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Cfte JLibtatg 

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CHnit3er0itp of iQortI) Catolina 

Collection ot jRotti) CaroUniana 
3o8n feptunt l^ill 

of ti)e eiai0)9 of 1889 



This booh must not 

he taken from the 

Library building. 



iniiuved try J W ^iteel for Uie Jackson Wreath 

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p-utlished hj Jacob Maas, Traxiklia liLol-ainiiQ" Office Ai'cade. 

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t£:5rT rOEITICAL SJgaLfil^LE. 


— ©a©— 



65, ARCADE. 

"William W. Weelis, Printer. 



In offering to the patronage of the people of the 
United States, the present work, intended as a tri- 
bute to the personal virtues and public services of 
the distinguished individual whom they have just 
chosen to fill the highest office in their government, 
the publisher flatters himself that he performs a 
service which will obtain their approbation and 
support. To encourage the arts when they are 
employed in doing honour to those who have done 
honour to their country, cannot be unworthy of a 
patriotic and cultivated people. In the effort 
now made to form a wreath consecrated to the 
name of the illustrious jackson, the publisher 
has been impelled by his feelings, as well as by a 
conviction of what was due to the task he had 
imdertaken, to regard neither trouble nor expense 
in its accomplishment. That among our nu- 


merous living worthies, one could have been 
selected more capable of exciting the enthusiasm 
of an American Artist, more deserving of be- 
ing celebrated by American skill or industry, or 
the celebration of whom w^ould be more grateful 
to the ximerican people, it is believed that few 
will assert. Conscious of his incapacity to do 
this magnificent subject entire justice, the pub- 
lisher submits it with much diffidence and anxi- 
ety, to the patriotism of the nation, entreating 
those who may be inclined to undervalue his 
performance, to permit his motives for underta- 
king it, to mitigate the severity of their censures; 
and to remember that, although neither his de- 
sign nor its execution may have received that 
high finish of splendid perfection of which it is 
susceptible, it required both zeal and persever- 
ance to make it what it is. That it is not totally 
unworthy of its subject and of the public sup- 
port, it is a satisfaction to know that many indi- 
viduals distinguished for fine taste and accurate 
judgment, have already pronounced ; and it is 
fondly believed that to a very large majority of 
the American people, it will be acceptable from 


\he consideration that every tribute of this na- 
ture, paid to a public benefactor, is a public good, 
because it excites ardent and able minds to imi- 
tate the exalted worth and admired conduct by 
which it was earned. 


Phllad. Feb. 22, 1829. 



Advertisement iii. 

Biography of General Jackson, 

By RoBT. Walsh Jr. Esqr. - - 9 

Remarks of the Publisher - - - - 56 

Continuation of the Biography, 

By Dr. James M^Henry - - - 57 

A Dirge, to the Memory of Mrs. Jackson, ibid. 84 

Description of the Capitol at Washington 97 


1st Portrait of Andrew Jackson. 

2d Engraved Title Page. 

3d The Golden Wreath. 

4th The Battle af New Orleans. 

5th The Hermitage. 

6th The Capitol. 

7th Jackson Grand March and Quick Step- 

8th Map of the United States. 


. ^ 




With the exception of the name of the transcendent 
Washington, the annals of the United States, as yet, afford 
none possessed of so much eclat as that of Andrew Jack- 
son. Considering this, together with the real magnitude 
and variety of his public services, it is surprising that the 
story of his life should not be more universally known. 
At the present time, his character and achievements 
derive peculiar interest from the important relation in 
which he stands to the American people, as their Chief 
Magistrate. Down to the termination of the siege of New 
Orleans, the most brilliant era of his career— we have abun- 
dant materials for a correct notice of him, in a volume en- 
titled, the life of Andrew Jackson, and published in 1817, 
by an officer, who enjoyed the advantage of being near his 
person during his campaigns. Authentic documents ex- 
tant in newspapers and Journals, enable us to continue 
the outline to the present time ; and with regard to perso- 
nal qualities and manners, he is so well and widely known 
in social circles, that a faithful representation is almost 



inevitable. We shall confine ourselves to a plain recital, 
not more circumstantial than may be necessary for our 
principal design. 

Andrew Jackson is of Irish parentage. His father 
and mother emigrated to South Carolina, in the year 1765, 
with two sons, both j^oung, and purchased a tract of land, 
on which they settled, in what was then called the Waxaw 
settlement, about forty-five miles above Camden. Here 
was born, on the 15th March, in the year 1767, Andrew, 
the subject of the present sketch. His father died soon 
after, leaving the three children to be provided for by the 
mother, a woman who would seem to have possessed 
excellent feelings and considerable strength of mind. 
The scantiness of their patrimony allowed only one of 
them to be liberally educated ; and this was Andrew, 
whom she destined for the sacred ministry. He was sent 
to a flourishing academy in the settlement, where he re- 
mained, occupied with the dead languages, until the revo- 
lutionary war brought an enemy into his neighbourhood, 
whose approach left no alternative but the choice of the 
British or American banners. The intrepid and ardent 
boy, encouraged by his patriotic mother, hastened, at the 
age of fourteen, in compan}^ with one of his brothers, to 
the American camp, and enlisted in the service of his 
country. The eldest of the three, had already lost his 
life in the same service, at the battle of Stono. The 
survivors, Andrew and Robert, having been suffered to 
attend the country drill and general musters, were not 
unacquainted with the manual exercise and field evolu- 

After retiring into North Carolina, before the British 
army, with their corps, they returned to Waxaw settle- 
ment, and found themselves suddenly engaged with a su- 


perior British force, who surprised a gallant band of lorty 
patriots, to which they belonged, routed it and took ele- 
ven prisoners. Andrew Jackson and his brother escaped 
from the field, after fighting bravely ; but, having enter- 
ed a house, next day, in order to procure food, they fell 
into the hands of a corps of British dragoons, and a party 
of tories, that were marauding together. Andrew, when 
under guard, was ordered by a British officer, in a haugh- 
ty manner, to clean his boots ; the youth peremptorily 
refused to do so, claiming, with firmness, the treatment 
due to a prisoner of war. The officer aimed a blow at 
his head witli a sabre, which would have proved fatal, 
had he not parried it with his left hand, on which he re- 
ceived a severe wound. His brother, at the same time, 
and for a similar offence, received a gash on the head, 
which afterwards occasioned his death. Thus, did his 
only relatives, two of this estimable family, perish in the 
spring of life, martyrs to their patriotic and courageous 
spirit. Andrew and his companion were consigned to 
jail, in separate apartments, and treated with the utmost 
harshness ; until, through the exertions of their fond mo- 
ther, they were exchanged, a few days after the battle. 
This worthy woman, worn down by grief, and the fa- 
tigues she had undergone in seeking clothes and other 
comforts for all the prisoners who had been taken from 
her neighbourhood, expired in the course of the following 
month, in the vicinity of Charleston. At the period of 
this melancholy loss, Andrew was languishing under 
sickness, the consequence of his sufferings in prison, and 
his exposure to inclement weather on his return home. 
The small pox supervened, and nearly terminated his sor- 
rows and his life. But a constitution originally good, and 
a vigorous tone of mind, enabled him to survive this com- 


plication of ills. He recovered, and entered upon the 
enjoyment of his patrimony, which, though it might have 
been sufficient for the completion of his education, with 
judicious management, soon dwindled to very little in hands 
unused to such a cliarge. He returned to his classical 
studies, as a means of future subsistence, with increased 
industry ; and, at the age of eighteen, in the winter of 
1784, repaired to Salisbury, in North Carolina, to a law- 
yer's office, in which he prepared himself for the bar. 
In the winter of 1786, he obtained a licence to practice, 
but finding this theatre unfavourable for advancement, he 
emigrated to Nashville in 1788, and there fixed his resi- 
dence. Success attended his industry and talents ; he ac- 
quired a lucrative business in the courts, and ere long 
was appointed attorney-general for the district ; in which 
capacity he continued to act for several years. 

Tennessee being at that time exposed, even in the heart 
of the settlements, to the incursions of the Indians, he be- 
came like all around him, a soldier, and one whose activi- 
ty and resolution soon made him as conspicuous as he was 
useful. The progress which he made in public estima- 
tion, by his abilities and services, is marked b}^ his elec- 
tion, in 1796, to the Convention assembled to frame a 
constitution for the state. In this body he acquired addi- 
tional distinction, which placed him, the same year, in 
Congress, in the House of Representatives, and the fol- 
lowing year, in the Senate of the United States. He 
acted invariably with the Republican party in the Nation- 
al Legislature, but grew tired of an unavailing struggle 
in a small minority, and of a scene of discussion and in- 
trigue for which he did not deem himself as well fitted 
as the successor, for whose sake, no less than for his own 
gratification, he resigned his post in 1799. We have 


heard some gentlemen who were members of Congress 
during the lime he remained in it, remark that he was 
generally esteemed for the soundness of his understand- 
ing, and the moderation ot his demeanour. Though sted- 
fast and earnest as a party politician, he manifested neither 
violence nor illiberality. While a senator, he was cho- 
sen by the field officers of the Tennessee militia, without 
consultation with him, major-general of their division, and 
so remained until 1814, when he took the same rank in 
the service of the United States. On his resignation as 
senator, he was appointed one of the judges of the supreme 
court of Tennessee. He accepted this appointment with 
reluctance, and withdrew from the bench as soon as pos- 
sible, with the determination to spend the rest of his life 
in tranquility and seclusion, on a beautiful farm belonging 
to him, and lying on the Cumberland river about ten 
miles from Nashville. In this retreat he passed several 
years, happy in the indulgence of his fondness for rural 
occupations, and in the society of an affectionate wife and 
a number of honest friends. His quiet felicity was, how- 
ever, broken up by the occurrence of the war with Great 
Britain. It roused his martial and patriotic temper ; and 
when the acts of Congress (of the 6th February, and 
July 1812) which authorize the President to accept the 
services of fifty thousand volunteers, were promulgated, 
Jackson published an energetic address to the militia of 
his division, drew two thousand five hundred of them to 
his standard, and tendered them without delay to the federal 
government. In November, he received orders to de- 
scend the Mississippi, for the defence of the lower coun- 
try, which was then thought to be in danger. In Janua- 
ry, in a very inclement season, he conducted his troops 
as far as Natchez, where he was instructed to remain un- 


til otherwise directed. Here he employed himself indcfa- 
tigably, in training and preparing them for service. But, 
the danger which was meant to be repelled, having ceased 
to exist, in the opinion of the secretary of war, he re- 
ceived instructions, from the latter, to dismiss, at once, 
from service, those under his command. The number of 
sick in his camp was great, and they were destitute of the 
means of defraying the expenses of their return home : 
The rest of his troops, from the same dearth of resources, 
must have enlisted in the regular army, under General 
Wilkinson. Jackson felt himself responsible for the resto- 
ration of them to their families and friends, and, there- 
fore, resolved to disobey the orders of the department of 
war, whose head could not be acquainted with the cir- 
cumstances of the case. He retained as much of the pub- 
lic property in his possession, as was necessary to his 
purpose of marching them back. Wilkinson remonstra- 
ted and admonished in vain. Jackson replied that he 
would bear all the responsibility — he refused to allow 
Wilkinson's officers, when commissioned, to recruit from 
his army ; seized upon thew^aggons required for the tran- 
sportation of his sick, and set out with the whole of his 
force. He gave up his own horses to the infirm, and shared 
in all the hardships of the soldiers in a long and arduous 
march. It was at a time of the year w^Iien the roads and 
the swamps, to be trodden, were in the worst condition. 
His example silenced all complaint, and endeared him the 
more to his companions. On his arrival at Nashville he 
communicated to the President of the United States what 
he had done, and the reasons by which he had been guid- 
ed. His conduct was approved of at Washington, and 
the expenses, whicli he had incurred, directed to be ])aid. 
\W h;ivc mentioned liiis allair pai'ticulnrlvj because it is 


the most remarkable among the first instances in his his- 
tory, of that lofty independence in judgment and action, 
and that disdain of consequences in the discharge of a pa- 
ramount duty, which have since signalized his career both 
military and civil. 

We have now reached what may be called the second 
principal era of his life. 

The British and the celebrated Tecumseh had stirred up 
the Creek nation of Indians, parties of whom made irruj)- 
tions into the state of Tennessee, committing the most 
barbarous outrages upon defenceless and insulated families. 
Having obtained a supply of ammunition from the Span- 
iards, at Pensacola, a band of six or seven hundred war- 
riors assaulted Fort Miiiims, situated in the Tensaw set- 
tlement, in the Mississippi Territory, succeeded in car- 
rying it, and butchered nearly all its inmates ; three hun- 
dred persons, including women and children. Only se- 
venteen of the whole number escaped to spread intelli- 
gence of the dreadful catastrophe. The news produced 
the strongest sensation in Tennessee ; and all eyes were, 
at once, turned to Jackson as the leader of the force which 
must be sent forth to overtake and punish the miscreants. 
He was, at this time, confined to his chamber with a frac- 
tured arm and a wound in the breast, injuries received in 
a private rencontre. It was resolved by the legislature to 
call into service thirty-five hundred of the militia, to be 
marched into the heart of the Creek nation, conformably 
to the advice of Jackson, who, notwithstanding the bodily 
ills under which he laboured, readily undertook the chief 
command in the expedition. He issued an eloquent and 
nervous address to the troops, on the day of the rendez- 
vous, in wliich he told them, among other things— ^'We 
must and will be victorious — we must conquer as men 


wlio owe nothing to chance ; and, who, in the midst of 
victory, can still be mindful of what is due to humanity." 
On the 7th October, 1813, he reache<l the encampment, 
although his health was far from beina; restored. It would 
require too much space to follow him in all the move- 
ments of a campaign, in which he appears as a most skil- 
ful commander, vigilant disciplinarian, and dauntless sol- 
dier. He had to contend not only with a formidable ene- 
my, but with raw and mutinous followers and the severest 
personal hardships. The most fatiguing and prolonged 
marches over mountains and through morasses ; the fre- 
quent and almost total want of food of any kind ; the fail- 
ure of contractors ; the inefficiency or defection of high- 
er officers, and a protracted and perilous absence from 
home, extenuate the occasional despondency and disobe- 
dience of the privates of his division. Under the worst 
circumstances, he displayed the utmost resolution and for- 
titude, and by his inflexible spirit and tone of perseve- 
rance, he brought the enterprise to the most satisfactory 

The first battle which he fought, in person, on this oc- 
casion, was that of Talladega, a fort of friendly Chero- 
kee Indians, distant about thirty miles below Fort Stro- 
ther, on the north bank of the river Coosa. The Creeks 
were posted within a quarter of a mile of Fort Talladega, 
in considerable force. At seven o'clock in the morning, 
Jackson's columns wxre displayed in order of battle. At 
about eight, his advance having arrived within eighty 
yards of the enemy, received a heavy fire, which they in- 
stantly returned, and the engagement soon became gene- 
ral. In fifteen minutes the Creeks were seen flying in 
every direction, and were pursued until the)' reached the 
mountains, at the distance of three miles. Their numbers 


amounted to one thousand and eighty, of whom two hun- 
dred and ninety-nine were left dead on the ground. Their 
whole loss, in the engagement and retreat, as since stated 
by themselves, was not less than six hundred. On the 
side of the Americans, fifteen were killed and eighty 
wounded ; and several of the latter soon died. The fort 
w^as full of friendly Indians, w^ho had been besieged for 
several days, and would have been all massacred, but for 
the arrival and victory of General Jackson. Want of pro- 
visions compelled him to hasten back, after collecting his 
dead and wounded, to Fort Strother. He particularly la- 
mented the necessity of this step, as it gave the enemy 
time to recover from their consternation and recruit their 

At Fort Strother, no stores were found by the famish- 
ed army on their return, owing to the delinquency of the 
contractors. Jackson distributed all his own supplies to 
the suffering soldiers — tripes constituted his sole food for 
several days. Scarcity engendered discontent and revolt 
in the camp. The officers and soldiers of the militia de- 
termined to abandon the service. On the morning when 
they were to carry their intention into effect. General Jack- 
son drew up the volunteer companies in front of them, 
with a mandate to prevent their progress — they had not 
courage to advance. They returned to their quarters, 
but, on the following day, the very volunteers who had 
been so employed, mutinied in their turn and designed to 
move off in a body. Their surprise was not slight, when, 
on attempting this, they found the same men whom they 
had intercepted the day before, occupying the very posi- 
tion which they had done, for a similar purpose. The 
militia were glad to retaliate, and the result was the same. 
Jackson was obliged however, to withdraw with the troops 



from Fort Strother, towards Fort Deposit, upon the con- 
dition, tliat if they met supplies, which were expected, 
they would return and prosecute the campaign. They 
had not proceeded more than ten or twelve miles before 
they met one hundred and fifty beeves ; but their faces 
being once turned homewards, they resisted his order to 
march back to the encampment. The scene which ensued 
is characteristic as to his firmness and decision. A whole 
brigade had put itself in an attitude for moving off forci- 
bly. Jackson was still without the use of his left arm ; 
seizing a musket, and resting it with his right on the neck 
of his horse, he threw himself in front of the column and 
threatened to shoot the first man who should attempt to 
advance. Major Reid, his aid-de-camp, and General Cof- 
fee placed themselves by his side. For several minutes 
the column preserved a menacing attitude, yet hesitated 
to proceed. In the mean time, those who remained faith- 
ful to their duty, amounting to about two companies, 
were collected, and formed at a short distance in advance 
of the troops, with positive directions to imitate the exam- 
ple of the general, if the mutineers persisted. These, 
when no individual appeared bold enough to press on- 
w\ard, at length wavered, and then soon turned quietly 
round and agreed to submit. It was a critical instant ; 
but for the firmness of Jackson, the campaign would have 
been broken up, and there was no likelihood of its being 

A third considerable mutiny which happened not long 
after, was suppressed by personal efforts of the same kind. 
The appeals which he made to his troops at these periods, 
are elevated and glowing compositions. The governor 
of Tennessee transmitted to him advice to desist from the 
further prosecution of the campaign, on account of his 


manifold einhorrassnicnts and inadequate means. Jackson 
replied to him, repellinLi; liis su«2;gestion, and urging him 
to lend assistance to sustain the honour of Tennessee, and 
protect the frontiers from thousands of exasperated savages. 
This wise and urgent remonstrance finally procured for 
him reinforcements ; or ratlier, suhstitutcs for the compa- 
nies, which he deemed it advisahle to dismiss in conse- 
quence of their disaffection. 

Once more, in the middle of January, 1814, he was on 
his march, bending his course to a part of the Tallapoosa 
river, near the mouth of a creek called Emuckfaw. On 
the 21st, he discovered that he was in the neighbourhood 
of the enemy. About midnight his spies came in and re- 
reported that they had discovered a large encampment of 
Indians, at about three miles distance, who, from their 
whooping and dancing, were, no doubt, apprised of his 
arrival upon the eminences of Emuckfaw. At the dawn of 
day the alarm guns of the sentinels, and the shrieks and 
savage yells of the enemy announced an assault. The 
action raged for an half hour, when the Indians were put 
to the rout. General Coffee, with four hundred men, was 
detached to destroy the enemy's encampment. He found 
it too strong to be assailed with that force, and had scarce- 
ly returned, when the savages renewed their attack w^ith 
increased numbers and the greatest impetuosity. The 
whole day was spent in severe fighting, attended by the 
destruction of a multitude of the assailants. They were 
quiet during the night ; but, Jackson perceiving that his 
provisions were growing scarce and that his wounded re- 
quired immediate care, determined on the next day to re- 
trace his steps. The retreat began at ten o'clock, and 
was continued, without interruption, until night, when 
the army was encamped a quarter of a mile on the south 


side of Enotichopco creek, in the direction of the ford by 
wliich they had uh-cady passed. The next day, after the 
front guard and part of the cokimns had crossed, the ene- 
my, who had been in pursuit, rushed from coverts upon 
the rear and threw the guard into confusion. Jackson 
was just passing the stream when the firing and yelling 
commenced. He repaired instantaneously to the place of 
action ; formed the columns anew, and put them in mo- 
tion, in the midst of showers of balls. The savages, being 
warmly pressed in turn, broke and fled ; and, in a chase 
of two miles, were entirely dispersed. At one moment, 
the distruction of the whole Tennessee band appeared al- 
most inevitable. 

The total loss on the American side in the several en- 
gagements which we have just mentioned, was only twen- 
ty killed and seventy-five wounded. The lifeless bodies 
of one hundred and ninety-nine of the enemy's warriors 
were found : the number of their wounded could not be 
conjectured. On the night of the 26th, Jackson encamp- 
ed within three miles of Fort Strother ; having accom- 
plished the several objects of this perilous expedition ; 
which were, a diversion in favour of General Floyd, who 
was advancing with the army from Georgia ; the preven- 
tion of a meditated attack upon Fort Armstrong by the 
savage bands, a considerable part of whom he either de- 
stroyed or dispersed ; and the counteraction of discontent 
in his ranks, for which activity and battle were the best 

In February, he discharged the volunteers and his ar- 
tillery company, receiving in their stead fresh militia draf- 
ted for the occasion. One private of these he caused to 
be executed for mutiny, before the end of the month — an 
example of severity which had the happiest effect in re- 


gard to general subordination. He suffered again, in an 
extreme degree, from the scarcity of provisions ; but ha- 
ving at last, by constant exertions, removed this obstacle 
to his plan of penetrating further into the enemy's coun- 
try, he set out on the 16th of March from Fort Strother, 
and halted on the 21st at the mouth of Cedar Creek. 
Here, learning that the savages were still embodied, and 
very strongly posted not far from New Youcka on the 
Tallapoosa, he resolved to march upon them, as soon as 
the proper arrangements could be made for preserving his 
rear in safety. 

On the 24th he proceeded with his whole force, which 
was less than three thousand effective men, and in the 
morning of the 27th, after a march of fifty three miles, 
reached the village of Tohopeka. The enemy having 
gained intelligence of his approach, collected in consider- 
able numbers with a view to give him battle. Their po- 
sition was admirably calculated for defence. Surrounded 
almost entirely by the river, it was accessible only by a 
narrow neck of land, of 350 yards in Vv^idth, which they 
had taken much pains to secure and defend by placing 
large timbers and trunks of trees horizontally on each 
other, leaving but a single place of entrance. From a dou- 
ble row of port holes formed in it, they were enabled to 
direct their fire with a sure aim, while they appeared to 
be secure behind. 

We need not follow out the details of this brilliant af- 
fair, so wxll known by the name of the battle of the To- 
hopeka or Horse Shoe. The contest was obstinate and 
bloody. Jackson's troops finally scaled the ramparts of 
the savages, who, disdaining to surrender, leaped down 
the banks of the river, when they could no longer defend 
themselves from behind the timber and brush. The car- 


nage continued until night separated the coin])atmits. The 
general result was, the destruction of the bravest of the 
Indian warriors and the ruin of their cause. Five hun- 
dred and fifty-seven of them were left dead on the penin- 
sula. A multitude perished in the river. Three hundred 
women and children were taken prisoners, and treated 
with humanity. The loss of the victors, including the 
friendly Indians, was fifty-five killed and one hundred 
and forty-six wounded : among the former were some 
gallant officers. 

Having thus struck a decisive blow, Jackson returned 
with his wounded, to Fort Williams. On the 2d of April, 
he published an address to his armj^, in which he compli- 
mented their courage and conduct, but told them, that 
more remained to be done. Understanding that the ene- 
my was yet strong at Horthlewalee, a town situated not 
far from the Hickory ground, or that part of the Creek 
country lying in the forks near the junction of the Coosa 
and Tallapoosa, he was anxious to resume operation as 
soon as possible, and unite with the North Carolina and 
Georgia troops, who were announced to be at no great 
distance, somewhere south of the Tallapoosa. On the 9th 
of April, he was on his march, with all his disposable force 
but did not reach Horthlewalee until the 13th, owing to 
heavy rains which had swollen the streams that were to 
be crossed. The delay afforded an opportunity to the 
savages to escape by flight from their pursuer, who soon 
afterwards effected his junction with the Georgia detach- 
ment. At the Hickory ground, the principal chiefs of 
the hostile tribes vsued for peace — tl\ose who rejected this 
measure, had sought refuge along the coast and in Pensa- 
cola. Jackson prescribed to those who were disposed to 
renew their friendlv lelations with the United Ststes, that 


they sliould retire and occupy the country about Fort 
Williams and to the east of the Coosa ; a condition which 
was readily accepted, and which put it out of their power 
to renew hostilities with advantage at any time. Strong 
parties of militia were sent out to range the country and 
receive the submission of the natives. Much of the pro- 
perty plundered by them at Fort Mimms and along the 
frontiers was brought in and delivered up. All resistance 
being at an end, and their being no longer any necessity 
for maintaining an army in the field, orders wxre issued 
on the 21st of April, for the Tennessee troops to be march- 
ed home and discharged. 

Such is the mere outline of the famous Creek war, in 
which Jackson, by the celerity of his movements, the in- 
flexibility of his will, and the confidence with which his 
genius and demeanor inspired his associates, accomplish- 
ed as much v/ithin a few months as could be thought pos- 
sible, consistently with the nature and number of his 

The complete and final discomfiture of so formidable a 
foe as this confederacy of Indians, drew the attention of the 
general government to the Tennessee commander, and 
produced a speedy manifestation of the respect entertained 
for his services and character, in his appointment as brig- 
adier and brevet IMajor-general in the regular army. A 
commission of Major-general was forwarded to him in 
Ma}^, 1814. The government deemed it advisable to en- 
ter into a treaty with the vanquished Indians, for the pur- 
pose chiefly, of restricting their limits so as to cut ofi* 
their communication w^ith the British and Spanish agents. 
General Jackson was deputed with colonel Hawkins as 
commissioner to negotiate with the Creeks ; and on the 
10th of July, he reached Alabama on this errand, and by 


the 10th of August, accomplished an agreement, under 
which the Indians hound themselves to hold no commu- 
nication with the British or Spanish garrisons, or foreign 
emissaries, and conceded to the United States, the right 
of erecting military posts in their country. The contrac- 
tion and definition of their territorial limits were attended 
with considerable difficulty, but Jackson peremptorily and 
successfully insisted upon what he deemed necessary for 
the future sccurit}^ and permanent benefit of the United 

During this transaction, his mind was struck with the 
importance of depriving the fugitive and refractory sava- 
ges, of the aid and incitement which were administered 
to them in East Florida, and he at once urged on the 
President the propriety of attacking and dismantling 
Pensacola. He studied particularly, to obtain informa- 
tion of the designs which the British might have formed 
against the southern parts of the union. He already an- 
ticipated the attack on Neiv Orleans. He addressed, 
of his own accord, complaints to the Governor of Pensa- 
cola, and summoned him to deliver up the chiefs of the 
hostile Indians, who were harboured in the fortress. The 
Governor refused and recriminated. The American offi- 
cer whom Jackson despatched to Pensacola with his ex- 
postulations, reported, on his return, that he saw there 
nearly two hundred British officers and soldiers, and about 
five hundred Indians under the training of those officers, 
armed with new muskets, and dressed in the English 
uniform. Jackson repeated his instances with the govern- 
ment, to be allowed ^Ho plant the American Eagle" on 
the Spanish walls. He addressed the governors of Ten- 
nessee, Louisiana and the Mississippi territory, soliciting 
them to be vigilant and energetic, ^'^for dark and heavy 


clouds hovered over the seventh military district" He 
sent his adjutant-general, colonel Butler, 1o Tennessee, 
to raise volunteers, and himself repaired to Mobile to put 
that region in a state of defence. 

Towards the end of August, the noted colonel Nichols, 
with a small squadron of British ships, arrived at Pensa- 
cola, and at the expiration of a fortnight made an attack 
upon Fort Bowyer, situated at the extremity of a narrow 
neck of land, about eighteen miles below the head of Mo- 
bile Bay and commanding its entrance. Nichols was 
repulsed with the loss of his best ship, and two hundred 
and thirty men killed and wounded. This position had 
been wholly neglected before Jackson's arrival, who per- 
ceived at once its great importance, and lost no time in 
strengthening it to the utmost. The British assailants re- 
tired to Pensacola, to refit and prepare to make a descent 
on some less guarded point. 

Jackson became more and more persuaded, that unless 
Pensacola should be reduced, it would be in vain to think 
of defending his district. He was confirmed in the plan 
which he had for some time revolved, of advancino- against 
the Spanish town and throwing a force into the Barrancas, 
071 his oimi responsibility. Tn the last week of October, 
general Coffee arrived near Fort Stephens, with two thou- 
sand able bodied and well armed men from Tennessee. 
Jackson hastened to his camp, took up the line of march 
with the American army, consisting of Coffee's brigade, 
the regulars and some Indians ; in all about three thou- 
sand, and reached Pensacola on the 6th of November. 
The forts were garrisoned by the British and Spaniards, 
and prepared for resistance ; batteries were formed in the 
principal streets; and the British vessels were moored 
within tliP l)ay, and so disposed ns to command the prin- 


cipal entrance to the town. Jackson required that the 
different forts, Barrancas, St. Rose and St Michael, should 
be forthwith surrendered, to be garrisoned and held by 
the United States, until Spain should furnish a force suf- 
ficient to protect her neutrality from the British. On the 
refusal of the governor to accede to these terms, Jackson 
pushed his troops at once into the heart of the town, 
having adroitly taken a different direction from that in 
which he was expected to appear. The Spanish batte- 
ries in the streets were charged and mastered ; the Span- 
iards driven from their positions behind the houses and 
fences from which they were firing vollies of musketry ; 
and, after some carnage, the governor and his advisers re- 
duced to submission. Fort Barrancas was blown up by 
the British. 

Two days after entering the town, Jackson abandoned 
it, and returned to Fort Montgomery, being satisfied 
with having driven away the British, forced the hostile 
Creeks to fly to the forests, and produced a salutary im- 
pression on the minds of the Spaniards. In this expedi- 
tion, none of the Americans were killed, and about fifteen 
or twenty of them only wxre wounded. Soon after they 
had retired, the Spaniards began to rebuild Forts Barran- 
cas and Rose ; and the British officers, anxious to regain 
that confidence which they had fortfeited by the destruc- 
tion of them, offered to assist in their re-construction. 
The governor declined the offer, and answered further, 
that when assistance was in fact needed, he would apply 
to his friend General Jackson. 

Afterthe general had sent off a detatchment of one thou- 
sand men in pursuit of the Indian warriors who had as- 
sembled on the Appalachicola, with orders to destroy the 
depots of supplies, and Iheii^ villages on the rout, and when 


he had reason to believe that Mobile and the inhabitants 
on its borders, were rendered comparatively secure by 
his operations and arrangements, his chief desire was to 
depart for New Orleans, where he had foreseen the vital 
danger to be, and where he knew his presence to be most 
material. As soon as General Winchester, who had been 
ordered to join him, reached the Alabama, he left Mobile. 
On the first of December, he was in New Orleans, and 
there established his head-quarters. General Coffee and 
Colonel Hinds were ordered to march with tlieir com- 
mands, and take a position as convenient to New Orleans 
as should be compatible with the object of procuring fo- 
rage for the horses of the dragoons. 

Louisiana was ill supplied with arms : Its motley popu- 
lation, French and Spaniards, were not 3'et sufficiently 
fond of the American government to fight very desperate- 
ly in its defence. New Orleans was unprepared to with- 
stand an enemy, and contained but too many traitors or 
malcontents. Jackson was nearly disabled in body, Ijy 
sickness and fatigue — he expected a large and perfectly 
appointed British force — his only means of resistance were 
the few regulars about him, the Tennessee volunteers, and 
such troops as the state of Louisiana might itself raise. 
He maintained, however, a confident aspect, and a confi- 
dent tone. He summoned, at once, the governor and the 
citizens to exert themselves — he set them the example of 
unremitted activity and stern resolution. Volunteer com- 
panies were raised ; batteries were repaired or construct- 
ed, and gun-boats stationed on the most eligible points 
on the river. He roused the Legislature, who before had 
done little or nothing, to lend him their concurrence. 
His language to them was, ^^with energy and expedition, 
all is safe — delay further, and all is lost. • ' Commodore 


Palterson, \vlio cojiiiiiniKUMl the naval forces, executed 
every order with ahicrity and vigour. Certain informa- 
tion v^^as soon received that an English fleet was off Cat 
and Ship Island, within a short distance of the American 
lines. On the 14th of December, forty -three British boats, 
mounting as many cannon, with twelve hundred chosen 
men, well armed, attacked the American flotilla of five 
boats on Lake Borgne, and captured it, but not without a 
severe contest and heavy loss of men. This disaster afflict- 
ed, but did not dismay General Jackson. On the 16th 
he reviewed the militia, and harangued them with a con- 
tagious ardour of patriotism. 

Resistance on the lakes being at an end, the enemy was 
expected to advance without mucli further delay. Expres- 
ses were sent off in quest of General Coffee, to whom his 
commander wrote, <^ You must not sleep until you arrive 
within striking distance. Innumerable defiles present 
themselves where your riflemen will be all important." 
On the night of the 19th December, Coffee encamped, 
with eight hundred men, within fifteen miles of New 
Orleans ; having marched eighty miles the last day. In 
four days. Colonel Hinds, with the Mississippi dragoons, 
was at his post ; having efiected a march of two hundred 
and thirty miles in that period. 

Jackson was not long in discovering the truth of what 
had been communicated to him by the governor of Louis- 
iana, that "the country was filled with British spies and 
stij)endiaries." He suggested to the Legislature the pro- 
priety and necessity of suspending the privilege of habeas 
corpus, "\^'hile that assembly were deliberating slowly 
upon their power to adopt the measure, he proclaimed 
the city of New Orleans and its environs to be under 
mar Hal law, and established a most rigid military police. 


The crisis did not admit of any other system, consistently 
with the puhlic safety ; and happy it was that the com- 
mander did not want either sagacity or decision. When 
a judge of the United States' court determined to try the 
question of supremacy between the civil and military pow- 
er, he arrested the judge and ordered him to leave the 
city. *^ I must be brief, there is treason.'' On the 21st 
December, General Carroll reached General Coffee's en- 
campment four miles above the city, from Nashville, with 
two thousand Tennessee yeomanry. 

On the 22nd, the British were accidentally discovered 
emerging from the swamp and woods about seven miles 
below the town. In spite of all the precautions taken to 
guard the most dangerous avenues, treachery found out 
for the enemy a narrow pass. Bayou Bienvenu, through 
which they reached the bank of the Mississippi. On the 
23d, at one o'clock in the afternoon, positive information 
of their landing was brought to Jackson. He resolved to 
meet them that night. Generals Coffee and Carroll were 
ordered to join him, and arrived, in two hours, with their 
forces. As he was marching through the city, his ears 
were assailed with the screams of a multitude of females, 
who dreaded the worst consequences from the approach of 
the enemy. ^^ Say to them," exclaimed he to a gentle- 
man near him, " not to be alarmed ; the enemy shall ne- 
ver reach the city.''^ 

The number of the British was at first three thousand, 
and it was considerably increased during the night. The 
onset was made by the Americans about dusk. The bat- 
tle, complicated and fierce, continued for some time until 
both parties were thrown into confusion, owing to the 
darkness of the night and the nature of the ground. The 
enemy yielded the field for nearly a mile. The Ameri- 


can general, finding that they were constantly receiving 
reinforcements, resolved to draw off and renew the attack 
at dawn of day, after he had called for General Carroll 
and his division, who had been left behind. Carroll soon 
arrived, but as the numbers of the enemy were discovered 
to be augmented to six thousand, Jackson deemed it ex- 
pedient to forbear all offensive efforts, until the troops 
daily expected from Kentucky should reach their destina- 
tion. Accordingly, he fell back and formed his line be- 
hind a deep ditch that ran at right angles from the river. 
Tliis position was recommended by two circumstances : 
the swam.p, which skirted the river at various distances, 
approached here within four hundred yards of it, and 
hence from the narrowness of the pass, it was more easily 
to be defended : there was, too, a deep canal, and the dirt 
being thrown on the upper side, already constituted a to- 
lerable breast work. Behind this the American troops 
were formed with a determination to resist there to the 
last extremity. The portion of them who were actually 
engaged in the battle on the 23d, did not amount to two 
thousand men. Their loss was twenty-four killed, one 
hundred and fifteen wounded, and seventy-four made 
prisoners: the killed, wounded and prisoners of the ene- 
my were not less than four hundred. This action, for 
boldness of conception, and by the wisdom of the policy, 
and the importance of the result does infinite credit to the 
American leader. The British had believed that once 
landed, they should move forward to the easiest of con- 
quests over raw militia and untried regulars. They were 
arrested and disconcerted, and Jackson improved the in- 
terval of their hesitation and cautious preparation, to 
strengthen his works and organize the state militia who 
were arriving every day. The canal fronting the line 


was deepened and widened ; a strong wall of earth built, 
the levee cut almost a hundred yards below, embrasures 
pierced, &:c. Having made these and various other im- 
portant and judicious arrangements, and possessing, as he 
remarked ^^ a rampart of high minded and brave men," he 
felt and expressed a degree of confidence which animated 
even the recruits who were strangers to him and to every 
kind of military service. 

The enemy were abundantly active on their side though 
at first ignorant of his situation and designs. They brought 
up in the directions of their encampment, their artillery, 
bombs and ammunition. By means of a battery which 
they erected in the night of the 27th, they destroyed the 
American armed schooner Caroline, lying t^:ider the op- 
posite shore. Gathering hardihood from this circumstance, 
which in fact, deprived Jackson of a material aid, they 
left their encampment and moved towards the American 
lines. Their numbers had been increased and Sir Ediuar'd 
Packenham, their commander in chief, led them in per- 
son on the 28th Dec. to storm the works. Their heavy 
artillery discharged showers of bombs, balls, and rockets. 
These it was thought would ensure success ; and they 
were moving forward with all the pride and pomp of war 
when the American batteries opened and caused their ad- 
vance to halt. The conflict continued in several quarters 
until the assailants, being too roughly handled, abandon- 
ed for the time, the general attack which they had medi- 
tated. One hundred and twenty of them were killed and 
wounded ; the loss of the Americans did not exceed nine 
killed and eight or ten w^ounded. 

While Jackson and his comrades were thus bravely re- 
pelling the foe, a panic seized the Legislature at New 
Orleans. Apprized that it was secretly agitated to offer 


terms of capitulation, he directed the Governor to arrest 
the members and liold them subject to his further orders, 
the moment the project of surrendering should be fully 
disclosed. The Governor at once placed an armed force 
at the door of the capitol, prevented the members from 
convening, and thus stifled whatever schemes might have 
been proposed. Various and shrewd devices were practis- 
ed by Jackson to conceal from the enemy the comparative 
paucity of his force, and the miserable dearth of arms in 
his camp. From the general government no supply of 
arms and ordnance had been received, except one boat- 
load brought down the Mississippi by General Carroll. 

Skirmishes alone, by advanced parties, occurred for se- 
veral days af .er the attack of the 28th of December. The 
British were encamped two miles below the American 
army, on a perfect plain, and in full view. In the inter- 
val between the period just mentioned, and the 1st, of 
January, they were busy in preparing for another assault 
on an enlarged scale. An impenetrable fog prevailed du- 
ring the night of the 31st, and until nine o'clock of the 
following morning: when that was dispelled, there stood 
disclosed to the Americans, several heavy batteries, at the 
distance of six hundred yards,mounting eighteen and twen- 
ty-four pound carronades. Tliese were immediately open- 
ed by the British, and a tremendous discharge of artiller}^, 
accompanied by Congreve rockets, was maintained until 
near noon. A vast number of balls w^ere directed against 
the building in which Jackson was believed to be. It was 
battered into a lieap of ruins, but the general, according 
to his custom, had repaired to the line as soon as he heard 
the sound of the enemy's cannon. The roar of the Ame- 
rican guns proved that there would l)e a vigorous defence ; 
and with such effect were they manngcd, that the British 


batteries were disabled, and the assailants compelled to re- 
tire, by three o'clock, despairing of a breach in the line, 
and astonished at the precision with which the '' Yankees" 
threw their shot. An advance was made upon General 
Coifee's brigade, in order to turn the left, but with no bet- 
ter success. To be prepared against all contingencies Jack- 
son had established another line of defence about two 
miles in the rear, and where his unarmed troops (no in- 
considerable number) were stationed, as a show of strength. 

On the 4th of January, arrived the long-expected rein- 
forcement from Kentucky, amounting to two thousand two 
hundred and fifty men, of whom about five hundred had 
muskets, and the rest guns, from which little or no ser- 
vice could be anticipated. New Orleans had been previ- 
ously searched for weapons and stripped of whatever were 
discovered. The British were at the same time reinforced 
in a much more satisfactory way for them. Now ap- 
proached the great and last struggle. General Jackson, 
unmoved by appearances, anxiously desired it — he sel- 
dom slept— he was always at his post, that there might be 
no relaxation of vigilance on any side. 

On the memorable 8th of January, the signals, in- 
tended to produce concert in the enemy's movements, 
were descried at dawn. They were prepared to storm the 
line, and the charge was made with so much celerity that 
the American soldiers at the outposts had scarcely time to 
fly in. Showers of bombs and balls were poured from new 
batteries. The two British divisions, commanded by Sir 
Edward Packenham in person, pressed forward. A thick 
fog enabled them to approach within a short distance of 
the intrenchments before they were discovered : but this 
circumstance insured them defeat and destruction. The 
Americnn artillery and small arm^. discharged in a ron- 


tinued volley, mowed down their works and arrested their 
progress. The fatal aim of the western marksmen was 
never so terribly exemplified. Sir Edward Packenham, 
seeing that his troops wavered and receded, hastened to 
the front, but quickly fell, mortally w^ounded, in the arms 
of his aid-de-camp. Generals Gibbs and Keene were also 
dangerously hurt and borne from the field, which by this 
time was strewed with dead and dying. The British co- 
lumns, often broken and driven back, were repeatedly 
formed and urged forward anew. Convinced at last that 
nothing could be accomplished, they abandoned the con- 
test, and a general and disorderly retreat ensued. One 
American redoubt was carried by superior numbers, but 
quickly evacuated under the fire of the riflemen at the line. 
So great was the carnage of the British ; so perilous the 
disorder into \vhich they were thrown, that had arms 
been possessed by that large portion of the American mi- 
litia who had remained inactive and useless for the want of 
them, the whole British force 7?iifst have surrendered. 
But, under the peculiar circumstances of the case, Jack- 
son was unable to attempt, without extreme rashness, a 
pursuit of the vanquished. He adopted the safe alternative 
of continuing in his position. 

Accordingly to General Lambert's official report of the 
affair of the 8th, the British loss, in the main attack on the 
left bank of the river, amounted to upwards of two thou- 
sand men, in killed, wounded, and prisoners. It may be' 
estimated at nearly three thousand, while that of the Ame- 
ricans was hut thirteeji. The effective force of the latter 
at the line on the left bank, was three thousand seven hun- 
dred — that of the enemy at least nine thousand. The 
whole force landed from the British ships in Louisiana is 
believed to have been about fourteen thousand. The Bri- 



tish Commander in Chief and Major General Gibbs died of 
their wounds, besides many of the most valued and dis- 
tinguished British officers. On the ninth the enemy re- 
quested and obtained an armistice of some hours to bury 
their dead. 

After the action of the 8th the American batteries were 
continually throwing balls, and bombs, into the British 
camp. Harassed, dismayed and enfeebled, tliat once 
powerful army which was to arrive at New Orleans by a 
primrose path, and hold in subjection all the lower region 
of the INIississippi, took a final and furtive leave in the 
night of the 18th of January, and embarked in their ship- 
ping for the West Indies. Thus ended the mighty inva- 
sion, in twenty-six days after the foreign standard had 
been exultingly planted on the bank of the Mississippi. 
Thus triumphed General Jackson by a wonderful com- 
bination of boldness and prudence ; energy and adroitness ; 
desperate fortitude and anxious patriotism. 

Though the enemy had withdrawn from New Orleans 
in the manner which has been stated, Jackson could not 
be sure that they would not return. Against this contin- 
gency, he prepared himself by cautious arrangements in 
the distribution of his force, and the construction of new 
defences at assailable points, before he returned to New 
Orleans. In that city he was received as a deliverer — al- 
most every mind was kindled to enthusiasm from the 
considerations of the evils which he had averted, as well 
as of the victories which he had gained. The most so- 
lemn and lively demonstration of public respect and gra- 
titude succeeded each other daily, until the period of his 
departure for Nashville soon after the annunciation of the 
peace concluded at Ghent between Great Britain and the 
United States. Though honoured and cherished by the 


larger part of the citizens, he was not, however without 
occasion to display the energy and decision of his charac- 
ter in a wa)^ that favoured the ends of jealousy and detrac- 
tion. Anonymous articles calculated to excite mutiny 
among the troops and afford the enemy dangerous intelli- 
gence, having appeared in one of the newspapers of New 
Orleans, he caused the author of it to be revealed to him 
by the editor of the paper. He found that the offender 
was u member of the Legislature, but this circumstance 
did not prevent him from ordering his arrest and deten- 
tion for trial. Application was made to one of the Judges 
for a writ of Habeas Corpus and it was immediately issued. 
We have already mentioned that Jackson arrested the 
Judge also and sent him from the city. We now advert 
again to this incident, in order to relate the sequel. The 
General had not yet raised the edict of martial law, there 
being no certain intelligence of peace or of the departure 
of the enemy from the coast. Within a few days the ces- 
sation of hostilities was officially announced. The judge 
was restored to his post and the exercise of his functions. 
Without the loss of time a rule of court was granted for 
general Jackson to appear and shew cause why an attach- 
ment for contempt should not issue, on the ground that he 
had refused to obey a wTit and imprisoned the organ of 
the law. He did not hesitate to appear and submit a full 
and very able answer, justifying his proceedings. After 
argument before the Court, the rule was made absolute ; 
an attachment sued out, and Jackson brought up to answer, 
interrogatories. He declined answering them ; but asked 
for the sentence, which the Judge then proceeded to pass. 
It was a Jine of one thousand dollars. The spectators 
who crowded the hall betrayed the strongest indignation. 
As soon as he entered his carriage, it was siezed by the 


people and drawn by them to the coffee-house, amid the 
acclamations of a large concourse. When he arrived at 
his quarters, he put the amount of his fine into the hands 
of his aid-de-camp, and caused it to be discharged without 
delay. He was scarcely beforehand' with the citizens, 
who in a short time raised the sum among themselves, by 
contribution, and were anxious to be permitted to testify 
at once their gratitude and shame. What was thus col- 
lected was appropriated at his request to a charitable in- 
stitution. He enjoyed the consciousness that the powers 
which the exigency of the times forced him to assume, 
had been exercised exclusively for the public good, and 
that they had saved the country. In 1821, the Corpora- 
tion of New Orleans voted fifty thousand dollars for 
erecting a marble statute appropriate to his military servi- 
ces. The same body gave also one thousand dollars for a 
portrait of him painted by Mr. Earle of Nashville. Thus, 
the miserable fine may be said to have been obliterated. 

On his return to Nashville — a journey of eight hundred 
miles — he saw on every side marks of exultation and de- 
light. It must be within the memory of most of our rea- 
ders, what was the sensation produced throughout the 
union by the tidings from New Orleans, and what the 
popular enthusiasm concerning the merits of *' Old Hic- 

For two years afterwards he remaihed on his farm, re- 
taining his rank in the army, but chiefly occupied with 
rural pleasures and labors. In this interval, the portion 
of the Seminoles who were driven into Florida, combin- 
ing with fugitive negroes from the adjoining States, and 
instigated by British adventurers whose objects were blood 
and rapine, became formidable in numbers and hardihood 
and began to execute schemes of robbery and vengeance 


against the Americans of the frontiers. It having been 
represented to the American government that murders 
had been committed on our defenceless citizens, General 
Gains, the acthig commander in the southern district, was 
ordered, in the summer of 1817, with a considerable force, 
to take a station near the borders for their protection. He 
was at first directed to keep within the territorial limits of 
the United States, and abstain from every attempt to cross 
the Florida line; but to demand of the Indians, the perpe- 
trators of the crimes thus committed, without involving the 
innocent, and without a general rupture with the deluded 
savages. Such murders having been known to have been 
committed, attended with aggravating circumstances of ra- 
pine and cruelty, Gen. Gains, in conformity with his or- 
ders, made the demand. The savages through the deceptive 
representations of foreign incendiaries, were led to believe 
the strength of the United States not sufficient to subdue 
them ; or, if their own forces were incompetent to sustain 
the conflict, they would receive assistance from the Brit- 
ish, The promises, made by unauthorised agents, were 
founded upon a pretence, that the United States had bound 
themselves, by a treaty of Ghent, to restore the lands 
which the Indians had ceded at Fort Jackson, previously 
to that treaty ; and that the British government would en- 
force its observance. Under this influence they not only 
refused to deliver the murderers, but repeated their mas- 
sacres whenever opportunity offered ; and, to evade the 
arm of justice, took refuge across the line, in Florida. In 
this state of aftairs in Nov. 1817, Lt. Scott, of the United 
States army, under Gen. Gains, with 47 persons, men, 
women, and children, in a boat, on the Appalachicola ri- 
ver, about a mile below the junction of the Flint and Co- 
hatahoochie, was supprised by an ambuscade of Indians, 


fired upon, and the whole detachment, killed and taken 
by the Indians, except six men, who escaped by flight. 
Those who were taken alive, were wantonly murdered by 
the ferocious savages, who seized the little children and 
dashed out their brains against the side of the boat, and 
butchered all the helpless females except one, who was 
afterwards retaken. Gen. Gains was not yet authorised 
to cross into Florida, to enforce a compliance with his de- 
mand for the delivery of the murderers, while the Indians 
were collecting in large numbers upon the line, which they 
seemed to think a perfect safeguard, and from which they 
continued their predatory excursions. A letter from the 
Secretary of War, of the 9th Dec. 1817, authorised Gen. 
Gains, in case this state of things should continue, and it 
should become impossible by any other means, to prevent 
their depredations, to exercise a sound discretion as to 
crossing the Florida line, in order to break up their estab- 
lishments ; and on the 16th of the same month, the Secre- 
tary of War, by letter, directed to Gen. Gaines, fully au- 
thorised him to cross the line, and attack the Indians with- 
in the Spanish territory, should they still refuse to make 
reparation for depredation already committed. 

Intelligence being received by the war department of 
the massacre of Lieutenant Scott and his companions, Gen- 
eral Jackson was directed, by letter of the 26th Decem- 
ber, 1817, to repair to Fort Scott, and take command of 
the forces in that quarter ; with authority, in case he should 
deem it necessary, to call upon the executives of the adja- 
cent states for additional force. He was referred to the 
previous orders given to General Gaines, and directed to 
concentrate his forces, and adopt '^ the measures necessa- 
ry to terminate a conflict which had been avoided from 
considerations of liumaiiilv, but wliich had now become 


indispensable, from the settled hostility of the savage en- 
emy." In January following, the Secretary of War, in a 
letter to General Gains, said, " The honour of the United 
States requires, that the war with the Seminoles should 
be terminated speedily, and with exemplary punishment 
for hostilities so unprovoked." Under these oMers, and 
in this critical state of affairs. General Jackson, having 
first collected Tennessee volunteers, with that zeal and 
promptness which have ever marked his career, repaired 
to the post assigned, and assumed the command. The 
necessity of crossing the line into Florida was no longer 
a subject of doubt. A large force of Indians and negroes 
had made that territory their refuge, and the Spanish au- 
thority was either too weak or too indifferent to restrain 
them ; and to comply with orders given him from the de- 
partment of war, he penetrated immediately into the Semi- 
nole towns, driving the enemy before him, and reduced 
them to ashes. In the council house of the king of the 
Mickasukians, more than 50 fresh scalps, and in an adja- 
cent house, upwards of 300 old scalps, of all ages and sex- 
es, were found ; and in the centre of the public square a 
red pole was erected, crowned with scalps, known by the 
hair to have belonged to the companions of Lieutenant 

To inflict merited punishment upon these barbarians, 
and to prevent a repetition of these massacres, by bring- 
ing the war to a vSpccdy and a successful termination, he 
pursued his march to St. Marks ; there he found, confor- 
mably to previous information that the Indians and ne- 
groes had demanded the surrender of the post to them ; 
and that the Spanish garrison, according to the comman- 
dant's own acknowledgement, was too weak to support 
it. He asrertninod also that the enein y had been supplied 


with the means of carrying on the war, from the comman- 
dant of tlie post; that foreign incendiaries, instigating the 
savages, had free communication with the fort ; councils 
of war were permitted by the commandant to be held by 
the chiefs and warriors within his own quarters ; the Spa- 
nish storehouses were appropriated to the use of the hostile 
party, and actually filled with goods belonging to them, 
and property, known to have been plundered from Ame- 
rican citizens, was purchased from them by the comman- 
dant, while he professed friendship to the United States. 
Gen. Jackson, therefore, had no hesitation to demand of 
the commandant of St. Marks, the surrender of that post, 
that it might be garrisoned with an American force, and, 
when the Spanish officer hesitated to deliver it, he enter- 
ed the fort by force, though without bloodshed, the enemy 
having fled, and the garrison being too weak to make op- 
position. Convinced of the necessity of rapid movements, 
in regard to the ultimate success of the expedition, he im- 
mediately marched his forces to Suwaney, seized upon the 
stores of the enemy and burnt their villages. 

A variety of circumstances convinced Gen. Jackson 
that the savages had commenced their war, and persisted 
in their barbarities ; under the influence of some foreign 
incendiaries more criminal than the uncivilized natives. 
Alexander Arhuthnot^ who avowed himself a British sub- 
ject and resided among the savages as an Indian trader, 
was taken at St. Marks, to which place he had withdrawn 
as danger approached, and was living as an inmate in the 
family of the commandant. It appearing that he had been 
a zealous advocate for the pretended rights of the savages, 
and in this respect the successor of the notorious Colonel 
Nichols, of the British Colonial Marines ; that he had re- 
peatedly written in their behalf 1o the Spanish Governoi; 



of St. Augustine, the Governor of Bahamas, the British 
minister in the United States, and to Colonel Nichols, en- 
deavouring to procure aid from both those governors against 
the United States ; that he had repeatedly advised the In- 
dians not to comply with the treaty of Fort Jackson, as- 
suring them that the lands ceded to the United States by 
them in 1814, were to be restored by virtue of the treaty 
of peace with Great Britain. Gen. Jackson ordered him 
to be tried by a Court of Enquiry, consisting of thirteen re- 
spectable officers, with General Gains, as president. Upon 
satisfactory testimony, he was convicted of inciting and 
stirring up the hostile Creeks to war against the United 
States and her citizens ; and of aiding, abetting, and com- 
forting the enemy, supplying them with the means of war; 
and by the Court was sentenced to he hung. — Robert C. 
Jimbrister^ late a Lieutenant of the British Marine corps, 
and with the hostile Indians and fugitive negroes the suc- 
cessor of Woodbine, of notorious memory, was taken near 
the mouth of Suwaney river. It being well known that 
he had been a leader and commander of the hostile In- 
dians and fugitive slaves, Gen. Jackson ordered him to be 
tried by the same Court Martial. Upon abundant evidence 
he also was convicted of having aided and comforted the 
enemy, supplying them with the means of war by giving 
them intelligence of the movements and operations of the 
army of the United States, and by sending the Indians 
and Negroes to meet and fight against them : and upon 
his own confession, as well as the clearest proof of his hav- 
ing led and commanded the lower Creeks in carrying on 
the war against the United States, he was by the Court 
sentenced to be shot. One of the members however re- 
quested a reconsideration of the sentence, it was agreed to; 
and on a revision, the Court sentenced him to receive 


fifty stripes on his bare back, and be confined with a ball 
and chain to hard labour for twelve calender months. Gen. 
Jackson approved the sentence in the case of Arbuthnot : 
and, in the case of Ambrister, he disapproved the reconsi- 
deration, and confirmed the first sentence. They were 
both executed accordingly. 

Having thus far efiected his objects, Gen. Jackson con- 
sidered the war at an end. St. Marks being garrisoned 
by an American force ; the Indian towns at Mickasuky 
and Suwaney destroyed ; the two Indian chiefs who had 
been the prime movers and leaders of the savages, one of 
whom had commanded the party that murdered Lieuten- 
ant Scott and his companions, and the two principal fo- 
reign instigators, Arbuthnot and Ambrister, having been 
taken and executed, the American commander ordered the 
Georgia militia, who had joined him, to be discharged, 
and was about to return himself to Tennessee. But he 
soon learned that the Indians and negroes were collecting 
in bands west of the Appalachicola ; which would render 
it necessary for him to send a detachment to scour the 
country in that quarter. While preparing for this object, 
he was informed that the Indians were admitted freely by 
the Governor of Pensacola ; that they were collecting in 
large numbers, 500 being in Pensacola on the 15th of 
April, many of whom were known to be hostile, and had 
just escaped from the pursuit of our troops : that the ene- 
my was furnished with ammunition and supplies, and re- 
ceived intelligence of the movements of our forces, from 
that place : that a number of them had sallied out and 
murdered eighteen of our citizens, settlers upon the Alaba- 
ma, and were immediately received by the Governor, and 
by him transported across the bay, that they might elude 


These facts being ascertained by Gen. Jackson from un- 
questionable authority, he immediately took up his line of 
march towards Pensacola, at the head of a detachment of 
about 1200 men, for the purpose of counteracting the views 
of the enemy. On the 18th of May, he crossed the Appa- 
lachicola at the Ocheese village, with the view of scour- 
ing the country west of that river j and, on the 23d of the 
same month, he received a communication from the Go- 
vernor of West Florida, protesting against his entrance 
into that province, commanding him to retire from it, and 
declaring that he would repel force by force, if he should 
not obey. This communication, together with other in- 
dications of hostility in the Governor, who had been well 
advised of the object of Gen. Jackson's operations, deter- 
mined the measures to be pursued. He marched directly 
to Pensacola, and took possession of that place the following 
day, the Governor having fled to Fort Carlos de Barran- 
cas ; which post, after a feeble resistance, was also sur- 
rendered, on the 2Sth. By these events, the Indians and 
fugitive negroes were effectually deprived of all possible 
means of continuing their depredations, or screening them- 
selves from the arm of justice. They were so scattered 
and reduced as to be no longer a formidable enemy ; but 
as there were still many small marauding parties supposed 
to be concealed in the swamps, who might make sudden 
and murderous inroads upon the American frontier set- 
tlers, Jackson called into service two companies of volun- 
teer rangers, with instructions to scour the country be- 
tween the Mobile and Appalichicola rivers. Thus ended 
the campaign and the Seminole war. The severest hard- 
ships were undergone by the troops and their general with 
the utmost fortitude. They did not encounter any con- 
siderable bands of the foe, though the latter had been em- 


bodied to the number of two thousand ; but the kind of 
warfare which they were compelled to wage was on that 
account the more exhausting and arduous. 

Jackson returned to Nashville in June, 1818, to the be- 
loved retirement of his farm. New acknowledgments 
and new marks of admiration were bestowed upon him in 
every part of the Union. If the general government 
deemed it expedient to restore St. Marks and Pensacola 
to the Spanish authorities, it yet applauded and defended 
what he had done. The British cabinet, after full inqui- 
ry, resolved to abstain from all complaint respecting the 
execution of Arbuthnot and Ambrister. They declared 
that these culprits had leagued with the Indians, and ac- 
ted at their own peril. The conduct of the Tennessee 
warrior w^as, however, destined to be most vehemently 
arraigned and rigidly scrutinized in another quarter. 
Parties were formed in different parts of the country res- 
pecting the propriety of the occupations of the Spanish 
fortresses, and the execution of the British incendiaries. 
In the month of January, 1818, in the House of Represen- 
tatives of the United States, a Committee reported a reso- 
lution disapproving the latter of those acts ; and a mem- 
ber moved another resolution, condemning the former of 
them. These resolutions gave rise to a most earnest and 
elaborate debate, which was protracted through many 
weeks, and in which Jackson and the Executive Depart- 
ment were attacked and defended with the utmost zeal and 
signal ability. Every proposition to condemn either was 
finally rejected by a considerable majority of the House, 
and reprobated by a much larger majority of the people. 
The most eloquent of the orators w^ho supported the reso- 
lutions, proclaimed that ^^he most cheerfully and entirely 
acquitted the General of any intention to violate the laws 


of his country, or the obligations of humanity.'* Who- 
ever studies Jackson's ample and argumentative despatch- 
es, and the speeches delivered in his behalf, must be con- 
vinced that he did neither, and that in making an exam- 
ple of the two instigators and confederates of the savages, 
and seizing upon fortresses, which were only used for 
hostile purposes, he avenged and served the cause of hu- 
manity and the highest national interests. 

His desire of explaining his transactions in person, to 
the government and defending himself on every side, 
carried him to Washington at this period. Thence he 
came to Philadelphia, and proceeded to New York. 
Wherever he appeared, crowds attended with unceasing 
plaudits. In each of these cities public din-ners and balls 
were given in his honour; military escorts provided; ad- 
dresses delivered by deputations ; and to these his answers 
were uniformly pertinent and dignified. At New York, 
on the 19th of Februar}^, he received the freedom of the 
city in a gold box ; and there, as well as in Baltimore, the 
municipal councils requested, and obtained his portrait, to 
be placed in their halls. While he was on this excursion 
a report, connected with the history of the Seminole war, 
and extremely hostile to his character, was made from a 
Committee of the Senate of the United States. It had not 
the concurrence of the ablest members of the Committee, 
and it was brought forward at too late a period of the session 
of Congress to be discussed. Nothing more was supposed 
to be meant by its author than to cast an indictment before 
the pul)lic. It was repelled triumphantly, in a defence 
which was published in the National Intelligencer, on the 
5th of March, and whicli has been ascribed to General 
Jackson. He felt deeply imputations which he knew to be 
not onl}' false, but utterly irreconcilable with his nature. 


The issue of all the reports and harangues was such as 
might give additional comfort to his domestic hours on 
his return to his farm, where he enjoyed again a period 
of repose. 

When the treaty with Spain ceding the Floridas was 
finally ratified, Congress passed a law empowering the 
President to vest in such person or persons as he might 
select, all the military, civil, and judicial authority exerci- 
sed by the officers of the Spanish government. The Pre- 
sident, under this law, appointed General Jackson, to act 
in the first place as commissioner for receiving the Pro- 
vinces, and then to assume the government of them. It 
was intended and expressed that the American Governor 
should exercise all the functions belonging to the Spanish 
Governors, Captain-Generals, and Intendants, until Con- 
gress should provide a system of administration as in the 
instances of the other territories. 

The selection of Jackson was not a mere mark of honor 
or testimonial of public gratitude. His intimate acquaintance 
with the country and the energy of his nature recommend- 
ed him specially for the post of Governor. Florida was 
overrun with desperadoes of every description ; it was the 
resort of a motly horde of speculators, smugglers of ne- 
groes, and adventurers of all nations ; it had become the 
theatre of complicated intrigue and misrule. His personal 
reputation was calculated to overawe corruption and vio- 
lence ; his inflexibility and 'activity in repressing all dis- 
order and spoil were sure grounds of reliance for the Pre- 
sident. It was not without reluctance that he accepted 
this new and almost absolute civil command, involving an 
arduous task and a delicate responsibility. But, having 
acceded, from a sense of duty, to the nomination, he re- 
paired to his station with his usual promptitude On the 


first of July, 1821, he issued at Pensacola, his proclama- 
tion announcing that possession had been taken of the 
territory, and the authority of the United States establish- 
ed in it under his commission. He adopted at once rigo- 
rous measures for the introduction of a regular and effi- 
cacious administration of affairs. Courts were organized; 
a police was instituted, and such a scheme of territorial di- 
vision adopted as was required for the convenience of the 
inhabitants and the speedy execution of the laws. An 
occasion arising out of the previous and prescriptive laxity 
of principal and perversion of right in the provinces, soon 
presented itself for the exertions of his official powers and 
generous sympathies. 

The treaty with Spain prescribed that all documents 
relating to property or sovereignty should be left in pos- 
session of the American authorities. On the 22d of Au- 
gust, a petition was submitted to the Governor, in his 
capacity of the highest judicial magistrate from the Ame- 
rican alcade, or keeper of archieves, that certain public 
documents or records, required by individuals to enable 
them to prosecute their claims to property, were unlaw- 
fully detained in the hands of a person of the name of 
Soiisa. The governor issued his commission to three of- 
ficers, to wait on Sousa and request him to exhibit and 
deliver up all such documents in his possession. Sousa 
exhibited two open boxes of papers which he affirmed had 
been intrusted to him for safe keeping by the late Spa- 
nish Governor, Colonel Callava. The boxes when exami- 
ned were found to contain the documents w^anted and 
other records of suits for property between individuals. 
All these were demanded by the officers, but refused by 
Sousa, who promised however, to consult Colonel Callava. 
These facts being reported to General Jackson, he issued 


a summons to Sousa to appear before him, in case he per- 
sisted in retaining the papers. The answer given was, 
that the papers had been sent to Colonel Callava, and were 
in the latter's house. Two of the official family of the 
American Governor were then directed by him to repair 
with the alcade to Callava' s dwelling, to demand the pa- 
pers, and if they were refused, to require bjth Callava 
and his steward who had received them from Sousa, to 
appear before the Governor. The Spaniards insisted at 
first upon retaining the papers, and after promising to sur- 
render them, when a list was furnished, and failing to do 
so, and obstinately refusing to obey the summons in any 
manner, he was finally conducted under guard to the of- 
fice of the Governor. When there he was informed of the 
nature and propriety of the demand made upon him, and 
apprized that the further withholding of the papers would 
be regarded as a contempt of the Governor's judicial au- 
thority, and subject him to imprisonment. He would do 
nothing but dictate protests, when the patience of Jackson 
being exhausted, he, his steward and Sousa were commit- 
ted to prison, until the papers should be obtained. 

The next morning the box in which the papers had 
been seen was seized and opened by oiFicers specially 
commissioned. It had been carefully sealed by Callava, 
and was found to contain what was sought. Callava and 
his companions were then released from jail. The records 
thus recovered related to the estate of a person who died 
at Pensacola, about the year 1807, having made his will, 
and bequeathed his property to several orphan females, 
who had never received any portion of it, owing to the 
dishonesty of the individuals who were at the same time 
its depositaries and debtors. Callava himself had made 
decrees in favour of the heirs, which were discovered in 



the box and had been suppressed under corrupt influence. 
It was his object to carry off all the evidence necessary 
for redress. He afterwards published in the American 
papers an exposition of the treatment which he had ex- 
perienced, and was convicted in due time of various 
misrepresentations by the counter statements of the re- 
respectable gentlemen who were employed in the affair 
by the Governor. He claimed for himself the immu- 
nities of an ambassador, having acted as the deputy of 
the Captain General of Cuba, in surrendering the Flori- 
das. But as his quality of Commissioner had ceased when 
the surrender was completed, Jackson could view him 
only in the light of a private individual charged with vio- 
lating both public and private rights, and determined to 
set the supreme judicatory at defiance. To have allowed 
the wrong which was designed to be committed, w^ould 
have been utterly inconsistent with what was due to the 
dignity and power of the United States, and the claims of 
oppressed individuals whose sex and situation particularly 
entitled them to protection and sympathy. The just 
language of Jackson, narrating and justifying his proceed- 
ings to the President, was — '^When men of high stand- 
ing attempt to trample upon the rights of the weak, they 
are the fittest objects for example or punishment. In 
general the great can protect themselves ; but the poor and 
humble require the arm and shield of the law. ^' Among the 
civil officers sent to Florida, by the President, was a for- 
mer Senator of the United States, Elegius Fromentine, 
who went in the capacity of a Judge, with a jurisdiction 
limited to cases that might arise under the Revenue Laws, 
and the acts of Congress prohibiting the production of 
slaves. This gentleman consented rashly, at the instiga- 
tion of some of the friends of Callava, to issue the writ of 


habeas corpasioexivicAila the Spaniard from confinement. 
The general Judiciary Act for the United States, under 
which alone the Judge could claim the right of thus inter- 
fering, had not been extended to the Floridas. Jackson 
displayed his characteristic decision and intelligence in 
this case — he cited the Judge to appear before him and 
answer to the charge of a contempt of the superior court 
and a serious misdemeanor. The prisoner was released, 
the papers having been obtained, before Mr. Fromentine 
was able to present himself pursuant to the summons. 
The general was then content with defining to him the 
limits of his competency as Judge, and uttering a severe 
rebuke of his precipitation. Very bitter complaints were 
afterwards made by both parties to the executive depart- 
ment at Washington. 

This even, was not the end of the Callava case, as it 
has been called. Several Spanish officers who had re- 
mained with the ex-governor in the province ventured 
to publish in a Pensacola paper, an article, with their sig- 
natures, in which they accused the General of violence 
and tyranny. It was stipulated in the treaty of cession, 
that all the Spanish officers should be withdrawn from the 
territories ceded, within six months after the ratification 
of the treaty. More than this term had elapsed. Jack- 
son issued his proclamation without delay, commanding 
them, as trespassers and disturbers of the public peace, to 
depart in the course of a week. They had not the folly 
to remain. About the same period, important documents 
and archives, which the Spaniards had no right to retain, 
were attempted to be w^ithheld by the ex-governor of East 
Florida. Jackson, on hearing of this attempt, transmit- 
ted, by mail, his orders to take forcible possesion of them; 
which was done accordingly. The ex-governor protest- 





ed; but upon insufficient grounds, and with personal dis- 

These occurrences produced much discussion in the 
newspapers, and vehement remonstrances from the Mi- 
nister Plenipotentiary of Spain in this country. Jackson's 
interpretation of his own powers, and those of Judge 
Fromentine, and his measures to prevent the abduction 
of the papers, were ratified and fully vindicated by the 
American government. The undue interest which the 
Spanish officers contrived to raise in their favour, w^ith 
the assistance of the General's personal enemies, soon 
subsided after the facts and respective rights became bet- 
ter known. On the 7th of October, Jackson delegated 
his powers to two gentlemen, the secretaries of his go- 
vernment, and set out on his return to Nashville. In 
his dignified and argumentative valedictory address to 
the citizens of Florida, he informed them that he had 
completed the temporary organization of the two provin- 
ces. He stated, and justified, his motives for acting as 
he had done in the case of Callava. *' With the excep- 
tion of this instance," he added, ^'I feel the utmost con- 
fidence in saying, that nothing has occurred, notwith- 
standing the numerous cases in which I have been called 
upon to interpose my authority, either in a judicial or 
executive capacity, to occasion any thing like distrust or 

The injury which his health had sufiered from the per- 
sonal hardships, inevitable in his campaigns, forbade him 
to protract his residence in Florida. Before his depar- 
ture he received from the citizens, spontaneous public 
manifestations of esteem and gratitude. Attempts were 
made at the ensuing session of Congress, to obtain a 
condemnation of his conduct towards Callava, but they 


Utterly failed, both witli the Legislature and the people. 
On the 4th of July, 1822, the Governor of Tennessee, by 
order of the Legislature, presented him with a sword as 
a testimonial '' of the high respect" entertained by the 
state for his public services. And, on the 20th of Au- 
gust, of the same year, the members of the General As- 
sembly of Tennessee, recommended him to the Union for 
the office of President — a recommendation which has been 
repeated by the Legislature of Alabama, and various as- 
semblages of private citizens in other parts of the coun- 
try. In the autumn of 1823, he was elected to the Sen- 
ate of the United States, in which body he has taken his 
seat. Social honours are heaped upon him at Washing- 
ton, and fresh evidence is daily transmitted thither, of the 
high estimation in which he is held at a distance. In the 
south-western, and some of the southern states, and in 
Pennsylvania, he is eminently popular. Before his elec- 
tion to the Senate, he was appointed by the President, 
with the concurrence of the Senate, Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary to the government of Mexico: but he declined the 
station from a repugnance to the monarchical system 
which then prevailed in Mexico, and to the means by 
which the supreme power had been usurped. 

In person, General Jackson is tall, and remarkably 
erect and thin. His weight bears no proportion to his 
height, and his frame, in general, does not appear fitted 
for trials such as it has borne. His features are large; 
his eyes dark blue, with a keen and strong glance; his 
eye-brows arched and prominent — his complexion is that 
of the war-worn soldier. His demeanor is easy and gen- 
tle: in every station he has been found open and acces- 
sible to all. The irritability of his temper, which is not 
denied by his friends, produces contrasts in his manner 


and countenance leading to very different conceptions 
and representations as to both: but that natural infirmity 
has decreased, and those who have lived and acted with 
him, bear unanimous testimony to the general mildness 
of his carnage and the kindness of his disposition. It is 
certain that he has inspired his soldiers, his military house- 
hold, his domestic circle, and his neighbours, with the 
most affectionate sentiments. The impetuosity of his 
nature, his impatience of wrong and encroachment, his 
contempt for meanness, and his tenaciousness of just au- 
thority, have involved him in bitter altercations and san- 
guinary quarrels : — his resentments have been fiercely 
executed, and his censures harshly uttered: yet he can- 
not be accused of wanton or malicious violence — the sal- 
lies which may be deemed intemperate can be traced to 
strong provocations, operating, in most instances, upon 
his patriotic zeal and the very generosity and loftiness of 
his spirit. He sacrificed the enemies of his country, where 
he deemed that signal examples of rigor were necessary 
for the public welfare and the lasting suppression of mur- 
der and rapine — he was never found wanting in clemency 
and humanity towards those whom essential justice and 
paramount duty allowed him to spare and relieve. Thus, 
after the battle of the Horse Shoe, in the Creek war, every 
Indian warrior was spared who surrendered himself — se- 
veral of his men lost their lives in endeavouring, by his 
orders, to save some obstinate individuals who refused to 
surrender ; although his own troops were suffering with 
hunger, he forbade the corn of the Indians to be taken 
from them, and caused the wounded among the latter to 
be dressed and nursed as his own men. At the battle of 
Tohopeka, an infant was found alive on the breast of its 
lifeless Indian mother: Jackson directed it to be brought to 


him, and not being able to prevail upon any one of the In- 
dian woman to undertake tlie care of it, adopted it into 
his family, and has ever since proved a kind protector to 
the orphan. 

In the various critical situations in which he was placed 
by emergencies and the unlimited discretion cast upon 
him, he appears to have been governed by general and 
solid principles which he knew how to apply satisfacto- 
rily in explaining his measures. The very salutary ener- 
gy and decision with which he pursued the course, that 
he had deliberately concluded to be right and necessary, 
subjected him to the belief or charge of having acted 
merely from a vehement, overbearing, or arbitary dispo- 
sition. If his feelings were strongly roused and display- 
ed against the timid or the traitorous portion of the inha- 
bitants of New Orleans who would have given the enemy 
an easy and fatal triumph — against the Spanish authori- 
ties in Florida, who served the British and supplied the 
Seminoles — against Arbuthnot and Ambrister, the un- 
wearied instigators and insidious confederates of the Sa- 
vages thirsting for American blood — against the imposter 
prophets, who had directed the butchery of white women 
and children, and whose occupations it was to incite de- 
predation and murder — against a Spanish Governor who 
would have violated a treaty and despoiled orphan fe- 
males of their inheritance — we may say that both the 
warmth of those feelings, and the rigour with which they 
were manifested, wdll be not only excused, but even ad- 
mired by generous minds. 

The copious despatches which General Jackson had 
occasion to write to the government, detailing his cam- 
paigns and official proceedings; his numerous addresses 
to his troops, and the statements and arguments, which 


the charges preferred n gainst his official conduct, compel- 
led him to publish for his justification, would altogether^ 
form a sizeable volume. They are marked by great flu- 
ency and energy of expression ; cogent reasoning ; apt 
reference to general principles, and the utmost earnest- 
ness and apparent rectitude of intention. He writes ner- 
vously and perspicuously ; he speaks with fecility and 
force. Grace and refinement, he has not studied either 
in composition or delivery. Those qualities are not to 
be expected in one whose life has been chiefly passed in 
such scenes as we have sketched. He is artificial in no- 
thing. His reading cannot be supposed to be extensive 
nor his application to books very frequent. In regard to 
business he has been always found indefatigable and saga- 
cious. He possesses a competent estate, and lives hospi- 
tably in the manner of a substantial farmer. He is with- 
out children. His amusements have consisted in the 
management of his domestic concerns, the sports of the 
■turf and social intercourse. He is temperate in his diet 
and in all respects enjoys a good private reputation. His 
public character is to be known from the history of his 
public career, which we have regularly, though very im- 
perfectly traced. 

Ileinarlx'S of the Puhlislier. 

The foreg-oing" narrative is the production of an eminent writer, M-ho, 
althoug-h his sense of propriety induced him, during the late election 
contest, in liis capacity of editor of a respectable newspaper, to oppose 
the torrent of abuse which was poured on General Jackson, uniformly 
expressed his predilection for the re-election of Mr. Adams. It may, 
therefore, be considered an impartialtestimony, borne in favour of the 
General, by one well acquainted with the subject, and well quahfied 
to judge of it. It is particularly on this account that it has been trans- 
ferred to this M'orlc from that in which it first appeared, " The Ame- 
rican Monthly Magazine." 






The pag-cs that follow, have been written expressly for the pre- 
sent publication, by an autlior of distinguished popularity, who has 
been from the commencement of the contest, a constant and zealous 
advocate of Jackson. More warmth may, therefore, be expected in 
his manner of defending- his favourite candidate from the aspersions 
with which he was assailed, than if his feelings had been neutral on 
the subject. It is believed, however, that he has made no statement 
unwan'anted by truth, nor drawn any inference which the most rigid 
impartiality will not sanction. To give a succinct account of the long 
and severe political struggle which has recently terminated, was the 
task imposed upon him. Jackson's history, during that period, affords 
no events of a striking nature to be introduced into our pages. The 
retirement in which he lived was unvaried and perfectly tranquil. A 
melancholy event, indeed, took place after the contest was decided, in 
which the whole nation has strongly sympathized. Every reader will 
join us in regretting that it has fallen to our lot to record the domestic 
affliction to which we allude, in a work dedicated to the virtue and 
the TRitJMrH of the iLLrsTRiors patriot, who has sustained it. 

Pkilad. Feb. 22, 1829. 

In a country like the United States, where the expres- 
sion of opinion relative to public men and public measures 
is so perfectly unrestricted, it is not surprising that the 
conduct of one who has acted so distinguished a part as 
General Jackson, should have been made the subject of 
extensive and conflicting animadversion. While the suc- 
cessful brilliancy of his actions, and the incalculable bene- 
fits they conferred on the country, on the one hand, de- 
monstrated the wisdom of his measures and procured for 
him an innumerable array of grateful admirers and zealous 
eulogists, the decisive energy and occasional severity which 
the necessity of affairs sometimes obliged him to exert, be- 
came, on the other, topics of loud and acrimonious repre- 
hension among those whose inadequate information, or 
whose tenacious adherence to the rules of abstract right, in 
opposition to the most imperious demands of rigid neces- 
sity, rendered incompetent or partial judges. There were 



many, also, It may well be supposed, who joined the cry 
of censure from motives of no very honorable nature — 
from envy of superior talents and jealousy of superior 
success : for it is a truth confirmed by every day's expe- 
rience, that 

** Envy win merit, as its shade pursue." 

It is well known that the almost immaculate Washing- 
ton himself, did not, even in the midst of his most anx- 
ious and glorious efforts for his country, escape the shafts 
of calumny launched at him by men actuated by envy 
and jealousy. Nor is there, perhaps, an example of any 
great and good man passing an illustrious life unassailed 
by them. History at least affords none. In having to 
endure their assaults, therefore, Jackson had only to sus- 
tain the penalty attached to human greatness, even when 
it is founded on conduct of the most irreproachable and 
beneficial description. 

From the preceding narrative it will be seen that the 
most important of the charges adduced against General 
Jackson, were made the subject of Congressional investi- 
gation in the session of 1818 — 19. His accusers mustered 
all their forces on the occasion. Nothing that could be 
done by zeal, industry and ingenuity to affix guilt upon 
his proceedings, was neglected. Malice distorted facts, 
and sophistical eloquence endeavoured to give the colour- 
ing of proofs to mere assertions ; — but in vain. Truth 
and justice triumphed. Whatever was questionable in his 
conduct appeared to Congress and to the nation, not only 
warranted but required by the exigencies of the occasion. 
His enemies, therefore, instead of enjoying the gratifica- 
tion of making him the object of Congressional censure 
and national distrust, experienced the mortification of 


finding tlml their eilbrls resulted only in establishing his 
fame and increasing his popularity. Ilis country saw 
that whatever he had done against either her savage or her 
civilized foes, had been done, not for his own sake, but 
for hers. No selfish or sinister motives could be ascribed 
to him. lie had by his successful energy in arms, expel- 
led a formidable army of disciplined invaders from the 
country, and broken forever the power of a warlike 
and sanguinary tribe of savages who were perpetually 
meditating outrages and inflicting calamities upon our 
people; and by affording a well-timed instance of retribu- 
tive justice, in the much agitated case of Arbuthnot and 
Ambrister, he taught the incendiaries of savage warfare, 
that no matter to what nation they might belong, they 
should not, for the future, expect to escape the punish- 
ment due to their inhuman atrocities. 

From the formation of the first British settlement on 
this continent till the overthrow of the Seminoles by Jack- 
son, embracing a period of nearly two hundred years, 
wars and massacres of the most barbarous and heart-rend- 
ing description, had been, almost without intermission, 
carried on by the aborigines against the new occupiers 
of the country. Theorists may endeavour as much as 
they please, to justify the conduct of the savages, on the 
ground of their possessing a prior claim to the soil, but 
men of true practical philanthropy, will acknowledge 
that the occupation of the country by a civilized race, has 
extended the bounds of human prosperity and increased 
the means of social security and enjoyment, much beyond 
whatever they were likely to attain under the dominion 
of the rude inhabitants of the forest. If the two races 
could have been blended into one people, the one confer- 
ring the right of soil, and the other the advantages of civi- 


lization to their Joint community, the circumstance would 
no doubt, have been gratifying to the feelings of many, 
because it would have prevented, not only innumerable 
instances of extreme individual suffering, but the total ex- 
termination of an ancient, high-minded and once power- 
ful people. But this was not to be. The habits and 
feelings of the parties forbade it ; and it is now as use- 
less to deplore the misfortunes of the vanquished as it is 
ungenerous to lament the triumphs of the victors. 

At all events, whatever may be the degree of censure to 
which the early European settlers of the country — the 
original intruders upon the soil of the red men, are liable, 
their descendants, being born in the land, and placed 
without any volition of their own in collision with its an- 
cient occupants, should not be made partakers of it. The 
white and the red people of America, in latter times, 
being, with the exception of immigrants, equally natives 
of the soil, have an equal claim to its possession ; and if 
the wars they have waged have been more fatal to the one 
than to the other, the conquerors are not to be blamed. 
Each party did its utmost for victory. That which was 
defeated may be commiserated, but that which triumph- 
ed should not, therefore, be condemned. The truly hu- 
mane mind will rejoice that the strife is now over. The 
last of the Indian wars has been fought, and Jackson had 
the glory of fighting it. From the Mississippi to the 
Atlantic, from the St. Croix to the Gulph of Mexico, the 
military power of the red warriors has been extinguished. 
It will no more fill the extensive and fertile regions with- 
in those bounds, with terror, devastation and death. There 
is surely consolation in this ; and to him who brought it 
1o pass, to him who finally expelled the barbarous wield- 
prs of the tomahawk and the scalping knife from the land, 


honour and not censure is assuredly due. And in dis- 
pite of his enemies he has heen honored. Congress 
has honored him by its thanks. The people have hon- 
ored him by a triumphant election to the chief magis- 
tracy, and history will teach posterity to honor him as 
one of the most illustrious benefactors of his country. 

A man's enemies have been often known to be his ef- 
fective friends. Jackson's have been so to liim. By 
their accusations against him, both in and out of Congress, 
they kept for a series of years, the public attention stea- 
dily fixed upon him; and by instituting investigations into 
his conduct, they made his virtues and his talents more 
known ; w^hile the spirit of persecution which they dis- 
played towards him, rendered him an object of public 
sympathy and affection. To these causes his present 
elevation may be chiefly ascribed. The will of the peo- 
ple, in defiance of a most powerful, active and rancorous 
opposition, has raised him to the presidency. They have 
triumphed for him, and in so doing they have triumph- 
ed for themselves; for he was emphatically their own 
candidate. No organized body of partizans, no faction, 
no caucus, no convention, no committee first nominated 
him to them. A simple mechanic in a western village 
of Pennsylvania, in the summer of 1822, amidst a group 
of his fellow villagers, who were discoursing on the ser- 
vices he had performed and the persecutions he endured, 
exclaimed, '' Let us have him for our next president and 
show his slanderers that we dont believe them." 

The proposal was caught with enthusiasm and assented to 
with acclamation. It was soon in active circulation round 
the adjacent country; for being approved of by every 
heart, it was repeated by every tongue. It made its way 
into the newspapers; the whole nation heard it; and 


millions who knew not ^vhcnce the suggestion originated, 
responded to its propriety. 

Those ambitious politicians who were aiming at the 
succession on the expiration of Mr. Munroe's term, to- 
gether with the whole host of their dependants who were 
already forming plans for their elevation, became alarmed. 
The heads of dej^artments looked upon this spontaneous 
nomination by the people, of one not belonging to the 
official body, as an unprecedented and daring usurpation 
of their previleges: they imagined that the nation consi- 
dered the cabinet as a school for the education of presi- 
dents, and that a candidate properly qualified for that 
high office, could no where else be found. Nor were those 
busy spirits known by the name of caucusites, less exci- 
ted on the occasion. This popular nomination was an 
act of open rebellion against their long exercised prero- 
gative, and they knew its success would forever wrest 
the sceptre of dictation from their hands. 

The members of caucuses, as well as of cabinets, are 
always the great men of the day. It is they who would 
regulate the nation in the choice of its officers. It is they 
who would conduct the people in leading-strings to the 
polls and teach them how to vote. Their great object is 
to preserve the succession to office within a privileged cir- 
cle, over which they of course, possess, or expect to pos- 
sess, an influence useful to their own interests. Hence 
previously to great elections they swell into unusual im- 
portance and become exceedingly zealous and active in 
serving the public. 

The views and interests of the caucuses and the cabinets 
being generally the same, they naturally support each 
other, and by their joint influence at elections, seldom fail 
to secure victory, and preserve the government within 


their own sphere. In the late election, however, they 
were not so fortunate as usual. They were opposed hy 
a new and formidable power, that of the people, rising 
unexpectedly, and assuming the right of nominating a 
candidate for the presidency without regard to either 
caucus or cabinet. To frustrate such a nomination be- 
came the great object of their solicitude, and stimulated 
them to the most vehement and unremitting exertions. 

The constitution had not forbidden the people to nomi- 
nate. Their conduct could not, therfore, be called ille- 
gal. But being contrary to usage, it was by the caucu- 
sites denounced as irregular. The people, however, ad- 
hered to it, and at the election gave their candidate the 
majority of votes. Impartial men, acquainted with the 
principles of our institutions, would have thought that the 
question was now settled ; that the national will, so deci- 
sively declared, would have been carried into effect; and 
that he wiiom the people had chosen, should without 
more difficulty, have become president. But politicians 
and diplomatists — and the opponents of the people were 
both — are not easily overcome when they have great in- 
terests at stake. In this instance they were particularly 
stubborn. They were in possession of power, and they 
resolved to make every exertion to retain it They had 
discovered a mode by which, with proper management, 
this might be done conformably to the letter, although 
not to the spirit of the constitution. With the spirit 
of it, however, they courageously resolved to dispense. 
The people were, in consequence, defeated, and the suc- 
cession, as usual, retained in the cabinet by the elevation 
of John Quincy Adams. 

The popular surprise and indignation at such a result, 
may^ be easily conceived. But good sense dictated sub- 


mission to a decision which, however high-handed and 
insulting towards the nation, was sanctioned by the phra- 
seology of the constitution. Jackson himself anxiously 
expressed his desire that his friends should manifest no 
undue dissatisfaction with what had taken place. On 
the 20th of February 1825, when his coalesced opponents 
in Congress had decided the question in favour of his 
competitor, the General was invited to a public festival 
by his friends at Washington, who wished, by this mark 
of respect, to manifest the continuance of their adherence 
to him, and their disapprobation of the means by which 
his election had been prevented. With his characteris- 
tic magnanimity, he displayed, on the trying occasion, 
the forbearance of a patriot and the wisdom of a sage. 

^'I cannot," said he, in replying to the invitation, *^re- 
frain from suggesting to you and my friends, the propri- 
ety, perhaps, the necessity of forbearing to confer upon 
me, at this moment, any such prominent marks of your 
regard. You cannot, I am persuaded, mistake my mean- 
ing. — The decision of a matter about which much public 
feeling and concern have been manifested, has very lately 
taken place. Any evidence of kindness and regard, such 
as you propose, might by many be viewed as carrying 
with it, exception, murmurming and feelings of com- 
plaint, which I sincerely hope belong not to any of my 
friends. I would therefore beg leave to suggest to you, 
that, on reconsideration, you may deem it proper to for- 
l)ear any course to which possibly exception might be 

Although in deference to his opinion and feelings, the 
friends of Jackson refrained, on this occasion, from ma- 
king that public display of their indignation at tlie mode 
by which Mr. Adams was elected, yet circumstances soon 



transpired which, by working conviction on the minds of 
all reflecting men, that some under-hand management had 
been at work, produced, in all parts of the union, not on- 
ly murmurs, but direct accusations against the success- 
ful party, for disposing of the presidency by conspiracy 
and corruption. Mr. Clay, the speaker of the house of 
representatives, who had been one of the candidates before 
the people, but had not received a sufficient number oj 
electoral votes to bring him as a candidate before congress, 
was considered the chief manager of this intrigue. He 
had been for years, the bitter and avowed enemy of Mr. 
Adams — he had been instructed by the state which he re- 
presented, to support the election of General Jackson — and 
to instruction of this nature, he had long and publicly 
professed that it was one of the most binding articles of 
his political creed, to yield obedience — yet he not only 
gave his own vote for Mr. Adams, but successfully ex- 
erted his influence in the house to obtain for him a num- 
ber of votes sufficient to secure his election, which, after all, 
was accomplished by the majority of one state only. As 
soon as Mr. Adams was installed, Mr. Clay received his 
reward. He was made Secretary of State, and was conse- 
quently placed in the path which had hitherto been the 
direct road to the presidency. 

It was not in the nature of things that these scenes could 
be viewed without distrust and dissatisfaction. The peo- 
ple, however, knew that at the end of four years they 
would have an opportunity of manifesting their disappro- 
bation by expelling such intruders from their ill-got pow- 
er. They announced Jackson again as their candidate; 
and took such measures as impressed all ambitious aspirants 
with the feeling that it would be in vain nay, that it would 
be ruinous to their own future prospects to become hig 




competitors. The incumbent president alone entered the ' 
lists, and aspired to a re-election. But it is evident from 
the whole history of the contest which ensued, that both 
he and his friends founded their hopes of success more upon 
a dexterous application of official influence, than upon the 
popularity of their cause. Various appointments were made 
with this view. Patronage was afforded to venal editors, 
of newspapers in every part of the Union. These com- 
menced upon the character of Jackson a system of calum- 
ny and abuse, which for coarseness and virulence, has, per- 
haps, never had a parallel in any age or country. The 
ficurrillity of common scolds, and the ribaldry of Billings- 
gate, were absolute politeness to it. To these was added 
a novel mode of electioneering still more disgusting, the 
distribution of infamous pictures and barbarous hiero- 
glyphics, intended to represent General Jackson as a mon- 
ster of depravity and inhumanity. Even the more respec- 
table leaders of the party, joined in the hue and cry raised 
against him. .Mr. Clay himself in his over-anxious ea- 
gerness to blast the character of the formidable rival of 
the president he had made, and the chief obstacle to his 
own future elevation, could not refrain from entering the 
arena of contest. He perambulated the country, and, in 
utter forgetfulness of what was due to his own dignity, 
pronounced electioneering harrangues in which he de- 
nounced General Jackson as a "mere military chieftain," 
and declared that rather than see him president of the 
country, he would choose to see it visited by all the 
*< horrors of war, pestilence and famine." 

Not content with depicting the character ol Jackson as 
monstrous for depravity and violence, his enemies assert- 
ed that his talents and his education were of the meanest 
order; and that the presidency would be disgraced both 


by his immoralities and his ignorance, while the liberties 
of the country could never survive the military ascenden- 
cy which would inevitably follow his election. Nay, so far 
did the spirit of defamation carry the vile flatterers of the 
existing powers, that they penetrated into the sanctuary 
of his domestic circle, in search of subjects for calumny, 
and his virtuous and amiable wife had her feelings lacera- 
ted by their brutal slanders. She is now gone to a world 
more congenial with the purity of her principles and con- 
duct, where the repose of her meek and benevolent spirit 
"will not be disturbed by falsehood and detraction. It is 
consoling, however, to reflect that she remained long 
enough here, to learn that her fame was cleared from all 
imputation, and that the merit and services of her husband, 
were acknow^ledged and rewarded, by the acclaiming voice 
of millions of his countrymen. 

It is not to be supposed that the friends of General 
Jackson listened in silence to all this torrent of vitupe- 
ration, or that they made no exertions in defence of 
his character. It is true that he himself, with a truly 
laudable delicacy, withdrew as much as possible from pub- 
lic view. He w^as conscious that his cause was much 
more emphatically that of the people than his own, and 
that they wxre able and resolved to maintain it. Obtru- 
ding himself on the public, as the over-anxiety of his 
competitors caused them, greatly to their disadvantage, 
frequently to do, he was aware could not, under the pecu- 
liar circumstances of the times, in any manner serve either 
himself or his friends. He prudently, therefore, as soon 
as he ascertained that the people had the second time cho- 
sen him for their candidate, resigned his seat in the 
Senate of the United States and retired to his dwelling on 
the banks of the Cumberland. There, in the enjoyment 


of domestic comfort and rural occupations, he heard at a dis- 
tance the raging of the political storm which for more than 
two years agitated the whole Union with unexampled vio- 
lence, and subsided only when it had overthrown the powxr 
of his opponents, and placed him in their stead. He was not, 
it is true, indifferent to the progress of the contest. He would 
have been neither a patriot nor a man, had he been so. But 
he had full confidence in the power and steadiness of the 
people, and in the zeal and discretion of those who directed 
their efforts. Nor was he deceived. Every charge against 
him was triumphantly refuted, and every calumny effec- 
tually exposed, until the generous indignation of the peo- 
ple was aroused to such enthusiasm, that when the day of 
decision arrived, they rushed to the polls in overwhelm- 
ing numbers, sweeping away opposition, and covering the 
discomfited calumniators with shame and confusion. 

To enter here upon a formal vindication of Jackson's 
conduct and character would oblige us to exceed the limits 
assigned to this publication. Besides it is now unneces- 
sary. The voice of the nation has vindicated him; and 
many who were but lately his loudest accusers, have be- 
come, since his star has assumed the ascendant, his zeal- 
ous panegyrists. It is wonderful how suddenly the eyes 
of some men become opened to the discovery of the vir- 
tues, talents and services of those on whose behalf they 
perceive the current of prosperity to flow, although in 
different circumstances, they could see in them nothing 
but what was w^orthy of censure and condemnation. That 
man, who, while he was only a farmer in Tennessee, de- 
stitute of power and patronage, was characterized as fe- 
rocious, arbitrary, rash, ignorant, and entirely devoid of 
every qualification that might fit him for the duties of civil 
government, is now, since he has been chosen President 


of the United States, admitted by numbers of his late de- 
famers to be well qualified for that high office. There is 
now, it is believed, no man in the country who would pre- 
fer seeing it desolated by ^^war, pestilence and famine, "to 
seeing him in the presidency; nor is it believed that there 
is one who considers him a monster of barbarity, *^ capa- 
ble," to use the language of some of his traducers, '^of 
looking upon blood and carnage with composure, if not 
enjoyment, and of catching at every opportunity to shed 
American blood without any authority but that of arbi- 
trary power. " It is now acknowledged that he is hu- 
mane, and that on all occasions he has shown a tender- 
ness for the lives, not only of his own men, but of his 
enemies, when he could do so, consistently with his du- 
ty. When he had, on the plains of New Orleans, defeat- 
ed the most gallant army of invaders that ever landed in 
America, and his own troops, scarcely injured, wished, 
in the excitement of victory, to pursue wuth slaughter the 
fugitives of the panic-struck enemy, his humanity for- 
bade them; he checked their ardour for unnecessary re- 
venge, and thereby prevented the destruction of innume- 
rable lives, although he incurred the momentary displea- 
sure of his troops for his forbearance. 

When he marched against the ruthless Indians, who 
never gave quarter, instead of permitting his troops to 
yield to the impulse of retaliation, he thus in his general 
orders, inculcated upon them the true principles of hu- 

^' How shall a war," said he, ^^so long forborne, and so 
loudly called for by retributive justice be waged? Shall 
we imitate the example of our enemies, in the disorder of 
their movements and the savageness of their dispositions? 
Is it worthy of the character of American soldiers, who 


take arms to redress the wrongs of an injured country, to 
assume no better model than that furnished them by bar- 
barians ? — No ! fellow soldiers — great as are the grievan- 
ces that have called us from our homes, we must not per- 
mit disorderly passions to tarnish the reputation we shall 
carry along with us ; we must and will be victorious — 
but we must conquer as men who owe nothing to chance, 
and w^ho, in the midst of victory, can still be mindful of 
what is due to humanity." 

In relation to that fruitful theme of defamation against 
General Jackson, his conduct at New Orleans, which has 
in reality formed for him an imperishable wreath of fame, 
and added to his country's glory, it will be sufficient for 
his vindication to lay before the reader the following re- 
solutions of Congress on the subject, adopted in February 

Resolved^ By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled, That the. thanks of Con- 
gress be, and they are hereby given to Majou Gen. Jackson-, and 
through him, to the officers and soldiers of the regular army, of the 
volunteers, and of the militia under his command, the greater propor- 
tion of which troops consisted of militia and volunteers, suddenly col- 
lected together, for their uniforin gallantry and good conduct, con- 
spicuously displayed against the enemy, fhom the time of his land- 

and particularly for their valors skill and good conduct on tlie eighth of 
January last, in repulsing, with great slaughter a numerous British 
army of chosen veteran troops, when attempting, by a bold and daring 
attack to cany by storm, the works hastily thrown up for the protec- 
tion of New Orleans ; and thereby obtaining a most signal victory over 
the enemy with a desparity of loss, on his part, unexampled in mili- 
tary ANNALS. 

" Resolved, That the President of the United States be requested to 
cause to be struck, a gold medal, with devices emblematical of this 
splendid athievement, and presented to Major General Jackson as a 
testimony of the high sense entertained hy Congress of his judicious 
and distinguished conduct 07i that memorable occasion. 

" Resolvedt That the President of the United States be requested to 


cause the foreg-olng resolutions to be communicateil to maj. oENEnAt. 
jACKsox, ill sucli terms as he may deem best calculated to give eftect 
to the objects thereof." 

In reply to tlie allegiations that General Jackson was a 
mere military chieftain, unversed in classical learning, 
and destitute of experience in civil affairs, his friends 
could triumphantly produce the example of Washington 
to prove that, even if these charges were true, they did 
not constitute any absolute disqualification for the office 
of president. Washington was the military hero of his 
day, without pretensions to classical learning; and that he 
had no experience in the management of civil affairs, he 
himself acknowledges in his address on taking the oath 
of office at his inauguration into the presidency in April, 
1789. — <^ The magnitude and difficulty of the trust,'' said 
he on that occasion, '^to which the voice of my country 
has called me, being sufficient to awaken in the wisest 
and most experienced of her citizens, a distrustful scru- 
tiny into his qualifications, could not but overwhelm with 
despondence, one who, inheriting inferior endowments 
from nature, and unpractised in the duties of civil ad- 
viinistration, ought to be peculiarly conscious of his own 

This was the avowal of him who was the first and best 
of our presidents; whose administration, military chief- 
tain, unskilled in collegiate learning, and unpractised in 
civil government, as he was, proved a blessing to the 
country, and obtained the entire approbation and grati- 
tude of the people. 

But the friends of General Jackson were not obliged to 
rest their defence of his qualifications on the production of 
this illustrious example alone; they could prove each of 
these charges, with the exception of that of his having 


been a military chieftain, to be untrue, and as that charge 
implied neither dishonor nor incapacity, they admitted it 
freely and with satisfaction. The committee of corres- 
pondence who supported his cause in Philadelphia, in 
their fifth letter in reply to the authors of a pamphlet in 
which all these charges are collected and enforced, make 
the following statement : — 

'' You perceive, gentlemen, that experience proves the 
fallacy of your doctrine of succession, that no one should 
be president, who had not been in the political ministry : 
and we now proceed to show that General Jackson has 
other qualifications, besides those of a military kind. 

^' 1. General Jackson received a classical education: 
was this no advantage? some of your associates think it 
an indispensable requisite, for public trust or private sta- 

*' 2. He had, like Franklin, to establish his name, with- 
out the patronage of a single relative or friend; if he had 
not talents and virtues, would he not have remained in 
obscurity? could he have arrived at his present celebrity 
without them ? how many in half a century have risen 
over all impediments as he has done? how many of his 
assailants could imitate his example? 

*' 3. In his 20th year, he was admitted to the bar, and 
leaving his native state. South Carolina, went to Nash- 
ville, to establish a character, and earn an independence 
amongst strangers. Did this not evince strength of mind 
and talents. 

" 4. Such was the reputation which he established, that, 
upon the organization of the territory of the United 
States south of the Ohio, (now called Tennessee) in May, 
1790, Washingtoji appointed him district attorney, a sta- 
tion which Andrew Jackson held until elected to serve in 
1796, in the convention for forming a constitution for 
Tennessee: Was this no proof of fitness for civil trusts? 

*' 5. In his 30th year he was chosen a member of 
the convention for forming a constitution for Tennessee: 
what stronger token could a people give of their sense of 
his integrity and abilities ? 


'* 6. At the samo acje he was elected a memher of Con- 
gress of the United States; was not this an evidence of 
good character and qualifications for civil stations? 

*^7. In his 31st year, he was elected to represent Ten- 
nessee in the Senate of the United States, the most distin- 
guished body of this, or perhaps any country: what could 
more clearly show a fitness for high trusts? 

"S. The next station which he filled was that of Judge 
of the Supreme Court of Tennessee: he held it for seve- 
ral years: did this evince no civil qualifications? 

<^9, Having acquired a moderate estate, he retired 
from public life, and became a Tennessee farmer: what a 
contrast with his rival ! 

<'10. When Congress authorised the employment of 
volunteers to defend their country, in the last war, An- 
drew Jackson left his farm and appealed to his neigh- 
bours and countrymen; 2500 of them placed themselves 
at his disposal: what stronger proof of his patriotism — 
what higher evidence of the attachment of his country- 
men, need be given? 

*' 11. After he had vanquished the confederated Indi- 
ans, and their more savage allies, he concluded several 
important treaties with the former, under the direction 
of government, not only to its satisfaction, but in a man- 
ner that commanded the gratitude of the conquered 
tribes: — are these no tokens of merit? 

'M2. He was appointed governor of Florida, a station 
requiring the exercise of civil as well as military qualifi- 
cations: was not this a proof that he possessed them? 

««13. He was offered, by Mr. Monroe, a seat in the 
Cabinet, as Secretary at War; but he declined it: was 
this no evidence of his talents — no proof of his being free 
from selfish or ambitious views? 

<^ 14. Mr. Monroe asked him to proceed to Mexico, 
as Ambassador of the United States : — was this no proof 
of his having the qualifications of a statesman? he refused 
to accept the station, because he thought this republic 
ought not to sanction the military usurpation of Iturbide, 
by sending a minister to his court : was this such con- 
duct as would distinguish a man, disposed to become, 
himself, an usurper? 



With these facts before their eyes, and conscious that 
the preservation of their own supremacy in creating the 
chief magistrate, greatly depended on the issue of the 
contest, the people of the United States aroused them- 
selves vigorously to the struggle, and by a majority of 
votes unexampled in the annals of contested elections, 
overthrew all the forces that official influence could 
bring against them; made their own president, and fixed 
the fair fabric of their own power on foundations too firm 
to fear any thing, for the time to come, from the assaults 
of any combination whatever of ambitious statesmen with 
mercenary demagogues. 

For the satisfaction of the reader the following authen- 
tic statement of the votes given in the several states for 
each of the candidates, is inserted. The state of South 
Carolina, having voted by legislature, and the popular 
vote given at the election of that body not being ascertain- 
ed, and if ascertained, might not be considered an accu- 
rate exhibition of the strength of the presidential com- 
petitors, that state is necessarily excluded from the ac- 
count. It is well known, however, that the Jackson 
party there exceeded that of their antagonists by an im- 
mense majority. To assume the number of twenty 
thousand as that majority will not be to overrate it. 
The state of Delaware also voted by legislature ; but it 
being a small state, the strength of the parties may be 
ascertained with tolerable accuracy, by the late election 
held in it, for members of Congress. It is therefore in- 
cluded in the following statement. 

States* Jackson, Adams. Total. 

Maine, 13927 20773 34700 

New-Hampshire, 20692 34006 44698 

Massachusetts, 6019 29836 35855 



Rhode Island, 




































North Carolina, 












































Jackson's maj'ty. 131056 

By adding to this majority the twenty thousand assum- 
ed for South Carolina, we shall have the magnificent 
number of one hundred and fifty one thousand and 
FIFTY SIX votes for the national majority. In the 
electoral colleges the majority was more than two to one, 

the votes being 

For Jackson 178 
Adams 83 

Jackson's majority 95 

It is to this decisive expression of the voice of the 
nation that we are chiefly to attribute the sudden and en- 
tire cessation, which took place immediately after the 
election, of that clamorous and abusive hostility against 


the character and conduct of General Jackson which had 
so long agitated and disgraced the country. It might 
have been supposed that the passions of men excited into 
fury by such a storm of violent controversy, could not for 
a long time have ceased to feel its impulse ; that they 
should subside all at once, as they have done, into the 
tranquillity of a perfect calm, was certainly not to be ex- 
pected. It must have been the work of some mighty 
influence, and what influence short of a supernatural 
one, could have been more mighty than the tremendous 
majority which has flashed conviction, far and wide, 
wherever there existed any doubt on the subject, that the 
friends of Jackson were right and that his enemies w^ere 

This cessation of hostility, indeed, was a mark of res- 
pect which so unequivocal a manifestation of the national 
will had a right to command ; and having yielded it is 
no discredit to the defeated party. Such of them as have 
become convinced of their error, ought to feel no degra- 
dation in acknowledging their conviction. They have 
now obtained proof sufficient that the feelings which in- 
duced their opposition must have arisen from either er- 
roneous information or groundless prejudices. The prin- 
cipal opposition existed in New England, where, from 
their local situation, the inhabitants had fewer opportuni- 
ties of knowing the real merit of Jackson's character and 
conduct than those of other parts of the Union; and where 
local considerations, creating a partiality for his compe- 
titor, occasioned the tales of falsehood and slander to find 
a more ready reception than they did elsewhere. But 
the New Englandcrs are a shrewd and reflecting people; 
and the circumstance of the w^hole of the Southern and 
Western States, where Jackson was well known, giving 



him their entire vote, cannot have escaped their notice, 
nor failed to have made on their sentiments a due impres- 
sion in his favour. They have heheld every state south 
or west of Delaware, with the exception of Maryland 
which was divided, and every large commercial city in 
the Union, except Boston, declare for Jackson. Is not 
this enough to shake the faith of the sagacious New En- 
glanders in the statements which interested politicians 
had so industriously circulated amongst them, of Jack- 
son's utter unworthiness and incapacity. Can they be- 
lieve that the man in whose favour such numbers of up- 
right and intelligent men, who could not be mistaken in 
his character, have declared, is that ignorant monster of 
iniquity which their pamphleteers, editors and orators, 
represented him to be? Must it not be evidenfto them 
that the statements of these declaimers and publishers 
were vile libels, intended to lead them astray, and excite 
their abhorrence towards an illustrious and venerable pa- 
triot whom so many disinterested thousands who knew 
him well and could judge of him impartially, have thought 
worthy of raising to an office, to which they would never 
have raised a man either corrupt or incapable? 

These considerations have had, no doubt, much influ- 
ence in producing that acquiescence, which has been so 
remarkably sudden and universal, of the adversaries of 
General Jackson, in his elevation. But there is another 
circumstance to which, we believe, we may justly attri- 
bute the total absence of murmuring, with the occasional 
whispering of some satisfaction at the event, among many 
who were the General's most active and bitter revilers— 
we mean the insincerity of the dislike they professed. 
In their great eagerness to serve, or at least to please the 
authorities in whose cause they had embarked, these men 



whos.e trade is political gladiatorship, and party brawling, 
circulated defamatory stories, one word of which they them- 
selves did not believe. As for the inventors of such stories, 
they are the vilest of the vile: if they can procure the for- 
giveness of their own consciences, that of the friends of 
Jackson will be easily obtained. Contempt, and not resent- 
ment, is the feeling which magnanimity indulges towards 
a fallen although unprincipled enemy, who has been pro- 
strated by his own efforts to do mischief. 

We have thus taken a very cursory view of the late poli- 
tical contest, the result of which, we trust, has settled for a 
long period to come, the question whether the people or their 
rulers are, in this country, the real source of power. Had 
Mr. Adams been re-elected, not only would the anxious 
wishes of the nation have been a second time defeated, 
but the oligarchical system of cabinet succession would, 
in all likelihood, have become so strengthened and con- 
firmed, as for ever to render all constitutional attempts, on 
the part of the people, to overturn it and regain the pro- 
per exercise of their own righfs, unavailing. The power 
of appointing his successor would have become virtually 
lodged in the hands of the president; for the machinery 
for securing the election of some one of the secretaries, 
w^ould have attained such perfection, that it is to be fear- 
ed nothing short of civil war could have broken it down, 
and restored the republic to the practice of its legitimate 
principles. But the danger is now over. The battle has been 
fought with desperation and defeat on one side, and w^ith 
zeal and victory on the other. Its influence on the per- 
manency of our institutions will be long and happily felt. 
It will deter the possessors of power from relying too 
much upon official influence in their efforts to retain their 
authority contrary to the wishes of the people. << With 


the patronage of office, properly directed." said a con- 
spicuous secretary of the present day, '' no man in power 
need be afraid of losing his election. A vigilent and ju- 
dicious application of the right means will interest the 
feelings or the cupidity of the leaders of the people, and 
then all will be safe." These may not be exactly the 
words of the secretary; but the sentiment is the same as 
that which went the rounds of the newspapers, last sum- 
mer, as his; and that he uttered it, we have never known to 
be disputed. This gentleman has, however, since found 
that the elective franchise of Americans is not so entirely 
under the control of political management, as this senti- 
ment supposes. He has found that there are more inde- 
pendence of thought, and more purity of conduct, among 
the citizens of the United States, than he imagined. He 
has found that the pliable representatives of Missouri, Il- 
linois, and a few other of the small states, who voted at 
his command four years ago, were not the representatives 
of American integrity and patriotism. No doubt he and 
all his party are much mortified at the discovery. But 
they have gained information. They have acquired a 
more correct knowledge of the national character; a know- 
ledge by which some of them may yet be benefitted. At 
all events the shock of their downfall has elicited a light 
which will long serve to direct future statesmen on the 
proper path of political integrity. It will show them 
that a studious regard to the rights of the people in pre- 
ference to their own personal aggrandizement, and a strict 
attention to the interests of the nation, rather than to the 
continusyice of their own power, are the best, and only 
sure means of securing a valuable reputation and perma- 
nent honour. 


The sentiments expressed on this subject, by that able 
and patriotic statesman, the present governor of New 
York, in his late message to the Senate and Assembly of 
that state, are so entirely in accordance with our own, 
and exhibit the issue of the great contest, in a point of 
view so lucid and correct, that we cannot refrain from 
laying them before our readers. 

" Of that great struggle, it may truly be said that if it 
brought with it much to regret, it has also afforded sub- 
jects for congratulation, without reference to its particular 
result. Ours is the only nation in the world which can 
fairly be said to enjoy the high privilege of selecting its 
chief magistrate by the unbiassed choice of its citizens. 
That the exercise of a right so interesting in its character, 
and so important in its results, would disturb the body 
politic in all its relations, was to have been anticipated, 
and in the present instance, has been fairly realized. It 
is certainly true, that the reputation of the country has in 
some degree suffered from the uncharitable and unrelent- 
ing scrutiny to which private as well as public character 
has been subjected. But, on the other hand, the injury 
produced by this discreditable exhibition has been relieved, 
if not removed, by seeing how soon the overflowing wa- 
ters of bitterness have spent themselves, and already the 
current of public feeling has resumed its accustomed chan- 
nels. These excesses are the price we pay for that full 
enjoyment of the right of opinion, which is emphatically 
the birthright of an American citizen. It is with perfect 
deference to that sacred privelege, and in the humble 
exercise of that portion of it which belongs to myself — 
with a sincere desire not to offend the feeling of those 
whose views in this respect differ from my own — that I 
beg leave to congratulate you, and t);irough you, our con- 
stituents, on the result of the late election for President 
and vice-President of the United States: a result which 
while it infuses fresh vigor into our political system, and 
adds new beauties to the Republican character, oneemore 
refutes the odious imputation tliat republics are ungrate- 
ful: dissipates the vain hope that our citizens can be in 


fluenced by aught, save appeals to their understanding and 
love of country; and finally, exhibits in bold relief, the 
omnipotence of public opinion, and the futility of all 
attempts to overawe it by the denunciations of power, or 
to seduce it by the allurements of patronage. " 

As America, with the exception of Washington, has 
produced no individual to whom she is more indebted than 
the illustrious subject of this publication, so with the same 
exception, there has yet appeared none whom she is more 
inclined to honor. Innumerable are the testimonies of 
that grateful respect, so strongly felt and widely spread, 
wrhich he has received, and is daily receiving, from both 
public bodies and private individuals. These manifesta- 
tions of the national esteem and gratitude, are to be 
considered valuable as rescuing the country from the 
disgrace which the conduct of his traducers would have 
brought upon it. They were to him a shield against the 
shafts of calumny; and afforded him ample consolation 
for the most rancorous vituperation he had to endure. 
Our limits will not permit us to indulge in even a brief 
notice of particular instances of those honorable demon- 
strations of the popular sentiment towards him. We 
cannot, however, refrain from observing that the Eighth 
of January, the anniversary of his victory at New Orleans, 
has, next to the Fourth of July, become the most impor- 
tant and universally celebrated, of our national festivals. 
Jackson has enjoyed the rare felicity of receiving, on the 
day of this festival, in the city, to commemorate his pre- 
servation of which, it is instituted, the most gratifying 
tokens of gratitude and honor, which the sensibilities of a 
rescued and opulent community could bestow. The as- 
sertion so often made by his enemies that the citizens 
of New Orleans do not estimate his services in their dc- 




fence, as they ought, is therefore libellous and untrue. 
It was propagated with the multitude of other calumnies 
sent abroad prior to the late election, with the view of 
lessening the importance of those services in the estimation 
of the public. As it has, like the rest of its kindred 
slanders, proved incapable of effecting its purpose, it is 
hoped that we shall hear no more of it, and that the foul 
reproach of ingratitude will be no longer cast upon a pa- 
triotic city which does not deserve it. 

But in the midst of triumph and honor, Jackson has 
been doomed to endure a dispensation of the most afflic- 
ting nature. It would seem that happiness is destined 
never to come to man in this world, perfect and unalloy- 
ed. When the tide of prosperity flows most copiously 
and unsulliedly towards us, there appears to be almost 
a certainty of its being checked and tarnished by a sud- 
den dashing upon the shoals of some unforseen calamity. 
Scarcely had authentic intelligence reached the dwelling 
of General Jackson, that his cause was triumphant, and 
his election accomplished, when she who had been long 
the faithful companion of his life; she who had been the 
solace of his retirement and the partaker of his reproach, 
and who, he fondly hoped, would have been the sharer 
of the high honors now awarded to him — his beloved 
wife — was unexpectedly taken from him by a short but se- 
vere sickness. She became indisposed on the 17th and 
died on the 22nd of December. The distress produced 
upon the mind of her illustrious husband by this melan- 
choly event, is described, by one of the physicians that 
attended her, in the following affecting passage of a com- 
munication to the editor of the Winchester Virginian. 

''■ How shall I describe the agony. — the heart rending 
agony of the venerable partner of her bosom! He had 


in compliance with our earnest entreaties, seconded by 
those of his lady, left her chamber, (which he seldom per- 
mitted himself to do,) and lain down in an adjoining room, 
to seek repose for his harrassed mind and body. A few- 
minutes only had elapsed, when we were hastily sum- 
moned to her chamber, and the General, in a moment, 
followed after us. But he was only in time to witness 
the last convulsive effort of expirino; nature! ! Then it 
was that all the feelings of the devoted husband burst forth. 
His breast heaved, and his soul seemed to struggle with 
a load too oppressive for frail humanity." 

In the same communication, the effects of this mourn- 
ful occurrence upon the minds not only of the immediate 
connexions and domestics of the deceased, but of the in- 
habitants of the whole adjacent country by whom she had 
been greatly beloved, is related as follows. 

^*A numerous train of domestics crowded around the 
bed of their beloved mistress, and filled the room with 
their piercing cries. They could not bring their minds to 
a belief of the painful reality that their mistress diud friend 
(for such indeed she was) was a lifeless corpse. *'0h ! is 
there no hope?" was their agonizing question; and vain- 
ly would they flatter themselves with the belief, that per- 
haps *< she was only fainting. 

" The distressing event spread with the rapidity of the 
wind; and relatives and neighbors thronged the house from 
midnight until late the following morning. Soon the 
painful tidings reached Nashville (12 miles distant) and a 
fresh concourse of friends pressed forward to show their 
respect for the dead and to mourn with the living. A 
splendid dinner and ball which was to have been given to 
the General on the 23d instant, previous to his departure, 
were indefinitely postponed. On the 24th the stores and 
shops of the city were universally closed, and business 
entirely suspended. The same day (24th) she was bu- 
ried in the garden, attended by a large concourse of 
weeping relatives and friends. The General followed 
the corpse to its << narrow cell," supported by General 
Coffee, his old friend and companion in arms, and Mr. 


The following dirge to the Memory of JNIrs. jackson, 
written by the author of the preceding pages, it is hoped, 
will not be considered unsiiited for insertion in this 

In sorrow sunk beside the mournful bier 

Of her who long* had blest his bright career, 

Th' illustrious chosen of his country, see, 

In meekness bending to the stern decree. 

View there a struggle which all hearts must move. 

The hero's firmness with the husband's love. 

Freemen ! 'tis he whose spirit, prompt and brave. 

On patriot pinions flew your realm to save ; 

*Tis he whose hand, conducting vict'ry's car. 

Crushed your invaders on the field of war ; 

Who when the fierce appalling strife was o'er. 

Which shook the land, and danger was no more ; 

Contented with his country's thanks, retired 

To rural shades, nor pomp nor power desired. — 

But well his worth his grateful country knew ; 

No secret shades could hide it from her view; 

And to its proper sphere, with loud acclaim. 

She drew it forth, and crowned her Jackson's fame. 

But what is power or splendor to his heart. 
Now doomed from all that formed his bliss to part ? 
In vain around his brow a wreath is twined. 
The fairest ever worn by human kind. 
While the loved mem'ry of that lost-one dwells 
Fresh in his soul, and all his sorrow swells. 
And well to him her mem'ry may be dear ; — 
Round him she clung with holy faith sincere; 
Her pride, her stay, her lover and her lord. 
And only less than Heaven itself adored. 
She loved the manly heart that made her blest. 
She loved the patriot flame that warmed his breast. 
She loved the tolls that could his virtues wake. 
She loved ev'n glory for her husband's sake. 
For well she knew that he was glory's heir. 
Though envy scoffed, and slander did not spare. 


His noblest deeds, though viperous tongues assailed, 
While faction triumphed, and deceit prevailed. 
She fondly lioped the glorious day to see. 
When truth would vanquish fiictlous calumny.— 
Oh shame to manhood ! that our times have seen 
Monsters possessed of man's uplifted mein, 
Whose hearts the base, unfeeling tale could frame, 
That tried to blast so pure a being's fame ! 
Alas ! we know them, heartless as they are. 
With feeling, truth and manliness at war, 
W^io but to gratify a factious end, 
The poisoned shafts to woman's heart could send! 
And thine, much injured and lamented fair, 
'Tvvas thine the torture of those shafts to bear. 
Until a generous nation nobly rose, 
And hurled disgrace and ruin on thy foes. 
Then to the world, with unstained lustre, shone 
Thy honored husband's virtues and thy own. 
While shrunk the vile assailants of thy fame. 
From public scorn, in terror and in shame. 
How fervently, in that auspicious hour. 
Thy thankful bosom blest th' immortal Power, 
Whose voice the justice of thy country woke. 
And truth in thunder to thy slanderers spoke ! 

Oh, 'twas to generous minds an hour of pride. 
When injured innocence was justified. 
And merit drawn from its concealing shade. 
To be with honor, fame and power repaid ! 
Then was the triumph of the patriot wife, 
Which filled with ample joy her cup of life. 
" It is enough !" th' illustrious matron cried ; 
And blessed her country, praised her God, and — died ! 

As soon as the state of his afflicted feelings would per- 
mit, General Jackson commenced his journey for the seat 
of the national government, to assume the functions of the 
high office to which the voice of his country had called 
him. His progress was marked by no ostentation. The 


unambitious simplicity of his habits and manners, inde- 
pendently of the present affliction of his mind, was averse 
to pomp and parade. The people, however, came forth in 
multitudes, wherever he passed, to testify, at once, their res- 
pect for his virtues, their sympathy with his sufferings, 
and their gratification at his triumph, which had secured 
to them that invaluable and glorious privilege— the right 
OP SUFFRAGE, in which alone consist their freedom and 
their sovereignty. 

^. \l 

, ^=31 


s cm 

m m^ 


352 ft. 

4 in's. 

121 do. 

6 do. 

65 do. 

83 do. 

70 do. 

145 do. 



The Capitol of the United States is situated on an area enclosed by 
an iron railing-, and including- 22 1-2 acres — the building- stands on the 
western portion of this plat, and commands, by the sudden declivity of 
the ground, a beautiful and extensive view of the city, of the sur- 
rounding-heights of Georgetown, &.c.and the windings of the Potomac 
as far as Alexandria, The building is as follows: 

Length of Front, - - - - 
Depth of Wings, - - - - 
East projection and steps. 
West do. do. 

Covering 1^ acre, and 1320 ft. 
Height of Wings to top of Balustrade, 
Height to top of centre dome, - 

The exterior exhibits a rusticated basement, of the height of the 
first story ; the two other stories are comprised in a Corinthian eleva- 
tion of pilasters and columns — -the columns, 30 feet in height, form a 
noble advancing Portico, on the East, 160 feet in extent — the centre 
of which is crowned with a pediment of 80 feet span : a receding log- 
gia, of 100 feet extent, distinguishes the centre of the West Front. 

The building is surrounded by a balustrade of stone and covered 
with a lofty Dome in the centre, and a flat Dome on each Wing. 

The Representatives' room is in the second story of the South 
wing — is semicircular, in the form of the ancient Grecian theatre — 
the chord of the longest dimensions is 96 feet — the height to the liigh- 
est part of the domical ceiling is 60 feet This room is sun-ounded 
with 24 columns of variegated native marble, from the banks of the 
Potomac, with capitals of white Italian marble, carved after a speci- 
men of the Corinthian order, still remaining among the ruins of 

The Senate Chamber in the North wing is of the same semicircu- 
lar form — 75 feet in its greatest length, and 45 feet high — a screen of 
Ionic columns, with capitals, after those of the temple of Minerva Po- 
lias, support a gallery to the East, and from a loggia below — and a 
new gallery of iron pillars and railings of a light and elegant stricture 
projects from the circular walls — the dome ceiling is enriched with 
square cassions of Stucco. The Rotunda occupies the centre, and is 
96 feet in diameter, and 96 high. This is the principal entrance from 
the East Portico and West stairs, and leads to the legislative halls and 
library. This room is divided in its circuit into panels, by lofty Gre- 
cian pilasters or antoe, which support a bold entablature, ornamented 


with wreaths of olive — a hemispherical dome rises above filled with 
large plain cassions, like those of the Pantheon at Rome, The panels 
of the circular walls are appropriated to paintings and has relieves of 
historical subjects. Passing from the Rotunda, Westerly, along the 
gallery of the principal stairs, the library room door presents itself. — 
This room is 92 feet long, 34 wide, and 36 high ; it is formed into re- 
cesses or alcoves for books on two sides, by pilasters, copied from the 
Portico of the Temple of the Winds at Athens — a light stair in each 
corner of the room leads to a second range of alcoves, and the whole 
is covered by a rich and beautiful stuccoed ceiling. This room has 
access to the Western loggia, from which the view of the city and sur- 
rounding country appears to great advantage. 

Besides the principal rooms above mentioned, two others deserve no- 
tice, from the peculiarity of their architecture — the round apartment 
under the Rotunda, enclosing 40 columns supporting ground arches, 
which form the floor of the Rotunda. This room is similar to the sub- 
structions of the European Cathedrals, and may take the name of Crypt 
from them: the other room is used by the Supreme Court of the Unit- 
ed States — of the same style of architecture, with a bold and curiously 
arched ceiling, the columns of these rooms are of a massy Dorick, im- 
itated from the temples of Poestum. Twenty-five other rooms, of va- 
rious sizes are appropriated to the officers of the two houses of Con- 
gress and of the Supreme Court, and 46' to the use of committees. 
They are all vaulted and floored with brick and stone. Three prin- 
cipal staircases are spacious and varied in their form: these, with the 
vestibules and numerous corridors or passages, it would be difficult to 
describe intelligibly: we will only say, that they are in conformity to 
the dignity of the building and style of the parts already named. The 
building having been situated originally on the declivity of a hill, oc- 
casioned the West front to show in its elevation one story of rooms 
below the general level of the East front and the ends. To remedy 
this defect, and to obtain safe deposits for the large quantities of fuel 
annually consumed, a range of casemate arches has been projected in 
a semicircular form to the West, and a paved terrace formed over them: 
this addition is of great utility and beauty, and at a short distance ex- 
hibits the building on one uniform level — this terrace is faced with a 
grass bank, or glacis, and at some distance below, another glacis with 
steps leads to the level of the West entrance of the Porter's Lodges — 
these, together with the piers to the gates at the several entrances of 
the square, are in the same massy style as the basement of the build- 
ing: the whole area or square is surrounded with a lofty iron railing, 
and is in progress of planting and decorating with forest trees, shrubs, 
gravel walks, and turf. — Elliott's Ann. CaL 

JLM'K.^CD^f'i MAI1€H. 


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