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Full text of "Ivan Ivanovich Bet︠s︡koĭ"

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npeAHeiiofiie. 



BocKpecHTe, BOCKpecHTe bt. na- 
MHTH Bameft T-fex-L Mynceft, koh 
6hjih KpacoTOK) H yrfemeHieM-B ne- 
jiOB-feHCCKaro po;ta. (Hai* cjiOBa na 
norpe6eHie BeuKaro — npoHaneceH- 
Haro AHacxacieMT, BpaTaHOBCKHM-i). 

B-B Hanaji-fe 1903 rojia ncreKXJio AB-fecra Ji-fert co jajm 
pomjitmsi ojiHoro hs'b cnoABH)KHHKOBi> BejiHKofi HMnepa- 
TpHUU EKaxepHHH II, — HBana HBaHOBuna BeuKaro, hmh 
KOToparo HepaapHBHO CBHsano ct> ynpe^KACHieM-B bt> na- 
meMi> oxeHecTB'fe BOcnHTaTejibHi>ixT> aomob-b aji5{ HecnacTHO- 
po>KiieHHHXT>, CB yHpe}KiieHieMi> nepBaro yqe6Haro saBC- 
achIh AJin juan-h McencKaro nojia, yHpeHC/ieHieMT> nepBaro 
Bt HameMT> oTenecTB-fe KOMMepnecKaro ynHJinma, ycrpoft- 
CTB0MT> ycxaHOR/ieHiH AJiH BfciiiaHH ccyAT> noAT> aajiort na- 
ccjitHHUx-h m&imvL h pa3JiH^HuxT> ABHMCHMOcrefi, cb npe- 
o6pa30BaHieMT> AKaACMm xyAO>KecTBT>, a TaK}Ke cyxonyr- 
Haro Ka^eTCKaro Kopnyca h t. a. Moicay rfeM'B bt> npo- 
ROJiyaeimi AByxT> cot-l ji-hvh He 6buio cocraBJieHo hctojibko 
nojiHofl 6iorpacJ)iH btofo aaM-feHaxejiBHaro qejioB-feKa, ho 
jiSLTKe H nojiHaro onepKa pa3Hoo6pa3HO& ero AtHTCJiBHO- 
CTH. Hat pa3JiHHHuxT> TpyAOBt, nocBHmeHHUxT> BeuKOMy, 



VIII — 

yKasaHHBix-B mhoio bi> noiiJioKamHX'B M-fecraxt, Tpy;iHo 
HasBaTB xoTH 6H oiiHO, 3aK;iK)qaK)mee bt> 006-^ nojiHyio 
KapTHHy }KH3HH BcuKaro H A'^nrtJihuocm ero no BcfeMt 
ynpeHcaernHMt, cocTOHBiimMT> 6o;i'fee hjih Meirfee b-b hc- 
nocpeACTBeHHOMt ero BaB-feAUBamH. HpeHMymecTBeHHO 
HHcajiH o A'feHTejiLHOcTH BcuKaro no BocnHxaxejibHOMy 
;iOMy HJiH AKajoieMiH xyiioHcecxB-L, yMajiHHBan o ero A-fen- 
xejibHocTH no KOMMepHecKOMy y^HJinmy, no BocnnTarejib- 
HOMy 06mecTBy 6;iaropoiiHUX'i> jAsun-h, no cyxonyr- 
HOMy Ka^excKOMy Kopnycy, no KanuejiHpiH cxpoenift h x. m,. 

H XaKHMT> o6pa30MT> Iipe^aCXaBJIHJIH HHXaXeyiHMt Jl2LJltKO He 

noTiHyio KapXHHy jx-fenxejibHocxH axoro bo bchkom-b cjiyqa-fe 
BaM-fenaxejibHaro nejioB-fena. 

}Ke;iaHie nonojinnxb noziodHUH npod-feyix h AOCxaBHXb 
npocB-femeHHbiM-b HHxaxejiHM-b BOSMOHCHocxb cocxaBHXb ced-fe 
nojiHoe H xoHHoe noHHxie o A-fenxejibHocxH BeuKaro, no- 
6ya^jio mchh npe;i:npHHHXb HenocH;ibHbift juin mchh xpy^'b 
cocxaBJieniH 6iorpac|)iH sxoro cnoiiBHHCHHKa uapcxBOBanin 
BejiHKofl EKaxepHHbi. C-b axoio u-feyibio, osHaKOMUBUiHCb 
npejoLBapHxejibHO no bo3mo>khocxh ct> nenaxnoio jiHxepa- 
xypoK) o H. Hb. BeuKOMT>, h o6paxH;icH k'b apxHBHbiMT> 
HCXOHHHKaM-b, BT> Koxopbix-b no po;iy jx-fenxe^/ibHOcxH Bcu- 
Karo H ero oxHomeaiH ct> coBpeMCHHUMH eMy jinuaMH 
MorjiH Haxo^iHXbCH KacaiomiHCH ero a'^ji^l h dyMarn. 

H He omH6cH bt> CBOHX-b o^KH^ianinx-b. B-b apxHBax^: 
rocyiiapcxBeHHOM-b — b-b nexep6yprfe h rjiaBHOM-b mhhh- 
cxepcxBa MHOcxpaHHUx-b A'hjvh B-b MocKB-fe; MHHHCXepCXBa 
HnnepaxopcKaro ABopa B-b flexepclypr-fe n MocKB-fe, Dpa- 
BHxejibcxByiomaro Cenaxa, HMriepaxopcKoft aKa;ieMiH xy^o- 
HcecxB-b, BocnHxaxeyibHaro 06mecxBa djiaropoAHux-b A'h- 
BHU-b B-b nexep6ypr'fe, B-b apxusax-b oncKyncKHx-b coB-fe- 
xoB-b: nexep6yprcKaro h MocKOBCKaro, B-b MocKOBCKOM'b 
oxA't^eniH o6maro apxHBa FjiaBnaro mxa6a, OKaBajiocb 
He Mayio Jiio6onbiXHbix'b CB-feA-femfi, oxhochiuhxch ao tkhbhh 



IX — 

H A-feHTCJibHocTH BcuKaro, Ha ocHOBaffiH KOTopHX'B nonpc- 
HMymecTBy h cA-kflana mhoio nonuTKa cocraBHTb 6iorpa- 
c|)iK) BeuKaro, npn hcm'b Mcejianie npe;icTaBHTb no bo3MO}k- 
Hocra He TOJibKO nojinyio, ho h nar^iHiiHyio KapTHHy a'^h- 
TCJibHocTH BeiiKaro, no pa3;iHHHLiMT> y^peMCAemHM'B, BB-fe- 
peHHMx-B ero BaB-feAMBamio, no6y;ia;io mchh oxcTynHTb 
on» cTporo xpoHOJiorHHecKaro nopn^Ka HSJioMceHiH ero 
6iorpac{}iH. H npejanoHeji-B o Kancjiod h31> pa3jiHHHbixi> 
OTpacjiefl A'feflTejibHOCTH BeuKaro cKaaaxb BnojiH'fe bt> ot- 
A'^JihHbni'h rjiaBaxi>, nojiaran^ hto npn noAo6HOMi> h3;io- 
>KeHiH flCH'fee H HBTJismwht 6yAyn> onepHCHH h ^'fenxejiL- 
HocTb BeuKaro no TOMy h no ApyroMy yHpoKAeniio eny 
BB-fepeHHOMy, H CHMnaTHqecKaH, a^h Menn no Kpadneg wh- 
p-fe, jiHHHOCTb caMaro Beiwaro. 

IIpH CaMOM-b HBJIOMCeHiH H CTapa/ICH no B03M0}KH0CTH 

6jiH;Ke AepHcaTbCH npaBHjra oAHoro Hs-b HHOcrpanHMX-b* 
ycraBOB-b yrojiOBHaro cyflonpoHBBoacTBa; eoiH ne ouih- 
6aiocb dejibriftcKaro, no KoxopoMy CBHjX'feTejiH, BtisuBae- 
Mue BT> cyii-b, AJin Aann noKaaamfl npe^'b npHCH}KHbiMH 
sacfeiiaTejiHMH, no yrojiOBHbiMT> ^i-fejiaM-b, iiaiorb Top>Ke- 
cTBeHHoe ob-femanie de dire la verit^, toute la verity, rien 
que la verit^! IIpHCHMCHbie Mce, na ocHOBaniH oBHaneHHUx-b 
CBHfl'feTejibCKHX'b noKaaanift, cocraBHB'b ce6'h npeACTaBJieme 
o npHB;ieqeHHOM'b kt> cyjxy Jiraxib, p'femaioTb Bonpocb, bh- 
HOBHo jm OHO BT> coBepmeHLH npHnHCUBaeMaro eny a^A- 
cTBin HJiH H-feTb- Mn-fe Kasa^ocb, hto noAodnaro poiia 
od-femaniH jaojiMceH-b npHjxepjKHBaxbCH h cocTaBHxeyib 6io- 
rpa(j>HHecKaro HSc/i'fejxoBaHiH o TOM'b h;ih apyroMT> jmufk, 
xaK-b KaK'b Ha ocHOBamn xaKoro HSCJit^ioBaHiH (HM-feio- 
maro bo MHoroM'b BHaneHie CBHA'txejibCKaro noKaaaHin) 
y HHTaTe;ifl (nojxodno TOMy KaK'b y npncHH^HMx-b sacfe- 
Aarejiefl na cya'fe) c/iaraercH h noHHxie o Jimi% hbjihio- 
mcMCH npeiiMCTOM-b 6iorpa(J)iH h BM-fecx-fe ch rhwh ou^HKa 
ero JiHHHocxH H A'fenxejibHOcxH. OneBHimo, I'feM'b o6cxor 



-.» 



D,- 




M/ct^x^u^a:^ 



*/ -v 



HBaH'LHBaHOBIfHl) 



BEItKOH. 



BocspecHTe, BOCKpecnTe bi 
naMHTH Bameft rbxi icyxeik. Kon 
dbijiii KpacoTOK) R yTbineBieMi* 
He;ioBiHecKaro poAa. 

(Ilih cAoea ua 'kotpi6tHi» 
EetiKato—AHacmaciA Epa- 
maHoacKato), 



OnbiTi ero diorpa$iH. 



COCTABHJIT) n. M. Ma^KOBl 

JAOCTOEFb HHnEPATOPCROR) ARiAEMIBR) HA7KI nPEHIH rPA«A 7BAP0BA Bl 1902 F. 



/^^5?f 




c.-nETEPByprT) 

THnorpa(j)iii T-Ba „06mecTBeHHafl HoJibaa", 

Bo^ibmaa IIoAiflHecKaH, 39. 

1904. 




— 2 — 

yroTOBHTBCfl Bi* njTb Kb CTORroJiBMii ^). Bi CTOJiHi^i UleeACKaro 
RopojieBCTBa njiiHHuxi coAepmajiH aobojibho cypoBO, oco6eHHO vb 
nepBue foah. Tani no CJiOBairL Baexunia-RaMeHCRaro '), Byxyp- 

JIHH^ AGBflTB JVbTb UBTh uiOiDfiWb TOUHJICfl Bl TJiJRROlTB SaKJUO^OHiH 

wb CTORrojiBifi; rhasb Arob'b JI^ojiropyROBi orojio AecaxH jvkrb co- 
AepacajiCH noAi* RpinRSMi RapayjiOMi, saHEMaacB Bce aio Bpeiia 
padCMaTpHBaHieifB mBeACRaronpaBOBiA'^HiA; nosA- 
Hie OHi 6uji'B nepeii'fin^eHi b'b 9Ro6inaATi; Khhsb Tpy6eiiR0ft co- 
Aepacajicfl 18 ji^tb b'b CTORrojiBMi ^). Khhsb AHApefi Xhjirobi qh- 
cajTB IleTpy: nacB pasBesjiH no paanmrB ropoAaHx h jkepxsLTb b'b 
cypoBofl HOBOJii, HHRyAa ne nycRaK)rB h hb cb rIitb BHAixBca ne 
AaiorB. Il^apeBHqy AOSBOJieHO ryjiaiB tojibro ci Rapayjioicx; BeftAe 
AepacaTB bx norpeSy h t a. *). TorB ace Xejirobi nncaJTB 0e- 
Aopy AjieRdeBHHy FoJiOBEHy, 24 innfl 1703 r., «hto 2 nan 
yTpOM^ pano ymjiH h3i CioRrojiBMa renepajn BeftAe, TpyCeu- 
ROft, ByTypjiEHi; bb RupRaxi KJiHRaJiH, rto nxi CBm^eTii 
TOMy 4000 jih)6crhx'b; nocjii o6iAst ohh naftAeHH bi Jiicy h hoa^b 
Rapayjii npHBeAOHH b'b Ctorfojibmi bi aom'b rpaAOAepaRaBii,a, roto- 
pufl CRasuBaiOTB sijio pyraJi'B n CesnecTHJi'B hxi. FeHepajn BeftAe 
nocaacoH'B B'B s-i^Jio xicHOft RanopRi; Tpy6eAKaro saaepjin b'b jsflWb, 
Txh cmn^BTb ocyacAeHHue Kb cnepTH a^h noRaaniji; ho^k) ci hhm'b 
saMRHyTu ABoe RapayjiBHUx'B... Jiy^me Cbitb b'b njiiny y TypoRi*, 
^iwb y IIlBeAOBi; sAfecB pyccRHx-B CTaaax'B hh bo hxo, pyraioxca 
OesiecxHO n ocM'lHBaiox'B ^). 3xoxb trq Fojiobhhi nacaJi'B AnApeio 
ApxaMOHOBHqy MaxB-feeBy "): cHsBicxByio mhjiocxh XBoeft ^xo co- 
AepjRax'B OHBix'B renepaJiOB'B h nojiOHAHHROBi naniHX'B b'b Cxor- 
rojiBifb RaR'B sB-ipeft, sanepmn n Mopax'B rojiOAOMi, xaRi* hxo 
H CBoero Hxo npncHJiaiox^ nojiyinxB ohh cbo6oaho ne MoryxB h 
HCXHHHO MHOrie HS'B cpoABi HX'B DOMepjiH H Roxoparo yx'i^CHeHJa H 
E xaRoro XHHCRaro My^HxejiBcxBa hh bb caMUX'B 6ap6apH3axi 
o6pixaexca h i. a. 



*) CtBepHufi ApzHBi 1822 r., x. I, OTpuBOsi hsb HCiopiH neipa BeJiH- 
Karo, co^HHeHBoff renepaJiOMB AjiapTOMB. 

') BaHTunn-KaHencBifi.— GioBapB AOCTonaMATHHXB iioxefi, t. I, cxp. 
230-267, T. IV, CTp. 154. 

*) Do cjioBaMB FoinKOBa— A^AHi^ Heipa BejiHKaro, x. V, crp. 274— 
OAHH'L Tpj6eiiBofi dBUB ocTaBjeHi BB CiOKrojBM'b, a npoqie renepaiH b 
oi^Hi^epu pa3Be8eu£i no pasHBiMB ropoAaMB Bposas h Bci coAepsaxcA stio 

XeCTOKO. 

*) KcTopifl neTpa Be.iHKaro— H. YcTpHioBa, t. IV, h. 2, cip. 356. 
') TaMB 26, CTp. 252. 

*) IlHCbKa n 6yMarH HMoepatopa Ileipa BeiQKarOf x. II, 1889, CTp. 296, 
USA. A. 9. Bu^KOBa. 



HaAO saMiTBTL iio He oahh pyccKie aa^sjiAJiH o thsckomI) no- 
jiomeniH CBOHrB C00TeHecTBeHHnR0BT> bi> njiiny y UlBeAOBi; Astxce 
inBeACKie HCTopHRH ne OTpHi^aiorB dToro. TaRi ^pmcceJiB, aBTopi 
HCTopiH Kapjia XII, ynoMflHjBi cnepBa o HeaaBHAHOMii h jk^Tue 
saJiKOM'L noJio^KeHiH njiiHHux'b mBeAOBx bi» PoccIh, roBopsTB, hto 
cyAB6a pyccKHxi nji^HHuxii bi» IIlBeAiM RaKi> BucoRonocTaBJien- 
Hux'B, laRii H cojiAan, Gujia noHin oAHHaROBa ci» cyAb6o& njitn- 
EHxi iDBeAOBi wb PoccIh; Bi o6iHxi CTpaeaxi njrlHHue aojihchu 
6UJIIH HacTO TepnixB HeAOCTaiRH h ny^Ay; MHoro niBeAOBi) yuepjio 
cb roJiOAy Bi> PocciH H MHoro pyccRHxi» wb UlBeitin h t. a* ). 

IIpHTaROM^ coAepjRaHiH hjiI^hhbixi bi> UlBeaiH eABa jih moxho 
npBAdBaTB sHa^eHie tojiocjiobhumb pascRasaMi, hto HBaHB 
lOpLeBH^i Tpy6ei^R0fiy (no cjiOBaifB hctopbrobi jx.-fb. npeo- 
6paa£eHCRaro noJiRa, t.I ct. 594); TOicHBnii&cjiBi> CTORrojibM- 
CKHXi RaseMaTaxi y Kapjia XU, ynce bb caiiue nepBue roAU 
CBoero njiina HifbJi'B nacioJiBRo CBo6oAHHifl Aocryni bi> BHcmee 
mBOACRoe o6n(eci;BO, hto ne tojibro nosnaROMnjiCH, ho h BCTynHJii> 
Bi* cBASb, no cjioBaMi OAHExi^) — CB 6apoH6ccoK) BpeAe; no 
cjiOBaicB Apymxi' ) — cb 6apoHeccoK) Cnappe, a no cJiOBaicB 
TpeTBHXB *) — c^ AftHOK) Bucmaro o6niecTBa, h ^onocniA- 
CTBieiTB 3T0ft CBfldH 6ujio poxAOHie yjRe 3-ro ^enpajifl 1703 foa^ 
no6oHHaro cuHa ero, HanicTHaro BnocJitACTBiH hoab HMeneMB 
Hsana HsanoBEHa Bei^Raro. IIoAoCHBifl, hbh'Ih'b ho noARpinJifle- 
KUH saHBJieHifl onpoBepraK)TB ce6a caira. Ecjih a^^ctbh- 
tojibho, MOJReTB 6UTB AORasaHO, 1T0 BeARoB aBjiaeTC^ hjioaom^ 
CBam TpyGeuRaro cb rpa^^nneA Cnappe^ to bthmb caAium onpo- 
BepraeTca coBepmenHO saHCJienie, hto BeARO& poAHJicfl orB rpa- 
4>BHH BpeAO HJiH OT^ KaKofl jih6o Apyrofi oco6u h o6paTHO. Ho, 



*) Lebensgeschichte KarFs des ZwSlften— -von Fryxell, ubersetzt von 
Jensen Tusch. - Braunschweig, 1861. Theil. I. s. 305, 313. 

') C'^Bepna^ Ilqejia 1847 r., J& 49, cip. 195; BceHipHaA HiJiiocTpauiA 
1870 r.j T. Ill, J\& 63, cip. 196.— ryBepBaHXKa 1862 r., Jfe 1, 2. BHitHBione- 
AHHecRift CjiOBapB— r. 3()»poHa, uoj(i> peAaKuieio r. ABApeeBCRaro, t. Ill, 
CTp. 649; Sbbhcbh H. H. Fpe^a bb Pyc. ApxHB*, 1873 r., CTp. 2243. 

■) Memoires du prince P. Dolgorouki, t. I. p. 58;— Les princes Trou- 
betzkoi— Paris, 1887 r.. p. 143; nHjaeBt— CiapaH MocKBa, 1891 r., cxp. 29. 

BocKpecHuff AocyrB 1865 r. J\& 116, aup. 25,— orB BnaTBOft xt- 
B J m K h; HjJiiocTpHpoBaBHaA rasexa 1864 r., napTi 14, ^ 19, cip. 292,— 
MOJOAofi mBeAKB; JKHBonocBuft G6opHHiii 1859 i., J\& 1,-3 h a t h a fl 
A "i^ B B a a; Gelbig-Russische Gunstlinge 1809, p. 358— v on einer Schwe- 
din; — HeTpoBB— IIcTopia poAOBi* pyccKaro XBopjiHCTBa, t. I, cxp. 179,— 
npHSHTi vb mBexcKOMi ojitHy.— Kbabb in^epdaxoBi— o noBpesxeBin ap 
BOBi Bi PocciB, 1758 r., cxp. 75, ox'b CiaropoAHOft seHniHHiii. 



— 4 — 

Ki> co»ajiiHiK)^ aBTopb] He yKSsuBaioTB hh Majiifimnx'B ocfloeaHifl, 
noATBepncAaioiKHxi ^iwb jih6o noAo6HUH sa^sjieHla h CTaB^rb 
riHi HHTaiejiH hi saipyAHniejiBHoe noJioaceeie onposepraTb hgao- 
KasaHHoe, npHBOA^ co CBoeft CTopoHU oipHixaTejibHUH AORasatejib- 

CTBa. 

FjiaBH^jBtinHMH, ecjiH ne eAHHCTBeHHUMH, AOKaaaTejiBCTBaHH no- 
Ao6Hfiix'b yTBepjRAemfi slbjisuotch o6uRHOBeHHO noRasaHifl jnmii, 
Bcero CJiBme ciOHBmHX'B Kb tohj JiHi^y, o poacj^emH Roxoparo bob- 
HHRaerB Bonpoci, hjih ro bcbB ero anoxi. Ho hhohho laRoropojia 
AORasaxejiBCTB'L bt. noATBepacAenie pojeabhIh Bei^Raro hhrto ho 

npHBOABTl, a BCi OrpaHUHHBaiOTCH TOJIBRO OAHHMH rOJIOCJnOBHUMB 

paacKasaMH, boshbriohmh TOJibRO bi noJiOBHHi cero CTOJrliifl, ro- 
Topue RaacyrcH HaMrb en^e uenie b^pohthumh, bcjih npHnoHHBM'B 
xapaRxepHCTHRy rbbsa H. K). Tpy6eiv&aro, A^aeifyK) hIroto- 
puKH nEcaieJiflMH. TaRi> Rsasb ^ojiropyRift roBopHTB, hto ohii 
GfirjUi «saDS esprit, sans education, sans couYersation aucune, fier, 
hautain, rempli de morgue, avec cela b^gue, ce qui le rendait 
ridicule; il ne jouit d'aucune consid6ration^). JIoah Pohjo b-b 
CBOHXi ^cxapaRTepaxi pyccRHX'b bojibhohcb^ xoth h roBopnrB, hto 
Tpy6en;Rofl neJiOBiR'B cb sApaBuirB CHUOioii'B, ho npnCaBJiflerB, 

«ITO OH'B ne HM%eTB HHRaROrO nOHATifl 061 HHOCipaHHHX'B A^Jiaxi, 

npana MfliKaro h MHpoJuioCHBaro, ynTHBi h o6a8aTejiieHB, cRople 
6ofl3JiHBi>, liwh pimHTejieH'B ^). Ho no cjiOBaifB xiORa-Ae-JlBpiH ^), 
<(Tpy6ei(Rofi, nocJiiAHift pyccRifl fioapHHi, HOB^jRa RaRHxi 

MO«HO BCip'bTHTB HO MHOFO. He SHaiOH^ifi Bl CBOOITB JS^ktvb 

OHi dbUFB npH 3T0MI saHRa H HcnoJiHeHi Tn][ecjiaBiJi». Tpy^HO 
AonycTHTB, HTO npH noxoSHUxi ycjioniflX'B rhasb Tpy6eitRoft, ho 

BJiaA^ R1> TOMy XB H mBeACRHHl> BSUROITB, MOPB Hlf^TB CROpfilft 

ycnix'B bi BbicmeirB mBeACROHi o6n^ecTBik, bi to Bpeifji y^e ao- 
bojibho pasBHTOMii H A&ace fijiecT^^eirB^). KoneiHO, ao RpaftnociH 



*) Memoires du prince P. Dolgoronki, 1867, t. I, p. 68. 

') ^Tenifl 06ni. Hct. Apcb. npn MocsoBCROMib ynHBepcHTerb 1861 r., 

T. 2, CTD. 9. 

») TaM-B »e, CTp. 112. 

*) BoTB KaKOft onuB'h lUBeACKOMi xBopt H Bucmem o6iaecTBi jiaeTi 
rpa<i>'b RapieftiB, anrjiftcKifi nocoiB npn ABopi Kap^a XI, npe6HBaBmift bi 
CTOKrojBHi: Le plus grand omement qu'U y ait dans cette viiie (Stockholm) 
c'est la haute noblesse, qnicst k mon avis aossl bien faite et aossi ciyilis6e 
gu*en aucune coure de TEurope. Et de fait c'est ce qui nous surprit 
tort de voir que dans un pays si raboteux et desagreable et gui semble 
avoir et6 le rebut de la nature, Ton put y trouver une cour si pleine de 
doureur et de politebse, t. e. jyHmHM'B yKpameflieM'b ropo^a CTOBfOJbva— 



— 5 — 
TpyAHO AORasiiiBaTb b'b HacTOun^ee BpeMa, no npomecTBiH noHTB 

AByXli CTOJitTift, pO»A6Hle JOHHh HMeHHO OTl JL^vbctHOt 0C06U, BH*]^ 

saKOHHaro 6paKa, a noTOMy Rasajiacb 6u, ropasAO 6jiiaroBHAHie, ne 
6pocafl CesAORasaiejiLHaro yKopa Ha to hjih Apyroe ceiieficTBo 
H He orpHiiafl GesycjiOBHO, ?to Hb. Hb. BeqRofi A'^ficTBHTOJiBHO 
6ujrb cuHx KBHZB Hsana lOpBesHHa TpyCei^Raro, npHSHaib hto 
MaTb nepsaro B'b to^hocth Hairb HOHSBicTHa, Kani aro n A^Jiajni 
BopoHeiTb juD^a, CTOABmia ropasAO CjiHsce nacb ri BeipcoHy h Tpy* 
6emcoHy h HMfemia noatOHy BosMoncHOCTb noJuyHHTb 6ojrle tohhhh 
CBbxbm^ ero poxAeeiH. 

OcTaBHBl HaMIi CBOH SanHCRH, B'b ROTOpETXl) ynOMBHaOTCH 

posAOHiH Beip&aro, dTH jiHi^a Bi^poflTHO ne ynycTHJiE 6u cooSn^Hib, 
RTO 6ujia ero MaTb, ecjiv 6u sto 6ujio hmi hsb^cxho. Ho ohh aToro 
He CA^ajiH, a cjiiAOBaTeJibHO mosho npoAnojiaraxb, hto ohh 8Toro 
06cT0flTejibCTBa bi tomhocth He snajiH, hto BecbMa ecTecTBenHO. 

nOAOSHUfl, HesaROHHHH pOSA^Hia, ABJlHHChj HO oSn^enpEHflTOBiy 

BOBsp^HlK), nosopom He TOJibRO AJiH OTA'i^Haro joma^ ho h Bcero 
ceiieftcTBa, o6uRHOBeHHo Tii](aTeJibHO CRpusaiOTCfl h hh B'b RaROMx 
CJiyna'b He pasrjiamaiOTCH. IIomhmo aioro poMani B'b as^hhomi 
OLjHBfb npoHcxoAHJH, MO»HO CRasaTb, sa TpHAOBHTb seMejib; Bcno- 
MHHBi cocTOAHie cooCH^eHift B CHomeHift OAHoro rocyAapcTBa ci 
ApyrHin» vb to Bpetfs, moxho AonycTHTb, hto o Heiii hofjih A&ace 
H coBciiTb He BHaTb B'b ApyroiTb rocyAapcTBi. TaRi, hotth CBep- 
CTHHRi Be£(Raro BaCHJiifi AjieRcaHApoBHH'b Han^ORHH'b B'b cbohxi 
sanHCRaxi, ynoMEHaa o H. K). Tpy6eaR0irb; roBopHTb TOJibRO hto, 
6yAy^H OTBeseH'b bi* CxoRrojibH'b co mhoiumh renepajiaMn, n p h- 
jRHjii no6oHHaro cuna, RofopHfl h cjiUBerb HBan'b Hna- 
HOBi cuHi Bei^Rofl; OH'b BOCHHTaHi cb npeHsp^AHiiiM'b yneHieifb 

H T. A. ^). 

/(pyroft coBpeMeHERi Bei^Karo, sHaifeHHTHft RHiisb Il^epSa- 
TOB'b, Bi CBoeifb HSB'bcTHOM'b pascy^A^HiH. «OnoBpejRA6HiH npa- 
B0B'b» yRasuBaerb, hto RHflSb H. K). Tpy6ei][K0fi, 6k[bi nji'lneHi 
HiBeAaHn, Huiorb Jiio6oBHiii(y, CRasHBaioT'b CjiaropoAnyio 
xenrnHHy (Bupaxenie, npH6aBHBi'b mh orb ceCn, coScTBenno 



ero Bucmee xbopahctbo, KOtopoe, no Moeicy mhIhIk), teki npespacHO h laRi 
oGpasoBaao^ KEK-b nn ape KaKOHi j^pyroMi eBponeftcsoMi 
A B o p i. Bcero 6oiie Haci usyMHio to, hto b'b cxpaHi ctoj[l HenpiATHOfi, 

CTOIB saMeHHCTOfi, ABUlOIIiefiCII OT6pOCROM7^ npHpOAU; HOSHO 6fiU0 BCTpib- 
THTb ABOpi CTOJB npiflTHUfi H B^SIEBllfl. 

*) 3aiiBCSH BacHjifi AieRcanxpoBHHa HsmoRUHa. G.-neTep67pri, 1842, 

CTp. 95 H CJtA. 



— 6 — 
roBopfl HH^ero He osHanaioii^ee vb tohhocth), bx CTORroJiBM'6, 

KOTOpyK) OHl yB'i^pRJll, ?T0 OWb BJkOB'b H 0Tb HBA HM^'B CKHa, 

ROToparo BMeHOBajii 6ei^RBin> h cefl en^e npn Ilexpt BejiH- 
KOMB noHTeai 6iiJVb 6JiaropoAH£iMi» a B^ 0(j[)Hi^epcKHX'B HHHax'L 
H T. A. ^)- Bi sani^TKaxx CeiieHa PoManoBH^a BopoHiioBa, coxpa- 
HHBmHxcH Bi co6cTBeHHopy?HUxx TeipaA^xi cuHa ero Mnxaajia 
PoMaHOBHHa^ sanHcaHHUXB hmi co cjiob'b OTi^a CBoero no naMBTH, 
nopTpeiaxi) pyccKHxi A^^TOJiefl CKasaHO fille ain^e dn prince 
Troubetzkoy, qui fut pris k Narva et qui pendant sa 
prison eut un fils nature], le fanieux Betzkoy, (aohb ciap- 
maa khhsh TpyCeAKaro, KOiopHi 6hji^ Bsaxi bi ujriwb 
no^B HapBOK) n bo Bpenn CBoero saKJiiOHeHlH npHjRHJTB no6oH- 
naro CHHa, cjiaBnaro Bei^Karo^. Bb cJiOBap*! BaHTuma-KaMeu- 
CKaro CKasaHO tojilro, hto BeuRofi poAHJica 3 ^Bpajifl 1704 ro^a 

BB CTOKTOJIBMi^ (apH HOMB HH OAHHB H8B efO pOAHTeJiefi BOBCe 

He HasBaHB), npo^oJiacajiB yneflie bb aom4 OTAa CBoero, nocry- 

UHJTb BB ROJIJieriK) HHOCTpaeHUXB Jl^klUb H T. A- H TOJIBRO H31 

AajiBH'Iflmaro nsjio^emH mohcho saRJiio^iiTB (BaHTumi-KaHeHCRift 
caHi H 9Toro He roBopnTB npaMo) nxo otij^oitb BeARaro 6injn> 
RHasB Hb. K). TpyCeAKoft*). Epn aiOMi sacjiyacHBaerB oco6eH- 
Haro BHHMaHin coxpaHHBmeeca bb Mocrobckomi* oTAiJienin Ap- 
xHBa Boennaro yqenaro RoMHTeia noRasanie. caMoro BeKRaro o 
ero po^AGHiH, noirln^aeMoe b^ npHJioxeHin (II). 

Ohb caMB BUAaBaJii ce6H sa nojiBCKaro mjiaxTH^a, poactboh- 
HHRH Koero cjiyacaiB Roponi noJiBCRoi*), npHHaxaro na cjiyxCy 
KHHseiiB BacHJiieMB JlyRH^eiiB ^oJiropyROBUM'B bb IlapHX'b npn 
nocojiBCTBib, a 8a^6M^ nepemeAmaro kb rhask) HBany K)pBeBHiy 
TpySoAROBiy bi KieBB. Ecjih Beipeoft mofb BUAaBaxB ce6a bb 
3 726 roAy o$$Hi^iajiBHO sa nojiBCRaro niJiaxTHqa, to 8to 
OAHO ysRQ AORasuBaeTB, qro bb to Bpeiin MOJiBa o npoHCxoacAeniH 



*) noBpesABuia npaBOBi b'b PocciH— SHjisfl M. M. IIlep6aT0Ba, 1858. 

JLOEAOE'h CT. 75. 

') ApXHEl KHflSfl BopOHIlOBa, TOMl 33-fi, CTp. 6. 

') CjOBapB AOCTonaMJiTHuxi> iioxefi— BaHTHma-KaueHCRaro, t. I, cTp. 
167-170. 

*) ynOMflHeH'B TOJIBKO HTO XasaJI ^AUISIIR HaXOAffJaCB B'B nOIBCROM'b 
KOpOJeBCTBi U B'B HHCjt JIHUB HOIBCKHX'B IipBCyXCTBOBaBinUXl npH UpiOM'b 

noiBCSHifB sopoieifB HSBicTHaro IIocceBUHa anpiia 27-ro 1583 r. Bcxpi- 
HaeicA BiKifi RamTejAH'B BexAsift (cm. UaMHTBHRH AErnioMaTnqecRHX'B cho- 
meflifl, T. I, CT. 864). Bi co^HBBHiH BoHCUKaro.— Poczet Rodow -Warszawa 
1887 r. CTp. 6. ynoMHHaexcR B^Kift BeaEift— Bezski JTyKamt Oe^opoBUHi, 
HaMd^CTHHK'B BHieHCsifi B'b 1546—1547 roay. 



— 7 — 

BeQRaro otl Kaasa H. K). Tpy6ei^Raro 6ujia xo RpaflHOCTH hmo 
pacnpocTpaaeHa; eft npHAaBajiocB TB,Kh icajio sHaneHiH, hto ifOJRHo 
6UJI0 cirljio saflBHTL wbmo npoTHBonoJicmHoe, ne onacaacL Cutb 
yjiH^eEHUM'B Bii o6Haa%. Ho aro rbm ne Menie rojiocJiOBHoe 
noKasaeie caMoro Eeii;Raro, ROTopoe cbjiu CescnopHaro AORasaTejiB- 
CTBaBiriTB He MomerB. ^to Racaeicfl BpeHOHH poiRxeHlfl 6yAyii^aro 
Beipcaro, to Bci nHcaBmle o6i btom^s eAHHorJiacHo npHSHaioTi), 
^To OHO nocjiiAOBaoio 3 $eBpajiH, ho pacxoA^TCH ornocHTejiBHO 
roAa po^emii. Oahh roBopxrb, hto 8T0 6ujio b'b 1704 roAyO> 
a Apyrie saflBJuiiorB, hto aro coBepmejiocB hjih bi 1702 roAy hjih 
Bi» 1703 roAy^); dio se nocJi^AHee hhcjio osnaneHO h na HaA- 
rpoCHOHi naHATHHRt Bei](Raro b% AjieRcanApo-HeBCRoft JlaBpi. 
Bci OBHaHeBHUfl yRasamH roAa poxAema Be^Ra^o ABJiaiOTCH 
coBepmeHHO tojiocjiobhumh. ABTopu ne yRasuBaion HBRaRHxi 
ocHOBaHifl no<ieMy HHeHHO CHBTaiorL toaoicb poflCAenifl Eei^Raro 

TOTb HJIH KPJTOft rOAU. 

Bcero TOHHte h npaBHJOBH'be Bonpoci o poacAeHin EeaRaro, 
RaRi Bi OTHomemH JiHi^a, ero poAHBmaro, TaRi h caMaro BpeneHH 
ero poacAeniH mopb 6utb pimeHi na ocHOBamn i^epROBHO-npn- 

XOACRHXl RHHrB pOAHBHIHXCa. 3t0 no6yAHJIO MeBJi HaBeCTH 

copaBRy wb apxHBi CiORroJiBMCROfl IIpaBOCJiaBHoft AepRBH. Bi 

dTOlfB apXHB^, OAHaRO, He COXpafiHJIOCB HHRaRHXl AORyMeHTOB'B 

HJIH saHHcefi npomjiaro XYUI ciOJiiiiH, hbi ROTopuxi mo»ho 
6uJio 6bj HO^epDEyTB tohhu^ CB^A'^Hifl BpoMeHH po^eniH Bei^- 
Raro. Ho RaRi bi> CiORrojiBMiy ao y^pesAeHia nocTOAHHofl Poc- 
ciftCROft JiHcciH, DocBuiajiHCB Kb cyn^ecTBOBaBHieft bi> dTOMi ropoA^ 
c^ AltBHHXi nopii AepRBH, Bi TaR% HasBiBaeHoifB Ryssgarden 
npaaocjiaBHue CBameHHHRH hbi HosropoAa, to a o6paTHJiCH bi 
apxHBii HoBropoACROfl AyxoBHofi KoncHCTopiH, ho bi> aToifB ap- 



Cm. JUpjn npocBiiiieflifl 1805 r. }& VI, ct. 225, He osHanaa (t>aMHiiH 
HETepH Bemsaro; CrbBepHan n^eia 1847 r., J^ 49, ct. 195 Ao6aBJflfl, ^to mrtb 
ero oapoHecca Bpexe; ^ypnajfE HeiOBiKOiK)6. o6iaecTBa 1818, Abb. <!. Ill, 
CT. 108.-'2iiK»CTpHpoBaHBaA raaeia 1864 r., ^ 19 ovb 14 Ma^.-^BceMipHaH 
HimcTpaiUH 1870 r., t. Ill, ct. 63 npBJ.-^HBoauceiifi G6ophhk'b Uik)- 
Mapa 1859 r. >ft 1; BaiiHKJoneAHiecRifi cjOBapB 3(|)poHa h AaApeeBCKaro, 
T. Ill, CT. 649.— EaBTiimi-KaMeHCEift— CJiOBapB aoct. iJOfi,e&, t. I, ct. 167.— 
BeftAenoflepi. A^opi h saiid^^aTeJiBHue itoah PocciH bo 2-ofi noioBHO'& 
XVIII cTOJtriji, cTp. 27. 

') TyBepHaHTKa 1862 r. J6 2.— IleTpoBx.— HcTopifl poAOFb pyccBaro abo- 
MHCTBa, T.I, CTp. 179. Bi CoBpeMeHHoftJIiTonHCH (DpH6aBieBie bbMockob. 
BixouocT. 1863 r. ^ 28 aBr.) roBopBiCA, ito BeASoft poAvjCii hjh b'b 1702 ^ 
HiH BT> 1704 roAy* reiL6HrB roBopBTi, «rTO obi poahjca bi 1702 roAy 
CTOsrojBui (cm. Russische GtinstliDge, 1809 r., ct. 358. 



— 8 -^ 

xHBi TaK»e He coxpaHHJiocB A^i, KBnarb h CyicarB sa speun ci 
1700 no 1704 roA^ hsi KOTopHxi mosho fiujio 6u saiuiiOHiiTB 
BpeMBHH po^LABHifl BoARaro. 

B'L meeACROirB co^^HneHiH Anpena (Anrep. Swenska Adelns 
Attar-taflor t. I— IV Stockholm 1858— 64)yKa3HBaiOTC4! hjiohh 
flBopflHCKHxt $aMHJiift Cflappe h BpeAO (t. IV ct. 39 —79; 653 — 
660); HO TpyAHO ycMOTpi^TB kto hsi jihi^b sencRaro uojia 03Ha- 
qoHHuxi ^aMHJiifi Morjia 6utb MaTepBio Bei^Karo. HiKoiopuH 
HS'B BpeAe BuxoAHJiH BHOCjrlACTBiH saicy:^^ sa Gnappe n orB 
Toro, 6uTB MoacerB, 6iorpa$Bi Beusaro h HasuBaion ero naxB to 
(iapoHeccoK) BpeAe, to Gnappe, Rani nanp. oAHa rpa^HHH Co^la 
BpeAe (poA. 1676 r. ynepjia 1708 r. nocjA poAOBi) Bumjia sa- 
MyjEi sa renepajia GapoHa (a hotobtb rpa^a) 3pHRa Gnappe wb 
1707 r. Apyraa Caponecca KaTopeHa niapjiOTa Gnappe (pox. 
1684 r. ynepjia 1759 r.) BCTynnjia bb 1775 r. bt. 6paRi cb 6a- 
poHOMB $a6iaH0BrB BpeAe (cm. Tanate BergstrOm — Register Till 
de af Gabriel Anrep utgifna Svenska Adelns Attas-taflor. Stockholm 
1888). 

PaBHuiTB o6pa30MB MH% HO yAajiocB HaftTH H cnncRa o cJiy3R6i 
BeAKaro, bi ROTopoiTB oCuRHOBeHHO yRasHBaoTca foab h MicTO 
poacAOHk. BnpoHeiTB To^moe pasptmenie Bonpoca, poAiuiCH jui 
Bei^RoS BB 1703 hjih 1704 roAy He HicierB cyn^ecTBesnaro sna- 
^enifl, TaRii RaRi oho momo tojibro npHCaBHTB rb cnery ero foaobb 
OAHHB JUimHifi roAB sbshh h 6ojrbe HBHero; Apyraro HHaro SHane- 
hIh na A&ABH&flmyK) ero xhbhb h a'^htojibhoctb oho o^obhaho ne 
HirbJio ^). Bb tomi hjih ApyroiTB cjiyna'fe Bemcoft 6HjrB pojKAeHB bi 

CTpani HHOSeMHOft, bb ROTOpOfi H npOBeJFB, BUiCTk CB CBOHMli 
OTAOHB, nepBBie FOAH A^TCTSa. RaRHXl JIH6o CB^AiHlft o6b stoitb 

BpeHeHB JRH8HH Eoi^Raro naMB ne yAajiocB naftTa; a& e^Ba jih 
B08M0JRH0 npoAnojiaraTB hx'b cyn^ecTBOBanie. peCenK'l, HHHiui* 



*) HeiB3Ji npH aioMi ne ynonaHyTb, mo r. Hhctobh^i (bb HTCHiH M. 
06. HcT. H JlpeB. npH Mocsob. yflUB. 1863 r. be. 4, cip. 156), coo6mafl 

^aCTBHfl CB'bA'^Bifl O BeilKOM'B, rOBOpHTB VeSAY npO^HXB n^TO KBA3& Hb. 

£}p. TpyCeKKoft, 6yA7HH bi nxfeey bi» CroBrojiBHi, npscTpacTHJicfl b% 6apo- 
Becci BpeAe, Cb BOTopofi o6BiB7aACfl h KorAa bi 1718 r. 6011 paaii'lHeHit 
BepujACA BB Poccii), a 6apooecca BpeAe ocTaiacb 6epeMeBBoi) Hb. Hr. 
Be ASH Ml". Hs-L aTHxi ciobi bbao BasiioiHTb HTO BeKBofi poAHAca nocii 
1718 roAa. Ob btuhi eABa ah moxho coriacHTBCH. PoxAeaie BeuKaro bi 
1718 roAy» BBqi^Mi ee noATBepsAaeMoe, Be corjacyeTca ci noiffentaeMUMH 
vb npBAOseHin AOByMeBTaxH, BecoMBiBBo AORadUBaron^HMH, ^to Beasoft b% 
1772 r. 6urB npn Bamem nocoiLciBi Bb IlapHsi, a cb 1726 r. oinpasAHAB 
<t>JBrejL-aABK)TaHCByio AOJSHocTb npn Tpy6euK0MB;— Hero OB'S ae bicocto- 
jiHiH 6hj[i 6h A'i^JaTb, Hvtfl Bcero 4 nio 8 lixi ao CAOBaMi r. ^HCiOBBHa. 



— 9 — 

Be OTJiHHaBmeMCfl otb MHOjReciBa KPjvmTb, eny noAo6Hux'B, neqero 
B roBopETB, Tiwb Cojii^ HBHero sanBcuBaiB. YnoMHuewb tojcbro, 
910 nocjrb ero poiRAeBia npB6ujia bi OroRroJiBirb Kb CBoeuy cyn- 
pyry KHflrBflfl Tpy6e^Kaa, ypoagiOHHaji HapumRHfla, BM-i^crt cb 
XByMB ea xoHepB]fB^),ROTopafl, oocjiOBaM'BaBTopacTaTBBBocKpec- 
flaFO Aocyra') ae tojebko se ocRop6BJiacB cbjisbk) CBoero uyasa cb 
BHOseiiHOK) oco6oio, HO ycKiHOBBJia MaJiBHBRa H He ;^jiajia HBRaRoro 

paaOHHlB MeXAy HHITB H C06CTBeHHUMH AtTBMH. 

OrRHHyBB B8B BTHXi CJI0B1» Bco H8JiEinH6e, HaHOMEHaiontee 
4>paHiQr3CRie poManu h cobc^m'b ne cooTBiiCTByioniee hh Ayxy 
Toro BpeMeHH, hh noaioKeHiio pyccRofl jRenn^HHu TOft shoxh, tojibro 
HTO ocBo6oai^eHHofi hsi xepeua, hh xapaRxepy caMoro rhhsh Tpy- 
Cem&aro, ne CyxyxB BCTp'^^aiBCH npenaiCTBiH r^ Tony, ?to6u npn- 
HHTB HTO 56i](R0ft ocTajiCH B^ ceBieftcTBi CBoero oma (hto Baojini 
eciecTBeHHO) h nojiynnjii nepBOHanaJiBHoe BOCHBTaHie BBeroAoni, 
HapaBHi CT> npoHBMH ero aItbkb. j!1%te jseRBa8flTpy6ei](Raro — ero 
AO^epH — nojiyHHJiH BOCHHTame xopomee, o hoitb CBHA^ieJiBCTByeTB 
B BepxrojiBux icescAy npo^mfB^). H ho yABBHTeJUBHO. CnJiBHoe 
ABHseHie, A&HHoe IleTpoMB Bojihrhm^ ri yneHlio b o6pa80- 
Bamio ecTecTBOHHO npeacAe Bcero h 6ojii%e Bcero noBJiiajio 
Ha JOLUhj Gjibbro rb HOMy CTOHBniBX'B; OHH BcixB fiojiie He AopsajiB 
npoTBBBTBca BOJii HpeoGpasoBaTejifl h, no cjiOBaiii BepxrojiBi^a, cne 
H^aAHJiH HHHero a^h oCpasoBanifl cbohxb A^iefti. Bon no^eny, 
Ao6aBJuieTB Bepxroni^'B, h cmotpbhib na 6ojiBniifl nepeirbHU, c coBop- 

mBBmiHCfl BB PoCCiH BB CTOJIB ROpOTROO BpeMa>. Ho yABBHTOJIBHO 
HOdTOMy, 9T0 H CaMl BeaKOfl CUJIB CBOCnHTaHB CB npeB8paAHUMB 

yqeHieMB»,no CJiOBairB Han^ORHHa ^). Kuazh TpyCei^ROft, RaRi hs- 
BicTHO, 6hjii pasMtHOHB Ha 4>^i»AMapniajia PenmejiBAa, Bsaiaro 

B^ OJI^HB BB IIOJlTaBCROirB CpameHiH B BOSBpaiBJICH ^) Bl PocciK) 




*) Les princes Troubetzkoi -Paris. 1887, p. 143. 

*) BocspecBuft AocyrB 1865 roAa, J^ 116, anp. 25. 

") jg[HeBHHBi Bauep^-JOHBepa EepxroiBua— aepeBoxi» Ammohb. MocBBa, 
1857, H. I, cxp. 101. 

*) 3aaHCKH B. A. Haii;oBUBa. C.-lIeTep6ypn 1842 r. cip. 95. 

SaMiTaMi npoTOMi hto asTopu craTefi: hi GiBepBofi Uvejii 1847 r. 
J^ 49; wh HiiDCTpanlB tofo se 1847 r. ^ 10 h bi ryBepBaBTBt 1862 r., 
crp. 62, ynoMBaafl 061 OTiisx'b bubbh Tpy6eiiBaro nvh GTOBrouMa roBopBTii: 
^cosHaaie cnpaBexiRBaro AOira OAepsaao Bepzi; BsasB noBBByii mo- 
jioxyD BHOseiiBy, BepayicB b% Pocciio ci cuhom'b'^, nps newh no oioBayi 
asTopa craTBB B^ FyBepBaaTBi (ct. 62) Bei^soft yseaeBi bi PocciK) b ycu- 
BOBJieBi BBBruBoft, HO BO cjOBBMi APyfBxi yBasaaHUzii sypaajOBi or 
sejajia toibbo ero ycuBOBHTB, bo BeABOfi ocrajca npa poxnofi HaTepB^ 
CTOBroiBMl, a BBBrHHB BO nepecTaBBJa bcitb 3a6oTBTBca b t. x* Bee s 



— 10 — 

Bt 1718 ro«y ^). Ct hemt. BipoaiHO npitxaJTB wb Pocciio h 
Beiucofi, KOTopoMy mofjio 6un TorAa JiirB 15. FoBopHMi «Bipo- 
ATHO> noTOMy HTO BeKKOft, no sanBJieHiHifL HiROTopuTB ero 
61orpa$OB'B, BOcnBTUBaJica sa rpaHm^eio bi yRHBepcHreTax'B b^ 
A 6 0, B-B Jleftm^Hri ^) a noTOMi nyciHJicA nyremecTBOBaTB no Fep- 
MaeiH, $paHaiH, UTajiin. Apyrie xb roBoparb, ^no ohii 6ujvb bi 
KoneHrareHCROMx KaAeiCKorb Ropnyct ^) n onpeA'i^JiieH'b bi Jt^aniH 
Ha CJiy^6y bi KaBajiepiio, ho na ynenBH 6iijrL cGpomeH'L ch jio- 
ma^H, npHHyjKAeFB OTRasaTBcn otb BOOHHOfi cjiyacfiBi h nycTBJica 
nyiemecTBOBaTb. 

EcTB macaiejiH, yiBepscAaionae, hto hphbas^hhoctb BeqKaro ki 
OTny y^ep^HBajia ero npn bbmb; ohi ne aaxoT&i'B ci hhitb pasjiy- 
^aTBCJ], npiixajiB bx Pocciio h sanHcajiCA bi RoJiJieriH) HHOCTpaH- 

HUXl KkjTh^ HT06U ^HTB AOMa H HpOAOJISaTB SaHHHaTBCH CBOHM'B 

OROH^aTejiBHUHB o6pa30BaHieirB *). BceaTOsaaBJiHeTca CesiMajsifl- 
maro yRasama RaRHXB-jraSo AORasaTejiBCTBB, npn hoitb He yRasu- 
BaiOTCfl Adse HCTOHHHRH, OTRy^a noHepnnyTO to hjih Apyroe CBix'i^Hie. 
OneHB JierRO Hoacen 6utb, hto noApaKan npHMtpy BejiHRaro 
IXpeoCpasoBaieJifl, nocBiJiaBmaro ho Biajioe ^hcjio mojioabixb joh^'b 
sa rpaHBi](y o6y^aTBCfl pasHUMi BCRycciBairB h peneciiaMi, RHJi3B 
Tpy6ei(Roft nocJiajTB TaRxe h Bei^Raro bi RaRoe-JiH6o yneCHoe saBe- 
neme sa rpaHHny cb tok) trb vjkjihK). BesycjioBHO OTpnaaTB bosmo^c- 

HOCTb 8T0r0 HeJIBSfl, HO Tpy^HO TaRJRe yTBepXA&TB, ^TO OWh 6UJI'B 

BB TOBCB HjiH ApyroMii yHHBepcHTeTl, He BM'ifl Ha TO Toqnirx'B Aan- 
EuxTi. TaROBuxi MH HO HMieiTB. XlepBiie jRe Ciorpa^u Bei^Raro 
coBepmeHHO o6xoahj[h dTorb BonpocB; He ynoMEHan o ero o6pa30* 



roBopHTCA CesB ysasaBifl hctohbhsobb! He sHaeniB leiij (Soiie jahbihtbcji, 
eauBBOft JH ceuTHMeHTajiLBOCTH asTopoBB HJiu HXBnoHflTiH) cnpaBeAia- 

*) HcTopiH IleTpa BejHKaro.— H. ycipaiOBa t. IV, ^, I, crp. 68; Toih- 
soBB roBopHTB (cif. J^^EiB UsTpa fieJHsaro, t. YII, CTp. 66), ?to zejaa 
OKasaTB mBBAaMB cbod diarocKJOHnocTB IleTpB I, npH BaiaTie soHrpecca bb 
AiasA*^, OTnyicTBXB oxHoro ebb nitHBuxi mBeACSRXB rcHepaiOBB, a nniexu 
paBflo sejaa yroAniB Ero BeiHHCCTBy OTnycTUJiH Tanse reaepaJOBi: sHiisff 
Tpy6ei(Baro h FoioBHsa. 05aoBHCB bbjekoid hbctbd hsb AiaflxaoTnymeBU 
20-ro 0KTfl6pH 1718 roAa. (cm. Taiuse AonojeeHiJi kb xoMy YII A'^AHift 
flexpa B. CTp. 375). 

') HjJDCTpnpoBaBHaji raaera 1864 r., J^ 19, crp. 292; BocRpecBufi Ao- 
cyrB 1865 r., JS 116; PyccKift Mipi 1872 r., J^ 230. 

') flUpaajB HMBcpaTop. ?ejoBisoiH>6. 06mecTBa 1818 r., ^. I, SLeb. 
CT. 108; OTeHocTBeBBUfl 3abHCKn 1845 r., t 42, ct. 15 h ci.— GtBepHaa 
n9eial847 r., ^ 49, CTp. 175; BceMipHan HinocTpauifl 1870, t. IIT, J§ 63, 
CT. 196. 

^) HCiiBonHCBu& C6opBHRB.— njiomapa 1759 roAa ^ 1. 



— 11 — 

BamH sa rpaHHneio, ohh rosopHJiH hto «yH0jicH bt> jiflui OTaa». 
Taici Hanp. aBTop% craT&H o BeiiKoirb bi c^pyri IIpocvliiteHifl* 
sa 1805 TOKby X YI CT. 225 n ynoM^Hyruft h6 pasi BaHTumi- 
KaMeHCRift (bi CBoeirb cjiOBapi t. I, crp. 1 67 — 170 h Ap.)- MoacHo 
6ii, saaawiocB, npHHUTB, hto BeuKoi 1 5-th Jiiri npiixaji'b bi Poc- 
ciio, Birbcrt Cb RHaseirL TpyCeuRHirB, ee no6uBaBB bi RaREXi 
jra6o yHe6HJbixi saBej^eHlJixi sa rpaeimeK), ecjiH 6bi tojibro ho Hiffc- 
jiocB TaRB cRasaTB co6cTBeHHaro npHSHaHin Bei^Raro, hto oh*b 6ujn> 
Bi RoneHrareHCROiTB RaAeiCROirB Ropnyci. IIpexcTaBJiflH Hiinepa- 
TpuTjjk EnaTepHHi II bi 1764 roAy pascyagieHla o BOcnHTamH, Beu- 
ROfi HexAy npoHEKB roBopHTB (11. C. § 1764^ JVs 12741), RaRi 
owh 6yAyqR RaAeToiTB bb RoneHrareHCROifB RaAOTCROMi Ropnyct 
xoAHJS'B bb RapayjiB ^), ctohjtb na nacaxi bb no^Hoe Bpeicfl ht.a.'). 
PaBHuiTB o6pa3oin> wh BumeynoMHHyTOMB noRasanlH o CBoeMB 
npoHCxoacAeHiH (npHJi. J\e II) caiiB BeqROft roBopHTB, hto 6ujib bo 
^paHiUH BB ropoA'6 IlapHKl a^a nayRH bb 1722 roAy. Ha 

BTOITB OCHOBaHiH 0H6HB BOSMO^HO AOnyCTHTB, HTO BeUROft, HO npE- 

Mtpy MHorsxi ApyrHXB mojioauxi jiioAeft, dujii nocjiaHi cbohmh 
poAHTeJiflMH A-iiA CBoero ofipasoBaHia sa rpanHny h npH 3T0mb naxo- 

ABJICA BB OAHOMB flSB H'^MOAREXB yHHBepCHTeTOBl). IIoAOShIIH 

no^sARH MOJiOAuxB JnoAefi sa rpaHHi^ bi» to speHH eaHBHajiH, RaRi> 

HSBiCTflO, BXOAHTB BB ofiBIHaft, aCOJiaa ROHeHHO yrOAHTB dTHlTB BeJIH- 

ROMy npeoGpasoBaTOJiH). noJio:KHTejiBHUXB aahhuxb o tomb, ^o 

BeqROft HaXOAHJUCfl bb BSBiCTHOlfB RaROM^-JQtHfiO yHBsepcHTeT^ HaMl 
OTUCRaTB HO yAajiocB. 

Ho cjiOBaMi HiROTopHXB HHcaTejieft Bei^ROfl bb 1719 roAy t. e. 
RorAa OMy Chjio ho 6oJiie 16, 17 jAtb otb poAy, Chjib onpeAiJieHB 
Ha cjiyacOy h coctohjt'b bb Kojuierin HHOCTpaHHUXB JIj'bji'B a bb 
1722 r. 6UJIB bb napH«% bb Ra^ecTBi ceRpoTapa npn nameMB 
nocjit RHflsi BacHJilH AjkwA ^oJiropyROMB, ho BCKopi oTHpaBJien^ 



7 Siej&A npoBipHTB sto noEasame cauoro EeiiKaro Ji o^pamaica b% 
BoneHrareHi bt, KaACTCKift Kopnyci h no HaBexeHHofi cnpaBBi OBaaaiocE 
HTO AATcsoe BoeBHoe yHHiDBie (Landkadett Akademie) ocHOBaso bi 1703 r. 
H BB apxHsaxi ero coxpaHHJHCB cobcrh ihub 6uBmnx% bi stomb y^Hinn^t, 
HO BB 9HCii Bxi HveHi* H. H. EeuRaro bjb Tpy^emtaro h Aase Bpe^e h 
Cnappe (oTBocumBxca rb XVIII cTOiiT.) se BCTpinaeTCfl. Bb RouearareBi 
ze B% 1701 r. 6ujo ocBOBaHo Apyroe yHuiHme— HopcBoe, SOkadettakademie, 

BB apXHBt EOTOparO COXpaHHJHCB TOIBKO CBBCKH 06yHaBmHXCfl Bl HeMB 

imi,'b CB 1800 roAa; npoHHX'B Ba jhao ho BMieTCH. PaBHUMi o6pa3oii% bb 
A'tiaiB nepeoBCBt yHRjruma sa Bpeiifl cb 1701 no 1723 roAa TaKse bo* 
Hero Be ynoMBHaexca o BeAKoifB. 

') Ha aTO yKasBiBaexi ii r. IleKapcKifi b% Meiiyapax'B pyccBBXB JiOAefi 
XYin Ffasa. GoBpeMeBHBKB 1856 r. J^ 6. 



— 12 — ^ 

Bi Poccifo CB AenemaMH no c e r p e t h u ic i a^ ^ a m i, % ociajicji 
npH OTu^, fiujii) npoHSBBAeH'B Bi> 1728 r. bi nopy^HRH, a bi 1733 r. 
yjKe Bi reHepajii-aA'BiOTaHTu npH KHast Tpy6eipcotfib ') ci 
"^HHOMi M a i p a, a b% cJi'lAyionteM'B roAy npoHSBeAeHi bi n o a* 
noJiKOBHHKH ^). BHaMeHRTfiifl RaHi^jiep'b OcTopMaHi oGpan^ajTB 
oco66HHoe BHHMame na cnoco6HocTH Bei^Baro HeoAHORpaTHO no- 
CLuxajxt ero Rypbopoifi Kb HHOCTpaHnuMi ABopaicB ^). Ero no- 
SHanifl, JiOBRocTby A'^HTanBHOCiB HHoro cnocoScTBOBaJiH ero nosu- 
moHiK), HBHy TaRxe cejibho coA'^ficiBOBajio n noRpoBHieJiBCTBO Ana- 
cxaciH FecceHi-raMGyprcROft. 

ABTopu Bx noATBepflCAOHifl BumecKasaEnaro Kb cobsljAbUo 
He npHBOAHTL HHRaRHxi yRasanift. Ecjih npHnouHHTB ycTanaBJiB- 
BaBmiflcfl Bi> TO Bpeicfl o6uHaft sanHCHBaTb A^Tefi cb panHExi ji^tb 
na cjiy»6y n npenMyn^ecTBeHHO bi> BoeHnyio, npn nem a^th npe- 
cnoRofiHO ocTaBajDHCB AO coBepmoHHOJiiTla bi aom^ bxi poAHxejieft, 
ne OTnpaBJuaa HERaRHxii cjiyjRe6HB[X'B oSasaHHOCTefl, to Bcero 
ecTecTBennie npnflJiTB, hto bi BHAy BUAaioniiarocH nojioseHiji ca- 
Maro RHasfl Tpy6eiiKaro, ero HesaKOHHuft cuh'b, Bei^Rofi, Gujtb no 
npBHipy Apymxi, sanBcaei vb BoenHyio cjiysfiy h ^ncjiflCB bi> Ra- 
KOBTB jih6o nojiRy, naxoAHJica sa rpanHAeio h neasAy npoHEMi b:b 
Ilapnsi, TA^, no 6jih3rem'b OTHomeHifliTB H. K). Tpy6ei](Raro ri 
B, JI. J9(ojiropyROMy, h mohb Gbttb onpeA^eni nocjEtAHEMi npn 
nocojiBCTBi, Bi RanecTBi^ ceRpeTapn. Bi noATBepsv^eme dxoro npoA- 
nojiojReHlH MOXHO yRasaxB ne tojibro na to »e noRasanie caiiaro 
Bei^Raro, ho h na noiiibn^eEHUfl bi npHJioxeniH (JV2 II, III) aoho- 
uieHie RHflda Tpy6eiiRoro wb BoenHyio Rojuneriio orB 14 HapTa 
1728 roAa h onpeA'^nenie ceft nocJiiAHefi otb 20 uapTa xoro se 
roAa Touiy HTo Ri neny, renepajiy ^ejiBAMapmaJiy RHasio Tpy- 
6eAR0My, B'B yRasHoe no TaCejun 1720 roAa hhcjio ^JiHrejiB-aA'BK)- 
TaHTOBi onpoAtjieFB 6uBmift npn neiTB (Rnast Tpy6eaR0Mi>) aa 
aA'BtOTaHxa HBanii Bei^ROft, ROxopoMi noRasano hto npesA^ cero 

GfJJfB OHB BO $paHl4H HpH nOJIHOMOHHOM'B HOCJlt (X. 0. RHflS'b B. 

M JKypHaii Hunepaxop. ^eiOBtKOJK)6. 05iiiecTBa 1818 r. v. Ill ct. 188 
H ciiA-; G^BepHaji U^eia 1847roA'B J^ 49 t. 195; HjnocTpHpoBaHBaa FaseTa 
1864 r. fk 19 ct. 242 a rasse 1867 ro^a J^ 20; BceMipHaii EliiDCTpaiiifl 1870 r. 
T. Ill >6 63; ILuDCTpaiiifl 1847. J^ 10 ct. 150—152 (CTaTba no coAcpsaaiD 
TOSAecTBeBHaA cb noM'bnieHHOi) bi GiBepHofi n^eii 1847 r. J^ 49), h TyBcp- 
naHTKa 1862 r. CTp. 63. 

') FyBepHaHTsa 162 cTp. 63, npn ^ewb oqeBEAHO BMtcxo reHepaii-ajCbn- 
TaHTa HaAO luxaTB reneVaiBc i-aA'^DTaHTa t. e. aAiDTaHTB npH rene- 
paji; ?T0 npejiCTaBjiflCTi ooibmjK) pa3HDuy bb HiinaxB h sBaniH. 

*) TyBepHaHTEa 1862 r. cxp. 63—65. 

*) TaMB ae. 



f 



— 13 — 

JI. ^ojiropyROBoifB) sa ceKpeiapfl HHOcTpaHHuxi KbjLi>, h hhcjihtb 
ero BeoRaro cb BumenHcaHHaro HHCJia ro^y bi nopyHHHLOM'b 
panri a hotomi wb KanHTaHCROin» RaRi no laCoJiH aAuoiaHTu co- 

CTOBn». XOTfl B^ OCmEpHOMl ffbji'l MOCROB. ApxHBa HHOCipaH- 

H£ixi» A'6jn» nocojiBCTBt RHflSJi B. JI. AoJiropyROBa bi napHscb 
HaHi H6 yAaJKOCB omcRaTB yRasaeifl o toitb hto npn uewb wh Ra- 
HecTB^ ceRperapa cocioiijii HiceHHO BeuRofl, h xoth paBHuirB 
o6pa30irB, Buvat bi cBoeMi « Journal de la Begence^ ^) roBopa 
o&b BTOHi ace nocojuBCTB^ He ynoMBHaerB o Bei^ROifB, ho sto ho 

MOJReTB HHCROJIBRO CJiyXHTB OnpOBepjReHieifB HHAOHOmeHifl (j[)eJIIBA- 

MapmaJia TpyCoARaro, hh onpeA&neHifl BooHHofi RojuieriH. IIo 
Hesna^HiejiBHOCTH aoji»hocth ceRpeTapa BOoGiqe, rhasb JS^ojiro- 
pyROBi He CHejii* HyacHuirB aohochtb KojiJierlH o HadHaneHiB Bea- 
Raro, a BioBa — mofb bobco ho oGpaiHTB na Hero BHEManifl. Ho 
^eJiBAMapmaJi'B rhasb Tpy6eaKoft, a rtH'B 6ojri^e Boennaa Kojuieria, 
He HirijiH HHRaROft HaAo6HOCTH ynoMHHaTB bi CBOBxi GyMaraxi 
HTO BeuRoft cocTOHTB sa ceRpeTapa HHOCTpaHHuxii jsjbjrb npn RHasi 
AoaropyROiTB b'b IlapHxii, ecjui 6£i ohi laROBoft aojurhocth ho 
OTopaBJiajii Ha cbmoisi jijbji% xoTa fiu tojdbro h HHCJiacB npn no- 
coaBCTBi. HiTB HHRaRoro ocHOBama AonycTHTB hto6u RnasB Tpy- 
6ei](R0ft, HOAaBHO HasHanenHBift ^eaBAMapmaaoiTB, A'^tiaai 6u ne- 
B^pHoe AOHomeHie Boennoft Koaaerin. npHHHMa^ no oTOMy bto 
AOHomeme h cocvoaBmeeca no hoitb onpeA'^Jienie BoeHHoft RoaaeriH 
sa 6e8ycaoBHO ToiHBift AORyMeerB, cA'i^aaeMTi hsi hhxi H^ROTopue 
BBiBOAur, OTHOcanUeca ao AaaBniftmeft 6iorpa$iH BeiJiRaro, ROiopuA 
RBRX Mu CRasaaH panie 1726 roAa naxoAHaca b'b IlapHsi npH 
j!I,oaropyROM'B. RnasB TpyCemcoft b-b aio ace BpeMa (1722 no 1726 r.) 
Chuvb renepanoirB npn noaeaofi apiOH yRpasHCRaro Ropnyca h 
KieacROfi ryCepnlH ryGepnaTopoMi ^). IIpH hoitb no TaCeaa noaa- 
raaca ^anreaB-aA'BiOTaHrB h laROBUMi 6Biai> oaho apena h^rto 
CadypoB'B. KnasB Tpyfiei^Roft, no Bnoaai ecTecTBeHHOMy nyacTay 
poACTBa, aceaaa npHCTpoHTB CBoero nesaROHHaro cuna ri ce6% no- 
6aHace, nHcajii ^oaropyRoay b'b IXapHacB o npncuaRib r^ neify wb 
TSiewh Beipcaro. jfl^oaropyROB^ npncaaji'B Kb HOMy, Cb hhcbmomi, Aaa 



*) Joomal de la Regence 1715—1723 par Bavat, pablie par Campardon 
T. II CTD. 311 H ci'bA-; sypHajn OBaH^HBaeTCJi 1724 foaoh'b. 

') Cm. OnHcasie xosTHeHTOBi h xfhrh xpaHflmnxcA vb ApxHBi CBarbft- 
maro CHHOAa t. ni cTp. 167. h t. YII ct. 114. Hsi Toro se HCTOiHHKa 
T. n H. I CTp. 67 a 634 mosho sauD^HTB ito bhasb HsaHi DpBeBHi'B 
Tpy6ei(Hoft BiAxbi'h AOMaMH bi MocBBi Wh Kpeiwh paAOMi cb HoBOcna- 
CBUMB noABopBeni. 



^ I 



— 14 — 

OTQpaBJieHiH onpeA^JieHHiixi sarpaHHHHUx'B RopecnoHAeHiiift he 
Hiicei^ROMii H ^paHiQTscROM'B juajieRTaxx, HsaHa HsaHOBa CHHa 
EeaKaro (6uBinaro aa ceRpeiapH HHOCTpaHHHX'B a^jtb), no Hese 
OHuft Bi TOMi) HCRyceHi. Bei^Roft npiixajiii» h bi He6uT- 
HOCTb ynoMflHyxaro Ca6ypoBa, OTnpaBJiajii> ^jiHrej[b-aAi»K)TaHTCRyK> 
AOJi^HOCTB c^ nponiJiaro 1726 roAa, npH Tpy6ei^R0Mi bi KieBt. 
IXojRBJiOBaHHuft Bi 1728 rosy vb FeHepajiT>-$eJiBAMapina;iu, RHASb 
Tpy6ei^R0fi,:KHBa y»e bi> MocrbI, Bomejii) Cb npeACTaBJieEdetfi o 
HasHaHemB BeuRaro R'b Heiiy bi> HHCJit ^ Ji h r e jib - aA'BiOTaHTOS'b, 
noJioseHHux'b 6uTb nps HeM^noTa6ejiHl720 roAa. Bei^ROfi bm^t& 
ci Tpyfiei^RHifB eme 9 napTa 1728 roAa 6£iJi'b wh MocRBii. TaRHKX 
o6pa80Mi> CB 1726 no 1728 toa'b h AaJL^e Bei^ROfi eaxoAHJiCfl wb 
npeA'bJiax'B Poccin, anesarpaHBiteH). dnwh onpoBepraeTca 
npexA6 Bcero OesAORaaaiejiBHufi h coBepmeHHO nejiinuft pascRaai 
TOATB HTO Bei^Rofl 6uji'b oTuoMi EKaTopHHu U ^), a laRse H BCi 
AajiBH'6fimifl na ceMT> ocHOBaHin nocTpoeHHUJi saflBoieHifl 061 
oco6eHH0M'B pacnoJio^ceHiH h QjiarocRjioHHOCTH HMnepaTpHiiBi 

ERaTOpBHU II RB BeaROMy, RCtTOpHX-B HaMH HH BB ^OBTB He yCMOT- 

p6H0, RaRi 3T0 6yAeTh yRasano AaJite. 

Bi> A'&Ji^x'B OneRyHCRaro Cos^Ta xpaHHica nacBMa BeuRaro R'B 
JI^eMHAOBy, Bik mucjii rohx'b ecTb h HHCbMa BeiiRaro Kb yncROMy, 
BorAany BacHJiBeBH^y, 6uBmeMy oneRyHOMi MocROBCRaro bochh- 
xaieJiBHaro AOMa, a laRjRe saBiABiBaBmeMy A^-naMB BeaRaro. Owb 
Ha6jiK)Aaji'B sa BMininMH nocJi^AHflro, SHBmHMB b6jih8H otb seMeJiB 
canaro yncRaro, nocjii CMepiH Roxoparo 6bijih BOSBpan^eHH BeiiROBty 
HtROTopue npHHaAJiexan^ie ao HMtmfl AORyMOHTu, bb tomb HHCJii 
noAJiHHHaa Rynnaa Rp'i^nocTB otb 1728 r. anpijifllScoBepnieHHaA 
RHflaeMB Hb. K)p. TpyeeniRHM'B na BOTWHy, npoAaHHyio b'b Ro- 
cTpoMCR. ybsjii (jIuiHrejib-aA'BioTaHTy Hb. Hb. BeaROMy. dro AaerB 
ocHOBaHie yrBepacAaib mro Aa»6 bb anp'&ni 1728 roAa Bei^ROft y»e 
HaxoABJiCH B'b PocciH, b6o coBepmajn* Rynqyio Rpinocxb jihhho, 
a He qpesB noaipeHHaro. 

HejiB3fl He sani^xnxB hxo r. BHJib6acoBi> b'b HSBiciHOM'B co^h- 



*) Hhkto He OTpuAaex'b hto 6yAyma« KMaepaTpHKa ERaxepHHa II po- 
Aiiiiacb 21 anp. (3 HaA) 1729 roAa; npn dTOHb qTo6i 6utb ex omoxb, 
vb CHiy ecTecTBeHsaro HeJiOB'^^ecKaro pasBnTiHi eaAO 6uio 6utb bb Fep- 
HaHiff oiH ^panuis Bb nepBoft nojoBHHi 1728 roxa. He toibso BH^iifb se 
AOKasaHO qxo BeuKoft 6^1% BueHuo bi aro apeMfl sa rpaniiueK), ho Banpo- 

TJBBb TOrO ORaSHBaeTCfl, HTO OHl HaXOAHJCJI Bb PocciH H oxapaBjAi'B npH 
KH;i8i Tpy6euK0U'b a^bnTaHTCByK), a 3a xiirb n (i)irHreib-aA'b]OTaBTCKyK> 

AOJIXHOCTb. 



— 15 — 

HeniH «iIcToplJiHMiiepaTp]iiiu EKaTepHHuII» bhojihI onpoeepraeTL 
fleji%nocTb, nymeHfijK) b% xoKb Biueujanycb nepeBOAHBROMi cohh- 
BenlH MaccoHa, hto 6yAT0 6iii ERarepHHa II ^BJn^eTca AO^epBio 
BeoRaro, Heji%nocTi» Koropyio noBTop^iorB, FpeHii ^) bt* cbohxi sa- 

IIHCRaXl, aBTOpi CTaTBB Bl C60pHBKi^ XYUI B^Rl T. I CT. 7, a TaRxe 

RH. Tpy6eiucai[ wb CBoeM'B co^HHenlH <(Poa'b RH^sefl Tpy6ei^KEXi ii 
vb cTaTsi Nouvelie Revue 1884 r.t. XXX, Septembre. 

Ki dTofi »e anoxi, t. e. ao BpeMenn cocioJiBniarocfl nasHa- 
Hema Bemcaro aAiiOTaHTOMi rx Tpy6ei;R0My, aojischo othbcth h 
yRasaeie A'^aeMoe BapcyROBUMi* ^) na to, hto Bei](RO& 6yAT0 Gujii) 
OAHo BpeMH pesHAeHTOMi) Bi raM6ypri, npa leMi* aBiopi He 
vRasHBaerb OTRyAa 8th oybAiRiH hmi nonepnHyTH h ^mi ohii 
noAKpinjifliOTCfl. TaRsce tojiocjiobho saiiiqaeTi b rpa^i Ceriop^ ^) 
Bi OAHOM^ B3i nflceicb CBOBX'b Ri IIoTeMRBHy, 'iTO Boi^Roft pasi 
wb CBOK) JKB3HB 6yAen» B'bnpaBi CRasaxB, «HTOHeTaRi>nyTeinecTBO' 
eaJiH Wb ero BpeMH, RorAa eMy aoboabjiocb ^sahtb RypBepoM'b bi* 
KoHCTaHTifHonoJii». rpa4)'B Cenop'B HaxoAHCB bi PoccIh 6fAJii> 
TaRxe Bi neTepCyprb, iiori bha^tbch cb BeARBMi* h jih^ho cjih- 
maTB orB sero pascRasu o noisAKaxi bi> KoHCTaHiBHonojib, roto- 
pua Bemcoft, RaRi cocTOflBiniB npa ROJjJieriH HHOcipaBHHX'B ji^kjiby 
uorB jierRO BcnojiHHTB no DpHRadaHiAMi) KojuieilB, AOCTaBJina 6ojiie 
BJiH MBHie BaxHBiH 6yMarH. TaRBMH RypBopaMH BecBMa nacTo 
OTopaBjifljiBCB KojLserieK), MOJiOAue jiioab vh nepBuxi tojubro hto 
^iBHaxi, npB Heft cocToaBmie. 

CocTOJi npfl RHasi TpyGeuROMii wb hbcjiI Heiupex'B (|)jiflrejiB- 
aA^ioraHTOBi, Bei^Roft BcnoJiHJtJii> oGn^ia, necJioacHHa o6H3aH- 

HOCTB, Cb 3T0K) AOJIJRHOCTBH) COIipaseHHUH, ROTOpBlXB ROHeiHO 

HH Bi RaRBxi coBpeMeHHBTX'B 8anBCKaxi> B 6yMaraxi He ynoMH- 
HaeiCH no Bx^ coBepmeHHoft neaHaHHTejiBHOCTB, t^mi* 6ojite hto 



Hb. Hb. BeuBofi. roBopHT'B II. H. Tpe^'b, cubi ni'lHHUKa bi IIlBeuiii 
KHB3B Tpy6e]iBaro, npenpacBUfi co6ok), yMBuft, o6pa80BaBBuft. Bi 1728 r. 
citiaicA H8B'6cTeB'B npBHi^ecci roiBCTBHCKofi BO Bpeuji npe6EiBaHiB en bi 
napHsi. EsaiepHBa 5iua jbuomii na BeAKaro oqeBB noxosa; ccujiaeocB sa 
npespacBUfi ero nopTpeii, BurpaBEpoBaeHiid PaAnraHi. FocyAapuHji o6pa- 
lAajiacB ci HHicB RBKi CI OTKeMib; nopyHHJia euy nch 6jiaroTBopHTej!BHiifl u 
BocHHTaTexBEKa saBCAeHiji II T. A* 3aBeAeuiA H. Fpe^a. Pyo. Apx. 1873 r. 
J« 2 CT. 336. 

*) A. BapcyBOBi: Ki 6iorpa(j)iH Tp. Fp. OpjiOBa. Ptcck. Apx. 1873r.CT.14 
n Tose caHoe bi Pascsasaxi bsi pyccKOil Hciopiu XYIII BtKa ct. 70. 

■) HcTopH^ecKifi BtcT. 1880 r. t. Ill ex. 194 nncBMa Ceriopa kx kh. Do- 

TeMKBHy. 



— 16 — 

H caMi> RHflSB TpyCeitKOfi npoacHBajH) cxopte na noK&b n jsjkjub ro- 
cyAapcTBeHHaro ynpasjieHiH e^Ba jih Racajicfl, no npeRJiOHHOCTH jrlr& 

H 60JI']t3HeHHOCTH. 

no KOH^HBi ITeipa 11 (bi 1730 ro^y) rhasb TpyGeaRofiBiitcTi 

Ch KHflSeii'b KaHTeMHpOMl, flryjRHHCRHMl), ^epRaCCKHH^ H HHOrHMH 

ApyrHMH flBHJiCfl npoTHBHEKOMt RHflSfl B. JI. ^oJiropyRaro Bi» ero 
nonuTKi orpaHH^iHTb caiioAepxaBHyio BjiacTB, npn BOSBeAeHis na 
BcepoccifiCRlft npecTOJi'B repAOrHHH Kypji^HACROft, Ahhu loaHHOBHu. 
3a HBMH, no cJiOBaifB r. RopcaROBa ^), CTOAjra i^Jian Apy^Rnna 

rBapAeftCRHXT> 0$HI^epOBl>, qaCTBIO pOACTBeHH^ROB^ HaCTBH) HITB 

6jih3rhx^ h Bi ^cjii nocj^AHEXi HaxoAHJSCfl BoRROft (no pOACTBy 
cb RHHseiTB TpyCei^RHMB), noAnncaBmift bi MHCii 165 HejiOBfei 
TOJiodHTHyK) npBHflTiH BJiacTH caMOAepxaBHoft no npnirbpy npoA* 
ROBB, BpyHOHHyK) HMnepaTpHi^ npn bxoa% efl Kb ay^aenccB sajiy 
RHflseiTB n. K). Tpy6eaRHM'B h npoHETannyiD BCJiyxi RHasein* Ah- 
TioxoMi KaHieMBpoM'B. Orojio BToro se BpeMOHH Bei](Rofi ') cb 
8 anp'ljifl 1730 roAa no AOCTOHHCTBy 6ujii> onpoA^eni caiiiiirB 
^jiBAMapmajiouB wb renepajiBC'B-aA'BiOTaHTu, ho rocyAap- 
CTBeHHafl BoeHHaa ROJuierin ne npflsnajia BOSMOHHfiiirB a&tb na oHuft 
HHH^ TorAa ace naTeHrB$JiRrejiB-aA'BK)TaHTyBeitROMy, oGp'bTaK)- 
n^eBfycA npn RHflsi Tpy6ei;R0irB n npeAsomnjia nocJitAHCHy 
26 0RTfl6p^ 1730 r. o6o:KAaTB, noRaiitcTB o TaRHxi HEHaxi no 
pocnncaniK) Boennoft ROJuieriH plmenie ynnneHO CyAOTB. 3to npo- 
H8B0ACTB0 Beipcaro saTAnyjiocB h tojibro nocjri neoAHORpaTHux'B 
npeACiaBJiemfi RHasA Tpy6euRaro, Boennafl ROJEJieria, 5 ceHTa6pfl 
1733 roAa, npuRasajia oep^Taion^arocfl npn hom'b (|umreJiB-aA'BH)- 
laHTa RanHTaHCRaro panra IlBana Bei^Raro onpeA^^JiHTB bb yRasnoe 
no niTaTy hhcjio renepajiBCB-aA^ioTaHTOBi h 6firTB eny wb panrb 
MaiopcROHi roA^B, a no npomecTBin roAa vb nacTOHn^eirB n o a "b- 
nojnROBHEHBOMB B scajioBaHBe AaBaTB. (Cm. npnji. UI). Bei^- 

ROfi GUJTB npHBeAOHl RB npHCHI^ Bl 1734r0AyBB AOMOBOfi itepRBB 

RHflsfl TpySei^Raro. (cm. npHJio^ea. J£ III). 

IIpoAOJiscaa cjiys6y npn cboomi* oTui TpyCeuROMi, Bei^Rofi 
OABa JIH npHEHMajn ynacTie bi Boflnaxi BpenenB Ahhu loaHHOBHBi; 
no Rpafiaefi Mipt yRasanift na 3T0 nnrA'^ He BCTpiHaexca. Ohb 
noBHAHMOMy npe6£iBajiB bb MocRBi n nocin^aji'B HHorAa RaHreMHpa 

BoiiapeHie HMneparpHi^ii Aubu loaHHOBHii np. KopcaROBa cip. 259, 
280. A'bjo FocyA* ApxHBa J^ 6 paspaAB III ihcth 49, 54. 
*) Cm. npHjoseuie J\e III. 



— 17 — 

wh ero ooAMOCKOBHoifB HiiiHiH «HepHafl rpa8b», rsri 06% aroifir 
cam* ynoMnHajn bi> oahoitb juvl nvceirb CBonrb Kb HMnepaTpHi^ 
ERaTepHH^ n^). Bi 1734 roxy ceHTfl6pfl 5. BoAROft Skutb npo- 
H3BeAeH*B vb noAnojiROBHHKH. (cm. npHJiOHeme X lY). 

Earb cocTaBJieHBaro Ulyjibi^eM'B (Lebensbeschreibung des Prin- 
zen Ludwig Gruno von Hessen Homburg Eatwurf. Ernst Schulze- 
1882). jRHSHeonHcamfl npHHqa JIioABHra recceHT»-roH6yprcKaro 
BBAHO, HTO nocJit TopsBCTBeHHaro CpaROCOHeTaBk ero ci baoboio 
BBBSB EaHTeKHpa AeacTacieH) HBaHOBHOK) Tpy6ei^K0H) (t. e. ce- 
crpoH) BeuRaro), bii ^apajii 1738 r., HOBoGpanHue no'ixaJiH eh- 
sorBHTOsa rpaHHi](y ri poahtojibm'b repaora h cb hhm]i12 iiapra 
1739 r. notxajn h oberstlientenant Betzkoi, lientenant 
Enorring h nponifl JiHiia. Ohh nociiBJiH pasHUii liicTa FepHaHlH, 
xortJiH ixaTb Bi rojuiaHAiK) no Peftay na cy^ax'B, no otjiojrejih h 
qepeai JleftnusrL, Jl^pesAewb^ BepjiHHi^ noixajiH nosARO ocohbio 
o6paTHO Bi PocciH), npH ^eirb okojio IIlTOJiBne B^ IIom epaHlH eABa 
He norH6jiH otb cH^HOft MfliejiH. Moirho nojiaraxB, hto BeoRoft, 
KSKb Cparb HOBoCpa^HOft ci hbk) OTnpaBHBmiftcji, Bifibcrt coBep- 
majTE H BCK) nolsARy no FepMamH h Bepnyjicji ao nanajia 1 740 r. 
wb Pocciio. AajiBH^flrnHxi noApoCnocTeft nytemecTBla r. lUyjibi^ 
Ri coJsaJitHiio He cooCn^aen. 

Hociii HSBi^cTHaro nepOBopora, AOCiaBBBmaro npecTOJn ao- 
qepH IleTpa BeJiHRaro, EMnepaTpHi^i EjiHsanerb, BeuROft, no 
cJioBaiTb rpaij^a dpnecTa MHHHxa ^), HaB%CTHjrb $paHi](y8CRaro 
nocJia napRHsa lUexapAB, hto EjiHsaBOTa oinpaBJijarerb Kb rpa^y 
JteBenraynxy HapoHHaro HejiOB^Ra cb npeAJioaceHieirb nepeMHpin, 
npH ^eiTB rpa<j[>'b MHHinrb AoGaBJUieTB, hto ynoMHHaeMuft Bei^Roft 
ecTb Torb caMbifl, ROTopufl vb x^apcTBOBanie ERaiepHHu yHpeAHJii> 
sHaMeHBTBifl saBeABHiH. dronoRasaHlerpa^aMHHHxa, Bnoorai onpe- 
A^eHHoe, MOKerb xoJibRO cjiy^Hib AORasaTejibCTBOM'b; hto yace b'b 
dTO BpeMB Bei^ROft naxoAHJiCB wb HHCJit jihai Gjihsrhxi ro ABopy 



') Cm. HHCbMa Bei(Karo h HMnepaTpemj EsaTepEHM II- Pyccsaji Cra- 
pHHa 1896 roAa. HOii6p6 cxp. 409. HaxaHHUfl bi 1903 rojiy. MaTepiam xja 
6iorpa(i)iH kh. A. A* ftaHTeMHpa co6paBO A. H. MafiBoauMi h cBtxeHiiiMR 
H npHMiqanLiM H npo(t). AieKcaHApeHSO coxepsar'B na CTp. 179 h 188 iiHCbMa 
RaHTBHHpa HBi Qapaaa ei> BeuROMy vb 1743 ro^y^ He touko upeCEiBaHie 
fieiisaro b% PocciR vb 1843 roAy, ho h sHaKOiiCTBO ero ci KaHTeHHpoicL. Bto 
xe nocjiiAHee xaeTi ocHOBanie npexnoiaraTB ^to Rami RSB'ibcTHuft caTH- 
pHBi Mori noBiiATB Ha HaapaBieme yiicTBeHHaro pasBHTia fieusaro h na 
xapasTepi ero x'i^TeiBHOCTH. 

*) Pocciii H pyccRift ABop-B Bt nepBOfi noiOBRRt XVIII ctoi4tih sa- 
HHCKH rpa<|>a dpnecTa MnHRxa cip. 247 r 218. 

H. H. BEAKOft. 2 



10?>5^^ 



— 18 — 

HMnepaTpHou EjiBsaBeTu koho^ho He bi CHJiy JiflTOuxi CBOHX'b sa- 
cjiyrb BJiH AapoBaHifi, ho 6jiaroAapH TOiiy o6cToaT6JiLCTBy, hto 
eAHHORpoBHafl cecTpa ero, AnacTacifl HBanoBna recceHX-PoMCypr- 
CKafl, noJiBSOBaJiacb 6ojiBniHMi pacnoJioacemeirb hoboA HMnepaTpmifii. 
Heo6xoAHMo OAHaKO saMiTHib qio hhrto nsi npoHHxi> JIH^^, ocia- 
BBBmnxi HaATb 6ojiie hjih Menie hoapoGhua oHHcanla aToro nepe- 
Bopoia 1740 r., ne yRasuBaeTi noJiosHrejiiiHO na RaKoe jih6o 
ynacTie BeECRaroB'BdTOMii nepeBoport ^). TaRinanp. bii coBpeiieH- 
HHXi sanHCRaxi) MaHmTOfina hsa. Fjihhrh 1810 r. BOBce He yno- 
MHHaeTCfl BeoROiTB. HcxopHR'b FepiiaH'b « Hermann Geschichte 
des russischen Staates» (t. IV ct. 548 — 676), h anTopi «Merk- 
wurdiges Leben und trauriger Fall von 08termann»(cTp. 265 hcjAa. 
a TaRxe HSBicTHuft BioniHHrb bi> (Magazin fur die ueue Historie 
T. I CT. 27 H Anton Buschtung eigene Lebensgeschichte 1789 r. 
ApxHBi RH. BopoHAOBa T. 25 HSBjieHenie hsi sanHCORi BiomHHra 

CT. 45 H T. A.) OHHCHBa^ HOpeBOporb, ynOMHHaiOT'b tojibro hto 

nocjiaJiH yB^AOMHTb UleTapAH, ne osHaiaH Jinaa, Ha ro- 
Toparo dTO nopy^enie 6hjio BOSJioseHO.BaHAajiiB^) «e AoCaBJiAexB 
HTO 3To6HJi'b un gentllhoinme de la coiir (cTp, 140 t. I). 
BecBMa JiH)6onuTHO TaRse js,Jia Ciorpa^in Bei^Raro cooCn^enie 
canaro lUeTapAH oti> 7 A^RAOpa 1741 roAa rii Amojiio bi Ila- 
pH^i ^), Bi ROTopoMi) onncuBaH noApo6Ho coBepmHBmeeca bx 
neTep6yprl, UlexapAH roBopHrB Ha CTp. 633 «la princesee EUsa- 
bette m'envoya k trois heurcs du matin un frere natural de la 
princesse de Hesse Homburg... Elle Tenvoya dis-je pour m'ap- 
prendre que tout avait eu un pleinsucc6s. A 6 heures il revint 
cliarg6 de la part de cette princesse de me prier d6crire en Su6de 
et au comte de Loewenhaupt ce qui s'6tait passe et d6ngager ce 
dernier k suspendre les operations. Je marquai etre prdt h me 
conformer aux ordres de la princesse, que je soumettais cepen- 
dant ik son jugement. 



yaoMAHeifi TEKse hto Bi HcTopiH PocciH G. M. CoiOB&eBa t. XXI 
€Tp. 148—165 H 217—212 lA* noApo^HO onHCUBaercA aiorB nepeBopOTi h 
jKasuBaiOTCA JlH^a, yAOCToeHHua uarps^u sa OKasaHHoe umh coA'&ftCTBie, 
BOBce ne yaoHHflaeTca hmh BeuKaro h o tomi ^o 00% Cux'h HarpasAeei. 
MexAT T^Hi Bi HSAaBaeMOMi r. d4>poHOM'B Bai^DiLioueAHiecRGM'B CioBapi 
noAi peAasuieH) npo^). AHApeescKaro t. III,roBopHTCfl hto 24H0fl6pfll741 r. 
Bei^Boft 6hj[i 6e80TJiy^HO upa rocyAapuH's u nojiyviii'b on nee op- 

AC HI**. Ho KaKOfi BMeHHO OpABR'b 66 yKasuBaeTCA. 

•) Louis XV et Elisabeth de Russia par Albert Yandai 1882. Paris. 
^) C6opHHK'B HMoepaiop. Pyccsaro HcTopnH. 05mecTBa t. 98 ctp. 633 

S CJliA- 



— 19 — 

Cip. 634. Le mfeme, M-de BetzKy ne tarda point a revenir 
pour m'instruire que la princesse souhaltcrait que je ue perdisse 
pas un moment i depecher im courrier... 

Cxp. 235. SailHi HOBaa Aapnaa nomejiajia ysnaTB bi 2 laca 
nonoJiyAHHy ^to a AynaiD o npeAOCToposcHOCTax'B RaKia cjriAjeTi 
npHHflTB OTHOCHTeJiBHO coo6n;eHiH Bi HHOcipaHEBia rocyAapcTsa 
H3B%CTia BocmecTBiH ea na npeciojii. H nonpocHJiii, roBopHrB 
nierapjiH, rpa^^a Bei^Raro (le comte BetzRoi) CRasaTb efl hto 

CHHTaK) nOJieSHHMB A^H ea CJiyxbu, HTOdl EHOCipaHHHe MHHHCipfil 

uorJiB OTupaBHTB RypBepoBi CBOHXi, jiEmB nocji% Toro KHKb ea 
KypBepu MorjiH 6ii cooCn^nTB nepByio b^tb aa rpaHHitefi o tomb 
«iTO npoHsomjio... 

Cxp. 63^. M. de-BetzKoy vint & 6 heures du soir m'avetir 
que la czarine m'attendait t. e. Beii^ROft npudujiB kg uni bi mecTB 
qacoBB Boiepa cb yB^AOMJieHfeifB hto rocy^apEiHa Meaa oacHAaerB. 
3x0 onHcauie c^ ojuoft cxopouH pHcyexB to yTOCxie, Roxopoe BeaKOfi 
HBi'&Ji'B BB nepeBopoxb; ohb noBHjinMOMy cjiyacnjiB tojibro b^cthh- 
ROM-B AJiA nepeAaHH UlexapAH npHRasauift HunepaxpHAu nocjii 
coBepmHBmaroca nepeaopoxa h 6ojiie HH^ero. Cb Apyroft cxopoHU 
BeaKofl, HB CMOxpa na 6jih3ocxb rb JiK)6HMni^ hoboS H&rnepaxpHi^i, 
upHHi^eccrb recceHxToMdyprcRofi, 6biji'b xaRB Majio en^e nss'lcTeHT) 
caMii H Bi BBTcmeMi Rpyry b caMony UlexapAHy ixo ceft uocjiij[E\1i, 
ooHXH Ha oAHOft H xoA JRB cxpauBi^i HasHBaexB ero xo fils na- 
turel, xo comte BetzRoy, Me3RAy xtM'B RaRB Ben;Roft hh- 
R r A a rpa^OM^ ue 6uji'b. 

BcRopt OAuaRO Bei^KOfi yAOCxomiCH noearo snaRa Buconaftmaro 
Ri ueny 6jiaroBOJi*HiH. 12 ^espajia 1741 r. *) Bei^ROft, eme bb 
^zni noAHOJiROBHHRa, 6ujib noxajioaaHx bb RaiieprepH rb ero 
HMoepaxopcROMy BHConecxBy repn;ory FojiraTHHCROMy, npHCuBraeMy 
B-B RanecTBt aacjiiAHHRa npecxojia b^ nexepCypn* bb 1741 roAV 
n CRopo BCTynHBraeiiy bb 6paR^ ci npiiHi^eccoK) AH^aJIBT^ Il^epCcT- 
CROK), 6yAym;eK) HMnepaxpHaeio ERaxepHHoio 11. 3to HasHaqeme, 
no Bcefi BipoaxHOCXH, Busaano 6Brjio ne jinquuMH sacJiyraMn Bea- 



*) Uo KELurk r. BoJittOBa -Jteopi pyccKiixi HMnepaTopoB'B hi ero nponuoMi 
fi BacTOfliaeui 19C0 r. CTp. 135, fieuaofi cA'^Jiaai A^ftcTBHTeiBBBiMi xau- 
ireprepoH'B bi 1742 ro^y 12 (JeBpaia ki BeiHKOMy KHflaro ne ipj 8 e;xo- 

pOBHHy, BMtCTfe Cb CapOHOM-L JlflJlieHCteJlWOMTi n BOBSHHCKlIir'*- "' "^'h 

jeft6i-KyHepoMi.— MexAy T'bwh bi -ApxEBt IIpaBUTejiBCTByro 
H3j^aHB0MB r. BapaHOBaM-B t. Ill, J\£ 8790, noM-hmeHT. yK» 
1742 r. o HaBHa^eHin ao.iKOBHURa HBana Beusaro KaMnep 
Eopoji. BUCo^ccTBy repuory FoJiinTiiHCKOMy. 



— 20 — 

Raro, a sHaieHieiii npH jifiopi AHacTaclH, npHHueccu FecceHi- 
roM6yprcKO&,HJRejiaHleM'b HunepaTpHi^u OKasaib BHnMaHie npecra- 
p'fejiOMy ^eJiBAMapmajiy Tpyfiei^ROHj. 3to no6yABJio HamoRHHa bt> 
ero sanncRaxi cKasaTB, hto BeuRoft no sHaxHOCTH CBoero OTua 
Aomejii, He nici^ hi cjiy»6i HHRaRHxi sHaiHuxi ORasift, ao He 
Majiaro ^HHa (cip. 95 h cji'^aO- Tpa^'b se A. 11. BecTyxeBi dh- 
cajii HSTi Ilapfl^ca orb 1 coht. 1742 roxaRii rpa^y M. JI. BopoH- 
i^OBy, ((opaBAa mh% 6hjio 6u npiaTH'be ejROJiH 6u Moft CfirHi 6hiJVb 
no»ajioBaHT» Eh HifnepaTopcRaro BejinqecTBa RanepiOHRepoirB hjib 
npH ero RopoJieBCROHi) BUCO^ecTBi, a^ ho BecBMa 6h xyaie 
6iiJn> 6ei]iRaro» ^). 3th CJioaa jifljorb ocHOBaaie saRJiioHHTB^ 
HTO HasHaqeeie Beii^Raro RaneprepoirB ri ero BHCO^ecTBy abjihjiocb 
Hesacjiy^eHHBiM'B ci> ero CTopoHu, a b'b BB^b oco6oft mhjiocth, h 
<iTO ApyriH jLEUfi^ 6yAyqH He xy»ce ero, mrbjm TaRoe 3Re npaBO na 
noAoCHyio Harpa^y. 

KaRi 6bi to hh 6ujio, ho noAo6Hoe HasHaneHie CTaBHJio Bei^- 
Raro Bi 6jiB3Roe cooTHomeHie cnepsa ch HacJiiAHHROirB pyccRaro 
npecTOJia, a sarlii'B h cb ero cynpyroio. 

B'B HSAaHHUxi Raicep'B-^ypBepcRHX'B ^ypnajiaxi* hma Bei^Raro 
BCTpinaeTCfl b'b nepBufl pasi 25 anp. 1743 r. Ha CTp. 9, RorAa 
Ha oG^Ai, AftHHOMi no cjiyqaio RoponoBanlA HMnepaTpHOH, Ka- 
u e p i-r e p i Bemcoft ctobjul sa CTyjiOMi ero HicnepaTopcRaro bu- 
co^ecTBa neTpa OeoAopoBH^a. Ilocjit dToro hhh ero ne BCTptnaeTca 
B^ Ranep'B-^ypBepcRBX'B jRypnajiax^ ao 1745 roAa. Ho 3to ho 
AaerB en^e ocnoBanlH npoAnoJiaraTB, a t^m-b Menibe yTBopsRAaTB, 
HTO owb naxoAHJiCfl b'b bto apeHa b^ oTcyxcTBin hsi* neTep6ypra 
HJiH Aa:Re PocciH. HanpoTHBi Toro, HifiiOTCfl noJioacHTOJiB- 
HHfl yRasanifl, hto BeAROft naxoAHJica wb 3to apeMfl b'b PoccIh. Hs- 
BicTHO, HTO B'B 1744 TOAy npH6BiJia B'B MocRBy npHHuecca Ah- 
rajiBTB £lep6cTCRaH loanHa-EjiHsaBeTa cb AO^epBK), cb RoxopBum 
BeoRoft HOOAHORpaTHO BHAiJiCH, RaR'B 8T0 CBEA^TeJiBCTByerB cana 
HiinepaTpeiiia ERaTepnea b-b cbohxi BanncRax'B^) (cTp. 18). A 
Moscou ma mfere sattacha fort intimement au prince et k la prin- 
cesse de Hesse-Homburg et plus encore au fr6re de celle-ci le 
charabellan Betzky. Cette liaison d6plaisait ilacomtesseRoumian- 
zoff, au raarechal Brummer et k tout le monde». Sarim* Aanie, 



') ApXHBl KHH8JI BopoHi^OBa KHHra 2-a CTp. 4. 

') Memoires de I'lmperatrice Catherine, 6crites par elle m6me Londres. 
Cm. Tasse ucTopiBO uapcTBOsaHiA EKaTepHBiiII— r. £niB()acoBaT. I, ct. 29;— 
5pnKHep'B B'b PyccKeH-b BicTHHRt 1683, ^ 1, CTp. 218. 



— 21 — 

onHCKiB&fl no^ARy h3i Mockbh bi» Kiesi, EKaiepHHa II ^) Ao6a- 
Bjuierii «toate cette affaire yenait de ce qu'on n'ayait pas mis 
Betiiky et les Troabetzkoy, en qui ma m6re avait plus de confiauce, 
du voyage de Eiew». R'b 8T0My npeOuBaHiio loansBi EjiraaBeiu 
AHT&Ji&rb I](ep6cTCK0ft wb Mocrb% hojokbo OTHecTH H Hanaio Ojihs- 
Koft en CBasH cb B&ajsmtb (saRi noApoOno yse HSJiosenor. Brjul- 
(SacoBUMi ^), He HHismeft OAHaRO, noBHXHMOMy, HSRaRoro aoiaHia 
Ha x&JiBHiftmee cjiyjReCHoe uonpim^e Beipcaro, icaRi 8To Gyxerb 
yRaaaHo BnocjrbxcTBiH. 

lips TopaRecTBeHHOifb CpaROcoHeraHiH aeauiRaro rhasji Iletpa 
OeoAopoBHHa 21-ro anpijia 1745 r. ch npHHAeccoio AnrajiBTi 
I](ep6cTCKOio, xoTfl npHcyiCTBie Bemcaro h ne ynoiumyTO nojioaRH- 
lejiBHo wb Kauuep^ypBepcROiTB sypHaJii 1745 r. (ci. 52), ho 
HHHTO He npenflTCTByerB AonycTHiL, hto ohi 6ujrb wb hhcjot^ npo- 
HExi RaMMeprepoBi», o ROTopHxi ynoMHHaeTCA bi § 100 osHaneH- 
Haro onffcanifl, rbwb 6ojr&e, hto HeMHoro WLirbe npH onHcamH 6bib- 
maro wb toti aohb npH ABopi Caoia nojiojRBiejiBHG CRasaHO, 
qro vb leiBepTofi RaApBJin ero CBiTJuocTH npHHi^a ABrycTa y^acT- 
BOBaJTB RaBajrepi BeAROfl (cip. 80 sypnajia). 

ynoManeiTB npn btoitb, hto bi Hucjii Hejio6HTeHB, npeACxaBJueH- 
EUTb npH TopsecTBeHHoft CBaAB6i HacjitAHHKa npecTOJia 6buio h 
npomenie npHHi^a recceH'B-roH6yprcRaro o tomi, hto6u noxcajio- 
saTB eny AenerB na pacnjiaiy aojitobb, h ^to6u IlBani Bei^ROft 
npoTHBi npoHEXi Bi» panrl^ ne nonecB oGhaii h no khjiocth b^ 
o6in^kHiH ocTaBJieH'B ne 6ujrB ^). 

Ilocjrl 6paR0C0HeTaHifl CBoefl AonepH caua repi^orHHJi AnrajiBrB- 
I(ep6cTRafl BCRop'b yixajia hsi PoccIh, 28 ceHTflGpa 1745 r., 
nocjit o6tAft y HiinepaTpHipi EjiHsaaeTii, npoBOAHBmefl ee ao 
RpacHaro Cejia. HoBoSpaHHue se npoBOsajiH ee ao KacRoaa. toitb 
se HTo6u ee npoBOxajTBBeiiRofiHdi asypnajia He bhaho h h'&tb Hmca- 
RHxi* AdHHuxi, MoryntHXB noATBepAHTB noAo6Hoe npeAnoJioseme. 
HanpoTHB'B Toro, bhaho ^to Bei](Roft ocTasajicfl bi neTep6ypr% no 
iipexHeMy, EcnpaajiHJi'B cboh oOasaHHOCiH RauMeprepa npn 
ABop^ H bcji'^^actbIh dToro BCip'lqaji'B npn BxoAib 3b aHTHRaM- 
vepy Il^ecapcRaro pnifCRaro MEHHCipa npn ero npeACTaBJieniH 
Bxi) BejiHiecTBaHi) 8 Maa 1746 roAa, RaRB o^b 8tomb b yno- 



*) TaMB xe CTp. 24, 25. 

') La princesse Jeanne Elisabeth >par Bilbassoff. 1889 p. 

^) Cm. nsAaHie XVIII bIirb BapieHesa bb. 2, CTp. 229. 



H CJE'bA. 



— 22 — 

MiiHyTo B-L KaMMep'b-^yP^^PCKO^'^ »ypHaji'& cip. 60. IIpeffB ca- 
Moft ayAeHAieio BCTp']^Hajii> MHHHCTpa o6epi>-RaHMeprep'b Bepx- 
roJiBm. SarliTB hmh Bemearo scTpiHaeTOi hi AonojmnreJiBHOft 
BiAOMOCTH 'iHHax'b npHABopHaro mTaTa Ero BuconecTBa HacjitA* 
HHKa npecTOJia h ero cynpyrH. Bjcicrt ci nerpoMi GyicapoKO- 
BUin>, J[HJiieH^BAOirB, ^HRepoM'B, rpacj^oiTB IleTpoMi JifiBiepowby 
Hb. Hb. Bei^Kofi cocTOHJi'B KaMHeprepoM'b Ero Bhco- 
HecTBa, noJiy^afl ^cajioBaHBfl iHCA^y pyOJiet bi toa'b. 
06ep'B-KaMi£eprepoif'B 6hjii> BepxrojiBa'B, ro^'B-HeAHROMi Kapjrb 
BypraBeH-B (t. e. Boerhave) a BTopBiMt jieftCi-MeAHKOMi — Ph- 
Seftpo-CaHmecB (cm. KaMM. $yp- 1748 r., cxp. 98— 138^), ci 
KOTopHMH BeARofi H MOPb Tor^a RopoTRO c6jiH8HTbCfl. IIlTan Ma- 
jiaro ABopa 6hijn> ho bojihri, coctoajtb nsi juojsfii nocpeACiBeH- 

HUXl, Cb He BUCOREMH yMCTBeHHUMH A^pOBaHlaMH H, HO CJlOBaM'b 

II]|e6ajiBCRaro, nsii cpeAH hxi BujckuHJicH Beusoft ^). — He 
yAHBHTOJiBHO, HTO Bjia^'^^ xopomo ^paeityscRHMi H HiMei^RnM^ 
iisHRaMH H He Majio y^e BHA^Bniift bi panHeft mojeoaocth, Bei^Roft 

MOFB H Bl TO BpeMfl 6b1TB HHTepeCHHMX C06eC%AHHR0MB JSflA BOJIH- 

ROfl RHHrHHH, o6paTHBme& TorAa na Hero CBoe BHHHame, npeA- 
noHTHiejiBHo npeA^B npoHHMH JiHi^aifH BeJiERORH^^ecRaro ABopa. 

3to laRi CRasaiB snaROMCiBO ERaTepHHu II cb Bei](RHMi» b^ 
dTH roAU noATBepscAaeTCH BnoJiHi rtMi irbciOMi ea AHOBHHRa, b^ 

KOTOpOM^B, OEHCBIBafl HOCilDieHle RHH8A FoJIHAUHa Cb CJU^JTOfO H 

Bei^RHMi> OpaHieH6ayMa, npeA'B hxi orBisAOMi sa rpaHHi^ B7» 

1756 roAy^ ERaTepana Ao6aBJifleTB: cc'etaient des ancieunes 
connaissauces que la princesse Galitzine et Betsky; je 
tachais de les recevoir de mon mleux k OranieDbaum. Bupasenie 
anciennes connaissauces, oneBHAHo, yRasiiBaeTB Ha npeac- 
Hee snaROMCTBO ex Boi^rhmi, HecpaBueHHO pauie He tojibko atoro 

1757 roAa, ho h 1747 roAa, xaRX RaRiBei^Roft pasA'iJiHJi'B yqacTB 
npoHnxi npH6jiH2ceHHHX'B jui^h Majiaro ABopa h CujiI) yxe yAaaieHi 
Bi 1747 roAy otb IIoTpa III h ERaiepHHu no npoHCRaMi Becxy- 
a:eBa (cm. Historisches Taschenbuch 6 Folge). 



*) 3aM']^THM'B npH dTOH'b HTO, EaHHep'b-<i)ypBepcRift sypHaii sa 1747ro;ii> 
He HSAaHib BOBce, sa HecoxpaHeHieH'B ero opurHHajia. 

*) GTaxBA nEKaiepHHa saR'B nncaTeji&HHi^a''—(sypHaii „3apfl^ 1869 roj^a, 
CTp. 125). UpH dTOM'B III,edaj[BCEifi Ao6aBJfleT%: ^BeiiKofi nocjitAOBaTejB 
<|)paHay3CKHX'B ryHaHHCTOB'B, ho owl no^evy to 6hiJL'b HeiK)6Hii'B EsaTepH- 
HOK) IP.— SaM'^naniA 9th, BtpHHa no cymecTBy, OTHOCATCfl toibkoki ^03;^- 
HtfimaHi TOAaii^B A^ATeiBHOCTu BeuBaro, a nnKaBi He ko BpeueBH cjiyse- 
Hia ero npn ABopt ero BBicoiecTBa IleTpa OeoAopoBuqa. 



— 23 — 

nojioseme EKaTepsHH II nps ji^eopi, KaKi HSB-icTHO, 611IJ10 
oHeHB saTpyAHHTejibHUM'B H TArocTHUMij noTOMy HTO Kb Heft Bpanc- 
A66ho OTHOCHJica rjiaBHuS pyKOBo;(HTejib cyAeCi PoccIh bi> to apeji^, 
BceHoryn^ft KaeuJiep'b BecTyKOBii, KOTOpufi, ea nepsKDCB nopaxi, 
He BanioCBJii EKaxepHHy xojibRo noxoHy hto, ona 6ujia AOiepBio 
B^TpeHHOft loraHHU EsHsaBeTH, tbx,% HeociopojRHO BucTynHBineft 
BO rjiaBi BparoBi KaHipepa. Beciy^ceBi 6uji'b CesnoiuaAeH'L wb 
OTHomeHiE cbohxi BparoBi. BocTopacecTBOBaBi HaAi> bcImh npo - 
HCKaMH RHflFBHB II,ep6cTCKofty OHi pasSHJTB H pasueTaji'B BCK) npyc- 
CRyH) napriK) npn ABopi EjuisaBeru. IIpeAnoJiaran, nTO 6utb ho- 
JKOTB BejOHRaa RH^rHBH ERaiepHHa saflMen npn noTepCyprcROHi 
ABop% HeJtOBRyK) H ABycMucjieHHyK) poJiB CBoeS MaxepH, Eeciy^eBi 
npiEHiaJTb npoTHBi ERaxepHHu p^Ai* HpesBKiqaflno yMHO oCAynan- 
Hux'B MipB npeAOCToposHocTH, ORpy^uiJi'b ee cinio cbohx'b npn- 
BopsoHi^eB'B, BBOJiHi JDOimaBiaHX'b ERaiepHHy bchroA bosmojkhocte 
yqaciiH b^ noJiHTHR^, nopyHEjit eaAsop-b sa Ra»AUM% ea maroM^ 
CBOHEi* npeAaHHHHi RJieBpeiaMi e coheheji'b Bb 1746 r. esb'^^ct- 

HyKl HHCipyRIUK) SHaiHOfiAaMU. IIpH dTOBfB, ROHe^HO, BC^ 6UB- 

mie paeie axoro npE6jiE»eHHUME Kb BOJiERORHHacecROMy ABopy e 
cocTasiiflBmie Rpyn 6j[iEJRafiniEXi co6ec%AHflROBi RaRi bojiek. 
RHiiBH Ilerpa GeAopoBE^a, laRi e ero cyspyni 6ujie Bci yAajieHU 
OTB ABopa, RaKi to: cnepsa 5piOHMepi>, BepxroJiLi^'B e RaEepAEHop'B 
PoM6epn> Bi» cpoAEHi 1745 r., saxibMi rpa^ii BaxTMeflcTepi* 6wi'b 
OTnpaBJieH^ bt» FoJimTEHiK) bi 1746 roAy. TpyCeuRift e ^orjio- 

ROBa, pOSABBHaH rpa^HEH FeHApEROBa, JSflJiSKBhl 6UJIE He UOREAaTB 

BejiHRyK) RHArEHK) E AOHOCETB RaHipepy BcoHi ^), HTO osa A^aerb. 
Bi 1747 r. yAaaeHU ABa RaMicep'B-iOHRepa: BEJiJie6ya a TaRSce 
^epHBinieBi; RaMMeprepii JIjeBBepi) — nepeseAeKB wb apMiio. RpoH'& 
Toro fiujii noAHEcaHi HMnepaxpEAefi EjiEsaBeroft yRasi GenaTy 061^ 
yBOJiBHenifl otb cJiyjK6Bi Ero Hm. BucoiecTaa, KaMneprepa HBaea 
Bei^Raro no npomenlio, sa yHHoacEBmEMECA 6oJii3HflME e cjia6ocTBK) 
3AopoBBfl,ci HarpaacAeHieii'B qEaa renepaji'B-Maiopa^). 
TaREiTB ofipasoiTB E BeniKoft 6hjii yAajreHi) oxl BejiERORH^mecRaro 
ABopa B-B 1747 roAy. 



M Cm. Hermann Historisches Taschenbuch 6 folge I jafarg. ct. 293. 

') Cm. Apz. KH. BopoHiiOBa, k. 6, ct. 259, AHeeHHK'B AORjaA. BoiJier. 
Hhoct. fiM'h. TaKse bb ApxHBt Upas. CeeaTa HSxaaHOMB r. BapaaoBHMB 
T. Ill noAB J^ 9700 noM'J^meBB HMAHHOfi ysasB 7 ceHTii6pA 1747 roxa 06% 
yBOiBBeaiH otb cj7s6u h ^osaJOBaHieM^ bb reHepaJB-Maiopu A'^ftcTBH- 
TejLBaro saMMeprepa bcj. kb. Ilerpa $eoAopoBH?a— HBaea BeuRaro. Cm. 
ApxBBB Mopcsaro MHSHCTepcTBa.— Cm. Apx. Mopes. Miihiict. — yKasn Ce- 
Bata BB AAMHpajT. Eoiieriio^ l^ 15, cxp. 277. 



— 24 — 

dxHMi jAajieaieMi oCiacHJieTCfl to, hto bi» AomeAinHxi xo 
Hacb OHHcaHiflxi ABopa Ileipa III (Rasi-TO M^molres de Hordt) 
HH pasy UMH ero He ynoMEHaeicji. IIomhmo aToro wh npoAOJOKeHui 
1749, 1750, 1751, 1752 roAOBi, a TaKHe 1754 no 1763 roAa 
lK)Hii 28 (cTp. 126) nam Bemuiro he paay ho scrpiHaeTCH h vl 
RaMicep'b-^ypbepcRflz^ sypnajiaxi, HOAaHHUX'B sa aio Bpeiu. Tojiuu) 
oTMtHeHO wb :RypHaJiaxx: 1753 roAa, crp. 38, tto 8 iiojifl cEa 
BeJiEHecTBo HSBOJiHJia npH6uTb bt> 5 lacy bb BocRpeceHCRlft iio- 
HacTHpb, Bi nocTaBJieHHut JiarepB bt» ly^ Bepcrt, npH ^ein» vh 
CBHTi aaxoAHJiacB CB^TJiiftmaH RHAniHa recceHii-rotf6yprcKafl, a 
TaK^e IlBaHB HBanoBH^'b Bei^Roft; Bcixi 6um 42 nejioBiica h bb 
sypHajr6 1754 roAa, CTp. 17, hto: «^BpaJUi 6 ahh bi MocRsi 
npoHcxoAHJio npH ABopi 6paR0C0HeTaHie rpa^a AnpaRCHHa ci 
(j^peftJiHHOK) Hry^iHHCROK) H Ha CBaAe^HOMi o6iAi ^^opniHeftAOpox'b 
6ujn» y AnpaRCHHa RaioieprepB 6eipu)ft». 3a HCRJUOHeHieici aroro 
He6ojii>maro nepepuBa (1753 — 1754 roAa)BeitRoft wb npoAOouRe- 
hIh A^iHHHaro pflAa toaob'b, yRasaHHUx'b Bume, ho ynacTBOBaJTb bb 

npHABOpHOfl JRH3HH HMQepaTOpCRarO ABOpa, He HaXOAHJICA BB CTO- 

jiHi^'), anojiBsyjiCb BucoqaflmHMi paspi^meHieM'b ixaTB jt^a Hane- 
lemH R'B leojiuirb BOAaH'B % npe^HBaJii sa rpaHBi^eio bb paaHurb 
Miciax'b AO 1762 roAa, RorAa 6ujib BUSBani b% neiepCyprb oco- 
euifb HHCbMOMi Hiinepaiopa Ileipa UI, nesaAOJiro npoAB bthmb 
BCTyoHBmaro na BcepocciflCRift npecT0Jii^).~-0 npeOKiBaHia Bea- 
Raro sarpaHHAeio coo6n;HU'L HicROJibRo noApo6Hle bi cjrbAyion^eft 
rjiaBi, a lenepb CRajReni tojibro, ^to bi aiorb nepioAi* BpeHOHH Cb 
1748 no 1762 roAi) BeKROfl JuimHJiCH HaBcerAa MHoraxii CjmsRHX'b 
eMy JSHU'b, ROTopuMi owb He Majio 6hijrb o6fl8aHi> bi Hanajd^ caoero 
cjny^eCnaro nonpHu^a. TaRi arb 1750roAycROH?aJicanpecTapiJiHt 



') BxyMii vb CBoeMi co^HHeniH ^Ein russisches Staatsmanns des Graten 
lakob lohan Sievers-DenkwHrdiffkeiten" 1875 t. II, ct. 20, roBopHTi o Beor 
BOMi, HTO nErst im fUnfzehnten lahre sah er Rdssland. erhielt im y^terlichem 
Hause eine sorgf^tige Erziehung and bildete sich ant Reisen welter aas. Als 
general Migor machte er die FeldzQge in Preussen mit''. HeesBiiCTBO 
na Hewb 9to ocHOBaHO. Hsi* H3202BeHHaro bi BHHri Bjiyiia ipyABO csaaaTb, 
BUCKaauBaeTi ih axo cam Biym uih CHBepci. 

*) Bb MocKOBCBBxii Bt^ouocTJixi 1756 r. OTT> 13 ABrycia J^ 32 Bane- 
^aTBHO 1I3B G.'neTep6ypra otb 5 asrycTa. •££ BeiH^ecTBO HSBOiHia yBO- 
iBTb Ha roA'b AJA leieaiA kb TeniBAaMB niTaTCB-xaMy EKaTepHHy JHuur- 
pieBH} FoiHiiuHy, a Tasxe reBepaii-icaiopa HsaHa HBaHOBHia Beusaro, so- 
Topue BqepaiBBflro HBCja h notzaJiu''. 

*) XoTfl Beasift h HaxoxHicji bi ornycKy, ho hhcihich na cJiya6t. 
Bb chhck'^ nepBuxi hbth KJiaccoBB npHABopHuxi ihhobi neTep6yprcKaro 
ABopa AG 1758 F., Bi HHcit leHepajB-MaiopoBB noKasaH'b nepBUMB MBaHB 

BeAKOft (cm. ApXEBl KB. BopOHHOBa KH. 6, CTp. 208) 



— 25 — 

^eJUBAMapmaJii rhasb 1/lBm'b K)pBeBHHi»Tpy66ii;R0ft^), a sarlMiai 
1757 ro^y H jif)Hh ero AHaciacifl HeaHOBHa (6uBmaH cnepBa sa 
KHflseM^ KaHTetfipoMi), a BnocjrlxcTBlH sa npEHA6Ui» FecceH'b-roM- 
6yprcRHMi>), o^eHB mhofo h nociOHUHO noKpoBHTeoibCTBOBaBiiiaa 
BeaROMy, Roxopufi 6uj[i oneHb r^ nefi npHBHsani). Bt> fianaji'b 
1760 roAa ynepjia sarpaBHueio h aoib en otb nepBaro 6paRa 
ERaxepHHa ^MHTpieBHa, 6fiiBinafl sanyseirb sa RHJi8ein> AMHTpieMi> 
MHxafijiOBHHeiii roJiHmmoHi, wb ofin^ecTB^ ROTopuxiBeii^Roft h 
ornpaBHJicfl sa rpaHHiQr bi 1756 ro^y. 

Bi saRjiioieHiH aroft rjuBu CHHTseMi He JiHrnHHifB CRasaib 

BiCROJIBRO CJlOWb JIHI^ail>, ROHUl BeKKOfi Hon 6UTB 06A8aHl> Bl 

sHaHHTeJiBHoft cieneHs cboem^ ABHXceBieMi no cjiyx6i — ABHseHleiTB, 
B036yABBiiiHirB jiflxe saBECTB, RaRii MH BHA^E, — a EueHBO ofii ero 
omi RHflsi HBasi lOpBesHHt Tpy6eiiR0M% e AonepE ero, RpoBHOft 
cecTpi BeiQiaro, AnacTaciE HBBHOBfli Tpy6ei](R0fi, 6yAynieft repKO- 
FEHE FecceB'B-roHCyprcROft. 

IIoTOMORi ApoBHflro 6oHpcRaro poAa,npoflcxoABmarooTBBHyRa 
FexHUEBa KopE6yTa, (b% Rpen^eHlE Ai<s>^7pift OjiBrepAOBH^'B rhasb 
CtBepcRiB, Tpy6qeBCRifi e BpaHCRift), rhasb HBaHi K)pBeBE^i 
poAEJica 18 aarycxa 1660 r.^). Hiita 16 jAtb, oh-b Ohjh noxa- 
jiOBaei i](apeMii OeAop'B AjieRcbeBEHeM'b wh ROicBaTy,a bi 1667 — 
CTOJiBBEROMi. l[&£pb I saHECJiEJTb ero Bi> Jieft6i IIpeoCpaseHCRid 
noJiR^ EMI yqpesAeHHBifi e noxcaJiOBajii ero bi 1692 r. BiiGoHpe, 
Bi» 1693 r. B'B RanEiaHU, a bi cjiiAyion^eu'B 1694 roAy bi hojirob- 
HERE ). IIojKBsyacB noBBAEMOMy AOcribpieMi i^apA, TpyCeiXRifi nojiy- 
HEJii npERasanle em^^tb HaAsopi sa i^apeaHOfi Co^ieio, npE saRjiio- 
HeniE efl wh Mockobcromb JI^'lBE^Beiii MOHacTup'b, OTRyAa CTpijiBi^u 
meiHO nuTaJiflCB ee ocbo6oaetb cejiok), npE ^ewh Tpy6ei^Klfi eAsa 
He JiflmEJucii »E8HB. B'B 1698 r. ohb 6uji^ npoESseAeHB bi rene- 

paJKl-MaiOpH E HaSHaneHB BCKOp^ HoBFOPOACREMI* HaMtCXHHKOlirB. 

BeJiERafl ci^BepHafl BOftsa 1700 roAa npEBOJia ero cb BoficRaMB 



^) Cm. SanHCBH HaiuosHBa, ct. 95, laKse McTopifl j.-fb. npeo6paseH- 
csaro nojsa rr. ^HHcpHHa h AojiroBa, t. I, ct. 594. 

') Cm. BaHTum'B-KaiieBCRifi— Gj[obs4)b AOCTonaM. jinAeft, i. Y, ct. 160; 
Eiusb AoiropysoBi— PoccificKaa poAOCJiOBeafl Kaare, t. 1 ct. 321. IIo cio* 
BaM'fc I . IIeTpoBa--HcTopifl poAOBi pyccsaro ABopflHCTsa t. I, ct. 179. Tpy- 
CeKKifi poAHica 18 Idhx 1667 r. BoeBHO-dannsion. GiOBapb 1857, t. Xll, 
B3A- 2.^BeftAeMefiep'b^ABopi u saMtqaTejBBHe idau bi Pocciu XYIU 
CToiirifl. — Kapa6oflOBa— Pyccsifi ABoptBi XVIII CTOJitTia.— 3anHCBHrpa<t)a 
MsBBxa 1874 r., ct. 153. 

^) Cm. HcTopifl j.-TB. npeo6paseBCBaro nojKa -rr. ^nnepsHa h Ao 
roBa, H. IV, npuj. ct. 219. 



— 26 — 

BT> Hapsy, Tjiib nocjii HeciacTHaro jiflB Haci cpaxenlA 19 HOflfipa 
KHflSB Tpy6ei^Kifi, y ROToparo bi> to Bpeiffl HesaAOJiro npeAi> dTim 
pooflJiacB AOHB AHaciaclH, ot^ BToparo ero 6paKa ci HpHHOio FpH- 
ropBeBHOEO HapumKHHOK)^), 6ujn> eaarB hi nji^Hi, Bn'bcrbcb Apy- 
rHMH renepajiaMH ^) h oinpasjieH^ b-b UlBei^iH), Ry^a npHGBUia co 
BpeMeeeM'B r'b Heiiy h ero cynpyra. Bi dTOMi> njitey, npoAOJUKaB- 
meuca orojio 1 8 JitrB, oh'b npHSHjii ce6% nesaROHHaro cuea Hb. 
Hb. BeuRaro '). Ilpn saRJiioieHiH HnniTaATCRaro MHpa 1721 r., 
KOTopuM'B saKOHHHJiacB BBJiHRaa cfeopuaH BOllHa, Tpyfiemeoft 6ujrB 
pasM^HeHii Ha renepaji'B-^ejiBAMapmaJia PeHniHJiBxa ^), BsaTaro b'b 
njitHi Bi IIoJiTaBCKOfi 6e[tb%, BosBpaTEJECA Bi AeRa6p% 1718 r. 

B'B PoCCilO H Sa CBOH 17-TH JI^THm cTpaffaHlfl HpOHSBeAeFB IleTpOH'B 

BejiBKHM'B b:b renepaji'B-jiefiTeHaHTu 1 bub. 1719 roja. Hpesi 
TpH Mlcfli^a OHi) 6hji'b HaseaneKB ROMaHxyiomHMii RaBajiJiepiflCRHira 
noJiRaMH Ha yKpa&ni, a npH npasAHOBaHin saRJno^eHln HHpa 
nponsBBAeH^ 28 HHBapa 1722 r. wb r6HepaJii>-aHnie$u, cxbjihwb 
HJieHOMi* BoeHHOfi KojiJieriH h nocJianB b'b RIbbi ryfiepHaTopoiTBy 
Tjx^ TpyfieuKOft npo6HJi'B o^naRO ne AOJiro. Oh-b b-b 1723 r. OTRa- 
sajica OTB CBoeft aojurhocth h auiJix Ha otabix'6 bi* Mocrb%, tji^ 
ysHaji'B ROHqHHib BejiBRaro npeodpasoBaTeJiH Poccin, BHyRi roto- 
paro, HOJiOAOft HnnepaTop'B IleTpi II, npH cboch'b RoponoBaniH, 
BOSBejn Tpy6ei^Karo 25 4)eBp, 1728 r. bi sBanie renepaJn-^e-iBa- 
Mapmajia. Ohi npo^HBaJiii b'b Mocrb'6 h nojiy^ajii KajiOBaHBe re- 
nepajiBCKoe no 3120 p. BiroA'B^).noBOi^apeHiHAHHB[IoaHHOBHBr, 

RHflSB TpyGeAROfl H ero pOACTBeHHHRH ABJIHIOTCH npOTHBHHRaMH 
napTin BepXOBHHROBl CB RHflSBAMH rOJUIipiHBIMH, ^OJirOpyRHMH BO 



') Bb nepBufi pasi Tpy6euKift BCxynHJii vb 6pas'B cb sHflrnHeH) AeacTa- 
cies) CeueBOBHOK) TaTeBoio, otb KOTopofi jc&Tefi ne hm^jib. Oaa yiiepja yse 
BB 1690 roAX* HpHHa FparopBeBBa HapumRHBa 6uja BHj^aTafl cecxpa Aa- 
pHAU HaTaiiH KnpHJJOBHii HapurmsHHofi, MaxepH Xlexpa BejiHRaro. 

') Tpy6eiiBifi tohrjca bb CroKroJBMCKHXB saaeMaTaxBt roBopnTB renep. 
AjjapxB BB CBOHXB sauHCKaxB, a xaKse FepMaHB— HcTopifl PocciScEaro 
rocy^apcTBa t. IV, ex. 120; h nciopia j.-tb. IIpeoCpaaeHCKaro aojiisa, rr. 
^HHepHHa H AoJfroBa t. II, ct. 534. 

') Cm. Kb. I[(ep6aT0Ba.— nOBpesAHein npaBOBB bb PocciB, ct. 75. 

*) Cm. SanHCKH Be6epa bb PyccK. ApxHB* 1872 r., cxp. 1625. IIo cJOBaMi 
BToro 6payHinBeJirB-jiBDHa6yprcBaro pesHjieHia bb C.-IIexepdypr'b, TpyCeiiKift 
apH6uiB H8B niBeiiiH BB 1718 r. h 6uib HasBa^eH'b ry6epHaxopoMB bi Cmo- 
aeBCKi, Tjsfi HaxoxiricA cb cBoeK) cynpyron h xpeMa AO^epBMn, botopha cb 
paHHiiro A'^TcxBa pasA'i^JiiJLH nitHB cBoero oxaa bb CxoBrojBM'b h xaMi nojy* 
HHiH xaBoe npespacHoe BOCQExaeie, qxo no BosBpan^eBiH cBoeMB bb PoccIk) 
MoriH npncxuxHXB bi axoMii oTHomeuiH mhoihxb pyccsaxB. 

*) Cm. C6opei[KB HMaep. Pyc. HcxopHH. 06iiiecTBa, x. 94, cxp. 169, a 
xaKae x. 79. cxp. 170 atypHaia BepxoB. TaflHaro CoBtxa— cm. MockobckIh 
BiAOMOCTU 1728 r., ^ 14 npnCaB. 



— 27 — 

rjiasi H BificTi ci npoHKMH noxnncBiBaiOTi Haiio6HTHyio o Boscia* 
HOBjeHui GaMOAepzaBbi, noAaHHyio 25 ^Bp. 1730 r. ^) HHne- 
parpm^ h OjiarociwiOHHO eio npHHaroio. Oaa HarpaAHJia rh. Hb. 
Tpyfieipuut) 9 Mapra Toro ace roxa sBasdeirb ceaaiopa h opxeHOiTB 
CB. AjiescaHApa HeacKaro, a sartirL h Anxpea IlepBOBBaHHaro 
28 anp. Toro 2Le 1730 r. '). Ornpaajifla o6H3aHHOCTH coHaTopa h 
HJKena BOOHHOft RojuieriH, rhasb TpyCeiQcofty npn npeiuiOHHHx^ 
jriTaxi, — eHy yse Giuio 70 nirb wh aro apeMfl, — ^ne xyMajrb o 
xaJiBHUine]r& noBiuneniH no cjryacGi, rbri Bxpyn yRaaoirb 23 
usLA 1739 roxa diuit HasHaneHi Mocrobcrhmi renepajTB-ryCep- 
BaropoiTB. npo6uBT> Bi arofi xojurhocth iieHte ro^a, rbasb Tpy- 
6eiifiOit npocHJJTB yBOJULneBifl, He "iyBCTBya wh ce6t chjoi kl toh* 
HOMy ompaBJieHiK) BosjiojReHHHX'b na Hero oCasaHHOCTeft, bi BHAy 
npeRJiOHHUXi jr6rB cbohxi. Oht> 6uji% yBOJieni yRasoirb 23 ffiK. 
1739 r., HO EjusBBera nerpoBHa, BCiynHB'B aa opecTOJrb, chobb 
npHSBajia rh. Tpy6eARaro r*b cjnysefinoft AlaieJiBHOCTH h nasBa- 
^OJA ero Kb npHcyiCTBifo bi GeHarl'), Ryxa no ciapocTH h cjia* 
6ocTH CBoefl Tpy5eiiR0ft isxHJTL onenB pixRO. Bi STOWb sBaaia ce- 
HaTopa OHi, CTpaftaa rpyAHOio JKa6oH), yue^i> bi hohb ch 15 aa 
16 Hhb. 1750, Hirfca 90 jrtvb ^). Ohi norpeGea'L bx JIasapeBCROfl 
aepRBH A.i6RcaHApo-HeBCROfl JlaapH vh neTep6ypr6 ^). 

rjiy6oRaa ciapocTB TpyCemcaro noxTBepacAaen coiOBa ero 
coBpeiieHHHRa Han^ORHHa ^), hto ohi* 61^1^ acaria BosAepacanHaro 
H Ao6poA%TejiBHaro. Apyroft ero coBpeHeaHHRi Bepxroabqi, bha^b* 
mitero ai 1721 — 1725 r., roBoparB wo oai HpesBunaftHO npl- 
aTHHfi H RpacBBuft MyntsHa, cb BBAy He noxoaci aa a'^Aa. Ho no 



Cm. FepMaHa— HcTopiA Pocciftcsaro rocyiapcTBa, t. IV, CTp, 548; 
3anHCBH 4»eiBAMapinajia rpa({>. MHHiixa, hsa 1874 r., ct 41- BapTeeeBa— 
XYin BiKa, KB. IU,CT. 168. RopcaBOBa.— BoAapeeie HiinepaTpimH Abhbi 
loaBBOBHN, 1880, crp. 274. 

•) Cm. C6opHHK^ HHnep. PyccK. HcTopnH 06mecTBa t. 81, ct. 31, Roee- 
ceflie MaBBaea si IIIaBeieBy otb 11 mbji 1730 r. „HaRaHyHi KopoHOBaaifl bm- 
nepaTpHim noasaiOBaja rojy6yK) leoTy ((^eiBAMapmaiy Tpy6eiucoMy». 

^) Cm. MocKOBCBi/i BtjiOMOCTU 1741 r. J\& 101. 

*) Bb Mockobcbhxb B^AOMOCTHxi 1760 r. otb 2 (jwBpaiH J^ 10 CKasaeo 
•BB nerepCyprb cb 15 na 16 hhcjo .EHBapA no nojiYflOHu bb 4 naca 38 MHsyTB 
CKOBHaJca reHepaiB-4>eiBAMapniajiB KHflSb BBaHB lOpbeeBiB Tpy6euRofi, koto- 
pud poj(HJCHl8iH>Bfl 1666 r. Bb HCTopia j.-tb. UpeoGpaseHCBaro nojriui rr. 
HH^epHHa H lojroBa t. II, ct. 594 fobophtca „BeTepaHB QpeoCpaseHCsaro 
nojiBa sHHSb Tpy6euRifi yMepB 17 AHBapA 1750 ro^a". Bb nucBMaxB leAn Pobxo 
BBA- 1873 CT. 243 ahcmb cMeprn Tpy6easaro noKasaso 16 ABBapji. 

*) Cm. IIeTep6yprcEifi HesponoiL — CaoTOBa npHj. kt* PyccKOMy ApxBBy 
1883 r. 

•) Cm. PyccKift ApxBBB 1883 r.. n. 2, cip. 246 h cjti. 



— 28 — 
cjiOBaiix AK)Ka*Ae-JlHpiH, KHASb Tpy6ei^R0ft 6uji'b HOBisAa, Ka- 

K H Z !> MO^HO BCTpiTHTb He HHOFO. ErO MaJIO JBaJRaJIH, HO C^HTaHH 

Ao6pAROHi»; He8HaK)^^fi bi CBoeiii A^jrb ohi» 6ujn» npe toitl saHKa 
H HcnojineHi ini^ecJiaBiA. Khasb JI,oJFropyRit roBopHn> hto khasb 
Tpy6eitRofl 6ujii «sans esprit, sans education, sans conversation 
aucune, fter, hautain, rempli de morgue, avec cela begue, ce qui 
le rendail ridicules. 

Tpyfiei^KOft o6jiaAaJii necBHa SHa^HTejiBHUifb cocTOHHiein>, kg- 
Topoe samiiOHaJiocb bo HHorHxi HM^Hiarb bi pasHiixi ry6epHiflX'B ^) 
H AOHaxi KaKi) wb MockbI, TaRii h wb IleTepSypri. 

Hsi naceJueHHHX'B cbohx'b Hicimft rh. TpyCei^ROft, en^e nps 

»H3HH CBOeft, npO^aJI'B H^ROTOpUH Hb. Hb. BeaROUy; RaRl 3T0 

BHAHO H31 coHCRa RynHHrb RpinocTeft, HaxoAHBniHxcfl y yMCRaro, 
saBiAHBaBmaro HHiniaMH Bei^Raro, o newb yse naMH ynoiiaHyTO 
BKune^E^BajiHHaAoyRasuBaTB, hto dio 6ujih, rohohho, ^ERTHBHua 
npoAaxH. Tpy6eipcoft, ROHOHHO, AapHJni Bei](ROMy dTSHBiiHia, oGjie- 
Ran dTorB aRXb caoeft AoCpoll bojih bi ^opny Ryn^eft RpinocTS, n 
rlMT> AOCTaBJiflJn eny oCeaneHOHHoe noJioseHie bi xuishh. Gbohmi 
BHcoRHMi paHFOMi roHepaJia-^JiBAiiapmajta h cenaTopa RHflSb 
HsaHi K)p. Tpy6ei(Roft, ohobhaho, hhofo cnoco6cTBOBaJii> Sucxpoiiy 
ABH^eniio no cjiy«6i^ Bei^Raro bi na^ajii ero cjiyoReGHaro nonpHma 
H TiiTL OTRpHJEti OMy Aopory RiAsuiBHMnietfynoBunieHiH). ElABa jih 
8T0 Tpe6yerB AORasaTOJiBCTBi. He Henie RHflsa TOMy jro co;^fiCT- 
BOBaJia H ero aohb npsHiJiecca recceffB-rou6yprcRafl, ROiopyio 
aBTopi cxaxBE Bei^ROfifB wb C^BepHOfl UhqjA 1847 roAa, JVs 49, 
cxp. 195 (h xojRAecxBeHHoft cb hok) cxaxBH vb HjuuocxpaipH xoro 
seroAaJ^10)Ha8BiBaex'BreHieM'B noRpoBBxejieBCB Bemcaro. 
AHacxacBH HBanoBna TpyCeARaa, coBpeMeneM'B JiaHArpa^HHa 
recceH-B-roMeyprcRaa, poAHJiacB b% 1700 roAy x. e. b-b tom'b roAy, 
Bii ROxopoMi oxei^x ea, rhasl HBaei^ K)pBeBHHi> Tpy6euRoft, (acxy- 
UHBmift BO Bxopoft 6paRi Cb HpHHOio rpnropBeBHOft HapumRHHOK)) 
6ujLb B^RTb Bi njiini cl mBeAaiiH noA'B HapBoio h oxBesen^ b'b 
CxoRroJiBin>, RyAa CRopo npHfiHja h ero cynpyra ci MaJiOJiixHeio 
AO^epBK). MoJiOAaa RHaxcna, naxoAacB AOJiroe apeiffl b'b GxoRrojiBMi, 
noJiyHHJia npeRpacHoe hjib xoro BpeiieHH oGpaaoaaHle, roaopHJia Ha 
HHocxpaHHuxi> asuRax'B, (na niBeACROMi h H'lMeuROMi) no cBHAi- 



*) Cm. saMiHaTeiBHiiA 6oraTCTBa HacTBUxi jhu'b bi PocciH— KapaoBn^A 
1888 r., cxp. 67—69. TaKsencxopH^ieGKieifaxepiaiiiAJiA cociasjieBiAiiepROB- 
Huxi ji'bTonifcell MocKOBCKoft enapxiH— r. XojTMoropoBa, 1888 r., rxt yRasaHU 
seiiiu, KOTopuMB BiaAiii Tpy6eaEofi bb MocsoBCBofi enapxiH. 



— 29 — 

xejiBCTBy BepxrojiBqa, Koiopuft ee snajKi en^e bi UlBoiua ^) h Rpo- 
Hi Toro CBoeio HpesBUHaftHOK) npHBJieRaTeJiBHOK) Hapy»HocTi»io h 
sHaHieMi CB^TCRHX'b npHJiH^ift o6pamajia Ha ceGn BHHMame ho 
TOJiBRO npBABopHux'B JiBu:b, HO H jnoHepofl HiinepaTopa, hsi koto* 
pux'b oAHa EjiHsaaeTa, 6ujia oco6eHHO Kb neft pacnojioaceHa h 6jia- 
rocEJioHHa. Bee dTO ho Majto cnoco6cTBOBaJio lOMy, hto RHa^Ha 
Tpy6ei(Rafly BosBpaTHBmacB BHicrl co cbohmh poAHieoiAMH bi Poc- 
ciio, B'b noJiHOVb pacqBirt mojioaocte, asjiBsich oahoio ndrb nep- 
bux^ RpacasHi^ pyccRaro ABopa Toro BpeneHn CRopo BCTynHjra 
B'B 6paR% ci 6uBmEWb rocnoAapeici HOJixaBCRHirB, KHHseirB JI^hht- 

pleiTB KOHCTaHTHHOBHqeH'B KaHTeidpOlTB, ROTOpuft B'B 1711 r. 

nepemeJi'B b'b noAAftHCTBO PocciH BM'bcrb co cbohicb RHfl«ecTBOifi. 
^eJioBi^'B ysae ne mojeoaoA (eny Cujio 45 ji'^tb), ^enaTuft panie 
Ha EaccaHAP'6 GeprleBHt KaHTaRy3eH^, AO^epH BOJDtoniCRaro rocno- 
Aapa H HMiBmift otb nea h^crojibro yace sspocjiuxi cunoBeft (b'b 
TOHX hhcjtI HSBfbcTHaro Aniioxa), KanTeiiipi Cwtb ^Jli^H6H^ Rpa* 
coTOK) AHacTaciH, ROTopofi vn> cboio o^epoAB MorJia nonpaBHTBca 
He TOJIBRO H)»Hafl RpacoTa EaHTeidpa, ho TaR»6 ero JuoOesHocTBy 
jiOBROCTB H BUAaion^eeca oCpasoBanle^ p'lsRO OTJiH^aBmee ero otb 
ocTajiBHHx^ npHABopHBixi JiHiTB. Bnpo^eifB RHasB ^ojiropyROBi 
roBopHTB, TTO KHJijRHa AnacTacia Bumjia sa KaHTeidpa hs'b 
TH^ecJiaBifl ^). CBaAB6a dTaCujia nBimno h TopscecTBeHHo OTnpasA- 
HOBana bi» 1720 roAy. OAHaRo btotb 6paRi Guji'b nenpoAOJiSH- 
TeJiBHMft. B'B 1722 r. JI,MHTplft KaHTOMip^, HcnoJinaa bojik) IleTpa 
BeJiHRaro, OTnpaBHJdca b'b nepcHACRifi noxoAi^, ae tojibro co CBoeK> 
cyapyroK)^ ho h cb AO^epBK) otb nepaaro 6paRa Mapieio, ROTopaa 
vb aroiTB »e noxoA% h yHepjia. 3to ao RpaftnocTH onenajiajio ca- 
Horo KaHTexipa; oh'b yixajrb hs'b Jiarepa B'B CBoe cejio ^mhtpob- 
CRoe oROJio MocRBu, FAb h ynep^ 0T^ oropnenia 21 aarycTa 
1723 roAa'). 



Bepx^olB^'b wb csoeirb xHOBBHRi, eane^iaTaHHOM'B aa BiaeusoM'b 
ashoA Kb Tou^ XIX Maraaaaa Bninaera roBopBTi (cxp. 77), hto saasaa 
in der That eine artige Dame von sehr guten Lebensart 
war. — Ot3ubi o Heft xpyraro HHOCTpaaAa Be6epa npHBexeHi yse aaaa 
paaie; cm. laase Les princes Troabetzkoy— 1887 r. CTp. 152. 

•) C5M. M^moires du prince Dolgorouky. t. I p. 65. 

') KaaTeaipi otb opaaa cBoero cb AaacTacBeft Tpy6eAsoft auii'B 
oxay AO^ih EsaTepHHy, poxBBinyncii 19 B0fl6. 1720 r., KOTopan BnociiACXBia 
Bcrynaia vh 6paK% cb Baaseirb AaMHTpieM's MaxaftiOBRqeii'B FojiBitiiHJUirB. 
dTa BaMiwTeiBHaii sean^uaa CBoero BiBa yiiepxa vh napHX*! 2 Boa6pfl 
1761 r.ySaBimaB'L ae Hajyi) cyMMy B'B aoiBay 6ojBBauBi, soTopaa biMockb^. 
HasHBaerca Fojhi^uhckoh). 



- 30 — 

OcTaBniHCb BAOBOK), KHHrBHH AHaciacifl HsaHOBHa BCTynHJia 
Hepesi H^CROJibRO ji^tb, hm6hho bT) 1738 r. 23 ahb., CHOBa wh 

CpaR'E C^ nOJUROBHHROMl pyCCROff CJiy2R6u npHHaeiTb JIlOABHrOlTb 

BejiLreJibMOMi, repAOroMi FecceHi-roMCyprcRHirb ^). 

IIocji'l 6paR0C0HeTaHiA 6ujvb 6ajiT>, ea ROTopoiii npHcyrcTBO- 
BaJia i^apHi^a, 064 BeJiiiRiH KHaacHU, repiiorB h repAornHJi Ryp- 
jiflHACKin H MHoro hs'b pyccRofi snaxH ^), GoBepmHBi HeupoAOJi- 
^HieJibHoe nyiemecTBie sa rpaHHniy BMicri co cbohmx cynpyroirb 
H Bei;RHHi» (ROTopuftefi npHXOABJiCJi RpoBHUMi 6paT0]rB), OHa bos- 
BpaiBJiacB Bi neiepdyprb h CA^aJiacB npH6jiH3ReHHoft oco6oft Ejih- 
saseTU IleTpoBHH (Torxa en^e b6jihro& RHaacHu), fiJiHsafimHifB HS'b 
en coB'&THHROB'ii H Apys^A n 6hLJiB, noHTH eepasjiy^Ha Cb Heio '). IIo- 
dTOuy RHflinHi roM6yprcRofi 6ujih hsb^ctbh laRxe lafiflH mojio- 
Aoft aapeBflu; oea pasjiHHHHMH coBiTaHH cbohmh noAAep^HBajia 
ea CHJiu H 6oApocTB Ayxa. Bi hoib HSB^CTnaro nepeBopoia, no- 
cji'lACTBieM'B ROToparo 6ujio BCTynjieHie ErasaBeTu Ha npecTOJTB, 
repaorHHH roM6ypcRafl HaxoAHJiacB npn sefi Bce Bpena h HMne- 
paxpHi^a HarpaAHJia ea npeAaHHOCTB, BOsjioacHBi na nee JieHxy 
opAeaa Cb. ERaTepHHu 6oaBmaro RpecTa ^) ROTopyio cnajia cb ce6a; 
cynpyra sRe ea CA^Jiajia reHepajiB-^eJiBAMapmaJiOMB, ocraBUBB noA- 
noJiROBEBROMB Ji. TB. HsMafljiOBCRaro noJiRa ^). Bi 1745 r. vepv^o- 
rBHfl recceHB- roH6yprcKaa CHOBa no'&xajia sa rpannuy BMicri co 
CBOHM'B cynpyroMi, ROiopHft lasfB h CROHHaJica 25 0RTa6pfl 
1745 r. ') 

BepnyBQiHCB aomoS baobok) b npHTOMB CesAtTHOK) (oPB 6paRa 
CB repitoroiTB AnacTacia HBanoBHa A'^Teft He Hid^a), RHarHHa 
AeacTacia thxo nposejia nooi'i^AHie AecaTB jtItb CBoeft jrhshh b'b 
nexepCypri, oxAasmHCB BnojiHi^ AbjiaiTB 6jiaroxBopHxeJiBHOCXH h 
npoAOJi^aa nojiBSOBaxbca 6j[arocRjiOHHOCXBK) HiinepaxpHEiii. IIo 
cjiOBaMB FejiBfiHra (^Russische Gflnstlnige von G-elibi 1809 cxp. 
360 H cji.) 6yAyHH rpobhok) cecxpoio BeitRaro, OHa HaxoAHJiacb 

^) Cm. BtcTHiiKi EBponu 1872 r. t. I h II khhsb AhtIox'b KaHxeicipB 
Bi JIoHAOH'b-CTOiOHHua. 3to AaacTaciH HaaHOBHa KaaTeMip'B aeia npoxoji- 
SHTeibHyH) Tfl3s6y o aaciiACXBi cb cbohmh nacuHKauu t. e. cHBOBBaMH ea 
-cynpyra OTB uepBaro ero 6paKa, Roxopaa 6uja p-j^meaa ae bi ea noiFsy. 

') Cm. GdopHHSB Hnnep. Pyccs. Hcxop. 06ii;ecTBa t. 80 cxp- 267 xe- 
neni*. PoHAOK^ FapHHrTOHy oxl 24 aHBapa 1738 roia. 

■) Cm. Merckwtirdiges Leben und trauriger Fall des grafen An. v. Oster- 
man ctd. 260—265, 

*) Cm. ApxHEi KHflsa BopoauoBa t. 25 aanHCsn BEomeHra cxp. 103; 
HcTopia PocciH— C. CojiOBBeBa t. XXI cxp. 150 h ci*a. 

*) Cm. HcxopiK) J. tb. HaMafi^OBcaaro noiKa— r. 3aocKo-BopoBCKaro 1882 r. 
^ip. 24. 

*•) Cm. laMB ase cxp. 25. 



— 31 — ' 

Cl> HHMl B'b CaUOft pOACTB6HHOtt APy^^t H ^HJia Bl OAHOM'b CI 

HHii-b noMin^eHiH «sl6 lebte mit ihm ganz Offentlich in Innlger 
schwesterlichen Vertraulichkeit». 

Ona CROHHajiacb 2 AeKa6pH 1755 r. h norpe6eHa TaR»e bi> 
AjieRcaHApo-HeBCKoft Jlaspi bi i^epRBH BjiaroBi^eHiH ^). 

SaHHHaa BHAHoe iitcTO npH pyccROirB ABopi h noJiBsyncb 
oco6eHHUin> pacnoJioaceHieMX HicnepaTpBi^u EjiHsaBeiBi ^) npnn- 
A6cca recc6Hi>-roM6yprcRaA Morjia TaRace MHoro coA'i^ftCTBOBaTb 
ycirikniHOMy cnyaceHiio Bei(Raro, oco6eHHo bi to BpesfH Ror^a ohi 
6ujrb BT> He6ojn»mBX7» HnHaxi h oco6eHHoB pojiH npn ABOp% caHi 
no ce6i HrpaTB ne mofb. 



rJIABA BTOPAfl. 
npe6uBaHie Bei^Karo 3a rpaHHueii bi> riapMwt m BtHt. 



npeCuBanie BeuRaro sa rpaBUKeio. — yucTBesBoe cocTOiiHie ^paauiii bi> 
nepBoft nojoBHH'^ XYIII ciojitTifl. — GajiOHU IlajpHsa h bi. tou'l nuc^t T-su 
^o4)4)peB'B. — 3oaKOMCTBO BeaKaro ci> r-xeft JKo(M)peBi, Fphmhomi h 6apo- 
BOM'b KajBH). — Co^HneHie Pycco „BMHJb" n BsrjraAU o BOCnHTaaiu a'^tcQ bi 
XYII n XYIII B'^K'ik. BjiiflHie dTHxi BSviEAOwb na BeuKaro u aa coctb- 
BjeHHoe HMi reaepaibBoe y^pesAeHie o BOcnHTaHiHo6oero noia lOHoniecTBa.— 
611908% Eeaicaro bi neTep(3yprB n HasBa^eHie ero rjaBBBiifB ABpeRTopoM'b 
RaHuejJipiH orb CTpoGnifi.~05% y^acTiH Beasaro b-b nepeBopoii 1762 roAa. 

PaacKasii JlamKOBOfi. 

nyiemecTBiH bi MBHyBmee ciapoe speMA, coBepmaBmiHCH Ha 
jioniaAflxi HecpaBHeHHo MeAJieHH']^e Heacejm bt. HacTonn^ie ahb, 



*) Gh. OnQcanie nexep^ypra cocTaBieBHoe BorAaHOBUii'L h iiSAanQoe 
Py6aB0M'b B-b 1779 r. crp. 374; laKae CaHTOB'b— neiepCyprcKifl HeRpoJorii. 
') HejBafl npH diOMi ne saM^THTB tto eABa jth npaBB asiopi CTaTLn 
Paacsasu fisaTepHHu II irai ea sanHCOR'B, cjyqafiHO yaiiiBmuxi vb 6yira- 
rax'B Be86opoARO (noiitii^eHHue bo 2-8 RHHri „XYIII Bisa'' crp. 7) roBopa, 
4T0 Bei^ROMy jerso 61110 nponaBOXHTB 6jiaroapiflTHiiJi BHymeHiA ^peai cbok) 
T e T R 7, poAHfiD npQHi;eccy AHacTaciio HBanoBHy. Bo-nepBuxi, npHHi^ecca 
He npaxoAHiacB eny TOTROfi; a BO-BTopuxi— lo 1750 r. eABa in Beasofi 
aominuflj-b apossBOAHTb BHymeniA HMaepaxpHi^'Jb (t. e. EjinsaBexi IlexpoB- 
Hi); 00 Rpafinefi nipt hhxi nn^iero neHSBicTHO. 

Apyroft se asxopi 6iorpa(|>iH BeiiRaro non'J&nieHHofl Bi nopxpexHofi raj- 
jiepe* MwHcxepa (1865 r. i. I ex. 26) roBopnxi: oAna hs-b a ^ e p e ft Tpy- 
deaxaro 6HBma£ aa uyseM'B aa RHaseHi roiiimuHBiM'B MHoro co- 
A'ifiexBOBaja BoaBumeHiio Bei^Raro. ABXopi cMiniHBaex'B o^eBHAHO aohb cb 
HaxepBK) npHHueccoD recceH'B-roM6yprcKOK)y Koxopaii cnoco6cTBOBaja Boa- 
BHmeBUD BeuRaro. 



— 32 — 

HO Cb BOSMOaCHOCTBK) OCTaHOBHTBCa 00 JROJiaHiK) BO BCAKOO BpeX^, 

npoACiaBJiflJiH HecpaBHOHHo 6ojibmee nonpemeAJiH HaSjuoAaiejib- 
HOCTH npoisscaion^aro, HeseJiH 6ucTpHe nepetsAu bi> saRpururb 
BaroHax'b no »;ejii^dHiaBiT> AoporaHi, coBepmaeinie wh Rame 
.BpeMH. 

3to sacTaBJiHerb en^e 6oji%e comBjAn^ no ao aacTOH- 

mjUXb AHeft OCTaeiCA HeHSBiCTHHM'L AHeBHHRl>, ROTopuft Bei^Roft, 

no co6cTBeHHOHy ero saflBJiefliK), bbjh bo Bpeua nyiemecTBifl ceo- 
ero sa rpaHHaeio^). TaRofl ahobehri HBHJicfl 611 Aparoi^HHUMT» 
HaiepiajioirB A-n^ onpeA^Jienifl caiiaro nyrii CTpaHCTBOBama Boa- 
Raro no Esponi h ero BpeneHH npenpoBO»AeHifl vb HHOcrpaH- 
Htaxi rocyAapcTBax'B; ^ewb rohb^ho oabb jih mosho 6yAerB 
BCTp-lTHTB Rakiii jih6o yKasanifl bi nHCLMaxi hjih Gyuaraxi Apy- 
rnxi Jimxh, no mbjio sanHMaTejubHOCTH Boo6n^e noAo6H£[xi> CBi^Afc- 

eift nOCTOpOHHHlTB HEUfM^. Ho RpOMl TOFO AHOBHERl BeaRaTO 

Bi^poflTHO npeACTaBHJTB 6hL C060K) nexajio HHiepeca h b'b ofin^eirb 
6UT0B0MI OTHomeniH, tbri* RaRi BeaRoft, na crojibro mosho cy- 
AHTB no cauuui He6oJiBmHM'b otpbibrbitb, 6hjii ho JinmeHi ea- 
GJnoAaxejiBHOCTn. TaRi nanp., ofb nHniHTi>^): «1) cjiyHHJiocB MHi 
'bAJ^H BT> BaioHHy (ropoAi> JiejRanpft noAJi'i^ lUnancROft rpannipi) 
npnu'lTHTB, HTO BCfl setfJia ABJiBJia bhai* Bocejiufi h H3o6HJiie ne 
BT> npHM'Ip'B Jiyqmee npoAi* rbum MibciaMH, oiRyAa a ^xajrB... 2) 
no yjrai^aMX h bi oCHBaTOJiBCRHX'B AOMax^ bba'I^ji'b h npoTHBi 
jROHCRa BABa AecflxyK) aojiio nysRecRa nojia. SHETeum HSiflcnnJiH, 

HTO MyHCHR'B, HO HaXOAH B'b TOpOA^ pa60TfiI, npHHyHAOH'B npB CBO- 

em> seMJieAiJibi ociaBaTBCH^. J(pyro& pasi ohI) npHMirajTB, ci 
yAOBOJibCTBieiTB, "IsAfl MeacAy BpfoccejueirB n ^panoieft, hto b'b i^- 
muxTi AepeBHHxi^ bi npasAnnqnue ahh, a'^th h BspocJibie nnofi 
3a6aBu He HMtioTi, Rpoirb cTp^JiaHBa hsi jiyRa B'B a^jib '). 
FoBopa Heo6xoAHMOCTH iHCTOTbi BosAyxa Bem&oft saMina- 



*) Bi AOKasaTejbCTBo sioro npHBexeM'b cioBa BeiiKaro h8% nHCbua ero 
Ki Bymyeay, ysaauBaD^iA bu±ct± mv.iBA'b BeAsaro a na caMuft npoiieccii 
iiyTemecTBiii. Oai nHmeTi 2 <t)eBp. 1784 rOAa ki BymyeBy. .RorAa a nyre- 
mecTBOBaji'By to hb Tepaiii BpeiieBH, ntsacb bi Aoporfa b'b injait)poKax'b, no- 
HQTaA ape MX xparouiuHie nepeAa^H jHmHeft KoaiftRH; HHsorAa hb saHH- 
naJCfl ooixaHH vb ujte sa uo^tobuxi ABopaxi, a cniniHi'b bi ropox'B, rx'b 
liOFB npocB^THTB ceoA ocMaTpHBaBieifb noiesHaro, ^^wh ao noiyxHa saHH- 
Majicfl; ocTaibHoe Bpexfl npoBOAHJ'B B'B noHTGHHUXi h npocsiE^eHBuxi oC* 
mecTBaxi, a noTOifB npesAO aeseiH joshtbch cnaTB nHcaii u fi s y p- 
Hail*". Cm. A-fejo MocE. TiaB. Ap. M. Hh. Jl^n pas. XII hfe 124. 

') Cm. reHepaiBHUff njias^ BocnHTaiej. Aona: npeAyBiAOMieaie rti 

HHTaTeJflMl. 

^) FeeepajBHufi njaBi Bocqht. JI,0Ma <j. Ill rj. 2. 



— 33 — 

en, HTO 9 many Serb* ^) bi» IlapHa^'ifc, co bc^m'b ,,cbohmi anpoHeHi 
npocBin^eHieifi h ycepAieMi wh neJioBiqecTBy, He SHaa cnzi cno- 
co6oBi> o^HmemA BOSAyxa, bm^cto :RejiaeHaro cnacemH 6uji% 
npHHHHOft raCejiH A^iefi ^). 

Hjih Bemeofl roBopHrb o6'b yHpe^RAeniE oco6jiHBaro Aona no 
npvM^py rtzi, ROTopue hbi^jii a cjnynafi bt> FojuiaHAiEr, $paH- 

IPH, HiaJliH HBinpOHHXl» M'i^CTaX'bBHAiTB ') 

— HnrAi Tanafl pasHOCXB ne ORasHBaexcfl KaKi* npe cpaBHe- 
HiH FojujiaHAiH cb HxajiieiO HMeHHo to, hto rgb seecKifi 
noJTL, CBepx^ oCHRHOBeHHuxi eny CBoficTBeHHHX'b ipyAOBi*, yno- 
Tpe6jifleTCfl H BO Bcasin ApyriH paCoru, laifB oCuBaxeJiH eecRa- 

SaHHO AOBOJUBCTBeHHie JRHSHb BOAyrb^) 

....KOTopue Bi HyjEHxi Kpaaxi CusajiH h bco npHMinaJiH Moryn 
sacBHA^TejiBCTBOBaTB Ao6poHi H ocHOBaTOJiBHOH'B nopflAK^ Ta- 
MoniHHXi eoroyroAHUXi saBeAenift. H bi 6BiTH0CTb mok) TaM'b 

Cb BeJIBKHlTB npijiTCTBOMl> HM&I'B CJiyiaft BHA^TB HCnOJIHAeMUfl 

snejuiMH AyniecnacHTejiBHHfl yHpesAenifl; oAHano yAHBJieHie Moe 
na^e Bcero yHHOXHJiocB RorAa yBHAijoti h ynpesAeme Jllon- 
CRaro rocnHTajifl ajia Gojibehxi h TorAa 8a6uBi» Bce npejKHee, 
HamejTB HHoroe, neMy noAo6Haro nocji'l m b% RaROifB ificrt ne 

BaxaacHBajii'B ^) 

.... HeJiBaa laRse ne ynoHJiHyTB h o HHHimneM'B bhobb saBeAe- 
hIh h ynpesAGHin rocneTaJifl ji^ib G'^ahmxi poahjibehijcb hb Fep- 
MamH Bi ropoA^ Racceji'l, ROiopBift b bha'^^hi^). .. . 
. . . . fl na ABiHaAitaTOMi roAy CBoero BoapacTa 6yAyHH RaAeiOMi 



*) GhamouBset (Claude Humbert Piarron), ({^HjaHTponi, poAHicJi wb 
napaxi vh 1717 toxj h YMep'B 27 anp^a 1773 r. Oei ocHOBaii hhoto ho- 
BHX'b doiLHHm (hopitauz), yjiyHinHii npes^e cyn^ecTBOBaBmifl h coBepmHJi'B 
Apaiou^HHoe npeoCpaaoBaeie, 9to6u 6ojrBHiie ee lesaitn BMicxi na OAHoft 
nocTejH. Ohi ycTpoHJi'b laEse ropoACKyx) no^Ty (la petite poste de Paris), 
XOCTaBiABmyH) necBxa bb neprb ropoAa, OTspuJB xesATb OTjcbieBifi h no- 
craBHJB MBosecTBo amnsoBB a'a onycsaaifl DHceMi Bb paajiH^HuizB nacTAXb 
TopoAB. EHy «e npHnHCEiBaioTb TaRse mucib o5b y^pesxeHiH 0611166781 
BsaniHaro BcnoHOsenifl orb nozapoBi h Tasse CTpaxosaBie on orfln. Ila 
cioBairb HHcaTeiA ByaseHOBi (Voisenon) ^vb rojiOBi ero boctojibho nu- 
jaiH HHciH o 6jar& ^eioBiqecTBa''. 

') Cm. co6paBie y^esxeeifi h npeAnHcaaifi BacaTeabBo BocoHTaBiii b% 
PoccIh o6oero noia OiaropoAsaro h MiiuascKaro toBomecTBa. ToH'b I h3a> 
1789 roxa. 

') Cm. yTOesAOBie Hvnep. BocnHTaTei. AoMa juh ophbocbuzb x^Tefi. 
1763 r. iDBfl 10 CTp. 62. 

*) TaiTb se CTp. 90. 

') TavB se CTp. 94. 

*) TaMB ase cTp. 95. 

H.H. BEQBOft. 



— 34 — 

HcnoJiHflJi'B oxoTHO Bci AOJi^^ocTH wb caMoe BpeuH secTOHaftnieft 

8HMU Bi) KonoHrareH^^) 

— Bi fiuTHOCTb MOK) Bi njiOMeiep*]^ AORTopi GaHmecL pascRasu- 

Bajii MHi^ Bpe;i;i ynoTpe6jiieHk irlAHOft nocyAu, — o noia- 

HOTHOifB TenenlH mosho AaBaTb dobatb no cpeACTBOirB Cij^pu Ka- 
RyK) fl BHxiJii>y r. MynieH6poRa bi* JlefiAeni, ero H3o6- 
pfeema ^). 

BeAKoft TaK^e 6hji'i> b^ HxajiiH RaKi> bhaho H3'b necBMa ero 
Kb RHflSK) Hhr. Bop. DcynoBy on 30 ort. 1784 r.*) Beiptoft 
nHmerb rhask): «npomy BacB npHHiiTB TpyAi), ecjiH rto h3% era- 

PHHHUX'B MOHXl SHaROMUXl B l TypHHi BCnOMHHTB 06o 

MHi, sacBHA'^TejiBCTBOBaTB HifL MOO noHieHie H yBipHTB hx:b, no 
Si HHROFAa He 3a6yAy hxi 6jiarocRJiOHHOCTH, ROiopoio a noJiBso- 
Bajicfl». 

B'B cocTaBJioHHoft BeQRHin> npeAyB^AOMJieHlH ohi> nmnerB: 

«HaCROJIBRO R Bl 6UTH0CTI> MOK) B'B HySHXl) RpaflXl HO EXkjTb 

cjiy^aA bha'Itb 6oroyroAH£iH, oAHaRO yAEBJieme Moe na^e Bcero 
yMHOscHJiocb ROFAa yBHA^JH a yipejRAenie JlioHCRaro rocnHiajui 

AJia eOJIbHHXl*). 

3th OTpuBRH yRasuBaiorb, hto Bei^Rofl He tojilro o6pan](aJii 
BHHManie Ha MHoroe b-l cboomi nyremecTBiH, ho h npn cjnynai 
pascnpaniHBaJii o npeAiieTaxi, no^eny jih6o oSpaTBBmHX'b na ce6H 
ero BHHMame. 

3a HeHMiHieiTb noApofinux^ hsb'^ctIA o npe6HBaHiH Beipuiro 
sa rpaHHi^eK) cooCh^hm'b ^HTaiejDiBrB, xoth h BecBMa RpaTRin, o6i 
BTOWb CBiA^Hlfl, saRJiiOHaioiAiHca B'B HepeDHCR'b cb BexrbeBuiTB, 
HamnifB noB'IpeHHUMx bi a'^ax'b bi IlapHsi, rpa4)a CeBiena JIa- 
pioHOBHia BopoHi^OBa, npHHHMaBmaro, RaRB bhaho, ne nanoe yia- 

CTie B'B CaMOlTB Bei^ROHl> ^). 

TaRi BopoHAOBx HHmeT'B hs^ IleTepSypra otb 22 iiona 
1756 r.: cc^. M. Fojihoeih'b cb RHarHHeio h H. H. Bei^ROft nojiy- 
^HJiH HOSBOJieHie Ha roAi* Ri TenjiBnfB BOAaifB ciisAHTB; Hani- { 



') Cm. PascysxeHifl cjiysan^ia ki pjROBOXCTBy si ycTaHOBieeii) miax- 
CTCsaro Kopnyca. 

').TaMi se. 

') Cm. Atio MocB. rjBB. Ap. Mhh. Khoct. Ji.^i'h pasp. XII M 124. 

*) npexyBiAOMjeoie k% ^HTaieiflMB npeAi renepajiB. nianoMX; h 
renepaiB. uiaei ^ctl III rji. 2. 

') Cm. ApxHBii KBABfl BopoHUOBa T. Ill: BHCkMa BexTiCBa, CTp. 224— 
225, 236, 245, 282; tomb IV. ctp. 208; h t. XXXIII, cip. 92, 120, 185, 
218, 221. 



— 35 — 

peHH EB noJiOBHHi iiojiii OTB^xaTb B 8HMy Bi HeanoJii hjih B^ 
MoHnejuBe nposoAHTb, KjAa 668% cjuuiEhsi Hpesii IlapHarB npii* 

Orb 27 iiojifl (I](apcKoe CeJio). Ohh e^epacB sa^cb npon^a- 

jiHCB H HaMipeHu Ha chxb ahhsb orB'lxaTb ^) e»ejiH o 

HeiTB Kb Ba]n» axpecyioTCA, HSBOJiBTe bitb BC^Rifl ycjiyra h yroAHO- 
CTH oKasaTB. 

Otb 26 OKTflSpji. 9 noJsyHHJi^ HSB^cxie hsi FaarH, ?to khasb 
FoJiHitUHB CTB Bei^RHMB ly^a npiizajiH e bu ho ociaBBTe bmb bos- 
MOXHu^ ycjryrB OKasaiB, h oco6jihbo nopy^aio npB MoeifB nouoHi 
CRaaaTB Mb. Hb. EeitROKy, ^ro a BaHx fliieHHO nopy^HJiB eiiy Bca- 
Ria ycJiyrE npex'BaBHTB h bb caMOiTB A%jii npomy cb hhmb Jiac- 
ROBO H OTRpoBeHHO DocTynaTB, newb 6yAy osuiAaTB bb CBoe 
Bpena yBtAOtfJieHie^^. 

AiflCTBBTejiBHO EexiteBB CBoeapeMeHHo aohocbjib Bopoei^OBy 
OTB 21 H0fl6pa 1756 r.: 

((RhASB ^MBTpifi MBXaftJIOBH^B FOJIfll^UHB CI RHHrBHeft H 

HBaHOM'B HaaHOBBqeMB BeARHUB cioAa npiixajiB bb Ao6poMB 
^ApaBifl... KoeeHHo CTapaTBca 6yAy BceBOSMO^Hun mob ycoiyrB 
noRasaiB ero npeB. Hb. Hb. HeAROiiy, toibro hto6b ohb 6ujm eny 
yroAHH. 

Otb 25 Hoa6pH: saBxpa ohb ijiyn b'b BepcajiB, rjsjb si hxb 
npeACTaBJiK) r. PyjiBe b 6yAy npocBTB o npeACTaajieHiB hxb ro- 

POJIK). 

Otb 29 noaCpa. — BexTteB-B ynoBiBHaen o tomb, oto Fojih- 
iQiHH B BeuROft npeACxaBJiajiBCB RopoJiio, Ropojueai b Ropojiea- 
CROfi ^aMBJdiB, HO noApofiHoe onBcanie 8Toro npiena BosJiaraeTB Ha 

HEXX CaMBXl. 

IIpB 8T0MB OHB HBHieTB, HTO PyJIBO COepBa HO XOT^B AORJia- 

AUBaTB RopojiK) B oix) CBHeftCTBy Bei^ROMB, HO OHB, BoxtIobb, 

HO OCTaBBJH npBCTOfiHO AStTB SHaTB qBH% H COCTOflHlH H. H. 

BeARaro, h kbhhctp'b ((hpbhhjib bb yBaaceeie mob cjioaa b ne bsb- 
pan, HTO ysse 6jib3b nojiynoHB 6k[;io, BsajTB y mohh sanncRy bmg- 
HaMi B Toro see aeqepa HBCBMenHO AORn^AUBajiB ero BeJiB?ecTBy 



<) Bb „Mockobckhx'b BiAOHOCTAXB" 1756 r. anrycTa 18, J^ 32 Haae*' 
TaHO: H8B G.-neTep6ypra 5 asrycTa: En HMnepaTopcsoe BeiH^ecTBO r 
iHJia yaoiHTB na roxB jlar jie^eHiA rb TeaiuirB BOAan mTaTCB-naMy 
M. foiHAUHy u iiysa ea x'i^&CTBnTeiBHaro RaMeprepa A. M. Foivm 
ApyrflXB, BB TOMB HB&it reHepai'B-Maiopa H. H. BeuKaro, soiopue b<^ 
Hflro HBCJia noixam (t. e. 4 asrycTa 1756 roxa). 



- 36 — 
KopojiK). He Mory ne yTasTi* otb samero ciATeJUBCTBa, crojib jiacRa- 

TeJIBHO 6UJI0 MhI BHJOi^TB ^gkCb pOCCiflHl HamEXl Vb 0C06JIHBOM'b 
QJijkCh nO^TOHlH 0Tb HapOAOB'B ApyrHxi)).' 

BexiieBi Ao6aBJiaeTT» otb 13 sHBapa 1757 r.: FoJiHABmi* h 
EoAKOft BHA^H MapKHsa JIoDHiajifl, moBaJiBe AO-Jia-MeccajTBepa, 
MapRHsa BepHH h o6omjiBCB cb heme co BcinE BecBica ^a- 

MEJIB^PHO. 

Otb 14 ^OBpajifl. — HBaEi HBaHOBEqi na fijAyn^eft eex^i 
ijunrb BB IIpoBaHCB h npesi mecTB hba^^ xohbtb ciOAa Bosspa- 

TETBCfl. 

21 ^eapajifl. Mu Bci^ Sujie y MapREsu XIoMDaxypmE, koto- 
pan CB HecRasaHHOft JiacRoft nac^ npEHajia, o toitb BupexB ao- 
BecTE He npeMEHy. H apocEJiB r. PyjiBe o peROMeHAaidflX'B 6ea« 
ROMy BB sHaTHue ropoAa: oe% exb mh^ AaJii* aocatb Ri ry6ep- 

HaTOpaiTB E EHTeHAaHTaM'B ^). 

28 ^BBpajifl. — IIecbmo Bamero cI^TeJiBCTBa rb H. H. EeiucoMy 
nomjiK) HeMBAJteHHo bb JXpoBaHCB. 

2 iioHa. — yixajTB oTCioAa rpa^iIlBaHB rpEropBeBEHii — (t. e. 
HepHBimeBi), He xot&i'b hto6u h ero npeAciaBEJEii bi* ipex'B 
EJiE Herupexi AOHaxi, rj^ a sHaROMB, xota rhjisb J!(HETplfl Me- 
xaflJiOBBHi E Hb. Hb. BeqRofl tImb ne rHymajiECB. 

29 aBrycia. — TpeTB^ro aha BosBpaiEjicfl cioAa H. H. Bei^ROft 
E nocjr6 sasTpa CyAen ciOAa rhasb JIJMETpifl MExaftJiOBETB Fojih- 

mJHB CB RHflrHHefl. 

TaRse rpa^i) AjieRc. PoMan. BopoHaoBi bb CBoeft aBTO^io- 
rpa^ia roBopEiB, hto npEfiujiB bx 1758 r. Bib IXapEs^b, Tj^jh 6uji'b 
laRse RHflSB FojiEmiHB (6yAy^^ft nocJiaHHERi bb Bini) cb cy- 
npyroft, AOiepBio RanTeMipa, a laRSEce a TaRxe le faineux general 
Betzky. 

lis etaient tous absents a moo arriv^e, 6tant all^s aux eaux 
de Ploiubidre, d'oti Us revinrent en automne (cm. Apx. re. Bo- 

pOH^OBa RH. J6 5, CT. 78. 

MeccejiBep-B bx cBoeirB aVoyage h St. Petersbourg ou nou- 
veaux memoires sur la Russia par M-de-la Messeli^re, yno- 
MHHaeTB Ha cTp. 78, ^to bi> 6hthoctb BeciyxeBa nocjiaHHE- 
ROMi BT» Bepcani plusieurs seigneurs arriv6rent successivement a 



*) BopoHUOBi OTBiiaji BeiiKOMy, ee tojlbo Bupasaj'B, qio eiry 6iijfO 
npiATHO ysnaTB o6o Bcewh, cA'^jiaHHox'b BezrteBiiM'B xia Beasaro, ho ao- 
OaBJAii, ^TO AORJiaAUBaj'B o rowb Efl BejanecTBy. 



— 37 — 

Paris, entre autre M-me h princesse Galitzlue et le General 
Betzky. 

Hsx Bcero BumenpHBeAeHHaro, mosho saRJuowiB He 6e3i 
ocHOBamfl, HTO BeARoft, coBepmaH ayTemeciBie no EBponi, ocua- 
TpHBajTB Bce 6ojrle saui^aTeJii&Hoe h naxoAHJica He Majo Bpeua vh 
napHxi. E^Ba SB naAO ynoMHHaTB o tomi, hto IlapHSi h wb 
TO BpeMH npEBJienajTB HHOCTpaHi{eBi» opeHMyn^ecTBeHHO npiflXHOio 
CBoeio sHsniio h rbwb CjecRairB, ROTopufi cbyvAsrh npHsaTB ro- 

pOjQT BeJIHfdft ROpOJIB JbOAOBHRl XIY, HpH ROTOpOlTB OftHaRO HO 

6huio coopyseno hh oAHOft Aoporn. BojiBmyio nacrB roAa BOJUHRit 
EopoJtB H ero ABopi mofjie tojibro BopzoMx Ha JiomaAn coBep- 
maTB nepeisAU no RopojiescTBy; ao Toro hjioxh 6ujih Aopore, tto 
HeB03M0«H0 6UJI0 Hpoi^xaiB no HHMi BB aRHaaacaxi; Kb loicy se 
npHXOAHJUocB AOBOJiBCTBOBaTBCfl TOJIBRO ecxecTBeHHUMH AoporaiftH ^), 
To^HO TaRse nncBisa nepecuJiajiHCB wb cyiri, npHBiiBaHHoft ri 
cuMB'i JiomaAH. 

RaRfB H3BiCTH0, BOJIHRift ROpOJIB AOCTaBEJH ^paHI^H He OAHO 

aoJiHTHHecRoe tochoactbo vb Esponi; ^paHAyscRlft hshr'b h ero 
jiHTepaTypa, a TaR»e oGu^aH $paHAy8CR0ft xhshh, pocRomB h 
CsLecK'b ^paHAyscRaro ABopa nploCpijm bi aiy anoxy rocnoA- 
CTByion^ee BJiinme bx paaiHHHHX'B rocyAapciBaxx EBponu, bi 

TOMl HHCJUi H Bl> HameMB OTOHeCTBi, 0C06eHH0 nOCJUi TOrO, KdLKb 

HamH coore^ecTBeHHHRH, BHHMaTejiBHle nacuoTpiBniHCB na EBpony, 
yBHA^JHH, HTO npe»Hle hxi y^HreJifl-H^iiAia, y cefiji AOMa^ pa6cRH 
noA^HHfliOTca ^paHiQrscROiry bMahIk). 

no cjoLOBaMx GoJiOBBeBa ^), pyccRie tofab nenocpeACTBeHHO 
oCpaTHJiHCB RB $paHAlH, eH ASURy, JiHTepaTypt; CTajnH Ha6HpaTB 
y^HTejieft h ryBepnepoBB ^panAysoBi h t. a- IIpH HimepaTpHq& 
EjiHaaBOTi ABopi, a saTiicB h jiiohbl GjihsrIh ro ABopy , noApasaiOTB 
BO Bcewb ^paHAyscROBcy; b'b 8to jRe Bpena (orojio 1745 r.) na^H- 
HaiOTC^ H CHomeHiA cb Bojibtopoitb; owb npeAJiaraoTB cboe ycjiyrii, 
HTo6u HanHcaTB HcTopiio BejiHRaro npeo6pa80BaTeJiA, nepBBift 
TOMx ROTopoft OHB HanoHaTajiB Bi 1759 roAy. 

Ho cjiaCuft H »ajiRift npeeiiHHR'B JIioAOBHRa XIY cRopo jih- 
miurB ^panipK) aioro bjuhhIa. GiiaBa ^panAyscRaro opy»iA npH 



*) UepBoe mocce bo ^aHaiH otb IlapHsa xo PeftMca. coopyse?'' 
XiA ROpooaaia ilDAOBHaa XY, (cm. JEeMOHia, t. IL crp. 285) On. 7 
montey— Histoire de la R^gence et de la minorttd de Louis XV. Paris, t 
p. 285 H np. 

') Cm. licTopia Poccia— C. M. GoiOBbesa, t. XXII, crp. SII. 



— 38 — 

EQWb noMopsJia; sepcajiLCKift ABopi norepajn to ofiaaHie, Rotopoe 
npHA&BajTb eMy Bejnudft KopoJib; ^pani^scRoe abopahctbo, cjn^xya 
npHHipy JIiOAOBHEa XY npeAasajiocL cauoft pasryjiEHoft jrhshh, 
sanyTUBaJnocB bi AOJiraxi h HpaBCTeeHHO nig^ajio; AT^OBencTBO, h6 
HHia Bi> CBoeft cpeA$ AOCToflHHxi iipeeMHHKOBT> 5occK)8Ta H $eHe- 
jKona, He bi> CEJiax^ 6ujio 6opoTECfl npoTHBii BparoBi peJiHiiH; na- 
poA'B sue KOCH^JTB KB HeBiscecTB^ H TOMHJUcfl uoAB CpeMeHeifb Bca- 
Raro poAa no6opoBi> h HajioroBi; Bpena HHCTaro HCRycciBa h xyAO- 
xcecTBa HHHOBajio BO $paHiiiH. Cjeoboicb CRasarB, Bce DOJiosoHie 
$paHAiH He npoACTaBJiflJio ?ero jihCo, r'b neiiy hojkho 6ujio otho- 
CHTBCfl co^yBCTBOHHo; HanpoTHBi Toro 6BIJI0 nojiHoe ocHOBaHie 
othochtbch ro BceMV o6i]^ecTBeHHOMy bo ^paHoui ciporo, ci 
HoyAOBOJiBCTBieirB, Bpa»Ae6H0. dro npexAe Bcero h npoflBHJiocB, 
RaRB HanGoJii^e AOCiynHOfi ^opM*!, bb bha'6 HacMimeRB BCflRaro 
poAa Ha cJioBax^B; a saiiirB h bb nenaiH. 

HacMimRH HH^ero ne n^aAHJiH. rjiaBHSuftii npeACTaBHTejiein> 
dToro HanpaBJieHia, aBJiflexcfl BoJiBiepB, ROTOpuft' wb jnerRoft 
$opMi^, CB neoGuRHOBeHHHH'B ocrpoynieirB ocH^HBaji'B coBpe- 
iceHHoe eiiy AyxoBenciBO, pearariosHue aBTopHTeru^ iJ^epROBB^ co- 
BpeHeHHuft eny rocyAapciBeHHufi CTpoft ^paHiuH h ea nopflAKH 
H T. A. 

CoBpeMeHHBRB BojiBTopa MoHTecRBO He MHoro paH&e^ en^e bi 
1721 roAy, noAT) BJiianieHB aHrjaficRHxi CBo6oAOMUCJQ[an^HXi naca- 
xejieft, HanHcaJi'B hsb^cthha (dlepcHACRifl nHCBMa» ^), bb roto- 
puzB ocwkajvb B6CB ^paHEiydCRift ABOpB H Bce rocyAapcTBeHHoe 
ycTpoflCTBO $paH^^r. TaRHirB Ae npeACiaBHTeJieMB OTpHi^nejiB- 
Haro HanpaBJienia jiaiaeTca ^HAepo bx cbohx'b ^hjioco^crhx'b 
DHCBMaxB (npoAaHHuxi IlapjiaMeHTOMii coxxeHiio bb 1746 roAy); 
Bi HHCBMi carbnuTB E-b noJEBsy spa^HXB, Bi ROTopoBTB ya:e 
HaHHHajTB nponoBiA^iBaTB aTeHSHi h i^apciBo p a 8 y m a, noHHHaji 
noAB aTHifB cjioBOiTB Bucmee Ay^oanoe nanajio b'b ^ejioBtnecROfi 
npnpoAi^. 3to y^enie AOBejiii ao RpafiHocin FeJiBei^ft, bi rhbi^ 
CBoefi ((De I'esprit)) BBnneAoieft b'b 1758 roAy, npH^eiTB oipHuan 
AyxoBHoe Hanajio b% ^ejiOBiRi, ohb eAHHCTBeHmiifB noOyjRAemeM'B 
HejioB^qecROft A'^ATejiBHociH CTaaHJi^ RopucTB, CTpeMJieHle rb yAO- 



') HsBi^Tfioe co^HHefiie MoHiecsbe „AyxB 3aK0H0Bi*' noflBuocB 
nosABie (B'b 1748 roAj) h bi noiTopa roxa Hniuo 22 HsxaHiA. B'B eeirB 
BBioseno yace noJiosHTeJBHoe yneHie o npoHCxoxAeHiH pasin^iHHX'B 4>opM'b 
rocyAapcTBeBBaro ycTpoffcTBa y pasBBix'B aapoAOBB n npHqEHaxi BSMiHeBia 
aTuxi ^opMB. 



— 39 — 

BOJiBCTBiK). BojiBTepi HO OAoCpHJTB 8a6jiymAeHift FejiBBeitlfl, a 
HSFictHuB 9£aHi-<3KaK^ Pycco HauipeeaJiCH nanncaTB BOspaaEceHia 
Ha osHaHeHHyfo RHsry, ho ocTaEnjiB sto HaMi^penie, sBBAy Toro, 
HTO OHa 6ujia CTporo sanpen^ena bo ^panom. 

EcJiH Bi coTOHemax'B BojiBTepa no npeHMyn^eciBy npo- 
ABJifleTCfl OTpHAaHie Bcero CTaparo, ocMinnie h paspymeHie Bcero 
cyqecTByion^aro, to noJioJRHTOJiBHHH nanajia HOBaro y^eein bh- 
CEasaHBi Pycco b-b ero neMHonix'B coHHHeHiaxx, npoHHKnyiHX'B 

OAHHlfH H T^MH »e HAOHMH, HSl ^HCJia KOTOpUXl» CaMOK) OCHOBHOK) 

flBJifljiacB Ta, HTO BOCHHTaHie n noJiHTHHecRia y^eacAenla aojihhu 

HMiTB A^JlifO BOSBpaTBTB HeJIOBtl^l Rl nepBo6BiTHoft npocTOTi 

OTHomenift ^). Pycco nacTOft^HBO npoAJiaraerB BosBpaTHTBca Kb 
TOft npHpo^i HOJiOB'lRa, Ha Roiopofi npe^Ae horohjiocb nejiOB'^ie- 
CTBo; aTO eAHHCTBOHHoe, no ero mh^hIk); cpe^cTBO nojioKHiB Roneax 
pasBpan^eHHOCTE n CTpeMJienl^Mi kl peBOJuoi^in. OrpeMJieHie 
Pycco yjnynniHTB coBpeneHHoe o6niecTBO nyieMi nnaro BOcnniaHia 
6BIJ10 BCTpi^eno ob BOCToproMi, npn neitB ne oCpaTHJun BHHMaHi^ 
na TO, HTO canBifi Bonpoci o BocnHTamn, noAHHTufi Pycco, ?AaJieKO 
He HOBuft H )iBJi>iJiCH y^o He pasi npeAtfeTOM'B HeoAHORpaTHuxi 
H rjiyeoRHXi pasMumjieHift. Tiwb ne Menie 3totb Ba»:HBift bo- 
npocB H Apyrie eny hoaoShuo, BosdyacA^HHue bo ^paHayscRofl 
jiHTopaTyp^, saHHiiajin o6niecTBO Ilapnaca bo BpeifH npeCHBaniH 

Bfb BQWh BOARarO H CJiyjRHJIH TOMaMH fieSROneHHUX'B TOJIROBl Bl 

xaRx nasHBaeMHX'B caJiOHax'B, o ROTopuxi mh nosBOJinJin ce6']^ CRa- 

3aTB HtCROJIBRO C^lOWb. 

CBoeofipasnyK) oco6eHHOCTB Ilapnaca bi XYIII b4r4 cocTas- 
jiajm MejKAy npo^HMi TaRii nasuBaeMHe cajiOHBi, am cecoles de 
la civilisation oti Tart de la causerie^ le loisir des 
grandes existences produisent, grace an femmes, une incomparable 
douceur de viyre>, bi ROTopBixTb nesaMiTHo oCynajiHCB la dteence, 
la reserve, Tart de se gSner, ne pas dire tout ce qn'on pense, 
ne pas ecrire tout ce qu on dit h t. a. 



*) 9to y^eHie Pycco BnepBHe BHCKa»ano u^i bt^ ero oxfitit na no- 
spocB, npexioxeHHUfi Vb 1750 rojiy An^KOHCKotn aKaxeuieio ,,^1 k r(^t;it>Us' 
sement des sciences et des arts a contribiiu A epurer les moeurs".— ^arliMt 
oHi npoBOAHTB Toae caMoe wb coHHHeBiH Julie ou la NouveUft" " 
BiimeAineifB b'b 1759 roAy h HaKOHeKi scb cbok narJ^A^ o 
06% yiyqmeHiH epaBOBi h coBpeMeHHaro nojo^Keni^t oCmectr 
Pycco nsiOSHj'L bi oahomi h^sowl coqnneuiit Emilc o 
BHmeAmeM'B nosAHie bb 1762 roxa; RHHra 6u.m Tor^a »o c 
naja^a. ^ 



— 40 — 

En^e ht HanaJii XYII CTOJi'lTiH no nHorHM'B pasHooCpasHui 
npBHHHau'L ^), luiK'b roBopHTB BiapmaJi'B 6accoiinbepi», o6p{E30B&H- 
HHe JiiOAH $pajmiH cxajiE on^yn^aTB wh nepsuft pasi noTpe6HOCTi> 
o6M'6HHBaTBca HBicJiHiin, pasAiJiflTB CBOH Bne^aiJitHia h bo3o6hob- 
ji^TB CHomeHm, n6pBaHHHJi BpeM6H6Mi» H npoAOJisHTejibafirBiH 
Me»A77Co6HUHH BoftaaMH. YBejui^eHie CoraiciB^, pasBHiie nayicB 
H npocBio^eHlJiy jiK)6oii£[TCTBO HJiH acejuanie nosHaROMHTbCfl ch 
napiiJiMH^ ociaBaBinHMHCfl HeHSBicTHUMH OAHa Apyrofi, cmsowh 
CRasaTb oGn^ifi nporpecci, HAyn^B CBOHirb nyieii'b HenpecranHO 
BnepeA'B, cnocoCciBOBaji'B o6pa30BaHiK) h ycxanoBJieHiK) HOBaro 
o6iitecTBa, wb KOTopoMi na cefl paai senn^HHi npeACTO^Jio ErparB 
rjiaBHyio pojiB h coAMcTBOBaib pasBHTifO HOBaro noRoarlmfl, 
HcnoJiHeHHaro Ao6pux'b jRejiamfly ho rpyCaro, HeB^ecTBeHHaro 
E He pasBHiaro. 

Bi TO BpoMJi, RaRi HSBicTHO, HOflBHJiacB T-sa PaifOyjuBe 
(1588 — 1665); jifiMu cociaBJiABniifl en oCn^ecTBO npHnajiH HaBsa- 
Hie precleuses, nepBOHanajibHO GesB BCflKofi HacMimRH h 

TOJIbRO BHOCJO^ACTBIH BHaB'b Wb HpeyBBJIEHeHHyiO RpaftHOCTb, OHi^ 

6hjih ocMiaHu CoMeaoirb (le dictionnairft des prficieOses), PacH- 
HOMi BB nbecb ccPrecieuses ridicules» h ApyrEicE nHGaieJiHHE, 
xaRi HTO cauoe nasBaHie precieuses oCpaxEJiocb bb cici^niHoe 
nposBEH^e. 

BcKop'b HapaBH% cb dXEMi RpysKoiTB HBEJiCfl psLgh Apyrsx^b, 
TaRB mo yse bb 1660 roAy CoMeai HacHHTbiBaerB bi napEs:]^ 
Cojrte 50 cajiOHOBi; BMRift xortjTB EMiiB CBOft Rpyn (cercle), 
CBoe c6opEn:ie, a aio CTpeicjieme ROHewo ne mofjio ho noBJiiATB na 
ynaAORi co6paHifl, CA'i^jiaBmExcfl yse Menie EHrepecHHim e BaaL- 

HUME, BCJliACTBlE EX'B MHOFOHECJieHHOCTE. HaE60Jlie BHAaiOH^E- 

MECH 6ujLE coSpaHia ESBicTHaro RapAEHaJia Peita, y IIIoJiBe, y 
rocno^E CeBEHBE, Jla^afteiTB, Ga6jra, y ROiopoft, no cjnoBaBTB 



*) BecBMa iH)6ooBiTHo coo6n(aeMoe JEeMOHTS crbiiHle, tto bo Bpeica 
cHJiBHofi HyHU BB MapcBiH o^esB HHorie ero o6HBaTejB noRHHyxH ropox'B« 
pasceiHiHCB no xepeBHAMi r co^ipaacB bb xoxi a56aTa UeppaxB (abD6 de 
Ferrarde), cb u,±ihn pascisBaTB cboh CesnoRoficTBa, cxaiH saHHxaTBca 
iHTepaTypofi. Ohh o6pa80BaiH cBoero poxa yienoe o6mecTBO noxB npexct- 
AaxeiBCTBOMB Basiexa (de la Yiscl6ae) h, BosBpaTJiCB co BpexeHen bb 
ropoAB* npoxoisaJH cboh noBpeMeHHUfl co6paBifl, BOTopuA 6ujih ysaso- 
HCHU vh 1726 roAl;. b^h coA'b&CTBiH Mapmaja Baiiapa, KopoieBCKHKB ysa- 
301CB. Lemontey. Histoire de la regence et de la minority ae Louis XY, t. I, 
CT. 413). 

PasiH^HEiA cB'i^A'i^HU caioeaxB, Haxn coodn^aeHUA, iio^epiiHyTu hsb 
BecBHa MHoro^HCJeHHHXB co^HHeHift o6b 9T0MB npeAMert bo ^paHAyscRoft 



— 1 




— 41 — 

CeH-BeBa ^) npeAciaBJiiiJiHCL wb jiHitaxi pa3JiH?HiUi Hsp'^MOHla h 
npaBEJia, nocjiy^sBmifl Jdapom^yKO MaTepiaJiOMi aj^a ero H8BiftcT-> 
HiirB <cMaximes». HpaBu Toro BpeveHH 6ujie bi yaaAR'b; npn- 
jiHHiA no^TH He cyn^ecTBOBano; BoacBHOcn (licence) b'l oCpantemH 
AOCTBTjia Rpa&HOCTH. MeHieHOHi oTHacTH mirajiacB BoscTaHOBHTS 
npnxEqie h HpaBCiBeHHOCTB: efi yxaJiocB saciaBHiB .HioxoBRRa ZIV 
noHflTB oqapoBaHie yiia h npUTHOCTB pasroBopa cb oGpaaoBanHUirB 
^jiOBiRoiTB H npeAnoHecTB axi rpyCuwh h npexoAsn^HMii jik)6ob- 
HmrB HacJIa3RAeHiJiM^. Ho RopojiB 6bijrb yse ciapii; 6jiecTflii^H 
KBLMN ero ABopa laRs^e cocxapRJiHCB h no cjiOBain* r. BapieJieMH 
ccne 6hjio oco6u, ROTopaa HorJia 6u co6paTB BORpyrB cefifl 
MOJ[OAe«B, auuRAaBmyio GesyiiHBrx'B n CesHpaBCTBennux'B yAOBOJiB- 

CTBifi». 

Ki ROHAy BiRa o6pa30BajiCA nsBicTHBA Rpy^coR'B Ae Tent re- 
sol, coCHpaBmiftca Bi aHTpecoJiax'B ABopita Feno ^); o hoh^b fobo- 
pHTB A'Ap^AHcoHB wb CBO0XI sanHCRaTB. He nepe^ECJiflH, ro- 
ne^HO, Bcbvb jifiSRe rjiaBHiflniHXi cajiOHOB'B HapHsa nepBoft 
noJiOBHHH XYin B^Ra, ynotfaneMB toaro hto wb wcjii hxi oco- 
6eHH0 BUAaaajiHCB: Rpy«ORi r-SE Vauvray, HaHJnoOesHMmeft 
AaMU H3i ^EGJia caMUX-B JiioCesBux'B, no cjiOBairB Ronma, roto- 
paa Bejua npoRpacHO pasroBopu h npeJiecTHo nncajia; cajnonri Map- 
RH3U J[aM6eprb, oCpaTHBmefl CBoft aouti h cocToame aa yOi^Hqe 
Hysii H rpai^ift, noH^^n^aBmeeca bo ABopi]['l RapAHnajia Masa- 



jHTepaTypif KaBi-To Lea salons de conversations da XYIII siecle par 
Feoillet de Conche, Paris. 1882.— Ruelles, salons et cabarets— par Colombay 
1892 r.— Diderot et la society da baron d'Holbach-par Avezac-Lavigne 
Paris, 1876 r, -Le chevalier Dorat et les poetes legers an XVIII siecle jjar 
Desnoiresterres. 1881 r., L'esprit pablic ^a XYni siecle par Aabertin. 
Paris. 1873 r.; Les amis de la marqoise de Sabl^—nar Barrhelemy, 1865 r.; 
Madame la marqaise de Lambert. Salons da XYIII siecle— par Bled (bi 
Noavelle Revae 1898 r. ianvier 15).— Essai sorlecomte de CaylasparRoche- 
blave. Paris. 1889 r.— Madame Tengin— Noavelle Revue 1898 r fevrier 15). 
Souvenirs da comte de Caylus imprimis sar ses originaux in^dits. Paris. 
Epicuriens et lettr6s au XVII et XYIII siecles— par Desnoiresterres 1879 r. 
Revue Retrospective t. 3 p. 95. Saint-Beuve— Causeries de Lundi t. I, et II, 
(o caiOHi r. jiW)JI,e^om h r. So(t>4)eHT»). Memoires et correspondance litte- 
raires de Favart. Paris. 1806 r. t. I, h np. np. 

') Saint-Beuve-Koavelles caaseries de Lundi t. XY, ct. 386). 

') Bb aHTpecoiflX'b XBopua npesHAeHra Feuo '(U6nault), ua BauxoM- 
eaoft njioniaxv, cofiEpaiocB oGruecTBO, ocHOBaeHoe bi 1724 voij a56aTOM% 
AiapH (Alary), eaceueA'^iBHO no cyo5oTaMi, orb uath ao BocbMH nacoBi 
Bewpa fl MHoro sauHMaiocB BonpocaHu nojiHTR^ecsoft BsoHOMiir, o cBo6oj('b 
TOproBJH, xeueHTpaJHsauiH h t. a- Kb cocraBy Bxoro o6iuecTBa «>■■■■■•- 
ssaii MoHTecRBe, a66arB Ceu'b-IIbep-b, RyaHBU, RapaMani, MapsH 
coHB H T. X. no pacnopflsenii) KapAHuaia ^lepu bto ooq 
saspBiTO. 



— 42 — 

pEHH, rjsik co6HpaJioc& mhofo xani yieHuxi), RaK'B-TO ^eneJiOH'B 
JlaMOTTb, CaccH h np.; csjiohi t-jrh TeHC6Hi> (MaiepH a Aoaif- 
6epa), nsB^CTHufl noA'B HMeHOHi petites assemblies du 
clerg6, Bi> KOTopoBfb BucTynHJii wb nepsufi pas^ MonrecKBe. 
Bi npoAOJUKeHiH 40 Jiirt (ci 1731 — 1771) Jiynmee oGn^ecxBO 
co6EpaJiocB y r-sn Doublet de Persan ^), bi noiiiiqeHiH Mona- 
CTupfl CB. 60MH, noieMy oho h HasuBajiocB La Paroisse (t. e. 
npHxoA'B KepKOBHufi). UoqTH eaceAHGBHO vb onpoA^eHHue hecu 
cxoAHJiHCb lyTB IlHpoH'L, ByasoHOHB, KaifHJTB ^ajiBKOHerb^ Ms- 
pa6o, UIoBejieHB, BojiBTep*B h, saHHMa^ pasB HaBcerAa HasHa^en- 
Hoe KaacAOMy nicTO, naA'B rotopbimb bhcIjib cooTBiiCTByioiipJI 
nopTperB, Ha^enajin pascKasuBaTB BCJiKaro poAa hobocth h coo6- 
n^aiB pasHBiH HSBicTin, pascyacAann hhxb h saxiMB, npHSHasB 

OAHH B^pHUMH H OCHOBaTeJIBHUMH, a APyrUi COICHBTeJIBHBIMH, BHO- 

CBJiH BB noAJieacam^ie cnHCKH ^). 

Kpoifi Toro y aRTpsicu Khho, fiuBinifi cb hok) bb cbbbvl rpa^B 
KajiBK) (Gajlns) coGnpajiB 06'bAaTB Asapasa bb HeA^JiK) CBOft 
RpymoRB, RB ROTopoMy npHHaAsescajiH nHpoHB, BojiBiepB, MOH- 
lecRBe, AaH^o, MapHBO, ^iorjio, Rpe6nJiB0HB (cuhb), By4»$Jiep^. 
Ha CTOJii noMin^ajiacB nepHEJiBHBi^a cb npHHaAJie^HOCTHMHy hto6h 
sanncfiiBaTB bcI HspiieHia n ocTporu o6iAaBniHXB, npH newh co- 
AepaeaHie pasroBopoBB 6fiiJio cauoe CRafipesHoe h Bcero 6oJite 
noABeprajiBCB HacM^niRaMB HpaBCTBeHHOCTB h peJiHrin. drn o6%au 
nasuBajincB da bout dn banc, noiOMy ito hbcjio HBJiflBmHxcx 
RB o6%Ay ^acTO npeBOCxoAHJio hhcjio ycTanoBieHHHXB sa ctojiomb 

MiCTB AJI^ nOCiTHTOJiefl H CBOpXB-ROMnJieRTHUfl SaHBJIHJIB BB xa- 

ROMB cjiynai, hto CyAeiB AOBOJiBCTBOBaiBca MtciOMB na koha* 
CTOJia ^). 

Ho Han6ojiBmyK) hsb'Ictboctb npio6pijiB bb XYIII b^r*! ca- 
jiOHB rocnoKH Ho^^peHB, y ROTopofl CB 1746 r. co6npajincB bcI 
RopH$eH ^paHAyscRoft jnrrepaTypH loro BpeMeHH RaRB-io: Fojib- 
BeAiycB, roJiB6axBy ^aJianSepB, MapsioHTeJib, Mopjia, MoHrecRBe, 



') Focnoxa Ji,j6Me ag IlepcaHB 6fi[ja noxpyroio cepAnta HSBicxHaro 
asTopa BocnoMHHaBi& BamoMOHa (Bachanmont), KOTopiift Curb seaaTB na 
BAOBi KypcejiB (Courceilles), uaxepH iiapRHBH J[aM6epTB. 

') 3tk cnHcxn nocJiysBiH naTopiajoM'b ^n BOcnoMHHamft caMoro Ba- 
moHOBH. RpoMi Toro AOMamHift ceKpexapb r-sH Jij6ie, bb ROBUi nexiJiH, 
A'i^aiB EpaxKia uaBieneHiA hbb btdxb cbhckobb h Be lonKO pasAaBaiB 
saaKOuuHB n nocTopoBHHiiB. HO nocuiaiB ^axe sa npe^'i^ju IlapBsa, boxb 
HasBaHieMB Nouvelles &la main. 

') Cm. Gustave Des noiresterres— Epicuriens et lettr^s auXVII et XV III 
si^cles.— Paris, 1879. 



— 43 — 

PeftnasB, ^OHTeHOJiB, a TaiURe rpa^i KajiBip, khhsb a6-JIhhb, IIo- 
HaioBCKift H Bcl sHaxHue HHocTpaHipj, noc^^n^aBmie IlapHacb 
KaiTb-To: BajiBnoJiB, FajiBaHH, Kpefti^'B, Kapa^iojiB, IOitb h t. a. 
F-sa ^^^peHi no noHeffbjiBHHKairB h cepexaHii npEHHiiajia 6jih3- 
RHzi eft sBU'b (ses familiers) Kb o&bjiy^ na KOTopuxi Kponi yne- 
BUTb H nHcaieaeft SusajiH xyAOHHHKn h apTHCTU. IIomhho aioro 
7 neji 6ujiH pasi hi HeA^JiH) caMue CRpoHHue y^HHH, ROiopue 

XOTH H 6iIJIH BeCBMa HeMHOrOHHCJieHUy HO OTJIHHaJIHCB OCOCeHHOH) 

saHEiiaTejiBHOCTBio H npHBJieKaTejiBHOCTBK) 6ecij[fi. 

Bi» noAo6HOirB caJiOHi, no oCu^aio Toro BpeMenn, co6h- 
paJiHCB OKOJDLO 8 Hac. Benepa, bojih pasroBopBi ao llV^i nepe- 
xoAEJiH Bii cTOJiOByio Kb jsKSLBjj 6oxbe nejReJiH CRpoMHOMy, npo- 
AOJURaBmeMycA ne cb 6ojiBniEMi aojTB naca, nocjii ROioparo 
CHOBa Bc^ B08Bpan](ajiRCB Bi rocTBHHyio H npHHHMaJiHCB sa 
Trenie h pasroBopu, A^HBmlecH ne Gojite 3 nacoBi), nocjii Hero 
pacxoAHjmcB, ho caBine pbahho ocTasajiHCB h j^ojAQj npoAOJURaa 
pascysAaTB. Xosa&Ra AOMa ao yxoAa rocTeft ne noRHAajia caaiona. 
Ona CB pasCopoM'B coeAHHiiJia b^ cboomI) cajiOH'i hoaxoaaq^hx'b 
ApyrB Kb Apyry jihi^. Xos^ftRa, hoaoCho RanejiBMeftcTopy, jRejiaio- 
mfiMj noAo6paTB xopomifi opRecTpi h ycTpaHHTB AHCCOHaHCu, 
AOJusHa 6HJia o6jiaA&TB ocoCuifB TajianTOirB co6paTB jihi^'b xaRi, 
HTofi'B OAHH Bi cocTOiiHiH 6ujin daHHMaTOJiBHBiBrB oOpasoMi, Bl 
oCmeiTB pasroBopfe, cooCn^axB HHiepecHHa CBiA^nia, a Apyrie— 
ci yAOBOJUBcxBieHi, MOJUHa, hxi cjiymaxB ^). 

IIoA'B pyROBOACXBOiTB xaKofl xoBafiRH AOMa pasroBop^ He npe- 
Rpantanoa, RacaacB caMuxi* paanopoAHUxi* npeAMOxoB^B. Ilpn axoM'B 
cdb6n](aJiHCB pasjiEHHUfl npoHcmecxBiH, 8a6aBHue cJiy^iaH, npBRJiH)- 
HeeiH, ocxpoyMHHfl daniHaHia h x. a^ cjiobomii mho^bcxbo RpacH- 
Buxi> 6e8A^0Ri»i cocxaBJIBB^IHX^ Biribcxi ni^xo OJiecx^n^ee h sa- 
HHMaxeJiBHoe. IIpeAMexaMH pasroBopoBi cnepBa cjiyHHJiH co6uTiH 
AHii H HOBOCXH jiBxepaxypBT; HO jiyxii BpeMean oxpasHJica na caJio- 
Haxii. Bi axoxi BOceimaAi^axuft ^HJioco^^CKifi BiRi bi cajionaxi 
cxajra roBopHXB ne 061 oahom^ xojibro xeaxpi, MysuR'b, poBianarB 
H T. A* dniptRJioneAHCXBi npo6yAHJiH bti caMux'B H36paHHHX'B o6nte« 
cxBaxi yqacxie Kb cepBOSHOMy, Kb nayRaMi h Ba^RHuifB oxBJie<ieH- 

HUMl BOnpOCaMl HBl 06jiaCXH HpaBCXBeHHOCXH, nOJIHXHRH H A^^Ke 

MeTa^HBHEH ^). IIpBcyxcxBie a^mi Bi cajiOHaxTi BOSAepxHBajio OTb 



«) Cm. Historisches Taschenbuch— vierte Folge. IV Jahrgang. 1863. Da^ 
gesellige Leben vor und nach der Schrecken-Zeit, cip. 337-436. 

') lIpHMiHeBia dTHX% BonpocoB'b Ba npaKinsi B'b nepsoff noiOBHu 



— 44 — 

cjiHinKOiTb pisRHX'B Bupasefldfi npE cTOJiKHOBeHiH npoTEBynonox- 
Hux'B MHtnift H, He npenflTCTBya o6cy:RAaTb noApoSoo h tohro ca- 
Mue jREBOTpenen^ym^ie h ipyAHue Boupociii HejioBinecRaro BHaeiji, 
Biitcrt CB rbwb noCysAajio roBopHBoiHZ'b HSJiaraTb cboh bsfjihau 
He TOJiBRo acHo, HO o6H^eAOCTyiiHO h KpacHBo. — A TaR% RaRi 
cjnoBO, ycTHaa p^^B, RaR'B cpeACTBO pacnpocTpaneHifl sHaHia, npo- 
B8B0AHTB HecpaBHeHHo 65jiBniee Bne^aTJiiHie^ ^itb HenaTHtit jihctb, 
TO pasroBopu bi» caaoHaxi, bi SHaHiiTeJiBHofl M%p%, chocoGctbo- 
BaJiH ycBoeHlfo npHcyrcTByion^HMH t^xi hobbtxi iiucjieft h Bsraa- 
AOBi, ROTopue npoBOAHJiHCB ^paHi^scRHicH HHcaTeaaaH bi HSAan- 
Bjuxb HMH Bi> TO BpoMa coHRHemax'B RaRB-To: BoaBTepa — Lettres 
phUospphiques sur les anglais (1734 r); Essais sur les moeurs 
et Tesprit des natlODS (1738). Jljvfipo — Lettres phllosophiques 
(1746); MoHTOCRBe — Esprit des lois (1748); Pycco — Si le reta- 
blissemeut des sciences et' des arts a contribue k 6purer les moeurs 
(1750); BoaBTepa — Diatribe du docteur Akakia (1751), ero 
ace Si6cle de Louis XIV (1752); TejiBBeAlycB— de I'esprit (1758); 
Pycco-Julie ou la nouyelle HWoise (1759). h t. «. 

3th npoHSBeAenia, cocTaBHBmia b'b cBoe BpeHa anoxy, roho^ho 
aBJiaaHCB npeAHOTaMH o6niHpHiix*B h neoAHORpaTHSixi oScyacAeHiS 
B'B pasjuHHfiixi cajionarB, bb ROTopincB BCTpi^iaaHCB nacro oahh 
H Tise jiHHHOCTH. IIo cJiOBaicB jltenyaprepa y KajuBio h Khho 
BCTp'lqajiHCB jfb se cavna jihuocth, hto y ^0(j[)|»peHB h Jlecnn- 
HacB — MysH 3Hi](HRJioneAHCTOB%^ y ROTopoft eacoAaeBHO nocjr6 5 na- 
coBik co6HpajiocB canoe paanooGpasHoe o6n^ecTBO. 

IIocin^aji'B jiH OTH caaoHEi BeaROfl? IIoJiomHTejiBHaro yRasama 
Ha 8T0 noRa ne HMi^Tca. Bi AOBoaBHO imoroqHcaenHux'B coHHtfe- 
Heniaxi, b'b Roropuxi roBopHTca o caaoHaxi* XYIII B-iRa h vlx% 
noc^THToaaxi hefa'^^ hbch Eeipcaro ho ynoicHHaeTca, h axo BnoJiHi 
ecTecTBOHHO. Ilepe^HCJiaa jihki, naxoAan^HXCfl bb toicb hjih Apy- 
roiTB o6n^ecTBi&, o6u[RHOBeHHO ocTaaaBJiHBaiOTca na anqaxi, ni^th 



XYIII Bi&a eaie ee sacajHCB; aio yxe Buaaao na j(Oid pasiH^HUxi uj- 
6owb KOHii(a Bisa, bi ROTopiie o6paTHiHcs nocTeaesHO caiOHiii. bi na- 
Haii 6£iBinie ncRjio^HTejiBHO iHiepaTypHSMs spyxsaMH. Bi nepBofi noj[o- 
BHHi XYIII Bisa, Taai CBaaaTB, toj&ro Bupa5aTUBaiHCB Hxes h na^ajia 
B'j^poTepnHHOCTH, CB060X11 M&iciH H costcTH, npasa qeioBisa; nocTeneaao 
o6pa80BUBajiacB o6iiiecTBesHaa aTHoc(i>epa, oxBaxiiBaBinaH co6ok) Bce 6oi^e 
B 6oj'be CJOB o6ii;ecTBa. Hj^en sth 6jiiii na ctoib Moryn^ecTBeHHU u npocT£i, 
Tvo npoHHsaiH B'b Maccy BapoAHyK) n cio2Bhih odiAecTBeHHoe MHiHie, bo* 
Topoe cuopo craio nojBsoBaTbCA Heo6£i^aftHot chioh) h BucryiiHio bt» koha'& 
CTOjtTifl Ha OT&puTyi) 6opB6y npoTHBi 6e3AymBot pyTHHu, aexaHiaieeaaro 
(iK)pvajiff3i[a, paaiHiHUxi cociobhux'b npHBHJiierift h t. x* 



— 45 — 

jih6o BNAaion^HxcH otb ocTajiBHux'b H rbwb caMuin* o6paiii(aK)* 
QHxi Ha ce6i oco6eHHoe BHBMaHie ^). Cpejvn 6jiecTBiafLx% h Aft- 
poBHTiix'b npoACTaBHTejiefi ^paHi^scRaro o6mecTBa, co6HpaBinHxcA 
vb cajnoeaxi, BeARofi, oneBHAHO, He Hon o6paTHTbHa ce6a BHBMa- 
Hie HH rjiy6HBOio Mucjiefl, hh xhboctbio yna, hb fffixe 6o&ROCibK) 
pasroBopa na ny^coH'b jiflB nero aauRi; Bcero eciecTBeHHie npeA- 

nOJ[(MKHTB, HTO nOA06HO MHOrHlTB APynOTB HOC^THTeJIflli'b CaJIOHOBl 

BeuKoS cjiymajn>, He ynacTByji juhhho bi pasroBopax'By a noTOMy 
npicyTCTBie ero bi cajiOHi ocTaBanocB HeaaMiHeHHUEi ApyrBMH, 
HO Be 6e8CJ[iiAHUMi> jiflR Hero caicoro. Oahbko 8to yMOJiHanie o no- 
cin^emn Be^RHH^ napHsccKHX'B cajnoHOB'B He uossi&rb emfi cjiyscHTb 
ncuroxHTejiLHuicB AORasaTejEBCTBOicB loro, hto obi> hxi bobco 
Renocin^aji'B. HanpoTHBi* loro cine iiajiOK) AOCTOB^pHOCTiio 
MOSHO npBHflTB, <iTO BeiiROft, hoaoGho MHorBMii ApyrHHT*, noct- 
maai HiROTopue canoHu IlapHsa. — Ecjih capaaeAJiBBO sairbHa- 
Hie MapMOHiejifly mo ne Cujio HHOCipaHHaro npHHua, MHHHCTpa, 
HI HeJioB^Ra, HH AftMU, ROTopue, HaxoAHCB B'B IlapHJR:^, He noci- 
TKjrfl 6u cajiona rocnoJRH JKo^peni h ne AOMoraJiHCB 6u noJiy- 
HHTB npHrjiameBie na en o&b^^ to hItb ocHOBania A^aiB hcrjuo- 

HeHU H8l 8T0r0 JSflB Bei^RBTO, ROTOpufi CUJTB ROpOTRO BHaROM'B 

H CB rocnojReft SCo^j^peHB, a Taa^Re cb Fphkmom'b h CapoHOicB 
RafijiBiOy KaRi* dTO aojikho saRJiioHHTB HBi cor^Ayion^aro. 

Bb npHHHCRi Kb OAHOMy H8B OTBiTHUXli CBOHXB HHCeMl R'B 

HMnepaipniii ERaTepHHi II on 1762 r. BeuRoft mjierB HCRpen- 
Hift npHB^TB 6apoHy RafijiBK) ^) h BupasRaerB HaMtpenle nanncaTB 
BMy. dTanpHHHCRayRasiiBaeTB nasHaROHCTBO Beipcaro CBEafijiBiOy 
BO BpeMH ero npe6uBaBifl bi* IlapmRi, HAaeTi bosmojrhoctb npoA- 
nojioasHTBHedesB ocHOBaHk, mo 6apoHB RafijiBio mofb, na ycTpaH- 
Baeiiue hmi oG^au h ne^epa y Rhho, npHrjiamaTB r. BeiQ^aro^ 

XaSB OAHOrO H8^ CBOHXB SHaROMUXB. 

PaSHHIfB 06pa80M1» HSBiCTHUft MeJIBXiopB FpHMMB, roBopH o 



') no dTHKB 26 npH^HBaMB TIAeTRO HCRaTb HMCHH BeUKSrO H BB HO- 

xpo6HHXB H ixHSoniiTHHXB MOMyapaxB^ oTHocAmHXCfl KG BpBiieHH npe6£iBa- 
BU Beuxaro bo $paHmH, j&aK'B to; Memoires de la R^gence par Buvat — en 
1715—1723. Bi EHXi roBopfl o BameM'B nocjaHHE* AojropyKOMB yMai^H- 
Baercfl o Boiikomb coBepmeBHo; 

Memoires du baron de Besenval — Paris 1864 (npeHyniecTBeHHO BpexA 
percBCTBa); 

Memoires du due de Luynes 1735—1758. 

Memoires Secretes de Bacheaumont— en 1762— 1786,- xoia h ynoM* 
Baerca ne pa3B o r-x*]^ 2^(|>(|)peB'B. 

M Cm. »PyccBaa GTapHBa", 1896 ro^a Hoa6pB, crp. 385. 



1 



— 46 — 

npoAasi 6H6jiioTeKH ^HAepo, Ao6aBJiJieT'i>, hto ohii npeAJioxsjn 
HMEepaTpHi^ ERaxepHHi KynHTB aiy 6H6jdoTeRy ipesi renepaia 
Bei][Raro que j'avais Thoneur de connaitre pen- 
dant son sejour en France ^), (Boioparo Hiribjrb necrb 
snaTb BO Bpei£A ero npeCuBank bo $paHi^iH). SHaROvcTBo n 
rpBHMOMi) Morjio OTRpHTb Bei];ROMy ;^ocTyn^ bo uHorie cajiOHH, 
nocin^aeifue nepBUMi, h bi tohi ^HCJii B'b cajioHi t-xsl Ecoh- 
nacB, rjsjk co6HpajiHCb aei^HRJioneAHCTH. Bi» srowb caoiOHt, 6e3i 

COimiHlHjTOJIROBailH paSJIHIEfilXl CTaTLflXl H BOSSptHiAXl, H8JI0- 

xeHHuxTi wb lisBtCTHOft dHi^BRJionexiH, HSAaeie, Roropoe Ha^aoiocB 
Bi> 1751 roAy. Ilocin^afl aiorB canoHi, Bei^ROfl mofl osnaRO- 
MHTBCH CB TJiaBHUMH HanajiaMH dTofi dHi^HRjionexiH. 

IlHCBMa HMnepaxpHiiBi ERaTepHHu II rii v-xi ^(j^^pem cbh- 
AibTejiBCTByioTi o snaROMCTB*! nocji^AHefi cb BeiXRHirB ^). Hnnepa- 
Tpm^a CB neio roBopnrB o BeaROifB, RaRi o RopoTRO SHaROMOMX r-aci 
S£o$(j[)peH'B joLisik, HasuBaerB ero, levilain g6n6ral, noB%- 
pflexB efi CBOK) pasMOJiBRy cb BeniRHirB, o6in^aerB eft oinycTHTB 
Bei^Raro vb napHxi h t. a. IIomhho aioro na oahoitb hsi nHceirB 
ERaiepHHu n HMioTCfl npHnHCRa caiioft lto^peH*B: ce que I'lm- 
peratrice norame le vilain general est le general Betzky, son fa- 
Tori, qui est un homme tres aimable, qui a fait plusleurs voyages 
h Paris et y a sejourn6 longtemps. 11 est mon ami. 

MojRHO Cb noJiHOH) ocHOBaTejiBHOCTBK) npoAnoJiosRHTB, HTO ApyrB 
T'SRE lEo^^poH'B HecoMHteno noc&n^aJTB ea cajiOHBi; fiesi coMH^Hiji 
ApyrB ea 6usi> npHrjiamaeMi wb HECJvb HeMHornxi npHOjmxeH- 
EUTb (ses familiers) TaR»e na yxHHu r-me ffio^peei, na roto- 
pfiixi pasroBopaMi ee 6bijio ROni^a. 

HsB'IcTHufi FpnifMi, OAHO BpeMfl naxoA^CB b^ Poccin bi 
1773 r., Bi OAHOMi Hsi cbohxi UHceiTB R'B T'TbA Mo^^ewb 
H3B C.-neTep6ypra cooCn^aerB eft o Bei](R0irB, RaRi o ^ejiostRi eft 
sHaROMOMi. — «Je suis bien aise de vous dire que le general 
Betzky vous a voI6 ane paire de badines; je les aireconnuesk lenr 
physlonomie. 11 s'en porte fort bien et je I'ai trouvfi rajeuni. 
(Correspondance de Grimm, Diderot etc, etc, par Maurice Tourneux. 
1882 T. XIV p. 494). Cjiosa era HecoMsiEHo AORasHsaiorB 
BHaROMCTBO 6ei][Raro b'b IlapH^^i RaRi cb r-^eio JEo^t^peni, Tasi 



*) Oeuvres de Melchior Grimm. T. VI p. 265. dition Maurice Tourneux 
J882 r. 

■) CCopHHKi HHnep. PyccK. Hcxop. 06mecTBa, t. I. ex. 261 h ci4j^. 



— 47 — 

H ci» FpHMMOMi, npeAmecTBOBaBmee ero npii^sAy bi neTep6ypni; 
HHane rpHMiTB He HOFB 6u roBopHTB, HTO Bei^Rofi Ha ero Bsrjurx'B 

nOMOJIOA%JI'B. 

BjiHSKoe o6n^eHie h sHaROiiCTBO BeiiRaro Ob pasHUHH xyjiflSR- 
HHKaiiH, jR0Bni0HH Bi IlapHarb, ycMaTpHBaeTCfl nsi cji%iiyK)mHxi> 
cjioBi HHCbMa M. n. BecTyaceBa hsii IlapHaca ri> H. H. lUy^ajiOBy 
OTb 14 OKTflSpfl 1759 r. (cm. P. Apx. 1863 ct. 375), TorAa en^e 
HanajiBHHKy aRaAeniH xyxo^cecTBi: tfl ncnpaBHo noJiy^HJn nicbMo 
Bame h o nplHCR*! sfficB :RHBonECi][a na irbcio yMepmaro JLopena 
XJiH aKajceMlH xyjipsRectwh, npHHaAJieaRan^efl Kb MocROBCROicy ynn- 
BepcHiery, CTapaiBCA totobi o6me c^ H. H. B e i^ r h ii !>, ROTopsfi, 
HH^ xyAoacHHRaxii sA'l^niHHX'b Hap5HHToe SHa- 
H i e, qajiieJiLHO bi cefl rommhccIh ycirlTB MoacerB. Ha ocHOBaniB 
BiuoecRadaHHaro, npHHHBi qio BeuRofi necoMH^HHo nodmaJi^ ca- 
jiowb r-SB ^o^^peHi (a secbiia B^po^THO h Apyrie cajiOHu), ^) 
MOJRHO npeAHOJioxcHTL, ^To OHi Bx ycTHOfi Seci^A^ eii^e 6ojr6e 
ycBOHJTb ce6i hobuo bbfjihaei o BOcnHTamii, npoBOAHMue Pycco 
Bi ero coqHHemaxi, cb ROTopuMH Bei^Rofl, RaRi qeJiOBiRi jik)6o- 
BHaTeJibHOft, MorB OBHaROMHTBca H paHie nyieMi ^TeHiA. 

Bl HHCJli paSJIHHHBIX'B BOHpOCOB'B, CJiymHBmHX^ npoAMeT^MB 

cysKAemft wb cajioHax'B XYIII BtRa, 6e3'B coHHtoia, BCTpi^ajica h 
Bonpoci> BOCHHraHin, cb rotophmi, no Bceft ai^poaTHOCTU, oshb- 
ROMHJicfl 6JIH3R0 H Bei^Roft BO Bpeica CBoero npefiUBamfl bi Ila- 

pHJRi^. Bl 8T0 HMOHHO BpeilA CTaJIO HSBiCTHUlTB Bl IlapB^'fa CO- 

HHHeme Pycco c3mhjib» ^), bi ROiopoHi na paAy ci hobuhu 
Boasp^HlJiHH Ha cnocoCu BocnHiaHiH hpoboahjihcb BsrJiflAH mbo- 
nxxi npeAmecTBeHHHROB'B Pycco^ b'b 6opB6'l ero cb cxojiacTHKO& 
h OTBJieHeHHUirB TeoJiorHHecRHM'B HanpaBJieHleifB BocnHTaHia. IIpH - 

nOMHElTB, HTO eWfi MOHXeHB ^) BOSCTaBaJXl npOTHB'B CHCTeMU BOC- 



r. II(e6aiBCBifi bi CTaTsi CBoeft cEsaTepHHa II saKi nHcaTeiLHBiia> 
(3apji 1869 r. ^ 2, ct. 130) roBopHrb, HTo5ei^RoB bo apeMa cBoero npoAOj- 
XHTeiBHaro npe6EiBaHia 8arpaHHi;ei) aaBasaji npo^eiia cbhsh cb hskoto- 

PUMH HSl napHSCKHX^ IHTepaTOpOUl H MeZ^y npO^HMl CB r. Ho(tH|)peBi> 

BOTopaa 6uja i^eHxpoMi rocnoACTBOBaBmeft TorAa larepaTypHoft napxiH h t. a. 

Oh!b HanacaH'B bi 1759 roAJi aane^aTaH'B b-b 1760 h coxseH'B pyKoio 
najana vb 1762 roxy. 

') MoHTBHB XHXB Bi XYI (cB 1533 HO 1593). Ho paHie,e^OBO$paB^iu 
Tasate, ero cooTevecTBeHBHKi Pa6iB (sHBmifi cb 1483 no 1553), b'b iiSBtcT* 
Borb CBoeiTB covBHeHiH Pantagrnel, aBHBmeuca bi 1537 roxy, yEasuBaji aa 
TO, TTO aaxo „instraire en a m u s a n t et de Teffort on de la fatigne meme, 
qui sont necessairement inseparables du travail, qni le sont encore plus du 
profit qn 'on entire, essayer de faire undivertissement ounn plaisir; 
regarder conune nn crime de corriger la nature seulement et an contraire- 



— 48 — 

nHiaHij], KOTopafl cosAaerb nonyraesr, HaGHBaa roJiOBy A^teft 
?7.«HMH cJiosaMH. Ohi AORasusajii hto BOcnHiaHie, soiopoe 
Aaerb cnjiy h xapaKTepi nejioB^Ry h coo6ii^aerB eny HanpaBseHie, 
BajRHie ero o6yHeHifl. FjiaBHoe, HTO(h» neoiOBiKB yui^jrB 
caMi) nosHaBBTb ce6fl; nyciB ohi yHHTca onacTH hs'b CeciA'i'? ot- 
HacTH Bsi KHHrb, HO 6e8T> posorb H cjiesx. PosrH, no CJiOBair^ 
MoHTaHAy cosAaiOT'B TOJiBRo HeroAflOB'b H 8jio6hhxi ynpflio^eBii. 
Bci Hrpu H T^JiecHUJi ynpaxHeHLi aojijkhh coctaajiATB sHa^s- 
TGJiBHyiD ^acTB Hamero oCy^enlfl. — Apjroft uicJiHTejib ^paeipiCKii 
BaROH'b, ^) BOsciaBaa npoTBB'b cpeAHOB^ROBaro EAeaoHSMa h sacxoa 
cxoJiacTHRHy Tpe6oBajn» bo bcsitb cBoero rjiasa h co6cTBeHHan> 
HsyneHia npeAMeiOKb. Ero neAarorBHecRift BAeajii Cuji'b pasBHTB 
Mhjibtohomi vb RHHri BOcnflTaniH, a saTiifi JIorroitl. Ha 
pani^e dTrocB AByx'B aHrjdflcREX'b iiucJiHTejieft cjiaBflHHHi Amoci 
KoMeHCKifl Bi coHHHeHiH CBoeMi «6ejiHRafl AHAaRTHRas siy 
1628 roAy, (npaaHJia Roxopoft npBMiHeHU wb ero hsb^thomii^ 
cOrbis pictus») Hsjiarajii EcnuTaHHuft cnoco6'i> yHpejRAenlfl bo 
Bcixi cejiaxi, ofin^HHaxi h ropoAaxi* RajRAaro xpncxiaHCRaro ro- 
cyAapcTBa tbrhxi mROJOCB, bi ROTopHxi fiu Bce lOHomecxBO o6oera 
nojia, HHROro ho HCRJUOHaa, npocain^ajiocB HayRaMn, coBopmeH- 
CTBOBajiocL Wb HpaBaxB, HaBURBJio JiK)6oHecTiK), Korjio BceHy, ^o 
Heo6xoAHMO AJia dToft h 6yAyn^eft shsbh, HayHHTBc;i oCcTOflieJiBHo^ 
jierRo H npoHHO. Amocb KoMeHCRifi cxaBiurb TaR3Re HpaBCTBeHHocTB^ 
Bume yieHOCTH, CMOTpiji'b aa o6yHeHle rbr'b Ha cpoACTBo npaB* 
CTBeHHaro BOSBumeHla HejioaiRa h c^HTaJii Heo6xoAHMUM'b n-b 
AyniH lOHomecTBa HacaxAaib Bci AoCpoA'^TOJoi 668t> HCRJuoHenLi. 
Ofb cqeTajii bx a*^^ BOcnHTaHia Bcero BajRHie xopomift n p h- 
ifipi jiHm> ORpysaionpix'B pe6eHRa (RaRi to ero poAHxejiefi, to- 
BapHn^eft, yiHxeJieft, cjorypB), a norony HacTaHBaJn na hooSxoah- 

MOCTH yABJIATB A'^TOft 0Tb BCHRarO AypHarO 06n\eCTBa, BI ROTOpOMX^ 



aider, favoriser, provoquer an besoin le developpement de nos pnissanoes^ 
faire d'aillenrs de la sant6 physique la condition et la base physiologique da 
progres intellectael h t. x. (esi Reyue des Deux Mondes 1 Aont 1900 r. 
Babelais par Branetiere. 

*) BdROHi, HSBiCTHiifi 4opA'B xpsHHTeiB neHQTu npH KopoieBt EiHsa- 
BeTt, poAHJCii Wb 1661 roA7 n ynep's 9 anpijji 1626 rojta. Owb aBTopi mho- 
rHxi saM'j^HaTeiBHHX'B coHHHeBifi isas'L to: De digitate et angmentis 
scientianun. 1609 r.,— Novum organom scientiorum sen judida vera de inter- 
pretatione naturae. 1620 a up. up., bi KOToptixi oui o^ihihi'b uexocTaTKH 
H npoMaxH cxoiacTincoBi, otkphjtl hcbjcctbo Ha6iH)AaT& y^euHm o6pa8oirb 
Hpesi HaBexeHie h HSiflCHflib flBjeeifl h8t» 6iHsaflniHX'B h ecTecTBeHHiixiv 
upu^HHi, a He jiVh OTAajieBBUxi n i. x- 



— 49 — 

OHH MorjiH sapasHTbCA HiiTb jih6o xyxawh. Ohi BUflCBBn aea- 
HBHle mROJUi MaTepH ms peCeHRa. JljoJiacHO Cb js^rhum o6xo;(HTBCfl 
JiacROBo; CHcreify ycipameHia OFb CHHiaji'B ci^moh) HepauioHajiB- 

HOK) CHCTeMOK) BOCHHTaHia. JI)lCAEIUIHHa, HeoCzoAHMafl npH 3T0in>y 
AOJURHa BOSBUmaTb H BOaCySRAaTb JIH<lHOCTb OHTOMI^a, a HHRaRli He 

noAaBJuiTb H yHBHTozaTB ee. Ohi TaRjRe BOsciaBaji^ ^poTHB^ rt- 
jiecHUTB HaRasaEdft. 

QsBicTHuft aHrjdftCRitt MucjiHTeJib jIorr^ bi CBoeni coHHse- 
HiH BocnHTamH x^Teft, BumeAmeirB bi> 1693 roAy, pasBEJiii en^e 
6ojrie hucjih BUCRasaHHUA 6dR0H0in> h KoMeHCRHu^. ^) Sa^a^a 
HpaBCTBeHHaro BocnHTania, no ifH'lHiK) JBLoRRa, cocTonrb wb Toin>, 
qTo6£i npiyHHTb xibTeft ri* caMOofijuaAamio z caMOOTBepaceHiio, pas- 

BHTB BTB HHTE HpaRTH^eCRift yMl, 6jiarOBOCnHTaHHOCTb, TaRTL, 

BrJtzjiHBocTB H BHymHTb jiK)6oBb Kb xopomeft penyxaiUH. Oh'b 
coB^TyeTb sacjiyxeHHyio js^nunL noxBajiy BUCRasuBaTb Hirb bt> 
npHcyicTBlH ApyTHXi; npocTynRH sue hxi oxHiOAb He BUcxaBJiaTB 
na noRas-b hjih nosop'b, laR'b Rani aio npHiynjifleTb nyBCTBO ctua- 
jiHBOCTH. YAapoBi AOJiHCHO H36%raTb; hxi aacjiysHBaerb lOJibRO 
AepsocTB HJIH ynpflMCTBO. JIoRRx TO^HO H3o6paacaerb to noHATie 
gentlemaD, ROTopoe BHpaGoiajiocb h yRopennjiocb wb AHrjiiu^ 
RaRi> HAeaji'B coBepmeHHaro HejioaiRa wb HCRJiioqHTeJibHoirb, 
apHCTORpaTHHecROirb CMUcjii. 06paTHB'b Gojibmoe BHHMaHie Ha He- 
oGxoAHMocTb ^HSHHecRaro pasBHTifl A^Teft npn hxi» BOcnHiaHiH, 
OKL yRasuBaji'b Ha neoCxoAHHOCib AOCTaBJiHib a'^^tamx bosmo^hoctb 
BKtTb no6ojrbe HHCTaro BOSAyxa h rlJiecHbix'b ynpa^Henift Bca- 
Raro poAa bi 6ojiibmoMi> pasH^pi, npHAaaajTb sHaienle oGy^emio 
Hxi caAOBOACTBy, peHecJiaifb h naROHei^'b nyTemecTBiflirb BCARaro 
poAa A^^ AOBepmeniH BceciopoHH^ro o6pa80BaHiH. 

JIoRRB OTBepraerb BCflRifi neAaHTHSMi, HCRycTBenHOCTb h na- 

CHJIOBaHle A^TCKOfi JSH^HOCTH OpH oCy^eHiH, KOTOpOe, HO erO MHt- 

hIk), aoji^ho 6fiiTB OTAB]xoMT> H yRasHBaeTb Ha ofipasoBame xapaR- 
Tepa B^ pe6eHR%, RaRB na OAHy i!3i> rjiaBHiflniHXB saAa^B bochh- 
TaelA. JIoRRi He CRpHsaeTB, ao lero xpyAHO HaflxH nejiOBtRa, ro- 



Go^HHeHie JIoEKa^ HaneqaTaHHoe ea aflriiftcRoirb jiBHsi bb 1693 r., 
6emo nepeBexeHo h na pyccRift asuk's nonoBCRUM's vb 1760 ro^y bb 
MocRBi (a sariMB bhuiio 2 BSAanie bb 1761 r.). Hbb dToro co^HHOHia 
BecBHa MHoroe bodijo bb HSBiCTayi) HHCTpyKAiK) HMnepaTpHuu EsaTepBHU 
CamiKOBy 13 Mapia 1784 r. Bb HsciBAOBaHiir rpa4>a X A. TojCTaro 
^BsrjiiiAU na yie6HyH) nacTB bb PoccIh bb XVIII cTOitxiii** axo noApoCna 
ysasaHo no CTaTBaici. 

U. H. BEUBOfi. 4 



— 50 — 

Topuft Oujix 6u Bx cocTOflHiB BocnHTaTb pe6eHKa no jKasBiBaeMofi 
BMi> CHCTeiii. 06pamaHCB coSctbohho R^ oOyneHiio pe6eHKa, JIorri 
roBopHTB noApo6&o o Heo6xoABMOCTH npenoAaBasia AiTHMi> jisbi- 

KOBl, Bit TOMl mUCJifk H APOBHHXI (COBiTJH HB SJIOjnOTpefijIOTb 

H&iH)y KOMMepiecKaro cneTOBOACTBa, apaeiieTHKH, reoMeTpiH, a 
Taoce yneHiji o Bort h pejiHiiH. 

PeBHOCTHHM'b no6opHHROMl BOCnHTaHifl H 06yqeHiH ^eHO^HHU 

BiiicTynnjii> HSBicxHuft apxieniiCKOin> bi KaM6p3 ^OHejiOH^, b-b 
HSAaHHOHi HM'B Bi 1712 T. coinHemH BOcnHTamH AOiepeft ^). 
OTAaBaH AOJiacHoe o6ii^eapHHflTOMy b% to Bpena BOcnHraHiio ho- 
jiOAuxi A'^BHAi) B-B MouacTLipHXii, $eHeJiOHi> npjiico BUCKasHBaerL, 
mo o^RHAaeri bi aioifB OTHomemE 6oJii%e on xopomefl MaiepH, 
HMiion^efi BosMoxHocTb saHATBca BocnHTaHieMii CBoea AO^epH 
(CT. 271). Ohi BOBCTaerB npoTHBi* rocnoACTBOBaBmaro BOsspiEk, 
HTO A^fl seHCRaro nojia BnoaiHt AOCxaTO^HO caMaro orpanH^eH- 
Haro o6yqeHk (cTp. 1) h eaxoAHTB Heo6xoAHHBi&ix, bi BHAy Jie- 
autm^HX'B Ha seHii^HH'6 o6fl3aHHOCTefi, KOTopfiia nsjiajOTCsi ochobe- 
HleifB HOJiOB'l&HecKOfl ^HSHH, npeAOCiaBHTB e& HeofixoAHMua cpeA- 
CTBa AJiA Hx-B HaHJiyHinaro BiinojiHemH. CpeACTBa 3tii AOCTaBJiAfOTca 
xoponiHM^ BocnBTatiieMx h o6yq6HieM^ Aonepefi^ nps nem> aoji^ho 
H86iraTB KpaftHOCTH u He A^aTB est* hexi cMimnux'B y^oEHXi 
(savantcs ridicules CTp. 3). ^pesBuqaftno Bamno em'Itb bos&ioh- 
HOCTB nanaiB BocoEraHie AO^epefi ci canaro paHnaro a^tctbe. 
Heo6xoAHMO wb nepBue roAu saSoTEXBcn o sAopoBBi e yKptuETB 
Tbjio, He ToponiiCB yqenieicB; ^mi MCHBine 6yjifiTh xaRi naauBae- 
Muxi ypoKOBi, TkM.'h Jiy^iue. MoacHO BcejiETb HecpaBHeHHo 6ojib- 
mee ROJiE^ecTBO noJiesHux'B CB'&A'&Hifi npi^THbiME pasroBO- 
paME (conversations gales), HeacejiB ypoRaiiE (cip. 23). 

cIIocTapaeMCH CA^JiaiB y^enie npiaxHUMi (rendre ]'6tude 
agreable); CRpoen-B ero hoat* bhaomi yAOBOJiBCTBin h cboSoabi 
(cachons la sous I'appareuce de la liberte et du plaisir). KocHyB- 
mHCb Bonpoca o ryBepnaHiRax'b e RanecxBi, Heo6xoAHMBixT», hxoCtj 
6hxb xopomeft HacxaBHHaeft, ^enejiOFB aaaBJiaexB, qxo O'lenb 
piAKO BcxptqaiOTCfl xopomia, oCjiaAaionaa bc^ee naAJiencaninME 
RanecxBaMH, e b-B siomi Rpoexca BeJiHKoe saxpyAHenie b-b bocqe- 
xaniH AOHepeft (cxp. 260). Ho eme 6ojiBme Rpoexca bi nenaAJie- 



*) De redncation des filles par M. de Salignac de la Mothe F6ii6lon, 
archevdque de Gambray, nouvelle edition 1719. Paris (ysasuBaeM'b cxpasHuu 
no dTOMy iiSAaHiio). 



— 51 — 

zameM'B npHMipi co ciopoHu poAHiejiefl; ecJiH ohh caHH He 
zejuaiorB coAtflcTBoeaTb h jqaciBOBaTB bi xbJii BocmiTaHifl — Bce 
ocTajiBHoe OKaacercH 668noJie8HUMi. OcHOsaHieMi Bceicy bocdh- 
Taaiio JEEBJUieTCfl noyiHiejiBHiafi h AOCio&Htift npHirbpi caMHxr* po- 
j(HT6Jieft (cTp. 262). 

3to nocjitAHee pasBHBajrb nosAHte Pycco, AORaauBafl ^to 
BCTHHHOK) RopHHJiHueio pe6eHRa AOJURHa 6hah ero naTB, a HacTOH- 
mHiTB BocnHTaf ejieiTL — ero OTeai, h hto npejiecTB ceiiefiHOfi skhshh 
ABJiJieTCfl j[yHniBHi> npoTHBy^Aieu'B AypHUMX HpaBam. Pycco bbi- 
coKO i^HHJii> npBSBaHie Maxepa, AORasBiBairb, ^to nepBOHanajiBHoe 
BOcnflTame Ba^mie Apyrnx'b nocJi']M(yK)mHX'B h HeocnopHMO Jie- 
JKHTB Ha Jsenn^EHt, KOTopan otb HcnojiHeHiii arofi o6)i3aHHOCTii 
HepiARO yRjiOH^eTCfl. Bce bbixoahtb xopomsirB hsi pyRi Tsopi^a, 
HO BupoacAftercH BnocjoiACTBiH bi pyRaxi "lejiOBiRa. Bi hqjio- 
BtnecROMX cepAi(i Bin npHpoacAeHHOfi Hcnop^eHHOCTH; b-b homb 
He cyn^ecTByerB hh oahofo nopoRa, ROTopue npHBHBaioTCA ri 
Heny BnocJibACTBui, nyreirB BJiianiH ORpyoRaion^eft pe6eHRa cpeAu 
H npHirbpoBi). 

BocoHTaHie Ha^iBHaeiCH cb poacAemn; oho aojixho Cbctb ao- 
vamnee; Heo6xoAHMO paajiBHHUMH rbjiecHUMH ynpasKHeHi^BfH pas- 
BHBaTB ^HSHHecRifl opraHHsiii pe6eHRa h ero opranu HyBCTBi>. 
06yHeHie aoji^ho 6utb no npoHMy^ecTBy narjiHAHUMB m Ha<]H« 
HaTBCJi CB oRpyxaion^HX'B pe6eHRa opeAHeTOB'B. OaBirB, TaR«e 
caMOCToaiejiBHOCTB H Ha6jiioAeHie co CTopoHBi peCenRa — Heo6xo- 
ABMHA ycjiOBlfl o6yqeHi^. BocnBTaTejiB aojixoh'b pyROBOABTBca 

JIK)60BBK) Rl HHCTOft HpHpOA^^ peOOHRa, HpHHapaBJIHBaTBCH Kh K^T- 
CRBMl nOTpe6HOCTAH'B H ysaJRaTB BX1>, OTCTpaHilTB pe6eHRa OTB BCA- 
RHXT> AypHBIXT) npHM^pOBl) H BCflROft pOCROHIB. 

3th BsrjiAAKi Pycco Biii8BajiH HO TOJiBRO B'B neAarorHqecROBfB 
Mifik, HO H BO Bdxi Rpyraxi> o6n;ecTBa B086y:RAeflie; CTajiH Tpe- 
(SoBaiB, no cjioeaMB r. H. FpoTa, <0CB060)RAeHia yqamnxca ot-b 
Toro y6iflCTBeHHaro lapascTBa cb rotopbimb Kh hhmb ao cbxI) 
nopi othocbjibcb bi mROJit» ^). Bb FepMaHlH ABBjiacB nonBTTRa 
ocy^^ecTBHTB na a^JtI njian-B BocnBTania Pycco. BaaeAOBi yqpe- 
AHJTB CBOH (|[)HJiaHTponHH'B, Ha ROTopBift H ERaTepHHa II, Birfacrb 
CB HacJi'i^AHHROMi npBCTOJia, noacepTBOBaJia AenBrn. 

IIOA'B BJIlHHieH'B dTBX'B HOBBEXl BSFJIHAOBX^ HO HXl Heo6UHafi- 
HOft npOCTOTi H aCHOCTH yCBOeHHHX'B CKOpO Boi^RHMB HyTOlfB HTO- 



*) 3a6oT£i EunepaipmH EKaTepHHU II o HapoAHOiTB o6pa30BaBis— ct. 27. 

* 



— 52 — 

Hifl H emfi B^poaTHie ^yTeM^ pasroBopoBi, m j^ ero cjiosHJiacb 
ii;^aji CHCieHa BOcnHiaHifl, noxpo6HO HSJioseHHafl hmi nosAHte 
Bi HSB'IcTHOM'B « reHepajiBHOM'B ynpejRjieHiH o BOcnHTaniH o6oero 
noJia K)HomecTBa>, KorAa HMnepaipni^a EKaxepsHa II, osaCoHH- 
saacL pacnpacTpaHeHiH npocB^iAeHiH bi HMnepiH, nopynnjia aio 
BURHoe A'bJio BeiucoMy, npeAaBineMycH oHOMy Bnojint c% oiJin^aB- 
meio ero jik)6obbk) ki* HeJioai^ecTBy ^). 

3to renepaJiBHoe yqpe^Aeme o BocnHTaeiH oGoero nojia ioho- 
mecTBa,^ KOH^HpMOBaHHoe Ea BejiHHeciBOM'B 1764 r. icapia 12 ahh 
H no HacToan^ee Bpena nopaxaerB ryiiMaHHOciiK) HAefl, EOTopua 
npoBOAHJiHCB BeARHMB HeyKjiOHHo H flacTofiHHBO BO Bcixi yqpeac- 
AaeHuxi HMi BOcnHxaiejiBHBix'B saBeAOHiax'B, KaRi sto HHTarejis 
caui ycMOTpHTB Bsi AaJiBH^flmaro HSJiomema '). 

Xoia 8T0 renepaJiBHoe y^pexAOHie no BpeMOHH CBoero cociaB* 
Jienifl OTHOCHTca ki nosAnifimeMy nepiOAy a^^tojibhocth Bei^Karo 
no BOSBpan^eniH ero wb OTenecTBO hsi sarpanHiJiu, rkuii ne uewbe 
nosBOJiaeM^ ce6%, napymEBii ntcKOJiBRO xpoHOJioraqecRift nopaAOK'B 
BBJioxeHia, nosaaKOMHTB HBTaTOJiefl bt> neHHorHrB cjioaaxi cb oc- 
HOBHuiiH EaiaJiaME aioro nepaaro CHCTeMaiH^ecKaro HSJioacema 
BsrjiHAOB'B namero npaaHiejiBCTBa na BOcnQiaHie, ROTopuMH oho 
HanipeBaJiocB pyKOBOACTBOBaxBca npn yHpescAeniH y^eCnuxi sa- 
BeAenifi. Ilpn TaKOMi nsjiojReHiii narjiflAHie cianerB BJulanie (j[>paH- 
^y3CRHx^ H Apyrnxi MucJiHTejiefi na Bossp'imfl o BOcnHTaniH k)ho- 
mecTBa, ycBoennHA BeipcHMi), a npn ero nocpoACTBi h caifoio 

EKaTepHHOK) II. 

«P'Iako BejiHKie rocyAapn, roBopnrB BeARoft, o laRHxi a^- 
jiaxi Rpafieee HiiiiorB noneneeie, ROTopuxi njiOAu moa^ih- 
T e Ji B H u H ROTopua Hiwb 6ojiBmyK) oCin^aiOT'B noJiBsy A<nfl no- 
TOHCTBa. tIbtb CoJiBmaro TpyAa h HeHCTon^Hiiaro BeJiHROAymi^ ipe- 
6yjOTb. Gjiasa CRopoxeRyn^Hxi a'^% ^ame ynpaHnaoTB caiiu^ Be- 



*) fopoxcsia y^Hiuma vb i^apciBOBaHie Kmu. EKaTepHHii II— rpoii^a 
A- A. Toxcraro cTp. 1. 

') no cioaaMi rias. CyiiapoKOBa 9T0Tb aokjislxl 6ui'b npeACTaaieH-B 
BeuKHMi no citA7K)iueMy noBOAy- Ilpn AORjaA'^ Beusaro o tomi, hto bi ro- 
cyxapcTBi B'^T'b en^e nocTaHOBieHifl, ROTopuji uoria 6u ciysHTB npaBHiaMa 
npa BOcnHTaHiH lOHomecTBa u xaiB o6mHpHtfimee pasBHTie noiBsi, oisiixae- 
Hofi OTB BOCuHTaTeJBflaro AOMa, HMoepaTpnAa EaaTepHHa II, xocrofiHO utna 
AapoBaaifl Bei;Raro, noaeitia eify co^hebtb reaepaiBHoe y^pesxeBie o boc- 
nHTaflin BOBOitiecTBa. Jl,i& dToro HsycTno cooOniuia eay cbou HantpeHia u 
micjB o5% BTOMi npeAMexi h noBeitia HaiosiiTB niicBMeHBO. BeuKofi npex* 

CTaBHJIl DO 9T0My CBOfi AOKJiaA'B. (Ch. PyCCKift BiCTBHEB 1842 r. KBHra 3, 

CT. 371). 3roTB AOKiaAB, BanenaTaHBUft bi 1 IIoj. Co6p. 3aK. 1764 ro^a 
(J\& 12103) npn ccmb npHiaraeTCB (cm. npHi. J\& 1). 



— 53 — 
jDnaftmifl jsjum; vb Heft naxoAflrb owb n CRopoe noABHroBi cbo- 

ETb B03AaflHle H HOBOe Rl» OHilMX ^ooI^peHie. 

IIpeoAOJiiTB cyeBibpie b^robi, abtb napoxy CBoeny 
HOBoe Bocnsrame, TaRi cRasaiB, HOBoe nopoxAeEde, ecib jsjijio co- 
BORynjieHHoe ch HeB%poflTHUMH TpyAaicH, a npflicaa ohuxi nojibsa 
ocTaercA Bcer^a noTOMCTBy. cem OAHaRO HaH6oji[Binoe Hsaojune 

Bame HimepaTopcRoe BeJinnecTBo npHJiaraiB ciapaHie He 

sHaio HS'bflCHHJTb jiH B cjia6uin» nHcameu^ HaiiipeHifl Bamero Be- 
jm^ecTBa, RaRHirb o6pa30in> y qpe^HTb bi PocciH BOcnHTaieJib- 
HUH yHHJiHiua, HOBd ii^pii ynorpeSHJTb TmaTejisHO CTapaacB 
H3o6pa3HTB HsycTHUA noBeJi^Hifl H bucorIh mucjih 
ABrycTbftmeft MoHapxHHH, RaR'B cjr&AyerB^): cOb AaBH^ro jxe 
speMeHH HiAeTB Poccia aRaxeidio h pasHBUi ynHJinn^a, ho Haso, 
6yxe He coBctirB HH^ero, cyniiecTBHTeJiBHui'B otb loro njioAOBi He 
€06paH0. npnqHHa Ta, hto ri AOCTHaReniK) Toro nenpflMue 
TORMO nyrn HsGpaHfii 6b[jih, a Hero coBciirB ne AOCTaBaJio o toitb 
H noHHoiJiJieHO He 6ujio. 

n3T> nocjiannuxi npH IleTpl BeJUiROirb sarpannay a b o p fl h e 
ch xopomHMH B03BpaTHJiHCB ycH6xaiai, B^ TOITB Heicy OHH o6y- 
qaTBca HasHaHOHu 6£ijih, ho ho MorjiH ynpazecHaTBca bi tomi. ^py- 
rie, H3T» npociaro napoAa, ycn^BajiH TaRjRO, ho CRopi^e en^e wb 
npejRHee noBi^ecTBO h caHoe He6uTle B03BpaTHjiHCB, on nero h 
jnoAOft laRoro cocToaniH, Rotopue bt> ApyrHxi MicTax'B TpeTBHicB 
cTeneneMi hjih cpeAHHifB Ha3HBaeTCJi, Poccia ao cero 
BpeiieHH H npoHSBecTH ne Morjia. 

HcRyccTBO AORasajio, hto oahhi tojibro yRpamenHuft hjih npo- 
CBtn^eHHHft HayRaMH pa3yM% ne A^JiaerB Ao6paro h npHuaro rpa»- 

AaHBHa, eCJIH OIl CaMBlXl H^SHOft lOHOCTH CBOeft jfiTh BOCHHTaHl 

He wb AofipoA^TeJiBX'b... 

Cm'Ijio yiBepscAaTb moscho, hto npflBiaro bt> nayRaxi h xyAO- 
jRecTBaxi ycnixa h TpeiBaro cienenH JiioAefi bb rocyAapcTB% oacH- 
AETB Bcye ce6i h JiacKaTB, ocjih a^th c^ caifux'B HisHuxi jrirB 
He 6yjsyTb BOCHHTaHu wb Ao6poA'bTeJiaxi. KopeHB Bceny Ao6py h 
uy-BocHHTaHie; AOCTHrnyiB ero cb ycnixoifB moxho, ho nnaRO RaR'B 
H86paBi cpoACTBa Ri TOMy npflMBia n ocHOBaieJiBHua. ^epjEacB 
cero npaBHJia neocnopHMaro OAHHoe cpoACiBO ocTaeicfl npoHsaecTH 
cnepBa chocoComb BOCOBTaHla, laRB cRasaxB Hosyio no- 



*) 3Atcb wh Texcrt nenaTHOMB nocTaBieau kobuhke, ROTopuMii OTxi- 
jeHo Bce BHse ci^AyniAee ao ciobb: Bame BeiH^ecTso AOsasuBaeTB h t. a* 
aa crp, 55. 



— 54 — 

P0A7 H^H HOBUX'L OTI^OBl H M a T 6 p 6 ft, ROTOpue Bl CBOH> 

oHepeAB Bcejiarb TaKiA npaBHJia^ KaKia caMH nojiynnjiH, wb cepwa 
CBOHxi A'^Tefl. 3x0 HoacHo HcnojiHHTB He BHaRO KaEi saBeAa bo- 
cnHTaTeJUBHUfl ymnummiBL ajih KbreH o6oero nojia, KOTopuxi npii- 
HHMaTK He CTapie RaKi no nflTOMy h mecTOuy rosy. BOcnBTaHiH 
SRQ nenpiCB HeycunHHMH TpyxaME ao 18 h 20 jfbvh 6e8BiJX0A- 
H a r Bii yiflJiHn^ax'L opeSuBaHla; bo Bce speHfl HHRyAa ne ny- 
CRaTB; BHAtTb Hxi MoryTii poAHiejiH H 6jiHsaftinie poxcTBeHHHKH 
TOJiBRO Bi yqHJiniq^, bi npHcyTCiBiH HanajiBCTBa, h6o HeocnopHMO 
HTO qacToe Ch jioabmh 6e8'L pasdopa o6xosAeHie bh^ h 
BHyrpH y^HJiHn^a BpeAHieJiBHO. IIpH BocHHTaHiH n e p b o e npa- 
jiaraiB aojocho CTapanie: 1) bcojiatb b'b lOHomecTBi^ CTpaxi Bo^ift, 
yTBep^aTB bi noxBajiBHuxi CRJiOHHOCTflX'B H npiynaTB ri> ocho- 
BaieJiBHHiCB npasHJiaM^, no hxb cocToaniK); 2) B036yacA&TB oxory 
Ri TpyAOJiio6iio H CTpaxi rt* npasAHOCTH, HayqaiB npzcToflnoMy 
noBeAenlK), yqTHBOcxH, 6jiaronpHCTOfiHOCTH, coGojiisHOBaHiK) o 6ijsr 
Huxi), necHacTJiHBHX'B; BRopeeaTB ckjiohhoctb ri onpaiHOCTH ca- 
MHxi> H Bcero ORpyacaion^aro. 

JI^aBHO AORasano, iro ne npeA'BycnieT'B totb hh bi> ^ewb toitb 
qeny 6yAeT^ npHjrlHaTB no hoboji'I, a ne no CBoeiiy »ejia- 
hIk). JIjoJiJRHo ciapaTBCfl ^to6u ajih fOHomeciBa see to HaSjiiOAaeMO 
6hjio, hto B^ 3RH3HH i^ijiocTH sApasiH H RpinocTH cjiomenifl cjiy- 
scHTB Mo^erB; naAO saCoTHTBca o sAopoBbt, ^HCToii BOSAyxa, yBe- 
ceJiflTB lOHomecTBO nrpaMH, neAonycRaTb CRyRH... 

Otb chxx nepBuxx yHpejRAemfl saBHCHTB Bce BocnnraHie, Ra- 
Roe A^HO 6yAeTB nepBony otb ohbix'b hoboA nopoAu npoHcxo^e- 
hIk). IIoHflTHO RaRafl noxpeGna ocxopojRHOCXB h Gjiaropasyuie Kb 
bhCop*! yHExejiefl, a oco6jihbo rjiaBHUxi HaAi^ hhhh AHpeRXopoB*i» 
H npaBHxejieft. 6% hocjtIahhx'b chx'b bca BaxHocxB h saxpyAHeHie 

COCXOHXl... 

Bce cie eAHHCXBOHHO saBHcnx^ oxt> oco6jiEBaro yqpejKAemfl h 
AaBaeiiHX'L nacxaBJieHifi, roh HaAJieacHrB cowhhxb ci> BejmKHU'B 
pasHHmjieHieM'B n ocxopoxHOcxBio, ji,2l6u Bce 6hjio acho, bhaxho h 
X01H0, hto6h HHHero xoro ^po^y^^eHO ne 6hjio, ^xo HaAJie3KHXT> ao 
ynnxejiefi, yneHHROB'B... 

IIpH HaqHHamH cero HaAoCno cnepBa sa xonnoe npaBHJio npn- 
HHXB HJiH A^JnaxB H jsjkiB,Th i^tjioo H coBepmeHHOo BJiH xaRi ocxa- 
BHXB H He HaqHHaxB» ^). 



'S^bch ORauHusaDTCfl robh^ke, nocxaBjeBHUA bi nepsHfi pasi y 
cjroBa: CB AaBHflro yse BpeMeeH. 3to aagt'l ocBosaHie saiuR)HaTL, vto bo 



— 55 — 

Bame eejiH^ecTBO AORasEiBaeie aahhumii hh'6 noBOJt'iHieM'B 
npeAciaBHTb ce6ii BCJi'lACTBie loro HaAoGnuH perjiaMeHTH h hh- 
CTpyKuiH K'b HcnoJiH6HiK) BucoHaftmaro HairbpeHln oCi* y^ipeacAeHiH 
laROBuxii BOCnHTaTejiBHkix'B y?HJiHii](T>: 1) npn aRaAeMlH xy^o- 
jsecTBi; 2) bo Bcitxi ryCepniflxi PocciftcRofi HunepiH; 3) ji^nH 

AByX^COTB J^OpflHCRHXl J^BHUT, 0Iip6;i;ibjIHH ASH nOCJiibAHHX'B HaCTB 

sHaiHaro zjifiRln nocxpoeHHaro HMnepaipHueft EjrasaBeTofl. 

CBivh 6yAerB yAHBJiflTbCH bbjihrocth h npeiiyApocTn Hairbpe- 
Hifi Bamero HnnepaTopcRaro BejinnecTBa, a uotomrh 6yAyTB bi> 
BacB npocjiaBJiaib neyBrapaion^K) MaxB hxi 6jiaaceHCTBa h npocB'b- 
nieEdH. Jl^a ysi^HHaerb BceMoryma^ pyRa BosAs Bcb HaiitpeHla 
Bama xaRHHi ycn'lxoH'L h cjiaaoio, RaRi HenocTHXHMO h nyAecHO 
npoBHA^Hle ero yB'i^HqaJio Bac^ RopoHoio. 

IIpeAnojiaraA o RajRAOMi hsb yqpexAeHHHxii no npeACxaBJie- 
HiaiTb Bei^Raro yHe6Hux'L saBeAeHinxi CRasaiL b^ oco6ux'l rjia- 
Bax^, cuTaeiTb Heo6xoAHMUM'B ocTaHOBHTbCA SAtcb na BumenpH- 
BeAeHHUx^ HaMH cJiOBaxi ROH(|)HpMOBaHHaro bi 1764 r. Mapia 12 
AORjiaAA H Bificrt c^ rku'b yRasaTb, no HepaspuBHOft cbash npeA- 
ifeiOBi, Ha cROJibRO BHmecRasaHHHe bi ebmi bsfjiaau HamjiH ce6'& 
noATBep^Aeme bi cociaBJieHHux'b Bei^RHM'b BnocjiiACTBiH ycxa- 
Baxi paasHHHuxi yneCBbncb saBeAeHift h RpaTROMi HacTaajieHin, 

BU6paHH0Bi'b H3l JiyqmHX'b aBTOpOBl Cl> H^ROTOPIIMH ^HSHHeCRHMH 

apHirlHaHijiMH o BocnBiaHiH A'^Teft otb poacAOHla hxi ao ioho- 
mecTBa. 

?HTaTeJIaM^ HSBtcTHO, HTO y^e bi i^apcTBOBame HMnepaTpBi^u 
EjiHsaBeiu npo^BEJiocb bb Hameirb OTe^ecTsi cHJibHoe noApaacaHie 
BceMy $paHi;y3CR0My. IIpH ABop'b 6bicTpo yBejiHHHBajiacb pocRonib 
H npoHHRaJia bi odn^ecTBO, o6miB HpaBCTBeHHufl ypoaenb ROToparo 
6ujn» BecbMa He bucor^, RaRB bto apRO H8o6pa8HJii RHHSb Ui[ep- 
daroBi Bi HaB^THOifb CBoeifb coHHHenlH <0 noBpe^RAeniH HpaBOBT> 
Bx PocclH». OrHomeHk jiioAeft He^Ay co6ofi He oTJiHHajiHCb 6jia- 
ronpaBieMx; BSATOiHHHecTBO h o6uaH'b i^apHJiH cpoAH M^CTHUx'b 



Bcixi BumenpHBeAeHHiix'b cTpoRax'b HBioxeBu mucjih HMnepaTpniiu Esa- 

TepBHU II, KOTOpUfl BCAKOB, RaK'B OBI CaMl lOBOpHTb, TIAaTeiBHO cia- 

paacfl naoCpasHTb, ocTaBa^cB OAi^aRO bi HeBiA'^niu o6iflCHHix 
JH 0H'bcja6BiM% nHcaHieH'b HaM'ikpeHiAABrycTifiinefiMo- 

H a p X H H H. BeITB MOSeTl 8T0 0C06eHBHfi npieM^ HBJIOXeHifl, AOBOl&HO HB- 

P'bAKO 7noTpe6jiaeii£ifl npH AOsiaAaxi, ho ne noAiexHTib coMHieiio, hto 
xaHHOiTB ciyqat BarjAA^i h hlicjih HMDepaTpRiiH h EeiiKaro coBepm^^ 
coBnaAajH. Koiiy evl hhxi npHHaAiesHT-B najBHa nepBeacTBa b% p 
BsriflAax'B, pitnHTB ci ToqEOCxiio e^Ba in bosmoxho. GjiaouH nonuTKH : 

CJk±2iiBU HaMH Wh COOTBiTCTBJIOniHX'B FJaBaXl. 



— 56 — 

npaBHieJieft BC^Karo poAa; rpa6e)SB HpesauqafiHO ycHjiHjiHCb; paa- 
eparb scflRaro poxa, wh oco6eHHOCTH ei CTOJTHi^arb, AomeJii ao 
RpafiHOCTH, H npaBHiejibCTBo xnteTHo CTapajiocB hojoioshtb aroiiy 
npejT^'b, RaKi bhaho hsi ynasa 20 aBrycia 1760 roxa ^). 

XoTfl Bi nepByio noJiOBHHy XYIH CTOJrbTiH b% naineMi o6- 
n^ecTB'fe E npoABHJiocb CTpeMJieHie ri yneHiio h oGpaaoBaHiH), ho 
caMUfl mROJiu n yqHjmn^a Cujih b-b jRaJiROirb nojnoseniH; y^HieJU 

He OTJIHHajraCb HH HpaBCTBeHHOCTblO, HH BHaHieiTb no CBHAi^TeJUbCTBy 

joLTXbj ocTaBHBiDHXi E2Mi> CBOH saHHCRH. Cnpocb Ha BOcnHTaTejieft 
Bi Hameicb OTenecTB^ nopoAHJii to sjio, hto CTaJun 6paTb b% ry- 
Bepnepu h ryBepnaHTRH jiiOAeft HHOCTpaHHaro npoHcxoiRAeHiB, co- 
BepmeHHO k% louy nenoxroTOBJieHHuxi, Aaace ci Becbiia xypHuirb 
npomjiuifi. Ot3iib£i o6'b dTHzi BOcnHxaTejuflX'b pyccRaro ioho- 
mecTBa ^panx^sa Meccajibepa bi ero sanecRaxi cjiHmROMi h3b%- 

CTBHl. ^pyrofl JRO HHOCTpaHeiCb, HaXOAHBHliftCfl OpH aHrJliftCROlTb 

nocoJiBCTB^ B^ PocciH, RaTRapia nHmen no droicy noBOAy: «noji- 
Huft HexocTaTORi) cpeACTBi Kb oCpasoBamK) ocoSenno Mexgiy jroh- 
n^HHaHH H MHO^ecTBo $paHAy80BT> HESRaro npoHCxojKAeHk (low 
french people), ciyM'lBniHX'b CA^aTbc^ Heo6xoAHMB]MH bo 
Bcbxi ceMeftCTBaH'b — botb ABa oGcToaiejibCTBay noAaBmia Hifoepa- 
TpHU'b Mucjib, BiinoJiH^eMyio noAi^ en jomsawb HaCJiiOAeHieM'b h 
cb BOJiEHaftniHirb ycepAieHT>» ^). 

^jiA noAHiiTiJi pyccRaro o6ntecTBa, Tpe6oBaJiflCb laRi CRasaTb 
HOBue JUOAE (pasyM^H noA'b dTEMi JifOAeft BOcnHTaHHHX'b HpaB- 

CTBeHHO E yMCTBOHHO), HOBafl CpOAa, npE KOTOpoft CJII%AI>I o6pa30- 

BaHifl, noJiyHOHHUfl HHorHHE jiEiiaMH, He yTpaHEBajiECb 621 na- 
npacHo, RaRi bto cjiynajiocb nepiAKO, a pasBHBajiECb 6u AaJi^e na 
nojibsy o6nQrK). Beipcofl yRasHBajix np^MO na oicyiCTBie bi na- 
meirb OTenecTBi BOcnpiEM^HBOfl cpoAH, nHTaiejibHOft no^BU, no 
cjiOBaMi KjiiOHeBCRaro ^), bt> ROiopoft mopjio 6u npHKpinHTbCH h 
pasBETbCH HayHHoe oCpasoBaHie. 

OrcioAa ero HacTofiHEBaa nponoB^AB HeoSxoAHiiocTH boche- 
TaHiJi, ROTopoe nepepoAHJio 6bi HpaBCTBeHHO o6n^ecTBO, co3Aajio 6n 
TaRi CRasaib ocoCyio nopoAy ^) JiK)Aeft, ocoGoe cocjioBie 



*) Cm. Tasse BiiaoBa— pyccKoe o6iAecTBo (m kobhhhu Uerpa BejH- 
saro jio EsHTepifHH H.—BROiioieBa xia ^TeBia 1865 roxB J\& 168; Coiobb- 
eBa-HcTopia Poccio t. XXIV h XXV. 

') Cm. C6. Hm. Pycc. Hct. 06m,, t. XII, h8% ovceMi lopAa KatKapTE 
Bi JopAy BafiMyry. 



*) Cm. PyccKaa Mhcje 1895 roAt J^ h 



9to BHpaseaie hie To^eie ynoAo6j[eBie ciysHio, KaBi> HSBtcTso, 



— 57 — 

HJiH CBoero poAa Tpeiift hbhi bi rocyAapcTsi, ROTopufl asHJoica 6u 
Hocnejieii'b HayHHaro iipocBiii](eHlJi. Ho icaKi ace dToroAociHTHyTb, 
KaKi cosAaiB dTon hobuA uacci jiiOAeft? 

IIpBAepjRHBaflCb yHemio Pycco, ?to HeJIOBibR^ on npHpoAU He 
HiAen HHRaRHrB zyAUxi eaiuioHHocTeft h nopoRoei h hto ORpy- 
xann^afl ero cb caiiaro poxAOHia cpeAa (t. e. comba a saxiMi 
o6iitecTBo) ORasHBaen na Hero nary6Hoe sjiiHHie, Bei](Roft, RaRi h 
MHorie Apyrie nocjrbAOBaxeJin Pycco, npHinejii ri saRJUO^eHlio, hto 
jffis ycTpaneHiJi otb CyAyn^aro qejiOB^Ra t. e. peSeHRa sjiiflHlA no- 
poHHOft cpeAU HeoGxoAHMO, c^ BOSMoaRHO paHHHXi Jiirb, yAaJiaib 
ero OTB OHofi h noMin^tib bi saRpuniUi, ocoOha BOcnsraTejiB- 
HHii saBeAeHifl (bb cMucjii yTOSsoix'B), y^pesAaeicua rocyAap- 

CTBOMly Wh ROTOpUXl BO BOCB nepiOAl* BOCnHTaHU A'^TH He AOJIXHfil 

6iiJiH on^n^aTB na ce6t BJiiflHle nepBOft ORpyxaion^eft hxi cpeAU 
T. e. ceMBH. TaRHKB o6pa80irB pyccRaa ceMBfl npHsnaBajiacB He 
cnoco6HOK) BunojiHHTB rocyAapcTBeHHUfl TpeCoBanifl no BOcnHia- 
HiK) H AOJiasHa 6ujia yciynHTB npasa cboh bb btomb OTHomemH 
rocyAapcTBy, ecjiH xor&na bha^^tb Afcieft BOcnHTaHHUMH h o6pa- 
aoBaHHUMH. FocyAapcTBO ace npH BunojiHeHiH aroft hoboA, npn- 
HHMaeMofi Ba cefia aaAaiH, mofjio BOcnojiBsoBaTBca oouTaMH Jiyq- 
niHXB eBponeficRHXB noAaroroBi, jiyHmnMH BocnEiaxeJiBHUMH le- 
opiflMH, HTo6u npHFOTOBHTB ce6i HecTHux'B rpascAaHB H HpaBCTBeH- 
huxb oxaoBB H Maiepeft, ROTopue Bnocji'6ACTBiH, bb cbok> o^epeAb, 
caHH BOCOHTfiiBajiiH 6u, TaRHifB 3RQ oCpasoMi, HOBUfl rpflAymifl no- 

ROJliHlfl. 

BeuROft He CRpuBajix hb otb ceCn, hb otb HMnepaTpni^fii, hto 
rjiaBHiftmee npenATCiBie npB BuaojineHiB npeAnpBHBMaeMaro TpyAa 
saoioqaeTCfl bi qpesBEi^aftnofi TpyABOCTH naftTB Heo6xoABBioe 

HBCJIO JIBI](B, AOCraTOHHO nOArOTOBJIOHHUXB RB OTnpaBJieHlfO 



npexMeroMB ooctoahhuzb HacMimeKB baxb CTpeMieaiflMa BeuKaro, cBHAi- 
TeiBCTBynntox'b, Kasi n 6ojiBmaH nacTb HacMtmesi BOo6iue, tojibko o hoao- 

XUCjiH MBHIf OTBaSHBaH)II^HXCfl HaCMtxaTLCH HaAB npeAMeTaMH, AOCTOfiHUMH 

noisaro yBaseeui h coqyBCTBiA. HaBorxa Beasoft hc BHpasaiB HaMipeHia 

Wh HeMB JH60H3MiHflTB 4)II3UHeCKOeCTpOeBie^eJIOB'bBaH 

TbMii cosAaTB HOByK) nopoxy iroxeft. HanpoTHBB Toro ohb yaaauBaji'b Heo6xo- 
xmocTB npaBBibHaro pasBOTia Toro cxpoeHia, rotopumb leioBliK'b OAapeHB 

OTB npapOAU, HO BMiCTt CB TiMB OHB BaCTaHBail fla HpaBCTBeHHOMB 1 

yMCTBeHHOMB pasBHTia ^eioBiaa. E^Ba ih kto CTanoTB ocaapHsaTB, hto hb- 

lOBiai HpaBCTBOHHO H yifCTBeBUO paSBHTOB AO TOrO 6e8K0HeHH0 piSKO OT- 

JHMaerca otb rpyCaro AHsapa-JiDAOtAa, hto abjaotb co6ok) saaB 6ii co- 
BepmeHHO oco6yio nopoAy MeJiOBiaa, BOABopnxb Roxopyx) bi nameMi ore- 
^ecTBl H cxapajca Beusofl. 



— 58 — 

AOJixHOciefl BOcnnxaTejieft (npncTaBHHROB'b no BupajseHiio Bei;- 
Karo) n yHHTeJieft bi yipesAaeMEixi> hmi saBeAeeiiixi. 

KorAa npHCTaBHHKH caMH ne OKa»yTT> npHMipoBi HcnojraeHifl 

^eCTHOCTbH) CBOeK), CKpOMHOCliK), TpeSBOCTiK) H RpOTOCTlK) — BC4 

HacTaBJieHia bmh a&hhhh 6yAyTi» GesnojiesHH. 6^ hxi> 0006*1 bii 
HXTi nociynicaxi npeACTasjiAioTCfl nHTOMAam Bcb npaBoyHHTeaiBHEifl 

KHHIH ^). 

BeAROft npflMO BucRasuBaji^: «TpyAHO ci ea^ajia laROBurb 
Bu6HpaTb H Kb ceMy HaBT^peHiio ho HHane moscho Hain» AOCTHrnyrb 
RaR^B onpeff^JiEBi niii npeBocxoAHoe acaJiOBaHBe; bi btomi cjiy- 
Hai maflHTL jeHert ne cjii/^yeTt ^. 

a Bi ApyroitTL M^crb RaRi 6u bi oT^aflHin Bei^Rofi fobophtl: 
<Mo:Ren» 6uTb fly»Aa Bejinrb eaui AOBOJELCXBOBaTBca lini 
TOJibRo HToS'B npHCTaBHHRH He noABepKOHu 6biJiH xoxa AByMli 

C H M !> MepSRBMl H Bl npOCTOMl) HapOA^ TOJIb CHJIBHO BROpOHHB- 

mHECH nopoRaMi, a HMeHHo nb^ucTBy h npasAHOCTH^. 

Ho dra ipyAuocTb ho ociaHOBHJia BeARaro. HeAocxaTOR'b ne- 
o6xoAHMHX'b HacTaBflHROB'b H yHHieJieft Bi> cpeAi^ HarnHXi cooTe- 
qecTBeHHHROB'b OEiy pimHjiCH nonojiHHTb npHFJiaineHieMi xaROBUxi 
H8'b sa rpaHHOfii h npenMyn^ecTBeHHO hs'b $paHi^iH, cb tok) uexnj 

npOHHM'B a^JIbK), cHTOOli HaiTb COBpOMeHeifb BSIi C06CTBeHHblX'b 

CBOHxi nHTOMaeBi> BH6paTb xopomHxi yHBTOJieft, HSAexcHux^ npn- 
CTaBHHROBi H cjiy^Biejiefi > ^). 

TaRHMi) ofipasoMi) aoji^ho saRJiioqHTb, hto BoaroA npH6%rajrb 
Ri coA'i^ficTBiK) HHocTpanaeB'B He no oco6eHHOMy ri* hhmi pacno- 
jiosceniiOy a eAHHCTBenno sa HeAOCTaxROMi bt> to bpbmh bi> Hameirb 

OTeneCTBi JIBAl, ROTOpUM^ MOaCHO 6UJI0 BB-bpHTb BOCHHTauie H 

ofiyqenie A^xeft. 

BeAROfi npaMO BucKasuBajix: < h y jk h ?to6u npHCTaBHHRH 
6ejjih hsI) pyccRBXi. MoxHO JiH, hto6h ciH A^TH npHsnaBaJiH 

HHOCrpaHHUX'L pOAHTBJiaMB CBOHMH H ORaSUBaJIH EWh RaR'B JlfiJin 

BOJinrb Jiio6oBb n Apy^6y? E^ojih no Heo6xoAnMOCTH yno- 
Tpe6jieHH CyAyTL hhosomiih, Moryrb jni ohh bo BceM^ noAaBaxb 
npuM'Ip'B nHTOMaaMii, 6uTb ch hhmh Bii AepKBH, BO Bdxi Hiciaxi 
FAi npaBHJia wbpu coBepniaioTca n t. a» ^)- 



*) Cm. Fenep. Qjaai 4. Ill, r. IX. Tose caMoe siipasaii, RaR'B BHme 
noRasano h ^eHeiOHi h JIorki. 
*) renep. Hjani h. II, r. I. § 4. 
«) Cm. renep. Hjan-b h. Ill, r. VIII. 
*) TaMi ae. 
«) Cm. renep. IIjiaHi h. Ill, r. VIII. 



— 59 — 

Hsi axHx^ cjioBi npflMO aiiKy&rb 'ito 5ei](Kofi npH6irajii ki> 
coi^ftcTBiK) BocnHiaxejiefi HHOCTpaHx^eai tojibko no Heo6xo- 
AHMOCTH. JlHi^a, yTBep;RAaK)I^ifl npoTHBHoe h o6BHHAK)iii;ifl Bea- 
Raro wb ocoCoicB pacnojio»ceHiH ri BocnBTaTeJiflirb HHOcipaHi^aMi, 
AOJURHU noBTOMy npeABapHTOJiBHO AORasaib, hto bi Hameifb rocy- 
AapcTBt, Bii nojiOBHHi XYIII cTOJi%Ti^, 6uJio AOCxaxoHHoe 
ROJiHHecxBO BOCQHxaxejieft cpoAn Hamnxi cooxenecxseHHEROB^, 
6uBniHXi Bii cocxoflHlH jiBHx&cfl AtflxejibHUMH noco6HBRaMH Ben;- 
Raro Bii jijkjii BocnHxaHin MOJiOAoro noROJiiHiH. Ho xaRHxi> AORa- 
saxejiBCXBi emfi ho npeACxaBJieso. OGpaxnicb npn axoirb BHHiia- 
Hie H Ha xo, hxo BeuROft bobco ho coBixoBajii h He npeAJiaraji'B 
o6yHaxB A^Tefl na HHOCxpaHHHxi> HsuRaxi. Ohb npaBAa roBppHJi'B 
c(Heo6xoAHMo nnxoimaMi pasyM^xB Ha hho cxpaHHux'B 
flsuRaxB KHuzu 6yAyiAeMy hxi sBaniio hphjih^hbih)), ho nocxa- 
HOBJSflji'B npaBHJSOMB Hxo Heo6xoAHMO ofiynaxBca hm^ asHRy b 
HECBMy ynoxpeSaxejiBHOMy, h6o HSsicxHO (bb cmhcji^ ne 
noAJieiRHXB coHHiHiio, Ao6aBJiaeMi» oxb ceCn) «^xo BC^ROMy hojio- 
B^Ry Bi o6n^ecxBt aojihcho anaxB bck) CHJiy h Bce npocxpaecxBO 
flsuRa CBoero oxenecxBa^. BeAROft, ne oxpni^afl nojibsu sHaHia 
BsuRa H 6yRBB cjiaBflHCRHXB, BOscxaoxB npoxHBB ycBoennaro o6u- 
Hafl yHHXB A^xefl bb mROJiaxB rpaiioTb no RHEraifB na csaBaHCROMB 
^suRi; H npaMO roBopHXB: ccHe bboahxb cero cnocoOa yneniA, h6o 
XtxaMii npe^e HaiaiiH cjiaBAHCKaro aojikho y^HXB OyRaapH 
ne^iaxHBie na ynoxpe6ji^eMOMB huh% x. e. pyccROMB 
aauRi ^). 

EcjiH H cjny^ajiocB hxo A'^Teft ofiyiajiH Ha asur^ ne pyccROMB, 

HO HHOCXpaHHOMB, BMB MaJIO AOCXyHHOMB, XO 9X0 HpOECXOAHJIO 

OHeBHAHO no HesnaHiio pyccRaro ^sHRa npenoAaBaxejiaMB, roxo- 

PHXB HaHBMaJIH OABHCXBeEHO Sa HeHBliHieAlB APyrHXB, 3HaK)^^IXB 

OAHOBpeueHHO H npeABiexB oOyqemH b pyccRift iidURi; rb xouy 
xe, BOo6n;e roBopa, axo cjiyHajiocB rohohho ne ^acxo. Bo bch- 
KOiTB cjijnhi bb BBHy BeaROMy exoro cxannxB HeJiBsa. IIodxoMy 
BABa jiH MO^HO npHAaBaxB sHa^enie BSElcxHOBiy pascRasy, npnao- 
AHMOMy xaRjRe b IIoponiBHUMB BB ero sanncRaxB (BSAaniH 1881 r. 
CI. 453), qxo rb I^ecapeBBHy IlaBJiy IlexpoBBiy npHmejiB 27 
ceHi. 1765 r. AjieRcaHApB IlexpoBB^B CynapoROBB b bb pasro- 
Bopi CB HBKBxofi HBaHOBBHeMB IlaHBBUM^ o6b aRaAeiuB xyAO- 
xecxBi CRasajiB MencAy npo^BMB: (cecxB a^ h'Irxo r. Tay6epxB: ohb 



Cm. renep. njani ^. III, rj. IX. 



— 60 — 

cuiteTCH BeiycoMy, hto peSarB BocnnTUBaerb ea ^paeiiyscROiii 
flSHKi. BeAKOfl CMieica Tay6epTy hto ohi peCnrb b^ yHHuramt, 
Koe H6AaBH0 saBexeHO npH aKaAeMifi BOcnsTUBaerb, ea sBhosk 
H/bueufiOWb. A B(Hi Ra^ceTCfl (npoAOJi^RaorL AjieRcaHffp'b IleTpo- 
BHHi) H Bei^ftofi n Tay6eprL o6a AypaRn; aoji^ho ff^Tefi bi* Poc- 

cm BOCIIHTKIBaTb Ha flSURi pOCCiftCROirB». 3tO HMeHHO, KdLKb BHme 

CRasaHOy npeAHHCHBajii cairb BeARoft; CyiiapoROB'B HHHero CBoero 

Bl) dTHXl nOCJI%AHHX'B CJIOBaXX HB npOHBHJTb. 

Jl^jisi OKtHRH dToro paacRasa npeOaBHifB, hto r. J[e6eAeB% bi 
CBOOM'b coTOHeeiH rpa^u HnRHTa^n IleTpii IlaHHHfii 1863 r. no- 
BTopjBLJi dTOTB pascRas'B (na CTp. 82 — 83), xo6aBJiflerb: cnexAy 
Tbwh BeujaoH 6wi'b yBaacaeicb ERaiepHHofl RaRi onuTHuft neffa- 
ror^ H Tay6epTB Hiiiji'b nsBi^CTHOCTb RaRi y^eHuft ceRpexapB a^a- 
ABMiE HayR^; Bce 3to ho noM^majio BpaJiio CyicapoROBy 

npOHSBeCTH JSTb Bli AypStRH H U%JIUft BO^epii FJiyMHTBCfl UBKb 

HBMH BL npHcyiCTBiH Hacji^AHHRa npecTOJia». E^Ba jih Haxo ro- 

BOpHTB, RaRl MOrJIH A^fiCTBOBaiB Ha BBJIHRaTO RHflSfl HOAo6Haro 

poAa quasi ocTpoyMHBiH 6echnu. 

BeaRoft HaxoffHJi'B CeaycjiOBHO HyscHUBTB y?HTB jihai> xeHCRaro 
nojia^), ^ROTopuifB mh sa Bce OAOJUReHu RaRi-io sa nepBoe npeA- 
BOAHieJiBCTBOy ORasaHHoe npn no^BJieHm hb CBirb, 3a nepByio 
ooMon^B H c6ep6»eHie, 8a nepBoenHTaHie,nepBoeHacTaBJieHi6». Bi 
aTExi cjiOBBXb BeuRaro HecoMHibHHO oipasHJiHCB BumenpHBeABH- 
HUfl HaMH cjiOBa $eHejiOHa. 

%o RacaoTCfl MOTOAa yneHifl h BOcnBiaaiJi, to Bei](Roft, RaRi | 

dTO nOApOfiHO H8JI0»eH0 MHOH) Bl> rjiaB% 4, 6, 8 H 9, COB%TI>IBaJIl», I 

cji^Ay^ yqeniK) MoHTaHB, Anoca RoMeHCRaro, JIoRRa, ^enejiona, 

y^HTB H BOCOHTBIBaTB 6631 pOSOrB H CJIBSl^ HB HpuC'IraH Rli CypO- 

BBiMi M^paifB, no B08M0SH0CTH HarjiflAHO, CA'^JiaB'B yqeme RaRi» i 

6U OTAUXOM'B (npiflTHBOTB HO ^OHeJIOHy). Oh1» TaRJRO HaCTaHBaeTB 

^^x>6'b CB a^tbmh o6xoAHJniCB JiacROBO, hto6h ho npio6yHHTB tuxl 

Kb CypOBOCTH H yCTpaHflJTH OTB EHX-B BCARio XyAUO npHMJipBI. 

BeoRoft cjii^AydrB bi axoMi yneHiio ^enejiOHa h Pycco. 

Caicoe BOcnHTanie aoji^ho HaHHHaTBca nyiB ne ci poxAOHia; 
no ycTaBaiTB BOcnHTarejiBHuxi saBeAemfl, yHpe^AGHHuxi Beu- 

RHITB, npHHHHaJIHCB A^TH OTB HflTH jrbrb ^). 

Bi) dToiTB OHeBHAHH BSFJiHAu ^eHBJioHa H Pycco, Bume HaacH 



M Cm. riaBj 6. 

') Cm. riaBS 4, 6, 7, 8, 9. 



— 61 — 

npHBHAeHHue. Tohho laic^e, cjiijiya yqeeiK) Pycco, Beipioft npn- 
HHiiaeT'by HTO Kb HeJiOB']^HecKOMi> cepAiirb nirb npHpoxAenift Hcnop-, 
qeHHocTH, H noTOHy pasBHTie h naKJiOHHOCTB pe6eHRa saBHC^rb 
orb oRpyacaioiiiiefl ero cpe^u h BocneTaTejieft. To^ho tbx3sb Beii- 
Kofi BM'kMi ci JIoKROMi npHSHaBaJTb mo TpyAHO HaftTH xopomsx'b 
BOcaHTaTOJieft. Gjiobom'l cKaaaib, nejibSH He npHseaib, hto Bei^Rofi 
B'b BucKasaHHUX'b HMi B3rj[iflAS^i> BOCOHTaHiE n o6yHeHin A'i^Tefi 
He npoflBJiJijrb HeroJin6o caMo6uTHaro. Ohi, OHeeBAHO, cjiibAOBaji'b 
yneniK) juh^t* panfte ero saHHMaBmHxcji fionpocaiiH, KOTopue h ao 
Hamero BpeMeHs ho nepeciaiorb 6juTb npeAMexaMH, BHTepecyion^HMJH 
RaxAaro MUCJifln^aro qeJiOB^Ra. 

Bi yRopi Bei^ROMy ciaBHTb HeJibSH, tto owh bi> drvLXb OTHome- 
HiBX'B HOCJiiAOBajii HSB^CTHOMy HspeHemK) ((Je trouve mon bien 
partout oii je le trouve. Ho HeJibsa ne 6HTb npHaHaTejrBHHM-b BeA- 
ROiiy sa TO, ^0 ohi*, ycBOHBnui 006*6 eiH oiBJie^enHHa nanajia H8i> 
TeopiH BOcnBTaHifl e o6y^eHiH AiTeff, hphjiojrhjiti cboh ycnjiie ri* 
ocyn^ecTBJieHiK) ohmxi bi pasJiHMHHXi) BocnHTaTeJiBHuxi> saseAe- 
hIhxi, ynpexAeHHHxi no ero npeACTaaneHiio BOJiHRofi Hime- 
paTpHAOfl. 

Ilocjii dToro AOBOJibHO BHaHHxejibflaro OTCTynJieHifl otb xpono- 

JIOrHHeCROft nOCJltAOBaTOJIlHOCTH BBJIO^ROHifl BOpHeMCa OHHTb Kh 

npoAOJiaceHiio AaJiBHiflmaro nyiemecTBlii Bei^Raro. IIo Roawnik 

RHJirHHH FoJIHUUHOfi, Bei^ROfi BCROp'b OCTaBHJU'b IlapH^Rl B BMtcrt 

Cb ea cynpyroin» RHflseM'b Fojibii^bihuhi, HamBM'b nocJianHHROirL^ 
npH6uJi% wb ROHi^ 1761 r. bjib B'b caMOMi Hanajii^ 1762 roAa bt> 
BtHy, TKb Ch BBMi BCTpi^ajicH H'iRift ^iOBajib, HibRorAa npo^ec- 

COpi HCTOplH B'b JIlOHOBBJIJli, a B'b TO BpOMH SaBiAUBaBinift 3% 

Biai HHnepaTopcRBU'b RaCBHexoBrb ApoBHBX'b MOAajieft. KaR'b 

BBAHO HS'b nHCeHl JI^IOBaJIfl R-b CoROJIOBOft, OH'b COA^fiCTBOBaJI^ Boi^- 

ROMy R^ ocMOxpy RaR'b caMoft B'bHU, mKb h RaOHHexa MOAajieft h 
BecBMa BipoflTHo cnoco6cTBOBajrb coSpamio BeARBMi 6ojibinoff 
ROJUieRipH MOAaJieft b ropejibe^oBx, Roropyio om BnocJii^ACTBiB no- 
sepxBOBajii saB'&AyeMoft bmi> aRaAOMlB xyAO^ecxBi ^). 

TtHTi BpeMeHOMi Bi PocciB CROHqajiacb HMnepaxpBi^a EjiBsa- 
BeralleTpoBBa 24AeRa6pa 1761 r. B^HOTBopToirbHacynonoJiyAHB^ 



*) Cm. Oeuvres de Valentin Jameray Duval. 1784 r. nepeuncKa cb C( 
JOBOK) HHCBMO nepBOO. KOJijeKiiiu MBAaiefi Bei^Karo cRaaaHO Bann 
Apo^aie B'b rjast o6'b AKaAeniH XyAOsecTB'b. 



— 62 — 

H cTapmift ceHaTopi, KHflSb HaKHra lOpbeBHit TpyGeiiKOft, oCta- 
BHJii, HTO rocyAapcTByexi Ero BejiHHecTBO HMnepaiop'L Uerp-b III ^). 

Be^Koft, ysHaBt 061 btomt., ne BanewHirb yae 11 — 22aHBapfl 
flsii B%HU Haancaib HOBony UnnepaTopy Ha Hineipcoini aaiflrb 
nosApaBHieJiBHoe nncbiio, bi ROTopoMi, BHpaxcaa noiRejraHifl aoji- 
roBpeMeHHaro h c^acuinBaro x^apcTBOBanifl, BucRasuBaJiii Mexxy 
npoHHM^: cMeioe Freude uber Euer Kaiserlicher Majestat glQcK- 
liche Besteigung des Erbvaterliclien Thrones aller Eussen ist so 
inniglich und aufrichtlg, als dieTreuemit der Jch AllerhOstet der- 
selben Zeitlebens zugethan gewesen, und die ich nun init deui 
tiefsten Gehorsam, den ich als Dnterfchan meinen Aller gnadig- 
sten Monarchen schuldig bin vermehre. Das GlQck des alten 
BetzKy, der von Euer Kayserlichen Majestat schon so lange 
Zeit her mlt Gnaden Qberschattet worden, kann durch diese 
Allerhochst derselben Erhebung nicht anders als volkommen seyn. 

Euer Kayserlichen Majestats Zeit ist nun mihr zu kostbar. 
und mein Herz zu voll, als dass ich desselben Begungen in allem 
ihren TJmfaDge erklaren KOnnte. Ich begniige mich also Allerho- 
chst derselben meine zartlichste Wunsche vor die lange Dauer 
einer HOchstgliickllchen Majestat AUerhochster Huldund Gnade 
fussfalllg zu empfehlen. Uebrlgens ersterbe ich In aller tiefsten 
Ehrfurcht. 

Euer Kayserlichen Majestiit Alleruntertbanigster, demuthig- 
ster Knecht I. Betzky. 

Wien. Di3ii 11 (22) Januar ^) 1762 r. 

HoBuft HttnepaTopi ne saGujii) cocTOflBmaro H'bRorAa npH homii 
KaiiBieprepoM'B Bei^Raro h BCKopt no sciynjieHiH cboomi na npe- 
CTOJVb, OC060K), HapoHHO npHCJiaHHOK) 3CTa({)eT0K), uBcajii eify, 
^To6u OH^ BOSBpamajiCH, hh naJio ne Mejujia, bx PoccIk). 9to hecb- 
MO HtfnepaTopa ao nacb ne AoniJio; no Kpaflneft Mtp'b HaMT> oho 
HHrA^ He BcrpiTHJiocb. Mo«ho npoAnoJiaraTb, ?to cb i^Mb xe 
KypbepoiTB BeuKofi yAOCTOHJica nojiyiHib BHCOHaflrayio Harpaay. 
ObI) SbiJiB CAiJiaHjb KasajiepoMi) opAena cb. AjiOKcanApa HoBCRaro 
9 ^espajia 1762 r. 3), BtpoaiHO BCRopi no uoJiyHeniH ero nosApa- 
BHiejibHaro necbMa 6jiaronoJiyHHOHB BoscmecTBiH na npecT0Jii>. 



M Cm. McTopia Poccin— C. CoiOBbeBa, t. XXVI, cxp. 404. 

*) Cm. ^leHiH Hmo. 06m. Hcxop. n ApeB. npn Mock. yHHBepc. 1863 r. 
RH. IV, cip. 82. 

') Cm. 6111100X1 KasaiepoBi 4 pocci&CRHx:b opj^eHOBi no 1797 r. ~ fiaa- 
Tumi RaMeHCsaro. SaMiTUM-b npH 9tomi, ^to RaBajiepoMi opAeaa cb. Auhu 
BeuBOfi Be noKaaaBi. 



— 63 — 

Ho HHieTCfl OTB'^THoe Ha dTo DBCbMO Bemcaro m^ B^hu ^e 
orb 16-ro Mapra cJiiAyioii^aro coAepsaHln: cBqepamH^ro HHCJia 
ci HapoHHO npHCJiaHHUM'b mTa^OTOMi BceMBJiocTHBtfimift Bamero 
HficnepaTopcRaro BejiH^ecTBa jRas'B co BcenoAAaHHifimBMi no^TO- 
Eiewb noJiyHHTB yAOCTOHJicH. 

Ohumi noBeji^HO uwb hh iiajio ho moaji^ bi PoccIh) oiapa- 
BBTbCA H AoporoH) nocD^maTb, ROTopoe, no BCKpeHHeiiy MoeMy 
ycepAuo fl poBHOCTHOMy ^ejiaeifo BcnojiHHTb AOJii:ReHi> h, hb OABHOft 
MBHyru He MimKaBmH, bi» nyrs oinpaBJiiocB. 

Ho AAGu SaGOJliSHOHHUMl) MOBMl COCTOJlHieiCB MHt Hfl- 

jKafimeMy pa6y Bamero BejiBHecTBa, ne 6ujio npBHTeno bi BHny, 
emejiH CRopMmBHi mobmii nprbsAOMi) yiieAJiK), xony jsflsi Jiyn- 
marc ystpeuifl b onpaBAaHi^ icoero, necTb Bifiio BceHHacafimee 
npnjiosHTb pasHUxi AORTopoBb cocTOflHiB 6ojrb3Hefi mobxi pas- 
cyjKAefiie. 

Bnpo^eicb, noBOprafl ce6fl Kb CTonaMi> Bamero BeJiBHecTBa 
npeOuBaK) Cb Bcerjiiy6o^a&mBMi noHTemeMii Bamero HMnepaiop- 
CRaro BejiHHecTBa BcenoAAaHH^fimift pa6i H. BeAROft ^). 
Bbna. Mapra 27 (16) aha 1762 roAa. 

Hs-b dToro HBCbMa oieBBAHo: 1) ito BeuROfi He npocBJi'b Hm- 
nepaTopa o npBHaiiB ero BHOBb na CJiy«6y, ho noJiyHHJii orb 
Hero HOBeJi'lHie €hb najio ne MeAJiA bt* Pocciio OTnpaBBTbCA h ao- 
porofl nocnimaib^. Ecjib 6hL aTO ^BJi^jiocb cJiiACTBieMi npocb6u 
Bemcaro, to owl Ce^'h coMH^Hi^ 6jiaroAapBJi'b 6bi HBinepaiopa sa 
ocyntecTBjieHie ero JKejiaHla; 2) hto yxe BeAROft bi to BpeMHcra- 
T^jTb ce6H CTapuMi HeJiOB^ROMb, HeAOMoraji'b, naxoABJica bi 
GojiisHOHHOMb cocTOflHiB B HpeACTaBjiHn^ Bb TOMi paacy^AGHle 

pa8HUXl> AORTOpOBb. 

TpyAHO noJioKBTOJibHo cRasaTb, ^to no6yABJio IleTpa III TaRb 
CRopo BKTSBaTb 6uBmaro npa homi RaiiMeprepa, b A^BcTBOBaji'b jib 
OHi vh 3T0M^ cjiyqai OABHCTBeHHO no jiB^HOMy no6y^AeHiK) b ho 
coA^ftcTBOBaJia jib ri axoMy TaRsce ero cynpyra, snaBmaa a^bho 
BeaRaro. JI^jih ptmenifl srmx'b BonpocoBX noKa ho BMieTC^ yRasa- 
Hift, HO; snaa BsaBMHUii OTHomeHlH AepsRaBHUX'b cynpyroBb bi aio 
speMfl, T. e. B-b naiajit 1762 r., TpyAHO npoAnoJiOHBTb, hto6h 
npocb6a EKaTopBHu II o bbisob']^ Ben;Raro 6UJ10 6u yBaacena en 
cynpyroHi, ecjiB 6uTaR0Bafl 6ujia6bi npeA'bHBJieuaERaTepBHoioII; 



?Cm. ^TeHiii Hm. 0<5ni. Ecr. h Apobh. npn Mockobcb. yeiiB. L863 r., 
IT, cTp. 83. 



— 64 — 

OH'B aioro KaKi pas'b 6u ne c^'Ijisutb, a noTOMy npaBHJUBHie 
npoAnoJioacHTB, ^to IleTpi III bos^hm^jtb caiii mhcjil BusBaib 
BeARaro, h hto EKaiepEHa n e^a jih oGi* 81011% xoAaTaftCTBOsajia. 
Bei](ROfi 2Re, noJiyHHB'L noBejiiHie txaib wb Pocciio, ho oco6eHHO 
ToponBJica yisxaiB hsi Btnu; no Rpaflneft H^pib om> en^e 25 
Mapia Haxo;iHJ[C)i bi cioJiHAi FaGcCyproBi e co6HpaJiCfl tojibko 

BUiSHaib Wh CROpOlTB BpeMOHH, RaKl* dTO BHAHO H8% nECblfa Ha- 

xoAEBmarocfl Tor^a :Ke bi Bisfb rpa())a HBaea FpHropbeBHHa ?ep- 
HumeBa ri HBaHy HBaHOBEqy UlyBaJiOBy oti> 25 napia 1762 r. 
^epHumeBi DEmerb «il part d'ici bientot Betzky, qui a un ordrc 
de Tenirj) ^). 

Ha dTOHi ocHOBaHiE E npnnoMHEB'b KOBOJibHo MOAJieHHoe ne- 
peABEJKOHle Ha JiomaA^xii b% to Bpenn, mojrho AonycTSTb, ^to Beur 
ROfi npEfibiJn Bi* IleTepGyprb ne panie ROHi^a anpijifl 1762 r. 
Ho TO^Haro yRasanifl BpeiieHH ero npE6HTiji b% neiepCyprb uu 
He EMi^eMii. IIoJiosHTejibHO HSBi^CTHO TOJibROi HTO yjRe Bi Mai Brb- 
CAujb (24 HflCJia) cocTO^Jicfl, sa noAnEcameirb Ero BejiHHecTea, 
yRasi) CeHary, hto Ero BejiEHeciBO BceMEJiocTHB'Iftnie aoacajio- 
Bdkjvb refiepajn-Maiopa Bemcaro bi renepajii-nopyHERE ci nojiHuirb 
no TOMy HHHy sKajiOBanbeM^ e pauionaHE h noBeji'lBaerb 6biTb OMy 
rjiaBHUMi) AHpeRTopoMi Bi> RaHueji^piE orb cipoemS e na^'b aa- 
BECflniHME orb oHaro cipoeHiAME ^). 

HpE dTOMi BT* yRasi GenaTy AoCaBJieno: «a na cocTOHiiQrH) sa 
HEiTb MHsy HeflrayseHi cb npEuaAJiejEHOCTHME jua^Th eify :Ra- 
JiOBaHHyio rpaMoiy, na xaRoirb ocHOBaniE^ na RaROirb owb Tenepb 
BJnaA^erb eio, t. e. no cnepTb ero ^). Hsi aiExi* cjiobI) yRasa ark- 
Ayerb, hto HHsa Heftrayseni cocToajia sa Beii^KHMi en^e panie na- 
sna^eniJi ero rjiaBHtiMi AHpeRTopoMi RaHAOJiflpiE cTpoenift. Ho 
noqeny h RorAa HMeHHO TaKOsafl eny 6uJia noscajiOBana, HaHi ho 
yAajiocb sHflCHETb ^). 



*) Pyc. Apx. 1869 r., crp. 1769. 

') Cm. ^Teeie Hm. 06iu. Hct. h ApesH. npu Mocb. ysHB. 1863 r., kh. 
lY; Tasse apx. Upas. CenaTa KHHra o6iflB. Buco^. noBei. J& 174, crp. 223; 
pasBO JC.-ncT. B4a." 1762 r. uoHa 11, J^ 47. 

^) C^. apx. Cea. bh. Bhc. yBas-L J^ 96, ctd. 309. 

*) Hsi apx. UpaB. CeBara, HSAaHHaro r. BapaHOBHifb t. Ill, J^ 12176, 
BHAHO ?T0 HHsa HefirajdeHi HaxoAsiacB wb BeuAeHCROH'b ybsxi h 6£iJUk 
noxajioBafla ysaBOMi 25 H0ji6pfl 1744 roAa J^ 9288 HiiaepaTpHaeE) EiHsaBe- 
TOS) wb Bi^Boe noTOMCTBeHBoe Bifi^'j^Bie renepajiY <|^eibXEapinaiy npHHKy 
recceHi-roM6yprcBO]iy. IIoci:& ero soh^hhu bi 1745 roAy, 6£itb nosers, dra 
Eusa 6uja nosaioBaea BeusoMy, no xoAaxaftcTBy tomi baobu npHHueccu 
FecceHi-roMGyprcKoft, AHacTaciH HBaHOBHii, ohcbb pacDOio»eDHofi k% 
BeuKOMy. 



— 65 — 

O ffi^TejiBHocTH Beipearo no KOHD^ejiflpiE crpoemft naMH cKa* 
saHO BTb CJi'iA7K>ii^efi rjiasi; sji^bch ace, npoAOJiJKan H3Jio2ceHie ero 
6iorpa4>iH wb xpoHOJiorHHecKOft nocji^AOBaTejiBHOCTHy ynoMHHeMi, ito 
BCRopi nocjiit cocTOHBmarocA ero nasHa^eHifl rjiaenHMi jiflpeKio- 
poiTB RaHAeji^pin cipoeHiH, Cb He6oJiBmnM% qepesii M'lcaiJCb, co- 
BepmHJicji AOCTonauaTHuft nepeeopoTB, nocji^ACTBiesfL ROToparo 
6iijia ROHHHHa IleTpa III B^ Ponmt h BOsmecTBie na npecTOJii> 
ERaTepBHu II. 

Bii osHaqeHHOMi nepeBopoii Bei^Rofi Ri HHCJiy cTopoHHHKOB^ 
HOBoft HMnepaipHi^i ne npHnaAJieacaji'B; HanpoTBBi Toro ohI) na- 
zoAHJiCJi BMicTi cb neipoMt III BTb ]ifiBh OTitsAa ero H3^ Ileiep- 
ro^a Bii OpameHdayMii. 9to noJio^HTOJiBHO AORasEraaeTCfl sanH- 
CRaifH nXieJiJiHHa (GiaBinaro 6i[6jiiOTeRapH FocyAapn), ROTopHft, 
onHCHBaH oTUJiuTie IleTpa III Ha hxtI h raJiep'b hsi Ileiepro^a 
wb HOHB ci 28 iiOHa 1762 r. Ha 29-e roBopHK: iHa axT* h ra- 
nep^ ^AHBmHXi) bi hohb cb 28 na 29 iiona b^ OpaHieH6ayMT» 
6H[JiHMe^y npoHHHH: Ha axTi: oSeperepMeflCTepi) HapumRHHi, 
HsMaftjiOBi, Ojicy$BeBi», IIlTejiHH^, 6apoHi> Fomm, ^OH'B-PyMop'B; 
3Ta axTa ymjia bi HeTepOyprB. Ha rajiep* ate 6kuih, neacAy 
npo^iEMH: BopoHi^OBa, PaayMOBCRa^, Tpy6eitKaH (cynpyra $ejiBA- 
Mapmana) npHHKecca FojimTefinx-BeRRCRafl, Map. IlaB. Hapum- 
RHHa, MapHH. OcHiiOB. HapHmRHHa, RHaniHfl FarapHHa cb ao- 
HepBK> rpa^HHOK) BpioccB, MejiBryHOBi), Pom. H. BopoHii.oB'B, 
FyAOBHH'B, HsMaftJiOB'B, BpeAajiB, Bojirobi, BHue-Kanipep^ Fojih- 
jSf£Bi> H HanajiBHHRi RBHi^ejiflpin cTpoeniH H. H. Bei](ROfl ^). 

Kpoifi Toro MOSHO npHBecTH h h^rotopbeh oipni^aTejiiBHiaHAO- 
RasaTejiBCTBa xoro, hto BeqRofi CRopie ne Sktji'b b-b HHCjAA^ficTBH- 

TeJIbEHXl CTOpOHHHROBl ERaTOpEHBI 11 HpH nOpOBOpOTl. TaRl), 

Hanp.: 1) wb hhcji* jihu^ yAOCTOHBniHXca nojiy^HTB pasnaro poAa 
HarpaAu aa 6jiiaronojiy^HHfi pesyjiBTaT'B nepesopoTa, hma Bei^Raro 
ue BCTpinaeTca; 2) Jimta, ocTaBHBmia Hawi onHcanle aioro nepe- 
BopoTa, ch nepoHHCJieHieM'B jnmb BiHeiTByqacTBOBaBniHX^jHeyno- 

MHHaiOTB BOBCe TOM'B, HT06hl Bei^ROft HaXOAHJICfl Bl) HHCJii CTOpOH- 

HHROBi EKaTepHHu II; 3) HeAaBHoe BOSBpan^enie BeniRaro, nocjii 
AOJiroBpeMeHHaro npefiuBaHlH sa opeA'^JiaMH oTe^ecxBa, MoaeerB 
CRop6e BcejiflTB yBipeHHOCTB, hto oh-b ho tojibro He yHacTBOBajn>, 



«) Cm. PyccK. ApxEBi 1890 r. t. HI, cip. 555. Sra ae Banncita lUxei- 
iiHa noMiiAeHa bi coHHHeHi^x'B AepsaaHHa, HSxaH. FpoTOM'B t. IX, CTp. 
287 H 294. 

0. H. BBUKOft. ~ 



— 66 — 

HO juBLxe H He sHaoii o npeACXonnieMi nepeBopoib, rlBii CoJi'ito hto 
Tpy^HO npoAHOJiosHTb, no pasjiH^HUicL ycJiOBiflicx Toro BpeiieHH, 
HTo6u RTO-jin6o BOJi-b CT* BeARHMT* sarpaHHHHyK) nepeoBCKy o6i> 
dtowb npeACTOflBmeicB nepeBopoilb; 4) He HMteiCfl wh BHAy hhee- 
KHXi AOR&saTejiBCTB'B H Aaxo yRasanlfi o tomi>, hto6u Beosoft 
3HaJi'bo npe^CTOflH^eM'L nepesoport. HanBSfi OAHaRO, He saMtxHTb 
HTO BepaH^e B:b A<)neni% CBoefi bs'b IleiepOypra ri> IllyaaeJiio (bi 
napH^i)) OTB 13 iioHA 1862 r., ynoMflHaa o nepesopoTi h nepe- 
HECJiBH rjiaBHuxi ero A'^HxcJiefi e ynacTHHROBii, Ao6aBjiaen «oii 
pourrait encore nornmer Mr le General Betskoy, uouvellement ar- 
rive de Paris ». Ho A^Ji'le bi Apyroft A^nemi ohb Ao6aBJiBeTib <le 
general Betskoi n'emettait que des voeux pour le 8ucc6s de 
la conspiration »^). 3x0 saanjieHie SHa^iHieJiBHO H8M%HHexi> yse nep- 
Boe, noxoMy hxo oxi> BupaaceHiH xesama ycnixa npeAQpi^xifo ao 
AtflcxBHxejiBHaro ynacxlH bi RQWh — rpoHaxHoe paacxoHHie. ffiejiaxb 
ycnixa xhsY bobco en^e ne npeAnojiaraexi y^acxie b^ HeiTB h hh- 
CKOJibRO He coAtftcxByexi ero ycnixy. Oahh xeJiaHk mr aioro 
HeAOCxaxoqHU. H noHeny Ohjih nsBicxHU Bepanxe uoao6busi ace- 
jianiH Ben;Raro? 

SaMtxHMi xojn>RO hxo BepaHJRe, ynoMHHaH o BeqROMi xpe 
pasa Bh Aenemaxi 13 iion^, Bci xpH pasa uHmexii ero j^aMHJiiH) 
pa8JiH(iH0 xo Beskoye xo Betskoi. 

Bi HHCbMaxi) CajibAepea Kb Ropojiio $pHApHxy 11 h Aenemi 
caRCOHAa BpiojiA o xomi sue nepeBoporl bi HHCJi'b cxopohhhkobi 
ERaxepHHu II Bei^Rofi He yRasani. 

HcxopHRi FepMaH'b b-b V kh. cBoeft HcxopiH cxp. 285 ^), ro- 
BopHXi Hxo HI HHCJiy cxopoHHHROBT) ERaxepHHu II HpH nepoBO- 
poxi 1782 r. npHHaAJie^ajTb «auch noch der bei der damals in 
Frankreich lebenden Mutter Katharinas in besonderer Dunst ste- 
hende, der so eben erst aus Paris zuruckgekerter gene- 
ral Betzky». 

KoneHHO, FepMaH'b ho npoAcxaBJuiex^ HHRaKHXi) AORasaxejiBcxBi 
KaRT) 3X0My yxBepacAemK), laRi h xony qxo 6yAX0 Beu;ROft npi- 
ixajii Bsi IlapHJKa, a ne hsI) B^hu, RaRib naMH Bume CKasaHO. 
BnpoieM'b FepMaH'b ne noHMeHOBUBaexii (cxp. 294) Bejc^Raro bi 
HHCJii JiHi^'b fiHBmnx'b npn Ileip'fe III b% ahh 6 — 7 iiojia (x. e. 



Cm. BHJib6acoB-b--HCTopia EitaTepHHH II, t. II, cxp. 642-551. 
s) Cm. Gescliichte des rassischen Staates. Band Y, s. 285. BipoiiTHO 
FepMaH'b ocHOBUBaexcfl na BbiuienpnBeAeHBOii Acnemi fiepanze. 



— 67 — 

26 — 28 iiOHfl), RaKi AaMi laRi h MyacHBHi», h ho ynoMHHaerb o 
Hein, roBopa icIflcTBiflX'b EKaiepHHU bo BpeMH nepeBopoTa. 

Ri dTHiii ace ahhici oTHocnrca h pascicasi rjiaBHOft noco6* 
HHmj ERaTepnHu II, asBicTHofi KHsniHR ^msoBofi, cjntAjioii^aro 
coAepxaHifl: 

«Ii6 quatridme jour apr6s I'av^nement au trone monslenr Bet- 
SRoy fit demander uu moment d'audlence a sa Majesty, qui lui 
fut accord6e. II n'y avait que moi aver Tlmperatrice. Quel ne fut 
pas notre etonDement quand se mettant a genoux, il la pria de 
lui dire par qui elle croyalt 6tre 61eT6eau trOne? Sa Majesty lui 
repondit: cje dois men 61^yatioQ a Dieu at ^ mes fiddles et bons 
Sleets ». <Alors, lui repllqua BetsRoy, je ne dois plus porter ce 
cordon, et il voulait oter Tenseigne de lordre de St. Alexandre, 
dont il 6tait decor6. L'imperatrice Ten empScha, et lui demandait 
qu'est ce qu'il avait? cJe suis, dit-ll, le plus malheureux des 
hommes, puisque vous ne savez pas que c'est moi qui ai di^posd 
les gardes pour cela; c^est moi qui leur ai distribue de Targent^. 
Nous le crumes, non sans raison, fou k lier. L'imperatrice s'en 
d^barrassa bien adroitement en lui disant, qu elle savait toutes les 
obligations qu'elle lui devait, et quecenetattaussi qua lulqu'elle 
remetrait le soin et la surveillance des joalliers qui deyaient faire 
la nouvelle grande couronne en brillants pour s'en servir le jour 
de son couronnement. II se leva dans un enthousiasme et conten- 
tement tres visible et nous quitta ^ Tinstant, se depfichant appa- 
remment de communiquer cette grande nouvelle k ses amis. Nous 
rimes bien de bon coeur, et j etais dans ladmiration deTinyention 
de sa majesty qui Ta ddbarrassa d*un ennuyeux fou» '). 

PaSCRaS'B dlOTB, ROTOpuft CO CJIOBl AamROBOft «e nOBTOpHIOTl 

oqeHB KHori^, bi* tomi ^HCJiib h Anxepo (KOTopoMy AamRoaa caua 
3T0 nepecRasajia), ohcbhaho, BUCxaBJi^erb BeaRaro cb Rpaftne ne- 
Gjiaronpi^THOfl usia Hero CTopoHH h noTOny ne Moacerb ho ocTano- 
eHTB Ha ce&b BHHMaHie ero 6iorpa(j[)a. 



i) Memoires de la princesse Dashkoff pnbli^s sor le manascrit originale- 
de Mr. Bradfort-traduit par A. des Essarts. Paris 1859, p. 7, t. I; rose ca- 
noe Bi ApxBBi BB. BopbflUOBa, sBHra XXI, CTp. 90—91. Toxe caMoe uo- 
BTopaer^ r. HjiOBaftcsift vb ciaTS'^ CBoeft o bb. J[,aniKOBoft BiOTeveciBeB- 
Buxi sanBCRaz'b 1869 roxa J^J6 126, 127, sHCBOibco ero se oapoBepraa. 
Tasse bi HcTopin PoccIh G. M. GojoBBesa t. XXV, CTp. 145 h ciiji. Uo- 
^TeBBUfl aBTopi roBopQTi npH dTOMi, HTO QporoTOBJieBie BopoHU 6iuo no- 
pyqeHO BemiOMy, (cxp. 14^). Ton se pascKas's RMteTcn b Bi^Pyccsoft 
CTapBBi** 1873 r. bob6p&, CTp. 707 n ci'^a- 



— 68 — 

CsiAy^ HSBibcTHOMy npaBHJiy pnMcicaro cyAonpoHSBOACTsa tes- 
tis unus— testis nullus, uojkeo 6ujlo 6u ho npHx^BaTL HHRasoro 
sHanemfl aiony CBEA^TeJiBCKOMy noRa8aHiiOKHflrHHnJI^ainKOBOft(RO- 
Topafl 6jjJia BjiopiqHBa, no BBipasceniK) caBcoft EKarepHHu II) h ee 
o6paii^aTB Ha Hero BHEManiH. Tkirb He nenie ne HOJEem He ysa- 

SaTB CJI^Ay^II^^O- BOAROft, RaRT> HSBiCTHO, HaXOAHJICA Bl AOCTO- 

naMHTHue ahh iiona Micai^a BirlcTi Ch IleTpoMi III h hjuuii Ha 
conpoBOflCAaBmeft ero hxtj raoiepi^. Beipcoft He Mon ne npeAnojia- 
raib, HTO dTO RoneHHO 6hUL0 ohohb xopomo ESBibcTHO ERaxepHHi II, 
a noTOMy neBosMOXHO AonycTBTB Aaace, ^to6u oht> OTBaxejica yst- 
pflTB HOByK) HMnepaTpHity, hto ona cbohitb BOsmecTBieiTB Ha npe- 

CTOJTB 06fl8aHa ero HMOHHO COA'^fiCTBilO, TTO OH'B CRJIOHHJI'b 

Kb dTOMy HacoBHXi, pasAaBaa hmi AenBre. 

ERaTepHHa II Morjia 6u coBepmeHHO JierRO h8o6jie^htb Bea- 
Raro BO JisH, CRasaBii, hto naxoAflCB npH ea cynpyrb wb pima- 
TejDBHHa MHHyTU, OH'B CRopio ABJiaJiCH CTopoHHEROiTB OH cynpyra 
H CRopie coA^flcTBOBaJii eny neseoiH efi. Rponi Toro, nfbwb se 
C0A:6fi(;TB0Baji'B Bei^ROfi, no ero se coGcTBeHHUHi cjiOBaATBy £RaTe- 

PHH^ II? CRJIOHeHieH'B RaiiHXl-TO ^aCOBUXli '), HaAl* ROTOpBIHH, 

RaRi> npHHaAJiexanviHH ri BOHHCROfi ROicaHA^, Beipcoft ne HMiuii» 
HHRaRoft BJiacTB; TOMi> ace hto OH'B pasAaBajii HifB AeHBrH lose 
HBRTO ne ynoMHHaerB. TaRse ipyAHo AonycTHiB, qTo6u Bei^ROft, 
ROTopuft He TOJiBRO cyMacmeAniHMi, ho Aa^e h rjiynuiTB HeaoBt- 
ROiTB He 6uji'b, pimflJiCH pascRasuBaTB KHnepaipHi]^ noAo6HUH 
BonvB. SaRJUOHenie pascRasa ^aniROBoft, hto EKaiepHHa nopy^HJia 
BeniROiiy sanaTBca npHroTOBJiemeM'B ri RoponaiuH, paBHHHi* o6pa- 
soifB jiHrneno ocHOBama, laR'B RaRii BeARofi ne npHHHiiaji'B here- 
Roro y^acTia b'b npnroTOBJieHiax'B RopoHU '). KaRi AHpeRxopa 



*) AaniROBa ynorpe^iaeTi Bupaseaieles ffardes— iTocjtxTer'BnepeAaTB 
cjioBOM'B qacoBiixi a hekeki ne raapAefiiiu (les regiments de la garde). B'b 
TOMy xe HacoBue wb ycntxi nepeBopora Bii^Hifl He hm^ih. 

') Cm. BaiB6acoB'&. Hcropia EEaTepHuu n t. n CTp. 146. IIOHTeHHufi 
aBTop'B sone^HO Taiuse ne Aosipaexi pascKasy AaoiKOBofi. 

K'b 8T0Ky voacHO npHCoexHHHTB en^e paacsas'B 6pHJJiiflHiaHBa IIosBe, hto 
HicBoiBKO AHeft cnycTfl oo BosmecTBiH sa npecroii, EKaxepeHa II npaaH- 
Baia ero ki ce5ii h CKasaB &, hto nopy^Hja saHMeprepy BeiiEOHy npoBipHTB 
saseHHBiH Ben^H, ^npHKasaia Mat pasioMaTB Bce, ^to osaseTca He bi co- 
BpeMOHHOMB BRyct H ynoTpe6BTB Ha HOByjBo KopoHy. HMnepaTpHAa npHsa- 
saJia HH']^ o6o Bcem croBopRTBCJi ci BeusHiri, <ito 6£ijo mh^ HpesBii^aftao 
npijiTHO h xajo hh^ bosmoshoctb cBaiHTB Ha nero moh 3a6oT£i h seiipiaT- 

HOCTH, HO SOTOpiUfB E MOPB BaBlCHB Ha Ce6a AypHUfl HOCliACTBiH CO CTO- 

poBU JHm, jn^tBjaux'b naxsopi sa dTBiiH Ben^aiiH. A corxacHJicfl na see mo 
xoTti'B KaMueprepi Bei^sofl**. (Pyccs. Crap. 1870 r. t. IcTp. 111). HaidTux^ 
ciOBB BHAHO, ?T0 He BeABofi sasiAUBajx npHroTOBjeBieMB Koponu. 



=nd 



— 69 — 

RaHi^ejiflpiH cTpoeHift ero npocnjn rhjisb TpyCei^coft, saB^AHBaB- 
mift BCiMB npsroTOBJieHliiiiH Kb RopoHauiiryO npHCUJiRi b^Mocrbj 
XHBonHCi^eB'b, pasHuxi cRyjibnTopoBi £ MacTepoBi, n 8thmi orpa- 
HB^HBajnocb Bce y^acTie Bei^Raro bi npHroTOBJieHiHxi> r'b RopoRa- 
iUh EsaTepHHu II. 

BecB paacRasi MOJRen nojiy^HTL sd^ROTopoe dHaneHle, ecjiH ne- 
HHoro HSM^HHTB ero, T. e. BCRJUOHHTB cjioBa Bei(Raro, 6utb ifosen 
H npHcoHHEesHua caMOio ^aniROBoft, HMeHHo: pulsque yous ne 
8a?ez pas que c'est moi qui ai dispose les gardes pour cela, c'est 
moi qui leur ai distribud de iVgeut ^). Xlpn TaROM^ HSJiomeHiH 
pascRasa JIjaniROBOfi owb nojiyqiirB cjiiAyK)npfi xapaRTepi. Ilocjii 
CBepmHBinarocH nepeBopoTa a nocJilAOBaBmeA rohhhhu Ileipa III, 
eecoMHtHHO xoAHJiH vb ropoA^ pasHHe cjiyxn o ero npe^AOBpe- 

MOHHOft n BHesaUHOft ROHqHH^, npHHZHy ROTOpOfl MOrJDOI oG'BflCHHTB 

H B7> TO Bpeiia BecBMa paejiHqHO. GjiyxH 3th aouijih jip Bei^Raro 
H OHi), ROHOHHO, OHOfiB ctfyn^eHHBift BHB, p'^miuica, y2Re Ha HOTBep- 
Tfiift AeHB no BCTynjieeiH HimepaTpHi^u na npecTOJTB, OTRpoBenno 

CnpOCHTB ERaiepHHy O A'^flCTBHieJIBHOft npHlHHi C06UTlfl, AOCTa- 

BHBmaro eB pocciftcRlfi npecTOJH), npHHHH^ roh^hhbi HMnepaTopa, 
ROTopaa oneBBAHO Morjia Rpaftee nopasBiB RaRi BeitRaro, TaRii e 
BcaRaro Apyraro. He Menie ohobbaho, hto ERaTepsna II saxpyA- 
HajiacB AaiB na bto nojioau[TejiBHBifi otb^Iti b noCjiaroAapBB'B Bei^- 
Raro sa ero ycjiyrB, hto6u nepen^HBTB pasroBopi, ajia Hea n^e- 
ROTJiBBuft, CRasajia eiry, hto BOSJiaraerB aa nero HafijnoAeme saBH- 
A:]^oft HOBOft RopoHU A^a oa npoACToan^iro RopoHOBania. 

TaRoe TOJiROBanle pascRasa coBnaAaerB Bnojisi cb xapaRTe- 
poifB caMoro Bemcaro. He Topn'^Bmifi cani HBRaRBxi nacBaift b 
HHROFAa Kb BEm> HO npB6iraBmifi, Bei^Rofi seaaai y6iABTBca b'b 
TOWbj HTO o6BBHeHie B'B noaBSOBanifl bmb HiinepaTpBaii aBaaeTca 
coBepmeHHO BuicHmaeHHUHii b roaocaoBHHiii b noioicy pinmaca 
o6paTBTBca Kb Heft sa HaAaejRanptifB pasiacHeHieiii TpeBoacBB- 

IDBX'B ero COMHimft OIHOCBTeabHO A'i^ftCTBBTeJIBHOft npB^BHK ROH- 

HBHU HMuepaTopa Heipa III, noca*! ROTopofl BeARony, RaRi e 
BecBMa MHorBMi aaoaK'B, HB^ero yace ee ocTaBaaocB, RaRi npsHecTB 



*) AaniKOBa ae B&ia AHeBBHsa a nHcaia cboh sanHCBH na navBTB, mhofo 
jL'hTb cnycTfl, bi npoAOixoHin BOTopuz'b HHoria boapoChocth pascKasa n 
xase cjOBa moiih lerso RsrjaAHTBca h8% ea naMBTH. daMinaa no CBoeny 
npoBSBOjy OAHO cjobo xpyrHMi vh cBoem pascsaadL AamsoBa, o^eBHAHO, 
uBwhHAJtA ero coAepsanie h SHa^eHie a npn tobi oevh Bcasaro yicucia, 

HeBOaBHUM'B 06pa30M'B. 



— 70 — 

opsc^ry Ha Bipeoe h npeAaBHoe cjiy^enie HOBofi HMnepaxpHi^i^ b 
6uTB noJuesHUKH corpyAHHRaMH ea fijiecramaro xtapciBOBamH. 

BcBopt nocjii BOsmecTBix Ha npecioJi'B EuTepHHa oinpaBH- 
jiacB cb 6oJiBniOK) cbhtok) bb MocRBy Ha xopxecTBeHHoe RopoHO- 
Banie, npoHcxoAHBmee 22 ceHT^Cpfl 1762 r. He onBCtiBaji sa^cb 
dToro TopsecTBa, yRajReirb tojibro hto wb chhcr^ jnmi, yxocTOHB- 
njHxca BucoHaftmExi) narpa^'B no cjiynaio coBepmHBniaroca Ropo- 
HOBank HMnepaipHuu, hhh Beipuiro laRxe ne BCTptnaeTCA, 

RBR'b H BB TKRO'BOWb 2Ce CHHCRi JHHI^, HarpaSAGHHEIX^ 00 HOBO;^ 

BOsmecTBiA HicnepaTpHipi na BcepoccificRiS npecioJi'B. 9to ro- 
HeHHO Bnojmib noATBep»x&BrB npeAooJioseHie hto Bei^ROfl wh 
axoBTB BOsmecTBiH HHRBRoro ynacTifl ne npHHBMaJi'B. HaxoAHJiai 
jiH Bei][KO& BB HHCJii jiHOB, conpoBOSAaBinHxi HOByK) HnaepaT- 
pHoy wb MocRBy, Ha TopjsecTBeHHoe RoponoBanie, — CRasaTb nojio- 
jRHieJiBHO TpyAHo; bb RauMepB g)ypBepcROHi> sypHajrl 1762 r. 
He BMieTCA 061 BTOM'B yRasaBiff. Ho mohcho npeAnoAaraiB, ne 
Gesi ocHOBBHlfl, HTO BoARofl, BO BpeMB npe6fi[BaHLi ERaiepHHu b'b 
1762 — 63 r., naxoAHJiCH bb MocRBi. HMnepaipm^a idXHJia Kb 
Heicy Bi AOiTB B'B can^XB 30 ^HBapa 1763 r. h CMOTp^a ny6- 
juiHHHrft MacRapaA'B, npoHCxoAHBmifl no yjiHi^airB Mocrbei RaR^ 
30 HHBapa, TBRi H 1 H 2 ^Bpajia ^). BipoaxHO ERaxepHHa no* 
ci^THJia AOMB Bei](Raro ne tojubro b% ero npHcyTCTBin, ho h no ero 
npHrjiameHiH), xejiaa oRasaiB eify sthmb CBoe CJiaroBOJueHie, TaR'B 
RaRB HHaie TpyAHO ce6i 06'BacHETB 3to nocbn^enle, rbwb 6ojrhe 
HTO caMBifi AOMi Beipcaro Hnnero saKtHaiejiBHaro bsi coGh ho 
^peACTaBJIflJI^. Bo BpeMH axoro npeduBama ERaTepHHU wb Mocrb^ 
ona noBOJiijia <12 Hoadpa 1762 r. onpe;^HTB HJienaMn roh- 
iiHCCiH ropoA*]^ neTep6yprl HBana HBanoBHHa Bei^Karo, Bift- 
CTi CB rpa^OMii Sax. Pp. %pHHmeBUirB h RnaseifB Mhx. ^anmo- 
BuifB ^). EpH BucJiymaHiH axoro BucoHaflmaro noBejiinia b^ ce- 
HaTi npHRasBHO BMB, coHBHa njiani, RaRHHi» o6pa80in> cxpoeBieifB 
nexep6yprB orpaHHHHXB aa npHBeAeniB h Mocrbu cxpoeHletfT> 
B'B nopflAOR'B, xaR^e na RaROMi ocHOBaniH RaiieHHOBfy npHRaay 
6uxB, npeACxaBBXB bb Cenaxi CBoe imiHie cb xohhumb hsbhc- 
HenieiTB ^). 



*) Cm. KaMMepn $yp. sypa. 1763 r. CTp. 23.— HcTopia ERaTepHHu n. 
BnjLCacoBa t. II, cm 161—164, 461—473. 

2) Cm. apzHBi IIpaB. Cenax. rb. Bug. jtb. xobj. J^ 107, cxp. 279; Co- 
lOBBOBa HcTopifl PocciH T. XXV, cxp. 160. 

') Cm. apx. npaB. Ces. rh. Bug. yxB. xou. J^ 102, cxp. 341, iipHHeMi 
osBaneBEHMB jiHuaM'B iipej^ocxaBjeHO caMBMi BuCnpaTB apxHTesropa h npo- 



— 71 — 

Ilocjii 6uBmaro 12 Maa 1763 rosa kb Tsepn 6ojiBmaro no- 
^Rapa, orb ROToparo sHaiHiejiBHaA lacTB ropOAa suroplna, Beu- 
Kot nojiyHBji'B npHRaaaHie HMnepaTpzAU pascMOTp'lTB njiaHU, co- 
CTaaneHHue o B03o6HOBjieHiH TsepH. Owb npeACTaeHJn scji'lACTBie 
9Toro ERaTepHH^ II o6cTOflTejiBHoe CBoe HH'bHle, npnceiTB npnjia- 
FaeMoe b'b nojjpHHHHR*]^ ^), bi> ROTopoHii HSJiaraerB, RaRHiii o6pa- 
soifB norop^Bmift ropoA'B bo8o6hobhtb cTpoenleirB. MslHle 8to 
HecoMHiHHO AORasuBaerB, ^o Bei^Roft, HaxoA^CB sa rpaHHAeio, bx 
noApo6HOCTH 03HaR0HHJicfl H CB BonpocaMff ropoACRaro 6jiaro- 

yCXpoflCTBa, ROTOpUirB, ROHB^HO, HHRaRl He MOrJIH nOXBajlHTBCfl 

coepeMeHHue eify ropoAa bx HameMx OTenecxBl. TaRx Beipcofi, 
onepeAHBmift bx jijijA ropoACRaro 6jiaroycTpoficTBa eABa jih ho na 

CTO JH^TX MHOrHXX H3X CBOBXX COOTe^OCTBeHHEROBX, HaXOABJI'B He- 

oGxOAHMUHx ropoAx pacnoJioxHTB peryji^pHo, i. e. hto6h jjol^u 
6BIJIH niEpoRH H npflMfii, j^OMa BucTpoeHU ex 6paHAMayepaMH^ 
MTo6u BX BepxHeft HacTH ropoAa hjiet RpinocTE 6hjix ycxpoeHX 
6acceflHx, HanoJiHaeMufi npH nocpeACiBi raApaBJiHHecRoft MamHHBi 
BOAOK) i!3X p^Rx TBepmj H BojirH, H8X ROToparo BecB ropoAx 
MOseTx 6bitb CHa6jReHx boaok) na bc^rIh noTpefin xHxeJieft, no- 
cpeACTBOHx RaeajiOBX, oTRpuiuxx juia H36iacaHk BecHoio Hecno- 
coCcTBa Tpy6x otx JiBAa. Ohx me apeAJiarajix npeAMicTBa ota^jihtb 
OTx rjiaBHaro ropoAa, o6caAfl jifi^eBbBun bx h'Icrojibko p^aobx; 
AOMa CTpoHTB no pasHBiMx npBM^pHBiMx njiaHaHx H ^acaAaMx; co- 

OpyAHTB nyCJIH^HElfi rOCTHHHUfl ABOpX AJI^ CRjiaARH TOBapOBX H 

o6ii4ft aM6apx h t. a. Kpoiii Toro Bei^ROft yRa3BiBajix, ^to6u 
KJiaA6Hmx OTHioAB 6u He 6BrJio bx nepii ropoAa, ho ^to6bi sa 
ropoAOMx norpe6aJiH n ^to6u mojibhiiivi, ycTpaHBaeMua Ha pte*]^, 
He npenHTCTBOBaJiH 6h npoxoAy cyAOBx. nMnepaTpmi;a OAo6pnjia 
njnaHH H MHi^Hie Bei^caro h npenpOBOAHJia laxx kx HcnojrneHiK) 
rjr66oBy, RaRx bhaho H3X npnjiaraeMaro HHCBMa ea, cJiymaHHaro 
BX ceHarfe 22 iiojia 1763 roAa ^). 

Orojio Toro xe BpeMOHH 10 iiOHfl 1763 r. BeAROfl npeACia- 
bhjix ERaxepHFl bx Mocrb% AORJiaAx o6x y^peacAeHiH HiinepaTop- 
CRafb BOcnHTaiejiBHaro Aona bx MocRBi h nepByio ^acxB renepajiB- 



lee. 3to Bucoqafimee noBeiiaie 6e3i HHcia, ho HM-i^eTCH otm^trp 
nojyHeno bx GenaTt 18 H0fl6pH 1762 roAa. 

*) Cm. npHjoxeHie ^ 2 ri ceft uaBt. 

') Cm. apxHBx IIpaB. Cen. Biic. jtb. aori. SHHra J\& 1( 
^116, CTp. 140; }^ 118 cxp. 3,— cm. npni. J\& 3. 



— 72 — 

Haro njiaea onaro, KOTopue yAOCTOBJiHCB yTBep^AOHiji 26 asrycra 
1763 r. yssie b-b HeTepffyprt ^). 

3to ynpeacAeaie asjiHeTCfl nepsuM'b b'b ihcji'I i^ijiaro paxa 
jtpyiiix'b, o6e8CMepTHBinHxi> bka EeAKaro B'B HCiopiH npocBimenifl 
Hamero OTeqecTBa, ex kotophmh mu cohjih 6oJiie yAo6HUMi no- 
sHaROMHTB ^KTaTOJiefl Bi ocoGhxi rjiaBaxi. TenepB xe ynoEflHein> 

TOJIBKO, 1T0 BCKOp'b nOCJI'& BOSBpan^CHiA EkaTepEHH HSl MOCKBH 

wb HjapcRoe* Cejio nponcxoAH-iTB TopsecTBeHHiiifi Bi^is;^ Ibcnepa- 
TpHAu B'B CTOJiHi^ Bsi HjapcKaro Cejia bi RasaHCRifl co6op'B h sa 
rbwb B'B ji'lTHifi ABopei^'B, B'B caifHfi ABHB BCTyojieHlH 6)1 Ha npe- 
CTOJii 28 lK)HH, npH^eii'B BB TpeTBeS saperl BM'I^CTi cb BHii.e-RaHi^- 
jiepoM'B RH^seiTB AjiBKcaHApoMi Mhx. Fojihuuhum'b ixajii H re- 
Hepaji'B-nopyHBEx Beipcofl ^)^ AStJiBEMma^ h pasHOoGpasnaa a"^- 
TejuBHOCTB KOToparo B7> napcTBOBaeie BejiHKofi HnaepaTpHi^Bi HSJia- 
raeicfl Haini bi* cji'bAyEon^nx'B sa tImi rjiaBaxi. Ho npesAO h^itb 
npHCiynnTB k'b dxoMy h8jiojr6h1k) CHHiaoM'B He jiEmHHBTB ynoMJi- 
HyTB emfi o cji'lAyK)nieM^. 

nMnepaTpHii;a EicaTepHHa II bi iiOKk M^cai^i 1764 r. coBep- 
majia, KaRi nsB'ibcTHO, He6ojiBmoe nyiemecTBie no HHHi^niHHMi 
npH6ajiTiflcRHMi> ryfiepHiflifB, B'B conpoBosAenlH BecBiia hoCojib- 
maro HHCJia jibi^», nanGoJiie K'b nefi npeGJiHseHHHX'B B'B aro 
BpeiiH. 

no cjiOBaMi C. M. CojiOBBBBa '), ERaiepHHa II 20 iioHfl 
OTnpaBHJiacB nepes'B $lM6yprB bb HapBy h PeBOJiB^ ta^ 25 Iiohh 
fiujia TopacecTBeHHaa BCTp'iHa h npoHCxoAHJii CMOip'B CTOflBmeMy 
lyrB ^Jioiy. Ilocji'b aioro HifnepaTpHAa noixajia b'b Bajnificidfl 
nopTB, OTRyAa, npn SojiBmofi sapi; nanpaBHJiacB bi Pnry 9-ro 
iiojiH, H Tyn nojiy^BJia HSBicTie o a n b a x !> npoHcmeAniHX'B bi 
neTep6yprt,T. e. o tomb hto noAnopyraR'B Mhpobhtb Boa^HBrlirB 
HaiiipeHle ocbo6oahtb ^aHTOMa, t. e. loanna AeTOHOBsqa, co- 
AepxaBmaroca B'B IIIjiK)ccejiB6yprcR0fi RpinocTH, npH^eiTB loanni 
Ahtohobhh'b Chjtb yfiHTB. 

Ri dTOMy BpeifeHH othochtca coxpaHHBmeeca wb Akiax'B aAUH- 
pajiTeflcTBX ROJuierlH CBiAinle ott* 6 iiojia 1764 r. *) o cooSn^e- 



*)Cm. 



Cm. apxEBi Ilpas. Cen. Bhc jtji, xosi. rh. J^ 107, cip. 321. 
'^-IIeTep6. BtAOH." 1763 r. npH6aBieHie K'b ^ 53. 
. HCTop. Poccia.— 0. M. GoiOBBeBa H3;^. 06m. IToxbs. t. VI, cTp. 

^} Gx. apxHBB Mope. Mhh. A'i^<io axHHpajiTeficTBi KOiieriH 1763 r. J^ 29 
iRCTi 366. 



- 73 — 

HiH eft aAMHpaJioirb TajiU8HHiiMi», ^to hmi nojiyHeHi B^iepamH^ro 
HHcna (t. e. 5 ^HCJia), ^pesi npnSuBinaro nsi PeBOM rene- 
pajii>-nopyHHRa Bei^Raro A^flCTBHieaibHaro Raic- 
Meprepa, co6cTB6HHopyqHufl yRas'b Es BejiH^eciBa 061 ocTaB- 
jieeiH BT» PeseJibCRoirb noprb na 8HMOBRy^eTupex'bRopa6jieft>.3TH 
CJiOBa Moryrb x^tb noBOA'B Kb npexnojiOJReHiio, hto e Bei^Kofi 6uji'b 
wh HHCjrb HeMHorHXi npH6jiHJR6HHUx'i> JiHi^'b conpoBoacAaBniHrB 
HiinepaTpHAy bi en nyTemecTBiH h GuBrnHxi cb neio bi FeBOJii, 
OTRyAa, no otCuiIh Ea BejnnecTBa 30 iiOHfl, ohi h mopb 6bitb 
OTnpaBJieHi bt» IlerepCyprb. Ho dTO npeAnojioaceHieonpoBepraeTCfl 
rbhuby HTO B-b noApoOHOMi cuhcr^ jnan\ conpoBOJRAaBniHzi> Hiine- 
paipHiiy wb en nyTemecxBiH b'l Pnry, (xpaHan^eiiCJi sb jsjkiA roc. 
apxHBa ^), HMA Beipcaro bobco He BCTpiHaercfl h Hem ne yno- 
MHHaeTCA HH pasy h bi> npHJioxemH Kb RaMMepi-^ypbepcROMy 
jKypHajiy sa 1764 r., r^^ noMitmeH'B ffHeBHBR'B aioro nyieinecTBia. 
CRopie cjiibAyeTi) npeAnojioxHTB, ito Eeivcofi, RaRi HanaubBHRi 
KanuiejuipiH cipoemft, bi> b'^a'^hIh KOTopoft cocTOHjn» HsaropoAHufl 
ABopem B'b ERaxepHHTaJTb 6jib8l PeBejia, yB^AOUJieHHuft Toirb, 
HTO IlMnepaTpBi](a ocTanoBHTCfl bi dTOWb ABopi^lb, sapaHle CA^JiaJii 
HaAJiexan^ee pacnopaaceHie e^ npieiril, a nocjii canii noibxaJii 

OCMOTplTB ABOpeill, VJl^ BCTp^THBl Efl BoJIHHeCTBO H HaXOAHJICfl 

BO Bce BpeMfl efl npe6BiBaHm. 

Ilocjii dToro BeAROft, yi^xaBi hst^ PeBejifl no orbisA*! ERa- 
TspHHu, 1-ro iiojifl, AOCiaBHJii aAMHpajiy TanBisiiHy 5 uojia na- 
MjmyTufi Bume yRaBi ea BejiH^ecTBa. 

HeynaCTie Bei^Raro b^ 08HaqeHH0M^ nyTemecTBln ERaTe- 

PHHK n, UOSRQTb CJiyXHTB yRa8aHieiCl», ITO OWb H Bl TO BpeMfl 

He nojiB80Bajicfl TaRHMi pacnojio:ReHlein> HnnepaTpHi^i, RaRsirB 
yAOCTOHBaHHCB He TOJibRO Gpaibfl OpjiOBU, HO jsfiaae PasyMOBCRift 
(Khphjuhi), HapuniRHHT* (JIeBi>), PyMflHiteBi, conpoBOSAftBmle 
MOJiOAyK) HMnepaipHi^ bi efl noi8ARi^ no npH6aJiTlficRHMi» ry6ep- 
HiflMi. PaBHuiTB oCpaaoMi, oneBHAHO, HTO Bei](ROfl, npitxaB'B H8'b 
PeBejofl, He Morb npHBecTH cb co6ok) HHRaRHxi pacnopflxenift / 
HmepaxpHitu no canoMy A^y MapoBBHa, ROTopoin> ERaiepH- 
Ha II y8Hajia yse nocji*! orb^Aa Bei^Raro H8'b PeBejifl. 



*) Cm. a'^o rocjA- apxHsa pas. U, J@ 98, lucrb 9. 



— 76 — 

CTHsMme noacaJiOBaHHufi b% reeepajii-nopyHHKn c% dojihumI) no 
TOMy ^HHy jRajiOBaHBeMi h paidoHaiin, HasHaneHi 6utb rjiaBHUirb 
ABpeRTopoifb KaHi](eJiApin on CTpoeniH h naA'B saBHCflmmiH otb 
OHoft CTpoemsMH (cm. C.-IIeTepC. Bi;^. 1762 r. JV? 47, btophhki 
10 iiOHa). 

BciynHBinaH BCRopi^ nocjii dToro ea npecTOJTB HMnepaTpHiia 
EKaTepHHa II noBejiiJia BeAROMy b'b 1762 r. (cm. npHJioxeHie II) 
saB^AfiiBaTB Tanace crpoeHlflMH, caAaMH h A&^aMH, KOiopne ao 
cero BpeMBHE KaeaejiflpiH CxpoeHifl ne b^^aomu 6ujih, he uoKb Ra- 
KSLWb B^AOMCTBOiTB HO 6uTB B HarpaxAATb HaxoAfln^Hxcfl noA^ ero 

KOMaHAOK) JTHm DO AOCTOHHCTBy npH6aBR0K) ^aJIOBaHBH, a TaRJse 

^meaMH ao mTaCii o^Hi^epoB'B. 

ERaiepHHa II, 11 AeRaCpa 1762 r. (11723) yqpeAHJua 
oco6yK) RoMMHcciio ]Sflii ycTpoftciBa ropoAOBi C.-neTep6ypra h 
MocRBu, HJieHaMH ROTopofl CfiTJifi HasHa^eHH reHepaji'B-aHine^'B 
rpa^'B Saxapi ^epHBimeBi, renepajii* jieflreHaHii Hb. Hb. BeaRofi 
H BHAenoJiROBHBR'B MsxaHJiii HBaHOBEqii KHflSB ^aoiROBi. dra 
KoMMHCck c6fl8aHa 6ujia, co^hha njiaaii ropoAaMTi IleTepGypra h 
MocKBu npoACxaBHTB B'B CeHaTB «KaRHMi> oGpaaoM'B CTpoeuiA ro- 
poAa orpaHH^TB, a&6bi otb 6e8M'6pH0ft oCnrnpHocin acHTejiH OHaro 
HenoJiesHOCTeft h saipyAHeHlft wb nyjKHOMi coo6n;ecTB']^ nsSaBH- 
jiHCB H noRa Cbttb ropoAy HasHannTB M'k^Ta, a hto sa ohbimh — ^lo 
yse npeAMiCTi^MH HaHMeHOBaxBs. 

Ci yHpejRAemeMB dioft oco6oft KommhccIh o nocxpoftRi ropo- 
AOB'B nexep6ypra h Mocrbu npesHHji c^epa A'bATOJiBHOCXH Kan- 
uejiflpiH cxpoenifl SHa^HxeoiBHO Hsid^HEJiacB. He RacancB 
6ojrbe nocxpoeR'B nacxHux'B o6uBaxeJiefl, oea xenepB orpa- 
HHHHBajiacB xojuBRo 8aBiAUBaHieMi> oahhmh nocxpo&RaMH E coopy- 
seHiflMEy npEHaAJiesaBniEME Kb ABopiiOBOMy B^AOMCXBy. IIoaxoMy 
yxe Bi 1765 r. no AORJiiwy rpa^ia 3. ^epnumeBa e Hb. Hb. 
Bei^Raro caMaa Raniteji^pLfl oxi cxpoenifi nepeEMenoBana 6HJia 
B^ EaHAOJiHpiK) OTh cxpoenifi Ea BejiE^ecxBa aomobi e 
caAOBi npE HOMi Sbutb yxBepxAoni e mxaxB axoft KaniceJiflpiE ^). 
HacROJiBRo Mo^HO ce6% bbthchexb no coxpanEBniEMCA j^aMi 
ApiEBa M. Hm. JI^Bopa, no noBOMy mxaxy osHaHennaA KanueJiH- 
pifl OTh cxpoenifl, naxoA^CB noAi* rjiaBnuMi na^aJiBCTBOMi AEpeR- 
xopa, EM^jia ocoCoe npncyxcxBie es'b xpexi njienoBi) e ocoSyio 



1765 ceHT. 17 (12408). 



— n — 

KaHi](ejiflpiK), b'b Roropoft naxoABJiocB npn a'^^jiohpohsboactb']^ nais 
ceKperapeft, ABa npoTOROJiHCTa, oahhi bi> AOJiacHocTn nepeBOAiHRa, 
Tpn perscTpaTopa h apxHBapiyci; y apxHTeKTypHuxi ace a'^'b 
Haxo2i;HJiHCB 30 apxHTeRTopoBii pasHuxi paH^OB^ h y hexi mecTb 
yHOHHROBi. IIoMHMo 3Toro npH KaHi^eJiHplii cocTOflJiH pasjinqHHe 
MacTepa RaRi-To: caiOBaroA^a — 6,^oHTaHHaro HManiHHHaro— 2, 
naaJibHaro — 2, RyseeHHaro — 2, hjiothhrobi — 3, CTOMpa — 3, 
cjiecapH — 2, irtAHOJiHTeftHaro — 1, nacoBaro — 2, Majiapnaro — 1, 
npH acHBonHCHOMTi jij^i — 8, ^HTapaaro — 3, ROJiOROJiBHsro A'^Jia 
H HrpajiBHofi MyauRH— 1. 

KpoMi Toro BB BiA^HiH RaHi^ejiapiH cipoeHlft naxoAHJiacB 
AJifl pasHHxi npocTBixB pa6oTib, nocujioR'B, coAepHanifl Rapay- 
jiOKB npH ABopmaxi, caAax^, MarasHHax'B, saBOAaxi, BoeHnaa 
ROHaHAa Bi cociaBi SByxi) GaxajiioHOBi, HHCJieHHOCTiK) Bcero 
1179 tojiob'Ir'b ^). 

npn HadHaneHin Beipcaro npesHABHTOM'B ARaAOMm XyAoaceciBi^) 
nocJiiAOBaJii 13 agr. 1764 r. yRasi «noHeace ohb oSasaHi* on> 
HacB MHorHMH ApyrHHB A^s^B, TO Ha noHomB eMy onpeA^eH'B 
vh KaHaejiJipiK) otb CTpoenift Ham'B cenaiop'B h TaftHBifi cob'6t- 
HHR-B RHHSB Ileipi Hhrethhb TpyCei^ROfl ^). 

Bi AonojiHemH coo6ii^eHHUx'B eaMH BHme ce'Ia'^hIB 061 o6pa- 
soBaHlH Kani^ejiflpin cipoenifi Heo6xoAHiffO npHCOBORynnTB, hto ona 
caiia Ha saxpeGoBaHHua IXpaBHTejiBCTByion^HMiCeHaTOH'BCBiA'i^Hia *)^ 
RorAa H Ha RaROMi ocHOBamz KaHitejiapia otb CTpoenift aomobi 
H caAOBi yqpexAGHa, — AOHOCHJia b-b 1768 roAy Cenaxy, 1x0 hsi 

HHaHHHX'B yRaSOB'B H J^JLli HaXOAHH^HXCa Bl apXHBi, BHAHO: 

1)^X0 KaHi^eJiapiji oxi» cxpoeHifi ynpescABHa eii](e ao 1727 roAa; 



') 061 dTHX'B 6aTajiioHaxi 6uji npeAciaBjeH'B rpa4)0M'b ^epHumeBUM'L 
H BeAKHMB ocodufi j^oKjiaA'B HMnepaxpHAi, 7 cero npHioxeaHuft (cm. npHJ. I). 
fix noAHHoeHiH RaeiieJiJipiu CTpoeeifi naxoAHiHCB paaHsa icicTHua KOHTopu, 
aaB^AHBaBinifl sAaHiflun, nocrpoftsaHH h npoHSBoxcTBOicb pasHUxi pa6oT'B 
Ha Md^Ti, BaRi Haap. soBTopa vb UeTeproit^i, OpaHieHGayu'fe, npa cTpoeniu 
SHXHiiro ABopAa, BocKpeceHcaaro HoBOA^anqBaro MOBacrupii, ea cxeuAH- 
Hux:b saBOAax'b 6jh3'b neTep6ypra h b'b cei'b Has&ii u t. a. (Cu. Ap. M. 
Hm. JiJBopa A'^io ^ 100 no odhch I pasp. 73/187; IleTpoBi— HcTopia IleTep- 
6ypra npniitH. 785 na CTp. 91.— IIoj. Co6p. 3aK. 1765, ceHxaOpa 7 (12468). 

') Cm. rjany 06% aKaACMiH Xy^osecTB'b. 

') Cm. ApxEBi Up. CeH. be. 112, CTp. 286; TaRse C.-neTep6. BixoMocxH 

1765 .flHBapb 18, BTOpHHBB ^ 5. 

*) CenarB Tpe6oBaj'B die cb-j^a^hIa no ciy^aio BoaHHBnraz'L upepesaBifi 
MesAy npoBypopoMi saHi^ejapiB BaseMcsHM'B h HaHaiBBHKOM'B onoft Bea- 
BBMi, HQWh noApo6H'be caaaano HHSse. Cm. x^o ApxHB. Mhh. HnocTp. 
J^tJii BB MocKB'fe— cpomenin Kojuerin HnocTpaHHKix'B A'^^JB cb Kani^e- 
JBpiex) cipoenia aomobb h cbaobb 1762—1773 roAOBi. 



— 78 — 

2) HTO xoJisHOCTB e^ npe»Ae 6ujia bi cipoemH ropoxoBi h Kpi- 
nocxefi, a noTOHi» B:b ea »e si^AOMCTBo npenopyieHu, bi pasHue 
roAu, casoBaa h ro^SHTOHAaTCRaa KOHTopu, noxitKOTopfiniHiipesAe 
ABopmi E caAH oocToanH; 3) HTo BoeHHaa Kojuierlfl nepeimciirBa- 
Jiaeb cb HeK) npoKetfopifliiH, ^to bi> 1741 roAy, RorAa bo Bci 
M^cia onpeAfbjieHu 6ujih npoKypopu, to h bi> oHyio BaniKejiapiio 
onpoA^jieHii panra nojiROBHHqbaro npoRypopi Opojibb^, a noTOMy 
H noHUHi Haxo;(flii;iecfl npn RanaeJiapiH apoKypopu cocTOJurB 
Bi TbTb se paHraz'b; 4) npn yHpesKeHlH mraTa fiaiajiioHaifiy co- 
CTOJin^Mi npa KaHi^ejiapua, ona HasBana EaHi^eJuipieK) orb crpo- 
enift Ea BejiHHecTBa ^iomobi h caAOBi h bo Bce to Bpeica KaflAe- 
jiHpia nepenscKy Hictjia h HHHi HHierB bi CBJuy ynasa 1 723 r. 
aKo KOJuieriH b bti A'&Jiax'b cbohzii nocTynaerB, no HemiimK) hobuxi 
AO OHOft KanaejiapiH y^peaRAenift, no CEJii reHepajBHaro perjora- 
MOHTa H saROHOBi, HO BpEid^py o6psiji,ovb Bcixi npo^Bxi ROJUe- 
rifl, Aft H nuni ter'b nocTynarb ofiasaHa; 5) IIpH onpoAiJieHiH 
rJiaBHUM'b ROMaHABpoATb OHOft RaHi^ejiapiH 10 iiapTa 1746 r. 
rocnoAHHa reHepajia-aHme4)a B.Rasajiepa BHJUiEMa Bbjluhmobhu 
^epMopa BMaHHiiiMi», AaHHHirb eny sa noAnHcameMi coCctbohhoio 
pyROH), yRasoMi noBe^tino iSAKb no a'^Jiami noJiosenHHiTB na Kan- 
i^ejiapiK) orb cTpoenift, TaR^ h no A^aHi noJiomeHHuirb na ro^i 
HHTeHAanrcRyio ROBTopy A^i^aTb napaA^, noRynRH, noApHAU BcaRHxi* 
npnnacoBb; wb aeAOCTBTRi RaseHHUxi* MaTepiaiiOBi h pa^OTBuxi 
jiiOAeft HaHHHaTb. IIoTOM^ no onpeAi^JieHlH rjiaBHUMi AHpeRTo- 
poMi ero IIpeBOCxoAHTejibCTBa JI,. T. G. Hb. Hb. Bei^Raro noxca- 
jiOBaHfii eny cji^Ayiomiie yRasu: Iiojia 2 A* 1762 r. <rnoBejrl- 
BaeBTb Hu^Tb Bi BtAOMCTBl Bameii'b Bci CTpoeeia, caAu h Aa^H, 
RaRoro 6u SBaHk ne 6ujib, ROTopne ao cero BpeneHB RaHaejia-' 
pin OTb cTpoenifl ne b'I^aomh 6ujib, a otb eAHHUxi noBeJii^nifi 
HamHX'b saBHcljiB. Bani x,q Rpoici nacb caMHXb he hoat* RaREin> 
BtAOMCTBOMb He 6HTb; ^eRa6pa3-ro Toro ace 1762 roAa — 
no nojioaceHHUMi na Bacb AenapTaMeHTOMi> noBejiiBaeM% naxo- 
Aan^Exca bi ROMaHji:^ Bameft no AOCTonncTBy narpajRAaTb HnnaMH, 
npE6aBROio auuioBanbH, sa CTapocxbH) e ApyrHME Hecnoco6HOCTaHE 
OTT> cjiy»6H OTCiaBJiaTb, no pascMOTpinlK) BamEtti, ao mTaCb-o^B- 
i^epa, a sa HencnpaBJieHie aojurhocte nociynaib no yRasani h 
no coctohhIk) A^Jia JJEmaTb hehob-b e npoHEME mTpa(j|)aME, a BHme 
Toro AORJiaAHBaxb HaHi», e hto6h no Ttm mae AenapxaMe^TaMb bi 
CTpoeHiaxi e wb npoHExi ne hbhbjiecji npoAOJi^Renia ejie ocTa- 
hobre, EcnoJiHenie ^ehetb bb^wl no cJiOBeCHUM7> HaniEMT> 



— 79 — 

npHRasaniaHX, Koiopua bi pasHOft CHJii HMtiorb 6urB TaKi 
H sa uoKonLCBmewb HamHsrb ^). 

Heo6xoAHMO aaifixHTB ^to Eani^ejiflpiji CTpoema He AOJiro 
cylAecTBOBaJia wh cocTaBi onpextoieHHOM'B ajih nea mTaioMi 
1765 roAa. 

YacB wb 1769 roAy ^ nocji'lAOBajrb HMflHHoft y cero npiuiara- 
emdjl (npHJi. JV? 3) yRasi Ha hma Beipcaro (TorAa y»e A^fici- 
BHieJiBHaro laftHaro coBtTHHKa) o HaHMenoBaHiH aTofi KaBiJ^ejiflpiii 
OTB cipoeHiH, sa coRpan^eHleifb npyra ea oGflsaHBOcieft k o h t o- 
poK) H HasHa^eHlH CMOTpHieJieft, BMicio cocTOBBmHX'B Bii ea 
BtA^HlB pasjiBHHHxi) ROHTop'L. 3to HpeoCpasoBaHie coBepmeBO no 
npeAcraBJieHiK) peBHsioni RojiJieriH npeaHAeHxa MacJiOBa c^ tok) 
£(iJiBK), AaCUy RaRi* roBopHJiocb b% ysasi (JV? 13367), ocyAoCnibe 

T^M'B SnaTB HOa^HO Ha HTO HMeHHO OXnyCRaiOTCB HailH B1> OHyio 

cyiiMU AJiB ynoTpe6jieHiB. — Ycmotp'^jib mu hto Hi^RoTopHB npH 
KaHaeJiBpiH h ea B^AOMCTBi^ ocoCjibbuh yqpe^AeHHiiiB ROHTOpu 
HSJiBmHH, 1T0 AeHesHUfl cyiiMH BUxoAflrB GoJUBHieK) HacxiK) He na 
canoe xo ynoxpe6jieHie, Ha hxo pacaojuo^eHO*. — Bir^crb cb bxhitb 
HSAaHT* 6uJiB HOBufl mxaxB axofi ROHXopu H yxBep»cAeHT> peacxpB 
uepKBaMB, ABopKaifB, caAaMi, AOMaici, aasoAaiTB, MocxaiTB h pas- 
HuiTB cxpoeHifliii>, RoxopuBTB, RaRi CRasaHo BB Buco^afimefi peso- 

JIIOKiH, 6UXB BB B'IaOMCXB']^ ROHXOpU 0Tb CXpoeHifi ABOpilOBBIX'B AO- 
MOBl* H CBAOBB, BEpBAB AO paSCHOXp'lHiji ^). 3x0 BOpBAB HpO- 

AOJisajiocB AOBOJiBHo AOJiTO E yse no ROHqani Bemcaro, a sax^MB 
IIM^epaxpH^B[ EKaxepHHu II axa ROHxopa 6ujia npH HMQopaxopt 
IlaBJii I HpeoSpasoBBHa CHOBa bi> ro^BHExeHAanxcKyK) ROHXopy 
B nosAHie Bomjia bi cocxaBB oGpasoBannaro MsHHCxepcxBa HMoe- 
paxopcRHXii ABopaoBT) n yA&jioBi>. — IIpeofipasoBaHie Kani^eJiflpiii 
cxpoeniH Bx 1769 roAy bb Ronxopy, CA^jiaHO 6hjio RaRi mo»ho 



*) Ronig CB aTHx-L AByxi yxasoBi Beasofi ^peACTaBHJ^ CenaTy, npu 
panopTi CBoeMiOTB 5 H0Ji6p£ 1768 r. dxH yRaau npa ceni npHiaraDTca 
(cm. npnj. J\& II). Gh. TaRse Atja ApzHsa M. Huiiep. Asopa bi IIeTep5yprfe 

Sksp^ABl, OQffcB ^ 73/187 xiio J\& 115; pedCTpi yRaaaMi npHCiaHHum nsi 
paBHT. CeaaTa. 
') Cjc. n. Co6. 3as. 1769 0RTa6pb 9, J^ 13367; Tasse ApxHB. IlpaBHT. 
CeBaTa, XBura 3aB. ysasoBi, J^ 128, ct. 663 h ci±X' cm. npHioseHie J^ 3. 
') UpH aroMi oABaso oroBapaBajiocB, ^to coopyseaie MOByMenTa LLoTpy 
BejHROMy, CTDoeBie HeBCRaro RaMCHaaro 6epera co6cTBeBBO oti uaci BaNi 
(T.-e. BevLKOMj) nopy^eHBiJA, ociaDTCH xo OROHqaBiji oearo aa npei&aeMi 
ocHOBaaiH. diOTi yaasi, Aaaaiifi BeuROMy ao 0RTji6pa 1769 r. a aocitj^o- 
Baamift BcrlxcxBie oaaro xoRiaAB Bei^Raro HMaepaTpaut ERRTepaat 30 
0RTii6pii, a TaRxe yRasi Ceaaiy, npa cmi apajaraiDTca (cm. apajomeaie 
J^ 3^ 4 H 5. 



— 80 — 

npeAnoJiaraTB He tojilro ne no npeACTaanemio Bei^Raro (o6i aroM'B 
H^Tb HEFA^ jiRasaHift), HO fta^o BHSBajio cb ero CTopoHu HeyAO- 
BOJiBCTBie, KSkKb 8T0 BH^HO H31 cJi^Ayion^aro ero HHCBiia, KOToparo 
OHi He Hici^ 6u HHKaKoro ocHOBanifl nncaTB, ecjiH 6u aio npe- 
ofipasoBanie KaHi^eJinpui cA&iaHO 6hjio 6ii no ero npeACTaBJieniio 
BJiH no npeABapHTOJiBHOMy ci hhitb corjiamHeiio. Boti> ito nnmerb 
Bei](ROfl, noBHAHMOMy SaBaAQBCKOMy ^) nocji'b ynasa 1769 roAa. 
RaHi^eJiHpk CTpoHTe^nas, KOTopafl s-h hocth BcerAa cocxo^Jia 
Cb canaro i^apcTBa IleTpa IlepBaro, naAi* ROTopoio a Anp^KTopoifb 
onpoA^Jierb; "TJieHOBii wh nee onpeA^JiflJiH HejiOB^Ri ao ceifH h 
HLWb reHepaJiBCRHxi hhhob'b; wb pasHHX'B ropoAaxi h npoBHHoiflX'B 
Eirkna ROHTopu efl noAHHEeHHEia; bo bc&xi ea AenapiaMeHTaxi 
mitjiHCB BcerAa rjiaBHMmie apxHreRTypu, RaiceflHue MacTepa, 
^HBonHcmj H caAOBHe icacTepa; npH bc^xi CTpoeHiax'b oco6jih- 
Bue HHcneRTopH RaRi h npE csMCStxi; oco6jiHBue jhoaet npn saBO- 
Aaxi E HaAi> MaciepoBHME, huh^, ji^tb cb hatb TOMy HasaA'B, 
BSAyMajifl, He snaio hjir qero, uni jie b-b ofiEAy bjie a^^h 
Toro, HTO n,^i> E pa6orB RaacAHft a^hb yMHOKaeTCH, ynnqToacHTB 
RanqejiflpiH) co bc^me ea ROHTopaMH e ocoGjiebuA coRperapi e 
nepeEHOHOBajiE ee ROHTopoio ctpoetojibhoio, ociaBEBi npa 
HeJS TOJiBRO 4 qjiena, ROTopmiB laRoacAe Bcb nponin, RaRia Bume 
CRasaHO, aoji:khocte EcnpaBJiaTB Bejuino; noTOny wb ROHTopi he 
OAEHOBa HJiena He HMiK), a a^jh BXOAamnXB h HcxoAamjEX'B ne- 
ycunoHHaa o6ETeaB; neTupe coRpeiapa OTHBrnt o6peMeHeHu h bi 
RpafiHOCTE acEByn^ie. IIpE Bctxi srq CTpoeniaxi oaeh^ apxETOR- 
Top'B OeJiBTEHTB npesHlfi RaMOHHuft Macxepi, EiaJiBaHueB^ npe- 
CTapijiuxB ABoe, JKEBonnci^eB'B pyccRExi aboo e ctojubro trq ca- 
AOBfirxi iiacTepoB^ Hiui^eBi b^ noAarpt. — npETOMii EHcneRTopi 

CaAOBl E qJieH-B ROHTOpH HOJEROBHER'B SB^peB'B JliTh BT> 70, HaJIO 

xoaetb; TOMy ABa roAa nasaA'B OTHajiECB hofh e 061 o6cTaBR'b ero 
noAaHB AORJiaA'B. Ho no cefi lacB pesojnoiuE h'It'b; neicy se ah- 
BETca 1T0 npE cTOJi'b Efl BejiE^ecTBa e caJiaTa h'^tb. 

npECRop6HOCTB Hoa HO AonycRaoTB vena dojiBme ceroAHa BaifB, 
MEJiocTBBOMy MOOMy TOcyAapH), en^e e MHoacecTBO ehuxI) ]iflsi Mena 
HyBCTBHiejiBHHX'B HoyAOBOJiBCTB'B EB'BacHHTB; ocTaBJiaK) AO ApyraTO 
pasa; BUAaio tojibro, hto a oaeh^b bo Bcivb MicTaxi 6BK)ca, ht6 
co6aRa 6e8i BcaRoft noMon^E, eAEHCTBenHO cooTBiiCTBOBaxB e ec- 
noJinaTB cb npeAynpe^AenieM'B MHCJiefl e Boan Ea BejiE^eciBa, 



*) Cm. }[,±io FocyA. ApxHBa paspflAB XI, J^ 988. 



— 81 — 

Aa6u KaRBHi jihOo HeqaaHHUM'B npocicoTpoMi ne nporH^BSTB; ho 
Ewao He ycniBaerB. 

Eabb jib HaAO'jRasuBaTB, hto gcjih 6u npeo6pa80BaHie Kani^e- 
JLflpiH CTpoeniJi, wb 1769 r. cocTOflJiocb no npoACxaBiieHiii Beno- 
cpeACTBeHHaro ea HaiaJiLHHKa, x. e. Bei^Raro, hjih no npeABapH- 

TOJIBHOHy Cb HHMl CHOmeHlK), TO OWb HO HMtJI-b 6bI HHRaROFO OCUO- 

BaHLfl o6H2caTBCH dTBui npeoGpasoBaHleM'b b na Hero cixoBaiB. 
PaBHUirb o6pa30M'b bsi Bxoro nncbMa bbaho, tto e^Ba jib xa- 
Koe npeoCpaaoBaHie BusHsajiocB A^flcxBBxeJiBHOK) HeoGxoABuocxbio 
T. e. yMeHBHieHieMi c^pu a'^^tojibhocxb caMoS Ranr^ejinpiB otb 
CTpoeHiH, xaRi RaRi, bi bbaj BSBicxnaro pacnoJioxeHifl Hnnepa- 
xpHi^u, K'B ^ocxpoflRaM^ BC^Karo poAa, n B-b oco6eHHOCXB saropoA- 
Huxii ABopi](OBi B caAOBi, dxa A^flxeJiBHOcxB AOJi^Ha 6ujia neco- 
MH^HHO yseJiHHHXBCfl H xpoGoBaxB yBeJiBqenk qncjia CJiyxan^Bxi Kb 
KaHuejiiipiH, a ho hxi yHeHBrneniH. Ecjib bxo npeo6pa80BaHie Ran- 
iieJiJipiB cxpoenifl He Majio orop^BJio BeARaro, RaRi> bto bbaho bsi 
BumenpBBeAeHHaro oHCBMa, xo He MeHie dxoro.AOii»em> Gbutb ero 
oneqajiBXB nocJiiAOBaBmifi GflnBapa 1785 r. yRaa^ Ka6HHexy (npn- 
BOABMBifl r. Arobrbhumi Ely eio oDBcaHlB Il^apcKaro Cejia, q. Ill 
CT. 284) xoMi, «Aa6Bi HBRaRBXB cxpoeeifl h pa6orB Cesx hbcb- 
iceHHaro nanieronoBeji'bHiBjBJiB coo6n](eHHaro naAJie^can^HM^ o6pa- 
soMii oco6aHB, Ri xoMy ynoJiHOMO^eHHUMH, B 6e8i npeACxaBJieni)! 
oCcxoAxeJiBHuxx B noApo6HBix'B cwbrb na ohho, Ha^HHaeMO b npo- 

H3B0ABM0 He 6UJQ[0». 

dxBHx yRasoMii pacnop«iABxejiBHaH BjiacxB BeARaro, ne xojibro 

HO HOBUMl HOCXpoflRaMl, HO H HO BCBpaBJieHiK) paH'j^e BOSBOAen- 

Huxi coBepmeHHo yHnqxomajiacB. 

MojRHO npeAQOJiaraTb, nxo HMnepaxpBAa, hoaoChumb npeo6pa- 
soBanieBTB yMOHbHiBBB He Majio c^epy A^nxejiBHOcxB Beur 
Karo no 8aB']^Ai>iBaHiK) npnABopnuMn cxpoeniiiMB h caAaHB, gujia 
AajieRO He bhojih^^ AOBOJiBna eio, RaRii dxo mohcho saRjiHD^HXB bsi. 
HB2RenoMin^aeMB[xi> ea oxsubob-b o BeAROH^, bb oxHomeHiB bb'6- 
poHHoft ewy cxpoHxejiBHOft ^acxn, o Roxopofl nosBOJiBMi. ceei xe- 
nepB CRa3axb h%crojibro cjiobI). — GaMoe HasBanie RaHAeJiaplH (bjib 
KOHTopa) oxi> cxpoeniH ABopaoBi b caAOBi), Ha^ajiBUHROM^ koxo- 
poft 6ujrb BeARofi, noRasHBaexi), ixo ohi sasiAHBaJi^ nocxpogRoio 
H coAepxaHieM-B bi nojiHOfl acnpaBHOCXH Bctxi abopaobi xoro 
BpeMOBB, naxoABBniBxca, RaRi bb pasjiBinuxB ropoAaxB, xaKi b 

BO MHOrflXl MlCXaXB BH-fa 0HUX1>, CB MHOrOIBCJieHHUMB HpB HBX^ 

cxpoemaMB BcaRaro poAa, a xaR»ce ex npBJieraBaiBMB rb hbmb ca- 
ff, n. BBKKOff. 6 



. — 82 — 

AaiiH H pon^aifH. 3to oaho yjRO CBH^^rejibCTByeT'b o SHawTeJiBHOft 
jx^BTejihuocTE Bei^Raro, ecjiH tojibko npHnoHHHM'B HaimoHHOCTb 
IlMnepaTpHi^Bi Kb coopyseHiio ABopi^oBx, hi oco6eHH0CTH saropoA- 
HHx^, a TaiuRe pasjinqiuiH dROHOMHHecRiH ycjioeia xoro epeMeHH, 
SHaiHTejiBHO ycJioacH^emlfl saGoiu no nocipofiKairB. 

IIpiadHaB'B JlfiTRBj 1T0 0T8HBT> HCTOpHRa FepMaHa CTpOBTOJIbHOft 

A'^^TOJibHOCTH ERaxepHHu n HicROJiBRo npeyBeJiH^eHi, bo BTopofi 
ero HacTH (HMeHHO, hto na nocipofiRH TpaTHTCA e^eroAHO Hi- 

CROJIBRO MHJEJliOHOBli py6jie9), HBJIbSH HO COrJiaCHTBCfl CI OCHOBa- 

TOJiBHOCTiK) nepBoft ero nacTn, HHeHHO, hto npeACiaBjifleTCfl HeBi^- 

pOHTHUITB CROJIBRO IlMQepaTpHAa CTpOHJia ^). ^ORasaTeJIBCTBOHli 

dTOMy Moxcerb cjiyjRHXB xota 6u AasRe onHcaaie Il^apcRaro- 

CeJia SROBRHHiaMB (H3A. 1869 r. Cip. 71 H CJII^A.)* ^'^ ROTOpOH'B 

noApo6HO nepe^KCJieHU neb nocipofiRH h coopy^eeiH, CA^^JiaHHUA 
no npHRasaniK) ERaxepHHu 11 bi oahomi» I]|apcROirB-cejr& ^). Ho 
RpoMt Q^apcRaro cejia BosABBrajiHCB ABopi^u cb caAanH h nocxpoft- 
RaMH B% Ilexepro^i, FaxHHH'b, OpaHieH6ayMi, a xaRxce noAi^ Mo- 

CRBOK) BX paSJIH^HUX'B Ml^CXaXl), RaRl-XO Wb KOJIOMOHCROM-B, I],apH- 

i^uHOBii, JIioGepHE^axi) n xaR^e ABopmu: — AHHenro^cRift, Fojiobhh- 

CRifl, ERaxepHHHHCRifi H X. A-; CXpOHJICH RpOHi XOFO SuMHiS ABO- 

pei^B, BOCDHxaxejiBHue Aona bt* Mocrb'^ h IIexep6ypii^, ARaAeifia 
XyAO^ecxBB, BocRpecencRifi MOHacxupB, h x. A' 

HoAOCxaxoiHO 6ujio, cocxaBBBi pncynRH h nepxeacH bhobb 
B3B0AHM0& nocxpo&RB, HcnpocHXB BBico^afimoe paspimenie na 
oinycR^ noxpeSflofl na axo cyMMBf. 

no npHHHxoMy B-B xo BpeMH nopflARy o Ra»AOMi mbjioihoh'b 
o6cxo^xeJiBcxBi npn nocxpofiR'i^ ejik ncnpaBJienin aohochjiocb 
ROHXop'6 oxB cxpoeHiH, RoxopaH, pascMOxp'^B'B BB CBoeiiB npHcyx- 
cxbIh nojiy^eHHHft panopxi, Afejiajia wb cboio onepoAB npoAcxaBJie- 
Hie ofii) dxoMi Bei^ROMy, sa noAoncBio xpexi cbohxti HJienoBi h 
ojRHAaJia OXB Hero npHKasanie, Roxopoe n coo6n^ajiocB no npanaA- 
jie^HOcxn. 



*) FepMaB^i Bi AonojHUTejbHOM'B tom^ ai cBoefi ESBtcTHofi ncTopin 
pyccKaio rocyAapcTBa (Geschichte des russischen Staates, Gotha. Perthes — 
1866)-— roBopHTb Ha cip. 630 co cjiobi CaKeHa hsi HexepGypra: es ist anglad- 
Blich was die Kaiserin gegenwartig baut; die .Summen die jahrlich dazn 
erfordert werden, erstrecken sich hoch una gehen in die Millionen! 

') Ho cioBaMi nyrasapeBa — OiiHcaHielleTep6ypra 1841 r. (r. IV ct. 61) 
rjaBHoe ynpaBjeeie UapcKHifB GeiOHi EsaTepHHa II BBipiua BeuKOMy, 
H Bi noMoiuB eiiy HasHaHUJa yapaBHTeieui IlapcKaro Ceia HaABopearo co- 
BtTHHKa y^aJiOBa. EosAHte y;Ke bi 1778 ro;^y, rjaBHOHa^ajBCXByBomHui 
HaA'b ceioifb I^apcKHMb n npHaHcanHUMH e'b neiiy ccieHiaxB, fiuiib erep- 
MeficTepi noJBManB (cv. HKOBSBH'b, 7. Ill (cxp. 204). 



— 83 — 

IIoMHMO 8Toro Ha uocTaBsy HiROTopuxi MaxepiajiOB'b saiuK)- 
^asHCb ROHTpaRTU CI yTBepjRAeHieMi bxT) Bei](RHirb. lid's roh- 
TpaKTOBi B03HHRajiH cuopuf H HeAoyMiHiJi, AOxoAHBQiifl AO pas- 
cifOTp'lHiJi cyAe6Huxi Micn>« Apyrie xe uaTepiajiii, RaRi Hanp. 

KHpOHHl, HSBOCTb, CTORJia HSFOTOBJIflJIHCB UO paCnOpflSCeHilO ROHTOpBI 

Ha cocTOJiBmex-b wh ea B^A^HiH saBOAaxi, c^ ROTopux^ MaiepiaJiH 
OTuycRajiHCB H HacTHHMx JiJuufiLWhj RaRi BHAHO HS'B npHJiaraeuuxii 
npH ceiTb AORJiaAaxi o HescRBxi RHpnHqHuxi saBOAaxi ^). Ynpas* 
JieHie dTHMH saBOAaMH TO«e npHHHHHjio Bei^ROMy h6 najio xjionoTB 
H CTaBHJio Bii HenpiflTHHH oTHomenU Kb jivm^u^b, nojibsoBaB- 
mHMCfl pacnojiOHceHleMi> HMnepaTpHi^u, RaRi bto uomuo saRjiiOHHTb 
ii3i> cji'bAyK)ii^aro npsMtpa. renepajn npoKypop^ BHsencRiS dh- 
cajii Bemcoify 4 iK)jiifl 1774 r., hto ea CTeRJi^HHOirb saBOA'^ ^uhiil 
saRasaHU aa o6paaei^ npo6HUfl fiyihiJiRn yRasHofi Bfipu. Ho 
saBOAbi OAHaRO CAl^aJin He cxoAHue Cb ofipasi^OMi; oah*! fiyxKiJiKH 
^^OJibnie, Apyrifl MeHLme; nodiOBiy en^e bi anplnt npomeAmaro 
roAa, OTOCJiaHU 6yTbiJiRH o6paTHO, HTo6bi CA'^axB Apyria, ho h no 
<de BpcMii He CA'faJiaHO. BaseMCKifi npocHJii ycRopHTb, Aa6EJ qpesi 
TaRyK) BfeAJieHHOCTb ne ocrajiocB 6e3i> HcnojiHenifl Bbicoiaflniee ea 
eeJiHHecTBa noBejiinie ^). 

SaB^AUBame caAauH^ RpoMt sagoTu no C0Aep:RaHiK) bi HcnpaB- 

EOCTH H HHCTOTi CaMEXl CaAOBl H HafiBfa Heo6xOAISMbIX'b AJiA Toro 
€aAOBHBROBT> H MBCTepOBUX'by 6bIJI0 conpajROHo ci» ycipoflcTBOM^ 
H coAepxcaHieM'b npH hhxii MHOHecTBa opanscepeft h noAHecenieATb 
•ea BeJUHHecTBy Bupau^HBaenbix'b B'b hexi ojioaobi (kslk^ bto bhaho 
Hs-b HHoacecTsa AomeAniHX'B ao Hacb panopTOBi caAOBaro Macxepa 
uocROBCRaro FoAOBHHCKaro caAa $0Ra), RaK'b-To: nepcHKOB-b, mnan- 
CRHX-b BHraeHb 31 Maa (A? 23, ct. 273—276, a*JI. 132 h 96 ^) 
aapHROsoBi, cjiEWb HceJiThix'B H BenrepcRHxi), rpymx, 6epraMorb, 
nypo6jiaH8H (BipoaiHo beuret blanche) h Aaace orypAOB^ 
29 Mapxa. Hejibsa npn axoMi ne sa&i'l^xHXb, "ixo y^e h b^ xo Bpena 
paHHaa BuroHKa ^pynxoBii 6HJia HSBtcxsa bT) HameidB oxeiecxB'6, 
KSLKh BHAHO Hsi) noBiin^eHHaro H3Btcxia ^), «qxo rjiaBHuB caAOBUft 
uacxepi) 3Rjie6eHi npn caAaxi ea HBinepaxopcicaro BejiHiecxBa 
cooen^ajii, Hxo xoxa Aepesba ($pyKX0Bwa) oqenb nocrpaAajiH ox^ 



*) Cm. npHioaeHia .^ VI, VII, VIII. 

^) Cm. Apx. M Hm. Ab-> pa3. II, ao KOHTopt CTpoeeiA >& 125, ^'/lar- 

') OsHaieHHua Atja b'b ApxHsii M. HMaep. A^opa, paapflA'b I, ao kob- 

^Opt CTpOBHift. 

*) Cm. C.-neTep6yp. BtAOMOCTii 1768 ro^a J& 31, aapLia 15. 



— 84 — , 

HoposoB^, HO OH'L ycn%Jii> noAHecTH MOHapxHHi 1 <|)eBpajrH nep- 
BUH cnijiH£[ BHmHH, a 6 iiapxa n sp'ljiue nepcHRH. IIodTOMy npo- 
CHJii* upHJio^BTB Ri) ^^epeBB^M'B, AaBiDHMTi yjRe paHHie njnoAH, ne- 

HaTH CBOHXl me^OB^. H TaRl> TafiHUft fl^iUCTBrneJlbBUA COBiTHHR'b 

Hb. EeARofi, RaRi rjiaBHufi ABpeRTopi* HaAi> CTpoeni^HH ea Hiin. 
BeJiHi. ABopiiOBi> H caAOBi n KH^sL Tpy6ei^Rofi oxotho npHJIOaCHJIH 

Kb AepeBBHH'B CBOB nOHaTB)). 

PaBHHMT) oSpasoM'B BCJrbACTBie aToro saBi^AUBaHiH caiaMH Beur 

ROft 8a60THJICfl BHUHCRi H81 • 8a rpaHBmJ JiyROBHm», C^MAHl, 
I^BfoOBl B RyCTOBt (CM. JljkjlO 132, OBBCb J^ 73 — 187, CT. 127, 

B 287 — 25), a fl8i> AcTpaxanB ropcRBxi AjjiehhiTb nepeniROBii 
(TaM^ ace CT. 257 — JVs 2 c) a t. «. ^). 

He Jinmeno BHTepeca, hto A^tne b b% to Bpeifa no co^ep^Ka- 
mio cajDtOBi BosHBRajiB Bonpocu coBepmeHHO neoxBAaHHHe b ^a- 
jieRO He cooTBiTCTByiomie npe^MeTy ca^oBOACTBa b njiOAOBo^CTBa^ 
RaR^ nanpBMipT) cji'lAyioni;ee. ERarepBHa II He 6ujia jnoGHTejiB- 
HBaa CTpB^eHHX'B Ha pasnue jraAH x^peBBeBi (na "iio dujia 
oco6eHHO 6oJiBmaA MO^a bo ^paeAiH) h ne pasi roBapBBajia rjias- 
HOMy ca^OBOMy Maciepy 9RJie69Hy, ^to6h ho ctphmb 6ojiBmBxi 
AepeBBOBx, HO ociaBBTB Bxi* pocTB Ha CBo6oAi^; 6epe80BUH ace 
AepeBBfl OROJio SpMBiaaca ii jiboobbih orojio MUJibHOft noACTpBraxB 
TOJiBRO no CoRaMi. HporyjiBBaflCB 7 iiojia 1776 r. ci en bojih- 
HecTBa rjiaBHBiM'B caAOBHBROHi BeEiRofi saM'&TBJi'B ceuy nocji%A- 
Heny sa^'^Mi ohi CTpnacerB AepeBB^, snaa, hto BBnepaipBi^a dToro 
He jhoGbtb b cjiobocho o6iabbji'b eny, hto6u ohi HBRa- 

R B X I AepCBX He CTpHrB. COFJiaCHO 3T0My 9RJie63Hl» XOTtjll AftTB 

npeAnBcaaie caAOBHBRaMi, ho ycoMHBjicfl opABpoBaTB 
(t. e. A&BaxB npBRasaHie), ne bm^a caMi HBCBMeHHaro npBRa- 
saniii no ROMan^i^. Ohi AonecB 061 stoitb Ronropi cipoeHia. 
Gifl ace nocji^AHiiH, aohoca o6b aioMi Bei](R0My, nnmerB Meac^y 
npoHBMx: (cycHaTpBBaH, hto BsycTHua noBoa-lHia ea bojih- 
^ecTBa noBeji^HO npBHBMaiB tojibro 0T^ ceHaTopoBi, renepaa-b- 
npoRypopa, nepBuxt Tpex^ ROJiJierift npesBAenTOBi b oti Baraero 
BucoRonpeBocxoABTeaBCTBa (t. e. Bei^Raro) ne Moaceri osna^eH- 
HBia o6i)aBJi6Hifl nonecTB sa AlftcTBHieJiBHua n o:RBAaeT^ nose- 
ainia orB ero BHCORonpeBOCxoABieaBCTBa ^). JIioOonBiTHaa nepia 



M Cm. Ap. M. Hm. A^opa, pasp. I, no KOOTopt cipoeHift. 

•) Mai 1*11 apxiiBa M. Hm. J^b, pas. I, J& 132 oniiCB J& 73—137 a*JT6 
J& 27, cip. 300, BHAHO, HTO 6mjo xaae saroTOMCHO npeAJJOsenie ROHTopt, 
^To6xi OBa HcnoJiHHJia Buco^ailmee nosejiaie, ho iiMteTCH oTMirsa, ?to 



— 85 — 

KaHuaiflpcKaro nopaxK&I no noBoxy ctphsrh xepeBbeei ai C9^^ 
BOBCyxjsfiffiCA Bonpoci nopflxsi oGifiBAeHui Hayciauxi buco- 
HaftniHxi noBeJiiHifl!.. 

Bo MHorHXi npEXBopHux'B CBAaxi HaxoAHJiiicb npyAu, Bb 
KOTopuxx no npHRaaaiilEO bb BejmqecTBa pasBO^HJiHCb pasHUxi 

BHAOB^ pu6u, KOTOpUXl HUtJICfi TB^aTeJIBHUft HBAdOpi, RBKl 

MOSHo BaRJiiOHHTb H31 cj[i^AyH>m&ro AOHeceHU ROHTopiii CTpoenifl 
Kb 1775 ro;^y, hto hsi nocaaceHHuxi bl 1770 — 71 ro«., bi 
cHjiy HMeHHUxi ea BOJiH^ecTBa yRaaoBi, »HBux^ casaHOBi 
Bi> npyffi, npH MapjiH, uatb mryKb ycnyjiH. Bei^KOft npHsaaaJii 
dTHX'b casaaoBii hsi npyAa Bunyib h sapiiTb bi somjik) (ck. 
Xkjio Ap. M. Hm. ;^Bopa J« 132, I pas. 3^ 73—187, H 43, 
CTp. 333). 

IIpH Hi^ROTOpUXl CaxaXl 6UJIH 0C06ue SBtpHHI^U, nonojiH6Hl6 
R0T0pHXl> paSHUMH AHKHHH SB^pAMH H p^ARBMB OTHI^aMB COCTaB- 

jLfljio He MBJiyfO 8a6oTy h BJieRJio ee Majiyio nepenncsy no AOCTaBRi 
noAo6HuxT> »HB0THUX'B. Hdii coxpaHHBme&CH no aioMy npeAueiy 
nepenHCRH (Ap. M. Hm. Jtaopa, I p. J6 100, t. 73 —187) bhaho, 
^To noAo6Hfiiirb a^^omi> saaHHaJica a^bho H%Kift IIIpoTTi>, noABH- 
^uBBBmift Ecb CBOH Ha Hi^Mei^ROM'b ji3BiR% npomeHlH TBRi: «Ga- 
rolus Sacr, Rom, Imp. eques Schrott», [ht6 Cujio nepeae- 
;^eHO Ha pyccKiS mhLKh ai^ecapcROft cjiy«6u RopHOTOM'b 
e R a e c i-AmpoTTOM-b:] h en^e coBpeMeHi uMnepaipHi^u EjiHsaaeTu 
AOCTaajiaamift 6apca, a h3i> A^pbrh niai^y cipayca a^ 1765 r., 
KOTopyio noaejiiHO, rbr'b CRasano ait OTaomeHia on 28 MapTa 
1765 r. «npHHflTB, C0Aep»atb ai onofi RansiejiBplH OTi 
cTpoeHlfl». 

O^eBHAHO, HTO Ha Bci aBimeoaHaieHHue npoABieTia TpeSoaa- 
jKBCb AOHBrB, RoTopufl B OTnycRBJiacb no AORiiaAavB BeARaro, ci> 
BucoHafimaro pasp-j^menifl, ot^bcth bsi cyiiii'B RaGnHeia ea aeJia- 
HecTBa, a qacTbK) h31i cyMMi coJiaaofl ROHTopu, kbri bio bhaho 
Hs-b MHOsecTaa aanacoR'b EKatepaHu II rb A. B. Ojicy^beay n 
AaHHuxi OK) pe30jiK)i;ift no AORJiaAaMi Beu^Raro, aocxoAaamaxi 
Ha Buco^afimee yxaepxcAeaie npesii ea coRpexapefi (KoabMaaa, 
BasaAOBCRaro, BesdopoARo), bb 6yiiaraxB ROTopuxi* coxpaaajxocB 



OHO BO nOADHCaHO. O^eBlIAHO BeUKOfi BE CJIOBaXB »e 06BflCHHJ'b KOHTOpi 

BCD HsyificTHOCTb TaKoro npej^cTaBieHifl h npaKasaii no CTpa^b AepeBBJi 
H 6e3B nHCBMeHBaro sa to npHSAsaBiji ca BeianecTBa. Mosho npcAaojia- 
ran, ^to bccb 8totb BHAHAeaTB boshhkb uo ao^Hey noMoiABoica BeAicaro, 
BBBsa IleTpa Tpy6eiiKaro^ Be jaABBmaro Boo6nie ci BemtBiiB. 



— 86 — 

TOKxe He Majio AOKJiaAOBi, npeACTasjieHHUX'B bii CBoe epeiiH Ben- 
RHM'B, HO noq6My-TO HO HOJiyiHBmHX'L BBico^afimaro paspimeHlfl, 
a fiHTb Moacei^ h bobco ne ffOJiomeHHUx'L rocyjapHHi. 

9th ;^OKJIaflH 06*6 oinycKi jifinen, opa «OBOJibHO saTpysna- 
TeJibHOM-b ^HHaHCOBoui HOJiOHcemH rocyAapcTBa n npn Heo6xoAH- 
MOCTH npoHSBOAHTB pacxoffu Ha npeAMeiu necpaBHesHo 6ojite 
BaKBue^ nejKejiH coAepjRaHie ca^OBi h nocTpofiRH abopaobI), BOBce 
He ^BJi^jiHCb oco6eHHO HHTepecHUMH juia coKpeTapeft en Bejinie- 
CTBa, iceAJiHBniHX'b no droiiy hxt> npeACTaBJienieMi HMnepaTpnAt. 
3to BUSHBajio HeyAOBOJiBCTBie co CTopoHu BeuKaro. Ohb dhcb- 
MeHHO o6pamajicfl ki* dTmrh ceRpeTapflM'b cb npocB6aMH «He no* 
M'itniKaB'B AOJioacHTB opeACTaBJieHHue ewl AOKJiaABi», hjih npn- 
naMflTOBaTB noAaTB AORJiaABi (cm. nncBMa ero ki Kobb- 
MHHy) H He pasB dTOBajiB, qio ero AORJiaAU ne noJiynaiorB 
paspimenifl h ociaiOTCfl 6ed'B BHEManifl (cm. HBCBMa ri 3aBaA0B- 

CROMy). 

TaRi Hanp. bi 1774 r. Bei^Rofl ^), nepcAT* orBtsAOM'B HMne- 
paipniw BB MocRBy, npoACTaBJi^Ji'B AORJiaAi> o pasHBixi neoCxo- 
AHMBixi HcnpaBjiemaxB n nepecTpoftRaxi bb pasjiEHHUxT. cipoe- 
Hiax*B ABoprtOBaro BiAOMCTBa na cyMMy 240.933 p. 48 r., bib 
TOMib HHCJrb Ha nepoA'ibJiRH b'b sBMHeMnb n ji'lineMB ABopuax^ 
C.-IIeTepfiypra na 63.480 p. Bhjio oinymeHO tojibro cto thcai'b 
py6jiefi, H8B ROHxi, BCJi'i^ACTBie pasjiEHHUxi ynjiaiB, CAtjian- 
HBixi Ha ocHOBaniH BucoHafimHX'B noBeji'l^Hift, ocTajiocB tojibro 
53.513 p. Ho axoMy Bei^ROft npocHJn en^e 147.627 p. IQYa r. 
Bi> BHAy Heo6xoAHMOCTH CA^JiaTB en^e h Apyria HcnpaBJiema h 
nepoA'^JiKH, nojiBsyacB OTcyTCiBieM-B HMnepaTpnmi. MMtexca 
OTM^TRa pyRH 3aBaAOBCRaro: «AaHi yRasi RaCHHeiy 23 iiona 
1771 r. BHAant ceft cyMMH BeaROMy». 

IIpeACTaBJiaa HMnepaxpnai b^ 1776 r. AORJiajT* o tomb, ^Ta 
Heo6xoAHMO OTHycTHTB CTO TucsHi pyfijiefl na AaJiBH'Ifiniifl pa6oTH 
no cTpoemK) na p'i^R'l^ HeBi RaMOHHaro 6epera, na ROTopuH OiajHH 
yxe OTnyn^enu cto tbic^h^ no yRaay 27 AeKa6pfl 1773 r. ^)y 
Beii;RoS OAHOBpeMeHHO nncaJi'B 3aBaA0BCR0My, RaR^ bhaho hs'b 
npHJiaraeMaro nncBMa ^), hto ecjiH ACHBrH OTnymenH ne 6yAyTT»» 



Cm. ApxuBB C.-neTep6. oneityH. coR*Ta, CBasKa A* "/g jht. B., ao- 
KiaAM Bei^Karo. 

') Ohh OTnyn^eHLi 6eijIh na crpoeBie KaMeeHaro 6epera h seiianoft 
ptmeTKH y ca^a. 

') Cm. npnioxeHie J\& IX. 



— 87 — 

TO H6 TOJibRO nocjrlAyerL ocTaHOBRa bi saroTOBJieHin naTepiajiOB'B, 
HO H npoflSBeAeHHUJi pa6oTu Moryrb o^eHB nocTpaAaTB, oco6eHHO 

OCeHBK) OTb BUCOROft BO^BI. 

no aroMy Beipcofl npocHJii SaBa^OBCRaro oRasaiB CBoe coA'i^ft- 
CTBie Ha HasHa^eme TpeCyeMUxi jifinen. cHsi A'i^Jia ne betaho, 
HTO nocniAOBajio no axoMy xoAaiaftcTBy Be^Ra^o, ho hs^ Apyroro 
AORJia^a m> 1782 r. bbaho, hto Ha 9Ton> npewerL Chjio oiny- 
n^oHO no BHCOHafimeMy noBeji^HiiO 13 anp'lJiA 1780 r. cto tuch^'b 
py6jiefl, 8a dojihum'b HspacxoAOBaHleM'b ROTopnx^ BeiiROfi npocnji^ 
oxnycTHTB en^e cto XHCaHi, Ha pafiOTH na AHCTanuiH ovb CeHara 
fifl FajiepHOtt ranaHH. OTM^TRa HMieicfl ((Rohhoho*. PaBHUMi 
oGpasoMi BeAROfi npocHJii* 0611 oinycRi 19.656 py6. 60 r. na 

nORpHTie BHOBB RpHIDH Bl C06opHOft I^epRBH HOBOA^BHIB^FO MO- 

HacTupa, CA'bJiaHHOft bii 1766 r. h hbihI bi 1780 r., xpe6yK)i]:;6ft 
HcnpaBJieHifl GesoTJiaraTeJiBHO, h6o chjibho xenerB n nopxHXB 
ct^hbi. PesojifOipA nocji']&AOBaJia: '«ox jiomnxB no HaAoCnocxn 
B^ AGHBraxi*. * 

YRasoM^ 25 $eBp. 1785 r. noBeJiino oxnycxHXB no AOKJiaAy 
EeARaro ccHa cxpoenie hoboA raJuiepeH bi nameMi sBMHeMi 
ABopu* noxpe6HyH) cyMMy b-b 79.640 py6. hs'b Ra6HHeia b-b 
KOHXopy cxpoenla bi xe^emH xpex-B jitxi, Ha^Hnaa cb HHHira- 
HJiro. 

Ho MOjRAy t]^m'b jiixo nponuro h Bei^Rofi, He HM'ba bi> CBoeirB 
pacnopflaceniH HasHanenHKixi eny AenerB, CHejii CBonifB noJivowb^ 
onacaacB^ ^to6i ne npoHsomjio RaRoe jih6o en BejinnecxBa neyAO- 

BOJIBCTBie, C006n(HTB 061* dTOMl BesGopOAR"]^ B^B nBCBM*]^ OTl 

11 iiOHa 1786 roAa. 

IXosAHte wb 1790 r., npeACxaBJWfl AORJiaAi) pasHHX'B Hcnpas- 
Jieniflx^ no ABOpny, Bei^ROfi yRasuBajni, hto na coAep»caHle ABop- 
aoBttXT* caAOBi H ApyriH HaAoCnocTH noxpeOno Ha CyAyn^ift 
1791 rOA'B CBepxi oxnycRaoMux'B n3i> cenaxcRaro RasnaqeficxBa 
exeroAHO 22.845 py6. 8272 Kon. h en^e AonojiHBxejiBHHXi 
65.912 p. 

HejKSH He saM^xHXB, hxo Bei]i[RO& wb axoM^ aorjioa'^ yicasBi- 
BaJTB Ha nocJiiAOBaBmiS eny 6 ^HBapn 1785 r. cjiOBecHufi yRasi, 
no ROxopoMy HHRajcHxi CTpoeHifi h pa6oxi 6e3^ nncBMeHHaro en 
BeJFHHecxBa noBOJiiHia hjih coo6n^eHHaro HaAJiexani;HMi oCpasoifB 
OC06HMH Kb xoMy ynojiHOMOHeHHBTMH H 6e3^ npeACxaBJieF 

06cX0HTeJIBHUX^ H HOApogHUX'B CM^TB Ha OHUfl, Ha^HHae 
H npOHSBOAHMO He 6UJI0. 



— 88 — 

no AOKJiaAy oS-b OTaycKi 10 thc. py6. na HJiJiK)BfHHaaiK) b-b 
neiepCyprt 29 liona 1791 r. aaHi* yKaai KaCHHeiy 20 Ma^ 1791 r. 

no fliooa^y oGi* oxnycKi 26.474 p. 23 k. Ha ynjiaiy aa 
pa6oTH H nepeii^JiRH bi SuMHeMT* ABopat no BucoHaftmeMy nose- 
jitmK) 5 anpijiH, no pQcyHRaMi FeapeHrH apxHieKiopa, bi> rom- 
naiax'B r. IIpoTacoBoS n EpifOJioea, — peaojifOAiE ne nocJi^AOBajio. 
Ho ero ace AOKJiaAy 1786 r. o6i> oinycKt 3.080 p. 287* k., 
AonojiBHTOJibHO Ri> uasHaHeHHUMi paH'&e 8.494 py6. na o6jio»e- 

Hie HI OAHHl TOJIBRO pH^B HOJURiaMB RaMHeMl Bl JlQ6H7KheWb RS- 

Hajii, ci> i^'IjiIk) 3toti> sacopHBinificH RanaJii* o6paTHTb bb yRpame- 
Hie ropoAa, npoAOxpaHHTb cakb ott* Bpe^a h AOCTaBHib nojibsy 
BOAHHUMi coo6n;eHiflMB, HHRaRofi pe30JiK)i;iH He BHAHo, HO naAO 
saRJifoiHTb, HTO 3TH AOHBrH fiuJiH OTHyn^eHU, h6o no3AHie 5ei](R0ft 
npeACiaBJi^ji'b Apyrofi AORJiaAB o6'h oiaycRt 181,405 p. Ha pa3- 
HUH pa6oTM no npHBeAeHiio bb nop^AORB ptRH ^OHraHRH b'b 
AonoJiHeme rb 8.494 py6. 70 Ic., y«e OTnyn^eHHuxB no bhco- 
lafimeMy noBejii^mio na o6jiO)ReHie bb JleCHiRbeMB RanaJit y Jltr- 
Hflro caAa 6eperoBoft ct^hu. Ha 3T0mi» BiopoiiB AORJiaA*)^ ^ctb 
OTlilXRa «OTJioaceHO». 

HeoinycRB CBoeBpeMOHHO Aonen ROHiopt CTpoenift na 
pasjiB^HUH nocxpoflRE H pa6oTH, npoHSBOAHMUH ch Buco^afimaro 
pasptmenia, CTaBOB ROHiopy bb Rpa&He sarpyAHHiejibHoe nojio- 
:ReHie n BunyAHJiB BeuRaro o6paTe[TbCfl rb BeaGopoARt cb npHJia- 
raeMHMB npH comb HHCbMOMB, OTB 9 aarycia 1785 r. ^), bb roto- 
poMB yRasHBBjiB, HTO HecBoeBpeMOHHafl ynjiaTa A^nerB sa npoHs- 
BeAOHHUH pa6oTu npn^iHHHeTB ToproBHMB jiK)AHBrb passopenie He 
Majioe, BHSbiBaeTB cb hxb CTopoan ponoxb n capaBeAJiHBUfl ^a- 
jio6u; Rpoirfa Toro 3to npHHHHfleiB ocxanoBRy pa6oTB, bjioiotb sa 
co6oK) HeHcnpaBHoe coAepacaaie mhofexb RaseHHUXB CTpoeniB h 
Aa»ce rn6ejib AoporaxB pacxeHifi bb opanscepeaxB h npnqeHHexi 
HeBOSBpaxHMbift yn](ep6B Rasei^. 

IIo 3X0My Bei^Rofi npocHJiB Be36opoARO, npn cjiy^a^, 
RorAa OHB sa Jiyqmee npH3HaexB, na CJiOBaxB, Aojuoacaxb o bcomb 
3X0MB ea BOJiHiecxBy, a£l6u cie He 6biJio co^xeno AORyROio h ne 
HaBJieRJio Ha Menn (BeqRaro) Monapmaro HeyAOBOJibcxsia. ^ORJia- 
AbiBajiB JiH o6b 3X0UB BosdopoARO BMnepaxpHn;^ ne bhaho ^). 



*) Cm. npHJOxeHie J\& X. 

') Bci BBiineDpuBeAeHBUfl cstAiHia o AORiaji^axB BeAsaro o6% oxoycRi 
cyMMi no^epnaTTU oaHH h3^ apxiiea rjiasHaro yapaBieHifl yqpesAenift 
iTMaepaTpnAU Mapin bi C.HcTcpOyprt, cm. onpcB "U ^iut. 5., AORJaAU 
BemLaro. 



— 89 — 

PaBH£iM*B odpasoMi noAoOaaro poxa soiuaAH, RacaBmiecfl 
OTnycRa Aenerb, HeBOJibHQ pos^ftJiH, Kajvb BCflidfl TpeSoBanifl o 
xeHBraxi BOo6me, HeyAOBOJ^lCX^ie EKaiepBHu U ri Bei^ROMy, 
ynycRaBmeft Hsi BHAy, hto bcIi dTH A^HLrH ipeCyfOTca eAHH- 
CTBeHHO AHA ocyH^ecTBJieHlH Ha K^i en srb co6cTBeHHuxi aceJiaaifi 
Q e^ me npHRaaamft. IIpH Towb HesHaROMCTBO co BciicH noApo6- 
HOCTflVH cTpoHTejibHuxi paOoTb nopoxAa^o Bi ERaiepBHi II co- 
Maiaie bi npaBHJiBHocTH npeACTaBjiaeuBix^ eft cicbrb na pasjieq- 
HUfl coopyxema h Bceoiajio noAOsptme pacxoAyioiCH jih AesBra 
HueHHO Ha HcnpaioHBaeiiEie npeABcexiJ. 3to bb cbok) onepeAB 

HMijIO CBOHMl ROHeHHUMTB UOCJliACTBieMB HeAOB^pie H HepaCHOJIO- 

jKeaie ri> BeuROMy, rb ?euy AOCTaxoHHiiiiiB A0Ra3aTejibCTB0Mi> mo- 
ryn> cjnyxsTb, HaapHMipii cJiiAyK)^!^ cipoRH Hai UHCbHa Esa- 
xepHHU II R-b H. H. IlaHHHy orb 8 iiOHa 1798 r. ^). ToJibRO 
^BdTb cepAaa BHA^Tb HeBOSMOKHo RaRii Bce sA^Cb (bi nerepro^t) 
3a^y^^eH0, xoia a c^ 1762 r. na to AftJia 180 Tucani py6jiefl, 
Bi HHCJi'i ROHXi fl sanjiaTHJia 20 tuc. AOJiry sa oah6 acejiisHua 
Tpy6H, a CTapHfi xpuu^ (t. e. BbukoS) bm^cto toto, hw6% 
HeTepro^^ HHHHib, noprb sHaeii, hto H3t> rtxi Aenerx CAtJiaJiB. 
9 AyMaK), "iTO ohh aojifh RasuejiapiH otb CTpoenifl sanjiaTBJiH 
onacTH. Ho ocTaBHM'b cie ^). 

Hjiei BOTb CTpoRH vLQ'h HHceMb Ri ^ojibAMapmajiy n. G. Caji- 
TUROBy Bi MocKBy: orb 19 iiojia 1766 r. (cRani^ejiHpia CTpoenia 
xpeGyoTi) cb irena na HcnpaBJieHie h noHBHRy FoJiOBHHCRaro h 
KpoHJieBCRaro ABopaoBb cjusmKOMB 60.000 py6jie&. A RaRi a 
Bi MocRBy ^Ay ne ajih. BejiHROJiinia, ho a^ih nojibsu rocyAapcTBa, 

TO B-b HUmHOCTH MH% HE MaJli^ftmeft HaA06H0CTH niTb H noTOMy 

H iswb Bh cell cyuifi oxRasajia h sa naAexH'Ibfiniee noijia nopy- 

HHTB Ceft TpyAB BaHB, HT06U BU nOAB BaniHMB CMOTp'bHieM'b 

npBRasajiH o a b h i FoJiOBHHCRifi ABopei^i HcnpaBHTb h t. a- 

Orb 7 aBrycTa 1766 roAa aleurs coraptes ont d6jci baiss6s 



*) Pante droro wb 1762 r. AeKa6pa 24, EKaiepHHa II, QHcaia hbi* 
MocKBu A. 6. Oicj^hQBj cjiiAyHXUee: MsaHi Hb. fieasoS npocHTi y 
HeHH AB'bcTn TucH^'bHa no^Hnsy I^apcEaro Ccjia, lleTeprott^a^ ua sa- 
niaTy BA'^nianxi pa6orb a Dp. np. IIoroBopHTe ci niiWh xa^ii 6ea'B ota- 
ron^eflia Ka6HueTa mosho 6aio eny AeHbra ^axb h bi mTaicb-KOHTopi 
ffOATBepAHTb HaAJesHTi, «iTo6u eMy npuHa;iiesaiiiee sanjiaTBia (cm. Pyc. 
ApxHEb 1863 r. cip. 406). Hbi dToro uaAo aaiun^HTb, hto BeuKoft no Bst- 
pOHHoft cny KOHTopt Hc noiy^ajb cj'i^^iyexaro. 

') BaMtqaTeJbHUfl ctpokh lificxBiiTeJiBHO. FocyAapuHH rniBaeTca sa 
TO, HTO njiaTATi AOiru, npHHHBeHHEje ucnojHeHieHi ea se npaKaaa- 
Bifi, a He npoDSBOXHTb bobeia pa6oTU. Cm. C6. P. K Hex. O611;., i. 10, 
cip. 225. 



— 90 — 

de la moitie; je crois qu'en leur donnant moins d'argent Vous 
les ferez encore balsser de moili6. Ordonnez leur seulemeut, 
qTo6H caMoe nyTRBoe no^HHHJiH h BcnpaBUJne, car tout cela sont 
des comptes d'apothicaires qu'on me fait tousles jours 
et quand je rabaisse les comptes lis se rangent k la raison et 
font pour moins d'argent tons ce qu'ils auralent fait avec les 
sommes qu'lls demandaient » . 

3to HeAOB^pie h nepacnoJio^eHie BMneparpHi^Bi Ri BeipcoMy 
BupasHJiocB Bi npeoCpasoaaBie KaHAejiflplH CTpoenlH bi* 1769 roAy^ 
HeMi CRasano Bume, sa tImi bi HsiJiTiH hsi ero, Eei^Raro, 

vbAiuisi ABOpi^OBl MOCKOBCKHXl (ERaTOpUHBHCRarO, FOJIOBHSCKarO^ 

AHHenro^^CRaro) h npenopyneHlH hxi b'b CMOTp'faHie naMepx* 
lOHRepy TK)$flKBHy, corjiacHO BHCo^aflmeMy noBejiiHiio 4 HOflGps 
1775 r. '). 

Ho nOMHMO dTOrO CKOpO BOSHHRJIH B^ CaMOlTB A'^JIOUpOHSBOA- 

CTB'fa RaHAejiflpiB CTpoeHifl o6cTOflTeJiBCTBa, ROXopuH He MorjiH He 
naBJiOHB Ha BeuRaro neyAOBOJiBCTBiH sHnepaTpuipj. dxo 6ujio 
npepeRaffie BeARaro cb cocTOHBrnsMB npH RaHD;eJiflpin cTpoeHift 

npORypOpOM'B RHHSeM'B CeprteMl BHSeMCRHlfB — pOACTBeHHBROMl» 

6jih3rhm'b cHJiBHOHy renepajiy-npoRypopy A. A. BnaeifCROMy, a 
TaR«e CB ceHaTOMX, no CJiiAyiomHMB o6cTOflTejiBCTBaM^. Ksa- 
Apaiypnaro A'^Jia yHeHHRii ^hcthrobb sa^BHjrx bi RaHii^eji^pin 
CTpoeHia Bi 1768 ro^y, ^to bt> aomb ciaTCRaro coBiiHHKa P6cciji 
(cocTOABmaro ^jieHOMi* npHcyiCTBiH dToft Ranueji^pin) nepesosarB 
pasHue MaTepiajiu orb sHMHJiro ABopi^a. Ha^ajiocB a'^jio, T^HyB- 
meeca ohchb aojifo, b'b npoAOJiaceHiH Roioparo ^hctarob'b coAep- 
TRBJica noA'B CTporsM'B apecTOMi, a CBHA'^TejiH, hm'b yRasanHne, Cbijih 
jifijRt HaRasanu rkiecHO h t. a. Khasb HeTpB TpyCei^ROfl npHH^Ji'B 
CTopony ^HcraROBa, macajn o neMi Fp. H. TenjiOBy h Bupascafl 
coacajiiHie o ^hcthrob*, npocHJix HeJiOBiROJiK)6ia pa^H BCiynHTBCH 
H no B08M0SH0CTH npoHSBecTn naA^ejRan^K) cnpaBeAJiHBOCTB. Tpy- 
6ei](R0fi ^) nncajii raRSFce o BceMi* aiOMi Bei^ROMy, yRasuBan, hto 



Cm. a*io Ap. M. M. 1b. J& 31, ct. 308. 

') Bto BenpiflTHoe aja BeAKaro s,±io Tasse b^pojitdo ABJifleTCH pe- 
BYJBTaTOM'B iipHAHp^HBOCTo H HeApyHcejH)6Hi>ix'B oTHomeHift KHJiSfl IIcTpa 
Tpy6eAKaro, hto 6ujo ne OesiBSB'bcTHO HiiaepaTpHui, soTopaa bi tom'b se 
1768 r. (OKxaCpa 24) nncajia Mea^y npo^HMi A. B. Oicyc^fceBy: . . . Boy- 
niHTe Tasxe IleTpy HHKHTHqy Ti)y5euK0My, hto6u ob'b uepecrai'B EeTCicaro 
HyvnTB niHKaHaHH. Bee cie HSBojib roBopBTB eny co bcabok) 6jiaro- 
npncTOfiHOCTiH) h 668% THiBa Ba jieBa*'. (Cu. Pyccsift ApxHBi 1663 r. 
cip. 450). 



— 91 — 

TaKofi oCpasi jctflcTBia ch ^hctarobuitb bobcg ho cooTBiTCTByei^ 
HananaiTb, ROTopua BeiiRofi qoctoahho dpoboahtb. 

9ro HHCBMO BusBano OTBirL BeARaro, vh ROTopoMi ohi tobo- 
pHTb: «ce n'est pas inon intention que de faire du tort ik per- 
sonne et surtout aux inoscents, ce qui est contra mon carractfere. 
Je Yous suis oblig6 de Tavis que Vous me donnez, mon prince; 
j'y yais raettre ordre si Taffaire est teb) *). 

IIpoRypopi XB cocTOBBmift npH RaHAejiapin CTpoenift, rhb8i> 
Gepr%fi BaseMCRift AOHecb o6i 8toh% ceeaTy, ROTopuft Tpe6oBaJi'b 
orb BeaRaro o6'bacHeHia o MeAJieHHOCTH cero ;^a. BeaROft jro, 
ocHOBUBaacB Ha yjasL^i 1762 r., ocTaBJiajii dTHyRasu ceaaTa 6e3^ 
OTB'lTa H RpoM'6 TOFO DpeAnHcaji^ RaHAejiapiH CTpoeHift ho AstaaTb 
AiJi'B npoRypopy h t. a. CenaT^ npeAcxaBHJi'b Bce 3to ea bhco- 
^afimee Bosspieie HMoepaTpHiiu, BCJiiACiBlH nero (6 ^OBpajia 
1769 r.) 6hijn, nocjiaHB BeAROMy cJiiAJ^n^lft BHCOMaflralft yRasi: 
ccIIpeACTaBjieHo hbitb orb ceHaia, hto ynpe^AOHHaa ROMMBCcia 
no HsycTHOMy nameMy noBeJi^Hlio o AOHOci RBaApaxypaaro A*Jia 
yneHHRa ^HCTaROBa o noxHiAeBiH RaaeHHuxi MaiepiajiOB'b, bi> 

npOHSBOACTBi TOrO A^JldL IHHHTb HOAJieHie H HpeSl TO HaBOAHTl 

coMH^Hie wb 70Wh wbrh jih Cb oAHOft CTopoHH nocaraTejbCTBa Ha 

AOHOCHHRa H Cb ApyrOfl nOHapOBRH OTBiTHHRy. 

Ho RaRi BcerAa Hame acejianie ecxb, hto6h bo Bcixi cjiy- 
Haax'b cnpaBeAJiHBOCTb coBepmeHHO coxpanfleMa 6ujia; Toro jiJisi 
BOBejaiBaeii'b Baicb co6paTb Bce a^jio ^BCxaROBa ct> npoHSBOA-- 
CTBOMi H no nojiyHemn cero yRasa OTOCJiaxb neMeAJieHHO B^ 
lOcTHmj-ROHTopy AJiH cjrtACTBia». 

ERatepHHa, neTep6yprb. 

mwb OROHHifjiocb axo jsjbjio ^HCTaROBa Hani ho yAajiocb poau- 
CRaTB, HO axo h ne npoACxaajiaexi oco6aro HHxepeca ajisi Ciorpa^isi 
Bej^Raro; Aocxaxonen-b h oahh^ 9xoxt» yRasx ERaxepHHH II, H8^ 
Koxoparo bhaho BnoJiH'6, ^ixo HMnepaxpHi];a ho npBHajia cxopony 
BeuRaro (AiftcxBOBaamaro 6yRBajibuo no ea yRasy 2 iiojia 1762 r.), 
a npHRasaJia eaiy ncnojinaxb yRasi cenaxa. 

%o ace Racaexca ao npepeRanifl Bei^Raro Cb npoRypopoM'b 
BasoMCRHMii, BOSHHRmiax'b noBHAKiMOMy msTy xoro ace jx^kjia ^Hcxa- 
EOBa^ TO H B^ axoMi oxHomenin noGiAst ocxaaacb A^JieRO ne sa 
BeuRHM'B. Ohb nnraex-b RanueJiapiH oxt> cxpooHift 1768 r. orx. 20, 



Cm. rocy;^. Apxaax, paap^Ai XI, k^jlo J^ 987. 



— 92 — 

HTo ycMOip'lji'b AopaocTHue nocxynKR npoRypopa rhasa Cepr&a 
B^seMCKaro bi tomt>, mo sa y^HHemeMii eny sanpen^eHifl cho- 
TptiB A^a KanaejiApiH CTpoeeift, B^sBHCRift na saBxpa jko bshjii 
H3i> KaHi^ejiflpiH HacHJibCTBOM'b H yneci Cb co6ok) a'^& h 
TiifL yiHEHJH Bi» Te^ieeiH ]i!krb cobc^bi'l ocTanoBRy. KpoMt Toro 
nsi panopia 6aTajiioHa bhaho, hto okl npocTepi cbok) BJiacTb 
Ao Toro, HTO RorAa mhok) (t. e. Bei^RBMi) 6uji'b nocjiaH'B Hapoi- 
Hufl RanHTaHi BSATb noAnopy^BRa IIpoxopoBa^ ORasaBmaroca wb 
ocjiymaHiB ROMasAU, to BflsoHCRifi ero He OTnycTHJii h nocaAfl 
Bi Rapeiy yBes-L ct coCoio, A uo aAMEpajixeflcROMy i)erj[iaMeHTy 
npoRypopi HHRaRoro no KOMaHAi^ noBejiteifl HictTB ho MomeTi>. 
no ceMy TOMy npoRypopy ao nocjiiAOBaaia ea HMnepaxopcRaro 
BeJiH?ecTBa yRasa, no MOHBib npeAJiOHceHiBM'B a^i> h onpoAtjiOHift 
(no cjiyiaK) bi npoiBBHOCTB BumenHcaHHaro yRasa Aa6Bi BapexB 

HEHHTB OHUfi HO MOFb) HO 06BflBJIflTS H nOTOMy SCO 6681 SaCBE- 

AtiejibCTBOBaHiH ero EcnojiHHTb, ho BSHpaji RaR'b on MeHH q 
npeacAe npeAQflcaHO, Ha HBRaRie AepsHOBeHHue bi> hpothbhoctb 
AaHHUx^ MHt yRasoBi) nocTynRE>. 

Kauuejiflpifl CTpoenlH nojioxcEJia HHHETb no axoEy HcnojiHeHie. 
IIpoRypopi jRe RHA3b CeprM BaseMCRifi noAaji^ 060 Bceifb btomi 
panoprb renepaJib-npoRypopy RHfl3K) AjieRcanApy AaeRcieBHqy 
BflseECROMy, RoiopBifi 3 HOHfipa 1768 r. npeAJio^HJib npoRypopy 
SEHOBbeBy upeACTasHTb Bce na pascMOiptnie bi> 5-fi AenapiaMeHTb 
CenaTa e ECxoAaxafiCTBOBaTb cb saRoaaME corjuacnoe onpeA'bJiieme. 
CeHaxT> npeACiaBBJi'b bcomb btomb panopxi* HiinepaxpHui y cero 
npEJiaraeMUfi (cm. npnjios:. JVs 11), AORJiaAUsaa, hxo oGb oxpime- 
hIe BeaRHHb rhbsh BaseMCRaro (npoRypopa) oxi* aoji^hocxe, 
CROJibRO AO Hero cjiiAOBajio, p'^meaie CAtJiajib, a rocnoAEHt 
A. X. coBtxHER^ nepeAaexi» bb BucoiaSmee 6jiaroycMOxp'lBie. 
ERaxepEHa na ocoGohi jihcxI^ nanEcajia «bc% 6yMarE Racaton^ieca 
AO cero npoEsmecxBia Genaxb HMiexB sanenaxaBL npacjiaxb kg 
uwk\ Aa^bHeejRe npoESBOACxao no ceny ocxaHOBEXb ao yRasa e bce- 
ROMy oxnpaBJiaxb cbok) AOJDRHOCXb Ges-b npenaxcxBeano. C. 11. B. 
1769 r., ORX. 7» ^). 

TiMl 8X0 A'^JIO E ROHHEJIOCb, E GeprM BaseMCRlfl, RdRl) beaho, 

cocToaji-b npoRypopoMb npn RaniJ^eJiapiE cxpoeaifl ao casfaroROHi^a 



*) Cm. jL-hso MocKOB. Apx. M. Haocxp. J,ijii— ^HoraeHia Koj. HaocTp. 
Jlijii Cb saHueJiflp. CTpocDifi; cm Focy;^. Apx. M. KaocTp. A'^^b Bb IleTep- 
6?pri} pa3p. X, a'^io As 179; TaKse Apx. UpaB. CeHaxa RBorH Buco?. ysaa. 
Ji 128, IHCT. 679 u cjiiA- 



— 93 — 

cero 1769 row, n TOJibRO b^ 1770 ro^y aHsapa 1 am nocjitAO- 
Baji'B yK&n o&h yBOJibHeHio ero otb cjiy»6ij bx OTCiaBRy no npo- 
meHiio ^). 

ToHHO taRxe ho cyn^ecTBOBajio Ha^Jiemamaro eAHeeniH ne^Ay 
rjiaBHiDTii HanajiLHHROMi saniiejiapiH CTpoeHin (t. e. BeaRHirB) 
n noAHHHeHHUM'b eMy npncyTCTBieMi> aiofi Rani^ejiflpiH h bi> oco- 
6eHH0CTH HenocpeACTBeHHuicB ero noMOn^HHROM'b neTpoMi Tpy- 
66aRflM'B, noBHABHOMy OHOHB HO pacnojio^eHHuifb Ri cauoHy 
EeoROHy. TaR-B Ben;Roft 14 ort. 1768 r. nscajii Rani^eJiapiH 
CTpoemfi % HTO CB HeMajiuHT> yAHBJieHieH'b ycHOTp&i'B crojibro 
ero ciiiTeJiBCTBO r. Tafln. cob^t. cenaTopi h Rasajiep^ RHasB IleTpit 
HHRHTHq'B Tpy6euRoft CTapajoca hhhhtb Bc^Roe npen^TCTBie Kb 
HcnoJiHeHiH) ero, Bei^Raro, pacnop^^esifl, Aaace ao Toro, ito h bi 
Heo6uRHOBeHHoe Bpeiifl Bcixi ^jiohobb h Haiopa bi^ RaHAeJiflplK) 
AJifl Aonpoca coGpajii) 6yAT0 sa RaRHMi aaxHUHi a'^Jiom'b, nero eny 
Sesi BiiAOMa Moero ^bhhtb ne HaAJiexajio, h6o xota no BcenoA- 
AaHH'i^fimeMy MoeMy npomeHiK) bi noMonQi uni BceiinjiocTHBtftme 
u onpeAi^JieH'B, ho no A^ani xofl RaHuejiapiH coctobtii ne nnaRO, 
RdRi CTapniHMi qjienoMii, a Toro MOH'^e n BctMi npoiBMi rocno- 
ABMi HJienaM'B c^ hb&tb corjiaoiCB necBMeHHO ro uui npeActa- 
BJiflTB, Tpe6ya noAJiBHHO jib no noBejiiniio MoeMy OHoe ncnojiHHTB. 
PasBi rocnoAa ijieHH toft RaHn;e4JflpiH sanaMiiTOBajiii, hto h tormo 
B^ CHJiy AS^HUX'B unt orb Eh HMnepaiopcRaro BejiB^ecTBa hmah- 
HHX^ yRaaoBi no bc'Im'b noJIomeHHUu^ ea mqea ji^ijimi,^ Rpoui 
Efl BejiHHecTBa caMOfi, oxqera ne Aa.H), ho n 06'BflBJi^eMoe wh 
npeAJioseniHX'B morx'b bI) pasnoft chji*! HMierB 6£itb laRii, RaR'B 
sa noAHHcaHieM'B Ea BejiH^ecTBa. Toro paAH naRH OHofi RaHi^e- 
jiapiH noATBepacAaK), nojiyna cie ne tormo TOxiacB no bc'Im'b hohm^ 
npeAJio«eHi>i&f% neoiMtoHoe BcnojiHeHie yiBHBTB, He npoACTaBjina 
TOM^ RO MHib 6ojite HBHero, ho b ho CMOTpa hb na RaRie Aepsno- 
BeHHue Kb npoTBBHOCTB yKasoBi nocTynRB a naBna^e HBRaRBX'B 
AtjTb B Bi RaHAejiapiB 6e8i> B'lAOMa Moero, hb hoab RaRBHT> bbaohi, 
He BunycKaTB b rbwb wb TeneniB bx'b ocTanoBRB ne hbhbtb, noAi* 
onacemeMT* BHCOiaftmaro Eh HMnepaiopcRaro BeJiBiecxBa rniBa 
B T. A-» 

YsHaBT), HTO TpyCeuROft ne noAnBcaJiB ^poTOROJIOB^ RaHi^e- 
jiHpiB B 0T3UBajica, 1T0 B BnpeAB bx'b noAHBCBiBaTB He 6yAeTB, 



Cm. Apx. Upas. GcHaTa KHurn Bucoh. ynas. J^ 136, crp. 6. 
^) Cm. Apx. M. Hhoct. A-feat bi MocKB-fe— a*JIO CHoraeaiH Kom. Hhoct. 
A^i'B H KaHi^ejtflpieH) CTpoenifi. 



— 94 — 

BeuKOft DHcaJTB KBMUfiJL&piB CTpoeHifl 20 ORT. 1768 r. <HTO no 
BucoHaflmeMy coH3Bo;ieHiK) TpyGei^Rofi cocxoHrB tojibro CTapmHirb 
MJieHOMi Kani^ejiHpiH h onpeAtoieHTi He aj^a ^HHema ocTaHOBRH no 
MOHiTb npeAJiosReniflini, ho a^a CRopMmaro h cTpoxaflmaro no 
HHM'b HcnojiHeHk. U&Kb Rani^eJUipiefl Buiio a rjaBHyio ffipeRipH). 
no dTOMy HicieTi RaniiejiflpiH no npeAAOseniAMi mohmi> Hcnoji* 
HJiTb HeoTifiHHO, 6e3'b HOAnHcaHia ero ciaiejiBCTBa, hotormo nuHt, 
HO H BnpoAB, eacejiH ohi hhhhtb 6yA6rb no uomn> npeAOHcanUH-b 

H pe30JIK)I^iflMl OCTaHOBRH. 

PaBHUMi o6pa30]rb h RaHAejuipia crpoeHia, pasyiiia noA'b 
dTHifb ^uoHOBi, cocTaBJiflBmHxi TaRi BasuBaeMoo npHcyiCTBie 
(OTB ROToparo H saBHCHJuo BCARoe pacnopflseHie no BiAOMcxBy 
Rani^eJiapiB), BcrynHOiH bi npepeRanie co cbohitb rjiaBHUiii na- 

HaJIBHHROlTB, Bei(RHMl, ROFAa OH^, SeJia^ 6UTB Ha CaMOUl A^Jl'^ 

rjaBHUMi pacnopflAHieJieMi no BBtpenHoft eny Rani^ejifipiH CTpo- 
enifiy na ocHOsaniH HueHaoro Aanaaro eicy yRasa, npeAQHcaJTB 
4 aBrycia 1768 r. RaHuejuipiH (t. e. npHcyrcTBiio onoft ^) o a^- 
nesHurb pacxoAaxi Ha noApflA^ii, nafiMBi h noRynRH CBume AByxi» 
coTB TucATb py6., HOBuxi CTpoeniflX'B, onpeA^JieniH bhobl 
CJnyxHTdJiefi, o npH6aBRt oRaJiOBaBbfl, o6i oiCTaBRt h TaRxe o 
pasBuxii BHOBB BCiynaionvEx^ A^Jiaxi h ci npoTOROJiOBi^ neHcnoJi- 
Hflfl npeACTaBJiATb r-b neny (Bei^ROify) a-^h yHHHenifl peso- 
jiiOAift dRCTpaRTu H npHCUJiaTb neA'i^JiBHUfl BiAOMOCxH 
npncyTCTBiflxi, oCx HcnoJiHeniHX'B no Tony e no npeA.io:ReHi^Mi> 
erOy TaRjRe o HHCJii MaciepoBux'B h paGoTHUXi Jiiojifit h hto hmh 
CA^JiaHo 6yAerB». Oahhmi cjiobou'b Bei](K0fi xortjii snaTB, hto 
npoBcxoAHTB no BBtpeHHofl eMy Kani^ejiApiH n 6bitb rjiaBHHirB b'b 
nefi pacnopflAHTejieMi). 

Ho HJieHu npHcyiCTBia (aa HCRJuoHenieirB OAHoro PoccIb) na- 
xcABJiH BHmeosHaHeHBoe npeAnHcanie abho npeAOcyABxeJibHBiM'B 
npaBam* Ram^ejiApiB CTpoemft, cocioan^efi Ha npenMyn^ecTBax'B 
npoHflxi RO.iJierifi, ROiopaa dTHUi npesi to yflBxaeTCH. IIo aroMy 

OBH BC% nOJIOJRBJIH HpeACTaBBTB 061 STOMli BeAROMy, Sa HCRJIK)He- 

HieiTB r. Poccia, noAaBmaro ') ocoCoe Mn-feme. BeAKoft OAHaRO 
20 aBr. 1769 r. hobustb npeAJio»cenieMT> RanAejuHpiH noATsepABJi'B 



*) Obo coctohjIO BB'h BumeynoMflByTaro yse ehasii Tpy6eiisaro, Ct. Gob. 
HrHara Pocciii (ohi se 6uji» h ca;(OBuil nacneBTopi), KHflsa nerpa Xobbb- 
CEaro, Rapjia RpooKa, BacBjifl MnKyiHoa. 

') Ohi noiaxb oco6oe Metaie tomi>, hto oe Bn;inTi, hto6ii saBue- 
jupia Mona tcpbtb cbob npeuiiyniecTBa Ttui, hto ero BucoROBpeBocxoAH* 
TejBCTBO BUBt BO ;(iipesuiu CBoefi bo BCt A'feja cam bxoabtb xohctl. 



— 95 — 

Ki HenpeHiHHOMy ncnoJiHeHiK) A&HHoe hht* paaie npeAJioaceHie, 
h6o no reHepajiBHouy h Raicepi-KOJiJieHccROMy perJiaHeHiaMi na 
spesHAeHTa h BHiJ^e-npHseAeHTa (rohxi bi KanaejiflpiH cipoeHifi ho 
HMteTca) TO^HO nojio^eHO HaASHpaaie sa KasAUM'b h BciMi* HJie- 
Bam noBeji'lHO hxi npesHAeHiy BCflEoe AOCTOfiHoe no^TCHie h no* 
CJiymaHie ^HHHTb. Ki Tony ace, bi CHJiy noacanoBaHHaro 3 a6k. 
1762 r. BucoHafimaro yRasa, noBOJi'bHO BenjROMy «Aa6u no nojio- 
jReHHUMi na saci AenapiaueHTaMTi b'l CTpoeHiaxi h b^b npoHeiii 
ne HHHiTJiocB npoAOJixeHift hjih ocTaHOBORi, HcnoJiHeHia "ihhbtb no 
CJiOBecHuirb narnHMx npHRa8aHiflMi>»« 

Ho RaHAejiHpifl cTpoenift dTHui» ne y6tAHJiacB h bhobb npeA- 
CTaBHJia eny, hto ciHTaoTB Aaenoe efl npeAJio»eHie neaaROHHUHX. 
IIpORypopi* ;Re RaQaainpiii Geprl^ft BHseMCRift, corjiamaflCB cb en 
OTSBiBOBftiy npeACTaBHJI^ o6'b 3tohb CenaTy h naxoAHJi'B nyjKHBiM'B 
noTpe6oBaTB otb BeniRaro yRasBi Ea BeJiaqeciBa, na ROTopue ohi 
ccujiaeTCH, — Aa6H xlbBi'B npoBcmeAoiie Me^Ay hhm'b h HjienaME 
Kani^ejiflpiH cnopu eAnno^Au na BcerAa n6peci^4eHU 6utb Horjiii. 
BeARoSf^ RaRi BBime CKasano, npeACxasHJi^ CeaaTy Buco^afimie 
yRasBi, BHme naMH npHBeAOHHue, na Roiopue ohI) yRasuBaJni u 
T^u-B A^Jio Bi CeHarb saROHiHJiocB; Ranuojiiipiii ^e CTpoenid Beii;- 
Koft A&Ji'b 29 ceHTH6pH 1768 r. npeAJioJEOHie: <He heha fiojiie 
HenoA^eJKao^Hxi oepenHcoK^ neoiiftHHO HcnojiHAiB ero npeAnn- 
-canin*. 

Bi> HepaspBiBHofl cbash cb saBiAUBaHieMi ABopaoBUMs no- 
CTpoflRaMQ ROHTopa CTpoeniH HMibJia bi> CBoesfb pacnopHKceHier: 
1) RHpnHiHue saBOAH, ROTopuxi) ynOMflHyTO BHme, bua'I^ih- 
BaBmie RHpnniEi ji,aH HaAo6HOCTH caMofl ROHTopu CTpoenifl, a laRHce 
AJiA npoAa»H onaro naciHBiM'B jiHi^aM-B, RaRi 8to bhaho fl8^ npn- 
jioseHHaro BBime AORJiaAa n A'bJi'b rohtopbi; 2) cieiuiaHHHe sasoAU, 
ROTopue CO BpeMOHi HnnepaxpHiJ^Bi Ahhu naxoABJiHCB 6jih8i co- 
BpeMOHHaro naM'B CeMenoBCRaro Mocxa na ^OHTaHR*! ^). 

He pa3T) Bi» 1766 — 1768 roAaxi* BOSHHKajii Bonpoci o tom-b, 
hto6h cieRJi^HHBie saBOAH, uaxoAHBmiecji y CeMenoBCRaro MOCxa 
BtAOMCTBa RaeniejiApiH CTpoenift, sa onacnocTBio ot'b nosapa nepe- 
BecTH B-b KajiHHRHHCRifi AOMi^ a Micro, rA% ohh ctoati, OTAaib 
ofiiiBaiejiHM'B noAi* CTpoenie aomobi. 9to 6hjio conpflHceno ci pac- 
xoAaMH, na noRpurie roexx ho 6hjio A©HerB. KpoM'6 loro neoCxo- 



*) Cm. rocjA- Apx. Mhh. Hh. Jl,'bjL'b bb neiepCypr*, pas. XYI, a*JO 
J^ 493. 



— 96 — 

ABUO 6ujio saBOAH AOBecTQ AO TaKoro cocto^hih, ^to6u hsfoto* 
BjiHeMaa Ha HHX^ nocyAa h sepnaJiBHHJi cieiuia, 6yAy^n Ao6po- 
TOft He xyxce, ho AeineBJie HS'L-sanopa bubobbhuxi, mofjih JierRo 
npoAaBaibCH, npes^ hto naajiH Rani En HMnepaxopcRaro BejiH- 
HecTBa nniepecB sa ^oporo BunHCHBaetfyio nocy^y h ctckjiii 
co6flK)CTH, laKB H o6myK) nojibsy npes'B npoAa«y sa ^enieByia 

Ha dTOTx AORJiaA^ pe30JiK)aiH He nocjriAOBajio h Boi^Kot &*& 
1768 roAy CHOBa AopsHyjn* BcenoAAaHHifime npocHTb o noxa- 
jiOBaHiH jsflo. TaRHXii saBOACRHXT) HaAoCHOCTefi AenerB 10 t. py6.> 
no nojiyHeniH kohxi h saBOAu nepeseAyTCA no njiany b'b KajiHH- 
RUHCRifi AOMB H ^aeifafl otb hhxi> nojibsa, npHseAfl bb coBep- 
mencTBO, caMHMi a'^ohi AOCTaBHTca M0»en». Hai A^Jia ne 
bhaho ^), RaRoe nocji'^AOBajio npHRasanie HiinepaTpHi^i no dT0My 
A'i^y, HO HejiBSH ho oCpaiHTB BHHMame Ha aaCoTJiHBOCTB Bea- 
Raro o6'B yMHO^ceHin o6n^eft hojibsu npesB npoAaxy no AemoBoft 
jsjbBi npoAMeTOBi TaROfl cyn^ecTBeHHofl bb rpajRAancROHi* o6n^e- 
CTBi Heo6xoAnMOCTH, RaRx OROHHUH CTBRJia H CTORJiflHHafl no- 
cyAa. 

Bb b'Ia^hIh RaHAeJi^piH cipoeHid naxoAHJicfl TaRsce npio6pi- 
TeHHuft wb 1765 roAy Ms npHABopnaro B^AOMCTBa aomi» otb 
6BiBmaro ro4)$aRTopa UlTerejiBHaHa, na Heo6xoAHMUH HcnpaBjre- 
nifl ROToparo OTnycRaJiocB eaceroAHO no AORJiaAaMB Bei^Raro oco6aH 
cyMMa H8i» RaCHHeia Eh BejiHHecTBa (cm. a. T. Apx. pa3. XIY 
J& 219). 

Ho RpoMt 9Toro yRasoMB 1763 r. iiojia 11 -ro Heiepro^CRaa 
niJiH4>0BajiBHaH MeJiBHHaa co bcImh npHHaAJie^can^HiiH k% neft 
CTpoeHiHMH^ MacxepcRHMH, MacTepaMH n cjiy:RHTejiflMn dujia OTAana 
BB B%AOMCTBO reHopajix-nopyiHRa BeuRaro.. ^enBra, KaRB na ;Ra- 
jiOBaHBe, TaRB h na npoiie no TOfl MOJiBHHA'b pacxoAH hobojiIho 
ornycRaTB otb RaCHHera namero no Tpe6oBaHiHMB Bemcaro hbb 
ROMHaTHOft cyMHBi Efl BejiEHOCTBa (cm. Ap. M. Hm. ABopa A'^a 
1763 roAa jiht. A, J\e 215 RapT. 4931, no ohhch ^^Vsai pa3. I). 

^BHBrH OTnyCRBJIHCB oGHRHOBeHHO HO TpOMMB. Bb RaCHHOTB OTCH- 
JiaJIHCB H BC^ CHBTBI H OTqeiU 9T0ft niJin(f)OBaJIBHH. 

MeJiBHHi^a dTa sannMajiacB HCRjnonHxejiBHo rpaneBieMii h hijih- 
^OBROH) AparoA'lHHuxi RaMHOfi AJia ABopa Eh BejinneciBa. 9toh> 



*) no cioBavi nexpoBa-HcTopia Hexepdypra, cxp. 725, npeAnoioseBie 
BouKaro yAocxoHJOCL yxBepsieHiji h aasoAU 6ujh nepeBe;^eHfir. (Mjio Apx. 



FocyA. Mhh. Hh. A'^^'^) 



— 97 — 

HacTepcKOK) saBijpiBajTL HOAnojROBHHR'B BapTeHOB'B, npeAciaBJiAB- 
mift Bei^ROMy panopTU e^ceutca^iHO o npioSpiTOHHux'B orb Top- 
roBi^eBi* n 0Tn]jiH4)0BaHHiiixi bi naciepcEOft CpHJiJiiiABTaxii h 061 
HBAepsaHHOfi Ha dTon> npexMen cyicMU. Bei^ROft ace bi cbok) 
OHepeAL npeAcraBJUUTB o6i Biowh HMnepatpHA^, HcnpamHBaa pas- 
pimeeie na omycR^ hooCxoahmux^ Aonerb hsi KOicHaTHfiixi» cyuwb 
£fl BejiHHecTBa ^). 

Ol saBiAUBaHieiTb nura^BajiBHOK) (|»a6pHR0K) coejuauBJioch 
HOoocpeACTBeHHO H Ao6uBaHie Aparoi^i^HHtix'b RHMHet Ha ypajii. 
no CJiOBam II(ep6aT0Ba ^), BeARoft 6BijrB Ha^aJifcHHROirb npoMucjia 

UBiTHBlXl EaMHOft, ROTOpuft 6UJrB BNA'^JIOHl HS'B BtAOMCTBa 

BeprB-KOJueriH, He HiribBmefi HSRaRoro CB'ibArtofji ero coctohhIh, 
H BosJioxeHi na BeiiRaro. Hsi AORJ^aAa BeaRaro opaBHiejiBCTByK)- 
nieiiy ceHaiy wh 1765 ro^y ycnaTpHBaeTc^, mto HMHepaipHaa 
ERaiepHHa II nopyqnjia eicy BuCpaiB HaAe^Hyio nepcony cb 
ROMaHAOK) AJifl pasBi^AKii MpaMopHuxi, araxoBuxi, xpycTajibHuxi 
H ApyrHxi poAOBi i^THuxi RaneHBeB'b B'L CHM6HpcRoft, Op6H6ypr- 
CROfl B EKaTepHHfiyprcROft ry(5epHijix% n cocxaRHTb HHCTpyRi(iK) 
AJia dToft aRcnoABi^H. Bei^Roft bosjiokhjii 3to nopyneme Ha naxo- 
ABBmarooi bi RaHi^ejiapiH orb CTpoenift renepaji'L-Maiopa HROsa 
J(aHeH6epra. Bciwb npHcyTCTBeHHusfb irbcTaH'b npeAHHCUBaoiocb 
euy coAiftCTBOBaTb, A^Baib cyAa, hoaboabi, noTpeCHue MaTopiaJiu 
H HHCTpyifeHTu. PaapisRy, mjinjiOBRy r nojiepoBRy RaHHefi npoHs- 
BOAHTb na ^aepHRi b% EcaTepHndypri. IIo aroMy AORJiaAy ^) co- 
CTOflJicJi 15 HapTa 1765 roAa yRasx BosjioseHiB bt^tl pa6orb 
Ha reHepas-b-Maiopa ^aHHOHCepra h 061 OToycRi na Heo6xoABMue 
npH aTOiTb pacxoAH eABHOBpeMeHHO ao 20.000 py6. PasuHMi 
oCpasovb noBOJiiHo dpohsboahtb caicoMy ^anHeufiepry bi npH- 
6aB0Ri> Kb 2cajiOBaHbK) no mecxn cotb py6. eseroAHO, noRa ohii 
npe6uBaTb 6j]ifiTb npa nopyneHHofi eny cucRaHiB HpaicopHuxi 
h ApyrHxi» RBMeHbeBii BRcaoABiUH (a. Foe. Apx. p. XIY, J^ 234). 
IIpH AaHHeH6eprb naxoABjiocb 10 MacTepoBi cb Ileiepro^CROft 

niJIH4K)BaJIbH0ft MejIbHHIUJ, ABB BTBJIBAHCRHX'b MBCTOpa H T. A- 



') Cm. pocnBCH nMeeHfiiMi. Efl BejnqecTBa yKaaaMi Vb apxHBi M. Hnnep. 
J^Bopa, a xaKxo a^jo Focyit. ApxHBa paap. Xlv, /fi 217.— Ha noKynEy Apa- 
routHHUxi RaneHbeBi pacxoAoeaiOCb eseroAHO ne Majo ACHen H8^ ROMHai- 
Hofi cyMMU Ka6HHeTa Ea BejHqecTBa. 

•) Cm. coHHHOHia kh. mepCaxosa;, h3a. Xpymesa, t. I, cip. 593—594. 
n^epdaTOBi BaxoAHji raKoe BUA'^ieDie eenpaBHiiiHEiiii. 

«) Cm. npyjoaenie XII h XIII. BiOMy ji;aHfleH6epry 6HJia ^aaa 
oco6aH HHCTpysAijr, aaroTOBieaHaji BeAsnui, npn ceMi npujoseHHaa (cm. 
npni. XIII). 

H. H. BBaKoA. 7 



— 98 — 

JI|aHHeH6eprB OTUCKajiii wb paanuxi Miciaxii upaMopii BC^Raro 
poxa H HaJioMajiii ero jifl 20.000 njAOB'b Ha KaHHHU, rojiohhu, 

CTOJIOBUfl AOCRH, HOJIOBUfl HJIHTEf H OTIipaBHJI'b Ha yiRHHCKyK) 

npHCiaHb Ha GapRasi^. Kponi Toro orojio OpeeGypra ohi namejTb 
ROJiHaxaHii A^H rpaneni^, a orojio ERaTepanCypra — flnmy, araTu, 
RpacRy apb H HaHajn hx^ paspafioiRy, ho BcrpbTsurb 6oJiBnioe ri 
TOMy saTpyAHenie bi RpaftHeBfL HOAOCTaTR'b JiiOAefl, yni^ionpixi 
BecTH dTH pa6oTU. FjiaBHaa AHpoKiyfl na^i aToft dRcneAmneio Gujia 
B08Jio»eHa Ha BoARaro, Roxopuft neoAHORpaiHo bxoahji^ ci> npex* 
CTaBJieHieMi 061* oinycRi Aenerb, HeoCxoARtfuxi jifls, pa6oTL no 
AoGuBanifo MpaMopa n AoporBxi RaiiHefi, a TaR«e na AOcrasRy 
Hxii Wb neTep6ypn>. HMnepaipHaa yiBepxAajia 3TH AORJraAU 
(26 anp. 1767 r. ^), 28 iWM 1768 r, 25 iWM 1769 r., 
15 MapTa 1770 r.), oCuRHOseHHO pasp^lmaa oinycTHTB na ara 
pa6oTiii no 15.000 p. e^ceroAHO. Hejibsfl He san'lTHTB, ?to Beipcofl 
AORJiaAUBaji'B HMnepaTpmrl^ h TOin>, hto MHorie pa6oHie npH 
noAo6H£ix'i> paGoTaxi nopi^rB ceGi spbHie ofb hujih npH lecRi 
RaEHeft, CTBHOBHTCfl CJia6u, a noTOMy ne co6jQ[aroBOJiHrk jih rocy- 
AapuHH BUAS^BaTb Hifb ejReroAHO nenciH. XoAaiaficiBO axo (6e3'b 
HHCJia H roAa na aorjiba'^) OAHaRO ne yAocroHJiocb Buco^aflmeft 
pesojuoi^H H ocTaJiocb bt} (Synaraxi en ceRpeiapH. 

XIosAHie Be^RO& npoACTaBJUHJi'b HMaepaTpHi^'l, hto noJiesHo 
6biJio 6hi OHOHb, ec^Hfii noBOJi'i&HO 6HJ10 ne hsi pasHHX'b M^crb, 
HO H3i OAHoB TOJibRO cocTOAH^efi KaHuniJioBCRO& CJio6oA£i nojiy- 

HaTb paGOTHHROBT) A^H A06U?H HpaMOpa H APyrEXl RaMOHbeBl 
HJIH npHHHCaTb HSB APyrOft CJIO6OABI BB paBHOMB HHCJli, DOAOGhO 

TOMy, RaR'b ecTb npHnHCHue pa6oTHHRH na pasHnxi saBOAax'b. 
J[(jiH nojiesHMmaro HpiHCRaHbH RaneHbeB^ aojisho npH dRcnoAHipH 
H&itTb oco6hx^ jiiOAefl, ROTopne HmcaRHMH ApyrHiiH saBOACRHMii 
AibjiaifH aaHfliu ne Cujih. JijoRJiaAi dTorb oahbro npHRasano 6ujio 
15 AGR. 1776 r. ociaBHTb Ceai nocjrfeACTBia (cm. a- TocyA. Ap. 
pas. XIV, JVo 234). 

PaBHHM'b ofipasoMi Bei^Rofi HanHMajHi sa rpaHHi^eK) paanux'b 
MaciepoBT) A^A RaHi](eJiHpiH cipoeHid, bgoGxoahmuxi ji^jir egh npH 
npoHSBOACTB*]^ paajiHHHuxi pa6orb, jieacaBmax^ Ha odflsanHOCTH 
RaHi^eJiHpiH. TaRi nanp. bb 1762 roAy BeARmrb Chjib oCtiAb- 
jieHi ROHTopi cejia IljapcRaro cocTOHBmiflca no ero AORJiaAy 
Bucoiaftmift yRas'b tomi>, mo6u Maciepa npyccRofi naiuH $pH- 



*) droTh AOKjaA'b Tasse npH ceni npHiaraeicA (cm. nps^. J^ XIY^. 



— 99 — 

^pBza PoreH6epra aociiaTb scsaib na npHMopcRBXi Geperaxi 
flHiapB Bi Jin^JiSiEjijjii AO ParH h bi BH6oprCROM'b AUCTpHRxi, 
fifiwb eMy Bi> noMon^b o^Hitepa jiaAOJKCKaro ntxoTnaro nojiKa 
nopy^BKa ^HX-XoxeH6axa, h6o ohi>. 6yAyHH m ReHHrcCepri^ 
co6Hpajii yjse HicKOJiBRo Jvkvh AHiapB. HaHHMajincb bb Pzict 
vacTepa mh MpaMopHuxi paGoT'b no HcaaRieBCROuy co6opy 
{cm. Ap. M. Hhoct. X^bjTb wb MocrbI^ CHomemfl ROJUieriii HHOCip. 
A^jTb c^ RaHii^ejujipiefl cxpoeHifl h ROHTopofi CTpoeHia HcaaRieB- 
CRoro co6opa). 

Ki BeAROMy laRJRe oCpan^ajiHCb cb Tpe6oBaHiAMn o AOCTas- 
jiemH pasHUXB HCRycHux'b MacTepoBB h acnBonnci^eB'b, RaRi aro 
BHAHO, HanpHM^pi) HSB AORJiafta BeAKaro (j(. Jg 96, p. I, onHCb 
73 — 187 no apxHsy M. HMnep. JI^Bopa) 06^ ornpaBJiemH bb 
MocRBy no npocb6t renepajia (|»ejibASfapmajia reasji TpydeuRaro 
pasHHXB MaciepoBii »HBonncubixi, p^knux^, cjiecapnaro A^a 
B T. ft. A^fl npHroTOBJieniH Kb TopsKecTBenHOHy KopoHOBaniK) e^ 
BejiH^ecTBa wb Mocrb'6 ipiyM^ajibHUX'b Boporb, yfipancTBa Kpeii- 
jiOBCRaro ABopi^a h ero noRoeBi, a paBHO 6aHReTHbix'b ctojiob'b, a 
xaRxe A<na A^jiaEhR ^OBTanuux'b Tpy6i> r^ nycKanbio hsb ^onra- 
BOB-b AJi^ napoAa 6iiaro h Epacnaro BBna. Ilpe atOHi oinycRa- 
JiHCb TB.KSRQ 0Tb Bei^Raro 8.000 mRajmROBB xpycTaJibnux'b, acH- 
paHAOHOBB xpycTajibHuxii H T. A* To^HO TaKHe HMieTCA nepenncRa 
Cb rpa^oifb CBBepcoiTb 'oCb OTnyCR-b RpacoRi b MaTepiaJSOBx 
iia HcnpaBJieHie AORopaiufi aur OaneTa no cictrl apxBTORTopa 
rpaAen;ia (Gradezzy) b MamnHBCxa Fsjib^epABHra (a'&io JTs 96, 
CTp. 90). 

PaBHbiM'b ofipasoMi H. 11. EjiarBni, saBi^AUBaBmift oaho 
speMfl xeaipaMB, nncaiiB BeuROify: «Efl BMn.BOJi. Buco^aflme yRa- 
BaTb coBSBOJiBJia R^ roTOBfln^eficfl onepi cA'i^JiaTb AeRopan;iB b 
OHyio pa6oTy npenopyHBTb hh%, a&6u n Morb no cesiy npnifbpy 
finpeAb RB cOHBHOHiK) npBABopnaro mxaTa npncTyna^, nojioscnxb 
na ycJiOBie BcnpaBjienk BSBicxnyio cyMMy. A Raci Kb BcnojiHenuo 
cefi ea BeJUHi. bojib noxpe6HO snaion^Bxii b npsBU^RHxi acBBonac- 
UfiBTb ^exBopo qeJiOBiRi, xo cero pa;iB noRopntflnie, Bame bbicoro- 
npoBOC., npomy bsb BiA'^nia Bamero BumenBcannoe hbcjio cbx'b 
uacxepoBi>, nsi OuBajiuxB npn xoMb, ro uwk npncjiaxb, a^-^h 
sa UBMB ocianoBRB nocjiiAOBatb ne mofjio. Gero o^BAaa na 
BcerAa cb AOJiatnuMx noHxenioMB a ecMb, MBJiocxBBMfi rocyAapb 
Hoft, Bamero BBicOKonpeBocxoABxejibcxsa noRopn'Iftmifi cjiyra H. E>ia- 
rBHB». 22 HOflGpa 1765 r. 



— 100 — 

«K'B roTOMn^fiMCJi nJia hoboA onepu xeRopaAUirb noTpeCeo 
na HiROTopoe BpeHA cRyjibnTopi h ^eiupe HejioaiKa mTyRarypoBi^ 
^ero paxH noRopeMme Bame BUCORonpeBocxoAHTejibCTBO npomy 
BumeoHcaHHfirx'b JnoAefl, ne yMeAJina, hsi Bamero Bi^A^HiA oto- 
cjiaTL Kh OBOft pa6oTi^ H BejitiB niTb HBimca y iiamnHHCTa flfiKJio. 
Ho OROHqaHiH skb ffioia ao hexi Ha^ejKaiparo, ohh, Sea's BCARara 
saAep^aeifl, bi ROvaHAy OTnyn^eHU Cy^yrL, a h, osHAa^ ohuxi^ 
npe6yAy na BcerAa c^ AOJiacHuirB nouTanieirE Bamero npesocxo- 
AHTejiBCTBa MHJiocTHBaro rocnoAHHa Moero noRopnufi cjiyra H. Eora- 
rvkR-h. AeRa6pfl 10 aha 1765 r. 

Bi> saRjnoHeme mokho upEcoBORynHTb, ?to BeiQcofi, rek^ 
renepaJTL-nopyHHR'B h Raei^ejiApiH otb crpoeHifi Anp^^'^op'^y nojiy- 
HajTB nojiHoe no dTOMy ?HHy jRajiOBaHBO n Ha paiuomr Bcero ^) 
2.B30 p. 3D R. 

KpOHt Toro owh HifijTi BO BJoraAiHiH RaseHHyio Musy Het- 
rayseni m> Jlzf^JiBBjiiiii, ch npHHaA^ejRHOcxflHH, ROTopas 6HJia 
Kb 1764 r. 29 AeRa6pH bhobb BceMHJiocTHBifline eicy Roii^^npiro- 
Baea bi Bi^Hoe h noTOMCTBeHHoe BJiaAiHle, npn qoMi noBejiiHO 
6hjio Ha oeyio Musy saroTOBHTb o6fiiRHOBeHHyK) rpaiioTy o tohi^ 
^0 CHMi» Hifi^HieMi HOJRerb ohi Bei^ROft pacnojraraTB no CBoefi 
BOJrt ^). IXosAHte Bi 1781 r. Be^KOMy 6hjio OT^yn^eHo hst. Ra- 
6HHeTa efl BeJianecTBa 34.156 p. na CA&ianie cepeCpAnaro cep- 
BHsa CTOJiOBaro na 24 nepcoHu, noAoSno tj^atb, ROTopue 6ujih 
HsroTOBJiaeMU ajia bhobb yqpe:i;/(eHHaro HaM^CTHH^ecTBa '). 

BumeHSjiosceHHoe AOcraTO^no noRasHBaerb na CROJibRO 6ujia 
o6niiipHa H pasHOoGpasna A'bflTejibHocTb Beiucaro, RaRi Hanajib- 
HBRa ROHTopu CTpoemH ABopqoBi H caAOBi ea aeJiBHecTBa. 

Ohi> HcnojiH^jii» BCi jrexaBmiH na Heni no dTofi aojurhocth 
o6A8aHHOCTH HBnpepuBHO 6ojiie 30 Jiirb. 

IIocTErniifi ero HOAyrb jibhirjii ero bi 1793 roAy (f^HSH^ecROft 
B08M0SCH0CTH oTDpaBJiOTb AOJi^B cjiyscGy ea BejiHHecTBa. TorAa 
ynpaBJiBHie ROHTopu CTpoeuift Chjio bosjioscbho aa renepaji'b-nopy- 
HHRa Typ^aHHHOBa *). 

Ho eABa JiH M02CH0 yTBepjRAaTB, hto ynpaBJienie Bei](RHirb roh- 



*) Cm. B-b/iOMOCTb AOxoAOBi-pacxoAOBb 1762 r. (C6op. H. P. Hct. 06. 
28, CT. 46). 
') Cm. Apx. IIpaB. CeH. kh. 112, cxp. 354. 
') Cm. pocoHCb Buc. jKasoBb 1781 r. oti 25 iDJiA. 
*) Cm. C.-neTep6. BiAOMociH 1793 r. ceHTa6pii 14, x- ^ 74. 



— 101 — 

TOpOK) CTpoeHift ABOPAOBI H CftAOBl CHHCKaJIO BMy SjiarOCKJIOHHOe 

pacnoJiojKeHie HMnepaipHi^iJ. Mu bba^jih, uto npeo6pa80BaHle bb^- 
peHHaro eny yHpejKAemH 6wio coBepmeno BonpeRH sseaiaHijiMi 
Beipuiro h A&»e 6e8i> ero B^AOMa. 

PasHUMi ofipasoiTB BecBMa Hep%ARO aorji^u ero 061 oiaycRt 
A6Hen», HeoexoAHMuxii AJiii pa6orB, npoHSBOAHiiux^ no KejiaHiia 
EnaTepHHu n, ho yAOCTOHBajiHCb yiBepsAemfl h jinmajiH Bei^Raro 
BO8MOSHOCTH HcnoJiHflTB npHRasani^ HMaepaipHiiu. Bee aio He 
AORasuBaen jih, hto Bei^Kofi He nojiii»80BaJicJi oco6eHHOK) hhjiocti»k) 
ERaTopHHu U, KOTopyiD He MorjiH OMy CHHcnaTb rohohho h npe- 
peRaeiH erocbiaRHMi MorymecTBeHBUMi qejiOBiROMi, RaREiii GtiJii 
renepajii-npoRypopi A. A. BflseucRifl. 



rJIABA qETBEPTAa '). 

BocnHTETeiBBHe AOMa h y^pexAeHie hxi bi HameMi OTe«recTBi npii Ilerpt 
BejruKOHi h ero 6iBsafiiaHX'k> npeeiiHHsax'B.— OcHosaHie MocKoacKaro boc- 
DHTaTejBBaro xoiia npH EsaTepBHi II h renepaiBBuft niaai HMnepaTop* 
€Karo BocnHTareiBHaro AOMa, cocTaBieHHUft BeuBHui.— FzaBHUfl ocBOBaHiJi 
KaKi nepBOfi ^acTH aroro niaea, Tasi u BTopofi u TpeTsefi.~neTep6yprciufi 
BocnHTaTejiBHtifi jlowl n ero noMiaieflie.— nepenHCKa BeAsaro cb OaesyH- 
CRHMii CoBiTOMTi npiHCKaHlH yxo6Haro noMtiE(eBiA ak Aova, o npievt 
Bi xoHi» Atreft, Hxi BOcnHTaniH h ody^eeiii pasiH^HusfB HacTepcTBaii'b u 
scKyccTBaifi; oinpaBsa HiKoropuxi hsi nnxi bi HHOCTpaHSue yHHoepcn- 
TeTH Aia o6yHeHifl veAHUHHii.—HeyAOBJieTBopHTeJLHOCTb BOcnaraHifl A'BTeft 
vh AOM'b.— He ycntxi oOy^ieeifl A'^reft nacTepcTBaii'B h BaBpurie 6oiBniHHCTBa 
nacTepcKHXi, ycTpoeHHux'E bb Aou%.--HenopflABB no Aony.— npocB6u Beii- 
saro o6b hxi npespaiaeHiB.— Hosoe AonoiHExeiBHoe noioasefiie 1780 roAa; 
e3tf'6fleeie ero b'b 1790 roAy*— Aiio KHpm6ayHa h JIoBAOBa.— HasHaieHie 
MnHHxa apeeMnDSOMii rJiaBHaro noneinTejiA ii BCTynieaie ero vb yapaaie- 

Hie BOCQBTaTeJBHUM'B AOMOHB. 

,,TaKi HicTB BOJfl vpeA'B OTI^eMl 
BamHM'B He6ecHUMi, aa noTH^HeTB 

eAHHB OTB UaiUXl CHXl**. 

£b. MaToex, n. 18, ex. 14. 

Hhrto ho CTanexi OTpHEcaTb, hto ki oCaBaHHOCMM-B 6jiaro- 
ycTpooHHaro rocyAapcxBa oxhocbtch xaoce none^enle o npHspiHia 
yB%^HEJxi>, 6e3yMHBix'B, 6ojiLH£ix'B, RaJii&R'B, padCJia6jieHHUX'b h t. a. 



*) Upn usjiosseBiH BTofi naBU, a noiBsoBajicfl He xoibko pasjHYHBuiH 
A'fejaHH H sypHajaMH nexep^yprcEaro h KocsoBCKaro OnexyacKHX^ GoBi- 
TOBii BOCQHxaxeiBHiix'B AOifOBi H oepeDHCBOK) Bousaro CB oaesyaaMH, ysa- 

BaHHHllII HHOK) B'B COOXBixCTfiyK>II^HX% HXB M^CXaXl, HO H MBOrHMH COHH- 

BeniflMH H HSAaHiflMH. sasi xo: 

y^pesAeHiH H ycxaBu, Kacaiomiecfl ao BOcnHxaBia h oOyieaifl bi 



— 102 — 

B'L dTBj'b BBAaxi jCTpaHBaeiCH B^inufi pflA*^ saBeAeHift, OdHa^ae- 
MHxi oCn^HM'L HiieHeifB saBe^eHifi oCn^eciBeHHaro npHsp'^HiH^ 
KaKi-To: gojiLHHi^Er, 6oraA'|j[BHH, npiioTU, yC'lKHii^a, AOBia yMajiH- 
meHHuxi) n t. a- PaBHHin> o6pa80M'b RasajnocB He iioacerB no^Jie- 
acaiB coMHimH) ofiHsaHHOCTB rocyA&pcTBa Hjm o6iuecTBa noAHHTK 
H npHspixB MjiafteHi^a — Cysymaro ^ejioB*Ka, octaBJieHHaro r^fc 
jih6o Ha npoBSBOJTB cyABfiu h o6pe?eHHaro atHMx, no CBoeft Sesno- 
Mon^HOCTH, Ha HBHyK) rH6ejiB h ciiepTB. BbinoJiHeHle aToft oCflsan- 
fiocTH BusuBaerB yqpejRAeme oco^uxi aohobt>, HasHBaeHux'B y 

HaCB BOCDHTaTeJIBBUME, a Ha 4^paHI^3CROMl> H HiBieUROlTB B3BI- 

Kaxx 6oji^ npaBHJUBHO — AOManH Ha&AeHHuxi A'^refl «inaisons dea 
enfants trouv6s, Finde]hauser», — HMtion^HX^ ^tJIBH) axExi horh- 



Poccio H)HoinecTBa o6oero noia^ ri yAOBOJi&CTBiK) oCiAecTBa co6paBHue 
1774 roAa. 

Codpanie ynpesAeHiH h npexaBcaHiS KacaTejBHO BOcauTaHifl bi Poccia 
o6oero noia 6jaropoAHaro h utn^aHcsaro iOHomecTBa, cb opo^BMii B'L noiBsy 
o6iuecTBa ycTaHOBjemaMH; 1789 r. 

Co6panie pasBUX'B BSBtcTin aiinepaTopcKaro BOcnflTaTeiBnaro AOMa^ 
H3A. 1791 roAa, 

EpacyuKifi.— KpaTKifi HCTopQ^ecKift OHepsi MOCKOBCKaro Bocnnxa* 
leiBHaro Aoua. 

TapanurHH -b. — MatepiaiH ajih ncTopin c.-neTep6yprcRaro Bocniixa- 
TejTLBaro AOMa; 1878 roAa. 

HcTopia ocflOBaHifl h OTEpuTi^ HMnepaTopcxaro BOcnHTaiejBHaro moc- 
KOBcsaro Aoua. 

06n^ecTBeHHoe npHspiaie b% PocciH— G t o r a. 1818 roAa mx- UHHiicxep- 
CTBa noJiHuiH. 

CoBpeaieBHaa lixonflCB wb Mockobcbexb BIaomoctbxb, BOCRpec. npe- 
6aB. 1863 r. Jfe 28. 

BocBHxaTeJiBBHfi AOMT> c-neTep6yprcKift noAi» yupaBjeHieM'L BeiiKaro— 
r. IlBTKOBCRaro (bi PyccKOft CTapHB*) 1875 r. t. aIi h XIII). 

MaTepiajiLi js^& ucTopiu BMnepaiopcKaro HOCROBCRaro BocnaTaTejTBHara 
AOMa— ApamycoBa. 

HsB nponuaro MOCROBCRaro BOCUBTaTe:iLiiaro AOMa— r. MuiJiepa. MocRBa 
1893 roAa. 

Bb DopTpeTHofi rajiepei r. MnncTepa 1865 roAa t. I, ctd. 26. 

Les plans et les statnts des differents 6tablissements ordonn^s par sa 
Majesty Imperiale— tradnit par M. Clerc. Octobre 1775 r. (ofit sToft BHHrt 
o(hiaBjeHie bb J6 98, 1774 roAa. neiepCyprcRiB BtAOMocTH). 

Systtoe complet d'6ducation publique, physique et morale pour Tun et 
Tautre sexe ct pour les diverses conditions, execute dans les differents ^tablis- 
sements, ordonn6 par Sa Majest6 Imperiale Catherine IL pour Teducation de 
la jeunesse et Tutilit^ de son empire par Betzkoy, traduit en fran^ais par 
Clerc. 2 parties. Neuchatel 1777 roAa. 

BeaROMi> 6ujio mhopo CRasaBO h nosTopeno mhopo BSB'&CTHaro bb 
raserax'b: Hame Bpeiia 1863 r. J& 29."BocRpecHiift AocyrB 1865 r. J& 116. — 
HjfincTpHpoBaQHaH raaera 1864 r. J^& 19.— BceuipHafl MjJiiocTpaiiiH 1870 r. 
T. Ill, % 63.— HjjiDCTpaaiii 1859 r. J& 1.— HeTepdyprcRiri ihctorb 1872 r. 
J6 174.— PyccRift iiipB 1872 r. J^ 230.-rojoci 1868 r. J^ 273 h 1870 r. 
J^ 132.— MocROBCRifl B^AOMOCTB 1872 r. ^ 222.— BflpaeBHR BiAOMOCTir 
1872 r. I^ 241.— B*AOMOCTn C.-neTep6yprcRoii ropoACRoft uojrauiH 1872 r- 
J\& 234—236. 



— 103 — 

ujTUTb noHeny jih6o A^iefi npHspiTB, BOcnHiaTB h no bosmoh- 
HOCTH CAiJiaTB E81 BBxi JiiOAeft, nojuesHUX'B oCn^ecTBy h rocyxap- 

CTBy. 

IIoAoGHue BocnHiaxeABBHe Aona, RaRi h Bci BOo6ii^e nejiosi- 
HecKifl yipeacxeHiAy He nyacAU pasjiHnHux'B HOAOCTaTROBi, nopoac- 
xaioTB He HaJio sjioynorpeCjueHift h aa^g Rani 6u noACipeKaiorB 
juoAeft Ha npecTynjieHifl, noneicy, bi nocjitAHee Bpeuir, HepiARO 
BucKasuBaioTCii MHiHia npoTHB^ yipeaRAemji noAo6HuxT> aomobi 
Boo6nie, ynycRaa npn btoitb coBepmeHHO bsi BHAy BonpocL: 
qro ace A^JiaTb ci BaxoAniiuHH MJiaAeHi^aMB, noRHHyrHMH no^qeify 
jin6o poAHiejiflMH Ha npoHSBOJi'L cyAb6Bi? 

BxoAHTB vb noApo6Hoe pascMoipiHie Bonpoca o i^Jiecoo6pa3- 

HOCTH nOA06HUX'b BOCOHTaieJIbHUXl AOHOBl H RSJiaraTB SA^CB 

noApo6HO HCTopiK) Hxi BOoSn^e — eABa jiH yiiicTHO bi 61orpa^iH 
BeaKaro. Orcujiafl DOdTOHy sejiafion^Hxi nosHaKOMHTBca cb stewl 
npeAMeToiTB BOoCn^e Kb o6cTOflTejibHiiiM'B HOHorpail^iaM'B rr. HQgel 
H Leon Lallemand % mu orpaHB'iBMca B03o6HOBJieQieM'B bi na- 
icHTB HHiaTejieft^ hto CO BpeHOHi Kapjia BeJiBRaro bo mhofbx'b 
Briciax'b EBpons ynpesRAajincB, Ha pa8JiBHHuxi> ocHOBaHiaxi, 
BOCHBTaiejiBHiie AOHa. TaR'B nanp. MOHamecTHyion:(i& opAOHi 
Cb. jd^yxa B-b MoHnejiBe nocxaHOBBJii bi 1070 roAy nemHCB o 
noARHAumax'B, a bi 1180 r. y^peABJii ji^r bbxi ocoCbiA tocdb- 
xaJiB «rhOpltal des enfants trouy6s>. Bb IlapBHcb npaBBieJiBCTBO 
AOJuro He pimajiocB OTRpuxB noAoCnaro ycTaHOBJieHia n tojibro bi 
XY BkK% ho xpoHBRaifB 1445 r., y BxoAa i(epRBB BoronaTepH 
(Notre-Dame) ctoajib RpoBaxRH (crftche — acjB), B-BRoiopBia RJiajiH 
ooRBAaeMBixi HOBopoKAeHHuxi; xyrB ;Re cxo^Jia MonaxBHa b bos- 
rjiamaira: anoMoraxe Ha^eHUBii (en criant pabliquement, faites 
Men k ces pauvres enfants trouv^s))). $paHi^HCRi I ocHOBaJi'B 
BOCHBxaxejiBHBifi AOMi (cLa Gouche» ^). 

^HCJio noAo6HHxx ynpeacAGHifl sna^HxeJiBHo yBOJiHHBJiocB 
nocji']^ xoro, RaRi SHaMeHBxufl BBHuenxi ao-Uojib bx 1670 roAy 
ycxpoBJix B% IlapBact, b^ npeAMicxBt CeH^-j^eHB, aomi poahjib- 
HBifl B AJia HafiA6HLimefl. OcoCeHHO mhofo BOcniaxaxejiBHBix'B ao- 
MOBi 6hjio ocHoeaHO b^ npoAOJiaceniH Bcero XVIII cxojiixia; xaKO- 



*) Histoire des enfants abandonn^s et delaiss6s~par Leon Lallemand. 
Paris. 1885 r. 

Die Findelhauser und das Findelwesen Europas von Htigcl. Wien. 
1863 r. 

') Cm. Dnpin. Histoire de Fadministration des secours publics en France, 
p. 289. 



— 104 — 

BUe OTKpUTH 6UJ1H, MQJRJIJ npOHBMl, Bl JIOHAOSt (1739 F.) 9 TjT- 

pHHt (1748 r.), KoneHrarent (1753 r.), CiOKroJibirt (1753 r.), 
H T. A. 

?T0 He KacaoTCfl Hamero OTeHecrsa ^) to OAsa jih cnpaBCA- 
jiHBO ciHTaTB BeARaro u HMnepaTpBa; CRaiepHHy 11 qojioshb- 
niHMH Haqajio BocDSTaTejiBHUMi jifiUBM.i> B% PoccIh. noAo6Hiae 
AOMa cyn^ecTBOBajiH bb HameMii oieqecTB^ ropasAO pante. TaKi 

HOBFOpOACKifi MHiponOJIHTl lOBl, Ha HSAHBeilie COGCTBeHHUX'b 

CBOHXT> BOTWHHuxi AOxoAOBi, sasejii Bi 1706 roAy bi Hosro- 
poAt TpH 6oJiBHBi^Ei, a opB pi^K^ BoJizoB^^ Ha 6epery— rocTHHHHiQi 
AJifl npoxo»nxT> h, neiiy ao Hero He ocMijiHBajiHCb noAaiB npniiipa, 

AOBI'b AJIH HesaROHHO-pOJRAOHHUXl H BCHKHX'b HOA- 

KHAHiixi MJiaAeHueBi ^). 

^jiH cero nocjii^AHaro, HeoCuKHoaeHHaro bi> rk BpeMeaa sase- 
Aenifl, HasHaHEJH) ohi npHnHCHOfl Ri CBoeny apxiepeftCROMy AOMy 
ujkjihii MonacTupb sa ropoAOKB, HasHBaionuficfl Rojimobi, r^b enie 
HeAaBHO HaxoAHJica npHRaai o6niecTBeHHaro npsapi^flifl ^). 

IleTp-b BejiHRifl, ysHaBii o cnxi HejnoBiROJUoGHBUXb y^ipexAe- 
Hlax'B,BT>1712 — 1713roAy, Ha noMonjb coAepaaHia hxi, 
yRasajii GpaTB noJiOBHHHue aoxoabt cb icoHacTHpcRHxi bot^hhi* 
sa OneroK) h npanncaTB CBepxB Toro Bci BOiqEHU 6BiBniefi 
TpoHURO-FaJiHJiieflcRofi nyciuHB. FocyAapBiHJi uapBaa, BejiHRUi 
rhahhh h MHorie 6oHpe, copeBHya Tony co CBoeft CTopoHu, ^acio 
npHCHJiajiH Ri nepBocBflH^eHHOHy A6He:RHUfl noAajiHiB, a Hobfo- 



') JleniKOB'B— PyccBift aapoxB h rocyAapcTBO. MocsBa. 1858 roAa. 

') On. CJioBapB HCTopHqecsiB o 6uBn]RX'b bi PoccIh nacaTeiAXB xyzoB- 
Baro HHHa rpeKO-poccificKoft iiepsBn, t. I, crp. 303. G.-neTep6ypn> 1827 r. 
CM. TaK2se acTopifl poccificKoti iepapxioi cocTaBieHBaa AMspocieMi^ q. I, 
CTp. 80. 

") Tan se, t. II, CTp. 227; Tasse Essai sor Thistoire des enfants trouv^s 
depuis les temps les plus anciens josqu'^ nos joars— par M. de Goaro£P. 
Paris. 1829 r. p. 148 n ci^a. Momeo apeADOJiaraTB, qio uucjil o6b ycrpoflcTBi 
6oraA'bjbBi{ H AOHa A-va noARUABHX'b MJiaAeHiieBB eaBtana 6uja UBTpono- 
jiHTy loBy OuBioHMi yqeHHBOMB DaAyaHcsaro yeHBepc^Tera, rpeaoMB, po- 
AOMi H3B Re(|>ajiOBiH, Co(t)poHieii'L JlHxyAOio, BOTopufi, 6yAyHH bi IlaAyt, 

BHAtj'B, 668% COMHtHiif, Ha A'^-I^ BOCUHTaxeiBHEie AOMH, OCBOBaHHUe BB 

HraAiu en^e bi cpeABie B^Ra. Co<|)poBift JexyAa h87> CBoero saBJioqeBu 

BB ROCIPOMCEOMB HnaTBeBCKOMB HOHaCTUp'l B3flTB 6uj[^ BHXpOnOJHTOMB 
lOBOMB BB HOBFOpOA'i^j TA^ OHB H SaBeJH rpCKO-JiaTHHCBifl CJaBeHCBifl 

niBOiu. TaBB no ciOBaMB L^on Lallemand Histoire des enfants abandonn^s 
et d61aiss6s— Paris 1885 r. a^b npieua AiTefi, noBHAaenuxii poiHieJAiiH, 
6uiH oco6uB noMimeniii h AOMa, yqpesAeHHue bi pauHiHuxB ropoAaxB 
HiaiiB, BaBB-TO bb Bpec^ia— bi 1447 roAy; bb IlaBiH— bb 1479 roAy; bb 
CieHHt— BB 1316 roAy; ^jopeaKiH—BB 1218 roAy; bb nncxot—BB XIII B^Bt 
fl T. A. 



— 105 — 

poACKift JiaQApHXTep^ PiiHCRift-KopcaROBi b-b 1710 r. npesJKMRHJi'b 
eiiy CBoe HjRAHBeHie ea ycTpoeeie ocoGoft GojibHEi^u npn 3HaMeH- 
CKOWb co6opb. no bIaomocth 1713 roAa bi saBeAemaxi uHipo- 
noJiHTa coAepsaJiocB hhii^hxi>, aphxjoixb, crpaHEHXi h doarhau- 
meft 6oJiie 170 neJiOBiRi. Abtopb MofiacTupcicaro XIpHKasa 
coo6iitaeTb, mo j MBTponojiBTa Iobu bi 1714 roAy Cujio 10 

CTpaHHOOpiHHHEI^B, 15 HHD^enHTaTeJIBHHaB, HJIH 60JIBHHirB, AOHHEB 

noAKHAHmoKB ^). Tose caifoe noBTopaerB h FypoBB bi CBoem 
HscjriAOBaHiii, BuCKasuBaa npeAnojioaceHie, ^to saBeAeeia jsflM noA* 
KBAumeft 6ujiE saKpuTu oceHBio 1743 r. BCJi'ibACTBie oco6aro 
ynasa HimepaTpHipi EnHsaBeTU dToro xe roAa '). 

Bi AonojiHeHie rb dTHHB cvbji,iEiaui> mojrho coo6ii^htb en^e 
cji^Ayioii^ee. 

BeJUHRifl npeo6pa80BaTejiB bb ocraBHJi'B 6e8B BBHuaHlH h bo^ 
npoca BocnHTaTeJEBHHXB AOMaxB. Fojihrobb cooGiAaeTB, hto 3 1 
jiHBapfl 1712 r. BeoiBRift rocyAapB yRasoMB cbohhb noaeJiiJiB bo 
Bcixi ry6epHiAXB y^peAHTB romnBiajiE aha cojgiaTB yBl^muxi, 
paHeHuxB B npecTap^uxB h Apyrie (romnHTajiH) jljlb npBHHHaHia 
Ha BpoRopujieBie h BOcnHTanie HesaROHHopojRAeHHBixB MJiaAeH- 
ueBi> ^). Bb noJiHouii Co6paHiH SaEonoBB (i. lY, JVs 2467) HMtei- 
cji yKasii AHBapa 16, bb n. 18 KOTOparo CKaaanoi cno bc^mb ry- 
6epHijiMB yHHHBTB iDDHTajieTU AJiA yB^HHuxB... TaRKe npieMB 
HesaapHieJiBHOfl u opoRopHJieme MJiaAeai^aMB, KOTopue otb nesa- 
ROHHHXB aceHB po»AOHu^ HTo6u BBn^maro rpixa ho A^aJin (ch- 
pi^B y6ificTBa), no npHHipy HoBropoACKaro apxiepM». IleTpB 
BesHKift cjtIahjib sa sthmb, RaRB bhaho B8b ero RapnaHHUXB 
sanHCHuxB RHuaceRB, bb rotophxb HM^eTca TaRoro poAa OTutTRa: 
«Bi CeHart: — CA^JiaHo jih no yRaay o noAi>eMHHXB MJiaAon- 
KaxB RaRB y HoBropoACRaro apxiepefl losa 6ujio h ocjib ho 
CAtJiano— AJW Hero» *). 3artttB 4 Hoa6pH 1714 (11. C. 3. J6 2856) 
papB noBejribjuB ajih sasopHHXB MJiaAenneBB, RoropsncB jkbhu h 
A^BRH pojRAaioTB OessaROHHO, npH iJ(epRBaxB, TAi npHCTOftno, ca^- 
JiaTB rocnBTaJiH, bb MocRBi MaaanRB, a bb ApyrsxB ropoAaxB — 



*) Cm. MoHacTupcKifi npHKasB— A. Fop^aROBa. C.-neTep6yprB 1863 r., 
CTp. 189. O^esBABO HO oneRaTS*! MMTpoiioinrL Iobi o6pafHJCfl 7 no^reH- 
Haro aBTopa bb Job 7. 

>) Essai SOT rhistoire des enfants troav6s depuis les temps anciens jus 
qn'a nos joars— par M. de Gooroff. Paris 1829 p. 147. 

') AoaoiHenle rb jcbsBiiiiii QeTpa BeiHRaro— FoiBKOBa. t. IX, crp. 183. 

^) AonojEenie sb A'^fluiflMB XXeipa BeiEKaro^FoinROBa t. XYI, cTp. 
452, XVIII, CT. 145, 185. 



— 106 — 

AepeBAHHue h jifla xpaneHifl (MJiaAeHi^eB'B, KOHeHHo) H8o6paTb 
HCRycBuxi ^eni h AS^Baib bki bsi HeoKJiaAHtixi npH6ujiBHun 
AoxosoBi Ba roAt ipB py6jifl. Sartirb, cnycia roffb, Toro se 4 
Boa6pa 1715 r. nocjitAOBajn> Apyroft yKasi (J€ 2953), b'b koto- 
poHii roBopBTCA: €TaR02ce KaRi> o laKBxi se A'^jtax's 6oroTii^aTejiB- 
Hoe H AyniecnacBTejiBHoe ocHOTp'feBie npeocBfln^eHBiatt Iob^, mhtpo- 
nojiBrb HoBropoACRift, yHBBBJi'L wb BejiEKOWb HoBropo^i, H86paTb 
BCRycBBixi) saewb ji,jia coxpafleflui sasopHHxi MJiaAeHAOB-b, roto- 
puxi JKeHu H A^BRB ^oxjifiioTb GossaROBHo B CTUAa paAH OTve- 
THBaK)Ti> Bii pasHUH BficTa, OTHero OHue ifjiaAeBaBi desroAHO noMH- 
paK)Ti>, a HHue orb rkTb me, rob bxi po^Aaiori), h yuepn^BJiBiOTCB, 
fl AJi^ Toro od^^BBTb yRasi, hto6h tbrbx'b MJiaAeBAeBi B^ neBps- 
CToflBUii MicTa Be OTMeTueajiB, bo bphhocbjib 6hi ri BHoieosBa- 
qeHBUMi) FomnBTajiflM'b^ (o ROTopuxi roBopflJiocL panie b^ yRast 
1714 roAa h bohth aocjiobho bobtop^jiocb b wb yRast 1715 roAa) 
H RjiaJiB TaflHO B'B ORBO, qpes^ TaRoe aaRpurie, Aa6H BpsHomeB- 
BHxi mn,B, 6ujio Be bhaho, a exeJiB tbrIh He8aROBBopo»cAaK)nyji 
HBHTCH BO yiiepB^eBJieBiB rtx'b MJiaAeBqeB'b n obuh sa TaRia sjio- 
AtficTBeBHHa A'bJia caiiH RaaneHu 6yAyrB CMepriio. H li romnH- 
TajiB nocTpoBTL B RopiiBTB H8B ry6epBifl, m-b HeoRJiaABux'B npa- 
CHwibBHxi AOxoAOBi. ^ajiie Fojibrob'b roBopBT'b, HTO, cjiiAya yRasy 
MonapmeMy, cocToaBmeHyca 1715 BiB0B6pt^) b BoeeJiiBaBmeMy 

yipeABTb AOMBI BJIB rOBIBBTaJIB CBpoBpieMHue A<iifl BeCHaCTHO- 
pOKAeHBUX'b B BOARBAHmefl B BpBBOCBMHX'B BB MOCRB*! H Apy- 

rBXi ropoAaxi npB i^epKBaxi, AOJiacHO 6h bojioxcbtb b'b Ra^AOMi 
ropoA*]^ no BtcROJiBRO, a bo BceMB rocyAapcTB'b, sa HeBiciHieirb 

TOHBOfl HBX1> BiAOMOCTH, BOJiaraeTCB TOJIbKO 200 ^). ^BCJIO 3T0, 

ROBeHHo, npBHtpBoe, He Bbrpa3RaK)niee coSok) A^&CTBHTejiBHaro 
ROJunqecTBa CBpoapieMHux'b aomobb loro BpeiieHB, o BHyTpeHneiTB 
nopaARi ROTopHxi) Torb jRe Fojibrobi coofin^aerb jiK)6onfirrHHfl 
CBtAtflia. IXpeACTaejifla HBTaiejiaMi* RaptBay cocToania PoccIb, 
Bi KOTopoiTb XleTpi BejiBRift ocTaBBJiii ee no ce6i, Fojibrob'b fobo* 
Pbtb: wh RaacAOM'B B3i cbxb ropoAOBi* (t. e. ryCepHCRBX^ h npo- 
BBHuiajibHBix^) B BO MHOFBX'b BBi) ylkdAHBix'B MflJiocepAie MoBap- 
mee yqpoABJio, npa SHaxeHXB i^epRBax^, romnBiaJiB bjib CBpoBB- 
TaTejJBHBie aomu, bi> KOTopue onpoA'^JieuBHa na to no^BJiBia b 
6e3nopoHHaro BOseAeuia meHiQBHbi npBHBMaJiB MJiaAeni^eBi h, 



*) AoDOiHeaifl kb A'^flaixMi Ueipa BejHRaro— FojuKOBa, t. XVIII, ctd. 
146-186. 

') TaMT. ae, cip. 460. 



— 107 — 
He TOJiBRO He cnpamHBaa Rasoro HJiaABHiJ^Ei OHue ssaHlHy hh o 

HMeHaXl npBHOCHBmHXl H HHSRe Tpe6yH BBA^Tb JHHI^ HXl, Kor^a 

6hua OHUfl noA'B noKpusaJiOMi, Hse'liitajiHCb tojibro o tomi», Rpe- 
uifiKh jiH owh H RaRoe eaiy Aaeo hma h, npHuaai, OTAanajiH OHux^ 
KopMBJiHiviM'B. Bi AOMax'b CHXii HJiaAeHmi BOcnHTUBaJiHCB AO ce- 
MHJiiTHJiro Bospacta; no BCTeneHiH osna^ieHHuxi jrbvb nepeBOAB- 
jiBCB a:Ith ciB vb ApyriA niROJiu, a no AOCTBiReniB onpeA'bJieHHUxi 
y^eHiio jrhrb^ OTAaBajiBCBi iiaJiBHBRB — pa3HUM^ xyAOJRHBKaifB h 
MacTepoBuifB jiflB BsyieHiA, nocji'6 qero sanBCUBajiHCB vb i^exB; 
a A'^ByniRH — npajiB^HUMi bhi icacxepcTBaM'B. Bi Mocrb^ npn sen- 
CEOifB HoBOA^BBHBeMi HOHacTBipt wb 1725 v. Gujio 252 A^iefl; 
Ha coAep^Kanie RajRAaro onpeA'^JieHO bb toat* AOHBraMB 2 p. 60 r., 
xjr66a no 1 qoTBepiB b 7 qeTBepBROBB. IIpB MyjRCROMi AHApeeB- 
crom^ MonacTupi ynpesAeHo 6hjio ajia 9Tbxb A^brefl yuBJiBn^e, bt> 
BOTopoe nepeBOAK-HHCB AOCTBrmie 7 ji^tb. ^jia o6yieHiii rpaMort 

H nflCBMy 6BIJIH yHBTBJIB CB nOMOn^HBRaMB, ROBAfB npOBSBOABJUOCB 

sajiOBaHBe no 24 py6. A^ui^raMB b 24 HexaepTB xjii(3a. IIo o6y' 
HeniK) rpaMOT]^, o6yHajiB apBeueTBR'^ b qacTiK) reoMerpiH, Kb neHy 
onpeAtjiJiJiBCb B3B MocROBCROfi aRaABMiB no 2 yHHieJiH. IIo aoctb- 
acenlB 17-tb jiiTH^ro Bospacia a'^tb onpeA'l^JiAJiBCB wb pasnufl 
eyacHUH xyAOsecTBa b MacxepcTBa, a cnoco6H'lftmie n 
BTi Apyria AOJuacHOCTB ^). Ho CJiOBaMi IlymRapeBa ^) en^e bi 1714 
roAy no noBejAniK) Ileipa, b-b IIeTep6yprt, na Micit aepRBB Bcix-B 

CR0p6iiniBXl PaAOCTB, 6HJia 60T2kJiib^BHy bb ROTopoft npBHBMa- 

jiHCB necHacTBO-po^RAeHHHe b CeanpBsopnue MJiaAenuKi. Gb yjiBuu 
ycTpooHH 6iajiB nyjuaHBi, RyAa npanocBJiBCB a'^tb, b CTporo sanpema- 
jiocB yseaBaTB otb Roro b rto. FocyAapB onpeA'^^HJii na dxo 3HaiB- 
TBJiBHUA cyMHBi. QjapeBHa HaiajiBfl AjieRcieBHaMaTepBHCRB8a6oTB- 
JiacB cyAB6i cbxx MJiaAeai^eBB, ROTopuxi na 7 roAy OTAaBajin 
BT> niROJiBi, a AtByraeK^ yiBJiB npHJimnHirB pyROAtJiBflMi. Co 
CMepiiK) Ilexpa aio npeRpaxBJiocB '). IIo yRaay 1724 r. Atsyni- 



Cm. o^n^ecTBeBHOifB opHspitHiii b-l PocciH~r. Ciora HSAaHie M. 
oojHuiH. 1818 r. cTp. 43—55. 

') OoHcaHie IleTep^Tpra— UymsapeBa, h. IV, cxp. 305, h3A. 1841 r. 

'} no cjiCBaHB UymBapeBa (OnHcanie IteTep^ypra 1841 ro^a) 
FB TO BpeMfl uepsBS CEHOfi en^o He 6ujo, a na bb MXCTt ctoajii abo- 
peu'b aapeBBU h bi Hexi 6ujia uepsoBb (i. I, ct. 263). Bi onncaHin IleTep- 
oypra otb na^aia ero saBeAeaiH c-b 1703 no 1751 r., coHneeaHOMi BorAaHo^ 
BHMB u HSAaQBOB's Py6aH0M'b Bi 1779 r, OTKyAa Koueqao h sanxcTBOBaJi'B 
cBou CBiA'bniA nyniKapeBi, roeopHTca eme, 4to Ilerpi BejnKift onpeAiJHJfK 

OHUMB CTapiIMB SeBII(DBaH'B (BI GoraA'^ABB'^) BOCBBTUBaTb BHmUXl HAa- 

xeHueB^B, a na^e noAKHAnmeft, Aa6ii ohuxii ne yMopnjB. Pydaa-B. OancaBie 



— 108 — 

KH ^), BocnHTUBaBmiflCH noA'B HaASHpaHleicB HryiieHbH, no aocth- 
TRGmuL coBepmeHHOJi'lTifl oSynaJiHCB Tanse npnAeHiio hhtori roji- 
jiaHACRHXi, inHTbK) H njieieHiio RpyseBX. Jjih ^ero MoHapx'B 
noBeJiijTb BunHcaib hsi Bpa6aBAiH cHporB, ceiiy HCKycciBy o6y- 

HOHHUXl Bl TaMOmHHX'b JJ^BEHbEXl HOHaCTUpflXl ') H T. A« IIOAOG- 

noe ycipoftcTBO cHponpfeMHuxi aomobi oOnapyjicHBaerB HecoMH^H- 
HO fijIHSROe SHaROHCTBO CB COBpeMeHHHIfB ycipoflcTBOiTb noAo6- 
Huxi saBeAeHift sa rpaaHiieK). Oqenb BtpoflTHO, ^to CBi^A^mH o 
HHXi cooCn^BjTB IleTpy BeJiHKOMy HSBtcTHufi RHH8B BopHCi Haa- 
HOBHqi RypaRHHB, nyTemecTBOBaBmift 3a rpaHHneio bb 1705 ro^y 
H ocifaxpHBaBniift cmnHTaJiL ji^r CamiapAOB-b bi Phm^*, RaRB ohi 
BupaxcaeiCA bb CBoeirb AHBBHHRi. (ApxnBB rh. RypaRHHa. T. I, 
cip. 219 n CJrbA-)- 

np3eMHHR0 Ileipa BeJiHRaro bb oTHomemH BOcnHxaTejiBHKixi 

AOMOBB nOBBAHlfOHy He BDOJIHi pyROBOACTBOBaJOECB upaBBJiaMH, 

npeAHa^epTaHHHMH ajib bthxb aomobb nanmirb npeoCpasoBaTOJieirB. 
TaRi BB 1726 roAy Mapia 3 (As 4844) nocJi%AOBaJiB yRaai^ 
qTo6£i BB MocRBib BM^CTO TocnHTajiefi sasopHtiMB MJiaAeH- 

I^aHB H HXl ROpMHJIHI(aMB OpiHCRaTB H8B ODHCaHHUXB Ha Ejl HlC- 

nepaxopcRoe BeJiHiecTBO h onajiBHuxB abopobb, ROTopue 
6u noHHHRH He Tpe6oBaJiH, a bb rohxb MiciaxB h hbr ABopu h 

CB RBRHMB CipOeHieifB DpiHCRaHU 6yAyTB TOMB BB CeHBTB UpH- 

CJiaTB BtAOHOCTb; a crojilro bb ROiopoMX roAy TixB HJiaAeHueBi 

npHH^TO H RB HHMB ROpMIIJIHA^ OHpeA^eHO H H8B TOFO HHCJia HTO 

bb ROTopoMB roAy noMepjio h OTAano bb HOHacTupE h bb Apyria 
iiicTa H «rro HLmi Ha jibi^o b crojibro h RaRia Jiiia h nro (t. e. 

CROJIBRO) npE HEXB ROpMflJIBAB E DOAB RaRHHB OHUfl CK0Tp*iHieMl 

o6piTaK)TCH, TOMB MocROBCROMy BEi^e-ry6epHaTopy npECJiaTb 

E BnpeAb TaRifl B'^AOMOCTE nOMtC^HHO npECUJiaTb bb UlTaTCB-ROH- 

Topy ^). 



C.-lIeTep6jpra. 1779 r. ct. 139; nymsapeBi — onHcaeie Hexepfiypra, h. I, ct. 
263, H. IV. CTp. 305. 

*) Cm. rojHKOBi— AonojBeHia rb ^^-feHaijiMi Hetpa B., t. XVIII, crp. 
145-186. 

') yEaaa, noAo6Haro HSJiozeeHOMy, naMi ne yxajiocB aafiTH bb 
DojaoHi CoopaHiH SasonoBi, ho TaHii BM^exca yiuurb 20 aoBa- 
pa 1724 (1^ 4421), ito6u vh MocKBt h bt. bpohbxi ropOAaxB, rAt o^ptta- 
K)TCB Bi ycTpoeHDUX'B AOifaxi HesaKOHBoposAeHBue u noABBAuniH bb bos- 
pacT-^, TaKOBUxi oapeA'lJ'iaTB so BCflKHMi xyAOsecTBaxBBi y^e- 

HHKH. 

>) Cm. nojfloe co6paBie saROHOBi PocciftcRoft KMaepiH (nepBoe) J^>& 4844, 
5452, 5584, 5674, 11.908, 12.591. IIo cjoaaMB Rpacy^Ra^o npH npeeMHssaxB 



— 109 — 

BiUH ME xocraajueiai Tpefiyemifl Gefiixoirb csii^Hia — hutv 
neisBtcTHo; ho ae noAneKiTL coiiHimio, nro crtx^Hui dn n Kb 
Busoamfie speiu npexcraBJuion mhofo JK)6oimTHaro; ohh xan 
6u ncHyio xapTHHy o npnptHiH bi Ha^ajrfe HHHyBmaro cioJitTia 
HesaEOHopoxxeHHuzi xfeieft, soiopoe^ RaR*buaxHo sasjiio- 
^■TE Hsi pasHiixi ysasoBi* nocjrlAjioiiQDrB i^apcTBOBaaift, npoxoJi- 
zaio cyntecTBosaib h npa npieiiHHRar& Herpa BeaiHicaro. TaRi 
ysasi 1729 r. Jiojii 25 (J& 5452) pasptmaen Bonpoci Ryxa 
oiipexljini> HesaKOHHopoxj^eHHuxi A^reft MyacecRaro ■ 
xeHCsaro nojia, Roropue npHmjiH m> Bospacn h o6y^6Hu pasHuirb 
MaciepcTBaM'B. GeHan npHicasaJii: ty rtxi ResaROHflopoacxoRHinrb 
xfeBOR^cnpocBTB^RTOHS'bHHZi Ryxa — El yciyjReHle HJiR uaey^aR- 
Typu — HATH n(MRejiaK)TB H no lony acejiaHiiOAaTBHiniBOJiBHue nac- 
nopni. A nyxecRa nojua raRHXi, roh foahu bi cjiy»6y, xora n 
Bi 6apa6aHii;HKH — Tix'b bi BoefleyK) ROJiJieriio». Ecjih 6u ho npn- 
spbBaJiHCB H He BocoHTUBajiHCB 6bi Bi ocoCurii AOMaxi HesaROHHO- 
poaRAeHHue, — to He mofjio oiesHAHO h BOSHHRHyTb noAoCnaro bo- 
npoca. CenaTB ohatb npeAnncuBaeTii nocjiaTs bo Bcb ryCepHia 
yRasu, HTofiu, cnpaBflCB, npecJiaTB bi cenarb bIaomocth: HMiiOTCfl 
jih Bib ropoAaxi, npn i^epRBaxi, romoHrajiH pfla HesaROHHopoHCAeH- 
HMxii H, 6yAe HirbioTCii, c% ROToparo roAa saBeAeHu n crojibro bi 
juuKJiowb roAy 6brjio MJraAeHAeB*B, RyAa OTCUJiaioTCfl n Heny o6y- 

^aK)TC^ U CROJIBRO H3B RBSHH B'B paCXOA^ AOHePB. O^eBHAHO, qTO 

vfib HB6yAB Aft 6ujniL B'B HHnepH romaHTajiH a^ih npl< iia HesaROHHO- 
poxAeHHEixi; HHane cenarB 6h h He copamHBajix h He nocujr&ni 
AaJiBHiftmHX'B yRasoBB. [1730 r. Iiohh 25 (5584) h 1731 r. 
Shb. 20 (5674)]. IlepBUMi onpeA^JieHO HesaROHHopo^AeHnuxi 
A^Tefl, ROTopue npamjiH B'B Bospacii, OTAasaTB no jRejianiio EXh 
BB ycjiysceHie hjih na MBHyjiaRTypu hjih saiiyjRi h, a&bi nacQopTB, 
ornycTHTB HeMOAJieHHO. Hpa aioM-B cenaiB AoCasHJiB, «6yAe roto- 
ptie H B'B coBepmeHHufi BospacT^ ho opHmjiH h uomejiaerB rio hxi 
R'B ce6i Bi AOMu BSflTB B'B ycjiyjKenle, TaRHxx oTAaeaiB cb pocQHC- 
RBMH H sanHCRaMH; ABBi namnopTa jRe. YRasi 1731 roAa onpeA'b- 
jifleTB, HTO Bi Many^aRTypiii oTOCJiaHHHxi nesaROHHopoacAeHHurb 



Uerpa I ycTpoeHHue um'b npiDTii Kin HeaasoHHopoxAeHQux'b A'^Teft npH- 
EUH wh ynaAOKi h 6ojBiDe ho cyiuecTBOBaJM. J^'hta HesaBOBBopoJKAeHOUJi 
tb6ie; hxb naxoAHiH mcptbeimh bb jicaxi, pixaxB, oropoAaxB h Bce 9to 
saaiH, BHAiJH h roBopHJH, HTO 9T0 ifoSBO jHnqTOSHTfc secTOBHMH BasAaa- 
HiflMH. HMaepaTpaaa EsaTepHaa II BarjAnyia aa bto HDa«ie. (KpaTRiA hcto- 
pgqecRift o^epKB MocKOBCKaroBOcaaTaTeiBHaroAOiia— KpacjAKaro ct. 6—9). 



— 110 — 

Ai^BOKi H B^ CHxii nocji^AHHxii HO DpHHBTfiX's, CJitAyorB, Aasi oa- 
cnopTH, oiaycKaTL kto Ky^a noxcejiaerb. 

B^ cjitjiyioii^ee sariiMx ipHAi^ftTHJitTle, ao Boi^penifl HMnepa- 
TpHi^Ei ERaTepHHu II, uaHi He yxajiocB bctp^thtb RaRHXi J11160 
yKasoBi HesaKOHHopo^AeuHuxi js^iiATi. Ho aio en^e He xaen 
ocHOBaniH npeAnoJiaraxb^ hto bx dTon npoMe^yTORii BpeueHH y 
Hacb He cyn^ecTBOsajio y»e BOBce npBsp^HiH HesaROHHopo^Aen- 
fiux'B. GRopi[>e BfoacHonpeAHOJiaraTb, hto 8to" npHspiHie npoAOJi- 
sajio cyn^ecTBOBaib na HanaJiax'B, naHepxaHHUxi BejiBRHirB Upe* 
o6pa80BaTejieu^, t. e., hto bi> ropoAaxi, npR i^epKBaxii, 6hjih oco- 
6ue mnHiaJieTU aji^ npieita npHHocHHxii a%to&, ta^ ohh bocdh- 
TUBaJiECb, sarbM-b OTAasajiHCB bbocoOua ihrojih a^a oGyneHia pas- 
jiHHHuiTb xyAoacecTBaui) h MacxepcTBairb. 

noATBepxAeHieMB aioro npeAnoJioaceHifl MOJRerb cjiyacHTB ysasB 
1765 r. Mapia 6 (1 II. C. 3. Je 12591), hsb ROToparo bhaho, 
HTO KasaHCRaH rySepncRafl RaHueji^pifl npeAcraBHJia BtAOMocTb 
cenaxy bb 1765 roAy xoirb, CROJibRO huh^ npn SoraA'bJibHflX'B 
noARHHyxHXB n HedaROHHopo^AOHHHXB MjiaAeHueBB n npsr hhxt* 
onpeAiJieHHuxB RopMHJuiii^i Ha jiEnp cocxohxi, h nps dxoMi aoho- 
CHjia, qxo HesaROHHopoKAeHHue MjiaAeni^u noARBAUBafOxca ri 
OHUMB 6onji,ijihEBWh BecLMa nep^AKO h hsb nibRoxopuxB 6ub- 
mie ysRe na BocnHxanm noMHpaiox'B... 

MoxcHO npeAQOJiaraxB, hxo no ApyrHMB o6jiacx£Mi> h ry6ep- 
HlflMB cyn^ecxBOBajiH CoraA'i^JiBHH h noAoSnue sue npiioxH jiflsi noA- 
RHHyXHXB A*Teft ^). 



') HejiBSH upu dToui He npHBeciti 0^081, BUCKaaaHHUX'b TaTHiiieBuiii 
Bi ero 3aMtHaHi£zi> na peRHSioHHyK) HBCTpyKuis) 1743 r. Ohi roeopHT'b, 
^TO noABHAuam no 6oroyroAHOMy ycxaBy IleTpa BejHKaro 6kuh c6upaeMii, 
BocnHTUBaenii h o5yHaeMU bi chpotckhx-b ;!i^oaiax'b, a no KOB^nH'b ouaro 
Mooapxa oTb ues'hmx'h cyeBtpHuxT> hjih bjocthux'b OHofi ero saROHi, ne- 
pascyxA} HTO h-b HeMi Bch AO^poAtxeiH bju 6jiaxeBCTBa oTb Xpiicra Goa- 
cwrexA CKaaaQHUfl saKjEoqajiiicb 11 ne Maian usi loro rocy^apcTBy noiBsa 
6£ija, oTCTaBieHi;co6paHHUX'b MiajieBAeB'B posjiaiif, ^to bo hcthbho hosbo 
npHTHi XpucTOBofi ynoAo6nTB: leiOBtsi noc'hRjn> nuicHHuy, a AiaBOi'b ho- 
n^iR) upHiiieiB, Bi HacteBoyio nmeHHiiy bc^hji nieeeju, KOTopuc BospecjH 
B nmeHHiiy noAaBtuH, to ecxs 6iaseHBue ycxaBii oaaro Monapxa a-ia CBoefi 
npBxoxii pasaopnio h ci'h hsi CHpoxcKiixi aomobi oxAaHQue no odAsaxejB- 
cxsaMB BSflBmHZ'b AOJSHu 6uTb cBo6oAnu. Apyrie naxoAHXca no yjanam 

OJIH npHHOCATCfl XaflUO B-h AOMU, KOTOpUXl 6or01H)6HBUe, BSflBl, BOCnHTU- 

BaH)T% H o6yHnH)Ti; OHue no saKony sa Bocnaxanie nptnaAJeaaxi Bocnaxa- 
xejiitfi, iiKo AiiTii poAHxeJAHV, xpexiH, KOxopEie bi AepeBonx^ BaxoAaxca, 
xi, KaRi irsBtcxHO, 6oji'i^e xd^xi AepeBenb Ai^xn; co6cxBeHeo npanaAJesaxi 
£% xd^MB AcpeBHAMi, Aa xoxA 6hi 6uiH Hsi ApyrRXii AepeseHb noAKHayxU) 
TO no npaBOcxH saKona ecxecxBeHBaro, sxo cboio co6cxBeBHyEo Ben^B ocxaBx 
orpenexcji, hjb soMy oiAacxB, 6oiibe xoro xpe60BaxB ne Moserb, bo bsbb- 



— Ill — 

Ho yjR6 Bi caMom HaiaJii CBoero uapcTBOBanl^ (wb 1763 r. 
GeHTfl6pfl 1 JT: 11908) HMnepaTpHi](a ERaTepHHa IIbi a^jA npH- 
3ptHLi HesaROHHopojRAeHHurb npoDSBejua RopeHHoe npeoGpasoBa- 
Hie, npHHJiBi wb ocHOBy coBepmeHHO ApyriM aa^ajia, cozpaHHBmk 
CBOH) cHJiy cb HajiUMH H8MiH6HiaMH jifl HamHrb AHefl. 

HeJIBBfl He SaiiiTHTB, HTO yCTpoflCTBO BOCHHTaTeJIBHUX'B A0M0B1» 

aaHHMajio HHneparpHay EjiHsaBeTy, KaKi aro moxho saRJifOHHTB 
H3T> 6yHarb Hb. Hb. IIIyBajiOBa (Pyc. Apx. 1867 r. cip, 81). 
Ohi> saaHcaii ajia nanHTH Eh BejinnecTBy cjrl;^K>ii^ee: ccBamero 
HMnepaTopcKaro BejiHiecTBa HaHtpeHia ctojib qacio csumaiB 

yAOCTOHJICH^ CROJIB MHOFO paSl VCTaHOBJieHiH CHpOTCRHXl AOHOBl 

pascysAaTb hsbojihjih. Cie Bce no huhI 6e3i HcnoJiHeHifl. Ki chmi» 
ynpeacAeHiaiTb csijiyjorh romoHTaJiH ash 6'Iahhx'b BCflRaro SBaHia, 

H AOMK npaSAHUM'B TyHeHWaHl), ROTOpue HEH^HMH Ce6a HBJiafOTli 

H KopMHTCH Tpyj(aMH ApyrHxi JIH)Aefi» ^). 

IIo MucjiH IIIyBaJiOBa, cjiiAOBaiejiBHO aojusho 6ujio ynpeAHTB 
Aoiia o6ii^ecTBeHHaro opHspiHia bi oCidhphom^ sHaneHiH cero 
cjioaa, T. e., hto6u b:b TaR0Mi> aom^ ne tojibro npHspiBaJiHCB MJia- 
AeHABi, CpomeHHBie ea npoHSBOJii cyABCu, ho laRme noBr]^n^ajiacB 
H 6ojibHBi;a jiflH 6tAHuxi H AOMa pa6oTHHe a^^ lyneHAi^eB'B h t. a- 
Ho Bce 3T0 ocraBajiocB Sea^ ocyn^ecTBJieHiH na caMOMi A^Jii h 
TOJIBRO Cb BCTyajiemeMT) na npecTOJii ERaiepHHU 11 npHspiflle no- 
RHHyTBixi A^Tell nojiyHHjio CojiBmoe paseHiie h npH tom^ Ha ho- 
BHXi> Haiajiaxi, HSJuoKeHHUxi cb 6ojiBmoH) nocjiiAOBaTeJiBHOCTiK) 
Bi> TaRB nasHBaeMOMi reeepajiBHOM'B ujianl HEnepaTopcRaro boc- 
DHTaTejiBnaro ajih npBHOCHMBix'B xbieiL Aona h rocnHTaJia ajia 

6tAHUX^ pOAHJIBHHI|,l Bt MOCRB*. 



mift noBepxeHBoe, ocraBieHHoe ecrb Toro cyn^ift rocaoAHH'b, h ysasi Ilexpa 
BejBsaro o Mjaxeauaxi conacyerB, Koxopue BAOsauH MaiHfl a^th b'b Apy- 
rjD OTVHHy cHecenu h ot^hmom'b, bib maTaioiaiecii no iiipy KjaAeBUU 

BBHTU H BOCniiTaBH GjAJTb, nO^HTBTB «a OOlOBnBy C06cTBeBHHXB — BOCBB- 

TaTCJiK), a noiOBHsa— BacTOBiiteMy ero rocuoAiiay; ecjiu se obuxi b'b cjys6y 
ot<SHpaTB Hju yBoiBBBTb) TO HBKTO v^h BOcnHTaHifl uoBepseBBaro Be noxo- 
lerb H 6jKYTb xyne aoMHpaTB, hto ecTB BBHofi Bpejii rocyAapcTBBHBHft b 
Bapymeaie aaiEoua xpucTiaacaaro o iio6Bu si 6iHSfle]iy h MBiocepxiH 
(Cm. coi. H. IloDOBa— -TaTiini^eB'B h ero apeMff, ct. 736). 

3ru BumeDpHBeABBBHii cioBa TaraiueBa noKaauBaiDT'b, yto obb chb- 
TajB yqpesAeaie BOcuBTaTejBBuxB aomob-b noJiesauifB j^a rocy^apcTBa ii 
npnsaaBaj'B, HTO BocnnTaeBue bi cbxb ^OMaxi aoisbu 6iiItb cbo6oahii. 
darbHi BOCBBTaHHtix'B ^lacTHUHH iHqaMH 0H% BucKasum&erB coo6paxe- 
Bie noAB BJiaaieMi rocaoACTBOBaamaro bt> to apeMa aptnocTDaro npaaa. 
Oebso yKasiiBaerB, hto no KOBHHHt aeJiaaaro Mosapxa HeaisAU cye- 
B i p H zi e OTcraBEiu y<ipesAeDHEie hub aonb. 

*) Cm. PycCKift ApxHBi, 1867 r. CTp. 81. 



— 112 — 

CocxaBHTejieHi aToro njiaea aBMOTC^ Beiucofl ^). 9to noATsepx- 
AaeTCH BO-ne psHxi itirB yase, hto, KaKi bhaho hs'b a&iii cenaT- 
CRaro apxHBa, njiaei fiujn no^inBcaHi Hin> oxhhhi; bo-bto- 
pux'B, cjiOBaMH MaHH^ecTa 1 CeHTjifipfl 1763 r., «Tro BOCxoTtra 
ROB(f)HpMOBaTB HUH% DpeACTaBjeHHuft HdHi reHepajiinopy- 
qHKOMiBeaRHU'B npoeRTB cb nJiaHOMi o nocTpoeniH b y^pez- 

ACHIh BlMoCKBt BOCDHTaTeJIBHarO AOMa;B%-TpeTBHX'b — CJIOBaMH 

npeAT>yBiAOMJieHiH Rt qHTaTejiHMi (11. C. 3. Jt 11908), ^to bi 
ocHOBame njiana nojiosceHO MHoroe, bha^hhob Bei^RHiiii wb 
6oroyroAHuxi y^pevjifimArh HHOCTpaHHUx'B rocyxapcTBi b% 6ut- 
HOCTb ero BB HyacHrb Rpaarb (RaRi>-TO bi Jtioni, RacceJii h t. aO; 
B^-tleTBepTux^ HaROHoai rtici, hto hb npeACTaajieHO HHKa- 
RHxi) AORasarejiBCTBi, ^toOei aBTopoMi luiaHa 6ujlo 6ei RaRoe jih6o 
Apyroe jibi^o, RpoMi BOABBcaBmaro OBuft. IIpaBAa, B%ROTopue ob- 
caxejifl yRasuBaiorB, ^to cohbbbjtb btote reaepajibflHft BJiaai Ab- 
TOBB AjiBRcibeBflHL BapcoB'B (opo^eccop'B MocROBCRaro yBBBepcB- 

TBTa), BO OrOBapHBaiOT'B BpB TOM'i «B0 OpOJReRTy BJIB BO MUCJUH 

BJiB BO BopyieaiK) Bei^Raro ^)», Be BpeACTBBJiBB bbrbrbxi xony 



*) npH pascMOTpiHiii Kasi dToro reHepajBoaro niana, rasB m Apy* 
rnxi ycTEBOBi n noJoseBid, cocTaBjeHUHX'L EeuRUMi, o Koropuxi ro* 

BOpBTCA BO naBaX-L 4 — 9 BSJU^HTeibBO, 6UJ0 6hl O^eHB BaXHO AJII[ 

6iorpa(|)iH BeAsaro buachhtb, ^to bi* osHa^eaHiixi ycTasaxi b nojose- 
Biaxii upHBaAJiesHTi co6cTBeHBo BeaKOMy, u hto 6ujio BHeceuo bi oHue 
ApyruMH lUAaiiH, Bi tomi ^HCit H HMQeparpBAeK) EsarepDHOH) II, npB pas- 
CMOTpinin npoesTOBi osBa^eBHUxii saKOBoaoioseeifi. Bto, no Moeiiy xbIi- 
mjo, npeACTEBUfjocB bosmozbumi cAl^JaTB tojiko cpaBBUBi dKseMnjflpH 
BucoHaftme yTBepsAeuBiixi yze ycTaBOBi h nojoseBifi cb npoeKTavH h 
HepHOBUMH, clysHBiniiuH HMi ocBOBaHieMi, a TaRse n nepenacKOK), koto- 
paji 00 noBOAy hxi cocTaBieaiB Moria npoHcxoAHTb cb pasBuiili iBaaiiH u 
yHpexxeeinMH Toro BpeMesH. Ki cosajtHiK), a 6ujb lameBB bosmojilhocth 
BTO ncnoJHHTb, TasB kbrb MHi ne ooc^acTJiHBBiocB saflTH be A^ionpoHS- 
boactbb, hh nepenHCKH no cocTaBjeeiK) bthxb saROHonoJOseBift, bh Aaze 
nepBOHaiajBBUxi ^po^RTOB^ bx'l bi ^epBOBom bha'^ —Aoisho noiar&TBy 
HTO Bce 9T0 6e8ciijiuo yTepaao BMicrb cb npoquMu 6yHaraMH BeniRaro 
UQcrh ero kobhhhu. Ao sacB aobijh tojbro coBepineeHO na-HHCTO nepe6i- 
leHHue aRseMnjiapBi Bcixi ycTasoBB h noiozesifi, npeACTaBjesBue Beu- 
RHM'b Ha Bucoiafimee yTBepsAeaie h xpaaaniieca RaRi bi ApxHBt Ilpa- 
BHTeiBCTByDiaaro CenaTa bii i]eTep6yprb, TaRB h bb cooTBtTCTByiomHXB 
ynpesAeaiAX'B no npHaajuesHOCTH. Bto npnM'bqaBie otbochtcji h £*& npo- 
HUMi 1 janauB cero HBCJiAOBaniA, bb ROTopiixi> rosopBTCJi o cocTaaieBBUXB 
BeAKRUB ycTasaxB n nojoseniflXB. 

') 3a:MtTnH'B npn dtom, 4to hh BaHTUmi»*KaiieHCRifi (bb cboomb cjio- 
Bapt) Bi 6iorpa<|)iiix'b BeuRaro n Bapcoaa, hh 6iorpa<|>B uocitAaaro bi> 3 ee- 
MopHAaxB 1804 r, h. 1 ct. 282 BOBce ne ynoiiHHaH)T'i» o tomb, hto6ii 
BapcoBi SHaj-b Beuaaro n naca Ji ito j[h6o air nero bih no ero yaaBaHiK). 
Ho yse vh „Ji,pyT^ IIpocBtiABHia'', 1805 r. q. 2 Mafi J^ Y ct. 153, xpyroft 
6iorpa(i)B Bapcoaa roBopaTB, ho npeACTaBJiaii BBRasHxi AORasareiiCTB-b, hto 
o H i (t. e. BapcoBi) no n p e s e k t y H. K. BeAaaro cohhhdjb reeepaiB- 



— 113 — 

lOKasarejiBCTBi, lasi hto e^sa jib cjAAyen ocTanaBJiHBaTBCfl na 
dTHX'b yKasaHkxi, xoTji BecBHa bosmoxho AOuycTHiB, qio Bei^Roft, 
HaxoAflCb vh MocKBi^ bi Hanajri 1763 ro^a, Morx BHAtiBca ct> 
EapcoBUMi H nopyHBTb euy, BupaHca^CB coBpeueHHUMT> o^^mii- 
aiBHUMT* cJioroiTB, OROHHaTeJiBHyH) peABRi^iK) njiaea o BOcnHraxeJiB- 
HOM'B AOMi, npeACTaBJieHsaro hmi IlMnepaTpHii.i. 

HecpaBHeHHO HHTepecH^e Apyrie ABa Bonpoca, HMeHHO, RaRHin> 
nopBAKOMi cociaBJiflJii EeuKoft dTOTB opoeRTB BOcnHTaTejiBHaro 
AOMa H jiBJiaeTCfl ae diorB npoeRTi) npoHSBeAefiieMii caMo6uTHBiMi> 
H.1H noApa:KaBie]i'B cyii](ecTBOBaBniHHi> yjRe AOMaMi* noAo6Haro poAa 
BB ApyrHxi rocyAapcTBaxT*. 

Paspimaa no bosmoshocth nepBBift Bonpoci, t. e. rbrhmi no- 



Huil Djasi HJH YcTaBi BocnHTETeJBHaro lOMa b'& MocKRi, YTBepsAeHHuft 
B-b 1763 r. Bto se canoe, teksb roiocJOBBO, noBTopiierb ii meBupeBi bi 
HCTopiH MocKOBcsaro yHHsepcHTeTa 1855 roAa, CTp. 149—150, roBopflf hto 
uo M EicjH BeuKaro BapcoBii co^BBHJi'b BumeynoMfluyTuft njaei. 3aTiM% 
no8;iB'&e aBTop's CTaxBH bi HjjDCTpHpOBaHHofi raseit 1867 r. J\& 20 otl 
27 Maa BHCKasHBaeTi, hto cocTaBjeBHufi ao uopyHeHis) EeiiBaro npo- 
4)eccopoHi BapcoBUMi npoeKTi n njaHi BocuHTarejiBflaro Aoiia 6hiA% 
JTBepsxeHi EsaTepBHoil I]. ABTopi cxaTBH KOHe^HO HBsaiLHX'b AOKasa- 
TeJMSTBB aTOuy He npoBOAHTi, BO quasi riy60K0MucjeuH0 npaCaBJiaeTi: 
nMBoro eme Ha&o buacbhti, HT06EI cKaauTB, hto BeiiKoiiy oAHOMy npii- 
HaAJiea^HTib MiacjB aroro y^ipesAeBifl. M£i npAMO npanncaTB eHy bck) necTL 
dToro upeAupiiiTiA xenepb enie Be ptoaencA, ranse Kaa'B u sajiBiaTb npo- 

THBHOe (CTp. 198), ZOTfl CHHTaeMl AOJirOMl OrOBOpHTLC£, HTO 0C06eBH0 

flpsaro npoHBiema jh^huxb aAMHancTpaTHBuuxi cuoco6HOCTe& Beui&aro 
HHFA'b H HE npH KaEOHii ciy^iat HaHH He saMtHeHo''. — HsyMHTejLHuft aa- 
6opi> cjoBi! TpyAHo noHATb, KaKoe OTHomeme MoaceiB HMiTb n p a b ^ e- 

Hie JHHHUXl aAMHUHCTpaTHBHUXl CDOCO^HOCTefi B u R a T 

SI pasplmeHiK) Bonpoca, nucaji an BapcoBi hiu airb reHepaiBHuft 
Hjaa-b BocuHTaiejiLHaro Aoira. 

Uo cioBan r. CyxomjHHOBa (t. 19 c6opHnK-B CTareft, ^HTaHHUxi bb II 
OrA'b-ieBiH C-UeT. AKaAeniu HayKi, cxp. 222J „ecTi> ocHOBEBie (ki co»a- 
jiniiD oHO aBTopoHB ue npBBOAUTCH) nojaraib, hto KHoro j]D6oa£iTBUX'h h 
BasHuxi AaHHUXB saKiiD^anrb vb ce6']& coOcTReHHopyiHua sanacKU Bap- 
cos a. ByMarH Bapcosa nocTyniiJiH otb MycHHi-IIymKHua bb apxHBi Mu- 

HBCrepCTBa HHOCTpaHHUX'b Jk±A^, HO Bl 3T0M1> ApXUBi HXB H^T^ BO. 

HacToaniee BpeMH, jib, h'^tb h cjiI^aobb, qTo6u o h u r o r a a-H h- 
6yAB Tyaa nocTynajB''. (Ct. 222 t. 4. HcTopia PocciflcKoft AKaAC- 
xiH). CaiAOBaTeiBHO r. Cyxomjihhobb 6yHar'B dTHXB Bapcoaa ne BHAtJB, 
a HOTOMy coBepmeHHO HCHSBicTHo, Ha HeMB ocHOBaHO upeAHOioseHie, hto 
BTi dyuaraxB sthxb mbofo JDConuTuaro. Ho KpoMt xoro,. otb dioro npeA- 
HOioxeBiji, xoTA 6u h ocHOBaTCJiBHaro, ohbhb A&JeKo ao AOKasaieJibCTBa, 
HTO BapcoBB HHcajiB renepafiBBBifi njauB BocuHTaTejibHaro AOMa. dro 
Be vfemaeTB oaheko CyxoMJiUHOBy TaKse tobophtb, ^to „no mbicju Beu- 
saro B Ha ocBOBaaiH AOCTaBjieHHBrxB vwh iraTepiaJiOBi, BapcoBi co- 
CTEBBAi niiaHB HJH ycTBB'B MocKOBCKEro Bor.HHTaTeJBHaro AOMa". Ho o>ie- 
BHAuo JHiio, AEBinee mucjb ms njana h Bct Beo6xoAnMHe kb TOMy uare- 

piaiU, U A0I2KH0 C^HTaTBCH TBOpUOMl HjaHB, a HHKaKB HB JHIIO, KOTOpOe, HO- 

nojiBUJi pa6oTy npocToro ceKpexapH, bbjoshjo bb HSBtcTHOMB nopAAR'i^ co- 
o6nieHuujr eaiy mucjih b npeAnoioseHi^. 

n. n. BEHKofi. 8 



— 114 — 

pjiAKOMT) cocTaBjiHJicfl BeAKHM'b ero npoeRTB, nosBOJiHirb ce6i npH- 
B6CTH npeac^e Bcero cjLijiyiom\A pascRas'B ABrycTa IIIJieAepa ^): 
cCi BOcmecTBieMi na npecTOJrb ERaxepHHU n Kb PoccIh Haqajicii 
soJiOTOfi KbKb js,JUi cociaBHTejiefl npooKTOBi, paapaAa JifOAeft, ro- 
Topux^ H mecTB Jiii-b tomj HasaAi) se TOJibRo ysHajn, ho HsyHHJTb 
Bi UlBeaiH. HoBi Poccin ohh Qonum HecpaBHOHHo AaJibme 
H roBopHJiH coBepmoHHo HOBBix'b BeiAax'L (regdneratons). H 
nepBuft, RTO roBopHJi'B sxkcb rpoHRO H Ha Roro o6pantajiH BHHMame, 
6hijrb renepajiTi-JieftTeHaHrb Bei](RO&. JltiouT* 1763 r. owb Buciy- 
nHJn cnepBa cb njiaHOMi y^ipe^KAenia bi> Mocrb'6 BocnHiaTejiBHaro 
AOMa, HO npe^Ae ifkub npeACxaBHTB Ha yrBepsAOHie HMnepaipHim 
cooCmHJTB eroTayCepxy h npocHJn ero MHtHk. TayCeprB coo6- 
lUHJi'B ero MHt (t. e. Illjiei;epy) h noTpe6oBajii otb mohh necb- 
HeHHaro MHimfl. 

« Boo6ii^e BOCHHTaxejiBHiae AOMa, no hxti nary^HOMy A^ficTBiK) ^); 
6ujiH uui TOfAa cjiHoiROM'b iiajio HSBicTHH; a en^e neHHiaji'b « Con- 
fessions » Pycco, a noTOHy ne Morb ne HenaBHAtTB hxi RaR'B y6ift- 

CTBeHHHA HOpU HpaBCTBeHHUX'B H (j^HSH^eCREXl CHJIli, TOJIbRO OTHO- 

CHTejn>HO npeAnoJiOKOHHaro ycxpoficiBa y hoha hbhjiocb mhopo co- 
MH'ibHift. TaRi) Hanp. Bce cb caifaro naiajia npoAnoJiarajiocb nocxa- 
BHXB Ha 6ojiBniyio Hory, xoxiacB nocxpOHXB co6cxBeHHo a^^ AOHa 
BejEHROJrinnyK) i;epROBB, cxoan^io acHoro xucaqi, a bb caMOHB 
iJiaBHOU'B nyHRxt cocxaBHxejiB njiana oSHapyxHBaJi'B, hxo roBopnxB 
He na ocHOBaniH onBixa, hto Aaace ne ^Hxajii AOcxaxoHHO o CBoeMB 
npeAuexi, Hanp. o $H3H^ecR0Mi> BOcnnxaHm HaftAeHumefi, ny^RHO 
^H BCRapMJUHBaxB rpyABK) RopMHJinAUHJinApyrHMHcnocoGaArH, RaR^, 
Bi RaROMB cjiy^at e x. a- 



') Cm. ABTo6iorpa4)iA AsrycTa JIiDABHra Ulieaepa bi xoui XIII c6op- 
HHKa Ota. pyc. flsusa n cJosecHocxH Hnaep. AsaxeMiH HaysB, 1875 roia, 
cxp. 134 H crkx • 

') npH dTOMB noBBOJrHVB ce6i npHsecTH CM^fl,Yiom,i& cioBaIIlTOpxa:y,His 
torische-Gemfilde des russischen Reiches", 1797 r. Riga t. I cip. 402): ^xotji 
Bonpocb nojiBS'b h Heo6xoAHMOCTH BocaHTaTeiBHuxB AOMOBB (Findelh&user) 
He pimeH'b OKOH^aTejBHO, ho noBHAHMOMy AORaaaHO, ?to BOcnHTatejrBHue 
AOMa, y^pesAGHHue bi pyccsoft HMaepiH bb oC^hxi CToiHi^axB, 6mB 6e3- 
cnopHO noiesHU. Uph^bhbi, ao6yABBnii£ n-h ocHOBamio 9thxb aomobi, ee- 
ocTasjifliDTi HHsaRoro coicH'i^BiA, ^To 6e3B HBX'B ne ocxaiacB 6u shbbuih h 
coxafl ?acTB, h3i> ^niCAa coxpaneHHtixB bthmh aombuh A'^xeft, h hto TasoBue 
AOMa, He CHOTpx Ha SHaniiTejiBHyiD bb hhxb CHepxHOCTB, Ttiii He iieH'fee c5e- 
peranTi ajih rocyAapcTBa sh3hb sHa^HTeiBHaro VHCja 6yAyiAHX'B ero rpa- 
SAaHB Bo <i)paHiiy3CKOM'BH8AaBiHToro3eco?HHeBiHlIlTopxa— Tableau histo- 
riqae et statistiqae de TEmpire deRussire rose canoe usioseHOBBT. I, kh. II, 
rjiaB. 2-a cip. 313. 



— 115 — 

«BToponflx%(noToaiy ^to npHiaRHxi nopyneHinxii HHRorAa h6 
g^asaJiH BpeHOHH) a Hanncajiii Hi^ROJibRO jihctobii ne tojibro OTRpo- 
BeHHUxi, HO H myTJiEBuxi* saMiHamfl; h hb anaji'b, hto cocTaBHTejib 
njiaea Cujii cHJibHufi neJioBtoi. Hsi mohxii saiciqaHlfi 6ujio c/cfa- 
jiaHO H^ROTopoe, xoTH H nesHaHBTejiBHoe ynoTpe6jieHie^ noTony 

HTO H^ROTOpHfl HSl MOBXl BOSpaxeHiS OTHOCHJIHCB AO tIxI M^CTB, 

ROTopua Bi 0Dy6jiHR0BaHH0Mii BHOCJiiACTBiH njiaH*! 6iiiJiii npo- 
nyn^eHH. Ho otb Toro ocHOBaHia, ROTopoe Jicnopinjio raRi hhofo 
npeRpacHuxi npooRTOBi, orb ynpemAeHiH Bcero bi rnHpoRHXi, 
pocROinHHxi pasMipaxi, ee OTRasajiHCb h t. a*» Hsi aiBxi 
•cJiOBi* MOSCHO saRjifo^aTb, HTO Bei^Kofi ape2c;(e npeACTaBJieeifl csoero 
fljiaHaHMnepaTpnai^, ho nojiarancb HCRJiioHHTejiLHO na cauoro ce6H, 
;(aBajii» xpyrHHi jiHi^aM'B pascifaTpHBaTb cboh npooRTH, BbicjnyniH- 
BaJii nxi saM^Hama h no hehi HcnpaBJiJUHi raROBbie; cjiobomt> 
i^RasaTbCTapajica npoACTaajiiiTb npoeRTU no bosmojrhocth Tn^areJibHO 
pa3pa6oTaHHHHH. Mo^HO apHBecTH en^e h spyroe CBH^i^TejibCTBO^ 
HTO BeaROft oCcyacHBajii ci ApyrHMn JiHiiaMH cbob npexaojiosReHifl, 
snocjrbACTBiHyAOCTOBBmiflca yxBepacAemA HMaepaipHi^Ei. 

TaRi» BioniHHrB, wb CBoeifb jREisaeonHcaHiii, sanHcan'b ao* 
BOJibHO JiK)6oiiHTHU& A-^fl Hacb pasFOBopi OFO Cb BeaKB&ii, npa- 
rjiacHBQiHMi ero Ri ce6i corjiacHO npHRasaHiio HMnepaxpHiitu, no 
808Bpan(eHiH ea hsi Mocrbst^ nocjii RoponaiJ^iH. PasroBopi 3Torb 
opoflCxoAHJTb y»e no yTBepHCAeniH renepaJibnaro njiana BocnnTa- 
xejibHaro Aona, ho panie cocTaBJieHia ycraBa ARaxeMlH XyA0scecTB:b 
H BocnBTaTejibHaro o6n^ecTBa GjiaropoAHUxB A'i^BHi^'b ^). Ha Bonpocu 
Bei^Raro, RaRoro owb MBinia o BumeAniHxx npaBHJiaxi, BioniHHrB 
•6yAT0 6h OTBiiHJii, hto ohh npeBocxoAHH, ho ri cojRajrbHiK) 6y- 
jiyrb 6e3njioAHH, noiowy qio ne cooTBiicTByioTt cieneHH pasBHrla 
pyccRaro napofta, ROTopony Ha^o eni;e Aarb BOcnuTaeie h o6pa30- 

BBHie, H B^ BTHXl BHAaXl Heo6xOAHMO yCXpOHTb Bl) pa3JlHqHb[Xl> 

ropoAax'b BMnepia mROJiu, CHa6AHBB hxi* HaAJiexcan^nMH ri* lOMy 
cpoACTBaMB. BeAROHy axa Mucjib noHpaBBJiacb h, CRasaBi* BK)inBHry 
qio AOJioacHTb oGi axoMi HMnepaipni^t, npeAJioacHJii nocjiiAHCBfy 
sa npHRasaHieM'b HMaepaipHi^bi npnATH na Apy^ofi aohd. Ho nps- 
xoA'b BfomHHra, Bei^ROd CRasajfb eny, qio HunepaipHE^a 0A06pHjra 



*) Tasi sasi no ciOBaHi fironiHHra, Beusoft nocjt 3Toro pasroBopa 
cflpeAJraraii euy j^ojixhoctf. riaBHaro HaASHpaxejiA bhobb yqpesAeHHaro bo- 
cnHTaxejiBHaro xoMa b'b Mockb']^, to ob'b OTRasaJCH no HeanaRiK) pyccsaro 
ASEiKa H npe^JOSHii BeuKOMy bsatb CTBTCsaro coBtranKa M n ji ;[ e p a, ro- 
Topuft Yse B'B 1765 roAy 6hiJL^ Hasna^eB'B na aro ntcxo. (Cm. BQsching. An- 
.ton.— Eigene Lebensgeschichte 1789 r.J& 469). 



— 116 — 

3Ty MHCJiB H 1T0 67^611 cociaBjieHi DJiaHi ytsAHWxi y^EJ^^r^'by 
Kb KOTopuxi) 6yAyrB apurjiameHu ymniejiAiiiii hImuu, ^paBiiysu, 
anrjiHHaHe h t. a- 

H-feTx, — dTBtiHJii BiornHHrL (oH^ o^bhi hsi ocHOBaTeJieft 
iflKOJiiJ HtMeAKOfi npH ^epKBH Cb. Ileipa Bt nerepfiypri) — Ha hho- 
CTpaHAeBi HOJiLSA pac^HTHBaTb; bo bcaromT) cJiyna'^ nejiBSA mhopo 
Ha BHxi paciHTUBaTB; ohh He no^ejiaiorL oxotho ixajh bi npo- 
BBH^iK). y^HTOJUfl H BocDHTaTejiH HapoAd AOJiTKHu 6uTi> H8i> ero cpeAu; 

HX1> MOXHO npHFOTOBHTB, BOCDHTUBa^ CB A'^TCTBa Bl XOpOIDHX^B^ 

mKOJiaxB cTOJiHi^i E Bu6Hpaj6[ EST* AyxoBQux'B ceMHHapifl cnocoC- 
HBixi Ki TOMy JiBi^'B H saT^iTB scGJiaiDn^EX'B HOCBaTHTB ce6^ y?H- 
leJiBCKoft A'^TeJiBHOCTH DOCJiaTB ji,jia Jiynmaro ofiyneHk sa rpaHHi^y. 
diH cjiOBa oieBHAHO noBJiifljiB na 6ei](Raro; oe^ BnocjiiACTBiH npe^- 
CTaBJiajn> HeodxoAHMOCTH npnroTOBJiaTB pyccKHxiyqETejiei, htoS-b 
EsGaBETBca oTb BHOseMHBixi. 06paniaacB Kb paspimeHifo Bonpoca^ 

HBJIBQTCH Jim EJiaHl BOCDHTaTeJIBHarO AOMa CaMOCUTHUlfB npoESBe- 

AenieM'B Bei^Karo hbjibsh ne yKasaTB, hto wb namefi JiBTepaxypi^ 
6ujio y»e sa^BJieHO, hto BOcnETaTejiBHufi njowb bb Mockb^, cyAfl no 
EJiaHy, cociaBJieH-B no oCpasuy ne saAOJiro ao axoro OKOH'iaTejiBHO 
ycipoeHHaro BOcnHTaxejiBHaro AOMa bi JIoHAoni bt* 1752 ro^y. 
FjiaBHHfl nonoHETejiB aioro Aona, repi^orB BeA({)opA'B, 6hji'b, eoaoSho 
Ee^R0My, Wb SBaniE none^Eiejifl AOMa 6oJiie 30 jiirB, a nepBBift 
ocHOBaiejiB E 6jiaroTBopBTeJiB Aona, Eopani, noacepTBOBani bc^btb 
CBOEii'B AOCTOABieMi Ha nojiBsy A^ft, Tani* hto eABa ociaJiocB Ha 

^TO ero nOXOpOHETB ^). AniOpi ho npEBOABn sa liM'B HBKaRHX'B 

noApo6HocTe& o caMOMi JIohaohckomi aom^^ e ne yKasuBaerB ocho- 
Banift jiflR CBoero npeAuojioscemH, ^to 3totb aomi nocjiyHEJi'B 06- 
pasi^oMi EeAKOMy npE ua^epiaaiE ero npoeKia BocnETaxeJiBHOM'B 
AOMi^ Bii HameM^ OTenecTB*!. IIosbojibm'b ce6i no dioMy yKasaiB^ ^to 
onEcanie JIoHAOHCKaro AOMa noMin^eHO bii C.-IIeTepCyprcROirB 
Jffiypnajii 1805r. ^), npn hcm-b roBopHTca htoao XVIII b. m JIoh- 
AOHi He 6ujio yHpe^ABHifl noAofinaro poAa, ho CMOxpA na xo, 1x0 
xaROBBiH AaBHo cyn^ecxBOBaJiE bb cxoJiBi^axB ApyrExx rocyAapcxBi^ 
RaRT* xo: napBJKt, AMCxepAaMi, Phm^, MaApHAt,JlBCca6oHt ex. a- 
HsBitcxHBift HEcaxejiB Aaaeccohi odpaxEJii na dxo BHEMauie b'b 



M Cm. CoBpeMeoByK) JltToniicB: npHdaBieHie k^ Mockobckum'b B^aoxo- 
CTRK-b 1863 r. aBrycxa 28. 

■) Cm. C.-neTep6yprcKift ^ypeaii 1805 roia, ^eBpa^B aitcau-b cxp. 125 
n cjrtA- H MapTB MicflA'B cip. 94. 



— 117 — 

^713 r., a judcnih jAtt, cnycia oahbtb Bnajr^Jiem Kopa6jia, npo- 
eaBOAHBrnlft Toprb c% bqcto^hok) Hba16K), BosiBBf^jri HaictpeHie 
^asecTH, Ha cboS cnerb, BocaHTaiejiBHuft aomi> h HeycunHUMfi CTa- 
paHLaifH ycirbjix bt* aTOiTB. ^omi 6ujrb otrp£iti> bi 1745 r. h 
coAep«ajiCfl Ha aoGpobojibhuh nomepTBOBasiH h cpeACiBa nacTHUX'B 

JIEI^b. Bl AOITB npSHHMaJIH BCHRarO pOAa H B03paCT0BT» A'bTefi H 

CKopo oKasaica neAOCTaxoRi bti cpeACTsaxi ext* coAepxaiB, n6o 
MJiaAeHueB^ nocTynaJio o^eHB MHoro; R-b 1752 r. hxi 6bijio 1040. 
Tor^a CB 1752 r. cTaJiH npHHSMaTB tojubro He CTapie AByxi iri- 

CflUeB'B, HO H npH BTOWb ^HCJEO HpHHOCHMBIX'B A^^Tefl SuCTpO yBO- 
JIHHHBaJIOCB. 

Bi 1756 roAy hxt> 6hjio bi AOirt 5510, a bx 1760 r. yace 
6 Tuc. KopojiB e^^e 17 OKTaCpa 1739 r. ami HaAJieKamyK) rpa- 
MOTy ynpaBJLflioii^eMy aomomi h ero noneHirrejiio, ROTopuirB 6hijrb 
repi;orB BeAcJ)opA:B. KopaMx caM^ ynep-B na 85 roAy bi 1751 r, 
Heabsa ne saniTHTB, hto h wb JIoHAont BCTpinajiCH neAOCiaTOR'B 
vb RopMHJiHaaxi, cxajiH npnCiraTB B^ Aoni ri RopuJieHiK) MaaAee- 

I^eBI* ROpOBBHBTB MOJIOROMT), Kb OTAai% HX1> 00 AOpeBHHITB, A^^ ^^FO 

BCHRyio cy66oTy BHSMBajiH aceJiaioii^Hxi 6paTB MJiaAeni^eBi ri ce6B 

Ha BOcHHTaHie, TaRace ciajiH cipoHTB 6ojiBniofi aoscb bi daepHoft 

HacTH JIoHAOHa, Ha Rpaio ropoAa, h t. a. Ho oaho cxoactbo bx yci- 

poflCTB^ JIoHAOHCRaro BocHHTaTejiBHaro AOMa ch Mocrobcrbki ne 

AaeTi> ocHOBaniH 3aRJiK)qaTB, hto nepsufi cjiyjKHJi'B o6pa3n;oMB no- 

CJi^AHetfy npH ero ycTpoficiB'b, Tiaii 6ojiie, hto h JIoHAOHCRift aom^^ 

Bi> CBOK) o^epeAB, ee aBJiaacH yqpeacAemeMi caMoSBrrHUBTB, ho oie- 

BBAHO 6ua'B ycTpoeHB HO o6pa3iiy noAo6HBix'B ace AOMOBib, cyn^e- 

CTBOBaBraHXTb CB AaBHExi HopTi Bi ApyrHXi TOcyAapcTBaxT). Bl to 

Bpeaia, b-b noaoBBH^ XYIII CToaiila, set noAoSnaro poAa bocqh- 

TaieaBHHe AOMa ycTpoHBanHCB no oAsoMy, laR-B CRaaaxB, ofimeMy 

THny, cocToaBmeMy bb raaBHi&iHHxi qepxaxi s-b cjiiAyK)ii^ein>, 

IXpiBM^ npHHOCHHXi A'^^efi coBepmaaca bi noaaoft xafiat, t. e. He 

ToaBRO He pa3cnpaniBBaaH ROMy npHHaAaeacHXB npHHeceHHBcft uaa- 

AeneiTB, RaRoro owb SBania, rto ero poAHxeaH h t.a.,ho cxapaaacB 

Aaace Be bha'^^xb aHt^i npHHOCHBmHxi axaxii A'&xefi. G'b axoK) i^taBio . 

HepiAKO y Bopox-B Aona ycxpoHsaaocB neSoaBmoe oxsepcxle, ipesi 

ROTopoe npHHeceHHuft pe6eH0Ri> nontntaaca bb ocooyio aioaBRy, | 

npnAtaaHflyK) ri, vcxpoeHHOMy nosaAH Bopoxi BpamaBtne^yca ro- ' 

jiecy H sa xtHi aaao, npHnecmee pe6eHRa, hosbohhb'b b-b RoaoRoai, | 

y xoAHJio, He saSoxacB o AaaBHiftraeft yqacxH npHHeceHHaro, ROxopH*' i 

CBoefi xaacecxBK) sacxaBaaaii Roaeco nicRoaBRO onycRaxBca, npes 



— 118 — 
HTO noABBraJiacB kl oTBepcTiio cji'ikAyioiAafl JiiOJiBRa ^). 3a TiuT> ni 

SBOHOK'b BHXOAHJTb npHBpaTHHK'b HJIH npEBpaTHHUaH yHOCHUli npH- 

HeceHHaro pe6eHEa b'b aomi>, na A^JiBHiftinee noneneHie KOTopara 
OHi> H nocTynajHi jsp coBepmeHHOJii^Tla, Ilpe OT^a^ peGeuRa wh 
AOMii He cyiAecTBOBajio HURaRHx^ (j^opnajibHOCTefl, KOxopuHH tojibko- 
nosAHie o6cTaBBJiH 3to a'^^jio, ocHoaaHHoe Bes^t eAHHCXBeBHo na. 

qeJI0BiR0JIK)6iH H BHSBaHHOe nOTpe6HOCTflMH ^CHSHH EMeHHO TbWb ^), 

HTO MJiaAeHmj ocTaBjiHJiHCB poAaiejiAMH ea npoHSBOJii cyji,h6u w 
mfijiH BO MHoacecTBi. O^eBHAHO ^ejiaa ynpeAHTB noAo6Haro poAa 
Aoica B'B HameMi OTeiecTBi, b'b BHAy He Majiaro HHCJia A'^xeft, ejKe- 



*) RypaKHBi BopHCb HBaHOBH?i» onHCUBaii BOcnuTaTeiBHufi jrom* San> 
Spirito Bi PHMt, roBopuTi, hto nps AOMi obho sa yjHiiy, n B'b toui osH'k 
Kojeco, £1 HO^H BcerAa oxnepTo; noiosa na soieco MJiajteaua, oCBepeyB^ 

BHyxpB TOfi SaMOpU, MOlOTROHl SBaKl ASiGTb M T. Jf,. RypaSBBl ChWb Vh 

PBM'b B'B 1707 roAy (CK, ApxHB% RBJI8A RypasBHa t. I, cxp. 216 h citA.)- 
') O^CBB pacnpocTpaeeBO UHiHie, hto ycrpoftcTBo TaKoro poAa Bocnn- 

TaxeiBBIlXl AOMOBl, AOCTaBJIBfl nOJByH) B03X0SH0CTB pOXBTeJBMl OCBO60- 

SAaxbCfl OTi TBSKaro 6peMeHH BOcnHTaaiA bx'b jt^tTei, Bie<ieTi 3a co6ok> 
yBeiB^teaie HBCJia Be3aBOBBopo2AeHBux'& b nocTynjeflie A'^Teii bi lowb bi 
BOspacTaionieM'B KOJa^ecxfii. UoaTOHy ycxpoficxBO xaKflxi xoHOBb bih ope- 
BpamacTCfl HJB o^cxaaiBexcA (t)opMaabBOCXAMH| jio RpafiHOCXH cxtcHBDn^oHu 
nojiLSOBaBie noAoCflUMi CjaroTBopBiejBBUH'B yHpesAeBieMi. Bxoahxb wl- 
BOApodBoe OBpoBepxeaie dxoro MBiaiH SA'i^cB He y Micra. Bxo nnKasi ne 
noxex^L oxBOCflXbCB Ao 6iorpa4)iH Beusaro, Koxopufi se aBiaexcH Hso^ptxa- 
xejeMi BTHxi AOuoBi. Ho HeiBSfl He saMixaxB, hxo xaRoe MBisie nopasaerB 

CBOHMl KpaftHBHB JerKOMUClieMl, XOXB H B£ICSa3UBaeXCll JDABHB BecBHa 

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Be 6yAyxB ocxa&iaeiiu ua npoHSBoi'B cyABdu? h ^xo cb saBpuTiex'B xaKHX'B 
AOMOBi yueBBBiBxcfl HHCJio HesaBOHBopoiBAeHBBix'B H cji'l^AOBaxejiBHO Boapa- 
cxexB HapoAHBfl BpaBCTBeHBOcxi)? ^xo MOxexB 6BIXB o6maro nesAy Hpas- 

CXBBHBOCTBID BBpOAB H BaifeBHUH'B AOXOMB? PSBBi HBI BO ^UTBeM'B BOHTH 

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xiifB Ba yjHU'fe, Ba i±ct:biiix% y ABepefi b x. a* pe6eH0Ri? A TaRix yrojOBBUA 
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posAesBiix'B MJiaAeBAeBi aa nocjI^AHie abb roAa (crojbro noAo6Biix'B a'^js 
ycROJBsaeTB oxb orb npaBocyAial..), pasBt Be AORasusaiox'B npoTBBHaro? 

paSB'b OHH Be CBBAtTeiBCTByiOXl TOMB, CB RaROK) BOpaSBXeJIBHOK) JierROCTBRV 

Be xojiBRO Moryx'B 6bixb BCTpe6iaeMu AtxB, AaJiBHifimee cyn^ecxBOBaaie ro- 

XOpBIX'B BO<?eM y JIB60 BeseJBTeJBBO, bo H BB CaHOMB A'^JI'^ BCXpe6j[BH)TCB, 6e3'B 

BCBBOfi sa TO oxBixcTBeHBOCTB BXB poABTejcfi. ^eJiBTejiBflo 6uso 6u oqeBB 

SHBTB, RBRHMB ByxeiTB M02RB0 AORBSaXB COOTHOBieBie ^HCJia HeSaROHHOpOS- 

ACBBBix'B CB cyn^ecTBOBaHieMB BOCBBTaxejBDaro aomb. Hjh HeyxejH bx ca- 
MOtfB A*^^"^ uosBO yTBepsABTB, ^To SBRpuTie BocBUTaTejBHaro.AOMa conpo- 
BOSAaexcB yueaBmeBieMB rbrb ^HCia BorH6mBX'B A'^xefi, tbrb h hhcib He- 
saROHBopoxAeBBf^^xB! HpasAa b'b BOCDHTaTejBHufi aomb A'^xn nocTynaTB He 
6yAyT'B (h6o aohb ae dyACTi), ho bto oaho Be noMimaexB hxi* Bca^ecRH 

Ty6HTB, eClHBTOrO UOSeiaiOTBHXBpOAHTeJH. 



— 119 — 
roAHO noKHAaeMuxi poAHTejiflHH na npoHSBOJiii cyAitGu, Bei^ROMy 

He npeACTOAJIO HBRaROft HaA06H0CTE HSMUmJIATB A^fl dToro AOMa 

RaRoro jih6o oco6eHHaro ycipoftcTBa, kojib CRopo b-l Esponi yace 
cyn^ecTBOBajiH Ha jijbjvb TaRieAOHU h npH TOH^ o6paTHBiDie ea ceG^ 
ero BHHHaHle bo BpenH sarpaHH^Haro nyTemecTBifl. RaRi mu yno- 
MHByjiH BHme, ero onenb nopasHJH cbohhi 6jiaroycTpoftCTBOH'b boc- 
DHiaTejiBHHlt AOin> bb JUoni, yqpesAeHHuft no BKune onHcanHOHy 
HaMH mny, no ROTopony 6hijn> yHpe:RAeHi> bi JIohaoh^ aomx. IIo 

3T0liy MOaCHO npHHHTb, HTO Boi^ROfi B1> yCTpofiCTB^ BOCHHTaTeJIbHarO 

AOMay Hacb He npoaBEJiBcaMOCTOfltejiBHaroTBop^ecTBa, aflBJineTCA 
noApajKaiejieiirB, npH ibmb ROHeqHO despasjiHHHO Bsarb jhh dujiB 
HM'b npH dTOMB sa o6pa3ei^> aomb bb JLloh*! hjih JIohaoh^ (kojib 
CRopo o6a AQMa 6ujih ycxpoeHU na OAHHaKOBUXB HanaJiaxB). Ycr- 

pOfiCTBO JRe 060HX'b 8TEX^ AOMOBB 6UJI0 BcAKOMy BSBiCTHO HeCO- 
MH'IhHO. JliOHCRifi AOMB OHB CaMB OCBiaTpHBaJl'L H sipOATHO OHOHb 

noApo6Ho H TH^aTeJiBHo, KaRB oco6eHHO ero nopasHBinifl. JIoh- 

AOHCROHB «e AOM'it HH^JIB CB^A'^Hifl DyTeBiB ne?aTH, KaRB 3T0 MO^HO 

ycMorpiTB bsb nepenncKH ero cb Mnjuiepoirb, o ROTopofi eaMB 6y- 
AerB cRasaHo HB^se. TenepB »e hosbojihmb cefi*]^ bb HeMHornxB cjio- 
Baxx no3HaROMHTB HBTaiejieft cb yHpe^AenieMB BOcnHTaxejiBHaro 
AOMa no njiany BeuRaro, yTBep^AenEOMy HMnepaTpHueio ERaxe- 
pHHOK) n, BB MocrbI^, bb IfOH^ 1763 TOAa, npn oco6ohb AORJiaAi, 
noMimeHHOMB xaK^e bb nojmoMBCofipaBiH 3aKOHOBB(JVsll908)^). 
He nepenenaTUBaa noaiOMy ero sa'I^cb aocjiobho, npHBeAOMB caMua 
cyn^ecTBeHHUfl npoAnojiOHeHiH cero AORJiaAa. 

«BeiiKofi BcenoAAaHHifime npocBTB o MBJiocepAin, co6oji'l8- 
HOBafiifl H BHCOROfi DOMon^H EMeHeBfB BeJiBRaro MHOsRecxBa necHacT- 
HiflmnxB BB pojiib ^ejiOBinecROMB, kohxb 6iACTBeHHoe cociOHHie 
OTB Bamero HMnepaTopcKaro BeJiB^ecTBa BcerAa, AanorB Bcero 
CBiia no 6ojiBmefl nacTH CKpuTu. ^pesB cie pasyH'^K), roBopETB 
EeuRitt, HeBBHHuxB Atiefi, Roxopuxi) sjion^acxHUH, a HHorAa b 6e8- 
HOJiOBiHHHa MaxepB noKBAaioxT*, ociaBJiaiox^ bjib — hxo sjiie — ynep- 
n^OBJiaioxB; Koxopua xoxa oxb saROHHaro cynpy^ecxBa, ho bb Kpafi- 
Heft CKyAOcxH poAaxcH,oxBpoAHxejieft ocxaBJienu n cjiinoMy macxiio 
npoAanu GuBaioxB, jijib xoro hxo6i ox^ xarocxn BOCBBxania bxb 
0CBo60AHXBca B caMBifB yAo6Hie npooBxaxBca 6hjio)>. 



') dTOTi AORJiaAB HaaeqaiaHB Tasse bb co6pa;HiH y<ipesAeHifi h npex- 
nacanifi KacaieibHO BOCDHTaHia bb PoccIh o6oero noja 6j[aropoABaro h Mi- 
lAaHcsaro roHomecTBa cb apo^HMn rb nojii>3y o6mecTBa ycTaaoBJieHifliiii. T. L 
1789 r. ne^aTaHO bb THiiorpaitiH K. Illnoppa bb C.-lIeTep6ypr'b. 



— 120 — 

«H0 CKOJIB HH BeJIBLKO HHCJIO TaKHX-L ^ttieft, OflHaKO TO 663- 

cnopHO, HTO HecpaBHeHHO 6oji'le TaRHxi, Roxopufl, e^Ba npeH^Bi 
AuxaHie, juimaiOTCA onaro bi> xaftnt on HeMHJiocepAHHX'B cbohxi 
po;i;HTejiLHHai h vltl Oes^ejiOBi^Huxi homoii^hrobi. CTpaxom 
HaRasanifl dxoro oiBpaiHTL He mo^ho. ^JiOBi^ROJiiofiHBoeHCOCTpa- 
AaTBJiBHoe cepAi^e Bamero BeJiHiecTBa nopa»ceao dnnLWb. CROJibRO 
Eec^acTHux'b, crojibro y6iftCTB^, crojibro emero^HO Bbi jismaeTecB 
noAAaHHHX'B, ROTopBie MorjiH 6u 6£rrB foahumh h nojiesHHim qjie- 
HaMH o6iitecTBa». Bei^Roft npocHTB aosbojihtb npoACTaBHTB cnocoGi 
He TORMO Ri Ao6potfy H noJiesHOicy BOcnHTaHiio ciixi GtACiByio- 
n^Hxi*, HO H Ri OTBpameHiK) MHOsecTBa y6iftCTB'B, npH hbitb npn- 

HOCHMHO MJiaAeHI^U CB BUTOJipK) E HOJIBSOH) BOCHHTaHH CyAyTB, 

Hpesii qro co BpeMeneMB yMeHBniHTCfl h ^hcjio niaTaK)n^HxcH no 
BciMi yjiHi^aM^ MOJioAHxi, HHmeHCTByK)n:(HX'B' Jiro^eft. Stotb cno- 
co6'b 8aRJiK)qaeTca bb y^pe^ABHiH oco6jiHBaro Aona no npnutpy 
Tixi, ROTopue OHB HM^i cjiy^afi BHA^TB BB FojuiaHAiH, $paHAiH, 
Hiajiin n t. a. 

Bei^ROft y6imjifiwb, nro ea BejiH^ecxBO BceHnjiocTHBtfime noaca- 
jiyerB eny AOSBOJienie hoa'b BBico^afimeio Ea BejinqeciBa npoTOR- 

lUeiO H nORpOBHieJIBCTBOMX SaBeCTH H y<ipeAHTB AOMI> AJIH HaftA6H- 

huxi» h ocTaBJieHHuxi> p A n T e Ji ii AC H A'^iefi H rocnHxaJiB 
AJra Gi^AHUx'B poahjibhei^i, BBipa eny o hhxi noQe^nrejiBCTBO. 
OffB AepsaerB npocniB h ly n^eApoiy ORaaaxB, hto6bi, caepxi* noaa- 
JiOBaHHoft cyMMu, yRasaxB AaxB it&cto, HasuBaenoe FpaEHTHufi 

ABOpX CB BaCHJIBOBCRHMB CaAOMI> QOAJlt MOCRBU p^RH, CO BCBK) OROJIO 

jiejRan^eio RasoHHOK) soMJieio h cxpoenleMB, RyoHo cb OTAanHoio otb 
AAMBpanxeficTBa MSJiBHH^eio, tto na Sly^i] cxapyio ropoACRyio 
crtny ynoTpe6HTB bt. CTpoenie; laRace oinycRatB otb bohhcroS 
ROMaHAM noTpe6Hoe hhcjio Rapayjia. ERaxepHna II, yxBepAHBB 
dxoxi AORJiaAi 10 iiOHH 1763 roAa, npenopy^HJia npn^ojReHHoe 
npH HOMi yMpeacAenie BOcnaxaxejiBHaro Aona, bi 6-xh rjiaBaxi 
cocxoan^ee, pascMOxptxB AMcxBaxejiBHuifB xaftnuMB coBixHnRaMB: 
RHH8K) A. UlaxoBCROMy, H. nannny, rpa(|)y dpnecxy MHHHxy. Ohh 
Hamjiii, Hxo pasyHHua wb xoeb njiant ycxanoBJieHia hjul nocxpoenifl 
AOMa, jiflH ero ynpaBjiema, Aa, hxo rjiaBHtftmee, h jifisi BOcnnxaHia 
Bi HeM'B Bii noJiBsy oGmecxBa nponaAaion^Hx^ ao hbih'6 Cesnejio- 
Bi^qHO 6iAHBix'B HeBEHHuxii MJiaAOBi^eBi, cxojiBRO npBHOcaxi lecxn 
B8o6pi^xaxejiK) cero GJiaronecxEBaro A'^-^a, crojibro rohghho e cjny- 
HBiB MoryxT* oxjiehhhmb yRpamemeMT* ycxpoaenoMy npeMyApocxlH), 
HejioBiROJiiK)6ieM'B e meApoxoio 6jraroAeHCXBeHHOMy iJ^apcxBOBaHiio 



— 121 — 

Bamero BeJHHecTBa. IIpH dioirb ohi oxHaRO sairltajui CJiiAJK)* 
mee: 1) IIoHeze npH bcaromi hobobtb h HHsorAa neOuBaJioirb 
xkit BeJiLSJi OTBtTCTBoeaTB, HToGu Rasxuft Hanepexi nocTasjieH- 
Htfft o6pfljrs HMkjn» ceoft ycntrb — no neny b fiusaerb, tto eaiao- 
jiesHiftmee jf^o Heyj(o6cTBOin> sapanie onpex^JemA caMOft Maiofi 
ero HacTH cocraea ocraeicfl 6e3i» OROB^aHia, — ^roro paxH He h8bo- 
jraie jm noxa-iOBan aepaaro noneHHTeJi^, aRO Bceiiy cocipoHreJia, 
TaKOTO BJiacriK), hto6u ohii iion» co6oio h Oesi OaeRyHCRaro 
GostTa Kb Jiyqineify h cnocofiHtfimeMy npoHSBOACTsy HcnpaajiaTb 
H nepeiiiHaTb, no CBoeny 6jiaroH3o6ptTeHiK), bo BflyTpeHHHX^ 
ofipflAaxi BocnHTaaifl h AOUOBOAcraa loro AOMa, A2i6u 6e3i asui^* 
BiftniHxx TpyAHOciefi h noiiiniaTeJibCTBi oh*b Mon a&tb Bceuy 
TBepAoe H Ao6poe ocHOBaHie. — 2) Becbifa cxoaho 6ujio ch xpHC- 
TiaHCROK) j[H)6oBiK) Bamero BeJiHHecTBa ocBo6oAHTb BOcnHraiejiBHUfi 
AOMi» on> bcbx'h rocyAapcTBeHHurb nonuiHHi, rbirb HaHnaie, hto 
Hsi cero He Hoscerb npoHsofiTH RaRoe jih6o 3]roynoTpe6jieaie. 
3) Jl^oifb ynpe^AStJica na eAHHOMi caMOHSBOJibHOMi noAaaniH 
OTb ny6jHRH H noTOMy He Moacerb 6uTb hh bi najiifimee OTaron^e- 
me miaia Ea BeJiaqecxBa, HHJRe Ea noAAftHHUMi. 

HMnepaipHi^a yiBepAHJia AOKJiaA'b 26 SBrycia 1763 r. *), h 
yxe 1 ceHTa6pH Toro »e roAa nocjitAOBaji7> MaHH(|)ecrb (ony6jiH- 
ROBaHHufi npH oco6oM'b yKaat CeHara) bi ROTopoifb roBopejiocb mto: 

IIpHsp'ibHie H noneneHie o yMHoaceHiH ^0JIe8IIUX^ oCn^ecTBy 
acHTeJieft cyTb ab^ BepxoBHUH aojihchocth h Ao6poA'bTejiH 6oro- 
jiio6HBaro BJiaA^iejiA. IIo 3T0My nHraa hxi BcerAa bi CBoeMi 
cepAii'i^ Mu R0H(f>HpM0Bajiii npcACTaBJieHHuft HaMii reeepaJTb-nopy- 
HHROMi BeaKHMX HpoeKTb Cb DJiaHOM'b BOCTpoeHiH H y'ipe}RAeHiB, 
o6mHMi noAa^HieMi), b^ Mockb% BOcuuTaTejibHaroAOMa....o6Ha- 
AOJRHBaeM'b Mu chhi trq sa Ce6a h sa HarnHxi* npeoMHHKOB'b 
PocciftcKofl HMnepaiopcROftRopoHH, qiocie 6oroyroA- 
Hoe H 6jiaroHecTHBoe, o6mee rocyAapcTBenHoe yqpeHCAenie 6yAeTi 
Ha wbKE noKb oco6jiHBb]M'b MOHapmHicb noRpoBHTeJibCTBOMi) H npH- 



*) IIpaBUTejBCTByiomeMy CeHaiy 6HJi'b Aaei 1-ro t:cr[TH6i>H 17Q i\ u'u 
neTep6jpr'6 cJitAynmift yicasi: QoBei'ibBaeu'b Hameiiy Otrary kwht^ tijiiuo- 
seBHuft npH cem MaHH4)ecT'b, Ta&b h npn HeM^ itoiKtiMpUQBnunuQ uilkii 
AOKjaiu H Djaeu o nocTpoeHiu h yipesAeeiH bi MockbEi nocEiurarejibLiaLo 
AOMa, BO BceM'B HameMi rocyAapcTsi THCB'feeieMii o6Ha]>(uoBaT& h sK^iK>m\i- 
By» rpaMOTy na npaBa h opeHHyiuecTBa Tony aomj, ^io rooyA^pcTBe 
4>opxt saroTOBfl, si Haineiify noAnncauiK) noAQecTh^ u ynpcji^iicnm'-^ 
Uaci rjaBHOMy noneqHTejfo o6'bABHTb, qTo6u ohi ci noAion^iio HoJii^ 
cTyuaj'B K7» H^HHHaiiiH) cero 6jaroyroAearo A*Ja.— (Cif* Ap. Coimt- 
yaaa. A; 107, cip. 321. 



— 122 — 

spiHiearb... IIpH aiOM'b Bupa^aJiacB HSAessASi, «hto Hamn noAA^H' 
Hue, npHMUH A'^TH oie^ecTBa, RajRAHft no boshoshocth csoeft 
noTiuHTCA CHa6A']^BaTB 6oroJiK)6HBUMi uoAaHHiOM'B KaKi Ha CTpoe- 
Hie cero AOMa, TaKi> h Ha coAep^anie cero odn^aro Ao6poAi^Tejib- 
Haro KbJLdLy Aa6u cainae yace OjiesRie naniH hotomkh ro cjiaBib Ha- 
mero Bina mofjih nojiBsoBaTBCH hsi loro A^ficTBHTeJiBHUMH hjio- 
Aaiffl ^). 

HeMHoro nosAH'le, HMenHO 31 AeKa6pH 1763 r., nocjiiAOBajio 
oco6oe yB'bn^aHie CBHTifimaro CHHOAa^ bi ROTopoafB roBopsjiocE 
MeacAy npOTHMi: «BciMi h8b4ctho, hto noBejiiHO ycipoHTb aomi> 
Ha TOBfb ocHOBaHin, ^itoCu OHOMy coAepjEany 6uTbOTb eAHHaro 
H^eAparo noAa^HiA rtxi, ROTopne Bora h 6jiH«Hflro no 
EBanrejiBCRofi sanoB-j^AH JHoCaii) n o 6jiarococTOHHlH OTe^ecTsa 
ycepAHO neRyTCfl. Gie j^^Jio ctojib nojiesHoe, crojib cbatoo, 6oro- 
yroAHoe h ao ^knaro o6n^ecTBa BcepocciflcRaro npocTHpaerca... 

EcjiH jRe Bcbwh TaROBuxi (t. e. HeciacTHopoacAeHHHxi>) 

MHJIOCepACTBOBaTB AOJI^HO, ROJIBMH Ha^e AyXOBHOHy HHHy, 

ROTopBifi oco6jihbo cnacemH Aynii neJiOB'i^qecRHxi nen^Hca h 
6uTB Bchwb oOpasoMi 6jiarHX'B ji.'kji'h onpeAi^JieH'B. Toro paAH Cb. 
Ghhoa'b npeAJiaraerB hcbm> AyxoBHUMi nponoB^AUBaTB oSi* btom-b 
y^pejKAemH h noRasBiBaiB coCTpaAanie h MHJiocepAie; apxiepeaM'B 
se Ha6jiK)AaTB, aS'^m cBan^enHocjiy^BTejiH, noAi^ bhaomi CTporocTB 
H HCooJiHeHiA saROHa BoHciH, cRBepno npH6HT?ecTBa ne 
RacajiHCBy HOBO BceH^ 6u nociynajiH RaRi b'b njiant noBejrb- 
Baeicji, ycTpoAJiH 6u cHponHTaTejiBHBiw, rbri npeocBHmeHHuft 

lOBB, ROTOpufi AO 10 B'B BeJIHROM'B HoBFOpOA'i^ yCTpO0JIl> H BC/kWb 
HyjRHBIirB CHa6AiBaJI'B,B'BRO]aX'BCHpOT'B AOTpeX'BTUCa^'B 6UJI0 

B'B co6paHiH H RaRi caifB IleTpi BeJiHRiB nepeAi» ROHqHHOio Ha^n- 
najii, HO A'^JiOH'B caMHM'B en^e ne coBepmBJu. neMi BciMi* 
npaaocjiaBHUM'B i^epRBe cbatbth cunaifB AyxoBHUATB h MipcRHiii 
nacTBipcRH HanoMHHaji, CBarlfiniiJR Chhoab npeycn^^Hia Bce* 
ycepAHO 2ceJiaerB». 

IIosHaROMBMCH TeuepB B'B oCh^hx^ HepTax'B CB renepajiBHBiM'B 
HJiaHOH'B HMnepaTopcRaro BocnHTaiejibHaro Aona h rocnniajifl, 
nepBa^ ^acTB Roioparo 6uJia yTBepjRAena h pacny6JiHR0BaHa wb 
1763 roAy ^). Bia nepBaa nacTB njiafia coctobt-b hsi 6*th ota^jib- 



M OdHaneHHufi MaHti(|)ecrB npH ceHi npHJiaraexcfl (cir. npnJoseBie J^ 1) 
') OcTajbHHii ABt HacTH dTOFO HiaHa 6uin npexcTaBJieflu BeaKUMi aa 

Buco^admee yTBepsAenie nosAHte yxe, b'b 1765 roA7, o hcmi 6yAerB CKa- 

uaHO HHme. 



— 123 — 

Burb rjnasi, npn neirb bi nepsofl rOBopHTca o HanaJibHHRaxi h 
cjjJKHiejiflxi BOCDHTaiejiBHaro AOMa. npeac^e scero ynoMHHaeica 
rjiaBHOMi noaoHHTeJii, Koxopiiiirb HifieTi 6hah SHaTHafl h vb 
oco&iHBOft MHJiocTH y Efl HiinepaTopcRaro BeJiBiecTBa cocTonn^afl 
oco6a *). 

IIpH AOlfiBMierB 6HTb COB^TB, COCTOBmift EVb 6-TH SHaTHfilXl 

nepcoH^, BOTopuB HasuBBiOTCfl oaeRyflaHB, h Th cefi TpyAi> npH- 
HHMaiorb Ha ce6B e^BHCTBeHHO hs-l jiio6bh rt» orenecTBy hod 

XpHCTiaHCKOMy COBCaJltHiK) 6iAH£IXl. Oh0 OfiBSBHU AOMl OHUft 

BO Bcix'B HyHAax^, no npeACTasjieHiBM'b rjiaBnaro Hax3BpaT6JiB, 
samHmaTb h xoAaiaflcTBOirb cbohitb no bosmobchocth bosa^^ h bo 
Bceifi HeycunHUMi TpyAOJno6i6M'B cnoco6cTBOBaTb no a^Jiami ao 
BOcnflTBTeJiBHaro aomb KacaioniHMCB. bcbhi Heo6xoAHMOH'b ohh 
apeACTBBJiBiorb rJiaBHOMy noneHBTejuio a^h AORJiaAa Eb HHnepa- 
TopcKOMy BejiBuecTBy. • 

Abb co6BpaHlB noAa^Hift hb BOcnHTaTejiBHuft aomi b nponHXi* 
RBcaionpLXCfl ao oaaro A'iJii, Rpoif^ Mocrbu, bi» Apyrnxi Miciaxi 
PoccifiCROfi HnnepiB b bi> qyacBxi) rocyAapcTBaxi, oco6jibbo Bee 
ABB saniHn^eHiB BunieAniHxi> bsii aomb o6oero noJia a^toB, 6yAy- 
npixi* Bi rbxiy nicTax'by BMiiorB 6utb bo Bcixi* ropoAaxi none- 

IHTOJIH H nOneHHTeJIBBHUU H31> SHaTHMniBX'B AyXOBSHXl B CB^T- 
CRBX'B nepCOHl, BSli TaHOmHBX'B JKBTOJiefi, CKOJIBKO OHUXl HBCJIOM^ 

6bitb MOserB, Roxopue cbmb co6ok> hst* jik)6bh ri oie^ecTBy h 
AJTB noBbSBi oSmecTBB ce& TpyAi* Ha ce6B npBHHMaiorB n o TOH'b 
rBBBHOMy none?BTejiK) hbh coB-ixy snaxb A^AyrB. 

HenocpeACXBeHHoe saBiAUBaHie aomohi BosjiaraexcB hb tjibb* 
Bare naA3Bpax6BB, iiyxa 6oro6oB3JiBBaro, ^ecxHaro n xpyAOJiio6B- 
Baro H npflxoifB Bcenaxaro b b'b BOcnnxaHiB jijbre^ BCRycnaro. 3% 
ero HenocpeACXBOBHOMi BtA^HiB cocxobxt* Bci npoqie npHcxaBEHRH 
B cjiyjRBTejiH o6oero nojia bi BOCBBxaxejiBHOifB aom*!. 

Rpoirl CBxi jiBAi HaxoABBCB npn ji^owb RasHanefi hjih aRO- 
HOM'b ffflH BeAeniB Bcero xoBBflcxBa h chbxobi; AORxopi, JiiRapB, 
ooBHBajibHaB 6a6Ra, ropmbbhuu, hbhb^b, HSASBpaxeJiB, HaAanpa- 

XeJIbBHAH, HBCJIO ROXOpUXl SaBBC^BO 0T7> qBCBB A'^TOfi. IIpH JSflU^ 
OUBB I^epROBB B npH HOfi JlfiB, CBBn^eBBBKB, ROXOpUO, CBOpX^ BCnpBB- 

jieniB ixepROBHUx'B xpe6'B, oCbbbhu 6bijih no OAHOMy ^acy b'b abhb 

TOBROBBXB RaxeXBSBC^ BSpOCBUlfB A'^TAH'B. n0A'BCM0XpiHieM'B8XBXl> 



*) B'B nepBOfi qacxn leHepaiBRaro njiana HHqero 6ojte u ho roBopRTCB 
rjiaBBOicB noneHHTej'l. 



— 124 — 

CBHn^eHHHKOB'b — ^A^flKOHu H npH?eTHHK0, R Bi> cjiyiai HeAocTaTKa 
Hxi, ocoCne cjioBecHue yHHiejiii o6yqajiH MajiOJiiTEHxi Atreft eace- 
AHeBHO ^tbhIk), a Bapocjiuxii nncBMy n uu^npff. 

FjiaBHOMy noneiHTejiK) h coBhiy ^pe;^ocTaBJrflJIOCB cocTasHTB 

BHCipyKAiK) FJiaBHfilMl) HaA3HpaTeJII0 H HaA3HpaTejrBHHIi;i H dKOHOMJ 

H onpe;i:fajiHTi> acajiOBanbe bc^mi cjiyKHBiniiirb npH AOirb. 

Biopaa rjiaBa nJiaHa Kacajiacb npHHEMaeMUXi b'b BOcnHTaTenB- 
Hufi AOMii MJiaAeHii;eB'L. BcflEifi Hiribji^ npaBO, noAHHMaa MJiaAee- 

mOB^, npHHOCHTB HX^ B'B BOCnHTaTeJIBHHft AOMl, FA*! OHMXl H npH- 

HBMaTB HaAJieacajio HeMeuieHHO, He cnpamHBaa y npHHOCiiii^aro 
qero jih6o Apyroro, KaKi tojibko, HSBicrao jih eny, HTOMJiaAeHei^x 
Kpea^eH'B, h KaKoe eny Aaeo hmh. EpoMi Toro npeAOCTaBJiHJiocB 

npBHOCBTB HJiaAeniXeB^ AHeMl H HOIBK) KO BC'Im'B npHXOACRHITB 

CBaqeHHHKaM'B, B'B 6oraA'bjiBHH, HOHacTHpn, h saT^Mi otb hhxi> yace 
MJiaAeHqu nepeAaBanncB b'b BOCDiiTaTejiBHfiifl AOM^, rpib sa BCHRaro 
npneeceHHaro MJiaAeHi^a BUAaBajiocB sa xpyAi* no ABa py6jifl. 

HHROMy He HpenJITCTBOBaTB HeCTH nOA06HElXl> HJiaAeHaiBBIi, HO BCfl- 

Koe mwb BcnoMOHceHie h oti narjiocTefl ApyrHxi san^iin^eHle hhhhtb. 
no opHHeceHiH MJiaAeniia wb aomi aojdrho ero noApo6HO sa- 

HHCaTB B'B KHHry CO BCtMH npHMtiaMH, OKpeCTHTB (OCJIH OHl He 

KpenieH'B panie), eaA^TB RpecrB cb Bup^^aaHHuiii HonepoirB, 
noAi KOTopuBCB OH'B BHeceFB B'B RHHry, noABeprHyTb MeAHUHH- 
CROMy ocMOTpy, oa'6tb h OTAaiB na pyRH RopMiajiHi]c& hjih hhhbr%, 
ROTopaa MOHceTi na cbohx'b pyRax'B H&rbTb AByx'B MJiaAenaeB'B. 
IIpoGHB'B ABa roAa na pyRax'B ROpsfEJiHi^u, MJiaAeHau nepesoAH- 
jiHCB Bi 6ojiBinie horoh, fa^ o6a nojia ocTaBajiHCB ao OROH^ams 
raecraFO hjih ceABMoro roAa. B'B BOspacrS ot-b 7 ao 11 JifeB, 

RaRl MaJIBHHRH TaR'B H A'^BOHRH, XOA^T'B B'B HIROJiy OAHHl HaCl Bl 

AeHB H o6yHaK)TCH qxeHiio h nepBHM^ ocHOBaHiaMi) IIpaBOCJiaBHOfi 

B'^pBT. B'B STOTB ^0 nOpiOAlb MdJIB^HRH oCy^aiOTCfl RHSaiB (C%TH, 

ROJinaRH, qyjiRH) h caAOBOft paGorl^, a a'^bohrh, RpoHt BHsaHBs, 
ynpa:RHflK)TCH en;e bt> npn^t, n.iTeTeHiH jtoht-b, KpymeB'B, lecBMH 
H T. A. B'B Bospacrt OT'B 11 AO 14 Jitxi AtTH oCoBFO HOJia o6y- 
^aiOTCfl RaxexHSHcy, a raRxe nncaTB h uu(f»HpH. MajiBiHKH b'b 
drowb nepioA'b npHBBiRaiorB r-b pasHBiii'B pa6oTaMii no o6pa6oTR't 
neHBRH, JiBHa h mepcrn, a laRHce B'B oropoA*^; a'^bo^rh ^e hsi 
aTHX'B npBFOTOBJieHHuxiMaTepiajiOB'B Ai<naK)Ti BCflRyio npnacy, xaKHce 
TRyTx H3-B mejiRa JieniBi h npHBbiRaiorB k'b AOMamnHM^ paGoiaifB 
(RaRB-TO CTpanaiB na Kyxoi, hihtb, cTHpaiB h np.). IIo npome- 
ctbIh 14 h 15 Ji^Tb a4th o6oeFO nojia aoji«hbi npHroiOBHTBca, 



— 125 — 

RaKi» roBopHTCfl Bi njaHi, Kb coBepniHTe.ii»HOMy OROHHa- 
hIio pasHtixi liaciepcTBi, t. e. sanaTb yHHTBca pasjiHH- 
HUMi> MaciepcTBain», CMOTpa no crjiohhocth Rax^aro aa-b hhxii, 
jLRH qero npH Aoni HM^JiHCb pasjnnmie Macrepa vh ocoduxi no- 
Eosxi>. Ha 3T0 o6yHeuie noJiarajiocb on nempexi ao nan Jitn, 
no DpomecTBiH KOTopuxi BOcnHTUBaeuiie bi fi,ou% hsi rpaHHirb 
OHaro en^eHesunycRaJiHCb HenpeiiiHHO, HonoAo6poBOJib- 
HOft xeHBTbCi Cb BOcnHTaBHHKeio MorjiH noJibaoBaTbCJi ipn hjih 
^erape ro^a noROiiiiH AOMa, paGoTaa na ce6a ^). 

OnycEafl pasHua npaBBJia o oBii^t h nocyAt o6paTHH'b bhh- 
Maeie, ^to no njiany npoAnojianuiocb BOcnBTannBROBi 6ojrle 
AapoBHTHxi, KOTopue Moryrb npanecTH 6oJiie nojibsu HsyHeaieirb 
nayRi h xyAoacecTBi, nesojiH KaRHJin BH6yAB rpy6biMH Maciep- 
CTBaHHy OTCujiaTb AJifl nayRi wb HOCROBCRift yHBBepcHTerb, a ajia 
xyAoxecTBi m> ARaAOMiio XyAoaceciBi. ^jui jiyHmaro me ycnixa 
wb xyAOsecTBaxi naAJiexHrb npeAHadHaHaeMux'b Kb Tony mojuo- 
AHxi jniOAefi oGyqaTb pBCOBaniio, a laRxe HieniK) HHOCTpaHBbix'b 
ROHrb^ 6earb Hero ohh ho Bnane, RaRi lOJibRO nocpeACTBeHHUMH 

XyAOJRHHRaMH Wb BiKb CBOft OCTaHyTC£[, leMy eSeAHeBHO BHAtlb 

MOKHO HeocnopHMue onuTU. cHsi cero TOJib npenoJiesHaro ocbo- 
Bania B^HayMeHiB ee BURJiiOHaeTca n jRencRifl noJii^, 
(§ 55, rjiaBU 2 ofi). 

Bi 3aRJiH>qeBiH aroft rjiaBu Bupaacajiacb HaAe»A&) hto «B8Hpaa 
Ha BucoHafime ea BeJiHHecTBOM'b yHpeacAesieMi Aoua cero ORasan- 
Hoe HBJiocepAie; xpncTOJUoCHBue jiioah 6yAyrb npHHHMaTb ociaa- 
jieoHbixi poABTejiaMH A'^iefi h BOCQETUBaib Hxi y ce6a H'i^CROJibRO 
Jiirb, a no npomecTBin AByx^, Tpexi, bo ho cBume nHin nirby 
OTAaaaib^ ecjiH noaeeJiaiOT'b, jiah coBepmeBnaro BOcnBTania h o6y- 
Henifl Bi BocnHTaTejibBHfi aomi bi Mocrb%, no npasBJiaHi osaro, 
HCRJiioiaa H8'b osaro, no ^chum'b AOKasaiejibCTBaM'b, RpinocTHBix'b 

OTAaHBUXl) 06MaB0M^». 

IIpH AOM']^, A^H CBJibHifimaro H86aBJieBia neBBBHuxi MJiaAes- 
ufiBiy OTb norB6ejiH h ajih nojiyHenia rkwb 6ojibmeft nojibsu rocy- 
AapcTBy orb BOcnHTaiejibBaro Aona, ynpeacAajica rocnniajib aji^ 
O^AHUxi poAHJrbHB^^, bi> ROTopufi AOJixBO 6biJio npBHBMaTb 6epe- 
MeHBbixi 2ceHn](BHi, TOTHaci, HH HBMi ne cnpaniBBaa, rbri AHeMi, 
TaK'b H BO'ibK). EcjiB ROTopaa He xoierb h Jinaa cBoero noRasaTb, 
OHoe e& AOSBOJiajiocb bo B(;e Bpeva, Aa h Boponeifb Bct o6cToaTeJib- 



noApoCoie oOb dTOMb roBopifJiocB bb rjasi OHTOft o HarpaxAeBiflxi. 



— 126 — 

CTBa OHuxif :ReHii^HHi> npeAnHCusaJiocB cbhto coxpah^tb bi Tai- 
HOCTH. IIpaBHjia o6'b BTowb rocnHxajiib HSJiarajiHCB bi rjiast 3 
nepBofl qacTH njiaua. 

Bt» rjiaBi HeiBepToft roBopHJiocb o cjuul noipefiHofi nacoAep- 
acame AOMa. IIo njiany Bei^Karo ne npeAHasHa^ajiocB Kb e»eroA- 
HOMy oinycKy KaKoft jih6o onpeAiJieHHoft cyifUH Ha 3toti npeA- 
H6n» H8*b KasHH FOcyAapcTBa. Ohi> ynosajii ^to, cJi'^AyH npniripy 
Eh BejiHHecTBa h BeJiHRaro kubbb, MHoria icaRi AyxoBHun, raEi e 
CB^TCKiH 6jiaroAtTejiBHija oco6£i He npeMHHyrB BcnoMonteciBOBaTB 
Hi^eApuM'B HOAaHHieMB Kb HOJiBsi^ cero SoroyroAHaro ynpeacAeHlA. 
IIoAaflHiji MOPJiH cocTOHTB Bb A^HBraxi, CBicTfl£ixi> HpHHacaxx, 
pasjiH^Huxi Ben^axi, cupfiixB Marepiajiax'B s t. a-; A^ih hx'b sann- 
CBTBaniH saBeAena 6ujia oco6aH RHora; jReprBOBaTejiHirB BiiiAaBajiHCB 
KBHTaHuiif, a HMBHa HXB, Bui^crfi CB yRasanieMB CA'bJiaHHaro npn- 
Homenifl, ny6jiiBK0BajiHCB wb ^iReuiavinuxb BtAOMOCTHX'B. Hsb 
HOJiyqaeMuxi} TaKErMT* nyTeMi* aoxoaobi* npeAnoJiarajiocB noRpuBarB 
cji-lAyion^le pacxoAu; 

1) Ha nocxpoeme i(epRBH h sAanin, cooiB'iTCTByioii^aro sHax- 
HOCXH yqpesAeHia; 2) Ha npoHHxaHie A^TOft b hxb OAesAy; 3) Ha 
jRajiOBaHBe bc^^mb cjiyscaniHArB noAOHy; 4)Ha coAepacaHie (peifOHXB) 
Bcero AOMa Boo6nte, oxonjieme, HcnpasjieHie h x. a-; 5) na coAep- 
»aHle rocnHxajifl, BHCxpyiieHXU, JieRapcxsa; 6) Ha npHAS^Hoe a^- 
BynncaifB nps hxb 8aMy;RecxB'6 h na nepBOHa^ajiBHoe o63aBeAeHie 
MOJiOABiMX HacxepaMi no bbexoa^ hxi hsb Aona. 

no noApo6HUMB npaBHJiaMB rjiasu nnxoft (o Harpa»cAeHiH n 
QaRaaaHiH) na axoxi nocji^AHift npeAMexi* onpeA^ajiocB no ABaAuaxH 
HHXH py 6 Jiefi Ka»AOMy bjih Ra^RAofl, ecJiH ohh ORa;Ryxca Aocxofi- 
HBiMH noAo6Hofi HarpaABi. Rpout xoro npn bbixoa^ hsb AOMa Ra»- 
ABift HExoMOi^'B HJm HHXOMHaa HOJiyHajiH DOJiHoe oGnyHAHpoBaHie, 
paneniB ajia noRjia^H cBoero CRap6a h cBepxii xoro py6jib AenerB 
H namnopTB, cb ROXopuiTB mofjih npo»HBaxB bo bcomi rocyAapcxBt 
Tjsjb no^eJiaioxB, ajih 6ojTBmaro vnpa^RHeHifl bb Macxepcxsi CBoeifi 
H A<nH nponHxaniH RaR'B bojibhuA lejioB'bR'B; xojibro ohh 
o6a3HBaJiHCB exeroAHO, hjih BApyrB na h-Icrojibro Jiixi, 6paxB 
HOBufi namnopxi) bsb BOcnnxaxeJibHaro AOMa. XyAoe noBeAenie h 
npH xoMi ynopHoe, BJieRJio sa co6ok) JinmeHie BunieodHaHeHHofi 
HarpaABi. 

^ocxofiHo oco6eHHaro saMinaHiH, ixo no npaBBJiasfB axoft 
rjiaBH (§ 10 — 12) xijiecHUfl HaRasaeiH Rpaftne sanpen^aioxca h 
HaAB caMBiMB HBHHHMH cjiyxHxeJiAHB, ji,di6u lOHomecxBO He npi- 



— 127 — 

a6j^MTh Kh cypoBOcn. Aosboujiocb bhhobhux'l noxBepraxB By- 
Hery hsb zaioBaHsa, cazan ha xjit6i Ha boaj, orcKUiaTB vb 
Hasasame vh xpyria npHcyrcTBeHBUfl ntcra h anpexB bi AOin> Be 
DpHHHMaTB. J|treft jco npeioHCUBajiocB CTapaTbca HcnpafiJiaTB 
yBin^aHiiiifH; wb HyzHOirb HaRasaHiH oco6jihbo Ha6jiiOAaTb, 
vo6u zecTOKOcriio ne npHBeciH htb irb ynopcTsy h CesHyBCTBiio, 
HaKasuBaTb 6oJiie CTu^oirb, ne nycRaiB ryjum h np. ■ np. Ecjih 
KezAy Bspocjona OyAyn ctojib ynopaue, hto ne HcnpaBjaioTca, 
TO OTAaaaTL TaROBun> wb cojiAaxu bjih Matpociii, a xeecRiA nojrb 
jmniaTb bufoa'b (Koiopufl mofjih 6bi noJiyHHTb npH BunycRl), 
Biime HaMH yicasaHHurb. 

Bi rjiaat mecTofi h nocjrtABOft roBopHHOCB o npHBH.iemx'B 
BocoHTaiejiBHaro AOMa. 1 ) TaR^ RaR'B aoitb 000102:11 wh Buconaflmeft 
Eh BejiHHecTBa npoTORiuH, coAepxaJicji Ha AoGpoxoiHUJi noxaaHifl, 
TO no ceMy H HHRaROMy iitcTy ne 6ujvb noA^HHeHB OTHeTa a&tb ho 
jkOJUReKh. Bcb npHcyrcTBeHHHH BiicTa rocyAapcxBa ORasuBaioTi eiiy 
BCflRoe santHH^eme h BcooMon^ecTBoaaHie. 2) Jifiwh co BciuM cbohmh 
npHHEAJieacHOCTaMH 6tfJii cboCoabhi otb bcarhxi noJiEi^eftcRHxi 
AOJisHOCTefl H OTB BCJiRaro nocTOH. 3) Gjiyacao^ie bi jsflufb ne 
AOjishh 61ITB cyAHuu HH Bii KaKOiTB ApyroMi MicTi, a ecJiH RyAa 
B BSATBi 6yAyTb, TO npHcujiaTB HXB HeneAJieHHO Bi AOiTB AJiH pas- 
•CMOxpiHia Hxi A^^a; 4) aoicb bo Bcibxi cyAHuxi a'^^^^'b ooJiBsyeTCH 
npaaoiTB neHHyn^HX'B, t. e. ne njiaTHTB HBRaRHxi npHRasHUxi* 
nomjiEHB; 5) Aony npeAOCTaejiHJiocB npoAaBaxB BCJiRia saROHHO- 
AaHHUn eny otb rofo-jihGo AepesHii, TaR»c6 noRynaTB h npoAasaTb 
AOMa, MbcTa, CTpoenia; 6) paennifB oGpasoifB aosbojihjiiocb saBecTH 
anreRy h aaxeRapa hjih axy npBBHJieriio OTAaTB Apyrony h JiiRap- 
CTBa npoAaBETB bb HapoA*]^; 7) TaR^e paap'i^niajiocB sasoABTB npH 
AOKt BC^RiH uacTepcTBa, pyROA'&JiBH, $a6pHRB, MaHy^aKxypu, 
CROJiBRO A^A o6yHeHiH h HaAo6HOCTe& naAJiexHrB; 8) ynpeABXb Jio- 
TepeH na naJiHHHHH AeHBrn Aona, na ocHOBaHiH HHocxpaHHuxX; no- 
jiyiaa OTB OHOft ce6% ocBMyio qacTB; 9) nojiy«iaTB otb nyCjiBHHux'B 
nodopHin;^, t. e. ROMOAifl, Oajioe'B, onep^ n bcarbx'b HrpaJiKo^i sa 
AOHBrH^ qeTsepTyK) nacTB AOxoAa; 10) noJiy^axB hsi Boennaro Bi- 
AOMCTBa HicROJiBRO HejiOB^RB cepscanxoBX. 

Bci BOcnHTaHHBre b'b AOM'b o6oero nojia h a'^tb hxi m 
noTOMRH Bii B^qnue poAH ocTanyTCfl bojibhhmh h HHRony, 
HH noA'B RaRHMi BHAOifB, saRaGaJieHu h yRp'Injxenii 6utb He MoryxB; 
RTO AOJrbe cpoRa namnopTa 6yAerB AepjRaTB y cbCh BOcnHTanHHROBB 
AOMa, cb Toro BSHrcRHBaxB 200 py6. wb nojiBsy Aona. 



— 128 — 
BocnHiaHHHe BtAOMi He 6 y n y t i Bciynaxb bi cynpy- 

XeCTBO Cb KpinOCTHBIMH JIIOABMH, qBH-6BI OHH HH 6UJIH; 

ecjiH xe KaRHMi o6MaHOMi npoxHBHoe ceMy yqHHHXCA, to se tojibko 
OHH caMH He 6yjQrTi KpinRB noBiibmnKaMi, ho en^e h Apyraa cto- 
poea, BCTyaHBma£[ Cb heme wb 6paKi>, cb Toro caicaro speHeHH 
6yAerB bojibebutb ^eJIOBiKOM^, a ne Rp'bnocTHuui. CBfln^eHHHRau'B, 
noA'B yrposoK) jimneHla cana, BOcnpen^ajiocB s'lnHaiB noji^oCaha'h 
joiisib. Bci BOcnHiaHHue bi> aom% no bhxoa'6 h poxHBmiecfl otb 

EHXl Kkm B nOTOUKH, KaRl CB060AHUe JOOJlfl, HM'liOrB DOJIBSOBaTBCJI 

noRynROK) ceCi ABopoBi, JiaBOR'B h doa^ ohhh uicTb, BCTynaxB 
Bi RyneqecTBO h bo bc^rIo Apyrie opoMHCJiH, oinpaBJiATB xyAO- 
xecTBa H peicecJia npaBaiiH nosBOJieHO. Buicrb cb rbu'b ycTano- 

BJIflJUHCB AOBOJIBHO CBOOOfipaSHUfl HpHBHJierlH JiflR paSJIH^HUXB 

jiHi^ no ynpaBJieHiH) BocnHTaiejiBHHMX aomoitb. TaRi rjiaBHony 
none'iBTejiK) npeAOCiasjifljiocB npaso 8a6JiaroBpeMeHHO npeACxaBBTB 
Eh BejiHHecTBy, no corjuaciio loro, Roro ohi AOCTofiHUM'B ce6t 
BnpeAB npeeMHBROHi noHHxaex'B bi cefi aojihhocxh. PaBHHMi 
o6pa30M'B co6paHie onoRyncRoe HMtex^ npano HeHapymBMoe bh- 
6BpaxB, B-B cjiyqai BaRanciH, Apyroro na lo irfecxo Aocxoflnaro no 
ero a^ejiaHiio. Ho bt> coB']^xi oneRyHCROM'B JiBn.aMi, HBAe ROJUieac- 
cRaro coBixHBRa, saci^Aa'TB ne aoji^ho. IIoneHBxejiH b none^BxejiB- 

HBI^BT, XaROSCB OnGRyUCRaA AOJI^HOCXB Wb CefifB AOM^y ecxB A'^o 

Bomie, Roxopoe cpaBH^eMo BcerAa 6uxb mojkoxti ci noAaameH'B 

BeJIBROfi MBJIOCXUHB 6iAHbiMl. BeSl COMH^Hifl OHB xtM^ H C06- 

cxBeHHoe 61 Aynii CBoeft yAOBOJiBcxBie HaxoAHxi> b qejiOBtROJiio6H- 
Bofi Hamefi MonapxBHH 6jiaroBOJieHie b mejioctb ri ce6'b oco6jibbo 
3acjiy»cBBaK)X7>. OneRyncRie h rjiaBHaro HaASBpaxeJiH nopxpexu bt* 
ceiTB AOMt nocxaBJienu 6uxb bm^ioxi. Ecjib rxo Hs^ABopHH'BOQpe- 
AijOLTb ceMy AOMy oi^ mecxBcoxT* py6jiefl h 6ojite e»eroAHO no 
»B8HB CBOK) AOxoAa, xaROBapo BMH Bi RHBFaxi cero AOMa B nopxpexib 
xpaHBXBCH AOJiJRHBi. EcjiB ^Re RXO Bsi RyneHOcxBa b ApyrBxi hb- 
HOBX xaROBoft AOxoAi^ onpeAtJiBxx ejReroAHO, xoxi> no sbshb cboeo, 
npn Bcixi cjiyqaflxi, nojiBsyexcH ^bhoh'b h no^xeHieic^ npoxBB'B 
RaMepspa oxi> ROJUierin, a xaRiRe bmh b nopxpexB ero xpaHBXBCJi 
6yAexx Bi AOMi b x. n. 

OAHOBpeneHHO cb pacnyOjiBROBaHieifB nepsofi nacxn renepajiB- 
Haro njiaHa 6en;R0fl nanBcaJn AJiHHHoe npeA'ByB'^AOMJieHie ri hb- 
xaxejiHifB (n. C. 3. X 11908), xejiaa noRasaxB cb RaRBM^B Hairl- 
peHieM'B cefi BOcnnxaxejiBHufl aom% yqpe^AeH'B h RaRifl ocHOBaniH 
npBHHXu npB ero yipe^A^HiB. ^xo MO^Rexi 6bixb ^ajiocxHitey ro- 



— 129 — 

Bopsn Bemud, nn HOBop<uueHHiift MjaxeHem^, soropuft BcaRot 
noMomH jnmeHii m HemHjeifoft nonfien noxBepxeffb GesBHHHo ■ 
6e8BpeifeHH0. He nepBut jb ran npej^Mon cocrpaxaaia ^ejo- 
BiHecsaro 6im ffuoceHi. j^a noxaaHia noicoiiui m hto6u co- 
xpaHHTb HecHacTHiixi MJuaeHKeBi, GesBBHHO noniCaion^Brb, a boc- 
mrarb hxi cl imanrb crapaHien, x&Cu ohh anpex^ MorjH 6uth 
noaesHumi ueHaMHoCn^ecTBa, ynpexxaeTca BocnamreuHuir xom>y 
KOTopHft ozExm Birlen BcaKKn» 6jiaroxtaHi&, aarpaau^enii, pes- 
HOCTHHXi BcnoMOzeHii B BCAKaro poxa 6jiaroTBOpeHii on xpacro- 
jno6MBHxib HBTarejiet h ^HraieJiKHHi^. 

OcHOBHUfl opaBHJia xoMa saBHCTBOBaHu BO HHoron B3i» no- 
Jioacema xomobi, cyiqecTByion^m yse bl nyamrb Rpaaxi, oco6jibbo 
Bi» r. JUoHi m Eaccejit. 

no o6mi&nj xHiHiio acero catra xoGpue hjih xyxue apaBu 
Kaacxaro Heaofiiaa bo bch) ero ausaB saBacaTb orb nepBaro ero 
Xo6paro bjih xyxoro BocaaTaaia. Ha dTom ocaoaaHia ynpeacxoHie 
XOHa ae ao^rerca aa aeayacaoe, Tin aaaaa^e, hto Becbua 6u xyxo 
yaoTpefijieao 6ujio aoaeneaie a aacxaBeaie aa Bocaaiaaie cax^ 
xiTofl, Rorxa 6h oaua ae apasoxaiiu Sujia r'b apajejRaBiio a 
TpyxojDoSiio, ao BospaciajiB 6u si npasxaocia a aoBiacecTBt a 
aaaoaeiTby ae aaia bi ceCi aanero aojiesaaro oCn^ecTey, Buny- 
CRaeioi 6iiJia. 

npeae6peaKeaie aceacRaiTB aojioirb 6fiiJio 6u ae MeaBme a ae- 
capaaexJiaBO, crojib a aefijiaropascyxao a apexao; no^feay, npa 
BocoBTaala oaaro, Ba6aK)xafl npacTOflaocTE nojia, o6yHaeMU Cutb 
aaiiOTB laROBHH'B jRe oepasoai no axi* eoapacTy Jiirh. 06urho- 
aeaao b% aapox^ xyxua a aecHacTana saMyacecTea ae orb ^ero 
aaoro npoacxoxarb, rbri oti BocnaTaaia oOoero aoJia bi ho- 
saaaia a aestiRecTBi; noneuy a njiox^b no TOMy :Re Bospacxaerb 
b^ OyftcTBi a TaRi oxaa-b sa xpyraafb bb OesROHeqaue B'ikKa 
cjAxyioTb. 

Moacao aax'^aibca, ?to Bbimexmie asi Toro xoMa o6oero nojia 
jnoxa ae TOJibRO ae ocTaBarb aaofiu^uofi yace bmii TpesBOCTa a Tpy- 
XOj[K>6aBoft »B3aa, ao en^e a x'i^Tefi CB0Bx^ paBHUMi o6pa30Mi eoc- 
naTUBaib CTaayrb a s-h xpy^Bx^ npaM'ipoMi ceoau^ ri noxpanca- 
aiio TOMy »e oxoxy B036yxarb a t. x. 

B% ROBi^i nacbaa saaejiHjiocb, ^to Rorxa Bce noTpe6Hoe Ri 
npaaaTiK) EJiaxeHAeBi a poxaJibaai^ii npiyroTosjieuo Gyxoxi, xorxa 
OTb oneRyacRaro coBiia 6yxerb cx'i^jiaao oco6oeoTOM'b oGiHBJieuie. 
Ho yxBepxxeHia dTofi nepBofi Hacia renepaJibaaro njiaua 6him 

a. H. BBI^SOfi. 9 



— 130 — 

BCROpi OTRpHTl» npieiTb HJiaAeHI^eB'B H pOAHJIbHHa'b Bli MoCKBi 

21 anp. 1764 r. (t. e. wb jifiBh Bucoqaftmaro Ea BejiHqecTBa 
poacAeHifl), CT> noAJiesan^eio npHioirb Ay^OBHOio h CBiTCROio i^epe- 
MonieK). Ilpn dioirb, no oGuHaio Toro BpeifOHH, ropmhjih HimarB h 
RpoM% Toro 6ujio o6BiHHaHo C^ahux^ cBaxedi ao 50 HRaacxoft hsx 
HHXi> AAHO npHCTOfiHoe HarpaxAOHie ^). HeMHoro nosxe 24 iioHfl 
nocjrbAOBaJia h saoaAKa HOBaro ^jHAaiieHTa hoa'b rjiaBHoe KaMen- 
Hoe BAaHle HiinepaTopcRaro BocnBTaiejiBHaro Aoiia, odpao^aioii^ee 
na ce6fl BHHMaHie h no nacToan^ee Bpena ^). 

XoTH A'b^TeJibHOCTB BeARBFO no BocnHTaiejiBHOMy AOHy BnoJini 
npoABJiaeTCA Cb aioro BpeMOBH, ho bi BHAaxi dojibiuaro eii y^acne- 
Hia H 6ojrb6 npaBBJiBHoft ea oa'Ihkb, neofixoAHMO Tenepb jse yno- 
Manyrb o rJiaBnifimExi saRononojioseHiflx^, nocJi^AOBaBmexi, 
xoTA n HeHHoro nosjice, ho wh pasBBTie nepBOfl hbcth renepajibHaro 
HJiana, h en^e narJiaAnte yRasHBaion^LXi kbri nairlpeHia BeaRaro 
npH ynpexcAeniB BOcnnraiejibHaro AOMa, tbri h oiHomeHia ero Kb 
AOMy, RBRi rjiaBHaro noneHHieJia onaro, h kl onoRyncROHy coBiry. 
ynoManeBTb npe;RAe Bcero, hto en^e bi 1764 r. napxa 12 6ujio 
ROH^EpMOBBHO ERaiepHHoft II DpoACTaBjieHHoe BeipcHM'b renepajib- 
Hoe yqpejKAeHie o BOcnHTanin o6oero nojia lOHomecTBa, ROTopoe 
npoACTaBJiajio co6ok) RpaiRoe HacTaBJienie, Bu6paHHoe iisi jnyq- 
niEXi BBTopoBi, Cb H^ROTopbiMB ^H8H?ecRHB(H npHirfaqanifliiH 
BOCHHTaniH xbTetL orb posACHia hxi ao lonomecTBa^). IIpaBHJiaMH, 
HSJiaraeMbiMH wb btomi HacTaBneHiH, AOJURGKb Oujh pyROBOACTBO- 

BETbCa ROHe^HO H BHOBb yHpeaCABHEblft BOCnHTaieJIbHBlfi AOHT>. He- 

MHOro nosAHte Kb 1765 roAy BeAROft, RaR'b bhaho hsi ero bhcb- 
Ma orb 1 BBrycTa, nHcaJn oaeRyncROMy coBiiy: «?to bi BHAaxi 
Gojibmoft noJibsu o6n^ecTBy sa nojiesnoe pascyAsurb coHHHHTb on 

HMeHH COB^Xa AORJiaA'b H nJIBHl BAOBbefi H CCVAHOft RaSHU, ROTO- 

pufi, npH ceii'b npBJiaraa, npomy pascMOTptrb h hto ri jnyqmeiiy 
cero yqpe»cAeHia opBSHaeTca yCasHTb bjih OTMinHTb h irai^Hie 
cBoe coo6n;HTb)>. 06'b diBxi* yqpe^AOHiax'b, RaRi HeHMtK>^Hxi 
r^CHOfi H HenocpeACTBeHHoft CBasH cb BOcnHTaTeJibHUBrb AOMoirb, 



*) Cm. sypn. Mock. Bocoht. Aona 1764 r. Mapia 18, ct. 20. 

') Tarn se orb 24 iiOHJi. Bi eKCMi^cfl^HOM'b HSAaHiii „yaefi*' sa 1811 r. 
KB. 1, CTp. 438, roBopHTCA, HTO BOcnBTaTejbHue AOMa yqpexAeHBi uo neio- 
B'&B0iK)6HB0Hy npocKTy beuKaro 26 aer. 1763 r. r otrp&itu: bi MocBsi 
21 anp. 1784 r. (oneBHAHO onenaTKa), a bti C.-neTep6ypr*— 10 okt. 1770 r. 

^) Gi BTHifb TpyAOxi BeAsaro hu yse aosHaKOMnjiH ^HTarejA Bume, 
Bi riaBi BTopoft. 



— 131 — 

i^'ljiecoo6pa8Hte cRasaTB oco6o, bi oJA^hnoik rjnaet, HeiiHoro HBJRe, 
^To6u He DpepuBaTB HSJioseHifl o BOcmiTaTeJiBHuxi xoHax^. 

Tiwh BpeMeHeHii Bei^Roft cocTasHJii* BTopyio h ipeiLK) nacTB 
reeepajibHaro njiaaa, bt» rotophxi, RaRi om> caifi roBopHTb, noRa- 
aaHo RT> ^eny o6az9lbu HaiajibHHRH, BocnHTaxeJiH cero xona h 
ROHiTB o6pa30Hi ysaROHenia tohho HcnojiHeHH 6uTh MorjTL, a 
TaRJKe H8o6paHeH£i aojihchocth noA^BHeHHurB h cnocoCu BocDHTa- 
Hia, cxoAHaro ci HaiiipeHieMi, ci rotophmx cie y^peacfleme no- 
CJiiAOBajio. 06i nacTH njiaea 6ujih npeACiaBJieHH Bei^RHHi HMae- 
paipHai B^ 1767 ro^y npe aorjiw* *), bt, ROTopoMi), cpe^H rpoMRarB 
4»pa3i>: <KaRafl B^n^aa AoCpoA^iejiB RaRi CHHCXoxcA^Hie Monapxa 
cb npecTOJia cjiaBu h BejiBHeciBa CBoero ro MJiajieHaaM'L orbJiioj^eft 

SBtpCRH 0TBep3ReHHUMl>»? HJIH «qTO IleTpi BeJlBKlft COSAaJTB Bl» 

PocciB JiiOAefl, Bame Bejie^iecTBO BJiaraerb bi hexi AyniB ht. a»9 
Bei](RO& nojioxHTeJiLHO roBopBTi: <Bame HunepaTopcROC Be- 
jiBHecTBO xon^exe, hto6u CBBs^mRHM'bpasyMOM'B^HSfliiiiHMmeeeii^e 
coeAHHAJiocB cepAae, b6o Ra^ecTBO pasyua He sanBiiaerB nepBofi 
K^TeneiiH s-h AOCTOHHCTBaxi HeJIOB^HecRHx^: oho yRpamaen ohuh, 
a He cocTaBjiaeri. TaKOBUB bucokIh mucjih Bamn, — TaROBX 
fipeAHerb HacTaBJiesift, ROTopuBi'L cnafiAHib mbhh BceiiBJiocTBB'&fime 
^jiaroBOJiBJiH. IIoAHomy BcenoAAaHaMmee H8o6pa:ReHie ohhxx bo 
BTopofi H Tpeibefi qacTHXi renepajiBHaro njiana, yAOCTOHBmeecA ne 
TOJiBRO pascMOTp'lHlfl, HO B cBMaro HonpaBJoeHlH OTB CBfln^eHHtflmefi 
Oco6iii Bamefi». 

3th o6i HacTB no BucoiafimeMy aoB%JieHiio HHTajiH H. Ila- 
fiHHi», rp. 3. MbhexI), rh. A. roJiBipjHi> H Fp. Hb. ^epHHmoB'B H 
HBHero B^ OH&Ix^ ne namjiH, RaRT) ohb AORJiaAHBBJiB ERaTepHni II 

10 asrycTa 1767 r., qT66H ne coAepmajio h ne oSimaJio bctbhhoA 
Ji coBepmeHHod noJiBsu oTeneCTBy h 6e3CMepTHofl CJiaBU Ea Bbjih- 
^ecTBa. Bcji%Ai> sa* ^mi 13 asrycTa nocJitAOBajii) caMufl RopOTRifi 
yRa3^ cenaiy, hto «npH cewb nocHJiaeTca ji^jir HaneqaiaHla BTopofl 

11 Tpexbeft HacTH renepajBHaro njiana MocROBCRaro BocnHTaxeJiB- 
Haro AOMa>; npnqeBfB HunepaTpHua co6cTBeHHopyHno Ao6aBHJia 

^CT> ROTOpHMH TO IRQ y^KHHTB ITO C^ nepB0K)» ^J. 

3th 06*6 qacTH renepajiBHaro oJiaHa noM'l^n^eHH b-b IIoJiHO&rB 
CoCpanlH 3aR0H0BT», a noTOMy orpaHH^BMca sa^cb RpaTRHMii hsjio- 



*) Cm. H. C. SaKOHOB^ (aepBoe) 11 aarycra 1767 r. >6 12957. 
') Cm. ApzHB'b npaB. Ceaara Knur. Buco*!. ysaa. Xi 123 crp. 89, a lasse 
«8AaBiii renepajbHaro njiana 1767 roj(a, 1774 h 1789 roAOBi- 3roro yaaaa 

BT, nOlHOMli C06p. 3aE0R0Bli He HMteTCH. 



— 132 — 

xeHieMi caMuxi cyn^ecTBeHBux'B nojio^emft B^ hbxx saKJiio^aio- 
n^HXCH. 06*]^ cJiijiyjoii^si nacTH njiaBa, no upHM^py nepsoft, pas- 
A'lJieBH laKjRe aa rJiaBBi h bi nepsofl rJiasi STopoft ^acTH rosopHTCii 
AOJijRBOCTH oneEyBCKaro cosiia (t. e. lOHB'ibe 061 ero oe^san* 
BOCTflxi). «HenoAB]a»BUMi npaBBJioMi BaA^ejRHrb jcTaHOBHTb, 
^o6bi Bciwb jiK>ji,Hui> 6e3i BS'bBTia laKOByio ace BOs^aBaTb cnpa- 
BBAJiHBOCTb, KaKOft 6bi MU ce6t Bi> boaoSbomi cjiynat orb Apyrni'L 
Tpe6oBajiB, H HTo6u coGcTBeBBaa Bama cob^ctl cTpornirb 6fiiJia 
BaAi> BaMH cyAbOK). ^jieBu oneKyHCEaro coBtia npHSBaBaiB ce6a 
AOJi^Bu OTuaMH HflorBX'b Tuami A'bxefi, bt> ceft aomi BxoAan^Hx^^ 
ROEMi) AJi^ nojiBSu OTeiecTBy BaAo6BO 6uTh BOCBHTaBBHin>. He- 
ocoopHMO, HTo nepeA'B oxeHecTBOM'B, RaK^ h BepeA^ bhkh boa- 
BepraeMii ce6H oxBi^Ty, e^ejiH BOSBepaA'^eM^ Ao6poirb hx^ 
BOCBBTaBin h Be apoHSBeAeifi a^eoiaeMHX'b rpa»AaBT> wb rocy- 
AapcTBi>. Ilocji'b aToro CBOBa BSJiaraiOTca ocbobbbia Banajia boc- 
BBTaBia npBBATHH y«e bi BepBofi lacTH. Ilpn diowb Ao6aBJiAjiocK 
«xopomo B AOCTaTOiBO BOSBarpaJKAaeifHe jih)ah y6uTRy npaBocarb 
MesBme, seacejifl xyAue, Be BSHpaa hto obb h MajiuMi> AOsoJibCTBO- 
BaxbCA MoryTi. Exejiii y Bacb lOBomecTBO BepBaro spieica bocbh- 
laBO B'b 6jiaroBpaBifl h o6yHeBo no BpaBEjiairb, — yAo6BO 6yAerb 
BaMx CO BpeMBBeicb Bs^b CBOHXb BBTOMi^eB-b Bu6paTb xopomHX'b 
yHBieareft, aaAe^Bbrxi npHCiaBBHROBb h cjiy}KBTeJiefi». 

Sarlifb AaJiie roBopHJiocb: ^IIoBeKe ROJiBqeciBO npaxoAa nna 
BOcnHTaxeJibBaro Aona BeasBtcTBO, to BCJi'lACTBie npnBHJierift 
AOJi^BO BC^HecRB BaMi (t. e. oneRyBaMi) ciapaxbc^ yMBoacaxb OBoe, 
TORMO ocxeperaTbCfl oti> Bcero, hxo cnpaBeAJiBBOcxE npoxBBBO h 
BenpaBeABoe BMisie Be ocKBepBEJioGHceroyHpejRAeBifl. OxiBcixi 
AOxoAOBi, ROB cji^Ayioxb o6B^ecxBy B'b x^xecxb b BaEnane Kb yxi- 
CBOBiK) 6iAHuxx, AOJi^BO BM%xb oMepsenie. KorAa AOJoti-b boabtb 
cxapaxbCA yMBoacaxb aoxoabi BocnnxaxeJibBaro AOMa, to jifiJiisMO 
BOMHmjiHXb B 061 oxBpan^eBlB Bcixb jiamBEXb b xo^bo Heaa- 
j[fi6EhiTb pacxoAOBi. Bce^ ^xo booCxoabmo, BaAo6Bo BpeAno^flxaTb 

JieCTBOMy BHAy. 

He AOBOJIbBO, HTO BCtMB AOXOAaMB BaMl ynpaBJIHTb AOJI»B0 

qecTflo BfiesnpBCTpacTBO, bo ynpaBJiaTb obumb b Cb pasy- 
HOMi. 3a rjiaBBuil AOJirb BO'iBxaxb ne tokmo coxpaBHXb, bo h 
BcerAa pacnpocxpaBaxb b yMBoacaxb BCXBBHyio cjiaByBAo6poe hica 
cero saBeAOHlH. Ci BenEKVLWb BBBMaHieM'b BaCjiioAaxb BenpecxasBo, 
Hxo6u BBKXO, RTO 6h bb 6ujii>, Be BapymaJii npsBBJuerifi cero AOMa, 
h6o OBMa ^jpe3i> xo MaJio-no-MaJiy ocjiaSiiorb b, BaROBeiyb, A*ft- 



— 133 — 

CTBiH cBoero BOBce JtHmaTCfl. RaRi Cyxerb npHMiqeHO htO'EhGjk^ 
xoTfl MaJio npoTHBHoe ycTaeoBjieHHOMy npaBy — hoaojixho BSHparb 
Ha cie 6e8i> yBaxeeifl, ho 6e8i BCflsaro HeA^eHiH yBixoiuiHTb o 
TOin> rJiaBHaro noneHHreju h t. jl. 

OneKyHu aojihhu HMiiB b^ bh;^, tto ciyzarB po^y neJiOBt- 
^ecKoiiy, cjtyxaTB oieqecTBy CBoeny xoJibRO hsi juioGbh ri lony h 
ApyroMy h npeBOCxoAHufi mitiorb cjiynaft noRasaTb CBbry, mto 
AoOpo^^ieJiB TOJDbRO H co6cTBeHHoe Hxi> no6y2RAeHl6 npoRJiOHaiorb 
Hacb R^ cHHCRaniK) 6jiaronojiyqiJi ohuitb, npHHHMaiorb cie sBanle 
663i> BCiiRaro npHHya^emH h He oscHAaa Harpa:icAeHifl. 

BH-bcri cb rtHi rjiaBHiift noneHHiejib h oneRyncRift coatTB 
A0JI3RHU CTapaibCH, HToGiii HcnoJUHeme sci^x'b qaciefi reaepajibHaro 
DjiaHa 6e3T> hsihtU h nenpepuBHO npoHcxoAHJio; nepeirlHU wb 

HHX'b npOHBBOAHTb Ch 0CT0p02RH0CTiK), A^6hl DOnpaBJUHfl OAHO He 

noBpeABTb Apyroro; npn dToirb Tpe6oBaTb mh^hIh ynpaBJiaioii^HX'b 
pasJiHRHUHB saBeAeHiflMH; ees'b hxt* corjiaciH nepentHU ne b^h- 

HaTb, h60 H31i OnUTOBl HSB-iCTHO, ^TO CBKHH JiyHHlifl ny6jiHqHHfl 

yHpe»AeHifl npnxoAflrb bi ynaAORi TOJibRO aoTOicy, hto HsoGpiia- 
TejiH nacTuxi h cropohocthjrhuxi nepeM^ui 6oJiie ^ nopT^n 
ysaROHenifl, ne^ejiH nonpaBJiaiorb, a HaROHeifb h Bce y^pe^Aenie 
onpoBepraiOTb. 

BTopafl rjiaBa aocBHn^eHa coSpaeiairb oneRyncRaro coB^ia. 
Ohh CuBajiH: reHepajibHHfl — no OROH^aHiH Top;RecTBa 21-ro 
anpiji^ (bt> naMATb saBeAenia BocnnTaTejibHaro Aona) h no coBep- 
meeiH aRsaHena bi tomi, neHy bhtomi^i ofiynaiOTCfl, h ofiHRHO- 
BeHHHfl — Bi RasRAoft HOA'i^ii no OAHOMy pasy hjih CMOipa no 
A^jiaiii — no ABa«A^ bi ntcjii^^. Fjiaaa ORan^BBaJiacb yBibn^anieMi 
Heycunno ciapaTbca 060 BceBTb, hto cjiyjRHTb Mo^ceib ri* npnpa- 
nienlK) RpeAHTa h 6jiaronojiyHiK) BocnHTaiejibHaro AOMa. He HeaRO 
cero npoHSBecTH mojkho, RaRi nntaa BcerAa bt* cepAU'i^ CBoeMi» 
HCTHHHoe HejiOBtROJifo61e H CTpeMJieme Kb BcnoMon^ecTBOBaniK) 
6tACTByK)n^eHy 6jiH«HeMy h neeHHEbiMii MjiaAeHiJ^aii'B, BCBROft no- 
Monp jiRmeHHUMi h HeMHayeMoft norH6eJiH noABepsRennbiM^. 

Fjiasa TpeTbH nocBan^ajiacb npncTaBHBRaM'b (t. e. pasJinnHUMi 
CJiysRSLmflWb) bi aom%, noHMeHOBaHHUftrb bi^ nepBoS Hacxn cero 
njiana. HanoMHHB'b CHOBa, ito BOcnsiTaTeJibHuft aomi octb aohi 
6jiaroTB0peHLa, BeqRofi BUCRaauBaji^ noJiO}RHTeJibHo, hto RorAa 
xopomHXi npHCTaBHHROBi) He CyAerb, to h Ao6paro BocnHTaHia bi> 
A'bfiCTBie npoHseecTH iih ne bI) coctohbIh. IIpH TaROBOMi hbao- 
CTBTR*]^ Bci CTapania naniH 6e8njiOAHb[ h Bce HHCAHBenie noTepano. 



— 134 — 

BcTynafon^HXi b-b cjiy»c6y He onpeA^JiflTB b% HacToan^ee sBanie b 
^HH^, He HCHKETae'L cosepmeHHO cnocoGHOCTH, noBeAeniH h Hpasa 
BO BpeMfl npeGuBaniH hxi b^ aojihchoctb. Y OTp'i^niaeMBix'b othioak 
He OTHHMaib Toro, HTO KOMy npHHaAJieKHTB no HCTHfli. Jlyqrae 
ociaBJi^iTb Hll^ HicROJiBRO CBepx^ naAJieKan^aro, nescejiH BOJio^a 
Hxi> no MajiOBa»HHM*B A'i^JiaMTi H pasGapaH ohua b^ tohroctb, Kas'L 
nLWby TaRi H ociaBiDHMCH A^^BaTB c op a B A Ji H B y K) npHHHHy 
»aJio6H nponsBOAHTB. Mojkho ynoxpedHiB juo^eft pasJiBiHua coo* 
C06HOCTH Hfifbiou^ie; tojibko SHaTB, RaR'B onpeA'^JiHiB RancAaro k'b^ 
TOMy fffejiy, R'B ROTOpOMy OBI cnocoSeH'B. OSpamaacB sarfM'B Kh 
pascHOTplHiH) o6fl3aHHOCTeA RaacAaro AOJisRHOCiHaro JiHi^a nps boc- 
HHTaTejiBHoirB AOM^y Bei^Rofi saMinajii, hto rjiaBHuft HaA^HpaTejiB^ 
AOJi^Reni 6bitb H e Ji B i R "B 6e3T> npeAyBtpenifi, ho npaBAy 
jHofijiQ^ift, He cBoeHpaBHufi, ho HeJiOBiiROJiK)6HBu&. Jllpyrie Bct co- 
CTOiirb noAi* ero ooBeJiiHi^MH, ho oh'b npHsnaBaTB hxi AOJineHi 
He RaR'B noAHHHeHHHX'B, ho RaR^ Apyseft cbohxi, san^iin^aTB. 
EXi; BCHROMy no sacjiyri, 6e3npHCTpacTHO, B03AaBaTB cnpaBeAJiH- 
BOCTB n HarpanAOHle; ynpaBJi^TB hmh cb jkoGobIk), yBbn^eBaTB h 
nofiy^aiB ri> HaGjnoAeniio dBanlH. Htri* nyncAH, htoSu rjiaBHBift 
HaASHpaTejib Cbuh ^ejioatRi yqeeuft b'b pascymAOHiH HayRi»; Toro 
MeHBHie HaAofiHo 6htk eMy BcerAa hs'b 3HaTHHx^ JiioAefi; noTpeCens 
HeJiOBi^R'B pa3yM^ HH'bion^ifi, 3ApaBBra h AOCTaToiHua chjih 
pascyARa, cepAiie nenopoHHoe, mucjih bojibhhh, Hpas-B R'B pa6o- 
jiincTBy HenpeRJioHHBifi h ho xaRoe BejiHROj^mie, ROTopoe b'b rop- 
AOCTB H BBicoRoysiie npeBpan^aoTCA; ohi roBopHib AOJiHceni RaK'b 
AyMaerB, a A^JiaiB RaR'B rOBopnrB; oti nenpaBAH h npniBopcTBa 
npH BCAROM'B cjiyna'b yO'lraxb, RaR^ oti caMUxi MepsRHxi 
A^ Ji "B. HaAo6HO, HToGu 6^:11 qejioaiR'B ctojib coBepmenHufi, Ra- 
Koro TOJiBRO p'Iako CHCRaTb MOHCHo; HO RorAa CBmeicfl CTapaTBca 
yAep^aiB npn aom*]^ bo bck) ero ^hshb, h6o 6jiarococTOHHie ouara 
coBciM^ OTB Hero 3aBE[CHrB. OniH6oR'B ero ne ciaBHTB b'b npe- 
CTynjienie; RancAufi 'iejiOB']^Ri> ornHfiaeica, ho tImii ne 3acjiy«HBaeTi^ 
en^e ynpeRanifi h Toro MeHBme RaRoro ocRop6jieHi^. Oai> 
ynpaBJiaeT'B oahhi RaR'B oTei^-B bi aom-I h noiOMy Bcfe cocToax-b 
noA'B ero BJiacTiio; oh^ 060 bcom'b BijifiiQTh n otb nero otb oahofo h 
OTB-ixa Tpe6oBaTB aoji^cho. Bch noBejiinia eny npenoAaiOTca otb 
OneRyncRaro CoB'lTa. IIoMon^HHRi ero — rjiasHaa HaA3HpaTejiBHHAa, 
aROHOM'B H Apyrie noA'^HHennue ^OMy npeACTaBJienia cboh HHHflTb 
060 BceMT> eMy, a ne CoB-fexy. 

noAo6HBiH ^e xpe6oBaHiH npeA'BaajiAJiHCB h ri rjiaBHOfi naASH* 



— 135 — 

paT&HLHHi^, BTopoS MesK^y HanajiBCTByfomHicH vh xoirb. Eft Biiii- 
HJiJiocb: cHB exHHOft 6i^ofl aceHii^HHU, kopmhjihiqi hjih cJiyxaHRH, 
yHHHTOxaTB, HHxe noAflHMH H npesptaifl AOCToftnuMH npHsnaBaib 
efl He AOJixHO, h6o h canaro HHscHAro HHHa jiioah, coAi^fiCTayionpe 
o6ii(eHy GjiaronoJiy^iio, aejiHROft ujbBU aoctoAhu. Kto npesHpacrB 
Hx%, TOTb caiiT» Kasoro 6u poxa hh 6ujii, HeAOCTOHHiHaHajiBCTBO- 

BaTB OHUMH. 

3% saRJiioHeHie BtiCRasuBajiocE laiuice: 

He To^eTHU ysaKOHemn h ycni^xx cero saBOAeHlH He coHHoie- 
jieni, exejiH ohh (t. e. cjiysamie b^aom^) Apy2ceJIH)6ieM^, cahho- 
AymleHii, ssaHMHUMH coB%TaM0, a naHnaie AocTofiHUMH noApaaca* 
hLa nocTyHRaMH hphboabtl noA^HHeHHUx'b Ki> 6jiaroHpaBlK) h R^ 

AOwlXHOCTH (§ 15). 

KorAa M£i He oniH6eHca b^ Bu6op'l chxii hath naHaJibHHROB'B 
(t. e. rjiaBHaro naASHpaTeJUi h ero noMon^HRa, rjiaBHOft HaAsepa* 
TejiBHBmj, BBOHOMa H 3RcneAHTopa), TorAa CRasceMb: hcoojihhjiocb 
zejianie name, AOCTHrjun cpeACTBa ri Ha6jiK)AeHiK) hojibsu; ho 
npexepHHirb 6e8noROflHaro Ayxa h HcnoJiHHM'b ci> yAOBOJibCTBieM'b 
AOJixHocTb H sBanie Hame. 

TpeTbH HacTb HJiana nocBfln^ajiacb npasHJiaM'b BOcnnTamfl a*^- 
Teft, npHHOCHMjuxi B^ AOifb, H wh nepBofi rjias*!: < o HaAo6HOCTH 
BocHBTaHia cxoAnaro cb HaiiipeHieirb, ch ROTopbrui aaBeAeni aomb 
BOCDHTaTejSbHbift), BucRasbiBaJiocb, HTO Bcaiuft ysi^peHB, hto npir- 

HOCHHMb A'bTilM'b HOTpeSHO BOCnBTaHle, OTM^HHOe (BI CMBlCJlt 

oco6eHHoe) orb npenoAaBaeHaro 6jiiaropoAHHMi>; npaMoe nani- 
peHie TpeSyeii npoHSBecTU sA^Cb jiioAeft cnoco6HBix'b CJiyxHib OTe- 
HecTBy A'l^JiaMH pyKi* cbohxb, bi pasJieiHHX'b HCRyc- 
CTBax'b H peMecjiaxi, x. e. CA'i^jiaTb, hto6h catfH ccGt no- 
JEesHu 6ujiH AJifl nponHiaHia CBoero, nocejiacb h ocHOBaBb »H8Hb 
CBOK) cnocoCoM'b TBepAUMb E npH6iiiT0HHHM'b js,Ji5i ce6fl H A^B no- 

TOHCTBa. 

B^ ooaoGhux^ saBeAeni^x'b ne HaAo6HKi TaHUHefiCTepu h up.; 
Toro MeHbme noipeSHH yqHTeJIbHH^H ji^a noRaaaniH moai>, 6e8- 
HOJiesHuxB cnoco6oBi> o6xo2CAeHiH h MHOxecTBa noAo6Huxi> cefiiy 
BpeAHbixi H rnycHux'b BSJiBmecTBx, kob npoBSoniJiR orb OAHOft 
pocRomH H uuE'b Bb GojiboiHX'b ropoAaxi y npasAHUX'b JiioAeft 
o6uKHOBeHHO GuBaiorb. 

HbaoOho BocHHTanie cxoACXBenHoe Cb naMtpenieM^, cb 
ROTopuMb AOMb yqpeacAGH'b. Bb ^yacaxT. rocyAapcTBax'b ipeiifl nHHb 
napoAa a^bho saBeAOHb h npoAOJi}KaeTCfl; y nacb nirb ero, ho 



— 136 — 

Hy^A^ B% Eewb cocTOHrL. Ha^o npHroTOBHTb ocHOBanie cero 
HHHa saBeAeHieMii cnepsa yHHTejieft h yqureJibHHi^, mrtio* 
n^Hxi noTpe6HUfl KaiecTsa j^slb ody^enlH o6oero nojia A^ieft, RaRi 
€ero noTpe6yerB HaMipeHle. 

Mh nosBOJifliTb C66'& AJifl 6ojibmaro yflCHeeia saifipeHift Bei^- 
Karo npHBecTH sa'^cb se to, tto nsjioaceHO jnwb wb rjEasi XIII aioft 
XB TpexbeS HacTH njiana. 

cB'b rocyAapcTB^ HanieMi>, roBopHTi Bei^Rofl, Asa HHHa ^): 
ABopane h Rp'&nocTHue. IIhtomi^u; no njiasy h Hx^^OTOMKH 
BOJibHBiMH npeCyAyrb, to, cJi^AOBaTejibHO, ohh cocTaaflrb Tpexifl 
miLWb Bi rocyAapcTBi^. He HenpHJiH^HO noAyiiaxb, RasyK) »E3Hb ohh 
npoBO»AaTb CyAyTii h KaRHMi* o6pa80Mi icexAy Jik)abme bocth ce6fl 
6yAyrL? RaseTca, hto nBTOMAU (MyacecRaro h soHCRaro noJia), 
AOCTHrmH HCRyccTBa B^ peiiecjiax'b h ^aGpnRax'b, yAo6HO cuntyTi* 
ce6i npoDHTaHie bi ropoAaxi*, fa^ ecTb <|)a6pHRn, BCTyna bi co- 
oCn^ecTBO Cb HbmimHHMH RyniJ^aiiH, xyAOSHHRaicH, ToproBaaMH h 
^aCpHRaHTaMH. Ho RoiAa no Tony sie pascyAHirb, ^to juoah p^ako 
BBAyTi ceCn no pasyny, ho hoith BcerAa no BOo6pa«eHiio 
H npHxoTHM^, a oco6ju3bo Ryni^bi h $a6pHRaHTH (6paA0- 
hoci^h jio^hok) qecTiio h mhemumii npaBOBtpiem 
ocJiinjieHHue), RorAa pascMOTpHifi oGuRHOBenia h npaBu cbxi 
jiioAeft,— TO HafiAOMii BejiHRk TpyAHOCTH Bi npoBSBOACTBi jRejiae- 
Moft HaMH noJibsu; b6o 6ojibniaH nacTb hxi no HenaBHCTH yace 
OAHOft npeHe6peryTb, OTBeprnyrb OTb HiApi> cbohxi, OTb coshtIh h 
coo6n^ecTBa 3th hobha pacTeniH. TpyAHO OAOJiiTb sacTap'^Bmyio 
HenaBHCTb, yopaMCTBO, saBHCXb, roh npBHBHOfO bxi xyAaro Bocnn- 
TaHla; HO MOHbrne onacHO, hto6u HibROTopaa nacTb hobhxi cbx'b 
jKHTOJieft He nepeHHJia 6u sjiuxi npasoBi b o6biHaeBi>, ROTopue 
BCTpe6flTi njioAbi xopomaro BOcnBTania. Yse Hexpy BeJiHROny 
HaAJie^ajio bo bc^xt* HBHaxii e bi caMuxi xyAOJsecTBax'b npeABO- 
ABxejibCTBOBaTb, Bciifb ynpaBJiflXb b pacaopaxaTb Bce ao nocji^A- 
Hjiro. Heo6xoABMO AOCTEFHyTb HaBcipema Ea BeJiH^ecTBa h, bochb- 
TaBi A'^Teft Bi> npaaoAymiB, saBOAHTb, co BcaRBMi Tn^anleMi b 
OCTOpOKHOCTiK), B'b npBHaAJiojRan^flX'b AOMy HicTaxii ^aSpBRB, 
HaHy(|)aRTypu, ao poHecjTb h xyAo^ecTB-b RacaK)n^iflcay ynoTpe6jiaa 
RT) TOiiy BCRycHux'b peMecJieHHBROBi B ^aOpBRanroB'b bsi qyjse- 
CTpaHi^eBi> (noRa bsi nBT0Mi](eB'b Hamnxi, BumoA- 



*) CiOBo iHHi, o^eBHAHO, Hii'J&eT'B B'B AaHHOMi ciy^at sBa^eeie co- 

c 1 B i A. 



— 137 — 

mnxii Hsi JloMy, cnocofiHue Kb TaRHHi xiaiairB wb co- 
CTOAHiH 6yAyTb saHHMaTb ciH H'fecTa), HO nane Bcero hbcthuxi, y roto- 

PUX1> 6U HHTOimU y^HJIBCB OCHOBaTCJIbHO HaCiepCTBaM'b, H HXl 

HaAtJUii npoAasaTB ei nojibsy ^OMa. B'b yqeaiH 6uTb 6 — 7 ji^t'l 
AO BunycRa bs'b ,^OMa; coAepsaTB hxi cxoaho ci BOcnHxaHieMi 
BO BceMii, a HaHnane, hto ao HpaBOBi Racaeicfl. HcRycntftmie 6y- 
Ayrb nepexoAHTb bi noAMaciepbA, a uotoh's bi liaciepa. 6i ^oirb 
OHH 3apa6oTaH)rb ce(5% RanBiajii h no buxoa% hs'b OHaro Moryrb 
caMH C66i $a6pHRH saBeciH h BCTynnTb bi Ry ne^ecTBO. diiurB ny- 
TQu-b ne^exsbe npoHSBOAyrB ohh aceJiaeiiuft hobbiS poa'b; apj- 
rie, H8i AoMa BuxoA^ntfe, 6yAyTi> niii^TB y hexb npHGisHii^e, jrb* 
ByHH BcerAa boab noRpoBHTeJibCTBOin» rr. oneRyHOBi, noneHBiejiefi 

H T. A. 

YCMOTpiEHKe nOH£IH% HOAOCTaTRH Bl BOCQHTaHiH lOHOmeCTBa 

BOo6me cocTO^rb bi satpyAHeBinxi otb BpeABTejibHUX'b cnoco6oB'B 
yneflifl, ROTopii]n> nBTOMaoBi noABepraiorb, HepascMaTpsBafl 
RanecTBa rbxb^ sfkwb ohh pyROBOABMH, h ho pascysAa^^ mo- 
ryrb jih npH Toirb CA'^JiaTB khshb ewl npiflTHOio, no6yHA&Tb hxi> 
Ri> nojiesHOMy noApaxamio h ciapaTbca nay^HTb lOHomecTBo npH- 
MipaHH TaRi, hto6h OHoe BnpeAb noHorjio BOcnHTUBaxb ci> noJibsoK) 

CBOHXl nOTOKROBl. 

Bo BTopoft rjiaBi — o coAepauiHiH A'^xefi — noApoOno HSJiaraJiHCb 
npHBHJia nnn^i, 061 oai^^hIh, HHCxorb, nocxejiH, CHi^ h jrh- 
jiHHtaxi A^^Toft, ynpajKHeniflX'b h t. Am ^ sartirb Bi rjiaBaxi 
Tpexbeft AO ocbMofl nsjiarajiHCb npasHJia 061 ofiy^eHiH A^iefl wb 
Bospacri oTb dbth ao comh nirb. He aojetsho loponHTbCH yHHTb h 
pascRasbiBaTb hmi nyciHROBi (0 ROJUAynaxx, B^A^Maxi h t. a-)) 
^Mi> AynaioTb saCaBJiHTb A^TeS h npoHSBOAHTb vb nmx'b npHBUHRy 
KO BEHHanlK), a nanpoTHB'b loro npHBOAarb caucjib hxi bi saMib- 
maTOJibCTBo h noMpaiaiOT'b hx% jioaeHUMH noHflxiflMH. Harb aojixho 
noB'bcxBOBaxb CJiaBHurb iiyjRaxi h hx^ noABHraxi. He aojdrho 
HHbiMi 6000060111 Kb yieniEo npHBOAnxb cero Bospacxa nHxoiii^eB'b 
KaRi coBixoHi H HOAaBaa cny^aft r'b noApaacamK). Becbva 
HysHO no6y»AaTb hxi cjiymaxb co BHHMaHieMi HsiHCHeHlflyHxo Borb 
ecxb BceMoryo^ifi, BRopen^xb B'b hhxi CRJiOHHOCxb noBHHOBaxbc^ 
6e^'b AOcaAu, npenaxcxBOBaxb Hirb 6HXb h Myqnxb a^HBOXHbixi, 
ORasuBaxb sjiocxb CBepcxBHRaMi h x. a. Jly^oie yraxb npHH^paim 
H noApa^aHi^MH, Bb cie BpeMfl yqnxb hxi pncoaaxb h ^Hxaxb; 
BaKHOCXb yiHxeJibCRaro HCRyccxBa cocxohxi bi> xomi, hxo6u b^ 
yqeHiH hhxomau nojiarajin saCasy. TpyAHO naflAXH cnocoOHux'B 



— 138 — 

K'b ceiiy HacTaBHHROBi, ho cie He npenHTCTByex-b HCRaiB ohuxi, a 
UQTRKJ Tb)AT> ynoTpe6jiHTb X0T2 TaRHXii, ROTopue no Rpaflaefl nipt 
He y^HJiH 6h xjABiMik A^jiaMi h ho nopTHUH 6u sAopOBBe A^Teft. 

IlepexoAa nocjii aioro rt* nopaARy o6yHeHifl A'bxeft bi cjitAyR)- 
n^eM^ Bospacrt, Bei^Roft saMinaerB: a^th ifyxecRaro nojia He BcerAa 
AO 7, 8 H jiflxie 9 jiirB, a A'^BymRH oCurhobohho npesRAe hxb, 
caMH OA^BaiOTCfl. BpeMH TorAa ynnTBca bmb Tony, hto ajia Bceft 
XH3HH noTpeSHO H npe:KAe Bcero nosHaniio Btpu. KaRB npoHSBO- 
AHTB cie nepBoe yqenie — BtAaiorb to fijiaropasyMHua AyxoBHua 
oco6bi. iBei^Kofi h He roBopHrb od'B STOWb npeAHeii, ho tojibro 
yaoiiHHaeTB: hhhto TaRi A^TaiiB ne apeAHTB RaRB ycTpamenie hxb 
rposHTejiBHHMH pascRasaxB o MyneHiaxi bo aA'i^ (IV). 
He npHHyxAaTB A*Tefi yiHiB MHoro HansycTB; aobojibho ccjih bu- 
TBepAaiB H nofiMyTB ^Otho HainT>», AecaTB sanoBiAQfi, chmbojib 

BtpU H H'lROTOpUfl MOJIHTBBT. Saopen^aTB HHTaTB rpOHRO, RaRl Bl> 

mROJiaxB 6£iBaerB. yqaniie aojijrhu noRasuBaiB RaRi A^pssaTB na- 
paHAamB h nepo, RaRi fiynary RJiacTB h t. a-; ne HeHBme oGaaanu 
uacTasjiaTB ji^ireb y^TBBCTBy, Bi^cjiHBOCTH He tojibko bo apeHfl 
yqenia, ho bo BcaROMi cjiyqat noABBaTB co6ok) npBM^pB noApa- 
acania. 

IIOJieSHO COHBHHTB B BSAaTB RHBHRy AOJIHCHOCTB HOAAaHHUXl 

H HanaJiBHBROBB Bi pascyHCAeniB npaBBiejiBCTBa Cb niROTopuHH 
HpaBoy^BTejibHUMB npaBBJiaMB. IIporpaMKa noAo6Hoft KHBrB hsjio- 
3ReHa HBHe bb rjias^ X. 06yHaTB Heo6xoABHO A^ieS reorpa^in h 

apBOMeTBK']^. 

Bei^Rofl BosGyacAaoTB BonpocB, naAoGno jib b-b cewb saBeAeniH 
A'^BOHRatiB yqBTBca Tony, hto a-^h MajiBHHROBB CRasaHo; pimaerb 
ero (no ^enejiony) nojioacaieJiBHo, AoSasjiaa: a mu, MyxctiHHH, 

CTOJIB Tn^eCJiaBHHCa npeBOCXOACTBOMB bb RpinOCTB CBJIl CBOHXl, 

CTOJiB ropAu H npHTOHi CTOJIB ynpaMU, hto npenaTCTByeBTB b% 
npio6piTeHlB nacTaBJieHifi, rb npocB'^n^emK) pasyica noTpe6H£rxi, 
TaROMy nojiy, ROTopoMy mh sa see OAOJiaceHH: RaR-B to sa nepBoe 
npeABOABTOJiBCTBO, ORasaHHoe npn noaBJieniB na cb^tb, sa nepByio 
noMoniB B c6epe»eHie; sa nepBoe nnTanie, nepBua uacxaBaeHia 
H Apy«6y B T. A. 

3ar6MB, nepexoAa rb Bonpocy 061) o6yHeHiB RptoocTHHXB, 
BeqROft ocxanaBJiBBaeTca na BOspajReniB, hto HacTaBJienie bi npaBO- 
yieniB, Racaion^oMca ao rpaacAancRofi acBSHB, bmb ho tojibro ho 
noTpeOno, ho en;e ne noaesno b bobco ne HaAo6HO, b roBopsrB: 
«KoaB 6%AeHB neaoB'i^RB TaRBMB oCpasoMB ocjitnaBmiftca. Kpt- 



— 139 — 

nocTHoft 6yAen> nepBuft HacTaBHHK^ TBOOHy cuHy^ nepsufi Ha- 
nepcHHRX HJiH HanepcHHi^a, nepsuft Apyrb hjih noApyra AO^epH 
H CBiHy. J^iim TBoe, rohx'b tbi jiK>6Hinb, eanHraiOTCH B^ nepBue 

TRB TOJPA BCi^MH nOpORaMB, BC6K) rpyCoCTlK), BCliMH XyAUMH pSS- 

roBopaHH OT-h CHX^ pa6oB'B, rotopumh cTOJib ropAO h HaAMeflHo 
npoHeOperaere. On> coofimecTBa cb heimh ohh HacjitAywTT* ne- 
BtxecTBO, CBBpincTBO, pasBpaTHue HpaBU. ICajiyioTCfl HenpecTaHHO, 
mo HMliorb A*Teft xyAHXT>, HeciacTHHX'b; npmHHOK) axoMy no- 
jiaraioTib sjiyio npBpoAy hjih xyAyK) njiaHery. GwbmESLH Me^ia; ho 
HHRorAa Bi MucJiB HO npHX0AHTi>, 1T0 cio npoHsoDiJio on Toro, 
HTO y CHX'B A^Tefi noAJiHe pa6u nepBUMH yHHTeji^MH, CBepciHE- 
KaMH H ApysBHMH 6ujiH H BRopeHHJiH wh Hxi copAue H pasyM'B 
TO, HTO CMy cTOJib TopecTHO Raacerb. Kto aio noflMerb, totb, 
HaHTB HaAO, eyAOTx acoJiaTb, Aa6H Bct AtByniRH 
He TOJibRO o6yiHJiHCb HETaib H DBcaTb, HO HBfbJiH 6u H pasyMi 
npocBinienHHfi pasjiHHHUHB SHaHl^MH a^^ rpaxcAaHCRofi »h8hh 
noJiesHUMH. Oh*! Jiyqme h pascyABTejibHie BocnHTaiorb A'^Tefi, 
wb cynpy^KecTBt BcnojiHflTi> npBJie^H'le AOJi^HOCTb cbok); Rop- 
MHJTHAaMH B HHHbRaMH HO HOMpaiaTb A^Tefi HycTHMB pascRasaifH 
H T. A- EcJiH 6bi BOcnHTUBaeHuifb Bi JI^OMib A'i^Bym- 
KaMT* cjitAoaajio 6uTb RpecibflHRaMB, to ho noAJie»cajio 6h h 
ynoMHHaTb o hxi oCynemH; ho no HaM^J^peeiK) saaeAeHifl onli 
o6a8aHU yqaibCH HCRyccTBaMi hcbsbb HOJiOBi^ecKofl b rpa^AaH- 
CTBy noipeSHuirb, xpaaBTb wb x^Biiynj^eifb cocioHHiH (|)a6pBRB, 
RyneqecTBO e peHocjio, cnoco6cTBOBaTb ri saBeAeuiio bxi, ynpa- 

BJiaTb BMH H T. A-» 

Heo6xoABMO TaKKO y^HTb A^Tefl wh aom* Becin cnerb Ryne^e- 
CRift, HasMBaeBiufi fiyxrajiTepcRBMi. JIorki» coBtxyerb abo- 
pflHaMi y^BTbca cesiy bi mojioauxi ji'iTax'b; hbaoSho, htoCi cie 
BCRyccTBO 6hjio h y Hacb, ho no HecHaciiio yAo6H*e ateJiaTb, ue- 
acejiH npBBOAHTb bi A^ficTsie; h6o ho MaJioio coMy npHiBHoio ano- 
ynoTpefijieale, ROTopoe booijio wh o6uHaa hohoboji']^. BbJibmaa 
HacTb HaniHxx aoxoaobi cocioHrb bt, cofiBpaHiH cbtcTHwxb npB- 
nacoB'b, ROB EAyrb ajir coAepacanin fiojibmoro ^BCJia cnyjRBTejiefi, 
npa^BHAioniaro tojibro neycTpoflcTBO h saM'bmaTeJibCTBO, mt6 npa- 
BOABTi Kb passopeHiK). 

Bi> rjiasl ocBMofi BSJiaraioTCA npaBBjia RaRi* nocTynaib cb 
yHHTOJiflMH B npHCxaBHBRaMB. JI^ixB AOJiHCHu Bxi no^Bxaxb B yBJ 
acaxB, HO Bcye o xom^ ce6ji jiacRaxb, RorAa nanajibBBRB ne 6yAy 
nocTynaxb cb xpeCyeifofi ocxopoHCHOcxbio, Roxopaa cocxobti 



— 140 — 

TOM^, ?To6u HBROFAa He OKasuBaTB Htn> rpy6ocTH^ 3Jio6ii, 6paHH, 
naqe npH ji^Toixb. Xota HiROTopue H31 hhxt> poAHJincb wb pa6- 
CTBi, HO HaAO nocTynaxB ci hhmh nplHTHO^ JiacROBo, Cb yHTHB- 
CTBOMii, htoCh TaKoe o6xo»AeHie noBepxennuft hxb Ayxi bosbu- 
majio. Ilpa jiiTuxii BuroBopoBi nwb He A'&naTb. 

Hy»CHO, HT06'b QpHCTaBHHKH 6 EI JE H HSl pOCCift- 
CKHXT>. Mo^HO JIH, ^T06u A'^TH HpHSHaBaJIir HSOCTpaHBHX^ pO- 

AHxeJiHMH CBOHMH? EcjiH HO Heo6xoAHMOCTH 6yAyrB ynoTpeSjieHfii 

HHOSeMI^bl, TO MOryTl> JIH OHH BO BCeiTB HOAaBaTb npBMipU HHTOM- 

jifiLWb nanp., 6uTb bi i^epKBH h lairb, rA'i^ npasHJia Btpu coBop- 

maEOTCA, AOBOJIbCTBOBaTbCfi OAHOK) HHnieK) Cb hhmh? H T. A- BCA- 

Raro y?HTeji£, npHCTaBHHRa, HaAsepaTejiH naAO ceaCAHTb o6ctoh- 
TeJibHOH) HHCTpyRi](ieK), ROTopyK) OTb BpeneHii ao BpeneHH aohoju- 

HATb H B-b COBepmenCTBO npHBOAHXb. 

PjiaBa IX — tOnurb o HaciaBJieHiH h o6yHeHiB» — HMitorbBi 

BBAy y^HTeJie&HnpHCTaBHHROB'bH flBJIHeTCfl RaR'b 6HRpaTRHMl A^fl 

HHxi HacTaBjiemeiii Kb o6yHeHiK) A^xefi h yRasaHleii'b yAo6H'6ft- 
mnxi Ri TOMy cnoco6oBi. 3a rMBHoe a^o npHSHarb RorAa jsjirR 
apHAyrb bi Bospacrb h paacyAORi, cociaBJiJiTb bi HHrb xopomia 
MHCJiH H cepAUa, Bnep^Tb GJiarie Hpasu, noRasbiBaxb a^ia axoro 
xopomifi npHMipi, BRopennxb npHB&i^Ry noBHHOBaxbCH h 6uxb s'b 
xpyAax^, He nyBCXBya cRyRH b rpycxn. 

HsBtcxHo, Hxo BC^ROHy qejiOB^Ry bI) oen^ecxsi aojurho SHaxb 
BCK) cBJiy H Bce npocxpancxBo ^suRa CBoero oxe^ecxBa. Besi* cero 
HOSHaHk He 6yAexi> pasyn^xb opaBi» yjno^Reni^ h saROHOBi, HSAa- 
BaeMbixi OTb MonapxoBi, He uoTRevb Bcxynaxb wb ofiflsaxejibCXBO, 
AoroBopbi H npoH. flpHHOCHBix'b A'i^xeft Heo6xoAHMO yqflxb asuRy h 
HHCbBiy ynoxpefinxejibHOMy; hmi naAO anaxb xott> ashr^, RoxopHirb 
nojibsyioxca orb npHpoAH. 

HyacHO neoCxoAHiiO pasyM'lxb bmi na BHOcxpannux'b asuRaxi> 
RHHFB, 6yAyn^eMy sBaniK) hxi* npajiBHHUfl. Cnixa Aocxofinuft uu 
npHCBOHJiB o6Biqafl y^BXb A'^TOft wb niROJiax'b rpanoxt no RHBraui 
na asuRi h GyRsaxi cjiaBaHCKBX'b b npoBoacAaxb bi> ceMi yqeniH 
no Hi^cROJibRo Jiirb. IlaRH noBxop^io: Bci cm HacxaBJieniH 6e3no- 
jiesHU, RorAa npHCxaBHBRH caHB He OKaacyxi npBM'IpoB'b bchoji* 
nenia Hecxnocxiio, CKpoMHOcxiio, xpesBOCxiK), RpoxocxiK). Bi nvb 
oco6t n B-b Bx-b nocxynKaxi npeACxaBJiaiOTCA nnxoMi^aMi Bcb Hpa- 

BOy^BXeJIbHUfl RHBrH. 

Bi saRJiioHeniH bi vjihBi X HSJiaraioxca: Onuxu o cno- 
co6i^ co^iBHOHia na oCuRHOBeHHoicb nameM'b asHKi 



— 141 — 

EpaTROft HpaBOyHHTeJIBHOfi RBHFH Ji,JlB nHTOMAOBl, 
Fb HCM^ BCfl BajRHOCTb 067HeHiH COCTOHrS. 

no cjiOBaifB Beiucaro, o6ii^ecTBO JiioAefi A^ficTByen 6ojrke otl 
noApa^amH, neseJiH pascyacAenia h cpaBHeHift yMCTBeHHBixB; aca- 
Kift nojiaraeTca na oaho to yTBopAHxejibHoe npaanJio, Koxopoe hs- 
vkjiflji'h H npHsaaji'B ceC*! sa nojiesHiflmee. SI mhofo oiBaaKHBaiocB 
KOFAa coHHHHTejuK) TaRoft RHHJRRH HaiiipeHi noRasaTB, ht6 Bl Hefl 
AOJisHO saRJiiOHaTBca ji^a nojibsu A'^xeft orb 8-mh ao 15 th jtIt* 
Hflro Bospacxa. HMeHHo: 1) HyjRHo, ^toO'b ohh hm^jih noHaiie o 
Sort, cyiuecTBi HeBtAOMOHi h BceMorymeii'b GosAaxejii h XpaHH- 
xejrfa Bcero, tto BHAHifb h Hero He bhahmi, hxo6u anenaxjitjiocb 6u 
BT> Hx-b cepAKa, HTO Oh^ hcxo^hhr-b Bcbn fijiarb, Roxopua ^ya- 
cxByoMi), BRymaeMT), bhahbci bo BCARoe apeMfl jrhshh aameft; 
2) 1X0 aaifb aohsho crojibro uotrbo noApaacaxb ceny BceBuaiHeMy 
CymecxBy; 3) noHHxaxb Ero, MOJinxb, 6jiaroAapHXb sa eHOMEHyx- 
Hbia 6jiaroAbaHia; 4) bo Bctx'b MOJinxBaxi npocHXb, hxo6u Aapo- 
Ban-b Ham Rpbnocxb x^JiecHyio h 6oApocTi», Aa ne 0CJia6ieMi bb 
TpyAaxi> H Aa Heecxon^axca HaniH chjiu; 5) neodxoAHMO BRopennxb 
wb cepAaa nBTOMueBi, hxo Ao6poA'6xejib ecxb ho hhoo ^ito, RaRii 
noJiesHua n nplaxHHH A^a, XBopHMua naMH m^ coGh ca&iHxi h 
AJia 6JiH»Haro ex fijiaronpeciofiHOCxiK) h bi HcnoJiHemH aaRona; 
BHymaxb Eifb, hxo npoAOJimaK)n;iAca oxi yxpa ao aeiepa mojihxbu 
He saRJiioqaioxB vb ce6i en^e Buconaftmeft Ao6poAtxeJiH h ne a%- 
jiaioxi nacb 6oroyroAHHMEr, ho hxo Cesi ]ip6puxT> jsibjiii b 6e9i> 
noxBajabHUxi ynpasHealft — Bce 6e3nojie3Ho, HaBnane eaceJiH ne- 
npaBAa, nexepni^Hle nropAOCXb o6jiaAaiox^ cepAAaMB b 
pasyMOBfb HamHM'b. HyjRA^ nuixb FocyAapa — ecxb caMaa 6ojibmaa 
H BajRHlfimaa. Besi ero 3aR0H0B^, 6e3^ ero noneiemfi, Sesi ero 
XOuocxpoBxeJibcxsa, fiesi ero npasocyAia BCxpe6BJiB 6h Hacb ne- 
npiaxejiB HamB, pacxepsaJiB 6u iBRie saipB bt> acBJiBii^axi na- 
mBxi, He 6ujio 6bi y nacb cboGoahuxi Aopon>, hb seiaeA^Jiia, 
HBHce ApyrBxi* xyAOHcecxBi, jrb3hb qejiOB^^ecRofl noxpeGnux'b, ue 
CHBxaa MHoacecTBa auroA'b, rohmb uojObsyeMca b 6e3% Roxopux^ 6fii 
acBTb He MOrJIB. 

^ojiKHO BHymaxb nBXOMEiau^; ixo RamAufi oco6jibbo b mu bc% 
BOo6n;e npBHBMaeM'b yqacxie bi sjiORJiioHeHiB, oxt> Roxoparo cxpa- 
^yxi> fijiBXHie HamB cociAB B eABHoseMAu, He Menbrne 2Re b bi» xomi 
HeciacxiB, Roxopowy lyacia rocyAapcxea noABepraioxca ott» noxona- 
uopoBaro noaixpia, noxapa b x. a. 

PasyMtxb BMB AOJiacBO, hxo mm o6fl3aHbi nouoraxb b no7 



— 142 — 

npHHocHTB Apys^^Mi) HamHiTB, corpsuRAaHatti, eAHHOsoHqaHi; n6o 
CO BC%MH nocTynaTb HaAo6HO KaRi) ci 6paTb»MEr. 

BeitKOfi aocji'b aroro, bi BHAi npHfifbpa h a^a 66jii>maro hsx- 

:iCHeHiH CBOEXl MUCJieft, npHBOAHT'B Hi^CKOJIBRO BOnpOCOBl Cb OTB^- 

TaMH na ebxi, ROTopue aoji^hu coAepacaTbca, no ero MHimio, 
Bi>'3T0ft KpaTROft, HpaBoyHHieJiBffofi rhhfI JS,JLH nHTOHaeB'B. 

Bi> rjiaB^ XI HaKasaHmii BeAROfl: en^e pasi nacTaHBaerB 

Ha TOlfb, HTO Bl paSJIHHHBIfl AO^^HOCTH nO BOCnBiaTeJILHOMy AOHy 

AOJiHCHO BBi6HpaTB JiioAeft RpoTRaro HpaBa, oSxoAHTanbHux'b, mojio- 
Auxi, HO en^e My^eciBenHfiixi JikTh. Ecjih cb MJiaAenqeciBa no- 
CTynaib ci A'&TbMH RaR^ ysaROHOHO, to ecTb naAeacAa, hto naRa- 
sanlH 6yAyTi> p^akh h SesnoJiesHu. Eahhosau naBcerAa bbocte 
wb cefl ^OMT> HenoABH^KHbift saROHi) H CTporo yTBepAHTb 
HHRorAa H HB sa hto ho 6htb A'^Teft, h6o He yAapu bi 
yacacB opHBOA^rB, ho cipaxi yKHo:RaeTca bi hhx^ otb p^akocth 
HaRasaHiH^ qxo ecTB canoe A'^ficTBHteJiBHoe cpeACiBo rt» hxx 
HcnpaBJieHiK), a^ h u(P^mjsKi AORasano, hto 6HTb A'^ieft, rposBTb 
HLWh H 6paHHTb, xoT^ H npHiHHU R^ TOMy 6HBaiorB, ecTB cyn^e- 

CTBOHHOe 3JI0. KpOH^ TOFO, dTO npOHSBOAHTB nepeM^Hy Wb HXl 
SAOpOBBH; OHH CTaHOBHTCH MCTHTOJIBHU, npHTBOpHH, oGMaHH^BRH, 
yrpiOHBT, HeqyBCTBBTeJIBHH. 

B'B saRJHOHeniB BeaRoS BUCRasBiBaerB, ito bchrIA, npBHBMaH)- 
n^ifl cjiy^6y B'B ceMi> o6n^ecTB]^, B'B KaROifB 6u to sBanin hh Gujio, 
AOJi^eni no Rpaftnefi M'&p'l crjuohhoctb hm^Itb ri Ha6jiK)AeHiK) no- 
Bejii^nift, ORasuBaTB no^Tenie h 6b]tb 6jraroHpaBHbiMi. EjReJiB xotb 
TpH ciH Ao6poAtTejiH He 6yAyrB b-b bbxi npeBOCxoAHbi, Bci nacTa- 
BJieniH, Bct ycTaBM b Bct ysaROHema, icaRia 6u hh cA'i^aHH 6ujih 
B'B noJiBsy ceMy Aony, 6y jsyt'b CesnoJiesHu, Goscejibhu h neA'i^fi- 
CTBHTejiBHH; cJitAOBaTejibHO, Ha Bce, hto HH yqpeacAaeTCfl — TpyA^ 
H Bpena TmeTHO ynoTpefiaTCB (b3i tji. XII ROHei^T>). 

XoT« BO' Bcix'b BBinienHcaHHHXi npHMiqaHiaX'b, roBopHTX 
BeuRofl B^ 3aRjiK)qeHie, MHoroRpaxno BS'BHCHeno, "iio cana^ bo- 
JiBRaa npB cein* saBeAenm BaacnocTB coctobtb Boo6n^e B'B bochb- 
xaniB B npiyroTOBJieHiB raRBxi hoaaslhhbixi, rob Oie^iecTBy 6ki no- 
jiesHH Cbijib ynpaxcHenieM'B B'B xyAOHcecTBaxi h peuecjiax7>; ho 

RaRT* A*JIO COCTOBrB B'B npOBSBeAeHJB HOBBTX-B JIIOAeft; TO AOJIHCHO 

BeJiBRoe ynoTpe6BTB BBBHanie, ne nafiAyTca jib MencAy A'^tbmb 
o6oero nojia, BMtion^ia npoHBqaTOJiBHBitt pa3yM^, oxM^HHoe no- 
HATie, B He npoA'BHBJiflioTi JIB ce6fl cnocoGHUMB BnpoAB k'b BCRyc- 

CTBaM^, BOBCe OTJIHTOHMl OT'B TOFO SBaHifl, Kb ROTOpOMy Ha3Ha- 



— 143 — 

HaiOTCJi. BejuiKoe, CKasiiBaiOy ynoxpeGjiflTB BHEMame, hto6i cero 
HHKorAa He ynycTHiB; ho BctHH oGpasu cnocoGcTBosaTB TaROBuirb, 
oco6eBHuirb on ecTOCTBa A^poBamHM'B, jublGh npoHSBOCTQ h 
npeBoczoAHuxi juiOAefl no npesocxoACTBy pasytfa 
Hxi H RanecTBa. 

Bi AODOJineHle csasaHHaro o6i y^pexxeHlH BOcnHTaTejsBHaro 
AOMa Bi MocKBi ynoMflHeirb o Apyroirb TaicoM'b ace aom%, ynpeac- 
xeHHOHi BeiQCHiTB Bi IleTepCyprii ^) h npecjAAOBaBmeici ri ace 
caMUH i^H ^). Bi 1770 r. BeD[Rofl, bo Hcno^neHie HsycTnaro 
noBeJitHifl Efl BejoiHecTBa, KBKh roBopHTOi bi» ero AORJiast ^), 
apeACTaBjuun o6i y^peacAeme bi neTep6yprl ji,Jia npHHOCHHuxi 
HecHacTHO-pojRxeHBUxi ujiBAeHAeBii oco6aro AOMa, ajia ROToparo 
sa cDoco6Hoe HaxoAHJii MicTo no 6epery piRH Hesu, ht6 opexAe 
HMenoBajicfl CMOJibHufi sanacHuft ABopi, npHHaAJieacaBmee, ho 
HUHt HenaAofiHoe, ri> BocRpecencROMy HoBOA'iBH^beMy MonacTupio. 
HMnepaTpHi^a ERaiepHna U yTsepAHJia aro npoACTaBJienie Bei^Karo, 
HanHcaBi na ^ORJiaA^ cGuib no ceiiy, a aa Ao6poe HaHHsaHie 
5.000 py6jieft BoabMHie h31 KafiEHexaii^. diorb aomi OTRpurb na 
A^Jri vb 1870 roAy 2 orta6ph ^) b, RaRi npeACTaBJi^Bmifi co6ok) 
«OTAtjiaK)n^yK)Cfl nacTiio Aona bi MocRB'i», nepBona- 
MajibHo HaatiBaJicfl «C.'neTep6yprcRoe OTAtjienie HHnepaiopcRaro 
BocnHTaTOJibHaro AOMa», ch B^ OHOirb 6biTb sacbA&HlH Ha ocHOBa- 
HiH yqHHeHHaro npeAnHcaniH, a TaRSRO 6uTb AHp^RTOpy, BiftcTO 



*) Hsib cJtxyK)ii;aro nncbMa UiinepaTpHUfii bi CaiTUKOBy oti 24 okt. 
1763 r. (cT. 21), bdahO; ^to yxe bi 1763 r. npeAOOjarajocb yipexnTS xoxi 
XJfl npEHOCHuz'B A'^Teft B-B IleTep^yprb. Oea uHmers GajTHBOBy: „HOBaro 
HH^ero HiTi, spoMi nptcJOseHufi iuctl. Moorie, Kasi hsi Toro ysDAHTe, 
CBoeBOiBBO croBopHiRci» 611 attendant que la maison des enfants 
trouv6js soit ouverte de nourrir quelqu'uns. Strogonoff a regu 
deox et la comtesse Bruce— an; mandez moi si cbez voos il y a des bonnes 
ftmes qni en font antant Oau set bsajih no OAHOny h no Asa, a Hsue h 6o- 
I'be*'.— 8th cioBa ysasuBaDT'b, ^to h lo yHpexAeaiJi BocnHTaTejbHaro ^osia 
poAHTejH noKBjiajH A'^xeft cbohxi ea npoHssoii cyAB6u h yipesAeaie boc- 
nHTaiejiBHaro AOMa Bb neTep6yprb BusbiBaiocb ueo6xoAB]focTiK> cuacarb 
JuaxenoieBi, noROAaeMux'b hxi poABieiJiMii. 

*) Enie Bi 1763 r. BeiiKofi npexnoiaraji'b nojij> b^aomctbomi Mockob- 
CBaro BOCQRTaTeJbnaro xoMa yqpeAUTb bi neTepCypr-ib, aia npHBaTifl x boc- 
OBTaBia MJaiieHueB'B, oco6bift aohi, hbii xomparo, no npomecTBiH 2—3 2±Th 
H 6oji^e, wh MocBOBCBift OTBeseHu Cyiyrb; uoao6ho TOMy BaBi> ycTpaHsaiHCb 
BO MHoraxi ropoxaxi AOHa ajia npHsptHia MjaAeui^eBi. Bi „OnHcaHiB Cto- 
jiM^Haro ropo^a C.-neTep6ypra", 1794 r., Py6aHa (q. I, cip. 118), ynoMH- 
HaeTCfl nocTpoeniH uoajl^ CMOJbBaro uoHacTsipA bi 1767 ro^y AOMa mn 
npHHOCHMUxx xtreft. (Cm. 'raBSse MonorpajiiR y^pexAenift BtAOHCXBa Hun. 
MapiH, cip. 203—206). 

"^ Cif. n. C. 3aK. 1770 r. Mapia 15, J^ 13429. 
TaMi se, ceHTfl6pfl 6, ^ 13862. . 



? 



— 144 — 

rjiaBHaro HaASBpaxejifl. Jlj'kia »e BOcnHTaiejiifflaro Aoiia, AenexHyio 
KasHy, Ben^H h npoH., 6uBmiA y rJnaBuaro noneiHieJifl nepexaTB 
OneKyHCKOMy CoBiiy* ^). 

IIpaBa H o6fl3aHHocTE CHx-b jiHi^i 6ujiii coBepmeHBO oxHea- 

KOBH CI laROBUMH B^ MOCROBCROM'B JXfiWk. 

GKOpo sHa^HTOJibHoe nocTynjieHie HJiaA^HqeBi, a tbkjrq ho co- 
Bckwb yAo6Hoe MtCTOHaxoaKAGHie noMtmeHia no6yAHJH Bei^Raro 
xoAaTaficTBOBBTb ApyroMi AJiH ^oiia s^aHifl, HMDeparpHiia Esa- 
lepBHa II, KaKi> bhaho hb'b npHJiaraenaro vEasa 20 Mapia 1778 r. 
(cii. npHJiosceHie J^ 2), npoAOCTaBBJia Ha aiOTi* npeAMetB aomi 
KHB8H rpysHHCRaro, noxpeCoBaBmift ne najio HcnpaBJieHift ^). Ca- 
Mufi 3Re AOMi, Ha 6epery Hobbi y GMOJiBHaro, lorAa se 6ujrb npo- 
AaHi B-B BtA^bHie Kallep^-RoHTopBI sa 30.000 p., RaRi HyjRHuft 
AJiB MarasHHOBx Bi^AOMCiBa RaaeHHOfl IlajiaTBi bi 1780 r. '). Ho 
HeMHoro pante, B^ 1779 r., ci yHpe^RAemeici bi C.-IIeTepSyprt 
GcyAHOft H GoxpaHHoft RasHH, noMtn^eHie h b'b aom% FpysHHCRaro 
ORasajiocb H6yAo6HUMb h MajiBiirb. 3to no6yAHJio nepeBecTH boc- 
EHTaTeJibHuft AOiib Bi 1782 roAy bi aomi rpa(|)a PasyifOBCRaro, 
npaqeBfii laRjRe xpeSoBajiHCb 6oJibiniA pa6oTH Ha HcnpaBjieHie h 
npHcnoco6jieHie Aona ^). 

G.-IIeTep6yprcRoe OxA'bJieHie BocnHTaxeJibHaro AOMa, aojisho 

OUJIO HM^Tb nOCTOHHHUH CHOmeHifl Cb MOCROBCRHHI OneRyHCRHMl> 
GoBiTOMl) H COCTOATb OOA'b BFO B^AOMCTBOlTb. Ho ySO B'b 1780 T. 

17 0RTA6pfl, rjiaBEufl none^HTeJib nBcajnb ^cB^noHTeHHuft^ G.-IIe 
Tep6yprcRift OneRyecRia GoB^Tb: ^RaRT* npejKHee EMeHOBaHie 
G.-IIeTepSyprcRaro OiA'^JieHk sactAaHin Bb sarjiaBiH HOBaro saKo- 
HOQOJioxeHifl oniB6ROEO HaHHcaHO, noTOMy ^to OHoe no ypaBHOHiio 
cero Micra c^b Mocrobcrhm^ ynce He Mo^exb 6£ixb npHJ[H?ecxByK>« 



*) Cm. JKypn. neTep6. BocnRT. AoMa 1771 r. AeKa6pH 28. 

•) Cm. TaM-b ae, 1778 r. Mapra 10, J^fe 107, Tanxe A*ia IleT. OneK. Cob. 
CMSsa J\« 3, Aiio J^ 317 a no CupoTCS. Khctht., on. 23, ^ 40. 

Cm. A-kio CepoT. Hbct. on. 23, A« 69 u neTep6. OiieK. OoBira cb. 5. 
jL. ]^ 530. 

*) Cm. atypB. lIeTep6. OneK. Cob. 1779 r., ^tio JVs 7. 

AoMi se no 5ojiBnioft MHuioHHofi, npoTHBi MpaMopearo ^Bopi^a, 6uib 
CAaHi no onHCH X-Fb. Upeo6pa»eHCRaro uoisa RBapTupMeftcxepy 8117981. 
aBrycra 11 h no dTofi c^aqi nponczoABia nepenscKa eni^e B'B L801 r. (Cm. 
A. Cnp. Hhct. on. 23, J^ 61. 

AoMi PaayMOBCsaro, 6iiBniift AapeBSHHi ;iBopem, naxoxBBuiiftcA na 
MHiJiioHBoft H RpacHOfi yjunaxi^ ojihb'b AOMa rbbsa FpysBHcsaro, 6um% 
npoAasi B'b KOHA-b 1780 ro^a BeiiROMy sa 250.000 py6. jiib BocnRTaTeiBnaro 
AOMa, noieTHUMi onesynoMi Koxoparo nncjiBicii A. F. PasyMOBCsiH. (Cm. 
coMeficxBo PasyMOBCRHX'B— A. BacBJiBiBKOBa, X. I, cxp. 368). 



— 145 — 

wjuwb H AJiji Toro liiAeTb h C.-neTep6yprcRoe saciA^Hie snpeAB 
HasuBaTBCfl C.-neTepGyprcKHifB OneRyHCRHMi CoBiTOMT»». Geflsb 

Cl MOCROBCKHMI AOMOMl OAHaRO HO AOJI^Ha 6ujia npepUBETBCH, 

RaR^ BHAHO H31 CJitAyion^xii cjioBT> E^iXRaro: fSAikmHift aomi hjih 

MoCROBCRift HH HTO HHOO, RaRl OAHH^ H TOTB SRQ H SAllDHee SaBC- 

Aenie ee hhoo, RaRi MocROBCRoe-JRe, to' hh TaMomHOMy, hh ^jijkm- 
Heny ce6a Apy^b orb xpyv^^ ^wb 6h to hh 6hiJio oTA^JiATb ho 
HaAJiexHTb, a noTOMy oGobmi CoBlTairb, noiHra^ ceCn eARBHifb 
TIpaBJieHieM-b OAHoro BocnHTaTOJibHaro AOMa, ho TOJibRo oapeA%- 
jieHHbiH OTb Efl HMnepaTopcRaro BejiH^ecTBa h Ero HmnepaTop- 
CRaro Buco^ecTBa cyMMH, ho h bcarIb aojihcho no^BTaTb paBHO h 
He OTA^JieHHO BOoOnie npHHaAJie^an^HMH h ROTopoMy irlcTy otii 
Apyroro, HsoCHJibCTByiomaro b^ cnoco6ax'b, Hy«HO CyAerb sanM- 
CTBOBaTb noMon^b, MocROBCRony-Jib oti neTep6yprcRaro, hjih Ile- 
Tep6yprcR0My orb MocROBCRaro, RascAoe bi TaROMi> cjiyia']^ na 
cyMMbi Apyraro, rbrt* na co6cTBeHHbifl, BBi'leTi npaBo, b nojiy^iaerb 
Ha ynoTpefijieme ohuxi wh nojibsy JIjOMa HenpeKOCJiOBHoe corjia- 
cie, Bi. cooTBiTCTBie Toro eAHHOAyniHaro ycepAii^, ROTopoe AOJiacno 
o6a CoBiTa ycTpoMJuiTb — «noHHTaTb oC*! hojiobbhu BBipennaro 

BMl* BOCOBTaTeJUbHarO AOMa eABBbTMli T&HOlTb, OAyniBBJIHeBfHM^ 

oahhmh b riMH sue yRasarnHMB h npeAuoTaMB nojibsi)* ^). 

dra Ticnafl CB^sb odoBXi BocnBTaiejibnux^ aomobi h no- 
6y2CAaeTb nacb CRasaTb o A^bHTeJibnocTB h BJiiflHiB Bei^Karo na 
y^pe:RAeHHue mwh o6a AOMa nepasA'l^JibHo, TaRii RaR^ o6a AOMa 

AOJI^Hbl GblJIH BM^Tb OAHy A^JIb, Kb BOSMOJRHOMy OCyHJ^eCTBJieHiK) 

ROTopoft H HanpaBjieno 6biJio Bce safioTJiBBoe noneieHie BeitRaro. 

OcTanoBBMCfl npeasAe Bcero na yMpeacAeHin, rotophmx onpe- 
A'^.iHJiacb A'^TejibHOCTb BeARaro no C08AaHH0My hhi BocnBTaTCJib- 
HOMy AOMy. 

BepxoBHyio BJiacTb npaBJieniH no BOcnBTaTejibHUM^ AOMani, 
RaK^ B-b MocRBi, TaRi h bi neiepCyprt, BMtioT'b oneRyncRie co- 
B%TH, cocTOfln;ie RaxA^A bsi mecTH sHaTHUxi nepconi, noJiy^BB- 
niHX'b HasBaHle oneRyHOR'b, B'b miCJii ROTopuxx no OAHOMy 
o6epT»-AHpeRTopy. 

OneRyHCRift CoBiT^ HMteTi pimBTb ^) Bct A^Jia BOcnHTaTejib- 
Haro AOMa; eny nopyioHO npaBJienie HaAT> bc^hh BOcnHTaTejibHUMH 
AOMaMH, cocTOHBHiBMB HenocpeACTBOHHo HOA^b BucoHafimBMi noRpo- 



*) Cm. MoHorpa<t)iH y^pesKA. B-Ia- Hmh. Mapin. HpHJoaeHie, CTp. 206. 

H.H. BEI^KOff. 10 



— 146 — 

BHTeJibCTBOifb HnnepaTpHi^u h He saBHCHBmiiMn rh on KaRHX'b 
npaBBxejiBCTB'B. FjiaBHiftmee a'^o CoB^ia OHuft jiflM.% bo Bcixi 
njsuK^Tb san^H^aTB b xoAaTaflCTBOirb cbohmi no bo^uosrhocth 
cnoco6cTBOBaTb no A'^JnaMi jlo BocnHTaxejibHaro AOMa Racaion^HMCfl. 
EcJin JKO cTapaeie hxi vjijb 6yAerb neA'i^ftCTBHTejiBHO, to npeA- 
CTaBJiflTL rjiaBHOMy noneiHTejno, js,jlr AORJiaAa o toitb Eh Bejrane- 

CTBV. 

3aM%THBi» Hapymenie npHBHJierifi cero Aona, KaRoe 6h he 
6ujio, CoB^Tx 6esi BCARaro lieAJieHia aoji^bh'b yniAOMJiHTB o toitb 
rjiaBHaro none^iHTeJifl ^). FjiasHnfi noneiHTejiB (xaROBuirB 6bijii Beur 
RofiAO 1792 roAa) flBJifljicfl TOJiBRO nepBUM^ xoAaTaeiTB sa coxpane- 
Hie cero saBeAemH, nopy^ienHaro nocii MOHapmaro, ero GiiaroTBO- 
pHTejiBHOBcy noRpoBHTejiBCTBy, H CTapaK)^^ficfl o nojiBsaxB 
AOMa. Oei MorB no CBoeny ycHOTpiniio sac^AStTB b'b cofipaHie 
OneRyHCRaro CoB'i^xa, ho hh o h ^^ he CoBixi ne nifijiE BJiacTs 
A'iJiaTB nepefiflHu bb ycTanoBJieHiHX'B ^), a tojibko cxapajiECB, ^to6i 
Ecnojineme ohbixi 6e3'B EsiariH n neapepuBHO Te^enie Hirfijio bi> 
CEJiy nJiana. 

TaREMi) o6pa30irB na ocHOBamH BBicoHaftaie yTBepscAen- 
Haro njiana Bce no BOcnHxaxeJiBHOMy AOMy saBHclJio otb OneRyn- 
CRaro CoBiia, ROTopHft BOBce ne eujix noAiEHeni rjiaBHOMy no- 
neHETejiK). CeA nocji^AniB abjiajich noKpoBETOJieM'B Aona h tojibro, 
npoACxaBJiHJi'B Efl Bejin^ecxBy no A'^'Iisimi, Racaion^EMCH aToro Aona, 
a TaRHce jijkjiBJVb oj-b ce6H pasHBiH npeAJioxenin CoBiiy, RoxopHft, 

RaKl BEAHO ESI) MHOPHXl JRypHaJIOBl, COB'bo^aJI&a CB HEMX. Bei^- 

ROft ciporo co6jiK)Aajii bth OTHomeHi^, e kbkl bhaho hsi MHoxe- 
CTBa jijbji'b HERorAa ne Astnajii npeAnncaHifi hjie n p e r a s a- 
hIe CoBiTy, HO CBOE npeAHOJioxeHiA ejie HaMipema BcerAa 
npeAJiarajn na oScyjKAenie, RaRi oni nncajii, noHTenHaro 
CoBtxa, npeAOCTaBJiflH Bnojint ycMOTptmio GoniTa, ORonqaTOJiB- 
Hoe pimenie Bonpoca cjrlAy^^ ^^ npEHflXB npeAJio^OHie rJiaBnaro 
noneqEiejiA ejhi ntxi. 

TiMi He neH^e He tojibro ABEraxeJieH'B, ho e pyROBOAH- I 
TeJieu^ Bcero cjiosnaro e TpyAnaro fi,iji^ no BOcnETanlH) A^xeft 



•■! 



Gtf. renep. nian'B, ?. II; n. I, § 8, ct. 2. 

TaMi se, § 9. dro Mono nocilj^osaTB toibko cb pasptmeHiH reHe* 
pajBHaro coCpanin. EOTopoe co6HpaiocB Bcero ABa pasa bb toab. 3aHtTBifB, 
HTO coaiTB, BM'bc'rB c% naBHUMB none<rHTeieHB, xoischb Chjb cocTaanTB 
BHCTpyKuiio BcbifB ciys&aoiHMB BB AOHt, Ha^iioaii CB rjaBHaro HaxsHpaTeiii 
H onpe^tiHTB BcfeMB Ha^-iesaiAee saiOBaoBe. 



— 147 — 
^BJiJieTCfl BeAROfl, y^Re bi CHjiy Toro oGcTOHiejiBCTBa, hto h81> 

HRCJia JIHAly npHSBaHHUXl 6UTB BO TM^ OUdiTO, C^ yCTpO&CTBOM'B 

BocnHTaxejiBHaro Aona, ecjm h ho no leopin, no KnnraMB, to na 

gCijit, JlBJUiJICH 06CT0JiT6JIBH0 SnaKOMUlTB OAHHB Bei^ROft, BHA'^Bmift 

noAo6Hiie aohbi sa rpaHHi^eK). IIo npaficipy TasoBBiXB, bb oco- 
^enHOCTH no oGpasiQr jrioncKaro Aona, BeitKofi cipeMEJicH ynpe- 
jfub BocnHTaTOJiBHHft AOMi BB HameifB ore^ecTBi. JIflAa Hce, na- 
^Evnmusi oneRynauH, ne tojibro TaROBBixB aohobb HEKorxa ho 
BEAsuiH, BO 6ABa jiH H HH'&iiH flCHOO HHXB npoACTaBJieHie, a 
BCJrkACTBlH aToco, BecBMa eciecTBeeHO, o6pan](ajiHCB icb Bei^KOMy sa 
yRasaniflMH no MHonmrB BonpocaMi, BOSHBRaioniHtfB bb ne najiOM-B 
^HCJit npH KaacAOMi hobomb yHpe«A6HiH BooCn^e, a t^mb 6oj[ie 
npn ycTpoflcTBi TaRoro cjiosHaro ji^Ji^ RaRB cnacenie MJiaAeniJ^a 
OTB BensC^JKHofi CMopTH H A^Bstftmee ero BOcnnTaoie. 

AomeAmifl ao nacB^ xoth h h6 anojini tbrb HasuBaeMHfl 
A'bJiaBejQRaroH: nepenncRa ero sa MHorie roAU cb oneRynaMn, 
coxpaHHBmaflCfl noAB HMeneHB «nHCBBia BeiiRaro ^), h niicbHa 
rjiaBHaro none^HTOJiA » , a BJiflHCBnoJiHUMBnoATBepxAenieiii tojibro- 
HTO CRasaHHaro naBin, Bsiicrl cb r6Hi pacRpuBaiOTB naMB Tt 
BsrjiflAu H CTpeMJieHia, ROTopuuH pyKOBOAHJicH BeoRoft npn 
ycTpoicTBi BOcnnraTeJiBHaro AOMa. 

3x0 no6yacAaerB nacB noApo6H'le osnaROBiiiTB HHiaTeJieft cb 
3THMH nncbHaira, hsjio^hbb hxi oAHOBpeMenao cb RpaxRHMi onep- 
ROici» HCTopHiecKaro pasBHTia RaRB BOcaHTaxejiBHaro AOMa, TaRi n 
Apyraxi 6BiBniHxi> npn neifB ynpescAeHifi. 

BocnHTaTejiBHufi aomb, cocToa CesnocpeACTBenHO bb BHConaft- 
mcft Eh H^nepaTopcRaro BeJiH<iecTBa npoTeRam, HHRaicony MtcTy 



') Osna^eoHUA nHCBsia u stja xpaHHTCA bb apxHst Ero Hun. Bej. 
KaeueiflpiH no yqpesAeaiflMB Run. MapiH, ta^ a h noibaoBaica umh, a 
paBHO H APyruMu AijaHu apxHsa, npa iBodesHOMi coA'i&ftcTBia r. HaqairBHtiKa 
OHaro r. E. G. lUyMHropcsaro, ROTopoMy n ciuTaiD cbooeo o5ji3aHHOCTiK) 
BupasHTB sa 9T0 HcspeaaioK^ uok) npQSsaTejBHOCiB. Gcujaacb bi AaaBHifi- 
meHi nsiozeaiEi ea btb nncBira h 6yMarH, a A^n KpaTKOCTB 03Ha<iHiT> A'i^ia 
BeAsaro 6yKBaMn A- B., a ero nepenacKy n. B., ho yBasBieafl yae, hto ohh 
xpaaaTca bi Bume nasBanHOicb apxaet. Ho Kpout sroro bi osua^eHuoifB 
apxuBi xpaHHTCA pAA'B K^sh B-b cBflSRaxi noAB J^^ oaarjaBieBHUxi Tasxe 
xiia Bei^Raro no cucTeMaiH^ecKofi onDCii. TaKOBux'B cbasor'b sa BpeMH 
naBHaro saB^AUBaHiA aomohi BenKHHi. Hac^uTUHaeTca ao 11, B:b Koropuxi* 
3aiuE)'iaeTCA 6ojte tucahh a'^^b. Ccujiaflcb aa stotl poa'b Aiii'B a o6o8aa- 
Hal's Jy& ceasKa a J^ A'^ia, yKaaaaB, hto sto a'^-ia Beqaaro. Bb tomi se 
apxasi nakexca ewfi atcsoiBso a'^ji'b no ascnoAuaia aapTOtiaaro cCiopa^ 
no CnpoTCKOny aacTBTyTy, no AGpeBcacaofi SRcneAaaiu, no aapTOHaoft 
3KcneABAiB a t. a-i na ROTopue Maoio Tause CAiiaau ccfiiKn b^ noA^esLa- 

* 



— 148 - 
He no^t^HHBH'b H OTqeTa Aaib He juoJiiRewb, roBopHTCH vb reHepuB- 

HOMl HJiaH* ^). 

droTb AOMi nojiaaewb 6ujn> coAepnaTBC^ otb ffofipoxoTHUz'b 
HOAaflHift, HjnB, RaRi Bupaaceno b7> MaHH^ecxi 1 cenr. 1763 roxa, 
o6ii;HU'b noAa^Hieifx; no cjiOBaiii xe BSB^n^eHLi cBarbA- 
maro npasHTejibCTByioii^aro CHHOAa 30 ABRaCp^ €Oti> eAHHaro 
n^eAparo noAafleia rbii, Koropue Bora a 6jiHXHBro hsi 
eBanrejiBCROft sanoBiAH Jiio6arB h o GjiarococroAHUi oienecTBa Bce- 
ycepAHO neRyTca». Usi rocyAapcTBeHHoft RasHu HHHero Heoxny- 
CRajiocB no coAepacaeiio Aona, ROTopuft y^pexwaJiCH na oahhoitb 
caMOBSBOJiBHOirb noAaanlH otb ny6JiHRE ^) h noroMy RaRB 9to 
roBopHJiH jiHAa, pascMaTpHBaBmifl npoABapBtejiBHO njanii Beipcaro, 
cee HOFB 62ITB HH wb Majiiftmee oraron^enie niTaTa Bamero BejTH- 
necTBa, HB2ce noAAaHHHirB BaniBin.» "). 

Bb 9towb HaHtpeniH ocHOBaTB a^o npHspima HecnacTHo* 
poxAOHHiix'B BO nacpeACTBa rocyAapcTBeHHOfl RasHH, a na n^OApiu 
HOAaflHk ny6jiBRB, ycTpoHB'B ero npn tomi TaRB, hto6u oho hhri- 
ROMy iiicTy He 6ujio noAHBHeno, neJiBsa ne beaibtb npoABJiema 
HanaJTB caMaro mnpoRaro caMoynpaajieHiH, Kb Roropoicy npHsii- 
BaJi'B 6ei(R0fl cospeMeHHoe eny ofin^ecTBO bi jjjbjfbj ropasAO noax- 
Hi^e, noqTH nepesi cto JiiiB, HMeHHO Cb BBeAenieM'B vb 1 864 ro^y 
seMCRHXB yqpejRA^Hifl, B03JioxeHHOin> caifHirB saROHOHi na o6mfi- 
CTBO, nocji* Toro, RaRi cb y^pejRAeHieicB o ry6epHiaxB 1775 r. *), 
Ai^jia o6n](ecTBeHHaro npHspi^niA bb ry6epHiHXB B^AAJincB hcrjiio- 
^HiejiBHO npaBBTOJiBCTBeHHUMB yHpe^eHiaiiH, TaRB flasuBaeuuHH* 
IIpHRasaMB o6n(ecTBeHHaro npBsp'i^HiH, neuocpeACTBeHHO TaR3Re 

SaBiA^BaBmBMH BOCnBTaTeJIbHUHH b cbpotcrbmh AOMaMH AO 

1864 roAa. Ho no njiaHy Bei^Raro caMoynpasjieHie HpeAOCxaBJiae- 



^) Gm. renep. niaHi, i. I, n. 6. 

') TaRoe yvpexAeHie AOMa BusBaio co cropoHH noiTOHHaro HCTopHsa 
C M. GojOB^ea cjiAyson^ee BaMiHaeie: .saTpyAHHTei&Hoe noJosoHie it»H- 
HancoBi sacTaBHJO ci oco6eBHUM'b yAOBOJBCTBienB npiHJiTB opoeKTi 
BeuKaro 061 ocHOBaaiu loira BOCUHTaTeiBuaro, KasB y^pesxeaiji, so- 
Topoe AoiXHO 611 JO coAepsaTLcji ea Ao6poxoTfliiA noxepTBOBaHiA**. 3to 
oqeBHAHO CBoero poxa lapsus linguae. Mucjb yBasaeMaro hctophba neco- 
MHiHHo Ta, HTO saTpyxHUTejBHoe uoioxeuie HamixB (i)HHaBCOB% ue noMt- 
majo npiBATL njaHi o6b ycTpofiCTBi aomb^ TasB Kasi* obb aoixcub 6uji 
coAepxaTscB na ao^poxotuha nosepTBOBaHiiiy a He na cpeACTBa sasBH. 
O^eBHAHO, qTO ynpesAeBie BocoBTaTeJBHaro Aona hhckoj&bo ae HsdaBiBio 
HamH 4)HHaHcu otl saTpyAHHTejbBaro noioxeBiB. (Cm. HcTopi£ PoccIh— 
up. M. C. GojoBseBa t. XXY, crp. 280). 

») n. C. 3. (nepBoe) 1763 r. >k 11908. 

*) n. 0. 3. (nepBoe) 1775 r. J^ 14392. 



— 149 — 

uoe, Bi xbji^ npHspifiifl A^ieft, o6ni;ecTBy 6ujio HecpaBneHHO 
oSmHpHie H HesaBHCHMie, HeaEceate npexociaBjieHHoe eny hbih6 
A'fcllCTByioiipirB noJioseHleiTB o seMCRHxi* yHpeacAeHinxi. B^ noA- 
TBepsAeHle axoro aobojibho jRasaTb Ha to^ hto no luiaHy Beipcaro 
X^o npHsptHifl A%T6ft He hoa^hhajhocb HHKaROMy M^ciy, 
Hero coBpeMeHHHxi Hain> seifCRHX'B y^pejEAeHiflxi yase HHRaKi> 
HejibSfl CRasaTB. 

CoBpeiceHHoe Bei^ROiiy oCqecTBO OTHocjiocb ri> ero yqpeagt^- 
fiiio He Cesy^acTHO. IIoATBepxAOHieM'b aioiiy uovyrb cJiy»HTb ne 
TOJiBRO H^OApufl HOsepTBOBaHiH CO CTopoHu oSo^ecTBa Ha nojiBsy 
AOMa, HO H y^pejRAema aomob'l npHspiniia Alixeft b% pasjiH^HUX'B 
JctcTaxi rocyAapcTBa nacTHuifH jiHi][auH ^). 

y^pesAeHie TaRoro poAa AOMOB'b HacTHHMH omaaiui BBjuuioch 
o^eBHAHO ocyn^ecTBJieHleMi na A^Ji'b npeAOCTaajieHHaro no rene* 
pajibHOMy njiany (^. I, rji. 2, §§ 1, 12) AOSBOJieniA nocTOpoH- 

HHM1>, XpnCT0JIK)6HBHin» JIIOAHtfl Bl pa3HbIX^ TOpOAaXl, no HOJIO- 

B%ROJiiH)6ifOy cuaceHifl paAH caoero, npHHHMaib h BocnHTUBaTB ao 
Hi^ROTopuxi Jiirb MJiaAOHaeBi, ocTaEieHHHX'b poAHTeJiflBiH; no 
AOCTHxeHlH 2Re AbTbifH AByxi n HO CBume hath jr&rb ophboshtb 
BX'b wb MocRBy. ynpeiRAenie laKoro poAa aomobi qacinbiMa jih- 
i^aMH, oOjierqaa BOcnBiaTejibHiiiii Aonain* bi MocrbI n IleTep- 
<}ypr6 Bii sHa^HiejibHOft wbpb BbiaojiHeme HaH6oJiie TpyAHoft A^a 



*) Tasi Hanp. usBicTaufi ry6epHaTopi CHBepcB ocHOBaii noAo6Bufi 
jkoUT* B-b HoaropoAi, cm. II. B. 1766 r. naA 25; BuieropcKii syneu-b ICkobi 
BamKaJOBi b'b r. Oioha']^ ch 1771 roAa, cm. Kbie^ Chpot. HHCTHtyTa 1772 r. 
JS 2; H n. B. OTB 1771 r. CTp. 121. IIoao6bue yipekAeHifl BoaHHiuuH: B'b 
EoHceficKi 00 AOHeceHiH npoBHHuiaibHofi KaniieiflpiH 1771 roxa; cm. a* 
C. n. B. AOMa 1771 r. h U. B. 1771 r. Majpia 8; bi OcxaniKOB* bi 1773 roAY; 
npH TopojtoBOMi MarHCTpaTt; cm. a^io C. II. OaeayH. cos. J^JM* 74 h 113: 
TaKse CBflSfca 7, ^ 762; bi Dp&eB-b noBOJibCKOMi KpecTbasHHi BacHiifi 
HerpoBi IIpjiMHioB^ yqpexHJTb laase aoxo6Huft xomi; cm. G. U. B. AOMa 
zypB. 1773 r., insa 4, H0A6pa 16; vb THZBHB'&'CBaiueHHHK'b npeo6paseH- 
CKoft iiepKBH; n. Boc. xom'l, jsypH. 1773, H0Ji6pa 20; B'b ropoA'b Kapro- 
coi* 1774 roAy; cm. C U. B. a- ayp. Mapia 6; Bb BtiosepcE* syneub 
MaBapoBi yqpexHJii Taxse AOM'b npHspteifl; cm. CL. B. orb 1775 r. reHs. 16; 
coTHHK'b $ej(opi KaHAH5a bi KieBcsoM'b HaMicxaH^ecTBi cb 1775 roAa 
OTKpiiJib Tasofi se aom7>; cm. A'^ia B. cbas. 10, J^ 951; nporoiepefi Tbmkob- 
csift, TaM'b se, J^ 950, bi cbocm^ HMtHin; bi BoiorA'b synei^'b BypcHHH'b 
J ce6fi Bi AOMt, npH qoMi uo 6oibinoMy HHCJiy nocTyaaBoiHX'b x'^reft syne- 
qecKoe o(5iaecTBo nocTaHOBHio bi 1786 r. OTaycnaTb eseroABO na bocuh- 
Taeie BHTOMi^eBi no CTy py6jieft, (cm. a* C. H. On cob. J\& 261); specTba- 
BHBi Tpa(i»HHH FojOBflBofi, OoAop'b BtioitioBi 6jH8'b RasaHH y^pcABi'b Ha 
€BoeM7> HSAHBCHiH npQHflTie Hec^acTHuxi MiaACHAeBb, (CM. A* G. n. Oae<" 
COB. CBASKa 7, J\s 695). 3actAaTeib coBiCTHaro cyAa neuseacKaro eaMtcif 
?6CTBa AeaHacift CyMaooBOBb npHHHMaj'b noKHHyxax'b poAQTeiaMH f 
AeHACBi, (cm. a. C. n. Ofl. COB. cB. 7 }k 721) ii t. a- 



— 150 — 

HHxi* saAaiH coxpaHHTB XH8HB HOBopoxg^eHHuii'B Bi nepBue roAV 
Hxi> cyn^ecTBOBaBifl— HaAJiejKaJio 6bi, noBBAHHOMy, bc^uh M'&pauB 
noon^pBTb H pasBHTb, BfiisBaBi eme b'b Sojibmeft wkpb nacTHyio 
;];iflTejiiBH0CTb, orb ROTopoft wb OTHomeBiH npHspi^Hia MJiaAeHiieBS 

H BXl BOCHHTaHk B^ UepBHO TOJSfi SH3HH HO^mO 6bJJI0 OXBJlfiTh 

HecpaBHeflHO JiyHinHX^ peayjibTaTOB^, neaceJiii otb j^HlctbIb npaBH- 
TeJIBCTBeHHUXl opraHOBi). 

MejKAy Tkwb HSAaHBoe BCRopi bi 1775 r. ynpeaKAeHie o 
ryeepHiflxi, cocpeAOTOiBBx jijkjio npHsp'iBUi BOo6ii^e wb lass 
Ha3UBaeMUX'b npHKasaxi o6ii;ecTBeHHaro npaspi^Hifl, HaxoAHB- 
niBXCH TOJiLRo B'b ropoAAxi ry6epHCRBxi noAT* npeAC^AaTasb* 
CTB0M7> ry6epHaTopa ^), vbwb caicHU'B oTCTpaeiuio ^acTHyio j^- 
TejiBHOCTb orb A'&Jia, eft no npeHMyn^ecTBy CBOflCTBeHHyio, a canoe 
A^Jio npHspiBlA o6paTBJio bi opHspaRi. IIoBAHie caHoe ycTpofi- 

CTBO B H B b BOCBHTaTeJIbHblX'b AOMOBT* B'b rySepHlflXl 6UJ[0 BOC- 

npemeno BucoiafimiiM'b noBejiimeHx nocJiiAOBaBmBMi no npoA- 
CTaBJieHiio ^eJiOB^ROJiioCHBofi HMnepaipHi^i Mapin GeoAO- 
poBHi 31 0RTfl6pa 1808 r. ^). 

IIoMHMo aHaiHTeJibHUxi no^epTBOBaniB na nojibsy AOMa^ CAt- 
jiaHHux'b ji,JiB peBHOCTHaro npaui^pa h noon^peniH catfoio Hioiepa- 
TpHi](eK) EnaTepHHOfi II h nacjii^AHHROirb npecTOJia BOJiHRHirb KHii- 
86Mi> IlaBjioMi IleTpoBHqeM'b % He TOJibRo JiHqa Bucmaro o6n^ecTBa 
acepTBOBajiH na nojibsy AOMa 6ojiie bjih neni^e sHannTeJibHua 

CyMMU eABHOBpeMOHHO HJIH Bl> BHA'i^ nOCTOBHHHXX BRJIdAOffb, HO 

laRKe JiHAa nponnxi cocJiOBift npHHOCHJiH cboio Jieniy na dio 6oro- 
yroAHoe A'^jio BCflKaro poAa HMyn^ecTBOM'b, RaRi^ aio mohho bh- 
A'Itb mi> AJiHHBaro cnHcna no^epiBOBaHifi, HanenaTaHHUxi cBoe- 
BpeMOHHO Bi «H8BicTiflX'b BocnHTaTOJibBaro AOMa», a TaRxe h bi. 



*) UpHKas'B cocTOAi'b Bab Tpexf. sactAftTeieft no oxHOMy oti abopah- 
CTBa, syneqecTBa h nocejjiH'b)i BasBa^aeHiixi no Bu6op7 o coAepasaaie ne 
noiynaBrnHxi. 

') n p H 11 *! ? a H i e. Ha dTOui ocHOBasiH b-b csojifk saicoBOB'b nxnepiH 
(T. Xm. VcTaBx o6n](ecTB. npHspisiji) xoiroe speuH cyn^eciBOBaia cxaTbii o 
Toifb, HTO no AoaHaBBHM'B KpafiBHM-b BeyAo6cTBaM'b cyn;e- 
CTBOsaniH BOcnHTaTejrbBuxi xouobi vh rydepaiflxi jt^ia npHsptoiii nesa- 
KOBHopoXAeHBHX'b uiBkA'^fLiifiVbj — yHpesAenie dTHX'b aomobi 
BHOBL He AOSBOJiHeTCH. Ho 9 MapTa 1898 ro^a, (cm. H. G. 3. t. XVIII^ 
J& 15131), 9T0 ciaTba (191, t. XIII, ycT. o6m. npnap. HSft. 1892 roAa) otm*- 
Hesa. TaBHMi. oCpasoHi bi HacTOnniee Bpeuji yipesAenie BOcnHTaTejbBuxb 
^ouoB'b He eanpen^aeTCii 6ojte. ApyrHMH cjOBauH nyTb ne ^peai nojiTopacTa 
i±Th BepByjHCb Ki HHCJiH Bei^Baro. 

') PecEpflnTL no aroMy noBO^y Hacj*&ABHKa npecTOJia npH ceiii npajia- 
raeicfl (cv. npnj. J^ 4). 



— 151 — 
C.-neTep6yprcKHxi BiAOMOCiflXL sa 1763 r. ^). He neperacjiaa 

SA'iCb BCtx-B BTETb nO^RepTBOBaHlfl "), jnOMaHeMl TOJIBRO-HTO Beur 
KOfl OTHOCHJICa K% no;RepTBOBaHiflUX Cb npOCBilDfiUBUWb BHHMa- 

HleiTB, EOTopuMi, Ri cojsaJiiHiio^ He BcerAa pyKOBOACTByiOTca h bi> 
HacTOfln^ee Bpena ri noAoCeuM^, noBBABMOMy, MaJiOBa^HUM'B 
npeAMOTaMi. TaRi npH nojiy^emH BOcnHiaTeJiBHUMi aomom^ pas- 
JiEHHHTb AOMamHHxi MejiRBxi> Ben^efi, ocTaBmHxcH nocjii cnepTH 
^JiBAMapmajia MHHHxa, BenROft necaJTB 1769 r. AeRa6pfl 19, 



') SiepTEjeuuH BeonH npoAanaJiHCB hjih pasurpuaaiHCB bx jioTxep. (cm. 
n. r. n. 1770 r. okt. 19). BupynaeHHJi AeHBrn uijh na coAepxaBie loua; 
flBiHmBiji pasxasajifCB bx safiiiu, a'a nojjHeflia npoiiesTOBi bi uoiBsy 
AOiia, enie pan'i&e y^pesAeflHoft npn xovfk ccyAHOfi KasHU b% 1772 r. TaBoe 
ace BaaBa^esie noiyHaiiT b BajH^euii AeflBrn, BOTopuxi sepTBOBaiocb ue 
Majo (oco6eBHo Bocji y^pesAeaix BOcnnTaxeibflaro aomb bi neTep6ypr']&), 
Tas'b nanp., otb VHTponojnxa BOBropoACKaro AhmhtpIa 40000 py6. (cm. aiyp. 
20 ACR. 1763 r.); KOMMBcioHepa JIorBBa FoBifi na-B AMCxepAaMa TucA^iy py6. 
Kh 1765 r. anp. 25 (cm. n. F. U); oti MHTponojiHTa FaBDiEja u IIjiaTOBa 

H BeHSBiCTBol OCO6U Bl 1770 F. (11. F. Ilon. OKT. 5 n 8); on HCHSBtCT- 

flaro 500(X) p. wh 1774 r., BusBaBioia oTBiiHOo 6iaroAapCTBeBBoe bhcbiio 
Beusaro ima 8, 1774 r., Haae^aTaaaoe b'b G.-IIeTep. BiAOMOciaxi Toro 
BpeMCHB ^ 41; TBEse OTB HaciacBH HBaBOBHBi FecceBirFoM6yprcKoft 
ICXXX) py6.; erbsa AhmbtpIh MHxaftioBBqa FoJimuHa 22000 p.; otl BenaBicT- 
Baro vb naKeTi ci BaAnaciio non sibised populis 10(XX) py6.; oti 
RBA3fl CeprfeA ABBipieBBHa KaaxeMBpa 31000 py6. aa iiaBicTBuft cpoRX 
(cm. A'^ia C. n. B. X no OncRyB. CoBiry 1774 roAa. HsB-bcTHBift syneii'B 
t&BOBB BopHCOBBHi xBepAHmeBi ABJiB loOCKX) p. Ba BOceMb jL^Tb, npeAO- 
CTaBJBfl AOMy noi&BOBaTBca Bce apeMfl npoiiOBTaMn, CB^ioro RaniiTaia 
{II. B. ceflT. 21, H ACR. 4, H 1779 r. Mapxa 9); coAepsaTCJiB oHTCJlBiix'B 
c6opoBB JorBBOBB 10000 py6. a t. a-, Be roaopa o o^eApuxi noseprBOBa- 
Biaxi, cA'i^JaBBux'L aa oojiBsy AOMa pasBOBpeMeaBO BSBi^CTBUM'b UpoKO- 
^iewb A^BHAOBUM'B, KOTopoMi 6yAeTi> CRasaso npn ovepsi nocTpoflBB 
AOMa. 

Hsi arnxi sepTByeMUxi Aeaer's, 6£iJ[a npoBSBeAefla aomom'b, ajh nojy« 
^CBia npouesTOB'B wb cbok) nojbsy, nepBaa ccyAa hoa'b sajorb BMiaift b'b 
iiDJi± 1770 r. sBaroBi EEBTepHai UeipoBBi^ BapaTEBcsoft, yposAeHBofi 
npBHaecd^ FojimTefiHi BexiDCKoft bb pasMipi ao 50000 p. cpoKOMi na bo- 
ceMB ji'feT'L. (Cm. sypa. onesyB. cob^^tb 1770 foab, ix>iH 21)- 

') Hbi HHCJia pasjBHBiiix'B AeaesBUxii nosepTBOBaaifi, nocTynaBniHX'B 
vh nepBoe BpCMfl 9a nojiBsy BocnaTaTCJibaaro aomb, aejibsa Be ynoMaayTB 
Taaxe o Aayxi ciiAyioniflX'B, npHCxaanux'B aeflBBicTBUMB ibubmh npu 
BMCbMaxi aa <t>paBiiy3CR0M'B asuKi, aaneqaTaaBuxi ch nepeBOAOMB rbri 
b'b co6paBiH y^pesAeaifi a npeAnacaaiB KacaiejiBBO BOcaaTaBia wb PocciH 
o6oero noxa ABopaacaaro a MimaBCEaro loaoniecTBa, (1789 r. ct. 438) 
TBEi a vb C.-IIeTep6yprcRHX'B B'^AOMOCTaxin aMcaao: 1764 r., Maa 21, 
J^ 41, apadaBieaie. Taaxe nosepTBoaaao EaEnMB to Kxr({)optom'b cto qepaoa- 
iieB'B no BescejD; 1774 roAa Mapra 18, apa6. eb I^ 22— npa AxaaaoMi 
BHCBM'b aeHBBicTBiift npBCjaii» BCBcexB aa agcbtb tucb^'b py6xefl cb 
oCtuxaaieMB BucjiaxB eu^e copoEB xucaqi, no aojytieaia oxi Beusaro 
ysaeaHia aa sasofi npeAMOxi bxb xy^me Bcero noacepxaoBaxB. Bei^aoft 
npeAJOSBxi Bxy cyuMy otabxb bb noxBsy MocEoacaaro BocnaxaiexBaaro 
AOMa. no BxoMy, ebbb bbabo bb-b npafiaBxenia J\£ 57, oxi 18 ii)aa xoro — ^ 
roAa,— axB AeaBra a 6iixfl AOCxaaxeaLi npa nacBMt aa (|)paaiiy8CB0Mi - 
aa 9X0 BeoBofi a CxaroAapaxB. 



— 152 — 

€pa8o6paTB imiaTejiBHO Bci bbii^h h hb HafiAeiCH Jin EaRin 6utui 
ero Bi lypeAKHrB h Apyrnxi noxo^ax's JiaHAKaprB, HepxeHeft, 
onHcamfi h ckojibro HadTHXca MOserB obhui npncJiaTB ro iCHt». 
^TO no BTOMy nocjuiAOBajio hs^ Kkirh ne bhjho. 

SaT^Bii Kor^a npa pa86opt cxaparo npeo6pa»eHCRaro ABopi^a, 
npHCJiaHH 6hji0 b'b nojiBsy MocKoscicaro BOcaHTaTeoiBHaro AOMa 

<(OrB A&BHHX'B JliTh paSBBTH XpyCiaJIBHBIH H Apyrifl Ben^H, KOH 

HMtJI^ eme Ilexpi BeJinRift, xo Bei^Rofi nncaJii coB^xy ho npoxa- 
BaxB xaKOBUfl Ben^B, a hm^xb BnpeAB ajui He3a6BeHHoft naMHXH». 
IIo cjiOBaii'B aBxopa uoBorpa^is ynpeacAeHifl HunepaxpHi^Br Mapia 
npHJioKeHie cxp. 45^ 03HaqeaHue npeAiiex£[ xpaHaxca no nacxoH- 
n;ee BpeMB bi nopxpexnofl rajrjiepet MocROBCRaro BOcaHxaxejiBHaro 
AOMa. 

J[jisi 6oJiBmaro ycn'&xa bt* c6opi noxepxBOBaslft Beipcofi yse 
B'B 1765 r. ORX. 13 npeAaarajn. CoBixy oaaSoxaxBca o xoh-b, wo6h 
B'B pasHuxi) ropoAaxi hbi^xb none^iHxejieft n noae^HxeJiBHiia'B, a 
fleMHoro nosAHie 20 hoh6. 1772 r. BHCo^aflme yqpoHAeno SBanie 
ocoCuxii no^exHHX'B SJiaroxBopHxejieft Hsi snaxHitfi- 
nrnxi ocoCi, Koxopna npHrjiamaioxcii CoBixoMi h KaR^ naxpioxu, 
no^xoHBHe anaxuBiMB AOCxoHHCXBaBia bi rocyAapcxBi, 6yAyxi 
oxpan^xB oxB BCiiRaro BpeAnaro npHROcaoBenlH xBepAOCXB h ne- 
noROJie6HBcocxB yqpejRAeHift BOcnHxaxejiBHaro AOMa h 8a6oxHXBCH o 
Bcixii ero EjTRjifiLX'b H noJiBsaxi. IIo noBOAy VHpejRAeHLfl axoft 
AOJiHCHOcxH Beii;KOft nHcani) i^npRyjiflpHoe hhcbiio, npH ceni npajia- 
raeMoe ^) BHcoKonoHxeHHBiii'B rocaoAaMi naxpioxaui, snaxniftoiaro 
XociOHHCXBa oco6aM^, RaRT>-xo: H. H. HanHHy, 9pHCxy Manexy, 
AjieRC. Max. FoJiHi^BrBy, Haaay ^epHHrnesy, Fparopiio TenJiOBy, 
KaasK) Aji. FojiHipiay, ^ejiBAMapmajiy rhhbk) PaayiiOBCROMy^ vp^j 
3. ^epaumeBy, rbask) Ajior. BaaeMCKOMy, a xaRace Kaa3K) IIoxom- 
KHay, npH^eiTB, npeAJiaraa hm^ npaaaxB aa ce6a saaaie noiexauxx 
6jiaroxBopaxejiefi, noApo6ao pas'BacHHJi'B am* conpHSceanua cb 
axBM^ 8BaBieM^ oGAsaaaocxa. 

Ho dxoro poAa AoCpoBOJiBaua noKepxaoaaaifl CKopo no- 
BBABMOMy aa cxojibro yMeaBmajiBCB, qxo ne c^axaJiocB 6oJite 
ayacHUM'B ynoMaaaxB o bhxT), bi aiAOMOCxaxi. 3xo Aaexi ocao- 
Baaie npeAnojioataxB, hxo paeale oCn^ecxaa oxjiaA^Jio ri axoMy 
6oroyroAHOMy A^^y^ xoxa no speiieuaM^ a jiBJiajiacB noscep- 
XBOBaaia aa ero nojiBsy. — BocnaxaxejiBBuft trq^ aom% npaay- 



*) Cm. npRJOseuie >&'5. 



— 153 - 

XAeH'b 6hijn» cyn^ecTBOBaTb Ha cpeACTea, BKrpyqaeMiia ewl Ed's 
XpyrHXi HCTO^HHKOB^, HiieHHo nyteMi xairb HasueaeHux'b npH- 
BHJieriB ^), asihhijxi AOKy npn nepBOMi ero ocHOBaHm bi 1762 r., 
a aartiTb h noaanie bi 1767 r, Mapia 31 h bt» 1772 r. 
Hoafipa 20, KOFAa 6hjio yiBepatAeHO HcnoJiHHTeJibHoe ynpe- 
XA^Hie BAOBbefi ccyAHOft h coxpanHOft RasHU ^). 

OAHOBpeiceHHo ch yTBepxAQHieMi nepBoft nacTH reeepajib- 
Haro njiaea 1 ceHTaCpfl 1763 r. Ohjtl ESAaHi MaHH^ecn>, bi 
EOTopoiii roBopHJiocB, HTO npHsp'Ime C^Aai^i^i^ b none^oHie o 
yHHOxeHin nojiesHHxx oCniecTBy xEteJieft cyiB ab^^ BepxoBHbUfl 
XOJi^HOCTH H Ao6poA%TejiH RaxA^^o 6oroJiK)6HBaro BJiaAibTeJiH. 
OcojSeHHHMt yKaaoBTB, AaHuuBTL CeHaiy Toro ace iHCJia, oSi- 
aBJifljuocB Beii;ROMy, ^To6'h ohi cb noHOiAbK) Boxieio npncTy- 
naiTB Ri Ha^HHaniK) CoroyroAHaro A^Jia, t. e. Kh y^peacAeHiio 
BB MockbI, )iro bb ApeBHeft ctojibi^ PocciflCRoft HMnepiH, 
BocnHTaiejiBHaro Aona Ch romaHxaJieBi'B ajia cspoTB h HOHMy- 

QHX'B pOAEJIBHHU^. 

Bo HcnojiaeHie aioro npeacAe Bcero notp66oBajiocB 03a6o- 
THTBca oSt* yAoeHOMT) noMtmeniH ajih noBaro yqpeKAGHia, a^ih 
KOToparo npeAnaaHaneHO 6hjio coopyABTB ocoCoe sAaaie aa 
Hhrhtcrhhh BopoiaME *), rA% 6kijib npe^Ae FpaHaTHuft ABopi 
CB BacHJiBBBCRHMB caAOMi HOAJi'i^ MocRBu p^RH ^). Hunepa- 
ipHi^a paaptniHJia bb 1763 roAy BaaTB na nocipoflRy , aAaHia 
RaneHBH h RHpnaqT*, jiemaBniie otb ropoAOBBixB ct^hi h 6a- 
niefl-B OROJio BtJiaro ropoAa h HyacRHXB Bopoi^, a laKJRe Ma- 
lepiajiu orB cxpoeHifi bb JIioSepuqax'B, otb crapBTX^ npoBiaHT- 
CRBxi H nopoxoBUx^ MaraaHHOB'B vl t. a- ^)- 

Bb TOiTB ace 1763 r. 6hjih HaaeaieHKi Tanace rjiaBHHM'B 
HaAanpaxejieBrB AOMa ROJiJieaccRift acceccopB Poctb, upo^eccopB 
MocROBCRaro ynHBepcuTeTa, a aariii^ oneRyHT* ^oxBHCHeB^, 
MnxaBJii CefiieHOBBHi, a^Act. Rauiiep. jx.-fb. HsBfaftjiOBCRaro 
nojiRa RanHiaHi, ci rotophmb Bei^Roft h BeJOti nepBOHa^ajiBHO 



*) 06b BTax'B npRBHjteriHX'B CKasaeo noj(po6Bte b-b rjaab 5-ft. 

*) Cm. yqpeaA. 10 iroaa 1763 t. n H. B. 1763 okt. 23. 

') nosAHie Efl BejH«iecTBo noaLajioBajia BOCQQTaTeiBHOuy Aoxy Taxse 
6£iBQiift noiB peBH3ioHx-KOJjierieH) y rpa4)a HepauineBa aohi, a rpa())B Aje- 
KcaHj^pB ueprteBR^B CrporbHOBi o6iii](aii OT^aTB npHa&HyBmeecR ki Ko- 
JiiHeBcsoMy AOMy ero KaiieHHoe cxpoeaie. (II. B. 1766 r. jiub. 26). Cmotph 
Tasxe MocKBa hih HCTopH^ecKiR nyTeBo;(aTdJiB no SHaHeaaxoft cxoJioi;i ro- 
cyxapcTBa PocciBcKaro. — MocKBa, 1827 r. bi 4-fl qacxa— -h. Ill, ct. 241 ii cjitA- 

^) Oil. n. B. 1763 r. OKr. 23. ^ 

*) Tain, se 1763 r. okx. 23. * 



— 154 — 

nepenHCRy, KacaemyiocA npeBMyn^ecTBeHHO nocTpoflKn sAanifl, 
saroTOBKH BCAKHxi MaTepiaJiOBi, HaftMa pa6oHHxi HeoCxoAHMux'b, 
a TaRjRe cJiyxHTejiefl jkJisi AO&ia h t. a. ^). IIpH dTOM'b BeixKOfl 
B'b DHCbMax'B BUCKasuBaji'B, HTO DpH npHXOA'6 H pacxoA"^ Ha 
CTpoenie MaiepiaJiOBi, He wb ^HHOBHHKax'By a bi Bi^pHUxi 

H TpyA0JIK)6HBUXT> HeJIOBiKaXX HaA06H0CTb HaCTOHTB, HTO AOlTb 

Ha BtpHOCXH, a He na npHKasnuxii oGpflAaxx yHpe^cAaercii; 
HTO Tpe6yK)TCH JiiOAH He o^Hi^epcKaro MHHa, h6o He bi Ta- 
KOBuxiy a ^ecTHaro szii^ h TpyAOJUofiHBUx'B jiioAflX'B HaA06- 
HocTb HacTOHTL; HTO AOJi^RHO ocTeperaibCfl (RaRi HayHHJI^ cjiyHaft^ 

HSJIO^eHHUfl B'b DHCbMi) ESI ^HHOBHUX'b OTCTaBHBIX'B B 60Jlte 

OTHK)Ab Hxi He npHHHiiaTb H cucRHBaib BcerAa qejiOB^Ra^ 
a He HHHa, a neHbrne loro no peROHeHAa^iflMT> naRoro 6fai 
SBaniA HH GbiJio ^). 

B'b nHCbiri^ orb 18 A^KaCpH, npe cewb npHJioxeHHOifb ^)^ 
Bei^RoA noApoGHO roBopnrb o aojisrhoctaxi rocnoAi» oneRynoB'b 
H rjiaBHaro naASHpaTejiH. IIo cJioBaM'b Bei^Raro bch BJiacTb 
pacnopaa^eniH n AOMOBOACiBa npH ciojib BeJiHROH'b ynpesAeniH 
BB-hpnexca TOJibRo eMy oinoMy (t. e. rjiaBHOMy HaASHpaiejiK)). 
B^ ApyroM'b HHCbM'lk 1765 r. iioHfl 9, Bei^Rofl nnmerb, ito 
oaBHHft HaASHpaTeJib Bce c^b npeAOHcaHi^ coB^Ta HcnoJiHaTb 
AOJiacenx, doat* onacenieM'b oiB'i^Ta. Kpafine npomy, ^o6u no- 
poHHuxi jiioAeB npH aom^ ho naxoAHJiocb (h orb Toro 6e8- 
cjiaBia He 6ujio), RaROBUxi TOTHacb BHCUJiaTb h t. a- 

^OCTOfiHH BHHMaHiH H CJI^AyiOnJ^lH CTpORQ HHCbMa 18 AC- 

Ra6pa 1763 roAa: 

«%o CHCTOMa OHaro yipexAeHia coctohti: 1) ne bi npn- 

ABOpHOS nOJIHTHRi; 2) He B'b BOHHCROMl ROMaHAHpOBaHlH; 

3) He B'b npHRasHUX'b h ynax'b, h o6pflASLXi, ho bi ycepACTBin 
Bceo6nieMi^ ci^ RpafiHHMi> oahhmi ApyroMy BcnoHOSKenleM'b o nojibsi 
H npHpan^eniH roro, aro AOJirb Bory yroAHOcra R'b lOiiy npHBJie- 
Raerb, coBl>CTHoe h pasyHHoe aomoboactbo. Ecqe bi npHMi^pi TOMy 
npHBomy, Ropa6jib BcerAa ropmhbmi ynpaBJi^eii'b CuBaerb; RonaH- 
ABp-b B^Aafl HTo ROMnacax'b b B'i^Tpax'b 6oJibmHX'b, coBtiOBaib Cb 
HBMi He OTpeKaeica; KorAa ae cero HBHBTb ne 6yAyTi ao xejiaeMaro 
npHCiaHBH^a AOCTBrnyTb Becbna coMHEieJibHO, ho nane cyAHO rH6ejiH 
nOABep2ceHO». 



*) Cm. 1. B. 1763 CT. 1 h 34. 

») Cm. U. B. 1763, HoaCpji 13; abk. 18; 1766 r. ;^eB. 14. 



') Cm. npHJosenie J^ 6. 



— 155 — 

IIpH3HaBaji 8a oneRyHCRHiTb cob^tomi nojiHoe, eny osHOMy 
npHHaAnesamee npaeo onpeA^HTB h ymJihUATh cjiyxan^Hxi b^ 
jifiiii jiHi^'B ^), BeARoft HenpecTaHHO o6paii^aJi'B BHBMaHie co- 
Bira Ha to, ^to6u pasjiHinaro poAa cjiy»aii;ia bi ao^ JiBi^a 

OnpeA'i^flJTHCB 6U COB'^TOM'B, CL RpaftHeiO OCMOTpHTeJUBHOCIBK) 

H cb 6ojiBmHU'B pasCopoM'B. TaRi nanp., no noBO^y Hasea- 
HeHlfl coB^TOMi nopyqHRa YcoBa Ha aouhchoctb KasHaneA, BeiiRoft 

DHmei'B ilOHH 28 *) «RaR'B Mh4 HSBtCTHO, OHl, YCOBI, co6- 

CTBeHHofi CBoefi dROHOMin Ha6jiK)CTH He MorB H He uajio HuierB 
Ha ce6i AOJiroBx^ to RaRi TaROBony neJiOB^Ry, coCnpaeMyK) 
HauB Raany^ nopy^HTB mojrho? Ri Tony xe, crojibko npHna- 
HHTOBaTB ifory, homhhtc^, CoBiTOMi nojio^eno 6hjio: HBRaRHXi 

0$Hi;epCRHXI» HHHOB'B HpH AOMi HO HMiTB. Mu BCeFAa MO- 
SBM-B HM^TB XOTA H HO O^HaepOBB, HO XOpOmBXl HaAeJRHUX'B 

JHOAOft. OAHaRO, Bce BumeonncaHHoe ocTaBJi^io Ha CjiaroyCMO- 
Tpinie CoffiTa*. 

CRopo A^H saB^A^iBaHiH nocTpofiROK) HOBaro sAanifl <(AR(> 
BecBiia Ba^Haro n BucoqafimyK) MoHapxHHK) ao nosAHt&oiara 
noTOMCTBa npocJiaBJiflrb HMiH)niaro», 6ujia y^pe^Aena oco6aH 
ROHTopa ^ ), noA^ BtA^HieM^ OAHoro ^JieHa h snaromaro hojio- 
BiRa, Ha3BaHHa£ dRcneAHqieK) cTpoenin, bi ROTopoft HaxoAHJiCH 
rjiaBHuft HaASHpaTejiB h oneRyni BorAani BacHJiBeBH<i'B yMCROfi; 
apxETeRTopoMi 6ujii BjiaHRx. Ho RaRi CoBi^T^ saRJiio^HTB MoacerBy 
nHmeTB BeARofl % qio rjiaBHufi aomi co bc^mh npHHsg^jieacHO- 
CTflHH cTpoHTbCJi CyAeTX HB MaJioe BpeMH, TO HaAJieSCHTl CH- 
CRaTB KbcTo A^a oahofo BCRapMJiHBaHia MJiaAeHAeBi> ao 5 jrbrb; 

HOaceTB RyHHTB XOTH H31 SaropOAHUX'B AOMOBl, TOJIBRO B^b HH- 
CTOITB BOSAyxi, Wb HiCROJIBRO nOROOBl, CB CaAOMB H T. A. 

Ha dTOiTB ocHOBaniH fl,nB noMin^enlfl A'^Tefl npincRHBajiocB 
oco6oe sAanie, TaRi RaRi 6bijio oGiaBJieHo BucoHafimee Ea 
BejiH^ecTBa noBeji'^nie 0611 oTRpHrin AOMa ajih npiena MJia* 
AeH^eB^ h poahjibhhi^i 1764 r. 21 anp. ^), t. e. bi a^hb 



*) Tasi BOBBpamafl npHCjaHHoe eiij npej^cTaBJieHie OaesyHCKaro CoBtTa 

O&h JBOlBHeHiQ HiKOTOpnXl CJyaUiH^HX'B Vb AOMt AEWh Bei^KOfi, Bl DHCBHt 

23 iK>ja 1771 r., roBopHxi: „apeACTaBjjiK); oAsaKOSB, bo BJiacTB OHaro CoBtTa 
y^HBHTB Bce TO, HTO 3a6jaropa8cyjiHTB HaBOinie; no^eMy h nuHt sosBpan^aA 
npH ceifi npiiCjiaBBUA, ocTaBjflK) CoBi^Ty y^HHHTb Bce, hto ei yAOBOiBCTBiB) 

H Rt nOIBsi CJiySHTB HGXeTl. 

») Cm. n. TiaB. lion. 1771 roAa 28 Iiobh. 

*) Cm. aypH. Mockob. Bocdht. AoMa 1764 r. waaSOcT. 70,iK)H. ISct. 74, 
iDJ. 23; 1765 ceHT. 12. 

Cm. n. B. 1764 aBr. 30. 

Cm. sypH. Mock. BocanT. AoMa 1764 r. Mapxa 18. 



:i 



- 156 — 
BucoiaHmaro Ea BeJUHqecTsa poxAenin. IIpexaoJiaraJiH noici- 

CTHTBCfl Bl KpyTHE^ROMl nOffBOpBt, HO BeAROfi, SaHBEBl, HTO 

cb ueHaMH CoB^Ta corjiaceHi, Rorxa ohh sa cnoco6Hoe Ha- 
xoAflTi), BupasHJii coMHlme, ^to6u b'b MocKBi, rxk he 

Ha eCTB, JPfl HOBOpO^AGHHHXl MJl2LjlfiEJJfiB'h hOZfJL'b MOFB 6UTh 

xopomi. OcTaBJiHH aio na 6JsaroycMOTp'bHie Costoa, ohi npo- 
CHJi^ npiHCRatB aomi bi laROBTB M%crb, fa^^ 6u hh iiajiifl-^ 
maro comh^hIh o xyAOM^ BosAyxi ne 6uJio; «bi ceirB rjiaB- 
wktimiA nyHKTT) n ny^Aa coctohtb ^). OneKynu HairlpeBajiHCB 
3aHflTB TyxaqeBCRyfo ABopAOByio pon^y cb sAanieMi, ROTopya 
xoTfl saoHHO sHaiB He Mory, a noMHHTCfl, onaji naAoSna au 

COROJIOBOft OXOTU, HHCaJIl Bei^ROfi ^). 

Ilocjii dToro nplBCRHBajiH noMtn^enle noAJii CflifOHOBa ho- 
HacTbipfl, HO BeaRofi Hamejii, hto bto otb Mocrbu bi bo- 
jiBROiTB OTAajieHin; peCnrB npnaocHTB He 6yAyTT», a Toro Mente 
poABJiBHHixB[ npHxoAHTB, Ha^e SRB B'B fitniHee, ocennee h sHMHee 

BpOMfl H UO HO^aiTB, RT) TOMy »e H HpOHHXl HeyAOCCTB-B HHO- 

acecTBO ®). 

Beu^ROft noJiaraJi'B yAo6Hle saH^xB AnApeeBCRift MOHaciHjtt, 
ecjiB Bu oHoe sa 6jiaro pascyABTB HSBOJiHre, a noRa dxo p4- 
niHTCJi, onpeA'i^flTB h ocHOBarB aomi y Rapjia E^HMOBH^a Oi- 
Bepca, y rhasa JU^MHipiH MnxafiJioBB^a roJiHinBiHa bi RpacHon 
Cejrb, OTCBiJiafl lyAa MJiaAeHi^eB'B, a HtROTopuxi) a^h npota 

OCTaBJIATB MOHHO H lyTB 31 AOM* *). 

Tiwb BpeMeeeM'B npieiTB a^toS Sbtji'b A'^ftciBHTeJiBHO ot- 
RpHTB 21 anp. 1764 r., RaR^ o6i btohi Hane^araHO bi 
C.-n. B. 1764 r. Jg 32, bo BpeMeHHUX^ CTpoeHJaxi, na no- 
^ajiOBaHHOM'B A^H AOMa iirlcrt, 6ji03b BapBapcKiixi Bopon, 

B^ BaBEJIBeBCKOMT) CRAy ^ KOWb npHBeAeHl> B'B TBROe COCTOHHie, 

HTO 21 anpijiA tRaRi npHHOCHMue MJiaAeHi^Bi npHHEiiaeMU 6y- 
AyTi>, laRi H BCBRla npExoA^n^iA O^ahha, 6epeMeHHua senoiHaKty 
B^ cHJiy yciaHOBJieHHaro njiana, CyAyrB naxoAHiB ceet bcho- 
Moacenie)). Bb rlx'B srq b^aomocthx'b J^ 41, otb 21 MaB na- 
neqaTaHO, ^to sa BpeMH c^ 21 anpijiB no 1 Mafi npEHAio bi 
AOM^ 53 MJiaABHi^a, EMeHHo: 29 naJiB'iEROB'B e 24 a'^bo^re^). 



*) Cm. n. B. 1764 im. 19, 29. 
') n. B. 1764 r. ACK. 23. 
») Cm. n. B. 1764 r. ceHT. 9. 

*) Cm. a. B. 1765 4>efipajra 14, Tasse sype. M. B. A- 1764 aar. 14 h 
n. B. 1763 r. OKT. 27. 

^) 3to cocTasiflio bi 10 Anefi 53 MjaAenua, a noTOMy mosbo 6hio 



— 157 — 

HejibSH He o6paTHTb oco6eHHaro BHHMaHla na to, hto no 
njiaHy BeARaro BocnBTaTasLHuft aomi ycipaHeajicfl ee hcrjuk)- 
HKTejibHO A^H OAHExiy iBKb HasuBaeHuxi, xi^Tefi HesaROH- 
HHXi, pasyirbA noAT» dTHirb a^^toA poag^eHHUxi BHi 6paRa 

HJIH BX 6paR%, npHSnaHHOM'b HesaROHHUirb B HeAiflCTBHTeJIBHUlCb 

no cyxy, hjih pojraobhbixi no npomecTBlH 306 AHOfi nocjit 
CHopTH icyaca hjih pacTopaReHk 6paRa h, HaKOHeA'b, nponcmeA- 
niHX'b OTb npeJiio6oA'i^HiJi (Cb. 3aR. rpasA. t. X, h. I, ct. 132 
h cjAaO- BeiiKOfi CTaBHJii saAa^y Aona ropaaAO mnpe. Owh ro- 
BopHTi cani: nepBoe, ^to Aajio fiuiie ceiiy AOMy, ecib mhjio- 
cepAioMi Hspi^eHHUH cjnoBa R'b OTBepnceHHUBci oti poAH- 
TO Ji e fi, 6681 npBCiaHHnta, Ha nomGejiB ocy^AenHUM^ neBHHHUM'By 
KpoM% CJiesi CBOHXi Ri HsiacHeHiK) ce6fl BHRaRoro cnoco6a ne- 
HHiiomBM^ MJiaAOHiiaMi: <(H BH 2CHBU 6yAeTe>. JIpyrBMH 
cjiOBaMH, BCJiRifi MJiaAefleai, no^OMy jih6o JiHrneHHufl 8a6oTJiHBaro 
noneneHia poAHTOJiefi, Mon> 6utb npHHai^ h BOcnHiaHii wh Aont^ 
HOCHBmeMX HasBanie BOcnHiaTejiBBaro ji,m npHHOCHMHX'B A^TOfi 
AOMa. IIpH npieir!^ wb aomii Bonpocb o saROHHocTH hjih nesaRon- 
HOCTH po^A^Bia ne hm'^jtb HHRaRoro sHa^eHifl h Aaace bobco ho 
BOsGy^anca. (9to aHTHryMaHHoe npasHJio ycTaHOBJieno 6ujio 
Bnocji^ACTBiH HifnepaTpni^eK) Mapieio OeoAopoBsoio). 

Bi AOM% npHHHMajiH 6631 pasjiHHia (ho HSBicTnaro BOspacTa), 

nafiAOHHfilX'B H OCiaBJIOHfiUXl pOAHTOJIHMH A'^Tefi, ROTOpUXl Boi^ROft 
COBepm6HH0 B'bpHO H T01H0 0603Ha?aJIl> CJIOBaHH (CHOCiaCTHO- 
P0»CA6HHHA)>, pasyM'lA UOKh dTHM'B CJIOBOMl B006ll^e A'^TOft^ 

no HeHSBtcTHBiM'B npHHBHaM'B jiHm6HHBix'B HOHOiiy jih6o none^6- 

Hifl CO CTOpOHU CBOHXTi pOAHTejiefi, ROTOpUO H6C0HHiHH0 06^3aHH 

8a6oTHTBCa BOcnHTaniH cbohxx a'^^A, ho no^oiiy jih6o aiy 
o6H3aHHOCTB He BfiinojiHfliorB HJIH He MoryrB aunoJiHHTB ^). B'B 
noAo6HBixx cjiynanxi dTy o6fl3aHHOCTB npHHaMaJii na C66a bochh- 
TaiejiBHuft AOMi, E% ROTopufi nodTOMy, BO BpoMB Bei(Karo, h no- 
ciynajio necpaBHeHHO 6oJiBinee ihcjio A^iefl, Tpe6oBaBn];HX'B npn- 
sp^HlH, nexejiH BnocJi'lACTBiH, KorAa npn HMnepaTpHi^i MapiH 



osHxaTB, HTO Ao 1900 MjaAeHueBi CjAjTb npHBOcHTBBiroA'B. nodToiiy eABa 
111 ocBOBaTejBBo CA^jaHHoe sospaseBic, h ro aomi cb caMaro aa^ajia npeAno- 
jeseBO 7<ipeARTB B'B cjHmBOUTi 6ojrBniHx% paam'i^pax'B. 

*) Tslkt» Banp., bprhbtbi 6bijb bi aomi* bo BpeAioseBiio IlaiaTH yro- 
lOBHaro CyAa a'^th aiBoero KpBBOJaaoBa, Koiopuft 6bu'b cocjaai h aasa- 
aaBi uieTBMH, a a'^th ero ocTaJBCB 6e8i Bcero, ne uiitfl poAHuxi. (a- G. H. 
OTB 23, ^ 89 B'B 1781 r.)- KyAa 6u A^BaiHCB flOAo6Baro poAa a'^th, ecjH 6u 
He 6uio AOMa, bb rotopoji'b obh BaniJB 6u ce6t npiioT'B b BOcoHTaHie? 



— 158 — 

OeoAopoBHi wb BOCOHTaTejibHiift aomi* ctsjik npHHaMaxb TOAbRo 
OAHHX'L HesaROHHopojRAeHHux'b. driurb oGiJicueTCA ot- 
qacTH sHaiHTeJiBHoe hhcjio MJiaAeHAeB'L, y»e npEneceHHHxs Ba» 
AOMi Bi nepBHe, laKx caasaTb, a^h ero cyn^ecTBOBaHin. Ci 21 
anp'ljifl no 21 asrycia 1764 r.,T. e. BiTOTupe Micai^a npHHeceno 
6uJio 250 MJiaAeHi][eB^. 

HejiBSA He saM^THTb, HTo Bit reHepajibHOM'b njorani BOBce He 
onpeA^ji^eTCH BospacTi, no AOCTHsceHie ROioparo a^th yxe h e 
MoryTb 6uTb npHHATu Bb AOMb, HecoHH^HHO, OAHaRO, 1T0 npex* 
nojiarajiocb npHHEMaib TOJibRo MJiaAeHi^eB'b h npe tomi npH- 
HocHMurb n rpYAHux-b, RaRi* dTO aojisho saRJUioqHTb hsi coAep- 
trslbik Bcefi rjiasbi II qacib, I ren. nji., bi> ROTopoft roBopHTCi 
HCRJiK)']HTejibHO TOJibRO nploMi Bl AOMl MJiaAeHUeBlH OTAaHS 
Hxi Ha pyRH RopMHJiHuaMi. Rpoifi^ TorOy noMtn^eHHue bi npeAy- 
B^AOBCJieHiH R'b HHTaTeji^M'b (apeAHOCJiaHHOicb BiI-fiqacTureH. lu.) 
OTB'&TU Ha BOsCy^eHHufi Bonpocb o TOin», RaRi BCRapiiJivBaTb 
rpYAHUxi MJiaAeni^eB^, opHHOCHHbixi bi aomi, orcTpaHflion 
BCHRoe coHHinie, hto bi AOMi apeAnojiarajiocb npnHHiraTb xojibRO 
rpyAHHx^ MJiaAeHqeB^^). KpoMt loro, yace 14 ORTafipn 1764 roA* 
Bei^Rofi npeAJiOHCHJiT> na o6cy^A6Hle oneRyHCRaro coBtra ^HKh bo- 
npocoBi T0Mi>, RER-b coAopxcaTb H RopMHTb npHHecoHHaro Wb 
AOATb MJiaAeHita, yRasuBaion^HX'b, ^to ohi HMiJI^ B'b bhaj nociynJie- 
Hie B'b AOBfb OAHHxi rpyAHbix'b A^^efi ^). TaKOBUH TOJibRO h nocTy- 
najin bi aomx nepBonanajibHO h npHTOHi) B'b AOBOJibHo ne najiOMi 
^HCJii, He CMOipa na to, hto oneRyncRlft coairb yate 8 iK)jiifl 
1764 r.^) nocTaHOBHJUi npHHHMaTb MJiaAeHqeB-b, ROH poAHJiHCb co 
AHfl anpo6oBaHia Ea. Hun. BeJiHHecTBOM'b o Aoui njiana h ny- 
6jiHR0BaHiH yRa3a, t. e. 1 okt. 1763 r , Apyi'HMH cJiOBauH, npHHH- 
MajiHCb MJiaAeHi^bi a^cath wkames-h ne 6oji'le. 

Ho yace bi canoM'b Haiajrib 1765 r. npHHeceni 6hjii bi AOM'b 
pe6eH0Ri OROJio Tpexi jt^ti u ocxaBJieH'b; npHHecmift ero CRpbuica; 



') BaMixuMi, HTO 3a sasAaro npHseceHaaro MiaABHi^a HasBanajiocB bu- 
AasaxL ABa py6jiH sa Tpyx'B. 

^) OTBiiu GoBtTa nociixoBaiH bi tom-b :se 0RTJi6pt. He npHBOAH nrB 
SA'^cB AOCJioBHO, BCiiACTBie KpafiHcfi Hx% cneuiaiBHocTif, csaseui tojbro, hto 
npexJoseHHue BeuKHHi Boupocu ysaaBiBaiorb ea Becima 6ih8S06 ero saa- 
RoucTBo ci npuHQHaeMoft HifB Ha ce6a THHseioio saAaieio bupoctbte Hja- 
AeHi^a, ocTaBjeHHaro MaiepBio. Ohi Tor^a yse bb 1763 r. (Cm. acypo. Mock. 
OneK. Gob. 1764 r.) B036yiKAaji BoapocB o saHliHi MOiosa MaTepH Apyrox) 

HHOieK) (mOIOKOMI KOpOBBI, K03H), TOMB KOr^a HaHHHaTB AaBaTB A'bTflM'B 

ApyrvBo nemy h kslkjid hmohho, KorAa npHBHBaxB hmi ocay h t. a* 
■) Cm. a*JO Be^Ka^o 1763 r. J^ 373. 



— 159 — 

Ha Bonpoci GoBiia ht6 A^Jiaib, BeAsoft OTBinaJTb 14 ^eepajia 
1765 r. «HTO, KBiKh AOHb cHsi BucoHaSmeft Ea mhjiocth ocho- 
BaH^ ]viB BcixidtAHuxi MJiaAeHAeBi>, TO npHHeceHHaro ipex- 
jitTHaro npHHHCjniTB, h enpexb bi TaROBUxi cJiyHafl]Cb paBHuiii 
o6pa30ui nocTjnaTb HaAJiexHTi; HnaROxe, RorAa 6u He npHHH- 
MaTB, TO He TOJiBRO MHJiocepAia JiHmaTCfly ho HSHypeme b 6e3Bpe- 
MCHHyio cicepTB npeTepniBaTb MoryTi>». Coo6pa3HO aTOiiy GoeiTB 
CA&irajrL nocTanoBJieHie npHHHiiaTb bx aomi A^Teft He CBume ABy^i» 
jrbTL HJiH no 6oJibmeft Mtpt AByxi JitTi, qeTupexi nicaaes^ ^). 

IIosAHie Bi 1771 roAy, ryCepHaTopi GHBepcb cnpamHBaBairb, 
He uoxerb jih 6uTb noMtnieHa bi aomi ocTaemaacH nocjii ynep- 
mefi wh THXBHHCROM'b BeeAdHCROMii A'^BHHbeMi MOHacTbipi (npH- 
CJiaHHOfi H3i> 6uBmeft Ta&Hofi KaHAejiapiH), a^brh, RpecTbaHRB 
JlyRepbH MHxaftJiOBoft, AOib ea HesaROHHo eio npHscHTaa TaTbana, 
ceMH JitTx, He Birkion^afl nponHTaHia. 

BeaRoft, Ha CA&naHHoe cb HHirb CHomenie, ho corjiacHJica na 
npieHi aiofi ceium^xHeS A'^ByniRH, na tohi ocHOBaHiH, hto bi> aomi 
npHHHMaiOTca TOJibRO TaRia, Roxopsa poABTeJieft cbohxx ne SHaiorb, 
H He noMHarb; h npHTOMi B'b MJiaAeHHecRHxi JilTaxi* '). Ho b orb 
dToro npaBBjia npnaijiocb CRopo OTRasaTbca. 

IIocTynjieHie A'^Teft B'b aom'b see 6ojite b 6oji4e yBeaa^HBa- 
Jiocb, RaRi no ici^pi pacnpocTpaHema B'b napoA^ HSBicxia 061 ero 
ocHOBaniB, t^i b no irlpib ynpe^Aenia noAodnHxi 3Re ^pleMOB^ 

B% ApyrBXl) HiCTaXl, B3l ROTOpblXX A^TB nO AOCTBSeHiH BBB^CT* 

Haro B03pacTa (2 — 3 jiiTi), npBBOsBJiBCb Bb Torb ace BOcnHTaTejib- 

HUfl AOMT> B'b MoCRBy ^). IIpHHOCBJIH A^Tefl Bb AOMX 3a 200.300 



*) Cm. JlpsimjcoB'b. — Maxepiaiu a^b. uciopiu Mockob. BocnBT. Aoxa, bud. 
2-ft CTp. 35. 

») Cm. n. B. 1771 r. iiDia 22. 

') TaKi Hanp. boshjh Aase A'i^Teft hs-b IleTep6ypra bi MocBBy; ao Haci 
coxpaHHiBCB ysasaBiA odb ycTpoftcTBt a'a dTofi nepoBOSKH 000611x1 (|)yp'b 
B pocnycROBi, 06'h oTnpaBKt Axxeft Ba AMCBHX'b noABO^axi h t. x* (cm. syp. 
neT. Boon. A* ^771 r. idjb 26, 27) sa nepeoc bpomb cyn^ecTBOBaBiH UeTop- 
6yprcsaro OTAtJOHia BOCHHTaTejbsaro AOMa. Koua xe 8to oTjcbjOHie nojy- 
HHio BQOiBi caMOCTOATeibHoe cyniecTBOBaHie, to bi IIeTep6yprli cxajn upn- 
B03HTb Atxeft H3b IleTpoaaBOACKa, BtiosepcKa, BopoBH^eft h t. a Cm. ayp. 
Uex. BocaHT. A- 1772 r. Idbh 25; 1773 r. Idjih 2, h A'bia Cap. Hh. oqucb 
23, fk 136-138 

C006111HM1 sAtCE Tasse, hto OneKynb MocsoBCKaro AOMa BaBTumi-Ra- 
MencKift nucsa'b BoAsoMy, vb 1779 r. 9 iK>Jii Mes^y npo^BMi, cBAD^eBHHBi 
Hdi MaiopocciH npHBoaii a'^tbB bb aowl na Bojaxx, jy^me vtMi uu ot- 
npaBJAOM-b. Ohb abhich bb MocKOBCSOMy Apxiepeio h toti oMy CRasajB, 

,,RaR'B Te6^ BB CTUAUO, BB TaSlA AkJU^L BMijinaXBCX. CbAIAOBBHRB eMy OTBt- 

qai'b: sa^i'^MB so Chboai nacB yBiniOBai'B neHaiBUMB odiJiBjieiiiflMu". Cba- 

U^eBHBK'B DOflCBHrB, ^TO A'^TH pOAH^HCB npOHMyiAeCTBeflHO OTl BeC^aCTQUXB 



— 160 — 

Bepcrb, eJie schrhx^ h OaeKyHCKift CoBirt y«e wb 1764 rojij no- 
jiarajii saaecTH, si OTAaJieHHUx'b orb Mocebu MicTazi>, noiciiiie- 

Hifl m^ DHTOMCTBa Bl fi'^AHOCTH pO^OHHUXl, a TOFO 60Jlie fi^llB 

cnaceeiH xhshh HenoBHHHHZ'B MJiaAeaaeBx, ii bi pascysAeniH pas- 
MHOJEenk poAa ^ejiOB'bHecKaro, no Bcefi Hnnepia, noenapxiflMi, 
xoTH aa nepBHfi cjiy^aft, He6ojiBmoro nncjia n iiopy^a B^ CMOxpt- 
Hie vKb ecTB sceHCKHxi uoHacTHpeft, a rj^i h^tb TaKOBHxi», — bu- 

6paTB COBiCTHUrB HeCTHUX'B JlfOAefi est* Ay^OBEHXl* HJIH CBtT- 

CKBxi> ^). OCb ocyn^ecTBJienlB aioro npeABOJio^eHia hsi a*^!* He 
BHAHO. Ho BeKKOft caiTB, BB BHAaxB 66JiBmaro yAo6cTBa Aocia- 
BjiOHiH MJnaAeHueBi) Kb aomb, orojio Toro jko BpeHOHH nncaji'B 
20 reHBapa 1765 r. ^). «Crojibko n saoiHO npeABHA^xB iioiy 
pascyjRAaeTCfl MHorBMi 6utb necnocoCHOCTaicB, npenaTCTByio- 
mjBLWb B^ npHHOci A'^Tefi BB rjiaBHBrfi aomb; Toro ji^na ho cohsbo- 
jiEiTe jiH Toe Bi pascyjKAeme npBHATB h CTapaiBca cboh TaRin 
Mipu npHHaiB, Aa6Bi yqpeAHTB ajia npieifa ohbixi BBpasHBixi 
Miciaxi) MocKBH, OTB Hero RoneHHO 6oJiBinHXB ojioaobi oxh- 
AaTB MOXHO, H lowb TA* TaRm Micra ycTanoBJieHu 6yAyTB, — 
wb napoA'b sHaiB a&tb nenaTHUMB JiHCT0HRauH». 

3to yRasBHie Eei^Raro 6bjjio npHEiiTO Cob^tomb bo BEBManie. 
BeAROfi He MHoro nosAfiie 4 anptJiH nBmerB, hto «(npieMi» CBopxi 
rjiBBHaro aomb wb AByxB OTA'i^eHiaxi ^pHH0CHB[x^ MJiaAesi^eB'B, 
BBAOMaxi rocnoA^ oneRynoBB, rbri TpyAHiuHxca ofin^eciBy, BecBm 
noxBajieniH a 6jiaroAapHOCTB mok) npHHomy, a TaRxe o no- 
CTpoeniH wb rpaHHi^axi» cero aomb na yA06H0MB irlcTi p^n A^teft 

AepeBHeHUXl nOROeBB, B^ MHHOBaHiH OTI OCOGhXI BB Aa<At»HHX'B 

Mi&CTax'B oTA^JieHieB'B HSJiHoiHaro pacxoAax) '). 

CRopo BB noMin^eHiH j^hh npHHOCBMux'B MJiaAenaeB'B ca'^jubjiocb 
TicHO, n Eei^ROfl npeAJiarajn* CoB^Ty npincRaTB Apyria, yAo6HHB 
MicTa H Bi> OHUH nepoBecTB A'^Tefl ^), SHaiBxejiBHoe rojibhoctbo^ 



poAUTeiefi, KOTopEie uoxb bhaom'l 6oroMOJiBji bb Riesi, sa'^axaiOT'L bi nevj 
Bi cejro HTyTi^paspimiiBinHCB OTh 6peHeHif, CKpuBaK)T'L CBofi ctuab. — Cefi- 
qacb npitxajii Kb bawl bb aou'l Hb. Hb. nXvBaJiOBB. Cn. x^j. Bei(. cbo. 
4, >fe 466. 

3to nHCbMO AOCTaxoHHO o6'BflCHAeTB, KaKB caMoe OTHomeHie Bucmaro 
AyxoBeBCTBa ki BocnnTaTejBHOiiy aomj, islk-h h npn^iiHy, no^ieMj npeAOo- 
loxeHie OaeByHCKaro CoB'feTa, o6i ynpesAeHiH noAoOeuxi aouobb no enap^ 
xiaM'B He 6ujL0 ocyiuecTBieHO. 

*) Cm. ayp. Mock. BocnnT. AoMa 1764 r. agk. 8 ct. 122. 

•) Cm. U. B. 1765 r. anBapt. 

») Cm. n. B. 1765 r. 

*) Cm. n. B. 1766 r., (t)eBp. 13. 



— 161 — 

KOTopuxi BusuBajio jsflu AOMa He Hsuio saTpyAHBHift Bc^Raro po^a. 
no noBOAy TaKOBiirb Gob^tb nHcajii BeipcoMy, cnpamHBaa ero 
coBiiOB-L yKasaHlft. TaK^ yae bi 1764 rosy HOmi, Bcipt^aa 
sarpyAHefiie Bi npiECRaHiia Heo6xoAHMaro incjia ropmhjihi^, npoA- 
noJiaraji'b a^^ onBira OTAaib ao aqcatsl MJiaA6Hi](eBi b'b ao- 
p e B H K) Ha BocHHTaHie, yojia^HBan 6yAynp[in> npn Tix% icjiaAeH- 
i^arb KopMHJiHi](ain», AepeBencRHMi seHRasii; jRaJsoBaHBo Ra^RAoft 
no 1 p. 20 R. sa M'kjiiti ^). BeaRofi nadTO nHcaJii CoBiiy 22 ho- 
jiCpa 1764 r: 

€06'b OTAani bi 6jiHXHifl ROHiomeHHUH bojiocth ajisi BCRap- 
MJiHBaHiJi A'^xefi; no saoHHOCTH HH'iero oGiaBHTb ne Mory ;Re; a 
RaRi OTAann bxi wh CjiH^Hia AepeBHH onuTBi 6ujih h BupeAB a^h 
SHania Kh JiyHineMy Bct noRymenifl ihhhtb HaAo6HO, — to nojia- 
raiocB fia 6jiaropa3CMOTp%Hie CoB']kTa». 

«rjiaBHaa HaASHpaiejrBHHita BCRop']^ 0TCK)Aa oinpaBHTca h cb 
neio 4>HH0Ri '), CROJiBRO cnoco6HUX% CHmeiCfl oinpaBJieHU 6y- 
AyrB>. 

IIoBAHte wb 1772 r., no onpeA'tJieHuo MocKOBCRaro OneRyn- 
CRaro CoB^Ta, ctbjih oTAaBaTB A'^Tefl na BOcnHTanie no agp^b- 
HiiM'B ^); H6oHy«Aa>He najiaa B^ ROpMHJiniiax'B. 

Ho Heo6xoABMO saii^TiiTB, HTO (caifB xe Bei^Roft Jinqno RaR'B 
BHAHO HS-B npHJiaraoMaro ero nzcBMa Kb AORiopy flnHmy *), BOBce 
ue pasA'i^JiflJi'B H ne OAo6pHJix pasAany a^toS na BocnaraHie no Ae- 
peBHfliTB; OHii npeAJiaraJiB p^a'b M'i^p'B ji,Jisi GoJiie ycnimnaro pas- 
BHTia MJiaAenaeB'B bi> canoMii js^jrk. 3to CBoe nncBMO rb AORTOpy 
BeARoft Toro «e iHCJia (4 Anp. 1779 r.) npenpoBOAHJii na yBa- 
zeme OneRyncRaro GosiTa), AoSaBjian ccnocoSu npeA^araeMue 
HHOK) Kh ncnojiHenlK) bx noMAHyiosTB nncBM'l, BecBMa ecxecTBeHHU 



*) Cm. atyp. Mocb. Boc Aona, 1764 r. irona 12, 19. 

^) T. c. q^HHJAHAOK'B, o6HBaTejBHHm OeTep6yprcBO& ry6epHiH, HaHH- 

MaBIDHXCfl Vb KOpHHJHIlH. 

*) Tose canoe 6uio h bi UerepCyprcKOM'B AOH'k hsi KOToparo OTAa- 
BaJH A'^Tefl vh npHJieraevuH r'b CTOinui m'^cthocth (aa OzTy, IlopoxoBHe 
saBOAH, RHpnHHHue saBOAU no HoB'b, Ezopy h t. aO- 3to se bb cboio o?e- 
peA^ BEiBBaio y^pesAenie oco6HX'b jam, cM0Tp'lBmHX'& sa TaKOBUMH A'i^TBiiiL 
uepBOHaHaiBHo bb neiepGypri ni^KTO oTCxaBHOft RannTaBi AoRy^aeBi, no 

yCepAlH) CBOeMy, 6U]L'b CMOTpHT&ieM'B naA'B pOSAaBBHMH paSHUlfB J[K)AJiM'B« 

na BocnHiaHie, a'^tbmh. Cm a'^^- Beu. cbhs. J^ 1 J^ 18., a^i. Gup. Hh. on. 
23, J^ 4. 

B% 1786 roAy, no npeABapHTeJtbnoMy od'SflCHeBiH) cb BeusHH'B, 6hinn 
BasBaqeBBi oco6ua jiHua, soTopiifl no AepeBHAM'B pasi'^zajn 6e8opecTaHBo. 
ne Bi HasHaHeHHBie ahh, n cb RpafisHMB noneHenieM'B cTapaJincB o cozpF 
BeHiH A'^xeS h t. a- Oh. A'i^-'a no Aepenen. dRcnOAHi^., J^ 8. 

*). Cm. npHiosenie J^ 7. 

H. n. BE^KOfl. 11 



— 162 — 

H cjiti^ioBaTeJiBHO, He TpjAHu; HO ecjQiH 6hL H 611JIH Tpy;(HOCTH Hero 
He Moryrb npeoAOJi^TB r^i^ KOTopua hocbjithjih ce6H npe^^ jihuomi 
CodAaieJiJi H OTenecTBE 6utb OTAaMH CHporb 6e8rjiacHuii>, or- 
BepjReHBux'B, HeHHiion^HrB bo BcejieHHofl hb npEfii^Hn^a, he no- 
MomH, KpoMi cero OAHHaro ni^CTa, rjsjh bu oSasaHu cnacaTb zrb 
K'b GjiaB^ BceBHA^n^aro TBopi^a, h R'b nojoBsi t)6ntecTBa, oJECHAaio- 
n^aro otb BarnHXii noneqenift hobux'b rpasRA&Hi. Himt^cb neco- 
MHiHHux'B ycn'bxoB'B, no ejiHKy aame o6n^ee ri eAHHOMy npoAMOTy 
CTpeMJieHie npocTHpaxBca 6yJ^e^B, ociaiocB cb ^onTeHleM^ ^) 

BeipcoB. 

COBirB OAHaRO ho npHSnaJU'B BOS&fOHHMBTB COrJiaCHTBCJi Ch 

npeAHOJioxeHiflMH Eei^raro, h npoAOJi^ajii OTnpaBRy ji^Tei Ha boc- 
HBTanie no AepeBHAMi^ ROiopaa npaRTHRyoTCH, RaRi nsBicTHO h 
AOHBiHi; oalHRa e^ o^eBHAHO ne RacaeTCH Oiorpa^iH Eei^Karo. 

HeAOCTaiOR'B ropmhjihi^'b, saciaBJiflji'B RpoM^ xoro npHG^ran 
R'B paHHeMy RopHJiemio A'bTeft mosoromi ropobbhmi h rosbemi, o 
HCMi) BeqRoft uoApoSno cani nHcajn> CoBiiy, RaRi bhaho hsi npn- 
jiojKeHHaro nECBiia (npHJio^R. JV2 7). 

He MHoro nosAHie, yae b^ 1784 r., no pacnopaacemK) Ben- 
Raro, 6ujn> BMnHcaH-B est* B^hh h^rto B y x t e ji b, a^^ ycTpoS- 
CTBa ECRyccTBeHHaro RopHJieniH A^Teft, ho npoESBeAeHHue onuTU 
He ORasajiECB 6jiaronpii]THHME, e r. ByxTejiB 6hjii oinpaBJieni) b'b 
B*Hy 0. 

HoAOCTaTORi RopMJieHiH BHsuBajix Roneqeo ycHJieHHyio CMepi- 
HOCTB A^ieft ^), no noBOAy Roiopoft CoBtTi laR^e npeACiaBJifljii 



Cm. A*Jia BeA. cb. 4 76 419; E. B. 1779 r. anp. 4. 

>) Cm. A*ia Cflp. Hh. onucb 23, J^J^ 120, 122. 

^) HeiLSfl He sav'i&TnTL, hto 6uib, h Apyraa npuHHea, yBeJH^uBniafl 06- 
m,YV> CMepTHOCTL jiiTCft vb xoMt. Bi sypnai'b Mockob. Ones. CoB^Ta oti. 
5 Maa 1767 r. saoBcaHO tfesAy npo^HM'b, hto ch niiiv) HsGasHTBCJi ori pac- 
xoAOBi no norpe6eBiio, nacTO bi M.owb npHBOCflTi A'^iefi eie sbbuxi, 

KOTOpUfl qpeS'b HiCKOJIBBO ^aCOBl yMHpaE)Tl, OTh ^erO Bl D76lHBi. Be HMtfl 

AtficTBHTeiBBHxi CB^A'ibBifi, BenpHCTOfifloe paarjameHie npoHCXoxBTi; nox- 
jEie iH)AH 4ysHX'B A^Tefi KpaAyTB, h HecyiB bb xomi cb uiiBio noiy^HTB 
3a npHHeceHHaro XBa py6jifl. CoBti'B noiaraei'B, B'Borcxpafleuie dToro xaBaxB 
Be 601 te 25 s. sa pefieasa, a bto ^iHCTBHTejiBBO aaHAexB, noABHMeTi h npn- 
BeceTi, TOM7, no ycMOTpisiio rJiaBHaro BaASHpaxejiA, ae caume OAaaao AByxi 
py6.ieft. 

HeiBSfl Be ynoMflByxB, ^to no Ta6jHa'b, cocTaBjeaaofi asiopovB bu- 
meynoMflHYToff MOBorpa4>iB yqpes;(eHiH B'^AOMCiBa 0m. Mapia (npaios. 
cxp. 28, 28), Boxoparo Baaaai HeiBsa noxospiaaxB bi npacxpacxia ai Beu- 
KOMy, BHABO, 4X0 cMcpxBOCxB B% AOM'b, 3a BpoMH ynpasjeaia BeAsaro 
(cB 1764 no 1796 ro^u) xoxa a duea^a bb Bisoxopue rojiu a ^pesauiaft- 
Baa, ox'B ocnu, aopa n caapjaxHBH, ho sa xo bb ocxaiBBue ro^u duia 
HecpaBBeaao MeaBme, H'I^m'b bi nocji'^AyK)niie nepioAU BpeMeaa a onycaa- 



— 163 — 
EeasoMy, yRasusafl npH 8T0in> h ea ne^HCTOTy Boaxyxa^ Ha ne- 

^JIiarOIiplHTHHJi yCJIOBifl MiCTHOCTfl, H T. A- ^). 

Bei^KOfl OTB^qajTb Ha 3T0: 

cOb BaMH corjiaceHii h ^ o RpyTBi^KOSfB noABopb*!, KorAa bh 
OHoe sa cnocofiHoe HaxojHie; tokmo cyMnenle ntKOTopoe naxoxy 
Bi cjii&;^K)H^eHi. IlHcaTb HSBOJiHie JieacHTB no MocRBt p^R-b 
bhh3i»; HH'b saoiHO RaxeicJi set iiibCTa hbhcb ho ptR*! Mocrb'I ne 
<:TOJib YJ5fi6uu Chtb MoryrB, naRi Bume. Biopoe — bi caMOfl Mocrb^; 
<;yHB%BaiocB^ hto r;^ hh ecTb bx Mocrb^ jiflH HOBopo2CAeHHuxi> MJia- 
;(eHi^eBi B08Ayxi> 6£iTb mopb xopomifl; oAHaROSb Bce cle ocTasjiAK) 
sa Bame 6jiaropa3CMOTp']kHie. 

^T06U OTMiHHTb HpeJRHee wkCSOy BeJIRRBMl upejipcjsRjieEisLWb 

noABep^eHO, ROTopoMii npnjiesHO npomy no tohrocth pascyAHxe. 
no MOOMy MH'i&Hiio cie m'^cto cA^JiaxbCH Moacerb coBpeMeHeMi 
secbMa yRoCHHM'B, noiony hto ci> rop^ h Apynax-B Micrb Bch hg- 
HHCTOTH, orojio Bcero Micra, hjih Ha ckojibro hm'b Hce vjiji npHHa^- 
JLexsLTb OTBOAHUMH RaHaJiaifH otbocth; nojii ^e noAi> AOMaiis, — 
njiOTHHaMH H ApymMH cnoco6aMH y^epnaTB; tormo ao 6yAyn^efi 
BecHu, He ynycRan BpeMOHH, CTapaTbCH HcnpaBHTb. Cnoco6HOCTB, 

Kb TOMy H Ta, HTO BO BCK) SHHy HCnOJIHHTB TO MOSHO; H TOH) BU- 

HyTOK) seHJieK) hsi ^yHAaneHTOBB, norpeGoBB, RanajiOBB h otb mho- 
xecTBOBHaro CTpoeniH H^e6eHB, 6jTb h cop'b, iftcTO hobhahmo bo3- 
BUCHTB H ocymHTi, H npOHHXl TOMy nOAOSHblXl cnoco6oB'B MHOrO 
€CTB. 

Toro paAn naRH npomy BceBOSMoacHUJi CTapanifl n TpyAU npn- 
iioxcHTB cHCRaTB jiflKb BB TaROM^ MicT%, Tjii 6hi HH Maji'bftmaro cy- 
MHeniH xyAOMX BOSAyx']^ ho Cbtjio, b-b homi rjiaBHtfimifi nynRX'B 
fl HyaAa coctohtb ^). 

KpyTH^ROM^ noABOpB'b, h hsii onaro nncBMa ne BH^y a na- 
Ao6ho jih oho jiJin apxiepea h nojiy^HTB ero sa ujiaTy hjih Cea-B 
Toro HcnpocHTB MOHCHO; RaRoe Bi HeH^ CTpoenie, bb naAesHOMii jih 
nojioaeniH a tojibro-jib jijuh BOCnHTania MJiaAOHi^eB'B ao 4-x'b h uhth 

JltTB OCXaBHTB, RaR'B Bl HHCBM* OTB 12 ^HCJia Oe^HBHTB H3B0JIHJIH; 

€CTB JIH B^ HeMi HOKOH, xoTfle^B Ha nepBoft cjiy^aft yAo6Hue (h6o 



jiacb AC DeaHa^RTeiBHofi !in(t)pu yMepmnxi, saRi nanp.: 14,03, npoi^enTOBB — 
vb nil roAy; 9,46 npou.— bi 1778 r. h ^aae 8,65 npoit- bb 1786 r., — ^ero 
HUBorAaHe6uBajio BSociiACTBiu, HecMOTpa naBC^sa- 
^OTJiHBOCTL FjaBBaro Ha^ajibCTBa. 



*) Cm. aypH. M. B. A- 1764 r. irona 12 u 19 r. 
■^ "I. n. 



•) Cm. n. B. 1764 r. ot-l 19 iiui«. 



— 164 — 

HanEcaHo np acho) h HeHaAofinojiB H^KOHMt nepentHaMi h nepe- 
CTpoflKaifb 6bitl; o newh Hpomy HSi^CHeHia, a npa tomi, wb CHJiy 
npeacHJiro Moero iiHCi»Ha, naRH noAXBepacAaio h npomy Bci lApu 
n TpyAU npHJiosHTB ma BCRapMJiHBaHifl MJiaA6Hi^eB% vb oCiiiBJieH- 
Bowb noABopbt HJiH ApyroMi jiyMmeMi M'^^cii npiyroTOBHTb, RaR'K 
BOSMO^HO He ynycKaa speMeHH ^). 

Ho noMBMo BTETb saTpyAHeHift, npHcyiE^Hx^ caMony jsjkjLj boc- 
nHTaHia MJiaAenaeB^, BOSHHRajiH h Apyrifl, npoHCTeRaBmifl yxe^ 
TaKi CRasaxB, hsi caiiaro npieMa bi aomi MJiaAeei^eBi. TaRi nanp. 
OneKyHCRift CoBirb BOsCyAHjrb Bonpoct bt> KaKyio Bipy RpecTHTB 
HJiaAeHi^eBB, ecjiH wkrb yRasaeift Ha to, nro ohe yse Rpen^eHH. 
GoB'bTy He TpyAHO 6ujio 6hi n caifOMy pasp'iniHTB aiorB Bonpocx; 

HO 0H% CHejTb HeOfixOAHMHM'L 06paTHTBCH Kl Eei(R0My, KOTOpuft 

HHCBMOMl OTB 14 ^CBpaJia coo6^^HJrB CoBtiyi 

cB'B HJiani, Bi KaRie Ji'^ra MJiaAeniieB'B npnHHicaTB ne noJio- 
»eHo; a RaRB cefi aomi hsi BHco^a&mefl Ea HMnepaTopcRaro Be- 

JIHHeCTBa MHJIOCTH OCHOBaHX A^^ BCbXB 6iAHUX'B MJiaAeHUeBl, TO 

opHHOCHaro xpexi-jitTH^ro hphhbcjihtb n BnpoAB wh TaRHxi> cjiy- 
Haflxi paBHUici o6pa30M'B nocTynaiB naA^exBTB; HHaRO »b, RorAa 
6h He npHHBHaTB, TO He tojibro MBJiocepAiH JinmaTCfl, ho Hsnype- 
Hie H 6e3BpeMeHHyK) CMepTB npexepn'lBaTB MoryTB. Ceft sue aomi 
BT> FocyAapcTBi^ FpeRopocciftcRaro saRona, bx ROTopoMX Bcixi boc- 
HHTBiBaeMux'B, a noTOMy npHHOcnaro RaTOJiHi](Raro saROHa luiaAeHi^a 

BB Hero JRB COBepmHTB AOJI^HO». 

CymecTBOBaBHiee b-b to BpoMH RpinocTHoe npaso, nocxasHJio Co- 
B^TB TaRsce BB saTpyAHHTejiBHoe noJiOHenie h no6yAHJio ero o6pa- 
THTBM RT* Bei^ROMy HO cjitAyK^n^OMy cjiyTOK). Bb 1765 r. b-b boc- 

HHTaTOJIBHOMB AOMt pasp-imEJiaCB 0TB CpeMOHH RpeCTBflHRa, 6i- 

scaBma^ cb lyaKHMi nacnopTOMB, otb CBoero BJiaAkuBij^a, noMtnpRa. 
BacBJim CTenaHOBHia ^e6oTapeBa, RoTopuft Tpe6oBaJii otb Aona 
BosBpameHifl, RaRi MaTepH, TaRB h e^ HOBopojRAenHaro cuna. 

BeAROft OTBinajiii na 9to 3 $eBpaJia 1765 roAa ^). 

cKorAa ^rohr'^ A^fiCTBHxejiBHO oRasajiocB, ito ona 6i^rjiaH, u 
HO cnpaBeAJiHBocTH, CB npHHOCHUMx cuHOSfB OH R^ OTAaH*! ark- 
AyerB. IIoHeMy r'b noM^mHRy ne HSBOJiBTe jib otb CoBtTa HHcaxB 
He ocTaBHTB JiH OH'B H3^ BeJiHROAymlfl OHaro MJiaAeHii;a bb jsfivi; 
6yAe «e ne corjiacHTca, to RaRX cefl aomi na coBicTHux-B oGpn- 



*) Cm. n. B. 1764 r. otb 29 ima. 
•) Cm. n. B. 1765 r 



— 165 — 

xarb ocHOsaH-b, Aepzacb o6maro npasHJia: Hero ce6i He sejiaemB, 
Toro xpyrovy He A'&Jiaft, eaAnexHTK oiAaiB; b to bjih Apyroe no- 
CJiiAy^Qtd<> Bi BixoHOCTflXi npHaeqaiaTb, Aa6fii ny6jiHRa o cnpa- 
BeAJiBBOirb nocTyoRt ysipena 6uTb Morjia» ^). 

IIosAH^e Bi 1772 r. boshbri CHOsa BonpocB o BosBpait icjia- 
AOHi^a, OTAaHHaro bt» aomi Taflno RptnocTHOio seHn^HHOio, npB- 
HaAiiesaBmeK) ooHtn^HRy RoHCTaHTBHOBy h Cujii pimeHi, RaKi 
H nepBufl ^. 

ToHHO TaRxe CoBi^Tb cnpamuBajrb BeiiRaro bi 1778 roAy^ 
Eaicb HOCTynHTb no sanpocy BoeHHOfi KOJuieriH, Ha KaROM^ ocho- 

BaHlH npHHHTb Bl AOITL pe6eH0Rl H31 COJIAaTCRHXl A^TOt ^). Beur 

Koft, OTBinafl Ha 8to 2 flHsapB 1778 r., BupaacaJix yAHBJieHie, hto 
opHHfljui BOo6n^6 MajibHHRa DflTH jitTiH ^pHT0M^ no noKasaniio 
MarepH o6i>BBJieHHaro, naKi cbina rBapAeftCKaro coJiAaxa h nojio- 
KBTejibHO BucRaauBajii, hto, cji^AyB bo Bcem yiBepscAeHHOMy 
njiany, aom^ HHRorAa ne AOJi:ReHi> npBHHMaTb ce6i Bb jipwb h m e- 
HyeMux'b coJiAaTCRHxi hjih rbrbxi jih6o Apyrnxi Abiefi, a npe- 
BOCHMuxi He cnpaniHBaTL hlb ohh a^tb; paBHUirb o6pa80irb h bxo- 

ABlfBIMT> C06OK) Bb AOlTb TaRHXl> JI'^Tb, ROB COSt HO MOryTl CRa- 

saTb, RTO y BBxi* OTei;^, AOJirb nanrb TpeCyen AaTb npHsptnie Ha 
ocHOBaeiH renepajibHaro njiana Tpexi nacieft ^). 

droTb pe6eH0Ri 6hiJVb BOsepan^eHi Boennoft ROJiJieriB ^). 

Bt> 1771 roAy bt> Mocrb*, RaRi HSBicTHO, noBBBJiacb onacnaa 
II npHJinn^BBaa Goji'I^shb nyna, o neBTb AORTopi BOcnHiaTejibHaro 
AOMa MepieHCbHe saMOAJiBJii AonecTH OneKyncROMy CoBity, roto- 
puft H nocTBHOBBJii HpeRpaTHTL npieMi Bb AOMi>, RaR^ MJiaAeHi^eB'b, 
TBRi H 6ojibHuxi jRenn^BHi u HaHHTb AJiH 8Toro OTA'^bHoe aoufh" 
n^eme ^)^ wb ROTopoHi yipeABTb oco6oe BpeiieHHoe OTA^Jienie a^h 



*) HecMOTpfl Ha 76isAeHifl noneHHTeiA darpascsaro u yB'biueBaHia 
Bcero OnesyQCKaro CfoB'^ra h ciu&Hoe CTapanie noae^MTeieft, Bia^'^eu'b 
^eCorapeB'b, saicb h3i BejHKOAymifl, Tasi u Ha npoAasy ne cuohhica n 
MjaAenem 61111 eiiy OTAaai. 

•) Cm. a*J- CepoT. Hhctht. onncb 23, J^ 147. 

') 3to k±io noKasHBaeTi, aaai xaio pyROBOXCTBOBaica GoBtrb bi cbo- 
iixi AiftcTBiflxi yxBepsAeHHfiiM'B TenepaibHEiirb niaHOMb, h Kasi oxotho 
o6paiuaica bi BeiiROMy 3a yKasaaiAMH Rasi nocTynHTb. Can BeiiBofi, bi 
iiHCbHt 177(5 r. (ex. n. B. 1776 roAi), npflMO nHmeTi CoB'JbTy, ^to ohi na- 
npacBo Ri HBMy o6paiAaeTcfl bi TasHzi Atjaxi, rjs,^ cam Mosexb pimuTb 
no HSxaHDUHi npaBHJiaM'b. 

*) Cm. n. B. 1778 r. 

*) Cm. TaH'b se. 

'J TasoBoe HanaTO 6£iio vh jiOMi noRoftHaro npoTODpecBHiepa Biaro- 
BiiAeHCRaro co6opa 9eo;(opa Ji;y6AHCRaro 1771 r. (cm. syp. Moc. On. Cob. 
1771 r. Mapra 18, ct. 86 u noaOpa 8, ct. 9). 



- 166 — 

Bpiefiia A'^Tefl, sBlpeHHoe noneqeHiio oneKyna AjieKcin HsaHOBH'ia 
^ypHOBO. Geny oocJitAHeMy 6e^R0ft nHcajni noApo6HO o Mipax'b 

npOAOCTOpOSCHOCTH DpOTBB'b qyMU, KaRl-TO: npHHHMaa COJIbHUX'B^ 
He OCTaBJUTb OTHIOAb HXl OAe^U, HO OTOpaBJIBTB laROByio o6paTHO 

Cb npHHecmBMi); MJiaAOHi^a OKypHBaxb n t. a* He icHoro pante 
EeuRofi noApo6HO cHcaji'b CoBiiy, hto ajih coxpanenia BOcaHTaieJib- 
Haro AOMa orb sapasu hekto He AOJUKeni 6biTb AonycKaeirb ^) sa 
orpaAy AOMa h, hto ci OTBa^RHBaion^HHHCH btewl npHKasamjiuv 
6uTb ocjiymHUMH, ROTopue ynp^MiiCb ne xoi^rb SHaxb, tto 3to ne 
TOJibKO Bi> oojibsy AOMa, HO E T^xi caMHxi ynpaMAOBi A'b^&eTCfl; 
HBAO HOCTynaib pibmHrejibHO h Cb 8tok) i^bio, noA'b npHCHO- 
TpoMi cepacBHTa, pascTaBHTb qacoBuxi) cb sapiisceHHUMH Rapieibio 
pyHCbAMB, no BC^Mi MtcTaMii, ROTopne BORpyrb AOMa 6u xoahjih 
AHeMTi H HOHbK), CesnpecTaHHO n CMOxp^H, ecJiH rto hsi BnyxpH 
HJiH BHyTpb AOMa nojr]&8erb nepesi safiopi*, to ho rkwh CTpiJiHTb^ 
He CMOxpa HH Ha Koro, RaRoro 6h sBanifl hh 6hiJVh h t. n. ^). 

FjiaBHOBiy HaABHpaTejiK) opeAOCTaBjieHO 6ujio acnojiHATb Bce to, 
HTO Ri> noJibs*! AOMa noTpe6HO 6yAeTby 6e3i paspimeHiH OneRyn- 
CKaro CoBiTa, ROTopuft h ho coCnpajiM wh bto BpoMa, sa oTcyT- 
CTBieMx oneRynoBi, yixaBmHxi HS'b Mocrbu bi cboh bot^hhu. 

PacnopAHceHiflMH Ao6poBOJibHO npaCbiBniaro b^ MocRBy rpa(|»a 
r. r. OpjiOBa, npn coaMctbIh EpoHRHHa, ^yMa bi Mocrb*! yTHXJia, 

HO HOCJI'ikACTBleM'b QS Wb MOCRB^ flBHJUOCb HO MaJIOO ROJIH^eCTBO A:^' 

Tefi, ocTaBniHxca SesiBC^Raro npHsp'^Hia, ROTopua cxajiii ABJuiTbca 

Bl BOCOHTaTeJIbHOM'b AOMt. BOSHBRJIH CHOBa BOHpOCU RaKHX'b 
HMeHHO A^Teft H RaRHX'b Jlirb HaAJiejRHT'b npHHEMaXb Bl A0M1> H 

Bei^ROft (RaRX bbaho hbi xyp. M. 0. C. orb 30 Hoa6. 1771 r.^ 

CXp. 11) BUpaSHJll CBOe MH^hIo, HTOXOTA H DOJIO^OHO no OfiURHO- 

BeHHOMy saBeAOHiio orb OneRyncRaro CoB^Ta npHHSMaxb A^Teft ho 
CBHme T p e X i jrbrb^ ho coo6pa»caA HbmimHia o6cTOflTejibCTBa no 
onacHOfi sapasHTeJibHofi bii Mocrb^ 6ojii8Hif, ne cxljiaerb costTb 
HapymeniH TaRoro ycTanoBJieHla, ecjiH no AOJiry hojiob'&ro- 
jiK)6iK) OHi) npHMOTb H Tixi> CHpoTi, ROH CBume xpexi jrbTb^ 
T. e. mecTH, come e 6oji'6e, bi CBoe noRpoBHTeJibCTBO, RaRoro-6u to 



*) J[,iH TeR7n^iixi» Atii co^npajHCb 3a oneRyau vh aou± MHxaeia Aje- 
Kcd^eBH<ia IlYmKHBa (sa oneEyHa), BeiH sypaajy, Koropue Cob^ti nosAHte 
yze (s. M. 0. C. Maa 6 x- 1772 r. ct. 64) npnEasaji oryphtb, omohhtb yKcycoifb 
BiH nepeaHcaxB, ecjiu hto hojesa 6j}LfiTb pasoCpaiB. 

*) UosAHte B% 1772 r. BeiiRoft npHCJiazB HacraBiieHie Aia. cnosHaoiji o 
3apa3HTejBHofi hb^% 9to6u ero HanenaTaTB h posAaxB b^ opBCiofiHHX^ Ht- 
cTaxi (cm. syp. Mock. OneK. Cob. (t)eBp. 25 roAa ct. 23. 



— 167 — 

3BaHiH HE 6BIJI0. CoBtii corjiacHJiCH ci> dTawh BnoJiHi pasyMflUMii 
H HeJiOB^iBBiMi MHtaieiTB BejQRaro ^), KOTopoe, OAuaKo, He 6ujlo 
oxo6peHO GeHSTOM-b. EeaROft, keki bhaho hsi ero panopia B^ 
IIpaBHTejQvCTByiomill CeHan otb 16 iiOHfl 1772 r. ^), AOKJiaAUBajii 
o6% dTOiTb BUCRasaHHoiTb Tswb MH^HiH HunepaTpiii][ib EKaiepHHik h 

Efl BeJIHTOCTBO HSiyCTHO yKasaiB HSBOJIHJia «KaRl Bci t&robuh 

xbin, KOTopufl BO BpeMfl (JuBmefi b^ MocKBt sapaBHiejibHoft 6o- 

JliSHH MOCROBCKHM'B BOCnHTaieJilBHUirb AOBCOMl npHspiHH H H86a- 

BJieHH OTB CMepin, laRi h Bupe^B BcaRaro SBaHia cnpoTu, roh sa 

OCXaBJieHieiirb HZI pOACTBeHHHRaMH HJIH H APyrHHH RaREHH*JIH60 

none^HTeJiflMH, b^ paacy^AemH uvunnni* cbohxi jitiB, ee Hirlfl npo- 
BHTaBiji, ocraK^TCfl maiaiomHHHCfl Cesi BCJiRaro none^eHlH, npH- 
cMOipa H npHsp'bHi^, laROBuxi) He HHane no^HTaTb aoji^rho, RaRi 
norH6inHMH: Toro x^z^ HiiiiorL opaBO npH«iHCJiefiu 6uTb ci npoi- 
HHVH Ha ocHOBaHiH renepaJiBHaro njnana ipexx Haciefl BOCHHxa- 
TeJiBHaro Aoica h no lOMy eaiycTHOMy BceuHJiocTHBlfimeMy Ea 
HifnepaTopcRaro BejinnecTaa noBeoi'lHiio bi> osHaneHnHfl Mocrob- 

CKifi BOCHHTaieJIBHUfi AOMl JiJlH HCHOJIHeHijer, OTB BieHfl HHCaHO, 

HeMi IIpaBHTejiBCTByion^eMy Cenary noRopHMme panopTyio. 

PaBBEiiTB o6pa80M^ BeuROft 3 iK)j!ifl Toro jro 1772 r. nocjiaJiB 
H BTB MocROBCRift OneKyHCRifi CoBibTB cJi'lAyK)H^ee coo6n^eHie: 

«RaROBB B^ IIpaBHTejiBCTByioniiift CenaTB cb o6'BABJieHieM'B 
HHeHHaro Ea HMnepaTopcRaro BeJiH^ecTBa yRasa panoprB otb 
MeHfl noxaHB, o npH^HCJieHiH, RaRi npHspiHHBixi bo Bpeva 
fiBiBmefl Bi MocRBi sapasHxeJiBHOft 6oji'I3Hh, TaR'B h BnpeAB 
BCARaro SBanifl cnpoTB, ocTaBJiaeMBix'B poACTBeHHHRaHH h 
ApyrsMH RaRHMH-JiH6o nonoHHTejiHiiH, c^ npoTqHMB ^cItbmh, Ha 
ocHOBaniH renepajiBHaro njiana xpexi nacTeft BOCoHTaxejiBHaro 
AOMa; CB OHaro jifls. CBbjijbBlH e HcnoJiHenifl npH comb npHjiaraeTca 
Konia. OTnpaBJieHHHe otb OHaro coBixa npn umchvii wb oTAiJienie 
RBHTaHiuH Ha BUAAHHue co6cTBeHHue MOH jificsiTh TUCiiH'B py6jieft, 
MHOK) noJiyieHu». 



Bcsopi JLOCzi aroro CoairB, HaxoAfl* hto no 6jarocTH Bo»ieft xa 
zJdLE 6oii8HB Bjs.'bch (bi MocsBi) coBciMi uo^TH HC<[e8Jia H HHKaRoft onac- 

BOCTH He BHAHTCfl, nOCTaOOBHIB apespaTHTb RCt MtpEI CTpOrOCTH H A08B0- 

jiuTB BuxoAHTL H3B sBapTajiOBi AOHa, a j^pesAeHHoe BpeMeHHoe oTAiieHie 
CB AiTBMH nepeMtcTHTB BB jiowb wh cBoe cMOTptflie (CM. sypH. MocE. Oaes. 
Cob. 1772 tojlsl, 14 rcHB. h 13 uapTa, cxp. 5, 31). 

') no cyn^ecTBOBaBmcMy b'b to BpeMfl nopflAxy Bci BHCo^afimifl nose- 
li^fdSf soMy-iH6o o6'BflBJifleMEifl, cooomaiHCb b'b Koniflxi npaBHTejBCTByio- 
iKOMy CcHaxy, rAi laKOBua h xpaaflTcn no BacTOflniee BpeMfl bi» apxHB'b, P" 
ocoChxi SBHraxi. 



— 168 — 

Ho CeHaiii OAHaRO aameji'L ^), hto Bemeoft ee HHterb upaso 
o6'bHBJiJiTB cjiOBecHoe Buco^^fimee noBeJiiHie (h6o ohi> He ceaa- 
Topi, HH reHepajn-npoRypopi, hh nepBUXi 3-xi KOJiJierifi npesH- 
AeHTB, HH AesypHHfi reHepaji%-aAi>K)TaHrL) n Kb Toicy xe dxo He 
corjiacHo Cb pasnuMH ApyrHMH ynasaHH; crojtlro 6u oho hb 6ajio 
HejiOBiROJiK)6HBO, OHO JiefRO uosneTb nopoAHTb 3j[oynoTpe6jieHia. 

HodTOMy CenaTL HaxoAHJi'B, hto He Moacerb oGHapoAOBaxB cero 
BOBaro y^pe^KAenifl h ne opHsnaBaH jifl& ofin^ecTsa 8a AocTaioHHoe, 
DOCJiaHHoe orb BeARaro rt> HcaojineHiK) no TOuy npHRasanie, co- 
CTaBBJii AORJiaA'b A-ofl npoACTaBJieHifl FocyAapuHt, m> ROXopoMi 
npocHJii Bbicoiafimaro yRasa bti paspimeHin CBoero coHHiHia. 3to 
onpe^iJieHie noAnncajiH A. MejibryHOBi, A^airb Ojicy^bOBii^ HBaHi 
EjiarHHi, UssLWb BAseHCRift. 

O^HaRO AORJiaA'b dTOTb He coctoajica; ohi Gujh, RaRi bhabo 
H8^ CA^JiaHHOft Ha homi otitItrh, ocianoBJieH'b renepajTb-npoKy- 
popoMi H RaBajiepoiTb RHflseu'b BflseMCRHMi), npHSHaBaBmBicb, 
AOJixHo noJiaraTb^ HeyAofiHUBTb, b^ BBAy cocTOABmarocA Buco<iaft- 
maro noBeJiiniA, BOsfiyscAa'Tb hh R'b neiiy ne BeAyouft Bonpoc^ o 
nopflAR^ ero o6'bflBJieHiH. 3to noBOJi'lHie roho^ho HcnoJiH)iJioc& 
B 6081 cenaTCRaro o6^siBjienm OneRyncROMy CoBtiy, RaKi dto 
BHAHO an nosAHMmaro nacbMa BeuRaro orb 1 AeRa6pA 1774 torn 
TOifb, €^0 BCARaro sBanifl cnporb, roh, sa ocTaBJienieirb hii 
poACTBOHHEROB^ HJiH ApyrHXi RaRHxi-JiBGo none^BTejie&, Bi> pas- 
cyjRAeHie Majiux'b cbohxi Jiirb, Birbib nponBraHie He 6yAyrB; nax- 
jiesHT^ npBHBMaTb B^ BocnHTaiejibHufi aomi>; hto trq no loicy e n 
cxoACTBie CRasaHEaro bi AonoJineHie ne ny6jiHR0BaH0, to oabi^ 
CTBeHHO A^H Toro, HTO, HO mrksi Ha to npECTOfiHofi cyMMu, He ca^- 
jiano H cJiiAy^Maro 6uTb yqpejRAOHk, a no BumecRa8aHH0Hy cno- 
cn'IniecTByH BOcnExaTejibHbifl aoitb ceny 6jiaroMy AiJiy^ CROJibRO no 
ycMOxpiHiK) MicTa E Ri coAepxanlK) xixi chocoOhocte AOCxaBaib 
6yAerb, ecjiE esi TaROBuxi cflporb abjiatboi CTaHyxi, npHHEHaeifU 
6uTb Moryrb, cji^Ay^ npoHEMi ysaROHeniflM'b bi BOcnEiaHiei ne 
CBume Tofi cnocoGnocTE Ji'i^rb, RaRi caME HaiaTb MOryTi oa%- 

BaTbCA. 

Ho noHEMo p'fimeHiA Bonpoca o npioEt Ai^Teft B^ yqpeacAOHHufi 
BOCHETaTejibHufi AOMii, BB nepBuo jRe AHB ero cyn^ecTBOBanifl HaA- 
JieacaJio ycTanoBBTb na npaRXERt bck) BHyipenHioK) opranEsaii^iK) 



Cm. TaKse HcTopiio Poccin— C. M. GoiOfibeBa, t. XXIX, CTp. 179 ii 
ciix* B MaTepiaju jujl HCTopiH HxnepaTopcR&ro MocKoscKaro BocnuTaTeiB- 
flaro AOMa— r. ApaniycoBa. MocKBa.— PyccK. ApxHsi 1888 roAa, J^l, ct.253. 



— 169 — 

CJioJKHaro A^Si KopMJreHiH e yxo^a sa npHHOCHUHB a^tlmh, o ro- 
TopoH'B wb nepBofi qacTH reHepasBHaro njiana^ RaRi> HaifH Bume 
noRasaHO, dohth HH^^ero ne ynoMiiHjTO. 3th HeJiOHHu^ noApo6HOCTH 

AOJIAHU 6UJiSL 6UTL yCTaHOBJieHU ROHOHHO JIHaaMB, ROTOpUM% 6UJI0 

BBipeHO rjiaBHoe saBiAHBanie caMHHi aomomi, — t. e. rjiaBBHMi 
Ha;i3HpaTejieiiT> (coBMicTflO Cb oneRyHasiH), RaROBUM'b 6ujl% easHa- 
HeH'b BiKTo PocTB, npo4>eccop'b MocROBCRaro yHEBepcHTeia, he- 
TaBmift no cjioBaMi TaxoHpaBOBa BoeHHyio apxHieRxypy e <|>opTH- 
^ERaiuK) ^). XoTfl dTon ^ojnb yHeHuxi* saHfliifl Pocxa uosRBTb bos- 
6yAHTB H'iROTopoe HeAoyH^Hie, noHOMy BMenHO saBiAHrBaoie nepBO- 
HanajiBHHM'b BOcnHTaHlem a^tbA 6ujio BOSJotoKeHO Ha PocTa, ho 
dTOTB BuOop'b BO BOflROM'b cjiyHat HORasuBaei'B CTpeifjieHie BeARaro 
HOCxaBHTb BO FJiaB"! ocHOBEHHaro EMi» yqpesRAeniH, HOJiOBiRa bu- 
Aaioiitaroca no CBoeny oGpasoBaHiio, RaREm hbjiajic& HecoMHiHHO 
iipo^eccop^ yHEBepcHTOTa. RaRHxi-jiHGo yRasanift o A^xejiBHOCTE 
PocTa, Ha aTOMi hobom'l nonpflii;^ e oTHomeniax'B ero Kb BeoROMy 
HaMi He yAajiocb Ha&ATE; HSBiciHo tojilko, hto obi> saHEMaji'b 
MtcTO rjiaBHaro naASEpaTeJifl AOHa BecBMa ne AOJuro, laRi RaRi 
CB HeCojiBniEM'B lepesi roAi, h to nocat ApyrExi Asyx^ rjiaB- 
HHXi) HaASBpaTOJiefi, TaROBUMi flBJiHOTca ESBicTHufi ECTopiorpa^'B 
MEJuiepi, HasHaneHie Roxoparo xaRse CBHAtTOJiBCTByeTi o tomi x,e 
CTpeicJuemE Bei(Raro, t. e. o cxpeifJieHiE nwbTb rjiaBHUMi naASHpa- 
paTOJieH^ AOMa neJioBtRa ofipasoBaHnaro e yMHaro. Ci MaJiJiepoH'B 
BeixKoft BQjvb He Majtyio nepenncRy, ao naci AomeAmyioH ci roto- 
poK) He JiEmnee nosHaROMEXB HExaxejiefi. 

B-B 1765 r. 6uji'B a EsOpaHi ^), HsmerB cau'B MEJinepi, Ri 
HMtnlK) rjiaBHaro HaASEpaniH naA^B BOcoExaTeJiBHBiM'B aomoitb nec- 
H^acTHO po^AeHHHXi MJiaAeni^eB^, npn ^ewb npoHSBeAeHi bi^ roju- 
jiexccRie cob'^there. Ciio, xota ne CBOftCTBeHHyio Moefl crjiohhocth, 
AOJiacHocTB npEHiiJi'B H Ha ce6a eABHCTBeHHO jifin nocjiymamH Bce- 
MHJiocTHBMmeMy coHSBOJieHiio e bi* ynoBanie, hto npHTOiTB bos- 
MoacHo MH*]^ 6yAerB noJiBsoBaxBCH hocrobcrhme apxEBaEH ji,jih poc- 

CifiCROfi ECTOpiE, ^OICB Si Obiji'b oSHaAeJROH'B. 

TpyAu MOE npE AOMi BC^Rift ce6^ npeACTaBETB MoaierB, pas- 
cyAEBi), HTO cie ynpeacAenle, aro tojibro sa toaT) npeAtrlBi'B ocho- 



*) Cm. CjoBapB npo4)eccopoBi MocaoBCKaro yHUBepcnTexa— coct. Die- 
BupeBum^ TaKxe coHHtieeie H. C. TaxoHpaBoea, t. Ill, ?. 1, ct. 92. 

') Cm. C5opBHRi> MocKOBCKaro TjaBHaro ApxoBa Mhh. HsocTpaH. A'^jt 
1899 roAa Bunycsi 6-ft CTp. 515. 



— 170 — 

saHHoe, HenpecTaHHo ipeCoBsuio o BcaRHxi HaAo6HOCT4xi cTapame, 
no yciaHOBJieHHOMy njiany TOHHaro HcnojmeHifl h hi caMua iteJiRifl 
noApo6HOCTH BXOJRAeHie; eAsa RaRi sa T6irBy»e Kh ipyxairb hcto- 
pH^ecKHHi o6paiitaTbCfl hh ifajitfimaro BpeiieHH hhI h6 ociaBa- 
jiocb, He Mon H He sejiaTb CRoparo on> BOcnHTaxeJibHaro Aoiia 
nepeirbiAeHiH, hto no Buco^aflmefl MoaapxEHH ri HayRaicL npo- 

SOpJIHBOCTH H KG MH^ HeHSp'^HeHHOfl MIIJIOCTH CROpO H BOBHOCJli^ 

AOBajio». 

Msjuiepi A'&ftcTBHTejiBHo yxe wb anptjii 1766 r, no yRasy 
HHnepaTpHAU nepeBOAeHi vb apxHBi MHHHCTepciBa HHOCTpanmim 
A^i» B^ Mocrb6 h oiRHAajii npeAuicTHHRa, ROTopuft 6yAerb npK- 

CJiaHl B'B BOCQHTaTeJIIiHBlft AOMX. Ho npOCJiyjRHBl Bl dTOMl Aont 

BecbMa RopoTRoe apeMH, orojio roAa Bcero, MHJiJiepiycntjii cocTaBHXb 
HHCipyRiuH HJiH npaBHJia jifln (|>H3HqecRaro coAepsaHia A^reA, ajkh 
rjiaBHUxi HaASHpaTejieft h rjiaBHOft HaASHpaiejiBHHau BocnHTaTejiB- 
Haro AOHa, a laRxe arh dROHona h Rasna^en onaro, HanHcaHHKfl 
opaBAa Ha HiiieipcoHi iisuR'i, no vh nepeBOA^ BomeAmifl CoJibmeio 
HacTbK) wh cocTaB^ AonoJiHHTejibHHX'b yaaROHenifl o BOcnHraiejiB- 
Bowb AOM'6, HSJiOHceHHHX'b BO II H III ^acTflxx ero y^pesKAeHin. IIo 
HHHO BToro MBJiJiep-b Bi dTO ^0 Bpeiui Bejii SHa^HTOJibHyK) nepe- 
HHCRy c^ BeKRHMi Ha HliMeuROifb H ^paflKyscROM^ flSHRaxiy Ha- 
ne^iaTaHHyfo yjRe ^ncTOBHqeMi ^), npeACxaBJiaion^yiocfl b% Bucmefl 
cxeneHH jnoConuTHOio ne TOJibRo js^a Giorpa^iH MejiJiepa, ho h ca- 
Haro BeuRarOy na Roiopofi noaiOMy h CHBTaeici neoGxoAHMHirb He 
KHoro ociaHOBBTbCA, oGpaTHBii npesAB Bcero BHHMaHie en^e h na 
cJi'^Ayion^ee oGcTOflieJibCTBO, 

Bi nopT<j[>ejr6 Mejunepa Ji 394 ^) xpaHHTca npncJiaHHaa eny 
Bei^RHiTb Gpomiopa na aHradftCROicb asbiRi. « Essay upon nursing 
and the inanagenienl of children from their birth to three years 
of age by W. Cadogan, now physician to the foundling hospital, 
in a letter to a governor. London 1757. printed for lohn £nap- 
toii». T. e. CoB'bTEi RopMJieHiH H BOcnHianiH A^xeft, co a^h hx'b 
poxA^Hifl AO TpexjrbTHiiro BOspacTa, coctaBJieHHue r. RaAoraHOUb, 
Bb HacTOflH^ee BpoMfl BpaHem npH BOcnHTaTejibHOicb aoh^^ bi JIoh- 
Aoni. 

IIpHCbiJiRa arofi 6poniiopu Boij^rhhi CBHA^TeJibCTByerb ho TOJibRO 



') Ck. ^Tesifl 06m. •Sk)6. HcTopin IpeBBOCTH npH Mocrob. ynBBep. sa 
1863 r. ^acTB IV ct. 112 h cj4a 

') Cm. Mocbob. rjaB. Ap. Mad. Eh. fiM^* nopt^eiu Meiiepa J^ 394. 



— 171 — 

o TOiTB, HTO eny 6kuio HseibcTHO o cymecTBOBaHlH ne ss^ojiro ne- 
peA'B riwb ocBOBaHHaro bt* JIohaoh% BocnBxaTejibHaro Aona, ho h o 

TOUX, HTO OH'b C06HpaJIl no BOSMO^HOCTH nOApOOHUH CBiA^Hlfl 

Bceiiii oTHOCAiaeMCA AO xaRoro poAa aokobi, cymecTBOBaBmHX'B bi> 
Apynixi CTpaeaxi, hto6u BOcnojiBsoBaibCH hmh, ynpexAan b-b 
nepBuft pas'b bi> nameicB OTonecTBi hIhto hmii qoaoShoo. Ohi 
cxapajicfl cji^AOBaTB, no bo3mo»hocth, npHuipaMt n onnTaicB, sa^ 
cjnyauEBaionitHMi noApa»aHifl, hto Koaeqao HasaexcA cbItjiok) nep- 
TOio xapaRiepa Bei^caro. 

Tin nncem ero Kb MiuiJiepy ^) h6o6xoahmo npHATH ri aa- 
KJiioqeHiK), HTO 6ei](Roft, ecjiH ne na npaRTHR*!, to no Rpafinefi 
Mtp-I no TOopiH, H8% coHBHeniit o BocnniaTeJibHUX'B AOBfaxii h 
HBOcnHTaniH A^xeft, Cujtb snaROMi co bc&mh saTpyAHeniaiiH, 6e3y- 

CJIOBflO COnp^KeHHHMH Cb yCTpofiCTBOlTBAOBCa, AJIH BOCnHTaniH HJIH 

TOHHie jifla BCRapHJiBBamA MJiaAeni^eBi, sa OTcyrciBleKib noqeny 
jiin6o Hxii iiaiepefi^ nyTeirb nocTopoHneft noMon^n. Kpoiii loro ohi> 
npocHJKTi MnjiJiepa bsjioshtb eny na pyccROfiii asur^ ace, ito ohi* 
npHsnaerb Hy»HiiMi> jiflR yjiynmeHk 3Toro yHpe^Aenifl, a TaR»6 
npcACTaBHTb npaBABBoe onzcanie Bcfcxi cyn^ecTByion^Bxx sjioyno- 
Tpe6jieHi& b a&3K6 xtxi), ROTopHA MoryTB BOSHBRHyiB, RaRii B^ na- 
CTOJimeifB, laRi b bi 6yAyn^e]n>. GooTB'ikTCTBeHHO nojiyqennHMi* 
on MBJiJiepa CBiA'bHi^Bi Bei^ROft naMipesajiCH AonojinaxB BHCipyR- 
lUfl CJiyHan^QTB npn aoh*!. (Cm. bbcbmo 9 iiOHa 1765 roA&) ^). 
CooSn^aa BeuROMy o bcgmi npoBcxoABBmoMB bb aom%, a xaR^e o 
CBOBxi npeAnojio^eniax'B (RaRi to: o noRynR^ Aona, o6i ycTpofi- 
CTsi niROJiH o6yHeHiA bi aom^, o BBinncRt nosapnofl xpyCn bbb 
JIoHAona B T. aO) MBJiJiepi» bi> cbobxi» nncBMaxB roBopBXii o toh-b 
xaRse, ^to act 6jiarocjioBjiflKm» Bei](Raro sa yqpesAeHie Bocnnxa- 
xejiBHaro AOMa; ynoMBHaexB o xomi, hto hbcjio npBHOcnuxi A'^^eft 
SHaHBxejibHo yaeJiB^BBaexca; hxo Heo6xoABMo cn^mnxb Bucxponxb 
H'icROJibRO AOMOBi, BJiB npBfianaxb xaROBue; hto OAsa jib cjiijiyerb 
sanBCUBaxB boa'b Jm jiibreA^ ue Horyn^nxi ocxaaaxBCA mBBUMB. 
OxB^naA Ha Bce dxo MflJiJiepy, BeniKOft yRasuBaexi), hxo paspimenie 
OTHXi* npeAnojioxenift saBBcnxi oxi Coaixa, Roxopony 
CjimRO B jnynme bsb^^cxhh bc^^ oGcxoaiejibcxBa, HeaceJiB BeAROBy 
(nncBBa ero oti» 18 anpijia 12 icaa, 9 iiOHii ^). 

*) SaMtTHMi HTO Bei^KOfi numerb cbok) (t>aMHjiio na (f)paBuy3CK0H'b azuKh 
Bet2kj, a Mnjuep'b Bezkoi. 

Cm. ^TeaiA 05m. •2[x)6. Hcxop. Ap^bh. npH yHHsep. 1863 r. h. 
cxp. 112 u cjiiA- 

') Tam se. 



— 172 — 

HeJiBSfl TaK^e ne saiilTHTL mto y&e m caMoicB nanajit y^pe- 
TRjsfifAE BocnHTaxejiBHaro Aona boshhkjih HeAopasyiii^Hifl h fleco- 
rJiaciB cpeAH cJiyacan^xi) bi ohomi; cooCn^eHla 061 ^TOM^ Mhji- 
jiepa BeipcoMy busbbjih co CTopoHU nocJi^AHflro CJiiiAyK)ii^ifl CTpoRH: 
«Ayezsoin, Monsieur, que par Votre exempleon puisse se corriger 
dans retablissement, de montrer le moins qu'il soit de vigueur, de 
caprice et de fantaisie, pour que rharmonie et Taccord regneat 
partout (nHCBMO 9 ifona) hjih neHHoro pau^ surtout rharmoniey 
le contenteniement et I'accord de tous ceux qui appartiennent i 
la maison, fait le point essentiel» (hhcbmo 12 Has). OieBBAHO^Hio 
TOJiBKO pasAopu H HecoFJiaciH, cyn^ecTBOBaBmiii bi aom% Me«Ay cjiy* 

^an^HMH, MOFJIH BUSaaTB nOA06HHA CipORH. ^peSl H^CKOJIBRO AHefi 

Bei^Rofi npHMO UHinerB. cYous Yoyez par ]k Monsieur, que I'essen* 
tiel se n6glige qui est la douceur, Taccord et rharmonie, sans lea 
quels aucun etablissement ne pent subsister (ohcbmo 19 iioH«). 
Ho CRopo 8TH Hecorjiacifl h HenoBEHOBenifl HanaJiBCTBy ao loro ao- 
fflJiH, HTO BeAROfl, Bi OTBirB MujiJiepy, oa ero 061 310111 yeiAO- 
MJienie, npano namerB bi 0RTH6pil765 r.: 

cWenn demnach der Aufseher Hauser ^) und seine Frau sich 
gegen die Yerordnungen des Ober-Aufsehers sooftmahl wieders- 
panstig bezeigt haben, so hat man gegen diese Leute weit mehr 
Nachsicht gebraucht, als die gute OrdnungdesHausesverstattet 
hatte; man soUte nicht so lange gewartet haben, bis solche 
unruhlge KOpfe drohen ihren Abschied zu nehmen, sender man 
soUte ihnen bei dem ersten Ungehorsam den Abschied gegeben- 
haben. Hierdurch ware man der Zaukereien entilbrigt gewesen 
als wozu man es niemahls muss kommen lassen, weil sie dem Hause 
schimpflich sind und dem s«lbeneine Able Nachrede zuziehen». 

EpoMi Toro H xo3flficTBeHHafl HacTB AOMa He OTJinnajiacB raRxe 
nopflAKOM'B.- OnoRyHfii ne nafijiioAaJiH aojikhbim'b o6pa30M'B, npHBO- 
AHJiH TbMi Bei^Raro b'b oT^aHHie n oni bt* nscBMi^ cboomi Kb Mhji- 
jiepy 24 HHCJia tofo xe ORTHfipa fobophtb: «avec une telle econo- 
inie nous serous bientot la rlsee de tout le public et avec ralson. 

TaRHMi odpasoMi yxe bi caMue nepnue roAa cyn^ecTBOBanifl 
BOCnHTaiejibHaro AOMa, cpoAH saBiAyron^HXT* ohmmt* ho cyn^ecTBO- 
BaJio AOJiHceaFO corjiacin h OAHHOAymiA, ctojib Heo6xoAnMUx% ajih 
ycnixa Ra^Aaro A'i^Jia, h4mi BeDiROfl laRi ^acTo HanoMHHaerB 
oneRynaM'B. Ho aiOMy neyABBHxejibHO, hto h peayjiBTaTBi ynpas- 
Jienia aomom^ AaJieRO ho cooTBtTciBOBaJi HOHCHAaniaMTi BeniRaro. 

M dro (i)aM{TaiA fedsep^. 



— 173 — 

no Mip*! Toro RaKi BOcnHTueaeHue bi AOici^ noApocxajiH 
Kpyrb ffiATejuEHOCTH BocnHiaTeJiBHaro j^OMa ycjio^HAJicfl. Ri aa- 

60TaMl» KOpMJieHiH H BOCnHiaHlH Atieft npHCOeAHHHJIHCB 8a60TU 

061 uLTh o67HeHiE H npH tomi* ne tojibbo oahoA rpaMOii, ho h pas- 
HJUiTB penecJiaMi h MacrepcTBaifb, CMOTpii no ((^HSHHecRHM'B CBoft- 
CTBaii'b H HBRJiOHBOCTflifB A'^TOft. 3a6oTacB 06% BTonTb ofiy^emH 
peMecJiaMii BeiiRoft, rbrb bhaho nsi ero nncBMa en^e b'b 1769 r., 
aerycTa 22,iiHcajrBCoBiTy, htoohi nplBCRajTB pasHNxi HHOCTpan- 
HiixB MaciepoBB JIM saaeAeBia npH BOCOHTaTejiBHOM'B aoh% pas- 
jiHHHaro poAa pyROA^JiBHHX'B MacTepcRHXi, ornpaaHJUB hxi wh 

MoCRBy, H SaRJIlOHHJI'B CI HHMH ROHTpaRTU Ha oSyHOHie BOCHHTH- 

BaeMuxi A^Teft. HeMHoro nosAH'be BeoROfl, bi nanaji'b napia 1770 r. 
^HcaJI^ GosiTy. 

cIIoHese BpeMH nacTynHjio o Bspocjiux'B HamHX'B uBTOMuax'B 
loicjiHTB, ycTanaBJiBBaTB n yqpe^AstTB peHecJia, sayRB h Many^aR- 
xypBii ^To yse a, co caoeft CTopoHH ba^^cb kIckojibro BcnpasjiHTB 
H Ha^aJi'B; to RaRX ajib onaro, laRT* h jiflR jnyHmnxi ycirtxoB*B bo 
Bcibxi A^^AXi*, no AOMy yAOBOJiBCTBieni h cnocoGcTBOBaHieMi rjiaa- 
Hoft HaASHpaTanBHHAi h sa rJiaaHaro naASHpaxeJiH) coBtTaicH h 
DpHninaHiflMH BB cBJiy Tpexi Hacieft njiana no ^^nsBRi, no na- 
(jnoAaiejiBCTBy HpaBoyneHia b no naTyp*! BOcnHTaHia no aROHOMiH 
H npo^BMy; to fiesB cyMHOHia naxoxy ^to r'b TOMy oco6jiHBOMy 
6uTB naAJie^HTB TpyAOJiio6HBOMy noHoraTeJiK). flaiyCHJiy rjiaBU 2 -A 
co6paHlH OneayHCRaro CoBiia § 8,3a cnocoOHtftmaro rt> TaKOMy 
A'bJiy naxosy ero npoBOCxoAHxeJiBCTBOy HaaHa HBanoBH^a MejiB- 
CBHO, no TOMynaHnane, mo na MHOrax'B asuRaxB RopemnoHAemuK) 
BB HyKHxi Rpaaxi HMierB, ht6 Mni R'B MHorony ofijieneHim cJiy- 
XHTB Moaex^; naAtiocH, hto RaRB noHTeHHiflmifl CoBiTB bi tom'b 
CO MHOK) corjiacoHB, TBRB H offB OTB TBROFO TpjAa, no ycopAHOMy 
CBoeMy ^ejiOBiROJiK)6lH), OTpenca ne h8bojihtb» ^). 

BcRop6 nocjii 8Toro Beiptoft npeAJiarajiB CoBtiy A^Tefi o6oero 
nojia oCynaTB cBofiCTBennuMB hx-b aospacTy paCoTaMi, ROTopna 
MoatHO npoHBBOABTB Bi AOM*, RaRi-Toi HJieTeHiioH BasaHiH) pasHUx^ 

map^OBX, JIOHTB, nJiaTROB*B H3B paBJIHHHBIX'B meJIROB'B CB BOJlOTOlfB 

H cepe6poin> ^), Taaace niHTBio TaiiCypoMB, BaaaHBio $Hjiie, bha*jir% 
JieBTB H noayMOHTOBB, pasHKiMB pyROA^JIBaM^ *). 9to ace noaejio 
RB TOMy HTO npH BOcnHTaTeJiBHOM'B AOMt oCpaaoaajica nocTenenHO 



*) Cm. n. B. 1770 ro^B. 

Cir. at. M. On. Cob. 1771 r. ^eBpajrH 22. 
Tan ze 1782 r. Hoa6pa 22. 



i 



— 174- 

PAA1> CaHHX'B paSHOOGpaSHUX'B MaCTOpCKHX'b ^), H31 ROTOpUXl 6OJIB- 

man lacTB He Aasajia yAOBJieTBOpETej[[bB[urB pesyjiBTaTOsi. Macrepa 
H o6yHajiH njioxo h ;^epxaJIH ce6a xyjo, laKi hto yxe ci 1772 r. 
MHorie HS'b HaHflTHxi iiacTepoBi, no hxi CesnojtesHocTE, yBOJib- 

HAIOTCfl, CI T%MT> ^o6B[ daiftHHTB 11X1, APyrHHH, SSaiOIipHH A^JIO, 

HTo6u ^jkruL BOspaciaioii^iH ne Morjm npoBoacaTB Bpeica bi npasx- 
HOCTH, 6e3'B Hay^eHifl TOicy, hto wb hxi jkhshh naBcer^^a nponn- 
Tanie n TBepAoe cnacTie no^HiaeMO 6bitb aoji^cho. Ho 8Ta nepe- 
M%Ha MacxepoBi He conpoBOJRAajiacB jseJuaeMHifi ycni^xoiTB h Bejsr 
KOflno3OT4e, BB 1785 r.,nHcajii CoBiTyoneoSxoAHMOCTH saKpHTB 
«6oJiBmHHCTBO ^aSpmcB h Many^aKTypi npa AOirt, RaRi ne npB- 
HOCflmExi HHKaROft BfeiroABi fiametfy AOMy, a hto 6ojiie h HHRaEofi 
noJiBsu HamBMi nHTOMixairB». 

KpoMt o6yHeHifl iiacTepcTBaM'B bi* aom^^, MHorla hsi ^tireft ot- 
AaBaJiHCB Wb o6y?eHie k^ paasHHHBTH'B nacTepaifi BHt AOMa, KaicB 
Hanp. 20 HBTOMi^eBii oGynaJiHCB 4>sip(f)opHOMy jifbjij y (j|)a6pHRaHTa 
FapAHepa;^) Apyrie Ha4>a6pHKi Facca^), saHHHaBnieflcH bha'&jiroh) 
6aflKB; y Hacrepa TaHHayapa h t. a. Ho h 3T0 ne HMiJio ycalxa; 
MacTepa oCynajiH jtTefl njioxo; k-b TOMy ae oCpan^ajiHCB xy^o Ch 

BBipaeMUHH HMT* BOCnHTaHHHRaHH H BOCnHTaHHHaaHH, RaRl BHAHO 

HSi npnJiaraeMaro nHCBMa BeaRaro 1784 roAa ^). Rpoirb peMecJiB 
BB AOM^b o6yHajiir A'^Ted MysuRi, t. e. nrpaTB Ha pasHuxx HHCTpy- 
MeHTaxii CMOTp^ no crjiohhocth RascAaro, a TaRace ci^eHHqecRBH'B 

HJIH TeaTpaJlBHUMl A'ifiCTBiHfii'B, A-Ofl lOFO HaHATB CUJTB MoCROBCRifi 

aRTepi BacHJiift noMepani^eBi ^), a TaRjRe HiMei^ROiiy AsuRy m 



*) TaB'b B3B js,±rb £ei](Raro,xpaBAiiiiixciiB'BapxHBt OacKyBCKaroGoB'bTa 
BB DeTepCypri, bhaho hto BaHATu 6ujih no KOEjkaniKWb aih o^yneHia A^refi 
MacTepcTBaMT.: nepqaroHHOMy— MaHSOTB; KpacHjiBHOMy-HaHy(l)aRTypniffKa Tefl 
vh 1772 T.; (Cm. ApxiiB'B C. E. H. B. KaBi;. no ynpeacA- Hm. Mapiii CBussa 
JV« 1. A'hx. J^ 23). KpyseBBOuy T. e. a'^'atb paasHqnua KpyxcBa Kasi nHca.iu 
nyani ab BeHBCi, AanrjeTepiBT. a. h^rto KaMuionn bb 1779 r., 
(raM'b aecB. J^ 4 a'^JO J^ 479), TOKapaoiiy — BaiBA6epn>; GyuaseftHOuy — MacrepB 
FacB; raiannoMy— Macxepi— <J)onB-AepT»inTaMi»; canoatnoMy— FoTcfpefiTB, 'ly- 
jnoHnoHyna cTanKi— Tpo^imi MnxafiiOBi; sojioTOMy Hcepe5pjiiiBoiiy— FHj&Ae- 
6paHT'x>; A'^aTB niejKOBUB jchtu, qyjKH h KaiiaojiH— Bepereui; (tbmb xe cb. 
^ 4 A^jio JV: 479) iioaojOTHOMy, rpaBBposajiBHOMy, riabBmepnoMy— nacxepi 
CaHAO Bi 1784 r. TaMi xe a*Jo CHpoTCKaro HacTHTyTa J* 123. 

Hsi xyp. QeT. B. A. 1772 r. 0RTJi6pii 17 bhaho 4ToonpHcujBt MacTepa 
canoxHHRa aib o6yieniB A'^xefi bua'^^k'^ A'i^TCRofi o6yBu uHcajB bi BoenuyH) 
uoxoAHys) KaHiiejiBpiK) rpa(j[)a PaayMOBCBaro. Rpont Toro npn AOMt Atjajiir 
nrpajBBUfl RapTU n o6yqajn TOMy BOcnHTaBBHROBti o ^eu'b CKaaano HHxe. 

') Cm. ApxHBT) C. E H. B. Kaei;. no y w. lltf. MapiaOneR. cob*t. 1779 r. 
J^ 160. 

■) TaMB xe 3Kyp. OueB. Cob. 1782 r. H0fl6p. 22, ex. 234. 
Cm. npHJOxeeie >& 8. 
Cm. aCyp. MocR. OneK. CoB^ra 1780 r. crp. 180. 



=! 



— 175 — 

TaHpair^- IIo noBoxy oOy^ema x^iefi ciieHHMecRHiii AUcTBian 
BeKKoft uKcajtb CoBiTy cxl^^yiomee: ^). 

cAKiepoBB ace jpiz oGy^eHifl BOCDHiaHHHKOBi BHRaiuirb nin 
Hyzjpi HviTb Ha sajioBaHLi, A^flioro hto BociiHTaflHHRairb nyxHO 
TOJBKO pasABBaeiaui HiTB BO Bpenfl ryjiamfl, BiiicTO saCaBi, 
poJiH saTBepxHTb, noA'B npHCHOTpoM^ CBOHXiyHHTeaeAHnonpaBROK) 

orb HMXl TOJIBRO Vb HHCTOMl* npOHSHOmeHUI p^HH DO CBOflCTBy 

ji3iiRa; Tor^a caiia sarypa noicasuBaTB CyAerb htoCu no npHCioft- 
HOCTH A^ftcTByion^HMH noRasaTBCfl Horjn; a no Buy^Ki yse b sa- 
TBepacBHiH Tbrb, kofab hbaoGho 6yAerB CAiJiaTb npo6y, to hb to 
Bpeiui npHFJiacB Eoro-jraCo hsi aRiepoBi hto6u JiBmb Korb noRa- 
saxb oco6eHHbifl bxi TeaTpajibHUfl yxBaiRH, nanp. OTRyAa, wh ro- 
Topoe Bpena na Tearp'b buDath, tji,^ ocTaeoBHTbCB h t. a*, ROTopuMi 

OIHaSRAU TO HJIH H^ROJIbRO paST* nORBSaBmBlTb, M03RH0 CA^JIBTb 

noAapoK'b no npHCT0flH0CTH». 

KpoMi Toro Hi^ROTopue HS'b BOcnHTUBaeiiux'b bi aom^ OTAa- 
BMHCb Bi) oCyHenie coAepacaTeJiaMi> TeaipoB^ bi MocrbI — MejiOEcy, 
a Bi IleTepCyprfe — KHnnnepy bt. 1779 r., a TBRace H3B*CTH0My 
aRiepy JljicHTpeBCROMy. IIo noBOAy noAo6HofiOTAaiB BOcnHTUBaeHuxx 
cojiepsaTeJiJiM'b TeaTpa BeAKoft noApo6Ho BucRasajicji bt> npsjiojReH- 
HOBfb nHCbirb 1784 roA^ ^), HiieHHo nro <^ujbjih TBRoro saBeAenifl 
eAHHCTBCHHO, HTo6bi o6oero nojia BocoBTaHHBRH MeacAy npoHBMi 
BM'kiH 6bi H TeaTpajibHoe HCRyccTBO, AA^Bi no BuxoA'i CBoe&rb Ttu'b 
Ki qeicy 6oJiie crjiohhocth oRascyTi mofjih AOCTBBBTb ce6i npo- 
HHTaHie CBo6oAHoe». A a-hh aioro Bei^KOfi npe^JiaraJii AOSBOJiHib 
coAepHaTejiK) TeaTpa nojibsoBaTbca BOcnnTUBaeMUMH b% jsfiwk ajih 
npeACTaBjieHift na TeaTp*]^ aomb, noAi* naAsopoM'b rr. oneRynoBi. 

Hsi HHCJia BOcnHTUBaBmnxcH B^ Aoui naflCoJiie cnocoCnue o6y- 
HajuflCb jiaTBHCROHy asuKy, roTOBHCb Kb HsyneHiK) anTeicapcKaro A'^a, 
3a Tbwb OTnpaBJifljiHCbB'BlIeTepGyprb, AJiHonpoA'bJieHifl BitRJiaccbi npn 
aRHAeMiH xyAO^ecTB'B hjih bt* yqpe^eHHoe npn BOcnuTaTejibHOM'b o6- 
qecTBi 6jiaropoAHux'b a%bhi](i, M'ibmancRoe OTAtjienie, hjih hjih 
oCyqeHia noBHBajibHOMy HCRyccTey, npn IleTepCyprcROMT* BocnHTa- 
TejibHOM^ AOMt. HiKOTopue »e ornpaejiBJincb A^sce Bi CTpac6ypni 
Bi yHHBepcBTeTii AJifl oSyHeniH MeAHAHHu h botb hb KaROirb ocho- 

BOHIh. HaniT» nOJIHOMOHEblft MHHBCTp'b Bl B'bHi RHHSb JIj. M. FOJIB- 



') Cm. n. B. OT. 1773 r. eoa6pB 15. 
') Cb. npHjioseHie J^ 9. 



— 176 — 

ujam, nHCJUTb 2 aeiycra 1769 r^ BeaKOiiy ^), 'ito eiiy He Cesi* 
HSB'bcTHO, HTO BT» BFO npHcyTCTBlH DOKOftHafl cynpyra KH^sa Ena- 
lepHHa JI^HTpiesHa, po»AeHHa)i RHHjRHa KaHTenHpoaa, 6yAyHH bi> 
IlapB^, uejRAy nponaM'b yHHHHJia saeimaHie npH ciiepTB, o yno- 
TpefijieHin h8i> oa coCcTeeHHaro mAnm H'i^ROTopofl cyiiMu AenerE 
Ha nocHJiRy bt> nyjKiH rocyAapcTBa, pocciftcRHX'B hojioauxi, HeAO- 
CTaTO^HUxi jiioAefl a^^ oOj^enui bxi» BpaneCHOft HayRt. 

MHOxecTBO jiHmaBmBxcfl orb Bpa^eBama noMon^H, bi ctoju^ 
npocTpaHHoft HHoepiH RaRi Pocci^, no6yAHJia ee Kh aioify nairb- 
peniio. PasHUA o6cToaTejibCTBa openaTCTBOBaJiH uui (nHmerb To- 
JIHI^IH^) HcnojiHHTB HopyieHHoe cie OTh em A'^Jia. HuHi npHCTy- 
nax Ri aTOuy onpeAiJi^H) Ha aio cyuny 22.000 py6jie& bi» SaHKb, 
HTo6u oocujiaTb Hpesi RajKAue mecib jjtrb no Tpn nejiOBtKa 

HSl PoCCiH, Vh OJkEWh HS'b HHOCTpaHHfilX'b yHHBepCHTeTOB'b A^Il 

o6y?eHiii MeAHiiHHH n en ^acTSM'b: XEpypiin, noBHsajibHOHy HCKyc- 
CTBy, AORTopCTBy if ApyrHU'b noipeCHUMi nay Rani. Ohh aojurhu 
6uTb orb 15 AO 18 Jiirb, hs^ BOJibHUXi poccifiCRHxi JifOAOft, co- 

CTOATb eAHHCTBeHHO Bl B'l&A^HiH OnORH HMHepaTOpCRarO MOCKOB- 

CRaro BocnHTaiejibHaro AOMa. GoAepacaxb hxi Ha Bceirb roTOBuirb 
B-b yHEBepcHxerf. Be^R0ft coo6^^HJI^ o6'b 3tomi CoBiiy ^) h yae 
m> 1770 roAy 6bijih oinpaBJieHbi hsi> Mocrbu sa rpanHi^ Tpn boc- 
nzTaHHHRa Bh Crpacfiyprb, npo:RBBaBmie TaM^ noAT> HaSjuoAeHlen'b 
npo^eccopa Koxa, KOTopufi coofin^ajii 5e£a&0My RpaTRia CB^A'^Hia 
o6i> Hxii saHamxi h oCpas*! hx7> jkhshh. 

He cMOTpa na bck) 3a6oTJiHBocTb o a^tbx^, RaRaa TOJibRo 
Oujia BOSMO^na co CTopoHu EeiiKaro, upeduBaBmaro u bT) ne 
MaJiOMi orb HHxi pascTOHHlH H sanararo MHorHMH ApyrHMH 
A'feJiaMH, BocnHiaHie h ofiyneflie A^Teft, o ROxopHx^ nenocpeA- 
CTBOHHO AOJiseKb 6HJi'b saSoTHTbCH FJiaBHuft HaASHpaTOJib H one- 
RyHibi coBibxa, naxoAHJiocb, cyAA no npBCUJiaeMuii'b bsi Mo- 
CROBCRaro AOMa wh IleTepSypHb nHTOMuaM'b o6oero nojia, AajioRO 
He B^b yAOBjiexBopHTeJibHOM^ nojiOHeeiH. EeARofi nHcajrb CoBiiy 
6-ro aBrycia 1779 roAa: «hto cyAa no npacJiaHHHMT* hsi AOMa 
nHTOHi^aM'b o6oero nojia, beaho CROJibRO BOcnnTanle ohhxt* Gujio 
He TOJibRO OTAaJiOHO OTb npeAnojiaraenaro npeAMexa, ho r^ cxbiAy 
HameMy, yHHSHxejibH'ike h BocnnxaHia caMBXi RpecxbHHCRHX'b A'^xeft^ 



*) Cm. HHCBMa rias. noneqHT. 1769 r. ccht, 25. 



, Cm. A'^ja BeuKaro cBassa :^ 1, jckio J^ 73, 75 u sypH. Ilex. Bocn. 
JtoMa 1770 r. ceei. 20. 



— 177 — 

vo HaHnaie npeirbTHie b% AiBymicaxi 6oJibinaro BOspacTa, npH- 
cJiaHHHxi AJifl ycnyrL b^ o6iitecTBo GoiaropoAHux'b x^bhi^b. He Ma* 
jiifimaro nocjrytnaHiA, HHRaROft coohhocth kl ynpaacHemHirb h 
TpyA0JiH)6iH); Hiraero KpoM-i^ HeBiacecTBa, HenoBEHOBeHia e ynpaBf- 

CTBa>? 

fl HEROi^ita E noAynaTB Toro He Monb, ?to6'b j^o TaROft nosop- 
Boft RpaftHOCTE cie rjiaBHi^ftinee ;^o bi npomeAmee BpeHa 6iiIb- 
mEMH AO cero npHCTaBHERaHE b npECTaBHEi^aKE 6ujio npeneOpe- 
3RBB0. Ho RaRi yTRB 6e3[iJioAHO C03Rajr6Tb TOiTB, qio norfl6jio, a 
nojiesH^e OTBpamaTB Tadn, uoryiqia BopeAB CJiyHETbCH, BpeAHBiH 
ynymeniH, e fljia Toro, HajtiocB, hto bh, rocyAapB moe, BocnpiaB- 
mie cauoESBOJiBHO aojihhoctb on^eai cexi* HecHacTHiix'B noTiqEreca 
BaniHM'B ycepAieHii, RaRi rocnoAEHy rjiaBHOHy naASHpaiejiK), laRi 
H rocno2R'6 rjiaBHoft naASflpatejiBHEi^, roem'b o tomi y«e oti» Mena 
HEcaHO, cnoco6cTBOBaTB wb nepeniHi^ no Ruwb yaoxpefijiHeMoa 

CJIEmROlTB RpOTROft CECTeHU Vb 06pa8t BOCDETaHiH ysRo BOspacTaio- 

mfcsTh A^Teff. HiTB npeAnflcano otl Heaa noARplnJiaTB HaciaBJieHia 
CBOB Bx OTBpan^eHie ctpoiitebux'b nETOMi^eBi otb jtIhocte, ROBap- 
CTBa E 3Jio6u, cTporocTuo, E Aa«6 B'B cJiy^iai neoAOJiEHaro ynpaii- 
CTBa fl TijiecHBrirB HaRasanieHi. Jlyqme saAi HeAOCToftHBTME, npE 
ApyrExi, flMi> noAo6Huxi, noRasaTB npEEipi rkwh, roe hoc^ao- 
BaTb EiTB npoRJiOHHU, He^oJiE, ynycRaH Ex^ pasBpaisocTB, naini 
xpaiTB ?eji0BiR0JiK)6ifl upoTBopHTB Bi coHMfliite BpeAHUXi jnoAeft; 
xaROBBie npEBfipu CTporocTE, h^crojibro pasi noBTopaeMue b'b 
npEcyrcTBiE rbxi, roe saHEHaiorB doptetbch, hsm^iocb HoryrB 

OTBpaTETB OTB SaROpOE'lJIOCTE B'B TOBTB E npOESBOCTE CipaXli BT> 

icfrJioiTB Ex% o6iiiecTB'6; jieqib 6fii loro, RpoBft rjiaBHaro naASEpaTejifl 

E rJiaBHOft HaA3EpaTeJIBHEIlBI, HERTO npOESBOAETB He OTBaXCEJICa. 

JI^jLsi Toro, HTo6^ yM'^TB pasirbpflTB naRasaHia no npeciynjieHiflM'B, 
Ha TO noTpe6Ha, noHETafi, fio^ecTBOHHaa npoaopjiBBocTB. Bee cie, 
npeAHEcaHHoe ajih HcnpaBJieHia aapocJiHX'B EcnopneHHUxii e hoao- 
nyiqeHia Kh lony npeRJiOHHUx'B noJiaraexcH ea to Bpeiffl, AOROJii 
HETOimu EcnpaBJieHBi E B'B HaAJie^Ran^ee nocjiymanle npEBeAenu 
6yAyTB. 

TaR^B jRe nponyn^eHO, npE cewb oCpaa*]^ BOcnETaHia, coBciMi 
He cxoACTBeHHOMi c% HaMipeHieu-B, e to, hto no 6oJibinoft ?acTE 
ESJiEaiHie cjiy^ETeJiE e TaKie jiioab npE Aont coAOpsaTca, roe 

TOJILRO E3Aep«KE yMHOKaiOrB E A0M1> MHOHCeCTBOE'B 6e3nojie3HBixx 

TyneflAi^eBi oraron^aiorB, noAasaa e A'bTHBTB npEBfipi CBoeft npa3A- 
hocte; B'B fijiaropaayMHHX'B ceMeftCTBax'B OTqBi ohmx'b ofiHRHOBeHHO 

B. n. BBI^SOfi. 12 



— 178 — 

OTAan^iorb najiiBmecTBO ^ejiflAHHiteBi, Aa6Bi a^tbH cbohxi npiyqarb 
Kb fijiaropasyMBOHy xoa^flcTBy h otl npasAHOJUoCia oiBpan^axb, 
cji'lAOBaxejiBHO h y nacb npn TaROin> npocTpaHHOiii xoaafiCTB^ emfi 
6ojiie HaAJieKHTB cxapaTbCH tomj noAo6Hoe CA^axb, no^eiiy h 
HaA'i^K)CB, HTO ynoipefiJieHie H3JiHmHHXi> h 6e3noj[e3HuxB npH AOici 
juoAefi, 6e3n;iOAHO aoxoau Aona HCion^aioii^Exi, coBepmeeHO CyAen 
OTpi^meHO, aji^ Toro, hto aIth cpeACiBeBHofi CTeaeHU He norocnoA- 
CRH AOJiaRHu BOCBBTaHu 6uTB, HO 6e8npecTaHH0 wb pa6oTaxiynpax- 

HATbCfl, TaKl, ^T06l> HHHTO 0Tb HXl pyRl BO yOUIO. ^A AOCTBa^eHlfl 

Hero ynoBaio fl no AOJiry Bameny ne ynycTnre npnjiosHTB samero 
BceBOBHOscBaro noneHeni^, htoOi ro BciifB cJiyjK6aM'B, ynpasne- 
ElBWb H HyjKAaiTB AOMa eAHHue tormo BocuBTaHHHRH ynoTpeCjifle- 
Mu, a Bci nocTopoHHie otb Toro HeneAJieHHO oxp'imeHii GuJiH^xaR'B 

HX06U OAHH XOJIbRO OHH (x. 6. BOCnHXaEHHRH) HCOpaBJIIIJIH, BM^CXO 

npeacAO HanHiiaeuux'b jiioAefi, Bdb AJia Aona noxpe6HUJi pa6oxu, 
AO caifaro BpeMOHH BunycRa hxi; nocjit Hero Apyrie xaRi srq mo- 
ryxT» sacxynaxb hxb Micxa. Cie eAHHoe cpeACXBo AOCxaBHXb Moacexb 
Cb HExi, mdJs.'b BOCBHxaxejibHOMy AOMy npBHOca^HX'b necxb xpyAO- 
jiioGiio DHxoMaeB'b, xaRB h o6n^ecxBy Bceny noj{e3Hbixi> corpajR- 
AaHi, B-b ojRHAaHiH RaROBuxB acejiaeiibixi pacnopHacemft ocxaiocb 
H X. A. 0. 

Bi AOM^ BOBce He pyROBOACXBOBanecb npaBBJiaifH renepajib- 
Haro ojiaHa, ho nocxynajiH coBepmenHO o6paxHo, RaRi roBopEXb 
caMB BeARofl. Cb nocxeneHHUifb yBejiBqenieirb HHCJia BocnaxuBae- 
Muxi wb AOM^b Cb RasAHMB TO^owb 3HaHHxejibH0 pacmHp^jiHCb H 
Bc% ycxpoeHHKiA AJiB HXB oCyHemH MacxepcRk, xpefioBaBmia ho 
Majio pacxoAOBB, ho He npHHOCHBmifl cooxBixcxBeHHOft hub nojibsu, 
oxHacxH H noxoMy, hxo Macxepa, no nafiMy oOynaBniie A'^xefi peice- 

CJiaMl, HCnOJIHAJIH HeyAOBJIOTBOpHXeJIbHO CBOH oCasaHHOcxH. 

HsB DHceMi FjiaBHaro IIoneHHTejia 1772 roAa oxb 5 iiona h 
23 0RXfl6pH BBAHO, HXO yjKe BB 1772 roAy MHorle n3'b nanBXux'b 
HacxepoBB no bxb CesnojiesHOCXH ysoJibHAioxcA. Ho xorAa trq npeA- 
HHcuBajiocb saMiHBXb HXB ApyrHMH, sHaion^HMn A^o, HXOGX A^TH 
Bospacxaion^iii ne mofjih npoBO»axb Bpena bb npasAHOcxH, 6e8^ 
HayneHla xoMy, qxo bb bxb xchsbh na BcerAa nponETame h xeepAoe 
cnacxbe nonnxaeMO 6uxb aojischo. Bopo^eMB dxa nepeniHa nacxe- 
poBB He conpoBo;KAajiacb}ReJiaeMbiMBycnixoMB, h BeAROfi 26 anptJi^ 
1785 r. HHcajHB CoBixy, hxo RaRi ynpe^Aeme $a6pHR^ h Many- 



*) Cm. II. B. 1779 r. aBrycia 6 aha. 



— 179 — 

^KTyiTb He npHHOCHTL HHRaROft BuroAU HameMj AOMy — a, hto 6o- 
jrie, H HHRaROft uojLhsa HaniHMi nHTOMaarb — noneHy nouanyTUH 
coBctHi OesojiOAHua saeeAeHiH yHHHTo:RHTb, ocTasBB'b pasei ny- 
jionmyio h RapTOHHyi) a-hh ynpaHCHOHia BocaHTaHHHKOBi> no ycMO- 
TpieiK). CoBtrb, RaRi aojihho saRJiiOHHTb est* OTeiTHaro nacbMa 
BeuRaro, HBJReQpHBOAHicaro, orroeapHBajiCA liiii, hto o6y^6aie 
Bdbwb aiBHi peifecjiaMi BaeAOHO no pacDopaaceHiK) Bei^Raro. 

Ho BeuRoft, oTBtqaa Ha 3T0 CoBtiy 31 AeRa6pH 1784 r. ^), 
npHMo BupajRajii, hto ecjiH h Ai^fiCTBHTOJibHO Bci MacxepcRifl bi 
AOMt yipescAOHu no ero npeAaHcaHiaifB, to hsi dToro eme ho cjrb- 
Ayerb, ito yHpeacAenHoe a*^ nojibsu Aona, ho dTOMy ne cootbIiT- 
CTByioniee, ne iiorjio 6uTb ynpasAi^ono no npeACTaBJieeiio CoBtra, 
H 6yAT0 He CMOTpa na apeA'b aojihcuo OHoe npoAOJuacaTbca Kb Btq- 
Hofi yrpaii BpeHeen HHxoMi^eB'b, TyAa OTAannuxii, HAenerb Bocnn- 
TaTOJibHaro Aoua. Xlocjii aToro nHCbua CostTb AtficxBBieJibHO no- 
jioKBJi'b Bci MacxepcRia bi aom^^ saRpuTb, ocxaaBBi mepcTHHyio h 
HyjuoHHyK) B RapTOHHyK). OxAaqa nBTOMueBi bi oCyienle pasHbr^t-b 
HacTepcTBaifb bh^ AOMa conpoBOjRAaJiacb ch BctMH neBuroAHUMB 
AJia oepBUXi nocJi'bACTBiflHB; bxi coAepacajiB o«ieHb ayPho, ito He 
xpyAHo ceCi npoACxaBBXb, npHnoMHBBi, hxo «ajio6fii Ha xyAoe co- 
Aep»aHle h oGpan^enle MacxepoB'b cb A^xbMB, oxAaBaeubiMB HM-b 
wb oSyqenie, cocxaBJiaK)xi» HeptAKOCXb Aa»e h wb name apeMfl; xl^M-b 
6oJiie oGuAOHHUMi mofjio 6HXb 3X0 neqaJibHoe aBJienie cxo ji'6xi> 
xovy HasaAi*, ROrAa Hpaau h oGu^aB BOo6a^e 6ujih HecpaBHeuHo 
rpy6^e coBpeHeHH&ixx. IIoATBepsAeHieH'b BumecRasaHHaro Moryxi) 
cjiyjRHTb cJi'bAyionua cxpoRB npBnBCRB Kb nBCbny Bei^Raro One- 
RyncROMy Coatxy 1784 r. asrycxa 30 ^). 

€ IIpH coM'b »e sa AOJiHCHOcxb MOK) no^HxaH) Bii npeAOCTopo}R- 
HOCTb CoBtTa CRasaTb cji'bAyion^ee: hto no pasHUiCb nocan^BMca 
SA^CB c^yxaMi bsb'^ctho iint, hxo BOcnBxaHHHRB, a oco6jibbo ^kbh- 
CRaro nojia, BocnaxbiBaiOTCfl aecbMa noAJio; a ne roBO(»H), hxoGu 
B-b HBx^ noceJiaxb cntcb b ropAOCXb; ho cie h ee ecxb hcxbhroo 
BoCQBTaHie, a aojisho HaxoABXb cpeABny, hxoSh nejiOB'bRi, noHExaa 
ce6a HejioaiROMT), co BcaRBM^ hhumi cocxoanieMi yntji^ ypasHH- 
Baxb B, He AonycRaa nocxynaxb c^ co6ok) RaRi Cb mnaoxHUM-b, 
Cb ycepAle&Tb xoxluii 6h b sa qecxb noHaxajii ncnojiHaxb net 
AOJi^HOCXB, Roxopua Ha Hero no ero cocxoamfo B03JiaraK)xca. 



*) Ch. npujoaceHie, ^ 8. 

') Cm. ntja Bei^Karo no CHcxeMar. oqhcu, CBflssa 8, 1\& 840. IlncbHO axo 
iiovimeBO Bb npiiJioseHiflxi K'b rJiaBt 5, doa'^ ^s 20. 



— 180 — 

nane see ecero roBop^rb o6i OTAanHHxi BocnEraHHHRaxx $a6pH- 
KaHTaMi, a iie^Ay npoHHMi o lixi, roh y Taeayepa, hto OHue 
coAepxaicfl HH Majio HecxoACTBeHHo ci> qejiOBiqeciBOiTB h xyase 
pa6cTByK)ii^HX'B MyacHROBi, ^iwb GesiflpHO yHHScaiOTCfl AyniH jno- 
Aeft, yroTOBJiJieHHXi 6uti» cbo6oahumh, a pasBt mosho aocrynaTb 
TaRi TOJibRO ch T%MH, ROB nosaGy^yTB C66fl, noHeMy h aojisho yHH- 

8CITB Tillli EXli SaHOCHHBOCTb; BapOieifb MA Hero CI xillH, ROH 

6jiaroHpaBBBJ, ee oCxoabtbca RaR'B ci jiioabmh, h ajia tofo HanoMH- 
iiaio rocnoABHy o6ep:b-AHpeRTopy, xaRi* m Bceny CoBiTy, npHJies- 
H'be BXOAHTb BO Bcb noApoCaocTH, Racaion^lflca ao 6jiaroAeBCTBia 
rbxi, ROHX'B 6uTB om;aMH ohh npeAOCTaBJieHBi». 

HeJiBBB He CKaaaTB npii btomi o Aft^^BMmHX'B aocJitACiBiflXB 

aXB^B CipOR'B. 

KasaJiocB 6u Bcero npaBHJUBHie h eciecTBeHHte co CTopoHu 
CoB^bxa 6uJio 6ii npHHaiB M^pu r^ OTCTpaHeaiio hh Maso necxoA- 
CTBOHHaro CB HejiOB'bqecTBOHi coAepxaHlfl BocnHTanHHROB'B, no bu- 
pa^eHlK) Bei^Karo. Ho CoBiii, RaRi ofb cairB nHcajn Beii^ROMy 
19 iK)JiH 1784 roAa, o^eHB oropHHjrcH ero saM'^iaHiAicH h, ysHaBB 
DyreM-B posucRa cpeAB BOcnHTaeHHROBi, rto hsi hhxi> nacajii 
BHCBMO, onpeA'lJiBJi'B n^iepuxi hsb ebxi HaRasaxB po3raME npe 

BCeMl* C06paHiH BOCnHXaHHHROB'B H CHHXaXB A^O OROHHeHHMMl. 

3x0 yB^AOMjieme CoBixa busbbjio cjiiAyH)n^ifl cxpoRH Bei;- 
Karo ^): c^Hxani, ci HyBCXBExejiBBBiMi h BOSMy^aioiipii'B bch) mok> 
Aymy npHCRop6ieM'B, y^HHeHHoe cntACXBie ch xaROio BaiRHOCxiK), 
HRO no rocyAapcxBOHHOMy yroJiOBHOMy A'bJiy, no Roxopoe caico no 
ce6'b HHHero ne sHannxx. Oxi> ifeHa o xomi no AomeAniHMi ro mh'6, 
AOCxoBipnuMH RasaBmnuHCH, cjiyxaM'B, Kh Baici xojibro ahh npeAO- 
cxopojRHOCxn, sa asBicxie, MeacAy nponnic^ wh npanHCR*! nHcano. 
H He Majio He ^aflJiB, hxoSb hsi xoro Bumjia xaRaa cypoBan cxpe- 
MBxejiBHocxB, Roxopafl noRasuBaexT* 6ojite OAsy no cxpacxn s ji o 6 y , 
HesceJiH npeRJiOHHOCXB ri noJiBsi BB^ipenHaro fOHOmecxfia. Bi npo* 
XHBHOCXB He XOJIBRO HOJiOBtHecxBa, HO H pasyica njiana, npeAnncM- 
Baion^aro BesA^ RpoxocxB h qeJioB'iROJifoGie, AynaxB naAoSno, hxo cia 
sanajiB^HBaa cb AonpocaMH cxporocxB npoBejia bi xpenexib Bd^xi 

BOCnHXaHHHROB'B, Rl* KOXOpHBil H£^JieKHXl> HH%XB CepAHje HBAOJIK)- 

6hbbix'b oxuoBi, H cxpaxi npanyAHJUi hxt* npHsnaxBCH bb xostb, 

Hero COBCiBfB HO 6UJJ0, nOXOMy 4X0 ^ OXli HHXB HHROrAa HHRaRHXl 

HcajiofiB He nojiyqajii). A xo yjRe aocxoAho cnixa, hxo y oxAanHuxx 



*) Cm. TaMt ace. 



— 181 — 
Ha Many^aRTypy Kb Tanayepy cnpamHBajiH, aobojibhu jih ohh 

CBOHHH BanajIBBHRaBIH? KtO HSI* npHrbCHeHHUX'B nOA'lHHeHHUXl 

ocM%JiHTCA HasecTH na ce6A nyn^ee HecHacrie, noKasaei ceoe orop- 
nenle npoTHB^ t4xi, y Koro ohh bt> pyKaxi? ^iMi 3Ke bch cia 
yscacnaa TpeBora ROHHHJiacb? TbjiecHEiHi>, KaRi CyAXO 6hL sa bbjih* 
Haftmee npecTynjieHie, nyCJiHqHUH'B HaRasaHieifi, nero h 6e3i> co- 
AporaHiH cepwa h bufobophtb ne Mory. H laRi coofipaxcafl Bce 
cie en^e, a noBTopnio, hto laRaa npoTHBy qejiOB%qecTBa cypoBOCiL 
OTb npHCTaBHHKOBi, BUCTynHBiDHX'B H31 npoA^jiOB'b HaoiHX'b ycTa« 
HOBJieHifl H Bcbxi MOHX'b HpeAnHcaHifl, noRasBisaeTB npnuo OAHy 
jiHHHyio 3JI0CTB H npHCTpacTio, AJisi Toro HTO MOJRHO 6h 6ujio cb 
Ao6po;^TeJiLH0K) RpoTOCTiio H 6jiaropa8yMHUMi» xjiaAHORpoBieMx, 

THXHM'b B CRpOMHBIM'B OfipaSOlfb paSB'i^AaTB 060 BCCM^, HTO HaAJie- 

acajso BBucRaTB. npBTOHi> me cie nenpeJioscHoe h na caMOMi> ecie- 
CTB'b ocBOBaHHOe npaBBjio BCAROicy hbb'Ictbo, h no OHOMy BesA^ 
nocTynaiork, ^xo ecJiH MJiaAeeeui AypoH'B b sjioHpaBOBi, to ho ero, 
a npBCTaBHBRa bbhhtl aojijkbo, noTOMy ^to owb (t. e. npncTaB- 

BHRli) BJIB, HO SHaa RaRT> CB lOHOBieCTBOMl o6xOABTBCH, BB yBftjI1> 

Hxi CA^JiaTB 6jiaroflpaBB£iMB, bjib, cam 6yAyHB nopo^eni, bxi> 
ncnopiBJi'B, H TaRBxi npHciaBBBROBi oTpimaioTT). IIoceMy Raacexca 
BaAo6HO 6htb bi* npocTyoRax^ HaRasaHBuxi BOcnBTaHHBROBB bb- 
BoaaTBiifB Tanayepy n eny noAoSnuirB JIK)AHM^ cb AypHHMB npa- 
BaMH, B jiflH Toro ero nepBaro, hb najio ho lepna, tothbcb bsi Aona 
BucjiaiB, a sa hbmb b bc^^xb TaRBXB, rob cbobhb nepaA'^BieMi bjib 
BJioyMieMi euy noAo6Hiii. Botb, MBJiocTBBBifi rocyAapB, npomy cie 
paacMOxptTB cb paqenleMB. BaMi BSBtcTHO, hto npacxaBHaRB ho 

CypOBOCriK) H He 8JI060K) HiMl AyniB MOJIOAOCTB npBBOAHTCH BT> 

OTqaame — MoryrBAOCTBrnyTB BcnpaBJienia Baranx^B nBTOMi^eBi, ho 
TOJiBRo ORadanieH^ hhb oTeqecKa^ocepA^aBo6H8aHiesn>BX'BR^ce6t 

OAHOK) JrK)60BiE0». 

CoBtTB HBcajii HOBoe o6MCHeHie, ho onpaBAHBaJicfl HeyAa^HO. 
Bei^ROft en^e pasi, HBcaJn CoB-fexy 28 0RTa6pfl 1784 roAa hbcbmo, 
npB CQWh npBjiaraeMoe ^), b'b ROXopoMi BHCRasuBajii^ qxo <cBBifl 
Bame coCcxBeHHoe coSoji'lsHOBanie o yHBHOHHOMB BaMB CRopono- 
CXBKHO ny6jiBqH0 HaRasamB, a npeAaio cie saGBeHiio, HaAtHCH, 
HTO Bame qeJiOBibROJiK)6ie ne AonycxHXB aacB BnpeAB ao xaRBxi 
Rpataocxeft. IIpH cewb cjiynat mh* na^e Bcero xo nijiMVb h^' 



') Cu. npifJoseHie ^s 10. 



— 182 — 

BOJILCTBie, HTO Si HO CGMJ nOCTyQRy SaRJUOHHTb ACUiaceEB, HTO H BO 

BceiTb BocDBTaHiH nocxynaeicfl necorjcacHO cb pasynoMi h npex- 
MCTaHB ycTasa BOcnHTaxanbHaro Aona, npeAnHCUBafon^aro hsi boc- 

nBTaHHHROBl npOHSBOAHTB JliOAefl fijiarOMUCJIflll^BXl H nOJSeSHUX'B, 

AJifl 3aHflTia cpeAHaro cxeneHH FocyAapcTBy cxojib HyjRHaro, ico 
xopue, AKO CBo6ojiHue jhoah, AOJiaceHCXByKxrb HenpentHHO nirlxb 
BOcnHxanie, Cesi Koero nejiOBtR'b e^Ba aocxohhi cero naaBaHia. IIo 
HeHy Hxit BOcnHxame xoxa He aojix^ho 6uxb oxMiHHoe, OAHaROsce 
u lie xaRi rpy6o h cypoBO, RaR^ caifuxi nojiflurb JiiOAefi, Aa6u 

OHH nOCeJieHHUME Kb BEXX HyBCXBOBaHiflMB AOCXOfiHU 6UJLE SBaei)! 

CBo6oAHUx'b rpajRAaH'b; yM^B ce6H nonimaxb ea xofi cxeneHH, n^si 
Koxopofi opoHSBeAeHH, snaJiH 6hi cbohbii 6JiaroHpaBieirb h xpyAO- 
jiio6ieM'b — CHM^ eAHHUiTb HXi HBrlnieH'b — npHHOCHXb caMHirb ce6t 
nojibsy II sacjiyxcBBaxb ce6i yAOBOJibcxBie»... 3axtM^ Beipiofi yRa- 
3£[Baexi», Mxo «AOHy he najio HecBOflcxeeHHO BXOABXb e'b npHHaAJie- 
»amee Kyne^ecxsy h npn xomi ry6HXb Ha b^rh BOCDHxaHHBROBi, 

ynOXpe6jIBB HXl eAHHCXBeHHO Wb RpeCXbflHCRlH, HeBOJIbHH<ieCRifl 

pa6oxu, Hpesi qxo ohh, He hitIa HHKaRoro Bnaro npoMucjia, hh 
BOcnBxaHiA, B'i^qHO aoji^hu 6bixb, no nepasyMiHiK) Apyrsxi pe- 
Mecji^, Bii nopa6on;eHiH y $a6pBRaHX0Bi»,R npeAJiaraexi HJieHaifb 
CoBiraBonpocb, cxaROBaB jib AOiiHHa 6bixb ynacxb BOcanxuBaeMUxi 
H TBRi jiH B'b pascyxAeniH BX'b HafiJiiOAaexcB wb aomI tImh, roh 
Hxi CHacxiH cxapaxbCfl aojixhu? Bbmi bsb'^^cxho H8o6paaceHie 
pa MeABJiH, npeACxaBJiAH)ni,efi RpoxRyio h ^eJiOB'i^ROJiioOHByK) namy 
Bipy, ROxopaB noRasHBaexi jik)6bh, noA'b^Bi MJiaAeni^a, oxnecxH 
Wb BocnnxaxeJibHufl AOu^, hro bi HaAe^RHoe nejioBibHecxBy npacxa- 
HBnie c% HaAHHCbio: «h bu srslbu 6yAexe». Ho hxo ecxb acHSHb 
Gedi BOCDBxaHiB? OAHHoe 6peMB caMHMi> ceS'b h ApyniifB h bi npeA- 
ocy^cAeuie BOcnHxaxejiBMii. Ybhah BnpoAb ceSn jiHmefiHbix'b oHaro 
yKpameHiB poAa nejiOB'biecRaro, cm Heciacxnue, npHBJieRafon^ie 
Ha ce6fl oxb o6mecxBa npespinie h ocxaBJieHHue BctiiB B'b 6e8- 
MipHoft ropecxH, OyAyrb npoRJiHHaxb ^HSHb cbok)^ ofiBBBBB cjie- 
saMH xtei), ROH ee jkJin 6tACXBiji coxpaHBJiH». 

B'b saKJiioqeHie BeuRofi Bupascaexi ns^esAys "ito <(HJieHbi Co- 
Bixa ynoxpeCnxi bc% BosMoacHua cxapanla, eacejiH xo en^e ne CujiOy 

CAi^JiaXb BOCOBXaHHHROB-b AOCXOflHUMH npHHOCHXb Cb HCXHHHOK) 

nojibsoK) yAOBOJibcxBie Bceny oSn^ecxBy h mh^, a bbmi xy ^ecxb, 
Roxopyio npeACxaBJiflexi> b'b narpaAy Bamnxi none^eHifl xhxjio 

HCXBHHblX'b OXUeBl CHpOXl>, Baill BBtpeHHbIX'b». 



— 183 — 

IIo AOCTH^eHiH BocnHTUBaeMUHH coBepmeHHOJii^TiH ohb bu- 
nycKajiHCB h3i Aona Ha CBoe nponHTanie ^). 

IIpH dTOifb OHH noJiyHajiH oco6u& bhai» na acHTejibCTBO (nac- 
nopn) c^ njiaTOio no py6jiK) sa Ka^ufi toa'b h en^e HarpaHc;ieHle 
exHHOBpeMeHHoe bi> ABa^iiaTB nsm pyGJieft. OneRyncRift GoBtTi^ 
nojiaraJi'B OTuinHTB to h Apyroe, ho BoarojI, RaRi bhaho E^^ npH- 
jraraevaro npa ceHi ero HHCBva ^), npejcB nepBuifB BunycROH'B 
TaRHrb BocnHiaHHEROBi OTb 26 iiOHH 1782 r. naxoAB^rb Heo6xo- 
AHMiinrb AO BpeuoHH coxpaHHTB TO H Apyroe, hmohho: — AonencHoe 
Harpa3RAeHle RaR'B nocoOie ri TOMy, qiofiBi BBinycRaeMue mofjih na 
nepBoe BpeiiA saBecTHCB Heo6xoAHUfiiM^, ocHOBaiBca h nanaTB Ma- 

CTepCTBO. IlacnOprB — RaRl Cpe^CTBO OTBpaTHTB OT-B BOCHHTaeHH- 

ROB^, npeAonpeA^JifleMBix'B Cutb cbo6oahumh rpaacAaHaicH, 
BCflRoe nonojisHOBenle ri* nopaOon^eHiio. JI^oboah TaRHMi oGpasoMii 
H8Jio2ceHie nocTonenHaro pasBBTla BOcnHTarejiBHaro Aona orb mo- 
HeHTa npioMa bi neicB BOcnHTBTBaeifHX'B ao BBinycRa bxi> hs^b AOMa, 
eABa JiH Heo6xoAHMO en^e pasi ocoGohho rOBopHTB o 6jiaroTBop- 

HOHl BJli^HlH H yqaCTiH, ROTOpUe npOHBHJIl B-B BTOM'B fljkjii caMi 
Bei^ROft. BHEKiaTeJIBHUft ^HTaTeJIB yCBfOipHTB HSl npHBeAeHHBIX'B 

HaMH EHceiTB Boi^Raro h buhhcori W7> hhxti Ha CROJiBRo TO H Apy- 
roe Chjuo SHaiHTejiBHO, npHnoMHHBi, hto hombmo saHAiift no boc- 
HHTaTeJiBHOuy AOMy, BeqRoft BBftjn ho naJio b ApyrBxi cjiyacefi- 
BurB o6H8ai]BOCTeft, o ROTopBixi ynoMHHyio HaMB Bl cji'bAyK>ii^ii^'^ 
rjiaaarB. 

T^Mi He tfenbe OAHaRO peayjiBTaiu aioft A'^TejiBHOciB 6ujib 
AaJieRO He 6jiecrRmii. nocTynaBmifl wh BOCQBTaieJibHBift aomi> a^th, 
Boo6ni[e roBopa, yMnpanB bi noMajiOM'B ROJEBiecTBi; ocTaBasmiflCH 
Bi acBBUx'L ASUKORO HO HOJiyqajiB TOFO BOcnHiaHiH, RaROo npeABO- 
JiarajTB bmt» a^tb yipeABTejiB aomb; ohb hb A'i^JiajiBCB noJuesHUMB 
rpa^cAanaMB, He cociaBBJiH co6ok) Tpeiift mawb b-b rocyAapciBi. 
jS^iiH, BOCHBTiiBaeMBiA wh Aoui, 6BIJIB, no saBfi^aHiK) canoft MBine- 
paTptn^u ERaTepHHU II, nociiBBmeft aohi bi 1775 roAy (cm. 
PyccR. CrapBHa 1896 r., H0Ji6pB. IlBCBMa BeARaro Kb Erbtc- 

PBH"! II, JV« 20, CTp. 404) ^) HOJIOBRH, HenOHHTJIBBBI, MOJI<ianBBiI, 



*) daMiTiTHi, ^TO OHeHB ^acTO ABusHMue 7eiOBiROJX)6ieB'B j[K)AH npo- 
CHJH OTaycTHTb uMi Ba noiHoe hxi coxepzaHie h none^eaie A^TeR, Bocnii- 
TUBaeMHxi B% AOM% H 6paiii Hxi El ce6i cobcj^m'Bi saKi dTO bhabo hb'b 
MHorHX'B sypflajroBii OneRjHCRaro CoBiia, BaiHHaa ch 1780 roxa. 



') Cm. upHioxcflie J^ 11. 



, HeoCxoAHiio saxtTUTB, ^to uu ho nvbeHi caMaro uncbMa EsaTO-* 
pnoH II Bi HeuEOHj o nocin^eaiH ei) BOcnHTaTejBHaro xona vb 1775 r. 



— 184 — 

yrpioMH ci> BHAy. Bei^Koft ycMaTpHBajn hi aiOMi AOKasaTejobCTBO, 
HTO Bi AOMi AO HacTOfln^efl mhhytk He npHSHaiorB Hy»HUMi> o6pa- 
n^aiB BHHMaHie na npaBHJia ^HSHHecRaro h HpaBCiBeHHaro mn* 
pasBBTiH, 3a6oTflTCH TOJiBRo o6'b HX'B y^eHlH. no ero cjioBaM^ sth 
ynymeHia e^y HSBtcTHH; oht> AasHO CKopCHrB o6i> Biowb h yno- 
Tpe6JiHen» Bce hjih ncnpaBJieHia axoro; e^aa jih ho sasAyio neA^^K) 
nemerb no aTOicy noBOAy i(%JiyK) KHHry CoBiiy OneKyHOBi h rjiaa- 
HOMy HaASBpaTeJiio. Hpn axoMi Bei^KOft BucaaauBaerb Hicnepa- 

ipHUi^ HeyAOBOJIbCTBO CBOe H Ha BOCDHTaTeJieft BSI BBOCTpaHI^eB'b 

npH AOMi HaxoAHBmBXCfl. Kam sue 6ujib npBHHHU, hto Bca Aba- 
xejibHafl 8a6oTJiBBOCTb BoAKaro o B0cnBTaT6JibH0Mi> jiftui He npa- 
aejia Kb ^ejiaeMUMi) pesyjibTaTa&rb? 

Oahok) B3i rjiaBHifimnx'b opH^BH'b HeyAOBJieTBopHTeJibHOCTH 
peayjibTaTOBiyHpexcAeHiH noAo6Haro AOMa, AaJioKO ne cooxeiTCTBOBaB- 
mjiLXT> oauaA&BmeficA orb Hero nojibs'b, aoji^ho CHHxaxb necoMH'iHHO 
HeAOCxaxoRi wb HameHi oxenecxai bo axopofl hojiobbh^ XYIU b. 
jiioAefi, Roxopne ne xojibro Gujib 6u B'b cocxoaHiB, ho npHTOMii 
B»eJiajiB6H npBHflXb na ce6a xpyAHua o6fl8aHHocxB no bochb- 
xaniio A'^Tefi, conpjiaceHHHa c^ pasjiBHHbiMH AOJiscHocxaMB no boc- 
nnxaxejiBHOMy Aony. Ho homhmo axoro 6biJiB en^e b cji^Ayion^ia: 

1) FjiaBHbifi HaA8BpaxeJib, axox^ HanajibcxByion^ift s-b 
jiflMb xosflHHi, Roxopuft no CBjr& ynpescAeHia AOJiseFb 6ujii na 
caMOMi A^^ ycxanoBBXB aecb pacnopaAOR'b B'b AOMt no BSAaHHOHy 
HeMx noJioaceniK), npeAaapaxejibHO noApo6HO n BcecxopoHne ero 
BsyHBBniB RoneHHO, nacxo iiiHAJica nepBonanaJibHO. B'b nepaua 
naxnaAAaxb JI']^x^ — nanGoji^e BaacHUH bi jrbshb BHOBb BOSHBRaio- 
maro yHpexAenia (cb 1763 r. no 1779 r.) — aiy oOaaanHOCXb 
oxnpaBjiHJiB HOCJiiAOBaxeJibHO A^BaxbJiBi^'b, x. e. cpeAHHM'b hh- 
CJiOHi Menie Asyxi jrbTb Ra^A^fl ^), npB neifb nbRoxopua JiBAa 



HO coxpaHHJiocL OTBJiTHoe ua OHoe nHCBHO Bei^iaro, b% KOxopoMi oh-b hbh- 
BOAHxi cAijanHUH HnnepaxpHiieK) saMt^aHiJi o BocnHTaxeibHOHi Aoui o 
CBOH no »TOMy nq^oAy saiit^aHiH. 

HanoiiHnM<<» npn dTOMi, ?to nepBUMi TjaBBUHii HaAsnpaxeieMi 6ui'b 
npo(i)eccop'& MocROBCKaro yHEBepcHTBTa Pocx'b (1763 r. no 1 cenx. 1764 r.>, 
Ha ero Mtcxo 6iiiJi HasHaHeni h'^kto loraoBi TepcTuepi, yBOJreHHufi CRopio 
8a cjia6oe cMOxp'i&Hie b'b tomiso 1764 r., npn neHi Haana^eB'b 6hii'b loranH'b 
XpHCTHHi KepmxeBi, cocxoABmiS upn Mocbobcsomb yHHBepcHxeTi, a nocit 
Hero HSBicxHufi HCxopiorpa4»'B FepapA^ Mnjiepi (1765 r. no 2 anp 1766 r.), 
diiBmifi HBAOiro; nflTUM'E — BaKBeprarenx (1766 r. no 15 Aes. 1767 r.). 
nocjit Eoxoparo 6hiJ'b HacoeoB'b cb 1768 r. no 1774 r.; sax'bu'B 4)OH'B-3cceHB 
CB 1776 r. no 1778 r., soToparo BaMieHiB KoBajiEHCKiS, dusmift cb 1778 r, 
no 1779 r. nocji soToparo nasnaieH'B 5uib ForoiB bi 1779 r. (Cm. ^ypn. 
MocBOB. OncB. Cob. 1764 r. aBrycxa 28, H0fl6pa 8 n 10. cxp. 92, 98; 1766 r 



— 185 — 

ornpaBJifljiH OHyio Bcero roA^ He Gojiie. PacnopaxeHui Ra«Aaro bbii 
HHXi> 6ujiH CBoeo6pa8Hu, HocHJiE oTnenaxoRi jiaqHaro xapaRTepa 
saxAaro h OKaauBajiH pasjiHHHoe BJiiBBie na caMUfi CTpoft BB^peH- 
naro hmi yqpesAeHia b A&^i»H'&fimee ero pasBHTie, ROTopoe y»e 
no Tony He mofjio Curb ycnimHiiirb, hto ^acio MiH^Jio CBoe na- 
npaBJieHle. IIomhho dToro AQBaTUfl rjiaBBUfi HBASHpaTejiB, FpHropift 
rpHropbeBH^i Forojib, naHCoJiie npoAOJDRHTejiBHoe Bpeva oinpa- 
BJiflBmift 9Ty oCasaHHOCTL ^) He cioJUbRO 8a6oTHJiCfl 6JiarococTOfl- 

HiH AOMa, CROJIBRO HpeCJliAOBaJUl CBOU JIHHHUH U'&nH, CTOflBmiB Bl> 

paspi^st CL sBAa^iaMH h uIuihmh aomb. 

2) IIOHHIIO BTOrO BeCBMa paHO CTBJIH BOSHHKaTB ccopH H He- 

corjiacia MeacAy cny^aniBMH bi aom^, BpeAHO OTsi^BaBmlACA Ha 
ycninmufi xoai* A'^a. 3th HecorjiaciH 6bijiih ctojib sHaHBiejiBHu, 
HTO AoxoAHJiH AO CB^A^Hia BeARaro, KOTopuft ynce bi 1765 roAy 
(t. e. Hepesi foa'b nocjii otkphti^ A^ficTBia aomb) npocBJi'B 

9 MBH COBirB CiapaiBCH, AA^H B^ BOCnHTaTeJIBBOM'B AOM'b tbro- 
BUXli CCOp'B H oOhAI* Kb fieSCJiaBilO He AOnyCKBTB, ROTOpUH He 

TOJiBRo no qeJiOB'iHecTBy TepnBMH 6bitb ho MoryTi, ho Hanna^e 
yqpescAeHiio OHOMy npHHOcarB 6e3CJiaBie h RpeAHxy yMeHBrnenie ^). 
IIosAH^e no noBOAy a^pbrbxi nocxynROBi) uensopa, BeAKoft bi 
1778 r. nHcajiB CoBixy €?xo6bi bhhobhbtx'b bi xaROBuxi npoAep- 
Bocxaxi*^ HaRi paapymaioniHX'B 6jiaroycxpoftcxBO bi aou'6, neiie- 

AHOHHO, RBRl HenOROpHUX'B, ho XOJIBRO OXpimaXB, HO H BUCBIJiaTB 

HSB AOMy xoro jko nacy A&^e, sanpexEBi* h B'b aom'b 6oJite Bny- 
CRaXB ^). 

3) JiHi^a, nenocpeACXBeHHO Ha6jiK)AaBmifl sa a'^xbmb, x. e. boc- 
BBxaieJiHy B'B AOMi 6uJiH neyAOBJiexBopHxejiBHBi. Bei^Rofi b'b nHCBiffa 
HnnepaxpHAt 3 iiaa 1775 r. (P. Cx. 1896 r., noaSpB, cxp. 405) 

CaiCli BBICRaSUBaJI'B, «qX0HeA0B0JieHl BHOCXpaHHUMH BOCHHXaxeJIHMH 

B^ AOKi. Ob T^xb nopi, rbr'b ohh onpeA'i^JieHU, hh oahhb hsi hbxi 
He npoBBBJi'B HBAe^Haro yMifliH, hh oahhi* ne nocxHraex7> i^%jih 
y4pe»AeHifl, HH OAHHi He noHHHaexB ero Ayxa; ohh xojibro 8a6o- 
xaxcH jiEHHuxi CBOHXi BuroABXi, MeaRAy co6oK) ccopaxcB H 
CHJieTHHHaioxT) Apyn> na Apyra no npHBU^R^ h xyAOiiy hxi> bocuh- 
xamio. Ohh aobojih mohh ao KpafiH0cxn». 

OqeBHAHO, ecJiH HenocpeACXBeHHHe BOcnaxaxejiH HBRyAa ne ro- 



CTp. 95, 1779 r., cip. 102; lasse MoHOrpa({)iji ynpcsx- Hynep. Mapin, npui. 
CTp. 9. 

*) 06% dTOMi Foroji coo6meHEi cvbxbEisi bb upHJOseBiH Jf 12. 

') Cm. xtia Beasaro 1765 r. 

') Cm. A^ia CnpoT. Kbct. cb. 3, As 348. 



— 186 — 
AHJiHCb, TO HOHero 6hjio OJRH^aTb xopomaxi pesyjibTaTOB^ otb boc- 

nHTaHifl HMH DETOMaeB'B AOMa. 

4) JlHi^a, Ha6jiK)AaBmi}i HenocpeACTseHHO sa ;^&CTBiflMii rjiaB- 
earo HaASBpaTejDi, t e. oneKyHu, «He npasAHHe CBBA^TejiH, a A^ft- 
CTByion^ie, HBApeMJien^eMy HaAsnpaHiio ROTopuxi noABepscee'b rjiae- 
Hufi HaASHpaieJiB*, ee oxHOCHJiHCb ci ;i;oji3khum'b yHacTieMi Kb npH- 
BATUMI) HMB Ha ce6H o6fl8aHHOCTHM^. 3th oneRyHH (t. e. qjieHfei 
CoBtTa, HMiBmaro saROHOAaTeJiBnyK) h pacnop^AHTeJiBHyio BJiacTb 
Bi AoM"]^), H360pajincB, KaRT> Bume CRaaaHo, h8i> snaTHux'b nep- 

COHl, KOTOpUH HCnOJIHflJlH JieHCaBmiH Ha HBXl oS^aaHHOCTH 6e3- 

B03Med;i;H0, eABHCTBOHHO B8'B jih)6bh Kb OTBHecTBy H no xpflCTiaH- 
CKOMy coacaJiiHiio o 6iAHi>ix'B ^). 

IIo npoeKTy BeuKaro fltareJibHOCTb CoB-fexa HHCKOJibKO ho ct*- 
CHfljiacb BjiacTlK) rjiaenaro HoneHHTeJifl, npeHMyn3;ecTBeHHoe sna- 
HOHie KOToparo bi> CoBtrt npeAi^ jipyrHMB HJieHaicH onaro Bupa- 

^aJIOCb TOJIbKO T^Ml, ^TO OHl BM^JII'b A H H !> JIBmHlft rOJIOCb, 

npoTBB'b ApyrBxi cBOBxi coiJieHOB'L. Ho JiBua, pascMaTpHBaBmm 
npeABapHTOJibHO njiaHi Bemcaro no npHKasaHiio HHnepaTpHiiu, 
B-b oco6oMi AOKJiaA'b, yAOCTOBBineHOi Bucoqaflmaro yTBepacAOBifl 
26 BBrycTa 1763 r., o6paTHJiB BHHMaHie na to, tqro npn BC^ROirb 
BOBOifb H HBROFAa He 6fiiBmeHi> ynpeacAeBiH HBRaRi HeBOSHoacHO 
OTBixcTBOBatb, HTo6fii Ra^A^fi HaoepeA'b nocTaBjieHHUfl o6pflA'b 
nojiynHJH) npH HcaojiHemH CBOfi onpoA^JieHHuft ycnixi, noneiiy h 
6uBaerb, hto HaBnojiesHifimee js^Jio HeyAo6cTBOMi sapan'i^e oope- 
A'kieHHOft caMofi Majiofi nacTB ero cocTana ocTaeTCH 6en oroh- 
iaHiii». IIodTOMy osHaneHHUfl JiHua namjiH HyjRHUMi na Bpeica 
ocHOBanlH H npBBeAeniH b^ a^^Actbo cero yqpe^AeHia npoAOCTa- 
BBTb, EST) oco6jibboS MoHapmed AOBtpoHHOCTB, nepBOMy IIoneqH- 
TeJiK), aRO Bceny cocTpoBTOJiio, laRyio sJiacTb, htoCi owl uon> co- 
6oK) H Sesi OneRyHCRaro CoB^Ta, Kb JiyqmeMy a cnocoCHtfimeHy 
npoBSBOACTBy, HcnpaBJSflTb h nepeir^HHTb no CBoeiiy 6jiaroH3o6p'b- 
TOHiio wb BHyTpeHHBxi> oGpflAaxi BOcnBTama h aouoboactbb tofo 
AoBia, a&6h Ges'b Aa^^H'IftmBX'b TpyABOCToB h noHimaTOJibCTBi ohi» 
MOPb A^Tb BCOHy TBopAoe H Ao6poe ocHOBaHie. 

Hai ji^bjib OneRyHCRaro CoBtTa nejibsa ycMOTpfeb, hto6h Beu- 
Roft nojibsoBajiCH dTBBfb npoAOCTaBJieHHUif^ eny npaaoMi h A^Jiajrb 
pacnopB^eniA no Aony n o m h m o GoB'lTa hjib 6 e s i e r o B'bAOHa; 
OH^, nanpoTHBi tofo, Bct cboh npeAnojiOHcenifl h iiipu npeAJiarajii 



Cir. Tenep. IIjiaH. h. I, rj. 1, § 2. 



— 187 — 

Ha ycMOTpiHie hjih, RaRi* BupancajiHCb TorAa, Ha yBa^Reeie CoBtia. 
Ho He DOA^eKHTb coMHtniK), HTO Bei^Kofl CRopo y6iwiJiCB si 
HeyAOBJieTBopHTejiLHOft A'l^TejibHOCTH no^eTHBixi OoeRyHOBi, ho 
onpaBAaBrnHXi na jijbjA BOSJiOHeHHUH na hhxi naAexAU no 8aB'&- 
AUBamio AOHOMi. Bi* npoACTaBJieHiH CBoem 1772 roAa o6i ynpoK- 
AemH BAOBBeft, GcyAHOft h CoxpaHHOfl RaaeH^, wh AonoJiHenie Kb 
roHepaJibHOMy ojiany, Bemcofi sajfiH^jTB sHaTHUxi nepconi, hchoji- 
ERBmiarb ipyAu 6e8Me8AHO no OaeRyHCROuy CoBtiy, ocoGumh 
jiHi^aMH «8a oneRyHaMH», nojiynaBrnHMH xcajiOBanbe h la- 

KHlTb OOpaSOlfB ABJIJiBniHlIHCA RaRl 6u laKHMH TRQ ^BHOBHHRaifH 

BocnHxaTOJibHaro AOHa, RaRi h npoiie cjiyxan^ie. Shbthuh ;r6 
nepcoHU, CA'^jiaBmiA no^epiBOBaHiH BOcnHtaTeJibHOHy AOMy bjih 
HHUMii ofipasoH'L npoHBHBmifl cBoe coHyBCTBle Ri> ero A^^TejibHO- 

CTH, CTaJBH HaSUBaTbCa nOHOTHUHH CJiarOTBOpHTOJIHMH 

AOMa H HHiuiH npaso cooGmaTb OneRyncROHy CoBiTy o bcIxi 
8JioynoTpe6jieHiflX'b n HGAOciaTRaxi no saBtAUBaniK) Aona, aoxo- 
ABBniHxi no ^eiiy jih6o ao hxi cBtA^^niH. He BHia OAHaRO np^Maro 
H HenocpeACTBeHHaro yqacxln bi a'^Ji^xi BOcnBTarejibHaro aomb h 
OneRyncRaro CoBita^ noHernue 6jiaroTBopHTeJiii eABa jih b'b co- 
CTOflHifl 6ujiH Bocnojib80BaTbCH aTHMi npeAOCTaBJieHHUMii HMi npa- 
BOMi. OneRyncRifi xce Coairb, B'b vCbohi CBoem cocTaBt Bsi-sa 

OnORyHOBX, HHHOBHHROB^ (npHHOMHHM'b OTCyTCTSie A'^ftCTBHTOJIb- 

Haro ROHipojiB CO CTopoHBi FjiBBHaro none^HiejiA) A^fiCTBOBaJiii 
emfi HeyAOBJieTBopHxejibHifte npeaRnaro. 3to no6yAHJio BeciRaro na- 
HHcaTb OneRyHCROMy CoBiiy yace B'b 1773 roAy nacbMO, bt> roto- 
poMT* OHii npocHJTb onBRyHOBi npHJioacBTb cTapaHie R'b oiBpan^eniio 

BCARHXl HenopHAROBl nO AOMy, 08a60THTbCa coxpaHeHiH scbshh 

Bciynaion^HX'b bi ohuB luiaAeHiieB^, BTb npaBBJibHOMi BOcnHTa- 
HiH, a TBRJEO BOAeHiH npaBBJibHaro xoa^ftCTBa no Aony, ycTpaHJiA 
BCBRie 6e8nojie3HHe pacxoABi, ho ho XBJiiSi Aonerb na a'^Sctbh- 
TejibHUH noTpe6BOCTH h nojiibsy A^Tefi ^). BiftcTt cb rbm OH'b 
yfrbsAAJTb oneRyHOBi CTapaTbc^ ho o6i yBejiH^enlH nHCbiceHHaro 
npoHBBOACTBa, HO o&b ycH'^xi^ caMaro A^Jiftf coB'lTbiBajrb a'^^ctbo- 
Barb BABHOAyniHO, 6e8i ccopi, B^Aa^, hto corjiacie, noROfl n tb- 
niHHa B^ cel(^ aom^ Cojiie Bcero Hy^Hu. Bei](ROft nncajii o loifb, 
HTo6u A^aTb saM'^qaHifl ocTopoacno, npHCTofino, nanpaBJiBTb 
cBoe BBBMBHie Ri Gesnpen^TCTBeHHOMy TeneHlK) 6jiaroBBeAeHHaro 
nopflARB) HeAonycRaH ao sanyn^eHij] ^). 



Cm. n. B. 1773 r., npnjoxeHie J^ 13. 

'} Cm. n. 6. 1774 r. AGRa^PA 1— cm. npHiosenie J^ 14. 



— 188 - 

Il3i> aforo HHCbMa BeAKaro mo»ho saRJiioHHTB, hto qjieHuOne- 

EyHCKaro GoB'bTa ASL^eKO ne cooTB^TCTBOBajnH JiexamBMi Ha hhxi> 

odflsaHHOCTHM'b H BUsuBajiH HeoAHOKpaxHO CO CTopoHu Bei^Raro 

ocy^A^Hia hx'b o6pa8a A^ficTBia. OneRyHH, Rain* bhaho hsi npe- 

jiaraoMuxi nmceirb 1775 roAa iiaa 1 h 14 ^), hm^jih nocTOflHHUA 

npepeRama cb FjiaBHUMi* HaASHpaTejieifb, orjiamajiH ero nyfiJiH^mo 

BpeAHUMi HeJiOB^KOMx, HaBJiOKaJiH HapeRaHia BcaRaro poAa Ha boc- 

nBTaiejiBHuft aomi, He cofiJiiOAaJiH npaBHJi'B, ycTaHOBJieHHUxii vb re- 

HepaJiBHOM'L njiani, ne coo6n^ajiH CBoeBpeMeHHO o nenopaARaxi h 

8JioynoTpe6jieHiaxi h t. a. BeaRofi, coacajiifl o BceMi stoitb, y6i2c- 

Aajii) OneRyHOB'B ncRJiio^HTeJiBHO safioiHTBca o nojiBst AOHa^ otjio- 

meBiBi CTopoHy BcbjiH^HOCTH. «no sao^HOCTH A^^s, nHmen Bea- 

ROft 4 MapTa 1777 r., xpyAHO 6uJiO Bce ycipoHTB h AOCTHrnyrB 

sejiaenaro peayjiBiaTa; npiixaTB b-b MocKBy ne AOSBOjraiOTB eiiy 

ApyriaA'b^a>}HaHeM'BJie»an;ia». OninoaTOMy BusuaaerB ajia nepe- 

roBopoBii sa-oneRyea Maxsta AjieRcieaHia HjiBHHa h nocjit o6i>ac- 

Henifi CB HHM'B DHmexi 6 iioHa CoB^xy: «Haxo}Ry aeoiHRoe 6bixb 

npoxBBonojiojKeHie b^ Mucjiaxi neRyn^Bxca o 6jiari cero AOHa, 

Roxopoe no necxoACxay ci> chjioio pasyMa FeaepaJiBHaro xpex^ ^a- 

cxefl DJiana, cji^AOBaxejiBHO h npoxEBi canaro ocHOsania xoro sa- 

BOAema, npHHyjRAeHHO saci^BJiaex'B mohh o6'BacHHXB cb 

KaOIOCXiK) HaXOAHMOM'B MHOK) H ey AOBO JIBCXB iH». 

Bcjii^ACXBiH dxoro BeARofi, RaRi* bbaho H8^ npHJioxeHHaro 
HBCBMa ^), noApo6HO yRasBiaaexi Coaixy na ^x6 AOJi^eni ohb 
o6paxBXB CBoe BHEHanie, a HMeHHo: na xo, hxo6u cxporo pyROBOA- 
cxBoaajiBCB ROH^HpifOBaHHUMi renepajiBHBiHi njianoMx; qxo6u naA- 
BBpaxeJiB fl HaASBpaxejiBHHAU, a xaRjRe y^Hxejia h yHHxejiBHHau 
Bi AOMi He HaCapaJiBCB bi BSJiHmHeM'B ROJiaqecxBi h ho cooxb^x- 
cxByion^aro Raqecxaa; qxo6u BocnaxuaaeMue b'b aoh'6 o6y?ajiBCB 
Heo6xoABHBiM'B MacxepcxBaifB H pyROA'ibJiBaiTB Ha nojiBsy AOHa b 
Bcero o6mecxBa; hxo6u co6jiK)AajiacB Heo6xoABMaa 6epe)SJDflB0cxB 
H 6jiaropa8yMHaa; oco6eHHo cxapaxBca, pasAtJiBBi A'&Teft Ha bos- 
pacxu, Hxo(5u BocHBxuBaeMBie ne EMi;iB npeA'B co6oio xyAoro npe- 
Mtpa Bi leifB-jiaeo, H86iraxB BcaRofi HSJiBmHefi numHOCXH h x. a. 

Ho Bce 8X0 He Biiijio ^ejiaeiiaro ycQixa; OneRyHBr o6habjihcb 
saM^MaHiaifB BeARaro, rbri bbaho hsii ero oxaixnaro HBCBMa 



') Cm. npoJoscHie J\&j>& 15 a 16. 
») Cm. npaa. J^ 16. 



— 189 — 

23 0KTa6pa 1778 r. ^), wh KOTopoMii oeb (cbi ycnoKoenie orop'ie- 
Bia OaeRyHOBi>» npocHrBHX'B,jiKOHCTHHuux^cnocniinecTBOBaTejieft 
HCROMaro CEHHifb BocnHTaTejibHUMi AOMOifi 6jiarococTOABifl, o6i 
ocTaBJieHiH cero HeyMumjieHHO npoEBBOAeHHaro oropneHla, hto h 
npeftaTB jiko HecToioii^ee cyjRAeniH 3a6BeHiK). fl yB'IpeHi, nnmexi 
Bei](KOft, HTO y»e 6ojiie TaKOBuxi oropneHift ^Jieflu CoBiia He no- 
^yBCTsyiorb, no npH«iHHi cA^JiaHBaro mhok) eny oxsuBa h BOSBpa- 
nienifl Toro canaro nHCbMa, Koxopoe mofjio Tsus^h Bacb mhofo one- 
HajiHTB. Bi B^jsfiiBKb oxHAaeHOil bt> ceiii Bameft 6JiaronplflTHOft 
CRpoMHOCTHy cb HCTHHHuiTB HOHMi noHHTaHieM'L npoOyAy 

H. BeiiKoft. 
OKMfipa 23 AHH 1778 r. *). 

Ilocjiib aioro flSBHHHTejiBHaro, TaRi CKasaTB, nHCBiia, Bei^KOd 
CHOBa nocHJiaerb CoBtiy bi 1779 ro^y Man 10 jjiHHHoe hhcbmo, 
npH cewb npHJioxoHHoe ^), bi ROTopOMii, yKasuBan HJienaM'B Oo- 

BtTa Ha npHBHTBTA HMB Ha CBSh 06fl3aflH0CTH HO BBaHiK) HOieT- 

Biixi> oneRynoBt h qjienoBi OneRyHCKaro CoBfoa, npeftJiaraerB 

HMIb yCTpeMHTB BC% CBOH CBJIU Kl nCUOJIHeHitO dTRXX 06H3aHH0CTeft 

H AOCTUxeHiK) o6n^aro 6jiaroAeHCTBa Bcero BOcnHTaTOJiBHaro Aona. 
IIpH OTOMi BerjKoft oSpamaerb oco6eHHoe nxt BBHwaeie Ha cjii- 
Ayiomee: 1 ) cooTB'fcTCTByeT'b jih (j^HSHqecRoe BOcnHTaHie js^rei bi 
AOM% ycTaHOBJIeHHUM^ na to wb reHepajibHOKi> njisuvk npaBBJiaMi)? 
2) o6yHaK)TCfl jih BOcnHTHBaeMue Tony, hto jjih hx^ fijiarococTOfl- 
Blfl H oscHAaeMOft 0T^ bbxi* iiojibsii HasnaHeno? 3) cooTB^TCTByerb jih 
o6yHeHie h BOcnHrame A^Teft 6yAymeMy hxi SBamio h i^4jih ca- 
Maro AOMa h ne HaAJie^cHTi jih hto b^ btom'b OTHomeHlH HcnpaBHTB? 

4) a TaRHce wb RaRontB noJioxemH HpaBCTBeHHoe BOcnBTanie A'^^efi? 

5) npoBSBOAaTCB jih npaanjibHO Bct no Aony pacxoAH; hb KaROHi 
BOJiOKeHiH CHeTOBOACTBO H 6yxrajiTepiH AOMa, KaRie HBiiroTCA cno- 

C06fil yBOJIHHHTB AOXOAH AOHa H T. A- 

HeyAOBJieTBopHTeJiBHOCTB cy^^ecTByK)^^Hx•B npaBHJi'B noCyAHJia 



Cir. npHJioxenie J^ 17. 

*) 3tO nHCBMO HeCOMH'i^BHO AOKaBUBaeXB, HTO BeAROfi COBCJ^MB Ue CHH- 

TaJB ce6fl HaHajBHRBOH'L OaeByncRaro Cov^tsl, KOTopHft u ei ero riaaaxx 
flBjAJCfl noiHLDTb H rjaBHUM'B pacDopflAnTejieu'B no BocaiiTaTejibHOuy aomj. 
Bei^Koft TOJiBBO cHUTajiB cBoeio 06H8aQH0CTBiD, saKB rJiaBHuft noaoHHTejib ii 
BMiCT'b c-B T'bHB HjeHi OaesyRCKaro GoatTa, o6paiiiaTB Baimanie CoBtra 
Ha pasjuHHEiii OTpaciH yapaBJieniA no AOHy, nojosenie BOToparo noneMy 
jh6o npDSHaBaJocB HeyAOBieTBopnTejibniiu'b. 
') Cm. npnioaccBie JNs 18. 



— 190 — 

Bei^fiarOjB'BCHJij npeAOCxaBJieHHOft eiry BJiacTH, HsxaTB Hoaoe cpex- 
CTBO (t. e. nojioKeaie) bi AonojiHeHie Kb FeHepaJUBHOMy njiany h 
npenpoBOAHTb ero bi OneRyncKift CoB%rB upn CJi^AJioiiieM'B lOLChycb 
CBoeMi 17 ceHTH6pfl 1780 r., npn ceirb npnjioaceHHOirB ^), bi ro- 
TopoiTb BEicRaauBaei'b, hto ptrnmicH na aro no AOJiroBpeMeHHoicib 
HCRaHie ciioco6oB'B Kb HonpaBJieHiK) pascTpoenHaro nojioaseHiH 
BOcnaiaTejibHaro Aoua b bbah, ^to ero yRasaHin h npenopyneHiji 
ocTaiOTCA 6e3nJ0AHuufl».3T0 se hobob xonojiHEreJiBHoe nojiosenie 
6hjio npenpoBO^KOHO panie b-l C.-neTep6yprcRoe OTA^Jienie aqua 
npB nuLChui 3 anptjui 1780 roAa % npn ^eu% Eei^Roft BupasaA'b 
HaAeacAy, hto r.r. oneRynH, ycMOTp'iB'B bck) Ba^Hocxb aTHxi hobuxb 
npasHJii), He npeHEHyrb coofiu^BiB eiiy CBoe o hhxi if Hiaie h saMt- 
qaBiH n HeAOCTaiKH, ecJiH laKOBue npeACiaBflTca. CymBOCib btofo 
npeo6pa30BaHifl cocToajia bb CJi^Ayion^eMi. 

IIpH ynpesAeHlH BOcnHTareJibHaro Aona Bei^KOMy npeAOcraB- 
jiena 6uJia BJiacxb oco6eHHafl, KoiopoJl 6yAyn^ie no neMi rjiaBHue 
noneTOieJiH 6631 oCmiaro coBtxa oneRyaoBi HMi^ib y»e He aojixhu; 
axa BJiacTb cociOHJia bb tomx, ito ecb HHCxpyKi^iH h «iacTHbiJi no- 
CTanoBjieaia BeqRaro noJiyHajiH cmiy saRoua ^). Ho bi 1780 r. 
BeuROft AoOpoBOJTbHo OTRasajiCH orb axoft sjiacTH b^ nojibsy one- 
RyHCKHXi coBtiOBB, ocTaoHBi sa C060K) npaBo, BB cjiyna-lb HeyirbniH 
oaeicyHOBi BocnojibsoBaTbCfl cbobk) caMOCTOfliejibHOCibK), BepnyibCJi 
Kb npeHCHOMy dKcipeHHOify nop/iAKyj b lorAa »e HSAaji-b noBoe 
AonojiHHiejibHoe saRononojio^eHie ajia BocnHTaTOJibHux'b aomob^, 
«ycH0TpA HaAoSeocTb npnOaBHTb kii xpeicb HacTHM^ njiana h'6ro- 
Topufl npeABHcaHifl ajib HenoKOJieSHMtflmaro na b'Ikb coxpaneHiH 
nojubsu o6n^ecTBeHHofi> ^). dm AonojiHenifl cocto^jih wb cjAkyjo- 
mfiuii B 6ujiH BUdsaHH xaKoro poAa o6cTOBTejibCTBaMH: 

1 ) IIpH ocHOBaHin Aona npeAnoJiarajiocb, hto noneneHle o hcm^, 
xoTfl pasA^Ji^eHoe bi CoRtrb Ha MHornxi), He Koxerb ocjiaSnyib 
noTOMy MTO HCKpoHHee yiacTie, BcejiflB eAHHOAymnoe CTpeMJieme 
K'b 6Jiary, 6yAerb BM^Tb eAHHCTseHHyiocHjiyB'bGoBiTt. HaA'^'i^xe 
npoTHBHoe TOMy OKaaaJiocb, a noiOMy, Aa6H cie noneqenie, orb ko- 
Toparo Bce saBHCurb, coeAHHHTb bo OABHoe cpoAOTonie b riwb no* 
AaTb noTpefiHyio CHjiy CoBtxy, Bei^Koft HamejiB HyatHHMB noMi- 



*) Gh. iipifjo»eBie JVs 19. 

') Ouo noMimeoo b^ npHJOxeBin uoxb A* 19. 

') Gh. Go6paBie yqpesA- R npeAUDC RacaTejbHo BOcnHTaHiH o6oero noia 
E)BoniecTBa, t. I, cip. 299—300. 

*) Cm. neTep6yp. BiAOMOCXH 1780 r., As 100 oti 10 AeRa5pfl, npnCaBJie- 
Rie. HsB-fecTiR KMnep. Bocbbt. AoMa, K'B cBi^l^HiH) o6niecTBa cjysan;iM. 



J 



— 191 — 

CTHTB Wb COBiTB Bl K0MDJI6KTi HeTUpeXli erO HJieHOBTi laKxe H 

o6epi-AHpeRTopa aomb ^)« 

2) 06epi-ABp6RTopi, nocBJiTflBmift bck) »h8Hb cboh) b% noJiBsy 
AOMa H noTOJUb e^eqacHO saHHMaioii^eft ero aojishocth, ne HMieTi> 
BpeMeHH He tojibko cxapaTBC^, ho h MucjiHTb ce6t h o cbohxi 
6jihshbxi», a noToicy, hxo6u ohi Mon HMiTB bo ahh ciapocTB yAO- 
BOJiBCTBOHHoe CHOROflCTBie OTB TOFO CBMaro HtcTa, ROOMy ycjiyrH 
DOKaauBaJi'B, OMy 6iiijr'B onpeA^JieHB eseroAHuft nenciOH'B, pasMipAa 
no sacjiyraicB ero h BpeneHH npefiuBaHiA npH jifi^i KOJieqecTBo 
OHaro. 

3) Heo6xoAHifO CTapaTBCB, hto6u Bci A^a ri yAOBOJiBCTBiio 
Bcixi Hii\yniHxi ceCt noco6U 07*6 aomb caMUBfa RpaTqaftmHiiH 
nyTBMH Ri ROHi^y 6ujiH aoboabmbt. no dTOMy BeAROft Hamejii 

fly»HfiIMl dRCnOAHTOpOB'B Bl COBilBX'B, 06fl8aHBUX'B HO TOJIBRO 

C0Aep«aTB H npoHSBOAHTB nHCBiieHHUfl A^Ay HO H CTapaxBCfl Aa6u 
pimeHia caMHU'B A'bftcTBieirB HcnoJiH^eMU 6ujib, saqacjiHTB bi sbb- 
Bie ROHTpojiepoBi, ROTopue MorjiH 6u aocto&ho h SesomBfio^Ho 
saciynBTB m'^cto OneRyfia hjih oOepi-ABpeRTopa. Biitcii cb rbwh 
noAtBepaRABJiocB, hto6h HJiQBhi CoBbra e^eAHOBHO sactAAJiH ao 
o6tAa OTB 8 nacoBi ao nepBaro naca, a A9L6hi BMibfon^ie nyncAy 
AO AOMB, ocHoaaHHaro hb HejiOBtROJiK)6iH, ho hofjih iipeTepoteaTB 

yTOHHTeJIBHUX'B O^BABBifl, HJIOBU COBiTB AOH^CHBI 6UJIH SaC&AaiB 

B nonojiyAHH orb ipexi qacoBi) ao bbth, Rpoifb cy660TH. BMtcTb 
CB TbuTi Bei^Roft HaxoAHJn) nyacBuifB h npasAHHKH coRpaxBTB, npo- 
A0Ji«aH)ii^iecB uo i^^juimi hoa'^jibmi. Kpoiii loro, ohi nociBHOB- 

JIBJH, qT06u Bl HHCJI'b HJieBOBl o60EX'b GobItOBI HHROrAB HO 6ujio 

aoMin^aeMO bii oahou'b wbcrb AByxi hjih 6ojiie canofiJiBjRaftmBX'B 
poACTBeH^HROB^. RojiB CRopo HJieHi CoBira 6yAeTB ysoJieH'B oti> 

AOJl^HOCTH, TO CB JIBPieHieMl SBBHiB OnORVHa He06X0ABM0 AOJKHCHU 

npect^BCB BuroABi h npeHMyn^ecTBa coeAHHeHHua cb hhm'b. 

4) EseroAHoe 6ajiJioTHpoBaHie hjiohobi h HsGpauie bhobb »e- 
Jiaion^HX'B BCTyuHTB OTMiHBJiocB H BM'bcTO cero, uo npHrjiameHiK) 
TjiaBHaro none^HieJifl, nenpeMtBHo naacAuft roAi), bi^ BHaapib 
HJIH iiojrl, AOJi^HO 6BITB reuepaJiBHoe coGpame Bcixi jihi^i, bi* ro- 

TOpOHl DpeACTBBJIBTB BCe, HTO HO BOCnHTaieJIBHOMy AOMy Bl o6o- 

HXB H'lcTax'B Ri) HOJiBst 610 H BH^eMy BOARptnjieHiK) o6ii;ecTBeu- 



*) Bt Tose Bpeufl aja ypaBoeHiA C.-IIerep6yprcKaro OTAtieaiH ci Mo- 
CKOBCKHMii j^OMOHii HOJioxeDO uneuoBaTb ncpBoe C.-IleTep6yprcKUM'b One- 

KyHCKBHl COBtTOM-b, Bl KOTOpOHl TSKXe HaXOAHJUCb 4 OOeKyHa H Bl> TOUB 

lucjt o5epi>-AHpeKTopi. 



— 192 — 

H0& ^(OB'ipeHHOCTH CA^JiaHO H iTO ocTaBJieHO 6e3'B nocjribxcTBift, H 
Taidfl A'^jia pimaiB GajuiOTHpoBaHieMi. 

Bi cjiyna^ cMepm ofiep'B-AHpeRTopa Aona HOMeAJieHHo aojukho 
BBi6HpaTB Hsi S-xi) ocTdBinHxcfl onesyHOBi KOHTpojiepa b npex* 
CTaBitTB Ha yxBepH^eHle renepajiBHarcx coSpaeiH. IIpH npoAOJUKs- 
TOJiBHOft 6oji%8HH oCepB-^HpeRTopa HictioTB TpH ooeRyHa HcnpaB- 
jiHTB BCK) ero AOJiacuocTB cccoxpaH^fl Bce ycTaHOBJieHHoe bi coBep- 
meHHOft i^jiocTa». 

5) HaA'bflCB, qio hhkto hbb HJienoBB ne BOCxou^eTB ynyme- 
meiTB nopyqeeflaro, KOTopoe ohh, RaicB coScTBeHHoe CBoe coxpa- 
HflTB jifijissmUj coA^aiBCfl caMHM'B ce6i h o6ii^ecTBy BparoMB, 
HaBJieRaioii^HH'B na ce6H fh^bi CosAaTeoifl h yRopHSHu oti> corpa- 
^Aani CBOHX'B, — roBopHTB Bei^Roft, «Bpyqafo hitb AOBi^poHHocTB 
H nocTaBJiAH coBtcTB Ras^aro CTpornio^ ero cyAieio, xaio Ha 

BpeMfl CB060Ay A'faftCTBOBaTB H BCe yCTpOflTB R'B 

jiyHmeHy bi cnjiy S-xi* qaciefi njiaHa h ri Heiiy 
Aonojinenifi, ne saeHJiH R'B Tony cnocoSoBii on 
BJiacTH Moeft, CBepxi rjiaBHaro IIoneiHTejiH, Ra- 
ROB'B no MHt 6htb AOJiacen^, HHi npeAOCiaBJieHHOft 
noejiHRy a OHyio co CBoefl CTopoHu ocjia6jiHH npoAaio o6ohmi 
CoB'&TaM'B, htoGbi, ecjiH Bce ki jiyHmoMy CRJiOHflTBCfl 6yAerB, 
npeAHacjiaAHTBCfl CjiaroycninmocTBio, RaROBoft no ce6i oacHAaio R'B 
nojiBsi jiH)6e8Haro OTenecTBa^. 

6) ^a 6ojiBnieS XBepAOCTH BOcnnTaiejiBHaro AOMa, cocToan^am 
H3i AByx^ CoBiiOBB, EWb Ha noAoCle RyneneciByioniHXB Ronropx, 
coeAHHaTB ce6fl Ha b'Irh nepeoHCROK) RasRAyio noHTy, a HaHnane 
AOJiacHU coo6ii^aTB ApyrB Apyry Ronia co bcIxi saBbn^aHift, Aa6ii 
yABJiHTB H TtHB coMHfaHia rpa^AaHB, BBipaio^nxB CBOK) BOJiio no 

COfiCTBeHHOCTHMB. 

no CHjri dTHxi HOBBixii npaBBJiii Bei](ROfi, RaRi* oht> caui 
Bbipa»a6TCH Bi oHCBMi R'B F.v. OaBRyHaBTB 0TB 16 ceHTa6pa 
1785 roAa, <BJiacTB, npeAOCiaBJieHHyH) MHb CBepxi sBania FjiaB- 
naro IIoneqETeJia, cjioschb'b Ch ce6a, otahjii o6ohh'b noHieHHuiTB 
OneRyHCRHM^ CoBtiaiTB, AaOw npeA^yBHAtiB fijiaroycotniHocTB 
OHHXB npaBJienia uocjvb Hena, hto h npeAQHcaHo rhwb ace nocaiA- 
HHMi saROHonoaoaceHieHx ani^TB RaacAOMy CoB'bTy noneqenle o 
CBOHXB AiJiaxT* nocpeACTBOM'B ^epe^OBopoB^ rocnoA'B OneRyaoBi 
Han o6epB-AHpeBTopa no yAo6HOCTH cb npHcyiCTByion^HMBr nan na- 
naaBHHRaMH lixi MicrB, ao Koro onoe Kacaeica. 

KorAa ace oahhi CoB-hTB bt> CBoeMB ciapaHia HHKaRoro ycnixa 



— 193 — 

HXiTB H6 icon, TaKl ^TO H HHRaKOft 6u U^JSfiTRm HO 6HJI0, TO 

TOM'B nncaTB b'b Apyrofi, a ecjiH6iii n Torb He npe^ycnt jiii, Tor^a y;Re 
o6paTBTLCA Ki npeACTaTejTBCTBy PjiaBHaro IIone^TeJiJi. 

PasB]^ Bi TaROM^ TOJiBRO cjiyHat np^Mo r^ H6Hy nucaiB, Korxa 
RaKoe BaacHoe a'^o hb MOJRerB repntib hh Majitflmaro oTJiara- 
TOJiBCTBa H Tpe6yeTL CRopiflmefi eABHCTBOHHO OTh Hero noHon^H. 
Hem n CBepxi noH^iHyiaro saROHonoJio^eHifl otb nen^ hooaho- 
KpaiBO HHcaHO. «Ho — npoAOJixaerb Bei^Roft— OHoe ho HcnoJiHa- 
jiocB, RaR'B TO H HUflt MocROBCRift Gob'6tii, HO ynoTpe6ii CTapaniH 
no BumenHcaHHOMy h ho cnHcuBaacB co 8AiniHHM*B, npoACTaBHJi'B 
npaMo RO uwb ex npHJiojReHieM^ hsb MocROBCRaro BaHRa coo6- 
meHiji RacaTOJiBHO ao BSHeceHHUX'B ott> saBOA^HRa TBepAumeBa 
180000 py6jiefl» ^). 

Jl^iAB. Bl BOCHHTaTeJIbHOMl AOMt mjIH OAHdRO HO JiyHBie H 

nocjit HSAaHHaro HOBaro saROHonojiojReHlA. noATBep»AOHieMi> btofo 
HoaeeTB cJiyjRHTB MH'^Hie OAHoro bsi hjibhobb OoeRyHCRaro GoBtTa 
IleTpa HjiBHHa, ROTopuft necBMeHHo sa^BJiHJi'B ^). 

1) TicHOTa AOMa o^eBHAHa *). 9to npenaTCTByerB h BOSBpa- 
mfiBuo HI AOMi> A'i^Tefi, 0TAaHHHxi> Ha BocnBTanie no a^Pobhhitb, 



\/ *) IlgcBKo 16 ceHTfl6pA 1785 r. jiiio BeiiKaro cb. 4, J^ 874. 
/ A'^jo TBepA£iineBa cogtoa^o vb citji^yniiieMi: SiKOB'b BacHiBBBuiB Tsep- 
' AumeBi crb 6paT0Mi HsaHOMi h KOHaaHioeoii'B MflCHHROBUH'b sa etl TiAa- 
TeiLHua H paHHTeiBHua npoHSBeAeBix pasMeoseHift bi> BamsHpiH (Open- 
6yprcsofl ry6 ) m^ahuxi h aceJiiaHUx-b aasoAOB-b no ysasy CenaTa 1758 r. 
6aiH HCBiD^eRU B8B noAyuiHaro OKia^a ci AOBBOienieMi HMenoBaTBCA 
AHpoRTopaMH saBOAOB'b. lIocTpaxaiTB oqeBB npB nyraHCBCKOMB Gynrb, Tsep- 
AHmeBu, no MaaRjtecTy 4 anpija 1775 r., saefliH bsb opeH6jprcKofi Banso- 
Bofi dKcnexHuin 180000 py(3. sa accjitl jtrB cb njiaxexeMi 3 npoi^enTOBi 
Bi TOAi. IIoTOMi OHH npeAiosHJH MocKOBCKOMy OnesyHCROMy CoBiTy no- 
jy^HTB orb Huxi dTH 180000 p. Cb Ttmb, hto6£I CoBirB yniaquBajn 6u 
sa HuxB Bi BKcneAniiiK) 6aHBa 3 npouenra; ocTaiBHue se nojy«iaeMEie no 
sanHTaiy HS'b pasc^BTa 6®/o roAOBHXb ocTaBiflJH 6u vb noaBsy BocnHTa- 
leiLHaro j^ona, a saT'^Mi kb 1785 r. yniaTnii 6u sa ehxi bocb BanHTaii 
B'b 6aBK0ByK) aKcne^Huiio. Ho npn aioM-b TBepAHnieBH npocwn, hto6h 
HXB npHHHJH sa cjys5y npn KaniiejapiH CTpoenift cb nepeHMeHOBanieicB 
B'b KauHTaHbi H 3a TinB npa yBOJbneHiii nxi bi OTCTassy npoHSBejin 6u 
Hxi B% Maiopu. Cb dTHMi BeiiKoil ne corxamaJicji u sanHTai'B 6111% aaaTB 
ees-B BToro ycjiOBia. Ho bb 1785 r. TBepAHmeBi yiiep-b, h MocEOBCEift One- 
xyHCKifi CoB-feT-b xoAaiaflcTBOBajiB uepeBOifc Bcero AOJira TaepAHUieBa na 
CoxpaHHyH) Raany, cb pascpoHEOK) yniaibi BanaTaia h cb niaxeseM'B no 
HeMB no 5-TH npoiieHTOB'b B'B roAB. Ha bto npeAnoioxeHie GoB^bra BeiiKoft 

OTVb^aiB AJIHHHUMB nUCBMOMB. 

*) Cm. A*JiO CapoTCKaro HncTHTyTa ^ 148. 

^) Bto BucKasuBajia h CMorpaTeJiBHHiia 3aJB6epapMi bi 1791 r., npcA- 
cTaBJfla neoCxoAHMOCTH yjy^uiHTB nojosenie abtcA. noMi^eHie t4cho, 
B03Ayxa naio, (i^opTO^eRi H-fexB; o6yHeHie nioxo BCJi^ACXBie Tofi ae tj^cboth; 
B'B cnajiBHt, FA* noiaraeTca 50 A*Te&, naxoAHTCJi 74; bb aom*, ta* Bcbx" 
BocnHTHBaeMHXB BT. 1788 r. fiujio 278, lenepb 986: npaBCXBeBHoe Bocnnia 
Taaae neyAORiexBopHTejBHO 11 t. a. (A*-io Cap. Hh. ^ 142). 

a. H. BEUKOfl. ^^ 



— 194 — 
H o6y^eHiK> pasjiH^HUMi MacTepcTsairb A'^xeft, HaxoAflmiixcA bi 

AOMi. 

2) IIpH jiflui riTB MaciepcEExi noKoeBi, oropoAOBi, caAOBx, 
ABopoBi H T. A.; AaJRe noif&n^eHie ajih RJiaccoB'B nejAOBJieTBopH- 

TeJIbHO. 

3) JI^'bTH, oTAaHHBiA Ha BOCDHTaoie no AepeBHHHi, HeptAKO 
ocTaioTca ao 7 — 9 th JiirB. ORpyjReHHue rpy6uMH npHirbpaMH 
HeBkRA'B, saHMCTByiorL MHoroe xyAoe otb ehxi, sHaKOMHTca co 
BCAKHHH nopoRaMH, A^aiOTCH HaJio cnoco6HUMH Kb yHOHiio H npH- 
Toii^ Tpe6yK)TB He tojilro HcnpaBJieHiH npaBOBi, ho h npiyneHifl vLTb 
Ri) nocJiymaHlK) n nopaARy- 

4) CoB^Ti, BonpeRH miaHa, coBepmenHO He 8a6oTnTC4i o 
AtiflXTi H He o6paniaerB HHRaRoro BHEicaHia na nrt BOCHHTaHie. 
IIpH laROMi OTHomeniH CoB'lTa h npe nacTuxi CMtHaxi jifOAefi, 
KOTopuMi nopyHaeicii BocnBTanie A^Teft o6oero nojia, neJiBSH oxe- 
AaTb RaKoro Jin6o ycnixa wh jspwb. 

5) He o6pan](aeTCfl BHBManiii na BOcnHTanie A^BymeRii. Be- 
jiHRoe 8JI0 npeneOperaTb hxi* 6jiaroHpaBieMi h npocBtmemeiii 
jiHuik, CyAyn^Hxi MaTepeft, ROTopuM'b poAi> HejiOBinecRift o6A3aH'b 
nepBuuH nacTaBJieHiBMH. Bi oTHomemH AtBO^eRi coBepmeHHO He 
BcnojiHflioTCfl npaBHJia, npeAnHcaHHUH wb renepajiBHOHi njiaHi 
(III OTA. 6 CT. 94). 

6) B^ HacTaBHHRH onpeA^JifliOTCfl Cob^tomti jibi^b ho do ao- 
CTOBHCTBy H Gesii npeABapHTOJiBBaro HcnuTaHiB, ne B'^^Aafl HHiero 
oCi Hxi ycepAiB h cnocoGHocTBXi); noaroEy h ycnixH noAoGnaro 

BOCnHTamH COMHHieJIbHH. 

OneRyncRift CoBin ne o6paTHJi'B HHRaRoro BRHiiaHia na dTO 
MHtnie CBoero ^e coHjiena, ROTopuft aoboahjiI), roho^ho, o6i 
8T0HI B AO CB'bA'i^BiA Bei^Raro, HaxoABBmarocfl yjRe bi> GoJiisHeH- 

HOMTi COCTOflHlB. 

TpyAHO 6hjio h oBCBAaTB Jiyqmaro ycntxa otb hobux^b 
npaBBJH, ROJiB CRopo ocyn^ecTBJieHie hxi. ^a xb^i hpohsboabjiocb 
ri^MB 3Re caMUMB jiHi^aMB^ A'l^ficTBOBaBmHMB CTOJiB HeycniboiHo H 
paH'le. 

BeaRoft, npBHHCUBaBmift Heycoix'B no saB^AUBaniK) Bocna* 

TaieJIBHBIMl AOMOMl HO CTOJIBKO JUmaM'B, OTl KOTOpUXl HeyCH'IX'B 
eABBCTBeHHO H HpOHCTeRaJTB Ha CBMOMl JS^kssfb^ CROJIBRO paSJIHI 

HMM-B 3aROHonojio«eHlHMT>, — B^ Heycnixt A^Jia BOBce HenoBHH- 
HUHi,— He saneAJiBJii chobb BSHiHHTB saROHonojioHceHie, bochojib- 

SOBBBQIECB HaCTynEBmHMB BOflHaME CB Typ^ieK) E IIlBeDiieK) BB 



/ 



— 195 — 

1790 ro;Q^, no npnHHi ROTopurb cjctji&nocB HeeosMOsinnti co« 
craBHTb co6paHie OneRyHCRaro GoBtra, ikki Ras-b no^TH Bcb 
DOieTHtie 6j[aroTBopHTe.iH oTopaBHjiHCb ea leaTpi BoenHLixi Ai^ft- 
CTBift. (BeaRoS, RaRi ohi» nHmerB bi npHjiaraeicoM^ nncEMi 
31 Mas 1790.r. ^), BjiacTb cbok), ROTopaa no nocjrlAQ6My aaROHo- 
nojioseHiK) Bpyqena 6£iJiia XIpaBJieHiio OiieRyHCRaro CoBita -'), 
oOpaiHo BOSBpaTUjii ce6'l RacarejiBHO «OAHoro sA'i^niHAro '^ 
CoBtia^ Aa6u, npesi* onyio BoineAi> bt^ fijin^Raftmee pascMOTptuie 
TeHOHiH A^^ BocDBTaxejiBHaro AOMa, yHBHHTb njin necoicHBTejib- 
HOCTH ny6jiHRH H^ROTopuA HysHUA Kb oojibst AOMa pacnopH- 
aceeifl), o qein> npesi cie noireaHiift Cob^ti yBiAOMJiflto». Maa 
31 A. 1790 r. 

TaRHHi o6pa30M'L CI 1790 roAa SBBJiacB ABOftCTBeuHOCXb 
B'B nopAAK'b ynpaBJieHis BOcnHiaTejibHKiMH AOBiaMB: bi Mockb^ 
BCfl BJiacTb no saB'^AKiBaniio aomomi npHnaAJiejRajia HCicjiEonn- 
TOJibHO OneRyncKOMy GoBtxy; bi> IIeTep6yprb jrb nacTb 8to& 
BJiacTB Bei^Rofi cnoBa BOsapaTHJii cedt, no eAsajin ci 6oJibmoio 
nojiB30K) fifls. AOBia. Ohi m> bio BpeMa 6hLJVb yse pasSETb napa- 
jinqeM'b H npH TOirb uohth ocjitoii, ^to, Rone^no, OTHHiiajio y 
B^ero BCHRyio bo3ho;rhoctb nntib jihhho CAHTejibHufl HAASopi aa 
'XOAOiTb jiibjih Bi neTep6yprcR0M'B BocnHTaTeJibHOMT> AOirb. Oh^ no 
Heo6xoAiiMOCTii AOJi^eni dnjii) fiesycjiOBHO nojiaraTbca na Aone- 
ceniB JiHi^i, noJibsoBaBmnxcH ero AOBipioM'b, ne Euin (f^nsn^ecROfi 

B03M0SH0CTH HXl npOBipSTb JIH1H0 Ha CaMOMl K^Jl^. Ilo 9T0&iy 

Kasajiocb 6ii bobhojrhumi c<iHTaTb A'i^HTOJibHOCTb Bei^Raro no boc- 
nHTaTOJibHUMii AOMaiTb 8aR0H?eHH0K) aTHMi) 1790 r.; ohi hhhI^m'b 
yace nocjrb btofo roAa ne npoHBJDiJH) BJiiank CBoero na AAJibntfi- 
mee pasBHiie yqpes^eniH, ocnoBaHHaro no ero noHony h npoAOJi- 
saioniiaro cyni^ecTBOBaTb, cb pasjinqnuMH BnponeMi HdirbHeauiMB, 
no HacTOJiniee Bpena. ToJibRO neJibSH ne yMOJinaib, hto noAi* RO- 
Hei^, H03RH0 CRasaTb, SH8HH BeuRaro boshhrjio a^a nero Rpaflne 
nenpi^THoe a'^Jio JIoBAOBa h KHpni6ayMa no G. - IleTepfiypr- 
cROMy BOcnHTBTejibHOMy AOMy, cocTOHBoiee wb cjvkjiyiomfiycb. Bi 
1785 roAy ^) ^eapajiH 18 Bei^ROfi, na ocnoBanin § 17 aaROHono- 



.*) Cm. npHJOxeeie ^ 20. 

•) JltJio KaHu. C.-UeT. OneK. CoBiia ->e lfX», 

') T e. neTe;)6jprcKaro, b6o BeasoA npossBaiB wh IloTep^fpr't tr n»- 
cjui H3i 3Toro ropoia. 

Htb Atji ApxBBa C.-IleT. Ones. CoBiTa: 6jMarD BCiiiaro pojia no 
BocaHTaTejbBOMy AOMy J^ 57/8 mepa 6. 



— 196 — 

jiojEemfl 1778 r. 3 reHBapa, ciejii HyscHUHi ^aib orlAyiomee 
npeAHBcaHie: 

1) r.r. noieiHuxi 6jiaroTBopHTejiefi flafinpaTL safijiaroBpe- 
MeBHO Bi npeeHHHKH rjiaBHaro noneqHTejifl, Aa6u ohi, bi> cjiy- 
naib BaRaHAlH, ohjk) TOTnaci sacTyoHTB Hon>, Ges'B AaJiBBiflmefi 

KOH^HpMaaiH. 

2) npeAi> npHcaroK) npa Bceni co6paHiH bhobb BomeAmie 
HJieHH AOJiJKHH HHTaTb CB caMdro Hanajia Bce hoboo sasoHonojio- 
^esie AO KOHua, a^^u, bhah bch) eajRHOCTL onaro, hofjih no oeoHy 
EsSiiraTb Bcero, qro no saKOHonoJioaseHiH) ho cJvkjLyevb. 

3) c^ saeMinHKOBi OneKyncKaro CoBiia, ROTopne ho njia- 
TATL HH KanBxajia hh npoueHTOBT>, BSUCRaTB HeMeAJieHHO, Ges'B 
BCflKaro oTJiaraTOJiBCTBa, no npaBBjiaMi saRona, a no HeHMtHiio no 
3Toft npHHHHi HaJiHHeHXT> AeHorB BnpeAB HHROMy CoJiie 25000 p. 
no AaBaTB h ho AOJi'i^e RaRx na 5 JvbTh. 

4) cJiOBecHUfl corJiaciH FjiaBHaro IIoneiHTejiifl BDECUBanHCB u 
6e8x ero noAnHcania b^ RHHry h npuBOAHJiiicB bi BcnojiHeHie; ho 
3T0 Bejio R7> HeyAo6cTBaM^, a noTOMy BnpeAB HnaRO laROBuxi co- 
rjiacifi He yTBopmAaiB, RaRi tojibro cb noAnHcanieiTB na lixi 
onpeAiJieBiaxT> TjiaBnaro IIoneHHTejia. 

5) CBepXT) 06BlRH0BeHHUX'B GaJiaHCOBl), hsb robxx bbaho. ^to 

npExoAi* H pacxoAB Btpnu, aoji^ho, no A'^ficTByion^sMB npaBH- 
joaiTB, BecTH en^e eaceroAHoe noRasaxeJiBHoe HCiHCJieHle HCTHHHOMy 
cocT02HiK) AOHa Cb RasnaMH, a naie ocHOBaniK) AOMamH^ro Rann- 
lajia. Me^cAy Tkwb c^erni BeAyxcA nenoHATHO n nocpeACTBOM7> 
OHBixi yAo6Ho wh MyTHOfl BOjsjk pu6y jiobbtb. 

no9TOMy HBAO yqpoAHTB 6yxrajiTeplK) noHfliHyio, na npHpoA- 
HOMi flsuRi, npocTyH) n Bcbwb npn nepBOHB BsrjiaA'b noHainyK). 
Bi> GoxpaHHOfi KasHt ji^jisi xpaHeniJi sanosennuxi Bemefi bbcctb 
TO caMoe SjiaroycTpoflCTBO h nopaAORi, hto bb jiOM6apAt naCjiio- 
Aaeica ri yAOBOJiBCTBiio o6n;ecTBa. Cb dioio E^tnlio Bei^RoS onpe- 

A'bjIHjrB Rl AByMl) AOJI^RHOCT^H'B CRBaH^IH, ROTOpHft 10 JI^TB 

BHcneRTopi) n dRonoM'B wh KaAOTCROMB Ropnyc*]^. 

6) jifln 6oj]Bmefl HcnpaBHOcm nocujiaTB oahhi toa'b IleTep- 
fiyprcRaro 6yxrajiTepa b-b MocKBy, a MocROBCKaro b% IleTepSyprB 
AJi>i noBipRH no rjiaBHofl Race* Bcixi> cqeiOBB. 

7) na cjiyiafl OTcyiCTBia 06epi-AHpeRTopa, ^to6u ciapaTBca 
coxpaHeaiH KaRi ^nsHqecRaro, TaK^ h MopajuBHaro coAepscania 
Atiefl H npoH3BeAeHia npupoAHHxx laJiaHTOBB, — cero eAHHCTBOH- 
naro ocHOBania BOcnHTania, GesB ROero Bce Cyjifirb GesnoJiesHO, — 



- 197 — 

HasBEHHTB npH AOM^ DOMomHHRa, ROTopoMy AaBHo Hajuexajio 
6urh Bii6paH7; no3TOMy BeoROfi Ha3HaHHJ[i» $a6epa, Guemaro 
15 jrirb ryaepBepoiTb KaAexcRaro Ropnyca. 

8) HaHaJiBHRq:^, hjib nepsoft BaAsnpaTeJiBHHir]^ AOHa loxe no- 
jiaraeicji noMon^Hima, Aociofiaafl HcnojiBaTB JieiRan^ia na aefi o6fl- 

SaHHOCTH. 

IIpoTHBi dTBTb pacnopaseHift BOscTana HHOrie ^jiohu One- 
KyHCRaro CoBlTa bi tomi HHCJrb h JIobiiobb, bi oco6eHHOCTH npo* 
TflBi Ha3HaqeBia $a6epa fiyxraJnepoH'B, u, cjit^ya pascyacAeBi^Mi 
CBoero coTOBapHoia ooeRyHa IIoTpa HjiBHHa, noAajiH npocb6y (aa 
noADBCbK) JIoBaoBa, ynoMflHyraro HjibHHa, a laiuRe KpioROBCRaro 
H ip.) rpa^y BesGopoARO o toitb, htoCu ohb AOJio«Bjrb Ea Bojih- 
HecTBy: 1)hto Cob^tb, nacio nojiyiaa npeACiaBJieHia on BoARaro, 

HaXOAHTB BB HHXT> OpOTHBOpi^Hia H 2) HTO RaR^ 6aHRB BOCBHTa- 

teJiBHaro Aona ocHOsaHi eAHHCTBORHO Ha o6ii;ecTBeHHOfi AOBipoH- 
HOCTH, TO JUOAH, HO HM'lioii^e ce6i xopomefl cjiaBu, ho HoryTB 
'buTb npH ceiTb. iii^cTt (eaMeRaa dinwh na onpeA^JieHie $a66pa h 

'CKBaHIH). 

f ^.T0 nocjiiAOBaJio no aiOHy npomemfo r.r. OneRyHOBB hsb 6y- 
^..larb He bhaho. Mohcho noJiaraTb, ito ocjih oho h Obijio AoeeAeuu 
AO CB'iA'^Hia IlMnepaTpHUbr, to ct> ea CTopoHBi ho 6brjio Aaao no 
dxoMy npeAHOTy KaRoro jih6o npBRasaHia, ROTopoe naAJiejRaio 6u 
coo6niHTb oneRynaifb, npoAOJ^RaeniHirb no npejEHOMy cbob npepe- 
Kank Cb Bei^RHMi. 3tb npepeRama Aonuie ao Toro, hto Bei^Rott 
bt» 1790 r. oTp'feniHJiB orb aoji^hocth KaRi JIoBi^OBaj xaKx h 
06epB-AHpeRTopa IleTepCyprcRaro AOMa Riipni6ayMa. Ho ohh o6a 
He noAiHHHJiHCb 8T0Hy pacnopHseniK) BeAKaro. IIoaTOMy BemcoA 
10 iiona 1790 r. jifiji^b C.-IIeTepdyprcROMy OneRyncKOMy Cosiry 
CJi'fiAyio^ee npeAJioxceHie: <AaTb HeueAJieHHO npHRasanie ott> Co- 

B^Ta Jl,h6u HHRTO Hdli nOA^HHeHHUXl» HB BB HOlTb HO nOBBHOBaJICH 

AByiTb yBOJieBHUM'b h CTporo noATaepAHTb niBeflAapy h npn jiom- 
6apAt naxoAan^HMca cep^aHTaMi ne anycKaTb hxi, a bb npoHOMi ne 
npeifiHHO HcnoJiHHTb no mohub nocjri&AHHMi AByn^ npeAnHcaHiairb» . 
RHpmCayM^ n JIobi^ob^ noAaJiH »caJio6y 061 axom Eh BeJiQ- 
qecTBy, ROTopaa nopynnjia H36paHHUM'b ck) JiHi^a&iB (He. ^epHU- 
mesy, Bpiocy, MycHHy-IIymRBHy, CTporaHoay) pasoCpaib aio 
A^Jio ^) Orb Bei^Raro 6hjio noipefioBaHO oG^flCHenie, KOTopoe oht* 
n npeACTaBBJi^ Eh BeJiaqecTBy. 



*) OsHaieBHUfl jiHAa noBiiABMOMy veAiQiH HcnojHeBieu'b eosJioseHHaro 
Ba BBZi nopyqeflifl; BeuRofi se yipyxLAaii HMnepaTpHny npocb6atiH cko* 



— 198 — 

GoAepHcaiiie ero rJiaBHifiuiHM'b o6pa30M'b cji%AyK)ii^ee: < One- 
icy hi KHpm6ayirB, oCepx-jiHpeKTop'B BOcnHTaiejiBHaro AOMa, npH- 
CBOHJTb ceSt BJiacTb HeorpaHBHeHHyio n CTaBHJU'L he bo ^to yBt- 
iqaHiA 5eii[Karo h jijiyxb oaeKyHOBi). 9to npoAOJUKajiocB 6ojr6e 
2-x'B JiiTh. IIomjiH HeycTpodcTBO h bcbvAh ^ajiio6u ea ynyn^eaifl 
no BocDBTaHiio A'jbxefi h naxce no KopHJieHiio hxt*. HaftAfl Hys- 
Bawb no3TOMy H86aBHTB AOMi OTi> KHpmOayMa h npiHTejiH ero 
JIoBi^OBa, noMoraBmaro eny bo bcbmi h nacio nBAHaro, BeaROfi, 
He acejian npe^aBaTb hki^ cyAy rpaacAaHCROMy, oTpimEJii hxi> noAi> 
BBAOMB HecnocoCnocTH H 6oji1i3HH. Ho OHH o6a dTOMy BOCnpOTH- 
BHJiHCB H npoAOJi^aJiH narjiocTH h cboh ocjiymaHk. KorAa x,e 
EeniRoS npHSBajn* KHpm6ayMa kb ceSi jifisi o6iacHeHiH, owb orsi- 
HajiB cb npespinieMi h 0CK0p6jieHieH'B ^eciH. 

<cjI|ojiacHO JiH yAHBJiaTBCfl, nvLmevh Bei^Kofl, hto am CBoero 
caMOBjiacTia CAiJiaBmH saroBopB BupBaTB na^aJiBCTBO Moe, mf6 
Monapmefo BJiacTiio npeAOCTaBJieHHoe, nojiarafl naAescAy Ha ^pe-^ 

KJIOHHOCTB AHBft MOHXB, KJieBemyTB MeHfl COJiiSHHMte H, SaOfilBB C0*4 
BiCTb H qeCTB, CWilOrB JI02CHHMH AOHeCBHiHMH He nO^HTaiB HHKOBC.^ 

n HHHeBO CBameHHaro». 

Bemcofi npeACxa^nJii dTo o6'BacHeHie HMnepaxpHAi npa cjii-^ 
Ayion^eMB nncBMt, HanHcaHHOMB Kpaflne nepasdop^BBHMB ysKe ^ 
no^epKOMx: «BanieMy fieJiaqecTBy ocnijiHBaiocB noAHecTcr npH 
ceMB oGBflcneHie Moe o6b orptmeHiH oneRynoBB, BcenoKopHMme 
npoca pascHOTp'^TB OHoe Bameio nposopjiHBOCTBK), He coo6n^aa 
tImb, kohmb ooeejiiHO pascMOTptnie, ab,6u Aony npesB to ne npe- 
TepntTB yaaAKa wb cboomb KpeAHii^, ^.iwb oahhmb ohb h a^P* 

PascMaxpiiBaBniie 3to a'&^o ne npHouiH rb eAHHorjiacHoiiy saRJiio- 
HOHiK); OAHH naxoAHJiE, ^To Bei^ROft Ghjib bb npaBt orpimHTB ooeRy- 
HOBi cBoeio BJiacTiK). ^pyrie »e naxoABJin, hto BoaroS ho hm^jhi npa- 
Ba yBOJiBTB oneRyHa Ges^B corjiacia OaeRyncRaro CoatTa. IIo njiany 
renepajuBHaro y^peacAeflia cip. 367, CRaaano, hto oneRyH'B h c r ji lo- 



pinraeMB paapimeBiu dToro A^ia, EaKi uosbo saBJiio'iHTB hbb cjiiA7H)mef( 
sainiCKH EKaTepHBU II ki XpanoBouKOMy: •npiucaaaHO BocnHTaxeJiBHaro 
AOMa QoneqHTejflMii pa3o6paTB ji,±io KHpm6a7ua ci loaHBOifb BeaKon. 
Cefi HUHt uHmeTii h iipucujaei'L HenpecTaaHO bo iiE% roBopxi hto ocTaerc^ 
Aiio 6e3i pascuoTpiHin^ iioMi BocnHTaTejBBufi 6631 none4eHijf. OcBiAOMB- 
lecB Bi KaKOMi nojro2EcoiH A'i^jo^. EiaTepHHa. 

Cm. Pyc. ApxHB^, 1872 r. ct. 2091, Hd'B BanncoEB EsaTepHHU r% Xpa- 
noBHAKOiiy 31 aBrycia 1790 r. ^ 128. 



— 199 — 

laexcfl no Bii6ajiOTHpoBaHiK), a ho no BJiacTH rjiaenaro nonein- 
TBJifl. BojiisHb jRe, KaRi npH^HHa oTpi^meniA, ORasajiacB neocHOBa- 
TOJiBHOK). KHpmOayirb h JIobi^obi sa coCoio ne npnsHaiOTb ee, a Apyrie 
He AOKasuBaiorB. JlpyrHxi ace npn^HHi icb OTpimemK) BOBce ne 
yKasaHo h ne HM^ercii. 3aK0Hu ne xaiorb BeAKOMy BJiacTH OTpib- 
maTB HJienoBi coB^Ta. Bt> HcnoJiHeme npnRasaHla HMQepaTpnqu 
H36paHHua Ek) Jinua nojiarann HyacHHM'b nasHa^HTb bb rjsaBHue 
noneHHTeJiH AOBipeHHyio oco6y jsfl BpeMenH BUdAopoBJieHia nuH'bni- 

HHTO. 

IlMnepaTpHi](a yTsepAHJia nocjii^AHee MH'^Hle, h BeaKofi 2 Sort. 
1790 r. noJiy^HJi CJi'feAyK)mifi BHOOiaflmift pecRpHnrb. 

«nBaH^ HBaHOBHii! PascMOTpiBT* npomeniH, noAaHHua HaMi 
OTT> RO.iJieaccRaro coB^THHRa KHpm6ayirB n naABopnaro coBiT- 
HHKa JIoBAOBa H npeACTaBJieHHua Hani MHinra oti> noneTHux'B 
GjiaroTBopHTejiefi, none^HTOJiefi h oneRyaoB'B BocnHTaiejiBHaro 
Aona, He naniJiH Mu HHRaRHxi npH'iEH'B ORasaTeJibHuxi, ROTopuH 
6fii noABopraJin chx'b no saRonaMi oTplmemio otb AOJi^RHOCTeft 

DX-B HaCTOflOJlHXl. Ho RaR'b OHE HO CnOC06HOCT)]M1> ]9XT> HaSHaHeHU 

HaMH Kb BcnpaBJieHiK) jijkii'b noAi> BiAOMCTBOMb Ra6HHeTa Hamero, 
TO na irlcTa hxi BuGpaxb h onpeAtjiHib ne EnaRO, RaR'b no xo?- 
HOMy ycTaHOBJieHiio aji^ BocnHxaTeJibHaro AOMa e npo^HX'b nps 
HOM'b saBeAenift oxi Hacb yxBepKAenHOiiy, JiiOAefi Bipnux'b, 
HcnpaBHUx'b H He noAOspnxeJibHux'b, Aoneca HaMii, rxo BBi6paHH 
6yAyTi». Csepxi xoro, yBamaa, hto HasHaHeHHuft BaMX npeeMHHR'b 
AOJiroe BpoMa oxaron^eHi SojrIsHeHHbiM'b cocxoaHieMB, cohsbo- 
jiflOMi, hxo6h oCn^EMii CoBi^xoM'b Bctx^ no^exHbixi 6jiaroTBopE' 
xejieft E none^Exejiefi Apyrofi npeeiiHERB BnGpaHi b HaMii npoA- 
cxaBJieH'b 6Hjrb. IXpeCuBaeM'b BnpoHOM^ BaMB 6jiarocRJiOHHOft. 

ERaxepHHa ^). 
Bt> C.-neTep6yprt, ORxafipa 23, 1790 r. 

Bcji^ACXBie axoro Eei^ROfi nEcaJiii HnnepaxpEat: 

<(BceuEJiocxEBMmaa FocyAapBiHal 

IIojiyqBBT* BHConattmee B. Hm. Beji. oxx 23 cero HBCJia or- 
Ta6pa noBOJiiHie bo BcnojiHeHie OHaro CEM^BcenoAASLHEtfime aoho- 
cxH ?ecxb BBfiK): ?xo BHGpanu BonpeA'bJieHUHaM'IcxoKojiJieaccRaro 



*) 3x0X1 pecRpHnxi Hane^axaHi Tasse bi HxeHiflxi Hnnep. O611;. 
JIk)6. Ecxop. H Apes. npH Mocrobck. yauBep. 1863 r. KHHra 3, cxp. 133. 



— 200 — 

GoBiTHHKa RHpin6ayMa, KojiJiejRCRifl Gob^thhri OneRyHii KpioKOB- 
CRifi, Ha Mi^cTO se HaABopHaro CoeiTHHEa JIoBi](OBa, b'b CHJiy sa- 
KOHonoJiOHceHifi 4 § zcnoJiHABmifl nATBorlTBAOJisHOCTBROHTpojiepa 
ceRyHA'B-Maiop'B HcynoBi, a RaR'B b'b CBJiy Toro jro saROHonojKURe- 
Hifl Hucjiy HjieHOBi coctoatb HaAJieacHTB hsb nernpex'B h oxHoro 
ROHxpoJiepa, TO paBBoirlpHO sue jvm HanojiHeHifl ^eTBepTaro one- 
RyHCRaro H'IcTa BufipauB h onpe^bJieHi ROHTpoJiep'B HaABopHufi 
GoBiTHHR'B BopoHBHi. 3to Bce npBAaK) BucoHafimeify 6. Miia. Beji. 
6jiaroBOJieHiK). %o ^e Racaexc^ ao Bu6opa Ha irbcTO npeenHHRa, 
OHoe npeAHHcaHHUMB FeHepaJiBHUMx Co6paHieMB coBepmeHO (t 
BameMy BeJiHHecTBy npeACxaBJieHO 6yAerB. 

BceMEJiocTHBtfimeft FocyAapuHH B. Hmh. Beji. 

BcenoAAaHHifimift BeAROfi. 

Hb-b AaJiBHiflmHX'B 6yMarB bhaho, ito Bei^Roft cooCmaji'B One- 
RyncROMy CoBixy cJi^Ay^mee BHCO^aftmee noBejiime: 

«Eh Hmh. Beji. BucoHaftmii&rB mh*! noBejrlnieMB coHSBOJiHJia 
npeAHHcaxB, hto rr. oneRynu 6uBniie RE[pni6ayMi> n JIobuob'b onpe- 
AiJieHu noA'B siAOMCXBO KaSHHexa, npncoeAHHaa ri xoMy coriAyK)- 
mee: na irbcxo hxb BH6paTB n onpeA'^JiflXB hg HHaRO, RaR'B no xoh- 
HOBfy ycxaHOBJieniK) BOCnnxaxejiBHaro Aoua h npo^HXB npH neMi 
saBBAeHift oxi nacB yxBepxACHHOMy, jiiDAed Bi^pHBorBHHcnpaBHHX'B 
H HQ noAOspHxejiBHUxB, AOHOCH HaiTB, Rxo Bu6paHH 6yAyTB; CBepXB 
xoro yBancan, nro HasHa^eHHuft BaMHupeeMHHR'L AOJI^oeBp6lCHoxfl- 
^OI^eH^ COJl'^SHOHHUBTB COCXOHHieM'B, COHSBOJIfleHTB, HX06kI OCn^HMl* 

CoBixoM^ BcbxB noHexHMX'B BjiaroxBopHxejieft h IIoneiHxeJieft Apy- 
roft npeeMHHKB BHgpaHB h HaMB npeACxaBJieffB 6ujn>. 

;i;eRa6pa 25 1790 r. 
Oahhb H3B pascHaxpHBaBmHxi a'^Jio 6en[Raro cb RHpmGayiroMii 
H JIoBaoBHMi, rpa(j[)B BpioccB, 28 ORx. 1790 r. aohochjix HMne- 
paxpni^'l: « RaR'B no noBejiiHifo B. H. Beji. mhok) o6BABJieHO 6ujio 
OneRyHCROMy CoBtxy BocnnxaiejiBHaro ^OMa otb 1 iiojia, ttoCh 
GoBtxy HHRaRHX'B npHRasanift rjiasHaro IIoneqnxeJiH, npoxHBHHXB 
yHpe}RAeHiK), bb A'i^ficxBO He hpohsboahtb, xo no ceBiy oScxoaxeJiB- 
cxBy cxapmifi OneKyffB Koji. Gosix. Hjibhhb n noAajiB ro mh* 
HUHi nncBMO, Roxopoe y cero ji,Jin BHCOiafimaro Bamero Hm. Beji. 
ycMOxpiHia BcenoAAaHHtflme noAHomy. 

28 ORX. 1790 r. 

Birtcxi CB xiM-B Ckijio Aano OneRyHCROMy GoBtxy ceRpex- 
H e npeAnEcame nsSpaxB npeeMHHRa rjiaBHaro IIoneiExeJiA, bcji^a- 



— 20i — 

CTBie HoroOneRyHCKiA CoBtTb(IIeTep6yprcKift)AOHOCHJiT> Hiinepa- 
TpHii[]^: (cBo HcnojmeHie Buc. B. Hm. Beoi. ceRpeiHaro yRasa orb 
19 MHHyBinaro reHsapfl H36pajiH hu h BcenoAAaHHifinie npeACTEB- 
jifleiTL Ha BcemuioCTHBiflniyK) ROH^^HpMaiUH) wb npeeMHHiui FjiaB- 
HOBfy noneiHTOJiK) B. Hm. BeJi. BOcnHT. Aona r. TaftHaro GosiT- 
HHKa rpa^a X. MHHBxa; neyroAHO jhh 6yA6TB B. Hm. BeJi. npHRa- 
saib eny hsi aoxoaobi AOMa CTOJioBfaxi no 500 p. ea MicAm>. 
C.-neTep6ypn). ^espaJiA 28 a. 1792 roAa. 
BcjrbACTBie aroro 27 ^eBp. 1792 r. nocji'^AOBajii BucoHaftmifi 
yKasi y cero npsjiaraeMufl ^) odi) yTBepjRAeHiH MHHHxa bt* aiofl 
AOJURHOCTH. BcTyoHBi Bi OTopasjieHie CBOHXi o6;i8aHHOCTeft Mm* 
HExi npeACTaBHJTB HMnepaTpnai AORJiaA^ o coctoahIh BOcnHTaiejiB- 
Haro AOMa h HaxoABBmsxcA npn HeMi> yqpexAeHifl h CTaJii npeA- 
CTaBJiaib EKaTepHHi II o xbji^x'b no dTOMy AOMy. 3thmi> npeKpa- 
THJiocB BCflKoe BJiiflHie Bei^Karo na cyAb6y cosAannaro hmti AOMa ^); 

0H1» He B^ COCTOilHiH 6lJJIl SaHHMaTBCM RaKHMH-JDHCO A&JiaMH, 6y- 

Ay^H H CTapi* H coBepmeHHO cjiini. OAnaRO ohi> ho nepecTaaajii 
CTapaTbca a^^tb Ao6poe a^o. TaRi ohi npocarB npea^ rpa^a 
IIJiaTOHa 3y6oBa HMnepaTpni]^ EKaTepany bi 1792 r. bt> hoa6p% 
o nenclH H^RoeMy Bojik), CuBmeMy yiHTejieMB wh RaAercROM'B Rop- 
nyct BsarlM'B HHcneRTopoMi), hb^oahomihsb nHceMi* ^) Kb HMne- 
paipHif]^ Ao6aBjiaerB: «si j'avais tant soit pen de lumieres, j'anrais 
expose de bonche ce que j ose faire par ecrit. Tai cru n'etre priv6 
du bonheur de Vous voir qu'en cessant de vivre: je vis et ne Yous 
vols plus». 

B'BApyroMB 2ce nncBMi otb Toro jro BpeMOHH EeuROft BHCRa- 



') Cm. npHioxenie J^ 21 . 

') Hat A±Ji'h OaeKyHCRHX'B coBtTOBi ycMaTpoBaeica, hto ctb 1792 tomjbl 
iDHfl 17 Bct 6yMaru orb rjasHaro IIone^HTejji hcxoahjih 3a noAnncBH) rpa4>a 
MnHHxa, OTfiiqaBmaro Tasse ea npeicTaBifleiiGiA omj CyMarn hsi OnesyH- 
CKHX'B CoB-feTOBi H jipyrHxt yipeaieoifi, BzoAHBraHxi noHeiiy-JiHfio bi nepe- 
BHCBy Cb BOcnHTaTejBHUMH xovaMH. Hpes'B rpa<|>a Mfliinxa coo6majiHCB co- 
BiraHi H Bci BucoHaflmiii noseiiBifl ;io hhx'l icacaiiiniacJi. Hsi bthxi Bei- 
coHafimHxi noBei'^Bift OTMiTBiTB OAHO OTb 28 osT. 1796 r.. nociixoBaBmee 
BesaAOiro npex'B Bon^HBoft EsaTepHHU IT, y cero npHJiaraeMoe b-b boj^ibh- 
HHK'ibi BOTopiXMi 6hiJih y^pes^eHa oco6aa KouMHCcifl,— (dTa RommhccU 6BiJia 

S^pesxeaa nox'B npexctAaTeiBCTBOM'B rjiaBHOKOHaBAyK)iuaro bt» Mockb^ 
\. T. G. HsMafiiOBa.— Gx. npHJoxeeifl ^J^ 22 h 23)— BaKi jua npHBeAeeix 
BOcaHTaTCiBBaro AOMa b% MocsBi bi naAiesaiuiB bopaaok'b, rastB h jljlr 
ycoBepmeBCTBOBaflifl y^pexAeniji KacaTejBBO odoHXi BocnHTaTejBHUx'B ao- 
M0Bi» K'B jyinieft nxi Buro^t h noiBst. PesyiBTaTOBi drofi KohmhccIh vu Be 
KacaeMCB; obh buxoaatl sa npeAi^JU 6iorpa())i(i Bemcaro. 

') Ha aTHX-b QHCBvaxi Beusaro bi HflnepaTpHirb EKaTepHai xota h ae 
oaaa^eao Bpeux nxi aanaeaaia, ao Mosao xoaycTBTB, hto oaa aaaacaau 
Bi Koaai 1792 roxa, lasi bbr^ Beasoft uacaii noTOMyso caMOny noaoxy 
Bejii a rpa4»y 3y6oBy bb aofl6pt a AeKa6pt 1792 ro^a* 



— 202 — 

sHBaerb tMon anguste Souveraine trouvera toujours en elle le 
contentement que je ne trouveral jamais en mo5, priY6 dn bon- 
heur de la voir et de Tcntendre^. 9th cjiona abjx'b nuceiTB ^o- 
Ka3iiiBaK)Ti>, HTO Bei];Roft nnqero ne BBjf.iji'b^ e6o 6£iji'b cji'bn'b, h A&ace 
He cjiuxajii) rojioca HBmepaTpHUbi, noxoMy hto caMi ohi. ro ABopy 
ixaTb 6hjii He wb cocTO^tBin; HMnepaipHi^a see BOBce ne noct-- 
majia ero. 

Eei^Kofi, xoAaTaflCTBy^ npe^^ rpa^oirb njiaTOHOMi 3y6oBUM^ o 
TOMi ace cTapoMi npo^eccopt Bejii, yaoHBuaerL o nocTOflHHOM'b 
6jiarocRJiOHHOMT> pacoojio^cemii Kb neny rpa^a, ROTopoe npocHTb 
coxpaHHTb H Ha fiyAyniee BpeHfl (HHCbMa 29 Maa 26 iK)Hfll792r.) 
H npocBTi rpa4>a npoAJiHTb npe6£iBaHie opa neHi) jierRO-ROHHaro 
uojiKa ceRyHffb-Maiopa ^epnei^Raro (nacbMa 13 iioHfl 1792 r.). 

KpoBfi Toro BeAKOfl 7 ^esp. 1793 r. ocMijjiHBaeTca (RaR^OH^ 
BHpa^aeTC^) cnpocHTb 3y6oBa, ne nporniBajii jih OH'b Tbin> Bce- 
MHJiocepAHyK) TocyAapHHio? «He ocTanycb cnOKoen'b flOROJib He 6yAy 
BaMH yAOCTOB'bpeH'b o Ea mhjiocthbomi ro mh'^ 6jiaroBOJieHiH». 

TaRi MeAJieHHO yMnpajii* ocHOBaiejib BOCoHTaTejibHaro AOMa, 
npH ROTopoM'b 6brjin ocnoBaHU Bei^RHH^ ^e h Apyria nojiesHHa 
oCo^ecTBy yipejRAenia, RaRi-TO poABJibHug rocnHTaJib, yniAsmnfi 
noBHBajibHaro HCRyccTBa, a laRJKe RasHu: BAOBba, coxpannan h 
ccyAHaii, KOTopuxi) He jiEmnee CRasaib nicROJibRO cjiobi bi cji%- 
AyK)ni,efl rjiasi. 

rJIABA IlflTAfl. 

06'b ynpesAeBiflX'L, BaxosBBmnxcfl npn BOCBHTaTeiBuuxi Aouaxi h npiiBH- 
jeriflxi AOHa.^PoAHJiLHufi rociiHTaib ir y^HJHme noBHBaiBHaro ucKyccTBa.— 
nosepTBOBaaifl BeqKaro aa hxi ycTpoftcTBO.—KasHa bj^obbh, ccyAeaa h co* 
xpaHHafl. HeAOcraTOK-B Aeaerb aja axi jifkicTEin. BeuKOfi o6panuieT'b na 
9T0 CBOH KaanTaiu.— 3joynoTpe6jieHiA no ccyAHoft Kaaut.— A'bio JIapHHa, 
IIpHHua.— IIpaBHjeriH BocaHTaTeiBHaro AO»a.— IIpeAOCTaBjeaie AOMy noJB- 
aoBaiBca npaBOMb HeuMyn^Hxii h nocj^ACTBia dToro; nepeAa^a b% ero co6- 
CTBeHBOCTB HCKOBUXB Jlf^Jli qaCTHUUl JDUaMB.— Kjiei^HCHie KapTi HrpaiB- 
Buxi BB nojBsy BocoHTaxeJiBHaro AOMa.— y^pesAeaie npn aom^ (i)a6pHR'B 
A-ifl BEiA^JKH KapTB. — ^A<>S-^&AB Beusaro o KapTuxB u pesoiioiiifl HMiiepaTpHiiu 
no aioMy A*Jy- — IlepeuHCKa Beusaro cb A. A. BnaeKCKUMB o Kapxaxi.— 
C6opi Bi nojiBsy BocniiTaTeJBBaro AO^ia cb nyCjHHBuxB nosopHmB.— Otbo- 
menie Bei^saro rb Tearpy.— A'^JO MeAOKa aKHEnaepa.— HesaBHCBMOCTBBOC- 
nnraTeiBBaro Aona oti paaiHHBUxB aAMOBHCTpaTRBBUX'B n cyAcOBBix'B y^- 
pesAenift. — BosBBRaBmiji otb btofo CToiKBOBeaia Beiisaro cb pasjn^BSiHH 
yipesACBiflMn; ji^tzo HCTOnsBBa CeMenoea, UpoKO^'iB A^^^^Aona. 06BHBeBiji 
B3BeAeHHUA Ba BeuRaro h ero no BHiiBo6iACHeBifl, npeACTaBieBBUii EKare- 
puB* II.— Othctb ero, npeACiaBjeBHufi ko ahbo 25 ji4tb Ea AapcTBOBaaiji. 

I. PoAHiibHue rocnMTajiM m yHM;iMu;a noBHBajibHaro MCKyccTsa. 

IIpH MocROBCROMx BocHHTaTeabHOM'b AOM^, coraacHO renepajibHaro 

naaHa, 6uax yqpeacAeHT> BeuRHMi poAnabnufi rocHHTaab, «B'bR0T0- 



— 203 — 

poiTb G^AHUfl 6epeMeHBUfl xeHn^HBu eaxoAHJia ceCt yCtjEHii^e h 
noMontb H BOTopoe Cm cnacajio HOBopoxAeHHuxi ^refi otl norH6ejiH 
H rtMi AOCTaBJieHO 6ujio 6ojr6eBuroAurocyAapcTBy». npieMx6epe- 
MeHHux'B zeHI^HH^ OTRpuJicfl 21 anptjifl 1761 r. Caicuft rocDH- 
Tajnb ^) ^0lfiI^aJICA wh oAHOirb HSii^^^Hrejie&BOCiiHTaTejbHaroAOMa 
H coiepzajicfl ea o6mbL ero cpeACTBa, t. e. cnepBa o6inyL^n noAan- 
hUmh — Bi xeHbrax'B, ciicTHuxi npHnacaxi h pa3H£ixi» Bemaxi, a 
noTOMi — ms-b o6ii^Hxii aoxoaobx aomb. lIodAHte, nocjit 1784roAa, 
cpeACTBa 9Toro rocoBTajiJi ycHJiHJiHCb emfi RaoHTajiOMiy nosepiBO- 
BaiiflHirb jQ^eMHAOBuiTB nepBOHaqaJTLHO na ycrpoftCTBO TaRoro xq 
rocnHTaflfl npH oeTep6yprcK0in> BOcnHTaTejiBHOMi aom^, a camaft 
rocHHTajib Bi 1877 r. 6ujrb nepeHMeeoBaHi bt> MocKOBCKoe Poao- 
BcnoMoraxejibHoe saeeAeHie. 

IIpH OTKpiiTiH Bi C.-neTep6yprt wb 1770 r. OTAtJieHia Mo- 
CKOBCRaro BocnHTaTejibHaro Jl^oiia naAJiea^ajio xaoce y^peAHib npH 
OHOM^ npien-b CHpbixi> h eeHMyn^ix'b poAHJibHEUi; ceo sa mbjiu- 
Hifi^meMi co6HpaeMofi cyMMu Ha coAep:KaHie ohuxi dTorb rocnn- 
Tajib oTRpiiTb 6biTbH6Morb>.Bo8JiarajiacbHaAejRAa, hto Bci BOoOn^e 
KaKi AyxoBHbie, laKi* n CBiTCKie ^hhh, no cynieft xpHCiiaHCROft 
AOJURHOCTH^ coo6macb, OAnHi pasx HascerAa no^cajiyiorb laRoft 
RauHTajiXy HTOOi) yRasHue mi onaro npouenTU cocTaBJi^JiH noTpe6- 
HyK) wb roAit Ha coAepjRaHie rocnHTajiii cyMMy. (Onoe hhcjio npo- 
i^eHTHbixi Aenerb pacHHTUBajiocB npHMipHO ao 1200 py6. BiroA'b). 

Bi raaeTaxi neqaTajiH, ne no^ejiaerb jih rto nojRepTBOBaTb bi 
OAHHi pasi HaBcerAa TaRoft RaQHTaJn, htoGu hb npoueHTu Momno 
6hjio 6h coAepacaib rocHHiaJib. (Cm. C.-IIeTep. BtAOM. 1771 r. 
JVs 75 CTp. 20). 

Ha 3T0 o6'uiBJieHie OTKJiHRHyjicfl laRace npoRO({)i& /t^eMHAOBi), 
npHCJiaB'b Ha hma rjraBHaro noneHHiejifl n OneRyHCRaro CoBtTa 
ABaAi^aTb tucbhi py6jieft npn uHCbMi, bx ROTopoMi BucRasuBaJii, 
HTO «6yAyiH Wb ny3RExi> Rpaaxi aobojibho nacMOTp^bJicE, rbri Taifb 
«CTapaK)TCH 6e3'b tetocth o 6 hk e c t b y yMHoacaTb aoxoau 
«hoco6jihbo npHJi'bHearL ro yAOBOJibCTBiio coAep^aTb rixi, ROTopue 
coreqecTBy cjiymsijiH, hjih 6tAHoe MJbn^aHCTBO, HMia A'^xefl, ne 
€Moryrb BOcnsTbiBaTb h o6yqHTB, hjih 6ojiHnue pasHUMH apB- 
«naARaMH CTpaAaKyrb, h o npoiHX'b tbrobuxT) HeAOCTaiKaxL 



*) Bi nepBHft ae rojii (1764 r.) Bt 9TOMirocnuTaji4poAHiocbl4 A*Teft, 
HO yse RX 1765 r. 6ujio hx'b 75 ii nn^psL 6ojbh£ix% xesmHH'b, npH61;riiB< 
100X1 Ki noMon^a rocnHTaiJi, Bce yBOJiHiiaBajacb n K'b 1795 r. AOCTurJ^^ 
303 AtTefi, posAeHHUxi bi rocnoTait. 



f 



- 204 ~ 

ocycepAHO CTapaioTCii MBJiocepAie yHHHHTb; ]s,jir TanoBUxi o6iitHX'b 
«uaAo6HOCTe& BejiHEie aomh cb hxi uupxyjifli^iefo ymhoxohu: 
«Toro A-^H n H TOMy ^ejiaK) 6utb yqacTHHROHii, h ajih raso- 
«Buxi> 6'6ahuxi npB ceirb nocuJiaK) ABa^i^aTb thcah'b py6jieft 
<cepe6peHHuxi>, n noKopno npomy npEHfliB n noMJiHyTHft roc- 
«nBTaJii> SjiaroBOJiHTb otkp&itb, Aa6u poAHJiBHHipi mofjib nonL- 

«30BaTBCfl». 

no npHH^riH aTHX'B jsfiBerb otrputb 6ujrB h bi neiepOypri 

10 ORT. 1771 r. JUOWb Ji,JlH pOAHJUBBHICb H HaAli BXOAHBIMHABe- 

pflUH oHaro Ha Mpauopnod aocr^ GuJia c^bjiana cjiiAyion^afl 
HaAOHCb: crocnHTajiB aja poAHJiBHni^'b oiBopeni qeJiOB'lbROJifoGieMi 
roc. IXpoRO^ifl ARHH(|)ieBHHa JleMBAOBa B^ 1-fl a^hb ORTJiOpfl 
1771 roAa». 

Hsi coxpaHBBQiHxcH fljbjvb no aiOMy rocQHTaJiH) bhaho, ito 
wb 1781 roAy neHSBicTHaa oco6a ^) npeABapnieJiBHO OnoRyn- 
CRift CoBixi UHCBMOM^ ystAOMEJia ^j, HTO HM^^eTB HaMtpeme 

SaBeCTH Ha C06CTBeHH0Ml CBOeiTB HaCAHBeniH npH pOAHJOLBHOlfB 

rocuHTaJi'b B'b^noe yqHJiiin;e ncRyccxBy noBHBaJiBHux'B 6a6oRi> n 
aRymepcTBa, bi> rotopomb openoAaBame 6b[jio 6u leopeTHqecRoe 
H npaKTHHecRoe. 

Bjitcit ci rkn'h axa ocooa npocsjia coo6n^HTB, crojibro no- 
Tpe6H0 js,Jiii saBeAenifl h RaRiixi hmohho rhhfi, HHCTpyMeHTOBi*, 
4>aHT0M0Bi, BOCROBBix'B RyROJii H npoHaro, RacaiomarocH o6yHe- 
Hi^, n RaKafl Ha aTO cyMMa noTpe6na? Cob^t-b no aTony noBOAy 
BcxynHJii B-b nepenHCKy cb HuocTpaHHUMH rocyAapcTBaMH n 
upocHju'B HasHa^eHm BCflROfl boh^h i^tnu. IIo nojiyieHiH ipe- 
CyeMHXx CBiAtnift 1784 r. aBrycia 9 CoBirB HanncaJii na hmh 
HOHSBicTHOfi oco6u gjiaroAapcTBOHHoe nacBifO ci> npenpoBoacAe- 
Biewb CHHCRa noTpe6HBixi> npeAMOTOB-B e ony6jiHROBaHieBfi b^ 
HsBtcTiax'B HnnepaTopcRaro BocnHTaxejiBHaro JI^OBia bi 1784 r. 
aBpycia 9. Ha saBOAenie KHiar-B u npo^aro HCiHCJi^jiacB oahho- 
uoBpeiieHHO cyioia bii 6,115; a^ aa eaceroAHBie pacxoAU, RaRi 
to: Ha xcajiOBaHBO h RBapiHpy npo4)eccopy n noBTopHxejiH) jioriph 
1700 p., H Ha coAep»aHie T^x'b Bon^eft 100 p. Ha Bce axo 
Tpe6oBajiCH RaaHiaJi^ bb 30.000 py6., npnHHxafl Ha ohbla es- 
Aep}RRE no 6-TE npouenxoB-b; a cb Ao6aBJieHleMi> BBime yRaaaH- 



') Bra oco6a 6£iJia BeuKoff, iulki dxo aoixho saKJiiD^HTB Hai xoro, ^o 
OH'b HHeHHO noxepiBOBaii AeHBni na yctpoficxso dxoro BaBeAeeifl. 

') Cm. ApxHBB C.-nex. OneK. CoBtia ^'hi'b bi nepenieit x. XXXV, 
crp. 244, ynpesAeHle y?ujuiiiB h aoBHBdJibHaro uHCTSTyxa. 



— 205 — 

Haro eAHHOBpeneHflaro pacxo^a bi 6115 py6. Bcero 36,115 
pySjieft. Toro si 1784 roAa 0RTH6pfl 29 noJiyHena orb HeHsst- 
CTHaro BCfl cyMMa cnojiHa, npn oco6oh'b naRert, cb HaAnHCbio: 
«He npesAe pacne^aTaTB kb,k% no npomeciBiH orb BumenacaH- 
Haro nncjia jificsmn jrbrb*. 

Bi TOMB ate roAy 2 icafl Eei^ROft nHcajix OneKyncKOMy Co- 
B%Ty: tKaKi wb sAimHeMi BocoHTaiejibHOHi Aont npa HoeMi 
pojqEuibHcirL rocnHTBJi'ik a apeAnpHHHHaio na Moeiii jro co6cTBeH- 
HOHii HacAHBeniH yqpeABTb ynvLj^mfi noBEBUJibHaro HCRyccTBa h 
onepaTopcTBa, Aa6u HaaHaneHHue oGy^aTbCJi ceiiy cTOJib Hy»- 
HOMy SHaHiEO nHTOMAu cero AOMa, noA^ HacTasjieHieMi HapoHBO 
AAA Toro onpeA^OHHaro npo^^eccopa aKymepcTBa, EU'bnj CBopxi 
TeopeTEHecKaro sHaaifl, npaKTHHecKoe ynpasHeaie bi tomi roc- 
nHTajrb, hofjih AOCTHreyTb bcIxb nyaiHHX'b Kb lony CB'i^A^Hifi n, 
pacnpocTpaHHACb coBpeneHeM'b no Bceiiy rocyAapcTBy, npHHOCHTb 
cnacHTejibHoe BcnoMon^ecTBOBaeie nejioBiqecTBy, h a*^^ Toro Astn- 
HUA orb noMAHjTaro npo^eccopa j^jia ycTaeoBJieHiH cero saBe- 
AOHUi npaBHJia npn ceMT> npenpoBOSAaK). H eaA'i^iocb, hto One- 
RyHCRiA GoBin 6yAeTx npHJiaraib BOSMOSHbiH none^eniA a^i^ 
npHBeAemn onaro wh sejiaenoe coBepmencTBo h ajih coAepsaHiA 
na B^RH wh i^ffi^TynieM'b coctoahIh ^)>. IIpH btohi npEJiomeno 
6ujio: fPacnpoA'^JieHie oCyHeniio noBHsajibHOMy BCRyccTBy>. 

IIpenoAaBaTb nay^enie noBHBaJibHOMy HCRyccTBy AB'^naAe- 
cflTH BuCpaHHBiM^ H3^ 0.-116. BOCHHTaTejibHaro AO&ra BocnnTan- 
Hm^aM'b paspimeHO 6hjio ffh 1784 roAy* Bi Toace BpoMH 
AOSBOjreHO o6yqaTb h nocTopouniixi axoHy ace HCRycciBy. 

OAHOBpeMOHHO Cl dTHMl BcilROft UBCaJTb GOB^Ty, HTO cRaRl 

yse AaBHO npesAO 6ujio roBopeno h cb HusimHiiirb oCepi-AH- 
peRTopoM'b Ha cJi0Bax7> yace nojioaceno, htoCu, no yAo6HOCTB 
BcerAamaeS vb MocKBt 6biTH0CTH r. JI^eMBAOBa, poAHJibHOMy Mo- 
CROBCRaro BocoHTaTOJibHaro AOMa rocnnTaJno 6uTb noAb ero, ^e- 
MBAOBa, HasBanieM'b, h ajia Toro noJioacenHyio SA'^cb npn yqpeacAemH 
na ero HacAHBenie rocnaxajiH AOCRy ci HMeneMi ero lyAa nepecjiaib, 



*) 3aMtTBH'B npn aioxx, hto r. ^hctobhii— bi oqepRaxi mi> HCTopin 
pyccsHX'B Me;^H^HHCKHx•^ y^peatAenift XVIII ct.— 1870 r., ynoMneaa, hto 
RHarHHfl EsaTepHea J^iiHTpieBHa FoaniiUBa no xyxoBHOuy saBi^maHiD ocxa- 
BHia BanHxajn aja oOyqeniH Ha npoaeHxu (tb OHaro pyccBHXi uojioji^uxi 
jioAeil HexHAHHCKHH'B HayRaMi, b-b oco6eHHocTH aKymepcTBy, bi sarpaHH?- 
Bux-B yBBBepcHTexaxi (ct. 213 h cz^js,^), se ynoMHHaerB 06% dxoH'B noatep- 
TBOBasiH, CA^JiaHBOifB BeuKHH^, KOTopom OBI TaKse yMaiHflBaeTii b% 
CBoefi ^HcTopiii MBAHAHHCKiixi niKOJii> B-b PoccIh*', 1883 ro^a. 



— 206 — 

a 8A^b 6htb TaROMy »e poahjibhomj rocnHiajiK) ea uoeifB h^cah- 
Bemir; bi pascyjRAemH Toro, hto ri OHOMy npecoBORynjiflK) Ha 
uoewb me coAep^caHiH yqpe^AeHie yiBJiHii^a nosHBajiBHOHy Hcsyc- 
CTsy H onepaTopcTBy, h ji^jisi Toro B^js^iioch^ ^to KaRi wb Mocrob- 
CROMii OneKyHCROMi CoBiT^ HaAJI6maI^iA uipu yxe npHHATu, 
TaRT> H noJioaceHHan npH sAi^mHeMi rocnHTajii Wb nsMBHh ero, 
JifiMULjipBdL, AOCRa TyAa me nepecjiaHa. H o ceui ajia 6oJiBmeft ao- 
CTOBipHocTH HHCBMeHHO HOATBep^aK), 6yAyHn yBipeei Ha same 
ycepAie cnoca-bmecxBOBaTB ceMy HoeMy ri noJiBsi nejiOBi^necTBa 
CJiysRhmfiuy yHpejRAeBiio». 

Ho no HeHSBicTBBiBrB HaMi> npH^HBaHi» npH ^hshh Bei^Raro 
310 npeAQOJioxceHie ho ocyiAecTBHJiocB. 

TojiBKO wb 1800 r. ceHiaSpa 11 HiinepaTpHi^a Mapin ^), 
ycMaipHBaH b3x DpeACTaBJieHnaro 6apoHOM'B KaMneHraysenoMB 
cnHCRa, HTO Bi BOCHBTaTeJiBHOM'B AOM^^ rieTep6yprcR0K'B noRasaHU 
20.000 py6. OTB r. ^eMHAOBa, BsneceHHue ivb nepeBeAeHiio bi 
MocRBy, a no nacBMy r. FjiaBHaro noneHHTeJia (s'b Mocrb^) r. Ma- 
CJiOBa HH Hajio He ycMaTpHBaeica chx'b AonerB b:b nojiyHeHiH bi 
MocROBCROMi> OneRyncROMi CoBiTi, AaJia cji^Ayion^ee npeAnecanie 
OneRyflCKOMy CoBiiy: cnoRoflHuft ^eMHAOBi BseecB bb 1771 roAy 
wb coxpaHHyK) Rasey ajia saBeAeniH aRymepcTaa 20.000 py6., a 
RaKi noRoftnufi FjiaBHufi noneHHTOJiB Bei^Rofi xortjix RanBTajii> ceft 
Bi 1784 r. nepoBecTH bi MocRBy, BsaMini ace oearo AaTB hsi 
co6cTBeHHUX'B AeHePB 20.000 py6., ROTopue A'^AciBHrejiBHO h sa- 
nTQEu H3X oGpan^aBmarocA bi coxpaHHoft RasHt RanHTajia ero, to, 
CJiijiysi nepBOHy CjiaroTBopBiejiBHOify ero HaMtpemio, opeAnHCBiBaio 
osHaHeHHBift RanHTajii nepeBecTH cepe6poHT» 3% MocrobcrIA One- 
RyHCRifi CoBirB*. 

II. Ka3Ha BAOBbR, ccyAHafl h coxpaHHan. 

no renepajiBHOMy njiany BOcnBTaxejiBHaro Aona HasHaneno 6iiITb 
npH OHOMii BAOBBefi, coxpaHHofl H ccyAHoA RaseaM^. IIodTOMy bb 
OncRyHCROMT* CoBirfi e^e b^ 1767 r. cociaBJieHU njianbi chmb 
ycTaHOBJieniHM'L h npeACTaBjienu na pascy^AeHie o6n](ecTBa h, no 
OAo6peHiK) oearo, noBeprnyTH BeriKBMx na nposopjiHBoe pascMO- 
xp'bHie Efl BejiHHecTBa, npn hcmb orb yRasuBajTB h ea cJi'^Ayion^ui 
noGyAHTeJiBHHflnpHHHHMR^yipeacAeHiK) baobbcS, 



*) Cm. Xi OHHKa y^pesAeniS BixoMCTBa Kicnep. Mapin, crp. 112, 223. 



— 207 — 

ccyAHOfi H coxpaHHoft icasHH. Ohii roBopHJii: iCrojib 
ropecTHO cocTO^Hie 6'6aRuxx baobi>, ROTopua nocjii Myaceft nacTO 
ocTaiOTCA 6e8x nponHiaHia h Seax noMomn. Baobh h CHpom — rjaB- 
Hiifi npeAHerb AOCTO&Hufi coaRan^Hifl; GiAHOCTB ohuxi ctojib BejiHRa 
HpasJUHMHa, mo ipyAHO onHcaxbOHyro.^iMi SHaiKle 6hjii Mya-b, 
T^Mx xajnocTH'be o6cTOflTeJiBCTBa ocTaBoiHxcfl nocjit nero. Oh'6 
HirkiDi DponBiaHie otb ipyAOBi My»a, a TenepB JinmeHU. To2ce bi> 
KyneiecTBt: no CMepTH Myaca nacTo OKasHBaeTca, hto HH^ero Htrt 
y Hero; jRena h jiin ocTaiOTCA 6e3x Bcero. Baobu npoAaiorb no- 
^HTRH OAHO sa ApyrBHi sa noJiOBBHy jxbnu.y saRJiaAUBaiorb, pas- 

SOp^lOTCH H COBCiMl Ji,ijl2LK)lCa HHII^HMH; HaHHBaiOrb pOCTOBmHRH 

OAHH». Bx oGjierneeie dToro HecnacTHaro noJioaceHla BAOB^HCHporb 
BeAKoL npoAnaraJi'b ycipoHTb ocoCyio baobbk) Raany, cocToamyio 

HSl* 4-X^ RJiaCCOBX, no KOXOpUMl HyXBH MOFJIH BHOCBTB BRJiaAU, 

a no Hxi CMepTH baobu RaacAufi roAi* noJiyiaiOT'B neHciio copasirlpHO 
BejiHSBH'b BRjiaAa. IIo npaBHJiaMi> aioA Rasnn on jiei^, BMiamHX'B 
CBHme 60 Jiirbj BKJIaAOB^ ne npsHBiiaJiocb HERaRBxi. EjsejiB acena 
BRJuaA^BKa yMpeii) panie ero. to BKJiaAiBRy BOSBpamaeTCH ero 

BRJiaA1>, CB BHqeTOM'B OAHOfi ^eTBOpTOft laCTB AJI^ yCBJIOHU CpCACTB^ 

BAOBBeft KasHH. EujiB cocTaBJienu uoApofinBifl npaBBJiao npHiBnaxi, 
npenflTCTByfom.BX'B npBHBMaTB y^acxie bo BiuiaAax^, b o nopAAR*^ 
BUAa^B nencift, a o BosBparb BRJiaAOBi b t. a* ^)- 

BM'lcr6 CB T^Mi) nocTanoBjiAJiocB, ^to BRJiaABr a nencia, no 

BHWb npOflSBOABMHH, HH nOA^* KaRBM'B BBAOM^ SaAOp- 

XB.RU ne 6yAyT'B, npa hom-b nenciB scerAa cnojiHa BUAaiOTCH 
BAOBaHT) caMBMi BJiB Bxi Hacji^AHBRaM'B B uoB'bpeHBUM'B. Ycn'bxy 
cero y^peacAonia MoryrB cnocoCcTBOBaTB ABa ycjioaU: oCmecT- 
BOHHaAAOB'i^peHHOCTBB co6jiH)AeHie npeAnBcannaro bb Toq- 

HOCTB. OaeRyHCKift GOBtTl BI) ne COMHBTeJlBHOBfB BHiniBOCTaeTCH, 

qro Bck Bucmisi b HBacnia npaBBxejiBCTBa bi npiodptTeniE hojibsh 
OT'B cero yqpeacAeHia noMon^ecTBoaaTB 6yjs,yTb bcI^mi, a naBna^e 
HOBMyn^BiTB BAoaaBf-B, KOB y;Re b spoifb 6'6ahoctb yrneTaiOTca 
CpeMeneM'B MBoroneiajiBHaro BAOBCTBa. 

IlepexoAH aaT^Mi ri HSjioacemio yqpejRAenin ccyAHoft RasHH, 
Bei^ROfl nncaJix: 



*) Aa'bidbst'b aRaAOuia HayK'B $ycci, noAB CMoxp'i^HieH'b HSstcTHaro 
JleoHapAa 3&jiepa, cocTaBdJi bi 1776 to^j pacqeiu h HSXHceeRU rbx'B 
ocHOsaHifi, no kohhi AOisaa 6ujia A'i^ficTBOBaTB yqpexAaeMafl bjiobbh Rasea, 
TasB HToOu HUKTO HC TepQ^jTi y6urKa; a xasse cociaBUJih Ha^epTaeie o6m,eQ 
ccyABoft KasHH. (Cm. C-nexep^yprcBia yneHHa B^aomocth 1777 roAa /6 13 
cTp. 98. 



— 208 — 

«ECflK0HyAOBOJIBHO H3BtCTH0 CROJIb MHOrOROpUCTHO pOCTOBIi;HRB 

na saRJiaAi) AaH)rb jsfiBhinL n yi'lcHHiorB 6i;tHHX'b corpaacAaHt noA^ 
jiOHCHUM'b noRpoBoiTB Ao6poA^TeJiH. Bci 6e3x E8i>jiTifl jiioAH noABep- 
KBHU 6HBaK)Ti Hxi xfliqeHiK), Hecuoipfl Ha saROHu, 6yAT0 6u 
OHue He AJiH HHX^ oHcaHH. TaROBue o6n^ecTBy BpeAnue ^htojih, 
npH jitHOCTH CBoeft notf umJIAK)T^ TOJibRo, RaRi* 6u npecBOHTB ce6i 
TO, HTO paff^TOJiBHue TpyA0JiH)6i{M ce6i nasHJiK. SaROHu Hacro 
nojiaraKXTB npeA^Jiu RopucTOJiio6iK), ho meiHO, h6o jraxoHMuu 

OCXaiOTCH CRpHTUMH. JlfiJUTb HeJI0B'bK0JIK)6iH TpofiyorB Jt^l^ HOMOmH 

GiAHUHi HSEJCRaTb cpoACTBa saBeAenieMi) ocoSoft RasHU, bi roto* 
pofi BCJiEaro saaHiH jiioah, BHiioiqie bi> A^HbraxTi nyacAy, uoryrb 
saHHMaTb B^ RaaH*! ceft orb jificsnn ao Tiicnqn py6jieft Ha saRJiaAu 
pyqHHe, cocTonn^ie hi> cjiHTKaxi sojiora, cepefipa hjih TaROBUx^ 
Ben^eil ci BUAaieft na ohua He6ojiie, no npo6HO& ujkui, ipex'b 
neiBepTefl, a hoat* npo^ie BcaKie MeiajiJiH no ycMOTptniio 
RasHu, He CBHme hojiobhhh. MoacHO laRsce sanjiaAUBaTb ajiMasu, 
Ta6aRepRH, nacu, raJiaHTepefimaa Bonyi h t. a* ^pieH^ sue «b 
saRjiaA'b HJiaTbfl, hobuxi HaTepifl h jibH^HUxi TOBapoBi, a oco5- 
jiHBO pyxjiAAH npeACTaBJiHeiCfl RpafiHOMy npHCTaBHHROBi ocMOTpi- 
hIk), He TOJibRO Bi pascyjRAeHiH tji^^hhocth TaKOBuxi, ho h paABL 
ocTopo:RHOCTE, HTo6'b KSkZui HO npeTepn^Tb RaRoro jih6o y6uTRa 
HJiH HapeKaHifl oti saesm^HKOB-b. ^enbrH abiotch bi 3aKJiaAi> He 
AOJiie 12'TH }sicjiUfiBT>,co BSHMameM^ 67o b^ roA^, to ecTb no nojii. 
npoiteHTa b% MicHui. IIpH npocpOHR'6 n Heynjiarb npoi^eHXOB'b 
saRJiaAu AOJi^HH npoAaBaxbCH cb ayRI^OHa. ^jih jiyHmed npoAOCTo* 
pojRHOCTH, orb jiHBpeflHuxi cjiyjRHTejie&, pa6oTHbix'b h najioji'i^T- 
Huxi Min^aHCRHxi jnoAeft, npHCUJiaeMbie npesi) bbxi 6oJibnile sa- 
RjiaAbT 6e8b jicHaro b necoMHHTejibHaro BHAa ne jipjiiRBu 6biTb 
npHBHHaeMbi». 

G% i^bK) AOCTaBHTb Hy:RAaK)niHHCH BosMOSHOCTb nojiynaTb 
6oJiie SHa^HTeJibHKiH cyifMBi Boiirhbc^ cocTaBJieuu 6£ijib ocoGua 
npaBHJia o BHAa^'b Aenerb bsx OneRyncRaro CoBtra noA'b sajiorb 

HeABH^CHMOCTB. 

JIjisi npeAOxpaneHlH bcIhi o6oero nojia JiHaaic^, RaRoro 6u to 
sBBHiH HH 6ujiO; CBOHxi RanHxajiOBX cb HaAe^HUMi san^Hn^eHieM'b 
orb BCHRaro npHROCHOBOHifl h jijib npHBOAeHifl b^ coBepmeHHyio 
6e3onacHocTb RanHTajiOBi, ROTopue 6bi tbrI) cRasaTb hh ornoH'bjHH 

BOAOK), HH HaCHJIbCTBaMH, HH2Ce APyrHMH RaRHMH npHRJIiOHeHi^MH 

noxHmeHbi D OTHaTH y hhxx Cmtb ne mofjih, yqpeacAaJiacb ocoCaa 
CoxpaHHaa Kasna, wb ROTopyio Bcadft rto no;ReJiaerb Morb bho* 



— 209 — 

CHTB CBOH RanBTaJiu c^ nojiyneHieM-b npoaeHTOBi, na cpoRi, RaKi> 
corJiameHO 6yAen>. Bt> nojiyqeHiH KanHiaJia BHAaeica OHJierL oco- 
6Hft. EajieTJbi dToft Raseu MoryrL xoahtb hsb pyRi hi pyRH. He 
MeH^ 500 py6jie& ho^cho RJiacTb na 6e3cpoHHoe Bpeai^, ci npa- 
BOM^ noJiyHHTb o6paTHO nojioseHHyio cyMiiy. KpoBci Toro ci jieuh- 
rauH,He uen^e 500 py6., hojrho bhocth saae^aTaHHUH aaBi^n^amff, 
npH nnCBiieHHOM'B o6BflBJieHin. Bb cjiynat naAoOHOCTH Rasna ho- 
jReiB cjiyxHTb no o6pAjiy RynenecRHxi rohtop'l BtpHUM'B cbohhb 
^epeB0A0u^ qpes'B AaBaenuA RBETaei^iH hs'b Mocrbej bb C.-IIeTep- 
6yprb H o6paTHO. BBtp^eMUA Rasni AGHBrn Bcerxa 6yAyTB bb 

rOTOBHOCTH Kb yAOBOJIBCTBlfO H Rl OTAaH*]^, ROFAa HXl HB HOTpO- 

6yiorB. HnKOFAa ho ocm^hbtc^ CosirB noB'^peHHUfl ce6i otb o6mfi' 
CTBa cytfMU ynoTpe6jiATB 6e3HaAesHO. 

CoxpaHHaB RasHa Morjia beiaabbtb ccyAU, RaRx bbaho hsb 
OTSBiBa jiHi^B pascMaTpHBaBmHXB npooRTi, AeHBraifH boab saJiorB 
HeABH»HiiBixB HMiHifi. Heo6xoAHMO 6hiJio no saRJiaAUBae- 
uoMy HMteBK) noJiy^aTB to^hua cnpaBRH hsb RanepB, — Bot^hh- 

BOfi H lOcTHA'B-KoJIJierift H BanROBOft EOHTOpU O nOA^HHHOCTH 

HHCJia Aymi*, co6cTBeHHoe jib Hiii^nie Toro, rto saRJiaAUBaeTB, ne 
sajioaceno jib oho yse rA% ju[6o, He cnopnoe jih RaRoe hjih ho 
sanpen^eHHoe jib? OsHaqeHHua yqpe^AOHlB oSbsbhu 6ujib AOCTa- 
bjibtb BOcnHTaiejiBHOMy Aony tohhbib o BceiiB btom'b cnpaBRB. IIpo- 

CpOieHHUB SaJIOXeHBHA HeABH»BM0CTE A0JI2CH0 6uJI0 OTABBBTB HB 

BURynB, a ecjiB saROHHBix'B BURynn^BROBi He cJiyiHTCH npoAaBaxB 
HeoTM'i^HHO, 6e8i noTepH Bcero RanHTajia h npHHaAJieHan^aro Kb 
OHOMj HHiepecy. 

npH dTOMB BHCRaSBTBaJIOCB, HTO OT^ BCBFO dTOFO nOJIBSU AOMy 

h^^tb; Be BB o6oran^eHie CBoe, ho eAHHciBeHHO bb noJiB3y 
HeHiiyn^Exx Bce bto yqpejRAaeTca. OrB dTHxx yqpe»AOHi& oxAtjieHO 
6yAeTB Bce to, hto mofjio 6hi dpoHSBecxH MOAJieHie h neyAOBOJiBCXBie; 
npoAOJiacBTejibHUB nHCbiieHHUH npoBSBOACTBa sa^^cb nicTa ho hm^- 
iotb; A^Jia 6yAyTB bpohsboabtb no xoMy o6pBAy, RaROfl bb bho- 

CTpaHHUXB Rynei^RBXB ROHTOpaXB, B T. A. 

HMnepaxpBi^a nopynnjia pascMoxp'bxB dxoxB njiaHi 11 a h h h y , 
MHHBxy, TojiHi^HHy, Hb. HepHHmeBy, Tenjiosy. 

OhH BX0ABJ[B CROJIBRO BOSBiOaCHO BX nOApo6HOCXB CXpOFHMB CBOHMB 

npHHiiaHiauH h pascyjRAeHiflMB e aouocjih, qxo cIh 3 yipe^AOHiH 
BCOMy HameMy oxe^ecxBy hbaoGbbi h nojiesHH. HpHMiTHJiH oco- 
6eHH0 HenopoHHOCXB chxb xpexB yqpeatAeHift h qpesB xo, hxo 
BOcnHxaxeJiBHufi aomb hhoS rophctbho noJiy^iaeTB, rbrb xojibro 

II. H. BEUSOll. 14 



— 210 — 

OAHO yAOBOJiBCTBie AORasaTB Bceny OTeneciBy HCTHHHyio 
6jiaroAapHOCTb 8a noJiy^eHHBiH otb Hero 6jiaroA%flHiH. Ilpn tomb 

B A B B A KaSHa yCTaUOBJI^eTCfl TOJIBKO JUIB pOCCiflCRHXl nOAAAHHUX^. 

Uyiewh oTKpuTiH ccyAHOfi RasHU — RopucTOJiioGie pocioBii^iaROB^, 
KOTopoe Kb co^aji^HiK) H noHUH'6 HO HCRopeenjiocB hh cxpornHn 
saRonaMB, hh rpotrhmh h MHjiocepAUMH, TenepB yMeHbniBTCJi, n 
npH 6e3upHCTpacTHOM'B ynpaBJieHin RasHoio HeyiojiBHaa ajiHHOCTB 
KopHCTH, Gesi Hapymenk npaBOcyAi^,Aa^eHCOB(r&Mx HCTpefiBTCA. 
BciMi) HSBi^cTHo HacROJiBRo onacHo coxpaHflTB RaoHTajiEi Aona; 
BTO noCysAaJio RJiacTB hxi lacxo bi HHOcipaHHue 6aHRH^ a Hpe3^ 
TO aBJiajiacB neAOBipeHHOCTB ki coScTBOHHOMy CBoeMy oieiecTBy. Ci 
yHpesAeaieMi) CoxpaHHOfl KasHBi sth RanHiaJiBi, ne buxoah bi ^y»e- 
CTpaHHHa pyKH, 6yAyrB ocTaaaTBca B^HMnepiH-ffiejiaTejiBflo, oto6bi 
xaKoe ycTaHOBJieHie orpajRAono 6ujio na b^hhbih BpeHena tbopaumh 
saneqaTJi'^HlAMH otb BcaRaro BopeAB npHROCHOBeHia, KaROBoe, 
CKOJiB 6u HH MajiOBa^HQ HO 6ujio, MOJRerB HaHJiyHmia y^pesAe- 
Hia DpHBOCTH Bi cjia6ocTB. IIoaTOMy pascicaTpHBaBHiie npoeRTB 
npeAJioacHJiH A^Tb pasHua npeHMyn^ecTBa aTBHB y^pemAemaiTB ^). 
KpoMi Toro: «TaR^ RaRi cie y^peacAeaie T. ][. C. Bei;RHMi> no 

CBOfiCTBy HyaCAH H 06CT0aTeJIBCTB'B PoCCffiCRHX'B HOAAaHHBIX'B H3 0- 

GpiTOHO H BO HHoroifi conHHHTeJiB OTM'i^HHoe pacuopa«eHie 
CAl^jiaji^ npoTHBi TaROBuxi ace ynpe^Aenift, HaxoAamnxca 3a rpa- 
HBAOK), TO He HSBOJiHTe JiH Bamo BejiH^ecTBO h8i oco6oft R'B HeMy 
AOBipeHHOCTH ocTaBHTB eify OAHOMy BJiacTB HTO jih6o otbA- 
HHTB, BcnpaBHTB H HOHOJiHHTB wb cewh yqpe^AeHiH, ecJiH ORa^eTca 
Hy^HUM'B^ CI eAHHCTBeHHOft Buco^afimefl bojih Bamero BejiHiecTBa. 
IlMnepaTpHi^aROH^BpHOBajiaaTH hobbia yqpeHCAeniii bI) 1772 roAy. 
Baobbb RasHa 6Bijia CTRpuTa bi tomii ace roAy, ho jReJiaenaro 
ycn'lxa ne Hirljia no coBepmeHHOHy neAOCTaxRy AenerB; BRJiaA* 
^hkob'b 6bijio oiohb Majio; co aha OTRpuTia ea ao 1803 roAa wh 
BTy RasHy nocTynHJio otb BRJiaA^HKOBx Bcero 3850 py6., cocTa- 
BHBmie ocHOBHOfl RanHTajii BAOBBeft RasHBi ^). IIpHUHHy Heycnlxa 
3Toro, HOBBAHMOMy BHOJiHt utjiecoo6pa3Haro, yqpe«AeHia aojihcho 

r 

*) (IpeAiarairocB: 1) hto6u Kopnyci OnesyHCKaro CoBixa nutii paeeH- 
CTBO BMicT'fe ci FocyAapcTBeHBNHH KojjeriflMH; 2) qxoCu oneRyHti hofih 
npflMo no BctMi A'^JauB cbohmi o6pamaTBC£ ki CBAn^eHHofi oco6t £a Beiu- 
HecTsa; 3) yqpexHTB hbi BBaxB'ifimHX'b 0006% noHeTBHZ'L 6jaroTBopoTejieff, 
KOTopue 6hi sacl^AajH ci* oneKyRauH bx CoB^Tt; 4) ^toCi npn Bsucsaoiaxi 
BOCDBTaTejBHuil Aouii Hidii-h nepBeBCTBynmee upaBO bi ojares't b noiyne- 

bIh BOSBpaTBO p03AaBBElXl AOHerB npe^B BC^MH KaseBBHHU H qaCTHUMB AOJ* 

ravH u T. X. 

^) Cm. Pyc. Apx. 1876 r., I ct. 269; h. II, ct. 219. 



— 211 — 

HCRaTB OT<iaCTH B'b CJI03RH0CTH H CTiCHHTeJIbHOCTB MHOrUX'b npa- 

BBJTB BAOBbeft RasHu, a onacTH H Bi CTeneHH pasBHTin scero 
o6ii^ecTBa Toro BpeMeHH, ee BnojiH'fajiCHO cosHaBaBmaro Havana 
dJiaropaayMHOft GepeacjiHBOCTH. Yace npn HMaeparpHi^ Mapiu 
GeoAopOBH* 6hjih cociaBJieHU bi 1803 ro^ hobhh, Meeie cjiojk- 
HUfl npaBHJiia o BAOBsefl RasHi, nocjrbACTBieiiT> Hero ashjiocl h 
HtcKOJibKo 6ojrbe anaHHTejibHoe nocTynjieme co CTopoHH BKJiaA- 
HHKOBi KanmajiOBi bi dTy Kaany, AOCiHrmee b'b 1844 r. ynce 

14.443 p., AH^pU OTHOCHTeJIBHO HinT03RH0ft Bl BHAy ROJIHqeCTBa 

baobti h CHpoTb, ociaioii^uxcfl 6e8i» nponHxamA h noMon^H nocjit 
CHepxH Myacefi nepBux-b h otaobii BTopbixi>, aoctbtohho He 8a6o- 
Tan^HXCH npH »h8hb CBoeft 061 oSesne^ieHiH ynacTH cbobxx ce- 
HefiCTBi, ociaiomHXCfl no CMepin hxi 6e8'b bchrhx'b cpeACTBi 
cyiqecTBOBaiiifl. 

dra BAOBbii Rasna 6ujia coBepmenHO saRpura b-l 1859 roAy. 

XoTfl ROH^BpMOBaHiH BMnepaTpHi(eK) HOBuxi ynpejRAeHifi 
20 H0fl6pfl 1772 roAa Bei^Roft He 8aBieAJiHJi^ cooGn^HTb Mocrob- 
CROHy OneRyHCROuy CoB'^iy bii tohi me u^caujb, ho canoe oTRpu- 
Tie Ha A^Jii ccyAHOft RasHu bi» neiepdyprt h Mocrb% nocjitAOBajio 
1 H0fl6pA 1776 roAa, ^leiCL 6hjio ny6JiHR0BaH0 bi raaeraxi ^). 
HaAO nojiaraTB, hto axo 8aMeAJieHie npoHsoniJio rjiaBHi&miiifi 
o6pa80H% oTi AByx'b npHqEHB. HeofixoAHMo 6£iJio ycxpoHTb canoe 
noMin^enie ji^nsi ccyAHOfl RadHu, ROTopaa nepBOHanajibHo naxoAHJiacb 
Bi» caMOMi 8AaHlH BocHHiaTejibHaro AOMa. CoetTB me nojiarajii 8a 
jiy^mee buctpohtb oco6oe noifbiEieHie, ixo6'b oTRpuTb Ha Kksvh Bci 
Tpn RasHU. Bei^ROfi ocBtAOMJiHJicfl, roTOBO JiH noMtn^enie, h 6ujvb 
corjiaceHi ny6jiHK0BaTb o6i> OTRpuiiH ecjiia Bce totobo h pasocjiaxii 
oG-baBJieHiA no ryfiepnaTopaMi b BOOBOAaifi. Ho bi HBCbMt on> 
4 liojifl 1774 r. OHi roBopHTi, <qTO panlenySJiHRauiH oGi OTRpu 
TiH Tpex'b Rasen-b aoji^ho sHaxb, ecib jib npHJiBHecTByion^aA a-hh 
Toro pacnoJiomeniH c y m m a, cb ROTopom MomHO onyio npBBecTu 
vb A^ficTBO, B Bce JIB noTpeCnoe r^ 6e30CTaHOBO«iHOHy 0Hux^ 
y^pemAGHift TOHeHiio npBroTOBJieHO, 6e3i RaROBaro npeAysnaHia 
BoftTH Bi> OHoe BcnojineHie coBctMi AyMaio noiHTaeTca neBOSMom- 

HUlfb*. 



Hej[B3fl He npHooMHnTb, ^to h ao oiKpum ccyAooft KasHu iioyipe- 
SAeHiDOHeft 1772 r., BOcnHTarejiBHuti aoxi> uepiAKo OTAaBaii naxoAHBuiiflCfl 
Bi* ero pacnopfl»CBiH orb pa8JiHqauxi> nossepTBOBaTejeS cyHKU bi saem* 
nacTBUHi JiHiiaiii noAb oOesneHeBie Bace.ieHHUX'b im'bQifi, ea pasaue cpoKir, 
H nojy^aji npH axoMii npoueHTM, soTopue miiH Ba pacxoAU no coAepsaaiBQ 
AOMa. 



— 212 — 

3to jifi/dTb ocHOBaeie saRJiioHBTb, ^to rjiaBHan npBHHHa, no 
KOTopofi saMeAJiHJiocL oTKpuTie Ha caMOMx jiibjii A'^^fiCTBia ccyAHOft 
Kasnu, saRJnoqajiacb bi HeHMiHm HajisHHUxi ji^na OTicpuTia a^A- 

CTBifi ccyAHOft Ka3HH A^HerB, KOTOpUX^ on npaBHTOJIBCTBa H6 

6hjio OTayn^eno jifiSR^ jma nepBonaiajiBHaro oSopoia. BuAa^a 
ccyAi* BCARaro poAa (t. e. noAi^ pyiHue saRJiaAKi h hoai* sajiorB 

HeABHJKEMOCTefl) UpOHSBOAHJiaCb HSl CJliAyK)n^lIX1> HCTOIHHROBi: 1) 

JKepTByeMbia pasjiHHHUMH JiHi^aMH aa nojibsy BOCoHraTeJiBHaro 
AOHa AeHBrH, pani^e dToro OTAaaaeHua bi MocROBCKyio CaHROByio 
ROHTopy AJifl npHpan^eHia npoi^eHraHH, o6paTHJiHCb leaepB na 
BBIAa^H ccyAB. 

2) no cyn^ecTBOBaBmeMy TorAa RaccoBOMy nopaARy, AeHBra, 
accBfHOBaHBua na coAep^canie xoro hjih Apyroro yqpexAeHia, 
OTnycRajiHCB He no irlpt A'^ftCTBHTOJiBHOfi B^ hexi HaAoCaocTH, 
HO nojiHOCTlK) HJIH Bi HaiaJit roAa hjih no ntpi HaRonJiema 
AOHerB BB RasHaieftcTBi; sto AaaaJio bosmoahoctb ota^jibhuui 
yipe»A6H'aMi noJiBsoBaTBcacyMHaMH, cbo6oaho jjexaarnHMH b'b hxb 
Kasna^eftcROiTb cyHAyR^^ h oTAaaaiB hxb na npHpamenie npoi^eHTaMH 
HJIH bb rocyAapcTBeHuufl SaHRi hjih bb CoxpaHHyio Rasny. TaRHMB 
oOpasoicB CBo6oAHua cyitMU no coAepacaHiio KLiaxeTCRaro RaAei- 
CKaro Kopnyca 6ujih OTAaoH wb BocuHTaTanBHufi aomb bi rojih- 
HecTBt 100 T. py6ji6fi Ha npHpan^enie, c^ njiaTeaceiiB noroAHO 
npoi^oHTOBB A^H coAepsanlfl ynpeacAaeifaro npn RaAeiCROiTB 
Ropnyci BOcnnxaTeJiBHaro y^HJiEma ^). 

B-B 1774 r. BT) aBrycrh Mtcaiik OneRyncRifi CoaiTB nncaji^ 
CHOBa, HTO He H8^ Hero 6ojiie AaaaTb saeM^HRaMi h hb safijiaro- 
pascyAHTca jih Ropnycy ocTaamyioca y nero cyMiiy OTnycTHTB bb 
oTA^jieHie MB pasAaiH na npHpan^enie npox^eHiOB'B. Hsb Ropnyca 
TorAa 6ujio oinyiueHo cnepaa 15 t., a hotomi no3AHte 50 t. 
pyOjiefl ^). ToHHO TaRxe no BbicoHaflmeMy noBejiJ^Hiio 30 ana. 
1775 r. (naKi bhaho hsx mypn. C.-IIeT. aocn. AOMa 1775 r. 
16 ({^eap. H nncBMa rjiaB. uone^HTejia bi OneRyncROMi CoBirb 
OTB 1775 r. ^ap. 24) AanHuft oGn^ecTBy ejiaropoAHMxi a'^bhi^ 
Kanniajii co BckacH npoAeHiaMH h npBpameHiaMH aojojkho 6£ijio 

OTnyCTBTB Bl MoCKOBCRifi BOCDHTaTeJlbHBlfi AOMl JIJIH A'^ftCTBla 

CoxpaHHofi H CcyAHOft Kasubi (sa HeAOcraTKOMi aji^ oiKpuTia bxi 

nOTpeCHOft CyMMH aomb CbIJIT, bb neBOSMOKHOCTB 9T0 BCnOJIHHTB), 



*) Cm. n. r. noneH. 1773 r., cJieBp. 1; xaKxe «yp. IleT. On. CoBtxa, 
177'? r., iiHB. 30. 

*) Cm, »yp. IleT. Onen. Cob. 1775 r., napxa 15. 



— 213 — 

fifl,6u H3i coSHpaeiiux'B c^ aioS cyHifu npoaeHTOBi no 67o bi* 
roA'b ynjiaHHBsuiHCb cjitAyeimfl na coAepxame o6ii^ecTBa 6jiaropoA- 

HUX*b A'^BHI^ JifiiRhTE. 

IIoifHMOdToroBeARofiapocHJiiIIpoKO^iflAeMEAOBa bi> 1775 r., 
KaKi» BHAHO Hsi npHJiaraeMaro nncBHa ^), ne ocTaBHiB CcyAHyio 
RasHy CBOHBCb BcnoMon^ecxBOBaHieH'b, hto 6ujio nsfb HcnoJiHeHo. 

3) 6ei(R0& AABaJIl CBOH C06CTBeHHHfl A^HbrH a^h odopoTOBi 

yqpexAeHHoft hhi Kasau, nojiy^aa kohotho ea dTo Taicace npoi^eHTfii 
H3i CoxpaHHofl RasHii. Bei](Rofl, RaR'B bbaho hsi a'^Jib G.-IIeT. 
Boc. ^OMa no OnoRyH. CoBiiy 1771 r. J6 4, uaa 3, Hst ycepA- 
Haro none^eHla OTAajii* CBOft aomi ajih ynoTpefijuemfl bi noJibsy 
BocuHT. ^OMa, nojiyHOHieMi jih qpes^ oiAa^y fijiaroAtTejiBHuicB 

JIIOA^M'b B'B SafilfU nOAaflHin HJIH HHaROBO RaR'B, C06CTBeBHbIX'B 

CBOHxii AOHorB 40.000 py6., ci T^iri, hto6u eny cb ohb[X'b exe- 
roAHO nojiynaTB tojibro yRasHue no 6 npoAOHTOBi, a RaRi la 
cyuHa Bi noJiBsy AOMa cero roAa, anp^^ 18 yjRO ynoTpeCjieHa, 
TO Ero BucoRonpeBocxoAHTeJiBCTBy yRaaBHe npoi^eHTBT ch Toro 
^BCJia Ha ceft roAi* sanjioHOHH e BnpeAB eaceroAHO OneRyncRifi 
GoBirb njiaiHTB bxi ofiAsyeTCH. 

IIosAHte CoBirb npoAJiarajii, RaRB bhaho, Bei^ROiiy nojiy^aTB 
6ojiie npoi(eHTOB7>, ho oh-b OTB^Hani na dxo CoB'ixy^ npHJiaraeMUMi 

nHCBM0Ml> ^), Wb ROTOpOlTB, TOBOp^ HTO HHROFAa HO EWkjTh ROpH- 

CT0JiK)6ie CBOHifB nyTOBOAHTejieirB h npeAnoHHia^ ofin^ecTBeHHoe 
6jiaro co6cTBeHHOKy, BupasHJux ^eJianle nonpexneMy ooJiy^aTB 
mecTB npoi^OHTOBi. 

IIocHJiaa npH nncBBii 5 0RTa6pa 1772 r. 50 t. py6. BeuROfi 
AoSaBJiAjix, HTO c% npescAe nocjiaHHUMH bi pasnoe spoMH dxo co- 
cTBBJifleT'B 220 T. p. co6cTBeHHHxi ero AonerB, OTAaHEBixi B'B ccyAy 
BOcnniaTejiBHOHy AOBfy^ cb rlni, hto6u ohi, Bemcofl, mofb nojiy- 
naib CBOH mecTB npoi^enTOBB (cm. ayp. Xleiep. OnoR. CoBfea 
1773 r. Mapia 1). Ilocjii aioro oht* bx Maprb 1773 r. AaJiB 
OMy CBOHxi AeHOFB 107 T. p. IIo3AErfio B-B 1773 r. H0Ji6pa 6 
BeniRofi onflTB Aa^TB cboh 10 i. p., bi pascyacAeniH nenpepHB- 
Haro RpeAHia BOcnHTaxejiBHaro AOMa, h6o jiioah pasHue, snafl 
OTAa^iy B^[8afiMU hs'b cyuin> AOMa, ipefiyiOTB AeHori, anx'BBBHajiHH- 
HOCTH H^Ti*. G-b He6oJiBmHui> qepesii Mlcfli]('B(16 AeRaSpa 1773 r.) 
OHTi onOTB AaerB 6 t. py6. hs'b yKasHBiXT) npoi^enTOB'B. BctxB ace 



? 



Cm. upHJioseHie J\& 1. 
Cif. npHiomeHie J^ 2. 



— 214 — 

AeHei^ 6ujio BHeceeo BeuKHMiBi CoxpaHHyio KasHy 425.000 p., 
KaK^b 3T0 BHAHO H3X pacioTa npeACTasjieHHaro Aji. A. Ga6ji7KOBfiiMi» 
B^ 1803 roAy Ha BonpocB 06% 9tomi ^epacaBHHa. 

j!I,jifl oCopoTOBi CcyAHoft KasHH 6pajiH AGHbrn hsi RaHu^ejinpiH 
CTpoeHifl BocKpecencRaro MOHacTupfl cb paspimeaifl BeAEearo. 

no Djiany ccyAHofi RasHH npH nefi aojixhu 6i2jih cocTo^Tb 
uoHeTHue 6jiaroTBopHTejiH b oneRynu. BeaRofl HanHcajrb 

BtKOTOpUlTB 0C06eHH0 HOHeTHHM'B JIHAaMI (RaR'B-TO TIOT. Hb. Ila- 

HHHy, Hr. IleT. IIIaxoBCROMy, M. H. BojiROHCROMy) nHCBMa ^) cb 
npRFjiameHieM'L npEH^Tb na ce6fl aio sBaaie h nopy^HJi^ OAHony 
]a3^ HJieHOBi OneRyHCRaro CoB^Ta OTBesTH mwb QHCbMa no npH- 
uaAJieacHOCTH. MhofIh hsx cbxii jihi^x hsiabhjih totobhoctb npn- 
HHTb Ha ce6fl 3T0 SBaeie. PaBHUMii o6pa80M'b Bu6opi oneRyeoB-b 
Bi BHOBb ynpeacAeHHyio CcyAnyio h CoxpaHHyio RasHy npesi 6aji- 
JiOTHpoBRy BUSBajii) cji']^AyK)iAia cipoRH BeuRaro GoB'iTy 22 hoh« 
6j}B 1773 r.: «Heo6xo;^HMO aj^icb npeAOCTepenb nepBoe: hto 
BCflRifl HeJIOBiR^ ecTecTBeHHyio cKJiOHHOCTb HMterb CoJibme no«!H- 
TaTb CBOB AapoBam^, HejRejiH Apyrofl o bbxi cyABTb, h BTopoe: 
nTO orb HOBeAeHiii nepB0B86paHHbixT> oneRynoBX saBBCBTi noJiHaa 
AOBipeHHOCTb o6n^ecTBa rb ceny HOBony yqpeJKAemio na Bck npe^- 
6yAyn^iH BpeMena. Cie ecTb to caMoe, hto sacTaBJiAerb BMiTb nps- 
jiescaeie b ocTopoaculftmee BHBMaHie, a&^bi BsCpaHHue oneRyHU 

BCenOROpHifime COOTBilCTBOBaJIH CBOeiO <ieCTHOCTiK) h bc%hh cboh- 

MB AynieBHUMfl RaiecTBaMB lOMy naMipeBiio, jiJia. ROToparo ohh 
sBaeie onoRyHOBi na ce6fl npieMJnoTi). Bcji'^ACiBie cero HecoMnbH* 
HO Ha^tiocb, qio b CaJiJioxBpOBaHie fiyAerb y^Bneno orb pacnojio- 
^cenk, HenoMpaqeHHaro HBRaRBMB npeAy6i»AeHiflMB, ho ocHoaaH- 
]iaro Ha noJiHOMi* CesnpBCTpacTiH RaRoe Tpe6yerb BajKHOCTb cero 
A'bjia, HO ejiBRy hjioau oearo ne bhoo hto ecTb, RaRi 6jiaroAeHCTBie 
Hapofla > . 

CRopo BeuRBMi 61JJIB cociaBJieHu npaBBJia nopfljiR'b saRJia^a 
BMyn^ecTB'b bi GoxpanHofl Rasni^ ^). IIojirB sajiorb HeABHscHMux'b 
BM-lmfi saHBMajiB oxotho b bi AOBOJibHo sHaiBTeJibHuxx pasni- 
paxii Ha cpoRi (wb to Bpena ne oieHb npoAOJURBTejibHiii&, ne 60- 
jite 8 — 10 Jiirb), ho ho ynjia^BaajiB BcnpasHO hh RanBTajibHoft 
cyMMbi, HB npoAeHTOBi B nocTOHHHO npocBJiB 061 OTcpo^R*]^ ynjia- 
TH A6Herb, BSHTux'b Bi) AOJirb. Hsi jRypHaJioBi MocROBCRaro One- 



*) Cm. npHJOsenie JVs 3. 
•) Cm. flfi20 J^ 106. 



— 215 — 

RyHCKaro GoR'i^Ta sa 1772 h bi oco6eHHOCTH aa 1775 roAi* (KHHra 
H) BHAHO, 1T0 Bcb BHAaiontiflCJ] jiHua MHoroHHCJieHHaro ABopa 
HifDepaTpHnu saimaAUBajiH cboh HfirlHia OaeRyHCKOBiy GoBiiy h 
nocTOflHHO npocHJiH o6i OTcpo^iRt BHAaHHuxi) jnwb ccyAi) ^). no 
dToro poAa ccyAaBii BOSHHKajiH hbp'Iako A'^-^a, T^iHyBmmcA OHOHb 
AOJiro ^) H BusBiBaBmlfl HeyAOBOJibCTBlii Ha BeaRaro, ROTopuft, sa- 
6oTflCi> oSt HHTepecax^ BOcnHiaxeJibHaro AOMa, nocioaHHO nacTarf*- 
BajTb Ha ToiHOHii co6jiiOA6Hlii npaBHJni, ycTanoBjieHHuxii j^jia bu- 
Aa^H ccyAi* nOAi* abhhchmocth. 

BeuROft, yiBepAHB-b emfi bt* 1774 roAy cocTaBJieHHHa oneRyH- 
CRHMi coBiTOiTb H y coro npHJiaraeMUH npaBHJia ^) o bua^^ Go- 
xpaHHoia RasHoio ccyAi> hoai sajion nacejieHHux'b HBfbHifi h senejib, 
cji^AHJTB 8a TO^HUMi co6jiK)AeHieM'B HXT», a laRjRe sa CBoespeMeu- 
HUMi> H TOHHUMi HOCTynjieHieM'B HjraTejRefi no BUAaHHUM^ ccyAaM^. 
Oh'b, RaRi) BBAHO H8i» HHCbMa ero 10 H0fl6. 1775 r. (npBJi. ^ b)*) 
Ha^OHHHaJ!^ OneRyHCRHMi GoBtTaHi o CBoeBpeMeHHOui BsucRanlH 
cb AOJiJKHHROB-b RaRX npou6HTHuxi> ABHer^, laRi n RauHTajiBHaro 
AOJira, HajioseHiH sanpemeHm na bxi HHtHi^, o no6yjRABHia 

npHCyTCTBOHHUX'B uiCTb Rl CBOeBpeBCeHHOMy BSUCRaHlK) ABHerb CT3 

HeHcnpaBHUxi aoji^hbrobi. 

PaBHUHii oOpaaoM'b Bemcofi, RaRi bhaho h87> necbMa 2 1k)hh 



*) Coo6iAHMi, HTo npocL6u ccyAt AenerL noAaBaincs OnesyacKOHy 
GoBiiy, KOToputi no pascMOTptaiH JiOKyHeaTOB'B u paap'j^nioj'B BHAany, npo- 
HSBOAHBiuysKfl H3i HajTu^uux'b AeBen, HaxoAHBiDHxcA Bi GoBiixi. nepBOK) 
BOcuoj[fc;iOBaBnieK)Cfl ccyAOS) h31 CoxpaHHOfi Kaaeu, 6uia KHflrifHA fiapaTUB- 
csaji, posj^enaaa KHurnHA rojimTefiHi-fieKKCRafl. 

PaBHUU'B odpasoMi saHHMaj'B 6oJibuiia cyMMS UHASb nexpi Hb. PiaBiia'& 
fancBMa Bei^Karo 1771 r. 25 aup.); rpaifKb PoMae'b JIapioBOB. fiopoHiioBi> 
(OKT. 21); RHflSB Mux. Mhx. rojHUHeB (ceHT. 2): 1773 r. rpa(t>x Knp. Fp. 
PaaynoBcaifi, rpaj)!* Has. Cep. CTporanoBi, rpa^)'^ lleTpi Bop. IIlepeHeTBeB'b, 
UeTpi AjiescaHApoBH^B Epioccb (Bci (i)eBp. 5), rpa((% Mbtb. 9eo;i. Anpa- 
kchh-b (vafl 17), jefl6B-MeABK'B Kapii Oe^. Kpyae (AtJa C.-IIeT. Bocbht. 
AOKa no OneKyHCKOiiy CoaiTy 1774 r. J^31); onaTb P'bnBHBB (A* 46); RBHrBaa 
Ansa GeAop. BiioceibCKaa (^ 31), rpa^tB Aj. Cep. GrporaHOS'L (J^ 89); 
rpa<|rB Baien. ILiaT. MyccHHi-IIymKHHi, npn ^evn* na ero npocB6y o saftHt 
Beusoft OTBi<iajiB bb 1786 r., ^to TOirepB Aeaer'B b^tb bi* Mocsob. Onesya . 
Covhrb, bo 6yAe yroABO aaaaTB bi neiepGypri, to onoe vepesB B'ibcROJbKO 
RpeuesB uoseTB 6tiTB ncnojiBeBo k^ yAOBOiBCTBifio Bameiiy (A'i^Ja BeoEaro 
J^ 937). Can'b KHflSB IIoTeMKBBB Gaiii xojseei OnesTBCKOiiy CoB'feTy, bbrb 
dTO BBABO nai nncBMa BeiiRaro k'b CxpeKajioBy otb 8 nan 1786 r. o tomb, 
?T0 Hai Ra6HHeTa ynjiaqeni OneKyncROMy CoBiiy bccb RanHxajiBBufi aojifb 
BHJisfl UoTeHKHHa, BO npoueHTH no BCMB Be ynjaqeau enie, a noTOHy ii 
3asjaABUA ae BOBapameBii. j^ija Beusaro J^ 938. 

Kas-K aanp. jifijio ceRyaAB-Maiopa RBflsa Bopaca UeTpoBBHa Kobiob- 
cRaro (J^ 496, cb. 5); rpaij^a AnpaKcnaa, rpa<t)a .HrysHncKaro a t. a- 

') Cm. npajfoseaie J^ 4. KpoMi Toro OneRyacRift Gob^tb nocxaaoBF 
bb 1775 roAy en^e AonoiBHTeiBaufl npasaja, cm. upaioxeaie ^ 5. 

*) Cm. npai. * 5. 



— 216 — 

1780 r. (npHJi. J<? 6) ^) HanoMHHM'B OneKyHCKHin* CoBiiaMt o 
co6jiH)AeHiH RpeAHia, o6i octopojrhocth npe euAa^ ccyA'B, o tohi, 
htoOh He Me;i;jiHJiH nponsBoiCTBOMX xkjrh^ h aupaacajii HaAe^xy, 
«iTO no nojiyneHiH ^) aioro ero nHCLMa MeAJiHTeJUBHan eepa- 
H H B c T B 6yAen> npeoGpan^ena wb nojiesHoe CTapanie eAHeoAyni- 
i\fiwb Hxi (oneKyHOBi) noneneHieM'L. Hsi dXExi cjiobi Ha^o sa- 
KJiiOHHTB, ^TO jijbji?k DO CoxpaHHoft RadH*! nijie ne Bnojmi yAOBJie- 
TBopnTejiBHo; mo bti npoHSBoxcTB^ hxi npo^BJi^JiacB HeAJieHHOCTB, 
HepaHHBocTB H Heco6jiK)AeHie RpeAHTa CoxpaaHoft Raseu — ^to 
TOJiBKO H Morjio no6yABTB BeoRaro HaoHcaTB osHaneHHUH cTpoRH. 
Ho noBH;tHMOMy aio yKasame CoB^TaMi ue conpoBOjRAaJiocB «e- 
JIaeMHM^ ycntxoM'B, h Bei^Kofl BCKopt, 13 Mapia 1784 r., hobhmi 
nncBMOMX, ycero npHJiojKeBHHM'B (npHJi. JV5 8) *),yKa3UBaJi'B Cob*- 
TaMT>, nro ohh aujixchei nociOAHHO hm^tb bi* bh^J e^HHoe tojibro 
?eJiOBi6ROJiK)6ie h yAOBOJiBctaie oGn^ecTBa h cooGpasHO BTOny u 
nociynaiB. f Ji;jiflnpio6ptTeHia6jiarocRjiOHHOCTH oCmeciBa — nHcajii 
Be^ROft — HHqero hI^tx nyatnte yqiHBBix'B h 6JiaronpiaTHBrx'B npie- 
MOBi; no axoMy HanaJiBHHRH aojihchh npncMaxpHBaTB, hto6u sck 
CJiy^HTOJiH AOMa npnxoA^n^HMx ne tojibro cJiOBaicH, ho A^^e h 
BBAOMi He oRasuBaJiH Hfi Majiifimefi rpy6ocTH hjih Ranoft npespH- 
TejiBHOCTH». IIoMHMO BToro o6n;aro npasHJiaEei^Kofi yRasHBajii Ha 
TO, HTO npH HasHaqeniH Bemeft bi npoAamy cb ayRiuona, Heo6xo- 
AHMO onoBtn^aTB noApo6Ho cb pasjiiJieHleirB, Ror^a npoAaBaiBC^ 
GyAyrb sojioto h Aparoi^'lHHUfl Ben^ii h Ror^a tojibro npocTUA, 
BucTaBJiflA npH TOMi jiyqmifl Ben^H na noRasi^ sa h^^crojibro AHefi. 
BBipyqeHH£[fl na ayRAioni AeHBrn o6paniaTBHa noRpuTie HHCJinn^a- 
rocfl AOJira; a ocxaoiBHHa saxiMi BosBpan^aTB xosflHny saJio^cenHOft 
Bemjii (a ne npio6n;aTB Kb RanHraoiy BOcnHTaTejiBnaro Aona, RaRx 
3T0 fffeJiaJiocB), noTOMy qTO aom-b 6jiaroTBopeHia He AOJIaceH^ npio- 
Cpi^TaTB He cnpaBeAJiHBaro. IIocjiiAOBaBniee BCRop*! wb 1786 r. 
ynpeaKAeme rocyAapcTBOHHaro BanRa BKisBaiio b-b tomi ate roAy 
nepenHCRy OneRyncRaro CoB^ra ci Bei^RHM'B oTHOCHTejiBHo yiieHB- 
menifl padH'lpa BSHMaeMHX'B npoi^enTOBi TaRace h no ccyAaiTB 
H3i BOCHHTaTejifcHaro AOMa. Xoia bt> MaHH^ecrh 1786 r. ne yno- 
MflHyTO, HTO npaBHJia FocyAapcxBeHHaro BanRa RacaioTca CoxpaHnoft 
RasHu, HO BeaKOft nncaJi'B, hto aoji^cho hmh pyROBOACTBOBaxBca, 



«) Cm. npHi. JV2 6. 

') JIo3jiM±e 6EiJ[a jTBepsACHa nHCTpyRuifl xHpeBTopy CcyAHoft EasHv, 
KaEi BQAHO H31 upBiaraeMaro uHCLMa Bei^Karo 10 ceux. 1776 r. (Cm. npHi. 7). 
») Cm. npuj. J^ 8. 



— 217 — 

Tasi KER'b Bx MaHH$ecT% HCHO o6iABJieHa BOjiH Eh BejiemecTBa. 
He nepeAasaH bii noApo6HOCTH coAepHcade droft nepenHCRH no efl 
yaKOft cnei4aJibHOCT0, noHin^OHHOfi HaiiH bi npnjioseHiH (JV« 9) ^) 
cooCmEMT. BAicB TOJiBKO TO, HTO HO DpeAJiomeHiH) Bei^Karo CoxpaH- 
Hafl RasHa CTajia BUAaBaTb BoaAHBRaM'L tojibro 4V2 npoAenioB^ 
Ha noifi^iuaeMue hmh RanHTajiu, a TaK^e BBHHaTB cb saeMn^HKOB-b 
He Bume RaRi no hhth co era, Cb npaCaBJieHieMi orb saenmn- 
KOBii o6biRHOBeHHO OAHOFo npoi][6HTa DOAaHBiH Ha coAep^ame boc- 
HHTaTejubHaro AOMa. BRjiaA^HR^, He ^ejraionuft noJiynaTb 57o ^^^ 
CBOft RanHTaJii, Moxcerb noJiyHHTb TaROBoft o6paTHO bo BC^Roe 
BpeMH. PaBHUM-b odpasoMi saeHH^HRH, saHHBmie RanHxajii no 6 
npoi^eHTOB'b, Moryrb nepenncaTb cboh saRJiaAHUfl o6iHBJieHiii hsI) 
pacHera no hath npon^eHTOBi. 

HejibSH npH aTOM'b ne ynoMBnyrb, qTO no Coxpannofi Rasni 
BOBHHRJio. cRopo Henpi^THoe TaRHO AJifl BeuiRaro ji^bjio JIapHHa, 
ROTopoe saRJiioqajiocb bi cji'^Ayion^^M^. 

^ijio JIapHHa saRJiioHajiocb bt> cJ^bJ^,ylomfili^. Cuhi* RpecTbfl- 
HHHa PHsancROfi ry6ep., 3apaftcRaro ytsAa, cejia JlH)6yqH, neTpi> 
AaHHJiOBHqi> JlapHHi wb Ronaib 1777 roAa npeACTaBBJii HMnepa- 
TpHi^ ERaxepHH'b II npoeRrb yqpejRAenin Ha ero co6cTBeHHHii 
cpoACTBa yHHJiHma h 6aHRa. HainepaTpHAa nopyiHJia 6jiaroAapnTb 
ero sa djo h npHRasajia BBcicTt cb rbwb oiBecTH Heo6xoAHMoe irb- 
CTO A-flH 3THx^ yqpe«AeHifl orojio II^hu. Ho B'b 1778 r. JlapHH^ 
28 aBrycxa yMopi); AeHbrn ^e, naxoAHBrniecH y nero bi ROJinne- 
CTBi 50 T. py6. B'b paBJiHHHHX'b CHjieTax-b CoxpaHHofi KasHw, yRpaJii 
ero HecoBepmeHHOJiiTHift nJieMHHHHRi, Roxopbifi nepeAajrb axe 
CHJiexu Ryni^y BapyROBy h saxiirb xaRace ynep^. BapyROBT*, ca*- 
jiaBii noAJio^KHBiH HaAHHCH na 6HJiexax'b, nojiyHHJi'b no hhui Aenbrn 
Hsi) GoxpaHHoB RasHU. TorAa BAOBa JIapHHa Hanajia a'^Jio, a^iib- 
meecfl onenb AOJiro, HenpaBHJibnoft BUAani^ CoxpanHOio Kasnoio 
Aenerb no 6njiexaM'b JlapHna. UoxnTtiTejiH cymmki CuJiii i^}o^uci:atiu, 
AeHBrn oxiacxH BSHCRanH ct> naxt, a oT^iacxa b ct TrrnrftTnu xi^ 
oneRynoBB. 3a n^ROXopux^ naij nnxi., B'b tomi» ni^^^^Ceu- 
Raro, ynjianeHO RS'b Ka^HHOTa ^^ I817roi^, (ci^^^^^iloB. 
Poccia 1876 r- X2 2, ex. 244 — 261). ^bhab 
cxpaHHO, Hxo Kb axoMy A*Jiy JIapHHa m 
ROft, Roxopbift, naxoAflCb B-bEeTopoyprlj, 
nopHacenid BNAan^ AOHerb 110 OnJiexa 



*) Cm. npHJi. J^ 9 E J^ 9-a. 




— 238 — 

HO JlfiMQ He BVLAijl'b aiHX'E 6HJieT0Bl H MOn> He SHaTb K^IRB o 

Hxi> cyn^ecTBOBamH, TaKi RaK^ OHJieTia CoxpaHHofl EadHu BBixasa- 
jincb He sa no;i;nHCbK) BeuiRaro, a tojilko HJienoBi noAJie- 
^aiqaro OaeRyncKaro CoB^Ta, KasHaiea h 6yxrajiTepa. FjiaBHuft 
noneiHTeJib KaK'b bi> Bbi;i;aqi 3thxi> fimieTOBii, laRi h bt> ynjiart 
HO HHui AGHer'B HHKaKoro y^acTiH ne npHHHMajii. 

03^ fftjii FocyAapcTBeHHaro ApxHBa (paapnAi XVI Kkno 
J\£ 357)BHfl;HO, HTO BeuKoft orb 5 «eKa6. 1785 ro^a no fl;:feay Jdapa- 
Ha ^) HHcojii Be36opoAKt cjitAyton^ee: Mhjiocthbu& FocyAapb Mofi 
AjieKcaHApi) AHApeeBH'i'b! IIo HcnojineHiH H3o6pa»eHHoft bi nHCbM'6 
Bamero CiATeJibCTBa Bbicoiafimefi bojib npenpoBOJRAemeMi BaBTb 
npHJio^eHHuxi npB MoeMi nHCbM'6 KacaTejibHo ao JIapHHa 6yMarb, 
R Tenepb eAHHCTBenno lOJibRO hjih CB^A'^uiii Bamero ^ecxb 
HMtK) AOHecTH cjiitAyK)mifl T01HHH cjiOBa H3Ti yHpeacAemft BOcnnTa- 
leJibHaro AOMa, bi> ne^axH nySjiHROBaHHux'b h BceMHJiocTHBtA* 
mHM-b Eh BejiHqecTBa MaHH(|)ecTOM'b ynpeacAenHbifl: noHHTaTb n 
npHHBMaTb npaBa n npentfyn^ecTBa rpaxjiaHCKHM'b ysaROHeniHifb h 
BO Bctxi noTpeSHuxi h ao EvtxTy RacaK>mHxc^ CJIy1aeB^, wkjia 

OTQpaBJIflTb H npOHSBOAHTb B^ CHJiy OHBIXT), HUeHHO: Bl laCTH I 

rjiaB'fc 6 § 1; B-b qacTH II rjiaBt 1 § 9 h § 10; bt* y^pexAeHiH 
CoxpaHHoA KasHu § 8. IIo ROu^npifOsaHHOMy AOoaAy npH ynpes- 
AeniH Tpex^ RaseHi CTp. 135; Bucoiafimee fijiaroBOJienie bi pas- 
cyaKAeniH HenapyraHMOCTH RpoAHia. 

Bame GiflTOJibCTBO nsBOJiHxe B3'b cero ycMOTptrb CROJib cIh 
HOCTaHOBJieniH BaxcHu ajih coxpaneHiH RpoAHia oOo^ecTBa; b^ pas- 
cyatAenie Hero si rfe rohIh, ROTopHa orb Menfl coo6n;eHH, HCTpe6o- 
BaJi^ Hsi AOMa A^s ce6a, ne o6iiHBJiHfl npHHHHu, a&6u rbwb b^ 
oGn^ecTBi^ ne nocJiiAOBajio coMHimH bI) ocjia6jieHiH ero AOB'i^pen- 
HOCTH, noneny Barae ClaieJibCTBO noRopno npomy npncHJiRy xixi 
6yMarb ocTaBHib bi coRpoBenHOCTHHuo HenaAofiHOCTH mni 
OHHH BOSBpaTHTb. Bapo^eifi ociaiocb ch iiOHu-b coBepmeHHUM'b 
noHTenieicb Bamero CiflTejibCTBa Mhji. Foe. Mofi aoRopHUM'b csyroK) 

HBaHi BeARoft ^). 



HeJBB^ He C006UIHTB Dpil dTOMl, HTO UO^OTHUe CiarOTBOpHTeiH BOCnH- 

TaTOJibHaro AOiia, bi tomi hhcj^ h BeiiRofi, sa o6m,eio noAQHCBR), noAaBaJH 
HMueparpHAi no A'^Jiy -^lapHHoft oco6oe npomeHie, y cero npDjaraeMoe (opHi. 
J^ 12) TOHi, qTo6u noBeaiHO 6uj[0 pascMOTptxb Aijo JlapHHoft 6e3i ycxpa- 
ineeiH o6iAecTBeuHofi xoBipeHHOCTH h hto6u BOCoHTaTeibBuS aowl 6£Mi> 
aan^HiBteH'b otb HecapaseA^iiBHX'b ORieBeTaHiil, Moryii^Hx<b noROie5aTB o6me- 
CTseHHyjo AOBipenuocTB, eMy Hyseyio. 

') nosBOJHifB ce6t csasaTB, ?to no utiy jlaptiHa oiipeA'i^eHO 6iuo 
BSBicsaxB ci Bei^saro: cepedpoM-B 8.9S3 py6. 20 k. h accHrHaAiaMH— 36.296 p. 



— 219 — 

%o ace KacaeTca A'ibftcTBifl GcyAHoft KasHU (hjhh Jiou6apAa),rAt 
npHHHiiajiHCb Bi saRJiaAi) He tojibro sojioto, cepe6po, Aparoa'^H- 
Hue EaMHH, HO H BcaKaro poAa ABHJRHHue npeAMeTu, to safiiAyK)- 
mHMi dTEWb jioH6apAoirb 6uji'l nasna^eHi) ni^Kio $pefiAeH6epn>^), 
KOTopuft Bejii nepeoHCRy na ^paHi^scROifB a8hr'6 h CRopo yB^AO- 
HHJI^,. ^TO Aenerb Birb Kb BUAaqi, laRi RaRi> Bct saRJiaAUBaiorb, 
a Ben^efi ne BURynaiOTi. Heo6xoAHMO 6ujio sajiOJReHHUfl Ben^H npo- 
AaBBTL RaRii npocpoqeBHUA. CrajiE npoAaBaiB BemvL; HanajTHCb 
sajio6i)i, AOxoAHBrnia ao Bei^Raro, KaRi eaop: ^ajio6a CTOJi^pHaro 
MacTepa RHMBiejifl, ROTopuft, saJioacHBi boii^b, hh pasy ne njia- 
THJii Aaxe npoi^eHTOBi ^). yBejia^eme a^jii ao JioM6apAy A'l^JiaJio 
J^M. OAHoro JiHii;a HeB08M0HCHHMT> ycniniHoe saBi^AUBasie hmh. Go- 
^Tb nojiarajii y^poAHTB, Rponi AHpeRTopa hjih saBlAUBaiomarOy 
eme aojixuoctb Rasnaiea n 6yjcrajiTepa, cociaBBBx hmt> oco6uh 

BHCTpyR^iH, HO BoAROfi Bb BHAaXl dROHOMlH paspilUHJI'B 18 OKT. 

1778 r. HMiTBTOJiBRO RasHaiea. Ho yace bi 1776 r. OneRyHCRift 
cobIfb saflBJiflJi'B, qio uejiRaH pasAana AenerB noAi* saKJiaA'B Bon^efl 

MOXeTB CJiyjRBTB HOBOAOMl Kb RpaacaMl, R^ paCXOAaH'B Ha HB^H- 
CTBO BCflRarO HtI»CHarO COCTOflHifl HBBOSAepjRaflHBIMl JIIOAflM^, a 

oco6jibbo cjiyjRaniBH'B (t. e. npHCJiyri); <ito njiareacB npoiteHTOBi , 



70 B. Bo BpeMa npoHSBOiCTBa x'^msl Beusoft yMepi n BaucKanie aio 6aio 
o6paii^eH0 na HacitAHHiiy ero HMymecTBa lociiosy PuCacb, no xajo6i ko- 
to pofi dTO A'fejo AoxoAiiJO AO paacMOTptHiii rocyAapcTaeeuaro CoB^Ta b% 
1808 roAy. np0 9T0III Bi sactAaHiti GoBiTa rpail)^ Hnisojafi neTpoBii?i> 

PyHAHI^eBl npOHSQeCB H'i^CBOJbKO BaSHUXl AJIH HaCl CJOBIi, BUpaSaK)II(HX'B 

RarjuA'B BHaHesuTaro Kaeujepa na Beusaro h ero A'i^^TejiBBOCTB. IIpoHcine- 
CTBie, — roBopHTii PyHflHueBi,— sa soTopoe noioseno BsucKaHie na uoKOftea- 
ro Bei(&aro, ecTb xauoro poAa, bi BOTopoMi A'^ScTBOBaia pa8HOo6pa8Hfi[e 
iipoHCRH H yxHiupeHiji. He oti eero, a co cTopoHu. HsBicTso, hto secb 
npeAMerB shsbh u cjiysCu cero rocyAapcxBeHHaro HejiOBtsa saKJitoqaicii b'b 
uoJBsi OTe^ecTBa h ahh ero tokid bt* nocToaHHOHB TpyAt u bi aosepiBO- 
BaBiflxi co6cTBeHBOCTH Ha apH6EUb o6ii]^yK). CeuA'^TeiflMH TOMy 6iaroTBop- 
HUH saBeAeHiii, pysoH) Beasaro sa Biqeua BpeMeaa ycTaQOBjeHHua B'b 
PocciH. KoFAa Bca u^jb sasoHa ecTb 6jiaroBMAHoe A'bficTBie bt> upH&i'fep'b 
ApyrHXi, KOFAa Bca i^tjb bucobhxi KanecTBb cjiyxOu ecTb CTpeMJieeie bb 
npH3HaTejibH0CTu OTe^ecTBy, KaKoe Bne^ao'lkBie npoasBeAerb onameaHoe 
HapesaHie Ba ocxaBmeecfl oaho hmh Benaaro? KaKofi apHaipi? KaRaa ys'^- 
poBHOCTb Kit sacjyraiii? ^eiOB'^BB bb xpyAaxi npaeecb o^eBHAoyED noJib»y 
cBoeiiy oreiecTBy u cKOH^ajca bi otjuhIh h sa Bctm chhi na npaxi ero 
nocTynaeT'B aapesaBie, a npaBBTejibCTBO, bb BHAaxB jJoOocTaacaTeiboux^, 
xjaAHOspoBHO BUAaeTB ero flapeKaHiiD vb sepTBy. 

rpa4>'b PyMflHi^eBB nojiaraj'b Aenerb ne BsucKHBaTB hh cb Beusaro, hh 
ero uacjiAHHKOB'b, TasB rbkb aro ne nepBuA ciyqafi, fa^ BOcnnTaTexbHuA 
Aom, HOHeca yxpary wb cbohxi RanHTajiax'b, BcerAa yAOBiexBopaA's y6£Itkh 
CBOH CBOHHE npH6ujaifV. (Cm. ApxHB.rocyA. CoB*Ta t. Ill, ^acib 2-a (1801— 
1810) H3A. 1878 r. cip. 306). 

«) Cm. n. Pji. Hon. 1774 r. Mapra 11. 

') Cm. A'ijro 8KcneA. CcyA- KasHEi J^ 427. 



— 220 — . 

no 127o BT» roA*^, CKOJUb wh OtAHuxi TflrocTem* ctojib MO^erb 
npHiecTbCA Ri RopfiiCTOJiK)6iH) AOHa H MoxerB HBHTbCA HapeRa- 
nieMi Bik HapymeHin ochobhuxi Ha^ajib renepajibHaro njiaaa. IIo 
3T0My CoBi^rb nojiaraji'b jiyqme ne OTRpusaTb ManoiHofi pasAanH 
AeHerb, o neirb n npeAciaBJiHJix Bei^ROMy, Roxopuft OTB%Hajrb Co- 
Biiy H0fl6pa 11 -ro 1776 ro^a, wo corjiaceffb Cb ero nociaHOBJie 
Hieii'b. CRopo naqajiH o6HapysHBaTbCfl pasJiH^HUH HenpaBUJibHOCTH 
B^ BeAenlB c^eiOB'b h bi nopHAR'b saancHBaHifl AOHen no rhh- 
raMi, no noBO^y ROiopuxii 6ei](R0fi, in^aiejibHO cjiiAEBmift ea 
cROJibRo dTO 6ujio eify BOSMO^nOy naxoAflCb bi IIeTep6ypi^, sa 
A^ficTBiflMn CcyAHOfl RasHu, TpeCoBajii o6^flCHeHifl, A'i^Jiaji'b cboh 
sairbiaHifl n npeAJiarajii pasjiEHHUJi Mipu ri OTCTpaneHiK) sthxi 
HenpaBHJibHOCTe&. 

FaBHfiiM'b oSpasoMi ne saMOAJiHJiH npo^BJiflTbCA no JiOM6apAy 
pasHUH 3JioynoTpe6jieeiH. TaRi en^e bi 1779 r. bt* aojurhocth 
noMOD^HHRa Raccnpa, cepHaarb AnApefi TpBHrareHi yRpajrb na 
605 py6. pasHuxi Bereft, sajioHceHEux'b bi» CcysHofi Rasn^, h Gbuii. 
sanHcaHi) sa aio wb coJiAaTu h OTOCJiaHii B'b BoenHyio ROJiJieriio ^). 
HoMHoro noBAHie otrphjihci 3JioyaoTpe6jieHia Raccnpa IIpHHiia, 
ROTopuft, Bb nepBHfl jRe I OA'b CBoero onpeA&nema na AOJi^HOCib 
BT> 1778 roAy, CTaJii nocTenenno noxnn^aTb sajiOHenHUH B'b jiom- 
OapA*]^ Ben^H, n ri> 1782 roAy, RaRi OTRpujia oco6o y^ipejEAennafl 
AJifl pascji'&AOBamH aioro A'^Jia rommhccIh, noxHTHJI^ laROBuxi na 
171.336 p. 55 R. (nsi ehxi 6bijih BOSBpan^enu h OToGpanbi 
odep-b-AHpoKTopOMT) $pe3e ^) na 979.44 py6.,H0 noJiynHTb ocrajib- 
HHx^ na cyimy 73.392 p. 55 r. ho npeACTaBji^jiocb nuRaRoS 
B03M0XH0CTH ^). BeD[Rofl HO 3T0My HOBOAy nocJiajii 19 AGRaOpa 
1782 r. B'b OneRyncRlfi CoBtrb nacbMO, npn ceifb opajiaraeMoe *), 
H Cb cepAeHHMMT> npacRopSieMi oSiacaajib noAofiaufl sjioynoipe- 
Sjienk noTBopcTByion^BMB nocJiafijreaiHMa OneRynoB-b, AOJiateacTBO- 
BaamHX'b bi caoe Bpeiifl KaR'b no coB'^cia, laRi* a no cbbtoctb 
CBoefi npacara co6jiH)AaTb nopHARH a 6uTb neycBiaauMa xpanaTe- 
jiaMB CjiaroAOHCTBiH AOMa. 



Cm. atyp. Holier. OneE. Cob. 1779 r. napia 11, J^ 121. 

') Cm. npnioseflie J^ 10. 

') Cm apx. C.-neT. OneE. CoB-feTa, a^jlbl Bensaro J\& 809 h jifbiB, no 9Ecne;^. 
CcyiH. Ka3Hu. Ji^J^ 11, 13, 14, 19. Ilo AomeAniHMi xo eero cjtyxaifb o 6e8- 
nopflAEax'B B'b CcyAHofi KasH^ Bei^Eift npeADHcaii HeMeAieHHO ocBHA'i^TeJB> 

CTBOBaTB BCi^ BdEJiaAEI H npOB^pHTB UTb ipe31i OCO60 HaSHaHeHHyK) UMJ> 
EOHMHCCIH). 

*) Cm. npHjiosenie J^ 11. 



— 221 — 
Ho dTH yEin^eBaHin Majio noMorajiH ffijiy. OceRynu othoch- 

JHCB 6e83a60TH0 Rl CBOBMT> 06fl3aHH0CTJlMl, H BCJI^ACTBie dTOFO 

no CicyAHoft Vaani npoxojuxajiBCB eenopjiARH b pacxnmeHifl, sa 
KOTopiiMH KOHe^HO BeASOfi, HaxoA^CB wh neiepfiypri b aocibf* 
HysB yxe npeRJiOHHux'L jrin, Be Morb ycjitAHiB, a tImb MeH%e 
Bzi opeAOTBpaTBTb ^). PesyjubTaTOMB dTBXB 3J[oynoTpe6jieHi& 6ujrb 
fiOAOHerb ffiuerb bb Kacci h yiutsi HicnepaTopa IlaBja I OneRyn- 
CROMy CoBiTy, nocjrlAOBaBmifl BCRopi nocjii ROHqHBU HMnepa- 
Tpflmi ERaTepHHu, Towhy HTO Bi OTBpaii^eBie paaBuzi sjioyao- 
Tpe6jieHift noBejrbBaeirb BnpeAB ao yRasa bi JiOMCapAaxi Mocrob- 
CRaro H n6Tep6yprcRaro BOcnEraiejiBHaro AOMa npieirb pynauxi 
saRJiaAOBi h A&iy ^OKh OHue bx saflMBE AeeerB ocTaHOBBiB, npo- 
HSBOAfl OHyK) A^A Jiynmeft B^bpnocTH noAB saRJiaA'B aomobi h npo- 
qexi HeABHSHMuxii HMiflift*. 

AeKa6pB 21 aha 1796 roAa. 

Bemcoft AO aroro yRasa se aoxhjix. OiiiiTHM^, qio oahok) 
Hsi nocju'^AHHX'B 6yMarB hub noAnRcaHHUXB (ho tbrb, hto h yra- 

ABTB HOJIBBfl ^TO OTO 610 ^aHHJli^) 6£IJI0 HH^eCJI'bAyiOIIiee nHCBIfO 

C-nerepC. OneRyncROMy CoBtry otb 5 AeM6pa 1790 r. 

«]kbiJiocTHBue rocyAapH moh! Ecjih bu corjiacHu BaxoA^n^eMy* 
cji npB MHi rocnoAHHy HaABopHOMy coB^THHRy RHfljKHHHy no 
npHJioseHHUMi npH comb ubtb 6HJieTaM'B BUAaTB esiy ero sajEoxen- 
HBiH B^ JiOM6apAb Ben](H, cb T6M^, hto6bi BUHfliaiB H8^ noiiyHae- 
Maro HMB xajiOBaHBB RaRB RaoHTajiBHHH AOHbrn, TaRB H cjrbAyK)- 
npe no ysaROHeHiio jiOM6apAa npoi^enTu, to r na cie ffixo Moe 
corJiacieH sa aero pyiaiocB. npe6uBaio cb noHieHieirb BamHMB, mh- 
jiocTHBHO rocyAapH moh, noRopHifimnii'B cjiyroio». 

BeARofi, M02CH0 CRasaiB yMnpan CTapancB CA'i^aiB Ao6poe A'i^Jio 
CBoeny noAHBHOHHOMy. Ohb 6hijn> yse bi to BpeMH TaRi CTapB h 
ApHXJiB, ^0 h6 bi» CHJiaxi 6uJi'B ynpaajiBTb BB^peHHUMH eny y^pe^- 

AOHUiMH. 

HaHi ocTaoTCfl tojibro CRasaTB, hto npeAOHcaHHaa HnnepaTO- 
poiTB pimHTOJiBHafl Mipa cyn^ecTBOBajia rohb^ho ho AOJiro, h OABa- 
jiH Heo6xoABMo yooMHHaTB, iTO ocHOBaHHUH BeARHMi CoxpaHHa^, 



*) TaROBu pacxHmeHifl: 6HJ[eT0Bi, cxiJaBHua CEBanqH Vb 1784 r., a 
Tasse Beiaeft u'^hob^hkohi JEHi^MaHOHB hi 1792 r. (6pHibflBTii(HK0M'B, pa6o- 
TaBinnMi naoro kexsio IIoTeiiKHHy); 3th x^ia oxoHHUJac& yxe npii Hmdc- 
paiopt naBj'b I. 



— 222 — 

CcyAHaa H Baobba RasHu cyn^ecTBosajiH ao Hanajia mecTHAecflTHxi 
^oflOB^ XIX CTOJiixin ^). 

Oh^^ 6hjih HacTbK) saRpHTfii, HacTBK) npeoCpasoBaHu npn oCnieiri 
KopeHHOMi npeo6pa80BaHiH HamHXi KpeAHTHKx^ yciaHOBJieHift bi 
1859 r., npn ^eirs npeABapHTeJiBHO bi 1859 r. 6ujih DpeRpan^eHU 
BUAAHH ccyA^, a Bi 1861 r. npeRpan^enu BOBce h BRJia^u b^ co- 
xpaHHyK) RasHy. TaRBMi oGpasoM'B coxpaHHaa Rasna jiameHa Cujia 
B03M0SH0CTE npHHHTB yqacTie Bi BBiRyni KpecTBflHCRHXi HaxinoBTi, 
xoTH, no o6nJiiio HaxoA^u^HxcK bi en pacnopfl^emH, ona ciiiJio 
Morjia flBBTBCfl CO CBOHMi coA'^^AcTBieMi npn arofi Ba«Hofl rocyAap- 
CTBeHHofi iflpl. HMiBi Bi CBoein» o6opoTt Bi 1765 r. Bcero 
236.025 pyS.jCoxpaHHaa Kasea bi 1775 r. (t. e. qepesx AecaiB 
jiirb) H&fijia 1.368.486 py6., a BCRopt nocoi* kohtohh BeiiRaro, 
KorAa BOCoBTaiejiBHufi aob^b co bcImh yHpeacAeHlflMir nepemejrB noAi* 
noKpoBHTejiBCTBO MapiH GeoAopoBHH BT> 1797 roAy, aiorB Ranaxajii 
AOCTHFB yate 7.810.707 pySjieft. 

Ho 6hjio 6h ao RpafiHOCTB HanBHO npeAnojiaraxB, qio ocHOBaH- 
Hua no npeACTaBJieHiiO BeARaro RpeAHTHua ynpe^eHifl 6bijih 
ynpasABeHU noTony, ^to ohh yxpaTHJiH CBoe SBaieHie h He abjih- 
jiHCb y^e Hacyn^HOH) noTpeSaocTbio o6ii^ecTBa. HeMOAJieHHO no sa- 
RpuTiH coxpaHHOfl RasHH (BUAaBaBmeft AenBrH bi ccyAy noAi» sa- 

JIOFB neABH^RHMOCTH) B03HHRJIH paSJIHHHUe BOSeif BJIBHBie 6aHRH H BT* 

rowb HHCJii H FocyAapcTBeHHuft ^BopaHCKifi BaHRi; saRpurie xe 
ccj'AHOfl RasHu noBJieRJio3a co6ok) y^pe^AenieBO MHomecTB'l lacT- 
EHx-B jioMdapAOB-B juJiR saRjiaAa ABn^uiMOCTeft, ROiopue, RaRi hs- 
bIiCTho, ocoGeHHBrifB ryMaHHBiMi> oiHomeHieM^ Kb saRJiaAHHRaifB ne 
0TjiH4aH)TCfl. HeBOJiBflo BosHHRaerb BonpocB, HTO BBinrpajiu o6nie- 
CTBo OT^ ynpasAueHia RpeAHinuxi yHpejEAenifi, ocHOBanHBiX'B npn 
HyApofi HMnepaTpHj^i^ no npeACTaBJieniR) BenjRaro. 

IleTepfiyprcRaa me ccyAnaa Rasna hjih JioM6apA'B, no RaROft-xo 
nenoHflTHOfi nanx anoMajiiH, npoAOJiacaexi* cyn^ecxBOBaxB h no na- 
cxoHn^ee BpeMfl. TpyAHO ceGii yacnnxB npeiney, noneny, ynpasAHJia 
MocROBCRyio ccyAHym Raany, MO«exT» npasnaBaxBca OAnaRO Heo6xo- 
AHMBiMi coxpaHHXB laRyK) 3Re RasHy BT) C.-IIexepfiyprt!.. 

III. npHSMJiiierinxB socnMraTe/ibHaro AOMa. 

Ha ocHOBanlH § 7 rjiaBH YI renepaJiBnaro njiana bochh- 
xaxejBHHft AOMT), BOAfl ci Kiwb jih6o cyAHoe A'bJio, HMtexi nojn>3o- 



*) npaBiua o6i dTHXi RasBaxi HSJiosienu vb t. XI h. 2. Cboa- sax. 
H3A. 1857 r. KHHra 2-a bi CTaTbAX'B 1166—1635 r. corjaceo HSxaBBaro o 



— 223 — 

BaiBCH BO Bctxi npHKasaxi h cyAHUxi M'ficTax'b npaBOHi* hohm}'- 
mjnTb T. e. He njiaTHTB HHKaRHX'L npHKasHJbix'B noniJiHHi> h npo^aro. 
IIocjitACTBleM'B noAo6HOfi npHBHJiJieriH aBHJoocb to, hto mhoiih 
'lacTHUA jiHi^a, Enisi A^Jia cyAeGsHH, nepeAaBajiH BeAenie hxi (a He- 
pbAKO n coBciHi) jKepTBOBaJiH) BOcnHTaiejiBHOMy Aony, ynjianHBau 
eny hi nepsoM'B cJiyns/k rb npHRasHua nomjiHHU h nponie pacxoAH, 
KOTopue HaAnexaJio 6u zwb HeH36i»cH0 BfiecTH bi> cyAe6Hoe m^cto, 

n H86aBJIHJIHCL TiMt OTb 06HqH0ft BT> TO BpOMfl BOJIOKHTH HO CyAcS- 

BSiWb yHpeffAeHiAMi). BocnHTaTejibHHfi aomi neJii A'i^Jio sa hhxi> n 
npHTOMi ropasAO ycnimHie, noJiBsy^CB cbohmii nojio»ceHieuT>. IIo- 
AoenHxi A^JTB, ycTynaeMHXT) AOMy, 6hjio aobojibho mhok), h aomi 
HSBJiOKajTB ceSt HCMajiyK) otb aioro BHroAy, TaKi KaKi nepiARO 
TH^ymlecfl a'^sijih npn 3tomi SHa^HTejiBHyio ycTynKy vh nojiBsy 
AOtfa. TaK'b rocyAapcTBeHHue KpecTB^He Hcei^Kofl npoBEHi^m oTAajiH 
Bi nojiBsy AOMa HeTBepiyio ^acTB cjiiAyeMHx^ hm^ bi> bh- 
Aaiy OTB npoBiaHTCROfi Rani^eji^piia AenerB. IIoBipeHHBift npn 
HHTeftHBixi c6opax'B Bi BtjioropoACRofi ry6epHin Moncefi Hapy- 
Hevb B-B ropoA'fc CyAomi, sa RopqencTBO bi 1762 — 63 r., Sbijii, 
KpoH'b ynjiaTu mTpa(|)a, ocysmewb emfi bi ccuJiRy na rioceJieHie bi 
OpenCyprB. Ofb npocHJi'B npHHaTB otb nero 1.500 py6. BinoJiBsy 
BOCHHTaTejiBHaro AOMa h ot'b HaKasanifl ocbo6oahtb. IIo AORJiaA}' 
o6'b aiOMT* ERaiepHHt II nocJiiAOBajia 4 ^esp. 1768rr.pe30JiK)Aia: 
^BZBThCb npocBTejiA CBepxi AGHejRHaro mxpa^a, naJiaraoMaro na 
Hero Buicrb cb npo^HMia, en^e bi BOcnHTaTejiBHuft AOMb TucHia 
naTBCOTB py6. h bi OpeHfiyprB na nocejienle ne nocuJiaTB». 

Bujio OHeHB MHoro AOJI^OBb[x^ npeieHSifi, oepeAaBaeMUX'B Aony 
npoRO^ieMi JlfiUBflfiBUJJih A<nH BSHCRank; bi> mucjvb bxi ofipaTHMi 
BHHMaHie Ha npereHsiio ero Kb RaiiepAHHepy Ea Be^nnecxBa Ajie- 
KcaHApy HrnaTbeBHqy CaxapoBy, no ROTopoft BeARofi npeACTa- 
BJiaJTi* oco6Hft AORJiaAi, y cero npHJiaraeMHfl *), HMnepaTpairfj, 
BCJiiACTBle ROToparo ERaTepBHa n caMa nncajia BojiRoncROMy bi> 
MocRBy cjiiAywmee: 

«KHH3b MBxaBJn Hbrbtbhi! IIpenpoBo^Ad^ cbhi noAaHHufi 
HaM^ OTii A'bficTBBxejibHaro lafiHaro coBiTHBRa b BOcnBraxeJibHaro 
AOMa FJiaBHaro none^BTejifl BeuRaro aorjibaT), cb BsoCpajReHieifB 
affuio6i> CTaTCRaro coB'lTHBRa HpoRO^Ba ^eiiBAOBa na CuBmaro 



HHXT. HOBaro nojoaenia bi 1838 r. okt. 2. (11.579), npn ^bmb yrpaTMocB 
xase jKadaHie, hto sth Rpej^BTHUfl y?pesAeBiii ooiyqnjH CBoe nepBOHa- 
HaibBoe ocHOBaeie b% i^apcTBOBanie HunepaTpHi^fii EsaTepHHii II. 
*) Cm. apHJOS. J^i 13. 



— 224 — 

npH ABopi HameMi KaMepAHHepoMi AjieRcaH^pa CaxapoBa, b^ 
HesanJiaTi aojixhuxi> no seKcejiABrb AOHen sa RynjieHHUfl on Jlfi- 
MHAOsa eMy AepesHH, h bt» nepenpoAa»t rbxi) AepeaeHL spyroHy, h ch 
npBHeceHieMi xoAaiattCTBa Ha ocHOBaniH npHBHJijierifi BOcaHTa- 
TejiBHaro AOMa, co CTopoHu ^euiiAOBa hko OHOMy 6jiaroTBopflniaro, 
^RejiaeM-s, ^To6^ bu npenopy^HJiB reaepajTB-Maiopy ApxapoBy h 
FjiaBHaro MarHCTpaia npesBAesTy^ypacoBy pasobpaib cie A'bJio 

no CaMOfl CQpaBOAJIHBOCTH H 6631 npoAOJi^eQiH. 

yCMOTpH BSaHMHUH B^ TOMl A^Jli UpaBa H AORasaTOJIIiCTBa, MO- 

ryii OHH y6iAHTb OTBtiqERa coBicTiio yAoaneTBopsTb npeA'BABjixe- 
Mofi Ha HCMi opeTeHsiH, noROJiHKy ona^ hcthhbok) 6htb Hoxerb: o 
Hem> H 6yAeMi> osRHAaTb samero AOHeceHifl». ERaTepena. 
IIjapcRoe Cejio ^). 
Maa 11 AHfl 1778 

PaBHUMi) o6pa80irb BOCOHTaTejibHHfl aoitb BsucRHBaji^ TaR«e 
no oepeAaHHOfl eny npeTeHsm A6HbrH cb rpa^a AjieRcaHApa Pona- 
HOBH<ia BopoHiJ^OBa, RaRi BHAHO Hsi HHCbMa Bei^Karo 1781 r. bt> 
MocROBCRifl OneRyHCRifl CioBi^rb. IIo aToicy noBOAy HSBtcTHUfi 
n. B. SasaAOBCRift Euijib o6i>ACHeHie Cb Bei^RHMB no nopy^eHiio 
BopoHi^OBa H pesyjibTaTaxB onaro coo6n^aJii ceny noc^AHeny 
Bi nncbM'b CBOGMi, noMtmeHHOM'b B^ JVs 12 CTp. 70 ApxsBa 
RHflSfl BopoHAosa. IIo CJiOBaifb SaBaAOBCRaro oni GujuyBemiaro, 
ABa laca MyHBjic^ AOBecTH ^ejioB^Ra ao npaBAu, ho in^eTHO. Beu,- 
KOfi Ha Bci npocb6u h y6%JRAeHlfl (rohotoo 061 OTCpo^Ri^ njiarejKa 
no BeRceJiK), hosbojibmi ce6^ Ao6aBHTb) necb OROJiecnyio, roBop^, 
MTO He HM'lerb HHRaROfi BJiacTH HaAB oneRyncTBOMi) BOCOHTaiejib- 
naro Aona, hto owl ne HnieTi hh BJiacTH, hh npaaa nocrynHTbca 
Ha HCRi, HTO BbiA^'Tb BORcejib saBHCHT'b OTb ^BMHAOBa H T. A- 3aBa- 
AOBCRifl BHCRasHBaeii, HTO wbTh HHoro cpeACTBa, RpoMt y^aciia 
rocyAapHHH, H86aBHTb rpa^a BopoHi^OBa orb y6biTKa h t. a* ^)- 

IlHCbMO dTO BuciasJiHerb bb HenpnrjiHAHOM'b CB%rt BeuRaro, 
ROTopoMi SaaaAOBCRift Bb nopuBb Apy^ecRaro yBjieiemfl HHTepe- 
caMH BopoHUOBa roBopHTi, qTo «CTapu& xpbmB6e8COBtcTieirbTaR'b 



*) Cm. DHCbuo Eemcaro 1778 r vxb OBHa^eHHoe nHCbMO HMnepaTpHUU 
HMieTCfl Bl RoniH. 

') dio HHCBMo SaBaAOBCRaro 6e3b ^HCia, ho BSAaTejeMb ApxHBa otho- 
CHTca RO BpeMeBH MexAY 30 asrycTa 1791 r. h 24 ccht. 1791 r., 6e3b yiui- 
saHiH KasHxx jEa6o Kb Tony ocaoBaHiO. Mex^y xiMb nam RazoTCfli ?to no 
coAepsaaiK) cBoeiiy oho Bcero 6oj[te otuochtch k-l axoMy A'^iy 00 BSucRami) 
Cb A. C. Bopoauoaa no ero BCRceiH), AaHBOMy A^^^AOBy, KOiopoe upoHSBo- 
AHJOCb Bb 1782 ro^y. 



— 225 — 

Mena ocepj^jii, hto Buft^a orBHero,npocTyjHJii ropjio*. — Me^Ay 
i^iTb BsrjiaHyFB Ha ji^kjio 6e8npHCTpacTH0, Haj!(jre3KHTT> npH^TH r'e 
ApyroMy saRJiiOHeHiio, Hsi jRypsaJia Mock. On. Cob. 22 iiona 
1782 r. CTp. 166 bstsho, ito rpa$T. A. C. BopoHitoBi, 6ujl% aoji- 
:ReHi» IIpoR. JI^eifHAOBy no CBoeny BOKceJiK) oti» 1769 ro^a (ycTy- 
njieHHOHV AoHHAOBUMX BOcnHTaTOJiBHOMy AOHy) 25.000 py6. cep.; 
HO Cb npoi^eHTaMH n peRaM6ieK) no aTouy bbrcojik) HanHCJiHJiacB 
BT» 1781 roAy o6n;aH cyMMa 44.288 p. 81 k-jHSi rohxi, sa ynjia- 
TOK) 20,963 p. 21 R., ocTasajiocb en^e AOB3UCKaTB23.325p.60R. 
Jl^tjio B3HCRaHiH dTHXTi AGHerii AOxoAHJio AO GoHaTa H dBTJio pi- 
moHO MiTB Bi nojiBsy BOCHHTaTejiBHaro Aona. SasaAOBCKifl, no no- 
pyqeHiH) BopoHi^OBa o^obhaho, aBjiajica npocBTB hjih oSi* oicpoHKi 
njiaTeaca hjih 0611 yciynRi Hac^TaHHuxi npoi^enTOBi c^ peRaMfileio 
(0 newb jai6o ApyroHi Henero roBopnib npHssMCRaHmnoBeRceJuo, 
upaBHJibHOCTB ROToparo yse npHSHana cyAOMi). Bei^KOfl »e coBep- 
meHHo npdBHJiBHO OTBi^aji'B, hto 8T0 orB Hero ne saBHCHTB, TaRii 
KaRi> on-b BJiacTH HaA'B OneRyHCRHui* CoBiTOiTB (a rtifB 6ojrbe naA'B 
J^eMHAOBBiMi) HHRaRoft HO HirterB (qTO noApo6HO o6iflCHeHO yace 
HavH BBime). GoBepmenHO nenonaTHa a^blsrq npH^nna hovaobojib- 
CTBifl 3aBaAOBCRaro na Bei^Karo sa to, ^to rpa^-B BopoHi^OBi aoji- 
TKBWh ^eiiHAOBy no borcojijim'b! He HoaceMB npH stoitb ho o6paTHTB 
BHHHaniH Ha to, ^0 Bei^ROfi, snaa oienb xopomo, hto noAofinufl 
BBtiCRani.?, Aaace coBepmenno ocHOBaTOJiBHHa, bx noJiBsy Aona cb 
HacTHBixi jiHi^ Moryrb BHSUBaiB BCHKaro poAa napeRania na aomi* 
CO cTopoHu nocjrtAHHX'B, — yae bi 1769 r. ^) npeACTaBJiajix na 
6aaropa3CMOTpi^Hie CoBtoa, ^to €TaRi> RaRii ne 6yAeTi> jih conep- 
HHRaM^ ero (t. e. Aona) SesBHHHO RaKHxi npHTicQenift h o6nA^ — 

3HaTB He M0»H0, TO npHHHHaTB BSBECRanifl CB pascHOTpt- 

Hie Ml, ?to6bi h ApyrHMi* TaROBHM-B »ce B^ TaaeenHxi Alkiax'B 
ucitairB He nOAaTB noBOAy h rbwb ne naBOCTH na jipwb Cescjia- 
Bia, ^ero BOCBifa ocTeperaTBca aoji^ho, h6o hojibsu AOMy otb tofo 
6uTB He ynoBarejiBHO^. 

no3AH%e, Bi 1774 r. $eBp. 18-ro, Be^ROft nojioacHTOJibHO bh- 
CRasHBajicfl ^), HTO BnpoAB no TaRHM^ BORcejiaMB H TOMy noAo6- 
HBiHi A^aaMi) HaAiK)CB He naAJieacHrb nHCBMOHHHM'B nopHAROifB 
o6a8UBaTBca. B^ noATBepjRAeeie 3Toro Bei^Koft yRasHBajn nacKa- 
saHHoe B^ renepajiBn. njiaet nacin 2-A bi rjiaBi 1 § 5: «BecBHa 



') Cm. nncBMa rjasH. aone?. 1769 toxb,, 

') 9to nHCBMO Beusaro BanenaTaHO yae bi cPyccKoft CxapHH** 1873 r., 
cxp. 709 

H. H. BEUKOt. 16 



— 226 — 

ocieperaTbCH ot'b scero, iro cnpaBeAJiHBOCTn npoTHBHO, h HeupaseA- 
Hoe HHime He CRsepHEJio 6h cero yqpea^A^Bi^; otb BciTb aoxo- 
AOBi), ROH cji^AyK)!!* o6(iiecTBy BTb TflrocTB, a Hannaqe rti yr&CHe- 
mH) 6iAHHXx, AOJiflCHO eu'Itb OHepseaie. M TaR%^ pasGapaa no Apy- 
roMy, onacHO, htoGi ho noAynaJiH, hto BocnHTaTOJiBHufi aomi, Bcry- 
naHCb Bi HenpHHaAJieiKan^ia eMy A^Jia, a^ ^to HecHOCHte, ecJiH 
npn6aBArb, qTO ynoTpe6jiaerB niROTopufl poA'B HacHJiBHHiecTBa 
AJia nojiyqenia uph6hjih, na oCha* 6jiH«Hflro ocHOBaHHOft, — to 
OABa JiH Haeuan orb Toro noJiBsa Hani 6biti> Moacexiy, RorAa TaRO- 
BUMB nocTyoRaMH, AOcaxcASkH HHOFHMi), npHAeMi qpe3^ pasHHa 
BsucRaHia, cyAU, cnopu h oti tofo npoHCXOAHMua tajrCu y o6n^e- 
CTBa B'B neHaBHCTby laKB RaRi JierRO hsi ^acTH 2-ft rji. 1 § 10 
yiipeRatejibHoynoMaHyTBAOMy, otb BJiacxn Apyraxi npaBHTeJUBCiBB 
CBo6oAHOMy, HenpHJiHqHO cnopHHHR A'^JiaMH noABepraTb ce6a 
cyAe6HHMi> npHroBopaH'B», a noioicy hsb Toft sue ^acTE e rjiaBU 
§ 9 BecBMa ocieperaiBca aoji»:ho, htoCu saRJuo^ETeJibHO ho CRa- 
sajin: <(HErto-6i» bsb ^pEHaAJIesaI^flx^ Kb cjiy»6t ejih est* co- 
CToan^Exi noAB san^Eii^eHieu'B BOcnEiaTejiBHaro AOMaHenpeciynaJi'B 
CEXTi ysaKonemfi, heko npocTapaiTB OHHa AftJi^o noJiOKeHHux'b 
npeA^JiOBi, Aa6bi OTBpaxETb sjioynoipeCjieHie, ROTopoe 6U hofjio 
noAaiB npE^EHy r'b yMeHBmeHiK) npEBEJUierifi, jie6o ri OTHaTiio 
H^ROTopoft qacTE OHbrxii > . Cie Bce coo6pa3Rafl, BucoRono^TeHEbifi 
CoB'IrB acHO 6jiaroBOJiflrB ycMOTpixB, ?to no laROBuicB A^aanine- 
peuECRa CB MarECTpaTOMi* ejhe HaciynaTeJiBHoe e aRo6u npzHaAne- 
:Raii^ee bb san^Eo^eHie napymaeMbiX'B npEBBJiJierifi TpeGoBanie, hIro- 
TopuMi oGpasoMT) nocjriAOBaTB MoacerB He rb cMarieHiK) HCROnaro 
BX yAOBOJiBCTBie A^Biy, no Kb npEHy^AeHHOMy ynopcTBy h sani^B- 
mfiRiK) npoTEBB Toro; cJitAOBaiejiBHo BecBMa npEJiEHecxBOBaxB 6y- 
jifiTh: MH BcerAa CojiBme BBiErpaoMB, xepna h*!- 
CROJiBRo, HexejiE npEHEHaa ApyrEifB AOcaAy; Rb 
xoMy ace opECOBORynEXB: ho EHaRO cero AOCXErayxB moxho, RaKB 
CJibjijsi 6ed% H8i.axia npaMOBiy pasyny BcibxB npeAnEcaHHurB A<na 
xoronpaBEjrB». HacROJiBRO OneRyncide CoBtxbi pyROBOACXBOBajnECb 
dXEME BDOJiB']^ opeRpacHuiiE yRasaniaME Bei^Raro npE npieMt orb 
'lacxHUXT* Jiflii^'B pasJiEqHHXB ECROBHXi> npoxeHsift, AJiH HaAaejRa- 
maro no hemti BSMCKaHla Aenerb wb cyAeGnBixi MicxaxB — ne pi- 
maoMca CRasaxB, noxony hxo ji^Jia. oxoro Heo6xoAEMO 6hiJL0 6u 
npoABapHxeJiBHo osnaKOMEXBca co bcIme ecrobhme a'^J^slme^ nepe- 
AannuME BOcnnxaxeJiBHOMy Aony nacxHUME JiEi](aME^ — ^ero a ca^- 
jiaxB 6hjii ne bb cocxoaniB. 



— 227 — 

l\r. KjieMMeHie Kaprb HrpaiibHuxi* m ywpewAeHie KaproHHoii i|)a((pMKM. 

EoMHCciH ROMuepi^ia, saBHtfancb coiHaenieArB HOBaro Ta- 
pH^a, npeACTaBHJia b'b 1765 r. HftiaepaTpHQib EKaiepnHt 11 TaK;se 
CBoft AOKjiaA^B ToproBJii RapiaHH, no KOTopony npeAnoJiarajia, 
vh BMnjb HOBaro Aoxo^a, Ha RaiRAyK) Hrpy RaprB, KaKi> BHyTpen- 
HAPO HSA'&niH, TaRi h npHBOSHEJxi, HaRJiaAUBaTb oco6oe KJiefi&io, 
B3RMaH no rpuBHi, npH neu% Becb hobuK aoxoai> HC^scjifljica 
BT, 27,000 py6., nojiaraa, tto eaceroAHO npoAaeica bt> HMnepia 
13,000 AroatHHt npHBOSHHX^ Raprt h 10,000 AK)«HH'b AOMam- 
HflFO HBA'^Jila. HnnepaTpHi^a, yrBepAHB^ 7 A6Ra6pH 1765 r. aTOii* 
AORJiaAit, co6cTBeHHopyqHo nanepTajia: cna npHBOsHUH RapTH no 
rpHBHi; Ha naniH no hhth koh. na arpy, ROTopHH AOHbrn oTny- 
cRaxB B'B BocnHTaTejiBHufi AOMB». HHOCTpaHHUH KapTU npHBoan- 
jiHCb TOJiBRO BB C.-n0Tep6yprB, ApxasrejiBCRB, PeBejiB h Pnry; 

TOJIBKO qp63B 3TII UOpiU H 6eUIB paSptmeHB BB03B RBpTB H3B-3a 

rpaHHi^H, npH hgmb RapiH iwieftarajiHCb (yrc. 6 aBrycTa 1766 r.). 
RapTOHHbiH $a6piiKH, cyn^ecTBOBaBmifl BnyrpH rocyAapcTsa, co- 
CTOJiJiH BB BfcA*HiH MaHy^aRTypB-KoJuieiiH h ea rohtopb, roto- 
pEUTB H npeACTaBJisjiHCB RapiM A^ia RJie&MeHia. CoSapaeMUH npir 
KJneftMeniH AenBrH AOCTaBJiHJiHCB bb BocnuTaTeJiBnbift aomb. Mao- 
xecTBO BCflRaro poAa sjioynoxpefijienifi 6ujio npH^mnoio, ito ao- 
xoA> Ob RjiefifiieHiH RaprB a^bko He AOcmraJiB oiRHAaeKoft an^pu. 
Cb 1766 r. no 1774 r. noRasano npHBeseHHHMH H3B-3a rpaHHi^br 
Bcero 12,901 AK)«HHa RapiB (ht6 bb toab cocTaBJiaeiB TonbKO 
1,737 ak)xhhb), h BHyTpH HHnepin bb totb ^e nepioAB Bpe\[eHGr 
sasJieftMeHO 2.569 ji^iotr. RapiB (t. e. orojio 300 bb toab). 

B^ BBAaxB ofiyiemH nnioMneBB MaciepciBy yqpeKAO«M 6hjih 
npH caMOMB BocnHTaTeJibHOBfB Aosit ab^ neoojibmm RapioiHua ^a- 
6pnRii ^), na ROTopHXB HHOCTpaHHue Maciepa, Ha ocHOBaniii 3a- 
KjiioieHHiiix'b CB HHMH ROHTpaKTOBB, o6H3aHu 6biJiH o6yqaTb AStu- 

HUXTi HMB BOCnHTaHHnROBB AOMa, HnCJIOMB 40 HeJIOB. KpoM*! Toro 

OHH jRe MorJiH HauHMaTb H BOJibHBiXB MacTepoBB no oco6oMy yro- 
BOpy, CROJiBRO HMB noTpe6yoTca, no xoAy pafiotB [nojiarajiocB, hto 
85 HejioB^RB MoryiB bb cyiRH CAknaiB cto ak)}Rhhb RapiB (a'Ijio 
Bemc., tNs 587, CBa3Ra 6-aa)]. HaroTOBjieHHua i^tpiH nociynaJiH 
BB npoAancy, npn qeicB hxb RjieftMnjin laRsce, B3HMaa ycxaHOBJieH- 



*) Cm. AtJio Ones. CoB'i^Ta cBASRa 6-aA, J\« 587; lasse niiCBMa FjaeH. 
noae^HT. 1772 r. anpiJia 10; sype. neTep5. OneK. CoBixa 1774 r. Maa 31, 
J« 138 H 1775 r. iiapxa 9. 



— 228 — 

nufi cGopii. Kpoifl Toro BocnHTaiejibHuft aomi> oaqo spena h caMT> 
npoAaBaJi'B Kapiu, nsroTOBjineMBifl ;iJia aero RapTO^HiiMH ^a6pH- 
KaHTaMH: Mane — wh Mockb* h baobok) AeHaarb — bi C.-IIeTep- 
6ypr&. Jlfliioji'h oil 3T0ft npoAasB 6ujn> oneHb He3HaqHTe«iLHu&. 
3to nofijAHJio Bei^Karo yxe b-b 1774 ^^7,8^ nHCbMi, y cero npa- 
jjoaceHHOiit, Kh renepajiy-npoKypopy BaseMCKOiiy otb 30 Hoa6pa ^), 
h3Jio;rhtb Bct neBHroAHua nocJi'itACTBiA AJia AoMa, on* nopHAsa 
ujiefiBienia KaprB npoHCxoAfln^in, h npocHTb o cymecTBeHHOMi> ero 
ij3&ikHeHic( (RaK%-To: ^to6bi ^a6piiKa RapTOinua 6ujih 6u TOJibEO 
wh MocKB'6 H nexep6ypr]^; qT06'b h OKb He BUA'bJiUBajiH Ty30B^ 

HepsOHHUXl H KpaJIb BHHHOBUX^, HO HOJiy^aJIH 6bI TaROBUH, CAt- 

jiaHHHJi no ycxanoBJieHHOHy ofipasay, mi> Aona; HTo6b bbo3t> bho- 
CTpaHEHxi Raprb 6HJib coBepmeHHO Bocnpemeni n t. a-)- 

no AOKJiaAy o6i atOMi GeaaTa ^) ERarepHna 5 napxa 1776 r. 
HaoHcajia CJiiAyK)n]^K) pesojiioiyK): ^cEahhi* ecTb c^oco6^ yiiHO- 
^OTb RapxoHHuft AOxoAi BocHHTaTejibHaro Aova^ a HMenuo: hto6u 



*) Giff. upHJOseHie ^ 14. 

^) CeHaxi, pascMoiptB'b sto ji^^io o uefiHeHiH KaprE> noq&Tafl npeAcraB- 
jifleMUA Bi npeAOxpaHeHiiD jLOxo^a cb Rapii cpeAcxBa eaAesHUMH, He ocTa- 
BHi% 6&I CA'i^Jaxb cxoAHoe ci oqeimi pacDopAsenie, xisMi aaqe, hxo oancaH- 

HBA OpCAOCTOpOXHOCTb. CiIOC06oill KOTOpofi HO BHXOAHJH 6fil BdpXU Bl OpO- 

AaTKj 6e3i njaresa noJioseHHaro sa sjieSMeHifl c5opa, ne npoTHBopi^HTb hq 
ycTaHOBieHHim'b o ceHi c6opt noioseHiBM'B, HHxe iHoiaerb o6iuecTBO asle- 
nuH-B MaHy(t)aKxyp'B-KojiieriH perjaMeRxoui bi saBeAeaiH BCJisaro po^a 
(i)a6pHK'B u pjKOA'&Jiift npenMyu^ecTEx; a ^to apunaAiienLaTi ao BHBOja hho- 
crpaHHUxi sapT-B, to cuhi cjiy^iacMi hcdoihhtca en^e h a&hhoo oti Ba- 
mero KuiiepaTopccaro BejB^iecTBa RoHBCciu o RoMMopiiia bi 1766 roAf £*& 
co4HHeHiH) TorAa HOBaro Tapujia npasujOi hto6'b HHOCxpaHBHe roBapu, ciy- 
Hcan^ie K-h BSJinmHefi pocsomH, o6peMeHea£i hjh bobco aaapen^eHH Oujih. Ho 
iioHOse CTenarb ua naAanHuafB yxe TapH^om Toaeps Kb sanpeB^eHix) BBOsa 

C069H) UpHCTynilTb Ue OCM'^IBBaeiCA H upUTOU'B HO KOSOT-b CA'i^-iaTb H Ta- 

Koro oDpoA'i^JiefliH, hto5i dpohsboactbo cero pyROAtJibJi BHyrpH rocyAapcTaa 
OiAio TOjfbKO Bb MocKB-b u B'b C [IeTep6ypr^, no npHvant, ?to T-iii nynK- 
Toui Mauy4)aKTypb-Kojjieriii perjiaMeara Aana CBo6oAa Bcivb, Rasoro 6u 
KTO Hiina H AOCTOiiHCTBa HH 6uA'by Bo Bcj^xi ntcTax^, Tx^ sa 6jaro o6pii- 
iii,eTb, MaHy(t>aBTyp£i u (ta6pHBu uaBOAHXb; Aa h iiHeaaiiMx Bamero Hanepa- 
TopcKaro Belli HccTBa ysasosfi, aa AORJiaA'^ Ceuaia 23 aha 0BTA6pa 1762 r. 
cocTOjiBniHMCHi npoHSBOAcrBO (t>a6pHK'b BHt MocKBU u C.-QeTep6ypra ne 
TOUMO He sanpen^eHo, ho en^e, uo yMHOseHis) 4)a6piiKi> B'b MocKBt u oxi Toro 
iipoacxoAflmefi AoporoBHSuu sa cbtcxHue apHnacbi n bb ropoA^ He^Hcxoxu, 
Bucoiafime noBeitno 4>a6piiKH h aaBOJiu cipouib h pa3MH0saTb bh^ Mockbu 
n C.-neTep6ypra, Toro pa:ie CenaT'L n nocxaajaerb sa AOASaocxb npeAcxa- 
uiiTb OHoe B'b BbicoHaumee 6iaroB0JieHie u npocuTs yEasa, BceaoAAaHHtfime 
iipoTOMS AOHOCii, HTO KOFAa BameMy Bejuiqecrey yroAoo dyAex-b bboji hbo- 
crpaBHUXb Kapi'b aaaperiiTb, Aa u BHyxpii PocciH aoBe.iiTb oaua A'^axb 
TOJbKO Bl MocKBt 11 C.-IIexep6ypri, xorAa Ceaaxi* ae ocxaaHTb ynuBHTb 
ipacTOHuoe pacnopaseaie o nociaHOBjeaia cpoKoai, cb KOXopuMH 6£i aasb 
BBoai HHOCTpauEEix'b, xaK'b H pacnpoAaaita uaAtiaaauxb Bayrpu rocyAap- 
cxna no npeaiLBeuy nosRojieniEo Kapi'b OKOHHHJiiicb. 

Maa 27 ^iicjia 1775 r. Cm. C6opa. Hmd. Pyc. Hex. 06n^ecxBa, t. 27-h. 



— 229 — 

wb BocnHTETejiBHOM'B ^OBft RRpTBi 6bijih ^JiBMw. Jiy^me H Ae^OBJue 
jifijoLxii naprb. By^e sanpeTHTB bhobb Hy^ecTpaHHua RapTU, to 
Hsi 8Toro ButflfiTb eA^HCTBeHHO yMajieHlo AOxoAa BocnHiaTejiBHaro 

AOMa TaftHUlTb BBOSOMl, HHHO TaMOSOHB OHUX^. $a6pHRH, 8aB6- 

AeHHBifl napTHRyjiHpHiiiMH JiiOAbMH, HeyAo6HO H HecnpaseAJiHBO pa- 
dopaTb». 

«CBepxi Toro, $a6pHRH ncRJUfOHHTejiBHiJA H MaHH^eciOMi 
BOcnpexHjia 5 napra 1776 r.» (cm. C6. Pyc. Hmo. Hcrop. 06m., 
T. 2, CT. 67; TyxB h OoHBraoft AORJiaAT* CeHaia). 

BtOTB OTRaSB H npBTOBTB 3% AOBOJTBHO pikmHTOJIbHOfi ^OpM^ 

6e3^ coMH^ieifl h BusBaJTB co CTopoHH Bei^Raro cjrbAyioii^ifl cipoRH 
Bi CRopCHOBTB ero HHCBMi Ri> 3aBaA0BCR0My (AtJi. FocyA. Apx., 
paapaAi) XI, JV? 988): tne Mory o RapiOHHOM-B aokjij^* yMOJiqaTB; 
n MHoro AyvLSLJiTy IS coB^TUBajiCfl CB jiioABMH sHaioii^HMB caoco6t 
OTBpaTHTB 8JI0, HToGu HyjRecTpaHmj He pyrajiHCB uaMH b npasjie- 
meiTB HamHMb; ho bco to, no cio nopy Asa roAa MBHyn, yHH^TO- 
^eHO H B*B RpHByK) CTopoHy o6pan^eHO;... o nefi ceroAHa noJiHO». 

KpoMl Toro Bei^KOft nacajTb h BaseiiCROMy, KaKB 6&i bb o6^- 
acnenie CA'i^aHHaro nM'b bb CeHaTii npeACTaBJieeia, b-b ROTopoiii, 

BHOBB HSJIOmHB'BOOCJI'i&AHee, A06aBJiaJI'B: cHSBOJIHTB yBBA'^TB, iiotojih 

Moe HaifipeHie cocToaao: 1) RorAa noJiOHceHHony ynasoiCB c6opy 
CB RaefiMenia RaprB 6utb aojihcho, to Gesi* cyifH^Hia naAO M'bpbi 
BsaTB Kb npectneHlK) BKpaBmaroca otb ^oxH^^eHia xoro sjioyno- 
Tpe6;ieHia; noneMy h npHHyacAeni* Chjtb npeACTaBHTB o toitb Ilpa- 
BHieJiBCTByion^eMy CenaTy Ha ycMOTptnie ci> npocB6oK) catAyion^eK): 
2) HToCi paAH Toro HOSBOJieHO 6ujio Bd, A^JiaeMua na nocTopoH- 
HHXi» $a6pHRaxi Rapxu RjiefiiiHTB Bi BocnHTaTejiBHOMi» Aoui na 
spajiaxi) BHHHOBUxi H Tysaxi nepBOHHBrxB, no opHJioaceHHOMy npH 
ceHi ^pMyjiapy, a hotomT) 3) sa nyjRHoe nocTaBjiaa h 6utb ohbim'b 
(t. e. ^^^GpHRaifB) TOJibRO BB MocRBib n C.-neTep6ypr%, ho He 
iiajio He noMumjiaa o sanpen^eniH Apynan-b: hjih xce, hto6i tormo 
oAHiifB Tbui> ^^aCpHRaiTB 6utb npH BocnnraTejiBHOM'B AOBfi, n6o 

CaM0-C060K) HSBtCTHO, HTO AOXOA^ TaRHXl ^aGpHRl 0Tb A06p0TU, 

AemeBBSHu n nyacnaro bx toitb cTapania npn6aBJiaTbca h yMa- 
jiaxBca Aoa^eni; 4) ^o »e npBHaAJieKHTB ao RapxB, to RaKi ajih 
rtvh »e caHUXB npHqEHi nasHaieHO nocjiaTB TaROBbra ace RJiefina, 
Ta^i^ H htoGu OTBpaTHTB noAJiOFH B-B cTapaTejiBCTst HeAonyn^eHlH 
saBeAeHHBix'B poccifiCRHxi $a6pnRB ao coBepmencTBa, a 6oa%e 
BcerOi nTo6'B BcaRaro poAa h cocToania Buisnaiomie h aobojb- 
CTByion^feca riiiH AOXOAaHE ne ynpeRajin n ne CMiajiucB 6bi HasiB, 



— 230 — 

^TO no HasHa^eHHOMy npeacneMy luieflMy ckojibko xorarb noniJiHH'B 
DJiaTflTT>, oGpan^a^ h noxHn^a^ bbcl co6HpaeMu& ci Toro KanHTaJi'k 
Bi) CBOK)/ TOJiBKO DOJiBsy, pa3JiHHH0 BUMHmjiJieMHMH cnocoOauB; 
5) BceMi ^e Towb npeACTaBJi^Jii ohhmi cnoco6oMi, 6yAe 6h 
jipyroro K^ TOMy Jiyqmaro nocpeACTBa He EdJBJioch; Boponeirb ae 6h 
HHKorfla H HvacAH He 6hjio npocHTb, ecjiH6i caMufi totl H&noaeH- 
Hufi sa KJiefiMeeie Kaprb aoxoai* co6Hpaein> 6uji^ B^pno h KaKi 
HaAJieacHT^». 

OieBHAHO CTpoKH 8TH o6'L^CHaH)TCfl saGoTjiHBocTBH) BeAsaro 
coxpaHeHiH npHBHJieriB, aaqhoA BocnHTaTeJiBHOMy AOHy, h hs- 
BJieqeHiH HaiaGojiBinefi hsi nea hojibsu ji^b Aona. Rojib CRopo EapTu 
He KJieftMHJiHCb 6u, TO ho nocTyuaJio 6h ct> HHX^ h c6opa saKJieft- 
Menie h Bca dra npBBHJierifl BocoBTaTeJiBHaro Aona o6pamajiacB 6h 
Kb nycToa npHspaKi h bb laKOMi cjiyia']^ Jiyqme Oujio 6bi npsMO 
OTM^HHTB H KJiefiMeaie Kapix h fl;aHHyK) na aio DpHBHJieriio Boc- 
nBTaiejiBHOMy AOMy. Cjiosa, mo ceAHHi cnocofii yMHoacHTb Kap- 
TO'iHHfi AOxoflB BocHHTaiejiBHaro AOMa—BHAtJiBiBaTB Hx^ Jiynnie 
H AemeBJie» — aBJiaeTca ^pasoio, oCh^bm'b MicTOMi hsb OTBJieHefl- 
nHxi) Teopifi noJiHTHqecKoft BKOHOMiH, $pa80K), KOTopaa AaJieKO ne 
BcerAa onpaBAHBaeica na npaKiBKi. 

He nojiyiaa HHRaKoro orB BaseMCKaro oiBiTa, BeAKOfl, b'b BBjiy 
yBieHBrnema cCopa cb Kapxi orb oenaHOB-B h noAJioroBi, noJiy^MB 
DpeACiaBJieHie C.-IIeTepGyprcKaro OiAiJieHm OneKyncKaro CoBiia 
orB 25 iiojifl 1777 roAa ^): «He CJiaroROJiBTe jih Bame npeBocxo- 
ABTOJiBCTBo npHHflTB H^pu Ki upeKpaiueHiK) paaHuxi sjioynoxpeS- 
jieHifi no npoAajK*]^ KaprB, a naqe ri co6jiiK)AeBiio bojdh Ea Hiine- 
paTopcRaro BejinnecTBa, h Aa6u noacaJiOBanHufl, no cocioflBmeMyca 
1766 roAa yKasy, OHofl c6opi wb cBpoTCRifi aoxoa^b BocnHTareJiB- 
uoMy AOMy CTOJiB RopucTOJiioOHO pacxEniaeMi ne Chji-b, ynoTpe6HTB 
no BosjioaeHHOfi oil Eh HMoepaTopcRaro BejiH^ecTBa na BacB ao- 
BipeBHOCTH, B'B HcxoAaiaficTBOBaHiB no CHJii y^HHeHfiaro cBoero 
B'B RJiefiMeniH RaprB npeACTasjieHia^ npHJUH^ecTByioniifl cbobmi cia- 
panleMi RaKla sa 6jiaroyroAHo6yAeT'BMipBi».XoTaBeaROft BCJitA- 
CTBie 3Toro HHcaJii) onaiB BaseMCROMy, ho b 3to hhcbmo HHRaRHXB 
nocji^ACTBift He bm'Ijio; RapTo^Hufi c6opi nociynaji'B b'b oneHB hc- 
6ojiBmoM'B EOJiBqecTB*!, h BocnHTaiejiBBBifl aomi, bmIcto oscHAae- 
Maro OTB onaro AOxoAa, AOJiaceax 6bijii, RaRi nncajii BeAKoft Ba- 



*) Cm. npnioseHie .Ys 15. 



— 231 — 

seucKOMy wb npHJiaraeMOMi nHCBsii 6 Iiohh 1778 r. ^), jubltrq »^a- 
jiOBaHBe JinnaMi, onpeAiJieHHfiiMi> r^ KJieftMeHifo RapTi*, npoHSBO- 
ABTb Ed's cofiCTBeHHUx-b cpeACTBT), HOCTynaioii^HXi nyxeMi Ao6po- 
xoTEUX-h noAajiHift. 

«TaKoe on^yTHiejibHoe pacxHn^eHie, nHmen Beo^Rofi, noAJienca- 
n^nxi BocnHTaTeJibHOMy Aony, no BceMHJiocTHBifiaieHy fijiaroBOJie- 
Hifo HasHaieHHUxi wb noAaaHie aoxoaob'b, noHyjRAaa BocnHraTejiL- 
Huft AOMi RaRi) Ha 6jiaroycMOTpHTejibHoe pascyacAGHie IIpaBEiTeJiB- 
CTByionieMy CeHaiy npeAcraBeTB, xaRB sr js,Jia OTBpan^eHia OHaro 
3JioynoTpe6jieHifl, aslOh, coxpaHflH ORasaHHyfo Eg BejiaiecTBOMB 
BocnHTaiejiBHOMy AOMy CjiarociB, a naie, qTo6B ^yacAOft seMJin 
npHmejiBi^u nenpaBHJiBHOK) Ao6bi?eK) RopucTH cb narjiocTBEo bb 

CTUA> 2 nOCMtHHie pOCCifiCRKHB nOAA&HHMMB HO MOrJIH SJIOBpeAHO 

oCoramaxBca, ycyry6jiflK) cboh) npocBCy HcnpocHTB, He noBejitHo jih 
6yAeTB, BCXOACTBGHHOCTB cocTOflBHiaroca 1766 r. aBrycia 7 qncjia 
yKasa, RaRi Bce napiO'iHoe opohbboactbo cb aojio^euHUBCB sa 

KJneftMO KapTB c6opOMB n BSUCRHBaeBOIlIB CB TiXB, RTO 6yAeTB 

nocjA npeAHHcaHHuxi cpoROBB bb HORJieftMeHHUJi HrpaiB, a^hb- 
raMi, He hm^h Apyrofi npHHaAJie«HOCTH, MaHy(|)aRTypB-KoJiJieriH h 
en ROHTopa, RaRii tormo no npenopyieHiio OHofl Toro RJieflMeniH 
RaprB b% no»ajioBaHHHfi aoxoab BocnHTaiejiBHoify aomv set Rap- 
TOHHHH $a6pHRH, BB CHJiy Toro ysaROHeHiA, npenopyiHTB bi noJinoe 
B^A^Hie BocHHTaTeJiBHaro AOMa, cb npeACTaBJiemeifB n noAJiema- 
n^BX'B BuroAB wb c6op']& cbohxb aoxoaobb h RjiefiMHTB HJiB jKe RaRie 

B08HaA06ATCH CB ^^StSpHRaHTaHH npOHSBOABTB AOFOBOpH BO BCeMl» 

BocaHiaTeJiBHOMy Aony cb uojihok) Tibxi) saBHCHHOCTiK) otb OHaro, 
HO npeaflTCTByji HceJiaio^HirB ohha (j[)a6pHRH coAep^aiB, a tojibro 
Ha6jiK)AaH AOJUKeHCTByoMoe 6utb no lony yRasy scnojiHeHie cb cbo- 
HMH Ha TO npeAOCTopoacHOCTHicH, a Bi npoTHBHOMB cjiyna'b oapo- 
BepjKenie naxoAHMHXB b^ tomb yxaeRi h noxHn^eHift, RaRB onufi 
yRasii noBejrbBaeTB, 6mjio 6h noARp'^njineifo naAe^HUMB BcnoMo- 
atecTBOBanieHB otb t%xb m^ctb, ao rofo npocB6a RocneTca na 
ocHOBamH ROHif^apMOBaHHaro njiana. 

H ceMi noRopHiflme Bame claxejiBCTBO npocH, RaRB o 
npoACxaBJieHiH IIpaBHTejiBCTByionteMy CenaTy BumeoC'BHCHiieHHXi 
nyacA'B BocnHTaTeJiBHaro AOHa, TaRB h o HCxoAaxafiCTBOBaHiH no- 
cpeACTBOHB ynoTpedji^eifaro Bamero CTapanifl npnjiHHecTByion^HXB 
B^B nojiBsy OHaro Cjiaroycn^niHHXB otb noxisn^eHiH Bcomejiocth- 
B^flme HasHaqeHBaro noAaHHia npeAOxpaneHift, bb qeni no 6jiaro- 

*) Cm. npHJOseHie J^ 16. 



— 232 — 

CRJiOHHOCTH Bamero cmxejiBCTBa ri> Aony h no HaOJUOAaeMOft saME 
saROHHoB cnpaeeA-nHBOCTH, necoMHtHBO ea^^flcb, cb hcthhhhmi 
MOBMi» noHiemeMii Bifiio npe6uTB> u x. a. 

liOESi 6 AHa 1778 r. 

Ho OTBixa np^Moro h na aio dhcbmo ho 6ujio; hsi jd^ ^e 
KapiOHHOfi 8KcneAHiiiB ue ycMaxpHBaeTca, AORJiaAUBajn* jra Baseic- 
CKifl Ceeaxy no axoiiy npeAcxasjieHiio BeARaro bjib Rirb. 

Ho BCRopi nocjiiaxoro, 12 H0fl6pa 1779 r. ^), nocJii^AOBaJio 
ynpasAHenie MaHy^aRxypi-KojujieriB b ea ROHxopi; bm^x^ cb rbwh 
RjiefiMeeie Rapxi, naRi aoxoai* ycxaHOBJiesHuft b% nojibsy Bocna- 
xaxejibHaro Aona, oxAaHO wb nojmoe pacnopaa^OHie axoMy Aony, sa 
ocHOBaaiB HSAaHHux'B xoMi yKasoBi. 

TaRBHi oGpasoMi, OAHOBpeMOHHO npoAOJi:Rajia cyn^ecxBOsaxb 
BUA'^^Ka n npoAaaca Rapxi BocnaxaxejibHUMi aomomi, a HapaBsi 
ci HeK) B CBo6oAHaa BUA'iJiKa b xoproBJia RapxaMB qacxHUMH jib- 
i^aHB, HO npa od^saxejiLHOMi RjieftMeHiB Raprb xenepB co cxopoHU 
BocBBxaxejiBHaro Aona (bm^cxo npexAO 6£iBmaro co cxopoHu na- 
Hy^aRxypi ROHxopi). He 6ujio HBRaRoro ocHOBaeia npoAnoJiaraxB, 
Hxo 6£[Bmia ao dxoro saoynoxpedjienia npeRpaxaxca b hxo aoxoai> 
BocBBxaxejiBHaro AOBia yBOJiBHBxca, xoxa b'b BBAaxi AOCXBaceaia 
nocjiiAH^ro OneRyHCRifi CoBixi> oxAajTB bi 1783 roAy RJnefiMeHie 

RapXl, RaKl npBBOBBMBIX'B B8l-3a ipaHBi^u, XaR'B B BHAi^uBae- 

MuxT> pyccRBMB Ha ^^^^pBR^, Ha oxRyoi cpoRoiTB Ha ABa roAa 
apMaflCROMy Ryni^y Hexpy Ba6acBH0By, oCaaaBmeMyca ynaa^BBaxB 
eaceroAHO bb nojiBsy BocnaxaxejiBHaro AOMa xucaqy py6iieft ese- 
roAHO, BHOca AeHBrn wb na^ajii RaacAaro nojiyroAin BnepoA'B^). A^a 
ycxaHOBJieHia ROHxpoJia sa xoproBJieio RapxaMB 6uaa BsoGpibxeHa, 
RaRB o6b dxoMi ny6jiBROBajiocB bb rasexaxB, 6aHAepoaB, x. e. 
RaacAyio nrpy h RaacAyK) nojiAiosBHy Bropi oCBepxuaaJiB aeHxoio, 
Ha Roxopofi HaxoABJica rep6i Ea HnnepaxopcRaro BeJiBHecxaa. 
IIpoAaaca KapxB Gesi RjiefineHia b xaRoft 6aHAepojrB cxporo boc- 
npemajiacB 3xoxi> nop^AORi npoAasB RapxT> npoAoaasajica anocJii 
EeARaro aobojibho npoAOJiavBxejiBHoe speifa. ToaBRO B'B 1819 r. 
BocHBxaxeaBHBifl aoui» Bsajii) na ce6a ne xojibro npoAaacy, ho b 
BBiAtaRY RapxB, ycxpaHBBB BB axoMi Aiji^ BcaRoe ynacxie o6n^ecxBa 
B nacxHuxB aBi^B. ynpaBaaion^eMy AaeRcanApoBCRofi Many^aRxy- 



n. G. 3. 1779 r., J^ 14947. CeHaxB coo6mHJii> 061 btomb EeaROuy 
oco6i>iMB ysasoM'B 13 AHBapji 1780 r. 

') A'^-io BRcnexHA. KapT. C6opa, RapTOHB I, ji,tm J^ 29 h J^ 33. 



— 233 — 

pofi, reeepajiy BsjibcoHy, nopyneHO 6ujio cocraBHTb cniTy na 
ycrpoflcTBO h enceroAHoe coAepacaHie KapxoHHofl $a6pHRH,ROTopa^, 
cocTOfl wb HenocpeACTBeHHOMi saeiAUBaHiH OneKyncKaro CoBtia, 
BUA'bJiHBajia 6u OAHa Bce noTpeOnoe wb Poccin e^eroAHO ROJinqe- 
CTBO KapTb. 3Ta 4)a6pHKa, KaKi hsb'Ictho, cyI^ecTByeT^ h no Ha- 
CTOfln^ee BpeMfl. 

V. c6opt Bi> nojibay BocnHTare/ibHaro Aoma cb ny(!jiMHHuxi> noaopHiuii. 

Jl^pyrafl npiiBHJieriH BocnHiaTeJibHaro Aona 3aRJiK)Hajiacb bi 
Toifb, ^TO no § 16 Tofi »e ^acin n RHHrH BocnnTaieJibHufi aomi* 
Hon> BSBMaib HeiBepTyjEO nacib AOxoAa orb ny6jD[HiHuxi noao- 
pHn^^, T. e. ROMOAifi^ onepi, 6aJi0BX n bc^rhxii nrpajisn^ sa 

AeBBPH. 

HeonpeAi^JieHHOCTb BupajRenia HeiBepia^ nacTBAOxoAa 
(RaRoro? Bajioaaro ujin qncTaro?), a TaR^ce cjiobt* nySjinHHux-b no- 
sopen^i (icaRHX'bHMeHHO?),xoTA h mofjih BusuBaTB HeAoyiiiHlii na 
npaRTKRi, ho na caiiOMB A^Jii laROBua ne BOSHHRaJiH, RaRB 8to 
MOSKHO saRJiiOHHTb Hsi AomeAniBxx AO naci Kkjvb n 3RypHajJ0Bi» 
OaeKyHCRaro CoaiTa. Hejibsn ne saniTiiTb npH 3tomb, uto OAHHifb 
eai caMuxi nepsuxB, jKejiaBmnx'b 0CBo6oAHTbCA orb njiaTenca Cb 
oy6jiH9HHxi» spknHn^-b c6opa bb noJibsy BocnnTaTeJibHaro Aona, 
BB^seTCH KoMHT6ii>, yopaBJiHionufl sptjinn^aiiH h HysuROft, roto- 
pufl yjRe Bi iiOHi 1784 r. nncajn bb OneRyncRifi Gosi^rb^ ^to RaKi 
orb sp'kiEn^'B co6paHHHfl cyMMU ynorpeCjienu Sesi ociaiRa bi 
pacxoAB Ha li SRe ap^jien^a^ to, CJiiAOBaieJibHO, npHHaAJie^an^eft 
H8% OHOfi BocnHTarejibHOMy AOMy nacTH nuH'b n AOCiaBHTb ne nai 
Hero. OnoRyHCRifl CoBirb xoia h npocHjn> bt> 1785 r. o HenpeBiiH- 
HoiTB DJiaTejR'b Cb AoxoAa HeiBepTOfi naciH, ho nai A^jia ne bhaho, 
RaRBMi» ycni^xoHi conpoBOJKAajiacb aia npo€b6a^). Cfiopi bsh- 
Hajsca ^ CO BCARaro poAa nygjiEHHuxx npeACTaBJienifi n AS^e 
HacRapaAOBB h ^y^eroBi 6uBmEix'b na yBeceJieni^xB b ne BcerAa 
ci» qeiBepToft lacxn AOxoAa. OneRyncRlfi CoBiiB BCiynajiB bi co- 
rjiameHie cb paajiH^nuMB aHipenpenepaHH o ROJiniecTBi CJi'lAydMaro 
Bi nojibsy BocnHTaiejibHaro AOMa c6opa, KOTopud n ynjia^BBajicfl 
BHH BnepoA'b^). TaRi, nanp., BTajib^Hi^i loranHB BejibHOHTH b 



*) Cm. npifJoseBifl J^17 u JVs 18. 

*) nepBiifi pasi TaKOBofi cf^opi npoHSBexeHi bi MocKB-b b'b 1763 toxj 
H0ii6pfl 16 HMeHBo CB 342 nepcoH'B ^UBmnx'b B'B HacsapaA'J^. Cm. o npasi 
Hm. BocnHTaTejEBHaro AOMa Ha c6opi ci Ey6jH^HUxi yBeceieeifi— r. 2&yK0B- 
citaro, CTp. 30 

*) Cm. atyp. Mock. Onea. Cob*t. 1775 r. J\& 150. 



— 234 — 

locH^^ ^VAH B31ABHJIH jKejiaHie AstBaTb Bi MocRBib ny6jiiraHue 
MacKapaAU, ROHi^epTu, Gajiu e ToaTpajiBHUA npej^CTaBjieHia, ynjia- 
HHBafl sa 8T0 B^ noJiBBy jOMa 2.700 p. ^). 

PasjiBHHue coAepacareJiH TearpoB'B cRopo ciajiH Atjiaib Bocdh- 
TaTeJimoaiy xony BuroAHHfl npeAJi02R6Hifl, saRJiioHaBmkcA bitoht*, 
HTO OHH BupaHcaJiH roTOBHOCTb Opaib Kb ce6i A^A AsuibH^ftinaro 
o6y?eHiA BocnHTaHHBKOB'b H BOcnHTaHHHUi BocDHTaTeJibHaro AOHa, 
roTOBHBmHXCH paste ysfce bti aom^ wb CAeHH^ecKOfi A'i^HTejibHOCTH, 
H o6AdHBajiHCb npH tomii en^e njiaxHTb Aony eseroAHO HSBtcTHyio 
cyMMy; noAo6Hoe npeAJioacenle 6hjio CAfciaHO en;e bT) 1776 ro^y 
61) MocKB'l H'&KHMx FpoTTH, HG HOJiy^HBinRirb OAHaRO paspioieHui. 
HeHHoro nosAH'i^e 6bijib saRJuoieeu ea noAo6Haro po^a ocHOBa- 
Hlflxi ROHipaRTH Bx MocRBt cb MeAORCOMi., a Bi IIeTep6ypri — 
cb KHHnepoMi), cJiyatHBmie hoboaomi hi npoAOJiacHTeJibHbiMi npe- 
peKam^iTb, bii Roiopuxi npsHHMaji'b uenajioe ynacTie e BeARoft. 
3to sacTaBji^eT'b naci cnasaTb ntcKOJibRo cjiobi 061) aiEx^b AByx'b 
KOHTpaKiaxi B o6i OTHomeHiflxi BeuKaro r^ Teaipy. 

XoTfl ycTpoficTBO TearpoBi e 3aBiA<>^BaHie emb ho bxoabjuo 
b^ Rpyrb o6A3aHHocTefi BeiiRaro, ho AdHHaHBocnBTaTejibHOHyAOMy 
npEBBjieria: «orb nyCjiEHHHxi nosopBmi, lo-ecTb KOMeAift, onepi, 
6a.iOB'b E BC^RBxi ErpajiEii^i 8a ACHbrE, 6paTb neTBepTyio nacrb 
AOxoAa Bii BocnEiaTejibHbift aomis>, a laKme 8a6oTU npiflCKaHifi 

BOCHETblBaeMUMl B'b J[,OWk ECTOHHEROB-b RTi Cyil^eCTBOBaHiH) DO BU- 

xoA'i^ ESI oHaro, npEBejiE Bei^Raro bi 6jiE»aflniee conpEROCHOBeeie 
Cb TeaTpaME e BbisBajiE H'i^CROJibKO RpafiHB Henpi^THHX'b js,Jia nero 
AiJi'b, oROUHaiejibHO pasptmeunux^ ysRe nocjii ero ROHqBHH. j|,j[a 
6ojiie ToqHaro uobhtIh o6i 3tbx^ A^Jiaxi neoCxoABMO CRasaxb Ht- 
CROJibRO cjiOBi E TeaTpax^ BT* HameMi. oieiecTBi. 

IIo CJiOBaMi Kapa6aH0Ba ^) pasjiEiHHH sptjisn^a e nosopHma, 
npoBcxoAEBiniH npE i^apcROMi ABop*]^ no BpeMeHaMT*, npeEMyn^e- 



*) Cm. ^yp. Mock. Ohck. Cob*t. 1769 r. aerycTa 8, CTp. 26. 

') Cm. OcBOBAHie pyccKaro Tearpa Ka^eTaHH 1-ro Kopnyca. Bi HH2se 
ci'lAyK)muxii CTpoKaxi A BOBce He HMtD iiaM'IpeBia nsjraraTB HCTopiD lea- 
TpaibHHX'B sp-bjHmi, ycTpoeuHux'B aia pyccRnxi rocyAapefi, eme Oojiphbomi 
MaTB^besuM'B aih i^apa AieKciiA MHxaftjioBH^a b^ 1672 r. droTb upeAverb 
yse upeKpacQO paspa^oTaeb r. H. TnxoMHpoBUMii bi* cTaxBaxi: nHa^aio 
PTCcaaro xeaipa** u „OepBoenaTH;[ecflTHji:J&Tie pyccKaroTeaTpa*" (cm. Cohhh. 
H. C. THxoMHpoBa, T. II, CTp. 52—120), k'b KOTopuMi H o5pamaeM'b sejax)- 
iQBxi 03HafiOMHTbCii CB HCTopieK) pyccKaro Tearpa. K se hm^ji bi» bbay 
i^iiB BecpaBueHHO 6ojte npocTyi) h lerayio, UMeHHo: HanoMHHTB ^sTare- 
JiiiMi HOJoseBiB Teaxpa npH EaaTepnnt II Ma 6ojie acHOfi oi^tasH a^^- 
TeiBHOCTH 5eaKaro n b'b btomb oiHomeHio. 



— 235 — 

CTBeHHO Bi MocKsi, eme si XVII BfiKi, co BCiynjieHieMx ua npe- 
CTOJii> Ahhu loaHHOBHu npioGpiTaioTB zapaKiepx nocTOHHHiaxi, 
ci ycTpoflcTBOMi KaRx B^ JliTHOMi ca^y, TaKi H BO ^JiHrejii 3hm- 
BAro J^BopAa oco6aro noMiiAeBifl ajih xeaTpa, bi ROTopoMi MicTa 
pasAaBaJiHCB 6e8AeHejRB0, no HHsaMX u sBaHiio apHTOJiefi. HrpajiBCb 
BiajiBAHCKiH HHTepMeAiH, CTaBHJiBCb onepu h ^a^e nBecu na pyc- 
CROMl ilSUR'b, RBRl-TO « Cfljia jik)6bh h HeeaBHCTH*, He BMiBmeft 
ojiHaRO ycnixa. Ilpn EjiHsaBexi IleTpoBH'fe, Ror^a jifiopi> 6jiHCTajii> 

nUniHOCTBK) H BeJIBROJI'^bDieMl H npH ABOpi rOCnOACTBOBBJIO CBJIbHOe 

noApa^RaHie BceMy ^paHuyscROMy, 6ujib BunscaHU (|)paHQy8CKie 
aKTepH bti MocRBy (nepeixaBmie noTOMi. vb HeTepCyprB), arpaB- 
mie paBi bi He^i^JiK) ipareAiK) h rohoaIk) cb Gojibidem'b ycnixoM'B. 
Bi TO ae BpeMa ofijiaAaBmlfl TajiaHTOiiT) RaAOXi 1-ro cyxonyiHaro 
Ropnyca, AjieRcaHApii IleTpoBHHX CynapoROBi, cnepsa BocxHmaji'B 
CBOBxi TOBapBiAeft HTeHieMi cbobxi* npoflSBeAeHifl, a sarlMi nepe- 
mejii H Kb flxi opoACTaBJieHiH). ^epesi rpa<|)a PasyMOBCKaro (y ro- 
Toparo CyMapoROBi) Ghuvb aA'tiOTaHTOMi) o BceMB 3tom'b ysBBJia 
HMDepaipHaa, noaejiaBmaB ysEAi^TB npoACTaBJieHie RaAeTBMH cXo- 
peBa> y ce6H bo ABopii'b. EjiHsaBexa IleTpoBHa ocrajiacB o'ibeb ao- 
BOJiBHa BMH H Cb Toro BpeMeHH RBAeTBi B8X Ropiiyca CTaJIH nacTO 
BrpaiB npH ABopt pasHUH dbgcbi, do npeBMymecTBy DpoHSBeAeHia 
CyHapoROBa, TaRxe TpeiB^ROBCRaro h JIoMOBOCOBa. Okojio dToro 
BpeMeHH CB 6oJiBmHMi ycn'ixaH'B Hrpajn bi flpocjiaBJi'ib aRTepi* 
GeAopx TpBropBeBB^i Bojirobx, o6yiHBn]ift CBoe&iy BcnyccTBy h 
jpyrHXTj JiHui — HeMi npesi H. K)p. Tpy6eARaro laKjRe aoedjio 
AO CB'iA'^Hifl HMnepaTpHABT) npnRasaBiiiefi AOCTaaBTB BojiROBa, 
CB ero TpynnoK), btj II,apcRoe Cejio bi» 1752 roAy. Ilocjii btofo 
30 aarycia 1756 r. cocioaJic^ yRasi* CeHaiy o6i yqpeacAeHlH 
(HcT. BicT. 1882 r. x. IX) PocciflCRaro xeaxpa bi neiepCyprt 
HflB npeACxaBJieBifl xpareAift h RoneAifl, ROxopoMy oxBeACHi Fojiob- 
KHHCRifl RaMeHHuft AOMi (Ha BacHJiBeBCROHi ocxpoB'6 fijiHSB KaAex- 
CKaro Kopnyca, ta* HBiHi saHHMaexT, Mtcxo ARaAeiiia XyAO^ecxB^). 
0B^ cocxoiiJi'B Bi IIpHABopHOMi B^AOMCxBi^ H nepBUHi ero AHpeKXO- 
poMi Chji-b CyMapoKOBT) (ci> 1756 r. no 1761 r.); no ^lacxH ae 
dROHOMHHecRofl B cHexHofi xeaxpB saBHciJi'B oxi ro^Mapmajia bi xo 
Bpeua Kapjia EropoBH'ia CHBepca, a BaxiMi nosAHte — EjiarBHa 
HsaHa Ilep^HJiBeBBHa^), Roxopuft HM'bJi'B B'b CBoeMB saBi^AUBauiH 



') IIoBAB'^e Bi 1783 r. ji^jib yupaBjeeiA TeaTpoMii yqpezAea'B oco6idfi 
BOMBTeT'i), yupasAHeHHufi yse bb 1784 r.^ npn homi OAHOuy GTpeKaJOBy 
nopjneBO saBiAUBUTB xeaTpauH. Ho yxe cb 1789 r. no 1791 r. TeaTpoM^ 



— 236 — 

H MocROBCKifi ny6jiHHHufi xeaTpi, oiKpHTuft b% 1756 r., noA'B 
Gjna^afimHifb HanaJiBCiBOMi XepacKOsa (xorAa en^e accecopa kou- 
$epeH^iH MocKOBCKaro yHHsepcHTeTa). diorb MocRoacRifi xeaTpi 
AaeajH) npeACxasjieHiA 6jaiwb Kpacnaio Qpyxa b% sAanlH, coopyjseH- 
HOHi r. .toRaTeJiJiB ^) a^^ CBoeft xpynnu, B'b RoxopoMi npoHCxo- 
AHJiH xaR»e MacRapaAu s nrpajia HiiieaRaH xpynna. B% 1765 r. 
r. noJiROBHHRi Ceprlft HiiROJiaeBHHi TuxoB'b nojiy^Bjrb na naxb 
jitrL npHBHJieriK) A^p^axb axoxL xeaxp^, na ero oC^saxeJiBCTBi 
njiaxHXb BocnaxaxeJiBHOMy AOMy eiReroAHO no 1.500 py6. bt> roAi, 
corjiacHO ero ycxaBy. TsxoBy 6ujih a^hu noco6iii oxi RasHN h ero 
HenocpeACXBeHHBiMi HaiajiBHHROii'b ^bjihjica ^ejiLAMapmaJii CaJixBi- 
ROBi), rjiaBHOROMaHAyioiiufi bi Mocrb'6. Bi bxomi xeaxpi ycxpaH- 
BBJii MacRapaAH aHxpenpeeepi Bcjibmohxh b ^hhxo. ^'bJia THxoBa 
mjiB DJioxo, KaRT) 8X0 BHAHO H31 cj[iAyK)ii][aro nHCBMa HMnepaxpaipi 
EKaxepBHU ri CaJixuROsy 1769 roAa: «H3'b nncBHa Bamero ycMO- 
xp^Jia, Hxo nojiROBHHR'B Thxobti He BicocxoflHiH 6oJiie npoAOJURaxb 
BB MocRBi pyccRifi cneRxaRJiB h aRxepaMB y%e h^^crojibro BpeHOHH 
HBiero He njiaxaxB, a npooirb AOSBOJienie coAepxaxb onuft cneR- 
xaRJib BejibMOHXH n ^yAH»^). Thxobb A'^ficxBHxejibHO oxRasajicfl 
oxi> coAepscanU xeaxpa bi sAaniH JIoRaxojiJiH, Roxopufl B&nji'b Bejib- 
MOHXH BM'kxt Ch GyMapoKOBbiM'b H ^HHxo, HO ROHxpaRxy Ha naxb 
jvkTb. Ho CRopo ROHxpareHXbi noccopajiHCb neKAY co6oh). Bejub- 

MOHXH n ^HHXO BO HaXOAHJIH B03M0HCHUM% 3RepXB0BaXb CBOHMD A^- 

HeaELHUMH pascHexaun iia-b yro^RAenia aBXopcRHMii ^RejiaHiaMi Cyna- 
poROBa. Ki xoMy srq BejibMOHXH h ero cynpyra yHepjis, a hoabbb- 
maacfl bi MocRBb bt, 1772 r. nyMa npHeyAHJia CynapoROBa ocxa- 
BBXb 3xoxT» ropoAT*. YAOBJiexBopflXb cymecxBOBaBmeft noxpeOnocxB 

Bl SptjIHmaXl) B3flJICa HtRXO FpOXXB BMtCXi CB YpyCOBHM'B, BO- 

BaeAmie bi corjiacle cb anrjiBHaHBHOM'B MeAORCOMi, Roxopony ohh 
CRopo B nepoAaJiB Bce k^jio. Moaorcb nocxpoBJiB HOBoe 3AaHie ji^b 
xeaxpa na XlexpoBR*! (cm. TeaxpajiBHHfiExceroABBR'Bl895 — 96rr. 
npBJi. cxp. 86 B cjii^A.) b noJiyiBJii npBBHJierlK) coAepxaxB xeaxpb 
B'b le^eHie A^caxH jiixB ci 1786 roAa. 



yapaBjflii CoflMOHOBi, BiffacTi cb.AjeKc. B. XpaiiOBHUKHM'b (cm. PyccKii 
Apx. 1870 r., cxp. 1551 h 1871 r., cip. 1660; JltTOUHCB PyccKaro xeaxpa, 
Apanosa. 

*) 'droT'b JIoEaTejEJH, niajBAHeii'L, coAepsaxejB KoMHHecKofi onepu b% 
Upari, qpesB Tpa<t)a Mux. UeT. £ecTyseBa ^bijii BunHcaHi EiHsaBexoi) 
UexpoBHOft B'B 1757 r., npHBesB KOMK^ecRyK) ipynny h Bucxponib oco6iift 
AJH ce6fl xeaxpi bi MocsBi. 

') Cm. IlHCBiia HMnepaxpHJxu EKaxepuBu II ki <t)eiBAiiapinaiy Caixu- 
EOBy. MocKBa, cip. 79. 



— 237 — 
Tiwh BpeiieHeHi ctojih nosiBJisnhca npeitciaBJieHiH bi Mocrob- 

CROHT> BOCDHTaTeJIBHOM^ AOM%, KOTOpUfl AaBaJIHCB, KaKio6i aiOHl 

CKasaHO Haiffl Bume, ch nisibjo npiyqiiTb h'Irotophxi hsti nHTOM- 
ueBi soMa Kx 6y;^yI^eft CAeHHHecKoft ffteiejiBHOCTH h rfcMi naxB 
HiTb cpeACTBa Ki) Aa^BHibflmeMy hxi cyn^ecTBOBamR^. MeAOKCi, 
ycuoTpiBi Bi 8THxi> npeACTaBjieniflxi aroSh HapymeHie a^hhoS 
euy npHBHJieriH, Haiajii cyAefiHoeAiJio, xaHyBmeeca oieHB AOJiro ^) 
H paspimeHHoe yace nocjii CHepiti Bei^Raro. He nepeAaBan sa'I^cb 
Bc^xi noApo6HOCT6fi aroro npocToro jsjkio,, ho Hapo^HO saTeifH^e- 

HarO ECTlieMl paSHHME 06CT0^TeJIBCTBaMH^ o6paTHMi BHHuaHie 

TOJiBRO na cjiiAyK)ii^lH: 

MoAORCi, coAepnaxejiB MocRoecRaro nyCjinqnaro leaxpa, sa- 
KJiioHHJi^, RaRi BBAHO E81 npHJiaraeiiaro npn ceifB ycjiOBia ^), ao- 

rOBOp^ Cl MoCROBCRHSfB BOCnHTaTeJIBHUlTB AOHOHl, OTHOCHTeJIBHO 

ynoTpeCjienla nHTOMueB'B a nHionnmi Aona qacJiOMi ao 50 nejio- 
BiKX Bcero ea coAep^RHMOMi hm-b Teaipi, nps newh o6a^^J^CH ot- 
BecTE EBTB noHinj^eHie bi AOMt npn caMOiTB xeaipi, coAepxaTB e 
o6yHaTB flxi, o Bcem ao bxi> Racaion^eMCH em^tb noneieHie, e no 
npomecTfiiE ipex^ ji^tb oSyqeelH njiaTHTB hm'b majiOBaHBe otb 100 
AO 300 py6. B^ roAT*. Kxo bbi osaaqeHHBixi JiHit^ no nporaecTBlE 
mecTE Ji^Tb no^ejiaex^ ocxaTBca yMeAORcaAOJii^6,o6H8aHi3aflBETB 
061 aToiTB sa DOJiroAa BnepeA^B* OneRyHCRifl GoBixi BM'bji'B npaBo 



HoBHAHKOxy aaxopi cxaxBH vb TeaTpaiBHOMi EseroAHHRt sa 1895 — 
1896 rr. npHiOS. Ill, CTp. 185 n ci^a HataraerB A'i^o MeAOKca coBepoieHHo 
uflane, Be ysasusaH, ri cosaitBiK), hcxohhbkob'b, bsi soTopuxi bm% no- 
HepaajxEi 9th cvtA±nia.. IIo MutBix) aBTopa, r. 6apoHa ApHdeaa, fieusofi 
saAyif aji ocHOBaiB xeaxpi b'l BocaflTaTeiBBOifb fifin'h u c 1 *& BU^aiH Me 
AORcy npBBiiJreriH na coAepacaeie xearpa na UexpoBS'^; dto 6LiJi'b cHjiBHufi 
y^api M,MA MexoRca n oh'b BcaqecRH crapajCA ero ycTpaHMXS. IIo dTouy ohi 
npocHJii rjraBUOHa?ajBCTByK)n(aro b'b MocrbIi rpa<i)a HepasmeBa caacTu ero 
OTh onacHOcxB, ROTopan eiiy rposHTB sa BeAeeie rearpa npH BocoHTaTCJiB- 
HOM'B Aoxi. HMaepaxpuKa ERaTepiiHa, ROTopoi ciajo naBicTHO dxo sMo^ 
nopy^Hia ^OTAaiB oHoe pa86opy h ptmeaiio Toro Mtcia, ri RoeMy ouo no 
cymecxBy CBoesry othochtbcb EOxeT-B h KoropoMy Herpy^HO dy^eii corja- 
CHTB AiiocTB AaHoaro MeAORcy AoaaojeHifl cb npBMyifB pasyMOM'B npas'B 
BocnaxaTejiBHaro AOHa, aaRi ohb otb sacB HSAaBti** (cm. Uhcbmo Hiinepa- 
TpHQU ERaTepHBH II R'B vpA^Y 3- HeDHHineBy, otb 8 iroaa 1784 r. PyccRifl 
ApxHBi 1872 roAa), (CTp. 106 TeaTp. ExeroA.)- Ho, RaxercA, bbtopb cm*!- 
uiHsaeT'B apcHAOBanie xeaxpa ea neipoBKt ci apesAOBaHieuB MeAORcoifB 
Teaxpa, ROTopufl coctoaji'b bi oenocpeAcrBeaoifB B^A'^Hiu MocROBCRaro 
BocBHTaTejiBHaro Aoxa n cymecTBOBaii paaie AaHHoft MeAORcy DpHBBjeriii; 
o ^evB, Roue^HO, Mcaokcb ho uoti* ne snaTB. 

■) Ch. npHjioxeHie JVs 19. Btotb AoroBopi saRJroneH'B b'b Roeut 1784 roAa, 
saRi 3T0 HaAO saRxn^HTB H3i npujaraGMaro nncBMa BeuRaro (cm. npiu 
J^ 20) OTi* 1 0RTH6pH 1784 r., npn ROTopoMi obi upenpoBoxAacT'B cbob sa- 
Mi^aoifl cKoponocTHXHO ea AOCTaBjennBiA eMy ROHAnmu cb Moaorcom^. 



— 238 — 

BO BC^Roe BpeMH, Rorxa 3a6Jiaropa8cyABn>, ocMarpHBaTb coAepxcame 
nHTOMAeBi H Hxi) DOBeAeHle. MexoKci Rpoir6 Toro o6BzuBdJLcn 
CBepxi AOCAToft "lacTH H OAHoro cneRTaRJia ynjia^Baib Bocanra- 
TGJibHOMy HOMY eme Bt noAaaHie: sa nepsHft ro«i — 500 py6., sa 
BTopofl — 700 p., 3a Tpeiift — 1000 pyC, a 3a Apyrie TpH roAa sa 
Ra^AHft no npomecTBin onaro no jisi tbich^h py6jiefl bii roA'b- IIpH 
3T0in> B^ nocjilAHeMi (U) nyHRii roBopHJiocb, tto bi yBasesie 
HSAepHeRi, saTpaHHBaeMbrx-b Mbaorcom^ Ha ycTpofiCTBO SAaHin, 
npeAOCiaBJifleTCJi MoAORcy npoAOJisaTb cie saBOAOHie eiij^e nerupe 
roAa H BO Bce AecATHJiiTHee Bpeiia cocTOHTb eny noA'b apoTeR^ieK) 
BocnHTaiejibHaro AOMa. 

MeAORCb ycJioBlft dToro AoroBopa ne Hcnojmfljrb: BO-nepstix^, 
He unB,TBjn> BocaHTaiejibHOMy AOMy A^Herb; ROTopuA o6H3aJicfl 
ynjiaiHBaTb e^eroAHO, a Bo-Biopuxi, h hto 6ujio ropasAO BaxHte, 
He HcnojiQJiJi'b ycJiOBifi OTHOCHiejibHo AaHHuxi eify B'b oSy^eme 
BocnHiaHHHROB-b AOMa; OHb He TOJibRo He ofiyiajii hxi HaAJiesa- 
n^BMi> o6pa30if'b, ho Aaace coAepxcajii hxi xyAO h oOpan^aJiCH 
cb HHMH coBciM^ He HaAJie2can(HMb o6pa30M'b. Bceifb srowb Co- 
B'irb AOBOAHJii Ao CB'iA'iHifl BeiiRaro, ROTopufl, naxoAfl BOoCn^e He- 

npHJUH^HUMb, HT06b[ A%TH BoCHHTaTOJIbHarO AOBia flBJHJIHCb nyfijIH^HO 

Ha cufini h 3a6oTHCb o HpaBCTBOHHoirb nojiomeniH BocnnTUBae- 
Huxi Bb AOMi, npHRasajib HapymHTb ycJioBie saRJuoHeHHoe-ci M e- 
AORCOMb, T. e. OTo6paTb y nero AaHHHx^ eMy H3b BocHHiaTejibHaro 
AOMa Aixefi H 6oji%e laROBUxi eaiy ne AanaTb. 

Eei^RoS, RaR^ bhaho hsi necbMa ero en^e 30 aBr. 1784 r.. 
He HaxoAHJiik yAo6HUM^ js,Jisi BocHHiaTeJibHaro AOMa OTAaBaTb rearpi 
Bi apeHAy, noiOMy mto ipeai 8to naBJieRaiOTCfl na aomi thxGu, he* 
Majio AOMy He CBOficTBeHHua, h hotomj, hto qpesb ynaAORi coAop- 
^RaTOJiH npHHHHJieTCH pymeHie npHHOCHMaro ero cneRTaRJiflMH yAO- 
BOJibCTBlfl o6mocTBy. Kb TOMy »ce i^bjib leaipa npn AOMt, no cno- 
BaMi Bei^Raro, coBctMb ne nojiyqeuie npeSujiH OTb spi^jiHH^'b, ne 
CBofiCTBeHHoft AOMy, a eAnncTBOHHo xa, 1T06&1 o6oero nojia bochh- 

laHHHRH MBHCAy HpO^HMl HMijIH HOHHlie TOaTpaJIbHOMl HCRyC- 

cTBb, Aa^KE no buxoa^ ceoeMb MorjiH AOCTaBBib ce6t cHoco6Hoe 
nponHTanie. 

no3TOMy, BHAfl, ^To MoAOKCb HO njiaiHTb AOHerb no ycjiOBiio 
H, RpoMt Toro, ne o6y?aerb BOcnHTannHKOBb h BOcnniaHHEii^'b AOMa 
H o6xoARTCH Cb HBMH npH TOMi RpaflHO HJioxo, Bei](ROfl He saAy- 
MajiCH HapymHTb saRJiio^eHHoe Cb MeAORCOMi ycjiOBie, rbfirb Goji'be, 
^TO Bonpocx meji^ o cyAb6i h yiacTH A^xeft, ROxopHa mofjih, o'le- 



— 239 — 

BHAHO^ rH6HyTii npn Aa^BHtfimeu^ coxpaHeHiH bi> CHJii ycjiOBi^ sa- 
Rjiio^eHHaro cb MeAOKCOMi. OiciOAa bosherjio AOJiro TJiHyBineecA 
A&io no BducKaniK) MeAOKComi y6uTR0Bi> c^ BocnHTaTOJiBHaro Aona 
sa Hapymeeie KOHTpaRxa. 

IIoAo6Hoe »6 noiTH nijio boshhkjio h wb IleTepCypri. 

HaxoAHBmifiCA Ha U^apBuuHOU'B Jiyry bi neTep6ypri o6BeTma- 
jiufl Tearpi) 6kiji'b, cb paap'bmeHifl HnnepaTpBi^u ERatepHEH II, 
no CJiOBecHOMy o tomi AOKJiany Bei^Karo B^ Mapii 1771 r,, nepe- 
CTpoeni) saHOBO H^AHBeHieMii BocnBTaiejiBHaro noiiaHno pacnopn- 
^ReelflM'B cero nocJiiAHaro b% aioui sAanlH A^BajiH pasjiHiBHa 
TeaipaJiBHUH npoACiaBJieHi^, rotopbea ny6jiHKa cb otm^hhumi yAO- 
BOJiBCTBieiii BHA^TB :ReJiaJia. IIosAHie btotb TeaTpi* 6ujii OTAanx 
wh 1779 roAy no KOHipaRiy, y cero npajiaraeMOMy, Ha AeMTBjrtT^ 
wb coAepxanie KEHoepy no ero o tohi npocB6i^). IIo ycJiOBiflMi 

KOHTpaRTa^) OWb AOJI^eHB 6uJL'b MeHCAy npOlBMl HMtTB Ha CBOeifB 

uoneHeHifl bsi nBTOMi^OBTi h ^HTOMH^^ IIeTep6yprcRaro BOcasTa- 
TOJiBHaro AOMa 50 qanoBiRi noApo6HO bmi caiiniMi noHHeHOBaH- 
Huxi, coAepxaTB h o^ynaxB exi, oiBpan^aiB otb BCflRaro nenpB- 
CTofinaro noBeAenia h t. a, a no nponiecTBiH ipexi ji^tb njiaiHiB 
HiTB »ajiOBaBBe CMOTpn no TajiaHxaMi h AOcxoHHCXBaii'B RaarAaro 
H3i HBxi. KsHoepi o6A8UBaJiCfl A^BaxB Bi roAB no ABa cneRxaKJin 
wb nojuBsy BOcnexaHEHROBi h co6paHHUH AeHBrn bhochxb bt* Co- 
xpaHHyfo Rasny, Aa6u npn cxapocxH hjih yBi^bH BOcnHxannHRH 
MOFJiH HM'bxB Ha npoHHxaHie neHCioHi. 3a Bce axo KnHnep'B 6e8- 
njiaxHO nojiBsoBaJicA SAanieMi) xeaxpa. RnHnepi He mcnojiESiJVb bx 
xo'iHOCXH ycjioBin ROHxpaRxa. TjiaBHoe oht» ne o6yqaJii nojiy^en- 
HBlx^ EM^ B3X BocHHxaxejiBHaro aomb nnxoiimeB'B b coAepncaJi'BHX'B 
Rpaftne xyAO h ho xojibro ne CMOxp^Jiii sa bxI) noBeAemeH'B, ho 
caiTB CRJiOHAJH) Hx^ Ha pacnyxcxBo, rbrb bhaho H3b nacBMa Bei^- 
Karo H atypnajiOBT) OneKyHCRaro CoBtxa. 3xo no6yAHJio OneRyncRift 
CoBixT) HapyniHXB ycjioBie cb KHHnepoirB b saRJiiOHHXB HOBoe cb 
BRXepOM^ ^MEXpCBCRHMT) BT> Ha'iajii 1783 r., RoxopHft ox-B ce6B 
yjRe 8aRJiH)qB3ii CB KHBaepoMi, no AoOpoBOJiBHOMy corjiaciio, bi 
flHBap* 1783 r., oco6Hft AoroBopx y cero npHJiaraeMHft '), oxho- 
CHxejiBHO CAaHB pasHHX'B xeaxpaJiBHuxi npBHBAJiejRHOCxefl, a^ko- 
pai^ifl, napxBxyp'B n np. 3a Bce dxo JI^MBxpeBCRifi o6B8UBajiCH 



*) Cm. atypH. C -neiep. Ones. CoBbia, 0KTa6pH 28 1779 roAa; cm. a^jo 
no Chpotck. HecTHTyTy onncb J^ 23, Atio JVsJ^ 76 h 77. 
') Cm. npHJioxeeie >& 21. 
^) Cm. npHJioseBie JV» 22. 



— 240 — 

ynjiaTHTB KHHnepy jifiuhjn 3.200 py6. n a&tb B^ ero :Ke noJibsy 
ABa cneRTaRJifl. droTb Aorosopi noAUHcaHHHfi h Cb BHecemicx 
osnaqeHHHx^ seHerb aojdrho Otuno npex'BJiBHTBC.-IIeTepCyprcKOify 
OneKyHCKOMy CoBtiy. 

9to 6hjio Bce HcnoJiHeHO. Ho BCRopi nocjit aioro caMo sAame 
TeaTpa Cujio bt» aBrycrt 1783 r. no npHicasaHiio Ea BeJoraecTBa 
KynjieHo 8a 25 Tucflqi py6Jiefl y BocoHTaTejiBHaro AOHa h Tearpi 
ofipan^eH^ wh iiy6jinHHufi, KaRii bhaho hsi npHJiaraeMOft nepenncRH 
A. B. Ojicy^bOBa cb BenuBWb ^). Heo6xoAHMO saMiiHTB, hto ne- 
peroBopu npoAassI eaiajiHCB em^e b^ 1781 r., npn ^eiTB Beipcoft, 
RaRi BHAHO Hsiero AORJiaAa 1 1 HOflCpa y cero npHJioxeHHaro^), npo- 
cHJii coxpaHemB cbjibi saKJiioieHHaro ROHTpaETa, AaGu oCasaB- 
miftcH coAopiRaTb iiBTOKAeB^ He mopb npiflTH b'b pasopenle, a 
AOM^ BOcnHTaTejibHufl He noTepnijrb 6u otb HecoxpaneHiA o6eirho- 
Bennaro nopflARa^). 

KasaJiocb 6u sa cbjiok) saRJiio^eHHaro Cb AMHTpeBCRirirB ycjio- 
Bifl, KHHnepy ocTaaajtocb lOJibRO noJiyHHTb BHeceHHua nocjrfiAHHirb 
AeHbrH. Ho OH'b rbwh He yAOBOJUbCTBOBaJicfl h hoasui'^ npocb6y ca- 
MOfi HMnepaTpniii o noneceHHOirb Hifb pasopeHiii oti HapymeHia 
BocnHTaxejibHHMi aomohi RonrpaRTa ci nnwh^ saRjiioHeHHaro b% 
1779 r. EKaTepHHaU npenopy^HJia bto pa8o6paTb XpanoBHixROMy 
H AjiORcaHApy BopOHUOBy, Raai 3to bhaho hsi npujiaraeMUxi 6y- 
Man* *). Bopoffl^oBi naxoAHJrb, hto OneRyncRlfi CoBtrb nocxynHJi-b 
HenpaBHjibHO, HapynraBi* RonrpaRrb cb RnmiepoM^. BeaRoft ace 
HHcaJTb wb 1783 r. AJiHHHoe no 3T0My oeiacHenie, e-b ROTopoirb 



*) Cm. upHJOseHie J^ 23. 

') Gir. npHJOJseBie N> 32a. 

') H3i HHceH'B nHKapa (PyccK. Ciap. 1870 r., t. I, CTp. 129 h ciiji.) 

BHJ(HO, HTO 6 OKTJidpA 1781 T. CuiT* OTRpUTTi HOBHll TCaTpi, nOCTpoeHHUfi 

upoTHB'B JliTUiiro ca^a. fict 6liih BecBMa aobojehu stum's HSflmHUMi n 

DOM'bCTHTejirBHMMl, HOBUMl yBeceiHTeiBBUMl SAaaieMl, KOTOpUMl CTOlHIta 

o6A3aHa reaepaiy BeasoMy (cxp. 181). Oeb 6iijlt> ycTpoeHi 6e8% josi, wh 
BBjcb spuTaro aM<t)HTeaTpa, u otk^uti. bi 1781 r., (cm. c6opHHB'b craTeft na- 
TaHHUX'b BO II oTi. CoO. AKaxeMia HayRi, t. XI, cxp. 34, CTaT&£ JIorHHOBa, 
PyccRifi TeaTpi>). HacTb Bupy^aeMUX'b ch Teaipa aoxoaobi BenRoA naMipe- 
BaicA oTA'fi.iflTB Bi no.ii>3y bocnHTaTeiBDaro AOMa, ho HMnepaTpniia no npa- 
HUHaMit, F^poATHO, BCCbMa yBasHTeiBHUMi npBKasajra, 9To6u stotb Tearp'^ 
RaBi ny6jiH^H£ir[^ nepeAaa'B 6ujib BeuKOMi bb B^Aiaie o6cp'b-noiHiiiAMefi- 
cTepa H BM'^cT'6 Cb T'ikMi npHKasajia BuajraiHTB Ben,KOMy bcio cyMMy yno- 
Tpe6jieHHys) bmb na nocTpofiKy sxaHifi h xeKopauift. Mai apxnsa AnpeimiH 
Hmd. TeaTpoBi (ota. II, bbih. 1, h3a. 1892 r., cxp. 121) bh^ho, hto bi aarycxi 
1783 r. A. 6. Oicy(()BeBi npu necBMt si K. K. BeasoMy npenpoBOAUi 
eMy ABaAuaxB naxB xucanii py6. sa axon xeaxpi., ycTpoeuHEifi ea I^apHiiEi- 
HOMi jyry. 

*) Cm. iipHJOiaeHie J^6 24 h 25. 



— 241 — 

yKasuBajTB Ha HeEcnojmeHie REHnepovB ROHrpaRTa h noJiHyio ho- 
ocBOBaTejmHocTB ero AOMoraTeJiBCTBi», HHqiu'B He AORasaHHuxii. 
Atjio ^) dTo ocTasajiocB neptmeHHUBfL osoHHaiejibHO ne Hanoe 

BpOMJi; ^lIHTpeBCKlft npOCHJTb BOBBpart BHeceHHHX'B HAfb AG- 

HerB. BeiQcoft yicep^ wb 1795 r.; CROH^ajiacb h ERaiepHHa 11 
vb 1796 r., H TOJTBi^o npH HimepaTopi Ilaajri I nopy^eHO 6bijio 
HBBlcTHOMy flicoBy GBBcpcy pa8o6paTB 8T0 jsjksLO. Owb npoACTa- 
BEjrb BB 1797 ro^y 12 H0Ji6pfl soRJiaA'B, hbi* ROTOparo o^e- 
B^po, HTO, npnsHaBafl BnojiHb npaBHJtbHHini o6iflCHeHiH Bbk- 
Karo, GHBepc^ HaxosHjrb cnpaBexJiHBUin>, OAHaRO, BujsfiTh Khh- 
nepy tojibro AdHBrH, npexcTaBJieHHHa ^laiTpeBCRHirb (sa bu- 
leroiTB en^e AOJira h cjAxyoMaro BOcnnraHHERaiTB ^RajioaaEBJi)^ 
BO npHfesHBi npoAeHTu na RanHTaorb cb 1783 r., a laRse 
cfopi c*b AByrb cneRTaRJiefi bii ero nojibBy, oi^HJifl no TUCH^y 
pyfijieft Raawift ci npoAeHraiiH h npoAOHTauH Ha npoiieHTH sa 
15 jitn. droTb AORnaAi* yAOCTOHJica Btico^aftmaro yTBepsAema 

H lilTb A^O OROHHHJIOCB. 

VI HeaaBNCMMOCTb AOMa BocnNTaTejibHaro otb aAMNHNCTpaiNBHyxi 
N cyAedHuxB ynpemAeHiN. 

Kb ^HCJiy npHBHJierift Heo6xoAHMO OTHecxn TaEjRe h to, hto 
BocnHTaiejibHbift aomb, co bc^mh cbohmh npnHaAJiesHOCTflMH, 6hurb 
CBo6oAeFb OTb Bctx-b nojiHaeftCRHX'b AOJURHOCiefl RaRoro 6bi SBania 
OHua He 6iiJiH h otb BcaRaro nocxoa. 

RpoMt Toro vb cjrpi9,i RaRoro JLa6o norpimeHia cJiyjRHTejiH 
OHaro AOMa ne aojurhh cyAHMU 6biTb hh bi RaROifib Apyroirb iiicrt, 
a ecjiH RyAa h bbhth SyAyrb, to npscujiaTb hxi* neneAJieHHO bi 
AOicb, A^fl pascMOTpink h HaAJnesan^aro niTpa^a hjih ffisi OTCbuiRs 
no TOMy Bi y?pe2RAeHHHfl npHcyrcTBeHHua MtcTa no BaxHOCTH 
AtJia. (renep. 11. h. I; rjiaB. VI § 23;). IIpHnoBfflHM'b eme, hto 
BocnBTaxeJiBEbiftAOiTb, na ocHOBaninTOfime rjiaBH o npHBHJierlax'b, 
HHRBROMy MtcTy HO noAHHHeH'b z OTHexa AABarb ne AOJocen'b, cocto- 
suLb 6e3nocpeACTBeHHO b'b Buc. Ea Hh. Beji. npoTeRAiH (Tairb se 
§ 1) H HH orb RaRoro ne saBHCHJii npaBnxeJibCTBa ')• Bee sto Bb 
coBORynHOCTH cosAaBajio oco6aro poAa HesaBHCHiiocTb bochh- 
laTOJiBHaro Aona otb BC^Karo poAa npaBHTeJibCTBeHHUxB M'i^crb h 
JiHin>9 ROTopuMi 6e8ycJiOBHO H 6e3npeROCJiOBHO aoju^chh 6iiJiH noA- 
HHHHTBCfl Bct npo^ii^. E^Ba-jiH Heo6xoAHBio yRasHBaTb, ^xo noAo6Hoe, 



*) Cm. A^idL BeuRaro CBiiaKa J\& 8, a'^jlo J^ 830. 
*) ^acTb I. reaep. ni. naB. 1. § 1. 

H. H. BEUKOfi. ^^ 



— 242 — 

HeeopMSuibHoe bi 6jiaroycTpoeHHOMi rocyAapcTsi, noJioxeHie, busbi- 
eajiocb rocnoACTBOBaeinHMH bi to BpeMa h wb aAMHHHcrpaiuH BOo6ii;e 
H Bi cyAaxt pasjiuqearo poAa HenopflAK^BKH? otl ROTopHXi sejia- 
TOJiBHO 6ujio no B03M0JKH0CTH HsfiaBBTBCfl KajKAOMy. Ha fljkjrk xe 
noAo6Haro poAa npHBBJierin HeH36'&RH0 npHBOAHjm BocnBTaiejiB- 

HBlfi AOMl) B^ CTOJIEHOBeBie CI paSJIHqHlIME^npaBHTeJIBCTBeHHUMa 

opraHaMH, a nepesi aio BOSHHRajm ee cobc^m-b Apyxejuo^HUfl hxi 
OTHomenifl Kb caMOMy EeuROMy, ROTopuft, bb KanecTBi^ rJiaBHaro 
noneHBiejiH BOcnHTaiejiBHaro AOMa, hsjibjicb nepBUMi xoAaTaeirB sa 
coxpaseHie BcixB ^paB^ cero yqpesAeHia, nopyneHnaro nocjit Mo- 
Hapmaro ero GjiaroTBopHTasLHOMy noRpoBHTejiBCTBy. 

6m^t6 ci OneRy HCRHMi CoBtioiiB ohi Cwi-h ofiflsan'BC'B BejiHRsirb 
BHBMaHieifi Ha6JiH)AaTB HenpecTanHO, hto6u hhrto, rto 6ii hh Sujtb, 
He HapymaJi^ npHBBJierifi BOcnHiaTOJiBHaro Aona, h6o, Rani roBO- 
pHJiocB ("J. II reH. uji. rji. 1. § 9), «ohua ^pesii to Majio no HaJiy 
0CJia6iK)rB h HaROHeA'B A^flcTBifl cBoero BOBce JiHmaTCii». EaKi 
BHAHO Hs^ BiROTopHX'B AomeAmBXi AO HacB xkjvb noAofiHaro poAa 
HapymeHia dTHxi> npBBHjierifi Aona hpoabjiajihcb A^ftcTBHTOJiBHO 
H BusuBajiH CO cTopoHH Eei^Rait) HenpiHTHyK) a^a Hero nepenncRy. 

TaRB flanpHMip'B bi 1770 roAy hctohhhri Aona CeHOHOBi 
6hjib BSflTB sa osopHnqecTBO bi nHROTHyio RonaHAy, o neifB HananB- 
HHRi e^; RanBTaHi Bojiotobb, A0Hec7> o6ep^-nojiiiuifeftCTepy 
r. MocRBU r. ^H^epHHy, npnRasaBmeMy pasoGpaTB a'^JIo h, h e h a- 
R a 3 u B a fly eify aojiokhtb. Ho Bojiotobb, ho AORJiaAi>iBafl, HaRasaJii 
CeMOHOBa RomRaifH. Ho acajio6% BOcnHTaTOJi'BHaro AOHa A^ficTBifl 
BoJiOTOBa npHSHaHu 6ujih nenpaBBJiBHMMH b owb 6uJI^ noABeprnyrB 
apecTy. KpoMiioro ^BiepHHi 13 Hoa6pfll770 r. nBcaJi-B CoBiiy, 
?T0 «ecjiB Ero BncoRonpeBocxoABTejiBCTBO corjiaceni 6yAerB moxho 

OTOCJiaTB BOJIOTOBa Bl BOCnflTaTeJIBHUft A0M7>, BB ROTOpOMT> 6My 

npeAT* CoBiTOMi OHaro bb nocTynRaxi cbobxi npoTBBy onaro npB- 
necTB CBOH) BBHy H npocBTB upon^eHifl b ecJiH owl OHoe BcnpocBTB, 
TO B OROH^BTB TO jiijio^ sauBcaBi ero npecTynjienie wb ^ypnajii. 
^ero psAB 6yAe Ero BucoKonpeBoc. na to bsbojibtb corjiacBTBCfl, 
MeHH ys-lAOMHTB npomy». 

IIo noJiyneHiH o6^ btomi otb CoBfea yBtAOMJieHia BeuRofl 
OTBinaJiB 19'-roBOfl6pfl,«HTOKaR'B Tbm> Bscji^AOBaHleM'B AOBOJiBHyio 
caTiic$aKi];iH) mu noJiyiBJiB, to escejiB GoBibrB bsbojibtb cor^acHTBca 
Bi pascyjRAefllB, mto Apyrie cMOTpji na to BnpeAB bi dpotbbhoctb 
opBBBJieriflMB BOcnBTaTejiBHaro Aona hbhbtb ho OTBa^RaTCB^ to 
OHB HaiiipeHT. RB Ero EpeBocxoABTOJiBCTBy (^BqepBHy) HanncaTB, 



— 243 — 

BOsfiJiaroAapH sa OHoe h Kor;^a ynoMHHyTBifi KanHxan-b npeA'b Coei* 
Toifb npHHecen cboh) BHHy ch npomeHieu'b npon^emfl, to ohumi 
CoBirb AOBOnewh 6yneTb; a hto npHHaAJieacHrb w sanHcaHla Toro 
ero npeciynjieHi^ bi jRypeaji^, ROTopoe Bape^B MoxcerB cqacTiio 
ero BpeAHTB, o tomi> npocHTB ASk6u ero orb Toro HsdaBHiB, Ha "ito 
Biciio o^HAaTb yBtAOMJiBHia oTh CoBiTa ^). 

Ilocjii 8Toro B'b 1773 r. Bemcoft nameTT* CoBiiy ^). fYcJiHaia, 
^0 orb lOcTHi^i-RoJiJierin 6HJia yHnHeaa npncHJiRa, cocToan^aH 
H3*L noJiHi](eficKOft ROMaHAu Bi AoiTb BocHBTaTejibHOMy AOMy npH- 
HaAJiesanufi, bi Roeicb samirb ^eMnAOBi n ecjm to^ho raRoe nocjiin- 
CTBie Horjio cjiyqHTbca, to HOHHa^e OHoe no^HTaxbCH aojihcho RaRi 
HacTOfln^Hifb HapymeHieifi noacajiOBaHHuxi orb Ea BeJiH^ecTBa 
BocnHTaxejibflOMy Aony npiiBfiJieriB h 6yjifi oho wb caiiOBfb a^^ 
Tas^ npoHsomjio, to RaRoe OneRyncRid CoBiTi rti co6jiH)AeHiio cbo- 
HX'b npaaii b% HeaapymEMocTH HM^Tb aojikohi CTapanie h CROJib 
He Ha6jiK)AeHie Toro oxHiOAb TepnHMO 6iiTb ho aojurho — ^to bhaho 
BBX njiana h t. a-» 

He MHoro nos^e B'b 1774 no A'^y .fl^efiiiiAOBa cb CRopaaRO- 
Bbiicb Tpe6oBaJiocb AonpocHib A:faBRy TaTbany, naxoAHBrnyioca npa 
BocnHTaTejibHOMi AOirl,HnpoRypop'b npeAJiarajii Aouyee apHCJiaTb. 
Ho dTa 6yMara 6ujia BosBpan^ena, noTOMy hto no CHJii renepajib- 
Haro njiana CHomeHie aoji^ho 6biTb CAtjiano npesi* renepajia IIpo- 
Kypopa. KHasb BaseMCRifi, coofin^aa oCi aTOirb Bei^ROsiy 8 ^eapana 
1774 r., npocHji'b CA'i^aTb HaAJiesantee pacnopajRenie. 

BeARofi jse OTB^qaJi^ eny 18 $eBpajia, «ito no renepajibHoiiy 
njiany h. I. rji. 6 § 3 HaAJie«iirb nocjiaxb sanpocHue nyHRTU qpe3T> 
BocnHTaxeJiBHHft AOM^, Racaio^ieca AO BsiiacHeHia TpeSyeiiaro A'bJia, 
TorAa H CB^Ai^Hia Heo6xoAnMua nojiyinjiH 6bi, a noTOHy ne 6UJ10 
npHiHHbi HeAiJibHu&in panopTaifH yTpy^Aaib Bame CiaTejibCTBO, 
o Hewb Il8^acHaacb Cb hcthhhhmi> noHTenieMi BcerAa npe6yAy». 

B'b 1778 roAy bi MocKOBCROft HbccroS RoHTopt bcrphjih 
nocjiaHHue na hhh Bei^Raro H3i MocROBCRaro OneRyncRaro Cosixa 
naRexu, no noAoap'bHiK) bi tohi; nirb Jin B'b naRerb naceirb ri 
HacTHHM'b napTHRyjiapHUATb Jiai^aMi h saAepHcajia naRexu. Hanero 
OAHaRO He oSaapyjRBJiocb; a ueacAy T^Bfb BOsaaRjia nepenacRa 
Hapymeaia npaa'b a npaaajierid BOcnaxaTejibaaro AOMa ^). 

SaT^sTb Bi 1781 roAy 23 GeaxaOpa bl MocRoacKift fiaaa-b 



*) Cm. nHCbMa BeuKaro 1770 r. Hoa6pK 19. 

*) Cm, IlHCbMa BeuKaro 1773 r. ceHiflCpa 3; 1774 r. <J»eBpaji/i 18, 

*) Cm. Atja BeaKaro B'b cBaasax^ JVs 282. 



— 244 — 

6ujii nocjiaHi) cHeiqeRx OneRyHCRaro GoBtia wr o6M%Ha AdHerb, 
npH Hewb o6Hapy3RHJiacB oAHa tijMaacRa (|»aJiLinHBaro AOCTOHHCTBa. 
CHeTHHRi 6him> saABp^aHi, nocjiaHT> bi ryCepHCRyio RaHixejiflpiio 
nowh RapayjiOMi h cojuepjRajic^ uemjiy ROJioAHBRaim; CHOBa boshh- 
KJia nepenHCRa o HapymemH npHBEJierift AOMa ^). Bi> 1788 ro^y 
npoBsomjia ApaRa nHTOMi^eBii BOCOHTaTejiBHaro Aona Cb cojdAaTaHH; 
A'ibJio pa86HpajiocB corjiacHO ero npBBHJieriaM'L bi caMOMi bocdh- 
xaTejibHOMi) AOKt. ERaiepEHa no dTony noBOAy nnmeT'L EponRHHy 
6 ^eRa6pH 1788 r. ^). tHe HO^eMi ociaBHTB Gesi npHMiqaHis, 

^TO OHOe OTHK)AB AOMy CBOflCTBOHHO 6UTB HB MOSCeTB, H AOiUReBCT- 

ByerB a^o cie, RaRi yroJiOBHoe, pa8o6paHO h pascMoiplHO 6bitb 
Bi TOMi) Micrl, Roeny no .saRony noAo6HB[A a^^^ npeAOCTaBJieHH h 
no npnroBopy Roero BHHOBHue HiiiiorB 6kitb BaRasaBU. IIoATBepAHTe 
CBopxii Toro ynpaBjiAionieMy BOcnnraTeJiBHUMi aomomi, Aa6u ohi 
jiynme h npHJies^e naA'B BBi^peaHUMH hhi^ BOcnHTaHHHRaMH 
Ha6jiK)AaJi'B- 

TaRoro poAa nepenecRa no coAepxcamio cBoeiiy ne Haoio 
coA'bficTBOBajia ycTanoBJieHiK) HenpI^sHeBBuxi OTHomenifl ri Bea- 

ROHy CO CTOpOBU KPjnX'b JlHUl, CTOABmHX'B BO FJiaBi^ pa3JIH^> 

EHxi ^acTeft ynpaBJieaia n ycMaTpHBaBmnxi bi tomi ne tojibro 
yMeBBmenie co6cTB6HHaro CBoero sna^ieHia, ho h cTpeMJienie Bei^- 
Raro CTaiB Bume hjih bb'& ycTanoBjieHHaro nopiiARA, bi hbitb ero 
Aaxe flBHO o6BnHflJiH nepoAB HMnepaTpHij^eK), RaRi axo bhaho H8^ 
co6cTBeHHopyHBO BiTB HanHcaHHaro, AJiHHnaro o6T>BCBeBm no aroicy 
noBOAy, xpaHfln^arocfl bi FocyA- ApxHBi. IIphboah bto sairb^axejiB- 
Hoe o6iflCHeHie ao-cjiobho bi npHJioxeniH ^), c^BTaeiii Heo6xoAH- 
vLhswb CRasaTB BQWb zjAch TaRjRe HicROJiBRO cjiowh. CoAepacame 
3Toro o6'BacHeHifl, a laR^e caiiuft cjiohb h nonepRi, no cpaBHeniio 
ch ApyrHMH, Jiexan^EMH bi tomi ace jtibiA UBCBHaMH, necoMHtHHO 
yAOCTOBipHBTB, ^To BTO ofiiflCHenie HanHcano caMHirB BeKRHMi. 
XoTH BpeifH HanHcaniH onaro ne osna^eHO, ho onpeA't^HTB ohoc 
npHCjiHSHTejiBHO ne ipyAHO. Oho nanHcaHo paHie AOCTH»eHiH Bei^- 

RHITB 80-TH JI'lTHflrO BOSpaCTa ^), RaRl OHl CaHl rOBOpHTL B% 

KOEU,i oGiHCHeniH, h nocjit ptmeniH A^Jia ^eMHAOBa cb Ckopharo- 



TaM-B se J^ 628. 

*) Cm. Pyc Apx. 1872 r, cip. 2095 \i caiA- 

•) Cm. npHioaeeie J\e 26 h 27. 

*) dio Bupasenie, hto Mat eiue eiiT'L BOCBMHAecnTH lixB, o^eBHXHO 
A0Ka3UBaeT'L, hto EeuEofi 6iu30R'b ki AOCTHseeiK) aToro Bospacra, ho eme 
ue AOCTHri onaro, t. e. Mori 6mti» 78, 79 Jitxi. 



— 245 — 

BiufB (cocToaBineiiCJ], RaKi hsb^ctho, biITTS roAy) ^), o BJiijiniH 
KOToparoHaBOcnHTaTejiBHufl jsfiwh oh'b roBopHrB bi nacBMi. KpoMi^ 
Toro Bi Ha^ajit o6'bHCHeHia roBopHTca eme 061 ojKHAaeMOMi emfi 
nepeaoA'i^ Ha ^pani^scRlft bbukl renepaJiBHaro njiaaa bocde- 
TaTOJibHaro AOMa, KOTopufl noHBUJiCH wb csirB, RaKi> hsbI^ctho, tojibro 
B'bROHoi 1775 roAa. GjriiAOBaTejiBHO ofi'B^iCHeHie, iipeAinecTBOBaBinee 
noflBJieHiionjiaHaj 6ujiOHanHcaHo paH'ie. — TaRHi['Bo6pa30M'B mo^ho, 
He 6edi BipoaxHocTH, npHHHTB, ^TO o6%BCEeme HanHcano orojio 
aroro jrb BpeueHH, xoth BiipoqeifB to^ihob onpeA'i^JieHie roAa bb 
dTOiTB cjiy^a'6 6ojiBmaro sHanema ho BMterB. HeJiBsa ne nomajiiTB, 

^TO Haii'B OCTaeXCA HeHdBiCTHUM'B imCBMeHHUB AOKyMeHTB, C006- 

n^eHHufi HMQepaipHiieK) ERaTepHHOio BeuRony h BU3BaBmifl co 
CTopoHU nocjiiAHflro npHJio»eHHoe odBacHenie, hsi Roxoparo 
MOSHO BnpoHOMi BHOJuni xoHHO ycMOxpitxB qU'jlques objections teme- 
raires (RaRi* roaopsx^ Bei^Roft) rJiaBHHX'B h oxsa^HiixB nyaRxaxi 
caMaro oCBEHeHla ^). OnHCOcxoaJiirrJiaBHiftinHM'BoOpasoM'B bb CJii^- 
Ayion^eHi: 1) aIxh, BCROpHJieHHua bi BocnHxaxejiBHOM^AOMi,ABJia- 
H)TCH noxHiAeHieM^B y co6cxBeHHHROB'B AepeseHB; 2) v^peacAeHle 
CcyAHofl CoxpaHHoft n baobboS RasHBi npa BOcaaxaxeJiBHOHB jiflu'b 
BJienexB sa co6ok) HeHsCixcHO norjion^eHle aomomb AepoBOHB h HMy- 
mecxBa TbTb^ Roxopne 6yAyxi» npHfiiraxB r'b saflMaMi h aomb mhjio- 
cepAin o6paxHTca bi cpoACXBO passopoHln nacxHUX'B jihe^b h rocy- 
AapcxBa; 3) BOcnuxaxejiBHufl aoatb aBJiaexcA rocyAapcxBOBfB bb rocy- 
AapcxBi, cJE^AOBaxeji'BHo ohb npH^HHaexi* hoaphbi caifOAepmaBHoft 
BJiacxH (ynycRaa h3b BHAy, hxo npnBHJieriir Aona A^poBaHH eicy 
paBHuricB o6pa30Mi» toio »e BucoHaftmeK) BjiaciBio). 

Bei^ROMy He xpyAHo 6ujio onpoBeprnyxB 3th o6BnHeHla, yRasaai 
BMicxt CB r&Mi, qxo JiK>AH pasBpaii^eHHHe n jierROMBicjieHHue, bb 
Roxopuxi nopoR'B sarjiymaexi) jih)6obb r^ oxe^ecxsy, BCflRoe cocxpa- 
AaHle R^ HecqacxHHBfB, iioryx'B BupaacaxB xaRie BdrjiflAU, cosep- 
meHHO npoxHBonojio^HHe i^ijiHM'ByqpejKAeHifi, h hxo xafinua cxpa- 
cxH, RaRii BOAa, nocxeneHHO noAxanHBaioxB h CRpuxHO padpyma- 
lorB caBfUH npoHHHH y^pesAema; uibrh cxojib nyApux^ h cxpornx'B 



*) Cm. Ap. IIpaB. CeeaTa Kenra Bbico^. noBejie. J^ 137 ^B^^ 214. 

') IIpeAaoiaraeM'B, hto dTO oGeHHeeie 6ujo nsioxeHo nu^'YiilHn)- EcRn-6ht 
OHO 6hjo TOJbso cjOBecHoe, ApyrHMH ciOBauH BupaseHHt paTpimex) 

JHIHO BeuKOMy, to, no Bceny BBpoaiiio, ohb Aaai 6u cjf * • to o6ifl- 

CHeHie^ HO nHCbiieHHoe cb ero ciopoHU o6i»ACHeHie AaeTi jiOBaHie 

npeAHOJiaraTL, ?to h o(3BHHeHie 6£iio HSJOxeHO Ha 6yMar'^ io nosa- 

jB'iB, qxo 4>opiia HSJoseHia, peAasniH o^BHHQTeibHuxii ^ - Tass&e 

H HMfl aBTOpa OHHXB OCXaiOTCfl Hani flHttfcCTHEJ. 



MMpfccI 

1 




— 246 — 

saKOHOBi), KOTopne noA'b Konei^i xHipocTB ejih CHJia He Morjia 6h 
HapymBTB ejih o6ofiTn>. 

Bei^KoA, KaRi» ycMaTpBBaeicfl hsi npejiojReHHaro oOiflCHeHLa, 
A'ikficTBHTeJiBHO onpoBeprb Bcb B3BeAeHHHH Ha Hero ofiBHHeHiH. Ho 
HsrjiaAHJii) JiH owb coBepmeHHo bt> ce^jiffk ERaTepHHBJ II to Bne- 
^aiJi'bHie, Koropoe 9thmh o6BnHeHkMH 6ujio npoHSBeAeno Ha nee h 
KOHeHHo He B^ ero nojibsy? A^^bho yse BKiCKasaHO, ^to He tojibro 
o6BHHeHie Roro jih6o upe^^ jini^oMi caHOAepacaBnaro BJiacTHTejuH 
Bi cTpeMJieHiH noKOJie6aTB ejih orpaHEHETB ero caMOAepjRaBHyio 
BJiacTB, HO AdiXB npocToe noAOsp'i^Hie bi TaROMT^^aMipemE, flBJiAeTCH 

0AHEH1> ESI CaEHXl Tfl^CREXTi 06BEHeHift H HpE TOHlTaRElTB, KOTO- 

poe Bcero Men'le ESBEH^eTCA, a rjiaBHoe Bcero Tpy^Hte 3a6HBaeT&a 
CO CTopoHU BJiacTETeJiJi. Ha drowb ocHOBaniE ri aroMy cpe^CTBy 
BO Bcb BpeHeua e npEGirajiE, Cb u^jibh) jiehietb to ejih Apyroe 
jiEi^o pacnoJio^eHifl e AOB^piJi, ROTopuiiE oho noJUBsosajiocB bt» roia- 
ZBXT> MoHapxa. — GocTaBJiflerB jie HimepaTpEiJia ERaTepEna II 

ECKJIK)«ieHie ES^ BTOrO EJIH H'bTB— BOnpOCB, He OTHOCflHUflCA AO 610- 

rpa(|)iE EeARaro. 

no3BOJiHMi ce6t TOJIBRO saMtTETB, HTO noAo6Haro poAa o6be- 
Heniji (xoTA e ho ocHOBaTeJiBHKra) othioab ho MorjiE yRpinHTB bjie 
Aa^e HOAAepmEBaTB ycTaHOBEBmi^cfl panie 6jiarocRJiOHHBiH otho- 
meniA HMnepaTpHii^Ki ri> EeiQcony; ohe ROHenno mofjie coaMctbo- 
BaTB tojibro EXi) paapymemK). BnenaTJiiHieM'B, npoESBeAenHUM'B 
Ha ERaTepEHy II hoaoGhume o6BHHeHijiME, hojrho, no Moeny Mni- 

HIK), oGl^CHETB B CMBICJIl B'i^ROTOpUX'B AOBOJIBHO He^CHBIX'B CJIOffB 

MMuepaTpEmi o Bei^ROMi), npBBOAEMUxi r. XpanoBBipcBM'B bi ero 
AHeBHERi, ecJiE tojibro cjioBa BTE nepoAaHu mMi> tohho e b^pho. 
4-ro fl^HBapfl 1787 roAa, HBineTi b'b cboomi AneBHER^ XpanoBEiJ^- 
Rifl, nocji'6 o6iAB.j roBopeno oBe^ROMl; «qT0 MHorEMi Abjiajn* sjio ^) 
E npECBOHOTB ce6H Ri cjiaB% rocyAapcRofi; OTAano ero hbcbmo Kh 
AyxoBHofi OTHOCJiH^eecH (cTp. 22) ». ^to co6cTBeHHO aojixhh osna- 
^aTB cjioBa: «BeaRofi npECBOiieT'B ce6A r% cjiaB% rocyAapcRofi »? 

EABa-jifl MoacHO npoAHOJioxETB, HTO dTflMB cjiOBaME BupasajiocB, 
"iTO Bei^Roft npBSHaeTi ce6H yqacTHEROMi cJiaBu FocyAapHHE b 
AOJiH) BTOfi cJiaBH opECBoaerB 066*1. TaRoe QpeAnojiomeHie HE^tHi 



*) MHoroyBasaenufi HSAaTejB AHCBHHKa XpanoBRi^saro H. U. BapcysoBi 
He Asjaexii, K'BcosaJi'bBiK), HHRasHxi npHM'^qaaifi hih HsiAceeHifi noaoBOxy 
BTHxi cJiOBi, xoTfl BeBOJiBHO BosHEKaeTB Bonpoci, Kony se Beasofi A'^aii 
3J0? He A. r. Bo6pHHCB0My ih, ne BucuiaA eny Aeneri, no ero xpedoaa- 
BijaifB, Bi BeorpaflH^eHHOM'b pasE'l^pt? 



— 247 — 

BeJiBsa noAKpinETB; HanpoTHBi* loro Bei^KOfi bo bcIxi npeACTaBJia- 
euuxi> HiTb npoeRTaxi pasjiHqHBix'B ynpejEAeHid npaMO yRasuBaerb, 
mo OHH cociaBJieHU no yKasaHi^MTi h mucji^mii HBinepaxpHiw 
EjiflR cjiaBU Eh BejiH^eciBa. 

3tO CTaBHJTB eMy BI ynpeK^ HSB'bCTHBlfi HXI* COBpeHeHHBK'B 

KHasB mepeaTOBi ^). Ho npH btomt, rhh3B ;io6aBjiajii: cXoia Ben;- 
Koft noRasHBaJix bea'b, hto bco a^h cJiaBU HiinepaTpHau A'^JiaeT'b, 
BO He ocTaBHJTL MoHapxHHB BTOft BJiacTH, ^To6u HsSpaTb npa- ' 
BBxejiefi yqpeag^eHHux'B uicTi, a caifB noBCioAy HanajiLHHKOBfb h 
AecnoTOMi 6ujrb ao najeHia ero KpeAHia*. JljpyrHMH cjio- 
BaMH II||ep6aT0Bi> o6BHHfleTT> Bei^Karo npano b-b tomi, hto om npH- 
CBOBBTB ce6'6 AOJiK) BJiacTH, MoHapxBHH npHHaA<nejRaii^e& t. e. 
noBTopaeTx hhumh cjioBaMB BSBOAeHHoe na BeARaro o6BHHeHie, 
(o KOTopoiTB y«e BHffle CRasaHo), ctojib chjibho sanaBmee b^ Aymy 
HMnepaTpBABT, hto ona RaR'Bdu noBTopajia dw o6BErHeHie b^b 1787 r. 
Bi cnoBaxi), npHBOABMHxi XpanoBHi^RHM'B^ Ror^a BeuROfi 6uji'b 
coBepmeHHO ap^xjii, hohth cjrtirB a eABa-jiH yace nyaceni FocyAap- 
CTBy, Ha nojiBsy ROTOparo 6HJia HanpaBJieHa Bca ero npeAmecTBO- 
BaBmaa A^TejiBHOCiB, o ROiopofl ki HacrynnBraeMy ahk) ABaAuaia- 
naTHa'i^Tia cJiaBHaro uapcTBOBaaia HHnepaTpHi^u oni* npeACiaBEJi'B 
TOJiBKo KpaiRift oiepRi AiaieaBHOCTH BocnHTaiejiBHaro Aona h cocto- 
aBiDHXT* npa neMi* ynpeacAenlfl, y cero npajiaraeMHft ^). H3t> 3Toro 
OT^era bhaho, ^to sa HCieRraee ABaAuaTanaTHJiiTie bt* BOcnHraiejiB- 
HHe AOMa nocxynajio MaaAeHAeBi ao 37.907; bt> poahjibhomt* 
AOiri nepeOHBaao 5.514 atenmnH'B; bt* CcyAHOft Kasnt — npenont 

ROpHCTOJIloSiH) SaRJiaA'IHROB'B H CoxpaHHOfi COCTOHTB RaOHTaJIOB'B 

B-b oCoporb 8.589.974 py6.; hto RpeAHT^ hx-b ao loro ynpoieHx, 
HTO FeHyascRift Cbhri h FoJiJiaHACRift npoAJiarajiH npHHaiB otb 
Haxii CToaBRO MaajniOHOB'B, crojibro HaAo6HO, no 3 npoaeHia bi* toa'b, 
HO OHHe He npHHaiH. Kpoirt loro b-b AORJiaA* yRasHBajiocB hto aia 
Kaana a&naeTca HaAejRHMniHMi» ocHOBanieM'B cyn^ecTBOBania BOcnH- 
TaiejiBHBixi AOMOBB Bi C.-neTep6yprt h Mocrb*, oCn^ee coAep- 
saHie ROTopbix'B cb BosMoacnoio dRonoMieio Aocinraexi eneroAHO 
AH^pBi 190.000 pyC, Ha noRpHiie rohx'b noayqaeica otb pasjia^- 
HBiXT* noacepiBOBamft HApyrHXT> hctohhukobt, t o .h b it o lu.Ono py6,; 
ocTaaBHbia 120.000 p. noKpuBaK>Tca aoxoa^mk irf^Ir*:tpiitmofl a 
CcyAHuiii RasnaM'B ^). ^ 



*) Cm. cd. noBpesji. Hpauoaij bi. Poccirr, iia.v ^^ 
') Cm. npHioscHie ^ 28. 





— 248 — 

OsHaHeHHHa I](H4)pU KpaCHOpt^HSie CHOWb CBEJS^KJlbCTByjOTb 

nojibsi, AOCTaBjieHHOlt OTOHeciBy ynpeaRxeHiflMH EeiiKaro. 

IIpeACTaBBVb HVLdkiejiawb o68opi pasHOoGpasHofi A'i^TeJiBHOCTH 
Bei^Karo no BocnniaiejibHOHy aomj, c^HTaeni HeofixoAHMuirb hi 
saRJiiOHeHie ynoM^Hyib eme o tomi, ito resepajiBHidfi njiaFL h 
ycTaau pa8JiHHHuxi> yipejEAenift, cocTaejieHfiHe Be^RHl^>9 Gush 
nepeBeAeHH na ^paHuyscKifl MUKh r. RjiepROtf'L h BSAaeu nojub 
HaCjuoAemeMi JI,HAepo (nanHcaBmaro He6oJiBnioe ri> HSAaHiio npe- 
AHCJiOBie) Bi Faari b'b 1775 r. 06i STOM'bHSAaHiH rpBincB, pacxo- 
HaBmiS BcerAa noxBajiu ERaTepHHu n, BiCBoefi cCorrespondances 
litt6raires> 1775. Juillet 99, decembre. p. 167, noMtcTHjrB 
OTdHBi>, BB ROTopoHi BucKasuBajn'b, ^0 3TH ycxaBu tla posterite 
regardera sans doute comuie un des litres les plus glorieux de 
notre sikleet il sera comme tous autres les monuments decerdgne 
fortune Padmiration des sages, Vexemple et la le^on des rois». 

IIpH aroMB HOJiBSfl TaRxe ne CRasaTB, hto no noHBHy Bei^Raro 
noHBEJicfl y nacB, laR^ cnasaTB, oahhi h8i> nepBuxi o^Hi^iajiBHux'B 
^ypnajiOBB, HSAaBaeBiBixi bb HacT0fln;ee BpeMfl bo MHOsecTBi 
pasjiH^HUMH B^AOMCTBaMH H yHpeacAeHlflMH. Mu roBopuTB oGb 
«H8BicxiflX'B Hmu. BocaHTaiejiBHaro Aona, ri* yAOBOJiBCTBiio o6nie- 
CTBa cjiyscan^EXB^^ . t Hhd. Bocn. ^oitb — roBopHJiocB bi npeAystAOM- 
jiemn ki> coGpaniioaTHxiHSBicTifi — nocTaBJiHfleAHHCTBCHHBiirBnpeA- 
MeTOMi CBOHMB npio6pi^TeHie odn^ecxBeHHOft AOB^peHHOCXH, ycTpe- 
MJuieTi Bce cBoe crapanie h ycepAie rb AOCTHseeiK) cefi a^jsh, no 
ycTaHOBJieHHuiTB B'B Heiii yHpe^AeHlflMi. Mnorie, BOs^yBCiBOBaBi 
cie H npoBHA^noJiBsy, noAaJiB snaRB, cooxai^TCTByiomjie HantpeHUiM'B 
CBrB yHpejRAeHifi. RaRi ceft, xaRB b npo^ie cjnynaE wb pascyjRAenie 

BSaBMHOCTB BXB MeJKAy BOCnBTaXeJIBHHM'B AOHOMB B UyfijlflROlO, 

AOCTOflEHe BHEManiA, odnsajiB ceA aomb coo6n^aTB efi (t. e. ny6jiflRi) 
Bce, HTO Racaeicfl ao Hyacnux'B rti cBiA'^Hiio o6iJ]CHeHifi no BAOBBeft, 
ccyAHofi B coxpaHHofi RasH*! ri nojn>3i o6ni;ecTBa dHBaeMuxi. Ob 
dTofl i^ijiiK), BaHBHafl CB SiHBapa 1778 r., ejReM^cflHHO BSAasajiBCB 
neqaxHue jibctu noA'b BMeneHi cHsBicii^ Hmu. Boc. Aona 
RB yAOBO sbctbIk) 06n^ecTBa cjiy«an^iA», bx ROTopuxB 
TaK2ce noM^n^ajiBCB b yBiAOMJienifl RaRi o pa8BBixi» BOcnBraxeJiB- 



OTMBTB T J B R HO BOCnBTaTejILQOMy AOMJ H COCTOflBDIHX'b npH HeUB JHpeS- 

AeHiHxil BeiiKofi xasi 6h Bupasajn^ hto bg coctoht'e riaBHUMB Ha^aikSH- 

KOHl MHOrHXB ApyiBXB yHpeXXenifi, SeCOMBiBHO HKB OCflOBaHHBIXB BJIB 

opeoCpasoBaBBHX'B, b 9to riaBBoe saBiA^BaBie bmh BOMOseHO yxe ea 

APyrBXB IBECL. 



— 249 — 

HOMy AOMjr yHHHeHHUX'b AOBipeHHOCTflXT), H806paHCaiOII^BX'b CaMUlfb 

A'&JioarL noJiBsu npeAaBnii[xi> aji^ pasHuxi HaifipeHlfi cboh saoiorH 
eify Ha noneHeeie, TaRi h to, hto hmh CA^jiaHO jijiR H6C0UHHTejii»- 

HOCTH Cefi AOeipeHHOCTH fffa^HOft HepyUIHMOCTH. 

TaiuH H8BicTiflH8xaBajiHCB Bi npoAOJiAeHie 1778 rofta, aiaiuRe 
1781, 1784 H 1887 r.; sa Apyrie roAHTaRifl hsb^ctIh naMi h6 
nonaxajiHCB. Bi^poATHO 6oji%8hb Bemcaro, BOcnpenATCTBOBaBinafl 
eiiy cuijsflTh 8a B8AaHi6M'B bthxi HSBicTifi n npsHEMarB bb dTOMi 
A^flTejiBHoe ynacTie, 6uJia npsnuiHOK) npeRpameHla AaJiBniflmaro 

BUXOAa HSB^CTift. 



rjIABA inECTAfl. 

JBocnHTaTejiBBoe 06mecTB0 6jaropoAHiixi A'^sm'B. — Mhcib o aaspiiTUX'b 
seacKHXi sasejieBUixi.— F-asa MoHTeHOHi h CeHi-CHpi.— 3a6oTU EMnepa- 
rpHKu EsaTepHHU II o sencBOM'b oCnasosaniH bi aameirB 0Te«iecTBt. — 
ycTaBi BocBBTaTeuBaro 06mecTBa 6jaTopoAB£ixi a^bhui, npeACTaBieHHuft 
BeoKBM'b HuaepaTpBiii 811764 r.— FjasBUA ero Ba^aia; cxoactbo ci ycxa- 
BOM'B Gefli-Cnpa. ~ OiBOineBie Bamero o6mecTBa XYIII BtBa ri dioM y 
yHpesAesiK).— ilepenHCBa BeAKaro ci CajTUKOBUHi.— Bjiijiflie Bemcaro Ba 
yqpezjieBBoe imi seacKoe y^e^aoe saBeAenie. — ynpexAeaie y^BiHn^a axr 
Maioi'&TBBX'b Htn^aBCBBxi x'^BymeK'B h ero BasBa^eBie. — HeyjiOBieTBopB- 
TejBBOCTb npeuoAaBaaiH bi osaaHeaauxi y^e6Bux'b saBexeaiaxi; saMiHaaifl 
no aroMy ooBoxy KoMMaccia o aapoAauxi yHBjan^ax'b 1782 roAa a efl npeA- 
noiozeaia Kh ycTpaaeaiE) saMiHeBaiiX'B aeAOCTaTEOBi. — npeAnoieseaie 
BeAKaro o CTaneaAiaiaxi. — Otsubu pasaHxi lam o A'^^Bauaxib BOcaaTii- 
BaBBiBxcfl Bi OOn^ecTBi 6jiaropoABUxi a'^bbi^i. 

BocnNTaTejibHoe OtiuiecTBO 6iiaropoAHbixi a'^bhub. 

„I1 est constant qae la maavaise 6da 
cation des femmes fait plus de mal 
que celle des hommes.puisque les des- 
ordres des hommes viennent souvent 
et de la maavaise education qu'ils ont 
recu de leurs meres et des passions que 
d'autres femmes leur ont inspire dans 
un &ge plus avanc6.'' (L'^ducation des 
filles — par M. Salignac de la Mothe 
F6n61on, 6dition 1719, p. Z). 

MUCJIB ^eHCRHX'B 3aRpHTBIX^ SaBeABHiaX'B BOBHERJia, 
CTBie OCOCUX'B 06CT0BTeJIBCTB'B, Bl) KaTOJIHHeCRHXl CTpi 
KOTOpUX'B, C% AaBHEXT* DOpi, pOABXeJIH OTAaBaJIH CBOBX^ 

wb lOHOH'B Boapacii, na BOCDHTame bi KaTOJiHiecRie moi 
Bi* cpeAHie Biaa die abjibjiocb 6e3cnopHO bbjihrhm'b GJiaro. 
FopasAO no3AH'le y»ce, npH JIioaobhr'^ XIY. nsBtcTHaa h 



r 




— 250 — 

mafl MeHTeHOHTi, xejian HCToprnyTb xeHniHHy, vh h^khoitb e^ 
Bospacri, es'b cpe^H o6mecTBa, pasepan^eHHocTB ROToparo aoxo- 

AHJia AO ^peSBUHafiHOCTH, no CBHA'bTeJIBCTBy MHOJReCTBa JlEJ^l, ocTa- 
BHBmHXl CBOH 8anHCKH 06'L dDOXi BCJlHRarO KOpOJU, BOBUH'kia 

BecBMa noJiesHoe jijih toto BpeMenn HaMipenie yqpeAHTB js^b At- 
BHui oco6oe saKpiiiToe BOcnBTaiejiBHoe saBeAeaie, bx ko- 
TopoMi HenopoMHaii iohoctb, OTptmeHHa^ orb oOn^ecTBa^ Morjia 
6uTb npeAOxpaHeaa otb Bceo6maro padBpan^emfl HpaBOBi> h nojry- 
HHTB BMi^crt CB T^iTB cooTB^TCTByioniee BocDHTanie H o6pa30BaHie. 
Ci 3T0K) ujkuhio r-aca MenreHOH^ bi 1686 r. ocHOBaJia iipio6piB- 
mee rpoMKyio nsB'ibcTHocTB ^ReHCRoe y^e6Hoe saBeAeHie bi* CeHi- 
Cnpi, (HocHBmee HasBaHie la raaisonroyalede Saint Cyr), 
B^ ROTopoe nocTynaJiH tojibro aIbhi](u 6jiaropoAHaro npoHCxosAe- 
Hifl, bb Bospacrt otb 7 ao 12 jitrB, h ocxaBajiHCB ao 20 arfeiB, 
nojiBsyflCB coBepmeHHo 6e8B03Me3AHHMi coAepacameirB. IIpaBHTejiB- 
HimeK) dxoro saBeAeHia 6uJia cana MeHreHOHi; HaiajoLBHEaeio ace 
ouaro H'i^RTO Bphhohb; sarbMi 6ujia ea noMomHHi(a, RasHaneflina, 
RjiaccHua HaASHpaTOJiBHHAu, yHHTejiBHHi^fii, 8R0H0MRa, ceRperapB, 

npBBpaTHHK'B. BoCDBTUBaeMHa AbBBOU paSA'l^JiaJIBCB Ha BOSpaCTH, 
ROTOpBie OTJIHHaJIBCB HO I^B^Ty DJiaTBeBl (ROpH^eeBUfl, sejueHBui, 

acejiTHa, roJiy6Hfl);B'BRaacAOMTi Boapacrt 6Brjio 5 bjib 6 OT^tJieHlft. 
BcTaBajiB BTi 6 nacoBB, cjiymajifl o6iAHio ao 8 lacoBi, saHBicaJiHCB 
Ao 12 HacoB^y o6i^AaJiB b OTABixaJiBAO 2-xb; cHOBa saHBuaJiBCB ao 
6 HacoB^ B jio^HjiBCB coaTB BB 9 HacoBB. Hdx saBeAeHUi a'^^bb^b 
He BunycRaJiB; BCRJiK)«ieHie bsi 3Toro npaBBJia AonycRaJiocB tojibro 
Bi caHBixB aRCTpeHHBix'B cjiy^aHxi; poabtojie mopjib bxi HaB^^qaTB 
Bii caHOM^ CeHx-CBpi hi> BSB'IcTHue AHB. Bet sanarifl 6ujib sa- 
npaBJICHH R-B TOMy, qioCBi pasBBXB B% A^BBAaxi BRyci RO BceMy 
SjiaropoAHOMy, opeRpacHOMy, BsamHOMy; bx-b snaROMBJiB ci oiene- 

CTBeHHBIMB HBCaTeJIflHB, y?BJIB DBCaTB BSBICRaHHUMB CJIOrOMl^ 

iipiyqaJiB 6eciA0BaTB ne^Ay co6ok) o BosBBnneHHHXi npeAHexaxB. 
IIpB dTOMi o6pan];ajiocB 6oJiBmoe BHBHame Ha o6xoacAeHie, 

B8BICRaHH0CTB Bl ROCTK)M%, Ha CB^TCRifl JIOCRl, MaHepBI B T. A- 

r-aca MeHTenoHi, bi cBoe Bpewa ^oct^^aBraaa 6jiecTan^ie cajiOBBi 
Bi* OTOJiflXB A'AjiBfiepB H PBmeJiBe, crpoMBJiacB toh-b cajioHOB'B co- 
o6mBTB ycTpooHHOMy BK) CoHB-CBpy B BBiicTfe CB itMi ciapajiacB 
BHyniHTB AiBBqaiTB jiioCobb rb ipyAy, RpoiocTB, fieaRopHcrie, npa- 
B^TJiBBOCTB, cocTpaAaHJe RB 6iAHUMi> B T. A. n BCHiecRB BCRopeaaiB 
Bx HBxi HaAMOHHOCTB, BiTpeHHOCTB, TH^ecjiaBie B Ji^HOCTB. ^Jiaa 
AOCiaBBTB A'^BBqaM^ noJiHoe snaHie ^pani^yscRaro H8BiRa(BX'B oie- 



— 251 — 

HecTBeHHaio), r-xa MeHxeHOHx qacio bi CeciAaxi cb hhhb npH- 
BOAHJia CTHXE, sacTaBJiJijia a'^bhi^ AeimaMHpoBaTB Jiymain cu^bu 
H8i Tpare^ifi PacHHa b nocieneHHO Aomjia ao* Toro, hto a'^bbuu 
CTaiH HrpaiB a^^jiuh TpareAiB, npn ^ewh nepiAKO npHcyTCTBOBajii 

H CaiTB KOpOJIB JlfOAOBHRl XIY, HaXOAHBIDift OCOfieHHOO yAOBOJlB- 

CTBie nocin^aTB CeH^-CHp^. 

3to b^ cbok) onepeAB pasBHBaJio bi Ai^BHaaxit HeManoe cano- 
MHteie^ TmecjiaBie, crpacTB r'b CBikTCKisMb yAOBOJiBCTBiflHi, aTaKxce 
ocTpoyMHBift HaciftniJTHBBifl rowb pasroBopa (bel esprit), HsucKae- 
Hoe ({)pa8epcTB0 h t. a. MeHieHOHi saniTHJia sto h p'i^mHJiacB ca%- 
JiaTB nepeMifly ^). Bi 1694 roAy Cee'B-CHp'B (mh, KaKi ero SBajiH 
Tafutce Institut des dames St. Louis) nocji'l 6jiecMmaro nepioAa 
o6paTHJiCH wb HOHacTupB ABrycTHHOR'B, BonpeRH scejiaeiio Ropoji^. 
BocDHTaTejiBHHipi AOJixHu 6ujiH AaBaTB MOHamecRie o6%tbi h ca'6- 
jiaTBCii nojmHHH MonaxBH^HH. CufiEE^ecma npeACTasjieHlH npe- 

RpaTHJUHCB; 8a60TJIHB0CTB BH^OIHeM'B JIOCR'lb, JIHTepaTyp"!, JRHBOft 

6ectA'6, ocTpoyifiH, HSJin^ecTBt cajioHOBi— 6HJia noRHHyTa; a^bh- 
JijakWb CTaJiH BHymaTB 6litb BOSAepsaHHUMH bi ^TeeiE e BcerAa 
npeAnot[flTaTB eny pyROA^^Jiie e saHATin no xos^ftcTBy. 

FjiaBHUMl HaCJia3KA6HieM'B BOCnETaHHEU'B GeH'B-Gflpa ^BEJiaCB 

xenepB MysuRa e Es^n^Hoe pyROA^Jiie. 

MenreEOH'B ciajia safioxETBca o tomi, ^to6iiI BOcnETaHHEmj 
611JIE 6u He TOJiBRO xopomflME xpECTiaHRaME, HO HT06u OHii 6hjie 
Wb cocTOflHlE yAOBJieTBopflTB TjiaBHOMy CBoeny HasnaHemK), xetb 
Bi> chirb — T. e. 6ujie 6bi chocoChh echojihhtb Bci npeACTonmiB 

BWh Bl »R3HE OGflSaHHOCTE, HO TOJIBRO Bl CeMBt, HO E Kb 06nie- 
CTB'6. 

MeHTeHOHi Bb 6eciA£txi> co cbohme BocnBxaHHEaaHE ho crb- 
CHfljracB yRasuBaTB eitb Hpa^iHUA CTopoHu hceshe, saTporEBajia 
caMue n^OROTJiEBue Bonpocu, HEHero otI) hexi ne cRpusajia e cTa- 
panacB Bca^ecRE BBiSBaxB b% hexi ^bctbo qecTE e coCcTBOHHaro 
AOCTOEHCTBa. Jijmoio dToro npeo6pa30BaHHaro CeHi-GBpa 6ii]Jia 
no-npe^HOMy r-jKa MeHTeHoni), bq bi cEJiy CBoero noJiOKeHlfl 6jie8- 

ROfl OCOCU Kb KOpOJIK), HO HOTOMy, RTO OHa ABJIflJiaCB BA^aJIBHOK) 



*) Goo6iaaeMi aobojibbo noApo6HO CeHi-CHpcKOMB saBeAeslH cb t^mb, 
HT06U qHTaTejB mofb cemb cyxHTB, HacROiBso dTo saBeAeeie nocjysHio 
o6pa3UOMB apR y^pesAealH bb Hameiii oTenecTBi BocaHTaTeiBHaro 06ii^e- 
CTBa6iaropoAHHXBX'bBHUB. 9th cBiA^fliJi noHepoHyTU hsb coHHeeHiji Theo- 
phile Lavall^e — ^Histoire de la maison royale de Saint-Gyr*. Ch. raRze 
CTaTBD HyMHKOBft BB jsypHaat nBocnHTaHie*". 1857 r*, t.I, ct. 323 h ci^x* 



— 252 — 

HacTasHHAeK) no npHSBaHiio ^). drjswb o6i»H9HfleTCfl ci oahoA cto- 
poHU ycnixi h rpoMKa^ HSBiciHOCTB CeHi>-CHpa bo $paH^iH, a Cb 
Apyroft H HeyAana nonuTOR'L eny noApasaTB, CA'i^aHHuxi wb 1 8-in> 
CTOJi'ibTiH Bi> pasHHX^ OBponeficRHxi rocyAapcTBaxTi, r^t BBOAHJiHCb 
MepxBua 6yRBu ycTasa, cociaBJieHHaro MeHTeHOHii, ho 6e8i TOfi 
^HBHTOJiBHOfl, DeAarorBHecROft AyniH, ROTopoK) OHa 6BiJia caMa 
npoHHRHyia, h ROTopyio bcoij^jko nocB^THJia ocHOBaHHOify eio sa* 
BeAOHiK). HsBicTHOCTb CeHi-CHpa TauRe noCyjRAana Kb ero noci- 
meHlK) Bcixi» 6ojiie hjih uewke BUAStiomnxoa HHOCxpaHaeBi, nepe- 
CHBaBiDHX'L B^ IlapHjRt Wb Xyni ctoji%t1h. Hsb^ctho, hto h Ilerpi 
BeJiHRifi, HaxoAHCbBi 1717 roAy bx ctojihi^ ^paHi^iH, nociTHjrb 
CeHi-Cnp's ^). He noAJieaarL coMEriHiK), hto h BeD[Koft ^), naxo- 
AHCB AOJiroe BpeMH bi> napHHci, bi HHCJii paanaqEHxi ero aocto- 
npHMi^aTejibHOCTeft ocMaipHBajii 8to yqe6Hoe saBOAeme, ROTopoe 
6hjio xaRjRe hsb^ctho h EKaTepnHi 11, RorAa ona 6ujia em;e bbjih- 
ROfi RHflrHHefi, RaR'B U07RU0 saRjiiOHBTb H31 cJitiAyK)ii;eft 83 sa- 
MiiRH *): «yqpexAeHie CeH'B-CHpa: jiyHniHMT» h 6ojaite yAoCHum 
cpeACTBoifB noApaauiTb eny cb nojuBsoio 611J10 6u BUSBaiB HaciaB- 
HHi](y RJiaccoBX, a aomi h AeHBni JierRO CHOQrTca; qTo6u HOBtiRAU 
He RpHHajin npoTHBB (j^panuyscRoft MOHaxHHH n oa epecn, hbaoGho 
noA*B BBAOBCB HacTHaro BOcnHTaek aatb eft b'b Haiajrb oCpasoBaiB 

OAHy HJIH AByXl CHpOT'B, ROTOpBie HOTOITB CA^JiaiOTC^ CaMH BOCHH- 

TaTejiBHHuaMH y»e wb y^ipe^Aenie. TaRHUi o6pa30M'b npesi* Hi- 

CROJIBRO JitTB MOJRHO 6UJI0 6bI o6o8tHCB 6631 $paHi;yjReHOR'B». 

no BcxyiuieHiH CBoescB Ha opecTOJi'B HMnepaipHnia ^) ERaxe- 
pHHa II, nocxaBEBi o6ii;eio i^^jibk) cbohxi npeo6pa80BaHift rpax- 

*) IlQCBHa r-sH MoHTeHOH'B, HBAaHHLifl vb nepB£ift pad's B^ 1752 r. Jla- 
6oMeieM'B, saRiDHaiorb bi ce6i atiuS nejiarorHqecRift xypci. MeHTeHOH'B 
yuepia b% 1719 roAY- OcHOBaHHHft se bk) CeHi-CHpi npocymecTBOBajii ao 
1793 r., Korxa AeKpeTOMi aaiiioBajBBaro co6paHifl 16 Mapra oe'b 6£iji> yhh- 
HToseni, a caHoe sxaBie ero o6pao;eflo Bib rocnHTajB. Ho yse vb 1801 r. 
BHicTO rocaHT&iA noMin^eBa bi dTOMi se sAaaiH mKOia MajiB^HsoBB, a aa- 
Th^i-b cneniaiLBO BoeHHoe ytiHJiHiiie, CKopo Dpio6p'J^BQiee rpoMsyK) Hsr&CT- 
uocTB. OAHHinse H3X lyHDiBxi seflCKHXi jme6Rux'b saBCxeBift fn> Ilapnxt 
Bii npomjiOMB B'^Ki. T. e. XVIII, cqHTaiocsyse He Cch'b-Cbp'b, a Panthemont^ 
a Tasse Abbaye aux bois. (Cm. Pycc Ciap. 1892 r. (J)eBp., ct. 248). 

') npHnouHHM'b yEaa-B Ilexpa I 24 JtHBapa 1724 r , KOToptifi, onpex'^flfl 
nfbAh MOHamecTBa cjiy2EHTB CTpasAaDmeiiy ^ejOBiHecTBy, BMtcri^ ci Tbu 
npeABBCUBai'B MOBaxHBAH'B BocHHTHBaTB cflpox'B o6oero noia, a aa- 
xtMi CB DJiTH lixi— 6 y q a T B Bxi rpaxoTi. 

^) no cjiOBavB A. 0. GMHpHOBofi (CM. e& 3anHCRH, x. I, cxp. 67, hsa* 1895 t.)» 
„BeABoft 6uji> nocjian'B bi CeHi-GHpi'^ EiHsaBeTOi), npH leMi, soHe^HO. 
cioBO EmaaBeTOH) AOJa^HO c^HxaxB hih o6MOJiBicoK) asTopa, hjih soppeRxyp- 
HOK) onra6soio. 

*) Cm. C6op. Hm. Pyc. Hct. 06., x. 17, cm 82. 

*) Cm. McTopiH) PocciH, C CojoBBesa, t. aXIV, ex. 41. 



— 253 — 

xaHCRoe CjiaroAeHCTBie noAA&HHUX^^ CTpeuHJiacB nyTeirb BocnHTa- 
Hi2 CA^iiaTB KascA&ro xopomHifb HanoBiROH'B h nojiesHuirb rpajsAa- 
HHHOM'b H BBfiCTi CL T^Mi, QO cjiOBaifi TenjioBa, HcnpaBHTb cepAi^a 
H HpaBti Hapoxa CBoero npesi* BocnHTaHie, ROTopoe noHHxaeTCH 
HCTOHHHROiTB Bcero Bi CB^T^ HGJiOBi^HecRaro 6jiaronoJiyHiH. «G'b 
8T0K) i^BK) Efl BejiHHecTBO coHSBOJiHJia noBejoiTB HaMi, nnmerb 
TenjiOBT», ^To6ii h u npeACxaBeoiB na Bfiico^ajftmee 6jiaroycMOTp'6- 
Hle nuaai ajih y?pe;RAeHiH bo bc%xi> ryCepni^xi h sHaTHtfiniHrB 
npoBHHiUJixi Bcero rocysapcTBa laREXii naHciOHHux'L aomobi, bi 
KOTopuxi 6h 6 e r nojia Kkrn no npnjiHHlio oCynaeifH 6ujih 
npH cTporoiTB BOcnHTaHiH, 6jiaroHpaBiH h t. a.» ^)- TenjiOB'B ho 
yRasuBaerB, Roro aojisho pasyifi^TB doa'b cjiOBaMHM m u h Ham, 
HO y^e OAHH dTE cjioBa a^ioti ocHOBanie saRJiioiHTb, hto HMae- 
paipHqa, HHTepecyncB o6n^eo6pa80BaTejibHUMH saBeAenlnMH jtfls. 
Aiieft ofioero noJia, nopy^ana ne OAHony TenjioBy, ho h ApyrHMx 
JiHi^airB npeACTaBHTB eA npoAnojioseHlH no dTOBty Bonpocy. 

K'B HHCJiy JKe THROBUXB JIHI^l CB HaH60JIBmeK) OCHOBaxeJIBHO- 

ctIh) uoscho npzHHCJiHTB: Bei^Raro, RaRi npeACTaBHBmaro wb 
Hanajii 1764 roAa ycTaB7> BOcnHTaniH AByxcorB CjiaropoAHUxi a*^-- 
BHin» Bi> neTep6yprb, HFoJiHUHHa, nocJiaHHHRa bi Bint, RaRi 
BHAHO HffB cjAAyH)maro ^). 

Fenepajix-nopyHHR'B h noJinoMO^Huft mhhhctpb BBmi> bi Bini, 
AuHTpIfl MsxaflJiOBB^ FojiniiuFB, Bi H0H6p% Hicfli](i 1763 r. 
nojiyqBJi'B cJi'bAyK)nuft BucoHaftmifi yRasi ^): 



*) 3to MBiBie rpnropifl HHKOjaeBHqa Teniona o npoBHHii[iaiBHHxi> 
nrsoiaxi 6e3'B osHa^eHifl HHCja h roxa noMinieHO wb ^yp. M. Hapox. 
IIpocBikmeHiji 1844 r., v. 43, ota. Y, npn ^eH'b on pexaKi^iH saMtieHo, hto 
.dTOTb jiK>6onuTH£ifi AORyMeHTi* npHBaxiejEHTB RB Banaiy i^apcTBOBaeiH 
HicnepaTpHKH'*. 

^ Hei&sA Be ynoif AHyTB laKse, hto, no cioBaMi C. M. GoJOBBeBa (Hcto- 
piii PocciH. T. XaVI, ct. 47), ynpaBJARmift HOBopoccificROio ry5epHieio MeiB- 
ryHOB% noxHOCHJiB Bb 1764 r. Tasse xoRjaxB, vb kotopoh'b npe^nojaraj'B 
Bctei jiaiojtTHHX'B 6paTB vh niKOiy; BeHnyn^Hxi h cnporB coj(ep3BaTB na 
KoaeHHOMi KOinTi; 3a nayRy hh cb Koro Hniero ne Tpe(3oBaTB. aih aen- 
cuaro noiaTaROft se BocDHTaTeiBHEcft aomi y^pe^HTB. ^nsBceronocitxyerB— 
roBopHiB MejiBTyHOBB-HeHaioe nonpasjieHie cypoBuxi h aecTOROcepAUxi> 
oOuHaeBii, 600600011% GiaroapaBHux'B sesmRBBi a oco6ihbo h to BsopeeuTB 
BecBMa aysHo, qTo6Ei seamBBu cb ujiaxeH^ecTBa o6y>iaiHCB h npHBURaiH 

6ll K'B AOMOCXpoftCTBy H BCHROfi npHlH^HOfi pa50T6. Jlia CEpOTB H yBi^HUXl— 

5oiBHHUiy, a a-ia npHsasHHX'B A'^xefi— aomu y^ipeAHTB aa saaenHOM'B RoniTi, 
AaOu BO Bcem ceiesiH HHn^aro h cTpaHCTBynmaro, Tasate h 6e3BHHBaro 
Kjaxeuua, 6e8B npHspiBia He HazoAHiocB. (11. C 3aK. 2^ 12099). 

') G^HTaeMB HeOOXOAHHUMB OTHOCHTeiBHO nOHtn^aeMUX'B HHSe AOKyMBH- 
TOBl C006mHTB, HTO TaSOBUe 6eIJH 06fl8aTeiBH0 COOCfl^eHU MHt AJIH 

CMOTpa 6KBmffH'B HaiaiBBBKOXB MocROBCsaro ApxHBa M. H. A- ^ap 
BoijepoM'B (fiOToparo a ao uoctiueHia apxHBa ne hm^ii 4ecTH seaTr 



— 254 — 

c^epjRacB HenpeM^HHO BSHiaro eaMH OAHaJKAu npasHJia, ^toC-l 
cuoco6cTBOBaTB BcknoL cHjiaMH 6jraronoJiyHiK) sipHuxi* HamHX'B 
noAAaHHHxi, HairipeHH Mu hi nojiBsy ABop^HCTBa CAtoiaTB noBoe 
yqpesAOHie, RaK'L JtJifl BOcnHTaeifl CjiaropoAHUxii a^bhi^, TaK'b n 

AJIH npnCTaHHma d'bAHUMI ABOpflHCRBH'B BAOBaiTb, C06CTBeH- 

Haro nponHTaeiJi ne HMtontzBi'L, Bi> cem nairbpeHiH, SHan, qxo 
BO MHorHxi MtcTaxi ecTb hoaoChuh cevy y^peacAeHin, noBejrlBaeiTB 
MuBaifB ynoTpe6HTB CTapame, Aa^u nocRopte AOCTaiB noApo6Hiifl 
onHcaHia Bciwh hjih jiyqmHii'B wh seiiJiaxi ea HMnepaTopcRaro Be- 
jinqecTBa IlMnepaTpHaBi RopojieBU HaxoABn^HifCH jReHCRHiCB ioth^- 
TaMi ^) BJiB AOtfaMi, Aft^Bi OHua SAtcB HibROTopuH'B odpasoMi. Wb 
npHH'bp'B H 3a ocHOBanie no Bu6opy cnyxiiTB mofjih. M bi ojRHAaeiTB 
HOMeAJieHHO Bamero oTB^Ta h npeGuBaeifB HMnepaiopcROK) Ha- 
meio MHJiocTiK) 6jiarocRJiOHHBi». 

^aHo BB C.-neTep6ypri, HoaCpa 1-ro A^a 1763 r. IIo Ea 
HMnepaiopcRaro BeJiH^ecTBa yRasy noAQHcajii H. IlaHHH'B h RHasB 

A. FOJIHI^UHB. 

RnasB Ji^. M. FoaHmaHi CTapajica, RaR^ ohi> aohochjh, o CRopM- 
meMi HCQOJiHeHiH npeAnacaHHaro noBOJiteia, ho no npH^HHi mho- 
rsxi cnpaBOR^ h pasjiH^mixi o6cToaTejiBCTB'B, o Roxopuxi naAJie- 
»ajio ocB^AOMJiaTBca OTHOCBTeaBHo HaxoAanKHxca bi SAi^mHeiTB 
ropoA* (Btnt), laRHce b-b Hpecfiypri h Ilparb, — xeHCRHX'B HOHa- 
CTBipaxi>, HOHBTaeMux^ sa Jiyqniia npeAi) npo^HMn, Mori tojibro 
19/24 A6Ra6pa 1763 r. nocjiaTB BcenoAAaHHt&mee npeAcraBJie- 
nie CB leiupBHa npujiojEemaMH, ROTopBia 6ujin nojiyneHBi 2 aH- 
Bapa 1764 roAa Bi IleTepOyprt h nepeAaHH, A-^a noAHecema £a 
HMuepaTopcROMy BeJiniecTBy, ero npeBOcxoAHieJiBCTBy H. Hb. Ila- 
HHHy 3 reHBapa, RaR'B bhaho hsii CA'i^JiaHHOfl OTMixRH. B'b dtHX-B 
opHJioaceHiax'B, RnasB Fojihi^bih'b na ^pani^yscROirB asuRi HSJia- 
raJOL-B noApoCHo ycipoftcTBO cutAyJornHx-B acencRHxi yHefiHHXi aa- 
BeAenifi, cyniecTBOBaBnmx'B bi> aBCTpiflcRod Himepm: 

1) MoHacTHpB BH3HTauiH B'B Btui (Couvent de la Visita- 



no JH^HOMj ero ycMOTptfiiK), 6e8i BCASofi Moefi o tomi npocB6u. fiapoH*b 
jtHHEO mhI) Bpy^Hii dTH KOKyMeHTu, BB ROTopiix'b HM'j^jiacb BOMiTsa: A'bia 
CHomeBiS Pocciu ci ABCTpieio YI. 25 i±bu&^ 111. Yienne, kh. 3, 4. Bupa- 
saTb MOE) rjy6oKyBD npHSBaTejBHocTB r. 6apoHy Biojiiepy, Bust yse yiiep- 
meMy, ejiBa jh 6yAeTi cBoeBpeMeaBO, bo c^uTaio AOJiron yRasarB na qpes- 
MtpByiD npejiyopeAHTejibBOCTB 6apoBa ki 3aHBMaH)meHycA, KOTopoK), si co- 
jsaj'^fliio, He Bcb Hana^BBBKH apxaBOBi o6jaiLaEaTi>. 

O^eBHABO, oTi H'^HeuKaro cjosa das Stift, KOTopoe osaaqaexi — sa- 
vhTb, BKjaA'B, yqpesA6Bie, bi oco6eBBOCTH eaecsoacTeo, MOHacTupB, 6ojb- 
HHua, romaHTajiB h i. a* (cm. cjioaapB AAeiyara). 



— 255 — 

tion de Vienne) ocHOBan'B bt> 1717 r. HMnepaTpHAeio AnaJiieK), 
cynpyrot locH^a. ^Jiaa yjiy^mHib dTO saBOAenie, HUHt i^apciBVio- 
maflHi[nepaTpiii^a(Mapia-Tepe3ifl) BunBcajia usi IlapEJKa h HaHCH 
00061 xoHCRaro nojia a^a oCy^eHlfl HCTopin, reorpa(f)iH h $paHi;y3- 
CKaro ^siiRa. MoHaxHHH HaASHpaiorB sa BOcnBTUBaeMUHH a^bh- 

I^aifH HCKJUOHBTeJIBHO ABOp^HCKaiO Dp0HCX0«A6HiH, KOTOpUfl nO- 

crynaiorb 7 — 10 jiirB, ociaiOTca ao 18 Jitrb, ne OTJiyHaflCB Bce 
BpoHA H31 CT^H'b KOHacTHpfl ^). IIjiaTa sa BOcnHTaHie, 300 ryjiB- 
AOHOBi BT> roAi), BHOCHTCA BoepoA'B no nojiyroABO. 

2) soHCKifi MOHacTHpL BoFOMaTepH wb npec6ypri (couveDt 
des dames de la Congregation de Notre Dame h Presbourg) ocho- 
BaffB BT» 1747 roAy, bi KOTopufl a^bhi^h nocTynaJiH ct 4-xt> Jito- 
HJiro Bospacia h ociaBaJiHCb ao 22 jiirB, cb ojiaTOH) wb roAi> no 
200 ryjibAenoB-B. 3) MonacTHpB bi Ilpari ocHOBantB^ 1753 roAy 
AJUi A'^BHi^'b Bucmaro ABopaHCTBa (oH'b nasuBajicfl le chapitre des 
chanoinesses seculi^res a Prague sur le Bat sc bin, i.e. bi 
FpaA'iHH^t — HacTH ropoAa IIparH). 

IIpH aiOM'b RHflSB FoJIHniHH'B AOHOCHJI'B, HTO AiBHABI SHaTHHX'B 
^aMBJulA ptAKO OTAaiOTCfl BT) MOHaCTUpH, HO BOCnHTUBaiOTCH AOMa 

y poAHTOJiefi; ABOpflHCTBO xe sroporo KJiacca noeAHHOMyneAO- 
CT a T R y noHTH BcerAa OTAaen* cbohxx Aonepefi bi ^encRlfi Mona- 
CTKipB AJiA BOcnHTani^, ROTopoe, nnmerB rhhsb Fojihi^uh^, pas- 
cyjKAafl Boo6n^e, mo^ho nassaTB HesasHAHHM'B h, mhetca 
MHi^, He CTOJiB AOCTaTo^Hoe RaRi BO $paHiuH. Cie AORaauBaeTCH 

Tbu% HTO no HtROTOpOMl BpeMOHE pOABTeJIH, 0T6HpaA A^TOfl CBO- 

Hxii HS'B MonacTupeft, npEBBMaiorb ajih hexi en^e b^ aohh cboh 

paSHHXl yHETeJieft. ][jin 6iAHHX'B ABOpflHCRHXTi BAOBl He EH'leTCfl 

ocoGjiBBaro bi nojiBsy cexb yqpejRAeHU, a MHorie bs'bhex'b nojiy- 
HaiOTi* OTh ABopa nenciK) h JKEsyrB no M0HacTiiip^M'B.> 

He MHoro nosjKe 20/31 AeRaCp^ 1763 roAa rhasb Fojihi^bihi 
npeACTaBBJn Ea BejiEiecTBy npE panopit noApo6Hoe onBcanie 
aeHCRaro MOHacTwpH bi CeH'B-IIejftTeH'b ^), npn ROTopoMx cyn^e- 
CTBOBaJio BOcnETaxeJiBHoe o6n^ecTBO ajih GjiaropoAHux'B a'^bhi^b noKb 
HasBanieMB cTetablissement des dames anglaises de 
S t.-H ippolyteou S t.-P e 1 1 e n. ^ecjio BOcnEiBiBaeMHX'B 6hjio 
o^OHB orpaHHHeno, He 6ojrbe 40; nociynajin Kb Bospacii 4 — 5 



*) Bi Bint 6hjh bi to BpeMii h xpyrie MOHacTupe, rfti BOcoHTUBa- 

2BC& A'^BHUn paaiHHHBIXli COCJOBifi H paSJH^BHZl BOSpaCTOBli, KOTOpUXl 

roJBKBH'B TaKse KpaTRO yaoHHHaeT'B. 

MicTe^BO vh HHSHefi AbctpIh, bi bocbmh hhjaxi ot^ B^^hu. 



— 256 — 

jrbrb, ocTaeajmcB ao 20; njiaiHJiH 165 ryjibAeHOBi B'b foa'b; sa 
o6yieHle uysuKb^ TaHAain», pHCOBaHiio ojiaTHJiH oco6o. Jliioirb js^- 
Bmnfii TyjiBjm wb ca^y; 8Hm oft «e jifla pasBjieHeHia HrpasH ^paei^s- 
CRifl TpareAiH h Apyriii cooTBiiCTByioiiafl hx% Bospaciy h nojiy 
DBecu. dxH npoACiaBJieHi^ 6£ijie o6ii^eAOCTynHH, ci i^ijibio pasBH- 
Tia cifbiocTH Bi A'bBHi](axi H 6oJiBniaro naBiiRa bo j^paeiqrscEOM'L 
ssshiKi (pour les euhardir et les mieux former dans la langue 
frangaise.) 

MoscHO He 6e3'b ocHOBaHlH npeAnojioacHTb, hto ho OAHOMy 
TOJiBRo uameicy npoACTaBHTejiio bi Bint tuno npeAHHcaHo Aocra- 

BHTb nOApo6H£Ifl OQHCaHifl SeHCRHXl IIITHl{»T0Bl>, HaXOAHIIlHXCA Vb 

pasjiHHHUxi FOcyAapcTBaxi h ?to HamH npeACTasHTeJin npH Apy- 

PHX-B HHOCTpaHHUX^ ABOpaXX, BtpOATHO, TaR«e AOCTaBHJDITaRiH jse 
OUHCaHifl RaRl RHflSb FOJIHaUH-b, ^) ROTOpUA H MOFJIH DOCJiySBTB 

HeMaiOBaacHUM'b MaTepiaJioirb Bei^ROMy, nps cociaBJieBiE Em 
ycTaBa BOcnHTaHla AByxi cotb SjiaropoAHuxi a^bei^b, ynpexAeH- 
Haro Bi IleTepCyprfe bx 1764 roAy» 

3TorB ycTaBi, coHHHeHHHft reHopaJTB-nopy^ERoiTB Beipunrby 
RaRx nsmyn bi cboobtb BcenoAA&HHMmeirb npeACiaBjieHiE pas- 
CMaTpflBaBmie onuft no BucoHaftmeMy noBejr6HiH> rhhsb niaxoB- 
CROfi, naHEHi, MflHExiy Gopplft FarapEHi, rpaij^'B FpEropift OpjiOBi 
E RHJisB A. Fojifli^H'B, 6ujrB BucoTOflme yTBep^eHi> HnnepaTpE- 
^eH) 2 Maa 1764 r. *). 

Owb B'B oCnvLXi HepTaxx coctobtb b'b cJi^Ayion^eirB. BiBocee- 
TaTOJiBHoe Ofin^ecTBO 6jiaropoAHHxi a^bhitb npEHEMaiOTCJi tojibro 



') npHnoEHHBi 6jiH3Kia OTHomeHifl 5eAKaro ch KHAsem Jl. M. To jhaubhii i, 
MOSHO He 6e3'b ocHOBamfl xohjcthtb, ito yctaBu iiHorHxi seHcsHzi yneC- 
HEixi BaBexenift wb AbctpIh 6yjH HSBicTBu BeuKOMy qpesB coA'iftcTBie 

KHBSfl. 

HeHSBd^cTHO Bo^eMy r. 6apoB'L Biojjepi roBopHTi „^to mosho AoraAUBaTBCA 
HTO J[a4»0H'B BUBHcaia AJB Eemcaro ycraBi saseAeHiH vb GeB'b-Gup'&; owb 
6ui'b ch HeK) xoponio 3HasoMi, Kasi cb <i>paHKyseBKofi. (cm. Pyc. CTapsBa 
1890 r. H. I. CT. 814—818) Ha neMB ocHOBUBaeTCji noxo6HaA Aoraj^na 6apoHa 
Bnijepa—He yKasuBaeTca hub 

Uo cioBaMB se asropa cxaTBH bb JKypeaidk niKeHCKoe 06padOBaHie* 
1878 TOA'h J^ 6—8. nOnepKH hsb HCTopiH xeHCKaro BocnsTaBiji wb PoccIh*', 
Bensofi BB 611ITHOCTB Bi IlapHxt nocintaiB CeHi-CHp'b, osBaRoiiBicA ci ero 
nocTaHOBJieBiavH, npHEBJi ero 3a o6pa3euB h nepeHecB MHoria ero npaBHia 

B'b CBOfi yCTaBB. — OqCBB SaiB,^TO BBTOpi HB^iMB HC BOATBepSAaeTb CBOE 

cioBa. 

') 9totb ycTaBB BOMinieHB bb II. C. 3. 1764 r. J& 12154, BOAOSiaAa, Bpn 
KOTopoMi BeoKift opeACTaBjfliB ero HHnepaTpnui, He HMteTca bh bb IIoj- 
BOEi Co6paBiH 3aK0B0BB, HH B'b ApxHBt UpaBRTejibCTByiDnKaro CenaTa, bb 
ROTopoHB xpaBHTca TOiBRO ycTaBB BocHHTaTeibHaro o6iiiecTBa 6iaropoAHuxB 
jitBHUB H mTaTi oHaro, ^eiso aepeaHcaHBue, ho hh KtMB ne noAnHcaHHue. 
Cm. Ap. IIpaB. CenaTa SHBra Buc. yEasoBi jyi* III, CTp. 14 h cJiix- 



— 257 — 

jraita seHCRaro nojia, ABopjracKaro npoHCxoxAeHiJi otb 5 h He 
ciapme 6 jrbrb, sAopoBaro cjioxemiiy npencTaBHBmifl AORasaTaoB- 
CTBa o CBoeiTb SBopflHCROiTB npoHCxoag^emH, a Taiuse o npHBoxiH 
ocnu, npH ^ewb Menie AOcraTo^HinrB OTxaeTM npexno^TOHie npex^ 
XOcraTOHHUMH. PoAHrejiH o6flBaHii jifijb noAnnCRy, hto no co5ctb6h- 
HOMy zeJiamK) OTjtaiarb pe66HRa h npenopynaiorb ero 06ii^ecTBy 
coBepmeHHo ao 1 8-th JiiTnaro Bospacra, TaR'b ito a o AOcnuRenlA 
dTHxii jrlrb He SyAyrb Tpe6oBaTB ero o6paTHo hh hoa^ RaRHin* bh- 
AOJTb. npHHflTSH HOJiyHaHyrB OAexAy h Bce coAepsame otb bochh- 
TaiejiBHaro 06n^ecTBa. IIo mraTy nojuarajiocb 200 a^^bhi^b, TaRB 
HTO wh nepBiift npieiTb naAJieiRajio npHHiiTb Bcero 50 a^bhi^. Bos- 
pacTOBi (RjiaccoBi) nojiarajiocB neiupe; ohh OTJiHHajiHCB i^BiTOUi 
HOCHicaro njnaTBH, HHeHHo: bi Bospacrt otb 6 ao 9 jtbTb — ro- 
pHHHeBaro ii[BiTa luiaTBA: otb 9 — 12 jAtb roJiyCoro; otb 12—15 

Ciptia H OTB 15 AO 18 JliTB — 6ijIUfl. 

FjuiBHoe ynpaBJiOHle bcImb OSn^ecTBOMB bb^phjiocb HeTupeMB 
noDeHHTejijiMB hsb BHaTHuxB oco6b (cenaropoBB h ApyraxB hmohh- 

tJITb UHHOBB), ROTOpUfl AOJURHOCTB CBOK) OTHpaBJIAIOTB HOOepe- 
MtHHO, HSB OAHOfl HBCTH H JIi06BH RB 6jlIHJRHeiCy, SaC^AaH BB 
CoSpaHlH RaRB AHH COBiTa H CBHAiTBJIBCTBa ABOpSHCTBa MOJIOAHXB 
A^BBI^, TaRB H JSflB BROHOHIh. 

HanajiBHHpa HicieTB bck> BJiacTb bb pacnopAJReniflXB Bcero 

AOMa H HBAB BCilin BB A0JURH0CT2XB HpH OHOMB HaXOAHm;HMHCJi; 

nane Bcero CTapaoTca coAepxaTB npeAnncaHHuft bb ycTBB'b nopa- 
AOkb; AOJiaRHOCTB BTa HRO BajRHiflmaJiTpe6yeTB BeoiHRaro none^enifl 
TOMB, hto6b 6utb eft BciuE BB 06mfiCTB'b jik)6hmo& h HO^HTae- 
Mofl. Ofla AOJiJRHa HOAaBBTB npHicipB OTJiH^HOft AoOpoAtieJiH, npe- 
BOCxoAHiBmaro AOCTOHHCTBa h bc^xb rbxB RanecTBB, RaRHXB ea 
HHHB H BasRHaa AOJraiHOCTB Tpe6yK)TB. Otb bojuh est saBHCHTB pac- 
npeA^^TB npH AOiri Bcb aojishocth, RacaioouiiCfl ao BOcnHTanLa, 
oCy^eHlJi H coAepsank; ifoxerB HopaAHBuxB yBOJiBHATB. 

BjiaropasyMie h HCRyccTBO bb nocTyuRaxB ona AOJiJRHa cooah- 
HHTB CB RpOTOCTilO H HenpHHyxAeHHOK) BecojiocTiK); eft npoAOCTaB- 
jiHeTCJi npoMumjiflTB o bcomb tomb, ^to no co6cTBeHHOMy ea 
HsoCpbTemH) sa Jiynmee h noJiesHiftmee jifla nop^AKa, ycnixa, 
6jiarococTO)iHia, a Hannane jsflH BocnHTania a'^bhi^b npHsnaHo 6y- 
AeTB, ROTopua, URO AparoA^^HHuft A^^ HeB, AJiH rocyAapcTBa h 
OTOHecTBa saJiorB, BBipeeu fijiaropasyMHOMy en none^eelio. 

IIpaBHTeJiBHHKa octb BTopaa oco6a no rocno»% Hanajib- 
HHi^; noMon^EHqa bb bojihrhxb TpyAaxB n ynpasHeninxB nepaofl, 

B. H. BBAKOfi. 17 



— 258 — 

OHa ^ojismsL HafijiiOAaTB sa HaABBpaiejiBHHi^aMHy y^HTeoiBHHi^aHH, 
CJi^AHTb CL RaRBicB ycir6xoHi ;^BHipi BOcnHTueaioTCJi H o6yHaK>icfl; 
Buirh Rpafinee paneme o hhctotI h yhthbocth, noRasHsaA wh 
TOifB nepBufi npHM^pi. Bi e^ se Bix^mH Bce, hto ao dROHOMin h 
pacxoAOBi 06iuecTBa npflHaAJiesnTi; ona AOJi^Ha Oojiie npsMt- 
poMi, 6jiaroHpaBieMi h noBOAeHieHi bosCyahtl bi noAiiiHeHHux'B 
noxBajiBHoe copeBHOBaHie. yscipeHHOCTB, rpotoctb h Cararopasyide 
AOJiseHCTByiorB Obitb rjiaBHUMH RanecTBaMU eji; OHao6i93aHa orspa- 
n^aiB Bce, iTonoM^maTejiBCTBO, HeyAo6cTBO hjih RaRyio jlb6o ocra- 
HOBRy BB Bocn HTaHiH H o6yHeHiH A^BHi^'B npoHSBecTH Moxen. 
Bb RaxAOiTB Rjiacci noJiaraeTCJi no OKHOft HaASHpaiejuB- 

HHI^']^; 0H% JlfiJiXEU npHJie^HO CHOTpiTB sa CBOHHl RJiaCCOlTB, 

noopaBJiflTB CB RpoTOCTiK), noMoraiB yqHiejiBHHi^airB h bb arynat 
HXB 6oji'b3HE sair&n^aTB hxt, co6oio Ha Bpeiiii. Owb npeziiyii^e- 

CTBeUHO AOJIKHBI CMOTp^TB, HT06u 6jiar0npHCT0ftH0CTB, BO BCBlfB 

HaAJieHcanufi nopfl^ORB, ycnixH, ^HCTOTa h yHiHBOCTB eaCjiiOAaeifu 
6hjih bb Bucmefi cieneHH; npiyqaa ri Tony a^bhab bi laRsxi 
HixHHXi Jiixaxi, npHBH^Ry aiy ho noRHHyrB flo rjiy6oROft cia- 
pocTH. HaASHpaxejiBEBi^i 3a6oTflTCH nJiaiBi a Giksai^ jspuocarh 
BCOM'B npaBHTOJiBHHi^; jipjiTREhi CuTB nonepeiclHHO npH ctojtI h 
Ha6jiioAaTB RaRi BOAyn ceCn a^bhi^bi, cb 6jiaropoAHOK> npiiJiHq- 
HOK) ocaHROK) H ODp^THO JiH RymaiorB. ^0Ji3REu caMH noAaBaTB no- 
XBajiBHue npHM'Ipii KkBuaxdkWb. SaHinaHifl A^JiaiB ne no crpacTs 
HJII9 no Apyrofi npHHBH'ib, ho bi o6pa3i h HaM^pemH MaTepHoicB. 
Co6cTBeHHBixi orop^enifk Ai^BHi^aHB ne noRasuBaiB; nanpacHO kjth 
He no BHHi ynoTpe6JieHHaA CTporocTB coBepmeHHO onpoBepraen 
nopHAORB AoCparo BocnniaHiii. Oni aoji^ehu HafijuiOAaTB, ?to6u wb 
ynoTpe6jifleHBix'B CTporocTAxi nocTynaoMO Cujco cb yici- 

peHHOCTiK) H eAHHCTBeHHO HO M'ip'l TOfi npHHHHH^ RaRyiD HOAaJia 
Kb TOMy A^BHlJ^a CBOEIMl HpOCiynROlfB, ASk H TOrAa Ch RpafiHBlTB 

CjiaropasymeMx onpoAbJuiTB oHoe no Ba^RHOCTH npecTynjieniH. 
Kpoiri osnaHeHEBixB jihi^ BBoGn^ecTB'i coctojijih y ? etc jib- 

HHIIH n MaCTepa, ROTOpUe JIPSSKEU BOCnHTIIBaTB A^BHI^'B BB 

CHjiy TenepajiBHaro y^pexAOHia 10 nyHRia, h npn bcsroitb cjry- 

Hal Bl MUCJIH A^BEAB BHOp^TB 6JiarOHpaBie H BROpeHflTB OHOe Bl» 

EXB H'ljKHoe cepAAe. Ohe AOJismu cmotp'Itb, ^to6b ho hphbhrjih 
ESJisniBe BajKHBHaTb, a uotomi ynujiuft bbaI) ^bji^tb. Ilane nacTa- 
BJiiiTB BXB Bi) ocHOBaHiB Cjiaropasyifk, AoCpOHpaBia, 6jiaronpH- 
CTOfinocTB, 6jiaropoAHOfi e ho npEny^AeHHOft yHTBBOCTE, e Bci^x'b 
AoGpoAitieJiefi. PaBBMMx oCpasoHi) aojischu o6yHaT& EHOCTpan- 



— 259 — 

HBIHl ASUKaiTB FOBOpHTb H HECaTb, oco6ji0bo »e npHBascHBaTb 
EXb Ri npaBHJiBHOMy qsTaHifo n BnepflXB b^ bzxi> oxoTyRi iTeHiK) 
KHHrb. JlflH coAep»aHiH BnpeA^ bi. Ao6poMi» nopHAK^ AOHanxHeft 

dROHOlriH yHHTB A^BHI^ apBOSieTBEi, paSHHUl AOMainHHMli pyKo- 
X^6jllflMl>, CJIRO mHTB, BASaTB, JSfi^U CO BpeMOHeMB CatfH J^pyPHMB B^ 

naTpe6HBixx cJiynaHxi noRasuBaTB bb cocTOflfiiH 6b[jih». 

He OTJiyHaTBCA otb a'&bhijib otb canaro yTpa — noRa coaTB nofi- 
AyTB; HSjiHniHHMii noHAikMH He spijiuft en^e yMB hxb ne oTaro- 
n^iTB; He nocTynaxB cypoBUMB n nenpiiiTHuii'B oSpasoMi cb rtMH, 
ROH He TaR*B noHHifaiorB npenoxaBaeMHii hmi HacTaBJieHin. npas;^- 
HOCTB — HCTOHHHR'B BcixB HopoROBB; Ha6jiH>AaTB sa ycirbxaif H, npH- 
jiesaHieui h ji%hbk> Ra»CAOft h npHHHiraTB irbpu ajih BosCy^xoHiH 
BB HHxi BHn](ii^e& Ri o6yHeHiK) peBHOCXH noxBajiaifH hxi ycntxoB^ 
HJiE RaRHBiB HH6yAB Harpa^AeHleH'b. Korj(a GyAyxi ashrh 

BHaXBy TO BeCTE CB HEME pasrOBOpH, 06BflCHHTB MUCJIE CB H p E- 
CTOftHOiOBOJIBHOCTiK), HTO CaMOO HOCJiy^RErB EMB CnOCOCOHB 

RB HcnpaBjneHiio pascyARa hxb. 

Bo36yjRAaTB oxory rb TrenlK); jiflB cero saBecTE 5E6jiioTeRy cb 
paacyAHTeJiBHUui Bfi[6opoMB rhefb; yqfliB naEsycTB RpaxROfi ecto- 
piE; npiyqaiB RB RpaflHeS onpflTHOCTE e y^TEBOCTE; pas- 
CHaxpEBaTB npEpoAHUA CRJiOHEocTE E oxoTy, BecTE TOMB Ecnpa- 
BHyio saoECRy e AORJiaAUBaxB na^ajiBHEi^. CaME yqETeJiBHEou 
AOjurhh BecTE ce6fl fijiaronpECTOfino e nocTynaTB cb yTrsBocTbio. 

O MacTepaxi — HE^ero ne roBopETca HErAi; ho est* mTaia 
BEAHO, HTO iracTepa Cujie: pECOBaJiBHuft e nysuRE BORajiBHOfi e 
EHcrpyMeHTaiBHOfi, TaHi^-MeflcxepH e Rpoirb Toro yqflTejiH pyccRaro 
E EHOCTpaHHHXB flSHROBB, ECToplE, reorpa4)iE. 

OOpan^aflCB Kh BOCQETaHifOBOoCme, ycTaBBopeAnECUBaexB, hxo 
n e p B e naAJieJREXB EiitxB noneneHie o Bipt, Aa6u saSjiaroBpe- 
MeHHO noc&flXB E BRopeHEXB wb cepAi^axi 6jiaroroBibHie, x. e. 
GesuoJiBHoe no'iExame xpEcxiaHCKaro 6jD[aro^ecxLfl e CBixcREXi 
Ao6poA'i^xeJieft, roe cyxB: noBEHOBenie naqajiBCXByiontEMB, BsaEMHan 
yq'paBOCXB, RpoxocxB, BOSAepxaHie, paaeHCXBeHHoe bi. 6jiaroHpaBiE 
noBOAeHie, HECxoe, rb Ao6py crjcohhob e npaBOAyniHoe cepAi^e, a 
Hanocji'bAOR^ 6jiaropoAHfiiMB ocoCaiTB npEJiEHeaH CKpoMHOCXB e Be- 
JiEKOAymie, oahemi* cjhobomb yAaneme oxx Bcero xoro, hxo ropAO- 
cxiK) E caMOJHoCieiTB HasBaxBca Mosexi. Cie RpaxRoe mhofexb bb^- 
HuxB RaqecxBi HaEuenoBaHie, Ao6pu]rB ohux^ ynoxpe6ji6HleMB e 
cjikHieMB aojdrho npoESBecxE coBepmenHoe mojioauxb a^beab 
BocQExaHie. RpoMi xoro opeAnECUBajiocB co6jiK)AaxB EOJiEXBy, 



— 260 — 

xoAHTB wb ij^epROBB, CTOATb Cb djnaroroBimeMi, y^HTB no jn^xairb 
H TOJiROBaTb SaKOHi Boflcift, a laiuKe o6yHaTb poccitCROicy h hho* 
CTpaHHUHi flsuKaifL, Aa6H BCnpaBHO qBiaiB, nncaTB h roBopHTB y m&kh, 
apHOMeTHKt, reorpa^iH, HcropiH, ciHXOTBopcTBy h onacTH repasB- 
KBLKb H apxHTOKTypi; wb xyAOxecTBaxi — pHCOBaHiio, MBHiaTypi; 
TaHAOBaHiio; MysuRi — BORajiBHOflEHHCTpyMeHiajiBHOft; mBn^bio bc^- 
Raro poAa, BHsamio h njieTeHiio masKOBOMy, HHTflHOHy, mepcxaaoMy 
u 6yMa»H0My. Kb ceny npHCOBORymiTB naAJiesHTB Bci ^acTB 8ro- 
HOiiiH. GBepxii Toro no usi jt^bhi^i 3-ro Bospacra no o^epeAH 
AOJURHH npncMaipHBaTBca na noBapeaxii ro Bciin» pafioxaM-B, Ka* 

rLi Bl EHZl OTnpaBJIfllOTCH, T. 6. TTOfilHOrJIH SHaXB BCt UOApoC- 

HOCTH AO AOMamnefi dROHOMin OTHOCiinpjiCJi, co^hhatb cneru aho- 
BHUM'B pacxoAaiTB; HyjiRH H npoqie y6opiii niciTB co6cTBeHHofi pa- 
6oTu, TaR»e njiaxBe na* ce6a niHTB hsi ABBaeuoft HaieplH; npoAcra- 

BJIflTB He»A7 CO6OK) HtROTOpUH AP&MaTHqeCRU COHHHeHifl HapOHHO 

MB Bxi ynoTpe6jieHia cocxaBJieHHMfl. 

JI^'bBBAU 4-ro Boapacxa noBxopaioxii y^enie noHxn oahok) npaR- 
XHROK) H, BvicTb CI A'&BHi^aMH xpoxBJiro Bospacxa, 6»aAH6BH0 no 
AB% npHCMaxpBBaioTca R'B AOMamHHiTB o6pflAftMi>; Bi> ceiTB Bospacxt 
miijDTb 0H:b onpeA^axBca ri xony no-neA^BHO. IIocjiiAHift hsi 
Mexupexi BOspacxoB'BAiBHi^AOJUReH'BnoHsxaxBai nepBUMi, no- 
ejiHRy oni wb pascysAenlB icucjiefi, Hecxnaro noBeAeaiH h Ojiaro- 
npaBia noHXH yse Bce xo npio6pijiiB| mo orb Ao6paro BOcnHxaniJi 
saBflCHTB; no^eMy nepBuxi xpexi BOspacxoB'B a^bhi^i aojishu 
6paxB cb HHX'B npBM'ibpii BBicoRaro coBepmencxBa, Roxopoe obk 
jiflJiXBM HaHnane coAepsaxB BcerAa bi xBepAofl naiiaxH. ^pesi* 
Ao6poe noBeAenle h nocxynKB npn BCxynjieHin wb CBivb ont yna- 
aaxca oxjiH^HUMH B'B oCn^ecxB^^; CjiaropasyMHUMH ace bi* coitb 
Bospacxi pasMBimJieHlAHH, BOcnHxanieM^ noARpinaaenHMB, noay- 
uaxi AJiH nepeAy RaRi wb nayRaxi*, xaRi* h hbcxhom'b o6xoa[A6HiH 
pyROBOACXBa. Ofl'b aojurhu 6bixb h eanaJiBCXBOMii cnpaBCAaHBO 
npeAno'ixeHH h noaynaxB oco6jihbbih narpaacAeHia RaRi onpeAi- 
Jinrb Ea BeaHiecxBO. A hxo6i npEAaxB A^BnAaMi HaAaeacanQfip h 
npHaEHHyH) ciri^ocxB wb ofixoacAenln, neofixoAHMO ycxanoBHXB sb 
ceMi o6n^ecxBi: no npasAHBHEuicB nan BOCRpecHHM'B 
AHaMTi co6paHia Aaa npilisacBX'B nsii ropoAa AaM'BHRaBaaepoB'B 
nApyrBx^noHXBxeaBHUx'BaK)Ae&,C'B AOSBoaenifl r-a^H HaHaaBHHUU. 
Oaho coSpanie — aji« ROHAepxa A^BH^^; Apyroe — Aaa KaRofi hh- 
ecxB AP&MaxH^ecRoft Han nacxopaaBHoft nrpu smh ace npeAcxasaa- 
eMOft, a xpexBe Aaa o6HKHOBeHHUXB co6paHiA. IIpsi scixi^ hxi 



— 261 — 

A^BBiw AByxit nocJiiAHHX'b KJiaccoBi xosflftcreyioirb h ciapaiOTCH 
noKasaiB Bciwh ns^exAmfie yAOBOJiBCTBie, 6yAyHH yRpameeieMi 

H npiflTHOCTilO OHHXl, Jlfi,6u HpeSl) TO HaBUKHyTb MOrJIH Ri HenpH- 

HysAeHHOiiy h yHXHBOMy noBeAemK), Ranoe ^ecTHoft npHpoA^ h 
Ao6poKy BOCQHTaHiK) oco6jiHBo npejiiiHecTByeTi, t. e. He hm^^tb 
sacriH^HBOCTH H BO BCflROifb cjiyHat BceMi> nocTOflHQO H 6jiaro- 

pOAHO HS'bJiCHHTBCa. 

Ji,Jisi RasAaro RJiacca nojiaraeicji ocoSuft ctojib; y^HrejibHHqa 
npHcyTCTByerB, yRasuBaen npieBoi, RaR^ npn ciojii nopHAOHHO h 
HHCTO RymaTB, RaRi CHAbiB h pasroBapHBaiB. Otb bojih e 6jiaro- 
pasyiiifl HanajiBCTBa saBHCETB, npe6uBaTB jih A^BHi^aBrB b% MOJinaHiH 
HJiH AOSBOJiHTB H^ROTopuM'B BCTynaTB Me«Ay C060K) Bl pasFOBop^ 
RaROfl HH6yAB npECioftHofi naTepin. HaSjiiOAaTB, ttoGu nocji'b Ry- 
maHBJi pyRHMHJiir, aoco6jiHBopoTBnoJiocRajiH: aojikho bcobosmo^c- 
Hoe CTapaHie npiuiaraTB o "mcTori h oopaTHOCiH a'^bhi^i. Hsjinm- 
Hfla Htra AOJUsna 6b2tb HsrHana hsI) oOn^eciBa; npHroTOBJineMaa 
nHn^a h bcaroo RymaHBe aojixhh 6utb SAopoBoe h bi ROJiH^ecTBi 
AOcxaTOHHOMi. OAeacAa M^ 6yAHH RaMJiOTHan, a no BOCRpeceHBaifi 
fl npasAHHHHBiM'B jsfiBWb moJiROBaH. ^"Ibhaei aoji:rhu nporyjiHBaTBCH 
vh caAaxi, CBiscoMi BOSAyxi; ne MOH'le Hy»cHbi hbtb bchrIh hb- 
BHHHUfl 8a6aBH. 

KoJTB CRopo A'^BHi^a DpHHHTa, TO BO BCB BpeMii npe6B[BaHiH 
efl KB 06iii;ecTB'6 poahtbjih cbo6oahbi otb BCHRaro o nefi nonenemH. 
IIoci^marB hxi mokho tojibro bi> HaBHa^eHHue ahh cb nosBOJie- 
Hifl HaiajiBHHmj, bb ea npEcyxcTBlH hjih ApyrHxi. 

«3a xoHCAenieifB sa 6ojiaiAHMn onpeA'i^JiaH)TCH hs'b TyioniHHX'B 
«CTapHa'B TaR»e ocoSjihbbih :ReHii^HHU». Kpoiii dioro bb yciaBi 
noApo6HO roBopHTCfl o AORTop*!, jieRapi, yaoipefijieHiH mbijibhh 
(t, e. 6aHH), TeMnepaTyp-fe btt ROMHaiaxi h x. a. KOJiHqecxB'b 
ea^eroAHO oxnycRaeiiofi cysiMBi Ha coAepncaHie Bcero saBeAeaia bi> 
reeepaJiBHOMB mxaxi ee ynoMHeaexcn. 

YxBepAHBi 8X0TI ycxaBi), o6HapoAOBaHHHfl 5 Maa 1764 r., 
(IT. C. 3. J^ 12154), ^) HMDepaxpnaa B-b xo»ce Bpeiia easHa^HJia 
HJieHaiiH coB'j^xa min nonennxejiHMH: rpa^a H. H. IlaHima, 
H. H. BenRaro, RHasa IXeipa TpyfieitKaro h Ceprta Kosbutma, a 
xaR^e RHarnHK) AHHy CeprteBHy JtoJiropyRoay ^). KOiopaa CuJia 



*) Cm. xasuKe C.-neTep6yprcsia BtAOMOCTH 1764 r. A^4l iiflTtiuaa2l una 
Tasse ApxHBi. GeaaTa, kbef. Buc. ysaa. Nt 110 CTp. 293. _ 

') npHMi^anie. BaMtTHMi, ^to yae 16 auptiH 1768 roia [iocj4t 
AjniAifi Bucoqaftmift yicadi: «3a cia6ocTBH) 3AopoBba yfio^bua'' 



— 262 — 

CAl^^aea h HanajibHHi^eK) Hoaaro y^eCHaro saBexenk. IIpaBBTejib- 
Hfli^eio GuJia HasHaneHa Tor^a SRe BAOsaAifiCTBHTejibHarocTaTCKaro 
coBtTHHKa Cocffhn HBaHOBHa .Hejia^OH-B (11. C. 3. 1764 row 
Xt 12154), 6uBmaH, RaKi} yTBep^AaJiH, H^KorAa BOcnHTasHHaeio 
CeHx-CHpa. IIonTH OAHOBpeiieHHO 6ujio pacny6jiHK0BaH0 o nepBOM'b 
npieifi BocjiHTaHBHq'B, Ha nepBuft paai ^hcjioh'b 50, h HasHaneHO 
OTRpHTie HOBaro ynpejEAeHiH na 28 iioHA — a^hl BOCinecTBifl na 
npecTOJii HMnepaTpHim, ki KOTOpony h 6ujih CA^aHU aci^ Heo6- 
xoABMu^ npHroTOBjieHiH. OAHaKo oiKpHTie B'b BasHaHeHHut a^hb 
He cocTOflJiocL. Er BejiH^ecTBO en^e 20 Iiohh ompaBBJiacB bi hb- 
SoJibmyK) notsAKy no JIh^jiahaIh, OTRyAa Bepnyjiacb 20 iiojia a 
TOJibKO 4 aBrycTa 1764 roAa npHcyxcxBOBajia npH TopjsecTBaxi 
ocB^n^eHifl xpana Cb. ERaiepHHU n noirbn^eHl^ ji^n cosAaHHaro eio 
nepBaro acencKaro y^eCnaro saBeAesi^ bi> HirnepiH, m> KOTopoe 
OKOJio aToro sue BpeMeHH 6ujio AOCTaBjieao lOJUbKO 11 a'^^bhi^i, 
BMtcTO npeAHasHaneHHUx'b 50. — IIoApoSHoe onHcanie aroro or- 
KpHTia noMin^eHO bi npHCaBJieniH Kb !^ 70 IleTepeyprcKHxi b*- 
AOMOCiefl 31 aBrycia 1764 roAa ^). 

Fa^ »ce HaxoAHJiocb noM^n^eHie BocnHTaiejibHOMy OfiniecTBy 
6jiaropoAHHXi AtBH^^? 

Ha npaBOMi 6epery HeBU, npiiMO npoiHB'b npeacHaro ropoAa 
HieHHiaHua, ctoajii bx nanaJii MHHyBraaro XVIII cTOjAria 
CMOJibHbift ABopi), vh KOTopoMi jiejRajia cHOJia npo Becb ko- 
pafiejibHMft ^JioTb ^). BnocjiiACTBiH aiorb ABopi nepeirtmeffb h na 
ero MicTO nocTpoeHi nexpoM-b BejiBRHifb bi 1720 r. ABopea^AJw 
EjiBsaBexu IlexpoBHU; bi RoxopoMi OHa nporyjiBBaxbca BSBOJiHJia, 



tJliojropyKOBy no e& npomeHiio, a aojxboctb HaHaiBHnau noBeiisaeMi HCBpas- 
cjflTB npaBHTejiBHuu'^ Ae J[a4»0Hme>, soTopan, yKasoHi 19 iiapTa 1773 roxAi 
uasHaneBa ii sa^ajiBHHueio cero 06n;ecTBa, ci iBaioBaHBeifL 20(X) P76. bi toa'b. 
JIa(t»0Bi oinpasj^ia aiy o6a3aHHOCTB 10 canofi csoefi koh^hbu U aBrycra 
1797 roxa, nocj'b ?ero ^peeMHH^eH) eii 6ujia Bassaiefla r-sa IlajBMeBGaxB. 
rCu. Aiia apxHBa Bocniix. 06. Ejarop. A'^^bhu'b). Evh k^it* xorose apxHBa 
ycuaipHBaeTCA, ^0 Jla4)0B'b nncaxB no pyccsH ne yuiia h BcerAa noAancH- 
BaJia CBOK) (t)ai!iiJ]K) no 4>P^BAy3C£n de Lafont. 

*) TaKHHii o6pa30]ii> noiynnjo ycipoficTBo nepBoe bsb Hamnxi seHCKHXB 
yneOHuxB saneAeBift, roBopHTi asropi CTaxBH: bb sypeaj'b ji.ib HTeniii boo 
ninaHBHEOBi BoeBHo-yHeonuxB saBeAeBifl Ms 28 ex. 117, ocnoBaHHoe no 
njaay EeuKaro, h RaKB Bce nepBonanajBHoe, emfi ho BcnuTaHHoe n uajio 
HSB'^CTBoe, uMtamee unoro seAOCTaxBOBB bb cbocmb ycTpoficxB'^ n t. a. 

^) OnHcauie IlexepCypra r. Pyfiana 1779 r. ctd. 61; 449.— Onncame Ue- 
Tep6ypra r. EtyniKapeBa 1841 r. h, I ctd 157, h. Il CTp. 271. T. Ill cxp. 619, 
TaKse sanncKH (i)ejiBAiiapn]aja rpa(t)a Mnnnxa. C.-IIeTep6yprB 1874 r. cxp. 183 
HcTopB^ecRifi oqepBB cTOiixnefi shsbb IlMnep. Bocohx. 06n^ecTBa Cjarop. 
;i'bBuuB-B. H. JlaAOBa 1864 r. cxp. 10, 11. 



— 263 — 

a HHorAa, seoiaH 6bitb bi> OAHHoqecTBi, He iiajioe npe6HBaHie 
Hiftjia ^). BcTynHBi ea npeciojii, EjiHsaBOTa BOs^HHijia mucjib 
BT» 1744 TOjsY ofipaiHTb flBopei^T» vb npiiOT'b na 20 nejiOBiKi) jjia 

GiAHBIXl CnpOTb A'^BHI^>, T. 6. Bl MOHaCTHpL ^), H 30 ORT^fipfl 

1748 TOjsy 6ujn> sajioiseH^ e xpain» BocKpeceHb^ rocnoAHa, ro- 
Topuft coopysaJi'b hsb'^cthuA PacipejiH ^). 06HTeJib CKopo Hanoji- 
HHJiacB MoeaxEHflMB, A&JieKO CBume onpe^'i^JieHHaro HHCJia, a no- 
TOMy yace HMnepaTpnii;a ERaiepHHa II, ^neRyn^aacH o nojiBsi^ 
«PocciftCRaro napoAa h aa Bepxi* 6j[aaceHCTBa OHufl B03B0AfliAaH> 
bi> 1764 roAy noBeJiiJia ^) cocxaBETb hobhA miarb HOHacTupio h 
BM^kri cb T^Mi ynpeAHTb npn HonacTHpl, bi oco6JI^BOM^, OT^fajib- 
HOH'B CTpoeeiHy y^HJiHii^e jifls. BOcnHTaHia mojioahxi a^^bhui 6jiaro- 
poAHaro npoHcxoKABHla. GxpoeHie zBiijio bha'b HeTupexi>yroJibHHRa 
B'b ABa acHJia (aTama), rohxi Ra^Aaa cTopoaa coAep^nrb orojio 
50 ROMHarb, coeAHHeHHbix'b BnyTpa rajuiepeaMB. Bi> Bepxeeirb 
BTaaA ssMByvb GJiaropoAHua a^bhi^u cb hxi HacToaTejibHHaamH, 
yqHiejibHBKaMH; b% HBjRHeM'b — cjiyacHTejibHHau co6cTBeHHO hxii h 
o6in^ A^A AOMa % 

HMnepaTpHiia EnaTepHHa nncanaMHTponoJinTyHoBropoACROMy 
JI^HMHipiio G^qeHOBy osaOoTHTbca BH6opoMi A^H BToro MoeacTHpa 
HryMeHbH h MoeaxHUb, a Ci^enoBii 28 anpijia 1764 r. cooSn^HJi'b 
CflHOAy, HTo HaAO, HTodi MOHaxHHH 6hjih hst* ABopaHOR^, HecTHaro 
n Ao6paro acHTba h oGxoscAenia GjiaropoAHaro h onparHaro, TaR^ 

KaRl) OWb AOJISCHU 6yAyTT» Sa 60JIbHUIfH ABOPAHCKHMH A'^TbMH xo- 

AHTb. CorjiacHO aroMy noori^AOBajrb ynasi CHHOAy o BBeAemn bb 
HOHacTupb 12 — 16 CTapyxi h nocJiaH'b 6uJii CHHOAaJibHuft pern- 
crpaiopi HHROJuaft ^epHaBCRifi ajih BuGopa HaAJiescan^HX'b MOHa- 
xHHb Bi MocROBCRyH) E GifOJieHCRyK) ry6epHiK); oh*! OAHaRO 6ujiu 
BuGpaHu npeHMyn^ecTBeHHO bi CnojieHCROft ryCepmH hjie, RaRi ro- 
BopzjiH TorAa, HS'b CMOJiflHOR'b (oTRyAa 6utb M03cerb h caMoenpos- 

BHH^e A'i^BBqB, BOCOHTUBaBmEXCa BO BHOBb yHpe»AeHHOMi saBGAe- 
hIh). MoHaxHHH npH6uJin bi IleiepGyprb 25 — 27 lioea 1764r. 
(HS'b ji,ijii> ApxEBa CHHOAa <N2 49, yRasi Gb. Gehoa. 28 anptjia 
1764 r., a xaRxe apxHBa G.-neTep6yprcR0ft JI^yxoBHOi Kohchcto- 



JIio6onHTHHft M*cjmecjiOB'b 1794 r. ct. 176. 

') HcTopifl PoccificKofi lepapxin— AMBpocifl. 

') UpHM'&^aHie. XpaifL dTOii ocxaBaiCfl HeoROHqeBHUM'b c e m b- 

XeCHTl njlTB J^TB H OTAtjaHB OSOHHaTeiBBO TOJBBO BB 1832 rOj 

opH MiiaepaTopt HsKOja']^ I, cm. C.-IJeTep6yprcBi& BocEpeceHCKifi "^' 
KiaccHHft M0HacTHps.--C.-IIeTep6yprB 1888 r. cip. 33. 

') Py6aHa. OnHcaHie UeTepoypra. 

') JLk)6oTiiiTEhLft MiCAi^ecjOBB 1794 roAa. 



— 264 — 

piH 1764 r. MKz 5705, 5786 h 1768 row J^ 6914, 7029) '). 
HMnepaTpex^a, npeAnpHHSMaa ocHOBaeie neGHBaiaro bi PoccIh 
yHpejKAOHiA, npn 8a6oTJiHBOCTH pasBHTB npocB^n^eHie h wb to xe 
BpeMfl noAHflTb HpaBCTBOHHoe HyBCTBO iiejRAy AOHepBMH pyccRaro 
ABopHHCTBa, noAi> pyROBOji[CTBOMi yAajiHBmHxcfl orB CB^Ta MonaxBHb, 
acejiajia^ KaK'BBHAHo, c^lJiaTb hoboo ynpeiKAeHie, lasi CKasaiB, no- 
nyjiapHHin> EOCBfliHiB ero KdJVb6u coynacTieM'BHeTOJiBKD Chhoa^, 

ho H HaCTOflTOJIfl CB HHORHHJiME. OAHaRO HUCJIB CJXJbUBTh p y C- 

c R H X I MOHaxHHB ofipasoBaiejiBHHi^aMH ABopHHCRHXB AOHepefl, HaA- 
3HpaTejiBHHi;aMH sa hxb 6jiaroHecTHBBiMi> BocnHTaHieMB e cmotpe- 
TOJiBHfluaME bo BpoMfl flxi) 6ojit3Hefi, HO yB^HqajiacB ycnixoiTB. 
(ycxpoHTB HcencRyK) ofiBxejiB no KaTOJinnecROMy o6pa8i^y ho coot- 
BibxcTBOBaJio AaKe Ayxy npaBOCJuaBHOfl UlepRBfl; BHaa coBctni 
AtflTOJiBHOCTB yRasana pyccKHin> MOHacTupAMB no sanoBi^AH Cna- 
CHiejiii, no yqeniK) AnocTOJiOBi b npEH'ipaME BejiBRflxi oti^obb 
Q^epRBE. MoHacTupBecTB jREBoe BBipaaceHie Rpi^nRofl vbpu b% idp'B 
AyxoBHHft E n0Tpe6H0CTE caMOOTBepaceniH, cociaBJiflion^ee otjuehh- 
lejiBHyK) Hepiy pyccRaro napoAHaro xapaRTopa. Gjietb HOHacxupB 
CB yHe6HUMi> saBeAenieMi OAsajiE bosmojrho; oaho cyn^ecTByerB 
TOJiBRO fljiA noTpe5HOCTefi Hipa e cb noMon^Bio ero AinrejiGii, — 
Apyroe jro mojeotb cyn^ecTBOBaiB, xoth e npE coA^ficTBlE MipcKExi 
Ai^xejiefi, HO upE nojiHOEi OT^ymAeniE otb idpcROfl cyoTu) 

MonaXEHE lArQIEJIHCB BOSJIOmeHHNME Ha HEXl HOBIiIME 06fl- 

saHHOCTAMB; noaxoMy hx^ nocxoAHHO MtnaiE HaOapaJiE hobuxi, 
E HBROHei^'B BOJieio HMQepaxpEiQi MonacxupB fiBiJTB ynpasAHBHi. 
O^eHB He6oJiBnioe hecjio MOEaxEHB ocxajiECB AO^EBaxB cboS BibfU'h 
Bi H^KOxopuxB HOJiBflXB; Bci xo sAaHlH MOHacxupA ofipan^eHu 3% 
noMin^eHlfl aji^ EHcxExyxa ^). 

IIpejRAe HexejiE roBopEXb o AB<SBHtflniefl A'^^^ejuBHOCXE BoKRaro 
BB oxHomeHiE yHpeawACHia, nojiy^EBmaro ocHOBaaie bcjAacxbIo no- 
AaHHaro emi npoeRxa, ocxaHOBEHca HOMHoro Ha BonpocaxB: 
1) qiMT* . flBJiHJicfl cocxaBJieHHHft zwh npoeRXi, x. e. 6hjio jie aio 
HtiTo caMo6BrxHoe ejie xojibro noApascaHie, EHaqe crojiori cb Aanno 
yjRe cyrAOcxBOBaBmaro bt> IlapE^i y?e6Haro saBeAeHui bb CdHB- 



*) Cm. TaRse pyKonecb HensB'j^cTHaro, xpae^n^jKCfl bb apxHst 
C. E. H. 6. KaBi^ejflpiH no y^pesAeHiflui HunepaTpHnu Mapin;— IlHCbMa 
HifnepaTpni](Ei EEaTepHHU, nsAaeie Ji. K. FpoTa t. Ill ot-b 30 flHEapa 
1772 row. 

') 06iiiecTB0 6jiaropoAHBix'B a'^bhiib AOiro t^cbbjocb bi MOHacTupcsHZB 
KejiBAXi, noEa bi 1808 ro^y 6£IJio nepeH'^nieHO bi boboo BeiHsoiiiinoe 

3AaHie, &*& KOTOpOUB HaXOAHTCfl E BB BaCTOHB^ee BpeHfl. 



— 265 — 

Capi, — ^H 2) KaK-L oraecjiocB coepeMeHHoe Be^KOMy o6mecTBO kT) 
dTOMy coBepmeHHO hobomj bi rocjAapcTBi ynpesAeHiH). 

Bi OTHomemH nepBaro Bonpoca bi* Hamed JiHiepaTyp'^ 6hjio 
jjRB BBiCRasaHO rpa4»oin> ^. A. Tojictumx ^), hto QMOJiBHHft iiona- 
CTfjpB ^) Hirlerb cb CeHi-CHpoM'B to tojibro cxoactbo, hto o6a 
yqe6HHfl saBeAeniA cocTaBJiAioTB HHTopnarB a^h Aonepeft noTOU- 

CTBOHHUX'B ABOpflHORl); mo B-b 060JSXb npHHBMaiOTCH HaJKOJltTHifl 

A'6bohrh; ^to oh*^ pasA'^JiHiOTCA ua nexBrpe Bospacia h RaacAony lsi 
HHX'B npncBoeHO njiaiBe ocoCaro i^Btra. SariiiT) o6a ynedHUA sase- 
AOHifl HHHero o6ii^aro Me;RAy cofioiOHenpeACTaBJifliorBdojite. drorB 
xje BsrjuiA'B BUCRasuBaerB h rocnoaca Jlaxa^OBa bi» CBoeiTB hohtoh- 
Bowb xpyA'b tMaiepiajiu js,jui HCTopm jReHCRaro o6pa80BaHifl bi 
Poccm.» C.-neiep. 1890. cip. 135 HCJiiA., AoCaBJuia, HTOo6a aa- 
BOAeHifl HOCflTB nenaTB JiHHHOCTefl, ocHOBaBiniixi hxi, ?t6, saH'iTBM'B 

MU, rOBOpHTB HHUUH CJIOBaMH H rpa^l TOJICTOB. Ho CB aiHMX 

BsrjiHAOirB noHTeHHuxi aBiopoBi* eABa jih mo«ho corjuacHiBC^. 
BoJiie 6JIH8R06 cpaBHeHle ycTaBOBi GnoJiBHaro MonacTupH h Cewb- 
Cflpa npHBOAHTB CRopie ri aaRJUOHeniH), ^o nepBuft hsi HHX'B 
ABjiHeTca CRpJiROM^ CO BToporo ^). TaRi> ji^iA narji^AHOCTH npHBeAeM'B 

H'bCROJIBRO npHM'ipOB'B, HSJIOJRHB'B B^ HX^ ^^OpM^ CpaBHHTeJIBHOa 

Ta6jiHi]^u. 

I. YnpaBJieHie yqedHUMB saeeAeHieMB sBtpsiJiocb: 

Ho ycTaBy CeHi-Cnpa. IIoycTaBy BOCHHTaieJiB- 

Hato o6n^ecTBa 6jiaro- 

POAHUXI A^BHI^l. 

Ha^ajiBHEiJCi — o6mee H a q a ji b h h h^ — ^hro Baac- 

yapaBJienie. * Hi&meft oco6i. 

FjiaBHOft RjiaccHOfi Tin'Bace HBJiHJiacB npaBH- 

HaAsiapaTejiBHHiti, ro- leJiBHHi^a. 
TopaH saB^AUBaJia npenoAaBani- 
eMi, nHH^eio, njiaTBeHi>, npHAft- 



Bi CBoeM-B HdcjiAOBaHiH cBsriflAi ea y?e6HyK) nacTB B-b Poccin bi 
XVIH CTOiiTiH Ao 1782 ro;ia». IIpHioa. ri. XLVII xoMy (cxp. 53, h cji*a. 
saaHCOR'B H. A. HayKi. 

') Tasi o6uKHOBeHHO o6o3Ha?ajiH b no cie BpeMfl o5o3Ha^aR)T'B a-ia 
spaTKocTH Koee^HO, BocnnTaTeJBHoe 06iiiecTB0 6jaropoAHEixi jifksun'h 

') Cj^oaotbo ycTaBa BocnHTaTeiBHaro 06mecTBa 5iaropoAH£ix'B a^bh" 
CB CeH'B-OHpoH'B noApo6HO ysasaHO TaEse ea CTp. 7 h 73. <ApoHHKa Ch^ 
Baro MonacTupfl bb napcTfiOBanie HMaepaTpHi^u EKaxepHHEi II, cocTai 
B0& wb 1861 roAy» PacnonoBOE). 



266- 



CeHi-Cupi). 
Ehiwb E 6£[Jia npHMOK) HanajiBHH- 
AeK) AtBHDii HJiH ynpaBH- 
TeJiBHimeK). 

B-b Ra^KAOM'b KJiacci 
6HJia yHHTeJiBHEua, saHHMaBma- 
siCA BOcnnTaHieM'b ;];:bBaA^ n na- 
6jiK)AaBiDafl sa hxi noBeAeflieifB. 

IIpHBpaTHHAa. 

G B "i^ T !> BHimHifl Hdi jmi^i, 
HadHaHaeMuxi RopoJieHiy sasi- 
B'i^AfiiBaBiDifi BceMiHHyn^ecTBOiTB 
CeHi-GHpa, ero AOxoAaiiHHpac- 
xoxauH. 



Bocn. 06111. fijiar. ^^BHitii. 



HaASHpaiejJBHHi^a, hi 
Ka^AOBTB Rjiacci^ no oahoA. 



npHBpaTHHR'B. 
COBtT'B H8% JlfllTB, HHSHar 

HaeHuxTi HMnepaTpHi^eK), koto- 
puft TaRxe saBiABiBajn xosflft- 

CTBeHHOK) ^aCTBK). 



It. nojioweHie BOcnMTbiBaeMuXB onpeAt;ifl;iocb cjitAyioiuMMB odpaaoiiB: 



BoCnHTaHHHI^BI A'^JIAT- 

CA Ha 4 BospacTa, Koxopue 

OTJIHHaiOTCH I^BixOMli njiaiBH 

(KpacHufl, sejieHHfty jRejiruft, 
CHHifi); Bi KaacAOM'B B03pacr6 
npeGuBaiOT'B ipH roAa. IIpnHH- 
MaiOT'B OTT> ceMH jrkvb. 

OinycKaiOT^ BOCDHiHBa- 
eMuxi) ESI CeHi-GHpa b^ caMBixi 
KpafiHHX'B cjiyqa^xi. 

PoAHxejiH MorjiH hxi eas'lk- 
iqaTB Bi 6oJiBmie npasAHHRa. 

B I C e H -B-G H p i ciapajiHCB 

paSBHBaTB BRyCB Kb HSfln^HOMy, 

npeRpacHOMy , 6jiaropoAHOMy npi- 
ynajiH ABRJiaMHpoBaTB Jiy^mia ci^e- 
Hu 1981 npoHSBBAeHifl KopsejiH, 
PacHHa. 

BocnHTaHie a'^bhai ao6- 
poe H HpaBCTBeHHoe ROHe^iHaH 



TaR«e A^JiflTca Hane- 
T u p e B03pacTa, Roropue otjih- 
HaiOTca ABiioMTi nJiaTBfl (ro- 
pnqneBufl, roJiy6oft, cipBrft, 6%- 
jiufi); Bi RaacAOMi Bospacii 
6B[BaK)rB TpB roAa; npHHHMaiorB 
OTB mecTB jitrB. 

Hsi 06111. 6jrar. a^bhi^'b BOBce 
He oinycRaiorB BocnHTUBaoHHX'B. 

To^HO laRKe. 

n p e c Ji i A B a Ji ac B la ace 

I^JIB H Bl dTHXl BHAAXl BOCIIH- 

TaHHHi](u pasy^HBajiH o6pa8ao- 
BUH TpareAiH h ROMeAiH. 



Ty see b.'^jhb hm^jih bi bochh- 
xaiejiBHoM^ o6mficni 



qijiB GeHi-Gapa. 

BBime npHBGAeHHue npnii'lpH yKasHBaiorB bi* AOCTaxoHHoft 
Mipt, HTo yciaBi BocDHTaTejiBHaro OfimecTBa cnHcaHi cb ycTasa 



— 267 — 

coHHHeHHaro r-jReio MeHTeHOHi jifia CeffB-CHpa. Ho HSBicTHo, hto 
OAHO HsyneHie ycTasa neqaxnaro He jvaLevb emfi TOHHaro doha- 

Tk TOHl, Bl KaROft Mip*! BTOTb y C T a B X OCymeCTBJiaeTCa JIIOAbMH 

Ha caHOMT> A'&Jit, Bi xb8hh; TaRi TOHHO H cpaBHeHie nenaTBuxi 
ycTdBOBi AByxi saBOAeHift OAHopoAHUxi ae MO»erb npHsecTH kt> 
saKJHOHemio, hto oahohs'l hhxi BacaifOMi A^i^sBJiiieTCAnoApajRa- 
HieMi HJiH CROJiKOirb Apyroro. BcHRift ycxaBi), RaRi h BCflRift saROHi 
BOo6ii(e, ecTB RaRi 6h rocmrI), ROTopony HoryrB 6htb npHAanu 
caicufl pa8Hoo6pa8HUfl ^pMU h ^arypu vycRyjiaMH, npHBOAHOiHMH 
KocT>iRi» Bi ABHseeie. To^ho TaRse BCARift ycTBBi dphboabtcji bi 
HcnojiHeHie jiioabuh, cxeneHB noHBHaHi^ h Ao6paA bojih ROTopuxi 
H npHAaeTB ycTaBy HSBiciHyio, onpeA'i^eHHyK) $opMy^ ne piARO 
coBcivb HHyio HesejiH la, Roiopyio npeAaojiarajii> aocthhb ero 

COCTaBBTOJIL. 

Bi ycTaBi nenaTHOifi HsjiaraioTCH oahh oiBJiencHEHa mhcjih, 
npasHJia; ho RaRi ohh Bci 6yAyTi> ocyn^eciBJieHu npaRiHROio, Ha 
A^i, B BiiRaRofl Mipt— 8T0 B81 ne?aTHaro ycTasa HBRorAa 

yCHOTpiTb HOJIBSJi; nOTOMy ^TO dTO eABHCTBOHHO SaBBCBTB OTB T^X'B 

JHHui, Ha ROTopuxi> BOBJiaraoTCA BcnojiHeHie yciaBa b rbwb caMHirB 
ocyn^ecTBJieHle ero na caMOBTB a^^* IIoaTOMy, Hair&peBa^cB bboctb 
KaRoe jih6o y^pescAeHle, saBMCTBOBaHHoe b8i> RaROfl-JiB6o Apyroft 
CTpaHu, HeAOCTaio^HO tojibro cnncaTB ycxaB^b axoro yHpejRAeHiH; 
6yRBajiBH0 ero nepeBecTB e a^tb euy oGjaEsarejiBHyH) CBJiy saRona, 
HTo6ii HOJiyHBTB E y ce(3H AOMa na canoMi fi!bjrb xaRoe jro canoe 
ynpexAenle co bc^mb ero nocji%ACTBiaMB. Ji^n aroro Heo6xoABMO, 
HToGu HcnoJiHBTejDB HOBaro ycTasa 6ujib bo Bcell^ cxoahu cb bchoji- 
HBTejiAMH HJilHBBiuaro Hac^ vb Hy^BXi seiffjiflxi) ycxaBa, a& h RpoHi 
Toro, ^xoCu caHa cpoAa, juisi Roxopofi ycxasi bboabxca, 6njia 6u no 

BOBHOaCHOCXB OAHOpOAHa CB XOK) CpOAOK), BBl c(|)epu Roxopoft SaBM- 

CTBOBaHi ycxaBi. Besi axBxi ycjiOBift Bce CyAexB buxoabxb no 
HBBicxHOft pyccROft noroBopRi: «0eAOXTb, Aa ne xoxi>. 

Toace canoe BcnuxaJii b ycxaBi BocnBxaxejibHaro 06n;ecxBa 
6jiaropoAH£ix'B a^bbui*. YcxaBi) ero ohobbaho saBHCXBOBaH'B cb 
ycxaBa Geni-CBpcRaro y^BJiBii^a; nepesecxB ero 6bijio ho xpyAHO, 
HO nepoBesxB c^ 6eperoBB Cohh bi CmojibhuB HOHacxupB ri p'bRi^ 
HsBi^ BCK), xaRi cRasaxB, Ayniy, o»BBjiiHBinyK) ycxaBa CeHi-CBpa 
T. e. r-«y MeHxeHOHB, rJiaBnyio ea noMomHBi^y BpBHBoni b Bctxi 
npoHExi ea coxpyAHBROBi^ siBMJiocb A^JiOMi coBepmeHHO r 

HOHHUMl, HOMBICJIBMBIM^; npBlHJIOCB Ha6paXB APyrBXl JIBI^X 
HO^eXB B BHOJIHi AOCXOShBIXI, HO HO HpOHBKHyXBIX'B CXpOMJIi 



— 268 — 
MUCJiAMn H seJiaHiflMH A'^^^TejiBHHit'b CeHii-CHpa, a noTOMy h ee 

yAHBHTeJIBHO, HTO peSyJIbTaTU BOCnHiaHifl B-B ClCOJIBHOM'b UOHaCTIfpi, 

npH cxoACTBt ero ycTaBa ci yciaBOiTB CeHi-GHpa, OKasaJiHCb co- 
BciMi) HHue. IIpnqHHOK) aioro He yciaB'B — ^a ero HcnojmHrejni. 

06paiitaHCb 3a t6mi ri paspimemH) Boapoca, KaKi OTHecjiocb 
coBpeMeHHoe BemcoMy o6mecTBO Kh ycxpoeHHOMy hitb coBep- 
meHHO HOBOMy bi rocyAapcTBi y?pejRAeHiio, e^Ba jih mosho otb^- 

THTb, HTO OHO 6hJI0 BCTpilCHO oSmeCTBOITb Cb OCOSeHHUITb CO^yB- 

€7816111. 06niecTB0, He cosaaBan eo^e Bcefl BasHoft Heo6xoAEMOCTH 
jRencKaro ofipasoBanifl, oxHecjiocb Kb HOBOuy yHpeacAeniH) xo- 

JIOAHO. BOJIbmSHCTBO CHHTaJIO AOCTaTO^HUlTB eCJIH A^BHI^ y^HTB 

Bx AOMi ryBepHaHTKa, «MaM3ejib», ROTopaa B'b to ace Bpeus loua 
Rpyxesa, mejia nenHBRH xosHflR'i AOMa h t. a^ h, c% Hsynjiemeifb 
CMOipj] na ynpeacAaeMoe saseAeHle, ne TopoHHJiocb pasciaBaTBCJi Ch 
AtTbMH H Ch caMux'L paHHHX'b jrivb BesTH uLTb Bi IleTepSyprb 
ESAajieRa. IlepBHfl npieni BOcniiTaHHHi^i>, HanaBinificfl 28 ifOHS 
1764 r., MHyjiCH nijiab roA'b ^), h TOJibRO 9 iiojia 1765 r., 
Cb npieMOMi RHaacHu II]|ep6aT0B0ft, cocTasHJicfl nojiHuft ROKajieRn 
BocnHTaHHHi^i) (t. e. 50 jijkBms.'h) nepBaro npiena ^j. BcjiiACTBie 
Toro JKO HeAOCTaTRa Afireft, npeACTaajraeifurb poAHTejErjiMH wb 
BocDHTaTejibHoe 06n^ecTB0, saTanyjica He Majio h BTopoft npieMi 
B-b 1767 roAy *). 

• ^BOpaHCTBO, B-b OCOfieHHOCTH H3^ ^pOBHH^iH, HO OXOTHO OTAa- 

Bajio CBOHX'B AOHepefi. CBo6oAHbifl njiaTHHH BaRaHCiH Hiinepa- 
TpHua CTajia sauio^iTb cbohmh nanciOHepRaMH, sa ROTopuH cnepBa 
BHOCHJia ycTaHOBJieHHyio ajraiy, ho nepenncjiflfl hxi wb ^Hcoro 

RaseHHfilXT) BOCHHTaHHHH;!), no Mipt OTRpUriH TaROBUXl BaRaHcifi. 

IIoHyAHTejibHbix'b Mibpi R-b HocTynjieHiin bi yipe^RAeHHoe Bochh- 
*) HeoxoTHO ptinaiHCB otuei h KarepH pascTaBaT&ca co cbohmh xo- 

HepAMH, rOBOpHT'B aBTOp^ ynOMAHJTOfi ^XpOHHKH CMOlBHarO MOHaCT&pil" Ha 

CTp. 2; Myjcpeno RVb 6£iio hohhtb, ^to hxi x'i^BoqsaM'b HeAOCTaTOiHO Toro 
o6yqeHifl, BOTopoe Aaaaiocb hhi noA'B poAHTejbcKoft npoBieD. 

') 9T0TT. npieMi coctoaji'b hohth HcsjroqHTejBHo hsi xo^epeft ctojhi- 
Huxi SHxejeft, ciysHBDiHX'B HpeHMyniecTBeHHO si rBapxiB) hih ups XBopi, 

(H31> TOii Se nXpOHHKH CHOJTLUarO HOHaCTHpa"). 

') dTO oocTOflTejBCTBO Ha caMBixi nepeuxB nopax'B noBiesio cynie- 
cTBeHHUH OTCTyoiOHiii OTb opaBHJti, HSiosKeHHux'B Bi ycTaBt. Tasi* npH- 
HHMaJH 6e^'b npe;(CTaBjreHia AOBasaiejiBCTB'B o sBopflHCBou'B npoHcxosAemH, 
OTCTynaiH npn npieHi oti HopMU ycTaHOBjeHHBixi I'^Tb a^r BOcnHTaHHHiTB 
H npHHHMajH A'i^TeS qeiHpexb jl^thhx'b n Aase oAHHHajmaTH-itTHHX'B 
(sasi Hanp. j^oqB GyBopoaa), npHHRsraiH nocjl) cpoKa HaaHa^eHHaro ju^ 
npieiia, cpej^n roxa h x&»e bi KOHai h t. x-; Bce 9to o^enB saTpyAHJiJo 
npenoxaBaHie. 

GJOBOifB CRasaTB ycTaBi hb co6JK)AB-icfl npn cbmom'b xase 
naiaj'l cynieciBOBaHiH HHCTHTyxa. 



— 269 — 

laiejiBHoe 06ii^ecTB0 He Sujio npHHHMaeHo, ho nocieneHHO, caHO 
C060K) nocrynjieHie bi> BocnHTaTOJiBHoe 06n](ecTB0 ysejiHHHBajiocB 
Bi cHJuy cosnaBaeHofi oCntecTsoifB noTpeCnocTH bi acencKOMi 
o6pa80BaHiH cb OAHOtt cTOponiii h bi Cescnopno yAOBJieTBopHiejib* 
HOHi jsfla Toro Bpeifenn pasifipi caMaro o6pa80BaHiH — nojiyHae- 
Maro Bi»[ Cmojibhomi — cb Apyroft ciopoHBi; TaRi hto b'b nocjrbA- 
Hift roA'B XH8HE Boipcaro (1795 toa'b) BBcicTo noJiOHceHHUxi no 
ROMOJieKTy 200 BocnnraHHHi^^, b^ Cmojibhom'b MonacTupi nac^H 
TUBaJiocB 318 Ha Tani nasHBaeMoft wh to Bpena 6jiaropoAHOfi ero 
noJiOBEH^ H KpoHi Toro HO sHa^HiejiBHOMy HHCJiy JKeJiaion^HXi) 

HSl* ABOpJIH^ nOM^n^aTB AOHOpefl CBOHX^ b'b STOTB MOHaCTUpB AO- 

Hyn^eHO 6hjio 50 BOcnHTaHHHi](B kb npieMy cna Hin^aHCKyio nojio- 

BHH7» 0) Ha ROTOpOfi OAHOft HaC^HTUBaJIOCB 135 BOCHHTaHHHAl, 

laRi HTO Bcero coctoajio 503 BOcnHTaHHHABi bb SAamH h npH 
mrari, cocTaBJieHHOirB tojibro na 400 Bcero. — 9to tojro bjibrjio 
Heco6jiK)AeHie npaBBJiii yciaBa, bo MHorHxi OTHOmeHiHX'B cjihhi- 

ROM'b OqeBHAHOe AJIH BCbxi, qT06H HGHl paCHpOCTpaHflTBCfl. 

KpieiTB BOCOHTaHHHUi'B BB 06m6CTBi SjDiaropOABUX'B A'&BHK'B 

BusBajii He jiBmeHHyio HHTepeca nepenncRy Be^Ra^o cb ^jiba- 
MapmajiOHii n. C. CajiTHKOBBiirB, b'b to Bpenfl rjiaBHOROMan- 

AyiOn^HM'B B'B MoCRBt. 

IlepenHCRa 9Ta xpaHHTCA bb ApxHB6 CMOJiBHaro Mona- 

CTBTpfl ^ H, ^^ROJIBRO HaM'B HSB^CTHO, AO HaCTOHH^arO BpOHeHH HO 

6uJia oCHapoAOBana, a noTony nosBOJiaeMii ce6% npHBOCTH ee sa^cb 
noJiHOCTiK), TaR'B RaR'B ona CBHAiTejiBCTByerB h o6i OTHomeHkx'B 
o6H](ecTBa ro bhobb OTRpuTony yqe6H0Hy saBeAenifo. Botb hto 
HHcaji'B GajrruROB^, oahhi hsi nepBuxi oTosBaBmificfl na CA'&jian- 
Hoe o6i>iiBJieHie o6i> otrphtIh CnojiBHaro MonacTupji. 

«3a no^reHHHH niiCBMa Bamero npeBocxoABTejiBCTBa h npe- 
cJiaHHHfi no BNCoiafimeMy Ea HiineparopcRaro BeJienecTBa co- 
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npeBOCXOAHTeJIbCTBy SaCBHA'&TejIBCTBOBaTB HyBCTBHTeJIBH'bfimylO 



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O&h dTOKB 6yxeTB csasaHO neiiHoro HHse. 

Cm. a^jo apxuBa bb KOzaHOMB nepeucTi cb BaAHHCkK) nA'i^'o 
1764 ro^a no 1776 roftB. 

06b dTEx-b nHc&MaxB ynouHHaeTCA h bb pysonHcn HeHSBicTHaro, xpa- 
EamfifLCR Wh apxHBt 0. £. M. B. sauueJApiu no y^pesxeniaMB HHnepa- 

EHmi MapiH, o6fl8aTejiBHO coo6nieHHOfi HaM'B r. na^ajiBHHBOMB apxHBa 
G. lOyiraropcKHMT*. 



— 270 — 

HOK) 6jiaroAapHOCTB h coBepmeHHO npHSHaxBCH b% tomi, ^to same 
npeBOCxoAHiejibCTBO ceeprB ycJiyrB moexi h ynoTpe6jieHHux% 
MHOK) npH sajioxeHiH BocnHTaxejiBHaro Jl^oif a ciapamA h Tpy^u no 
oAHoft TOJibKO GjiarocKJioHHOCTH Bameft ko uwb sa to mohh 6jiaro- 
AapsTB BecbMa HSBOJiHTe, qio b xota no npeAaHHOCTH icoeft, a 
6oJibnie no peBHOcxHOMy pa6cR0iiy ycepAiK) Moeny, cooTBiTCTBya 
BcenoAA&HHMme Buco^afimeMy BceioiJiocTHBlfiniefl PocyxapHHE 
coHSBOJieniH), HaHTOHHiftme HcnoJin^Tb o6fl8anb 6ujrb. Ilpn ceirb 
8a nyacHoe naxosy oC'bsiBwih Bameiiy npoBOCxoAHieJibCTBy, hto no 
paarJiameniK) MOOHy sA'i^Cb abhjiiica en^e npexAe nnxecjiiAy^npii, 
(jiBi^a) KOH, acejiafl BOcnojibsoBaTbCfl Ea HMnepaiopcRaro BeJiH^e- 
CTBa BucoiaflmHM'b MBJiocepAieEi, npocan R^ npEHHiiio nxi na 
BOcnHTanie, a HMeneo: ((^Bunmz nponHcanii). H xora MoacAy Tb^n 
npocHJia MOHH npHHATln AO^epn caoeft noAnojiROBEHKa Beinqa 
jKOHa ero Cb qeiupbMfl MaJiOJiiTHHMH A^Tbini, HysoMi CBosirb 
6e8i BCARaro nponnianifl ocTaBJieHnaa, ROTopaa noAanHyio ro usk 
orb HOB Hejio6HTHyK) o TOin> npeACiaaHJiH yace Ea HnnepaTop- 
CROHy BejiHHecTBy; OAsaRO RaRi owh, Both^'b, qyaRecTpanei^ hhsi 
ABopaHi» jiH, Toro HOBSBicTHO, TO Bi* padcysABHui cero ne Hory 

BRJliO^Tb 66 B^ Ci6 HHCJIO aceJiaiOn^HXl, ROHXl, RBR'B ynOBaTeJIBHO, 

Bnp6AB e^^6 ropasAO Gojiie 6yAeTT». H RorAa ohh 6yAyrB OTnpaB- 
jienu B% n6T6p6yprB, to rA^ bmi no npa6iiTiK) TaMX aBHTbca o' 
TOM^ BCQpamHBaio HacTaBJi6Hia». 

«CBepxi cero HanoHHHaio en^e Bam6 npeBOCxoAHTeJiBCTBO o 
CTbffb Btjiaro ropoAa, Roxopofi MHi Cesi HMannaro yRaaa na paao- 
6paHi6 OTAaxB hobosmoxho sa chjiok) HlIaHHbIx^ »e yRaaoBi 6Jia- 
ac6HHoA H Bt^HOft cjiaBu AOcxofiHBia naMaxH FocyAapuHH HMne- 
paxpni^BE Ejinsaaexu IlexpoBHH h 6HBmaro HHnopaxopa; a RaRib 
Bpeaca Kb cxpooHiio yac6 npnxoAHXi, xo no hsbojihxo an AoaoacnxB 
Ea HMoepaxopcKOMy Beaa^ecxey. Ha ci6 oacBAaK) 6aarocKj[OHnaro 
oxBtxa». 

BoiiRoft oxBi^naexi 17 Maa. «MHaocxBBufi rocyAapB rpaifii 
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coro »6 M'lcai^a HMiai* qecxb noaynnxb h ea OHoe noROpno ao- 
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hIk) b ycxaay o BocnHxaniH 6aaropoAHHXi> A^BHi^'b npHHHHaxb 
fiyAyxi xoabRO 5-th h bt> hcxoa* 6-ro roAa, bx ^oifb Hancxpo- 
jRaflme naOaioAaeMo 6yAexi, Roxopua, ci naAaeacan^HM'b cbha^- 
xoabcxBOMiy bi> C.-nexep6yprb, npH BocRpeceHCROMx Monacxiapt 
BT) Cofffex^ asaaxbca AoaacHw. A HMtioiniia 6oa4e chxT) a4x^, cat- 



— 271 — 

XOBaTGJibHo H xejiaioiipfl b'b MocKsi, o kohxi* on Bamero ciAiejiB- 
CTsa odxasjieHO; npHHATU Cuxb He MoryrB. pasoGpamE »e 
crbsu B'ljiaro ropoAa^ RaKi npejRxe BameMy cisTejiBCTBy aohochji'l 
H BuisA naRH AOHomy^ hto a HHRaKHxi npeACxaBJieHift ne mhhhjui 
H npoHCxoAHMOMii noTOMy HeHSBicieHi. BnpoHeMi>...» 

Bei](ROfl 17 Man 1764 roAa. 

MejRAy T^Mi CajxTUKOBi, He BHacAaBi oiBtra, 13 na^ oniiTb 
HHcajTb BeAKOMy. 

«rocyAapB MOfl HBani HBanoBBHi! noJiyneHHufi mhok) otl 
Bamero npeBOCxoAHiejibCTBa njiaeii o BOcnnTamH GjiaropoAHHX'B 
jijbBmx'bj noRa nenaTHuA ae 611016:11, no npBRasy MoeMy s^ibcB chh- 
CBiBaHi* H MHOrBiTB yssLQ coo6ii^eH'B. Bame npeBocxoAHiejiBCTBO 

nOCJI'^AHHM'B nHCBMOMl> 0Tb 3-rO Man yB^AOMBTB MeHH B8B0JIHJIH, 

HTO OTRpurie cero BOcnBTaHla nocJitAyerB 28 6yAyniaro ifok^, 
a B'B TOMii se HBCBMi HOJiyHiiJi'B H BucoHaflmee Ea HMnepaxop- 
CKaro BejiHqecTBa noBeJii^Hle o6'b OTHpaBJieaiH b^ neTepOypri. 
xejiaioniHxx, rohxi no cie hhcjio ORasajiocB 10-tb, o ROTopuxi* 
npeacHHMi dhcbhoh'b mohbtb Bameiiy npeBOCxoAHiejiBCTBy coo6- 
n^aJi'B, Ha RaseaHOHi jib Romrb, 6yAe oh^ no HeBifyn^ecTBy cbo- 
eMy caMH ixaTB qiHi ee hmIiotb. A RaRi h bcI oni 6iKBue 
JiH)AH, A& H BnpeAb laROBUx'B ynoBaiejiBHO mhofo jibjiatbcb 6y- 
AeTB, CBepxi nee Toro MaTepn bjih poACiBenHBRB hpoboahtb hxi 
AO M^CTa no^ejiaiOTi*, a npa hexi cjiyjRanRaM'B 6htb HaAJieacBTB, 
TaRse jiflsi npotsAy ROJiacRaMi h TaR^ce ^ejiosiRy, ROTopony npe- 
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mero npoBocxoAHTejiBCTBa AOJiojRHTB Efl HnnepaTopcROMy BeJiH- 
qecTBy, no crojibro RajKAoA coh8bojihti> yRasaTB a&tb na npo^A'B 
H sa HBRMi npECMOipoAfB nTh OTHpaBJiiiTB; a laoco RaRifl nOAl) 

EVLTb ROJIJiCRB HORynaTB HJIH CpaXB B81 ROHIOmeHHOft ROHTOpBI, 

6yAe TaifB RaRija naftAyTCB. n, xoth HacRyHBiB BauB o crkwb 
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MH& ace 6e3'B HH^HHaro yRasa na pasoSpanie en otabtb neBOs- 
uo»HO, TO corjiacHO npeHCHBMB nHCBMaMi> MOHiTB, Hpesi cie Hano- 
MBHaiD BameMy npeBOCxoAHTejiBCTBy, hto6i bbbojibjih TaRse aojio- 
JKHTB Eh HiinepaTopcROMy BejiH^ecTBy. BBpoieMi, B'B o^HAamH 
GjiarocRJiOHHaro OTB^Ta npeGuBaio h np. » -^ 

Ha BTO HBCBMO BeiiiROft OTBi^ajii rp. CajrruROBy. « 
paiopcRoe BeJiHHecTBo noBeji'bjia Ha bhcbmo Bamero 

OTHHCaXB, ^TO B'B ny6jIHR0BaHH0Ml> MaHH^eCT']^ H yCTB] 



-272— 

TaHiH 6jiaropoAHHxi> jsHsm^'b Bcb oGcToaiejibCTBa noKasanu, no 
KOTopuifb H npHHHMaTb 6yAyi*b>. 

«no nojiyHeHHoiiy' «e mhok) oti» Bamero ciaieJibCTBa nHCBHy 
Ea BeJiH^ecTBy aojioschtb speMJi ne yjiy^niHJrb, a Rorxa mosho 
6yAeTB lOJioacy*. 

«Ho A^6u sarbMi o npiisA^ ;^bhi^> ri 28 HHCsy ceroMtcaita 
ociaHOBRH He nocji^AOBajio, ne nsBOJiHTe jie caHH bh r'b ornpaB- 
jieHiK) Hxi cnoco6u HsucRaxL, o ?eMi aohocji ci> rjiyGoHafinmirb 
no^TeeieBTBi h t. a« 24 iiaa 1764 r. 

OTB^Ta CO CTopoHfii CajiTBiROBa HO 6ujio; MO»HO noJiaraTB, 
HTO OHX ociajicfl HOAOBOJieHi nHCKMOMi H, 6eitb uox&Tby A&ze 
H ocRop6BJiCJi HBfb. Ho Bei^ROft en^o pasi nncajTb eny 8 iH)H£ 
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mero npoBOCxoABTOJiBCTBa OTB 8-ro cero irbcaaa mhok) ceft a^hb 
noJiy^eHHoe, npHBejio Menfl bi BejiHRoe ocRopfijieme o toitb, 

TTO BCOMHJlOCTHB'laniafl FocyAapHHA yAHBJIflTBCa E8B0JIHTB, "ITO 

6jiaropoAHHXi A'^BBi^ax'B HHRaRoro HSB^ciifl on ugbsl ne 
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lafimee noBejilme, yBiAOMHTB ne ociaBHJiH, hto Rpoir6 lixi, 
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AaHHaro mh^ noBeJiinifl, sceoiaioii^ vb IIeTep6yprB 6eijie 6u 
OTnpaBJieHBi. 

«Gefi cjiy^aft HeocnopHHUM'B o6pa80irB Kb coscanimH) HameMy 
AaerB HaM'B sHaiB, hto en^e bi npaBaxi namero ABopaHCTBa octa- 
jiacB npejKHHX'B Bpenen^ cypoBOCTB, ROiopaa HeAonycRaeTi* 
BX'B BOcnojiBdOBaiBCH 6e8iipHirlpHOK) Eh HnnepaTopcRaro Bejm- 
HecTBa MaTepHeio n^eApoToio. IIpHMHTe h np. 

Irojia 15, 1764 r. 

Eei^Roft na aio nHcajn>: 

cIIbcbmo Bamero ciHiejibCTBa ott» 15 cero if^cfli^a cb noire- 
HleiTB nojiyHHJi'B h na onoe hm^k) qeciB MHi^Hie Moe AonecTH, a&6u 

H8l aBHBmHXCfl 6jiaropOAHHX'B A'^BHI^'B, ROTOpBrXl B'B nECBMi 

Bamero ciaieJiBCTBa otb 10 Man o6i>flBJieHO 6UJ10, Bu6paBT>, npH- 
cjiarB BinoJiosceHHUfl no ycTasyjiiia. XIpHceuB npEJiaraio OTAan- 
Hoe MHi orB Eh HMnepaTopcRaro BejixraecTBa nncBiio, noAannoe 
Bi Pnri orB Ajiorc^ UlmnRHHa ero Aowpn, hsi ROTopsncB 
Bapsapy h npoHHxi, 6yAe hbhtch wh HMHtmneirB roAy no ocbh- 



— 273 — 

A'l^TeJibCTBOBaHiH, Ha ocHOBaHie ycTaBa, noRopno npomy OTnpaBHTb 
Kb HeTepeypn. «BnpoTqeM'L... 

H. BeAKoft 26 Iiom 1764 r. 
BcKop'6 nocjii dToro OKasaHHoe E. H. B. MaTepHHCKoe none- 
HeHie (npHBOAHM'B cjiOBa HensBicTHaro asTopa bi IIpH^aBJieHm 
Heiepfiypr. B^aom. 1764 r., aBr. 31, JV2 70, btophhkT)) «o boc- 

BHTaHiH 6jiarOpOAHBIXT> A^BHIJ^l CaMUMI) A^ftCTBOMl Ha^ajio CBoe 

B3^jio; aBrycTa 4 nocji'lAOBajio xop^ecTBeHBoe OTRpMTie BocnHxa- 
TejiBHaro 06ii;ecTBa, npH Heni 6kijio coBepmeHO 6orocjiy«eHie MHrpo- 

nOJIHTOM'B HOBrOpOACKHMT> ^BMHTpieMli OfaieHOBUUl), a 7-rO HHCJia 

cocTOHJiocb nepBoe sad^Aaeie coBiia ajih npiena npeACTaBJieHHuxi» 
Ki BocnHTamK) 6jiaropoAHiJxi a^bbi^'b, HHena n ^aiiHJiiH KbTopuxi 
6ujiH HaneqaTaHU b'l tomb ^e npHGaBJiemH Kb IIbt. B'Iaobiocthmi>. 
23 H0H6pfl IlMnepaTpHi](a EKaTepnHall bx 10 nacoBB ytpa noci- 
THJia BHOBb yHpemAOHHoe saBeAeHie, npn homb efl noAnecenu 6ujin 

Hi^KOTOpUfl pa60TU H pyKOA^JIbfl A^BHI^-b, CROJIbEO 0Tb HHXB nO 
EpaTROCTH BpeiieHH HXBBOCnHTaHifl O^HA&Tb 6UJI0 M02CH0. (C.-IIeT. 

BiA. 1764 r. Hoa6pa 24-ro, JV? 95, nnTHHua). 

Bii ^ewb jse BupasHJiacb ASuibflMmaa A'^^^TOJiibHOCTb BeAKaro 
BB OTHomeHiH BocnHTaTOJibHaro OlAecTBa 6JiaropoAHBLXB a^bhi^b 
nocji'l yiBepjRAeHlH ycTaBa3Toro06ii^ecTBa? Otb^tb Ha axoAOJiauifii 
6BIJIH 6h Aaib xpaHfl^^ec)I bb apxHB'b aioro yqe6Haro saBGAema 
pasjuraHUfl A'^SL h jRypnajibi. Ho Kb coxajnteiio ohet coAepxarb bb 
ce6% BecbBia CRyAHHH vRasaBlH o A'^flxejiBHOCTH h ynacTm Bei^Raro 
bb AajiBHiflmeft cyAb6% BBiSBanHaro HBfB kb jrhshh yipe^AOHlH. 
JIpHHEHa dxoro OTHacTH noHATHa, ecjia npEHJiib bo BHHMaHie, hto 
EeaRofi HHRorAaHH HanajibHHROMB, hh npaBHieJieMB CnoJiBHaro 
HonacTHpii ho Oujtb; ohb 6hiJL'b tojibro oahhh'b hbT) ero none^H- 
TCJieft (npaBAa cb 1764 roAa h nocaMyK)ROHHHHyB'bl795 roAy) 



') Goo6iAHiCT> nps axoMi, HTO, KasB bhaho hsb npHiaraeMaro ysasa Eaa- 
TepHHH II OTB 31 flHBapA 1767 r. (cm. npHJOxeHie fk 1), nepsue noae^HieiH 
BeiiKofi, neTpB naHHHi>, QeipB Tpy6eAKofi, Ceprtfi KysBHHHi (h HavaisHHi^a) 
onpeA'bieHEi 6eiih bb 1764 r. cnepaa toieko na a b a ro^a, a nodTOMy bb 

1767 r. cocTomocB HOBoe easBa^eHie TaKOBUx-b, npu qevB no ciyqai) OTBiiSAa 
BeuKaro bb MocBBy ci HMnepaTpuueio bb GOBiT^ loiSQa Cujia npHcyicTBO- 
BaTB npaBHTeiBH^Aa Jl|eia<|)OHB. lIpeACTaBJieHiH se GoBiTa cb HCnpomeHieMi 
pe3oiH)uiH HuaepaTpniui aojxho oujio nocHjaTb BeAKOMy, npesB KOToparo 
of)iflBj[flj(ncb GoB'lTy h noBCJi'^Hifl EsaTepHHU II. HoBue none^HTejB Epoii- 

KHHB H riit60BB 6UJIK OpH 9T0MB OSpe^'BieHBI Ha OAHHB TOAB, UO HCTeHCHin 

KOToparo npe^CTOflJCO j^oiosutb o6i stomb rocHHHH'b. IIotomb 2 napTa 

1768 r. Hasua^enfii, RpoM'b BeuKaro u Ha'iaiBHEmirflH^HOBue noneHHiejiH— 

KHaSB rOJHIlUH'B, Ojlcy4)BeB'S, KOBBUHHl—TaRXe Hil HI, UHH'bmBii SQIB H 

T. A- ynoMaHCMB, iTO Bi, 1776 r. noBej^HO npiicy itb bi Cop* * c-b 

npo<!iiMH no.isoBHHKy neTpy BacHjBeBii^y 3aBa,T.uK o ^eicB cj r. 

H. H. BBI^KOfi. KH 



— 274 — 

H BT) CHJiy 3Toro qjieHOMi coBixa, KpyrB A^aiejibHOCTH KOioparo 
GujniBecBMa Hesna^irreJieHinocaHOMyycTaBy. CoBin saBi^i^a^i*, 
KaKi Mu BBime CRasajiH, HCRjiioiHTeJibHO A:6jiaHE no xosafiCTBeHHoft 
^acTH ynpe^AeBifl, pascMaTpHBajiT* laicxe yAOCTOB^pemfl o ABop^H- 
CKOMi npoHCXO^AeniH AiBH^^, ^0CTy^aBmHx^ m> yqHjran^e h bxo- 
AHJi'B Bi pascMOTptoie BonpocoBi, ROTOpue HaqajiBHHi^a noTOMy 
ji]a6o CHHTaJia HeofixoABMfiiM'b npeACTaBHTL na ero pascMorptBie. 

yneGHofl H BocnBTaTejiiHofi ^^acTH Gowbrb ne Kacajicn; oni 
6hjih npeAOCTaBJteHU BnoJiH*! pacoopflxemEO naqajibHEipi, Roiopan 
Morjia AijiBjh HsirlHeHia bi ycTaBi, ho buxoah n3i» TO^Haro ero 
pasyM^Hk, KSiKb aro bhaho hs'l npHJiaraenaro ynasa 1764 r., 
Ji 12154 (cm. npHJioaenle J€ 2). 

Tiwb HO MOHie OAHaRO 6JIH80CTB Bei(Raro ri HMnepaipHi^, 
pacnojio^eHieMi Koiopofi oht> HecoBini^HHO noJibsoBajica bi» nepBse 
roAa eHiJ^apcTBOBani^, n to oScTOiiTejiBCTBO, hto oh^ npeACTasjifljii 
EKaTepBHl II sa CBoeio noAnncBK) AORJiaAU no pasjiH^HBiirb A'i^aHB 
BocnHTaiejiBHaro 06mecTBa h coo6iii;aj['B nocjrl^AHeMy BucoHafimiH 
Eh noBejiiHifly a TaiuRe Bejii> cb ApyrsMH M^CTaifH n jiHnaiiH nepe- 
nncRy no A'i^aii^ Toro x,q 06n^ecTBa^ npHAaBaain Bec^Roicy BBiAafo- 
n^eecH sHaHenie nsi cpeAU ocTajiBHBixi ^enoBi CoB^Ta h AOCiaB- 
jifljm eMy BOsiioacHOCTB hm^tb BJiianie na AaJiBnifi^yio cyAB6y 
BOBHUKaBmaro ^encRaro yqefinaro saBeAenifl. 

3to BJiiflHie npoHBHJiocB bI) HnxecJii^AyK)^^!!^. Hume yxe 
ynoMHHyTo, ^xo nepBonaqajiBHo BocnHTaxenBHoe 06n^ecxB0 noMin^a- 
jiocB Bi) sAaniHX'B BocRpecencRaro HoBOA'bBHqB>iro MonacxHpji, 
Roxopoe ne Gbijio en^e coBepmenHo OROH^eno, RaR^ beaho hs^ mho- 
iHxx A^^ OC060& ROHxopu cxpoenia HoBOA'^BBiBaro MonacTupH, 
cocxoiiBniefl ci 1762 roAa noAi* rJiaBHUMi B']^A^HieMi> Bei^Raro ^); 



coBtiy EeuKOfi 19 (t)eBp. 1776 r. (cu. KHHry ^ 29) h x. a. IIpH noAo6HOM% 
nopflAst HaaHaqeBifi none^Hxejefi, x. e. HjenoB'B GoB'fexa na oahhi> roAi, 
HepiAKO BaanaHaiHCL bhobb JHi^a, yxe 6iiBinifl noueHHxeij&MH bi npeAmecx- 
ByiDHiifi roAit bo BeaKofi h na^ajBEHua o6n;ecTBa 6hih xasi csasaxB nocxoan- 
HUME noEequxejAME Ejfl HieEaME GoBixa. 

Hb'b ji,'hA'h ycMaxpuBacTCJi, ito £emu)fi Epo6iu'B vh MockfJ^ 10 4 reHBapa 
1768 r. (cm. Apx. Boc. 06ei. KEura J& 29, KpacEaE). KpoMi xoro e31 x±i9i 
^ 1, on 1762 r. (npejuoseEie BeuKaro soEXopli BocRpeceBCKaro Hosa- 
cxupfl) BHAEO, HTO Bemcod EaxoAflJCA b'b Mocrb']^ c% ceBXA6pA 1762 r. do 
26 Mafl 1763 roAa, na BctxB EOJiyqeEBuxi GoB'bTOM'B otb sero dynaraxi 
EMd^excE flOMixKa •MocRBa''. 

Cm. ApxEBi Cu. uoEBLCT.fX^^^ B 6yuarH no CTpoesiH) BocKpeceacsaro 
Mosacxupfl. m-B dToxi 6yMari beaeo, ^to 22 iiome 1762 r. cauoe cxpoesie 
BosjioseHO fla npeuBop'B— Maiopa BacEJiA UepeKycBXEsa, paEopxu soToparo 
no 1769 r. xpaflExca b'b oco6om'b ji.^i'h srb KosaflOU'B Eepeniexl, BM'fecxici 



— 275 — 

oFb ^peACTaBJIAJI^ HeoAHORpaTHO HMnepaTpni^']^ xoat> pa6oTi> no 
3T0fl nocTpofiK* H oCi OTHvcK'S cyMMi Heo6xoAHMuxT» fl;jifl ea 

OROH<iaHiH ^). 

nouritiaeHie BocnHTaTejiBHaro 06ii^ecTBa bi> sAamnxi MOHacTHpn 
BusBajio HeoGxoAHMOCTb Bi pasjiHiHux'b nepeA'bJiKax'B h npncnocoS- 
jieHiax'B Kb dTOMy bi* iiOHacTupcRHX'b sAam^xii, Ha tto onaxb 
TpeSoBajiBCBAeHbFH, o6% ornycRt Koxopux'b Eeii^ROfi pasHOBpeMOHHO 
HcnpamBBaJi'L pasp'J^meHie ERaiepHHu II. Tvlk-l bi 1773 r. 
26 $eBp. IlMnepaTpHAa pasp'fainnjia OTnycTHTB Bei^ROMy hjih ROMy 
on» Hero nopyieHO 6yAerb btj HHHiniHeMi rosy Ha nepeA^JiKy 
BflOBB noRoeB'B qeiBepiaro RJiacca 06ntecTBa 6jiaropoAHiiiXT> a^bhi^b 
H HcnpsBJieHie ota'&hor'b BHyrpH horoobi ajih Min^aHCRHxi> A'^By- 

ffleR^ Bl H B M l AOM% CeMBAeCHTb THCHH-b CTO HCTHpe py6jiH 

ceHLAecflTB AeBflTb ci ^eiBepibK) RonteR^ (apx. C. M. A*Jn» 1773, 
X 2). IIpH BOBBeAOHlH ocoSaro CTpooHia A-ia oSmeciBa fijiaro- 
poAHuxi H M^maHCRBX'b A'^BHUi (cH. A^o apxBBa Cm. m. 1773 
roAa H 1774 r. J^ 5). Eei^RofiHcnpamHBaji^HaaTonepBOHaHaJibHO 
88,841 py6. 45 V2 k- bt» AORJiaA* oxocjiaHHOMi r^ KosBMany 
18 Mapra 1774 roAa h na AORJiaA^^ ero VLwbercsi pesojiioi^iH Ea 
BejisqecTBa: «AAaiii> BacHJiBeBHqi! OTaycTHTO bsti KaGnneTa Hb. 
Hb. BeAROiiy na npoHSBOAHHoe, na Mtcxt 6uBmaro Aep^saHHaro 
SHHHaro ABopAa, RaifenHoe cxpoenie, Aa Ha cxpoeHie AOMa hjir 
6jiaropoAHuxi a'^bhi^'b BocoHxaxejiBHaro 06n^ecxBa n Min^aHCRHX'B 
AtByraeR-BCopoRi xHCflH'BpyO. Anp. 26, 1774 r.,C.-nexep6yprB». 

Ho yxe wb xomt* ae roAy 3 0KXfl6pa nocJitAOBajia BHCo^aft- 
maa pesojiioaia oxnycxHXB na OROH^axeJiBHoe cxpoenie bti uojiyAHp- 
Ryjrb BocHBxaxejiBHaro 06ntecxBa fijiaropoAHHX'B a'I^bha'b Apyrofi 
DOJiOBBHU H Ha Hpoqia cxpoenia 48.841 py6. 

BnponeM'B oocxpofiRa CMOJiBHaro Monacxupa axnuii ne orpa- 
HB4HJiacb, B erne b'b 1776 roAy ne pasi BeaROfl, AORJiaAUBaa 
nMnepaxpBU% xoa^ axaxT* pa6ox^, BcnpamnBaJii HeoGxcAHHua na 
3X0 cyMMU, RaRi Hanp. 10 roHBapa 1776 r. — 14710 pyC; napia 
16 — 57.741 p. 8I74 R. Ha canyio HeoGxoAHMyio b'b cxpoeHiaxT* 
HaAo6HocxB; Iiojia 12 na uoaojioxy rjiaBB cofiopa — 13 ^vhxob^so- 



opexioseHiaMH BeAKaro OTHOcaiUHMHca ao nocTpoesi, sa J\& 1 orb 1762 roxa. 
TjTb jse B nepeoHcsa npHCuoco6jeBiH s^aHia uoaacTupa kt. noMtn^eHiH) 
Ciaropoj^RuxB AtRHm>. 

*) YnoiiaHeM'B Tyxi, ^to 031 uowhTOK'h na 67uarax'b bhaho, ^to ci ceu- 
xa6pa 1762 r. ao caicaro 26Haal763 roxa r. fieasofi aaxoAHica B'b MocKBi. 
iijia Apx. CM. MOH. JVs 1, 1762 ro;^a. Upewoaeflie Be^Ka^o kohtop* eipoep' 
BocBpec. MonacTupa. 



— 276 — 

jioia H T. A- Ha Bce 3to nocji'lAOBajio Buco^afimee coasBOJieHie, 
sa HCRJuoqeHieMi) BnpoHeMi HcnpamHBaBmHxcH 57.741 pyC., 
BM^CTo KOTopuxi), no pesojiioiuH 1 1 Hafl, oinyn^eHO tojibko ab^A- 
i^aTB unTh THorai) py6. ^). 

TaKle pacxoAH no nocTpofiKi BusuBajmcB OT^acTH h t^itb, 
4T0 BCRopt sHaHHTOJiBHO pacmHpHJiocB caHoe BOcnHTareJiBHoe saBe- 
Aeme ynpeacAemeifB ocoSjiBBaro yiEJimi^a a^^ BOCQETaHia Mano- 
jiiiHHXi A^BymeRX, no oco6oMy AOKJiaAy Bei^Raro BucoHaftme 
yTBepacAGHHOMy 13 reHBapa 1765 r. Bi cocToaBmeMM no ceMy 
npoAMeiy yKasi (11. C. 3. 12 323) HHiaeMi *): 

Bi renepajibHOM'L yHpe^A^HiH o BocnnTamn — roBopHxca bb 
AOKJiaA* — noBeJitno bo Bckx% ryfiepniaxi saBOAHTb BOcnHxaieJibHHa 
yHHJiHn^a. TaRie n saBeAenu j^jir GjiaropoAHuxx ur MimaHCRHxi 
MajiBHHROBi. Ho AJiH nojiBsu 06n^ecTBa ne MeeBme TpeGyexca, 
HTo6u BcaRaro nnna n jRencRift nooii BOcniiTaHx Gblsb 

B'B A06pOHpaBiH H Wb npHJIHHHHX'B COCTOaHlK) erO SHaeiflX'B H 

pyROA'^iaxi; qero paAn npHononTB aceBocRpecencROMiiMOHacTBipi 
Wb ocoCoMi CTpoeeiH noBejiiBaJiocB ynpeAHiB yinjiame ajia 
MajioJiiTHHxi A'i^BymeRi noA'B ynpaBJienieM'B lofi aie r-sm na- 

^aJIBHHI^I H npaBHTOJIbHBqfil, ROTOpoe AOJIJRHO CHa6AHTB paBHOM'&p- 

HUME pacnopaARaMH, Aa6Bi 6jiaroycTpoeHHUM'B BocnHTaHieMi o6oero 
nojia lOHomecTBa npoHSBecTB hobob nopoacAenle, otb ROToparo 6u 
npaMUfl npaBHJia BocnHTania HenpepBiBHfiiMi> nopflAROifB bt* noTOH- 
CTBO nepexoAHTB mofjih. 

HepBufi npieMi 60 A'i^BymeK'B, cocTOHHieBTB cbobm'b cb Bocna- 
TUBaeMUMH npn ARaA- XyA. MajiB^HRaMH OAflnaRHxi, no npnirbpy 
OHuxii HaAJie^ajio pasA^JiHTB na 4 Bospacia; nepBtifl otb 6 — 9 
JiirB, BTopofl OTB 9 — 12; Tpeiift otb 12—15 jAtl h HeiBepiufi 
OTT) 15 — 18 JiirB, npn hgm^ bi TpeiBeii'B Bospacrt ynoTpe6jiaTb 
RO BcaRHMi ^eHCRBBfB pyROA'^Ji&aH'B, pa6oTaMi, T. e. npiynaiB 

mHTB, TRaXB, BasaiB, CTpanaTB, MUTB, HHCTHTB H BCK) 3R0H0MH<ie- 

CRyK) cjiy3R6y HcnpaBJiaTB. dxo xe canoe npoAOJURaxB n bi 4-111 
Bospacrt. 



Ctf. flf^JLO soHTopu CTpoenifl BocKpeceHCRaro MOHacTiipfl bb soxaa- 
HOMi nepeajeTt cb sasjisRaMHi Ha^Haaa cb 1776 r. He npHBOxmiB dojoth- 
iiEixB AOKja;^OBB BeuKaro, KaKi ne npeACiaBjiAromHX'B bb HacTOflo^ee Bpevir 
oco6aro HHTepeca no hxi coAepsaHiK). 

') Cm. Tasxe: „HcTopnHecRifi onepRB cTOjtxHeft sqsbh HMnep. BocaHT. 
06mecxBa 6jarop. AiBim. B. H. ^AAOBa 1864 r., ct, 9, xaRxe ApxnBB IIpaB. 
CcHaTa, RHHra Bucoh. yKa30BBi J^ 113, CTp. 116. 



— 277 — 

IlocJii nepsaro npleiia onpej^bjiJiTB jifisi uaxjsfli AiBymRH no 
50 py6., RjiacTb bi 6aHKi a^^ DpBpan^eHiH, b npH eunycKi pas- 
A^HTL Bi* npHAaHoe ocTaBmHU'B Toro npieiia Bcbwb no paBHoft 
qacTH. 

Bdb Bupa6oTaHHbifl hmh BQmjs bi 6uTH0CTb hxi> bt» ynnjinnit 
npoAasaTB HLWb bi> nojiBsy, sanncuBaTB, hto h Kkwb CA^ano, n 
npn BunycK^ BUAABaTL efi noAJie^Kan^yio nacTB. PoAnieJiH lOHce 
MoryTi nojioxHTB na A^syniRy AenBrn. Ilocjit 12 ji^tb npefiuBani^ 
BunycKaioTCA mwb yqfljiHn(a, no MoryrB nocTynnxB na CJiy»6y no 
yroBopy bi 06n;ecTB0 CjiaropoAnux'B A'^BEm, h asur6 MoryiB 
ocTaTBCfl en^e na Tpa roAa Kb Rjiaccaxi), no ajih oiBpan^enia npasA* 
fiocTH noJiyiaTB hsii yqHJiBn(a tojibro noROfi, cb^hh h ApoBa. IIo 
npomecTBlfl dTHxi* S-xi Jiiii, nnifonuH 21 roA^, BunycKaiOTCH, 
KyA& caifH noxejiaiorB, cb aTTeciaxoMi, no ROTopoMy noJiBsyioicH 
BC^HB npeBHyn^ecTBaMB n bojibhoct^mh, noHajiOBannuHH no yciasy 
AnaAeHiB XyAOjRecxB'B. GoofinpifB npn stomi, "ito nepBBifl npleMi 
BocnHTannnm bi 3to bhobb oiRpuToe yiHJiHn^e coBepmBJicn 
OHeHB CRopo; bi neTupe Micnaa 6biji'b npnnnrB bbcb ROBinJieRXB 
no npoBHyn^ecTBy bsi a'^^toA npBABopnuxi cjiyncHTejieft, Ryni^OBB, 

pasnOCHBROBl), HB^nflXB IBHOBl* rBapAOftCRBXl nOJDLROB'B B T. A«; 

HO ipesi* ipB roAa, npn BTopoMi npieni, Be mopjib Ha6paTB nojinaro 
KOMnjieRTa, ne cMoipA na sci CTapanin, b noTOiiy paspimeno 6bijio 
npBHBMaTB RaRoro 6u snani^ hb 6bijio, RpoMt Rpi^nociHHX'B. 

Bi* aiOM^ noBOiTB y^BJiBm,*! bb ^exupexi B08pacxax^ nojuara- 
jiocB BMi^xB Bcero 240 A'^^symeRi*; bsi hbxi> npeAnoJiarajiocB noAro- 
tobbxb cnoco6nBixi BOcnnxannHi^i r7> aanAxiio AOJiaceocxefi y^B- 
xejiBCRBxi Bi o6oBXT> saBeAeHinx'B, xaR^ RaR^, no non/ixiHMi xoro 
BpeMGHB, ciBxajiocB HeyAoGHUMi) B A^s^o ynnsBxejiBHUM'B, qxo6u 
AtxB ABop^Hi npBHBMajiB na ce6H CRpoMHoe sBanie nacxaBHBi^'B 
H BocnnxaxejiBHBA^. PaBHKiirB o6pa30Mi> bsi hbxi hofjib buxo- 
AHTB B AOMamniii yHHxejiBHBi(u a^h oSyneniii A'^^xeft na AOiffy. dxBifB 
odiiJiCHaeica oxiacxn BKjnoHenie b^ nporpaMMy bx^ o6yHeHia mho- 
rnx'B npeAuexoBi, ne nxoABBmnxi bi* nporpaiiHy odyieniA Bocnn- 
xanHBiCB BocnnxaxeJiBnaro Jl^ona (RaicB nanp. xam^OBanio, u'l^nie, 
MysKuca B Aa^e oabhi BnocxpannBifi asbiri), xoxh ycxanu o6obx'b 
saBeAenifi npecjit>AOBajiB rJiaBntflniBMi o6pa80MB OABnaROByio u^jib, 
BMenno, osnaROHBBi A^BymeRi Ch caMUMB ajieMenxapniaMB 
HiaMH, o6yiBXB Bxi), wh BBAy HeAOCxaxo^fflaro cocxoanifl 
ABxeJieft, rJiaBHifimBMi) oGpaaoMi pyROA'^iiiMi n ncr 
AOCxynnHX'B hxi cBJiani AOManmBXt paGoTB BCHKaro 



— 278 — 

OKOH^aHJH Kypca A'^syniKH mofjih nocTynaib, no xeJuaHiR), Ha 
cjiy2c6y npH BocnHTaTeJiBHOMi> 06ii^ecTBi 6JiaropoAHUxx;^BHiCL^). 
y?pe;RAeHie axoro HOBaro yqe6Haro saBeABHU ajlh Hi^n^an- 
CKHx^ ^ij^BymeKTi ^) ecTeciBeHHo conpfl^eeo 6bijio cl pacxoAaMH 
Ha HOMtn^eHie h nojiHoe coxepacaHie onaro, Tpe6oBaBniHiiH ohobhaho 
He MaJiuxi cyMMTi Ha nx^ noKpuTie. OSi) OTnycKi aTnx'b cyMH'B, 
a paBHO cyMMax^ BHSHBaennxT* ycTpoftcxBOMi yAo6Haro noM%- 
n^eniA pflsi BocnHTaieJibHaro 06n;ecTBa 6jiaropoAHiix^ A'i^BHini, 
Bei^Kofl HeoAHORpaxHO AOKJiaAusaJii HMnepaTpHAt ERaTepHni II, 
KOTopaa He ocTaBJiHJia ero xoAaTaficiBi 6e3i> BHHMaBia. He nepe- 

MHCJIHH BCi^Xl AOKJiaAOBl 3T0T0 pO^a, npeACTaBJieHHUXl* Bei^RHlTB 

IIiinepaTpHi^i, b b^ nacTOfln^ee BpeMH y»ce He coAep«aniiHxi> bi> 
ce6t ^TO jih6o oco6eHHo sanHMaTejiBHoe, a orpaHUHHJiCH nouin^e- 

HieiTb HiROTOpUXl* H3X HHXl Bl> OpHJIO^eHlHy RaRl 6il JlflK OpH- 

M'^^pa (cm. npHJioacema noAi» J^ 3). 

Bei^KOfi HCX0AaTaficTB0BaJI^ ^) y HnnepaTpnuu 2 aop. 1771 r. 
npaBHJio, ito6e>i A^BHi^aMi 3 h 4 RjiaccoBii npH dRsaiieHax'B bi> na- 
rpa^RAenie pasAaBaiB BMeneMi) Ea BejinnecTBa snaRH BS'bJieHTi): ji^is. 
3-ro RJiacca ci^paro i^B^xa cl cepe6poM'B, a j[flSi 4-^ 6iJihiB cl so- 
jiOTOui. Bil776roAy 28anpijia Bucoiaflme noBOJi'&Ho BS'LiHCJia 
CjiaropoAHUx'L A'i^BB^^ nepsaro BuxoAa^), HaB6ojr6e OTJiB^BBmBXca 
HarpaABTB snaRaMB sojiotumb cl BMeneifB Eji BeJiH^ecTBa, aro 
saatABiejiBHBUu cero OCmeciBa, o Roefi cano co6ok) b ipeai. no- 
Ao6HUfl npeAanifl AOJi»cHa naMSTB npe6uTB b^^hho, ROTopue hochtl 
nepBUHi AByifL A^BBi^aHi na jieeiri^ cl t p e h a, AByM^ BTopuMi» 

CBAByMfl, a AByMl TpeTBBM'L C^ ah oft 30JIOTHMB HOJIOCRaMB. 

ITpaBBJio aio co6jiK)AaTB na bc% 6yAyn;ifl Bpenena. He imoro panie 



*) IIosAHie dTo HiiAaHCKoe OTX'i^JieBie 6£iJro OTAiieHo or& BociiHTaTeiB- 
earo OGmecxBa, ho^hhjio caMOCTO£Tej&Boe ycrpofiCTBO h uoal HaaBaHieHL 
AjeRcaHj^poBcsaro nHCTHiyTa cyn^ecTByerii ii no BacxoAn^ee BpeMfl, yipaTUBi 
E^'b BHAy coBepmeBBo uj^Jih h BsaneBie, BOTopHe aani^peBaJica AOciHMb nep- 
Bufi ocBoaaTejiB aToro oTAtjeaia npu ero y^pesAeaiH bl 1765 roxy. 

') He MBoro nosAadbe noAo6Boe se yiHJiBniie j^a A^^xefi Mysecaaro noja 
6ujo sasexeBo a npa cyxonyxBOML nuaxeTBOU'b EaAeTcaoML sopnycb, o newh 
caaaaBo bo riaai o(h> 8tomi> aopnycb. 

") loBiaALero noceny npexMeTy npnceML npHiaraeTca (cm. npm. J\e 4). 

*) FoTOBBBmeeca TopsecTBO no ciynaio nepaaro Bunycaa asi 06niecTBa 
6jiaropoAB£ix'L a^bhiii 6uao OTJoaeao sa 30 anpd^ia 1776 r. BcitACTBie 
ROBHBBU cynpyrn BacatABHaa npecTOJia HaiaiLH AieEcd^eBBU 15 anptja 
1776 roAa. KiinepaTpima EKaTepnaa II, do dTofi-se iipii^BBi, aa TopiaecTBi 
Be npHcyiCTBOBaja, BeAsofi cl rpa(|>0ML Mhhhxom'b pasAaBaiL OKOHHBBniHirb 
aypcL A'^BHAaui sarpaAu: RaKi> to BeBsejia, HeAaiB, KBHra. (Cm. XpoHaaa 
CMOJLHaro MOsacTHpa CTp. 48). 



— 279 — 

BToro BpeifeHH BeaKofl noJiyTOJi'L 16-roreHBapa 1776 r. oxiHMne- 
paTpni^u cjii^^ion^ee niacBMo: 

«IlBaHi SBaHOBHHi! IIpH HacTynjieHiH BunycKa CjiaropoAHux'L 
A'bBHA'B, coBepIIIHBa]^x^ CBoe BOcnHTaHie B^b ynpeJEAeHHOMi OCn^e- 
CTBt, rfffe Tpy;tH h noneneHie, jih)6obb Bamy ki> OTe^iecTBy Bt^HO 
npocjiaBJUiiorL, H, ORasuBaa 0% oahoA cTopoHu Moe yAOBOJiBCTBie, 
cb Apyrofl ace MaiepHee npaapiHle, Koiopoe npocTHpaeica Ha Jiyn- 
mift aipeSift Bceft nx^ jrhshh n cbmi» ?yBCTBOin> yBaacHBi Tyrb co- 

CTOAHie GeSpOAHHX'L n TaKOBUXl, ROn pOAHXeJIH HJIH CBOflCTBeHIIHRH 

He HMiiorB AOCiaiRa, htoCi AaiL hmt> npnjiHHHoe coAepacanie, Bce- 
MHJiocTHBtflme awmyeMi h3t» Hamero Ra6HHeTa cto iHcait pyfijieft, 
sejian, ^to6i> bu ciio cyMMy o6paTHJiH bx RanHTaJii coAepacaHia h 
CHa6A'i^HiH opBAaHfiiM'b bsx chx^ a^bbi^i Tixii, KOTopua cefk no- 
MomH no BHXOA*]^ H81 MOHacTupa, a nane, RorAa nocAmyri wh cy- 
npyxecTBO, no CiAHOCiB hxt* poABBraBx-B hh oinyAa ne MoryrB 
HirtiB. fl acejiaK), ito6h ynpeacAeaie, ROTopoe bu no ceny CAiJiaeie, 
noAHeceHO 6ujio ri Moeft annpo6ai^iB h Tyri ace xoniy, Aa6u pac- 
npeA^enie b canaro npBAaearo RaacAOfi aI^b^i^^ RoaBiecTBOM'B 
CBOHMii noRasuBaao BOSAaaHle npioSpiTeHBuii'B bmb AOCTOBHCTBaMi 
npB BOcnBiaHlB, b nocayacBao 6u ri> Ban^eny noon^peniH) AapoBa* 
Hifl H B% ApyrBxi en^e BOcnHTUBaK)n](BxcH. H npefiuBaio Bupo^ieifb 
Baifi) 6aaroaceaaTeaBHaa > ^). EKaTepBHa. 

TeHBapa 16 Ana 1776 roAa b^ C.-neTep6ypr4. 

BeAROft He saMOAaBai cociaBBTB yRasannoe pocnHcaHie, yTBep- 
acAOHHoe EKaiopBHofi II 24 naa 1776 r., noROTopoMy bocb Rann- 
laai* noH^n^aaca bi CoxpaHHyio Rasny b noaynaeMue cb Hero 
npoKeHTBi Bi paaifipi 6-tb t. py6. pacnpoA'i^aaaBCB caiAyion^Biii 
ofipaaoMi: 1775 p. — onBcaaaBCB na BUAany HCKaioMHTeaBHO a''^- 
BBn;aHi> GeapoAHUM^ b HeBHyn^BMi nps BunycR*! bxi bsi 06n^e- 
CTBa; ocTaaBHue 4,225 p. HasHaiaaBCb na pasAaiy bi narpaAU sa 
ycnixH bb nayRaxi b'b pasM'bp']^ orB250py6. ao 100py6. RaacAOfi. 
JI^eHBrB 8TB BHAaBaaBCB no caMyK) CBiepiB aBi^i, ROiopuMi ohb 6HaB 
HasHaqeHu b no bxti cnepTB npBiBcaaaBCB ri* RanBxaay, ROTopufl 
TaRBMif oGpasoMi Bce yseaB^BBaaca ^). 



M ^TBHie MocjcoB. yHHBep. 1863 r. Kh. IV ct. 9. CKaaanie o poA* kh: 
3efi Tpy6eitsuxi>— cTp. 332. ApxHBb CMOiLHaro uoHacTupa, Kenra o6paAr 
BunycKi 6iaropoABUX'B jc&BHU'b 1-ro npieiva; cm. G.-IIeTep6yprcKia £i 
MOCTH 1776 r. MdA 16 J^ ^, iipH6aBJ[eHie. 

') KHHra oGpHAOBi* BuaycKa 6jaropoA* A'^bhab 1-ro npiena bi Aps 
BocHHT. 06iii. 6jiarop. a'^bbkb. 



— 280 - 

EcJiH BepxoBHafl yHpe^HTejiBHHaa, HMnepaipHi^a Bcepoccifl- 
CKaH, A^jiajia ctojib u^eApoe eABHOBpeMOHHoe noacepTBOBame hs^ 
KaGHHOTa CBoero ea nojissy a'^bhi^, KOHHaBinHX'B BOcnsTaHie b'b 
y^peatfleHHOMi Eio oCmecTBi, to HeJitsa He ynoMaHyib, tto 6jra- 
Hcafimifi coTpYAHHKi en b'b A^i JKOHCRaro oSpasoBanifl, BeaRoft, 
CO CBoeft cTopoHEi A^Jnaoi) He iien^e sHaHHieJiBHUfl nosepTBOBaHiH 
Ha noJiBsy dToro BeJimearo jiUji^. Oco6um'b AOKJiaAOM^, y cero npn- 
jiaraeMUM'B ^), Bei^Roft Bupasnajii fotobhoctb co^epiKaTB na co6- 
CTBennoMii ero H^HBeniH b'b Ofin^eciBt 6jiarop. A^BHi^nb no jmn 
BOcnHTaHHHqi hsi 6iAHaro ABopsHCTBa, DpHHHuaH xaROBUxi qepea-B 
Ka}KABie TpH roAa. 

EKaTepnna yTBepAHJia dxo, h Bei^Koft npenpoBOAHJii bocb ao- 
KJiaA'B CoBiiy OSn^eciBa wb asrycrfe 1772 roAa BMicrfe cb pocnB- 
canieMi) cyMM-B, c KOTopua e^eroAHO aoji^hu 6bliih nocTynaiB RaacAue 
noji'B-roAa BnepeA^, aokoji']^ »h3hb Moa npoAOJURaeicfl, a no uuh 
OTb CoB^Ta IlMnepaTopcKaro BocHHTaTeoiBHaro AOMa>. 

06pan;ajiCB aa rbwb m^ Bonpocy, RaRRMH cyifMaMH noRpusajiocB 
caMoe coAepHame yipesECAenHaro b'b BOCRpecencRoirB MonacTupi 
BocnHTaxejiBHaro SjiaropoAHux'B a'I^bhi^'b yHBJiiinia, to nsi AORJiaAa 
6ei](Karo 1766 roAa ycMaxpHBaeTca, hto Ha osHa^enHBift npoAMerB, 
Ha nepBufi cjiynaft, no»ajiOBano 6ujio, hb'b KoMnaTHOft cyiiMU Ea 
BejiHHecTBa 60 t. py6. Bi BHAy Toro, ^to 06n^. CJiarop. AtBnm*, 
a TBRJEe ynpeacAeHHoe npn HeM'B yiHJiHn^e a^a iffen^ancRHXi A'^By- 
meK'B BOSHHRajiH nocTenoHHO, nyTein> hobuxi apienoBi A'^BHm 
Hpes'B BCHRie Tps roAa, osna^ieHHaa cyMMa, 6oJiie nexcejiH Hsjnini- 
Haa Ha noRpHTle pacxoAOB'B bi nepBoe Tpexjitxie, nocTenenno cxa- 
HOBHjiacB HeAOcxaTOHHOK). Bei^Rofi Bx 1766 r. xoAaTafiCTBOsajix 
o6x OTnycKi CBepxT> bthx-b 60 t. py6. eme AonojiHHTejiBHHX'B cyHMi, 
HMBHHO sa BpoMB Cb 1764 HO 1766 r. — 190 thc. py6. h sa rfeifB 
CB 6yAyniaro 1767 r, no Iiojib 1790 r. h tofo na ABaAnaTb Tpa 
CB noJiOBHHOd roAa, na KaacAufl « no CTy TUcan'B pySjieBi b'b hr- 
^ajit roHBapa Mtcai^a, sa rini, hto6u sa ynoTpeOJieHieM'B no co- 
ciaBJieHHOMy pocnErcamio cb ocTaTOHHHMH, AOROJrb nocjitAHift 
npieiTB He nocji'feAyeT'B, OTAanaa b-b eanR-B AJia nojiyienia yRasHHX^ 
no mecTH npouienTOB'B h cb hhxi pocTy, npiyMHoacHTca ctojibro 
KanHTajiy, ckojibko eaceroAHO Ha coAepHanie rixx ynnJinn^'B no- 
Tpe6H0, He Tpe6ya y^e bi AoCaBOKi hh Majiifimefl cyMMu». 



') Cm. npHJozenie J^ 5. 



— ^81 — 

HnnepaTpHaa no ceuiy AOKJia^y 13 anp. 1766 r. BwcoTOfime 
noseji'ljia ornycKaiB h8i> KoJiJieriH 3R0H0Miif na ABaAi^aiB ea n^TB 
jitn> no CTO THcaqx py6. na tokl no cewy ^). 

OsHaneHHaa cyHMacTO rucfm^b ueHsifbHHO noTAasaJiacb Bocnnia- 
leJiBHOMy OCn^ecTBy. Meac^y rbwb cb oahoA CTopoHH hhcjio a^bhii'b 
A'bftCTBHTeJiBHO BocnHTUBaeMuxi) Bi) 06n^ecTBb, nocTenenao ysejin- 
^HBaflCB, CTajio npeBBrmaTb co6ok) mxaTHoe hecjio ohuxb, na nojinoe 
coAepacanie rotopbexb npnsHaBajiacB AOCiaTO^HOK) ynoMflHyxafl Bume 
cyMMa. Ob Apyrofl CToponu noHTH bi» TpHwaTHJitimft nepioA'B Bpe- 

H6HH na BCi aCHSneHHUH nOTpe^HOCTH SHaHQieJIBHO nOBHCHJinCB 

JsikBM ^), npHHATU^ Bi ocHOBanie npn HcqacjieHlH bb ]767 ro;^ 
Heo6xo;^HMOfi na co^epacame ;^tBH^B ro^OBofi cyMMW. Hocji'lfl;- 
CTBieifB dToro OHeBB;^Ho 6bijio: 1) o6pa30BaHie ORasaBmarocn na 
06n^ecTBi, opH RonqHHt BeiiKaro, AOJira bb pasidip']^ 73,215 p. 
68Y2 K., KOTopKifi H 6hjib ynJianeHB yace no BHCOHaflnieMy noBe- 
ji^HiK) 19 ABRadpH 1796 r. no AORJia^y IlBinepaTpHA'l^ Mapiu 
(JIflflOB'B CT. 723), aiaRae 2) 6utb mojegtb neBnojint y^oBJieTBopa- 
TejiBHoe coAep^anie BOcnBXBiBaeMHXB bb hohb a'^bhiiib, h 3) OTCTy- 
njienifl otb nepBona^ajiBHO yxBepjEAennaro ycraBa 06n;ecTBa. 



*) HevHoro nosAflie 25 Maji 1766 r. Bei^Kofi, no opeACTaBjeQiH) GosiTa 
AORjaj^uBajn HHaepaTpBi^t 061 oToycs'b bi 1769 r. ea btotb npeAMeT'L 
OAHOBpeMeHHO eme 40 t. py6., kotophb h 6£ijih OTayn^esu. ynouflBexB npu- 
dTOMB, HTO BiC-neiep. BiAOM. (Toroae 1776 r. J^43 otb 30 Maa btopbhki; 
flaneHaTaso: »Efl BejHMecTBO, HMta BeycunHoe none^enie socnHTaaiH x)bo- 
mecTBa o6oero noja, bub^ bobuS oiiutb CBoero nieAParo Ba oaoe npuapiBie 
oKasaTb coBSBOJiua nosaioBaHieMB bb cdokh ash BOCDOTyeMUX'B bb Uobo- 

A-feBH^BeMB MOBaCTUpi ABOpAHCSBXB H MBIIiaHCEBXB A^BBI^T* CyHMU, COCTOK- 

mefi Vb AByxi vBiJiioBaxB bjitii CTaxi» tuca^i py6., ci> t'^h'l, hto6i>i OHoe 
BOCBHTaBie bpohsboabmo 6bijo noiynaeuuiiH yse ci Tofi cyMMU npoueHiaMH. 

06a npeACTaBieuifl CoB^Ta npn ceHB npBjraranTCfl jljle sejaiomiix'b no- 
AP06HO 03HaK0VHTBCfl CB pac^eTaHH CoBiia OTBOCHTejBBO f^oAepsaaifl y?H- 
jHmB Ba flpoiieBTH AapoBaHfluxB HMT> KanHTajOBi (CM. npuJoxeHia J&J^ 6, 7). 

') Ajfl DpflMtpa npBBeAeHB i^isii sa HticoTopue upeAuexu, sanHCTBo- 
BdHHue iiaup H3T>KHnrH OopeA. CoBii. 1792— 1796 r., cxp. 129. Taifb ctohjib: 





a 


a 




S 


S 


§ 


g 






Is.- 




P 


|i 


li 


S." 








si 


r 




|i 




p. K. 


p. K. 


K. 


p. K. 


p. K. 


p. B. 


p. B. 


p. K. 


p. K. 


p. IC. 


BB 1764 r. 


1 30 


1 20 


30 


3 


90 


3 20 


2 60 


4 60 


3 


1 10 


BB 1793 r. 


2 80 


3 20 


68 


6 50 


2 20 


6 50 


6 


13 


560 


2 50 



Hs-B dTHXi i^r4)P'b bhabo, Ha CROiBKO yBCJiE^HJiHcB ujhnhL Ha Bcf. npeAMeiu 
uepBofi Heo^xoAUMOcTH Bi TpHAUaxHJi'i^TBifi nepioAB cyn^ecTBOBaHifl BocnHxa- 
TejBHaro o(5niecTBa, na coAepsBaaie sotoparo OAnaKO OTnycKajiacB neHSM'ibHB 
TOiBKO cyMMa, HadHaqeHBaa eMy npH nepBona^iaJBHOMB ero ocHOBamH. H 
yAHBHxejiBHO, qTO o^paaoBaicfl ae Maiuft Aourb sa 06n^ecTB-fa. 



— 282 — 

Bume 6uJio CKsaauo, hto bch yqe^Haa h BOcnHTaxejibHafl nacTb 
wb 06mecTBi 6jiaropoAH&ix'L a'^bbi^i JiejRajia na Ha^aJibHHit'& h 
npaBHTeJiBHHi]^. 

CoBiTL ace, iJieHOMi ROToparo Obijh BeAKOfi, saHHMaJiai pas- 
c&iorp'i^HieM'b a^ji^, bhochkuxi oxi Ha^ajibHBAfii ji^jia. CoBtTa, araiuKe 
no 3R0H0MiH HAOKaaaiejibCTBiABopflHCKaronpoHcxo^eHiA AtBEm, 
acejiaeniHX'b nocTynHib b-l OfimecxBO. 

no dTOMy Bemcoft, He o6fl3aHHufi bxoahtb bi aoApo6Hoe pas- 
CMOTp'lHie cnocoSoBi h nopii;i;KOB'b npenoAaBaeiH nayqHux'L npoA- 
MeiOB'b Wb OCn^ecTBt 6jiaropoAHHX'b a'I^bhaT), npn noctn^eHi^xi* 
cBOHxi o6paiAaji^ CBoe BHaMaeie Ha BHimHiOK) CTopoey BOcneTaHifl 

AtBHUT*, Ha qnCTOTy H OnpATHOCIB, Bli^UIHBOCTB, oGxOAHTeJIBHOCTB, 

cjiOBOMx Ha xopomk Manepu; Bce 9T0 h 6ujio ycBoeno BOcnHTan- 
HHi^aMHy HO eAHHorjiacHOMy CBHA^i^TejiBCTBy Bcbxi Jiiiip», BCTpi^aB- 
mHxcfl CB HHMH Bi o6ii(ecTBib. 9x0 ROHeqHO DOAaJio ocHOBaBle 
CJ^6;^yK)^^eMy paacRasy IlaBJia CywapoROBa (bi coh. ^epxBi ERaxe- 
pHHH BeJiHROfl: 1819 r. cxp. 143). 

«OAHa MaxB ceneflcxBa, ox^aBaA cbok) aohb wb GnoJiBHufi mo- 
HacxHpB (b% Bochhx. 06m. Bjiar. A*BH^^), npes-B HicROJiBRo jtbrb 
no^ejiajia ee bs^xb oGpaxHO h ^BHJiacB cb npocB6oft o6x axoiTB ri 
BeAROMy, KOxopHft, oeiacHHB-B efl, hxo ^o;^o6Haa npocBCa, BBJiaflCB 
HapymeHieMi npaBEJii ycxaBa OOo^ecxBa, ne Moacex^ 6uTb hitb 
yjOBJiexBopena Gesi oco6aro paapimeHia HMnepaxpHAH, npe^JO- 

^HJI'B eft 3a OROHHaxejIBHBIMl OTB'IXOM'B Hpi^XaXB Ha APyrOfi A^HB 

B-B OSn^ecxBo. Ohb aBJiaexcn, Bcxpt^aexii xaM^ BeARaro h, nojiy- 
4HBT> oxRasi Bx CBoefi npocB6i^ npocnxi> ero paspimeHifl, xoxa 6u 

nOBHAaXb CBOK) AO^B. 

MeacAy xiM-B, yBHAH bi oiAajieniH o^ohb cxaxnyio, jiOBRyio a*- 
BHay, RoxopyK) ORpyacaion^ia a'^bhiih pacxBajiHBaJiH, ona BBipaaajia 
acejiame, ^xo6h ao^b ea noxoAHJia 6h na 3xy A^BHuy. TorAa Beu- 

ROft BSajIB 9Xy 0C06y 3a pyRH, npH6jIH8H-TB Kb AtBHUt, CRa3aBT>: 

«o6oftMHTe BOcxBajiaeMyio, — ona aohb Bama, h FocyAapMHa ee 
BaMTi B03Bpani,aerB». 

OxRyAa 3X0X1 pascRasi saHMCXBoaaH^ h rxo 6ujih osHaiOHBua 
MaxBHAOib, — CyMapoROB^ HeyRasBreaexB. Ho o^eBHAHO, ixo btotb 
pascRasB npHBOAHxca r'b xony, ?xo6h noRasaxB ao RaRofi cxeneHH 
BOcnExanie, nojiy^aeHoe A'^BEn;aME bi^ Ofi^ecxB']^, nsM'^Hajio htl 
Ri Jiy^raeMy, xoxa 6bi b-b oxHomemH BnimHeft cxopoHH, ao xoro 
Hxo poARaa MaxB ne Morjia ysHaxB CBoeft AO^epH. 

Bi BEAaxii AOCXEacoHifl 3xoro Bni^mHaro JiocRa e 6bijio nps- 



— 283 - 

HflTO, hto6h BOcnHTaHHHipj 06m. Bjiar. Jli^BHi^'B no BpeMeeaMi, bx 
CBo6oAHoe BpeMfl ^aBaJin 6h pasjiH^HHa cuenmecKiH ^pe;^CTaBJIe- 
nifl ^), KOTopufl, no cJiOBan^ opanyjia loro BpeMeHH, ^epneflCKaro 
OTraejiBHHKa BojiLxepa, OKasHBaioTL onenB nojiesnoe A^ficTBie na 
lOHoniecTBO. Bt CBoeM'B nncBM* Kh HiinepaTpHit'li EKaiepHni II 
orb 12 Mapia 1772 r. ^) BoJibiep'L Meac^y npouHMij nnmeTt: 
«je ne sais si Vous leur faites jouer des tragedies; tout ce que je 
sais c'est que la d6clamatioD, soit tragique, soit comique me parait 
une 6ducation excellent e, qui dOnne la grace h, I'esprit et 
au coprs, qui forme la voix, le maintien et le goat; on retient 
cent passages qu'on cite eusuite ^ propos, cola repand des agr6- 
raents dans la societ6, cela fait tout le bien du monde». noTOMi* 
Aajiie OH^ roBopHTB o nbecaxi), KaKin jiynme nrpaiB bt> Cmojib- 
HOM'B, yKasHBaerb Misanthrope, TAvare. BbiCopx nbect ji;jia aioro 
poAa pasBjieqeHifl J^4BH^'b CMOJibnaro cocTaBjiaji'b npoAMerb 3a6oT- 
jiHBocTH He TOJibRO Be^Iva^o, HO H caifofi HMnepaTpHAu; ohh o6a 



^) Eabe jih mozho jTBepsAaTb, ^to TaKifl npeAcraBjeHifl npoHCxoAuiH 
B'b BOcaHTaTejTBHOM'b 06mecTBt Ha CTOJiBKo HacTo, ?T0 npenHTCTBOBaiH ycni- 
xaMb A^BHUi B'B Hxi o6y?eHiu npeAMeTani HayquuifL. IIoBHAHMOMy oel'^ 
pasyqHBaiH nsecH Bb cBo6oj(Hoe oti> ypoKOBb bpcma h pasinrpuBajii ^x^ 
B'b oco5ue npasABHHHKie hjh TopseciBeHHue ahh. IIo spafiueti Md^pi tojbro 
o noAo6Haro poia npeACTaBjeaiflXb BCTpd^^aiDTCfl iisBtciiH bi raseraxbToro 

BpeMCHH a) H HUMTO HB ySaSEIBaerB na to, qT06BI A'^BUAEJ 9THMb SaBHMaJIHCB 

qacTO H uHoro.MesAy TiindTo BpeueHBoen p^AKoe pasBjeHeaie, AonycBae- 
Moe H B'B HacToan^ee BpeMn, Kas'B Bb saspuTUX'B, Tas'B h otkpbitux'b y<{e6- 
HBixb saBeAeHiflx-b, BOSBOAflTb KaKb 6a b'b aocTOHBUoe n ucKJiK)qHTejiBHoe 
saHflTie A'bBHUb, BocnHTUBaBmHzcA B'B Gmojbhom'b bo BpeMH BeuKaro n cia- 
BflrB Bb ysopB Bcefi cucTeM'b ero BOcniiTamfl a'^^bhu'b^ hc AOsasaBiBH- 
M t M b ?T0 A'^BHUBi ? a c T saHHMajHCB paay^HBaHieMb TeaTpajBBBixb nbecb. 
A ch dToro nocjiAHAro HHeeHo BaAO nanaTB, Basb CKopo npsAnojaraeTca 
roBopHTB He6jaronpi/iTHOM'B BjiAHiu dToro poAa saHflTin na ycnixb o6y- 
Heoifl A'i^BHA'b Boo6ii;e. 

a) IIpBii'JbHaHie. jl,jiii npHu-i^pa npuBOAHMb btk coo5iueHifl HSb G.-UeTep- 
GyprcKHX-B B'feAOMOCTeft: fa* roBopnTca 1776, J\& 69, iroea 21 nrpaiH „la 
Rosi^re de Salence^ Bb npHcyrcTBiH npurjameuBBix'B Kb xoMy sHaTHux'B 
oco6b o6oero noja. 

1775. J^ 96, AeBa6. 1. HrpaiH kombaik) cjasnaro J^eTyma, TAmbitieuse et 
rindiscr^te; Favart— le jardinier suppose et Tamant deguis6 -npa TOpae- 
cTBCHHOKb co6paHiu, no cjiyHaio TesouMeHHTCTBa KMnepaTpHmi. 25 HonCpa. 
TaKse HrpajH 30 acb. (CM.IIeT. BiA- 1776 r Jt 1 hob. nfltnima); 2 jtiiaapyi 
Findiscret BojiBTepa; BOMnq. onepy le SorcifT ctle coq t^i villat^'e; ( 
AOMOCTH J^ 2); Rom. onepa Ninette k la cour oKonquHacL riajioTO; 
BHab 6dkjiaro UBiia (t^ ae b'j^aomocth ^ 5) bow ajojkho ctcamTb 
6bijh h8% FnauieBb. 

1777 r. Xf 17, (|)eBp. 28. npH HMnepaTpnu'Ji nrpiuij i:o«H^i 
nPBi6oiOBb* CB 6ajeT0Mb. 

Hsb dTHXb yB'^AOMjeaift moxho BaKJiOHUTb ^{^y^^iBHUu booi 
06infiCTB9L cOBcfiMb He TaBii HacTO AaBaiH c ^ ^ ti i r ^ooMIhfih? ;l nn bji 
yTBepxAaJi;>TB. 

^ Cm. Oeuvres completes de Voltaire par B» U le^ 




— 284 — 

nepenHCUBajiBCb o6'b diowb ci> hsb'Icthhm'b Fphmmomi, KOTopuft 
MeacAy npo^HMi) 27 OKMfipa 1772 r. ^) yKasHBaerb EKaTepHHi II 
« theatre a I'usage des jeunes personnes par Genlis. HocHJiaa iib3ch 
HMnepaipHui h CiporoHOBy oh-l i^o6aBJiaerb: «el]es sont tres 
amtlsantes; Betzky a desir6 depuis longtemps d'avoir des pieces 
pour la Cominunaut6 des demoiselles*. 

BojiBTept caMi nanipeBajica nocfenTb neTep6yprby ho no 
6oJii3HH AOJiflceH'B6ujiioTKa3aTbCHOTLdToroHnHcajniERaTepEH'l II 
20 Maa 1772 r. ^) «je ne verrals par non plus Yotre Saint Cyr, 
qui est fort au dessus de notre Saint Cyr. Nos demoiselles seront 
trfes devotes et tres honnfites, mais les votres joindront h ces deux 
bonnes qualit6s celle de jouer la com6dIe, cumrae elles faisaient 
autrefois chez nous». 

HeJiBsa He ynoManyrB, ^to Ben,K0fl caMi, bi o6panteHiH CBoeMi 
ch BocnHTaHHHi^aMH 06n^ecTBa, He npo^BJiaji'L HHicaRoro nanajiB- 
CTBeHHaro Tona. Oh'b o6xoAHJica cbhhmh npocTO h jiacKOBO, myTHwTL, 
KaKi> Hanp. Bwpaacaa acejianie ynHTB hxti njiaeaTB (Pyc. Bici. 
H0Ji6pL, CT. 325, 1873 r.); ycTpaHBajn> hmi ryjiaHM Bt JiiiHeMi 
ca;iy h ocMOip^ ABopn;oB'b (lani ace ct. 326); saOorajica o bo3- 
mokhhx'b ji,Jia HHxt pa3BJie'ieHiaxT>, nanp. ycTpaHBajn> b-l 1775 r. 
6oJiLmi)i nporyjiKH wb aRBnaacaxi) ci> A'^BHi^aun 06niecTBa bi> Ile- 
Tepro^t H I^apcKoe Cejio, ht6 npa cpejCTBax'L cooCmenia loro 
BpeMCHH npeACTaBjiHjio ne Majio 3aTpyfl;HeHifi; (P. B. 1896, ho- 
a6pi>, CT. 333 — 336); boshji-b hx"l Ha jiOARax-L ocMaxpHBaTE abo- 
pei^i HMnepaipHnji b-b neTep6ypri h SpMHiaacB, KaK^B 3to BH;tHO 

VLdl> 3anHC0K'B AjIBIMOBOft (BHOCJltACTBiH PawCBCKOfi, BOCUHTaHHHaH 

nepBaro npiCMa b-b 06m;ecTBi (cm. PyccK. Apx. 1871 r.); h3^ 
nHceMi JleBmsHoJi, naxojiHBmefica bt> Cmojbhomi> OAHOBpeMeeno 
cb Ajihmobok), kt, HMnepaTpnqi EKaiepHH-fc II (cm. Pyc. B-fecT. 
1896 r., H0fl6pB, cxp. 315); hst* nnceM^ caMoro Bei^Karo Kb 
HMnepaipni^'fe EKaicpHni II (cm. Pyc. Ciap. 1896 r., H0fl6pB, 
CT. 411). Bei^KOft 3a6oTH;ica oGi) ycTpoftcTBt HeoanoKpaTHO pa3- 
JIH'^HHx^co6paHiftB^CTiHax'B BocHHTaTejiBHaro 06^^ecTBa, Cb yna- 
crieMi nocTopoHHHX'B jiHi^'B (Pyc. Ct. 1896 r., ct. 399), a xaiuKe 
BOcnHTaHHEKOB-B KaAeTCKaro Kopnyca. 

Bee 3T0 ndievb ocHOBaHie saKjiioHHTB, mo bi nepBHe row 
cy^^ecTBOBaHia GMOJiBHaro HHCTBTyTa, bo BpeMena Beiycaro, Ai- 



*) Cm. C^opHHKi HMnep. Pyc. Hcxop. 06mecTBa, t. 44, ct.70. 
») Cm. Oeuvres completes de Voltaire, in.48, cip. 105. 



— 285 — 

BHi^u He 6ujiH HacTOJiBKO yej^HHeHU or& oRpyncaion^eft nxb ^bshh, 
^ro&b MorjiH 6uTB npaBAHBU t^ pasHOoSpasHHe paacKasH o Hxt 
HesHaniH caiTaHJEESHH, KOTopue ao HacTOBiii;aro BpeMeHH Hep^AKO 
BUAStioTCH sa nenoAJieman^i^ hh MajiiftmeMy coMH'i^HiH), KaKi 
Hanp. cooSmaeMuft FpeqeMi at ero sanHCKaxt *) paacKaa-B, Cy^TO 
6ii BocnaTaHHHiuj nepauxi BunycKOB'L CtfOJibnaro MOHacTupn, 

Ha6HTUH yneHOCTBIO, BOBCe H6 SHajIH CB'bTa H 8a6aBJiaJIE[ 

nySjiHRy cbohbih naHBHOCTHBiH, cnpainHBaa Hanp. r^i to AopeBO, 
Ha KOTopoMi pacxerb 6ijiMft xjrk6'h. Ho droMy cjiy^aio coHEHeHU 
6hjih k^ nopTpeiy BeniKaro BHpniH: 

IlBaHT) MfiaHOBBqii Bei^Rifl 

HeJLOB^R'B HiMOI^Kifi 

HocHJi'B uyBAHp'B mBeACRifi 
BocoHTaTeJUb A'&TCRifi 
Bii ABtHaAi^aTb Jiivb 
BunycTHjrL bt> CBirB 
DlecTbAecaTOK'B nypi 
HaeBTbui Aypi» 

Ho noMHMO BToro Bei^Rofi safioTHJicH o BosuoHHOifb pacinii- 
peelH yMCTBennaro Rpyro3opa BOcnHTUBaeMUX'b A^BHitTi h npe^*- 
nojiaraji'b bbbcte b'b BocnHTaiejibHBiH o6ntecTBa ffbBHi^ oOyneHie 
BHaTOHlH, libwh RoneHHo 3HaqHT6JibH0 onepejRaJTb Bosspinie na 
oSy^eHie a'^bhi^i ne tojibro CBOHX'b coBpeMeHHHROB^, ho h JiHai 
Hamero B-fiRa, ecjiH lOJibRO npHnoMHHTb, hto o6t» o6yH6HiH bochh- 
TaHHHAi HcencRHX'b yqefinux-b saaeAeHifi ne tojibro anaTOMiH hbjio- 
B^Ra, HO A^ace xota 6u ecTecTBeHHUH^ nayRaMi* hhrto h ho ho- 
HumjiflJi'B A2^e bo BpoMA saBiAUBaHiH chmh saBeAemHifn cytipy- 
roioIIaBJial^HMnepaTpHaeK) Mapieio; jisjrq oAHa mhcjib 061 btomi 

CHHTaJiaCB HBAOSBOJieHHOK) B'b HaiBJii HBHiero BiRa. 

OsHaHOHHaa Bume 8a6oTJiHBOCTb Beii^Raro ycMaTpHBaexcH hs'b 
OTB^THaro nncBMa ri> neny ^HAepo otb IS Iiohh 1774 r. ^), hsi 
Faarn, bi ROTopoMi ^panuyai ^hjioco^x coo6n;aeTB eMy pe- 
ayjiBTaxi) cbohx^, ho nopyneHiK) Bei:(Raro, neperoBopoB'B cb r-meft 
BHmepoHi HO noBOAy npHrjiaQieHiH en wb IleTepfiypr'B jifia npeno- 
ABBaHlB aHBTOMia ^). CorjiamaflCB coA'^ftCTBOBaxB ycoBepmencTBO- 



•) 3an. rpew. Pyc. Apx. 1873 r. /fe 2. ct. 336. 
') 3to 6UJ10 KaR'b pasx speMA, sorAa nocTynHBini^ b'b nepsuft up 
nfkBKHU. nepezoAHjiii bi cTapuiift BospacTi, a JisiTHiocB BUoiH'b CBoeap 

BfilU'b OBHaKOMIITB HXB C% yCTpofiCTBOMl HXl OpraHBBMa. 

') nosBOJHM'B ccdi npa btomb coo6ii^(itb qHiaTeiaMi^ ?to no cj 



— 286 — 

saHiK) y^B6EUX'b yqpe^j^eHift, ocHOBaHHUxi bbjihrok) HMnepaxpH- 
i^eio, BBinepoH'b BsxABJifljia coroiacie: 1) oCynaiB aaaTOMisr mojio- 
AHxi A'^BBi^'b no MOABJiflM'B H aQnapaiaiTB, eio C0CTaBJieHHUin»; 

2) npnrOTOBHTB H^^CKOJIBRO yHBXeJIBHHI^l, ROXOpUH Bl COCTOflHiH 

6hjih 6u BnocJi^ACTBiH o6y^aTB A'iBHm> aHaiOMiH bi BocaHiaTejib- 
HOMi Odn^ecTBi, TaRi ^e xopomo n bi» OTcyiCTBiH BEmepoHi, 
H BM^Clt OSHaKOHHTB HXli BnOJIBt Ch npEroTOBJieHieMii HOAeJieft H 
npenapaioB^; 3) ycxynHTB BCt cboh aHaTOMHiecidfl ROJUieB^iH h 
npenaparu, npeAOcxaBEBi hxi bi noJiHoe pacnopHsceeie BocnBia- 
xeJiBHaro 06mecxBa. 

Bo3Harpa»&A6Hie aa Bce aio BHniepoHi> ceGt ae HasHanajia 
sapaH'i^e, ho npeAOCxaBJi^jia Bnojint ycMoxpiHiio Eh BejiH^ecxBa. 
He coo6ii^aeMi AaJiBH^fimHX'B CB%;rbHifi no axony npe^Mexy, no- 
xoMy qxo npitsAi r-atn BHmepoHi bti Pocciio no HeH3BicxHHMT> 
npB^BHaM'B He cocxohjich, e npenoAaBanie wh BocnBxaxeJTBooM^ 
OSiniecxBi AtBHrrt anaxoMiH BBe^eno He 6hjio ^). Ho 3xo nHCbMO 
necoMH'i^HHO CBEAtxeJiBCXByexi, ^xo BeuKoft he'I^jh HantpeHie 
BB6CXH 370 npenoAasaHie; nnaie He saH'^Mi 6ujio 6ej Ha^Enaxb npE 
nocpeACXB*! ^EAepo neperoBopu cb BnmepoH'B. nojiesHOCXE la- 
Roro HaM'ibpeHiH e^sa jih na^o roBopnxB bi nacxofln^ee Bpeica. 
Mo^HO npeAHOJioacHXB, hxo dxo naiii^peHie ne BCxptxHJio HaAJieJsa- 
m^aro co^yBCXBiJi co cxopoHH HHnepaxpEii[u, on Roxopoft OAHOfi 
saBHcljio ocymecxBJieHie dxoro noJiesnaro HaMipenlH Ha jfjbjA. 3xo 
npeAnoJiOHcenie mo^ho oCiachexb xiiii, hxo caMUA Bosspinifl ERa- 



aBTopa HCTopiH 4)paHiiy8CKoB ARaj^eMin r. Mopir, npa nocimeHia Ropoieiii 
mBBicKHHi FycTaBOM'b III, Bi 6UTH0CTB ero BB IlapHst, <t>paHiiy8CK0ft axa- 
AeuiH, sHaHeHHTui JUaayasbe HHTaii xHMiio, a AiBHi^a BomepoHi, oGiajiaB- 
maji CTpacTbH) ki aHaroMiH h xHpypriH, aoRasHBaia pasHUA onepai^ifl^ ho 
9T0 ne HRTepecoBaJO KopoiA. HeHSBtciHo, 6iija jh BamepoHB HasHaHeea 
npeaoAaBaTejBBHueH) aRaTOMin bb CTORrojBMt hie YncajTb*. 

,M-elle Bich^ron, atteinte pour ranatomie et pour la chirurgie d'une pas- 
sion, qui Tavait fait prendre part au martyre des convulsionaires, veritaoles 
operations chirurgiennes, elle etait parvenue k fabriquer des cadavres arti- 
ficiels ct inodores, dont le docteur A m o u x a cm dtre rinventeur. La pauTre 
fiUe amusa pen le prince. L'academie reclama pour elle sa protection et sea 
encouragements. On n'a pas dit si Gustave Illnomma m-elle Bich^ron d6mon- 
strateur h, Stockholm ou k Upsala".— Maury: „L'ancienne academic fran9aiBe**, 
CT. 180 KpaTRifl cBtAtnia o BumepoH'B cooOmeHU bi upHio»eHiH J^& 8. 

*) npH aroMi KCTaTH ynoHUHyTi., hto no rjosaaiB n. H. BapieHesa, 
HHaepaxpHiia EKaTepnua II, BanaTafl npincsaHieirb HacxaBHEROBB a^^e y^pes- 
AacMuxi no hucjtr BeiiRaro y?e6Hiixi daBCAeeifi, nopy^nia renepajy 6 d- 
lay BusBaxB hsb sa-rpaHBuu lEWb bb dTOiiy npHroxniixB. BGOJiay npiac- 
EajB ryBepnanxoRT. u y^HTeJbHHUB bi ^eneB'^, ho cobI^tb ropoxa h e pas- 
P'feuiHJB HM'bOTnpaBHTBCJiBB Poccifio (cM. PyccR. Adxhbb, 1881 r. 
^. III, „Biorpa(t)ia Anjipea nexpoBH^a niyBaiOBa",cxp. 249). Ki coatajiteii) 
r. BapTeaeBB ne yRasuBaeTB, OTRy^a noHepanyxo bhb dxo cB^A'i^Hie. 



— 287 — 

lepHHu II Ha oCpasoBaHie 2ceHii^HHi> ctrjih M^HflTBCH, no saMi- 
HaniK) r. MnjiioKOBa (O^epKH no HCTopin KyjiBiypH 1897 r. t II, 
CT., 227).yBJi6HeHHafl neAaronaHecRHMEnpocB^THTeJiBHUMH ehqhuvi 
XVni BtKa, HMDepaipHAa cnepBa ne a^Jiajia pasHHiiu no OTHorae- 
mio Ri o6meMy o6pa30BaHiK) ne^cAy MaJibHBKaMn h A'^BO^iKaMn. 
Ona xorbJia, hto6ii a'&bhi^u bm'^jih pasyMi npocBin^ennHfl pas- 
jiHHHUMH SHaeiflMH MH rpaHCAaHCKOfl mnsHn nojieanoft, ho nos^Hie 
OHa H3M%HHjia dTO Bosspl^Hie H npiimjia r^ saRJiEoqeHiio, hto ko- 
He^^ BOcnHTaHifl a'^bhii^ coctoetb bi> TOifB, ^To6u c^i^JiaTb hxi 
Ao6puHii xosflflRaiiH, B-lpHUMH cynpyraMH h noneqmejibHHMH Ma- 
TepjiMB H TOJibRO ^). dra u^Jih 6ujia sHpanena onpe^'i^JiHTeJiLHo 
HCMHoro no3AHte npn y^pexAemH, hoat* npeActAaTejiBCTBOMt 3a- 
BaAOBCKaro, lasBicTHoA RoMMHCciH o6i ycTanoBjieHiH HapoAHuxi> 
yqfljiHn^i Bi rocyAapcTB']^. 3aBaA0BCRift o6'BflBHJii 3T0ft KoMMBCcin, 
KaRi TOMi sanncaHO b-b ea acypnajit 28 Mapxa 1783 r. ^), ^^o 
Efl BasHHecTBo yRasaTb consBOJiHJia KommhccIh ynenie bi Bochh- 
TaieJibHoirB 06n;ecTBi SjiaropoAHUx'b AikBH^^ n yneHHAx Brtn^an- 
CRHxi) A'^BHi^'B pascMOTp-lTB, pacHOJiosRHTB HayRH DO o6pa3iQr Ha- 
poAHHxi yHHJiHnn>, BBeAfl TOTB CHOCoC^ y^eHifl; cero pajH Kom- 
mhccIh AOJiacna H36paTB cnoco6HHXi h ncRyccHbixT) yiHTOJieft jina 
KJiaccoBi 06n^ecTBa, h noctmaiB ynenie cero 06^^ecTBa eacene- 
A'i^BHO OAHOMy H3B HJieHOBX KommhccIh. KommhccIh, HeMeAJienHO 
npHcxynHBi ri* HcnojiHeHiio 03HaqeHHaro Bucoqaftmaro noBantHiH. 
o6Hapy»HJia CJiiAy^^^^: 

1) npenoAaBanie HayR^ ne hactb nocieneHHo, h hto npeno^a- 
BaHie FiROTopuxx npeAMOTOBi nainnaeTCH TorAa, KorAa oho aoji^ho 
6h^o 6h OKaHHHBaTbca. 9to npenaiCTByerb ycnixy BOcnHxaHiH, n 
nosAH^e HaAJieacamaro nociHHHue ojioabi ne AOCTHraiorb CBoeft 
sp'bjiocTn. 

2) OTHron^eHie bi H'bROTopux'B B03pacTaxi> A'^BHn.'B mhophmh 
yieHiHMH. HenpiofiyqeHHbia rx yAoOnoMy A**CTBOBaHiK) hxi Ay- 
moBHUH CHJiBi, A^^BHij^bi HO MoryTB CKopoHOCTHXHO pacnpocTpa- 

HHTBCH H 06lHTB BClxi npOAMOTOBl. 

3) HeBHanle H3MRa, na RoiopoMi npenoAaroica nayRH, h oco- 
Cjihbo HSURa pocciflcRaro. K^ 3-My Boapaciy yipauHBaeTCii gitu n 



*) Bra n!bjih CTaja npecjiiAOBaTBca eme HCEaK^aieibH^e ] 
Mapiei) GeoAopoBBOBO, cyapyroK> QaBjra I. 

') GuorpH ApxifB'B MuH. HapoA- HpQCBtrueoU, x%sa 
J& 1262 J6 8. 




— iss — 

TO SHaHie pyccKaro H3iiKa, cb ROTopuMi A'^BHqH BciynaiorB b% 
OCmecTBO. 

4) HapymeHie nopHARa npenojiaBaHiH, t. e. ao OROHHamH 
OAHaro npenoAaBamH, a^bhi^i OTCHJiaiorB Kb APjroHy hjih nanpaB- 
jifliOT'B Kb TeaTpajibHUMi npeACTaBJieHLaiTB h Apyrairb noAo6HiiirB 
ynpasHeniflM'b, A^a ROTopuxi ee onpeAtjieHO esb^^thbix'b qacoB's. 

5) A:lBHitu yxoA^Tt HacTO hsi RJiacca caMH; y^HTejiBHHiaiii h 
HaA8HpaTeJiBHni](u He ipeGyiorB noBHHOBeHia orb BOcnHTaHHHAi; 
caiiB pa3roBapi!BaK)rB cb hhmh, sacxaBJiHioirb y^HxeJieft jRK^Tb b% 
RjiaccaxB. 

6) HeAOCTaioK'b RHHrb Ma Tresifl, oco6eHHO Ha a^hLKh poccifl- 
CROMi>, a laRse yqefiHuxi nocoGifi. 

7) HecoBepmeHCTBO npiicTaBHHi^i, yTHiejiefi, yqHxeJibHHiii, hsb 
ROTopHXT) MHorie BHy^HJiHCb npenoAasaTb tojibro naBURoirb. 

KoMMHCci^ BHHHTB y^HTejiefl BB TOiTb, HTO Bb oCn^ecTB^ H^rb 
yqe6HBixi RHHrb, h6o yHHreJib, ocHOBaieJibHO snaion^ifi CBoft npeA- 
Merb, MOJRerb cocTaBHib cani RHHry. Ofin^ecTBO BOcnHTaieJibHoe 
HO HM^Jio TaKHxi» yHBTOJieft, aecjiH jifisie EMiao, to neyirbjio o6pa- 
iHB,Tb TPb nojibsy isxb AapoBanie. 

IXpHSHaBi, HTO 1) GoJibmaa nacTb HayRB npenoAaexca naHSURi 
^paHuyscROM'b, Roero a^bhioiI ho AOBOJibHO pasyniiorb; 2) asbiRaM'b 
^paHiQTscROMy H Hiifei^ROMy o6yqaK)rb OAHi h Ti ace y^zTeJibHHixbi, 
ROTopuH caMH ocHOBaTOJibHO Hxii HO sHaiorb; 3) Rjiaccu, T. 6. yne- 
Hie He HM^erb pacnojio^ceniH, no ROTopony Cu yqeHie npenoAaaa- 
jiocb Bb Ra^RAOifb BOspacTi fiesi noiri^oiaTejibCTBa oxi oahofo Kb 
ApyroMy, — RoMMHCciH nojio«HJia: 1) Bci nayRH npenoAanaTb na 
poccifiCRoiTb flsuRi^; 2) bic^cto HecnocoQHux'b yqHTejibHHU'b Ha- 
6paTb HCRyccH'bfiniHX'b y^HTejiefl, ROTopuxi jipjLx,eEb 6ujrb ocbh- 
A^TejibCTBOBaTb Hhrobh^i; 3) noRa naftAyTca ynnTejiflCO- 
CTaBHTb pacnojioxenie RJiaccoBi bo 361x1 4-x'b BOspacTaxi; 4) co- 
BiftcTHTb BB OAHOMB yqHTOJii HpeHOAaBaHie HaH6oJiie CMeacHUX'b 
MB^cAy C060K) HayRi hjib. esfiixaHiH npieifa h coAepacaHiA hsjiehi- 
HHXi. flHROHnqi AOJisceni cocTaBHTb RpaTRoe naqepTanie HJin yqn- 

TeJiefi, B^ ROTOpOMl H306pa8HTb Bl ^QWb OHH& CHOCOGl COCTOHTb, 

ero BuroAu, a noTOMi>, RaRi RaacAOiiy msb hhxb OHHft npH npeno- 
.AaBaniH ynoTpe6jiflTb, aoroji'6 RoMMHCcia 6yAerb HMtTb speic^ 
CHa6AHTb He tojibro yqETOJieft HHJRHEX'b RJiaccoBB neqaTaion^HMCfl 
yse pyROBOACTBOMB, HO H BBicmaMB npocTpaHH^ftoiHMi HacTaBJie- 
HieicB. KoMBfHCcia BucKasajia jRejianie 1), htoSm, RaKB tojibro a^- 
BHqu BHyqaTCH ^HiaTB, bi RJiaccaxB 4-xb BOspacTOBB ^HxajiHCB 6Br 



— 289 — 

xopomifl RHHrH, o6pa8yion^ifl pasyirB h cepw^; 2), htoGu npn bos- 
pacTi HaxoAHJiocb no oahoA yqi[T6Jii»HHU'b, oceoeaTeJibHO SHaioii^eft 
pyccRift Jistiffb; ona AOJiXHa paaroBapHBaTB ci j(iBBi:(aME n o-p y c- 
CRH H nonpaBJUTB Hxi; 3) cohhhhtb jsfl^ OCn^ecTBa yneGHUfl 
RBHrH, neroAOiTB ocHOBaHBuirb na GjiaropasyMHUx'B ycTasaxi o 
BOcnHTaHlH ci OTBi^TCTByiomHMH noHflTuo cero nojia. RoMMBCcia 
npHHJUia sa npaBHJio ne cjiHmKOMii MHoro ynsTb a'&bbui h A&BaTS 
HiTb CBo6oxHiie Hacu jiflu noBTopeaiH cJounaBHaro a jifiH naAne- 
acan^aro pasMunuieHifl o tom-b, OAHaRO noA'fc npHCMOTpOMi yHHiejiB- 

HHIQI. 

Ilocjii^ BToro OAHHx HBi HJieHOBi KoHMBCciH, Hhrobhh^b a^-Mh- 
pieBO, cocTaBBjni HOBoe pacnojioseme yneHifl bi OfiniecTB^ 6jiaro- 
poAnHxi A^BHi^ H idii^aHCRHxi fl^BTnunby no oGpasKy HapoAHuxii 
yHHJiHn^, TaRace: 1) paBAtjieme nayR'B jsflA bc^xi 4-xi> BOspaciOBi* 
6jiiaropoAHuxTi h MtEqaBCRHXi a'^bhi^b, cb noRasameM^, crojibro 
Heiry hitb eseHOAlbJiBHO o6y9aTBCfl; 2) pacnojio^Reme ^ecobtb sa- 
Hjnifly RaRi A^A 6jiaropoAHUX^, laRB h a^ia Min^aHCRHX'B a'^bhi^'b; 
3) nojcoseeie RaRHirB h rojihrhu^ yqErejuAicB 6utb a^a ofiy^eeifl 

HXli. KOMMHCCiH Wb TOTh »e A6HB, paSCMOTpfl H lliCTaMH nonojiHfl 

H HcnpaBfl, onpeA^JiHJia npoACTaBHTB ea BucoHafimyK) Ea BejiHHe- 
CTBa a^po6a^iK). 

no yTBepacABHiH ariixi np^AJtosemfl KoMMHCciH ERaTepHHOio 
II SaBaAOBCRift nscajii BeAROuy (ROTopoMy panie HH^ero o bcomi 
dTOiTB He coofin^anocB) 15 anpijifl 1783 r. cJiiAyK)ii(ee hhcbmo ^): 
tllpeapoBo^Aafl npe ceni ri BamoMy BucoHaftmeiiy npoBOCxoAH- 
TCJibCTBy pacnopji3ReHle RommhccIh o eapoAHBixii yujien^axi, CA't- 
jiaHHoe npenoABBaHiH nayRi bi OGn^eciBi BjiaropoAHuxi a%- 
Biii^», Cb nojiOKOHHOK) Ha OHOMi coGcTBeHHopy^HOK) Ea Hnnepa- 
TopCRaro BojiH^ecTBa ROH^Bpnai^ieH), HMifo hoctb ys'bAOiinTB Baci, 
HTO npH anpo6oBaHi]i cero njiana BceafHJiocTHBiftniaH PocyAapBiBH 
yRasaiB coHSBOJUHJia: 1 ) Aa6u oahhii hs^ [qjienoBii KommbccIh no 
Rpa&HeS uipi OAsaacABi bi neAtJiK) nocin^aji'B RJiaccu yqefinue b'b 
TOH^ o6ii^ecTB%, HaASHpaB, OTBiiaexB jih ncnoJiueHie yciaay; 
2) mo6hi cia jRe RouMHCcia HsGpajia h onpeA^HJia Bcixi yqare- 
Jieft A^fl RJiaccoBi> H noTOsiy CoBiiy bi yieniH cjiOBecHux'B Rjiac- 
coBi He GyAyTB 6ojiBine Hy:RHu HHOCTpaHRH, roh Aocejrb hochjiii 
SBanie yHHTejiBHEi^i. H6o sa nojiesnoe coqTeHO npenoAaBaTB bc^ 
cjiOBecHHfl HayRH Ha npHpoAHOMB HSUR*!, noTOMy HTO npeA^Bydfi 



Cm. TaHi se. 

H. n. BEIlKOft. 19 



— 290 — 

ACHie Ki ^paHoyscROtfy aobojio AOToro, hto CBOft PocciftCKift asuri 
A'bji^ercfl ]Sflii a'^bhi^^ HysHUi. fl npomy Bacb, mbjioctebbiA rocy- 

Aapb MOfi, 06l>HBHTb BCixi CHXl BuCOTO&mHX'b DOBejAHijlX'bj BOC- 

nocJiiAOBaBmHX'b orb Ea HiineparopcRaro BeomqecTBa, CoBixy 
OSn^ecTBa 6jiaropoAHUX'B a'^bbui, ri> HcnojiHeHiin rohxi Rommhc* 
cifl yipeacAeuifl HapoAHuxT»yqHJiHiiii, no HcxeqeHiH Haciynaion^HX'L 
npasAHHqnux'B AHefi, npncTynnrb HMiem. 

OiBiqaji'b jm hto jih6o na aio Beitsoft hsi a^jh He bhaho, ho 
y«e 20 iiOHH BaBOAOBCKift ohatb nHcaJii eny ^). 

<(KoMMHCcifl oy^pe^KAenm napoAHUxi ynejiHiiVB, HsCpaBiHuni, 
Bi> HcnojmeHlH Bucoqa&maro Ea Him^paTopcRaro BejiHHecTBa co- 
HSBOJieHiH, AJi^ BOcnHTaxeiiBHaro 06n^ecTBa 6jiaropoAHUxi A'^BHi^b 
H Mtn^ani a'^bhi^ yinrejieft, npenpoBOSA&GTi nps cevb cohcori 

OHEIMI H JRaJIOBaHBK) CO HER BCTyUJieHifl EX'S Wb AOJUSHOCTB, OTb 

RoMMHCciH HMi HasHaHaeMOHy, ri Bameny BiicoROicy IIpoBOCxo- 
AHTejibCTBy, laRi RaRi h opeAnHcaHHoe orb Hea y^HTejiaii'b h1- 
MBARaro H ^paHoyscRaro asuROBi nacTaBAeme, no Roeiiy hmi 
BapeAb o6yqaTb. Hsi* ohuxii ynHxeJiefl nopy^aerb RoMMHCcla ce- 
RpeiapK) CoBtra 06n^ecTBa, MaTB^io IlaxoMOBy, HaASHpanie naA'b 
BciHH RjiaccaMH H yqETOJiAiiH, npHSHaaaa nyjRAy laROaaro naASH- 
paHia E cnoco6HOCTH Kb xony ero, HaxoMOBa, xoia Bnpo^eirb qjieHu 
RoMHECCiH E HO ociaBflrb nocin^aTb RJiaccoBi eKeneAbnbHO caME 
Bi> CEJiy Bfiicoqafimaro Ea HMoepaTopcRaro BejiEneciBa noBejut- 
Hia. ^ojiacHOCTb ero, IlaxoMOBa, BipascyiRAeHin HaASEpania cocToaxb 
6yAerb m> toitb, ^toGu RpoMi rfcx'b RjiaccoBi, ROiopHe ohi caui 
o6yqaerb, nocimaTb pa^ETejibHO ad npo^ie e CEOipi^Tb, AaGu yqE- 
Tejia AOJiHHOCTb BBania CBoero nopaAonno oinpaajiajiH e npeAnn- 
caHHufi yqe6HHft cnoco6i> naGjiiOAaJiE^ Hero paAE e oOasaHi ohi, 
naxoHOBi, RaRii npEjiejRaHiE yHEiejieft e ycnixaxi yneHla, raRi 
n Moryn^EX'b cjsyHHTbca onoEy saipyAHeHiaxii AOHOCETb RasAyio 
HBA'i^JiK). A naAbfOCb^ hto Bame Bucoro npeaocxoAExejibCTBO, naftA^ 
cefi pacnopaAORi cnocnimecTByion^HE'b nojibsi npeA^araeicaro yne- 
Hia, coESBOJiETe coo6niETb onofi mo. EcnojineHia bi GoBirb OCn^e- 
CTBa 6jiaropoAHiixi a^bei^>». Iiojia 23 Ana 1783 roAa. 

TaRi RaRi BeARoft, 6yAyHE TOJibRO HJienoirb CoaiTa BOcnExa- 
TejibHaro 06n;ecTBa BjiaropoAnuxi A^BEi^'b e M^n^aacREXi A'^By- 
moRi; BOBce He saBlAHBaani yHeOnoiO nacTiio chxi ynpea:* 
Aenift, TO 9Tfl HOBBia pacnopajKenia 061 ESMineniE b% ohuxi npe- 



Cm. laMB sue. 



— 291 — 

DoxaBaHiA, coCcTeeHHO roBopa, jih^o BeoRaro hbckojilro ho Raca- 
jaocB. Ho eny RoneqHO ne Morjio ho noRaaaTbC^, ecJiH He oGhahuhi, 
TO no RpaftHoft uipb o^enb cipaHHHHi, hto laKoe naxHoe npe- 
o5pa80BaHie wb ynpeacAeHiaxi, ocHOBanHUx^ no ero npexcTaBJie* 
m^Hi H Bi OTHomeniH ROTopuxi owb AORJiaAUBajii MHnepaTpHirib 
no npeAHGTaifb, AaJiORO ne cyn^ecTBOHHUMi, coBepmsjiocb ne tojulro 
6631 BCflRaro co ciopoHU ero ynacTifl bi otoitl npeoGpasoBaHlH, 
HOAa^eanoMBMO ero BiAOMa^TaRi RaRii ohi o^^HuiajiBHO ysnajrb 
npeACTOfln^eni npeo6pa30BaHiH yneOHoft ^acTH 03HaHeHHHXi> sa- 
BeAenift tojibro xorAa, RorAa coctoajiocb y»e Buconafimee 
noBejiinie h eny ocTaBajiocB tojibro npoAJioJKHTB TaROBoe CoBtiy 
KB HaAJiexan^eMy zcnojiHeHiK). 3x0 h 6ujio hmb CAi^jiaHO, npHHeicB 
GoB^rB, RaRB B0AHO HBii HypHaJia ^) ero orb 2 nan 1783 r. (cm. 
KHHry onpeA*Ji. CoBiia cb 1780 r. ct. 28), cnpHHaBT* orb Eh 
HMnepaTopcRaro BeJiBHOCXBa noBeji'leifl cb aocxoaojihhok) 6jiaro- 
AapHOCTbK) RB CBoefi ABrycrbftmefl MonapxEni, noRyn^eficfl nenpe- 
ciaHHO AOCxaBJiealH hobbexi cnoco6oBT» noAasaxb coBepmeHnifi- 
mee GjiaroBOcnHxaHiA PocciftCROMy lOHOmecxBy, nanoaxB ero Ban^- 
niHBiB DpocB^meBieii'B h yxBepacAaxb 6JiaronojiyHie oaaro na neno- 
ROJieGHMBiXB ocHOBaniflXB AoOpoA'i^xeJiH, — onpeA'i^JiHJiB Bci npn- 
CJiaHHue BucoHatimlfl noBeJiinifl, hro npoBocxoAHuft h Henpenrln- 
Hiift aaROHB npeicyApHH 3aR0H0AaxejiBHHi;u xpanexB bi ApxHBi^ 
CoB%xa, nocxynaa no onoiiy cb naAJieacan^eH) xoihocxik) a^^ ncnoji- 
HeaiH o6babhxb bc^mb, Rony B^AaxB aoji}bho». 

HejiBSfl HO npnsHaxb, hxo npenoAaBanie pasJiHHHbixi nayRB 
BB OBHa^eHHbixB AByxii ^encREXB yqe6HUXB saBeAeniAX'B 6ujio Aa- 
JiBRO neyAOBiiexBopsixejiBHO. npenHXcxBiflim r'b AOCXH^emio Bocnn- 

TUBafOn^HMHCfl A'^BHUaHH TbTh COBOpmeHCTBB, ROH COCIBBJIAiOrB RO- 

wvh cero BOcnnxaxejiBHaro 06n^ecxBa h npoAMOx^ oOcxobxojibhux'b 
npaBHJiB, coAepsan^HXCfl wb ycxaBaxi o BOcnHxaHin, abjiajihcb, 
Rpont BcixB yRasaHHBixi KoMMHCcieio o napoAHuxB yHHjiHn^axi n 
Bume HaMH npHBeAennbixx, en^e, n npn xom'b rjiaBH^fimEfiii o6pa- 
30UI, HOAOCxaxoHHOCXB BOo6n^e AOCxoftnux'B ynsxejiefi, ynn- 

XeJIBBHI^'B H BOCnHXaxeJIBHHItB H HeyAOBJieXBOpHXeJIBHOCT^ JIHIJCB, 

BOo6Q^e npHHHMaBmHX'B Ha ce6fl bxh xpyAHua o6H8aHHOCxH. 



') HrpHaji dTOTi noAnHcaJiH: r-sa JIa(t)OHB Sophie Lafont, Mhbhx^. 
BeAROft, SaBaAOBCRit. 

Cu. TBRse: ^HcTOpHHecKift oneps'b cToi^TBeS shsbh HMnepai. Boc 
(X^iAecTsa 6jarop. a'^bhub^, B. H. ^AAOBa 1864 r. ex. 28. 



— 292 — 

RpoM% TorOy KaRi saifi^ajia la xe KoMMHCcia 061 ycTanoBJie- 
hIh HapoAHUXi yHHJEHiiti, yHHTOJiH n yqHTejiBHHiObi hjhh He hbtIjih 
caMH ocHOBaiejibHaro vh asBiKaxT* nosHaHia hjih HaAJieacamHX'b 
CBoftcTBi Kh HacraBJieHiio, hjih ace HeHSBicreHi hitb 6ujrb caoco6i 
yneelfl, cooTBiTCTByion](ift noHHtiio luraxuxi* BOcnHranHEi^'B. ^jta 
OTBpaiqeHiii dioro Ha^o ao npHHATia no^BepniTb hx'e HcnHramio 
CTporo Bi sHafliH Toro HSBina hjih HayKH h cnoco6a, KOTopouy ohh 
oSy^aTB Cyxyrb. 3to nyacHO h p^jih pyccRaro asuRa laRse. En^e 
jiy^me ecjiH bi* RaxAOirB BOspacTi onpex^eHO 6yAeTB no OAHOft 
yqHTeJiBHHi^i, snaion^eft ocHOBaTejibHO pyccRift asbir'b; ona AOJi^KHa 
cb BOcnHTaHHHi^aMH pasroBapBBaTB BcerAa no-pyccRHHHcnpaBJiflTb 
BX pasroBopi vrb norpi^mHOCTH, npiyHHTb HesairlTHO ynoTpe6jiflTb 
npHJiHHHbifl H CBoflcTBeHHbiA cjioBa; 6yAerb roBOpHTb ci hhkh 
Bckxh Ben^axi. AoHuei^ a'^bhipi ORpy;KeHbi TOJibRO oahhmh hho- 

CTpaHflUMH AftMaMH, HO Cb vAwb HMl FOBOpHTb Ha HpHpOAHOM'b 

H8iiR%, jtHoiaioTCfl upaRTHRH, ROTopafl ecTb HaHjiyqioift yHHTejib; no- 
dTOMy OHb HMiiOTb 65jibmyH) chocoChoctb roaopHTb no-^pani^CRH, 
BexcejiH no-pyccRH. Rpafine HeyAoCno, mto wb oahoS ROMHarb 
npeooAaioTb 2 hjih 3 yHBTeJia; TOJibRO myirb h pasBJieRaeicxi bhh- 
Maflie; Hanpacno ipaTarb apeMH wb Rjiaccaxi h ocTaiOTca 6e3i 
yHnoacenlfl ycnixoB^ bi nayRi. 

Ho OABa JiH Bcb BTH npenflTCTBifl Kb ycnimHOMy o6y^eHiio, 
o6HapyseHHUA KoMHCcieio, hofjih Otiib Bocbiia CRopo ycipaHeHu; 
3T0 o^eBHAHO Tpe6oBajio BpeiieHH. BjiaroTBopHua nocjiiACTBin ho- 
Bbixi npaanjii) He mofjih oipasHTbca na yneHHBiax'b neMeA^eHHO, 
Bi> RaRoft-HH6yAb roA'b hjih ABa, RaRi aio OAHaRO saaBJiaercJi ho- 
BUMi BucoHaflmHiTb yRasoMi sa co6cTBeHHOH) pyRoio noAHHca- 
HieMi^ HOJiyneBHUMi Cob^tomti bi canoM^ nanajii 1785 roAa. 
Bi dTOiTb yRasi, naRi ohi sanncani bb toS ace RHnri OnpoAtjie- 
Hift CoslTa, H3o6paaceHO: «ci HaciynJieHieirb BpeifOHH R'b BunycRy 
fijiaropoAHuxB AbBHifb qeTsepTaro BOspacTa n r^ pasAani snaROBi 

OTJIHHla AOCTOfiHifiniHMl He MOaCOHl OCTaBHTb 6edb HSlflBJieHlfl 

yAOBOJibCTBifl Hamero, hto BBeAennbifi uo noBejiiniK) Hameny Ro- 
MHCcieKLy^peacAenifl HapoAHuxi yqHJiHn^'b b^ cie OGinecTBO oCpasi 
yqeelH Bb RpaiRoe BpeMa npoHSBeJi'b TOJiHRie ycnixH h 
nojibsy. IIoATBepacAaeM'B, ^ro6b laROBoe yqenie Ha BcerAa bb ceM'b 
06iitecTBi coxpaneno Cbuio, h noBeJiiBaeM'b CoB^Ty, npH OHOirb 
yqpeacAeHHOMy, B'b HasHaHenlH 6jiaropoAHbiHi A'bBHi^aHi, RaR% 
wb HOJioneHHOM'b hhcjtI cocTOAn^HBrb, TaRx H nenciOHepRaM'b, ana- 

KOBT> OTJIHHifl HOCTyHHTb Cl» AOJISCHblMl) yBa3ReHieMl, RaR'b Ha AO- 



— 293 — 

Spue HpaBBi, ROH oxHy hs'b rjiaBHiftmHX'b naciefi BOcnBTaHia co- 
craBJUiiorB, TaR'B h aa ycnixH bi> eayRaxi, npioSpiieaHUQ no 
CBHA%Tej[BCTBaMi> yqaiii;Hxi h no ycMOTp'^Hiio HjieeoB'b CoB^Ta^ h 
nonese Mu nsi oco6eHHaro Hamero 6jiaroBOJi6Hifl Kb ceify OCn^e- 
CTBj npexnojiojRHJiH CaMH posftaib TaROBue snaRH OTJiH^ifl, nflR 
Toro CoB^Ty nocnimHTb npeACTaBJiemeicB HaM'BMH'iHUiHpocnHCRH, 
KOHy cin SHaRH CJitAyion h cb nploSn^enieMi cbh/cItojilctb'b yna- 
n^Hxi H npncMOTpii sa BOcnHTanieMi aifiiontHxiii ^). 

£ABa JiH MOJRHO npnaeaTB CesycJiOBHO B'j&pHuifB laRoft otbubi 
fijiaraxi pesyjiBTaiaxii npienoBTi noBaro oCyneHifl, oco66hho ocjib 
conocraBBTB sanncaHHoe b'b jRypHajiaxi* RohhccIh 061 ynpea^AeHiH 
HapoAHHXi) yHEJinn^B bi» cenTfl6p% 0RTfl6p£ 1783 roAa (t. e. 
He ci CojibmBH'B 8a roA:L no BOcnocjribAOBaHiH yRasa 1785 roAa), hto 
HtROTopuA A'^BHi^Bi TpeibflFO H HeTBepxaro BOspacTa HMiiorB BecBMa 
cjia6o6 noHiiTie no MHornirB npeAMeTam. He Bipnie jih npnnaTB 
3TorB yRasi ne RaRB yAOCTOB^peaie 6JIecTan^[x^ pesyjiBTaTOBB, ho 
RaRi noon^penie KoMecdH Kb AaJiBHifimefl noJiesHOft a^tcjibhocth 
Bi ycTaHOBJieHHOirB hoboitb HanpaBJieHin h Bvbcrh cb Tiin» RaRB 
ROceeHHoe nopni^aHie npeAmecTBOBaBmeft droicy A^aTejiBHOCiH Bcero 
CoB^Ta B Bi TOMi HBCJi^ Boi^Raro, H^iTB VLOXMO CRasaTB saBepmB- 
jiacB ero A'^TejiBHOCiB no BOcnBxaTeJiBHOMy 06n^ecTBy 6jiaropoA- 

EUX'b A^BBI^^. HeJIB8J3 HO aaid^TBTB, ^TO T. JbiJlflB^^ 6JIH8RO 8HaR0- 

MuB ch BCTopieft yMe6H0fi nacTB bi BOcnBTaieJiBHOMB 06ntecTBt 
6jiaropoAH£ixB a'^bbi^, BucRasuBaerB coMni^Hie, hto6u bc^^ bhobb 
npeAnBcaHHUA AJKa oOyHOHiH npaBBJia 6ujeb 6u npHBeAenu na ca- 
MOH^ A^i BB BcnojiHeHle; bi a^^xi 06n^ecTBa 061 8tomb bobco 
He ynoMBHaeicfl b dxo cJiy^cBrB no ero MniHiK) AORasaxeJiBCXBOMi, 
Hxo 06'B dxoBTB 3a6ujiB B B^poAXHo HO Heo6xoABMOcxB. Ho 6hjio 
Ji K) A e ft A^fl axoro ueo6xoABifHxi> b npanunocB ocxaxBC^ npn cxa- 
poiTB nopaAR"]^ ^). Ho axoxi HeAOCiaiOR'B bb Heo6xoABHiaxB jhoaaxi 
CJiysaxB, OHeBBAHO, noJiHuirB onpaBAEHleB^ a xoMy, hxo njiaHu 
BeaRaro xaRse ae nojiy«iBJifl CBoero A^ficxaaxejiBaaro ocy^ecxBJie- 
alfl aa ji^i, 

Beipcaro bb 1785 roAy nocxarB yAapB napajia'ia^ a BCRop% 



*) Cm. xasse G.*neTep67prcKifl BiAOMOCTH 1785 r. flHsapfl 17, nflTHHua 
at ynoMflHyxo, hto 15 AHBapa Gun qeTBeproiiy BoapacTy asaaveHi, be 
soTopoH'B HSBoiHia npHcyTCTBOBaxL Efl BeiH<{ecTBO» npH co6paHiH o5oero 
noja doaTHHxi oco6b h HysecTpaaHUXB nxsHcxpoBi n poxcxBeBHusoBB. 
A^BBiia 4-ro Bospacxa CMHpHOBa roBopaja piiB opH dioin*. 

') Gtf.: pHcTopH^ecKift OHepKi cxoiitHel zhbhh Hv n. BocnHi. 06]AecTBa 
BjaropoAHUXB A'bBHmi'',— B. H. JLajkOB&y 1884 r., cip. 23 h 24.. 



— 294 — 

sa rlin> ohi» ocjiini h JiHiiiHJicfl boshoshocth npHHHMaTb RaEoe- 
jih6o y^acTie bi shshh h cyAb6i y^pesAeHnaro npH neiii nepaaro 
^eHCRaro yHe6Haro saseAeHifl ex Hameirb OTenecTEfl. Hsi AomeA- 
mnxi AO Haci KHHri onpeA^JieHift GoBiTa ycMaipHBaexcH, hto 
BeuKoft OHeHB p^ako y;Ke nocin^airb sadASHie GoBiia, a ci ROHi^a 
1789 roAa h no caioiS 1795 roAi» (roA^ rohhhhu Bei(Raro) yxe 
BOBce He BCTp't^aexcfl ero noAnocH. 

PaBHKHi o6pa80irb BucoHaftmifl noBejiiHifl no 06n^ecTBy 6jia- 
ropoAHuxx A^BHi^'b coo6n][ajtHCb ci 1791 r. ne BeoROMy, a Sasa- 
AOBCROMy HJiH CrpeRajiOBy. 

noai^AOBaBmafl BCRopt — 31 aBrycxa 1795 r. — ROHHHHa Bei^- 
Raro, ROTopoMy yHpexAeniH 6ujih ne Mano ofiflsaHU RaRi cbohitb 
ocHOBaHieifB, TaRi h AsiJii»H%ftniHMi pasBHTleirb, npomjia coBep- 
menno nesaM'bTHo f,M hexi, no Rpafineft uipb bi cozpaHHBmHxcfl 
A^ax^ 06ntecTBa o ROH^nni Beipcaro ne ynoMnnaeTCfl. Tojibro 
B^ acypnajii 10 HoaGpa 1795 roAa, na sanpoc^ OneRyncRaro Co- 
B^Ta TOM^, CROJiBRo sa CMepTl6H) BeKRaro npEHHiaeTCJi nojiy^HTB 
H8% ero RannraJia sa coAepjRanie BocnHTUBaeMux'B na ero cierb a^- 
BHi^i, CRasaHO, HTO sa 3T0, no pascHery, no aohb roh^hhh Bea- 
Raro, cjrbnyeTb ynjiaiHTB 06^^ecTBy 38.999 p. 70 r., Roropue 
H ynJia^eHH Ayni^npHRan^HRaMH ero vh pasnoe Bpenji, cnojuna 
21 Mapia 1797 roAa ^). 

droTB AOJiFB o6pa80Bajicfl cJi'^Ayio^BMi o6pa80irB: Bei^ROt, 
RaRi BHAHO Bsi jRypnajia CoBiia 1770 r. ^spajifl 25 (cip. 108), 
npoACTaBjiBJii ERaTepHHi AORJiaAi*, yAOCTOBBmiftca yTBepacAema 
27 iiOHfl 1769 r., car^Ayioniftro coAepxaHia: 

<(Bame HifnepaTopcRoe BejiBHecTBo npoHSBeAeHleiii poccift- 
CROMy lOHomecTBy BocnHTaniH nponsBeJiH cnoco6'B b^ HMnepiH 
GjiaroAencTBie ocnoBaTB h ocnoBannoe coxpanniB na b^^rh. 

«C?acTJiHBu noAAannue Bamn, bhaa tojtbro 6jiaro ajih caunx'B 
H AJi^ noTOMCTBa Hxi ysaROHeniAMH BamHMH na HCiHEHoft Ao6po- 

A^TOJIH OCHOBaHHOe. 

«Ho a JiacRaio ce6B cyrj6uwb c^acTieiTB, npoBOJRAaa octbtori 
;kh8bh b% npecjiaBHoe FocyAapcTBOBaHifl Bamero Bpenn h bi CTa- 
pocTH npeBOCxoABoe noAaerB uni yrtmeHie Buco^afimafl orb Ba- 
mero BejiH^ecTBa js^jlh TaROBuxi ysaRonenifi ro Mni noBipenHOCTB. 

<(7MHoacBTe, BceMEJiocTHBiftmafl FocyAapbiBH, cnacTbe Hoe, a^ 
6yAerb nosBOJieno Met xoth cauuft cJiafiMmift jhoCbh R'BOTeHecxBy 



*) Cm. KHHrH Onpej. Ck>B. 1792 r., khhth f,±jn» 1797 r., J^ 43. 



— e.-5 — 



Moe mr^nw o fifPjiEii'w sffiooKcx^o m o(i5aw«B«n. vo»rv VKn- 
Benm on mssi «& iiorj|irT?:idj bpmhbi Brxpf^vnaBiv r% %v»y- 
BaHiM jcnMin IlMiKpBTr*paul anunda xTxcaxicn\ m Kvxcm- 
BaeiEiix& HiBPKBCEaii zbrmesK irpKammMS \ptn ^JcS^ tpa iv^ca 
no xecaxi ■BJ&^SEcan» m cnuaco se liBMKK r^ViuTfSTit ot% ro- 
xoxeHU wTk fiasEv mcmro sasnajDi do pocmca3Biii> cps o^xv l<l^^ 
HBzaSne ■oneu ctsmt coc^nxan i:^ coif|»uai> mxv s n. 
opoasMxcsm txErcsso no IvO p\tam% aa nxnrc^ wcanaa 
HBsa ■ BoammEBMirr. 

€ BcenoxiMiifttwr npomy Bame Dxnepaiv^pcKO^ IVoiiKiM 
yxocxom HaMipeme Moe Baco^atmaro 6jait>MjeBia s j6iMJ(iMiie 
de BceMKaocnaUniXMi jsasorb npioCmm va xa»cnu\> mvia 
Bi» j^HMJuui^ sajojtTBKn xboHCK^ B\ DOiie«TOJii.cif^ GvRirr, 
rocDoa^i FjaBHot Ha^Riiusai ■ jnpaBsrMunniii^ a XJt xajivia- 
KOBi Ki AnjieKia XjjiozecTVL ci roro Bpenena, Kairw otv v^na 
KamrajH b¥ de xicio BsoeoeHH Cyjijtl* 

cAarycittinaa rocyjqipiiHa! Ja Cyxen xajroe de saae^ieRie 
BejonaiTb BanoMi nocpoBsreACTBOirb nowptnaaeito ■ CO CJmBOft 
HireHa Bamero « hoxbekho bo stu. 

cBamero Ifamepxiopacaro BojnnecTBa BcenouHHiriJhnil pa6\ 

II« Bemcoft». 

Gosin DOJoacKn cb ycepxHoio paxocruo (laaroxapn^ aa ctiub 
Ao6poxtTexfcHoe h npraoiesHoe o6nte€TBy npoxQpintle^ ROtopoe 
KynHocb naicHTbio hhohh ero coxpaHirii y aoTOMROB^ B^ BtHnoMii 
npocjuaBJieHiH jno6oBb ero Kb oie^ecTsy 1 ici GaBJcaeiiy bojibro- 
xymie h n^expocn. 

nosxHie BeqKofi npexcraBiu^ ERaiepBBi II no^B doxoCbuA 
xe AOKJiafb y cero npejiaraeifut ^) Toirb, hto6u eiry paaptmeno 
6UJ110 coxepacaTb hb coCcTBeHHOMi ero BacABaeHiB no ocoGouy poc- 
nHcaniH) npn cyxonyrHOirb RaxeTCROirb Ropnyci no ^eTupe bochh- 
TaHBHKS, a Bi oOn^ecTBi 6jiaropoAniixi x'&bbui no 
n fl T H BOcnBTaHEBi^i H3^ 6'6AHaro ABopaacTea. Ilpa dTOM> HoD^ROft 
HcnpamBBajii paspimeme CeasosCpaHBO vh acH3HH oro uto-jibCo 
yHBHHTb Bi OTiftHy BBimeoBcaHHaro no cJiyiaion^BMca mbI hbaoG- 
HOCTABTB. ERarepnea yrsepAHJia b bto hobob npeACTBBJieHle Bou- 
Raro, — npenpoBosAennoe bhi bi Cob^ti 06n^ecTBa wh aerycTb 
1772 roAa. IIo cocTasjiieHHOMy pocnBcaniio BeuROMy npnxoAHJior 



*) Cm. opoioseHie ^ 5. 



— 296 — 

BHOCHTB emero;(HO ao 10,188 P76.; neuhVE 8th owl npexnoJiarajii 
BHOCHTB Ha RBXAoe DOJiroAa Bnepe^i AOROJii xuishb ero npoAflnTCJi, 
a no Heifb — on CoBtTa HMnepaTopcRaro BocnBTaTejubHaro jiOMa. 

Ho ysRe bi 1787 roA7 BeiiRHin» 6ujio CA^aeo cjrtAyiomee 
sa^BJieHie: <KaRi no HUHimHeMy rocyAapcTBeBHOny ysaKOHeHJio 
nojiy^ienie npoi^eHioBi yifenBrneHO, to no yMajieHiK) npesii de 
Cb MOBXi RanHTajiOBi AOxoAOBi, ynoTpeCJiaeuKxi na to co^epsa- 
Hie, n HO Mory 6e8i> yricHeHia Moero co6cTBeHHaro cocTOflHifl nox- 
Aep^HBaiB wh cewb 06n^ecTB% npeAnpHHATaro mhok). B'b pascyxc- 
AOhIh ^ero Kb coxcaJsiHiio Moeny a bexj ce6a npHHyxAeBHiiin> 
TOMi) npeAi>yBi^AOHHTB noHieHHufl Cob^^ti, npexocTaBJiaAH oxnaRO 
»e ceCi coAopiRaHie nicROJiBRHX'b Min^ancRHxi, a crojibro HHcoioinb 
H Ha RaROMl OCHOBaniH, TOMi no^TCHHuft CoBirb paBHO H o6i> 
HCHBCJieHiH npeaRHHxi BnpeAB HSBtcTHiB He npeMHHy». 

TeHBapa 13 1787 r. 

IIocji^ dToro saflBJieHlH ne 6eijih yse bhobb onpeA^eira bi 
BOcnniaTejiBHoe 06n^ecTBo GjiaropoAHuxi a^bhitb h Hin^aHCRoe ea 
OTA:biieHle BOcnHTaHHHuu Ha cnerB BeARaro, ho nocTynHBmU pa- 
Hie dToro sa^BjieHifl npoAOJURajra BocnHTBiBaTBca bi ohomb sa cnerb 
Bei^Raro h npEHBiaion^iaca sa bx% BocnBTanie A^HBrH e oCpaso* 
BajiB TOTB AOJiFB, ROTopufi 6ujrb ynjiaHeHi OdqecTBy yxe no roh- 
^bh% BeoRaro. 

IIpB dTOMi He JiBniHBMi 6yAeTB ynoMAHyiB en^e 061 oahoitb 
yAOCTOBBmeHca TaRace Buco^afimaro yTBepa^A^Hifl npeAnoJtoaceHiB 
Bei^Raro, ROTopoe OAHaRo ne othochtca BCRJiBDHHTeJiBHO ao bocub- 
TaTeJiBHaro OGn^eciBa 6jiaropoAHBixi a^bbi^i, ho RacaeTca paB- 
HUMB oGpasoMi) B ApyrHXB y?e6H£[XB saBeAOHift, HaxoABBmHxoi 
noAi^ BiAoifCTBOMB BeE(Raro. 

HnqepaipBi^a ERatepBBa II, TpoHyTa^ MHoaRecTBOifB A^Tefl, 
ROTopuH, He BunyBB c^iacTJiBBaro jRpeGia, ne nonaAajiH Kb y^H- 
jiBn^e B ocTaBajiBCB AOMa, BupasBJia meiraHle, ^to6ii b TaROBiiH 
npBHBMajuBCB, ecjiB na coAepacanie bxb Qyjtyrb npeACTaBjieHu RrbirB 
jib6o oco6ue RanHTasH. Bo BcnojineHle btoA mucjih HMnepaTpHiQi 
BoAROfl cocTaBBjni ocoChh npaBBJia, cocToaBmiA B'B cjriA7K)nieirB^): 

1) RaacAufl no ycxaay HOJRerB oiAaBaiB A^TOft wb yHBJiEn^e, 
npeACxaBBB'B na coAepjRanie ero cocTaBJueHHyio no pac^BCJieHiio 
cyMHy BJiH BApyrB cnojiHa, bjib noroAHO, na Bpena npe6uBaHia pe- 



Cu. „y(ipezAeHifl h ycTaBU, sacanniiecji xo BocuHTaHia h o5y7eBiH 
Bi Pocciu DHomecTBa o6oero noJia kb yxoboibctbik) o6mecTBa co6paHH u 
BOBUMB THCHeBieMB BBAasH^. T. I. G.-neTep6yprB, 1774 roxa. 



— 297 — 

6eHKa Bi yHBJiHn^ hjih jma CesnpepuBHaro coAepsaoin co Bcerxam- 
HUTL DpioMoirb m> HaAflexamee Bpeiu BOcnflraHHHROBi. 

2) no npomecTBiH ypoHHuxi Jiirb h no BsniiB Birb yHEJum^a 
DHTOima, RJEB ero CHepn, ea bojud BpeiieHHaro BuaA^BRa npexo- 
ciaBJiaeTCfl bsatb BneceHHufl hmi RanHraJi'b o6paTHO. Ecjib owb 
BRech B%HBuft KaoBTaJni, MOxeTB ocTBion^iocB cyMiiy pasAtJiBTb 
Ba BHxoxanpirb ero OBTOMiteB'b bjih ocTaaBTB, b Ea npoAeBTU opi- 

yMBOJSaTB BOpeXb HBCJIO BOCOBTaBBBBOBl. 

3) RaxAKift Bflecmift KanBiairb Mozen ociaBBiB sa co6oio 
npaso CA^ATb oTBifly stROTopyio, ch corjiacia CoBira. A hto6u, 
on CeanpexiAEaro hbcjib npBBBMaeMfiixi cBepxi mraTa na Kana- 

TaJI1» BflOCBMHft, Be filUIB Cu CTlCfleEU miaTBtie BOCnBiaBBBRB, TO 

no HUBimBBMi paaiiipaiTB AOSBOJifleTCB npsBBMaTb: bi ofiqecTBO 
fijiaropoABHxi A^BBAi — en^e 40 a^bbi^i (hto cb opejRHBMB y?B- 
BBTb 100). Cie pasyMtercfl o nin^aBCRHX'b A^^BymRaxi. Bi rbaot- 
CROiTb Ropnyci b aRaAeidB xyAOxecxB^, Rorxa SAaaie 6yAerB ot- 
crpoeBO, HBCJio ero 6yAeri> onpeA^JieEO oco6o. Tbrbmi oOpasoMi 
o6n](ecTBeBHafl nojiBsa bi OTOiecTBi npiyuBOXBTCfl b BCJiRaro 6jia- 
roAteoJibCTByK)n^aro r% o6n^eMy Ao6py nocTynoR'b CyAen sa bIrb 

BSBtCTeHl. 

OnpoA'i^aa «nj[iaTy bi toa'b oabeosaiiI hb apeMa 6utboctb bb- 
Tounj^ Bi yqBUBiAi bi cJiibAyH)auixT» pasnipaxi*: 

AJifl RBAeiCRaro Ropnyca asaAeMiB xyAoacecTBi 
no 240 p. no 180 p. 

Ba 15 jirbTi>. 

A^Dui 06n^ecTBa 6jiar. a^b. OfiqecTBa Miman. a%b. 

no 198 p. no 120 p. 

sa 12 Ji'Irb. 

Bei^Roll, RanBTajiBSBpya 9tb cyMHu no paciOTy 6 npoi^enTOBi 
Bi roA'B, onpeff&n^ji'b, nro booCxoabuo BeecTB eABHOBpeHenHo bb- 
;RecJi']^AyK)n^ie RanniajiiJ a^a BOcnBTania OAHoro jiHi^a: 

wb RaAOTCROMi Ropnyci . . . 4.000 p. | axo ycTaeoBJiaJiocb 

» aRaAeniB xyAozecTBii . . . 3.000 » i na 15 ji^ti. 

» BOCBBT, 06nt. fijiarop. a^b. . 3.300 » ^ dto ycTanoBJieBO Ha 

» lltn^. ota4ji. npn OOn^ecxBh . 2.000 » i 12 jAtb. 



— 298 — 

IlHnepaTpHAa ERaiepHHa II yisepAHJia bto 24 Mafl 1773 r. bt> 
I^apcROMi Cejii ^). HaniJiHCB jih sejiaioii^Ie c;n:i2iaTi> noAo6Haro 

POW B3H0CH HenSBiCTHO. 

Ho Bi dTOM'b npeAnoJioxeHiH Bei^Karo eeJiBSA He ycHOTpiib 
nanajio tbr^ HasHBaeiiHxi CTHoeHAiaxoB'B, pasBHBmeeca BecBMa 
CHJiLHO Bi Hame yace speHA. 

He CHOipfl Ha bck) HeAOCxaTO^HOCTb BOcnHTaniH h o6y^eHifl bi 
06infictBb RBR'b 6JIa^opoAHux^ aI^bhi^i, raRi h ifia^aHCRHX'b A^By- 
meR'B, eABa jih mojrho OTpHiiaTB, hto npefiuBaHie osHaHeHHuxii Jisai 
Bi* crtnaxi, TaRi nasuBaeiiaro bi ofin^exHiiH, CMOJibHaro MOHa- 
CTupfl He conpoBoacAaJiocB GjiarnHH js,Jia hhxii nocji'lACTBiiiMH. 

HpOBOAH A^^TCTBO H lOHOCTB Bl C^P'b Ha^BJTB ryMaHHOCTH, a He 

6paHH, pyraiejiBCTBa h no6oeBB (hto Cbtjio hohth noBceAHeBHBrvii 
flBJiemeiTB npn o6meft rpy6ocTH npaBOBi vb nameMi oTeqeciBi bi 
XYin CTOJitriH), A^TE AOJiiRHU 6hjih caMH ocbohtbch cb noAoCnaro 
poAa o6pan^eHieMi h, BosBpaTflCB oCpatHo bi cbok) cpeAy npoHHR- 
HyTUMH TaRHMH Ha^iaJiaHH, B^ CBOK) OHepeAB cnoco6cTBOBaTB pacnpo- 
CTpaHOHiK) rfixi ace Hanajii bi CJi%AyK)n](HX% noROJiiHiAx%. 

BocoHxaHie bi Cmojibhomi 6ujio Bume xoro, Roxopoe noJiy^ajiH 
jiBi^a acoHCRaro nojia b'b nacxHUX'B Aonaxi m naHClOHaxx; Jinqa, 
oROHqHBmiH bi HeM^ CBoe BOcnHxanie, Cb oaho& cxopoHBi abjihjihcb 
MOHte sapaaceHHHMH npeApascyARaMH h HOAOcxaxRaMH neaceJiH Apy* 
rifl, a c% Apyrofl — 6ojiie pasBHxuHH h lejiOBiHHHMH. HpoAOJURH- 
xeJibHoe npeCBiBame b'b saRpuxoiTB saBeAeHin najiarajio oco6uft 
oxneqaxoRi, no cnpaneAJiHBOMy saBci^aHiio r. JlExaneBofl ^), na boc- 
HHxaHHHiti, npoflBjiflBmHX'B Ha nepBuxi nopaxii rohohho HesHa- 

ROMCXBO BO MHOrOlTB, RaCBBnieMCH A^ftCXBHXeJIBHOft 2CH8HH. «3x0 HO- 

poAHJio He Majio nycxBixii aneRAOXOB'B HH^ero ne AORasuBafon^HXT*, 
noxoMy ^0 ebb BC^Raro saBeAeHifl, RaRoe 6u xaHi hh 6bijio, Horyxi 
BHfifATH jiHi^a niwh jih6o h npHXOMi coBepmeHHO neBOJiBHO A^ion^ia 
noBOAi* H ocHOBanie ri RaROMy HH6yAB CMtniHOMy o hhxi pascRasy, 
Roxopuft AaJieRO ne BcerAa mohcox^ oxhochtbca ri* yipe^RAeniio, boc- 
HHxaBmeMy bxo jiei;o. Ho ao RpafiHOcxE yAEBHxeJiBHo, ixo Bocnnxa- 
Hie A'^BEi^'B B'B Cmojibhom'f, ycxanoBJieHHoe EeARHBrB, BUSBajio 8Jio6- 

HUe OXSUBU OTB JlJU^b, OTB ROXOpBIXl MO^CHO 6bIJI0 HX1» OHCEAaXB 



') Cm. ApxHFB npaB. CeHaxa, KHora Baco?. yRasoBi J^ 135, crp. 257. 
3to npeAnojoseHie BeuRaro 6hjo tslkt&q npeiBapRTeiBHo paacMorpiiHO ru. 
rojHi^HHiiM'B, rpa4)0ui HaHSHUH'B, Hb. ^epHumeBUM'B H MnHHxoMi, a TaRse 
Pp. TenJiOBUH'L m OAo6peHO hmh. 

') Cir. cMaTepiaJu j^jh HCTopin xeHCRaro o6pa30BaHiH bi PocciH>, r-sa 
jHxa^eBoft. C.-neTep6yprB, 1890 r., h. I, cip. 238 h citA. 



— 299 — 

Bcero MOHie. (Tmi> eanp. ero coBpeMeHHHirBi rhasb UJ^epCaiOBii, 
Bi cBoeiTb coHBHeHiH noBpeacxefliH HpasoBi bi PoccIh [1858 r. 

CTp. 93]) rOBOpHTB, HTO HSl A'^BH^MrO MOHaCTUpH A^Ji BOCnHTamfl 

6jiaropoAH£ix'B AteiiAi, he yneauxi, hh CjiaroHpaBHux'bA'iB- 

BHm He BHIDJIO, KaRl TOJIbRO 00 OSSLKJ OpHpOAa HXl CHITB CHa6- 

AHJia, H BOcnHTame 6oji%ecocTOfljiOHrpaTbROMeAiHy HOKejin cepAi^e, 
HpsBti H pasyicb HcnpaBjiflTB. Tose canoe Cb He6ojrBinHMi» HsiiiHe- 
HieiTB Bi cjiort noBTopaerB h r. Ko6eRo bb CBoeM^ co<iHHeHiH iUfi- 
capeBHqi IlaBejrB IleTpoBHTB* (CTp. 193, hsa* 1888 r.). IIocJipBaM^ 
r. A. 6. Ko6eRO, bi ROTOpuxi HecoMHieno CRB03HrB Hpoaifl, bocdh- 
TaHHHim nepaaro BunycRa CMOJUBHaro MOHacmpa na^ajiH ppHHt- 
HBTB Kb fjbjij nosnaHijar, npio6p%TeHHua hmh BiTe^eHie 12-tb- 
jiiTHaro Rypca nojTB rjiaBHUH'B pyRoaoACTBOiii BeARaro; noBHaeifl 
am saRjiioHajiHCB bi yH^HBH 6irjio fobophtb no ^paHiQrscRH, lae- 
itOBaTB, niTB H HrpaTB Ha teaipi. 

^aHE^scRift sue aBiopi* MaccoHi, GBiBmifl wb Poccin ci 1786 
no 1796 r. BupasaeTca en^e xyse. (MaccoHi. M^moires secrdtes 
sur la Biissie). Owl nHmerB: «Ie couvent des demoiselles manque 
absoloment son but, comme ]a pi apart des autres instituts; lors- 
qu'elles ont atteint 1 8 ans on les met k la p o r t e; elles eutrent 
dans un monde dont elles ont vecu sequestr6es dds leur enfance; 
elles ne retrouvent nl parents ni connaissances et ne savent que 
deveuir]^. E^Ba jih nawiesHrB onponepraTB bc£ arn roJiocjiOBHua 
saflBJieBiB, Bi noATBopsAeuie ROTopHxi nniero ho npHBOAnrca. Ka- 
serca nodioiiy irinecooCpasnte npoTHBonocTasuTB hmi otsbibu 
Apyrexii jiimi), TaK^Ro 3acJIysHBaK)^^[X'B yBaacema. Taai anrjilfi- 
cRifl nocJiaHHHR'B Bi IleTepfiypri, jiopAi KaTRaprB, bi AOHecenlH 
CBOOM'B BHROHTy YaflMOHTy OTB 26 coHTaCpa 1768 r. nnmerB, hto 
BeiiRoft noRasuBajii oMy TaRT* HasusaeMufi HOHacTupB, fa^ Hiine- 
paTpHAa BOcnHTUBaen na caoft cnen 250 A'i^BHi:(B bbb snaTHUxi 
^aMHJiiB. Hhhto ho mosotb npoBsoftrH saCoTJiHsocTB h yciibxT> 
BeiiRaro (nothing can exceed the care or succes of m-r de 
Betzky and the ladies employed In this seminary) h Aa>(i>, saHHicafo- 
n^HxcA Bi axoM'B saaeAeHlH, ROTopoe en^e naxoAHTC^ bb MJiaAOHHe- 
CROMi cocToaniB, TaR^ Raai ao chxi* nopi npHHaio tojibro 220 
BocnBTaHHHi](B H caMufi AOMi>, ROTopufi 6yjifiTb BOJiHROJiineHB, en^e 
He BoojiHi OTCTpooHB (Hm. C6. p. Hot. 06ni., t. XII, cip. 370). 
TaRse Apyrie aHrjUHqane, ocTaBBsmle sanecRH o cboomi noct- 
n^eHui Hameft ctojihabf, Raai-TO Korci (Travels into Poland. Bus&ia 
by William Coxe. 1784 vol. 11 ch. VI, p. 158) h BpaRcaJiB 



— 300 — 

(A tour through some of the Northern parts of Europe by Natha- 
niel Wraxall. London 1776, let. 23, p. 259), ociajuHCB o^eHbAO- 

BOJIbHU CHOJIbHUJfb MOHaCTUpeMli, ROTOpOMTi HSBtCTHilft ^SOHl 

FoBap^b oncajiTi, hto H8b Bcixi oGn^ecTBeHHuxi saBeAOHift Ilerep- 
6ypra hh oaho ero Tasx ne nopasHJio RaKii BocuHraTejiBHoe OCn^e- 
CTBO fijiaropoAHuxTi A^BHqi (ctf.John Howard — a memoire by Hep- 
worth Dixon. London. 1854, crp. 181). JleAHRpaBeHiHasiiBaeni 
dTO saBeAOHie caifHiii npeaocxoAHUM'b h 6jiaroA^TejiLmiMi» hbi 
AiBHifl EKaiepHHu H (Letters from the B. H. Lady Graven (prin- 
cess iBerkley) to the margrave of Anspach during 1786, 1787. 
2 edition. London. Letters, Jfs 104, p. 308). 

ABpycTB ULieAepi, roBop^ o BocnHTaieJiibHOirb 06iAecTBi 6jia- 

ropOAHUXb A^BBI^'B, npHBOAHTb CJI^AyiOIItlH CJIOBa JIHAa, nOC^THB- 

maro Pocciio bi 1774 roAy: «le but de la communaut6 des 
demoiselles est de donner un meddle dMucation: les demoiselles 
sont'elev6es dans la plus grande simplicity des moeurs. II est k 
croire que la plupart de ces demoiselles quand mdme elles secoue- 
raient en entrant dans le monde une partie des principes honn&tes 
et aimables, dont elles y ont et6 imbues, elles conserveronttoujours 
un vernis de modestie, de douceur, de politesse et d'honn6tet6 qui 
rendra leurs erreurs moins nuisibles k leurs families. Sans cela on 
ne parviendrait point au but proposd qui est de changer ^esprit 
national... > IUjiei(ep'b npoTHBi» aioro HHHero He Bospasaen h no 
BTOMy HBAO noJiaraTB, hto h owb pa8A%JiAen> 9Th b^tmbko, (cm. 
August Ludvlg SchlOzer's, professor In Gottingen, Briefwechsel. 
Dritter Theil. Sai 9. 

Apyrofi necaTejiB, KacTopa, bi CBOOMb coHHHeHiH tHcTopl^ Eaa- 
TepHHH II > (Histoire de Catherine 11 par Castera, t. IV, ch. 17, 
p. 376) roBopHn: ycnixi ycTaHOBJieHHUx'B b% BocnHiaTeJibHOMi 
OSn^ecTBi 6jiaropoAHBix'L a^bhi^ npaBBJii CBHAtTejiBCTByen> o hxi> 
npoBocxoACTBt; BocnHiaHHEiiu no buxoa& H8i> saBeAOHiH npHHOCfln 
CojiBmyfo noJiBsy o6n^ecTBy, pacnpocipaHAH bi BOMb ojioah nojiy- 
HeHHaro hmh BocnHTaHin, BKycb ri TajiaHiaM'B, Ao6pue npaBH. 

He ynoHHHaa y»e o HeJinAOBofi, BosBOJiHHeHHofl OAsa jih ho 
Hopeai Mipy ea 6iorpa$oirB E. C. niyiiiiropcKHMi, npiiBeAein> ao- 
moAmie ao eacb OTauBU n o HibROTopux'b ApyrExi 0101^x1, nojiy- 
HEBrnHXi o6pa80BaHie bo BpeiieHa BeARaro Kb BocnHTaieJiBHoirB 
OSqecTBt BjiaropoAHUX'B a^bhi^b. TaRB eanp. rhasb Hb. M. ^oji- 
ropyRift, 6yAyHH ry6epHaTopoMT> bi* HoHS'lb h BjiaAHMipt, saaB- 
JiaerB, hto bba^jvl h anaji'B MHoraxb MOHacxupoRX, t. e. no- 



— 301 — 
jiyHHBinHX'E BOcaHTame hi BocnHTaiejiBHOici 06ii^ecTBt BjiaropoA- 

HHTB ^iBHI^B, SHBIDHX^ Kb npOBHHI^lflXl H OTSHBaBTCA HHrB 

Rasi xofipoHpaBHuxi, xopornHxi, mhjdjxi A^BymRsxi. SeHaTuft 
pa pasa Ha CMOJiflBKaxi ohi cb 6oJiBiiiHirB GjiaroroBtmeirb roBo- 
pBTb V'Ttb Jla^oHi, pyROBOAHBineft hxi BOCOBraHieM'B, a Taicxe 
H EeuKoiTb ^). ToHHO TaR»e, no cJiOBaifB r. Fpoia, BOcnHTaHHHi^a 
2 BunycRa, AjieRcaHApa AjieRcioBHa ^sflROBa (BnocJi%ACTBi0 cy npyra 
imcaTejtJi KaneHCTa), 6ujia caicafl oCpasoBaHHaa hsi Ao^epeft ^ba- 
KOBa, xfejiajia mhofo Ao6pacejiBCROMyHacej!ieHiK),ji'iHHJiaRpecTBAHi, 
npHXOAHBmHX'B RB Heft H3% ORpecTHOCTOft, H oeyiBJia Hxi A^xeft 
(cm. TpoTB, COH. ^epaaBHHa, t. IX, cxp. 161, 253). 

BocHHTaHHHAa 1-ro npieMa, Fjia^npa AjiuMOBa (BnocjriACTBlH 
fiuBQiafl saMyHeiTB sa PjEescRBMB), eAHHCTBOHHaa HSTi HHCJia A'b- 
BHm>9 BOCOHTUBaBmExcH BB Cmojibhomb BO BpeMfl Bei^Raro, OCTa- 
BHBmaii CBOE JiH)6oniiTHUfl BOcnoMHHaHifl npeGHBaniH bi Boca. 
06in. Bjiar. Jl^tBHAi xoro BpeneHH, ao Haci AomeAinifl n nanena- 
laHHUfl BT» iPyccROiTB ApxHBt» 1871 roAa, CBBfflTeJiBCTByerB 
TBRxe xopomeHB BOcnHraHlH, Roiopoe nojiynaJiocB wh Cmojib- 
HOATB Bb nepBue roAu ero cyn^ecTBOBanifl. 

HsBtcTHuft BHrejiB, BecBMa ho n^eApuft Ha xopomie otsubu o 
BCTptqaBHiHxcaeMyjiHuaxB, bii cbohxi BanHCRaxii, ?. I, cxp. 211, 
DHmerB: iBCTpiTHni CienaHHAy AnApeoBHy Koxi; sceHH^HHa yHHaa, 
BocnnxaHHaH bi Cmojibhomb Mouacxupi, yRpamena BensejieMB ERa- 
xepHHU II; Bi Heft mojrho BVijsibTh pasuHi^y mb^aj npocBiii\eHieMB 
H o6pa80BaHieMB. San^xia ea schshh 6hjih hobocxuo jma neHsen- 
CRHXi CapumeHB; OHa JiioGHJia MHoro nexaxB h Aasce nepeBOAHXB 
RHHrH, caMa y^HJia Ai^xefl, yRpamajia CBOft caA'B, BunHCUBaJia p^A- 
Kia pacxeeia. Ho sa xo en MaHepu 6kijih HecxepnnMH. Ea Myaci 
BSi H'^MAOBB pa86orax^B, oxAaBaa AeHBra bi pocxB». 

TaROBue oxsbibu jihai o 6uBniHXBB0cnHxaHHHiiaxB GMOJiBHarOi 

Cl ROXOpUMH OHH BCXpiHBJIHCB Wb C^^i A'&BCXBHXeJIbHOfl JRH3HH, 

CBHA'lxejiBCXByioxB noJiBs*!, npHHeceHHofi yqpe^AeHiHMH Bei^naro 
o6n;ecxBy h rocyAapcxay, HecpaBHenno HarjiaAHte h aipnie HejReJiH 
pasHue aHBRAOxH, H8o6p'lxaeMHe o CMOJiHHRax'B npasAHUMB B0o6pa- 



') Cm. „KaQHiiie Moero cepAna^ KH^sa H. A. Ao<iropyKOBa bi ^HTeHiflX'B 
06. Hot. h ApeBH.'' npu Mock. yHHs., 1872, ^ 2 h 1873, J^ 2, 3. 3T0T-b Hr. 
M. AoJropyKOB'b 5£iJi'b schutb ea EsreHiH CMupHOBofti BocuHTaHHimt CmojIl- 
naro (t. e. 06ni,. Bjarop. A'^b.))H B^scBoeifi „rCaaHI^eMoe^ocepA^a*^c'B6JIa- 
roroaibHieM'b BcnoiiiiHaeTB o BeusoMB, sasB ^npoiesTopi TaKoro saBeAeHin, bii 
ROTopoRB o6pa30BajacB Moa EBreeia'*. Eai »Toro mosho saKin^HTS, hto 6bib- 
maa BocnHxaBBHua CMOi&Haro aBoiacL Bnojai AOCTofiHofi cynpyrofi rhasa 



— 302 — 

jROHieMi, HJiB myrJOLShiA CTExoTBopesifl o BeitROirb bi poffi eume- 
npHBexeHHBirB Haife hjih jiflxe XBaJieSHue cthxb Toro se CyHapo- 
Roea, KOTOpuft, BOo6iite nopei^afl bch) CHCieHy BocnHrama, BseAeH- 
HyH) BeiQCHM'B BO BB-bpeHHuxi eny saBOAeHlflxi, HaxoAflJti OAHaRo 
B08M0)RHUMi nHcaTb: Hanp. bi npodKrfa HaxnHCH ri nopTpery Hirne- 
paTpHUBi Bi diOJibHOifb: 

Jla naMflTjerB to Espona h BcejeHsa 

Mmii qecTb na irbcTb cem ^JUi Hbm^i onpeAtjoHHa 

KoMy BOdBtcTHJUi 6aJiTifiCRift Mipy BajTB 

MonapmeS MyApocrbX) to Bei^Rift ocHOBan. 

3Atcb A'^BU poccRifl RaRii Hhm^ei o6flTai)Tii 

II BiHi^eHOCHiiy BoraHeft no^HTaDTB 

KoTopaa chxi AiBi ne^eTca o6yqHTB, 

H CMOpTHUXl CHX'L AbSHI^'B OTB CMepTHHX'L OTXHqHTb. 
HJIH Bl A^raHHOlfb CTHXCTBOpemH, HOCBBIIieHHOM'b A'^BHI^aMl Hep- 

Baro BbinycRa, HrpaaniHM'b bi nbecaxi HeJiHAOBoft h Bopn^OBoft. 

Orb Baoi HayR'b iRjsfiWb h Bxycy mu HarpaAi 

H npocBin^OHHEixi qaA'b. 
IIpeABHsy RaROBU Ham cjitAyx^rb noioicRH. 
BxaseHHa ^acTb tboh, Ha^ajibHHi^a Jla^OH'b, 
^T0 TBI opyAie CHX^ A^Bb ro BoonBTaHbio 

H BtHI^eHOCHai Rb OTJiH«IHOMy 6jBCTaHbV)l 

JIa<|)OHmi 8T0 bu CRasHTO Gesi* npenoffb. 
GEaaRBTO Bei^ROMy: cie ero sacjiyrn 
Hryrb poccu Bci h Bci aayni h BRyca Apyrfl 
H TTO TpyAflCb ceMi, 6xa8eH^ Ha cstTi obi. 



303 — 



rjIABA CEAfcMAfl. 

HuoepaTopcKafl AEaACHu XyAOsecTBi, y^pesAeaeaH H. H. lUyBajiOBUH'L; 
8a6oTii ero cociaBHTb periaMeHiii iuh ycTaBi> AKaAeMiH.— yBOJEHCHie niy- 
BaiOBa 3a rpaHHuy.— OiA'i^eBie AKaieMiH XyAOseciBi oti MocsoBCBaro 
yHEBepcHTeia e BasHaHeaie H H. BeaKaro eA HaHaiBHHKOMB.— JIocTpofiKa 
sjiauui xia ABAAeitiH.— He OTnycsi CBoeBpeMeHHO cymmu ea »Ty nocTpofixy. — 
yciasi AKaAeiiiH, npeACTaBjeBHufi BeuKHMi bi 1764 roAy.-^FjiaBHiifl ero 
ocHOBafiiji.- y ^HJHiiie npn ARajieMiH XyAOiBecrBi..— BjiacTb npesiiAeHTa Ana- 
xeniH. — ^BiiAHie Bei^Baro aa ABaxeMis); nosepTBOBaaiA ero."--OTBoineflij! ero 
K^ CoBiTy.— IIpeAioseHifl, A^jaeMua uwb Goaixy. — CaomeBifl cb BeiiBBMi 
paaBHxi JBAi no AiutAeMia XyAOsecTB'b.—IIociJjiKa y^eaHEoa'L AKBAeiiiH 
aa rpaaHuy.- HeyAOBjeTBopaTejELaocTB BocnHTaaia a o6y9eBia bi AaaAeMia.— 
SaMSHaaia a apeAnojoseaia Bei^saro no dioMy noBOAy.— Paaianaiia pa6oTH 
yneaaEOBB AaaAeaia XyAoseciB'K.— EoiJiesiiia p'J^saHxi aaMeubeax noacepT- 
BoaaBBaa Beaaaifb AaaAeMia.— Goopyseaie naMaTBBBa neipy Beiasoiiy.— 
CaoBieaia Beuaaro ch ^aJbaoaeTOui a pasMOjasa cb aaai. 

MMnepaTopcKaa AaaAeMia XyAOwecTB'b bl C.-rieTeptfyprt ^). 

YnpeABTejiB nepaaro pyccKaro yHHsepcETeia H. H. niyaajiOB'B 
HBJiaeTCfl TaiuKe nepBUMT> yqpoAHTejieM'b ARaAeifiH XyAO^ecTBi. 
Ohi> npeACTasHJii CeHaiy npoeKTb h mxaT'B dTOfi AKaAeMin hi 
C.-IIeTepGyprt, npeAnoJoaraa «B8ATb s-h onyio cnocoGsux'b y^e- 
HHKOBi Tuvb MocROBCRaro yHBoepcHTeTa, KOTopue yace h onpeA^- 
AibjEOHu y^HTBCii flSMRaii'L H HayRaifb, npHHs^e^camHM'L Kh xyAO- 
%ecTBy». Ha coAepauiHie yqHxejiefi, yqeHHROBi) h a^b Hafiica aomb 
HcnpamBBajiocB Bcero 6000 py6jieft. HnnepaTpHita EjiHsaaeTa 
yiBepAHJia npoACiaBJieHie IIIyBaJiOBa bi 1757 r. ^) h cl 1759 roAa 
noBOJitjia OTnycRaib ea yqpeacAaK)iiQrK)CH ARaAOMlK) XyAOsecTBi> 
6000 py6. HBi niTaTCB-KoHTopu. ARaAOMk HHCJiHJiacB npn 
MocROBCKOMi yuHBepcHTeTt, HO noBftn^aJiacB bb IleTepOypri (cnepaa 
Bi AOMt RHBSfl Men^epcRaro Ha BacHJiBeBCROM'B ocipoay Bi»7-ofijiH- 
hIh). IlepBue y^eHHRH 6ujih npacJiaHH hsb MocROscRaro yHHBep- 
CHTeTa, HSB MHCjna BMiBmiixi pacnoJioaceHie r^b HCRycciBaMB, h 
noMin^ajiBCB Ha hojihomi coAepjEaniBBi ocoGoiTBRaseHHOM'BAOMt, 
noA'B HaCjnoAenieM'B oco6aro HHcneRiopa. Hxi oGynajiH, cBepxB 



Ilpa cocTaBieaia ceft riaau a noJEBsoaajca ae ctojbko BeoBoa«ieaBUMi> 
TpyAOMi r. H.H.neTpoaa-^C^opaaK'b KaTepiaiOBB Aia acTopia HunepaTop- 
CEofi AaaAeifia XyAoaeciBi^— caojiibso no npeaHyn^ecTBy A'i^&nH, xpaaan^a- 
MHCfl BB apxuB'b Hm. AaaAeaia XyAOseciBi, 6j[aroA&pA 6iarocEioBBOM2_ 
paspimeniio r. Bai^e-npesBAeaTa rpa<|^a Hb. Hb. Tojcraro saaaHaTbca w 
XHB'6, 3a EOTopoe c^BTaio cBoei) oCasaaaocTiK) Bupasnxb ero ciaxej 
BCBpeBax>K> HOK) npasaaTejbBocTB.— Bb noAJesan^axB Hd^craxi CA'^^jaa 
yBasaaia aaA^a^ xpaaani^iacfl bb apxaai Hm. AEaAeaia XyAOsecTi 

') noJBoe Ck)6. 3aK0B0BB J^ 10776. 



— 304 — 

sasoHa BoxB^ro, HHOCTpaHHiiMii A3URaMi, reorpa^lH, apHOMerHKi 
H reoMeTplH, scTopie h MHOOJioriH, a Tasace pKCOBaHiio, CKyjubniypi 
u apxHTeRTypi. BcRop'b 6ujvh npnrjianieHii xapyprB kor npeno- 

AaBaHlH aHaiOMlH, npHSHaHHOfl He06X0AHM0K> JlflU JRHBOnHCH, H 

yqeHHRH ciajiii pHCOsaib no CReoieTy ^). Cani nXyBajiOBi cHaCaRaJni 

y^eHHROB'B RHRraMH B8l CBOefi 6H6jliOTeRH} a TaRXe MHOXeCTBOMl 

npeRpacHfiucb .RapniHi h ptARHxi» pHcyHROB^. YcnixH yqesHROBi 
no6yAHJiii niyBajioBa npnrjiainaTB sHaTHux'b oco6i noci^aTB ho- 
Byio ARajieMiK), a HacTu^ nocin^enk nocJiiAHBrb, hxi noxBajiu 
H noxapRH Bosfiy^ajin ^HB-bflmee copeBHOBanle uejKAy yneHHRaMH, 
no cjiOBaifB HeHSBicTHaro aBTopa BocnoMHHaeltt noMtn^eHBux'b bi 
RBHri IlerpoBa. IIIyBajiOBy eaceirbcfl^HO npoACiaBJiAJiH cohckb 
yqeHHROBi cb noRasaHieMi* hxi noBeAeeifl h hxi ycirbxoBX Biyne- 
hIb. no npomecTBiB ro^a npoHSBOAHJiCA BRsaMeHi hjih ROHRypci 
Hsi coxpaHHBmaroca cnHCRa ROHRypca sa cenraSpii 1 76 1 r. bhaho, 
HTO Bcero cocTO^Jio 59 yHeHHROBi, paanoBpeMeHHO nocTynHBioHxi 
ci> 1758 no 1761 ro^a, bt> Bospacrl ott> 19 ao 22 jr6rB, HacTBio 
Bsi pasHO^iHHAeB'b. Hs'B TftRoro jRe cnHCRa otb AeRa6pB 1761 r. 
BBAHO, ^TO yneHBROBi 6uJio yjKe 68 ^, ROTopsie pacnpeA'^^Jincb 
Ha 3 Rjiacca, no ABa h no ipH OTA^jjenlfl Ra;RAufl; SHBonHceoify, 
apxBTeRTypnoHyy CRyjibnTopnoMy. 

TorAa ace nparjiianieHH 6£uih napHjRCRie aRaAeMHRH: SCnjiJierb 
(Glllet), Jloppeni (Le Lorrain; owb BCRop'fi Kb tomi se ro- 
Ay ynepx), a^ JlaMOTn (YaUin de Lamotte), jsfi Jlarpena 
(De Lagren6e). Kpoirb loro naxoAHJiBCb: rpasepBi (hjih RaR'b hh- 
caJiH BTi TO BpeiiHRjracca rpHAop OBaJiBHaro)npo$eccopi 
mMHAi* H8X BepjiHHa H Teftxepi, a TaRace RoRopsHOBi (npocj^- 
copi apxHTORTypu), ROTopufi BCRop'b 6ujrh CKbJthWb AHpeRTopoici 
ARaieHlH BMicTO OTRasaBmarocA otb CBoeft aojikhocth RoncTaH- 
TBHOBa, sairlcTHBniaro co6ok) nepsaro A^ipoRTopa ARaAoiiiH rhash 
XoBBHCRaro '). ^Ba Jiy^nraxiH cnocoeaiftmnxi yqoHHRa: JIoceHRO 
H BaxoHOBi 6UJIH, Bi» 1760 roAy, oinpaBJiesH yse sa rpanHoy 
jiflsi ycoBepmeHCTBOBanlH. noApoCnaro ycTasa hjih noJio^eniA ARa< 
AOmIh en^e ho nirbjia. UlyBajiOBi 3 anpijiH 1762 r. nncanx II]|ep- 



*) M^moires pour servir k Y histoire de T Academie Imperiale des beaux 
arts de St. Petersbourg, noMtmeno y neipoBa, h. I, cxp. 2—8 

■) IIeTpoBi--»MaTepiaaBi** cip. 21 h cjtA.; ,t4jo Apxnsa Asax- Xyn- 
1761 r. J^ 11, 1762, J^ 27. 

■) A*jo ApxHBa AKaj. Xy^. 1762, J^& 20. 



— 305 — 

CaroBy ^) h KoROpBHoey ^) «aji)i npHBexeuiH AKaAeMm b'b jiyqmifi 
^opBAOR^, AOKyAa perjiaMeHTi» cohbhohi h Bcnpo6ofiaH'L 6yAerB, 
HSBOJiBTe Bi ARaAOMiH 3 p a 3 a bi HeA^Jiio HMixb o6a saciA^mfl 
H BcbTb RacaioiuHxcfl AO Hoero pimeHia A'i^Jiax'B noAasaTB Mni 
AOHomeHifl ht.a*» OrbtssaH b^ MocRBy HaRoponaiuK), IIIyBajioBi 
1762 r. ceHT. 7 A^jvh opAepi KoRopHHOBy, Roxopuiii, noATBep- 
TKjusLB^ npejRAe AaHHue, npeAn0CUBaj[i> cjiiAyion^ee, HMeHHo: l)8a 
rJTOBHoe noHHTaeiCH a^jio, lOHoniecTBy BRopeHflTb seaHie o B o s t 
H wb AOJURHOM'B Kb HoMy noBHHOBeHiH, BeJiBHecTB% Efo h t. n.; 
AJiJi Toro npHRadaTB bi cy66oTHift ACHb TOJiROBais ajih yneHBROBi 
KaTOXHSflCB, cucRaiB cnocofinaro ^ejiOB^RaBJiB Jiyqme yroBopETBCH 
CB RaAexcRBMB lepoHOHaxaMB; 2) npeA'B yneHieMi Ra^A^ifl a^hb 
cofiflpaTB yneHBROBi bi sajix h sacxaBJiBTb oahofo HBTaxB hojibxbu; 
Bcbwb yHeHHRaui no BocRpecHUMi, npasABBHHBiM'B H xopjRecxBen- 

HHMl AHAITB XOAHXB B^ I](epROBB K'b OCtAHib B eil^e nOXBaJIBHte R'B 

sayxpeHB; 3) Kb xopomeny mx'b BOCUBxaHiio sa HaBJiyHmifi cnocoGi 
yciiaxpBBaexca, npio6y^axB bxi kb 6jiaroHecxiH), ox^ Roxoparo 
Bospacxaexi Ao6puft Hpasi, ^ecxHue nocxyiiRB b MHOrifl jspyria^ 
R^ djiarococxoflHiK) qeJioB'lqecxBa nojiesHua Ra^ecxsa. 4) IIoJiHoe 
HHCJio yneBHROBi npB ARaAenlB na RaseHHOMB coAepacaHia 40 qejio-- 
B^Ri, Aa Ha AB^HaAAaxB py6jieBoin> ORJiaA'^ — 30, a na cboomi 
coAepsamB, ecjiE rxo no^ejiaexi o6yHaxBCJ], ao3bojibxb BCARony, 
Rpoirib RpinocxHHxi JiioAefl*). HoJiyqaeMyK) cyMscy RaRi 
vb coxpaneEdB OHoft xaR^ b bi co6jiK>A6HiH BecBMa aojixho 
cxapaxBCA Ha6jiiOAaxB, ^To6hl nop^AOHHO pacxoA'B b npHX0Ai» 
BOAeHi; coAepjKaHiB bb ?bcxox% AOMa, npeAOcxopo»HocxB oxi 
noxapa b x. a. 

npocBin^eHHBift Rypaxopi) aaCoxBJica o cocxasjieHiB perjiaMenxa 
ARaAOMiE B vb naiajii 1761 r. xaKOBofi Cbijii npeACxaBJieFB 
BM^ HttnepaxpHi^'b EjiBsaBexi. IIo axony npodKxy lUyBajioBa ARa- 
Aeida AOJiKHa 6HJ[a cocxohxb bsi npesBAeHia, ABpenxopa, coB'bx- 
HBROB'B B ceRpexapB, 5-xB npo^eccopoB'L, 6-xB aRaAeMBROB^ b 
8'HB aABiOHRxoBi B copoRa yqeHHROBB^ HaxoA^n^HxcH Ha RaseH- 



*) KHJi3B II];ep6aT0BB HbEHB neXpOBH^B, HaABOpHUd COBiTBHKB, 6uZ'b 

dBsesyxopoMB BoeaHofi KojjeriB, ho bi 1761 r. bb ^bl^ iitcAi;^ 6eijib nepe* 
HMeHOBaHB BB HOAnojEOBEHKH H BasoaHeHB sasiAUBaxB RasHaieficKOEQ Hac- 
tId BB AsaAeMin XyxosecxBi.— Bi AeRa5p'b M'^CAi^t 1763 roj^a ohb no npo- 
mcHii) 6aiB yBOJeni b'b oTCTaBKy U'^jo ApxHBa ARa^. Xy^. 1763 J^ 37). 

•) UexpoBa— MaxepiaJU, cip. 65 h cjitji. 

») fi.'bio ApxHBa AKaA. Xy^. 1762 r. JNe 29; UeTpoBi— MaxepiaiH, crp 
73 H CJrtA. 

B. H. EBI^KOfi. 20 



— 306 — 

HOMi coAepacaaiH. RpoM% Toro nps AKaAeMiH 6lijih hjiohu 
noieTHHO, E8i» sHaTHfincB oco6i, H BOJibHue yieHHKH. IIpesH- 
AeHTy, RERi) rjiasHoe CMOTpieie naA'b aBaAeMieio HU'i^ioii^eMy, ocra- 
BJifleTCfl npHHHBiaTb npo^eccopoBi h npouxi ynHTejieft, npenopy- 
laeTCfl CA^^JiaTB pacnojiOKeHie yneiilji h sasAOMy bi AKaAeifiB. 
npeAnncaib aojukhoctb. AapeRTopy, coe^THHRy, coRpeiapio 6utb 
noA'B KOMaHAOK) npesHAeHia; bi He6uTH0CTb ero rjiaBsoe npaBje* 
Hie BMi^erB AHpeRTopi. IIpesHAeHrB, AHpeKTop'by npo^eccopu hm^^- 
jQTb Bificri npHcyxcTBOBaTb h pascyacAaiB o Jiy^rnHxi aKaAOMH- 
HecRHxi ycQ^xax^, laRxe nponsBOAHib dRsaiieHU, pasAasaxb Me- 
Aajin sojiOTH^ H cepe6pHHUfl, HarpaxAaTb mnaraifii h t. a-, CMorpa 
no AOCTOHHCTBy. ny6jiHHH0My aRsaveny 6uTb 2 pasa: 29iK)HJi 
T. e. Ha Apyrofl A^Hb BocmecTBia Ha npecroirb Eh BejiBqecTea, h 
25 H0H6pfl, HaApyroft Aenb HBieHSHi Er BesHqecTBa ^). ^osbojia- 
jiocb HBi OHofi ARaAOMiH nocujiaTb b^l njme Rpan h3i> HaI^Bx^ 
noAA^kHHUXi no mecTH qejioaiR^, rtxi, roh otjihhho ORasajiH ceGn 
ycH'ibxaiui h npnaiescHocxiK), nnepes'b neiupe roAa nepeift- 
HiiTb; a no BOsBpan^eniH hxi onpeA'feJiHTb bI) ARaAeniH). Ecjih nyxAa 
noTpeCyerb — 6uTb hmi 4 roAa, a noioifb Aaexca airb BOJianpo- 
AOJiHtaxb cjiy3K6y no CBoeny Hsoep-fexeHiio, ta* rxo saxonexi* c (ex. 
73 — 74) ». 9x0X1 njian^ perjianeHxa ARaAeniH OAHaRo ocxajioa 
HeyxBep}RAeHHfJ[M^ ^). 

HMnepaxpnua ERaxepHHa II o6paxBJia BHHicaHie na yjiy^menie 
ARaAeidH XyAO^ecxBi h oxA'i^JiHJia ee orb MocROBCRaro yHHBep- 
CHxexa '). 

2-roMapxa 1763 roAa nocjiftAOBajii yRasiGeHaxa^jrocnoAHHy 



') HejibSii He 3aMiTHT&, hto bi OTeqecTaeHHHx'b sanHcsaxi 188$ r., Toifb 

102, OTA. U, CTp. 44 B^BTO A* P- (BipOflTHO AXHTpift POBUHCSifi) nblftCTHX'B 

CTaxbiD o6t> AsaAeifiH XyAoasecTBi, bi EOTopofi roBopHTi> o caiiuxi nepBuxi 
AHAxi ea cyiuecTBOBaHiA npa AsaAeMiH HayRi bi neTep(iypri, a BariMi 
n caHOCToxxeibHoft ea shshh no ycxasy 4 hoji6 1764 r., npn neH'b OAaaBo 
HUA Bei^Karo hh pasy ee ynoHflayTO, cjobbo oh-l se HMij'B HHRasoro otbo- 
meaifl bi diofi AKaAeuiH. 

X^hjio ApxHsa AKaA. XyAOsecTBi 1763 r. J\& 10; TaKse ApxHBii Upas. 
CeHaxa KHHia Bucoh. ysasosb b-l Kooiflxb npeACTasi. J^ 183 cxp. 163. IleTpoBi— 
MaTepiaju AJfl ucTopiH Aiuia. XyA-, CTp. 73, 635. 

*) OnHcaHie C -lTeTep6ypra— Ily niKapeBa 1841 r., ^, II, cxp. 215. Cm. 
ApxHB^ IIpaB. CeH. Buc. yKaau sHHra J4 105. cxp. 195 h 1-e noj. Go6p. 3aK. 
J^ 11766. 

*) LDyBaAOBi npocHj'^ 9 oktji^pa 1762 roAa paspiniHTL eHy no 6oji'fe3HH 
'fexaTL sa rpaHHa]r c% coxpaBenieM'b noiynaeMaro hmi saJoaaBbfl no ysHBep- 
cHxexy u AKaAeMin XyAOsecxBb no ABt thcahh py6. HiinepaTpHua EKaxe- 
pHHa II Hanecaja CA±tJ¥:)iajio pe^omnm: QoceHy npomeniK) yBaibBan 
dbxaxB H8i PocciH na cxoibRO speMeHH, ckojbbo noTpe6HO 5yAexi ijlr aocth- 
aenifl vh Bamuxi naMipeHUix'B ycnixoBi, ci xaiOBaHEeM'B, noiynaeaiiiHi 



— 307 — 

reeepajiy-nopyHBRy SeqROMy, hto Ea Hii, BeJi., bi OTcyiCTBiH tq- 
Hepajii-nopyiHRa UlyBajiOBa ^), noBejri^a dphhatb bi npaBjieeie 
C.-UerepSypri Ana AeMiio XyAosecTBi, KOTopaa bi> KopoTRoe Bpena 
ORasaJia aobojibho ycnixoBi eny, r. reHopaJii-nopyHHRy (t. e. 
BoAKOMy), H RaR^ oeaa ARaAeMia cooCn^eaa Gujia ydHBepcHTexy, 
no npHqHHi mo ynoMaHyraft IIIyBajiOB'B wh oGinx'B cbxi M'&CTaxi 
AHpeRaiH) HHiJi'B, TO Ea HBinepaiopcRoe BejiHHecTBO sa noaesHoe 
pascyABJia onyio ARaAeMiio coBci^Arb orb yHBBepcBTeTa OTAiasib, 
ynpaaaeHie oco6aflB06 bi nefl ynpeABTb b nojiynaeMoe na coAop- 
3K.\Bie OHoft ABaAi^aTb Tucani py6ae& BS'b TaMOJReHH£ix'bc6opoBi b 
mecTb TucaH'b bbi CTaTCb-ROHTopu npaHo bi> osyio ARaAOiciio 
OToycRaTb ^). BeaROfi, BCTyaBBi* B-b ynpaBaeaie ARaAeMieio ^), 
npe»Ae Bcero peROMeHAOBajrb KoRopsHOBy Buixb HeocJia6Hoe 
CMOTpiHie no acoMy aRS^eMflqecROMy Ropnycy, bi csay ape«Ae 
AaHHuxi eicy oi^ Rypaiopa H. IL niyaajiOBa opAepoai 
H BHCTpyRnifl, yBlAOMJiaTb ero ejReneA^bHO o cocToaniB aRaAeniB 
H npoACiaBjiaTb eiiy, ecaB bi, homi nyacAa Tpe6oBaTb 6yA6rb, Kh 
noabst B DpBpameniK) ycn'l^xoBi aRaAOMiB, b ^o bmi (KoRopBHO- 
BHiTb) H upo^eccopaMB Kb ayHDieMy ycMoipiHO SyAerb (MapT^ 



1131 yHHBepcuTeTa n AKaAOiiiH XyxozecTBi no XB'b Tuca^n p. Biroxi. (Cm. 
Ap. UpaB. Cee. h KHHra Buc yRas. As 102, crp. 261). 

*) H3b A'fejia apxHsa AKaAeuiu Xyi. 1763 r. J^ 35 BnAoo, ^to b'b CHJiy 
jRaaa GenaTa BeuBoft 15 0KTa6pfl 1763 r. jiai^ KoRopnaoBy npeAJOxenie 
np0H3B0AnTb reHepajy-nopyiHRy h Rasajiepy HaaHyHB. nXyBajiOBy hs'b Moc- 
KOBCKaro yflHBepcHTeTa n ARaAeaiH XyAoseciBi no xai TUcaHn py6jieft 
Bi roAi. 

Sativb Hsi Aiia npesHaeeTa ARaAenia 1780 r. J\& a5BHAH0 ^eto no bo8- 
HnRiueMy Bb 1780 r. Bonpocy uoYeny IIlvBajOBb ooiy^aoTi jieHBrH nsb ARa- 
AeifiB BeuRoft nncaji, hto aa npomeaie lIIyBaJiORa o5b yBoibaeain ero na 
HisoTopoe BpeMH BOflsnpoBaTb bi HBOCTpaHHUXb rocyAapcTBazi HainepaT- 
puua 9 ORT. 1762 r. co6cTBeHBopyHHo HanncaJia „no ceHy npomeeiK), jbojb- 
HAK) OTxizaTb n3b Poccin, na ctoj^ro BpeMean crojibro noTpe6Ho oyAerii 
Aia AOCTHSeHifl btb ero naMtpoBinzii ycntxoBi, cl »ajOBaHbeMi> uojyqaeHOMb 
B8% yHHBcpcHxeTa n ARa^eniH Xy^ox. no ab^ Tucaqn py6. bb royb". 

Caul se BeuRofi, RaRi bbaho nai (Ai^Ja Apx. ARa^. 1771 r. J^ 1) oixtTRH 
vb cnncRt jiuii'E, rohmb citAyeTb jsaJOBaabe, aojoaReaHaro saajo- 
BaBba 2000 p.— oeua 6paTBoe u3bojiht'b**. 

•) UerpoBB— MaxepiajH ctd. 80 n cj4a- 

^) 3airtTUHi, ^To yxe noaABie, uMeHHO 13 AeRa6pA 1764 roAa, nocJitAOBajB 
yaasb Ea BeinqecTsa IIpaBHTCJiBCTByiOQieMy GenaTy o tomb, ito no hobo- 
ynpesAOHBOMy nuat Bb ARaAOMin XyAOsecTBb perjiaMOHTy EftHMnepaTop- 
cRoe BeiaqecTBO noBejtBaerB 6utb b'b aeft npeaHACHTy reaepaiy-nopy^HRy 
BeuROMy AOROit ne BosBpaTHTca Bb oreqecTBo reaepaJiB-nopyqnRi MBanb 
lUyBaiOBb, a noaexe ohb, BeuRoft, o6a3aHb otb £r kanepaTopcKaro BeiH- 
qecTBa MHornMH ApyruMH A'^iaMn, to bb noMoruB eMyonpoA'biaercaEHilHne- 
paTopcaaro BejnqeciBa B'B £anuejapin ot'b Crpoeaifl cenaTopB n TaftnuS 
coBiTHORi RHasB Uexp'B Tpy6eiiso3. — Gm. Apxhb'b Mop. Mbh. yRaaii Upa- 
BHT. CeeaTa ->& 35, ota. II, J^ 872, cTp. 9. 



— 308 — 

1763 roAa). 3a tImi Bemcofl npeA^oxHJi'b nosaOoTHTbCA, xaGu Ana- 
Aeiiifl Morjia sim'^tb yAoCnoe noMin^eeie, h CAi^JiaTB njiaH^ SAaeia. 
Csopo, HMeHHO 30 iiOHfl, HasHa^eHO 6ujio nyfijiHiHoe co6paHie 
AJifl pascMOTptniH rpyAOBi ynpaxHflioii^HXCH vb ARaAeidH, x^a 
<iero npHrjiamajiECB rocnoAa jiK)6HTejiH zyAoacecTBi; bx npoxoJi- 
^eaiH ceifH AHeft on 9 nacoBi yrpa ffi 9 ^. Beiepa ARaAeida 6iiJ[a 
oTBopena a^a nyfijiiiRH. TyrB se HaseaHeHii 6uJin saAaiH bi 
K0MiK>8HiuJix'B A^fl npeACTaBjiema nyCjiHKi ri cji^Ayion^eMy rene- 
pajibHOMy aRsaMeny ^). 

RoRopHHOBi ISirapTa 1763 r., npeACTEBJuia Be^ROMy npn 
panopri cnHCOR'b hhhob'b, HaxoAaii](irxcA npa ARaAOMiH, ch noKa- 
sanieMi, RBRaa cyima pacxoAyexca hui Ha aRajiOBHBe, a TaRse Ha 
coAepmaHie ARBAeMiH, AORnaAHBajrB, hto Heo6xoABM£iJi Aenbra ne 
OTnycRaioTCfl hsi ROMMepi^i ROJuieiiH 6e8'b pacnopxseHifl o loirb 
Bei^Raro. BBclcrt ci liirb Korophhobi yRasuBajn* na HeAOcraTO^- 
HOCTB aRaAOMH^ecRaro noirimeHifl, hoaobojibho nopaAOHHoe ero 
pacnoJiojReHle, h npocHjrb yAocroHTb BHHifaHieirb cie nojiesHoe 
yHpe»A©Hie *). 

Ha 8T0 Bei^ROft OTB^^ajTB: IIpHCJiaHHutt otl Baci panopn on 
18 MapTa H npHjio:ReHHuft npn OEOWb renepajiBHbift chhcori aRa- 
AeMHHecRHX'B HHHOBi MHOH) nojiyHBH'B, BSTi ROToparo yCHOTpeHO, 
^TO ARaAOMk AJiH CBoero coAepaiaHia najiHHHuxi AeaerB ne 
HM^eTB sa HeoTnycROiTB bb-b ROMMepi^i-ROJuierlH npBHaAJte^aD:^eft 
Bi ARaAeiiiK) XyAo^ecTBi cyifMU '), r A^a Toro bsbojihto h3i> 
onpeA^JieHHHxi A-na coAepjRaHia ARaAOMiH an ROMMepi^>-ROJiJieriH 
AenerB npBHaiB sa reHBapB h (fiespaJiB h MaprB nicai^; o hbitb 
wh OHyH) ROJiJieriio h npoHeHopia npH ceirB otb Mena nocjiana. 

AOMi sue, KaKi HaHrjiaBHOMi a^'6, none^eaie jipuxEO hm%tb, 
Aa6u ARaABMla Horjia nojiBsoBaiBca RaRi yAo6HOCTiH) xoro Aona 
pacnoJiOKeHia, xaRi h cnoco6HOCTiK) Kb noMin^eHiH Bcero Toro 
Ropnyca *). 

Bei^ROft A'i^&CTBHTeJiBHO HcxoAaTaftCTBOBaji'B y HHnepaTpHi^u 
ERarepBEH II yKSSi otb 30 cenraGpa o toitb, hto6h RaMeHHBifi 
AOiTB, cocToamifi aa BacHjiBeBCROM^ ocipoBt ^), ai KOiopoM^ co- 



*) noTpoB'B— MaTepiaiBi cxp 83. 

') Cm. Ahio ApzHBa 1763 r. As 9. 

^) Hai Atia AiUiAeMiH 1763 r. J\& 7 bhaho, ^to ua coAepsaaie AsaxeHiH 
XjAOxecTBx OTnycKaiocb AecATb THCAq'b py(5ie8 hsi EOUHCciH o TaMosHaxi. 

*) Cm. fifkio ApxHBa 1764 roxa, JV« 2. 

^) Ha yrjiy 5 u 4 joBiH h BadepesHofi aaxoAUJiCfl cTapsft BpaiuciaB- 
CKin ABopi; OH-B AOcxaicA HSB iiuiHifl KHB3A BacHjifl JlyKiiqa AoJiropyKOBa 



— 309 — 

AepaumacB aAMEpajireflCKafl anTd&a (a upeacAe 6ujia MopcKan AKa- 
jsfiuiH H HHrt Euieicn THoorpa^ifl), dujii oxAaHi bi BiAOMCiBO 
AicaAeiiiH XyAOsecTBi, h Ha aroMi iftcri crajiH BOSABHraTb sAanie 
HUH^kmeeft ARaAeMie XyAOsecTBi. 

]ifiR aaBi^AUBania nocTpoftKoft o6padOBajiacb opn AKaAeniH 
XyAoacecTBii oco6aH BKcneAimiH ^), a Ha pacxoA^ no nocipofiKi 
sAaaifl AOKjraAOMi Bei^Raro 7 napTa 1764 r. HcnpamHBaJnocB ri 
ornycRy no copoRi Tucaqi py6jieft bi roA^, bi le^eHie neiupex'B 
jrbvb ^). Ho ERaTepHHa II noBea^a oinycTHTb bi leRyn^eM'B 
(1764) roAy lepesi 3 ntcaim no 10 t. py6. hsi Ra6HHeTHHX% 
cyMM^, a ocTajibHue roAa KaRi HcnpamBBaJi'b BeARofi. Ha diowh 
ocHOBaHiH Bei^ROft nncajii RoRopHHOBy ^). 

«H3B'6cTHo Bameify BucoRoOjiaropoAiK), hto na noAaHHufi orb 
BioH^ AORJiaAii, ROH^Hpicaiueio Ea HMnep. BejinqecxBa boji^^ho aji^ 
CTpoeHlfl aRaAOMEHecKaro AOMa, no anpo6oBaHHOMy njiany, RaRix 
cyMMy Bi HOTbipe roAa no copoRy tuch<ii py6jiefl nojiy^aib hsi* Ra- 
CHHeTHOfi cyMMU, laRi MaTepiajibT Tpe6oBaTb no RasenHuifb i^- 
HaMii H npoT^ee hto npHHaAJiencnn ao RacaioniHXCA ri TOiiy no- 
Tpe6H0CTefi nojiyqaib. ARig^oMia XyAoatecTBi noBOJi'i^e npesi Ty xe 
Bumeo6i>flBJieHHyK) Eh BeJinqecTBaROH^EpMai^iK) yse sMterb, h jiah 
Toro Bi CHJiy Toro HSBOJiETe, Bame BucoRo6jiaropoAie, ynpoAA npn- 
CTOfiHuft nopflAORi, dRcnoAEi^lH npHCiynBTb r'b saroioBJieHiK) na- 
AoOhuxi noTpeGHOCTeft. B-b Bame ^e Bcnoiio^enie h TOiiy npoHs- 

BOACTBy H R'b Ofin^OMy HaAl> BCbMl OHUlTb HaA3BpaHiK) EST) HBAexc- 

Huxii jiiOAefl onpoAi^jieHu 6yAyrb. 

H. BeitRofl. 
Mapia 18 aha 1764 r. KoROpEHOBy. 



no BMeHBOny yicasy 1733 r. aBCTpiftcBOMy nooiaHHHBy BpaTncjaay JIo5ko- 
BBiiy. OcTaBJAfl Poccis), JIo^KOBHii'b nopy^aii apxHTesTopy TpesoHy ynpa- 
BiflTb AOMOH'L, a ecjiH EoxBO H upoAaTb. Tpesnui H npoAaJi aomi Byimy 
MumeiK), a cefi nocitAHift nepenpoxaj'b oeuft AKaAeMin XyAOsecTSi. Pa- 
AOMi ci 3TUMI AOMOMi saxoAHJicA FoiOBEHCaift AOMi, TaKze sanflTuft Asa- 
ACMieio. no CMiT* KoKopHHOBa Bi 1761 roAy npoHSBOAniHCb nepeA*iKH ii 
HCopaBjeaia bi o6ohxi> aombxi. (QeTpoBi, h. I. 2 cip. 737; k^xo ABaAenia 
XyAOxecTBi J^ 54 oti 1764 roAa). 

Cm. a. ApxHBa 1764 r. J^ 2. 

') BeAKofi Hcqncjjiii aa CTpoeHie sianifl AsaABMiH XyAosecTBi cysmy 
Bb 160 T. py5..» KOTopue orojcsaiHCb 6u b% ^erupe lOAa, noiaraa bi 
KaacAufi no copoaa Tucnqb pyo., h npocBJii> o6b oTaycst usb BOOHHoft ko- 
MaflAu o6epi h yHiep'boituiiepoB'B h coiAaTi, a Taase o6b yqpesAeBiu oco- 
6ofi dKcaoAHAiH AAA saBiAUBauifl aocxpoBKOio. (Cm. Apxaa. IIpaB. Cenara 
KHHra Bacoq. noBejtu., bi Koniaxi npeACTaai. }& 185 crp. 398 r.). 

») Cm a. Ap. 1764 r. J^ 2. 



— 310 — 

He MHoro nos^Hte 27 Iiojia 1764 r. BeuKOft flMi npejiJioace- 
Hie Hmd. AisAjsfimE XyAOxecTBi bi aRcneAHi^iK) cTpoenift ^). 

^KaRi OHoe sHaTHoe CTpoeeie 6yAeTi> npoH8BOAiiTi»CH eejiRKHH'b 
SAameiTB, to BcerAaniHeMy Jiyqmeiiy CMorpimK) n noKasaHiio Chtb 
AOJijRHO, ab6u hh Majiiflmeft HeHcnpaBHOCTH ynymeeo 6utb He mofjio. 
Cero pa^H peROMeHAyio bi tomb npBJieacnoe CMOTpinie uMiTB AJia 
Bflmraaro nopa^Ry h ycirtxy rocnoAauB HaABopnoMy coBtTHHRy h 
apxHTeRTopy KoRopHHOBy h rocnoAHHy npo$eccopy h apxHieRTopy 
Ae Jia-MoTy BcaRyio HeA^Jiio co6BpaTBCa wb aRcneAHAiio, esejiH 
RorAa sarlMi* lan^e ne HoacHO, to wb hoa^k) HeoTiciHHO no 
ABaacABT, npH ^eMB 6htb rocnoABHy coRyHAB-Maiopy GajiTUROBy 
H o6me BceiiB Racaion^eMCA ao npoHSBeAeHia cero CTpoenia pas- 
cyiRAaTB H noTOMy bi A'^AcTBie npoHsaoAHTB; RorAa see jih6o bb 
HeifB necorjiacHH 6yAyTB bb TaRoiTB cjiyqa*]^ TpeCoaaTB pesojiioiufl 
OTB MeHa». 

HaaHi) Bemcofl. Iiojifl 27 jxflB, 1764 roAa. 

OAHOBpeMeHHO CB sAanieifB ARaAeniH cTanH coopyiRaTB s i^ep- 
ROBB aRaAeMHHecRyK). ^Jia OTnpaBJiemH RaRi cjiiys6u h nponoB'iAH 
CJiOBa BojkIh, TaKi h ji^r TOJiRoaaHia ofiynaioiiteuycfl lonomecTBy 
BB Rjiaccaxi npaBEJii BoscecTBOHHaro saROHa noBeJi^HO 6uTb 
OAHOMy y^eHOMy iepoMOHaxy, iepoAiaROHy h Tpeni ^epROBHHRaM^. 
Bi iiepROBB oTnyntena noxoAnaa AepROBB, OuBinaa bx IIpycciH bb 
ropoA'i^ IlHJiaBb, co Bceio npHHaAJiescan^eio R'b Heft yrsapBio ^). 

TopscecTBeHHaa saRJiaARa aAaeifl npoHCxoAHJia 28 iiOHfl 1765 r. 
Bi AGBB HHaBrypaKiH ARaAemn, o iomb cRasano 6yAerB Hi- 
CROJiBRO nossce, a TenepB, ^toCb ho npepuBaTB BSJioaeeHia, coo6- 
mjiwbj HTO nocTpofiRa SAaHia saTAHyjiacB npeHMyn^ecTBenHO no AsyHB 
npBHHHaMi. Bo nepBuxii— no necBoeBpeMeHHOMy OTQycRy AenerB 
Ha nocTpofiKy, BCJiiACTBie Heo6xoAEiMOCTH pacxoAOBaTB bxb na 
BoeHHUH HaAo6HOCTH Toro BpeiieHH; 9to BfiiHysAaJio IIpaBJieHie 
ARaAeMiH saHMCTBOBaTB HS'B ApyrHxi cyMiTB AeHbrH na nocTpofiRy 
Heo6xoAHMHa. Bo BTopHxi — noTOBiy ^to Ha nocTpoftRy sAania 
Tpe6oBaJiocB HecpaBHOHHO SbjiBmaa cynMa npoTHBi nepBonaqajiBHO 

HCIHCJieHHOfi CMiTU. 



Cm a. Ap. 1764 r. N 2. 

') C6opHnK'b MarepiaJOBB aja HCxopiH AKaj^eniu XyxoxecTBi— UeTpoBB 
CTp. 99.Hej[E3Ji He sauiTHTip, HTOMHoroenpuBo;(H]foe r. QeTpoBUMB bb ero xpyj^t 
B8i apxBBHuxB x^JB AsaAeiiiH xyAOsecTBi. ne none 6iiItb npoBipeHO, no 
Beuaxosxeniio 6ojie ysadUBaeMUXB nM-B AORyucHTOBi bi apxHBi AsaiteifiH 
XyAOsecTBx. 



— 311 — 

TaRi> Mu BHAHiTB, HTO Boipcoft y»e B-B ^espairb 1767 rosa 
nHcaJii CoB^Ty ARaAeiiiH: 

PascyjRAafl^^To ro CTpoeniio AsaAeHin no aKcaeAHuin naxepia- 
jiOBTi MHoxecTBeHHoe HHCJio saroTOBJieuo h RaMeHI^HRs ossg^aqeHu ^), 
Toro paAH sa HaAoOnoe aaxoxy npoACTaBHiB, ne HSBOJiBTe jih laRi 
pacnoJioxHTb, Aa^u nuHimHiiro roAa cipoeHie npoBSBOAHib, a bi 
6yAyii^ift — ocTaBHTb, paAH pacnjiaTia saCpaHHuxi ea CTpoenie hs'b 
aKBAeMHiecRoB miaTHoft cyififtu AOHerB. nojiesHOCTb npoHso&AeT'B 
H Ta, HTO HaftMy coAepsanifl aojifob-b h ipaiu naTepiaJiOBi BnpeAB 

OTB TOrO CKOpO MHHeTCJI ^). 

Bi» 1776 r. BeiQcoft AORJiaAUBajHiHTO no ARaAemH xyAoacecTBi 
HOAOROHqeHO pasHuxi nocTpooRi aa HeHM%HieMi Aeneri, o qoMi 
owb AOHOCHJTB einfi wb 1771 roAy, ho A^Herb oinymeHO ho 6ujio, 
noqeMy Bci nocTpoBRH ociaHOBHjiHCb h aio ORasuBaeii BpeAHoe 
Bjd^Hie Ha Bce SAame, Roiopoe nopiHTca h orb BcerAaniHJiro le- 
^OHiA BOAU pasBHBaeTCfl cbipocTb, rHHJiocTb H T. A. %o6bi npoABa- 
pHTb noAo6Hoe sjio, Bei^coft npocHJii oxnycRaTb ea ocTajibHyio 
^eTBepiyK) ^acib sAanifl no a^chth Tucjiqi bi mIcaai bi> lOHeHie 
xpexi Jiirb '). HHi^eTca OTiiiiKa Aan. yRaa. CenaTy 8 ^enp. 1776 r. 
(h31 6yMarb xpanfln^HXCii vh apxHBi OnoRyH. GoB^Ta }& 57 — 8, 
jiHT. 6. AORJiaAiii Bei^Raro h hsi p^jib apxHBa ARaAOMiH XyAO- 

JKeCTBl, 8). 

3a itM-b CoBibrb npoACiaBJiflJii BeAKOMy wh renBap'i 1777 r. 
saTpyAHeniflx-b, nocJi^AOBaBniHxi orb nocTOflHHUX'b ci 1771 no 
1777 roA'b ocTaHOBORi cTpoenla aRaAOMHHecRHX'b SAaaifi h o tomb, 
HTO <npH neHSB^CTHOCTH nojiyqeHin AOCiajibHOft cyiiMU, nysHOft 
Ha AOCTpofiRy, necb, no cie BpeiiH Ha cie sAanie nojioneHHuft Ra- 
nHTajii noABepseHi CyAerb HBBOfi onacHociHD. CoB'irb npocHJH 
Bemcaro HcxoAaTaftciBosaTb AOCxaJibHyio cyMMy, neodxoAHMyio ji^Jisi 
OROH^aniA nocipooRi. 

Bei^ROft RaRTi BHAHO HeOAHORpaiHO AORJiaAHBaJIl 061 dT0Ml> 

HMnepaTpHi](i, BCJi'^ACTBie nero nocniAOBajiH eny yRasu: 

8 $eBpajia 1776 r. 061 oniycR* ci 1 ansapa ao HCTeneHia 
roAa K&stijsfiit irlcfli^'b no hath iiAcan'b py6. bi pacnopn^eHie Beur 
Raro na AOBepmenie SAaaia ARaAeuiH xyAoacecxBi, npoHSBOACiBOM'b 
ocTanoBJieHHaro bi 1771 roAy — (cm. Apx. IlpaB. Cenaia, Rnary 
Buc. yRas. J6 139 cip. 74). 



') T.-e. noiy^HJH Bnepej^i saj^aTOHHiiH abeitb^ 
■ Cm. xhio ApxHBa 1767 r. J^& 3. 

apHioseeie J^ 1 AOiuaAi fieoRaro 1776 ro^a. 



MCm. 



— 312 — 

ISMaa 1777 r. odiomycKt BiHUHtmHemroAy enceiiicH^HO 
no AecflTH THCHqi* py6jie&, BUAaeafl eny noJiOBHHy 8A%Cb {wh Ileiep- 
6yprt), a Apyryio bt> Mocrb% ^). 

IIo CHii^ Ha HpesBuiafiHue pacxoAu Ha 1778 r. 6wio iieacAy 
npoiEiCB HadHaieHO HacTpoenie ARaieiciH xyAOJEecTBi noo6iuiCHe- 
HiH) A. T. c. BeijKHMi — HiecTbAecarB Tucani py6. (Cm. c6op. Hm. 
Pyc. HcTop. 06mecTBa t. XXVIII, cip. 226. 

25 ^OBpaJiH 1779 ro^a — o6i oiaycRt s^tcB na cipoeme 
ARaAeMiH xyAOxecTBi ipoAi^aTb TucBTh py6. HsiiAdHerB, otjiosoh- 
Huxi Ha HpesBuqaflHue pacxoABi ^). 

no AORJiaAy BeaEcaro o6i>oTQycKi ajia AOBepmema sAamn Asa- 
ABmIh XyAoacecTBi* en^e 120,000 py6. (aoJiarafl 10 t. B^bufbcR^h). 
8 AeRa6pfl 1779 roAa nocji'^AOBajii Buco^afimift yRasi 20 Maa 
1780 r.: h3i> cyMBCi, oTJiaraoMuxi na dRCTpaopAHHapnue pacxoAu, 
OTnycTHTB ABaAii(aTb thcahi A6BaTbC0Ti> ABBAHOCTO HBTtipe py6jia 
6Va RonieRT. *). 

Ho H 3T0 6ujio HOAOCTaTOHHO. HsiROHift ciyRasoBi ycMarpH- 
BaeiCA, ^TO no xoAaTaflcTsy BeAKaro6£iJiio eiue OToyn^oHO Hacipoe- 
Hie ARaAOMm no yRasaHi: 

9 HoH6pM 1780 r. xpHAuaTb thchhi py6., sa riwb 31 ao- 
Rafipa Toro «e 1780 r. — en^e mecTbaecflTb tumhi py6jieft, 
AJia npoHSBOACTBa npenopyienHuxi saiii cipooHift, hsi G.-IIeTep- 
6yprcRaro RasHaneflcTBa a^^h octrtohhuxi cyMMi ^). 

Oahbro h 3Toro 6uJio mbjio ^). B-b 1788 roAy CoBirb npeA- 
cTaBJiHJii> BeuKOHy, hto ho xBaTaer^ Aenerb na OROHianie CTpoenia 
ARaAOMiH, a noTOMy npeAnojiaraeTca BsaTb 8aHMOo6pa8HO 5,000 p. 
HSi cyMMu, oinyn^cHHofi na OTJiHBKy FepRyjieca. BeiiROfi HSiaBHJi'b 
na dTO CBoe corjiacie 18 Maa ^). 



*) Cm. Mtio npeanAeaxa AsaAeMia 1777 r. J^& 6. Heo6xoARMO saMtTHTB, 
HTO Bi apxHBt HMDepaTopcKoff ARaxeMiu xyxosecTBi ecT& oco6afl Karero- 
pia AtJi» noA'B BasRaaieMi ^Atja QpeaaxeaTa AsaAeMia'', hi aoTopoft sa- 
RjrK)9aK)TCH x'^ja n OyMara, nocxynaBniifl RiBei^KOMy noBBaeiK) npesuAeBTa 
ARaAeMiH XyAosecTB'L. Jlia apaTKOCTH ahxi ofSoaaa^Hi'b „cm. a. Up. Ak.' 
Atiaa ea iiaxi yKasaiiU. Cm Taase ApxBRi IIpaB. GeBaTa, saary Bucoh. 
yKasoBi. JVj 140 cip. 236. 

'} Ca. A. np. Ak. 1777 r. >& 6. 

«) TaMT. ae. 

*) Cm. Toae a*Jo 1777 r. JV* 6. 

*) Gi 1775 r. no 1778 r. ja CTpoeaie AKaAeiiifl xyAosecTBi (5hto otny- 
meao 229.737 p. 40 a., bo bb'b bhxi» HspacxoAOBaao 6hixo 104.859 py6., a 
ocraBaiBCb en^e sa jhuo 124.878 p. Gi 1762 r. ao 1782 r. oTayn^eao 6ujio acero 
na CTpoeaie sAaaifl Ah-aAeifiB 685.000 py6jefi (cu. a'^JO Ap. 1781 r. J^ 17). 

•) Ga. A*io Ap. 1788 r. J\& 12. 



— 313 — 

Bei^ROiiy OAHaRO He 6ujio cyxAOHO AoeecTH ao nojinaro okoh- 
HafliH npeAnpHHHToe hmi coopyseme sAaeiH ARaAeMiii. 

BcKopib nocjii CMeprn BeiiKaro bi> 1795 roAy CoBirb ARaAeiiiH 
AOuaAUBaJii* 9 AeKa6pfl 1796 roAa HOBOMy npesHAeHTy, qio cyMMU 
Ha nocTpofisy ARSAeitiH ne 6ajm onpeAiJieHM pasi ua scerAa, a 
pasHospeMeHHO, no AOoaAaifi noRoftnaro Bei^Raro ROH<|)EpMOBaH- 
HiiiTbllifnepaTpiiAeioERaTepHHoftll, OTnycRaeiiu 6i2jih HsipasHuxi 
uicTb cyiiMU, Bi> pasHEiH BpeMena cb 1764 — 1782 r. IIo aiOMy 
CTpoeHie ARaAOMin npoAOJiJRajiocB noRa 6ujih Ha sinufl cyMHu; sa 
HenuiHieHi se OHOft 6oJii6 ocTajiHCb neoROHHenHUBftH: BHy- 
xpeHHocTb uepRBE H RyooJii; HeoTmiyRaTypeHH 3 CTopoHU sAamA 
CL napyxH h leTupe ABopHRa h cl Ha6epes(Ho9, bt> BepxHeMi> xhju>1^ 
RoppHAopi, 2 rajiJiepeH, 5 jrbcTnvmb h 2 sajiu, bi Roiopux^ nojiu, 
ne^H, ABepH, nepenjseru, a na xopaxx, napaAHOfi ji'ikcTHHiud h Rpyr- 
jiaro sajia hotojirh He CA'&JiaHH ^). Ha Bci axH pa6oTU, a laRjRe h 
Ha pasjiH^HUfl Apyria nocTpofiRH, yRasaHHUH BBAe-npesHAeHTOMi 
AKaAemB BasenoBUMi bi AORJiaA'6 ero HMoepaxopy IlaBJiy, Cujia 
oxnyn^eHa oco6aH cyiiMa na ocHOBaHin nocjiiAOBaBmaro o TOin» Bu- 
co^aftmaro noBeJi'lHia 27 nan 1799 r. bi» IlaBJiOBCR']^. 

ARaAeniH XyAOxecTB'B, RaRi bhaho hsti oiB'^iaaro AoneceHia 
KoRopHHOBa BenROHy on 10(|)eBpajifl 1764 r., ne HHioia hh yRa- 
30B^^ hh anpo6oBaHHaro niTaia, axojiBRo AanHoe ero npoB. Hb. Ub. 
IIIyBajiOBuirB npH orBisAfl ero b% nyme Rpaa yipeacAOHie, ROTopoe 
HOATBepjRAeHO 6uJio h renepajiOMi Bei^RHHi ^). dra neonpeA^en- 
HocTb noCyAHJia Bei^Raro 08a6oTHTBCH HeneAiieHHO cocxaBjieHieM^ 
ycTana ARaAeMin xyAOsecTBi xpexi sHaTHbfimHX'L xyAoacecTBi: 
XHBOHHCHaro, cRyjiBniypHaro h apxHieRTypHaro, ci BocnETaxeJib- 
BbUTb npH Heft ymnjiBuifiWb. IIpoeKrb HOBaro ycxaBa Birfecrb cb mia- 
TaMH sanoAQHCbK) BeaRaro h CRptaoK) ceRperapa CeMena JlapHna ^), 
6burb mwb opoACTaBJieH'b HMnepaTpBiiii ERaxepHHii II, nepeAaBmeft 
OHbifl HapascMorpi^Hie rhash H. IIIaxoBCRaro, H. IlaHHHa, dpnecia 
MHHHxa, AAaMa B. Ojicy^beea h FpHropiH TenjioBa. OsBaneHHUA 
JiBi](a^ pascMoip'bB'b cocTaBJiOHHuft ycraBi co bcarbmI) TH^anieirb h 



*) Cm. UeTpoBi.— MaTepiajiii CTp. 355. 

») Cm. Alijo Apx. 1764. J« 7 

') Hd'BMHorBxi X'hjk'h AsaAeuin TjAoasecTS'L ycMarpHBaeTCA, ^to coKpe- 
TapoMi y Eei^Karo nepBOHa^ajiBHO Ouib h^sto CeMeHi* JJapuHb, cjy- 
aLHBmiS en^e npn QlyBajiOBi (cm. Ab'o Ap. 1 765 r» J^ 29; 1767 r. Je 12, 14). 
BarbMib Cb 1773 r. OTapaBJiHjrb dry aoisqoctb etsTO MaTsM AieRciesH^i 
HjbHai (BnocitACTBiH noieTBEiS oneKyHi bb MocKB'fe cm. a. Upes 1775 r. 
A* 8),H ToibKO Cb 1778 I. BaHJUb ary aojshoctb Rbasbhh'b. 



— 314 — 

npHJiesHocTiio, namjiH, c^to Bce ao pacnpocTpaHeHiJi xjAOsecTB'b 
wb PoccifiCKOfi HMnepiH, npa Ao6poirB lOHomecTBa BOcnBTEHiH, na- 
caion^eecii h kl eenoKOJieCnMOCTH cero nojieaearo yHpexA^Hiji ea 
6y]iyu^R BpeMeea noTpe6Hoe, H8o6paxeHO BinpoeRrt acHO h ocho- 
BBBO Ba npaBHJiaxi pasyiiHHxi h ocToposRaux'B. IIjioai ceft Asa- 
AeniH 6yAerL hobuA bi OTe^eciBl MOHyiceHrb HCTHHHaro MaTepH^ro 
Eh Hnnep. BeJin^ecTBa o napoA'i^ CBoeirb noneienifl. H rasi ee 
ocTaeTCA Hsaro sejiaib, icaRi Towaro TOMy HcnoJiHeHifl h ycntxi 
HBi Toro, TBepAoynoBaEon, cooTBfetCTBOBaTL 6yAerb HyApouy h no- 
neHBTOJibflouy Ea HBinep. BejinqecTBa npaBjieBiio, ci* KOTopmrb 
BoFB 6jiarocJiOBHJii Ee c^apcTBOBaTb Ha^i PocciflCKBirb napoAOirb 
Ri HecTH, cJiaB% H o6oranieBiK) ero». 

HMQepaTpHi^a 4 H0fl6pfl 1764 r. consBOJiHJia yiBepABTb ycxaBi, 
mraTBi h npBBHJieilH ARaAeidH XyAOxecTsi ^). He mhofo nosAHie, 
21 B0fl6pH, nocJi'lAOBaji'B yRasioSx OToycRb ARaAGMiB xyAOJRecTB-B 
no iDTaTy HeMOAJieHHO 10 t. py6. hsi HMiion^BxcH AeHen»; ociajiB- 
EUR ace OTnycTBTb bsi KaHMepi KOJiJieriH bsi HOBonojiojReHHurb 
no yRasaHi) 1750 h 1756 roAOBi na bbho Aenen ^). 13-ro se 
^eKaCpfl 1764 r. EKaTepana noBeji'&iia 6htb npesBAeHTou^ no 
BOBoynpe^AOHHOMy HfiiH% Bi AKaAOMin XyAoacecTBi perjiaHeniy 
BameMy reaepajix nopy^BRy Bei^ROMy AOROJii BOSBpaTSTBCfl bi* 
orenecTBO renepajTb nopyneRi Hb. UlyBajiOBa^). 

HsAaHBue bi 1764 r. ycTBBu h npBBBJieriB ARaAeHiH tjibb* 
BiftmBBfb oCpasoBTL saRJiioHaJiHCb B'b cjitAyionieMi *): 

ARaAeMiH XyAOKecTBi, aaxoAflCb na BcerAa noA'b eABBCTBen- 
HUMi HamHifb HiraepaTopcRBHi B^A^HiOH'b, cocTonrb est* npesH- 
AOBTa, ABpeRTopa, Tpexi peRTopoBi, AByxi aA'BioBRn-peRTopoB^, 
mecTH npo^eccopoBi (acBBonncH, CRyjibnTypH,apxflTeRTyp£i),niecTH 
aA'BiOHRrb npo^copoBi. Rpoirb loro nojiarajiocb 12 noneTHUxi 
jiK)6BTejiefi xyAoacecTBi h lOJiHRoe hbcjio noHeiBux'b hjiohobi, h 
mecTb coB^TBHROB'b. IIpaBjieBle ARaAeidH BB'IpaeTca npesBAenry 
ci coGpanieM'b no HX'b ci BairbpeBlaMH HamHiiH cxoACTaea- 
BOMy 6jiaroycMOTpiBlK). 



*) Cm. ApxuBi IIpaB. CeeaTa. Buco^. yx., rh. Xs 112, CTp. 180. 

*) TaMi se, KH. J^ 112, CTp. 255. 

') Cm. ApzHBi QpaB. GeHaTa. Buco^. ys. kh. J^ 112. ctp. 286. UpH 
dTOMi Bi noMon^b BeiiKOiiy no Kanueiiipiii GrpoeHift onpex'bioH'b 6iiJi 
ceHaTop-b H Taftaufi coBtTHHS'b BHJI3K nerpi HHKHTH^-b Tpy6ei(K0ff. (cm. 
C.-neTep6. Bl^AOMOCTH 1765 r. JI& 5 btophhbi 18 ABBapA; Taicse ApxHVb 
Mop. Mhhhct. yKasLi UpaBHT. CeaaTa J6 35 ota. H- ^ 872cTp. 9 

*) Cm. n. C. 3aK. 1764 HoaCpn 4 (12275) 



— 315 — 

PeKTopu H afliroHRTi-peKTopu npHcyTCTByiOTi bt> co6paHwxi, 
Hirtfl no CTapmHHCTBy caoeify nepeoe MicTO no AQpeKTopi, h co- 
ciaejiflioTb Bi> AKaABMin ci npesHAeHTOM'B, AHpeKTopoBfB, npo- 
(j^ccopaMH xyxo^ecTBi n ceRpeTapeM^ o bc^x-k BHyTpenHHX'b 
pacnopHAKax^ h yMpeacAeniiixii o^uKHOBenHufi coBiTi^). 
Go6paHiH pasAi^iiiOTCH na odHRHOBeHHH^, npesBu- 
^a&HBiH E ny6jiiiHHfiiH. 

IlepBUA (t. e. coSpaniH CoBiia) HM^iorL 6£itb b-b k a ac a u t 
Mtcj3m» B^ nepBuft nonoA'bJiBHHK'b h nocjriAHioK) cy66oTy neoT- 
MiHHO (t. e. KMk paea bi MicAi^T>). B'b chxi co6paHiAX'B pascMa- 
TpnaaiOTB npnjieacHOCTb h ycnixn yqeHEKOBi h pascyacAaiorb o 
BCBMi, 1T0 MOserB cjiy»BTB Ri nojiBsi ARaAeniH h npnpan^enifo 
xyAOxecTBi. Bc^Roe a'^^o onpoAtJifliB no nyacA'^ come nep- 
conaMi ne Menie (t. e. hto6u b% sac&AaHiB CoB^xa 6bxjio ne 
Heni^e come jiej^i). BojiBmifl (t. e. ipesBuiaflHBifl) cofipaHin 6bi- 
BaiOTii ^pesx "^eiBipe iii^cHi^a jifla yTBepacAenifl Bcero, ^to b'b o6bi- 
RHOBeHBBix'B ^OHaME Kb jiyimeMy ycMOTp^Hifo 6yAeTB; 6yAe HyacAa 
noTpe6yerB HasHaiEBaTB e HpesBBi^aftnoe. ny6jiH^H0My co5paHiio 
OtiTB ejReroAHO 1 ceHTH6pH, o kobitb HanepeAi* oGiabjiatb ne- 
HaiBH), npErjiamafl noneTHux'B JiK)6ETejieft E^JienoBi ARa- 
AeMiH, a TaRxe flnpo«iExi snaTHBixi oco6x. KpesEAeHrB o6uifi 
ci co6paHieu'B (t. e. cb CoB'i^TOMi, nosBOJineM'B ce6i npnOaBETB) 
HMieT'b rJiaBHoe noneneHie, A^CBr nocpeACXBOM'B cero YcxaBa npn- 
BOAETB B'B uBixyn^ee cocxo^nie xyAomecxaa, no Bcefi bosmohhocxe 
OHHB pacnpocxpanaxB ri> A^flcxBExejiBHofl nojiBsi HamExi noAA^H- 
Buxi H AJifl Toro BciRoe A'^Jio pimaxB n noAnncBiBaxB eny 
ofintEicB coB^xoMx, no 6ojiBniEHCXBy rojiocoBi b rA:6HaAo6HO 
no HECJiy 6ajiJi0Bi. 

OnpoAiJieHHOft na coAepHanie ARaAOHifl Rasst cocxoaxb noAi* 
Bi^AOMCXBOiTB Bcoro co6paHiH. Kpafinee noneienie hm^xb IIpesH- 
AeHxy H Co6paHiK)(CoB'lxy),Aa6Bi AenBrE, Bon^i, Maxepianu e npn- 
nacu ynoxpefijifljiECB 6u eAEHCXBenHO b'b noJiBsy ARaAOMiE naAJie- 
^Kan^BMi nopHAROMi. J^osBOJiflexc^ IIpesHAeHxy cb co6paHieMi> 
3a6jiaroBpeHeHHO EsCpaxB ce6i^ npeoMHERa esi HECJia no^exnux^ 
jno6HxeJiefl CajuioxEpoBanleMx. JlnpeRxopi, no npesBAeHii, ecxB 



') Heo6xoAH]ffo saMtTHTB, HTO vb ycTairb xotx u BCTptnaexcii vnoiifl- 
HyTufi c B t T I, HO sa T^vh BesAt roBopHTCfl co6paHijixi (ooukho- 
BeHHsxi), pasyMifl o^eBBAHO noAi utbm'b toti coBtTi, cocxafit KOToparr 
roBopHTCfl vb pasAiijt II; losojii AKaAeidii He nonojuHTCfl qjcHaMH yRasa- 
HHHH Bume, paapimajocB nperjaioaTB ^xa coBira o BHyTpeHflBXi x'bia 

XajKl BBl HOHCTHUXB J[K)6HTeJ[eft, XaEB H H3% ^JCHOBl. 



— 316- 

BTopan nepcoHa; owb jipjiTRewb npHjiaraTb noneneHie o 6jiaro- 
cocTOiiHiH, nojiLS'b H HenoKOJieSHMOH'b nopjiAKi AicaAeMiH h ysH- 
jiHn^a ^), H Ba6jiK)AaTb, hto6i Bck aRaAeioiHecKifl onpex^eHia A^ft- 
CTBHTOJibHO HcnojiHfleMU 6BIJIH. Bcero 6ojiie AOJiseHi* ohi Ha6jiiio- 
AaxB nopHAORi bocaHxaHifl h oGyieHia, Aa6u c% nojubsoio mojio 
ABXxii JiK)Aeft ynoTpe6jieH&[ 6ujiii rx% jrlia h speMfl, CTapaflCb 
Ka^KA^ro Bi ARaAeMiH n yHHJiHii^'i npHBOAHTb rt> paiHiejibHOHy 
OTapaBJieniK) ero aojukhoctb. IIpH ARaAQMiB XyAoaceciBi, ajia ot- 
Bpan^eHia Mucjiefl yneHH^ecRHX'b bo BpeMJi npasAHoe on CRyRH, 
npH^nHflion^efl yrpiOMOCxb, h ajia HeAonymeeia Hx-b ao caHuxi fc- 
nosBOJiaeHuxi majiociefi, no acejiaHiK) hx% paspimeHO erpaib ko- 
MOAiH H TpareAiH ape ARaAenin XyAOJRecTBi, qero paAH npHEa- 
sano CA^Jiaib eeSoJibinofl xeaxpi, ho ^toGi cie TOJibRO cjiysEJio 
co6cTBeHHO AJiA ARaAeniH, a He ajir nociopoHHHX'b (csi. 
opAepi 16 reHBapa 1764 r.) *). 

$eBpajifl 27 roAa 1764 bi cHJiy nsycTHaro noBeJi^Hia £a Be- 
jiH?ecTBa, wia npiyroxoBJieHifl asejiaiomaro ynpasHaxbca Bb cbo6oa- 
Huxi HCRyccxBaxii lOHomecxBa, npH ARaAemH XyAOKecxBi sase- 
Aeno, Ha ocHOBaniH reeepajibHaro yHpesAeHia o BOcnHxaniH A^xefi, 
npHCXoflHoe ci MJiaAennecxBa bx% BocnuxaHie ^). 

IIpH axoMb oCiaBJieHO 6 anplna 1764 r., ^xo AOSBOJiaexca 
BcaRaro SBania pocciflCRHMi>, npaBOCJiaBBaro, rpe^iecRaro Hcnosit- 
Aama Blpn noAAauuuMi, Rpoici Rp'InocxHux'b, oxAasaxb cuHOseft 
CBOHxi 5 H 6 JiiTb OTb po^eHifl. TaROBUxi npHHHMaxb ipesi 
RaacAHe xpa roAa ao 60 MaJibHHROB^; npn npien^ Aasaxb Rasen- 
Hoe njiaxbe. Hxi nacxaBJiaxb bi nosHaniH saROHa Boada, bi> 6aaro- 
HpaBiH H Bi> HecxHuxi> nocxynRaxi, a csepx'b oHuxi, noaesHux'b 
Aaa BcaRaro Ao6poA']^xejieft o6yqaxb hxi 6yAyxi h npHCxofinmrb 
sHaHiaHi, noxpeOHUH'b Aaa Bcxynaeaia bi> ARaAeiciK) XyAoacecxBi, 
xo ecxb: pocciBcROfi rpanoxi, HxeniK) HHOCxpaHHux'b RHHrb, pH- 



*) 06'b aTOifb yqEjmnit npii AKaAeMiff Xj^oxecrvb caasaHO HHxe. 

') Taai se r. DeTpoBa C6opHBK'B MaTepiaJOBb j^m HCTopiH ABaj^eniH 
Xy^oaecTBiCTp. 82 

*) Eme niyBajOBi 7 ccht. 1762 r. cocTaBHii* npoeKTii yqpesAeHia riiif- 
Baaiu Ha 40 hcjob. yneHtfEOBi. na saiOBaHBH, lA'b Moryii o6y<iaTi>ca niveii- 
ROMy, <i>paBi^y3CK0Hy, HTaibHHCKOMy EZUtLSLWb, poccificKOMy npaBonHcaHuo, 
nepBUMi Ba^ajiaMi MateMaTUKH, apxuxeKTypii ii pHcoBamfl, HCTopiu a reorpa- 
(])iH Ba poccificEoui Asaat. Obh aaxoAHJUcb aa KaseHHOMb coAGpsaaiH, sy- 
inaBbB H T. ^. MciHCJiiJrocb aa oahofo coAepsaaie h OAesjdi bi roj^i 13 p. 
18 K., ua KymaHbe 25 p. 55 s.; aiKapcTsa, qafi, necosi, eibHuai Aia kom- 
flaTii 1 p. 26 K. Bcero 40 py6. na OABoro. IIo OKOH<iaHiii xypca nHTOwiu He 
o(3B8HBaiHCB Kb cjiys6t HMeHHO Bb BTOMb B'feAOMCTB'b. (Cm. QexpoBb— G6op* 
BBKi MaTepiajoB'b cxp. 60). 



— 317 — 

coeaHiio, apuoHeTHR'^, reoHerpiH, HCTopiH, icHOOJioriH, h reorpa^iH 
CMOTpa no Ji^TaMi. yqeeie npenoAaeaTBCfl HMierb ho ci> orop^H- 
TeJi&HUM'b npHHyKAeHieiTB, ho TBxocTbio H xopomHMH npHM%paHHy 
HSucRHBaa Ri Toify BCflRie CjiaropasyMHue cnoco6fir. PaeHuiii 
oCpasoMX npHJiaraeHO 6yAen Rpaftuee nonenoHle o hxi npHsp^Hln, 
vh pascyaRAemH hxi MaJiojuiTCTBa*, xaR^ hto hh MajiMmeft npH- 
HHH£i He AoflAGTb H ceiTB HifbTB RaRoe-JiH6o cyMHiHie. HaRoneni'b 
<rro npHHaAJiejEHTb 6jiaronpHCToftHOicy coAepHaHiio oheix'b A^ieft, 
KaRB B'b 0Hnt%, oxencAb h HyjKH&ftineft Kb sApasiio Hx^ hhctot6 

H OnpflTHOCTH, TaRl H Bl HOSBOJIHTeJIbHUrb SaSaBaXB H ryJiaHBflXB, 

Bce OHoe, Bi» CBOe Bpenn, BecBsia Ha6jiiOAaeMO GyAeri ^). 

J^Jia noifbH^eHifl BToro ynnjinma naHATb 6ujib bb 1767 roAy 
Ha BacHJiLeBCROMB ocTpoBy, BinepBoft JiHniH, Aoirb baobh FpHropa, 
ROTopHifB ynpaBJi^JiB h^rto Ami. (cm. ji^iji. apx. ARaAOMiH J^ 18, 
1770 roAa). 

Bb yHBJiHni% 6bijih Tpe Rjiacca: A'^TCRift, oipoqecRlfl, lOHomecRifi; 

Vb RaSAOlTB HSl HHXB AOJISCHO 6UTb TpH TOAa. IlepByirb RJiaCCOMB 

saBftAUBajiH y^HiejiBBHipiy a ociajiBHBiMH AByvH yHHTejui. Bce jro 
yHHjmn^e cocTOHJio BB 8aB%AHBaHiH HHcneRopa^j (h ero noMon^HHRa), 
o6a8aHHaFO CHOTpixB sa BciirB ao y^BJinn^a oTHOCHBmHMca. Ilocjii 
AecjiTH JiiTB npeCuBaHk bb yHEJinn^'fe, cnoco6Hue h AOCioflHue, cb 
ycnixoMi BBiAepHaBmie aRsaMeHB BOcnHTaHHBRH nocTynajiH bb 
ARaAeHiio a^^ ynpaacneHift bb Bucmnxi RjiaccaxB; npoHie xb onpe- 
AtJiflJiHCB BB uacTepcTBa no hxb chocoGhoct^itb ^). Bb ARaAenlH 



*) AoRiaAB BeiiKaro cb BucoHailineK) KOH(i>HpHa^ie» o6b y^pesAeniH 
oaHaieoBaro yiHinma npn AsaAeMia XyxosecTBi h o ny6jiBK0BafliH ot% 
AsaxeMiH XyAoxecTBB Aa6£i seiamniie npHHOCHiH bb aTO BOcnHTaieibHoe 
yiHiume A'^xeft, 6eijb apenpoBosA^HB hmi bb CeHaxB npn panopTi otb 29 
Mapra 1764 roAa (cm. ApzHB. IIpaBHT. GeaaTa, sHura Buco?. xouaAOBx, bb 
Koninxi npexcTaBJAeMuz'B J^ 185 CTp. 513. 

*) Bb aKaAOMH^iecKie KJiaccii mofjh TaKB me xoaqtb o6ywnca CBepxB 
npexnoioseHHUxi hbcob'b, ho bi Apyrie nacu oco6o HasHaHeHOHe, yqeHHSH 
miflxeTHaro saxeTCRaro Kopayca: hmb craBHJiH 6ajjiu, coo6maiH sopnycy 
o6i HXB ycntxaxi, sa rkMB noABeprajH aRsaHeBy (a'^jo apxHBa 1764 ro^a 
J^46). 

') HHcneKTopoxB dToroy^HJHn^a 6aj[B nasHa^eHB KH)BHJjibe,BB 1763 r. 
OBpeAiieaHHft eme inyBaioBuifb y^HTeieiiB (|>pauay3CKaro ABUsa, hcto- 
piH R reoTpa<{)iH, Ha Hicio xe-Byia. KioBOJibe He snaiB bobco pyccRaro 
flSHRa; BCR nepenHCRa Ch hhhb npoHcxoAHJa na (t>paHi(y3CR0M'B aseir']^ (cm. 
Xtio 1771 r. J^ 31). KoRopiiHOBB xaii euy 6ojiMiiifl nojiHOiio^iJi no y^H- 
JHiKy, paapiniHJB HaneMaTB h yaoiBHATB y^HTeieft^ y^HxejiLHHai, nacTaBsn- 
ROBB, it HaeraBBHiiB. ^Yous etes le mattre d'en disposer & Yotre volont^", 
HHcaiB exy Rorophhob'b (cm. x- 1772 r. J^ 22, 23). RrosHJiJiBe hoctorhho wk- 
HflJB BuineosHaqeHHiiixB jiuub, ccopHiCH cb hhmh, ea^'^jajB BCflRaro poAa 
ilojiroBB II nepeineJB HaRoneuB bb 1773 r. bb cyxonyTBuft Ra^eTCRift Rop- 
vycB (ctf.A. 1773 r. j\& 76). UpeeMHHKOuB ero BByqHJHia'b 6uj[B MapT6HB,npH 



— 318 — 

OHH npoAOJiHcaJiH yqenie en^e 6 jrbrb, npnBURajiH ki* AoGponopaXo^- 
Hofi 2CH3HH, noABoprajiHCb dRsaBieHy h, CMOipfl no yMtHiio, narpa- 

»A&JIHCB Cepe6pflHHUMH H 30JI0TUMH MBAaJIflMH. Hsi nOJiyiaBOIHX'B 

MOAaJiB nocujiajuiCB qpeai* RamAue t p h roAa b^ HHocTpaBHHfl ro- 
cyAapcTBa ABinaAuaTb qejiOB^Ki. 

ARaABMifl AOJi^ea 6ujia ciap'aTbCA nopynaxB hx'b bi oneRy, ne 

TOJIBKO npedblBaiOn^HH'BTairB HamHM'B MHHHCTpaBCB, HOH ROMy jia6o 

H3X cnoco6Huxi R'B TOMy BfibcTHuxi jRHTOJieft. 9th yqeHHRH aRa- 

AOMiH AOJT^RHH 6UJIII RaSCAyH) TpeXB AOHOCHTB aKaAeidE CBOHXl 

saHHTlax'B, B no npomecTBiH nasHaqenHaro BpeneHH (ipexi jiirB), 
npeACTaBBTB u CBoe nponsBeAenie, nocjit nero nojiyqajin yaoJiBHH- 
TeJiBHue aTTeciaTu, ne hhcjihjihcb yjRe naHclonepaMs aRaAeMin h 
MorJiH nponsBOAHTB CBoe HCRyccTBO RaRTi BOJiBHuft CBo6oAHB[ft qeJio- 

KpoM% yqEJinn^a npn ARaAOBiiH XyAO^RecTBi 6ujia uepROBB, 
6H6jiioTeKa, coGcTBenHafl anreRa n JiasaperB. 

no npeACiaBJieHHUicB AnaAeMiH npHBHJieriflii'B eft aosbojla- 
JiocB yqpeAHTB h coAop^RaTB co6cTBeHHyH) THnorpa(|)iK) ^). ARaAeMin, 
6yAyqH ne noA^Hnena HHKaRoify Mtciy, AOJi^Rna OTstTCTBOBaiB 
TORMO OAHnMi HaicB, roBopHJiocB Bi MaHH^ecTi. Bci BOcnEiae- 
Hue Bi AjcaAeMin yTBep»AajiHCB ci a^tbmh h noTOMCTBoiTB bi b^h- 
nne poABi 6utb cbo6oahbime h bojibhhmh. 

Sanpen^aJnocB bcIhi Kony 6iii to he 6ujio sanflCHBaTB ex^ bi 

RpinOCTHBie JIIOAE E yXBOpSCAS^TB RaREIil 6U TO HE 6UJI0 06pa80E'B 

sa co6oK). XyAO^HHRE E MacTopa bsi anaAeMiE AonycRajincB e npE- 
HEMaJiECB no BC%Mi> pa6oTaMi> RasenHUMX e ny6JIEqHHE^. J9|a6Bi 
OHE He EMibjiE npETbcHemfl, npeAnncBiBaJiocB HOtfeAJieHHO pascMaT- 
pflBaTB A^-iia E qHHBTB HaECRopifimee yAOBOJiBCXBie. Eeai B^Aona 



KOTopoMi pasiEHHue 6e3nopjiAKR no yqRjiHiiiy, HaHaBmiecfl upii KH)BRjiJii>e, xo 
Toro yBeiflqeiHCByHTO oh'b Oujix yBOJen's bb 1785 r. (a^i. lip. 1785 r. j>& 56). 
TorAa BemLofi, npHSBasii bb Covirb KasHa^ea AKaxeiiiH SapHja HsaHOBRqa 
rjOBaqeBcxaro, npexiosHii any h^cto HucneKTopa yqeiama, csaaaBB: »il 
H AsaACMia Be HaxoAHH'B; sovy npRJHqo'fee uosbo nopyiHTb BocoHTaHHH- 
KOB%, Kasi Bam, n6o bu HMieTe Bcb KaqecTaa AOcrofiHaro BocnnTareia. 

^HBH 6e3'b 0C060ft AOJISHOCTH B HMifl CB060Ay BaHHMaXBCa XyAOSeCXBOMB, 

Bu Hosere 6uxb nojeaaii co6cTBeHHO fi,A& ce6a, bo, npHBaBi npeAJaracHoe 
Bam M'j^CTO, BU 6yAeTe noiesHii ipyrHMB. FiOBaneBCKift corjiacHJca n cb 
HOBOK) aaeprieio npeAaica saHATiau'L boboS aojshoctb, Koxopyio saMiqa- 
xeibHO ycR-ibmHO oxnpaBiflju. ao caMofi ROBquBucBoeft bb 1823 r. HeToiBKO 
£euRoft, BO B npeeHBHBH ero no AsaAeiiiH: MycHB'b-nyuiKHHB, QlyadejiB- 
ry4)be, n CrporaHOBi o^eaB uiBHin sacjyrH FjOBaqeecRaro, npioGpiBOiaro 
TaKse Bceo6iayK) jih>6obb BocnnTaHHHKOBB {en, RieBCsaa cxapRaa sa 1885 r. 
T. XI, ex. 311. 

•) Cm. n. C. 3. 1764 r. B0H6pa 4 (12275). 



— 319 — 

AKaAeMia hhkto H31» HBcaoBinHxcfl npa nefl ho MOxeTi 6uTh bsatb 
uojxih CTpaxy. 

He npHBOAA AaJKBHtfiinHXi npasHJii naHH^CTa o peRTopaxi, 
Hxi aAi>K)HRTaxi, npo(j[)eccopaxi, Hx^ aA^bfOBETaxt, aKaA^MHRaxi, 
ROH^epeHA^-ceKperapt h t. a., yRameiii TOJibRO» hto ho UHoro nosse, 
Bi Aenafipi 1766 roAa 0, Be^Rofl AOKJiaAUBaJii* HMneparpBui Erb- 

TOpHHt. ^HTO Bli HiROTOpUXl EBponefiCRHXl ARBAeMlflXl eCTB 

ooHeTHue BOJibHue o6ii](hhrh ^, a noTOiiy ARBAeMi^ Bce- 
noAAaHHtfime npocerb Bame MifDepaTopcRoe BejmHecTBO cie SBa- 
flie R^ ycTBBy ARaAeMEHecRoity noBeA^TB AonojiHEiB, ROTopum* bi 

COCpaHiflX'B HM^TB MtCTO H H S e nOIBTHUX'B qJIBHOBl''. 

HMaepaipBAa ERaiepHHa II yTBepAHja dxo 21 AOKaSpa 
1766 r.^). TopjRecTBeHHoe oiRpBiTie (ejih, RaRi Bupa»caJiHCB bito 
BpeM^, HHaBrypaAifl) ARBAeMin XyAO^ReciBi npoHcxoABJio 
28 iiOHH 1765 roAa^Bi* aohb BcepaAOCTHaro BOsmecTBin HMnepa- 
ipHiw Ha npecTOJi'B; npn aiOMi npoacxoAHJia h xopacecTBeeHaH 
saRABAKa HOBaro sAasiB ARBAeHiH, wb npacyTCTBln ERaiepHHH II 
H nacjitAHBKa npeciojia, BejizRaro rhasb IIbbjib neipoBHia. Focy- 
AapuHfl noJiOHHJia nepBufi RaiieHB wb 4>yHAaMeHrB sAaniH bhobb 
BOSABHraeMaro, a sa Heio — BejiaRift rhbbb*). He noBiop^eiTB aioro 
ouHCBHiB, noApo6Ho H3Jio»eHHaro bi ,C.-neTep6yprcKBxi> B^ao- 
HOCTBxi" 1765 r. (JV« 60, naiHHaa), a sbtImi bb RHeri HeTpoBa 
(MaiepiaJiH aji^ HCTopia ARBAeMm XyAoaecTBB, cip. 111). Bb 
naicBTB HHaBrypaiJ^iH 6lijih posabhu MeAaJiH h ^eiOHU, pasocjian- 
Bue TBRjRe MHorHMi HamuM'B nocJiaHHHRaMB sa rpanHi^eK), bho- 

CTpaHHUMB BRBAeMBRaMB. TorAB SRe, BO BpeMeHHOM'B OOU'blAeHiB 

ARaABMiB, ceRperapB MHiajiB no^RajiOBaHHyK) ARaAOMiH npHBHJie* 
riio, a npesHAeHTB pasABBBJiB ahqjiombi npoj^eccopaMi, yAOCTOHB- 

IDBMCB 6BITB npeACTBBJieHHBIMH HMOepaTpHUi. 



*) Cm. Jitjo ap. AKaji;. Xy^., 1767 r., J\b 39. 

') Cm. npHJOxenie li 2. 

^) Coo6mHMi npir stomb, hto nepsuMU noqeTHUMii boj&humh 
o6ii;HHRaMH 6UJIH H86paHii 10 ABBapA 1767 r. ^ajtbKOHex'b u Ahapo(cm. 
AtJO ap. 1767 r., JV* 39). IIosAR'i^e, no upeAioseHiio BeuRaro, iisCpauEi bi 
1771 roAy: KapAnnajt AjbCaHo ii PacipejiJiu (cm. a*JO apx. 1771 r., J^& 29), 
a TBKxe FpiiMaJibAir, ra6pi3JiB (premier architecte du roi), CeA3Hii (Sedaine, 
secretaire perpetuel de Tacademie royale d'architecture), KonidBi (Cochin, 
secretaire perpetuel) u t. a- (cm. a*JO apx. 1771 r., J& 30). 

^) CrpoeBia AEaACMiii bosboahahcb no uJiaBy n npodKiy RoRopHBOBa, 
juiueeaa CTopoaa 3AaBiA— no Heptexy JEaMOTia, nepeABia c^bh AsaAeMin cb 

flJIOCRHMli UX'b CBOAOMB 6uJU HCnOJIBCBM UTaJbflBCKHMB MBCTOpOMB PyCBO. 

Bcb nocTpofiKH OKonienu nosAHie AnpeKTopoMi AKaAeMiu ^eabTHBroMi (cm. 
•KpaTKoe HCTopuHccKoe cntAtuie o cocToaaiH HMnepaxopCKoB AsaAe&iiu 
XyAoaecTBB ott* 1764 no 1829 foab". C.-IIeTep6yprB, 1829 r., cip. 6—7). 



— 320 — 

no noBOAy dToro TopsecTBa r. npesEA^HTi, rr. npo^ccopa, 
ceKpeiapb h op. cooacBJiHCB c^^aTb ce6i Ra^^Tanu BHniHeBaro 
i^xa^ rnHTBie sojuotoui, a HHcneRTopa laROBOft — mHTuft cepe6- 
poui; rocnoAa »e aAi>iOHRTH autJiH Racj^iaHH ci sojiotbimi raay- 
HoiTb; npeaopy^HJiH dRcaeAHi^iH cxIjiaTB aio Bce noxpflAOBfB h sa 
Bce sanjiaTHTB hsi aRaA^MHHecRBX'B cyMMi, bu^th noxoirb y Bcix<b 

HSl JRaJIOBaHbH Wb TpH TpCTH ^). 

Hsi) BumeHSJiojReHHaro ho ipyAHO ycMOxpiiB, hto yciaBi ARa- 
Aeide, npeACTasjieHHuft r'b yTBepacAeHiio Bei^RBirB, wb ohohb kho- 
roBTB HanoMBHaerB BEHneynoMflHyraft npoeRTB ycTasa, cocTaBneH- 
Htifl f^Jisi ARHAeMiH IIIyBajioBuifB ^), HO ocTaBmiflcfl HeyrBepag^eH- 

HBIMl SaROHHBHOK) HMnopaTpBI^I EjIBSaBOTU, RaRl rOBOpBTOI 

Bi MaHB^ecii 4 H0^6pfl 1764 roAa.- 

Bei^ROft pac^OJIa^aJI^ cjiHEnRoifB MajiUMii BpeMeneif^, hto6h 

JIB?HO B OCHOBaieJIBHO OSHaROMBTBC^ CB COCTOflHieM'B BB'^pCHHOft 

eicy Menie roAa lOMy aasaA^ ARaAeaiiB Ha ctojtbro, hto6i HMtTB 
B08M03RH0CTB HaiopiaTB OTB ceGfl caMOCTOflTOJiBmift yciaBx AicaAe- 
idB, Cesi ROToparo cia nocjitAHflfl o^bbbaho ho Morjua cyniecTBO- 
BaTB. TpeCoBaJiocB HenpemiBHO cociaBBiB npoeRn ycTaaa, a Mesxy 
riwb owb yxe BM^jicfl roTOBsift bi OyKaraxi IIIyBaJiOBa. CeKpera- 
peifb y Bei^Karo Oujtb toti »e JIapHHi>, CuBmifl en^e npa inyaa- 
JiOB^ H 663% coMHiHifl sHaBmifi npodRTl ycxaBa, a mosoti 6utb 
B yHacTBOBaBmift vb ero cocxaBJieHiB. 

Bce aio bm%ct% BecBMa b^pojitho h coAi^&CTBOBano tony, hto 
Bei](Kofl nocnimBJi'B npeACTaBHTB ri yTBepjEAeniio npoaRTi ycxaBa 
ero npeAoaecxBeiiHBRa, CA:6jiaBi He6oJiBmiH wb uewb BSH^HeHiJi, 
RjiOHHBmkcH, Ha CKOJiBRO HOHCHO cyABXB, xoJiBRO Kh orpaHHHeHiio 
BjiacxB npesBAeaxa ^). 



*) A*-«o apx. 1766 r., J^ 17. 

') ABTopi KpaTKaro 6iorpa4)B?ecKaro o^epRa o KoKopHHOBt bi xypsart 
^Pyccsaa GrapuHa** 1883, ack., ex. 706 npflMO roBopuT'F, Bei^Bofi irpeACxaBHi'B 
9 0RTA6pfl 1764 r. lUyBajOBCsifi apoeRTi yopaBjeBin ARaAeMiei) AyAosecxB'b 
H T. A. 

°) Heo6xoxHHO saMtTiixB, hto BeusoB ne cHHTaii yxBepsxeHHuft ycxasi 
uojiHUMt n OBOBHaTeibHHM'b. Btipasa^cb coBpeiieBHUMi eaBi cJioroMS, 
310X1 ycTaai BpeACxaBJtai'b co6oh), xaEi csaaaTBi xoibko ochobhuh no- 
ji 2K e fl i fl AsaAeifiH, no yxBepsAenin Koxopuxi cj'&AOBaJO nsxaxb noxpo6* 
Ehin npannaa, oapeAt jBDn^ia Kpyn itaxeJLHOCTH, npaaa h o6;i3aHBOcxB Bcixi 
jnm, cocxaBJEHBiuBX'L AsaAeifiB). 

PysoBOACxsyACb axoMi, BeuKoil, KaBT> bhxho hsi npHjaraeMaro npn reMi 
(npnj. 3) sypnaja 29 BBBapii 1771 r. (cm. H. neTpoBi „G6opHBBi Maxepia- 
jiOBi AJ£ HCTopin ARaA- XyxoxecTBii*' cxp. 183; xaK»e a'^'o apx. 1771 r., 
Ji& 1) npcAiosHJi: 1) cocxaBHTB BO pascyxAeBiH CoBiTa HHCxpyKaiu acbua 
u noiBUfl oxi r. ARpeKiopa ao nocsiij^^naTo npu AsaAeMiu, soxopua ao cero 



— 321 — 

EcjiH B'B npooKrt inyeajiOBa o npesHAOHTb, k^k% mwhiomfim, 
rjtaBHoe CHOip'&Hie nan's AKajteMieft, roBopuJiocB OTA'knbHO 
OTL coSpanifl hjih GoB^Ta neMHoro, to no ycraBy Bei^Karo o npe- 
sHAeHT^ B% OTA'i^JiBHOCTH BOBCB 06 ynoMBHaeTCH, a BcerAa „o6ii;e 
CB coCpanieMi" (t. e. ct CoBtiOMi). TaKHM^ oCpasoMx npe- 

SHAeHTb ^BJIHGTCfl TOJIBKO npeACl^A^TeJieiCb GOBiia^ HM'lK)II]li& 

Tonoch paBHuft ci» ApyrnaiH ero HjieHaMa; HHrA^ bi yciaBi He roBO- 
pHTCH, HTO npesHflenT'B HArteii ABa roJioca, hjih, hto roJiocL ero npn 
paBOHCTBi roJiocoBT* ftaerB nepeBtci ^). 

IIpH aTOMi, TaRi CRasaxb, bca y^eGna^ qacTb AKa^eMiH BBi^- 

PHJiaCB HCKJIfOHHTeJIBHO A^peRTOpy, BTOpOft 00 npe8HAeHT% oco6'&, 

RaROBOK) nepBOHanajiBHO tujvb KoRopuHOB^ ^). IIpesHAeHrB me 
o6\nfi cb co6paHleBfi Rpaftnee noneHeeie hm'&jtb o Bcefi xo- 
SHflCTBeHHOft HacTH H 8a6oTACB ROHeiHO i](BiTyii^eMi coctohhIh 
AKaAeuiH pimaji'B n noAnacuBaJi'B bcaroo a^jio oCii^hm'b cob'Itom'l 
no CoJiBfflHHCTBy roJiocoBt n vjiik HaAo6HO no ^HCJiy fiaJiJiOB'B. ^py- 
rHMH cjioBaMH pacnop^scajiCA h saaiAbiBaJii Bciu^b no ARaAOMiH 
CoBiTB, cocTOHBmifl HBi* xyAOscHHROBi, H ecjiH 6bijih no ARaAOMin 
nenopHARH h ona ne bhojuh'^ cooTBiTCTBOsaJia CBoeicy nasnaqeHiK), 



BpeifCHH HO 6hijn CAijanu, Aa6ti KasxHfi seaTB Mon, bi qem ero aojisboctb 
cocTOHTb; 2) oupeAiJHTb nopAAOSi xoAa AliAit H 6yiiar'B a'a nopflAo^Haro 
OTnpaBjeHifl no AicaAeHiH nHCBMeBHaro npoHSBOACTsa; 3) y^peAHTB pesnso* 
poBi H BHi crapaTbCfl ckojb Bossiosao CRop'le OKaHiBBaiB peBuaia: ({^aK- 
TopoBj, dKOBOMOBy H sasHa^eeBy, ;^a6u no ORon^unin ohux'b nnocipoe- 
H i K> peBnaiK) Hoxao 6hixo obohihtb; 4) j^eHesayio saany cO/TepsaxB noA'B 
BitAOucTBOM'B Bcero co6paBia n cBepxi KassaieoBoft neiarn HaAsapasie nuiTB 
n ne^aTaiB se KOTopoacy nn6yAB iisi qjenosi Goatxa h BunniiaTB ckojbko 
aoTpe6HO KasaaqeED o6n^e cb t^hii iJtenoM'B novtcfl<iHO. B'B nepB£Z& 
noHeAt.iBBHK'B ao^aBaTB dBCTpasri Bctui Aenesuim npsxoAaM'B h paczo- 
AaxB Toro M^cfli^a; 3KCTpaKTi> coiiiHfleT'B Kon4)cpeH[(vceKpeTapB n t. a. 

^T0T'B cjy^aft n ne upeABUAt jca, noTOuy <[to bi GoB^ri aoisho 6ujio 
6uTB ne ueH'be ceaiH ^leHOBi. 

') UepBUM'B ABpeRTopoMi AsaAeMin 6ui'b pyccRifi ^ojob^ecb, nsB'i^CTHufl 
AieKcanAp'B ^njunuoBn^'B Kokophhobi, 6BiBniiri en^e npn lUyBaiOBt HHcneK- 
TopoMT. AitaAeiiin (Cm. Atia AKaAeiiiH 1760 r., J^ 11; 1772 r., J^& 3; 1774 r., 
J^ 22). Ho ero Kon<iHB']& 10 MapTa 1772 roAa AnpesTopoifB 611^1 H86pan'BGo- 
BtTOMi* naxoAHBuiifics B'B OTciaBKi nojKOBHHK'B AHApcfi OcnnosHHi 3aKpeB- 
CKift (Jl'hio 1774 r., A* 61). Uo HasHaqenin ero 11 Maa 1784 roAa bi cob^t- 
HBKH npaBxenifl 6aHBa» H36paBi na ero irlcTO AnpesTopoifB AKaAenin ()a- 
poai Xlerp-B GeAoposaqi MaJiBTam (A'bJio npesiTAeHta Ak. 1784 r., J^ 49), 
ODHraABP^ Bi oTCTaBR-b, BOTopBift BO npomeaiR) 611111 yBOjeB-B bt, 1789 r. 
Cob-Itb, npacTynHBi cBOBa si BEi6opy AnpeBTopa, Hsdpaji'B xaROBUMi npo(i>ec- 
copa ARaAeMia Dpin MaTBi^eaa^a fPejbTeaa, sas-B nesanflTaro noRTopoBneK) 

AOJXHOCTBD, KOTOpuft OTnpaBJIAJ'B 06fl8aBB0CTB AHpOBTOpa H H0C1^ CUepTH 

fie^Raro {A*jo 1789 r., J& 8 h a* jo npesHA- 1789 r., J« 85). 

ynoHHHeM'B en^e^ hto bi 1787 r. npasaaHO 6ujio Heo6xoAaHUMi y? 
ABTB AOiSBOCTB oco6eBByK) RHCBeRTopa RiaccoBi aaaAeHia n nepaiiai 
noRTopoM'B 611JI CeMeH'B OeAopoaaqi ITIIeApnB'B, ROTopouy 6uia Aaaa 
6aji HBCTpyRi^iii (Cm. nerpoBi ^BiaTepiajiEi'' CTp. 294). 

H. u. BEaROft. 21 



— 322 — 

TO BBHHTB B'B dTOMl MOJKHO BeCB CobItB, a H6 OAHOFO TOJIBKO Eei](- 

Karo, HMlBmaro rojioci napaBH'b cb npo^uH ^jieHaiiH. 

B'B BTOMi KOJi.ieriajiBHOM'B ycxpoflcTBi rjiaBHaro ynpaBJieniH 
AKaAeHieio XyAO^ecTBi nejiBsa He bha^tb BecBiia CHMnaiH^HyK) 
nepxy xapaKiepa Be^Ka^o: ohx 6bijix nysasb AHRTaiopcKaro cano- 
BJiacTifl, CTOJiB H3Jiio6jieHHaro jivlwusl^ CToamHMH BO rjiaB*! pasJiHH- 
HHXi yqpeacAeHifl, h oxotho npeAOCiaBJWJTB CoBiiy nocpeACiBOMi 
yciaBa ^dphboahtb bi ii,BiTymee cocTOflHie xyAoxcecxBa k-b fltft- 

CTBHTOJIBHOft DOJIBSit HauIBXTi nOAA^HHblXl''. 

B'B newb »e BupasHJiacB A'^nxejiBHOCTB h BJiiaide canoro Bea- 
Karo, HeyKJiOHHO h ciporo Aep^aBinaroca ycxaBa no OTHomeHiK) ki 
opraHiiaoBaHHOfi hmti ARaAemH XyAOsecTBi? Ha ckojibko mo»ho 
saKJiioHHTB no coxpaHHBmHMCH B'B apxBBib ARaAeMiH XyA03RecTBi> 
A^JiaMi KaKii ea npaBjienifl, tb,kt> h ea npesHAeHTa, sa BpoMa ci> 
1763 no 1795 roA^, to h Apyroe rjiaaH'i^finiBirB o6pa80H'B samiK)- 
qajiocB Bi cJi^Ayionieiii. 

HBJiflacB npeACTaBHTejieii^ AKaAOMiH Xyxo^ecTBi, KaRi ea npe- 
SHAGHTi, Bei^Rofi 6HJII peBHOCTHUMi xoAaTBeBTB npoAi HnnepaTpH- 
i^eio Bctxi HyjKAaxi BBbpeHHOft eny ARaAemH. Bume yse yRa- 
sanu HeoAHORpaTHHa ero npeACTaBJienia oGi* OTnycR% A^HerB a^h 
ARBAeMiH. Eny see o6a8aHa AnaAeMia t^mt*, qio ERBTepHna II no- 
HcaJioBa.ia ^) bi ARaAOMiK) bi TpHAAaiB oahomi nepenjieii mecxB 
Tucaii ABBHTBCorB ceMBAecaTB AOBHTB pHcyHKOBi B'B HeTupexi 
angiRax'B h KOJioccajiBH^K) hsi h^ah, CTapaniaMH h TpyABMH cefi 
3Re AKaABMiH BBiJiHTyio CTBTyfo FepRyjieca, B'B suaRi BBicoHaftmaro 
6jiaroBOJieHiH ri ceft ARaAOMlH ^). CaMi Bei^Rofi TaRJse nojsepTBO- 
Bajii) orB ce6fl ARaAeiiiH ypny cb opAOHom* CBflTiia ERaTopHHu, 
BOSJioxeuHOM-B Hm nepaTpm^eio EjiH3aBeT0K) nexpoBHOio na khafehk) 



*) Cm. A'hio 1767 r., Jfe 3. 

^) Cm. x^Jio AKaAeHin 1786 r., J^ 5 h jifbio npesHAeoTa Asaxeiiia 1786 r., 
J^ 66 Qo ciOBEMB aeiSBiCTBaro cociaBHTejfl »RpaTRaro HCTopH^recsaro CBt- 
Aiuifl cocTOjiBiH KiinepaTopcKofi AsaAeiiia XvAOsecTBicB 1764-1829 r.*. 
C -neTepdypn, 1829 (aio Raseicfl nHcaii A. Ojcbhh'b). HiiaepaTpni^a vh 
1784 r. nosajOBaja AKaxeMiB HicKOibKO naMfliHHKOBi BaflreJBHaro Hcayc- 
CTBa, cociaBjeHHux'B H3i KBtTBaro Mpauopa h BocTOHHaro aje5acTpa, h no- 
xaioBaja RapTHHU, RyaieHHBjfl y xBDmeccu RHHrciOHi., nHcaBBua Py6eBcovi^ 
H CHaftAepcoM-b (cxp. 9). AAMnpai'L se CaHpaffOB-b nocji noCixu eax'BTTp- 
Kaua B-b 1774 roAy nocBHXBi'B AsaAeHia HBorie upa»opBHe oOiomkh on 
ApeBBuzi CTaiyft h 6apejiBe4)OBi, BafiAeHBux'L hmi aa ocTpoBaxi ApxHue- 
Jiara (laMi se, cxp. 9). 



— 323 — 

FecceHTOMoyprcKyK) ^), a laKxe KOJIJIeK^iK) cjiinKOBi h aHTHKOBi ^j. 
EpoHi Toro fiei(Kofl ocoGuiii AORJiaAOMt ^) Bupamajrb Hiinepa- 
TpHi^ ^eJiaHle ceoe coAep»an na CBod cnerL bi> y^HJimi^i npH 
HnnepaTopcKoft ARaAOMiH Xy^i^OHcecTBi nenpepHBHO no abc^tq 
MaJiB^HKOBx, nojiaraa emeroflHO no cto pyfijieft na Kaayi;aro bocdh- 
TaHHHKa. EKaiepHHa II yiBepAHJia aiort fl;0KJIaft^ 27 irona 1769 r. 
H Ha dTOifb ocHOBaHiH ci 1770 no 1785 r. npHHBMaJiHCB Bc^Rie 
TpH roAa no jifiCHTm MajiB^HROBB. Bujio Bcero mecTb npieMOBi. Hs'b 
3Toro ^HCJia BOcnnTaHHHKOBi> mecTB — yifepjio; Tpoe Bosapan^enu 
poABTOJiaMB no necnocodHOCTH h Tpoe nsi incjia OROHHHBmHX'b 
KypcB 6HJIH nocjiaHH sa rpanm^y, HMenno YrpiOMOBi — bb Pjjmb, a 
MejiBHHKOB^ H HsanoBB (apxnxeRTopi) bi* napH^cx. Eei^Roft e^e- 
ro;^o BHOCHJix AenBrn, npHHHxaionilACH cb nero ua BctxB npBHH- 
Tux-B ero nancionepoB'B. Panie npeACTOflBraaroBB 1788 ro^y npieaia 
BeniKoft aaflBHJi'B CoBtiy Hnn. ARa^;. XyAoxeciBB: «hto RaRx no 
EHHiniHeMy rocyAapcTBeenoMy ysaROHeniK) nojiyqenie npoueniOBi 
yMeEBmeno, ^o no yMajteniio qpesB cie cb mohxx KannTajiOBB yno- 
TpefijifleMiix'B na to cOAep^aeie aoxoaobb, h ne Mory GesB yrfecne- 
Hia Moero co6cTBeHHaro cocToania noAAepHHBaxBBBARaAeMlnnpeA- 
npBH^Taro mhoio; bb pascy^AenlH nero, ki coKajiteiio Moeny, BH;Ky 
ce6a npBHy»AeHHUMB npe^ys'lAOMBTB no^TeHHufi CoaixB. O^naRO 
Bope^B npe^ocTaBJiaK) ce6i HiaoTopoe no BosHomnocTB coAepmanie; 

CROJIBRO 7Re H Ha RaROlTB OCHOBBBiH TOfiTB HOHTeHHUft CoBi^TB, 

paBHO H o6b BCHHCJieHin o npe^HExi), anpe^B HsatcTHTB ne npeunny » . 

Beipcofi. 

3a T^MB BosHHRJia nepenncKa o tomb, crojibro en^e cji'lAyeTB 
CB BeARaro ABHorb sa npiiHHTUx'B bb yiBJiBn^li npa ARaAeMiH pa- 
Hte CA'ijiaHHaro bmb bb 1788 roAa saaajieHla no abhb nojinaro 
OROHiaHlfl Hxi o6y^eHla. Bei^Rofl, RaRX bhaho h3b pac^eTOBii, nn- 
canHuxB ysRQ pyRoio KHa^HBHa, CHBTajiB sa ARaAeniefi 1.319 py6.; 

*; 06b axoMB bi A'hji AKaACJiiH >fe 37 ott. 1765 r. coxpaawjiocb cJitAvio- 
mee KpaiKoe HSB'i^cTie: Ohhcb ypaa, nojy^eHHaro otbHb. Hb 
B e u K a r 1765 r o a a i lo h a 21 aha: bbcb soiOTOfi cb apuniKOfi, HaBCAeai> 
4>HHH<t>TEK) ?epBieHHOH) CB xpaBo^iEaMH <])HaH4)TaHHUUH S6; BORpyrB oearo 
H no RpumKi yKpamcHO kbmhjimh *aj[Ha3H£[MH n usyMpTAauMii, roiixb iiic- 
lOMi cocTOHTB ajuasoB'B CTO HATB, H HsyMpyAOBB— ^BaAiiaTb OAHH'B. Beyrpa 
oaaro opAeHi cBaiuii ERaxepHHii, saJioseBHiifi npn BOcmeciBiH na Bcepoc- 
cificKifi HHoepaTopcKiS npecTOJiB Ea BejH>iecTBOiiB rocyAapuBCft Huncpa- 
Tpaueio EincaBeiOH) UeTpoBHOK) na CBiutftmyio KHarHBH) AaacTaciB) Msa- 
noBHV recceHroii6yprcKyio, ypoaicHHyi) KHaaay Tpy6eaKyK). 

') 06b 3T0ft KOJieaaiH caasaHO iiOApo6Hte HHse. 

^) GMOTpa npajoseaie J& 4. 



— 324 — 

AKaAeiriH trq naxoAHJia, hto eft cjitj^en no 1790 foa'b noJiyqHTB 
CT> Bei^Karo 19.028 p. 9372 k. Bra cyMiiaBnocji'feACTBiHBi 1795 r. 
Bospocjia Ao 33.951 py6. 6672 k., KOTopue h 6ujih nojiy?eH&i Are- 
MieK) cnojiHa ysee no kohhhh'6 Bei^Karo H8i ocxaBinHxcH uoc^i 
Hero KaQHTaJiOBi (cm. jijbuo npes. 1786 r., JlS 64; a^o ARaAeiiiH 
1772 r., Xo 26). 

BeitKOft, KSLKh npesHAeHTB AKaAeniE, npeAdAATejiBCTBOBaji'B 
ua e^ReroAHuxi lOpacecTBeHHuxi co6paHiHX'B AnaAeMiH XyAO- 
:KecTBi> ^) H Ha co6paHiHx%, npoHcxoAHBniHxi no HCieHemH ^otei- 
pexi Mibcjii^eB^ h hochbdiisxi HasBanie „Co6paHie ARaAeida Xy- 
AO«ecTBi"- YnoMflHeBTb SAtcB laKOBOMTi, CuBffleMi 14 flHBapa 
1769 r., npeHMyqecTBeHHO sarlqaTeJibHOiTb p'i^qbK), npoHSHeceHHOio 
caMHMi npesHAeflTOM'B h y cero npHJiaraeMoio *). Bi aioft ptqn 
BeuKoft ynasuBaeT^, hto BocnHTaHie octb Aapi^ nepBiftmift, canHfi 
cyn^ecTBeHHMniift, rohhb HejioB^Ki o6oran^eH'B Moxen 6£rrb h a%- 
jiaeTCA ^0JIe3HUM^ qjienoHi o6ii^ecTBa h rocyAapcTaa. FjiaBHaa 
saAaqa BOcnHTaniH — CTpeMHTbc^ k^ Touy, hto6bi cA^iarb qeoiOBi^Ra 
necTHUMB, 6e3'b qero Bci nponm npio6piTeHifl, RaRoe 6u saaEde hh 
Chjio, cyeTHH h CeanojiesHH. („C. JleiepS. B4a." 1769 r., JV2 II 
$eBp. Bi npHCaBJi.). 

RaKi npesHAeHTb CoBiTa ARaAOMiH ') BeuRofi o6uRHOBeHHo 



*) TopisecTBeBHUA co6paaiA vb AsaAOMiH apoucxoAHiu xoivoe Bpevji 
28 isoQH, A6BB TopxecTBOHHaro BcepaAOCTuaro BocmecTBiH Ha opecTOJ-b ILiae- 
parpHiiiii EsaTepHHU II; uo cb 17^7 r. ohh aepeBexeHU 6ujHHa29 iioafl,— 
Aeeb TesoHneHHTCTiia HMoeparopa IlaBia I (osb dyuarb UerpoBa). 

') Cm. npBJoseHie J^ 5 

^) Kab Bucoiafime Koait^upuoBaBBaro xoBiaxa Bei^icaro 1769roAaBaj(BO, 
HTO co6pai]ie CoBtTa nepBOHa<iaibuo coctohio nvb Tixb, ROTOpae Bb OHOfi 

AsaACMlli B£IH'I HaXOAATCA: BOpBUMb-'BaABOpHUB COBtTHUKb KOKOpOBOB^ 

BTopuMb— npo<i)eccopb csyibaTypu JKbicti. TpeTbiiMi— npod)eccopb apxH- 
TesTypu JlfiiauoTTbt a ^eTBopTUMb — apo<^eccopb shbobhch TopexiH; coRpe- 
TapeMb se hub*! HaxoAAOiificA nps BKcaej^Hi^iu aKaAOMnqecKaro crpoeBLi 
M.iiop'b AieacaBApi Gojiturobi. ^ajbHtfimoe »e nonojfleHie ouaro coopaHiR 
A0J3KH0 npoBcxoAnTb OTb rojocoB'B caaiaro Cosira *) IIpBcyrcTBie Bb Co- 
Btit iiBOCTpaBueBb, He SBasniiixb pyccsaro As&iica, ycTasoBQio TaRoft no- 

pHJORb A'faJOapOHSBOACTBa, 1T0 UOCTaHOBjeBifl COBtTa aHCaiBCB Ha pyCCROMb 

H (t)paHAy3CK0Mb Rsusi 611 regard. QpeAioseaiR cboh BeiiKoft xaBaii 
napyccKOMTi ABUsi, ho ohh nepeBOAHiHCb a-ia CoBita Ha (t^paai^yscKift 
ASUK'b'^). 3aTiMb ^;Bb pascysAeBiH yH&inBmarocA qncia rocnoAb qjieHosb 
Bb CoB^Ti sa HysHoe apiiSBaiocb npnrJiacuTb Bb CoBiib AOSTopa Riepsa, 
ROTopoMy CMorpiTE sa pacaopfliseBiAUH aaTesR u lesapcTBib h npa 

TOMl BO BCixb yqpeSAeHiflX'B BHyTpeHHHXb paCUOpAXKOB^, RaCaiDH^ffXCA 

AfiaAeMiii*). HosAH^e, bl 1788 r., qionavH Gob bra 6aiH HasHaqenu 6£iBniie 

*) Cm. a*io 1769 r., J\& 20. 
*) Cm. a*J0 1774 r. J^ 5. 
«) Cm. a*JO 1775 r. 1^ 7. 



— 325 — 

corjiamajicfl cl ero nociaHOBjieHiflMH CoFlTa, ho npn 3tom^ 
HeoAHORpaiHO Aiji^JTb OTL ce6fl pasHua npeAJiosseHia CoB^y (KaRi» 
Hanp. cocTaBBTb HHCTpyRiUH cjiysROJuj/iMiy ^eMi> yace BHme 
ynoManyTO), npeAOCTaBjiafl aa ero ycHOTpieie npHH^ib hxi hjih 
wbvb. TaKTi Hanp. enxe b-b 1767 ro^y Bei^Kofl nHcajrii CoBtiy ^): 
cHe cyMFbBaiocB, hto CoBiri, coo6pajRaHci> ci KOH^HpMOBaH- 
HUME OTi Eh HMuepaiopcRaro BeJiBHecTsa npnBHJiJieriflMH h ycTa- 
BOMB pasyMHUHT) pacnopaaceHieM'B o Bcixi BHyTpenHExt y^pe- 

JKAeHiflX^, A'i^fiCTBHTeJIBHOfi DOJIBS']^ H CJiarOCOCTOHHlH HeocJia6Hoe 

npHjiaraerB none^eeie. Ho HeMBHyeMO OAHaRome Haxo»y npoAJio- 
SBTB Kb AonojiHOHiio npe^HHFO Moero nacBHa o HonojieaHOCTB bb 
^acTOMTi co6paHiH Bcero CoB'lTa, noiOMy hto ho^tb Bci hjibhii onaro 
Bb xyAOxecTBaxi b Apyraxx A'^axi ynpaacnaiOTCH, a noHejRe 

BBBi^CTHO, ROjlBROe HOyAOBOJIBCTBie Rd^AOMy npBIBHfleTl noTopHHie 

BpeMOHB, He coBSBOJmrB JIB CoB'itrB OHoe B^ pascyjRAeHie opbhatb 
B TaKi ynpeABTB, Aa6u to b Apyroe cb hojibsok) BcnpaBJiHeuo 
6ujio. $1 Haxo:Ry RorAa rocnoABH'B KOH^epeHm-ceRpeiapB, no 
AOJiacHOCTB TpyA0JiK)6ieHi b npEJieHcaHieMii cbobh^^ Bci naAoGHHa 
A&ia CB nopBAKOM^ npiyroTOBBTB^ RpaxKO e hcho, cb noMon^Bio 
BHorAa rocnoABHa AHpeRTopa, aAi>K)HRT^-peRTopa, BHcneRTopa b 
CJiynaioQ^Bxca bi AKaAeiilB Roro jdeGo bsi ApyrBxi rocnoA'B ?Jie- 
HOB'B, AOBOJiBHO RaHeTCH BpeMeHB A^A pimeHlB Bceny coSpaniK) 
MHorEx^A'i^-ni>t ^OJIOJReHHux^ bii yciaBi bi pasAtJiemB YII-m'b, 
naparpa^i 1-mt>, bi RaxAOMi wbc^u^k — o6iiiRHOBeHBuxi AByxi> AHefl, 
npB6aBJiaH bi onue abb b aenepB, RorAa nyacAa noTpe6yerB. Xota 
Bce pacnopH^Renie, Cob^ti hbhbtb BMieii, ho b% 
pascyxcAeniB, ito SojiBman naciB rocnoA> nonerHBix'B jnoGBiejieft b 
HJieHOBi npB Efl HMnepaT. BejiB^ecTBt OTcyTCTBOHBH 6yAyrB, escejiB 
8a6jiaropa8cyABTib, HoacerB o caMuxi cyMBBxeJiBHuxTB b BajRHUxi 



naBcioHepu aKaAevin DleAPHBii h MapTOCB; na ^ToBeuKot AaiiCBoecorja* 
cie 15 reHBapfl 1788 r. ^), BeMBoro noaze— HSBtCTHHfi JeBuuKifi, FopA'beB'B *), 
iipo4>eccop'B CxapoBi h aA'i>K)BKTi-npo4)eccop'B Akbmobi, b'l iioE'b 1791 r. v 
3th BaBHaneBifl Moryrb ciysBTB AOKaBaieiBCTBOu'B, 9to BeARoft BOBce ne 
HHiii oco6eBBaro npeApacnojioseBiB ki HBOCxpaHiiaMi, bb oco6eHHOCTH 
^pasnysaiiB. A-"^ ocymecTBieaiii cbobxi iiijefl obb flpH6irajB si HHM'b, hc 
BaxoAA cpeAii HaniHxi cooTeHecTBeBBBsoBi jihui ajh dioro AOCTaTO^BO 

nOATOTOBJeBHHXl, BO SOJB CBOpO TaEOBUA JIBIBJDCB Bei^KOfi HeuCAieHHO 

nojndOBajicii iixi SBaBiBUH n saMimaji buq opesxe BaHSTiixB nHOCTpaaaeBB. 



Cm. a* jo 1788 r. J>& 2. 
«) Cm. a. Hpea. 1780 r-J^ 2. 
«) Cm. a. npea. 1791 r. J^ 94. 
V Cm. A*Jiol767 r. J^ 6. 



— 326 — 

;i'|jiax'B oTb co6paHiH ko mh% coo6ii^aTB, o ApyrHX'B npesi rocno- 
Aiina KOH^epeHi^i-ceRpeTapA, xota noMtcAHHO, bi Rpaxi^i yst- 

AOMJIHTB. BctM'b B% UOOAjlfilfL TOKh CJtijlJK)mjlLWb Kb BBIIiyCRy 

BOcaHTaHHHKaM'B H6 HSBOJiHT'B JiH GoBiii c^b 21 anp^fl no 28 
iiOHfl (KOToparo ^HCJia h arrecTaTiii pasAaioicfl), xota yse TorAa 
OHH H cBepxii KOHnjieKTa cocToaiB 6yjiyTbj OAHaRO ao3bojihtb h^ro- 
Topue AHH CB B'i^AOBfa AHpeRTopa est* ARaAeniH bbixoahtb a^ 
npiHCRaniH ce6b Mi^CTa, npHqeni Raxeica yAo6Hie h o noBeAemH 

HXX yCMOTpilB MOaHO». 

Hjih nocjrl H36paHifl CoBiroifB OTCxaBHoro nojiROBHHRa 3aRpeB- 
CRaro npeeHHHROifB A^peRTopa KoRopsmoBa, nocJii ero roh^khu, 
Bei^Kofl nHcaJi-B CoBiiy bx 1774 roAy ^): 

«Haxo}Ry BuGopi AnpeKTopa BecBiia eyjRHUM'B, a tojibro no 
oCcTOATOJiBCTBaM'B Ji^^'h conpHSceHHBiu'B CB 3aTpyAHeHi0in», h6o ho 
MOiKeBTB co6jiK)AaTB B'B TOHHOCTH npasHJia ycTaBa, sa neROBcnjieRT- 
HBiM'B qncjioaft'B npeAnncanHBix'B bi ohomi aoctohhctb'b, a cb Apyroft 
CTopoHu npo$eccopuHaA'BK)HRTBi-peRTopu A0JI3RHII Gbuih 6u no^TH 

OCTaBHTB CBOH TaJiaHTBT, OCJIHGh VLX'b 06peMeHHJIH eaceAHOBHUIfH 

ABpeRTopa noneHeniflMH. Ki Tony see no CBOOHy HflocTpancTBy, 
HecB^Ayn^H pocciftCRaro HSURa, tojib Heo6xoAHMOHy«Haro 
AJifl npaBJienifl js.iji'b, ci> TpeSyion^BMHCH e^Keqaceo oS'BJiCHe- 
HiHMfl H npHRasaniaifH. Bi BHAy cero noHHTaio ce6fl npHnyacAen- 
HHM'B, yciyna o6cToaTeJiBCTBairB, corjiacHTBca cb acejra- 
niewb GoBi^ia n oxotho npHCTynaH) Kb npHrjiamemio na aiy 
AOJiacHOCTB Roro jih6o, xoxa 6ei ne bsi xyAOJEHHROBi, naxoAfln^a* 
roca B'B OTCTaBRi rocnoAHHa nojiROBHBRa AnApea OcHnoBH^a 
3aRpeBCRaro». 

Ciporo pyROBOACTByacB npaBHJioBi^ yciaBa, wonpeaHAeHT'B 
ci CoBiTOBfB Hsii^erB Rpaflsee noneuenie o xosaftcTBOHHoft 
HacTH ARaAemn, BeE(ROfiHeoAHOKpaTHOo6pantajiLBHiiMaHie CoBiia 
fia npaBHUBHOCTB H ai^JiecooSpasHOCTBpacxoAOBaHia A^HerB. TaR-B 
y«e B'B 1768 roAy OffB nncaJTB CoBiiy ^): 

itKaRii no yciaBy noBea'iBaeTca o bcIxti npExoAaxi h pacxo- 
Aaxi c^eTBi no npomeciBiH RaacAaro roAa CBHA'i^TeaBCTBya pimHTB 
H dRcneABi^la GrpoeHifl bbieI noAi* B'^A'^nieBTB GoB%Ta ace cocxoHrB, 
a Ri peBHsoBaniK) onpeAtaenu oco6ue hs-b qaenoB'B ARaAeiciH, 
noieMy ynoBaio o bcoitb no HUHimHifl toa'b pascMoiptno saH 



*) Cm. a*io 1774 r. J& 61. 
') Cm. a±io 1768 r. X- 15. 



— 327 — 

BCROpi HCnOJIHeHO 6jJSfiTb^ H HTO no TOMy OROHHaniK) HBHTCA, — 

npomy ysiAOMHTb^. 

PascMOTpiBie roAoearo OTHOTa AeHexHuxi cvmmi sa 1771 
roAx no6yAHJ[o Bei^Raro HanHcaib coB^Ty cji'^Ayion^ee dhcbmo ^): 

« Hai aRCTpaRTa.noAaHHaro sa 1 7 7 1 roAi* ycMOipeHO uhok), RaRHMn 
AKaAeMJA AOJiraHH ce6flo6peirbHHJia, ho He SHaio Gbijio JibnouumjiHeMO 
RorAa cpeACTBaxTi H86aBHTBCH OHUxi. XoTH npomjiaro roAa renBapa 
29 HHCJia HOHieHHOMy CoBiiy otb uena h npeA^omeHO 6ujio oyno- 
Tpe6j(ieHiH r^ lony CBoero npHutpnaro ciapaHia h BBHicaHJA, o 
HCRyccTBi^ Bi npoHSBeAOHiH 6jiaropa3yu[HO pacxoAOBi, ch Ha6jiH)Ae- 
HieM'b nyacHaro nopaARa aROHOMJH, npHCOBORynn cjii%AyK)H(ift AO 
Toro HS'B ycTaBa CyxonyTnaro lUjiaxexHaro KaAeTCRaio Kopnyca 
apTHRyjii>, noHeiiy ne cyMH^aaiocB, ^1061 see no OHony HcnoJiH^eMO 
H6 6bijio; OAHaRO^i npHHyHAeHHusfi ce6fl Haxoscy HanoMHHyrB, 
RaRi noATBepjRAeHiH HcnoJiHeHifl no CHJib loro npeAJio^enia, 
T2iKh H npeAynpoABTB; mo bctb jih no^enHMmift Cob^tb ho yno- 
TpefiHTi CBoero ciapaHlH ch jiyqmHM'B cpoactboh-b dROHOMie cjio- 
senlH Toro AO^ra npen ynoTpe6jieHle yu'l^peHHuxi pacxoAOB'B, to 
KOHOHHO noABeprnerB ce6fl neuHHyeBiOMy OTB'i^Ty bt» nesfiepeace- 
hIr nopyneHHOft b-b co6cTBeHHoe ero noneneHle aKaAOMH^ecROft 
cyu^u. IIpH TOBiii ace BRJiio^aH), a&6u bt* yciaHOBJifleMBift nopaAOR'B 
npHHflTO 6hjio, hto6i> scajiOBaHBe BUAasaTB na BcerAa npe^Ae hhhc- 

HHM'B HHHaBTB, a nO yAOBOJIbCTBOBaHiH TbX'B BClX'B — rOCHOAaMl* 

?jieHaMi». 

3a6oTHCB npHBOAeHiH b-b nopaAORi A^He^Haro xosaftcTBa 
ARaAeMiH Ho6iycTpaHeHiH BCflRHxi ^aJiofi'B na iieAJieHHOCTB pacqe- 
TOBi H ynjiaiB no AKaAeMin, BeuRoft bi 1773 roAy, o6pan;afl 
Ha Bce aTO BHHMaflie CoBixa, ORan^HBaji'B ceoe npoAJio^enie 
ARaAeMR^ecROMy CoBiiy cjioBaBin^): 

«ToiHoe HcnojiHeHie saBBCHTi eARHCiBeHHO otb npHJieacHaro 
pascMOTptoiH noHieHHUMi Gob^toh'b, bxoah bi, caMBia hoapoChocth 
Bi CHJiy A&HHaro yciaBa, Aa^u npeAnecaHie Moe ne 6ujio npHHH- 
MaeBco TOJiBRo )i,JiR CBiAenia, ho npoHCXoARJio b'b ncnoJiHeHie, cb 
GjiaropasyMHHM'B BHUManieM'B BHyipeHHOMi nopHAR'6 R'b a^Actbh- 

TOJIBHOft nOJIBSi ARBAeMlH)). 

Ho aio noBBAHMOMy ne jnwbsio jRejiaenuxi) nocJi%ACTBiA, n 
BeqROft B'B 1781 h 1782 roAy Aajn* CoBity CHOBa h^crojibro 



*) Cm. a*io 1772 r. J\6 48. 
') Cm. xino 1773 r. J»& 20. 



— 328 — 
npeAJio^eHift y cero npHjiaraeMuxi ^): o coRpan^eHiH bcakhxi 

HSJlHIDHHXTi paCXOftOBl H BOSHOJKHOfi 6epe^UIHB0CT1!. 

Ci> Bei^KHUTr, Bi> RanecTB^ npedHAOHTa ARaAeuin, chochjihcb 
BUcmiH npaBHxejiBCTBeHHUfl yqpe«A6Hla h jiHoa no a'^&m'e Kacas- 
msMca ARaAenlH. TaRi eanp. o npsrjiameHiH xjaojehekobi Roro- 
pHHoaa H ^ejiaiiOTTa ri pascyHAemAirB o nocTpoeaiH IleTponaB* 
jiOBCROft KOJiOROJibHH, BT» HasHaHeHsyK) aub ea coopyaceflifl RaHue- 
jiapiK) ^). CoBpeHeHBufi BeKKOMy A^Axejib, HSB^CTHuft flROBi* Ch- 
Bepci>, Bi TO BpeMfl upaBHBmifl TfiepcRBirb HaiflcTHBHecTBOirL, bi 
UBChui npH ceHi npnjiaraeMOH'B^), o6paiiiajicfl R'sneiiy ci npocB* 
6ofl cocTaBJieHlH npoeKia naMATHHRa HiinepaTpHi^ ERaiepHHi, 
ROTopoe TBepcKoe abop^hctbo HaHipeaaJiocL coopyAHTL eft bi 
Tboph *). 

ApxaerejiBCRifi ry6epHaTopi TyTOMJiHHi (Tnifo^ft HBanoBBHi) 
npocHJiL BeiJ^Raro B^ 1785 roAy o CHa($»eHiH OjiOHeAROft ry6epHiH 

CnOC06HHHH JIIOAbMH, Kb npHRaSHUO HBHU npHCyTCTBeBHUXl MtcrB^ 

ESI) MOJiOAHXB BocnHTaHHHROBi> AaaAeMlH XyAoacecTBi ^). 

HoBFopoACRift HHTponoJiHTT* FaBpiHjii npocHJii o noEin^eHifi 
Bi> iHCJio naHcioHepoBx ARaAeniH BOJiBnaro jRHBonncitaMaHyHJiOBa^). 

CHOnieHiH AKaAOMiH C^ paSJIH'^HUHH HHOCTpaHHHMH xyAoa^uH- 

RaiiH H aRaAeHiaiiH npoBcxoAHJiH xaR^e npesi BeARaro, RaRi aro 

BBAHO H8l HHOreXl A'^JI'B ARaAOMlH. 

DoBOAaMH BTHXi cHomeHifi npeHM yn^ecTBeHHo ABJiaJiHCb npHFJia- 
meHia xyAOXHHROB'b nsi-sa ^paHHI^J a^^ npenoAaBaHlA bi ARa- 
AeMiH B ea yqajiBn^i, BsGpame hxi b% noieTHue hjiohh h BOJiBHue 
o6mHHRH Hamefi ARaAeniH, a TaRse npe6uBaHie yHeHHROBi ARa- 
AeMiH 3a rpaHBi^eK) ajisi ycoBepmeHCTBOBaHia bi> HCRyccTBax'B. 

OdHaneHHue naHCioHepu, npeCuBaa sa rpaHHi](efi, npncujiajiH 
BB ARaABMiK) noApo6Hbie panopiu o cbohxi saa^Tiaxi q npn btomii 

AOHOCBJIE TOICB, HTO BBA'^H, RaRl SCBByTB, TA^ 6UBaK)T'b H T. A- 

Bei^Roft BBBMaiejiBBO DpocMaipHBajTB diH panopTU, A^^aJii» cboh 



Cm. npnioseniA sa ^3& 6, 7, 8. 

') Cm. itjo AEaACMiH 1764 r. J* 44. 

*) Cm. npHJoaeBie J^ 9. 

*) Hs-B A*Jia AKBAe^iu 1776 r. hfe 6 bhabo,^to npocKTi MOHyMeHxa a**- 

CTBHTeJBHO COHHBHJIl BpO^^CCCOpi apXHTCKTypU lOpiftMaTBteBBHIi ^^BJbTeBl 

H nojiy^Hji sa OHufi sojOTyio MeAaib.o^eMi saneMaTaBo Ohio hi C.-neTep6. 
BixoMOCTiixi 1777 r. >k 30. Cm. TaKise PyccKifi BtcTHHSi 1865 r., Mapn, 
CTp. 176. 

^) Cm. a^^o npesHAeHia AsaAeMiH 1785 r. f^ 59. 

") Cm. a±jlo rTpesHAeBTa 1791 r. >fe 100. 



— 329 — 

onciTRH ^) yKasaHia, KOTopua cooOn^ajoHCL naHcionepairB ^). 
KpoMi Toro HSi $paHuiii cooSn^aJi'B o6i dTHxi yHeHHRaxi Ae Jia 
MoTTb ^) (ocTaBBBmift Hamy AKaAeHiio bx 1775 r.), a b^ Hxajiin 
EM&i'b sa HHMH HaA3opx Pefi^eHmTefiHi, Koiopuft Bi 1777 roAy 
nHcajTL ^) ctous ces nieosieurs (Corojiobx, MapTOCL, KosjioBCKifi, 
Akhmobi>) sont plelas d'ardeur et d'envle de vouloir faire honneur 
k ]eur mere bienfaisaute et de se rendre utile k la patrie». BQpo- 
HCMi BCxpiHaioTai h jpyroro po^a otshbu. TaKi nanp. oamx nost- 

peHHUft Bl A^JISkXl Bl BeH6AiB, MapRH37> MapyiffiH, DHCaJTb, ^TO 

naHcioHepi Corojiobi ocTajica Oesi rpoma e sanjiJi'B y Hero AOBbrH 
jiflsi CBoero BosBpan^eDiA b% IIeTep6ypii», a HcaeBt « perslste dans 
8on entetement, malgr6 que j'ai declare k ses cr^anciersde Gfines 
que YU 8a mauYaise conduite TAcademie Imperiale I'abaudonne k 
son sort et qu'il n*y aura plus rlen k esperer d'el]e» ^). PaBHHM-B 
oGpasoHi* H CoBirB npeftCTaBJiaji'B Bei^ROMy, hto nocjiaHHue sa 
rpaHHjqy yneHHEH ne npHCJuajiH RapTHH'b wb ARaAOHiK) h hto, sa 

HeOTUyCROlfL HM'b no 8T0ft npHHHHi A6HerT>, OHH OHeHB, O^OHB 6'6a- 

CTByiOTi. HoBTOMy CoB*rB nojiarajix, ne bi ofipaseqi CyAyn^HMi, 
CA^axB MHJiocTb H BUAaiB ^ajiOBaHBo. BeAKoft, a&bi AKaAeniH 
6ojn>nioe npeAJioxeHic^ npe comi npHJiaraeiioe % yRasunaJi'b, hto 
CoBiTL nocTynHJii nenpaDHJibHo, yAepjRHBaa y naHciOHepoBi> :Ra- 
jioaaHBe, ROiopoe aojixho 6htb 6e3ycjioBHO hhi> BUAaBaeEO ^). 

n Ce. A'hio 1776 r. J6 28. 

*) Hs^ jifki'h ABa;reMiH ycMaipuBaeTca, hto sa rpaaHuefl naxoAHJiHCb 
BaaukHOB'Sy — b% Pniii; JIoceHKOBx, GTapoBi,— hi UapHSt a); aariMi Hiba 
HeijOBii, CTenanx CepAiOAOB-b, Mvxani's BiTomBHSOBi 6); b-b 1776 roAy Ba- 
xoxuiHCB: Bi Phm*— Apxnni HsaHOBi, HeTpt Cokgiob-b, MnxaHJi Ro3Job- 
csifi, HBaai Map-roci; «b IlapHst— 9eAop% n^eAPHBi, MHxanjiT> BiiBCKifi; 
jfb BeHCuiH-^GeAopi Bojirobi, GeAopi. AjeBcieB'B; b^ Bojohbh— HBaoi Asa- 
MOBi; b% FeHyii— MaTBtfi HcaeBi b). KpoMb TOro bi Bojobbq npe6uBaiieme 
iiaBciOHepi aBSAOiiia IleTpi CoKOjioB'B,KOTopufi,cBepx'i>aRHBoniicH, saBHiiaicfl 
uysuKofi, Hsy^aii KOBTpa-nyHKTi,HanHcai'E CHM(|)OHijo ii, nocjiaB'BeeBiABa- 
AeHiH), npocnji paapimeHiH "fexaTB bi Pifm, ix^ naxoAHiCfl bi to BpeMa 
AB<t»0CH r). Btotb ze 0020x081 npHCiaJi BaoTaTf, soropyi) cohhbhjtb no 
noBOAy BOSBpaiueBia nsi sarpaHH^aaro nyxemecTBiH BacJ'ib;(BHKa Bcepoccift- 
CKaro npecTOja CB cynpyroio, n, HMiBBcnacTBe noxHecTH oeyio bi Bojiohbu 
nxi BHco^ecTBaMB, yAOCTOHJCJi noiyqaTB Bo narpasy codokb qepBOBUCB'B jl) 

») Cm.a4io 1776 r. As 34. 

«) Cm. a*Jio 1778 r. J^ 25. 

*) Cm. AtJO 1778 r. JV- 15; 1773 r. As 43. 

•) Cm. npHJi. J^ 10. 

Cm. Jiiio 1772 r. >& 3. 



a) Cm. A'i^ia AsaAeMiH 1765 r. J\& 25; 1770 r. As 13. 
5) Cm. j»*jo 1773 r. As 64. 
B) Cm. AtJto 1778 r. J^ 26. 
r)CM.A4iol781r.j^l5. 
A) Cm. a*JIO 1782 r. A2 18. 



— 330 — 

naHcioHepu nepBonaMajiBHO nocBiJiajiHCb sa rpaHSAy Ha TpH roxa 
H noJiy^iajiis bi roAi» no HOTupecra py6jieft; Ha npo'idAi ace h 
nyxeBUH HSAepxRH hhi oTnycRajiacB oco6aa cyHMa. 

Ho KaK% no onuTy Aosflano, nscajr'B CosirB AKaAeifiH bi* 
1777 roAy ^), wo b-b laKOfl KopoTKift cpoKi ohh ne MoryrBnpioC- 
picTH AOJi^naro sHaniH, to pimeno 6ujio oxnpaBJiflTB na qeTHpe 
roAa no ABi^naAi^aTn leJiOB'i^Ri, OTnycRaa hitb b'b toa'b no TpHCxa 
py^Jieft ipes'B GaHKHpoBii. Hami nocjianHHRi b'b JIoHAontAjieRctfl 
CeMeHOBHqi) nyniRHHi yRas^Baji'B na HeAOCTaio^HOCTb cyMMu oiny- 
CRaoMOfl naHcionepaMX, RaRi uohho saRJiiOHHTB hsi OTBtiaaro ri 
neny niacBMa BeuRaro otb 1773 roAa ^), bi ROiopoiTB, npHHOCfl 
6jiaroAapHOCTB IlymRHHy sa AOHBrn BUAannHa BnepoA'B naHCione- 
paMB, EeuRofi Ao6aBjifljiB: ^IIpaBAa, hto b'b JIohaoh^ npe6£iBaHie 
Aopo»e ApyrHX'B mtcTB h ^to njiam Bamero BHCORopoAifl aecBifa 6u 
nocjiy^RHJUi wb bxi nojiBsy, no RaRi ohh cyxB xyAOXHHRH, to 
HaAoCino oacHAaTB, hto onpoA'l^JieHHoe hub yMipennoe coAepacaHie 
MomerB npHHyAHTB hxi* ri* Bivn^meMy npHjieacaHiio h xosnftcTBy; 
^ewb BCOBCB RB HHiTB siQ tyjifiTb HHcaHo Oil ARaAeMifl » . Ho 
BeAKOfi fiooSn^e 6ujn> hbaobojiofb sanaTinMH h o6pa30Mi ^hshh 
naHcioHepoBB ARaAeuin sa rpannaeH), RaRi* aTO ycBfaTpHBaeTca hsi 
cjiiAyiontaro ero npeAJioacenk CoBiTy ARaAOMin otb 22 napxa 
1783 r. y. 

«Uo AomeAmHMB ao mohh cjiyxau^ naRi hsti HapHHca h PnMa, 

TaRT* H HSB npOIHXB M^CTB, T^b BOCHHTaHHERH Cett ARaAeMJH, 

HOAaBHO BBinyn^eHHiae, o6peTaK)TCfl, HssicTHjicA a aoctob^pho, cb 

qyBCTBHTeJIBHOK) npBCROpGnOCTBK), OTB rbXX CailHXB, ROHMX HaAi* 

HHUH nopyneno CMOTpinie, crojib uajio onne cbohm'b noBeAemeifB 
cooTBixcTByioTB TOMy, Hero OTenecTBO oacHAajio ott. BOcnHTania hx-b, 
no HautpeHiK) npoAJiaraeMOMy bb npHBHJiJieriH h ycTani ARaAeMui, 
BucoHaftme ROH(|)HpMOBaHHux'B. HoHeMy h naAJieacHrB oeMeAJieHHO 
noHTeHHOHy CoBtry npHH^XB aoctoaojijrhua nipM j^Jia sarjiymenia 
Toro, HTO npoHcxoAHTB OT^ o6paii^eHifl nHTOMiieBi wh nyjKHXB 
RpaaxB RB 6e3CJiaBiio ho tojibro BOcneTaHliE, ho h samefi naiun. 
A RaRB noTOMy bhahmo, hto b'b pyROBOACTSo OHaro BRpajiocB nt- 
Roe coRpoBeHHoe 3jioynoTpe6jieHie, npenaTCTByion^ee vcnixaM-B h 
noBpeacAaiomee i^tjiyio npyacnny BOcnHTania, to Aa6Bi h HHHim- 
Hi'e HHTOMau He Sbtjih noABepacenu TaROMy ace sjiy, naAJieiRHrB 



*) Cm. a*io 1777 r. J^ 14. 
') Cm. a*io 1773 r. J* 13. 
') Cm. A±io npesHxeBTa 1783 r- J^ 24. 



— 331 — 

HsiHCRaTb HCTHHHUJi npHHBHU Toro noBpeacAeHifl H jx^Jisi Toro no 
TpeOoBaHiflBTB uoHSfB EirlberB rocnoAHHi KOH^epeHui-ceRpeTapB 
AOCTEBJiflTb MHi cnpaBRE H o6xflCHeHiji KacaTejiBHo AO oOpasa 
HUHibmflBro BOcnHTanifl, jsfiGu h, BomeAi* bo Bcb noApo6HOCTH, 
yAo6Hie Hon hobumh npeAnHcaHiHMH oTBpaTHTB eeycTpoficTBa, 
HeAOCTaxoHHoe— AonojiHHTb, a HcnopneHHoe — ncnpaBHiB, kijaoC- 
HOMy AOCTHaceHiK) npeABieTOB^ tojihko no cefl BaxcHofi lacm mh 
o6ntecTBa nojiesHUX'B » . 

CoB^TB, o6cyAHB'B 310 npoAJioseHie Bei^Karo, namejii HyacHfiiM'B 
nopy^HTB K0H(f»ep6Hi;i-ceRpeTapH) co6paTB cnpaBRH o6^ o6y?6HlH, 
npeAnHcaxB 6aHRnpaHi, HTo6fai nenciH BBTAaBaJiHCB eAHHCTBOHHO no 
CBHAtTOJiBCTBaHi HaACMaxpHBaTejieft 3a nancioHepaBi h ; 
anecTaTU sc bojibhocth BHAaBaiB ne HHa'ie JSAKh nocJii Bosspa- 
n^enifl nanciOHepOB^ bi oieieciBO. Kpoict loro nopynaJiocB r. Ge- 
AOHi B'B IIapH»^ npHUHTB Ha coSfl uaACMaTpHBanie sa naHcioHepaaiH. 

CoBiTB npoACTaBHJi'B BceicB BTOWh Bei^ROMy, A^BmeMy 2 Has 
1783 roAa HOBoe npeAJiomenie BecBiia o6mBpHoe, nouin^aeMoe 
wh npHJiOHceHiH ^), b'b ROToposfB, yRasuBafl CoBtry na HeyAOBJueiBO- 
pareJiBHOCTB BocnmaHiH h o6y?eHia bi ARaAeniii, Bei^ROft npeAJia- 
TVLSVb paanaHHHH Mi^pu r^ hxi ycTpaneHlK). CoBi^Ti A'^JiajTB Bospa- 
aenlfl HHaRoneit^ b'b 1791 roAy ^) npeACiaBHJi'B BeaRony, hto, 
naHCiOHepu ARaAeuifi ^), nocJiannBie sa rpaaHuy bi» laRoe Bpeiifl 

ROrAa TOJIBRO ^TO HaiHHaJIH BHHRaTB BO BCi TOHROCTH XyAOSCBCTBa, 

nep'i^AKOy no mojioaocth jr^rb, bhah ce6fl BApyn» na cbo6oa'&, npo- 
BoacajiH BpoMH 6ojrbe bb npasAHOCTH, neacejiH b'b yHeniH (^to mo- 
ryTB noRaaaxB h xyAoacHHRir, 6BiBnile naHCionepaMa, a lenepB 
AOCTHrmie sHaHenHTOCTu) h ^to no OROH^taniH onpoA'kieHHBix'B ji^a 
Hxi npe6iiBaHifl sa rpaHHAeio jt^tb, »HByHH na co6cTBeHHO]rB coAep- 
HcaniH, HaxoAH nocoCie bx xpyAaxi^ npio6piJiH li nosHanlH, no 
ROHMi yAOCToeHu aRaAOMieK) npo^eccopaicE, coBiTHHRaMH h onpe- 
AJ^jieHBi jijia, oCyneHiH cooxqa^ieft. Iloaxony ji^sia, Ban^oiaro ycnixa h 
npHBeAenifl xyAoacecxBi wh i^Btxyn^ee cocxonnie, CoBirB nojiaraoii 
6u xixii nancioHepoBB, roh seaHieiTB, npHJiesaHieM'B h Aapoaa- 
HieHi CBOHiTb noAaioxi naAoacAy na 6ojiBmie ycn'6xH, ocxaaJUflXB en^e 
na xpH roAa npn ARaAOMlH jsfia npioGpiieHla coBepmencxaa B'B 
xyAOxecxEl, nosBOJinBTi hmi* OAnaRO B^ROxopyio CBo6oAy 
(RaRi-xo: npoiiSBOAHXB pa6oxu na cxoponi, ho hoa^ Ha6jnoAe- 



Cm. a**o npeaweHTa 1791 r.J^ 95. 

') Cm. npHioseHie •>& 11. 

») Cm. liio HpcsHA. 1791 r. .>6 95. 



— 332 — 

HieMi npo$eccopoBT»); pascyAOKi hxt> npeai Jitia npHme^'b same 
B% apijiocTb caMH noqyBCTBjioT'b no BunycKi h3i> AnaAeMiH nojiBsy 
laEoro y^pe^A^Hia. T'bx% JKe BOCDHTaHHUKOB'B, koh bi TenefiiH 
cero BpeneHH en^e 6oJiie OTJinnarB ce6a bx xyxosecTBt, AKa^eMia 
He npeMEHerB OTnpaBHTB bi cnjiy YcTaBa sa rpaHBi^y h Tor^a to 
no cnpaBeAJiHBOCTB ohb BOcnojibsyioTca CBOBUi>TaM'L npe6uBaHiein>, 
snaa BCK) i^-i^ny npoAMeia ctojib ByKBaro aji^ CA^Jianifl nxii coBep- 
meHHUMH xyAoacHHKaMH ^). 

BeKKOfi 3 1 iiOJia 1 79 1 r. corjiacHJUca cb dTHMi DpeACTaBJieHieMi> 
GoBtTa, HO eABa jum Mon> npoAnoJiaraTb yBHA^TB cam pesyjiBTaTbi 
dTofi M'bpu. BAopoBBO ero y^Ko 6ujio ao Toro pascTpoeno, hto bi 
axoMi ace 1791 roAy nopyneHO 6hjio MycHHy-IIyniKHHy HcnojueaTB 
oGasaHHocTB npe3HAeHTa AKaAenlH. HecHOTpa na Bci 3a6oTu Beu- 
Karo ToraoMi ocy^^ecTBJIeHiH na nini yciasa AKaAOMiH k o npa- 
BHJiBHOMi o6yHeHiH yHOHflROBiea, Ji^jih dTa eABajiH BQOJini aocth* 
rajiacB. En^e 25 iiona 1765 r. BeuKofi nncaji'B EoRopHHOBy: «$! 
cjiumy, HTO HHorie bsi yqeHBROBi, HaxoAHCB bi npasAHOciH, He 
AOBOJiBHO 6681 nyjRAu no yjiHi^aMi maxaioTCH, ho b 6oj[BniiH ne- 
npiaiHOCTH A'i^aioTii, wkwh nasoca HapeRanie na ARaAeMiio, oiBpa- 
n^OHie ^ReJiaioniHMi oCy^aiBca npoHSBOAHTB; Toro paAB, BsC'i^raH 
onaro h npeAOcieperaa, htoGi* HonoTepaTB RaR'BcauBX'ByieHHROB'B, 
TaR'B H TpyAOBi H ynoTpeSjieHHaro na hexti HacABBeHia, HSBOJiHTe 
na RptoRO npHRasaxB, ^toSx hhrto h HBRyAa Bdi ARaAeiiiH Btiny- 
n^aeMB ne Gbijh, pasB^ sa RaKofi jih6o Rpaflnefi nyHAOK) h to ci 
no3BOJieHifl HM'lioniaroca HaASBpanie saoHUMH, BineH'BAaBaB'B Outb 
BidieTi dHJieTi*; ho fijiaronpncToSnocTB ace Ha6jiK)AaTB pasyMieTCfi 
npH ARaAeHln, bi npoTHBHOifB cjiyna']^ b HaASHpaieJiB noABepacenu 
6yAyTib oTBiTy". Korophhob^ bt» cbok) o^epeAB AaeT^ npeAHBcaHie, 
corjiacHO opAepy BeARaro, chotp^tb sa yneHBRaifH, hx'b njiaTBeiH), 
OAoacAoft, BOJiocaMH, o6xoacAeQieMi h t. a. 

He CJil^AyerB noJiaraxB, nro ynoMHeaeMue BemcHHi 6e8nopHAKH 
CTaJiH npoaBjiBTBCfl TOJiBRO CO BCTyHJieHieMi ARaAeniH bi» saBi^AU- 
Banie Bei^Raro. HanpoiBBB Toro obb cyn^ecTBOBaoiH n npn IIIyBa- 
aoBi, RaRB 3X0 BBAHO Hsi ero npeAnBcania ri Tony ace RoRopn < 

HOBy. 

IIIyBajiOBi enie 30 Maa 1762 r. nncajn* KoRopBHony. »Cero- 
ABH 6yAyHH a 3% ARaAeiiiH ycMOTp'i^Ji'B RpafiHift bo bcomi nenopa- 
AOR-b: 1) 6HJ10 4 Haca nocjii nojiyABa h eme xpexBeft lacxH yse- 



Cm. KhJLo np. 1791, J^ 95. 



— 333 — 

HHKOB'B H6 6fJJI0 H 0(]^ait6pi KapajJIBHUS CKasaJIli, ^TO TOKHO HXl 

noB^maTB HaiaJiK, no npaiHrt, hto npoij^eccopa h y^Hxejia nosAHO 
npHxoAflTB, 2) Ha Bepxy, r^i HBEyTi yieflHRn, Buji'bjL'h BejiHRyio ne- 
HHCTOTy H ne^b pacKajieHHaa orHeMi b^ taRoe BpeMii, Korxa HMeHHO 

H HeOAHORpaiHO He TORMO Jli^TOMl, HO H SHMOK) JUdpXSkTh OFOHB 8a- 

apen^eno; 3) HiROTopue yieHHRH 6ocfiie h sai^Mii bi RJiacci ne 
xoahtl; npH naxypi hh oahofo aA'BH)HRTa Hin* h yneHHRH hx% 
Kh rjiaBHOuy dRsa&ieHy ne Bce HanajiH; nero paAH nanRp'InHafime h 
nopyqaK) Bci ohuh H6yAo6cTBa BaifL o6oHBrb (KoRopHHOsy h Ill^ep- 
6aT0By) HcnpaBHTB n bi ARaAeMi'io nacTO isAHTb, csepx'L Toro 
npeAHHcaTb qacb npo^eccopa&fb h aA'bcoHRTaiii ymATejiawh^ htoSu 
Bdb aAiiOHRTu 6hjih bi cbohxt* HasHaqeHHux'b qacaxi a^^ pnco- 
BaaiH Hatypu h t. a- ^)- 

IIpHqHHbi noAoCHuxi 6e3nopHAROBi naAO ECRaxb B'b pasjieq- 
Hux^ ycJiOBiflxi o6n^ecTBeHHaro paaBHTin Toro BpeiieHH, RaR'b-To: 
B'b OTHOCHTeJibHoft rpy6ocTH HpaBOBi BOo6n](e, bi MajiOMi pasBHTin 
HyBCTBaAOJira h qecTHOCTcr, B'b HencnojiHeHiH jmqaMH Jiexan^nxi na 
Hflxi o6A3aHHOCTeA Boo6n^e. 

FopasAO noBAHie eo^e B'b 1788 r. A^^P^Kiop'b ARaAeiiiH 6apoH'b 
MaJibTHa^, RaR'b BHAHO H3^ HpHJiaraeMaro ero npHRasa ^), yRaau- 

BaJTbHa TO, ITO UHOrie y^HieJIH He XOAflX'b bo BpeMHBlCBOHRJiaCCU, 

a Apyrie, ecirs npexoAarb, to ho bi HasHaneHHue nacu h yxoAHrb 
npejRAeBpeMeHHO. Paspyman dTHirb He TOJibRO ycTanoBJieaHufl no- 
pHAOR'b, OHH npHBOAHTb B'b He6pe9ceHie yienie, yMHoacaiorb npasA- 
HOCTb yqeHHROBii H npHqHHUforb saTpyAHenie bi caifOM'b bochh- 
TaniH lOHOoiecTBa. BapoHi MajibTHi^'b B'b oTCTpaneHie axoro ycTa- 

HOBwlHJI^ pHA'b Mtp-b^ ROTOpUH OABa JIB HOFJIH OpHHOCHTb XCejiaeMyK) 

nojibsy^ TBRi RaR'b oahhmh npeAQHcamflMH naiajibCTBa neBOSHOxcHO 
ycTpaHHTb neqaJibHHxi> nocJiiA^TBifl, Ropenb ROTopux'b RpoeTca bi 
ycJiOBinxi oCn^ecTBeHHOft hchshh b^ A^HHoe speMH. HooGxoahmo 
6bijio bo MHO^OM^ npeABapHTOJibHO nepoBOcnBTaTb caHO o6n^ecTBO, 
Ri qeHy h HanpaBneHu bhuim CTpeMJioHifl Bei^Raro, jReJuaainaro 
nMTo6ii A&pi> 6jiaroHpaBifl n qecTH, nepexoAA ox'b Bospacxa B'b bos- 
pacrb cb JiiTaiiH BospacTaii, Ha bI^rh ocTaaaJicfl bi jhoaax^. IIpeA- 
opbiToe cle HaM'^peeie, roBopHTb OH'b B'b piqH CBoefi npOHSHecenHofi 
B'b 8ac*AaHiH AKaAewiH XyAOxecTBi 14 ahb. 1769 r. y ceronpn- 
JioaceHHofl^), npHMo CRasaTb BOJiHRoe, npeACTaBJiflerb cnaqajia yjRa- 



*) Cm. coq. neipoaa q. I, cxp. 91. 
') Cm. npHJios. J^ 12. 
') Cm. npHioxeHie J^ 4. 



— 334 — 

CHufi bh;i> wb pascyjRAeHiii noneieHifl h npHJie^HOCTH HeyroMHMofi, 
Tpyxa 6e3KOHeHHaro, Bcrpi^HaioiuHxcA npen^TCTBifl HHor^a nenpe- 
OAOJiEMuxi, HO see cie HSHesaeTi rojib cKopo BOsspHirB na 6e3<iH- 
cjreHHyK) nojiBsy, orb cero HcieKaiomyK)*. 

3to CTpeHJieHie Beii^RarO; ecjiE h ho iiorjio 6uTb ocyqecTBJieHo 
Ha A^Jii CKopo n CHJiaMH o^Horo neJiOB^Ra, r&Mi ne Meaie ne iro- 
«erB He BceJiaTL ki neny co^yBCXBia h yBaxenlfl. JifijiXiHO 6htb 
npHSBaiejiBHUMi eny sa to ysme hto ohi», ^cho cosHEBaa HeAOCTETRE 
coBpeMeHHaro eny o6iitecTBa, CA'^jiaji'b nonuTRy ri hxi OTCTpaaemio 
E TtHT» y»e noAroTOBEJi^ BOSMOJRHOCTb oTCTpanemH exi bi 6yAy- 
Hi^eMi). CnocoG'b, r^ ROTopony ohti npE6'irHyji'B j^sie OTCipaHeHifl 
axEXii HBAOCTaTROB'by BocHETaHie JiiOAeft, npESHaeTCH h no HacTo- 

SimfiQ BpeHfl eABHCTBeHHblM'b E BtpHMmE&Tb R^ AOCTEXCeHlK) XO- 

jiaeMOfi Tsjbjoi. 

Hsx oiqeiOBi ARaAeMiB XyAoaceciBi (a4jio 1783 r. J6 41) 
BBAHO, mo npE ARaAeMiH XyAO^ecTBi wb to BpoM^ 6ujir KJiaccu 
ABOiiRaro poAa: EMenHO TaR*b HasuBaeMue xyAOJRecTBeHHue, 
Kb HHCJiy ROTopuxi othochjiecb: SEBOHECb flCTopEHecRaa E nop- 
TpexHaH, jiaHAma^THafl, GaTajibHaa, MEHiaxiopHaH, a xaR^e ynpajR- 
HeHk B'b H8o6paa:eHiH ^pyRTOBi, ab^tob'b, sB'Ipefl e HTsai. 3a 
TiHi 6ijjiE oco6uH najiaTBi aji^ pa6oTi>: CRyjibirrypHoft, craTyfiHOft, 
rpasEpoBajibHofi na MiAE, MeAajibOHHoft, apxETeRTypeofl e naryp- 

HOfl. Rx HECJiy BTHYb JRB RJiaCCOBl UpEHECJIHJIECb TaKXCB UaJiaTfil 

^opMOBaJibHan, qacoBaa, neiaTHaa. 

Bxopofi poAi> RjiaccoBi cocTaBji^JiE RjiaccBi HayRi, RaR-b-io: 
anaTOMiE, 6yxrajiTeplE, nTenia, nEcama, a xaR^Re RJiaccu: Myau- 

RaJIbHUfi, BOJIbTEXEpOBaJIbHUft E T. A* 

ToiTb, B'b RaROH^ oGiBMi^, DO vaROft CHCTeifi^ npenoAdBajiHCb 
pa3JiEqHue npeAMeTu B'b ARaAeniE, a TaKsce RaREME yneSHbiME 
nocoCkME npE dTOMi nojibsoBaJiECb, o scewb btomi bi* A^axi 
ARaAemE naifb ne yAaJiocb nattTE yRasaHifi. IIo OROH^iaHiE Rypca 

BOCEETaBHERE HOABOpraJIECb aRSaMeHaMT) E yAOCTOEBaJIECb MeAa- 

Jieft, E HaEJiyqmie no ycnixairb BOCDETaHEHRE OTnpaBJiAjrECb sa rpa- 

Hfll^. 

Ho noBEAEMOHy BeAROfi 6HJi'b HeAOBOJieHi BOcnExaHieMi e o6y- 
qeHleM'b, noJiyiaeMbiME B'b ARaAeMiE XyAOxecxB-b yqeHERaME, n 
o6pan^aji'b Ha dTo BHEMaaie CoBtTa ARaAOMiE, ROTopoMy en^e B'b 
MapT% MicHi](t 1772 r., yRasuBan aa pasHue Henop^AKE no Are- 
AeHiB, OHii nncaji'b, RaR'b beaho esx npnjiaraeHaro nECbiia (npEJi. 
JV2 19), cjr&AyK)n^6e: «npEKtiqeHO ho TOJibRO mbok) (BeuRHMb), ho 



— 335 — 

H BCIhE nOCTOpOHHHMH, HTO BOCDBTHBaOMOe BTi AKaAOMiH K)HO- 

mecTBo coitepacEHO bobcb ne HaTOHi ocHOBaHiH, RaKi 6uTb aojijrho. 
MoacHO CRaaaTB, He Buin noHTOHHufi CoBin hh CTapanifl, ebtrg 
noneneHifl uiAOBaiB ne TOJibKO reaepaJibHOMy, ho h aRaAeMH^e- 
CKOMy yciaBy, nnsce npoHBicB ROH^HpMOBaHHKtii'B j^emMfiEiAWhy 

no ROTOpUMli HOMEHyeMO yTBep^OHO BOCnBTUBaTB, T. e. He npH* 

HHMaeTc^ ocHOBaTejibHux'b npeAocTopoxHOCTeft h nibpi ki coxpa- 
Hemio aiHSHB BOcnHiaBHBROBx, Ki orpaacAeaiio hxi bo Bpena npe- 
6uBaHi^ Bi ARaAeHiH BHA^Tb b cJiHrnaib hto jih6o xyAoe,Ki bro- 
peHeHlK) MUCJieft 6jiaroHpaBHux'b, necTHOCTH, 6jiaronpHCTOftHOCTH, a 
TaRi> ORB Kb o6yqeBiK) hxi. HanpoxsiB'b Toro yieHBRH bocdhtu- 

BaK)TCH B-B p060CTHy SaCTiBHHBOCTH, Bl> HOCTyBRaXl yHH^BHHUX'b, 

Bi>o6pan^eHlflxipa8BpaTHbix'b,cjioBOHi>cRa8aTb cobc^hx kl pa6cTBy 
npoKJiOHfliOTC)]; o npoHHX'b noApoOnocTHX'b He ynoMnnaio sa Rpai- 
ROCTiK) BpeueHH; aobojibho CRasaTb pasBpaTHoe BocoHTame*. 

XIoaAHie 2 Biaii 1783 rofl;a ^), BertRoft CHOBa HHcajni CoBixy, 
HTO ci RpafiHHM'b npHCRop6ieM'b BHAHTb, HTO ^ocDHTaBie Bii Arb- 
AeiiiH XyAOflcecTBi mhofo yAaJiHJiocb orb hctbhhuxi npe^MeTOBi, 
HpeA^OJIa^aeMux^ bi npBBHjieriiix'b h ycxaB^ ARaAeHin. Bjiaro- 
pasyMHoe o6niecTBO, no cjiobbmi BeaRaro, npBM'biaerb, hto bi bu- 
nycRaeHOMi bsi ARaAeidH lonomecTBi Bcejieno HenpncTO&Hoe 
peeHie Kb noJiy^eHiio HHaoBi aRaAeMBHecRHxifa no ocTaBJiemH cBoero 
xyAO^ecTBa h HacxepcTBa hehobi BoenHiix^H mraiCRHxi. HeBHy- 
maeTCH Toro, ^to ECRycHufl xyAoaRHERi sacJiy^RBBaerb on Bcixi 
yBa^eHifl e no^Tenia B^b o6n^ecTBt. Orb bojie Ra^A&ro nejiOB^Ra 

SaBECHTl 6UTb HOHTeHHUM'b; HB SBasie ^HOJIOB'lRy, a HeJIOB^Rl — 

sBaHiK) npHHocHTb yaajKeHie, npio6piTeHHoe 6jiaroHpaBleM'b. KpoMt 

TOrO eCTb H TBRle, ROE BOSpOCJIfl Bl CBOBBOJIIe, npEBURJIE Kb FHy- 

CHMmHEi nopoRaHi, Kb BucoROM'Ipiio, Kb npasAHOCTE, pacnyTCTBy, 
npEHOcanpe GescjiaBie BocnETaTeJiaMi). A^a OTBpan^eaia tbrexi 
neiaJibHHXi nocjiiACTBifi BOcnBTanlfl, Bei^ROft, rbri bhaho hsii npa- 
jiaraeMaro ero nacbHa 2 Haa 1783 r. ^), npeAJiaraji'b AJia spiaaro 
pascyacAeaifl noixeHHaro CoBiia, a hotohi b xaepAaro npeAnpiaiia, 
paA:b Hipi, RBR^To: 1) ocBo6oAaB'b Coairb orb uejiKExiy xosBft- 
CTBeHHuxi A^^'B, AOCTaBBTbOMy 6oa%e BpeiieHE Kb pascyacAeHlaM'b 
BaacH%fiaiExi> HaTepiBxi, rbri-to: o neyAoecTBaxi h ynyn^enlax'b 
Bi BOCHBTaniE E yneniE h rbreme aeriafiniHEB cnocoCaHE coot- 



*) Cm. npHJiosenie J^ 11. 

') Cm. Tose npHioseHie )& 11. 



— 336 — 

BtiCTBOBaTb HaM^pemK), npeAnncaHHOuy ei ycTasi; 2) qjieeairB 
CoB^Ta npoHHRHyiBca co BceBosMOHHHMi T^aHieiTb Kb cym^ecTBO 
pasyna npnBHJierlfi h yciaBa ARaxeMiH; 3) cooOpasHO ycTasa 
npiyroTOBjiflTb yqeeHKOBi, laicb hto6u CTapmift Bospacrb npexcTa- 
BJifljica npHM'i^poM'B 6JiaroHpaBiH MJiaAnieMy, xaRi Kani npHCia- 
BHHRH H BocnBTaTejiH — BOoSEqe Bci^Mii nHTOMAaiii; 4) pacnojioxHTb 
yqeeie no BOspacTasfb c^ 66jibniHBn> BEHManieMii h 66jibnieK> toh- 
hoctIk), osHaHHsi, no RaRHMi> RHHraHi, B^ RaROiTB RJiacci, o6yHaTb 
CyAyrb. He nyacHO AonycRaib nocjiafijieHla lOHomecTBa bi Tpy^o- 
JTK)6iH; Heo6xoAHMo no6y»AaTb h noompiiTb hx-b r'b npHJieacaHiio vh 
TpyA0JiK)6iH. Heo6xoAHMO BocnHTaTOJiflX'b h npHCTaBHERain noMO- 
raTb BocnHTaHHaRaMi) wb Bu6opi ynpajRHenifl, no cnoco6HOCTH h 
CRJiOHHocTH KaxAaro Bsi HHx^. Heo6xoAHMO o6oApflTb AapOBaeiji 

H T. A. 

Bci 3TH npeAnojioacenia Bei^Raro BusBaJin TOJibRo oCrnHpnyio 
nepenHCRy CoBtTa ch BeitRHM'b, npn neifb Cob^tb, bo MHoroifb 
corjiamaacb ch Bei^RHUT», eaxoAHJii) OAnaRO ne Hajio saTpyAHOHiS 
R'b ocymecTBjieaiH) na js^^i npeAnoJioacenlft BeuRaro. Bei](Roft bi 
CBOH) o^epeAb OTBi^qaji'b na BospaxeHifl. CoBtia h AORaBUBaJii 
npaBHJibHOCTb CBOHxii npoAnoJioxeHifi h nojiHyio BOSKOxnocTb HXb 
ocyn;ecTBJi6HiH na A^Jii. Ho see aio orpanHHHJiocB c^poK) 6yMax- 
Haro A:ljionpoH8BOACTBa. BeitROft 6ujii yme cjiHmRoirb crapi, qioSu 
Ao6nTbca ocymecTBJieHiH cbohxi npeAnoJioacenlB na fl^bni; ohi R'b 
TOHy »e oc^n'b, 6ujvh pasfiarb napajmneH'b h eAea jih Cbijh bi 

COCTOHHIH BCnOJIHflTb 06H8aHH0CTH EpeSHAeHTa ARaABHiH. 

Ho CRopo o6HapyjKHJiocb, mo wh hulcjA naxoAfln^nxcfl upn 
ARaAemn yneHHROB^, RaRi aohochjh KoRopanoBi 2MapTa 1764 r., 
BCTpinaioTCH TaRie, «ROTopHe no crjiobhocth Kb xyAoaROCTBaicb 
iiwbvyn Maoiue ycnlxn n rbMi* ne tormo nepoAi MJis^mHMH ocTaiOTCfly 
HO H BnpeAb HaAO^AH R'b npoAOJiseniio bi xyAOJRecTBax^ Majio 
HM'lK>T'b». Ho RaRi TaROBHe coAepjRaeleM'b cbohhi ho irajio y»e 
ARaAOMiH CTonn n nicROJibRO bi pncoBanm HayneHbi, to RoRopH- 
HOB-b npoAJiaraji'b TaROBUx'b RaR^ nuni, xaRi h BnpoAB, no pas- 
CMOTpinifo, onpeA^iiATb R'b nyjRHHM'b no ARaAOMia MacTepcTBaB(^. 
BoAROft OAoGpHJi'b 8T0 18 Maa h yqenHRH SuJin pacnpeA^JieHbi no 
cnoco6HOCTHM^. 8ro noBJioRJio yBejiaienle HHCJia RJiaccoBi e npe- 
noAaBaieaefi ^). R'b HHCJiy 6biBmHX'b HeTHpexi RJiaccoB'b npedasH- 



') YKadBiBaeacb ea am Kjaccu hotohj ?to nparjameflie paain^HHX'b 
npenoAaeaTOjefi u aeperoBopu cb bumh miu ^pesi Bei^saro, Ras'b 3To bkxho 
ii3i> yKasEiBaeMKix'b HHse jifb.\^ apxHBa ARaAeiiiH XyAOxecxBi. 



_ 337 — 

jtHCB HApyrie, KaKiHanp.: 1) luiacci opHaneHTHofi CKyjibn- 
Ty pu, ROTopBiMTi caepsa saBiAfi^BaJii ^njie, a noTOM'B,B'B 1766 r., 
npHrjiameHi 6ujix na dTO Pojiaui, oCasaHHuA no KOHipaRTy no- 
KaaueaTb laicse cnoco6H THCHeHin ifeiajiJiOB'L h Kapiona h nparo- 

TOBJieHiH ROMHaTHUXl y6opOB'b; OHl nOArOTOBJiaJE'b H OpHaMeHTHUXli 

pHCOBajiBn^HKOB'L. Ilocjii PojiaHa, CT) 1769 r.,dTa cneiuajikHOCTi* 
pacnajiacb Ha Asi ^acTH, HifeHHo: Ha pl3i>6y no Aepesy, Koxopoft 
o6yHaji'binBapA'B,a noTOMijCB 1774 r.^FajiLOH'b, BSflBmiftcH KpoMt 
pisbOfii H8i A6peBa yHHTb H no30JiOTHOMy A'bJiy; RJiaccb aTon» yHH- 
HTO^HJiH B^ 1788 roAy 0- nyccHpoBamfo, ^opMOBaniio, jihtbh) 
H8i> MiAH H OHOfi HeKaHeHbK), sojioHOHbio, ce'pe6peHbH) H 6poHsn- 
poBaHBfo yiEjrb Chmoh'l hsT) Ilapu^a, a hotobcb (Gastoclou) FacT- 
Kjny, a HaKonem Roppepi, a hotomi onaib Torb xb FacTRjiy, 
yBOJieHHHft Bi 1783 roAy ^). Ero sairtnHJi'b SrareAT^ (Oestedt), ko- 
Topuft Bdfljica TaiuKO yHHTb rpaBEpoBanlK) Ha6jiaropoAHUxx Meiaji- 
JIax^, HOKaHKi^ h HcnojmeHiio j^njiarpaHHOBofi pa6oTu. MaJiue 
ycnixH Rjiacca BusBajin onpeA'^enie 29 anpijia 1788 roAa, hto 
nojibsa H ycniiXH on KJiaccoBi nacoBoro HCKycciBa, 80JiOTbixi> jsjbmi 
H ptsHoro Ha AepoBi ne cooiBlTCTByiorb nsAepjEKaifb ^). dmiOATb 
6ujii yBOJienii, ho bbatu 6ujih ABa 6paTa GoJibAarrH (Soldatti) AJi^ 
o6yHeHifl CRyjibnTypi opnaMeHiHoft ^). 

2) IIosojiOTHoe HJiH aoJiOTapHoe MacrepcTBO, ROTopoe npenoAa- 
BaJiH JI^aHiHJi'b FpnropbOBi h Hayni CeMeHOBi, BSfliue hsi b^aom- 
CTBa Kani^eJiApiH CTpoenlft ^). 

3) Kjiaccb js^hjidLEiH MaTeMaTHHecRHxi nncTpyMeHTOBi. Ohi no- 
JiyHHjDCb ocoSeHHoe pasBHile, RorAa BUSBani 6i^jli> nsBicTHuft Ha- 
crei:^ Moprani, anrJuraaHHrn, h saRJUO^eni c^HHM'b RonipaRTi 
na 4 roAa •). 

4) Oco6o orb axoro Rjiacca HHCTpyMeniaJibHaro cymecTBOBajio 
o6yHeHie HacoBuxi ji.iji'b MacxepcTBy npn ARaAeMiH. Ci 
HacoBUM'b MacxepoiTb HopAmxeftHi 6ujrb saRJUO^eHi na axo oco6ufl. 
ROHTpaRTb ^), Ohti, RaRT* BHAHO, oCy^ajii HOTHpeXX yqeHHROBX. 
RpoM'6 Toro npH ARaAeMiH o6y?ajiH 

5) cjiecapHOMy MacxepcTBy. 



Cm. xtio J\& 39 orb 1774 r. 

Gk. Atia 1774 r. J\& 29 H 1779 r. Jd 14. 

Cm. a*io 1788 r. J^ 10. 
, Cm. a. 1791 r. Xt 19. 
») Cm. a. 1764 r. Ka 17. 
•) Cm. a. 1772 r. ^32. 
Cm. a. 1774 r. 1* 27. 

H. H. BKAKOft. 22 



— 338 — 

6) ToKapHuft RJiacci, cnepea wb coeAHHeHiH co ctojihphumi>; 
9T0My HCKyccTBy ofiyiajii no KOHTpaKiy nacrep'B CepeH- 
ceH'B ^), anoTOJTb BaKO$$eHi (Backoffeu) *), ROTOpuft «ycMOTpiHi 

HO TOJIBKO ^eJIOBiK'b H6HCnpaBHfilfi, HO 2RHTi)I CEHarO HO TaKOFO, 

KaKoro 6u ARa]i;eMifl acejiajia, h6o Haxo^HTca hi dbjih- 
cTBi^»,H Ha ero m'Icto, no Busosy bi si^AOMOCTHXi, nocTyDHjn> 
MaciepiHenin (MaiBtft reHeHT)) '), oinpaBJiflBmift aiy o6H3aH- 
HOCTb Cb npoMOxyTKaMH cb 1772 r. j^o 1779 ro^a. Co6cTBeHHo 
TOKapHHft KJiacc^ B-b BHA* OT^^JibHaro flBHJicji Bx 1787 ro;ty, ct 
onpejT^eHieifi n^Koero loanna roTJiH6a UlHBHra. 

7) MeAaJibepnufl oaccB HJie KJiacci rpaBHpoBanbH na craoiH h 
KptnKBxi KaMeHBHx^ OTKpuTB Bi 1764 roAy, Kor^a saRJHoqeni 
KOHTpaKrB Cb (|)paHiiy3CKHMi xyAoiRHHROiTB BopHBe (Pierre Louis 
Vernier) nanflib .Thrb *); ho ero ysoJUurH noneMy-TO panie, RifeHHO 
2 0KTH6pfl 1768 ro^a, n jiflJiro ho hofjih naflTH, Kbm sani^CTBTB, 
H TOJIBKO BT> 1776 T. Chjit* BSflTb T. leropi (laeger), KOTopHft cRopo 
saxBopajii, ociaBHJi'b IleTepCyprb, n Tor^a BusBanH hsi IlapHxa 
TajiaHTJiHBaro neHcionepa AKaAeifiH CeMeea BacHJibeBH^a Ba- 
CflJibeBa (yieHHKa BepHbe) h DopyHHJiH eny KJiacci. Bi npo- 
AOJiHceHiH 18 J^Tby Ao CBoeft CMeprn, ohi odynajn* MOAaJibepHOMy 
HCKyccTBy. Hsi ^iirb AKaAeiiin He bhaho, 4to6i npH neft, no roh- 
nuLwb JIoMOHOCOBa bi 1765 roAy, npoAOJiacajiH ofiynaTb y^enHKOBi 
MOsaHKi, HO saio, sa Bpena npesHAeHxcTBa Bei^Raro, npn ARaAeiriH 
npoii3BOAHJiocb HeBiajio paSon no otjiebr^ pasjiHinaro poAa senKeft 
no saKasaMi HnnepaTpHmj, a TaR^e h niKOTopuxi ^acTHUxi* jiHin>. 
TaKi> nanp. MacTep-b 3AHe FacTRJiy, o6y?aBniifi yqeHHROBi ARaAeiiiH 
(Gastecloux, maitre fondeur, sizeleur en dorure de Paris ^), omh- 
BaJii CiocTb npoRO<j[>ia JI^eMBAOBa h 4 ApeBsin CTaiyn no Buco^aft- 
meMy noBOJi'bHiK). 

Hsi AORJiaAa Beu;Raro HBinepaipHi^'fe 14 napia 1783 r. ycMa- 
TpBBaeTCfl ^), 1T0 no BHCOiaflmeMy noBOJiiHiH) 6hjih OTjniTH hs^ 
6poH3u $HrypH BeaepH ^apnescRoft, KynHAona TpenecRaro, AnoJi- 
jioHa EejibBeAepcRaro, Any pa cb IIcBxeeH), BeHepu Ae MeAHi^HCi, 
6k)cth: npeACiaBJiflion^ift cthxIk) BOAy, Ahthhoh h MepRypia Bcero 



«) Ck. a. 1771 r. J^ 82. 

*) Cm. a, 1773 r. J* 127. 

*) Cm. a. 1774 r. N: 111. 

*) Cm. a. 1769 r. J\& 6. 

») Cm. a. 1779 r. M* 44. 

«) Cm. a. HpQgiiA. 1783 r. J^ 41. 



— 339 — 

Ha 9.412 p., o6i 0TnycK:6 ROTopux'L nHcairb BesSopoAKO Aa. B. 
Ojicy$BeBy: 

«MHJiocTHBufi FocyAapb AAaMi BacnjibeBH^i)! YnoTpeOjieHHiJH 
AKaAOMiefi XyAomecTBi na BHJiHTie CKyjibirrypBi npo(j[)eccopoii'L Fop- 
A:ieBUM'b HsiCpoHBH Sciaiyfl jifiEhvuL 9.412 p. 25V4 k- Eh Hnne- 
paTopcRoe BejiH^ecTBO Bucoiafime ynasaTB coESBOJiHJia AOCiaBHTb 
H3T) Ka6HHeTa rocnoAHHy A. t. c. Hb.Hb. BeuKOMy. Ecmb, BapoHeM-L, 
ci coBepmeHHUBTLBucoKono^HTaHieMB Bamero IIpeBOCxoAiaTejiBCTBa 
BcenoKopHMmift cjiyra». 

KpoMt Toro HfiiteTCfl eme npeACiaBJieHie Beij;Karo otb 1784 r. 
iiojia 30 ^) TOMi, HTO JiHTeftmHKB MoataJiOB'b otjmji'b FepKyjieca 
^apnescKaro sa 2.400 py6. (MaTepiajii KaseHHUfi) h KOJioccajiBHyK) 
rpynny Hio6eH c^ AOiepBK) (3a KOTopyio npocHTx 2.000 py6.) h 
HGTHpe ciaxyH, HsoCpaaeaiomLa ea A*Tefl 4.000 py6. Maxepiajiu 
H pacxoAH no oxjiHBKi HCHHCJiaJiHCB 0C060. CBepxT* Toro HeoSxo- 
AHMO ynjiaiHTB xyAoacHHKy FopA'feeBy sa paSoiy no CAiJianiio moao- 
Jieft H CMOTpiniK) sa otjihbkok) npeacnnx^ bocbmh ^Hryp-B h sa no- 
CTasKOK) BcixTi BOo6n;e 14 CTaxyft 2.800 py6, Bcero Hcnpamn- 
BaJiocB 28.000 py6. Bb 1786 r. MoataJiOBB oiJUHBaji'B ^), no Bm- 
coHaflmeMy npHKasaniio, KOJioccajibHHa ^nrypu: $Jiopu, KjieonaipBr, 
FepKyjieca. Bei^Kofl nncajii no aiOMy noBOAy CipeKaJiOBy B^ 1 786 r. ; 
<Ea HmiepaTopcKoe BejimeciBO Hsycino ynasaiB coasBOJiHJia 
nncaiB ki BameMy HpeBOCxoAnTeJiBCTBy 06^ oraycKt Aenerb na 
OTJiHTie HST* MiAH 3 HaxoAan];Hxca npn AKaAenln XyAoacecTBi, ko- 
jioccajiBHuxTb CTaiyft, a HMenno *jiopBi, KjieonaTpHi, Fepnyjieca, a?^ 
AByx^ 6k)ctob'b, H8o6paHcaioni;HX'B craxm: oroHB h BOAy. Bo ncnoji- 
Henie nero h cooCn^aio npn ceMB BameMy EpeBOCxoAHTejiBCTBy 
CMtiy, npeACTaBJiennyK) mh4 otb cOBtia loft AKaAeMia, no KOTopofl 
H nponiy BaCB o AOCiaBJieHiH bi onyio hsT) Ka6HHeTa Ea HMnepa- 
TopcKaro BeJiHHecTBa noipefinoft cyMMU. npe6BiBaa cb coBepmen- 
HUMi noixenieM'B BameMy IIpeBoc. MHJiocxHBOMy rocyAapio MoeMy 
noKopnii&mHH'B cJiyroK)>. HnnepaxpHi^a nomajiOBaJia Mo^ajioay h 
jiHqaMi, BMtcxi cb hhm^ xpyAHBmHMca, xHca^y py6Jieft narpaA^i ^J. 

Bi 1788 roAy oxjiHsaJiH KOJioccanbnyio ciaxyio eoraim KuSe^iJiH 
AJia Kani^Jiepa Be36opoAKO ^), A bx 1700 r. oxjianajr nu ag- 



*) Cm. «. npesHjt. 1783 r. As 41. 

>) Cm. a*JIO ApxHBa 1786 r. Jfe 11; x^^o Upes. 176*^ r. .V 

•) Cm. a*J"o ApxHBa 1786 r. J^ 11. 

*) Cm. a*io ApxHBa 1788 r. J^ 24. 




— 340 — 

BATH Mysi H 6k)Cth pasHuxi MyjKefi ApeBHOCTH no BucoHaftmeiiy 
noBejiiHiH) H AJiH rpa^HHH AjieK. B. BpaHHAROft ^). 

HejiLSA HeynoMHHyTB, ^to «ARaAeMiH Xy^o^cecTBi hi CRopoicB 
BpeneHH BunycTHJia MHoro otjihiho oGpasoBaHHUxi) xyAO^HHROBi, 

KOTOpue MOryrB COCTASaTBCA CO MHOrHMH AOCTOfiHUMH coBpeMen- 

HEKaiin nxi bi Espont, RaKVTo; JIoceHRO, Corojeobi, JIqbulukxAj 
BopHROBCRift, PoROTOBt, meApHH-B, AjIGRCteBl, FopfffeeBT., lUy- 
Shh'b, KosjiOBCRift, MapTOCb, EropoBB h t. a., no apxHTeRxyp-fe — 
CTapoBx, BoJiROBTi, BameHOBi h t. h. 

IIpoHSBeffeHifl osHa^eHHHX'B Jinni-h nepeHHCJueHu bi RpaxRoirb 
ifCTOpn^ecROMi CBi^A^^Hm o'cocTOHHiH HMnepaTopcROfl ARsg^eHiR 
XyAoacecTBx cb1764 no 1829 r. C.-IIeTepSyprb, 1829, cxp. 10 — 
12, OTRyAa n saHMCXBOBaQu HaMS bth CB^A'^HiH. 

T^wb BpefiieneMB s^opoBbe Bei^Raro chjibho pascipoHJiocB; ohi> 
no^TH ocjAni, 6ujrb pasSmrB napaJiaqeM-b, Bnaxb bt» a^tctbo h ne 
B-b coctohhIh 6ujrb HcnojiHHTb jie^aBmEXB ea newb cjiy»e6H£ixi 
o6fl8aHHOCTeft. 9to h BHSBaJio 4 napxa 1794 ro^a cniAyromift 
yRaa-B HMneparpBuu na hma oGept-npoRypopa h noHOTnaro HJiena 
ARaAeMiH XyAOJROCTBB AjieRcia HBanoBH^a MycHHa-IIyinRHHa ^): 

Bb pascyacAemH AOJiroBpeMOHHoft 6ojr%3Hn Hamero JI^Mctbh- 
TOJibHaro Tafisaro CoBi^THHRa h IIpesHAeHTa BeARaro, ROiopuB no 
cefi npn^HH*]^ ji^dLsae ne mofl HsSpaxb ce6t npeennnKa, na ocHOBaniH 
HSAannaro orb HacL jiflE Toft ARaAOMin YcxaBa (rji. HE, pasji. I, 
CT. 6}, npEsnaJin Mbi sa 6jiaro nasna^HTb Baci npeeMHHROMi> Ilpe- 
SHAenia noMAHyxofi ARaAeMin; cohsbojiah, ^xo6h bu, Bcxynn Heiie- 
AJienno b'l oxnpaBJienie ero SBanin h pyROBOACXBy^cb AOCxaxonnHMH 
npeAnncaniflMH, bi npnBHJiJieriAX'b ycxaBi ceiiy Mi^cxy ott> Ha(rb 
noacajiOBaHHuxi, cxapajmcB npHBecxn hxi bi saRonnyH) CHJiy h n!bi- 
cxBie, RaRB oxHOcnxeJiBno saBeAenHbixB xyxB BOcnnxaxeJiBHaro 
y^njinn^a, xaRB h npo^nxB yipejEAeniaxB npn ARaAeMin; bb RaROirB 
ace cocxoahIh naftAexe ee, ne ocxaBBxe aohocxh HaMX bb noApo6- 
Hocxn. Bnpo^OMB, Mu, B%A&a JcepAie Bame rb cjiyjK6tHanieS, pes- 
HocxB RB nojiB8% oGn^ecxBeHHofi H yBaacenie RxnayRaMBHxyAOJKeci- 
BaMB, ROHMH nocntmecxByexcfl 6jiarococTOHHie napoAnoe, naA^eMCfl, 
Hxo BU xpyABi RB xpyAaMT* npHJio}RHxe, a&6u onpaBAaxB Bu6op^ 



*) Cm. a*jo Apx. 1790 r. J^ 10. 
•) Cm. A'hxo 1794 r. J^ 5. 



— 341 — 

Hami, Kb oco6i BameflyHHHeHHOft, htojihro ea^LHOMy h nojiesHOMy 
cjiyatemK). EKaiepHHa. *). 

IIpoHTfl aTorb yRasT) bi» co6paHiH AKaAeMin 11 HHCJia bi 5 na- 
coB'b nonojiyAHH, MycHHi — nymKHHi* orb cefin CKasajn: «My3K'B,8a 
OTJiH^HUA Ao6poA'%TeJiH H sacJiym 6jiarocjiOBeBHii]ft otb Bora nac- 
THTOK) CTapocTbK), OTb IIoMasaHHHiua ae Ero yKparaeHHHft no^ecibMH 
B yBaaceHieMii, Roero npeeMHHKOM^b 6biTb h y^ocToeH'b^ MHoro cno- 
cn'ImecTBOBajn'B ycrpooHiK) sHaiieHBTaro uicm, Kb uosbwbii cjiasi 
PocciH ynpe:KAeHHaro, Buco^afime noRpoBBTeji&CTByeMaro. ARaAeMia 
Bx HesafiBeeiH oCflsana coxpaHHTb naMATH K&Kb HeycunHoe ero no 
AOJiry SBaHiio o Hefi noneqesie, TaR'b nane OjiaroTBopemn, ORasaHHua 
nHTOMi^asfb no ero BejiHROAyniiK)» ^). 

BcRopt nocjii BToro, 30aBryccal795r., Beipeoft CROHTOJica '^j. 
Hsi A'^Ji'b ARaAeMiH XyAoacecTBTi ne ycHaTpHBaeTca, htoSu ARaAeifia 
XyAOJRecTBi wb to Bpena ^iwi jih6o no^rrajia naH^Tb jiHua, ro- 
TopoMy oHa 6HJia HeMajio oOaaaHa. ToJibRO BnocJiiftCTBiH mb onpe- 
AiJieHlft CoBtia 17 AORaCpa 1802 roja bhaho *), hto rr. xyAOxcHHRH 
coCcTBeHHopyHHUMH noAOHcaMH BHpasHJiH MtejiaHie cA*JiaTb CTaiyH 
HJiH 6k)cth AByxi snaMeHHTux'b npesHAenTOB'b cea ARaAemH: yqpe- 
AHTejia H. H. Bei^Raro noRoltHaro h HUHinxHaro npesHA^HTa rpa^a 
AjieRcaHApa CeprteBHHa CxporoHOBa, jiflR noMin^OHia B'b rajiJiepe% 
ABopAa Ero JBejiH^ecTBa, oieTOCTBeHHOMy AOCTOHHCTBy nocsamaeMoft 

BoJibHbift cRyjibDTopi Srob^ SenejiBraR'B CAtJiaJH B'b 1803 roAy 
MpaMopHbifl 6K>crb BeuKaro h yAOCToeni SBameirb aRaAOMHRa. IIo 
ROHHHH'b Hb. Hb. 6ei](Raro ARaAenifl XyAoacecTBi* noJiy^HJia hsi 
ocTaBmaroca nocji*! ero RanBTaJia, (xpaHHBmaroca wb oneRyHCROirb 
CoBtrS upH BOCBHTaTejibHOM'b aom4), 33951 p. 66 r., onpeAiJieHHHe 
B'b nojibsy ARaABMiH no saB'^n^amio noRofinaro Bei^Raro, e eni^e na- 
RonHBmleca npoi^OHTH eanHxi Cb 1 CenTafipa 1795 no 1796 roA'b'^). 

PaBHsufb o6pa80Mi hsi AOMa noRofinaro BeuRaro ROH^epenm 
ceRpeiapb ARaAeMiH npeACTaBMi 28 Hoa6pa 1795 r. 8aB*n;aHHHe 



*) Cm. ApzHBi Mop. Mhhhct.: YKasH IIpaBHT. CeHaxy 1794 r. J^ 60, oti. II 
J>fe 908. nexpoBb-Maxepiajiu ji^a acxopia AnaA-XyA., CTp. 317, ohi npn- 
BOAHxi dTOxi YKQ8% 1794 T. B'b 3BaHHxeibH0HT> coKpameaiH; ApxHBb Khaba 
BopoHAOBa X. XII, CTp. 151. 

') Cm. ji*io 1794, J^ 5; HeTpoB-B-CTp. 318. 

') ysasoM'b CeHaxy 15 ceHTfl5pii 1795 r. npeeMHHROMi Bemcaro no dBaaii) 
npesHAeHTa ARajieMiif uasHaHeHi* Ghji BumeynoMUHyxufi rpad>i MycHHi- 
nymKHHi (CM. IIexep6. B^aom. 1795 r. A: 76 h ApxHB. Ilpas. CfeHaxa khhf. 
Bye. ysas. J^ 179, cTp. 253). CHepxir Beunaro bi nexepdyprcKHzi Bi- 
AOMocTiixi 1795 roxa BOBce ae yaoMnBaexcii. 

*) Cm. H. neipoBi— MaxepiajiH pa HciopiH Ak. Xy^oa., cxp. 435. 

^) Cm. ji!bjo npesHAeHTa Asa^eMiu 1795 r. J^ 30. 



— 342 — 
wb noJiBsy aKaAeMHiecRHX'B BOCDHTaHHHROB'b ABa niKa^a Cb rpa- 

BBpOeaHHUMH aHTHRaMH BeCblia J^peBHHMH H CbpiAKHMHCJrbnRaMHy 

KOTopurb en^e bi 1791 roj^y nHcajTL bi ARaAeMlfo RHAacHHHii, 
ceKpeiapB Bt to Bpenn Be^Ra^o, no ero nopyneHlK) ^). 

06'B dTHXl aHTHRaXT* H CJrkUK9,Xl> CHEiaeitl HeJlHinHHM'B CRasaTB 
HtCROJILRO CJIOBl. 

B'b apxHBi HnnepaT. PyccR. Hciopn?. oC^ecTBa Hirteica ao- 
BOJiBHO o6^eMHCTaH TeipaAb, Ch npoAHCJioBieMi, noAnncaHHuici ca- 
MBifB BeARBHi, ROTopaa osaoaBJieHa «PocaHCb cb HCTOJiROBaHieM^ 
RaCnHera p']^3hhxi> RaMnefl ap^bhexi h HOBtfiiiiHX'b. C.-neTep6yprb9 
1772 roA'b». OnHcanie RaMeHbeB^ pacnoJioxceHO B'b HCTopE^ecRoft 
nocjiiAOBaTejibHocTH, Ha^HnaH cii npoH3BeAeHifi EranTa, ApoBueft 
FpeuiEr h Pnifa ao ^^paHiiiyscRBxi xyAoaE^HHROBi XVIII B^Ra^ npn 
HQWh B'b caMOifb ROHA'b OHBcaHu CAtjiaHHUA (|)paHAy3CRBMH xyAoac- 
HHKaMH ptsbGu n8o6pa}ReHifi na RaMHHXi pyccRHxi HMnepaTpEm» 
EjiHsaBeTH, ERaiepEHH n, jiaHArpa$HHH FecceHi — raifCyprcKOfl h 
T. A- Ilpn aTOM'b npoTBB'b RaacAaro pibsHaro RaMHH HMtercA yRasaHie, 
B^ RaROMi H8^ coHHHeHifi,nocBAmeHHHxi 9T0My npeAMOTy ^), ohh- 
cuBaiOTCH opHrHHaJiu Toro bjiii Apyroro npoHSBeAeeifl p&si^a, Ronin 
c^ ROTopux'b co6paHu 6ujib BeARHSfb. 

Hsi npeABCJiOBia, y cero npHJoaraenaro ^), bhaho, ht o BcaRoe 
CBo6oAHoe Bpeiffl, ROTopoe Bei^ROHy ero ynpasRHeniH ocTasjiHJiH, orb 
1756 roAa 6hjio hmi> ynoTpe6jieHO Ha cociaBJieHie aroft ROJuieRi^iH 
H en onHcaHifl, ROTopufl OH'b npocBTi cbohxi corpaacAaH'b npHHBTB 
HbiH'6 (t. e. B'b 1772 r.). 3ar&Mi yRasbiBaeiCfl nojibsa TaRoft roji- 
jieRiUn jsflH iOHomecTBa h wb ocoOeHHOCXH, RorAa no buxoa'% hs^ 
y^eek fnaniH HOJiOAHe jiigab 6yAyrb nyiemecTBOBaTb, h RorAaoHH 
yBHA^Tb Ra6Hn6Tbi B'b Esponi, to ne CTOJibRO 6yAyrb cuyn^eHu, 
HOBbi H ycTu^enu, KaRi* h 6ujrb ao npio6piT6HlH chxi 8HaHift». 

dra rojiji6riUh c^b npeAHCJioBieHi MOJRerb caiyacHTb HOsuirbAO- 
KasaTejibCTBOMi) o HenpecTannofi saCoTJiHBOCTH Beii^Raro o6i yHCTBOH* 
HOMi pasBHTiH MOJiOAOFO noROJi^Hifi, BBtpeHHaTO HMnepaTpHqeK) ero 
npocBimeHHOMy noneqeniio. T'feM'b ne neffbe n BToro poAa A^^Tejit- 
HOCTb Bei^Raro noABeprjiacb nopai^aHiK) ne TOJibRo co CToponu 
OAHoro CyMapoROBa, ho h BusBaJia HSB-bcTHyK) caTHpy dMZHa *), 



*) Cm. a*JO ApxHBa 1791 J^ 1. 
■) TaKOBH coHHHeHiJi: Caylus, Mapiexia, CTomB h np. 
*) Cm. npHJOseeie J^ 14. 

*) Cm. HcTop. Pocc. CM. CojioBBeBa r. XXV ex. 322.; Pvcck. Apx. 
1873 r.J^* 60. 



— 343 — 
noHBHBmyiocH bi> 1765 ro;^, o ROTopoft eaMH cfcasaHO noApo6H']^e 

RocHyemHCb njbawjihEOCTVL Bei^Karo no AKaAeaiiH XyffosecTBi>, 
HeJiBBH Be ynoMHHyTB, hto ceKpeiapb aRajieMiH KjieMeHTHHa bt> Bo- 
JiOHBH npH nHCbMt OTb 27-10 ceHiaSpfl 1771 T. TOCTaBHjn» BeuKOMy 
wnjioifb noHGTHaro aKaxeMBRa, bi cJiiACXBie Hero Beii;Kofi HanHcaji'B 
Ha HMH rr. aRaAeHBROBB bi BojiOHbH cJiiAyK)iAee UHCbMO Ha ^pan- 
i^scROiTb flSHR*!: «Messieur8t L'academie Imperiale des beaux arts 
a 6t6 extrememeut sensible au choix que Yous avez fait de son Pre* 
sident pour remplir une place d'Academicien honoraire dans Yotre 
illustre compagnie. Elle m'a charg6 de Yous en faire en son par- 
ticulier ses tres humbles remerciements et Yous supplie a recevoir 
k cette occasion les t^moignages autentiques de son inviolable et 
respectueux attachement. J'ai Itonneur d'Stre avec respect ^). Hi- 
CROJUbRo jsirb no3«e, B'b 1780 ro^y, Bei^ROfi ^ciiy^i Gesii BC^Raro 
nopoKa, rpa^AauHH'b npoHSfln^Htftniifi, o ?eJiOB%?ecTB'l cb ycepAiesfb 
upeMyApo yifCTByioaufi*, Ras^ roBopnjiocb bI) AaHHOMi eiiy AHUJioifi^ 
orb 20 aHBap« 1780 r., Gwji'b CA'tJiam* HJienoMi noHOTHHM'b o6me- 
CTBa HayK'b bi FeTTHHreHi ^). 

Ho rtcHOfl CBflSH ci xyAoatecTBOM'b CHHiaeMi yMicTHHM'b yno- 
HjmyTb B^ dTofi rjiaBi 061 yqacTin Bei^Raro bi otjiebk^ naMHTHHRa 
IleTpa BejiHKaro ^ajibRoneTOMi). 



Eei^Koft H (DajibHOHeTi>. 

Mncjib BOSABHrnyTb naMHTHBR^ lIoTpy BeJiHROMy BosaeiKJia bt* 
caMbie nepBue roAU i^apcTBOBaHin EnHsaBOTH [leTpoBHH. Oaa npH- 
Rasajia 22 iioHa 1743 r. apxHiORTopy h CRyjibUTopy rpa$y ao Pac- 
TpejiJiH CA^Jiaib 2 MiAHbixii nopTpoTa HMneparopa IleTpa, ho 
18 Hoa6pa 1744 r, caMi PacxpejiJiH yMepi h aia ofiaaanHOCTb ne- 
pemjia na ero no&ion^HHRa, mryRaTypHux'b Kbjvb nacTopa Maprejiia. 
Pa6oTu ero mjiB HpesBbiqafino MeA-senHO b TOJibRO Kb rohi^ ij.ap- 
CTBOBaHiji HnnepaTpHmj EjiBsaBOTbi Maprejiifi Aonecb, mto koh- 
Huft nopTpeTB roTOBi h hto Ha HcnpaBJieuie capa^jFAtoHufiHaxo- 
AHTCfl, HeoCxoAHMO 400 py6. 9to CRpoMHoe xoAaiaflciBO Mapiejiia 
fiujuo paacHOTp^HO CenaTOMi* ya^e bi> nanaJi'l i^apcTBOBama ERa- 



*) Cm. AtJO ApxHBa 1772 r. .^s 36. 
') Cm. a*io ApxHBa 1782 r. ^j 16. 



— 344 — 

TepHQH II,npH neiTB CeHarL nopyiHJi'b BeuRoify pascuoTpiiTB, anpo- 
6oBaHa jiH Efl BeJiH^ecTBOMi CTaiyn h yroAHO jib, hto6h Mapiejiifl 
onyio coBC^Mi okoh^hjtii; pe80JiK)i](iio »e no aiOHy Eh BejiH^ecTBa 
npeACiaBHTB CeHaxy. BeAKOft aoneci CeHaiy 17 oKiflCpH 1764 r., 
HTO Eh BejiH^ecTBO ^ynoKHHaeHaronopTpeiaHe coHSBOJiHJiaanpo- 
6oBaTb Bi pascy^ABHiH, hto ne CA^JiaffB HCRycTsoifB laRBM'B, KaKO- 
BBiMi 6h aojixho npeACTaBHTB BejiHRaro Mosapxa h cjiy^HTb yRpa- 
memewh ropoAy" ^), h noBejiijia eMy, BeipcoMy, ^coCpaib o Jiy^- 
meMi» ^cicbJiaHin n H3o6paH6HiH pasHue npoaceRTU co MHiHiHMH''. 
Bcjii;i;cTBie axoro BoE^ROfi, wb to BpeMa yjRe npesnAenn ARaAeifiH 
XyAOJKecTBi), Bomejni bi cHomeme Cb napH»ccRHHH xyA6»CHHRaMH 
H jiK>6i[TejiHMH HCRyccTBi, Hpe3^ RHH3H jI^MiiTpiH AjiORcbeBH^a Fo- 
jiHaHHa, Hamero nocjiaHHBRa BiIIapHjRi, h no noJuyqeniH on> hhxi» 
OTB^TOBi^ npeACTaBBJii AORJiaAi> CenaTy o naicflTHHRt IleTpy Be^fl- 
ROMy, OAo6peHHuft CenaTOMi. ^jih BunojiHeniH npoeRTa naMHTHHRa 
npe^CTOHJio npincRaTB xyAoatHHRa. 3to nopyneno 6hjio xoMy xe 
RHH3K) FoJiHOHHy, 6HBffleMy Bt Apy«6* Cb ^Hxepo, yRasaBmeiTE ^) 
ewy ua yienHKa JleMyana — ^ajibRonera, yace h b% to BpeMH 
ESBicTHaro MHorHMH CBOHUH npoH3BeAeHiHMH, RaRi to: Mhjioh^ Rpo- 
TOHCRift, MOABJiB <&Jiopu, CTaTyH MysBiRH H Shbth, rpynna Bjiaro- 
Bl^n^eeiH e t. a. A^^V^ caMi bi^ 1765 r. yhinounLJi'b BeqRoro 
BecLMa npocTpaHHBiMi nHCbM0MT» corjiaciH $ajiBROHeTa npHHHTB 
Ha ce6H dTy pa6oTy n nonoJiyHeHiHHaHero6jiaronpiHTHarooTBi&Ta, 

FOJIHI^UH'B 3aRJIK)HHJIl CB ^aJIBROHOTOlfB ROHTpaRTl, FJiaBHHH yCJKO- 

BiH ROToparo cocTOHJiH Bi cuixjiomfiwb: 

„$ajiBROHeTT» OTnpaBjineTCH b% Pocciio bi 1766 r. cb 2 cRyjiBn- 
TopaMH B jiHTeftn^BROM'B Bi neTep6ypri; eMy npoAOCTaBJiBeTCH RBap- 
TBpa TOcxaH H yAo6HaH, Rapexa eaceAHeBHO, sAopoBufi, cRpoMBiifi 
CTOJi'b, CB npaBOMi) nparjiamaTB oahofo hjih Asyxi snaROicHX'B; oni 
^e ocBo6oacAaeTCH ovb bcbrhxti xjiobotb no CBoeiiy AOMamneMy 
xoBHftcTBy. $aJiBROHerB nojiy^aeTi npHRasanin tojibro oti Htfne- 
parpHAH HenocpeACTBeHHO hjih Hepe3'B MBBHCxpa. Oni nojiy^aerB 
BOsnarpaacA^Hie 25 thchhi (|)paHROBi bi xe^eHle bocbmh jiivb (t. e. 
Bcero 200.000 $,); ecjiH pa6oTa npoAJiHTcn h Biente 8 jitrB, to 
oHi nojiyiaerB cnojina 3Ty ace cyHMy; ocjih »e pa6oTa saTflHercH 



*) Cm. „HcTopiiD PocciH** C CojroBteBa, x. XXVI, cxp. 278, 330, xasso 
17 TOMB „C6opH. Hmd. PyccK. HcTop. 06m.". 

') Cm. cOcBMHaAiiaTuft b^kb* rh. 2, CTp. 270: cPyccsift ApxHBB> 1865 r., 
cxp. 773; laEae Diderot's Leben und Werke von Karl Rosentranz. 1866 r., 
cxp. 191. 



— 345 — 

AOJrIe 8 jiirB, to ^ajibKOHerL npeAOCTaejiflerB p'tmenie CBoeft ynacTH 
BejinsoAymiK) Eh BejiBHecTsa, coxpaHHH npaso npoj];oJiJRaTB xhtb 
Ha OTBeAeHHOft euy KsapTHp*!. Ha nyTemeciBie hi PoccIk) h oOpaTHO 
HasHanajiacB oco6aa cyifMa. KoHTpaicrB dTOTB 6hiJi% OAo6peH'B Ena- 
lepHHOft II. $ajiBKOHerb, HMia on* poflj 50 Jitrb, pasciajicji cb 
o6aflTejiBHUKi> IIapH»eMB, nycTHJica bt> cipaHy yAajienHyio on 

nOHTpa yHCTBeHHOfi H XyAOHeCTBeHHOfi A^flTOJIbHOCTH, BSfiBB Cl> 

co6o& He majio Ben^eft, a TaKxe TaJiaHTJiEByio A'^BHicy Kojijio, cjrb- 
HEBmyio roJiOBy Ilerpa I na naiiHTHHRi. Ohi npH6ujiB bi IleTop- 
6yprB Bi oTcyTCTBiH ERaTepHHu II h BeaKaro, ho no pacnop^^e- 
hIk) noociAHHro KaHAejiapia cipoeHifl orsejia $ajisROHeTy h ero 
cnyTHBKaMii noMin^enie h AOCiaBnjira Bch cnoco6Bi neMeAJieHHO nps- 
ciynBTs Kb pa6oTl. Xoab sthx^ pa6orb cjiHrnROMi y»e HSBicxeHB, 
^to6h HSJiaraTb istl sA'icb bo Bcefi hoapoShocth. ^Jiafon^ie bo3o6- 

HOBHTb HXl Ce6% Wb HaMHTH MOryTB 06paTHTBCfl CaiiH R1 17 TOBiy 

„C6opHHRa PocciflCRaro Hcxopn^ecRaro 06mecTBa". YnousEewb 
TOJibRO, ^TO, npHSHBi Bi> ROHi^ 1766 TOAa wb neiepCyprb, $aJiB- 
RonerB y»e Kb Becni 1770 roAa CA^ajii* moabjib ciaTyH Ilerpa 
BeJiHKaro, ROTopan h 6HJia OTRpuTa a^^ ny6jiBRH. 

$ajiBROHerB nncajrB rb CajiTMKOBy, bb to Bpena HenpeiclHHOMy 
ceRpeTapK) ARaAeuie XyAo^ecxBi, cJi'bAyion^ee ^): 

4cJe crois que le module do la statue ^questre de Pierre le 
Grand estfini; j'en dois rhommage h rAcad6mie et k la nation. 
Ayant que ce modMe soit public pendant quelques jours, je prle 
Messieurs de T Acad6mie Imperiale des beaux arts de le yenir yoir, 
de ^examiner et de me dire les d^fauts qui pourraienty6tre encore, 
afin que s'il m'est possible, je puisse les corrlger. Je yous prie. 
Monsieur, de youloir blen en avertir ces Messieurs. J'al Thonneur 
d'etre trds parfaitement Monsieur votre tr6s humble et trds obfiis- 
sant seryiteur. 

Falconet. 

Petersbourg, 9 mai 1770. 

L'heure pour le matin est depuis 11 jusqu^. 2. Pour Taprfes 
diner depuis 6 jusqu'it 8. 

En;e panie aToro Bei(ROfi 3a6oTHJicfl o npieCRanlH naMHA jiflH 
noAHOJRlH naMflTHBRa h jiHTeftn^HRa juisi otjihbrh CTaTyH. 

IIpiHCRaHie JiHTeftn^HRa a^h otjihbrh BBatojieHHOfi rohhoA CTa- 



') Hsi Atji ABaJ^eMiH XyxoaecTBi 1767 r., J& 39. 



— 346 — 
TyH Ileipa BeJiHRaro BHssajio nepeDHCRy BeARaro ^) ci HamHirb 

nOCJiaHHUROMl BlB^H^^ Jj^MHTpieiTB MHXaftJIOBHqeBfb roJini^iHuifB, 

H rpa^oMi OciepMaHOHi ex CTORroJibM']^. 1 Mapia 1772 ro^a 
Bemeoft AORJiaABieaJiii, ?to rhjisb FoJiHiiiHH'B nplRCRani* no iraoroMj 
passiAHBaHlK) sHaio^aro JiHTeftm;BRa dpHCMana. OcrepHaHy ze 
BeuRoft nncaJi'B emfi 26 AnpijiH 1768 r. «GiHTejiBFlftinifi rpa^! 
Ho BucoHaftmeMy E. Hbi. B. coB8BOJieHii0Bi>neTep6yprlAtJiaeTCA 
Bi CJiaBy dJiasieHHoft nanATH FocyAapfl HiinepaTopa Ileipa Beini- 
Karo 6poH80Buft nopTperb Ha rohI $aJiBROHeTOMi> h ri BUJUHBisb 
CRopo nocniTB MoacerB; Kb neuj Ha^o HCRyccHaro JiHTeftiqHRa, o 
RaROBuxi> Bi pasHBiH irfacia b nncano. Ho mh'6 bsb^ctho, hto bi 
CiORrojiBMi TaROBofi ^e HMteTcs, Toro pa^B npomy same ciflTeJiB- 
CTBO pasBiAATB, Tjsjk owb jrpesLjffi H RaRoe BUJiBBaHie hhhhjii h wh 

TOlfB AOCiaTO^HOe JIB HCRyCCTBO BMierB. 

EpoMi Toro Bi HepHOBOMi Ha ^paHAyscROM'B flsuR'b 6uJio aa- 
HHcaHo cjiiffyiomee: «Trfes charme d'avoir Toccasion de merappel- 
ler aux souvenirs de Yotre Excellence depuis la separation de Pa- 
ris. Je crois que pour mieux faire les conventions avec le fondeur 
il dolt connaitre le caract^re de la statue que fait actuellementM. 
Falconet. L'Empereur Pierre le Grand est represente franchissant 
au galop une roche escarp6e, qui lui sort de baze,etlamaindroite 
etendue sur son peuple. Cette roche de pierre qui n'a d autre orne- 
raent qu'elle m6me, signifie les difficult^s que le monarquesa sur- 
mont6; le galop du coursier — ^la promptitude de ses op6rations; la 
main paternelle n a pas besoin d explication. Par consequent lous 
voyez, Monsieur, qu'il n'y a que le cheval et riiomme que le fon- 
deur a a faire ». 

Hsi OTBJ^THaro nncBMa OciepMaHa bhaho, hto bi GTORroJiBMi 

JIHTefln^HRI) HM^JICA, H'IrTO Mefiepi, ho OWb HHRaRHXl n0A06HBIX'B 

6ojiBmBX'B CTaiyfi ne OTJiHBaji'B. Kpoifb Toro nocji'lAHfifl oTJiHBRa ero 
ROpojiOBCROfi CTaiyH FycTaBa I OMy ne yAajiacB otb CJinniROirB 
6ojiBmaro ncapa. 

TaRHMi) o6pa30M^ sa rpanBaeio jiHTefin]^HR'B He namejiCB; 
HanajiB y6ijRAaTB ^ajiBROHOTa caMaro bsatbca sa OTJiHBRy. Oh'b 
cnepBa ho corjianiajiCA no HesHaniio aioro A'^Jia. npHCTynHBi> oxnaRO 
R-B HsyieHiK) JiHxefiHaro MaciepcTBa, oh'b bi AarycTi 1774 roja 
CHHiajii* ce6fl na ctojibro noAroxoBJieHHHMi r-b aiOMy ^), ^to, csi- 



*) A*j[o apxHBa M. Hun. Ji;Bopa M 101 no onncn 73—187 pasp. I. 
') Cm. «HcTopHHecBifi B-fecTHHRX* 1882 r., t. IX, cxp. 175. 



— 347 — 

jiaBi> npeABapHieJiLHHe onuTU otjihbrh nefioJiLmoft ciaTyn, hsi- 
HBjujvb roTOBHOCTB DpHHflTb Ha cofifl OTJiHBKy naMHTHHRa sa 80.000 
jiBBpoB'B. Corjiacie ua dTO h^ckojibko saneAJiHJiocB: ABopi 6Hjrb bi 
MocRBi jijiR npasAHOBanl^ Ky ?yRB -KaftHapAsciflcRaro MHpa, h tojibro 
bi> ABrycrt 1775 r. $ajiLROHerb npncTynHJi'B Rt otjibbr*. Ofla ne 
yAaJiacL; $ajiBROHerB nHmerb, hto nepesi 4 MtcflAa mohcho 6jflfirh 
CA'iJiaTB BTopyio OTJiHBRy ; Ha A'^Jii me BTopan oTJiHBRa nocji'bjiOBajia 
TOJdBRo Bi* Hoi]6p% 1777 roAa Ona y^aJiacB BnojiHi, h ji'bTOH'B 
1778r. HiAHuft BcaAHHR^ npeACiaJix rJiasaMB Bcixi* bx tomi bha*]^, 

Bl RaROHB MU H TCHepB HlfB BOCXEH^aeMCA ^). ^aJIBROHeTB Bl HCp- 

Buxi HHCJiax'B CeHTflCpH 1778 roAa ybxaJiii bo $paHAiH), nojiyiHB'B 
ABHBrH ^). TopacecTBeHHoe oxRpHTie naMHTHHRa,*Ha ROTopoirB $ajiB- 
Roaex'B He npHcyTCTBOBaJiB rohohho, nocji'^^AOBaJio tojubro 7 ABrycia 
1782 r. *), npH newh BeuROfl, hoaI) ynpaBJienieMx Roxoparo npoHs- 
BeAeHO cie BejiBRoe coopy^enie^ noAnecB EKaiepHni iieAajTB, bu- 
6wiyjo Ha BiorB cjiy^afi; 6£iJii> nsAaHi Aa^e oco6Bifl uBBuf^ecrby 

Wh ROTOpOlfB rOBOpHJIOCB: 

«He AOBOJiBHO, HTO BCARoe naMipenie Hame na nojiBsy, yiiHO- 
sseHie hsoChjiIh h yTBepxAeHie cnoROfiCTBin npeAnpi^Toe, yB^HHano 
6ujio BO^A^^HHBiM'B ycH^xoiTB; BO&Ha H pasHUO onacHBie cjiynaH 
He TORMO He noROJiefiaJiH 6jiaroAeHCTBiH HamHX'B noAAanHtaxB, ho 
npBMO Bx npHpan^enie BejisHiH h MoryniecTBa HMnepin Hamefi o6pa- 



PacxoxH no coopyseHis) cero naHflTHHsa, KaRi bhaho bsi npeACTa- 
Bjesifl BeiiRaro CenaTy, coctojuth bi cj'bAyK)meMX: bi 1766 r* no nepeisj^y 
^ajBEOBCTa— 10.529 p. 50 s.; b'b 1768 r. no coopyseniK) uonyiieHTa 320.000 p. 
n sa Tiui B'B 1773 r. na pasHLie AonojBnTejBHiiie pacxoAU 48.521 p. 53V3 &• 
H BaKOHeAi en^e 43.138 p., Bcero 422.189 p. 3Vi R* BeuKofi HcnpaniHBaji> na 
OBOBHaTCibHyio OTA'biEy em,e 38.800 p., KOTopue n 6uavl OTnyn^eBii cb Bu- 
conafimaro pasp'bmeBiH 9 Mapxa 1776 r. ne Bj^pyra, a no U'^p'b uaA06H0CTH 
(cm. Apz. Up. CeuaTa, BHHra Buc ys. )& 139, CTp. 118. AosjaAi CesaTa 
9 CeHTfl6pii 1773 r., opn ceMi npnjaraeTCfl; cu. npnjos J^ 15). 

') Uo cjioBaiTB r. IIoiOBueBa (cm. tomi 17, Hmh. C6. P. H. 05. CTp. XLII) 
oropneBie, BUBeseHBoe ^aiBBOBeroMi hsi IIeTep6ypra, bo H3rjiaAHiocB; foab 
yMHozaiucB, cxapociB HaABHrajsacB, pa6oTa ne naBa^acB KaKi npes^e. Oni 
co6pajcfl nyTemecTBOBaTB ^to6i» oTAOxHyTB, ho 3 Maa 1783 r. nopasen'B 5bii'b 
yxapoHii napaJiHqa u 24 .SHBapx 1794 roAa yMcp-B. 

^) OnHcaaie TopsecTBeHHaro OTEpEixifl naMHTHHsa 7 ABpycxa 1782 r. 
noMimeHO Bi >k 79 „C.-neTep6yprcEBxi BiAOMOCTefl" loro se 1782 r., npn 
Hevb ynoMBHaeTCA, ^to r. x. t. c. Beusofi, boa'b npaBJieHieMi KOToparo npo- 
H8B0AHJ0CB cie BCiBKoe coopyzeeie h OTxpuTie osaro, hoahccb £a HHne- 

SiTopcKOMy Bein^ecTBy pasHBiJi MCAajH, na ceft cjiyqafi CAiJanHUfl, n Ea 
ejHHecTBO coBBBOJHia OBasaTs exy Buconafimee 6jiaroBOjieHie coCctbcrho- 
py^HUMi Bpy^eBieMi 6oiBmofi bojotoA neAaaH h t. a* Dhkbp'b b'b oahom'b 

UdTb CBOHZ'B QBCCMl Rl KHfl3D KypaKHHy, OnHCUBafl TO SB CBMOe OTEpUTic 

naMHTBHRa, Xo6aBjfleT'B, ^to Eh BeiHHecTBO^yxoAB cb 6ajK0Ha, nosaJOBaia 
BcAKOMy soJOTyio Ta6aRepBy, yEpameBHyH) 6pHJiJiianTaMH (cm. „PyccE. Cra- 
pHBa** 1878 r., J^ 22, cxp. 64, bhcbmo 34. 



- 348 — 

THJiHCB. C% AOCTOAOJiacHUM'B 6jiaroAapeHieMi npieKJUiorbpyKHBce- 
Moryn^aro ea Haci h FocyAapcTBO Hame nHcnocjiaHHHfl 6jiaro;^fl- 
Hifl H6 Mo^eMi) Mbi Jiy^nie BOSAaTB OHaro saRi RpoTOcibio, tojio- 
B'bR0JiK)61eM'B, yrojRAa^ 6oKecTBeHHOMy Ero HHJiocepAiK) rii bhhob- 
HiJifB H T. A- A noTOMy A^poBanu 6ujih pasjuHHHNH mhjiocth npe- 

CT^mHHKaM-b — ^T06U OHH COejHHHJIH Kb BOTJ yCep^HHa CBOH MO- 

jiHTBH ynoROBHiH AyniH npecjiaBHaro Moeapxa, bi> naM^TB Koero 
Bosciajio Ha hhx'b Hame HMnepaiopcRoe MHJiocepAle ^). 

no njkjij $ajiLR0H6Ta bi nocji%AHie vom BUCRasuBajiHCb wb 
nameft JiEiepaTyp'ib pasjiHieue otsubh o caMOii'B BeAROMi, aaJioko 
AJia Hero He jiecTHue, o ROTopuxi OAHaRO CHHTaeM'B Heo6xoAHBfHirB 
ynoManyTB, ne c^Hiaa bxi o^naRO npaBHJiBHUMH h ocHOBaiejiBHBiMii. 

TaRi Bi atypnajii c^peBHaa h HoBaa Poccia> aa 1877 toa'b, 
H. I, T. 3, CTp. 330 H J\f 4, CT. 334 — 44, a TaR«e 3a 1880 foab 
RH. 2, cip. 343, aBTopi, ocHOBUBaacB eAHHCiBenHO na cjiOBaxi 
$ajiBROHera, CpanHTB Bei^Karo sa pasjiHHHEia 6e8o6pa8H£ifl apH- 
AHpRH Ri> ^ajiBRoneiy (ne yRasuBaa bb tohhocth b'b neiTB TaROBua 
cocToaiB); sa to, hto 6yAyHH Gesi BcaRaro BRyca, bo Bce Buium- 
Bajica; sa to, hto npeAJiarajiB BsaTB sa odpasei^x naiiaTHHRa Ilerpy I 
snaMeHHTyK) CTaTyio MapRa ABpejiia bi Phm* — cb niiii ^ajiBRO- 
HerB ho corjiamajica h t. a- ^). Bb ^HcTopMecROMi BicTHHR'6> 
1882 r.y rh. 9, BiiCTaTB^ «MiAHHft BcaAHHRi> roBopHTca, hto 
BeiQcofl 6ujii> HejioB^R-B HtMeuRifi, 6081 HHHAiaTHBH, Geai BRyca, 
ees'B A^poBaHift, ch BecBMa HOAaJieRHMi yicoMi, ho cb orpoMHUirB 
caiiOJiK)6ieM^ h ch nanunteHHUMH npeTOHsiaMH na BJiacTB; noAaH- 
THHecRaro n 6yRBO']^AHa.ro b'b HeM'B 6bijio ohchb mhofo. BaaroAapa 
HHTpuraM'B n HeAo6po3ReaaTeaaH'B xyAoacHSRa, araaBH'ibeBcero 
BeARaro, nepenncRa ERaTepHHu cb $ajiBROHeTOMB.yTpaHHBaerB 

HHTHlCHHfi APy^eCTBeHHUfi XapaRTep'B; Bei^ROfi CBROMneTOHTHOCTBIO 

MHAaca BfiipaacajTB SescMucaeHHHa Tpe6oBaHla othochtojibho CTa- 
TyH... Ohb CTapaaca OTpaBHTB nocatAHia HHHyTBi npeOHBania $ajiB- 
ROHOTa, roBopa, hto CTaTyio pimeno nepeaHTB... Bb RnaatRi cero 



M n. 0. 3. 1782 r., AnrycTa 7, J* 15488. 

') Ci aTuxB cxpoKB BaHucTByeTi 00 Bceft BipoHTBOCTH CBOH Bsrjaxu Ba 
OTHonieHifi ^ajBEOHeia R'b BeKKOMy n 3 h r o bi cboom'b coqnBeBiii „Les Fran- 
Qais en Russie" (cip. 36),— co^HHeHiH, Rpafiue noBepzHocTBOM'B, soTopiifi yae 
on ce6fl AoGaBiaeTi: Falconet trouva un censeur sourdement et obstinement 
hostil dans Betsky. Tout le temps que dura le modelage du Pierre I il eut k 
subir ses critiques et ses tracaaseries h t. jl. KOH^aa ciOBaiiH: Catherine ne 
pouvait donner tort k Betsky centre un etranger: elle finit par traiter Falco- 
net de mauvaise t^te h t. a- AiaiB TOiBsOt qro BCCMy dTOiiylloBro uenpeA* 
CTasjAerb nnsaKHxi AORasaTCJBCTBB. 



— 349 — 

;KypHaJia sa 1885 r., flHsapB, noBTopaeTca HHoroe, CKasaHHoe He 
Bi nojibsy BeAKaro bi yicasaHHOifB Bume jKypnaji'b «^peBHHH h 
HoBaA Poccifl*. Bi tom^ ace « HcTopHnecKOMi BicTHHKt)) t. VI, 
CTp. 830, cocTaBHTejiB HBBJieqeHlH Hst coHHHema WraxaJl Ao6a- 
BJLaerb, mto $aJiBROHeTy npamjiocB cTOJiKHyiBca ci BeAKHifB, koto- 
pBifl BM'bcTt CB GapoHOifB BHJiJiBniTeflHou'B cocTasHJi'B CBofi nejrl- 
nufi, nomjiKfi npoeKTB naM^THHRa n KpHiBKOBan^ njiani $ajiBKO- 
Heia ^). 

JIuniHee ynoMBHaTB, hto aBTopu AOKasaTejiBCTBii Bceiiy CKa- 

SaHHOHy HMH BeXlKOMl He npHBOA^Tl HHRaRHX'B. Tilfl 

HO Meffbe nonuTaetfca npeACTaaHTB bi> HacTO^n^eMi CBirb ooboah 

BOSHBRmHXl CO BpeHOHOMB OTHOmOHift ^aJIBROHeia CB Be^RHIC^ H 

EKaTepHHOfl n. 

IIpH npiisA:]^ ^ajiBRonexa bb C.-IIeTepGyprB ERaiepHHa naxo- 

JI^HJiaCB Bl MoCRB'k, OTRpUBaH ROHMHCCilO AonyTaiOB'B AJiH cocia- 

BJieHia npooRTa yjiosKeHifl. 

Ona BosBpaTHJiacB bi neiepdyppB nepesx toa'b h bi bto speMH 
BCTynHJia b-b nepenacRy cb xyAoatHHROM'B. Tojibro bt* 1768 roAy 
ona Morjia ero bha'^tb, pasroBapHBaiB h nociTHTB ero MacxepcRyio, 
KaRx BHAHO Hsi RaMepi-^ypBopcRaro jRypuaJia 12 anp'lbjia. <&ajiB- 
KOHerB c'ByM^ji'B cHiacRaTB 6jiaropacnojioJKeHib HMnepaTpHiJcii h npn- 
TOMi wb TaRofi CToneHH, HTO p^maeica peROMeHAOBaxB eft BHicio 
JlapHBBopa Apyroro, npi'bxaBinaro hs'b Ahfjuh aABORaia <))paH- 
i^sa JleBHJiBepa; HeoAHORpaiHO xoAaTaftCTByexB npeAi* ERaxe- 
pHHOK) II pasHUX'B JiiiAaxB, RaRi nanpHM^p'B: 061 onpoA^JieHiH 
CaHAO — HacoBuxi a'^^JI'b na^iepa bi ARaAOMiio XyAOscecTB'B ^); 
JlacRapHci ^), cjiysHBineMx noAi* nanaJiBCTBOifB Bei^Raro; 
RaROifB TO 6epefiTopi TejiiaHHHROB'6, qioCi ero noBucnTB, h 
T. A- *)] CJiOBOMi cTaJi'B BM'bmHBaTBca BHb A^a, He RacaBmiacA hh- 
CROJiBKO HsroTOBJieHia naMHTHHRa Ileipy BejiHROMy h HHCROJibRO ne 
OTHOcan^iflCfl ao caMoro ^ajiBRoneia. RpoMi Toro, RaR^B bhaho hsi 



') HeiBSJi He yAHBjATBCfl, HTO no?T6HHHfi y^eeuft .&. K. TpoT'b— bb 
CTaTbt „3a6oTU EisaTepiiBu U HapoAHOMB o6pa30BaHiH*', CTp. 16, tobopdtb: 
^ajBROHeTB CAiJiaicfl sepTsoH) hhtphi'h h AOJrmeHB 6bub yxa^HTBCfl ebb 
PocciH apesAe OTspiiTia CBoero cosAaeia — naiCATHHKa UeTpy BeiHSOMy. 
ABTopB, Ki» coxajTbaiiD, ee ysasuBaeTi, Rasin dTO 6uiu HBTpHrH n aa KasoMii 

OCHOBaHiH BCe 9T0 HMB FOBOpHTCfl. He npaBHILHte JIH npHHflTB, ITO $aiB- 

KoserB ytaaiB noTOMy, hto okohvhib cbok) pa6oTy, a RaKoft ih6o Apyroft bb 
IIeTep6ypr'& se He hm^ib bb BBAy- 

') Cm. C6op. HMuep. Pyc. HcTop. 06^^ecTBa t. 17, cxp. 129, 133. 

») TaMB ae, cxp. 77, 142, 177. 

*) TaMB-se CTp, 234. 



— 350 — 

ii;tjiaro pflA& ero nHceE'B R^ HifaepaTpHAt, ohi roBopHJTb o Hepa- 
cnojiomeHie k% Heny Bei^Raro, ae oSihchha npHHEHiHEe yRasHBafl 
wb TOHHOCTH Bx HBMi 9T0 HopacnojiojReHie Bupajsajiocb ^). Majno 
Toro, OH'B nepeAaBaJii) HMnepaipni^ c Ji y x i, no ero trq npBSHamK) 
pacnpoGTpaHneMuB hchsb'^ctho k^mx, Cb ujkjibio ero6e3no- 
KOHTB (tracasser), ^to craTy^ 6yAeTi nepoJiHia, ;i;o6aBjiiHfl caiTB, 
HTO Bonpocb ciaiyt, ecjia Btpmb CJiyxy, ee piraeffb *). TadH 
OHCBMa, oieBHAHO, ne mofjih HpaBHTbCJi HMnepaxpHi^; kt> TOMy se 
DHCbMa ^ajiBKoneia, He npeACTaBJi^ACb ocTpoyMHUHH, he rjnydoRO- 
HEicJieHHUMH, He saKJuoHaJiH s-b ce6'fa noBOAa Kb npoAOJiaceHiio nepe- 
HBCRH CO CTopoHEi IlMnepaTpHAbi. He naji^o 6biJio HHRaRHXi npoR- 
CROBi Roro-JiH6o Kb opeRpameHlK) cociopoHH EKaTepHHH II nepe- 
nncRH, ee HHCROjrbRO ne saHnMaBmeft. Gi Bei^RHM'b nepBOHanajibHo 
OTHomeniH ^aJibROHera 6hjih oqeab xopomin, RaR'b hoirho saRJiio- 
HHTb H3X HHCbMa caMOFO $ajibK0HeTa Ri ERaiepHHt. Ohi> nHmerb^) 
eft 12 ORT. 1767 r., «Leg6u6rai, (Betzky)est bon: cest une ral- 
son de plus pour que j'61oigne autant que je pourrals et avec le 
plus grand souci tout ce que je croiral pouvoir lui deplaire» *). 
noTOMi) Bb OTB'lTHOM'b HHCbMi ^H^epo Ri ^ajTbROHOTy qHTaeifb: 
„lerecitdes bont68,prevenances etattentions dug6n6ral 
Betzky (o ROTopOM^ uHcaji'b ^ajibROHexi, Kb ^Hjpo) m'affectent 
toujours d'une raaniere delicleuse et nouvelle sans me surpre- 
ndre» % 

TaRHUi o^pasOMi) Bb nanajrl oiHomeHiH Meatjiy $ajibR0He- 
TOMT> H BeuRBM'b 6eijih BHOJiHt xopomi^. Ho nocTeneHHO OTHomemii 
aiH cxaHOBHTCii Bce 6ojiie h dojite HaT^nyTUME, leMy, RoneHHO, 
EOFJio HeHH.io cnoco6cTBOBaTb E xapaRTopi cauoro ^ajibROHera, 
nojio^enie Bei^Raro e neBOSEO^HOCTb cb 6e3ycJiOBHOK) TO^nocTbio 
onpeA^jiETb Exi BsaEEHua OTHomeniH, t. e.: $aJibROHeTa, RaRi 
xyAOHHERa, EMJ^Bmaro npaBO ipeGosaTb Bce neoGxoAEKoe e jifla 
ce6H, E ji,JiH CBoeft paGoTU, e Bei^Raro, xoth oCflsaHnaro yAOBJie- 

TBOpATb 3TEM% TpeCOBaHi^K'b, HO BM^CT^ Cb ThVLb, Bl TO JRO BpOMil, 

o6)i8aHHaro, no CBoeny nojio^emio, 3a6oTHTbCii o coSjuoAeniH eh- 

TepeCOB'b Ra3HU, BBipaSCa^Cb COBpeMeHHHM'b HQhlKOWb, HTO BblHy- 

HCAajio ero, rohohho, ho BcerAa ncnoJiH^Tb net Tpe6oBaHiA e ^ROJianlfl 



*) Cm. CtfoDHHK'b Hnnep. Pyc. HcTop. 06mecTBa, t. 17, cip. 129, 139, 
168, 214, 231. 

') Tamae, CTp.245. 

') Cm. C^opHHRi. Hunep. Pyc. HcTop. 06in.: t. 17, cxp. 27. 
*) Cm. C6op. Hm. HcTop. OomecTBa, t. XVII, CTp. 27. 
*) Cm. Oeuvres de Diderot x. XIV, cip. 236. 



— 351 — 

^ajibROHeia. 3to, o^eBEJiHO, ho mofjio coAiftCTBOBaTL noAAepxamK) 
xoponiHxi oTHomemft Meac^y Boi^khbtb h $ajibROHeTOM'B^),ROTopuft 
no OTsuey jifiLXiQ ero cooTeHecTBeHHHKOB-b h. xpyzeA 6huvh asjlqko 
He noRJis^^HUH'B HBJiOBtROui (uii homme coulant). TaRi, caMi ^h- 
Apo, Apyn» ero, nHmerb eny: «tenez il me prend eavie de Vous 
envoyer la lettre du g6ii6ral Betzkv, afin que Vous lisiez de Vos 
propres yeux que nous sommes des maussades, qui ne 
connaissons que la moitiS du merite denos amis et qui ne 
Savons pas parler comme il convient» ^). 

Ero ^e cooTeiecTBeHHHR'L PaM6o roBopHTB: «RaRafl see 6ujia 

BT^pOHTHOCTb, 1T06lI JlfiSk ^OJIOB'lRa, Jlf> TOTO HecxoAHHe Me»CAy 

C060K), MorjiH AoflTH jifl BsaHMHaro noHHifaniH. ^ajiBROHeii, pisRift, 
OTRpoBeHHufl, CB ero rpy6uuii MauepaHH, CM^jmicL hsurobtb, 6y- 
jifiTh 0CR0p6jiATb npHABopnaro HejiOBi^Ra» ^). Ho kojib CRopo yme 
pasi ^BHJiocB HOAOBipie Ri jnai^y hjih aanajio xota 6h noAOspinie 
ffb ero HopacnoJioxeHiH h HeAo6po^eJiaTejiBCTBt, to bcaroo ero 
A^CTBJe, CJIOBO, A^^B BsrjiflAu eenpeMtHHO pascMaTpnBaiOTCfl uoati 
BJiiflHieMi laRoro CJnoHCHBmarocfl y6t:RAeHlfl n Bca^ecRH uctojiro- 
BBiBaiOTCfl TaRi, HTO flBJiflioTCJi RaRx 6u noATBep^A^HieM'B n AORa- 
8aTejiBCTB0Mi» 8Toro upeAuojiaraeMaro eepacaojioseHifl h HOAOBipiH, 
ROTopuH diHH'B nyTOiTB Bce 6oJite H 6oJiie yBeJiHUHBaiOTCH h 
AOBOAflTi jiioAefi AO Bpa^RABi n HesaBHCTH. TaR'B 6ujio h cb $ajiB- 
KoneTOSfB. Owb bo BcenfB bhaetb npnrbcHeHLa co CTopoHu Bei^- 
Raro; yipyacAaerb HMnepaTpHii^y :RaJio6aMH, p'ImHTejiBHO hh na 
newh He ocHOBaHHUMH. RaRi, nanp.: tom^, hto Bei^Roft nani- 
peHi ero CBecTH cb yiia, npimyAHTB npocBTB yBOJiBHenk n t. a. ^), 
npEi6iraerB Aa:Ke r-b npioHy ne cobc^ui GjnaroBHAUOHy h no- 
SBOJi^erB ceet bI) uHCBMi R^ HiiuepaipHi^ roBopHiB 061 otho- 
moHiflxi Bei^Raro Kb JlacRapncy ^) h HaROHeA'B nepoA'B caMBiHi 



*) 3th OTHomeHifl 6ujii HSBicxHu Apyry (PaibBoeeTa, Ai^Aepo, BOTopuft 
CHHTaiii uxi Becyu^ecTBeHBUHH xia ^aibBOHexa, saKi mosho sasiiDMHTb B3i 
cj^AyroniHx^ crpoKi iiHCbira A^Aepo k'b a^bhu'^ Bojiani otii 19 ceHTfl6pfl 
1767 ro^a: J'ai re^u des nouveUes de Russie... Falconnet est brouiU6 avec le 
g6n6ral Betzky, mais il est tellement en faveur aapr^s de rimperatrice qu'il est 

Sins k redouter pour le ministre que le ministre pour lai. Oeuvres completes 
e Diderot -par Ass6zat). Paris 1875. t. XlX p. 240. 
*) Cm. Oeuvres de Diderot, t. XVIII, cTp. 220. 
") Rambault wb sypnaii Revue des Deux Mondes 1877. 15 HHBapb h 

15 4>eBpaiB H HSBieqeHlH cx'^jiaHHOU'B HSb ero cxaTefi fl PyccROM'b ApxHB'b 
Toro se 1877 row ctd. 413—424. 

^) Ck. C6op. P. H. ELcTop. o6m. t. XVII, crp. 138, nHCbifo 4 uder 1771 r., 

16 iioHfl. 

*) Cm. TaMise, CTp. 142, 177. 



— 352 — 

CBOHMi orbisAOM'B iipeAynpejRAaerb ee o HaHipeelH BeARaro 
nepejiBTB ciaTyio, snafl zopomo, hto 8to tojibro cjiyxi, hu Ha 
HQWb He ocHOBaHHuft ^). RoHoqHO, Bce 3T0 o^eHb jierRo Moroio ao~ 
xoAHTB AO CB^A^HiH caiiaro Bei^Koro n, oibbhaho, necnocoficTBO- 
Bajio ycxaHOBJieHiio xopomnx'B OTHomenifl iieacAy HHirb h ^hjibro- 

HBTOMl, R'L ROTOpOMy Bei](KOft HO HMijH HepacHOJioxeHifl, RaRl> 

3T0 mo:rho saRJiioqnTb hsi* cJi'iAyK)o^aro. $aJibROHerb, oo saRJuo- 
HCHHOMy ycJiOBiio, He 6uji'b o6fl3aHL oiJiHBaTb cxaTyio Ilerpa Be- 
jiHRaro; oh'b hb 6ujn> JiHTe&mvROMi); ncRajiH TaRoro aa rpaHHi^eft. 
Ho BeuRofi y6%«AajrL $ajibROHeTa BSATb na ce6a oiJiHBRy CTaTyn, 
nnmeTB eHy o^eHB JiK)663Hoe hhcbmo 14 aBr. 1769 r. no aroicy 
npeAMexy ^). Ecjih 6u Bei^Kofi A'bficTBHTejiBHO 6ujL'b Hepacno- 
no'Mewb Ki ^aJUbROHery, to eABa jih 6ij CTajii npeAJiaraTb eiiy 
en^e HOByio pa6oTy, Roiopaa ecTecTBeHHO BJiORJia sa co6ok) jsjajor 
Hiflmee npe6biBaHie ^asbROHera bi PoccIh, a BiiicTi cb rbwh 
H npoAOJi^eHie HaiflHyTuxi, HeApy»ejiK)6Huxi ice^AJ hhioi otho- 
memft. Ecjih TaKOBUfl cyn^ecTBOBasH na caMOHi A'^Jit co CTOpoHU 
Bei^Raro, to ohh no6yAHJiH 6bi ero, ohobhaho, ne npeAJiara^ HOBOft 
pa6oT£i ^asbRoneTy, coAiftcTBOBaTb CROp'l^flnieHy ero BOSBpan^eHiio 
bo ^pani^iK). 

En;e Bii caioie nepBue ahh AapcTBOBaHifl ERaTepHHH II Ce- 
Harb BHpasHJi'b MHCJib BOSABHrHyTb efi nanjiTHHR'b h nopy^HJTb 
BeipcoMy cAtJiaTb npoeRrb icoHyifeHTa, wb 6e8CHepTHyK) cjiany Eh 
BeJiH^ecTBa. Be^ROft bi npHcyrcTBiH CenaTa 22 anrycTa 1762 r. 
BupasHJiT*, HTO nopy^eHie eny CTOJib BeoiHRaro A%Jia npHsnaerb sa 
oco6jiHByK) AJifl ce6A lecTb h naA'i^eTca cie wb yAOBOJibCTBie Ce- 
naTa HCHOJIHHTb, HM^ SHaROMCTBO Cb yHBHUUH H HCRyCHHMH JOO- 

AbBCH Bi HyacHXi Rpaflxi. Saxtifb nosAH^e bi 1 766 r. o6i BTOirb ace 
xoAaTaflCTBOBajiH H^ROTopue Hsi AonyTaTOBi RommhccIh jiflRCO- 
CTaBJieHiH yjiomeniH, coGpaBmieca bi Mocrb^. (Cm. HaRasi Mo- 
CROB. ^Bopae. B-b Hm. C6. P. H.06., t. IY, CTp. 232; HaRasi 
ABopHHi RajiyscR. h MeAHHCR. B'b tomi» ;Re c6opHHRi, x. IY, 
CT. 294). 

HtRTo BflJibniTefiHi cocTaBHi'b B'b 1766 roAy npH Ha^aoit pa- 
GoTi HaA^ cTaTyeft Ilerpa BeJiHRaro mecTb npoeRTOBi naioiTHHRa 
ERaTepHHb, cb hoapoGhuhh onHcaHi^MH MicTHOCTeft a^ui hxi» no- 



*) Cm. Tau'B se, cxp. 245. 

') 3x0 nHCLMO noMinieHO h wb HSxaHiH co^HHeHift ^axbsoHera 
T. YI,CTp. 282.(Oeayres d'Etienne Falkonnet, statoaire, A. Laasanney 1781; 
xaKKe B'B C6op. P. Hm. Hcxop. 05m. t. XVII, cxp. 403. 



.- 353 — 

ciaHOBKH (CM. C6op. Hm. p. H. 06., t. 17, CTp,349 — 361. 
HimepaTpHaa, KaRi hsb^ctho, oiooHHJia BOBce bte npexnojio- 
:ReHia o naic^TfiEKi ea oco6i. 

MejKAy Tbwb $ajibROHeTi» paacKasuBaerb, hto npH npitsA'b bi 
neTep6yprB npeAnojiarajiH coopyxHib 6poH30Buft naMHTEHKi ERa- 
TepHHi, H Bei^Roft, no onpe^i^eHlK) CeHaTa, nopyHHJTB eBiy c^^- 
jraTb dCRHs-B naifflTHHRa h saiiMT*, OAoCpHBi dCRHdi, npocHJii 

EHCbMeHHO COO61IIHTB OMy CMiTy HSAep^eRi, HeoSxOAHKUXl AJIA 

coopyiseHia noAo6Haro naicHTHHRa. BcJi^ACiBie aioro bi AHBapi^ 
1767 rofla $ajiLROHerB npeACTaBBJit BeuiROMy hhcbmo, Bt roto- 
poiTB 6BIJIH HSJiOHceau Bct Tpe6yeHUH CBi^A'^am ofii HSAepHCRaxi 
H ycJiOBiflx-B coopyjRenia nanaTHHRa. Jl^aJiie $ajiBROHerB roBO- 
pHTT>: € Veut on savoir la reponse que me fit M-r Betzky, apr^s 
avoir lu cette lettre au coin de son feu? la voici: Cela est fort 
adroit. Je nerepliquais rien, car je vis dans quel cabinet j'etais. 
Je detruisis I'esquisse dont rid6e etait injurieuse h Pierre III et 
k la Bussie, j*en fis un autre digne dellmperatrice... Quoique il en 
soit, voil^ comment cet homme (Falconet) ne voulait tou jours que 
de largent et no demandait que de Targent* ^). 

PascKas'b 8T0T7>, AOCTOBipHOCTB KOToparo He noAJieHCBn co- 

MHiHiK) ^), UpOHHRHyTB, RaRli yCMOTpHTB BCHRift, OCJLH H6 aCOJII- 

Hofi 8Jio6ofi HeroAOBameMi), to no Kpaflnefi wbpi neyAOBOJiB- 
ctbIomi Ha Be^Ka^o, Roxopoe cb Toro BpeneHH Bce 6ojii^e n 6ojite 
yBejiH<iHBajiocb. MemAy rkwb^ pascMaTpHBaa arorb pascRas'b Ses- 
npHCipacTHO, HejioB^Rb, HeyHacTByK)^^fi[ B'b btowl A^Jrb) eABa jih 
HaflAeTi>, HT06B1 6ei](R0fi CRasaoib ho TOJibROHTo jih6o ocRopOHtejib- 
Hoe, HO Astace n nenpiaTHoe ^ajibRonexy. IIpoHTH cnixy OHb 
CRaaaJix: «9to oieHb yAaiHO>. %o ace lyrb ocRopCniejib- 
Haro, MTO Bb 3THXb cjiOBaxi laROro, ito 6bi HOMeAJieHHO yHHWo- 
acaib BBCb 3CRH8b? K^ qeny othocatch bth cjiOBa? Ecjih Rb ca- 
MOMy acRHsy, npeABapHxejibHO yjRe OAo6peHHOBfy BeoRHMb, to 
RtfH BBipaacaexcH eme pasi noxaajia xpyAy. Ecjih «e ri caMony 
pasMipy BosnarpaKAeHia, yRasanHOMy Bb roha^ nHCbna, no- 
6jiaroycMOTptHiK) HMnepaxpni^u, to aojihcho npnsHaTb, 
HTO BoAROfi BnoJiHi B'IpHO onpeA^JiEUTb . xapaRTopb noAoOnaro 



«) Cm. C6op. Hm. Hct. P. 06mecTBa t. XVII, cm 385, 386. TaKxe 
Oeuvres completes de Falconnet. publi6es h Lausanne 1781. 

') ^ajtBROHeTi cans 13 Idha yBtAOHJiiJii HMaepaTpuiiy EsaxepHHy 
CAiiaHHOM'b HMb npoeKX'ib naMaiHBKa aih Hea; ho IiMnepaxpHAai OTBi^an 
BMy Ha Apyroft Aent, coBepmeHHO yMaji^iHsaexb Bb OHOSMt caoeMB 06b axoub 
npoesxi . 

II. H. BEUKOfi. 23 



— 354 — 

ycjiOBlH. ^'ibficT^HTejibBO dTO 6ujio OHOHb JiOBKO, sHafl n^eApocTB 
IlMnepaTpni](u bi> OTHomeHin HHOCTpaHHMxi xyAOJRHHKOB'b b yne- 

HHTB, npH KOTOpOft DpeACTEBJIflJIOCb BOSHOHCHfilM'B paSCIHTUBaTb UO - 

jiyHHTB ropasAO 6ojrbe sa CBoft ipyA'B, HeacejiH mo»ho 6iiJio caMOvy 
sa Hero noTpe6oBaTL, He npecTynan npe^'feJiM fijiaropasyMiH. 

To TRe HsxaHie coinHenifi $ajiBROHeTa aabti h^crojibro hhoo 
ofi'BHCHenie HpeAJioxceHlio Bei^naro (ecjiH tojibro TaROBoe 6hjio 
HSfB A'^flcTBHTejBHO cA'^^aHo) DpHHATB sa oCpasei^^ naMflTHHKa 
neipy BejiHKOMy naMaTHHR-B MapRa ABpejiia bt> Phm*. Bo bto- 
poBi^ Tout osHaqeHHaro HSAania aoMtn^eHBi sairliaHiH $ajiBR0- 
Heia Ha cxaTyio MapRa ABpejiia h Apyrie npeAMeiH, oTHOcamieca 
AO Hsan^Haro HCRyccTBa. $ajiBR0HerB secBMa Jiecrno OTSBiBaexcH 
o6i> BTofl CTaxyt. OqeHB B'lpoHTHO, hto dTO co^HHenie, nocBamea- 
Hoe JIJHApo, 6ujio HSBicTHO H Bei^ROMy, ROTopuA, sejotaa a^tb 
oonaTB ^ajiBROHeiy, hto owl pasA^JiaeTii ero BsrjiaAu o naMBTHH- 
Raxi» BOo6me h CTaiyi Mapna Aspejiia bI) oco6eHHOCTn, BupasHJTB 
aceJianie, ?to6h dTa ciaiya nocjiyxnjia 6bi o6pa8UOBrB h a^^ na- 
MflTHHRa Heipy I, nojiaraa, hto bto mosrct^ tojibro eojibcthtb 
caM0JiK)6iK) ^ajiBROHOTa. 

Ho co6paHie coiHHeHifl ^ajiBROHOTa oco6eHHo BaacHO js^jir aacb 
H Bi APyroiTB OTHomemH. 

EcJiH 6b] oTHomeHia BeniRaro Kb ^aJiBROHery aBHJiHCB 6u Ha- 
TanyTHMH no b h h i co6cTBeHHO Bemcaro (a He BCJi^ACTBie mojio? - 

HOCTH, 06]aA'IHB0CTH,BCnBiaB^HB0CTHCaM0r0 $aJIBROHeTa), TO MOXHO 

npeADOJuaraTB cb Sojibhiok) aoctob4phoctbio, hto ceft nocJitAHill 
HenpeM^HHo ynoManyji^ 6u 0611 dTOMi, xaRx RaR^ oh^ roBopHTB 
npo « petit different qu^l y eut entre M-de Betzky et moi», ne 
saAOJiro AO ero OTiisAa hst, HeTepOypra ^), no noaoAy koto- 
paro OHx HHcajii Bei^coMy bi> 1778 roAy. 3to pasHoptnie npo- 
MsoniJio Hsii sa coAepKania $aJiBROHeTa, a TaRjRe hsi sa bos* 
Harpa»A6Hia ero sa pa6oTu no oTJiHBR'ib MonyMeHTa, Ha qTO He 
6BIJ10 saRJuioHeno To^naro ycjiOBia ao na^ajia otjihbrh, uoaoSho 
TOMy, RaRoe-6BiJio CA^jiano bt> OTHomeHiH caMoft MOAeJiH. OTciOAa 



M Cm. to se HSAaeie co^iiaeuifi $aJbBOHeTal781,T. VLcrp. 248.CaH'ii 
^^aibROHeTb roBopHTb, HTO dTH pasBOMucjo^ HesHaHHTeiBHU IT ^To »sur 
mille personnes qlli verraient ceci peut 6tre n' j anrait il pas deuxou trois 
tout au plus qui s'interesseraient aupetit different qu 11 yeut entre 
M. de Betzky 6t moi, quelques jours avant mon depart de St.-Petersbourgl") 

Ac TOrO SHa^HTl 6HJH MeiOHHlI 9TH paSHOUUCJlifll.. U npHTOlTB BOSHHRinifl 

8a BicKoibBO AHeS AO orbtsAa ^ajbKOHeTa! RaKHU jih6o BasBuxi Heyxo- 
BOibCTBift cjiiAOBaTejibHO BOBce He 6uio. 



— 355 — 

npoHsomjiH Bci HeAoyMima h HeyAOBOi&CTBiH. BoAKOft, KOTopony 
upHXOAHJiocb nnaTHTb, xoth6u hsi* ABHerb rocyAapcTeeHHO&KasHH, 
BaxoAHJii> upeyeeJiHqeHHUMH Tpe6oBaHia ^aJibROHeia, ROTopoMy, no 
ecTecTBeHHOMy nopsAKy Ben^efi, ohh KasajiHCB ynipeHEHMH. 

ApyrHxi KaKHxi-jiHeo HeAopasyiiiHiflX'B $ajii»ROHerB ae 
ynouBHaerB, a CJiiAOBaxeJiBHO hxx ho 6ujio. Maa^e hbhjiocb 6ki 

HBMaJIOH) CTpaHHOCTbH) CO CTOpOHU ^aJIBROHBTa, ynOMHHaH He- 

BHaHHTejibHuxi pasBop'l^iax^ Cb BeoKHHB, yHajiqHBaTbo Cojiie 
cyn^ecTBeHHUxi) h Ba^HUxi. 

Mo^erb 6£iTb, ^ajibROHeiii, ycnoROHBisHCb na poABHi, caMi 

JBBA'bjEI'b HeOCHOBaTeJIbHOCTb CBOHXli »CaJI06% H HeyAOBOJIbCTBifi Ha 

Be^Ra^o h npoAajrb hxi 3a6BeHiK) ^), othioab ne noAOspiBaa, hto 
- KOPAa jiih6o bhobb BOSHHRHyrb pascRasH o npeAHpKax'b, npHTicne* 
hUxi, npecjiiAOBaniflX'b co ciopoHu Ben^Raro, cosAanHue sjiocjio- 
BieiTb HiKOTopuxi) HHcaTejiefi, ORasaBniHxcH wb srowb cjiyna^b 
plus royalist© que le roi. 

noAi> rjiaBH&iMi B'^A^HieMx Beipuiro npoHSBOAHJincb laRxce po- 
sbiCRanifl cooTB^TCTByion^aro m^ noAHoma naMHTHHRa IIoTpy Be- 
jiHROMy RaMHH H nepoBOSRa OHaro bii IleTepOyprb, rbri aio moxho 
ycMOTp'^Tb H8X npHJiaraeMaro npE ceii'b yRasa HiinepaTpBi^u ba- 
MHpaJiTeflcTB'b ROJiJieriH, orb 15 ceHTflCpa 1768 r. ^). 



*) nojaraeMi, hto ^aiBsoHei'L na poABHt noBaduii u crlxyionue cboi 

0T3iIBU pyCCKHXl, KOTOpBIB yxaSUBaeXl eiiyAHAPO BI OTB'bTHOMl BHCbMi 

OTb 6 CBHT. 1768 r.: „Tumedis bien nettement que les russes sent des brfl- 
tes; ta les condamne h rester bittes 4 jamais et tu oublies que les vrais ju- 
ges de Falcoimet sont ici, sent partout oil tes ouvrages sent connus. Oeuvres 
completes de Diderot par Ass6zat Par. 1875. t. XVli, p. 27. 
') Cv. npHJOseBie J^ 16. 



356 



rJIABA BOCLMAfl. 

CyxonjTBuft niiflzeTHUfi KaAeTCKifi Kopnyci.— Cyn^ecTBOBaBie ero xo Haana- 
neaia. naBBUM^b ero AHpeKTopoMi Beusaro.— npeo6pa80BaBie Aopnjca no 
njaey BeAsaro vb 1766 roxy-— riasHiiJi ocHOBaeifl dToro npeo^pasoBaaiii.— 
Bjiiame Beusaro Ha axo y^pesxeHie.— 06pa80BaHie npn Kopnyci OTxiueBia 
XJA MioiaHCKHX'B Atiefi; npuHHBu BToro.— iIpeo6pa80BaHieKopnyca no npex- 
nojo^ReHiuMi RoMMHCciH o napoAHUx'b yHHinn^axi 1782 roAa.— Otbhbu o 
Kopnyci^ pasntixi jleu,i». — Bo<5pHHCKift h OTHomenie K'b aeMy Bemsaro.^He- 
yAOBOJBCTBie na Beusaro KMaepaTpnuu. 

y^eie Ao6poe h ocaoBaTejibHoe eciB 
Bcasofi nojEBU sasi orenecTBa, Tasi 
H uepKBij. aaif KopenB, ciMH h ogbo- 
Baoie. Ho cie Kptnao Ha6jK)xaT& noxo- 
6aerb, <ito6i 6ujo yqenie xo6poe a ocho- 
BaTejBHoe. 

Rsi yaasa IleTpa Bemsaro 1721 r. 
J\& 3718 (n. G.3aK. nepBoe), CTp. 331. 
PerjaMenrb via ycTaai Ayxoanoft Roj- 
jeriH. 

IIpHBeAeHHbiH m> anflrpa^b cjiosa nsi yRasa Ileipa BejiHicaro 
flCHO pacRpusaioTB B8rjiHAT> BeJiBRaro npeo6pa80BaTejifl ea Bax- 
HOCTB yqenifl. IIpH cipoMJieHiH OAHaRO Kb CRopifimeMy npeofipaso- 
BaHifo He TOJiBRO rocyAapcTBeHHaro CTpoH, ho e odn^eciBeHHofl sreshh 
PoccIh bo Bcixi en pasHooSpasHuxi npojiBJieHiflxi, BsrjiaA'b Ilerpa 
Ha yqeHie jifljiTmewb fiuati, chjiok) Ben^efl, Ha npaRTHKib BSMiHaTbca. 
GipeMJieHie IleTpa yAOBJiexBopHTb npaRTHHecRRATB, A^ficTBHTejib- 
EhLWb HyscAaBfB rocyAapcTBa HMiJio cbohmi nocjiiACTBieirb HaniHe- 
HiexapaRTepa caicaro yHenia, ROTOpoe, nepeciaBi 6utb ocHOBaiejib- 
nuwb, CA'i^jiajiocB npHRJiaAHMMi no npesBfyn^ecTBy. yqajian^a saBo- 
AUJiHCB CB ujkjihio ooAroTOBJieHk CBiAyfoiqHX'B JiioAeft HJin pasjiBH- 
Huxi oipacjiefi rocyAapcTBOHHOd cjiyxc6Bi, bi tom-b ^HCJii h ajih 
BoeHHofi; ApyrBMB cjioaaMH ynpe^RAaJiBCB hirojiu no npeHHymeCTBy 
npo4)eccioHajiBHBiH. YcTpaHBaH apMiio no oSpaa^y OBponefiCROHy, 
IleTpi BeJiHRifi BBisBiBaJii k% ce6'b na cjiy^6y HHOseMAOBi h cbohxt> 
pyccKHXii HOJiOABix'B JiioAefi nocBrJiajH) o6yqaTBCJi sa rpaHnay. Ho- 
txaB'B b-b 1697 roAy 3a rpanauy, IIeTpi» I bsaji^ cb co6ok) HsepaH- 
HBix'B CoMGapAHpOBi IIpeoCpaxceHCRaro noJiRa, ROTopue BnocjiiA- 
CTBiH CA^aJiHCB nepBu&iH npenoAaBaTeJiHMn bi nepBoft pyccRoft 
Boennoft niROJii, yMpejRAeHHofl bii caMOMii Hanaji']^ XYIII BiRa npH 
6oMdapAHpcR0ft port. B% 1701 r. fiBiJia yHpejKAena niROJia BiaxeMa- 
TBHecRHx^ H HaBHrai^KHX'B HayRi B'B MocRB*!, ROTopaa o6paTBJiacB 
BT> npnroTOBHTejiBHoe ynvuimmfi ki MopcRofl AKaAeniB, ocHOBauHoft 



— 357 — 

Bi 1715 r. BT» neiepfiyprt ^). HeMHoro paete hi 1712 r.^) ocho- 
Baeu wb HOBOfi ctojiili^ niKOJiu: HBHeHepeaH h ApTHJuiepiftCKaH. 
HeoCxoAHMO npHnoMHHTB, ^To Bi TO Bpeiffl rocyAapcTseHHaA rpa»c- 
AaHCKaa h BoeHeaa cjiyacCa 6ujiyl o6H3aTejiBHfii KaRi ajih ABopaFb, 
xaK^ H ;yifl Apyrax'b cocjiOBift; Bcaidft nociynajii bb cnyacCy paAO- 

BHMl H npOH3BOAHJICa Bl HHHU TOJIBKO DO 8aCJIy^aM^, UO CBHAi^- 

TeJiBCTBy H6 ojiHoro renepajia, a Bci^x^b o^HixepoBi nojiRa, bi ro- 
TopoMi OHT> cocTOAJi'B ^). Rto BURasuBaji'B ^HBH^ecRyK) H6cnoco6- 
HOCTB Kb BoeHHofi CJiyac6i HJiH oco6yK) cnoco6HocTB Kb rpajRAae- 
CROft CJryjKfii Toro BdmnLCJisuia bi rpajRAaHCRyio cjiy»6y. Jleij^a ne 
SBopflHCRaro cocjEOBia mofjih noJiyHHTB Kb aMctbhtojibhocth o^b- 
uepcRoe sBanie npH HCKjiiOHHTejiBHux'B CTpoeBuxi, Hay^HBix'B n 
jiHHHHX'B AOCTOHHCTBax'B^). Co CMBpTBH) IleTpa BojiHRaro Ha^axoe 
H8ii» A'^jio ocTanoBnjiocB: RonnjieRrB nsHeHepHoft niROJiii Chjib 
yiieHBineHi; s-b apTHJiJieplflCRofi mROJi'i CRopie nopiHJiH mojioauxi 
jiiOAeft H'bM'B BOcnHTHBajiH ^). JI^aHHJioBi Bi CBOHXi) sanHCRaxi rOBO- 
pHTB'. ffiejiHRifi HeAOCTaTORi TorAa bb OHOft mROJii coctohjii 
Bi yqHTOJiHxi: CHanajia BCTynjneeiH yneREKOKb 6bijio ajih noRa- 
saHifl OAHOft apHOueTHRH H3B nymRapcRHXB A'&Teft ABa noAMaciepBa; 
noTOUi onpeA'&mjiH no hocjiobbi^ «BOJiRa oboecb nacTB» bitbirb- 
lOHRepa Ajia6yeBa; ohb lorAa coAepxajica bi cMepiHOMB y6iftcTB% 
TpeTifl pasi noA'B apecTOMi, Cujii* nejioBtR'B xoia snaion^ifi, OAnaRO 
BSAopnufi, DBaHBi^a b BecBMa nenpBJiBHHUM'B Sujib y^BTeJIeM^6J[[a- 
ropoAHOHy lOBomecTBy. Bb niROJii Cbijio ao 700 hbjiob'Ir'b yne- 

BBK0B'B». 

Ho OABHB Hal CnOABflaCHBROB'B Q^apH; RaCBHerB-MBHBCTp'B 

rpa^i n. H. ilry^BHCRift, 6yAy^H b'b IIpycciB bocjiomb en^e, no- 
saaROMBJica cb ycTpoficiBOitB RaAexcRaro Ropsyca bb BepjiBsi^ oc- 
BOBaBBOMii Ryp(j[)BpcT0irB ^pBApaxoMi BBJiBrejiBHOMB, B npoAJio- 
xiun> HnnepaTpBi^ Aflei loaHBOBHi y^peABiB Asa boaoChuxb sa- 



Cm. Bsr-THAB na yHe6HyH) qacTB bi PoccIh vb XVIII CTOi'bTia ;^o 
1782 roAa— rpa<j>a A- A. ToiCToro (npHioaenie kb XLII t. 3anHC0EB Hm- 
nepaiop . AKaJ^eMiH HavKB 1883 row). 

*J Cm. Hoj. Co6. 3aK. J^J^ 2739 h 2798. 

') Cm. AnpHHB— HcTopia Ji.-rB. CeMenoBCKaro noisa. C.-neTep6yprB 
1883 r CTp. 156 h ci*a. 

*) Cm. 1-e Boi. Co6. 3aB. J^J^ 7142, 7201, 7250 h 10786, Tasae co^. 
MaciOBCKaro -PyccKaff apMia bb CeMFurfiTHioio Botny 1756—1763 r. 

*) Cm. AapHHB CTp. 257; TaK«e HcTopaiecwft o^epRB BoeHHO-ywOHHXB 
saBOj^eBift ^0J^B4J^0MCTBeHHHXB TiaBHOMy HXB YnpaBieHiK)— co^. JIajaeBa, 
C.-neTepgypT-B 1880 r. cip. 8 h ci*;i;. Tasze KpatBaa HCTopia 1-ro Ka- 
Aercsaro Kopnyca— AiescaeApa BQCKOBaxoBa, 1832. 



— 358 — 
BeAeeifl a^;i BoeHHaro oGpasoBanifl ABopaHi, RajKAoe ea 500 H.e- 

JIOBiKl^). 

IlMaepaTpHn;anopy<iHJiacoo6ii^HTB8Tonpe3HAeHTy BoeHHoff roji- 
jieriH rpa$y MHHHxy, e 29 iiOHa 1731 r. (II. C. 3. JV? 5811) co- 
CToaJiCfl yKas^ 061* ynpeacj^eHm CyxonyiHaro Kopnyca Kaftert 
Bi 200 HeJiOBtKt mJiflxeTCKHXi KbreH, OTii 13 — 18 jiin, npn 
qoMi CRasaHO, hto mojioaubii JooAHWh js^jui naEJiyHmaro hxx yqeHia 
noJiesHie 6£[BaeT% BiTaRHxiRpaflX'i>6uTB, rAi6u poA- 

CTBa E AepeBOHB HJIE «HTeJIbCTBa HXl Bl 6JIH8OCTH He HMtJIH^)* 

KaAeiH noMiiAaJiHCb ji^jui yneHba h xhtba bi oco6oin> RopnycHOM'b 
AOBfb, no npHBfbpy HHOCTpaHHUxii RopnycoBi, Aa6u ohh tojib HOHbine 
ryjiflHieMi h HenpiscTofteHMH o6xosAeHiflMH a saCaBaiiH HanpacHO 
BpeMfl He TpaTHJiH, HO BO Bceafb KSLKb Bi yneHle, tsk% h b% npoieici 
lixb cocToanlH n noBeAenin naAii hbhh HenpecraHHoe hm'&jiocb hba- 
SHpaHie. BirlHflJiocB bi o6ji3aHHOCTB naASHpaTeJieft HMiib poAHxejn*- 
CRoe CMOTpinie, flfiSu RaAeTH bo bc^xb cbohxi noBeAeni^xi, exe 
Ao6poA^Hie, yHTHBOCTb H npHCTOfiHaa noRopHOCTb h lecTb noBe- 

JliBaeTB, — HHHHJIH. 

Bb Ropnycb npEHHHaJiHCb HCRJiio^HTeJibHO ABopflHe yxe oCy- 
qHBmiecfl rpaiiori; yqe6Hbift Rypcb pasA^^Jiajica Ha 4 Rjiacca h bb 
3-xi BbicmBxi npoAOJi2cajicfl 5 ejih 6 Jiirb, aa^u AOBOJibHoe h ^yn- 
AaneHiajibHoe bb nayRaxi) HCRycciBO RaAeru noJiy^aiB MorjiH. Hep- 

BUMl) AHpeRTOpOMB CuJTb HSB^THblft 6apOH^ ^OHB JIlOdepaCB ^), 

sHaMeHHTufi CTpoHTejib JIaAOscRaro Ranajia. Kopnycb noiri^niajica 

Ha TOMB M^CTi, TA^ H TOQepb HaXOAHTCfl, T. 0. Ha BaCHJIBeBCROMB 

ocTpoBy, Ha H86epeflCHoft HeBU, no KaAOTCROfi jihhlh. KoiniJieRTB 
RaAOTB yate bb 1732 roAy AOBOAeHB Cujbib ao 360 leJiOBtRB*). B*b 
8T0MB roAy HunepaTpHiia Anna loaHHOBHa noaRasoBajia Ropnycy 
SHaMa 6ibjioe aiJiacHoe cb nepnuMB nocpoAHHt AayxrJiaBuuB op- 

JIOMB*). 



*) Cm. 1-e Hoj. Co6. 3aK. ^ 5894. 

') Bb dTHX'B cjoBax'b BecoHBiHEfo seiaeie ycTpaHHTB BocnnTaHHHsoB'b 
orb BiiAHifl ceMbH. CjiiAOBaTeibHO CABa jh npaBHibHO npHaHCOBaTb 9to 
ycTaBaM'b Bemiaro u y£opATb ero oAHoro sa 9to. Ho dTO CTpeMieeie— ycTpa- 
HBTb BjiflHie reMbH orb yqamsxcfl npoABHiocb bi flameMii saROBOxaTexbCTBi 
eiofi paaie, HifeHBO bi 1721 r. nps ycTpodcTBi AyxoBHuxi cemiHapifi. Ta- 
KBWb o6pa80H'b najbua nepBescTBa Vh npHMiHeHiH dToro eanaja npHHia- 
jtesHTi BOBce He aiiMeiiKHMB neAaroraMB ebb msoii <|)HiaHTpoiincTOBi h hc 
BeaBOMT. Cm. lasise BKiineyKasaflHoe co^HHeaie JTajaeBa, CTp. 18 h citi. 

°) Cm. sanHCBH Han^osHHa cTp. 115. JlK)6epac'b ynepi 29 iiOBA 1752 r. 

*) Cm. 1-e noj[. Co6p .3aK. J^>6 5881, 5894, 6060, 6395. 

^) Cm. BHCROBaTOB'b— KpaTsaA HCTopia 1-ro KaAercKaro Kopnyca, hsa* 
1839 r. CT. 13. 



— 359 — 

«IIIjiflX6THufl Kopayci no ycJiOBiaicB BpeHeHsr, roBopHT'b 
C. M. CojioBBee^ (cm. HcTopk PoccIh t. XXII ct. 314), Hociui'b 
CMiinaHHNd BoeHHO-rpa«A&HCKift xapaKTepi; ohi> Hasea^ajica j^jir 
npHroTOBJiema flBopant bi BoeHHyio s rpaacAaHCKyio cjiyK6y. Ce- 
Harb npeACTaBJUJiTi o Heo6xoj^EMOCTH HBiiib Bib Ropnycb nocTO^HHO 
24 HeJiOB^Ka, o6yHaK)iipxca K)pHC^pyAeH^iH, h hto6u TaKOBue 
Kb BOOHfloB dR8epi(Hi^HOTHK)Ai>AonycKaeHUHe6fiiJiH (id. cip. 217). 
TaROBue o6yHaBmieca bi Kopnyci ncnuTUBajiHCB saiiii'b bi Ce- 
Hari (id. 314^). 

Co BCTynjieHiOMii Ha npecTOJii EjiHsaBeiu IleTpoBHEi^) rjiaB- 
Hoe HanajiBCTBO HaA'B RopnycoM'b nopy^OHO 6ujio reHepaJiy-(]>ejikA- 
ueflxMeficxepy npHHuy recceHi-roMfiyprcKOMy, h Towa «e Ropnycb 
axorb jnflSL oiJiHHia ot^ MopcKoro ciajit HasHBaiBca CyxonyTHHMt 
KaAGTCRHiTb KopnycoMi. Ho yaceB-b 1745 roAy bm^cto Hero rjiaB- 
Huiiii AHpoKTopoMi Ropnyca HasHaiOHB reHepajii-(j[)ejibAi^eflxM6fi- 
cxepi KHHSb B. H. PenHHHi). IIo ero xoAaiaAcTBy li hsb KaAeib, 
KOH o6yHaiiHCb, no ckjiohhocxh, lopHcnpyi^eHi^iH, 6ujih ocBo6o2CAeHU 
OTb aaHHTift ApyrHBiH nayKaMH BoeHHUMH h orb dKsepi^HuiH h na- 
BHanajiEicb npaico bb rpaacAaHCRyK) cjiym6y. Ho P'bnHHH'b ynpa- 
BJUiJL'h RopnycoMi) HBAOJiro, H 19 ^OBpajifl 1750 ro^a rjiaBHoe naAX 

HHM'b HaiaJlbCTBO BBipeHO A'^fiCTBHT. laftH. COB'bTHHKy KHH3K) Bo- 

pHcy TpHropbeBHiy lOcynosy, onenb xoporao ynpaBJiaBraeMy EWb. 
HpH HOMi RaAerb CyMapoROB'B, yBJieneHHuft ^paHi^yscRHMii ipa- 
THKaMH, p'^mHJiCH DHcaxb TpareAin na pyccROMi^ asuK'S, npoBCJi'b bii 

BOCTOpPL TOBapHH^eft CBOHX'b, ROTOpHe Bl> CB060AH0e BpeMH saHH- 

Ma JiHCb ABRJiaMai^ieK) cthxob^ CBoero Toaapun^a, a noiOMX nepemjiH 
H Kh npoACTaBJieHlK) cnepaa OTA'^JibHux'b caeni, a uotomt> h i^^Jioft 
iii»ecu. 3to Aomjio ao CB^A'^Hia PasyMOBCRaro, AOJioscHBmaro o6i 
dTOMi HMaepaTpHi](i, ROTopaa h noaejitJia RaAexaMB npeAciaBBTb bi 
ea ABOpi^ ipareAiH) <(XopeBi>» n npHrjiaciiTb na npeACTaBjienie 
caMoro aBTopa. Orb ABopa a^jih naAJieHaiiue roctiomu. Bc% 6ujiih 



*) UepBoaa^ajbHO RasAaa Kojuerin HMtja cbok) misoiy, hi KOTopot o6y- 
^aia A^a ce6fl hoioauxi iK>Aefi, HOCHBmHX'B HaasaRie DHBepoB'b (otl ai- 
Measaro cjosa junker, osHaHaBmaro uojlowr BjaAiJbqecBifl Atxa). Ho bb 
1763 roAy BUffleii* jKaai wb ceHaii n npo^Hxi MicTax'b K>HBepoB'b He BuiT& 
a aaiHHHUxi Bcbxi: hsi ABopflHi— aoMtcTiiTb B% cyxouyTBufi h MOpCKOfi 
Kopnycu,a Be hbi abopbhi— bi MocKOBCKift yBHsepcHTeTi. Tix^ se, koto- 
pue no liTain ae Moryrb yienie npoAoizaib, oniieiijHTb bi BoeaHyio h 
rpaasjaHCKyio cjiya6y no cnoco^HOCTJiMi. (Cm. McTopia PocciH— C Cojobbcb-b 
T. XXVII cTp. 301). 

^) Cm. RpaTKaA iiciopia IlepBaro KaAexcsaro Kopnyca— BacROBaTOBa, 
1832 r. C.-neTep6yprb, ct. 21 a cJitA- 



— 360 — 

Bi> BOCTopri orb 3Toro npeACiaejieHifl, r RaAeiu nocji^ aioro nacio 
Aaaajin npeACxasjieHifl so ABopi^. drorb Kopnyci npH BkHsaeerb 
cocTaojiflji'B lacTb en ABopa, siROTopue KaAeiu onpeA^JiHJiHCB no* 

TOMX Bl ROJIJierilO HHOCTpaHHUX'L A'^JTB ^JIH HSyHOHifl HSUKOBl. Hsi 

HHCJia RaAerb Toro BpeBieHH bhuijio ho najio B8BicTH£JXT> eaiDHxi 
HHcaieJieA: XepacKOB'B, OsepoBi, KpK)ROBCRofl 6£ijih RaAeiaiiH. IIo 
CMepTH RHasH lOcynoBa RopnycL Ghjh noAHEHOHi 12 (|)eBpajia 
1759 roAa HonocpeACTBeHHo HacjrbAHHRy npecTOJia IleTpy OeAopo- 
BHqy, npoBOAHBmeMyciRs^eTauH 6oJiBinyK) noJiOBHHy BpoMeHE. B-b 
3T0 Bpena UlyBajioB'B, HafiAa naniH cnei^aJiBHUH BoftCRa bb co^^a- 
jiHiejiBHOM'bcocTOAHiH^), npHSHaaaJTB, hto a^i^ npBBeAeHi£ 
BXB BB HaAJie»caii^ee nojio»eHie naAO no3a6oTHTBCfl o caMOirB hxi 
ocHOBaHiH, T. e. mROJii^, b npoACTaBBJocB bi 1758 roAy npodRrB ynpe- 
acA^Hifl Ropnyca a^h ApTBJuiepiB b HH^eHepciBa ^). Ho npesAe 
ocyn^ecTBJiefliA cero npooRia CROH^aJiacB HMnepaTpBoa bb 
1761 roAy, a caMB cociaBBTejiB ero yHopB bb 1762'). Hnnepa- 
TopB IleTp'B III, BCTynBBB Ha npecTOJii, CA'iJiaJiB oaBHUMi ABpoR- 
TopoBB Ropnyca reHepana-nopyiBRa HBaHaHBaHOBBialllyBajiioBa, 



I 
Cv, CO?. JIajiaeBa— HcTopH^ecKift onepKi BoeHHO-yqe^Hux'b saBeAeaift i 

noAB^xovcTBeHHUxi rjaBHOMj Bxi> ynpaBieBlK) CTp. 36 r erta. 

') HeMHOTO noBAH'j^e b-b 1760 r. IIIyBaiOB'B npexcTaBiflJi'L Kasi Heo6xo- I 

AHMO^ AJfl nojiBsu rocyxapcTBa, ?to6u xbopabckIa a^th, Be BCTynaa vb ezjx6j 
AO 18 lirb, yHHiHCb bi KaAeTCBOMi Ropayct hih bb aKaxeMiH hih Mo- 
CEOBCEOMX yBHBepcuTex'ik n noTOM'b 6u onpoA'bjfliHCb Ha cj[yx6y. Ho x^a 

TOrO HT06U ABOpflHCTBO HO BCCfi PoCCIh IllfiaO CpeACTBO npHrOTOBJJlTb ceOfl 

Ki Tony BUcmeMy yieeiK) neoCxoAHHO bi BHaTBux'b ropoxaxB y^pexHTL 
r II MB as in: no MajeHiKHM'b se ropoAaMX— yipej^RTb msojiu, hsi kohxi 
yqeHHKu aoishu buxoahtl bb rHMnasiH, a bsi reif uasifi— bi RaxexcBie Kop- 
nyctt, aKaj^eMlH, yHEBepcnTOTu, a hsi. cuxi Tpex'b MicTb bb x'^ficTBHT&iBByK) 
cijx6j. 8to 6ujio npHsnaHO 15 H0A6pfl 1760 r. aa BecbMa noieaHoe.— (cm. 
HcTopiE MocKOBCKaro YBBBepcifTeTa lUeBupeBa. 1855 r. cxp. 54). Qosbojiio 
ce6i um btoih BaooMBBTb xaiuse hto eme no ysasy 17 naji 1756 r. paspt- 
meHO oujo Hej^opocjEH'L bsi miBxeTCTBa, 6£iBmBM'b bi ysasHue cpoKU aa 
CMorpaxi, y4BTbCA b% yaHBepcBTeTi (seAaBBO en^e ocoBaaHOMB) — j^o mecr- 
HaAuaTH i±Tb H BaTiMi uo ycn'ixaM'b AaBatb paerH o6ep'b-o4)HiiepoB'b apMiH. 
(Cm. nieBupeBi— HCTopiE MocEOBcxaro YBBBepcBTeTa). IIpu HMnepaTpnu^b 
EKaxepiiHt 11 cTpeMjeaie eb o6pa80BaBiK) o<i)HiiepoBi. noompEiocb Kas'b 
noJEOBUHB HaHaiBCTBOMi, TBEi H rocy;(apuBeH>. BcixB o6HapyxHBaBmHrb 
ocoCoHBUE cuoco6bocth jyb noivLj ornpaBJEiH Vb MocROBCBift yHnBepcHTexB, 
OTETAa OHH BOBBpan^ajHCB Bi noJiBB CB noBunieBieM'B qeaa ecjia OEasHBOia 
ycnvxa BBHayxaxi. (cv. JI,npBHB— HCTopia j.-fb. GeifeaoBCEaro noJiBa cxp. 
292). Bi x'b BpeMeaa TaEse otfiBAepu aoiyiaiH BaBaaneBifl ae no oxaofl 
Boeaaofl nacxa, ao n no paaBUH'B oxpacjAHii rocyAapcxBeaaaro ynpaBieaiii 
a Aaxe ;(nnjioHaxiiHecBU[ RopyneaiE. CpBMipu dxouy npBBexeuu aasB y r. 
JlapBBa CTp. 282 xasi a bi Hcxopiu i.-rs. npeo6paseacBaro nojiEa— r. 
^B^epaaa t. IV cxp. 49 a cjiA-). 

^) ApTujuepificEifl a aaseiiepauE maoju no npoeExyIIIyBaiOBanpeo6pa80- 
Baau 6Bija nosse ai OABaillUnxeTCEiii KaAexcEift KopnycB, eotopbih cb'1762 r. 
aasuBajin ApxaiiepificEifi a KaaseBepabifi nijaxexcEift Ka- 



— 361 — 

14 MapTa 1762 roM^). Cem^ HMnepaiop-B npe^nojiaraji^ coew- 
HHTb Bt ojSfLKb KopnycT> Cb CyxonyTHHBfB 6HBniie bt> XleTepCyprt 
Kopnyca MopcKofl h ApTHJiJiepiftCKifl, o6pa80BaTB oaho o6- 
mHpHoe saBOAeHie hsii 920 BOcnuTaHHBKOB'B^ pasA'l^jieBfnux'b ea 8 
poTb, H BHnycKaTB H8i Hero KaacAaro no ero coohhocth h% apniK) 
HJiH BO $Jiorb^). Heo6xoAHMO 6hjio cocxaBHTb mTan» laKoro Kop- 
nyca h oGcTOATejiLHuS OHOHy nJiaHi>, npH newh na Bce coAepacame 
Kopnyca no HOBOMy nojioaceniio hchhcjwjiocb 170,457 p. 32 k., 
KOTopue cji^AOBaJio oinycKaTB hs'b KOMHcapiaia cnojina. 3a ABa 
AHH AO ROHHHBH IleTpa III nojiyHeHii yRasi CenaTa ch yTBepscAe- 
mewh ycTaBa noAo6Haro CBo6oAHaro Kopnyca n npHKasaeo 6bljio 
Hane^axaTB ero 300 aKsoMnjiHpoB'B 26 iiOHfl 1762 roAa. Hsx 
niTaxa yHHiejiefi bhaho, ao ^ero 6hjih paanopoAHH npeAMOTH o6y- 
HenlH B'B Ropnyd, npeACTaBJiHBmeM'B co6ok), cb BHimneft CTOponu, 
p&sufi ropoA'B, ci pasHBiMH Many^aRTypHUMH npoHSBOACTBaMH^ ko- 

TOpUii HlfijIH COOTHOmeHie He TOJIBKO cb BOeHHOH), CTpoeBOK) CJiy^- 

6oH),^ HO H c% HayHHuicB o6pa80BaHieM'B. IIpenoAaBaTejiefi busbi- 
BaJiH H8i MocROBcsaro yHHsepcHreTa; inyBaJiOBi nHcajii Rypa- 
Topy onaro, XepacROBy, B'B 1762 r. o hxi npHCHJiRt, hhcjiom'b 57, 
npH Heifi rjiaBHUiTB nncneRTopoMX Ropnyca 6ujix dnHnycb. 

EKaiepHHa 11 OTnecJiacB HecoHyBCXBenHO r'b aiOMy njiany 
npeo6pa80BaH]H Ropnyca h noBejrkia ocTaBHTB Ropnyci Ha npe»- 



AOTCsifi Kopnyci; bb HeMB 6uio 146 sa^eT^; ^f\ mT> hhzb 6uj[h nps- 
poAHue pyccsie^a *U hsb JH^jUBAQeBi, dCTJiiiHAaeBB h HHOCTpaHaeei*; noMi- 
luaicii OHi Ha IIeTep67prcROH CTopont. Bb 1771 voij rpati^B F. Opiosi, re- 
BepajTB (t^eiLAUefixMeficTepB, npeADHcaj'B MopABUHOsy, roRepa^i Maiopy, npH- 
HflTB vb cBoe KOMaHAOBaHie aioTi Ropuyci; ohi saaHcajB Aifl pyBOBOACTBa 
AHpeKTopa H Apyrexi ^hhobb sopayca oco6yH) HHCTpyKAiH), ROTopaa ocTa- 
BaiacB HeHSiiiHHOEo Bce BpeMAero ynpaBieaia ao 1782 rojia, Korxa ohi ynepB- 
H HasHa^BHi 6li^i» apTiuiepiii reHeparB-iiaiopB neTpi HBanoBHHi M e z i h- 
CHHO. 3x0 6ujo HCTBHHoe (^larojcbflHie a^a Ropnyca: oh'l ca'^JSlib Bce ?to 
Mon H ycnijTB cpaBHflTb erocilIIiaxeTHUMB HMnepaxopCKHMi 
RopnycoM'L, KOTopuft 611JIB eABajB ne ly^inBMB BoeHH(y-y7e6HUMB saBe- 
AeaieHB bt, ifbiofi EBponi. Ho cMepTH Opioaa bi 1783 foay reHepaiB-(|)ejiBA- 
aeSxHOfiCTepoHB cA'^iaHB 6apoHB MeJciepB-daKaMeiBCsifi; olejiircHuo cocxa- 
BHii HOBU0 niaH-B npeo6pa30BaHiH BBtpeHearo eny saseAeHifl h ocxa- 
saicfl B'^e BpeMA AopeRxopox's oaaro, xoth reHepaxi»-(i)eibAue&xMeficxepu 
OTi CMepxH M^HfliHCB; BB 1786 r. 6IIJB lIoxeMKHHB TaBpHqecKift; bi 1793 r. 
rpa<i)B maxoH'E SydoBi; npH neM'b Bucxpoeno hoboc SAanie sopayca, koxo- 
pee vb 1796 r. 6u.io Bce roxoBO, ii poBHO lepesB Hican'B aocit oxkoutIa 
RjaccoB^ BB HOBOMB SAaHls CKOB<iaJiacB HMaepaxpHua EsaxepuHa II bt. 
1796 roAy; CM. OreqecxBeHHBia 3anHCKir 1845 r. x. 42 cxp. 15 e cji*a. BoeHHo- 
j^e6aiiE saBeAeaifl; xasse coqEHenie BncKOBaxoBa h JlaiaeBa Biime ysa- 

SaHHUA HaMH. 

*) Cm. BircKOBaxoBa— cxp. 30. 

'} H3B dioro Kopayca BumeiB mcxay iipo^HMB khasb M. H. FojeHsn^e bb- 
KyxyaoBB h M. H. Mopabhhobi, cm. JIajiaeBB— cxp. 60. 



— 362 — 

HeiiXOCHOBaHlH^), CAtjiaBI) Bl HOMI) HiROTOpUfl nepeiftHU AOBOJU»H0 

cyn^ecTBeHHBiH. ysojiHB'b IIIyBajiOBa bi ornycici, ERaTepiiHall bos- 
jiojRHJia rjiasHoe naiajiBCTBO HaAT> RopnycoHi Ha reHepana naiopa 
(nosAH'le reeepajTb-^eJiLAMapniajia) rh^sh H. B. PeneBHa 4 napTa 
1762 ro;i.a. Ho cjiynaio 0T6HTlfl ero b'e IIoJiBmy BpeiieHHoe ynpa- 
BJieHie RopnycoMi 6ujio CRopo nopyMeno reHepajiy Maiopy ^bjio- 
co$OBy B'E Mapii 1763 rofl;a^). npHEaBi Ropny cb bi CBoe co6- 
CTBeHHoe B'^ABHie, HiinepaTpBiJ^a, ajia ynpaBJienia aTHMi saBeAemeirB, 
onpeA'i^jiHJia ^) rjiaBHUifb AHpeRTopoMi — BeuRaro, a bi jifiJixBOCsh 
HenocpeACTBeHHHaro HaHajibHHRa — $HJioco<f)OBa, reHepajii-naiopa ^), 
CB HdBfliieM'b H3X BiA^HiH CcHaia, RaRB TO 6hjio paeie npn Ejih- 
saBerb neTpoBH*!^). IIpeHCAe Bcero nocJi^AOBajii yRas^, hto Rop- 
nyci no cuiJii H3AaHHHXi> o neBCB ysaROHonieBB saRjonoHaerb bi* ce6t 
He OAHo BOOHHoe, HO H DOJiHTHqecRoe H rpaxcA&HCRoe y^H- 
jiHme, H noTOMy AHpeRiopt ero Ces-b nocpeACTBa ApyraxB uicTb 
npuMO uoA'b noBejiHTejibCTBOMi Buconaftmeft HMaepaxopcROfi Oco6u 
H IIpaBHTejibCTByion^aro Cenara coctohtii h hh orb RaRnxi Apy- 
nixi npaBETejibCTBeHnBixi m'^ctb noBeJiinieBi npBHHHaTb eiiy ho 
cjitAyoTi^). SaT'bM'b nocji'6 H^ROTopuxb HajiosaacHuxi BsirlHeHift 
nocjAAOBaJi'b 1765 r. Man 7 (11. C. 3. 12481) yRasB: «noHexe 
MbT BosnaMipHJiHCb IIIjiflxeTHuft RaAOTCRift CyxonyTHuft Rop- I 
nyci noAB HamHirb coOciBeHHHM'b pacnopaaceHieicb y^peABTb aa 

TaROMT* OCHOBaHlB, ^T06hL OpB npOHSBOAHMOMB BB HeMl» oSyHOHiB 

6jiaropoAHaro lOHomecTBa 6jiB»ca&mee cooTBtTCTBOBSJio BocaBTaHle 
OHaro ci» rlMi naii'lpeHieM'B, ajih ROToparo cie yqajiBn^e bb Iliine- j 
piH ycTanoBJieHO, to Mh ji^jih Toro onpeA^JiHJiH Kb ceBiy A^Jiy na- | 
mBXB renepajTb-nopyHBRa Bei^Raro b reHepaJi-b-Maiopa $bjioco- 



') Cm. C6opBHKi MaTepiajEOBi j^i& HCTopiH AKaxeiiiH XyAoasecTBi— r. 
HerpoBa, t. 1 naciB 2-a CTp. 14 h cits. 

') Cm. KpaTKaa Hcropifl 1-ro KaAOTCKaro Kopnyca— Ajcb. BHCSOBaxoBa 
1832 r. CTp. 36—37. 

') Cm. 1-e noJi. CoO. 3aK. 1765 r. J^ 12338, 12349, a Tasse Asa ysaaa 
Cesaxy 8 MaA h 4 AeRadpii 1766 r. u oauhi> 1765 ro^a y cero apHiaraeMHe 
J\& 1, 2 u 3. 

*) 3aMl%THM'B,qTo renepaii-Maiop'B MaxaHJi ^HJocoj^oB'b no CBoefi npocBOi 
6u2i> yxe 13 anpija 1766 ro^a yBOJeHi on npaBieeia KaxeicKHMi Cyxo- 
nyTHUMi RopnycoM'B (cm. ApxHB. IIpaBUT. CeHaxa. RHHra Btico^. ysasosi, 
J^ 118, CTD. 29 H npHiomeHie JVs 4. 

*) r. uexpoBi Bt co^HHOHiH ^Hciopifl C.-nexep6ypra". 1885 r. CTp. 701 
o6iiiCBjiexi, Hxo cauoe HS'saxie Kopnyca nsi ceHaxcsaro B'^Ataifl cA-biaHO 
Cb utiBH) npeAocxaBHXL BeuEOMy BecxH Bopnycb sa OAUBa&OBEix'L ocHOBa- 
Hiflxi Basi Bi HMiiepaxopcBofi AsaAeMia XyAOsecxBi— a^a Majib^eitOBi h 
Bx BocnHTaxejBHOM'B o6mecxBi 5jaropoAHfiix'b a'^bha'b— AJfl A'i^Buui. Ci axoro 
BpeMCHH Hanaiocb wh RopQyci (t)paHay3CKoe BocDuxaeie, roBopHTi> r. UexpoBi. 

•; Cm. coq. JlajaeBa cxp. 40 h 1-e U. 0. 3aK. J^ 12338. 



— 363 — 

$OBa. A Mes?Ay t^mi ao CyAyn^aro o cewb Kopnyci enpoAb oape- 
A^JieHi^ noBeJiiiBaeM'B OAHOny 6uTb noAT> HaniHM'L eAUHCTBeHHUM'B 
BlAeHieM'B H npnHHMaTB no ceMy A'^Jiy cjiOBecHue HaniH yKasu on 
HExii Bei^Karo h ^njioco^OBa, ) Ha Ta(C0Mi> ocHOBaHin Kasi o cjio- 
BecHuxi> yRasaxi npomjiaro 1762 roAa lK>jin 3 ahh hoboji'Iho.^ % 

BcTynHBi B-b ynpaBjieHie RopnycoMi^, Bei^Koft cocTaBHJix npe- 
jiiiMHHapHoe nojio^enle nuDixeiHaro KaAeTCKaro Ropnyca e, npeA- 
CTaBHBi OHuft HMnepaTpei^']^ EKaTopHH'b, npocHJi'b npERasaTB pas- 
CMOTp^TB 0H06. BcJi'lACTBie dToro EKaTopHHa II HHcaJia bsi I^ap- 
CRaro 17 aBrycra 1766 r. HnKHrt Hb. IlaHHHy, hto HasHaiaerB 
jmsi pascHOTpiHiH dTOro npeJiHMHHapHaro nojioHOHm ero, 6paTa 
ero, RHflsefi Fojihauhux'b (renepaJia n BHij^e-Rani^Jiepa), rpa^a 3a- 
xapa ^epHunieBa, reeepaJi'L-nopyiHRa MypaBLeBa n Tafiearo co- 
B^THHRa Ojicy^BeBa H oxBAaexio lOifB oCn^aro hxi MHiHl^. (C6op. 
Hm. p. H. 06. T. X cip. 100). 

BnineosHaqeHHUH jmi^a, pascHOTpn c% aoji^humi BHHMaHieMx 
co^HHeHHoe reHepaJiOMi-nopyHHROM'B BeiJ^KHMiy npeJiHMHHapHoe 
nojiosoHie nuiaxexcRaro RaAeiCRaro Ropnyca hjhh padcyacAOHi^, cjiy- 
acanufl pyROBOACTBOMi ri HOBOMy ycxanoBJieHiK) mjiAxeTCRaro Ra- 
AOTCRaro Ropnyca, nycTaB'L^)oHaro, npeACiaBEJiH KMnepaTpHa*! 
oOn^ee nxi MH^Hie, nro «HaxoAiiTi> npaBUJia cero ycTaeoBJieHJH He 
TO^BRO HaHCTHQi ocHOBaHEUMH, HO H cb HeycuHHU&i'B Bamero Be- 
jiHHecTBa noJiBS*! rocyAapcTBOHHOfi noneieHleMB, a b% CQWb cjiy- 
^Ai oco6jihbo h Cb MaiepHUM^ MSJiocepAieHiiBaniEiM'BHABOpaHCTBy 

pOCCiftCROMy CXOACTBOEHBIMH, TaRl HTO, OCTB JIH yAOCTOHTCfl MOHap- 

maro noATBep^enifl, o ycnixax'B, cooTB'i^TCTByion^HX'B TOMy, coMHt- 
BaTBCH ex noMon^BK) Bomieio ne mo»ho>. 

cllpti ceifB xoTJi RaaajiocB, hto oraycRaeMBix'B ao Hunt ms'h 
cyMMu BOHHCROft Ha e^oroAHOB cyxonyTHaro RaAOXCRaro Ropnyca 
coxopjKaHie cxa xpnAi^^axa AByxi) xuchhi h HicROJiBRHXi coxi) py6jieB'B 
H npH HOBOMi ceui) y^pescAOHiH 6yAex^ aobojibho, ho RaRi 



3a nocjiiAOBaBiDHMi yse wb 1766 r. yBOJBHOBieM'B $HJ[0CO<i)OBa, aa- 
HajiBCTBO eaAB sopnycoMB aepemjo Kb oauomy BeusoMy KaRi bhaho mb 
npBjaraoMaro yKasa Ceuaxy otb 8 naa 1766 r. (ctf. npniosenie 2). Obi aoj- 
zeBB 6iij[B noiynaTB otb HMnepaTpumi cioBecBUA nosejiiHiif, noAaaaTB 
HMnepaxpHAi^ qpamo exeneA'^JBHiie panopxu, sorAa saKie mwh UamH nose- 
itaifl xaifB saaHcanu 6uxn h hto no obumb HcnoiHaeica. (Cm. npiiJOxeBie 
J# 5; TaRse BHCsoBaroBB ct. 38. 

') Cm. TBKse ApxEBi UpaBBT. CeHaxa, RHHraBfiico?. noBei. 1^ 113, 
cxp. 263. 

^) H3i 3THXB cjOBB HajKO 3aKJ[H)HBTB, «iT0, npeACTaBBBi> npejHMHBapHoe 
noioiseoie, HeuKoft BCKopt AOCTasui h ycraR's Eopnyca aa pascMOTptaie 
Thxb se JHAB, KOTopua 6ujH aasaaHeaii x^a pascMOxpiaia nepBaro. 



— 364 — 

OAHaKOHCB ch noAJinHHOCTiK) ocHOBaTBCfl Ha TOMi) He M03RH0 wh pas- 
cy^AGHiH A03B0JifleMuxT> onpeA'i^AeMHMi) yHHTeji^Mb bufoa'b, sa- 
BeAenlH pasHuxi ao hbihI^ He6uBaJi£[xi> y^pe^RAemft h noTpeGHUxii 
BHOBb He MajiHXT) CTpoeflift, TaKoacb nyiemecTBia bt* nyxia ro- 
cyAapcTBa H'&ROToparo HHCJiaKaAeTOBi>, no BunycR'& Hxi>n8i>Kopnyca, 
Ha EXAHBeHia onaro h npo^Hxi) pacxoAOBi), to, mo 6h renepaJTB- 
AHpeKTop'B n coBiTi) RaRHMH jih6o HeAOCTaTKaMH HE Bi ^eifb ctI- 
CHenu He 6hjie, npieMJieMii A^psHOBeHie, cooGpasyacb c'h oTirbH- 
HHMi Bamero HufnepaiopcRaro BejiE^eciBa BejiEROAyniieM'b, npeA- 
ciaBETb BcenoAA&HHi&me o npiyMHOJReHiE Bcefi Ha e^eroAHoe cy- 
xonyiHaro mjiaxeiCRaro RaAeiCRaro Ropnyca coAepacanie onpeA'iM- 
eMOftcyMBfHxoTa 6h ao 200.000 py6.,AonojiHafl AJi^Toro HHHimHioio 

E3l AOXOAOBT, KoJIJieriH 9K0H0MiH» ^). 

HnnepaTpEi^a yiBepABJia set npeAnoJio^eHia BeiiRaro, ci ro- 
TopuHE nosBOJiEMi ceGi B^ HeifaorExii cjiOBaxi nosHaROHETB he- 
Taiejieft. 

Pascy^AeniH, CJiy^an^ia pyROBOACTBOMi rb HOBoify ycTaHOBJieHilo 
mjiflxeTHaro RaAeiCRaro Ropnyca, cocTasjieHu BeaREicB, RaRi 
OHi caiiT) roBopHTB BT) Ha^ajii, no acejianiK) FocyAapHHE, hto6h 
yiEJiBn^e BCRycHHXT> o^ErtepoBi 6hjio laRjKe yHEJiEnjeM-B n SHai- 
HMXi rpajKAant e oie^ecTBy 6h cyryOyio nojibsy npHHOCHJio h hto6u 
310 TOJiERoe Ao6poe a'^o saBHcljio ne otl oahoA yAann, a 6i>ijio 
6h njiOAOM'b npeAycMOTpETeJiBHaro rocyAapcxBeHHaro noneieHiji; 
cjioBoifi) CRasaTB, hto6h hobhitb BOcnETanieMi noBoe Chtbb Ham* 

AapOBaTB E HOBHft pOA'B HOAAaHHUXl npOESBeCTE. BaXHOCTB dToro 

A^Jia TpeCyeiB rjiyCoHaflniHX'B pasMHuiJieHift, bb qeMB Bei^ROft npH- 
SHaerB caoft HeAOCTaioRT); ohb npeACTaBMeT^ xaKOBua Seai. npn- 
RpacB, 6681) npeAy6i^»cAeHifl, RaROBBffl tojibro Boo6pa»ajiECB ero 
noHHTiio. Ohb npoACTaBEJi'B 6u exi bi npocTpaHHiflmeM'B bha%, 
RorAa 6u eny AOCTaaaao noHaria hchojihetb Bci A^^HHua eny otb 
Ela BejiBHecTBa noBejiinia e HaciaBJieHia*. 

npeACxaBjieHHBia BeuREiii) pascyacAenia pasA'^JiaiOTca na Ast 
HacTB. B-B nepBoft, oaarjiaajieHHOft: «o BocnnTaHiH b yqenia Cjiaro- 
poAHBixi Boo6n^e», ohb roBopBxi ECRjnoqExejiBHO o BOcnExamH h 
y^eniE BoenHUX'B, npE qeni npEBOABxi BBinBCRB B3i& coiBHeHifi 
K)jiia II,e3apa b CBexonia; roBopBxi, hxo neoCxoAEMO nacxaBJiaxB cb 
jiacROK) B JiK)6oBBio, y^BXB 6oji']^e pasroBopaEB n pascy^eHiaHE, 
HeacenB sacxaajtaxB aay^BBaxB. IIoxepaHH 6yAyxB h xpyABi b Bpena, — 



Cm. C6op. Hm. Pyc. HcTop., 06b^. t. IO-h*. 



— 365 — 

no cjioBani MoHTena, — ecjiH HenpeciaHHO HBiaiB n naiidycTB y^iHTB 
CTaHyrt. 

Bee saBHCHTb otb jAaHHaro BuCopa nanaJiBCTByiontHX'B h yia- 
Tejieft, OAapeHHUx'B sAopoBUMi pasyMOMi), fijraroHpaBiesi'B h ne 
sapasHBiDHxca HaAyTUMi bhaomi. h yrpioMOCTBio. Ori neAOCTaiKa 
HCKycHuxii ynpaBHTOJiefi i^yHwrejieiuojioCBUiLy^jummfi. dpexoaatb 
B^ ynaAORi. TpyAHOCucKaTB xoponiHX'B BOcnHTaTejie&, a eme xpyAnie 
COXpaHHTB HafiABHHBIX'B. Heo6xoAHHo CesyCJIOBHO CTapaiBCfl, hto6h 
BOcnBxaHie ABopHHCTsa flsjiajiiocB 0CH0BaHieMi» npoqHMi> ero ao- 

CTOHHCTBaMX; He06X0AHM0, HT06h oho npHBUKJIO nOBBHOBaTBCfl 

H noBOJitBaTB. yKasaBi, hto RopnycB KaAOTCRift aoju^ohi otjih- 
qaTBCH OT-B aKaAOMiH h yHHBepcuTeTa, BeiJ^Kofl noApo6HO roBopHTB 
coAop^aBiH H yHOBiH KaABTi Bi) Kopnyci, 061 nxiOAO^A'^y njiaTBt, 
oCxo^AGhIh cb HHMH, HenpeciaHuofi safioii CA^jiaTB hs'b oiAa- 
BaeMuxi BT> KopnycB neJiOB^Ra sAoposaro, cnoco6Haro nepeHOCBTB 
TpyAH H BC£[Kyio nenoroAy, h npHBOABTB npn &TOWb HaciaBJieBia 
Bereiiiij H MoHTocRBe. BeaRoft BucRasHBaeTCii opoTHBi ynoTpeSjieniH 
T]^JIecHBIX^ HaRasaHlA, HenpHJiB^HBix^ nib^HOMy Bospaciy RaAerB h 
He npoBSBOA^n^BX'B Ao6poAibTejifl. 

Bropaa me nacxB dToro pascy^AeHia HaHBHaeTca pasMumjieHiHMH 
o 6jiaropa3yMiH h pascMOipiHlH pHMJinnaMB bi pasAa^i^ hbhobi b 
AOJixHOCTefi H noJiBS'b, Ranan bs-b cero BnpeAB w^n 6jiaropoAHaro 
lOHomecTBa npoBsoftTB MOJReix. 3tb pasMuniJieHlH saHMCXBOBaHEi 
npBHMyn^ecTBeHHo hsi co^HHemfi: Montesquieu, Considerations sur 
les causes de la grandeur des romains et de leur decadence, a TaRjRO 
St. Evremond '). 

diB pasMBunjiema npeACTaBJuaiorB eAsa jib oco6eHHBifi BHiepecB 
EI* nacToan^ee BpoMH b Aaace Majio cjiymarB ocHOBaHieM'B cJi'^bAyK)- 
n^HMi OTA^JieHiaM'B, bi> ROTopuxx BeiJ^Rofi roBopHTB npeAMeiax'B, 

ROTOpHM'B HaAJieaCBTB 06yHaTB RaAOTB Bl ROpnyci^, BM'Ifl Bl) BBAy 
npOHBBeCTB Edl> BBXl B BOBHOB'B, H rpaKAaHli, HCRyCHHX'B B^ Sa- 

ROHax^ CBoero rocyAapcTBa b bi noJiBiBHecRofi aROHOiiiB. Jlnm- 
HHM'B Raaceica, roBopBX-B Bei^ROft, o6yTOTB RsmeiB JiaTBHCROMy 
asuRy, jiOFBRi, MeTa({)B8BR'l, B npoHOMy, b bpbboahtb cjiOBa K)Ma, 
^TO cHaBCojiBmiS nopoRT* HUHlbmnHro BOCOBTaHia coctobti> bi 
TOMTb, qio MHoro ynoTpc6jiaeTca BpeMOHB Ha cIb HayRH, a-"^ ko- 



*) Saint Evremond (p. 1610 h yw. 1703 r. bb JoHAOHt) 6hjib ohchb 
ocTpoyMHHJI co6ect]iHHR'B, odjiaiajiB yBieKaTeJi&HiiHB AapoHi CwioBa, lerso 
u jiOBKo noACM'bHB&icA H ButcT^ CI TtMi saHnifajcfl jHTepaTypoD. Ohi Ha- 
nHcaJB Tasse: „Re{16xions sur les divers genies da peuple romain*'. 



— 366 — 

TopBixi y^iHiejiH sacTaBJiHiOTii HacT> TpaiHTB jiyqinyK) nacTb xlhshh 
H npenflTCTByK)n> y^vrbcn Hya^HiflmiiM'B h o6uKHOBeHHiiiirB no- 

3HaHi)]Ml>». 

KaAeTM aoji»hu o6y?aTBCH BOHHCROiiy HCKyccTBy n AHCitHnjiHHi; 

fl3UKaHT>: CJiaBilHCKOMy^ AA6bI pOCCiflCKHM'B HHCaTb npaBHJIbHO H 

KpacHop^qHBO; HyjKecTpaHHuicB n naie ynoTpe6ji6HleM'b HejRejiH 
TBep»ceHieii'B rpaMBiaTBicH; saTtuB apHOMeTHRi, reoMeipiH, TpHroHO- 
MeTpiH, apTHJiJiepiH^ ^opiH^HKaaiH, nexaHEKi^, reorpaij^iH, HCToplH. 

Bei^Kofi npii6aBJiflerb npH aTOMi, hto ecjiH Kaxera smirb Ha- 
yRaMi HeHacBoeMi* poAHOirb azuKb oGyqaTBca ciaHyrb, to hsi 
Toro noJiBsa 6 yA6T^ ee BejiHKa. Ecjih ohh o6yqaTCH hmb ea 
Hy^OMB AsuKi, to HayRH aTH noRa)RyTCA hobumh, necjiuxaHHUHH 
Ha CBoeifB npapoAHOMB. HeBosMOJKHO TenepB BCKopi aobojibho 
HafiTH yiHTejieS, rob 6u nayRH na pyccROMi siBUKi npenoAasaTB 
Morjie, h6o y^eaue HHoseimu ero ae 3HaK)T'B. Ho Tpy^HOCTB bjie 
HeBOSMOJRHOCTB cIk) qposi) 5, 6 Ji^TB HomBO JiOFRO OTBpaTHTB; Kor^a 
acaJiOBaHbe h Apyrie cnoco6H nocjiyxaTi) noompenieM'B, to HaflflyTca 
jiEOAH Me»Ay HHOCTpani^aM H roh Ha pocciftCROMi flsuR*!^ 6yAyrB o6y- 
MaTB HayRaMB. 

Bi) saRJifO'ieHiH aioro pascyjR^eHiH Beipcofi, ynoMAHyBT> en^e 
paai Heo6xoAHMOCTH, htoGbi bc% RaAeTU 66311 HS'BflTiA o6yiajiHCB 
rpaMMaTH^ecRH cjiaBAHCROHy asuKy h <ito6u couneHi 6ujrb cjio- 

BapB CJiaBAHCRift CB pOCClftCRHMl, TOBOpHTB CJliAyfOn^ee: «J9(0B0JIBH0, 
RaJROTCH, BSlACHeHO H AORaBaHO, HTO BOCBHTaHiK) BB HIJIAXeTHOirb 

RaAeTCROHi* Ropnyct aojusrbo 6utb npaRTH^ecKOMy, na^e HesasH 
TeopeTHiecROMy; yHHTBca lOHomecTBy CojiBrae otb CMOTptnia h cjiy- 
maHia He:ReJiH otb TBep^enia ypoROBi; hto nopaARairB mjiaxeTHaro 
cero yiHJiHii^a HaAo6HO 6uTb bo bcomb otjibhhum'b otb HafiJuoxaeHaro 
Bi niROJiax^, aRaAOMi^xii h yHHBepcHTeTaxii oCbiRHOBeHi^; ^o, 
eJiHRo MO^HO, HaAJieacHTB H36iraTB bc^^xi HSJiHmHHX'B npasAHO- 
CTefl, Hap^AOBB H Bcero Toro, ?to ^h3HB hsh^xchtb h bi 0CJia6jieHie 
npHBOCTH MOJRerB, H He cji^AOBaTB hi> TOMB npHMipy 6ojiBmeft 
HacTH MOJiOAuxB jiioAefi Apyrsixi rocyAapcTBi. Cero paAn h^crojibro 
CTporo BB TOifB HacTOK), HTO saBBBanie, nyApu, noMaAU h bcI hb 
RCTaTH yfiopH H3jrHraHH; mo nnnia AOJiKencTByerB 6bitb npocraa, 
ho sAopoBa^ H AOCTaTOHHaa; hto HaAJie^nrB 6oJiBnie t^jio opiynaTB 
Kb TpyAaMB, nencejiH npHnyscAaTB pa3yMB Kb pasMumjieHiAMi h 
cooGpa^eniAMi; htoSi 6jiecTaii^afl nonepxHOCTB ne 6biJia npexno- 
HBTaeiia npocTUMX n npaBA0JiK)6HBUMB HpasaMBi ho npeHMyn^ecTBO 
6h AasaeMO 6biJio TpyAaMii, nocTOHHCTBy h Ao6pofi Btpi. TiHB 



— 367 — 
B'B HesaBHCTB npHBeAeHBi 6yAyTT> npasAHOCTb, Jini^eMbpie h JiacKa- 

TeJIBCTBO, npiHTHBlft TOKMO BHAl* BMfcK)!!;!^ H ^aCTO HUSi np^MOMy 

AOCTOHHCTBy npeAno^aiaeMBifl. npoHCxo;i;fla:iee 0T^ chx'b HapyjRHO- 
CTefi 3JI0 ecTB xiMi 66jn»mee, hto ho tormo MHom HeHyacHUH m 
o6xoAHMUfl Ben^H KkJiajOTca ^pesi) to nyjEHUME n Heo6xoAHBfuuii, 
HO H yRpamaEOti^iecA chmh npsTBopcTBaMn jiioah, ^OBOJiBCTBy^cb 

6UTB yHTHBH H JiaCKOBH, He HMiH)Tl ySCe BnpOqeMB HH HCTHHHarO 

ycepAifl K'B Ore^ecTBy, hh cnoco6HOCTH Kb nojie3HHMi A'^jraicb, a 

TOJIBKO CaMHXl Ce6fl JIK)6aTB ^). 

^To ace KacaeTca cocTaBJienHaro mrb ycxaBa mjinxeTiiaro Kop- 
nyca ^, to ohi coctoajh hsx ^ecaTH rjiaBi, nocoAepacaHiio CBoeuy 
oqeHB cxoAHfiixi cb TaKOBUMB 3Re ycxaBOiTB njia BocnHTBTejiBHaro 
06ntecTBa CjiaropoAHHXT. A^BHai). CpaBHenie hxb y6tac;^aeTB 6e3y- 

CJIOBHO BX TOMl, HTO HJIH aBTOpOMl 3THX^ 060HXX yCTaBOBlflBMeTCfl 

OAHO n TO me Jimiio, hjih cocTaBHTejib o^naro YcxaBa sasMCTBOBajii 
OHHfi y spyroro. Tbki ynpaBJienie Kopnyca BBipaeTca cosiTy hsb 
4-XT> oco^-B, KOH SyayT-B onpefltJieHH otb Ea BeJiHiecTBa, h rene- 
paJn-AHpeRTopa^ npH ^QWb noJiaraeTca en^e oco6ufi AiipoKTopi 

HayRli, BH6HpaeMBlflH31>yHeHB[Xl, OTJIHHHBIfl AOCTOHHCTBa HMynpx'B, 

HCKycHHft BO BceMi, HTO flf) BOCDHTaHW, JO BOHHCRHX^ H rpaac- 
jaHCRHxi HayRi npHHaAJie«HrB. Oh-b BMicTi ci HHcneKTopoM'B 
cocTaBJiaeTi pocnHcanie HayR-B h saBijiyerB BcinB, hto OTHOCHTca 
ao yneCHOfl h BOCHHTaTejiBHOfl hbcth Ropnyca ^). IIpeAMeTBr Bt- 
AOMCTBa H CTeneHB bjibcth GoB^Ta ne 6bijih c^ tohhoctIk) onpe- 
^^jneHBi; B'B ycTaB% Ropnyca Be BCTp'l^aeTCH B'B stomi OTHomenlH 
toihux^ ^paBHJI^, H3JioaceHHux'B bi oahomb iiicr6. Ho H3'b pa3ciflH- 
Hiixi HO ycTaBy npaBHJii o Gob'^t^ hojibsh ne npHATH ri saRJiio- 
HeHiK), HTO oHi ji,0Ji3Biewb 6iijn> cxapaTBCA o noJiBsi h 6jiarococTOflHin 
Kopnyca cAHHOAyniHO c^ ^eHepaJI'B-;^HpeRTopoMB h ceRpexapeMi, 
ftna Hero Ecbwb hm'b nopyHaexca h o6mee npaBaenie RopnycoMB. Co- 
BtrB flojimem, 6hjib cotohhtb napo^HBift ajih cero Kopnyca oco- 



•) Cm. 1 noji. Co6p. 3aK. 1766 r. ccht. 11 >& 12741. 

'j Ho dTOMy ycTaBy Kopojci HasuBaexcA HMnepaTopcRHMii GyxonyTHKH'b 
ULiaxeTHUM'b RaAexcBUM'B Kopnycom, cm. BHCsoBaTOB'b, cxp. 38. 

')Cm. ycTEBi HMnepaiopcsaTO lUjiflxeTBaro Kopnyca 11 ceex. 1766 r. 
(n. C. 3. ^2 12741), a raKse ApxHB'B Ilpaa. CeHaia, KHHra Buco?. yKasos'B 
2^ 119, CTp. 301 H cjtA Tyxi HaxoAHxcA ae xojbko caMufi ycxaai sopnyca, 
BO H AB* ^acxH pascyaAeHift, cjysaiUHxi pyKOBOACTBOM-B ki HOBOMy ycia- 
BOBjeniK) miflXBTHaro saAexcKaro Kopnyca, hmchho ^acxB I-a o BOcnHTaHiH 
6iaropoAHiix'B Boo6me, h qacxB 2-fl pascysAOBifl o djaropasyMia h paacMO- 
Tpd^aiH pHMJAHi BB pasAa^:^ ^hhobi h AOJiSHOCxeft. Bci axa 6yMarB ae noA- 

BHCaBU BeUKOMl. 



— 368 — 

6jiHBiiift BOHHCKia H rpa^AaHCRill ycTaBi h npeACTasHTb na Buco- 
^admee yTBepxA6Hie;KpoMi^TorooHi>AOJi3ReFB 6uwb cociaBHTb Tas- 
^e HHCTpyKAiHBciM'LCJiy»aii;iiM^,Aa6uRaacAuft seajii bcI noApo6- 
HOCTn CBoefl aoji^chocth h ne OTroBapHsajiCH 6u HestA'^^Hieirb. 
Bci npH Ropnyci^ aojihhocth pacapeA'^JiflK)TCH, cb corjiacia Co- 
B^ia, reaepaji'L-AiipeKTopoM'B. 06ii;e ct> CoBiToirB renepaJTb- 

AHpeKTOp'b MOaCOTL BBOAHTB Bb KOpuyci RaKlH JIH6o EOBUH paC- 

nopH^eHiH, He H8o6paxeHHUfl bi yciaBi; Sesi paspimeeifl Co- 

B']&Ta AHp6RT0pi> TaROBUXl) OAHHOJinqHO CBOeK) BJiaCTBK) BBOAHTB 

He AOJi^eHi. CoBirb HiiteTB coCpanifl: oGuRHOBenHUH bi nepBiixB 
qncjiaxi Ra:RAaro Micfli^a, h HpesBUHafiHua, cosBiBaeiaifl, CMOTpa 
no o6cTOflTejiBCTBaM'B, renepajTB-AHpeRTopoM^. Ilpn p'JbmeniH A'^^i 
npeACTaBJiflOMHX'B CoBi^iy, ^jichh onaro oGBABJifliorB cboh MHinifl 
HsycTHO H sartMB npoHCxoAHTB CajiJiOTHpoBRa no A'&JiaM'B, Raca- 
lomHMca yHe6floft h BOCHHTaieJiBHoft nacTH, npHcyiCTByerB bt* Co- 
wbrb laRace AHp^RTopii HayRi>. SpoMt Toro Cob^ti AOJi^en^ co- 
6iipaTBCH RaHCAufi roAB pasi ^to6u HscjiiAOBaTb, bo BceifB jih na- 
6jiK)AaioTCfl yciaHOBJieHiA Kopnyca. Ha e^eroAHHxx dRsaHenax'b 
AOJixeHB npHcyTCTBOBaiB: B^ MeHboiBXB RjiaccaxB — no Rpaftneft 
uipt OAHHi nsi HJieHOB'B CoBixa, a bi> hocjtIahhx'b AayxB RJiac- 
caxT* — Bcfi HJieHH onaro. Orb CoBiia pasAaKxrca TaR«e cbha'^^- 
xejibCTBa T^MB RaAeiaiii, ROTopbie sacjiy^HJiH npn BunycR:]^ noJiy<iHTb 
npeHMyn^ecTBa h noiTenie. CoBtrb ace npoH3BOAHrb npieM-B boc- 
HHTaHHHROB^ Bi RopnycB H pascMaipHBaeT'B npeACTaBJiHeMbi^ hmb 
A0Ra3aTejiBCTBa o npzHaAJieacHOCTn nxi> rb pocciftCROMy ABopHHCxay. 
GoBirB 3RQ sadoTHTCH saGjiaroBpeMeHHHXTi o6BHBJieHiflxi RaRi* o 
opieM^j TaR'B H BMnycR*! RaAei'B. FjiaBHufl ABpeRXopi AOJisRewh 
CTapaTBca, hto6h Bci ^Jienu cero o6n^ecTBa (t. e. Bcb cjiyscanue bi 
Ropnyci) hoa'b ero npeABOAHieJibCTBOMx corjiacHO cnocn^niecTBO- 
BajiH noJibsi Ropnyca; owb AOJUReni* sa bc^mu naGJuoAaib h sciwh 
HOAaBaTb npHM^p'b cbohmi noBeAeHieirb h HpaBaMH. EMy npncoBO- 
RynjiHeiCA AOJischoctb rjiaBHaro i^eHsopa hjih Ha6jiH)AaTeJiA HpasOBB 
BO BceMi Ropnyci. Owb o6fl3aHB BHymaTB Ao6poA'6TejiB 6JiaropoAHOMy 
lOHomecTBy, cjitAHib, RaRi BOcnHiUBaioTB n oOyHaiorb RaAerB, RaR^ 
BCAyiT* ce6a npHCTaBHHRH, ynnrejiH h Bci'iHHH, ofin^eciBy npH- 
HaA-neacan^ie. 

Co BC^MH H 0C06jII1B0 CB HHTOMI^aMH AOJDRHO DOCTynaTB CO- 

riiacHO CB renepajiBHUM^ njianoMB o ynpeHCAeniH BocnHTaniH. T'fa- 
jiecHuxB HaRasaHifl ne yaoTpe6jiflTB n t. a. 

Ho HOBOMy ycTasy ^hcjto RaAei'B He HSMinsjiocB, no Biricro 



— 369 — 

npesHHxi 6-TH pon ynpescxoHu 5 BOspaciOBi, HHeHHo: nepeufl 
OTb 5 ;[0 9 jAtb, BTopofl otb 9 jjo ] 2, ipeiift otb 12 ;^o 15 h t. 
A.; Bi RajRAOHi Bospacrb npe6BiBajiH TpHroAa, a noTony npnHHMajiH 
Kb KopnycL RaacAue ipz roAa. 

EaacAfiift BOspacTb em^jii HHcnoRTopa h 8 BOcnHTaTeJieft; nepBuft 
se BospacTb, RaRi> MaoiOJrlTHift, noAiHHeHT> Chjh* oco6ofl BOCnHTa- 
lejiBHHi^t. 3th jiHi^a aoji^hh 6ujih ne oTJiyHaTbCH otb bbxi hh 
AaeMi, HH HOHLK). BcTynaa b^ 4-fi BoapacTi, t. e. jocTHraa 15 JitrB, 
RaAeiu Hiri^jnH npaBO Bu6paTb ajih ce6fl rpajRAaHCKyio cjiyjR6y, 

CMOipa no CKJIOHHOCTAMl H COCTOHHilO SAOpOBBA. 

npH nepexoA'ik b'b ohtbiB BospacTi RaAOTH yace aTBMi npaBOMi 
He nojiBsoBajiHCb u AOJimHbi dujiH ao canaro BunycKa npoAOJi^aTB 

TOTB KypCl HayRTi, ROTOpBlft JXB HSGpaJIH. TaRHBTB 06pa80Hl Cb 

KexBepTaro Bospacia RaAeTBi pasA^flJincB na ABa mTaTa (RaRi) Te- 
nepB ffb HiROTopuxi yqe6Huxi> saBeAeHl^xi na OTA'i^JieHiii); ohh 
BRjifoiajiHCB B'B bohhcrIB hjih rpaacAaHCRifi niTaT^ CMOxp^ no TOMy, 
El Heicy oicaaajiH crjiohhoctb h oxoTy bi npeAmecxBOBaBmeiTB bos- 
pacrfc. 

IIpH aTOiTB 0AHaR0A03B0JiHJi0CB06y?aTBrpa»cAaHCRHBrBHayRaMi 
H lixii nai BOHHCRaro mxaTa RaAerb, roh noaceJiaiOT'B yiHTBca dTHMii 
HayRaiTB. 3to paayHieTCA He tojibro o RaAOTaxi 5 Bospacia, hoh o 

CKOponOHflTHBIXTi HST) 3'rO BOSpaCTa. dRSaMOHEI npOHSBOAHJIHCB 

Hepes-B (fOTupe Micai^i. Ilpn BunycR'i^AOCToflHue nojuyqaiorB npen- 
KyqecTBa h noiieHie nopy^HTCRaro iHHa. Cob^^tb ne onpoA^JinJii* 
Hxi Ha cjiyjR6y, ho, RorAa caMH nosReJiaiorB, no BBinycRi nocxynnTB 
Bi BOHHCRym HJIH rpaaTAaHCRyio cjiy;R6y. 

BocnHTaHHHRH 2-x'B CTapmnxii BospacTOBi MorjiH, Rponi co- 
6paHift, ROTopuH CuBaJiH b^ caHoin> Ropnyci, B'B 6oJiBniie npasAHHRH 
H i^epeHOHiajiBHEje ahh jiBJiflTBCfl no fIcrojibro HejiOB^Ri ro ABopy, 
Bi> conpoBOJKAeHiH Ropnycnaro o$Hi](epa hjih AHpeRTopa. Ohh 
Aoji;rhbi 6KrjiH HanCoJiie npocBini;aTBC)i co6cTBeHHBiH'B cbohm'b pas- 
cyAROM-B H o6AyHUBaTB sapaH^e o6A8aHHOCTH Toro HasHaieHiH, 
KOTopoe roTOBHTCH HMii uo BbixoA'b HXT) Hsi Ropnyca. yBOJiBHenie 
RaAerb co ABopa Sbijio bobco npeRpan^eno na tomI) ocHOBaniH, hto 
lacToe ci JiioABMH Apyroft cpoABi npefiuBaHie mohcot^ noBJiiflXB na 

npHBBiqRH H CRJIOHHOCTH, BX ROTOpUXl RaABTBI BOCHHTUBaiOTCJI B'b 

Ropnyc]^. ^jifl CBHAanifl cb poAHTeJiHMH h 6jih3rhmh poactbohbh- 
KaMH HasHaqeHU no BOCRpecHBiMi) ab^mi oco6He qacbr^ b'b npn- 
cyTCTBiz RopnycHaro eanajiBCTBa. 

IIpHHHMajiH B^ Ropnyci He cTapme mecToro roAa; npana Ha 

U. H. BEI^BOft. 24 



— 370 — 

noM%iqeHie b-l KopnyCB HMtjin cuHOBbH ABopHHi n JiHax, cocTOflBmnx'B 
no KpaJtHefi Mtpi Bir miafi'L-o^HiJ^epcRHxi iiiHaxi. IIpH npieici 
npenMyn^ecTBO A^BaJiocB j^^thmi oti^obi HeHMyii(Exi, paHeHBUX'b 
BJiH y6HTux'b. IIpH noM^meHiH poAHTejiH A&BaJiH noAnHCRy, ito 
OTAaiOTi Ao6poBOJiBHO EG MOHie KaKi Ha 1 5 Jiirb h 6paTB hxi He 
OyAyT'B Aaxce bo BpeHOHEBie OTnycKn. 

Ha j^peRTopaBosjiosReHa o6fl8aHHocTB qeHsopa hjib HaCjuoAaieJifl 
HpaBOB'B BO BceM'B Ropnycb. Oht> AOJiaceHi BHRMaiejibHO naGJHOxaTb 
TOMi, RHRi) BOCHHTKiBaiorB H o6yHaK)Ti HHTOMii^eBi, RaK'b BeAyti 
ceofl npHCTaBHHRH, yqHTejiH h bc^ hhhu; AOJiKeHi CTaparbCH ch- 
CRHeaTB cnoco6H npeAynpeacAaTB h safijiaroBpeMeHHO oiBpao^arb 
oqihOkh h npecTynJieHiH, hoctohhho CTpeuHCB Kb TOity, hto6u Ses- 
MecTHoe CTBiAy noABepseflie 6bijio rjiaBEHMi HaRasameiTB. He 
AOJi^HO HHRorAa RaAeT'BfiHTB mnaroiOBJiH (|>yxTejieMx; 
cie TOJiB BpeABieJibHoe sjioynoTpeGjieHie npeacAQ npoHCxoAHJio h 
orb Hero MHoro RaAeiH npoTepnijiB, He ciHTaa rfexi, roh ho bh- 
nycRy nsi Ropnyca xBopyio ^lasHb npeopoBoscAaJiH. 

HpenoAaBaeuBie npeAMeTH pasA'^AenH: 1) na HayRH, pyROBOA- 
CTfiyionua Kb nosHaniH) npo^Hxii nayRi; 2) nayRH npeAHOiTBrejiBHO 
nyacHBra rpaacAancROMy SBafliio; 3)HayRHnoJie3HHa; 4) xyAoacecTBa. 

RaAeTH, OROHHHBHIH HOJIHUft RypCl BOCHHTaHlfl, QOCTynanH Ha 

CJiyacCy, CMOipa no axi noBeAeHuo h ycnixaiii bi nayRaxx, npa- 
oopn^HRaMH HJiH noAnopyHHRaMH h a^i^o nopyiHRaifn. Otjih^ihb- 
miecfl Ha BRsaMeH'b noJiynaJiH MeAajiH. RpoMi btofo HOJiOABie jik>ah, 
BBinyn^eHHue h8b Ropnyca h nojiyqHBmie bi ciapmeifB BospacTi 
sojiOTyK) MOAaJiB, CI corjiaciH 6jiH»caftmHX'B cbohxi poACTBeHHH- 
ROB^, HM^JiH npaBO nyTemecTBOBaTB 3 roAa wb qy^HX'B Rpanx^ na 
c^eT^ RasHH Ropnyca. Cob4tx ofiaaaH'B 6ujn> onpeAfeJiHTB na btotb 
npeAMerb ocoSyro cyMMy. 

HepBufi npioMi 6jiaropoAHB[X'B BOcnHTaHHHROB'B b-b HMaep. 
cyxonyiH. mjiaxeT. RaAer. Ropnyci Haana'ieH'B Shji'b 21 anp. 
1767 r. ^), H 6B1JI0 npHHaio 67 BOcnHTaHHHROB'B, HSTb HHCJia ro- 
TopuxT) 57 CI Toro ahh coAepacaJiH wb hobomi napoHHO ajih cero 

nOCTpoeHHOHB AOMt. 

3toti yciaBi 1766 r., no CJiOBaMi BHCROBaxoBa*'^) — hcthhhhA 
AparoAiHHBifl Aapij rocyAapcTBy; oht, npHHaAJieacHrB r^ HHCJiy 
rfcx^ RHHPB, ROB, npHHCCH C060K) HaHBejiHHaflmyK) noJiBsy, coxpa- 



*) Cm. C.-nGTep6. B*aom. 1767 r.,J^ 40,Maa 18 a. 

') Cm. HcTopia 1 KaAeTCKaro Kopuyca. BHCKOBaiOBa, cxp. 38. 



— 371 — 
BfliOTB BcerAa q bosa^ cbok) i^i^Hy b aoctohhctbo; bi HeMi> acuo 

H OSCTOHTGJIBfiO ]a306pa^0H0, KaRli, KOr^a H H^Ml pyROBOACTBO- 

BaTBCA npn BOcnHiaHiH KaxerB; hh^to ee ^B/5uT0, qTO mofjio CJiy- 
SRETh KTi o6pa80BaHiK) HpaBCTBeHHOMy; HHiTO Heynyn^eHO ajih pa3- 
bhtIh cnoco6HOCTefi TijiecHBixi (ct. 38). 

YciaB^ kopnyca Cwji-b yiBepacAeHi 11 cght. 1766 r. h o6i>- 
siBJiewb npB ocoGoM'L MaHH^ecxb, bi> KOTopoMi> Me^Ay npoHRU'b ro- 
BopHJiocB: ocHe noBpe^Aaji cero npenojiesHMmaro orb npeAKOBT> 
HainHxi) ycTaH0BJieHifl,8a nyjRHoe namjiH noAKpinRTB OHoeHOBUM'B 
HHe8u6jiaii;HMCHOCH0BaHieMi, T. e. ynpeAHXB Kopnyci TaKi,<iTo6u 
Hay Hen Ik) b% Heiii BoeHHofi h rpasAaacKoft nayKi no caMOft 
BuaycRi* KaAerB, aro nacTB nnRorAa ne OTA'ibJifleMaa bi lOHomt, 
BcerAa couyiCTBOBajio BOcnBTanie, DpHCTofinoe ero SBaHiio, b 
AofipoA'bTejiBHoe, a CBepxi loro ujioau npoHaxi HamBxi ynpe^e- 

Hift COOTBtTCTBOBaJIB BJIOAaiTB COFO Bl HOBBiA BOpHAORl BpflBOAeH- 

Haro ycTaHOBJieHiH». 

Aajiie roBopBJiocB: <KaR'Bcie ynpeacAeHie, laRi b Bce bi ccmb 
ycraBi npeABBcaHHoe, laRx a pascyscAenifl, pyROBOACTByion^iH kii 
HOBOHy ycxaHOBJieHiio Kopnyca, yTBepacAaeMi b onpeA&JiHeM'B 6uTb 
HenoABB^DUMii saRoeoMi HameMy nuiAxexHoify cyxoayxHOuy 
Ropnycy b BCjrlsACXBie xoro noBeJibBaeMi), hxo6u bc^ cIb yaaROHeaiii 
xo^HO B HenpeMinno BcnoJonfleMBi 6ujib bo Bceft npocxpannoft 
Hameft BMnepin». 

ycxaa-B 3X0XB 6hiAi> OAHaRO ocMi^aH'B diiBHUBf-B Bi ero ca- 
myb «CoHi>» B noABeprcH HeMaJiuicB HapeKaBiHBfB, o Roxopuxi 
He CHBxaeM^ ny^HUM'B yMOJiqaxB. 

TaRi saHBJiHjiocB, ^xo RypcB HayRi bb Ropnycb nopaxajii 
pa3Hoo6pa8ieM'B bxoahhihx'b b'b Hero yqeGnux-B npeABcexoBi. 3to 
oxMacxB o6'hscEHeTCsi neAarorniecRBMB Bossp'bHiflMB xoroBpeneHH, 
npHmeAniBMH ri> naMB bsi* FepuaHiH ^) b ABOficxeeHHOCxBio caMOft 
^iJIB yqpeacAGHia Ropnyca. Oht, AOJiateni Cbuii* toxobhxb A^axe- 
Jieft AJia cjiyac6Bi ne xojibro BoenHoft, ho h rpaacAaHCROfl. Cyme- 
cxBOBaBmflM'B xce bi> xo BpeMfl oSBinaeMi, coxpaHBBmBHCfl Bnpo- 
qeM'b SJiaronoJiyHBo b ao naniBxi Aueft, naanaqaxB JIB^^, noJiy- 

HBBHIBX'B XOJIBKO BOeHHOO 06pa30BaHie, Ha paaJlBHHblH AOJlflCHOCXIl 

no rpaHtAancROMy ynpaBJieHiio, ^) oSTiflcnaexcfl cxpeMJienle Bei^- 



*) Cm. PyKOBOACTBO ki BocuHraeiio BeHCKe, r^'fe npBBeieHiinpHMijpu, Ka- 
KHMi pasHOodpasHUHi npeAMCTaui o6yHaiacb bb B'faMeiiRHX'L rHMaadiax'b bi 
17^6 r. TaK3Ke JlaiaeBi, CTp.60. 

') EABajio uajio noHHeHBO yKaauBaxb (i)aiiEriiD BocanTasaHKOBi* boch- 
nuxii EopnycoBi, saHBHasffliixB vmu daHnMaioii^HXB y Haci BCHBaro poAa aoj^k- 



— 372 — 

Karo osHaROMHTb JI0AI, nocBHiiiaioii^iixi ce6si BOOHHOHy sea- 
hIk), xoxa OTqacTH, cl HiROTopEiiiH HayRaMH, npeHtfyn^ecTBeHso 
Heo6xoAHMUMH jiHi](aMX, npexnojiaraioiAEirb cjiyxanh no rpaxAan- 
CKOMy B^AOMCTBy. 3toti> aHjD^HimoneAHSM'B bjiIajh-b, R0HeHH0,He6jia- 
ronplHTHO Ha ycaixH canaro npenoAasaHiH, ROTopoe HaxoAHJiocB 
Bi HeyAOBjieTBopHTej[BHOMi> coctoahIh, RaRii aTO H 6ujn> o6Hapy- 
sRmo coBpeMOHeMx, Rorxa eujii AnpeRTopoHi Ropnyca He BenRoS, 
HO ropasAO nosAHte, o neuiy HaiiH 6yAerb ynoHJiuyTO HHxe. 

Kpoirb 3Toro HeAaBHO bi IleAarorHqecROirB xypnajit BoeHHo- 
yHe6Huxi> saBeAenift ^) sa 1895 r.,JV? 6, BBiCRasiaBaeTC^, hto aTon 
ycxaB^ Ropnyca Bei^Karo 1766 r. ecib neAarorHqecRaa yxonia 
(cTp. 607); Bce aojixho 6HTb HAeaJiBHo; mohcho noAynaTB, mo Bea- 
Rifi^) H ero coTpyAHHRH coBepmeHHO saSujiH o A^ftCTBHieJibHocTH, 
o6imjaLH aatb Ropnycy BocoHraTejieft, Ao6puH Raqecxaa ROTopuxi 
cjiyxcHJiHycJiOBieM'B hx% aAMUHHCTpaTHBHOftraison d'etre (cxp. 608). 

IIpeAHOJiaraexcH, hxo oxb Niajia ao BejiHRa Bct naiaJibcxByion^iH 
JiBi^a, na^EHaa ci> rJiaBHaro n ROHqaa hhshihmii, ORascyxcH o a a- 
peHHHMH sApaBUKi pasyMOMiH 6jiaropa3yicieH^, 
He sapasHBiDBMncji ^eAaHxcxBOM^, Roxopoe, no mh^hIk) cocxasHxc- 
jiefi saROHonojio^eHia, ecxB cynia;) nary6a BOCOHxaHk (cxp. 608) 
H X. A* Xoxa OABajiH Heo6xoAHMO yRasuBaxb bck) Heocuoaaxejib- 
HocxB, qxoCu ne CRaaaxB Cojiie, noAoCHux'b HapoRaHift Ha Rop- 
nycHBift ycxaB-B 1766 r., rkwb ne nenie HOJiBaa ne saHixHXB npe- 
:RAe Bcero, qxo BeuROft HHrA6, HHRorAa, hh oahbitb cjioboitb ho 
o6i^n^ajix AaxB Kopnycy Bocnnxaxejiefij AoCpiJfl Ra- 
necxBa ROxopBixi* cjiy^isjiH ycjiOBioMi r^ hxi onpeAiJieHiio bi> 
RopnycB ^); oni yRasBiaajTB Ha Heo6xoAHMOcxB xoji br o noAoOnaro 
poAa JiHifB HasHanaxb bb RopnycB h cxporo pasGHpaxB Ra^ecxaa 
Hxi QpH xaROMi HasHaneHiH. Ho aio sue cobcWb ho xo, hxo o 6 i- 



aocTH no rocyj^apcTBeBHOMy ynpaaieHieD, Haitfaa^ on aeucKiix-s na^ajb- 
BHROBB, nojED^eficRHxi npHCTaBOBi II T. A. AO o6epii-np0Kypopa CBATtfimaro 
Ci;HOJLa, rjaBHoynpaBjAK)iiiaro schckhmu yqe6HUMH aaBeAeHlHHH, MHEHcrpa 
iiapoAQaro npocBto^eHiA, ^pesBuqafiHUX'B ynojiuoHOi eHHUxi nocioBi bkj8>- 
•luTejbao. 

*) HeH3B'bCTH0, noqe^y, r. aBTopi CTarBii, 6apoH'b ApHseHir, nHinexi* Bbk- 
Kid, a He BeuKoS, ho, OMeeuj^HO, OHb Kpafine hphahp^hb^ ki ero Kopuyc- 
noMy ycTaBif", rjaBnaH utib n cTpcMieuie KOToparo ycKOJbSHyjiii coBepineBHO 
or-b BHHMaHiA CTporaro KpHTiiKa. 

') Bi ciaTbi: cHoBun AosyMeHTi no HCTopis BoeHno-yqe6HEiz'b 3aBeAeHifi>, 
noHimeHHoft bi J\& 6 ajypaaja sa 1895 ro^ii cxp. 607 h citA. 

") IIo CHniaA apiijH'iHiiiM'b ri pyccsyDpi^HbBCTaBJiflTb (t)paBay8CKiRCioBa 
H TtMTi Aaxe B'b nacTOHU^ee Bpasifi cMtuHBaTb 4)paBay3CKoe ci Hu:seropoA- 
CKHu-b, fl nepeAaroB-b nepcBOAt iipHBe;ieHHua r. JpHseHOM'b sa cip. 606ciOBa 



— 373 — 

ii](aTB Henpeii'i^HHO HasHa^HTB xaKOBuxii jiiai^^. Hey»ejin r. Jl^pn- 
seHy xeJiarejiBHO, ^to6u onpeA'bji^JiHCB He lOJUbKO bi yqe6Hoe sa- 
BeAeeie, ho n BOo6n;e Ky^a 6u to hh 6ujio, Jini^a, He paaSnpaH 
Hxi KanecTB'b, H ^TO TaKHif^ vyTQWb onpeftliJiflJiiiCB 6h na CJiyacfiy 
jiiOAH HeAOCTOflHue? ToHHO TaRjKe cipaHHO 6hjio 6u, ecjiaSu co- 
CTasBTejiH KaKoro jih6o yciaBa ne npoAnojiarajiii, hto ncnoJiHHTe- 
jijiUH onaro ab^tca Jinna, OAapeHHu^ sApaBUMi CMHCJioifb b 6jia- 
ropasyMieM'B. ycTaBu HBKorAa He nnmyTCH ajih jibi^Ii, ne OAapoH- 
Hux'b sApaBuifB cMucJiOM'b H JiBHieHHiiixi SjiaropasyMiH; ort la- 
KOBuxi JiBAi HejiBsa Tpe6oBaTB BcnojiHeniH KaKoro jib6o yciaBa b 
AJifl BBxi) ycTaBU He nBmyTCA. TpyAHO npeAnOwiOTRBTB, htoCbi bi 
caiiOMi Hce ycTaBt roBopHJiocB, hto ohi> Moacerb Cbttb KorAa hb- 
6yAB HOBcnoJiHJieMi). ^jia ^ero 6u[jio 6h ero nacaTB Bi>TaROM'BCJiy- 
Hai? Snaja, KaR'B neBcnpaBHO hcoojihaiotc^ BCHKaro poAa nocia- 
HOBJiem^, KaRB hhofo jijbJidkercR otl rulxi OTCiynjieHifi Ha npaR- 

TKKk CaHHMH BCHOJIHBTeJIflMB, CTpaHHO 6hJI0 6h eCJIB TaROBHH OT • 

cxynjieHk RaRi 6h aosboji^jihcb B8JiojReHieMi> caMoro ycTana. Botb 
npfliHHa AJiHcero, noHOMy bi ycTaBaxi^acTOBCTpinaKxrcH laRoropoAa 
BiipaxeHiH, RaR^ nanpnMip'B; HeocJiaCno, nenpecxaHHO, HOApeMaHHO, 

HeyRJIOHHO, H T. A. 3tO HBHieTCa Cl ItijIBK) He AaiB HCnOJIHHTe- 

juiTB ycTaBOBi npeAJiora ri BosMO^HOMy HOBcnojiHeHiK) npeAOB- 
cuBaeMaro b jibhibtb bxi> b'b aroMi BSBBHenla, naxoAHn^aroca 6yAT0 
6h b^ cjiOBaxi caHoro ycxaBa, npa newb cocxaBBTeJiB ycxasa ohohb 
xopomo 3HaexT> sapanie, hxo HBRaROfl BcnoJiHBieJiB ycxaBa— npo- 
cxoft HejiOBiRi)— HeBi cocxoAHin bcdojihaxb hto jib6o nenpecxaHHO 

H HOApeMaHHO. 

IIpB KpHXHR*! ycxaBOBi* BoARaro ne aojukho ynycRaxB bsi 
BBAy BpeMOHB Bxi) cocxaBJiemH, x. e. coBpeHeHHufi OMy ypoBOHB 
yncxBeHHaro pasBBxin RaRi o6n;ecxBa, xaRi b cjiy^an^Bx^B, roxo- 
puxi npBxoAHJiocB He xojuBRO pyROBOABXB npB BcnojiHeniB hxx cjiy- 
XB6Eax'b o6H8aHHOCxefi, ho b noy<iaxB cbmi hocjtIahbm'b. Oxi» 
axoro He xojibro saKOHonojioaeHk BeAKaro, ho b mhoiih Apyriii 
npomjiaro ciojiiila, coAepacaxi wb ce6'b ne oahb noJio^RBxejiBHua 
npeAQBcaHiH, ho b npaBBJia, ABAaRXB^ecRaro xapaRxepa, x. e. b'b 
HBXTi saRJiiOMaexcfl MHoroe xaRoro, ixo B'BXo^Hoe nonaxie oaaRonl 

BXOAHXB He AOJIHCHO. 

xoMi), RaRT* BcnojiHajica na caMOM-BA^Ji* RopnycHofl ycxani 
Bei^Karo, naMB ne yAajiocB oxucKaxB cBiA'bHiA. Ho caMi Bei^ROfi 
eABa JIB Mori bm^xb BJiianie na BcnoJiHeHie cocxaBjieHnaro bmb 
ycxaBa, xaRi* RaRT> ysRO bi AeRaep*! xoro xe 1766 roAa AHpeRXO- 



— 374 — 

poMX Ka^eTCKaro Kopnyca 6ujrb onpeAtJieHi ^eHepaJI^-^opy'IHK•B 
BpaHATi, KaK'b BHAHO H3^ DpHJiaraeMaro npH cbmi ynasa Ceeary 
4 ;ieKa6pfl 1766 r. ^) BeuKoftace 6uji'h HasHaHeHi ^jieflOMi CosiTa 
DpH Kopnyct BL Ha^ajit 1767 r. ^), KaKi bhaho h3^ npnjiaraeMaro 
yKasa, h, RaKii TaKOBOtt, He HM']kJI^ y»e BJiiflHin HaioHHoe npHM'feee- 
flieyciaBaKopnycaHa caMOMt A*Jii. E^Ba jih noTOMy 6hjio-6u cnpa- 
BeAJiHBO o6B0HHTb BoKKaro Bii OTCTynJieElax^ oti yTBep:RAeHHaro 
ycTaBB, ROTopuH6ujiH o6Hapy}KeHb[ ropasAO nosAH'le, cnycTA okojio 
ABaAi^aTH ji'Iti nocJit xoro, KaKi» Bei^Rift nepecraJi'B 6un 
AHpeKTopoMT. Kopnyca. HMenHO s-b 1784 ro^y nocJitAOBajn na 
min rpa(|)a 3aBaAOBCKaro— npeActAaTejia KommhccIh o6t> yqpexA©- 
HiH HapoAHUX'byqHJiHii^'b^), — 22 Iiobh HBceHHOft Bucoiaftmifl yKarb, 
HTO «AJia BBGAeHin bi cyxonyiflOM'b KaAeTCKOMi Kopnyci oSpasa yqe- 
Hia RoMMHCCieK) o6x ycTaHOBJiemH HapoAHuxi yqejiHii^i no BOJrfe Ha- 
raefi npHCBoeHHaro, cOHSBOJifleTca, qT06u, nparjiacHBi bt> aiy Kom- 
MHCciK) rjiaBHaro AHpeKTopa osHaieflHaro Kopnyca, rpa^a Ae-Bajit- 
MeHi>, reHepaji'b-nopyqHRa, coHHHeErb 6ujii njiaa-b Boo6a^e Bceft 
yiefiHofl HacTH, ajlb RaAeTCRaro Ropayca uyacHoft h nojiesHoft, ro- 
Topufi H npoACTaBHTb HaMi Ha yTBep^KA^i^ie** 

3toti> Bucoqaftinift yRasii 6uji'h HcnoJiHeHi oqenb CRopo, laRi 
RaR'b 25 aBrycra 1784 r., t. e. qepe8i> ABa Micaaa, 3aBaA0BCRifi 
npeACiaBHJi'b MMnepaipHui ERaiepHHi II noJiHufi njiaHi yneCHod 
HacTH cyxonyiHaro mjiflxeTCRaro RaAeTCRaro Ropnyca, npn ao- 
RjiaA%, Bi ROTopoM^ nncajix, hto KoMMHCCia, npeAonpeA^Jifla no 
ouoMy 6oJi']ke Bcero BpeMeHB na HayRH HaTeMaTHqecRin, RaRi> ms. 
cocTOHHia BoeHHaro naqe Bcero ayjRHKifl, pacnoJiOHCHJia rpaiigtaH- 
CRiH, ycxaBOMi) Ropuycy npeAnHcaHHHH, ho AOHunt neHSB'^CTHO 
noqeMy hs-l RjiaccoBi onaro BCRJiiOHeHHua, bi TaROirb copas- 

M'lpeHiH, CROJIBRO SHaiB oC'b HBX'B HyHCHO HOJIOBiRy BOOHHOMy ^): 

pascy^KAaa, qTO npenoAaaaTB Hx^ bi tbromi ace npocTpancTB-b, 



*) Cm. npnj. J^ 3. 

») Cm. npiiji. J\6 7. 

^) Coo6mB3('& npH aroii'B,qTOBMtCTO BpaHATajiiipeKTopoM'bRopayca5uj'b 
uaauaqcHi si 1773 toxj resepaji'b nopy i^iiK'b AH^peft ^KOBjeauq'L Qypnypi, 
a saTtMi Bi 1784 roAy-renepa.i'B-aopyqHR'B Ae-BajfcMeHb, aocii KOToparo 
B'h 1786 roAy AOJro ynpasJiAJi'B KopaycOKi HssicTHufi AaraJiBrb. (Cir. Bh- 
CKOBaxoBi, cxp. 40—46). Cm. Apx. Muu.Hap.npocB.KapT.1278,J\& 18. 38489. 

*) HaAO 3aBJiK)qHTB hbi axuxi cjiobi*, hto caMoe HaBaaqeeie Kopnyca hs- 

MtBAJOCB, T. e. BOpayCB AOlXeBB dUJIB npBrOTOBJflTB MOJOAUX'B iDxefi 
TOJIBKO AlA B0eHH0fiCJiy£6u H 0CB060SAaJCfl OTl 06jI3aBH0CTH, 

B03JoseBBofi na nero ycraBOMB 1766 roAQ* npBroxoBiHTb Tasse rpazxaoi^ 
HCKycBuxi Bi saKoeaxB CBoero rocyAapcTBa u bi> nojHTUHecEofl dKOBOMiH. 



— 375 — 

RaRi H BoeHHBi^, 6uJio 6u A'^&Tb B31 Kopnyca Apyroe yqnjiBn^e, 
BJin saeoAUTB nper Eem> coBcbM'b oco6eHHoe, ki> neny he hhcjio 
npo^eccopoBi* no\iioHceHHoe, hh nacu kx yneHiio onpexi^JieHHiie, 
HHSRe RHHrn ji^jisl ynoTpe6jieHifl flasHaneHHua, AOCTaioiHU 6u ho 

BxoAHTb Bi noApoCnoe pa3CM0Tp*Hle aioro HOBaro unaHa 
KopnycHaro yciaBa He othochtch Kb oOasaHHOCTHMi cocia- 
BHTeJifl 6iorpa$in Beuicaro, TaRi KaK^ Bei^Koft ne npHHErMaJii 
HHKaKoro yiaciiK hh bi> cocTaBjieuiB aroro njiana, hb bx 
ero ocyiAecTBJieHiB Ha js^^Ji^, 3aM%TBM7> tojibko, ^to oahhT) bsi 
^jieHOBi KoMMHCCiB 3nHHyci, 6HBaiift npexcAe nHcnoKTopoM'b Rjiac- 
coBt Ropayca, ne noAHHcajii cocraBJieHHaro RoMMHCcleio njiana, 
h6o, BaRi BHAHO Bsi) ero nBCBMa 22 asrycTa 1 784 r. Kb Sasa- 
AOBCROMy, 6yAy^H necorjiaceH'b c^ KoMMHCcieK) tant pour le tout, 
que pour les parties je me reglerai sur le principe que dans tout 
ce qui regarde radministratibn de TEtat et les etablissements pu- 
bliques, il faut etre lent et circonspect dans les deliberations et 
prompt et actifdans rexecution». 

Ho H cocTaBJieHHoe B^ 1782 r. KoMMECcieio eapoAHUXi piB- 
jnm^^ yqe6Hoe pacnpeA'^Jieme y^edHuxi) ^peABieTOB^ bii Ropnyc*]^, 

no BHAHHOMy, He 6UJI0 BnOJIH'ib yAOBJieiBOpHTOJIBHO B HO npBHecjio, 

noBHAHMOMy, nojiesHUxi pesyjibiaTOBT*, laKi kbrt^ no npomeciBiH 
Bcero 20 jrbvb Gujia o6pa30BaHa HOBan KoHfifBCCia A^a nepecMOxpa 
Bcero yciaBa RaAeiCRaro Ropnyca, corjiacHo npoeRiy RHasa 3y- 
6oBa, ROTopaa npoACTaBBJia ^) Ha BBico^aftmee yTBepjRAOHie ho- 
Buft naaHi Boennaro BOcnBTania, cocToaBmift bi> rjiaBH'bfimBXT» 
HepiaxTb Bi cji-^Ayion^eMi: 

BoeuHoe BOcnBTame fijiaropoAuaro lOHomecTBa^ onpeA'^^Jnaio- 
^aro ce6a na CJiyac6y no cyxonyTHofi apMin, HaiHuaeTca bt> ry- 
6epHCRHXi BoeHHuxi yHBjiBn;axi>, ROTopua y^pejRAaioTca wb a6- 
caTH rjiaBHMmBX'b ry6epHCRBX'b ropoAaxi. Bx ynnjiBn^a 3tb 
npflHHMaiOTca a'^th oti> 7-mb ao 9-th Jiixnaro BOspacTa, npeCu- 
BaiOTB ceHB Ji'i&T'b H nepenoAaTca A^ia AOBepmenia BOcnBTania bi 
Bucmie KaAeTCRie Ropnyca, KOTopux'b nojiaraeTca tojibro ABa m> 
C.-neTep6yprt ci> ^eiHpexi roAH'iHHMi> RypcoMi, bx o6ohxi 
Ropnycaxi coBepmenHO OABuaROBBixB. ORoniBBmie c^ ycntxoMi 
arorb Rypcx wb Ropayci BHnycRaroica bt. AiScTBHTeabHyio CJiyafiy 
npanopn^BRaMB hjib RopneTaMB wb apMiio. 



*) Cm. C.-neTep6. aypHaat 1805 roAa >fe VIlI,i»JiB, crp. 



55. 



— 376 — 

BocnHiaHle bi ry66pHCKHX'B ynajiHiiiax'B pas^i^fljiocb na nacTb 
yqe6Hyio, ROTopan npenoAaeTCfl no npaBEJoaMi, AJiAji^sitHBix'byHH- 
0101111 H ry6epHCRHn> rHUHasift npeAnHcaHHK[Mi», h ^acib BoeHHui'L 
ynpaacHeHifi. Yqeme canoe pas^'ibJiaeTCH na nanajibHoe, npoAOJORaio- 
mfiecsi ABa ro^a, h ruMHasHiecKoe, bi npoAOJixeme KOToparo 
o6yHaK)TCfl rbM'b »e npeAMeiaMi), ROTopue osnaneHu bi ycTaei fh- 
MHasiH, RpoM*! jiaTHHCRaro ^suKa, BsaMtHi ROToparo ohh oCyna- 

K)TCH HaiaJIbHUBll OCHOBaHiHM'b ^OpTH^HRaiUH. Ilo OROHHaHlH 3T0r0 

rBMHasHqecRaro Ropnyca, nociynaiOT'b bi BoeHHue RaAOTCRie Kop- 
nyca; ORasaBmieoi HecnocoGHUMH R'b BoeHHOfi cjiy«6ib Moryrb no- 
CTynaib B-b yHHBepcHieTH jim OROHHaHia yqema. Ororb njiaHi 
CHJi-b BbrcoHaflme yTBep^AGHi 21 Mapia 1805 r. B^C.-IIeTepCyprt 
H Kb npHBeAeniFo ero bi HcnojieeHie oGpasoBana ocoSaa Rommhc- 
ciH noA'b opeAdAaTejibCTBOin) MaHHCxpa Uapo^Haro IIpocBin^eHifl 
rpa^a SaBaAOBCRaro e3i> MHHHCTpa BHSbMHisiHOBa, HHcneRTopa 
apTHJi^epm rpa^a ApaR^eeBa, MHHHCTpa iocthiUb HoBOCHJibi^eBa, 
MHHHCipa isHOCTpaHHHX'b K^JTh HapTopu^CRaro u np. u np. 

^H cocTaBJieeiH noApofiHuxi njiaHOBi RypcaMi yneHifl bibuc- 
mHxi ReAeTCRHxi Ropnycaxi. rhr^ oSh^hxi bi nepBue "jeiupe roAa, 
TaRi H cneaiajibHbixi, a^h HanepTaHia npaBBJii npaRiBHecRHXi ynpa- 
^seHifiBOcnHTaHHHROBiB'bRopnyci, axaR^e a^i^ coHBHenifl ycTaBa, 
mrara h HHCTpyRain ABpeKTopaMi BoeHHuxi y^lluaa^^J 6ujrb 
ynpe^eHT) oco6uft KoMHxeT'b (ct. 78) bsi nsB^THux'b sHanbiuH 
H onbiTHOCTiK) JIR^^ ^). JI^ajibHiAmee HSJiomeHie aToro BuxoAHTb aa 
npeA^JiH 6iorpa$iH BeqKaro. 

HeJibSH OAHaKO He ynoMHHyTb^ qio RommhccIh o napoAHux'b 
yHHJiHii^axx yRasuBana Ha HeyAOBJiexBopHTejibHocTb openoAaBaHm 
HayRi BT) Ropnyci bi 1784roAy, hmchho hb tOjHtodo HtROTopuM'b 
npeAtfeiatf'b BOBce nivb upenoAaBareJiea, ito npeAtfexH npenoAa- 
lOTca Be no ycTBHOBJieHHOMy nopaARy, t. e. hto RaAeiH, AOCTHrHyBi 
BospacTa, BT* ROTopoMi H^KOTopbrn HayRH A0JI2CH0 yace ORannHsaTb, 
TOJibRo Ha^RHaiOT'b BMT> oSyHaxbCA, a MHorla nayRH ocxaiOTCH BOBce 
Cesi npenoAaBaniH orb Toro, hto xaROBoe nenpecTaHHO OTRJiaAU- 
BaoTCfl cb OAHoro RJiacca na Apyrofi; hto oCy^aiOTC^ npeAMexaM'b no 
RHHrafifi, BOBce ri npeAMOTaifb ee othocho^hmca, h t. a- IIpii aroM^ 
KoMMBCcia npoAnoJiarajia pasA^JiHTb RasAufl Bospacrb Ha 2 nacTH, 
hto6h bbbcth 6ojrbe npaaHJibHoe npenoAaBanie h yiieHbinHTb hbcjio 



*) Cm. C.-neTep6. »ypHaib 1805 r. J& VII, cxp. 55 h ci^a- 



— 377 — 

yneHHROBi) B-b BospacTi, oCynaTb siy 0TA'bjrBHBixi> noRo^xi h t. a- 
Ho Bck dTE Henop^AKH o6Hapy»eHu KoMHHccieio He Majioe epeMA 
nocJit Toro, KaKi Bei^Koft nepecTajn sastAUBaTb RopnycoBfb. IIpH- 
Toifb He npeACxaBjieHo HHKaKHxi AORasaTejibCTBx, nro laROBue npo- 
HCxoAHJiH laiuRe h sa ero BpeMfl, bi ROTopoe no HOBony ycTSBy 
Ropnyci TOJiLRO HaHHHaJi'b BOSHHRaTb. 3a Bpescn rjiasHaro a^P^r- 
TopcTBa Bei^Raro Ropnycb neycnijii A&^e nojiyiHTbnoJiHaro cbo- 
ero pasBHTLfl, t. e. BeaRofi ocTaBEJii Ropoyci panie nepsaro bu- 
nycRa RaAOTb, OROHquBniHX'b oCyneHle vb Ropnyci no BOBouy ero 
ycxaBy ^). 

He HSJiaraA sAtcb, xota 6u A^^SRe bi> RpaiRHxi cJiOBaxi, hcto- 
piH mjiAxeTCRaro Ropnyca B'b nepBue foah ero cyn^ecTBOBam^, 
o6paTHM'b BHHMaHie HHraxejiefi BCRinoHHieJibHO Ha A'i^^TOJibHocTb 
Eei^Raro h ero BJiiflHie bi OTHomenm dtoro yqeSnaro saBeAeniH, 
BB^peHHaro ero ynpaBjiemio. BeqRaro npejRAe Bcero naAO cHHiaTb 
cocTaBHTeJieMi> ycTasa mjiflxeTCRaro Ropnyca 1766 r., TaRiRaK'b 
dTOTb ycTaBi 6ujii hmx noAHHcaHb h npoACTaBJieni Ha pascMO- 
xp'^Hie. droHce saflBJUieiCfl JiHitaMH, pascBfarpHBaBrnHMH dTorb ycTaBi 
no npHRasaHiio HMnepaTpni^u, a laRJse BsrcRasuBaeTca bi naHH- 
^crl ero o6HapoAOBaHiti. Ki Tony ace ao HacTonn^aro BpeneHH 
HET^Mi He AORasano, hto6ii cocraBHTejieirb dToro yciaBa 6bijii 6u 
RTO Apyroft. 

B'b nocJiiAHee BpeuH oAHaRO r. JlasapeBCRift bi ciaTbi o cy • 
jiEMOBCROMi ceMefiHoirb apxHBi, noH'^n^OHHOft B'b RieBCROfl Cxa- 
pHHi, 1882 r. JV? 4cTp. 293 ^), yRasHBaerb, hto B-bco^HHeniH Rop- 
nycHaro ycxaBa 1766 roAa y^acTBOBaji'b h'^rto Arhmi OeMeHO- 
BBqi GyjiHMa, o6y<iaBniiftcfl B'b KieBCROft jH^yxoBHofi ARaAeMis, a 8a- 
Ti^M'b Bi 1755 roAy bi cyxonyxHOiii niJiaxexcROMi Ropnycb bi 
C.-IIexepCyprfc; axoxi CyjiHHa 6vurh ocxaBJieHi npn Ropnycb ajia 
CMOxptnia sa oGyHemeBfb RaAOxi nayRaifb h sax^Mi*, nepeBOAeHHuft 
B'b 1 764 roAy Bi> AsoBCRiB nixoxHuft nojiRi, 6uJii nepes'b x p h roAa 
o6paxHo nepeBOAOHi wh Ropnyci h onpeA:]^JieH'b ri pe^opMaMi no 
Kopnycy h R'b pasHUHi AOJiacHOCXiiM'b bi> ROiiaHAt renepaji'b-nopy* 
HHRa Beii;Raro h oxx Hero ynoxpefijieni ri co^HHeniio 



') Ha ocHOBaHid ycxaea sopnyca, yTBepxAeBHaro bi 1766 r., yneEie wb 
Kopnyci^ npoAOiisajocb 15 jiTi; cjiAOBareibHOt nepBuft Biiaycsi Hori 6uTb 
Toibvo Bi 1782 r., a BeuRofi yse wb 1767 r. cxoj&EA'b cb ce6H BBaeie ah- 
pesTopa Ropnyca, ociaBaflCB ^jeHOH'b GoBixa OBaro. 

') Cm. Tasse GyjHtfOBCKi& apsuBi— (i)aMHJ[bBUA 6yifarH XVII n XYUI 
B^Ka. KieB'B, 1884 r., usAaHie r. JIasapeBCKaro. 



— 378 — 

ycTEBa KaAeicKaro cyxonyTHaro mjiAxeTCKaro Ropnyca, Kb co- 
ciaBJieHiio 2 h 3 naciH renepajibHaro njiasa MocROBCKaro Bocim- 
TaiejibHaro AOMa, a Taicme yqpeacA^HHUx'b npH aom^ RaseHi; Go- 
xpaHHOft, CcyAHOfi b BAOBbefl. Bi qeirb hmohho coctohjio dio 
ynacTie r. CyjiHMU b'b coHHHeHiH Bctxi ynoMflHymxi ycia- 
BOBii H yqpexAeBift h ^wh AOKaauBaeTC^, tto hmohho ohi>, Cy- 
jiuMa, yqacTBOBaJii bi> hxi coHHHeHiu, r. JlasapeBCidfl He ysaau- 
Baen>. IIoBHAHHOHy, 3to yqaciie r. CyjiHMu hmohho b'b cocTaBJieHiH 
Bcixi BumenoHfiieHOBaHHUxi ycTaBOBi aEnsiejcji h'&crojibro co- 
MiiHTBJiBHUM'B, ecJiH TOJiBKO oGpaxHTB BHHMame Ha cJi^Ayion^ee. 

B'B pasjiHiHBixB 6yMaraxi o cjiyjK6i OBHaneHHaro CyjiEiiu, 
xpaH^mHxcfl BB MocROBCROH'B OiA'^jieHiH FjiaBHaTO IIlTa6a, yno- 
HHHaeTCJi TOJiBRO, ^TO CyjiHua, BCTynHBB B'B 1755 r.HacJiyjR6y hsi 
MajiopocciflCKaro ABopHHCTBa, npoHCxoAH ^hhu, HanocjiiAOR'B 6biji'b 
B'B cyxonyiHOM'B niJiAxeTCROui Kopnycl^ ceRynA'B-MaiopoH^, cb 
HHHoifB apMOficKaro noAHOJiROBHHRa B'B 1767 r. (j^eBp. 1, ayace vh 
1770 r. iiOHfl 8, no BucoHaftmeft ROH^HpnaipH AORJiaAa otb Co- 
Btra Ropnyca, nomajiOBaHi bb apMeficRie hojirobherh h no cjia- 
6ocTH sAopoBBfl oinyn^eH'B bi> aomi nanojnopa Micaixa. IIpH arou-B 
o6i y^iacTiH ero b^ cocTaBJieHiH ycTasa mji^xeTCRaro Ropnyca ejih 
RERHX'B jih6o hhuxx y^pejKAeHifi HHHero ho ynoMHHaerc^ 

yciaB'B mjiHxeTCRaro Ropnyca Bucoiaftme yxBepsAOH'B bi 
1766 r.,a r. GyjiHMa bi aio BpoMA, no CJiOBam JlasapoBCRaro, Cbijtb 
B'B asoBCROM'B nojiRy, RyAa nepemeJi'B en^e b'b 1764 r. (t. e. 
pante ab^o HadHaqeniA Bei^Raro ABpoK^opoN'B Ropnyca). EABa jih 
owb iior'B B'B nojiRy saHHuaTBca cocTaBJieeieMi yciaBa lUjinxer- 
CRaro Ropnyca, ROTopnd 6biji'b yTBepauieH'B paH'be, nemejiH Gy- 
jiHHa BOSBpaTHJiCA B'B RopnycB. 

BropaB »e nacTb renepaJiBHaro njiana MocROBCRaro BOcnHia- 
TOJiBHaro AOMa h y^pejRAeHie Tpex'B RaseHi: GoxpaHHOft, GcyAHOft 
H BaobboB 6bijih yTBepacAOHu bi 1767 roAy, t. e. TaRXce B^ TaRoe 
BpoMH, B'b ROTopoe GyjiHMa oABa JiH MorB npHHATB y^acTie bt> hxi 
cocTaBJiemH, naxoAHCB He B^ neTep6ypri cb 1764 roAa. Boo6n;e 
r. JIasapeBCRifi ne npHBOAHTB KaRHXi jih6o yKasaHifl noATBep»Aa- 
lon^HX'B ynacTie GyjinMu b^ cocTaBJieHin ycTaBa nuiflxercRaro 
Kopnyca. 

BeaRofi, pacnojiarafl Bnojin*! totobbim'b noir^meHieMi ji,jih Kop- 
nyca *), ne BCipiqaJiB HaAo6HOCTH yipyacAaTB HMnepaipHi^y ao- 

^) IIo ciOBaMiIIlTopza KopnycB noiiiiuajcH bi j^osii MeHBmuKOBa h hh^ji 
120BOcnHTaHi]HicoB'M OHi OHCHL xBa.iHTB Kopiijc^. c Gcmalde aus Petersbourg* 
1794 r. Riga.Theil 1, ct. 279. 



— 379 — 

RjiaAaMH pa3nuxi> cyHMaxi, Heo6xoAHMiJxii a^h nocipoflKii hjih 
HcnpaBJieBiA noMin^eHi^, noAo6HO tomj, KaK^ dTO npeAcraBEJiocL eny 
HeH36'l»cHUMi no ApyrisMi BB^peHHUHi eny ycTaHOBJieHi^M'B. Ohi hc- 
npocHJii TOJibKo Bi 1767 roAy cyHMy ea esReroAHoe coAepacaHie 
Kopnyca, ucHHCJiOHHyK) no mraTy bi 165.000 p. IIpH aioicB oht^ 
DHcajTb: «A noHOJRe rjiaBHoe HCKyccTBO coctohtb bi tomi, hto6bi 
yiiiTB npoHSBOAHTB 6jiaropa8yMHue pacxoAH bi A^HBraxi, htoOu 
npii&i'JkpH xopomaro AOMOCTpoHTOJiBCTBa BOcnnTfiiBaeMy ABopaHCTBy 
bo BCiiKOirb cnyqat bhahmu h oiqyTBTejibHu 6ujih, to npe^CTa- 
BJiaeMi Ha nposopjiHBoe h ycepAHoe noneneHle CoBiia h AHpeK- 

TOpa A'&iaTB B'B HQWb OTBltHU, HO BUXOAH HSB nOJIOOReHHOfi CyMMU, 

B HTo6i HSJiHiQecTBa HO npoBSBejiH iOHomecTBy BpeAHuxi npH- 

M%p0Bl)>. 

HMnepaTpHi](a yiBepAHJia 3T0 20 AHBapn 1767 roAa. SaTiiii 
BHHMaHie Bei^Raro 6hjio o6paii^6HO Ha bo3iio»ho 6jiH3Roe ocyn^e- 
CTBJieHie ea ji^tjii ycTaBa Kopnyca h npenoAanHbix'b npaBHJiB ki 
BOcnBTaniK) b oSyneHiK) KaAerb, npH newb nandojiBniiH saTpyAHenia 
BCTptqaJiBCB npB KOMnjieKTOsaHiH Kopnyca AOCTOftauHB HacTaB- 
HHRaMB fl openoAaBarejiaBiB. B'b to BpeMa TaKOBUXB 6ujio ohohb 
HaJio Bi HameM!B OTenecTB*]^; npHxoABJiocB o6pan^aTBca no Heo6xo- 

ABMOCTE Kl BHOCTpaHAaMB, TaKJKe HO BCOFAa COOTBiTCTByiOn^Btfb 
BUCOKBM'B OOasaanOCTHMl, CBJiSaHHUMl CB aTOrO pOAa SaHflTiflMB. 

3to no6yABjio HaKoneq^ Bei^Karo ^) b'b 1772 roAy CA^JiaTB HMne- 
paTpBU'b cjrlAy^ii^iA AORJiaA'B: cBi) renepajiBHOH'B yqpe)RA6HiB o 
BOcnflTaHiB fonomecTBa B'B HiinepiB Bamero Bejin^ecTBa B8o6pa- 
xeHHoe MoHapmee Bame cjiobo: «BJiBA'^JiaTB b A^JiaTB 
i;ijioe B coBepmoHHoe, bjib TaK'B ocTaBBTB BHona- 
HBHaTB» — HaBcerAa ocTaeTca npaBBjioMi npeMyAparo y3aR0HeHifl. 
Ilpfl TaROBOM'B Ha6jiK)AeHiB BOcnBTaHifl, BCTp'iTBBmificflrjiaBHBidHe- 
AOCTaTORi npH cyxonyTHOM'B nunaxeTCROMB RaAOTCROMi Ropnyct, 

ROTOpUft no MHOrBMB fl3BCRBBaeMHMl CpOACTBaH'B UBH^MB APy~ 



*) Ho eme B'b 1769 r. okt. 10 Beusoft AOKJauBajB HMaepaTpHiit, ^to 
noKa B'b Kopnycib nepsoe BCxynjeHio AocTaBHiB caoco6H£ixi iD^efi k^ ucnpa- 
BjefliK) AOJSHOCTH noJHAHeficxepa h rjasuaro sasaaqeii, nopy?HTb oeoe xa- 
KOBUH'b, KOHzi 6u HSBlcTHoe aoBeAenle, CiaronpaBie h HcsyccTBO cootb'^t- 
CTBOBajH zejraeuuMB ycn'bxaii'B, Haunaqe npH nepfiux-B Huni B'b Ropnycb 
pacaopflseHiflX'B, Aa6K[ Bce npHBejieHO 6biJ0 bb naxJiesaiAifi qophaokBi ho 
BCJ'bxcTBie cero ycMOTpiiH'B naMM sa cnoco6Haro 6iiTb nojinmieficTepoMB h 
AeHBopoMB noAuoiROBBHK'b UXeBajbe-je-JIacKapH h o 6uTiu ero bb ccmb asa- 
BiH BcenoxAaflHtfime npocHHB Bamero Hu. Bej. BceMHiocTHBiiftniaro yKaaa. 
EsaxepHDa II yxBepAHja axox'b AoiuaAB, npHKasas'b Jlacsapa ocxaBaxbCfl h 
npn MOByMeHX'B. 3toxb AOKja^B Cujib npeACxasjieHB efi sa o6mHMB noAnnca- 
BieMB MHHHxa, Beusaro, <t)OH'b-BpaBAxa- , 



— 380 — 

rn&ii, BULSBB xpaTOK) SojiBinoro HacAHBOHiA, HcnpaaneHi n ao cyo^e- 
CTBeHHaro HcnonHeBifl AOBejieH'b Suib He Moxerb, RpoM% saBexeHiH 
Bi» oHoifb uaAofiHHX'b jma Toro jiiOAeft npesi BocoHTaHie noTpe6- 
naroHHCJia bs^ iffen^aHCKHxi A'^Tefi, ROTopna mofjih 6h npi- 
yroTOBJijieMU 6mtb cb o^HAaenoft nojiBsoio. 

KaKifl-Ki> RopnycB noCy^afOii^ia r^ lony npsqEHu nuievb n 
RaRHMt cnocodoMii cie BOCQETanie npoHssecTB, ohua npH cem* 
BcenoAAaHHMme Aepsato noAHOCTb bi nposopjiHBoe Bamero Bbjih- 
qecTBa pascMOTp'lHie, npoc^ o BceHHJiocTHBifimeiii yiBep^AeHiE, 
c^ BceBBicoHafimHHi noBejitHieMi oToycRaTB ea to npexcAe npo- 
HBBOAEMyK) aa 6HBinyio npa Ropayci rHUHasiio cyMBiy no mecTH 
Th[CAm> py6Jiefi Ha roA^. BceMEJiocTHBiflmafl FocyAapuHfl! Cia no- 
jiaraeMafl TBepAOCTb bi noARpinjieHiH BOcnHTaniA upe RaAOTCRONi 
Ropnycb 6yAerb BtpnuM'B HcnojiHeHieMi nauipeBaeMaro BaMH 
6JxaroBOJieHiH b^ opoHSBeAemH cyn^ecTBeHHO oxHAaeMaro Ao6pa». 

Bi ocoCoMi opeACTaBJieHiH BeixRofi HSJiarajii h npn^HHu, no- 
6y»cAaK)nuA Kb saBeAeniK) BocHBTaHi^ liin^aHCRiix'B A'bTeft npn 
cyxonyiHOMi Ropnyci. Oht> nncajii cJItAyK)^^ee: «1) H-ferb 6ojib- 
maro npen^iCTBia ki AOCTHxeniio ycnixa RpoM% saxpyAHeHiJi 
HaflTB JiiOAefi, cnocofiHux'B wb BOcnBTaHiio; aoji»ho BudBpaTB 
Cb cauonyacHiftmBMi BHBManieiii. Ho xpyAHo Bfii6paTB noTOvy hto: 
l)HBRorAa noqTH HesHaeM'B npHHBMaeMUx^ BOcnnTaTejieft; 2)RaK'B 
onpeA'bJiAeMue bc% hoith HHOCTpaHi^H b rocyAapcTBO Poccifi- 
CRoe nwb He ecxB oienecTBO, to uoitb ne BHibioTi npEB^saHHocTB 

K^ AOJI^RHOCTB B XpyAATCA HOJIBSi OHarO RaRT) 6U nOCTOpOHHHH'B 

o6pa30Mi. P4ako CJiynaeTca, hto6h necTHOCTB Mowia 6h rt> TOiiy 
no6yABTB. Kb xoMy ace 3) b caMuft xyAmifi CTapaexcA BOSBpaTBTBCA 
na poAHHy, rojib CRopo o6cToaTejiBCTBa hosbojihtT); 4) BOcnHxanie 
npn Ropnyci aojijrho Gbttb 6oJiie npaRTB^ecRoe, ne^ejiB xeope- 
TB<iecRoe, RB HeMyMoryT'BCBrTB chocoGhh Ti, rob 8a6jiaroBpeMeBHo 
noJiyiarB Kb TOMy npBBBiHRy nenyBCTBHTejiBHUMB oGpaaoifB; ho 
npi%3«ifi AOJi^eni na BsyneHie saROHOBi b o6uqaeBi ynoxpeSBTb 
nenaJioe Bpenn b ycn^BaeTi b'b btomb He cobcImI), 5) a nBTOimu 
ocTafOTca 6e3B HaAejRHuxi pyKOBOABxeJiefl b najio ycntBaioTB. 
Heo6xoABMO Bce axo bsm^hbtb, nonpaBBTB BBABMUfl HeAOCTaroRB 

BB BOCOBTaHiB JlJOJlfiA^ Kb TOMy cnocoGHuxi). HirB BHOrO RB TOMy 

cpeACTBa KSiKb BospacTBTB yHBTejrefl sa co6cTBeHHUMii cbobm^b npn- 
CMOTpoM^, qpesB ROBxi 6u yqenie Morjio 6u npHXOABTB bb naAJie- 
acan^een ny^Hoe AJiHcedHABBJReHie^ ne nojiarancB Coji'le HaBHim* 



— 381 — 

BH)K) Kpafine y6uT0HHyK), scerAa HOAOCTaiOHHy lo, 
;ia H onacHjio nocTopoHHioK) noMon^B. 

Sto no6j3BipiBLeTh saBecTii npH Ropnyct saeeAeBie ajisi bochh- 
lanifl, Bi ROTopoe 6paTB KaacAHO xpH roAa no 14 — 16 Majibqn- 

KOB^ HBl M'llI][aHCRHXl» A^^Tefi, HJIH 60JIBme, eCJIH CyUMa n08B0JIHTl>, 

ROH, 6yAyHH HayieHu, CAiJiajsacb 6h cnoco6H£iMH ri sacTyDJieHiK) 
anpeAB u']^cti» BOcnETaTejiBCRHxi>, y^HTejiBCRHXx uTony doaoGhbix'b, 
CB TOK) cTpeMHiejiBHOiO BUFOAOK), HTO np£ ynoTpe6jieHiH pasnaro 
BocnHTanifl h ynenifl c% RaAexaim caiiH MoryrB Jiynnie ynaTB Apy- 
Tttsi>. He MOHCHO ojRHAaTB HHiero xopoinaro otb CTapaHifl, nacHJiBHO 
HBBJieRaioiiiBxc^; noaroMy ORoiiHHBmie Rypcb aoji^hu nojiBsoBaTBCA 
npaBatfH npoTHBi HaxoAHn^Hxca b^ ARaAeMio XyAO^ecTBi; ohh 
MoryT^ nepeMtnaTBCH cb aRaAOMEqecRHMH npii oROHianiH ipexBHX'B 
BOspacTOBB. ^epesB laRoe BsaHMHoe o6paii^euie ohh npHBBiRHyrB 
saSjiarospeiieHHO ee npeHe6peraTB t^mh, ror saKOHaaiH o6ii^ecTBa 
OQpeAtjieHH Kb HHsmeMy npoTUB'B hx'b coctohhIh), Hay^axcA nsnoA- 
Bojib cyAHTB JiiOAaxi no npAMUirB AOCTOUHCXBavi^. 

IIpieMB H BunycRx ohux'b hpohsboahxb no ycxaay Ropnycia.; 
OHH AOJiacHU 3HaxB, RaRi HacxaBJiHXB Apyrnxi;yHacxB RaAOXB BopeAB 
saBHcibxB 6yAexi oxb noBeAeHin, npaBa h BHaeiH ero; rxo Apyrnxi 
AOJiaceH^ HacxaBJiJiXB, AOJi^eni) 6uxb h oco^jiEBbixi) Ra^ecxBx caMi>. 
HaAJieacHXx Heycunno cxapaxbCH o SHauiH xixi, rod oGynaxB 
AOJUXHU. He onycRaiB Hsqero, ?xo Moxexi* cjiyjKHXB Kb npio6pi- 
TeniK) HBAJie^RaiQaro; nodxoMy nocujiaxb ae xojibro sa rpaHBuy, ho 
no BOSBpan^eniH Cb paBCMOxpiHieMT* HaAo6HOCXH h bo anyxpB Poc- 
ciftcRaro rocyAapcxBa, ajth npHMtqanin Aocxofinaro Kb CB^Atmio 
BB CBoeiTB oxeqecxBt. Ho BosBpao^eHiH ohh mofjih 6fii BCxynnxB na 
nopoKHifl Micxa bb BOcnnxaxejiH h yqExeJi^; HSJiEmHHx^ «e oxny- 
CRaxB AJiu npHHAxifl cjiys6H rjifh naftxH HoryxB. He nyacno npH- 
HyjRAaxB saROHOMB Kb npefiuBaHlK) wb Ropnyci; ca&ia npHBflsaHEOCXB 
HX'B Kb Ropnycy sacxaanxB ex% npeAno'iecxB 3xo Bcewy npo^OMy, 
h6o axo iricxo cnoROfinoe, xHxoe, 6e8onacHoe, na<ie Bcero corjiacno 

CB HX'B CRJIOHHOCXfl&IH. 

Ho BHAHMHH oCcxoaxejiBCXBa HepiAKO fiHBaioxB cJiynaeMi rb 
yBHaniK) cnoco6a bi noARptaJieme ycxaHOBJiaeMaro nopaAKa, HHoe 
npnCaBJieHieMB, Apyroe oxMiaoio, a noxoMy bb paacyjRAeHlH xa- 
ROBHXi. Heo6xoAHMOCxeft sa nyacHoe npHsnaexcfl Bce, qxo rb oie- 
BHAHofl nojiBsi cero BaBeAeaia SjiaroycMOxpHXca npeAOCxaajiaxB 
npoHBBecxb Bi A^flcxBie CoBtxy cero Ropnyca. 

HMnepaxpHi^a EKaxepnaa nyxBepAHJiaA0RJiaA'BBeqRaro27 or- 



— 382 — 

T>]6pH 1772 r., npH qeMi> noeeJitJia, bm^cto HcnpamHBaeMux'b 
mecTH THcaiT) pyGJieft, oinycTHTii b^ pacnopHaceirie BeAKaro m- 
nHTajxi) Bi> CTO Tucaqi py6., jifi6u hsx npoiJieHTOBi coAep^arb 
MO^so 6hjio cie yqpejRAOHie. 

^OKJiaA'B diOT'L npeACTaBJiAeicA Hpe^iBUHafiHO Ba^Hunt eo 
MHorHX'B OTHomeHiHX'L, a HMeHHo: 1) owb yKasuBaerb necoMHi^HHO 
Ha saTpyAHeHla bi npiHCKHBaniH jno^eft, cnocofiHHXt k*b bocoh- 
TaHiK); 2) Ha HejReJiauie EeuKaro HaHHBiaTb ajh aioro HHOcxpaH- 
i^eBii, Ri KOTopuMi) npHxoAHJiocL Hpia6traTB no Heo6xoAHuocTB; 
3) na CTpeMJienie ero buSth ei8t> aioro noJio»eHifl, oSpasosaBi 
HJiH, K2kKh OHi nnmerL, BospacTHBi y^BTeJiefl qoa'b co6cTBeHa£iin> 

npHCMOTpOMT,, qT06u dlVLWb HSSaBHTIiCfl OTh HHOCTpaHI^eBl. Ta- 

KHAfb o6pa30M'L o6BnHeHie BeARaro wb oco6oin» npHCTpacriH r^ 
HHOCTpanaaMi e^Ba Jia ^BJiaeTca Bnojint ocHOBareJibHMirB. 

KaKt y»ce saMt'ieno naMH Burae, bi 1767 ro^y Bewofl, cjro- 
SRViBTi CI ce6fl sBanie A^peRTopa icopayca h ocTaBaacB tojibro 
^jienoMi CoBtTa ^), hm^ji^ y»e Majio BJiixiHin Ha BHyrpenHioK) XEBRh 
H peBHsiK) Ropnyca. JI^HpeRTOpoHx Ropnyca 6um> nocjit BpaHATa 
HaaaaHeHi FenepaJi'b-nopyqHRT) Ilypnypi, RoiopHft, no cjioBaMi) 
C. Fjiehkh ^), fOTRpHTHM-b cepTOeMT* cjiyatBjn> ERaiepHHt h ^feft- 
CTBOBajI^ no mhcjih n cepAAy Bei^Rony; eMy ociaBajiocB tojibro 
npoAOJiHcaTb Ha^aioe Bei^RHMt A'feJio, ycTpoenaoe hocjiIjahhmi xaRi, 
HTO Bi npoAo.iKeHie OAnHHa^i^aTH Jitib He nocjA^OBaJio hh oahopo 
HOBaro cyn^ecTBeHBa^o pacnopaaceHia ne tojibro no naciH yneOHOft, 
HO Aaace H xo3HBcTBeHHofl». IIo RoeiHHi Ilypnypa bi 1784 r. 
6ujrb Ha3HaqeHi» rpa^i Ae-BajibBieni, ocTaBaBmiflca BecbMa He 
AOJiro, OKOJio ipexi jrlTi ne eojiie, nocji* Roioparo bi 1787 r. 
AHpeRTopoMi Ropnyca aBJiaeica HSBtcxHHft renepaji'b-nopyTOR'b 
rpa^)!) GeAopi EBCia^beBBq-b Anrajibtb (BnyRx HSBiciHaro hojiro- 
BOAUa BpeMeni npyccKaro Ropojin $pHApHxa II, JleonoJibAa Ah- 
raJibTb J^eccay), KOXopHft yMepi. 22 Maa 1795 ro^a *). 

Ben;R0ft jRe Bce Bpena, Bsi'lcii Cb renep.-^ejibAMapniajioirb 
RHaseMi Ajigk. MuxaftjioBHieM'b roJiHii;biHKrET>, reHepajn* nopy^n- 



*) Cm. jIaiaeBi, cip. 64. 

•) Cm. Pfc. B4cT. 1866 r. J^s 1, ct. 288. 

^) UpHMt^aHie. HejiB3A ne saHtrnrB ^to BeuKofi HcnpocHJi pasptmeBie 
KMnepaxpniiu coAepsaxB na cbou ciex'B h npn cyxonyxaoMi saAexcKOMi 
Kopnyci, ^pesi BCflKie Tpn ro^a, no HCTupe BOcnBTaHHHfia, saKi 3to mosho 
ycuoTpixB HBi AOKiaAa ero, npiiioseHHaro hoj^'b 7^ 5 £*& rjasi YII o bocbh- 
TaiejibHOMi oCmecTB-fe 6jaropo;^Huxx AtBHUi. 



— 383 — 

ROiii Hb. Hb. MejTJiepoMi, npeSuaaJi-B lOJibico H.TieHOMi> GoBi^Ta 
Kopnyca jifl canaro ynpas^tHenia CoBtia bti 1785 r., nocjrt qero 
eAHHOJiHiHO ynpaBJiaJiT* BciMt KopnycoMT> o:^HH'b rpa$T» Aerajibrb. 
3a Bce cyn^ecTBOBaHie Ropnyca bo BpeMeea EKaxepHBLi II Bcrpi- 
laeiCH B^ Hameft JiHiepaiypt Heiiajio oiesb coiyBCTBOHHKEX'b o 

HBlTb OTSUBOB^ JlE^ly, HJIH BOCnHTUBaBinHKCfl JIHqHO Bl BTOH'b 

Ropnyci, HJiE noie&iy jin6o 6j[ii8RO K'b Heny CTO^BmHX'B. TaK-b, Hanp., 

H3BiCTHBlfi C. H. FjIZHKa Wb CBOHXl sanBCKaXl) ^) XBaJIHTT) BOCnH- 

TaHie H ^KHSHb Biy Kopnyct. He Mo»eTi> TaRHce Gesi npHSHareJib- 
HOCTH BcnoMHH*aTb nepBux% cBOHX'b none^HTejiflX'b bi Kopnyct 
H ^apKeBHqi ^), nocTynnBmift bi Kopnycb naiH Jitn. BaaMe- 
HHTufi aBTop-b HeAopocJifl ^), ({)0H'b-BH3ffH'b, nocbo^aa He ojiflWb pas'b 
6paTa Bi Ra^eTCROM-b Kopayc^, 6uBSijn> apu hxi o6'6Aaxi n nn- 
merby ^TORaj^eiu nspflA^o co^ep^aTCfl, CTporociH he Maji'^ftmeft 
He yaoTpeSjiaeiCH npH nx'b BOcnHTaniH. Toiho TaRHce rpa^i Ko- 
liapoBCKifl *) roBopHTb, ^TO B"b Ka;^eTCKOl^b Kopnyci, npeo6pa30- 
BaHHOM-b Bei^RHiirb, Ra^eTu nojiynaJiH BOCHHTanie HopanbHoe; aB- 
Topi me AaBHExi BOcaouHHanift, CejiHBaHOBT> ^) oqenb xopomo 
0T3UBajiCH KopnycHux'b nop^AKaxii Boo6ii];e h xBajisn jo^HpeKTopa 
AurajibTa, ynpasjieHie KOToparo 6biJio BecbMa 6jiaroA'bTejibHO aji^ 
cero o6niHpHaro h o6[i^eaoJie3Haro aaBeAeHifl, no cjiOBaMi IleTp. 
Hb. IIojieTHKH ®). diOTii Ao6poAiTejiBHbift H BecbMa npocB'i^a^eHHUfi 
caHOBHEK-b (t. e. AnrajibT-b) noct^sjii KJiaccu emeAHeBHO, bxo- 
AEJB'b BO Bcib noApo6HOCTE E yBf^Ji^ B086yABTb wb KaAeraxi* oxoTy Kb 
HTeniH) noyHETejibHux-b KHEPb, nEmeTi IIojieiEKa, ho saM'lqaeT'b, 
^TO <j[>paHuy3CRie nacTaBHEKE 6bijie HeBtxcAK^, jiioae rpy6ue wb 
ofixoKABHlE E acecTOROcepAue B^ HaKaaamaxx HocpeAciBOM'b o6Ay- 
HUBaeHUX'b EME caMEME cpe^CTBi. MoHCHo TaR^e yRasaib en^e Ha 
CMBa TypreneBa '): «Les corps de cadets se trouvaient dans un 
etat tr^s prosp6re da temps de Catherine II, a laRate ECTopHRa Jle- 
BeRa ®): les cadets resolvent une education solide et brillante; 
rien n»est 6pargn6 pour leur instruction, pour leur entretien et 



') Cm. PyccK. B-bcT. 1866. J& 1, ct. 255. 
') Cm. PyccE. CiapHHa 1874 r. 

') $ohi-Uh3hh'b (iisAaHie MapKca, C.-ncTep5.) ILucBMa ri paBHum. 
AEUfiM'h, CTp. 327. 

*) Pfc. Apx. 1867 r., cxp, 240. 

*) Cm. PyccK. ApiRB-b 1869 r.. crp. 162. 

«) Cm. PyccK. Apx. 1885 r., t. Ill, cip. 107. 

'') Cm. La Russie et les Russes. Bnixelles 1847, cip. 11. 

') Levesque-Histoire de Russie. t. V, p. 157. 



^) ApxHBi KH. BopoHKOsa RH. IX, CT. 146. 

') QpHBOAeHi Ha DaMflTB HHTaTeiAH'B, ^To HBi CyzonyTBaro EaAeTcsaro 
Kopayca bliiiuh ci-fexyioiiiiA MesAy npoHHHH jui^a: A. A. BeKieni6Bi>, Ha. 
wl. FoieHHmeBvKyTysoB'L, rpa(i)% n. n.KoHOBHHauHi, H. H. KymeieB'B, 
6. 9. KHoppHHri, rpadbi M. 9. KaHeHCKift, H. n. KyibueBi, A. C. Mhjio- 
paAOBBHi, rpaij)^ K. 9. Tojlb, T. H. TyTOJMHHi, B. A. OsepoBi, A. X. 
BocTOKOB'B, u T. I. H u^jEig coHHi> iHiJCB, yMHpaBmuz'B repoAHH Cb opyxieif <B 
Bi pyKaxi j(ja nojbsu ^opororo OTenecTBa. PaBHUui o6pa80H'B BOcnHTUBaiacB 
B-b dTOMi se Kopiiyci khabb A. A. BflBeMCKift, khabb A. H. BoisoHCKift, 
BefiMapH'B, M. A. A^Ae* n. H. Mcjihcchbo, bhabb A. A. IIpoBOjpoBCRoil, 
vpn^-b n. A. PyMAHueBB-3aAyHa3cKit, IQTOct^eiBH'b n t. a. (cm. BRCsoBa- 
TOBi, CTp. 46, H JlajaeBB, CTp. 65. 



— 384 — 

pour leur plaisir. Les langues et la pluspart des sciences et des 
arts entrent dans leur education h t. a. 

IIoaTOMy BCJi'bACTBie BumecKasaHHaro ^Bjn^eicfl ocHOBasie 

OTHOCHTBCfl CT> H'iKOTOpUH'L HBAOBtpieM'B Kl CJIOBaiTb rpa^a 

CeneHa PonaHOBHia BopoHij^osa ^), bi KOTopuxii ohi> BBicRadUBaercfl 
npoTfiB'L cOBepmeHHaro BeipcHirB npeoCpasoBania cyxonyTHaro 
Kopnyca. Bi hhcbm* hs-b JloHflOfla orb 8 — 19 iioHfl 1789 ro^a 
KHflSB roBopHTi: fLes officiers qui sortaient de notre vieux corps 
de cadets ^talent bons militaires et n'etaient bon qu en cela, mais 
ceux qui furent formes par M. Betzky jouaient bidn la comedie, 
faisaient des vers, ffvaient tout en nn mot, hors de ce qu'il fallait 
savoir pour etre officier (nncBMO „JV$ 65h31 JIoHAona 8/19 iroHa 
1789 r.) J'aime mieux un jeune hoinine qni ne veut savoir qu*une 
chose mais bien. La rage d'etre universel et de tout savoir fait 
qiibu ne salt rien'', rt.a. IIoBHAHMOMycy^AeHie rpa^a hs-b pacno- 
jioxenifl Kb CTapoMy rptmHi-B npoTHB'B cnpaBOAJiHBOCTn, Aaxe ecjiH 
npBnoBfHHTB OAno TO, HTO i^iJifiifl pflAi* BocaHTaHHHROBi ^),npeo6pa- 
soBannaro Boakhitb Ropnyca, o6e3CMepTEJi'B ce6H repoftCRHMH no- 
ABBraiiH KaRTi noxb na^ajiBCTBOiii GyaopoBa bii HTajiiE h nepe- 
xo^b 'lepesii Ajibnu, laRT* h b-b k'Ijiom'b pa^'b RpoBonpoatRTHHRi 
cpaKeniS^ ROTopunfR 03HaMe^0BaHu Bci boAhei bi i^apcTBOBaHie 
Aeps^aBHaro BHyRa BejiHRoft HnaepaTpEi^u, HMnepaiopa AjieRcaH- 
Apa I, Haunaa c^ AycTepjiHAa n ao Tpexi^ AHOBHoft 6htbu rEraH- 
TOBi noA'b JleftuAEroMi. lips najiEqeociE aiExi) Ao6jiecTfluxx noA- 

BRFOB'B TpyAHO COFJiaCflTBCH Cb BSFJIHAOMli RHflBH BopOBIlOBa, TTO 

BbimeAmie bsi RaAeiCRaro Kopuyca o6jiaAaJiE bc^itb, sa HCRJiioHe- 

HieM-B TOrO, HTO He06X0ABM0, HT06h 6HTBO$Bi;epOM'B. 3tE CJIOBa kehzb 

AOJiacHO npBHBCJiHTB RTi TOMy, HTO ^paHAysH HasHBaiorB une boutade 
de vieillard. ! 

Bi saRjrioHeHiE cefi rjiaau ae jiEmnee CRasaib h%ckojibro cMVb | 
oSi) OAHOMii ESI) GuBmExi) BOcnETaHHBROB'B cyxouyTHaro KsM^eT- 



— 385 — 

CRaro Kopnyca, o rpa^i AjieKcM FpHropBeBH^i BoOpBHCROifB, Haxo- 
;uiBineMca bi HCiuiio^iHTeJiBHfiix'b oiHomernHxi) ri BeuROHy, He najio 
Hen's da6oTHBnieMycji. 

AjieKctii rpKropbeBHHi Bo6pMHCKi(t. 

MoJIOAOft leJIOB^R-b, HSB^CTHKlft CO BpeMeHeMl) noAi> EMeHeMl» 

AjieRC^H rpHFopLeBH'ia 5o6pHHCRaro, othiomi ROToparo Ghjib rhh3B 
rpnropift rpnropBeBHH'B OpjioB-B, poAHJiCH 11 anpt^a 1762 roAj 
H HeneAJieBHo no pojRAemH 6ujii oTAani HMnepaTpHueio EnaTO- 
pHHofi Ha BOCHHTaHie eB rapAepo6MefiCTepy BacHJiiio FpBropBeBHHy 
niRypHHy^ y ROToparo h npoHCHBajii Buicii cb ero cbihobbbmh ao 
1775 roAa ^). Ho cjiobbmi BoCpnmeBoft IlyraRHHoft ^) cb paspi- 
meHia HMnepaipHi^H btoti peeenoR-L, CHHTaBmifiCB cbihomI) IIlRy- 
pHHB, 6njii OTnpaBJieH'B y^HTBca sa rpaHHuy BMtcrt cb AByMa ch- 

HOBBAMH HOCJI^AHBrO H Ch AByMB CUHOBBBMH A. B. OjICyfj^BOBB, a 
TBRXe AByMB CfilHOBBBMH SBHOBBeBB. HsB'I^CTHO, HTO ChlWb A. B. OjI- 

cy^BCBa BocDHTHBajiCB B-B JleflnuHri y BoRyMa, on ROToparo Chjii 
BSBTB no HeyAOBOJiBCTBiBMB. MoacHO npeAHOJiaraTB noarony, hto h 
6yAyn;ifi Bo6pHHCRift BOcnHTUBaJicH xaKsce bi JIefini;Hr'l hjih 
FaJiJiBCROMi neAarorlyM*, RaRi 3to roBopHrL r. Ko6eRO '). Mojio- 
AOft ^eJiOBiRi pocB BT) ceMoficTBi IIlRypHHa, He HMia lOHHaro 
onpeA^eHHaro nposBH^a hjih (|)aBfHJiiEi. Tojibro nosAH'l^e y^e, 
HHeHHO Bx anp^jii 1775 r., 6ujio OROHqaTOJiBHO pinieno Hainepa- 
TpHneio ERarepBHOK)^ hto mojioaoB ^ejiOBbRi) 6yAeTB HasuBaTBca 
AjieRcbfi rpBropBeBHH'B Bo6pHHCKifi, no hmohh cejia CnaccRaro, 
Bo6pHRH Toace, Enn^aHOBCKaro ytsAa, RynjienHaro y^JIaAHacen- 
CKaro 3% 1763 r« a^b MaTepiajiBHaro oCesne^eHia HOBopoKAen- 
naro *). ynpaBJienie aTHMn HMiHiaMH 6biJio bosjiohcbho cnepBana 
A. T. c. H KaMeprepa Ceprta BacHJiBesHqa TarapHna, a hotomT) hb 
ero CBraa RanepB-ioHRepa (BnocJitACTBia Raneprepa) Ceprha Fara- 
pHHa. nojiynaeMMe cb HMiBifl aoxoau AOCiaBJiajiHCB rt, Bei^ROMy, 
ROTopBifl aaSoTHJica yiKe o noMtmeniH bthxb AenerB na opoueHTU, 



Ilelbig— Russische Gtinstling.— La cour de Russie., il y a cent ans., h3- 
Bjeqena hsi Aenem'B ^ania CTp. 180. IlHCbMa Beusaro kx HMnepaTpHut 
EKaTepuBi. Cm. PyccR. CTapHHa 1896 r. H0fl6pB. M^moires secrets snr la 
Russie— par, Masson. 1859, cxp. 107. 

') PyccKift ApxHB-b 1869 r. cip. 1775; 1876 roAB. KHHr. 3, cip 62; 1899 

TOA'h KHHr. 2. 

*) Ko6eKO— U^ecapeBH^B EaBeji'B, cip. 63. 

*) Cm. QiicbMa BeuKaro Rt EKaTepiia-fe II, b^ Pyc. CiapiiHi 1896 r. 
floa6pB, CTp. 393. 

H. H. BEHKOft. 



— 386 — 

corMCHO npHRaaaHifo HMnepaTpHOU, icaiTB dTO bhaho b31 HHace- 
CJiiiiAyK>mHxi Efl pecKpHHTOBt BeuKOMj: 

24 Mapia 1778 roAa J^ 112: HeaHi) HBaHOBm! BMicTO 
HiftoiAHxcii Bi HajoHHHOCTH y A- T. c. KHH3A FarapHHa, ocTas- 
mnxcH orb npoin;iaro roAa aoxoaob'b cejia BoCpHROBO cb npoHHUH 
ceJiaiiH H AepeBHHMB CTa copoKa ocbmh tbich^x dhtb coti> Tpexi> 
py6jiefi ceMHAecjiTH hhth KonteKt ipexi* HeTBepieft, KOTopwe yKa- 
30MT> HafflHMB, noMHHyiOMy KHflBK) FarapHHy bb 28 jeHb npome^- 
maro 4>6BpaJifl a&hhuii'b, Bejii>HO 6ujio AOCiaBHTB BaMB, npeAQHcaHO 
orb HacB HUHt a- t* c. reacpaJi^ npoKypopy kh^sk) B^seifCKOicy 

TOJIHKOe UHCJIO JifiEeUb 6aHK0BUMH accHrHai^iHMH OmyCTHTb Kb BaiTb, 

HSB cocToan^HX'b sA^cb HajiHiHiax'b cyMifb. Ilojiyna ohuh ei> pas- 

AaU'i HXT> 8aHM006pa3H0 BB "IHCJIO npOHHX'b^ OTb BOCHHTaTeJIbHarO 

AOMa pa3AaBaeHuxii h TaROBUH »ce, nocTynBie no renepaJibHbiH'b 

OTb HaCb ROH^HpMOBaHHUM'b Ha TO y4peKAeHiHi£x». 

28 MapTa J^ 121. cHBaQi HBaHOBH'iB! HaxoAHii^iac;i y 
ro^MeScTepa EjiarHHa Ha jihiio otb majiOBanba rBapiiE nojiKOBHHRa 
mecTbAecarb OAHy Tucaqy BOceMbcoTb ABaAUaib ipn py6jifl ceMb- 

AQCRTb BOCGMb ROniORB npeAHHCaJIEE Mu GMy OTOCJiaTb Kb BaMb H 
BH Cb OHHMH HOCTyHHTe CXOAHO TOMy, RaKB OTB HaCB HOBOJliHO BB 

paacy^AGHiH rfcxB Aenerb, KOTopbra bu bm^cto HaJiHHHHxi y a- 
T. c. Ktta3H TarapHHa no yKasy HaraeMy otb 24 cero Mapia SAicb 

lipHH£J[H». 

21 anptjia J\2 143. «llBaHB HsaHOBH^B! IIo noBeJiiniaMB 
HamaMB OTAaHtiHH KH^seMB CeprieMB BacHJibeBHieMB FarapHBuirb 
H HBaHOMB Ilep^HJibeBH^eMB EnarHHHMB BaMB a^h OTAa^n bij boc- 
HHTaTejiBHbrfi aomb na npoAenTbi aghbfh, RaRB hsb aoxoaobi cejia 
Bo6pHROBO CB npoHHMH ceJiaMH H AopeBHflfiiH, TaRB H Hamero noju- 
ROBHHHbflro ORJiaAy HOTupex^ hojikobb rBapAin, Bcero nocie hdcjio 
ABicTa AGCflTB THCfl^B TpHCTa ABaAi^aTb coMb pyCjieft, Aa h BnpeAb 
npHCHJiaeMHa OTb HacB TaRoeuH ate cyMMH, pasHO KaRB h co6h- 
paoMHH CB TtxB npoAeflTH npHRjiaAbiBaTB R^ TOMy ace RanHTajiy ao 
11 anpijiH 1782 roAa, a nocjii Toro BpeiieHH pacnenaTaTb BaMB 
npn ceMB npcuioaceHHUfi ajih OTAa^iH bb CoxpaHHyK) KasHy sa Ha- 
meK) neiaTbK) naReTB h yqanHTb HcnoJiHeHie no naflAOHHOMy bb 
HOMB npeAnHcauiio; bb hoSuthoctb ace saray HcnojiHflTb to CaHRTB- 
neiepCyprcKOMy OiAtJieHia 3aciAaHiK)». 

ToHHO TaRace HMnepaipai^a npeAnncajia FarapHHy set B'b aoji- 
rax-b HMiion^iacH A^HbrH, KaRB CRopo otb Roro jih6o no nacTflMB 
HJiH BApyrBynaa^HBaeMHadyAyTbjAOCTaBJiHTB TaRace BeuROMy, yBt- 



— 387 — 

AOMJifiA TOMi BCflKift pa3T> Efl BejiEiecTBO. PaBHUM^ oCpasoiTB 
HHnepaTpHi^a npejunHCUsaJia KnarHfly 8 0KT^6pH 1778 r. «no hs- 
mecTBlH BCARofi TpexB, ROFAa Kt BaifB AocraBJieHO 6yAeTi> orL noji- 

ROBl TBapAlB JRaJIOBaHbe Xlbxi nOJTROB'B nOJIKOBHHRay OTCUJiaTb OHHe 

Ki A- T. c. 6ei](R0Hy, ROTopuft HicieTi Hoe noBejiime oS'b yno- 
Tpe6jieHiB Toro». 

HeMHOro noBflrie, bt, ^eRadpi 1778 r.. EicaTepHHa CHOBa na- 
mei'b Bei^ROMy: 

<HBaHi HBanoBH^'bl IIopyTOBi ynpaBJieele BOJiocTeft Boropo- 
AHOKOia, Bo6pnROBCRofi H RlacoBCROft HameHy A^ficiBHreJiBHOMy 
RaHMeprepy rhhsk) ParapHHy BaiaROMi tohho ocaoBaHifl, RaRi 
OBHfl no HUH'i y a- t. c. rhash FarapBHa coctohjib^ yKaaaMB Mu 
eMy BCK) cocToamyio b-b ^OJiraxx cyioiy, no HacTymieHiB cpoROBx, 

BdUCRaBli Ch AOJI^CHBROB-b ^OCTaBBTB RT> BaU'B; paBHMlTB OfipaSOlfb 

H BCTynaeMue OHceroAHO esi rbxi BOJiocieft aoxoabi no npomecxBiB 
Ra»A&ro roAa AOCxaBJiBTb Kb BaHi>; cocTo^n^ia jro hkih% aa jibi^o 
TpBAaaTb TpB TUCH^B CTO AeB^HaA^aTb py6. 7774 RonieKi BSHecTB 
Bi KaMMepi KojiJieriH) Cb xiBX, ^to laROByK) ace cyMMy noJiy^Bre 
Bbi sA^cb OTb Hamero roHepaji'b-npoRypopa a* t* c. KHasa Bh- 
seucRaro^. 

BeqROfi, nojiynaa AOHbFB, OTAaBaJii) bxi* bi> BOCuBTaTejibEBifi aomi* 
Ha npapaiqeHie npoi^eeTaMB. droTi RanBTaJii, xpaHBBmifica bi Co- 
xpaHHOfl Ka3Ht, AOCiBri b-b 1 782 r. cyMMH acero 627,417 p. 85 k. 
Bi> anp'^Ji'l Toro me roAa noJiyqeHii 6mji'b na bma rjiaBHaro none- 
qBieJifl ^) (t. e. Bei^Raro) naReii) sa nenaTBio Ea BeJiBseciBa, b^ ro- 
TopoifB 8aRJiK)qajiocB ea noaeJiiHie on 11 qacjia anptjia, co Bceft 
nojiynenofi BocnHTaTeJiBHBisiTi aomobtb cyMMH cb npoi^eHiaMB ot- 
nycRaiB c^ pocnncROio oahb npoi^eHiH AjieKciio TpBropbeBBiy 
Bo6pBHCKOMy (KOTopHft BOCHBTBiBajica Bi IIIJiaxeTHOM'B CyxonyT- 
HOMi KaAexcROMi Kopnyci, a HHHt JI.-Fb. KOHHaro nojiKa Ilopy- 
HBR^) Ao 11 anpijia 1792 roAa, a cb xoro HBCJia b aecb ohbtS 
KannxaJiT) bi ero BJiacxB cocxobx*b: bt. cjiy^ai ero 6e3i noxoMCxaa 
AO onaro cpoRa CMepxB npoi^enxH oxnycRaxB si^no feoprieBCKBMX 
KanBxanaM'B, ocxaBJiaa na BOCQBxaxejiBHufi aomx no 1 npo- 
UBHiy ^). 



*) Cir. npiTioxeeie JV« 8. Ohu nojyHena naHH hs'b eeveiiflaro apxirsa 
rpa<i)a A. A. Bo6pnHCRaro. 

') OADOBpeMeHHO KuaepaxpHua EsaiepHHa II nncaja ii KOJOAOHy 5o6- 
pnHCKOMy cj'feAyK>mee. ^pea-b cie o6bKBiEio Bani, hto ot-b 11 ^HCia anptiH 
1782 r. AO 11 qiiwa anp-feia 1792 r. bh HH'beTe nojy^aTB ct nojtoaeHHaro 
MBOH> BT, BociiiiTaTejBHOM'b AOM* ji,JK Baci BaoHTaJia npoueHTH,a Cb 11 an- 



— 388 — 

BcJiiACTBie dToro bi npncyiCTBiH OneRyncKaro CoBtTa, uo 
iiCTpe6oBaHin ea to corjiacie r. BofipEHCRaro, imcBMeHHO Cb noA- 
nHcameiTB ero pyRH h npnjioseBieMi nenaiii nojioseno BUA&BaT& 
eMy yRasHue npoAeHTU no 6 b'l roKh 37.645 p., pa3;(&Bflfl nepBue 
11 i^cflEieBi no 3000 py6. a ocrajiBROft 4645 py6. 

%o aieKacaeTCfl canoro 6o6pHHCKaro to bsi nepenHCRs BeuRaro 
Cb HMnepaTpHi^eft ERaTepHHOio II bbaho, hto no Ea npHRasaniio 
pe6eH0KT> 6k[jii> bt* 1775 roAy Bzarb orb IIlRypHHa h nepeAaHi 
BeAKOMy, Bii jipui Roroparo n nposHBajii niROTopoe BpeHfl. Bei^- 
Roft 0H6HB BHHMaTejibHO H coiyBCTBeHHO OTHeccA Kb peGeHRy, Ha- 
6jiK)Aajii sa HEMi H coo6n^ajrB IlMnepaTpHi(6 cboe saflct^amfl o 
xapaRTepi, aasJiOHHOCTflX'b h CTeneHH pasBHTia p66eHRay bsi ko- 
Topuzii BBAHO, 1T0 MOJiOAoft BoCpHHCRlft 6uji'L cjiafiaro rbnocjioxe- 
hIh, sacri^HqBBi, Sohsjihb'l, po6oRi, pasciaui, HeHyBCTBirrejieH'B 
HH Kb Heny, HO RpoTORi, nocjiymeH'B h aoctohhi jik)6bh. Xota OMy 
6uJio y;Re 13 ji^tb, ho bc^^ ero nosHamn orpaHHHBBajiHCB tojibro 

$paHI]^3CRHM'B H H'bMeARHM'B aSBIKajfH, HeMHOrHMl H81 apHeMeTHRE 

H OHOHB MaJiHHi E81 reorpa^lE. Ohi* oCJuaAaJii 6oJiBmoK) npoHEKa- 
TeJiBHOCTBK) E OHCHB sEBBUfB noHaTioHi. CAi^jiaBii onEcaBio ero I 
xapaKTepa^BeKRofisaiftHajii, qTO y Bo6pflECRaro see xyAoe bb- | 
jTBOTca cjii^ACTBieM'B AypHaro BocnETaHin eMy Aannaro; bi> hom^ sa- 
AymEJiE xopomifl noCy^Aenia ero opranoB'B, hto6h CAtJiaTBMamEHy 
o6uAeHHaro nccjiyniaBiH ^). 

Tin Tbxi> TRe nEceMi* beaho, hto BoGpEHCRift, npo;KHBT> ne 
AOJiroe Bpena y BeaRaro, Gbijii otabhii bi cyxonyTHuA RaAOTCEifi 
RopnycB, TAi naxoAEJica hoa'b oco6eHHUM'B HaCjnoAemeMi PH6aca, 
CJnymBBmaro b^ to Bpena bi Biowb Kopnyci, xoth o ceui* o6cT0fl- 
TejiBCTBib B'B nncBMax'B Bei](Raro Kb ERaTepsHi e He ynoMSHaeTCA. 
BeEiRofi He nepecTaBajiii caHi cjitAETB sa Bo6pehcrem'b, cooOn^ajn 
Eewb HMnepaTpEi^i Bcb MajrbSmia noApo6HOCTE h Ha Bce Ra- 
caion^eeca BoCpnHCRaro HcnpamEBaJii ea pasptoenk e corjiacifl. 
Sto Adverb nojiHoe ocHOBanie saRjno^BTB, hto hhhto bi OTHomeHiu 
Bo6pEHCRaro ho a^Ji^ocb fiesi* OAO^penia HMnepaTpsi^Bi. IIo cjio- 
BaifB rejiB6Hra (cTp. 281) h b-b Bsejie^eHlE hs'b ero ctbtbe bb 
(cPyccR. CTapHH'fc» 1886 r. t. 51) EicaiepEHa saM'feqajia ex yAO- 

piifl 1792 ro^a BecB totl noioseeHufi hhok) h b-l BocnHxaTejBHOM'B ;(OMi 
^lE BacL co6paHHufi KaaBTaji saMi h noTOMCXBy Bameny Rasi co6cTBeH- 
HOCTB neoTieMjenaa npHHaweatiiTt.— EKaxepHHa, 1782 r. anptiH 11— Cm., 
Pyc. ApxHB. 1876 r. kh. 3, cxp. 13. 

Cir. IlHCBifa BeiiRaro si EsaxepHHt II. Pyc. CxapnH. 1896 r. Hoii^pB 
cxp. 38. 



— 389 — 

BOJiBCTBieiTB, HTO PH6acx, BocnHTaiejiB 6o6pHHCKaro no Kopnycy, 
H EeoRofi, AHpeKTop'B oHaro, OTJiHHajiH pe6efiKa OTBero TOBapHn^eft. 
HsBicTHufl BepHyji.iBH ^), noci^THBmift bi 1777 roAy neTep6ypn>, 
BBx^i Bi Jiarepi KBjtfiTb bi> najiaTKi PjiCaca BoSpHHCRaro, uojio- 
Aaro KpacHBaro BspocJiaro nejiOBiKa (woUgewachsen) jAtb 14— 15^ 

KOTOpufi XOTH BOCnHTUBaOTCA RaRl RaAerb, HO HaXOAHTCH UOKb 

ocoCfimi HaAsopoifB PH6aca, hpoesboaht'b BHAQoe Bne^axji'lHie 
(stattlichen Aufwand) h Aaerb HaAe«Ay, hto co BpeMeHOMii npio6- 

pilOTB HSBiCTHOCTL. 

HejiBSA He o6paTHTb BHSMaHia MOJKAy npoHEMi* na to, hto Bei;- 
KOfi bo BpeMH aToro Dpe6uBaHlfl 6o6pHHCRaro bt> Kopnyd, RaRi» 6ii 
Kbjiaerb yRopi) HMneparpHiJC^, hto ona 8a6BiBaeTii mojioaofo ^ojio* 
B*Ra H T. A. ^). 

no OROHHaHiH o6yHeHifl bt> Ropnyci Bei^Kofi npHBeaii r'b Hm- 
nepaxpHii'l 23 ^eBpajr^i 1782 MOJio^aro Bo6paHCRaro, nocJiOBaM'B 
npHHaa IIpyccRaro, roBopHBmaro, hto BeuROfi BuierB hcrpohhiok) 
R-b HOMy Apy^6y, Ha ROTopyio HHRorAa ne c^HTaJii ero cnoco6- 

HHMl ^). 

Bo5pHHCROfi BMtcrb CB ApyrHMH TOBapHH^aMH no BunycRy 
6ujii, no o6nteMy nopB^Ry BOcnHTanlB, OTnpaajieH'B b'b 1782 roAy 
B-b nyremecTBle caepBa no Poccin, noAB naAsopoiTB Bymyena h 
HSBtcTHaro 03epeiiROBCRaro. IIpH 8tomi> BoARoft cocTaBHJn hmi 
HJiaHii nyTemecTBifl, no Roropony npeABapHTejKBHo hitb npeACiOHJio 
coBopniHTB fioJiBrayio noisARy no Poccin, nociiHTB MocRBy, Hnxnift 
HoBropoAT>, Bojiry, Ypaji-B, EKaTepHnCyprB, AcTpaxanB, lOXHyio 
HacTB PocciH H saxiifB y»e ixaTB qpes'B EIobb h BapmaBy sa rpa- 
HHE(y BB B'^Hy H, nodxHB'B HiajiiH), IIlBefiAapiK), $paHaiK), npo- 
ixHTB Bi Anrjiiio sr saTiiTB ^pesi PoJUiaHAiK), BejiBriio, FepMaHiH) 

BOSBpaiHTBCH B'B OTO^eCTBO. Bliicii CB dTHMli BOKROfi HanHCaJIB 

nncBva pasHBiMB na^aJiBHERaMi ryfiepnift, no ROTopuMi nyxeme- 
cTBeHHBRaiTB HaAJio^aJio npoisjRaTB, necBMa To;RAecTBeHHaro co- 
AepiRanlB cb npHJiojReHHUM'By cero hhcbmomb MejiBrynoBy, a tbr- 
ace kbljli* BymyoBy HSBitcTHyio nncTpyRuiK) ho pasB yace naneHaxaH- 
HyK) ^) H CBHA'^xejiBCXByion^yK) necoMHiHHO o npocai^n^eHHOMB 



*) Johann Bemouilli's R^isen ddrch. Brandenburg, Pommem, Preussen, 
Curland, Russland nnd Polen im 1777 und. 1778. Leipzig. 1779 cip. 80. h 112. 

') Om. IltiCBMa Bei^saro si HiinepaTpnat EsaTepHHi II. Pyc. Ciap. 
1896 r. H0fl6pb. 

^) Csf. Ko6eKO. I|;ecapeBH% naBejB, cxp. 266. 

*) Cm. CtBepHHft ApxaBi 1823 r. V «. 4 cxp. 327.; OreqecTBenHHa aa- 
HHCRa 1823 r. t. Xni ct. 93; HxeHie Mocrob. 06m. Hciop. h jI,peBHOCT. 



— 390 — 

BsrjiAA^ Beunaro na cnoco6i nyiemecTBOBaTB cb uojib3gk>. JIk)6o- 
nuTHan nepenncKa BeAKaro cb BymyeBuwb b Osepei^ROBCKHMi», bo 
epeMfl nyTemecTBlH ex's BMi^cii ci 5o6pHHCKHirb no Poccia, noEa- 
suBaerb ne tojibko KpafiHioio BHHMaTejibHOCTb e OTenecKyio 8a6ox- 
jiEBOCTB BeAKaro cicb MOJiOAOMy rocnoAHHy», ho e pacKpu- 
BaerB xaKHce oi^acTE e xapaKTopi 6o6pEHCKaro. TaR-B eanp. Beu- 
Koft nEmerB Bo6pEHCKOMy: «il paAyiocB,HTO JiK)6onuTCTBy BamoMy 
fl Bamsx'B cnyTHHROBi aoctbbeji'b yAOBOJiBcxBie nosBOJieHieMB npo- 
AOJiataiB eme same oyTemecTBie no MtciaM-B PocciE...» 

c^HTaHEHB MHOK) wb BameMi nflCBM^ aaiitHaHifl KacaxejiBHO ao 
npo'ibsHcaeMux'B M'IcrB, noKasuBa^ mh^, "ito bu ycepACTByeTO Aocxa- 
BETB ce6i noJiesHUH CB^A'i^HiA, npEoecjis Met neMajioe yAOBOJiB- 
CTBie (nncBMO 18 reHB. 1783 r. BiiOHfl 18)». 

Hjbh bt* DHCBMi 19 iiOHfl 1783 r., ysHaBi, ^to OacpeiiROBCKift 
no HeijpiaTHOCTflMi He ooaceJiaji'B AaJiie conpoBoacAaTB Bo6pHH- 
CKaro, 6en;Kofl nnmeTB nocJiiABeny: <cie BOAaerB uni^ HHoria pas- 
HUH mbicjib; Bce jie no npeABEcaHHOMy bi EHcxpyKiuE Bcnoji- 
HxieTCfl?... He MeHieioro, cyAa no sameMy fijiaroHpaBiio, naAiioci, 
HTO Bu cTaneTe OTspan^aTBCfl h otb nocTUAHoft CKynociE, j 
osHaiaion^efi bbsoctb Ay^a, h ho CyAeie AJifl RopucTOJiioGiH jiEmaiB i 
ce6fl E ApyrHxii Hy^naro coAep^anm e HaBJieKaTB HeroAOBanie 
jiEmeHieM'b aoji^khuxi narpa^AeHifi sa ORasuBaeicBia BaMB ycjiyrB, 
e6o ecjiE pacTOHBTeJiBHOCTB BpeAHa TOJiBRo A^H caMoro ce6B, to 

CRynOCTB— HCTOHHHKT> BCHKHXl HOA^IOCTefl, A^JIM ^eJIOB^Ra HOCM*- 

msn^eMi ii oiBpama^ otb nero bc^xb, crojibko nocTBiAna e My^B- 
leJiBHa AJifl RopHCTOJiK)6i](a, ctojibko BpeAHa e a^^h t^x'b, koe cti 

HEM-B A^JIO HM%K)TB EJIH OTB HCrO SaBHCBTB. IIOHeMy BaAtlOCB, HTO 

AJiH BsOi^caniH TaKOBUxi) AByxi RpaftnocTeft ri co6cTBeHHO& Ba- 
meft necTH CyAeie bh ce6i bi noJiBsy ynoipeCJiaTB coaiTH By- 
myoBa*. Hax btexi cjiob^ naAO saEJiiOHBTB, hto Bo6pBHCRit 6uji'^ 
cRop'ie c K y n B, nencejiE pacxo^ExeJieHB e wb xo Bpena ne o6jia- 
AaJii) cxpacxBK) kb KapxoHHoft Erpi, hio noAxaepaKAaexca oxsbibomb 
BQWb canaro Bymyeaa bb nncbMi rb BeARony ox^ 30 Iiojib E3^ 
BapmaBU, bi EOxopoM^ BymyeBB roBopETk: «hto »e npEHaAJiexEXB 
AO AenerB, Cea^ paacnexoBB ntcROJiBKo paai noBxopacMbix'B, Ceax 
AOcaAU no<ixE nsqero hmb (Bo6pehcrhmb) He njiaxHxc^^ xo crojibro 
pasB, coxpanaa npncxoflHocxb, ynoxpeCjHJiX) a cboh AMBrH; ohb 



1663. T. IV cip. 143. dxa HBCxpyKaifl npnioxeBa xasse u BaBH Kasi ysa- 
8UBaH)iAaA BsrjflAK Bei^Karo sa nyieinecxpifl aoodiAe (cm. npuiox. J6 9). 



— 391 — 

caifb H sHaerB, ho ho Bsscy, hto6u Tpoeyrb riwb 6ujrb. Hcnoji* 
BBJTb owh BcerAa no cjiosy cBoeny, ho bo ocTaBBJi-B ^ypHib Tosa- 
pHii](6fi CBOHxi BcerAa, <ajih qero uwk o eyacAax'B cbohxi cicasu- 

BaK)n>». CTHflHTCa OHl (BoCpHHCKlfl) CJia60CTH CBOefl, HO He 

HcnpaBJifleTOi. BapoHeMi> HaxoABJi'B owb OTroBopRy, hto 6epenceT^ 
AOHbrH AJiH Toro, hto6bi b3i> roAOBofl cyMMU sanjiaiHTB AOJiri* vh 
neTep6ypri». Bt> tomi^ »e nHCbMi^BymyeuroBopH!n>: «6o6pE!H* 

CKift nOAl> npHTBOpHOK) THXOCTbK) AOJirOiweKpUBaJIli Tflmejiiaft 

HpaBii CBoft, HO no MHOJRecTBy cjiynaeBi) ne Mori> neoTKpuTL ce6H. 

OH'b CTOJIb HaAMeHeH'b H CXOJlb n^eROTJIHBX, HTO KaKBM'b 6u JiaCRO- 

BfiiMii H Apy^ecKHM'b o6pa80M'b, HTO HH cKasaHO Bi HOJiisy ero 
6UJI0, TO BC6 npieMJieTi ohi> c^ ocRop6jieHieM'b n xota ncnoJiHAerb 
Bce, HO AOcaAbi CRpnib He MO^erb... Hs^ rjiasHbixi) ero cjia6ocTeft 
ecTL eu;e B^ HeM^ 6e3ne^H0CTb n nepaA'^^nie bba'^^tb bjih ysnaTb hto 
HH ecTb noJiesHoe. Ero bhhto ne TporaeTi), hhhto ne saMaHBeaerb; 
lacTO ex TpyAOMT* yroBopBTb ero Mory ci naMB Biitcii noixatb. 

IIpH TOMl BMierb OHTi BOJIBRyiO Jl^HOCTb HanBCaib HTO HH6yAb u 

AJiA Toro ocTaBBJii H jRypHaji'B CBoft, ROTopufi na^iajii BecTH. OAHy 
oxoTy Ri HTeHJK) eme owh coxpan^erb. HeonpaiHocTb laRxe ero 
He noRBAaerbf Bci chjih ynoTpe6HJi^ a otbcctb ero orb Toro, ho 
nacHJiy mofb ynpocnxb CAtJiaib 3Atcb ^paK-b. KpoMi wynABpoBi 
BH oAHoro njiaibH y nero ne 6brjio, b-b KOiopoMi 6bi npncxofiHO ne 
TOJibRO Bi) ropoA']^, HO H Bi> Aoporfe noRasaxbCfl mohcho 6ujio. 
(PyccR. Apx. 1899 r. Jis 2 ct. 217). 

Stott* OTSHBi AaoTi ocHOBanie saKJiio^BTB, hto Bo6pHHCKift Ghjit* 
CKopie CRyn'B, neacejiH pacTO'^HTeJIeH^, b mto cjiiAOBaxe^bHO