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Full text of "Jacobean crewel work and traditional designs"

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Jacobean Crewel Work 
And Traditional Designs 



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Jacobean 
(Creiu el Work 

traditional ^Designs 





B4 EAST 58th STRtBi 
HEVN YORK 81 



Published by 

WM. BR1GGS & CO. LTD., 34, CANNON STREET 

MANCHESTER, 4. 



CONTENTS 





Page 


Foreword 


3 


History of Jacobean Embroidery 


...4&5 


Stitches 


...6&7 


Fillings 


8&17 


Rutland Design 


9 


Encouragement 


... 10 


Flowers and Animals 


... 11 


Albemarle Design 


... 12 


Lauderdale Design 


... 14 


Long and Short Stitch ... 


... 16 


Warwick Design 


... 18 


Vauxhall Design... 


... 20 


Richmond Design 


... 22 


Elizabethan Design 


... 24 


Marlborough Design 


... 26 


Regency Design 


28 


Berkeley Square Design... 


30 


Hardwicke Design 


... 32 


Chinese Chippendale Design . 


... 34 


Facts and Fashions 


38 


How to obtain the designs 


39 


Method of Working 


40 


334534 





A REMARK TO THE READER 

The Penelope designs illustrated in this book are 
copied or adapted from existing historical pieces . 
The various styles and periods to which they 
belong overlap considerably and no definite dates 
are therefore given. The suggested periods are 
offered merely to encourage an association of 
ideas. The small illustrations of the various 
period chairs on pages 28, 33, 34 and 36 
have been reproduced by kind permission of the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, London, in whose 
keeping the actual chairs now are. 
Before commencing any of the designs 
please turn to page 40. 



Page Tiuo 



,$ ftpr /?&3 



FOREWORD 



TO EVERY NEEDLEWOMAN 



My post bag has contained many letters recently 
asking for suggestions and help in working period 
embroideries and particularly Jacobean Crewel Work. 
It is apparent that there is a distinct revival of interest in 
this type of embroidery, and many embroideresses would 
probably welcome a few practical notes on the subject, 
hence this small book. 

For the most part the enquiries have been connected 
with matters of colour and choice of stitch. Both subjects 
are dealt with very fully here. There is also a brief — a very 
brief — history of this most fascinating period of British 
embroidery. 

Here I should like to express my thanks to certain 
members of the staff of the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
Kensington, for their kind assistance. 

As many of you know, most needlework stores 
sell Jacobean designs stamped on linen ready to work. 
Naturally, it is always more exciting to make one's own 
designs, but there are many needlewomen, some of them 
technically perfect, who would find this a great hardship, 
and to such these traced patterns are invaluable. 

Although it is intended first and foremost for their 
use and that of the quite inexpert, I sincerely hope that 
every needlewoman will find something of interest to her, 
however small, in this publication, whether she makes a 
serious study of her embroidery or treats it as a light 
hearted hobby. 



ti^JiX&pjL 




Page Three 



fashions in embroidery, unlike fashions in dress, do not change 
quickly : it is not a matter of months but of years. When we remember 
that this crewel work is nearly three hundred years old we can understand 
that ten years, or twenty for that matter, is neither here nor there. 
Three hundred years ago life was not the speedy business it is now. 
Certainly, people were beginning to travel more — the stage coach was 
an innovation about this time — read more, and take a growing interest in 
things further afield, but it still took a long long time for a new idea 
to permeate the whole country. 

It is impossible to simplify matters by putting different styles 
of embroidery in separate little compartments. One style is always 
merging into its next door neighbour or popping up when least expected. 

The vogue for embroidery worked in worsted, which is that in 
which we are particularly interested, lasted about fifty years, or roughly 
speaking from 1650-1710. Another way of putting it would be to say 
approximately from the Restoration to the death of Queen Anne. 

Quite a lot of work in crewel wools must have been done long 
before this on cushions and hangings, and was certainly afterwards, 
but the pieces that have survived, all belong to this period. 

It is rather odd, that although Stuart and Jacobean mean the same 
thing, in embroidery the title of Jacobean is used for the crewel work, 
whilst Stuart is applied to all the other types of contemporary needlework, 
such as the curious padded stump work and the petit point panels. 

Before discussing the actual embroideries, picture for a moment 
what was happening in England during these days. For twenty odd years 
the people led a very sober existence under the strict supervision of 
Cromwell. Then came the second Charles, fond of comfort and gaiety, 
full of continental ideas and with hosts of foreign friends. It was definitely 
a time of extravagance. The world of fashion welcomed any novelty in 
dress, food or anything else, and novelties there were in plenty. Nell 
Gwynne's star was in the ascendant and Samuel Pepys was writing 
his diary. 

All this time an important thing was happening. Trade had been 
slowly expanding since the days of Elizabeth, and by now our ships 
were well known as far away as India and the Far East. The first British 
ship reached China whilst Charles the First was still king. Travellers 
and merchants returned from abroad with tales of strange people and 
strange places. The trading companies, now settled in the East, sent 
home with their cargoes many beautiful examples of Indian crafts- 
manship. 

Public taste was intrigued, particularly with the exquisitely painted 
calicoes or Palampores. These were treasured and used as curtains or 
wall decorations. 

The Palampores were all very much alike. A Tree of Life usually 
sprang from decorative mounds of earth. Its branches, which spread 
about in all directions, were laden with exotic flowers and birds. 

This description could quite easily be applied to a typical Jacobean 
hanging. Indeed, these cottons had an immediate effect on embroidery. 
Everybody wanted this new Eastern flavour. If one could not have a 
real Palampore, one could at least have the new bed hangings worked 
in the same style, with similar flowers and birds altered only to suit 
the limitations of crewel work, or when the individuality of the designer 
asserted itself. 

The delicate drawing on the calicoes was soon lost in the crewel 
patterns, but this does not make them any the less attractive. 

It is very obvious that, however Indian or Persian each detail 
may pretend to be, the whole effect is undoubtedly more English than 
Oriental. Perhaps it is unfair to stress the Eastern influence so often. 
After all, trees and flowers have always been well to the fore in English 
embroidery. 

The first crewel work hangings were in monochrome, generally 
in shades of blue or green, but occasionally in red. They showed 
serpent-like trunks, side by side, or sprawling over the whole design. 
From these grew acanthus-like leaves, and clumsy flower shapes, 
which were outlined with chain stitch and patterned inside with little 
scale patterns and check fillings, or with fine scroll effects. The trunks 
themselves were sometimes in crewel stitch, but more often in chain. 



THE STORY OF 

JACOBEAN 



i 







Page Four 



EMBROIDERY 



Next, the designs became more solid. The mounds of earth, the 
tree trunks, leaves and flowers were entirely filled in with long and short 
stitch. Because of the much slower method the motifs became smaller. 

Strangely enough, in spite of its name, crewel stitch itself is used 
very little, much less indeed than long and short stitch. 



Sometimes the design is a single tree. Rabbits, deer and an 
occasional leopard appear among the mounds, with pagoda-like houses 
and vases of flowers. Surely a Chinese touch, this ? 

The colouring is now much brighter, although greens and blues 
still predominate. Reds are brickish or rose rather than on the pink 
and mauve side, and blues are always more indigo than royal. 

Olive green is used, not jade, and the ultimate result is one of 
richness rather than prettiness. Some of the colours must have faded, 
but the blues, greens and browns seem to have remained almost unaltered. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century the patterns for crewel 
work began to change. Isolated sprays appear or borders with sprays 
spotted about between. The all-over patterns become quite thin and 
dainty. The flowers become more English and the mounds seem to 
disappear. We are told that Queen Anne, though not a needlewoman, 
was a very keen gardener. Perhaps this accounts for the flowers becoming 
more and more lifelike in treatment as if the embroideress had taken 
them direct from nature. 

But it was the Queen who preceded Anne, Mary, the wife of 
William III, who is a shining example of industry to all embroideresses. 
She was never seen idle and spent days at her embroidery frame. It 
was due to her influence that such quantities of crewel work were 
attempted. Nothing was too ambitious. Crewel work was even used for 
upholstery. 

It was the fashionable thing to be an accomplished needlewoman, 
and sometimes whole sets of chair coverings would be undertaken 
by the lady of the house and her daughters. At this time, too, there were 
also the professional embroiderers — men belonging to the Broderers' 
Guild. They would travel across the countryside staying at various 
houses to work the new bed curtains, and it is probable that many of 
the crewel work panels would be their work, whilst the ladies of the 
household spent their time on samplers, petit point pictures and articles 
of clothing. 




Long after Anne died crewel work remained in favour, or, to be 
more accurate, the same type of pattern did, but silk gradually took 
the place of wool. New styles in furniture, lighter and daintier than the 
Jacobean, demanded rather different coverings, and flowered silks 
and velvets were considered the correct thing. 

The Chinese type of ornament grew in popularity, even Chippendale 
developed one of his styles under its influence. 

But the subject appears endless and we must conclude, but not 
without first expressing a hope, that even if you are not actually interested 
in history, you will perhaps see something more than just a pleasant 
way of passing the time in your next piece of Jacobean crewel work. 

Page Five 



STITCHES FOR 
FINE STEMS & OUTLINES 



SPLIT 



STEM & 

CREWEL 



THORN STITCH.— Work in a frame. First lay a 
long thread from end to end of the line. This is held in 
position by stitches taken over it from one side and then 
from the other. Use to make a fine stem heavier, or 
more interesting. See thorn stitch in use on page 13. 





CORAL STITCH 



SPLIT STITCH. — When worked 
in a frame, bring the thread up through 
the material. Take a stitch back and bring 
the needle up again a little in front of the 
spot where it first came up. Take another 
stitch back, but this time through the previous 
stitch, splitting the thread and making what 
looks like a chain stitch. When worked in 
hand, work from right to left as for an ordinary 
stitch but splitting the previous stitch. Stitches about 
| in. long. Very useful for fine outlines. 

STEM AND CREWEL STITCH.— Bring the 
needle up through the traced line. With the thread to 
the right of the needle put the needle in again a little 
further on to the left of the traced line, and pick up a 
little of the material. Draw the thread through and 
continue along the traced line. When used as a filling 
it is called crewel stitch, and when the thread is held 
to the left instead of the right it is known as outline stitch. 
Outline stitch makes a finer line. 

CORAL STITCH.— Work from right to left and 
in the hand. Bring up the thread through the traced 
line and hold it down with the thumb. Take up a little 
of the material with your needle as shown in the diagram, 
the thread being over the needle. Take the thread under 
the needle and pull through. A tiny knot should result. 
Use for fine stems. 

Page Six 



THORN 

STITCH 




STITCHES FOR 
STEMS, LEAVES & 
FLOWERS 



SATIN and LONG & SHORT 



CHAIN 



LAID WORK 




BRICK STITCH 




BRICK STITCH. —A 

simple arrangement of satin 

stitches used for broad stems. 

First, a group of short stitches, then 

a group of longer ones, and so on 

down the stem. The second row 

consists of blocks of satin stitches all the 

same length but fitting up to those on the first row, and 

in a different colour. An occasional extra stitch may be 

needed as the stem curves round. 



SATIN STITCH.— Sloping stitches lying close 
together make a useful and quick treatment for medium 
stems. 



LONG AND SHORT STITCH.— The diagram 
here shows how the same stitch that is used for the leaves 
and flowers can be adapted for stems. This stitch must 
be worked in a frame. See page 16 for details of the 
working. 

CHAIN STITCH.— Generally worked in the hand 
and towards the embroideress. Bring the thread up 
through the traced line and hold it down with the left 
thumb. Take your needle through the same hole again 
and bring it up about -\ of an inch further along the line. 
Still holding the wool under draw the needle through. 
Chain stitch can be used for heavy outlines or in rows 
as a solid filling for leaves and flowers. The rows of 
stitches follow the outline of the shape. Beautiful shaded 
effects can be obtained when the rows are in various 
colours. 



LAID WORK WITH COUCHING.— First fill in 
the shape with long stitches from side to side, in the 
same direction as the threads of the material. Over this 
a contrasting thread is couched down (that is, sewn down 
at regular intervals) in decorative lines. As an example 
the diagram shows the lines of couching used in a way 
suggestive of veins. Sometimes it is worked in a scale 
pattern. Always let the couched thread lie across the laid 
stitches, not alongside them. 



Page Seven 



FOR FLOWERS & FRUIT 



SOLID COUCHING OR LAID WORK.— Take threads 
across the shape and sew these down with small stitches 
in a contrasting wool. Use double wool. This is a 
particularly decorative treatment for small leaves and 
flowers, or such things as acorn cups, etc. 

BRICK SHADING.— This is a change from 
the ordinary shading stitch. The first row 
consists of long and short stitches alternately. 
The second row, which will be in another 
shade, is made up of stitches all the same 
length, that fit into the spaces between the long 
stitches of the first row. The stitches of the third 
row, in yet another shade, will fit in between these 
and so on. Pencil the lines of shading in lightly if no 
lines are already traced. 




SOLID 
COUCHING 



BRICK SHADING 



SIMPLE FILLINGS 



STAR FILLING 



TRELLIS & CROSS 




LINK STITCH 



CHESS BOARD 
FILLING 





TRELLIS WITH CROSS STITCH.— 
First take long stitches from left to right 
and then others at right angles to these. 
At each point where the stitches cross, 
secure them to the ground material with 
a cross stitch in a contrasting shade. Be 
careful to get your first stitches all the 
same distance apart. Work in a frame. 

STAR FILLING. — The stars are 
worked first. They consist (1) of an upright 
cross, (2) a diagonal cross. All four stitches 
are then sewn down with a third cross 
stitch. Work small stitches in pairs between 
the stars. This filling is an easy way of 
covering quite large spaces. See page 13 
for an illustration. 

Tiny stitches worked singly over a 
space are referred to as SEEDING, or in 
pairs as SPECKLING. See pages 15 and 13. 

LINK STITCHES. — Single chain 
stitches are quickly worked over a space and 
look effective. Link stitches are also used 
to soften the outline of a large heavy motif. 

CHESS BOARD FILLING.— Groups 
of satin stitches are worked with spaces 
alternately. Afterwards a cross is worked 
over each group with a contrasting colour. 
Hold this cross down with a tiny stitch. 




Page Eight 



HE *RII1 








• 



This design is one of 
the most popular in the 
Penelope Jacobean range. 
It has the typical curiously 
shaped leaves worked in 
long and short stitch. 
Some of the motifs 
introduce the star fillings, 
others have squares of 
satin stitch between 
which threads of wool 
are laid and couched 
down with cross stitches 
of a contrasting colour. 
There are several trefoil 
shaped leaves with centres 
of solid French knots, 
and knots are used also 
to outline the scale pat- 
tern of the mauve cones. 
Crewel stitch or shading 
stitch is used for the 
trunk. Other fillings can 
be introduced for variety. 

The ranges of Penelope 
Crewel Wool chosen for 
the original were as 
follows : Greens 565-568, 
594,595 ; Golds 571-574 ; 
Plums 502-505 ; Jades 517- 
520 ; Blues 603 - 604 ; 
Fawns and Browns 616, 
617, 524, 514, 534, 535, 
536; Brick Reds 561-563; 
Greys 580-582. 

The Drabs 534-536 and 
594 were used for the main 
trunk, and 524 with some 
of the browns and dark 
greys for the mounds. The 
" Rutland " design is 
made in the following 
articles : Firescreens, 
cushion tops and chair 
backs. 



Shades used for the 
"RUTLAND" 

Penelope Crewel Wool. 

Golds 571, 572, 573, 574. 

Pinks, Plums and Reds 502, 503, 
504,505,561,562,563. 

Blues 603, 604. 

Jades 517, 518, 519, 520. 

Greens 565, 566, 567, 568, 594, 
595. 

Fawns and Browns 524, 534, 535, 
536, 616, 617, 514. 

Greys 580, 581, 582. 




As the new shade range varies somewhat from 
the one used for the original embroidery, it is possible 
that some portions will not be identical to the 
illustration. A very artistic and satisfactory result 
will, however, be obtained from the shades quoted. 



Page Nine 



ENCOURAGEMENT 



Jacobean embroidery is easy to work, and there is certainly nothing 
monotonous about either the colouring or the stitchery. On the contrary 
the bold effective treatment of some of the flower shapes and animals 
is something that we moderns can appreciate. Also the work is neither 
fine nor trying to the eyes. Stitches nearly three-quarters of an inch 
in length are a good average for the shading of the larger masses. 

The one difficult point is the working of long and short stitch, 
which stitch, though simple enough in itself, does need thought and a 
little practice when an awkward shape has to be filled in. The open 
fillings, on the other hand, are quickly done and large spaces are soon 
covered. 

All the Penelope designs are traced on a linen twill which is 
practically identical with the original background material of the genuine 
old examples. Those seen in various museums are well worth examining. 
The way in which each small object is treated and the clever use of shading 
is something to be admired. The direction of the stitches is carefully 
arranged, but there is nothing laboured about any of it. It all appears 
quite carefree and effortless. 

There is no need to worry because you find it harder than you 
expected to keep accurately to the traced line, or the stitches come a 
little more irregular than you think they should. 

Go ahead and enjoy yourself. Concentrate on the colouring and 
make every corner interesting. Never mind if the technique is not too 
wonderful. It is a certain effect you are out to achieve, not a test of 
neatness. 

A table or floor frame will make the work much easier, and 
indeed, some sort of a frame is essential for shading the solid parts, 
although chain stitch and stem stitch are best worked in the hand. 

With regard to needles, a crewel needle size 4 is the best. When 
choosing a colour scheme it is always safe to include a good quantity 
of blue and green. In a quandary between a sombre and a bright shade, 
choose the quiet one. 

When blending colours it gives more life and character to a pattern 
if instead of running through the entire range of a colour a start is 
made with one or two shades of a range, and then a jump is taken to 
another range of the same colour. For instance, suppose a start is made 
with greens such as 507 and 508, instead of continuing with 509 and 
543, why not use 519 and 532 ? The most dangerous colours are purples, 
toffee pinks and flames. Avoid these. 

The question of mounting and making up your embroidery will, 
of coure, arise. Cushions can be made with a gusset or flat. The 
seams should be made decorative with a blanket stitch or some simple 
oversewing with the crewel wool. A piping is another obvious finish. 
Before making up, press the work on the wrong side with a hot iron 
over a damp cloth, but try not to flatten the embroidery. French knots 
are very ugly when flattened. 

Stool tops and firescreens, etc., should be mounted by an experienced 
cabinet maker. If your furniture is not antique, you will find that 
these patterns are quite in keeping with modern schemes. The 
" Albemarle " design seems to demand oak, but the " Marlborough " 
design is the one to work for walnut and mahogany. The latter would 
be quite at home in a Chippendale scheme. 

Page Ten 





FLOWERS AND 
ANIMALS OF 
STUART 
EMBROIDERIES 





The seventeenth century embroideress 
had two sources of inspiration open to her. 
If she lived in the country she would most 
likely draw her designs from memory and 
nature. If she lived in the town, then she 
would make use of an old herbal book, or 
perhaps one of the few books of embroidery 
patterns then published. Such books were 
illustrated with engravings of every possible 
kind of plant, animal and insect, and various 
designs for borders and a few allegorical 
figures. 

The language of flowers and other symbols was taken very 
seriously, and it is obvious there is quite a lot of hidden meaning 
behind many of the Petit Point designs, particularly those worked 
in the earlier years of the period. 

Patriotic emblems are mixed up with family crests. Charles I 
and his Queen appear again and again in the role of various Biblical 
heroes and heroines. Political leanings could be thus expressed without 
hurting anybody's feelings. No doubt a lady living during the 
Commonwealth would get a certain joy out of embroidering Stuart 
symbols all over her cushions. 

The crewel work panels do not seem to suggest these hidden 
meanings. The ambition of the journeyman embroiderers who probably 
worked many of them, would be to include every variety of flower 
he could draw, however inconsistent they were. Still, the same flowers 
and animals are seen in both types of work, and it is interesting to 
pick them out. 

Trees have always been popular in English embroidery. Apple 
trees, pear trees and oak trees seem to be chief favourites. The Indian 
version of the Tree of Life became a great favourite, and was 
immediately adopted for the crewel patterns. The little earthy mounds, 
out of which spring all sorts of flowers , appear everywhere. 

The flowers and plants most often used are roses, lilies, harebells, 
tulips, hyacinths, honeysuckle, pansies, foxgloves, jasmine, shamrock, 
carnations, wheat and thistles, also the vine, or at any rate bunches 
of grapes and cherries. In the crewel work you also find numerous 
Eastern flowers copied from the Palampores. Notice the Indian cone 
shapes here and there. 

The rose, is, of course, a national emblem. It sometimes turns 
up in its Tudor and sometimes in its Persian form. The oak or acorn 
was used as a national emblem after the Restoration to commemorate 
Charles IPs escapade in the oak tree. The carnation is usually connected 
with Charles I, as also the caterpillar and the butterfly. 

You will often find the strawberry introduced in some odd corner ; 
apparently it was a great topical novelty. 

Those queer and clumsy leaf shapes of the earlier Jacobean crewel 
panels are rather similar to acanthus leaves. 

Sometimes even sacred symbols appear. For instance, you will 
often find the pelican, which stands for divine love ; the dove and the 
peacock, or the pomegranate, which means eternal life. 

Every sort of animal is introduced — lions, leopards, unicorns, 
stags, squirrels, camels and elephants are worked in among the mounds, 
whilst occasionally a dog chases a rabbit. 

The phoenix, birds of paradise and parrots help to fill the spaces 
between the leaves and branches on the hangings. 

Next time you visit an exhibition or museum where Stuart 
embroideries are shown, look out for some of these little creatures. 
You will find such queer versions of the elephant and the camel. 
Remember they were drawn by people who only had the stories of 
travellers and their own imaginations to work upon. There is something 
very attractive and happy about these embroideries, and they make us 
feel that England must really have been " Merrie England " in those days. 



Page Eleven 



*AL£E 





FAGGOT FILLING. 

Work groups of four or five stitches 
close together. With another thread work 
one or two back stitches across the middle 
of each group, thus making it into a bundle. 
The bundles should keep roughly in line 
but the stitches should not all be exactly 
the same length. Stitches may be about 
half an inch long. 



Shades used for the 

"ALBEMARLE." 

Penelope Crewel Wool. 

Golds 570, 571. 

Pinks and Reds 503, 599, 561, 562, 563, 505, 
601, 631, 632. 

Blues 589, 603, 604, 605, 606, 531, 532. 

Jades 518, 519, 520. 

Greens 540, 543, 593, 594, 595, 565, 566, 
567, 569, 506, 507, 508. 

Fawns and Browns 524, 624, 625, 533, 534, 
574, 514, 616, 617. 

Black 608. 
Page Twelve 



Every motif in Albemarle is absolutely true to type. Notice 
the meandering stems, the mounds and the animals, and the 
very typical fillings used on the large leaf shapes. Brick and cross 
fillings, star filling and rows of faggots are easily recognised. 
Such fillings are most interesting to work and big spaces are soon 
covered in this way. 

On the original model a great number of shades were 
introduced, but quite a successful thing could be made with 
fewer colours. It is certainly more difficult to blend your colours 
when there is not a great variety, but an experienced worker 
would easily surmount this difficulty. 

Practically every green is utilised for the mounds, also most 
of the fawns and browns and a little dark blue. 

The colours which you will need most are the greens, 
ranged 565-569 and 506-508 ; Blues 603-606 ; and Browns 
616-617. 

Shading stitch is used for the animals. The stag has rather 
a wild expression. It may be the first time he has come face to 
face with a leopard. There is a gentle reminder here of the 
touches of symbolism that creep into designs of the period. 

A hart hunted by a leopard is a favourite theme, and is 
supposed to represent the human soul pursued by the cares and 
trouble of this world. Here, apparently, they have called a truce. 

The acorns are also very typical. Work these either with 
French knots or shading stitch. The acorn cups have long threads 
of shade 595 laid from outline to outline, over which threads 
of 514 are couched down with small stitches of the same colour. 
The stems can be treated in various ways, such as with shading 
stitch, crewel, chain or thorn stitch. Over the shading stitch of 
the main stem is worked a line effect with very long split stitches. 

Throughout the working of such a large design quicker 
progress will be made by using two threads of the wool at once. 

Besides the portiere illustrated the " Albemarle " design 
can be obtained traced on firescreens, cushion squares, hassock 
tops, fireside stool tops, footstool tops. 



As the new shade range varies somewhat from the one used for 
the original embroidery, it is possible that some portions will not 
be identical with the illustration. A very artistic and satisfactory 
result will, however, be obtained from the shades quoted. 





THE *LAUDE 



AN OLD FAVOURITE 





Practically the whole of this pattern is worked 
in long and short stitch. All the motifs are 
solid. The thick trunk is in brick stitch, and 
slanting satin stitch is used for the rather thinner 
one. 

A solid mass of French knots makes an 
acorn cup, and the grapes, too, are knots, but 
each has an outline of satin stitch to separate it 
from its neighbour. If preferred, some of the 
fillings shown on other pages could easily be 
introduced into the two lower large motifs. 
A detailed list of where to use the colours appears 
on the page opposite. 

This " Lauderdale " is obtainable traced on 
cushion covers, hassock tops, (12 in. square), 

stool tops and fire- 
screens, etc. 

See page 39. 





Shades used for the 

"LAUDERDALE.' 

Penelope Crewel Wool. 

Pale Gold 571. 

Pinks and Reds 502, 503, 504, 
505, 561, 562, 563, 552. 

Heather 584, 585, 586. 

Blues 602, 603, 604. 

Jades 517, 518, 519, 520 

Greens 593, 594, 595, 507, 508, 
509, 540, 543, 565, 566, 567, 
568. 

Fawns and Browns 524, 617, 534, 
535, 536, 571, 574, 626. 



Page Fourteen 



'LAUDERDALE' 
FIRESCREEN 



The shades of Penelope Crewel Wool 
chosen for this screen were as follows : 
reading from top left hand corner 
across. 

OPEN FLOWER. 
Brick 561, 562, 563. 
Chartreuse Green 593. 
Golds and Brown 571, 617, 534, 574. 
626. 

PURPLE FLOWER. 

Watteau Pink 502—503. Plum 504. 

505 and Heather 584—586. 
Old Rose 552, 553, 601 

CHERRIES. 

Bricks 561—563. 

Chartreuse Greens 593 and 595. 

GRAPES. 

Watteau Pinks 502 — 503. Plum 504, 

505. Perhaps a touch of 586. 
Reseda Greens 508 and 543. 

POMEGRANATE. 

Bricks 561 to 563 and 552. 
Chartreuse Greens 593 to 595 and 

566 to 568. 
Browns 617 and 626. 

LEAF SHAPE BELOW ACORNS. 
Plum 505. 
Greens 594, 566, 567, 508 and 543. 

ACORNS. 

Browns 534 and 617, 

626 or 536. 
Greens 593, 565. 

LITTLE BLUE FLOWERS. 
Smoke Blues 602 to 604. 
Centres 571 and 534. 

BUTTERFLIES. 
Bricks 561 to 563. 
Gold and Terra Cotta 571 and 626. 
Beige and Browns 524, 535 and 536. 
Greens 540, 566 and 567. 

ACANTHUS SHAPE. 

Greens, 594, 595, 507 to 509 and 543. 
Smoke Blues 603, 604. 
Pinks, Plums and Heather 502 to 
505 and 585 or 586. 

LEAF WITH ACORNS. 
Jades 517 to 520. 
Green 540. 
Acorns as those above. 

STAG AND SQUIRREL. 
571 to 574 and 626. 
Beige and Brown 524 and 536. 



MOUNDS. 
Greens 565- 



-567 and 568 and 543. 



MAIN STALK. 
Jades 517 to 520. 
Greens 508 or 543. 
Browns, 534 and 574. 

SMALLER STEMS. 
Greens 594, 595 or 566. 
Beige and Browns 524, 535 and 536. 



LEAVES. 

Worked in ranges 565 to 568 and 
507 and 543. «- 




As the new shade range varies somewhat from 
the one used for the original embroidery, it is possible 
that some portions will not be identical to the 
illustration. A very artistic and satisfactory result 
will, however, be obtained from the shades quoted. 



Page Fifteen 



A PIT-FALL FOR THE UNWARY 
THE LONG AND SHORT OF IT 

The only problem that may discourage an embroideress starting a piece 
of Jacobean work is that of filling in and shading the larger motifs. 

The secret of successful long and short stitch lies quite as much in the 
right direction of the stitches as in their colour. 

When working in long and short stitch always start at the outside 

and work towards the centre or downwards. It is the first row only that 

consists of alternate long and short stitches ; the stitches of the second 

and following rows are all the same length or as regular as the shape permits. 

These must be worked right up to, or even into or between, the stitches of 

the previous row. 

Make a distinct difference between the long and short stitches of the first 
row or the effect will be lost. Always begin in the middle of a row and work one 
side first and then the other. 
Generally speaking, when shading a leaf, the stitches radiate from a central vein, or a place 
where the vein would be. In a flower, the stitches will radiate from a spot at the middle of the base of each petal. To keep the 
stitches all in their right direction, it is quite a good plan to draw in lightly or work odd stitches at intervals. It will then be found 
quite easy to keep the stitches between in the way they should go. 

The diagram only shows the barest principle of the stitch, but the colour plate below and that on page 14 should be very helpful. 





DETAIL FROM "LAUDERDALE 



»? 



SEE PAGES 
14 & 15 



Page Sixteen 



FURTHER FILLINGS 



BATTLEMENTED COUCHING.— A very quickly worked and 
effective filling. Use four colours or shades of one colour. Lay threads 
diagonally in both directions. Next to, and over these work similar 
stitches in every shade. The last stitches only are couched down with 
small stitches in a contrasting colour. A good example of this filling appears 
on the cover of this book. 

LAID WORK AND TRELLIS.— Fill in the space with long 
stitches from side to side. Over these in another colour and in the 
opposite direction, take stitches about | of an inch apart. Next, take 
stitches crossing these at right angles, and in the same direction as the 
first stitches. A third colour is used for the cross stitches that are worked 
to hold down the trellis. Finally a French knot is worked in each square 
made by the trellis. 

DIAMOND PANE FILLING.— First work the trellis, then fill in 
the diamond shape spaces between with satin stitches in another colour. 
The trellis is then couched down with four small stitches in a third colour. 
Diamond pane filling can be used on the Rutland design. 

BRICK AND CROSS FILLING.— Four or five satin stitches are 
worked close together, then a space is left, another block of satin 
stitches and so on as shown in the illustration. A small cross 
is worked in each space with a contrasting wool. 

TRELLIS AND STAR COUCHING.— First, 
work the trellis as in the diagram. The stars 
are worked in another colour. Each star 
consists of an upright cross, sewn 
down with a small cross. The 
first stitch of each star must 
be worked in the same 
direction as the first 
stitches of the 
trellis. 




DIAGONAL 
TRELLIS & KNOTS 




TRELLIS & STAR 



m 



Page Seventeen 




As the new shade range 
varies somewhat from the one 
used for the original embroi- 
dery, it is possible that some 
portions will not be identical 
to the illustration. A very 
artistic and satisfactory result 
will, however, be obtained 
from the shades quoted. 



mm 



Page Eighteen 



Shades used for the 
" WARWICK." 

Penelope Crewel Wool. 
Cream 607, Yellow 571. 
Brick Reds 561, 562, 563. 
Plums 504, 505. 
Blues 604, 605, 532. 
Jades 519, 520. 

Greens 507, 508, 543, 565, 566, 567. 
Fawns and Browns 524, 533, 534, 
535, 536, 514, 617, 624. 



Ip 




The " Warwick " is so full of interesting detail that it is 
hard to know what to mention first. However, something 
must be done, so a list of the various shades of Penelope Crewel 
Wool actually used on the " Warwick " screen can start the 
ball rolling. These were : Fawns 533, 571, 524, 534 and 624 ; 
Greens 507, 508, 543, and 565, 566, 567 ; Bricks 562 and 563 ; 
Blues 604 and 605 ; Jades 519, 520 and 532 ; Browns 535, 
536, 617 and 514 ; Plum 504 and 505. 

A few stitches of cream 607 were used for the eyes of the 
birds and the stag, with a black dot in the centre, but dark 
brown and shade 571 could be substituted if preferred. 

The main stem is worked in satin stitch, using the shades 
524, 535 and 536, after which stitches of 533 are laid across. 
Sloping satin stitch is used for the finer stems. The mounds 
are also sloping satin stitch. Introduce in these, various 
arrangements of 565, 566 and 567 with 524, 535 and 536. The 
stag is worked in 524, 535, 617. The large bird has wing, tail 
and head feathers of sloping satin stitch in 519, 520, 532 and 
604 and 605. The body is a mixture of fawns and golds, and 
touches of 504 and 505 mingle with 536 on the throat. The 
legs and feet are in 524 and 535. The colour plate of" Warwick " 
gives all the necessary information about the leaves and small 
flowers, but there are several points that should not be overlooked. 
The filling in the deep blue and wine coloured flower on the 
left consists of stitches of 533, taken right across the centre, 
over which is laid a trellis of 507, sewn down with cross stitches 
of 604. The blue green shade 532 is used with 604 and 605 
on some of its petals. The same filling is used again for various 
leaves, but in different colourings and with single wool for the 
trellis. Other colourings used are 535 and 532, worked over 
624 and 505, and 604 worked over 533 and 571. 

For the small bird use the same blues and greens as for 
the large one, also a little 571 and 534. 

The butterfly has a fine buttonhole stitch worked round 
its wings and orange spots of French knots. 




The pink flower next to the butterfly has a split stitch 
centre in 524 and 535. The very small flowers are also worked 
with a buttonhole stitch edge in 571, 534 and 624, with centres 
of knots in 536. The large gold flower is worked in long and 
short stitch from 571, 533, 561, 562, 563 and 504, with a centre 
of solid knots worked in rows of 507, 508, 543 and 514. The 
snake is very simple, just use a mixture of 533, 507 and 524, with 
an outline of 536. 

Page Nineteen 





TH 




THE "VAU 




This is a particularly lovely example of the type of crewel 
work done in the 18th century. The colours are rich and many, 
but not gaudy. The best possible use is made of the long and 
short stitch to express light and shade, and the direction of 
the stitchery seems to have been chosen with a keen knowledge 
of flower forms even if some of the flower-heads are still con- 
ventionalized in treatment of shape and colouring. 

Here are some notes that may be helpful to the embroideress 
who wishes to copy the illustrated specimen. The shade 
numbers quoted are those of Penelope Crewel wool with which 
the stool is worked. 



As the new shade range varies 
somewhat from the one used for the 
original embroidery, it is possible that 
some portions will not be identical to 
the illustration. A very artistic and 
satisfactory result will, however, be 
obtained from the shades quoted. 



Beginning with the centre motif, the Rose ; colours for 
this include the brick red range, 561 to 563 and 553, fawns 
524, 616 and 533. The buds on either side echo these shades, 
but cream 607 is also used. The leaves surrounding the rose 
are worked in chartreuse greens 593, 595, 565, 566, 567, Reseda 
greens 507, 508, and Jades 519 and 520. These last are in small 
quantities. Blue, shade 606, is also used on one leaf. Note the 
veins, some in dull brick and some in bright blue and green. 

The three small flowers above the rose take shades 524, 
571, 616, 533, and red 553 for the centres. 

Working now to the right, the cluster of blue flowers 
will need blues 603, 605 5 529 and 591, with cream 607 



Page Twenty 







ALL" DESIGN 




and 523. The centres are 571, with 573 and 574. Four stitches 
in red 632, or any other bright red make the outlines of these. 

Next is a flower worked in golds and fawns. A good 
selection is used from the ranges 533 to 536 with 616, 557, 
570, 535 and 536. Markings are worked in turquoise blues. 
The small blue green petals are worked with 539, 517 and 518, 
a little 519 and a touch of 605. 



A pink flower comes next with petals of 561, 562, 563, 556, 
524, 533 and 607. A large carnation introduces more bricks 
561 and 562. With these colours are worked 533, 616, 617 
and the fawns from the 533 to 536 range. Reds 553 and 
632 and dark brick 563 are used for the deep tones with 523, 
524 and 607 for the light tips. Both small buds repeat this 
colouring, but include more dark than light shades. 

An anemone shape completes this half. A curious almost 
mauve effect is given by the fawns 556 to 559, worked in 
with reds such as 600, 601 and 632. The centre is green 566, 
with 593, 567, 507, 520 and 543. 

Working left from the rose we have a fully blown pink. 
This is bright with such reds as 630, 600, 632 and 561 to 
563. Other colours used are 570, 523, 557, 535, 536, 554, and 
such greens as 595 and 567. Above this is a lily shape, quietly 
coloured with shades 607, 557, 523 and blues 529 and 591. 



Shades used for the 
" VAUXHALL." 

Penelope Crewel Wool. 

Cream 607. 

Golds 570, 571, 573, 574, 610. 

Pinks and Reds 561 562, 563, 553, 
554, 600, 601, 630, 632. 

Blues 603, 605, 606, 529, 532, 591. 

Jades 517, 518, 519, 520. 

Greens 593, 595, 565, 566, 567, 507, 
508, 539, 543. 

Fawns and Browns 523, 524, 533, 534, 
535, 536, 556, 557, 558, 559, 616, 
617. 



Continued on page Thirty-three 



Page Twenty-one 



>TH 



JIM 



THE "VAUXHALL" DESIGN 




As lite lit::' shade range variei 
somewhat from the one used for the 
original embroidery, it is possible that 
some portions will not be identical to 
the illustration. A very artistic and 
satisfactory result will, however, be 
obtained from the shades quoted. 

Page Twenty 



This is a particularly lovely example of the type of crewel 
work done in the 18th century. The colours are rich and many, 
but not gaudy. The best possible use is made of the long and 
short stitch to express light and shade, and the direction of 
the stitchery seems to have been chosen with a keen knowledge 
of flower forms even if some of the flower-heads are still con- 
ventionalized in treatment of shape and colouring. 

Here are some notes that may be helpful to the embroideress 
who wishes to copy the illustrated specimen. The shade 
numbers quoted are those of Penelope Crewel wool with which 
the stool is worked. 

Beginning with the centre motif, the Rose ; colours for 
this include the brick red range, 561 to 563 and 553, fawns 
524, 616 and 533. The buds on either side echo these shades, 
but cream 607 is also used. The leaves surrounding the rose 
are worked in chartreuse greens 593, 595, 565, 566, 567, Reseda 
greens 507, 508, and Jades 519 and 520. These last are in small 
quantities. Blue, shade 606, is also used on one leaf. Note the 
veins, some in dull brick and some in bright blue and green. 

The three small flowers above the rose take shades 524, 
571, 616, 533, and red 553 for the centres. 

Working now to the right, the cluster of blue flowers 
will need blues 603, 605, 529 and 591, with cream 607 



\ 



and 523. The centres are 571, with 573 and 574. Four stitches 
in red 632, or any other bright red make the outlines of these. 

Next is a flower worked in golds and fawns. A good 
selection is used from the ranges 533 to 536 with 616, 557, 
570, 535 and 536. Markings are worked in turquoise blues. 
The small blue green petals are worked with 539, 517 and 518, 
a little 519 and a touch of 605. 

A pink flower comes next with petals of 561, 562, 563, 556, 
524, 533 and 607. A large carnation introduces more bricks 
56l' and 562. With these colours are worked 533, 616, 617 
and the fawns from the 533 to 536 range. Reds 553 and 
632 and dark brick 563 are used for the deep tones with 523, 
524 and 607 for the light tips. Both small buds repeat this 
colouring, but include more dark than light shades. 

An anemone shape completes this half. A curious almost 
mauve effect is given by the fawns 556 to 559, worked in 
with reds such as 600, 601 and 632. The centre is green 566, 
with 593, 567, 507, 520 and 543. 

Working left from the rose we have a My blown _pink. 
This is bright with such reds as «0, 600 632 and 561 to 
563 Other colours used are 570, 523, 557, 535, 536, 554, and 
such greens as 595 and 567. Above this is a hly shape quietly 
coloured with shades 607, 557, 523 and blues 529 and 591. 

Continued on page Thirty-three 



Shades used for the 

" VAUXHALL." 
Penelope Crewel Wool. 
Cream 607. 

Golds 570, 571, 573, 574, 610. 
Pinks and Reds 561 562, 563, 553, 

554, 600, 601, 630, 632. 
Blues 603, 605, 606, 529, 532, 591. 
Jades 517,518,519,520. 
Greens 593, 595, 565, 566, 567, 507, 

508, 539, 543. 
Fawns and Browns 523, 524, 533, 534, 

5 35, 536, 556, 557, 558, 559, 616, 

617. 

Page Twenty-one 




THE *MCHMC 




PERIOD — ABOUT THE 
TIME OF SAMUEL PEPYS 
AND NELL GWYNNE. 



This piece is a typical example of Jacobean work. The 
motifs are certainly not as large as is sometimes seen in such 
embroidery, but it is usually the earlier Jacobean patterns that 
have the larger ponderous leaves and tremendous flower heads. 
As the method of working changed from semi-solid effects 
to solid long and short stitch, it became necessary to make 
the designs lighter in character. The earlier examples are often 
worked in many shades of one colour, generally blue — here we 
have the later type worked in many colours. 



Page Twenty-two 



Crewel wool embroidery is usually worked on a linen 
twill and Penelope Crewel Wool is recommended. Long and 
short stitch is used principally, although outlines are in stem 
stitch and there are one or two simple fillings. 

As usual on Jacobean pieces, English flowers are mixed 
incongruously with exotic shapes. Pink roses, some in an 
almost brick red 561, 562 and 553 and one with an outer row 
of fawn 524, 616 grow from the same main stem as jasmine, a 
tulip, a carnation and what might be a dahlia. The jasmine 
blossom is embroidered in pale yellow 570, brick 561, and 
warm browns 533, 534. Even a little mole colour 557 is 
worked in very happily. The tulip shape is in brown 617, 
mole 557, and blues 602, 603 and 589, with a brick red 562 
outline in certain parts of split stitch. A patch of cream 607 
has been brought into use to lighten the middle petal. This is 
itself broken by an odd stitch or two in pink. The carnation is 
in shades of 560, 561, 562 with 607 and 533 for some petals. 

The stems are worked in three shades of brown 534, 535 
and 617, using long and short stitch worked diagonally. The 
stitches must be carefully arranged when the stem curves 
suddenly. 

Use the jade 519 with 508, 565 and 507 for the large 
leaf at the base of the main stem. The leaf above this needs 
543, 508 and 594. The leaf with a centre of seeding is worked 
in 533, 507 and 518. Other leaves are in pleasing arrangements 
of the greens given in the list. Yellow greens are usually worked 
at the tip of a leaf, shading into darker and bluer greens towards 
the centre vein or to the main stem. 



As the new shade range varies somewhat 
from the one used for the original embroidery, 
it is possible that some portions will not be 
identical to the illustration. A very artistic 
and satisfactory result will, however, be 
obtained from the shades quoted. 



Three of the flower heads are worked with shades 518, 520, 
and 616. A little brick is used for their centres. A particularly 
Jacobean leaf, to the left of the centre motif has an interesting 
filling of threads shade 518, couched down with stitches of green, 
shade 508. In each small square thus made is worked a small 
cross stitch in the same green. The leaf itself starts at the outer 
edge with 594, and is then shaded into 507, 508, 509 and 532. 
It may be helpful to remember that when in doubt as to what 
colours to use, greens, blues and browns are always reliable 
stand-bys for Jacobean work. The golds and pinks are useful 
secondary colours, yellows and cream should be used sparingly. 

As the Richmond design is a fairly heavy one, a mount 
of dark oak would be in keeping, with walnut or mahogany 
as suitable alternatives. The design illustrated is a horizontal 
firescreen. 



Shades used for the 
" RICHMOND." 

Penelope Crewel Wool. 
Cream 607 
Gold 570. 

Pinks and Reds 560, 561, 562, 553. 
Blues 602, 603, 589, 532. 
Jades 518, 519, 520. 
Greens 507, 508, 509, 543, 565, 594. 
Fawns and Browns 524, 533, 534, 535, 557, 
616, 617. 



Page Twenty-three 




FENDER STOOL 



A fender stool can be such a friendly thing. When it is 
drawn right up to the fire on cold evenings there will be no 
regret over the odd hours spent on the embroidering of it. It 
will not take very long to work. The Elizabethan design is not a 
heavy one in spite of its being in solid stitchery. If the colouring 
of the fender stool is not considered suitable, there is another 
scheme given on the opposite page for the same design. 

Apart from a few French knots, a little stem stitch and the 
laid work fillings, the only stitch used is long and short stitch. 

The two large motifs are worked with the rusts, golds and 
blue. An outline of stem stitch separates the blue from the rust 
on the middle leaf. 

The filling used on the side leaves is worked in this way. 
Stitches of 589 are laid across the space. Over these make a 
diagonal trellis of 533, and couch the trellis with tiny stitches of 
586. Then in each square work four small link stitches cornerwise 
with a yellow knot in the centre. 

The same fining is used on the leaf shape at the end of the 
stool, but this time stitches of maize are couched with green and 
rust. Round this filling are worked rows of French knots in 
various greens. 

The pink roses are quite straightforward. Each should be 
shaded from light to dark rose so that it is well defined against 
its neighbours. 

There are one or two small buds with touches of rust and 
two flowers in rust with a centre of solid knots in fawns and golds. 

A good selection of greens and at least one fawn is necessary 
to make a success of the stems and leaves, otherwise, they have 
a tendency to become monotonous, a thing to be avoided at any 
cost. 




Shades used for the 

"ELIZABETHAN." Scheme 1. 

Penelope Crewel Wool. 

Golds 570, 571. 

Pinks and Rusts 552, 553, 554, 624, 625, 563, 
612. 

Heather 584, 586. 

Blue 589. 

Greens 593, 594, 595, 566, 567, 568. 

Fawns and Browns 524, 533, 534, 573, 574. 




For details of available articles 
seepage Thirty-nine. 



Page Twenty-jour 



(.(. 



ELIZABETHAN 



95 



Scheme 2. 



Long and short stitch predominates. With 
regard to colouring, make much of the 519, 
520 and 532 range, and let the 508 and 543 
shades come next in proportion. Shade 606 
is a good colour in small quantities. The stems 
are worked in stem stitch in rows of 533, 573 
and 536, and just a streak of 565. Speckling 
in shade 520 prevents the centre shape from 
looking too thin. The Light Brick is only used 
for the couching and a few French knots. One 
skein of each shade will be sufficient for this 
hassock, the actual embroidery on which 
measures 12 by 1 1 J ins. Other articles obtainable 
traced with the Elizabethan design are : cushion 
squares and firescreens, and although it has been 
rather unfortunately named " Elizabethan " is a 
very typical Jacobean pattern, particularly so 
when worked in this characteristic blue scheme. 



Shades used for the 

"ELIZABETHAN." 



Scheme 2. 



Brick 561. 

Jades 519, 520, 532. 

Greens 508, 565, 543. 

Fawns and Browns 533, 536, 573. 

Navy 606. 





As the new shade range varies 
somewhat from the one used for 
the original embroidery, it is 
possible that some portions will 
not be identical to the illustration. 
A very artistic and satisfactory 
result will, however, be obtained 
from the shades quoted. 






a£ 






'#^^ H 



Page Twenty-five 



& 




M)UKjII ' 



Shades used for the 

" MARLBOROUGH " 

Penelope Crewel Wool. 

Cream 607. 

Pinks and Reds 561, 562, 563, 630, 632, 
553. 

Blues 589, 604, 591. 

Jades 518, 520. 

Greens 506, 507, 508, 509, 565, 566, 
567, 539, 543. 

Fawns and Browns 524, 533, 534, 557, 
616, 617, 514. 

Page Twenty-six 



Another crewel work pattern. This one is quite different however 
from the type we have previously discussed. Here the large all-over 
pattern has been divided into smaller separate motifs. The effect 
is decidedly lighter. 

The flowers, though still conventionalized, are more natural 
in shape. The colourings in this instance certainly owe more to 
art than nature. The designer has aimed at and succeeded in getting 
the mellow colouring so charming in the genuine old pieces that 
have been worn and used, and become faded with the passing of time. 

Two Queens of England who had considerable influence over 
needlework in their respective days were Mary, the wife of William 
of Orange, and Anne. The former was herself a most industrious 
needlewoman, and the second, we are told, was a very keen gardener, 
with a lively interest in needlework, though not personally an accom- 
plished embroideress. It followed, therefore, that women of fashion 
took an interest in both needlework and gardening, hence the continual 
use of the more ordinary garden plants in embroidery patterns, such 
as the rose and the carnation. 

The illustration is of the Marlborough design used as a stool 
top. It is worked with Penelope Crewel wool. 

Taking the flowers separately, here are some points of interest. 

Let us start with the Tulip. This is embroidered in cream 607 
and golds 533 and 534 with a touch of 557 and 616. The streaks 
of red 562 and 553 can be worked in afterwards. The greens for 
the leaves are 506, 507, 508 and 543. The undersides of some of the 
leaves will require shades 565 and 566. 

The Rose is quite simple, but the embroideress must watch 
the direction of stitch closely. The lightest petals are worked in 
shades 562, 563 and 630. Three centre petals are worked in shades 
616 and 553 and 563, others in 632 and 563, and 553 and 563. The 
leaves have lovely colouring 533, 507, 508 and 543, with a touch of 
565 on the calyx round the buds. The centre veins of the leaves should 
be worked in split stitch afterwards. Shade 509 and some 617 can be 
used on the stem. 

The Carnation is worked in the soft faded shades of 607, 533, 
534, 524, 561 and 562. The dark shadows are 617, 514. The 
arrangement of colour is not very important, but note that the lighter 
shades are used on front petals and the darker shades behind. As 
regards leaves and stems, introduce 507, 508 and 509, with quite a 
lot of 566 and 567 (this last gives a rich shadow under the turnover 
of one of the leaves). 

The two other corner flowers are obviously conventionalized. 
Take the one with the jade centre. These petals are bright with 
539 and 518. The buds echo the mole shades with 524, 533 and 
534, but some 557 and 616 is used as well. An outline of 563 strengthens 
and separates some of the petals, which are chiefly 524, 557 and 617. 
The leaves are a mixture of greens 565, 566, 507, 508 and 520 or 567. 
The flower in the opposite corner is similar in colouring. The same 
fawns and golds are used, plus some warm brown 617 for the shadows 
under the petal turnovers. The centre consists of four tiny shapes 
in cream 607 and greens 506 and 565. An outer ring of similar petal 
shapes is filled in with greens 565 and 507. An oudine of 617 helps to 

Continued on page Thirty-seven 



'.;■- . 



CLEVER 

SHADING 

IN 

CREWEL 

WOOLS 









As the new shade range 
varies somewhat from the 
one used for the original 
embroidery, it is possible 
that some portions will not 
be identical to the illus- 
tration. A very artistic 
and satisfactory result will, 
however, be obtained from 
the shades quoted. 



PERIOD— DATES OF 
WILLIAM AND MARY 
OR QUEEN ANNE AND 
WILLIAM CONGREVE. 



Page Twenty-seven 



kegei 




We call this " Regency " not because the design definitely belongs 
to this particular period and no other, but to indicate that in the method 
of working and in style it is later than other patterns shown. 



The change from one style to another could not be sudden and 
decisive as communication between one part of the country and another 
was slow and difficult, and it frequently happened that fashions and 
styles prevalent in London did not become popular or even known in the 
further parts of the country until many years later — perhaps as many as 
ten or even more. 



Shades used for the 

" REGENCY." 

(3D Washing Filoselle Silk. 

Yellows 1454, 1532, 1582, 278, 280, 282. 

Pinks and Reds 222, 224, 756, 760, 
230, 232, 234. 

Blues 250, 158, 160, 487, 489, 252. 

Greens 260, 262, 900, 902. 

Fawns and Browns 1673, 1468, 1685, 
286. 

Greys 270, 274, 276. 



In " Regency " the design has become less conventional. There 
is an obvious attempt to get a little nearer to nature in the drawing of 
the flowers and leaves. With regard to colour, this has been chosen for 
our illustration with the idea of achieving an antique effect. 

In cases therefore where soft greys and fawn shades are used in 
places where one would not expect to find them, it is quite probable 
that the threads used on the original piece of work from which the 
design has been adapted have faded, and that these sober shades were 
once much brighter. As an example, the greys of the rose and tulip and 
the very neutral colouring of some of the smaller flowers are worth 
noting. The present effect is very beautiful however, and no doubt 
easier to the eye than in its original brilliant state. 




Silk has taken the place of crewel wool, although the latter can be 
used with an equally charming result. The cushion square as illustrated 
was worked in Qfy Washing Filoselle on British Satin, and a list of 
the shades used are here included. The thread is used four strands at 
once, though three can be used for fine detail. 



The colours are arranged in a very deliberate fashion. The tulip 
and the rose are in encroaching satin stitch, the stitches being about a 
quarter of an inch long. 



In one or two places an outline is worked in dark brown split stitch. 
This shows up parts of the design that would otherwise be lost, and 
gives life and character to the shapes thus treated. 




PERIOD— CHAIR OF IN- 
LAID MAHOGANY, LATE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



The colours are clearly defined and easy to follow from the 
illustration, but the following notes may be useful. 



Columbine. — These are in blues 250 and 489 with leaves of gold 280 and fawn 1673. 
The stem is in split stitch, using 286 and 1673. The use of light blue 489 with 
some of the gold leaves provides a discordant note that makes interesting a corner 
that might otherwise appear just a litde dull. 

The Blue Flower on the Left. — For this use 1673 and 252 for the satin stitch- 
Over this, work split stitch in lines of 489. This gives an effect of veining on the 
three lower petals. The inner petals are outlined in dark brown. The centre is brown 
again, shade 286 with inverted petals of 250, 158, 1673 and 252, outlined with very 
dark blue. The touch of green gives a lovely glow to this flower. The extreme 
centre is 278 with a dark blue outline. 

The Stems and Leaves. — Some of the stems are in golds 278, 280 with 236 also 
1673, others in greens 902, 900 and 263. All stitches are worked parallel to the 
direction of the stem. An outline of split stitch is worked along one side only. 

The Tulip. — This is beautifully worked in encroaching satin stitch; this is worked by 
taking the stitches just between the stitches of the preceding rows, use yellows 278, 280 
and 1454. There are one or two markings in pink 230 and an outline in brown 286. Two 
petals have grey centres 270 and 274. Notice how the lines of stitchery vary according to 
the shape of the petal, some being horizontal and some following the oudine. 

The Carnation is tipped with gold 1454 and then merges into 756 and 760. A dark 
brown outline brings some of the petals into prominence. 

The Dahlia. — For this use 278 for the tips, then flames 222 and 232, 224 with a 
centre of 278 and 282. Brown outiines here again, and of course tips of 1673 or 1468. 

Two Big Acanthus Leaves. — These are warm and coppery in colour. Use 1532, 
1673, 1582 and 1635, with bright blue centre veins of 158. 

Tiny Flowers at the Top Right. — These are worked in 1685 and 1673, 278 and 280. 

Tiny Flowers at Lower Left. — For these use 756, 1454, 1468 and 1685. 

The Vase is worked with blues 158, 250 and 160 and then fawns 1685, 286 and 274. 

The Rose. — Shades 230, 232 and 234 are required for the petals, which are tipped with 
greys 274 and 276. A brown oudine is worked round the largest centre petal. 



Page Twenty-eight 




PERIOD — ABOUT THE 
TIME OF GEORGE III 
AND BEAU BRUMMEL— 
"THE AMATEUR GENTLE- 
MAN." 



As the new shade range varies 
somewhat from the one used for the 
original embroidery, it is possible that 
some portions will not be identical to the 
illustration. A very artistic and satis- 
factory result will, however, be obtained 
from the shades quoted. 



Page Twenty-nine 













nsqh 



V 



V 



/i 




PERIOD — 
ANY TIME AFTER 
THE REIGN OF QUEEN 
ANNE.— DAYS OF EMBROIDERED 
PETTICOATS AND PANNIERS. 



As the new shade range varies 
somewhat from the one used for the 
original embroidery, it is possible that 
some portions will not be identical to 
the illustration. A very artistic and 
satisfactory result will, however, be 
obtained from the shades quoted. 



Page Thirty 








SHADES used for the " BERKELEY 
SQUARE." 

(3D Washing Filoselle Silk. 

Yellows 1453, 1454, 1457, 1532, 1534. 

Pinks and Reds 226, 230, 232, 234, 750, 211. 

Blues 488, 489, 252, 254, 256. 

Greens 266, 1514, 262. 

Fawns 1682, 288. 



It is hard to believe that this design of the Queen Anne 
Period is a grandchild or at least grand-niece of those massive 
Jacobean crewel work panels with sprawling tree trunks growing 
from gigantic mounds of earth on which tiny deer and squirrels 
disported themselves. Nevertheless there is a direct relationship. 
The scrolling stems in this design have become much finer 
and the leaves and flowers quite small. As this happens, the 
embroidery becomes solid and silk is used instead of wool. 

A great deal of embroidery was worked in this style in 
the 18th century on curtains and bed-hangings as well as 
petticoats and waistcoats. 

The colouring and treatment is extremely dainty, and 
although most suitable for rooms furnished in walnut and 
the lighter furniture of the Queen Anne and Georgian styles, 
it can also look quite happy in a bedroom or lounge of the more 
restrained modern type. 

For the most part the flowers are a little more natural in 
shape and also in colouring. They do at least suggest English 
flowers though it is often hard to place them in definite categories. 
They are still conventionalized, and the embroiderers need 
not worry if they do not appear botanically correct. 

Embroidered on stone-coloured satin with (3D Washing 
Filoselle using four strands in satin and long and short stitch 
the result is very beautiful. Several greens have been used on the 
leaves which are worked in sloping satin stitch. Hardly any 
attempt is made to shade the leaves. The exceptions are two 
or three leaves with bright red 234 veins, that are worked with 
266, 1514 and 256. 




Some leaves are worked with a mixture of two threads, 
shade 262, and one of 256. Two of the leaves near the middle 
are definitely blue in tone, 256. 

A tulip appears in shades, 226 pink, 1453 yellow, with a 
stitch or two of 1682, and some green 1514. 

Dahlia-like blooms are worked in 252, 1454, 1457 with 
a touch of 1534. 

Blue forget-me-nots in 252, 488 or 489 and 254 have 
red centres 234. Work the carnation with 1682, 226, 230 
and 232, with a calyx of 1514 and 256. The same pinks are 
also used on several of the smaller flowers. 



Continued on page Thirty-seven 



Page Thirty-one 




DWIC 
ESI 



Hz* 



Shades used for the 

" HARDWICKE 

© Washing Filoselle Silk. 
Gold 280. 
Black 1469. 




The sixteenth century was a period of extreme extravagence 
in dress. Most articles of clothing were elaborately embroidered. 
Even the gentlemen's white shirts were decorated with bands of 
fine needlework. These were frequently worked entirely in 
black silk, hence the name " black work " which is usually 
applied to the narrow borders of Holbein stitch and cross stitch 
that glorified the shirts at neck and wrist. 

Above is a very pleasing Elizabethan design. This sort 
of pattern was often seen worked with gaily coloured silks on 
bodices and waistcoats, but here the embroideress has been 
influenced by the dignified " black work " in her choice of 
colour scheme. It has such " homely " details as roses, oak 
leaves, acorns, butterflies, moths and pea pods, all of which 
were most popular motifs with the Elizabethan embroideress. 
The scrolling stem is another typical feature. 



Page Thirty-two 



To make up for lack of colour, we have variety of stitch. 
The stems are worked in braid or heavy chain stitch. The 
thread is used in its full thickness for this. The leaves are 
outlined with stem stitch. Buttonhole stitch gives an interesting 
outline to parts of the pattern, and herring-bone is used down 
the centre of the pomegranate shapes. Seeding and speckling 
are employed to break up some of the bare spaces and to make 
them more interesting. Three strands of thread will be used for 
all these stitches. 

A golden yellow 280 is used here and there, and adds an 
unexpected richness to the design. You will see it used for 
the eyes of the insects, the flower centres and sections of 
pomegranates ; satin stitch for the former, and fly stitch for the 
latter. 



For the " Hardwicke " design you will need (jfo Washing 
Filoselle in black 1469, and gold 280. 

A list of other articles traced with this design will be found 
on page 39. 



*€ 



*€ *€ 




ARM CHAIR WITH 
NEEDLEWORK SEAT, 
ABOUT 1745. 



AN 18th CENTURY FENDER STOOL— Continued from 

page Twenty-one 

A tulip comes next. For this use shades 523, 533, 534, 536, 
616, 617, 561, 562, 563 and 553. 

Lastly, we have the daffodil with shades of yellow 570, 571, 
610 and 533, a few odd stitches of 616 and dark greens of 508 
and 543. 

It would be extremely confusing to describe each leaf 
in detail. The chartreuse greens are much in evidence, with 
the golds and fawn shades used for the tips. The blue greens 
such as 518 and 532, give depth and brilliance when used 
discreedy. 

The various sizes in which the " Vauxhall " is produced 
are quoted on page 39. This design is traced on a good quality 
linen twill very similar to the background used for the original 
crewel wool panels. 



Page Thirty-three 



D 



FOR YCUE CHIPPENDALE 



It is only within comparatively recent times that the 
opening of Tutankamen's tomb gave birth to an overwhelming 
craze for anything Egyptian. Jewellery, ornament, style in 
hairdressing and dress were all inspired by the treasures of 
ancient Egypt. 

In a similar way, though naturally more slowly, did the 
growing trade and contact with the Far East affect the trend 
of fashion in Europe two hundred years ago. Chinese em- 
broideries, Chinese silks, pagoda-like summer houses and 
Chinese details in architecture became the vogue. 

The resulting style in England is known as Chinoisie. 
This Chinoisie style even affected furntiture, Chippendale 
developing and expressing it on some of his chairs, four poster 
beds and tallboys. 



Shades used for the 

" CHIPPENDALE " 

fiJD Washing Filoselle Silk. 

Golds 1532, 1456, 282. 

Pinks and Reds 1545, 1548, 1576, 760. 

Blues 488, 489, 254, 1649, 1651, 252. 

Greens 258, 260, 268, 1491. 

Fawns and Browns 1468, 1673, 288, 
1682, 1684, 284, 286. 



The Chinoisie design on the opposite page is specially 
arranged for a firescreen and is traced on a beautiful quality 
of British satin in a pale stone colour. 



The flower heads are definitely Chinese in type, being very 
like those frequently seen on Chinese pottery. Worked in 
silk, in bright colours, they display a daintiness not found in 
the wool designs shown previously in our book. 

Q5 Washing Filoselle is used in its full thickness. Long 
and short stitch and satin stitch is used throughout. The 
blending of the colours is arranged in a very decorative way. 
It is interesting to notice the sudden " jumps " of colours in 
some of the flower petals. It will be noticed that there is no 
intermediate shade between the two colours used on the stems. 
Sloping satin stitch and long and short stitch are used for 
these, the stitches being worked diagonally across the direction 
of the stems. The colour is changed quite abruptly at irregular 
intervals. 

The shades used together on the stems are 254 and 258, 
254 and 260, 254 and 252, 254 and 1532. The blue greens are 
used for the stems whilst the yellow greens are used for the 
leaves, although occasionally 254 is worked in with the latter to 
obtain depth of colour. 

The " mound " motif appears again in a modified form. 
For this we suggest colours 1491, 268, 286 and 284. The 
" dragon " has all the fire and virility we expect of such a 
mythical beast, though there is something almost Renaissant 
as well as Chinese about it. The colours used for this are 
1682, 1673, 1456, 1491, 288 and 1684, with a touch of 1576 for 
tongue and eye. 



MAHOGANY CHAIR 
IN THE STYLE OF 
CHIPPENDALE. 




Page Thirty-four 



Continued on page Thirty-six 



CHINESE CHIPPEND 











PERIOD— THE MIDDLE 
AND LATTER END OF THE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



As the new shade range varies somewhat 
from the one used for the original embroidery, 
it is possible that some portions will not be 
identical to the illustration. A very artistic 
and satisfactory result will, however, be 
obtained from the shades quoted. 



Page Thirty-five 



CHINESE CHIPPENDALE — Continued from page Thirty-four 

This centre motif is intensified by a dark brown outline 
in split stitch using three strands of the Filoselle. The same 
outline stitch is used frequently elsewhere on the design to 
pick out certain shapes and prevent petals from merging into 
their neighbours. The flowers are in golds, pinks and blues. 
Suitable colour combinations are such blues as 1649, 1651, 488 
and 489. With these shades there is sometimes a touch of gold 
1532. 

The golden flowers are worked with shades 1532, 1456, 
282 and 284. 1468 is a curious pinkish fawn used for some 
of the tiny flowers. It works in well with the light pinks 1545 
and 1548. 288 is also used for the tips of petals which are 
in 1548. The fawns 288 and 1684 are worked in with touches 
of pale gold 1532 and pink 1548 and 760 on some of the fruit 
shapes. 

It is interesting in passing to note that the method of 
working this piece is closely related to the block satin stitch 
and " voided " satin stitch treatments of Chinese work. In 
" voided " satin stitch a tiny outline of background is left 
between each row of stitches. This must be extremely fine and 
even, and it is a very difficult stitch to work satisfactorily. 

The Chinese embroiderers worked their satin stitch on 
the top surface, only the most minute of stitches showing on the 
wrong side. It is obvious that such a method is very economical, 
but it is also rather more difficult to keep the stitches and the 
tension even. 

Both " block " and " voided " satin stitch could be used 
on this design if the colours are arranged in bands following 
as nearly as possible the outline of the shape. The appearance 
would then be even more Chinese than it is now in the long 
and short stitch. 

We have called this design Chinese Chippendale because 
it is so suitable for a bedroom or lounge in which the furniture 
is in Chippendale style. 

A fist of the other articles supplied traced with this design 
will be found at the end of the book. 





CHAIR AND STOOL, 
ENGLISH, LATE 
SEVENTEENTH 
CENTURY. 



Page Thirty-six 




" BERKELEY SQUARE "—Continued from page Thirty-one 

The bright red 234 is used for the centres of the five 
petalled blue flowers. Shade 1682 is also used on these. The 
centre spray of what might easily be bluebells or hyacinths is 
made up of blues 254 and 488 with a little fawn 1682. 

The stem is interesting. Using two strands of shade 262 
and one strand of shade 256, embroider it in stem stitch, each 
stitch being about ^ in. long. 

Still one more combination of colour is that of the mauvish 
pinks, 750, 211 and 288, with a touch of yellow 1453 used 
on several of the flowers, some of which may remind us of the 
typical Persian rose. 

Such a beautiful piece of work deserves making up in an 
equally beautiful way. The cushion illustrated here is finished 
with a narrow piping of green silk through which a cord has 
been taken. The choice of colour for this is quite a matter of 
taste. Any of the main shades introduced in the embroidery can 
be used successfully as an edging. 



S 



3 



9f 



" MARLBOROUGH "—Continued from page Twenty-six 

emphasize their arrangement. In the very heart of the flower 
is a centre of dull brick 563. Stitches of this are laid across the 
centre and held in position by diagonal couching in brown 617. 

The remaining flowers are much more simple in shape. 
The forget-me-nots have leaves and stems all in long and short 
stitch in greens 520, 506, 507, 508 and 543. The flowers are in a 
care-free mixture of 533, 539, 557, 604 and 589. The mimulus 
shaped flowers are more intricate, gold 533, 589, 539 and 518, 
with streaks of 553 give a brilliant dash of colour ; the trumpets 
are in 557, 589, and very dark blue, 591 with a stitch or two 
in 553. The third flower is in blue 589, 539 and 518. The 
leaves and stems are principally 565, 507, 509, but 508 is also 
used. 

The " Marlborough " Stool will look very well indeed 
mounted in mahogany. 



Turn to page 39 for a list of the articles that can be obtained 
traced with this design. 

Page Thirty-seven 



FACTS & FASHIONS 



Being a tabloid history of embroidery 
for those who forgot every date except 
1066 as soon as they left school, and 
whose kings and queens have a 
depressing habit of getting out of order. 



JAMES I, 1603-1625.— Was the son of Mary Queen of 
Scots, and was the first Stuart King of England. A great 
quantity of embroidery was worked on shoes, gloves, caps, 
skirts and dresses in his day. Dress became so elaborately 
embroidered that a law was passed to 
prevent such extravagant apparel being 
worn by the lower classes. 



CHARLES I, 1625-1649.— Married 
the French King's sister. Petit point 
pictures were worked after the style 
of the French tapestries of the time. 
Embroidery was used on the bindings of 
books. Stump work became very fashion- 
able. This is petit point work padded 
in high relief. Charles was beheaded in 1649. 




THE COMMONWEALTH (Oliver Cromwell), 
1649-1660. — The favourite occupation of Royalist ladies 
seems to have been making stump work caskets and petit 
point pictures, portraying stories of the Old Testament, the 
chief figures being dressed to represent Charles I, and his 
Queen. Another favourite was the embroidered portrait of 
Charles, supposed to be worked with his hair. A few 
samplers were worked by young embroideresses. Embroidery, 
apparently, was regarded as an admirable womanly accom- 
plishment even under the Commonwealth. 



CHARLES II, 1660-1685.— This period, when Charles 
II returned from exile, is always referred to as the Restoration 
of the Monarchy. Having lived abroad for many years he 
was interested in anything French or Italian. He introduced 
many improvements in the mode of living. The Great Fire 
of London (1666) gave Christopher Wren a wonderful 
chance to display a new style of architecture (St. Paul's 
Cathedral), which in time influenced design for every sort of 
decoration. 

This is the time when the vogue for crewel work first 
made itself felt. As regards embroidery (apart from crewel 
work), stump work was still popular. Although dress 
became extremely elaborate, embroidery was not fashionable 
as decoration. Lace seemed to take its place, accompanied 
by a profusion of ribbons and laces. 



JAMES II, 1685-1688.— Stump work suddenly went 
out of favour, and no more portraits were worked with 
Stuart emblems, probably because James was not at all 
popular. He abdicated in 1688 and fled to France. 




WILLIAM AND MARY (Mary, 1689-1694).— Mary 
was the elder daughter of James II. She and her husband, 
the Prince of Orange, were invited to take the crown in 
preference to James's son. This is the great period for 
crewel work and embroidery of all kinds. The chief influence 
in Europe on English life was Holland. Many new houses 
were built of brick in the Dutch style. The crewel hangings 
with their big patterns were shown to advantage in large 
rooms and at high windows. 



ANNE, 1702-1714. — Was Mary's younger sister, and 
the last of the Stuarts to occupy the English throne. During 
her reign and the years that followed the wool work became 
finer and finer. Whole pieces would be worked in chain 
stitch rather than long and short stitch. Silk took the place 
of wool, and delicate embroidery was seen on waistcoats 
and dresses. Samplers were apparently the occupation of 
every young woman. The craze for Eastern designs, particularly 
Chinese became known as " Chinoisie." This fashion 
remained with us for a long time until the more chaste classical 
ornament known as the Empire style took its place. 



Page Thirty-eight 



HOW TO OBTAIN THE DESIGNS 

The designs shown in this book can be ordered through your needlework stores. Should it happen that you 
live some miles from a town, Penelope will be glad to send you the address of a retailer who can supply you. 



RUTLAND " 



ELIZABETHAN 




( 1 raced on Linen 


iw 


111) 


Design size 


Cut size of 


(Traced on Linen Twill) 












Linen 




Design size 


Cut size of 


Small Firescreen ... 




171" x 20" 


.. 24" x 26" 






Linen 


Large Firescreen ... 






17i"x261" 


.. 24" X 33" 


Small Firescreen ... 


18" X20" 


24" X 26" 


Cushion Front 






21" X21" 


.. 24" X 24" 


Large Firescreen ... 


18" x24" 


24" X 30" 


Cushion Front and Back 






21" X21" 


.. 24" X 48" 


Cushion Front ... ... ... 


.. 21|"x21i" ... 


24" x 24" 


Chairback Cover ... 




.. To finish 18" x27" 


.. 20" x 29" 


Cushion Front and Back 


211" x 211" ... 


24" x 48" 


Settee Back Cover 




.. To finish 27" x40" 


.. 29" X 42" 


Stool Top ... 


11" xl6" 


18" x 23" 


Table Runner 




.. To finish 15" x 45" 


.. 18" X 47" 


Hassock Top 


12" xl2" 


21" x 21" 


Hassock Top 






12" X 12" 


.. 21" x 21" 


Footstool Top 


101" x 131" ... 


18" x 21" 


Footstool Top 






10" xl31" 


.. 18" X 21" 


Fireside Stool Top 


11" x24" 


IS" x 31" 


Fireside Stool Top 






11" X24" 


.. 18" < 31" 


Fender Stool Top 


9" <4)" 


18" < 49" 


Fender Stool Top 




12" x43" 


.. 18" v 49" 


3" Border Design 
5" Border Design 


21" Repeat ") 
.. 22" Repeat f 


Adaptable 
for many 
articles 


" ALBEMARLE " 








9" Border Design 

12" Border Design ...- 


20" Repeat t 
.. 20" Repeat J 


(Traced on Linen Twill) 


Design size 


Cut size of 


Repeating Allover design 


16" x22" 










Linen 




Repeat 




Small Firescreen ... 




18" x20" 


.. 24" x 26" 








Large Firescreen ... 




20" x25" 


.. 24" X 29" 








Cushion Front 
Cushion Front and Back 




19" Xl9" 
19" <19" 


.. 24" X 24" 
.. 24" x 48" 


" MARLBOROUGH " 






Stool Top ... 




10" ■ 13" 


.. 18" x 21" 


(Traced on Linen Twill) 






Fireside Stool Top 




11" x24" 


.. 18" X 31" 




Design size 


Cut size of 


Hassock Top 




12" xl2" 


.. 21" X 21" 






Linen 


Portiere 




42" -72" 


.. 48" x 81" 


Firescreen ... 
Cushion Front 


16" x22" ... 

18" X18" 


24" x 30" 
24" x 24" 


" LAUDERDALE " 








Cushion Front and Back 
Stool Top ... 


18" X18" 
13" X18" 


24" X 48" 
21" x 24" 


(Traced on Linen Twill) 


Design size 


Cut size of 


Fender Stool Top 


.. 9" X40" ... 


18" x 49" 








Linen 








Small Firescreen ... 




18" x20" 


.. 24" x 26" 








Large Firescreen ... 




17" x25A" 


.. 24" X 30" 








Cushion Front 




211" x 211" 


.. 24" x 24" 


" REGENCY " 






Cushion Front and Back 




21i"x2li" 


.. 24" x 48" 






Hassock Top 




12" x 12" 


.. 21" x 21" 


(Traced on British Satin. Oyster Shade) 




Footstool Top 
Stool Top ... 




10" X131" 
151" x 35" 


.. 18" X 21" 

.. 2H"x 41" 




Design size 


Cut size of 

Fabric 
20" x 25" 
2H"x 241 
2H"x 241 


Fireside Stool Top 
Fender Stool Top 
Upright Panel 




Hi "X 24" 
12" x42i" 
12" x25" 


.. 18" x 31" 
.. 18" X 49" 
.. 18" > 31" 


Firescreen ... 

Cushion Front 

Cushion Front and Back (2 pieces) 


151"x20" 
17" xl9" 
17" xl9" 










Stool Top ... 


10" xl4" 


181 "x 22J' 


" WARWICK " 








Stool Top ... 


13^"xl8" 


20" X 25" 


(Traced on Linen Twill) 


Design size 


Cut size of 














Linen 








Small Firescreen ... 




18" x20" 


.. 24" x 26" 








Large Firescreen ... 






18" x23i" 


.. 24" x 30" 


" BERKELEY SQUARE " 






Cushion Front 






. 21" x21" 


.. 24" x 24" 


(Traced on British Satin. 


Beige Shade) 




Cushion Front and Back 






21" x21" 


.. 24" x 48" 








Hassock Top 






10" X15" 


.. 18" x 24" 




Design size 


Cut size of 


Footstool Top 






10" X 13" 


.. 18" x 21" 






Fabric 


Fireside Stool Top 






11" X24" 


.. 18" x 31" 


Firescreen... ... ... , ... 


151"x21" 


20" x 25" 


Fender Stool Top 






12" X42" 


.. 18" X 49" 


Cushion Front 


18" xl8" 


221" x 221' 


Chairback Cover ... 




.. Ton 


iishl8" X27" 


.. 20" X 28!" 


Cushion Front and Back 


18" X18" 


221" x 45" 


Settee Back Cover 




. . To fii 


iish27" x34" 


.. 28i"x 36" 


Stool Top ... 


10" Xl4" 


18" x 221' 


Table Scarf 




.. To fii 


lish 15" x45" 


.. 18" X 461" 


Stool Top ... ... ... 


13" xl8" 


20" x 25" 










Repeating Allover Design 


15" < 18" Repeat. Adaptable 


" VAUXHALL " 












for large 
Panels, etc 


(Traced on Linen Twill) 


Design size 


Cut size of 














Linen 








Firescreen... 
Cushion Front 




181" x 221" 
15" x20" 


.. 24" x 30" 
19" x 24" 


" HARDWICKE " 






Cushion Front and Back 




15" x20" 


.. 24" X 38" 


(Traced on Grey Linen) 






Stool Top ... 




11" xl6" 


.. 19" X 24" 




Design size 


Cut size of 


Fender Stool Top 




10J"X41" 


.. 18" X 49" 






Linen 


Coffee Table Top 


i 


3 " Round Motif 


.. 27" - 27" 


Firescreen ... 


16" x22" 


221" x 281' 


6" Border and Corner 


32" Repeat 


For adaptation 


on many articles. 


Cushion Front 
Cushion Front and Back 


16" X16" 
16" xl6" 


221" x 221' 
221 "x 45" 


" RICHMOND " 








Stool Top ... 


10" xl4" 


18" x 221' 


(Traced on Linen Twill) 


Design size 


Cut size of 
Linen 
.. 24" X 30" 








Firescreen... 




19i"x231" 


"CHINESE CHIPPENDALE 


3) 




Cushion Front 
Cushion Front and Back 






19" xl9" 
19" xl9" 


.. 24" x 24" 
.. 24" x 48" 


(Traced on British Satin. 


Oyster Shade) 




Footstool Top 






13" xl7" 


.. 21" X 24" 




Design size 


Cut size of 


Stool Top ... 






17" x23" 


.. 24" X 30" 






Fabric 


Fireside Stool Top 






10" x33" 


.. 18" X 39" 


Firescreen ... ... 


14" x20" 


22.V"x 28i" 


Fender Stool Top 






10" x39i" 


.. 18" x 46" 


Cushion Front 


17" xl7" ... 


22£"x 22|" 


Fender Stool Top 






10" x54" 


.. 18" X 60" 


Cushion Front and Back 


17" xl7" 


22J"x 45" 


Coffee Table Top 




'.'. 17" 


Round Motif 


.. 27" X 27" 


Foot Stool Top 


.. 81" xl21" ... 


18" x 22J" 


Table Scarf 






10" x33" 


.. 15" X 36" 


Stool Top ... 


13" X18" ... 


20" X 25" 



Penelope can also tell you where to have screens and stools mounted economically, and yet satisfactorily. 

If at any time you have any problems connected with your Embroidery, write to Penelope, 34, Cannon Street, 
Manchester, 4. She is always willing to help. 



Page Thirty-nine 



METHOD OF WORKING 



Although these designs cannot be recommended for the absolute beginner, a number 
of needlewomen will certainly be tempted to work them who have had only a little 
experience of such embroidery. They will, we hope, have no objection to a few suggestions 
for their success. 

The coloured plates are exceptionally accurate and should prove the best guide to 
the arrangement of colour. The short description of each design is also useful, but it may 
happen that every detail is not mentioned in this. The embroideress is, of course, expected 
to exercise her own judgment in such cases. A certain range may be emphasized and 
another omitted in order to make the scheme more in keeping with the surroundings 
in which the design is to be placed. It is almost impossible to produce an exact replica 
unless the original design is to hand. Aim therefore to achieve the same effect but do not 
hesitate to work in your own subtle little details of colour. 

A great number of shades have been used on many of these designs and much of 
the charm of the designs undoubtedly lies in the fact that there is very little flat colour. 
Each petal is broken up by many shades and the result is one of liveliness and interest. 
Nevertheless, by carefully eliminating shades that are closely related, it is possible to 
simplify the work without losing the character of the pattern. A little discretion is 
naturally required. 

Before working a single stitch arrange your threads on a table before you, then 
reading slowly through the descriptive matter of the design in question, sort these out 
according to the shades or shade numbers mentioned and place them against the motifs 
for which they will be used. 

Only in this way will you feel familiar with the arrangement of colour and save 
yourself a considerable waste of time later. 

(2D Washing Filoselle Silk is sometimes used four strands at once and sometimes 
three strands. 

It is perhaps unnecessary to mention that a frame is essential for working all types 
of satin stitch, and long and short stitch. 

Crewel needles Nos. 3 or 4 will be best for use with the wool. Use a finer one, such 
as No. 5, for the silk work. 

Never begin with a knot. Start either with one or two tiny back-stitches or a 
running stitch that can afterwards be worked over by the stitch used. 



1 age rorty Printed by Palatine Press (Manchester) Limited, Manchester, 3. 



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