministry of Lands and Land 

Development and Ministry of Mahaweli Development, Columbo. 102 pp. 
Hemapriya, B.H. (1985). Veddahs move out of Dambana. Sri Lanka Wildlife 1: 17-18. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1987). Report on circuit of MEP areas, 20di-25th January 1987. Mahaweli 

Environment Project. Unpublished. 7 pp. 
Isliwaran, N. (1985). Ecology of the Asian elephant in Sri Lanka. Hi.D. thesis. Michigan State 

University, East Lansing, USA. (Unseen) 
Jansen, M. (1984). Maduru Oya National Park. Loris 16: 223-226. 



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Jansen, M. (1985). A network of national parks of Sri Lanka. Tigerpaper 12(1): 4-7. 

Jayawardhana, S. (1982). History of Madura Oya. Cultural Publications, Sri Lanka. (Unseen) 

McNeely, J.A. (1982), Bringing the benefits of nature conservation to the people: a technical 
analysis of the Mahaweli Environment Project. lUCN Gland, Switzeriand. Unpublished report. 
45 pp. 

MEP/DWLC (1985), Master plan: Madura Oya National Park. Revised December 1985. Ma- 
haweli Environment Project/Department of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 80 pp. 

MEP/DWLC (1987a), Master plan: Madura Oya National Park. Revised June 1987. Mahaweli 
Environment Project/Department of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 62 pp. 

MEP/DWLC (1987b). Development concept plan: headquarters area and ranger stations, Madura 
Oya National Park. Revised June 1987. Mahaweli Environment Project/Department of Wil- 
dlife Conservation, Colombo. 35 pp. 

Scott, D.A. (Ed,) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

St, John, R,B,L. (1985), Maduru-Oya: our seventh national park. Sri Lankan Wildlife 1: 8. 

TAMS(1980). Environmental assessment: Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme. Tip- 
pets-Abbott-McCarthy-Stratton, New York. (Unseen) 

Uragoda, C,G, (1969). Present-day Veddhas of Dambana. Lorn 11: 278-279. 

WWF/IUCN Project 1783. Elephant management, Sri Lanka. 



Date April 1985, updated September 1990 



MINNERIYA-GIRITALE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category FV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated 20km north-west of Polonnaruwa, Polonnaruwa District, 
North-Central Province. 7°59'-8°04'N, 80°52'-80°54'E 

Date and History of Establishment Minneriya-Giritale was declared a sanctuary on 29 July 
1938, part of which was designated a national biosphere reserve in the late 1970s (Bharathie, 
1979). The nearby Minneriya-Giritale Nature Reserve (7,529ha), established on 12 February 
1988, has been recommended for upgrading to a national park in view of its conservation 
importance (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1989). 

Area 6,693ha. The national biosphere reserve covers 809ha (Bharathie, 1979). 

Land Tenure Minneriya and Giritale tanks are state owned; surrounding areas are partly 
state-owned and partly privately-owned. 

Altitude Ranges from approximately 100m to 885m at the top of Wenigala Peak. 

Physical Features The topography is varied, with hills, patnas and talawas. Minneriya is an 
ancient irrigation tank, with a capacity of 2,550ha when full and a catchment area of 24,(X)0ha. 
The main source of water is from a diversion of the Amban Ganga, along die Elahara Channel. 



232 



Sri Lanka 

Maximum depth is 10.7m; the water is fresh with a pH of 7.5. Details of Giritale Tank are not 
available. 

Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal climate. Mean annual rainfall is about 1 146nim 
and mean annual temperature 27.5°C. 

Vegetation Minneriya Tank is surrounded by dry mixed evergreen forest. The phytoplankton 
is dominated by Microcystis and Melosira. No information is available on the aquatic macro- 
phytes. 

Fauna Much of Sri Lanka's wildlife, including elephant Elephas maximus (E), is found in the 
nature reserve (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1989). Minneriya Tank is known to support small 
numbers of a wide variety of waterfowl including pelicans, cormorants and storks, but no details 
are available. 

Economically important fishes include Lafteo dussumieri, Puntius sarana, P. dorsalis, P. chola, 
Cyprinus carpio, Wallago attu, Ompokbimaculatus, Heteropneustesfossilis, Macronesvittatus . 
Tilapia mossambica, Etroplus suratensis, Osphronemus goramy, Ophiocephalus striatus, Glos- 
sogobius giuris and Mastacembelus armatus. 

Cultural Heritage Minneriya was built by King Mahasena in the 3rd century AD. A small 
temple was built in his memory (Hulugalla, 1973). 

Local Human Population Minneriya tank is situated in a fairly densely inhabited area. It is 
used for fishing, and as a water supply for irrigation, domestic use, and brick-making at low 
water levels during the dry season. Annual production offish is estimated at 873 metric tonnes. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities The Mahaweli Environment Project Systems Centre, with 
research, educational and meeting facilities, is being built on the shores of Minneriya tank. 

Conservation Value The core of the nature reserve is an uninhabited area in one of the 
country's most diverse natural systems, with intermediate forest, bamboo stands, patnas and 
talawas. Nowhere else does it seem that such diversity is represented within a single protected 
area, particularly in such an intact state (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1989). The tanks support 
a variety of waterfowl, as well as being of socio-economic value. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints Include dumping of paddy husks. 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 



233 



WCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

References Unless otherwise indicated, this information is taken direcdy from Scott (1989). 

Bharathie, K.P. (1979). Man and biosphere reserves in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Forester 14: 37-49. 
Hulugalla, H.A. (1973). Guide to Ceylon (Sri Lanka). 2nd edition. Lake House Investments, 

Colombo. Pp. 97-98. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 

Date September 1990 



PEAK WILDERNESS SANCTUARY 



lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies in the centre of the western ridge of the Central Highlands, 
north-east of Ramapura, and straddles the bonier between Central and Sabaragamuwa provinces. 
To the north is the tea-growing area of Hatton Plateau. 6°44'-6'54'N, 80*25 '-80°49'E 

Date and History of Establishment 25 October 1940 

Area 22,380ha. Horton Plains National Paik(3,160ha) adjoins the eastern boundary. 

Land Tenure State, including state-owned tea and forest plantations 

Altitude The Peak Wilderness Range rises steeply fix)m the southern lowlands (50m) near 
Ramapura to a plateau, averaging 600m and interrupted by such mountains as Sri Pada (Adam's 
Peak) at 2,238m. 

Physical Features It is an important watershed for three major river systems: the Kelani Ganga, 
which flows north-westwards; the Kalu Ganga, which flows southwards and supplies Ramapura; 
and the Walawe Ganga, which drains into the Uda Walawe Reservoir to the south-east. 
Underlying the entire area is the Highland Series of pre-Cambrian rocks, which are highly 
crystalline and non-fossiliferous. Soils are red-yellow podzols. 

Climate Peak Wilderness has been described as "the most constandy wet part of Asia west of 
Borneo" (Greller etal.,l 987). Mean annual rainfall is 5 1 23mm at Hapugastenne Estate (594m), 
308 1mm and at Maskeliya Hospital (1 ,280m). Mean annual temperature ranges between 27.2°C 
in Ratnapura (40m) and 15.4°C in Nuwara Eliya (1,900m). 

Vegetation Peak Wilderness is one of the few remaining areas in Sri Lanka with continuous 
tracts of altitudinally graded forest, ranging from lowland rain forest to high altitude cloud forest. 
Lowland forest is restricted to a few small areas on the lower slopes of the Peak Wilderness 
Range. The continuous, 30-40m high canopy is interrupted in places by taller individual 
emergents rising to 60m. Dipterocarpaceae (Dipterocarpus, Shorea and endemic species of 
Doona) predominate, interspersed with representatives of the genera Cullenia, Mesua, 



234 



Sri Lanka 

Palaquium and Semicarpus. Due to the dense nature of the canopy, the shrub layer is poorly 
developed. Gaps in the canopy, both natural and man-induced, are invaded by saplings of 
Calamus sp., which form impenetrable thickets. From 600m to 900m the lowland forest 
gradually gives way to montane rain forest, characterised by a lower canopy of Doona and 
Stemonoporus rigidus (rediscovered in 1981) with Garcinia echinocarpa and the vine 
Leucocodon zeylanicum. Shorea gardneri survives on the more sheltered slopes up to an altitude 
of 1700mm, the known limit for this tropical dipterocarp in Asia. Other species growing with 
Doona include Litsea sp., Actinodaphne sp. and Cinnamomum, Syzygium spp., Myristica 
dactyloides, Fahrenheitia (Ostodes) zeylanica, Semecarpus nigroviridis and Palaquium 
rubiginosum. 

Montane cloud forest, which occurs above 1,700m, is confined to a narrow strip along the ridge 
line and slopes of Adams Peak. Its composition differs considerably from that of the high altitude 
forests of the Nilgiris and Palnis in nearby South India and is characterised by Calophyllum 
walkeri and C. trapezifolium. Extensive marshland occurs on the plateau, together with stunted 
trees of Syzygium revolutum and Gordonia speciosa and shrubs such as Hedyotis spp. and 
Osbeckia walkeri. Typical marshland species include rush Juncus prismatocarpus, sedges 
Scirpusfluitans and Carex sp., grass Garnotia mutica, clubmoss Lycopodium carolinianum and 
ferns Histiopteris sp. and Gleichenia (Dicranopteris) linearis. Characteristic flowering plants 
aielmpatiens spp.,Exacum walkeri, Sonerila spp., Vernonia spp., Senecio ludens, Emilia glabra 
and orchid Phalus tancarrvilleae. A small population of the uncommon Burmannia coelestis 
is present, as well as several interesting species of Eriocaulon (Greller et al, 1981). The flat 
areas of the plateau and the hilly spurs support communities of Garcinia echinocarpa, in 
association with prickly palm Oncospermafasciculatum and with a straggling undergrowth of 
Strobilanthes brushwood. A noteworthy shrub is the bushy Schumacheria alnifolia, endemic 
to Sri Lanka, which is host to the climbing Freycinetia spp. 

Fauna Elephant Elephas maximus (E) has virtually disappeared from the region, but a remnant 
population, estimated at 30-50 individuals, still survives in the sanctuary (T.W. 
Hoffmann,pers.comm., 1988). Mammals still present in reasonable numbers include Kelaart's 
long-clawed shrew Feroculusferoculus (a monotypic genus endemic to the montane regions of 
Sri Lanka), toque macaque Macaca sinica (endemic), purple-faced langur Presbytis senex and 
XtapaidP anther a pardus (T). The contiguous areas of Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and Horton 
Plains Nature Reserve contain all 2 1 species of bird endemic to the country, of which Sri Lanka 
coucal Centropus chlororhynchus and white-headed mynah Sturnus senex occur only in the 
former. One of the strongholds of the gready endangered broad-billed roller Eurystomus 
orientalis is the southern periphery of the sanctuary, which is subject to cultivation (Hoffmann, 
1984). Among invertebrates, the Sri Lankan relict ant Aneuretus simoni (K) is reported from 
the area (Wells et al., 1983). 

Cultural Heritage Sri Pada (Adam's Peak) is sacred and for centuries has attracted Buddhist, 
Hindu and Moslem alike. It is thought that pilgrims used to travel via Horton Plains along the 
ridge of Peak Wilderness to reach Sri Pada, a route that is no longer evident (Werner, 1982). 
According to legend, the tomb of Adam is found here. Also present is the outline of a footprint, 
claimed by some to be that of Gautama Buddha and by others to be that of Siva (Holugalla, 
1973). 

Local Human Population No information 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Large numbers of pilgrims and tourists visit Sri Pada. Facilities 
are limited to tea stalls along the trails to Sri Pada during the pilgrimage season. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Includes studies of floristic composition and the status of 
Stemonoporns-dom\ndXtd.ioKSis (Greller gr a/., 1981, 1985, 1987). 

Conservation Value Peak WUdemess is considered to be the most valuable conservation area 
in Sri Lanka, with the highest number of endemics, notably birds, reptiles and amphibians, and 
the greatest biological diversity due to altitudinal and climatic factors. Together with adjoining 
forest reserves, such as GiUmale and Kelani Valley, it covers the entire range of Wet Zone forests 
from the foothills right up to the highest peaks (Hoffmann, 1984, 1988). 

Conservation Management It has been suggested that a new Highland National Park be 
established, comprising Peak Wilderness Sanctuary and the adjacent Horton Plains National 
Park. It is considered that this site merits inscription on the World Heritage List. Various 
extensions and alterations to the existing boundaries have been recommended, to enhance the 
biological integrity of the site (Hoffmann, 1988). 

Management Constraints The main encroachments are the planting (pine and eucalyptus 
plantations) and felling activities of the Forest Department, carried out in direct contravention 
of the Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance. By comparison, encroachments by villagers are 
negligible and confined mosdy to the Maliboda area on the western boundary (Hoffmann, 1984, 
1988). The annual pilgrimage to Adam's Peak, when thousands of tea stalls and shops are 
erected along the route, is a source of considerable disturbance and results in the cutting of forest 
and unsighdy Utter (Hoffmann, 1988). Former gem mining activities have disturbed the 
marshland habitat on the plateau, by interfering with normal hydrological processes, but these 
gem pits are gradually being recolonised by the vegetation (Greller er a/., 1981). However, gem 
mining persists (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1986). 

Staff Eleven 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Game Ranger, Sri Palabaddala 

References 

Greller, A.M., Balasubramaniam, S., GunatlUeke, S. and Gunatilleke, LA.U.N. (1981). A 

botanical excursion across Peak WUdemess. Loris 15: 263-264, 276. 
Greller, A.M., Balasubramaniam, S., Gunatilleke, S., Gunatilleke, N. and Jayasuriya, A.H.M. 

(1985). Exploring for Stemonoporus (Dipterocaipaceae) forests in the Peak Wilderness. Loris 
17: 5-7. 

Greller, A.M., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N., Jayasuriya, A.H.M., Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Balasubrama- 
niam, S., and Dassanayake, M.D. (1987). Stemonoporus (E>ipterocarpaceae)-dominated mon- 
tane forests in the Adam's Peak Wilderness, Sri Lanka. Journal ofTropical Ecology 3: 243-253. 

Hoffmann, T.W. (1984). National red data list of endangered and rare birds of Sri Lanka. Ceylon 
Bird Club and Wild Life and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 

Hoffmann, T.W. (1988). Report on the southern and western boimdaries of the Peak Wilderness 
Sanctuary. Unpublished report to Secretary, Ministry of State. 10 pp. 

Hulugalla, H.A. (1973). Guide to Ceylon (Sri Lanka). 2nd edition. Lake House Investments, 
Colombo. Pp. 97-98. 



236 



Sri Lanka 



Schmidt-Kraepelin, E. (1973). Peak Wilderness - Wasserscheide der vier Strome. Erdkundl. 

Vywsew 33: 352-397. (Unseen) 
Wells, S.M., Pyle, R.M. and Collins, N.M. (1983). The lUCN invertebrate red data book. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland. Pp. 493-494. 
Werner, W.L. (1982). A forgotten trail to Adam's Peak. Loris 16: 6-7. (Unseen) 
Werner, W.L. and Schweinfurth, U. (1985). Naturreservate im Hochland der Insel Ceylon (Sri 

Lanka). Peak Wilderness und Horton Plains. Natur und Museum \\5(3): 65-16. 



Date April 1986, updated September 1990 



POLONNARUWA SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4. 13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies in the north-west of the dry zone near the township of Polonna- 
ruwa. 07°56'N, grOO'E 

Date and History of Establishment Created a sanctuary in 1938. The Ancient City of 
Polonnaruwa was designated a cultural World Heritage Site in 1982. 

Area l,523ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Less than 10m above sea level. 

Physical Features Topography is generally flat. Soils are typically reddish brown earths. 

Climate Temperature ranges from 26"'C to 30°C. Mean annual rainfall over 42 years is 
1671mm, with a period of marked drought from May to September. 

Vegetation Following the abandonment of the ancient capital of Polonnaruwa some 7(X) years 
ago, secondary semi-evergreen forest has developed and been maintained subject to some 
removal of the shrub layer in the vicinity of archaeological sites. Dittus (1977) recorded 61 tree 
species within a study area of 3 sq.km, representing 50 genera and 25 families. Drypetes 
sepiaria, with a relative density of 21%, is predominant. Other trees, with a relative density of 
5% or more, are Premna tomentosa, Vitex pinnata. Cassia fistula, C. roxburghii and Grewia 
polygama. Species occurring exclusively on the periphery of Parakrama Samudra Lake or along 
the banks of the irrigation channel that borders the study area are: Morinda tinctoria, Azadirachta 
indica, Streblus asper, Madhuca longifolia, Eugenia bracteata, Lannea coromandelica and 
Alstonia scholaris (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Fauna The reserve is rich in primates, which include slender loris Loris tardigradus, toque 
macaque Macaca sinica, common langur Presbytis entellus and, at a density of 215 ani- 
mals/sq.km (Rudran, 1979), purple-faced langur P. senex. Both toque macaque and purple- 



237 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



faced langur are endemic to Sri Lanka. Other large mammals are absent, with the exception of 
mouse deer Tragulus meminna, and perhaps spotted deer Cervus axis and wild boar Sus scrofa. 

Some 146 species of birds have been recorded, of which 74 species breed in the sanctuary (M. 
Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). Most of the avifauna characteristic of the low country dry zone is 
represented. Noteworthy species include little minivet Pericrocotus cinnamomeus, white- 
breasted kingfisher //a/c>'on smyrnensis, large cuckoo shrike Coracina novae hollandiae, black- 
headed oriole Oriolus xanthornus, shikra Accipiter badius, brown-headed barbet Megalaima 
zeylanica, crimson-breasted barbet M. rubricapilla, red-backed woodpecker Dinopium ben- 
ghalense, brahminy kite Haliastur Indus, white-bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster, 
white-bellied drongo Dicrurus caerulescens, thick-billed flowerpecker D/caeM/n agile, Jerdon' s 
chloropsis Chloropsis cochinchinensis. Pompadour green pigeon Treron pompadora and two 
species of parakeet fi/rracw/a spp. (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Reptiles include a variety of snakes, such as python Python molurus (V) and cobra Naja sp. 
(Department of Wildlife Conservation, pers. comm., 1990). 

Cultural Heritage Polonnaruwa first became a royal residence in 368 AD, when the lake of 
Topawewa was formed, but it did not become the capital until the middle of the 8th century. 
The principal ruins are of a later date, however, being chiefly of the time of Parakrama Bahu 
(1 153-1 186). Polonnaruwa seems to have been abandoned in about 1288, owing to a breach in 
the dam, but has recendy been recolonised. Further details of the site are given by HulugaUa 
(1973) and Rushbrook WUliams (1975). 

Local Human Population None within the sanctuary 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Hotel accommodation is available nearby. A hostel for 
Buddhist monks is under construction near Gal-Vihara. Well-maintained gravel tracks provide 
easy access to the cultural sites. Guides are available. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Excavations and restoration work are being carried out 
under the Cultural Triangle Project. The primate community is the subject of a long-term 
ecological/behavioural study supported by the Smithsonian Institution. 

Conservation Value The sanctuary was established to protect the ancient city of Polonnaruwa 
which is of world cultural importance. It is also important for its relatively high diversity of 
primates. 

Conservation Management The ruins of Polonnaruwa are being restored under the Cultural 
Triangle Project sponsored by Unesco. They are fenced off and protected. 

Management Constraints Cutting of young trees for construction-poles is not always 
prevented. The vegetation is subject to disturbance from archaeological work. Pressure from 
the large number of visitors is high. 

Staff Eight 

Budget No information 



238 



Sri Lanka 



Local Addresses Game Ranger, Polonnaruwa Sanctuary, Circular Road, Polonnaruwa 

References 

Dittus, PJ. (1977). The ecology of a semi-evergreen forest community in Sri Lanka. Biotropica 

9: 268-286. 
Hulugallu, H.A. (1973). Guide to Ceylon (Sri Lanka). 2nd edition. Lake House Investments, 

Colombo. Pp. 94-96. 
Rudran, R. (1970). Aspects of the ecology of two subspecies of purple-faced langurs {Presbytis 

senex). M.Sc. thesis. University of Ceylon, Colombo. 211 pp. (Unseen) 
Rudran, R. (1979). Whoops! Animal Kingdom S2(5): 19-22. 
Rushbrook Williams, L.F. (Ed.)(1975). A handbook for travellers in India, Pakistan, Nepal, 

Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. John Murray, London. Pp. 736-739. 



Date April 1986, updated December 1988 



RITIGALA STRICT NATURAL RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category I (Strict Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies in the Anuradhapura District of North Central Province, about 
27km north of Dambulla and 36km south-east of Anuradhapura. It is accessible from the 
Habarana-Kekirawa highway near Yakkala. 8°05'-8°09'N, 80°38'-80°40'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a strict natural reserve on 7 November 1941 
(Gazette Notification No. 8809). The reserve takes its name from riti Antiaris toxicaria, a tree 
species characteristic of the middle slopes (Fernando, 1968). 

Area l,528ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from 125m to 766m at the top of Ritigala, which is the highest peak in the 
dry zone of Sri Lanka. 

Physical Features Ritigala stands out as a prominent erosion remnant on the island's lowest 
peneplain. The 6.5km-long, isolated hill range is divided by the shallow Maha-degala gorge 
into southern and northern blocks. Ritigala is drained by tributaries of the Malwata Oya. The 
range is underlain by pre-Cambrian, metamorphosed igneous and sedimentary rocks, mainly 
chamokite, quartzite and marble, of the Highland Series (Cooray, 1967). Further details of the 
geology and topography arc given by Fernando (1968) and Jayasuriya (1984), rcspectively. 
Soils are generally acidic podzols with a pH of 4.7-6.8 (Panabokke, 1967). The steep slopes arc 
highly eroded, and covered in boulders, and the plains have an alluvial upper layer. Soil depth 
varies from 5(k:m to 200cm. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Climate Data are not available. Those for Maha-Dlupallania, which is in the lowlands 24km 
to the south-west, are probably representative of a warmer climate. Mean annual rainfall is about 
1475mm, 55% of which occurs in October- January and 25% in March-May (MuUer-Dombois, 
1968). Similarly, 1444m has been recorded from the nearest station at Maradan Kadawala 
(Fernando, 1968). Mean air temperature is 27°C, with distinct diurnal and seasonal fluctuations. 
Wind velocity is highest from June to October (Jayasiuiya and Pemadasa, 1983). 

Vegetation Ritigala has an unique and interesting flora and is often referred to as a refugium 
for many rare and threatened species of plants. The hill range provides a variety of environments, 
influenced by altitude, precipitation, temperature, wind and edaphic factors, simulating a 
zonation from dry to humid climates and supporting numerous species which are otherwise 
distributed over a vast area with diverse climates. Jayasuriya (1980, 1984) recorded over 400 
taxa from this reserve of which about 80 are non-flowering species. Of 329 flowering plants, 
54 ( 1 6.4%) species are endemic to Sri Lanka. Species such as Anodendron rhinosporum, Ipomea 
jacunda, I. wightii, Strobilanthes stenodon, Cleidion nitidum, Acampe rigida, Bulbophyllum 
crassifoliwn, and Cheirostylisparvifolia are extremely rare or extinct elsewhere, not having been 
recorded outside Ritigala during this century. Three species, namely Coleus elongatus, Mad- 
huca clavata and Thunbergiafragrans var. parviflora are known only from Ritigala. 

The lower slopes comprise dry mixed forest and grade into an intermediate forest, in which 
canopy trees include Madhuca longifolia, Pterospermum canescens, Dialium ovoideum, Hydno- 
carpiis venenata, Berrya cordifolia, Diospyros ebenum, Tetramelis nudiflora, Mangifera zey- 
lanica, Mesuaferrea and Pterygota thwaitesii. This forest is tall and luxuriant and the canopy 
reaches over 30m. In the lower strata, species such as Dimorphocalyx glabellus, Mischodon 
zeylanicus, Drypetes sepiaria, Cleistanthus patulus, Streblus taxoides, Vitex altissima, Polyal- 
thia korinti and P. coffeoides are common. Forest above 3(X)m gradually diminishes to 15-20m 
in height and common species include Pterospermum canescens, Sageraea thwaitesii, Myristica 
ceylanica, Chrysophyllum roxburghii, Dimocarpus longan and Ficus microcarpa. The lower 
strata are species such as Mallotus rhamnifolius, Cleistanthus patulus, Streblus taxoides, Ardisia 
missionis and Excoecaria crenulata. Vegetation on the summits and higher slopes is affected 
by the wind, higher rainfall, lower temperatures, and frequent cloud cover, as indicated by its 
composition and the dense, dwarf nature of its arboreal component. Species such as Cleistanthus 
patulus, C. pallidus, Neolitsea cassia, Eugenia rotundatata, Syzgium zeylanicum, Erythroxylum 
obtusifolium, Glochidion stellatum and Salacia reticulata form the matrix of the forest while 
shrubs such as Lasianthus strigosus, Psychotria nigra, Polyalthia korinti, and Ardisia missionis 
constitute the undergrowth. The abundant epiphytic flora is indicative of the higher precipitation 
at upper altitudes, and consists of lichens, bryophytes, ferns and orchids. Quantitative data show 
that Cleistanthus patulus is the most abundant tree species, while Euphorbiaceae is the important 
family (Jayasuriya, 1980, 1984; Jayasuriya and Pemadasa, 1983). 

Fauna Ritigala harbours a variety of large mammals, notably the endemic toque macaque 
Macaca sinica, sloth bear Melursus ursinus (I), leopard Panthera pardus (T) and elephant 
Elephas maximus (E). Other mammals include slender loris Loris tardigradus, common langur 
Presbytis entellus, jackal Canis aureus, rusty-spotted cat Felis rubiginosa, fishing cat Felis 
viverrina, striped-necked mongoose Herpetes vitticollis, Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, 
spotted deer Cervus axis, sambar C. unicolor, wild boar Sus Scrofa, porcupine Hystrix indica, 
pangolin Manis crassicaudata and several species of bats (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 



240 



Sri Lanka 

The avifauna includes several species endemic to Sri Lanka, namely spotted-winged thrush 
Zoothera spiloptera, Sri Lanka junglefowl Gallus lafayettei and Sri Lanka spurfowl Galloperdix 
bicalcarata. Other species are raquet-tailed diongo Dicrurus paradiseus, grey hombill Tockus 
griseus, Malabar pied hombill Anthracocerus coronatus, blue-faced malkoha Rhopodytes 
viridirostris, rufous woodpecker Micropternus brachyurus, rufous-bellied hawk-eagle Hier- 
aaetus kienerii, black eagle Ictinaetus malayensis, and mountain hawk-eagle Spizaetus nipalen- 
sis (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Among the amphibians are a variety of anurids: Rhacophorus leucomystax, Kaloula pulchra, 
Bufo fergusonii, Rana hexadactyla, R. limnocharis, Hylarana temporalis, Philautus variabilis 
and Ramanella variegata. The reptile fauna is varied and includes gekkos such as the endemic 
Gekoella yakhuna, Hemidactylus lesehenaulti, H. triedrus, endemic Gymnodactylus frenatus 
and Cnemaspis kandianus. Skinks include Mabuya carinata, M. macularia and Riopa punctata, 
while the snakes commonly seen are python Python molurus (V), rat snake Pytas mucosas, flying 
snake Chrysopelea ornata, Forsten's cat snake Boiga forsteni, Russell's viper Vipera russelli, 
endemic green pit viper Timeresurus trigonecephalus, green whip snake Dryophis nasutus and 
brown whip snake D. pulverulentus. Common among the lizards is Calotes versicolor (M. Jai- 
sen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Cultural Heritage The ruins of Ritigala are of archaeological interest and mosdy comprise 
the remains of an ancient Buddhist monastery founded in the first half of the 9th century by the 
forest-dwelling sect of monks known as Pamsukulika bhikkus. The earliest inscriptions, 
however, date back to the 4th century BC (Jayasuriya, 1984). 

Local Human Population None 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There are no facilities. Accommodation is available at 
Habarana for tourists visiting the monastic ruins. 

Scientific Research and Facilities There have been several intensive floristic surveys of 
Ritigala (Trimen, 1889; Willis, 1906, 1922; Jayasuriya, 1935.) More recently, the flora and 
ecology of the forest communities has been studied (Jayasuriya, 1980, 1984; Jayasuriya and 
Pemadasa, 1983). 

Conservation Value Ritigala is one of very few high altitude forests representative of the dry 
zone in Sri Lanka, another being Moneragala. It is extremely important, not only as a refugium 
for many rare and threatened species, including a number which are endemic to the locality, but 
also because its isolation provides ideal conditions for the evolution of species. In particular, 
the flora of Ritigala is unique, being of great evolutionary and ecological interest (Jayasuriya, 
1984). 

Conservation Management Legally, entry to the reserve is prohibited except for scientific 
research purposes. In practice, no effective management regime has been established. It has 
been recommended that the reserve should be enlarged to include the peripheral hills of 
Kumbukwalahinna to the north, Bathalanwala to the south, and Madu-kanda to the west to form 
an effective buffer (Jayasiuiya, 1984). It has also been suggested that Ritigala should be Unked 
to Hurulu Biosphere Reserve by means of a corridor (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1986). 



241 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Management Constraints Unauthorised entry, illicit timber felling, poaching and encroach- 
ment from chena (shifting cultivation) are the main threats. Extraction of timber from the lower 
slopes was brought to the attention of the Prime Minister who ordered an official inquiry into 
the matter. Poachers frequendy gather rattan Calamus thwaitesii, medicinal products and honey. 
Vigilance by the Department of Wildlife Conservation has been lacking (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. 
comm., 1986; N. Ishwaran, pers. comm., 1986; A.H.M Jayasuriya, pers. comm., 1986). 

Staff Eleven 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Game Ranger, Anuradhapura 

References 

Cooray, P.G, (1967). The geology of Ceylon. SpoliaZeylamca3>\{\). Ceylon Government Press, 

Colombo. (Unseen) 
Fernando, S.N.N. (1968). Ritigala. Lor« 11: 187-189. 
Jayasuriya, A.H.M. (1980). Studies on the flora and ecology of Ritigala Strict Natural Reserve. 

M.Sc. thesis. University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. (Unseen) 
Jayasuriya, A.H.M. (1984). Flora of Ritigala Natural Reserve. Sri Lanka Forester 16: 60-156. 
Jayasuriya, A.H.M. and Pemadasa, M.A. (1983). Factors affecting the distribution of tree species 

in a dry zone montane forest in Sri Lanka. Journal of Ecology 71 : 571-583. 
Jayasuriya, P.C.R. (1935). In the home of wild orchids - Ritigala mountain. Orchidologia 

Zeylanical: 165-169. 
Panabokke, C.R. (1967). Ceylon general soil map. Ceylon Survey Department, Colombo. (Un- 
seen) 
Trimen, H. (1889). Notes on the botany of Ritigala. Journal of Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon) 1 1 : 

6-9. (Unseen) 
Willis, J.C. (1906). Flora of Ritigala, a study in endemism. Annals of Royal Botanic Garden, 

Peradeniya3: 211-302. (Unseen) 
Willis, J.C. (1922). Age and area. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 

Date April 1986, updated September 1990 



RUHUNA (YALA) NATIONAL PARK, 
YALA STRICT NATURAL RESERVE 



lUCN Management Category 

Ruhuna National Park: 11 (National Park) 

Yala Strict Natural Reserve: I (Strict Nature Reserve) 

Blogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese monsoon forest) 

Geographical Location Lies 24km north-east of Tissamaharama on the south-east coast of Sri 
Lanka and spans Southern and Uva provinces. Yala Strict Natural Reserve is an integral part 
of Ruhuna National Park, which is contiguous to Yala East National Park (18,149ha). 6*16'- 
6'42'N,81*15'-8r41'E 



242 



Sri Lanka 

Date and History of Establishment Block I of Ruhuna National Park was established on 
25 February 1938, having previously been a Resident Sportsmen's Shooting Reserve in 1900. 
Further blocks were established in subsequent years: Block 11 on 3 September 1954 (originally 
proclaimed as Yala Sanctuary in 1900), Block m on 28 April 1967, Block IV on 9 October 1969 
and Block V on 5 October 1973. Yala Strict Natural Reserve was created on 1 March 1938. 
Further details concerning the early establishment of Ruhuna are given by Hoffmann (1969). 
Salm (1975) has recommended that the national park be extended offshore to include Great and 
Little Basses, considered to be among the finest reefs in Sri Lanka. Further details of these sites 
are given in UNEP/IUCN (1988). 

Area Ruhuna National Park: 97,878ha 

Yala Strict Natural Reserve: 28,904ha 

The total area of the complex is 126,782ha. The national park consists of 14,102ha in Block I 
(originally 13,680ha but enlarged by 207ha on 3 March 1968 and 215ha on 7 December 1973), 
9,927ha in Block n, 40,774ha in Block IH, 26,4 18ha in Block IV, and 6,656ha in Block V. 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges fi-om sea level to 90m-high inselbergs. 

Physical Features Comprises coastal plain with a number of scattered inselbergs, associated 
with which are a number of caves and kema (pools). There are also several freshwater lakes and 
brackish lagoons, described elsewhere (Scott, 1989). Most of the park is underlain by the 
Vijayan series, a variety of Lower Palaeozoic gneissic rocks formed about 600 million years 
ago. It is the more resistant parts of these rocks that form the inselbergs. Principal rock types 
are migmatites and granite-gneisses, biotite-gneiss and hornblende-gneiss. Fossiliferous lime- 
stones, sandstones and marls of Miocene age, lying almost horizontally on the Vijayan, outcrop 
as thin beds along the coast. Pleistocene alluvial and aeolian deposits cover the Vijayan near 
main rivers and over much of the coasdine. The eastern boundary, formed by the sea, is marked 
by sand dunes of up to 30m high and broad sandy beaches. Red-brown earths and non-calcic 
brown soils predominate but patches of loose, sandy soil are common along the eastern border 
and the northern region consists mainly of clay. 

Climate The park lies in a transition zone between the single wet season experienced on the 
east coast and the double peak of precipitation found along the south coast of the island. Mean 
annual rainfall varies between approximately 900mm in the south to 1300mm in the north, with 
an extensive period of drought from May to September. Mean annual temperature is 27°C 
(Mueller-Dombois, 1972a). 

Vegetation Comprises secondary forest, possibly a few hundred years old at the most (S.K.R., 
1970). It is predominantly semi-arid thorn-scrub, interspersed with pockets of fairly dense 
forest, and characterised by species such as palu Manilkara hexandra, satin Chloroxylon 
sweitenia, wecraDrypetes sepieria, mayila Bauhinia racemosa and malithan Salvadora persica 
and less fitequendy chala Cassia fistula, kohomhaAzadirachta indica and divul Feronia limonia. 
Shrub vegetation consists of andara Dichrostachys cinerea, kukuruman Randia dumetorum, 
eraminiya Ziziphus sp., Gymnosporia emarginata and karamba Carissa spinarum. Islands of 
forest scrub are scattered among littoral vegetation in the sand dune zone. The forest scrub 
comprises mayila, andara, palu, maUthan, eraminiya, kukuruman, Diospyros ferrea, panaka 



243 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Pleurostylia opposita, Gymnosporia emarginata and lolu Cordia sp. This vegetation is of low 
stature and is stunted or prostrate nearer the coast. Crinum zeylanicum colonizes the bare sand. 
Small patches of mangrove vegetation occur along the coastal lagoons at Buttawa, Yala and 
Pilinawa. Common species are kirilla Sonneratia caseolaris, ikili Acanthus ilicifolius, kadol 
Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia marina, hin kadol Aegiceras corniculatum, tala-kiriya 
Excoecaria agallocha and henya Lumnitzera racemosa. 

Fauna A total of 32 species of mammals has been recorded (Santiapillai, n.d.) but this list does 
not include Insectivora and is incomplete for Chiroptera and Rodentia. Threatened species arc 
sloth bear Melursus ursinus (I), leopard Panthera pardus (T), elephant Elephas maximus (E) 
and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (E). Although the water buffalo is indigenous to Sri Lanka, 
it is likely that most populations contain some genetic input from domestic stock or are descended 
from feral stock (Burge, 1986). In Block I, there were an estimated 18 elephant, 248 wild boar 
Sus scrofa, 1,362 spotted deer Cervus axis, 384 sambar C. umcolor and 513 water buffalo in 
1983-1985, as well as 40 or more sloth bear, at least 15 pairs of golden jackal Canis aureus and 
23-30 leopard (Burge, 1986). The number of elephants varies seasonally, however, with up to 
65 recorded in the dry season of 1979 (Santiapillai et al., 1984). Somewhat different estimates 
of mean densities of large herbivores in Block I were obtained from skull collections and 
calculation of survival curves from cementum layering of molar teeth, as follows: water 
buffalo - 280 per sq.km, sambar - 4.0 per sq.km, spotted deer - 12.0 per sq.km, and wild boar - 
0.6 per sq.km (Ashby and Santiapillai, 1986). 

The avifauna comprised some 120-130 species (Banks and Banks, 1985). Raptors include 
crested serpent eagle Spilornis cheela and white-bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster. Many 
waterbirds are attracted to the lagoons, including lesser flamingo Phoeniconaias minor, pelican 
Pelecanus sp., spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, painted stork Ibis leucocephalus, black-necked 
stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, of which there are perhaps only a dozen in the country, grey 
heron Ardea cinerea, purple heron A. purpurea, night heron Nycticorax sp., egret Egretta sp., 
purple gallinule Porphyria porphyria and darter A nhinga melanogaster. During the north-east 
monsoon the lagoons are visited by thousands of migrating waterfowl, including pintail Anas 
acuta, garganey A. querquedula, white- winged black tern Chlidonias leucopterus, curlew 
Numenius arquata, whimbrel A^. phaeopus, godwit Limosa sp. , and tumstone Arenaria interpres, 
which mix with the residents such as whistiing duck Dendrocygna sp., yellow-wattled lapwing 
Vanellus malabaricus, red-watded lapwing V. indicus and great stone curlew Esacus recurvi- 
rostris. The forests contain orange-breasted green pigeon Treron bicincta, hombills (Buceroti- 
dae), flycatchers (Muscicapidae), including paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi 
ceylonensis, barbets (Capitonidae) and orioles (Oriolidae), while many peafowl Pccvo cristata 
occur on the plains. Further details of the waterfowl are given by Scott (1989). 

Notable reptiles are mugger Crocodylus palustris (V), which is abundant in abandoned tanks, 
estuarine crocodile C. porosus (E), found in the main rivers, and common monitor Varanus 
bengalensis. Other reptiles include cobra Naja naja and Russell's viper Viper russelli 
(T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1986). A variety of sea turtles breed along the coast, including 
green turtle Chelonia mydas (E), olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea and leatherback Dermoche- 
lys coriacea (E), for which the Yala coastiine is a major nesting ground (Hewavisenthi, 1990). 

The lagoon fauna includes various species of prawns, crabs and fishes, details of which are given 
by the Joint Aberdeen and Colombo Universities Expedition (1978) and summarised by Scott 
(1989). 



244 



Sri Lanka 

Cultural Heritage Yala is steeped in legend and history, having been the centre of bygone 
civilisations. Here was the Kingdom of the great King Ravana, with its boundary Ravana Kotte 
now buried in the sea. Lying in the path of seafaring merchants who brought with them the 
Indo-Aryan civilisation, Yala was the twin cradle of Sinhalese culture. Here was Situlpahuwa, 
the now-restored abode of twelve thousand arahats which attracts large numbers of pilgrims, 
Magul Maha Vihare, buUt in 87 BC, and Akasa Chaithya, constructed in the 2nd century BC. 
Agriculture flourished during the era of the Maha Ruhuna Kingdom, a civilisation second only 
to Anuradhapura (S.K.R., 1970). Further details about the history of Yala are given by 
Samaraweera (1970). 

Local Human Population Patanangala, in Block I, is used by fishermen from late September 
until early April. Originally used by no more than a dozen migrant fishermen firom Tangalla, 
who marketed dried fish for the population on the south coast (Burge, 1986), their numbers have 
increased to a thousand persons in recent times (T.W. Hoffhiann, pers. comm., 1989). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Some 100,000 visitors were recorded in 1981, 30% of which 
were foreigners. In Block I, the main area for visitors, there are bungalows at Mahasilaw.i, 
Buttawa, Patanangala, Yala, Heenwewa and Talgasmankada, which can be booked in Colombo. 
The two campsites at Yala and Kosgasmankada are not generally used. There is a small but 
poorly maintained museum. 

Scientific Research and Facilities An extensive vegetation survey was conducted in 1967- 
1968 (Mueller-Dombois and Fernando, 1969). Various studies of the vegetation, lagoons, 
avifauna and mammals were undertaken by the Joint Aberdeen and Colombo Universities 
Expedition (1978) and Aberdeen/Colombo University Ecological Expedition (1979). Mammal 
species studied include leopard (Santiapillai etal., 1982; Chambers etal., 1984), elephant (Kurt, 
1974; Santiapillai et al., 1984), wild boar (Santiapillai and Chambers, 1980), spotted deer 
(Balasubramaniam era/., 1980), sambar (Santiapillai era/., 1981) and water buffalo (Santiapillai 
and Chambers, 1982; Ashby and Santiapillai, 1983; Burge, 1986). Work on the elephant was 
initiated in 1967 as a Smithsonian project, and also involved the University of Peradeniya. Maps 
of the geomorphology, soils and vegetation of the park, prepared by the Smithsonian Institution, 
were published by the Ceylon Survey Department in the late- 1960s. 

Conservation Value Yala is renowned for the variety of its wildhfe, largely characteristic of 
dry zone tropical thorn forest, and its fine coastline and associated coral reefs. A large number 
of important cultural ruins bear testimony to earlier civilisations and indicate that much of the 
area was populated and well-developed, with an irrigation system supplying water to the 
surrounding paddy fields, including those of Yala Plain. 

Conservation Management Priorities have yet to be formally identified and outlined in a 
management plan. Access to the strict natural reserve is stricdy limited to research, but Blocks 
I-V are open to the public although some are not readily accessible and lack facilities. Block I 
is most frequented by the public, while Block II has a track for four-wheel drive vehicles 
throughout its length. The latter is a pilgrimage route, used during the Kataragama Festival in 
July. 

Management Constraints The main threats are: entry for poaching, gemming and tree-felling; 
encroachment by cultivation; and entry by free-ranging domestic livestock (Burge, 1986). Three 
wardens have already been killed during clashes with poachers (Prestt, 1985). Gems are mined 



245 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

along the Menik Ganga and, in particular, along the Kumbukkan Oya, where numerous holes 
dug along the bank extend for up to 30m into the park. The problem of encroachment is 
particularly acute in Blocks III and IV where chena (shifting cultivation) and burning, to provide 
grazing in the dry season, impinges on the park boundary. Here, ganja (Indian hemp) is also 
cultivated in clearings hidden well inside the forest (J.D.N. Banks, pers. comm., 1986). The 
fishermen at Patanangala poach and disturb wildlife. Moreover, beaches are littered with their 
debris and turtles in the vicinity are caught in their nets. They have also set up traps inland and 
they dig up turtle nests (Burge, 1986). The fishing village was closed down by the Department 
of Wildlife Conservation at one time, but the fishermen were subsequently allowed to return 
until completion of a new fisheries harbour. This has been finished but is fast silting up and the 
fishermen remain inside the park (J .D.N. Banks, pers. comm., 1986). Contrary to popular belief 
(Jonklaas, 1985), water buffalo are considered not to have a deleterious effect on the environ- 
ment. The species is an important vector of the seeds of certain forbs. However, the gradual 
change of inland plains from grassland into scrub jungle is inevitable in the absence of 
hand- weeding, which was practised until the mid-1950s (Burge, 1986). Although visitor 
numbers have been low due to the recent political unrest, tourism has created problems in the 
past with, for example, vehicles harassing animals (J.D.N. Banks, pers. comm., 1986). The 
biggest problem is posed by Situlpahuwa, which has been commercialised and attracts thousands 
of pilgrims (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1989). 

Staff One warden, one additional warden, one deputy warden, four rangers, five or six range 
assistants, about 30 game guards, clerks (1985) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Warden, Park Office, Ruhuna National Paric, Palatupana 

References 

Aberdeen/Colombo University Ecological Expedition (1979). Aberdeen University/Colombo 

University Ecological Expedition 1979. Unpublished report. 208 pp. 
Ashby, K.R. and Santiapillai, C (1983). The ecology of free-living water buffalo {Bubalus bubalis 

L.) with particular reference to Ruhuna National Park. Tigerpaper 10(1): 20-26. 
Ashby, K.R. and Santiapillai, C. (1984). Deterioration of grazing associated with high densities 

of herbivores in Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Acta Zoologica Fermica 111: 257-258. 
Ashby, K.R. and Santiapillai, C. (1986). The life expectancy of wild artiodactyl herbivores, water 

buffalo {Bubalis bubalis), sambar {Cervus unicohr), spotted deer {Axis axis), and wild pig {Sus 

scrofa) in Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka, and the consequences for management. Tigerpaper 

13(2): 1-7. 
Balasubramaniam, S., Santiapillai, C. and Chambers, M.R. (1980). Seasonal shifts in the pattern 

of habitat utilization by the spotted deer {Axis axis Erxleben, 1 777) in the Ruhuna National Park, 

Sri Lanka. Spixiana 3: 157-166. 
Banks, J. and Banks J. (1985). Ruhuna (Yala) National Park. Ceylon Bird Club, Colombo. 

Unpublished fact sheet. 2 pp. 
Burge, R. (1985). Commoners of the wilds. Sri Lanka Wildlife 1: 6-7. 
Burge, R. (1986). Yala National Park: a biological and educational resource. Department of 

Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. Unpublished report. 31pp. 
Chambers, M.R., Santiapillai, C. and Ishwaran, N. (1984). Tourist activity and behaviour of the 

leopaidPantherapardusfusca (Meyer, 1794) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Journal 

of the Bombay Natural History Society 81 : 42-48. 
Hewavisenthi, S. (1990). Exploitation of marine turtles in Sri Lanka: historic background and the 

present status. Marine Turtle Newsletter 48. 14-19. 



246 



Sri Lanka 

HofTman, T.W. (1969). The Wildlife Protection Society of Ceylon: some historical reflections on 

the occasion of its 75th anniversary. Loris 11: 1-13. 
Joint Aberdeen and Colombo Universities Expedition (1978). Joint Aberdeen and Colombo 

Universities Expedition in Sri Lanka 1978. Unpublished report. 193 pp. 
Jonklaas, R. (1985). Feral fauna: a growing menace. Sri Lanka Wildlife 1: 13. 
Kurt, F. (1974). Remarks on the social structure and ecology of the Ceylon elephant in the Yala 

National Park. In: Geist, V. and Walther, F. (Eds), The behavior of ungulates and its relation 

to management. lUCN, Morges, Switzerland. Pp. 618-634. 
Mueller-Dombois, D. (1972a). Relationships between monsoon vegetation and elephants in Sri 

Lanka. Sri Lanka Wild Life IS-IO.S-U. (Unseen) 
Mueller-Dombois, D. (1972b). Crown distortion and elephant distribution in the woody vegetation 

of Ruhuna National Park, Ceylon. Ecology 53: 208-226. (Unseen) 
Mueller-Dombois, D. and Fernando, K.S. (1969). Vegetation map of Ruhuna National Park. 

Survey Department of Ceylon, Colombo. (Unseen) 
Prestt, I. (1985). Naturalists favourite nature holidays. BBC Wildlife 3: 143. 
Salm, R.V. (1975). A preliminary survey of existing and potential marine parks and reserve sites 

in Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan. Paper distributed at lUCN Regional Meeting on Marine Parks 

and Reserves, Teheran, 1975. 
Samaraweera, C.S. (1970). Yala in history. Lorn 12: 18-20. 
Santiapillai, C. and Chambers, M.R. (1980). Aspects of the population dynamics of the wild pig 

(Sus scrofa L.) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Spixiana 3: 239-250. 
Santiapillai, C. and Chambers, M.R. (1982). The social organization and calving patterns of the 

water buffalo {Bubalus bubalis L.) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. SAREC (Sweden) 

3: 59-67. 
Santiapillai, C, Chambers, M.R. and Balasubramaniam, S. (1981). A preliminary study of bark 

damage by the cervids in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Spixiana 4: 247-257. 
Santiapillai, C., Chambers, M.R and Ishwaran, N. (1982). The leopard {Paruhera pardus fusca 

Meyer, 1794) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka, and observations relevant to its 

conservation. Biological Conservation 23: 5-14. 
Santiapillai, C. Chambers, M.R. and Ishwaran, N. (1984). Aspects of the ecology of the Asian 

elephant (Elephas maximus L.) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Biological Conserva- 
tion 29: 41-61. 
Santiapillai, C, Chambers, M.R. and Jayawardena, C. (1981). Observations on the sambar 

(Cervusunicolor, Kerr 1792) in the Ruhuna National Park, Sri Lanka. Ceybn Journal of Science 

14: 193-205. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Swdtzeriand and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
S.K.R. (1970). The silent living of die Ruhuna National Park - Yala. Loris 12: 76-78. 
UNEP/IUCN(1988). Coral reefs of the world. Volume 2. Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf lUCN, 

Gland, Switzeriand and Cambridge, UKAJNEP, Nairobi, Kenya. P. 327. 

Date April 1986, updated September 1990 

SERUWILA-ALLAI SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 
Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 



247 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Geographical Location Lies near Toppur, 25km south-east of Trincomalee, Trincomalee 
District, Eastern Province. 8°20'-8°25'N, 8r20'-8r23'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary on 9 October 1970. 

Area 15,540ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Sea level 

Physical Features A large, shallow, brackish coastal lagoon, known as UUackalie, lies within 
the sanctuary. There are extensive mangroves on the shores of the lagoon and at its southern 
end. The lagoon is permanent and up 2m deep; it is fed by several small streams and is seasonally 
tidal. During the rainy season, the lagoon is connected to Verugal River to the south by a seasonal 
channel (Uppu Am). 

Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal. 

Vegetation Comprises dry zone evergreen forest and scrub, with mangroves bordering the lagoon. 

Fauna The lagoon is important for waterfowl but no details are available. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population Activities include subsistence fishing. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value The lagoon provides habitat for large waterbirds, migratory ducks and 
shorebirds. Seasonal floods along the Uppu Am at the south end of the lagoon are particularly 
important for migratory waterbirds. The lagoon supports a small fishery. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints No information 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzeriand and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 
Date September 1990 



248 



i 



Sri Lanka 



SIGIRIYA SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated 144km from Colombo and 72km north of Kandy. 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary on 26 January 1990. The Ancient 
City of Sigiriya was designated a cultural World Heritage Site in 1982. 

Area 5,099ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude No information 

Physical Features The topography is flat except for the massive rock outcrop of the fortress 
itself, and a few adjoining hills. 

Climate Conditions are dry except during the north-east monsoon thunder storms occur 
between October/November and end December. 

Vegetation Comprises dry zone forest around the base of the rock, with secondary scrub 
following shifting cultivation. 

Fauna Elephant Elephas maximus (E) periodically visits the area in dry periods. Only small 
animals are present and are seldom reported, due to extensive poaching pressure. Common 
IdSi^ai Presbytis entellus and endemic toque macaque Macaca sinensis are present. 

The avifauna comprises species characteristic of dry zone forests, such as jungle robin (shama), 
paradise flycatcher, leafbird Chloropsis spp., Sri Lanka junglefowl Gallus lafayettei, and 
racquet-tailed drongo Dicurus paradiseus. Forest eagle owl has been reported and a pair of 
Shahin falcons regularly nests high up on the rock. 

Cultural Heritage The sanctuary surrounds the ancient rock fortress of Sigiriya and includes 
the ruins. 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The sanctuary is a popular tourist destination. Accommodation 
is available at Sigiriya Village. There is a rest house adjacent to the rock. 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 



249 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Conservation Value The sanctuary surrounds the ancient rock fortress of Sigiriya, an archae- 
ological site of great importance. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints No information 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly finom: 

Banks, J. and Banks, J. (1985). Sigiriya Sanctuary. Ceylon Bird Club, Colombo. Unpublished 
fact sheet. 1 pp. 

Date September 1990 



SINHARAJA NATIONAL HERITAGE WILDERNESS AREA 



lUCN Management Category IV, IX and X (Managed Nature Reserve, Biosphere Reserve, 
and World Heritage Site) 

Biogeographical Province 4.02.01 (Ceylonese Rainforest) 

Geographical Location Situated in the south-west lowland wet zone of Sri Lanka, within 
Sabaragamuwa and Southern provinces. It is bounded on the north by the Napola Dola and 
Koskulana Ganga, on the south and south-west by the Maha Dola and Gin Ganga, on the west 
by the Kalukandawa Ela and Kudawa Ganga and on the east by an ancient footpath near Beverley 
Tea Estate and by the Denuwa Kanda. 6*2r-6*26'N, 80*21 '-80'34'E 

Date and History of Establishment Notified a national heritage wilderness area on 21 October 
1988 (Gazette No. 528/14). Most of the area was originally declared a forest reserve on 3 May 
1875 under the Waste Lands Ordinance and notified in the Ceylon Government Gazette No. 
4046, dated 8 May 1875, while the rest was notified a proposed forest reserve in the early 20th 
century. Sinharaja Forest Reserve, comprising the existing and proposed forest reserves, was 
declared a biosphere reserve in April 1978, and inscribed on the World Heritage list in 1988. 

Area According to Gazette No. 528/14, the total area of the national heritage wilderness area 
is 18,899 acres and 12 perches (7,648.2ha). The area of Uie biosphere reserve and World 
Heritage site as cited in the respective nominations is 8,864ha, of which 6,092ha is forest reserve 
and 2,772ha is a proposed forest reserve. 

Land Tenure State 



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Altitude Ranges from 3(X)m to 1,170m (Hinipitigala Peak). 

Physical Features This narrow strip of undulating terrain consists of a series of ridges and 
valleys. It is drained by an intricate network of streams, which flow into the Gin Ganga on the 
southern boundary and Kalu Ganga, via the Napola Dola, Koskulana Ganga and Kudawa Ganga, 
on the northern boundary. The reserve lies within the transition zone of two important rock 
types characteristic of Sri Lanka. The south-western group consists of metasediments, chamo- 
kites and scapolite-bearing calc-granulites, while the highland group comprises khondalites of 
metamorphosed sediments and chamokites (Cooray, 1978). Most significant is the presence of 
the Sinharaja Basic Zone, consisting of hornblende, pyriclasts, basic chamokites, pyroxene 
amphibolites and scapolite-bearing calc-granulites and blended with small amounts of quartzites, 
gamet-biotite gneisses and intermediate chamokites (Hapuarachi et al., 1964). This zone 
coincides with an aeromagnetic anomaly, which has probably contributed to the desilication 
process responsible for the gem fields in the area (Katz, 1972; Munasinghe and Dissanayake, 
1980). Soils, which largely belong to the red-yellow podzolic group, are well-drained and show 
very little accumulation of organic matter. This characteristic is attributed to a combination of 
favourable climatic conditions, a diverse soil microflora effecting rapid breakdown of organic 
matter into constituent nutrients, and accelerated uptake and recycling of nutrients by the trees. 
Clear-felling of the forest, where most of the nutrients are locked up, therefore renders the soil 
impoverished of essential nutrients and incapable of supporting sustained commercial forestry 
or agriculture (Forest Department, 1986). Information on soil profiles and soil microfungi are 
given in Zoysa and Raheem (1987). 

Climate Based on meteorological records gathered from in and around Sinharaja over the last 
60 years, annual rainfall has ranged from 3614mm to 5006mm and temperatures from 19°C to 
34°C (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). Most precipitation emanates from the south-west monsoons 
during May- July and the north-east monsoons during November- January. Conditions are dry 
in February. 

Vegetation Two main types of forest can be recognised. Remnants of Dipterocarpus forest 
occur in valleys and on their lower slopes, with hora D. zeylanicus and bu hora D. hispidus 
present in almost pure stands. Secondary forest and scmb occur where the original forest cover 
has been removed by shifting cultivation and in other places the forest has been replaced by 
rubber and tea plantations (Rosayro, 1954). Mesua-T>oona (Shored) forest, the climax vegeta- 
tion over most of the reserve, covers the middle and upper slopes above SCKhn (Rosayro, 1942) 
or above 335m as suggested by Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke (1985). Garcinia hermonii 
followed by Xylopia championii invariably dominate the understorey tree stratum, a range of 
species dominate the subcanopy and na Mesua nagassarium usually predominates in the canopy 
layer (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1985). Details about the structure and composition of the 
vegetation are summarised by Zoysa and Raheem (1987). Of Sri Lanka's 830 endemic species, 
217 trees and woody climbers are found in the lowland wet zone (Peeris, 1975). Of these, 139 
(64%) have been recorded in Sinharaja (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1985), 16 of which are 
considered to be rare (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1981). Other rare endemics are the palm 
Loxococcus rupicola (R) and Atalantia rotundifolia, the latter being restricted to Sinhagala at 
742m. Of 2 1 1 recorded species of trees and woody climbers, 40% have low population densities 
(less than or 10 or fewer individuals per 25ha) and 43% have restricted distributions, rendering 
them vulnerable to further encroachments into the reserve (Gunatilleke and Gunatilleke, 1981). 
A variety of plants of known benefit to man are present, of which the palm kitul Caryota urens 
(for jaggery, a sugar substitute), wewal Calamus sp. (for cane), cardamom Elattaria ensal (as 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

spice), Shorea sp. (for flour), dun Shorea sp. (for varnish and incense) and weniwal Cosciniion 
fenestratum (for medicinal purposes) are used intensively by villagers. A list of 202 plants, 
together with their endemicity and uses is given in the draft conservation plan (Forest 
Department, 1985). 

Fauna An early account of the fauna is given by Baker (1937). Preliminary lists of the fauna 
{viz. mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes and butterflies) have been compiled (March 
for Conservation, 1985) and are included in the draft conservation plan (Forest Department, 
1985). Endemism is high, particularly for birds with 19 (95%) of 20 species endemic to Sri 
Lanka present. Endemism among mammals and butterflies is also greater than 50%. Threatened 
mammals are leopard Panthera pardus (T) and Indian elephant Elephas maximus (E). The 
endemic purple-faced langur Presbytis senex is present. Birds considered to be endangered or 
rare (Hoffmann, 1984) are Sri Lanka wood pigeon Columba torringtoni, green-billed coucal 
Centropus chlororhynchus, Sri Lanka white-headed starling Sturnus senex, Sri Lanka blue 
magpie Cissa ornata, and ashy-headed babbler Garrulax cinereifrons, all of which are endemic, 
and red- faced malkoha Phaenicophaeuspyrrhocephalus. Of interest is the presence of Sri Lanka 
broad-billed roller Eurystomus orientalis irisi (I), sightings of which have decreased markedly 
in the last five years (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). Of the reptiles and amphibia, python Python 
molurus is vulnerable and a number of endemic species are likely to be threatened. Noteworthy 
species include Calotes liolepis, the rarest of all Agamids on the island, the rare rough-nose 
homed lizard Ceratophora aspera, restricted to part of Sri Lanka's wet zone, and Ramella 
palmata, a rare endemic microhylid (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). Threatened freshwater fish are 
combtail Belontia signata (R), smooth-breasted snakehead Channa orientalis (R), black ruby 
barb Barbus nigrofasciatus (V), cherry barb Barbus titeya (V) and red-tail goby Sicydium halei 
(V), the conservation status of which is considered in Evans ( 198 1). Of the 21 species of endemic 
butterfly, Sri Lanka rose Atrophaneura jophon is vulnerable (Collins and Morris, 1985). Sri 
Lankan five-bar sword Graphium antiphates ceylonicus, which is considered to be very rare, is 
not uncommon in Sinharaja at certain times of the year (J.N. Banks, pers. comm., 1986). Zoysa 
and Raheem (1987) comprehensively summarise what is known about the fauna. 

Cultural Heritage The Sinharaja region has long featured in the legends and lore of the people 
of Sri Lanka. Its name, literally meaning lion (sinha) king (raja), perhaps refers to the original 
'king-sized or royal forest of the Sinhalese', a people of the legendary 'lion-race' of Sri Lanka 
(Hoffmann, 1979), or to the home of a legendary lion of Sri Lanka. 

Local Human Population There are two villages within the south-west of the reserve, namely 
Warukandeniya and Kolonthotuwa, and about 52 families live in the north-western sector. At 
least 20 other settlements occur on the periphery, an unknown number of which have been 
illegally established on state land without approval from the relevant authorities. The total 
population is in excess of 5,000 people. Some land adjacent to the reserve is under private 
ownership, including small tea and rubber plantations. The extent to which local people are 
economically dependent on rain forest resources is variable but about 8% of households might 
be completely dependent (Silva, 1985). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Visitors are low in number and mostly naturalists. Entry is by 
permit, obtainable from the Forest Department in Colombo. There are nature trails to the peaks 
of Moulawella and Sinhagala. Guidebooks to the Moulawella Trail and to the secondary 
vegetation have recently been prepared (Gunatilleke et al., 1987a, 1987b). Some 



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Sri Lanka 



accommodation is available with the Forest Department near the reserve entrance at Kudawa. 
Further facilities are planned. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Among the earliest studies are those of Baker (1937, 1938). 
Rosayro (1954, 1959), Andrews (1961) and Merritt and Ranatunga (1959) assessed the area's 
potential for selective logging, based on aerial and ground surveys. GunatiUeke and Gunatilleke 
(1980, 1981, 1985) examined the floristic composition andphytosociology of woody vegetation 
and assessed its conservation value. Research on the endemic fauna has been undertaken by 
WWF/IUCN (Project 1733) and March for Conservation (Karunaratne et al., 1981). Conflicts 
over the local use of forest resources have been examined by McDermott (1985, 1986) and Silva 
(1985). An annotated vegetation/land-use map (1:40,(XX)) of the reserve has been produced by 
the Forest Department (n.d.). The Natural Resources Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka 
has provided a field research station in the reserve. The Forest Department building at Kudawa, 
outside the reserve, is used by scientists and visitors. 

Conservation Value Sinharaja is the last extensive primary lowland tropical rain forest in Sri 
Lanka. It holds a large number of endemic species of plants and animals, and a variety of plant j 
of known benefit to man. 

Sinharaja Forest Reserve meets criteria (ii) and (iv) of the World Heritage Convention, based 
on the fact that: it is the last viable remnant of Sri Lanka's tropical lowland rain forest; over 60% 
of the trees are endemic and many of these are rare; and there are 21 endemic bird species, and 
a number of rare insects, reptiles and amphibians (lUCN Technical Evaluation). 

Conservation Management Sinharaja is administered by the Forest Department under the 
Ministry of Lands and Land Development. Recognising the need for maximum possible 
protection, it has recently been declared as a national heritage wilderness area under the National 
Heritage Wilderness Areas Act. Any excision to such an area is permissible only with the 
concurrence of parliament and the President of the country. The site is also partially protected 
under the provisions of the Forest Ordinance. 

Sinharaja was first recognised in 1936 as being "the only considerable patch of virgin tropical 
rain-forest in the island" (Baker, 1937). Owing to its inaccessibility and steep, hilly terrain, the 
reserve remained untouched until 1968 when a government directive was issued to extract timber 
for the plywood sawmill and chipwood complex established at Kosgama. From 197 1 until 1977, 
when logging was banned, largely due to public pressure with the Wildlife and Nature Protection 
Society playing a leading role (see Hoffmann, 1972, 1977), about l,400ha of forest in the western 
sector were selectively logged (Gunatilleke, 1978; Forest Department, 1986). Presentiy, the 
reserve has 6,500-7 ,000ha of unlogged forest. Since 1977, the Forest Department has given 
high priority to protecting the reserve and in 1978 began planting Pinus caribaea along the 
periphery to establish a live boundary. More recentiy, betebiut palm Areca catechu has been 
used for this purpose (Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). 

A conservation plan has been officially approved (Forest Department, 1986), implementation 
of which is being carried out under a cooperative agreement between lUCN and the Sri Lankan 
government, with additional funding from the Norwegian government (Hails, 1989). In order 
to ensure the strict protection of the reserve for scientific and aesthetic reasons, a scheme of 
zonation and management is proposed for areas outside the reserve. The creation and propaga- 
tion of essential forest products, for sustained utilisation, in areas outside the reserve is intended 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

to meet local needs and thereby eliminate former dependence on resources within the reserve. 
Alternative strategies are either to establish a 3.2km-wide buffer zone round the reserve or to 
enlarge the area protected to about 47,380ha, with the reserve forming a strictly protected core 
area and surrounding areas set aside as buffers for various uses. The only resource which may 
still be legally collected, under permit, is kitul (McDermott, 1988). The preferred strategy has 
been to freeze resource use within the reserve at 1985 levels (when the conservation plan was 
prepared) and gradually eliminate future resource dependency on the reserve by relocating 
villages to areas outside the reserve (Ishwaran and Erdelen, 1990). 

Management Constraints Of the many constraints to the protection of Sinharaja, socio-econ- 
omic ones relating to the people and organisations in the immediate vicinity of the reserve are 
perhaps among the most important. Encroaching cultivations are probably the biggest problem, 
particularly along the southern boundary (McDermot, 1985). Contractors open up routes to 
facilitate logging operations and, although no felling is permitted within 1.6km of the reserve 
boundary, this may render the reserve more accessible to illicit timber operations. Planting of 
Honduran mahogany Swietenia macrophylla along abandoned logging trails as an enrichment 
species may lead to displacement of natural species, especially as it is a prolific seed producer 
(Zoysa and Raheem, 1987). Alleged malpractices by the State Timber Corporation are a source 
of concern for the Forest Department. Private land owners along the periphery perhaps make 
illegitimate use of timber resources within the reserve: having felled all merchandable timber 
on their own land, they continue to request permits for timber (Hathurusinghe, 1985). The most 
important forest produce is firewood, significant quantities of which are used in the production 
of jaggery (McDermot, 1985; Silva, 1985). The traditional use of minor forest products, most 
important of which are kitul for jaggery and wewal or cane for weaving baskets, is now restricted 
to forest surrounding the reserve. Illicit gem mining was considered to be a serious problem in 
eastern parts of the reserve. It is organised mostiy by wealthy merchants from outside the 
Sinharaja region and needs to be stopped. The lack of a uniform land-use policy and the 
multiplicity of governmental and semi-governmental agencies involved in land-use planning in 
Sri Lanka are the major administrative constraints in evolving a suitable protection plan for 
Sinharaja. For the moment, transactions related to lands surrounding the reserve are suspended 
under presidential order until such time as the conservation plan for the reserve is ready for 
implementation (Forest Department, 1986). 

Staff Three forest rangers, four beat forest officers (1985). One assistant conservator of forests, 
three forest rangers, six beat forest officers and 12 forest watchers are proposed in the 
conservation plan. 

Budget The Forest Department has allocated higher than normal amounts of money for the 
protection of Sinharaja. This reached a record Rs 4 million (US$ 1 30,000) in 1987. US$ 35,000 
was made available by WWF/IUCN for a conservation awareness programme and for the 
purchase of equipment in 1986. 

Local Addresses Range Forest Officer, Range Forest Office, Kudawa, Weddagala (An 
assistant conservator of forests will eventually be responsible for implementing the conservation 
plan.) 

References 

Andrews, J.R.T. (1961). Forest inventory of Ceylon (A Canadian-Ceylon Colombo-Plan Project). 

Ceylon Government Press, Colombo. 
Baker, J.R. (1937). The Sinharaja rain forest, Ceylon. GeographicalJournal 89: 539-551. 



254 



Sri Lanka 



Baker, J.R. (1938). Rain forest in Ceylon. Kew Bulletin 1: 9-16. 

Collins, N.M.C. and Morris, M.G. (1985). Threatened swallowtail butterflies of the world. lUCN, 

Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Pp. 258-260. 
Cooray, P.G. (1978). Geology of Sri Lanka. In: Nutalya, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third Regional 

Conference on Geology and Mineral Resources of Southeast Asia, Bangkok. Pp. 701-710. 
Evans, D. (1981). Threatened freshwater fish of Sri Lanka. lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, 

Cambridge, UK. Unpublished report. 58 pp. 
Forest Department (n.d.). Sinharaja: our heritage. Forest Extension Service, Forest Department, 

Colombo. 
Forest Department (1985), A conservation plan for the Sinharaja Forest. Draft. Ministry of Lands 

and Land Development/Forest Department, Colombo and WWF/IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 

109 pp. 
Forest Department (1986). Conservation plan for the Sinharaja Forest. Forest Department, 

Colombo. 87 pp. 
Gunatilleke, C.V.S. (1978). Sinharaja today. Sri Lanka Forester 13: 57-61. 
Gunatilleke, C.V.S. and Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. (1980). The floristic composition of Sinharaja - a 

rain forest in Sri Lanka with special reference to endemics. Sri Lanka Forester 14: 171-179. 
Gunatilleke, C.V.S. and Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. (1981). The floristic composition of Sinharaja - a 

rain forest in Sri Lanka with special reference to endemics. Malaysian Forester 44: 386-396. 
Gunatilleke, C.V.S. and Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. (1985). Phytosociology of Sinharaja - a contribu- 
tion to rain forest conservation in Sri Lanka. Biological Conservation 31: 21-40. 
Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Dodanwela, S.K. and Welagedara, D. (1987a). Guide to the secondary 

vegetation of Sinharaja. Workshop on Ecology and Conservation of Tropical Humid Forests 

of the Indomalayan Realm, 1-5 May 1987. 63 pp. 
Gunatilleke, C.V.S., Silva W.T.P.S.K. de and Senarath, R.M.U. (1987b). Guide to the Moula- 

wella Trail in Sinharaja Forest. Workshop on Ecology and Conservation of Tropical Humid 

Forests of the Indomalayan Realm, 1-5 May 1987 58 pp. 
Hails, C. (1989). Conservation of the 'Uon king' forest. WWF Reports April/May 1989: 9-11. 
Hapuarachchi, DJ.A.C, Herath, J.W. and Ranasinghe, V.V.C. (1964). The geological and 

geophysical investigations of the Sinharaja Forest area. Proceedings of the Ceylon Association 

for the Advancement of Science 20 (ID). 
Hathurusinghe, D. (1985). Constraints to the protection of the Sinharaja Forest. Paper presented 

at the workshop for the preparation of a management plan for the conservation and protection 

of the Sinharaja Forest. Forest Department, Colombo. Unpublished manuscript. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1972). The Sinharaja Forest. Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Ceylon, 

Colombo. 21 pp. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1977). Epitaph for a forest. Sinharaja- 1976. Lorn 14: 31-32. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1979). The forest of the lion king. Arumal Kingdom 82(5): 24-30. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1984). National red data list of endangered and rare birds of Sri Lanka. Ceyon 

Bird Club and Wild Life and Nature F*rotection Society of Sri Lanka, Colombo. 12 pp. 
Ishwaran, N. and Erdelen, W. (1990). Conserving Sinharaja - an experiment in sustainable 

development in Sri Lanka. Ambio 19: 237-244. 
Karunaratne, P.B., Pieris, T. and Raheem, R. (1981). A research project in the Sinharaja Forest. 

Loris 15: 326-327. 
Katz, M.B. (1972). On the origin of the Ramapura gem deposits of Ceylon. Economic Geology 67: 

113-115. 
March for Conservation (1985). Fauna of Sinharaja. Paper presented at the workshop for the 

preparation of a management plan for the conservation and protection of the Sinharaja Forest. 

Forest Department, Colombo. Unpublished manuscript. 
McDermott, M. (1985). Socio-economics of the protection of the Sinharaja Forest: the village 

factor. Paper presented at the workshop for the preparation of a management plan for the 

conservation and protection of the Sinharaja Forest. Unpublished manuscript. Forest Depart- 
ment, Colombo. 



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Merritt, V.G. and Ranatunga, M.S. (1959). Aerial photographic survey of Sinharaja Forest. 
Ceylon Forester A: 103-156. 

Munasinghe, T. and Dissanayake, C.B. (1980). The origins of gemstones of Sri Lanka. Economic 
Geo/ogy 70: 1216-1225. 

Peeris, C.V.S. (1975). The ecology of endemic tree species in Sri Lanka in relation to their 
conservation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Aberdeen, U.K. 

Rosayro, R.A. de (1942). The soils and ecology of the wet evergreen forests of Ceylon. Tropical 
Agriculture (Ceylon) 98: 70-80, 153-175. 

Rosayro, R.A. de (1954). A reconnaissance of Sinharaja rain forest. Ceylon Forester N.S. 1(3): 
68-74. 

Rosayro, R.A. de (1959). The application of aerial photography to stock-mapping and inventories 
on an ecological basis in rain forests in Ceylon. Empire Forestry Review 38: 141-174. 

Silva, W.P.T. de (1985). Socio-economics of the protection of the Sinharaja Forest: the village 
factor. Paper presented at the workshop for the preparation of a management plan for the 
conservation and protection of the Sinharaja Forest. Forest Department, Colombo. Unpub- 
lished manuscript. 

WWF/IUCN Project 1733. Effects of deforestation on endemic species, Sinharaja Forest, Sri 
Lanka. 

WWF/IUCN Project 3307. Consolidation of the protection of the Sinharaja Forest of Sri Lanka. 

Zoysa, N. de, and Raheem, R. (1987). Sinharaja - a rairrforest in Sri Lanka. March for Conserva- 
tion, Colombo. 92 pp. (Comprehensively reviews much of what is known about Sinharaja) 

Date August 1986, reviewed January 1987, updated September 1990 



SOMAWATHIYA CHAITIYA NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category n (National Park) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Spans the border between East Province and North Central Province 
in the deltaic plain of the Mahaweli Ganga. 8°04'-8°19'N, 80°55'-8ri7'E 

Date and History of Establishment Created a national park on 2 September 1986, having 
been previously designated a sanctuary on 9 August 1966, and extended through the addition 
ofBlocknonl2May 1987. 

Area The 37,762ha national park (Block I: 21,056.8ha, Block II: 16,705.6ha) is contiguous 
with Flood Plains National Park (17,350ha) to the south, and to Tirikonamadu Nature Reserve 
(25,019ha). The western arm of the national park (Block II) provides a link with Hurulu Forest 
Reserve, part of which is protected as a biosphere reserve. 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude No information 

Physical Features The park lies in die deltaic flood plains of the Mahaweli Ganga and encloses _ 
Uie junction where the river bifurcates into the Mahaweli Ganga, flowing north into Koddiyar % 



256 



Sri Lanka 



Bay, and a lesser branch flowing north-east into the sea at Verugal. The central riverine flood 
plain is characterised by numerous old river channels and contains scattered 'villus' or water- 
filled basins among the grassy plains. The fertile alluvial substrate supports high quality habitat, 
which is of considerable importance for the abundant wildlife. 

Climate No information 

Vegetation The water-filled basins in the central flood plain are characterised by the abundance 
and predominance of water-tolerant grasses and aquatic plants. The distribution of vegetation 
in the villus shows a characteristic pattern, which is related to the period of inundation and the 
depth of flooding. On the margins, where wet conditions are brief and the depth of flooding 
slight, there are creeping grasses, such as Cynodon dactylon, and various essentially terrestrial 
annual plants which are capable of surviving wet conditions. Further inwards from the margin, 
the period of flooding is longer and truly hydrophytic species are apparent such as Alternanthera 
sessilis. Polygonum spp., berudiyanilla Jussiaea repens, kankun Ipomoea aquatica, diyahaba- 
rala Monochoria hastata and Scirpus grossus. The most abundant grasses are gojabba Hygror- 
hyza aristata, Brachiaria mutica, Echinochloa colonum, Paspalum vaginatum, Digitaria 
longflora and Paspalidium spp. Inwards from this zone, in slightly deeper water, floating aquatic 
plants, such as ktkatiyn Aponogeton crispum, A. natans and Nymphoides spp., occur along with 
Nelumbo nucifera. Beyond this zone, in still deeper water, is an association of manel Nymphaea 
stellata and the submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum. Common floating plants 
found in all zones are water lettuce Pistia stratiotes, Salvinia molesta, diya ni^kamhdiNeptunia 
oleracea and ikiliya Trapa bispinosa. Some trees occur in wet conditions around the margins 
of the flood plain villus. Among these are kumbuk Terminalia arjuna, mee Madhuca longifolia, 
m\x(^\\diBarringtonia asiatica, halemba Mitragynaparvifolia, eramadu Erythrina variegata and 
beli-patta//j6wcM5 tiliaceus. In the northern part of the sanctuary, the forest is dense with species 
such as weera Drypetes sepieria, halmilla Berrya cordifolia, kunumella Diospyros ovalifolia, 
wd^iwcnna.Dimorphocalyx glabellas, v/eldsigPterospermumcanescens,paluManilkarahexan- 
dra and halemba Mitragynaparvifolia (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). The vegetation of the 
Mahaweli Ganga flood plains is further described by Scott (1989). 

Fauna The ecological importance of Somawathiya is due mainly to the abundance of elephants 
Elephas maximus (E), estimated at about 400 within the sanctuary and its immediate environs, 
and rich bird Ufe. Noteworthy mammals include jackal Canis aureus, fishing cat Felis viverrina, 
rusty-spotted cat Felis rubiginosa, leopard Panthera pardus (T), wild boar Sus scrofa, sambar 
Cervus unicolor, water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (E), porcupine Hystrix indica, and black-naped 
hare Lepus nigricollis. Typically, the marshes of the flood plain have an interesting and abundant 
avifauna. Around 75 migrant species are known to winter in the marshes. Common migrants 
are garganey Anas querquedula, marsh sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis, wood sandpiper T. glare- 
ola, pintail snipe Gallinago stenura, whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus and black-tailed godwit 
Limosa limosa. Resident birds include painted stork Ibis leucocephalus, open-billed stork 
Anastomus oscitans, little egret Egretta garzetta, cattle egret Bubulens ibis, pond heron Ardeola 
grayii, eastern purple heron Ardea purpurea, pheasant-tailed jacanaHydrophasianus chirurgus, 
purple gaWinule Porphyrio porphyrio, white ibis Threskiornis melanocephala and black- winged 
stilt Himantopus himantopus. Within the forests, crimson-breasted barbet Megalaima haemace- 
phala, common peafowl Pavo cristatus, Malabar pied hombill Anthracoceros coronatus, 
thick-billed flowerpecker Dicaeum agile, common iora Aegithina tiphia, endemic junglefowl 
Gallus lafayettei and gold-fronted chloropsis Chloropsis aurifrons are noteworthy. Barred 
buttonquail Turnixsuscitator frequents open areas, while white-necked stork Ciconia episcopus. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

crested hawk eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus, grey-headed fishing eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaems, 
pied kingfisher Ceryle rudis, crested serpent eagle Spilornis cheela and painted stork arc 
abundant in the marshy areas in the north of the park (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). Further 
details of the avifauna are given by Scott (1989). 

Cultural Heritage The ancient stupa of Somawathiya Chaitiya, built by King Valagamba in 
43-17 BC, is located on the left bank of Mahaweli Ganga. It was discovered within the last few 
decades and is visited annually by large numbers of pilgrims (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Local Human Population Comprises itinerant tobacco cultivators and herdsmen. There is a 
large government-owned cattie farm within the park at Kandakadu. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Planned developments include visitor accommodation. There 
are plans to improve and extend the existing networic of 40km of dry weather roads and tracks. 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value Together with the adjacent Flood Plains National Park, Somawathiya 
National Park affords protection to an unique habitat, i.e. riverine villus and flood plains, as well 
as to the largest concentration of elephants within the country. Although the area has been 
heavily exploited, regeneration will be rapid once human activity is phased out because of the 
abundance of moisture and high carrying capacity of the villus (Dharmasena, 1985). Both parks 
are also extremely important for migratory and resident waterfowl (Scott, 1989). 

Conservation Management In general, the park has been much neglected (C. Santiapillai, 
pers. comm., 1986). There is an overall systems plan for protected areas within the Mahaweli 
region (NPS, 1986) and a management plan is being prepared under the Mahaweli Environment 
Project. 

Management Constraints The site was largely unmanaged and unprotected until it was 
incorporated into the Mahaweli Environment Project. Areas of forest have been cleared for 
cultivation, following the influx of tobacco cultivators with their cattle during the last six decades 
(Hoffmann, 1978; Dharmasena, 1985). Tobacco cultivators enter annually, each with several 
heads of cattle. In addition, cattle from the Government farms at Tirikonamadu and Kandakadu 
enter for grazing. Conflicts between wildlife, notably elephants, and livestock at villus are 
discussed by Ishwaran (1985). Deforestation has become more extensive since the mid-1970s. 
Illicit exploitation of timber, tobacco cultivation and grazing by cattie are due to be gradually 
phased out with the establishment of the national park (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). Pilgrims 
visiting the dagoba and temple are a source of disturbance (T.W. Hoffinann, pers. comm., 1986), 
while religious festivals held in May, June and July are a source of noise and much vehicle traffic 
(Dharmasena, 1985). 

Staff Two range assistants, five game guards 

Budget The park budget is being planned with help from US- AID. 

Local Addresses Assistant Director, Department of Wildlife Conservation, Mahaweli Envi- 
ronment Project, Polonnaruwa 



258 



Sri Lanka 



References 

Anon. (1985). Preserving wildlife in the Mahaweli. Sri Lanka Wildlife 1: 11- 12. 

Dharmasena, CD. (1985). A brief visit to the lower Mahaweli national parks. Lorisll: 15-18. 

Hemapriya, B.H. Ed. (1983). Mahaweli projects and programme. Ministry ofLands and Land 
Development and Ministry of Mahaweli Development, Colombo. 102 pp. 

Hofl'mann, T. (1978). Down the Mahaweli by boat. Loris 14: 337-343. 

Hoffmann, T. (1981). The elephants of Tamankaduwa. Loris 15: 1-3. 

Ishwaran,N.(1985). Ecology of the Asian elephant in Sri Lanka. Ph.D. thesis. Michigan State 
University, East Lansing, USA. (Unseen) 

Jansen, M. (1981). Villus of the floodplains of the Mahaweli Ganga. Loris 15(6): 1-5. 

Jansen, M. (1982). The lure of the MahaweU. Loris 16(2): 84-90. 

Jansen, M. (1985). A network of national parks for Sri Lanka. Tigerpaper 12(1): 4-7. 

McNeely, J.A. (1982). Bringing benefits of nature conservation to the people: a technical 
analysis of the Mahaweli Environment Project lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Unpublished 
report 45 pp. 

NFS (1986). Systems plan. Mahaweli national parks region. US National Park Service/De- 
partment of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 44 pp. 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzeriand and 
Cambridge, UK. 1,181pp. 



Date November 1985, updated September 1990 



TIRIKONAMADU NATURE RESERVE 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies north-west of Batticaloa between the Mahaweli Ganga and the 
eastern coast of Sri Lanka in North-Central and North-Eastem provinces. 8°05'-8°19'N, 
8riO'-8r25'E 

Date and History of Establishment Created as a nature reserve on 24 October 1 986. 

Area 25,019ha. The reserve is contiguous with Somawathiya National Park (37,762ha) along 
its western boundary. 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude 2-20m 

Physical Features The topography is nearly flat, with some villus. The natural drainage system 
is characterised by a dendritic pattern of dense shallow drainage lines less than one metre deep. 
Sandy soUs overlie weathered rock materials and granite gneiss at a depth of l-3m. Topsoil 
becomes temporarily saturated following the monsoon rains (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Climate Mean annual rainfall in the region is 1600mni, most of which falls in the north-east 
monsoon. Conditions are dry from May to September. Mean annual temperature varies between 
27°C and 35°C (NPS, 1986). 

Vegetation Characterised by pockets of degraded tropical dry mixed evergreen forest scattered 
amongst grassland and thorny scrub. Major tree species are palu Manilkara hexandra, weera 
Drypetes sepiaria, milla Vites pinnata, burutha (satin) Chloroxylon swietenia, welang Pterocar- 
piis canescens and divul Feronia limonia (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

Fauna Noteworthy mammals are elephant Elephas maximus (E), leopard Panthera pardus (T), 
jackal Canis aureus, spotted deer Cervus axis and wild boar Sus scrofa. Estuarine crocodile 
Crocodylus porosus (E) is present, particularly along the Verugal Am (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 
1987). 

Amongst the avifauna are common peafowl Pavo cristatus and endemic junglefowl Gallus 
lafayettei. In the Upaar Lagoon near the eastern boundary, waders and other waterbirds are 
present. A variety of waterbirds congregate on the villus in the western part of the reserve, for 
example: garganey Aww querquedula, sandpipers Tringa spp., pheasant-tailed jacana //ytiro- 
phasianus chirurgus, purple coot Porphyria porphyria, whiskered tern Chilodonias hybrida, 
egrets, godwits, storks and herons (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

Cultural Heritage There are ruins of temples at Ilandamodu and Kompanachchi, and stone 
pillars and statues elsewhere within the reserve (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

Local Human Population Comprises itinerant tobacco cultivators, herdsmen and farmers. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities None 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value The reserve has been created as an integral part of the Mahaweli 
Environment Project in lieu of the Nelugala Jungle Corridor which was lost to development. 
Together with Somawithya National Park, Tirikonamadu supports the largest concentration of 
elephants in Sri Lanka (NPS, 1986). 

Conservation Management The main objective outlined in the systems plan is to integrate 
protected areas into an overall scheme of land use and development within the Mahaweli region 
(NPS, 1986). 

Management Constraints Cattle grazing and tobacco cultivation, particularly along the river 
banks, are the main disturbances (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

Staff None 

Budget The reserve budget is being met under the US-AID-funded Mahaweli Environment 
Project. 

Local Addresses Assistant Director (Mahaweli), New Town, Polonnaruwa 



260 



Sri Lanka 



References 

Jansen, M. (1986). Conservation and development in Sri Lanka's Mahaweli River Basin Project. 

Parks n(l): 4-1. 
NPS (1986). Systems plan: Mahaweli national parks region. US National Park Service/Department 

of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 44 pp. 

Date November 1987 



UDA WALAWE NATIONAL PARK 



lUCN Management Category n (National Park) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Lies in Sabaragamuwa and Uva provinces and includes the Uda 
Walawe Reservoir, together with much of its catchment area. The park is surrounded by 
cultivated land. 6°24'-6°35'N, 80°44'-80°58'E 

Date and History of Establishment Created a national park on 30 June 1972 (Government 
Gazette No. 14). 

Area 30,821 ha 

Land Tenure Largely state-owned. Some land is believed to be traditionally owned 
(Nindagam). 

Altitude Ranges from about 100m on the plains to 373m at the top of Ulgala (Hoffmann, 1972). 

Physical Features The park consists of the immediate catchment area of the deep Walawe 
Reservoir (3,400ha), which is surrounded by open plains and foothills. The most prominent 
featiu-e is the Kalthota Escarpment and spectacular Diyawinne Fall to the north. Ulgala, in the 
west of the park, is the most prominent peak. 

Climate Lying in the dry zone, conditions are characterised by an annual drought coinciding 
with the south-west monsoon. Mean annual rainfall is about 1524mm. Part of the western sector 
lies in the intermediate zone and receives a little more rainfall. Mean day and night temperatures 
are 29.4°C and 23.9°C, respectively (Hoffmann, 1972). 

Vegetation Originally forested, grassland and thorn-scrub now predominate. Much of the 
forest was destroyed by chena (shifting cultivation). Tree species include satin Chloroxylon 
swietenia, halmilla Berrya cordifolia, ebony Diospyros ebenum, ehala Cassia fistula, kolon 
Adina cordifolia, milla Vitex pinnata, kon Schleichera oleosa and kunumella Diospyros ovali- 
folia. Scattered trees, constituting 20-50% of existing cover, are mainly satin, ehala and 
lunumidella Melia dubia. In the riverine forest, kumbuk Terminalia arjuna and the endemic 
mandorang Hopea cordifolia are dominant. Scrub is dominated by damaniya Grewia tiliaefolia. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Savanna grasslands are dominated by mana Cymbopogon confertiflorus, illuk Imperata cylind- 
rica and pogon Pennisetum olystachyon (Hoffmann, 1972). 

Fauna There are herds of elephant Elephas maximus (E) (A.B. Fernando, pers. comm., 1990), 
while populations of sambar Cervus unicolor, spotted deer C. axis, muntjac Muntiacus muntjak, 
wild boar Sus scrofa and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (E) are gradually re-establishing 
themselves. Other mammals include: toque macaque Macaca sinica (endemic), common langur 
Presbytis entellus, jackal Canis aureus, sloth bear Melursus ursinus (I), toddy cat Paradoxurus 
hermaphroditis, leopard Panthera pardus (T) and black-naped hare Lepus nigricollis 
(Hoffmann, 1972); and small Indian civet Viverricula indica, endemic golden palm civet 
Paradoxurus zeylonensis, three species of mongoose Herpestesfuscus, H. smithi and H. vitti- 
collis, an endemic shrew Suncus sp., gerbil Tatera sp., rat Rattus rattus kandianus, soft-furred 
field rat Millardia meltada, Indian bush rat Golunda elliotti, mouse Mus cervicolor and the 
endemic M.fernandoni (P.B. Karunaratne, pers. comm., 1990). 

The avifauna includes large numbers of warblers (Prinia spp.), together with the usual low- 
country birds in forested areas, and a variety of raptors. Waterbirds found on the reservoir 
include rare visitors such as Indian cormorant Phalacrocorax fuscicollis and osprey Pandion 
haliaetus (Banks and Banks, 1985). Notable endemic species are Sri Lanka spurfowl Galloper- 
dix bicalcarata, Sri Lanka junglefowl Gallus lafayettei, Malabar pied hombill Anthracoceros 
coronatus, Malabar grey hombill Tockus griseus and brown-capped babbler Pellorneumfusco- 
capillum (Hoffmann, 1972). 

Cultural Heritage There are some ruins near Veheramankada. 

Local Human Population There were two small purana villages in the centre of the park: 
Sinukgalla with four families and Nebodawewa with two families (Hoffmann, 1972). These 
families have since been relocated to Indurugaswewa, outside the park. At the time of the park's 
establishment, there were an estimated 15,000 squatters (Anon., 1980), most of whom have since 
been removed. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Visitors require a permit, obtainable from the Ranger's office 
at Thimbolketiya, and must be accompanied by a tracker. Accommodation is not available in 
the park, but circuit bungalows belonging to the Sugar Corporation, Fisheries Corporation and 
Mahaweli ASL are nearby. The Wildlife and Nature Protection Society is constructing a 
bungalow near the bund just outside the park. Two camp sites, at Weheramankade and 
Pansadhara, are located on the east bank of the Walawe River. There is a small hotel at 
Embilipitiya, about 20 minutes by road from the park. 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value Lying in the Intermediate Zone, Uda Walawe is renowned for its 
outstanding scenic beauty and wealth of faunal species, particularly mammals and birds. The 
park serves the dual purpose of ensuring a perennial supply of silt-free water to the reservoir 
and providing a refuge for wildlife displaced by the opening up of land in the lower reaches of 
the Walawe Ganga (Hoffmann, 1972, 1973; Ariyaratna, 1980). 

Conservation Management Following the park's establishment, there was extensive en- 
croachment and about 70% of the forest was destroyed, due largely to chena (shifting cuWva- I 



262 



i 



Sri Lanka 

tion). In 1979, about 6,000 squatters were evicted, since when there has been appreciable 
recovery of the vegetation and wildlife populations (A.B. Fernando, pers. comm., 1990). 
Staffing levels were also increased at that time, resulting in significant improvements in 
management, and a programme of reafforestation initiated. It remains to be decided, however, 
what should be done with the extensive teak plantations inside the park once the trees mature. 
Fishing operations are permitted on the reservoir. 

It has been suggested that the park should be extended to accommodate the full range of its 
elephant population, which migrates as far as Samanalawewa during the wet season. Lying 
between the Kalthota Escarpment and the Central Range, Samanalawewa is unique with respect 
to its talawas (savannas) and forest (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1990). 

Management Constraints In 1977, it was reported that timber was being extracted by 
contractors licensed by the Forest Department but without the consent of the Department of 
Wildlife Conservation, legal custodians of the area. This practice has since been stopped. In 
the same year, two irrigation schemes at Mau-Aru and Guruwela tank were planned but the 
former scheme was not implemented. Land on the boundary of the park has been allocated to 
colonists by the government. The land is of poor quality and, when exhausted, could lead to 
encroachment into the park. Fishermen and gem miners regularly set fire to grasslands, thereby 
suppressing forest regeneration. A major source of conflict is the 1 1 ,330ha sugar cane plantation 
at Sevanagala, on the southern border of the park, which is raided by elephants (Hoffmann, 1972; 
R.F., 1977; Ariyaratna, 1980). 

Staff 40 staff (1980) 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Park Warden, Uda Walawe National Park, P 74, Uda Walawe 

References 

Anon. (1980). Uda Walawe National Park. Loris 15: 215-216. 

Ariyaratna, N.T. (1980). Hopes afresh for a national park. Tigerpaper 7(1): 8. 

Banks, J. and Banks, J. (1985). The Uda Walawe National Park. Ceylon Bird Club, Colombo. 

Unpublished fact sheet. 1 p. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1972). The new Uda Walawe National Paric: notes on a visit - 4th to 6th August 

1972. Loris 12: 277-283, 325. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1973). The new Uda Walawe National Park. Loris 13: 41-43. 
R.F. (1977). Udawalawe - a losing battle? Loris. 

Date April 1986, updated September 1990 



UDAWATTEKELE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 
Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 



263 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Geographical Location Lies north of Kandy Lake on the j)eriphery of the ancient capital of 
Sri Lanka, Kandy, in Central Province. 7''19'N, 80°39'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary on 29 July 1938. Udawattekele 
Forest Reserve (102.8ha) was notified on 15 October 1897 (Notification No. 3504), but its 
protection and use as a pleasure park probably goes back many centuries. The forest reserve 
has been designated a national MAB reserve. 

Area Ulha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Approximately SOOm 

Physical Features State 

Climate Conditions are similar to those at Kandy, with the south-west monsoon from mid- May 
to July/August and the north-east from October/November to late December. Annual rainfall 
is 1615mm and temperatures remain at about 24°C throughout much of the year. 

Vegetation Comprises fairly dense forest, mostly plantation and secondary formations. 

Fauna Mammals include the endemic toque macaque Macaca sinica, jackal Canis aureus, 
mouse deer Tragulus meminna and small mammals such civets and porcupine Hysterix indica. 
About 80 species of birds have been recorded from the area. Endemic species include emerald- 
collared parakeet Psittacula calthorpae, yellow-finonted barbet Megalaimaflavifrons and brown- 
capped babbler Pellorneumfuscocapillum. The rare three-toed kingfisher Ceyx erithacus has 
occasionally been seen. 

Cultural Heritage Udawattakele is a Buddhist 'sanctuary' and there is a temple in the vicinity. 

Local Human Population The surrounding land is settled. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The sanctuary is popular with the residents of Kandy, and also 
receives many other visitors. There is a network of bridlepaths. Facilities are available in Kandy. 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value The sanctuary is important as a recreational area for the inhabitants of 
Kandy, as well as protecting part of the city's water catchment. 

Conservation Management Various recommendations on zonation are made by Weerasinghe 
(1980). 

Management Constraints Fuelwood is illegally collected from the sanctuary (S. Wells, pers. 
comm., 1986). 

Staff Includes a number of forest guards 



264 



Sri Lanka 

Budget No infonnation 

Local Addresses No information 

References 

Banks, J. and Banks, J. (1985). Udawattakelle Forest Reserve - at Kandy. Ceylon Bird Club, 

Colombo. Unpublished fact sheet. 1 pp. 
Weerasinghe, A. (1980). Conservation of Udawattekelle Forest for nature lovers. Loris 15: 

178-180. 

Date September 1990 



VICTORIA-RANDENIGALA-RANTAMBE SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Spans the Mahaweli Ganga between Kandy and the Minipe Anicut 
within the administrative districts of Kandy, Nuwara Eliya and BaduUa in Central Province. 
The boundary follows the ridges of surrounding hUl ranges. 7°06'-7''22'N, 80°43'-80°58'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary on 30 January 1987. 

Area 42,087ha. 

Land Tenure Land is largely state-owned but some holdings are under private ownership. It 
was placed under the jurisdiction of the Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka in 1979. 

Altitude Ranges from 440m to 1,216m at the top of Wewagalatenna. 

Physical Features Topography is characterised by narrow, north-south aligned valleys through 
which the tributaries of the Mahaweli Ganga drain into the eastward-flowing Mahaweli Ganga. 
Valleys arc steep-sided, generally with a gradient in excess of 30%. Two major new hydro- 
power and storage reservoirs, namely Victoria (2,400ha) and Randenigala (2,400ha), are located 
on the Mahaweli Ganga in the middle of the sanctuary, and there are two smaller reservoirs, 
namely Rantambe on the Mahaweli Ganga and Lower Uma Oya on a tributary of the Mahaweli 
Ganga. PolgoUa diversion barrage, from which waters are diverted to the north-central part of 
the country, lies within the western boundary. All of these constructions are part of the 
Accelerated Mahaweli Programme. Randenigala Reservoir contains a number of small islands, 
together with coves and peninsulas formed as a result of the construction of both Randenigala 
and Victoria reservoirs. These contribute to the diversity of habitats available to wildlife (M- 
Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

Climate Falls largely within the Intermediate climatic zone. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Vegetation Represents a transition between those of wet and dry zones. Hill slopes have a 
reasonably good forest cover, interspersed with patches of secondary growth where the vegeta- 
tion is recovering from chena (shifting cultivation). The central part of the sanctuary contains 
dry mixed evergreen forest, characterised by species such as palu Manilkara hexandra, weera 
Drypetes sepiaria, milla Vitex pinnata, burutha (satin) Chloroxylon swietenia and welang 
Pterocarpus canescens. Other common species arc labu Gyrocarpus americanus, kiri kon 
Walsurapiscidia, ma-dan Syzygium cuminii and pethan Bauhinia tomentosa. In the higher hills 
of the north-eastern arm of the sanctuary the vegetation is typically montane and represented by 
species such as Elaeocarpus spp., Syzygium spp. and Ccdophyllwn walkerii. On the plateau 
around Madugoda in the extreme north, a distinctive windswept schlerophyllus vegetation with 
low stature trees is present. South-eastern slopes support dry patana grasslands (M. Jansen, pers. 
comm., 1987). 

Fauna Large mammals include endemic toque macaque Macaca sinica, jackal Cams aureus, 
leopard Panthera pardus (T), otter Lutra lutra, civet cat Viverricula indica, elephant Elephas 
maximus (E) (with a herd of 40-50 present), wild boar Sus scrofa, spotted deer Cervus axis, 
sambar C. unicolor, pangolin Manis crassicaudata and black-naped hare Lepus nigricoUis (M. 
Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

The avifauna is rich. Endemics include Sri Lanka junglefowl Gallus lafayettei, brown-capped 
hdbblcTPellorneumfuscocapillum and Sri Lanka spurfowl Galloperdix bicalcarata. Migratory 
birds also visit the area (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

Among the amphibia is the endemic greater hourglass tree frog Rhacophorus cruciger. Reptiles 
include endemic species such as Otocryptis wiegmanru, spotted skink Mabuya macularia, 
smooth skink Sphenomorphus taprobanensis, S.fallax, great forest gecko Gymnodactylus 
frenatus and G. kadniyanus. Snakes are numerous and include python Python molurus (V), 
whip snakes, kraits, wolf snakes, vipers and common cobra No/a naja. Fishes include endemic 
green labeo Labeofisheri (E), which occurs in fast flowing streams (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 
1987). 

Cultural Heritage Ancient constructions include the noteworthy anicut across the Mahaweli 
Ganga at Minipe (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

Local Human Population A number of small villages are located towards peripheral regions 
of the sanctuary, where rice, tobacco, tea and other cash crops are cultivated. Shifting cultivation 
is also practised on some hill slopes, but this is of low intensity (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities There are plans to develop the sanctuary for water sports, 
hiking, mountaineering, camping, picnicing, wildlife viewing and photography (M. Jansen, pers. 
comm., 1987). Accommodation facilities prcsentiy available with the Mahaweli Authority arc 
being transferred to the Department of Wildlife Conservation. 

Scientific Research and Facilities None 

Conservation Value The sanctuary has been set up with the primary objective of protecting 
the catchments of the reservoirs constructed under the Accelerated Mahaweli Programme. It 
has great potential for visitors because of its impressive scenery (NPS, 1986). 



266 



Sri Lanka 

Conservation Management The sanctuary is being developed under the Mahaweli Environ- 
ment Project. A pilot project has been initiated to introduce 25 indigenous orchid species 
threatened elsewhere in their ranges to an island in Randenigala Reservoir. It is planned to 
introduce other plant and animal species in need of refuge. There are plans to establish the 
central core of the sanctuary as a national park, including the Victoria, Randenigala and 
Rantambe reservoirs (Hoffmann, 1987; M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1987). Local residents will 
retain their rights within the sanctuary but have agreed to be resettled at Andriyabadda. 

Management Constraints Major disturbances include the cultivation of private land holdings 
on hill slopes in peripheral areas of the sanctuary. Land use is most intensive in the narrow 
western arm of the sanctuary around Victoria Reservoir. Fires regularly occur on the slopes 
around Victoria Reservoir, but elsewhere they are less of a problem (M. Jansen, pers. comm., 
1987). 

Staff One game ranger, one range assistant, ten game guards and five ancillary staff (1990) 

Budget A very limited budget is available from the US-AID-fimded Mahaweli Environment 
Project. 

Local Addresses Game Ranger, Victoria-Randenigala-Rantambe Sanctuary, Urumada, Wala- 
pane 

References 

Herrmann, T.W. (1987). Report on circuit of MEP areas, 20th-25th January 1987. Mahaweli 

Environment Project, Colombo. Unpublished. 7 pp. 
Jansen, M. (1985). Proposal for conservation of immediate catchment of Randenigala Reservoir. 

Unpublished report. (Unseen) 
NFS (1986). Systems plan: Mahaweli national parks region. US National Park Service/Department 

of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 44 pp. 

Date September 1987, updated September 1990 



WASGOMUWA NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category n (National Park) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Approximately 50km north-east of Kandy in Polonnaruwa and Matala 
districts, the park spans North Central and Central provinces. The eastern boimdary is defined 
by the Mahaweli Ganga, the western and northern boundaries by the Amban Ganga and the 
southern boundary is formed for the most part by the Duniwila Oya. The nearest large town is 
Polonnaruwa, 10km from the northern boundary. The southern part of the park can be reached 
along a 50km road ftom Hasalaka. 7*34'-7*57'N, 80*51-81*05*E 



267 



WCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Date and History of Establishment Formerly a strict natural reserve (Lot I) and intermediate 
zone (Lot E), the Wasgomuwa area was augmented by additional lands acquired under the 
Mahaweli Environment Project and declared a national park in two phases, with Lots I and n 
notified on 7 August 1984 and Lot HI on 25 January 1980. The strict natural reserve was 
established in February 1938, having originally been designated a game sanctuary in about 1907, 
and an area along its northern boundary was declared an intermediate zone (Hoffmann, 1977; 
St John, 1986). Further historical details are given by St John (1986). 

Area Total area is 37,063ha (Lot I: 29,152ha, Lot H: 4,612.8ha, Lot HI: 3,298.2ha). The area 
of the former strict natural reserve was extended by 1 1 6. 1 ha to 29, 1 52.2ha on 8 November 1 940 
(St John, 1986). Flood Plains National Park (17,350ha) lies immediately to the north-east, 
downstream from Wasgomuwa. To the north is the 7,529ha Minneriya-Giritale Nature Reserve. 
The park is contiguous to the proposed Riverine Nature Reserve (920.6ha) on the right bank of 
the Mahaweli Ganga. 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Ranges from about 76m along the Mahaweli Ganga to 535m at the top of Himbiliy- 
ande in the Sudukanda Range. 

Physical Features The dominant topographic feature is the north-south-aligned Sudukanda 
Range in the west of the park which forms the divide between the Amban Ganga and the 
Mahaweli Ganga. An extensive peneplain stretches eastwards from the foothills of the Sudu- 
kanda Range to the Mahaweli. It features erosional remnants, such as Nuganagala (142m) in 
the north and Udawewalanda (109m) towards the south (St John, 1986). Rocks are predomi- 
nantly pre-Cambian. Their degradation has resulted in a mature peneplain with a thin mande 
cover. Soils are reddish-brown earths in the upper catchment areas and alluvial in the floodplains 
(NPS, 1986a). 

Climate Conditions are fairly typical of the dry zone and largely influenced by the north-east 
monsoon (Maha) in October-February. Inter-monsoonal rains occur in March-May. Annual 
rainfall increases firom about 1750mm in the north to 2250mm in the south. Mean annual 
temperature is about 27°C, with litde variation year-round (NPS, 1986a). 

Vegetation Tropical dry mixed evergreen forest predominates, characterised by trees such as 
weera Drypetes sepiaria, palu Manilkara hexandra, wa Cassia roxburghii, ehale C. fistula, 
buruta (satin) Chloroxylon swietenia, velang Pterospermum canescens, the endemic galsiyam- 
bala Dialium ovoideum, milla Vitex pinnata and kaluwara (ebony) Diospyros ebenum. Dense 
forests cover the hilly ridges and there is well-developed forest along the major river courses. 
The riverine forests are dominated by kumbuk Temunalia arjuna, owila Polyalthia longifolia, 
mee Madhuca longifolia, kunumella Diospyros ovalifolia and timbiri D. malabarica. In the 
south-eastern and eastern parts of the park are extensive open plains (clearings) dominated by 
the grass illuk Imperata cylindrica (NPS, 1986a; Jayasingham et al, 1988). 

Fauna The known fauna comprises 20 species of mammals, 163 of birds (of which five are 
endemic to Sri Lanka), 35 of reptiles (of which seven are endemic), 15 of amphibians and 52 of 
butterflies (Kotagama and Vattala, n.d.). All seven nationally endangered species known firom 
the Mahaweli region are present: a population of around 150 elephant Elephas maximus (E), 
leopard Panthera pardus (T), red-faced malkoha Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus, common 



268 



Sri Lanka 

monitor Varanus bengalensis, mugger Crocodyluspalustris (V), estuarine crocodile Crocodylus 
porosus (E) and python Python molurus (V). The park is also noted for its endemic primates 
(toque macaque Macaca sinica and purple-faced langur Presbytis senex), sloth bear Melursus 
ur sinus (I), spotted deer Cervus axis, sambar C. unicolor and wild boar Sus scrofa. The rare and 
endemic palm frond frog Hylerana gracilis is present. Noteworthy birds include Sri Lanka 
trogon Harpactes fasciatus, racquet-tailed drongo Dicrurus caerulescens, endemic yellow- 
fronted barbet Megalaima flavifrons, endemic Sri Lanka junglefowl Gallus lafayettei and 
endemic Sri Lanka spurfowl Galloperdix bicalcarata. White-necked stork Ciconia episcopus 
and lesser adjutant stork Leptoptilosjavanicus occur in the plains G*^S, 1986; M. Jansen, pers. 
comm., 1986). 

Cultural Heritage The most important cultural site is Buduruwayaya in the south-west comer, 
near the confluence of the Amban and Kalu rivers. These ruins, estimated to be 1800 years old, 
feature a statue of Buddha reclining and stone pillars. Another reclining Buddha statue is 
immediately across the Amban Ganga, outside the western park boundary (NFS, 1986a). 
Remains of an ancient irrigation system provide evidence of early human occupation beside the 
Mahaweli Ganga and Amban Ganga. The canal known as Kalinga Yoda Ela was constructed 
by King Parakarama in the twelfth century (Hemapriya, 1981). A ruined palace with stone 
pillars, located on an island in Kalinga River, is particularly important. 

Local Human Population There are no residents in the park. The former strict natural reserve 
was occupied in places by squatters, who were resettled in adjacent Mahaweli settlement areas 
prior to the park's establishment. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities Very adequate facilities exist outside the park, with guest houses 
and hotels available in Polonnaruwa, Giritale and Habarane, and less sophisticated rest houses 
in Mahigangana and Pallegama. It is proposed that only limited accommodation should be 
provided inside the park, with campsites and hostels at north and south entrances. Facilities at 
the north entrance will include a visitor centre (NPS, 1986a). 

Scientific Research and Facilities The vegetation has been surveyed by Jaysingham et al. 
(1988) and the fauna by Kotagama and Vattala (n.d.). The relative density of elephants has been 
examined in grassland and forest habitats (Ishwaran, 1985). 

Conservation Value Wasgoma is unusual in its virtual lack of contemporary human disturb- 
ance and infrastructure, and its importance as a centre of ancient Sri Lankan culture. Being 
isolated by large rivers on all but its southern side is a major advantage for management. The 
park probably contains more wildlife, in terms of both diversity of species and numbers of 
animals, than any other part of the Mahaweli development area, with the possible exception of 
the northern part of the proposed Somawathiya National Park. 

Conservation Management There is an overall systems plan for protected areas within the 
Mahaweli region (NPS, 1986b) and a master plan for Wasgomuwa (NPS, 1986a). The purpose 
of the park is to protect indigenous natural resources and watersheds, to confer benefits to local 
people in surrounding areas and to provide for limited recreational use. In view of its relatively 
pristine condition and isolation, it is proposed that development of the park should be minimal 
and largely confined to the periphery. A system of natural and development zones is envisaged, 
together with a special use zone along the Amban Ganga, where the landscape is being restored, 
and 200m-wide peripheral buffer zones to keep wildlife in and domestic animals out. The 



269 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

southern portion of Flood Plains National Park is included in the Wasgomuwa master plan for 
administrative purposes (NPS, 1986b). 

Management Constraints Possibly the biggest management issue is the tendency for ele- 
phants to cross the eastern and southern boundaries into adjacent agricultiual areas. Various 
actions are proposed to reduce conflict between elephants and settlers (St John, 1984, 1986; 
NPS, 1986a). Other problems are poaching, iUegal timber exploitation and gem mining, which 
is prevalent around the Sudukanda Range (NPS, 1986a). Apart from the obvious disturbance 
to wildlife and degradation of the habitat, the thousands of abandoned and exposed mine shafts 
pose a serious hazard to both wildlife and humans. Although pits are now being filled, new ones 
are still being dug (Hoffmann, 1987a). 

The former strict natural reserve has been seriously degraded in recent years. Squatters practised 
slash- and-bum cultivation for cash crops in large areas of the forest, and an expanding irrigation 
scheme to the south encroached into the reserve. The squatters have since been resettled outside 
the new park and the boundaries have been redefined, excluding the irrigation scheme while 
extending them northwards towards Hurulu Forest Reserve. Part of Wasgamuwa was to be 
inundated by a dam across the Mahaweli, but these plans were abandoned. Potentially, a new 
threat is a Japanese-backed project to extend the left bank of Minipe Canal right through the 
park (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1990). 

Staff One park warden, 12 game guards and 12 ancillary staff (1990) 

Budget The park budget is being planned with help from US-AID. 

Local Addresses Park Warden, Wasgomuwa National Paric, Wilgamuwa, Hettipola 

References 

Hemapriya, B.H. Ed. (1981). Mahaweli Ganga. Ministry of Lands and Land Development and 

Ministry of Mahaweli Development, Columbo. 
Hemapriya, B.H. Ed. (1981). Mahaweli projects and programmes. Ministry of Lands and Land 

Development and Ministry of Mahaweli Development, Columbo. 102 pp. 
Hoffman, T.W. (1977). Report on Wasgomuwa. Lorn 14: 195-197. 
HofTmann, T.W. (1987a). Report on circuit of MEP areas, 20th-25di January 1987. Mahaweli 

Environment Projea, Colombo. Unpublished. 7 pp. 
Hoffmann, T.W. (1987b). Report on visit to Wasgomuwa National Park - 29-31.5.87. Mahaweli 

Environment Project, Colombo. Unpublished. 6 pp. 
Ishwaran, N. (1985). Ecology of the Asian elephant in Sri Lanka. Ph.D. thesis. Michigan State 

University, East Lansing, USA. (Unseen) 
Jansen, M. (1982). The lure of the Mahaweli. Loris 16: 84-90. 
Jansen, M. (1985). A network of national parks for Sri Lanka. Tigerpaper \2{\): A-1 . 
Jayasingham, T., Vivekanantharaja, S. and Balasubramaniam, S. (1988). Vegetation survey of 

Wasgomuwa National Park. Department of Botany, Eastem University, Chenkaladi. Unpub- 
lished report. (Unseen) 
Kotagama, S.W. and Vattala, H.D.V.S. (n.d.). Faunal survey of Wasgomuwa. Unpublished 

report. Department of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 10 pp. 
McNeely, J.A. (1982). Bringing die benefits of nature conservation to die people: a technical 

analysis of the Mahaweli Environment Project lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Unpublished 

report. 45 pp. 
NPS (1986a). Master plan: Wasgomuwa National Park. US National Park Service/Department of 

Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 43 pp. 



270 



Sri Lanka 



NPS (1986b). Systems plan: Mahaweli national parks region. US National Park Service/Depart- 
ment of Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 44 pp. 

St John, R.BX. (1984). Wasgomuwa comes of age. Loris 16: 290-293. 

St John, R.BX. (1986). From an unknown jungle to a national park: Wasgomuwa. Sri Lanka 
Wildlife 2: 18-20. 

WWF/IUCN Project 1783. Elephant management, Sri Lanka. 



Date November 1985, updated September 1990 



WILPATTU NATIONAL PARK AND WILPATTU NORTH SANCTUARY 



lUCN Management Category 

Wilpattu National Park: 11 (National Park) 

Wilpattu North Sanctuary: FV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location The park lies on the north-west coast, 30km due west of Anuradha- 
pura, and spans the border between North West I*rovince and North Central provinces. It is 
bounded in the north by the Moderagam Aru, in the south by the Kala Oya, and in the west by 
Portugal and Dutch bays and the open sea. 8'12'-8''32'N, 79''52'-80''10'E 

The sanctuary lies inland from the coast and is entirely within Northern Province. It is 
contiguous with the park, the intervening boundary being marked by the Moderagam Aru. 
8'32'-8°35'N, 79°56'-80°01'E 

Date and History of Establishment The national park was declared on 25 February 1938, 
having been created a sanctuary in 1905. Further details of its early history are given by 
Hoffmann (1969). Wilpattu North Sanctuary was declared on 7 November 1947. 

Area Wilpattu National Park: 131,693ha 
Wilpattu North Sanctuary: 624ha 

The park extends is divided into five blocks declared at various times: Block I (54,954ha) on 25 
February 1938; Block H (7,021ha) on 28 April 1967; Block HI (22,792ha) on 27 June 1969 and 
enlarged by 189ha on 5 October 1973; Block IV (25,252ha) on 5 December 1969 and Block V 
(21,484ha) on 7 December 1973. The adjacent areas of Dutch and Portugal bays have been 
proposed as a marine extension to the park, largely to protect dugong Dugong dugong (V) 
(Bertram and Bertram, 1970; Santiapillai, 1981). 

Land Tenure State, except in the case of some cultivated land in the sancmary (as indicated 
in the 1969 revision of the 1 inch: 1 mile topographic map) 

Altitude Wilpattu National Park: ranges ftom sea level to 152m. 

Wilpattu North Sanctuary: ranges from 16m to 28m. 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Physical Features The western margin of this flat lowland is characterised by littoral sands, 
overlying sedimentarry rocks. Sandstone and red-earth cliffs between Palugaturai and Kudri- 
malai are a coastal feature not commonly found elsewhere in Sri Lanka. The central portion is 
dominated by a series of natural waterholes or villus, some of which are permanent. These are 
formed in shallow depressions over an impervious layer and fill up by surface flow during the 
monsoons. Approximately 24km from the coast, the underlying rocks change in character from 
Jaffna limestones to the Vijayan series, a complex conglomerate of supercrustal rocks, including 
crystalline limestone and granitic gneiss. Soils in the west are generally very poor and 
intermittendy characterised by red-yellow latosols, which are slightiy acidic, low in organic 
matter and low in minerals. In the east, soils are more frequendy characterised by fertile reddish 
brown earths, high in minerals. Other soil types include clays, in areas of former cultivation and 
tanks, and alluvial deposits along the banks of the major river systems and their tributaries 
(Eisenberg and Lockhart, 1972). 

Climate Characterised by inter-monsoonal rains in March and April, an extensive drought from 
May until early September and a major rainy season (north-east monsoon) from September until 
December. Mean annual temperature is 27.2*C and total annual precipitation is approximately 
1000mm, based on long-term records at Pomparippu (Mueller-Dombois, 1968). 

Vegetation Three types of vegetation can be distinguished: littoral vegetation, including salt 
grass and low scrub immediately adjacent to the beach; a 5-10 km coastal belt of monsoon scrub 
of very low stature; and, fiirther inland, monsoon forest with tall emergents, such as pala 
Manikara hexandra and satin Choroxylon swietenia. Some 73% of the park is dense forest or 
scrub and the rest is more op)en habitat (Eisenberg and Lockhart, 1972). The vegetation has been 
mapped by Mueller-Dombois and Fernando (1970). Dominant species within various physiog- 
nomic classes of vegetation are listed by Eisenberg and Lockhart (1972). 

Fauna Mammalian diversity and ecological densities are highest in such ecotones as the 
interfaces between forest, scrub and grassland in the west and the villus and drainage systems 
in the centre of the park. A total of 31 species of mammal have been recorded but additional 
species of Rodentia and Chiroptera are undoubtedly present (Eisenberg and Lockhart, 1972). 
Threatened mammals are elephant Elephas maximus (E), with an estimated 70 residents (1969), 
sloth bear Melursus ursinus (D, leopard Panthera pardus (T), the dominant carnivore with a 
population size estimated at less than 20 residents (1969), and water buffalo Bubalus bubalis 
(V), numbering about 160 residents (1969). Of the herbivores, elephant exhibits the lowest 
numerical density but accounts for the second highest biomass, exceeded only by spotted deer 
Cervus axis which, at an estimated 3,500 (1969), is the most numerically abundant species. The 
elephant population is currentiy estimated at 200-300 (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1990). 
DugongDugong dugong (V) occurred in Dutch and Portugal bays, adjacent to the paric (Bertram 
and Bertram, 1970), but its present status is uncertain. 

The villus support a variety of resident and migratory waterfowl, including large breeding 
populations of painted stork Mycteria leucocephala and open-billed stork Anastomus oscitans 
(Scott, 1989). Other wetiand species include garganey Anas querquedula, pintail A. acuta, 
whisding teal Dendrocygnajavanica, spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, white ibis Threskiornis 
melanocephala, large white egret Egretta alba, cattie egret Bubulens ibis and purple heron Ar^a 
pupurea. Indian darter Anhinga melanogaster is abundant in the vicinity of those villus which 
suppon a fish fauna. Common in the vicinity of villus are white-shafted litde tern Sterna 
albifrons, gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica, whiskered tern Chlidonias hybridus, great 



272 



Sri Lanka 



Stone-curlew Esacus recurvirostris, black-winged stilt Himantopus fumantopus and red- wattled 
lapwing Lobivanellus indicus. Among the more noticeable forest or scrub birds are greater 
raquet-tailed drongo Dicrurus paradiseus, paradise flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi, crimson- 
breasted barbet Megalaima haemacephala, green barbet M. zeylanica, Malabar hombill Anthra- 
coceros coronatus, little green bee-eater Merops orientalis, kingfisher Alcedo atthis, nightjar 
Caprimulgus macrurus, and brown fish owl Ketupa zeylonensis. Galliformes are well repre- 
sented by peafowl Pavo cristatus and Sri Lanka junglefowl Gallus lafayettei. Common raptors 
include crested serpent-eagle Spilornis cheela, white-bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster 
and crested hawk-eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus. Among the most conspicuous reptiles are common 
monitor Varanus bengalensis, mugger Crocodylus palustris (V), common cobra No/a naja, rat 
snake Ptyas mucosus and Indian python Python molurus (V). Pond turtle Melanochelys trijuga 
and soft-shelled turtle Lissemys punctata are resident in most of the larger permanent villus. 
Star tortoise Testudo elegans is common in grasslands. Termites of the genus Trinervitermes 
probably account for the most significant proportion of the invertebrate biomass. Termite 
activity is highest in scrub and scrub-forest, and minimal in grassland (Eisenberg and Lockhart, 
1972). 

Cultural Heritage Much legend and history is associated with the park and its immediate 
surroundings. Vijaya landed at Kudrimalai in about 500 BC and founded the Sinhalese race. 
According to legend, Vijaya married Kuveni, the jungle princess, whose palace lies in ruins at 
Kali Villu. North-east of Maradanmaduwa are Wirandagoda and Galbendi Niraya where Prince 
Saliya, son of King Dutugemunu, is reputed to have lived with his 'forest' bride of lowly caste, 
Asokamala, some 2,000 years ago. Kudrimalai, or Horse Point, was visited by a subject of 
Emperor Claudius in 47 AD, who was blown off course by the monsoon. The local king later 
sent his own envoys to Rome during the time of Pliny. The palace of Queen Alirani, or Aliserani, 
is reputed to lie buried at Kudrimalai. Pomparipau is an archaeological site where sealed urns 
containing human remains have been found. These burials were probably in pre-Vijayan times. 
There are engraved stone boundary posts from ancient Sinhalese times at Konwetiya and 
elsewhere. Between Palagaturai and Kollankanatte are the remains of an old harbour (Sama- 
raweera, 1970). The ruins of an ancient Hindu temple sit on the top of Kudrimalai Point. Nearby, 
on the beach lies the grave of a Muslim saint. The old catholic church at Pallakandal is visited 
by several thousand pilgrims for the annual festival (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1986). In 
the eastern part are remnants of breached tanks left over from the agricultiu"al systems of ancient 
Sinhalese civilizations. 

Local Human Population There are seasonal fishing camps near Kudrimalai (Tammannawa) 
and at Palugaturai, Kollankanatte and Wellamundel. The fishing village of Pookulam, south of 
the mouth of Moderagam Aru, has been excised from the park, together with some surrounding 
land and a tank (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1986). 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The park is prcsendy closed because of security problems. In 
the early 1980s, prior to its closure, the park received some 25,000-30,000 visitors per year. 
There are seven lodges: Maradamaduwa, Pannikar Villu, Kalli Villu, Mana Wila, Thala Wila, 
Manikapola Uttu and Kokmottai. All overlook villus except the last which is by the Modaragam 
Am. Most of these are closed towards the end of the dry season in August-September. Another 
lodge at Makalanmaduwa has never been used since its construction in the late 1970s. A lodge 
belonging to the Wild Life and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka lies just outside the park, 
and The Wilpattu Hotel is some 24km distant. There is a good network of gravel roads, 
particularly between waterholes. A museum is situated at Hunuwilagama. 



273 



WCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Scientific Research and Facilities The park was surveyed over a period of 14 months in 
1968-1969, as part of an elephant study program undertaken by the Smithsonian Institution 
(Eisenberg and Lockhart, 1972). A botanical reconnaissance was carried out at the same time 
(Mueller-Dombois and Fernando, 1970). Muntjac Muntiacus muntjac was the subject of a 
behavioural study in 1972-73 (Barrette, 1975, 1977). There are no research facilities. 

Conservation Value Wilpattu National Park is among the oldest and most important of 
protected areas in Sri Lanka. Its flora and fauna are representative of the dry lowland zone. It 
also contains a number of important cultural sites. Extension of the park to include the adjacent 
waters is identified as a priority in the Corbett Action Plan (lUCN, 1985). The sanctuary is 
important as a buffer to the park. 

Conservation Management Management of the sanctuary comes under the remit of the 
warden of the national park. Law enforcment activities came to a standstill in 1985 following 
the massacre of park employees by terrorists. Several attempts have been made to drive 
elephants from System 'H' of the Mahaweli Development Area into the park, begirming in 
1978/1979. Most attempts have been unsuccessful, with elephants returning to their former 
range (Jayewaidene, 1984, 1986). Recendy, attempts have been made to enrich the habitat for 
elephant by planting grass. 

Management Constraints The protected areas complex lies in a conflict zone between Tamil 
and government forces. On 14 May 1985, 24 park employees were killed by terrorists escaping 
to the coast, following which the park and sanctuary were closed to visitors. Subsequent 
improvement and construction of two roads for military purposes resulted in considerable 
damage to the habitat (Hoffmaim, 1987); the roads have since been abandoned (T.W. Hoffmann, 
pers. comm., 1989). Well-organised illegal extraction of timber and poaching have always been 
a major problem facing the insufficiently numerous and ill-equipped guard force (Alwis, 1984). 
More recendy, this has been exacerbated by the activities of army personnel stationed within 
the park (T.W. Hoffmaim, pers. comm., 1990). 

Some animals migrate from the park in times of drought, exposing them to dangers from hunting. 
Expanding villages in areas adjacent to the park threaten its integrity. Restoration of two tanks 
(Maha Andaragollewa and Mahawewa) to full irrigation capacity by the Mahaweli Authority 
has not benefitted wildlife because they have become overgrown with Salvinia and secondary 
vegetation (T.W. Hoffmann, pers. comm., 1986). Monks are being settled by the Chief Priest 
near Tantirimalai, an ancient Buddhist site that was formerly a hermitage for 2-3 monks. A 30 
sq.km enclave on the park boundary has been allocated for this purpose (Department of Wildlife 
Conservation, pers. comm., 1990). 

Encroachment and settlement within the sanctuary is extensive due to the absence of law 
enforcement during the recent political unrest (Department of Wildlife Conservation, pers. 
comm., 1990). 

Staff The park was administered by 80 staff, under a warden, up until 1985. Staff arc 
temporarily stationed outside the park. 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses Warden, Park Office, Wilpattu National Park, Hunuwilagama, 
Nochchiyagama 

274 



Sri Lanka 

References 

Alwis, W. de (1984). Poachers problem in Sri Lankas biggest national park. Sri Lanka News. 
Barrette, C. (1975). The social behaviour of muntjacs. Ph.D. thesis. University of Calgary, Canada. 

(Unseen) 
Barrette, C. (1977). Some aspects of the behaviour of muntjacs in Wilpattu National Park. 

Mammalia 41: 1-29. 
Bertram, C. and Bertram, K.R. (1970). Dugongs in Ceylon. Oryx 10: 362-364. 
Eisenberg, J.F. and Lockhart, M. (1972). An ecological reconnaissance of Wilpattu National Park, 

Ceylon. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 101: 1-118. 
HIadik, CM. and Dubost, G. (1971). Les gros mammiferes de la reserve de Wilpattu a Ceylan. 

Science et Nature 103: 7-17. (Unseen) 
HofTmann, T.W. (1969). The Wildlife Protection Society of Ceylon: some historical reflections on 

the occasion of its 75th anniversary. Loris 11: 1-13. 
Hoffmann, T. (1987). Wilpattu National Park - report on visit 22-29.3.87. Unpublished. 5 pp. 
lUCN ( 1985). The Corbett Action Plan for protected areas of the Indomalayan reahn. lUCN, Gland, 

Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 23 pp. 
Jayewardene, J. (1984). Elephant conservation amidst development (Part I). Tigerpaper 11(4). 
Jayewardene, J. (1986). Elephant conservation amidst development (Part II). Tigerpaper 13(3): 

4-8. 
Mueller-Dombois, D. (1968). Ecogeographic analysis of a climate map of Ceylon with particular 

reference to vegetation. The Ceylon Forester 8: 39-58. 
Mueller-Dombois, D. and Fernando, K.S. (1970). Vegetation map of Wilpattu National Park. 

Survey Department of Ceylon, Colombo. 
Samaraweera, C.S. (1970). Wilpattu in history and legend. Loris 12: 73-75. 
Santiapillai, C. (1981). On die ecology and conservation of the dugong Dugong dugong (Muller, 

1776) in Sri Lanka. Tigerpaper 8(1): 2-6. 
Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 

UK. 1,181pp. 

Date April 1986, updated September 1990 

WIRAWILA-TISSA SANCTUARY 

lUCN Management Category IV (Managed Nature Reserve) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese Monsoon Forest) 

Geographical Location Situated near the townships of Wirawila and Tissamaharama, Ham- 
bantota District, Soutiiem Province. 6°16'-6n7'N, 8ri4'-8ri9'E 

Date and History of Establishment Declared a sanctuary on 27 May 1938. 

Area 4,164ha 

Land Tenure State 

Altitude Approximately 900m 



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lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Physical Features The wetland comprises three tanks (water storage reservoirs): Wirawila 
Wewa (300ha), Tissa Wewa (150ha) and Debara Wewa. Wirawila is a shallow tank with 
scattered dead trees and grassy shoreline; it is surrounded by scrub jungle and cultivation. At 
low water levels, large areas of bare mud are exposed. 

Climate Conditions are tropical monsoonal. 

Vegetation No information 

Fauna Wirawila used to be frequented by large waterbirds, notably grey pelican Pelecanus 
philippensis (e.g. 400 in September 1972), cormorants, herons, egrets, storks, ibises and 
spoonbills, and is still an important wintering area for ducks and shorebirds in some years. Water 
levels were very high in January 1986 when few birds were present In January 1987, however, 
large numbers of garganey Anas querquedula, pintail A. acuta, Indian whistling duck Dendro- 
cygna javanica, and gull-billed tern Gelochelidon nilotica were present. In January 1988, 
conditions were again poor and the only birds present were 1,000 Indian whistling duck and 
small numbers of black cormorant Phalacrocorax niger, herons, and egrets (five species), 
black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus and a few other shorebirds. The other tanks are 
known to be important for waterfowl, but few details are available. 

Fishes recorded from Wirawila include Puntius sarana, Puntitius dorsalis, Ompok bimaculatus, 
Heteropneustes fossilis, Macrones vittatus, Tilapia mossambica and Glossogobius giuris. 

Cultural Heritage No information 

Local Human Population No information 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities No information 

Scientific Research and Facilities No information 

Conservation Value The sanctuary is an important wetland, although Wirawila is less used 
by waterfowl than formerly. 

Conservation Management No information 

Management Constraints No information 

Staff No information 

Budget No information 

Local Addresses No information 

References Information is taken directly from: 

Scott, D.A. (Ed.) (1989). A directory of Asian wetlands. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UK. 1,181pp. 

Date September 1990 



276 



Sri Lanka 



YALA EAST NATIONAL PARK 

lUCN Management Category n (National Paric) 

Biogeographical Province 4.13.04 (Ceylonese monsoon forest) 

Geographical Location Lies on the south-east coast in Eastern Province, 12km south of 
Arugam Bay, and is accessible from the Wellawaya-Pottuvil Road. Contiguous to the south 
with Ruhuna (Yala) National Park/Yala Strict Nature Reserve (126,786ha), along the Kum- 
bukkanOya. 6°30'-6°42'N, 8r04'-8ri5'E 

Date and History of Establishment Block II was established on 26 December 1 969, followed 
by Block I on 2 January 1970, having originally been reserved for shooting as an intermediate 
zone many years beforehand. 

Area Total area is 18,149ha, with 285.3ha in Block H and 17,863.4ha in Block I. 

Land Tenure Land is state-owned, but the people of Kumana Village, located within the park, 
enjoy certain rights. 

Altitude Ranges from sea level to 90m-high rocky outcrops. 

Physical Features The main feature is the world famous Kumana mangrove swamp (c. 200ha), 
which is surrounded by plains and jungle. The flat terrain of the coast is broken by numerous, 
rocky outcrops. There are large saline lagoons along the coast, often surrounded by extensive 
plains. 

Climate Conditions are similar to those experienced in the north of Ruhuna National Park. 

Vegetation Comprises semi-arid thorn-scrub with fairly large areas of dense forest Important 
species of tree are palu Manilkara hexandra, weera Hemicyclia sepiaria, mayila Bauhinia 
racemosa, ehala Cassia fistula, satin Chloroxylon sweitenia and malithan Salvadora persica. 
Around the marshy swamps are kirala Sonneratia caseolaris and hambu Mitragyna parvifolia 
(M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Fauna In general, the fauna is similar to that found in Ruhuna National Park. Kumana is 
reputed for its avifauna. Large numbers of certain species congregate to nest in the mangroves 
in May- June (Banks and Banks, 1985). Common birds include pelican Pelecanus sp., painted 
stork Ibis leucocephalus, spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, white ibis Threskiornis melancocepha- 
lus, open-billed stork Anastomus oscitans, purple heron Ardea purpurea, grey heron A. cinerea, 
egrets Egretta spp., pond heron Ardeola grayii, night heron Nycticoraxnycticorax, Indian darter 
Anhinga melanogaster and cormorant Phalacrocorax niger. Moorhen Gallinula chloropus, 
water cock Gallicrex cinerea, purple moorhen Porphyria porphyria, pheasant-tailed jacana 
Hydraphasiamus chirurgus, black-winged stilt Himantopus himantopus, whistling teal 



277 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 

Dendrocygna javanica and little grebe Podiceps ruficollis arc also present, as is black-necked 
stork Xenorhynchus asiaticus, one of Sri Lanka's rarest birds. 

Cultural Heritage At the base of most rock outcrops arc caves, some with rock inscriptions 
of the first and second centuries BC. A nine-metre statue of the reclining Buddha, now ruined, 
was discovered in a large cave at Bambaragastalawa. Bowattagala is another ancient monastic 
site. Kudumbigala, just outside the park, is inhabited by a Buddhist monk. Both Kudumbigala 
and Lenama, also peripheral to the park, werc once the hunting grounds of the Nittaewo, the 
legendary pygmies of Sri Lanka who were sworn enemies of the Veddas (Jayawickreme, 1970; 
M. Jansen, pers. comm., 1986). 

Local Human Population The village of Kumana is inhabited by 14-15 families (M. Jansen, 
pers. comm., 1986), of which most male members work for the park authorities. 

Visitors and Visitor Facilities The park is rarely visited now that it is under Tamil occupation. 
There are two park bungalows, one at Okanda, near the park entrance, and the other by the 
waterhole at Thunmulla. A campsite is situated on the banks of the Kumbukkan Oya at Kumana. 
A boat is available for hire at Kumana Villu. 

Scientific Research and Facilities Limited to a few avifaunal studies. 

Conservation Value Together with Ruhuna National Parte, Yala East National Park is 
renowned for the variety of its wildlife, largely characteristic of dry zone tropical thorn forest. 
In addition, the mangroves of Kumana provide particularly important habitat for birds. 

Conservation Management None at present. Some years ago initiatives were taken to relocate 
the inhabitants of Kumana Village. Construction of a new village of concrete huts was begun 
outside the park, but the plan was abandoned when it was discovered that there was no water in 
the area. 

Management Constraints Following several terrorist incursions to the park in 1985, staff were 
withdrawn. In the absence of the park authorities, villagers (mosdy Muslim) from Panama and 
Arugum Bay have been poaching deer and water buffalo and removing many valuable trees 
(J.N.D. Banks, pers. comm., 1986). 

Staff Temporarily removed, except for those stationed at Kumana Village. 

Budget None 

Local Addresses Warden, Yala East National Park, Okanda 

References 

Anon (1974). Handbook for the Ceylon traveller. Studio Times, Colombo. 

Banks, J. and Banks, J. (1985). Ruhuna (Yala) National Park. Ceylon Bird Club, Colombo. 

Unpublished fact sheet. 2 pp. 
Jayawickreme, E.A. (1970). Yala East National Park - where time stands still. Loris 12: 95-98. 
Perera, S. (n.d.). Yala East (Kumana) Bird Paradise. Pamphlet issued by the Department of 

Wildlife Conservation, Colombo. 

Date April 1986, updated December 1988 



278 



GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX 



Ambalangoda Sanctuary, 214 
Askor Nallah Game Reserve, 86 
Astore Wildlife Sanctuary, 87 
Baltistan Wildlife Sanctuary, 88 
Bangladesh, 1 
Bellanwila-Attidiya Marshes Proposed 

Sanctuary, 196 
Bhawal National Park, 9 
Bund Khush Dil Khan Game Reserve, 90 
Bundala Sanctuary, 198 
Char Kukri-Mukri Wildlife Sanctuary, 10 
Chashma Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, 91 
Chassi/Baushdar Game Reserve, 94 
Chitral Gol National Parte, 95 
Chunati WUdlife Sanctuary, 12 
Chundikulam Sanctuary, 201 
Danyor Nallah Game Reserve, 97 
Dri^ Lake Wildlife Santuary WUdlife 

Sanctuary, 99 
Flood Plains National Parte, 202 
Gal Oya National Parte, 206 
Gal Oya Valley North-East Sanctuary, 206 
Gal Oya Valley South- West Sanctuary, 206 
Giant's Tank Sanctuary, 210 
Hab Dam Wildlife Sanctuary, 101 
Hadero Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, 103 
Hail Haor Proposed Wildlife Sanctuary, 14 
Hakgala Strict Natural Reserve, 211 
Haleji Lake Wildlife Santuary Wildlife 

Sanctuary, 105 
Hawkes Bay/Sandspit Beaches, 108 
Hazar Ganji-CMtan National Park, 1 10 
Hazarikhil Proposed Wildlife Sanctuary, 17 
Head Islam/Chak Kotora Game Reserve, 113 
Hikkaduwa Marine Sanctuary, 214 
Himchari National Park, 18 
Horton Plains National Park, 216 
Hurulu Forest Reserve, 220 
India, 43 

Indus River Game Reserve, 115 
Kala Chitta Game Reserve, 1 17 
Kalabagh Game Reserve, 1 19 
Kalametiya Kalapuwa Sanctuary. 222 
KandarDam, 121 
Kargah Wildlife Sanctuary, 122 
Keti Bunder North WUdlife Sanctuary, 123 
Khabbeke Lake WUdlife Sanctuary, 126 
Kharar Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, 128 



Kheshki Reservoir, 130 

Khunjerab National Park, 1 30 

Kilik/Mintaka Game Reserve, 135 

Kinjhar (Kalri) Lake WUdlife Sanctuary, 136 

Kirtfiar National Parte, 139 

Kokilai Sanctuary, 224 

Lahugala Kitulana National Park, 226 

Lai Suhanra National Park, 144 

Langh (Lungh) Lake Wildlife SancUiary, 148 

Machiara Game Reserve, 150 

Madhupur National Park, 20 

Maduru Oya National Park, 228 

Malugul Dhand, 152 

Manshi Wildlife Sanctuary, 154 

MargaUa HiUs National Park, 156 

Minneriya-Giritale Sanctuary, 232 

Naltar Wildlife Sanctuary, 159 

Nar/Ghoro Nallah Game Reserve, 160 

Nazbar Nallah Game Reserve, 162 

Nemal Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, 163 

Pablakhali Wildlife Sanctuary, 23 

Pakistan, 69 

Pakora Game Reserve, 165 

Peak Wilderness Sanctuary, 234 

Polonnaruwa Sanctuary, 237 

Rampahar-Sitapahar Proposed Wildlife 

Sanctuary, 26 
Ramsagar National Park, 27 
Rasool Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, 166 
Rema-Kalenga WUdlife Sanctuary, 29 
Ritigala Strict NaUiral Reserve, 239 
Rocky Islets Sanctuary, 214 
Ruhuna (Yala) National Park, 242 
Satpara Wildlife Sanctuary, 168 
Senanayake Samudra Sanctuary, 206 
SeniwUa-Allai SarKtuary, 247 
Sher QiUah Game Reserve, 169 
Sigiriya Sanctuary, 249 
Sinharaja Forest Reserve, 250 
Somawathiya Chaitiya National Park, 256 
Sri Lanka, 183 

Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary, 3 1 
Tanda Dam, 171 
Tangir Game Reserve, 173 
Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, 174 
Teknaf Game Reserve, 38 
Thanadarwala Game Reserve, 176 
Tirikonamadu Nature Reserve, 259 
Uda Walawe National Park, 261 



279 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Udawattekele Sanctuary, 263 Wirawila-Tissa Sanctuary, 275 

Victoria-Randenigala-Rantambe Sanctuary, 265 Yala East National Park, 277 

Wasgomuwa National Park, 267 Yala Strict Nature Reserve, 242 

Wilpattu National Park. 27 1 Zangi Nawar Game Reserve, 178 

Wilpattu North Sanctuary, 27 1 Ziarat Juniper Wildlife Sanctuary, 1 80 



280 



TAXONOMIC INDEX 



Abelia triflora, 150 

Abeo rohita, 92 

Abies alba, 154 

Abies pindrow, 150 

Ablepharus pannonicus, 141 

Acacia, 109, 120, 198-9 

Acacia arabica, 140, 145 

Acacia jacquemontii, 101 

Acacia modesta, 92, 118, 120, 126, 156, 163, 

167, 171 
Acacia mollissima, 219 
Acacia nilotica, 92, 103, 106, 113, 128, 137, 

144, 163, 167, 167, 175 
Acacia Senegal, 101, 103, 106, 137, 140 
Acampe rigida, 240 
Acanthodactylus cantoris, 141 
Acantholimon, 181 
Acanthus illicifolius, 1 1 , 244 
Accipiter badius, 238 
Acer caesium, 150, 154 
Achyranthes aspera, 145 
Acrocephalus, 148 
Actinodaphne, 235 
Actinodaphne speciosa, 212, 217 
Adhatoda vasica, 92, 126, 163, 171 
Adina cordifolia, 21, 261 
Aegiceras comiculatum, 124, 244 
Aegiceras maius, 1 1 
Aegithalos caucasia, 181 
Aegithalos leucogenys, 181 
Aegithina tiphia, 257 
Aegypius monachus, 141 
Aenia javanica, 128, 177 
Aesculus indica, 150 
Agamaagilis, 141 
Agamanupta, 141 
Agama rubigularis, 141 
Albizia, 12,21,24,24 
Albizia chinensis, 39 
Albizia procera, 17, 19, 26, 39 
Alcedo atthis, 227, 273 
Alcedo hercules, 15 
Alchemilla,217 
Alectoris chukar, 86, 88-9, 94, 98, 1 18, 122, 

132, 135, 161-2, 165, 168, 170, 173 
Alectoris graeca, 96, 1 1 1 
Alhagi, 106 
Allium, 181 
Alstonia scholaris, 237 



Altemanthera sessilis, 203, 257 

Ambassis nama, 93, 107, 114, 138, 175 

Ambassis ranga, 93, 107, 114, 175 

Ammoperdix griseogularis, 118, 141 

Ammophila, 124 

Amoora, 19, 24 

Amoora cucullata, 32 

Amoora waUichi, 39 

Anabas testudineus, 16, 204 

Anas, 226 

Anas acuta, 15,92, 102, 104, 106, 109, 128, 

137, 149, 153, 167, 171, 175, 202, 244, 

272, 276 
Anas angustirostris, 149 
Anas clypeata, 15,92, 102, 104, 106, 128, 137, 

149, 177 
Anascrecca, 15,92, 100, 104, 106, 128, 137, 

149,153.167,171,175,177 
Anas falcata, 15 
Anaspenelope,92, 101, 104, 106, 128, 137, 

153,167,175,210 
Anas platyrtiynchos, 15, 90, 92, 101, 106, 145, 

148,153,171,177 
Anas poecilorhyncha, 15, 90, 106 
Anas querquedula, 15, 149, 202, 204, 210, 223, 

244, 257, 260, 272, 276 
Anas strepera, 15, 92, 106, 128, 137, 149 
Anastomus oscitans, 15, 24, 196, 223, 257, 272, 

277 
Aneuretus simoni, 235 
Anhinga anhinga, 149 
Anhinga melanogaster, 244, 272, 277 
Anhinga rufa, 204 
Anodendron rhinosporum, 240 
Anodontosoma chacuada, 124 
Anseranser, 15,92, 164 
Anser indicus, 15, 92, 175 
Anthracoceros coronatus, 208, 221, 241, 257, 

262, 273 
Anthropoides virgo, 92, 175 
Anthus similis, 11 1, 141 
Antiaris toxicaria, 239 
Antilope cervicapra, 143, 145 
Aonyx cinerea, 1 1 
Aplocheilus dayi, 197 
Aponogeton crispum, 203, 257 
Aponogeton natans, 203, 257 
Aquila chrysaetos, 141 
Aquilaclanga, 100, 106, 145, 149 



281 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Aquila heUaca, 100. 107, 141. 145. 149 

Aquilarapax. 100. 107. 141. 145. 149 

Arceuthobium oxycedri. 182 

Arctonyx coUaris, 19. 39 

Aidea cinerea. 124. 149. 171. 204. 244. 277 

Ardea goliath. 15 

Ardea puipurca. 149. 226. 244. 257. 272. 277 

Ardeola grayii. 15. 149. 204. 257. 277 

Ardeotis nigriceps. 145 

Aidisia missionis. 240. 240 

Areca catechu, 253 

Arenaria interpres, 244 

Aristida depressa, 120 

Aristida mutabilis, 114 

Artemisia, 86-7, 89, 94. 98, 122, 132, 135, 159, 

161-2, 165, 170, 173 
Artemisia maritima, 1 1 1 
Artocarpus, 12,24,207 
Artocarpus chaplasha, 17. 19. 26. 39 
Anindinaria.217 
Anindodonax. 115 
Asparagus racemosus. 21 
Asphodelus tenuifolius, 177 
Aspidura brachyorrhos. 212. 218 
Aspidura trachyprocta, 212 
Astragalus, 181 
Atalantia rotundifolia, 25 1 
Atro{*aneura jophon, 252 
Avicennia marina, 109, 124, 244 
Axis porcinus, 33, 92, 114, 167, 175 
Aythyabaeri, 15 
Aythya ferina, 15, 90, 92, 92, 100, 102, 104. 

106, 128, 138, 145, 149, 167, 171, 175, 

177 
Aythya fiiligula, 15, 92, 100, 102, 104, 106, 

138, 149, 171 
Aythya nyroca, 15, 149, 177, 179 
Azadirachta indica, 199, 237, 243 
Azaradicta indica, 222 
AzoUa, 15 
Badis, 138 
Badisbadis, 107 

Bagarius bagarius, 92. 1 14, 167. 175 
Bambusa, IS 
Bambusa tulda, 39 
Bandicota, 221 
Barbus, 15, 107, 138,229 
Barbus nigrofasciatus, 252 
Barbus titeya, 252 
Barilius chilwa, 167 
Barilius vagra, 92, 167, 175 
Barringtonia acutangula, 21 



Baningtonia asiatica, 203, 257 

Batagur, 37 

Batagur baska, 34 

Bauhinia racemosa, 199, 243, 277 

Bauhinia tomentosa. 266 

Bauhinia variegata, 21 

Belontia signata, 252 

Berberis, 150 

Berberis baluchistani, 181 

Berberis lycium, 157 

Berrya cordifolia, 207, 221, 226, 240, 257, 261 

Betula, 86, 94, 98, 122, 159. 161. 168. 170, 173 

Betulautilis, 131,150 

Boiga, 145, 199, 227 

Boigaforsteni, 241 

Bombax ceiba, 39 

Bombax insigne, 39 

Bos gaums, 24, 33 

Bosjavanicus, 24 

Boselaphus tragocamelus, 145 

Bothrichloapertusa, 156 

Brachiaria, 207 

Brachiaria mutica, 203, 257 

Bradyptenis palliseri, 212, 21 8 

Bruguiera, 32 

Bniguiera gymnontiiza, 32 

Bubalus bubalis, 21, 33, 204. 207. 221, 229, 

244, 257. 262. 272 
Bubo bubo. 141 
Bubulcus ibis. 15, 204, 223 
Bubulens ibis, 257, 272 
Buddleia crispa, 181 
Bufo andersoni. 141 
Bufo athukoralei, 199, 227 
Bufo fergusonii, 241 
Bufo kelaarti, 212 
Bufo melanostictis, 208 
Bulbophyllum crassifolium, 240 
Bungams, 145, 229 
Bungams caenilens, 141 
Buihinus oedicnemus, 141 
Bunnannia coelestis, 235 
Butasturteesa. 157 
Buteafinondosa,21 
Buteo rufinus. 141. 149. 155 
Cairina scutulata. 24 
Calamus. 235. 251 
Calamus rotang. 203 
Calamus thwaitesii, 242 
Calidris alba, 109. 124 
Calidrisalpina. 109. 124 
Calidris canutus, 199 



282 



Index 



Calidris femiginea, 124 

Calidris minuta, 109. 124 

CaUicaipa arborea, 39 

Calligonum polygonoides, 177, 179 

Callistemon viminalis, 157 

Callosciurus pygerythrus, 21 

CalophyUum trapezifolium, 235 

Calophyllum walkeri, 212, 217, 235, 266 

Calophylum polyanthum, 39 

Calotes. 145, 208 

Calotes liolepis, 252 

Calotes nigrilabris, 212, 218 

Calotes versicolor, 14 1 , 24 1 

Calotropis, 106 

Calotropis piDcera, 167 

Canisaureus,9,21,29,92, 106, 114, 118, 120, 

124, 127-8, 137, 145, 164, 167, 171, 175, 

179, 196, 199, 204, 221, 226. 229, 240, 

244, 257, 260, 262, 264, 266 
Canis lupus. 88-9. 96. 132. 135, 140, 145, 151, 

159, 165, 171, 173 
Capparis aphylla, 1 14 
Capparis decidua, 140, 167 
Capparis zeylanica, 199 
Caprafalconeri, 86, 88-9, 96, 98, 111, 122, 159, 

170, 173, 181 
Caprahircus, 141 
Capra ibex, 86, 88-9, 94, 96, 98, 122, 132. 135. 

151, 159. 161-2. 165. 168. 170 
Capricomis sumatraensis, 13 
Caprimulgus europaeus unwini. 1 1 1 
Caprimulgus indicus. 157. 212 
Caprimulgus macrurus. 157. 273 
Caretta caretta, 34 
Carex, 235 

Carex fedia, 126, 128, 163, 167, 174 
Caridina singhalensis, 218 
Carissa spinarum, 156-7, 199, 243 
Caryotaurens,251 
Cassia, 199 
Cassia auriculata, 229 

Cassia fistula, 226, 229, 237, 243, 261, 268, 277 
Cassia glauca, 157 
Cassia obovata, 177 
Cassia roxburghii, 237, 268 
Cassia siamea, 21 
Castanopsis, 19, 23, 39 
Casuarina, 106 
Catla buchanani, 116 
CaUa caUa, 15. 92. 107. 114. 127, 129. 138. 

145, 164, 167, 172. 175 
Catreus wallichii. 151. 157 



Cauleipa.214 

Cedrela, 12 

Cedrela toona, 17, 26 

Cedrus deodara, %, 150, 154 

Celtis cinnamomea, 207 

Cenchrus ciliaris, 137, 177 

Cenchnis pennisetifoimis, 120 

Centropus chlororhynchus, 235, 252 

Ceratophora aspera. 252 

Ceratophora stoddarti, 212 

Ceratophyllum, 15 

Ceratophyllum demersum, 106, 203, 257 

Ceriops, 32, 32 

Ceriops decandra, 32 

Ceriops tagal, 124 

Certhia himalayana, 181 

Cervus axis, 33, 199, 204, 221, 226, 229, 238, 

240, 244, 260, 262, 266, 269, 272 
Cervus cervicapra, 120 
Cervus duvauceli, 33 
Cervus porcinus, 145 
Cervus unicolor, 13, 17, 24, 27, 29, 40, 199, 

204, 212, 218, 221, 226, 229, 240, 244, 

257, 262, 266. 269 
Ceryle nidis. 258 
Ceymnosporia emarginata. 199 
Ceyx erithacus. 264 
Channa. 16, 138, 229 

Channamarulius, 107, 114, 164, 167, 172, 175 
Channa orientalis, 252 
Channa punctatus, 93. 107, 1 14, 175 
Channa striatus, 107 
Chara, 128, 153, 177 
Charadrius alexandrinus, 109, 124 
Charadrius asiaticus, 199 
Charadrius dubius, 124 
Charadrius hiaticula, 199 
Charadrius mongolus, 109, 124, 223 
Cheirostylis parvifolia, 240 
Chelonia mydas, 34, 109, 244 
Chenopodium, 153 
Chenopodium album, 177 
Chettusia leucurus, 149 
Chilodonias hybrida, 260 
Chimonobambusa. 217 
Chlamydotis undulata. 104. 145 
Chlidonias hybridus. 15. 106. 257. 272 
Chlidonias leucoptenis. 244 
Chloropsis. 249 
Chloropsis aurifrons. 257 
Chloropsis cochinchinensis. 238 



283 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Chloroxylon swietenia, 199. 221, 226. 229. 243. 

260-1.266.268.272,277 
Chrysopelea, 227 
Chrysopelea omata. 241 
Chrysopelea taprobana. 199 
Chrysophyllum roxburghii, 240 
Chrysopogon aucheri, 92, 164 
Chrysopogon semilatus. 156 
Chrysopogon zeylanicus. 217 
Ciconia ciconia, 153. 177 
Ciconia episcopus, 257, 269 
Ciconia nigra, 90 
Cinnamomum. 24, 217. 235 
Circus aeniginosus, 15, 100, 106, 138, 145, 

149, 179 
Circus macrourus, 106, 149 
Circus melanoleucos, 15 
Cinhinusmrigala, 15,92, 114, 127, 129, 138, 

145, 164, 167, 172, 175 
Cinhinus reba, 92, 1 14, 175 
Cissa omata, 252 
Clarius batrachus, 16 
Qeidion nitidum, 240 
Cleistanthus paUidus, 240 
Qeistanthus patulus, 240, 240, 240, 240 
Cleiodendrum infortunatum, 40 
Clupea, 16 

Cnemaspis kandianus, 241 
Coelomys mayori. 212 
Coelosphaerium, 207 
Coleus elongatus, 240 
Colisa fasciata, 16 
CoUocalia,218 

Columba torringtoni, 212, 218, 252 
Commiphora mukul, 106, 137, 140 
Cophotis ceylanica, 212 
Copsychus malabaricus, 229 
Coracina novaehollandiae, 238 
Cordia, 244 
Corvus splendens, 107 
Coscinium fenestratum, 252 
Cotoneasterpruinosa, 181 
Crataeva nurvula, 15 
Cricetulus migratorius, 181 
Crinum zeylanicimi, 244 
Ciocidura miya, 212 
Crocodyluspalustris, 33, 102, 107, 141, 196, 

199. 204. 208. 229. 244. 269. 273 
Ciocodylus porosus. 33, 199, 204, 229, 244, 

260, 269 
Crossocheilus latius, 107 
Crossocheilus mrigala, 107 



Crotolaria buihia, 128 

Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 107, 127, 129, 138 

Cuculus canorus, 1 1 1 

Culicicapa ceylonensis, 212 

Cullenia, 234 

Culpeachapra, 124 

Culpea funbriata, 124 

Culpea lile, 124 

Cuon alpinus. 13. 17. 19. 24. 29. 40. 132 

Cuora amboinensis, 40 

Cursorius cursor. 104 

Cygnus cygnus, 179 

Cymbopogon, 106 

Cymbopogon confertiflorus, 207, 217, 262 

Cymbopogon jawarancusa, 101, 120 

Cymbopogon schoenanthus, 101 

Cynodondactylon, 113^. 128. 145, 175,203. 

207. 257 
Cynometra ramiflora. 32 
Cyperus. 106, 153. 171 
Cyperus altemifolius, 99 
Cyperus laevigatus, 177 
Cyprinion, 172 
Cyprinus caipio, 102, 107, 127, 129, 164, 167, 

172, 233 
Dactyloctaenium scindicum, 177 
Dalbergia sissoo, 92, 144, 167, 175 
Daphnes oleides, 122 
Dendrobium maccarthiae, 221 
Dendrocalamus longispathus, 39 
E>endrocopos assimilis. 141 
Dendrocopos nanus, 229 
Dendrocygna, 244 
Dendrocygna bicolor, 15 
Dendrocygna javanica, 15, 175, 196,272,276-7 
Deodar, 173 

Demiochelys coriacea, 34, 244 
Desmostachya bipinnata. 113. 177 
Dialium ovoideum. 240, 268 
Dicaeimi agile, 238, 257 
Dicanthium annulatum, 137 
Dichrostachys cinerea, 199, 243 
Dicranopteris, 235 
Dicrurus caerulescens, 238, 269 
Dicrurus paradiseus, 221, 241, 249, 273 
Digitaria longflora, 203, 257 
Dillenia pentagyna, 21 . 39 
Dimocarpus longan, 240 
Dimorphocalyx glabellus, 221, 229, 240, 257 
Dinopium benghalense, 157, 238 
Diospyros. 207 
Diospyros ebenum. 221. 240, 261, 268 



284 



Index 



Diospyros ferrea, 243 

Diospyros malabarica, 268 

Diospyros ovalifolia, 221 , 257, 261 , 268 

Dipterocarpus, 12, 17, 23-4, 26, 234, 251 

Dipterocarpus alatus, 39 

Dipterocarpus hispidus, 251 

Dipterocarpus scaber, 39 

Dipterocarpus turbinatus, 39 

Dipterocarpus zeylanicus, 251 

Dodoneaviscosa,92, 120, 126, 156, 164, 167. 

171 
Doona, 234-5, 235 
Dromas ardeola, 109 
Dryomys nitedula, 181 
Dryophis, 199, 227 
Dryophis nasutus, 241 
Dryophis pulverulentus, 241 
Drypetes sepiaria, 199, 226, 229, 229, 237, 240, 

243, 257, 260, 266, 268 
Duabanga grandiflora, 39 
Ducula aena, 208 
Dugong dugong, 271-2 
Echinochloa colonum, 203, 257 
Echis carinatus, 124, 141, 145 
Egretta, 244, 277 
Egretta alba. 15. 92. 124. 149, 171, 177, 204, 

272 
Egretta garzetta. 15. 124. 149, 204, 223, 257 
Egretta gularis. 124 
Egretta intermedia, 15, 149 
Ehiwara fluviatilis, 197 
Ehretia laevis, 157 
Eichhomia crassipes. 15. 106, 196 
Elaeocarpus, 39, 266 
Elaeocarpus montanus, 212 
Elanus caeruleus, 157. 218 
Elattariaensal,251 
Elephas maximus. 13, 19, 21, 24, 39, 199, 204, 

207, 210, 212. 218. 221, 226, 229, 233, 

235. 240. 244. 249. 252. 257, 260, 262, 

266. 268. 272 
Eleusine, 207 
Eleusine compressa, 101, 106, 114, 128, 167, 

175. 179 
Eleusine flagellifera. 120 
Emberiza striolata, 141 
Emilia glabra, 235 
Enhydra schistosa, 124 
Enteromorf*ia. 124 
Ei^iedra. 1 1 1 

EjAippiortiynchus asiaticus, 199, 244 
Equuskiang, 132 



Eragrostis. 207 

Eremias acutirostris, 179 

Eremunis stenophylla, 1 8 1 

Erctmochelys imbricata. 34 

Erianthus. 115. 167 

Eriocaulon,217,235 

Eristicophis macmahoni. 179 

Erithacus brunneus. 213 

Erythrina. 15 

Erythrina suberosa, 157 

Erythrina variegata, 257 

Erythroxylum obtusifolium, 240 

Eryxjohni. 141, 145 

Esacus recurvirostris, 244, 273 

Etroplus suratensis. 204, 233 

Eucalyptus, 146, 157 

Eucalyptus camaludensis, 222 

Eugenia, 17, 19, 26 

Eugenia bracteata. 237 

Eugenia rotundatata, 240 

Eumeces schneideri, 141 

Eupatorium,41 

Eupatorium odoratum, 17, 21, 41 

Euphorbia caudicifolia, 101, 106, 137, 140 

Euphorbia longana, 207 

Europhiichthys vacha. 107 

Eurotia, 159 

Euryglossa orientalis, 124 

Eurynorhynchus pygmaeus. 199 

Eurystomus orientalis, 229, 235 

Eurystomus orientalis irisi, 252 

Eutropiichthys vacha. 93, 167. 175 

Exacum walkeri. 235 

Excoecaria, 36 

Excoecaria agallocha, 32, 32, 32, 244 

Excoecaria crenulata, 240 

Fahrenheitia. 235 

Falco biannicus, 118. 141. 157 

Falco cherrug, 149 

Falco chicquera, 107, 141 

Falco peregrinus. 107, 1 18, 179, 218 

Falco tinnunculus, 141 

Felis.40 

Felis bengalensis, 19, 33, 159 

Felis caracal, 141, 145 

Felis chaus, 19, 33, 1 14, 128. 145, 167, 175, 204 

Felis libyca, 145 

Felislynx,88, 162, 170, 173 

Felis manul, 181 

Felis mbiginosa, 199, 204, 218, 221. 226. 240. 

257 
Felis temmincki, 29 



285 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Felis viverrina. 11. 19, 33. 199. 204. 212, 218, 

221,226,229,240.257 
Feroculus feroculus, 212, 218, 235 
Feronia, 260 

Feronia limonia. 199, 229. 243 
Ferula, 173 

Ferula oopoda. 111, 181 
Ficus, 17, 24, 26, 39. 106 
Ficus microcarpa, 240 
Francolinus, 114 
Francolinus francolinus, 157. 171 
Francolinus pictus. 207 
Francolinus pondicerianus. 118, 141, 171 
Fraxinus, 87, 89, 94. 98. 122. 150, 159, 161-2. 

165. 170 
Fraxinus xanthoxyloides. 111. 181 
Freycinetia. 235 
Fulica atra. 15. 24. 90. 92, 92, 100, 102, 104, 

106. 114, 128, 138, 145, 167. 175. 179. 

202 
Gadusia chapra. 15, 92, 107, 138 
Gagatacenia, 167 
Gallicrex cineiea, 15, 196. 277 
Gallinago stenura, 257 
Gallinula chloropus, 15, 24, 179, 277 
Galloperdix bicalcarata, 207, 218, 221, 227. 

241,262.266.269 
Gallus gallus. 30 
GaUus lafayettei. 212. 218. 221. 229. 241, 249, 

257.260.262.266.269.273 
Garcinia echinocarpa. 235. 235 
Garcinia hermonii. 251 
Gamotia mutica, 235 
Gamilax cinereifrons, 252 
Gamilax lineatus. 181 
Gamilus lanceolatus. 157 
Gavialis gangeticus, 114, 116, 175 
Gazella gazella. 118, 141. 145 
Gazella gazeUa bennetti. 120 
GekoeUa yakhuna, 241 
Gelochelidon nilolica, 124. 272. 276 
Gentiana,217 
Gentiana livieri. Ill 
Geochelone elegans. 141. 229 
Geoclemys hamiltonii. 175 
Gleichenia. 235 
Glenica unijuga. 221 
Glochidion, 39 
Glochidion stellatum, 240 
Glossogobius, 107, 138 
Glossogobius giuris. 233, 276 
Gmelina aitorea. 39 



Golundaelliotti.262 

Gordonia.217 

Gordonia speciosa. 235 

Graphium antiphates ceylonicus. 252 

Grevillea robusta. 157 

Grewia polygama. 237 

Grewia tenax, 140 

Grewia tiliaefolia. 261 

Gnisgrus,90,92. 175 

Gymnodactylus ftenatus. 241. 266 

Gymnodactylus kachhensis. 141 

Gymnodactylus kadniyanus, 266 

Gymnosporia emarginata, 243-4 

Gymnosporia royleana. 92. 126, 164 

Gypaetus barbatus. 141, 155 

Gyps fulvus, 141 

Gynxarpus americanus, 266 

Haematopus ostralegus. 124. 199 

Halcyon smymensis. 171. 227. 238 

Haliaeetus albicilla. 106. 149 

Haliaeetus leucogaster, 33, 199, 208, 227, 229, 

238, 244, 273 
Haliaeetus leucor>phus, 33, 106, 145 
Haliasturindicus, 106 
Haliastur indus, 149. 199. 204. 208, 238 
Halimeda,214 

Haloxylon, 98, 122, 135. 159. 170 
Hardellathurgi, 175 
Harpactes fasciatus, 269 
Hedyotis, 235 
Heliotropium, 177 
Hemicyclia sepiaria, 221. 277 
Hemidactylus lesehenaulti, 241 
Hemidactylus persicus, 141 
Hemidactylus triednis, 241 
Hemiechinus auritus, 145 
Heritiera, 32, 32. 32. 36 
Heritiera fomes. 32, 32 
Heipestes. 106, 137, 196. 199 
Heipestes auropunctatus. 145 
Heipestes edwardsi, 221 
Herpestes fuscus. 221. 262 
Heipestes smithi. 221. 262 
Heipestes urva, 39 
Heipestes vitticollis. 218. 240. 262 
Heteropneustes fossilis. 16.92. 114. 175,211, 

233. 276 
Heteropogon contortus. 92. 157. 164 
Hibiscus tiliaceus. 257 
Hieraaetus kienerii. 241 
Himantopus himantopus, 114, 153. 171.204. 

257. 273. 276-7 



286 



Index 



Hippolais, 148 

Hippophae, 98 

Hippophae rhamnoides, 132 

Hirudinaria.93, 129, 167. 175 

Histiopteris, 235 

Hodgsonius phoenicuioides, 155 

Holoxylon griffithi. 111 

Hopea cordifolia, 261 

Hopea odorata, 39 

Hortonia floribunda, 212 

Hyaena hyaena, 111, 141 

Hydnocarpus venenata, 203, 240 

Hydrilla, 15, 108 

Hydrillaverticillata,92,99, 106, 113, 126, 128, 

137, 163, 167, 174 
Hydrophasianus chirurgus, 15, 106, 137, 149, 

196, 204, 257, 260, 277 
Hydrophis cyanninctus, 124 
Hydroprogne caspia, 124 
Hyella.210 

Hygrorhyza aristata, 15, 203, 257 
Hylarana temporalis, 212, 241 
Hylerana gracilis, 269 
Hylobates hoolock, 13, 17, 19, 24, 39 
Hyimalenepa,212 
Hypsipetes madagascariensis, 212 
Hystrix indica, 21, 29, 145, 199, 221, 229, 240, 

257,264 
Ibis leucocephalus, 204, 244, 257, 277 
Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus. 33, 208, 227, 258 
Ictinaetus malayensis, 241 
Impatiens, 235 
Imperata cylindrica, 32, 40, 177. 207, 229, 262, 

268 
Indigofera oblongifolia, 140 
Indocalamus. 217 
Ipomea jacunda, 240 
Ipomea wightii, 240 
Ipomoea aquatica, 99, 106, 203, 257 
Ipomoea pescaprae, 109 
Ipsea speciosa. 217 
Iris, 181 

Ixiolirion montanum. Ill 
Ixobrychus flavicollis. 196 
Jacaranda mimosoefolia. 157 
Jaculus blandfordi. 179 
Jasminium humile, 150 
Jhonius belangerii. 124 
Juglans nigra, 154 
Juglans regia. 150 
Julgoza. 87 
Juncus. 113, 126. 128. 148, 148, 163 



Juncus articulatus, 99, 137 

Juncus maritimus, 99, 103, 106 

Juncus prismatocarpus, 235 

Juniperus, 86-7, 89, 94, 98, 122, 132, 135, 159, 

161,2,165,168,170,173 
Juniperus communis, 96, 15 1 
Juniperus macropoda, 96, 1 1 1 . 1 8 1 
Jussiaea repens, 203, 257 
Justicia adhatoda, 156 
Kachuga smithi. 93. 116, 167, 175 
Kaloula pulchra, 227, 241 
Ketupa zeylonensis, 273 
Kittaomata,212,218 
Kochia indica, 177 
Labeo, 204 

Labeo calbasu, 15, 114, 175 
Labeo dussumieri, 211, 233 
Labeo fimbriata, 107, 138 
Labeo fisheri. 266 
Labeo gonius, 15. 107. 138, 167 
Labeo microphthalmus, 114, 167, 175 
Labeo rohita, 15, 102, 107, 114, 127, 129, 138, 

145, 164, 167, 172, 175 
Lagerstroemia, 19 
Lagerstroemia parviflora, 21 
Lagerstroemia speciosa, 21, 39 
Lannea, 19 

Lannea coromandelica, 237 
Lannea grandis, 21 
Lantana,41 

Lantana camara, 40, 229 
Lams argentatus, 124 
Larus brunnicephalus, 124 
Larus fuscus, 124 
Larus ridibundus, 109, 124 
Lasianthus strigosus, 240 
Lasiurus hirsutus, 92, 101, 164 
Launaea, 177 
Lemna, 15 
Lemna minor, 106 
Lepidochelys olivacea, 34, 109, 244 
Leptoptilos javanicus, 226, 269 
Lepus capensis, 132 
Lepus nigricollis. 9. 21. 29. 106, 114, 118, 

127-8, 137, 145, 164, 171. 175. 199,221. 

226, 229, 257, 262, 266 
Lerwa lerwa, 86, 88-9, 94, 96, 98, 122, 135, 

151.161.2.165,170.173 
Leucocodon zeylanicimi. 235 
Limicola falcinellus, 199 
Limosa, 244 
Limosa Ij^ponica, 124 



287 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Limosa limosa, 124, 204, 257 

Lissemys punctata, 93, 1 16, 167, 175, 208, 273 

Litsea,217,235 

Liza vaigiensis, 124 

Lobivanellus indicus, 273 

Lonchura kelaarti, 213 

Lonicera, 87, 89, 173 

Lonicera hypoleuca, 1 8 1 

Lonicera webbiana, 150 

Lophopetalum, 12 

Lophophonis impejanus, 88, 96, 122, 151, 154, 

173 
Lophura leucomelana, 30, 40, 157 
Loriculus beryllinus, 208 
Loris tardigradus, 218, 221, 229, 237, 240 
Loxococcus nipicola, 25 1 
Lumnitzera racemosa, 244 
Lutra, 196 
Lutralutra,218, 266 
Lutra microphthalamus, 92 
Lutra perspiciUata, 33, 92, 145, 175 
Lycodon, 145 

Lycopodium carolinianum, 235 
Mabuya, 208 
Mabuya carinata, 241 
Mabuya macularia, 141, 241, 266 
Macacamulatta, 13, 17, 19,21,24,29,33,39, 

151,157 
Macaca nemestrina, 29 
Macaca sinensis, 249 
Macaca sinica, 199, 207, 212, 218, 221, 226, 

229, 235, 237. 240, 262, 264, 266, 269 
Macaranga denticulata, 39 
Macrobrachium, 16 
Macrobrachium rosenbergii, 197 
Macrognathus aculeatus, 167 
Macronesaor, 116 
Macrones vittatus, 233, 276 
Madhuca clavata, 240 

Madhuca longifolia, 203, 237, 240, 257, 268 
Mallotus repandus, 207 
MaUotus rtiamnifolius, 240 
Mangifera, 12, 24 
Mangifera indica, 15 
Mangifera longipes, 39 
Mangifera zeylanica, 207, 240 
Manilkarahexandra, 199, 221, 226, 229, 229, 

243, 257, 260, 266, 268, 272, 277 
Manis, 19 
Manis crassicaudata, 199, 221, 226, 229, 240. 

266 
Maimaronetta angustirostris, 90, 145, 175, 179 



Marmota caudata, 132 

Martes flavigula, 118, 151 

Maites foina, 159 

Mastacembelus armatus. 93, 107, 114, 175. 233 

Mastacembelus pancalus, 93, 167. 175 

Megalaima. 208 

Megalaima flavifinons, 264, 269 

Megalaima haemacephala, 257, 273 

Megalaima rubricapilla, 238 

Megalaima zeylanica, 238, 273 

Melanochelys trijuga, 208. 273 

Meliadubia,261 

Meliosma pinnata, 39 

Mellivora capensis, 145 

Melocannia bambusoides, 39 

Melosira. 207, 233 

Melostoma,41 

Melursus ursinus. 17. 19. 27, 39, 207. 221. 226, 

229, 240, 244. 262. 269, 272 
Memecyclon, 221 
Mergus albellus, 164 
Meriones crassus. 111 
Meriones hurrianae, 124 
Meriones libycus. 111 
Meriones persicus. 111 
Merops apiastur. 111 
Merops orientalis, 273 
Mertensia tibetica, 1 3 1 
Mesua,234,251 
Mesua ferrea, 17, 26, 39, 240 
Mesua nagassarium, 251 
Metapenaeus, 125 
Metopidius indicus, 15 
Michelia champaca, 39 
Microcystis, 199, 207, 210, 233 
Microhyla rubra, 227 
Microliyla zeylanica, 212 
Microphalophus gracius, 124 
Microptemus brachyurus, 221, 241 
Miliusa velutina, 21 
Millardia meltada, 262 
Milvus migrans, 149 
Mischodon zeylanicus, 240 
Mitragyna parvifolia, 203, 257. 257, 277 
Monochoria hastata. 203. 257 
Monticola solitarius. 1 1 1 
Morinda tinctoria. 237 
Morus. 21 
Morus alba, 145 
Moschus chrysogaster, 88-9. 122, 151, 154, 

161.168 
Mugil subviridis. 124 



288 



Index 



Mugil tade, 124 

Muntiacus muntjak. 13, 17, 19, 24, 27, 29, 40, 

157, 199, 204, 218, 221, 226, 229, 240, 

262, 274 
Mus cervicolor, 262 
Mus femandoni, 262 
Musa, IS 

Musa ramentacea, 39 
Muscicapa soidida, 212, 218 
Muscicapa subrubra, 213 
Muscicapa tatirostris, 213 
Mustela altaica, 132 
Mycerobas camipes, 181 
Mycteria leucocephala, 196, 202, 226, 229, 272 
Myiophonus blighi, 212, 218 
Myricaria germanica, 132 
Myriophyllum spicatum, 106 
Myristica ceylanica, 240 
Myristica dactyloides, 235 
Myrsine afiicana, 156-7 
Mystus aor, 15, 92, 107, 1 14, 175 
Mystus bleekeri, 167 
Mystus gulio, 107 
Mystus seenghala, 92, 167, 175 
Mystus tengara, 15, 107 
Mystus vittatus, 107 
Naja, 238 
Naja naja, 34, 107, 138, 145, 208, 229, 244, 

266, 273 
Najas, 15 

Najas minor, 99, 106 
Nandus nandus, 93, 107, 114, 175 
Natrix piscator, 175 
Nelumbium speciosum, 92, 1 13, 174 
Nelumbo nucifera, 15, 167, 203, 257 
Nematalosa nasus, 124 
Nemoriiaedus goral, 157 
Neofelis nebulosa, 21 
Neolitsea cassia, 240 
Neptunia oleracea, 203, 257 
Neptunus pelagicus, 125 
Nettarufina, 15 

Nettapus coromandelianus, 15, 106, 137, 210 
Nipa fniticans, 34 
Nisaetus fasciatus, 141 
Noemeris phocaenoides, 124 
Nostoc, 199 

Notopterus chitala, 92, 107, 114, 138, 175 
Notopterus notopterus, 16, 92, 107, 114, 138. 

167, 175 
Numenius arquata, 124, 244 
Numenius phaeopus, 124, 244 



Nycticebus coucang, 29 

Nycticorax, 244 

Nycticorax nycticorax, 100, 106, 137, 149, 277 

Nymphaealotus,92,99, 106, 137, 167. 174 

Nymphaea stellata, 203, 257 

Nymphoides, 15, 203, 257 

Nypa fruticans, 32 

Oampok pabda, 15 

Ochlandra, 217 

Ochotona roylei, 154, 160 

Ochotona rufescens, 181 

Ocypoda iDtundata, 125 

Oenanthe alboniger, 141 

Oenanthe picata, 1 1 1 

Olea, 87, 89,98, 103, 122, 159, 165, 170, 173 

Olea cuspidata, 118 

Olea femiginea, 92, 101, 126, 156, 164, 167 

Ompok bimaculatus, 204, 211, 233, 276 

Oncosperma fasciculatum, 235 

Onobrychis, 181 

Ophiocephalus mamlius, 145 

Ophiocephalus panilius, 204 

Ophiocephalus striatus, 204, 21 1 , 233 

Ophiophagus hannah, 34 

Oriolus xanthomus, 229, 238 

Orthotomus sutorius, 229 

Oryza coarctata, 32 

Osbeckia buxifolia, 212 

Osbeckia walkeri, 235 

OsciUatoria, 199,210 

Osphronemus goramy, 229, 233 

Ostodes, 235 

Otocryptis wiegmanni, 266 

Otus brucei, 1 1 1 

Otus scops, 1 1 1 

Ovis ammon polii, 132, 135 

Ovis orientalis, 1 1 1, 141 

Ovis orientalis punjabiensis, 118, 120 

Ovis vignei, 89, 96, 98, 168 

Oxytenanthera auriculata, 39 

Oxyura leucocephala, 127-8, 164 

Paeonia, 154 

Palaemon dayanus, 93, 167 

Palaemon lammanrei, 93, 167 

Palaquium, 234 

Palaquium rubiginosum, 235 

Palmyra, 202 

Pampus argenteus, 124 

Pandionhaliaetus, 15, 100, 104, 106, 145, 149, 

204, 208, 262 
Panicum antidotale, 92, 128, 164, 167, 175 
Panicum maximum, 229 



289 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Panthera pardus, 13. 17, 19, 21, 24, 29, 40, 118, 

120, 141, 151, 154. 157, 199, 207, 212, 

218. 221, 226, 229, 235. 240. 244, 252, 

257. 260. 262, 266, 268, 272 
Panthera tigris, 13, 13, 21, 24, 29. 33 
Panthera uncia. 86, 88-9, 94. 96. 98, 122, 132. 

135, 151, 159. 161-2. 165. 170. 173 
Paradoxurus hennaphnxlitis, 262 
Paradoxurus zeylonensis, 262 
Paridnsonia aculeata, 171 
Parrotiopsisjacquemontiana. 150 
Parus rufonuchalis. 181 
Paspalidium, 203. 257 
Paspalum ditichum. 1 15 
Paspalum vaginatum, 203. 257 
Pavo.21 

Pavo cristatus, 244. 257, 260. 273 
Pediciilaris. 217 
Pelargopsis amauroptera, 33 
Pelargopsis capensis, 33, 227 
Pelecanus, 244. 277 
Pelecanus crispus. 124 
Pelecanus onociotalus. 101, 226 
Pelecanus philippensis, 11. 196, 208, 229, 276 
Pellomeum fuscocapillum, 208, 212. 262. 264, 

266 
Penaeus, 125 
Pennisetum, 106, 229 
Pennisetum divisum. 1 14 
Pennisetum olystachyon. 262 
Pennisetum orientale. 157 
Pennisetum setosum, 21 
Pennisetum typhoides, 128 
Pentapetes phoenicea, 203 
Pericrocotus cinnamomeus, 212. 238 
Pericrocotus flammeus. 212 
Periophthalmus, 124 
Perovskia striplicifolica. Ill 
Petaurista, 40 
Petaurista petaurista, 212 
Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus, 229, 252. 268 
Phalacrocorax carbo. 92, 104, 106, 124, 137. 

149, 229 
Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, 204 
Phalacrocorax fiiscicollis, 149, 196. 204. 262 
Phalacrocorax niger. 15, 114. 137. 149, 204, 

229. 276. 7 
Phalaropus lobatus. 199 
Phalus tancarrvilleae. 235 
Philautus schmardanus, 212 
Philautus variabilis. 241 
Phoeniconaias minor, 244 



Phoenicophaeus pynhocephalus, 207, 227 

Phoenicopterus roseus, 199 

Phoenicoptenis ruber, 124, 127. 225 

Phoenicurus ochruros. 181 

Phoenix, 177 

Phoenix paludosa, 32 

Phragmites. 107 

Phragmites communis. 115 

Phragmites karka, 90. 92-3. 106. 113, 126, 128, 

137. 153. 163. 167, 174, 177-8 
Phrynocephalus luteoguttatus, 179 
Phyla nodiflora, 153, 171 
Phyllanthus emblica, 207 
Phylloscopus. 148 
Phylloscopus griseolus, 181 
Phylloscopus magnirostris, 213 
Phylloscopus neglectus. 181 
Picea, 87, 89. 98. 122, 159, 170 
Picea smithiana, 150. 154 
Pinus caribaea, 253 
Pinus excelsa, 150 
Pinus gerardiana. 96, 173 
Pinus roxburghii, 157, 157 
Pinus wallichiana. 154 
Piper beUe. 40 
Pipistrelluskuhli, 179 
Pipistrcllus moidax, 212 
Pistacea cabulica. 111 
Pistacea khinjak, 111-2 
Pistacia,98. 122. 159, 173 
Pistacia cabulica, 181 
Pistia, 15 

Pistia stratiotes, 203, 257 
Pisum arvense, 175 
Pitta brachyura. 213 
Platalea leucorodia. 1 14. 124. 196. 202. 244, 

272. 277 
Platanista gangetica, 33 
Platanista indi, 92, 1 16. 175 
Platycephalus scaber. 124 
Plegadis falcinellus. 149. 223 
Pleurostylia opposita. 244 
Pluvialis dominica. 204. 223 
Podiceps cristatus. 92. 171 
Podiceps nigricollis, 92. 171 
Podiceps ruficollis. 278 
Polyalthia. 207 
Polyalthia coffeoides. 240 
Polyalthia korinti. 240. 240 
Polyalthia longifolia. 268 
Polygonum. 131. 203, 257 
Polygonum baibatum, 106. 137 



290 



Index 



Polygonum glabnim, 171 

Polygonum plebejum, 171 

Polynemus plebeius, 124 

Pomadasys argyreus, 124 

Pomatoihinus horsfieldii, 212 

Populus, 159, 162 

Populus ciliata, 154 

Populus euphratica, 175 

Porgania glabra, 157 

Porphyrio poiphyrio, 15, 90, 106, 137, 177, 

196,204,244,257,260,277 
Poizana fusca, 196 
Potamogetm, 15, 113, 128, 177 
Potamogeton crispus, 126, 163, 167, 174 
Potamogeton lucens, 106 
Potamogeton pectinatus, 92,99. 103, 106, 137, 

167, 175, 179 
Potamogeton perfoliatus, 106, 137 
Potentilla, 131 
Potentilla desertonmi, 131 
Premna tomentosa, 237 
PresbytisenteUus, 13, 151, 154, 199, 207,221, 

226,229,237,240,249,262 
Presbytis phayrei, 17, 29 
Prcsbytis pileata, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27, 29, 39 
Presbytis senex. 212, 235, 237, 252, 269 
Presbytis vetulus, 218 
Primula macrophylla, 131 
Prinia, 262 
Prosopis cineraria, 92, 101, 106, 113, 128. 137, 

153. 164, 167, 175, 177 
Prosopis glandulosa, 92. 145. 164, 171 
Prosopis spicigera, 140, 145 
Pnmus brahuica. 111 
Pnmus ebumea, 1 8 1 
Psammophis schokari, 141 
Pseudocerastes persicus, 181 
Pseudois nayaur. 132 
Psittacula.208.238 
Psittacula calthorpae, 264 
Psychotria nigra, 240 
Pterocaipus canescens, 260, 266 
Pterocaipus marsupium, 207 
Pterocles coronatus, 141 
Pterocles exustus, 141 
Pterocles indicus, 141 
Pterospermum canescens, 221, 229, 229, 240, 

240. 257. 268 
Pterospermum paniculata, 39 
Pterospermum personatum, 39 
Pterygou alata, 23 
Pterygota thwaitesii, 240 



Ptyas mucosus, 208, 273 

Pucrasia macrolopha, 151, 154 

Pulicaria crispa, 171 

Puntius, 107, 138 

Puntius chola, 233 

Puntius dorsalis. 21 1. 233, 276 

Puntius sarana, 211. 233. 276 

Puntius sophore. 114, 138, 175 

Puntius stigma, 92, 107 

Puntius ticto, 92, 107. 114. 138, 167, 175 

Pycnonotus penicillatus, 212, 218 

PyrrtKxx)rax, 160 

Pynhocorax pyntiocorax. 181 

Pytas mucosus, 199, 227, 241 

Python molunis, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27, 30, 34, 40, 

141. 199. 208. 227, 229, 238, 241, 252. 

266. 269, 273 
Quercus, 19, 23, 39, 173 
Quercus dilatata, 154 
Quercus Uex, 96 
Quercus semecarpifolia, 150 
Rallus striatus, 196 
Ramanella palmata, 212, 252 
Ramanella variegata, 241 
Rana cyanophlyctis, 141 
Rana gracilis, 208 
Rana hexadactyla, 241 
Rana limnocharis, 208, 212, 227, 241 
Rana tigrina, 93, 127, 129, 167, 175, 208 
Randia dumetonun, 199, 243 
Ranunculus, 177, 217 
Ranunculus aquatilis, 175 
Rasbora daniconius, 107 
Rasbora rasbora, 107, 138 
Rattus rattus kandianus, 262 
Ratufa bicolor, 40 
Ratufa macroura, 212, 218 
Rauwolfia serpentina, 21 
Recurvirostra avosetta, 124, 199 
Reptonia buxifolia, 92, 126, 164 
Rhacophonis cniciger, 208, 212, 266 
Rhacophonis leucomystax, 241 
Rhacophonis maculatus, 227 
Rhacophonis microtympanum, 212 
Rhazyastricta,171,177 
Rhinoceros sondaicus, 33 
Rhinoceros unicornis, 21, 145 
Rhinophisblythi,212 
Rhizophora mucronata, 244 
Rhododendron anthopogon. 151 
Rhododendron aiboreum. 217 
Rhododendron zeylanicum, 212 



291 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, 217 

Rhodospiza obsoleta, 1 1 1 

Rhopodytes viridirostris, 221, 241 

Riopa punctata, 24 1 

RitariU,92, 114, 145, 175 

Rosa, 87, 94, 98, 122, 162, 165. 168, 173 

Rosa beggeriana, 181 

Rostratula benghalensis, 15, 149, 196, 204 

Ruppia tnaritima, 178 

Saccharum, 93, 100, 128, 167. 177, 177 

Saccharum spontaneum, 92, 115, 126, 145, 163, 

175 
Sacciopelsis intemipta. 226 
Sageraea thwaitesii, 240 
Sageratia, 159 
Sageratia thea, 156 
Sageratia theezans, 171 
Sagittaria, 106 
Salacia reticulata, 240 
Salix. 86. 94. 98. 106. 122, 131. 131, 135, 159, 

161,2,170,173 
Salix denticulata, 151 
Salmalia, 24 

Salmalia malabarica, 19, 146 
Salmalva, 12 

Salmofaria,164, 167, 172 
Salmo gairdneri, 218 
Salsola, 106 
Salsola barysoma, 175 
Salsola foetida, 124, 128 
Salvadoraoleoides, 92, 106, 114, 120, 137. 145, 

164 
Salvadora persica, 199, 243, 277 
Salvia, 1 1 1 

Salvinia. 196, 230, 274 
Salvinia molesta, 203. 231. 257 
Salvinia natans. 145 
Sapindus emarginatus. 221 
Sarkidiomis melanotos. 15, 210, 227 
Saxicola caprata, 212 
Saxicola torquata. 1 1 1 
Saxifiraga sibirica. 131 
Schima wallichii, 39 
Schleichera oleosa, 261 
Schumacheria alnifolia, 235 
Scirpus fluitans, 235 
Scirpus grossus, 203, 257 
Sciipus littoralis, 99, 106 
Sedum. 131 

Selenarctos thibetanus, 96, 151. 154. 173, 181 
Semicarpus nigroviridis, 235 
Semicarpus, 235 



Semicarpus anacaidium. 39 

Senecio,217 

Senecio ludens. 235 

Sepia. 125 

Shorca. 234, 251-2 

Shorca gardneri, 235 

Shorea robusta. 9, 21 

Sicamugil cascasia, 167 

Sicydium halei. 252 

Sisorrabdophorus, 167 

Solisorex pearsoni, 212 

Sonerila, 235 

Sonneratia apetala. 1 1. 32 

Sonneratia caseolaris. 244, 277 

Sophora griffithi. 111 

Sousa plumbea, 124 

Spalerosophis diadema, 141 

Sphenomorphus faUax, 266 

Sphenomorphus striatopunctatus, 212 

Sphenomorphus taprobanensis. 266 

Spilomis cheela, 218. 244. 258, 273 

Spizaetus cirrtiatus, 258, 273 

Spizaetus nipalensis, 212, 218, 241 

Spondias mangifera, 21 

Srilakmys ohiensis, 212 

Stemonoponis, 236 

Stemonoporus rigidus, 235 

Stenodactylus orientalis, 141 

Sterculia alata, 19,39 

Sterculia colorata, 39 

Sterculia villosa, 39 

Sterna albifrons, 124, 272 

Sterna hirundo, 124 

Stipa,94,98, 122, 159, 162, 165, 170. 173 

Streblus asper, 39, 237 

Streblus taxoides, 240, 240 

Strobilanthes, 212, 217, 217, 235 

Strobilanthes stenodon, 240 

Stumus senex. 235. 252 

Suaeda fruticosa, 128 

Suaeda-Salsola. 144 

Suncus, 262 

Suncus etniscus. 221 

Sus scrofa. 9. 17, 19, 21. 24. 29. 33. 40. 92. 106. 

114. 128. 145. 157. 167. 175. 199.204. 

207. 212. 218. 221. 226. 229. 238, 240, 

244, 257. 260. 262. 266, 269 
Swietenia macrophylla, 254 
Swintonla floribunda. 23. 39 
Sylvia. 148 
Sylvia hortensis. Ill 
Synaptura orientalis, 124 



292 



Index 



Syzium, 12 

Syzygium zeylanicum, 240 

Syzygium, 24, 39. 235, 240, 266 

Syzygium cuminii, 21, 266 

Syzygium revolutum, 235 

Syzygium rotundifolium, 212, 217 

Syzygium sclerophyllum, 217 

Taccocua leschenaultii, 157 

Tachybaptus ruficollis, 15, 24, 101, 106, 114, 

179 
Tadoma femiginea, 15, 171, 177 
Tadoma tadoma, 90 
Tamarix, 100, 100, 144, 148-9 
Tamarix ai^ylla, 92, 101, 113, 126, 128, 153, 

164. 167. 177 
Tamarix aiticulata, 145, 178 
Tamarix dioica, 92, 99, 103, 106, 113, 115, 137, 

148,148,164,171,175,177 
Tatera. 262 
Taxus baccata, 154 
Tectona grandis, 21, 39, 222, 229 
Teinostachyum dulooa, 39 
Teratoscincus scincus, 179 
Temiinalia, 24 

Temiinalia aijuna, 21, 203, 257, 261, 268 
Temiinalia bellerica, 39, 207 
Temiinalia chebula, 39, 207 
Terpsiphone paradisi, 273 
Terpsiphone paradisi ceylonensis, 244 
Testudo elegans, 199, 208, 273 
Tetrameles. 24 

Tetrameles nudiflora, 17, 26, 39, 240 
Tetraogallus, 86, 88-9, 94, 98, 122, 135, 161-2, 

165, 168, 170. 173 
Tetraogallus himalayensis. 96, 132 
Themeda. 207 
Themeda anthera, 157 
Threskiomis melanocephala. 196, 202, 257. 

272, 277 
Thryssa hamiltonii, 124 
Thryssa malabarica, 124 
Thryssa purava, 124 
Thimbergia fragrans, 240 
Tilapia, 104 
Tilapia mossambica, 102, 107, 138, 164, 172, 

204,208,211,229,233,276 
Timeresums trigonecephalus, 241 
Tockus griseus, 208, 221, 241, 262 
Toona ciliata, 39 
Tor tor, 167, 172 
Tragopan melanocephalus, 151 
Tragulus meminna, 196, 199, 218, 238. 264 



Trapa bispinosa, 15. 203. 257 

Trema, 229 

Treron. 208 

Treron bicincta, 244 

Treron pompadora, 238 

Tribulus terrestris, 177 

Trigonella monantha, 153 

Trinerviteraies, 273 

Tringa, 260 

Tringa erythropus, 199 

Tringa glareola, 204, 257 

Tringa nebularia, 122, 124 

Tringa stagnatilis, 204, 257 

Tringa totanus, 124 

Trionyx gangeticus, 93, 1 16, 129, 175 

Triticum aestivum, 128 

Trogon, 30 

Tryngites subruficoUis, 199 

Tulipa, 181 

Turciops aduncus, 124 

Turdoides rufescens, 212 

Turdus memla, 212 

Tumix suscitator, 257 

Turoides rufescens, 218 

Typha, 100, 100, 108, 148, 172, 177 

Typha angustata, 90, 92-3, 99, 106, 1 13, 1 15, 

126, 128, 137. 148, 153, 163, 167, 171, 

175, 177 
Typha angustifolia, 178 
Typha elephantina, 1 1, 15, 1 15 
Typha javanica, 199 
Uca, 125 
Ulva, 124 
Uromastix, 177 
Uromastix hardwickii, 141 
Uropeltis melanogaster, 212 
Ursus arctos, 88-9, 94. 132, 135, 151, 159, 170 
Utricularia, 15 
Vallago attu, 145 
Vallisneria, 15 

Vallisneria spiralis, 92, 106, 126, 137, 167, 175 
Vanellus indicus, 15, 204, 244 
Vanellus leucurus, 179 
Vanellus malabaricus, 244 
Varanus, 40, 145 
Varanus bengalensis, 11, 33, 107, 141, 177, 

199, 208, 229, 244, 269, 273 
Varanus flavescens, 11. 34, 141 
Varanus griseus. 141 
Varanus griseus caspius, 179 
Varanus salvator, 1 1, 34, 229 
Vatica obscura, 229 



293 



lUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas 



Vemonia, 235 

Viburnum cotonifolium, 96, 150 
Viburnum nervosum, 150 
Vipera nisselli, 208, 227. 241, 244 
Vites pinnata, 260 
Vitex altissima, 240 
Vitex glabrata, 39 

Vitex pinnata, 221, 226, 237, 261, 266, 268 
Viverricula indica, 9, 21, 145, 262, 266 
Vormela peregusna, 181 
Vulpes bengalensis, 9, 13,21, 118, 145, 171 
Vulpesvulpes,88-9,94,98, 111, 120, 127, 132. 
135. 137, 145, 159, 162, 164-5, 170, 173 
Wallago attu, 15. 92, 1 14, 1 16. 129. 175. 233 
Wallago attu valleya, 208 
Walsura piscidia, 266 
Withania coagulans, 126, 171 
Woodfordia fruticosa, 157 



Xenentodon cancila, 107, 138 

Xenortiynchus asiaticus, 278 

Xenus cineneus, 199 

Xylocaipus, 32. 32 

Xylocaipus moluccensis, 32 

Xylopia championii, 25 1 

Zannichellia palustris. 92, 113, 126, 128, 137, 

163, 167, 175 
ZizyiAus. 106, 199, 207, 229, 243 
Zizyphusjujuba, 156 
ZizyJAus mauritiana. 92. 126, 128, 164, 167, 

171 
Zizyphus nummularia, 92, 101, 114, 120, 126, 

128, 140, 156, 164, 167, 171, 177 
Zoothera dauma, 212 
Zoothera spiloptera, 212, 241 
Zoothera waidii, 213 
Zosterops ceylonensis, 212, 218 



294 



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