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Full text of "Jacob Hamblin : a narrative of his personal experience as a frontiersman, missionary to the Indians and explorer : disclosing interpositions of Providence, severe privations, perilous situations and remarkable escapes"

JACOB HAMBLIN, 



A NARRATIVE OF HIS PERSONAL EXPERIENCE, AS 

A FRONTIERSMAN, MISSIONARY TO THE 

INDIANS AND EXPLORER, 



DISCLOSING 



interpositions of providence, Revere privations, perilous 
Situations and Remarkable (Escapes. 



FIFTH BOOK OF 



THE FAITH-PROMOTING SERIES, 



Designed for the Instruction and Encouragement of 
Young Latter-day Saints. 



JUVENILE INSTEUCTOK OFFICE, 
Salt Imlte City, Utah. 

1881. 



THE FlITH-PROMOTING SERIES. 



i. 

MY FIRST MISSION, by Prest. Geo. Q. Cannon. Price, 25 eta. 

II. 

A STRING OP PEARLS, from the pen of Prest. Taylor and others. 

Price, 25 cts. 

III. 

LEAVES FROM MY JOURNAL, by Prest. Wilford Woodruff. 

Price, 25 cts. 

IV. 

OEMS FOR THE YOUNG FOLKS, by Bp. A. A. Kiraball, Bp. 
Benj. Brown, and others. Price, 25 cts. 

Y. 

JACOB HAMBLIN, a narrative of his personal experience, as a frontiers- 
man, missionary to the Indians and explorer. Price, 35 cts. 



5<f 7 2-& 

Bancroft Library 



PREFACE. 



IN issuing to the public this, the Fifth Volume of the 
FAITH-PROMOTING SERIES, we feel that we are making 
an addition to our home literature that will be appreciated by 
the Saints generally. The manner in which the former vol- 
umes of this Series have been received, encourages us to 
' entertain this hope. 

Brother Jacob Hamblin has spent the most of his life as a 
faithful, humble worker in the cause of Ood. Though he 
has labored as a missionary such a great proportion of his 
time during the past forty years, it has been in a sphere which 
has not brought him into prominence before the public. 
Even his name has seldom appeared in public print. Brother 
Hamblin has never sought notoriety. He has been prompted by 
motives far more noble. He is such a modest man that he would 
be content to ever remain in obscurity. Indeed, it was onlj 7 after 
earnest solicitation that he was induced to narrate, for Brother 
James A. Little's pen to record, the incidents herein published, 
However, though not written for that purpose, we trust the 
publication of this book will result in making him better 
known and appreciated by his brethren and sisters. It is a 
simple, unvarnished recital of incidents of thrilling interest, 
remarkable adventures and special manifestations of provi- 
dence, that we think cannot fail to entertain and benefit all 
who read it. 



IV; PREFACE. 



Brother Hamblin's testimony of God's goodness towards 
him, and His willingness to answer prayer, should inspire and 
strengthen young Latter-day Saints. His cheerful self-denial, 
his devotion to the work of the Lord, and the joy he has 
found in it should stimulate them to zeal in emulating his 
example. His portrayal of the policy pursued by the 
Saints in dealing with the Indians, should enlighten strangers 
who may read this book upon a subject about which this 
people have been greatly maligned. 

There are many important lessons to be learned from the 
narrative herein published, and we trust that it may prove 
profitable to all who read it. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEK I. 

Early incidents of my life Providential care over me Mar- 
riage Hear the Gospel, and embrace it Signs follow 
Opposed by relatives Predict my Father's baptism My 
Father Healed in answer to prayer. Page 9. 

CHAPTEK II. 

Arrival at Nauvoo My first interview with the Prophet Joseph - 
Some first impressions of the character of the gathered 
Saints Go east on an important mission Death of the 
Prophet Keturn to Nauvoo Providential circumstance on 
the journey. Page 15. 

CHAPTEK III. 

Sidney Kigdon strives for the guardianship of the Church He 
urges his claims at the Conference Brigham Young, Presi- 
dent of the Twelve, and others of the Quorum appear in the 
stand A remarkable testimony that the mantle of Joseph 
had fallen upon Brigham Young Persecutions of the Saints 
Baptism of my Parents Preparations for the exodus 
Sickness A Methodist comforter Answer to prayer Har- 
vest of Quails Miraculous incidents on the journey to Utah. 

Page 19. 

CHAPTEK IY. 

Locate in Tooele Valley Indian troubles Escape death by an 
Indian, by following the warning of the Spirit Hunting 
Indians Sudden aversion to shedding their blood Decide 
to protect them at the risk of my life Sent again to hunt 
and kill Indians Testimony that the Lord did not want me 
to kill them, but to carry peace to them A dream and its 
fulfillment. Page 26. 

CHAPTEK Y. 

Mission to Southern Utah Locate at Harmony Kemarkable 
Prophecies of Heber C. Kimball fulfilled Indians Harvest- 
ing Indian "Medicineman" Indian. woman healed under 
our administration Accompany a hunting party-- A fight 
for a squaw, in which I am compelled to take part Sickness 
Take my family to Southern tTtah Build a fort on the 
Santa Clara Rain in answer to prayer Counsel from Presi- 
dent Young We refuse to administer to the sick until they 
are washed A sick boy dies, and the Indians grow mad and 
threaten us "We follow and pacify them. Page 31. 



VI. CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEK VI. 

Retributive justice to the Indians We gain influence by it The 
Lord gives the Indians testimonies of the truth "War 
between two bands of Indians A woman burned to death 
from revenge Promptings of the Spirit Stolen horses 
recovered Government among the Indians Appointed 
president of the Indian misssion Visit of Apostle George 
A. Smith United States army on its way to Utah Elder 
Smith's advice to the Saints Mountain Meadow massacre. 

Page 41. 

CHAPTEK VII. 

President Young requests me to pilot a company to California- 
Save a white man from being tortured by the Indians 
Indians determined to kill the company I pacify them 
Elders Ira Hatch and Dud ley Leavitt sentened to be killed by 
the Mohaves Elder Hatch softens their hearts by oifering a 
prayer Allowed to escape on foot. Page 47. 

CHAPTEE VIIL 

President Young's Indian policy Expedition to Los Vegas and 
Colorado Rivers Suspicious steamer in the Colorado 
Learn its purpose Go after a load of lead Our horses 
stolen Eat poison cactus Led by the Spirit providentially. 

Page 61. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Visit to Salt Lake City Interview between Elder George A. 
Smith and Governor Cumming Elder Smith urges an 
investigation of the Mountain Meadow massacre Governor 
Gumming objects Appointed sub-Indian agents Nearly 
killed by a fall from a tree A remarkable vision First 
mission to the Moquis Description of their towns, customs 
and traditions Some of the Brethren remain with them 
Difficult journey home Moquis prediction. Page 56. 

CHAPTER X. 

Second trip to the Moquis Two Elders left to labor with them 
Lack of success, owing to traditions of the Indians Third 
mission to the east side of the Colorado George A. Smith, 
Jr., shot by the Navajoes Very trying experience The 
wounded man .dies in the saddle, while traveling Forced to 
leave his body unburied Bitter reflections. Page 64. 

CHAPTER XL 

Arrival at Spaneshanks' camp His friendly spirit Return 
home Journey in the winter to recover the remains of 
George A. Smith, Jr. Destitute condition of rny family. 

Page 72. 



CONTENTS* Vll. 



CHAPTER XII. 

Many Saints called to settle Southern Utah Destructive flood 
on the Santa Clara Narrow escape from drowning Another 
visit across the Colorado A new route Moquis Indians 
pray for rain Their prayers answered Three Indians 
return with us Their devotion and reverence They visit 
Salt Lake City. Page 75. 

CHAPTEK XIII. 

^The Moquis visitors taken home Singular presentiment of my 
Indian boy The route south of St. George taken the second 
time Cataract Canyon The lost Moquis and the "medicine 
man" Meeting with the brethren who had been left at the 
Moquis towns Explorations about the San Francisco Moun- 
tains Keturn home Great suffering with thirst My 
Indian boy dead and buried, as he had predicted he would 
be. Page 81. 

CHAPTEPv XIY. 

Change in the spirit of the Indians Some insight into their 
privations and trials They threaten hostilities Difficulties 
with them settled A kind, peaceful policy the best Visit 
to the Moquis towns The people are invited to live with 
the Saints Their objections to removing Hostile attitude of 
the Navajoes Keturn home Suffering with thirst A 
providential supply of water Dr. Whitmore killed Severe 
sickness Healed in answer to prayer. Page 87. 

CHAPTEK XV. 

Travels among the Indians "Watching the frontiers Trip to 
the Moquis towns Great raid of the Navajoes A good 
opportunity lost of recovering stolen stock Skirmishes with 
Kaiders A peaceable agreement with the Navajocs desir- 
able Yisit of President Young to Kanab. Page 92. 

CHAPTEK XYI. 

Yisits among Utah Indians Meet Major Powell Employed^ to 
accompany him Council with the Shi-vwits Major 
Powell's description of it. Page 96. 

CHAPTEK XVII. 

Journey to Fort Defiance Interesting visit among the Moquis 

towns Arrival at Fort Defiance General council of the 

chiefs of the Navajoe nation Great peace talk Keturn 

home Treaty of peace in one of the Moquis towns Stolen 

sheep recovered for a Navajoe. Page 99. 

CHAPTEK XVIII. 

Moquis Indians destroy many Navajoes An Oriba and his wife 
accompany us home Peace talk with the Piutes A dream 
and its fulfillment Tuba's prayer Choog, the Indian 
prophet His prediction Fatal fire in Kanab. Page 103. 



Till. CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEK XIX. 

Visit of Tuba and his wife to the Washington factory arid flour- 
ing mill Many j^avajoes come to trade with our people- 
Take Tuba and his wife home More talk about the death of 
Young George A. Smith Saints called to settle in Arizona 
They become discouraged and return to Utah Navajoes 
murdered in Grass Valley War imminent Sent to settle 
the difficulty Two miners accompany me Indians call a 
council. Page 107. 

CHAPTEK XX. 

Indians assemble The council lodge Accused of lying to the 
Indians Informed that I must die Privilege granted the 
Smith Brothers of escaping They refuse to desert me to 
save their lives Violent speeches Young Indians eager for 
revenge Interpreters afraid to speak Indians propose a 
compromise 350 head of cattle and horses demanded I 
refuse to pay for a crime the "Mormons" never committed 
They threaten to burn me My coolness creates a favor- 
able impression An agreement "We regain our liberty. 

Page 114. 

CHAPTEE XXI. 

Smith's version of the trying ordeal A graphic description 
from a Gentile standpoint Explanation. Page 120. 

CHAPTEK XXII. 

Start home Meet emigrants to Moancoppy Visit Presidents 
Young and Smith Return to meet the Indians Providence 
favors me Hastele fails to meet me Keturn home Moan- 
coppy mission broken up Sent with D. D. Me Arthur to 
establish a trading post Hastele visits Kanab, and starts to 
the Sevier to learn about the murder I stay at home Tes- 
timony that I should accompany him Indian Discernment 
Hastele is satisfied. Page 127. 

CHAPTEK XXIII. 

Visit Fort Defiance Mr. Daniels, inspector of Indian agencies 
His prejudice against the "Mormons" Mr. Trewax, the 
preacher Peace talk Mission re-established. Page 132. 

CHAPTEK XXIV. 

Company start to visit the Arizona settlements Disaster in the 
Colorado Bishop Koundy drowned Explore a new route 
Promise fulfilled Visit settlements Severe experience on 
homeward trip Assurance of approval from President 
Young Trip across the Colorado in search of a criminal 
Moquis ceremonies to bring rain Conclusion. Page 135. 



JACOB HAMBLIN. 



A NARRATIVE OF PERSONAL EXPERIENCE. 



CHAPTER I. 

EARLY INCIDENTS OF MY LIFE PROVIDENTIAL CARE OVER 
ME MARRIAGE HEAR THE GOSPEL, AND EMBRACE IT 
SIGNS FOLLOW OPPOSED BY RELATIVES PREDICT 
MY FATHER'S BAPTISM MY FATHER HEALED IN ANSWER 
TO PRAYER. 

I WAS born in Salem, Ashtabula, Co., Ohio, on the 6th of 
April, 1819. When I was three months old, my father 
removed to Geauga Co., in the same State. That country 
was then a wilderness, covered with a heavy growth of tim- 
ber. In my early life I assisted my father in chopping timber 
and clearing land. 

It required twenty faithful days' work to clear one acre, 
and render it fit for the harrow and a crop of wheat. In 
about three years the roots of the trees would decay, so that 
the soil could be worked with a plow. 

In 1836, I removed, with nay father, to Wisconsin Terri- 
tory. I remember passing through Chicago, then a mere 
hamlet, but now a large and wealthy city. 

Seventy miles north-west of Chicago, my father, in com- 
pany with two friends, Messrs. Pratt and Harvey, located at 
a place called Spring Prairie. It was the most delightful 
country I had ever seen. It was beautiful with rolling 
prairies, groves of timber, numerous springs of pure water, 
and an occasional lake abounding with fish. 



10 NARROW ESCAPES. 

My father and I each made a claim on eighty acres of 
government land which was expected soon to come into the 
market. I was not yet of age, and my father, wishing to 
return to Ohio for his family, proffered to give me the 
remainder of my time, during the summer, if I would take 
care of the crop already sown. 

During his absence, I had the misfortune to cut one of my 
knees. I took cold in it, and it became much inflamed and 
swollen. The family with whom I was living did not think I 
could get well. The swelling had reached my body, and as 
soon as it extended a little farther, the people expected me 
to die. I quite despaired of ever seeing my parents again. 

In my childhood, I had imbibed a belief that there was a 
God who would hear my prayers when I was in trouble. I 
managed to drag myself a short distance into a hazel thicket, 
where I besought the Lord to have mercy upon me, and not 

let me die. 

That evening, a Mrs. Campbell called at the house. She 
said she was passing by and felt impressed to call in, but did 
not know for what purpose. After explaining to her my situ- 
ation, she said "I now know why I came in here, for I can 
bring that swelling all out." 

This was accomplished by steaming, and I soon got about, 
and again had the privilege of meeting my parents and other 

relatives. 

The second season after this occurrence my father told me 
that, as I had been a faithful boy, I might go and do some- 
thing for myself. I took a bundle of clothing, and traveled 
westward 118 miles to the Galena lead mines. I worked 
there nearly a year. 

Twice during that time I barely escaped being buried about 
100 feet under ground, by the caving in of the earth. At 
one time, when 200 feet below the surface of the ground, a 
rock fell on a man who was working with me, and killed him 
instantly. While dragging his mangled body along the drift, 
and ananging a rope by which to raise it up the shaft, such an 
aversion to mining came over me, that I did not go back to my 
labor again. I returned with the money I had earned, and 
paid for my land, 



MARRIAGE. 11 

In the autumn of 1839, I married Lucinda Taylor. She, 
as well as myself, had a numerous circle of relatives. I 
enclosed my land with a good fence, built a comfortable 
house, and made up my mind to live and die on the place. I 
believed the Bible, but was without faith in any of the 
religious sects of the day, and had given up all hopes of find- 
ing a religion that I could believe to be true. 

In February, 1842, a neighbor called at my house, and told 
me that he had heard a ' 'Mormon" Elder preach. He 
asserted that he preached more Bible doctrine than any other 
man he had ever listened to, and that he knew what he preached 
was true. He claimed that the gospel had been restored to the 
earth, and that it was the privilege of all who heard it to 
know and understand it for themselves. 

What this neighbor told me so influenced my mind, that I 
could scarcely attend to my ordinary business. 

The Elder had left an appointment to preach again at the 
same place, and I went to hear him. When I entered the 
house he had already commenced his discourse. I shall never 
forget the feeling that came over me when I saw his face and 
heard his voice. He preached that which I had long been 
seeking for ; I felt that it was indeed the gospel. 

The principles he taught appeared so plain and natural, 
that I thought it would be easy to convince any one of their 
truth. In closing his remarks, the Elder bore testimony 
to the truth of the gospel. 

The query came to my mind : 'How shall I know whether or 
not these things are so, and be satisfied? As if the Spirit 
prompted him to answer my inquiry, he again arose to his feet 
and said : "If there is anyone in the congregation who wishes 
to know how he can satisfy himself of the truth of these 
things, I can assure him that if he will be baptized, and have 
hands laid upon him for the gift of the Holy Ghost, he shall 
have an assurance of their truth. ' ' 

This so fired up my mind, that I at once determined to be 
baptized, and that too, if necessary, at the sacrifice of the 
friendship of my kindred and of every earthly tie. 

I immediately went home and informed my wife of my 
intentions, 



12 BAPTISM AND CONFIRMATION. 

* She told me that if I was baptized into the " Mormon" 
Church, I need not expect her to live with me any more. 

The evening after the Elder had preached I went in search 
of him, and found him quite late at night. I told him my 
purpose, and requested him to give me a " Mormon Bible." 
He handed me the Old and New Testament. 

I said, "I thought you had a new Bible." He then 
explained about the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, 
and handed me a copy of it. 

The impressions I received at the time cannot be forgotten. 
The spirit rested upon me and bore testimony of its truth, 
and I felt like opening my mouth and declaring it to be a rev- 
elation from Grod. 

On the 3rd of March, 1842, as soon as it was light in the 
morning, I started for a pool of water where I had arranged 
to meet with the Elder, to attend to the ordinance of baptism. 
On the way, the thought of the sacrifice I was making of 
wife, of father, mother, brothers, sister and numerous other 
connections, caused my resolution to waver. 

As my pace slackened, some person appeared to come from 
above, who. I thought, was my grandfather. He seemed to 
say to me, " Go on, my son; your heart cannot conceive, nei- 
ther has it entered into your mind to imagine the blessings that 
are in store for you, if you go on and continue in this work. ' ' 

I lagged no more, but hurried to the pool, where I was 
baptized by Elder Lyman Stoddard. 

It was said in my confirmation, that the spirits in prison 
greatly rejoiced over what I had done. I told Elder Stoddard 
my experience on my way to the water. 

He then explained to me the work there was for me to do 
for my fathers, if I was faithful, all of which I believed and 
greatly rejoiced in. 

On my way home, I called at the house of one of my neigh- 
bors. The family asked me if I had not been baptized by the v 
" Mormon" Elder. I replied that I had. They stated that 
they believed what he preached to be the truth, and hoped 
they might have the opportunity of being baptized. 

The following day Elder Stoddard came to my house, and 
told me that he had intended to leave the country, but could 



PREDICT MY FATHER'S BAPTISM. 13 

not go without coming to see me. For what purpose he 
had come, he knew not. 

I related to him what my neighbors had said. He held 
more meetings in the place, and organized a branch before 
leaving. 

When my father learned that I had joined the u Mormons," 
he said he thought he had brought up his children so that 
none of them would ever be deceived by priestcraft; at the 
same time he turned from my gate, and refused to enter my 
house. 

Other relatives said that my father knew better than to be 
deceived as I had been. I answered them by predicting that, 
much as he knew, I would baptize him into the Church 
before I was two years older. 

All my relatives, except one brother, turned against me, 
and seemed to take pleasure in speaking all manner of evil 
against me. I felt that I was hated by all my former ac- 
quaintances. This was a great mystery to me. 

I prayed to the Lord and was comforted. I knew that I 
had found the valuable treasure spoken of by our Savior, and 
I was willing to sacrifice all things for it. 

My wife's father took great pains to abuse and insult me 
with his tongue. Without having any conception how my 
prediction would be fulfilled, I said to him one* day, "You 
will not have the privilege of abusing me much more. ' ' A 
few days after he was taken sick, and died. 

Soon after the death of her father, my wife asked me, 
good-naturedly, why I did not pray in the house or with her. 
I replied, that I felt better to pray by myself than I did 
before unbelievers. She said that she was a believer ; that 
her father had appeared to her in a dream, and told her not 
to oppose me any more as she had done ; and that he was in 
trouble on account of the way he had used me. Soon after 
this she was baptized, which was a great comfort to me. 

In the autumn of 1842, Elder Stoddard returned to the 
Country where I Jived, to labor in the ministry, and ordained 
me an Elder. 

About the same time my wife was taken very sick. By her 
request I administered to her, and she was immediately healed. 



14 START FOR NATJVOO. 

I visited my father, and informed him that signs followed 
the believer, as in the days of the apostles ; that I was a 
believer, and had been ordained an Elder in the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and that the signs followed 
my administrations. 

He ordered me out of his house for believing such non- 
sense. I went out, reflecting as to whether or not I had done 
wrong in predicting that I would baptize him in less than two 
years. 

Some time after this he was taken sick, and I went to see 
him. My mother told me he had the spotted fever, and that 
there was no hope of his recovery. She believed he was dy- 
ing, and so it appeared to me ; but I thought that God could 
and would save him if I prayed for him. 

I retired to a private place, and prayed to the God of Abra- 
ham to have mercy on my father and heal him, that he might 
have an opportunity of obeying the gospel. 

It was a moonlight night, and when I returned to the 
house my mother stood at the door. She spoke to me very 
kindly, and said : 

"Jacob, the fever has left your father i he has spoken, and 
wants to see you. ' ' 

As I approached him he said, "The fever has left me, and 
your moth*er says that you came to me and went away again. 
What has made such a sudden change? Do you know? " 

I answered that I had prayed for him, that I was a believer 
in the gospel of the Son of God, and in the signs following 
those that believe. 

"Well," said he, "if it is the gospel, I would like to know 
it; but if it is priestcraft, I want nothing to do with it." 

Soon after the sickness of my father, I sold my home, 
gathered up my effects and started for Nauvoo, Hancock Co., 
Illinois. 

In passing my father's house I found him quite well, and 
he desired me to remain over night. He showed much 
interest in the principles of the gospel, and, when I left 
his house in the morning, the Spirit manifested to me that my 
father and his household would yet accept the truth. 



ARRIVAL AT NAUVOO. 15 



CHAPTER II. 

ARRIVAL AT NAUVOO MY FIRST INTERVIEW WITH THE 
PROPHET JOSEPH SOME FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF THE 
CHARACTER OF THE GATHERED SAINTS GO EAST ON 
AN IMPORTANT MISSION DEATH OF THE PROPHET 
RETURN TO NAUVOO PROVIDENTIAL CIRCUMSTANCE ON 
THE JOURNEY. 

I TRAVELED westward about 100 miles to the Mississippi 
river, where I took passage on a steamer to Nauvoo. I 
landed in the night. In the morning, I asked a young man 
where the Prophet lived. He pointed out the way to the 
residence of Joseph Smith, Jr., and said, "If you are going 
to see the Prophet, do not take any money with you. If you 
do, he will get it. ' ' 

I asked the youth if he was a "Mormon." He replied 
that he was, and that his father was a High Priest. I 
thought it strange that he should talk as he did. 

As I passed along one of the streets of the town, I saw a 
tall, noble-looking man talking with another. An impression 
came over me that he was the person I was looking for. In- 
quiring of a bystander, I learned that my impression was 
correct. 

One of the company asked the- Prophet for some money he 
had loaned him. He replied that he would try and get it 
during the day. I offered him the money, but he said: 
"Keep your money. I will not borrow until I try to get 
what is owing me. If you have just come in and wish to pay 
your tithing, you can pay it to Brother Hyrum ; he sees to 
that." 

I soon learned to discriminate between the different kinds 
of people who had gathered to Nauvoo. Some were living 
the lives of Saints; others were full of deceit and were ' 
stumbling-blocks in the way of those who were striving to do 
right. 



16 CALLED ON A MISSION. 

The following winter I chopped wood on an island in the 
Mississippi river, twenty miles above Nauvoo. 

The Prophet Joseph had told the people that the time had 
come which was spoken of by the prophet Malachi, when the 
hearts of the fathers must turn to the children, and the 
hearts ot the children to the fathers ; the Saints must seek 
for the spirit of this great latter-day work, and that they 
must pray for it until they received it. 

I had made a practice for several days, of retiring to a pri- 
vate place early each morning, to pray for this Spirit and 
blessing, when an influence came over me that made manifest 
to me my nothingness before the Lord. This so affected me 
for a time, that I was almost led to wish that I had never 
been born. When thus humbled, it was shown to me how a 
man could obtain salvation, and what he might attain to. 
With this I felt satisfied. What was then shown me has 
been of great worth to me since. I then comprehended that 
the most implicit obedience to the will of God was necessary 
in order to attain to eternal life. 

In February, 1844, Joseph Smith, the Prophet, published 
an address to the people of the United States, on the Powers 
and Policy of the General Government, and offered himself 
as a candidate for the office of President of the United 
States. 

The same year, at the April Conference, Elders were called 
and sent forth, two by two, into each State of the Union, with 
the "Address to the People of the United States," in pam- 
phlet form, for distribution, and to preach the gospel. I was 
sent with Brother John Myers, to the State of Maryland. 

We took passage on the steamer Osprey, in company with 
seven of the quorum of the Twelve Apostles, and of seventy- 
one of the Seventies. My companion and I went to Pitts- 
burg, Penn., and from there we traveled on foot with our 
valises, without purse or scrip, through the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

We were often hungry and weary, and, in some- instances, 
were accused of being beggars and deceivers. This, coupled 
with my natural independence of character, seemed humilia 
ting, and made our travels anything but agreeable. 



WHISPERING OF THE SPIRIT. 17 

We journeyed through Derrytown, Hagerstown, Sharpsburg 
and Antietam, and preached in the States of Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and Maryland. We visited some places where 
branches of the Church had been previously organized. 

The way appeared to be opening up for a good work to 
be done in that country, when, about the 4th of July, news 
reached me that the Prophet, about whom I had preached so 
much, had been shot bj^a mob when confined in jail. I did 
not believe the report until I offered to preach to those who 
were gathered around me in the small town of Mechanics- 
burg. They manifested a spirit of exultation, and a feeling 
of deep gloom passed over me. I felt more like weeping 
than preaching. 

I concluded to hunt up my companion, from whom I was 
then separated. For this purpose I started for Hagerstown, 
where I hoped to find him, or learn of his whereabouts. 

I had traveled about a mile when I came to a cross road, 
and the Spirit whispered to me, "Stop here, and Brother 
Myers will soon be along. ' ' I remained on the spot about ten 
minutes, when I saw him coming, with his hat in one hand 
and his valise in the other. He did not believe that the 
Prophet was killed. 

We journeyed together to Lightersburg. After meeting 
and passing [many people, the Spirit indicated to us that a 
man on the opposite side of the street was an Elder in Israel. 
It proved to be a Latter-day Saint Elder, who had reliable 
infomation of the murder of the Prophet Joseph and the 
Patriarch Hyrum Smith. He also informed us that the 
Elders who were abroad were all called home. 

On the 15th of July, 1844, when taking leave of a small 
branch of the Church in Lightersburg, one of the sisters 
offered me some money that she had earned in the harvest 
field. I took one dollar, and told her that I could get home 
with that. 

After starting, I began to reflect on my situation. I must 
travel on the river steamers from Pittsburg to Nauvoo, via 
Cincinnati and St. Louis, and I had only two dollars in my 
pocket. I had been often surprised, when traveling on foot at 
the pains people would take to invite me to ride or to step into a 



18 INTERPOSITION OF PROVIDENCE. 

grocery and take a lunch, and I had considerable faith that 
the Lord would soften the heart of some one to assist me, 
when I was in need. 

When I arrived in Pittsburg, I had one dollar left. There 
were two steamers at the landing about to start for St. Louis. 
They offered to take passengers very cheap. I told the cap- 
tain of one of them, that I would give all the money I had for 
a passage to St. Louis. He took m v money and gave me a 
ticket, but appeared rather cross. 

I was soon on my way down the river, but still a long way 
from home, and without money or anything to eat. I began 
to feel the want of food. 

Nothing special occurred with me until evening, when the 
lamps were lit in the passengers' cabin. 1 was then asked 
by a young married lady, if I was not a "Mormon" Elder. 
I replied that I was ; and she told me that her little child 
was dying with the scarlet fever, and she wished me to lay 
hands on it and heal it. 

I replied that I could administer to it, and I presumed that 
the Lord would heal it. I asked her if she believed in such 
things. She said that she did, and that she belonged to the 
Church, but her husband did not. I was puzzled in my mind 
to know what to do, for the boat was crowded with passen- 
gers, and all unbelievers excepting the mother of the sick 
child and myself. It seemed like a special providence that, 
just then, the lamp in the cabin should fall from its hangings, 
and leave us all in the dark. 

Before another lamp could be lit, I had administered to 
the child, and rebuked the fever in the name of the Lord 
Jesus, unobserved by those around. The Lord blessed the 
administration, and the child was healed. 

The mother called her husband, and said to him, "Little 
Mary is healed ; now do not say anything against 'Mormon- 
ism.' " The man looked at his child, and said to me, "I am 
not a believer in any kind of religion, but I am on my way to 
Iowa, opposite to Nauvoo, where I presume you are going. 
You are welcome to board with me all the way, and if you 
want any money I will let you have it." 

I arrived in Nauvoo on the 5th of August,;! 844 



SIDNEY RIGDON'S PRESUMPTION. 19 



CHAPTER, III. 

SIDNEY RIGDON STRIVES FOR THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THE 
CHURCH HE URGES HIS CLAIMS AT THE CONFERENCE 
BRIGHAM YOUNG, PRESIDENT OF THE TWELVE, AND 
OTHERS OF THE QUORUM APPEAR IN THE STAND A 
REMARKABLE TESTIMONY THAT THE MANTLE OF JOSEPH 
HAD FALLEN UPON BRIGHAM YOUNG PERSECUTIONS 
OF THE SAINTS BAPTISM OF MY PARENTS PREPARA- 
TIONS FOR THE EXODUS SICKNESS A METHODIST 
COMFORTER ANSWER TO PRAYER HARVEST OF QUAILS 
MIRACULOUS INCIDENTS ON THE JOURNEY TO UTAH. 

AT Nauvoo I found Sidney Kigdon busy among the Saints, 
trying to establish his claim to the presidency of the 
Church. He was first Counselor to the Prophet Joseph at 
the time of the latter 's death. The Church was fourteen 
years old, and he claimed that it was its privilege and duty to 
appoint a guardian ; and he wished the people to sanction his 
guardianship. 

I was much dissatisfied with the course he was taking, and, 
as I could not sustain him, 1 felt to leave Nauvoo for a season. 
I went into the country, where I had left my wife and two 
children with my sister Melissa. When I met my sister, she 
threw her arms around my neck and thanked the Lord that I 
had returned. She had seen an account of a man being 
drowned in the Ohio river, and, from the description, thought 
that it might have been me. 

On the 8th of August, 1844, I attended a general 
meeting of the Saints. Elder Bigdon was there, 
urging his claims to the presidency of the Church. His 
voice did not sound like the voice of the true shepherd. 
When he was about to call a vote of the congregation to sus- 
tain him as President of the Church, Elders Brigham Young, 
Parley P. Pratt and Heber C. Kimball stepped into the 
stand, 



20 A REMARKABLE TESTIMONY. 

Brigham Young remarked to the congregation: "I will 
manage this voting for Elder Eigdon. He does not preside 
here. This child" (meaning himself) "will manage this flock 
for a season. ' ' The voice and gestures of the man were those 
of the Prophet Joseph. 

The people, with few exceptions, visibly saw that the man- 
tle of the prophet Joseph had fallen upon Brigham Young. 
To some it seemed as though Joseph again stood before them. 

I arose to my feet and said to a man sitting by me, u That 
is the voice of the true shepherd the chief of the Apostles. ' ' 

Our enemies, finding that the death of the Prophet did not 
break up "Mormonism," as they had expected, began their 
persecutions again, by burning the houses of the brethren in 
the outlying settlements. 

I joined a company of minute men to assist in protecting 
the Saints. In one of our scouts we visited Carthage. I 
examined the jail in which Joseph and Hyruin were assas- 
sinated. 1 noticed that the latches on the two doors that the 
mob broke ID, when they killed the Prophets, had been ren- 
dered useless by bending down the catches, so that the latches 
would clear them. All the entrances to the prison yard 
appeared to me to have been prepared beforehand for the 
easy admittance of the mob. 

The blood on the floor where the Patriarch fell, had left a 
black spot about the size and shape of the body. The ball 
holes in the plastering about the window out of which Joseph 
leaped, and those in the door and in the wall above where 
Hyrum had lain, and also where John Taylor had been shot 
at, denoted that the assailants were desperadoes and well 
prepared for their work. 

When the District Court sat in Hancock County, the judge 
allowed one of the leaders of the mob to act as an official. 
He also professed to try to have the murderers indicted, but 
as several of them were on the grand jury, there were no in- 
dictments found against them. 

The following winter I assisted in guarding the Saints in 
and around the city of Nauvoo. My brother Obed lived 
about thirty miles out in the country. He was taken sick, 
and sent for me -to come and see him. 



RECEIVE MY ENDOWMENTS. . 21 

On arriving at his Louse, I found that he had been sick 
nearly three months, and that doubts were entertained of his 
recovery. I anointed him with holy oil in the name of the 
Lord Jesus, laid on hands and prayed for him, and told him 
that he should recover, which he did immediately. 

This occurrence had much influence on my parents. They 
both attended the following April Conference. At its close, 
my father asked me if I did not wish to baptize him and my 
mother. As they were both desirous that I should do so, 
I baptized them in the Mississippi river, on April llth, 1845. 

My father told me that it was not any man's preaching that 
had convinced him of the truth of the gospel, but the Lord 
had shown it to him in night visions. Said he, ' 'It is your 
privilege to baptize your parents, for you have prayed for 
them in secret and in public ; you never gave them up ; you 
will be a Joseph to your father's house." 

In 1 845, I labored on the Nauvoo temple, doing any work 
that was required of me. In the autumn, the enemies of the 
Saints commenced to plunder in the country settlements. 
Teams were sent from Nauvoo to save and bring in what 
grain they could. It was necessary to send guards with the 
teams. 

These afflictions, heaped upon the Saints by their enemies 
when they were struggling to complete the temple, in compli- 
ance with the word of the Lord, greatly added to their 
difficulties and labors. 

When winter came, they were instructed to unite their 
efforts to manufacture wagons, and make preparations for 
a long journey. I assisted in getting out timber for wagons. 

The house of the Lord being far enough completed to give 
endowments and do other necessary work, I received my 
blessings in it just before crossing the Mississippi river, in 
February, 1846. 

I labored with the company of pioneers to prepare the way 
for the Saints through Iowa, after which I had the privilege 
of returning to Nauvoo for my family, which consisted of my 
wife and three children. I moved them out into Iowa, 200 
miles, where I left them, and [returned 100 miles to settle- 
ments, in order to obtain food and other necessaries. 



22 FED WITH QUAILS. 

I was taken sick, and sent for my family to return to me. 
My wife and two children were taken sick the day after their 
arrival. We found shelter in a miserable hut, some distance 
from water. 

One day I made an effort to get some water for my suffer- 
ing family, but failed through weakness. Night came on, and 
my family were burning with fever and calling for water. 

These very trying circumstances called up some bitter feel- 
ings within me. It seemed as though in this, my terrible 
extremity, the Lord permitted the devil to ivy me, for just 
then a Methodist class leader came along, and remarked that 
I was in a very bad situation. He assured me that he had a 
comfortable house that I could move into, and that he had 
plenty of everything, and would assist me if I would renounce 
"Mormonism." I refused, and he passed on. 

I afterwards knelt down and asked the Lord to pity us in 
our miserable condition, and to soften the heart of some one 
to administer to us in our affliction. 

About an hour after this, a man by the name of William 
Johnson came with a three gallon jug full of water, set it 
down and said: U I came home this evening, weary, having 
been working with a threshing machine during the day, but, 
when I lay down I could not sleep ; something told me that 
you were suffering for water. I took this jug, went over to 
Ouster's well and got this for you. I feel now as though I 
could go home and sleep. I have plenty of chickens and 
other things at my house, that are good for sick people. 
When you need anything I will let you have it. 7 ' I knew this 
was from the Lord in answer to my prayer. 

The following day the quails came out of the thickets, and 
were so easily caught that I picked up what I needed without 
difficulty. I afterwards learned that the camps of the Saints 
had been supplied with food in the same way. 

The spring following these events my eldest brother came 
from Pottawatomie Co., Iowa, with a team to take me home 
with him. While preparing to leave, the team became 
frightened, ran along a steep side hill, capsized the wagon, 
and I was thrown down the hill and the load came on the top 
of me. 



DEATH OF MY MOTHER. 23 

The same Mr. Johnson who had before administered to my 
wants, took me into his house. This was in the morning, and 
I knew nothing until ten o'clock in the evening. 

When I became conscious, I was lying on a mattress covered 
with blood. I looked around the room, and asked what it all 
meant. The lady of the house informed me what had hap- 
pened, and told me that Mr. Johnson did not expect me to 
\ive. She further stated that he had called in some of the 
neighbors, that the doctor had been to see me and wished to 
bleed me, but I would not let him ; that I told them that if 
they knew where there were any of the Elders of Israel, I 
wanted them sent for. She informed me that I said other 
things which displeased the doctor and the neighbors, and 
they went away. 

I assured the family that I was not responsible for what I 
had said or done, for I knew nothing about it. Mrs. John- 
son said that she did not hear or see anything wrong, but the 
neighbors believed that I was trying to palm off some great 
"Mormon" miracle on them. I denied trying to deceive any 
one, but all to no purpose. 

The owner of the house I had rented hurried me out of it, 
saying I could not live in his house any longer. In the month of 
March I moved into the wagon, with my wife and four chil- 
dren, the youngest not two weeks old. 

On the llth of the following April, 1847, I arrived at my 
father's house, in Western Iowa. I had previously baptized 
four of my brothers, and all my father's family had embraced 
the gospel. 

My mother had sunk under hardships, and died on 
the road from Nauvoo, yet I was thankful to find all my 
relatives rejoicing in the truth. 

In the spring of 1850 I felt like making an effort to gather 
with the Saints in the mountains. This at first appeared im- 
possible, as my animals had all strayed off, and I could not 
learn of their whereabouts. 

I had concluded to remain another year, when I dreamed, 
for three nights in succession, where my oxen were, and went 
and got them. I found my other lost animals in the same 
manner, 



24 PERILOUS ESCAPE. 

These kind providences, with strict economy, enabled me to 
make a start for Utah with the company of Aaron Johnson, 
in the spring of 1850, as I had desired. 

I joined the camp, to travel over a thousand miles of desert, 
with nine in family, one small wagon, one yoke of oxen and 
two cows. 

While crossing the ferry over the Missouri river, with a 
boat load of cattle, they crowded to one side of the boat and 
capsized it. Some of the people on board saved themselves 
by getting on to the bottom of the boat, others by holding on 
to planks. 

I made an effort to swim to the landing, below which was 
some three miles of perpendicular river bank, and the water 
along the bank was full of whirlpools and eddies. Despite 
my efforts, the current took me past the landing. As I was 
almost carried under by a strong eddy, I began to despair of 
saving myself. Fortunately, I discovered where a path had 
been cut through the bank to the water's edge. I succeeded 
in getting so near the top of the bank, that a woman who was 
near, and had discovered my situation, managed to get 
hold of my hand, and, with a great effort, I was saved from the 
surging waters. 

In traveling up the Platte river on our way to the moun- 
tains, we found the road side, in places, strewn with human 
bones. The discovery of gold in California and the excite- 
ment it had created, had induced many of the Missouri 
mobocrats, the year previous, to leave their homes in search 
of the god of this world. 

The cholera had raged among them to such an extent, that 
the dead were buried without coffins, and with but a slight 
covering of earth. The wolves had dug up and feasted upon 
their carcasses, and their bones lay bleaching on the desert. 
There were days of travel in which human skeletons were 
usually in sight. 

We saw the literal fulfillment of the predictions of Joseph 
the Prophet, during the persecutions of the Saints in Mis- 
souri. He said that those who took an active part in driving 
them from their homes, should themselves die away from home 
without a decent burial ; that their flesh should be devoured 



MIRACULOUS CASES OF HEALING. 25 

by wild beasts, and their bones should bleach on the plains. 
Boards had usually been placed at the heads of the graves, on 
which were the names of those who had been buried in them. 
Many of these names were those of well-known Missouri 
mobocrats. 

The destroyer came into our company, and several persons 
died. I told my family that it was a plague from the Lord, 
that nothing but His power could save them from it, and that 
it would attack some of the family. My wife thought that I 
had done wrong in asserting that it would attack our family, 
as the children would be afraid and be more likely to have it. 
I told her that it would come, but when it did we must 
depend entirely upon the Lord and all would be right. 

One evening, as I returned to my wagon from assisting to 
bury a Sister Hunt, Sister Hamblin was taken violently with 
the cholera, and she exclaimed, "O Lord, help, or I die!" 
I anointed her with consecrated oil in the name of the Lord 
Jesus, and she was instantly healed. The next day the 
cholera attacked me and I was healed under the hands of my 
father. 

I was advised to get into the wagon and ride the remainder 
of the day. As my eldest son, a small lad, took the whip to 
drive the team, he fell forward to the ground and both wheels 
on the left side of the wagon ran over his body. It appeared 
to me that he never could breathe again. My father took 
him out of the road, administered to him, and he arose to 
his feet and said that he was not hurt. 

My youngest son, Lyman, was taken with the cholera, and 
my father in administering to him, rebuked the destroyer, 
and commanded him to depart from him, from the family and 
from the company. To my knowledge no more cases of the 
cholera occurred after that in the company. 

We arrived in Salt Lake Valley on the 1st of September, 
1850. 



26 LOCATE IN TOOELE VALLEY. 



CHAPTER IV. 

LOCATE IN TOOELE VALLEY INDIAN TROUBLES ESCAPE 
DEATH BY AN INDIAN, BY FOLLOWING THE WARNING 
OF THE SPIRIT HUNTING INDIANS SUDDEN AVERSION 
TO SHEDDING THEIR BLOOD DECIDE TO PROTECT THEM 
AT THE RISK OF MY LIFE SENT AGAIN TO HUNT AND 
KILL INDIANS TESTIMONY THAT THE LORD DID NOT 
WANT ME TO [KILL THEM, BUT TO CARRY PEACE TO 
THEM A DREAM AND ITS FULFILLMENT. 

I SETTLED, with my father and brothers, in Tooele Valley, 
thirty-five miles west of Salt Lake City. The people 
built their houses in the form of a fort, to protect themselves 
from the Indians, who frequently stole their horses and cattle. 
Men were sent against them from Salt Lake City, but all to 
no purpose. The Indians would watch them during the day, 
and steal from them at night. 

This kind of warfare was carried on for about three years, 
during which time there was no safety for our horses or cattle. 
We had a military company, of which I was first lieutenant 
I went with the captain on several expeditions against the 
thieves, but without accomplishing much good. They would 
watch our movements in the canyons, and continually annoy us. 

At one time, I took my wife three miles up a canyon, to 
gather wild fruit while I got down timber from the moun- 
tain. We had intended to remain over night, but while 
preparing a place to sleep, a feeling came over me that the 
Indians were watching with the intention of killing us 
during the night. 

I at once yoked my oxen, put my wife and her babe on the 
wagon, and went home in the evening. My wife expressed 
surprise at my movements, and I told her that the Indians 
were watching us. She wished to know how I knew this, and 
asked if I had seen or heard them. I replied that I knew 
it on the same principle that I knew that the gospel was true. 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 27 

The following day I returned to the canyon. Three Indians 
had come down on the road during the night, and robbed a 
wagon of a gun, ammunition and other valuables. One of 
them, from the size of the track, must have been an Indian 
known as "Old Big Foot." I thanked the Lord that Be had 
warned me in time to save my wife and child, as well as my- 
self. 

The following winter I asked for a company of men to 
make another effort to hunt up the Indians. On this scout 
we traveled at night and watched during the day, until we 
discovered the location of a band of them. 

One morning at daybreak, we surrounded their camp before 
they were aware of our presence. The chief among them 
sprang to his feet, and stepping towards me, said, "I never 
hurt you, and I do not want to. If you shoot, I will ;*if you 
do not, I will not. ' ' I was not familiar with their language, 
but I knew what he said. Such an influence came over me 
that I would not have killed one of them for all the cattle in 
Tooele Valley. 

The running of the women and the crying of the children 
aroused my sympathies, and I felt inspired to do my best to 
prevent the company from shooting any of them. Some 
shots were fired, but no one was injured, except that the legs 
and feet of some of the Indians were bruised by jumping 
among the rocks. 

I wished some of the men to go with us to the settlement. 
They were somewhat afraid, but confided in my assurance that 
they should not be injured. 

On my arrival home, my superior officer ignored the prom- 
ise of safety I had given the Indians, and decided to have 
them shot. 

I told him I did not care to live after I had seen the 
Indians whose safety I had guaranteed, murdered, and as it 
made but little difference with me, if there were any shot I 
should be the first. At the same time I placed myself in front 
of the Indians. This ended the matter, and they were set at 
liberty. 

From the feelings manifested by the Bishop and the people 
generally, I thought that I might possibly be mistaken in the 



28 NARROW ESCAPE. 

whole affair. The people had long suffered from the depre- 
dations of these Indians, and they might be readily excused 
for their exasperated feelings, but, right or wrong, a different 
feeling actuated roe. 

After this affair, the presiding Elder directed me to 
take another company of men, go after the Indians, to shoot 
all we found, and bring no more into the settlement. Again 
we traveled at night and watched during the day. We found 
the trail of a small band who had come near the valley, and 
then turned back on account of a light fall of snow, which 
would make their trail too easily discovered for thieving oper- 
ations. 

We surprised them near a large mountain between Tooele 
and Skull Valleys. They scattered in the foot hills, and the 
company divided to the right and left to keep them from the 
mountains. I rode my horse as far as he could go on account 
of the difficulties of the ground, then left him, and secreted 
myself behind a rock in a narrow pass, through which I pre- 
sumed some of the Indians would attempt to escape. I had 
not been there long before an Indian came within a few paces 
of me. . 

I leveled my rifle on him, and it missed fire. He sent an 
arrow at me, and it struck my gun as I was in the act of 
re-capping it ; he sent the second, and it passed through my 
hat; the third barely missed my head; the fourth passed 
through my coat and vest. As I could not discharge my gun, 
I defended myself as well as I could with stones. The Indian 
soon left the ground to me. 

I afterwards learned that as he went on, he met two others 
of our company and passed them safely, as their guns also 
missed fire. When the company gathered back to the place 
from which they scattered, we learned that not one was able 
to discharge his gun when within range of an Indian. One 
of the company received a slight arrow wound, which was the 
only injury inflicted. 

In my subsequent reflections, it appeared evident to me 
that]a special providence had been over us, in this and the 
two previous expeditions, to prevent us from shedding the 
blood of the Indians. The Holy Spirit forcibly impressed 



A SINGULAR DREAM. 29 

me that it was not my calling to shed the blood of the scat- 
tered remnant of Israel, but to be a messenger of peace to 
them. It was also made manifest to me that if I would not 
thirst for their blood, I should never fall by their hands. The 
most of the men who went on this last expedition, also 
received an impression that it was wrong to kill these In- 
dians. 

On a fourth expedition against them, we again surprised 
their camp. When I saw the women and children fleeing for 
their lives, barefooted over the rocks and through the snow, 
leaving a trail of blood, JI fully made up my mind, that if 
I had anything more to do with Indians, it would be in a 
different way. 

I did not wish to injure these women and children, but, 
learning that "Old Big Foot" was there, and feeling that he 
deserved killing, I soon found his trail and followed it. There 
being snow on the ground, his trail was easily seen. It 
passed along the highest ridges. As I approached a cedar 
tree with low, thick foliage, a feeling came over me not to go 
near it. 1 passed it under the brow of a steep hill. When 
beyond it, I saw that no trail had passed on. I circled 
around in sight of the Indian, but he in some way slipped off 
unobserved. 

Afterwards, when trying to make peace with these Indians, 
' 'Big Foot" told me, that himself and party had laid their 
plans to kill me and my wife and child, the summer before 
when in Pine canyon, had we remained there over night. 
During the same interview he said, placing his finger on his 
arrow, "If, when you followed me in the cedar hills, you had 
come three steps nearer the tree where I was, I would have 
put an arrow into you up to the feather." 

I thanked the Lord, as I often felt to do, for the revelations 
of His Spirit. 

After returning home from the expedition, in which I had 
followed the trail of "Old Big Foot," I dreamed, three nights 
in succession, of being out west, alone, with the Indians that 
we had been trying about three years to destroy. I saw my- 
self walk with them in a friendly manner, and, while doing 
so, pick up a lump of shining substance, some of which stuck 



30 THE DREAM FULFILLED. 

to my fingers, and the more I endeavored to brush it off the 
brighter it became. 

This dream made such an impression on my mind, that I 
took my blankets, gun and ammunition, and went alone into 
their country. I remained with them several days, hunting 
deer and duck, occasionally loaning them my rifle, and assist- 
ing to bring in their game. I also did all I could to induce 
them to be at peace with us. 

One day, in my rambles, I came to a lodge where there was 
a squaw, and a boy about ten years old. As soon as I saw 
the boy, the Spirit said to me, "Take that lad home with 
you ; that is part of your mission here, and here is the bright 
substance which you dreamed of picking up." I talked with 
him and asked if he would not go with me. He at once 
replied that he would. 

The mother, naturally enough, in a deprecating tone, asked 
me if I wanted to take her boy away from her. But after some 
further conversation she consented to the arrangement. At 
this time I had not learned much of the language of these In- 
dians, but I seemed to have the gift of making myself understood. 

When I left, the boy took his bows and arrows and accom- 
panied me. The woman appeared to feel so bad, and made 
so much ado, that I told the lad he had better go back to his 
mother ; but he would not do so. We went to the side of a 
mountain where I agreed to meet the Indians. His mother, 
still anxious about her boy, came to our camp in the evening. 

The following morning, she told me that she heard I had a 
good heart, for the Indians told her that I had been true to 
what I said, and the boy could go with me if I would always 
be his father and own him as my son. 

This boy became very much attached to me, and was very 
particular to do as he was told. I asked him why he was so 
willing to come with me the first time we met. He replied 
that I was the first white man he ever saw ; that he knew a 
man would come to his mother's lodge to see him, on the day 
of my arrival, for he was told so the night before, and that 
when the man came he must go with him ; that he knew I 
was the man when he saw me a long way off, and built a 
smoke so that I would come there. 



MISSION TO SOUTHERN UTAH. 31 



CHAPTER V. 

MISSION TO SOUTHERN UTAH LOCATE AT HARMONY 
REMARKABLE PROPHECIES OF H. C. KIMBALL FUL- 
FILLED INDIANS HARVESTING INDIAN "MEDICINE 
MAN" INDIAN WOMAN HEALED UNDER OUR ADMINIS- 
TRATION ACCOMPANY A HUNTING PARTY A FIGHT FOR 
A SQUAW, IN WHICH I AM COMPELLED TO TAKE PART 
SICKNESS TAKE MY FAMILY TO SOUTHERN UTAH 
BUILD A FORT ON THE SANTA CLARA RAIN IN ANSWER 
TO PRAYER COUNSEL FROM PRESIDENT YOUNG WE 
REFUSE TO ADMINISTER TO THE SICK UNTIL THEY ARE 
WASHED A SICK BOY DIES, AND THE INDIANS .GROW 
MAD AND THREATEN US WE FOLLOW AND PACIFY 
THEM. 

AT the April conference of 1854, I was called, with a num- 
ber of others, on a mission to the Indians in Southern 
Utah. Taking a horse, cow, garden seeds and some farming 
tools, I joined in with Brother Robert Ritchie, and was soon 
on my way. 

We commenced operations at a place we called Harmony, 
twenty miles south of Cedar City, in Iron County. I made 
it my principal business to learn the Indian language, and 
become familiar with their character. 

About the end of May of that year, President Brigham 
Young, Heber C. Kimball, Parley P. Pratt and others to 
the number of twenty persons, came to visit us. President 
Young gave much instruction about conducting the mission 
and building up the settlement we had commenced. He said 
if the Elders wanted influence with the Indians, they must 
associate with them in their expeditions. 

Brother Kimball prophesied, that, if the brethren were 
united, they would be prospered and blessed, but if they per- 
mitted the spirit of strife and contention to come into their 
midst, the place would come to an end in a scene of blood- 
shed. 



32 INDIAN " MEDICINE MAN." 

Previous to this meeting, President Young asked some 
brethren who had been into the country south of Harmony, if 
they thought a wagon road could be made down to the Rio 
Virgen. 

Their replies were very discouraging, but, in the face of 
this report, Brother Kimball prophesied in this meeting, that 
a road would be made from Harmony over the Black Ridge ; 
and a temple would be built on the Rio Virgin, and the 
Lamanites would come from the east side of the Colorado 
river and get their endowments in it. All these prophecies 
have since been fulfilled. 

On the 1st of June, 1854, I went with Elder R. C. Allen 
and others, to visit the Indians on the Rio Virgen and Santa 
Clara, two streams now well known as forming a junction 
south of the city of St. George. 

On the 9th of June, we camped on ground now enclosed in 
the Washington field. There we saw many Indian women 
gathering a red, sweet berry, called "opie." The Indians 
were also harvesting their wheat. Their manner of doing so 
was very primitive. One would loosen the roots of the 
wheat with a stick, another would pull up the plant, beat 
the dirt off from the roots and set it up in bunches. I loaned 
them a long sharp knife, which greatly assisted them in their 
labors. 

The company returned to Harmony with the exception of 
Brother William Hennefer and myself, who were left to visit 
the Indians on the upper Santa Clara. We found a few 
lodges, and with them a very sick woman. The medicine 
man of the tribe was going through a round of ceremonies in 
order to heal her. 

He stuck arrows into the ground at the entrance of the 
lodge, placed his medicine bow in a conspicuous place, 
adorned his head with eagle's feathers, and then walked back 
and forth in an austere manner, making strange gestures with 
his hands, and hideous noises at the top of his voice. He 
would then enter the lodge, and place his mouth to the woman's, 
in order to drive away the evil spirits, and charm away the 
pain. Some one told the sick woman that the "Mormons" 
believed in "poogi," which, in their language, means 



SICK WOMAN HEALED. 33 

administering to the sick. She wished us to wait, and if the 
Piute charm did not work, to try if we could do her any good. 

The medicine maji howled and kept up his performances 
the most of the night. The sick woman's friends then 
carried her some distance away from the lodge, and left ker to 
die. 

Some of her relatives asked us to go and administer to her. 
We could not feel to refuse, so we laid on hands and prayed 
for her. 

When we returned to our camp, she arose and followed us, 
and said she was hungr}\ We sent her to her own lodge. 
Some of the inmates were frightened at seeing her, as they 
had considered her a dead woman. 

We returned to Harmony about the last of June. On the 
3rd of July, I accompanied a hunting party of Indians into 
the mountains east of Harmony. While with them, I spared 
no labor in learning their language, and getting an insight 
into their character. 

I had ever felt an aversion to white men shedding the 
blood of these ignorant barbarians. When the white man 
has settled on their lands, and his cattle has destroyed much 
of their scanty living, there has always appeared in them a 
disposition to make all reasonable allowances for these wrongs. 
Ever since I was old enough to understand, and more 
especially after being with them around their camp fires, 
where I learned their simple and child-like ways, and heard 
them tell over their wrongs, I fully made up my mind to do 
all I could to alleviate their condition. 

From time to time, when the Saints have had any trouble 
with them, and I have had anything to do with settling the 
difficulty, I have made it a specialty to go among them, 
regardless of their numbers or anger. Through the blessing 
of the Lord, I have never yet failed in accomplishing my 
object, where no other persons have interfered in a matter they 
did not understand. 

Returning from this hunting expedition, I made my way, 
in September, to Tooele Valley, to visit my family, and found 
them well. I remained with them but a short time, and 
returned to my missionary labors in Southern Utah. 



34 FIGHT FOR A SQUAW. 

Our crops had done well. After assisting to gather them, 
I labored for a season on the fort we were building, the better 
to defend ourselves in case of trouble with the Indians. 

In November, I was sent alone amongthe Indians on the 
Santa Clara, to use my influence to keep them from disturb- 
ing the travelers on the southern route to California. 

When there, without a white companion, a dispute arose 
between some of the Indians about a squaw. As was their 
custom, they decided that the claimant should do battle for 
her in the following manner : 

The warriors of the band were to form in two files, and a 
claimant should pass between the files leading the squaw, and 
prepared to fight anyone that opposed his claim. The affair 
had made considerable progress, when one of the parties who 
had been roughly handled, claimed kinship with me by calling 
me brother, and asked me to help him. 

Not wishing to take a part in any of their barbarous cus- 
toms, I objected. The Indians then taunted me with being a 
coward, called me a squaw, etc. 

I soon took in the situation, and saw that it would not be 
well to lose caste among them. I accepted the challenge 
under the promise that they would not be angry with me if I 
should hurt some of them. I had but little anxiety about 
the result, for they were not adepts in the art of self- 
defense. 

The Indians, numbering about one hundred and twenty, 
formed in two lines, and I took the squaw by the hand, and 
commenced my passage between them. 

Only, one Indian disputed my progress. With one blow I 
stretched him on the ground. All would probably have 
passed off well enough, had I not kicked him as he fell. 
This was contrary to their code of honor, and I paid a fine for 
this breach of custom. 

I was acknowledged the victor, and it was decided that the 
squaw was mine. I immediately turned her over to the 
Indian that she desired for a husband. 

This was my first and last fight for a squaw. It gave 
me a prestige among them that greatly added to my subse- 
quent influence. 



PROSTRATED WITH SICKNESS. 35 

This short and lonely mission was brought to a close by my 
return to Harmony. 

In the beginning of winter, I went down to the Santa Clara 
in company with Brothers Ira Hatch, Samuel Knigh.t, Thales 
Haskell and A. P. Hardy. 

We worked with the Indians, and gained much influence 
over them. We built a log cabin, and a dam to take out the 
waters of the Santa Clara Creek to irrigate the bottom land. 
Hard labor and exposure brought on me a severe attack of 
sickness. At the same time there came a heavy fall of snow, 
which made it impracticable to get any assistance from the 
nearest settlement, forty miles distant. 

The brethren began to entertain some doubts about my 
recovery. However, after laying sick fourteen days, with 
nothing to nourish me but bread made of moldy, bitter corn 
meal, Brother Samuel Atwood arrived from Harmony with 
some good things to strengthen me. 

After a few days, I started with Brother Atwood on horse- 
back, for Harmony. I rode to Cottonwood Creek, where the 
town of Harrisburg now stands. I felt exhausted, and could 
go no farther. I was assisted off my horse and lay on the 
ground, where I fainted. Brother Atwood brought some 
water in the leather holster of his pistol, and put some of it 
in my mouth and on my head, which revived me. 

With slow and careful traveling I was able to reach Har- 
mony'; but I was so reduced in flesh that my friends did not 
recognize me. 

As soon as my health would permit, I returned to the Santa 
Clara. 

I have before referred to a custom among the Piutes of 
taking women from each other. Sometimes two claimants 
decided who should be the possessor of the woman, by single 
combat; but more generally, each claimant would gather to 
his assistance all the friends he could, and the fighting would 
be kept up until one side was conquered, when the claimant 
who had led the victorious party, would take possession of the 
woman. 

I have seen such engagements last all day and a part of the 
night. In one of these, in which over one hundred men took 



36 REMOVE TO SANTA CLARA. 



a part, some of the combatants became angry, and fought in 
good earnest. 

At the close of the day, it was still undecided who was the 
victor. At night large fires were lighted, arranged in a circle, 
and some forty of the combatants came in to decide the 
matter. 

They pulled each other's hair and fought desperately, 
regardless of the rules usually governing such affairs. The 
unoffending woman seemed to fare quite as hard, or worse 
than the combatants. She was finally trampled under foot, 
and the women who looked on became excited. Some ran 
with their willow trays filled with coals from the fire, which 
they threw over the men and burnt theEi out, as each one 
found employment in running and brushing the coals from his 
hair and back. 

In the meantime, the woman lay on the ground with her 
mouth filled with blood and dirt. 

At this stage of the affair we used our persuasive powers, 
and succeeded in inducing the men to let the woman go with 
the man she wanted. 

In the summer of 1855, we cultivated a few acres of land 
on the Santa Clara. We raised melons, and had the privilege 
of disposing of them ourselves. I do not think that the 
Indians ever took any without leave. We raised a small 
amount of cotton, which was probably the first grown in Utah 
Territory. 

In the autumn of 1855, I returned to Tooele Valley, and 
removed my family to the Santa Clara. My brother Oscar, 
also Brother Dudley Leavitt, and their families, accompanied 
me. 

In the winter of 1855-6, we were instructed to build a fort 
for our protection. There were at that time on the Santa 
Clara, ten missionaries, and four stonemasons from Cedar 
City. We employed Indian help, and everything we put our 
hands to prospered, so that in less than ten days we built a 
fort one hundred feet square, of hammer-faced rock, the wall 
two feet thick and twelve feet high. It was afterwards 
said by President Young to be the best fort then in the 
Territory. 



ANSWER TO PRAYER. 37 

We invited the Indians to assist us to construct a strong, 
high dam to take the water out of the Santa Clara to a choice 
piece of land. 

For this purpose they gathered into the settlement 
to the number of about thirty lodges, but rather 
reluctantly, for they believed that the Tonaquint, their name 
for the Santa Clara, would dry up the corning season, as there 
was but little snow in the mountains. 

With much hard labor we completed our dam, and watered 
our crops once in the spring of 1856. The water then failed, 
and our growing crops began to wither. 

The Indians then came to me and said, "You promised us 
water if we would help build a dam and plant corn. What 
about the promise, now the creek is dry? What will we do 
for something to eat next winter?" 

The chief saw that I was troubled in my mind over the 
matter, and said, "We have one medicine man; I will send 
him to the great mountain to make rain medicine, and you do 
the best you can, and may be the rain will come ; but it will 
take strong medicine, as I never knew it to rain this moon." 
I went up the creek, and found it dry for twelve miles. 

The following morning at daylight, I saw the smoke of the 
medicine man ascending from the side of the Big Mountain, 
as the Indians called what is now known as the Pine Valley 
Mountain. 

Being among some Indians, I went aside by myself, and 
prayed to the God of Abraham to forgive me if I had been 
unwise in promising the Indians water for their crops if they 
would plant; and that the heavens might give rain, that we 
might not lose the influence we had over them. 

It was a clear, cloudless morning, but, while still on my 
knees, heavy drops of rain fell on my back for about three 
seconds. I knew it to be a sign that my prayers were 
answered. I told the Indians that the rain would come. 
When I returned to the settlement, I told the brethren that 
we would have all the water we wanted. 

The next morning, a gentle rain commenced falling. The 
water arose to its ordinary stage in the creek, and, what was 
unusual, it was clear. We watered our crops all that we 



FAITH OF THE INDIANS. 

wished, and both whites and Indians acknowledged the event 
to be a special providence. 

I think more corn and squash were grown that year, by us, 
than I ever saw before or since, on the same number of acres. 
The Indians gathered and stored up a large amount of corn, 
beans and dried squash. 

From that time they began to look upon us as having great 
influence with the clouds. They also believed that we could 
cause sickness to come upon any of them if we wished. We 
labored to have them understand these things in their true 
light, but this was difficult on account of their ignorance and 
superstitions. 

About this time an Indian came in from another small band 
east of the Santa Clara. The Indians who worked with us 
told him how matters were going with them. 

He ridiculed them for their faith in us and what we taught 
them, and told them that they were fools for living without 
meat, when there were plenty of cattle in sight. To more 
fully exemplify his views and set an example of self-assur- 
ance, he killed one of our oxen. 

Four or five of the brethren went to him, armed. I felt 
impressed that a peaceful policy would be the best, and, for 
that reason, I requested them to let me manage the matter. 
I went into his lodge and sat down by him. I told him that 
he had done a great wrong, for we were working to do the 
Indians good. 

He talked insultingly, and wanted to know if I wished to 
kill him, or if I could make medicine strong enough to kill 
him. I told him that he had made his own medicine, and 
that some evil would befall him before he got home. 

About this time, the president of the mission received a 
letter from President Brigham Young, requiring us to say to 
the Indians that if they would live cleanly and observe certain 
things pertaining to the gospel, they should grow and increase 
in the land. Also, that we should require them to wash the 
sick before we administered to them. 

An Indian wished us to administer to his sick boy. We 
required him to wash his child ; he refused to do so, and the 
boy died. The man burnt his lodge, went to the mountains, 



THREATENED BY AN INDIAN. 39 

and called on others to follow him. Some did so, and before 
leaving, burned a log store house which they had filled with 
supplies. 

The angry man's name was Ag-ara-poots. 

The chief of the band came to me and said, "Old Ag-ara- 
poots will never be satisfied until he has killed you or some 
one who is with you. You know that he has killed two 
Piutes since you came here. The Piutes are all afraid of 
him. I am going away." 

I asked him if he would not go to Ag-ara-poots with me. 

"No;" he replied, "he thinks that you let his boy die, and 
he will never be satisfied until he has blood. There are many 
with him, and you must not go where he is." 

As I felt like seeing him, I invited all the missionary 
brethren, one by one, to go with me, but they all refused 
except Brother Thales Haskell. One of the brethren 
remarked that he would as soon go into a den of grizzly bears. 

When I went to the house of Brother Haskell and opened 
the door, he said, "I know what you want. You wish me to 
go with you to see Ag-ara-poots. I am just the man you 
want." 

The difference between me and my brethren in this instance 
did not arise from superior personal courage in myself, but in 
the fact that I have mentioned before : that I had received 
from the Lord an assurance that I should never fall by the 
hands of the Indians, if I did not thirst for their blood. 
That assurance has been, and is still with me, in all my inter- 
course with them. 

Brother Haskell seemed inspired to go with me on this 
occasion. We started in the morning, and followed the trail 
of Ag-ara-poots until afternoon, when we found him and his 
band. 

His face was blackened, and he sat with his head down, 
apparently in rather a surly mood. I told him I had heard 
that he intended to kill me the first opportunity. 

Said he : "Who told you that I wanted to kill you?" 

I answered that the Piutes had told me so. 

He declared that it was a lie ; but he had been mad and 
was mad then, because I had let his boy die. 



40 DEATH OF AG-ARA-POOTS. 

I told him that lie let his boy die, because he did not think 
enough of him to wash him so that the Lord would heal him, 
and now he was mad at some. one else. 

I told him we were hungry, and were going to eat with a 
man who was not mad, and that he had better go with us. 
As we left his lodge, he arose to go with us, but trembled, 
staggered and sat down in the sand. 

All the Indians but Ag-ara-poots gathered around us. We 
told them they had been foolish in burning up their food, 
going into the mountains, and leaving their friends ; that the 
women and children had better go back to the settlement 
where there was something to eat, and let the men who 
wished to hunt, remain. The most of them started for the 
settlement the same night. 

The following day Titse-gavats, the chief, came to me and 
said, "The band have all come on to the Clara except Ag-ara- 
poots, and he came on to the bluff in sight of it, and his 
heart hardened. You cannot soften his heart again. He has 
gone off alone. You had better pray for him to die, then 
there will be no bloodshed. Do not tell Mm what I have said 
to you. ' ' 

I did ask the Lord that, if it would be for the glory of His 
name, Ag-ara-poots might not have strength to shed the 
blood of any of us. In a few days the Piutes told me that he 
was not able to walk nor help himself to a drink of water. 
He lingered until spring and died. 



THEFT BY AN INDIAN. 41 



CHAPTER VI. 

RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE TO THE INDIANS WE GAIN INFLU- 
ENCE BY IT THE LORD GIVES THE INDIANS TESTIMONIES 
OF THE TRUTH WAR BETWEEN TWO BANDS OF INDIANS 
A WOMAN BURNED TO DEATH FROM REVENGE PROMPT- 
INGS OF THE SPIRIT STOLEN HORSES RECOVERED 
- GOVERNMENT AMONG THE INDIANS APPOINTED 
PRESIDENT OF THE INDIAN MISSION VISIT OF APOSTLE 
GEORGE A. SMITH UNITED STATES ARMY ON ITS WAY 
TO UTAH ELDER SMITH* S ADVISE TO THE SAINTS 
MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. 

A PETTY chief, living west of the settlement on the Santa 
Clara, and on the California road, came to me and said 
that he had stolen from some "Mormons" as they passed by; 
that there could not be medicine made to kill him, for he was 
a hard one to kill, and he should steal from the "Mormons" 
again the first opportunity. 

Some two weeks after this conversation, the Indians told 
me that this chief was dead. In going home from the Santa 
Clara settlement, he stole an animal from a "Mormon" trav- 
eler, and hid it up until he had gone by ; then drove it to his 
lodge, killed it, and when it was about half skinned he was 
taken sick, went into his lodge and died. 

An Indian living near us said he had killed an animal, and 
wished to pay for it. I took some pay from him that he 
might be satisfied, and told him to go his way and steal no 
more. 

He was afterwards caught stealing another ox, after which 
I chanced to meet him alone. He asked me what I was 
going to do about it? I replied, "Nothing." 

He talked in an excited manner, and said in an angry tone, 
' 'If you are going to do anything, do it now ; do it here. ' ' I 
explained to him that if evil came upon people they brought 
it upon themselves by their mean acts. 



42 SQUAW BURNED TO DEATH. 

He talked and acted in such a rascally manner that I was 
disgusted. I told him that he was in the hands of the Lord ; 
if He would forgive him, I would, but I did not believe that 
He would. This man died in a few days after this conver- 
sation. 

The Lord had sent the gospel of their fathers to these 
Indians, and with it the testimony of many special manifes- 
tations, so evident to them, even in their ignorance, that they 
might be without excuse. 

In addition to the destruction of the wilfully wicked and 
perverse, many promises to them were fulfilled, their sick 
were healed, etc. 

These testimonies more fully 'established the [influence of 
the Elders among this people, and they looked to us for 
counsel, and endeavored to do as they were instructed. The 
men ceased to abuse their families, and they did as well as 
could be expected of people in their low condition. 

They would wash the sick, and ask the Elders to lay hands 
on and pray for them. The Lord had great regard for our 
administrations, for I do not recollect administering to one 
that did not recover. We were careful not to say or do any- 
thing wrong, and I feel that a good spirit governed us in all 
our intercourse with this people. They soon learned to 
regard our words as law. 

At length the Santa Clara and Muddy Indians got into a 
quarrel, and began to kill each other whenever they could get 
an advantage. We endeavored to make peace between them, 
but blood had been spilled, and nothing but blood would 
satisfy them. 

One morning, a Muddy Creek Indian killed one of the 
Santa Clara band in the wood near our fort. The Santa Clara 
Indians farther up the stream, hearing of it, took a Moapats 
woman, fastened her to a small tree, and burnt her. 

When they first tied her, a young Indian came in haste to 
let me know what was going on. I hurried towards the spot, 
but before I arrived there another boy met me, and said that 
it was of no use for me to go on, for matters had gone too far 
to save the woman. I think they had hurried to consummate 
the terrible deed before I could get there. 



DICTATION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT. 43 

When I talked with the perpetrators they cried, and said 
that they could not have done less than they did. That is, 
they were so bound up in their traditions and customs, that 
what they had done was a necessary duty. 

They appeared so child-like, and so anxious to have me 
think that what they had done was all right, that I said noth- 
ing, but felt that I would be truly thankful if I should ever 
be so fortunate as to be called to labor among a higher class 
of people. 

These things took place in the summer and autumn of 
1856. Soon after the burning of the Indian woman, Brother 
Ira Hatch and I started for Cedar City, by way of the Moun- 
tain Meadows. At night we camped near another trail which 
crossed the one on which we were traveling. 

When we arose in the morning, I told my companion that 
the Cedar Indians had been to the Muddy to attack the 
Indians living there, and had got the worst of it; that on 
their return they had stolen the horses from the Santa Clara. 

We had never traveled the trail they were on, but I told 
Brother Hatch that if he would take it, he would find the 
thieves camped at a certain spring, and when they saw him 
they would be so surprised that they would let him have the 
horses without any difficulty. 

Brother Hatch found matters as I had predicted, and the 
Indians got up the horses for him, and appeared anxious to 
have him take them away. 

We afterwards learned that the Cedar Indians had gone to 
the Mudd} 7 , and stolen two squaws from the band that lived 
on that creek. The Muddy Indians had pursued the robbers, 
and retaliated by killing a chief of the Cedar Indians, and 
wounding two more of their party. They also recovered the 
captive squaws. 

It was by the dictation of the Holy Spirit that I sent 
Brother Hatch to recover the horses. It was the same Spirit 
that had influenced me to take my wife and child out of Pine 
Canyon the evening before I had intended to, and thereby 
saved their lives and my own. It was the same also that had 
saved me from being killed by. "Old Big Foot," when I lived 
in Tooele Valley. 



44 LETTER FROM PRESIDENT B. YOUNG. 

At this time we had established as good a form of govern- 
ment among the Santa Clara Indians, as their circumstances 
would permit. 

They worked for a living, and promised to be honest. If 
anyone stole, he either paid a price for what he had taken, or 
was stripped, tied to a tree and whipped, according to the 
magnitude of the offense. The Indians did the whipping, 
while I generally dictated the number and severity of the lashes. 

In the winter of 1856-7, after the Indians had been trying 
for some time to follow our counsels, they said to me, "We 
cannot be good ; we must be Piutes. We want you to be 
kind to us. It may be that some of our children will be good, 
but we want to follow our old customs. ' ' 

They again began to paint themselves, and to abuse their 
women, as they had done before we went among them. 

Up to this time, Elder R. C. Allen had been president of 
the Southern Indian Mission, and had generally resided at 
Harmony. He had given me charge of the settlement on the 
Santa Clara Creek. 

The following letter shows his release, and my appointment 
to take his place, and exhibits the Indian policy of President 
Brigharn Young : 

' 'PRESIDENT' s OFFICE, 

Great Salt Lake City, 

August 4, 1857. 

"ELDER JACOB HAMBLIN: You are hereby appointed to 
succeed Elder R. C. Allen (whom I have released) as presi- 
dent of the Santa Clara Indian Mission. I wish you to enter 
upon the duties of your office immediately. 

"Continue the conciliatory policy towards the Indians which 
I have ever commended, and seek by works of righteousness, 
to obtain their love and confidence. Omit promises where 
you are not sure you can fill them ; and seek to unite the 
hearts of the brethren on that mission, and let all under 
your direction be united together in holy bonds of love and 
unity. 

1 'All is peace here, and the Lord is eminently blessing our 
labors ; grain is abundant, and our cities are alive with the 
busy hum of industry. 



G. A. SMITH'S ADVICE. 45 

' 'Do not permit the brethren to part with their guns and 
ammunition, but save them against the hour of need. 

"Seek the Spirit of the Lord to direct you; and that He 
may qualify you for every duty, is the prayer of your fellow- 
laborer in the gospel of salvation, 

BRIGHAM YOUNG." 

Early in the autumn of 1857, Apostle George A. Smith 
visited the settlements in Southern Utah. He informed the 
Saints that a United States army was on the way to Utah. 
What the result would be, he said he did not know. He 
advised the people to be saving with their grain, and not sell 
any to travelers to feed their teams ; for they could live on 
grass better than our women and children. He thought that 
all we could afford to do, under the circumstances, was to fur- 
nish travelers with bread. That if we would not deny the 
gospel, we might yet suffer much persecution, and be com- 
pelled to hide up in the mountains. "At all events," said he, 
"bread is good to have." 

When President Smith returned to Salt Lake City, Brother 
Thales Haskell and I accompanied him. On our way we 
camped over night on Corn Creek, twelve miles south of Fill- 
more, with a party of emigrants from Arkansas, traveling on 
what was then known as the southern route to California. 
They inquired of me about the road, and wrote the informa- 
tion down that I gave them. 

They expressed a wish to lay by at some suitable place to 
recruit their teams before crossing the desert. I recom- 
mended to them, for this purpose, the south end of the 
Mountain Meadows, three miles from where my* family 
resided. 

After our arrival in Salt Lake City, news reached there that 
this company of emigrants, on their way south, had behaved 
badly, that they had robbed hen-roosts, and been guilty of 
other irregularities, and had used abusive language to those 
who had remonstrated with them, It was also reported that 
they threatened, when the army came into the north end of the 
Territory, to get a good outfit from the weaker settlements in 
the south. 



46 MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. 

A messenger came to President Young, informing him of 
these things, and asking advice. 

In reply, Brigham Young sent general instructions to the 
settlements, advising the people to let the emigrants pass as 
quietly as possible ; and stating that there was an army on our 
borders, and we could not tell what we might be obliged to do 
before the troubles were over. He said we might be under 
the necessity of going into the mountains, and that he wished 
all supplies of food to be in a shape to be readily available 
in such an emergency ; and we would do the best we could. 

Brother Haskell and I remained in Salt Lake City one 
week, and then started for our homes in Southern Utah. On 
the way, we heard that the Arkansas company of emigrants 
had been destroyed at the Mountain Meadows, by the 
Indians. 

We met John D. Lee at Fillmore. He told us that the 
Indians attacked the company, and that he and some other 
white men joined them in the perpetration of the deed. 
This deplorable affair caused a sensation of horror and deep 
regret throughout the entire community, by whom it was 
unqualifiedly condemned. 

In Cove Creek Valley we met others from the south, who 
told us that the Indians were gathering to attack another com- 
pany of emigrants. I procured a horse, left the wagons, and 
rode on day and night. At Cedar City I found Brothers 
Samuel Knight and Dudley Leavitt. 

As I was weary with hard riding and want of sleep, I hur- 
ried them on after the emigrants, while I traveled more 
slowly. I instructed these men to make every possible effort 
to save the company and their effects, and to save their lives 
at all hazards. 

They overtook the company one hundred and fifty-six miles 
from Cedar City, on Muddy Creek, in the heart of the Indian 
country. They found a large body of excited Indians prepar- 
ing to attack and destroy them. 

Finding it altogether impossible to control the Indians, they 
compromised the matter. The Indians agreed to only take 
the loose stock of the company, and not meddle with the 
teams and wagons, and not make any effort to take their lives. 



ESCORT A COMPANY TO CALIFORNIA. 47 

The Indians took the loose stock, amounting to four hun- 
dred and eighty head, on the fifty mile desert Jbeyond the 
Muddy. 

The brethren remained with the company, determined to 
assist in its defense, should the Indians attempt anything 
more than they had agreed. 

The company continued their journey safely to California. 
Brothers Knight and Leavitt returned to the Santa Clara. 

As soon as possible, I talked with the principal Indians 
engaged in this affair, and they agreed that the stock not 
killed should be given up. I wrote to the owners in Califor- 
nia, and they sent their agent, Mr. Lane, with whom I went 
to the Muddy, and the stock was delivered to him as the 
Indians had agreed. 



CHAPTER VII. 

PRESIDENT YOUNG REQUESTS ME TO PILOT A COMPANY TO 
CALIFORNIA SAVE A WHITE MAN FROM BEING TOR- 
TURED BY THE INDIANS INDIANS DETERMINED TO KILL 
THE COMPANY I PACIFY THEM ELDERS IRA HATCH 
AND DUDLEY LEAVITT SENTENCED TO BE KILLED BY 
THE MOHAVES ELDER HATCH SOFTENS THEIR HEARTS 
BY OFFERING A PRAYER ALLOWED TO ESCAPE ON 
FOOT. 

IN the winter season, my family usually lived at the Santa 
Clara settlement, thirty miles south of the Mountain 
Meadows, to which place they moved in the spring, to keep 
stock during the summer. 

Late in the autumn of 1857, a company came along on 
their way to California. They brought a letter from President 
Brigharn Young, directing me to see this company and their 
effects safely through to California. They were mostly mer- 
chants who had been doing business in Salt Lake City, and, 



48 SAVE A MAN'S LIFE. 

anticipating difficulty between the people of Utah and the 
United States army, were fleeing to the Eastern States by 
way of California and the Isthmus of Panama. 

When the company arrived in Cedar City, they sent a mes- 
senger ahead of them with the letter to me. Having occasion 
to go to Cedar City about the same time, I met the messen- 
ger. I directed him to return to the company and tell them 
to come on, and I would be with them in time. 

I returned to Santa Clara to make some preparations for 
the journey, and then started to meet the company on the 
creek, twelve miles from the settlement. 

When I reached the California road, the company had 
passed, and was some distance ahead of me. While traveling 
to overtake it, I found a man who had been traveling alone, 
also in pursuit of the company, with a view of getting 
through with it to California. 

When I found him he was already in the hands of the 
Indians, and stripped of his clothing. They were making 
calculations to have a good time with him as they expressed 
it, that is, they intended to take him- to their camp and tor- 
ture him. 

The stranger, seeing I had influence with the Indians, 
begged me to save his life, and said if I would do so he would 
serve me as long as he lived. 

I replied that I did not wish any reward for saving him. 

In answer to his inquiry, I informed him that I was a 
"Mormon." 

"Well," said he, "I am not a Mormon, but I wish you 
would save my life." 

I assured him that it made no difference to me whether he 
was a "Mormon" or not, I told the Indians to bring back 
his clothing, which they did, except his shoes, and I took him 
along with me to the company. 

I found a few Indians around the company, and there 
appeared to be some excitement, One of the merchants 
asked me if I could save the ship. I replied that I could see 
nothing to hinder me. He said: ' 'You can take the helm, but 
do not run it too near the rocks or shoals ; we have plenty of 
presents for the Indians," 



HOLD COUNCIL WITH THE INDIANS. 49 

He wished to know what they should do with their animals. 
I told him I knew where there was good grass, and I would 
send two Indians to take care of them ; to let the two Indians 
have their suppers, and a shirt each when they brought in 
the animals in the morning. 

At first they refused to let the animals go. I assured 
them that if I was to direct matters, I should do it in my 
own way. 

After some consultation, they concluded to let me have my 
own way. The animals were sent out to feed in charge of the 
Indians, but I presume that some of the company did not 
sleep much during the night. 

The animals were all brought safely into camp in the 
morning. 

After that, the company appeared to feel quite safe, and 
took much pains to have things move as I directed. 

When we had traveled about sixty miles towards Muddy 
Creek, a Moapat Indian told me that the Indians on that 
stream were preparing to attack the company. I started at 
daydawn the following morning, and arrived at the crossing 
of the Muddy about two hours in advance of the company. 
The Indians had collected in the vicinity of the crossing, with 
the view of attacking the company when in camp. They 
believed they could easily kill the men, and obtain a large 
amount of spoil. 

I called them together, and sat down and smoked a little 
tobacco with them, which I had brought along for that pur- 
pose. I then said: "You have listened to my talk in times 
past ; you believe that it is good to hear and do what I say. ' ' 
They all answered, "Yes." 

I then tald them I was going through to California with 
some friends, Americans and merchants ; and that we had 
brought along many blankets, shirts and other useful articles. 
I hoped they would see that none of the animals were stolen, 
and if any strayed, they would bring them into camp. Some 
of the Indians did not readily consent to let the company pass 
in peace. 

For further security, I sent for their women and children to 
come out of their hiding place, where they had been sent for 



50 SAVED FROM DEATH THROUGH PRAYER. 

safety, as is the custom of the Indians when preparing for 
battle. 

I had matters in a much better shape on the arrival of the 
company than I found them. I was careful to listen to all 
the talk of the Indians, and spent the evening and also the 
night with the largest collection of them, so that they could 
not make any general move without my knowledge. 

We continued our journey across the fifty-six mile desert to 
Los Vegas springs. There we met Brothers Ira Hatch and 
Dudley Leavitt, on their return from a mission to the Mohave 
Indians. 

Those Indians, on the arrival of these brethren among 
them, took their horses, and then held a council to decide 
whether they should kill the brethren or not. The chief 
called a vote of his people, and it was decided that the breth- 
ren should die. 

A Piute friend who had accompanied the Elders from Los 
Vegas, began to mourn over their fate, and said to them, ' 'I 
told you that the Mohaves would kill you if you came here, 
and now they are going to do it. ' ' 

Brother Hatch told their Piute friend, who acted as inter- 
preter, to tell the Mohave chief, Chanawanse, to let him pray 
before he was killed. 

The chief consented, and Brother Hatch knelt down among 
the bloodthirsty savages, and asked the Lord to soften their 
hearts, that they might not shed their blood. He also said 
more that was appropriate to the occasion. 

The prayer was repeated in measured sentences by the 
interpreter. 

It had the desired effect. The heart of the chief was 
softened. He took the brethren to his lodge, and put them 
at the farther end of it, in a secure place. There he guarded 
them until nearly morning, then told them to go as fast as 
they could to Los Vegas, eighty miles distant. 

They traveled this distance on foot, and with but little 
food. When I met them they were living on muskeet bread. 
This is an article of food manufactured from a pod resembling 
that of a bean, which grows on the muskeet tree. These cir- 
cumstances were related to me by the Elders when we met. 



PRESIDENT YOUNG'S INDIAN POLICY. 51 

At Los Vegas I learned that the Indians there expected 
that the company would have been massacred at the Muddy 
Creek. 

After we left this watering place, three Indians followed us 
and made an effort to steal. They were brought into camp 
and guarded until morning. The remainder of the journey 
we had no more trouble with the Indians. 

We met companies of our people on their way from San 
Bernardino to Utah. 

I was engaged the remainder of the autumn and the winter 
of 1857-8, on the road between the Santa Clara and Los 
Vegas springs, in assisting the Saints who were moving to 
Utah. 

On the return of spring I removed my family, as was my 
custom, to the Mountain Meadows, to take care of our stock. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PRESIDENT YOUNG'S INDIAN POLICY EXPEDITION TO LOS 
VEGAS AND COLORADO RIVERS SUSPICIOUS STEAMER 
IN THE COLORADO LEARN ITS PURPOSE GO AFTER A 
LOAD OF LEAD OUR HORSES STOLEN EAT POISON CAC- 
TUS LED BY THE SPIRIT PROVIDENTIALLY. 

THE following letter from President Brigham Young so 
well illustrates his peaceable and civilizing policy towards 
the Indians, that I think it should find a place in this 
narrative : 

"PRESIDENT'S OFFICE, 

Great Salt Lake City, 

March 5, 1858. 

"DEAR BROTHER : Your note of the 19th of last month came 
to hand on the 3rd inst. I was happy to learn of the success 
and the general prosperity of the mission, and trust that the 
genial and salutary influences now so rapidly extending to the 



52 . EXCITEMENT CAUSED BY THE ARMY. 

various tribes in that region, may continue to spread abroad 
until it shall pervade every son and daughter of Abraham in 
their fallen condition. 

"The hour of their redemption draws nigh, and the time is 
not far distant when they will receive knowledge, and begin to 
rise and increase in the land, and become a people whom the 
Lord will bless. 

"The Indians should be encouraged in keeping and taking 
care of stock. I highly approve of your designs in doing your 
farming through the natives; it teaches them to obtain a sub- 
sistence by their own industry, and leaves you more at liberty 
to visit others, and extend your missionary labors among them. 
A few missionaries to show and instruct them how to raise stock 
and grain, and then not eat it up for them, is most judicious. 
You should always be careful to impress upon them that they 
should not infringe upon the rights of others ; and our brethren 
should be very careful not to infringe upon their rights in any 
particular, thus cultivating honor and good principles in their 
midst by example as well as precept. 

"As ever, I remain your brother in the gospel of salvation, 

BRIGHAM YOUNG." 

The sending of an army by the general government to look 
after the affairs of the Saints, occasioned some excitement 
and much talk among the people. The terrible wrongs and 
persecutions of Missouri and Illinois came up vividly in the 
minds of those who had suffered in them , and greatly intensi- 
fied the public feeling concerning the wrongs which the 
general government evidently intended to inflict upon the 
Saints in Utah. 

Elders coming in from the European missions, by way of 
California, thought the government would send a force into 
Southern Utah by that route. 

It being expected that I would visit the Indians and look 
after matters a little in that direction, in the spring of 1858 
I took five men, and went by way of Los Vegas springs to the 
River Colorado, at the foot of the Cottonwood Islands, 170 
miles from the Santa Clara settlement. 

As was my policy at all times, I cultivated the good feelings 
of the Indians in that country. 

A small steamer lay at the head of the islands, and a com- 
pany of men, with animals, were making their way up the 



CURIOUS DREAM. 53 

river, on the 'opposite side from us. I requested Brother 
Thales Haskell to hail the boat's crew from a thicket of wil- 
lows, while the rest of the company remained secreted. If a 
boat were sent to take him over, he was to pass as a renegade 
from Utah, and learn who they were and their intentions. 
Brother Haskell was soon taken on board of the steamer. 

I prayed for him that night, for my mind was filled with 
gloomy forebodings. I dreamed that the officer in charge of 
the boat, offered the Indians a large reward for my scalp. 

At day dawn I sent two men back on our trail to see if 
there was any one on it, with instructions if they saw any- 
thing wrong to not return, but go on their way home- 
ward. 

Soon afterwards we saw the yawl from the steamer land 
Brother Haskell. He informed us that the company was of 
a military character, and exhibited very hostile feelings 
against our people ; that the expedition had been sent out by 
the government to examine the river, and learn if a force 
could be taken into Southern Utah from that direction, should 
it be needed, to subjugate the "Mormons. " 

We were soon on our way homeward. 

The first night out from the river, a Los Vegas Indian over- 
took us, and informed us that soon after we left the river, the 
steamer came down below the Cottonwood Islands, brought 
a large amount of blankets and other goods ashore, made 
some presents to the Mohaves and Piutes, and offered to pay 
well for the capture of any "Mormon" they found in their 
country. 

When we overtook the brethren sent out early in the morn- 
ing, they told us that they met two of the boat's crew 
examining the trail we traveled on to the river. The two 
men started for the steamer, and the brethren traveled the 
other way. 

At this time there were three or four brethren at Los 
Yegas Springs, laboring to make a settlement. We counseled 
together, and it was thought advisable to vacate the place. 
Some of them started for home. My brother, Oscar 
Hamblin, remained to assist the Indians in putting in their 
crops. 



54 POISONED WITH CACTUS LEAVES. 

Brother Dudley Leavitt and I went thirty-five miles west, 
on the road to California, to a lead mine, to obtain a load of 
lead. 

As I had some knowledge of smelting the ore, our efforts 
were a success. 

The evening after completing our load, I started up the 
mountain on the side of which the mine was located, to look 
at it before leaving. I stepped back, and calling Brother 
Leavitt, I told him that an Indian was watching our horses, 
and if he did not bring them in and tie them up, they would 
Jbe run off as soon as it was dark. 

He replied that he would see to it. Being strongly 
impressed with the danger of losing our horses, I warned 
him a second time, to which he made an indifferent reply. 

When I returned it was nearly dark, and Brother Leavitt 
had just started for the horses. 

All we ever saw of them afterwards was their tracks, and 
the trail of the Indian that had driven them off. 

The Indians in that section of the country did not keep 
horses, and therefore were not accustomed to the use of them, 
but stole them for food. 

Brother Leavitt was under the necessity of going to Los 
Vegas, thirty-five miles distant, to get my brother to come 
with his team to take our wagon home. 

As he did not return as soon as expected, I started to meet 
him. Not meeting him the first day, I stopped in a small 
cave for the night. 

I had nothing to eat, and gathered some cactus leaves, or 
pods, to roast for supper. 

They were a new yariety to me, and had scarlet spots on 
them. (I afterwards learned from the Indians that they were 
poisonous). 

After cooking them in the embers, I ate a little, but they 
did not taste right. They produced a burning sensation in 
my stomach and pain in the glands of my mouth and throat. 
I soon became satisfied that I was poisoned. 

My misery increased, and I became dizzy-headed. With 
no help near, I felt that my earthly career was nearly ter- 
minated, unless the God of Israel saved me, as I knew He 



MANIFESTATION OF THE SPIRIT. 55 

had done many times before. I knelt down, and earnestly 
asked Him to be merciful to me in my extremity, and save 
my life. 

I then became very sick at the stomach, and vomited freel3 r . 
Great thirst succeeded, and I soon exhausted the small 
supply of water in my canteen. This I soon ejected, when I 
became easy and lay down and slept until morning. 

Not knowing whether my brother would come or not, I con- 
tinued on my way to Los Vegas. 

I was lank and hungry, and if ever I felt the want of food 
it was then. 

About noon I saw my brother coming f o my relief. It was 
a welcome sight. 

Still farther west from the lead mine, there were two roads 
for about thirty miles. One of them was not usually traveled, 
but came into the main road. Some time before we were 
there, a company that had taken this by-road, had left 
wagons on it, and we were desirous of obtaining some of the 
iron. 

When my brother Oscar and I arrived at the lead mine, we 
concluded to leave the lead where it was, and go west on this 
unfrequented road, to a spring, twenty-five miles from the lead 
mine, and get the iron that was left there. 

On arriving at the spring we did not find as much iron as 
we expected, but we put what there was into the wagon. 

Before I went on this trip to Los Vegas and the Colorado 
River, my team, driven by my Indian boy, Albert, had gone 
with Brother Calvin Read to Lower California. They had 
been gone nearly three months. 

The morning after our arrival at the spring, when at 
prayer, the Spirit showed to me a company of our people, a 
few miles still farther west, on the by-road. I told my brother 
this, and that my team was with them, and my Indian boy 
was herding the animals on one side of the wagons near the 
spring. 

I proposed that we unload the iron and drive in that direc- 
tion. 

My brother objected, and said he had never heard of 
water in that direction short of twenty miles. 



56 A TIME OF REJOICING. 

After much persuasion, my brother consented to unload the 
iron, but he drove on very reluctantly, telling me that I was a 
visionary man, and always seeing something. 

We traveled about three miles, and came in sight of a 
camp. I found my boy Albert watching the horses; there 
was a good spring of water and plenty of grass. Just beyond 
were the wagons. 

The brethren said they never rejoiced more to see anyone 
than they did us. They were unacquainted with the country, 
and needed our help to get into Los Vegas. 



CHAPTER IX. 

VISIT TO SALT LAKE CITY INTERVIEW BETWEEN ELDER 
GEORGE A. SMITH AND GOVERNOR CUMMING ELDER 
SMITH URGES AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MOUNTAIN 
MEADOW MASSACRE GOVERNOR CUMMING OBJECTS 
APPOINTED SUB-INDIAN AGENT NEARLY KILLED BY A 
FALL FROM A TREE A REMARKABLE VISION FIRST 
MISSION TO THE MOQUIS DESCRIPTION OF THEIR 
TOWNS, CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS SOME OF THE 
BRETHREN REMAIN WITH THEM DIFFICULT JOURNEY 
HO ME MOQUIS PREDICTION. 

AFTER my return from the Colorado River, I had occasion 
to go to Salt Lake City. I arrived there soon after the 
United States army had entered Salt Lake Valley. The 
people north of Utah County had vacated their homes, and 
moved south. 

Through the instrumentality of Colonel Thomas L. Kane, 
a peaceable solution of our difficulties with the general 
government had been arrived at, and the Saints were return- 
ing to their vacated homes. 

It is generally known that the enemies of the Latter-day 
Saints have accused them of shielding from justice the white 



APPOINTED SUB-INDIAN AGENT. 57 

men, who, it was supposed joined with the Indians in the 
Mountain Meadow massacre. Mr. Gumming succeeded 
President Brigham Young as governor of Utah Territory in 
the early spring, before the arrival of the United States army 
in Salt Lake Valley. 

President Brigham Young requested Elder George A. 
Smith to have an interview with the new governor, and learn 
his views concerning the Mountain Meadow massacre, and 
assure him that all possible assistance would be rendered the 
United States courts to have it thoroughly investigated. 

Brother Smith took me with him, and introduced me as 
a man who was well informed regarding Indian matters in 
Southern Utah, and would impart to [him any information 
required that I might be in possession of. He also urged 
upon Governor Gumming the propriety of an investigation of 
this horrid affair, that, if there were any white men engaged 
in it, they might be justly punished for their crimes. 

Governor Gumming replied that President Buchanan had 
issued a proclamation of amnesty and pardon to the "Mor- 
mon" people, and he did not wish to go behind it to search 
out crime. 

Brother Smith urged that the crime was exclusively per- 
sonal in its character, and- had nothing to do with the 
"Mormons" as a people, or with the general officers of the 
Territory, and, therefore, was a fit subject for an investigation 
before the United States courts. 

Mr. Gumming still objected to interfering, on account of 
the President's proclamation. 

Brother Smith replied substantially as follows: "If the 
business had not been taken out of our hands by a change of 
officers in the Territory, the Mountain Meadow affair is one of 
the first things we should have attended to when a United 
States court sat in Southern Utah. We would see whether 
or not white men were concerned in the affair, with the 
Indians. ' ' 

At Salt Lake Gity, I was appointed sub-Indian agent. 

During the summer of 1858, when I was at my home on the 
Santa Clara, one morning about 9 o'clock, while engaged in 
cutting some of the large branches from a cottonwood tree, I 



58 A REMARKABLE VISION. 

fell a distance of twenty or thirty feet to the ground. I was 
badly bruised, and was carried to my house for dead, or 
nearly so. 

I came to my senses about 8 o'clock in the evening, and 
threw off from my stomach quite a quantity of blood. 1 
requested the brethren who were standing around to adminis- 
ter to me, and they did so. From the time I fell from the 
tree until then was lost to me, so far as earthly matters were 
concerned. 

During the time my body lay in this condition, it seemed 
to me that I went up from the earth and looked down upon 
it, and it appeared like a dark ball. The place where I was, 
seemed very desirable to remain in. It was divided into 
compartments by walls, from which appeared to grow out vines 
and flowers, displaying an endless variety of colors. 

I thought I saw my father there, but separated from me. 
I wished him to let me into his compartment, but he replied 
that it was not time for me to come to him. 

I then asked why I could not come. 

He answered u Your work is not yet done." 

I attempted to speak about it again, but he motioned me 
away with his hand, and, in a moment I was back to this 
earth. I saw the brethren carrying my body along, and it was 
loathsome to me in appearance. 

A day or two after my fall from the tree, I was carried to 
the Mountain Meadows where I was fed on goat's milk and 
soon recovered. 

In the autumn of this year, 1858, I received instructions 
from President Brigham Young to take a company of men 
and visit the Moquis, or Town Indians, on the east side of the 
Colorado River. 

The object of this visit was to learn something of the 
character and condition of this people, and to take advantage 
of any opening there might be to preach the gospel to them 
and do them good. 

My companions for this trip were Brothers Dudley and 
Thomas Leavitt, two of my brothers, Frederick and William 
Hamblin, Samuel Knight, Ira Hatch, Andrew Gibbons, 
Benjamin Knell, Amnion M. Tenney (Spanish interpreter )^ 



FIRST MISSION TO THE MOQUIS. 59 

James Davis (Welsh interpreter), and Naraguts, an Indian 
guide. 

A Spanish interpreter was thought advisable, from the fact 
that the Spanish language was spoken and understood by 
many of the Indians in that region of country. A Welsh 
interpreter was taken along, thinking it possible that there 
might be some truth in a report which had been circulated, 
that there were evidences of Welsh descent among these 
Indians. An Indian guide was requisite, from the fact that 
none of the brethren had traveled the route. This was the 
first of a series of journeys to this people. 

The company, consisting of twelve men, including myself, 
left the Santa Clara settlement on the 28th of October. Our 
general course of travel was a little south of east. The third 
night we camped at Pipe Springs, a place now occupied by a 
stone fort, and known as Winsor Castle. 

While there, two or three Piutes came to our camp. One 
of them asked me to go with him to some large rocks, which 
lay under the high cliffs near by. As we approached them he 
showed me a human skeleton. "There," said he, "are the 
bones of Nahguts, who killed your ox on the Clara. He 
came as far as here, was taken blind, could not find the 
spring and died." 

The following evening we camped at the foot of the Kibab, 
or Buckskin Mountain, with the chief and nearly all the 
tribe of Kibab Indians. They provided supper by cooking a 
large number of rabbits. 

They put these in a pile, and covered them with hot ashes 
and coals. When sufficiently cooked, the chief performed 
the ceremony of thanking the Father for the success of their 
hunt, and asked for a continuation of His blessings in obtain- 
ing food. He then divided the rabbits among the company. 
We all joined in the feast. They gave us meat and we gave 
them bread. 

I noticed an Indian sitting moodily, alone, and eating 
nothing. I sat down by him, and asked what he was thinking 
about. 

Said he, "I am thinking of my brother, whom you killed 
with bad medicine. " 



60 ARRIVAL AT ORIBA VILLAGE. 

I told him that his brother had made his own medicine, 
that he came to the Clara, killed an ox, and had brought a 
curse upon himself. I advised the Indian to eat with the 
company, and not make any bad medicine and kill himself. 

This very prevalent idea of good and bad medicine, among 
these Indians, gives evidence of a very general belief in 
witchcraft. 

The Indian took a piece of bread, saying he did not wish to 
die. I was told by our guide that this Indian had said, that in 
the night, when I was asleep, he intended to chop an ax 
into my head, but being afraid it would make bad medicine 
for him, he did not do it. 

After climbing dangerous cliffs and crossing extensive fis- 
sures in the rocks, the tenth day out from home we crossed 
the Colorado River, at the Ute Ford, known in Spanish 
history as "The Crossing of the Fathers." The trail 
beyond the river was not only difficult, but sometimes very 
dangerous. 

While traveling in the night, one of the animals that 
carried our provisions, ran off. Two men went in pursuit of 
it, while the company went on. 

The third day after losing our provisions, having had but 
little to eat, we came to a place where sheep had been herded, 
then to a garden under a cliff of rocks. It was watered from 
a small spring and occupied fine terraces, walled up on three 
sides. 

As we passed, we saw that onions, pepper and other vege- 
tables, such as we raised in our own gardens at home, had 
been grown there. On arriving at the summit of the cliff, we 
discovered a squash, which evidently had been left when the 
crop had been gathered. 

We appropriated it to our use. It tasted delicious, and 
we supposed it to be a better variety than we had before 
known, but we afterwards found that hunger had made it 
taste sweet. 

Four miles farther on we came to an Oriba village, of about 
three hundred dwellings. The buildings were of rock, laid 
in clay mortar. The village stands on a cliff with perpendic- 
ular sides, and which juts out into the plain like a promontory 



DESCRIPTION OF THE MOQUIS VILLAGE. 61 

into the sea. The promontory is narrow where it joins the 
table land back of it. 

Across this the houses were joined together. The entrance 
to the town on the east side, was narrow and difficult. The 
town was evidently located and constructed for defense from 
the marauding tribes around. 

The houses are usually three stories high. The second and 
third stories are set back from the front the width of the one 
below, so that the roofs of the lower stories have the appear- 
ance of terraces. 

For security, the first story can only be entered by 
ascending to the roof, and then going down a ladder into 
the room below. 

After our arrival in the village, the leading men counseled 
together a few minutes, when we were separated and invited 
to dine with different families. 

A man beckoned to me to follow him. After traversing 
several streets, and climbing a ladder to the roof of the first 
story of a house, I was ushered into a room furnished with 
sheepskins, blankets, earthen cooking utensils, water urns, 
and other useful articles. 

It seemed to me strangely furnished, yet it had an air of 
comfort ; perhaps the more so, for the reason that the pre- 
vious few days had been spent in very laborious traveling, on 
rather low diet. 

The hostess made a comfortable seat with blankets, and 
motioned me to occupy it. 

A liberal repast was provided. It consisted of stewed 
meat, beans, peaches and a basket of corn bread which they 
called pe/ce. It was about the thickness of brown paper, dry 
and crumbling, yet quite palatable. 

The hostess, apparently surmising that I would not know 
how to partake of the bean soup without a spoon, dexterously 
thrust her fingers, closed tightly together, into the dish con- 
taining it, and, with a very rapid motion carried the soup to 
her mouth. Tfien she motioned me to eat. Hunger was 
pressing, and a hint was sufficient. 

The day following, the two brethren we had left behind 
came in with the runaway mule, and a part of our supplies. 



62 LEAVE THE MOQUIS AND START FOR HOME. 

We visited seven of these towns, all similarly located and 
constructed. 

The people generally used asses for packing all their sup- 
plies, except water, up the cliffs to their dwellings. The 
water was usually brought up by the women, in jugs, flat- 
tened on one side to fit the neck and shoulders of the carrier, 
and this was fastened with a strap which passed around in 
front of the body. 

Most of the families owned a flock of sheep. These might 
be seen in all directions going out in the morning to feed, and 
returning in the evening, i iThey were driven into or near the 
towns at night, and corralled and guarded to keep them from 
being stolen by the thieving Navajoes. 

We found a few persons in all the villages who could speak 
the Ute language. They told us some of their traditions, 
which indicate that their fathers knew the Mexicans, and 
something about the Montezumas. 

A very aged man said that when he was a young man, his 
father told him that he would live to see white men come 
among them, who would bring them great blessings, such as 
their fathers had enjoyed, and that these men would come 
from the west. He believed that he had lived to see the 
prediction fulfilled in us. 

We thought it advisable for some of the brethren to remain 
with this people for a season, to study their language, get 
acquainted with them, and, as they are of the blood of Israel, 
offer them the gospel. Elders Wm. M. Hamblin, Andrew 
Gibbons, Thomas Leavitt and Benjamin Knell were selected 
for this purpose. 

Bidding adieu to our Moquis friends, and to our brethren 
who were to remain with them, we started for home. Six- 
teen days of hard travel would be necessary to accomplish the 
journey. 

We expected to obtain supplies at the Oriba village, but 
failed on account of scarcity. We had nothing for our 
animals but the dry grass, and they were somewhat jaded. 
The cold north wind blew in our faces, and we lit no fires at 
night, as they would have revealed our position to the roving 
Indians. 



HARDSHIPS AND PRIVATIONS. G3 

The journey home was very laborious and disagreeable. 
With provisions scarcely sufficient for our journey, we again 
lost some of them by a runaway, and, failing to get meat 
from the Indians as we expected, we were reduced to very 
short rations. 

At Pipe Spring the snow was knee deep, and falling fast. 
We made only eight miles to Cedar Ridge the first day, from 
that place. As night came on we counseled together over our 
situation. 

Taking into consideration our empty stomachs and the diffi- 
culty of traveling in the snow, it appeared quite impossible to 
get home without killing one of our horses for food. We 
lived on this rather objectionable kind of food for two days. 

On arriving home it was very pleasant to find a change of 
diet, and our families and friends all well. 

During our absence, the brethren had some difficulty with 
the Santa Clara Indians, and the management of it seemed 
leading to bad results. I visited tfoe natives, and found that 
there were no bad intentions on their part, and they were all 
much pleased to have the matter understood and settled. 

The brethren whom we left with the Moquis returned home 
the same winter. 

A division arose among the people as to whether we 
were the men prophesied of by their fathers, who would 
come among them with the knowledge that their fathers 
possessed. 

This dispute ran so high that the brethren felt that but 
little or no good could result from remaining longer. Besides, 
the chief men among the Moquis advised their return. 

The brethren suffered much privation and hardship in this 
effort to preach the gospel to this people. The Indians said 
that they did not want to cross the Colorado River to live 
with the "Mormons," for they had a tradition from their 
fathers that they must not cross that river until the three 
prophets who took them into the country they now occupy, 
should visit them again. 

Their chief men also prophesied that the { 'Mormons" 
would settle in the country south of them, and that their 
route of travel would be up the Little Colorado. This looked 



64 SUFFER FROM THIRST. 

very improbable to us at that time, but all has since been 
fulfilled. 



CHAPTER X. 

SECOND TRIP TO THE MOQUIS TWO ELDERS LEFT TO LABOR 
WITH THEM LACK OF SUCCESS, OWING TO TRADITIONS 
OF THE INDIANS THIRD MISSION TO THE EAST SIDE OF 
THE COLORADO GEORGE A. SMITH, JR., KILLED BY 
THE NAVAJOES VERY TRYING EXPERIENCE THE 
WOUNDED MAN DIES IN THE SADDLE, WHILE TRAVELING 
FORCED TO LEAVE HIS BODY UNBURIED BITTER 
REFLECTIONS. 

EARLY in the autumn of 1859, I again visited Salt Lake 
City, when President Brigham Young called upon me to 
make another visit to the Moquis, and take with me Brother 
Marion J. Shelton, whom he had called to labor with that 
people, to learn their language and teach them. 

He directed me to leave with him one of the brethren who 
had been with me for some time among the Indians. Presi- 
dent Young also put in my charge sixty dollars worth of 
goods, consisting of wool-cards, spades, shovels and other 
articles which would be of value to the Indians, with instruc- 
tions to dispense them in the best manner to create a good 
influence among them. 

I returned home, and immediately made arrangements to 
carry out these instructions. 

Our company consisted of Marion J. Shelton, Thales Has- 
kell, Taylor Crosby, Benjamin Knell, Ira Hatch, John W. 
Young and myself. 

We left the Santa Clara settlement on the 20th of October. 
Nothing of special interest occurred on our journey, except 
that at one time we did not find water where we expected, 
and were suffering with thirst, when some Piiites saw our 



HE- VISIT THE MOQUIS. 65 

fire and came to us. They informed us where there was 
water, and in the morning piloted us to it. 

We arrived among the Moquis on the 6th of November. 
We visited and talked with them three days. 

I was at a loss to know who to leave with Brother Shelton, 
and was desirous that it might be made manifest to me. My 
mind rested upon Brother Thales Haskell. I went to him 
and told him that he was the only one I could think of to 
remain with Brother Shelton, but he had been out so much 
that I disliked to mention the subject to him. 

He replied that he was the man, for it had been made 
known to him that he would be asked to remain before leav- 
ing home, but he had said nothing about it. 

We left our Moquis friends and Brothers Shelton and Has- 
kell on the 10th of November, and arrived home on the 25th. 
Brothers Shelton and Haskell remained on their mission 
'intil early spring, when they returned home and reported 
that the Moquis were kind to them, but they could not make 
much progress in the object of their mission. The fathers of 
the people told them, very emphatically, that they still 
believed that the "Mormons" who had visited them were 
the men prophesied of by their fathers, that would come 
among them from the west to do them good. But they could 
make no move until the re-appearance of the three prophets 
who led their fathers to that land, and told them to remain on 
those rocks until they should come again and tell them what 
to do. 

Under these circumstances the brethren thought best to 
return home. 

In the fall of 1860, I was directed to make another effort 
to establish a mission in some of the Moquis towns, and take 
with me George A. Smith, Jr., son of the late President 
George A. Smith. 

I left the Santa Clara in October with a company of nine 
men: Thales Haskell, George A. Smith, Jr., Jehiel McCon- 
nell, Ira Hatch, Isaac Riddle, Amos Thornton, Francis M. 
Hamblin, James Pierce, and an Indian we called Enos. We 
took sufficient to sustain us in the Moquis country for one 
year. 



66 GLOOMY FOREBODINGS. 

In speaking at a public meeting the day before leaving, I 
said I felt different from what I had ever previously done on 
leaving home ; that something unusual would happen. What 
it would be I did not know. Whether we should ever see 
home again or not I did not know, but I knew we were told to 
go among the Moquis and stay for one year, and that I should 
do so if I could get there. 

When we arrived at the crossing of the Colorado River, I 
again felt the same gloomy forebodings I spoke of before 
leaving home. 

On the morning before crossing, the brethren said I had 
spoken discouragingly several times, and they wished to know 
if there was any one in the company that I did not wish to go 
on. 

I assured them that there was no one that I did not wish to 
go along, but I knew there would be something happen that 
would be very unpleasant, and that there would be very hard 
times sor some of us. 

Young Greorge A. Smith said, "You will see one thing, 
that is, 1 will stick to it to the last. That is what I came 
for." 

We all crossed the Colorado Eiver with a firm determina- 
tion to do the best we could to fill our mission. 

The second day's travel from the river we found no water, 
as we had expected, and what little we had brought with us 
was exhausted. 

About two o'clock in the afternoon, four Navajoes came to 
us, and told us that if we went on to the next watering place 
we would all be killed. They invited us to go with them to 
Spaneshanks' camp, where they assured us we would find 
protection. 

We counseled about the matter, and concluded that the 
animals were too nearly famished for want of water to reach 
Spaneshanks' camp. If what the four Navajoes told us about 
danger ahead was true, we were in danger from enemies if we 
went on the water, and of perishing with thirst if we 
attempted to reach Spaneshanks' camp. 

As the water was but a short distance ahead on our route 3 
we concluded to push on to it and risk the consequences. 



TREATY WITH THE NAVAJOES. 67 

I requested Brother Thales Haskell to go on with the com- 
pany and water the animals, he having been there before, 
and being, for this reason, acquainted with the ground. I 
directed him, for security, to take our animals on to the top 
of a table rock where there were about forty acres of grass, 
and which could be reached only through a narrow pass in 
the rocks, which would enable us to easily defend ourselves in 
case of attack. 

The Navajoes were gathering around us from different 
directions, and the Indian interpreter we had brought with 
us, informed me that they were evidently bent on mischief. 
1 determined to remain behind with them for awhile, and 
learn what I could by the interpreter and by observation. 
The interpreter learned from their conversation, that they 
were determined we should not go on to the Moquis towns, 
but they appeared undecided whether to kill us or let us go 
home. 

We had taken two Indian women with us, thinking that 
they might be a great help in introducing something like 
cleanliness in cooking, among the people we were going to 
visit. The Navajoes said we might go home if we would 
leave them. 

I directed the interpreter to tell them that one of the 
women was Brother Hatch's wife, and the other was mine. 
They replied that they would not kill the men who had mar- 
ried them. 

Two of the Navajoes then hurried on to our camp, which 
was by the narrow pass, on to the table rock. There 
the Navajoes made a treaty with us that if we would trade 
them the goods we had brought along, and especially the am- 
munition, we might go home. 

As it seemed impossible to fill our mission, we felt justi- 
fied in concluding to return. 

The following morning we commenced to exchange articles 
of trade for blankets. While thus engaged, our animals were 
taken off the rock to water. When returning from the 
water, Brother Greorge A. Smith's horse turned back on a 
trail, which, in a short distance, led over a hill and out of 
sight. 



68 ELDER GEORGE A. SMITH,*" JR., SHOT. 

As he started after it, I told him that he had better not go 
alone, to which he made an indifferent reply. Something else 
immediately attracted my attention, and he was forgotten 
until the Navajoes in our camp suddenly left, when I learned 
that he was after his horse, alone and out of sight. I sent two 
men after him. 

They went about a mile, and found him lying by the trail, 
with three bullet wounds through the lower part of his body, 
and four arrow wounds between the shoulders. 

I mounted a horse and rode to the spot, and learned that 
Brother George A. had found a mounted Indian leading off 
his horse, and that he took the Indian's horse by the bit y 
when the stolen horse was readily given up, with which the 
owner started for camp. 

The Indian who had taken the horse and a companion then 
rode a short distance together, when one came up by the side 
of Brother George A. , and asked him for his revolver. Not 
suspecting any treachery, he passed it to the Indian, who 
handed it to his companion a little in the rear. The latter 
then fired three shots into him, with the -revolver only a few 
feet from his body. 

Brother Smith was paralyzed, and soon fell from his horse. 
The two Indians then dismounted, and one threw his buck- 
skin shirt over his head, and the other shot the arrows 
between his shoulders. 

We took the dying man on a blanket near to the camp, 
when he earnestly requested us to lay him down and let him 
die in peace. 

During this time about forty Navajoes had gathered at a 
difficult place on the trail leading to the Moquis towns, prob- 
ably anticipating that we would make an effort to go in that 
direction. 

I sent our interpreter to ask them what they meant by 
shooting a man after they had agreed with us that if we 
would trade with them we might go in peace. 

He returned with a message to the effect that three rela- 
tives of the Indians had been killed by pale faces like us, and, 
to avenge their death they had shot one of our men. They 
said: "Tell Jacob that he need not bury him, for we will eat 



TRYING CIRCUMSTANCES. 69 

him, and the women and children will help do it. We want 
to kill two more ; and if Jacob will give them up or let us 
quietly kill them, the rest of the company may go in peace." 

The question was asked me, " What are you going to 
do?" 

Under the trying circumstances, it was a serious question ; 
and the query was an earnest one with us all, "What can we 
do?" The heavens seemed like brass over our heads, and the 
earth as iron beneath our feet. It seemed utterly impossible 
to reach the Moquis towns, which were almost in sight, and 
like certain death to attempt to escape in the night with our 
jaded animals. 

Our interpreter thought it would be better for two of the 
company to die, than for all to be killed. 

I told him to go and tell the Navajoes that there were only 
a few of us, but we were well armed, and should fight as long 
as there was one left. 

He turned to go, rather reluctantly, saying again that he 
thought it better for only two to die than all. 

I replied that I did not think so ; that I would not give a 
cent to live after I had given up two men to be murdered ; 
that I would rather die like a man than live like a dog. 

As the interpreter turned to go, the two Indian women we 
had brought with us wept aloud, and accused me of bringing 
them along to be murdered. I went a little way off by my- 
self, and asked the Lord to be merciful, and pity us in our 
miserable and apparently helpless condition, and to make 
known to me what to do and say to extricate us from our 
difficulties. 

I returned to camp and told the company that we would 
leave as soon as possible. 

Some thought it was certain death whether we went or 
remained where we were. 

I told them, however, that there would not be another one 
of us injured. 

Our four Navajoe friends who had come to us the day 
before, had remained, and now helped to gather our animals 
and pack up. 

We were soon on our way. 



70 OUR RETREAT. 

I told Brother George A. that we must return home to save 
our lives, for we could not go any farther, as the Navajoes 
were guarding the pass. 

"Well," said he, "leave me; it will make but very little 
difference with me ; it may make much with you. You can- 
not go very fast if you take me. ' ' 

We put him in a saddle upon a mule, with Brother Jehiel 
McConnell behind him, to hold him on. 

We left our camp kettles over the fire containing our break- 
fast, untouched, and all our camp outfit that we could possibly 
do without. 

The Navajoes who had been guarding our trail beyond the 
camp, started after us, coming down like a whilwind. 

Some of our party predicted that in ten minutes there 
would not be one of us left, but there was no flinching, no 
wilting in the emergency. 

I again predicted that there would not be one of us hurt, 
for so the Spirit whispered to me. 

The Navajoes came almost within range of our rifles, and 
then turned suddenly to the right. 

As they passed, the mule that carried our supplies went 
after them ; but, to our surprise, it was brought back to us by 
a friendly Navajoe. 

We traveled as fast as possible, while the four old gray- 
headed Navajoe friends guarded our front and rear. They 
often asked us to leave the dying man, as he was no longer of 
any use ; that the one who shot him would follow to obtain 
his scalp, and that if we stopped to bury him they would 
leave, for our enemies would have his scalp if they had to dig 
his body up. 

About sun-down George A. asked me to stop, and said that 
everything looked dark to him, and he was dying. 

Our Navajoe friends again said if we stopped they would 
go on. I said to Brother George A., "It will not do to stop 
now. ' ' 

He asked, "Why?" 

When I told him, he said, "Oh, Well, go on then; but I 
wish I could die in peace." These were the last words that 
he said. 



GEORGE A. SMITH, JR., DIES IN THE SADDLE. 71 

A few minutes afterwards, the Navajoe friends said, "The 
man is dead. If you will leave him, we will take you to 
Spaneshanks' camp, where you will have friends." 

Our last ray of hope for getting the body of George A. 
where we could lay it safely away in the rocks, was now gone. 
I said to the company, "What shall we do?" The answer 
was, "What can we do, only lay the body on the ground and 
leave it?" 

I replied that such was my mind, for we would only risk 
our lives by making an effort to bury the dead, in which we 
would probably be unsuccessful. 

We wrapped the body in a blanket, and laid it in a hollow 
place by the side of the trail, and then rode on as fast as our 
jaded animals could well carry us, until late in the night. 

We halted on a patch of grass, held our animals by the 
lariats, and also put out a guard. 

I sat down and leaned over on my saddle, but could not 
sleep. The scenes of the past two days were before me in 
vivid reality. The thought of carrying the wounded man 
with his life's blood dripping out of him along the trail, with- 
out his having the privilege of dying in peace, combined with 
the leaving of his body to be devoured by wolves and vul- 
tures, seemed almost too much to bear. 

My imagination pictured another scene. South of us, in 
the distance, we could see a large fire, around which we pre- 
sumed the Navajoes were having a war dance over the scalp 
of our brother. 

Then the thought of conveying the sad news to his father 
and mother and affectionate sister, all old and valued acquaint- 
ances of mine, pierced me like barbed arrows, and caused 
me the most bitter reflections that I have ever experienced in 
my life. 



72 PROTECTED BY SPANESHANKS. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ARRIVAL AT SPANESHANKS' CAMP HIS FRIENDLY SPIRIT 
RETURN HOME JOURNEY IN THE WINTER TO RECOVER 
THE REMAINS OF GEORGE A. SMITH, JR. DESTITUTE 
CONDITION OF MY FAMILY. 

AT day-dawn a Navajoe came to us, and asked me to give 
him something as a present. I did so, and, as he turned 
away, I recognized Brother Greorge A. Smith's revolver in 
his belt. 

We were soon on the way for Spaneshanks' camp, where we 
found water, grass and friends. 

That evening our Indian messenger came, and had an inter- 
view with Spaneshanks. 

Our interpreter informed me that the message sent to our 
Navajoe friends was, that they ought to kill us that night ; 
and that Spaneshanks replied to the message, that he was 
chief in that country, and we should no be hurt. 

We were further informed that the party that had done the 
mischief were from Fort Defiance. 

We were warned that ahead of us was a narrow pass, where 
the Navajoes had lately attacked the Utes, and killed their 
chief, Wahnonee, and that possibly they might attack us in 
the same place. 

The following morning we left the friendly Spaneshanks, 
and, by making good use of our time, we watered our animals 
and got them on to a table rock before dark. 

Deep cuts and fissures setting in from the north and east, 
rendered our location unapproachable except by the way we 
had come. We placed one Watch in the most difficult part of 
the trail, and felt safe for the first time in six days. In the 
morning we discovered a gun barrel with the stock shivered 
to pieces, shreds of blankets and clothing, and other signs 
which indicated that the place had been recently occupied. 



ARRIVE HOME. 73 

We concluded it was the spot where the Navajoes had taken 
advantage of the Utes. 

The second day from Spaneshanks' camp we crossed to the 
north side of the Colorado River. Four days afterwards on 
the Buckskin Mountain, the Piutes brought us an abundance 
of pine nuts. 

The supply was very acceptable, as edibles were scarce 
in camp. 

Five days subsequently we arrived home on the Santa 
Clara, jaded and worn with hard travel and much anxiety of 
mind. 

Our relatives and friends had been much troubled in their 
minds concerning us in our absence. Some had unfavorable 
dreams, and they were filled with gloomy forebodings. A 
young lad, a nephew of mine, told his mother that there was 
something the matter with me, for he saw me walking along 
and weeping bitterly. He asked me what was the matter, 
and I replied, "Do not ask me, for it is too bad to tell." 

I know that some people do not believe in dreams and night 
visions. I do not believe in them when occasioned by a dis- 
ordered stomach, the result of eating unwisely, but in those 
of a different nature I have often been forewarned of things 
about to come to pass, and I have also received much instruc- 
tion. 

I wrote quite a full account of this trip to President George 
A. Smith, after which he came to my house on the Santa 
Clara. 

In conversing with him about the affair, he remarked, l 'I 
was much shocked on hearing of the death of my boy ; but 
upon reflection, we all, in the Historian's Office, came to the 
conclusion that the Lord wanted the young man just in the 
way He took him. ' ' 

President Young also looked upon the matter in the same 
light. 

After this conversation. Brother Smith gave me a note from 
President Brigham Young, in which was a written request 
to raise a company of twenty men, and bring in what we 
could find of the remains of Brother George A. Smith, Jr. 
Winter having set in, I considered this a difficult task. 



74 RECOVER THE REMAINS OF GEO. A. SMITH, JR. 

It was necessary to go to Parowan for men and supplies, a 
distance of some seventy miles. This accomplished, we were 
soon on our way. 

Our route was a difficult one to travel in the winter season. 
The ford of the Colorado was deep and dangerous at any 
time, but especially when the ice was running. Sometimes 
there were steep rocks to climb, at other times the trail ran 
along the almost perpendicular sides of deep rock fissures, 
narrow, with frequent short turns, where a misstep might 
plunge us or our animals hundreds of feet below. Sometimes 
the precipitous rocks were covered with ice, which had to be 
hacked with our hatchets before we could feel any surety of a 
foothold. 

At one time we waited until nearly midday for the sun to 
melt the frost and ice on a steep rock, that we might be able 
to get our animals out of a gulch on to the plain above. On 
this occasion my pack mule slipped and fell, then rolled and 
slid down to within about a yard of the edge of a chasm 
below. We fastened a long lariat to the animal, and saved it 
and the pack. 

On arriving at the place where we had left the body of 
young Brother Smith, we found the head and some of the 
larger bones. We prepared them for carrying as well as we 
could. 

At our last camp in going out, the chief who had led the 
hostile Navajoes on our previous trip, came to us, accom- 
panied by his wife, and said if he had known what he after- 
wards learned about us, he would have protected instead of 
injuring us. 

Nothing of special interest took place in returning home. 
I went with the remains of George A. Smith, Jr., to Salt 
Lake City, and delivered them to his friends. 

This completed one of the most trying series of circum- 
stances of my life. That the misfortune was no greater is 
due to the kindly Providence of our Heavenly Father, and 
the faith in Him and confidence in each other, of the brethren 
involved in it. 

President Young proffered to pay u,s for our trip. I replied 
that no one who went with me made any charge, and, as for 



CITY OF ST. GEORGE FOUNDED. 75 

myself, I was willing to wait for my pay until the resurrection 
of the just. 

On my return to the Mountain Meadows, I found my 
family out of flour, and the roads blocked with snow, so that 
a team could not get in nor out of the Meadows. I had left 
my family with plenty of food, but they had lent it to their 
neighbors. I was under the necessity of hauling both fuel 
and flour for them on a hand sled. 



CHAPTER XII. 

MANY SAINTS CALLED TO SETTLE SOUTHERN UTAH 
DESTRUCTIVE FLOOD ON THE SANTA CLARA NARROW 
ESCAPE FROM DROWNING ANOTHER VISIT ACROSS THE 
COLORADO A NEW ROUTE MOQUIS INDIANS PRAY FOR 
RAIN THEIR PRAYERS ANSWERED THREE INDIANS 
RETURN WITH US THEIR DEVOTION AND REVERENCE- - 
THEY VISIT SALT LAKE CITY. 

IT was nearly two years before we made another trip to the 
Moquis towns. Many of the brethren appeared to think 
that no good could be accomplished in that direction. In the 
autumn of 1861, many Saints were called from the north to 
form settlements in Southern Utah. The city of St. George 
was founded, and settlements were extended, so as to occupy 
the fertile spots along the waters of the Rio Virgin and Santa 
Clara. 

During the winter of 1861-2 there was an unusual amount 
of .rain-fall. About the middle of February, it rained 
most of the time for a number of days, and the Santa Clara 
Creek rose so high that the water spread across the bottom 
from bluff to bluff, and became a turbulent muddy river. 

Our little farms and the cottonwood trees that grew on the 
bottom lands were disappearing. The flood wood sometimes 
accumulated in a pile, and would throw the current of water 



76 NARROW ESCAPE FROM DROWNING. 

on to ground which had apparently before been safe from its 
inroads. 

Our fort, constructed of stone, and which was one hundred 
feet square, with walls twelve feet high and two feet thick, 
stood a considerable distance north of the original bed of the 
creek. Inside the walls were rooms occupied by families, and 
we had considered it safe from the flood. 

One night, when most of the people were asleep, some one 
discovered that the water was washing away the bank on the 
south side of it, and also that the water was beginning to run 
around it, between it and the bluff. It was raining heavily at 
the same time. 

The people were removed from the fort as soon as possible, 
and some temporary shelter was constructed of boards, 
blankets, etc. 

While I was making an effort to save some property near 
the caving bank of the stream, the ground on which I stood 
suddenly slid into the water, about twenty feet below, and 
took me with it. 

I still stood on the mass of dirt, but realized that it was 
being rapidly washed away from under me, and that I was 
liable at any moment to be precipitated into the raging 
torrent. 

The thought flashed through my mind that there was not 
one chance in a thousand of my being saved. I heard some- 
one say above me that I was gone ; it was of no use to try to 
save. I shouted at the top of my voice "It is of use to try to 
save me ! Bring a rope and throw to me, and haul me out 
before the bank caves and I am gone ! ' ' 

In a few moments I felt a rope drop over my head and 
shoulders. I lost no time in grasping it, and was pulled up 
just as I felt the last foothold giving way under me. 

Again was my life preserved by that kindly providence 
which has so often saved me when in imminent peril. 

What seems remarkable in the history of that gloomy night 
is, that in a few minutes after being rescued from death my- 
self, I should be the means of saving another life. 

A heavy and rapidly increasing current of water was now 
running between the fort and the bluff. 



DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY THE FLOOD. 77 

In some way or other a sick woman had been left in one of 
the rooms of the fort, and her husband was almost frantic 
with the idea that his wife was lost, as he did not think she 
could be got out. She had a young child, which was safe 
outside, while the mother was in peril. 

I took the rope that had been the means of saving myself, 
tied one end of it to a tree, and holding on to it, got safely 
to the fort, where I fastened the other end. I entered the 
room, drew the woman from the bed on to my back, placed 
her arms over my shoulders and crossed them in front. 1 told 
her when I got to the running water that she must hold her- 
self on my back, for I would be obliged to lay hold of the 
rope with both hands to get through the water. 

When we arrived at the point of danger, her arms pressed 
so heavily on my throat that I was nearly strangled. It was 
a critical moment; for if I let go the rope we were sure to 
be lost, as the water was surging against me. I made the 
best possible use of time and strength, and reached the 
shore safely with my burden, to the great joy of the husband 
and children. 

The flood swept away my grist mill and other improvements 
to the value of several thousand dollars. Most of the houses 
and the cultivated land of the settlement also disappeared. 

In the autumn of 1862, it was thought best to again visit 
the Moquis villages. President Young recommended that we 
cross the Colorado River south of St. Greorge, and explore 
the country in that direction, with the view of finding a more 
feasible route than the one we had before traveled. 

A company of twenty men were set apart for this purpose, 
by Apostles Orson Pratt and Erastus Snow. 

A team accompanied us to the river with a small boat, n 
which we conveyed our luggage across. Our animals swam 
the river. 

Expecting to return the same way, after crossing the river 
we cached our boat and some of our supplies. 

The first day we traveled south, up a "wash," for about 
thirty miles. We then traveled three days through a rough, 
bushy country, with some scrub cedar and pine timber. The 
fourth night from the river we camped at a small "seep" 



78 RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES OF THE MOQUIS. 

spring. The San Francisco Mountain lay a little to the south- 
east of us, and in sight. 

In the morning our Indian guide refused to go farther with 
us, his reason being that we were going into a country desti- 
tute of water. We counseled together, and decided that we 
could reach the foothills of the San Francisco Mountain with- 
out perishing. 

The first night from the "seep" spring, a light fall of snow 
came on. It melted and ran into the hollows of the rocks, 
and furnished an abundant supply of water. This seemed 
like a special providence in our favor. 

The second night we made a dry camp. The third night 
we arrived at the foot of the San Francisco Mountain, where 
we again found snow. 

The second day after leaving this mountain we reached the 
Little Colorado River, and then traveled a Httle north-east to 
the Moquis towns. 

We spent two days in visiting among them. We left 
Brothers Jehiel McConnell, Thales Haskell and Ira Hatch to 
labor among them for a season. 

The Moquis had been going through some religious cere- 
monies to induce the Great Spirit to send storms to wet their 
country, that they might raise an abundance of food the coming 
season. They assured us that their offerings and prayers were 
heard, for the storm would soon come, and advised us to delay 
starting for home until it should be over. 

We had been talking with them about sending some of 
their chief men with us, to see our people and have a talk 
with our leaders. They objected on account of a tradition 
forbidding them to cross the great river, which has been 
referred to before. 

We then started for home. The storm came the first night 
out and wet the country finely. We found shelter under a 
rock. 

While there, three Moquis men came to "us. They 
informed us that, after further consultation, their chief men 
had concluded to send them with us. 

This storm, apparently in answer to the prayers of this 
simple people, and similar circumstances that have come 



SHORT OF PROVISIONS. 79 

under my observation among the Indians, have given me an 
assurance that the Lord is mindful of the wants of those bar- 
barians, and that He answers their prayers with the blessings 
they need. 

The snow fell sufficiently deep to cover up the grass, and 
our animals had to subsist principally on browse. The 
traveling was laborious, and when we arrived at the river by 
our old route, we had eight animals less than we left home 
with. This loss, and the poor condition of those that 
remained made traveling slow and tedious. 

On arriving at the Ute crossing of the Colorado, we found 
the water deep and ice running. Fording was difficult and 
dangerous. 

This, coupled with the traditions of the Moquis against 
crossing this river, visibly affected our Moquis friends. An- 
ticipating that they might be entirely discouraged and not 
proceed farther, I forwarded their blankets and provisions by 
the first ones that crossed over. 

When we desired them to cross, they expressed a wish 
to return home, but when I informed them that their things 
had been taken over, they concluded to follow. When the 
crossing was successfully accomplished, they returned thanks 
to. the Father of all for their preservation. 

On the north side, it occupied a day to bridge a muddy 
inlet and get on to the bench above. The crossing was accom- 
plished the first day of the year 1863. 

Brothers L. M. Fuller and James Andrus, whose animals 
were still in fair condition, were advised to push on as fast as 
practicable, and send us back some supplies, as we were very 
short of food. 

The rest of the company traveled slowly to save the weak 
animals. 

We lay by one day on the Pahreah, and killed and 
cooked crows to help out our rations. 

Six days from the river we camped on Kanab Creek. That 
evening, Brother Lucius M. Fuller came into camp with a fat 
sheep, dressed, and some bread and flour, which were fur- 
nished by Brother Wm. B. Maxwell, from his ranch on Short 
Creek, forty miles beyond our camp. 



80 DEATH OF MY SON DUANE. 

When the Moquis saw this food they thanked the Great 
Father that he had pitied us and sent us food. Prayer and 
thanksgiving was the daily custom in our company ; but to 
see these Indian s who are looked upon as barbarians, so 
humble and childlike in their reverence to the Great Father, 
seems worthy of special notice. 

A man who came with Brother Fuller told me, after sup- 
per, that he had heard that one of my sons had been killed at 
Santa Clara, by the [caving in of a bank of earth, and he 
thought it was Lyman. That night I had a dream 0r vision, 
in which I learned that it was Duane instead of Lyman, and I 
told the brethren so in the morning. 

Three days afterwards we arrived at the settlements on the 
Rio Virgin. The brethren in these settlements furnished us 
with fresh animals and an abundant supply of food. We 
found a wide difference between feasting and fasting. 

Soon after arriving home, Brother Wm. B. Maxwell and I 
took our three Moquis friends to Salt Lake City. The people 
on the way were very kind and hospitable. Arriving there, 
all possible pains were taken to instruct these men concerning 
our people, and to show them that which would gratify their 
curiosity, and increase their knowledge. They said they had 
been told that their forefathers had the arts of reading, 
writing, making books, etc. 

We took them to a Welshman who understood the ancient 
Welsh language. He said he could not detect anything in 
their language that would warrant a belief that they were of 
Welsh descent. 

As Lehi had promised his son Joseph that all his seed 
should not be destroyed it was the mind of the brethren who 
reflected upon this subject, that in the Moquis people this 
promise was fulfilled. 



THE MOQUIS VISITORS TAKEN HOME. 81 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE MOQUIS VISITORS TAKEN HOME SINGULAR PRESENTI- 
MENT OF MY INDIAN BOY THE ROUTE SOUTH OF ST. 
GEORGE TAKEN THE SECOND TIME CATARACT CANYON 
THE LOST MOQUIS AND THE MEDICINE MAN MEETING 
WITH THE BBETHREN WHO HAD BEEN LEFT AT THE 
MOQUIS TOWNS EXPLORATIONS ABOUT THE SAN FRAN- 
CISCO MOUNTAINS RETURN HOME GREAT SUFFERING 
WITH THIRST MY INDIAN BOY DEAD AND BURIED, AS 
HE HAD PREDICTED HE WOULD BE. 

WE left St. George to take the Moquis visitors home on 
the 18th of March, 1863. The party consisted of six 
white men and our Moquis friends. As I was leaving home, 
my Indian boy, Albert, met me, and I remarked to him that 
the peach trees had begun to bloom, and it would be warmer 
than it had been. 

He replied, "Yes, and I shall bloom in another place before 
you get back. I shall be on my mission!" (He doubtless 
referred by this to a vision which he had of preaching to a 
multitude of his people. ) 

Said I, "What do you mean by that?' 7 

He replied, "That I shall be dead and buried when you get 
back." 

We again took the route leading south from St. George. 
When we went out on this route the fall previous, we had 
expected to return the same way, and had cached our boat 
and some supplies on the south side of the river. 

On arriving at the river we constructed a raft of dry tim- 
ber, on which two men crossed over to obtain the boat. It 
was in good condition, but our supplies were ruined. 

On the south side we looked around for a better crossing, 
as we had been requested to do, and found one five miles 
higher up the river, and also a good way of getting to and 
from the river. This is now called Pierce' s Ferry. 



82 MEET WITH MR. LEWIS GREELEY. 

We were liere overtaken by Mr. Lewis G-reeley, a nephew 
of Horace Greeley, of the New York Tribune. As he 
wished to accompany us, Brother Snow sent a man with him 
to the river. 

We took our former trail as far as Seep Springs, the last 
water before crossing the three days' desert. The second and 
third days we found two camps, which, judging from the 
remains of camp kettles, pack saddles, etc., had doubtless 
been suddenly broken up, probably by the Apaches. We 
thought they were the camps of miners. 

At the last camp there were five animals with Spanish 
brands. The Moquis desired to take them along, and, after 
some consultation, we consented for them to do so. 

At Seep Springs we found a small band of Piutes, who had 
run off a party of Cohoneenes. 

As we had intended to explore as much as practicable, after 
, consulting with these Piutes and our Moquis friends, we con- 
cluded to take a trail to the left of our former route. This 
would take us down into Cataract Canyon, which heads near 
the foot of the San Francisco Peaks. 

We followed down a side canyon all day, leading our ani- 
mals most of the time, on account of the narrow and 
precipitous character of the trail. At night we camped 
without water. 

About 10 o'clock the next day we came in sight of the 
Main, or Cataract Canyon. This was still far down in the 
earth below, and the stream running along its bottom 
appeared like a bright silver thread glittering in the sun. 

In coming to this point we, at one time, traveled about 
three miles continuously on a trail made with considerable 
labor in the side of shale rock. I do not remember of a place 
in this distance where we could have turned our animals 
around to return, had we wished to do so. We afterwards 
learned that this part of the trail was considered by the people 
who lived in the canyon, as their strongest point of defense in 
that direction. 

We traveled a very circuitous and still difficult trail, until 
four o'clock in the afternoon, before we arrived at the water 
we had seen six hours before. We found the stream to be 



ARRIVE IN CATARACT CANYON. 83 

about fifteen yards in width, with an average depth of over a 
foot. 

It was rapid and clear, and skirted with cottonwood timber, 
growing on rich bottom land. 

The bottom of Cataract Canyon, Lieut. Ives informs us, in 
his "Explorations of the Colorado," is 2,775 feet below the 
general level of the plateau above. We judged the sides of 
the canyon where we were, to be one-half of this distance in 
perpendicular hight. 

The first people that we met had been informed of our 
approach by one of our Moquis companions, whom we had 
sent ahead of us. While we were talking with them, others 
arrived from lower down the stream, who inquired rather 
sharply why we were there. They were soon satisfied with 
our explanations. 

We were soon engaged in interesting conversation. They 
had heard of me and my travels, and appeared pleased to see 
me. They desired that I would not lead anyone into their 
hiding place, and particularly a stranger, without their con- 
sent. 

They told us that the horses we had picked up belonged 
to the Walapies, and if we would leave them they 
would return them to the owners before we came back. We 
remained with this people one day. In going out we traveled 
up the main canyon. 

Not long previously these people had been attacked in their 
stronghold by a band of Indians from the south-east. They 
showed us a narrow pass where they had met them, and 
killed seven of their number. 

About three miles above where we first struck the stream, 
it boils from the bottom of the canyon in a large, beautiful 
spring. We found no water above this. About nine miles 
up the canyon above the water, we turned into a left-hand 
side canyon, through which it was about two miles to the 
country above. 

The trail up this canyon was very steep and difficult. The 
trail we came in on, and this one, are said to be the only 
means of getting in and out of the Cataract Canyon. From 
what we could learn from the Indians, we supposed the dis- 



84 A MOQUIS RELIGIOUS TEACHER. 

tance from the spring to where the creek empties into the 
Colorado to be about eighteen miles. 

Through some misunderstanding, two of our Moquis 
friends had continued up the main canyon. We made a dry 
camp that night. The Moquis man who remained with us 
was a religious leader among his people. He became very 
anxious about his companions, for he said they would -find no 
water. He went through some religious ceremonies for their 
safe return. 

In the night they arrived in camp. They had discovered 
their mistake, and returned until they found our trail. We 
had a little water left to relieve their thirst. 

I should have before stated that these Moquis never send 
out any of their people in the public interest, without sending 
one of their religious teachers with them. The position of 
these religious men is probably a traditionary remnant of the 
pure priesthood held by their fathers. 

This man who was with us carried a small sack, in which 
were some consecrated meal, wool, cotton and eagle's feathers. 
To this sack was attached a stick, which he took out each 
morning, and, after looking at the sun, made a mark upon, thus 
keeping a memorandum of the number of days we had spent 
on the journey. 

Our route was considerably to the north of the one we had 
traveled when on our former trip. The day after leaving 
Cataract Canyon, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, we came 
to a cross trail made by wild animals. Following it a few 
hundred yards into the head of a canyon, we found a pool of 
good water. 

This was the 7th of April. We traveled two days without 
water for our animals, and camped where we could see the 
water of the Little Colorado, but it was in a deep gulch, out 
of our reach. The next day we traveled thirteen miles up the 
river bank, and camped by the water. 

The night of the 1 1 th we were about twelve miles from a 
Moquis town. Our Moquis companions wished to go home ; 
and did so, while we camped until morning. 

They informed the three brethren who had remained in the 
Moquis towns during the winter, of our approach, and the 



START FOR HOME. 85 

following morning these brethren met us about two miles out. 
They rejoiced much in seeing us, and hearing from their 
families and friends at home. We remained two days with 
our Moquis friends. 

Taking Brothers Haskell, Hatch and McConnell with us, 
on Tuesday, the 15th of April, we started for the San Fran- 
cisco Mountain, which was about ninety miles to the south- 
west. We aimed to strike the Beal road, which runs on the 
south side of the mountain. 

On the 20th of April we got into the foot hills on the north 
side of the mountain, where we found plenty of timber, 
grass, and snow for water. Game was abundant, and we had 
no trouble to kill what we needed. The same day Mr. 
Greeley discovered a pond of clear, cold water, several acres 
in extent, in the crater of a volcanic peak. 

Monday, the 21st of April, we spent in exploring in differ- 
ent directions. We discovered a wagon road, which proved 
to be the one laid out by Captain Beal. We had traveled 
around on the north side of the mountain, and struck this 
road six miles west of Lareox Spring. 

On the 22nd we killed two antelopes, and dried the meat, 
preparatory for starting home. 

On the 24th we started for home. We traveled west on the 
Beal road until the 28th, when we left it and traveled across 
the desert where Lieut. Ives and party suffered from thirst. 

We directed our course for Seep Springs, spoken of in the 
account of our outward trip, as our last camp before going 
into Cataract Canyon. 

I was fifty-six hours without any water. Brother Jehiel 
McConnell was so far gone that he could only whisper. Both 
men and animals suffered severely. From Seep Springs we 
directed our course for the crossing of the Colorado, south of 
St. George. 

The third day from Seep Springs we traveled into the night, 
and got off our trail. We tied up some of our animals and 
hobbled others, to wait for daylight. 

During the night, what we at first supposed to be the hoot- 
ing of an owl, attracted our attention. After listening a little 
while we concluded that the hooting was counterfeit ; that 



86 OUR ARRIVAL HOME. 

Indians were around us and we had better look after our 
animals. 

I followed a trail a few hundred yards by moonlight, and 
discovered the tracks of two Indians. Suffice it to say, we 
lost ten animals out of eighteen. 

Assisted by some Piutes, we made an effort the next day to 
recover them, bufc failing, on the 6th of May we continued 
our journey. Five of our animals we packed, which left but 
three to ride. As there were ten men in the company, we 
traveled mostly on foot. 

We afterwards learned that the Cataract Canyon Indians 
had not returned the Walapies' horses as they had agreed to, 
and the Walapies made that an excuse for stealing ours. 

When we arrived at the river our feet were badly blistered. 
We had learned to appreciate the value of the animals we 
had lost. 

Between the ferry and St. George, one day, in the Grand 
Wash, our animals becoming dry, a mule smelt of the ground 
and pawed. We concluded that it smelt water under the 
ground. We dug down about three feet, and found plenty. 
There has been water there ever since, and it is called White 
Spring. 

We arrived in St. George on the 13th of May, 1863. We 
had been absent fifty-six days. We had explored a practic- 
able, though difficult route, for a wagon from St. George to 
the Little Colorado, had visited the Moquis towns, and 
explored some of the country around the San Francisco 
Mountain. 

I found on my return home that my Indian boy, Albert, 
was dead and buried, as he had predicted he would be when I 
left home. 

I supposed his age to be about ten years when he came to 
live with me ; he had been with me twelve years, making him 
twenty-two years old when he died. For a number of years 
he had charge of my sheep, horses and cattle, and they had 
increased and prospered in his hands. 

Some time before his death he had a vision, in which he 
saw himself preaching the gospel to a multitude of his 
people. He believed that this vision would be realized in the 



CHANGE IN THE SPIRIT OF THE INDIANS. 87 

world of spirits. He referred to this when he said that he 
should die before my return home, and be on his mission. 

He was a faithful Latter-day Saint ; believed he had a great 
work to do among his people ; had many dreams and visions, 
and had received his blessings in the house of the Lord. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

CHANGE IN THE SPIRIT OF THE INDIANS SOME INSIGHT 
INTO THEIR PRIVATIONS AND TRIALS THEY THREATEN 
HOSTILITIES DIFFICULTIES WITH THEM SETTLED A 
KIND, PEACEFUL POLICY THE BEST VISIT TO THE 
MOQUIS TOWNS THE PEOPLE ARE INVITED TO LIVE 
WITH THE SAINTS THEIR OBJECTIONS TO REMOVING 
HOSTILE ATTITUDE OF THE NAVAJOES RETURN HOME- 
SUFFERING WITH THIRST A PROVIDENTIAL SUPPLY OF 
WATER DR. WHITMORE KILLED BY INDIANS SEVERE 
SICKNESS HEALED IN ANSWER TO PRAYER. 

AT this time a considerable change had taken place in the 
spirit and feelings of the Indians of Southern Utah, 
since the settlement of the country in 1861-62. Up to that 
time, our visits among them and our long talks around their 
camp fires, had kept up a friendly feeling in their hearts. 

After the settlement of St. George, the labors of the 
Indian missionaries, from force of circumstances, became 
more extended and varied, and the feelings of the Indians 
towards the Saints became more indifferent, and their pro- 
pensity to raid and steal returned. 

The great numbers of animals brought into the country by 
the settlers, soon devoured most of the vegetation that had 
produced nutritious seeds, on which the Indians had been 
r .ccustomed to subsist. When, at the proper season of the 
year, the natives resorted to these places to gather seeds, they 



88 INDIANS FORCED TO COMMIT DEPREDATIONS. 

found they had been destroyed by cattle. With, perhaps, 
their children crying for food, only the poor consolation was 
left them of gathering around their camp fires and talking 
over their grievances. 

Those who have caused these troubles have not realized the 
situation. I have many times been sorely grieved to see the 
Indians with their little ones, glaring upon a table spread 
with food, and trying to get our people to understand their 
circumstances, without being able to do so. Lank hunger 
and other influences have caused them to commit many 
depredations. 

When our people have retaliated, the unoffending have 
almost invariably been the ones to suffer. Generally those 
that have done the stealing have been on the alert, and have 
got out of the way, while those who have desired to be 
friends, from the want of understanding on the part of our 
people, have been the sufferers. This has driven those who 
were before well disposed, to desperation. 

The Navajoes and other Indians east of the Colorado River 
have taken advantage of these circumstances to raid upon the 
settlements, and drive off many hundreds of cattle and valu- 
able horses and mules. 

In 1864 I visited the Indians east of St. George, accom- 
panied by Brother George Adair. They had gathered 
between St. George and Harrisburg, for the purpose of carry- 
ing out their threat to destroy some of the settlements the 
first favorable opportunity. 

I was asked how many men I wanted to go with me on my 
contemplated visit. I replied only one, and that I did not 
want any arms, not even a knife, in sight. 

When we arrived in their camp I asked them to come 
together, and bring their women and children, and all hear 
what we had to say. They had prepared for hostilities 
by secreting their women and children, as is their custom. 

By talking with them, a better influence came over them, 
and the spirit of peace triumphed over irritation and a sense 
of wrong. 

About seventy-five miles west of St. George, a band of 
Piutes had confederated with a band of Indians that had been 



DIFFICULTIES WITH THE INDIANS SETTLED. 89 

driven out of California, and they threatened the settlements 
of Meadow Creek, Clover Valley, and Shoal Creek. Brother 
Andrew Gibbons accompanied me on a visit to these Indians. 
It was summer, and they had left their corn fields to dry up, 
and gone to the mountains. Our people had manifested as 
much hostility as the Indians, having killed two of their 
number. 

We sent out word for all to come in and see us. We made 
a feast by killing an ox, and, in a general talk, they told over 
their grievances. They said that they felt justified in what 
they had done, and also in what they intended to do. 

1 could not blame them, viewing matters from their stand- 
point. In the talk I rather justified them in what they 
expected to do, but told them that in the end it would be 
worse for them to carry out their plans than to drop them, 
and smoke the pipe of peace. That the grass upon which 
the seeds had grown which served them for food was all eaten 
up, and from that time would be; but if they would be 
friendly, they could get more food by gleaning our fields than 
they had before we came into their country. 

The talk lasted for hours. The difficulty was settled and 
we returned home. 

Early in 1865, the Navajoes stole a few horses from Kanab. 
I was requested to go over the Colorado, and, if practicable, 
have a talk with them, and recover the stolen horses. I was 
also to have a talk with the Moquis, and invite them to move 
over into our country. 

We did not succeed in recovering the stolen horses. We 
were informed by the Moquis that the old Navajoe chief, the 
friendly Spaneshanks, had been discarded by his band, that 
his son had succeeded him as chief, and that he was disposed 
to raid at any favorable opportunity. 

For these reasons we thought it would be useless and per- 
haps dangerous to go into their country. We had a meeting 
in the Oriba village, with the principal men of that place and 
one of the largest of the Moquis towns. It was an interest- 
ing interview. 

We told them we did not expect to visit them much more 
where they were, and we wished them to move over the river 



90 THIRST QUENCHED IN ANSWER TO PRAYER, 

into our country, live with us, and build cities and villages the 
same as other people. 

They again told us that they could not leave their present 
locations until the three prophets who had led them into their 
country should appear among them again, and tell them what 
to do. They predicted that our people would yet move into 
the country south of them, and would travel with wagons up 
the Little Colorado. 

Aside from their traditions against moving across the great 
river, they could not see the utility of going over to live with 
us when we would yet move into their country. They were 
quite anxious that we should not be angry with them, as they 
desired that we should be friends, and thought that we might 
sometimes visit them. 

On our return home we were disappointed in not finding 
water in two places where we had always found a supply on 
former trips. At the second place we camped for the night. 
On account of thirst our animals were very uneasy, and we 
tied them up and guarded them until morning. 

The nearest water to us was ten miles distant, over a sandy 
desert, and directly out of our way; that is, we would have* 
to travel twenty miles to get water, and again reach our trail 
for home. It was nearly two days' travel on our way home 
to water, and both men and animals were already greatly 
distressed. 

I ascended a hill near the camp, and earnestly asked the 
Lord in my heart what I should do under our difficult circum- 
stances. While thus engaged I looked towards the Colorado, 
which was about forty miles distant, and saw a small cloud, 
apparently about the size of a man's hat. It rapidly 
increased, and it did not appear to me more than half-an-hour 
before we were enveloped in a heavy snow-storm. The snow 
melted and ran into the cavities of the rocks, until there was 
an abundance of water. 

When we started on our journey we found the ground dry 
in less than a mile and a half from our camp. 

I thanked the Lord that He had sent us relief in our great 
need, but there were those in the company who did not 
appear to see the hand of the Lord in it. 



TAKEN SICK. 91 

In the autumn of 1865, Dr. Whitmore and I made a trip to 
Los Vegas Springs and the Colorado River. We visited the 
Cottonwood Island Indians and the Mohaves. 

In the winter after our return, Dr. Whitmore and his 
herder, young Mclntyre, were killed near Pipe Spring, about 
fifty-five miles east of St. George, by the Navajoes, who also 
drove off their sheep and some cattle. 

I started out after them with a company, was taken sick, 
and turned back to go home. 

I stopped over night on the road in a deserted house, with- 
out food, bedding or fire. Having an opportunity, I sent 
word to my family about my condition. I got into the town 
of Washington, twelve miles east of Santa Clara, and could 
go no farther. 

In a day or two my wife, Louise, arrived with a team and 
took me home. My health was very poor for about a year. 
At one time my friends thought that I was dying. At first I 
told them that I was willing that it should be so, for I had 
only been in their way for nearly a year ; but my little chil- 
dren were crying around me, and the question came into my 
mind: What will they do if I am taken away? I could not 
bear the thought of leaving my family in so helpless a con- 
dition. 

I then asked God, the Eternal Father, in the name of His 
Son Jesus Christ, to spare my life long on the earth, and I 
would labor for the building up of His kingdom. 

I afterwards felt a desire for food, and asked for something 
to eat. I was told that I had eaten nothing for two days. 
Some boiled beef and tea were brought me ; I thought I had 
never before eaten anything that tasted so good. From that 
time I slowly recovered. 



92 GUARDING THE FRONTIERS. 



CHAPTER XV. 

TRAVELS AMONG THE INDIANS WATCHING THE FRONTIERS 
TRIP TO THE MOQUIS TOWNS GREAT RAID OF THE 
NAVAJOES A GOOD OPPORTUNITY LOST OF RECOVER- 
ING STOLEN STOCK SKIRMISHES WITH RAIDERS A 
PEACEABLE AGREEMENT WITH THE NAVAJOES DESIR- 
ABLE VISIT OF PRESIDENT YOUNG TO KANAB. 

IN the spring and summer of 1867, I was called upon to 
visit the bands of Indians to the east of the settlements 
on the Rio Virgen, and farther north. A number of settle- 
ments had been deserted on the Sevier River, and it was 
desirable that the temper of the Indians should be so modi- 
fied that they could be re-established. 

I went east seventy-five miles, to the present location of 
Kanab. After gathering around me some of the Indians, 
and planting some corn and vegetables, I crossed over the 
rim of the basin, north, and traveled down the valley of the 
Sevier. 

I sought out places where the Indians were gathered in the 
largest numbers. I had many long talks with them, which 
seemed to have a good effect. Although some of the bands 
were considered quite hostile and dangerous to visit, I felt 
that I was laboring for good, and had nothing to fear. 

In the fall of 1867, as soon as the water in the Colorado 
was low enough for the Navajoes to ford it, I kept close watch 
of the eastern frontiers of Southern Utah. I met with quite 
a number of young Piutes when I first went into the country. 
They said they had dreamed that I was coming out into their 
country, and they proposed to assist me in watching the 
frontiers. They proved to be quite useful in watching the 
passes, and waylaid and shot several raiders. 

The season of 1868 was spent in a similar manner to that 
of 3867, in visiting the Indians in South-eastern Utah, and 
cultivating peace among them. 



ANOTHER VISIT TO THE MOQUIS. 93 

In October, 1869, I was requested to make another trip to 
the Moquis towns, to talk with the people, and learn, if pos- 
sible, whether there were other Indians besides the Navajoes 
raiding on our borders. 

I started with a company of forty men, twenty of the 
brethren, and twenty Piutes. We crossed the Colorado where 
Lee's Ferry now is. Our luggage went over on rafts made of 
floatwood, fastened together by withes. 

On arriving at the Moquis towns, I thought some of the 
people received us rather coldly. My old acquaintances told 
me that the Navajoes intended to make another raid on our 
people in a short time. I felt like returning to our settlements 
immediately. 

When we left the towns, I felt much impressed to take the 
old Ute trail, and cross the river thirty miles above where we 
crossed going out. Some of the company objected to this, 
and made much of the difficulties of the crossing. 

When we came to where a trail led to each of the crossings, 
I told the company that I did not know why, but I was satis- 
fied that it was our duty to go home by the old Ute trail. I 
was much surprised to find that more than half of the breth- 
ren had made up their minds not to go that way. I told 
them if I knew anything about the mind and will of the Lord, 
it was for us to go that way. 

The Piutes, to a man, were willing to go the way I desired. 
The brethren took the lower trail, and on we went. I 
remarked to them that our trip to the Moquis was a failure. 
When we arrived home, we learned that the Navajoes had 
been into the settlements north of where our people had 
guarded, and driven off twelve or fifteen hundred head of 
animals, among them many valuable horses and mules. 

I afterwards learned from the Piutes, that if the company 
had taken the Ute trail, we would have met the raiders with 
all these valuable animals on the open plains, after they had 
crossed the river. I felt vexed that I did not take the 
Piutes with me, and save this valuable lot of stock for our 
people. 

I slept out many cold nights in the winter of 1869-70, 
watching and guarding with the Piutes. One Navajoe was 



94 FIRED AT BY INDIANS. 

shot when two or three hundred yards ahead of his company, 
which was driving out a small band of horses. The raiders 
were much frightened, threw down their luggage and wanted 
the -Flutes to let them go home. The Piutes consented to let 
the Navajoes go if they would leave what they had. They 
gladly accepted the terms. This took place in the Pahreah 
Pass, about twenty miles east of Kanab. 

The Navajoe that was shot was only wounded. I followed 
his trail the next day, to see what had become of him. I 
found where he had been picked up by his friends and carried 
two or three miles. Near him was another camp of raiders, 
resting. 

One of the Piutes who was with me at the time, and had 
been told in a dream to go with me, shot two of this company, 
scalped one of them, and said that the other had sandy hair, 
and he dare not scalp him, for he seemed too much like a 
white man. 

At another time, when Captain James Andrus, with a com- 
pany of men from St. George was with us, a few animals 
passed us in the night. We supposed there were three 
Navajoes with them. 

We followed them one day. By taking a circuitous route 
we came within range of . them unobserved. Some of the 
company fired before the others were ready. Two of the 
raiders fell; the others, quick as thought, drove the horses upon 
a sharp point of rocks, where they took shelter in such a way 
that they could guard their horses without exposing themselves. 

We endeavored to approach them to advantage, but with- 
out success. I was fired at several times, as also were several 
of the other brethren. Once, as I was secreted behind a 
cedar tree, a Navajoe crawled up behind a sand drift, fired at 
me, and the bullet just missed my head. 

Finding that the Indians had the advantage of us, we left 
them, only getting one of the horses. The Navajoes secured 
ten horses and lost three of their men. 

Captain Andrus and company returned to St. Greorge, and 
left Brothers John Mangum, Hyrum Judd, Jehiel McConnell } 
my son Lyman, myself and the Piutes to watch the frontiers, 
as we had done through the winter. 



VISITED BY PRESIDENT YOUNG. 95 

The winter of 1869-70 was one of great hardship for the 
few brethren who, with the Piutes, watched the frontier. 
They suffered with the cold, and passed many sleepless nights. 
We crossed the Buckskin, or Kibab, Mountain several times, 
with the snow in some places waist deep. 

This Navajoe war caused me many serious reflections. I 
felt that there was a better way to settle matters, and I made 
up my mind to go and see the Navajoes, and have a talk with 
them as soon as circumstances would permit. 

In the spring of 1870, President Brigham Young, his coun- 
selor, George A. Smith, Apostle Erastus Snow and other 
leading men of the Church, came to Kanab, accompanied by 
twenty men as a guard. 

As we had been notified of this visit, we had things in as 
good order as possible. The Piutes, seventy in number, 
washed off the dirt and paint which usually besmeared their 
persons, and put on a fair appearance for Indians. 

President Young at first objected to sending out the animals 
of the company to feed under an Indian guard, but afterwards 
consented to do so. He expiessed himself well satisfied with 
my labors and policy on the frontiers. 

I told him that I desired to visit the Navajoes, and have a 
talk with them; that there had been a number of raiders 
killed, and I never saw a Navajoe' s bones on the ground, the 
flesh haying been eaten off by wolves and vultures, but what 
I felt sorrow for the necessity of such things; that I always 
abhorred the shedding of blood, and desired to obtain peace 
in some better way. 

When President Young arrived at Toquerville, on his 
return journey, he sent me a letter of instructions, directing 
me to do all I could to prevent the shedding of blood ; not to 
let the Indians have any firearms or ammunition if I thought 
they would use them for killing miners or other travelers ; and, 
if it were possible, he wished the people to get along without 
the killing of any more Navajoes. 



96 ENDEAVOR TO MAKE PEACE WITH THE INDIANS. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

VISITS AMONG UTAH INDIANS MEET MAJOR POWELL 
EMPLOYED TO ACCOMPANY HIM COUNCIL WITH THE 
SHI-VWITS MAJOR POWELL'S DESCRIPTION OF IT. 

T DETERMINED to do all I could in the summer of 1870 to 
A establish good feelings among the Indians in the neighbor- 
hood of our people, on the west side of the Colorado, that they 
might be disposed to favor us instead of our enemies. I 
determined to neglect no opportunity of visiting the 
Navajoes, and endeavoring to get a good understanding with 
them. 

I visited the Red Lake Utes, spent some time at Fish Lake, 
east of Parowan, and visited the Indians along the Sevier. I 
had many long talks with them, and believe I accomplished 
much good, in inspiring them with the spirit of peace. 

I met Professor J. W. Powell, who stated that he had 
descended the Colorado River the previous year, and that the 
Indians in the neighborhood of Mount Trumbull, south-west 
of Kanab, had killed three of his men. He wished to visit 
them, and prevent the repetition of a similar calamity the 
next season ; for he desired to descend the river with a com- 
pany to explore the Grand Canyon. 

He wished to employ some one who understood Indian 
character, and spoke their dialect, to go with him, and Presi- 
dent Young had recommended me as a suitable person. He 
offered me liberal terms, and, as I was desirous of seeing the 
same Indians myself, a satisfactory arrangement was soon 
made. 

We left Kanab for Mount Trumbull in September, 1870, 
and took two Kanab Indians with us. We arrived at our des- 
tination the third day, and selected a good camp ground by a 
spring of water. 

We found some natives gathering cactus fruit, which grew 
there in great abundance. I requested them to bring in some 



A COUNCIL HELD WITH THE INDIANS. 97 

of the party who took a part in the killing of Mr. Powell's 
men the previous year. 

Some twelve or fifteen Indians got together the following 
day, and we called a council to have a good peace talk. 

I commenced by explaining to the Indians Professor 
Powell's business. I endeavored to get them to understand 
that he did not visit their country for any purpose that would 
work any evil to them ; that he was not hunting gold, silver 
or other metals ; that he would be along the river next sea- 
son with a party of men, and if they found any of them away 
from the river in the hills, they must be their friends, and 
show them places where there was water, if necessary. 

They answered that some of their friends from the other 
side of the river crossed on a raft and told them that 
Powell's men were miners, and that miners on their side of 
the river abused their women. 

They advised them to kill the three white men who had 
gone back from the river, for if they found any mines in their 
country, it would bring great evil among them. The three 
men were then followed, and killed when asleep. 

The Indians further stated that they believed what I told 
them, and, had they been correctly informed about the men, 
they would not have killed them. 

They said Ka-pu-rats could travel and sleep in their 
country unmolested, and they would shew him and his men 
the watering places. 

Ka-pu-rats, in the Piute language, means one arm cut off. 
Major Powell had lost an arm in the late war between the 
Northern and Southern States. 

I think that a part of Major Powell's description of this 
affair in his "Explorations of the Colorado River," would not 
be out of place here : 

"This evening, the Shi-vwits, for whom we have sent, come 
in, and, after supper, we hold a long council. A blazing fire 
is built, and around this we sit the Indians living here, the 
Shi-vwits, Jacob Hamblin and myself. This man, Harnblin, 
speaks their language well, and has a great influence over all 
the Indians in the region round about. He is a silent, 
reserved man, and when he speaks, it is in a slow, quiet way, 



98 GOOD OPPORTUNITY TO FILL MY MISSION. 

that inspires great awe. His talk is so low that they must 
listen attentively to hear, and they sit around him in death- 
like silence. When he finishes a measured sentence, the chief 
repeats it, and they all give a solemn grunt. 

"Mr. Hamhlin fell into conversation with one of the men, 
and held him until the others had left, and then learned more 
of the particulars of the death of the three men. They 
came upon the Indian village almost starved, and exhausted 
with fatigue. They were supplied with food, and put on 
their way to the settlements. Shortly after they had left, an 
Indian from the east side of the Colorado arrived at their 
village, and told them about a number of miners having killed 
a squaw in a drunken brawl, and no doubt these were the 
men. No person had ever come down the canyon ; that was 
impossible ; they were trying to hide their guilt. In this way 
he worked them into a great rae. They followed, sur- 
rounded the men in ambush, and filled them full of arrows. 

"That night I slept in peace, although these murderers of 
my men, and their friends, the U-in-ka-rets, were sleeping 
not five hundred yards away. While we were gone to the 
canyon, the pack-train and supplies, enough to make an 
Indian rich beyond his wildest dreams, were all left in their 
charge, and were all safe; not even a lump of sugar was 
pilfered by the children." 

After this council with the Indians, Major Powell gave me 
charge of the commissary stores and pack train, and directed 
me to explore the country east, north and south. This 
afforded me an excellent opportunity to carry out my mission 
to the Lamanites v 

I had many interesting talks with them. I labored to have 
them understand that there was an overruling Providence 
that had much to do with the affairs of men; that God was 
not pleased with the shedding of blood, and they must stop 
killing men, women and children, and try and be at peace with 
all men. 

These teachings did not appear to have much influence at 
the time, but afterwards they yielded much good fruit. 



START FOR FORT DEFIANCE. 96 



CHAPTER XVII. 

JOURNEY TO FORT DEFIANCE INTERESTING VISIT AMONG 
THE MOQUIS TOWNS ARRIVAL AT FORT DEFIANCE 
GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHIEFS OF THE NAVAJOE 
NATION GREAT PEACE TALK RETURN HOME TREATY 
OF PEACE IN ONE OF THE MOQUIS TOWNS STOLEN 
SHEEP RECOVERED FOR A NAVAJOE. 

IN the autumn of 1871, Major Powell concluded to go east, 
by way of Fort Defiance, and desired me to accompany 
him. As this appeared to be an opening for the much-desired 
peace talk with the Navajoe Indians, I readily accepted the 
invitation. 

We started for Fort Defiance in October. Three men who 
were strangers to me, accompanied us, and Brothers Ammon 
M. Tenney, Ashton Nebeker, Nathan Terry and Elijah Pot- 
ter; also Frank, a Kibab Indian. 

We packed lumber on mules over the Kibab, or Buckskin 
Mountain, to the crossing of the Colorado, now known as 
Lee's Ferry. With this we constructed a small boat, in which 
we conveyed our luggage across. Our animals crossed over by 
swimming, 

We traveled at nights most of the way, to preserve our 
animals from the Indians. We visited all the Moquis towns, 
seven in number, and had much interesting talk with the 
people. Professor Powell took much interest in their festivals, 
dances, religious ceremonies and manner of living. 

Arriving at Fort Defiance, Major Powell rendered me much 
assistance in bringing about peace with the Navajoes. About 
six thousand of them were gathered there to receive their 
annuities. 

All the chiefs of the nation were requested to meet in 
council. All the principal chiefs but one, and all the sub- 
chiefs but two were there. Captain Bennett, Indian agent, 



100 GREAT PEACE TALK, 

his interpreter, and Brother Ammon M. Tenhey were also 
there. 

Major Powell led the way by introducing nie to the council 
as a representative of the people who lived on the west side 
of the Colorado River, called "Mormons." He stated that 
he had lived and traveled with these people, and, by acquain- 
tance, had formed a very favorable opinion of them. He said 
that they were an industrious people, who paid their quota of 
taxes in common with other citizens of the United States, 
from which the Navajoes were paid their annuities. 

At the close of his introductory remarks, I arose and spoke 
about an hour. I stated that the object of my visit was to 
have a talk with them, and endeavor to bring about a better 
understanding between them and my people the "Mormons," 
and establish peace and friendship. 

I explained to them some of the evils of the war which 
had commenced by killing two men and driving off their 
stock ; that while they had taken from us many horses and 
mules, they had lost twenty or thirty of their men. That our 
young men had wanted to come over into their country and 
kill and drive them, but had been told to stay at home until 
all other means for obtaining peace had been tried and had 
failed. 

I told them I had been acquainted, more or less, with the 
Indians on their side of the great river for many years, and I 
found that the Moquis were obliged to watch their stock, or 
the Navajoes would steal it; and the Navajoes were under the 
same necessity. Neither party could trust their sheep out of 
sight, through fear that they would never see them again. 
They dare not send their flocks out into the mountains where 
grass was abundant, and the result was, that they ate poor 
meat, and many times not enough of that. 

Continuing, I said : "If you will reflect on your affairs, you 
will see that this is very bad policy, and that it would be 
much better to be at peace with your neighbors and with all 
men. I see much grass and many watering places on each 
side of the river. If we would live at peace with each other, 
we could take advantage of all the land, grass and water, and 
become rich or have all we need. Our horses and sheep 



GOOD EFFECT OF THE "TALK." 101 



would be fat. We could sleep in peace, awake in^ the morn- 
ing and find our property safe. You cannot but see that this 
would be the better way. 

"I hope you will listen to this talk. What shall I tell my 
people, the "Mormons" when I return home? That we may 
expect to live in peace, live as friends, and trade with one 
another? Or shall we look for you to come prowling around 
our weak settlements, like wolves at night? I htfpe we may 
live in peace in time to come. - I have now gray hairs on my 
head, and from my boyhood I have been on the frontiers, 
doing all I could to preserve peace between white men and 
Indians. 

"I despise this killing, this shedding of blood. I hope you 
will stop this, and come and visit, and trade with our people. 
We would like to hear what you have got to say before we go 
home." 

As I took my seat, I noticed the tears start in the eyes of Bar- 
benceta, the Spanish name of the principal chief of the 
Navajoes. 

He slowly approached, and put his arms around me, say- 
ing: "My friend and brother, I will do all I can to bring 
about what you have advised. We will not give all our 
answer now. Many of the Navajoes are here. We will talk 
to them to-night, and wilLsee you on your way home." 

The principal chiefs spent much of the night talking with 
their people. Captain Bennett, the agent, and a U. S. army 
officer, said that I could not have talked better to bring about 
peace with the Navajoes. He manifested much good feeling, 
and furnished us liberally with supplies for our journey home. 

This council was held on the 2nd of November, 1871. The 
blessings of the Lord were over us in our efforts for peace. 

This was probably the first time that the chiefs of the 
Navajoe nation ever heard a gospel discourse adapted to their 
circumstances ; as well as the first time that they had heard, 
from the lips of a white man, a speech that carried with it 
the spirit and power of a heartfelt friendship. The hearts of 
many of them were open to reciprocate it. 

We spent three days at Fort Defiance, endeavoring to create 
a good influence, and in getting our supplies ready. Brother 



102 TREATY OF PEACE CONCLUDED. 

A. M. Tenjpey, being able to converse in Spanish, accom- 
plished much good. 

On our way home we called at a Moquis town. There we 
met the principal chief of the Navajoes, those chiefs who 
were not at Fort Defiance, and some minor chiefs who did not 
consider themselves as belonging to the United States agency 
at Fort Defiance. 

We met iti a room belonging to the principal man of the 
village. The Navajoes, through their chief, told us that they 
had not come to talk any different from what was said at 
Fort Defiance, but to confirm what was said there. They 
never had heard better talk. They had a great desire to have 
what was said, carried out. 

They said, "We have some bad men among us, but, if 
some do wrong, the wise ones must not act foolishly, like chil- 
dren, but let it be settled according to the spirit of your talk 
at Fort Defiance. 

"Here is Hastele (one of the principal chiefs) ; I wish you 
to take a good look at him, so you will not be mistaken in the 
man. He never lies or steals. He is a truthful man ; we 
wish all difficult matters settled before him. He lives on the 
frontier, nearest to the river ; you can find him by inquiry. ' ' 

The peace treaty talk here closed by the Navajoes saying, 
"We hope we may be able to eat at one table, warm by one 
fire, smoke one pipe, and sleep under one blanket." 

One of them gave me a note from the United States agent, 
stating that the bearer wished me to try and recover some 
sheep that were stolen from him, and were in one of the 
Moquis towns; and that two attempts had been made to 
recover them, which had failed. 

We lay down to sleep about midnight, and were on our way 
at early dawn to the town, a few miles distant, where the 
Navajoes said we should find the sheep. 

Arriving at the residence of the man having the sheep, I 
found him to be a former acquaintance of mine. He 
appeared in a surly mood. We talked to him for some time, 
but could get no answer. 

I then said, "You are the first man I traded with twelve or 
thirteen years ago. You told me then that before your 



RECOVER SOME STOLEN SHEEP. 103 

father died, he took you in his arms, and told you that you 
would live to see white men come from the west good men, 
men of peace ; and that it would be but a short time after 
they came until you could sleep in peace, eat in peace, and 
have peace in all things. You told me that you believed we 
were the men your father meant, and I hope you will not pre- 
vent peace coming into your country for the sake of a few 
sheep." 

"Well," said he, "I will not; I will give up the sheep." 
They were counted out, and the Navajoe offered us one or 
two to eat on our way home. We told him we could get 
along without taking any of his sheep ; he had but few, and 
would want them. 



CHAPTEE XVIII. 

MOQUIS INDIANS DESTROY MANY NAVAJOES AN ORIBA AND 
. HIS WIFE ACCOMPANY US HOME PEACE TALK WITH 
THE PIUTES A DREAM AND ITS FULFILLMENT TUBA'S 
PRAYER CHOOG, THE INDIAN PROPHET HIS PREDIC- 
TION FATAL FIRE IN KANAB. 

"TT / T E were told by the Moquis that when the Navajoes were 
at war with the United States, they were taken advantage 
of in their scattered condition by the Moquis, who hunted out 
the worst of the thieves among them, and killed them off. 
For this purpose the Moquis were furnished with guns and 
ammunition. 

One man told me that he had hunted up and killed eight 
Navajoes single handed. 

I was also informed that the Moquis decoyed thirty-five of 
them into one of their villages, by promising them protection, 
and then disarmed them, and threw them off a high rock 
between two of their towns. I went to the place indicated, 
and found a number of skeletons and some remains of 



104 A DREAM AND ITS FULFILLMENT. 

blankets. This was done during the winter previous to our 
visit. 

The Navajoes have evidently been the plunderers of the 
Moquis for generations, and the latter have retaliated when- 
ever they have had an opportunity. Peace between these 
tribes would be a great blessing to botV . 

This trip and its influences appears to have been a turning- 
point the commencement of a great practical change for the 
better in the lives of these tribes. The Lord's time for a 
change had evidently come. 

Wishing to do all I could to give strength to a peaceful 
policy, I invited Tuba, a man of good report among his 
people, to take with him his wife, Pulaskanirnki, to go home 
with me ; get acquainted with the spirit and policy of our 
people, and become a truthful representative of them among 
his people. 

I promised to pay him for what labor he might perform, 
and bring him home the next autumn. 

After counseling with their friends, he and his wife accepted 
my invitation. 

When we arrived on the cliffs before crossing the Colorado, 
the Piutes living in the Navajoe country, came to me and said 
as they had taken a part with the Navajoes in raiding on our 
people, they desired to have a good peace talk. They were 
about thirty in number. 

After an interesting council, we commenced to descend the 
difficult cliff to the crossing of the river. While doing so, 
Brother Nathan Terry said he had a dream the night before, 
and that it had been on his mind all day, and he believed it 
meant something. In the dream he saw the company riding 
along the trail, when he heard the report of a gun. He 
looked around, and saw one of t ne company fall to the 
ground, and he thought he went and put the person on his 
horse, and they continued their journey. 

After descending the cliff, I was some distance in the rear 
of the company, when suddenly, what appeared like a flash 
of lightning came over me. It was with great difficulty that 
I could breathe. Not being able to help myself, I partly fell 
to the ground. 



TUBA'S PRAYER AND RELIGIOUS CEREMONY. 105 

I lay there some time, when one of the Kanab Indians who 
was with us came along, saw my situation, and hurried on to 
the camp. 

Brother Terry came back to me after dark. He adminis- 
tered to me in the name of the Lord, when the death-like 
grip that seemed to have fastened on my lungs let go its hold, 
and I could again breathe naturally. 

On coming to the bank of the river the following day, 
Tuba, the Oriba, looked rather sorrowful, and told me that 
his people once lived on the other side of this river, and their 
fathers had told them they never would go west of the river 
again to live. Said he, "I am now going on a visit to see 
my friends. I have worshiped the Father of us all in the way 
you believe to be right ; now I wish you would do as the 
Hopees" (their name for themselves) "think is right before we 
cross. ' ' 

I assented. He then took his medicine bag from under his 
shirt, and offered me a little of its contents. I offered my 
left hand to take it ; he requested me to take it in my right. 
He then knelt with his face to the east, and asked the Great 
Father of all to preserve us in crossing the river. He said 
that he and his wife had left many friends at home, and if 
they never lived to return, their friends would weep much. He 
prayed for pity upon his friends, the "Mormons," that none 
of them might drown in crossing ; and that all the animals we 
had with us might be spared, for we needed them all, and to 
preserve unto us all our food and clothing, that we need not 
suffer hunger nor cold on our journey. 

He then arose to his feet. We scattered the ingredients 
from the medicine bag into the air, on to the land and into 
the water of the river. 

To me, the whole ceremony seemed humble and reverential. 
I felt that the Father has regard to such petitions. The scat- 
tering of the ingredients from the medicine bag I understood 
to be intended as a propitiary sacrifice. 

After this ceremony we drove our animals into the river, 
and they all swam safely to the opposite shore. In a short 
time ourselves and effects were safely over. Tuba then thanked 
the Great Father that He had heard and answered our prayer. 

5 



106 THE INDIAN CHIEF'S PROPHECY. 

Arriving at Kanab, we found all well. Everybody 
appeared to feel thankful for the success of our mission and 
the prospects of peace. The Kanab Indians also congratu- 
lated us on our success. 

Some of the Piutes from the east side of the river accom- 
panied us home. They spent much of the night in talking 
over events that had taken place during the previous three 
years. They said they had not visited each other much 
during that time. 

Choog, the Kibab chief of the [Piutes, after learning all 
the particulars from the Indians who went with us, came to 
me and said, "Now the Indians east of the river have all 
made peace, the evil spirits will have no place to stop over 
there. They have followed you here. The destroyer will 
enter into the wind, fire and water, and do you all the mischief 
he can. Wherever he can get a chance to work he will go. ' ' 

At the close of his remarks I smiled. Noticing it, he said 
with considerable warmth, "You are a wise, good man, and 
know more than I do ; but I know that what I have told you 
will come to pass. ' ' 

The third night after this conversation with the Kibab 
chief, the night of the 14th of December, a house in Kanab, 
in which resided the family of Brother Levi Stewart, took 
fire, from some unknown cause. The room in which the fire 
originated had but one entrance, and in it were stored some 
combustible materials. The houses were of logs, built in 
fort form, and the people and their effects were much crowded 
together. 

At the time the fire broke out, people were generally 
asleep, and six of the family of Brother Stewart were asleep 
in the room where the fire originated. 

Before they could be rescued, a can of oil took fire, and the 
room was in a moment enveloped in an intense flame, which 
burst out from the only entrance. The shrieks of those in 
the fire, and the odor of their roasting bodies ; the lurid 
glare of the fire in the darkness of night ; the intense anxiety 
and sorrow depicted on the countenances of the father and 
husband, brothers, sisters and neighbors, made up a scene that 
can never be forgotten by those who witnessed it. 



BELIEFS OF THE INDIANS. 107 

There were several other fires and accidents in the settle- 
ments of Southern Utah, soon after the fire in Kanab, which 
indicated that the Indian chief was prompted by the spirit of 
prophecy. 

Some people call the Indians superstitious. I admit the 
fact, but do not think that they are more so than many who 
call themselves civilized. There are few people who have not 
received superstitious traditions from their fathers. The 
more intelligent part of the Indians believe in one Great 
Father of all ; also in evil influences, and in revelation and 
prophecy ; and in many of their religious rites and ideas, I 
think they are quite as consistent as the Christian sects of 
the day. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

VISIT OF TUBA AND HIS WIFE TO THE WASHINGTON FACTORY 
* AND FLOURING MILL MANY NAVAJOES COME TO TRADE 
WITH OUR PEOPLE TAKE TUBA AND HIS WIFE HOME- 
MORE ABOUT THE DEATH OF YOUNG GEORGE A. SMITH 
SAINTS CALLED TO SETTLE IN ARIZONA THEY BECOME 
DISCOURAGED AND RETURN TO UTAH NAVAJOES MUR- 
DERED IN GRASS VALLEY WAR IMMINENT SENT TO 
SETTLE THE DIFFICULTY MY FRIENDS ALARMED TWO 
MINERS ACCOMPANY ME INDIANS CALL A COUNCIL. 

A FEW days after I arrived home from Fort Defiance, I 
went on a visit to St. G-eorge, and other settlements. I 
took Tuba and his wife with me, that they might have an 
opportunity of seeing some of our farming and manufacturing 
industries. 

After looking through the factory at Washington, where 
some three hundred spindles were in motion, Tuba said it 
spoiled him for being an Oriba. JHe could never think of 
spinning yarn again with his fingers, to make blankets. 



108 NAVAJOES COME TO TRADE WITH OUR PEOPLE. 

His wife, after looking at the flouring mill, thought it was a 
pity that the Hopees (meaning the Oriba women), were obliged 
to work so hard to get a little meal to make their bread, when it 
could be made so easily. 

Tuba and his wife gleaned cotton in the fields one week, on 
the Santa Clara, where the cotton had been gathered by our 
people, and President Young gave him a suit of clothes. 

When we returned to Kanab, we found eighty Navajoes 
who had come in there to trade. Most of them were on foot, 
and had brought blankets to trade. Some of their women 
accompanied them, which is their custom when going on a 
peaceable expedition. 

Comiarrah, one of their leading men, introduced his wife 
to me. She took hold of my hand, and said, "We have 
come a long way to trade with your 'people. We are poor, 
and have brought all we could on our backs. We have not 
much, and we want to do the best we can with it. We came 
home to our country three years ago, and found it naked and 
destitute of anj 7 thing to live on. We once had many sheep 
and horses, but lost them all in the war. We were taken 
prisoners and carried to a poor, desert country, where we 
suffered much with hunger and cold. Now we have the 
privilege of living in our own country. We want to get a 
start of horses and sheep, and would like you to tell your 
people to give us as good trade as they can. ' ' 

They traded for fifty horses in Kanab, then went to St. 
George and other settlements, and traded all the blankets 
they had for horses, and went back to their own country quite 
satisfied. 

In September, 1872, I went to take Tuba home, as I had 
promised I would do. Brothers I. C. Haight, George Adair 
and Joseph Mangum accompanied us. We went by the old 
Ute crossing, and left some supplies for Professor Powell's 
party, at a point which had before been designated. 

On the east side of the river, we crossed some dangerous 
places, deep canyons and steep rocks. Some of our animals 
fell and bruised their legs ; one was so badly injured that we 
were compelled to leave it. Another fell from a cliff into a 
canyon, and was killed instantly. 



VISIT AMONG THE NAVAJOES. 109 

We made a line long enough to reach the animal, by tying 
together lariats and ropes. A place was found where a man 
could descend to the pack, and the things were hauled up in 
parcels. 

After five days' traveling, visiting some of the Navajoe 
ranches, and talking with the people, we arrived at Tuba's 
house in the Oriba village. 

After feasting a day or two on peaches and green corn, we 
started for the Navajoe agency. We remained there over the 
Sabbath, and attended a meeting conducted by a Methodist 
minister, employed by the government to preach to the 
Navajoes. 

We were granted the privilege of speaking in the afternoon. 
I spoke on the coming forth of the Book of Mormon, and 
about the ancient inhabitants of the American continent. 

On our way home we visited some of the principal Navajoe 
ranches. Some Navajoes came to us to trade for horses. We 
camped one night with a party at the rock where young Geo. 
A. Smith was killed. 

One of them said he was there when young Smith was 
killed, and that some of the Navajoes tried to get up a dance 
over his scalp, but the majority of the party were opposed to 
it, and the dance did not take place. Most of them contended 
that the "Mormons" were a good people. The party that 
thought it right to kill the "Mormon," said, if the man who 
killed him would go and overtake his friends, and they would 
give him a present, they would acknowledge the "Mormons" 
to be a good people. He said the Navajoe went on after us, 
and returned with a gun that we gave him. 

The fact that an Indian overtook us, and that we gave him a 
gun, and recognized the revolver of George A. Smith on his 
person, has been mentioned in the account of young Brother 
Smith's death. 

We were told that the murderer soon died a miserable 
death, and the Navajoes believed it was because he had killed 
a "Mormon." 

The Navajoes continued to come to our settlements to trade, 
and went about in small parties, or singly, as suited them, 
They placed all confidence in us as their friends, 



110 MISSIONARIES SENT TO SETTLE ARIZONA. 

In 1871-72, I explored many places between Lee's Ferry and 
Uinta Valley ; assisted in locating a settlement on the Pah- 
reah, in starting a ranch in House Rock Vallej 7 , and in 
building a small boat at Lee's Ferry. 

In the winter of 1873-74, I was sent to look out a route for 
a wagon-road from Lee's Ferry to the San Francisco forest, or 
the head waters of the Little Colorado. I procured the assis- 
tance of a Piute who lived on the east side of the Colorado, 
and was somewhat acquainted with the country. We readily 
found the desired route. 

In the spring of 1874, a company of about one hundred 
wagons crossed the Colorado, well fitted out, with instructions 
to form a settlement on the Little Colorado, or on some of the 
tributaries of the Gila. I was requested to pilot the first ten 
wagons as far as Moancoppy, and remain there for further 
instructions. 

For a considerable distance beyond the Moancoppy, the 
country is barren and uninviting. After they left that place, 
the first company became discouraged and demoralized, and 
returned. 

In the meantime, I occupied ni3 7 self in putting in a crop. 
With some help, I planted twelve acres with corn, beans, 
potatoes and other vegetables. 

The companies that followed the one that had returned 
from the Little Colorado, partook of the same demoralizing 
spirit. They could not be prevailed upon to believe that there 
was a good country with land, timber and water, a little 
beyond where the first company had turned back. They all 
returned into Utah, and the great effort to settle the country 
south of the Colorado was, for the time being, a failure. 

The failure was evidently for want of faith in the mission 
they had been called upon to fill by the Lord, through His 
servants. 

When this company was sent into Arizona, it was the 
opportune time for the Saints to occupy the country. Soon 
after, the best locations in the country were taken up by 
others, and our people have since been compelled to pay out 
many thousands of dollars to obtain suitable places for their 
homes. 



THREE NAVAJOES KILLED BY THE WHITES. Ill 

The Navajoes carried on a peaceful trade with our people, 
until the winter of 1874-75, when a circumstance occurred 
which greatly endangered our peaceful relations with that 
people. 

A party of four young Navajoes went to the east fork of 
the Sevier River, to trade with some Utes in the neighbor- 
hood. In Grass Valley, [they encountered a severe snow- 
storm, which lasted for three days. They found shelter in a 
vacant house belonging to one McCarty. He did not belong 
to the Church, and had that animosity towards Indians, too 
common with white men, which leads them to slaughter the 
savages, as they are called, on the most trifling pretences. 

The Navajoes, becoming hungry during the delay, killed a 
small animal belonging to Mr. McCarty. In some way he 
learned of the presence of the party on his ranch, gathered 
up some men of like spirit with himself, came suddenly upon 
the Navajoes, and, without giving them an opportunity of 
explaining their circumstances, killed three of them and 
wounded the fourth. 

The wounded man, after enduring excessive hardships, 
made his way across the river, and arrived among his own 
people. 

Telling the story of his wrongs, it aroused all the bitter 
spirit of retaliation, so characteristic of the Indians from 
tradition and custom. The aflair taking place in the c 'Mor- 
mon" country, where the Navajoes naturally supposed they 
were among friends, and not distinguishing McCarty as an 
outsider, the murder was laid to the "Mormons." 

The outrage created considerable excitement among both 
whites and Indians. When President Young heard of it, he 
requested me to visit the Navajoes, and satisfy them that our 
people were not concerned in it. 

Feeling that the afiair, without great care, might bring on a 
war, I started at once for their country to fill my mission. 

I left Kanab alone. My son Joseph overtook me about 
fifteen miles out, with a note from Bishop Levi Stewart, 
advising my return, as he had learned from the Piutes that 
the Navajoes were much exasperated and threatened to 
retaliate the first opportunity. 



112 IMPORTANT MISSION TO THE NAVAJOES. 

I had been appointed to a mission by the highest authority 
of God on the earth. My life was of but small moment com- 
pared with the lives of the Saints and the interests of the 
kingdom of God. I determined to trust in the Lord and go 
on. I directed my son to return to Kanab, and tell Bishop 
Stewart that I could not make up my mind to return. 

Arriving at the -settlement of Pahreah, I found Lehi 
Smithson and another man preparing to start for Mowabby. 
We remained over night to procure animals for the journey. 
That night, my son Joseph came to me again with a note 
from Bishop Stewart, advising my return, and stating that if 
I went on I would surely be killed by the Navajoes. 

When we arrived at the Mawabby, we found that the store 
house of two rooms which had been built there, had been 
fitted up in the best possible manner for defense. This had 
been done by three or four miners who had remained there, 
on account of the excitement, for which there appeared to be 
considerable reason. 

I felt that I had no time to lose. It was important to get 
an interview with the Navajoes before the outbreak. 

My horse was jaded, and wishing to go to Moancoppy, ten 
or twelve miles farther, that night, two brothers by the name 
of Smith brought in three of their riding horses, offered me 
one, and they mounted the others to accompany me. 

At Moancoppy I hoped to find some Oribas who could give 
me correct information about the temper of the Navajoes. 
Arriving there, we found only a Piute family and one Oriba 
woman. From them I learned that the young relatives of 
the Navajoes killed in Grass Valley were much exasperated, 
but the older men expressed a desire to see me before anything 
was done or anyone hurt. 

This news was encouraging to me. It being now evening, 
we lay down and slept until morning. 

Tuba had been living at Moancoppy, and had left on 
account of the excitement. Some of his effects were lying 
around in a way that indicated that he left in a hurry. 

I was informed that Mush-ah, a Navajoe with whom I was 
somewhat acquainted, and in whom I had some confidence, 
was camped at a watering place twelve miles east of Moan* 



INDIANS PREPARE TO HOLD A COUNCIL. 113 

coppy. I hoped to be able to see and have a talk with him, 
and get up a conciliatory feeling without exposing myself too 
much to the ire of the Indians. 

Arriving at the water where we expected to find Mush- ah, 
we were disappointed. The place was vacated. We met a 
Navajoe messenger, riding fast on his way to Mowabby, to 
learn of affairs at that place. He appeared much pleased to 
see me. 

After a little talk, 'he pointed in the distance to a high 
mesa, and said the Navajoes were camped at that point, and 
wished to see me. 

We arrived at the lodges after sun down ; in the neighbor- 
hood were gathered a large nunber of horses, sheep and 
goats. 

Two or three gray-headed men came out to meet us good- 
naturedly, but did not appear as friendly as they had for- 
merly. I told them my business. Soon afterwards some 
young men put in an appearance, whose looks bespoke no 
good. 

There being a good moon, a messenger was soon on his way 
to inform those at a distance of my arrival. 

I enquired for Hastele, who had been shown to me by the 
principal chief in our final peace talk, three years before, and 
for whom I was directed to inquire in case of difficulty. 

I got no answer, which indicated to me that they did not 
wish for his assistance. 1 communicated to the old men the 
circumstances connected with the killing of the Navajoes in 
Grass Valley, as I understood them. They replied that they 
were not ready for a talk or council, and said, "When the 
relatives are all in we will talk. ' ' 

My spirit was weighed down with gloomy forebodings, and 
I would gladly have left the place could I have felt justified 
in doing so. Unless the Lord was with us, what were we to 
do with all these against us? 



114 THE COUNCIL BEGINS. 



CHAPTER XX. 

INDIANS ASSEMBLE THE COUNCIL LODGE ACCUSED OF 
LYING TO THE INDIANS INFORMED THAT I MUST DIE 
PRIVILEGE GRANTED THE SMITH BROTHERS OF ESCAP- 
ING THEY REFUSE TO DESERT ME TO SAVE THEIR 
LIVES VIOLENT SPEECHES YOUNG INDIANS EAGER FOR 
REVENGE INTERPRETERS AFRAID TO SPEAK INDIANS 
PROPOSE A COMPROMISE 350 HEAD OF CATTLE AND 
HORSES DEMANDED I REFUSE TO PAY FOR A CRIME 

THE "MORMONS" NEVER COMMITTED THEY THREATEN 
TO BURN ME MY COOLNESS CREATES A FAVORABLE 
IMPRESSION AN AGREEMENT WE REGAIN OUR LIBEETY. 

rPHE night passed, and a part of the forenoon of the follow- 
JL ing day, when the Navajoes who had been sent for began 
to gather in. 

About noon, they informed me they were ready for talk. A 
lodge had been emptied of its contents for a council room. It 
was about twenty feet long by twelve feet wide. It was con- 
structed of logs, with one end set in the ground, and the top 
ends leaning to the centre of the lodge, and fitted together. 
The logs were covered with about six inches of dirt. 

A fire occupied the centre of the lodge, the smoke escaping 
through a hole in the roof. There was but one entrance, and 
that was in the end. 

Into this lodge were crowded some twenty- four Navajoes, 
four of whom were councilors of the nation. A few Indians 
were gathered about the entrance. 

The two Smith's and I were at the farther end from the 
entrance, with apparently not one chance in a hundred of 
reaching the outside, should it be neceessary to make an 
effort to save our lives. 

The council opened by the Navajoe spokesman asserting 
that what I had said about the murder of their relatives was 



INFORMED THAT I MUST BE KILLED. 115 

false. He stated that I had advised their people to cross the 
great river and trade with my people, and in doing so they 
had lost three good young men, who lay on our land for the 
wolves to eat. The fourth, he said, came home with a bullet 
hole through him, and without a blanket, and he had been 
thirteen days in that situation, cold and hungry. 

He also stated that I need not think of going home, but 
my American friends might if they would start immediately. 

I informed the two Smiths of the intention of the Navajoes 
concerning the disposal of myself. I told them they had been 
obliging to me, and I would not deceive them ; the way was 
open for them to go if they desired to do so. ' ' 

They replied that they would not go until I went. 

Our three revolvers were hanging over my head. It was 
desirable to have them as well in hand as possible. I took 
hold of them, at the same time saying to our Piute interpre- 
ter, "These are in my way; what shall I do with them?" 

As I spoke I passed them behind me to the Smiths, not 
wishing to give any cause for suspicion that I had any fears, 
or expected to use the weapons. I told the Smiths not to 
make any move until we were obliged to. 

The Navajoes continued to talk for some time, when I was 
given to understand that my turn had come. 

I told them of my long acquaintance with their people, and 
of my labors to maintain peace. I hoped they would not 
think of killing me for a wrong with which neither myself 
nor my people had anything to do ; and that strangers had 
done the deed. 

I discovered that what I had said the day before had some 
influence with the gray haired men. None but gray haired 
men belonged to the council, but others were allowed to 
speak. 

The young men evidently feared that the council would 
oppose their desire for revenge. They evinced great intensity 
of feeling. The wounded man was brought in, his wounds 
exposed to the council, and a stirring appeal was made for 
retaliation by a young warrior. It stirred up the Indian blood 
from its very depths. He closed by asserting that they could 
do no less than put me to death. 



116 THREATENED TO BE ROASTED. 

For a few minutes I felt that if I was ever permitted to see 
friends and home again, I should appreciate the privilege. I 
thought I felt one of the Smiths at my back grip his revolver. 
I said to him quietly, ' 'Hold still ! Do not make the first 
move, and there will be no move made. They never will get 
ready to do anything." 

This assurance came by the whisperings of the Spirit within 
me. 

When the excitement had died away a little, I spoke to the 
Piute interpreter. He either could not or would not answer 
me, neither would he answer the Navajoes, but sat trembling, 
apparently with fear. 

The Navajoes brought in another Piute, and recommended 
him as a man of much courage, and said he would not falter ; 
but he was soon in the same dilemma as the other. 

After some further conversation they appeared a little 
modified, and, in lieu of blood revenge, they proposed to take 
cattle and horses for the injury done them. They required 
me to give them a writing, obligating me to pay one hundred 
head of cattle for each of the three Navajoes killed, and fifty 
for the wounded one. 

This was a close place for me. I could go home by simply 
putting my name to the obligation. I reflected: Shall I 
acknowledge by my act, that my people are guilty of a crime 
of which I know they are innocent ; and neutralize all the 
good results of our labors among this people for fifteen years? 
Shall I obligate the Church to pay three hundred and fifty 
head of cattle for a crime committed by others? It is 
perhaps more than I should be able to earn the rest of my 
life. 

The sacrifice looked to me more than my life was worth. I 
replied that I would not sign the obligation. 

One of them remarked that he thought I would by the 
time I had been stretched over that bed of coals awhile, 
pointing to the fire in the middle of the lodge. 

I answered that I had never lied to them, and that I would 
not pay for the wrong that other people had done. ' 'Let the 
Americans pay for their own mischief, I will not sign a writing 
to pay you one hoof. ' ' 



ASSURE THEM I AM NOT AFRAID. 117 

Here the new Piute interpreter would not say anything 
more. 

A Piute chief standing in the door of the lodge, 
spoke to him in an angry tone, and accused him of having a 
very small heart and little courage. 

The chief then asked if I was not scared. 

I asked, "What is there to scare me?" 

He replied, "The Navajoes." 

I told him I was not afraid of my friends. 

"Friends!" said he, "You have not a friend in the Navajoe 
nation. Navajoe blood has been spilled on your land. You 
have caused a whole nation to mourn. Your friend Ketch- 
e-ne, that used to give you meat when you were hungry, and 
blankets when you were cold, has gone to mourn for his mur- 
dered sons. You have caused the bread he eats to be like 
coals of fire in his mouth, and the water he drinks like hot 
ashes. Are you not afraid?" 

"No;" I replied, "my heart never knew fear." 

The Navajoes wished to know what the Piute chief and 
myself were talking about. The Piute repeated the conver- 
sation in their language. They then conversed among them- 
selves; at times they manifested considerable warmth. 1 was 
asked if I knew Hastele. 

Replying in the affirmative, they asked, "What do you 
know about him?" 

I answered, "I know that Barben-ce-ta and others of your 
leading men said, at the great peace talk, that he was an 
honest man, and that all important difficulties between you 
and our people should be settled before him. I knew this 
affair should be settled before him, and have known it all the 
time we have been talking. I came here on a peace mission. 
If you will send Hastele into our country to learn the truth 
concerning what I have told you, let as many more come along 
as you like. I wish you would send the best interpreter you 
have along with him. ' ' 

' ; It is no use to ask me about pay. In the meantime your 
people can trade among the "Mormons" in safety. They will 
be glad to see you if you will come in the daytime, as our 
people come into your country not to prowl around your 



118 INDIANS' FEELINGS SOFTENED. 

lodges to steal and kill. I came to do as I agreed to at the 
good talk at Fort^ Defiance." 

I felt that the last I said had the desired effect. Their feel- 
ings began to soften. 

After some further conversation among themselves, the 
interpreter said, "They are talking good about you now." 

I replied, "I am glad ; it is time they talked good. What 
have they said about me?" 

"They say you have a good heart. They think they will 
wait until they see their greater chiefs, and believed that the 
matter will be settled before Hastele. ' ' 

It was then agreed that I should come to Mowabby, in 
twenty-five days, and they would see if it was not advisable 
to send some one over, and satisfy themselves of the truth of 
my statement. Twenty-five notches were cut in a stick, and 
when they were all gone by cutting off one notch each morn- 
ing, I was to be at Mowabby. 

The history of my intercourse with the Indians on the east 
side of the Colorado, for fifteen years, had all been talked 
over. In fact, I had been on trial before them for all my say- 
ings and doings that had come within their knowledge. I was 
able to answer all their questions, and give good reasons for 
all my acts. 

My mind had been taxed to the utmost all this time. I had 
been in the farther end of a crowded lodge, with no reason- 
able probability of getting out of it if I wished to, and 
without the privilege of inhaling a breath of fresh air. 

Some roasted mutton was brought in and presented to me 
to take the first rib. 

The sight of the roasted meat, the sudden change of 
affairs, together with the recollection of the threats of a very 
different roast to the one I had on hand, turned my stomach. 
I said to those around me, "I am sick." 

I went to the door of the lodge. It was refreshing to 
breathe in the open air, and look out into the glorious moon- 
light. I thought it was midnight; if so, the council had 
lasted about twelve hours. 

A woman's heart seems kindlier than man's among all 
people. A Navajoe woman, seeming to comprehend my situ- 



SET AT LIBERTY. 119 

ation, came to me and asked me if she could not get me 
something I would like to eat. 

She mentioned several varieties of food she had on hand, 
none of which 1 desired. She said she had been at my house 
in Kanab, and she saw I liked milk, and she would get me 
some. With a dish in her hand she went about among the 
goats stripping them by moonlight. 

She brought me about a pint of milk, which I drank, 
went into the lodge, and lay down and slept until some of the 
party said it was light enough to see to get our horses. 

I asked the Navajoes to bring up our horses. I felt it was 
safer for me to remain in the lodge, than to be out hunting 
horses, and liable to meet some of the angry spirits who had 
been about the council. 

The horses were brought, and the Smiths and I were soon 
in our saddles, and leaving behind us the locality of the trying 
scenes of the past night. 

Again was the promise verified, which was given me by the 
Spirit many years before, that if I would not thirsfc for the 
blood of the Lamanites, I should never die by their hands. 




120 SMITH'S LETTER TO THE "PIOCHE RECORD.'' 



CHAPTER XXI. 

SMITH'S VERSION OF THE TRYING ORDEAL A GRAPHIC 
DESCRIPTION FROM A GENTILE STANDPOINT SOME OF 
HIS STATEMENTS EXPLAINED. 

I HERE give place to a letter from Mr. Smith to the Pioche 
Record, which was also re-published in the Deseret News : 

"MOWABBY, MoHAYE Co., ARIZONA, 

February 5, 1874. 
& * # # * 

"On the 15th of January, we were in the very act of packing 
the horses preparatory to a start, when an Indian arrived, who 
proved to be Tuba, the chief of the Moquis Indians, a friendly 
tribe who live in this part of the country. 

"I should have mentioned that this [the ferry] is the residence 
of John D. Lee, against whom I was deeply prejudiced on 
account of his presumed connection with the terrible Mountain 
Meadow massacre, an imputation, however, he utterly denies. 
I found him, on acquaintance, to be a very agreeable gentleman. 
Mr. Lee speaks the Indian language well, and through him we 
learned the cause of the chief's visit. 

"A Navajoe chief who had received favors from Mr. Lee, and 
was well disposed towards him, had arrived at Tuba's lodge that 
morning (having ridden all night) to get him to go and tell Mr. 
Lee that three Navajoe Indians had been killed and one 
wounded by Mormons, a few days before, in an affray in the 
neighborhood of Grass Valley, on the north fork of the Sevier 
River; that the wounded Indian had arrived at his camp the 
night before, and was now actively engaged in striving to rouse 
the Navajoes to war; that the young men were clamoring for 
revenge ; and to warn him that he would probably be attacked 
within four days, and to prepare for defense. 

"Here was a dilemma. Ko possibility of obtaining assistance 
nearer than one hundred and fifty miles; Mrs. Lee and five 
children, and a helpless old man, named Winburn, disabled by 
a lame foot, who had not risen from his bed for four months. 

"After a brief consultation we sent a letter to Fort Defiance, 
announcing the condition of aifairs, Tuba agreeing to forward it 



A GENTILE'S VERSION. 121 

forthwith by one of his Indians, and JVTr. Lee and his eldest boy 
started to Kanab to bring assistance. As soon as he was gone 
we placed the house in the best state of defense we could, and 
awaited the issue. 

"On the third day a Piute Indian, sent by the Navajoes, 
arrived. After a long talk, Mrs. Lee acting as interpreter, we 
gathered that the young men of the tribe were at first deter- 
mined on war, but that the chiefs were opposed to it, for the 
present, at least ; and that they desired to await the arrival of 
Jacob Hamblin, who has acted as representative of Brigham 
Young, in all negotiations of importance with the Indians for 
the past twenty years, and learn what settlement of the affair he 
was willing to make. 

"This was favorable, as two of the slain Indians were sons of 
one of the chiefs. He wound up his remarks by inquiring if, in 
case the Navajoes did come here, we would purchase peace by 
giving up the old man, Winburn, to torture, in which case they 
would abstain from further hostilities. 

"With difficulty repressing our strong desire to shoot him on 
the spot, we declined the offer, and charging him with a message 
to the chiefs of the nation, that as soon as Hamblin arrived we 
would apprise them of his advent, we let him depart. 

"Matters remained in statuo quo until the 29th inst., when 
Messrs. Lee, Hamblin and Smithson, a son-in-law of the for- 
mer, and his wife arrived, the advance guard of a party from 
Kanab, now on the road. 

"We communicated to Mr. Hamblin the message from the 
Kavajoe chiefs, and, merely pausing to take some refreshments, 
he started at once for the nearest Moquis village, eight miles 
distant, to send a messenger to them to notify them of his arri- 
val, and request their presence, my brother and I accompanying 
him. 

"We reached there about sundown, and found, to onr extreme 
disappointment, that all the Indians had gone to a big dance at 
the Oriba villages, sixty miles distant, with the exception of one 
lame Piute. 

"We remained there that night, and the next morning started 
for the Oriba villages, taking Huck-a-bur, the lame Indian, who 
is a good interpreter, along with us. 

"We had not rode over fifteen miles, when we met the Piute 
who had acted as the Navajoe envoy on the former occasion. 
He said he was going to see if Hamblin had arrived, and 
expressed great delight at seeing him, saying that the Indians 



122 THE TRYING ORDEAL. 

were extremely anxious to see him, and urging him to go back 
with him to the camp of the nearest JSTavajoe chief, which he 
said was not more than fifteen miles distant, and talk the matter 
over there. 

"After consultation, being anxious to lose no time, we con- 
sented, and after riding some twenty-five miles, instead of 
fifteen, we reached the Navajoe camp, which consisted of only 
two lodges. A tall, powerful Indian, on whose head the snows 
of many winters had rested, welcomed us with impressiveness 
and an embrace like the hug of a grizzly bear, and invited us to 
enter. 

The lodge (wick-e-up), which was substantially built of heavy 
cedar logs about fifteen feet long, was circular in form, like the 
skin lodges of the Indians of the plains, with an opening near 
the top to give vent to the smoke, and, being covered with bark 
and dirt, was very warm and comfortable, which was none the 
less agreeable to our party, as it had been snowing hard all the 
afternoon. There were three Navajoes and three squaws, one of 
the latter a very pretty girl, and two Piutes. 

"After a friendly smoke, they furnished us a good and sub- 
stantial supper of broiled and boiled goat's flesh and corn meal 
mush, the squaws grinding the meal in the old-fashioned way, 
between two stones. 

"Then the talk commenced. Hamblin, be it remembered, 
though perfectly familiar with the Piute tongue, knows nothing 
or very little of the Navajoe language, so the services of our 
Huck-a-bur were called into requisition. The chief we came to 
see, I forgot to mention, was not there, but was only, so they 
said, distant a few miles. As we were anxious to get back, we 
got the Navajoe to despatch the Piute to him that night, so that 
he might be there early in the morning, and the business be 
closed that day. 

"After his departure the talk went on. The Navajoes present 
expressed themselves anxious that the affair should be settled 
without further bloodshed, and said that was the wish of the 
principal men of the tribe. They said the Navajoes had long 
known Hamblin, and they believed he would do what was right. 

"Everything looked promising, and after smoking innumer- 
able cigarettes with our savage friends, we retired to rest on a 
pile of buffalo skins and Navajoe blankets worth a horse apiece, 
and slept soundly and well. 

"The next morning the Indians gave us an excellent breakfast, 
and we passed the morning sauntering about, examining such 



THE DEATH SENTENCE. 123 

articles of Indian manufacture as were new to us, and endeavor- 
ing to while away the time till the arrival of the chief, 

"A little before noon twelve Navajoe braves, armed with bows 
and arrows and rifles, rode up on a gallop, and dismounting^ 
entered the lodge without shaking hands, and called in an inso- 
lent tone of voice for tobacco. We gave them some, and after 
smoking awhile they threw everything out of the lodge, saying 
there were more Navajoes coming, enough to fill the lodge. 
Sure enough, there soon rode up some more Navajoes, making 
ninteen in all, but still no chief. 

"To our inquiry as to his whereabouts, they replied he was 
gone to Fort Defiance. We took our seats, completely filling 
the lodge, and all hands smoked in silence for some time. Then 
the Indian whose lodge we occupied commenced talking, and 
spoke with only an occasional momentary interruption from the 
others for about an hour. 

"After him five or six others talked in rapid succession, and 
from their earnest tones and impassioned gestures, so different 
from the usual manner of Indians, we could see they were much 
excited. 

"We could not, of course, understand much of what they said, 
but could gather enough to know that the temper they were in 
boded no good to us. One old scoundrel, of brawny frame and 
hair as white as snow, talked in a stentorian voice, and his fre- 
quent use of the gestures of drawing his hand across his throat, 
looked particularly ominous. 

"In about an hour more they ceased speaking, and, after a 
pause, told their interpreter to talk. He arose slowly and walk- 
ing across the lodge, seated himself by Hamblin. He was a 
Piute, a slave of the ISTavajoes, and as they have the unpleasant 
habit of sometimes killing their interpreters when they don't 
interpret to suit them, and as what he was about to reveal was 
not calculated to render us very amiable, I could excuse the 
tremor that shook him in every limb. 

"He finally commenced, in a low tone, to speak to the follow- 
ing effect: The Navajoes believed that all Hamblin had said the 
night before was a lie, that they thought he was one of the 
parties to the killing, and with the exception of three, our host 
and two others of the old Indians, all had given'.their voice for 
death. 

"Most of them were of the opinion that it was best not to kill 
my brother and myself, as we were 'Americans,' but to make us 
witness the torture of Hamblin, and then send us back on foot. 



124 INDIANS PACIFIED. 

As we were not likely to desert a comrade at such a time, this 
was but small comfort. 

"Hamblin behaved with admirable coolness, not a muscle in his 
face quivered, not a feature changed, as he communicated to us, 
in his usual tone of voice, what we then fully believed to be the 
death warrant of us alL 

"When the interpreter ceased, he, in the same even tone and 
collected manner, commenced his reply. He reminded the 
Indians of his long acquaintance with their tribe, of the many 
negotiations he had conducted between his people and theirs, 
and his many dealings with them in the 5 T ears gone by, and 
challenged them to prove that he had ever deceived them ever 
spoken with a forked tongue. He drew a map of the country 
on the ground, and showed them the impossibility of his having 
been a participant in the affray. 

"To their insolent query, 'Imme-cotch navaggi?' (ain't you 
afraid) he replied with admirable presence of mind, 'Why 
should we be afraid of our friends? Are not the Navajoes our 
friends, and we theirs? Else why did we place ourselves in your 
power?' 

"He spoke for a long time, and though frequently and rudely 
interrupted, his patience and nerve never gave way, and when 
he ceased, it was apparent that his reasoning had not been with- 
out effect in their stubborn bosoms. But the good influence was 
of short duration. 

"A young Indian, whom we afterwards learned was a son of the- 
chief, and brother of two of the slain Indians, addressed the 
assembled warriors, and we could see that the tide was turning 
fearfully against us. He wound up his impassioned harrangue 
by springing to his feet, and, pointing to an Indian who had not 
yet spoken, called to him to come forward. The Indian came 
and kneeled before him, when with one hand he took back his 
buckskin hunting shirt, revealing the mark of a recent bullet 
wound, and with the other pointed to the fire, uttering, or rather 
hissing a few emphatic words, which we afterwards learned 
were a demand for instant death by fire. 

"The effect was electrical. The sight of the wounded brave 
roused their passions to the utmost fury, and as we glanced 
around the savage circle, our hands involuntarily tightened 
their grasp on our six-shooters, for it seemed that our hour had 
come. 

"Had we shown a symptom of fear, we were lost; but we sat 
perfectly quiet, and kept a wary eye on the foe. It was a thril- 



SMOKE THE M*E OF PEACE. 125 



ling scene. The erect, proud, athletic form of the young chief, 
as he stood pointing his finger to the wound in the kneeling 
figure before him ; the circle of crouching forms; their dusky 
and painted faces animated by every passion that hatred and 
ferocity could inspire, and their glittering eyes fixed with one 
malignant impulse upon us ; the whole partially illuminated by 
the fitful gleam of the firelight (for by this time it was dark), 
formed a picture not easy to be forgotten. 

"The suspense was broken by the Navajoe, our host, who once 
again raised his voice in our behalf, and after a stormy discus- 
sion, Hamblin finally compelled them to acknowledge that he 
had been their friend ; that he had never lied to them, and that 
he was worthy of belief now. 

"The strain was over, and we breathed freely once more. We 
smoked the pipe, or rather the cigarette, of peace, and a roasted 
goat being shortly produced, we fell to with a will, and gnawed 
ribs together as amicably as if it had not been just previously 
their benevolent intention to roast us instead of the goat. 

"By this time it was past midnight, the discussion having been 
prolonged for eleven hours. I never was so tired in my life. 
Eleven hours in a partially recumbent position, cramped for 
room, with every nerve strained to its utmost tension, and 
momentarily expecting a conflict which must be to the death, is 
tolerably hard work. 

"After supper, it was arranged by Hamblin that we should 
go home in the morning, and await the arrival of the chief, for 
whom they promised to dispatch a trusty messenger. We slept 
by turns till morning broke, when we bid our amiable friends 
good-by, t and started for Mowabby, where we arrived about 
eight o'clock in the evening, to the great joy of Boyd and Pattie, 
who had given us up as lost. 

This was five days ago, and to-day, the ISTavajoe chief arrived, 
and, after a long discussion, agreed to settle the matter for a cer- 
tain number of cattle arid horses ; but their demands were so 
exorbitant that I am sure they will never be complied with. 

"Mr. Hamblin leaves to-morrow morning for St. George, to 
lay the matter before Brigham Young, and he is to meet the 
chiefs here again, with the answer to their demands, in twenty- 
five days from to-day. 



"We shall, probably, in the course of the trip, visit the vil- 
lage of the Oribas, a people who build three-story houses of 



126 "NO BRAVER MAN EVER LIVED." 

stone, and whose greatest term of reproach to one another is 
he is a lazy man. 



u ln conclusion, I wish to give my testimony to the bearing of 
Mr. Hamblin during the trying scene I have endeavored to 
depict. No braver man ever lived. 

J. E. S. 

The writer of the foregoing letter and his brother acted a 
different part from what I did, and acted it well. 

He describes some things better than I can. As I have 
before remarked, ever since I began to have a correct insight 
into Indian character, I have felt anxious to do all the good 
in my power, and have endeavored to settle difficulties with 
them without bloodshed. 

Much good, I trust, has been done by going into their 
midst and reasoning with them, when their minds were made 
up to avenge some wrong. I reason with an Indian as an 
Indian. 

For example, Mr. Smith did not understand the motive of 
the Piute messenger of the Navajoes, who asked, at Mow- 
abby, if they would give up the lame man to torture if the 
Navajoes would agree, on that condition, to abstain from fur- 
ther hostilities. The Piute thought that the lame man was of 
but little use, and hoped by the sacrifice of him to save the 
others. 

From his standpoint, his motive was good. Had Mr. 
Smith understood the Indian character better, he probably 
would have had no disposition to kill him. 



RETURN HOME, 127 



CHAPTER XXII. 

START HOME MEET EMIGRANTS TO MOANCOPPY VISIT 
PRESIDENTS YOUNG AND SMITH RETURN TO MEET THE 
INDIANS, ACCORDING TO AGREEMENT A SEVERE TRIP- 
PROVIDENCE FAVORS ME HASTELE FAILS TO MEET ME 
RETURN HOME MOANCOPPY MISSION BROKEN UP- 
SENT WITH D. D. M' ARTHUR TO ESTABLISH A TRADING 
POST HASTELE VISITS KANAB HE STARTS TO THE 
SEVIER TO LEARN ABOUT THE MURDER I CONCLUDE 
TO STAY AT HOME A TESTIMONY THAT I SHOULD 
ACCOMPAMY HIM INDIAN DISCERNMENT HASTELE IS 
SATISFIED. 

I STARTED home with my jaded horse, and got along by 
alternately riding and walking. I met some families on 
their way to settle at Moancoppy. 

1 told the brethren that I thought the place could be safely 
settled, if they would leave their women and children on the 
west side of the river until matters were arranged. I camped 
with them over night, and gave them an insight into our 
affairs with the Navajoes, and particularly requested that 
they would not converse with them about their difficulty 
with us. 

Soon after arriving at Kanab, I went to St. George and 
visited Presidents Brigham Young and GJ-eorge A. Smith. I 
then returned to Kanab, and worked about home until it was 
time to go over the river to meet the Navajoes as I had 
agreed to. 

Through hardship and exposure my health was somewhat 
impaired. I endeavored to get a light wagon, that I might 
travel more comfortably than on horseback, but without suc- 
cess. I set out with a horse and three blankets. Soon after 
a blowing, chilling storm of rain and sleet commenced, and I 
became thoroughly wet. 



128 ALMOST PEfttSH IN A STORM. 

I rode twelve miles to Johnson, when I was scarcely able to 
sit on my horse. I could proceed no farther, and stopped 
with Brother Watson, who was living in his wagons and a 
temporary camp prepared for winter. Sister Watson cared 
for me as well as circumstances would permit. 

The storm continued the next day until afternoon, when the 
weather appeared a. little more favorable. I was scarcely 
able to mount my horse, but I did, and started on my way. 

The storm soon came on again, and again I was thoroughly 
wet. I traveled until after dark, and stopped at a vacated 
house at the Navajoe Wells, ten miles from Johnson. In dis- 
mounting, I fell to the ground. 

It was in a place where travelers on that road usually 
camped, and the wood had been gathered for a considerable 
distance around ; and had there been fuel I would not have 
been able to go after it. 

It was a dark, dismal time, and it appeared to me that I 
could not live until morning. I prayed to the Lord to have 
pity on me, and save my life. I succeeded in getting myself 
and horse into the house out of the storm. 

I felt my way to the fireplace, and was much surprised to 
find some good, dry wood. I soon had a fire, and, leaning 
against one side of the fireplace, with my blankets drawn 
closely around me, and with a small blaze of fire, I was soon 
warm, and slept until morning. 

When I awoke I felt well, and quite able to pursue my 
journey. I went by the Pahreah settlement, and from there 
Brothers Thos. Adair and Lehi Smithson accompanied me to 
Mowabby. There I found Ketch- e-ne and a deputation from 
the Moquis towns. 

Ketch-e-ne renewed the former demand for three hundred 
and fifty head of cattle for the injury done himself and his 
people. I told him that when I went home I might talk 
with the chiefs of my people about it, but would make no 
promises. 

Hastele, whom I wished to see, did not put in an appear- 
ance. 

I went on and visited all the Moquis towns, and told the 
people the object of my visit. I requested them to tell all 



MOANCOPPY MISSION BROKEN tfP. 120 

the Navajoes they had an opportunity of seeing, that I had 
come there according to agreement, and, as they had failed to 
meet me as I had expected, if they would come over the 
river, I would be on hand to show them that I had told the 
truth. Feeling satisfied that things would work all right, I 
returned home. 

Some of the brethren who went to Moancappy visited the 
Navajoes, and talked unwisely about affairs. They, in turn, 
talked and threatened in a way that frightened our people, 
because they found they could do it, and the mission was 
broken up. 

I had passed through many perils to establish a mission 
among the Indians on the east side of the Colorado, but on 
account of the sayings and doings of unwise brethren, the 
time came for it to be broken up. The Moancoppy was 
ordered to be vacated, and I went to assist in bringing the 
people away. They brought away the feeling with them that 
there would be another Navajoe war. 

I attended the quarterly conference at St. George, in May. 
The war question and the necessity of putting a guard at the 
crossing of the Colorado were agitated. 

In speaking in the tabernacle on Sunday, I told the congre- 
gation there would be no trouble with the Navajoes, and as 
soon as the summer rains commenced, there would be a party 
of them over. I felt an assurance of this from what I 
knew of circumstances, and the whisperings of the Spirit 
within me. 

It was decided to establish a trading post at one of the 
crossings of the Colorado, east of St. George. For this pur- 
pose a party was sent out under the direction of Bishop 
Daniel D. McArthur. 

As I was acquainted with both crossings, I was called upon 
to go with them. The ferry was selected. In traveling with 
Brother McArthur to the Ute crossing, thirty miles above the 
ferry, and back, I gave him a detailed account of our affairs 
with the Navajoes. 

I told him that I considered the breaking up of the Moan- 
coppy mission as unnecessary ; there would be no trouble with 
the Navajoes, and some of those among them who had 



130 ARRIVE AT KANAB. 

authority to settle their difficulties with us would be over as 
soon as the first rain fell. 

That night there was a heavy shower. The following day I 
started for home by way of the Pahreah settlement, and 
Brother Me Arthur went on to the ferry. 

Before separating, I told the brethren they would meet the 
Navajoe peace party that night at the ferry, and they would 
travel to Kanab together. 

They asked me how I knew. I told them I knew they 
would be over, for they would just have time to get to the 
ferry since the rain. 

Arriving at Kanab I found Hastele and his party, including 
two good interpreters. 

I had been away so much, that my family seemed badly in 
need of my help at home, and I, at the time, thought I was 
justified in remaining with them. I requested Brother 
Ammon M. Tenney to go with Hastele over on to the Sevier 
River, and satisfy him of the facts concerning the murder of 
the young Navajoes. 

After the party had gone I began to work in the garden, 
but everything went wrong, and I felt that I had done wrong 
in remaining behind. 

I continued to try to accomplish some necessary work, until. 
I was seized with such a violent pain in one of my knees, that 
I had to be assisted into the house. I sent for my horse, was 
assisted into the saddle, and was soon on my way to overtake 
Hastele. The pain left my knee, and I was soon all right. 

I overtook the Navajoes sixty miles from Kanab. Every- 
thing worked well for showing up the facts connected with the 
murder. The brethren we fell in with rendered all the assis- 
tance in their power. 

I had talked with the Navajoes and explained to them the 
locations of the ' 'Mormons' ' and the Gentiles, and what took 
place at McCarty's ranch. I had telegraphed to Bishop 
Thurber, of Richfield, and Brother Helaman Pratt to meet 
us at the lower end of Circle Valley. We arrived there 
before them and waited. I told Hastele there would be two 
''Mormons" there that evening, who knew more about the 
affair than I did, and they were men of truth. 



HASTELE SATISFIED. 131 

We were camped near the road, where men were passing 
both ways, on horseback and in wagons. When the two 
brethren were approaching, and still a considerable distance 
off, Hastele arose to his feet, saying, "There come the two 
men we are waiting for. ' ' 

As they drew near, he remarked, ' 'Yes, they are good men, 
men of God." 

As the brethren dismounted, Hastele embraced them in true 
Navajoe style. 

I mention this as one of the many circumstances that have 
come under my notice, which prove to me that many of the 
Indians, and especially the honest-hearted, are blessed with 
much of the spirit of revelation and discernment. 

The following morning when arranging to visit the spot 
where the Navajoes were killed, Hastele spoke as follows: U I 
am satisfied ; I have gone far enough ; I know our friends, 
the 'Mormons,' are our true friends. No other people 
we ever knew would have taken the trouble they have to show 
us the truth. I believe they have good hearts. Here is 
Jacob ; he has been traveling about to do good all winter and 
spring, and is going yet. When I get home I do not intend 
my tongue to lay idle until the Navajoes learn the particulars 
of this affair. ' ' 

Hastele started for Kanab ; Brothers Thurber and Pratt, a 
Mr. Boyd, who was sent by the agent at Fort Defiance to 
accompany the Navajoe delegation, the two Navajoe interpre- 
ters and I went to Grass Valley, to see the place where the 
Navajoes were killed. Having satisfied the interpreters, we 
returned by way of Richfield. 



132 VISIT PORT DEFIANCE. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

VISIT TO FORT DEFIANCE MR. DANIELS, INSPECTOR OF 
INDIAN AGENCIES HIS PREJUDICE AGAINST THE "MOR- 
MONS " MR. TREWAX, THE PREACHER FINAL PEACE 
TALK MOANCOPPY MISSIOM AGAIN ESTABLISHED. 



to Kanab, we found Hastele and his com- 
Xi panion waiting for us. It was thought advisable for me, 
with Brother A. M. Tenney as Spanish interpreter, to visit the 
Indians on the east side of the Colorado Biver, and go to Fort 
Defiance and have matters properly understood there. We 
visited the Moquis towns, and had much interesting talk with 
the people. 

Arriving at the Navajoe agency, we found there a Mr. 
Daniels, who had been sent out by the government to inspect 
the Indian agencies. He had called on the agent at Fort 
Defiance to report the condition of his agency. Learning of 
the Utah difficulty with the Navajoes, he made an effort to 
throw the blame on the "Mormons." 

The Indian who escaped wounded from the massacre in 
Grass Valley was there. Mr. Daniels examined him very 
closely. He also heard the report of Mr. Boyd, who accom- 
panied Hastele, to learn the facts of the case. All the facts 
elicited, gave a favorable showing for our people. Mr. 
Daniels was disappointed and evidently vexed. He gave me 
to understand that I did not belong to the council, and was 
not wanted there. 

As I left the room, a Rev. Mr. Trewax, who was there by 
government appointment to preach to the Indians, invited me 
to his room, saying that he would very much like to talk with 
me. 

I replied that I had no objection to talking with him if his 
object was to obtain correct information. 

Being seated in his quarters, he asked what our religious 
faith was, and from what source we had derived it. 



CONVERSATION WITH REV. MR. TREWAX. 133 

I told him "We prove the truth of our religion by that 
book" (pointing to a Bible that lay on the table). "If you 
will read what Christ taught, you will learn what our prin- 
ciples are. They are from heaven." 

"Is it possible," said he, "that your people believe the 
Bible?" 

I replied, "We are the only people I have met during the 
last forty years that do believe the Bible. Many profess to 
believe it, but when I open and read it to them, I find they 
do not." 

Said he, "My dear sir, I believe every word of it." 

I replied, ' 'Then we are brethren. ' ' I spent nearly half a 
day with him. He assented to the principles of the gospel as 
expounded in the New Testament, and^jUi^lhe, patriarchaL 
order of marriage. 

When asked to explain what was meant by the stick of 
Ephraim and the stick of Joseph, in the 37th chapter of 
Ezekiel, he said he thought it meant that both Judah and 
Ephraim should write. He believed the Bible to be the stick 
of Judah, but where the stick of Ephraim was he did not 
know. He had thought much about it, but it was a mystery 
to him. 

I told him to wait a short time, and I would bring him the 
stick of Ephraim. I went out and came back with a copy of 
the Book of Mormon, which I had brought from home. He 
appeared much surprised, and grasped the book with some 
energy. He examined the testimony of the three witnesses, 
and said, "Surely this book is the best or worst thing that 
ever was." 

1 permitted him to keep it. When I left the place he told 
me he had read some thirty pages of it, and had not dis- 
covered anything in it contrary to the Bible. 

Matters were settled between the "Mormons" and Navajoes 
on the basis of our great peace talk at the same place, the 
2nd of November, 1871. The truth was brought to light, 
and those who wished to throw the blame of murdering the 
young Navajoes upon the Saints were confounded. 

This business was finally closed at Fort Defiance, on the 21st 
of August, 1874. The Navajoes expressed themselves as 



134 MY PEACE MISSION ENDED. 

fully satisfied that 1 had told them the truth when I visited 
them the previous winter. I felt that the Lord had greatly 
blessed me in filling the mission assigned me, of convincing 
the Indians that we had not injured them, and thereby main- 
taining peace. 

Doubtless a war had been prevented, and the faith of the 
Indians on the east side of the Colorado greatly strengthened 
in our people. 

It is evident to me that I was indebted to the special favor 
of my Heavenly Father, for the preservation of my life to 
accomplish this work. At the close of these labors I found 
myself three hundred miles from home, rather jaded and care- 
worn, but full of thanksgiving for the happy termination of 
my labors. 

On our way home we had some very pleasant visits with the 
Indians. 

In the winter of 1874-5, I assisted in carrying on a trade 
with the Navajoes at Lee's Ferry. One of my sons was with 
me. I introduced the boy to Ketch-e-ne, the father of two of 
the Indians Id 1 led in Grass Valley. He turned away and 
wept, apparently much dejected. His friends told me that 
the loss of his sons was killing him. I afterwards learned that 
he died about two months after I saw him at the river. 

The Navajoes carried on quite an extensive trade with our 
people, principally in exchanging blankets for horses. 

In 1875, a number of brethren were called to again establish 
a mission at Moancoppy. 

The winter of 1875-6 I had the privilege of remaining at 
home. My family was destitute of many things. Some 
mining prospectors came along, and offered me five dollars a 
day to go with them, as a protection against the Indians. To 
go with them could not injure the interests of our people. It 
seemed like a special providence to provide necessaries for my 
family, and I accepted the offer. I was gone sixty days, for 
which I received three hundred dollars. 



VISIT THE NEW SETTLEMENTS IN ARIZONA. 135 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

A COMPANY START TO VISIT THE ARIZONA SETTLEMENTS- 
DISASTER IN THE COLORADO RIVER BISHOP ROUNDY 
DROWNED OTHERS BARELY ESCAPE EXPLORE A NEW 
ROUTE FOR A WAGON ROAD PRESIDENT YOUNG' S 
PROMISE FULFILLED VISIT THE LITTLE COLORADO SET- 
TLEMENTS SEVERE EXPERIENCE ON THE HOMEWARD 
TRIP ASSURANCE OF APPROVAL FROM PRESIDENT 
YOUNG TRIP ACROSS THE COLORADO IN SEARCH OF A 
CRIMINAL MOQUIS CEREMONIES TO BRING RAIN THE 
RAIN COMES CONCLUSION. 

In May, 1876, Brothers D. H. Wells, Erastus Snow and 
other leading men among the Saints, were sent to visit the 
new settlements in Arizona. I was sent with them as a guide. 
The Colorado was then high a raging torrent. The current 
shifted from side to side, and the surging of the waters 
against the rocks caused large and dangerous whirlpools. 

We put three wagons and some luggage on the ferry boat. 
We were under the necessity of towing the boat up stream 
one mile, to give a chance for landing at the proper place on 
the other side of the river. When taking the boat around a 
point of rock, the water poured over the bow. Word was 
given to slacken the tow rope. In doing so, the rope caught 
in the seam of a rock, and the draft on the boat continuing, 
the bow was drawn under water. 

In a moment the rapid current swept the boat clear of its 
contents. Men, wagons and luggage went into the surging 
waters. 

When I plunged into the cold snow-water to swim, my 
right arm cramped, which caused me to almost despair of 
getting ashore. A large oar was passing me, and I threw my 
arm over it to save myself from sinking. About the same 
time Brother L. John Nuttall caught the same oar, so I 



136 SENT ON ANOTHER MISSION. 

thought it best to try to swim with one arm. However, I was 
soon able to use both, and went safely to shore. 

I ran down the river bank, got into a skiff with two others, 
pulled out to the head of the rapids, and saved a wagon and 
its contents on an island. The other two wagons, with all 
the valuables they contained, including the most of our sup- 
plies, passed over the rapids into the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado. 

On getting together we found that Brother Lorenzo W. 
Eoundy was missing. He was said to be a good swimmer, 
and it is probable he was taken with the cramp and sank at 
once. His body has never been found. 

Brother Lorenzo Hatch sank deep into the river, but saved 
himself from drowning and was picked up by the skiff. 

Brother Warren Johnson and another man hung to a 
wagon until they were taken up with the skiff, just in time to 
save them from going over the rapids. 

This unfortunate affair occurred on the 28th of May. We 
gathered up what was left of our outfit, and visited the mis- 
sions at Mowabby and Moancoppy, and the settlements on the 
Little Colorado. 

About the 1st of December, President Young desired me 
to take a small company, and look out a route for a wagon 
road from Pierce's Ferry, south of St. G-eorge, to Sunset on 
the Little Colorado; "for," said he, "our people will want all 
the choice places where there is water and grass." 

Brothers Wilford Halliday from Kanab, Joseph Crosby, 
Calvin Kelsey, Samuel Alger and Hyrum Williams from St. 
George, accompanied me. 

We left St. George the 13th of December, 1876. We took 
a route to the ferry a little east of our former one, in order to 
strike the new crossing of the Colorado, five miles above the 
old one. 

We remained at the river two days, and assisted Brother 
Harrison Pierce to construct a skiff, with which we conveyed 
our luggage across ; but we forded our animals. After cross- 
ing the river, we still took a course east of our former one 
and the first dny arrived in Wallipie Valley, an unknown 
country to me. 



PROVIDENTIALLY SUPPLIED WITH WATER. 137 

We camped on the north side of the valley under a bluff, 
where we found a seep of water, or wet ground. We dug 
a little, and found sufficient water for our use. 

The finding of this was entirely providential, as none of us 
were acquainted with the country, and we had no guide. It 
fulfilled a promise made to us by President Young when we 
left St. George, that when thirsty we should find water where 
we did not expect it. 

In the morning we took with us what water we could. We 
traveled a south-easternly direction, and, as fast as was practic- 
able. At night we made a dry camp, and guarded our 
animals. The next day we pursued the same course as the 
day before. 

During the long, weary day's travel, the brethren asked 
when I thought we would get water again. I told them they 
knew as much about the water as I did, on the course we were 
going, but we were going the course President Young had 
told me to take, and I felt impressed that we would get water 
that night. 

We slowly wore away the miles, until, nearing the foothills 
of a mountain peak, our hopes ran high on discovering signs 
of stock. Two or three miles farther, as we turned around 
the point of a hill, we came to a house and corral. We found 
the place occupied by a Mr. Stevenson. He told us to turn 
our animals into his yard, and that there was a pump and 
good water. 

It was a mining camp, and water had been obtained by dig- 
ging. From Mr. Stevenson I obtained information of the 
watering places between there and the part of the country I 
had before traveled over. This relieved us from any anxiety 
about water. 

The day we left Mr. Stevenson's, we came to an old road 
which had not been used for some time, but it could be 
followed. This led us to our settlements on the Little 
Colorado. 

Arriving there, we found the Saints feeling well. I was 
much pleased to see my daughter Louise. One is likely to 
appreciate friends and relatives when found by traveling in 
the desert. 



138 DESTITUTE OF PROVISIONS. 

After a short visit we started home, intending to return the 
same way we had come. The third night out it commenced 
snowing and blowing. In the morning we concluded that it 
would not do to continue our journey, as we could see only a 
short distance on account of the storm. 

The best available shelter we could find was a log cabin 
without a roof, and the spaces between the logs unchinked. 
We had a wagon sheet which we stretched over our heads, 
and we were partially sheltered from the driving storm. 
There we remained two days and nights, during which time it 
snowed incessantly. 

The storm abated the third morning, but the snow lay very 
deep. Hunger and cold had so used up our horses that we 
concluded to make the best of our way south, out of the 
mountains. The third day we got out of the snow, and to 
the sunny side of a hill, where there was plenty of green, 
luxuriant grass for our animals. They had plenty, but there 
was little food for ourselves. 

Going out, we had cached supplies for our return trip, but 
being under the necessity of taking a different route, it was 
not available. 

We went to a military post called Camp Apache, and asked 
for supplies. We were refused, as it would break orders from 
the government to let us have them. We applied to a Mr. 
Head, who kept a sutler's store, and made known our situa- 
tion. He thought we ought to know better than to travel 
without money. 

I prayed to the Lord to soften the heart of some one, that 
we might obtain food. I again went to Mr. Head, and told 
him that we were from Utah ; that when we left home we did 
not expect to see any one to spend money with ; that instead 
of money we took plenty of supplies, which we left in the 
mountains to use on our return trip, but we could not go 
the same way home on account of the snow, and if he would 
let us have enough food to last us home we would send him 
the pay. 

"Oh," said he "you are Mormons, are you! What do you 
want to last you home?" 

He then let us have what we asked for. 



MY LAST INTERVIEW WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG. 139 

Arriving at the crossing of the Colorado, south, of St. 
George, we found that the flour and meat we had left there 
had been used, but we obtained some wheat which we boiled 
and lived on for five days, or until our arrival in St. George. 

I gave President Young an account of my trip. I had con- 
siderable additional conversation with him, in which he said 
to me: 

' l l know your history. You have always kept the Church 
and Kingdom of God first and foremost in your mind. That 
is right. There is no greater gift than that. If there are 
any men who have cleared their skirts of the blood of this 
generation, I believe you are one of them, and you can 
have all the blessings there are for any men in the temple. ' ' 

It was the last time I talked with President Young. He 
died the following August. The assurance that the Lord and 
His servant accepted my labors up to that time, has been a 
great comfort to me. 

In the spring of 1877 I thought I would try to raise a crop. 
1 found that the land had been so divided in the Kanab field, 
that what was considered my share was nearly worthless. I 
sowed some wheat, but it proved a failure. 

Some time in August I gathered up a little grain, and 
started for the mill, about one mile and a half above Kanab, 
in the canyon. On the way I met an expressman, who had 
directions for me to start forthwith to the Navajoe country, 
with Deputy- sheriff Fouts, of Richfield. A criminal had 
broken from jail, and it was believed that we could prevent his 
escape. 

I took my horses from the wagon, agreed with another man 
to do my milling, and in a very short time was on ray way for 
the crossing of the Colorado. 

Here we first learned of the death of President B. Young. 

We learned that the man we were in pursuit of had not 
crossed there. It was thought advisable to visit the Moquis 
agency, and make arrangements to secure his arrest should he 
appear in that part of the country. We traveled one 
hundred and fifty miles east, in the hot days of August. 

In passing through the Moquis towns, we found the people 
making much ado to bring rain to save their crops. They 



140 CONCLUSION. 

scattered corn meal in the paths leading to their fields ; the 
women dressed in white, and sat on the tops of* their houses, 
looking to the ground through an opening in a blanket 
wrapped around their heads. 

Others of the people went about with solemn countenances 
to induce the great Father of us all, as they express it, to 
send rain. By doing as they did, they believed He would be 
more ready to pity them and grant their request. 

Several came to me and requested that I would pray for 
rain, asserting that I used to help the Piutes to bring rain, 
and they thought they were as much entitled to my prayers as 
the Piutes. 

I felt to exercise all the faith I could for them, that they 
might not suffer from famine. In all their towns there fell, 
the following night, an abundance of rain. 

Returning from the Moquis agency, we found the people of 
the towns feeling well. They said enough rain had fallen to 
ensure them a crop of corn, squashes and beans. We 
noticed that in and around their towns and fields it had 
rained very heavily, but on either side the ground was dry and 
dusty. 

On my return home, I found that the fall crop I had 
planted was too far gone with drouth to make anything, but. 
through the blessings of the Lord I was able to provide 
necessaries for my family. 

This seems a fitting place to close this little narrative of 
incidents in my life. 

In my simple way I have furnished the facts for the pen of 
Brother Little, with the hope that their publication may be a 
testimony to many of the truth of the gospel, and of the 
power of revelation to all who will seek for the whisperings of 
the Holy Spirit. 

I desire this narrative to be a testimony to all who may 
read it, that the Lord is not slack concerning any of His 
promises to His children. My whole life, since I embraced 
the gospel proves this fact. 

If this little book shall leave a testimony of this to the 
coming generation, I shall be satisfied. 



.PARTIAL CATALOGUE 

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142 CATALOGUE. 



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A STRING OF PEARLS, containing the following interesting sketches, 
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CATALOGUE. 143 



CATECHISM CARDS Restoration of the Gospel; First Principles of the 
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HISTORIES AN BIOGRAPHIES. 

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History of Poland, by James Fletcher, 1 00 

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Ruins of Ancient Cities, by Charles Bucke, 2 vols. each 75 

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144 CATALOGUE. 



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MISCEI^AJTOOUS WORKS. 

Nelson's Sunday School Library, 35 select volumes on a great variety 

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sheep, net 24 00, postage 3 50 

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Parker's Aids to English Composition, 1 00 

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Natural History of the Bible, 60 

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Odd People, by Captain Mayne Reid, 75 
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An Easy Introduction to Spanish Conversation, 
Soane's Neuman and Barctti'a Spanish Dictionary, 




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