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JACOPO CARUCCI DA PONTORMO 



PUBLISHED ON THE FOUNDATION 
ESTABLISHED IN MEMORY OF 

HENRY WELDON BARNES 

or THE CLASS OF 1882, YALE COLLEGE 



THE HENRY WELDON BARNES MEMORIAL 
PUBLICATION FUND 

The present volume is the fifth work published by the 
Yale University Press on the Henry Weldon Barnes 
Memorial Publication Fund. This Foundation was estab- 
lished June 16, 1913, by a gift made to Yale University by 
William Henry Barnes, Esq., of Philadelphia, in memory 
of his son, a member of the Class of 1882, Yale College, who 
died December 3, 1882. While a student at Yale, Henry 
Weldon Barnes was greatly interested in the study of litera- 
ture and in the literary activities of the college of his day, 
contributing articles to some of the undergraduate papers 
and serving on the editorial board of the Yale Record. It 
had been his hope and expectation that he might in after- 
life devote himself to literary work. His untimely death 
prevented the realization of his hopes, but by the estab- 
lishment of the Henry Weldon Barnes Memorial Publication 
Fund his name will nevertheless be forever associated with 
the cause of scholarship and letters which he planned to 
serve and which he loved so well. 



JACOPO CARUCCI 

DA PONTORMO 

HIS LIFE AND WORK 



BY 



FREDERICK MORTIMER CLAPP 



WITH A FOREWORD BY 
FRANK JEWETT MATHER, JR. 




/. \ 




NEW HAVEN: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
LONDON: HUMPHREY MILFORD 
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 
MDCCCCXVI 



COPYRIGHT, 1916 
BY YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS 



First published, October, 1916 



ND 



PIC 5 8 



AVAILABLE 




; Si vede apertamente che quel cervello 
andava sempre investigando" 

Vasari 



TO 

M. C. C. 



FOREWORD 

If Mr. Clapp's book, instead of appearing in the century 
of Picasso, had appeared in that of Pontormo, there would 
have been prefatory sonnets written by friends who believed 
in the artist and in the author. Believing in both myself, I offer 
a kind of substitute in plain prose, for the author, who is an 
accomplished poet and therefore well able to write his own 
complimentary verses, evades the task. 

It is a significant fact that Mr. Clapp's first considerable 
publication on his favorite artist, "Les Dessins de Pontormo," 
was written in French and published in Paris. Nor is it 
betraying confidence to tell that the present book in its trial 
stages existed in a French version. The fact that Mr. Clapp 
has to this extent assimilated the French language is interesting, 
but it is far more important to note that he has equally assimi- 
lated certain solid merits and enlivening graces of French 
scholarship. I shudder when I think what a German or a 
Germanized American scholar would have made of the subject 
of Pontormo. In his solitary, experimental career, in the now 
elegiac, now tragic flavour of his personal poetry, there was 
every opportunity and temptation for indulgence in the irre- 
sponsible joys of sentimentalism. In the mere physical abun- 
dance of new data, there was every incentive to shoot it all into 
one of those imposing academic rubbish heaps which in mere 
bulk are more impressive than real books, as they are of more 
portentous effect upon the benevolent commonalty. 

What is remarkable about Mr. Clapp 's book is not that he 
has avoided deliberate gush and casual disorder one trusted 
the fine man of letters in him for so much but rather that he 
has lured and compelled into his long task positive qualities of 
orderliness, lucidity, and discipline. With a vast and easily 
confusing mass of material, he has been content to wait until 



XI 



FOREWORD 

the place appeared where each fact not merely might but must 
be taken up into the fabric of the book. This means that, while 
the book is thickly set with data, the gentle reader will find an 
uncluttered fairway. 

Notable too is the way in which narrative and comment 
have been knit into one structure. Criticism remains unpre- 
tentious and chiefly implicit. The close and logical order of the 
exposition builds up a kind of persuasive portrait, which is on 
the whole left to the reader's judgment. It is a satisfactory 
procedure, indicative of probity in the author, and compli- 
mentary withal to the reader's intelligence. Mr. Clapp not 
merely keeps a facile subjectivity out of his task of research, 
but so conducts the work that, even under that self-denying 
ordinance, it eventuates as a contribution to literature. While 
re-reading the proof sheets I have had a haunting image of one 
of those precise, complete, and austerely attractive portraits 
by Philippe de Champaigne, in which the conscience of the eye 
and hand constitute the style. Mr. Clapp is fortunate in being 
one of the first to naturalize in our scanty literature of art these 
sterling traits of the Gallic spirit. 

FRANK JEWETT MATHER, JR. 



Xll 



PREFACE 

When early one morning, some years ago, I went into the 
church of Santa Felicita in Florence, I did not know that I was 
taking the first step in a task that has since then occupied all 
my leisure. It was in the autumn, and I imagined it seems 
to come back to me that on such a sunny day it might be 
possible to see an altar-piece at which I had often peered in vain 
in the darkness of the Capponi Chapel. I was not mistaken. 
The light, slanting through the upper windows of the nave, 
was falling even into that dimmest of corners and, in the 
fugitive splendour, for the first time I really saw Pontormo's 
"Deposition." 

The moment was one of unexpected revelation. As I 
studied the picture with amazement and delight, I became 
conscious not only of its beauty but of the blindness with which 
I had accepted the prejudice of those for whom Andrea del Sarto 
is the last great Florentine artist and his younger contem- 
poraries, one and all, mere facile eclectics whose work Vasari 
summed up in the frescoes of the Palazzo Vecchio. 

I had discovered Pontormo. Little by little I made my 
way through the neglect into which he had fallen, and he became 
for me a living person. His solitary aloofness appealed to me, 
his disdain of patronage, and the passion with which he 
pursued the phantom of a more creative, a more personal 
form of expression than the graphic arts are perhaps capable 
of affording. 

His drawings quickened my sense of his evolution. They 
are more numerous than those of any other Tuscan who worked 
before 1550. And, as I turned them over through many months, 
I experienced, again and again, moments of the intellectual 
pleasure that comes from the recognition of rare and significant 
things. At that time Mr. Bernhard Berenson's essay in his 
"Drawings of the Florentine Painters" was the only attempt 



xin 



PREFACE 

that had been made to estimate the importance of Pontormo's 
sketches, and in studying them I found it an unfailing source 
of illumination. More recently a splendid folio of facsimiles, 
published under the auspices of the Uffizi Gallery, has made a 
limited selection of them known to a larger public. 

But Pontormo was a greater draughtsman than anyone has 
realized. I have, indeed, come to feel that his drawings alone, 
with all of which I have dealt exhaustively in my "Dessins de 
Pontormo," are enough to give him a place among the greatest 
names in Italian art. 

The lunette at Poggio a Cajano and his portraits, many of 
which have been ascribed to other masters, were my next 
enthusiasm. From them it was clear to me that Pontormo 
was a decorator, at times unsurpassed in his sense of the 
exquisitely appropriate, a subtle reader of the souls of men and, 
in more ways than one, the founder of modern portraiture. 

The book is divided into eight parts: a critical study of 
Pontormo's life; a catalogue raisonne of his authentic works; 
a catalogue raisonne of the pictures that have been ascribed 
to him; a catalogue of the pictures attributed to him at sales 
and in loan exhibitions; a catalogue of paintings and frescoes 
that have been destroyed, lost, or are as yet unidentified; an 
appendix in which I have discussed his apprenticeship in 
greater detail than was advisable in the text itself ; an appendix 
in which I have transcribed thirty-six documents relative to 
his career, most of which are now printed for the first time; 
an appendix that consists of a transcript of his diary, which has 
never before been published, and a chronological reconstruction 
of its pages followed by analyses of the material it contains. 

The Index, which is alphabetical and analytical, refers to 
the notes as well as to the text. No bibliography has been added 
because, with the exception of the brief notices in the Uffizi 
folio of his drawings, Berenson's essay, my " Dessins," and a 
few scattered articles devoted chiefly to individual pictures, 
nothing that is not a mere repetition of Vasari's narrative has 
been written on the subject. A complete running bibliography 
of the references to Pontormo that occur here and there in the 



XIV 



PREFACE 

literature of the history of art will be found in the footnotes 
and in the bibliographies of the catalogues raisonnes. 

In the Catalogue of Authentic Pictures I have studied the 
seventy surviving works that I believe to be genuine. After 
the text itself this is the most important part of the book. In 
the Catalogue of Attributed Pictures I have examined in detail 
one hundred and nine pictures which I am persuaded have 
been erroneously given to Pontormo. Some of these are still 
ascribed to him; others now bear names concerning the fitness 
of which I am not always in accord with other critics. In the 
case of a few others, notably the "Pieta," in the Academy at 
Florence, the "Portrait of a Man," in Stuttgart, the "Portrait 
of a Lady," in Turin, and the two portraits in the Jarves 
Collection, further study has modified the opinion that I 
expressed in my "Dessins." This catalogue, by the strange 
diversity of the pictures it contains, reveals the vague impres- 
sions and misapprehensions that have prevailed about Pon- 
tormo 's manner. Since, in a way, it defines by elimination some 
of the qualities that distinguish his work, it may serve a purpose 
and prevent, in some measure, the repetition of false attribu- 
tions. In it will be found three pictures ascribed to Pontormo 
by Berenson, which I have not seen and of which I have not 
been able to obtain photographs. No attributions could carry 
greater weight or deserve more scrupulous attention. I have, 
however, not felt that I could stand sponsor for the authenticity 
of any picture with which I am personally unacquainted. 

In both catalogues all the known material related to each 
picture is, for the sake of easy reference, arranged in the 
following order: (1) the title preceded by the collection or 
gallery number; (2) a detailed description of the composition 
and the colour; (3) the "precedes" and the size; (4) a critical 
account of the history of the picture, its derivation, iconography, 
significance, and influence upon other pictures; (5) its condi- 
tion; (6) its date; (7) all preparatory drawings now known to 
exist with all photographs or reproductions that have been made 
of them; (8) documents; (9) reproductions, including copies 
and engravings; (10) bibliography. 



XV 



PKEFACE 

In addition to the pictures cited in the two catalogues just 
mentioned, there are thirty-eight others ascribed to Pontormo 
in catalogues of sales and loan exhibitions. These and all 
details known about them I have placed, as a matter of record, 
in a third catalogue, although such attributions are in general 
quite arbitrary and have no value for the antiquarian, unless 
he has been able to examine the panels or canvases in question, 
most of which cannot now be traced. An illustration, however, 
has not infrequently been sufficient to convince me that the 
picture to which it refers has without reason been thought to 
be a Pontormo. 

Last, in this part of the book, comes the list of forty-four 
works, now lost or unidentified. They are ascribed to Pontormo 
by the documents, by Vasari, or by other early writers, and 
among them several, with which many drawings that survive 
can be identified, are of peculiar interest. 

The ideal of absolute completeness that I have kept before 
me is, I am fully aware, unattainable in catalogues of this kind. 
Pictures and drawings, attributed to Pontormo and as yet 
unknown to me, may at any time make their way into the market 
or be referred to in articles concerned with more or less obscure 
collections. 

Except for a few cases where measurements in feet or inches 
have been cited, the size of pictures and drawings is given in 
metres or centimetres. 

The transcriptions of the documents and of Pontormo 's 
diary reproduce exactly the form, spelling, and abbreviations 
of the originals. 

In the course of my researches I have made more than three 
hundred photographs. From these I have drawn most of my 
illustrations, all of which have been placed in chronological 
order, between the text and the Catalogue of Authentic Pictures 
to facilitate reference to them from either the former or the 
latter. They should not only help the reader to follow Pon- 
tormo 's development as an artist but enable him to trace the 
evolution of some of the more important paintings. To give a 
fuller idea of Pontormo 's draughtsmanship I have included 



XVI 



PREFACE 

illustrations of a few drawings which I have discussed so fully 
in my "Dessins" that further reference to them in this book 
seemed superfluous. 

My thanks are especially due to George Pannly Day, Esq., 
without whose generous and sympathetic interest this book 
might never have been printed; to Frank Jewett Mather, Jr., 
who has consented to give my work the authority and interpre- 
tation of a foreword from his pen ; to H. G. Dwight, Esq., who 
has pointed out to me certain pictures ascribed to Pontormo 
and who has read the proofs ; to Mrs. Katharine Hooker, for her 
constant encouragement and help; to J. V. Alden, Esq., for 
information about the pictures known as Pontormos in 
America, to the accuracy of which I am now able to testify; 
to Porter Garnett, Esq., whose knowledge of typography has 
helped me to avoid errors into which I might otherwise have 
fallen; to Signor O. H. Giglioli; to L. D. Caskey, Esq.; to 
Carleton L. Brownson, Esq.; to E. Byrne Hackett, Esq.; to 
Signor Gino Carlo Sensani, for verifying the reading of three 
documents, for transcribing the sonnets on Pontormo 's death 
and for sending me photographs and descriptions of several 
attributed pictures on which my notes were incomplete; to 
Dr. Osvald Siren, for suggestions with regard to the pictures 
ascribed to Pontormo in the Jarves Collection, the catalogue of 
which he has recently written with scholarly acumen ; to William 
Clifford, Esq., for access to the shelves of the Library of the 
Metropolitan Museum in New York, a courtesy that greatly 
facilitated and shortened my work there; to Bernhard Beren- 
son, Esq., to whose books I owe the beginning of my interest 
in Italian art; to M. Henry Lemonnier, membre de 1'Institut, 
M. Emile Bertaux, and M. Emile Male, whose fine sense of 
values, clarity of vision and flexible thoroughness of method 
have been my touchstone in the pursuit of these studies. I must 
also acknowledge my gratitude to the publishers who generously 
allowed me to increase the scope of the illustrations when the 
book was in course of preparation. 

F. M. C. 



XVll 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Foreword by Frank Jewett Mather, Jr. .... xi 

Preface .......... xiii 

Chapter 

I. 1494-1512 1 

II. 1512-1518 7 

III. 1518-1520 18 

IV. 1520-1522 28 

V. 1522-1527 37 

VI. 1527-1530 51 

VII. 1530 to 1545 and Later 58 

VIII. 1545-1557 73 

IX. Portraits 82 

X. Last Years : His Life from Day to Day ... 89 

Paintings and Drawings by Pontormo, following . . 98 

Catalogue Raisonne of Authentic Frescoes and Pictures . 101 

Catalogue Raisonne of Pictures Attributed to Pontormo . 193 
Catalogue of Pictures Attributed to Pontormo in Catalogues 

of Sales and Loan Exhibitions ..... 241 

Catalogue of Lost Pictures ...... 253 

Appendix I: Note on the Apprenticeship of Pontormo . 267 

Appendix II : Documents Relative to the Life of Pontormo 271 

Appendix III: Diary of Pontormo 295 

Index 321 



xix 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Illustrations are grouped between pages 98-99 

Fig. 1. "The Hospital of San Matteo," Academy, Florence 
/Fig. 2. Madonna and Saints, Chapel of San Luca, SS. Ammnziata, 

Florence 
Fig. 3. Study for San Luca Madonna and Saints (Print Eoom, 

Dresden) 
Fig. 4. Study for the San Luca Madonna and Saints (Uffizi 6676 

verso, Florence) 
l/ Fig. 5. The Visitation, SS. Annunziata, Florence 

Fig. 6. Study for the Visitation in SS. Annunziata, Florence 

(Uffizi 6603, Florence) 
Fig. 7. Study for the Visitation in SS. Annunziata, Florence 

(Uffizi 6542, Florence) 
Fig. 8. Study for the Baptist of the Carro della Zecca (Uffizi 6581 

verso, Florence) 

Fig. 9. Study for a Lost Pieta (Uffizi 6690 verso, Florence) 
Fig. 10. Portrait of an Engraver of Precious Stones, Louvre 1241, 

Paris 
Fig. 11. Study for the Lost Santa Cecilia of the Oratory of Santa 

Cecilia in Fiesole (Corsini 124161, Rome) 
Fig. 12. Sketch for the Lost Santa Cecilia of the Oratory of Santa 

Cecilia in Fiesole (Uffizi 6694, Florence) 

^ Fig. 13. Madonna and Saints, San Michele Visdomini, Florence 
Fig. 14. Sketch for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Corsini 124232, Rome) 
Fig. 15. Sketch for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Corsini 124244, Rome) 
Fig. 16. Sketches for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Uffizi 6551, Florence) 
Fig. 17. Sketch for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Uffizi 6551 verso, Florence) 



xx 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 18. Sketch for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Uffizi 6545, Florence) 
Fig. 19. Sketch for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Uffizi 6744 verso, Florence) 
Fig. 20. Study for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Uffizi 654, Florence) 
Fig. 21. Study for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Uffizi 6662, Florence) 
Fig. 22. Study for the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Uffizi 6581, Florence) 
Fig. 23. Study jEor the Madonna and Saints of San Michele Vis- 

domini (Uffizi 6744, Florence) 
Fig. 24. Study for a Lost Madonna and Child (Uffizi 6729, 

Florence) 
Fig. 25. Study for the Joseph Discovering Himself to His Brethren 

in the Collection of Lady Desborough, Panshanger 

(Uffizi 6692, Florence) 
Fig. 26. Joseph Discovering Himself to His Brethren, Collection 

of Lady Desborough, Panshanger 
Fig. 27. The Baker Led Out to Execution, Collection of Lady 

Desborough, Panshanger 
Fig. 28. Study for the Joseph Discovering Himself to His Brethren 

(Uffizi 6542 verso, Florence) 
Fig. 29. Study for the Baker Led Out to Execution (Uffizi 6690, 

Florence) 
Fig. 30. Joseph Sold to Potiphar, Collection of Lady Desborough, 

Panshanger 
Fig. 31. Study for the Joseph Sold to Potiphar (Uffizi 6556, 

Florence) 
Fig. 32. Study for the Joseph Sold to Potiphar (Uffizi 6692 verso, 

Florence) 

Fig. 33. The Adoration of the Magi, Palazzo Pitti 379, Florence 
Fig. 34. Study for the Adoration of the Magi (Uffizi 6722, Florence) 
Fig. 35. St. John the Evangelist, San Michele in Pontormo 
Fig. 36. St. Michael, San Michele in Pontormo 
Fig. 37. Study for St. John the Evangelist and for the Hands of 

St. Michael of San Michele in Pontormo (Uffizi 6571, 

Florence) 
Fig. 38. Study for a Portrait of a Youth (Uffizi 452, Florence) 



XXll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 39. Study for a Lost Pieta (Uffizi 300 F, Florence) 

Fig. 40. Study for St. Michael of San Michele in Pontormo (Uffizi 

6506, Florence) 

Fig. 41. Portrait of a Youth, Palazzo Bianco 6, Genoa 
Fig. 42. Portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio, Uffizi, Florence 
Fig. 43. Study of Three Nudes (Uffizi 672, Florence) 
Fig. 44. Study of Three Nudes (Uffizi 442, Florence) 
Fig. 45. Study of a Man (Uffizi 6571 verso, Florence) 
Fig. 46. Study of a Nude (Uffizi 6504, Florence) 
Fig. 47. Three Sketches of a Nude (Uffizi 6516 verso, Florence) 
Fig. 48. Portrait of a Boy, Trivulzio Collection, Milan 
Fig. 49. Study of a Youth (Uffizi 6682, Florence) 
Fig. 50. Pomona and Vertumnus, Lunette in the Medicean Villa at 

Poggio a Cajano 
Fig. 51. Right Half of the Lunette, in the Medicean Villa at Poggio 

a Cajano 
Fig. 52. Left Half of the Lunette, in the Medicean Villa at Poggio 

a Cajano 
Fig. 53. Sketches for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6660 

verso, Florence) 
Fig. 54. Sketches for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6557, 

Florence) 
Fig. 55. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6673, 

"Florence) 
Fig. 56. Sketch for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6514, 

Florence) 
Fig. 57. Sketch for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6515 

verso, Florence) 
Fig. 58. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6673 

verso, Florence) 
Fig. 59. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6544, 

Florence) 
Fig. 60. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6555, 

Florence) 
Fig. 61. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6731, 

Florence) 
Fig. 62. Sketch for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6662 

verso, Florence) 



XXlll 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 63. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6531, 

Florence) 
Fig. 64. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6547, 

Florence) 
Fig. 65. Sketch for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6646, 

Florence) 
Fig. 66. Sketch for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6661, 

Florence) 
Fig. 67. Studies for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6669 

recto, Florence) 
Fig. 68. Studies for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6669 

verso, Florence) 
Fig. 69. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6651, 

Florence) 
Fig. 70. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6559, 

Florence) 
Fig. 71. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6685 

recto, Florence) 
Fig. 72. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 6579, 

Florence) 
Fig. 73. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 454, 

Florence) 
Fig. 74. Study for the Lunette at Poggio a Cajano (Uffizi 455, 

Florence) 

Fig. 75. Study of a Nude (Uffizi 6727 recto, Florence) 
Fig. 76. Study for a Young Baptist in the Wilderness (Uffizi 6597, 

Florence) 

Fig. 77. Study of Three Nudes (Stadel Institute 4288, Frankfort) 
Fig. 78. Study of Three Nudes (Uffizi 6677 verso, Florence) 
Fig. 79. Christ before Pilate, Cloister of the Certosa, near Florence 
Fig. 80. The Way to Golgotha, Cloister of the Certosa, near Flor- 
ence 

Fig. 81. The Risen Christ, Cloister of the Certosa, near Florence 
Fig. 82. The Supper at Emmaus, Academy 190, Florence 
Fig. 83. Sketch for a Projected Descent from the Cross in the 

Cloister of the Certosa, near Florence (Uffizi 6622, 

Florence) 
Fig. 84. Study for the Supper at Emmaus (Uffizi 6656 verso, 

Florence) 



XXIV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 85. Sketch for a Projected Nailing to the Cross in the Cloister 

of the Certosa, near Florence (Uffizi 6671, Florence) 
Fig. 86. Study for a Projected Nailing to the Cross in the Cloister 

of the Certosa, near Florence (Uffizi 6665, Florence) 
Fig. 87. Study for the Angel of the Annunciation in the Capponi 

Chapel of Santa Felicita, Florence (Uffizi 6653, 

Florence) 
Fig. 88. Study for the Virgin of the Annunciation in the Capponi 

Chapel of Santa Felicita, Florence (Uffizi 448, Florence) 
Fig. 89. Study for a Projected Nailing to the Cross in the Cloister 

of the Certosa, near Florence (Uffizi 447, Florence) 
Fig. 90. Detail of the St. Quentin in Borgo San Sepolcro 
Fig. 91. Sketch for the Head of the St. Quentin in Borgo San 

Sepolcro (Uffizi 6647 verso, Florence) 

Fig. 92. The Deposition, Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicita, Florence 
Fig. 93. Study for the Deposition of the Capponi Chapel (Uffizi 

6666, Florence) 
Fig. 94. Study for the Deposition of the Capponi Chapel (Uffizi 

6627, Florence) 
Fig. 95. Study for the Deposition of the Capponi Chapel (Uffizi 

6577, Florence) 
Fig. 96. Sketches for the Deposition of the Capponi Chapel 

(Corsini 124230, Kome) 
Fig. 97. Sltudies for the Deposition of the Capponi Chapel (Uffizi 

6730, Florence) 
Fig. 98. Sketches for the Deposition of the Capponi Chapel (Uffizi 

6613 verso, Florence) 
Fig. 99. Study for the Deposition of the Capponi Chapel (Uffizi 

6619, Florence) 
Fig. 100. Study for the Deposition of the Capponi Chapel (Uffizi 

6576 recto, Florence) 

Fig. 101. Study for a Portrait of a Young Girl (Uffizi 449, Flor- 
ence) 

Fig. 102. Studies for a Portrait of a Boy (Uffizi 6667, Florence) 
Fig. 103. The Madonna, Child and Little St. John, Palazzo Corsini 
/ 141, Florence 

104. The Madonna, St. Anne and Four Saints, Louvre 1240, 

Paris 

xxv 



/ LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 105. Study for the Madonna, St. Anne and Four Saints, in the 

Louvre (Uffizi 460, Florence) 

Fig. 106. The Martyrdom of St. Maurice, Palazzo Pitti 182, Flor- 
ence 

Fig. 107. The Martyrdom of St. Maurice, Uffizi 1187, Florence 
Fig. 108. Study for a Variant of the Martyrdom of St. Maurice 

(Museum 21253, Hamburg) 

Fig. 109. Study for a St. Jerome (Uffizi 441, Florence) 
Fig. 110. Study of a Nude Woman (Uffizi 441 verso, Florence) 
Fig. 111. The Visitation in the Parish Church of Carmignano 
Fig. 112. Study for the Visitation in the Parish Church of Car- 
mignano (Uffizi 461, Florence) 
Fig. 113. Study of a Nude (Uffizi 6723, Florence) 
Fig. 114. Birth-plate: The Birth of St. John the Baptist, Uffizi 

1198, Florence 

Fig. 115. Portrait of a Youth, Pinacoteca 75, Lucca 
Fig. 116. Portrait of a Youth, Morelli Collection 59, Bergamo 
Fig. 117. Anatomical Study (Uffizi 6718, Florence) 
Fig. 118. Portrait of a Man, Uffizi 1220, Florence 
Fig. 119. Lucretia, Borghese Gallery 75, Eome 
Fig. 120. Study for a Portrait of a Soldier (Uffizi 463 F, Florence) 
Fig. 121. Study of a Nude (Uffizi 6561, Florence) 
Fig. 122. Study for the Three Graces (Uffizi 6748, Florence) 
Fig. 123. Venus and Cupid, Uffizi 1284, Florence 
Fig. 124. Portrait of Alessandro de ' Medici, Johnson Collection 83, 

Philadelphia 

Fig. 125. Portrait of a Man, Palazzo Pitti 249, Florence 
Fig. 126. Portrait of Bartolomeo Compagni, Stirling Collection, 

Keir, Dunblane, Scotland 

Fig. 127. Portrait of a Young Woman, Stadel Institute 14 A, Frank- 
fort 
Fig. 128. Portrait of a Young Woman, Von Dirksen Collection, 

Berlin 

Fig. 129. Portrait of a Woman in Green, Augusteum 19, Oldenburg 
Fig. 130. Portrait of the Cardinal Spannocchi Cervini, Borghese 

Gallery 408, Rome 

Fig. 131. Portrait of a Lady with a Volume of Verse, former Yerkes 
Collection 

xxvi 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 132. Probable Study for One of the Lost Allegorical Figures 

in the Loggia of the Medicean Villa at Castello (Uffizi 

6584, Florence) 
Fig. 133. Probable Study for One of the Lost Allegorical Figures in 

the Loggia of the Medicean Villa at Castello (Uffizi 

6586, Florence) 
Fig. 134. Benjamin at the Court of Pharaoh. Tapestry Woven 

after a Design by Pontormo, Palazzo del Quirinale, 

Rome 
Fig. 135. Studies for the Tapestry of Benjamin at the Court of 

Pharaoh (Uffizi 6593, Florence) 
Fig. 136. Joseph and Potiphar's Wife. Tapestry Woven after a 

Design by Pontormo, Palazzo del Quirinale, Rome 
Fig. 137. Study for the Lost Expulsion from Paradise in San 

Lorenzo, Florence (Uffizi 6715, Florence) 

Fig. 138. Study for the Lost Christ in Glory in San Lorenzo, Flor- 
ence (Uffizi 6609, Florence) 
Fig. 139. Study for the Lost Moses Receiving the Law in San 

Lorenzo, Florence (Uffizi 6749, Florence) 
Fig. 140. Study for the Lost Four Evangelists in San Lorenzo, 

Florence (Uffizi 6750, Florence) 
Fig. 141. Study for the Lost Sacrifice of Cain and Death of Abel 

in San Lorenzo, Florence (Uffizi 6739, Florence) 
Fig. 142. Study for the Lost Death of Abel in San Lorenzo, Flor- 

. ence (Uffizi 6746, Florence) 
Fig. 143. Study for the Lost Tilling of the Soil in San Lorenzo, 

Florence (Uffizi 6535, Florence) 
Fig. 144. Study for the Lost Deluge in San Lorenzo, Florence 

(Uffizi 6753, Florence) 
Fig. 145. Study for the Lost Deluge in San Lorenzo, Florence 

(Uffizi 6752, Florence) 
Fig. 146. Study for the Lost Deluge in San Lorenzo, Florence 

(Uffizi 6528, Florence) 
Fig. 147. Study for the Lost Ascent into Heaven in San Lorenzo, 

Florence (Academy, Venice) 
Fig. 148. Study for a Figure in One of the Lost Frescoes in San 

Lorenzo, Florence (Uffizi 6560, Florence) 
Fig. 149. Study for a Figure in One of the Lost Frescoes in San 

Lorenzo, Florence (Uffizi 6679, Florence) 

xxvii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Fig. 150. Portrait of an Old Lady, Belvedere 48, Vienna 

Fig. 151. Portrait of a Lady, Jacquemart- Andre Collection, Paris 

Fig. 152. Page 4 of Pontormo's Diary (Biblioteca Nazionale, 

Florence) 
Fig. 153. Study for the Figure in the Lost Frescoes of San Lorenzo 

Mentioned in the Last Line of Page 4 of Pontormo's 

Diary (Uffizi 6760, Florence) 



XXVlll 



ABBREVIATIONS 

A. S. F. Archivio di Stato di Firenze. 

B. F. D. Berenson, Drawings of the Florentine Painters. 

B. F. P. R. Berenson, Florentine Painters of the Renaissance. 

Dessins Clapp, Dessins de Pontormo. 

D. Gr. U. Disegni della Galleria degli Uffizi the folio devoted to 

Pontormo 's drawings. 
On Certain Drawings Clapp, On Certain Drawings of Pontormo 

(pamphlet). 

Photo. F. M. C. photographs taken by the author. 
Vasari Milanesi's edition of the " Lives." 



JACOPO CARUCCI DA PONTORMO 



JACOPO CARUCCI 

DA PONTORMO 



CHAPTER I 

1494-1512 

Vasari says that Jacopo Carucci, called II Pontormo, was 
generally believed to be descended from an old Tuscan family 
that came originally from Ancisa, the famous "castello" in 
Valdarno where Petrarch's ancestors were born. 1 From other 
sources we know that in the Middle Ages one branch of the 
Carucci lived in Monte Pilli and Terzano, castle-towns on the 
Poggio di San Martino in the Arno valley, 2 and that there were 
in Florence" between the thirteenth and the seventeenth century 
still other Carucci whose forbears had lived in Colle Val d'Elsa. 3 

Numerous documents in the Florentine Archives, the 
Hospital of the Innocents, the Marucelliana, and the Biccar- 
diana, mention Florentines of our painter's name. The earliest 
of these references 4 known to me states that the family burial- 
place was in Santa Croce, under the vaults of the room of 
the Compagnia di Loreto, and that there one formerly read: 
"Filiorum Carucci 1298." In 1348 a Francesco Carucci, 5 

1 Vasari, VI, 245. 

2 Biblioteea Nazionale, Firenze, Priorista di Monaldi, p. 267 v. See Appendix II, 
Doc. 1. 

s A. S. F., Consorteria, S. Giovanni, I, 94 v. See Appendix II, Doe. 2. 

* Biblioteea Riccardiana, Firenze, Cod. 1894, p. 132. See Appendix II, Doc. 3. 

6 Biblioteea Nazionale, Firenze, Codice Araldico, p. 129. See Appendix II, Doc. 6. 



PONTORMO 

"pianellaio," 6 was buried in San Pancrazio, and it was in the 
following year that the first member of the Monte Pilli branch 
of the family took up his residence in Florence 7 a certain 
Taddeo di Caruccio, two of whose descendants were buried 
almost half a century later in the cloister of Santa Croce and 
their gravestone marked: "Ruggieri Taddei Carucci et Suor 
MCCCLXX. ' ' Soon after this latter date we come upon the earliest 
figure among Pontormo's remoter ancestors whose place in 
Florentine society is made clear by the documents, a Ruggieri 
di Taddeo Carucci 8 who on February 28, 1380, was one of the 
Ufficiali della Torre and evidently, therefore, a person of some 
importance. In 1381 a Rogerius Taddei Carucci, 9 ' i pannolini, ' no 
is mentioned in the "Squittinio del Gonf alone di Bue," and we 
know that five years later, between March, 1386, and April, 
1387, a Carucci of the same name, 11 but this time called a 
"vinaiolo," 12 sat in the Signoria of Florence. The parish 
churches of the family were Santa Croce and San Remigio. 13 

Pontormo's ancestors appear, then, to have been burghers 
and free citizens 14 of the Republic of Florence. They followed 
humble trades like many of their fellow-townsmen, but they also 
took part, at an early date, in governing the city. During the 
fifteenth century their fortunes do not seem to have risen, and, 
although one branch of the family continued to live in Florence, 
we know little about them except that in 1460 a Ruggiero 
Carucci was buried in Santa Croce, 15 and that between 1481 

6 Tile or slipper maker. 

7 Priorista di Monaldi, p. 267 v. 

s Biblioteca Eiccardiana, Cod. 1187. See Appendix II, Doc. 4. 

9 Delizie degli Eruditi Toscani, XVI, 139. These last three allusions to a Rogerius 
or Ruggieri Carucci may possibly refer to the same person, although in that case he would 
seem to have followed different occupations at different times. The inscription on the 
tombstone in Santa Croce is drawn from the "Poligrafo Gargane," now in the Biblioteea 
Nazionale of Florence. 

10 Linen-draper. 

11 Biblioteca Marucelliana, Firenze, Cod. C 1, p. 278. See Appendix II, Doc. 5. 

12 Wine-merchant. 

is Biblioteca Riccardiana, Cod. 1894, p. 132. See Appendix II, Doc. 3. 
i* For the arms of the family, see Appendix II, Doc. 1 and 6. 
is Codice Araldico, p. 129. See Appendix II, Doe. 6. 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

and 1622 the books of the Consorteria 16 cite no less than eighteen 
Carucci, all of whom were of the Gonfalone del Bue, and lived 
in the quarter of Santa Croce. 17 In the records of the Hospital 
of the Innocents, 18 a Lisabetta Carucci, wife of Pagolo, is 
mentioned several times in 1528-1530, and it is evident from 
other sources that later on the Carucci 19 owned a chapel in the 
Carmine which passed in 1624 into the possession of the Delia 
Moriana family. 20 

Pontormo's father, Bartolomeo di Jacopo di Martino 
Carucci, was Vasari's testimony in this connection is 
precise 21 a Florentine, a painter, "secondo que' tempi 
ragionevole, " and a pupil of Ghirlandaio. Of his life and 
work nothing is known. I have not been able to find, either in 
the Florentine Archives or in those of the Collegiata of Empoli, 
even so much as the date of his death. According to Vasari, 
he carried on his trade chiefly among the hamlets of the 
Valdarno, and it is not impossible that unidentified specimens 
of his work may still exist in the frescoes of the churches or 
shrines of those villages, or among the paintings that once 
belonged to them, but have since been scattered. 

Bartolomeo di Jacopo 's wandering life as a provincial 
artist brought him finally, sometime about 1490, to Empoli, 22 
and while he was at work there upon certain pictures he went 
to live in the village of Pontormo, which lies, at a distance of 
not more than a mile from Empoli, in the direction of Montelupo. 

ie A. S. F., Consorteria, S. Croce, I and II, 83; idem, Gonfalone Bue, II, 26 v. 
See Appendix II, Doc. 7. 

IT The Carucci da Colle lived in the Gonfalone del Chiave. The books of the Con- 
sorteria (I, 94 v.) mention two members of this branch of the family. See Appendix II, 
Doc. 2. 

isEntrata e Uscita D (1527-1528), p. 54; idem, Z, p. 52 (October 10, 1530); for 
mention of a Checci Carucci, idem, p. 54. See Appendix II, Doc. 8. 

i For references of a later date to other members of the family, see Bibl. Magliab., 
Cod. 401, Cl. 25, p. 80 "Buggieri di Taddeo Carucci, 1545, De Notai Nobili"; A. S. F., 
Necrologia della Grascia (1570-1591) "M. Marietta donna fu di S. Euggieri Carucci in 
S. Croee 10 luglio, 1572"; A. S. F., Catasto, Niechio, 1534, G. L., S. Spirito "Jacopo di 
Giovanni Carucci ' ' ; idem, Bue, F. I., S. Croce ' ' Jacopo di Luca Carucci ' ' ; see also 
Ammirato, Stor. Spogl, p. 329; Bibl. Eiccard., Cod. 3107, p. 163. 

20 Biblioteca Marucelliana, Cod. B VII. 14, p. 11. See Appendix II, Doc. 9. 

21 VI, 245. 

22 Ibid. 

3 



PONTORMO 

It is now a diminutive place, although in early days it had at 
least three churches. Between it and Empoli a little torrent 
runs, which is called the Orme, and from the bridge that crosses 
this stream the village takes its name. 23 Around it on all sides 
the level land, covered with vineyards, stretches away toward 
the olive-grey lower slopes of Monte Albano and east, across 
broader spaces, to foot-hills rising range behind range to the 
Apennines. The landscape is Tuscan with a touch in it of 
Pisan breadth and a faint taste of the sea. Its salient features 
are the Orme bridge and the Romanesque campanile of San 
Michele. Here, according to Vasari, Jacopo's father married 
Alessandra, "una molto virtuosa e da bene fanciulla," daughter 
of Pasquale di Zanobi and Mona Brigida, and here, on May 
24, 1494, 24 our master was born. The tradition of art was part 
of Pontormo's inheritance. 

Jacopo spent his earliest years in his native place, where, 
while still a child, he lost in quick succession, father, mother 
and grandfather. It was to his grandmother, therefore, that he 
owed his bringing-up and early education, and it was at her 
instance that he was taught the rudiments of Latin and to read 
and write. Later on she took him to Florence and placed him 
in the care of a certain Battista, "calzolaio," who was a distant 
kinsman of hers. 25 This journey must have been made before 

23 O. H. Giglioli, Empoli Artistica, p. 192. 

24 The sacristy of San Michele at Pontormo contains no baptismal register earlier 
than the seventeenth century. Some of the records of this church may, however, be 
preserved among the books of the Knights of Santo Stefano in the Archives of Pisa. 
They are not to be found in the Collegiata at Empoli. The date that we have given is based 
upon the following calculation: The commemorative tablet, placed, it would seem, in the 
choir of San Lorenzo in 1558 when the frescoes that Pontormo painted there were at last 
finished by Bronzino, bore an inscription which is quoted by Moreni (II, 119). This gave 
Pontormo's age, when he died, as 62 years, 7 months and 6 days. From the Libro dei 
Morti we know that his death occurred on December 31, 1556, or January 1, 1557 (New 
Style). Simple subtraction gives the date of his birth. Vasari (VI, 245) erroneously 
states that Pontormo was born in 1493 and that he was sixty-five at the time of his death. 
Milanesi (VI, 288) notices these errors and quotes in a note the inscription from San 
Lorenzo. We now know that when Pontormo became a "commesso" of the Hospital of 
the Innocents, on August 20, 1549, he gave his age as fifty-five conclusive proof that he 
was born in 1494. 

25 Vasari, "VT, 246. 



HIS LIFE AND WOEK 

1503, and we may surmise that, even at that early date, the 
orphan boy's future had been decided upon. 

Vasari implies that Jacopo's training as a painter did not 
begin until 1506-1507, 26 although, from a document 27 that I have 
discovered, it appears to be not unlikely that before April 10, 
1503, he had already begun his apprenticeship, for on that day 
the monks of Santa Maria Novella, wishing to record the terms 
upon which they had sold a house in the GKialf onda to Alberti- 
nelli, had a deed drawn up in which mention is made of a Jacopo 
Carucci. Since, between 1500 and 1505, no adult of that name 
is referred to in either the Catasto or the Consorteria, we are, 
it would seem, justified in believing that the Jacopo in question 
was none other than our master, although he was, of course, 
only a child. 28 

Did the fact that his father had been a painter influence 
his relatives when they thought of choosing a trade for the boy ? 
Was Jacopo a painter by chance "? Or did he show an aptitude 
that parents in those days were often quick to notice and 
appreciate? We do not know. We have, however, reason to 
conjecture that he was precocious, for Vasari speaks of a small 
" Annunciation," painted while Jacopo was still with Alberti- 
nelli, 29 which the elder master used proudly to show to all those 
who came to his "bottega." Raphael once saw it, and was 
amazed that- it was the work of one so young. The little panel 
must therefore have been in existence before September 5, 
1508, the date of Raphael's departure for Rome. 30 Pontormo 
was not then fourteen. 

We cannot tell how long Jacopo frequented Albertinelli's 
workshop, but in 1507 he had perhaps already left it. At any 
rate, Albertinelli was not the clever boy's only master. As an 
orphan, who had escaped from the bondage of apprenticeship 

26 ma. 

27 A. S. F., Convento 102, No. 89, Eicordi, pp. 14, 41 f . See Appendix II, Doc. 10. 
2 For the early age at which children were sometimes apprenticed, see Vasari 's 

statement (VI, 202) that Bugiardini went to work with Ghirlandaio while the latter was 
painting the choir of Santa Maria Novella, in other words, when he was only ten years old 

29 Vasari, VI, 246. 

o Idem, IV, 329. 



PONTORMO 

by some happy chance the nature of which we are unable to 
define, he was freer than most gifted boys are at his age. No 
parent hampered him, for, if we are to believe Vasari, Mona 
Brigida soon returned with Jacopo's sister 31 to Pontormo, and 
from there she could hardly have influenced her grandson. 
However that may have been, we now know from a document 
that, on January 24, 1508, all that was left of his father's tiny 
estate passed into the hands of the Public Guardians. 32 

Left, then, to work out his own future unaided and undi- 
rected Pontormo gave Immediate evidence of his mobility of 
spirit. No master satisfied him, and he passed rapidly from 
one to another. Before he reached sixteen he had tasted some- 
thing of the simplicity of the quattrocento tradition that 
lingered in the work of Albertinelli, the fantastic playfulness 
of Pier di Cosimo, the enigmatic spirit of Leonardo's recondite 
beauty, and the warm naturalism of Andrea. These were, 
according to Vasari, 83 his masters, and Pontormo 's early work 
corroborates his biographer's assertion: it is a curious mixture 
of many tendencies. The doll-like figures in trailing robes of 
the " Hospital of San Matteo" (fig. 1) owe much to Pier di 
Cosimo; the composition of the "San Luca Madonna" (fig. 2) 
is well within the canon of Fra Bartolommeo, Albertinelli 's 
master and partner; the chiaroscuro of the Visdomini and 
Parinola panels is derived from the practice of Leonardo ; the 
"putti" of the Santa Veronica fresco and the saints of the 
"Visitation" (fig. 5), at the Annunziata, are reminiscent of 
Andrea. 

The variety of influences that we detect in these pictures 
demonstrates that as a youth Pontormo was restless and 
impressionable. Vasari represents him as thoughtful, melan- 
choly, and taciturn, nursing his plans in silence and not 
infrequently an object of ridicule to his fellow-apprentices 
most of whom must have been of smaller talent and of coarser 
grain. A friendless, bitter childhood marked the sensitive and 
precocious boy whose timidity forecast the solitary shyness of 
his later life. 

si Idem, VI, 246. 32 See Appendix II, Doc. 11. VI, 246. 

6 



CHAPTER II 

1512-1518 

When Giuliano de' Medici rode into Florence with his 
relatives and friends on September 14, 1512, 1 Soderini's govern- 
ment was at an end, and the city faced a new regime. Vengeance 
was visited upon the conspirators Boscoli and Capponi, 2 
persecutions upon the friends, even upon the dependents of 
Soderini, 3 and the people applauded. A year later they 
publicly rejoiced at the election of Leo X,* and no observer 
could have failed to realize that, in the spirit of Florentine 
democracy, fundamental changes had taken place. One 
curious result of these changes was that, from 1512 on, an 
increasing proportion of the orders given to artists came from 
the Medici or their satellites. No scantiest fragment of 
information concerning the political sympathies of the young 
Pontormo has survived, and it is not inconceivable that he was 
too much absorbed in his work to care what changes took place 
around him. All we can say is that he received, between 1512 
and 1515, five commissions from the usurpers or their partisans. 6 

We do not know to whom Jacopo owed his first important 
commission. It was for a fresco which was once in a chapel of 
San Ruffillo in Piazza dell 'Olio 6 a work for which we have 
no documents. 7 Vasari places it after the "Faith and Charity" 

1 Guicciardini, Stor. d ' Italia, XI, ii, 5, pp. 15-20. 

2 Villari, II, 195. 

3 Guicciardini, Op. ined., VI, 146. 

* Nardi, VI, ii, 31. Landucci, pp. 336 f. 

s The "Faith and Charity" of the portal of the Annunziata, the triumphal cars 
for the Compagnia del Broncone and for the Compagnia del Diamante, the triumphal arch 
at the head of the Via del Pelagic, the frescoes in the Pope's Chapel. 

6 The church was destroyed when the palace of the archbishop was rebuilt ; the 
fresco was transferred to the Chapel of San Luca in the Annunziata in 1813. 

* The records of the church have disappeared. 



PONTORMO 

of the facade of the Annunziata. 8 We have, however, every 
reason to conjecture that it was executed between the autumn of 
1512 and the summer of 1513. The upper part of this fresco 
terminated in a lunette of "God the Father with Cherubim," 
which has been destroyed. It is interesting to remark that the 
same motive had been treated by Albertinelli 9 once at least to 
our knowledge, and that when Jacopo himself used it, a year or 
two later in the Pope's Chapel, he did so quite in the spirit of 
his old master. The ruined remains of the San Ruffillo fresco 
(fig. 2) are still preserved in the Chapel of San Luca at the 
Annunziata and reveal a Madonna standing, the Child in her 
arms, and with her two saints that stand and two that kneel. 
These figures have in them something of the last flicker of the 
quattrocento tradition, which Albertinelli had transmitted to 
our master. The composition is reminiscent of Fra Barto- 
lommeo, and, though juvenile, it is not without a stately 
simplicity and a naive charm. Pontormo was, in all likelihood, 
already at work in Andrea's shop when he executed this fresco, 10 
but he had not yet made his own the larger characteristics of 
Andrea's craft. The reason for this was simple: Andrea 
developed much more slowly than Jacopo, and, though he was 
eight years Pontormo 's senior, his style was still, in 1512-1514, 
tentative and immature. 

For the San Ruffillo fresco we have two drawings (fig. 3 
and 4), which are particularly precious documents, because 
they give us an insight into the formation of Pontormo 's 
draughtsmanship. One (Dresden, No. 200) " is an angular 
variant, scattered in its modelling but searching in its contours, 
of the technique that was employed by Andrea between 1510 
and 1514, and in it Jacopo 's effort to imitate his master is 
unquestionably evident. He tried, crudely but earnestly, to 
catch the tricks of Andrea's hand. The other sheet (Uffizi 

8 VI, 256. Kicha, IV, 146. 

Cf., for example, the "Holy Trinity" by Albertinelli (Vasari, IV, 222) which 
is now No. 63 in the Academy at Florence. 

10 Andrea's shop was in the Sapienza, near the Annunziata. He shared it with 
Franciabigio. 

^Dessins, pp. 83 f. 

8 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

6676 verso), 12 a study from the nude for the Madonna, is more 
vigorous, and in its structure recalls the nudes of the "Battle 
of the Cascina." Even at so early a date Jacopo was feeling 
his way in a new direction. 

Late in the summer of 1513 our young painter received a 
more important task. The Servites, who were "Palleschi," 
were energetically proceeding with the embellishment of their 
convent of the Annunziata in celebration of the election of 
Leo X, and in the summer following that event, Andrea, 13 
Franciabigio and Rosso were all at work in the small cloister 
or atrium of their church. Jacopo was chosen, almost by 
accident, to do part of the projected work, and in this connection 
Vasari tells a story. 14 Andrea di Cosimo 15 had, it would seem, 
been commissioned to paint the arms of Leo above the principal 
arch of the fagade and, finding himself unequal to the task, 
had called in Pontormo. Payments that I have found in the 
Libro del Camarlingo prove that Jacopo worked on this fresco 
in the autumn and winter of 1513 and in the spring of 1514." 
The last payment was made in June, 1514. From these same 
accounts it is also clear that the mechanical part of the 
decoration, such as the gilding, was done by the very Andrea 
di Cosimo Feltrini, 17 who according to Vasari had undertaken 
to complete with his own hands the "stemma" and all its 
decoration^ Still another story, recorded by Vasari, has it that 

12 Hid., p. 226. 

!3 1 have found several payments made to him during this period (A. S. F., Convento 
119, No. 705, pp. 76, 106, 116). 

"VI, 248. 

is For the life of Andrea di Cosimo Feltrini, see Vasari, V, 204-210. The records 
of the Servites tell us that in 1510-1511 he painted the faade of their church in mono- 
chrome (A. S. F., Convento 119, Libro del Camarlingo, 1509-1512, p. 49; Entrata e Uscita, 
No. 747, p. 84). From documents that I have discovered we know that he also painted 
the arms of Leo X between two doors opening into the church from the small cloister. 
For these he received on September 3, 1513, fourteen lire on account (A. S. F., Convento 
119, No. 705, p. 103). See also Vasari, V, 207. Feltrini was skilled in gilding and 
grotesques. On several occasions he was associated with Pontormo, with Bidolf o Ghirlandaio, 
with Franciabigio (at Poggio a Cajano), and still later with Vasari (decorations for the 
reception of Charles V at Florence). 

iA. 8. F., Convento 119, No. 705, pp. 113 v., 122 v., 124 r., 127 r., 132 r. See 
Appendix II, Doc. 12. 

IT Ibid., p. 124 r. 

9 



PONTORMO 

the young Pontormo hid himself in Sant'Agostino alia Porta 
a Faenza to make his drawings, and that until they were quite 
finished he did not go to the "bottega" to show them to his 
master. When Andrea saw them he was stupefied. And from 
that day, for reasons known only to himself, he shut the doors 
of his shop against Jacopo. 18 Such is Vasari's tale, mere 
gossip perhaps, but indicative of an attitude of mind not unlike 
that of the whimsical and solitary Pontormo. 

He now withdrew from the life of the "botteghe," and, says 
his biographer, by practising great economy "comincio a 
fare sottilissime spese perche era poverino" he finished his 
part in the decoration of Leo's arms for the Servites. Hardly, 
however, had he completed it when he made up his mind to 
destroy it, and paint it all over again from a design upon which 
he had already begun work when to his great indignation the 
fresco was uncovered. Here too, Vasari's narrative is true 
to Jacopo 's sensitive, searching, and disinterested nature. 
Even as a boy he had a touching eagerness of mind, a thorough- 
going contempt for work that he had put behind him. 

The fresco, which represented Faith and Charity 19 with two 
"putti" that supported the papal blazon, is now all but 
obliterated, although one still dimly discerns two seated 
figures, voluminously draped, and about them, traces of "putti," 
seated or flying. That phase of Andrea's art which is exem- 
plified by his "Marriage of St. Catherine" seems to have 
presided over the composition, but the work has been too badly 
damaged to yield any secrets of form -or modelling. Vasari 
devotes to this decoration two pages in which he praises the 
beauty of the "putti," "la dolcezza delle teste," and the 
refreshing daring of the treatment. 20 Throughout the sixteenth 
century it was famous. 21 

With these figures no drawings can be identified. One 
faded sketch of a "putto" clinging to a tree (Uffizi 6706) 22 is 

is Vasari, VI, 248. 
Ibid. 

20 Ibid., p. 250. 

21 Ibid., VI, 248 f . Boechi, pp. 415 f . Eicha, V, 52. 

p. 249. 

10 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

perhaps a fragment of Jacopo's preparatory work, but we 
hazard this conjecture only because in Bocchi's opinion a 
"putto" in that pose was one of the beauties of the composition. 23 

Two drawings for Medici arms supported by two figures 
exist, in the Uffizi, that one is sometimes tempted to connect, 
at any rate remotely, with the " Faith and Charity" of the 
Annunziata, to which, however, in its final form at least, they 
are not related. Neither, in my opinion, can they be identified 
with any of the Medici arms surmounted with tiara and keys 
and supported by "putti" that one sees in the ceiling of the 
Pope's Chapel at Santa Maria Novella, although one of the 
drawings (Uffizi 418) may preserve an idea, finally rejected, 
for these bearings, in spite of the fact that we find in it no 
indication of the papal keys. It is likewise not inconceivable 
that the other drawing (Uffizi 417 ) 24 is a sketch for the arms 
of Leo that Pontormo painted for his native town, inside the 
castle gate which opened into the main street. 25 This ' * stemma, ' ' 
of which no vestige remains, was executed just after the 
" Faith and Charity." At all events, these two sketches are 
among the earliest specimens that we have of Pontormo 's 
draughtsmanship, and in them his conception of form owes 
much to Andrea, but the stroke, hooked and broad at one end, 
is an evidence of certain habits of hand that could have been 
acquired only in Albertinelli's "bottega." 

No documents survive for the frescoes of the Pope's 
Chapel. Indirect evidence however indicates clearly enough 
the date of this decoration ; it must have been begun during the 
summer of 1515. In writing the lives of several other artists, 
Vasari speaks of the embellishments of the Pope's apartments 
in the convent of Santa Maria Novella. 28 Ridolfo Ghirlandaio 
received the commission for all these decorations, but the work 
had to be finished under pressure for Leo's triumphal return 

23 Bocchi, p. 416 : " E ammirato un altro puttino, che da alto guarda in gift, ed 
affacciatosi ad una spronda, sembra per 1'altezza grande, di hauer timore di cadere. " 
Of. Richa, loc. cit. 

2* Dessins, pp. 89 f . 

25 Vasari, VI, 250. 

26 Ibid., pp. 255 f ., 541. 

11 



PONTORMO 

to his native town, and Bidolfo, unable to finish it, without 
assistance in the time given, confided to Pontormo the chapel 
which was, in some respects, the most important part of the 
undertaking. Leo entered Florence on November 15, 1515. 
Pontormo 's decoration must, therefore, have been completed 
before that date. 

The chapel is on the north side of the convent and is lighted 
by a single window. The ceiling, a barrel vaulting, forms with 
the end-walls circular lunettes. In the lunette behind the altar 
is a "Coronation of the Virgin," perhaps by Ridolfo, 27 which 
has been disastrously repainted. In the lunette over the door 
Pontormo painted in fresco a "Santa Veronica Holding the 
Sudario." The saint kneels facing us, a figure of fine sim- 
plicity. The sweeping folds of her robe recall Albertinelli's 
drapery, but her face, long and oval, suggests a type evolved 
by Michelangelo as early as 1505. Right and left, in profile, 
kneels a cherub, holding a flaming vase. The composition is 
adequate but not inspired. The ceiling and side-walls are 
covered with grotesques in the geometrical framework of which 
are four small medallions, in each, a flying "putto"; and four 
squares, in each, the arms of Leo supported by "putti." In the 
middle of the ceiling, in a large "tondo," Pontormo painted 
a God the Father descending, arms outspread, a figure altogether 
in the tradition of Mariotto. Only the medallions and squares 
of this ceiling decoration were executed by Pontormo, and even 
these have been so completely repainted as to show now no 
trace of his hand. The grotesques were executed by Andrea 
di Cosimo Feltrini, who in all probability designed them as well. 

The "Madonna of San Ruffillo," the "Faith and Charity" 
of the Annunziata, and the decorations of the Pope's Chapel, 
are the earliest achievements of Pontormo that now survive. 
He was hardly nineteen when he painted them and, although 
they do not reveal the talent that his later works might lead 
us to expect, they do show clearly certain characteristics of his 
maturer years in the gracious strangeness of the heads, the 

2* J&td., p. 541, note 3. 

12 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

supple movement of the figures, and in the love of novelty that 
here and there is apparent in them. 

The festivities following Leo's elevation to the papacy 
brought Pontormo many commissions to which Vasari, writing 
about 1560 with a desire to please Cosimo I, devotes more than 
six pages. 28 In the carnival procession of 1514, the Compagnia 
del Diamante, a society led by Giuliano de' Medici, had three 
triumphal cars which represented "Youth," "Manhood," and 
"Age" subjects chosen by Andrea Dazzi, 29 the latinist. The 
woodwork of the cars was by Raffaello delle Viviole and II 
Carota, and the decorative motives, by Andrea di Cosimo. 30 The 
costumes were designed by Giuliano da Vinci and Bernardino 
di Giordano, while the songs were written by Antonio Alamanni. 
Pontormo painted on these three cars stories of the Trans- 
formations of the Gods, 31 and so great was their success that 
they stirred to emulation a rival society, II Broncone, of which 
Lorenzino was the leader. For the carnival of 1515, this 
company ordered no less than seven cars, the subjects repre- 
sented upon which were chosen by Jacopo Nardi, 32 who also 
wrote the songs. 33 For the first car Pontormo painted on 
panels, and probably in chiaroscuro, "Legends of Saturn," for 
the second, "Scenes from the Life of Numa Pompilius," for 
the third, "Scenes from the Life of Titus Manlius Torquatus," 
for the fourth, "The Deeds of Julius Caesar," for the fifth, 
"Episodes from the Life of Augustus," for the sixth, "Scenes 
from the Life of Trajan." The seventh car represented "The 
Golden Age" and on it were ornamental figures in relief by 
Bandinelli, 34 among them "The Four Cardinal Virtues." All 
we can say of these lost works is that they seem to have 
increased Pontormo 's popularity. They were probably not 
unlike the decorations prepared for Leo's visit to Florence in 

28 Hid., pp. 250-255. 

29 1475-1548. See W. Eiidiger, Andreas aus Florens, Halle, 1897. 
so Vasari, VI, 251. 

si The panels of these cars were once in the possession of Pietro Paulo Galeotti, the 
goldsmith. 

32 1476-1556. 

33 Canti Carnascialeschi, Firenze, 1559, pp. 120-124. 
84 Vasari, VI, 254. 

13 



PONTORMO 

the autumn of 1515. 88 On that occasion Jacopo painted various 
compositions among which Vasari mentions a " Pallas 
Tuning her Instrument to Apollo's Lyre" on a triumphal 
arch of wood erected by Baccio da Montelupo in front of the 
Badia, at the head of the Via Pelagio. 86 These paintings were 
in a ruinous condition even when Vasari wrote, and like the 
cars of the Diamante and the Broncone they have long since 
perished. 

We can, however, form some idea of the character of 
such ephemeral decorations from another "carro" which 
was decorated by Pontormo, and with which the officials of 
the Zecca used to take part in the yearly procession of San 
Giovanni. 37 It was broken up in 1810, but twenty small panels 
from it are still preserved in the Palazzo Vecchio, 38 many of 
them, it is true, so grossly and so many times repainted as 
to leave hardly a vestige of Pontormo 's hand. They are three 
long panels: "St. John in the Wilderness, " "The Preach- 
ing of St. John," "The Beheading of the Saint"; 39 six 
smaller, vertical panels: "The Baptist," "The Visitation," 
"St. Zenobius," "Zechariah," with two others which represent 
an apostle or a prophet; and twelve small, square panels of 
"putti" dancing and playing, some of which are delightful. 

85 Ibid., p. 255. See also A. S. F., Carteggio di Cosimo I, Cl. 50, No. 239, carta 1, 
Relazione dell ' ingresso che fece Leone X in detto giorno nella citta di Firenze, 30 nov., 
1515. 

so Ibid., p. 255. Numerous triumphal arches and temporary decorations were erected 
for this occasion. Vasari speaks of them a number of times. Pier di Cosimo, Granacci, 
Baccio da Montelupo, Rosso, Andrea, Jacopo di Sandro, Giuliano del Tasso, Bandinelli, 
Sansovino, Rustici and Pontormo were all employed in preparing them. Vasari states in his 
' ' Life of Pontormo ' ' that the arch at the Badia was by Montelupo. In his " Life of Andrea 
del Sarto" he says that the arch between the Badia and the Palazzo del Podesta was by 
Granacci and Aristotile da San Gallo. In his "Life of Granacci" he speaks of it as 
"dirimpetto alia porta di Badia" (V, 342) a phrase which he repeats in his "Life of 
Aristotile" (VI, 436). For Pier di Cosimo 's, Andrea's, Jacopo di Sandro 's, Montelupo 's, 
and Granacci 's work in connection with these festivities, see Vasari, V, 24 and note 3. 
For Rustici 's decorations, see idem, VI, 602. 

" Vasari, "VT, 256. We have no document for this work; the account-books of the 
Zecca between 1510 and 1530 have been lost. 

as/bid., p. 257, note 1. Milanesi states that eighteen pieces still exist; in reality 
we have twenty fragments. 

3 The composition of this panel is practically identical with that of a "predella" 
picture (Academy, Florence, No. 77) which is attributed to Andrea. 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

On two of these the "putti" support Medici arms. The wood- 
work of the car, which has disappeared, was by Marco del 
Tasso. What the original grouping of these fragments was 
cannot now be determined, although a notion of the whole may 
be formed from that other car that one sees in the streets of 
Florence on the Saturday before Easter the Carro de' Pazzi. 

Vasari places the Carro della Zecca between the "San 
Ruffillo Madonna" and the fresco of the "Visitation" in the 
cloister of the Annunziata, that is, in 1514-1515. Certainly the 
composition of the little "Visitation," which once belonged to 
it, is closely derived from Mariotto's "Visitation" of 1503, 40 and 
is one of the last traces of his old master's instruction left in 
Pontormo's art. Ruined as it is, the panel is more vital than 
Albertinelli's altar-piece. 

For this neglected work of Pontormo's I have discovered 
one drawing (fig. 8; Uffizi 6581 verso) 41 a study for "The 
Baptist." The draughtsmanship, and especially the modelling 
of the forearm, place this sheet about 1515-1516, which is the 
date that Vasari gives, by implication, for the undertaking. 

The relation between the "Madonna with Saints" that 
Pontormo painted for San Ruffillo and his "Visitation" in the 
cloister of the Annunziata 42 is quite evident: the latter (fig. 5) 
is merely an elaboration of the former (fig. 2), and in both the 
face of the Virgin is the same. The features of the woman 
with a bundle on her head in the "Visitation" recall the Santa 
Lucia of the "San Ruffillo Madonna." A similarity of rhythm 
in the two compositions makes these resemblances still more 
striking; both arrangements are triangular, with a figure on 
either side. The "Visitation," however, is strongly influenced 
by Andrea, although vestiges, almost imperceptible, of Alberti- 
nelli's methods may be discovered in it by attentive study. 
But the movement, the power and novelty of the fresco, its 
light harmonies, its fresh colour, its crisp execution, reveal a 
personality more vivacious than Mariotto's, while the whole 

40 Now in the Uffizi. 

41 Dessins, pp. 166 f . 

42 Vasari, VI, 256 f . Boechi, p. 424. Eicha, VIII, 60. 

15 



PONTORMO 

breathes a poetry compared with which the "Birth of the 
Virgin," painted by Andrea in the same cloister between 1511 
and 1514, 43 is pat and prosaic. Only the grouping of the eight 
figures in the background shows a certain inexperience. 

It is now possible to supplement the documents relative to 
this fresco that are mentioned by Milanesi and incompletely 
cited by Colasanti. 44 The first payment was made in December, 
1514, the last about the middle of June, 1516, 45 and the decoration 
was, therefore, unfinished when Leo came to Florence. For it 
Jacopo received eighty "lire." 

The drawings for this work have perished with the 
exception of two studies, 46 one (fig. 6; Uffizi 6603) light and 
facile but tame, for the woman seated on the steps, the other 
(fig. 7; Uffizi 6542) for the "putto," seated to her right. Both" 
are vaguely reminiscent of an early phase of Andrea's 
draughtsmanship, of which we have, in the Louvre, 47 an excel- 
lent example. Compared with our two studies for the "San 
Ruffillo Madonna," they mark a notable advance. 

Just after the "Visitation" I am inclined to place a lost 
"Pieta" for which several drawings survive. The touch 
indicates that these sketches were drawn between 1516 and 
1519, and in them Pontormo is master of his early technique. 
Five (Uffizi 6670 recto and verso; 6689; 6690 verso; 6691) 48 
are studies for the same Dead Christ (fig. 9) and they are of 
a relaxation exquisitely felt. Uffizi 6670 verso is unmistakably 
for the same undertaking, which was perhaps the "Pieta" that 
Vasari 49 describes as having existed in a chapel of the garden 
of the San Gallo monks, outside the San Gallo gate, and which 
was evidently destroyed during the siege in 1529-1530. We 

4 Vasari, V, 67. On the cornice of the fire-place one reads : A. D. M. D. X. IIII. 

44 Ibid., VI, 258, note 1. Colasanti, Bull. soc. filol. romana, II, 51, note 2. 

45 A. 8. F., Convento 119, No. 705, pp. 149 v., 165 v., 192 v., 200 v., 202 v. See 
Appendix II, Doc. 13. 

4 Dessins, pp. 142, 180. Uffizi 6556 recto and verso are also sketches for this fresco. 
Of. ibid., p. 151, and On Certain Drawings, p. 7. 
47 No. 45. 

4 Dessins, pp. 221 f., 234 f., 237. 
4 VI, 260. 

16 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

cannot cite documents to determine the date of this composition 
because the books of the convent have perished. 

Sometime in these busy years Jacopo also painted over the 
door of the Women's Hospital, 60 a lost fresco of " Christ as 
Pilgrim." These figures were in chiaroscuro, and it is worthy 
of notice that Andrea was employing the same medium at 
precisely the same moment in the cloister of the Scalzo 51 a 
coincidence that may have a certain bearing on Bocchi's state- 
ment 52 that, at the end of the sixteenth century, this fresco was 
generally thought to be by Andrea. There was probably in it 
a strong influence of his work. 

To the same period belonged the arms of Giovanni 
Salviati, supported by two "putti" and surmounted by a 
cardinal's hat, which in Vasari 's time adorned the courtyard 
of Filippo Spina's house, opposite its main entrance. These 
Vasari 53 places after the Visdomini altar-piece, although they 
were in all probability executed as early as 1517, in which year 
Salviati was made cardinal by Leo X. 

The last of the undertakings that immediately followed 
the " Visitation" was the lunette frescoed in Fiesole over the 
gate of the Compagnia della Cecilia. An early sketch in red 
chalk (fig. 12) for this lost work exists in the Uffizi, which was 
marked in the seventeenth century: "Per la Sta Cecilia che e 
in Fiesole. "-^ I have found the finished study (fig. 11) in the 
Corsini Collection, in Rome. 54 The composition is admirable 
and corresponds precisely to Vasari 's description 56 of the 
lunette: "una S. Cecilia colorita in fresco con alcune rose in 
mano tanto bella e tanto bene in qual luogo accomodata." The 
quality of both drawings clearly indicates 1517-1518 as the date 
of this decoration. 

50 ma., p. 256. 

si A. S. F., Compagnia di San Giovanni detta dello Scalzo, Libro maestro, Debitori 
e Creditor! B (1514-1535), p. 30. 

52 Ed. Cinelli, p. 19. 

53 VI, 261. 

s* Dessins, pp. 240 f., 333. 
55 VI, 257. 



17 



CHAPTER III 

1518-1520 

The "Visitation" at the Anmmziata marks the culmination 
of Pontormo's first period. From Andrea he had taken 
solidity of form, variety of movement, and familiar simplicity 
of gesture qualities which he touched, however, with a 
graciousness and a poetry that were unrevealed to his master's 
more pedestrian mind. With a fine instinct for decorative 
harmonies, he had lightened Andrea's warm but heavy colouring 
by eliminating the half-tones, thinning the yellows and the 
reds, and with great skill carrying a few, strong, light colours 
through a whole composition. But his restless mind found 
no repose. New problems of form attracted him, and new 
influences swayed his sensitive nature. 

In the "Visitation," his figures show a tendency to a heroic 
largeness of type. Many sketches, drawn between 1513 and 
1518, indicate beyond the possibility of a doubt that the source 
of this tendency was Michelangelo's cartoon of the "Battle 
of the Cascina." Jacopo was attracted by the easy play of 
muscles in new attitudes, which it revealed so abundantly, and 
some of the poses he studied many times. It is also quite clear 
that he was not unacquainted with certain lost drawings for 
the Sixtine. And since touch is more persistent than borrowed 
conceptions of type or gesture, these drawings resemble, from 
a technical point of view, certain sketches that Andrea made 
between 1512 and 1518, although Jacopo 's work is, of course, 
not literal. 

During these years he studied still another master 
Leonardo da Vinci, whose influence, though infinitely less 
potent and lasting than that of Michelangelo, is strikingly 
present in the Visdomini altar-piece (fig. 13), which is the most 

18 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

important picture that Pontormo painted after the "Visitation" 
and before the lunette at Poggio. Tentative exploration of new 
ground, crossing and recrossing of impulses old and new, are 
characteristic, as we have seen, of Jacopo's early work. These 
various tendencies meet in the Visdomini altar-piece. The 
St. Joseph, the St. James, and the St. John the Evangelist, 
recall Andrea, while the gestures of other figures are Leon- 
ardesque, as is the pose of the Christ Child and of the little 
St. John. Prom Leonardo too is derived the graduated chiaro- 
scuro and the mysterious smile that plays upon many of the 
faces. It would almost seem that, when he painted certain 
parts of this picture, Pontormo had in mind an early work 
by Da Vinci, which was known and treasured then, but is now 
lost. The composition, on the contrary, is not derivative, but 
is based upon a curious attempt to create a new rhythm. One 
is tempted to believe that Pontormo meant the personages of 
the picture to be united, not by the passage of line into line, 
but by their common meditation upon the mystery of the 
Divine Mother. 1 To our modern taste the general effect is, as 
a result, broken and somewhat trivial. 

Francesco Pucci ordered the picture for the second altar 
to the right in San Michele Visdomini. 2 It was famous in its 
day, and Vasari merely echoes a prevalent opinion when he 
says: "questa e la piu bella tavola che mai facesse questo 
rarissimo pittore." Even at a much later date it was highly 
prized and Eicha 3 tells us that the Archduchess Maria Madda- 
lena once tried to buy it, but was unable to do so because it is 
an inalienable part of the Pucci heritage. In the Doetsch 
Collection, 4 which was dispersed some years ago in London, a 
copy existed that certain critics believed to be the original. 5 
The picture in San Michele is badly lighted and can with 
difficulty be examined. It would be hazardous to come to a 

i Vasari, VI, 258. 



s VII, 23. 
4 In 1895. 

s See Catalogue Kaisonnl under Doetsch Collection and Florence, San Michele 
Visdomini. 

19 



PONTOEMO 

definite conclusion in regard to its authenticity. Among those 
papers of the Pucci family which are now in the Archives of 
Florence I have not been able to find the contract. But if we 
had it, it would perhaps add nothing of an essential nature to 
our information. The date of the panel is known. On the book 
which St. John holds are the letters, M. D. xiij. 

We possess many drawings 6 for this altar-piece (fig. 14 
to 23). With it Berenson has identified thirteen studies, among 
them our painter's best jotting in pen and ink (Uffizi 6545), 
and to these I have added eight preliminary sketches, 7 all of 
which are swift, fresh, and masterful. 

Between the St. Francis of the Visdomini and the St. 
Jerome (reversed) of an unfinished little altar-piece, now in 
the Uffizi, 8 we detect a distinct resemblance that is made sig- 
nificant by another drawing for the St. Francis (Uffizi 6742 
verso), 9 in which the saint is seen standing, and which, not 
improbably, served for the St. Jerome of the smaller picture. 
At any rate, the colour, the character of the heads, especially 
that of the Madonna, the fall of the drapery, and the rhythm 
of the composition make it certain that the Uffizi panel belongs 
in date just after the Visdomini picture. From the same year 
we have a beautiful black-chalk sketch (fig. 24; Uffizi 6729) 10 
for another "Madonna and Child," the fate of which is 
unknown, that must have had the same qualities as the Uffizi 
picture but greater charm. 

From this period, and like the Visdomini panel harking 
back to Leonardo's chiaroscuro, though in structure, motive, 
and gesture recalling Andrea, is the "Madonna and Little St. 
John," now in the possession of the Marchese Farinola. The 
picture is not mentioned by Vasari, and for it we have no 
documents. 

Between the Visdomini and Poggio, and accordingly for a 

6 Dessins, p. 67. 

7 On Certain Drawings, pp. 6, 20. 
s No. 1177. 

Dessins, p. 271. 

10 /bid., p . 262 f. Possibly a study for the "Madonna" of the " drappelloni " 
painted in 1519 for the funeral of Bartolomeo Ginori. 

20 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

period which embraces less than two years, Vasari mentions 
thirteen pictures a number so great that it is apparent that 
here his chronology needs some correction. Two of his errors 
are easily eliminated. The arms of the Lanfredini, 11 now 
destroyed, which Jacopo painted over a door on the Lungarno 
between Ponte Santa Trinita and Ponte alia Carraia, were 
placed by Bronzino, according to Vasari himself, among the 
earliest undertakings of Pontormo, and the "St. Quentin," 
begun by Giovanmaria Pichi for the Osservanti of Borgo San 
Sepolcro and finished by Jacopo, 12 is obviously so closely related 
to the Certosa frescoes that it can hardly have been painted 
earlier than 1522. 13 

The principal works that belong between the summer of 
1518 and the autumn of 1519 are three 14 "cassone" pictures 16 
of "Scenes from the Life of Joseph," a panel 16 of "Joseph in 
Egypt" (all executed for Pierfrancesco Borgherini), the 
"Portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio," of the Uffizi, 17 and the 
"Portrait of a Youth," now in Genoa. 18 No written document 
fixes the date of these pictures (fig. 26, 27, 30, 41, 42), but on 
internal evidence one may be certain that they were executed 
in 1518-1519. Vasari records 19 that, in the "Joseph in Egypt," 
Pontormo painted the portrait of the young Bronzino. Angelo, 
who is represented as about fifteen years of age, was born 
November 17, 1503. 20 The date of the panel would, then, be 
1518. 21 A similar deduction gives us the date of the "Portrait 

11 Vasari, pp. 258 f. 

12 Ibid. 

is Dessins, p. 203. 

i* Berenson (Florentine Painters, p. 175) mentions only two of these panels. 

is Now in Panshanger. See Catalogue Baisonn4. These small pictures are usually 
called "cassone" panels, but they may have formed part of a "lettuccio" or settle, or 
they may have been ornaments of a "spalliera" which would be, in our modern usage, 
a wainscot. 

i National Gallery, No. 1131 ; now apparently transferred to canvas. 

IT Now in the Uffizi. 

i 8 Palazzo Bianco, No. 6. 

i VI, 261. 

20 Eegistro dei Battezzati di S. Giovanni Battista, 1503, p. 33, line 27. 

21 Eichter, to whom Bronzino appears here to be but ten years of age, erroneously 
places this picture in 1512. It is not necessary to point out that such a date would mean 

21 



PONTORMO 

of Cosimo il Vecchio." It was ordered by Goro Gheri while 
he was secretary to Lorenzino de' Medici, and we know that 
Lorenzino died on May 4, 1518. 

In the composition of the Borgherini panels Jacopo makes 
a rather self-conscious effort to escape from old formulas by 
distributing his figures and arranging them in little groups, 
on planes that are defined by the various parts of an archi- 
tectural setting. In this there was nothing new. Quattrocento 
pictures, such as Ghirlandaio's "Adoration of the Magi," as 
well as numerous mythological subjects by Pier di Cosimo, are 
similarly composed, and we also find, at precisely this moment, 
Andrea combining naturalistically a similar kind of grouping 
with architecture and flights of steps, in his " Scenes from the 
Life of Joseph," now in the Pitti. 22 But even a cursory com- 
parison satisfies us that the younger artist had the more 
fantastic spirit. In the Borgherini panels, as in the Visdomini 
altar-piece, certain figures are in type, structure, and drapery, 
reminiscent of Andrea. The slender legs, the trailing draperies, 
the long lines of the folds of other figures, the interrupted 
rhythm of the composition are of quite another inspiration, as 
is also the light and delicate colour. 

These four little pictures were famous; Vasari places the 
"Joseph in Egypt" among Jacopo 's finest productions. 23 For 
us too they have a peculiar interest, for they were part of the 
room decorated and furnished for Borgherini by Andrea, 
Granacci, Pontormo and other great craftsmen. 24 Pontormo's 
"Joseph in Egypt" was placed in the corner to the left of the 
door. His three "Scenes from the Life of Joseph" either 

that Pontormo manifested a masterful individuality of style bordering on exaggeration 
while he was still an apprentice in the "bottega" of Andrea. 

22 Nos. 87 and 88. 

23 VI, 261. 

24 Idem, V, 26 f., 342 f.; VI, 261, 455. Pierfrancesco Borgherini married Margherita 
Acciaiuoli in 1515, but the decoration of their famous room was not finished, it would seem, 
until several years later. Pontormo's panels cannot have been painted before 1517. 
Margherita was born in 1495 and was still alive in 1558, in which year Domenicho dedicated 
to her his "Life of Santa Brigida." For the courageous way in which she denounced 
Delia Palla's attempt to gain possession, during the siege, of the works of art that the 
room contained, see Vasari, VI, 263. 

22 



HIS LIFE AND WOBK 

formed part of two "cassoni," or were framed in the decorative 
inlaid woodwork of the room, the design and execution of which 
was Baccio d'Agnolo's. 

For the three "cassone" panels (fig. 26, 27 and 30) I have 
discovered five studies. Of these, Uffizi 6690, 25 a sketch (fig. 29) 
from the nude for one of the figures on the steps to the left in 
the " Baker Led out to Execution," is technically near Jacopo's 
studies from Michelangelo's cartoon for the " Battle of the 
Cascina," and should be compared with Uffizi 442 (fig. 44) 
in which there is, however, a greater tension of rhythm. For 
one of the figures, in the upper left-hand corner of " Joseph 
Sold to Potiphar," we have a scrawl (fig. 31) of delicious 
verve, 26 and for another, a brilliant but somewhat unsympathetic 
drawing (fig. 32), which might have been done by Naldini. 
Uffizi 6692 (fig. 25) is a sketch for the youth descending the 
steps on the right of " Joseph Discovering Himself to His 
Brethren." Its freshness and facility are delightful. Uffizi 
6542 verso (fig. 28) " prefigures the boy kneeling to the left 
in the same composition, and in it the structure of the nude 
recalls Andrea, but the hair is blown out in the way that 
Leonardo loved. These last two are important drawings that 
no one would think of ascribing to Andrea, although the panel 
for which they were drawn is universally held to be by Del 
Sarto and until recently all three pictures were ascribed to 
him. 28 

In the grouping of the composition, these "cassone" 
decorations resemble the " Adoration of the Magi" (fig. 33 ) 28 
painted for Giovanmaria Benintendi, 30 where, however, in his 

25 Dessins, p. 236. 

26 Ibid., p. 151, where I incorrectly identified this sheet with the saint to the extreme 
right of the "Visitation" at the Annunziata. 

27 Ibid., p. 142. 

28 Catalogue of Exhibition of Old Masters in Aid of the National Art-Collections 
Fund, October 4-December 28, 1911, p. 50. Crowe and Cavalcaselle saw that they displayed 
qualities characteristic of Pontormo, History of Painting, ed. Borenius, VI, 202. See also 
an article by Sir Claude Phillips in the Art Journal, 1906, p. 1. 

2 Pitti, No. 379. 

so Andrea di Cosimo, Franciabigio and Bacchiacca worked for Benintendi when he 
decorated his house (Vasari, V, 196, 209; VI, 455). 

23 



PONTORMO 

use of a dark and rich colour, Pontormo is nearer Andrea than 
he will ever be again. The figures are broad-faced, prodigiously 
stout, and wear enormous sleeves. Jacopo was, we may surmise, 
experimenting with a new form of elegance. Like the Bor- 
gherini panels, this picture, which is now in the Pitti, was 
painted in competition with other masters. Franciabigio's 
"cassone" panel for Benintendi as well as a companion piece 
by Bacchiacca, is now in the Dresden Gallery, and in the lower 
left corner, one finds the date: A. s. MDXxrn. Pontormo 's 
"Adoration" cannot however be later than 1519-1520. For the 
horses in the background three vigorous drawings (fig. 34) 
exist 31 that, by their touch, insistently suggest several studies 
for the lunette at Poggio. 

The figures of Pharaoh and his retinue in the foreground 
and to the left of "Joseph in Egypt" remind one vividly of the 
St. Michael and the St. John the Evangelist (fig. 35 and 36), 
which Pontormo painted for the citizens of his native town and 
which are still in the church of San Michele at Pontormo. 
Statuesque, and visibly affected by the work done by Andrea 
between 1515 and 1519, they are nevertheless clearly less 
naturalistic. The drawings for these figures are of exceptional 
interest. We have a finished study (fig. 37), in black chalk, for 
the St. John, 82 which is manifestly more pictorial than such a 
drawing for the panels at Panshanger as Uffizi 6692. The long, 
abrupt breaks in the drapery, angular bunches of which are 
gathered at the hips, as well as the treatment of the hands, recall 
the Corsini study (fig. 11) for the lost "Santa Cecilia." But 
not so the studies in red chalk for St. Michael's hands that one 
finds on the same sheet, which, like the best drawings of Del 
Sarto, catch thrillingly a momentary pulse of life, and record 
a moment in which Jacopo sounded the spirit of his master 
more profoundly perhaps than he ever had or ever would again. 
His study for the legs of St. Michael (fig. 40), on the contrary, 
shows a love of elegance, and a whole-hearted preoccupation 
with the beautiful and the decorative. It suggests some late 

^Dessins, pp. 153 f., 256. 
"Ibid., pp. 117, 161. 

24 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

Greek god, carved in alabaster or ivory, some god, tall and slim 
beyond measure, but full of the authentic strangeness of rarest 
things. Conte Gamba finds it reminiscent of the quattrocentist 
tradition, and its transparent smoothness does, perhaps, recall 
Rossellino's somewhat over-modelled surfaces, although struc- 
turally it is of a fine sophistication that the Quattrocento 
seldom knew. 

In 1519 Pontormo executed certain ephemeral works, since 
destroyed or lost, among them a series of "drappelloni" for 
the funeral of Bartolomeo Ginori for which he painted, accord- 
ing to Vasari, 33 a " Madonna and Child " on white taffeta with 
the arms of the family below on coloured silk. In size and 
lightness, these pennons were an innovation and set a new 
standard. In the middle of the series there were two banners, 
two "braccia" high, on each of which a "St. Bartholomew." 

To these years also belong Pontormo 's first known por- 
traits, although they can hardly have been his earliest, since 
we know, for example, that in his " Joseph in Egypt" he had 
already portrayed the young Bronzino among other figures, 
many of which seem natural enough to be portraits. The 
extraordinarily lifelike figure to the extreme left in the Pitti 
" Adoration," has even been considered to be a likeness of 
Pontormo himself, although for such a conjecture there is no 
foundation. ^The portrait of Giovann' Antonio Lappoli, 34 who 
came momentarily under Jacopo's instruction 35 just after the 
"Faith and Charity" of the Servites was finished, as well as 
the portrait of Becuccio Bicchieraio's son-in-law with a friend, 36 
have been lost. But we have some ground, from the sequence 
of Vasari 's narrative, for imagining that they belonged to this 
period, and were therefore probably not unlike the "Portrait 
of Cosimo il Vecchio" (fig. 42), 37 the "Portrait of a Youth," 
at Genoa (fig. 41) , 38 or the broad, massive portrait-drawing of 

33 VI, 260. Cf. note 10 and fig. 24. 

34 Ibid. 

35 Ibid., p. 6. 
se Ibid., p. 260. 

37 Now in the Uffizi. Cf . Vasari, VI, 264. 

38 Palazzo Bianco, No. 6. 

25 



PONTORMO 

a youth, alert and conscious, in ample robes, now in the Uffizi 
(fig. 38; No. 452), all of which are excellent examples of 
Pontormo 's early manner in portraiture. 

As a young man Pontormo worked hard, and how creative 
his spirit was, how disciplined his hand ! These were perhaps 
his happiest years. He was popular, and from all sides orders 
came to him, which he met with a power and a versatility that 
made him the most conspicuous and promising painter of the 
younger generation, and gave him, though he was but five-and- 
twenty, an eminent place among the ablest craftsmen then at 
work in Florence. 

Between 1512 and 1519 his manner had undergone numer- 
ous changes of unusual interest, through which we have been 
able to follow the drift of his unquiet spirit. The conception 
of form that he had inherited from Albertinelli and Pier di 
Cosimo mingled, not without hesitations, with the realism that 
he had caught from the sturdiest draughtsman Florence ever 
had. Now and then, as he developed, he found Leonardo's 
types attractive, but most of all, and increasingly, Michel- 
angelo's art moved him to a profounder study of the problem 
of decorative and yet convincing form. 

The first decade of Pontormo 's career gives us a sense of 
the forces that outlined his creative individuality, and although 
most of the pictures of that period are important rather as 
documents than as works of art, one divines in them, neverthe- 
less, a constant preoccupation. Jacopo had that rarest of gifts, 
the decorative instinct. Not, then, as an eclectic, or as an 
imitator, did he pass consecutively, and sometimes even simul- 
taneously, through the various traditions that Florence kept 
alive. Through all these superficial changes he was struggling 
to formulate his vision, for he wanted to treat form, not merely 
with mysterious science like Leonardo, not simply with conven- 
tionality like Albertinelli, not even with convincing naturalistic 
prosiness like Andrea, but for its own sake, joyously, lightly, 
and decoratively. To spread, as it Were, a feast of problems 
solved with a magnificent, fine facility for the pure distraction 
of our pictorial sense that was his apparent aim. But, as a 

26 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

youth, he had been commissioned to paint sacred subjects, and 
these hardly gave his talent for decoration a sufficient outlet, 
chiefly because the effort to establish a new canon for the 
favorite themes of religious painting needed a forceful self- 
confidence that Jacopo did not have. To express himself freely, 
moreover, he seems to have required an equilibrium between his 
vision and his environment more delicately adjusted than any 
he had found so far. In 1520 such an equilibrium was estab- 
lished when, given a fine task and a free hand, he painted one 
of the greatest mural paintings of the Renaissance, the lunette 
in the Great Hall of the Medicean villa at Poggio a Cajano. 



27 



CHAPTER IV 

1520-1522 

No documents exist for the lunette at Poggio. Only a 
careful scrutiny of several circumstances will enable us to 
conjecture the date at which it was begun. The decision to 
undertake the decoration of the Great Hall came from Leo X. 1 
It was to be a tribute to the memory of his father, and he made 
Ottaviano de ' Medici general director of the work. 2 We imagine 
that this enterprise was intended by the Pope to serve also as 
a token of his desire that Lorenzino settle down in Florence 
and not in Rome, and that it could hardly have received serious 
attention until Lorenzino returned to Florence, on September 7, 
1518, 3 with his bride, Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne. Six 
months later Lorenzino died (May 4, 1518), * and it is but 
reasonable to suppose that his death may have somewhat 
delayed the preliminary arrangements. The painters could, as 
a result, hardly have begun work before the early spring of 
1519. Franciabigio and Andrea di Cosimo were then com- 
missioned to gild the ceiling, but, even when finally undertaken, 
the work progressed slowly. 

Besides Pontormo, Andrea del Sarto and Franciabigio 8 
were engaged, and to them the side-walls were entrusted, while 
to Pontormo were given the end-walls, the upper part of each 
of which is a lunette. His whole task, therefore, was to include 
two lunettes and two large frescoes, 6 and as the lunettes were 

iVasari, V, 195; VI, 265. 
2 Ibid., VI, p. 264. 

a Anonymous continuator of Landucci, p. 365. Letter of Cardinal Giulio to Antonio 
Pucci, August 3, 1518, Catalogo dei Manoscritti Torrigiani, p. 271. 

* Cambi, XXII, pp. 144 f . Nerli, VI, p. 132. Ammirato, XXIX, p. 335. 

6 Vasari, V, pp. 35, 195. The painters were paid thirty "seudi" a month (V, 196). 

Ibid., VI, 264. 

28 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

the more difficult part of the undertaking, it was on one (fig. 50, 
51 and 52) of them that Jacopo began work. Paolo Giovio, 
bishop of Nocera, chose the subject, 7 "Pomona and Vertumnus," 
having in mind, it would seem, one of the less well-known 
passages 8 of the " Metamorphoses. " With a simple lunette 
(fig. 11) Pontormo had already dealt, once with great charm 9 
in the "Santa Cecilia," once with mastery in a drawing for a 
lost "Pieta" (fig. 39; Uffizi 300F), 10 and he attacked the new 
and greater problem of a lunette pierced by a bull's-eye with 
the greatest earnestness, devoting to his preparation much time 
and thought, feverishly undoing today the work of yesterday 
"sempre facendo nuovi trovati." 11 

At the same time, ideas apparently came to him for all 
four decorations, for I cannot but think that in many drawings 
of passionate force, of sparkling rhythm, or of wistful tran- 
quillity, which are manifestly of this period, but in no way 
related to the lunette, we have first thoughts for one of the other 
projected but unexecuted frescoes. What the subjects of these 
compositions were to have been we do not know, and it is possible 
that he only made tentative plans for them, for in the time that 
he took to paint the first lunette, Franciabigio finished only 
one fresco, 12 while Andrea's "Tribute to Caesar" was left but 
half painted 13 when the death of Leo (December 1, 1521) 
interrupted -the undertaking," and all work upon the Great 
Hall was suspended. During the brief reign of Hadrian VI, 
the position of the Medici was precarious, and it was evidently 
not a moment when they would have spent much on what the 
Italians call "muraglia." 

1 IUd., V, 195. 

s Ovid, Met., xiv, 623-697. 

Dessins, p. 333. 

10 Ibid., p. 87. 

"Vasari, VI, 2641 

12 Ibid., V, 195. 

is Ibid., 36. Finished by Alessandro Allori. On a " cartella ' ' one reads : ' ' Anno 
Domini 1521 Andreas Sartius pingebat, et Anno Domini 1580 Alexander Allorius seque- 
batur. " Andrea was very busy during these years. The "Tabernacle of Porta Pinti" 
was finished in 1520. Cf. Vasari, V, 33. 

i* Ibid., VI, 264 f . 

29 



PONTORMO 

Many drawings relative to Poggio survive. We can 
follow with comparative ease the steps by which Pontormo 
advanced from a general idea of the composition to its final 
form. The earliest sheet (fig. 53) we possess is perhaps 
Uffizi 6660 verso, 15 on which the lunette is mapped out and the 
pose of several figures indicated, and on which the medallion 
under the hull's-eye, the two "putti" over it, the high wall and 
the laurel branches also appear. Pontormo, however, had not 
decided what figures he would use, nor yet made clear to 
himself, where he was to place them. He seems, it is true, to 
have contemplated an arrangement that involved two figures 
with their backs to the lower part of the bull's-eye, one seated, 
one half reclining and, to the right of the right-hand figure, a 
simple rustic gaine. So his mind played around the Goddess 
of Gardens and her setting. 

His next idea for the whole composition is Uffizi 6742 
verso. On this sheet, drawn over a preliminary sketch for the 
St. Francis of the Visdomini, we can trace outlines of the 
lunette, the lower wall, and four seated figures. The peasant- 
like figure of Vertumnus to the extreme left, the figure to his 
right, the reclining woman who looks over her left shoulder, 
occur here, practically as we find them in the finished work. 
This sheet is also a curious link between Poggio and the lunette 
of " Santa Cecilia," for to the extreme right one descries a 
woman crouching in a pose which repeats that of the latter 
figure. 

We can also follow in some cases the genesis of individual 
figures, and in Pontormo 's second mapping-out of the whole 
lunette (Uffizi 6742 verso) we find, for example, his first idea 
for the woman to the left on the lower right wall. For the 
same figure a study from the nude survives. It was made, 
however, before the width of the lower parapet had been 
determined. In this sketch (fig. 54; Uffizi 6557), which is 
strikingly modern in pose and treatment, the figure lies flatter 
than it does in the fresco. The final study (fig. 55 ; Uffizi 6673), 

16 A detailed discussion of each of these drawings will be found in my Dessins. 

30 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

the gracile charm of which recalls Fragonard, is except for the 
fall of the drapery identical with the finished work. 

With even greater precision, we can follow the evolution 
of the figure to the extreme right on the lower wall. For it 
our earliest idea is a study from the male nude (fig. 56 ; Uffizi 
6514) which, apart from its rare plasticity and its beautiful 
lightness of touch, is of unusual interest because it shows that 
Pontormo at first thought of making the lower parapet twice 
as high as it is in the fresco. In Uffizi 6515 verso (fig. 57), we 
find the final pose of this figure sketched from life, the model 
a young artisan, the movement delightfully indicated. Last 
in this series we have Uffizi 6673 verso (fig. 58) , which but for 
the drapery is close to the figure in the decoration. In spirit, 
however, it is different, for in the sketch the beautiful peasant 
girl of the fresco is transfigured by a touch of the superhuman. 
Clearly this drawing owes indirectly something of its great, 
indwelling life to Michelangelo in spite of the fact that the 
draughtsmanship is devoid of any semblance of his manner. 
The case is otherwise with two extraordinary sketches (fig. 59 
and 60) for the pose of this figure (Uffizi 6544 and 6555). 
These represent gigantic male nudes, and they cannot be placed 
later than 1521. Yet I know of no drawing by Michelangelo, 
earlier than 1528, in which the contour and modelling are 
rendered as "Pontormo renders them here. Are we to believe, 
as Berenson suggests, that in these studies Pontormo, with 
marvellous versatility, outstripped for a moment Michelangelo 
himself? 

Uffizi 6437 verso is a study of drapery that falls from the 
knees of a seated female figure; the legs are bent back at the 
knees, and the feet rest on a wall upon which she had just 
climbed. This was Jacopo's first idea for the rustic goddess 
to the extreme right of the upper parapet, but with it he seems 
to have been dissatisfied. For on the recto of this sheet we find 
that he made another study of drapery that hangs from the 
waist of the same figure, seated this time, facing left astride 
of a wall, and wearing a skirt that sweeps down the left leg 
and is caught up, at the knees, by the parapet. This pose also 

31 



PONTORMO 

had its difficulties an awkward bundling-up of drapery before 
and behind the figure. It interested Pontormo, however, 
and for it he made one more sketch, a fine, small study (fig. 54) 
from the nude (Uffizi 6557) that, without the help of 6437 recto, 
we would never have thought of identifying with any figure 
in the fresco. Uffizi 6519 verso is a little sketch for part of the 
same drapery, the final form of the lower part of which, 
identical in touch with the fragment just mentioned, is found 
in Uffizi 6731 recto (fig. 61). In Uffizi 6632 recto, the pose of 
the torse is suggested. This is followed by a curious series 
of trial poses. The male nude, studied in Uffizi 6662 verso 
(fig. 62), is seated as in the fresco but the position of the legs 
and arms is reversed. Technically this drawing, like Uffizi 
6544 and 6555, is Michelangelesque, though less noticeably so. 
Corsini 124243 verso, a sketch of great spontaneity, is probably 
Jacopo's first thought for the pose finally chosen. Uffizi 6728 
gives the outline of the right leg precisely as in the fresco; 
Uffizi 6531 (fig. 63) and 6530 are finished studies for the whole 
figure, draped as in the painting, and Uffizi 6547 (fig. 64), is 
a rare but ruined study for the head, enigmatical, enchantingly 
felt, dainty and free. 

Several drawings survive for the child to the left of this 
figure, one of the earliest of which is Uffizi 8976 verso, and 
although it is far from the final pose, we can also unreservedly 
identify Uffizi 6646 (fig. 65), on which one sees, to the left, the 
curve of the bull's-eye, as a first thought for the same infant. 
Uffizi 6728 verso is a sketch for the left leg. The recto of 
Uffizi 8976 may represent another conception of the figure, 
drawn while Pontonno still thought of making his fresco, not 
a summer holiday of the rustic gods, but a pastoral "concerto." 
For the composition of this proposed " concerto," Uffizi 455 
(fig. 74) is a finished study where, however, our figure does 
not occur. It is among certain drawings that preserve early 
tentative poses of this figure that we find two of Pontonno 's 
rarest sketches (fig. 67 and 68; Uffizi 6669 recto and verso). 
These drawings, so perfect in structure and yet so prompt, so 
transfused with the quickness of lyric beauty, attain to a quality 

32 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

that we should look for in vain in the work of Del Sarto. In 
them Jacopo achieves a spontaneous registry of vision, a tran- 
script of the essential, not less magical than Leonardo's own. 
The only other sketch we have for a figure on this side of the 
lunette is Corsini 124240, a spirited jotting for the "putto" 
over the bull's-eye. 

For the left half of the lunette, less copious material has 
come down to us. The final pose of the youth to the extreme 
left, on the upper wall, appears in no study that is known to 
me, although the germinal idea is undoubtedly a tiny sketch 
on Uffizi 6515 where, however, the movement of the left arm 
and of the legs is different. Uffizi 6634 may also be a first 
thought for this figure, the pose still far from that which one 
sees in the fresco and which obviously owes something to the 
"Jonah" of the Sixtine. On Uffizi 6661 (fig. 66) there is a 
vibrant sketch for the " putto," to the left, above the bull's-eye. 

The child to the right of the youth that we have just 
discussed has come down to us in the final study (fig. 69 ; Uffizi 
6651) from which the figure was transferred to the wall. It is 
exquisitely lovely, of liquid tonality, the movement seized with 
masterly definition. The soft but vivacious modelling gives 
one a sense of fine silver bronze, and beautiful as this figure 
is in the fresco, it has surely lost some of its own original, 
delicate vitality. 

We cannot trace the loosely dressed youth, seated to the 
right on the lower wall, in any known drawing unless, as is 
doubtful, Uffizi 6618 preserves an earlier conception of the 
figure. For the left arm, however, as it appears in the fresco, 
we have a decisive study (fig. 70; Uffizi 6559), while on Uffizi 
6515 one finds what is seemingly a sketch for the knees in a 
slightly different pose, and a study of the left foot in the pose 
finally chosen. 

The old peasant-like Vertumnus, to the extreme left, is 
traceable in a number of studies. As we have already noted, 
the idea of placing a squatting figure in this corner of the fresco 
occurred to Pontormo early in his work of preparation, and 
one descries such a pose in the first draft of the lower part of 

33 



PONTOKMO 

the fresco (Uffizi 6742 verso). In the beginning, Jacopo seems 
to have intended that this figure should shade his eyes with his 
right hand a motive which first appears in a scrawl on Uffizi 
6599 recto, and which is studied again from the nude in three 
splendid sheets, Uffizi 6515, spirited and immediate, 6685 recto 
(fig. 71), ringing and solid, 6599 recto, somewhat arbitrary in 
its proportions but of great indwelling energy. For the old 
god's head, precisely as it appears in the fresco, Uffizi 6579 
(fig. 72) is a fine study, obviously from the life and admirable 
in its incisive severity. 

Two puzzling designs for the whole lunette remain to be 
considered (fig. 73 and 74; Uffizi 454 and 455), both of which 
recall the fresco without being definite studies for it. In the 
former, there are three figures on either side; around the 
bull's-eye is wound a strong young sapling of which each figure 
holds a branch, and which without their efforts would straighten 
out and spring away. This motive is apparently symbolic of 
Pomona's beneficent guardianship of gardens and their trees, 
and yet a more felicitous and fitting solution of the mere 
problem created by the shape of the space to be frescoed could 
hardly be imagined; no figure is otiose, and no gesture mean- 
ingless. Pontormo's insight into the secrets of Michelangelo's 
art could with difficulty be more admirably illustrated than 
by the fine ease with which he gives here a real function to every 
figure ; his feeling for the fundamentally significant in compo- 
sition finds nowhere more creative expression. 

Is our drawing a rejected study for the existing lunette 
at Poggio, or is it a project for the second lunette of the Great 
Hall, for which Jacopo received a new commission in 1532, but 
which he never executed? The swollen contours and the close 
packing of the figures into the space prescribed convince 
Berenson that our design was drawn in 1531-1532. I believe, 
on the contrary, that the exaggerated contours, the rather puffy 
modelling, can more easily be explained by the fact that the 
drawing is in pen and bistre a medium for which Pontormo 
shows nowhere either aptitude or predilection. Moreover, it 
will be noticed that this splendid design contains one figure 

34 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

closely related to the Pomona of the finished fresco; and so 
striking a relation must have its own especial significance. In 
a second lunette, in the same Hall, Jacopo would hardly have 
repeated a conspicuous figure. But, if our drawing is really 
a project for the first lunette, one wonders at first sight how 
Pontormo, who must have realized its unusual beauty, could 
ever have abandoned it. He had, I think, no choice ; it was the 
great size of the lunette at Poggio that forced him to lay it 
aside as impracticable, for the figures of the drawing expanded 
to the scale of the surface to be decorated would have been 
enormous, larger even than the clumsy giants painted by 
Alessandro Allori, in 1580, at the other end of the Hall. 

Our other study for the whole lunette is also in pen and 
bistre. Here too the motive of the bent sapling is used, but 
it is held by only two figures, both on the same side of the 
bull's-eye. This design must have been drawn just after the 
former, and it shows, as we have seen, that for a time Pontormo 
thought of painting, not a rustic holiday as an interpretation 
of his theme, but a pastoral " concerto." Many drawings 16 exist 
that are not for any figure of the surviving lunette at Poggio 
but that date from the same period. Among these we find a 
powerfully realized study (fig. 76; Uffizi 6597) for a " Young 
Baptist in the Wilderness," the preliminary sketch for which 
(Uffizi 6645 Tecto) represents one of Pontormo 's most inspired 
moments ; an intense and enigmatic composition of three nudes, 
preserved in the Stadel Institute, at Frankfort (fig. 77) ; a 
curious sketch of a melancholy and meditative youth wrapped 
in a great mantle (fig. 49; Uffizi 6682). The latter, like many 
other studies that date from these years notably the swift 
and energetic drawing, Uffizi 6727 recto (fig. 75) represents 
a figure seated upon a high, stepped block. These, and the 
flamelike study (fig. 78; Uffizi 6677 verso) of three nudes, one 
of which stretches out a hand with the gesture of the "Adam" 
of the .Sixtine, help us to measure the nature and extent of 
Michelangelo's influence upon Jacopo between 1519 and 1521. 
Either Pontormo had seen the Sixtine ceiling itself, or he had 

is Fig. 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 75, 76, 77, 78. 

35 



PONTORMO 

studied many sketches made by Michelangelo in preparation 
for it that have since been lost. Apart from the drawings of 
seated figures, which I have just mentioned, the earliest sheet 
that we have for Poggio (fig. 53; Ufiizi 6660 verso) contains 
three studies of interlaced "putti" that are unmistakably 
derived from the Sixtine vault, although the pose differs from 
that of any "putti" now to be seen there. More important 
still, in this connection, is the right-hand figure of Uffizi 6660 
recto, a sketch that distinctly recalls the figure in the space to 
the right of and above Michelangelo's "Zerubbabel," and that 
represents, I believe, Pontormo's first idea for one of the 
"putti" above the bull's-eye. The slope on which the figure 
leans excludes all other explanation. This sheet furnishes the 
most direct evidence we have that the Sixtine ceiling was present 
to our master's mind when he was planning his "Pomona and 
Vertumnus," at Poggio. 

On the other hand, the lunette, in its final form, owes little 
to Michelangelo. Its sunny airiness, its autumnal festivity, the 
gay dignity, the unity and charming novelty of the composition, 
are all Pontormo's own, and in it his fine instinct for the 
decorative expresses itself with a gracious fitness, a perennial 
youthfulness, a quiet, delicate joyfulness, without parallel in 
any other Italian work of the Renaissance. 



36 



CHAPTER V 

1522-1527 

In the fresco at Poggio, one phase of Pontormo 's talent 
attains its fulfilment and, upon so great an achievement, 
another painter would have formed a permanent manner. To 
a less imaginative temperament nothing would have been 
easier; he had been so successful that many must have con- 
sidered him to be the most prominent painter of the younger 
generation. Great things had been expected of him; he had 
accomplished great things. But to Jacopo's unworldly mind, 
success meant little, and when he had conquered one problem, 
he immediately and ardently undertook the solution of another. 
Some of his contemporaries felt, nevertheless, that his mobility 
of spirit was mere capriciousness, and here and there, in Vasari, 
we come upon echoes of their opinion. They failed to under- 
stand that his changeableness was partly due to external causes, 
the nature of which they did not realize. Five years earlier, 
Pontormo had been too exclusively absorbed in his art to notice 
or care what social or artistic revolutions were undermining 
Florentine life, but now his delicately balanced nature could 
hardly have failed to react to the great changes that were taking 
place around him. The Medici had passed through troubled 
waters, but as the political tide had turned so also was turning 
the current of Florentine tradition, and the great, fresh stream 
of Tuscan art, once fed and kept pure by so many springs, was 
now irrevocably flowing toward a despotism as absurdly cruel 
as that which was to submerge Florence itself. The era of 
the "Michelangeleschi" had begun. 

In his effort to free himself from the limitations imposed 
upon him by Andrea's unimaginative naturalism, Pontormo 
had sought the stimulus of Michelangelo's early work, and 

37 



PONTORMO 

by that contact, his own style had become more distinctly 
personal, even though the deep study that he made, during his 
formative years, of the cartoon of the "Battle of the Cascina" 
had profoundly modified his ideal of form. Now, however, he 
was confronted with the inexorable fascination of Michel- 
angelo's maturer manner, that imperious manner which had 
already begun to obsess all Florentines. And under such cir- 
cumstances it was inevitable that the magnetism of the older 
master's superabundant creativeness, the tremendous emphasis 
of his vitality, and his turbulent mastery of material, should 
cross Pontormo's own ideals with lingering insistence, and warp 
the instinctive nature of his rare, unconscious, personal vision. 
Had he appreciated his own possibilities, had the Florentine 
public remained open-minded to various kinds of artistic 
achievement, he might have given to the world other works 
as decorative and as appropriate as the lunette at Poggio or as 
the " Deposition" at Santa Felicita. 

But the moment was unpropitious, and Jacopo's very 
power had its roots in his extreme sensibility. Still he was 
not without intellectual courage, and he made a supreme effort 
to avoid the trap into which all his fellow-painters were falling. 
Suddenly we are witnesses of the curious spectacle of an Italian 
painter of great attainments seeking to escape from the tyranny 
of Michelangelo's canon of form by flying to that of Diirer. 1 
This choice, the strangest that an Italian ever made, was for 
Jacopo the craving of an instinct, and quite apart fromjns^ 
strangely modern susceptibility to novelty, he was, we may 
believe, swayed by an intimate compulsion, for there was_in 
Durer's designs an intense metaphysical quality that Pontormo 
was born to understand. A curious evidence of how well he 
understood, of how far he succeeded in seeing the world with 
northern eyes, while the rhythms of the great Florentine were 
still beating in his memory, is furnished by such a sheet as 
Uffizi 6702 verso. 2 For a moment, he had a divided mind. But 

iVasari's account of the diffusion of Diirer 'a woodcuts in Italy (V, 22, 405; VI, 
266) is full of errors, especially in his "Life of Marcantonio. " 
^Dessins, pp. 246-248. 

38 



HIS LIFE AND WOEK 

he was an absolutist and at cross-roads he never lingered. In 
the Scalzo frescoes Andrea had been content to eke out his 
unimaginativeness with fragments taken from Diirer's inven- 
tions. 3 Jacopo, on the contrary, after he had studied Diirer's 
art, felt impelled to revolutionize, as thoroughly as possible, 
his theories of form, contour and composition. And were the 
drawings that survive for the frescoes at the Certosa more 
numerous, we might, perhaps, be able to demonstrate that for 
a time Pontormo attempted to draw with the awkward stress 
and jerky pulse of an early Diirer woodcut. 4 A sketch we find 
on Uffizi 6648, 5 furnishes us with a reasonable basis for such 
an assumption. 

Vasari tells us that Pontormo began the Certosa frescoes 
in 1522, and he had reason to know, for in 1524 he had spent 
much time in copying them. 6 In the books of the monastery 
I have discovered a complete record 7 of the payments that were 
made to Pontormo for this work. In the Quaderno di Cassa F, 8 
under the date May 26, 1524, we read: "A m ro Jacopo di 
bartholomeo dapontormo depintore Ducati trenta L dua hebe 
dal procuratore in 9 volte per parte da di 4 di Febraio 1522 per 
insine adi 10 dapn'lle 1524 supra ala depintura fa nel claustro." 
This is the first entry and may, accordingly, be taken as con- 
vincing proof that, on February 4, 1522, Pontormo was already 
at work in the cloister. 

In Vasari 's opinion 9 it was the return of the plague to 
Florence in 1522 that caused Pontormo to leave the city. But 
he is careful to add that Jacopo, being by nature lonely and 
meditative, loved the life of the Certosa for its own sake the 
silence and the solitude, in the sheltering peace of which he 

s In the ' ' Preaching of St. John, ' ' the man standing to the right and the woman 
seated holding an infant. Cf . Vasari, V, 22 ; VI, 266. 

* The fact that Italian collectors did not like Pontormo 's ' ' man iera tedesca ' ' may 
explain the almost total disappearance of the drawings that he must have made during 
this period. 

5 Dessins, p. 204. 

e Vasari, VII, 605. 

T A. S. F., Convento 51, Nos. 16, 40 and 81. See Appendix II, Doc. 14, 15 and 16. 

8 lUd., No. 40, p. 26 r. 

VI, 266. 

39 



PONTOEMO 

hoped to accomplish great and novel things in art. Even after 
the frescoes were finished and he had returned to the city, he 
never ceased, Vasari says, 10 to frequent San Lorenzo a Galuzzo, 
and of that assertion Pontormo's own diary contains a curious 
confirmation. On October 11, 1556, 11 less than two months 
before he died, he wrote : "domenica andai acertosa." 

In the cloister of the monastery five frescoes survive 
although in a ruinous state: "The Agony in the Garden," 
" Christ before Pilate" (fig. 79), "The Way to Golgotha" 
(fig. 80), a "Pieta," and "The Risen Christ" (fig. 81). 
According to Vasari, 12 Jacopo intended to add a "Crucifixion" 
and a "Deposition," and from a drawing (fig. 85) that I have 
identified 13 with his work at the Certosa, we know that he also 
meant to paint a "Nailing to the Cross." 

The difference in style between Poggio and the Certosa 
is great. Vasari thought that no one could distinguish the 
"Christ before Pilate" from the work of an ultramontane 
painter. 1 * Such a statement is, of course, an exaggeration, and 
closer study reveals that Pontormo merely borrowed from 
Diirer, 15 sometimes actually copying them, certain peculiarities 
of dress, attitude, or contour, and the ragged silhouette and 
jumbled lineal rhythms of the composition. The draperies, 
much as Pontormo may have tried to change them, are still 
Florentine, and the touch, the modelling, and the types, quite 
Italian. Vasari himself must have noticed Pontormo's vacil- 
lation between northern and southern ideals, for he remarks 
that, though the most successful fresco, "The Way to Golgotha," 
shows throughout Pontormo's imitation of Diirer, the cup- 
bearer of Pilate in the "Christ before Pilate" still retains a 
certain something of Jacopo 's earlier manner. 16 

10 Hid., p. 269. 

n For the text of the Diary, see Appendix III. 
12 VI, 269. 
is Dessins, p. 222. 
"VI, 267. 

is For the figures that Pontormo borrowed from Diirer, see the Catalogue Eaisonnfi 
under Certosa. 

, 268. 

40 



HIS LIFE AND WOBK 

The frescoes have been restored, but from the still undam- 
aged small copies by Jacopo da Empoli, 17 it is evident that the 
colouring was close to Poggio and owed its vivacity to light 
harmonies on a few tones that were carried through the whole 
composition. Undoubtedly they were decorative; even now, 
although ruined and repainted, they sing out in the sunshine 
as few frescoes later than the Trecento do. They have a soft 
vivacity, an unforced gravity, that no transalpine work could 
have. 

Besides the " Passion " of the great cloister, Jacopo painted 
for the Certosini 18 a " Supper at Emmaus" (fig. 82), which was 
hung in the Foresteria, and which is now in the Academy at 
Florence. 19 Milanesi and others give 1528 20 as the date of this 
picture but, as I have pointed out elsewhere, 21 1525 is the date 
which is inscribed on the "cartella." We have also a payment 
made on June 4, 1525, 22 for the colours and the frame "per 
fare lo cenaculo dela despensa." In this picture, the influence 
of Diirer is confined to the composition, which is derived from 
the engraving of "Christus und die Jiinger von Emmaus" that 
was issued between 1505 and 1511. The canvas is, otherwise, 
of a naturalism almost too naive. 

In addition to the "Supper at Emmaus, " Vasari 23 speaks 
of a " Nativity," painted for the prior's room, and apparently 
now lost, in which the St. Joseph held a lighted lantern. 
Pontormo also executed for the monastery a bust portrait of 
a lay-brother who was 120 years old. This fresco, which no 
longer exists, was once on the right side of the altar of San 
Benedetto. Vasari 24 praises it highly, finding it of an excellence 
that went far towards excusing the extravagance of manner 
that marred, in his estimation, Jacopo 's other works at the 
Certosa. 

IT Now in the Ufficio delle Belle Arti in the Palazzo Vecchio. 
is Vasari, VI, 270. 
i No. 190. 

20 Vasari, VI, 270, note 1. Berenson, Florentine Painters, p. 175. 

21 On Certain Drawings, p. 12. 

22 A. S. F., Convento 51, No. 16, p. 30 r. See Appendix II, Doc. 15. 

23 VI, 269. 
2* Ibid. 

41 



PONTOEMO 

Most of the drawings 25 for his work at the Certosa have 
perished, but among the few that survive there are several of 
an exceptional interest. One of them (Uffizi 6702), to which 
we have already referred, shows that Michelangelo's canon of 
form still haunted Pontormo even while he was imitating 
Diirer. On it we find a sketch of a figure, unquestionably 
derived from a drawing for the "Haman" of the Sixtine, 
which Jacopo perhaps thought of using for his " Risen 
Christ." When, however, he came to paint that fresco he 
followed Diirer closely in type and in composition. The same 
sheet also preserves for us a light sketch for the woman seated 
to the extreme right in the "Pieta" a figure that has 
no antecedents in Diirer. Lastly, this leaf contains a first 
thought for the Christ of the latter fresco in which the pose 
recalls the Christ of Diirer 's "Beweinung Christi" of the 
"Kleine Passion." In all these studies the quality of the line 
is somewhat relaxed and thin. Another drawing (Uffizi 6674), 
unfortunately now quite ruined, gives us the Christ in a pose 
nearer that which was finally chosen. Uffizi 6643 verso appears 
to be a study from the nude for the awkward figure that carries 
the end of the cross in the "Way to Golgotha." On Uffizi 6558, 
which is chiefly devoted to a nude obviously of the Poggio 
period, we also find two draped heads that belong to the period 
that we are now discussing. A similarly draped head appears 
on Uffizi 6539. These are, in all likelihood, studies for the 
women of the "Pieta." Another sketch of the same sort, 
Corsini 124242, is certainly for the figure high up to the left 
in the same fresco. A study of drapery for a seated figure, 
preserved in Uffizi 6648, may very well have been drawn for 
the young disciple behind Peter in the " Agony in the Garden." 
Much of this fresco, however, is so ruined that identifications 
are hazardous. Berenson assigns this sketch to Certosa on 
morphological grounds, and it is the only sheet from this epoch 
of change that he mentions. 

For the monk to the right, in the "Supper at Emmaus," 
we have, in Uffizi 6656 verso (fig. 84), a fine study from which 

25 In my Dessins these drawings are discussed in detail. 

42 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

we can draw definite conclusions about the quality of Pontormo's 
draughtsmanship after what was considered by his contem- 
poraries mere capricious imitation of an inferior style. The 
figure is in red chalk, simple, adequate and of an unaffected 
lucidity of vision. 

The most interesting drawing (fig. 83; Uffizi 6622) that 
we now have related to the frescoes in the Val d'Ema is an 
elaboration of the "Kreuzabnahme" that Diirer engraved 
between 1509 and 1511. The arched form, the proportions, and 
the space left in the lower corner for the top of a rounded door, 
make its identification easy. It is a study for the " Deposition" 
that, as Vasari records, Pontormo was to have painted in the 
great cloister, and which was never executed. Technically our 
sketch is of a flower-like delicacy that is altogether lovely. 

With his contemporaries Jacopo's work at the Certosa was 
not popular. Vasari, to be sure, devotes five pages to this 
undertaking. Nevertheless, we read between the lines that 
Jacopo's friends found it an aberration, and it is not surprising 
that his restless spirit soon passed on to other aims. In one 
of the last drawings (fig. 85; Uffizi 6671) that he made at the 
Certosa, a study for a " Nailing to the Cross," he is evidently 
already making his way towards a new understanding of art. 
Here, and in no uncertain manner, is the dispersed composition, 
the crowded-arrangement of figures, that was dear to the late 
cinquecentist and that, with the cult of the gigantic and the 
forceful, finally smothered the last embers of Florentine art. 
Pontormo saw that, in Florence, painting could only develop 
in one direction, and in this design he had premonitions of ideals 
that were not completely evolved by the Florentine School 
until twenty years later. Even more interesting, however, is 
the fact that the studies (fig. 86 and 89) we possess for indi- 
vidual figures of this composition (Uffizi 6652 verso and 6657 ; 
Corsini 124161) have still a breezy spring, a solidity that recalls 
Poggio, and a wirelike quality of line that anticipates various 
sketches for Santa Felicita. 

Vasari 26 says that Pontormo had with him at the monastery 

26 VI, 270; VII, 594. 

43 



PONTORMO 

no one but the young Bronzino and he implies that Pontormo 
executed practically with his own hands the entire cloister 
''Passion.'* In any case we know not only that the books of 
the Certosa contain no payment made to any assistant other 
than Bronzino but that Jacopo spent four years in the Val 
d'Ema, 27 which was more than time enough to have painted, 
without help of any kind, all five existing frescoes. If in their 
present state these defy any attempt to define in them differ- 
ences of touch, we can at least be sure that the "Supper at 
Emmaus" shows no trace of a second hand. Pontormo had an 
instinctive dislike of collaborators; often he would not even 
let his work be seen before it was finished. 28 He had, in fact, 
so little patience with mediocrity that, far from allowing his 
pupils to finish his pictures, he sometimes could not resist the 
temptation to transfigure their work with last touches of his 
own. This he did, according to Vasari, when Lappoli once 
tried, with a mirror, to paint his own portrait with results that 
were miserable enough until Pontormo took the brush out of 
his pupil's hand and transformed the nondescript likeness into 
a masterpiece. While he was at work in the Val d'Ema, 
Jacopo also so completely rehandled a "St. Quentin" (fig. 90), 
which had been begun by Giovanmaria Pichi, 29 that the canvas 
now retains hardly a trace of other than the master's touch. 
For it we have a wonderful head, 30 in pen and bistre, drawn on 
a black-chalk ground (fig. 91) that Pontormo seems to have 
dashed off to illustrate for his pupil a problem of pose. 

Between the autumn of 1525 and the winter of 1527 Jacopo 
returned to Florence, although he continued to occupy himself, 
from time to time, at the monastery. An entry in the Quaderno 
di Cassa of the monks, on December 6, 1526, for flour and 
chickens sent to him to Florence, would seem to fortify our 
conjecture. 31 

Soon after he had finished the Passion frescoes, Pontormo 

27 See in Appendix II, the documents cited above. 

28 Vasari, VI, 271. 
2 Ibid., p. 259. 

so Dessins, p. 203. 

*i A. S. F., Convento 51, No. 40, p. 108. See Appendix II, Doe. 15. 

44 



painted, on the walls of a large way-side shrine at the cross- 
roads of Boldrone, a Christ crucified, Mary, St. John the 
Baptist, St. Julian, and St. Augustine in episcopal robes a 
work which, in Vasari's opinion, 32 is not unlike the "Passion" 
of the Certosa. The Mary, the St. John, and the St. Julian 
do recall various figures in the "Christ before Pilate" and in 
the "Pieta," but the ingenuous simplicity of the composition 
due doubtless to the shape of the shrine itself bears no 
relation to his work in the Val d'Ema. For the fresco at 
Boldrone no document exists, but considerations of style and 
circumstance make the date of it practically certain. It cannot 
have been painted earlier than 1525 nor later than the summer 
of 1529, in the autumn of which year Florence was invested 
by the Imperial troops and the country-side was no longer safe. 88 

Pontormo's imitation of Diirer interrupted, in some 
measure, the natural evolution of his talent. Nevertheless, 
it was a surface distortion, which did not modify the funda- 
mental groundwork of his art. His exploration of northern 
formulas had been too consciously intellectual ever to pass 
into his larger heritage as a Florentine, and Diirer 's art, once 
it had ceased to interest Jacopo, left no lasting mark upon his 
later manner. Even before he had completely freed himself 
from its influence, Pontormo's genius was such that he could 
still express^ himself with a marvellous freedom and add the 
"Deposition" of the Capponi Chapel (fig. 92) to the master- 
pieces of Italian art. Of that difficult subject this altar-piece 
is, perhaps, our rarest rendering, as it is, without doubt, 
Jacopo 's highest achievement in religious painting. In it, as 
in the lunette at Poggio, he subordinates everything to a fine, 
calculated, decorative effect in a way that was unique in an 
age of naturalism and the final triumph of representation. 

The pale golden colour, enveloped and yet left singing, is 
as delicately adequate and soothing as the forms are, in a real 
sense of the term, ethereal, and as the composition, with its 
strange, torn, gyrating rhythm, its complex cycles of movement, 

32 VI, 272. 

ss Nerli, IX, 202 f . 



PONTORMO 

is elusively beautiful. The sense of amber dawn-light playing 
on lovely, elemental beings is stronger here than the sense of 
death. Among these divinities of lithe limbs and curliest blond 
hair, grief and passion are unreal, for death has been among 
them for the first time, and in amazement rather than in tears, 
they carry to the grave their fairest youth, who lies as if asleep 
upon their shoulders, with no indignity done to his beauty, 
a tress upon his neck and the first down on his chin. His young 
mother seated by the roadside reaches out her hand, uncompre- 
hending. On all the faces a look, more of incredulity than of 
despair, appeals to us to explain so strange and sudden a 
catastrophe. 

The ''Deposition" represents but part of the work done 
by Pontormo at Santa Felicita. 34 He frescoed the entire 
Capponi Chapel, painting on the side-wall to the right, an 
"Annunciation"; in a "tondo," on each pendentive of the 
vaulting, a bust figure of an Evangelist; and in the cupola 
itself, "God the Father and Four Patriarchs." The general 
effect of the decoration is not perfectly harmonious, and even 
Vasari 35 noticed a certain difference in style, colour, and 
composition, between the "Deposition" and the figures of the 
vaulting. The "Evangelists" are, in fact, dull in tone, and the 
"Annunciation" is more in harmony with them than with the 
altar-piece. We cannot, however, tell what the original effect 
was, for the "Annunciation" has lost in successive repaintings 
all its distinctive quality, and the figures of the cupola have 
been destroyed. 36 

In all these pictures the influence of Diirer is slight. No 
one who has not seen Jacopo's work at the Certosa would ever 
think of associating the "Kleine Passion" with the "Deposi- 
tion," still less with the "Annunciation" or the "Evangelists" 
of Santa Felicita. Vasari" himself felt that in them Jacopo had 
again become a Florentine: "parve quasi che fusse tornato alia 

s* Vasari, VI, 271 f. 

ss Ibid. 

so In 1766 when the organ-loft was rebuilt. 

37 VI, 271. 

46 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

sua maniera di prima." Nevertheless, a certain lingering 
influence of Diirer's engravings may be traced in the rather 
tight, complicated folds and torn, cascading effect of the 
draperies in the " Deposition." 

"We do not know the exact date at which Pontormo was 
commissioned to decorate this chapel. The books of the 
monastery of Santa Felicita are silent, and none of the Capponi 
papers 38 that are now in the Florentine Archives mention the 
undertaking. Vasari speaks of it as begun "non molto dopo 
la Certosa," and Balocchi, who probably had access to some 
document now lost, states 39 that Lodovico di Gino di Lodovico 
Capponi acquired the chapel in 1525 for two hundred "scudi." 
In a Libro di Eicordanze 40 of the monastery one gleans the fact 
that the chapel was rented, in January, 1490, by the Barbadori 
to Antonio di Bernardo Paghanelli, in the margin of which 
entry one reads: "Compero il detto Antonio la detta, cappeZZa 
da Barbadori e da Bernardo suo figlio fu venduta a Ludovico 
Capponi per scudi 200." This note can hardly have been 
written later than 1528, and we will not go far wrong, then, 
if we suppose that Jacopo began the work late in the autumn 
of 1526. He put up a scaffolding and, according to Vasari, 41 
kept the chapel closed for three years. This, however, does not 
imply that Pontormo undertook, during all that time, no other 
commissions. 

The preparatory work for these decorations may be 
followed in a number of drawings. 42 For the " Annunciation" 
there are two finished studies, one (fig. 88; Uffizi 448) for the 
Virgin, a rather dry, meticulous drawing in red chalk, the other 
(fig. 87 ; Uffizi 6653) for the angel, a sketch full of freshness 
and movement. Pontormo employed in the latter a mixed 
technique of pencil washed with bistre, which furnishes us 
with a precious criterion of the use that he made of chalk and 
wash toward the end of the twenties. Earlier sketches for the 

ss A. S. F., Convento 83, No. 130, Scritture diverse di Casa Capponi (1410-1539). 

3 Illust. di S. Felicita, p. 35. 

w A. S. F., Convento 83, No. 115 (1485-1528), p. 21. See Appendix II, Doe. 17. 

*i VI, 271. 

42 For a detailed discussion of these drawings, see my Dessins. 

47 



PONTORMO 

angel's neck and shoulders may be found on Uffizi 6570 verso, 
and it is not impossible that the draped figure on the recto of 
this sheet is an abandoned idea for the pose of the Madonna. 
The touch is undoubtedly of this period, but the light drapery, 
apparently inappropriate for a Madonna, weakens some- 
what our supposition. The figure may, of course, be a study 
for the lost "Pomona" that Jacopo painted in fresco near the 
door of Filippo del Migliore's house, in Via Larga a work 
that Vasari mentions immediately after the Certosa, and which, 
therefore, should be placed just before Jacopo 's frescoes and 
altar-piece at Santa Felicita. 

For the "Deposition" of the Capponi Chapel we have many 
drawings. On Uffizi 6666 (fig. 93), the Madonna's head is 
sketched from the male nude, and on Uffizi 6627 (fig. 94), the 
head of the woman to her left is studied twice. In the 
"Deposition," Pontormo combined these studies, using one for 
the features and the other for the arrangement of the head- 
dress. Both are evidently drawn from life, as is Uffizi 6577 
(fig. 95), a study for the head of the youth who carries the 
knees of Christ, in which the features are more troubled and 
more realistic than in the altar-piece where so personal a note 
would have spoiled the fine serenity of the scene. The diver- 
gence between the painting and the drawing is a clear 
indication of how profoundly Pontormo 's imagination trans- 
figured his material. The youth who carries the shoulders 
of Christ may be seen in a number of sheets. Corsini 124229 
verso and 124230 (fig. 96) are first thoughts for his head and 
shoulders; on Uffizi 6730 (fig. 97) there is a sketch for his legs 
and drapery; and on Uffizi 6613 verso (fig. 98) the movement 
of his legs is studied from the nude. Here too we find a part 
of his drapery, as well as the marvellously prompt strokes with 
which Pontormo first sketched the whole figure. A somewhat 
mannered study (fig. 99 ; Uffizi 6619) of an unpleasant type of 
nude, drawn from the life, is Jacopo 's first idea for the Christ. 
The touch has a certain sincerity, but the pose is without charm 
of movement, and in the conception of this figure the altar- 
piece marks a notable advance. The drapery of the upper part 

48 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

of the youth in the upper right-hand corner of the picture 
appears in Uffizi 6730 (fig. 97), and in Uffizi 6576 recto (fig. 100) 
the entire figure is studied from the nude. This is by far the 
most interesting sheet we possess for Santa Felicita. It is of 
a supple sureness of hand, caressing and delightful. 

For the "tondi" of the pendentives 48 we have in the British 
Museum (Payne Knight Collection, P. p. 2, 102) an idea for 
the "Evangelist" to the right above the "Annunciation." 
Berenson believes that Uffizi 6647 recto is also a first thought 
for one of these medallions, but one should notice in passing 
that the pose is far from that of any of the figures in their 
final form. 

Since the frescoes of the cupola proper no longer exist, 
one can hardly pretend to identify drawings with them. It is, 
nevertheless, not impossible that Uffizi 6590 and 6613, studies 
of male figures seated on a low step, are sketches for the 
"Patriarchs." The pose, the head thrown back gazing up, 
suggests that they were intended to occupy the lower part of 
a circular vaulting. Berenson thinks that they are for the 
Vertumnus at Poggio. But the quality of the contour in Uffizi 
6590 is precisely that of 6576 recto, one of our best studies 
for the "Deposition," and the arms, hands, and head, of 6613 
should be compared with similar parts of the latter drawing. 

The drawings for the Capponi Chapel have, on the whole, 
less vitality of line than those for Poggio. In them the touch 
is a little too fine and tight. They have none of that almost 
too obvious amplitude of form which distinguishes many 
sketches for the earlier masterpiece, and they are certainly 
much less magnificently lyrical. The portrait-drawings (fig. 
101 and 102) from this period are subtly imaginative, fragile, 
and transparent evocations to which the introspective and 
restless spirit of the sitter still clings. 

While he was still at work in Santa Felicita, Pontormo 

43 In his "Life of Pontormo" (VI, 271) Vasari states that one of the Evangelists 
was painted by Bronzino who was then working with Jacopo; in his "Life of Bronzino" 
(VII, 594) he says that Bronzino painted two Evangelists and certain figures of the 
vaulting. It is impossible now to disentangle these inconsistencies. 

49 



PONTORMO 

also painted for Capponi a portrait of his daughter as the 
Magdalen, 44 which has since been lost, although we still have 
a drawing (Uffizi 6546) that may have been made for the work 
in question. At all events this sheet appears to date from the 
late twenties although, curiously enough, it shows an excess 
of sentiment hardly to be found in Florentine art before the 
Seicento. 

44 Vasari, VI, 272. 



50 



CHAPTER VI 



1527-1530 

Between 1527 and 1531 Florence passed through its last 
tumultuous crisis. On May 16, 1527, Alessandro, Ippolito, and 
their tutor Passerini were expelled from the city, and for the 
moment, patriotism ran high in spite of class selfishness and 
individual cupidity. Unhappily it was too late ; the end of the 
Republic was at hand. 1 

In the popular enthusiasm of those years, we have, I 
believe, indirect evidence of the date of the "Madonna, St. Anne 
and Four Saints," now in the Louvre (fig. 104). The picture 
was ordered by the Captain and Officials of the Signoria for 
the nuns of St. Anne. 2 In a medallion under the Madonna's 
feet, these officials, accompanied by commanders, mace-bearers, 
"tavolaccini," fifes and trumpets, are represented as pro- 
ceeding solemnly to the convent beyond the San Frediano gate 
where they "rendered homage, on July 26 of every year, to the 
nuns' patron saint. The origins of this ceremony went back 
to the Trecento when, on St. Anne's Day, 1343, the Duke of 
Athens was driven from the city. In his note on our picture 
Milanesi 3 refers to the historical meaning of the ceremony, and 
since his time a vague notion seems to have arisen that this 
altar-piece was painted for the two-hundredth anniversary of 
the festival. Critics have, accordingly, dated it 1543, 4 in other 
words, fifteen years too late. It is altogether unlikely that a 

iVettori, Sommario, p. 382. Cambi, XXII, pp. 317-319. Varehi, Storia, III, i, 
pp. 156-158. 

2 Vasari, VI, 273. Eicha, IV, 222. 

s Vasari, loc. cit., note 3. 

< Berenson, Florentine Painters, p. 176. Lafenestre, MusSe National du Louvre, 
4th ed., 1907, p. 102. De Eicci, Peintures du Louvre, p. 40. 

51 



PONTORMO 

painting, so clearly intended to celebrate the deliverance of the 
city from a tyrant, should have been ordered at the very 
moment when Cosimo I was sternly repressing the last traces 
of freedom in Tuscany. 5 Such a picture belongs to a very 
different moment, and must have been painted between May 
16, 1527, the date of the expulsion of the Medici, and August 12, 
1530, when the city surrendered. After the exile of Alessandro 
and Ippolito, the festival commemorating the deliverance of 
Florence from an ancient tyrant took on an added solemnity. 
Of this, Pontormo 's altar-piece is, in all probability, a record. 
The books of the Signoria have been lost, so that no documents 
exist for this picture. It is, however, worthy of notice that 
the "gonfaloniere" elected in 1527 was Niccolo Capponi, a 
relative of the Lodovico for whom Pontormo was working at 
the moment. 6 

But on closer examination, the panel itself comes magnifi- 
cently to our aid. The drapery, although heavier, is not unlike 
that of the Virgin of the " Annunciation," or that of the 
"Evangelists" at Santa Felicita. The Madonna and St. Anne 
wear a head-dress of the kind worn by the Madonna and the 
women of the "Deposition," and in both pictures the features 
of the Virgin are the same. These are resemblances that cannot 
be explained, if our picture really dates from 1543, for at* that 
moment Pontormo was more exclusively Michelangelesque than 
at any other period. Convincing proof that our chronology 
is correct is to be found in the finished drawing (fig. 105; 
Uffizi 460) for the whole composition. It is in pen and bistre 
and technically close to the study for the Angel at Santa 
Felicita. 

In the Louvre panel, as in the landscape of a "Madonna 
and Child" (fig. 103), dating from 1528-1529 and now in the 
Corsini Palace in Florence, that faint influence of Diirer's art 
which lingered in the Capponi "Deposition" is still further 
attenuated, although the St. Sebastian of the former picture 
recalls strangely a "Sebastian" from Diirer's workshop, which 



s Capponi, II, 494. 

e Varchi, VI, i, pp. 383, 396. 



52 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

is now in the Archbishop's palace at Ober St. Veit, T near 
Vienna. This resemblance, which cannot be fortuitous, may 
explain Vasari 's remark that the figures of the St. Anne altar- 
piece, like those of the shrine at Boldrone, are not purely 
Italian a comment for which there is no other justification, 
for the central group of the Louvre picture certainly owes 
something to Leonardo, and the arrangement of the saints in it 
suggests early compositions by Fra Bartolommeo. 

Leonardo's influence is visible elsewhere in pictures of this 
period. A complicated and ingenious composition of the 
" Madonna and Little St. John" 8 that now hangs in the Uffizi 
may have been suggested by some lost drawing of the great 
master's, 9 although we cannot help remarking that the move- 
ment of the Madonna's shoulder, head and arm is repeated in 
a drawing (fig. 109) for a "St. Jerome," the archetype of which 
is Leonardo's unfinished "St. Jerome," now in the Vatican. 
This sketch is of the same date as Santa Felicita. 

The frenzied gestures of the charging horsemen in 
Pontormo's "Martyrdom of St. Maurice" (fig. 106) , 10 the 
frantic, galloping horses, small-nosed, full-necked, round- 
haunched and compact, the wild rush of the onslaught, in 
that "sanguinoso fango" where every brutal, pitiless passion is 
unchained, have their prototype in the "Battle of Anghiari." 11 
The orgy of nude bodies, on the other hand, and the exaggerated 
muscles of the figures, are derived from Michelangelo, although 

i Painted for Friedrich der Weise between 1502 and 1504. The drawing for this 
picture is now in the Stadel Institute, in Frankfort. 

s Uffizi, No. 1578. Gamba (Disegni di Jacopo Carucci, Firenze, 1912) places this 
picture about 1525. In my opinion it was painted about 1528. 

It is interesting to note that Eleonora gave to the Duke of Altamira a copy that 
Bronzino made of a "Madonna" by Leonardo. Cf. Vasari, VI, 284, note. Gaye, III, 94. 

10 Pitti, No. 182. 

11 There are reasons to doubt the existence of Leonardo 's work as late as 1528-1530. 
We know by documentary evidence that in 1513 it was in a condition so deplorable that a 
beam had to be used to prevent its collapse. The cartoon, or pieces of it, may have existed 
long after the wall painting had disappeared. Both Cellini and Vasari state that the 
cartoon hung for a long time in the Sala del Papa and was studied there by all the young 
artists of Florence (Vasari, V, 8). It is not unlikely that in painting the "Martyrdom 
of St. Maurice" Pontormo merely used sketches that he had made from the cartoon years 
before. 

53 



PONTORMO 

the type of nude is still far from the thick-necked giant of the 
latter 's middle period. 

For this panel, which Vasari 12 says was ordered by the 
women of the Innocents, we have no document. Perhaps, in 
fact, no document ever existed. We know that the women 
occupied, in the hospital, a place apart, which was closed with 
a high double gate. If they really ordered the picture, they 
probably paid for it themselves, and such a payment would not 
have been entered on the books of the institution. It is true 
that in 1529 Pontormo had transactions with the authorities 
of the hospital, but on grounds so circumstantial we are not 
justified in assigning the picture to that year, even though 
Vasari does so by implication. Close study, however, of the 
draperies of the Judge and of the figure in the foreground 
makes clear their likeness to the drapery of the Louvre altar- 
piece. But we have still other evidence for the date of the 
panel of a more indisputable and intimate nature : the drawing 
we possess of an arched variant (fig. 108) of the upper left- 
hand quarter of the composition is identical in draughtsman- 
ship with the sketch for a "St. Jerome" (fig. 109; Uffizi 441) 1S 
of which we have just spoken. In both we find the same fine 
hatchings, the same somewhat brittle line, the same violent 
contrast in the modelling of the muscles, and in both we have 
the same great-shouldered, bottle-armed, round-headed type. 
Our drawing of St. Jerome, like the delicate study of a women 
on the verso of the same sheet (fig. 110), dates from 1527-1529; 
its relation to Santa Felicita proves that. The "Martyrdom 
of St. Maurice" cannot be later than 1530. 

In the Uffizi 14 there is a smaller version (fig. 107) of the 
same composition that Jacopo painted for Carlo Neroni, 15 in 
which we find only the cavalry, the angels, and the baptism 
of the martyrs. The vertical axis of the composition has also 
been rearranged and the colour-scheme reconsidered, from 

12 VI, 275. 

is Dessins, pp. 91, 290. 

"No. 1187. 

is Vasari, VI, 275. 

54 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

which facts we may conjecture that the Pitti picture is the 
earlier by a brief interval of time. Both panels, which were 
once quite famous, are a mere patchwork of derived ideas, and 
in colouring they are cold and dry. Perhaps the neatness of 
their execution, or the mere fact that they are Michelangelesque, 
veiled for Pontormo's contemporaries their poverty as art. 

Between 1528 and 1530 Pontormo painted the splendid 
"Visitation" that once adorned a villa of the Pinadori family, 
near Carmignano, and that is now in the village church. 16 In 
this altar-piece (fig. Ill), the more than human proportions 
of the figures, the grand simplicity of their attitude and gesture, 
isolates the divine event and intensifies its significance. Here, 
then, we have a curious attempt to give, in other terms than 
those commonly used by Michelangelo's followers, that sense 
of the superhuman which the latter so insistently dwelt upon. 
To emphasize the note of grandeur Pontormo, like Andrea in 
all his later pictures, employs voluminous draperies but, unlike 
Andrea's leaden stuffs, Pontormo's are light and loose in their 
amplitude. The same folds may be found again in the Louvre 
1 'Madonna and St. Anne," and in the works at Santa Felicita. 
The composition is to a certain degree suggestive of Durer's 
"Die Vier Nackten Frauen," and the St. Elizabeth recalls his 
"Nemesis" reversed. The final study (fig. 112; Uffizi 461) 17 
for this "Visitation" survives, the touch of which approaches 
drawings for the Capponi Chapel. It is, however, drier and, 
what is rare with Pontormo, the drawing is inferior to the 
picture. 

Vasari mentions another work, "The Eaising of Lazarus," 
now lost, that must have been painted in the second half of the 
decade of the twenties, and of it he tells a story. Delia Palla, 
who acted as a kind of royal antiquarian and art-dealer to 
Francis I, tried, while Pierfrancesco Borgherini was absent 

iBocchi, p. 286: "modello d 'una Visitazione in piccolo del Pontormo, i cui panneg- 
giamenti son bellissimi e toccati con franchezza, e stimo che 1 'originate in grande sia in una 
Villa de' Pinadori a Carmignano." This sentence occurs in Bocchi's description of the 



Carmign 
house of Andrea Pitti. 

IT Dessins, pp. 104 f. 



55 



PONTORMO 

from Florence, to buy from his wife Pontormo's famous 
"cassone" panels, and failing in the attempt, finally persuaded 
Jacopo to paint a special picture for the French King. 18 
Borgherini was a partisan of the Medici, and it was in 1527 
that he fled with them to Lucca. The " Lazarus," therefore, 
could hardly have been begun before 1528. In 1530 Florence 
was invested and all traffic stopped, and in 1531 Delia Palla 
was exiled from the city. 19 We can hardly err, then, if we 
assume that this picture was finished about 1529. 20 A beautiful 
drawing (fig. 113) exists that may have served for the figure 
of Lazarus. 21 In it we seem to divine an exquisite ecstasy of 
surprise such as one might feel in coming back to life. 

During the siege (1528-1530) Pontormo painted the portrait 
of Francesco Guardi dressed as a soldier, 22 which has since been 
lost or is unidentified. Its cover, which Vasari attributes to 
Bronzino, is now in the Barberini Gallery 23 and represents 
* ' Pygmalion and Galatea. ' ' In these figures all serious students 
of Pontormo's art see, at a glance, the master's hand. The type 
of the cranium is especially noticeable, recalling instantly many 
of the heads in the "Martyrdom of St. Maurice." His touch 
is less convincingly present in the altar and the accessories, and 
in these details his pupil had, perhaps, some trifling part that 
Bronzino may have mentioned when he discussed the life of 
Jacopo with Vasari. It is permissible to conjecture that 
the latter, misinterpreting Bronzino 's remarks, was led to 

is Vasari, V, 27; VI, 262 f. For Delia Palla 's activities as a picture-dealer, see 
Vasari, V, 27, 50, 51, 55; VI, 61. 

i Varchi, XII, ii, pp. 531-533. 

20 It is worthy of remark that the ' ' Sacrifice of Isaac ' ' by Andrea, now in Dresden, 
was ordered by Delia Palla for the King of France, but that this panel, which dates from 
1528-1530, never came into the possession of Francis I. It was sold to Filippo Strozzi and 
was later in the collection of the Marchese del Vasto. In 1529, therefore, Delia Palla had 
in all probability ceased to act as agent of the French King. He died, as is well known, 
in the fortress of Pisa where he was imprisoned after the siege. The Marchese del Vasto 
mentioned is the Alfonso Davolo for whom Pontormo painted his "Noli me tangere. " He 
had a house in the island of Isehia to which he took the pictures that he had acquired in 
Florence. Cf. Vasari, V, 51. 

21 Uffizi 6723. Cf . Dessins, p. 257. 

22 Vasari, VI, 275. 

23 No. 83. 

56 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

attribute to Mm the whole work. The " Portrait of a Youth," 
now in Bergamo (fig. 116), the firm but dry "Portrait of 'a 
Man," in the Uffizi Gallery (fig. 118), the gracious " Portrait 
of a Youth," at Lucca (fig. 115), as well as two birth-plates, 
one in the Uffizi (fig. 114) and the other in the Palazzo Davan- 
zati, date from these years. Many drawings also testify to his 
unceasing curiosity during this epoch and leave a record of 
strange excursions into a dim marginal world beyond which 
draughtsmanship can hardly penetrate. Of these, one of 
ghastly force and incisive promptitude of vision (fig. 117), 
another of precise and fastidious dexterity of touch (fig. 120), 
and still another (fig. 121) haunted by some wistful uncanni- 
ness unfaltering jotting of a surprised and cringing half- 
human, half-spectral thing that was probably drawn a few 
years later will serve us as illuminating examples. 

From 1520 to 1530 Pontormo's inspiration was varied and 
his activity great. In spite of adverse criticism of the Certosa 
frescoes, his position in the artistic world had become steadily 
more important. In 1525 his name was inscribed in the book 
of the Company of San Luca ; 24 on June 5, 1526, he was enrolled 
among the painters in the Guild of the Medici e Speziali. 25 Up 
to this time he had lived in lodgings in the parish of San 
Giovanni, 26 but, on March 15, 1529, he purchased from the 
Hospital of "the Innocents two lots on the Via Laura, now Via 
della Colonna, 27 on which he proposed to build a house and a 
"bottega" for his own use an intention that he was not to 
carry out until about 1534. 

24 A. S. F., Aeeademia del Disegno, No. 1, Begistro contenente Capitoli e ordinamenti 
della Compagnia di S. Luca e dell'arte, e 1'Elenco del Pittori Ascritti a quella compagnia 
(1340-1550), p. 10 v. See Appendix II, Doc. 18. 

25 A. S. F., Medici e Speziali, No. 11, Libro Verde, Matricola per la Citta, p. 27 left. 
See Appendix II, Doc. 19. 

2 A. S. F., Catasto, Estimo del Contado, No. 5, Quartiere S. Giovanni, 1520, Popoli 
1-95, No. 128, p. 57 left. See Appendix II, Doc. 20. 

27 A. S. F., Catasto, Libro a parte 1534, Cittadini a parte, Q. S. M. N. e S. G., 
1534, No. 11, Qre. Sto. Gni. Chiave, p. 448 left. See Appendix II, Doc. 21. Of. Vasari, 
VI, 279. 



57 



CHAPTER VII 

1530 TO 1545 AND LATER 

Our study of Pontormo's art encounters more formidable 
difficulties of chronology between 1530 and 1540 than at any 
other period. After 1530 Pontormo no longer worked for 
convents or religious companies, and rarely even for private 
persons, but, like many other artists in Florence, he depended 
for his commissions almost entirely upon Alessandro or Cosimo 
de' Medici. The archives of the first ten years of the ducal 
government are hopelessly incomplete, and no written docu- 
ments exist for pictures executed during that time. It is also 
a curious fact, due apparently to the political disorder following 
the siege, that from this period few paintings by Jacopo have 
come down to us. Nevertheless, the dates of certain of 
his undertakings are delimited by well-known events, so 
that by a close study of these we may establish a correct, if 
undocumented, chronology for these years. 

After the triumph of the Medici, Clement VII wished to 
carry out the decoration of the Great Hall at Poggio. Andrea 
del Sarto 1 and Franciabigio 2 were dead, and to Pontormo, 
therefore, the whole commission was entrusted. No higher 
tribute could have been paid to his ability. He was the greatest 
painter in Florence at that moment. The scaffolding was 
erected, and all preparations for the work were made, but 
Jacopo delayed. Neither Alessandro nor Ottaviano de' Medici 
could get him to proceed with decision. 3 Vasari would have 
us believe that his dilatoriness was due to illness and to the 

1 January 22, 1531. 

2 January 24, 1525. 
s Vasari, VI, 276. 

58 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

fact that Bronzino was not in Florence to help him. 4 The real 
causes unquestionably lay deeper. Jacopo had struggled, with 
an open mind, through a maze of complex tradition, he had 
tried many canons, and with each he had endeavoured, some- 
times as at Poggio with wonderful insight, to illustrate the 
fundamental laws of decoration. He had seen that to be 
beautifully effective a wall-painting should contain no element 
that makes a special appeal of its own ; that it should be neither 
narrative nor epic nor dramatic, but just pictorial, a rest to 
our eye, a subtle stimulation to our sense of harmonious fitness ; 
that the figures should be convincing enough to soothe our 
unwordable instinct for form, our thoughtless curiosity for the 
sensation of substance, but that they should never be insistent ; 
that the composition should fit the space available with a kind 
of fine levity without calling attention either to the problem 
or to its solution ; and that the colour should be pale and light, 
a few bright tones carried through the whole, leaving the 
surface unified, the expanse of the wall unbroken. 

But his very sincerity, his very insight into his art's 
underlying principles diminished his self-confidence. He could 
not stupidly repeat himself, and a method, a manner once 
found, once tried, immediately lost for him its interest. His 
keen sense of the vast problems involved in mural painting 
forced hinrto try a new and serious solution of at least one 
of these problems in each new fresco. One cannot wonder, then, 
that before the unfinished spaces of the Great Hall he felt a 
terrible hesitation, a hesitation all the more paralysing because 
he was ill, and overstrained by the arduous years just passed. 

On the other hand, this period of unproductive delay was 
not an evidence of diminished creativeness. Intellectually, 
Pontormo was hard at work ; he was reconsidering the meaning 
of that canon of form which, in the San Lorenzo tombs (1526- 
1531), Michelangelo had given to an astonished world. What 

* Bronzino was in Pesaro at work on his frescoes in Villa Monte Imperiale and on 
other undertakings for Guidobaldo della Eovere, among them the portrait now in the Pitti 
(No. 149) and long ascribed to Pontormo. Cf. the Catalogue Baisonn6, under Florence, 
Pitti Palace, and Thode, Ein furstlicher Sommeraufenthalt in der Zeit der Hochrenaissancc, 
Jahrbuch d. Tconigl. preuss. Kunstsamml., IX (1888), pp. 163, 171, 179. 

59 



PONTOKMO 

his contemporaries imitated superficially, he now strove to 
comprehend profoundly. And to do so he put his past again 
behind him and with a fresh eye faced the problem. Knowing 
his keen intellectual sincerity, we will not be surprised to find 
him, now and then, in his next phase, more Michelangelesque 
than even Michelangelo himself. 8 

What arrested Pontormo's natural development, as painter 
and draughtsman, was not his apparently great susceptibility 
to influence of every kind, but personal contact with Michel- 
angelo while the latter was at work in Florence. 6 That contact 
and the overwhelming wave of Michelangelo 's popularity turned 
Jacopo's receptive curiosity and interest in other craftsmen's 
ideas interest and curiosity that he inherited from Florentine 
tradition into downright captivation. We may believe that 
he now sought the great master's society and became his friend, 
so that to the influence of Michelangelo's art was added the 
magnetism of a presence 7 to which Jacopo's sensitive nature 
instantly responded. From 1530 on, for more than ten years, 
we watch him stagger under an ever increasing burden the 
obsession of Michelangelo's types and poses. 

The San Lorenzo tombs 8 and the Cavalieri drawings 9 played 
a great part in his temporary undoing. The former he must 
have seen only too frequently, both before they were finished, 
and after they had been placed in the chapel; the latter he 
constantly studied, and they were too magnificently rich in 
ideas not to enthrall him. 

BVasari, VI, 278. 

!&&, 277; VII, 273. 

' It was on April 11, 1531, that the Archbishop of Capua first asked Michelangelo 
to design a "Noli me tangere" for Alfonso Davolo, but it was not until October of the 
same year that it was agreed that Pontonno should paint the picture from Michelangelo's 
cartoon. Cf. Frey, Dichtungen, 327, 509; Brief e, 309; Thode, Michelangelo, I, 411; III, 
554. Figiovanni's letter to Michelangelo from the days immediately following October 27, 
1531 (Frey, Dichtungen, 509, Beg. 28) seems to indicate that it was actually in Michel- 
angelo's house that Pontonno put into oils the former's cartoon. In a letter to Febo (di 
Poggio?) of December, 1534, Michelangelo states that he intended to leave Florence the 
next day never to return. 

* 1526-1534. 

9 1532-1534. Vasari, VII, 271 f. Cf. a letter of Cavalieri 's, dated January 1, 1533, 
to Michelangelo thanking him for the drawing of tlie "Tityrus," and another, dated 
September 5, 1533, thanking him for the ' ' Phaethon. ' ' 

60 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

At all events, little figures derived from the Medici tombs 
are sketched, with increasing frequency, on the sheets belonging 
to these years. He even seems to have reconsidered such early 
studies for Dead Christs as Uffizi 6687 and 6690, 10 drawing 
below each, in minute black chalk, more twisted, muscular 
versions of the same pose, which have for parent the "Night" 
or the "Day," and that are comments upon the work of his 
youth, made by a man dazed by a greater vision. In the same 
spirit he tried, over and over again, to solve the secret of 
Michelangelo's magic, drawing shape after shape reminiscent 
of that master's inventions. 

Several designs (fig. 121 and 122), mannered but delightful, 
survive from this period of renewed research. One of these 
(Uffizi 6748) " is a drawing for "The Three Graces," in which 
the pose of the left-hand figure has in it something suggestive 
still of the woman to the left of the Carmignano "Visitation." 
From 1531-1534 we have a magnificent, but ruined, cartoon 
(Uffizi 13861) 12 for "Nudes Playing at Calcio," undoubtedly 
one of the drawings that Vasari says were made for the second 
series of frescoes at Poggio, which were never executed. 13 The 
composition is splendid, strange in its equilibrium, spacious 
and full of movement. In spirit and form this design differs 
totally from the lunette at Poggio that Pontormo finished 
eleven years earlier, and had it been executed, its strenuous 
playfulness of mighty nudes would have made the existing 

10 For these drawings, see my Dessins. 

11 The composition of this drawing goes back to classic examples of the subject of 
which a number, in various materials, survive. Most important of these for its influence 
on the Eenaissance is the small marble group, now in the Library of the Cathedral of Siena, 
which inspired Eaphael's "The Three Graces" of the Musle de Chantilly, and Marcan- 
tonio's engraving; B. 340. Pass. 188. Ottl. 262; reproduced, Delaborde, Marc-Antoine 
Raimondi, p. 169. It is perhaps to the latter that Pontormo 's drawing owes, in a more 
precise sense, its general arrangement, although he has, of course, introduced into his 
treatment a subtle, mannered, self-conscious exaggeration of line and gesture. Vasari 
shows in his "Three Graces," now in the Museum of Budapest, that he was not 
unacquainted with Jacopo's drawing. 

12 Vasari, VI, 276: "in uno de' quali cartoni, che sono oggi per la maggior parte 
in casa di Lodovico Capponi, e un Ercole che fa scoppiare Anteo; in un altro una Venere 
e Adone ; ed in una carta, una storia d ' ignudi che giocano al calcio. ' ' 

is The project was abandoned after the death of Clement VII, on September 25, 
1534 (Vasari, VI, 276, 278). 

61 



PONTORMO 

fresco seem trivial and aimless. It belongs, one might almost 
say, to a different world, for by the time it was designed 
Pontormo had already read himself deep into the meaning 
of Michelangelo's art. He understood not only Michelangelo's 
conception of pose and structure but his theory of spacing and 
movement as well. Some of the drawings (Uffizi 6616, 6738) 14 
for single figures of this composition, are still, in spite of their 
mannerism, of considerable vitality. 

But close as is Pontormo 's rendering of the Michel- 
angelesque canon in the " Nudes Playing at Calcio," the malady 
of imitation was to go deeper still, and yet another circumstance 
was to contribute to the crushing of Jacopo's personality. 
For both the "Noli me tangere," which he was now commis- 
sioned to paint for Alfonso Davolo 15 and the " Venus and 
Cupid," executed for Bartolomeo Bettini, Michelangelo himself 
not only furnished the cartoons, but expressed the desire that 
Pontormo be chosen as the artist best able to translate into 
paint the cartoon of the former picture. 16 The address 
displayed by Jacopo led to an order from the condottiere 
Alessandro Vitelli for a replica of the "Noli me tangere," 17 
and to the commission for the "Venus" from Bettini. 18 An 
artist of Pontormo 's alertness of mind could not, without the 
most serious consequences, fulfil tasks such as these at the 
moment when of his own accord he was devoting himself to 
a profound study of the works of his great contemporary. 
These commissions reacted upon Jacopo's style in a way that 
was much talked about in Florence, and Vasari condenses for 
us the gossip of the time. 19 

i* On Certain Drawings, p. 15. Cf. also Dessins, pp. 188 f., 267. 

is Vasari, VI, 276. Since Michelangelo furnished the cartoon for this picture late 
in 1531, Pontormo probably finished it in the spring of 1532. 

is Vasari, VI, 277. 

i 7 The panel for Davolo and its replica have disappeared. The cartoon also has 
been lost. We may however form an idea of the composition from a copy, perhaps the 
work of Battista Franco, that is now in the store-rooms of the Uffizi. See Carlo Gamba, 
Una copia del "Noli Me Tangere" di Michelangelo, Bollettino d'arte, III (1909), fase. 
iv, pp. 148-151, and Vasari, VI, 575. 

is Vasari, VI, 277. 

i Ibid. 

62 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

But, even if we did not have Vasari 's testimony, no one 
could have the slightest doubt that Jacopo was deeply impressed 
by Michelangelo's cartoons. After he had undertaken the 
" Venus," he brooded over the conception of that picture, 
rehandling the motive twice in little sketches (Uffizi 444, 446), 
which are Michelangelesque in arrangement only; once with 
magnificent great freedom (Uffizi 6534) beyond even his 
master's power at that moment; and once again later (fig. 133; 
Uffizi 6586) , 20 with tight distortion and strange exaggeration, 
in what is probably a study for one of the allegorical figures 
for the Medicean villa at Castello. 

The composition of the " Venus and Cupid" 21 is well known 
(fig. 123). During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries this 
picture enjoyed a great reputation. 22 It was copied many 
times, 23 and we still have several ancient adaptations, by various 
hands. In the opinion of many critics, including Berenson, 2 * 
the original is now in the Uffizi, where it was found in 1850 in 
the Guardaroba and rescued from a long neglect. 25 The panel 
has undergone an elaborate restoration and the position in 
which it now hangs makes impossible a critical study of the 
original touch. Such examination, however, as I have been 
able to give it has by no means convinced me that we are not 
in the presence of a genuine work of Jacopo 's. The feet are 
those we find in the drawing, Uffizi 6586 (fig. 133), and the ear 
and the contour of the legs are characteristic, but the hand has 
been horribly repainted, as also has the drapery. We need 
not be surprised that in the colour little remains that is 
suggestive of Pontormo, for Michelangelo was, in all likelihood, 
responsible not only for the cartoon but for the original colour- 
scheme as well. 

One can easily determine the date of the "Venus." 

20 For a discussion of these drawings, see my Dessins. 

21 Vasari, VI, 277. Thode, Michelangelo, III, 487. 

22 Vasari, VI, 277 f. Varchi, Due Lezeioni, p. 104. Borghini, p. 395. 

23 For a list of these copies, see the Catalogue Kaisonne', under Florence, Uffizi. 
2* Florentine Painters, p. 175. 

25 See Milanesi's note, Vasari, VT, 291-295, also the Catalogue Raisonne", loc. tit. 
and Appendix II, Doc. 33 and 34. 

63 



PONTORMO 

Vasari's narrative 26 is quite exact at this point : " Allora (after 
lie had begun the * Venus') conobbe lacopo quanto avesse mal 
fatto a lasciarsi uscir di mano 1' opera del Poggio." We know 
that the second commission for the frescoes at Poggio was 
cancelled by the death of Clement and that Bettini could not, 
therefore, have ordered the " Venus" much before 1533. It 
was finished, it would seem, about 1535, for Vasari's observa- 
tions imply that its execution extended over part of the time 
during which Jacopo was at work on his portrait of Alessandro. 27 
Happily this portrait, 28 which I have identified with a 
portrait in the Johnson Collection (fig. 124), is fully docu- 
mented. 29 It was painted while, to the great scandal of Florence, 
Alessandro was frequenting the society of Taddea Malespina 
and her sister. According to Vasari, 30 Pontormo made first, 
"per piu commodita," a miniature of the Duke, which has 
been lost. The biographer then describes the portrait, adding 
that the Duke was represented with a stylus in his hand in the 
act of drawing the head of a woman 31 a detail which is one of 
the most striking features of the Johnson picture. Moreover, 
Vasari's portrait of the Duke, 32 painted in 1532-1533, as well 
as a portrait from the workshop of Bronzino 33 labelled in letter- 
ing of the seventeenth century, ALEX MED FLOR DUX 
I LAURENS F , together with the latter 's prototype in 
Bergamo, 34 and its replica at Heidelberg, 35 all reveal the 
presence of the same sitter. Further evidence of the authen- 
ticity of the Johnson portrait is supplied by a letter that a 
certain Costantino Ansaldo wrote to Ferdinand I, in 1571." 

2VT, 277. 

2f Ibid., 278. 

28 Vasari (VI, 278) says that the commission was given to Pontormo on account 
of the success of his now lost portrait of Amerigo Antinori. 

29 P. M. Clapp, Un ritratto d' Alessandro de' Medici, Eassegna d'arte, XIII (1913), 
pp. 63-66. 

so VI, 278. 

si Ibid. 

32 Uffizi, No. 1281. 

83 Now in the corridor between the Uffizi and the Pitti, No. 20. 

s* Morelli Collection, No. 65. 

35 Thode Collection. 

se A. S. F., Carteggio mediceo del Principato, Filza 567, c. 187 and 225. Of. Carlo 
Carnesecchi, Sul ritratto d' Alessandro de' Medici dipinto dal Pontormo, Bivista d'arte, 

64 



HIS LIFE AND WOEK 

He describes the portrait, states that the Duke, dressed in 
mourning, was seen full face seated at a table, and adds that 
the panel was painted in the Pazzi palace "nel tempo che morse 
la buona memoria di Papa Clemente," that it was given to him 
by the Duke in reward for his faithful service, and that, after 
Alessandro 's death, it had been presented by him to Taddea 
Malespina, one of the Duke's mistresses. 87 Our identification 
of this portrait rests, then, on the solidest foundation. There 
was no one but Clement, his father, for whom Alessandro would 
have put on mourning during the early years of the thirties. 
The Pope died, September 25, 1534, and the portrait must 
accordingly date from the end of 1534 or the beginning of 1535. 
The fact that its date can be determined with such comparative 
accuracy helps us to define also, to a certain degree, the date 
of other portraits that must have been painted during the ten 
years immediately following the siege. These will be discussed, 
in some detail, in the chapter devoted entirely to Pontormo's 
work in portraiture. 

After the " Venus" and the " Portrait of Alessandro" were 
finished, the Duke commissioned Pontormo to paint two 
"loggie" in the Medicean villa at Careggi, with the help of 
assistants, and with the utmost dispatch. Vasari 38 writes that 
the decoration consisted of six allegorical figures Fortune, 
Justice, Victory, Peace, Fame, and Love 39 which, in one of 
the " loggie," occupied the lower part of the vaulting. Jacopo 
designed them all, but the execution of the first five was 
Bronzino's, and only the last was painted by Pontormo. In 
the hollow of the vaulting, there were flying "putti" designed 

VI (1909), No. 1, and Gualandi, Baccolta di lettere, III, 62-70, where the number of the 
original document is given as: Archivio mediceo: Carteggio Universale, Filza 237, c. 187. 
See Appendix II, Doe. 22. 

37 For further details contained in this letter, see Catalogue EaisonnS, under 
Philadelphia, Johnson Collection. 

38 VI, 280. 

3 The subjects were characteristic of the time. Annibal Caro, secretary of Cardinal 
Alessandro Farnese, selected similar subjects Eeligion, Virtue, Fame, Charity, Peace, 
Abundance, and Justice for the frescoes executed in the Villa Caprarola, on the flanks 
of Monte Cimino, by Taddeo and Federigo Zuccaro and their assistants between 1534 and 
1546. Both these and Pontormo's decorations were far-off reflections of the "Arts and 
Virtues" of the Middle Ages. The Zuccaro frescoes still survive. 

65 



PONTORMO 

by our master and coloured by Bronzino. The grotesques and 
the ornamental part of the work were confided to Jacone, 40 
Pierfrancesco di Jacopo and others. 41 When Yasari wrote, 
these paintings were already ruined. 

No document for the date of this undertaking survives. 
Vasari implies that it was begun soon after the portrait of the 
Duke was finished, and he explicitly states that the "loggia" 
itself was finished on December 13, 1536. 42 Taking into account 
the unusual speed with which the work was done, we may 
conjecture that it was begun sometime between the summer 
of 1535 and the spring of 1536. Alessandro was assassinated 
on January 6, 1537 (New Style), and the second "loggia" was 
never decorated. 

Of the preparatory work only one sheet is known to me 
Uffizi 458, 43 on which there are three studies of "putti" flying 
upward with birds in their hands, the identification of which 
with Careggi is made possible by Vasari 's accurate description 
of the figures of the vaulting. The cartouche on the same sheet 
represents Pontormo's first idea for the general arrangement 
of these figures. They are all of great charm and drawn with 
joyous promptitude. 

After the battle of Montemurlo (August 2, 1537) had ended 
the last flutter of resistance to Medicean domination, 44 Cosimo 
was in a position to proceed with the embellishment of his 
villas. 45 Tribolo's plan for the garden and fountain of Castello 46 
is well known, and the commission given to Pontormo for the 
"loggia" to the left of the courtyard 47 was only part of a great 
scheme of reconstruction, which included the whole property. 

40 Vasari, VI, 452. 

41 Ibid., p. 281. For Jacone who painted on the facade of the Palazzo Buondelmonti, 
in monochrome, "The Life of Pippo Spano" of which no trace remains, see Vasari, V, 58; 
VI, 281, 450, 453 f. For Pierfrancesco, see ibid., V, 58. 

42 VI, 281. 

43 Dessins, p. 101. Bronzino imitated these "putti" in the choir of flying angels 
in the "Adoration of the Divine Child," now in Santo Stefano, Pisa. 

44 Nardi, X, ii, pp. 358-377. 

45 Vasari, VI, 281-283. 
"Ibid., 71-85. 

47 Ibid., p. 282. 

66 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

Jacopo seems to have gone to Castello in the spring of 1538. 
He designed all the ornaments first and had them executed by 
Bronzino and the journeymen who had worked at Careggi. 48 
Then he shut himself up in the "loggia" with the intention of 
painting, entirely with his own hands, the figures of the 
decoration. Since he had just had at Careggi his first real 
experience with assistants, his desire to work out, in solitude 
and without help of any kind, the decorations at Castello 
throws a significant sidelight on his innate dislike of collabo- 
ration. He received from Cosimo a stipend of eight "scudi" a 
month, and he kept the " loggia" closed with a hoarding" for 
five years until weary with waiting, Maria Salviati, the mother 
of Cosimo, ordered the scaffolding thrown down. 50 Jacopo 
obtained a brief delay, and then, amid universal expectation, 
the work was uncovered. It was not a success. The critics 
found in the figures a lack of proportion 51 and "certi stravol- 
gimenti ed attitudini molto strane." By way of excuse, accord- 
ing to Vasari, Pontormo merely said that he had never had his 
heart in the work because the place was exposed to the fury of 
marauding soldiers. Like the "loggia" of Careggi, the decora- 
tion was painted in oil upon dry plaster, 52 and in ten years' time 
it was a mere ruin of which no trace remains today. 

The general arrangement must have resembled that of 
the "loggia"" at Careggi. In the pendentives there were alle- 
gorical nude figures, which represented Philosophy, Astrology, 
Geometry, Music, Arithmetic, and a Ceres; in the medallions, 
little stories appropriate to each figure; in the vaulting, a 
"Saturn with Sign of Capricorn," a "Mars Hermaphrodite 
with Sign of Leo and Virgo," and flying "putti" as at Careggi. 58 

Little remains of Jacopo 's preparatory studies. 5 * I believe 

** Ibid. Jacone helped Pontormo with the greater part of the "grotteschi" both in 
the loggia at Careggi and at Castello (Vasari, VI, 452). 

49 Hid. 

50 Ibid. 

61 Ibid. 

62 Ibid. 

63 Ibid., p. 283. 

64 For these drawings, see my Dessins. 

67 



PONTORMO 

that Uffizi 6584 (fig. 132), a great woman in a pose clearly 
derived from the San Lorenzo tombs, gives us, in all likelihood, 
a hint of the pose of one of the principal figures. We have, in 
Uffizi 6630, almost certainly a design, in itself extremely 
interesting, for the "Mars Hermaphrodite." Uffizi 6510 is, it 
would seem, a first thought for the "Saturn," while another 
design (fig. 133; Uffizi 6586), which is closely related to the 
"Venus" painted for Bettini and to which we have already 
referred, is perhaps a finished study for the "Astrology" or 
the "Geometry." The technique of this drawing manifestly 
indicates that it dates from these years, and in it the type of 
figure that Michelangelo had evolved huge thighs and abdo- 
men, small head, breasts and arms is rendered with exag- 
geration and distortion. All these drawings are painfully 
laboured and over-modelled. 

Toward the end of the thirties we must also place, on 
Vasari 's evidence, 55 a portrait of Maria Salviati, lost or as yet 
unidentified, and a lost portrait of the young Cosimo for which, 
on the other hand, we have a drawing (Uffizi 6528 verso) and 
a first sketch in oils. 56 

Two details of Pontormo's private life during this decade 
are now known. With the hundred ' ' scudi ' ' that he received for 
his "Portrait of Alessandro" and the "Venus" Jacopo finished 
his house. 57 From the Catasto of 1545 it is evident that it was 
built sometime before 1536. 58 It was small, "non cosa di molta 
importanza," as befitted a solitary craftsman, and its chief 
peculiarity was a room that Pontormo made his workshop, to 
which the sole entrance was by a ladder that he was in the 
habit of pulling up after him to fortify himself against all 
interruptions. 

Travel could have had little attraction for so retiring a 
spirit, although certain drawings 59 that reflect the glories of 

55 VI, 282. 

6 Article by Carlo Gamba, Bivista d'arte, 1910, pp. 125-127. 
57 Vasari, VI, 279. 

68 A. S. F., Catasto, Libro a Parte, No. 11, p. 448 left ; Libro S. Gio. a Parte 1549, 
No. 16, p. 349 left. See Appendix II, Doc. 23. Cf. Vasari, VI, 279. 

so Benvenuto Cellini brought to Florence from France certain cartoons, drawings and 

68 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

the Sixtine Chapel tempt one to think that Jacopo had visited 
Eome before 1520. But deductions based upon drawings are, 
in such a case, inconclusive. Jacopo may have merely seen 
in Florence various studies of Michelangelo's for the Sixtine 
or fragments of his cartoons that had found their way into 
Tuscany. We have no hint of any other journey until long 
afterwards, in 1539, in October of which year Milanesi' 
believes correctly as it happens that Jacopo was in the 
Eternal City. The evidence that Milanesi brings forward is, 
nevertheless, completely unconvincing and rests entirely upon 
a letter quoted by Visconti in the Giornale arcadico. 01 This 
letter was written by Annibal Caro to Monsignore Giovanni 
Guidiccioni, and may be read in full in the collected edition 
of Caro's letters, edited by Tomitano. There the name of the 
artist mentioned is Pastermo. An earlier edition by Volpi gives 
the same spelling. But in the fragment of the letter that 
Visconti printed he arbitrarily changed Pastermo to Pontormo. 
What Caro really wrote cannot be determined without refer- 
ence to the manuscript of this letter, the whereabouts of which 
is unknown to me. We have, however, definite and conclusive 
proof that Jacopo did visit Rome between 1535 and 1543. In 
the Louvre, among the authentic Pontormo drawings preserved 
there, more than eighty-five are consecrated entirely to motives 
of architecfure and decoration. They are all in the same 
technique pen and bistre and all of the same date. On 
ten of these one finds notes in Pontormo 's own handwriting 
which indicate that the detail in question was to be found in 
one of the churches or among the antiquities of Rome or its 
environs. 62 How long he stayed away from Florence we have 

models by Michelangelo. They had been successively in the hands of Antonio Mini and 
Giovan Francesco Kustici (Vasari, VI, 620), but in any case they would have reached 
Florence too late to account for any influence of Michelangelo upon Pontormo before 1530. 

o Vasari, VI, 274, note. 

iLXXX, 93. For the text of this letter as well as for Visconti 's citation from it, 
see Appendix II, Doc. 24. 

62 See Dessins, pp. 305-325. Baldinucci, of whose collection these sketches once 
formed part, noted on the mount of No. 954 that they were taken "per lo piu da pitture 
e Anticaglie di Eoma." The "Portrait of Cardinal Spannocchi Cervini" (Borghese, 
No. 408) was probably painted in Eome and it must date from between October, 1540 

69 



PONTORMO 

no means of knowing, but this journey will naturally count for 
much in explaining his use of Michelangelesque forms later on 
in San Lorenzo. 

Last in this period of Pontormo's work I place his cartoons 98 
for certain tapestries that formed part of the first series of 
"arazzi" executed by Flemish workmen of the weaving industry 
that was inaugurated in Florence by Cosimo I. They portrayed 
"The History of Joseph" and once adorned the Sala de' 
Dugento, in the Palazzo Vecchio. To Pontormo Vasari assigns 
two cartoons, the subjects of which were "The Lamentation 
of Jacob" (Pianto di Jacob) and "Joseph and Potiphar's 
Wife" (Fuga di Joseph; fig. 136). These, he says, pleased 
neither Cosimo nor the Flemish workmen. To the latter they 
seemed strange in composition and unsuitable as designs for 
tapestries. The cartoons have perished but the tapestries still 
exist in the Palazzo del Quirinale, in Rome, together with others 
woven, according to Vasari and the books of the Guardaroba, 64 
from cartoons by Bronzino and Salviati, among them, a 
"Benjamin at the Court of Pharaoh" (fig. 134). I am inclined 
to believe, however, that the latter tapestry may well have been 
none other than the "Coppa di Joseph" that is given to 
Pontormo in the Inventory of July 15, 1549, while the "Cattura 
di Benjamin," cited in the same document and ascribed to 
Bronzino, would appear to have been in reality the "Cattura 
di Simeone," correctly attributed to Bronzino in the complete 
list of all the hangings drawn up in 1553. In any case, our 
"Benjamin at the Court of Pharaoh" is identical, in size, shape, 
and spirit, with the two "arazzi" for which Pontormo is known 
to have furnished the designs and the structure and arrange- 
ment of the figures are his. The composition too is informed 
with qualities quite foreign to those that distinguish the 
"Burying of the Bones of Jacob," for which it is certain that 
Bronzino drew the cartoon. And I am the more inclined to 

and 1545. Cervini was not created cardinal until shortly after the former date and after 
the later date he was one of the presidents of the Council of Trent. 

as Vasari, VI, 283. 

Guardaroba, F. 15, pp. 91 v., 94 v. Of. Dessins, pp. 172 f. 

70 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

attribute our "Benjamin" to Jacopo because we still have a 
study (fig. 135 ; Uffizi 6593), for the figure to the right and seen 
from behind (reversed), which displays all the characteristics 
of Pontormo's draughtsmanship about 1545. It is, of course, 
not impossible that Jacopo merely gave certain ideas and 
suggestions to Bronzino who had actually received the com- 
mission for the cartoon. All three compositions are narrow 
vertical panels. They resemble in shape the frescoes that 
Pontormo executed later in the upper part of the choir of San 
Lorenzo notably the "Sacrifice of Cain" and the "Four 
Evangelists" and between these and the frescoes of the 
"loggia" at Castello they form, as it were, a link. 

The first important reference to the weaving industry, 
fostered by Cosimo I in Florence, is to be found in a letter of 
his written, in September, 1545, to Don Francesco da Toledo 
who was then residing in Brussels. 65 In the passage in question 
the Grand Duke speaks of his determination to establish looms 
in Tuscany in the hope that the Florentines and their neighbours 
might be led to prefer Italian tapestries to those made in 
Flanders, and we may conjecture from the form of this state- 
ment that the enterprise had already passed the experimental 
stage. Payments made to the Flemish weavers, Giovanni Host 
and Nicholas Karcher, that one finds recorded in the Libro 
Creditor! e" Debitori della Guardaroba (1544-1553) confirm 
our surmise. Nevertheless, the exact date at which the 
great set of hangings for the Sala de' Dugento was begun 
cannot now be determined. A letter of the Maggiordomo to 
Cristiano Pagni, in December, 1545, is, I think, the earliest 
mention that we have of the project. 66 But the "arazzieri," 
Eost and Karcher, did not sign a contract to undertake the work 
until October 26, 1546. Pontormo's "Fuga di Joseph" (fig. 136) 
is spoken of as finished in the Inventory of August 3, 1549, 
while still another document seems to imply that the three 
tapestries we have been discussing had been delivered to the 
Grand Duke before October 1, 1548. The first was woven by 

B Geisenheimer, Gli arazzi nella sola dei Dugento, Boll, d' arte, III (1909), 137-147. 
ee Conti, Eicerche storiche, pp. 12, 48, 97, 99 f. Geisenheimer, loc. cit, 

71 



PONTORMO 

Rost, the other two by Karcher. Pontormo must have worked 
upon his cartoons sometime between 1545 and 1547. 

These tapestries 67 are interesting chiefly as a tentative 
prelude to the designs for the San Lorenzo choir. They show 
an evident fatigue, and the "Lamentation of Jacob" is little 
more than a "rechauffe" of motives taken from the "Doni 
Madonna" of Michelangelo, from Jacopo's own "Adoration 
of the Magi" and from his "Pieta" of the Capponi Chapel. 
The pose of one of the figures recalls the pose of Abel in the 
drawing (Uffizi 6739) of the "Death of Abel" for San 
Lorenzo a design that may well have been one of the first that 
Pontormo made for the choir frescoes and, therefore, practi- 
cally contemporaneous with the first cartoon for the tapestries. 
In the "Benjamin at the Court of Pharaoh" the figure of 
Joseph seems to be a rehandling of the Maximianus of Jacopo's 
"Martyrdom of the Theban Legion," which was painted more 
than fifteen years earlier. 

A curious glimpse of Jacopo's private life reaches us from 
the end of the forties. On August 20, 1549, he became a 
"coTrrmesso" of the Hospital of the Innocents. 68 He paid to 
that pious foundation one hundred florins, and the Hospital 
promised to send him every year, for the rest of his life, 
twenty-four "staia" of grain, six barrels of wine and one 
barrel of oil. 

67 See Catalogue Raisonne, under Eome, Quirinal. 

68 Archivio degl' Innocenti, Libro di Commessi, B, 1528-1549, p. 319. See Appendix 
II, Doc. 25 and 26. 



72 



CHAPTER VIII 



1545-1557 

Prom 1535 to 1545 Pontormo was undisguisedly Michel- 
angelesque. Nothing but the solution of Michelangelo's formu- 
las interested him, and the passionate concentration with which 
he worked is visible in the few drawings that survive from these 
years. They bear witness to the marvellous penetration of his 
spirit, as well as to the perseverance with which he tried to 
broaden his understanding of plastic form. By 1540 he 
thoroughly comprehended the mechanism, so to speak, of 
Michelangelo's art, and had explored the hollow shell to its 
last secret recess. The very principle of the master's work, 
the life-enhancing accent laid upon restrained but untamed 
strength, the implication of elemental grandeur in the forces 
against which his giant race struggles in vain, was clear to 
Jacopo. But into his cleverly mimicked shapes he was power- 
less to strike the colossal pulse which alone could make them 
live. He was not so much a creator, in the old poetic sense, as 
an artist in the most modern interpretation of the term, a 
detached visionary craftsman interested only in the hidden 
problems of his art. 

For that reason, if for no other like the manner he had 
evolved at the Annunziata, or in the Visdomini panel, at Poggio, 
or the Certosa, or Santa Felicita the allegorical nudes that 
he had created at Carregi and Castello no longer satisfied 
Pontormo. Mere Michelangelesque form, once achieved, no 
longer interested him, mere scientific compactness of compo- 
sition no longer attracted. Neither was he to be led away into 
by-ways of scholastic formulas, or into the worship, for its own 
sake, of the muscular or the heroic. To communicate an 

73 



PONTORMO 

impression of force, of "terribilita" alone, he soon perceived 
was not art. To Bronzino, Vasari, Bandinelli, and Tribolo, the 
imitation of Michelangelo's canon was an end in itself. To 
Pontormo that canon, once thoroughly studied, became what 
all other canons had been to him the crude material of a new 
form of decoration. 

The final phase, therefore, of his development was the most 
misunderstood of his entire career, for he proposed nothing 
less than to use Michelangelo's superhuman giant as a mere 
element in a new scheme of mural painting, in which he would 
audaciously employ that monstrous nude to create a novel and 
more fantastic beauty. 

The opportunity to express himself in terms of this newly 
conquered material came when Cosimo commissioned him to 
paint the choir of San Lorenzo. 1 The Medici had been the 
" padroni" of this chapel for generations and that Pontormo 
was chosen for the great task of decorating it was the most 
signal tribute that could have been paid, at that moment, to 
his genius. The solemnity of the place and the importance 
of the undertaking stirred Jacopo to even more than his usual 
earnestness. 2 

We can only imperfectly appreciate to what degree he 
succeeded in approaching his ideal. The frescoes were destroyed 
in 1742 by a generation quite incompetent to understand them, 8 
when, because of the sinking of the foundation arches, a com- 
plete rebuilding of the choir became imperative.* 

We do not wonder that, to men idolatrous of mere repre- 
sentation, these frescoes had been from the beginning incom- 
prehensible and a failure. Vasari 5 gave expression to the trite 
criticism of his time, and his last word was: "onde si vede che 
chi vuol strafare e quasi sforzare la natura, rovina il buono 
che da quella gli era stato largamente donato." This somewhat 
smug and academic verdict is stupidly repeated by such writers 

1 Vasari, "VT, 284. 

2 Ibid., p. 285. 

s Domenico Moreni, Continuasione delle memorie, III, 115. 
* Ibid., p. 112. 
s VI, 287. 

74 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

as Borghini, 6 Moreni 7 and Richa. 8 Even today, in certain circles, 
a judgment quite in the spirit of Vasari's would probably be 
passed upon the frescoes, were they still in existence, but the 
younger generation of modern painters, who have broken with 
a paralysing conservatism, would unquestionably hail Pontormo 
as one of their earliest and most gifted forerunners. 

The present arrangement of the organ and of the archi- 
tectural mouldings of the chapel differs somewhat from that of 
the primitive plan. An exhaustive comparison of drawings that 
survive with Vasari's and Bocchi's descriptions of the choir 
leads me to believe that on entering it one saw: on the upper 
left-hand side-wall, to the left, "The Creation of Adam," 
between the windows, "The Temptation, " to the right, "The 
Expulsion from Paradise"; on the upper end-wall, to the left, 
"Moses Receiving the Law and the Sacrifice of Isaac," 9 in the 
centre, "Christ in Glory as Judge," to the right, "The Four 
Evangelists"; on the upper right side- wall, beginning with the 
space next to the end- wall, "The Tilling of the Soil," between 
the windows, "The Sacrifice of Cain and the Death of Abel," 
in the last space to the right, "The Benediction of the Seed of 
Noah and the Building of the Ark"; on the lower left wall, 
"The Resurrection"; on the lower end-wall, on either side of 
the window, "The Ascent into Heaven" and "The Descent of 
the Damned"; on the lower right wall, "The Deluge." 

The chief difficulty that we encounter with this arrange- 
ment is that Vasari 10 speaks of two Creations of Adam and Eve, 
one in the upper series of frescoes, one at the foot of "Christ 
in Glory," of which it formed an integral part. The finished 
drawing (fig. 138) for the "Christ in Glory" exists, and it is 
evident that here Vasari's description is incorrect, for the lower 
part of the composition is a "Creation of Eve." In all likeli- 

71 Riposo, p. 396. 

i Op. cit., p. 115. 

8 Op. cit., V, 28. Even the editors of the Milan edition of Vasari (XII, 59, note) 
regret that Salviati was not given the commission, although they could never have seen 
Pontormo 's frescoes, which were destroyed seventy years before their time. 

Bocchi especially praises these figures (Bellesee, ed. Cinelli, p. 515). 

10 VI, 285 f . 

75 



PONTORMO 

hood, then, the first fresco on the upper side-walls dealt with 
the Creation of Adam, not as Vasari says with that of Adam 
and Eve. To place "The Creation of Eve" at the foot of 
" Christ in Glory" seemed to Vasari and to most of Pontormo 's 
contemporaries, whose opinion Giorgio perpetuates, a gross 
violation of orthodox doctrine. 11 

The drawings 12 for San Lorenzo are very numerous; we 
have the finished study (fig. 138) for the " Christ in Glory," the 
" Moses Receiving the Law" (fig. 139), the "Four Evangelists" 
(fig. 140), the "Sacrifice of Cain and Death of Abel" (fig. 141 
and 142), and I have identified sketches for the "Descent of 
the Damned," for the "Tilling of the Soil" (fig. 143), for parts 
of the "Deluge" (fig. 144, 145 and 146), and for figures in the 
"Ascent into Heaven" (fig. 147), and in the "Expulsion from 
Paradise" (fig. 137). 

In these Pontormo is a creator of simple and majestic 
patterns. Here the masses of his composition are deployed in 
a new rhythm, and to that end he avoids in his unearthly nudes 
realism and any mere anatomical correctness of proportion, 
as well as all the scientific solutions of difficulties of pose with 
which naturalism had laboured to endow art, and all mathe- 
matical analysis of perspective. The gesture and the movement 
of these figures have in them no accepted beauty. 

But in drawings for the "Deluge" and the "Resurrection" 
he goes still further, casting to the winds all canons of artistic 
propriety. The poses are extravagantly strange, the contours 
distorted, the structure of the nude impossible. Vasari 13 felt 
that Judgment Day itself would not be more terribly confused 
than these last two frescoes. Longer study, however, reveals to 
us Pontormo 's intention. We cannot dismiss these drawings as 
an aberration, and the eleven years of patient, solitary devotion 
that Jacopo gave to this new expression of his artistic vision, 
as years of pitiable feebleness. Indeed, we may be sure that in 
these studies Pontormo drew no nudes out of all proportion 

11 Ibid., p. 286. 

12 For these drawings, see my Dessins. 
is VI, 286. 

76 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

because lie could no longer draw correctly. His serious and 
searching nature was never more touchingly consecrated to the 
problem before him than at San Lorenzo. He had, in all that 
he did there, a definite purpose. That purpose was not unlike 
the aim of certain painters of today. He perceived, dimly 
perhaps, but still more clearly than any Italian of his time, 
that in every work of art there is an element of decoration, 
source of our pleasure, and an element of representation, source 
of our sense of reality an emotional and a scientific side. 
And he also perceived, I think, that the Florentine Renaissance 
had been naturalistic, that its best ardour had been spent in 
solving problems of representation anatomy, movement, 
perspective, contour, light and shade in a word, in the 
evocation through the figure arts of sensations allied to those 
that are awakened by the visible world, and that by 1540 all 
the discoveries of the school, from Masaccio to Michelangelo, 
had been condensed into elaborate formulas. 

Against this tendency he revolted. He tossed and twisted 
the vast nudes that he had inherited from Michelangelo to fit 
strange combinations of shape that haunted him. Emotional 
design, that was his aim arrangements of lines and masses 
that stir our sensation of form without the intervention of the 
mind. Obviously, such compositions could give no pleasure to 
a generation which had lost, and not yet re-acquired, the art of 
looking at pictures for their own sake. On one sheet (fig. 146 ; 
Umzi 6528) 14 there is a swaying and falling rhythm of great 
sea-waves, which the tremendous nudes of the sketch swing to 
and obey. Surely no more fitting drawing for a "Deluge" was 
ever made. In it, as in other drawings for San Lorenzo, we 
divine a symbolism at once incomprehensible and attractive, 
a fascination, a quality untranslatable into terms of intellectual 
reflexion. This emotion sometimes permeates studies for 
individual figures; it lives in the gesture of the nude that we 
find on Uffizi 6679 (fig. 149). 

In unskilful hands such a method would naturally be 
dangerous. But, by his contact with Andrea and the early 

14 Dessins, pp. 132 f. 

77 



PONTORMO 

work of Michelangelo, Pontormo was more thoroughly versed 
in the study of form for its own sake than any artist working 
in Florence in 1550. He had therefore a right to his experiment, 
and we cannot but admire his disregard of adverse criticism. 
In these drawings there is no tawdry glitter, no laziness of the 
mind; the emphasis of his research is merely carried from 
the figure into the design. 

Vasari and his friends, who had never sought vitality in 
form, were of course the first to find Pontormo 's figures in 
the choir of San Lorenzo incorrect. Jacopo sought a broad 
decorative effect, and they, perversely enough, found only here 
and there bits of torse rendered with great skill. 15 They mis- 
understood his intention because they had no conception of that 
ceaseless renovation of ideals which is the well-spring of an 
artist's life. 

In no account-book of the Medici for this period (1548- 
1556) is there any mention of payments made to Pontormo. 16 
But the Medici owned the chapel, and Vasari 17 definitely states 
that it was Cosimo who ordered the frescoes and paid for them. 
Neither have I found any payment made to our painter by the 
Canons of San Lorenzo, although the books of the Chapter are, 
for these years, quite complete. In the Medicean Libro di 
Salariati for 1556 there are, however, two entries of eleven 
payments made to "Bastiano del gostra pittore con M Jac 
dapontormo." On March 1, 1554, this Bastiano was given a 
salary of two ducats a month, 18 and it is curious that we find 
payments made to him and none made to Pontormo. 

The baffling silence of the documents makes it impossible 
to state when the decoration of the choir was undertaken. 
Vasari 18 says that Jacopo laboured on it eleven years, which 

is Vasari, VI, 287. 

i See Catalogue BaisonnS, under Lost Pictures, San Lorenzo. One finds in the books 
of the Medici for these years numerous references to Cellini, Bronzino, Salviati, Bacchiacca 
and the ' ' Arazzieri. " 

VI, 284. 

iA. S. F., Depositeria Generale, No. 394, Libro di Salariati (1555-1556), pp. 42 
and 101 right and left. See Appendix II, Doc. 27. 

iVI, 287. Lapini, in his Diario fiorentino (ed. Corazzini, Firenze, 1900), states 
that Jacopo worked ten years on these frescoes. 

78 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

would mean that he began the work in 1545. That is not incon- 
ceivable, for it is evident from his diary that, between 1554 and 
1556, he was ill much of the time, and we may surmise that for 
some years his health had been failing. In those casual pages 
he does not perhaps record all the days that he spent at San 
Lorenzo, but even if we add several days in each month, to those 
he specifically mentions, we discover that he can hardly have 
worked there more than thirteen days out of every thirty. At 
that rate eleven years would have been none too long for such 
a task. Moreover, he seems to have laboured most of the time 
in perfect solitude, and we know that on certain occasions he 
even prepared the plaster with his own hands. At his death 
parts of the great lower frescoes were still incomplete and in 
the following year were finished by Bronzino. The choir was 
not uncovered until July 23, 1558. 20 

Pontormo died, according to Vasari, 21 of dropsy brought 
on by overwork. He was buried on January 2, 1557 22 and, since 
in Italy burial often takes place the day after death, it is 
probable that his death occurred on the first. All the painters, 
sculptors, and architects of Florence were present at his 
funeral, and he was buried in the courtyard of the Servites 
under his fresco of the "Visitation." 23 This, however, was only 
a temporary interment. His body was afterwards transported 
in pomp to" the Chapel of San Luca, 24 which was originally the 
chapter-house of the Annunziata and which was ceded by the 
Servites, sometime not long after 1562, to Montorsoli as 
sepulchre of the Compagnia del Disegno. Pontormo was the 
first artist to be buried there. On the round stone in the 
floor, which covers the vault, is the inscription: FLOREAT 

20 Vasari, loc. cit. and VII, 602. Bronzino finished many nudes in the lower part of 
the "Deluge," and in the ' ' Kesurrection " a strip about a "braccio" wide for the entire 
length of the fresco. Cf. Moreni, op. cit., II, 119; Borghini, op. cit., p. 396; Richa, V, 29; 
Bocchi, op. cit., p. 515 ff. See also for the lower part of the "Deluge," a drawing ascribed 
to Bronzino, Louvre, No. 1026. 

21 VI, 288. 

22 A. S. F., Medici e Speziali, No. 251, Libro dei Morti (1544-1560), p. 92 r.; Libro 
dei Morti (1506-1560), Serie della Grascia, p. 524 v. See Appendix II, Doc. 28 and 29. 

23 Borghini, op. cit., p. 396. Vasari, VI, 288. 
2* Vasari, VI, 656. 

79 



PONTORMO 

SEMPER VELIM VITA MORTE. The young poet Cosimo 
Gael wrote for Jacopo the following epitaph : 

In mille f ronti, a cui die vita e moto 
Lo mio nobil color, legger potrai, 
Viator, chi son io : qui troverai 
Eotto il career terren di spirto voto. 23 

In the choir of San Lorenzo, a year or two later, a marble slab 
was placed which seems to have existed in Moreni's time 26 and 
on which one read: "lacobus Puntormius Florentinus, qui, 
antequam tantum opus absolveret de medio in Coelum sublatus 
est, et vixit annos LXII menses VII dies VI. A. S. MDLVI." 
After his death, cartoons and models in clay were found in his 
house, as well as a fine "Madonna" in his earlier manner, which 
his heirs sold to Piero Salviati. 27 

Pontormo died intestate. The right to his property was 
contested by Bronzino and Andrea d' Antonio Chiazzella, the 
weaver, and the case was won by Andrea as nearest of kin. 28 
I believe Milanesi was wrong in identifying this Andrea 
Chiazzella, 29 distinctly described by Ser Giovanni Giordano as 
"tessor drapporum," with the Sguazzella, a pupil of Andrea 
del Sarto, who executed between 1516 and 1524, in an unnamed 
chateau in France, various pictures that were destroyed during 
the Revolution. 30 

What was perhaps the best likeness of Pontormo has 
perished. It was painted by Bronzino in a corner of the choir 
of San Lorenzo to the right of a figure of St. Lawrence 31 and 
disappeared when Jacopo 's frescoes were destroyed. But one 
may still see a portrait of Pontormo by his pupil in Bronzino 's 

25 Borghini, p. 396. For sonnets on the death of Pontormo by Bronzino and others, 
see Appendix II, Doc. 36. 

26 Moreni, op. cit., p. 115. Vasari, VI, 288, note. 

27 Vasari, VT, 288. 

28 A. S. F., Eogiti di Ser Giov. Battista di Lorenzo Giordani, G. 300, p. 399. See 
Appendix II, Doc. 30. 

2 In a document from the Catasto, which I have discovered, Chiazzella is again 
called a weaver. In 1561 he is cited as owner of a house in the Via della Colonna which 
was probably the house that Pontonno himself had built. See Appendix II, Doe. 31. 

so Vasari, V, 57, note 2; VI, 289, note. 

si Vasari, VII, 602. 

80 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

"Descent into Hell," now in the Uffizi. 32 The woodcut that 
appears in the second edition of Vasari is of less interest, 
although it is evidently not apochryphal, and Baldinucci" 
states that Allori painted a portrait of Jacopo in the Montanti 
Chapel of the Annunziata. Waetzoldt 34 believed the figure to 
the extreme left in the Pitti " Adoration of the Magi" to be a 
likeness of our painter when he was a young man, and others 
have seen, in a Pontormo drawing 35 in the Uffizi, Jacopo 's own 
features. Both conjectures are without foundation. 

32J6td., VI, 289, note; VII, 599. The "Descent into Hell" was painted in 1552 
for the Zanchini Chapel in Santa Croce; the portrait of Pontormo is mentioned by Vasari 
(VII, 599). Jacopo 's is the face turned slightly to the right and seen just over the 
Saviour 's right shoulder, that is to say, immediately to the left of the figure of Christ. 

s&Notieie, ed. 1812, IX, 521: "vedesi nella piu alta parte dell' Istoria della disputa, 
presso al eapitello della colonna, che fa fronte alia grossezza del muro, in persona d'un 
vecchio Jacopo da Pontormo." At the Reiset sale in 1870, a picture was sold which the 
catalogue describes as a "Portrait of Carucei by Himself," and a portrait, said to be of 
Pontormo by himself, was sent to the Royal Academy Loan Exhibition of 1877 by Lord 
Methuen. I am unacquainted with both these pictures. The woodcut from Vasari 's second 
edition of the "Lives" was reprinted in the Milan edition of the same (1811, XII, 2), 
and by Miintz in his "Renaissance" (III, 499). Cf. also Dezallier d ' Argenville, Vie des 
plits fameux peintres (1762), I, 49, eng., and Vasari (1760), pi. 135, eng. The right-hand 
figure in the double portrait, Louvre, No. 1508, commonly known as "Raphael et son maitre 
d'armes," was believed in the seventeenth century to be a likeness of Pontormo. The 
identification is without foundation. The canvas, once given to Raphael himself, is ascribed 
to Giulio Romano by Berenson, to Sebastiano del Piombo by Waagen, to Polidoro da 
Caravaggio by Cavalcaselle. Cf. Duranty, Gazette des "beaux-arts, XV (1877), pp. 32, 34; 
Rosenberg and Gronau, Eaffael, 4th ed., pp. 211, 252; Berenson, Central Italian Painters, 
2d ed., p. 185; "Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Baffaello, ed. Le Monnier, III, 414 f.; Passavant, 
EaptM'el d'UrUn, II, 355-357, note; 294. For the provenance of the picture, see Engerand, 
Inventaire, Paris, 1899, pp. 20 ff. 

s* Die Kunst des Portrdts, 1908, p. 345, fig. (photo. Reali). 

35 Dessins, p. 244. B. F. D., pi. CLXXIV. D. G. U., pi. XVIII. 



81 



CHAPTER IX 

PORTRAITS 

The various influences that reacted upon Pontormo 's 
personality and combined, at times strangely, with successive 
phases of his creative instinct may also be traced in his por- 
traits, for happily portraiture was with him, even in his youth, 
a favorite medium of expression. By its limitations and its 
possibilities it implied an art admirably suited to his peculiar 
temperament. But it would be idle to analyse his portraits 
separately, while to establish for them an exact chronology is 
practically impossible. In portraiture progressive variations 
of touch are always difficult to distinguish, and Pontormo's 
fidelity to the character of his sitter complicates the problem. 
Moreover, of the forty-seven portraits, paintings or drawings, 
that have come down to us only one is documented and dated: 
the "Portrait of Alessandro" in the Johnson Collection. And 
only this and the " Portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio" have even 
been identified. 1 To determine whether other portraits, ascribed 
or ascribable to Pontormo, are authentic or not requires that 
intimate knowledge of his touch and of his development which 
alone can help us to make an intelligible pattern out of what 
ignorance and the years have jumbled and in part destroyed. 
Here his portrait-drawings render an especial service. They 
betray their date by disclosing their relationship to other 
drawings, the date of which is known, and with their help we 
may thread the mazes of a difficult chronology. 

The earliest portrait we possess is perhaps the " Engraver 
of Precious Stones" (fig. 10), once part of the collection of 

i The ' ' Portrait of Bartolommeo di Lorenzo Gualteretti, ' ' in the Johnson Collection, 
which is ascribed to Pontormo by Berenson, is dated 1550. I am not, however, of the 
opinion that it is an authentic Pontormo. . 

82 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

Louis XIV and now in the Louvre. 2 The drawing of the mouth, 
the nose, and the chin, the facial oval, and the heavy colour, 
obviously recall Andrea's " Portrait of Himself," which is now 
in the Uffizi. 3 But Pontormo's portrait is troubled and intro- 
spective; from it a personality looks out at us mysteriously, 
as from no portrait by Del Sarto. Although, like the "Portrait 
of a Man" now in Bonn, 4 which appears to have followed it at 
a short interval, it cannot have been painted later than in 1516, 
it demonstrates that Jacopo had even then the secret of laying 
bare his sitter's soul. 

Within the next two years he painted the " Portrait of a 
Young Man" (fig. 41) of the Palazzo Bianco, 5 which catches 
so delightfully the self-conscious stiffness of a fashionable 
youth, and but a little later, the well-known "Portrait of 
Cosimo il Vecchio" (fig. 42 ). 6 This I place somewhat before 
the summer of 1518. It is an evident masterpiece, of powerful 
arrangement, beautiful colour, and intense interpretation. 
Iconographically it derived from one of the medals struck not 
long after Cosimo 's death, and since it was painted for a 
secretary of Lorenzino's, Pontormo had of course to represent 
Cosimo in the guise of the great and saintly ancestor of the 
Medici. But how intimately and imaginatively Jacopo, with his 
subtle incisiveness of spirit, understood the fine craftiness, the 
pitiless penetration, and cunning self-satisfaction of the ailing 
old banker ! What hands ! How grasping, how alive ! Cosimo 
seems to hold them tightly clasped before him for fear some 
violent animation in them betray his stealthy calm. He lives 
more vividly here than in any portrait painted during his 
lifetime. 

The treatment of the features and of the spacing in these 
last two portraits owes something to such works of Piero di 
Cosimo as his "Portrait of a Warrior," of the National Gallery 
or his "Francesco Giamberti," now in The Hague. 

2 No. 1241. 

3 No. 1176. 

* Provincial Museum, No. 214. 

5 No. 6. 

Now in the Uffizi. 

83 



PONTORMO 

We have one other portrait that was painted before 1520 
the " Unknown Boy" (fig. 48) of Prince Trivulzio's collection. 
There are two portrait-drawings of the same period, a 
melancholy youth wrapped in a mantle (fig. 49; Uffizi 6682), 
to which we have referred elsewhere, and a strong study of a 
young artisan (fig. 38; Uflizi 452 F). The latter recalls the 
"Portrait of a Youth," now in Lucca, but was not drawn for 
it. To the years 1520-1525 no portrait can be assigned with 
certainty. The black-chalk sketch of an old woman in a mantle 
(Uffizi 6573) recalls the draped women of the frescoes at the 
Certosa but, like Uffizi 451 F, it can hardly be earlier than 1525. 

While Jacopo was painting the Capponi Chapel and the 
works that immediately followed it (1525-1530), he executed 
several portraits that survive, among them the flower-like 
portrait-drawing of a young girl (fig. 101 ; Uffizi 449 ), 7 in which 
the line has qualities that characterize the best studies for Santa 
Felicita. One might assign to the same period a wistful drawing 
of a young boy (fig. 102; Uffizi 6667), 8 which discloses a rare 
understanding of child-life, but in which there is a certain 
serene transliteration of fact that sometimes tempts me to place 
it nearer to Poggio. 

Sometime about 1528 Jacopo painted the beautiful "Por- 
trait of a Youth" (fig. 115), now in Lucca. 9 This is one of his 
most characteristic and charming pictures. The long, upgrow- 
ing neck, the delicate oval of the face, the full, fine, bushy hair, 
the slightly turned, sidelong glance, the slim body delicately 
suggested in its great robe of silk, the simple but striking 
adjustment of the figure to the space, the clarity and ring of 
the colour, all are but elements of the finer art with which 
Pontormo felt the essential character, the sweet frankness of 
a fresh, young spirit. 

The Bergamo portrait (fig. 116) , 10 falsely called "Baccio 
Bandinelli," and the Uffizi 11 "Portrait of a Man" (fig. 118), 

7 Dessins, pp. 96 f . 

s Ibid., p. 218. 

oPinacoteca, No. 75 (Sala I, No. 5). 

10 Morelli Collection, No. 59. 

11 No. 1220. 

84 



HIS LIFE AND WOEK 

though dry in colour, are both of a Holbeinesque purity of 
drawing and of a fine severity. Like the exquisite " Portrait of 
a Girl as Lucretia" (fig. 119), now in the Borghese, 12 they date 
from just before 1530. With them belongs the "Portrait of 
a Man," in the Corsini 13 at Eome, which has completely lost 
by retouching its distinction and decision. 

From the period of the siege and immediately thereafter, 
we have: the portrait-drawing of a young soldier (fig. 120), 
of rare economy of touch and of a clarity of interpretation 
recalling Ingres (Uffizi 463 F) ; an elaborate but tame three- 
quarters portrait-drawing of an artisan (Uffizi 6698) , 14 which 
inspired Bronzino's " Portrait of Bartolommeo Panciatichi"; 
the " Portrait of Alessandro," now in Philadelphia (1534- 
1535) ; 15 the tense, clean-cut profile 16 that is now called "The 
Canon Castiglione" (fig. 125). 

Between 1534 and 1540 I place a group of fair women, 
panels that are among the highest achievements of the Floren- 
tine School in portraiture. No other Tuscan attained such rare, 
light harmony of tone, such graciously ample arrangement of 
space, such dignity and simplicity and ease, together with such 
subtlety, breadth, and wealth of suggestion of the sitter's social 
sphere, her inheritance, and her intelligence. Most of all no 
Florentine, except Leonardo, so drew up the yearning, unquiet 
spirit to the eyes and made an unmistakable, but almost unseiz- 
able, vibration of personality play about the mouth. These are 
women of proud family and of long lineage. Yet, in their 
lovely but simple dresses, with their gold chains, their rings, 
their embossed books, their little dogs, how human they seem 
to us, how frank and secretly confiding ! Here must be placed 
such masterpieces as the "Portrait of a Young Woman" 
(fig. 128), in the Dirksen Collection, in Berlin, the alert and 
speaking "Portrait of a Girl" (fig. 127), in Frankfort, 17 the 

"No. 75. 

is No. 577. 

i* Dessins, pp. 106, 244. 

is Johnson Collection, No. 83. 

ie Pitti, No. 249. 

" Stadel Institute, No. 14 a. 

85 



PONTORMO 

"Portrait of a Lady with a Volume of Verse" (fig. 131), once 
in the Yerkes Collection and erroneously ascribed to Bronzino. 
To these years also belong the "Young Girl with a Carnation 
Hung over Her Ear" of the Widener Collection, a portrait 
that resembles those just mentioned but which from repainting 
has become stiff and blank, as well as two fine portrait-drawings : 
the one (Uffizi 17769 ), 18 aristocratic, though a trifle hard in its 
refinement; the other (Uffizi 414) , 19 which was long ascribed to 
Leonardo, big, broad, and full of good-humoured complacency. 

These panels and drawings were closely followed by the 
oval "Portrait of a Woman in Green" (fig. 129), in the Grand- 
ducal Gallery of Oldenburg, 20 skilfully arranged, magnificently 
large, and of broad spiritual insight. Of the same date are the 
dry but firm study, Uffizi 6680 ; 21 the badly proportioned 
drawing of a bishop (Uffizi 443 verso), perhaps for the now 
lost portrait of Ardinghelli; the somewhat dull, though quite 
correct, red-chalk study of a boy in a mantle with a flute 
(Uffizi 443 ). 22 Here one should place the "Portrait of Cardinal 
Spannocchi Cervini" (fig. 130), the Sienese prelate who was 
afterwards Pope Marcellus a panel which, before Morelli's 
time, was held to be by Raphael. 23 And here, too, belongs the 
grave and penetrating "Portrait of Bartolomeo Compagni" 
(fig. 126), now in the Stirling Collection. In it the accessories 
are of an almost painfully scrupulous naturalism. The effect 
of the whole, however, with its broad distribution of masses 
is of a dignity, a quietness, quite undeniably Pontormo's own. 

Even during the last years of his life, while he slaved in 
the solitude of the San Lorenzo choir, his mind all preoccupied 
with a new idealism, Pontormo had, when he faced a definite 
model, an eye unswervingly loyal to the essentially significant 
in character. A masterful and uncompromising human docu- 
ment, raised above mere stupid transcription into that realm of 

is Dessins, pp. 288 f . 
i Ibid., p. 89. 

20 No. 19. 

21 Dessins, p. 230. 

22 Idem, pp. 93 f . 

23 Borghese Gallery, No. 408. 

86 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

intellectual clarity in which the best of Pontormo's art moves, 
is the "Portrait of an Old Lady" (fig. 150), now in Vienna. 24 
Here, as in the severely simple "Portrait of a Lady" (fig. 151), 
in the Jacquemart- Andre Collection, Jacopo's study of his 
sitter's personality is still indefatigable and searching. Pon- 
tormo could never have painted the "Mona Lisa." His 
limitations and inequalities become only too obvious when his 
achievement, even in portraiture, is compared with a work upon 
which a mind as unparalleled in depth and scope as Leonardo's 
has left a record of its own unique experience. He had neither 
the supreme quality of accumulated vision necessary for such 
an understanding, nor the unapproachable cunning of hand. 
His was an intuitive intelligence, an instinctive penetration, 
which, at its best, leaves upon the faces of his people an inde- 
finable and appealing wistfulness that makes Bronzino's 
portraits seem hollow and uncommunicative, Andrea's monoto- 
nously literal, Ghirlandaio 's wooden, and even the greater 
portraits of the Quattrocento lacking in all inner animation. 
But quite apart from any limitations that one may feel in 
Pontormo's portraits, when one compares them with the 
greatest masterpieces, and quite apart too from any artistic 
superiority that they may claim when one sets them beside the 
works of his predecessors or contemporaries, they have, in the 
history of "* this province of painting, an importance that has 
been hitherto unrecognized. It cannot, however, be long before 
it will be clear to all students of Florentine civilization that one 
legacy, in the long inheritance left by those minds that have 
re-created the visible world in the plastic arts, one aspect of 
our present vision of ourselves, has undoubtedly its source in 
him. This contribution to our visual memory passed from 
Jacopo to Bronzino and, popularized by him, found its way 
through certain Italians who worked in Spain, and through 
Flemish artists like Antonio Moro 25 who worked in Italy, into 

24 Gemaldegalerie, No. 48. 

25 For the influence of Pontormo, through Bronzino, upon Antonio Moro, cf. the 
"Portrait of William of Orange" (Cassel, No. 37) which Antonio painted in 1555-1556; 
the "Portrait of a Youth in Armour," dating from about 3560, lately in the Ehrich 
Galleries, New York, and now in the St. Louis Museum; and the "Portrait of a Princess," 

87 



PONTOKMO 

our general tradition of form. It was Jacopo who first trans- 
formed portraiture by seeing it in terms of Michelangelo's 
heroic vision and it was Jacopo who, in recording the appear- 
ance of his sitters, first sought to combine a massive imaginative 
simplicity and dignity of presentation with an intangible 

evocation of individual character. 



painted in 1577, which was once in the collection of the Baron de Beurnonville (1881), 
and later in that of la Baronne de H***, for a reproduction of which, see Catalogue de la 
Collection de la feue Baronne de H***, Georges Petit, June, 1904, p. 28. 



88 



CHAPTER X 

LAST YEARS: HIS LIFE FEOM DAY TO DAY 

Numerous passages 1 in Vasari 's "Life of Pontonno" give 
us an idea of Ms personal appreciation of Jacopo as an artist 
and as a man. The clever Aretine, who was a favourite of 
princes and by nature a courtier, was hardly the person to under- 
stand Pontormo's shrinking and detached spirit. For all his 
kindly sympathy, he could not but deplore Jacopo 's aloofness, 
his indifference to the patronage of the great, his waywardness, 
and his hesitations. It was a pity, he thought, to let slip heed- 
lessly a chance to finish the Great Hall at Poggio. 2 Vasari did 
not understand Jacopo 's whole-hearted devotion to his art. 
Even though he admits it was no lack of ability that made 
Pontormo procrastinate, 3 and that once decided how a thing 
should be done his manner of working showed no vacillation, 
it is quite apparent Vasari did not realize that Jacopo never 
put his hand to an undertaking without first solving the problem 
of its conception and execution. 

In a letter to Varchi Pontormo himself gives us a whimsical 
account of his attitude towards painting. This letter 4 explains 
much. Jacopo felt the underlying principle of sculpture and 
painting to be design a term that he uses in its widest sense, 
and that for him includes invention, composition, and the 
rendering of the figure. Sculpture, he thought, is eternal; 
painting, transitory. And he wittily compares the former to 
"panno fine," the latter to "panno accotonato delP inferno." 
On the other hand, the mere durability of the stuff of sculpture, 

1 VI, 249, 271, 285, 287. 

2 Ibid., p. 277. 

3 Hid., p. 289. 

* Bottari, Eaccolta di lettere, Milan, 1822, I, 20-25. See Appendix II, Doc. 32. 

89 



PONTORMO 

the time-resisting bronze or stone, is after all a quality that 
even unquarried rocks have, while the eternity to which genius 
attains resides in a profound creative impulse and in the 
conquest of inert material. He keenly felt the mere physical 
difficulties of the practice of sculpture or painting, and from 
this point of view, painting is for him the more marvellous art. 
Does it not, with slighter means, attempt a larger task ? With 
mere colours and a flat surface, does the painter not realize, 
by an artifice, nature, its colours, lights, shadows, diversities 
air, cloud, landscape, houses, men, and animals everything 
various, harmonious, and graceful, in the multitudinous appear- 
ances of things'? This vying with nature Jacopo felt to be a 
fine audacity. Still finer, the daring that, by arranging and 
harmonizing images taken from nature, transfigures and makes 
them more beautiful than nature is herself ! 

The playful, philosophic aloofness of this letter manifested 
itself in Jacopo 's daily life. He was an unworldly and solitary 
spirit. Vasari hints that some of his contemporaries even 
found him unsociable and mean. Certainly he cultivated no 
luxuries of dress or food or change. His little house was 
without extravagance or pretence, and it had, to use Vasari 's 5 
expression, "cera di casamento da uomo fantastico e solitario." 

Like Michelangelo and Leonardo, he never married. His 
work he loved, not what it brought him. Poor as he was, he 
sought no commissions from the rich. 6 And when he had work 
to do, he closed his door even to his intimates. This we know 
from his diary, for one day he writes: "Domenica fu pichiato 
da Bronzino e poi il di da Daniello. Non so quello che si 
volessino." 

Vasari appreciated his rectitude of spirit and defends him 
against the accusation that, in allowing the "Venus" to be sold 
to Alessandro, he did not treat Bettini fairly. He protests 
against gossip, once current in Florence, that Jacopo was vain 
and proud because he had been chosen to paint the choir of 
San Lorenzo. 7 Vasari knew that nothing was more foreign to 

B VI, 279. 

e Ibid. 

f Ibid., p. 285. 

90 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

the modest spirit of his friend than insolent words or a high- 
handed manner. 

We owe much of our knowledge of Pontormo's personality 
to Vasari's kindly interest, but for a profounder insight into 
his peculiar character we must turn to his diary (fig. 152 ). 8 
Of this precious document we have only a fragment that begins 
with the year 1554, when the entries are few, and continues at 
irregular intervals to within a month and a half of his death. 

Nothing could be more direct, more completely without 
pose, than these pages, which sound as if in them he communed 
with his own memory. They evoke an image of his life from 
day to solitary day, with its labour, its illnesses, its isolation, 
and its simple pleasures the humble life of an artist and a 
workman, "costumato e virtuoso." Here is the naked psy- 
chology of the man, parsimoniously traced, naive, concise, and 
never distorted even by a desire to define his own states of mind. 
As a record it is therefore of unique value. It has no literary 
flavour and betrays no preoccupation except that of setting 
down for himself, and for their own sake, his daily experiences. 

Sometimes he merely names the days as they pass, days 
perhaps when he pondered over the frescoes in San Lorenzo, 
or mute pointless days of inertia and lassitude. Frequently 
he mentions what he accomplished: " Today I worked on the 
death's Head with a beard"; or " Today I finished the arm of 
the figure that stands like this." And in the margin he draws 
a little sketch, the shorthand of the image in his mind. These 
marginal sketches (fig. 152) correspond to drawings of his, now 
in the Uffizi (fig. 153), and we can state curious fact in the 
life of a painter dead three hundred and fifty years that on 

8 See Appendix III. Cf . Colasanti, Bull. soc. filol. rom., II, 35-59. Fabriczy, Daa 
Tagebuch Jacopos da Pontormo, Eepertorium, XXVI (1903), 95 f. Apropos of a letter 
from Cosimo I to Bronzino (Pisa, February 11, 1565), in regard to the latter 's frescoes 
in San Lorenzo, of which only the "Martyrdom of San Lorenzo" was finished, Gaye 
(III, 166-169) quotes a fragment of Pontormo's Diary from an incomplete sixteenth 
century copy in the Biblioteca Nazionale, Florence (No. 621 [331-E, 5, 6, 32]). His 
excerpt begins: "addi 11 di Marzo 1554," and ends: "Sabato quella testa della figura 
che e sotto ch' sta cosi." The original of the Diary is in the same library, Miscellanea 
magliabecchiana, Catalogo VIII, 1490. 

91 



PONTORMO 

such and such a day Pontormo frescoed a given figure on the 
walls of San Lorenzo. 

We see him going to work before dawn ; we see him apply- 
ing with his own hands the plaster to the walls; we see him 
struggling with the material difficulties of the work. Once he 
writes when he comes home tired: "Tonight my back aches 
from standing bent backwards all day long. ' ' Or again : i ' Today 
I did again the head of the figure below the windows that 
was a piece of work to remember!" Sometimes he speaks of 
drawings that he has made or colours that he has prepared. 
And in reading we get a strangely lucid image of how day 
succeeded day and, bit by bit, the long solitary work went 
forward. 

He notes his troubles with his "fattore." Too ill to go out 
himself, Jacopo sends him for a ' ' fiasco ' ' of wine. The wretched 
man tells him that hereafter he can do his own errands ! And 
that evening he supped on a bunch of grapes. Again he 
remarks: "My Battista has gone off for the day and has not 
come back though he knows I am ill and will have to keep him 
in mind all the time." Battista was his pupil Naldini, who 
was a foundling of the Hospital of the Innocents and who was, 
it would seem, adopted by Pontormo sometime late in the 
forties. We watch the heartless boy tease the old man for two 
long days, saying he will go away and never come back again. 
Once Jacopo pathetically remarks: "Thursday, that was the 
day when Battista locked himself in his room and refused to 
eat." One evening (March, 1556) Bronzino asked his old 
master to dinner and he refused to go. They quarrelled, and 
that night Jacopo wrote bitter things in his diary, but after- 
wards crossed them out. 

He notices the changes of the weather bright days or 
bleak rainy days when he suffered from the cold. He speaks 
of his dinners and suppers with Bronzino or ' i Daniello. ' ' These 
were chiefly on Sundays. Sometimes for long periods he saw 
no one. Then again, day in and day out, he took his meals with 
one of his friends, and they were, we may believe, kind to the 
caprices of the solitary, morose old man. We learn of his rare 

92 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

days of recreation holidays when he went to walk with Piero 
or Angelo or with all their little circle, at Monte Oliveto or 
San Miniato or San Domenico. We learn of still rarer nights 
at the tavern or the theatre. We hear of visits to the friars on 
business, of the gift of game that he promised to his friends, 
the "pane di ramerino" and the fifty figs that they gave him, 
the wine that he bottled, the peaches he planted, the chair and 
the coverlet he bought. 

Frequently we read of his illnesses, particularly of one 
long illness during which Bronzino took hi in and nursed 
him, and of the accident that befell him of being struck by a 
cart. When ill he records naively all his symptoms his colds, 
his fevers, his indigestions and nauseas, his frequent fasts. He 
sets down rules for right living, especially in the spring, and 
promises himself not to overeat. 

Most of all he notes what he eats, even the precise number 
of ounces of bread, the exact number of figs. His food was of 
a touching simplicity, and he prepared it himself. It was the 
food of the Italian artisan: eggs, bread, cheese, wine, salad, 
fruit, "pesce d' uovo," "pasta." Now and then, he has a little 
mutton, once some that Battista buys for him and of which he 
remarks, "one wouldn't have given it to the dogs." At long 
intervals Jie speaks of rarer things, "ucellini" or "crespelli 
mirabili," which he remembers with enjoyment. But generally 
he was extraordinarily frugal and abstemious. 

These pages are full of the flavour of solitude, simple 
living, and arduous labour. To what went on around him 
Jacopo pays little attention. Twice he mentions that the Duke 
came to San Lorenzo, and that once the Duchess also came. 
He speaks of the feast 9 of the "Tregua," of the picture Bronzino 
sent to Pisa, of a head of Sandrino's that he went to see, visits 
from Luca Martini, a sonnet that Varchi sent him. 

We know his friends, the little circle of men who spent 
their leisure together, Bronzino, Piero, Daniello, Luca Martini, 

The famous truce between the Emperor and the King of France that was published 
in Siena, March 26, 1556. 

93 



PONTORMO 

Varchi, Ottaviano, 10 and, more rarely, Pucci and Strozzi. 
With them we see two women, Alessandra and Maria. Once 
too he mentions dining alone with Borghini, 11 the "priore 
dell'Ospedale." 

In so solitary a life, to a nature so intense and lonely as 
his, 12 the training of pupils was impossible. What was best in 
his art was too personal to be easily imitated, too subtle and too 
various to become a canon to young artists. On the other hand, 
no artist, no matter how talented, could have formed a school 
in Florence at a moment when all art had become Michel- 
angelesque. As far as their influence on others went, Pon- 
tormo's rare gifts were largely wasted. The decadence had 
begun. It was almost in vain he gave to the world scores of 
drawings, the best of which must finally rank with Michel- 
angelo's and Leonardo's, a whole gallery of splendid portraits, 
a perfect specimen of decoration at Poggio, a lyric altar-piece 
at Santa Felicita. The decorative beauty that these last two 
works reveal, their lightness, their freshness, left his contem- 
poraries only half convinced. Still less convinced were they 
by the heroic and mysterious symbolism of the San Lorenzo 
choir. 

An artist of his genius could not, of course, even in the 
later Renaissance, escape having imitators. To his early work 
Rosso owed much in the " Marriage of St. Catherine," in San 
Lorenzo (1523), the " Deposition," at Volterra (1521), the 
"Doni Altar-piece" (1522), now in the Pitti, the "St. John," 
now at Dijon. Rosso 's draughtsmanship is merely a hard, 
extravagant variant of our master's first manner. Andrea also, 
to whom Pontormo's debt was great, shows here and there as 

10 Not, of course, Ottaviano de ' Medici, the patron of the arts to whom Vasari 
frequently alludes and who died in 1546 and was buried in San Lorenzo. 

11 Cf . Vasari, VI, 289. 

12 Bocchi (op. cit., pp. 18 f.) says that Pontormo was excessively melancholy and 
that in order to attain a greater realism for his "Deluge" in San Lorenzo he kept dead 
bodies in troughs of water to make them swell, the stench of which troubled the whole 
neighbourhood. The latter part of this story is a direct contradiction of Vasari 's state- 
ment (VI, 289) that Jacopo was inordinately afraid of death and would not let anyone 
mention it in his presence: "fu tan to pauroso della morte, che non voleva, non che altro, 
udirne ragionare, e fuggiva 1'avere a incontrare morti. " 

94 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

in the "putti" of the two "Assumptions" in the Pitti, faint 
traces of the counter-influence of Jacopo's art. Granacci 
liberally borrowed form and colour from our painter in such 
pictures as his "Scenes from the Life of Joseph." Bacchiacca 
pieced out his patchwork with many a shape of Jacopo's 
invention, and Bugiardini had in mind a Pontormo drawing 
(the meaning of which he was too dull to understand), when 
he executed the "Young St. John," now in Bologna. Vasari 
made drawings of the Certosa frescoes, 13 consulted Jacopo 14 
about his own "Portrait of Alessandro, " 15 and had our master 
help him with the cartoons 16 for the "Battle of Val di Chiana." 
In his full-length portraits of Cosimo il Vecchio and Cosimo I," 
he imitated Pontormo so closely that they were long considered 
to be the latter 's work. With lesser men, like Lappoli 18 and 
Pichi, 19 Jacopo's pupils for a time, we are hardly concerned. 
They were crass imitators of whatever creative instinct they 
came in contact with momentarily. Neither is it worth while 
to study here Cristofano dell' Altissimo 20 who belongs to a later 
generation and owed more to Bronzino than to our painter. 
The feeble journeyman who painted the "Madonna and Saints," 
in the Municipio at Citta di Castello, 21 or the painter of the 
"Presentation in the Temple," now in Dijon, we leave in their 
obscurity. 

Bronzino (1503-1572) 22 was really Pontormo 's only pupil. 
And it is one of fate's strange extravagances that for centuries 

is VII, 605. 

Ibid., p. 657. 

is Uffizi, No. 1281. 

i Vasari, VII, 716. 

IT See the Catalogue Kaisonng, under Palazzo Vecchio, Florence. The influence of 
Pontormo 's work at San Lorenzo may be seen in the figure of a bald, bearded saint in hia 
"Coronation of the Virgin," in Citta di Castello (photo. Alinari). 

is Vasari, VI, 7. 

i76td., 5-16, 259. Milanesi mistakes Pichi for Giovanmaria Butteri (1550-1606) 
who was a pupil of Bronzino (VI, 6, note). Cf. Baldinucci, X, 144. 

20 Vasari says (VII, 608) that Cristofano was a pupil first of Pontormo and then 
of Bronzino. 

21 Catalogo della pinacoteca comunale di Cittd di Castello, p. 7. 

22 Vasari, VI, 6, 289; VII, 593 f. Bronzino was, according to Vasari (IV, 241), 
originally a pupil of Eaffaellino del Garbo. 

95 



PONTORMO 

he has been by far the more famous of the two, although he was 
infinitely less gifted than his master. But, as court painter he 
was much employed by the Medici, and numerous copies of his 
portraits of Cosimo I, of Eleonora, and of their children, 
produced in his "bottega," and as gifts scattered by the Grand 
Duke and his descendants all over Europe, served to give 
Jacopo's conscientious disciple a renown out of all proportion 
to his merits. His reliable, pedestrian character made him a 
favourite with Cosimo and his satellites who preferred to 
capricious creativeness, work finished with diligence and dis- 
patch. But every fine quality dignity, repose, spaciousness, 
impressiveness, and simplicity that one finds in the best of 
Bronzino 's portraits is derived directly from his master's art. 
In the "Portrait of Ugolino Martelli," and in the Panciatichi 
portraits, our contention is made clear. These, by their elegance, 
by their intense grasp of the sitter's psychology, by the charm 
with which they are posed, by the modelling of the cheeks and 
the eyes, and by the large- jointed bony character of the hands, 
owe their inspiration to Pontormo's work in portraiture 
between 1518 and 1534. A glance at Pontormo's "Portrait 
of a Lady with a Volume of Verse," once in the Yerkes 
Collection, his "Alessandro," in Philadelphia, the "Portrait 
of Youth," in Genoa, 23 his drawing of an artisan in the Uffizi, 24 
suffices to prove our point. 

After 1540 Bronzino got nothing new from Jacopo. He 
merely hardened the formula that he had learned between 1530 
and 1540 and chilled its colour. He lost, as he lost touch with 
Pontormo's work, the insight into his sitter's character he 
had once had. Even in his delightful portraits of the Medici 
children, he had already substituted expression for interpre- 

23 How closely Bronzino 's early work in portraiture resembled Pontormo 'a is 
strikingly exemplified by his portrait, said to represent the Duchess Anna Strozzi (wood, 
.73 x .57, with the inscription A|LWI above and to the right), which was once in the 
Dollfus Collection (No. 46), and which was sold in 1912 to M. du Bonneval. A repro- 
duction of this panel may be seen in the Catalogue des tableaux anciens; Collections de M. 
Jean Dollfus, Paris, 1912, p. 58. The same intimate relation between master and pupil 
may be observed in Bronzino 's ' ' Portrait of a Young Woman, ' ' sold at the Ehrich Galleries, 
New York, on March 21, 1906. 

24 Uffizi 6698. Cf . Dessins, pp. 243 f . 

96 



HIS LIFE AND WORK 

tation. These date from the end of the forties and the beginning 
of the fifties. By 1555 he had arrived at the unresponsive 
stiffness of "Eleonora and Her Son," now in the Uffizi. Out 
of the great qualities once reflected upon him he had evolved 
for himself a permanent manner. 

Bronzino's early religious pictures are rare. Like his early 
portraits they owe all their interest to our master. His later 
mythological and religious paintings are quite crassly and 
confusedly Michelangelesque. 

His drawings also are of an extreme rarity. In addition 
to those pointed out by Berenson, I have identified two others, 
one 25 for the " Deluge," in the Chapel of Eleonora, in the Palazzo 
Vecchio, the other 26 for the Infant Jesus of the Pitti "Holy 
Family." Both date from after 1550. They are dry, tame, 
uncertain variants of drawings that Jacopo made between 1535 
and 1545." Even Vasari realized how poor a draughtsman 
Bronzino was. 

Quite other was Pontormo's influence upon his adopted 
son, Battista Naldini. This brilliant young draughtsman 
imitated chiefly, and with extraordinary ease and bravura, his 
master's early manner, the manner which sketches for the 
Visdomini altar-piece and for the Borgherini panels illustrate 
most decisively. It is not surprising, then, that Pontormo's 
early drawings have at times 28 been confused with Naldini 's, 
or that, still more frequently, Naldini 's 29 have been catalogued 
as Jacopo 's. Other sketches of Battista 's have, as Berenson 
has observed, long passed as Andrea's, while some of his 
red-chalk studies have borne even Michelangelo's name. 
After 1557, when Pontormo was no longer alive to counsel 
him, Naldini 's draughtsmanship became hideously academic. 
His paintings are painfully feeble, and in them only figures 

26 Uffizi 6704. Cf. Dessins, pp. 248 f . 
2 Uffizi 6639. Cf . Dessins, p. 199. 

27 ma., pp. 49 f . 

28 Uffizi 7452. Cf . Dessins, p. 281. 

2 Uffizi 6524; 6566; Louvre 1019 (?). Cf. Dessins, pp. 130, 157, 328. Naldini 
worked at one time with Vasari on the frescoes of the Great Hall of the Palazzo Vecchio. 
Cf . Vasari, VII, 99. 

97 



PONTORMO 

borrowed here and there from Pontormo indicate attenuated 
traces of our master's practice. 

More than twenty-five years after his death, Pontormo 's 
influence was also felt by Empoli. This facile workman made 
various copies of Jacopo's pictures, notably of the Certosa 
frescoes and of the "Supper at Emmaus." Still later, towards 
the end of the century, Cigoli now and then imitated our painter, 
and Andrea Boscoli 30 drew inspiration from his drawings for 
many a sketch of his own. 31 

so Two drawings (Uffizi 457 and 464) by Boscoli have been falsely attributed to 
Pontormo. Cf. Dessins, pp. 101, 106. 

31 Giovanni Stradano imitated Pontormo in the ' ' Nativity of the Virgin, ' ' which 
he painted in 1583 in the chapel of the Villa Pazzi at Perugiano, near Montemurlo. Cf. a 
cut in the Eassegna d' arte, XIV (1914), p. 254. Zacchia of Lucca (d. 1561), although 
generally a late imitator of Fra Bartolommeo, shows at times, as in his ' ' Portrait of a 
Man, ' ' in the Louvre, that he was not without knowledge of Pontormo 's work in portraiture. 



98 



PAINTINGS AND DRAWINGS BY 
PONTORMO 




FIG. 1. "THE HOSPITAL OF SAN MATTEO' 

ACADEMY, FLORENCE 




FIG. 2. MADONNA AND SAINTS 

CHAPEL OF SAN LUCA, SS. ANNUNZIATA. FLORENCE 




FIG. 5. THE VISITATION 

SS. ANNUNZIATA, FLORENCE 





H 



fe rt 

<? s 

^ h 

^ 




FIG. 8. STUDY FOR THE BAPTIST OF THE CARRO 
DELL A ZECCA 

UFFIZI 6581 VERSO, FLORENCE 




FIG. 9. STUDY FOR A LOST PIETA 

UFFIZI 6690 VERSO, FLORENCE 




FIG. 10. PORTRAIT OF AN ENGRAVER OF PRECIOUS STONES 

LOUVRE 1241, PARIS 




FIG. 11. STUDY FOR THE LOST SANTA CECILIA OF THE ORATORY OF 
SANTA CECILIA IN FIESOLE 

CORSINI 124161, KOMK 





FIG. 12. SKETCH FOR THE LOST SANTA CECILIA OF THE ORATORY OF 
SANTA CECILIA IN FIESOLE 

UFFIZI 6694, FLORENCE 




FIG. 13. MADONNA AND SAINTS 

SAN MICHELK VIBDOMINI, FLORENCE 




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FIG. 20. STUDY FOR THE MADONNA AND SAINTS OF SAX MICHELE VISDOMIM 

UFFIZI 654, FLORENCE 




FIG. 21. STUDY FOR THE MADONNA AND SAINTS OF SAN MICHELE VISDOMINI 

UFFIZI 6662, FLORENCE 





FIG. 22. STUDY FOR THE MADONNA AND SAINTS OF 
SAN MICHELE VISDOMINI 

UFFIZI 6581, FLORENCE 




FIG. 23. STUDY FOR THE MADONNA AND SAINTS OF 
SAN MICHELE VISDOMINI 

UFFIZI 6744, FLORENCE 





FIG. 24. STUDY FOR A LOST MADONNA AND CHILD 

UFFIZI 6729, FLORENCE 




FIG. 25. STUDY FOR THE JOSEPH DISCOVERING 
HIMSELF TO HIS BRETHREN 

IN THE COLLECTION OF LADY DESBOROUGH, PANSHANGER 
UFFIZI 6692, FLORENCE 



FIG. 26. JOSEPH DISCOVERING HIMSELF TO HIS BRETHREN 

COLLECTION OF LADY DKSBOROUGH, PANSHANGKR 




FIG. 27. THE BAKER LED OUT TO EXECUTION- 
COLLECTION OF LADY DESBOROUGH. PANSHANGER 





'/_ 



DC ;- 

SS 

g 




FIG. 30. JOSEPH SOLD TO POT1PHAR 

COLLECTION OF LADY DESBOROUGH. PANSHANGER 








FIG. 31. STUDY FOR THE JOSEPH SOLD 
TO POTIPHAR 




FIG. 32. STUDY FOR THE JOSEPH 
SOLD TO POTIPHAR 



L'FFIZI 6556, FLORENCE 



t'HFIZI 6692 VERSO. FLORENCE 




FIG 34. STUDY FOR THE ADORATION OF THK MAGI 

UFFIZI 6722, FLORENCE 




FIG. 35. ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST 

SAN MICHELE IN PONTORMO 



FIG. 36. ST. MICHAEL 

SAN MICHELE IN PONTORMO 




FIG. 39. STUDY FOR A LOST PIETA 

I'FFIZI 300 F, FLORENCE 




FIG. 40. STUDY FOR ST. MICHAEL OF SAN MICHELE 
IN PONTORMO 

UFFIZI 6506, FLORENCE 




FIG. 41. PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 

PALAZZO BIANCO 6. GENOA 




FIG. 42. PORTRAIT OF COSIMO IL VECCHIO 

UFFIZI, FLORENCE 




FIG. 43. STUDY OF THREE NUDES 

UFFIZI 672, FLORENCE 




,**** 








FIG. 46. STUDY OF A NUDE 

UFFm 6504. FLORENCE 




FIG. 47. THREE SKETCHES OF A NUDE 

UFFIZI 6516 VERSO. FLORENCE 




FIG. 48. PORTRAIT OF A BOY 

TR1VULZIO COLLKCTIOX, MILAN 







FIG. 49. STUDY OF A YOUTH 

UFFIZI 6682. FLORENCE 




FIG. 51. RIGHT HALF OF THE LUNETTE 

IN THE MEDICEAN VILLA AT POGGIO A CAJANO 




FIG. 52. LEFT HALF OF THE LUNETTE 

IN THE MEDICEAN VILLA AT POGGIO A CAJANO 








FIG. 53. SKETCHES FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO A CAJANO 

UFFIEI 6660 VERSO, FLORENCK 




FIG. 54. SKETCHES FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO A CAJANO 

UFFIZI 6557, FLORENCE 






I i 

M 
S5 







FIG. 56. SKETCH FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO A CAJANO 

UFFIZI 6514, FLORENCE 





FIG. 57. SKETCH KOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGJO A CAJANO 

UFFI7.I 6515 VERSO, FI-ORKNCE 




FIG. 59. STUDY FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO A CAJANO 

UFFIZI 6544. FLORENCE 




; ' u. ~X_ 







i *r 

^^y w } 

7 

*&Epr- 

* 



FIG. 60. STUDY FOR THE LUNETTE AT I'OGGIO A CAJANC 

UFFIZI 6555, FLORENCE 







T! r 



FIG. 63. STUDY FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO A CAJANO 

UFFIZI 6531. FLORENCE 




FIG. 64. STUDY FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO 
A CAJANO 

UFFIZI 6547, FLORENCE 










,< -%*:.: 




% 

;***, 






< z 

^ M 






FIG. 69. STUDY FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO A CAJANO 

UFFIZI 6651, FLORENCE 




FIG. 70. STUDY FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO A CAJANO 

UFFIZI 6559, FLORENCE 




\v , 




~ 




FIG. 71. STUDY FOR THE LUNETTE AT I'OGGIO A CAJAXO 

ri--FI7.I 6685 RECTO, FLOKKNtK 




.. 



FIG. 72. STUDY FOR THE LUNETTE AT POGGIO A CAJANO 

UFFIZI 6579, FLORENCE 








FIG. 75. STUDY OF A NUDE 

UFFIZI 6727 RECTO, FLORENCE 




FIG. 76. STUDY FOR A YOUNG BAPTIST IN THE WILDERNESS 

UFFIZI 6597, FLORENCE 




FIG. 77. STUDY OF THREE NUDES 

STAEDEL INSTITUTE 4288. FRANKFORT 




E 




~ - 




S S 




FIG. 85. SKETCH FOR A PROJECTED NAILING TO THE CROSS IN THE CLOISTER 
OF THE CERTOSA, NEAR FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6671. FLOREXCi: 




STUDY FOR A PROJECTED NAILING TO THE CROSS IX THE CLOISTER 
OF THE CERTOSA. NEAR FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6665, FLORENCE 




FIG. 87. STUDY FOR THE ANGEL OF THE 

ANNUNCIATION IN THE CAPPONI CHAPEL 

OF SANTA FELICITA, FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6653. FLORENCE 




FIG. 92. THE DEPOSITION 

CAPPONI CHAPEL, SANTA FELICITA, FLORENCE 





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fo w 
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Q N 





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5 ^ 
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55 1-1 u 

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O t- 1 
S oo 




FIG. 99. STUDY FOR THE DEPOSITION OF THE CAPPONI 
CHAPEL 

UFFIZI 6619, FLORENCE 




FIG. 100. STUDY FOR THE DEPOSITION OF THE 
CAPPONI CHAPEL 

UFFIZI 6576 RECTO, FLORENCE 










; -'' 



FIG. 101. STUDY FOR A PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG GIRL 

UFFIZI 449. FLORENCE 




FIG. 102. STUDIES FOR A PORTRAIT OF A BOY 

UFFIXI 6667. FLORENCE 




FIG. 103. THE MADONNA. CHILD AND LITTLE ST. JOHN 

PALAZZO CORSINI 141. FLORENCE 




FIG. 104. THE MADONNA, ST. ANNE AND FOUR SAINTS 

LOUVRE 1240, PARIS 




FIG. 105. STUDY FOR THE MADONNA, ST. ANNE AND FOUR SAINTS, IN THK LOUVRE 

UFFI/.I 460, I-'I.ORKNCE 




FIG. 106. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. MAURICE 

PALAZZO PITTI 182, FLORENCE 




FIG. 107. THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. MAURICE 

UFFIZI 1187, FLORENCE 




FIG. 108. STUDY FOR A VARIANT OF THE MARTYRDOM OF ST. MAURICE 

MUSEUM 21253, HAMBURG 




FIG. 109. STUDY FOR A ST. JEROME 

UFFIZI 441, FLORENCE 




FIG. 110. STUDY OF A NUDE WOMAN 

UFFIZI 441 VERSO. FLORENCE 




2 o 

2 fc 

EH O 

" 5 

E" 1 S 





FIG. 115. PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 

PINACOTECA 75, LUCCA 



Or 




Q 

5 

6 8 

M 
N 



. 
D 





FIG. 120. STUDY FOR A PORTRAIT OF A SOLDIER 

UFFIZI 463 F, FLORENCE 





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Z w 
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i 

8 



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-: fe 

M p 




FIG. 123. VENUS AND CUPID 

UFFIZI 1284, FLORENCK 




FIG. 124. PORTRAIT OF ALESSANDRO DE' MEDICI 

JOHNSON COLLECTION 83, PHILADELPHIA 




FIG. 125. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

PALA7.ZO PITTI 249, FLORENCE 




FIG. 126. PORTRAIT OF BARTOLOMEO COMPAGNI 

STIRLING COLLECTION, KEIR, DUNBLANE. SCOTLAND 




FIG. 127. PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WOMAN 

STAKDEL INSTITUTE 14 A, FRANKFORT 




FIG. 128. PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WOMAN 

VON DIKKSKX COLLECTION, BERLIN 




FIG. 129. PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN IN GREEN 

AUGUSTEUM 19, OLDENBURG 




FIG. 130. PORTRAIT OF THE CARDINAL SPANNOCCHI CERVINI 

BORGHESE GALLERY 408, ROMIJ 




FIG. 131. PORTRAIT OF A LADY WITH A VOLUME OF VERSE 

FORMER YERKES COLLECTION 




FIG. 132. PROBABLE STUDY FOR ONE OF THE LOST 

ALLEGORICAL FIGURES IN THE LOGGIA OF THE 

MEDICEAN VILLA AT CASTELLO 

UFFIZI 6584, FLORENCE 




FIG. 133. PROBABLE STUDY FOR ONE OF THE LOST ALLEGORICAL 
FIGURES IN THE LOGGIA OF THE MEDICEAN VILLA AT CASTELLO 

UFFIZI 6586, FLORENCE 





ft* 03 



Q fa O 

< 

Z, o 

K w a. 




FIG. 138. STUDY FOR THE LOST CHRIST IN GLORY IN SAN LORENZO, 

FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6609, FLORENCE 














FIG. 139. STUDY FOR THE LOST MOSES RECEIV 
ING THE LAW IN SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6749, FLORENCE 



FIG. 140. STUDY FOR THE LOST FOUR EVAN- 
GELISTS IN SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6750, FLORENCE 




i 



F1G 141. STUDY FOR THE LOST SACRIFICE OF CAIN AND DEATI 
OF ABEL IN SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE 



UFF1ZI 6739, FLORENCE 




FIG. 144. STUDY FOR THE LOST DELUGE IN SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6753, FLORENCE 






FIG. 145. STUDY FOR THE LOST DELUGE IN SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6752, FLORENCE 




FIG. 146. STUDY FOR THE LOST DELUGE IN SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6528. FLORENCE 




FIG. 147. STUDY FOR THE LOST ASCENT INTO 
HEAVEN IN SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE 

ACADEMY, VENICE 




FIG. 149. STUDY FOR A FIGURE IN ONE OF THE LOST FRESCOES IN 
SAN LORENZO, FLORENCE 

UFFIZI 6679, FLORENCE 




FIG. 150. PORTRAIT OF AN OLD LADY 

BELVEDERE 48, VIENNA 




FIG. 151. PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

JACQUEMART-ANDRK COLLECTION. PARIS 




FIG. 152. PAGE 4 OF PONTORMO'S DIARY 

BIBLIOTECA NAZIONALE. FLORENCE 




FIG. 153. STUDY FOR THE FIGURE IN THE LOST FRESCOES OF 

SAN LORENZO MENTIONED IN THE LAST LINE OF 

PAGE 4 OF PONTORMO'S DIARY 

UFFIZI 6760, FLORENCE 



CATALOGUE RAISONNE 

OF 
AUTHENTIC FRESCOES AND PICTURES 



CATALOGUE RAISONNE 

OF 
AUTHENTIC FRESCOES AND PICTURES 

ASHBOURNE NEAR PHILADELPHIA 

Widener Collection 

172. PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

Half-length; turned slightly to the left. She has a fair complexion, 
dark brown eyes that look at the spectator ; her yellowish brown hair is rolled 
up in a black net with pearl ornaments. She wears a bottle-green dress cut 
low with puffed sleeves and a muslin fichu. A necklace of black stones and a 
gold chain hang round her shoulders; over her left ear she has placed a 
carnation ; in her lap sits a small greyish white terrier. The background is a 
shallow niche, grey to the left and behind her left shoulder, and black over her 
right shoulder and to the extreme right. 

Oil on wood (heavily cradled). H. .56, w. 44. 

From the collection of the Duke Sigismund Frantz, Castle 
Ambras (Austria) ; acquired as a Bronzino ; first correctly 
ascribed to Pontormo by Berenson. The modelling of the eye, 
the nostrils and the mouth, as well as the very characteristic 
shape of the ear, vividly recall the " Portrait of a Lady," in the 
Jacquemart-Andre Collection. The little dogs of these two 
pictures resemble one another closely. A portrait having 
certain affinities with the present panel and ascribed correctly 
to Bronzino formed part of the Fischhof Collection (Catalogue 
de Tableaux composant la Collection de M. Eugene Fischhof, 
Georges Petit, 1913, p. 124; fig., p. 125). 

Condition : repainted on the face, neck, and shoulders. 
Date: 1534-1545. 

101 



PONTORMO 

Reprod. Photo, for the collector; catalogue cited below, pi. facing p. 172. 

Bibl. Catalogue of Paintings Forming the Private Collection of 
P. A. B. Widener, Ashbourne, Near Philadelphia, Paris : Manzi, Joyant & Co., 
1900, II, 172. 

BERGAMO 

Morelli Collection 

59. PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 

Bust figure turned three-quarters left. He is beardless and has brown 
curly hair, thin arched eyebrows, wide-set hazel eyes, the right slightly smaller 
than the left, thickish nose and pouting lips, and a large-lobed ear. He wears 
a black velvet cap, doublet and embroidered linen collar. Background, 
greenish grey. 

Oil on wood. H. .46, w. .37. 

Provenance unknown. Morelli believed it to be a portrait 
of Baccio Bandinelli because of its resemblance to a print said 
to represent the sculptor. His identification seems to be 
unfounded. Bandinelli was born, according to the Libro de' 
Battezzati, on October 7, 1488, or, according to Libro III 
deir Eta, on November 12, 1493. Therefore, if the panel is a 
likeness of Bandinelli it must have been executed between 1506 
and 1511, since the person it represents can hardly have been 
more than eighteen when it was painted. The picture is, how- 
ever, a strikingly characteristic example of Jacopo's work in 
portraiture between 1528 and 1532. Bandinelli was then at least 
thirty-five or at most forty-four years of age. 

Condition : excellent ; slightly retouched about the forehead and the hair. 

Date: 1528-1532. 

Eeprod. Fig. 116; photo. Taramelli 305; photo. Istituto d'Arti 
Grafiche; fig., Frizzoni, Gallerie dell' Accademia Carrara, Bergamo, 1907, 
p. 67 ; small cut, Reinach, Reper., Ill, 756. 

Bibl. B. F. P. R., p. 174; Frizzoni, La Galleria Morelli in Bergamo, 
Bergamo, 1892, p. 18 ; idem, catalogue cited above. 



102 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

BERLIN 

Von Dirksen Collection 

PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

Three-quarter length. She is seated on a marble seat against a wall; 
the torse and legs turned three-quarters left, the head three-quarters right; 
the knees crossed. Her left elbow rests on a raised ledge, her left hand 
touching the elaborately woven cord of her belt that lies across her lap ; her 
right hand rests upon her knees and holds a small book, the index finger 
between the leaves. Her hair is parted in the middle and, brushed back 
smoothly from the forehead, is wound around the back of the head in a thick 
roll covered with a jewelled net ornamented with a small brooch at the centre. 
In front of this net a chased gold fillet encircles the head. She wears a gown 
cut square at the neck, with large puffed sleeves. These are of velvet from 
elbow to wrist, close-fitting and trimmed with two bands of fur ; a little ruche 
at the wrist. The bodice is trimmed with velvet bands. The neck and 
shoulders are covered by a white chemisette with an embroidered collar tied 
with a small black ribbon. Around her neck, a knotted chain from which 
hangs a little cross. Around her waist, and falling across her lap, a girdle 
with intricate knots and tassel. The book has ribbon clasps. On the lower 
ledge of the bench to the right, a pair of gloves decorated with little bows. 
The background, a shallow niche with a pilaster on either side. 

This portrait is closely related, in general conception, 
composition and modelling, to the "Portrait of a Young Woman 
with a Dog," in the Stadel Institute, in Frankfort, but in spirit 
it is graciously wistful while the latter is robustly frank. 

Date : 1534-1545. 
Reprod. Fig. 128. 
Bibl. B. F. P. R., p. 174. 



BOLDRONE 



WAY-SIDE SHRINE 



In the centre, raised above the other figures, the Christ crucified. His 
hair is auburn, his loin-cloth, purple, the cross, bright yellow. To the right 
of the cross stands St. John turned three-quarters left, his head nearly full 
face, his right arm extended downward at his side, his left slightly raised; 
weight on the right leg, the left leg bent. He wears a full purple mantle. 
To his right, St. Augustine, torse full face, his head turned three-quarters 
left; in his right hand, a red crosier; in his left, a red book. He wears a 
voluminous light green vestment with purple tunic. To the left Mary stands, 

103 



PONTORMO 

turned three-quarters right, her hands clasped. Her robe is light purple. 
To her left, St. Julian, torse nearly full face, his head in profile looking up 
at the Crucified. He holds in his right hand a great sword the point of which 
rests on the ground. His hair is brown, his ample mantle, red with yellow 
sleeves. 

Fresco. The altar wall is 1.70 wide, the side-walls, which meet it at an 
angle of about 30, are 1.18 wide. The Christ, Mary and St. John occupy 
the altar wall, the other two saints, a side-wall each. 

Near Florence, above Quarto, at the corner of Via dell'Os- 
servatorio, Via Andrea del Sarto and Via Domenico Cirillo. 
Mentioned by Vasari who implies that this shrine was under- 
taken shortly after Pontormo finished the Capponi Chapel. In 
the figures he finds a trace of Jacopo's German manner. The 
composition is however of a simplicity quite unlike the Passion 
frescoes, although the types recall those of the Certosa. 

Condition : ruined in Milanesi 's time ; broken open and uncared for now ; 
in a few years no trace of it will be left. 

Date : 1526-1527. 

Drawing: possible sketch (reversed) for the Madonna, Uffizi 459 verso. 

Documents : We do not know who paid for this work. It is, of course, 
not impossible that the neighbouring Benedictine nuns may have given Jacopo 
the commission, but I have examined the following records of their monastery 
(San Giovanni Evangelista di Boldrone) without finding any reference to 
this fresco : A. S. F., Convento 32, Giornale 2, 1513-1526 ; 3, 1523-1554; 4, 1535- 
1542 ; Entrata e Uscita, 20, 1503-1513 ; 21, 1526-1534 ; Debitori e Creditori, 47, 
1528-1548; Contratti, 60, 1502-1774; 61, 1529-1665; Ricordi, 76, 1528-1564. 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. ; the San Giuliano is reproduced in Gold- 
schmidt's Pontormo, Rosso und Bronzino. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 272; Dessins, pp. 35, 70, 103. 



BONN 

Provinzial Museum 
University Collection 

214. PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN 

A little less than life-size; nearly half-length; turned three-quarters 
left. He is beardless with traces of a moustache and wears a four-cornered 
brown-black hat and a greyish black coat. Behind him hangs a green curtain 
looped up on the right. The background, a warm dark grey. 

Oil on wood. H. .61, w. .43 (catalogue, h. .63, w. .44). 

104 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Provenance unknown; bequeathed with the Solly Collec- 
tion (1821) to the University; once exhibited in Berlin (No. 
239) . The colour should be compared with that of the ' ' Portrait 
of a Precious-Stone Engraver," in the Louvre. The present 
panel is considered by Berenson and Bryan to be a portrait 
of Andrea del Sarto but there is no ground for such an identi- 
fication. Andrea's features are well known from his numerous 
portraits of himself. This portrait can not have been painted 
earlier than 1517 and the personage represented does not appear 
to be more than twenty years old. Andrea was twenty in 1506. 

Condition : darkened by successive varnishings but otherwise undamaged. 

Date: about 1517. 

Bibl. B. F. P. R., p. 174 (under Berlin) ; Fuhrer durch das Provin- 
zialmuseum in Bonn, Bonn, 1913, II, 71 ; Katalog der Gemaldegalerie, Bonn, 
1914, pp. 102 f. ; P. Knapp, Das Florentiner Cinquecento, p. 8; Waagen, 
Verzeichnis der Gemalde-Sammlung des koniglichen Museums zu Berlin, 
1841, p. 101 ; cf. also the Berlin catalogues of 1883 and 1898. 



BORGO SAN SEPOLCRO 
Municipio 

ST. QUENTIN 

Nude figure turned slightly to the left. His arms are raised ; his haloed 
head gazes up ; his hands and feet are fixed in a pillory and a long spike is 
driven through his body from the right side of the neck; spikes are also 
driven under the nails of each hand. His loin-cloth is red. The standards 
of the pillory are brown and are locked with hinges to the base. On the 
crosspiece that holds his feet is inscribed : S. QVINTINVS. The background 
is a landscape of trees and hills. To the extreme right a tiny figure, in red 
tights and red hat, climbs a hill. He holds a spear and points at the spectator. 
To the left an old man, who leans upon a cross, walks away towards the right. 

Oil on coarse canvas. H. 1.63, w. 1.03. 

Mentioned by Vasari. This picture, which was begun by 
Giovanmaria Pichi for the OsservamM. of Borgo San Sepolcro, 
was so completely rehandled by Pontormo that, except in the 
painting of the scaffold and the loin-cloth, we can hardly 
distinguish any other touch than his. It was originally hung 
in the church of San Francesco in Borgo San Sepolcro but, 

105 



PONTOEMO 

when the Osservanza was suppressed in 1880-1882, it was 
transported to the Municipio. 

Condition: stretched somewhat out of shape; torn across the top and 
sewn together; badly cracked under the saint's arm; the surface chipped off 
here and there. 

Date : about 1526. 

Drawing: for the head of the saint, a pen and bistre sketch of great 
promptitude of hand, Uffizi 6647 verso (fig. 91; photo. Houghton), which 
Berenson thinks was drawn for the Madonna of the "Deposition" at Santa 
Felicita. 

Documents: The earliest books of the convent, still preserved, date 
from 1797. 

Reprod. Fig. 90 (detail) ; photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 259; B. F. D., II, 148; B. F. P. R., p. 174; Dessins, 
p. 203 ; On Certain Drawings, p. 13. 



CARMIGNANO 

Parish Church 



VISITATION 



On the right: Elizabeth, profile to left, in light green dress, orange 
mantle verging on pink in the shadow, head-dress cream-colour with green 
lights. Next to Elizabeth and to the left : the head of a woman seen facing ; 
drapery, olive-green. Facing Elizabeth, and profile to right: the Virgin; 
reddish hair, mantle blue-green, head-dress and sleeve light pink passing over 
into purple. Behind the Virgin and to the left: a woman facing; light red 
hair, pinkish purple mantle, dark green scarf on head and right shoulder, 
sleeve a lighter green. Background: a street with palaces; on the right, 
slate-colour below, pinkish grey above. On the left : palaces of purplish grey, 
on a bench in front of which two tiny figures seated. 
Oil on wood. H. 2.02, w. 1.56. 

On the second altar, to the right on entering the church. 
This panel is not mentioned by Vasari. It was painted in all 
probability for the Pinadori who had great estates around 
Cannignano and who are frequently cited in the account-books 
of the Medici and in those of the Hospital of the Innocents. 
It formerly hung, it would seem, in their villa (Bocchi, ed. 
Cinelli, p. 286). The composition was perhaps suggested by 
Diirer's "Die Vier Nackten Frauen" (1497) ; the St. Eliza- 
beth, by his "Nemesis" reversed. The features of the woman 

106 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

whose head we see between the Virgin and St. Elizabeth recalls 
Pontormo's "Portrait of an Old Lady," now in Vienna (No. 
48) a portrait which is however later than the present panel. 

Condition: excellent; practically untouched, although slightly dimmed 
with altar-smoke. 

Date: 1528-1530. 

Drawing: finished study for the whole composition, Uffizi 461 (fig. 112; 
photo. Philpots 1391; Alinari 687; F. M. C. ; fig., article cited below, p. 15). 

Reprod. Fig. Ill; photo. Reali; fig., article cited below; fig., Gold- 
schmidt, op. cit. 

Bibl. Bocchi, p. 286; Gamba, Rivista d'arte, II (1904), 13-18; B. F. 
P. R., p. 174; Dessins, pp. 1041 



CERTOSA 

San Lorenzo al Monte 

THE AGONY IN THE GARDEN 

On the left Christ kneels, seen from behind, dressed in a reddish purple 
mantle. To the left and right of him, St. James and St. John; in the fore- 
ground, St. Peter. Peter wears a pale blue shirt, John, a yellowish green 
shirt and wine-coloured mantle, James, a yellow shirt and Venetian red 
mantle. To the right, a group of soldiers led by Judas who has red hair and 
wears a Venetian red mantle. The crowd, which is made up of white, red, 
and purple helmets and caps, is brought out by touches of the same purple 
as Christ's robe. The background is a pale yellow-green hilly country 
crowned, on the left by a castle which is yellow catching the light, on the 
right by towers, battlements, houses, and walls of a drab-grey colour. 

Fresco. Arched, h. 3.00, w. 2.90. 

In the large cloister, at the near end (on entering) of the 
left side-wall and next to the "Christ before Pilate." Vasari 
says that the present fresco was the first that Pontormo painted 
at Certosa and that in it he attempted an effect of moonlight 
with excellent results. Vasari found, however, that in the 
figures Jacopo's earlier manner was obscured by his imitation 
of Diirer. Closer study does, in fact, reveal that the composition 
is practically identical with that of Diirer 's woodcut "Christus 
am Oelberg" (1509-1511). The background is perhaps an 
idealized view of the Porta Romana of Florence. 

107 



PONTORMO 

Condition: Even by the beginning of the eighteenth century (Borghini, 
ed. 1730, p. 394, n. 2) all of Pontormo's work in the cloister of the Certosa 
had already suffered much from the weather. The present composition is 
now more deplorably ruined and repainted than any of the other frescoes. 
The plaster has fallen in a number of places. 

Date : 1522-1523. 

Documents : According to Giornale L. payments were made to Pontormo 
by the monks of the Certosa on the following dates: February 28, 1524; 
April 16, 1524; September 20, 1524; December 3, 1524; October 30, 1525; 
June 4, 1525 ; August 12, 1525 ; November 15, 1526 ; January 4, 1526 ; April 
15, 1526; July 3, 1526; November 14, 1526; December 5, 1527. These pay- 
ments are noted in Debitori e Creditori and in Quaderno F. under other dates. 
See Appendix II, Docs. 14, 15 and 16. 

Reprod. Small copy (oil on canvas) by Empoli, Ufficio delle Belle Arti, 
Florence ; photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 266-269; VII, 594, 605; Moreni, Notizie Istoriche, 
parte seconda, p. 153; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 394; Cruttwell, 
Florentine Churches, p. 77 ; Dessins, pp. 20, 33, 35, 38, 50, 52, 69, 91, 96, 97, 
105, 134, 135, 140, 145, 154, 165, 187, 192, 198, 201, 204, 207, 209, 210, 216, 
223, 246, 247, 328, 333. 

CHRIST BEFORE PILATE 

In the centre Christ stands almost profile left, his hands bound behind 
him. He has red hair and wears a light violet mantle. To the left, Pilate 
seated, turned three-quarters right, his right arm on the arm of his chair, 
his left hand outstretched towards the Christ; he wears a dark yellow robe, 
with a Veronese green band and a white turban ; a red mantle is thrown over 
the chair. Behind him, his wife, almost facing, her head almost profile left, 
her right hand raised, pointing to Christ ; she wears a Veronese green dress, 
a white head-dress and scarf over the shoulders. On her right and behind 
Pilate, the head and shoulders of a man dressed in a red jacket and violet 
cap. On her left stands a man also pointing to Christ; he is dressed in a 
purple mantle with lighter purple collar and linings, red sleeves and red 
cap. Behind Christ on the right, a man facing, his right arm stretched out 
towards Pilate ; he wears a Veronese green cloak, yellow vest and hat. Farther 
to the right, two soldiers in white armour with golden weapons. Behind these, 
two men, one to the left wears a pale violet hat, reddish purple cloak and 
sleeve with yellow undersleeve, one to the right a red mantle, purple vest 
and light violet turban. At the feet of the latter, at the extreme right, a 
soldier crouching with a shield. In the foreground, seen from behind and 
to the waist, two soldiers in white armour, carrying halberds. The back- 
ground is a stone staircase ending in a balustrade; there are parapets on 
either side of pale yellowish green. At the top of the stairs a man descends 
bearing a golden ewer and basin; he is dressed in a yellow jerkin, violet 
breeches, Veronese green cap and white scarf. Behind the balustrade to the 
right, a man and woman, the former dressed in a reddish brown cloak and 
blue-grey jacket, the latter in a green dress and white head-dress. The sky 
is a grey-blue. All the flesh tones, a warm brown. 

Fresco. Arched, h. 3.00, w. 2.90. 

108 



AUTHENTIC PICTUKES 

At the extreme left end (on entering) of the entrance wall. 
This is the best preserved of the Passion frescoes and it is the 
only one mentioned by Berenson. It was, according to Vasari, 
the second that Pontormo painted in the cloister. In the cup- 
bearer Vasari saw something of Jacopo's old manner. We 
might notice that the soldiers at the extreme left are very like 
the "St. Quentin" of Borgo San Sepolcro. The following 
figures are derived from Diirer : the soldiers in the foreground, 
from "Die Badstube" (c. 1496) ; Pilate, from the King in "Die 
Marter des Evangelisten Johannes" (1498) ; for the figures on 
the steps, cf. "Marias Erster Tempelgang" (1506). 

Condition: repainted. The white colour of the armour may be due to 
an old scaling of the surface. 

Date : 1523-1524. 

Documents: cf. the preceding. 

Reprod. Fig. 79; small copy (oil on canvas) by Empoli, Ufficio delle 
Belle Arti, Florence ; photo. F. M. C. ; fig., Goldschmidt, op. cit. 

Bibl. Cf. the preceding. 

THE WAY TO GOLGOTHA 

In the foreground right, Christ falls under the weight of the cross; he 
wears a robe of two shades of wine-colour. In the foreground left, St. Veronica 
kneels and bends towards the Christ as she holds out to him the sacred cloth ; 
she wears a skirt of dark wine-colour with yellow lights, violet sleeves, a 
Veronese green scarf shot with grey, a pink cap and steel-coloured band. In 
the lower left corner, the head and shoulders of a figure dressed in a light 
wine-coloured bodice and a white and green head-dress. Above St. Veronica, 
tfie executioner, who leads Christ by a cord passed around his waist, stands 
facing ; he has yellow hair and is dressed in a wine-coloured tunic with yellow 
lining and a Veronese green cap turned out with violet. To his left and 
bending forward, a soldier in Veronese green hose slashed with blue-white, 
a yellow jerkin shot with red, puffed sleeves slashed from the elbows down, 
yellow over white. Behind the last named figure, a man, with golden hair 
tied with a white band, dressed in a bright red tunic with a violet girdle. 
Behind the latter, a youth leaning forward, staff in hand ; his hair is golden, 
his cap Veronese green, his jerkin purplish red. Behind the group just 
described, the two thieves nude and seen from behind. In front of them, a man 
on horseback, his horse light bay, his mantle Veronese green, his cap red and 
green, his saddle red. On his right, a man on a white horse who turns towards 
the spectator; he wears a violet tunic, light red sleeves and saddle, wine- 
coloured mantle, green turban. Behind him to the right, half hidden by a 
green mound, a group of women: the Madonna dressed in pale purple with 
a white head-dress; to her right, a woman with hand raised to her face who 
is blond and wears a green bodice and red skirt; to the left of the Virgin, 
a woman weeping, her head bent on her arms ; she is dressed in a red mantle 

109 



PONTORMO 

with red sleeves; behind the latter, other women's heads in white head- 
dresses. Behind and to the right of the man who leads Christ, a boy in 
white with flying yellow hair, bearing a ladder. Next to him towards the 
foreground, a man with a staff in his right hand, his left hand on an arm of 
the cross; he wears a purple tunic, white shirt-sleeves rolled back, white 
cap; his staff and the cross are reddish yellow. Farther to the right, a 
figure wearing a yellow hat, purple shirt and red hose. On his right, a man 
in white who carries one of the thieves' crosses. Still farther to the right, 
an old man on a white horse riding towards the spectator; he wears a red 
mantle turned out with yellow, purple shirt, red hat with yellow ornament; 
the horse's harness is red. To the left of the horse's head one sees a blond 
head. To the right, another man who bears a cross, dressed in a tunic with 
green sleeves lined with white. Below these last named figures, a man nude 
to the waist who leans forward to raise the end of Christ's cross; he wears 
Veronese green hose with ribbons and a wine-coloured drapery lined with 
yellow-red. To the right of the latter, a blond head with green head-dress. 
In the extreme right corner, a kneeling figure with golden hair, yellow and 
brick-coloured shot dress, pale blue sleeve and cuff and green lower sleeve. 
Fresco. Arched, h. 3.00, w. 2.90. 

At the extreme right end of the right-hand wall of the 
cloister, adjoining the wall of the entrance door. Vasari 
considered this to be the best of this cycle of frescoes "riusci 
molto migliore che Paltre" (VI, 268) and, in certain details, 
a return to Jacopo's Italian manner, although in the general 
effect he saw an imitation of Diirer. Borghini repeats Vasari 's 
opinion, but to us this fresco appears inferior to the "Christ 
before Pilate. " It was, it would seem, the fourth that Pontormo 
painted in the cloister. In it the following figures are derived 
from engravings or woodcuts by the German master: St. 
Veronica, from "Die Kreuztragung" (1512) ; the man with a 
ladder on his head and the figure that strikes Christ, from "Die 
Kreuztragung" (1509) ; the women on the hill, from "Die 
Kreuzigung" (1509-1511) ; the old man on horseback, to the 
extreme right, from "Christus vor Hannas" (1509-1511). 

Condition: ruined and repainted. 

Date: 1523-1524. 

Drawings: possible sketch for the man carrying the end of the cross, 
Uffizi 6529 ; possible sketch for the head of the same, Uffizi 6578 ; sketch for 
the same figure from the knees up, Uffizi 6643 verso (photo. F. M. C.) ; possible 
sketch for the executioner, Uffizi 6529. 

Documents: see above. 

Reprod. Fig. 80 ; photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. See above. 

110 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 



PIETA 



In the centre, extended from right to left, the Christ; his hair is red; 
across his lap, a white cloth; under him, a pale purple drapery laid over 
a green stuff. In the foreground, extreme right, a woman seated; she wears 
a dark purplish robe, green head-dress and holds a white handkerchief in her 
right hand. In the foreground, extreme left, Magdalen kneels dressed in a 
red robe shot with yellow, a green head-dress shot with pink, and green 
sleeves shot with yellow. Behind the Christ, the Virgin in pale purple dra- 
peries and white head-dress. Above the Magdalen, Joseph of Arimathea, seated 
profile right, dressed in a purplish red vest, grey sleeves and purplish yellow 
hat around which is wound a green scarf; in his hands, a white cloth. To 
the right of the latter figure, a man stooping over a cylindrical box ; he wears 
a yellow robe with red sleeves; the box is purplish white with red ribbons. 
Next to the latter a woman, her right hand raised to her face; her mantle 
is purple dark at the edges and her head-dress white. Next to her, and to 
the right of a ladder, the head of a woman draped in white. Next to the 
latter, and to the right of the Virgin, a woman standing; she wears a white 
tunic and a red mantle which is drawn over her head. Directly below the 
latter, a seated woman in a green robe and purplish white head-dress. Next 
to her, a man stooping to support the Christ; he wears a green coat, purple 
hose and yellow cap. In the background, yellow uprights of crosses and 
ladders and light green trees ; to the left, a low hill. The sky is a pale green, 
the ground, yellow. 

Fresco. Arched, h. 3.00, w. 2.90. 

At the extreme right end of the wall opposite the entrance 
of the cloister. Instead of painting a " Deposition" for which 
we have a drawing and a " Crucifixion" which he had projected 
and which were never executed, Pontormo began and finished, 
Vasari tells us, this "Pieta" which was the fifth of his frescoes 
for the Certosini. Vasari praises the colour, the Magdalen, the 
Joseph of Arimathea and the Nicodemus. Jacopo derived the 
following figures from Diirer: the Madonna, from "Christus 
am Kreuz" (1508) ; the Magdalen from "Die Beweinung 
Christi" (1509-1511) ; the Madonna's head, the head of the 
woman seated to her right and the woman standing between 
them, from "Die Grablegung" (1509-1511). The woman seated 
to the extreme right may have been suggested by the Madonna 
in "Christus am Kreuz" (1498); the old man seated left 
(Joseph of Arimathea) is not unlike the old man in "Die 
Kreuzabnahme" (1509-1511) and recalls the Zacharias of 
Pontormo 's birth-plate, in the Uffizi. It is also interesting to 

111 



PONTOEMO 

compare this work of Pontormo's with Diirer's pictures of the 
same subject, now in Munich and Nuremberg. 

Condition: ruined and repainted. 

Date : 1524-1525. 

Drawings: first thought for the woman above and to the left of the 
Madonna, Corsini 124242 (photo. F. M. C.) ; first thoughts for the Christ, 
Uffizi 6614 verso (photo. F. M. C.) and 6702 verso (photo. F. M. C.) ; sketch 
for the woman seated to the right, Uffizi 6702 verso; possible first ideas for 
the drapery of the women's heads may be seen on Uffizi 6558 (photo. F. M. C.). 

Documents : see above. 

Reprod. Small copy by Empoli (oil on canvas), Ufficio delle Belle Arti, 
Florence; photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. See above. 

THE RISEN CHRIST 

In the centre, the Risen Christ, his hands outstretched and uplifted; 
with the right he makes the sign of benediction, in the left he holds the 
banner of the Resurrection; his drapery is lavender. Below him and to the 
right, a yellow shield with a light blue band on which: S. P. Q. R. Below 
him and to the left, a light blue shield with a yellow band on which are stars. 
On each side of the Christ, groups of sleeping soldiers. In the group to the 
right, the figure farthest from the spectator wears a yellow-brown jerkin and 
a lavender cap. Before him and towards the Christ, a sprawling soldier, 
holding a shield, dressed in a purple shirt and yellow jerkin; at his knees, 
white drapery. On the right of the latter, a soldier in a purple suit, lighter 
purple hose, white shirt showing at the elbows, white underclothes showing 
at the knees, high shoes and white socks; he holds on his right arm a yellow 
shield on which a white band and crescents. In the group to the left, the 
soldier nearest Christ wears a red jerkin, light green neck-band, light green 
and purple hat. The soldier next to the left has a brown beard and is dressed 
in a purple jerkin and a purple hat turned back showing a pale blue lining. 
Before the latter and on the left, a soldier with his head resting on his hand ; 
he wears a pale green jerkin, white showing at the wrist and through the 
slashed sleeve, and a yellow hat. In the foreground left, a soldier wearing 
a light purple jerkin, yellow hose, white with red ribbons at the knees, boots 
and white socks; his sleeve from elbow to wrist is light red slashed with 
white ; at his neck, a red tie ; his hat is lavender with pale blue ribbons and a 
yellow chin-stay; his right hand rests on the red hilt of a sword which lies 
across his knees and has a golden pommel; beside him to the left, a silver 
helmet with purple strap. In the background, pikes and halberds seen against 
purple turning to silver towards the centre. 

Fresco. Arched, h. 2.32, w. 2.90. 

In a recess at the extreme left end of the farther wall of 
the cloister. Vasari says that this was the third fresco that 
Pontormo painted at the Certosa and that in it he changed his 

112 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

colouring "venne capriccio a Jacopo . . . di mutar colorito" 
(VI, 268). The general tone was, it would seem, lighter than 
in the other frescoes. The composition is derived from Diirer's 
woodcut of the same subject; the soldier to the extreme left, 
from "Die Auferstehung" (1509-1511); the figure of the 
soldier to the right and the Christ, from "Die Auferstehung" 
(1510). 

Condition : ruined and repainted. 

Date: 1523-1524. 

Drawings: possible sketch for the soldier to the extreme right, Uffizi 
6638 ; possible first thoughts for the Christ, Uffizi 6702 verso and 6726 verso 
(photo. F. M. C.). 

Documents : see above. 

Reprod. Fig. 81 ; photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. See above. 

According to Vasari (VI, 269) Pontormo intended to 
execute in the cloister of the Certosa a "Crucifixion" and a 
"Deposition." For the former we have, in Uffizi 459 verso 
(photo. F. M. C.), a possible first thought for the Madonna, and 
for the latter we have, in Uffizi 6622 (fig. 83 ; photo. Houghton) , 
a preliminary sketch for the whole composition. We also know 
that he planned to paint a "Nailing to the Cross" for which 
we have a drawing of the whole composition (Uffizi 6671 ; fig. 85 ; 
photo. Houghton) and several sketches for individual figures 
(Uffizi 447; fig. 89; photo. F. M. C.; Uffizi 6652 verso; 6657; 
6665 ; fig. 86 ; photo. Houghton) . Bronzino helped Jacopo at the 
Certosa, but to what extent we cannot now determine. There 
he did his first independent work a "Pieta with Two Angels" 
and a "San Lorenzo," both in fresco (Vasari, VI, 270; VII, 
594). From documents that I have discovered (A. S. F., 
Convento 51, No. 16, p. 30) we learn that Bronzino also decorated 
for the monks certain service-books which have since been lost. 
Vasari in his early youth, just after he came to Florence for 
the first time (VII, 651), studied the frescoes of the cloister and 
made drawings from them (VII, 605). Pontormo also executed 
at the Certosa a "Nativity," and a portrait of a lay brother 
that Moreni (Notizie, II, 145) describes as a half-length figure 

113 



PONTOEMO 

in fresco on the right side of the altar of San Benedetto, both 
of which have since disappeared. Besides these he painted for 
the Certosini the "Supper at Emmaus," now in the Academy 
in Florence. 

FLORENCE 

Academy 

190. SUPPER AT EMMAUS 

In the centre, Christ, full face, seated at table, in his left hand a loaf, 
his right raised in benediction. He has light brown hair and wears a reddish 
grey vest and a dark blue mantle. To the right, a monk standing dressed in 
a grey-toned purple habit. In the foreground right, a man seated profile 
left, legs crossed, his left hand holding a drapery at his knee, his head seen 
three-quarters from behind; he wears a yellowish red vest, grey hat, dark 
olive-green mantle. In the foreground left, a man seated, turned to the 
right and seen three-quarters from behind; he fills a glass from a pitcher 
and wears a grey tunic and a red drapery shot with yellow about the hips. 
Above the latter and to the left, a monk standing turned three-quarters right, 
his hands raised to the level of his breast; he wears a grey habit. In the 
background to the right, a monk dressed in grey stands facing. Over his 
shoulder one sees the head of another figure turned three-quarters left. The 
background is dark grey; around the eye of the Trinity in the upper part 
of the picture there is a yellowish light. The table is grey-white, the stools 
brownish grey, the plate and pitcher silver-grey, the cat brown, the dog 
light grey. On a "cartella," in the lower right corner, is inscribed 1525. 

Oil on canvas. H. 2.30, w. 1.73 (catalogue, h. 2.69, w. 1.78). 

Mentioned by Vasari. This picture was painted for the 
Certosini of San Lorenzo al Monte and placed in the Foresteria, 
or Dispensa, of the convent. It was removed, after the suppres- 
sion of the monasteries, to the Academy. The composition is 
derived from Diirer's woodcut "Christus und die Jiinger von 
Emmaus." In type and treatment, however, our canvas is less 
Diireresque than the frescoes of the cloister at the Certosa. On 
the back one finds the note: "Verif. 7 Giugno 1906." 

Condition: somewhat damaged, especially on the left side. 
Date : 1525. 

Drawings: possible first thought for the figure to the left in the fore- 
ground, Uffizi 6656 recto (photo. F. M. C.) ; finished study for the monk in 
the background to the right, Uffizi 6656 verso (fig. 84; photo. F. M. C.). 

114 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Document: payment for the colours and the frame, A. S. F., San 
Lorenzo al Monte, Giornale L., p. 30 destra. See Appendix II, Doc. 15. 

Reprod. Fig. 82; photo. Reali; small copy (oil on canvas), the back- 
ground of which is the grey stone frame of a door, painted by Empoli at the 
request of the monks of the Certosa, and now in the Ufficio delle Belle Arti, 
in Florence. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 270 ; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 394 ; Pieraccini, 
Guida delta R. Galleria antica e moderna, 7th ed., Prato, p. 75 ; B. F. P. R., 
p. 174 ; Dessins, pp. 33, 35, 38, 52, 55, 69, 128, 209, 223 ; On Certain Drawings, 
pp. 12, 21. 

"THE HOSPITAL OF SAN MATTEO" 

Behind an early Renaissance arcade, on a slightly raised platform, four 
women in bed; the bed to the extreme right is canopied and its occupant 
wears a halo. Between this bed and the next a woman kneels profile left 
before a statue of the Virgin and Child. An attendant sits at the foot of 
the first bed to the right. To the extreme right and in front of the platform, 
two figures profile left, one carrying a book, the other coming in through a 
door. To their left, a child standing full face who seems to address them; 
farther to the left, a woman's figure with back turned; to the extreme left, 
a group of four women, one seated profile right, while another with a halo 
kneels before her and washes her feet; another standing profile left brings 
a towel; a fourth, to the extreme left, stands profile right looking on. On 
the floor, slippers and a pitcher. The figures are grey on a lavender back- 
ground; the beds, light yellow, the floor, grey. 

Fresco. H. .91, w. 1.50. 

Painted in grisaille on the wall of a room that was once 
part of the Hospital of San Matteo. It is now concealed by 
Giotto's " Madonna Enthroned" and has long been ascribed 
to Andrea del Sarto. Guinness makes the impossible suggestion 
that Andrea painted this fresco while he was an inmate of the 
hospital. Schaeffer considers it to be an early work of Andrea's. 
The attribution to Pontormo, in which I completely concur, is 
Berenson's. The haloes worn by several figures in the composi- 
tion indicate that the generally accepted explanation of the 
subject is incorrect and that, in all probability, we have here 
some obscure episode from the "Lives of the Saints." 

Condition: fair; somewhat rubbed here and there. 

Date: about 1513. 

Reprod. Fig. 1; photo. Alinari 1633 (as Andrea) ; Hanfstaengl (also 
as Andrea) . 

Bibl. Guinness, Andrea del Sarto, London, 1899, p. 85; Schaeffer, 
Andrea del Sarto; Lafenestre, Florence, p. 193 ; B. F. P. R., p. 174. 

115 



PONTORMO 



SS. Annunziata 

FAITH AND CHARITY 

In the centre, a marble relief of the Medici arms surmounted by tiara 
and keys. To the left, a voluminously draped female figure holding in her 
arms an infant; she is seated nearly profile left, head full face; behind her 
on a high step, a "putto" seated profile left, his right hand laid on her 
shoulder. Seated to the right, a heavily draped woman's figure turned three- 
quarters right, her right arm extended at her side, her left hand laid on the 
top of a great book that rests on her knees. Behind her, a "putto" three- 
quarters right. Between these draped figures and the shield, at the centre 
of the composition, are vestiges of "putti" in various poses. 

Fresco over the main portal on the fagade of the "loggia." The space 
decorated is enclosed between concentric arcs and two verticals. H. 1.25, 
w. 4.60. 

This work, which was originally entrusted to Andrea di 
Cosimo Feltrini who, however, executed only the ornaments 
and the gilding, is described at length and enthusiastically 
praised by Vasari. Jacopo, it would seem, prepared his draw- 
ings secretly at Sant 'Antonio alia porta a Faenza. The success 
of these drawings was, according to Vasari, the cause of 
Jacopo 's rupture with Andrea. Michelangelo is said (Vasari) 
to have admired this decoration, and it was celebrated through- 
out the sixteenth century. Cav. Gabburri (Lettere pittoriche, 
II; Vasari, ed. 1811, XII, 9, n. 2) wanted to restore it but 
nothing was done ; by 1831 it had become so complete a ruin that 
restoration was found to be impracticable. 

Condition: ruined; the figures described above can only be dimly 
discerned. 

Date: September, 1513 June, 1514. 

Drawing: Uffizi 6706, a ruined study of a "putto" clinging to the 
branch of a tree, is perhaps a fragment of Pontormo's preparatory work. 
Bocchi describes a figure in this pose as one of the beauties of the fresco. 

Documents: we have five payments for this work: November, 1513; 
March, 1513 (Old Style); March, 1514; April, 1514; June, 1514. See 
Appendix II, Doc. 12. 

Reprod. Photo, of the facade of the church, Alinari 2028. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 247-249; Bocchi, ed. Cinelli, p. 416; Richa, VIII, 52; 
R. Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 392 ; Del Migliore, p. 269 ; Dessins, pp. 
33, 34, 41, 47, 66, 90, 249 ; On Certain Drawings, pp. 5, 19. 

116 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

MADONNA AND SAINTS 

In the centre the Madonna stands almost facing, the head nearly profile 
right, the weight on left foot, the right foot slightly raised; violet drapery 
over her blond hair, brick-red mantle, light blue skirt. The female saint 
(Agnes?), who kneels facing, in the foreground to the left, and who with her 
left hand holds against her lap a white book on which her right hand rests, 
wears a purple robe with green sleeves ; she gazes up. In the foreground right 
a male saint (Zechariah) kneels profile left; he wears a purple robe shot with 
yellow and a red skirt; his hands rest on the top of a tablet that stands on 
the ground before him. To the extreme right stands St. Michael nearly 
facing, his head profile left; in his right hand he holds a scales; his armour 
is purple, his drapery brick-red, his wings brown. To the extreme left St. 
Lucy stands profile right, her head three-quarters right ; she holds in her left 
hand a palm and in her raised right hand a plate on which her eyes. The 
steps are green, the background grey-green; above, draped curtains drawn 
back. 

Fresco. H. 1.85, w. 1.71. 

Once in the first chapel to the right, in the church of San 
Ruffillo in Piazza dell' Olio, anciently San Ruffillo del Vescovo. 
At the end of the eighteenth century this decoration had already 
fallen into decay. When the church was pulled down in the 
early part of the nineteenth century, the fresco was transferred 
(1823) to the left wall of the Chapel of San Luca, in the Annun- 
ziata, where it may now be seen. On that occasion the lunette 
of "God the Father" that surmounted this composition was 
destroyed. 

Condition: ruined and badly restored; the left side and leg of St. 
Micfrael, as well as the back of St. Lucy, are quite modern; the "intonaco" 
had fallen. 

Date : 1513. 

Drawings: first sketch for the Madonna, Uffizi 6676 verso (fig. 4; 
photo. F. M. C.) ; study for the Zechariah, Dresden, 200 (fig. 3; photo. 
Hanstaengel). 

Reprod. Fig. 2 ; photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 256; Richa, IV, 146; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, 
p. 392 f . ; Del Migliore, p. 155 ; Dessins, pp. 19, 34, 38, 51, 65, 84, 194, 226, 
335 ; On Certain Drawings, pp. 5, 19 ; B. F. P. R., p. 175. 

VISITATION 

Composition of fifteen figures grouped on steps before a broad round 
niche ornamented with pilasters. In the centre, the Virgin standing profile 
right, orange head-dress, red robe, blue mantle. To her right and seen profile 

117 



PONTOEMO 

left, Elizabeth who bends the knee to her, white head-dress, light green robe, 
orange mantle, lavender under-sleeve. In the background behind Elizabeth, 
a man's figure (effaced), dark purple cap, red mantle. To his right, a 
woman's figure profile left; still farther right in the background, a woman 
three-quarters left, head three-quarters right, red vest, dark purple mantle. 
In front of the latter figure and behind Elizabeth, St. Joseph kneeling, in 
his left hand a staff, his right pointing to the Virgin, red sleeves and vest, 
yellow mantle. To his right, a prophet standing with hand uplifted, green 
head-dress and sleeve, red draperies. To the extreme right, Zechariah stand- 
ing profile left, head nearly full face ; his left hand holds a book against his 
hip, blond hair, white tunic, light yellow draperies, green cover of book. 
On the second step and to the right, nude ' ' putto ' ' seated, right arm at side, 
left leg extended right, blond hair. On second step to the left, woman seated 
profile right, head nearly full face, white head-dress, reddish tunic with 
yellow sleeves, purple drapery. Behind her, a woman standing profile right 
with a bundle on her head to which her left arm is raised, blond hair, brickish 
red drapery, white sleeve, the bundle greenish blue and pink. To the right 
of the latter, blond woman standing three-quarters right, lavender vest shot 
with gold, red mantje. To her right and behind the Madonna, a woman 
standing full face carrying on her right arm a baby, her head profile right, 
light green dress with yellow sleeves ; the baby wears a violet loin-cloth ; both 
are blond. To the extreme left, an old woman standing full face with a staff 
in her right hand, light purple robe, white scarf. The steps are yellow, the 
background grey. Above, on the cornice of the niche, the "Sacrifice of 
Isaac"; Jacob, dark red mantle with yellow sleeves. On either side of the 
latter scene are cherubs holding tablets on which are inscribed, left: NYM| 
DEE | EVM; right: NEC| VAN] IVR. On the upper edge of the tablets 
are cassolettes. Between the capitals of the middle pilasters of the niche one 
reads : ANVE OPTIME DEVS. 

Fresco in the small cloister that serves as courtyard to the church. 
H. 3.92, w. 3.37 ; the upper part of the composition is arched. 

Mentioned by Vasari. This is the most important speci- 
men we possess of Pontormo's early work. Wolmin finds 
that here Jacopo has attempted, and not unsuccessfully, to 
imitate the compositions of'Fra Bartolommeo (" Marriage of 
St. Catherine," Louvre). He adds: "This fresco not only 
produces an imposing effect by the increased size of the figures ; 
it is intrinsically a great composition. The central scheme, 
according to the design which Andrea had thoroughly tested five 
years before, is now for the first time raised to the height of an 
architectonic effect." Selwyn Brinton feels that our fresco 
"in beauty of colour and refinement of drawing almost rivals 
the ' Madonna del Sacco.' Andrea's fresco of course dates 
from ten years later. More careful study reveals that, while 
the larger elements of the composition are well arranged, the 

118 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

accessory figures lack rhythmical coherence and the general 
effect is somewhat lame. The colour-scheme, however, is charm- 
ing, light, decorative, and harmonious. The " Assumption" 
in this cloister, which is erroneously ascribed to Pontormo by 
Milanesi (V, 67) followed by Crowe and Cavalcaselle (ed. 
Hutton, III, 495), is of course by Eosso (Vasari, V, 157) 
although the original commission for the work was given to 
Andrea. 

Condition: seriously damaged in spots and badly restored; the 
"intonaco" has fallen here and there and some of the heads are almost 
obliterated ; the upper part of the fresco has suffered from humidity. 

Date: December, 1514-June, 1516. 

Drawings : sketch for the boy seated on the steps to right, Uffizi 6542 
(fig. 7; photo. F. M. C.) ; study for the woman seated on the steps left, Uffizi 
6603 (fig. 6 ; photo. Houghton) ; Gamba believes Louvre 461 (photo. Giraudon; 
Braun, Louvre 117) to be a study for the Zechariah but the drawing has been 
so completely rehandled that its authenticity is somewhat doubtful. Berenson 
considers a sketch on Uffizi 6556 verso to be for the hand of the old woman 
with a staff; I do not think that the identification is convincing. In my 
Dessins I suggested Uffizi 6565 as a first thought for the Zechariah. It now 
seems to me to be a sketch for one of the figures of the "Joseph Sold to 
Potiphar," in Panshanger. Cf. fig. 31. 

Documents : payments, December, 1514 ; April 24, 1515 ; May 28, 1515 ; 
March 4, 1516 ; May 13, 1516 ; May 17, 1516. See Appendix II, Doc. 13. 

Reprod. Fig. 5; Louvre 1242, modified copy of the late sixteenth 
century, recognized as such by Villot, and perhaps the work of Alessandro 
Allori (photo. Braun, 11242) ; engraving, Etruria pittrice, pi. XLIV; photo. 
Alinari 3815 ; fig., Vasari, trans, de Vere, VII, 154. 

_Bibl. Vasari, VI, 257; Bocchi, p. 424; Richa, VIII, 60; Borghini, 
II Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 393; Del Migliore, p. 170; Ristretto delle cose piu 
notabili delta cittd di Firenze, 1689, p. 29; B. F. D., II, 144; B. F. P. R., p. 
175 ; Cruttwell, Florentine Churches, pp. 8 f ., 18 f . ; Wolfflin, The Art of the 
Italian Renaissance, New York, 1903, pp. 148, 161, 219 ; Selwyn Brinton, The 
Renaissance, Goupil, 1908, p. 187 f . - f Dessins, pp. 19, 33, 34, 38, 66, 142, 151, 
152, 180, 220, 221, 301, 350; On Certain Drawings, pp. 7, 19 f.; Rassegna 
d'arte, IX, No. 3, p. 39; as well as Vine. Meini, Notizie storiche e religiose 
dell' Ordine dei Servi e del tempio della 88. Annunziata, Firenze, Fioretti, 
1853 ; Moreni, Descrizione della chiesa della 88. Nunziata di Firenze, Firenze, 
1781 (republished in Firenze antica e moderna, Firenze, 1789-1802, III, 287- 
365; Pitture a fresco d' Andrea del Sarto e d'altri celebri Autori nel chiostro 
della 88. Annunziata disegnate e incise da Aless. Chiari con illust. di Melch. 
Misserini, Firenze, 1834; Ant. Zobi, Memorie storico-artistiche sulla cappella 
della 88. Annunziata di Firenze, Firenze, 1837. 



119 



PONTORMO 



Santa Felicita 

Capponi Chapel 
DEPOSITION 

Arched composition of eleven figures. The Christ is borne by two 
figures : a youth to the extreme left who walks three-quarters right, head full 
face, supports his shoulders, with his left hand lifting the Christ 's left hand ; 
a youth squatting a little more than profile right, head three-quarters right, 
supports Christ's thighs on his left shoulder. To the right in the foreground, 
a woman, seen from behind with left hand lifted, approaches the Madonna 
who is seated, it would seem, on a bank by the road-side; she is seen nearly 
full face, her left arm bent, her right raised and stretched out towards the 
Christ. Over the Christ's head one sees the head of a woman, seen from 
behind, who with her right hand holds the Saviour's left wrist. Above her 
and to the left, a woman who bends down, her head seen three-quarters right, 
and with her left hand supports the left side of the Christ's head. Between 
the latter figure and the Madonna, the head of a woman who, turned three- 
quarters right, looks at the Virgin. Above the latter, at the top of the 
composition, a woman who stands full face, head three-quarters left, her 
right arm folded across her breast r and looks down at the Christ. To the 
right and above the Madonna, a youth who, with arms extended downwards 
and at his sides, looks at the Saviour. To the extreme right, head and 
shoulders of a man profile right, his head three-quarters right. All the 
heads are blond. The colour-scheme is somewhat as follows : Christ, purplish 
loin-cloth; drapery of the head just above the Christ, lavender-grey; woman 
on the left leaning forward, light blue dress with pink scarf; youth holding 
the shoulders of Christ, light blue drapery, red mantle; youth who carries 
the legs of Christ, light pink drapery ; woman on the right, seen from behind, 
light pink drapery; figure to the extreme right, pink dress; Madonna, blue 
mantle; woman next to the left, greenish blue robe; youth leaning forward 
at the top of the composition, pink drapery wound around his arm; back- 
ground, light green earth and cloudy sky; the whole is bathed in a golden 
light. 

Oil on wood. H. 3.13, w. 1.92. 

As Vasari tells us this altar-piece was painted for Lodovico 
Capponi for the chapel where it may still be seen in its magnifi- 
cently carved original frame. The chapel belonged to the 
Barbadori and was dedicated to the Annunziata. It was 
rented by them to Antonio di Bernardo Paghanelli (1487) 
who later on bought it. His son Bernardo sold it for two hun- 
dred "scudi" to Lodovico di Gino Capponi somewhere about 
1525 (A. S. F., Convento 83, No. 115, p. 21; see Appendix II, 
Doc. 17). Capponi had the chapel entirely redecorated. 
Pontormo was chosen to fresco the walls and vaulting and 

120 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

paint the altar-piece. Guglielmo Da Marcillac was given a 
commission for a stained-glass window representing the 
"Entombment" (Vasari, IV, 428). This window was later in 
the possession of the Gesuati of Florence who, being workers 
in glass themselves, took it apart to discover the secret of 
certain effects. Later it was preserved in Palazzo Capponi 
delle Rovinate. According to Milanesi it is now in the Museo 
Nazionale of Florence, the catalogue of which does not mention 
it. The cupola of the chapel and the holy water font were 
traditionally held to be by Brunelleschi and on the memorial 
tablet one reads: ". . . ac ne illarum ornamenta at hac Brunel- 
leschi structura Pontormi que pictura. . ." In our " Deposi- 
tion" the figure to the extreme left is not indispensable to the 
composition ; it may be a portrait of Capponi, the donor. 

Condition: excellent; Milanesi believes that, with the other decorations 
of the chapel, it was badly cleaned in 1723 (Vasari, VI, 272; see also Richa, 
IX, 211; Borghini, ed. 1730, pp. XIV and 395). The picture does not seem 
to me to show any trace of a drastic cleaning and the documents contain no 
specific reference to any such restoration (A. S. F., Santa Felicita, Filza 
Ricordi e Scritture, 1456-1734; Restaurazione del Nostro Capitolo fata a 
spese di Monache particulari nel 1722). 

Date: 1526-1528. 

Drawings : probable first idea for the Christ, Uffizi 6619 (fig. 99 ; photo. 
F. M. C. ; D. G. U., pi. XV) ; sketch for the legs of same, Uffizi 6527 ; study 
for the youth in the upper right corner, Uffizi 6576 recto (fig. 100; photo. 
Houghton; F. M. C.) ; sketch for the drapery of the same, Uffizi 6730 (fig. 97; 
photo. F. M. C.) ; finished study for the head of the youth who carries the 
legs of Christ, Uffizi 6577 (fig. 95 ; photo. Houghton) ; sketches for the head 
and shoulders of the youth who carries the shoulders of Christ, Uffizi 6687 
(photo. F. M. C.) ; Corsini 124229 verso (photo. F. M. C.) ; Corsini 124230 
(fig. 96; photo. F. M. C.) ; sketch for the torse, legs and drapery of the same, 
Uffizi 6613 verso (fig. 98; photo. F. M. C.) ; sketch for the drapery of the 
same, Uffizi 6730 (fig. 97; photo. F. M. C.) ; possible sketch for the woman 
seen from behind who Approaches the Madonna, Uffizi 6735; finished study 
for the head of the figure to the extreme right, Uffizi 6587 ; first idea for the 
head of the woman to the right of the Virgin, Uffizi 6627 (fig. 94; photo. 
Houghton) ; on the same sheet, a finished study for the same; possible sketch 
for the head of the Madonna, Uffizi 6519; study for the same, Uffizi 6666 
(fig. 93; photo. F. M. C.) ; Berenson considers Oxford 224 to be a first idea 
for the whole composition but the resemblance between the drawing and the 
picture is remote. 

Documents: the following books of the monastery dating from the 
period at which this picture was painted are preserved : A. S. F., Convento 83, 
No. 6, Giornale, 1528-1558; No. 21, Entrata e Uscita, 1530-1539; No. 74, 

121 



PONTOBMO 

Debitor! e Creditor!, 1527-1528; No. 75, Debitori e Creditori, 1528-1538; 
No. 106, Ricordi e Scritture, 1436-1734; No. 115, Ricordanze, 1485-1528. 
None of these contain any reference to our altar-piece. 

Reprod. Fig. 92; photo. Alinari 4708; fig. Goldschmidt, op. cit.; 
Vasari, trans, de Vere, VII, 168. 

Bibl. Vasari, II, 350; IV, 428; VI, 271 f.; Bocchi, p. 117; Richa, IX, 
252 ff. ; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 394 ; Follini, Firenze illustrata, VIII, 
194 ff. ; Lami, Deliciae Erudit., XIII, 1173 ff. ; Firenze, Bibl. Naz. Magliab., 
XXXV, 411, p. 73; Del Migliore, Zibaldone historico, Vol. C., XVII; 
Balocchi, Illust. dell' I. e R. Chiesa parrochiale di S. Felicita, Firenze, 1828, 
pp. 34 f.; Ristretto, p. 106; Morelli, Borghese and Doria Pamfili Galleries, 
1900, p. 130 ; Cruttwell, Florentine Churches, pp. 12 f. ; Fabriczy, Brunel- 
leschi, p. 76 f.; B. F. D., I, 3211; II, 139, 142, 145, 147, 148, 150, 151, 155; 
B. F. P. R., p. 175 ; Dessins, pp. 20, 35, 40, 70, 91, 96, 128, 132, 141, 164, 169, 
170, 179, 186, 189, 190, 193, 203, 217, 223, 234, 255, 263, 264, 266, 366; On 
Certain Drawings, pp. 13, 22. 

ANNUNCIATION 

The Virgin stands full face beside her lectern, head turned three- 
quarters left, her left hand resting on the book she has just been reading, 
her right holding the folds of her robe ; red robe, blue mantle, over her head, 
a grey scarf. The Angel Gabriel is turned three-quarters right; he holds his 
drapery with both hands against his thigh, right leg advanced, head profile 
right; red drapery with a blue belt and blue wings. 

Fresco. In two parts, each, h. 2.50, w. 1.10. 

Part of the decoration of the chapel of which the " Depo- 
sition" just described is the altar-piece. The pose of the 
Madonna may have been suggested by a drawing of Michel- 
angelo's, such as the sketch (British Museum 1900-9-11-1) 
which was used by Venusti for his " Annunciation" at the 
Lateran. 

Condition : ruined and grossly repainted. 

Date: 1526-1528. 

Drawings: possible first thought for the Virgin, Uffizi 6570 recto 
(photo. F. M. C. ; D. G. U., pi. XIX) ; finished study for the Virgin, Uffizi 448 
(fig. 88; photo. Pini; F. M. C.; D. G. U., pi. XVI) ; five sketches for the head 
and shoulders of the angel, Uffizi 6570 verso (photo. F. M. C.) ; finished study 
for the angel, Uffizi 6653 (fig. 87; photo. F. M. C.). 

Bibl. See the preceding and B. F. D., II, 138, 149; Dessins, pp. 40, 
70, 96, 159, 160, 164, 190, 208, 295. 

THE FOUR EVANGELISTS 

Bust figures. They cannot be identified with certainty. In the 
pendentive left of altar, Evangelist, bearded and bald, turned three-quarters 

122 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

right, dressed in reddish robe with green sleeve. Pendentive right of altar, 
Evangelist, torse full face, head three-quarters right, blue robe, red mantle, 
white sleeve. Pendentive nearest the door of church, Evangelist, full face, 
leaning with right forearm on a parapet, head inclined slightly to left, red 
drapery, grey sleeve. Pendentive above pillar, Evangelist leaning on a parapet 
and turned slightly to right, red drapery. 
Oil on wood. Diameter .70. 

Like the "Annunciation" just described these "tondi" of 
the vaulting are part of the general decoration of the chapel. 
Vasari and Borghini state that one of them was painted by 
Bronzino. In his "Life of Bronzino" Vasari ascribes two 
Evangelists and certain other figures (now destroyed) of the 
vaulting to Jacopo's pupil. The chapel is now so dark that 
no distinctions of touch can be made although the "tondo" over 
the pillar seems to show traces of Bronzino 's hand. The 
Evangelist seen nearly in profile may have been suggested by 
such a drawing of Michelangelo's as British Museum 1835, 9- 
15-495 (B. P. D., 1520; photo. Kensington 2209). The church 
was modernized in the first half of the eighteenth century ; the 
"God the Father and Patriarchs" that occupied the centre of 
the cupola was destroyed in 1766 in remodelling the organ-loft. 
Uffizi 6615 (photo. Houghton) may have served as a study for 
one of these lost figures. 

Condition : darkened by smoke. 

Date : 1526-1528. 

Drawings : possible first idea for one of these figures, Uffizi 6674 (photo. 
F. M. C.) ; finished study for the "tondo" nearest the door, British Museum, 
Payne Knight Collection, P. p. 2, 102. 

Bibl. See above and Dessins, pp. 36, 40, 70, 186, 203, 225, 295. 



Santa Maria Novella 
Cappella del Papa 



ST. VERONICA 



In the centre the saint kneels facing holding out to the left the sacred 
cloth, white head-dress, orange robe. To right and left, on a high square 
parapet kneels a cherub with purple wings touched with light blue; each 
holds a flaming blue cassolette and draws back the purple curtains which 

123 



PONTORMO 

hang from a canopy ornamented with three cherub heads, one (left) with blue 
wings, one (centre) with grey-green wings, one (right) with reddish wings. 
Under the figure of St. Veronica, the inscription: HECEST[ SALVJVRA; 
on the parapet to the left: ECCE| TABER|NACVLV| DEI| SV; on the right 
parapet: PRETENDE| DNE| SVP| FAMVLV. 

Lunette over the entrance door. Fresco. H. 3.07, w. 4.13. 

Condition : completely restored by Conti. There is nothing to show that 
the present colour-scheme resembles Pontormo's. 

Reprod. Photo. Perazzi; fig. Goldschmidt, op. cit. 

The ceiling, which is a barrel vault (L. 6.84, w. 4.12), and the side-walls 
down to about a metre from the floor are covered with grotesques subdivided 
by a geometrical pattern in which are the following compositions : 

In the centre, a medallion : God the Father seen to the knees holding in 
his left hand a book on which, A. (i. His right hand is raised in benediction. 
He is dressed in a brick-red mantle and brown vest. To his left, bust figure 
of a "putto." 

Fresco. Diameter, 1.20. 

Between the central medallion and the door, a small medallion: "putto" 
flying downward with a cross. 

Between the central medallion and the window, a small medallion: 
"putto" flying downward with the tables of the law. 

Between the central medallion and the back wall, a small medallion: 
"putto" flying with a blue scroll. 

Between the central medallion and the right wall, a small medallion: 
"putto" flying with pole and crown of thorns; reddish drapery. 

Frescoes. Diameter, .60 ; the backgrounds are purple. 

These medallions are surrounded by grotesques consisting of griffons, 
cherubs, vases, cartouches, harpies, the diamond ring and ostrich plumes of 
Lorenzo with scrolls inscribed: SV|A|VE, etc. These are light purple, 
yellowish red and light blue on a black ground. Among these motives are 
various "cartelle," on which is inscribed: GLO[VI . . . |S, and four squares 
containing Medici arms accompanied by "putti" with various attributes and 
surmounted by tiara and keys. 

These squares are .75 by .75. 

Reprod. Photo, (in part) Perazzi. 

Mentioned by Vasari. The commission for these decora- 
tions was given to Ridolfo Ghirlandaio who turned the chapel 
over to Pontormo. The long oval of the face of St. Veronica 
recalls an early drawing of Michelangelo now in the Louvre. 
The medallion of "God the Father" is mentioned by Borghini 
(Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 392). That the decoration of this chapel, 
as far as its character and general effect goes, was suggested, 
if not determined by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio, may be inferred 
from the decoration of the Cappella della Signoria where we 

124 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

find similar grotesques as well as the motive of "putti" used 
in the same way. The Cappella della Signoria must have been 
painted between the autumn of 1513 and the summer of 1514. 
On June 4, 1514, according to a document that still survives, 
Lorenzo di Credi and Giovanni Cianfanini gave an estimate of 
the value of the decorations (Vasari, IV, 575; VI, 539, n. 2). 

Date: 1515. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 256, 540 ; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 393 ; On 
Certain Drawings, p. 19 (where I erroneously identified Uffizi 6542 verso 
with one of the "putti" of the Veronica fresco) ; B. F. P. R., p. 175; Dessins, 
pp. 19, 34, 66, 90, 113. For the convent, see Memorie dell' insigne monastero 
e chiesa di 8. Maria Novella, Delizie degli Eruditi Toscani, IX, 111 ff. ; 
J. Wood Brown, The Dominican Church of 8. Maria Novella at Florence, 
Edinburgh, 1902. There are four account books of the convent in the archives 
of Florence dating from the period in which these decorations were executed 
but none of them contain any reference to our frescoes ( Convento 102, No. 1, 
Giornale, 1516-1521, No. 56, Contratti, 1491-1779, No. 87, Ricordi, 1489-1531, 
No. 89, Ricordi, 1507-1527). 

On the wall opposite the door is a " Crowning of the 
Virgin." The Madonna wears a light blue robe with yellow 
inner mantle and head-dress; the God the Father, a dark 
red mantle and purplish tunic. Light purple background; 
above, purple curtains. This composition has been completely 
repainted. The original fresco was perhaps by Ridolfo 
Ghirlandaio. 



San Michele Visdomini 



HOLY FAMILY 



In the centre, the Madonna enthroned, turned three-quarters right, the 
head full face ; her left hand rests on her lap, her right points to St. Joseph ; 
she wears a pinkish red robe and blue mantle. In the foreground right, 
St. Francis kneels profile left; his hands clasped before him, he gazes at 
the Christ Child ; he wears a grey habit. Behind him stands St. James profile 
left, head three-quarters left, left arm at his side, right arm extended holding 
a staff; darkish pink drapery, grey- white sleeve. In the foreground left, 
St. John the Evangelist seated three-quarters right, head three-quarters left 
gazing up ; his right arm extended at side, his hand holding a quill pen ; in his 
lap an open book on which is written : M D viij, followed by ten lines which 
are illegible ; he has a long curly beard and wears a grey tunic and light red 
mantle ; on the rock on which he sits is inscribed D. N. Above him St. Joseph 

125 



PONTORMO 

is seated three-quarters right, head nearly full face; he holds on his knees 
the Infant Jesus ; Joseph is dressed in a greyish purple robe, a greyish yellow 
mantle across his knees. The Christ Child stands on Joseph's left knee, 
weight on left leg, right leg drawn back, in his left hand a reed cross, his 
head inclined on his right shoulder looks up left. In the middle foreground, 
the young St. John seated profile left, his right leg raised; with his right 
hand he points to the Christ Child; his head, seen nearly full face, looks at 
St. Francis. The background is a dark grey stone niche and wall with dark 
purple curtains drawn aside, to the left, by a "putto" who stands profile 
right, his right arm raised, a fold of the curtain hanging across his loins. 
To the right stands a cherub nearly full face ; his right arm extended across 
his body holds back the curtains. 

Oil on heavy prepared paper stretched and glued on a wooden panel. 
H. 2.14, w. 1.85. 

On the second altar to the right. Mentioned by Vasari. 
Painted for Francesco di Giovanni Pucci, gonf aloniere of the 
Republic, for the altar where it still hangs. Francesco Pucci 
was the son of Giovanni d' Antonio Pucci and Bartolommea di 
Leonardo Benivieni. He was born in 1437 and held many 
important offices: podesta of Bibbiena, 1478; vicario of 
Anghiari, 1485; castellano of the fortress of Sarzana, 1493; 
captain of Cutigliano, 1494; vicario of Lari, 1500. After the 
fall of Soderini he was elected to the balia that reformed the 
state for the Medici and he was later gonfaloniere of Justice. 
He died in 1518, the year in which Pontormo's altar-piece was 
painted. The Archduchess Maria Maddalena offered one thou- 
sand "scudi" for this picture (Richa, VII, 23; Del Migliore, p. 
366) but it is an unalienable part of the Pucci inheritance as is 
established by the "rogato" of Ser Carlo da Firenzuola. This 
fact would seem to militate against the assertion made by some 
critics and repeated by Goldschmidt that the panel once in the 
Doetsch Collection was the original. The Doetsch Catalogue 
(Richter), it is true, holds the picture then part of that collec- 
tion to be the original and adds that it was replaced in San 
Michele by a copy. Berenson too once gave the Doetsch picture 
as authentic but in his latest list he is of the opinion that our 
panel is Pontormo's. We may, moreover, remark that Milanesi 
in his note on this altar-piece (VI, 258, n. 3) states that it was 
carefully cleaned and restored in 1823 by Luigi Scotti who 
found that over the wooden panel a sheet of paper had been 

126 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

stretched upon wMch the picture had been painted. The 
Doetsch picture was on canvas, and the catalogue informs us 
that the copy substituted in San Michele in the first part of the 
last century was painted on paper stretched on a panel. It 
seems hardly likely that Scotti would have been asked to restore 
a new copy. This combination of facts seems to point to the 
present version as the original, and such scrutiny as I have been 
able to give it has not led me to doubt its authenticity, although 
the church is so badly lighted that a thorough examination is 
impossible. The altar was erected in 1518 and restored in 
1872. On a marble slab under it one reads: FRANCISCUS 
PUCCIUS IO: ANTONII FIL SIBI SUISQUE POS- 
TEEIS| ET VOLENTI EX FAMILIA POSUIT. 

Condition : cleaned and restored. 

Date: 1518. 

Drawings: possible first idea for the St. John Evangelist, Uffizi 6742 
recto (photo. Pini; F. M. C.) ; first thoughts for the little St. John, Corsini 
124232 (fig. 14; photo. F. M. C.) ; Uffizi 6678 (photo. F. M. C.) ; sketches 
for the same figure, Corsini 124244 (fig. 15; photo. F. M. C.) ; Uffizi 
6545 (fig. 18; photo. F. M. C.) reversed; Uffizi 6554 (photo. Houghton; Pini; 
fig., Vita d'arte, No. 57, p. 3) ; study for the same, Uffizi 7452; sketch for 
the left leg of same, Uffizi 6551 (fig. 16; photo. F. M. C.) ; finished study for 
the head of St. Joseph, Uffizi 6581 recto (fig. 22; photo. Houghton; Pini) ; 
studies for the "putto" to the right who draws back the curtains and sketch 
for the folds of the curtain, Uffizi 6662 (fig. 21; photo. Houghton); first 
thought for the Christ Child, Uffizi 6744 verso (fig. 19; photo. F. M. C.), 
which may also represent an idea for the little St. John reversed; study for 
the Christ Child, Uffizi 6520 (photo. Pini; F. M. C.) ; study for the head 
of the same, Uffizi 654 (fig. 20; photo. Braun, Florence 388; Alinari; Pini; 
F. M. C.) ; first thought for the St. Francis, Uffizi 6742 verso (photo. F. M. C.) ; 
sketch for the same, Uffizi 6525; study for the same, Uffizi 6744 (fig. 23; 
photo. Houghton; Pini; F. M. C.) ; first thought for the Madonna's head, 
Uffizi 6551 verso (fig. 17; photo. F. M. C.) ; study for the head-dress of the 
same, Uffizi 6520 verso; first idea for the torse and legs of St. James, Uffizi 
6579 verso ; first thought for the same figure, Uffizi 7452 verso ; possible first 
idea for the whole composition, Corsini 124229 (photo. F. M. C.). In the 
Descrizione dei disegni della galleria Gabburri in Firenze (Bibl. Naz. Fir., 
A XVIII, No. 33 ) we find the following mention of a drawing for the present 
panel: "No. 13. Altro compagno con quantita di figure di penna e acqua- 
relli rappresentante la Vergine che siede in alto col bambino Gesu, S. 
Giovambattista piccolo, S. Francesco e altri Santi. Opera singolarissima del 
celebre lacopo da Pontormo : ed e lo stesso che si vede in una tavola da altare 
nella chiesa di S. Michele Bisdomini in Firenze." The Gabburri Collection 
was sold to Kent (1742) who afterwards sold it in London. Mariette had a 

127 



PONTOEMO 

poor opinion of it. We cannot tell, of course, whether the drawing in question 
was authentic or merely a copy of the picture, but the chances are that it was 
a copy. 

Documents : Neither the Libro di Copie di Contratti di Casa Pucci 1479- 
1574 (A. S. F., Carte Riccardi, No. 605) nor Strumenti dal 1516 al 1529 dei 
Signori Pucci, segnato C. (idem, No. 606) contains any record of the contract 
for this picture. 

Reprod. Fig. 13; photo. Alinari 20313. Ancient copy in the former 
Doetsch Collection sold in London in 1895 for 10,500 frcs., of which the 
provenance and fate are unknown (fig., Doetsch Catalogue). 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 258 ; Borghini, II Eiposo, ed, 1730, p. 393 ; Bocchi, 
p. 403; Del Migliore, p. 366; Richa, VII, 23; Eistretto, p. 53; B. F. D., I, 
314, n. ; II, 139, 140, 142, 143, 145, 149, 150, 153 ; B. F. P. R., p. 175 ; Jacobsen, 
Repertorium, XXI, 281; Morelli, Borghese and Doria PamjUi Galleries, p. 
130; Catalogue of the Collection of Henry Doetsch, London, 1895, p. 31; 
Dessins, pp. 19, 34, 38, 55, 67, 109, 111, 128, 129, 131, 145, 148, 150, 151, 165, 
166, 215, 221, 228, 229, 242, 261, 271, 273, 274, 282, 305, 335, 336, 342; On 
Certain Drawings, pp. 6, 20. 



Palazzo Capponi 
Collection of Marchese Farinola 

MADONNA AND LITTLE ST. JOHN 

The Virgin, full face, seen to the waist, wears a scarlet robe, a dark 
violet scarf about her auburn hair. The Christ Child kneels profile right 
with his right knee on a cream-coloured sack over which a green drapery is 
thrown. To the right of this sack one sees the head and shoulders of the 
little St. John, torse profile left, head full face; behind him, his cross of 
reeds. Across the foreground runs a parapet of greenish stone-colour. The 
background is greyish green. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.00, w. .65. 

Provenance and history unknown. It would be the merest 
conjecture to venture the suggestion that this may be the panel 
that Vasari says Pontormo painted for Lodovico Capponi 's own 
room (VI, 272; cf. also, Borghini, p. 395). The children's 
faces are Leonardesque and recall the Visdomini altar-piece; 
the modelling too has the same soft quality, but the colour is 
paler. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date : 1517-1518. 

Bibl. Morelli, op. cit., p. 130 ; B. F. P. R., p. 175. 

128 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 



Palazzo Corsini 

141. MADONNA AND LITTLE ST. JOHN 

The Madonna, seated three-quarters right, is seen almost to the knees, 
her head turned slightly to the left. She wears a light red dress with yellow 
sleeves, blue-green mantle and violet head-dress ; her hair is red. She supports 
the Christ Child who stands, full face, on her left knee, his right foot forward, 
his left hand raised in blessing. He is blond. A narrow drapery crosses his 
body. In the lower left corner, the head and shoulders of St. John, seen full 
face; he has red hair and draws about him a part of the Madonna's mantle. 
The background is a landscape: to the right, hill and trees; to the left, a 
round low tower with conical roof, a lofty donjon, a little church with belfry, 
and lightly indicated olive-trees ; the sky is a greenish blue. 

Oil on wood. H. .87, w. .67. 

Attributed to Rosso or Bacchiacca. Berenson ascribes it 
correctly to Pontormo. There is something in the composition 
that reminds one of Andrea's " Madonna di Borgo Pinti," of 
which there is a good copy by Empoli in this collection 
(No. 121) ; the little church faintly suggests the background 
of Diirer's larger woodcut, the "Kreuztragung"; the little 
St. John recalls Michelangelo's "tondo" of the "Holy Family." 
Cruttwell inaccurately states that Berenson ascribes this picture 
to Bacchiacca. 

Condition : excellent ; a slight vertical crack to the left has been repaired. 

-Date: 1528-1529. 

Reprod. Fig. 103 ; photo. Brogi, 17626. 

Bibl. B. F. P. E., p. 175; Uld. Medici, Catalogo della Galleria del 
Principi Corsini in Firenze, Firenze: Mariani, 1880; Cruttwell, Florentine 
Churches, p. 85. 

185. MADONNA AND LITTLE ST. JOHN 

The Madonna sits facing, her right foot advanced, her head slightly 
inclined on her right shoulder. She has blond hair and wears a light red 
robe, a blue mantle, a fold of which is draped across her lap, and a violet and 
yellow scarf. She holds to the left the Christ Child, who is also blond and 
stands facing, his right hand raised in sign of benediction. He wears a 
greenish loin-cloth. On the right, St. John seated, facing; he has red hair; 
his head, turned three-quarters left, gazes at the Madonna; a drapery is 
wound about his loins and passes over his left arm ; he holds a scroll on which 
is written: ECCE| AGNUS] DEI; below him to the right, his cross of reeds. 

129 



PONTORMO 

The background consists of rocks and trees; the foreground of rocks, earth 
and little plants. 

Oil on wood. H. .52, w. .40. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date: 1526-1528. 

Keprod. Photo. Alinari 4546. 

Bibl. See above and Cruttwell, op. cit., p. 81. 



Palazzo Davanzati 

BIRTH-PLATE: NATIVITY OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST 

The composition is the same as that of the birth-plate now in the Uffizi 
(No. 1198). The robe of the woman to the left is pale yellow; the woman 
bending with the child in her arms wears a light yellow tunic and white 
turban ; St. Elizabeth, white head-dress ; the coverlet of her bed, dark green ; 
Zacharias, red tunic, dark blue mantle, white sleeves. On his tablets he writes : 
JOHANNES. 

On the back in the midst of tasselled red ribbons, a bearing; to the 
right, the arms of the Antinori ; to the left, those of the San Giovanni or of 
the Ughi it is hard to say which because the colours have faded (Priorista 
di Monaldi, p. 243 verso). 

Oil on wood. Diameter, .52. 

Provenance unknown. The colour-scheme differs some- 
what from that of the Uffizi birth-plate, though the composition 
is identical. There the woman to the left wears a red dress; 
the woman in the centre, a reddish violet turban and orange 
dress ; Zacharias, a yellow tunic and red mantle. I have been 
unable to ascertain whether this is the birth-plate that Berenson 
cites in the Butler Collection, which was recently dispersed. 
The date of our "piatto" could be accurately determined if 
the date of the marriage indicated by the arms was known. 
Beside it and purporting to be the original sketch for it, is 
exhibited a poor late sixteenth century copy in bistre heightened 
with white laid on in strokes on grey paper (h. .41, w. .32). 

Condition: practically untouched but faded. 
Date: about 1530. 



130 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 



Palazzo Pitti 

182. MARTYRDOM OF ST. MAURICE 

Composition of over eighty figures. On the left, on a dais approached 
by brownish steps, sits Maximianus as judge; in the extreme left corner, a 
man with his back turned who carries a basket ; in the foreground to the left 
and to the extreme right, martyrs with their hands tied behind them being 
driven away to sacrifice; on the left and farther back, martyrs pursued and 
slain by naked horsemen; above the latter, on a mound, an angel baptizing 
the souls of the slain ; above them, in the clouds, three angels shooting arrows 
at the executioners; on another brown mound to the right, martyrs crucified 
or lying on the ground wounded or slain ; at the foot of this mound an angel 
who picks up nails. The colour-scheme is as follows : figure in the foreground 
right, red hair, red tights to the knees, yellow jacket with sash, blue sleeves, 
mole-grey scarf, yellow-brown basket; Maximianus, brown hair, light green 
vest, violet-red mantle, under him a grey drapery ; to his right, angel picking 
up nails, pale greenish blue drapery ; standard in the centre, red with a blue 
stripe; in front of it a figure in yellow on horseback; among the horsemen, 
touches of scarlet given by their caps; figure to the extreme left, blue-green 
drapery; standard to the extreme left, orange with a blue stripe; draped 
figure to the left, blue robe ; angel baptizing, tunic of reddish yellow ; shields, 
some red, some yellow; touches here and there among the martyrs of red; 
sky, green; landscape, brown; steps and platform, brown; flesh-tones pale 
with brown shadows. 

Oil on wood. H. .65, w. .70. 

Painted for the women of the Hospital of the Innocents 
according to Vasari (VI, 275) who praises this panel extrava- 
gantly. A variant exists in the Uffizi which was executed for 
Carlo Neroni (Vasari, ibid.). The present picture was still in 
the Hospital in 1565 and greatly prized by Vincenzo Borghini, 
who at that time was prior of the institution. Biscioni in his 
notes on Raffaello Borghini states that, when he wrote, it was 
no longer at the Innocents. Richa in the late eighteenth century 
knew that it still existed, but the editors of the Milan edition 
of Vasari (1811) speak of it as lost (XII, 43, n. 1) as also does 
the Roman edition of the " Lives." When and under what 
circumstances it passed into the Pitti I do not know. The panel 
is a curious mixture of nudes inspired by Michelangelo's early 
work and horsemen that are reminiscent of the " Battle of 
Anghiari." We may measure the extent to which Jacopo was 
influenced by the studies that he must have made in his youth 

131 



PONTORMO 

of Leonardo's lost masterpiece by comparing this picture with 
fragmentary copies of the " Battle of Anghiari" known to us 
in Leonardo's sketches, in London, Venice and Windsor; 
Raphael's sketch, in the University Galleries, Oxford; Cesare 
da Sesto's drawing, in Windsor; Rubens' drawing in coloured 
chalks, in the Louvre, which is a copy of a copy ; a drawing in 
the British Museum which is a copy of the right-hand figure of 
the central group; an old copy in oils, in the magazine of the 
Uffizi (part of central group) ; a smaller painting of part of 
the same group, Collection Timbal, Paris ; a large late sixteenth 
century copy, in oils on canvas, of an earlier copy, now in the 
collection of the late Herbert Home, Florence ; the engraving by 
Edelinck; the engraving by Lorenzo Zacchia (1558). Jacopo 
is perhaps at his feeblest here and in the Uffizi variant; the 
colour is arid, the composition and modelling laboured. 

Condition : The panel has been cut down on the left side ; it is otherwise 
relatively untouched. 

Date : 1528-1529. 

Drawings: possible study for the nude to the left of the angel that 
baptizes the martyrs, Corsini 124236 (photo. F. M. C.) ; modified variant of 
the upper left quarter of the composition, Hamburg 21253 (fig. 108 ; B. F. D., 
pi. CLXXII). 

Documents: If the women of the hospital paid for this picture the 
transaction would probably not appear in the records of the Institution. At 
any rate, in the Archives of the Innocents I have found no trace of this panel. 
I have examined the following account-books: Debitori e Creditori, C, 1510- 
1526; D, 1526-1533; E, 1533-1539; F, 1539-1544; G, 1545-1551; H, 1551-1554; 
Giornale I, 1532-1539; Entrata e Uscita, D, 1527-1528; xx, 1528; y, 1528; 
yy, 1529; z, 1530; A, 1531; B, 1532; C, 1533; D, 1534; E, 1535; F, 1536; 
G, 1537 ; H, 1538. 

Reprod. Fig. 106; variant, Uffizi, No. 1187; old copy in the Jarves 
Collection, New Haven, No. 79; photo. Braun 42182; Alinari; Brogi 7892; 
fig., Goldschmidt, op. cit.; Vasari, trans, de Vere, VII, 170. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 275; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 395; Richa, 
VIII, 130 ; Chiavacci, Guida della R. Oalleria del Palazzo Pitti, 3d ed., Firenze, 
1864, p. 90; 3d ed. (in French), Prato, p. 164; Miintz, Renaissance, Paris, 
1895, III, 499; B. F. D., I, 320; II, 154; B. F. P. R., p. 174; Cruttwell, 
Florentine Galleries, p. 215 ; Dessins, pp. 35, 40, 56, 71, 127, 225, 256, 290, 338. 

233. ST. ANTHONY 

Half-length ; seen three-quarters right, head full face ; in his right hand 
a rustic cross, in his left a white scroll which passes to the right across the 

132 



AUTHENTIC PICTUEES 

lower part of the picture and bears the inscription: ES| DEI| ESTO| 
LITATE] VICT; he wears a black mantle with a dull grey-purple sleeve; 
the flesh-tones are reddish brown ; the background, green-brown. 
Oil on canvas. H. .78, w. .66. 

Not mentioned by Vasari; provenance unknown. This is 
a good example of Pontormo's most mannered period (1540- 
1550) . Part of the inscription is covered by the frame. 

Condition : darkened with heavy varnish and covered with minute cracks 
but otherwise uninjured. 

Date : 1540-1545. 

Reprod. Small replica in a private collection, in Florence; photo. 
Alinari; Brogi 7893. 

Bibl. Chiavacci, op. cit., 3d ed., p. 112; idem (in French), p. 167; 
Cruttwell, Florentine Galleries, p. 164 ; B. F. P. R., p. 175. 



249. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Bust figure, seen in profile to left. He is clean shaven, has grey hair 
and wears a black coat with a small white frill at the neck and a greenish 
black cap. The background is a slate-grey. 

Oil on wood. H. .50, w. .39. 

The traditional title was " Portrait of an Unknown Man." 
E. Schaeffer thinks, not without a considerable show of reason, 
that we have here a portrait of Francesco da Castiglione, 
"canonico fiorentino." And it is true, as Schaeffer points out, 
that the same face, seen at a slightly different angle, does appear 
in Vasari 's fresco, in the Palazzo Yecchio, "The Entry of Leo X 
into Florence," and that Pontormo's portrait would seem to 
have served Vasari as a prototype, although in the fresco the 
prelate appears "in pontificalibus," that is, in a reddish violet 
mantle and carrying, as "suddiacono," the cross of the Pope. 
In his "Ragionamenti" (VIII, Rag. Ill, 142) Vasari writes 
in describing his fresco: "P. . . . chi e quel prete, vecchio, 
magro, rosso, che fa I'uffizzio di suddiacono con quella toga 
rossa, portando la croce di papa? Gr. Quello e M. Francesco 
da Castiglione, canonico fiorentino, il quale ha accanto a se, e 
sopra, tutti i segretari del papa. ' ' This is clear enough identi- 
fication. We may, however, notice that Castiglione does not 

133 



PONTORMO 

seem to be definitely mentioned by Paris de Grassis in his "De 
ingressu summi pont. Leonis X Florentiam" (ed. Moreni, 
Florentiae, MDCCXCIII), and what is more important the 
date of his death is not known. Schaeffer, who thinks that he 
died rather soon after 1515, conjectures from the yellow tone 
of the picture and from the shape of the nostril that it is an 
example of the early work of Pontormo perhaps the earliest 
portrait we possess from his hand. Such an opinion shows a 
total absence of any sense of quality as well as a complete 
misunderstanding of Pontormo 's development as a painter. 
The yellow tone the picture had not yet been cleaned was 
of course due to the thickening and darkening of old varnish 
and the shape of the nostril, which may not inconceivably have 
been characteristic of the sitter, is certainly not an index of 
Pontormo 's early work. In this panel, which Morelli also errs 
in placing early, we have one of the most intense and masterly 
of Jacopo's portraits of men. The economy of means with 
which an effect of rough-hewn strength is given is remarkable 
and the modelling, the colour, the severity of the conception, 
all point indubitably to Pontormo 's later period, when he had 
evolved a personal style quite free from the influence of Andrea 
which had predominated in his work between 1514 and 1517. 
This may well be a portrait of Castiglione, but in that case he 
was still living as late as 1534, and until the date of his 
death is determined Schaeffer's identification must remain a 
conjecture. 

Condition : excellent ; the background has been retouched and the panel 
has recently been cleaned. 

Date: 1534-1535. 

Reprod. Fig. 125; photo. Alinari; Brogi 7894; fig., article cited below 
with two figs, of Vasari's fresco; fig., Miintz, Renaissance, Paris, 1895, III, 143. 

Bibl. Chiavacci, op. cit., p. 120; 3d ed. (French), p. 163; Morelli, op. 
cit., p. 129, n. ; B. F. P. R., p. 175 ; Cruttwell, Florentine Galleries, p. 210 ; 
E. Schaeffer, Ein Bildnis Pontormos im Palazzo Pitti, Monatshefte, f. 
Kunstwissenschaft, March, 1910, p. 115. 



134 



AUTHENTIC PICTUEES 

379. ADORATION OF THE MAGI 

Composition of about ninety figures. To the extreme right, two shep- 
herds kneel almost profile left; they have grey hair and are dressed in grey 
clothes ; to their left, St. Joseph, seated profile left, wears a pinkish white tunic 
and white tights; the Madonna, who stands near by turned three-quarters 
left, wears a red dress and blue mantle; Elizabeth, turned three-quarters 
left, is dressed in a pale lilac robe, grey mantle and white head-dress ; the first 
King, who kneels almost profile right before the Christ Child, wears a dress 
of cloth of gold with blue sleeves ; his companion stands profile right, wearing 
blue cap, fur collar* large blue sleeves, and he holds a red bundle under his 
arm; his second companion stands profile right dressed in yellow; the man 
who bends forward behind the latter is clad in green-black and holds in his 
left hand a blue hat; the men in the group immediately behind the parapet 
wear red jackets and blue hats or blue jackets and red hats ; the second King, 
who stands three-quarters right, wears a robe embroidered in gold, red cloak 
with pale lavender sleeves and blue turban; the man to his right is dressed 
in red; the figure seen over his shoulder in dark blue tunic and dark blue 
cap ; the third King is dressed in a dark yellow robe with red sleeves and 
red turban ; the man on the left, who presents a vase to him, has brown hair 
and wears a yellow tunic and red tights ; the next figure to the left has blue 
tights and sleeves and a yellow tunic ; the figure to his right, white tunic and 
scarlet tights; behind the parapet, many spectators; in the distance, two 
converging processions of horsemen; in their costumes blue and red pre- 
dominate; in the background at the left, low knolls covered with delicate 
trees; in the centre, a city gate with towers; to the right, three buildings in 
the style of the early Renaissance; the foreground, brown; paths, brownish 
yellow; fields, greenish brown; penthouse, brown; buildings, various shades 
of yellow, white, and brown ; sky, blue and green. 

Oil on wood. H. .85, w. 1.91. 

Believed to be the panel that Pontormo painted for 
Giovanmaria Benintendi (Vasari, VI, 264, note). Francia- 
bigio and Bacchiacca also painted for Benintendi pictures of 
about the same dimensions and shape (Vasari, V, 196; VI, 455). 
These are now in the Dresden Gallery (Nos. 75 and 80), where 
Franciabigio's is dated 1523, and in the Kaiser-Friedrich 
Museum (No. 267). The decorative woodwork of the room 
of which this " Adoration" formed part was by Baccio d' Agnolo 
(Vasari, V, 352). Waetzoldt believes, I think without reason, 
the figure to the extreme left to be a portrait of Pontormo 
himself. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date : 1518-1519. 

Drawings: sketches for one of the horsemen in the middle distance, 

135 



PONTOBMO 

Uffizi 6518 and 6722 (fig. 34; photo. Houghton) ; sketch of the horse of the 
same, Uffizi 6558 verso. 

Reprod. Fig. 33; engraving, Luigi Bardi, Galleria Pitti, IV; photo. 
Braun 42379 ; Alinari ; Brogi 7895 ; fig., Vasari, trans, de Vere, VII, 147. 

Bibl. Vasari, V, 196 ; VI, 264 ; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, p. 393 ; 
Chiavacci, op. cit., p. 164; 3d ed. (French), p. 167; B. F. P. R., p. 175; 
Cruttwell, Florentine Galleries, p. 217; Waetzoldt, Die Kunst des Portrats, 
p. 345 ; Schubring, Cassoni, p. 404 f . ; Dessins, pp. 35, 39, 68, 118, 127, 256, 
269 ; On Certain Drawings, p. 21. 



Palazzo Vecchio 
Ufficio delle Belle Arti 

CARRO BELLA ZECCA 

Four "putti" with a bird. 

Ruined. 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Four "putti" playing with a shield. 
Ruined. 

Four "putti" playing with arrows and a ribbon. 
Ruined. 

Six "putti"; to the left one carries another on his head; in the centre 
two carry a sphere. 
Ruined. 

Four "putti" playing together; one holds a shield which rests on the 
ground. 

Ruined. 

Three "putti"; one in the centre rides a lamb which one to the left 
leads; another, to the right, carries a bundle. 
Ruined. 

Two "putti" and two cherubs. 
Completely repainted. 
Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Eight "putti"; two on a table that the others surround; one, to the 
right, carries a large bundle. 
Ruined. 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 
The preceding eight pieces are in monochrome, oil on wood. H. .32, w. .44. 

136 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Two "putti" supporting a gilded shield (Medici arms and those of 
Florence). 

Two "putti" supporting a shield (Medici arms and those of Florence). 
The preceding two panels are in monochrome, oil on wood. H. .28, w. .56. 

Baptism of Christ. 

Hair, blond; drapery, purplish white; background, black. 

Oil on wood. H. .69, w. .45. 

Grossly repainted. 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Visitation. 

The Virgin wears a purple robe, blue mantle, white head-dress; St. 
Elizabeth, orange robe, white head-dress. 
Oil on wood. H. .69, w. .45. 
Completely repainted. 
Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Prophet. 

Full-length ; stands nearly full face holding to the left a book supported 
on a lectern in the form of a child; robe, white; background, black; step, 
greenish. 

Oil on wood. H. .69, w. .45. 

Completely repainted. 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

St. Zenobius. 

Stands nearly full face ; the episcopal glove on his right hand which is 
raised in benediction ; white vestments, black background. 
Repainted. 
-.Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

The Baptist. 

Stands turned three-quarters right; right arm raised, left hand holds 
a staff ; purplish grey shirt, black background. 

Oil on wood. H. .69, w. .45. 

Repainted. 

Drawing: sketch for the whole figure, Uffizi 6581 verso. (Fig. 8; photo. 
F. M. C.). 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

St. Matthew. 

Stands turned three-quarters left; in his hands he holds a book; green 
vest ; purplish mantle. On the right a cherub flying downward speaks to him. 
Oil on wood. H. .69, w. .45. 
Repainted. 
Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

137 



PONTORMO 

The Preaching of St. John. 

Composition of sixteen figures. In the centre, St. John stands turned 
three-quarters right ; in his left hand a cross, his right raised ; to the left, seven 
figures, one of which kneels in the foreground with right arm outstretched; 
to the right, eight figures, one of which, a woman, kneels holding a child. 

Oil on wood. H. .59, w. 1.28. 

Completely ruined. 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Baptism of Christ. 

In the centre, St. John baptizing Christ ; to the right, a man seated who 
takes off his tunic ; to the left, a man seated seen from behind. 
Oil on wood. H. .50, w. 1.28. 
Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Beheading of John the Baptist. 

In the centre John kneels; the executioner, seen from behind, holds a 
sword in his right hand and with his left grasps by the hair the saint 's severed 
head holding it out to Salome who advances from the left with a plate held 
in her extended hands; to the extreme left, a man seen from behind; to the 
right, the barred window of the prison and two spectators. 

Oil on wood. H. .50, w. 1.28. 

Completely ruined. 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

St. John in the Wilderness. 

To the left, St. John seated on a rock ; to the right, the meeting of John 
and Christ. 

Oil on wood. H. .50, w. 1.28. 
Completely ruined. 



These panels once formed part of the Carro della Zecca 
painted for the Corporation of the Mint and were exhibited 
every year in the procession of the feast of St. John. In 1810, 
during the occupation of Florence by the French, the car was 
broken up. The fragments enumerated above were once in the 
city store-rooms; recently they have been placed in the Ufficio 
delle Belle Arti. Milanesi states (VI, 257) that eighteen pieces 
survive ; there are in reality twenty. The woodwork of the car, 
now lost, was by Marco del Tasso who carved much of the 
woodwork of the choir of the Badia and was a well-known 
engineer and architect (Vasari, III, 350-353) . The composition 
of the "Beheading of John" is a free copy of the "predella" 

138 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

panel of the same subject ascribed to Andrea and now in the 
Academy at Florence (No. 77). 

Date : 1515. 

Documents: The records of the Zecca between 1510 and 1530 have 
been lost. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 256 ; Borghini, ed. 1730, p. 393 ; Dessins, pp. 34, 38, 
39, 66, 99, 167. 



Uffizi 

1177. MADONNA ENTHRONED 

In the centre, the Madonna seated on a throne facing the spectator; 
her hair is brown and she wears a red dress and a blue-green mantle edged 
with gold the ample folds of which lie across her knees; her right hand 
points downward to the angels at her feet, her left hand supports the Christ 
Child who stands on her left knee, his left leg bent, his right hand raised 
in benediction. At the foot of the throne on the right of the Virgin, St. 
Francis seen in profile to left, his left arm extended at his side, his right 
laid upon his breast; his robe is grey. On the left, St. Jerome, profile right 
and dressed in a blue-grey tunic and blue-pink drapery, his hands clasping 
to his breast a stone. In the centre on the steps of the throne, two little 
angels seated, facing, with a lamb between them ; they have auburn hair and 
dark wings edged with gold. In the background, which is dark grey, the 
outlines of the throne are dimly visible. 

Oil on wood. H. .72, w. .60. 

Not mentioned by Vasari. Formerly ascribed to Rosso; 
correctly given to Pontormo by Berenson. The composition 
reminds one somewhat of Andrea's " Marriage of St. Cathe- 
rine,' 7 now in Dresden. 

Condition: unfinished and retouched. 

Date : 1517-1518. 

Drawing: study (reversed) which may have served for the St. Jerome, 
Uffizi 6742 verso (photo. F. M. C.). 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. B. F. P. R., p. 175; Cruttwell, Florentine Galleries, p. 98; 
Dessins, pp. 67, 271. 

1187. MARTYRDOM OF ST. MAURICE 

This picture may be divided into three planes. In the foreground, the 
massacre of the Theban Legion ; nearly all the figures are nude ; the prevailing 

139 



PONTORMO 

flesh-tone is a light brown. Through a defile in the low hills other soldiers 
arrive; the standard on the right is a dull red, that on the left, green; the 
ground is various shades of brown. In the middle distance, on the left, 
raised on a little mound, an angel baptizes the souls of the slain; on the 
right, a grove of trees in which other soldiers of the Legion are crucified. 
Between these two groups, behind a dip in the landscape, a glimpse of the 
domes and spires of Florence (?) ; in the sky, flying out of the clouds, three 
angels who hurl arrows at the executioners. 

Oil on wood covered with a layer of "gesso." H. .64, w. .43. 

Painted according to Vasari for Carlo Neroni. This panel 
is a modified replica of the same subject now in the Pitti 
(No. 182). When and how our picture entered the Uffizi is 
unknown to me. 

Condition : chipped here and there but unrestored. 

Drawing : variant of the whole composition in which, however, the same 
figures appear, Hamburg 21253 (fig. 108). 

Eeprod. Fig. 107 ; photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 275; B. F. D., I, 320; II, 142, 152, 154; B. F. P. E., 
p. 175 ; Catalogue de la R. Galerie de Florence, Florence, 1864, p. 138 ; Crutt- 
well, Florentine Galleries, p. 92; Dessins, pp. 35, 40, 56, 71, 127, 225, 256, 
290, 338. 

1198. BIRTH-PLATE 

Birth of St. John the Baptist. A group of seven figures and the new- 
born child. St. Elizabeth sits upon her couch, head and shoulders facing, 
surrounded by her friends and serving-maids; to her left, Zacharias seated 
by the couch, profile left, writes on his tablets the name of the child: 10. 
St. Elizabeth wears a white scarf over her head and a violet-grey dress. The 
bedclothes are a greenish blue. Zacharias is dressed in pinkish red with yellow 
jacket and brown stockings. The woman who stands behind him and bends 
forward to the left to see the writing wears a blue-green dress and over her 
head a white scarf. The woman in the centre of the composition who holds 
the child stands nearly profile to the right and is dressed in an orange-yellow 
robe with a red scarf on her head. The woman to the extreme left stands 
profile right and wears a pinkish red dress with a white scarf on her head. 
Next to the last mentioned, a woman with a fan leans forward; she has red 
hair and is dressed in green. To her right, in the middle background, the 
head and shoulders facing of a figure draped in violet. A green looped-up 
curtain forms the background behind St. Elizabeth; the rest -of the back- 
ground is black above and brown below. On the back of the plate, a bearing 
with above, to left and right, "putti." The blazon is divided vertically. 
The arms to the right may be those of the Delia Casa family ; those to the left, 
of the Tornaquinci (blue and gold quarterings) ; but the alteration of the 
colours makes identification of these "stemmi" problematical. 

Oil on wood. Diameter, .54. 

140 



AUTHENTIC PICTUEES 

Provenance unknown. The composition is identical with 
that of the birth-plate now in the Palazzo Davanzati, but the 
colour-scheme is more varied. There the woman to the left is 
dressed in pale yellow, the turban of the woman in the centre 
is white, Zacharias' tunic, red and his mantle, blue. I have 
not discovered the date of the marriage indicated by the arms. 
Cruttwell, who is followed by Goldschmidt, states that this 
"piatto" was painted for Elisabetta Tornaquinci, wife of 
Paolo Aldighieri. Schubring erroneously gives the arms as 
those of the Monte di Pieta. Cf . in this catalogue, under Palazzo 
Davanzati, Florence, and in the Catalogue of Attributed Pic- 
tures, under Butler Collection. 

Condition: excellent; the colours have faded somewhat. 

Date : 1529-1530. 

Drawing: In the former Lamponi Collection, Florence, there was a 
red-chalk study (h. 220, w. 140 mm.) for the head and shoulders of the woman 
to the extreme left. I have not seen this drawing and from the poor cut in 
the Lamponi Catalogue (Florence, 1902, pi. XX, No. 356) I cannot tell 
whether it is an original sketch or a copy. 

Reprod. Fig. 114 ; photo. Brogi 14763. 

Bibl. Catalogue de la R. Galerie de Florence, p. 140 ; B. F. P. R., p. 175 ; 
Cruttwell, Florentine Galleries, p. 98; Schubring, Cassoni, Leipzig, 1915, p. 
407, Nos. 834 and 835; Miintz, Les plateaux d'accouchees et la peinture sur 
meubles du XIV e au XVI e siecle, Monuments Piot. 

1220. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

~Bust figure turned three-quarters left ; he looks at the spectator and has 
brown hair and a sparse brown beard ; he wears a black velvet hat and a black 
coat with turned down embroidered linen collar. The background is brown. 
Oil on wood. H. .65, w. .49. 

Provenance unknown. The treatment is faithful but dry. 
There is no evidence to support the conjecture that this is the 
portrait of Carlo Neroni (Vasari, VI, 275) for whom the 
"Martyrdom of St. Maurice," which hangs near by, was 
painted. 

Condition : excellent ; a small piece has been added at the top of the panel. 
Date: 1530-1532. 

Reprod. Fig. 118 ; photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. Catalogue cited above, p. 142; B. F. P. R., p. 175; Cruttwell, 
op. cit., p. 142. 

141 



PONTORMO 

1284. VENUS AND CUPID 

Venus reclines, her head to the right, her feet to the left ; she faces the 
spectator, her head profile left, and supports herself on her left elbow which 
is raised and rests on a heap of drapery; her right arm is outstretched, the 
hand touching one of Cupid's arrows; her golden hair is partially covered by 
a head-dress. To the left Cupid stands, his weight on his right foot, his left 
leg raised and passed over the right hip of Venus ; his right hand rests on a 
sheaf of arrows, his left arm passed under his mother's chin, his face, seen 
in profile, resting against hers; his hair is blond and curly, his wings out- 
stretched behind him. To the extreme left, a stone altar on which a vase of 
flowers, a bundle of arrows and a piece of drapery; across one corner of it 
hangs a bow from which two masks are suspended, one of a satyr, the other 
of a man ; on the side of the altar, a bas-relief of a fallen figure. In the middle 
distance, a rocky hillock ; behind, distant hills and sky. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.27, w. 1.91. 

Painted for Bartolomeo Bettini from a cartoon drawn by 
Michelangelo (Vasari, VI, 277). Bettini planned to place it 
in a room of his decorated by Bronzino with portraits of Tuscans 
who had written of love : Dante, Petrarch, Boccaccio and others. 
Certain interested people, however, took the panel almost by 
force from Pontormo and gave it to the Duke Alessandro who 
paid him fifty "scudi" for it. As a result of this high-handed 
action, for which Jacopo could hardly be held responsible, 
Michelangelo was alienated from our master. The painting 
was famous throughout the sixteenth century. Varchi (Due 
Lezzioni, Florence, 1549, pp. 104, 278 f.) speaks of it in 
the following terms: "Non dice egli che gli uomini medesimi 
si sono innamorati delle statue di marmo, come awenne alia 
Venere di Prassitele, benche questo stesso awiene ancora oggi 
tutto il giorno nella Venere che disegno Michelagnolo a M. 
Bartolommeo Bettini, colorita di mano di M. Jacopo Pontormo." 
It hung in the Salotto della Duchessa in the Palazzo Vecchio 
(Inventorio della Guardaroba per M. Giul. del Tovaglia, XXV 
oct., 1553, p., 13 verso: "Uno quadro di pittura drentovi una 
Venere con Cupido et f ornimento di noce intagliato, et cortina 
di taffeta verde di Jac da Pontolmo"; cf. Conti, Prima reggia, 
p. 34). It is also mentioned in the Inventorio generale a capi 
(Guardaroba, No. 30, 1553-1560), p. 54. The present panel was 

142 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

found in 1850 in the Guardaroba generale. 1 The figure of Venus 
had been covered in part with a wretchedly painted scarf 
(Milanesi, VI, 292). This and other retouches were removed 
and in 1861 the picture was hung in the second room of the 
Tuscan school in the Uffizi. Berenson, Milanesi, and Thode 
believe it to be Pontormo's original and their conviction seems 
to be well founded. But owing to the panel's present condition 
its authenticity can only be proved by tracing it through the 
various inventories of the Guardaroba between 1550 and 1850. 
This has not been done. Gamba thinks that it resembles too 
closely other known variants of this subject to permit the 
definite assertion of its authenticity. The first German edition 
of Vasari erroneously states that the original is in the Museum 
of Naples. Selwyn Brinton finds the Venus a mere " coarse 
imitation (!) of the Michelangelesque. " Concerning the sym- 
bolism of the picture, see Thode, III, 486. The following 
sonnet inspired by this picture is quoted by Frey (Dichtungen, 
p. 271, No. CLXXIX) : 

Sopra la miracolosa pittura de la Venere, da Michel' Agnolo 
disegnata et da il Pontormo colorita. 

Deh, perche '1 bello et il buono, com' io vorrei, 
Non posso a pien' di te spiegare in carte ! 
Che la natura esser' vinta da 1'arte 
A chi mai non ti vidde, mosterrai. 
Se cosi bella in ciel Venere sei, 
Come si vede qui parte per parte, 
Ben puossi, et con ragion, felice Marte, 
Anzi beato dir fra gli altri i dei. 

Non han le rose, le viole et i gigli 
Si puro, acceso, vivo, almo colore, 
Ne 1'oro ne i rubin si dolce ardore. 

Cosa mortal non e che ti somigli, 

Et che sia '1 ver ; di te piagato il core, 

Si sforza, quant' ci puo, baciarti Amore. 

i The editor of the 1832-1838 edition of Vasari was aware of the existence of this 
picture in the Guardaroba. 

143 



PONTORMO 

Condition : completely repainted and restored by Ulisse Forni who spent 
months on the undertaking. 

Date : 1533-1535. 

Drawings: Since Michelangelo furnished the cartoon for this picture 
we have naturally no study for it from the hand of Pontormo. Variants in 
which Jacopo rehandled the motive may be studied in two small sketches, 
Uffizi 444 and 446 ; in the masterful black-chalk, Uffizi 6534 ; in Uffizi 6586 
(fig. 133), drawn perhaps for the frescoes at Castello ; in Uffizi 6684 (reversed). 
The drawings Uffizi 6655 and Louvre 1029 are late copies of the picture. 
The Naples cartoon is also a copy. The sketch by Michelangelo in the British 
Museum (1859-6-25-553) considered by some critics to be an idea for this 
composition is believed by Berenson to be a first thought for a " Samson 
and Delilah." 

Documents: see above. 

Copies: A close copy at Hampton Court thought by Thode to be by 
Bronzino or Salviati, and by Law to be by Bronzino, although it is only the 
work of the latter 's "bottega"; cf. Handbook to the Public Galleries in and 
near London, London, 1842, II, 360 ; Duppa, p. 329 ; Fagan, p. 143 ; a second 
altered copy in the same collection; a variant, once the property of Prof, 
d' Alton of Bonn who believed it to be a Michelangelo and had an etching 
made of it (Kugler, Kunstblatt, 1842, p. 42; Kleine Schriften, II, 358), was 
brought to the Berlin Gallery in 1841, was later in the magazine of the 
museum and still later was placed in the gallery at Hildesheim (1884) ; a 
variant sold in Florence sometime before 1880 ; two copies in the Guardaroba 
in Florence ; a small copy once owned by the heirs of Luigi Riccieri in Florence 
(according to Milanesi from the end of the sixteenth century) ; the cartoon 
(682, XXV) in the Museum of Naples in which the dish and the flowers are 
no longer visible and which was once believed to be Michelangelo's original 
design for this work; a close early copy in the same museum (No. 22, 
VIII, 13), of the same size as the present panel, once ascribed to Bronzino, 
by Thode with a query to Salviati, but now with more reason to Alessandro 
Allori; a copy once in the possession of Edmond Blanc in Paris which was 
perhaps the same as that mentioned by Milanesi as having been sold and 
taken out of Tuscany ; a variant in the Stadtisches Museum of Erfurt. Several 
copies are mentioned in old inventories: (1) In the inventory of 1635 of 
the palace at Turin (Vesme, Le Gall. Naz. Hal., Ill, 52, No. 437) : "Venere 
nuda stesa in terra con Amore che la bacia et alcune mascare con arco e 
saette, in tavola D. M. A. Buonarroti. Siugolarissimo e de' migliori. A. p. 
2.2 1/2. L. p. 3 1/2." Vesme adds that Carlo Emanuele had the picture 
burned. (2) In the 1685 Verzeichniss der Gemaldesammlung des Heidel- 
berger Schlosses (Thode und Zangemeister, Mitth. des Heidelb. Schlossvereins, 
III, 197, No. 230): "Venus et cupido, durch Angeli Bonarota." (3) A 
copy in the Galleria Gustiniani in Rome (Vasi, Itin. istrutivo di Roma, p. 429). 
(4) There was also in the eighteenth century a wall painting of the same 
subject in the Palazzo Barberini in Rome, which was held to be a Michelangelo ; 
cf. Titi, Descrizione di Roma, 1763, p. 333: "Una Venere giacente, dipinta 
sul muro, pittura antica, che ha molto della maniera del Bonarroti, onde alcuni 
la credono di sua mano"; cf. also Crozat, Recueil d'Estampes, Paris, 1720, 
I, pi. 1. We may add the following pictures derived more or less directly from 
Pontormo 's original: a "Venus and Cupid" ascribed to Alessandro Allori, 

144 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

sold in the Sale X, in London, in 1800, for 39,750 francs; a "Venus and 
Cupid, ' ' perhaps the same, withdrawn from the Fossart sale in 1838 at 10,000 
francs and sold at the Joubert sale in 1841 for 2,000 francs; a "Venus and 
Cupid," ascribed to Alessandro Allori, sold by Francillon in 1828 (cf. 
Mireur, I, pp. 26 f.). See also the small "Venus and Cupid," ascribed to 
Bronzino, which is a free rehandling of the same composition (Uffizi 1173) ; 
the ' ' Venus and Cupid, ' ' ascribed to Bronzino, Galleria Colonna, No. 9 ; the 
same subject treated twice by Vasari in the same gallery, Nos. 7 and 18, as 
well as No. 16 which is ascribed to Salviati. Vasari is known to have painted 
two, perhaps three, similar pictures from cartoons of Michelangelo's, one 
for Ottaviano de' Medici (VII, 669), another for Bindo Altoviti in 1544 
(VII, 673). He took a "Venus" with him to Venice in 1542 and sold it there 
to Don Diego de Mendoza (VII, 669 f . ; VIII, 283). For the possible third 
"Venus" by Vasari, see his letter of July 21, 1544, to Francesco Lioni in 
Venice (VIII, 291). I do not know whether any of these are Nos. 7 and 18 
of the Galleria Colonna or still other panels the whereabouts of which is 
unknown to me. The composition of the ' ' Venus ' ' can be traced in a number 
of pictures too numerous to mention, an example of which is the "Death of 
Adonis," ascribed to Sebastiano del Piombo, in the Uffizi. 

Reprod. Fig. 123 ; photo. Alinari ; Braun 41284 ; Brogi 11033. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 277, 291-295 (long note by Milanesi on the present 
panel) ; VII, 277; Borghini, ed. 1730, p. 395; Varchi, op. cit., p. 134; 2781; 
Catalogue de la R. Galerie de Florence, p. 154 ; Gazette des beaux-arts, XIII, 
2 e per.; Thode, Michelangelo, Krit. Unters., II, 324-331; Law, The Royal 
Gallery of Hampton Court, 1898, p. 110; Catalogue de la Galerie Colonna, 
Rome, p. 6 ; Brinton, Renaissance, 1908, p. 187 f . ; B. F. D., I, 325 ; II, 138, 
145; B. F. P. R., p. 175; Dessins, pp. 21, 33, 35, 72, 94, 95, 137, 169, 208, 232, 
305, 331. See also above. 



1578. MADONNA AND LITTLE ST. JOHN 

The Madonna, seen to the knees, is seated three-quarters right, her head 
almost profile ; her hair is auburn and wound in a thick coil around her head. 
On her right knee, slightly raised, sits the Christ Child also turned three- 
quarters right, his head slightly bent over towards the left is seen full face; 
his right arm is extended left, his left laid on the shoulder of St. John ; his 
hair is blond; the Madonna's right hand rests on his breast. To the right, 
St. John turned three-quarters right, his hand raised to the Madonna whose 
cheek is laid against his forehead; his hair is brown; his right arm is bent 
round the Christ Child, his left hand laid on the Christ Child 's left knee ; the 
Madonna's left arm encircles St. John, her hand on his left elbow. The 
Virgin wears a green skirt, a scarlet bodice and overskirt; a yellowish grey 
scarf is passed round her right arm and across the body of the Infant ; behind 
her, thrown over a chair, is a mantle of blue-green and red lined with a lighter 
green. The background is almost black. 

Oil on wood. H. .86, w. .73. 

This panel, which was left unfinished by Pontormo, 
remained until 1907 in the store-rooms of the Uffizi. It was 

145 



PONTORMO 

in a ruined state and only after an exhaustive restoration could 
it be hung in the Gallery. It still retains, however, quite evident 
traces of our master's hand. The composition was, it would 
seem, derived from or suggested by a lost drawing or picture 
of Da Vinci's. It belongs, therefore, to the group of Pontormo 's 
Leonardesque pictures although it is later than the San Michele 
Visdomini altar-piece or the "Farinola Madonna." The little 
St. John owes much to Michelangelo's * Hondo" of the "Holy 
Family," now in the Uffizi. The same figure should also be 
compared with the St. John in Pontormo 's panel in Palazzo 
Corsini, Florence (No. 141). 

Condition : completely repainted by Lucarini. 
Date: 1526-1528. 

Reprod. Photo. Perazzi; fig., article cited below. 

Bibl. Gamba, Quadri nuovamente esposti agli Uffizi f Bollettino d'arte, 
I (1907), 20-22. 

PORTRAIT OF THE YOUNG COSIMO I 

Bust figure seen in profile to left; he wears a brown coat with white 
collar; his hair is brown and curly; the flesh-tints are freshly laid in; the 
background is a greenish grey. 

Oil on a beechwood panel. H. .47, w. .31. 

Not exhibited. This portrait, which is little more than a 
"frottis," was discovered by Conte Gamba. It is in all likeli- 
hood a sketch for the lost portrait mentioned by Vasari (VI, 
282) as executed while Jacopo was at work at Castello. Cosimo, 
who was born in 1519, is represented as about eighteen years 
of age. The present panel would seem to date, then, from about 
1537-1538 precisely the years in which Jacopo began his 
work at Castello. Vasari used this sketch, or the finished por- 
trait made from it, for his likeness of Cosimo in the following 
frescoes of the Sala di Cosimo I, in the Palazzo Vecchio: 
(1) allegorical subjects to left and right of "Cosimo in Elba" 
(photo. Alinari 4458) ; (2) "The Captives at Montemurlo" 
(Alinari 4463); (3) allegories to left and right of "Cosimo 
among His Architects and Engineers" (Alinari 4462) ; (4) alle- 
gories to left and right of "Cosimo Sending Succour to Serra- 

146 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

valle" (Alinari 4460) ; (5) "Cosimo Elected Duke of Florence" 
and in the allegories to the left and right of the same. For a 
copy of another portrait of the first Grand Duke by Pontormo, 
see Catalogue of Attributed Pictures, Jarves Collection, No. 
78 (100). 

Condition: unfinished and damaged. 

Date: 1538-1543. 

Drawing: sketch, Uffizi 6528 verso (photo. Perazzi; fig., article cited 
below ;D. G. U., pi. XXV). 

Reprod. Photo. Perazzi ; fig., article cited below. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 282; Borghini, ed. 1730, p. 396; Gamba, Rivista 
d'arte, 1910, pp. 125-127; Dessins, pp. 11, 35, 40, 74, 133. 

PORTRAIT OF COSIMO IL VECCHIO 

Seated; seen to the knees, the torse turned three-quarters left, the head 
profile left. He is clean shaven and wears a red cloak edged with fine brown 
fur and a cap of lighter red ; his hands are clasped in his lap ; the flesh-tints 
are pale and cadaverous. The chair is a warm brown, the background a dark 
greenish grey. A small laurel grows on the left side, the leaves of which are 
a brown-green. Wound round the stem of this tree is a narrow scroll bearing 
the inscription: VNO AVVJLSO NO DEFIC|IT ALITER; 1 behind the 
head and shoulders, on the back of the chair : COSM MED | ICES P P P 

Oil on wood. H. .86, w. .65. 

One of the great imaginative creations of Florentine 
portraiture; the modelling of the face and hands is exquisite. 
Here Cosimo has all the dignity of a noble and revered 
ancestor (cf. Bartolomeo Scala, Carmina illustrium Poetarum 
Italorum, VIII, 489). The prototype of this portrait was 
undoubtedly a medal, but it is difficult to say whether Pontormo 
worked from a medal of which an example survives or from 
a variant of which we do not possess a specimen. There are 
four known medals that represent Cosimo : 

I. A medal with the inscription: COSMUS MEDICES 
DECEETO PUBLIC. P. P. Reverse: PAX. LIBER- 
TASQUE. PUBLICA; a seated figure of a woman with the 
word, FLORENTIA. 

II. A similar medal with PUBLICO instead of PUBLIC. 
(engrav. Litta, fasc. 22; Supino, II medagliere mediceo, p. 22, 

id, VI, 143. 

147 



PONTORMO 

No. 20 ; Fabriczy, Medaillen d. italienischen Renaissance, p. 55, 
fig. 87 ; idem, Repertorium, XXIV, 313 ; Armand, Medailleurs 
italiens, 2 e ed., 1, 10 ; Bode, Florentiner Bildhauer, p. 257) . An 
example in the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum, the Bargello, and the 
Dreyfus Collection, Paris. 

III. A small replica of No. II. Cf. J. Friedlander, 
Italienischen Scliaumunzen, Jalirb. d. k. preuss. Kunstsamml., 

II (1881), 239-241, pi. XXVII, No. 3; Trapesnikoff, Die Por- 
trdtdarstellungen der Mediceer des XV Jahrhunderts, pi. II, 3 ; 
Supino, p. 22; Armand, II, 23. Examples in the Kaiser- 
Friedrich Museum, and in the Bargello in gold, silver, and 
bronze. This is perhaps the gold medal mentioned in the 
Medicean inventories of the fifteenth century (Miintz, Les coll. 
d. Medicis au XV e siecle, p. 74) . 

IV. The same with MAGNUS. COSMUS. MEDICES. 
P. P. P. and the same reverse as the preceding. Cf . Museum 
Mazz., I, xx, 4; Tresor de numismatique: Med. ital., I, xx, 1; 
Friedlander, pi. XXVII, No. 4; Miintz, Precurseurs de la 
Renaissance, p. 135 ; Supino, p. 22, No. 21 ; Heiss, Medailleurs 
de la Renaissance, II, 9 ; I, pi. i, 2 ; Armand, II, 23. An example 
in the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum and in the Bargello where it 
is ascribed to Michelozzo. 1 

Goethe and Heinrich Meyer (Jenaische Allgemeine 
Literatur-Zeitung, 1810, Vol. I) ascribed No. I without reason 
to Donatello, No. II equally without reason, to Michelozzo. 
Supino and Armand ascribe No. Ill also to Michelozzo. Fried- 
lander believes that all four were made for Lorenzo de' Medici 
by Nicolaus Florentinus whose real name was perhaps Niccolo 
di Forzore Spinelli (1430-1514). It was in all likelihood No. 

III that was reproduced, not long after it was struck, in three 
manuscripts that are now in the Laurenziana: 1. Aristotelis 
Logica, loanne Argyropylos interprete (Bandinius, Catalogus 
Codicum latinorum, III, 3; D'Ancona, La miniatura fiorentina, 
II, 394, No. 796) in which the effigy of Cosimo, profile right, 
appears in a medallion of a gold-coloured monochrome in the 

1 There is another medal dating from the end of the sixteenth century with the same 
obverse as No. IV; on the reverse, three interlaced rings and the word SEMPER. 

148 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

middle of the right side of the title-page. On the same page, 
which has been reproduced by Miintz (Les Precurseurs, p. 158), 
there is a similar medallion of Piero. 2. Aristotelis Opera 
quaedam, loanne Argyropylos interprete (Bandinius, III, 225 ; 
D'Ancona, II, 395). This work is dedicated to Piero. The 
medallion of Cosimo represents him in a red mantle and red 
biretta. 3. IOHANNIS NESII, De moribus ad Petrum 
Laurentii f. Dialogi IV (Bandinius, III, 144; D'Ancona, II, 
454 f.). In the initial "C" Cosimo is represented in profile 
in a violet vest and red cap. Medal No. Ill could not have been 
struck before March 16, 1465, the date of Cosimo 's death, since 
the title " Pater Patriae" was a posthumous honour. The 
miniature of manuscript No. 3 must have been executed before 
1469 in which year Piero died. We see, therefore, that the 
medals, the first three of which are practically of the same date, 
are themselves derived from an earlier representation of Cosimo 
that has since been lost. They are in turn the source of a 
number of portraits of Cosimo other than the three miniatures 
we have just mentioned. Medal No. IV itself dates, in the 
opinion of some critics, from the end of the fifteenth century 
and is derived from medal No. III. A fourth immediate 
derivative of these medals is the medallion in gilded bronze on 
the cover of a late fifteenth century manuscript, FR. TOMMASO 
SARDI, L'Anima pellegrina, poema in terza rima, Rome, 
Bibl. Corsini, Cod. 55. K. 1. A fifth derivative, and earlier than 
the last, is the medal in relief in " gesso" and gilt that one sees in 
Botticelli's "Portrait of a Man," now in the Uffizi (No. 1154). 
It is derived in all probability from medal No. I. Friedlander 
even goes so far as to believe that Botticelli's portrait, which 
is a work of his earliest period, represents Nicolaus Florentinus 
himself holding his medal of Cosimo. A sixth derivative is the 
late fifteenth century marble relief ascribed to Verrocchio, now 
in the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum (No. 104; Trapesnikoff, pi. 
Ill), which comes from the Orlandini Collection (Bode, 
Italienische Portrdtskulpturen des 15 Jahrhunderts, p. 38; 
Bode und Tschudi, Beschreibung der Bildwerke, pi. VII). A 
seventh derivative is the sixteenth century terra-cotta relief in 

149 



PONTORMO 

the Old Sacristy of San Lorenzo, Florence, where the face is 
turned to the right (Trapesnikoff, pi. IV, 1) and of which the 
poor and empty bust portrait of Cosimo ascribed to Bronzino 
in the Uffizi is an exact copy even to the colouring. This latter 
portrait miniature (photo. Alinari 459 ; Trapesnikoff, pi. IV, 2 ; 
Young, The Medici, pi. Ill) dates from about 1553 and is 
labelled COSMUS MEDICES P. P. P. It differs from 
Pontormo's portrait in structure and modelling as well as in 
many small details. An eighth derivative is the cameo, Uffizi 
No. 1083, which was copied from medal No. III. A ninth 
derivative is the porphyry relief by Francesco del Tadda 
(H. 19, w. 14 in.; Wood Brown, p. 113, fig., p. 39), mounted 
on an oval slab of green serpentine of Prato and bearing on the 
chamfer of the bust: OPA DI FRANC DA FIESOLE, which 
was once in the Uffizi and is now in the magazine of the Bargello. 

Pontormo's portrait is then by no means the first work 
of art derived from these medals. It is most closely related to 
medal No. Ill ; and since Goro Gheri, for whom it was painted, 
was secretary to Lorenzino, it is not inconceivable that he 
obtained for Pontormo access to a fine cast of that medal, 
perhaps in precious metal, such as was undoubtedly preserved 
in the collections of the Medici. It should be noted, however, 
that our portrait differs from all surviving medals in the shape 
of the ear, the way in which the cap touches the same, the tilt 
of the head and the contour of the eye. These differences may 
have arisen, quite naturally, in idealizing and elaborating the 
features merely suggested in the prototype. 

In Vasari's time our panel was in the house of Ottaviano 
de' Medici in the possession of his son Messer Alessandro. 
Later it was in the Uffizi, and in the eighteenth century it was 
removed to Cosimo 's cell at San Marco where, in 1912, Ales- 
sandro Pieroni's modified copy (purplish brown cloak, red cap ; 
h. 1.30, w. 1.10) was substituted and the original again placed 
in the Uffizi. 

The present panel is the prototype of most of the later 
representations of Cosimo among which the following are 
known to me. (a) Vasari's full-length portrait of Cosimo, in 

150 



AUTHENTIC PICTUEES 

the Chapel of Leo X, in the Palazzo Vecchio. (b) The portraits 
of Cosimo in Vasari's frescoes in the Camera di Cosimo il 
Vecchio, Palazzo Vecchio: " Cosimo Going into Exile" (Alinari 
4407) ; " Cosimo 's Return from Exile," " Cosimo with Brunel- 
leschi and Ghiberti" (Alinari 4413); " Cosimo with Santi 
Bentivogli Poppi"; " Cosimo with Philosophers and Artists." 
Cf. Vasari, "Ragionamenti"; Filippo Moise, Illustrazione del 
Palazzo de' Priori, Firenze, 1843; Giuseppe Conti, II palagio 
del Comune in Firenze, 1905; Cosimo Conti, La prima reggia 
di Cosimo 1, 1893, p. 140. (c) Altissimo's bust portrait (profile 
left in red cap and mantle) in the corridor between the Pitti 
and the Uffizi. (d) Paggi'sC?) portrait in the same corridor 
(modifications in the chair and length, inscription omitted), 
(e) The portraits used as decorative motives in the ceiling of 
the Long Gallery of the Uffizi by Cosimo Ulivelli, Angiolo Gori, 
Jacopo Chiavistelli, Bernardino Pocetti and others, (f) The 
portrait in the possession of the Societa Colombaria, Florence, 
(g) The portrait in the collection of the Erzherzog Ferdinand 
von Tirol, Hofmuseum, Vienna, which belonged to a gallery 
of portraits of famous men similar to that collected by Paolo 
Giovio at Como (Kenner, Die Portratsammlung des Erzherzogs 
Ferdinand v. Tirol, Jahrb. kunsthist. Samml. d. Allerh. 
Kaiserhauses, Vienna, XVIII (1897), 145. (h) The late 
sixteenth century copy bearing the inscription COSIMO 
MEDICI -P-P-, now in the Thaw Collection, New York, 
(i) The miniature once in the Colworth Collection (No. 41) 
and sold at Christie's in 1892. (j) Allegrini's engraving in 
Eegiae familiae, which is a modified form of Pontormo's por- 
trait with the inscription: "Cosmus cognomento Pater Patriae 
Joannis Medic, et Piccardae Bueriae F. Ex Coenobio Divi 
Marci Florentinae. " (k) The poor engraving in Allegrini's 
Serie di Eitratti di uomini illustri, Florence, 1768-1770, III, 
tav. 52, which bears the inscription: "Preso da un Quadro in 
tavola esistente nella Spezeria del Convento di S. Marco di 
Firen 6 . Tommaso Gentili del. F. Allegrini inci. 1769." (1) The 
poor woodcut (bust figure) in Paolo Giovio 's Elogia Virorum 
bellica virtute illustrium, Basel, 1575, p. 131 (Cf. Miintz, Le 

151 



PONTORMO 

Musee de Portraits de Paul Jove, Paris, 1900, Memoires de 
rinstitut de France, XXXVI, Paris, 1901) . (m) The modified 
engraving by Antonio Perfetti 1819 (drawing by Pietro 
Ernimi) printed in Florence by Luigi Bardi e Compagno, 
Galleria di Firenze, II, pi. XLVIIL (n) The engraving in 
Rosini's Pittura italiana, V, 77. (o) The line-engraving (bust 
figure) in Inghirami's Storia della Toscana, XVII, tav. CIII, 
No. 4, as well as a number of later engravings. To this list may 
be added, although only on conjecture, the portrait mentioned 
in the Guardaroba of the Palazzo Vecchio, in the Inventory of 
1553 (C. Conti, La prima reggia, p. 138 f). For engravings of 
other portraits of Cosimo, see Vine. Follini, Iconografia 
universale, Florence, XT, 3. 

Condition: excellent; there are a few worm-holes in the panel which 
has split somewhat along the right side ; a small piece has been added at the 
top ; the old varnish has been removed recently by skilful restoration. 

Date : 1518-1519. 

Reprod. Fig. 42. See above. A poor engraving by Borde in Litta, 
fasc. 22; photo. Brogi 14817; Alinari; Anderson; Trapesnikoff, pi. IX; 
University Prints, No. 99, series C. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 264 ; Molini, Galleria di Firenze, Vol. II, S. I, p. 5 ; 
Cruttwell, Florentine Churches, p. 168; B. F. P. R., p. 175; Catalogue de la 
R. Galerie de Florence, Florence, 1864, p. 150; Waetzoldt, Die Kunst des 
Portrats, Leipzig, 1908, p. 65. See also above. 



FRANKFORT 

Stadel Institute 

14 A . PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WOMAN WITH A DOG 

She is seated in a Savonarola chair, and turned three-quarters left, the 
head almost full face; she looks at the spectator. Her hair is brown, neatly 
parted, a thick roll of it held in an ornamental net that encircles her head; 
eyebrows finely pencilled ; eyes brown, the right smaller than the left ; nostrils 
wide ; ears high and pointed ; chin full ; neck column-like. She wears a scarlet 
cloth dress cut square at the neck, large puffs at the shoulders, dark green 
velvet sleeves, full white chemisette with high embroidered collar made of 
two pieces, small frills at the wrists. In her hair, a gold circle with a filigree 
star in the centre ; around her neck a gold chain of heavy ornamental links ; 
around her waist a narrow black and gold woven band ; on the upper joint of 
the ring finger of the right hand, a high diamond ring ; on the little finger of 

152 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

the left hand, a ruby ring; around her right wrist and lying across her lap, 
a dark bead chaplet ending in a large tassel enclosed in gold filigree ; in the 
bend of her right arm, a little brown and white dog sits facing the spectator. 
The chair on which she sits is seen in profile and is ornamented with a bronze 
mask, a handle, two large nails and a green fringe. The background forming 
a shallow niche is dark grey on the left, light grey on the right ; flat pilasters 
on either side; behind the sitter, a low table on which two books bound in 
parchment with dark ribbon-fastenings. 
Oil on poplar wood. H. .89, w. .70. 

From the Riccardi, Fesch, Le Brun and Mailand Collec- 
tions; bought in 1882 (Frankfurter Kunstverein) . Once 
thought to be a lady of the family of the dukes of Urbino. 
On the back of the panel, in pencil, an illegible inscription: 
"Anton . . . rato| . . . o," and a round branded seal on which the 
following letters: DO OGA| LOGDI| TOME(<?) which 
Weizsacker reads: MA| LOD.III| IM . . . Ascribed to Bron- 
zino by the author of the Mailand Catalogue who compares it 
with a " Portrait of the Duke of Urbino," once in the Pourtales 
Collection (No. 114), which he also considers to be a Bronzino, 
but which was anciently attributed to Sebastiano del Piombo 
and, by the author of the Pourtales Catalogue, to Andrea del 
Sarto. The attribution of the present panel to Bronzino was 
retained in the earlier Frankfort catalogues and by various 
critics. The portrait was first correctly attributed to Pontormo 
by Berenson who is followed by Waetzoldt and the latest 
catalogue of the gallery. This is one of the most charming and 
characteristic portraits that our master has left us. It is 
dignified and gracious, of a large simplicity and penetrating 
intellectuality. The pose and spacing were perhaps suggested 
by a lost drawing of Michelangelo's; cf. the sheet in the British 
Museum (Frey, 184). 

Condition: excellent; slightly retouched and judiciously varnished. 
Date: 1534-1545. 

Drawings: Uffizi 414 and 17769 bear a superficial resemblance to this 
portrait with which, however, they have no connection. 

Reprod. Fig. 127; poor engraving by Monzies, Mailand Catalogue, 
facing page 14 ; photo. Bruckmann ; Braun. 

Bibl. Catalogue de tableaux anciens composant la collection de feu 
M. Mailand, Salle Drouot, May, 1881, p. 14, No. 16; Weizsacker, Catalog der 

153 



PONTORMO 

Gemalde-galerie des Stadelschen Kunstinstituts in Frankfurt am Main, 
Frankfurt, 1900, pp. 53 f. ; Stadelsches Kunstinstitut, Verzeichnis der 
Gemdlde, Frankfurt, 1910, p. 5 ; idem, ed. 1914, ibid.; Waetzoldt, Die Kunst 
des Portrait, Leipzig, 1908, p. 219; B. F. D., I, 323; II, 154; B. F. P. R., 
p. 176 ; Schulze, Bronzino, p. Ixi ; Dessins, pp. 89, 288. 



GENOA 

Palazzo Bianco 

6. PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 

Seen to just below the waist, turned three-quarters left. He has brown 
eyes that look left; longish brown hair. He is beardless and wears a pink 
doublet, finished at the throat with a small white frill, at the wrists with large 
cuffs turned back and lined with fur ; a silk mantle of brighter pink than the 
doublet is thrown in rich folds over the left shoulder; at the waist, a cord 
in the form of a belt from which a black velvet bag with a dark silver mount 
hangs open showing an embroidered handkerchief. The left hand rests on 
the hip, the two middle fingers touching ; in the right hand, a pair of gloves ; 
on the head, a small round scarlet cap. Background, green-black. 

Oil on wood. H. .86, w. .63. 

Formerly No. 24 ; left to the gallery in the Galliera bequest ; 
ulterior provenance unknown; not mentioned by Vasari. The 
right eye slightly smaller than the left is characteristic of 
Pontormo's draughtsmanship; cf. among others the Frankfort 
" Portrait of a Young Woman," the portrait-drawing of a girl, 
in Chantilly, the " Portrait of a Woman," in Turin, the " Por- 
trait of a Girl," in the Widener Collection. The hands in the 
present portrait recall those of the ruined "Portrait of a 
Magistrate" (Borghese, No. 74) ; the drapery is close to that 
of the man kneeling in the foreground of Andrea's " Assump- 
tion" (Pitti, No. 191) and that of the man to the extreme left 
of Andrea's panel of the "Life of Joseph" (Pitti, No. 87) ; 
the pink shot with yellow of the mantle is not unlike that of 
the dress of the Magdalen in Andrea's "Disputa" (Pitti, 
No. 172), the drapery of the two saints in the foreground of 
Andrea's "Assumption" (Pitti, No. 191) and the robes of 
certain figures in Andrea's "Deposition" (Pitti, No. 58). The 
same colour was also used by Rosso for the drapery of the saint 

154 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

in the foreground of his " Madonna and Saints" (Pitti, No. 
237). 

Condition : excellent ; cracked slightly by the warping of the boards. 

Date: 1516-1521. 

Reprod. Fig. 41 ; photo. Brogi 11502 ; F. M. C. 

Bibl. Jacobsen, Le Gallerie Brignole-Sale-Defferrari in Genova, 
Archivio storico dell' arte, II (1896), p. 120; Catalogo di Palazzo Bianco e 
Rosso, Genova, 1909, p. 34 ; idem, 2d ed., p. 59 ; idem, Orlando Grosso, Milan, 
p. 47 ; Suida, Genua, 1906, p. 142 ; B. F. P. R., p. 176. 



KEIR, DUNBLANE, SCOTLAND 

Stirling Collection 

PORTRAIT OF BARTOLOMEO COMPAGNI 

Half-length ; seated, three-quarters left, in an arm chair before a table ; 
the head turned a little less than three-quarters left; the eyes look at the 
spectator. The right hand, lightly holding a quill-pen, rests on the table, the 
left upon his left thigh; on the third finger, a jewelled ring. He wears a 
long beard and moustache and is dressed in a dark coat with large sleeves 
and embroidered collar; at his wrists, embroidered white frills; on his head, 
a black cap ; in his lap, a handkerchief. The arm of the chair ends in a winged 
cupid's head; on the table are: seal-ring, sealing-wax, paper-cutter, open 
quill-case, ink-pot and two folded letters, the seal of the uppermost of which 
is broken ; on it one reads : A 1 Mag r ap bartolomeo Compagni . . . o 
Honerariusj In Firenze; beside these lie sheets of paper on which he has just 
written : Ic m eo os . . . mo | Per lamore uoleu a ... | ho meso quanto quella . . ,| 
comanda ei sono . . . The background is a flat niche, on the left, a pilaster, 
on the right, an engaged column on the base of which : 49 AT AT ; at the base 
of the pilaster, a shelf on which lie official seals, a packet of papers, a document 
with a large seal of a bust seen in profile left; to this seal two ribbons are 
affixed. 

Oil. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date: 1534-1545. 

Provenance unknown; bought in Italy, sometime before 
1825, by Charles Stirling in whose catalogue of 1826 it appears 
as "Portrait of a Consul." The person addressed as Jacopo 
in the letter that the sitter is engaged in writing is evidently 
Pontormo himself. 

Reprod. Fig. 126; photo, for Capt. Archibald Stirling. 
Bibl. B. F. P. R., p. 177. 

155 



PONTORMO 

LONDON 

Mond Collection 

A CONVERSATION 

To the left, a man, dressed in a crimson robe, scarlet leggings, buff shoes 
and pale sea-green mantle and cap, seated profile right; to the right another 
man, similarly dressed in a robe of grass-green with a mantle of pale rose and 
a scarlet cap, seated in an arm-chair profile left, his left hand on the arm of 
the chair, his right raised ; behind, two figures facing of which one sees little 
more than the heads. The figure to the right is dressed in olive-green; the 
figure to the left, in orange-crimson. The man in the middle background is 
dressed in dark grey. The woodwork is orange-brown, the foreground, warm 
yellow-brown, the background, which is made up of the intersection of a 
groined roof and a wall, is grey. 

Oil on canvas. H. .35, w. .24. 

Provenance unknown; discovered and attributed to Pon- 
tormo by Costa. The stout, thick-set figures should be compared 
with the same type of figure in the Pitti ''Adoration of the 
Magi." The colour and the touch recall the Uffizi " Birth- 
plate," which is of the same date. 

Condition: slightly damaged. 
Date : 1516-1521. 

Reprod. A replica in the Methuen Collection ; J. P. Richter, Catalogue 
of the Mond Collection, London, 1910, II, pi. 19. 

Bibl. Catalogue cited above, II, 449 ; B. F. P. R., p. 176. 



National Gallery 

1131. JOSEPH IN EGYPT 

The composition is complicated. To the left, a palace at the door of 
which Pharaoh appears surrounded by his attendants. In the foreground 
left, a flight of eight steps with two landings on which Joseph and his people 
in attitudes of supplication. To the right, seated on a triumphal car drawn 
by naked children, Joseph is again represented stooping toward a man who 
kneels beside the car and presents a petition. Farther to the right, part of 
a circular edifice up the front of which runs a bracketed stair. Toward the 
top of this staircase Joseph again appears leading one of his sons. Another 
child is received by his mother on the landing above. The upper part of the 
circular building is open disclosing a hall or porch in which Joseph is repre- 
sented at the bedside of his dying father to whom he presents the children, 

156 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Ephraim and Manasseh. In the second plane, at the middle of the picture, 
a dense group of figures ; behind these, a smaller group around a little mound ; 
in the background, trees and two gable-roofed houses. There are three statues 
on high pedestals in the picture. They represent Mars, Venus, and Cupid. 

The colour-composition is somewhat as follows : Foreground, beginning 
on the extreme right ; man kneeling, light violet breeches, yellow jerkin, white 
sleeves; blond boy standing with back turned and legs wide apart, red legs, 
violet skirt, yellow jerkin; boy (Bronzino) seated on steps, dark brown cloak; 
three "putti," white drapery with violet lights; old man kneeling, light blue; 
man to the extreme left, darker blue of the same tone with dark brown drapery 
about the waist, dark red cap in hand. Second plane, beginning on the 
extreme left ; man, bright red ; old man in front of latter, light yellow-brown, 
white sleeves and turban; old man whose head and shoulders show between 
the last two figures, light blue ; young man who faces the old man with turban, 
dark violet-brown mantle, yellow tunic ; old woman with clasped hands, deep 
pink, white scarf and head-dress. In the little group in the second plane 
at the middle of the picture, reds and light violets predominate. The figure 
seated on the base of the column to the right, violet drapery, yellow jerkin, 
red cap ; man on lowest step of stairs to the right, red robe and cap ; second 
figure mounting the stairs leading a child, violet cloak, dull red stockings, 
red turban; child, light green dress; woman at top of stairs, red; child who 
advances to meet her, green; woman half-hidden by column, red. In the 
group on the platform of the circular building the same tones are distributed. 
The group in third plane at the middle of picture: pale green, violet and 
white. The figures in the background are red or red and white. The land- 
scape, light brown; the architecture, pale lavender-grey; the pillar and 
pedestal in the foreground right, pale brown. Marked in lower left corner: 
JACOMO DAPONTORMO inscription which probably dates from the last 
half of the sixteenth century. On the scroll held by the man kneeling in 
lower right corner, a legend which I have not been able to read in its 
entirety : . . . ci dj fiso sej i ispeto . . . nel . . . nella da una . . . 

Oil on canvas. H. .44, w. .49. 

This picture, on which Vasari lavishes the highest praise, 
was painted for the famous room, in Casa Borgherini in Borgo 
SS. Apostoli, presented to Pierfrancesco Borgherini by his 
father on the occasion of the former's marriage to Margherita, 
daughter of Roberto Acciaiuoli. It was originally placed in 
a corner to the left of the entrance and formed part of a general 
scheme of decoration which involved other pictures and "cas- 
soni" by Pontormo, Andrea, Franciabigio, Bacchiacca and 
Granacci (Vasari, V, 342 f.). The house afterwards passed 
into the hands of the Rosselli (once Del Turco) family 
(Baldinucci, IV, 209 ; Vasari, IV, 531, n.). Milanesi states that 
the pictures painted by Jacopo for Borgherini were sold in 1584 
to the Grand Duke Francesco by Niccolo di Giovanni Borgherini 

157 



PONTOKMO 

for ninety ducats (Archivio di Stato, Depositeria Generale, 
Eecapiti di cassa, filza 995). He identifies, however, the pic- 
tures in question with two panels, now in the Uffizi, which were 
long ascribed to Pontormo but are really by Granacci. Our 
picture was once in the possession of Giovan Gherardo de' 
Eossi, was exhibited at the Royal Academy (No. 194) in 1873 
and was bought by the National Gallery at the Duke of 
Hamilton's sale at Christie's, June, 1882, as an " Allegory" 
for 315 out of the interest of the " Clarke Bequest." The 
little boy seated on the steps in the foreground is Bronzino 
(Vasari, VI, 261). Even at an early date the iconographic 
explanation of this picture seems to have become confused. 
Vasari himself mistook the group to the left for Joseph 
receiving Jacob and his brethren. It was Richter who first 
correctly interpreted the subject; cf. Genesis, xlvii, 1-6, 13-26; 
xlviii, 1-14. The meaning of the group of men huddled in the 
middle distance is found in the verse: "Wherefore shall we 
die before thine eyes, both we and our land?" Buildings in 
classic style were generally considered in the Middle Ages and 
the Renaissance to be characteristic of Egypt from which 
country the art of Greece was supposed to be derived (Richter, 
39 f.). The statues that adorn the buildings furnish further 
proof that the scene is meant for Egypt, in as much as legends 
current in the Middle Ages (Tischendorf, Evang. Pseudo- 
Matth., Chaps. XXII, XXIII) had induced artists to use them 
as a symbol of that country. Richter believed that the portrait 
of the young Bronzino made him appear to be about ten years 
of age. He therefore placed this canvas in 1512, at the very 
beginning of Pontormo 's career at least six years too early. 
His error is repeated by Jacobsen who also considered the 
signature to be genuine. Schubring seems to continue Vasari 's 
mistaken explanation of the subject and he identifies the 
picture with a "lettuccio" representing "Giuseppe che serve 
Faraone" which, however, Vasari distinctly states was painted 
for Borgherini by Granacci. Schubring turns this difficulty 
with ease by remarking that Vasari frequently confuses these 
two painters. We might notice in passing that two panels by 

158 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Bacchiacca representing the "Life of Joseph," and painted for 
Borgherini, are in the National Gallery (Nos. 1218 and 1219). 
For the other pictures executed by Pontormo for Borgherini, 
see under Panshanger. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date: 1518-1519. 

Drawing : Berenson thinks that Uffizi 6537 is a study for the drapery of 
the right arm of the figure to the extreme left. I do not feel that the identifi- 
cation is convincing. In the Louvre there is a poor pen and ink drawing 
(No. 1725), ascribed to Andrea but really dating from about 1575, which 
is a copy by an unknown hand of the present composition. 

Document: see above. 

Reprod. Photo. Hanfstaengl, National Gallery, 220; fig., Poynter, 
National Gallery, II, 99; fig., Vasari, trans, de Vere, VII, 158. 

Bibl. Vasari, V, 26, 343 ; VI, 261, 455 ; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, 
p. 393; Richter, Art of the National Gallery, pp. 36 f. ; Catalogue of the 
Collection of the Duke of Hamilton, London, 1882, p. 101 ; Hamilton Palace 
Collection, Illustrated Priced Catalogue, London, 1882, pp. 52, 100 ; Poynter, 
op. cit., II, 98 ; Cook, Handbook, I, 32 ; Descriptive Catalogue of the National 
Gallery, 1906, p. 457 ; idem, 81st ed., 1913, pp. 554 f. ; Graves, Loan Exhibi- 
tions, II, 942 ; Art Sales, 1888, II ; Muntz, Renaissance, Paris, 1895, III, 499 ; 
Jacobsen, Italienische Gem'dlde in der National-galerie zu London, Reperto- 
rium, XXIV (1901), p. 365; Frizzoni, Arte italiana del rinascimento, 1891, 
pp. 255 f. ; B. F. D., II, 142; B. F. P. R., p. 176; Dessins, 34, 68, 139, 331. 



LUCCA 

Pinacoteca 

75. PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 

Half-length ; full face ; the head turned slightly right. He stands beside 
a greyish table placed to the left on which his right hand rests, his left hand 
on his hip. He is beardless and has bushy auburn hair and brown eyes. He 
wears a dark green coat with sleeves of the same colour over which is thrown 
an ample light red mantle ; at his neck a white shirt and collar show ; his hat 
is a dark bluish green; the background, dark green. 

Oil on wood. H. .85, w. .61. 

Provenance unknown ; once at Poggio Imperiale ; now the 
property of the Istituto di Belle Arti. Erroneously believed to 
be a portrait of Giuliano de' Medici. On the back of the 
panel one reads: "Dalla guardaroba gen le 2485." 

159 



PONTORMO 

Condition: excellent. 

Date: 1529-1530. 

Drawing: Berenson thinks that Uffizi 452 (fig. 38) is probably a study 
for this portrait, but the drawing seems to me to date from ten years earlier. 

Reprod. Fig. 115; photo. Alinari 8459. 

Bibl. Trapesnikoff, Die Portrdtdarstellungen der Mediceer, Strassburg, 
1909, p. 77; B. F. D., I, 324; II, 138; B. F. P. R., p. 176. 



MILAN 

Collection of Prince Trivulzio 

PORTRAIT OF A BOY WITH A BOOK 

Three-quarter length. He stands turned three-quarters left leaning 
against a narrow low wooden shelf; his eyes look at the spectator. He has 
dark curly hair, dark wide-set eyes, broad flat nose, thin eyebrows. His left 
hand rests on the edge of the shelf, his right holds against his hip a large open 
book. He wears a black cap and a dark costume of stuff with a knotted sur- 
face; the sleeves have large puffs at the shoulders; the lower sleeve is very 
long and of dark velvet; the front of the jacket is fastened with laces the ends 
of which are encased in metal tips ; about the waist, a tight, narrow belt tied 
with a bow in front ; about the hips a broad, black, buckled sword-belt which 
hangs lower on his left side. Light background. 

Oil on wood. 

A fine example of Pontormo's work in portraiture during 
the first part of the decade of the twenties, which I regret to say 
that I know only from a photograph, in spite of a written 
application for permission to see the original and a special 
journey made to Milan for that purpose. 

On the book I have made out in a fragmentary manner the 
following verses : 

Famosi Frondi de' Cra . . . santi 

Per non so qual del Ciel f ero Pia . . . 

Rado hoggi s ' orna Cesare o Poeta 

Merce del guasto Hondo & pien derrori 
Chi sara mai . . . segnamente honesi 

H od . . . che in Voi si dolcemente aqueta 

I vianj & le tempeste 'e 'n . . . lieta 

Ogni anima gentil del Volgo fuori! 

160 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Et chi sia poi . . . degnamente ancora 
Adorar possa & quanto si conuiene 
Lalta vertu ch' e nel bel nostro inuolta 

lo da che prima nasce 1' Aurore 

Fin che di naduo al' oriente uiene, 

V adoro e 'inchino humil solo Vna uolta. 

Ed... 

Ama gentil dal f ante cag . . . 

sol gis a honestate in ... 

Torre in alto . . . fo og 

fiamma mai 

Ti ama neve io mi 

Opiacer onde 1'ali al bel uer ergo 

Che luce soura quanti il sol ne . . . 
Del vostro nome se mie rime 

Fassin si si 1 ... ge haurei pien Io 

La sana . . . tiade . . . poc . . . 
Per che portar nel posto . . . 

Parti del mondo .... 

Ch . . . pennin . . . e'l . . . cerco. 

Date: 1521-1522. 

Reprod. Fig. 48 ; photo. Anderson 12840. 



OLDENBURG 

Augusteum 

19. PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

Three-quarter length. She is seated, almost facing, in an arm chair of 
reddish wood, her hazel eyes looking straight at the spectator; her auburn 
hair is enclosed in a net. She wears a green velvet dress cut low at the neck, 
the sleeves tied to the bodice with little bows the ends of which are encased 
in gold work; a decolletee chemisette of embroidered white linen with an 
open turned down collar; white ruffles at the wrists. In her hair, a circlet 
of chased beads of gold, a pearl necklace at her throat, a gold chain hanging 
from her shoulders; around her waist, a heavy gold chain ending in a tassel 
which she holds with the first and little fingers of her left hand ; on the third 
finger of the same hand, a ring with a green stone. Her right elbow rests 
on a light reddish yellow octagonal table ornamented with black arabesques; 
the fingers of her right hand keep her place in a small book which lies on the 
table; it is bound in red leather, tooled in gold with two red ribbons instead 
of clasps. Background, a brown curtain with green fringe; a fold of the 

161 



PONTOEMO 

same, seen in shadow, is draped across the upper right-hand corner of the 
picture. 

Oil on wood. Oval; h. 1.12, w. .83. 

Acquired through Miindel from the Blaesel Collection in 
Paris in 1870. Once ascribed to Bronzino and erroneously held 
to be a portrait of a member of the Medici family. The identity 
of the sitter and the ulterior provenance are unknown. 

Condition: heavily varnished; the boards, which are three centimetres 
thick, are badly warped ; between them are vertical cracks. 

Date: 1535-1545. 

Reprod. Fig. 129; photo. Oncken; Bredius und Schmidt-Degener, Die 
Grossherzogliche Gemdlde-galerie im Augusteum zu Oldenburg, Oldenburg, 
1906, pi. VIII. 

Bibl. Catalogue cited above, p. 8 ; Kurzes Verzeichnis, p. 3 ; B. F. P. R., 
p. 176. 



PANSHANGER 

Collection of Lady Desborough 

32. JOSEPH DISCOVERING HIMSELF TO HIS BRETHREN 

Composition of more than twenty-five figures. To the left, a dais on 
which Joseph sits; his brethren kneel before him. To the right, a raised 
circular space enclosed with a marble balustrade ; in the centre of the space, 
a square pedestal on which a seated statue. The background, trees and rolling 
hills. 

The colour-scheme is somewhat as follows : figure standing to the extreme 
left, dark yellowish pink; blond figure behind the latter, darkest red; figure 
on the left kneeling profile right, red shirt, light blue sleeves, purplish yellow 
skirt; figure on dais (Joseph), dark reddish pink, grey sleeves, blue skirt. 
In the group before Joseph, beginning with figure farthest back and farthest 
to the left : dark blue and red ; figure to the latter 's right, white sleeves, dark 
yellow mantle; blond figure bowed low in front of last mentioned figure, 
blue mantle; figure kneeling nearly profile left with hands crossed on breast, 
white sleeves, sage-green skirt; two little figures farther back seen over the 
latter 's shoulders, dark yellow and dark red; blond figure in foreground 
seen three-quarters from behind, blue shirt, white sleeves, reddish pink 
mantle; old man behind him, green tunic, purplish red mantle; bowed figure 
with hands covering his eyes, yellow mantle, greyish purple tunic; blond 
youth seen just above the latter and standing profile left, purplish mantle, 
white sleeves; three men to the right of the latter figure, yellow and white, 
purplish grey and dark pink ; figure next to right in background, dark pink ; 

162 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

statue, grey-green; figure with sack seated on the steps, yellow, pink tunic; 
sack, white-yellow; blond figure descending steps with a sack on shoulder, 
grey- white tunic ; boy walking left in front of steps, light blue ; figure seated 
on the parapet above him and seen from behind, dark green, pinkish red, light 
red cap; figure next to right, dark pinkish red; figure with an ass beside 
him, dark yellowish pink ; the banner, grey. The foreground is dark yellowish 
brown, the stone grey-green and yellowish purple, the landscape and sky, 
dark grey-green and blue-green. On the dais: ECCE| SALUS| MUD; on 
the pedestal to the right: VNITIO) RI . . . TI TI; on the banner: ECCE| 
SALVATORI MUNDI. 

Oil on wood. H. .35, w. .42. 

Exhibited (No. 163) in Manchester in 1857. Ascribed to 
Andrea by most critics including Crowe and Cavalcaselle and 
their editors. They remark that " nothing can be more animated 
than this composition, more energetic and lively than the 
attitudes, more perfect and airy than the colour. It is the quick 
and able production of a pencil in full consciousness of its 
strength." It is, however, an authentic Pontormo for which 
I have had the good fortune to discover two drawings. Like 
the two following pictures of this collection it is a "cassone" 
panel and formed part of the decoration of Pierfrancesco 
Borgherini's bridal chamber in his house in Borgo SS. Apostoli, 
although one cannot say whether it was originally the front 
of a coffer or an ornament of the bed or of the wainscoting of 
the walls. Pierfrancesco 's marriage took place in 1515 but 
Pontormo 's pictures cannot have been finished before 1517. 
During the siege of Florence, while Borgherini was in Lucca, 
Giovambattista della Palla, wishing to get possession of the 
furnishings of the room in question in order to sell them to the 
King of France, obtained permission from the Signoria to 
acquire them but was prevented from so doing by the energetic 
defence that Borgherini's wife made of her most cherished 
possessions. The note of Milanesi (V, 26) to the effect that 
in 1584 Niccolo di Giovanni Borgherini sold the Pontormo 
panels to the Grand Duke Francesco for ninety ducats may 
very well refer to this and the following two pictures as well 
as to the "Joseph in Egypt" of the National Gallery, although 
Milanesi erroneously supposed that his document referred to 
the panels of the "Life of Joseph," in the Uffizi, which he 

163 



PONTOKMO 

believed to be by Pontormo but which are really by Granacci. 
See " Joseph in Egypt," under National Gallery, London. 

Condition : good, although darkened with old varnish. 

Date : 1517-1518. 

Drawings : for the figure kneeling to the extreme left, a study from the 
nude, Uffizi 6542 verso (fig. 28; photo. F. M. C.) ; for the figure descending 
the steps to the right, Uffizi 6692 (fig. 25; photo. F. M. C.). 

Document: Archivio di Stato, Depositeria Generale: Recapiti di cassa, 
filza 995. 

Eeprod. Fig. 26. 

Bibl. Vasari, V, 26, 343 ; VI, 261, 455 ; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 1730, 
p. 393; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Dent, III, 513; ed. Murray, VI, 202; 
Graves, Century of Loan Exhibitions, III, 1197 ; Exhibition of Old Masters, 
Graf ton Galleries, 1911, p. 50 ; Fry and Brockwell, Catalogue of an Exhibition 
of Old Masters, 1911, p. 36 ; Phillips, Art Journal, 1906, p. 1 ; Dessins, 34, 39, 
67, 142, 329. 

33. THE BAKER LED OUT TO EXECUTION 

Composition of fifteen figures. In the background, the wall of a house 
with, to the left, a statue at the foot of a flight of steps leading up to a room 
on the right. 

The colour-composition is somewhat as follows: in the foreground left, 
three figures about a table ; of these the figure kneeling with his back turned 
wears a light blue mantle, yellow stockings and cap, in his left hand, a large 
reddish purse; the woman facing him, who raises a saucer to her lips, has 
a dark green sleeve, white head-dress and scarf; the old man seated profile 
left wears a light blue turban, yellowish pink mantle and reddish pink 
drapery. The table-cloth is grey-white, the column and statue, purplish grey. 
In the group, second plane to right: blond figure to extreme right, bluish 
white sleeves and shirt, pinkish stockings ; the baker, faded pink shirt, greyish 
white sleeves and stockings ; the tall prominent figure behind the latter, yellow 
shirt, yellowish stockings with pinkish lights in them. In the group on the 
steps: the first figure to the left (kneeling), light pink mantle, white sleeves 
and waist-band, yellowish white vest, pink stockings; the figure that seizes 
the latter, green sleeves; the lower of the two figures descending the steps, 
dark violet mantle, greyish white legs; uppermost figure on the steps is 
blond and wears yellowish white shirt and pinkish tights. Figures in the 
door of the room above : figure on the left, blue vest and red legs ; figure lying 
down, dark greyish pink; figure to the right, reddish yellow shirt, reddish 
stockings. The walls are grey-green, the stairs a lighter tone of the same 
colour, the pilasters, purplish grey, the ground, grey-green. 

Oil on wood. H. .58, w. .50. 

Exhibited (No. 221) at Burlington House in 1881 ; a second 
time with the following ; a third time with the following at the 
Grafton Galleries (Nos. 33 and 35) in 1911. Originally 

164 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

ascribed to Andrea; by Crowe and Cavalcaselle (III, 585), 
followed by Hutton, Phillips, Berenson and others, correctly 
to Pontormo. Waagen thought that the subject was perhaps 
" Saint Roch Distributing Alms," but the episode that the 
picture really illustrates is to be found in Genesis, xxxvii, 36. 
Phillips considers this and the following panel to be in " a style 
of portentous exaggeration ... an energetic, arrogant, self- 
conscious manner/' and adds that "they are identical in style 
with 'Joseph in Egypt' of the National Gallery and may well 
belong to the same series." It is, of course, perfectly clear that, 
like No. 32 of this collection, they are "cassone" decorations 
and were painted at the same time as the National Gallery 
picture for Pierfrancesco Borgherini. See the preceding and 
the following and under London, National Gallery. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date: 1517-1518. 

Drawing : for one of the figures descending the stairs, a study from the 
nude, Uffizi 6690 (fig. 29; photo. Houghton). 

Reprod. Fig. 27. 

Bibl. Vasari, V, 343 ; VI, 261 ; Waagen, Treasures of Art, 1854, III, 12 ; 
Graves, op. cit., II, 942; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 1864-1866, III, 585; Fry 
and Brockwell, catalogue cited, p. 36 ; Phillips, Daily Telegraph, October 18, 
1911 ; B. F. P. R., p. 176 ; Dessins, 34, 39, 67, 237, 256. 

35. JOSEPH SOLD TO POTIPHAR 

Composition of twenty-eight figures. The scene takes place before a 
palace with high arched vestibule, the entrance of which has columns on 
either side ; in front of this entrance, a terrace on which, to the right, a statue 
of "Charity." 

The colour-composition is somewhat as follows: youth on horseback to 
left, pinkish red robe and cap ; man behind him on horseback, red shirt, blue 
mantle, grey-blue cap; youth in foreground left, with his back turned, 
blond hair, light yellow jacket, pink stockings; figure beside him bending 
down, yellow shirt, violet stockings; man behind the latter figure, red shirt, 
blue mantle, grey-blue cap; boy in foreground profile right, yellow-grey 
tunic; youth whose head and shoulders show above the latter, yellowish 
orange tunic ; figure in second plane behind the latter, dark violet tunic ; old 
man in foreground right, facing left, yellow shirt, pinkish mantle, white 
head-dress; child to his right, pinkish red drapery; figure above the latter, 
blue, with violet-grey cap. In the background: figure to extreme left, dark 
violet; figure seen through the left window, red and brown; two figures on 
horseback, palest blue and violet-brown; figure in the portal, violet-brown; 
old man walking to right, pale blue tunic, light violet cap; man descending 

165 



PONTORMO 

steps, green ; statue, grey- white ; old man descending steps in front of statue, 
pinkish red vest, green drapery, violet stockings ; boy walking away to right 
behind the parapet, yellow-grey cloak. The foreground and background, 
grey-green with here and there purplish lights. 
Oil on wood. H. .58, w. .50. 

See the preceding. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date : 1517-1518. 

Drawings : sketch of the lower part of the figure descending the upper 
stairs to the right, Uffizi 6556 (fig. 31 ; photo. F. M. C.) ; study for the youth 
who walks away to the right on the marble terrace to the right, Uffizi 6692 
verso (fig. 32; photo. F. M. C.). 

Eeprod. Fig. 30. 

Bibl. See preceding and Catalogue of an Exhibition of Old Masters, 
Graf ton Galleries, p. 38 f . ; Dessins, 34, 39, 67, 83, 239, 256. 

"IL FATTORE DI SAN MARCO" 

Three-quarter length, standing ; nearly life-size ; the torse turned three- 
quarters left; the head nearly full face and inclined slightly to the left; the 
eyes look at the spectator. He wears a large black hat and a green-black 
robe, with large sleeves, open at the front showing a pinkish red lining and 
a white shirt; the right arm is bent, the hand thrust into the opening of the 
mantle ; the left arm extended at side, the thumb thrust in a low belt. Back- 
ground, grey-green with a shadow to the right. 

Oil on wood. H. .94, w. .71. 

Ascribed to Andrea ascription confirmed by Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle who found it " masterly and bold in handling." 
Gamba, who erroneously gives the title as "Pastore di San 
Marco," believes it to be a Puligo, although it is quite obviously 
a rather early and striking Pontormo. Exhibited at Burlington 
House (No. 153) in 1881 as an Andrea, and at the Grafton 
Galleries (No. 64) in 1909-1910. There is an old replica in the 
Palazzo Ricasoli in Florence. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date: 1525-1530. 

Reprod. Photo. Braun 37398 ; fig., article by Gamba cited below. 

Bibl. Waagen, Treasures of Art, 1854, III, 11 ; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 
1864-1866, III, 585; idem, ed. Dent, III, 513; idem, ed. Murray, VI, 201; 
Catalogue of the National Loan Exhibition, London, 1910, p. 96; Catalogue 
of the National Loan Exhibition, Ballantyne & Co., p. 64 ; Gamba, Di alcuni 
ritratti di Puligo, Rivista d'arte, VI (1909), 280; B. F. P. R., p. 176. 

166 



AUTHENTIC PICTUBES 

PARIS 

Jacquemart- Andre Collection 

PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

Half-length; turned three-quarters left; she looks at spectator. In 
her left hand, a book which lies on a table to the left, her second finger between 
the leaves; her right hand half closed, the index finger pointing towards the 
spectator. She wears a dark dress; over her head and shoulders, a double 
white veil. On the violet-brown table, a handkerchief ; to the extreme left one 
sees the head and forepaws of a little brown and white dog. Dark olive-green 
background. 

Oil on wood prepared with a layer of ' ' gesso. ' ' 

Provenance unknown; acquired as a Bronzino; now cor- 
rectly ascribed to Pontormo of whose later work it is an 
excellent specimen. 

Condition : slightly damaged but practically unrestored ; cracked on the 
right side and along the top; along the left side the paint has peeled for 
a distance of about two centimetres. 

Date : 1540-1550. 

Reprod. Fig. 151 ; photo. Bulloz. 



Louvre 

1240. HOLY FAMILY 

In the centre, the Virgin seated, three-quarters to right, her head three- 
quarters left, in the lap of St. Anne who is seen full face. The Madonna 
holds against her right shoulder the Infant Jesus who stands full face on 
her knee. His head is turned three-quarters right; he looks at the Madonna. 
Under this central group, clouds. On either side, standing figures: to the 
left and above, St. Sebastian, his head profile right, his neck pierced by an 
arrow; he holds a palm; below in the foreground, St. Peter, three-quarters 
right, holding in his right hand the keys; to the right, above, the penitent 
thief, profile left, holding a large cross ; in the foreground below, St. Benedict, 
profile left, who points with his left hand to the Christ Child. Below the 
clouds at the Madonna's feet, a medallion of small figures the Signoria of 
Florence proceeding with trumpeters, mace-bearers, and " tavolaccini " to the 
convent of St. Anne. 

The Madonna wears a red tunic and mauve head-dress; a green-blue 
mantle falls about her knees. St. Anne's head-dress is white of a violet tone, 
her mantle a grey-lavender. St. Sebastian has light brown hair and wears 
a dark mauve mantle. St. Peter is dressed in a blue-green shirt and light 

167 



PONTORMO 

red mantle ; the penitent thief in a red mantle ; St. Benedict in a grey mantle. 
In the medallion, reds, blues and mauves predominate under a green-blue 
sky. The cloud under the Virgin's feet is mauve. The background, a very 
dark grey. 

Oil on wood. H. 2.28, w. 1.76. 

Vasari (VI, 272 f.) states that the officers of the Signoria 
ordered this altar-piece for the nuns of St. Anne in Verzaia, 
whose convent (founded in 1318) was once outside the San 
Frediano gate. His statement explains the medallion at the 
feet of the Virgin. The members of the Signoria went 
annually (Richa, IV, 222) in solemn procession to this convent 
on the 26th of July in commemoration of the successful rebellion 
of the people against the tyrant Gualtieri of Brienne, Duke of 
Athens. The revolt began on the 26th of July, 1343. Milanesi 
refers to this fact. A misinterpretation of his note on our 
panel would seem to have led certain critics to give its date as 
1543 (Berenson, F. P. R., p. 176 ; Seymour de Ricci, Description, 
p. 43; Goldschmidt, op. cit., p. 47). Conte Gamba erroneously 
places it in 1524 (D. ,G. U., p. 3). It was painted, however, in 
the years immediately preceding the downfall of the Republic, 
probably in 1528. After leaving their original convent the nuns 
occupied successively several buildings (Cronica di Buonac- 
corso Pitti, p. 4, note) among them those of the hospital of 
Sant' Eusebio de' lebbrosi sul Prato where Richa saw our 
picture on the main altar of the church called then Sant' Anna 
sul Prato. It was brought to the Louvre by Napoleon. The 
composition, which Gamba finds "ammucchiata," recalls, in 
the central group, Leonardo's " Madonna and St. Anne" of the 
Louvre and, in the standing saints, many of Fra Bartolommeo's 
larger pictures. The St. Sebastian resembles the Sebastian 
from Diirer's workshop, now in the archbishop's palace at Ober 
St. Veit near Vienna. 

Condition : badly cleaned but not seriously injured. 

Date : about 1528. 

Drawings: a finished, squared study, in pen and bistre, for the whole 
composition, Uffizi 460 (fig. 105 ; photo. Braun, Florence 133 and F. M. C. ; 
B. F. D., pi. CLXXI). In the same collection (No. 13890, photo. Pini 1322) 
there is a late sixteenth century copy (h. .271, w. .197) of this drawing. It 

168 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

is also in pen and bistre. Berenson (B. F. D., I, 320; II, 150) considers 
Uffizi 6681 to be a study for the Madonna's head. In my opinion this latter 
drawing is a sketch by Bronzino after a lost picture by Pontormo for which 
Uffizi 6729 is perhaps the original study. 

Documents : The books of the Signoria for the period from which this 
panel dates have perished. 

Keprod. Fig. 104 ; photo. Braun 11240 ; Landon, VI, pi. XX. 

Bibl. Vasari,VI, 272 1; Richa, IV, 220 ff. ; Borghini, II Riposo, ed. 
1730, p. 484; Notice des tableaux des ecoles primitives, 1814, No. 96, p. 81; 
Filhol, XVI, 21-24; Catalogue Villot, No. 157, p. 92; Catalogue Tauzia, No. 
142 ; Notice des tableaux exposes dans la galerie du Musee royal, Paris, 1826, 
pp. 218 f. ; Jacobsen, Repertorium, XXV (1902), pp. 185 f. ; Pietro Passerini, 
Storia degli stabilimenti di beneficenza di Firenze, Firenze, 1853, 125 ff. ; 
Passerini, Curiositd storico-artistiche fiorentine, art. Degli Orti Oricellari } 
Firenze, 1866, p. 3 ff. ; Miintz, Renaissance, Paris, 1895, III, 499; Guido 
Carocci, III. fior., 1906, p. 96 f . ; Seymour de Ricci, Description, p. 40 ; B. F. D., 
I, 320 ; II, 338 ; B. F. P. R., 176 ; Gamba, D. G. U., 1912 ; Dessins, pp. 21, 22, 
35, 40, 56, 71, 97, 103, 104, 115, 160, 163, 230, 284, 342. 

1241. PORTRAIT OF AN ENGRAVER OF PRECIOUS STONES 

Half-length; turned three-quarters to the right; the head turned a 
little to left; eyes look three-quarters to left. He is clean shaven; his long 
dark hair falls about his ears. He wears a four-cornered black hat with raised 
lappets, a dark coat with full sleeves and fur collar; at his throat, a small 
embroidered ruche. In his right hand he holds a burin. In front of him 
and to the right, the handle of a dagger (?) in which is set a jewel. Dark 
background. 

Oil on wood. H. .69, w. .50. 

From the collection of Louis XIV (Catal. Le Bran, 1683, 
No. 285) ; once at Versailles (Catal. Paillet, 1695), in the Petite 
Valerie du Roi (Catal. du l er nov. 1695; Catal. Bailly, 1709) ; 
then at the Surintendance, in the Salon du Directeur des 
Batiments (Catal. Jeaurat, 1760) ; described by Lepicie (1752). 
Villot conjectured without foundation that the person repre- 
sented is Giovanni delle Corniole (1470-1516). This is 
probably the earliest known portrait by Pontormo. The 
influence of Andrea is manifest, but already the touch of intro- 
spection in the eyes could only be Jacopo's. Miintz finds the 
colouring "pousse au noir" a quality we of course owe, not 
to Pontormo, but to the discoloration of old varnish. Salle VI. 
A. Nord. 

Condition : good but much darkened. 
Date : about 1516. 

169 



PONTOKMO 

Reprod. Fig. 10 ; engraved by Potrel ; photo. Braun 11241 ; Filhol, II, 
pi. 83; Landon, VI, pi. 21; Vasari, trans, de Vere, VII, 174 (in colour). 

Bibl. Filhol, Galerie du Musee Napoleon, XVI, 21-24 ; Catalogue Villot, 
No. 158, p. 93; Catalogue Tauzia, No. 143; Lepicie, I, 47; Engerand, Inven- 
taire, I, 37 ; Notice des tableaux du Musee royal, pp. 218 f . ; Miintz, Renais- 
sance, p. 499, Laf enestre, No. 1241 ; B. F. P. R., p. 176 ; Seymour de Ricci, 
op. cit., pp. 40 f. 



PHILADELPHIA 

Johnson Collection 

83. PORTRAIT OF ALESSANDRO DE' MEDICI 

Half-length seated figure turned three-quarters left. In his left hand 
he holds a sheet of paper on the corner of a table, in his right hand a stylus 
with which he draws, on the paper just mentioned, the head of a woman. He 
is beardless and has a swarthy complexion ; he wears a black cloak and a biretta 
with lappets. The background is a wall and door ajar; to the extreme left 
it is a rich brown melting into dark grey, behind the head dark red and, 
where the door stands open, light grey. 

Oil on wood. H. .97, w. .79. 

Mentioned and described by Vasari (VI, 278) who states 
that Pontormo first made a miniature of the Duke "per piu 
commodita" and then the portrait. The former, once in the 
Guardaroba of Cosimo I, has disappeared. The latter, of which 
all trace was lost for more than three hundred years, I have 
had the good fortune to identify with the present panel. In 
the middle of the sixteenth century even the Medici family did 
not know what had become of this portrait, and sometime 
before 1568 the Grand Duke offered a reward for information 
as to its whereabouts. Several years later his offer brought 
the Eegent Ferdinando a letter (November 23, 1571) from a 
certain Costantino Ansoldi, a former servant of Alessandro's, 
to whom the latter had entrusted the bringing-up of his natural 
son, Giulio de' Medici. This interesting document is still 
preserved in the Florentine Archives and was first printed by 
Gualandi who did not connect it with Pontormo because in 
his transcription the painter's name appears as Jacopo da 
Ponte. Carnasecchi, who perceived its relation to Vasari 's 

170 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

description of Pontormo's portrait of Alessandro, reprinted it 
in the Rivista d' arte, although he was unaware that the portrait 
still survives. From it we learn several new facts. Our por- 
trait was painted, it would seem, in Palazzo Pazzi just after 
the death of Clement VII, Alessandro 's father, for whom he 
is represented in mourning attire. Later on Alessandro gave 
Costantino the portrait as a reward for good service, and he 
in turn gave it, after the Duke's death, to Taddea Malespina. 
Such, at least, is the old courtier's story, in regard to which we 
should add by way of comment, that, according to Vasari, it 
was Alessandro himself who gave the picture to Taddea. 
Costantino goes on to say that, by making inquiries of Giulia 
Malespina, a daughter of Taddea 's who lived in Ferrara, he 
found that, at the death of Taddea, the panel had passed into 
the hands of Alberico Cybo, lord of Massa and husband of 
Ricciarda Malespina, Taddea 's sister. With this information 
he forthwith went to Pisa and laid his case before Giulio, 
Alessandro 's son, who promised to help him and who was 
actually able to induce the Lord of Massa to hand over the 
picture. But instead of giving it in turn to Costantino so that 
he might present it to the Grand Duke and claim the reward 
offered for finding it, Giulio had a wretched copy made which 
was begun by Vincenzo, painter to Giulio, and finished by 
Salvio, painter to Cavalier Somo. This copy Costantino 
indignantly refused to accept. The identification of our panel 
with Pontormo's long lost portrait rests not only upon the fact 
that it corresponds exactly to the descriptions of the work given 
by Costantino and Vasari but also upon the striking resemblance 
it bears to other known portraits of Alessandro. We may 
compare it with Vasari 's portrait of the Duke, now in the 
Umzi (No. 1281), which Pontormo himself criticized at the 
young Vasari 's request (VII, 657) and which the latter 
describes in a letter to Ottaviano de' Medici; with Bronzino's 
portrait of Alessandro, now in Bergamo; with the modified 
replica of the latter, until recently in the Thode Collection, 
at Heidelberg; with a "bottega" copy of the Bergamo panel, 
now in the corridor between the Umzi and the Pitti and labelled 

171 



PONTOKMO 

in lettering of the sixteenth century ALEX MED FLOR 
DUX I LAURENS F - Bronzino's portrait of the Duke, its 
replicas and its copy are all derived from the present panel 
which is also the prototype of Vasari's likeness of Alessandro 
in the fresco of "Clement Crowning Charles V," Sala di 
Clemente VII, in the Palazzo Vecchio (photo. Alinari 4429). 
The date of our portrait falls in the interval between the death 
of Clement and the assassination of Alessandro. But these 
terminal dates are brought nearer together by two additional 
facts: the Duke is represented in mourning and Vasari dis- 
tinctly states that the panel was contemporaneous with the 
"Venus and Cupid." It can, therefore, only have been painted 
in the autumn of 1534 or in the spring of 1535. From an 
iconographical point of view it is an important document and 
will serve as a criterion with which we may compare other 
likenesses of the Duke. These are not very numerous. A 
portrait (No. 96) described as "Alexandre de Medicis" (h. 17, 
w. 13 in.), ascribed to Bronzino and once in the Nesselrode 
Collection, was sold at the Fifth Avenue Art Galleries on April 
6, 1911. It had formed part of the Brandus Galleries and passed 
into the hands of Mr. Walter Armann. Another portrait of 
Alessandro, "bust figure, wearing armour partly covered by a 
cloak" (panel, 25| by 13 in.) went at the Doetsch sale (No. 156) 
for thirteen guineas. It came from the Orleans Gallery, was 
ascribed to Bronzino, although seemingly only a poor "bottega" 
copy of a lost original, and bore the inscription : ALE SANDER 
MED FLOR D I (Catalogue of the Doetsch Collection, p. 
45). There was, according to Frizzoni, a poor copy of the 
Bergamo copy in the collection of Lord Dudley, in London. 
Kenner mentions a bust portrait, turned slightly to the left, 
in the collection of Ferdinand von Tirol (No. 385) inscribed 
on the back: ALEXANDER MEDICI FLORENTIE 
(SCIL DUX) ; cf. Jahrbuch d. kunsthis. Samml. d. Allerhoch. 
Kaiserhauses, XVIII (1897), 153. The medal of the Duke 
ascribed to Domenico di Polo in the Lanna Collection is 
derived from Vasari's portrait of Alessandro, now in the 
Uffizi or from a similar lost portrait. Cf . also Vasari, V, 384. 

172 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Four medals of the Duke by Cellini are known and two others 
have been ascribed to him. We also have three with the mark 
$ which Fabriczy attributes to Domenico di Polo; one by an 
unknown artist of the second quarter of the sixteenth century ; 
one by Francesco da San Gallo bearing the date MDLXX ; one 
from the end of the century bearing on the reverse a rhinoceros, 
which Cicognara thought to be the work of Francesco dal 
Prato. These last are, of course, of no iconographical signi- 
ficance. Francesco dal Prato 's ' * medaglia ' ' was really a circular 
bas-relief that with others was part of the ornamentation of 
the Fortezza da Basso, in Florence (Vasari, VII, 43). Cf. 
Catalogue de la collection Spitzer, Paris, 1893, p. 233 ; Armand, 
Medailleurs italiens, 2 e ed., I, 141, 147, 151, 157; II, 150, 151; 
Litta, Famiglie italiane, No. 17; Catalogue von Lanna, p. 13, 
15, 153, 154. 

Condition: recently restored; several vertical furrows have formed 
where the panel has shrunk but the paint has not been seriously broken, 
although cracked here and there. 

Date: 1534-1535. 

Document: A. S. F., Carteggio mediceo del Principato, filza 567, c. 187 
and 225. 

Reprod. Fig. 124. Battista Franco made a copy of this portrait which 
has been lost (VI, 575) ; fig., Johnson Catalogue, p. 283; fig., Eassegna d'arte, 
article cited below. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 278, 575; VII, 657; Gualandi, Nuova raccolta di 
letter e f III (1856), 62 f.; Carnasecchi, Rivista d'arte, V (1909), No. 1; 
F. M. Clapp, Rassegna d'arte, XIII (1913), 63-66; Frizzoni, La Galleria 
Morelli in Bergamo, Bergamo, 1892, p. 19; Archivio storico, V (1893), 222; 
Johnson Catalogue, p. 45. 



POGGIO A CAJANO 

The Great Hall in the Royal Villa 

LUNETTE: VERTUMNUS AND POMONA 

The composition is pierced in the centre by a bull's-eye window and the 
figures are arranged on two parapets. 

Right half of the lunette, lower parapet : to the left, a woman reclining 
from right to left, her back turned; her complexion is pale; she wears a 
light blue head-dress, a grey-violet dress, a red drapery across her arms, 

173 



PONTORMO 

her white under-sleeves rolled up at the elbows. To the right, a woman 
reclining from right to left facing; she has an olive complexion and light 
brown hair in which a violet bow and she wears an olive-green dress with 
white scarf and violet sleeves; her left elbow rests on an orange drapery. 
Right half of the lunette, upper parapet : to the left, a nude child with blond 
hair seated facing, his right foot on the parapet, his left leg hanging down; 
he holds up, by a light blue ribbon, the great garland of green leaves and 
golden fruit which passes under the bull's-eye and of which the other end 
is held up by the nude boy, on the same parapet, on the other side of the 
lunette. To the extreme right, on the upper parapet, a woman seated astride 
of the wall, her right arm extended downward at her side, her hand upon 
the parapet, her left arm raised, her hand grasping a laurel branch; she is 
fair and wears a red dress with light blue sleeves, a white kerchief and white 
head-dress. 

Left half of the lunette, lower parapet: a youth seated facing on an 
orange drapery, his legs extended to the right; he supports himself on his 
right hand, his left hand grasping the handle of a basket; he is dressed in 
a light mauve tunic with white under-sleeves and green leggings ; at his waist 
a grey wallet; to his left, a light orange-coloured dog. To the extreme left, 
an old peasant seated nearly full face, his legs drawn up in front of him, 
his left hand on his right knee, his right hand on a basket which is placed 
to his right; he is dark complexioned and wears a yellow jacket and white 
under-shirt that falls between his knees. Left half of the lunette, upper 
parapet: a nude blond boy turned slightly to the left and seated astride of 
the parapet; his right hand rests on the top of the wall beside him, his left, 
extended downward, holds the pale blue ribbon of the garland that passes 
under the bull's-eye. To the left, a nude youth seated on the parapet against 
a green bush; his legs are spread apart and his body bent back to the left; 
his right elbow rests on top of the wall beside him, his left hand is raised 
to a laurel branch above his head ; he has brown curly hair ; under him there 
is a violet drapery, one end of which he holds up in his left hand. At the 
top of the bull's-eye to right and left, a "putto" seated on laurel branches 
that spring from the upper circumference of the window. The "putto," to 
the left, holds an ensign on which, letters now illegible; the "putto," to the 
right, holds a standard on which : I V P P. On a decorative cartouche 
over the centre of the bull's-eye: STVDIV) QVIBVS ARVA| TVERI; on 
a round cartouche under the bull's-eye: GLO|V:S; on the lower parapet to 
the extreme left : I F P The parapets are yellow-grey ; the background, 
dim mountains and clouds seen through a pale blue-violet summer haze. 

Fresco. Lunette, h. 4.61, w. 9.90. The bull's-eye with its decorative 
frame is 3.20 in diameter. p 

Pontormo's masterpiece in mural painting. The decora- 
tion of the Great Hall was undertaken at the instance of Leo X 
in memory of his father, Lorenzo. Paolo Giovio, who in 1519- 
1521 was in Florence in the train of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, 
selected the subjects to be treated (V, 195). He evidently 
suggested to Jacopo the somewhat unusual one of Vertumnus 

174 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

and Pomona. Earlier representations of the myth do exist in 
Italian art as, for example, in the "Hypnerotomachia Poli- 
phili" of Frate Francesco Colonna, written in "italiano 
maccheronico" in 1467 and printed in Venice, "decembri MID 
aedibus," by Manutius with woodcuts ascribed to Giovanni 
Bellini and Sandro Botticelli, in which the deities are repre- 
sented in triumphal cars. The story is found in Ovid (Met. B. 
14, 623-697) and no divinity more fitting than Pomona "qua 
nulla Latinas, Inter Hamadryadas coluit sollertius hortos" 
could have been chosen to preside over a villa and its gardens. 
It will be noticed that, in certain details, Pontormo follows 
Ovid closely. In the fresco there is a wall that separates her 
garden from the world "pomaria claudit intus." And 
Vertumnus, who went through a thousand changes to win 
Pomona, is represented here as a reaper and has a basket at 
his side : 

1 l quoties habitu duri messoris aristas 
Corbe tulit, verique fuit messoris imago !" 

In Pontormo 's work the types and costumes are, of course, 
unaffected by any mere archeological accuracy. He followed 
his fancy with a free hand. 

Ottaviano de' Medici was appointed superintendent of 
the work at Poggio, and Andrea di Cosimo and Franciabigio 
decorated and gilded the ceiling (V, 195). The latter painted 
on one of the side-walls "The Triumph of Cicero," and Andrea 
del Sarto painted on the other "Ca3sar Receiving Tribute" 
(V, 36), which was finished by Alessandro Allori in 1580. To 
Pontormo was assigned the decoration of the end-walls, the 
upper parts of which are in the form of lunettes. He began 
with the lunette of the interior wall. Just after it was finished 
Leo X died and the work was suspended. Crowe and Caval- 
caselle expressed the quite amazing opinion that both Andrea's 
and Franciabigio 's work at Poggio is far above Pontormo 's. 

After the siege of the city Clement VII wished to complete 
the decoration of the Hall and gave Pontormo a commission 
for the entire undertaking (VI, 275 f.). But Jacopo never got 

175 



PONTOEMO 

beyond preparing his cartoons, which later passed in part 
into the possession of Lodovico Capponi. These represented 
' 'Hercules and Anteus," "Venus and Adonis," and "Nudes 
Playing at Calcio." A large drawing (completely ruined) for 
the latter cartoon is now in the Uffizi (No. 13861). The 
decoration of the Hall was finally finished by Alessandro Allori 
to whom in great part its present appearance is due. 

Condition: Although thoroughly cleaned and restored by Alessandro 
Allori, and retouched on several later occasions, it is comparatively uninjured. 
Allori speaks of his restoration in his "Ricordi" (Supino, Biblioteca delta 
rivista d'arte, Firenze, 1908, pp. 28 f.) : "1582. Ricordo questo di 18 di 
settembre come e restata finita la sala del Palazzo del Poggio a Caiano detto 
il Salone, luogo di S. A. S. doue ho lavorato piu mesi in diuersi tempi auendo 
rif atto molte braccia e lauato e netto tutto quello che ui era f atto sino a tempo 
di papa Leone X; e ui lauoro Andrea del Sarto, Jacopo da Puntormo, e 
Francesco Bigio ; ... La pittura che f ece m Jacopo da Puntormo fu uno 
arco sopra la porta e finestre che guardano verso Firenze, il quale ho rinetto 
e lauato e rif atto 1' aria." 

Date: 1519-1521. 

Drawings: possible first thoughts for the whole composition, Uffizi 454 
(fig. 73; photo. Pini; Alinari; B. F. D., pi. CLXX; fig., Vita d'arte, 57, 
p. 5; Goldschmidt, op. cit.) ; Uffizi 455 (fig. 74; photo. F. M. C.) ; first ideas 
for the same, Uffizi 6660 verso (fig. 53; photo. Houghton; fig., Vita d'arte, 57, 
p. 6) ; Uffizi 6742 verso (photo. F. M. C.). 

For individual figures; right half of the lunette, lower parapet: first 
idea for the woman to the left, Uffizi 6557 (fig. 54 ; photo. Houghton ; F. M. C. ; 
D. G. U., pi. IX) ; finished study for the same, Uffizi 6673 recto (fig. 55 ; 
photo. Houghton) ; for the woman to the right, sketches for the whole figure, 
Uffizi 6515 verso (fig. 57; photo. F. M. C.) ; Uffizi 6514 (fig. 56; photo. 
Houghton; F. M. C.) ; Uffizi 6544 (fig. 59; photo. Houghton); Uffizi 6555 
(fig. 60; photo. Houghton) ; finished study, Uffizi 6673 verso (fig. 58; photo. 
F. M. C.) ; first ideas for the boy to the left, upper parapet, Uffizi 6512; 
Uffizi 6646 (fig. 65 ; photo. Houghton) ; Uffizi 6669 recto and verso (figs. 67 
and 68; photo. Houghton; F. M. C.) ; Uffizi 8976 recto (fig. Vita d'arte, 57, 
pi. II) ; 8976 verso (idem, pi. VIII) ; first ideas for the woman to the right, 
upper parapet, Corsini 124243 verso (photo. F. M. C.) ; Uffizi 6557 (photo. 
Houghton ; F. M. C. ; D. G. U., pi. IX) ; first thought for the head and shoulders 
of the same, Uffizi 6632 (photo. Houghton; Pini; D. G. U., pi. II) ; possible 
first idea for the drapery of the same, Uffizi 6667 verso ; first thought for the 
drapery, Uffizi 6437 recto and verso; study for the folds of the drapery, 
Uffizi 6519 verso; finished study for the drapery, Uffizi 6530 (photo. Hough- 
ton) ; sketch for the right leg, Uffizi 6728 verso; first thought for the whole 
figure, Uffizi 6662 verso (fig. 62; photo. F. M. C.) ; finished study for the 
upper part of the figure, Uffizi 6531 (fig. 63; photo. Houghton); finished 
study for the head, Uffizi 6547 (fig. 64; photo. F. M. C.) ; first ideas for the 
"putto" to the right above the bull's-eye, Corsini 124240 (photo. F. M. C.) ; 

176 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Uffizi 6660 (photo. Houghton; F. M. C.; fig., Vita d'arte, 57, p. 9) ; jotting 
for the head of same, Uffizi 6728 verso. 

Left half of the lunette, lower parapet : study for the arm of the youth 
to the right, Uffizi 6559 recto (fig. 70; photo. F. M. C.) ; possible first thoughts 
for the peasant (Vertumnus) to the left, Uffizi 6515 (photo. Houghton; 
F. M. C.) ; Uffizi 6599 (photo. Houghton) ; Uffizi 6685 recto (fig. 71 ; photo. 
Houghton) ; Uffizi 6685 verso; first thoughts for the same, Uffizi 6530 verso 
(photo. F. M. C.) ; Uffizi 6590 (photo. Houghton) ; finished study for the 
head, Uffizi 6579 (fig. 72 ; photo. Houghton) ; finished study for the boy to 
the right, upper parapet, Uffizi 6651 (fig. 69 ; photo. Houghton) ; possible 
first thoughts for the youth to the left, upper parapet, Uffizi 6632 (photo. 
Houghton; Pini; D. G. U., pi. II) ; Uffizi 6634 (photo. Pini) ; first idea for 
the "putto" to the left over the bull's-eye, Uffizi 6660 (photo. Houghton; 
F. M. C. ; fig., Vita d'arte, 57, p. 9) ; sketches for the same, Uffizi 6511 and 
6559 verso; study for the same, Uffizi 6661 (fig. 66; photo. Houghton). 

Reprod. Fig. 50 ; fig. 51, right half of the lunette ; fig. 52, left half of 
the lunette; photo. Perazzi; Alinari 29442, 29443, 29444; fig., Vita d'arte, 57. 

Bibl. Vasari, V, 36, 195 ; VI, 265 ; Borghini, II Biposo, ed. 1730, p. 393 ; 
Allegrini, Pitture, Firenze, 1751 ; B. F. D., I, 310-312, 314, n., 316, 317 ; II, 
138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 153 ; B. F. P. R., p. 
175 ; Alessandro Allori, Ricordi, 28 f . ; Dessins, 20, 34, 39, 55, 56, 68, 98, 99, 100, 
101, 114, 118, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 128, 131, 135, 136, 138, 141, 142, 144, 
146, 147, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 165, 171, 173, 175, 176, 177, 180, 181, 185, 
186, 195, 196, 197, 203, 206, 207, 212, 213, 214, 215, 218, 220, 221, 224, 227, 
232, 233, 236, 261, 262, 264, 270, 271, 272, 273, 278, 282, 283, 292, 307, 328, 
329 ; On Certain Drawings, 8 f ., 20 f . ; Jacobsen, Repertorium, XXI, 282 ; Di 
Pietro, Due disegni di Jacopo da Pontormo, Vita d'arte, 57, 1912; D. G. U., 
p. 2. 



PONTORMO 

San Michele 



ST. MICHAEL 



Full-length; turned three-quarters right; head three-quarters left; the 
eyes look at the spectator; weight on left leg, the right leg bent, the foot 
resting on the shoulder of a "putto" seated on the ground. In the saint's 
left hand, a pair of balances ; in his raised right hand, a broad sword ; behind 
him one dimly sees his great grey-white wings. He wears a greenish silvery 
cuirass, cubitiere, grey purplish chausses, orange-yellow greaves, and a purplish 
grey drapery which passes over the left shoulder and across the waist; his 
white tunic puffed at the shoulder is visible on the right arm. He has dark 
brown, curly hair. The "putto" seated between his feet is turned three- 
quarters right ; his right arm extended at his side, his left hand extended up 
and to the right holding a globe; his right leg bent, his left extended right; 
his head inclined on his left shoulder, the eyes looking up. Dark background. 

Oil on wood covered with a thin layer of "gesso." H. 1.80, w. (at 
bottom) .55; (at top) .70. 

177 



PONTORMO 

Mentioned by Vasari (VI, 259). This panel which 
occupies the space to the right of the shrine is a pendant to 
the following which occupies the space to the left. Originally 
on the altar of the Madonna. 

Condition: darkened and chipped here and there but practically 
unharmed. The panel was cut in the seventeenth century to fit the gilded 
frame of the altar-shrine. This reduction of the picture sacrificed part of the 
scales, the left forearm, part of the left wing, right forearm and hand of 
St. Michael as well as the back of the "putto." 

Date: 1518-1519. 

Drawings: finished study for the legs of the saint, Uffizi 6506 (fig. 40; 
photo. Pini; Houghton; Perazzi; F. M. C. ; fig., Rivista d'arte, III, 149); 
the right foot is studied again on the same sheet; the hands of the saint are 
sketched on Uffizi 6571 (fig. 37; photo. F. M. C.) for which, see the following. 

Documents: The earliest books of this parish that now remain in the 
church date from 1664; the earliest in the Florentine Archives, from 1533. 
The church belonged to Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri di Pisa. Perhaps among 
the records of the latter church, some of which are in the Archives of Pisa, 
documentary evidence about this picture might be found. 

Reprod. Fig. 36; photo. Perazzi; fig., article cited below. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 259; Odoardo H. Giglioli, II San Giovanni Evange- 
lista ed il San Michele dipinti da Pontormo per la chiesa di San Michele a 
Pontormo presso Empoli, Rivista d'arte, III, 146; B. F. D., I, 314; II, 141; 
B. F. P. R., p. 176 ; Dessins, pp. 11, 34, 39, 47, 68, 118, 161. 

ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST 

Full-length ; nearly profile right ; the head nearly full face and inclined 
on the right shoulder ; the eyes gaze up and left ; weight on right leg, the left 
crossed over the right, the toes only of the foot resting on the ground; the 
right arm bent and raised to a large tablet on which he writes with a quill. 
He is bald and wears a long white beard. He is dressed in a tunic and 
voluminous dark green mantle gathered in great folds about the hips; the 
lining of this mantle is red; a white tunic shows at the wrists. Background, 
grey-green. 

Oil on wood covered with a thin layer of "gesso." H. 1.80, w. (at 
bottom) .55, (at top) .70. 

Mentioned by Vasari; pendant to the preceding. Origi- 
nally on the altar of the Madonna. 

Condition: chipped here and there along the edges and on the robe 
and feet; darkened with varnish and smoke. The panel has been cut down 
to fit the space to the left of a seventeenth century carved and gilded frame 
of the altar-shrine ; part of the tablet, right hand and left side of the figure 
were sacrificed on that occasion. 

178 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

Date : 1518-1519. 

Drawing : finished study for the whole figure, Uffizi 6571 (fig. 37 ; photo. 
F. M. C.; fig., Rivista d'arte, III, 148; D. G. U., pi. I). On the same sheet 
one finds a study that Berenson believes to be for the left hand of our St. 
John. It is, however, for the left hand of St. Michael ; ef . the preceding. 

Documents : see the preceding. 

Reprod. Pig. 35 ; photo. Perazzi ; fig., article cited above. 

Bibl. See above and B. F. D., II, 144; D. G. U., p. 1; Dessins, pp. 
11, 34, 39, 47, 68, 107, 161. 



ROME 

Galleria Borghese 

75. LUCRETIA 

Bust figure, the shoulders almost full face, the head turned three- 
quarters right. She has an olive complexion, dark auburn hair with golden 
lights, almost black eyes, lips delicately tinted. A dull green drapery is 
thrown over her left shoulder. She wears an elaborate head-dress of gilded 
bronze with golden lights. On the left side of this ornament one can trace 
a pattern of black enamel or inlaid steel; at the top two "putti" support a 
medallion on which is a little pyramid. In her left hand she holds upright a 
damascened dagger with a bronze handle and a steel blade. The background 
is greenish black. In the lower right corner, the inventory number 420. 

Oil on slate. H. .56, w. .43. 

From the original Borghese Collection. Ascribed to 
Bronzino in the catalogue and by Morelli, Schulze and 
-Lafenestre. Berenson gives it tentatively to Pontormo, 
although there seems to be no reason to question its authen- 
ticity. It should be compared with Bronzino 's " Cleopatra" 
that hangs in the same collection a picture which seems to 
have been suggested by a drawing of Michelangelo's, now in 
Casa Buonarotti (BB. 1655; Thode, Krit. Unters., II, 342) and 
in which the influence of Pontormo is hardly discernible. 

Condition: damaged here and there; on the hand some of the "impasto" 
has fallen. 

Date : 1529-1530. 

Reprod. Fig. 119 ; photo. Moseioni ; Brogi 15881 (as Bronzino) ; Gowan's 
Art Books, Masterpieces of Bronzino, No. 18. 

Bibl. Lafenestre, Rome, p. 14; Venturi, Galleria Borghese, 1893; 
Morelli, op. cit., p. 130 ; B. F. P. R., p. 176. 

179 



PONTORMO 

408. PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL SPANNOCCHI CERVINI 

Three-quarter length. He is seated in a Dante chair and is turned 
three-quarters left; he has curly dark brown hair and beard and is growing 
bald ; he wears a scarlet watered silk robe and cape, his purple cassock showing 
at neck and wrists, embroidered white sleeves and white collar; on his head 
a scarlet biretta. In front of him, a table covered with a carpet of black and 
yellow arabesques on a red ground and bordered with a black and white 
pattern picked out in yellow, red, and green; in his hands, resting on the 
table before him, he holds a book on which is inscribed at the top of the page 
and half hidden by his thumb: JP| ...MO; farther down the page one 
perceives a large K and VNA . . . M, but the rest is illegible. On the upper 
part of the opposite page one reads: MARIO ( ?). To the right of the book 
a silver bell with figures a Charity and a Pelican in relief and a red 
woven handle ending in three tassels. Behind the sitter, to the left, the wall 
of the room is made up of small black panels, framed in light wood, with a 
small pattern in "tarsia" or in Spanish stamped leather on which is repeated 
three times the arms of the Spannocchi of Siena and of the Cervini. Above 
these panels, the grey-green stone cornice of the room. On the right in the 
background, a Renaissance cupboard with pediment, ionic pilasters surmounted 
by masques, four drawers and two doors. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.03, w. .84. 

Provenance unknown; not mentioned by Vasari; long 
ascribed to Raphael. Morelli was the first to notice that this 
portrait is clearly a Pontormo, although strangely enough he 
compared it with the unauthentic full-length portraits of Cosimo 
Vecchio and Cosimo I (once Uffizi 1267 and 1270, and really 
by Vasari), which are now in the Palazzo Vecchio. The pose 
he thought was inspired by Raphael's " Portrait of Leo X," 
now in the Pitti. We might note in passing that the red of 
the robe and the table-cloth is characteristic of our master. 
Venturi identified the personage represented by determining 
the ownership of the arms on the wall to the left. The only 
cardinal between 1480 and 1550 who had a right to the arms 
of the Spannocchi and Cervini families was Marcello Cervini 
degli Spannocchi afterwards Pope Marcellus. He was born at 
Montepulciano in 1501 and educated in Casa Spannocchi. He 
went to Rome in 1523 and in 1539 he accompanied Alessandro 
Farnese on a diplomatic mission to France and the Low 
Countries. On his return to Rome he was made cardinal. He 
administered the dioceses of Nicastro, Reggio, and Gubbio, and 
in 1545 he was made one of the presidents of the Council of 

180 



AUTHENTIC PICTUBES 

Trent a position that he seems to have held until 1547. He 
was elected pope on April 9, 1555. This portrait was probably 
painted in Rome between 1540, when Cervini returned from his 
diplomatic missions, and 1545 when he left Rome for Trent. 
That Pontormo was in Rome during these years we know from 
various drawings of Roman antiquities which bear his hand- 
writing and are now in the Louvre. The realism of the back- 
ground indicates the interior of a Spannocchi or a Cervini 
palace. Yenturi correctly places this panel about 1540. He 
notes that Passavant, recalling La descrizione di Roma moderna, 
1727, p. 497, thought it to be a portrait of a Cardinal Borgia, 
although he was in doubt whether it represented Pietro 
Ludovico, cardinal of Santa Maria in Via Lata, or Francesco 
Borgia. Both were created cardinals in 1500 by Alessandro VI. 
But the technique of the portrait makes Passavant 's supposition 
quite untenable, since the former died in 1512 and the latter 
in 1511. Moreover, the church did not allow its functionaries 
to wear beards until 1527. Passavant drew attention to the 
Turkish carpet which covers the table, finding it similar to the 
table-cover that one sees in Raphael's " Portrait of Inghirami." 
This carpet has also been more recently identified, and not too 
convincingly, with a Turkish rug in the collection of von Tucker, 
once Bavarian minister to the Quirinal. Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
felt that the head and hands recall Raphael, but they found that 
the colouring, especially the red, was not his. They gave the 
picture to Pierin del Vaga. 

Condition : retouched here and there. 
Date : 1540-1545. 

Reprod. Fig. 130; photo. Anderson; Alinari 7990; Braun 43018; fig., 
Klassicher Bilderschatz, No. 976; Lafenestre, Rome, p. 44; Rusconi, La Villa, 
il Museo e la Galleria Borghese, p. 118 ; Die Galerien Europas, I, No. 88 (in 
colour) ; Tappeti de' dipinti dei secoli XV e XVI, L'Arte, IV (1901), 
Appendix 3, p. 3, fig. 3 ; Kunstgeschichte in Bildern, III, 94, 4 ; small woodcut, 
Reinach, Reper., I, 661. 

Bibl. Morelli, op. cit., pp. 128-130; Venturi, catalogue cited above; 
Miintz, Renaissance, III, p. 499, Passavant, Raphael, II, 350; Lafenestre, 
Rome, p. 45; Frizzoni, Giovanni Morelli e la critica moderna, Arch. stor. 
d'arte, 1897, p. 87; Rusconi, op. cit.. B. F. P. R., p. 176. For Marcellus, see 
Polydorus, De vita, gestis et moribus Marcelli II Papae, Rome, 1744. 

181 



PONTORMO 



Galleria Corsini 

577. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Bust figure; shoulders turned slightly left, head three-quarters right. 
He has a pale complexion and dark eyes, scant brown beard and darker hair ; 
he wears a black coat with a soft linen collar embroidered in yellow. The 
background, dark olive-grey across the upper left corner of which the folds 
of a curtain sweep. 

Oil on wood. H. .63, w. .46. 

From the original Corsini Collection. The identity of the 
sitter has not been determined. Ascribed in the catalogue to 
the "Scuola del Pontormo." It is, however, by the master 
himself, though in its present ruined state it is the feeblest of 
the authentic portraits. 

Condition: disastrously cleaned and completely restored; numerous 
small vertical cracks. 

Reprod. Photo. Moscioni 21533. 



Palazzo Barberini 

83. PYGMALION AND GALATEA 

To the left Galatea stands on a block of stone; she is turned three- 
quarters right, her right hand raised to her shoulder, her left holding up the 
deep pink drapery that hangs from her hips ; her hair is dark ; she looks at 
the spectator. On the right Pygmalion kneels profile left, his hands raised 
and clasped before him; his hair is dark; he looks in adoration at Galatea. 
He wears a blue jerkin, a yellow scarf round his hips, dark pink hose, dark 
stockings and shoes. On the brown ground beside him lie hammer and 
sculptor's tools. In the centre of the picture, a three-sided altar of greyish 
purple stone which bears the inscription: NIHILV) VT| VEN|VS, and on 
which a grey bull is sacrificed. The altar is ornamented on the right side 
with a scroll supported by two hermae as caryatids, on the left side by two 
larger gaines, the nearer of which represents Venus holding an apple, the 
farther, Paris who gazes at her, his arm resting on her shoulders. On the 
right of the altar, an urn of "rosso antico" ornamented with lions' heads. To 
the left of Galatea, a stool on which sculptor's tools. The background is a 
hilly landscape with, on the left, a winding river, two small figures and a 
house, on the right, a small bare tree; the general tone of the distance is 
greenish brown. The sky is green, the horizon red. Red flames and grey 

182 



DESIGNS FOR TAPESTEIES 

smoke rise from the altar. On the lower left side of the panel : F. 16. On the 
back, an illegible note in ink. 

Oil on wood. H. .79, w. .62. 

Mentioned by Vasari as painted by Bronzino and as once 
forming the cover of the portrait, now lost, that Pontormo 
painted of Francesco GKiardi during the siege of Florence. 
Only the altar and certain accessories suggest the hand of 
Bronzino. Vasari, to whom the latter probably told the story 
of the painting of this panel, misinterpreted Bronzino 's part 
in it and gave him credit for the whole composition, the greater 
part of which is indubitably by Pontormo. The picture 
belonged to the original Barberini Collection, as is shown by 
the mark F. 16, and was long ascribed to Baldassare Peruzzi. 
Morelli was the first to recognize here the hand of Jacopo; 
Berenson follows Morelli 's attribution. Goldschmidt, who 
incorrectly gives the number as 16, repeats Vasari 's error in 
ascribing the whole composition to Bronzino. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date : 1530-1531. 

Reprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 275 ; Laf enestre, Rome, p. 150 ; Morelli, Borghese and 
Doria Pamfili Galleries, 1900, p. 30 ; Goldschmidt, op. cit., p. 55 ; B. F. P. R., 
p. 176 ; Dessins, pp. 35, 71, 118, 340. 



Palazzo Quirinale 

TAPESTRY: LAMENTATION OF JACOB 

In the foreground, Jacob dressed in a loose tunic kneels three-quarters 
right, his shoulders turned three-quarters left, his head profile left, his hands 
clasped before his face. Behind him a figure in a tunic that falls from the 
shoulders stands full face, his head profile left, his right arm extended down- 
ward at his side, and displays the bloody cloth; his raised left hand points 
to the right. To the left and above, a woman's figure, full face, her head 
profile left ; she is dressed in a dark robe and wears a scarf on her hair ; with 
her two hands extended on either side she holds up the bloody cloth. In 
the background, a hillock over which the heads of various spectators are 
visible. To the right, a tree; in the middle ground, above and to the left, a 
smaller tree ; in the extreme foreground, various plants. The border consists, 
at the top, of fruit, with masks at either upper corner ; on either side, bunches 

183 



PONTORMO 

of fruit and leaves with two "putti" who gather them, seated astride of 
terms; below these, masks and flowers; along the bottom of the border, a 
garland of fruit. 

Designed by Pontormo and woven by Giovanni Rost; 
mentioned by Vasari (VI, 283) who states that the composition 
pleased neither the Grand Duke nor the Flemish weavers. 
Vasari states elsewhere (VII, 599) that the commission for the 
first designs for the tapestries which were to adorn the Sala 
de' Dugento was given to Pontormo. This statement is denied 
by Conti (Ricerche storiche) who thinks that Bronzino began 
work on designs for the weavers in 1545, Salviati in 1547, 
Pontormo in 1548, and Bacchiacca in the same year. Geisen- 
heimer (Bollettino d'arte, II (1909), 137-147), quoting a letter 
of the Maggiordomo to Cristiano Pagni (Cart. Med. 375, p. 58; 
December 18, 1545; Milanesi, Spoglie dell' archivio mediceo, 
p. 94) that accompanied what he believes to have been the first 
tapestry, woven according to the communication in question 
from a design of Bronzino 's, places the completion of the first 
tapestry of the series about October 20, 1546, which is the date 
of the first definite contract between the ducal government and 
Rost and Kracher, the weavers (A. S. P., Rogati di Ser Giov. 
Batt. Giordani, G 299, 127 t., 132 r.). Irrefutable evidence, 
nevertheless, exists that Rost began work somewhat earlier 
than has been generally supposed. In the books of the 
Guardaroba (Debitori e Creditori, No. 10, 1544-1553) under the 
date of September 11, 1545, we read : "M Janni reost fiamigho 
tappeziere A 642"; and a little farther on we find another entry 
of the same 642 ducats. Moreover, there is in the contract made 
with the weavers in October, 1546, a reference, afterwards 
cancelled, to two tapestries then on the looms and almost 
finished. These were delivered in August and September, 1547, 
and the subjects represented show that they were not woven 
from cartoons by Pontormo. The documents make it clear that 
both Bronzino and Salviati were in the employ of the Medici 
in 1544 and 1545 (Guardaroba, No. 10, pp. 10, 29, 29 v., 33, 35, 37, 
60, 65), although it is important to remember that, at that 
moment, Salviati was at work on the "sala della cappella del 

184 



DESIGNS FOR TAPESTRIES 

palagio ducale." If Bronzino furnished the first cartoons for 
the projected series of tapestries he did so before going to Rome, 
for a letter of his to Cosimo, dated April 30, 1548 (Filza 273; 
Gaye, II, 368), makes it evident that he did not earnestly turn 
his attention to designing the remainder of the tapestries 
included in his commission until after that date. On May 15 
he wrote to the Grand Duke another letter which leads one to 
believe that he had been paid in part for his cartoons before 
he left Florence. All things considered, I am inclined to think 
that Vasari's story (VI, 283 f.; VII, 28, 599), in regard to the 
sequence of the various cartoons, is fairly consistent. It is, 
in all likelihood, more trustworthy than some of the "elenchi," 
especially those that date from the administration of Tanay de' 
Medici which only began in 1555. The present subject does 
not appear in the first lists of tapestries delivered, but I am 
led to conjecture from the marked similarity of Pontormo's 
and Bronzino 's earliest designs for the weavers that Pontormo's 
cartoons dated from the very beginning of the enterprise, 
although they were not woven until after several of Bronzino 's 
had been carried to completion on the looms. This tapestry 
with a number of others belonging to the same series was sent 
to Rome from Palazzo Pitti in 1887. The composition is in part 
made up of motives derived from Michelangelo's Doni "Holy 
Family," Pontormo's own "Adoration of the Magi," now in 
~the Pitti, his "Deposition" of the Capponi Chapel, and his 
design for the "Death of Abel" of the choir of San Lorenzo 
which is now known to us only in his preparatory study 
(Uffizi6739). 

Date of cartoon : 1545-1546. 

Documents : A. S. F., Guardaroba F. 15, pp. 91 t., 94 t. See also above. 

Reprod. Fig., Bollettino d'arte, III (1909), 140; Keuller, op. cit. infra, 
pi. XXVI. 

Bibl. Vasari, see above; Geisenheimer, article quoted above; Conti, 
Ricerche storiche sull' arte degli arazzi a Firenze, Firenze, 1875, pp. 48, 97, 
99 f. ; idem, Prima reggia, Firenze, 1893, pp. 94, 206 ; Miintz, Collections des 
Medicis; idem, Histoire generale de la tapisserie, p. 63 ; Gaye, loc. cit.; Lensi, 
Palazzo Vecchio, Firenze, 1911, p. 129; Rigoni, Catalogo della R. Galleria 
d' Arazzi, Firenze, 1884, pp. IX, 74 f. ; Keuller, Tapisseries historiees a 
I' exposition nationale beige de 1880. 

185 



PONTOKMO 

TAPESTRY: JOSEPH AND POTIPHAR'S WIFE 

In the foreground right Potiphar's wife stands draped in a light tunic 
and a large mantle, her left arm extended at her side, her right hand grasping 
the folds of Joseph's mantle; her head is turned three-quarters left, a tress 
hangs over her right shoulder and crosses her breast. To the left stands 
Joseph, nearly full face, wrapped in a voluminous mantle. Behind Potiphar's 
wife, the head and shoulders, turned three-quarters left, of a negress. Behind 
Joseph, the upper part of the face of a servant. In the background, the canopy 
of a bed, hung from a Renaissance ceiling, behind which to the right the head 
and shoulders of a servant are visible. The border corresponds to that of the 
preceding with certain modifications; at the bottom the garland is made up 
of different kinds of fruit. 

Mentioned by Vasari; woven by Karcher. First cited in 
the list of July 15, 1549, again on August 3, 1549, and again 
on October 27, 1553 (A. S. F., Guardaroba, No. 27) : "Nota de 
tutte 1'arrazzerie condotte in guardaroba di S. ec a da m ro 
Niccholas carchra dal di che comincio di lauorare per S. Ec a 
sino adesso. n 6. U panno della fuga di iosef dalla donna di 
phutifar." Of. the remarks on the preceding. 

Date of the cartoon : 1545-1546. 

Reprod. Fig. 136; fig., article in the Bollettino d'arte cited above. 

Bibl. See above. 



TAPESTRY: BENJAMIN AT THE COURT OF PHARAOH 

In the centre Joseph seated on a dais and turned three-quarters left, 
his head full face, his left arm extended to the right. Before him and to the 
left, Benjamin seen nearly full face, his right leg bent, his arms raised to 
the left above his head, his right hand held by the right hand of Joseph. In 
the foreground right Judah kneels seen from behind, his arms lifted in sup- 
plication. To the right of Joseph, a servant seen from behind who looks 
down and to the right. To the left of Joseph, a servant seen full face, his 
head profile right, his left arm reached out to the cup of Benjamin which 
is held by another servant who occupies the upper part of the composition 
and who is turned profile right, her head full face. The background is the 
wall of a room in a palace. The border is practically identical with that of 
the preceding. 

Vasari mentions (VI, 284; VII, 599) only two cartoons 
for tapestries furnished by Pontormo. But in the list of the 
seven tapestries which had been delivered up to July 15, 1549 
(Guardaroba, F. 15, pp. 91 v. and 94 v.) another tapestry of the 
same dimensions as the present composition is mentioned and 

186 



DESIGNS FOR TAPESTRIES 

given to Pontormo: "Panno simile disegno di Pont'olmo 
detto la coppa di Josef lungo 8. L. 4. " This might well be 
our tapestry which displays, even to the minutest details, all 
the characteristics of the other two tapestries woven from 
cartoons by Jacopo and none of the qualities exhibited by those 
known to have been woven from designs by Bronzino, such as 
the " Family of Jacob in Egypt" (Quirinal) or those still 
preserved in the Palazzo Vecchio. We must, however, note that 
the list mentioned above speaks of a "Cattura di Beniamino" 
a title that fits the present design even better than "Coppa di 
Josef." But this second tapestry is ascribed to Bronzino, and 
I am inclined to believe that the entry in question really refers 
to Bronzino 's "Cattura di Simeone." In any case, the present 
subject might easily have been described by a careless clerk as 
a "Coppa di Josef" and the cartoon of our tapestry, if not 
actually by Jacopo, was directly inspired by him. Of this we 
have abundant proof in a drawing (Uffizi 6593), for the figure 
(reversed) to the extreme right, which is undoubtedly a Pon- 
tormo (Dessins, pp. 172 f.). There is, of course, another 
explanation that might be advanced: the preparation of the 
numerous cartoons included in the commission given to Bronzino 
was a great burden and his letters show that he was compelled 
to hand over the manual part of it to Raffaello da Colle (VII, 
599). May it not be possible that the subject of this tapestry 
was among those assigned to Bronzino, but that he utilized for 
it drawings already made by Jacopo before the dissatisfaction 
of the Duke and the weavers caused the latter to forego further 
participation in this enterprise ? 

Date : 1546-1553. 

Drawing : for the figure seen from behind to the extreme right (reversed), 
Uffizi 6593 (fig. 135; photo. F. M. C.). 

Documents. See above and the preceding two numbers. 

Eeprod. Fig. 134 ; fig., article cited above. 

Bibl. See above and the preceding; also Dessins, pp. 35, 74, 172, 173. 



187 



PONTORMO 

VIENNA : 

Belvedere 

48. PORTRAIT OF AN OLD LADY 

Three-quarter length; turned slightly left; seated in a chair the arms 
of which are carved. She holds in her left hand a book, the index-finger 
between the leaves ; her right hand rests on the arm of the chair. She wears 
a dark fur-lined dress with fur collar open at the throat between the lapels 
of which a white chemisette, also open at the throat, is visible; on head and 
brow, a transparent veil. Dark background, in the upper right corner of 
which the inscription : AN AET LXXIL 

Oil on poplar wood. H. 1.09, w. .92. 

Provenance unknown; first mentioned in Rosa's catalogue 
of 1804 (III, 13, No. 15) as "Unknown." Albrecht Krafft 
(1837) believed it to be by an unidentified Dutch artist. 
Erasmus Engerth gave it to Andrea del Sarto. Hermann Voss 
has recently suggested that it is the work of some one associated 
with Vasari. Crowe and Cavalcaselle and Berenson ascribe it 
to Pontormo of whose later manner in portraiture it is an 
admirable example full of penetration and dignity. 

Condition : good ; a vertical crack between the boards on the right side ; 
a small piece added on the right and at the bottom; slightly restored here 
and there. 

Date: 1550-1556. 

Reprod. Fig. 150; photo. Bruckmann, 1905. 

Bibl. Catalogues of 1895 and 1896, p. 21; of 1907, p. 16; Engerth, 
Verzeichnis, p. 294 ; Voss, Zeitschrift f. bildende Kunst, 1912, p. 44, n. ; Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 509; ed. Borenius, VI, 196; B. F. P. R., 
p. 177. 



YERKES COLLECTION 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WOMAN 

Half-length ; seated in an arm chair before a table, she is turned three- 
quarters to the left and looks at the spectator. Her hair is bound in an 
ornamental gold net and she wears a crimson gown cut low with large puffed 
sleeves, a white lace chemisette open at the throat and, at her wrists, frills. 
She has a ring on the ring-finger of her left hand and on the forefinger of 

188 



AUTHENTIC PICTURES 

her right hand, and round her neck, a small gold chain. The table is covered 
with a red cloth on which lies an open book in which one reads : CANTO at 
the head of two pages of illegible verse printed in two columns of four stanzas 
each to the page, each stanza consisting of eight lines ; at the further end of 
the table lies a bunch of carnations ( ?). Her right hand rests on the right- 
hand page, her left on the corner of the table. Behind her, a looped-up 
curtain. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.40, w. .67. (Catalogue gives h. 35 in., w. 26 in.) 

Falsely ascribed to Bronzino. Provenance and present 
whereabouts unknown. As Berenson noted as long ago as 1906, 
this is a fine and characteristic work of our master's. 

Condition: slightly damaged; a small piece has been added at the top. 

Date: 1534-1545. 

Reprod. Fig. 131 ; fig., catalogue de luxe cited below. 

Bibl. Catalogue from Collection of Charles T. Yerkes, Chicago, Chicago, 
1893 ; Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture in the Collection of Charles T. 
Yerkes, Boston, 1904; Catalogue de Luxe of Ancient and Modern Paintings 
Belonging to the Estate of the Late Charles T. Yerkes, New York, 1910; 
Berenson, Le pitture italiane nella raccolta Yerkes, Rassegna d'arte, VI 
(1906), 35. 



189 



CATALOGUE RAISONNE 

OF 
PICTURES ATTRIBUTED TO PONTORMO 



CATALOGUE RAISONNE 

OF 
PICTURES ATTRIBUTED TO PONTORMO 



ALNWICK CASTLE 

Collection of the Duke of Northumberland 

VIRGIN AND CHILD 

A replica of pictures in the collection of the Earl of Northbrook and at 
Hampton Court. Ascribed to Andrea; believed to be a Pontormo by Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle. I have not seen this picture. 

Bibl. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. "Button, 1911, III, 514; ed. Borenius, VI, 202 

ASSISI 

ST. AGATHA 

Medallion; bust figure, turned three-quarters to right; she looks at the spectator; 
robe open at neck and trimmed with white frilling; scarf thrown over hair, a plait of 
which falls over left shoulder; in her left hand, the pincers of her martyrdom. 

Ascribed to Pontormo but not authentic; once in the Constantini 
Collection, Florence; later in that of Mr. Perkins, at Assisi. Companion 
piece to the following; its present whereabouts is unknown to me. 

Photo. Eeali. 

ST. LUCIA 

Medallion; bust figure, turned three-quarters to the left; she looks at spectator; 
robe open at neck and edged with white; sleeve of lighter stuff; hair elaborately arranged 
and bound with a ribbon; a plait falls over right shoulder; in her left hand, on a plate, 
she holds her eyes. 

Same remarks as for preceding. 
Photo. Eeali. 

193 



PONTORMO 

AVIGNON 

Musee Calvet 

516. YOUNG WOMAN DRESSING 
OU on wood. H. .75, w. .81. 

Attributed to Pontormo; not mentioned by Berenson; bought in 1836 
at Lyons from M. Peyre. I have not seen this picture. 

Bibl. Catalogue des tableaux exposes dans les galeries du Musee-Calvet d' Avignon, 
Joseph Girard, Francois Seguin, Avignon, 1909, p. 114; Theodore Gue"dy, Musses de France, 
Paris, Boulevard Saint Germain, 168, p. 61. 

BALTIMORE 

Walters Collection 

596. PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

A little less than half-length; over the head and most of the forehead, and hanging 
down on the shoulders, a veil of white gauze. She wears a decollete'e black dress, the square 
opening edged with the same gauze. The eyebrows are arched and thin. Her hands rest 
on a table in the lower left-hand corner of the picture, her right hand hanging over the 
edge; her left hand rests on the wrist of the right hand at the base of the bent little finger. 
Between the thumb and the long curved, full, but slim, forefinger she holds a dark oval 
object that might be a large "intaglio." The neck is full and long. The background is 
dark green at the top shading down into the same colour as the dress. 

Oil on wood. H. 34J in, w. 27f in. 

Bibl. The Walters Collection, p. 126. 

BERGAMO 

Pinacoteca Lochis 

145. PORTRAIT OF A MAN HOLDING A ROLL OF PAPER 

Oil on wood. H. .27, w. .19. 

Bibl. La Pinacoteca e la Villa Lochis alia Crocetta di Moszo, presso Bergamo, 2d ed., 
Bergamo, 1858, pp. 247 f. 

BERLIN 

A Private Collection 
MADONNA AND CHILD 

Copy of the picture ascribed to Pontormo in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich. 
See also Boston Museum; Castello; Cenacolo di Foligno, Florence; Cook 
Collection, London; Hampton Court; Collection of Mr. Vernon Watney, 
Cornbury Park, Oxford. 

194 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

BOLOGNA 

Accademia 

MADONNA AND CHILD 

The Madonna, seen to the knees, stands behind a wall; she is turned slightly to the 
right and holds the Christ Child about the waist with both hands and gazes down at him; 
she wears an elaborate head-dress. The Child stands on the parapet and is seen from 
behind, the head profile left. In the background, a landscape with, left and right, a slim 
tree. 

Once ascribed to Pontormo. The first edition of the Cicerone preserved 
the traditional attribution to Jacopo, but von Zahn in the second edition gave 
this picture to Bugiardini of whose work it seems to me to be an authentic 
specimen. The long narrow ear, the carefully modelled nostril, the fulness 
about the eye, the hard meagre folds of the drapery, speak eloquently for 
Giuliano. This seems to be the picture that, in this collection, Berenson 
ascribes to Franciabigio. Still other critics have suggested, it would seem, 
that it was painted by Visino, the pupil of Albertinelli (Vasari, IV, 228). 

Bibl. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 444; Cicerone, 2d ed., Leipzig, 1874, 
III, 981. 



BOSTON 

Museum of Fine Arts 



MADONNA AND CHILD 

Oil on wood. H. 1.26, w. 1.03. 

Copy of a late composition by Pontormo, now lost, from which we have 
~ various derivatives. Cf. in this catalogue under Berlin, Castello, Florence, 
Hampton Court, London, Munich. This picture was given to the Museum 
by Mrs. S. D. "Warren. Once attributed to Bronzino; later to Bernardino 
Lanini with a query. It is probably the work of Battista Naldini. The date 
1561 appears on the paper which is held by St. Elizabeth. 

BUDAPEST 

Museum of Fine Arts 

181 (491). HOLY FAMILY 

In the centre: the Madonna seated on the ground, turned three-quarters left, her 
head full face, her eyes looking down, her right hand laid beside her, her left arm extended 
at her side, the hand holding a swaddling-cloth against her left thigh. Her dress is open 
at the neck, the sleeves turned back at the elbows; on her head, a scarf an end of which 
hangs down on her right shoulder. Over her right shoulder a voluminous mantle is thrown 

195 



PONTORMO 

which passes behind her back and falls to the ground in the right foreground. The Christ 
Child is seated in her lap turned three-quarters to left; he holds in his lap a vase of 
flowers; he looks down, his head bent forward; curly blond hair. In front of him to the 
left, the little St. John seen from behind, turned three-quarters right; he kneels before 
the Infant Jesus, his arms outstretched, having just presented to him the vase of flowers; 
he has curly dark hair; a large scarf passes over his left shoulder and is tied in a large 
knot on the right side, an end of it falling on the ground; in the foreground lie his bowl 
and cross of reeds. To the left of the Virgin one sees the head and shoulders of St. Anne. 
She is voluminously draped and turned three-quarters to right; she looks at the Madonna, 
her right arm folded across her breast under her mantle. To the right of the Virgin, the 
head and shoulders of Joseph, turned three-quarters left; he looks over the Madonna's 
left shoulder at the little St. John; he is slightly bald and wears a beard. All the figures 
except St. Joseph have haloes. 

This altar-piece is ascribed to Pontormo but it is not by his hand, 
although in many details it betrays his influence. It comes from the 
Eszterhazy bequest and belongs to a small group of unauthentic pictures the 
authorship of which presents a problem as yet unsolved. 

Eeprod. Photo. Hanfstaengl 268. 

Oil on canvas. H. 1.26$, w. 1.01. 

Bibl. Az Orssagos Jceptdr mutdrgyainak, leird lajstroma, Budapest, 1904, p. 258; 
Gabriel de T6rey, Tableaux anciens du Musee des Beaux-Arts de Budapest, Budapest, 1906, 
p. 39; idem, ed. 1910, p. 49. 



CASSEL 

Royal Gallery 



PORTRAIT OF A MAN 



He stands almost full face beside a table on which his right arm and hand rest 
holding his gloves; his head is turned three-quarters left, his eyes look at the spectator; 
his left arm slightly bent hangs at his side, his thumb in his low belt; brown eyes, thick 
short brown beard and moustache. His doublet of velvet (f) is covered with a light net- 
like pattern; at the shoulders, small puffs; the collar high and edged with a white ruff; 
sleeves, white. Around his waist, a narrow belt with a gold clasp; on his hip one sees 
an elaborately chased sword-hilt. He wears a small black cap with a white feather at the 
back. Background: lighter behind the figure than to the left. 

Oil on canvas. H. 1.05, w. .78. 

Formerly erroneously attributed to the Florentine School of the sixteenth 
century. Some critics have ascribed this portrait to Pontormo (Aubel, 
Verzeichnis, p. 4) of whose manner and touch it shows no trace. It has also 
been attributed, without reason, by Frizzoni to a Dutch master, by Bode to 
a Spanish painter, by other critics to Antonio Moro, and by still others to a 
French follower of Clouet. The most probable suggestion as to its authorship 
is due to Mary F. S. Hervey (art. cited below) who considers it to be a 
genuine example of the work of the Tudor painter, Gerlach Flicke. This 
attribution is followed by Lionel Gust who believes that it was painted after 
Flicke came under the influence of Clouet. The identity of the sitter has 
also been the subject of considerable discussion. Justi thinks that it is a 

196 



ATTKIBUTED PICTURES 

portrait of Garcilaso de la Vega. He finds that it resembles a portrait of the 
soldier-poet in Valentin Carderera's Iconografia espanola (Madrid, 1855 and 
1864, pi. 73) which has for its prototype an oil painting once in the possession 
of the Onate and later in that of Count de Valencia de Don Juan. Garcilaso 
was a knight of the Alcantara Order, the insignia of which is worn by the 
personage represented in both portraits. He was the second son of Garcilaso 
de la Vega, Comendador of Leon, Lord of los Arcos and Cuerva. Born in 
Toledo in 1503, he visited Italy, was present at the siege of Florence, was 
killed in battle in 1536 and buried in S. Pedro Martir at Toledo. 

Eeprod. Photo. Hanfstaengl; fig., Burlington Magazine, XIX, 238; Die MeisterwerTce 
der konigl. Gemalde-galerie su Cassel, p. 43; article by Justi cited below. 

Bibl. Kurses Verzeichnis der Gemdlde in der koniglichen Galerie zu Cassel, 21st ed., 
Cassel, 1911, p. 38; Katalog der konigl. Gemalde-galerie zu Cassel, p. 64; Mary P. S. 
Hervey, Notes on a Tudor Painter: Gerlach Flicke, Burlington Magazine, XVII (1910), 
71-79; Lionel Gust, On Two Portraits Attributed to Gerlach Flicke, Burlington Magazine, 
XIX (1911), 239; Justi, Ein Bildnis des Dichters Garcilaso de la Vega, Jahrbuch d. 
konigl. preuss. Kunstsamml., XIV (1893), 177-190. 



CITTA DI CASTELLO 

Pinacoteca Comunale 

68. VIRGIN AND CHILD WITH TWO SAINTS 

Bibl. Catalogo della Pinacoteca comunale di Cittd di Castello, Citta di Castello, 1912, 
p. 7. 

DIJON 

Musee 

PRESENTATION IN THE TEMPLE 

Composition of nineteen figures. To the right, the Virgin with crossed hands climbs 
the temple stairs. Five steps lead to a stone terrace whence to the right other steps lead 
back to a slate-coloured arcade, decorated with arabesques and garlands, where the High 
Priest, his hands uplifted, stands. He is accompanied by four men; to his right, a draped 
man leans out of an arch; to the left of the arcade under another arch, three more men; 
below these, a slab inscribed: M Vc XXI. To the left and following the Virgin, three 
women, four men and a little dog. In the foreground right, two men who gaze at the 
Virgin; to the left, a crenelated gateway with towers through which we catch a glimpse 
of the country-side; further to the left, tower and arches of a smaller arcade. 

Oil on wood. H. .96, w. .81. 

In general conception and in certain details such as the form of the 
Virgin 's hand and foot, the round flattish face of St. Elizabeth, the treatment 
of the group around the High Priest, the purplish grey colour of the arcade 
and the touch of landscape in the background, this picture reminds one of 

197 



PONTORMO 

Pontormo. It is however the work of a feeble and unknown imitator. Given 
to the Museum in 1822 by M. de Saint-Mesmin, the curator. 

Condition: thoroughly repainted. 

Date: 1521. 

Bibl. Catalogue du Musee de Dijon, Collection Trimolet, Dijon, Dijon, 1883, p. 8. 

DZIKOW 

GALICIA 

Tarnowski Collection 

PORTRAIT OF AN ELDERLY LADY 

Half-length; the torse nearly full face, the head turned three-quarters left, the 
eyes look at the spectator; her arm is bent at the elbow and one sees part of the ruff 
at the wrist. She wears a dark bodice cut square at the neck, revealing an open white 
lace chemisette with turned down collar; the sleeves have a puff at the shoulder. Around 
her neck, a string of pearls; her hair, parted in the middle, is brushed down smoothly on 
either side; she wears a close-fitting embroidered cap over which, at the top of the head, 
passes a string of pearls. Dark background. 
Oil on wood. H. .25, w. .20. 

Provenance unknown. Exhibited as a Bronzino in the Portrait Exhi- 
bition at the Hague in 1903 (No. lOa). Attributed by certain critics to an 
unknown Dutch master of the early seventeenth century; by others to Bron- 
zino. Berenson believes it to be an example of Pontormo 's later work in 
portraiture. The ear, eyes, and mouth are undoubtedly suggestive of certain 
characteristics of Jacopo's draughtsmanship, but the modelling of the face 
is unconvincing and seems to indicate a late restoration of so drastic a nature 
as to preclude the possibility of giving a final verdict on the authenticity of 
this panel. 

Condition: much repainted; the panel seems to have been somewhat cut down. 
Date: 1534-1545. 
Eeprod. Photo. Bruckmann 1904. 

Bibl. Schulze, Bronzino, p. LXI; B. F. P. E., p. 174; C. Hofstede de Groot, Meister- 
voerke der Portrdtmalerei auf der Ausstellung im Haag, Miinchen, 1903, p. 5. 



ENGLEWOOD 

NEW JERSEY 

Platt Collection 
PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Head only; turned three-quarters right. He wears a dark hat and looks at the 
spectator. The colour is a misty grey with a suggestion in it of a subdued olive-green. 
Oil on canvas. 

198 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

Unfinished but very lightly and firmly painted. Originally attributed to 
Pontormo. The insistence on minor passages in the modelling and the obvious 
naturalism of the intention speak for Salviati to whom both Berenson and 
Mason Perkins have recently attributed this picture. 

Condition: slightly rubbed and scratched but practically unharmed. 
Eeprod. Frontispiece, Eassegna d'arte, XI (1911). 

Bibl. Mason Perkins, Dipinti italiani nella raccolta Platt, Eassegna d'arte, XI 
(1911), 3. 



ERFURT 

Stadtisches Museum 
32. VENUS AND CUPID 

Bibl. Katalog der Gemalde des stddtischen Museums, Erfurt, 1909, p. 8. 

FLORENCE 

Academy 
183. PIETA 

The Christ is seated on the ground profile right, the head and shoulders thrown back 
three-quarters right, his right arm extended at his side. Behind him, the Madonna seated 
full face, head turned three-quarters left; she looks at the Christ; her right hand supports 
his shoulders, her left is laid upon his left forearm. To the right the Magdalen kneels 
facing; her head turned three-quarters left looks at the Christ; her right hand is laid on 
his right knee, her left raised to her breast. In the background to the extreme left, the 
hill of Calvary with crosses and trees; to the right, a little town in a valley and a wooded 
hill; in the foreground, little plants. The drapery under Christ is a dark greyish green. 
The Madonna wears a red tunic of which one sees the sleeves and, over her head, a brown 
mantle at the edge of which there is a thread of gold. The Magdalen has light brown 
hair; her bodice is dark yellow, her skirt brown, her mantle bright red. The landscape is 
green and the distance dark blue. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.15, w. 1.00. 

Formerly, and in the catalogue of the gallery, ascribed to Bronzino. 
Vasari mentions (VII, 594) that "in Santa Trinita, pur di Firenze, si vede, 
di mano del medesimo (Bronzino), in un quadro a olio al primo pilastro a 
man ritta, un Cristo morto, la Nostra Donna, San Giovanni, et Santa Maria 
Madalena, condotti con bella maniera e molta diligenza." Richa (Chiese 
fiorentine, Lezione XI, p. 163) also speaks of a "Pieta" by Bronzino in the 
same church but he seems to imply that it was in fresco and near the sacristy. 
Milanesi states that the picture referred to by Vasari was removed to the 
Academy, and some critics, as well as the catalogue cited below, have identified 
it with the present panel, although to dispose of such a supposition, which is 
repeated by Cruttwell, we have only to notice that in our "Pieta" St. John 
does not appear. Berenson feels that we have here a Pontormo for which the 

199 



PONTORMO 

drawing Uffizi 6611 is, in his opinion, a study (B. F. D., I, 321; II, 147), but 
I am not convinced that any relation exists between the drawing and the 
picture. The latter does not, in fact, seem to me to be either by Pontormo or 
by Bronzino. The composition is clearly inspired by the "Pieta" ascribed to 
Andrea, in Vienna, although there the Madonna is attended by two angels and 
the Magdalen does not appear. 

Condition: slightly damaged, especially in the upper right corner; darkened with old 
varnishes; retouched here and there; a vertical crack down the centre of the panel. 
Date: probably not earlier than 1534 nor later than 1545. 

Documents: A. S. F., Archivio mediceo, Classe 22, Vol. 33, c. 13 and 78 (February 
11, 1564) ; idem, c. 13 and 76 (January 27, 1564). I cite these documents on the authority 
of Signor Giglioli who assures me that they refer to the present picture; I have been 
unable to examine them. 

Eeprod. Photo. Alinari 1418; Braun 42573. 

Bibl. B. F. D., I, 321; II, 147; B. F. P. B., p. 174; Pieraccini, Guida della B. 
Galleria, p. 75; Cruttwell, Florentine Galleries, p. 264; Dessins, pp. 73, 185; Schulze, 
op. cit., p. LXI. 



Annunziata 
ASSUMPTION 

Milanesi in his chronological table of Andrea's work (V, 67) erroneously 
states that Pontormo finished this composition for the painting of which 
Andrea signed a contract on June 16, 1515. His error is repeated by Borenius 
(Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Murray: London, 1914, VI, 177). The fresco is 
of course by Rosso. 

Cappella di San Luca 
HOLY TRINITY 

Fresco. 

Bocchi records that this work was designed by Pontormo and executed 
by Bronzino. He probably preserves in this statement some early tradition 
in regard to this fresco which does not, however, show any trace either of 
Pontormo 's design or of Bronzino 's touch. 

Bibl. Bocchi, op. cit., p. 464. 

Baciocchi Collection 

JOSEPH MADE OVERSEER IN EGYPT 

Ascribed to Pontormo but showing no trace of his hand. This panel is 
a modified copy of part of Andrea's panel of "Joseph in Egypt," now in 
the Pitti. 

200 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

Casa Buonarotti 

60. PORTRAIT OF VITTORIA COLONNA 

Bust figure turned three-quarters left; the eyes look down; golden hair bound with 
a reddish violet ribbon; grey-green dress; black background. 
Oil on tile. H. .49, w. .31. 

Schulze considers this to be an idealized likeness of Michelangelo 's famous 
friend and an authentic Pontormo. It is, however, erroneously described as 
a portrait of Vittoria Colonna and falsely ascribed to Jacopo, whose modelling 
and colour it in no way suggests. Of it D ' Achiardi says : ' ' Non ha nessun 
carattere di seria attendibilita iconografica. " Cf. the portrait by Muziano, 
Galleria Colonna, Rome (D' Achiardi, op. cit. infra, fig. 39) ; that noticed by 
Campanari (Ritratto di Vittoria Colonna dipinto da Michelangelo, Londra, 
Molini, 1853) which is probably a Venusti; and that in the Uffizi (photo. 
Alinari), perhaps a copy of a more celebrated original. Another portrait, 
said to be of Vittoria Colonna and ascribed to Pontormo, was sold at the 
De Beurnonville sale in 1881. Its whereabouts is unknown to me. 

Condition: surface badly cracked and entirely repainted. 

Reprod. Photo. Alinari 4565; fig., article by Schulze cited below; article by 
Neoustroieff cited below, pi. 54, fig. 4. 

Bibl. Vasari, ed. Gronau, V, 114; Frey, Dichtungen, p. 385; Thode, Michelangelo, II, 
364; D' Achiardi, Sebastiano del Piombo, pp. 200-204; Steinmann, Sixtinische Kapelle, II, 
506; Schulze, Die Bildnisse der Vittoria Colonna, Monatshefte f. Kunstwissenschaft, 1910, 
pp. 239-241; Cruttwell, Florentine Churches, p. 61; Neoustroieff, Quadri italiani nella 
colleeione von Leuchtenberg, L' Arte, VI (1903), pp. 330-332. 

Cenacolo di Foligno 

117. MADONNA AND CHILD 

H. 1.20, w. 1.00. 

Formerly in the Galleria Ferroni. This is a poor copy of the lost 
"Madonna" by Pontormo of which the picture in the Alte Pinakothek, in 
Munich, is the best known replica. The background in the present copy has 
been slightly modified. Cf. in this catalogue, under Berlin, Boston, Castello, 
Hampton Court, London, Munich and Oxford. 

Eeprod. Photo. Brogi 17571 (as a Pontormo). 

Chiesa delle Stigmate 
PIETA 

The Christ lies on a white cloth, his feet to the right. The Virgin wears a deep blue 
mantle and, about her head, a yellow scarf. At the feet of Christ, two weeping angels, 
in the background to the right, the hill of Calvary and two small figures. 

201 



PONTORMO 

Tentatively ascribed to Pontormo. This picture really dates from the 
very end of the sixteenth century. 

Keprod. Photo. Alinari 31039 (as Pontonno?). 



Loeser Collection 

PORTRAIT OF THE POET LUDOVICO MARTELLI 

Three-quarters length, seated. His right arm rests on a table and in his right hand 
he holds a sheet of paper. In his left hand, which rests on his knee, he holds a pair of 
gloves. On the table, an ink-pot, papers, and sprigs of laurel. 

Oil on wood. H. .87, w. .73. 

Ascribed to Pontormo. A replica, the whereabouts of which is unknown, 
is said to have existed in the Palazzo Strozzi. 

Condition: excellent. 

A SIBYL 

Bust figure; her shoulders nearly profile right. Her head, seen nearly full face, looks 
at the spectator. In her hand, an open roll of parchment. 
Oil on wood. H. .66, w. .52$. 

I saw this and the preceding picture somewhat fugitively some years ago 
before I felt that I could say definitely whether the attribution to Pontormo 
seemed to me justified. Unfortunately I have been unable to re-examine 
them. I owe the details that I give to the courtesy of the owner and of 
Signor Gino Sensani. 

Condition: good. 



Palazzo Corsini 

17. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Half -length; seated at a table and turned three-quarters left; looks at spectator. 
He has a reddish brown beard, brown hair and eyes. He wears a black hat, black doublet 
with slashed sleeves. An account-book lies on the table before him, the middle fingers of 
his left hand between the leaves. On the little finger of the same hand he wears a ring. 
In his right hand he holds a quill pen with which he has just been writing. On the open 
pages of the book one sees writing which is indecipherable. The flesh-tones are brickish 
red, the background, greenish grey. 

Oil on wood. H. .94, w. .74. 

Ascribed to Pontormo, but neither the colouring, the modelling, nor the 
morphology of the figure are his. A copy of this portrait, identical in size, 
passed from the Lanfranconi Collection, which was sold in Cologne in 1895, 

202 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

into the Sedelmeyer Collection. See in this catalogue, under the collections 
in question. 

Condition : darkened with successive varnishings ; a crack down the centre of the panel 
between the boards. 

Keprod. Photo. Alinari 4198. 

Bibl. Uld. Medici, Catalogo della Galleria dei Principi Corsini in Firenze, Firenze, 
Mariani, 1880. 



163. MADONNA AND LITTLE ST. JOHN 

The Madonna kneels profile right, the Christ Child between her knees; St. John 
stands to her right, seen three-quarters from behind. The Virgin is dressed in a purplish 
pink robe with white drapery on the shoulder and yellow foresleeves. St. John wears a 
brown loin-cloth. All three have light brown hair. The background is a grey-green piece 
of furniture. 

Oil on canvas. H. 1.32, w. 1.06. 

Erroneously ascribed to Jacopo; not cited by Berenson. The heavy 
colour suggests Empoli. The composition is perhaps derived from a lost 
original of Pontormo's. 

Bibl. See above. 



Palazzo Pitti 



113. THE THREE FATES 



This panel, which was originally attributed to Michelangelo, has been 
ascribed to Pontormo by Jacobsen and by Fabriczy. It is, of course, by Rosso. 

Bibl. Jaeobsen, Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, 1898, fasc. 5; L' Arte, 1899, p. 228; 
B. F. P. E., p. 180. 

149. PORTRAIT OF GUIDOBALDO DELLA ROVERE, DUKE OF 
URBINO 

Three-quarter length; he stands turned three-quarters left, his head nearly full face, 
his right hand rests on a helmet placed on a table to the left, his left on the neck of a 
large white dog of which one sees the head in the lower right corner. He has black hair 
and beard and wears a suit of steel armour elaborately inlaid with silver, red hose 
embroidered with gold, a black sword-belt and sword of which one sees the chased gold 
hilt ; at his wrists, white ruches embroidered with black. The background is a green curtain. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.14, w. .86. 

The colour is cold and the drawing somewhat stiff. Long believed to be 
Pontormo's portrait of Ippolito de' Medici with his dog Rodon, which Vasari 
(VI, 273) mentions as the companion piece to Jacopo 's lost portrait of 
Alessandro. Cruttwell follows the traditional attribution as does Berenson, 
although he places after it, in his later editions, a point of interrogation. 

203 



PONTORMO 

Milanesi (VI, 274) indicated some of the difficulties involved in the inscription 
that one reads on the red cloth that covers the table: ANNUM AGEBAT 
DECIMUM OCTAVVM. Ippolito was born on April 19, 1511, and the 
portrait would, therefore, date from 1529, if we assume that it represents 
Ippolito and the inscription refers to the sitter's age. But Ippolito fled from 
Florence in 1527. The picture must, accordingly, have been painted in Rome 
in spite of the fact that we have every reason to believe that Pontormo was 
in Florence between 1527 and 1530. Justi has written at length about this 
panel. He believes it to be Bronzino's portrait of Guidobaldo, Duke of 
Urbino, and his argument is as follows: The person represented does not 
resemble Titian's well-known and perfectly authenticated portrait of 
Ippolito, which was painted in Bologna in 1532 (Pitti, No. 201). Ippolito 
cannot have been in Florence after the flight of Passerini in 1527 ; it is 
unlikely that Pontormo would have gone to Rome between 1527 and 1530 
when all artists had fled from the city to escape the fury of pillaging soldiers. 
Guidobaldo of Urbino was born in 1514, became duke in 1538, died in 1574. 
Bronzino left Florence for Pesaro on August 2, 1530, and while in the latter 
place he painted, for the Duke of Urbino, a portrait of the daughter of Matteo 
Sofferoni, a harpsichord and, in the Villa Imperiale, certain figures in a vault- 
ing, the success of which induced Guidobaldo to order his own portrait. The 
Duke was eighteen between April 2, 1531, and 1532 a fact that coincides 
with the inscription on our panel: Annum agebat decimum octavvm. Such 
armour as the Duke wears could have been made only in Milan, and it is 
interesting to note that Vasari claims that Bronzino spent a long time over 
the portrait because Guidobaldo wished to pose in a suit of armour that he 
had ordered in Lombardy, the arrival of which was constantly delayed 
(VI, 276). On the back of the panel, painted in oil, we find the letters 
D. G. B., which may stand for Duca Guido Baldo. The smooth cold flesh- 
tints recall Bronzino 's other work in portraiture ; the hands are not Jacopo 's. 
Vasari says that Pontormo 's portrait of Ippolito was in "sua maniera 
tedesca," and the present panel shows no trace of the influence of Diirer. 
Signor Giglioli has pointed out to me that since the portrait has been cleaned 
the chill shade of green so much used by Bronzino has been revealed and 
that, moreover, this portrait seems to have come from the Urbino Collection. 
In the list of the pictures now in the Pitti having that provenance is: "II 
Duca armato con mano sopra la testa di un cane di mano di Zuccaro" a 
description that corresponds to our portrait. The attribution to Zuccaro 
may be explained by the fact that he was well known in Pesaro for he came 
from the neighbouring town of Sant' Angelo in Vado and had worked in Pesaro 
for fifteen years, while Bronzino was there only a few months. Federigo 
Badoer (1547) states that Guido was strong, thick-set, and melancholy a 
description that might well be applied to the personage represented in our 
portrait. Guido understood Greek. On the helmet is inscribed : 

204 



ATTEIBUTED PICTURES 

'QAE2TAIAH 

O2AIAONTO 

BOVAHMA 

(wS' eerrai 817$' is e'Xov TO /3ov\.r]fjui) 

Later in life he was governatore generale delle armi venete in Verona. Signer 
Giglioli notes that another half-length portrait of Guidobaldo is preserved 
in the Palazzo Albani at Urbino in which he wears a beard and places his 
hand on the head of a dog. On an envelope that he holds : "All' Ill mo et Ecc mo 
Sig re II Signore Guidobaldo duca d 'Urbino." The portrait ascribed to 
Pontormo, once in the collection of the Rev. E. H. Dawkins, Morhanger 
House, near Surrey, Bedfordshire, and sold at Christie's on February 28, 
1913, for 23 2s., would seem to have been a copy of our portrait with which 
it was identical in size. Cf. in Catalogue of Sales, under Dawkins. 

Condition: recently cleaned and restored. 

Date: 1531-1532. 

Document. See above. 

Eeprod. Copy(?) once in the Dawkins Collection; engraving, Luigi Bardi, Galleria 
Pitti, VI, 273; photo. Braun 42149; Alinari; Brogi 6004; fig., article by Justi cited below; 
woodcut, Heiss, Les Medailleurs de la Renaissance, 2e partie, Paris, 1892, p. 201. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 276 ; VII, 595 ; Chiavacci, Guida della E. Galleria del Palazzo Pitti, 
3d ed., Firenze, 1864, p. 74; idem, French ed., p. 190; B. F. P. E., p. 174; Justi, Zeitschrift 
f. bildende Kunst, Leipzig, 1897, pp. 34-40; Fabriczy, L'Arte, I (1898), 475; Cruttwell, 
Florentine Galleries, p. 182; Giglioli, Eivista d' arte, 1909, p. 339-340; Thode, Jahrbuch 
d. Tconigl. preuss. Kunstsamml., 1888; Schulze, Sromino, XII. 



Palazzo Vecchio 

Cappella Leone X 

PORTRAIT OF COSIMO IL VECCHIO AS ST. COSMAS 

Full-length, turned three-quarters left, head profile left. He holds a richly bound 
green leather folio tooled with gold, from between the leaves of which a little palm of 
martyrdom stands up; he wears a scarlet cap, deep pink mantle lined with a lighter pink, 
and red slippers; his legs are bare. The background is a dark greenish grey decorated 
with a pattern of leaves; the floor is brownish green. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.72, w. .59. 

Brought from the Guardaroba in 1861; formerly in the Uffizi (No. 1267) 
and ascribed to Pontormo attribution retained by Morelli, Berenson, Crutt- 
well, Trapesnikoff and De Vere. This panel and the following were however, 
according to his own testimony (VII, 699), executed by Vasari for the Chapel 
of Leo X, in the Palazzo Vecchio, on the altar of which Raphael's "Madonna 
dell' Impannata" formerly stood. The head of the present portrait is a copy 
of Pontormo 's ' ' Portrait of Cosimo, ' ' once at San Marco and now in the Uffizi. 

205 



PONTORMO 

The Chapel of Leo has been reconstructed and this panel and its companion 
piece have found their original places again beside a copy of the ' ' Impannata. ' ' 

Condition: darkened and retouched here and there. 

Date: about 1560. 

Eeprod. Photo. Braun 41267; Brogi 11032. 

Bibl. Vasari, IV, 351; VII, 699; Catalogue de la E. Galerie de Florence, Florence, 
1864, p. 150; Eivista d'arte, VI (1909), 263 f.; B. F. P. E., p. 175; Cruttwell, Florentine 
Galleries, p. 84; Morelli, Doria Pamfili Galleries, p. 130; Trapesnikoff, Die Portrdtdarstel- 
lungen, p. 21; Lensi, Palazso Vecchio, p. 172. 

PORTRAIT OF COSIMO I AS ST. DAMIAN 

Full -length, turned three-quarters right; weight on the right leg; the head turned 
nearly three-quarters left. His hair and beard are almost black; with his left hand he 
holds, against his side, a richly bound book from between the leaves of which a little palm 
of martyrdom stands up; his right arm is bent at the elbow; his forefinger points in front 
of him; he wears a deep pink mantle which reaches to the ground, a doublet of dimmer red, 
red stockings and dark red shoes. The background is greyish green, the floor brownish green. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.72, w. .59. 

Cf. the preceding of which the present panel is a pendant. Once Uffizi, 
No. 1270. 

Condition: practically untouched though darkened with varnish. 

Date: about 1560. 

Eeprod. Photo. Braun 41270; Brogi 11031; fig., Vasari, trans, de Vere, VII, 152. 

Bibl. See the preceding. 



Ufficio delle Belle Arti 

MADONNA AND LITTLE ST. JOHN 

Oil on wood. H. .38, w. .39. 

This panel, which is preserved as having once formed part of the decora- 
tion of the Carro della Zecca, is entirely foreign to the work of Pontormo. 

Condition: disastrously repainted. 
Eeprod. Photo. F. M. C. 



Santa Croce 

MADONNA AND CHILD WITH TWO FRANCISCAN SAINTS 

The Virgin wears a red robe and blue mantle; the saint that holds an open book, a 
red mantle; the friar, a brown robe. 
Lunette in fresco. 

This lunette has not the slightest connection with the work of Pontormo. 
Eeprod. Photo. Alinari 3880 (as Pontormo). 

206 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

San Lorenzo 

ASSUMPTION OF THE VIRGIN 

The Virgin is dressed in a pink robe and blue mantle. The kneeling figure in the 
foreground wears a green robe and red mantle; St. Peter, a green robe and yellow mantle. 

Erroneously ascribed to Pontormo. This is the work of an exceedingly 
mediocre imitator of Andrea del Sarto of whose "Assumption" in the Pitti 
the composition is a travesty. 

Eeprod. Photo. Alinari 31074 (as Pontormo). 



San Proculo 

MADONNA AND CHILD 

On one side of the Virgin, St. Anthony, on the other, Santa Barbara. 

Once in the chapel of the Niccolini, next to the third altar on the right 
side of the church. Falsely ascribed to Pontormo by Richa (I, 238). Of. 
Bocchi, ed. Cinelli, p. 388. 



Santa Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi 

MADONNA AND CHILD WITH ST. JOHN, ST. BERNARD AND OTHER 
SAINTS 

In the chapel of the Da Romena family. Cinelli erroneously attributes 
this work to Pontormo. It was painted by Puligo in 1525 (Vasari, IV, 466). 

Keprod. Photo. Alinari 31089 (as Pontormo). 

Bibl. Bocchi, ed. Cinelli, p. 486; Eicha, I, 323; Fantozzi, p. 293; Fabriezy, Memorie 
sulla chiesa di S. M. Maddalena de' Pazzi in Firense, L' Arte, IX (1906), p. 258, notes 
10, 11 and 14. 



Uffizi 

1196. EXPULSION FROM PARADISE 

In the centre, Adam and Eve, their legs turned three-quarters left, their torses seen 
in profile, their heads thrown back and seen three-quarters left; behind them on the right, 
the serpent with a human head coiled around a bare tree trunk; to the left, the trunks of 
two other trees; above them an angel, in a mist of light and seen from behind, brandishes 
with his right hand a naked sword. The general tone is olive-green, the flesh-tints deepen 
to pink on faces, hands, knees, and feet. 

Oil on wood. H. .41, w. .29. 

207 



PONTOEMO 

Ascribed to Pontormo ; not mentioned by Vasari ; not cited by Berenson. 
This panel is not authentic, although the Adam has a certain resemblance 
to various horsemen of the central group of the ' ' Martyrdom of St. Maurice, ' ' 
Pitti, No. 182. 

Condition: fair; rubbed here and there. 
Eeprod. Photo. F. M. C. 

Bibl. Catalogue de la R. Galerie de Florence, Florence, 1864, p. 139; Goldschmidt, 
op. cit., p. 46. 

1249. JOSEPH LED AWAY TO PRISON 

In the foreground, Joseph escorted by five soldiers; to the right, three figures one 
of which has his back turned; in the background, a palace with steps, "loggia," and terrace 
on which many soldiers are visible; to the left, a pillar surmounted by a statue beyond 
which a city and far-off hills; to the extreme left, a building partly ruined. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.30, w. .93. 

This panel and the following were long ascribed to Pontormo. They 
were painted for the bridal chamber of Pierfrancesco Borgherini. Miintz 
repeats the attribution to Jacopo as does the second edition of the Cicerone. 
Ulmann was the first to point out that they are characteristic works of 
Granacci, and Berenson has showed that in the drawings mentioned below 
we have part of the preparatory material for these panels. 

Condition: good. 

Date: about 1518. 

Drawings: Uffizi 347 F. and 349 F. 

Document: A. S. F., Depositeria Generale, filza 995. 

Eeprod. Photo. Braun 41249; Brogi 11034; Galleria di Firense illustrata, II, pi. L; 
fig., Miintz, Renaissance, p. 105; Schubring, Cassoni, pi. CLXXIV. 

Bibl. Vasari, V, 343; VI, 262, n.; B. F. P. B., p. 144; B. F. D., I, 123; II, 53; 
catalogue cited above, p. 146; Molini, Galleria di Firenze, 1819, II, 5; Cicerone, 2d ed., 
Ill, 981; Miintz, Renaissance, III, 499; Ulmann, Piero di Cosimo, Jahrbuch d. konigl. 
preuss. Samml., XVII (1896), 51; Dessins, p. 51, n. 2; Cruttwell, Florentine Galleries, 
pp. 20 f.; Sehubring, Cassoni, p. 403. 

1282. JOSEPH PRESENTING JACOB TO PHARAOH 

The scene takes place in a great open piazza; to the left, a Florentine palace; to 
the right, the end of a "loggia"; in the background, an octagonal building. To the left, 
Pharaoh with his retinue and soldiers, Joseph and Jacob kneeling with his sons; to the 
right, a group of five spectators; to the extreme right, two men with their backs turned 
and a boy who is seen profile left. In the middle distance and beyond, many groups of 
little figures. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.22, w. .93. 

Cf. the preceding. 

Condition : excellent. 

Eeprod. Photo. Braun 41282; Brogi 6220; Galleria di Firense illustrata, II, pi. LII; 
Schubring, op. cit., pi. CLXXII. 

Bibl. See above and Molini, op. cit., II, 11; catalogue cited above, p. 153. 

208 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

LEDA AND THE SWAN 

Leda stands facing in the middle of the picture, her arms outspread, her right hand 
on the swan's wing, her head three-quarters left; from her left shoulder a ribbon-like 
scarf hangs across her body, the end in her right hand; behind her the swan turned three- 
quarters left, wings outspread, head raised gazing at Leda. To the left, a child lies on 
the ground, a great broken egg for its pillow; behind it, another child carrying a drapery. 
To the right two children stand embraced; before them on the ground, a broken egg. In 
the background to the left, a hill crowned with a grove; to the right, a rugged peak seen 
beyond broken hills. 

Oil on wood. 

Once in the granducal collection at Lucca. Ascribed to Pontormo; not 
mentioned by Vasari; not cited by Berenson. This little panel does not 
reveal Jacopo 's touch, although it shows traces of his influence. Goldschmidt 
erroneously considers it to be an early work. Leonardo's "Leda" from which 
this picture is derived has been lost. It probably existed only as a cartoon 
and perhaps in two versions, one of which may have represented Leda alone 
and the other, the two children. The "Anonimo Fiorentino" merely mentions 
the "Leda," but Lomazzo in his Idea del Tempio states that it existed at 
Fontainebleau (1591) and describes it as one of Leonardo's few finished works. 
Cassiano del Pozzo also saw a "Leda" ascribed to Leonardo at Fontainebleau 
in 1625 and mentions the twins as part of the composition, although there 
is nothing to show that the picture of which he speaks was not a pupil's copy 
executed at Milan under Leonardo's supervision from his original cartoon. 
The following are well known studies for or copies of the original composition : 
Leonardo's sketch in Codice Atlantico; his study for the hair, in Windsor; 
Raphael's sketch, also in "Windsor; the picture in the Borghese (No. 434) ; 
that once in the Hastings and later in the Doetsch Collection ; that at Wilton 
House ; that in the Johnson Collection ; in the Ruble Collection ; in the Oppler 
Collection; that by Franciabigio, in the Museum of Brussels (No. 415), which 
~ is a free paraphrase and seems to have been executed before 1518. Similar 
pictures have existed and, in some cases, still exist in the collections of the 
Prince of Lichtenstein, M. de Rothschild, Queen Christina of Sweden, the 
Due d 'Orleans and in the Uffizi, Somzee, and Schweitzer Collections. 

Condition: fair; cracked across the centre vertically and horizontally and repaired. 
Date: 1515-1525. 

Reprod. Photo. Brogi 14762; Eug. Lasinio, B. Galleria di Firenze illust., Firenze, 
1828, III, 46. 

Bibl. Catalogue cited above, p. 132; Molini, op. tit., Ill, 46; Galleria di Firenze, 
Societa Editrice, 1839; Cicerone, 2d ed., Leipzig, 1874; III, 981; Goldschmidt, op. cit., 
p. 46. For existing copies of Leonardo's work, see Kunstkritische Studien, Die Galerie 
Borghese, Leipzig, 1890, p. 196; Miiller-Walde, Jahrbuch d. konigl. preuss. Samml., XVII 
(1897), 137; Miintz, The Leda of Leonardo da Vinci, Athenaeum, II (1898), 393 and 
Leonard de Vinci, Paris, 1899, p. 424; La chronique des arts, October 2, 1897; August 20, 
and September 3, 1898; Frizzoni, Arch, storico dell' arte, 1896, p. 400. 



209 



PONTOEMO 
FONTAINEBLEAU 



GASTON DE FOIX 



An early inventory of Fontainebleau mentions ' ' dans la Salle des Bains : 
un Gaston de Foix du Pontormo." Nothing further is known of this work. 

Bibl. Dimier, Primatice, p. 282. 



FUCECCHIO 

Arcipretura di San Giovanni Battista 

MADONNA AND FOUR SAINTS. ABOVE: THE BAPTISM AND TWO 
ANGELS 

Erroneously ascribed to Pontormo. This altar-piece seems to have been 
patched together from two unrelated pictures. It is the work of some 
provincial artist, perhaps of Umbrian origin, who had studied Perugino, 
Michelangelo and Andrea del Sarto. 

Beprod. Photo. Alinari 19283 (as Pontormo). 

GENOA 

Palazzo Brignole-Sale 

PORTRAIT OF A MAN IN RED WITH A SWORD 

Ascribed to Pontormo by Berenson. I do not know of any collection in 
a Palazzo Brignole-Sale in Genoa other than the collections of Palazzo Bianco 
and of Palazzo Rosso. In neither of these galleries have I been able to find 
this portrait. 

Bibl. B. F. P. E., p. 175. 



HAMPTON COURT 

139 (282). MADONNA AND CHILD 

Figures less than life-size. The Virgin is seen full-length facing and slightly inclined 
to the left; her left hand supports the back of the Child, her right turns his face to her 
own; she wears a turban-shaped head-dress. 

Oil on wood. H. 1 ft. 10 in., w. 1 ft. 5 in, 

210 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

Ascribed to Andrea; by certain critics to Pontormo. This picture is 
apparently an old copy of the panel in the collection of the Earl of North- 
brook, which is ascribed to Andrea by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, but has 
recently been given to Puligo. Another replica, falsely ascribed to Pontormo, 
may be seen at Alnwick Castle. The present panel may be the "Mary and 
Child by Andrew del Sarto," valued by the Commonwealth at 40 and, on 
December 3, 1649, sold to Mr. Rhemy van Leemput for 50 (Commonwealth 
Inventory, fol. 212). 

Bibl. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 514. 



193 (249). MADONNA AND CHILD 

Erroneously ascribed to Bronzino. This is a late Florentine partial copy 
of the composition, probably derived from an original by Pontormo, which 
is known in numerous renderings of various dates. See in this division of 
the Catalogue Raisonne, under Berlin; Boston; Castello; Florence, Cenacolo 
di Foligno; London, Cook Collection; Munich; Oxford. The present panel 
was painted, it would seem, in the "bottega" of Allori. 

Oil on wood. H. 4 ft., w. 3 ft. 

Bibl. Catalogue of the Collection of Hampton Court, p. 93 ; Law, New Authorized 
Historical Catalogue of the Pictures and Tapestries at Hampton Court, London, 1911, p. 64. 



300 (463). VENUS AND CUPID 

A copy of Pontormo 's "Venus and Cupid" of which the Uffizi panel is probably 
his original. 

Oil on wood. H. 4 ft., 3 in., w. 6 ft., 5 in. 

Hard, cold and dry. Although thought by Law to be a Bronzino, it is 
more probably only a product of his ' ' bottega. ' ' Brought to England in 1734 
and exhibited at Essex House, Essex St., Strand. It was then advertised to 
be disposed of in a raffle, the tickets of which were to be ten guineas each. 
The raffle did not take place, but the King bought it for Queen Charlotte for 
1000. The engraved tickets of the exhibition contained an elaborate 
description of the picture and an attestation of its genuineness as a work of 
Michelangelo signed by three connoisseurs; at the bottom of the tickets there 
was an etching of the picture (cf. Mrs. Jameson's Royal Galleries). Duppa 
engraved it in his Life of Michael Angelo (1806) and states that it came from 
the collection of the Bettini family. Thode conjectures, apparently without 
evidence, that it is the same picture as that mentioned in the Heidelberg 
Inventory. Exhibited in Manchester (Art Treasures, No. 170) in 1857 in 
connection with which exhibition "W. Burger (Tresors d' art en Angleterre, 
Bruxelles, 1860, p. 43) speaks of it as a masterpiece and one of the finest 

211 



PONTORMO 

paintings (!) in Hampton Court. Hogarth satirized it in his Analysis of 
Beauty. Law gives the number of this picture as 420. 

Bibl. Law, Royal Gallery of Hampton Court, London, p. 110; Graves, Loan Exhibi- 
tions, II, 942; Law, New Authorised Historical Catalogue of Hampton Court, p. 99. 

740. VENUS AND CUPID 

Venus lies on a white drapery. There are two doves, two roses and an apple in the 
lower right corner. 

Oil on wood. H. 5 ft. 2 in., w. 7 ft. 3 in. 

A late and inferior variant of the same composition as No. 300 of this 
collection. Once in the collection of James II (No. 996). Law gives the 
number of this picture as 707. 

Bibl. Law, catalogue cited above, p. 180; idem, New Authorized Historical Catalogue, 
p. 129. 



HILDESHEIM 

Museum 



VENUS AND CUPID 



A copy of the composition best known by the example, probably by 
Pontormo himself, now in the Uffizi (No. 1284). This picture was brought, 
in 1884, from the Berlin Gallery to which it had been taken in 1841. It is 
the same "Venus" that was once in the collection of Professor d' Alton of 
Bonn, where it was erroneously ascribed to Pontormo by Kugler. 

Bibl. Verseichniss der abgegebenen Gemdlde, 1886, No. 233; A. W. von Schlegel, 
Verseichniss von d' Altons Gemdldesammlung, 1840; Kugler, Kunstblatt, 1842, p. 42; Kleine 
Schriften, II, 358. 



LONDON 

Collection of Sir Frederick Cook 

42. MADONNA AND CHILD 

The Virgin, in green tunic with green sleeves, pink robe, blue mantle and head- 
dress, is seated on the ground. Her right hand rests on an open book, her left clasps the 
naked Infant Christ who kneels clinging to her. Behind and to the right, St. Joseph at 
work, speaking to the little St. John and St. Elizabeth. Buildings in the background. 

Canvas. H. 1.268, w. 1.016. 

At St. Paul's Churchyard. This is a copy of the composition best known 
in the version now in the Pinakothek at Munich (No. 1090) . Other renderings 

212 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

by various hands may be seen in the Boston Museum; in the Royal Villa at 
Castello, near Florence; in the Cenacolo di Foligno, Ferroni Collection, 
Florence (No. 117) ; at Hampton Court (No. 193-249) ; in the collection of 
Mr. Vernon Watney at Cornbury Park, Oxford; in a private collection in 
Berlin. 

Keprod. Photo. Gray 31563. 

Bibl. A Catalogue of the Paintings at Doughty House, Eichmond, and elsewhere in 
the Collection of Sir Frederick Cook, 1913, I, p. 47. 



Collection of the Earl of Northbrook 

i 

211 (39). PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Bust figure turned three-quarters left. He has long hair and dark eyes and wears a 
three-cornered hat and a black coat lined with fur. Green background. 
Oil on wood. H. 19$ in., w. 15J in. 

Originally in Palazzo Riccardi at Florence; later in the Le Brun and 
Baring Collections. Exhibited at the British Institution, 1824, No. 21 ; 1840, 
No. 68. Once supposed to be a member of the Medici family and by Raphael. 
Ascribed by Frizzoni and by Waagen to Andrea, by Crowe and Cavalcaselle 
to Pontormo or Puligo. It is not by Jacopo and it seems too hard for Puligo. 

Eeprod. Catalogue cited below facing page 158. 

Bibl. Buchanan, II, 254; Waagen, Art Treasures, II, 176; idem, Arts and Artists, 
III, 35; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 512; ed. Borenius, VI, 201; Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Collection of the Earl of Northbrook, London, 1889, p. 158. 

MADONNA AND CHILD 

The Virgin, dressed in crimson with a pink kerchief, stands, a half-length figure. 
The Christ Child is seated on a white cushion on a balustrade. She raises his face with 
her left hand. 

Oil on wood. H. 24 in., w. 18i in. 

From the Gray, Buchanan and Baring Collections. Ascribed to Andrea; 
by certain critics to Pontormo ; by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to Puligo, but none 
of these attributions is satisfactory. Replicas at Alnwick Castle and, with 
modified colouring, at Hampton Court (No. 282). 

Bibl. Catalogue cited above, p. 157; Waagen, op. cit., II, 175; Crowe and Caval- 
caselle, ed. 1864-1866, III, 584; ed. Borenius, VI, 201. 



Collection of the Earl of Plymouth 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 
Bibl. B. T. P. E., p. 176. 

213 



PONTORMO 

National Gallery 

649. PORTRAIT OF A BOY 

Full-length; he stands turned slightly to the right, the weight on left leg, the right 
knee slightly bent, the head turned three-quarters right; he looks at the spectator; his 
right hand rests on his hip, his left holds lightly the pommel of his sword. He is dressed 
in doublet, trunk-hose gaged and puffed, a broad, richly ornamented belt, stockings and 
slippers; he also wears a short velvet coat embroidered at the edges on the sleeves and 
around the cuffs; at the throat and wrists, lace ruffs. The sleeve is slashed and ornamented 
with embroidered triangles. He wears a dark Florentine cap trimmed, on the left and in 
front, with jewelled ornaments and, on the right, with a large puffy feather. The back 
ground is a striped curtain, dark in the centre with two light vertical bands at either side 
and dark edges; it has many horizontal creases; the fringe is short and alternately black 
and light. 

Oil on wood. H. 4 ft. 2$ in., w. 2 ft. 

Formerly in the collection of the Duke of Brunswick ; purchased in Paris 
in 1860 from M. Edmond Beaucousin. Once erroneously believed to be a 
Pontormo an attribution that Miintz repeats. Ascribed to Bronzino by 
Frizzoni and Berenson; by others, including Richter, to Salviati, neither of 
which ascriptions is justified or satisfactory. 

Eeprod. Photo. Bruckmann; Braun 30649; fig., Poynter, National Gallery, p. 70; 
Leman Hare, National Gallery in Colour, London, 1909, XIX, p. 72. 

Bibl. Wornum, Descriptive Catalogue of the Pictures in the National Gallery, London, 
1875, p. 223; Fmzoni, Arte italiana del rinascimento, 1891, pp. 266 f. ; Poynter, National 
Gallery, p. 70; Cook, Handbook, I, 22; Descriptive Catalogue of National Gallery, 1906, 
p. 87; Eichter, Art of the National Gallery, p. 45; Miintz, Eenaissance, III, 499. 



790. ENTOMBMENT 

Ascribed by most critics, including Frizzoni and Berenson, to Michel- 
angelo; by others, to Bugiardini; by Symonds and still others, to Pontormo 
with whose work it has no connection. This picture was once in the Fesch 
Collection and its subsequent history is well known. 

Bibl. Thode, Krit. Unters., II, 483-488; Frizzoni, op. cit., pp. 263 f.; Poynter, op. cit., 
I, 72; Cook, op. cit., I, 14-16; Eichter, op. cit., p. 44. 



1048. PORTRAIT OF A CARDINAL 

Three-quarter length. -He is seated facing and wears a rose-coloured silk hood with 
a white collar and a scarlet hat. 

Copper. H. .95, w. .71. 

Purchased in Florence from Mr. Campbell Spence in 1879. Once 
erroneously attributed to Pontormo but now ascribed to Scipione Pulzone. 

214 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

Two other portraits of the same personage survive, one in the Corsini Gallery, 
Rome, one in Chantilly. 

Keprod. Woodcut, Reinach, Repertoire, III, 370. 

Bibl. Catalogue of the National Gallery, 1913, p. 569. Of. F.-A. Gruyer, La peinture a 
Chantilly, ficoles etrangeres, p. 125. 

1150. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Bust figure turned three-quarters right; dark brown hair that falls over his ears, 
a short moustache and short thick beard; flesh-tones, a reddish brown; black coat with 
white ruche at neck and white frill at wrist of left hand which is raised; black gown; 
black cap; in his right hand, a purse or document; on the little finger of left hand, a 
small ring; on first finger of right hand, another; background, light brown. 

Oil on wood. H. 25 in., w. 19$ in. 

Falsely ascribed to Pontormo. Purchased at Florence, of Mr. C. Fairfax 
Murray, in 1883. 

Eeprod. Poynter, op. cit., II, p. 99. 

Bibl. Poynter, loc. cit., p. 98; Descriptive Catalogue, 1906, p. 457; idem, ed. 1913, 
pp. 554 f. 



LYONS 

Musee 
161. SACRIFICE OF ISAAC 

Oil on wood; life-size. 

A replica of Andrea's picture, now in Dresden. The present panel was 
carried away from Holland by Napoleon and given, in 1811, to the Lyons 
Museum. Crowe and Cavalcaselle found the execution less agreeable than 
that of Andrea's altar-piece, the nude poorly rendered, the colour lacking in 
transparency. They believed, I think without reason, that the author may 
have been Pontormo. 

Bibl. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 507; De Eis, Les Musees de Province, 
II, 377. 

MADRID 

Museo National 
340. HOLY FAMILY 

The Virgin looks down at the Christ Child who lies asleep in a fold of her mantle. 
To the right, St. John; beside the Virgin, St. Joseph also asleep. 
Oil on wood. H. 1.30, w. 1.00. 

215 



PONTORMO 

Once in the collection of Dona Isabel Farnesio, Palacio de San Ildef. 
Attributed to Pontormo but, as Morelli recognized long ago, it shows no trace 
of the master's hand. 

Eeprod. Photo. Braun 50340. 

Bibl. Catdlogo de los cuadros del Museo national de pintura y escultura, Don Pedro 
de Madrazo, ampliado por D. Salvador Viniegra, novena edicion, Madrid, 1904, p. 48; 
idem, 10th ed., 1910, p. 54; French ed., 1913, p. 61; Appunti del senator e Giov. Morelli a 
proposito della Galleria del Prado, Archivio storico dell' arte, VII (1894), 65. 



385. MADONNA AND CHILD 

The Child stands erect on the lap of the Madonna who raises her veil. To the left, 
an archangel holding a book crouches on the steps of the Virgin's seat; to the right 
St. Joseph seated on the ground; in the middle ground, St. Elizabeth leads the young 
St. John; the background, a landscape. At St. Joseph's feet, Andrea's monogram. 
- Oil on wood. 

Ascribed to Andrea; believed by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to show in the 
drawing and colour the hand of Pontormo. Not mentioned by Berenson. 
I have not seen this picture. Hutton mentions several replicas: a damaged 
school copy (oil on wood), at Dudley House; a later copy by a clever imitator 
of Del Sarto in the collection of Mr. Holford in London; another of later 
date on canvas, without signature, at Ince, near Liverpool. 

Condition: damaged. 

Bibl. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 510. 



MILAN 

Collection of Prince Trivulzio 

PORTRAIT OF A RINUCCINI LADY 
Bibl. B. F. P. E., p. 176. 

MONTPELLIER 

Musee Fabre 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN 

Bust figure turned three-quarters left, the head nearly full face; he holds his mantle 
with his right hand; his hair falls almost to his shoulders; he wears a white shirt and a 
black vest. 

Oil. H. .61, w. .51. 

216 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

Originally attributed by Fabre and Canova to Raphael ; by certain critics 
to Ridolfo Ghirlandaio ; by others to Francia. Others have thought that they 
could detect here the hand of Pontormo. Their opinion need no longer 
complicate the problem of the authorship of this portrait which, as Berenson 
has clearly demonstrated, is a Brescianino. 

Keprod. Engraving by Dimier, article by Gonse cited below; fig., article by Berenson 
cited below. 

Bibl. Inventaire general des richesses d 'art de la France, Province, Monuments civils, 
Paris, 1878, I, 247; Gonse, Le portrait d'homme du Musee de Montpellier, Gazette des 
beaux-arts, 2e s6rie, XII, 114 ff. ; Benouvier, Musee de Montpellier, Gazette des beaux- 
arts, V, 8; Passavant, Eaphael, trad, fran., 1860, 88, 367; Berenson, Le portrait 
Eaphaelesque de Montpellier, Gazette des beaux-arts, XLIX (1907), 208 ff. 



MUNICH 

Alte Pinakothek 

1090. MADONNA AND CHILD 

The Virgin is seated on the ground full face, her knees turned to the left; she wears 
a bright red tunic with dark green sleeves, a purplish scarf over her hair and a dark blue 
mantle. Her right hand is laid on the top of an open book on which one reads in the 
midst of indecipherable lines: IACOPO] DAPUN| NO. In the margin we distinguish 
the capitals Q|N|O. With her left hand the Virgin holds the naked Christ Child who 
nestles in her lap, his left hand laid upon her knee. He is turned three-quarters left and 
gazes up at his mother. In the background, to the right, there are little figures of St. 
Joseph in pale blue, St. Elizabeth in purple skirt, bodice with red sleeves and white head- 
dress, and the little St. John who is nude except for a scarf tied over his right shoulder. 
He holds a basket for St. Joseph who is in the act of stepping on to a stool. St. Elizabeth, 
turned three-quarters to the right, stands in an archway reading. Above her, over a 
parapet, a woman's figure leans. Behind the Virgin's head and shoulders, houses and to 
the left, the pyramidal tops of two campaniles. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.20, w. 1.01. 

From the King's private collection. Attributed to Pontormo and con- 
sidered to be genuine by Morelli; not mentioned by Vasari; not cited by 
Berenson. Goldschmidt calls it a "signiertes Spatwerk," although the 
inscription is a late addition. This panel is a copy of a lost original by 
Pontormo which must have dated from about 1540-1550. The smooth and 
dry flesh-painting, the feeble and heavy feeling for form give but little hint 
of the quality of the original. The composition, however, was famous. A 
number of other copies are known: one, a mere ruin, in the Royal Villa at 
Castello, near Florence; another (modified) in the office of Sir Frederick 
Cook, St. Paul's Churchyard, London; others in the former Galleria Ferroni, 
now in the Cenacolo di Foligno, Via Faenza, Florence, in a private collection 
in Berlin, at Hampton Court, No. 193 (249), and in the collection of 
Mr. Vernon Watney, at Cornbury Park, Oxford. A good copy, once ascribed 
to Bronzino but really by Naldini and bearing the date 1561, has recently 

217 



PONTORMO 

been taken from the store-rooms of the Boston Museum and placed on 
exhibition there. The composition also appears in a poor black-chalk drawing, 
in the Uffizi (No. 6629), that dates in all probability from the eighteenth 
century. See in this catalogue, under the collections cited. 

Condition: heavily repainted on the Virgin's mantle and head-dress and on the 
drapery of the figures of the background. 

Reprod. Photo. Bruckmann, Munich, 1897; for other copies, see above. 

Bibl. Von Eeber, Katalog der Gemalde- Sammlung d. Tconigl. dlteren Pinakothelc in 
Miinchen, Miinchen, 3908, p. 233; Morelli, Munich and Dresden Galleries, 1893, p. 101; 
ed. 1904, p. 240; English ed., p. 220; Catalogue of the Paintings at Doughty House, Bich- 
mond, ed. by Herbert Cook, London, 1913, p. 47. 



Rohrer Collection 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG MAN 

Bust figure, life-size. Dark hair, large ears, and eyes that look at the spectator. 
Dressed in a black silk coat, slashed on the arms and simply embroidered about the neck 
and down the front, a simple, white collar embroidered at the edge and a black cap. He 
is just taking a sheet of paper from an inside pocket. On this sheet the notes and words 
of the beginning of a madrigal are written and in the lower left corner, the date 1547. 

Oil on poplar wood. H. .584, w. .498. 

Ascribed to Pontormo by Schmidt ; but the heavy, glossy colour, the fussy 
modelling, the uneasy naturalism, and the absence of any amplitude of 
conception show that this panel has obvious affinities with the later manner 
of Salviati to whom it is ascribed by Voss, but of whose work I do not consider 
it to be an authentic example. 

Eeprod. Schmidt, article cited below, pi. 29, No. 2; Voss, article cited below, fig. 4. 

Bibl. Wilhelm Schmidt, Gemalde aus der Sammlung Bohrer, Monatshefte fur Kunst- 
wissenschaft, 1910, p. 141; Hermann Voss, Italienische Gemalde des 16 und 17 Jahrhunderts 
in der Galerie des Kunsthistorischen Hofmuseums zu Wien, Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, 
1912, pp. 41-43; Gamba, Alcuni ritratti di Cecchino Salviati, Bassegna d' arte, IX (1909), 4. 



NAPLES 

Museo Nazionale 

14. CARDINAL KNEELING AT THE FEET OF CHRIST 

Oil on wood. 

Ascribed to Pontormo by Monaco. The panel has however no connection 
with Jacopo's work. It is not now exhibited. 

Bibl. Monaco, Handbook to the National Museum of Naples, trans. Eolfe, 1883, p. 
196; Aldo de Einaldis, Guide illustrata del Museo Nazionale di Napoli, Napoli, 1911, 560; 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Borenius, London, 1914, VI, 196. 

218 



ATTRIBUTED PICTUEES 

17 X, 10. MADONNA AND CHILD WITH ANGELS 

Oil on wood. H. 1.15, w. .86. 

Originally ascribed to Andrea del Sarto. In inventory S. 84163 it is 
attributed to Pontormo with whose work it has no connection. The original 
of this picture is in the Prado ; a replica of the Naples copy, and like it falsely 
ascribed to Andrea, hangs in the Borghese Gallery. The present panel comes 
from the Palazzo del Giardino, Parma (inv. 1680), and Naples, Capodimonte 
(inv. A. 101 Andrea del Sarto ; inv. S. G. 275 copy of Andrea del Sarto) . 

Bibl. De Einaldis, catalogue cited above, p. 40. 

18 XIV, 16. PORTRAIT OF TWO ARCHITECTS 

Dated M.D.LVI. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.20, w. .90. 

Anciently ascribed to Andrea del Sarto; by De Rinaldis to a follower 
of Bronzino and Pontormo. Borenius thinks it a "mixture of Bronzino and 
Pontormo." The picture shows little direct influence of Jacopo. 

Eeprod. Photo. Anderson 5494 ; Brogi 6760. 

Bibl. De Einaldis, catalogue cited above, p. 41 ff. ; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. 
Borenius, London, 1914, p. 196. 

20 XIV, 4. PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN 

Bust figure. She is blond and wears a large necklace wound twice around her neck, 
a bodice with large sleeves, and holds in her hand an open book bound in red. She looks 
at the spectator. 

Oil on wood. H. .68, w. .49. 

This portrait, which came originally from the Palazzo Farnese in Rome 
(inv. 1697, No. 151), was later at Capodimonte, Naples (inv. A. 11009) and 
was there ascribed to the ' ' School of Leonardo. ' ' In the inventory S. G. 309, 
it is attributed to Bronzino. De Rinaldis ascribes it to the "School of 
Pontormo." It would seem to be from the "bottega" of Allori. The hands 
are well drawn but the colouring is crude and the modelling feeble. 

Eeprod. Photo. Anderson 5496. 

Bibl. De Einaldis, catalogue cited above, p. 43. 

22, VIII, 13. VENUS AND CUPID 

Oil on wood. H. 1.34, w. 1.95. 

Once ascribed to Bronzino. It is however a copy with slight modifications 
of the "Venus and Cupid" of the TJffizi. The same long, bony forefinger 
occurs here. De Rinaldis gives it to Alessandro Allori. Provenance : Parma, 

219 



PONTORMO 

Palazzo del Giardino (inv. 1680) where it was ascribed to Giovanni Bellini; 
Naples, Capodimonte, and later Palazzo Reale (inv. A. 11656 Agnolo 
Bronzino ; inv. S. 84068 idem) . 

Eeprod. Photo. Brogi 6772; Thode, Michelangelo, III, 487. 

Bibl. De Einaldis, catalogue cited above, p. 46; Thode, op. tit., Ill, 485. 

682, XXV. VENUS AND CUPID 

Cartoon. H. 1.30, w. 2.12. 

Once held to be Michelangelo's original cartoon for the "Venus and 
Cupid" painted for Bettini by Pontormo. Thode preserves the traditional 
attribution, although it is quite evident that this is merely a late and mediocre 
copy of Jacopo's picture. Provenance : Palazzo Farnese in Rome (inv. 86654) . 

Bibl. De Rinaldis, catalogue cited below, p. 554. 



NEW HAVEN 

Jarves Collection 
Yale University 

78 (100). PORTRAIT OF COSIMO I 

Bust figure nearly full face. His hair and beard are dark brown, his complexion 
bronzed and his blue eyes look at the spectator. He wears a dark velvet coat with 
embroidered fastenings, a broad turned-down plain white collar, a heavy flat gold chain 
with links of elaborate design alternating with others smaller, in each of which a pearl. 
The background is dark, ripe-olive green. On the upper left corner of the back of the 
panel, a seal. 

Oil on wood (the panel is made up of three pieces). H. .61, w. .48. 

Originally ascribed to Pontormo and considered to be authentic by 
Berenson. This is however a weak copy from the "bottega" of Alessandro 
Allori of a portrait painted by Pontormo at the very end of his career. Under 
the somewhat dejected air of the copy we still catch a hint of the severity 
of vision of the original. The chain is identical with that which one sees 
in the former Sedelmeyer portrait cited below, except that in the present 
panel the pendant is not visible. It is, of course, the insignia of the Golden 
Fleece which was given to Cosimo by the Emperor in 1546. The original 
must, therefore, have been painted after that date. Many portraits exist 
related either to the prototype of our portrait or to a similar and contempo- 
raneous portrait by Bronzino which Vasari (VII, 601) mentions that Agnolo 
painted when the Duke was forty years of age, namely in 1549-1550. In all 
of these the head is seen in exactly the same pose, but the dress or the pose 
of the body is different. Among them we may point out the following, citing 

220 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

them according to the apparent age at which Cosimo is represented: (1) The 
bust portrait, in Vienna, with shoulders turned slightly to the right, ascribed 
to Bronzino but really a "bottega" copy. (2) Vasari's full-length portrait, 
once ascribed to Pontormo and now in the Chapel of Leo X, in the Palazzo 
Vecchio. (3) The bust portrait ascribed to Bronzino in the Pitti, in which 
the Duke wears the same collar as in No. 1, but over a doublet trimmed with 
fur. (4) The half-length portrait, which was once in the Sedelmeyer 
Collection (No. 99), in which Cosimo, with shoulders turned threes-quarters 
left, wears a lace collar and the Order of the Golden Fleece. (5) A similar 
portrait, once in the same collection and ascribed to Bronzino (No. 101), in 
which the shoulders are turned the other way. Dr. Siren informs me that a 
portrait of the same description exists in the collection of the Principe del 
Drago. 

Condition: fair; cracked where the boards of the panel join. 

Date of the original: 1546-1556. 

Eeprod. Photo. Bandall, 11 Pratt Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Bibl. Descriptive Catalogue of ' ' Old Masters ' ' Collected by James J. Jarves, 
Cambridge, 1860; Manual of the Jarves Collection, Russell Sturgis, Jr., New Haven, 1868, 
p. 84; Catalogue Sedelmeyer, pp. 88, 112; Siren, Catalogue of the Jarves Collection, New 
Haven, 1916. 

79 (99). MARTYRDOM OF ST. MAURICE 

Oil on wood. H. .28, w. .28. 

A poor and modified copy, made, it would seem, in Florence at the end 
of the sixteenth century, of Pontormo 's picture, now in the Pitti (No. 182). 
The 1860 catalogue of the collection considered the present panel to be 
authentic but weak. It has been drastically cleaned and the general tone is 
now a misty grey. The size is slightly larger than the original which has 
been cut down. The copy reveals, therefore, a trifle more of the figures on 
both sides of the composition. 

Condition: seriously injured, especially the hand of the judge; the panel is warped 
and the colours, except the orange, completely faded. 
Eeprod. Photo. Eandall. 
Bibl. Descriptive Catalogue, p. 57; Manual, p. 84; Sir6n, op. cit. 

98 (104). PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

Half -length, seen facing, her left hand resting on a table (?), her index finger keeps 
her place between the leaves of a book. She has dark brown hair parted in the middle, 
grey-blue eyes and wears a black dress cut square and low at the neck and edged with a 
fine embroidery of gold, a white chemisette open in V-form at the throat, and a white 
cap with a veil over it. Around her neck, a gold chain knotted in front from which hangs 
a gold medallion of a man's head profile left; on her forefinger, a gold ring. The book is 
bound in reddish leather ornamented with three parallel gold lines. The background is a 
grey-green landscape valley, hills and trees ; the sky, dark grey-blue. 

Oil on wood (the original part of the panel is made up of five pieces). H. .64, w. .48. 

221 



PONTOKMO 

Attributed to Sebastiano del Piombo by the author of the catalogue of 
1860, an attribution for which there is not the slightest foundation, as there 
is none for identifying the person represented as Vittoria Colonna. The 
same writer feels that this somewhat stiff and inexpressive picture unites 
"the warm, rich, grave tones of the Venetian School to the strength and 
boldness of design of Michelangelo." Russell Sturgis in his Manual follows 
this early attribution. Berenson ascribes the picture to Pontormo. It is 
however, according to Dr. Siren, with whose opinion I completely concur, 
a Ferrarese work and has probably a certain connection with the art of 
Dosso Dossi. This portrait is really only a fragment, has suffered not a little, 
and has lately been thoroughly cleaned in connection with which restoration 
it became clear that the lower part of the panel, from just above the medallion 
downwards, is a late addition. For the iconography of Vittoria Colonna, see 
under "Portrait of Vittoria Colonna," Casa Buonarotti. 

Condition: injured, rubbed, and repainted about the face; recently restored; a 
vertical crack across the face; the lower part of the composition is spurious. 
Eeprod. Photo. Eandall. 
Bibl. Catalogues cited above; Manual, p. 84 f. 



NEW YORK 

Ehrich Galleries 
PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Half-length, seated three-quarters left, the head almost full face. He looks at the 
spectator. His left hand rests on the arm of his chair, his right is raised and holds a 
small open book on which one distinguishes the letters X. A.| F. V. P.| . . . 558. He wears 
a beard and is dressed in a dark coat with white collar and cuffs, and a large black hat. 
Behind him, a dark brownish green curtain and, to the left, sky, clouds, and a little land- 
scape of river, ruins, tower and hill. The flesh-tints are brownish. 

Oil on wood. H. 32$ in., w. 28 in. 

Ascribed to Pontormo, with whose work it shows no relation. The 
colouring, the modelling, the drawing of the eye, as well as many other 
details, make it certain that this is a Cremonese picture, and probably the 
work of Giulio Campi. 

Eeprod. Photo. The Ehrich Galleries. 

Wildenstein Collection 
PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Bust figure, profile left, the head three-quarters left. He looks at the spectator. In 
his right hand he holds a little book. He has a thin square beard and wears a dark cap 
and coat with a narrow white collar. 

Oil on wood. 

222 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

In 1905 this portrait was, if I am not mistaken, in the Constantini 
Collection in Florence where it was quite arbitrarily ascribed to Pontormo. 
It was originally attributed to Andrea an attribution which Perkins and, 
it would appear, Berenson believe to be correct. 

Condition: retouched. 

Reprod. Photo. Eeali; fig., Rassegna d' arte, article cited below. 

Bibl. F. Mason Perkins, Miscellanea, Eassegna d' arte, XV (1915), 122. 



OXFORD 

Cornbury Park 
Collection of Mr. Vernon Watney 

MADONNA AND CHILD 

Copy of the picture ascribed to Pontormo in the Alte Pinakothek, Munich 
(No. 1090). For other copies, see in this division of the catalogue, under 
Berlin; Boston; Florence, Cenacolo di Foligno, Collection Ferroni; Hampton 
Court; London, Cook Collection; Munich, Alte Pinakothek. 



PALERMO 

Museo Nazionale 



406. JUDITH 



Believed by Berenson to be an example of Jacopo's later manner. It is 
however, according to Gamba, a replica of the " Judith" by Jacopo Ligozzi 
of Verona, now in the Pitti Palace. 

Bibl. B. F. P. E., p. 177. 



PANSHANGER 

Collection of Lady Desborough 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 

Three-quarter length; dressed in black with velvet bands about the jerkin, a white 
shirt showing on the breast; three-cornered black hat. He writes at a table covered with 
a striped cloth of red, yellow, yellow-green, and slate colour. Background, dark grey. 

Oil on wood. H. .92, w. .67. 

223 



PONTOKMO 

Exhibited Manchester, 1857; Burlington House, 1881. Ascribed to 
Andrea. This portrait, which has a superficial resemblance to the work of 
Pontormo, has been given to him by certain critics, but it is, of course, not 
authentic. The colouring clearly recalls that of the "Portrait of a Youth 
with a Lute," in the Jacquemart- Andre Collection in Paris, which is also 
unauthentic. The present panel bears an inscription: "8 Dicenbre. Mastro 
Domenico assai mi chamo sod ... to verso di voi avendo strato ( ?) propinquo 
ingenio per dimostrarmi qual proprio a ... sono . . . tanto . . . molto obrigato 
1523 . . . Andr ..." Crowe and Cavalcaselle believed the portrait to be a 
genuine Andrea and of fine quality. Neither Hutton nor Borenius dissents 
from their opinion. On considerations of style and modelling Gamba ascribes 
it to Puligo, assuming that the ' ' Domenico ' ' of the picture is none other than 
the artist himself. 

Keprod. Photo. Braun; fig., article cited below, pp. 278-279. 

Bibl. Gamba, Di alcuni ritratti del Puligo, Eivista d' arte. VI (1909), 280; Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 513; ed. Borenius, VI, 201; Waagen, Treasures of Art, 
III, 11. 



PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

Dressed in red; half-length. In front of her, a parapet covered with a green cloth 
on which lies a book of music, the "Canzoniere del Petrarca," and, to the left, a third 
book closed. On the parapet: TV DBA TV PRESES NOSTRO SVCCVRE; LABORI; 
and on one of the capitals: MELIORA LATENT. Background: on one side, pilasters; 
on the other, a landscape. 

Oil on wood. H. .96, w. .79. 

Exhibited Burlington House, 1881; at the Grafton Galleries (No. 49) 
in 1909-1910. Falsely ascribed to Andrea of whose later work Waagen and 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle believed it to be an example. Neither Hutton nor 
Borenius dissents from the traditional opinion. Some critics have suggested 
that it is a Pontormo but it shows no trace of his hand. Gamba believes it 
to be a Puligo and proposes that it be identified with the latter 's lost ' ' Portrait 
of Barbara Cortegiana, " which is mentioned by Vasari and which Berenson, 
on the contrary, identifies with the ' ' Santa Barbara, ' ' now in the Hermitage. 
The panel has, I think, been rather unhappily cleaned, but there is something 
in the modelling, the type of the face, the hands, and the colour, which makes 
me practically certain that it is by Granacci. It should be compared with his 
' ' Assumption of the Virgin, ' ' now in the Academy, at Florence. 

Reprod. Photo. Gray; Braun 37397; fig., Gamba, article cited below; catalogue 
published by Heinemann cited below. 

Bibl. Waagen, op. cit., Ill, 11; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. 1864-1866, III, 585; 
ed. Hutton, III, 513; ed. Borenius, VI, 201; Catalogue of the National Loan Exhibition, 
London: Heinemann, 1910, p. 69; Catalogue of the National Loan Exhibition, Ballantyne 
and Co., p. 49; Gamba, Di alcuni ritratti del Puligo, Eivista d' arte, VI (1909), 281. 



224 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

PARIS 

Jacquemart- Andre Collection 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH WITH A LUTE 

Half -length; turned three-quarters right and seated in an arm-chair before a table. 
His grey -blue eyes look at the spectator. In his lap he holds a large six (double) string 
light brown lute, on which he plays; before him on the table a book of music lies open. 
He wears a coat of dark violet-brown stuff with large slashed sleeves trimmed with bands 
of black velvet and a black velvet hat ; through the slashings a lining of dark red is visible ; 
at the neck, a small white ruche. The table-cloth is striped dark red, black, dark grey, 
dark olive-grey, light red and yellow. In the background to the right, the brown cornice 
and pilasters of a massive cupboard on which a small brown statue of Cupid and three 
large books bound in dark violet leather, and tied with green ribbons; to the left, a 
looped-up dark green curtain. 

Oil on wood. 

Provenance unknown ; attributed to Pontormo but, close as is this portrait 
to the work of our master, the clumsy treatment of the hands, the hard 
inorganic folds, the somewhat vacant modelling of the face convince me that 
it is not his. It also lacks a certain largeness and calm in the composition 
that we have a right to expect from Jacopo. On the other hand the drawing 
of the ear, eye, and mouth do not suggest Salviati, and we do not find here 
his restless insistence on minor passages in the modelling. The colour recalls 
vividly a portrait of a youth writing at a table covered with a striped cloth, 
in Lady Desborough's collection, at Panshanger. Both may well be by the 
same hand. It would, of course, be pure conjecture to suggest that that hand 
was Giovann' Antonio Lappoli's and that the person represented in our 
portrait is Antonio da Lucca. But the present picture was certainly painted 
under the direct inspiration of Pontormo 's work, and it cannot date from 
before 1515 nor from after 1525. Jacopo had, as is well known, few pupils. 
Those directly in contact with the master, during this period, were Bronzino, 
Pichi, and Lappoli. Our panel cannot be by Bronzino whose earliest work 
in portraiture is based upon the manner Jacopo used after 1530. Of this 
the portraits of Panciatichi, Martelli, and Giannettino Doria furnish every 
proof. Of Pichi practically nothing is known. Lappoli, on the other hand, 
precisely during the years in which our portrait was painted, was busy 
copying the works of Pontormo and even, so Vasari affirms, helping him with 
others. We learn too from Vasari, who was an intimate friend of Lappoli's 
(both were Aretines) and who was in Florence during the years in question, 
that Lappoli, instead of working diligently at his art, gave himself up to 
various amusements in the house of Ser Raffaello di Sandro Zoppo, Cappellano 
in San Lorenzo. There he met and made a friend of Antonio da Lucca, 
"musico e senator di liuto eccellentissimo che allora era giovinetto" (VI, 7). 
Antonio taught Lappoli to play the lute, and Giovann' Antonio, as might 

225 



PONTORMO 

have been expected, painted Antonio's portrait "ritratti di naturale fra 
quali fu quello di detto messer Antonio da Lucca e quello di ser Raffaello, che 
sono molto buoni" (VI, 8). The personage represented in our portrait is not 
only ' ' sonator di liuto ' ' but ' ' giovinetto ' ' as well. Vasari tells us that Lappoli 
returned to Arezzo in 1523. 

Condition: good; repainted here and there, especially on the face, the left hand and 
parts of the robe. 

Date: 1518-1523. 
Reprod. Photo. Bulloz. 



Louvre 
1242. VISITATION 

Composition of thirteen figures on steps in front of a Eenaissance door flanked by 
two engaged columns. On next to the lowest step, a woman seated nearly profile right, 
the head three-quarters right; behind her, a woman standing, profile right, with a bundle 
on her head; behind the latter figure, an old woman with a staff, the head turned three- 
quarters left; behind and above these figures, a woman holding an infant in her arms, her 
head profile right. In the centre of the composition, the Madonna standing profile right 
receives St. Elizabeth who, standing profile left on the step below, bends her knee to the 
Virgin. To the right on the next lowest step, Zechariah, profile left, holding with his left 
arm against his hip a large book, his head three-quarters left; behind him, Joseph, his 
head three-quarters right, his left hand raised pointing to the Virgin. Behind Zechariah 
and above, a woman standing nearly full face; to the extreme right, an old man's head 
profile right. Inside the door to the right, two women. On the architrave, the inscription: 
W.HOC.MI.VT.VE. 

Oil on wood. H. 2.75, w. 1.68. 

Brought from Italy by Napoleon. Anciently attributed to Rosso. Villot 
was the first to notice that it is an old free copy of Pontormo's fresco of the 
"Visitation," in the courtyard of the Annunziata at Florence. The back- 
ground has been completely altered, the composition narrowed and heightened, 
the drapery and the colouring modified, the figures rearranged. Two figures, 
a woman to the left and the "putto" on the steps to the right, have been 
eliminated as well as the "Sacrifice of Isaac" which occupies the upper part 
of Pontormo's original fresco. The inscription also is different. It seems 
to me probable that this copy was made toward the end of the sixteenth 
century. Salle IV. 

Condition: excellent. 
Date: 1560-1570. 

Eeprod. Photo. Braun 11242; Landon, VII, pi. 33. 

Bibl. Filhol, XVI, 21-24; Catalogue Villot, No. 159, p. 93; Catalogue Tauzia, No. 
144; Notice des tableaux du Musee royal, pp. 218-219; Seymour De Eicci, Description, p. 41. 



226 



ATTEIBUTED PICTURES 

PHILADELPHIA 

Johnson Collection 

84. PORTRAIT OF BARTOLOMMEO DI LORENZO GUALTERETTI 

Half-length; he leans forward with his hands crossed on a brown parapet; he wears 
a black cap and black coat with embroidered collar and cuffs, one link of a gold chain 
appearing. In his jewelled fingers he holds a paper on which the motto: "Comporta 
et astiente. ' ' To the left, the base of a column on which the inscription : BAET DILOB 
GVALTEROTTT) D^Ti DANNI XLII| L'ANNO M-D-L- 

Oil on wood. H. .76, w. .58. 

Provenance unknown. Attributed to Pontormo by Berenson who con- 
siders it a typical work of our painter's last years. I do not however, after 
careful study, believe that it is authentic. 

Date: 1550. 

Bibl. Catalogue of a Collection of Paintings and some Art Objects : Italian Paintings, 
Berenson (Philadelphia: John G. Johnson, 1913), I, 46. 

Mclhlenny Collection 

PORTRAIT OF GIULIANO DE' GONDI 

Bust figure; the shoulders profile right, the head three-quarters right. He looks at 
the spectator, wears a long beard, has dark hair and eyes, and is dressed in a dark coat 
with a white collar. The background is olive-green. 

Oil on wood. 

Once in the Cernuschi Collection. Acquired in Milan and ascribed to 
Pontormo. This portrait might easily be mistaken for an authentic specimen 
of his portraiture were it not for the modelling of the eyes and nose and 
the brush-work of the hair and beard. On the back of the panel we find 
fhe following inscription in a handwriting of the second half of the sixteenth 
century: "Giuliano| di Lionardo pater] di Giuliano auus| de Lionardo pro 
auus| di Lionardo abauus| di Simone atauus| di Bart, tritauus) dj Casa de 
ghondj] Annos natur. xxxviij." 

Eeprod. The Chappel Studio, Philadelphia. 

Wanamaker Collection 
230. HOLY FAMILY 

Oil on wood. H. 45$ in., w. 37$ in. 

Ascribed to Pontormo without reason. It is a slightly modified copy 
of the well-known and signed "Holy Family" by Bronzino, now in Vienna 
(No. 49). Another ancient copy exists in the Louvre. 

Eeprod. Catalogue cited below, pi. 180. 

227 



PONTOKMO 

Bibl. Siter, Catalogue of the Wanamalcer Collection, p. 105. Cf. also Guiffrey, L' Arte, 
V (1902), 259; De Chennevieres, Gazette des beaux-arts, XXX (1903), 494; Nicolle, Eevue 
de I' art ancien et moderne, XVIII (1905), 190; Schulze, Bronzino, p. XXV. 



POGGIO A CAJANO 

The Great Hall in the Royal Villa 

LUNETTE: THE APPLES OF THE HESPERIDES 

Composition of ten figures. 
Fresco. 

This lunette, which faces Pontormo's fresco, has often and quite incor- 
rectly been attributed to Pontormo. The initial error was apparently due 
to Eaffaello Borghini 's somewhat misleading description of Jacopo 's ' ' Pomona 
and Vertumnus. ' ' The present lunette is, of course, by Alessandro Allori and 
dates from 1580-1582. Allori refers to it in his Ricordi: "... doue ho fatto 
dirimpetto all' arco di Jacopo da Puntormo tutto con gran (certa) inuentione 
del Revdo Priore delli Innocenti di Firenze Don Vincentio Borghini, Dio 
1 ' habbi in gloria, dove come ho detto nell ' arco di contro al detto di m Jacopo 
e figurato i pomi degli orti Esperidi guardati dalle Nimfe, da Ercole e dalla 
Fortuna..." 

Eeprod. Photo. Alinari 29441 (as Pontormo). 

Bibl. Bicordi di Alessandro Allori, Biblioteca della rivista d'arte, 1908, p. 29. 

ST. PETERSBURG 

Hermitage 
85. HOLY FAMILY 

The Virgin seated on the steps of an edifice holds on her knees the Christ Child and 
draws to her the little St. John whom the Infant Jesus takes by the hand; to the left, 
St. Elizabeth and St. Joseph seated. 

Oil on slate. H. .44, w. .31. 

Once in the Crozat Collection; anciently attributed to 'Parmigianino ; 
given to Pontormo by Bruiningk and Somof and by Goldschmidt; not 
mentioned by Berenson. I have not seen this picture. 

Bibl. Bruiningk and Somof, catalogue cited below, p. 57. Goldschmidt, op. cit. 
(dissertation), p. 47. 

25. SANTA BARBARA 

Half-length figure. She is dressed in a red mantle with a gilded belt and a sable 
cap; she wears a pearl necklace from which hangs a medallion on which one sees a cross. 
She holds in her hand a model of the tower in which she lived. Background, a drapery. 

Oil on wood. H. .92, w. .69. 

228 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

This panel was originally a portrait of a young woman; the tower she 
holds was added later, thus changing the picture into a "Santa Barbara." 
Acquired from the Crozat Collection by Catherine II. Anciently, and by 
Waagen, attributed to Andrea del Sarto; by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to 
Bacchiacca ; by Berenson to Puligo. The later compares it with a ' ' Madonna 
and Boy Saint" (photo. Anderson 5268) in the collection of Miss Hertz. 
Briiiningk and Somof suggest Jacopo as the author, and Guiness also finds 
it more akin to Pontormo than to Andrea. A careful comparison with 
Pontormo's "Portrait of a Young Girl," once in the Yerkes Collection adds 
to the plausibility of their suggestion. The panel, however, seems to have 
been so seriously altered by restoration and rehandling that any attribution 
must now be considered conjectural. Vasari mentions (IV, 465) that Puligo 
painted a portrait of Barbara, ' ' cortegiana fiorentina, ' ' which Borghini states 
was later in the possession of Giovambattista Deti who, to please his wife, had 
the music that Barbara held painted out and the symbols of Santa Lucia 
substituted (Riposo, ed. 1807, libro III, pp. 190 f.). If we assume, as Berenson 
does, that we have here the Puligo portrait mentioned by Vasari, we must 
also assume that Borghini wrote Santa Lucia when he meant Santa Barbara. 
But the picture does not seem to me to be by Puligo and I do not think that 
his "Barbara" should be identified with it. Gamba (Rivista d' arte, VI, 280) 
believes that the Puligo portrait in question is the "Portrait of a Woman 
with a Book of Music, ' ' in Panshanger, and that the attributes of Santa Lucia 
were removed in a cleaning which that panel underwent at an unknown date. 
This latter portrait, however, seems to be a Granacci. 

Condition: seriously rehandled; transferred from wood to canvas in 1817. 

Date: 1515-3535. 

Eeprod. Photo. Braun; fig., Hermitage Gallery, 1912, p. 197. 

Bibl. Catalogues de ventes et livrets de salons: Catalogue de la Collection Crozat 
fl755), Paris, 1909; Ermitage imperial, Catalogue de la galerie des tableaux, 2d ed., St. 
Petersbourg, 1869; Briiiningk et Somof, Ermitage imperial, St. Petersbourg, 1891, p. 158; 
Somof, Catalogue de la galerie des tableaux, 1909, p. 44; Waagen, Die Gemdldesammlung 
in der Tcaiserlichen Eremitage zu St. Petersburg, St. Petersburg, 1870, p. 40; Guiness, 
Andrea del Sarto, London, 1899, p. 97; Hermitage Gallery (in Russian), 1912, p. 197; 
B. F. D., I, 298 f. 



ROME 

Borghese Gallery 

74. PORTRAIT OF A MAGISTRATE 

Three-quarter length; badly seated or standing turned three-quarters left; his right 
hand rests on the table beside him, his left on the arm of a chair. His complexion and 
eyes are dark, his hair grey, curly and scant on the top of the head. He wears a sleeveless 
deep red velvet robe and brown undergarment with white at the throat and wrists. The 
table-cover is light green, the background dark grey-green, to the left a grey-brown column, 
to the right, a pilaster of the same stone-colour. In his right hand, a folded letter. On it 

229 



an address almost illegible which seems to read: A hon^ Me Fala . . . Canezini . . . Jacimo] 
oraf o . . . Jn firenz. On the flap of the letter : Lui. 
Oil on wood. H. .97, w. .75. 

From the original Borghese Collection ; anciently attributed to Bronzino. 
A work of Pontormo's seems once to have existed on this panel, but in its 
present state only shadowy traces of his hand show here and there. 

Condition: ruined and completely repainted. 

Date: 1538-1543. 

Eeprod. Photo. Moscioni 21172. 

Bibl. Venturi, Galleria Borghese, 1893, p. 72 ; Laf enestre, Borne, p. 44. 

79. PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN 

Oil on slate. H. 1.12, w. .79. 

Once ascribed to Pontormo; it is probably a product of the workshop 
of Bronzino. Cf. the following. 

Bibl. Schulze, Bronzino, p. XXVIII; Laf enestre, op. cit., p. 14. 

100. PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN 

Oil on slate. H. 1.12, w. .79. 
Cf. the preceding. 

173. TOBIAS AND THE ANGEL 

The angel stands facing, his head turned three-quarters right looking down at 
Tobias; he is thick-set, has curly light brown hair and dark brown eyes, a long oval face 
and halo and wears a scarlet mantle edged with gold and knotted on the left shoulder, a 
violet tunic shot with green, white undersleeves with violet-pink shadows, and purple wings 
catching a yellow light. His hands are short with thick large palms; in the right he holds 
a golden bowl with spoon and cover half open; in his left hand, the right hand of Tobias. 
To the right Tobias stands facing, his head seen in profile to the left, his eyes raised to 
the angel's are dark brown, his hair curly and brown with an aureole of golden spikes; 
he wears a violet grey tunic edged with gold, showing white lace at the neck and trimmed 
with a collar of yellow fur and a blue waist -band, light grey undersleeves, green hose, grey 
boots, grey hat hung on his left shoulder and a brown cloak that falls behind him from 
his right shoulder and is caught up in front by his left arm; this cloak is yellow where 
it catches the light; the fish which is green is held against his left hip. To the left of the 
angel, a little white dog. The sky is a greenish blue with white clouds, the horizon violet- 
pink fading to white; the distant landscape is pale green, the foreground, brown. On 
the back of the panel: "Iscrizione fide commissaria| del di 3 Giugno 1834| Nota 2 a lett a 
B| Baffaellino da Reggio| Largo pol 2 oni 4 alto pol 3 oni 4." 

Oil on wood. H. .75, w. .53. 

Provenance unknown; not mentioned by Vasari; anciently ascribed to 
Andrea; by the catalogue to the Tuscan School of the sixteenth century; 
by Venturi to a feeble imitator of Andrea. The attribution to Pontormo is 
Berenson's. The hands are broad, the fingers short, the feet badly drawn. 
The finish is here and there that of a miniature. Other variants of this 
composition, scattered through the galleries of Europe, indicate an archetype, 

230 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

now lost, which was perhaps by Andrea. One of these variants is in the 
Pitti (No. 292). There is another in the Corsini Gallery, Florence (No. 113), 
which is ascribed to Andrea but which is in colour reminiscent of Bacchiacca 
(oil on copper, h. .35, w. .26). Another and later derivative exists in the 
New York Public Library. The present panel is probably a Eidolfo Ghir- 
landaio, although repainting, especially on the hands, has obscured the 
original touch. It should be compared with Eidolfo 's ''Nativity," which 
was painted for the Cestello and which is now in the Museum of Budapest. 

Condition: repainted. 

Date: 1534-1535. 

Beprod. Photo. Moscioni 21212 (as Andrea). 

Bibl. Venturi, catalogue cited above. 

"PORTRAIT OF C.ZESAR BORGIA" 

Half-length turned three-quarters left; his hands upon his hips, in his right, a 
dagger. He has a light beard and moustache and wears a dark doublet with light slashed 
sleeves over a dark lining, embroidered ruffs at the wrists, dark cap with small gold 
ornaments on it and, to the right, a large drooping feather. 

Once in the Borghese Gallery from which it was stolen some years ago. 
The original attribution gave this panel to Raphael. Recently some have 
suggested that it is a Pontormo. I have seen it only in photograph, and it 
seems to me to show not the slightest trace of his hand. Bode places it about 
1525-1530; Morelli ascribes it to Bronzino; Crowe describes it as a mixture 
of Raphael, Parmigianino, Bronzino and Giulio Romano; Bruckhardt gives 
it to Giorgio Perez, Miindler to Parmigianino. The personage represented 
is not Caesar Borgia. 

-> Condition: a piece added on all sides. 

Eeprod. Photo. Anderson 1085 (as Eaphael) ; fig., Archivio storico dell' arte, V, 3. 

Bibl. Yriarte, Les portraits de Cesare Borgia, Gazette des beaux-arts, 2* pgr., XXXVI 
(1887), 200; Archivio storico dell' arte, V (1892), 3; Frizzoni, Giovanni Morelli, idem, 
1897, p. 87. 

Barbier de Montault (Musees et galeries de Home, Borne, 1870) ascribes quite arbi- 
trarily the following pictures in the Borghese Gallery to Pontormo : ' ' Madonna and Child, ' ' 
No. 70 of the first room, p. 347; " Besurrection of Jairus' Daughter," No. 73 of the 
thirteenth room, p. 367 ; ' ' Circumcision, ' ' No. 76 and ' ' The Burial of St. Thomas Aquinas, ' ' 
No. 80 of the same room, p. 387. The numbering has since been changed. 



Palazzo Giraud-Torlonia 

STORIES FROM THE LIFE OF JOSEPH 

Oil on wood. H. 1.65, w. .60. 

Two "cassone" panels ascribed by certain critics to Pontormo, by others 

231 



PONTORMO 

to Franciabigio. They are really by Granacci and their present whereabouts 
is unknown. 

Bibl. Lafenestre, Some, pp. 261 ff. ; Ulmann, Piero di Cosimo, Jahrbuch d. Tconigl. 
preuss. Samml., XVII (1896), 52. 



Palazzo Spada 
16. VISITATION 

The composition is a slightly modified replica of the "Visitation" by Andrea del 
Sarto, in the cloister of the Scalzo. Andrea's fresco is in monochrome; the present panel 
has the following colour-scheme: Zacharias wears a light green cap, mantle and shoes, 
yellow sleeves and dark yellow stockings; under his arm, a greyish green bag; Joseph, a 
greenish white mantle; Mary, whose hair is red and is tied with a light green ribbon, a 
dark greenish blue mantle with yellow sleeves, a scarlet tunic and grey-green slippers; 
Elizabeth, a dark blue-green robe, yellow mantle, and over her head, a white scarf; the 
serving-maid, a pink dress, in her hands a bundle of linen in a blue-green cloth, on her 
head, a white scarf; the serving-man, a blue-green doublet, garter and shoes, pink hose and 
belt ; on his head a yellow bundle, in his right hand a white basin ; all the saints have haloes 
of fine gold; the steps are grey-green, the foreground, pinkish brown. 

Oil on wood. H. .65, w. .88. 

This panel, once ascribed to Andrea, is a small copy of the fresco in the 
Scalzo that Del Sarto finished, according to the documents, (A. S. F., Scalzo, 
Debitori e Creditor! B., 1514-1535, p. 106), in November, 1524. The touch 
recalls to a certain degree Jacopo 's early work, but after 1524 his feeling for 
form was quite other than that which is revealed by the present panel. It 
is conceivable that our copy was made by Lappoli or by Pierfrancesco 
di Jacopo who are known to have copied some of the frescoes of the Scalzo 
(Vasari, VI, 8). Crowe and Cavalcaselle consider that it was executed in 
the "bottega" of Andrea. 

Condition: excellent. 

Date: after 1524. 

Eeprod. Photo. Anderson 5680 (as Pontormo). 

Bibl. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 509; ed. Borenius, VI, 195. 

PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL FABRIZIO SPADA AND HIS SECRETARY 

The cardinal is seated, turned three-quarters right, in a Savonarola chair, his head 
three-quarters left. He wears a light red cap and scarlet watered silk cape over a white 
embroidered cassock. He holds in his right hand a book that he has just been reading, 
his index finger between the leaves. To the right stands his secretary, turned three-quarters 
left. He wears a dark soutane with a white linen collar. He is partially bald and has 
a pointed beard. In his hands, a book from which he has just ceased to read. 

Once ascribed to Pontormo; it is quite evidently by Pulzone, and was 
exhibited under the latter name in the Exhibition of Portraits in the Palazzo 
Vecchio, in 1911. 

Eeprod. Photo. Anderson 5684. 

232 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Seated in a Dante chair by a table and turned three-quarters left. He has a brown 
beard that is turning grey and dark hair. He is dressed in a black coat with long frog 
fastenings, white collar edged with embroidery and white cuffs. On the table, an oriental 
table-cloth and a black inkstand with a quill pen in it. The table-cloth recalls that of the 
"Portrait of Cardinal Cervini, " in the Borghese, but it is more thinly painted and has 
a border of a different design. In his right hand he holds a letter on which : " Al M . . . " 
The rest of the inscription is illegible. His left hand rests on the arm of the chair. In 
the upper right corner, a curtain with a light fringe. 

This portrait, which is falsely ascribed to Pontormo, dates from the second 
half of the sixteenth century. 

Eeprod. Photo. Anderson 5679 (as Pontormo). 

Rospigliosi Collection 

PORTRAIT OF FRANCESCO DE' MEDICI 

Half-length turned three-quarters left. He has dark short hair and wears a dark 
doublet with trimming of embroidered bands and a white embroidered collar; over his right 
shoulder, a drapery of lighter stuff. His left hand is laid on a very large and elaborate 
helmet, the lower part of which forms a monster's head, and the crest, a winged buck. It 
is crowned with black and white ostrich plumes. 

Oil on wood. H. about .90, w. about .70. 

Once ascribed to Pontormo, attribution followed by Berenson in his first 
edition of Florentine Painters. This portrait, with another on the back of 
which was written "Leonardo de' Ginori," the authorship of which is 
unknown, passed in 1899 into the possession of an American doctor. Both 
were held by certain critics to be copies and both came originally from the 
Ginori Collection in Florence. I have not seen this picture, but, even from 
a photograph, it is evident that it shows no trace of Pontormo 's hand. 
Moreover in it Francesco, who appears as a youth of sixteen, is too old to 
have been painted by Pontormo. The modelling suggests that this picture 
or its original was executed in the workshop of a pupil of Bronzino's. 

Eeprod. Photo. Anderson 4742. 

Bibl. Venturi, Tesori d' arte inediti di Eoma, 1896. 



SCOTLAND 

New Battle Abbey, Dalkeith 
Collection of the Marquis of Lothian 

PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 

Bibl. B. F. P. E., p. 177. 

233 



PONTORMO 

STUTTGART 

Staatsgalerie 

449. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Half-length; seated, three-quarters right, in a Savonarola chair, the head turned 
slightly left, the eyes look at the spectator; the left hand clasps the right arm of the chair, 
the right hand rests on the back of the left hand; to the right, the corner of a table. He 
has a thin beard and moustache and wears a black cap and coat; the table and chair are 
light yellow-brown. Background, a dark brown pilaster left and a light green curtain right. 

Oil on wood. H. .78, w. .62. 

Once in the collection of the archbishop of Bamberg, later in that of 
the Oberkriegsrat Landauer. Anciently attributed to Sebastiano del Piombo, 
by Bayersdorfer to Alessandro Allori, by Rieffel and Schulze to Bronzino. 
Other critics have, in connection with this picture, suggested the name of our 
master although quite without reason. 

Condition: repainted. 
Date: about 1540-1560. 
Eeprod. Photo. Hoefle. 

Bibl. Schulze, Bronzino, 1911, p. XXIX; Lange-Tiibingen, Verseichnis der Gemalde- 
sammlung eu Stuttgart, 1907, p. 169. 

508 Me. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Half figure in a red mantle. 
Oil on wood. H. .93, w. .77. 

Once ascribed to Masaccio, later to Andrea del Sarto and called 
"Portrait of a Roman Prelate." On the back, in a handwriting of the early 
nineteenth century: "Franciseus Conterenus D* Nicolai D e Marie Canarensis 
Legatus in Etruria. MCCCCLIIII." Either this inscription is without 
foundation or the portrait is apochryphal for it seems to have been painted 
after 1560. It has been attributed to Pontormo by some critics and by others 
to Bronzino. Neither attribution deserves serious consideration. 

Eeprod. Photo. Hoefle; small cut, Eernach, Eeper., Ill, 411. 

Bibl. Verseichnis, p. 185; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Douglas, IV, 63. 



TURIN 

Regia Pinacoteca 

122. PORTRAIT OF A LADY 

Three-quarter length; seated, turned three-quarters left, in a Dante chair richly 
carved and ornamented with grotesque heads; her hands rest on the arms of the chair; 
she looks at the spectator. Her hair is light auburn and is bound up in a net; her eyes are 

234 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

light brown. She wears a gold-coloured satin gown open at the throat the bodice trimmed 
with darker velvet bands a lace collar, an ample red brocaded mantle trimmed with 
velvet. Her ornaments are: a string of pearls as edging to the net over her hair, pearl 
necklace, gold chain, bracelets, a ring on the index finger of the right hand, another on 
the ring-finger of the left hand; around her waist, and hanging down the front of her skirt, 
an enamelled gold chain set with rubies and sapphires and fastened at the waist with a 
clasp set with a cameo. In her left hand she holds a small book bound in black, tooled 
and mounted in silver and closed with a silver clasp. Background: grey-green; from the 
upper left corner an ample drapery of oriental gauze white striped with black and 
finished with a black fringe is drawn behind the chair and piled up on the right side 
of the picture. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.09, w. .85. 

Acquired in Genoa in 1824 when the Marchese Durazzo sold his palace 
and collection to the King of Sardinia. The traditional attribution of this 
portrait to Bronzino is retained in the catalogue of the gallery and by 
Jacobsen and Schulze. Berenson has suggested that it is a Pontormo and 
I am inclined to believe that his conjecture may be well founded, although 
a severe rehandling seems to have effaced much of the quality that we 
naturally expect from Jacopo and so diminished the possibility of deciding 
definitely in regard to the authenticity of this panel. The person represented, 
who reminds one of the lady of the Oldenburg portrait grown older, is 
generally believed to be Eleonora da Toledo and the identification, although 
iconographically without foundation, is accepted by Jacobsen. And in this 
connection it is interesting to note that the picture was not originally believed 
to be a likeness of Eleonora. It was D'Azeglio who first imagined that he 
could recognize here the features of the consort of Cosimo I an impression 
which led him to believe that the panel is a companion piece to No. 123 of 
this gallery, a ' ' Portrait of Cosimo I, ' ' ascribed to Bronzino, which the Grand 
Duke himself gave to Emmanuel Filiberto and which, therefore, has long 
been in the possession of the House of Savoy. 

Condition: repainted, especially about the hands and face. 

Date: 1534-1545. 

Eeprod. Lithograph by Pozzioli, inc. di Giov. Ballero in Robert! d ' Azeglio '&, La Eeale 
Galleria di Torino, Torino, 1836, pi. XXXIV; Schulze, Bronsino, pi. XVI; photo. Brogi 
2304. 

Bibl. Jacobsen, La Regia Pinacoteca di Torino, Archivio storico dell' arte, serie sec., 
Ill (1897), p. 130; Schulze, Die WerTce von Bronzinos, p. 30; D'Azeglio, op. cit., I, 219; 
Catalogo illust. della B. Pinacoteca di Torino, Vincenzo Bona, Torino, ed. 1909, p. 46, 
B. F. P. R., p. 177. 



130. HOLY FAMILY 

The Virgin is seated against a cliff overgrown with trees and shrubs; in her right 
hand, a book; in her left, a fold of drapery; her head is turned nearly profile left. She 
wears a turban and a pale red robe, a green scarf about her breast, a blue mantle across 
her lap. The Child, seated in her lap, holds in both hands a black bird. St. Anne is seated 
behind the Virgin to the left; she is draped in yellow with a white cloth over her head 
and neck. St. John sits astride of a red cloth in the foreground and plays with a lamb. 
Background, a wooded hill, and, on the right, a landscape. 

Oil on wood. H. 1.12, w. .81. 

235 



PONTORMO 

Formerly No. 109; provenance unknown; given to the Gallery by the 
Baron Ettore Garriod. Not mentioned by Vasari; not cited by Berenson. 
Though now ascribed to Pontormo, an attribution in which Jacobsen concurs, 
this panel is probably a late Naldini. It is certainly quite unworthy of Jacopo. 

Condition: badly repainted. 
Eeprod. Photo. Alinari 31399. 

Bibl. Catalogue cited in the preceding, p. 57 ; Jaeobsen, article cited in the preceding, 
p. 130. 



VENICE 

Museo Correr 
LEDA 

A copy of Michelangelo 's well-known composition. Once in the possession 
of the antiquarian, Cavaliere Favenza. Jacobsen believes it to be by a 
follower of Correggio. Thode without reason finds that it suggests Pontormo. 

Bibl. Thode, Krit. Unters., II, 319; Jacobsen, Bepertorium, XXII (1899), p. 28. 

VIENNA 

Belvedere 

45. PORTRAIT OF AN ELDERLY LADY 

Bust figure; turned three-quarters left; the eyes look three-quarters left. She has 
dark hair and eyes and wears a dark bodice with yellow-white chemisette open at the neck 
and a light yellow scarf over her hair. Dark background. 

Oil on poplar wood. H. .52, w. .42. 

This portrait entered the Gallery before 1824; provenance unknown; 
originally ascribed to the Florentine School; now attributed to Pontormo 
by the catalogue and by Berenson. Voss thinks that it is unauthentic, and, 
although I cite it in the "tableau chronologique " of my Dessins, I am now 
persuaded that it is in no way connected with the work of our master. 

Eeprod. Photo. Bruckmann, Munich, 1905. 

Bibl. Engerth, Kunsthistorische Sammlungen der allerhochsten Kaiserhauses, Wien, 
1881, I, 254; Fiihrer durch die Gemdlde-galerie, Alte Meister, Wien, 1895, p. 20; idem, 
1907, p. 15; Voss, Zeitschrift /. bildende Kunst, 1912, p. 44, n. 

46. HOLY FAMILY 

OH on wood. H. 1.09, w. .87. 

From the collection of Charles I of England. Once ascribed to Andrea; 
given by Waagen, Miindler, and Morelli to Bugiardini; by Engerth to 

236 



ATTRIBUTED PICTURES 

Bugiardini or Franciabigio ; by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to Pontormo. The 
picture is an evident Franciabigio to whom it is now generally attributed. 

Bibl. Engerth, I, 294; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Hutton, III, 509; ed. Borenius, 
VI, 196; Katalog, 1907, p. 15. 

50. PORTRAIT OF A YOUTH 

Half-length; turned three-quarters left. He is dressed in a dark jacket with 
embroidered white collar and slashed sleeves; at the wrists, a white ruche; on his head, a 
black cap. His hair is light brown and extends down in front of the ear. He holds in his 
hands a letter on the back of which his age is inscribed: "fAnj diciassetti Mesi| sej edj 
V. I firez. ' ' The four lines of writing of the letter itself are illegible. Background : the 
dark wooden panelling of a room with a cornice and, on either side, flat pilasters. 

Oil on poplar wood. H. .72, w. .58. 

Ultimate provenance unknown; once in the collection of the Archduke 
Ferdinand of the Tyrol ; cited in the Inventory of the Ambraser Collection in 
1719; brought to Vienna in 1773 (Uebergabs-Verzeichniss, No. 8). Mechel 
does not mention it. In Rosa's catalogue of 1804 (III, 93, No. 18), it appears 
as "School of Titian." In 1809 it was taken to Paris and returned in 1815. 
Krafft ascribes it to "Florentine School, perhaps Francesco Salviati." 
Wickoff attributes it erroneously to Santi di Tito ; Crowe and Cavalcaselle to 
Bronzino (early work) ; Berenson tentatively to Pontormo. It is, however, 
obviously a Salviati and should be compared with his "Portrait of Himself" 
and his "Portrait of a Youth" (No. 1256; photo. Brogi), both now in the 
Uffizi; with his fine "Portrait of a Man," now in the Corsini Collection, in 
Florence (No. 127) ; with the portrait, also by Salviati, which is ascribed to 
Girolamo da Treviso and identified as Poggio Bracciolini (photo. Alinari), 
now in the Colonna Gallery, in Rome, as well as with the so-called ' ' Tibaldeo ' ' 
of the Museo Nazionale of Naples. It is worthy of note that the background 
in the "Portrait of a Man," in the Uffizi, is identical with that of the present 
portrait, as is the treatment of the hair, the composition and the lace collar. 
The ear, the mouth, and the modelling of the cheek, recall Salviati 's ' ' Portrait 
of a Boy" (photo. Alinari), in the Poldi-Pezzoli. 

Condition: slightly damaged and repainted on the face and the hands. 

Date: 1530-1545. 

Eeprod. Photo. Braun 34029; Lowy, 354; fig. 6, article by Voss cited below. 

Bibl. Engerth, Gemalde, p. 253; catalogues of 1895 and 3896 cited above; B. F. P. E., 
p. 177; Voss, Italienische Gemalde des 16 und 17 Jahrhunderts in der Galerie des 
Kunsthistorischen Hof museums zu Wien, Zeitschrift f. "bildende Kunst, 1912, pp. 41-43; 
Gamba, Alcuni ritratti di Cecchino Salviati, Rassegna d' arte, IX (1909), pp. 4 f. Cf. also 
for the Poldi-Pezzoli portrait, idem, 1911, p. 9. 

52. MADONNA AND LITTLE ST. JOHN 

Oil on wood. H. 1.14, w. .88. 

Bought in 1780 from Major Sturione. Originally ascribed to Andrea. 
Engerth thought that it recalls Bugiardini. Crowe and Cavalcaselle remark, 

237 



PONTORMO 

without a shadow of reason, that this picture is "by Pontormo or Rosso 
imitating not so much Andrea as Franciabigio. " 

Bibl. Eosa, I, 122, No. 7; Engerth, I, 292; Crowe and Cavalcaselle, ed. Borenius, 
VI, 197. 

367. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Once in the possession of Karl VI ; ascribed to Perugino in the inventory 
of 1628; to Pontormo by Engerth (Gemalde, pp. 253 f.). According to 
Wickhoff it is a much repainted portrait of himself by Lomazzo for the medal 
of Prospero Fontana. 

Bibl. Wickhoff, Die Gemaldegalerie, Wien, 1907, p. 87. 



VOLTERRA 

Municipio 

DESCENT FROM THE CROSS 

Once in the cathedral. Erroneously ascribed to Pontormo in the edition 
of the Cicerone edited by Bode and Fabriczy. The picture is by Rosso. 

Keprod. Photo. Brogi 15339. 

Bibl. Der Cicerone, ed. 1904, III, 788. 



238 



CATALOGUE OF PICTURES ATTRIBUTED 

TO PONTORMO IN CATALOGUES OF 

SALES AND LOAN EXHIBITIONS 



CATALOGUE OF PICTURES ATTRIBUTED 

TO PONTORMO IN CATALOGUES OF 

SALES AND LOAN EXHIBITIONS 

Andros de la Rue Collection 

PORTRAIT OF THE DUKE OF URBINO WHEN A BOY 

He is dressed in black and holds a bird and a rattle. 
Oil on wood. H. 37i in., w. 22i in. 

Sold at Christie's, June 16, 1911, to Buttery for 105. 

Art Prices Current (1910-1911), p. 555; Auction Sale Prices, XIII (1911), p. 377. 



De Beurnonville Collection 



686. A SAINT 



She wears a pink robe and orange mantle and stands in a desert holding a palm and 
a stone. In the background, St. Anthony (?). 
Oil on copper. H. .21^, w. .16. 

Sold in 1881 for 90 francs. 

Mireur, Dictionnaire des ventes, II, 101; Catalogue des tableaux de M. le Baron de 
Beurnonville, Paris, 1881, p. 423. 



687. PORTRAIT OF VITTORIA COLONNA 

She wears a black robe, a yellow cape, a hood, and about her waist, a cord. 
Oil on wood. H. .30, w. .23. 

Sold for 200 francs. 

Mireur, loc. cit.; catalogue cited above, p. 424. 

241 



PONTORMO 

Brandus Galleries 

139. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

H. 24$ in., w. 19$ in. 

Sold at the American Art Association to S. Jackson for $55, April 6-7, 
1911. 



Collection of John Watkins Brett 

825. MADONNA AND CHILD 

Sold at Christie's, April 5, 1864. 

Catalogue of Pictures of John Watkins Brett, London, 1864, p. 61. 



Collection of the Late Charles Butler 

34. THE NAMING OF JOHN THE BAPTIST 

The infant St. John is presented by a serving-maid to St. Elizabeth and to Zacharias. 
The latter writes the child's name on a scroll. In the background, other figures. 
Oil on wood. Diameter: 19$ in. 

Ascribed to the Florentine School. Painted on what is called in the 
catalogue a "mazer bowl," with a coat of arms on the back. This, in all 
likelihood, is the "piatto da parto" that Berenson ascribed to Pontormo in 
this collection. It would appear to be a replica of the composition of the 
birth-plate, now in the Uffizi (No. 1198), and it is perhaps identical with the 
plate now in the Palazzo Davanzati, in Florence, and therefore an authentic 
work of Pontormo 's. Sold at Christie's in 1911 to Agnew for 78 15s. 

Catalogue of Pictures by Old Masters, the Property of the Late Charles Butler, p. 12. 



111. PORTRAIT OF A GENTLEMAN 

Dressed in dark clothes and cap. In his right hand he holds his gloves; in his left, 
the hilt of his sword. 

Oil on wood. H. 40 in., w. 26 in. 

Sold at Christie's, July 7, 1911, to Gooden and Fox for 73 10s. 

Art Prices Current (1910-1911), p. 615; Auction Sale Prices, XIII (1911), p. 377. 
Catalogue of the Butler Sale, p. 21. 

242 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS AND SALES 

AN ECCLESIASTIC 

Exhibited (No. 187) at the Loan Exhibition of the Royal Academy in 
1883. 

Graves, Loan Exhibitions, II, 942. 



Collection of Marquis Cerbone Pucci 

HOLY FAMILY 

Ascribed to Pontormo by Lanzi. Its present whereabouts is unknown. 
Lanzi, History of Painting, trans. Roseoe, London, 1828, I, 203 f. 

Collection of John Clark 

129. HOLY FAMILY 

Synopsis of Collection of Old Italian Paintings of Mr. John ClarTc, New York, 1839, 
p. 10. 

133. HOLY FAMILY 

Catalogue cited above, p. 11. 

187. CIRCUMCISION 

Catalogue cited above, p. 11. 

Colworth Collection 

41. COSIMO DE' MEDICI 

Bust figure, dressed in a cardinal's cloak (?) and hat. Inscription: "Cosmua 
Medices Pater Patriae. " 
H. 6i in., w. 5 in. 

Sold at Christie's, July, 1892, to Macquoid for 20. 

Catalogue of the Collection of Hollingworth Magniac, London, 1892, p. 15. 

Collection of the Grand Duke Constantine of Russia 

THE PENITENT MAGDALEN 

Bust figure, profile left, head turned three-quarters left. In her raised hand she 
holds a handkerchief to her face. 

243 



PONTORMO 

Ascribed to Luini; by Liphart to Pontormo with whose work, however, 
it has no connection. 

Beprod. Catalogue cited below, p. 30. 

Les anciennes ecoles de peinture dans les palais et collections privees russes, Exposition 
"Starye Gody," St. PStersbourg, 1909, Van Oest: Bruxelles, 1910, p. 28; L' Arte, 1909, 
p. 122. 



Collection of Rev. E. H. Dawkins 

65. GENTLEMAN IN ARMOUR WITH A DOG BY HIS SIDE 
H. 43 in., w. 31$ in. 

Sold at Christie's, February 28, 1913, to Parsons for 23 2s. 

Art Prices Current (1912-1913), p. 158; Auction Sale Prices, XV (1913), p. 53; 
Sale Catalogue, p. 16. 

Dellafaille Collection 

76. "PORTRAIT OF GODEFROY DE BOUILLON" 

Bust figure in red jerkin and brown hood. He looks slightly to the left. 
Oil on wood. H. .70, w. .55. 

Sold in Cologne, March 4, 1913. 

Katalog von Gemalden meist alteren Meister aus dem Nachlasse Dellafaille, Koln, 
1913, p. 11. 



Doetsch Collection 

107. MADONNA AND SAINTS 
Canvas. H. 86 in., w. 73$ in. 

A copy of the San Michele Visdomini altar-piece. The catalogue claims 
that the present picture is Pontormo 's original. It differs in no wise from 
the panel now in San Michele except that one sees, in the illustration given 
in the catalogue, no writing on the book held by St. John and no letters on 
the rock on which he is seated. Sold, at the Doetsch sale, June 22-25, 1895. 
Its present whereabouts is unknown to me. For a discussion of the probable 
authenticity of the panel now in San Michele, see the Catalogue Raisonne of 
Authentic Pictures, under Florence, San Michele Visdomini. 

Beprod. Catalogue cited below, p. 31; small cut, Beinach, Bepertoire, II, 138. 
Catalogue of the Collection of Henry Doetsch, London, 1895, p. 31. 

244 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS AND SALES 

Collection of J. S. W. S. Erie Drax 

43. MADONNA AND CHILD WITH ST. JOHN 

H. 30 in., w. 21 in. 

Sold at Christie's, February 19, 1910, to Glen for 21. 

Art Prices Current (1909-1910), p. 86; Auction Sale Prices, XII (1910), p. 86. 

' / 

Collection of the Comte D'Espagnac 

PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Sold for 474 francs in 1868. 
Mireur, loc. cit. 

Eszterhazy de Galantha Collection 

MADONNA AND FEMALE SAINT 

Ascribed to Pontormo. Its present whereabouts is unknown to me. 
Catalogue de la galerie des tableaux, Essterhasy de Galantha, Vienna, 1844, p. 41. 

Collection of William Graham 

418. MADONNA AND CHILD 

Sold at Christie's in April, 1886. 

Guggenheim Collection 

956. MADONNA AND CHILD WITH ST. JOHN 

The Virgin is seated in a chair and wears a cherry-coloured robe and blue mantle. 
She holds in her arms the Christ Child, who stretches out his hand towards a bird that 
the little St. John presents to him. 

Oil on wood. H. .89, w. .72. 

Sold in Venice, September 30-October 4, 1913. 

Catalogue de la collection de M. le Comm. M. Guggenheim, Venice, 1913, p. 54. 

245 

I 



PONTORMO 
Alexandra K. Collection 



HOLY FAMILY 

Sold in 1897 for 295 francs. 

Mireur, loc. cit. 



Lanfranconi Gallery 

27. PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Life-size, half-length portrait of a middle-aged man, turned three-quarters to the 
left, the head turned towards the spectator. He has a short, reddish beard and wears a 
black robe and cap. In his right hand he holds a quill as he turns the leaves of a folio 
which lies on the table before him. On the table, a green cover. Dark background. 

Oil on wood. H. .95, w. .80. 

The catalogue speaks of this panel as "a characteristic work, nobly 
conceived the head and hands, superbly modelled, are uncommonly plastic 
and stand out from the dark background of the whole." It is really a late 
sixteenth century copy of the portrait falsely ascribed to Pontormo in the 
Corsini Collection, in Florence. Sold, October 21-23, 1895. It was later in 
the Sedelmeyer Collection (No. 111). 

Eeprod. Sedelmeyer Catalogue, p. 127. 

Katalog der Gemdlde-Galerie Lanfranconi, Koln, 1895, p. 8; Catalogue of the 
Sedelmeyer Collection, p. 127. 



Lasalle Collection 
HOLY FAMILY 

Withdrawn from the Lasalle sale in Vienna, 1827, at 210 francs. 
Mireur, loc. cit. 

Collection of the Earl of Leicester 

PART OF THE CARTOON OF THE "BATTLE OF THE CASCINA" 

Attributed to Pontormo and exhibited (No. 74) at the British Institution, 
in 1854. This is of course the famous grisaille by an unknown hand of a part 
of Michelangelo's "Battle of the Cascina. " 

Graves, loc. cit. 

246 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS AND SALES 

Collection of Sir John Leslie 

IPPOLITO DE' MEDICI 

- 

Exhibited (No. 257) in the Loan Exhibition of the Royal Academy in 

1877. 

Graves, loc. cit. 



Collection of Lord Methuen 

PORTRAIT OF THE PAINTER 

Exhibited (No. 119) in the Loan Exhibition of the Royal Academy in 
1877. 

Graves, loc. cit. 



Collection of R. P. Nichols 

STUDY OF A HEAD 

Exhibited (No. 155<) at Leeds in 1868. 
Graves, loc. cit. 

Collection of the Duke of Northumberland 
BIRTH OF ST. JOHN 

VIRGIN AND CHILD 

Exhibited at the British Institution, in 1857, where they were numbered 
38 and 53 respectively. 

Graves, loc. cit. 

Collection of the Marquis Ferdinando Panciatichi Ximenes 

d' Aragona 

BUST OF A WOMAN 

Oil on wood. Oval: h. .85, w. .63. 
Sold in Florence, April 3, 1902. 

Catalogue des tableaux de la galerie de feu le Marquis Ferdinand PanciaticM 
Ximenes d' Aragona, Florence, Borgo Pinti 68, 1902, p. 8. 

247 



PONTOKMO 

Reiset Collection 

PORTRAIT OF CARUCCI BY HIMSELF 
Sold in 1870 for 580 francs. 
Mireur, loc. cit. 

Rezzonico Collection 

PORTRAIT OF GUICCIARDINI 

Not a portrait of Guicciardini and not by Pontormo. Sold in Milan in 
1898. 

Reprod. Catalogue cited below, pi. 4. Eeinach, Eeper., I, 520. 
Catalogue of the Eessonico Sale, 1898. 

Schevitch Collection 

14. MARRIAGE OF ST. CATHERINE 

The Christ Child seated on the knees of his mother passes the ring over the finger 
of St. Catherine, who leans upon her wheel. The Virgin is dressed in a red robe with 
yellow sleeves; on her head, a green veil. St. Joseph, his hands upon a staff, contemplates 
the scene. 

Oil on wood. H. .66, w. .52. 

Once in the Castellani Collection. Sold at Georges Petit 's, April, 1906. 

Catalogue des objets d' art composant la collection de M. D. Schevitch, Paris, 1906, 
p. 55; Catalogue de la succession Alessandro Castellani, Vente, Hotel Drouot, mai 12-16, 
1884, No. 1098, p. 290. 

Collection of Richard Smith 

ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS 

H. 24$ in., w. 17J in. 

Sold for 4 15s. 6d. 

Art Prices Current (1907-1908), p. 195. 



Collection of the Earl of Wemyss 

PORTRAIT OF A MAN 

Exhibited (No. 108) in the Loan Exhibition of the Royal Academy in 
1886. 

Graves, loc. cit. 

248 



LOAN EXHIBITIONS AND SALES 

Collection of Henry Willett 

76. PORTRAIT OF A LADY IN A PINK DRESS 

Oil on wood. H. 9$ in., w. 6 in. 

Sold at Christie's, April 10, 1905. 

Catalogue of the Collection of Pictures by Old Masters of Henry Willett, London. 
1905, p. 13. 

Two pieces of a "predella" representing various saints and six small pictures repre- 
senting saints and angels and ascribed to the "School of Pontormo" were sold by the 
Hospital of the Innocents in 1853 to the Baron Vagnonville for 150 "lire." Cf. Archivio 
degl ' Innocenti, Firenze, Filza No. 73. 



249 



CATALOGUE OF LOST PICTURES 



CATALOGUE OF LOST PICTURES 



ANNUNCIATION 

Painted while Jacopo was still with Albertinelli and praised by Raphael, 
according to Vasari (VI, 246). Fate unknown. 

DEAD CHRIST 

With two angels holding torches and, at the sides in two "tondi," two prophets. 
Date: about 1513. 

This was the "predella" to Andrea's "Annunciation" for the monks 
of San Gallo, which is now in the Pitti. Rosso is also said to have worked 
on this panel (Vasari, VI, 247). Fate unknown. 

THREE TRIUMPHAL CARS 

Painted for the Compagnia del Diamante, a society of which Giuliano 
de' Medici was chief. These cars represented "Youth," "Manhood," and 
"Old Age." Jacopo decorated them with various scenes, in monochrome, 
from the Transformations of the Gods. Andrea Dazzi chose the subjects. The 
general design of the cars was due to Raffaello delle Vivuole, II Carota, Andrea 
diCosimo Feltrini and Andrea del Sarto. At the time Vasari wrote (1565) 
these paintings were in the possession of Pietro Paulo Galeotti, the goldsmith 
(VI, 250-252). They have since disappeared. By a typographical error the 
number of these cars is given as five in my Dessins, p. 35. 

f 

SEVEN TRIUMPHAL CARS 

Painted for the Compagnia del Broncone of which Lorenzino was chief. 
These cars formed part of a pageant which was planned by Jacopo Nardi and 
which represented : ' ' The Age of Saturn, " " The Reign of Numa Pompilius, ' ' 
"The Consulate of Titus Manlius Torquatus," "The Triumph of Caesar," 
"The Empire of Augustus," "The Time of Trajan," "The Golden Age." 
On the first car Pontormo painted "Legends of Saturn." Vasari does not 
give any details about the paintings on the second and third cars, on which 
we may infer that there were scenes from the lives of Numa and Torquatus. 
On the fourth car Jacopo painted "The Triumph of Caesar." "We have no 

253 



PONTORMO 

details about the decorations of the fifth and sixth cars which must, however, 
have represented scenes from the lives of Augustus and Trajan. On the 
seventh car there were figures in relief by Bandinelli, among them "The 
Cardinal Virtues." All these panels have been lost. 

Date: 1515. 

Vasari, VI, 252-255; cf. G. Pelagi, Capitoli della Compagnia del Broncone, Firenze, 
1872, the original manuscript of which is in the Biblioteca Moreniana. 

TRIUMPHAL ARCH 

Mythological subjects among which a "Pallas and Apollo." This arch 
was raised at the head of the Via del Pelagio. The woodwork was by Baccio 
da Montelupo. Ruined in Vasari 's time. 

Date: 1515. 
Vasari, VI, 255. 

LUNETTE OF GOD THE FATHER 

This formed the upper part of the fresco of the "Madonna and Saints," 
once in San Ruffillo. The lunette was destroyed when the fresco was 
transferred to the Chapel of San Luea, in the Annunziata. 

Fresco. 

Date: 1512-1513. 

Vasari, VI, 256. 

CHRIST AS PILGRIM 

Painted over the entrance of the Women's Hospital between Piazza San Marco and 
Via San Gallo, opposite the nuns of St. Catherine. 
Fresco: monochrome. 

The convent of St. Catherine of Siena was in the Via degli Arazzieri 
and is now the Comando Militare. Borghini states that this fresco occupied 
the space over the door of the Priests' Hospital. Pontormo's figures were 
thought in later times to be by Andrea del Sarto (Cinelli). They were 
destroyed in rebuilding in 1688. 

Date: 1513-1514. 

Vasari, VI, 256; Bocchi, ed. Cinelli, p. 19; Borghini, ed. 1730, p. 393. 

ARMS OF THE LANFREDINI 

These were painted for Bartolomeo Lanfredini over a doorway in a passage between 
Ponte Santa Trinita and Ponte alia Carraia. They were supported by two "putti. " 

Bronzino placed this work among the earliest enterprises of Pontormo 
(VI, 259). Ganmrrini mentions a Bartolomeo di Jacopo Lanfredini as living 

254 



LOST PICTUKES 

about 1500 (Istoria genealogica, Florence, 1685, IV, 273-275). He also 
mentions a Bartolomeo di Lanfredini who was alive about 1530 and who 
seems to have been the Lanfredini who wrote two letters to Cosimo I under 
the dates of April 21 and May 9, 1541 (Indice mediceo, Classe 26, Vol. 20, 
c. 13; Vol. 21, c. 25). Of Jacopo's decoration no trace remains. Cf. Borghini, 
op. cit., p. 392. It is interesting to note that Feltrini, with whom Jacopo was 
often associated in his earlier years, decorated the facade of the houses of 
Lanfredino Lanfredini (Vasari, V, 207). 

Date: 1512-1513. 

SANTA CECILIA 

Lunette over the door of the Compagnia di Santa Cecilia, in Fiesole. 
Fresco. 

Destroyed before 1730 in opening a new door. 

Drawings: first sketch for the figure of the saint, Uffizi 6694 (fig. 12; photo. F. M. C.) ; 
study for the whole composition, Corsini 124161 (fig. 11; photo. Anderson, Borne, 2823; 
fig., Emporium, 1907, p. 270). 

Date: 1517-1518. 

Vasari, VI, 257; Borghini, op. cit., p. 393. 

PORTRAIT OF GIOVANN' ANTONIO LAPPOLI 

Begun by Lappoli himself and finished by Pontormo. When Vasari 
wrote this panel was in the possession of the heirs of Lappoli. In Bottari's 
time it had disappeared. 

Vasari, VI, 260. 

THE SON-IN-LAW OF BECUCCIO BICCHIERAIO AND A FRIEND 

The fate of this portrait is unknown. By a typographical error it is 
called in my Dessins, "Portrait de Becuccio Bicchieraio avec un ami" (p. 36). 
Becuccio himself was a friend of Andrea del Sarto's. It was for him that 
Andrea painted his "Madonna and Six Saints," now in the Pitti (No. 307). 

Vasari, VI, 260. 

FUNERAL BANNERS OF BARTOLOMEO GINORI 

Painted during the lifetime of Ginori ; a series of twenty-two with the ' ' Virgin and 
Child ' ' above, and below, the arms of the family. Two others from the middle of the series 
represented St. Bartholomew. 

Oil on white taffeta; the arms on a coloured "balzana. " 

These, for their style, size, and lightness, set a new fashion. Their fate 
is unknown. 



Date: 1517-1518. 
Vasari, VI, 260. 



255 



PONTOEMO 



PIETA 



With the Virgin weeping and in the air two "putti," one holding the chalice of the 
Passion, the other the head of Christ. On one side of the composition, St. John with arms 
outspread, on the other, St. Augustine in episcopal robes; in his left hand, a crosier. 

Fresco. 

Painted in a chapel near the entrance of the garden of the monks of 
San Gallo, outside the San Gallo gate. This fresco was destroyed when the 
convent and church were pulled down. 

Vasari, VI, 260 and note. 

ARMS OF GIOVANNI SALVIATI 

Painted for Filippo Spina in the courtyard of his house opposite the main entrance. 
The escutcheon was supported by two standing ' ' putti ' ' and surmounted by a heraldic 
cardinal's hat. 

Salviati was born in 1490 and made cardinal by Leo X on July 1, 1517. 

Date: 1517-1518. 
Vasari, VI, 261 and note. 

SANT" AGOSTINO 

Seated in the act of blessing; above him two "putti" flying. 

Painted for the little church of the Sisters of San Clemente, in Via San 
Gallo. In Borghini 's time it was believed to be still in the convent. Accord- 
ing to Milanesi, it was later in the refectory of the nuns who were, it should 
be noted, of the Order of St. Augustine. Lost after the suppression of the 
convent. Cinelli (p. 7) calls this picture by mistake a "San Giorgio." His 
error was corrected in the Milan edition of Vasari (XII, 30, n.). 

Date: 1521-1523. 

Vasari, VI, 265 and note; Borghini, op. cit., p. 394; Bicha, Chiese fiorentine, V, 262. 

PIETA 

With nude angels, the landscape drawn in part from an engraving of Diirer's. 
Date: 1521-1523. 

Painted for certain mercha'nts of Ragusa. Its fate is unknown. 
Vasari, VI, 265. 

MADONNA AND CHILD 

In Vasari 's time this picture was in the house of Alessandro Neroni. 
Borghini mentions that certain children formed part of the composition. 
Its fate is unknown. 

Vasari, VI, 265; Borghini, op. cit., p. 394. 

256 



LOST PICTURES 

MADONNA AND CHILD 

Painted for certain Spaniards. Many years later this picture, which was 
about to be sold to a second-hand dealer, was bought at the instance of 
Bronzino by Bartolommeo Panciatichi. When Raffaello Borghini wrote it was 
in the house of Carlo Panciatichi. It has since been lost or is unidentified. 

Date: 1521-1523. 

Vasari, VI, 265; Borghini, op. cit., p. 394. 

NATIVITY 

In the darkness Joseph was represented holding a lantern. 

Painted for the Prior's room at the Certosa. Its fate is unknown. 

Vasari, VI, 269. 

PORTRAIT OF A LAY BROTHER OF THE CERTOSA 

Half -figure; painted in fresco in the church of the monastery on the 
right side of the altar of San Benedetto. This lay brother was said to be one 
hundred and twenty years old. 

Date: about 1525. 

Vasari, VI, 269; Moreni, Notieie, II, 145. 

GOD THE FATHER AND FOUR PATRIARCHS 

In the vaulting of the Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicita. 
Fresco. 

Destroyed in rebuilding the organ-loft in 1766. 

Date: 1525-1528. 

Vasari, VI, 271 and note; Borghini, op. cit., p. 394. 

MADONNA 

Painted for Lodovico Capponi and hung in his bedroom. Vasari says it 
resembled in style the decorations of the Capponi Chapel. Its fate is unknown. 

Date: 1526-1528. 

Vasari, VI, 272; Borghini, op. cit., p. 395. 

PORTRAIT OF LODOVICO CAPPONI'S DAUGHTER 

Bust figure with the attributes of the Magdalen. "We have no trace of 
this picture. 

Date: 1526-1528. 

Vasari, VI, 272; Borghini, loc. cit. 

257 



PONTORMO 

PORTRAIT OF ALESSANDRO DE' MEDICI 

Vasari felt that in this portrait Jacopo was still under the influence of 
Diirer. The terminal dates for this work are 1524, the date of Alessandro's 
arrival in Florence, and 1527, the date of his flight to Rome. Its fate is 
unknown. For Pontormo's later "Portrait of Alessandro," see, in the 
Catalogue of Authentic Pictures, Johnson Collection, Philadelphia. 

Date: 1524-1527. 
Vasari, VI, 273. 

PORTRAIT OF IPPOLITO DE' MEDICI 

Represented with his dog Rodon; an excellent likeness according to 
Vasari. Long identified erroneously with the "Portrait of Guidobaldo of 
Urbino" by Bronzino, in the Pitti (No. 149). See the preceding. Its fate 
is unknown. 

Date: 1524-1527. 
Vasari, VI, 273. 

PORTRAIT OF NICCOLO ARDINGHELLI 

Niceolo di Pietro Ardinghelli was born in 1503. He was cameriere of 
Leo X, canon of Santa Maria del Fiore, bishop, secretary to Cardinal 
Alessandro Farnese, and he was created cardinal in 1543. He died on August 
24, 1547, and was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Guasti, Manoscritti 
Torrigiani, Firenze, 1878, p. XII; Lami, Sanctae Ecclesiae Florentinae 
Memorabilia, I, 303-308, note by Salvino Salvini). The fate of this portrait 
is unknown. In Palazzo Torrigiani, in Florence, there is a "Portrait of 
Ardinghelli," ascribed by Berenson to Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. 

Drawing: possible sketch, Uffizi 443 verso (photo. F. M. C.). 
Date: 1538-1543. 
Vasari, VI, 273. 

POMONA 

In a niche opposite the portal of the house of Filippo del Migliore in 
Via Larga. Vasari felt that in this work Jacopo had begun to free himself 
from his imitation of Diirer. No trace of the figure now remains. 

Date: about 1526. 

Drawing: possible study, Uffizi 6570 (photo. F. M. C.; D. G. U., pi. XIX). 

Vasari, VI, 274. 

RAISING OF LAZARUS 

Vasari narrates that, unable to buy the Pontormos in Borgherini's 
famous room while the latter was in exile in Lucca, Giovambattista della 

258 



LOST PICTURES 

Palla gave Jacopo a commission for a "Lazarus" to be sent to the King of 
France for whom Delia Palla acted as agent. Giovambattista's career as a 
picture dealer was ended in 1530 and he died in prison at Pisa not long after. 
Vasari praises highly the realism of this picture. It probably never reached 
France and its fate is unknown. 

Date: 1529-1530. 

Drawing: possible study for the figure of Lazarus, Uffizi 6723 (fig. 113; photo. 
F. M. C.). 

Vasari, VI, 274; Borghini, op. cit., p. 395. 

PORTRAIT OF GIOVANNI GUIDICCIONI 

Milanesi, basing his opinion on a letter of Annibal Caro to Guidiccioni 
on October 12, 1539 (quoted by P. E. Visconti in the Giornale arcadico, 
LXXX, p. 93), states that Pontormo was in Rome at work on a portrait of 
the former on the date of the letter. But the artist mentioned by Caro 
(Letter e del Commendatore Caro, Venezia, 1791, No. 6) was Pastermo which 
was turned by Visconti into Pontormo. I have been unable to determine 
what Caro really wrote; the whereabouts of the manuscript of this letter is 
unknown to me. We have no further evidence that the portrait in question 
was by Jacopo. In any case, its fate is unknown. Cf. Appendix II, Doc. 24. 

Vasari, VI, 274. 

PORTRAIT OF CARLO NERONI 

Painted, according to Vasari, just after the smaller version of the 
"Martyrdom of St. Maurice." The conjectural identification of this lost 
portrait with the "Portrait of a Man," in the Uffizi (No. 1220), is without 
foundation. 

r Vasari, VI, 275. 

PORTRAIT OF FRANCESCO GUARDI 

Painted according to Vasari during the siege of Florence. Guardi was 
represented in soldier's costume. The cover of this portrait, which represents 
"Pygmalion and Galatea," is now in the Barberini Gallery in Rome 
(No. 83). Vasari ascribes it erroneously to Bronzino. The portrait itself 
has disappeared. 

Date: 1530-1531. 

Drawing: possible study, Uffizi 463 P. (fig. 120; photo. Houghton; D. G. U., pi. XX). 

Vasari, VI, 275 ; Dessins, pp. 36, 71, 106. 

NOLI ME TANGERE 

Painted for Alfonso Davolo, Marchese del "Guasto, " from a cartoon of 
Michelangelo's. The latter recommended Jacopo as the painter best able 

259 



PONTORMO 

to execute the picture and Pontormo made so great a success of his work that 
he received a commission for a replica from Alessandro Vitelli, the condottiere. 
Fra Niccolo da Magna (Nicolaus von Schomberg), Governor of Florence and 
Bishop of Capua, acted as intermediary in the negotiations for the cartoon. 
In regard to these we have three letters of Figiovanni, the first to Michel- 
angelo in Florence, dated April 11, 1531 (Frey, Dichtungen, p. 508, Reg. 25 
and 27) ; the second, in the autumn of 1531 ( ?) ; the third, just after October 
27, 1531 (Frey, p. 509, Reg. 28), in which the phrase "The Archbishop 
of Capua is very glad the master is to carry out your cartoon in your house ' ' 
seems to indicate that Pontormo actually painted this picture under Michel- 
angelo's supervision. The cartoon itself passed later into the possession 
of Cosimo I. Its fate like that of this panel is unknown. 

Date: 1531-1532. 

Drawing: Thode believes, I think without reason, that the drawing No. 367 of the 
Clough Collection (Frey, 77 and 78) is Michelangelo's sketch. 

Documents: for the letters that place this picture about 1531, see Frey, Brief e an 
Michelangiolo, p. 309 f.; idem, Dichtungen, pp. 327, 509; B. F. D., II, 93. 

Eeprod. Two copies exist in the store-rooms of the Uffizi, one attributable to Battista 
Franco who made, about 1540, a cartoon from the cartoon of Michelangelo (VI, 575) which 
passed into the Guardaroba of Cosimo I. Franco 's cartoon was on a larger . scale than 
Michelangelo's, as also was the picture that he painted from it. Cf. fig. in Gamba's 
article cited below. Bronzino's "Noli me tangere," in the Louvre, is also derived from 
Michelangelo's design. 

Vasari, VI, 276, 575, VII, 277; Gamba, Una copia del "Noli me Tangere" di 
Michelangelo, Bollettino d'arte, III (1909), p. 148 ff. 



NOLI ME TANGERE 

Replica of the preceding for Alessandro Vitelli who had it placed in his 
house in Citta di Castello. Cf. the foregoing. This replica has been lost. 

Vasari, VI, 277. 



PORTRAIT OF AMERIGO ANTINORI 

The beauty of this portrait won for Jacopo the commission to paint the 
"Portrait of Alessandro de' Medici," now in the Johnson Collection. The 
Antinori portrait has disappeared or is unidentified. 

Vasari, VI, 278. 



MADONNA 

Given by Pontormo to Rossino, the mason who helped him build his 
house. When Vasari wrote it was in the possession of Alessandro, son of 
Ottaviano de' Medici. It has disappeared or has not yet been identified. 

Vasari, VI, 280. 

260 



LOST PICTURES 

PORTRAIT OF CARDINAL GIULIO DE' MEDICI 

This was a copy of part of Raphael 's ' ' Portrait of Leo X with Giulio de ' 
Medici and Cardinal de' Kossi," painted in 1517-1518 and now in the Pitti. 
Pontormo gave his copy to Rossino and later on it passed into the hands of 
Alessandro d'Ottaviano de' Medici. Its fate is unknown. Andrea del Sarto 
also made a copy, now lost, of the head of Giulio for Ottaviano de' Medici, 
who gave it to the Bishop de' Marzi, as well as a complete copy which was 
long supposed to be the picture in the Museum of Naples. De Rinaldis in 
his catalogue of that collection gives this latter copy to Giulio Romano. 
Bugiardini too painted a modified copy of Raphael's portrait for the cardinal 
Innocenzio Cibo (VI, 206 f.). 

Vasari, VI, 280. 

PORTRAIT OF MARIA SALVIATI 

Painted while Pontormo was at work at Castello. This portrait must 
have been executed after August 2, 1537, the date of the battle of Montemurlo, 
and December 12, 1543. On the latter date Maria Salviati died in the Villa 
of Castello (Anguillesi, p. 215). It has been lost or is unidentified. Several 
portraits of Maria Salviati are known. A bust portrait with the inscription : 
MARIA SALLVIATTI, the face turned three-quarters right, the shoulders 
and head draped in white, in the collection of the Erzherzog Ferdinand von 
Tirol (Catalogue, No. 392; Kenner, Die Portratsammlung des Erzherzogs 
Ferdinand von Tirol, Jahrbuch d. kunsthis. Savnml. d. Allerhock. Kaiser- 
hauses, XVIII (1897), 160; pi. XXVII, fig. 22); the portrait painted by 
Vasari towards 1557 in one of the medallions of the fresco in the Palazzo 
Vecchio, "Cosimo Proclaimed Duke in 1537" (fig., Conti, La prima reggia, 
p. 43), which is derived from the same original; a portrait mentioned by 
Allegrini (Regiae familiae Mediceorum), "ex due. Salviati." But what 
relation they bear to Pontormo 's portrait has not yet been determined. The 
portrait most likely to be related to Jacopo's lost original is to be seen among 
Vasari 's frescoes of the Quartiere di Leone X, in the Palazzo Vecchio (photo. 
Alinari 4446). 

Vasari, VI, 282. 

MADONNA 

According to Vasari the picture was given by Cosimo I to a Spaniard. 
Milanesi conjectures that this Spaniard was the Duke of Altamira. It is 
also not impossible that this is the picture referred to, in the Inventorio 
generale a capi della Guardaroba, No. 30, 1553-1560, p. 58, as having been 
given by the duchess to Don Giovanni di Figana. Cf. Appendix II, Doc. 33 
and 34. 

Vasari, VI, 284 and the document cited above. 

261 



PONTORMO 



MADONNA 



Found in Jacopo's house after his death and sold by his heirs to Piero 
Salviati. The fate of this picture is unknown. 

Vasari, VI, 288. 

DECORATIONS IN THE MEDICEAN VILLA OF CAREGGI 

A "loggia" in the courtyard. At the foot of each division of the vaulting, an 
allegorical figure: "Fortune," "Justice," "Victory," "Peace," "Fame" and "Love." 
In the vaulting were flying ' ' putti ' ' with various animals in their hands. 

Oil on plaster. 

These decorations were rapidly executed at the command of Alessandro 
de' Medici. Pontormo designed the figures and the ornaments, but Bronzino 
executed all the figures except the "Love," and the ornaments were painted 
by Jacone, Pierfrancesco di Jacopo and others. In his "Life of Bronzino" 
Vasari mentions a "Prudence" instead of a. "Victory." These decorations 
have vanished. The second "loggia" that Pontormo was to have painted 
was never undertaken on account of the death of Alessandro. Cf. the 
following. 

Date: finished December 13, 1536. 

Drawings: sketches for the "putti" of the vaulting, Uffizi 458 (photo. F. M. C.). 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 281; VII, 596; Moreni, Notizie istoriche dei contorni di Firenee, 
Firenze, 1792, I, 59; La villa medicea di Careggi, Memorie e ricordi, Firenze, 1888; Dessins, 
pp. 21, 37, 41, 50, 56, 73, 74, 102, 134, 169. 

DECORATIONS IN THE MEDICEAN VILLA OF CASTELLO 

The ' ' loggia ' ' of the courtyard to the left on entering. In the middle of the vaulting, 
flying ' ' putti, " " Saturn with the Sign of Capricorn, ' ' and ' ' Mars Hermaphrodite with 
the Sign of Leo and the Virgin." In the lunettes of the vaulting, Pontormo painted nude 
allegorical female figures of ' ' Philosophy, " " Astrology, " " Geometry, " " Music, ' ' 
"Arithmetic" and a "Ceres." In certain medallions one saw stories appropriate to each 
figure. These were framed in decorative designs. 

Oil on plaster. 

The ornaments were by Bronzino, Jacone, Pierfrancesco di Jacopo and 
others after designs by Pontormo ; the figures were by the master 's own hand. 
Eight years after Pontormo died this "loggia" was already ruined by 
humidity. When Biscioni wrote, only the contours of the figures remained. 
All trace of them has now disappeared. 

Date: 1538-1543. 

Drawings: possible sketch for the "Saturn," Uffizi 6510; possible study for one of 
the allegorical figures, Uffizi 6584 (fig. 132; photo. F. M. C.) ; possible study for the 
"Astrology" or the "Geometry," Uffizi 6586 (fig. 133; photo. Pini) ; possible study for 
the "putti," Uffizi 6592; study for the "Mars Hermaphrodite," Uffizi 6630 (D. G. U., 
pi. XXII) ; possible sketches for various motives, Uffizi 6644. 

Bibl. Vasari, VI, 282, 452 ; VII, 596 ; Borghini, op. cit ., p. 395 ; Varchi, Due Lezzioni, 
p. 109; Moreni, Notizie, Firenze, 1792, I, 103; Dessins, pp. 21, 37, 41, 50, 56, 74, 90, 121, 

262 



LOST PICTURES 

168, 169, 172, 194, 201. For the villa, cf. Vedute delle ville e d' altri luoghi della Toscana, 
Firenze, 1757; De Benedetti, Palassi e ville reali d' Italia, Alinari, 1911; Anguillesi, 
Notizie storiche dei palazzi e ville appartenenti alia I. et E. Corona della Toscana, Pisa, 
1815. 



FRESCOES IN THE CHOIR OF SAN LORENZO IN FLORENCE 

They represented: "The Creation of Adam," "The Disobedience of Adam and Eve," 
"The Expulsion from Paradise," "Moses Eeceiving the Tables of the Law," "Christ in 
Glory," "The Four Evangelists," "The Tilling of the Soil," "The Sacrifice of Cain 
and the Death of Abel, " " The Benediction of the Sons of Noah and the Building of the 
Ark, " " The Ascension of the Blessed, " " The Fall of the Damned, " " The Resurrection, ' ' 
and "The Deluge." 

Fresco. 

These paintings occupied Pontormo during the last ten or eleven years 
of his life. The lower part of the ''Deluge" and the "Resurrection" were 
finished by Bronzino after his master's death (Vasari, VI, 288, n. ; VII, 602; 
Moreni, op. cit., II, 119). They were never popular and in 1742 they were 
destroyed in rehandling the choir (Manni, I Carri di San Giovanni, gives the 
date as 1738). For the general arrangement, see p. 75. Pontormo, in his 
Diary, refers repeatedly to his work on these frescoes; see Appendix III. 
For the number of days he mentions having worked in the choir, see the 
Synopsis of the Diary. 

Date: 1546-1556. 

Drawings: study for the Eve of the "Expulsion," Uffizi 6715 (fig. 137; photo. 
Houghton) ; first thought for the "Moses Eeceiving the Tables of the Law," Uffizi 6508; 
study for the same, Uffizi 6749 (fig. 139; photo. Pini; F. M. C.) ; finished study for the 
"Christ in Glory," Uffizi 6607 (fig. 138; photo. Houghton; fig., Goldschmidt, op. cit.); 
sketch for the Adam of the same, Uffizi 6733; finished study for the "Four Evangelists," 
Uffizi 6750 (fig. 140; photo. F. M. C.) ; sketch for the "Tilling of the Soil," Uffizi 6535 
(fig. 143; photo. F. M. C.) ; sketch for the Adam of the same, Uffizi 6615; finished study 
for the "Sacrifice of Cain and the Death of Abel," Uffizi 6739 (fig. 141; photo. Houghton) ; 
first thought (reversed) for the Abel of the same, Uffizi 15665; study for the Cain of 
the -same, Uffizi 6746 (fig. 142; photo. F. M. C.) ; sketch for the "Fall of the Damned," 
Uffizi 6568 (photo. F. M. C.) ; first thought for the same, Uffizi 15666; sketch for certain 
figures in the "Ascension of the Blessed," a drawing in the Academy at Venice (fig. 147; 
photo. Braun, Venice 78029); sketches for certain figures in the " Eesurrection, " Uffizi 
462 (photo. F. M. C.) and Uffizi 6684 (photo. F. M. C.) ; sketch for a single figure in 
the same, Uffizi 17410; sketches for certain figures in the "Deluge," Uffizi 6528 (fig. 146; 
photo. F. M. C.), Uffizi 6752 (fig. 145; photo. F. M. C.), Uffizi 6753 (fig. 144; photo. 
F. M. C.), Uffizi 6754 (photo. F. M. C.; Dessins, pi. VIII), Uffizi 17411 (photo. Houghton; 
D. G. U., pi. XXIIIB), Louvre 947 (photo. Braun 63207) ; sketches for single figures 
in the same, Uffizi 6560 (fig. 148; photo. Houghton; F. M. C.), Uffizi 6640 (photo. 
F. M. C.), Uffizi 6650, Uffizi 6679 (fig. 149; photo. F. M. C.), Uffizi 6714. In Pontormo '* 
Diary there are many diminutive sketches (cf. fig. 152) relative to these frescoes, but we 
cannot tell to what subject they refer. With them correspond the following sketches in 
the Uffizi: Nos. 6528, 6560, 6580, 6724, 6745, 6753, 6760 (fig. 153; photo. F. M. C.), 
15666. Borghini (p. 396) mentions that M. Baccio had a drawing of the San Lorenzo 
frescoes but of which he does not say. Bocehi (p. 361) speaks of it with great enthusiasm 
and at great length and from him we learn that it was a ' ' Last Judgment ' ' and a 
"Martyrdom of San Lorenzo," which he preferred to the fresco of the same subject. 
From him we also learn that M. Baccio was Baccio Valori. In the Louvre there are two 
large drawings, ascribed to Bronzino, which are undoubtedly copies of parts of the 
"Deluge." In the Archives of the Innocents (Filza 17, p. 345) mention is made of a 
large drawing of many nudes in black chalk which was once in the possession of the 
Hospital and which may have had some relation to these frescoes. 

263 



PONTORMO 

Documents: I have examined the following accounts without, however, finding any 
reference to Pontormo's work in the choir: Archivio di San Lorenzo, Capitolo di San 
Lorenzo, Annadio F; Debitori e Creditor! E., 1542-1549, F. 1549-1557, G. 1555-1560; 
Archivio di Stato, Firenze, Depositeria Generate, Nos. 391, 392, 393, 394, 522, 523, 573, 583, 
770, 771, 943, 948, 949, 950, 951, 952, 953, 954, 1653, 1654. We find in No. 394, p. 101, 
reference to the salary of a helper, Bastiano del Gostra. See Appendix II, Doc. 27. 

BibL Vasari, VI, 284-287; VII, 602; Bocchi, ed. 1677, pp. 515-517; Eicha, V, 29; 
Borghini, p. 396; II Milizia, II, 135; Del Migliore, p. 166; Moreni, II, 112-115; Lapini, 
Diario fiorentino; Ciangogni, Memorie istoriche; Lanzi, I, 164; Carocci, La Basilica 
Laurensiana, Arte e storia, IV (1885); Eosini, V, 59, 62; Eeiset, Notice des dessins au 
Louvre, Paris, 1879, p. 60, No. 190, note; B. F. D., I, 327; II, 141, 142, 144, 147, 148, 
149, 152, 153, 154; Gamba, I disegni di Jacopo Carucci, 1912; Dessins, pp. 21, 26, 30, 37, 
41, 56, 75, 86, 106, 107, 117, 119, 121, 132, 133, 138, 140, 155, 158, 166, 167, 172, 183, 
188, 199, 206, 231, 232, 250, 251, 253, 258, 265, 267, 268, 274, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 
286, 287, 294, 298, 299, 302, 331, 349; On Certain Drawings, pp. 17, 18, 22, 23. 

MADONNA AND CHILD 

The Inventario generate a capi della Guardaroba, 1553-1560 (p. 58) 
mentions that on August 24, 1557, a large picture representing the Virgin by 
Pontormo was given by the Duchess to Don Giovanni di Figana who took 
it to Milan. See Appendix II, Doc. 34. The same picture is mentioned in 
the inventory made by Giuliano del Touaglia in 1553. See Doc. 33. This is 
perhaps the "Madonna" mentioned above which Vasari says Cosimo I gave 
to a Spaniard. Its fate is unknown. 

MADONNA 

Once in the possession of Carlo Panciatichi but now lost. 
Borghini, II Biposo, ed. 1730, p. 394. 



264 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 

Note on the Apprenticeship of Pontormo 

Vasari's story of Pontormo 's youth is full of inconsistencies and contra- 
dictions. He begins by saying 1 that, after the death of Jacopo's grandfather 
in 1506 (his father having died in 1499 and his mother in 1504), the boy 
remained several years in his native town with his grandmother who had him 
taught reading, writing and the elements of Latin. It was his grandmother, 
according to Vasari, who brought him to Florence when he was thirteen to 
put him in charge of the Pupilli. But, since Jacopo was born in 1494, this 
journey would have occurred, on Vasari 's own showing, 2 in 1507, that is, only 
a year after his grandfather's death. We know now from a document that 
I have discovered that, as a matter of fact, Jacopo was placed in the care of 
the Pupilli on January 24, 1508 (Old Style: 1507), so that it is evident that, 
in regard to that event at any rate, Vasari 's chronology is practically correct. 
Vasari, however, goes on to say that a few months later Bernardo Vettori 3 
put the boy under Leonardo's instruction. But we know by documentary 
evidence that Leonardo left Florence late in the spring of 1508. It is therefore 
apparent that, if Jacopo studied with him at all in 1508, he was either sent 
to Leonardo's workshop immediately after being placed with the Pupilli or, 
if we take Vasari 's expresssion ' ' a few months later ' ' literally, he could have 
remained with Da Vinci hardly more than eight or ten weeks in all. 

After Leonardo, Jacopo had for master so Vasari's story runs 
Albertinelli, Pier di Cosimo and finally, in 1512, 4 Andrea del Sarto. On the 
next page Vasari remarks that Jacopo went to study in Andrea's "bottega" 
of his own accord immediately after the latter had finished the San Filippo 
Benizzi frescoes which we know was in 1510. Vasari also says that Raphael 
praised a little "Annunciation" painted by Jacopo while he was still with 
Albertinelli. Raphael left Florence on September 5, 1508. Vasari's state- 
ment, therefore, implies that between the end of January, 1508 (Old Style: 
1507), when he was placed with the Pupilli, and September of the same year, 
Pontormo had spent several months unemployed, was apprenticed to Leonardo, 
passed from his care into the "bottega" of Albertinelli and had made sufficient 
progress there (though only fourteen in May, 1508) to be able to paint an 
interesting little picture with his own hand, an achievement which would 
have in it, we may remark in passing, no element of the incredible, if Pontormo 
really began his apprenticeship with Albertinelli in 1503, as we have been led 
to conjecture on the basis of the citation of a Jacopo Carucci in a document 
relative to the purchase of a house in the Gualfonda by Albertinelli. 5 

Vasari is even more inconsistent in regard to the length of time that 
Jacopo spent with Albertinelli. He states that Pontormo was left without 



VI, 246. 2 lUd. a IUd. * Ibid. B Appendix II, Doe. X. 

267 



PONTORMO 

a master when Mariotto went to Viterbo to finish a picture begun there by 
Fra Bartolommeo. According to the books of the Order, this picture, a 
"Madonna with Dominican Saints," was finished, not by Albertinelli, but as 
late as 1543 by Fra Paolino da Pistoia. Colasanti 7 was led to assume, on 
account of the discrepancy between the documents and Vasari's narrative, 
that the latter 's story of Albertinelli 's journey to Viterbo had no claims 
to critical consideration. Vasari, however, not only says that Mariotto began 
a picture of his own there, then went to Rome and returned to Viterbo, but 
he goes out of his way to record gossip to the effect that Mariotto died 8 soon 
after his return to Florence as a result of loose living in the South. Such 
gossip, usually a reflection of much repeated tales, is often more convincing 
in the "Lives" than details given by Vasari about pictures which he had 
sometimes never seen. "We know that Albertinelli died on November 5, 1515 ; 
we also know that he was in Florence on January 5, 1513, when his contract 
with Fra Bartolommeo was dissolved. 10 More than that, Vasari himself tells 
us that for Leo X's elevation to the Papacy (March 11, 1513) Mariotto received 
a commission to paint the new Pope 's arms for the Medici Palace in Via Larga. 
The journey to Viterbo, therefore, was not later than 1515 nor earlier than 
March, 1513. But before the latter date Pontormo was already fairly launched 
in his career as an independent painter. One is tempted to make Pontormo 's 
release from Albertinelli 's ' ' bottega ' ' coincide with the moment when Mariotto 
decided to give up painting and become an innkeeper. 11 But on inferential 
grounds, Knapp, Gruyer, and Crowe and Cavalcaselle, all place that adventure 
in 1512 or 1513 at which date Jacopo had already passed through his last 
experience as an apprentice and had left the workshop of Andrea. We may, 
however, remark that, whatever the date at which Albertinelli opened his 
public house, his apprentices were probably released at that moment from 
further legal obligations to him. We also cannot help noticing that 
among the surviving works of Albertinelli, many of which are dated, there 
is no picture now extant, so far as I know, that bears a date falling between 
1507 and 1510. Moreover, before we accept the date suggested by the critics 
whom we have mentioned, it might be well to recall that Vasari mentions that 
Mariotto received certain commissions for pictures in the spring of 1513. 
In any case the determining of the date at which Pontormo left Mariotto is 
of less importance to our study than the obvious fact that, when after a time 
Mariotto did reopen his "bottega," Pontormo continued to follow with interest 
the work done there. Of this the "San Luca Madonna" is sufficient indirect 
evidence. 

Leonardo was in Florence from 1503 to May 30, 1506, from August, 1507 
to the late spring of 1508 and again, it would appear, in the spring of 1509 
and towards the end of 1510. His longest stay in his native city, after his first 
visit to Milan, was between 1503 and May, 1506. If, as is highly probable, 
Pontormo was still in Albertinelli 's care during those earlier years, he could 
have worked with Leonardo only during one of Da Vinci's later visits to 
Florence. Vasari's story implies, as we have seen, that Jacopo was appren- 
ticed to Leonardo between the end of January, 1508, and the late spring of 

e Marchese, M emorie, II, 96 f . ; Vasari, IV, 225. 

7 Diario di Jacopo Carucci, Bull. d. soc. filol. romana, II, 49. 

s Vasari, IV, 225. 

Idem, 226, n. 

10 Marchese, II, 17, 22, 65, 77, 488. 

11 Vasari, IV, 222. 

268 



HIS APPRENTICESHIP 

the same year. We have no evidence, however, that Leonardo kept a 
"bottega" during any of his later visits to Florence. It is accordingly not 
unlikely that Pontormo never actually became a pupil of the great master 
but merely studied, on his own account, like the young Raphael, works of 
Leonardo 's then in Florence, among them the unfinished ' ' Battle of Anghiari. ' ' 
The influence of that masterpiece is visible in Pontormo 's "Martyrdom of 
the Theban Legion" which was painted many years later. "We should also 
note that in some of Pontormo 's earliest drawings the hair is blown out like 
a flame a peculiarity of sketches by Leonardo dating from the years 1505- 
1510. 

The exact date at which Pontormo studied with his third master cannot 
be determined. We may conjecture that he passed through the "bottega" 
of Pier di Cosimo sometime between 1508 and 1510 but the only foundation 
we have for such an opinion is the fact that Vasari's statement in regard 
to Pontormo 's interest in Piero 's art is corroborated by certain characteristics 
of Jacopo's early portraits and religious pictures which recall definite 
tendencies of Piero 's later work. 

Pontormo J s contact with Andrea del Sarto closes his experience as an 
apprentice. Vasari states, as we have seen, that he went of his own accord to 
stay with Andrea because he greatly admired the San Filippo Benizzi frescoes 
which the latter had just finished. 12 These frescoes were completed in the 
autumn of 1510 and dated by Andrea himself A. D. MDX. 13 Elsewhere 
Vasari says that it was in 1512 that Pontormo was first associated with 
Andrea. 1 * We must choose between these two dates and the following are some 
of the considerations that will influence our choice. For Pontormo 's fresco 
over the portal of the Annunziata I have found payments that were made 
as early as November, 1513, 15 which prove that he must have begun the work 
in the late summer of that year. News of the election of Leo X reached 
Florence in the second week of March, 16 1513, and the Servites, who were 
' ' Palleschi/ ' began decorating their church in honour of the great event 
without delay. Vasari implies that after Pontormo had finished the cartoons 
for the fresco in question Andrea refused to have him in his workshop any 
longer. If Pontormo became Andrea's pupil in 1512 we must suppose that it 
took Jacopo only a year and a half, at the most, to make Andrea's manner his 
own, and we could desire no more forcible evidence of Jacopo's masterly 
insight into Andrea's conception of form than is furnished by his manner 
of drawing during the next six years. To the evidence that his drawings 
furnish we must add Vasari's own statement that Jacopo helped Andrea 
with "molti quadri ed opere," 17 although no picture of Andrea's dating 
from this period, and among them we count the "San Gallo Annunciation," 
the "San Godenzo Annunciation," the Dresden "Marriage of St. Cathe- 

12 Idem, VI, 247. 

is Idem, V, 66 f . 

i* Idem, VI, 246. 

is A. S. F., Convento 119, No. 705, 113 verso. Appendix II, Doc. 12. 

i On the evening of the day of the election; cf. Landucci, p. 336; (J. Capponi, II, 316. 
In the Libro del Camarlingo just referred to I have found, under the dates of March 11 
and 12, 1513, the following entries: "spese straordinarie p di decto lire sei soldi sei sono p 
tagj et pouere p fare festa della creatizione del papa de' Medici porto 6 6; p. 81 
verso: spese straordinarie a di decto lire 13. soldi 10 sono p dipignere 1'arme del papa de 
Medici e duna bandiera posta incupola porto Ant dipintore 13 10. " 

IT VI, 247. 

269 



PONTOKMO 

rine," 18 the "Adoration of the Magi," 19 in the courtyard of the Annunziata, 
and the "Madonna with the Infant St. John," in the Borghese, shows the 
slightest trace of Pontormo 's touch. Vasari 20 definitely names but one picture 
painted by Jacopo for Andrea: the lost "predella" of the "San Gallo Annun- 
ciation." And he adds that Bronzino had heard Pontormo himself say that 
Rosso also worked on this "gradino. " Evidently we must not take too 
literally Vasari 's "molti quadri ed opere." On the same page Vasari says 
that Jacopo had not been much time with Andrea before his progress was 
such that one would have thought that he had practised art for many years. 21 
In all probability he had. For, if he was a mere child when he entered 
Albertinelli 's workshop, he already had behind him in 1512 more than nine 
years of apprenticeship. The groundwork of his sense of form had been laid 
with Mariotto and, to an infinitely less degree, with Pier di Cosimo. The 
''God the Father" and the "Santa Veronica" of the Pope's Chapel are 
Albertinellian with a hint in them of the study that Jacopo had given to 
figures sketched by Michelangelo during the years that were chiefly given 
to the "Battle of the Cascina." The "San Luca Madonna" carries on the 
tradition of Mariotto. Indirect evidence, then, would lead one to conjecture 
that Jacopo entered Andrea's "bottega" in the autumn of 1510 or in the 
spring of 1511. 

In his "Life of Masaccio" Vasari states that Pontormo, like all 
Florentines of his generation, studied the frescoes of the Brancacci Chapel. 

18 Goldschmidt (Pontormo, Eosso und Bronzino, Leipzig, 1911 [Dissertation], p. 43) 
sees without reason evidence of Pontormo 's hand in this picture. 

isLibro del Camarlingo (1509-1512), p. 106, v., 108, 111 v. (November 5, 1511; 
November 21, 1511; December 12, 1511.) 

20 VI, 247. 

21 Colasanti (article cited above, p. 47) states without sufficient evidence that Pontormo 
entered Andrea's workshop in 1510. 



270 



APPENDIX II 

Documents Relative to the Life of Pontormo 

Doc. I. Firenze: Biblioteca Nazionale. Priorista di Monaldi, 
p. 267 verso. 

La f amiglia de Carucci gia di Monte Pilli e di Terzano castella che furono 
nel poggio di San Martino in Valdarno le quali nel 1340 cederono ai fiorentini 
sendo fatti cittadini e di loro fu Giorgio di Benci nel 1365 Gonfaloniere e di 
questi il p nel 1349 fu Taddeo di Caruccio e 1' ultimo nel 1529 fu Bonifazio 
di Donato Carucci o Chiarucci. L'arme loro e una banda celeste intraverso 
sghembo dentrovi tre rose bianche in campo d' oro. 

Doc. II. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Consorteria. San 
Giovanni ; Gonf alone Chiave, I, 94 verso. 

Carucci da Colle. Giov. Battista di Mario di Bartolomeo 19 Nov. 1614. 
Mario Alberto di Giov. Battista di Mario 22 Aple, 1662. 

Doc. III. Firenze: Biblioteca Nazionale. Codice Riccardiano 
- 1894, p. 132. 

S. Croce sotto le volte nella stanza che fu gia Compagnia di Loreto: 
"Filiorum Carucci 1298." 

Doc. IV. Firenze: Biblioteca Nazionale. Codice Riccardiano 
1187. 

Ruggieri di Taddeo Carucci uno degli Ufficiali di Torre, 28 feb. 1380. 

Doc. V. Firenze : Biblioteca Marucelliana. Codice C 1, p. 278. 

Ruggieri di Taddeo Marucci (sic) vinaiuolo nel Marzo 1386 e Aprile 
1387 della Signoria di Firenze. The " Priorista del Calamai" mentions the 
same person : Ruggieri di Taddeo Carucci vinaiolo in Firenze, Marzo- Aprile, 
1386-7. 

271 



PONTORMO 

Doc. VI. Firenze: Biblioteca Nazionale. Codice Araldico, p. 
129. 

Camcci, Francesco Pianellaio a 1348 Sep in S. Pancrazio. 
Carucci, Ruggiero a 1460 Sep in S. Croce e S. Remigi Linaiolo. 
On the same page the arms of Francesco and Ruggiero are displayed as 
in figs. I and II respectively. 





FIG. I FIG. II 

Codice B VII of the Biblioteca Marucelliana gives (p. 14) the arms of the 
Carucci as: "stelle gialle in campo azzurro sotto sei listre a sghembo rosse e 
bianche. ' ' Cf . Doc. I where the arms of the family are given as in fig. II, but 
with a different arrangement of the tinctures. 

Doc. VII. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Consorteria: Santa 
Croce, Vols. I and II. Gonf alone Bue : Vol. I, p. 83. 

Charucci 

P Charuccio di Stefano di ruggieri adi 2 di maggio 1481. 
P Giovanj di Taddeo di ruggieri adi 9 di febbraio 1481. 
*P S Ruggierj di Taddeo adi p di genaio 1495. 

Jacopo di 8 Lucha di Ruggieri adi p di Giugnio 1513. 
P Alex di G ni di Alexadro adi . . . 

Zanobi adi 7 di marzo 1505. 

P Taddeo ) A > nr .-. ,. m -, -, n adi . . . 

Barto f dl Gm dl Taddeo adi ... 

Taddeo ) di 8 Ruggierj di Taddeo adi 17 di Dicembre 1531. 

Piero [ adi 12 di Aprile 1535. 



Idem, Vol. II, p. 26 verso. 

Carucci 

P Jacopo di S Luca di Ruggieri po giug 1513. 
P Zanobi di Giovanni di Alessadro 7 marzo 1505. 

Taddeo et ) di 8 Ruggieri di Taddeo 17 xbre 1531. 

Piero I 12Ap'lel535. 

Oratio ) di Pieri di Ruggieri 

Ruggieri > 

Grazia ) 

272 



DOCUMENTS 

Doc. VIII. Firenze : Archivio degl 'Innocent!. Entrata e Uscita 
D. 1527-1528, p. 54. 

A m a lisabecta fu di paglo Carucci 1. sept, s. sei. 

Entrata e Uscita Z, 1530, p. 52. X doetobre 1530. A m a lisabetta dona 
fu dipaglo Carucci D. dua, come allibro Rosso. 

Idem, p. 54. A m Ant distefano lombardo 1. vetocto sono p lui a 
Checci Carucci da avere p condisse p spesi di bestiame stetti in valdimevole. 

Doc. IX. Firenze: Biblioteca Marucelliana, Codice, B VII. 
14, p. 11. 

Cappella dei Carucci nel Carmine donata ai Delia Moriana da Lionardo 
e Jacopo di Giovanni Carucci nel 1624. 



Doc. X. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Santa Maria Novella; 
Convento 102, No. 89: Ricordi, p. 14. 

M. ccccc.viiij 

Ricordo Come oggi g, di 26 dimaggio 1509, si fece uno sinda|chato nel 
caplo del nost co to Rogato p mano di 8 lorenzo di tho di| lorenzo pogginj 
notj alpalagio delpodesta: en alpnte sta nella bojctegho di S Lorenzo violj. 
nel qual sindacato furno elect j & Crejati sindachi M Alexandro dibartholomeo 
dipiero luchini et M| Ant dimichele dulino et fre Lorenzo dibernardo 
alpnte spp'o r e| del co to . apotere liberamete vendere & Itrafacto finire Vna 

nost a | Casa posta nella via digualfonda co suo vocablj & 
Vendita di cofini. Laqual| gia fu venduta dal nost co to , adi 10. 

una casa in dap'le 1503 auita di M Alexa|dro & auita di Jacopo 

Gualfonda carucci. Come appe Carta p mano di 8 pieroj daulcj 

libera a li notj alpodesta. Et q a vendita libera si fe: pen elnost 

bro Pagonazo c5ue|to / era strecto da molti debiti / & altre necessita. 
S to G a 3 et maxle ppotere| pagare uno restante didebito / en elmost 

et in G le a 42 co to haueua Colmunistero| delpadiso / p ilpodere en daloro 

sicopo / posto atubiana Comune di| prato. Et p vigore 
dideo sindachato. Noi MO Alexadro dibartho|lomeo / & MO Ant dimichele / 
& fre Lorenzo dibernardo / sindachi pdcj : vendemo libere & Itrafacto / sotto 
di 26 dimaggio sop a dco| la sop a dca Casa posta Jngualfonda / Amariotto 
dipinctore & figli|uolo dibiagio battiloro / p se & p sua heredi / p pgio di ff 
octata la r ghi| do Io et no piu alt et p pche dco Mariotto doueua aspecta| 
re tucto elrestante del tpo della vita di dco M Alexadro: et pche| Anchora 
dco mariotto haueua gia Compato da dco M Alexadroj lujafructo di dca 
Casa en segli potessi puenire durate lasua vita] Intato cli Jnfra quello che 
el nost co to nebbe p la vendita fra auita | di M Alexadro et di Jacopo caruccj. 
en nebbe ff quarata larghi doro| 10 et ff octata larghi doro I o en alpnte ne 
pagha dco mariotto | alnost co to viene el nost co to haue r la ueduta preggio 
giusto & ragio|neuo le ptuche sia veduta libera & Itrafacto: et p maxle: 
prispecto) dellume tolto dalla Comp a delpellegrino alle finestr 6 didrieto. 

273 



PONTORMO 

E qualj| if octata larghi dco mariotto gli de pagare jn q modo cioe. ff 30 1 
larghi do 10 depaghare I suauna scripta p'uata fea di mano[ di m Ant 
dimichele sindacho pdco di Consentimeto de dua altrj | sindachi copagnj adca 
vedita: sotto scripta diloro mano & sotto | scripta di mano didco mariotto 
dipictore. ratificado ciaschu dinoi] sotto scrip tj / atato qto lessa scripta si 



contiene. Laquale scripta e appsso 
se facta: pen prima: en sene faccia 



didco mariotto: et qsta scripta p'uata 
publeco strumto / si de daroma trarre 



anost a spesa una licetia & c6fir|matioe didca vendita: et hauuta & obtenuta 
la dca licetia: sidefare) lauedita publica asua gab" b" la p publicho strumto / & 
pmano di publicoj notj et Insullo strumto fco & publecato. dco Mariotto: 
de darej & finire dipagare elrestante de dcj ff octanta larghi doro I o chej 
sono ff cinqta do I o. Et noi sindachi pdcj promettiamo p dco co to | di S a 
ma* no lla adco Mariocto copatore la difesa gnale di dca Casa| aluj venduta / 
obligado tuctj nostrj benj / psentj & futurj p la difesa di| dicta Casa venduta 
solamte. Et spetalmte promettiamo. pla dca di|fesa elpod r e copato dalle 
monache delpadiso posto iquel diprato] p gli oblighi & debit j del quale: 
spetialmete & Ipte se venduta la| decta Casa: et q, disotto simettera lordine 
del cotracto colpagmto. 

Doc. XI. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Official! dei Pupilli: 
Deliberationes et Partitiones, 1507-1508, No. 119, c. 114. 

M c c c c c vi j 
Pro her*e Bartholomei Jacobj Pictoris de putormo 

Die 24 Januarij 
Licetia vendendi mobilia 

Prefati officiales tutores dicte hereditatis seruatis &c. dederut et con- 
cesserut licetiam Bart aionis actori dicte hereditatis | vendendi mobilia dicte 
hereditatis. 

Die xxiiij Maij 1508 

Bedditio rationu 

Prefati officiales simul cohadunati et prestito jurameto seruatis &c.| viso 
quod libro temp to pdictum Bartholomeu angeli dellajione actorem Sig to 
A tempto p dicta heredit et suscriptionej facta indicto libro 8 manu Petri 
zenobij demarignollis et omnibus] ineo cotentis dictu libru et oratione ineo 
descripte appbaverut| et declarauerut dictu Bartholomeu remississe coputu 
sue | admtrationis et omnia alia fecisse inptibus oportuna. 

Die xvj Junij 

Fideiuxio 

Guido ormannogii dedetis civis Flor preseti et ementi dicti Bartho|lomei 
dangeli dellaione prese et fide . . . penes dictos off et pmi . . .| dictis offs licet 
absentibus ei et mihi eoru not 8 peis recipientibj se facturu et pdictis 
Bartholomeus tegerunt peum hinc adunu| ann px e futuru redder bonum 
coputum et de omia alia facere adq| tenetur secu ofdi flort alias desuo pp 
attendere obseruarej promisit, rogans &c. Actuubisop a presetib Benedicte 
bart depuccinis et| Ant lusti famulo. 

Die xxi Junii 

Appbatio 

Prefati off simul cohadunati &c. seruatis &c. dictu guidone fideiuxorej 
appbauerunt. 

274 



DOCUMENTS 

Doc. XII. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Convento del P.P. 
Serviti della Il ma Anmmziata di Servi di Maria : Convento 
119, No. 705, p. 113 verso. 

Novembre 1513 

A muraglia adi dto ff uno doro p Jacopo di Bt dipintore p parte di 
dipintura sopra larcho dela porta L 7 s 

Marzo 1513 
Idem, p. 122 verso. 

A muraglia adi dto L sette suo p dipignare larrae di deimedici sopra 
a larcho dela porta p Jacopo di Bt L 7 s 

Marzo 1514 

Idem, p. 124 recto. 

A spesse de muraglia adi dto ff quatro doro inoro ff tre p andrea dagnolo 
dipintore p oro p inorare e capitolli de sua quadri adipinto ff uno doro p 
Jacopo dipintore sopra alarcho delauolta sopra ala porta di sono p inorare 
qlle figure L 28 s 

Aprile 1514 
Idem, p. 127 recto. 

A spesse di muraglia adi dto ff dua doro suo p parte di dipintura sopra 
alarcho dela porta p Jacopo dipintore L 4 s 

Giugno 1514 

Idem, p. 132 recto. 

A muraglia adi decto lire cinquata sei sono p resto della di pintura sopra 
larcho della porta della ciesa porto iachopo dipintore e adrea en mese aoro 
cotati L 56 s 



Doc. XIII. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Convento dei P.P. 
" Serviti della Il ma Annunziata di Servi di Maria : Convento 
119, No. 705, p. 149 verso. 

f-dicebre 1514 

A p spese dimuraglia iochopino dipintore adi decto lire ueti una sono 
en tati gneue ha dare el coveto p il quadro fa nel ciostricino e resto pago fra 
mariano porto el p. priore cotati L 21 s 

Aprile 1515 

Idem, p. 161 verso. 

A Jachopino dipintore adi decto lire quatordici, sono per parte di 
dipintura del quadro del chiostricino porto el p. priore contanti lire 
quatordici L 14 s 

Maggio 1515 
Idem, p. 165. 

A Jacopino dipintore a di decto lire secte; sono per parte di dipintura 
del quadro del chiostricino porto contanti lire 7 

275 



PONTORMO 

Marzo 1516 
Idem, p. 192 verso. 

A Jachopino dipintore adi decto lire tre soldi 10, sono per parte di suo 
conto porto contanti lire 3 soldi 10 

Maggio 1516 
Idem, p. 200 verso. 

A Jachopino a di detto lire diciasette dipintore, sono per parte di suo 
conto porto contanti lire 17 

Giugno 1516 
Idem, p. 202 verso. 

A Jachopino dipintore a di detto lire dicia sette soldi 10 sono per loro 
per e chapitegli del quadro porto contanti lire 17 soldi 10 

Doc. XIV. Firenze : Archivio di Stato. San Lorenzo al Monte : 
Debitor! e Creditor! : 1524-1532. Convento 51, No. 81, p. 
xlviij. 

M. D. xxiiij 

M r Jacopo da pontormo depintore Di Dare p insino adi 15 di apUle 1524 
Duct xxx a L ija. 

p cassa in g a 49 como si vede in gle Biancho sto L a 3 Duct 30 L 2 s 

20 septembre Duct xx p cassa ing a 49 chome si vede in gle Biancho 
sto L a 8. Duct 20 L s 

30 octobre Duct xx p cassa in g a 58 chome si vede in gle Bianeho s* 
L a 23 Duct 20 L s 

1526 Marzo adi xxviiij Duct vij p cassa in g a 79 chome si vede in gle 
Biancho st L a 30 Duct 7 L s 

Octobre adi v Duct ij a L s p cassa in g a 79 chome si vede in gle 
Biancho St L a 34 Duct 2 L s 

Decembre adi xv Duct iiij L s p cassa in g a 79 si vede in gle 
Biancho St L a 40 Duct 4 L s d 

Marzo adi xviii Duct vj L p cassa in g a 79 chome si vede in gle 
Biancho Sto L a 45 Duct 6 L 

Apille adi 5 Duct v L p cassa in g a 88 chome si vede in gle Biancho 
S*o L a 47 Duct 5 1 s 

1527 decembre adi 5 Duct v L v. s xiiij p cassa in g chome si vede in 
gle Biancho sto L a 55 Duct 1 L 5 s 14 

febraio adi xxviiij Duct vj L s xv p entrata in g a 90 chome si 
vede in gle Biancho S to L a 58 Duct 6 L s 15 d. 

Doc. XV. Firenze : Archivio di Stato. San Lorenzo al Monte : 
Giornale L. Convento 51, No. 16, p. 3 verso. 

1524 adi 16 apHe 

M r Jacopo di bartholomeo da pontormo dipinctore de dare p cassa 
Duct ff trenta L dua hebe dato p avf I noue volte como I quad f a 65 Duct 
30L2s d. 

276 



DOCUMENTS 

MDxxiiij adi xx d. setemb 

Idem, p. 8 verso. 

M r Jacopo da pontormo dipentore di dare p cassa Duct dieci ebe de 
contanti dal p. priore como se vede I q di cassa s to f a 68 Duct 10 L s d. 

e piu adi 3 di dicembre Duct, dieci ebe dal p. piore como inq s to f a 
69 Duct 10 L s d. 

fa Duct 20 L s. 

M D xxv adi 30 doctobre 

Idem, p. 23 destra. 

M r Giacopo da pontormo dipintore di dare p cassa Duct, x porto lui 
di contanti p parte como si vede in quad di cassa a 78 Duct. 10 L s d. 

E piu adi 20 di dicembre Duct x porto lui ebe dal pcur p parte como si 
vede in quad di cassa s to f . a 81 Duct 10 L s d. 

fa Duct 20 L s. 

M D. xxv 

Idem, p. 30 destra. 

E piu Duct uno L sei pagamo a m ro Jac dipintore p tanti colori e la 
cornice p fare lo cenaculo de la despensa como in q a 86 Duct. 1 L 6 s d. 

m r Jacopo inpentore di dare p cassa Duct sette ebe dal pcur e fu adi 
4 di Junio como in q d cassa a 86 Duct 7 L s 

Idem, p. 34 sinistra. 

m r Giacpo dipintore di dare p cassa Duct dua ebe dal p cur e fu adi 
12 de agosto eomo sivede in q di cassa a 89 Duct. 2 L s. 

Idem, p. 40 destra. 

m r Giacopo impentore di dare p cassa Duct quatro ebe dal pcuratore e 
fu adi 15 di nouembre 1526 come ing de cassa S to f a 94 Duct 4 L s. 

Idem, p. 45 destra. 

m r Jae dipintore di dare p cassa Duct sei e fu adi 4 di genaio ebe dal 
pcur como si vede ing di cassa S to f a 96 Duct 6 L s. 

Idem, p. 47 verso. 

m r Jacopo dipintore di dare p cassa Duct, cinqu ebe dal pcur como in 
q di cassa S to f e f u adi 15 daple a 101 Duct 5 L. 

M xxvij (sic) adi 5 decembre 

Idem, p. 55 recto. 

m ro Giacopo da pontormo dipintore di dare p cassa Duct uno L v s 14 
P St a 6 difarina e paia 2 di galloni pago lo pcur a fra Jer et a fra franc 
como ing di cassa s to f a 108 Duct 1 L 5 s 14. 

M D. xxvij 

Idem, p. 58 recto. 

M r Jac da pontormo dipintore di dare p entrata dadi 28 di febraio 1524 
Duct dua L quat s dieci sono p la valuta di some 8 di flasconi ebe in piu volte 
e p una meza catasta di legno p L 8 eli flasconi a s 25 la soma posta in 
firenze a Duct. 2 L 4 s 10. 

277 



PONTORMO 

E piu adi 3 dilugio 1526 L tre s x sono p la valuta di uno Bar di vino di 
gtto de la montagna beuealo queto anze vectura e gabella Duct L 3 s 10. 

E piu da di 14 di nouembre 1526 p sino adi 17 decto Duct dua L vi s 
gindici sono p la valuta di una cattasta di legne ebe in dua volta e some 3 di 
flasconi posti in firenze anza victura e gabella Duct. 2 L 6 s 15. 

fa Duct 6 L s 15. 

Doc. XVI. Firenze : Archivio di Stato. San Lorenzo al Monte : 
Quaderno di Cassa F. Convento 51, No. 40, p. 65 destra. 

M. D. xxiiij 

26 deto (Maggio) 

A m r Jacopo di btholomeo dapontormo depintore Duct trenta L dua 
hebe dal pcuratore in 9 volte p parte da di 4 di Febraio 1522 p insine adi 
10 dapUle 1524 supra ala depintura fa nel claustro Duct 30 L 2 s s. 

M. D. xxiiij adi 16 dagosto 
Idem, p. 68 destra. 
Am r Jacopo dipintore duct porto lui Duct. 10 L s d. 

M D. xxiiij adi 29 doctobr 
Idem, p. 69 destra. 

adi deto Am ro Jacopo di pintore duct deci hebe lui cotanti dal p priore p 
parte Duct. 10 L s d. 

Idem, p. 78 destra. 

Capsa cotrassta di hau p sino adi 30 de oct-1525 duct dieci pagami a 
M r Jacobo depintore porto lui p parte Duct 10 L s d. 

M D xx (sic) 
Idem, p. 81 destra. 

20 decto A m ro Jac dipintore Duct dieci ebe dal p cur fu adi 19 d. decebr 
Duct 10 L s d. 

M. D. xxvj adi 29 d. marzo 
Idem, p. 86 destra. 

A m r Jacopo dipintore Duct sette ebe dal pcuf a fu adi 4 de Junio Duct 
7L s d. 

adi 25 de agosto 1526 
Idem, p. 89 destra. 

A m r Jacopo depentore Duct Dua hebe dal pcurator et fu adi 12 dagosto 
Duct 2 L s d. 

adi pmo di Decembrio 1526 
Idem, p. 94. 

L tre s quatordeci d sei p gabella de legne et fraseoni mandati a m r Jac 
depitore e p to de la casa sua Duct L 3 s 14 d 6. 

278 



DOCUMENTS 

Idem, p. 94. 

a m r Jac Dapontormo depetore Duct quat hebe dal pcuratore et fu 
adi 15 Novebrio 1526 a suo coto Duct 4. 

adi 10 di febraio 1526 
Idem, p. 96 destra. 

A m r Jac Depentore dapontormo Duct sei et fu adi 4 Digenaio hebe 
dal pcuratore Duct 6 L s d. 

adi 5 dap 'le 1527 
Idem, p. 101. 

A m r Jac Depetore Duct cinqu e fu adi 15 apUe hebe Dal p curatore 
porto lui Duct 5. 

adi 27 di Nouebrio 1527 
Idem, p. 108. 

Decebrio 6 A m r <> Jac Depetore : Duct uno L cinqu s xiiij hebe S ta 6 de 
farina et paia. 2. degaline pago el p curatore 
Duct 1 L 5 s. 14 d. 

Doc. XVII. Firenze: ArcMvio di Stato. Monastero di Santa 
Felicita di Firenze. Convento 83, No. 115: Libro Ricor- 
danze 1485-1528, p. 21. 

Rdo come oggi questo di digenaio 1490 Ant di Bnado paghanelli a dato 
a affitare la capella della nutiata posta nella chiesa di Seta Felicita p ladrieto 
della casa de ' ba r badori alpute di deto ant a f buono di . . . busini pte fioretino 
p di. L lano. 

Marginal note : 

Compero il d Antonio la d a Capp a da Barbadori e da Bernardo suo figlio 
fu venduta a Ludovico Capponi p scudi 200. 

Doc. XVIII. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Accademia del 
Disegno, No. I, Registro : Elenco dei Pittori, p. 10 verso. 

*J* Jachopo d. Btolomeo dapuntormo dip re 1525. 

Doc. XIX. Firenze : Archivio di Stato. Medici e Speziali, No. 
11 : Libro Verde ; Matricola per la Citta, p. 27 sinistra. 

Die V mesis iunij 1526 

332 

Jacobus bart ei Jacobi de putormo pictor in| civitate florentiae uolens 
uenire ad magistrate | dicte artis et describi inter al matriculates pp ea pmisit 
et iuravit et obligavit renumpsians et rogans, &c. 

Nil debet soluere benefitio dicti Jacobi bart ei eius patris matriculati in 
libro pagonazo a 181. 

279 



PONTORMO 

Doc. XX. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Catasto: Estimo del 
Contado, No. 5. Quartiere San Giovanni, 1520; Popoli 
1-95, No. 128, p. 57 sinistra. 

Jachopo di btlomeo d. Jacopo da puntonno a dua siti da fare possi I ditto 
popolo invia Laura e ce da p via Se zanoby orafo 3 spedale dinocieti copo 
dallo spe dalle di iiocieti p ff 100 dr rt % franc Sasoly adi 15 de marzo 1529 : 

et di poij a murato una p suo abitare. p fare la bottega et di poy ivero 

itutto p fare il suo abitare. 

Andati a Jac detto p uso 

Doc. XXI. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Catasto: Libro a 
Parte 1534. Cittadini a parte: Quartiere Santa Maria 
Novella e San Giovanni 1534, No. 11. Quartiere San 
Giovanni: Gonf alone Chiave, p. 448 sinistra. 

Jac di btolomeo di Jac dipitore daputormo. Sustanzie. 

po alibro No. 349. Una chasa nelpp dis p ro maggiore] in via laura a 
p via 2 zanobi di| ghabiello orafo 3 gino scharpellino da| settigniano 4 
orbatello p suo uso e leuata dasobb. S to G 1 No 5 (56) dallui detto cne 
murata dinuovo. 



Doc. XXII. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Archivio mediceo 
del Principato : Carteggio Universale, filza 567, c. 187 e 225. 

Letter of Costantino Ansoldi to Francesco de' Medici 1 

g er mo Principe 

Supplico sua Alteza come gia molti anni Intesi che Soa Alteza, overo 
il gran Duca fece publicare una crida in Fiorenza per sapere ove si trovasse 
II ritratto della bona memoria del Duca Alessandro, promettendo bona 
remuneratione, et perch 'io sono statto creatura del Detto Duca Alessandro 
mio Signore et ancho sempre desideroso di farme conoscer alia soa Alteza 
per suo amorevolissimo servitor, subito mi mossi a pensare nella mente mia 
se potessi In qualche modo uenir in cognitione di detto retratto, venendome 
In memoria ch' II detto Duca mio Signore me lo dono mentre era vivo, et 
doppo la sua morte m'e venuto In memoria ch'io lo donai a una Signora 
Thadea Malaspina, qual f u sorella dell ' Ill ma March a di Massa che f u Madre 
dell ' Eccmo Principe hoggidi di Massa, et con qsto mi partei da Casalmaggiore 

i Gualandi (III, 62-70) published this letter from a copy made by F. MoisS in 1851 
in which the latter falsely transcribed the name of the artist as Jaeopo da Ponte. Gualandi, 
unable to make a satisfactory hypothetical contact between the lives of Bassano and 
Alessandro de' Medici, concluded that Ansoldi was guilty of gross misrepresentation. 
Carnasecchi reprinted the document somewhat more accurately (Eivista d' arte, VI [1909] 
34-36) and indicated its connection with Pontormo. Both versions are in varying degrees 
inexact. It was Cosimo I who had advertised for the lost portrait of his ancestor but, since 
Ansoldi writes (1571) after the retirement of Cosimo (1564), he addresses himself to the 
"principe reggente" Francesco de' Medici. 

280 



DOCUMENTS 

patria mia neH'anno del S re 1568. adi. 10. di 915re che fu la vigilia di S to 
Martino. per andar a camino di trovar tal ritratto, desiderando presentarlo 
alia soa Alteza, parte per raffarmare la mia antica servitu, parte per haver 
qualch'aiuto dalla mane di soa Alteza per soccorrere alii bisogni di cinque 
mie figliole femine, quali sono da marito et senza roba et senza madre, feci 
capo a Ferrara a una S ra lulia Malaspina figliola della detta S ra Thedea, 
dalla Intesi che detto ritratto si trovava nella guarda robba del Principe 
di Massa, per eh'essa S ra Thadea era morta in casa del detto Principe, nella 
qual'erano restate tutte le sue spolie. lo inteso questo feci ricapito in 
Fiorenza persuadendomi che la servitu ch'io teneva con II S r lulio de Medici 
qual io ho alevato et fu consignato et racc to nelle mie mani dal detto Duca 
Aless ro havesse ad operare con rill m <> Principe di Massa per essersi alevati 
loro insiema che con il suo meggio detto ritratto pervenesse nelle mie mani, 
ma Intendendo che II S r lulio era in Pisa mi transfer! da Fiorenza a Pisa, 
et havendoli narrato la causa della mia venuta pregandolo volessi recuperare 
detto ritratto et farmene un dono in ricompensa della mia fedel servitu fatta 
alia bona memoria del Duca Aless ro suo Padre et anche a S.S. ; mi rispose 
ch' a tutte sua forze 1'haverebbe ricuperato, et eh' il ritratto saria statto il 
mio, et di piu che lui haveva obligatione di far tutto quello ch' io gli chiedessi 
per che haveva nel suo corpo Panima di detto Duca, et con questa speranza 
restai in Fiorenza et Pisa cinque mesi con mio grandissimo interesse, et 
grandissima infermita, per la qual fu forzato partirme per venir a casa, 
havendo pero prima hauta licenza da esso S re lulio, et prowisione sopra 
lasua parola di non mancarmi nel detto servitio et hebbe soccorso di denari 
per il mio viaggio dal gran Duca per mano del S r Thomaso di Medici, gionsi 
a casa et ricuperai la sanita quando piaque al S r Iddio, et alcuni mesi doppo 
il S r lulio mi scrisse ch'io andassi a Fiorenza, perche haveva ricuperato con 
gran difficulta il ritratto, et era per darmi tutto il mio intento, come posso 
justificare per sue lettere per il che mi partei per Fiorenza a di 5 maggio 1570 
et subito che fu gionto da S.S. mi prese per la mano et mi mostro il ritratto, et 
perch 'io instava che non volesse mancare di quanto mi haveva promesso, mi 
disse che lui non mi voleva ar modo alcuno dare quel primo et autentico, ma che 
me ne haverebbe datto una copia, sopra ch'io gli feci contrasto, tenendo che 
matfchasse della sua parola atteso che questo retratto era sta sepulto 33 Anni, 
et per meggio mio era stato scoperto, ma non potei ottenere altro da S.S. per 
che mai volse concedermi 1' original di detto ritratto, anci ne fece fare una 
copia, qual fu principiata da Vincenzo suo pittore, et poi finita da Salvio 
pittore del Cavalier somo, ma detta copia riusci sborgna, et io recusai' 
d'accettarla, et gli dissi al meno S.S. ne doveva far fare una copia per man 
di qualche valent'homo, ma lui mi rispose Constantino non lo posso fare, 
per ch'il gran Duca subito lo sapria et me ne privaria. Onde, io, vedendo 
la sua ferma risolutione contraria alia speranza ch'io teneva et alia parola 
dattami da S.S. non volsi a patto alcuno aecettarne copia, ma mi resolsi 
venirmene a casa, et cosi venni in effetto senza fame motto ad esso S r lulio 
con mio grandissimo interesse di borsa, et mala satisfation d'animo, non 
havendo possuto adempire 1' intento mio, pero ringratio sempre la M** Divina; 
g er mo Principe questo retratto e il vero et lusto qual fu fatto nel tempo che 
morse la bona memoria di Papa Clemente in Fiorenza in casa di Pazi, per 
man di Jacobo da pontor famoso homo, in habito da corrotto, in tavola a 
tutta facia et sin 'alia Cintura, al qual non gli manca altro che la favella; 
cosi ho voluto darne noticia alia Alteza sua, per ch'io non glielo posso dare 

281 



PONTOEMO 

con le mie mani, come desiderava, aceio almeno soa Alteza possi con le mie 
ragioni, queli io gli renuntio in tutto ricuperare detto ritratto. et far quanto 
gli pare; Supp la solamente vogli tener memoria di me Fid mo et antico 
servitore del Duca Aless ro dignandosi darme qualche soccorso per me qual 
mi ritrovo povero senza faculta di sorte alcuna et d'eta de' 69 anno, et con 
cinque figliole femine da marito, che riconoscero il tutto dalla man di S. Alteza 
et il S r Iddio gli ne rendera il guiderdone mantenendo et augumentando il 
suo felice stato come fa; et quando S. Alteza si dignara saper quel ch'io son, 
et sono stato, pigliara informatione dal Cavalier Carlo da Spello, da m. lulio 
da Pistoia, da maestro augustino sarto, da m Stephano Romano camerier 
del gran Duca, et di piu dal Ser mo gran Duca, da' quali credo soa Alteza 
havera bonissimo ragualio delle mie actioni; et se soa Alteza volesse valersi 
di me in cosa alcuna sara servita indrizare la Ira in Parma, in casa del S r 
Scipion Banzola, per che havro bon ricapito et io non mancaro di far quanto 
mi comandara soa Alteza, alia qual serviro sempre con fede et con la verita, 
et se la M<& di Dio mi eoncedesse che io havesse il modo di poter venire alii 
Piedi di S. Alteza come sarebbe 1'animo mio, gli farei conoscere che prima 
ch' hora ho desiderato far cosa grata a Soa Alteza, et 1'havrei fatto in effetto 
se il S r lulio non me havesse ingannato et non fosse proceduto con me con 
tanta malignita com' ha fatto, ma non voglio passare piu oltra, in scritto 
accio soa Alteza non mi tenesse uno Aretino, com' in effetto io non son, ne 
mi movo se non con gran ragione; Et con questo fine humil te baxio li piedi 
di soa Alteza, alia qual N. S. Iddio doni ogni felicita insieme con tutti li soi 
descendenti. Da Casalmaggre il di 23 9bre M.D.LXXI. 

Di S. A. 

Humiliss Servitore 

Costantino Ansoldi. 
(a tergo) 

Al Ser m Principe di Fiorenza 
overo in sua absentia al Ser m 
gran Duca, mei S ri 

In Fiorenza. 

Doc. XXIII. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Catasto: Cittadini 
a parte : Quartiere San Giovanni : Gonf alone Chiave, 1549, 
No. 16, p. 349 sinistra. 

Jac di bt mo di Jac dipintore ttj dalibro apte 36 (448) una casa nelp 
di S p re magiore invia laura a p via 2 Zanobi di Gabrello orafo 3 bino 
scarp no 4 orbatello p X a p uso 

Doc. XXIV. Lettere CXXVII del Commendatore Annibal 
Caro raccolte dal Conte Giulio Bernardino Tomitano opiter- 
gino ed ora per la prima volta pubblicate in Venezia per 
Antonio Zatta, 1791. 

A Mon. Giov. Guidiccioni a Fossombruno. 
Lettera VI. 

282 



DOCUMENTS 

... A quest' ora il ritratto di V. S. e finite del tutto ed oggi gli si da la 
vernice. II Pastermo si e portato da un uomo grande ed la migliorato assai, 
ma io non me ne soddisfaccio interamente perche V. S. e degna de' Michelangeli 
e de' Bastiani. 

Volea fare intarciare le lettere nell' ornamento ma perche sconficcandosi 
si disordina ogni cosa, mi sono risoluto di farvele dipingere. V. S. m'ordini 
quel ehe n'ho da fare e intanto me lo vagheggiero in vece di Lei. 

Di Eoma alii 12 d'Ottobre 1539. 

Idem, Lettera VII. To the Same 

... II ritratto si portera questa sera al Bernardi. 

19 Ottobre 1539. 

Some of the letters printed in this volume were in the eighteenth century 
in the private collections of Duca Mancciucca di Napoli and of Don Francesco 
Daniele, Segretario dell ' Accademia Ercolanese. Others were in the Biblioteca 
Borghese and in the Biblioteca privata del Regnante Pontefice. Their present 
whereabouts is unknown to me. 

Cav. Visconti printed in the Giornale arcadico, Tomo LXXX, p. 93, with 
certain changes of spelling among which Pastermo to Pontormo, the excerpt 
given above of letter No. VI. In Seghezzi's edition of Caro's letters (Milano, 
1807, I, 117) the painter's name is still given as Pastermo. 

Doc. XXV. Firenze: ArcMvio degl' Innocent!. Libro Nero: 
Debitor! e Creditor! G. 1545-1551, p. 446. 

1549 

Jacopo di bt di contto di dare adi xx dagosto ff cento p una comessa 
nel n spedale comapare al giorn le R (157) a p patti b (419) a li ro comess* 
(72) ff 100. 

Idem, p. ccccxlvi. 

Jacopo d bt dapuntormo dipintore di aver adi xxiii di marzo ff cento 
di m* . . . dal q<> di cassa b (210) e ent*a S (36) dare cassa (444) ff 100. 

Doc. XXVI. Firenze: ArcMvio degl' Innocent!. Libro di 
Commessi B. 1528-1549, p. ccccxviiii. 

Jacopo di btolomeo da puntormo dipintore di auer ogni ano durante sua 
vita naturale che deta dani 55 st a xxiiii di grano b* vi di vino et b 1 
d'olio posto in f re alia casa di sua abitazione atempi solid et q p auer 
comesso nel n spedale ff cento di m a comapare algiornale R (157) et alb ro 
No p (446) e provata da s ri consoli et operai di nostra arte addi xx dagosto 
1549. posto al 1 giallo (177) 

Doc. XXVII. Firenze: ArcMvio di Stato. Depositeria Vec- 
cMa, No. 394, p. 101 destra. 

Bastiano del gostra pittore con m Jac dapontormo conprouisione de 
duc a dua al mese cominciando add p mo dimarzo 1554 et di havere adi 28 di 

283 



PONTORMO 

febbraio 1556 p tanti messoli auscita Fissatasalariati p sua prouisione di 
marzo aprile et magio 1555 pagatoli di conto ff 36. 

Idem, p. 101 sinistra. 

Bastiano del gestra pittore diet dedare addi xxvii di feb 1556 ff dua 
porto lui p sua provisione di marzo 1555. 

Resta da havere ff ventidua p sua provisione di mesi 11 di p anno 1555 
p tutto febbraio fatto creditore alibro desalariati p 1557 di ff ventidua. 
Duet. 22. 

Doc. XXVIII. Firenze : ArcMvio di Stato. Medici e Speziali 
No. 251. Libro dei Morti 1544-1560, p. 92 recto. 

Genaio 1556 
M r Jac di Lorenzo dapontormo di pntore m ri Adi 2 spi to nella nutiata. 

Doc. XXIX. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Medici e Speziali: 
Libro dei Morti 1506-1560 : Serie della Grascia, p. 524 verso. 

Gennaio 1556 
M Jac diL z d a puntornio sep nella nunziata adi 2. 

Doc. XXX. Firenze: ArcMvio di Stato. Notari: G 300. 
Protocollo di Ser Giovanni Battista di Lorenzo Giordani 
(1555-1556), c. 399 r. 

3 febbraio 1557 

Item post a dictis anno 1556 Indic ne 15 etdie] 3 mensis februarij. Actu 
Flor 6 In populo sfi\ stephani abbatia Flor n e presentibus testib| & Priore S Ghei 
de Gharadinis et| Luca ant 1 de balieaccis testore draper. 

Publicer pateat quatr Andreas oli Ant 1 ] Bart 1 als mei testor drapporu 

costitutusj I psentia mei et testium pmissoru| Asserens egregiu mag m Jac m q. 

Bat* micupatum| de Potormo pictore mortuu esse et decessisse 

aditio jam est mesis vel circa nullo p eu codito testameto qd sciatur 

here nullis relictis liberis sed relicto post se| dicto Andrea eius attinete 

ditatis et coniucto| I gnto gradu et pximiori ipsi mag Jacobo] ex latere 

matris scilicet] nato ex Don a margh ta Giachi calzolarij| de potormo 

sorore patrueli dicti Andree| et nullis aliis post se relictis subcessoribus| dictu 

Andrea excludere ab hereditate) dicti mag 1 Jac 1 seu cu eo i aliq a p te | cocurrere 

et putans hereditate pdicta| potius utilem q inutile. Idest meliori, &c. 

Doc. XXXI. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Decima: Ricerca 
delle Case di Firenze 1561. Quartiere San Giovanni, p. 128. 

Pergola via o via della Colonna 

1983 Andrea di . . . detto il Chiarrella| tessitore una casa contigua alia 
dtta cha| Antonio di Gino lorenzi | 

Habita apigione Franco di Goro pittore p ff | 14 st a ff 24 B 4 ff 14. 2. 2. 
Antonio come al quaderno. 

284 



DOCUMENTS 

Doc. XXXII. Due Lezzioni di messer Benedetto Varchi, 
Fiorenza: Torrentino, MDXLIX, Appendix. 1 

II diletto ch io so che voi, mag. M. Benedetto, pigliate di qualche bella 
pittura o scultura, e in oltre lamore che voi agli huomini di dette profession! 
portate, mi fa credere chel sottilissimo intelletto vostro si muova aricercare 
le nobilita e ragioni di ciascuna di queste due arti, disputa certo bella 
edifficilissima, e ornameto proprio del vostro si raro ingegno, & per esser 
ricerco con tanta benignita da una vostra de' di passati di dette ragioni, 
non sapero o potero forse con parole e enchiostro esprimere interamente le 
fatiche di chi opera, pure per qualche ragione e essempio semplicemente 
(senza conclusione non dimanco) ve ne diro quello chi mi occorre. La cosa 
in se e tanto difficile, che la non si puo disputare e manco risolvere, perche 
una cosa sola ce, che e nobile che el suo fondamento e questo sie el disegno, 
e tutte quante laltre ragioni sono debole, rispetto a questo (vedetelo, che 
chiunque ha questo fa 1'una e 1'altra bene) & se tutte 1'altre arguitioni sono 
debole e meschine rispetto a questo come si puo ella disputare co questo solo, 
se non lassare stare questo da parte, non hauendo simile a se & produrre 
altre ragioni piu debole senza fine, o conclusione? Come dire una figura di 
scultura fabricata atorno, e da tutte le bande tode, e finita per tutto, con 
scarpelli, e altri strumenti faticosi, ritrovata in certi luoghi da non potere 
pensare in che modo si possa co' ferri entrarui o finirui essendo pietra o cosa 
dura; che a fatica alia tenera terra sarebbe fattibile, oltre alle difficulta 
d'un braccio in aria co qualche cosa in mano, difficile, e sottile a condurla 
che non si rompa, oltre di questo non potere rimediare quando e leuato un 
poco troppo (questo e ben vero, oltre a questo hauerla accord ato benissimo 
per un verso) & poi per gli altri no ve 1'ha a ritrouare, quando per macamento 
di pietra in qualche lato, per la difficulta grande che e in accordare propor- 
zionate tutte le parti insieme a tondo, non potendo ben mai vedere come 
1'ha a stare, se non fatta che 1'e, e se le non sono cose minime e non va 
rimedio; ma e non hara non ha rimedio. Ma chi non avra fondamento di 
disegno, incorrera in errori, o in auertenze troppo euidente, che le cose minime 
si possono male fugire nelluna e nell'altra, ecci ancora e vari modi di fare, 
come di marmo, di bronzo, e tate varie sorte di pietra, di stucho, di legno, 
di terra e molte altre cose, che in tutte bisogna gran praticha, oltre alia 
fatica della persona, che non e piccola; ma questa tiene 1'uomo piu sano, 
e fargli megliore complessione ; doue che el Pittore e el contrario, male 
disposto del coropo per le fatiche dell'arte, piu tosto fastidi di mente che 
aumeto di vita; (troppo ardito), e volenteroso di imitare tutte le cose che 
ha fatto la natura,- co colori, perche le paino esse (e ancora migliorarle) 
per fare i sua lauori ricchi, e pieni di cose varie, faccendo, doue accade come 
dire, splendori, notte con fuochi, e altri lumi simili, aria, nugoli, paesi 
lontani e dappresso, casamenti con tante varie osseruanze di prospettiua, 
animali di tanta sorti, di tanti vari colori e tante altre cose; che e possibile 

i Eeprinted with many changes of spelling and punctuation and with certain omissions 
that obscure the sense of several passages, as well as with the erroneous remark that it 
was originally addressed to M. Benedetto Cellini, in Bottari's Raccolta di Lettere sulla 
Pittura, Scultura ed Architettura, scritte da' piu celebri personaggi dei Secolo XV, XVI 
e XVII (edizione Ticozzi, Milano, 1822, I, 20-25). This letter was really written by 
Pontormo at Varchi 's request and formed part of the symposium appended to his lecture 
on sculpture and painting in which he published various opinions expressed by famous 
artists on the relative merits of the two arts. 

285 



PONTORMO 

che in una storia che facci vi s'interuenga cio che fe' mai la natura, oltre a 
come io dissi disopra, migliorarle, e col arte dare loro grazia, a accomodarle, 
e comporle doue le stanno meglio; oltre a questo e varii modi di lauorare, in 
fresco, a olio, a tempera, a colla, che in tutto bisogna gran pratica a maneg- 
giare tanti vari colori, sapere conoscere i loro effetti, mesticati in tanti varii 
modi, chiari, scuri, ombre, e lumi, reflessi, e molte altre appartenenze infinite 
che io dissi troppo ardito, che la importaza sie superare la natura in volere 
dare spirito a una figura, e f aria parere viua, e farla in piano ; che se almeno 
egli hauesse considerate, che quando Dio creo 1'huomo, Io fece di rilieuo, 
come cosa piu facile a farlo viuo, et no si harebbe preso uno soggetto si 
artifitioso, e piu tosto miracoloso e diuino. 

Dico ancora, per gli essempi che se ne puo dare, Michelagnolo non hauer 
potuto mostrare la profondita del disegno, e la grandezza dell' ingegno suo 
diuino nelle stupende figure di rilievo fatte da lui, ma nelle miracolose opere 
di tante varie figure, e atti begli essorsi di pittura si, hauendo questa sempre 
piu amata, come cosa piu difficile, e piu atta allo ingegno suo sopranaturale, 
non gia per questo ei non conosca la sua grandezza, e eternita dependere da 
la Scultura, cosi si degna e si eterna, ma di questa eternita ne participa piu 
le caue de marmi di carrara che la virtu dello artefice, perche e in migliore 
soggetto, e questi soggetto cioe rilieuo appresso di gran maestri e cagione 
di grandissimi premii, e molta fama, e altre degnita in ricompenso di si 
degna virtu, pesomi dunche, che sia come del vestire che questa sia panno 
fine, perche dura piu e di piu spesa ; e la pittura panno acotonato dello inferno 
che dura poco e di manca spesa perche leuato che gl ' ha quello riccolino non 
se ne tiene piu conto, ma hauendo ogni cosa hauer fine, non sono eglino 
eterne a un modo, e ci sarei che dire in' bondato, ma habbiatemi per scusato, 
che no mi dare el cuore far' scriuer piu a questa penna, altro che la impor- 
tanza di tutta questa lettera ilche e farui noto che vi sono ossequente e a' 
piaceri vostri paratissimo, Sommi aueduto che la ripreso vigore, e non le 
basterebbe isto quaderno di fogli, non che tutto questo perche le ora nella 
beva sua, ma io perche le non vi paressino cerimonie troppo stuchevoli per 
non vi infastidire non la intignero piu nello inchiostro, pure che la mi serua 
cosi tanto che io noti i di del mese, che sono XVIII di Febraio. Vostro lacomo 
in casa. 



Doc. XXXIII. Firenze: Archivio di Stato. Guardaroba No. 
28. Inventario della Guardaroba per M. Giuliano del 
Touaglia, M. Giovanni Ricci, M. Mariotto Cecchi: XXV 
d'Ottobre 1553, p. 6 verso. 

Nelle Camere del Duca al Piano della sala de 200 nella Camera Terza. 
Quadro di nf a dna con ornamento dorato di mano del Pontolmo. 

Idem, p. 13 verso. 
Salotto della Duchessa. 

U quadro di pittura drentui una uenere con Cupido, et fornimento di 
noce intagliato, et cortina di taffeta uerde di mano di Jac da potolmo. 



286 



DOCUMENTS 

Doc. XXXIV. Firenze: ArcMvio di Stato. Guardaroba No. 
30, 1553-1560. Inventario generale a capi della Guardaroba, 
p. 54. 

Entrata 

Uno quadro di Nfa Donna co ornamento dorati del Pont'olmo. 
Uno quadro cola Venere e cupido del Pontolmo co ornamento di noce e 
cortina di s ta uerde. 

Uscita 

Idem, p. 58. 

A S E a addi 24 d'agosto (1557) Uno quadro grande di una Dona di mano 
del Pont'olmo co ornamento dorato et per lei dato di com 6 della Due* a Don 
giovani di figana p portare a milano al giorle a 100. 



Doc. XXXV. Firenze : Archivio di Stato. Guardaroba No. 34 : 
Giornale della Guardaroba di Sua Eccellenza 1555-1558, 
p. 100 verso. 

M.D.LVII. 

Addi 29 d'agosto. Uno quadro di nfa Donna dimano del Pont'olmo co 
ornameto dorato di br a 2 dato in dono a Don giovani figana p ordine della 
Sig ra Duc a . 



Doc. XXXVI. Rime Inedite di Raffaello BorgMni e di Angiolo 
Allori detto il Bronzino, a cura del canonico Domenico 
Moreni, Firenze, nella stamperia Magheri, 1822, pp. XXX- 
XL. 

SONNETS ON THE DEATH OF PONTORMO 

Benedetto Varehi al Bronzino 
Bronzin, dove poss'io fuggir, s'ancora 

In questa si remota, e si ronita 

Profonda valle il duol sempre m'addita, 

Sol perch 'io pianga, e mi lamenti ognora? 
Lo gran Pittor, che dianzi in si poc ' ora 

Impensata da noi fece partita, 

E me lascio, perch 'io morissi, in vita 

Con voi, cui sorte, e danno eguale accora ? 
Ohime dunque il chiaro vostro, e mio 

Puntormo ha spento morte anzi '1 suo giorno ; 

E voi vivete, e '1 Martin vive, ed io ? 
Pur ne consoli, ch ' ei non lunge a Dio 

Lieto il rimira, e vedrallo al gran giorno 

Quale il dipinse a noi tra f ero, e pio. 

287 



PONTORMO 

Di Bronzino 

lo sono oinai si di me stesso fuora, 

Saggio, e buon Varchi, e 'n si misera vita, 
Ch'ogni conforto, ogni pietosa aita 
Dello sgravarmi il duol, piii m ' addolora. 

Lasso, e che piu dolor d'uopo mi fora? 
Non basta a far da me 1 ' alma partita 
Quel ch'io sento? o si dee per infinita 
Doglia morte allungar piii d'ora in ora ! 

Anzi pur questo e de ' miseri il rio 

Sentiero, 'n morte per piu danno, e scorno 
Fa di se lungo," ardente, e van desio. 

Ma che rispondo ! Anzi perche travio 

Dal pensier giusto, e saldo ! Ecco ch ' io torno 
A trar dagli ocehi amaro eterno rio. 

Se mai sara, che dall ' interna doglia, 

Che si m' ingombra 1' intelletto, e '1 core 
Onde cade da lor possa, e valore, 
Come per verno rio tenera foglia, 

Gia non dich'io poter pari alia voglia, 
Ma concesso mi sia, ehe no '1 dolore 
Sempre mi tenga a guisa d ' uom, che muore, 
Legati i sensi, e mai non gli apra, o scioglia, 

Forse potrebbe un di pietosa mente 

Da questa lingua, e quest ' indotte carte 
Udendo la cagion del mio gran pianto, 

Meco dolersi, e meco reverente 

Ammirar la bonta, 1' ingegno, e 1'arte 
Del gran Puntormo virtuoso, e santo. 

Quando nell ' alto mar, che non ha riva 
Delle tue lodi, arnica alma beata, 
Entro, e mi veggio in frale, e disarmata 
Barca, d ' ajuto, e di governo priva, 

Pavento, e tremo, e nel pensier m ' arriva 

Se mai fu audace impresa invan tentata, 

Ond'io calo la vela al vento data 

Con mente offesa, a se medesma schiva. 

Ma gli onor tuoi, le virtu care, e tante 
Tornan si viva in me la giusta voglia 
Di fame ricco il nostro almo paese, 

Che pur convien, che dal lito mi scioglia, 
"E guidandomi amor trapassi avante 
Di speme acceso, e di desir cortese. 

Ben fu presagio di piu grave danno, 
Orme, del passo tuo 1' empia ruina 
Poiche partir dovea la pellegrina 
Alma del tuo gran lume anz ' il quart ' anno. 

288 



DOCUMENTS 

Quella, che amo si '1 vero, odio 1 ' inganno 
D ' arte eccellente, e di bonta divina, 
Che 1'Arno altero a par teco cammina 
Colmo di gloria, e di pietoso affano. 

Dolce, vago, gentil chiaro ruscello 

Piangi con meco, e da quest' occhi prendi 
Piu che dal fonte tuo forza, e vigore. 

Tu perso hai '1 figlio, io 1 ' amico, e '1 f ratello, 
Anzi '1 padre, '1 maestro : or meco rendi 
Debito officio a cosi giusto amore. 

Amico spirto al ciel tomato, d'onde 
Partisti quasi accorto pellegrino 
Fornito il voto, e quest ' aspro cammino 
D ' oliva ornato, e di laurea f ronde, 

Com' hai sofferto, ohime, lasciarmi all' onde 
Nemiche in mezzo ? e senza me divino 
Goderti albergo ? Al sommo Sol vicino 
Pur vedi il tutto, e nulla ti s ' asconde ; 

Chiaro t ' e il cor con quanto ardore, e f ede 
T'ama, e che senza te perdendo vassi, 
Poiche del Varco tuo 1 ' Orme non vede, 

Ne suol pieta soffrir, ch ' amico lassi 

L'altro nei lacci, ond' ha ritratto il piede 
Potendo aitarlo, e sol libero passi. 

Se quell ' ardor pien d ' amorosa f ede 
D ' onesta carita provata, e salda 
Piu che mai per te m ' arde, e non pur scalda, 
Come vera amicizia ama, e richiede, 

Arnica luce or, che chiaro si vede 

Da te '1 mio core, e la sincera, e calda 
Voglia, che quasi al sol mi strugge, e sfalda 
Tenera neve, e non piu spera, o crede. 

Gli occhi, che per mia doglia in terra chiusi 

Nel cielo apristi, ond' ei s'allegra, e schiara, 
Kivolgi al tuo fedel, negletto, e solo, 

Che quaggiu vive oscura vita amara 

Soccorril, prego, e '1 troppo amor lo scusi, 
Se la tua pace in ciel turba il suo duolo. 

Dalla sublime sua stellante soglia 

Jj ' unica luce mia ver me riguarda, 
Perch' io la segua, e parle ogni ora tarda, 
Ch ' altro non ha nel cielo, onde si doglia ; 

Ond' io,,ch' al cor non ho piu calda voglia, 
Quanto a lassu volar preme, e ritarda 
Disgombro, e scarce, accio leve, e gagliarda 
L'alma sormonte, e di quaggiu si scioglia; 

E con piu cura all ' opre sante, e belle 

Di lei mi specchio, e sforzomi esser tale, 

289 



PONTORMO 

Che quale in terra in ciel m'accoglia, ed ame: 
felice quel di, ch' aperte 1'ale 

Per acquetar le pari oneste brame 
Volaro seco alle sue pari stelle. 

Se virtu qui f ra noi pregiar si deve, 

E se bontade il eiel gradisce, ed ama, 
Sacro seggio or esalta, orna e riceve 
Mia luce, e 'n terra avra perpetua f ama ; 

Che quanto d'arte, ingegno, o studio brama 
In lei rilusse, e ne die saggio in breve, 
Che nei tre lustri a quei, che il secol chiama 
Piu chiari, a par sen gio secura, e leve. 

Crebbe col tempo in lei bontade, ed arte, 
Felici amiche ; a quanto saggia umile, 
Mai sempre aggiunse al dotto il santo stile. 

Or in ciel premio a'suoi merti simile 

Si gode, e '1 mondo a' suoi pregi comparte 
Onor supremi, e meco piange in parte. 

Pioche la luce mia da mille chiare 
Opre ritrasse 1'onorata mano, 
Dato allo stile, ed ai color sovrano 
Loco, e dimostro quanto arte puo fare. 

In nuova illustre, e magna opra, ch' ornare 
Dovesse il tempio del gran Re Toscano 
La pose, ove cerco sopr' ogni umano 
Poter se stessa, e tutti altri avanzare ; 

Ma quando, ohime, non molto lungi al fine 
Seguiva intenta il vago, alto lavoro, 
D ' orror, di meraviglia, e d 'Arte pieno, 

Soverchi studj a sue voglie divine 

Fermaro il corso, e dal terreno coro 
Void al celeste, al vero lume in seno. 

Di Messer Tommaso Porcacchi. 

Chiusa col padre suo sotto atra terra 

Col capo alquanto in fuor, col viso chino 
La maestra di voi, chiaro Bronzino, 
Cos! la voce al dir mesta disserra. 

Che fo? Chisono? Or chi mi sbrana, e atterra? 
Dov 'el' arte ? il color ? 1 ' ingegno ? il fino 
Pronto disegno ? Ohime, spento il divino 
Pontormo, acerba morte or mi sotterra \ 

Gia vive, e lo so ben, de ' suoi colori 

Dell' onne sue nuovo Pontormo eletto, 
A questo eguale, Apelle oggi a' migliori 

Dunque nel mio Bronzino i tristi umori 
Rasciugo, in lui mi poso ; cosi detto 
S ' ascose, e solo oggi per voi vien f uori. 



290 



DOCUMENTS 

Bronzino a Madonna Laura Battiferra degli Ammannati 

Donna, che '1 secol nostro oscuro, e vile 
Rendete sovr' ogni altro illustre, e caro 
Primo di Febo onor, primo, e phi chiaro 
Di cortese onesta lume gentile, 

Troppo sete ver me dolce, ed umile 

Per medicar 1'altiero colpo amaro, 
Che morte diemmi, e che non ha riparo, 
Se non col farmi a chi mel die simile. 

Morte mel diede, e sola puo far morte 
A me sol grata, a tutti altri molesta, 
Che 1'alta piaga all' alma, e al cor si chiuda. 

Ben rallenta il dolor, che non men forte 
M'e duopo vostra man soave, e presta, 
Ma phi s ' allunga, onde pieta m 'e cruda. 

Alia Medesima 

La notte, ch' al mio duol principio diede, 

Ch' altro, che morte omai finir rion puote, 
E che lascio le mie speranze vote 
Di si 'intera amicizia, e chiara fede, 

Con si grave dolor nel cor mi riede, 

Anzi e pur sempre, che da lui remote 
Gioia, e quiete ogni altra cura scuote, 
Che pianger lasso, e sospirar non chiede : 

Onde s'avvien, che mano, o voce porga 

Donna, ond' io scriva, e la ragion discopra 
Del comun danno, e di mie doglie acerbe, 

Tal dal petto sospir, dagli occhi sgorga 

Pianto, che f orza m ' e, lasciata ogni opra, 
Mostrar, ch' a sol tormento il ciel mi serba. 

Alia Medesima 

Mentre sepolto, e di me stesso in bando 

Mi sto com' uom, che phi non veggia, e senta 
Che tenebre, e martir, poiche m ' ha spenta 
Morte ogni gioia, ohime, si tosto, e quando ! 

Si dolce udir mi par 1 ' aura vi destando 
Le vive gemme, e si bel raggio intenta 
Far la mia vista, che ridurmi tenta 
L ' alma, u ' si vive, i suoi danni obliando ; 

O vitale armonia, celeste lume, 

S'al destin si potea tor Tanne, vostra 
Era la gloria, e ben temer si vide. 

Ma ch' io sol la sua voce ode, e mi guide 
Lo buon Pittor, che fu dell 'eta nostra 
Specchio, e gia termo, e 'n doglia mi consume. 



291 



PONTORMO 

Di Madonna Laura Risposta 

Se fermo e nel destin, che lacrimando 
L'alma vostra gentil viver eonsenta 
Per quella, ch' oggi in ciel lieta, e contenta 
Gode del vostro gir si lamentando ; 

lo, che fuor (mal mio grado) talor mando 
Qual roco angel, voce imperfetta, e lenta, 
E se pur luce scopro, ella diventa 
Oscura nube in cieca parte errando. 

Vi prego umil, che 1 ' onorate piume 

Seguiate, e '1 dolce suon, che si vi mostra 
Quel, che dal volgo vil parte, e divide ; 

Che forse un di, se morte non recide 

Anzi tempo il mio stame, all ' alta chiostra 
Con voi saro fuor d ' ogni mio costume. 

A Madonna Laura 

S ' al vostro alto valor f amosa pianta 

Ai chiari merti del mio Duce, o al mio 

Grave dolore, o a quel caldo desio, 

Che d'onorarlo il cor mi strugge, e schianta, 

Pari avess' io '1 poter, qual piu si vanta 
Securo nome, dal futuro oblio 
Vincerei, credo, a dal piu crudo al pio 
Saria sua f ama reverita, e pianta : 

Ma poiche '1 vostro ogni valore avanza, 
Ne piu pud meritar 1'ottimo, e saggio, 
E mia doglia, e voler passa ogni segno. 

Al vostro sol valor ricorro, al degno 

Merto, e a mia voglia, e duol pari, e quindi aggio 
Speme d'alzarlo, ov' io non ho possanza. 

Di Madonna Laura in Risposta 

Al gran merto dell 'alma eletta, e santa, 

Che ritornando al cielo in grembo a Dio, 
Lasso voi, lasso, in tenebroso, e rio 
Stato, e noi privi di ricchezza tanta ; 

Qual tromba suona, o pur qual Musa canta 
Tanto altamente, e cosi chiara, ch' io 
Bassa, a scura non veggia? che desio 
La vostra udir, cui grave doglia ammanta. 

Ella puo sola, ond' io certa ho speranza 
Vedere anzi '1 fornir del mio viaggio 
Dare algi alti suoi pregj onor condegno. 

Allor quanto alzar puossi umile ingegno, 
Sebbene a ciascun passo in terra caggio 
Pur di seguirvi prenderei baldanza. 



292 



DOCUMENTS 

A Madonna Laura 

L'Aura vostr' Alma, or che '1 fier Borea ammorza 
Alle campagne i piu vaghi colori, 
E '1 corso impetra ai vivi argenti, e fuori 
Vedova, e attrista ogni terrena scorza ; 

Col suo dolce spirar, di nuova forza 

Par, ch ' aer nraova, e nuova terra irrori, 
Nuovo Sol n ' apra, e piante, acque, erbe, e fiori 

Ne renda, e ta', ch' a rallegrar ne sforza. 

Ond ' io quel f ronda al piu nemico verno 

Dentro agghiacciato, e fuori, atro, e negletto, 
Orbo del caro mio buon padre, e duce, 

Vigor riprendo, e '1 giel distruggo interno, 
Degli onor suoi mi vesto, e '1 suo diletto 
Seren m'innalza, e scuopre la mia luce. 

Di Madonna Laura in Risposta 

Bronzino in ciel 1 ' alma beata luce 

Quant ' altro vago, e luminoso aspetto 
Atto a produr f ra noi piu degno effetto 
Come f u gia del mondo onore, e luce ; 

Talche 1'erto sentier, ch' a Dio conduce 
Fuor di questo mortal breve ricetto, 
Mostra si piano al vostr' alto intelletto, 
Ch ' uopo non ha di miglior guida, o duce. 

Et io, che 'n alto mar senza governo 

Quando e piu nudo il ciel de ' suoi, splendori, 
Erro sempre alternando or poggia, or orza, 

Gia fatta preda al gran Nettuno, e scherno, 
Sorgo non lunge i suoi lucenti albori 
Si che la stanca nave si rinforza. 



293 



APPENDIX III 

Diary of Pontormo 1 

Doc. XXXVII. Firenze: Biblioteca Nazionale. Miscellanea 
magliabecchiana, catalogo VIII, 1490. 

I 

Carte 5 

adi 30 digenaio 1555 comicioqelle rene di quella figura en piagne quello 
babino| adi 31 feci quelpoco delpanno cnlacigne en fucattiuo tepo eemj doluto 
j 2 dj| lostomaco e lebudella laluna afatto lap 'ma quarta| adi 2 dj febraio I 
sabato sera euenerdi magai 1 cauolo etuctadue q e sere| cenai 6 16 dipane epno 
hauere patito fredo alauorare no me forse doluto | eleorpo elostomaco eltepo 
emolle epiouosoj adj 1 difebraio feci dalpanno igiu eadi 5 lafinii eadi 16 feci 
quelle gabe diquella) babino en le sotto en fu isabato eluenerdi. comlcio a ee 
beltepo ecosj elsabato detto efre|ddo eprima era durato apiouere tucta 
uia seza puto difredo eadi 21 en fu berligaccio| cenai co brozino lalepre eueddi 
lebagattelle elasera dicarnouale ui cenaj| adj 24 I domenica lunedi emartedi 

i The order in which the pages of the original manuscript follow one another has 
been preserved in transcribing the Diary, but a blank page has been ignored with the result 
that the last page is numbered 23 and not 24. This is not the order in which Pontormo 
made these notes, but their true sequence will be found in the chronological analysis of 
the Diary which immediately follows the text. In the margins of many of the pages one 
finds-Jittle sketches drawn by Pontormo to indicate the figure in the choir of San Lorenzo 
upon which he was at work on the day in question. The reduced facsimile of page 4, which 
forms part of the illustration of this volume, gives an idea of the disposition of these 
sketches some of which correspond, as I have pointed out elsewhere, to drawings by Jacopo 
that are preserved in the Print Koom of the Uffizi. 

The authenticity of this fragment is indisputable; the handwriting is identical with 
that which appears on a number of Pontormo 's drawings (Dessins, p. 42 f.). We have, it 
is true, no trace of it earlier than 1625 at which date it came into the possession of the 
Strozzi, probably among the numerous acquisitions made by Carlo di Tommaso Strozzi. 
In 1786 Alessandro, the last descendant of Carlo, sold his collection to the Grand Duke 
Leopoldo. Pontormo 's Diary is not mentioned in the first catalogue of the codices that 
once belonged to the Strozzi Library (Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale, Catalogo dei codici 
della libreria strozziana), but the second catalogue of the same collection mentions it and 
its provenance. 

A copy (h. 266, w. 198 mm.) of eight pages of the Diary, including the sketches that 
appear in the margins, was made early in the seventeenth century. It is now No. 621 
(33-E, 5, 6, 32) of the Biblioteca Nazionale of Florence. It is labelled "Diario del 
Pontormo, pittor fiorentino" and once belonged to Gaetano Poggiali and of it Gaye 
(Carteggio, III, 166-169) quotes a few pages. The identification of the original is due 
to Colasanti (Diario di Jacopo Carrucci, Bullettino della societa filologica romana, II [1902], 
35-59) whose article was reviewed by Fabriczy (Das Tagebuch Jacopos da Pontormo, 
Repertorium, XXVI [1903], 95 f.). Colasanti transcribed only a few lines. He attempted 
to determine the chronological sequence of the pages, but his arrangement is inexact. 

295 



PONTORMO 

emercoledi en fuelp'mo di di guaresima duro tepo come dap'le e bello 
giouedipoi eomicioueto secco epiutosto freddo| eh fu hitimo di difebraio 
eio feci eldj latesta diquella figura en e sop a quelle cnsta cosij domenica 
mattina desinai cobr epareuami ee moltopieno I modo cn| lasera ionocenai| 
adi 4 dimarzo feci queltorso eh e sotto a quellatesta detta eleuami la bora 
lanzj dj| domenica fumo adi 10 detto desinai c5b elasera a bore 23 cenamo 
quello pesce grosso eparechj picholifrittj en spesi soldi 12 en ueraattauiano 

elunedi feci quello braccio diquella figura ditesta en alza 
elasera D elasciala) isino quiui come mostra q scizo| martedj emerco ledi 
comicio feci quel uechio elbracci suo en stacosi| adi 15 dimarzo comiciaj 

eltepo quello braccio en tiene lacoregia itesta en f u I uenerdjj elasera 

aguas cenaj 1 pesce duouo cacio ficbi enoce eo 11 dipane| mercoledi 

tarsi adi 20 fornj elbraccio diuenerdj elunedi lanzj haueuo fatto| 

enera du quello busto elmartedj fecj latesta diquello braccio cnio dieo 
rato pa giouedimattina] mileuaj abuonora et uidi simaltepo eueto efredo 
rechi di en ionolauoraj e mj| stettj I casa uenerdj feci quello alt br 
bello en sta atrauerso esabato upoco di| capo azurro en fumo adi 23 

seza elasera eenj ii o dipane dua huoua espinacj| en fu ladom lunedi 

piouere adi 25 desinai cobr elasera cenai icasamia 1 pesce duouo | 

martedj feci quellatesta delputto en china eeenai 5 10 dipane 
eebi 1 sonetto 1 daluarcbi| mercoledi feci quelloresto delputto eebj disagio a 
quello stare chinato tucto di| 

II 

Imodo en mi dolse giouedj lerene (euenerdi oltre aldolermj ebimala] 
dispositione enomiseti bene elasera nocenaj elamattina en fumo a di (frac 
I giu . . .) 29 1555 1 feci lamano emezo ebraccio diquella figura grade elginochio 
ed 1 pezodigaba] doue eposa lamano en fu eluenerdj detto e la detta sera 
nocenai estettj. D.| isinalsabato sera emagiai 10 6 dipane eduahuoua e i a 
I salata di Fiorj diborana| 31 dimar zo ladomenica mattina desinai I casa 
danjello pesce ecastrone elasera nocenai | elunedi mattina misismosse elcorpo 
codolore leuamj epoi p ee fredo eueto | ritornai neleto estettjuj Isino a bore 
18 eltucto dipoi no miseti bene pure lasera| cenaj upoco digota lessa co delle 
bietole e burro esto cosi seza sapere quello cn| a ee dime peso en mi nocessj 
assaj quello ritornare neletto pure ora en sono| bore 4 mipare stare asaj bene| 
adi 3 dap'le feci quella gaba dalginochio igiu eco gra fatica dibuioediveto 
e ditonico| elasera cenai o 14 dipane radicbio e duoua[ giouedi cenai 6 10 

i This was in all probability the following sonnet which one finds in De' Sonetti di 
M. Benedetto Varchi, Fiorenza, 1555, p. 248, and which is quoted by Colasanti (Bull. d. 
soc. filol. romana, II, 41, n. 2). 

MENTEE io con penna oscura, e basso inchiostro 

Tanti anni, e tanti un uiuo LAVRO f ormo, 

Voi con chiaro pennello alto PVNTOEMO 

Fate pari all ' antico il secol nostro : 
Anzi mentre io col uolgo inerte dormo, 

Voi nuouo pregio alia cerussa, e all ' ostro 

Giugnete tal, che fuor del uile stormo, 

A dito sete, e per essempio mostro. 
Felice uoi, che per secreto calle, 

Oue orma ancor non 6 segnata, solo 

Ven gite a gloria non piS uista mai. 
Onde la donna piti ueloce assai 

Che strale, o uento, e ch ' 6 sempre alle spalle, 

Inuan darauui homai lultimo uolo. 

296 



HIS DIARY 

dipane dua huoua afretlle radichio| uenerdi comlciaj i a hora I anzj di quelle 
schiene ch sono sotto aquella) cenai i a lib a dipane sparagi ehuoua efu 1 bello 
dj| sabato cenaj | domenica ch fu luliuo desinai I casa br certi crespellj 
mirabili| lunedj damattina ebj 1 nelorto en lego eacocio lorto lauaga] martedj 
feci quella gaba co lacoscia sotto aquelle schiene dette di sop a cioe| elasera 
cenai l a meza testa dicauretto| mercoledi dua huoua. elasera casco lagociola 
a cecho fornaio| giouedi laltera meza fritta| uenerdi ch fueldj sco cenaj 1 
pesce duouo solo co zucnro e 5 8 dipane. | sabato lauorai quelmasso. euenne 
el duca asco lorezo cioe aluficio. lasera poi nocenaj| pajsqua domenica fui 
grafredo egraueto eaqua desinai co br 6 6 dipane elasera nocenaj] lunedi 
piu fredo e ueto eaqua elasera cenai Icasa daniello 6 6 dipane | martedi fuasaj 
bello elasera cenai o 10 dipane | mercoledi mattina fu fredo estettimi Icasa 
cenai 6 9 dipane agnello elpiu bello en sipossa] giouedi lauoraj. quelle dua 
braccia. ecenai 6 9 dipane earne ecacio efu frediccio| uenerdi feci latesta 
coquel masso en le sotto eenaj 6 9 dipane 1 pesce duouo ei a Isalata| e ho elcapo 
en mi gira u bud dato.| sabato feci broeone e masso elamano ecenai 6 10 
dipane | domenica cenai 6 10 dipane estettj tucto eldi stracho debole efastidioso 
fubellisimo dj efe laluna| lundedj adi 22 dap'le stettj bene ogni male eraito 
uia magiai 6 8 dipane no haueuo piu| capogirli enoero debole. e ho buona 
speraza. | 

III 

adi 23 lasera cenai copiero 1 magiai o 9 dipane en uera eluillanoj adi 24 
lasera cenai copiero. sparagi e huoua| adi 25 cenai Icasa 1 armoncino dagnello 
lasera disamarco| adi 26 cenai copiero. | adi 27 cenai copiero eldi fini quella 
gaba sola ch sta cosi adi 28 idomenica mattina desinaj cobrozo elasera no 
cenai | lunedj cenai copiero ubuodato e cosacce o 12 dipane | martedj cenaj 
6 12 dipane cacio enoce| mercoledj adj p dimagio cenai o 12 dipane l a 
testieuola cacio ebacelli| giouedj lalt a meza acena| uenerdj sera cenai copiero 
1 pesce duouo Isalata fichj sechj. lasera di sea croce] sabato 1 pesce duouo 
cosugo dibietole zuchro eminestra dibietole eo 10 dipane [ domenica cenai dua 
huoua | lunedi 1 fegato fritto dagnello | martedi sera cenai 1 cuore dagnello 
carne secha lessa e o 10 djpane| ecomiciai quel br di quella figura ch sta cosi| 
mori eltasso| 2 mercoledj egiouedi lafinj. elasera adai acena co daniello cauretto 
arosto epesce| uenerdj sera 1 pesce duouo el a Isalata 5 10 dipane uino macho 
ch mezetta] sabato sera cenai co piero pesce darno ricatta huoua ecarciofi 
emagiai] troppo emaxime della ricotta elamattina desinai co br elasera no 
cenai | en fulauetura mia ch haueuo magiato tropoj lunedisera magiai carne 
delgiouedj cota eno mi fa bene. 5 10 di pane) 3 martedi comlciai afare 
queltorso ch tiene elcapo alogiu cosij cenai l a Isalata e 1 pesce duouo 6 10 
dipane mercoledj ebi 1 itonico si faticoso ch io no pesoch glabia a far bene 
ch sono | tucte le poppe come siuede la comettitura ecenai huoua e 6 10 dipane | 
giouedi feci 1 bra| uenerdi lalt bra| sabato quella coscia diquella figura ch 
sta cosi | 19 dim | agio | domenica desinai ecenai cobro. elamatina posi quegli 
peschi lunedi comlcai quel braccio di detta figura ch stacosi elasera cenai | 
6 10 dipane huoua episegli| martedi quello al bra| 22 mercoledi eltorso 

1 This cannot be Pierino da Vinci, the sculptor, who died, it would seem (Vasari, VI, 
131), in 1554. 

2 Battista del Tasso, the son of Marco del Tasso, and himself a great craftsman. 
He was an intimate friend of Bronzino, Cellini and Luca Martini, and died, as Pontormo 
records, on May 7, 1555. Cf. Vasari, III, 350-353. Pontormo mentions him again on 
page XVII. 

297 



PONTORMO 

egiouedi ch fu lasesione desinai cobro elasera co danjello] uenerdj quella 
coscia. 6 dieej dipane 1 pesce duouo efini lafigura| 

IV 

sabato sera cenai i isalata edua huoua eldi feci certe leterej domenica 
mattjna adai asafrac epoi desinai I casa danjello elasera no cen . . . | lunedj 
martedj | mercoledj feci quel capo ch sta sottoaquella figfa cosij . . . di 30 
ma|(g)io| giouedi lacoscia[ uenerdi quelle schiene| sabato finj lafigura cenai 
6 10 dipane ciriege e 1 pesce duouo j domenica sera desinai cobro. en fula 
sera dello spirito scoj lunedi mattina codaniello elasera cenai icasa mia| 
martedi sera codaiello cogloni efegato el quarto arosto] mercoledi sera icasa 
mia 1 pezo dipane diramerino e huoua e feci quelle spall . . .( diquella figura| 
ch sta cosi| giouedi feci elbraccio emagiai upoco dicarne arosto | uenerdi 
lafornj emagiai 1 pesce duouo eadormetamj uestito| sabato mileuaj molto 
male disposto cenai copiero poco e| seza uoglia elanocte ebi lafebre co gra 
fuoco adosso eno dormj mai| domenica cnsiamo adi 9 di gugno 1555 cenai 
copiero | lunedi gra dogle dicorpo] martedi gra dogle dicorpo | mercoledi quel 
medesimo ne mai lasera ho passato upane ouero agiuto] adj 13 1 giouedi mattina 
desinaicobro en fu elcorp' donj elasera acora uicenaj] uenerdi. lauorai] sabato 
cenai copiero elauoraj] domenica desinai cobr ecenai| lunedi cenai I casa 
mia 6 10 dipane came e isalata] martedi) mercoledi feci quellatesta dimorto 
co labarba. en e sop a q a figura giouedi feci quella testa e braccio diquella 
figura ch stacosi| uenerdi feci el torso) sabato legabe e lafinj ecenaj 6 9 dipane 
huoua e susine en fu adj 23 | digugno domenica | lunedi | martedj sidisfece 
elpote mercoledi sirimuro lebueli. giouedi feci quelcn uaismo al c . . . | sabato 
fu sapiero) domenica desinai codaniello en fu 1 gra caldo erauj brozo elasera 
cenai copiero | giouedi adi 4 diluglo comiciai quella figura ch sta cosi| 



elasera stettj adisagio aspettare lacarne en batista era zoppo eelporta 
ua| eh gla berogato fuora. eqdo suo padre staua male no uistaua e q e| en gla 
hauto eletto dadormire datrotella| uenerdi sabato feci I sino alegabe. 
ladomenica desinaj co brozo | adi 8 lunedi. feci no so ch lettere ecomlciomi 
luscita] martedi feci i a coscia. crebemi luscita. co dimolta colera sagu|igna 
ebiacha mercoledi stetti pegio ch forse io uo tre opiu ch a| ogni hora bizognaua 
talch io mistettj I casa ecenai upoco dj| minestraccia elmio batista ando 
difuora lasera e sapeua ch io mi| setiuo male e no torno talch io laro tienere 
amete sepre| giouedi feci quella alt a gaba edelle idispositionj delcorpo sto 
upoco | meglo ch sono 4 uolte ho cenato I sa L ebeuto upoco digreco| noch 
mipaia stare bene pch ogni tre hore mi uiene lostringimeto| adi 12 uenerdj 
sera cenai copiero. ecredo sia passata luscita cioe q 1 dolor j| sabato sera cenai 
icasa pesce marinato e br uera eldj lauorai quello doccone| lungo rasete 
lassito elasera feci quistione colfattore. elui dise chio miprouedessi| domenica 
mattina desinai cobro elasera aspettai elfattore ch ado alegnaia. e mi| disse 
io tornero a buonotta e no torno. cenai 1 grapolo duua e no alt[ lunedj | adi 
16 martedj comiciai quella figura e la sera cenai upoco di carnaccia) ch mi 
fece pocopro ch batista disse ch io miprouedessi pch era stato| gridato da 
nocetj| mercoledi magiai dua huoua neltegame.] giouedi mattina cacai dua 
strozoli no liquid j edreto nusciua ch se fu-|sino lucignoli lughi di babagia 
cioe grasso biancho easai bene| cenai I saL upoco dj lesso asaj buono efinj 
lafigura | uenerdj. pesce e 1 huouo| sabato batista euenuto p tucti e colori 

298 



HIS DIARY 

macinati epenegli e olio[ elasera cenai dua huoua pere e l a mezetta diuino uue 
e cacio| domenica cenai co bro. elamatina batista ado alegnaia etorno lasera| 
adi 22 lunedi desinai codaniello elasera cenai co br. eho difetto I sulagola 
en io| ndposso ighiottire. ebatista notorno: eldi aputai quello cartone en bat a 
portoj martedi stetti diguno enoeenai duolmj 1 dete e feci 1 pezodipanno| 

VI 

mercoledi sera cenai zucha lessa 6 16 dipane edeluua| giouedi desinai 
co br elasera nocenaj] uenerdj feci quella testa en guarda I qua cioe di 
quello foglo en io portai] en sta cosi| sabato[ domenica | lunedj | 30 martedj 
comiciai lafigura| mercoledi isino alagaba| adj p| dagosto] giouedj feci 
lagaba. elasera cenai copiero upaio dipipionj lessj| uenerdi feci el bracio en 
sapogiaj sabato quella testa de la figura en le sotto en sta cosi| domenica cenai 
icasa daniello cobro en fu alle polpette] lunedj | martedi [ mercoledj quella 
testa en lafigura gliposa lamano I capo] giovedj cenai upoeo di buonacarne 
efeci quelcapo co laloro| uenerdj. lauoraj estetti diguno en fulauilia disa L| 
sabato eldi prouai ateso e alterami lostomaco| domenica mattina stetti subito 
leuato en io fui euestito nelorto en era fresco, ubuodato auedere certi disegni 
en mi mostro fuscellino| epati fredo enoso pen misi sdegiio lostomaco lasera 



cenai cobro 
auer lafebre 



popone e 1 pipione elamattj dipoi mi setiuo male epareuami 
lunedi matti haueuo efebre e lostomaco sdegnato cenai en no 



mi piaque| nulla neluino magiai o 7 dipane carne e poca epoco bere 6 l a 
dimador . . . | martedi sera l a curatella i a pesca o 12 dipane e o miglore gusto] 
ecomiciaj latesta diquella figura en sta cosj| mercoledi ebraccio) 15 
giouedi: | uenerdj elcorpo | sabato lecosce] domenica | lunedi martedj 
comiciaj quelle rene sotto alia testa | mercoledi. lafinj.| giouedi uenerdi sabato 
domenica desinai co br enoudi messa| adj 2 lunedi comiciaj afare sop a l a 
cornice martedi feci latesta di q a figura | ebi 1 barile dolio| 

VII 

mercoledi isino afiachj elasera comicio apiouerej giouedj lecosce e fiachj| 
uenerdj elbraccio| sabato quella testa dimorto en gle alato] Domenjca en fu 
ladonna desinaj co bro elaseracenaj co gra dogla dideti| lunedi ebi sturbo e 
I ba eno lauoraj eisino asabato stetti icasa| adisegnare domenica desinai 
co br elasera nocenaj| lunedi disegnai| martedi comiciaj quellafigura sotto 
alia testa | mercoledj elcorpo sotto a le poppe g| giouedi tutta la gaba| uenerdi 
piouej sabato fu sco matteo| domenica | domenica adj 5 dottob. batista ado 
alpogio elasera | cenaj tucte cosacce e diuogla erestomj el duolo de detj| lunedi 
magiai castrone isalata uue e cacio e 6 15 dipane | efeci quellatesta en e sotto 
aquella figura disegnata di sop a [ martedi feci quella alt a testa en gle alato 
emercoledi elresto| sabato vi fecj quelcorpo] domenica desinaj co br 
uermicegli| lunedj quello elmo| martedi quella testa cosi| mercoledj. quel 
busto elasera no cenaj | giovedi quel braccio elasera cenai 1 pesce duouo| 
uenerdi elcorpo en fu sea luca cenai uoue e 6 14 dipane e 1 cauolo] sabato 
elbraccio e doue e siede cenai huoua e 6 9 dipane e 2 fichi sech . . . | domenica 
desjnaj co bro uermicegli elasera cenaujj lunedi martedi mercoledi giovedi 
uenerdj lauorai sotto a detta figura diseg isino alcornicione sabato ordinaj 
elcartone en ghera alato cenaj 1 ca| uolobuono cotto dimia| mano elanotte mi 
leuaj| i a scegia du dete e magio| u poeo meglo| Domenica elunedi cossi dame 
upoco diuitella] en mi copo b a a estetti queduo di icasa adisegnaf| e cenai 
quelle 3 sere dame solo| 

299 



PONTORMO 



VIII 

martedi adi 29 dottob| mercoledi 30) noueb" adi p uenerdi mattina desinai 
cobro aguilla copesci darno| sabato domenica elunedi. fu fredo.| adi 9 feci 
quella testa en e sotto aquella| figura en sta cosi| adi 16 uenequello cartone 
eportossi quellalt easettalo pcomiciare| alauorare eldi dinazj fu 1 bellissimo 
di saza nugolj esaza fredo) adi 12 rifeci quella testa en e cosa daricordarsj 
quale / cioe I martedj | adj 17 desinaj co br e cenaj esetti tuctodi I casa 
elamattina pagai| 1 miglacio elasera cenauj efuel di en ba mi uene adire de 
fratj| adi 18 nolauoraj e adai aparlare afratj) adi 19 lauoraj que 2 testi 
dimortj eh sono sotto alculo dicolej| adi 20 sibollj elbucato) adj 24 desinai co 
br en uera la madre dela maria en mi pmise] 1 pane] diramejrino] bello | adj 
27 comicaj sotto aquelle figure en stano cosi adi 28] adi 29 1 adi 30 fusca andrea 
en cenai copiero e donomj 50 fichi sechj| domenica mattina desinaj co br 
elasera co daniello l a lepre e en uenne luca martin j i fireze) lunedi martedj 
mercoledj giouedj uenerdj fu sea nicolo en fu 1 bello | di e edurato I si aogi en 
siano adi 9 de diceb| adi 8 cenaj lasera co br pollastrinj mortj dalla faina 
erecane delpane diramerino] lunedi cenai quella ligua diporco] martedj cenaj 
icasa daniello co m luca martinj eluarchi] mercoledj cenaj dua huoua i a Isalata 
dluidia 6 14 dipane efichj sechj euino| giouedi cenaj carne dicastrone en fu 
lasera delle diuisionej adj 13 uenerdi cenaj dame ecomiciaj afare dame 
ebatista siserro I camera | sabato cenaj co bro em luca 1 pesce| domenica adi 
22 desinai co br ep'ma adi 20 en fueluenerdj delle digune| comicio eltepo 
arisehiarare coueto buono e acociarsi eedurato otto di iterj | ep ' ma era stato 
timese tuctauia o poco a asaj ogni di apiouere co certo] i grassameto dusci e 
dumido dimura quato io miricordj a gra pezo| talcn glagenerato aq beltepo 
scesi rouino en presto amazano 



IX 



1556 



pagolo 1 daterra rossa morj lauilia dipasqua| cioe adi 24 cenaj I casa br<> 
luca martinj etucti dicasa daniello | lamattina dipasqua desinaj ecenaj quiuj| 
adi 26 adamo asa frac etornamo adesinare en uera lalexadra] co mona 
lucretia estemouj lasera etornamo tuctj a le 6 hore| adi 27 adamo br eio 
amote oliueto estemo tuctamattina co giouabatista] strozj 2 tornamo tardj eio 
stetti Isino alasera digiuno ecenaj icasa mia| adj 28 adamo auolsaminiato 
edesinamo aloste espedemo s 20 p 1<> erauamo 5| elasera no cenaj | adj 29 
domenica mattina adamo Isino asadomenico tornamo tardj I modo en io| 
nouollj desinare edugaj alasera icasa danjello| lunedj cenaj i casa| martedj 
cenaj I casa| adj p| genai| 1556| mercoledj desinaj co br ecenaj atauiano 
eio 1 germano) giouedj sera cenai porco lesso e 1 farciglo ebatista no uolle 
cenare] uenerdj eenai co br 1 pesce en midette elpadouano 1 limone e 
deluoua] sabato mattina comicio apiovere eaguastarsi eltepo cnra durato bello | 
dieci di en maj no fu 1 nugolo elasera tornaj co 1 pitocho en migosto] lire 
12 eriscotraj ba en porto quatro scudj afrati dellapigione] domenica desinaj 
co bro| la befania lunedj. adamo aspasso emagiorno pane di miglio poi lasera 
cenaj codanielo] martedj [ mercoledj | giouedj sera cenai colp'ore denoceti lui 
eio solj agelatina e huoua| uenerdi adi 10 ahore 24 1 carro mistrise leginochia 
rasete 1 muriciuolo| e ba uenne acasa p hauere danarj dalattazioj sabato 
ebe A dua eportogli a frati p lapigione] domenica piove e fu gra ueto efreddo 

1 This was perhaps Pagolo il Eosso, Varchi 's friend. 

2 The celebrated poet. 

300 



HIS DIARY 

tucto eldi eio comiciajj amagiare su dame. 1 pezo darista ecosi martedi uene 
abotega del gello mercoledj| adj 15 sera bro uene acasa p me co ottauiano 
pch io adassi acenaseco eio dalospetiale] delcapello la lasaj en5 miruede| 
giouedj sera cenaj giu colfattore huoua | sea atoi|nio| uenerdi sera huoua I 
1 tegamino] sabato sera huoua I 1 tegamino| 



domenica sera cenaj c5piero tordi lissj earosto en glelo auea pmesso] 
lamattina dasapiero e lasera altardj br eatauiano passorno] efui apto loro 
luscio dalfattore seza fermarsj solo disse en di fac| poi I su le 2 hore attauiano 
uene apichiare domadado dime| didedo en lalesadra miuoleua dice elfattore 
adi 20 1 sc ba| lunedj pioue tucto eldj. scosse rouinose egratuonj ebalenj 
elasera eenai 1 resto ditingolo edarista auazata digiouedi borana| cotta 5 
9 dipane e 6 4 di pane diramerino| adi 21 pioue tuctoeldj cenaj dua huoua 
1* libra dipane l a isalata) adj 22 cenai porco lesso e 1 poco dicauolo epane 
diramerino 6 9 dipane | adj 23 giouedi eenaj castrone ebiadare cobatista 
abelochio ereeane) ecenamo isieme e ucelomj duo dj dicedo en no netrouaua| 
adi 24 cenai 6 10 dipane borana ecacio e dua huoua | adi 25 ba micopo 20 
mele 10 qi ecenai dua huoua ei a isalataj adi 26 tornado acasa ahore 24 fui 
sop a guto da atauiano daniello| elalezadra e alt r e donne ch ueniuano p me 
ch io adassi acasa br| adamo efecesi ueglia Isino ahore 12 1 adi 27 cenai icasa 
12 6 dipane emele cotte| adi 28 desinai cobr colobascj| adi 29 cenai dua 
huoua| adi 30 castrone ch copo batista 9 q*| adi 31 huoua| febraio adi 5 huoua| 
adi 2 desinaj co br<> ecenaj Icasa daniello lasera | adi 3 cenai i a torta co lacarne 
di mia mano| adi 4 cenaj 1 pesce duoua colcacio| adi 5 upoco dicastrone.| adi 
6 comlciai alauorare ecenaj porcho arosto] adi 7 uenerdi cenaj upesce duouo 
colcacio| adi 8 cenai 1 pesce duouo elamattina ebi 12 staia di brace) el fattore 
fece delpane cioe menacilia edisse pch| io laueuo madato p 1 fiascho di uino 
ch io no gli co|madassj piu o ch io facessj dame o io toglessj chj i| facessi 
elasera lasaj fenita quella figura disegnata] 

XI 

difebraio 1556 

domenica adj 16 desinaj co br elasera cenaj icasa | daniello br e attauiano 
eio aspettado daniello I sino alle 5 hr 6 ] lunedj sera magiaj upoco di buech 
ba micopo | ch no arebe magiato ecanj come quello ch no emeglo| ch glatri 
toglendo pse elbuono latp / e luj sanio| martedi. cenai di quello bue| 
mercoledj ba micopo 28 q 1 darista. cenaj dua huoua o 10 djpa ne | berllga|ccio 
giouedi cenaj acasa br e fecj queltorso diqella fig a ch sta cosi] uenerdj cenaj 

2 huoua cacio efichi sechj| sabato i a torta neltegamuzo eba mireco s 15 
diuitella egraso| domenica desinai ecenai co br elasera sifece laueghia ch 
uera| eluarchi) lunedi sera icasa daniello ch zando auedere lacomedia I uia 
magic] martedi fu 1 grafredo eneuico lanocte eio cenai i cauolo icasamia 
mercoledi| adi 20 giouedj feci quella testa ch grida ecenai lasera uitella 
esino 1 29 lascaj finite tucto Isino iterra quel ch sotto adettatesta] marzo adi 

3 feci latesta di quellafigura disegnata qui| adj 4 dimarzo fecj i pezo ditorso 
I sino alepope e pati fredo eueto| tale ch lanocte io afiocaj elalt dipoi nd 

potei lauorare) adi 6 fecitucto eltorso] adi 7 fornj legabe) adi 8 adai 

auedere 1 hercole coelrotella| lunedj 9 feci l a testa sottole) martedi adaj 
auedere latauola di br cioe quello sabartolomeo] mercoledi l a testa sottole| 

301 



PONTORMO 

giouedi leuaj le bullette cfterano cofitte lasu altoj uenerdj i a testa sottole] I 
tonicai dame i a testa ebi della pigione lire 4| sabato 14 lasera adai auedere 
quella testa di sadrino eh mapse lales|adra eft senadoj uia e italsera| cenai 
co piero| eft uera| 15 domenica fupichiato dabr epoi eldi dadanjello no 
so quello eft siuolessino| 18 fecj quello itonico dimacigno sotto alefinestre | 

XII 

5 la finita| giouedi 19 riscotraj daniello e attauiano eft mi uoleuano 
dare desinare epoi scrotraj br da salorezo eft madaua] lasua tauola apisa 
uenerdi| sabato | domenica uene br daniello e atauiano acasa eio eopai 
canne| esalci p lorto e br miuoleua adesinare eturdadosi midisse] epare eft 
uoj uegnate acasa 1 uro nimjco e lasciomi ire| elunedj sera cenai Icasa daniello 
1 cap r etto di s 34 molto| buono eft uera br sadrino e gulio eio eitaldi 
lalesadra si| rupe elcapo co certj ebricjj martedi sera madai p 1 fiasco dibiacho 
a gaddj soldi ii| adi 25 mercoledi laluna opositjone| adi 26 comlciai quello 
braccio di quel babino eft gle sotto | uenerdi mileuai i a hora I anzj di efeci 
quel torso dalbraccio I giu| sabato feci i a coscia efecesi la festa dellatregua 
elasera cossi 1 riso| decauretto] adi 29 domenica delluliuo desinai co br[ 
lunedj feci latesta diquelputto. | martedi feci icasa no so cft| adi 1 da|p'le 
mercoledi feei questa altra coscia co tucta lagaba elpie| giouedi sco uenerdi 
mileuaj abuonora e feci quel torso dibabino| giouedi feci le gabe adi 9 uenerdj 
1 capo azurro eadai acena copiero| sabato fecj sotto alefinestre diuerso la -S- 
uechia quellapietraj ejtorno aquella figura eft uiua emandaj gli sparagi e 
nouj| cenaj acasa piero| domenica ebi 1 berlingozo damena ugenia eadai acena 
co bro.| lunedi lauorai quelgli docioni sotto alefinestre | pier frac / martedj 
mercoledi sasetto elpalco. da poter lauorare) 

XIII 

13 giouedi mileuaj i a hora I azj di ecomiciai quella figura] sotto alatesta 
eft sta cosi| uenerdi eltorso| 18 dap'le sabato legabe| lunedi sottole isino 
isulcoro) adi 6 dimagio uedei 20 st a digrano e ebi i a poliza delmonte 6 [scudi] | 
adi p dimagio uenerdj sabato | domenica desinaj co br eft fu sea "f 1 ! lunedi 
comlciai quella figura eft sta cosi| martedi feci latestaj mercoledi eltorso 
6 [scudi] | giouedi legabe] uenerdi esabato sotto le . . .| domenica desinai ecenai 
cobr eadamo aspasso dalla porta alprato] martedi comlciai quel braccio 
di quella fig a eft sta cosi| mercoledi lalt braccio elagaba eft fu la uilia 
dellascesionej 14 giouedi cenai edesinai co br| uenerdi esabato fini lafigura| 
domeniea desinaj c5 br elasera no cenaj ecomiciaj anomisetire bene| lunedi 
sera I sule 2 hore uenne 1 tepo cotuonj ebalenj eaqua efreddo| eacordura eft 
siano amercoledj apiouere ogni di eft p' maerastato[ 2 mesj beltepo| 28 giouedi 
comicia quella figura eft sta cosj sotto alia testa | uenerdi la fini sabato feci 
quello libro| domenica no desinai e lasera cenai cdpiero 1 paio dipipionj] 
lunedi adi p digugno feci quello moretto] adi 7 desinai ecenai cobr elasera 

siseti| male | adi 9 comiciaj quella figura eft sta cosi j 10 I mercoledi | 

giouedi | uenerdi sabato feci quello poco del braccio elasala finita cft| 

XIV 

eft e tucta finita difigure itere i a storia| domenica sera cenai copiero torta 
di latte| lunedi adi 15] lacioltre daelrotella) uenerdi adi 19 comiciaj quella 
figura eft sta cosi| sabato feci lebraccia| domenica 2i fui trouato da br isca 

302 



HIS DIARY 

maria delfiore| epromessj dadare adesinare seco chi haueuano poi aire] 
auedere eltoro elasera erorimasto dicenaruj e madaj] p 1 fiasco diuino apiero 
eft uera lalesadra etornamocene isiene] dispiaquemj ubuSdato lacena tale eft 
io stetti diguno I sino amarte dj sera eft beui diqueltrebiano eft di uinegia 
e 2 huoua| eaueuo fatto amazare quello galletto eft si gitto uia| adj 24 mercoledj 
sera eeenaj codaniello eft uera elmarignolle 1 e br| giouedj feci quelle 2 teste 
segnate disop a efui tepo edipiouere| edituoni edifredo straordinario] uenerdi 
sirimuro tucte quelle bucft di sul coro dj quella p'ma sto r | sabato feci quelle 
dua braecia e no cenaj | domenica 28 desinai co br elasera cenai eft fuqdo e 
copo certi pesjci ecft noj adamo alprato ognisatj eft uera sadrino ebernardo] 
lunedi. feci qellateretta. martedi quellaltr a teretta| adj p di luglio mercoledi 
giouedi uenerdi sabato la sera no cenaj djsegnaj] 5 domenica. desinai cobr 
eft fu quella mattina eft io lotrouaj| da sea maria delfiore cftera coatauiano 
e parlaua co m| lorezo puccj cftero auiato copare lalattuga pratese| elasera 
cenauj eft fuqdo io madaj apiero peluino a s 9| 12 domenica | 14 martedi 
comicciai eltorso diquella figura grade mero quel poco di bra| giouedisirimuro 
le dua bucft sabato quelle schiene eft glisono sotto di quaj 19 domenica mattina 
desinai cobr elasera copiero torta diper|rogie elsabato inazi cenaj quel pezo 
diticha cioe lasera iaz| 

XV 

(15) 20 lunedi sera luglo cenai estetti diguno I sino amercoledj sera| feci 
quello pezo dibra e 1 pezo digaba diquelle schie|ne dette martedi ehiesi eft 
bt a cocessi.| 22 mercoledi feci quella testa equello poco della spalla cenai 
co | daniello| giouedi feci I quelcato I sulcoro della storia finita] uenerdi feci 
quella gaba diquella figura grade itera] adi 20 detto lasera. lamattina ebi 
1 mogio digrano lasera mj| lauaj epiedi. e pcossj ne luscio co 1 calcio tale 
cftio mi | feci male e duolmj isino aogi eft siano adi 25 cioe| 5 sabato feci 
quella coscia grade] domenica desinai copiero uitella e lasera nocenai] lunedi 
mileuaj abuonora e feci quellotorso eft e sotto | mercoledi feci quello stico 
della coscia grade] uenerdi seracenai copiero pesce abatista lascio lapoli cosi] 
eft deceua eft notornaua eft fu qdo egli acatto el giachio] cercha alauoro da 
di detto disop a cioe 29 di luglo | isino adj 26 dagosto ioho fatto quella figura 
no uestita] ditesta co quelpoco dellaria e ordinato el sco lorezo | circa elmagiare 
portai i a gallina ecenai c6bro| elasera uiceno danjello e attauiano espeseno 
3 lire] eftmitocha soldi 20 e 1 giouedi sera ui cenai cfte brozo| copo pmio coto 
1 poco dj castrone] adj 27 detto portai el cartone del sco lorezo eapicossi 
dapoterlauorare| adj 10 disetteb" fece m a adia delpane 1 quarto) 

XVI 
1556 

adi 11 disetteb ibottaj 3 b 1 e 2 / 1 diuino dacalezano] elasera eenaj copiero | 
sabato feci quella testa diquel babino cfttiene lacorona] 13 domenica cenai 
icasa dajello eft uera br i a testa diuitella] eft spesi 2 barilj] lunedj lacorona 
mercoledi eft fuledigune feci quel braccio] giouedj uenerdj feci eltorso elasera 
nocenaj (d 48) | sabato legabe cenai i a lib a dipane] 20 domenica lunedi cftfusc 
matteo tuctauia i a lib dipane j emartedi eft no lauoraj] mercoledi comleiaj 
quello babino del calice eeenaj 6 8 di pan(e)| adj 26 Isabato sera adamo alia 
tauerna attauiano e brozoeio) cenamo pescj ehuoua euino ueehio e tocho s 

i Probably Lorenzo Marignolli, the sculptor. 

303 



PONTOBMO 

17 p 1| domenica. desinai co br / elasera uicenaj cnuera attauiano] lunedi 
I casa| martedi en fu sco mjchle uidesinaj elasera uicenai en] cera uenuto 
luca martin j : (mercoledj acasa | giouedi sera uicenaj eft uera eluarchj e m 
luca elamattin(a) senado apisa en fu luenerdj] sabato piove tucta nocte e 
mezo el dj edesinaj zucn fritte co| bro erecane 1 fischo di colore| 4 domenica 
adaj a safrac estettj tucto eldi tornaj ecenaj 1 lesso | di castrone e ebi 1 
fiasco diuino uechio dal busino] lunedj feci quelcapo di quel babino I capegli 
cenaj 2 ucellin(i) martedi mileuaj i a bora I azj dj efeci queltorso del putto 
en ha | elcalice elasera cenaj castrone buono maio bo male alla| gola cioe 
noposso sputare i a cosa apicata en io soglo auere| adi ii domenica adai acertosa 
elasera cenaj (daniello gulio alpiouano| anguilla arosto en toco s 15 J adi 18 
domenica desinaj copiero castrone elasera cenai I casa br| fegato fritto 
[uenerdi comicio aee fredo elasera cenamo alia tauernaj 

XVII 

(17) elunedi sera cobrozo en ui uenne luca martinj e tasso polio 
elepre e 6 8 dipane| martedi sera cenai upoco dicastrone co 10 dipane 
ecomiciomj a ri piacere| eluino dipiero dormedo bene lanoctej mercoledi sera 
en sono ledigune no cenai eancora ho quella bocaccia asetata) giouedj sera 
en fu lauilia di sco tomaso cenaj borrana cocta edua huoua ecosij uenerdi 
sera tato en I dua sere io magiai 27 6 dipane | esabato sera D. I sino alia 
domenica sera ch cenai upoco dicarne arosto | lunedi en fu lauilia della pasqua 
cenai I casa brozo e Isino alasera stettj[ ecenaj seco i a acegia la secoda festa 
lamattina a lasera magiai quiui| e lasera di sco giouannj cenai co daniello 
bene diquegli farciglonj e o 8 dipane | uenerdj e sabato magiai Icasa o 30 
dipane huoua burro e altre cose| domenica sera cenai porco arosto e o 16 
dipane | lunedj : i a isalata diborana e 1 pesce duouo e o 19 dipane | genaio 
marte. en fu Kaledj cenaj cobrozo 6 10 dipane | mercole. cenai 6 14 dipane 
arista. i a isalata diuidia e cacio e fichi sechi| giouedj cenai o 15 dipane | 
uenerdi 6 14 dipane sabato no cenai | domenica matina desinai e cenai co 
brozo miglacj efegategi (elporco) | lunedi sera cenai 6 14 dipane arista uue e 
caeio e isalata diuidia) martedi sera cenai i a isalata diuidia 5 ii dipane 1 



rochio e mele cocte itigolo 
magiai porco lesso neluino 



mercoledj sera e giouedj sera 6 24 dipane en 
adi 11 digenaio I uenerdj dasera o 11 dipane 



luidia 1 pesce duouo | adi 12 cenai 1 pesce duouo isalata dmidia 6 12 dipane 
e I talsera epici la botte delujno dipiero en ne leuaj 17 fiaschi eaepierla seruj 
13 fiaschj I tucto restomene quatro fiaschi e prima naueuo autj Isino adi 
detto fiaschi 6| I modo en itucto sono fiaschj 23 el detto di na auto dame 1 
barile diuino delmio| domenica desinai ecenai Icasa br adi 13 digenaio 1555 1 
lunedi adai a saminiato cenai 1 rochio disalsicia 6 10 dipane | martedi 1 
lobo midia e l a libra dipane gelatina e fichi sechi e cacio | adi 20 cenai I casa 
daniello i a gallina didia en uera attauiano ch f u I domenica sera| adj 27 dj 
genaio desinai ecenai icasa b eueneui dopo desinare lalesadra e stette Isino 
asera epoi senado efuquella sera en b eio uenimo acasa auedere elpetrarcha 
cioe fiachi stomach j ec epagai quello ch sera gucato| (. . . .alta daso . . . ne 5) 

XVIII 

(18) disorte en setitroua disordinato dexercitio / dipannj| odicoito o di 
supfluita dimagiare puo elpochi giornj spaciartj o fartimale p ho edausare 
laprudetia| gugno luglo eagosto e meza setteb r esudori teperatj esop a tucto 

304 



HIS DIARY 

alueto qdo hai fatto exercitio hai hauere cura| eancora del magiare ebere 
qdo se caldo dipoj tiprepara| damezo setteb Ila allo autunno ch p ee edi picolj 
eltepoj coxniciare humido elumidita del here supfluo ch hai fatto | nella state 
tibisogna co diguni epoco bere elughe uigilie e exe r citio p parartj ch efredj 
deluerno noti nuochino| no titrouado bene disposto eno frequetare tropo 
lacarne] emaxime delporcho edamezo genaio Ila no ne magiare | pen e molto 
febricosa ecattiua euiui dogni cosa teperato| p en le sachate deglomorj edelle 
scese siscuoprano alfebraio] almarzo e allo ap'le p en neluerno elf redo 
glicogela] e abi cura challeuolte secodo chome achade nella luna ee 1 fredo| 
epoi subito Ihumidire ogni cosa cogelata ediqui nasce] 

XIX 

(19) scese moltorouinose egociole o alt 1 mali picolosj] en tucto precede 
qdo e que fredj magiato ebeuto] supfluo pen elf redo telo coporta erapiglia 
masubito| altepo dolcie ehumj do loriscalda ericresce erigofia] e po chome io 
dissj disop a .i. nelprlcipio qdo se aq| modo carico habi cura allo exercitio 
delrafreddare] pch uccide o subito o Ipochj giornj sich se haj[ humor j supfluj 
aquistatj lauernata tienj lordine| ch io djssj dsop a e sop a tucto sta I ceruello 
elmarzoj emaxime nella luna 10 di p' ma e 10 poi cioe alcomiciare della luna 
nuoua dimarzo esia Isino a| passata la qulta dicima en tucte le lune ch sepiono 
sono nociue se 1 e ripieno e iporta riguardarsi p ' ma| Ricordo adj 5 dinoueb 
1555 ch mipare ch ebi sognj ch io comuch| io ho qualch ipedimeto o distomaco 
o dicapo o didogle pe fianchj | o alle gabe o bracca o didetj : ch siano cotinouj 
eno bisogna ch io feccj| come p ladreto mach subito io uirimedj colmagiare 
poco ocolostare) diguno e igegnarsj pie 4 tepora oseruare edigiunj comadatj 
pch | e dipiu auiene aleuolte setirsj pieno delmagiare agrauato dal| somo e 
dalcibo ch pare chiosia gofiato alora e da riguardarsj | pch e sanita superflua| 
nelanno 1555 p la luna chcomicio dimarzo e duro Isino adi 25 dap ' le 

itucto quella luna| naqai ifermjta pest jf ere ch ama- 
io conosco zorno dimolti huominj regalatj ebuonj e forse| seza 

ch no Io face disordinj e atuctj sicuaua sague credo ch gla uenissi 

do io me ne peto ch elf redo no| fu digenaio esfogossi I q a luna dimarzo 

ch si setiua 1 fredo uelenoso] 

XX 



20 I domenica sera 

adj 7 digenaio 1554 caddj epcossj laspalla elb estettj male] e stettj acasa 
br sei di poi mene tornaj acasa estettj male Isino | acarnauale ch fu adi 6 
difebraio 1554 1 

sordo cobattere colaria rifocolata dalastagione degiornj gradi] chera come 
setire frigere elfuoco nelaqua talchio sono stato eogra| paura eluatagio e stare 
preparato mazj ch etri la luna dimarzo | ch la titruouj sobrio dicibo dexercitio 
eco gra riguardo delsudore] enosisbigottire ch passata ch le dipochj giornj 
luomo no sa chome | lasistia o dode siuegha ch dimaldjsposto subito luomo sisete 
bene | come iteruiene ame ogi q dj 22 dap'le delp giorno della luna nuoua | 
setirmj bene e p adreto mai ee mj mai setito bene tucto dee procedere| da 1 
certo fredo ch no era acora smaltito ehauea durato Isino adi 21 1 ma ogi q 
di sop a detto mefatto caldo esetomj bene pch eltepo ha forse la| stagione sua.| 

305 



PONTORMO 

XXI 

Ins 

21 

adj ii dimarzo 1554 I domenjca mattina desinaj co brozino | polio euitella 
esetimj bene [ueroe eh uenedo p'me acasa ioero| neletto era asaj be tardj 
eleuadomj mi setiuo gofiato epieno era| asaj beldj] lasera cenaj upoco di carne 
secha arosto en haueuo sete| elunedj sera cenaj 1 cauolo e 1 pesce duouo| 
elmartedj sera cenai l a meza testa dicauretto e laminestra| elmercoledi sera lalt a 
meza fritta edelzibibo 1 buo data e 5 qi dipane e eaperj I insalata] giouedi sera 
l a minestra dibuono castrone e Isalata dibarbe | uenerdj 
giouedi matti sera isalata dibarbe e dua huoua I pesce duouo | sabato 

na miuene D, domenica sera eft fu lasera delluliuo cenaj 1 poco 

el capo girlo dicastrone ne lesso emagiai 1 poco disalata| e douetti 

cB mi duro tucto magiare da tre quatrinj dipane | lunedj sera dopocena 
dj e dapoi sono misetj molto gagliardo ebedisposto magiai | Isalata 

stato tuctauia dilattuga i a minestrina dibuono castrone e 4 qi dipane | 

maldisposto martedj sera magiai i a isalata dilattuga e 1 pesce 

e del capo debole duouo | mercoledj sco sera 2 qi dimadorle e 1 pesce duouo 

giouedj 
uenerdj 



e noce efeci quella figura| en e sop a la zucha 
uene la D asco sera i a isalata dilattuga edelcauiale e e 1 huouo 



16 el duca sera 1 pesce duouo della f aua e 1 poco dicauiale e 4 

uene anco qi dipane sabato sera magiai dua huoua| ela donna 

domenica en fu lamattina dipascua adai adesinare co 
bro elasera cenauj| lunedi sera magiai i a isalata cnera diborana e 1 mezo 
limone e 2 huo|ua ipesce duouo. | Martedisera erotucto afiocato e magiai 
i pane diramereno e 1 p e duouo | ei a isalata e defichj sechj| mercoledi D 
giouedi sera 1 p ane dir 1 p e duno huouo e l a isalata e 4 qi dipane itucto 
uenerdi sera isalata minestra dipisegli e 1 pesce duouo e 5 qi dipane | sabato 
burro isalata zucnro epesce duouo [ adi i dap'le domenica desinaj co br 
elasera no cenaj | 

XXII 

lunedi sera cenai i pane bollito col burro e 1 pesce duouo e 21 5 ditorta| 
martedj | mercoledi | giouedj | uenerdj | sabato adai alatauerna asalata epesce 
duouj ecacio esetimj bene| domenica desinai ecenaj co brozino | lunedi 1 
armoncino lesso dagnello buono| martedj dua huoua afrettelate ei a Isalata | 
mercoledj | giouedj sera 4 qi dipane l a isalata dello agnello lesso malcotto) adj 
13 uenerdj sera cenai radichio cotto 1 pane di 4 qi e 1 pesce duouo | sabato 
sera | domenica sera cenai carne dagnello lesso e Isalata cocta ecacio | mercoledi 
adj 23 dimagio cenaj dellacarne| giouedi en fuel corp dnj desinaj cobrozino 
ebi delgreco carne | epesci elasera i a oc a ditorta eopoca carne epoca uogla 



dimagiare| adj 2 digugno sabato sera ebi lasegiola cB miuiene Ijre 16 
9 digugno 1554 comlcio marco moro amurare elcoro eturare i sco lorezo : 



adj 



* adi 18 lasera discoluca comlciai adormire giu col coltrone nuouo| adj 
19 dottob" misetiuo male cioe Ifredato e dipoi no poteuo riauere| lospurgho 
e cogra fatica duro parechj sere uscire djquella cosa] sotto dellagola come 
alle uolte io ho hauto distate no so se se stato | p ee durato ubuondato bellissimj 
tepi emagiato tuttauia bene| eadi detto comlciaj ariguar darmj upoco 
eduromj 3 di 30 oce dipane | cioe 10 oce apasto cioe l a uolta eldj eco poco 
bere ep'ma adj 16 1 didetto ibottaj barili 6 djuino daradda] 

306 






HIS DIARY 

XXIII 

1554 

23 

adj 22 detto tornai estettj icasa solo aspettare elfattore Isino alle 4| hore 
edipoi magiai i pesce duouo 8 oce dipane i a noce e 1 fieo secho| e dua meluze 
cotte adj 23 la sera magiai minestra dicastrone lesso e dua mele cotte e 10 
oce dipane | e 1 meza mezetta diuino ecomlciato amanomettere la botte. 



307 



Reconstruction of the Sequence of the 
of Pontormo's Diary 



1554 

Sunday, January 7 to Tuesday, February 6, 
Sunday, March 11 to Sunday, April 1, 
Monday, April 2 to Sunday, April 15, 
"Wednesday, May 23 to Thursday, May 24, 
Saturday, June 2, . 
Saturday, June 9, . 
October 16, 18 and 19, . 
Monday, December 17 to Monday, December 31, 

1555 

Tuesday, January 1 to Tuesday, January 15, . 

Sunday, January 20, ..... 

Sunday, January 27, ..... 

Wednesday, January 30 to Saturday, February 2, 

Saturday, February 16, . 

Thursday, February 21, . 

Wednesday, February 27 to Thursday, 28, 

Sunday, March 3 to Monday, March 4, 

Sunday, March 10 to Tuesday, March 12, . 

Friday, March 15 to Saturday, March 16, . 

Monday, March 18 to Saturday, March 23, 

Monday, March 25 to Wednesday, March 27, . 

Thursday, March 28 to Monday, April 22, 

For April 21 and 22, see also page 21 

Tuesday, April 23 to Friday, May 24, 

Saturday, May 25 to Sunday, June 30, 

Thursday, July 4 to Tuesday, July 23, 

Wednesday, July 24 to Sunday, August 25, 

Monday, September 2 to Wednesday, September 4, 

Wednesday, September 4 to Sunday, September 21, 

Sunday, October 6 to Wednesday, October 9, . 

Saturday, October 12 to Monday, October 28, 

Tuesday, October 29 to Monday, November 4, . 

Tuesday, November 5, . 

Saturday, November 9, . 

Tuesday, November 12, ..... 

Friday, November 15 to Wednesday, November 20, 

Sunday, November 24, . 

Wednesday, November 27 to Saturday, December 14, 

Friday, December 20, 

Sunday, December 22, . 

Tuesday, December 24 to Tuesday, December 31, 



Pages 



page 20 
page 21 
page 22 
page 22 
page 22 
page 22 
page 23 
page 17 



page 17 

page 17 

page 17 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 



page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 20 

page 8 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 

page 



308 



HIS DIARY 



1556 

Wednesday, January 1 to Saturday, January 18, 

Sunday, January 19 to Saturday, February 8, . 

Sunday, February 16 to Saturday, February 29, 

Tuesday, March 3 to Wednesday, March 18, 

Thursday, March 19 to Friday, April 3, . 

Thursday, April 9 to Wednesday, April 15, 

Thursday, April 16 to Saturday, April 18, 

Monday, April 20, ... 

Friday, May 1 to Sunday, May 10, . 

Tuesday, May 12 to Monday, June 1, 

Sunday, June 7, . 

Tuesday, June 9, . 

Friday, June 12 to Saturday, June 13, 

Sunday, June 14 to Monday, June 15, 

Friday, June 19 to Sunday, July 5, . 

Tuesday, July 14, . 

Friday, July 16, . 

Saturday, July 18 to Sunday, July 19, 

Sunday, July 19 to Monday, July 27, 

Wednesday, July 29, 

Friday, July 31 to Thursday, August 27, 

Thursday, September 10, 

Friday, September 11 to Monday, September 14, 

Wednesday, September 16 to Wednesday, September 

Saturday, September 26 to Tuesday, October 6, 

Sunday, October 11, ..... 

Friday, October 16, 

Sunday, October 18, ..... 



23, 



page 9 
page 10 
page 11 
page 11 
page 12 
page 12 
page 13 
page 13 
page 13 
page 13 
page 13 
page 13 
page 13 
page 14 
page 14 
page 14 
page 14 
page 14 
page 15 
page 15 
page 15 
page 15 
page 16 
page 16 
page 16 
page 16 
page 16 
page 16 



309 



Analysis of Pontormo's Diary 
1554 

Sunday, January 7, he falls, hurts himself and remains six days with Bronzino 
who nurses him; he is ill until Tuesday, February 6 (Carnival). 

Sunday, March 11, lunches with Bronzino; the food; his health; the 
weather; in the evening sups at home; his food; his thirst. Monday, 12th, 
his food. Tuesday, the 13th, idem. Wednesday, 14th, idem. Thursday, 
15th, idem; he is ill. Friday, 16th, his food. Saturday, 17th, fasts. Sunday, 
18th (Palm Sunday), his food; its cost. Monday, 19th, he feels well; his 
food. Tuesday, 20th, his food. Wednesday, 21st (Ash Wednesday), San 
Lorenzo; his food. Thursday, 22d, his food; the Duke comes to San Lorenzo 
with the Duchess. Friday, 23d, his food. Saturday, 24th, his food. Sunday, 
25th (Easter) lunches and sups with Bronzino (Annunciation). Monday, 
26th, his food. Tuesday, 27th, he feels hoarse; his food. Wednesday, 28th, 
fasts. Thursday, 29th, his food. Friday, 30th, idem. Saturday, 31st, his food. 

Sunday, April 1, lunches with Bronzino; in the evening, fasts. Monday, 2d, 
his food. Saturday, 7th, he goes to the tavern; he feels well; his food. 
Monday, 9th, his food. Tuesday, 10th, idem. Thursday, 12th, idem. Friday, 
13th, idem. Sunday, 15th, idem. 

Tuesday, May 22. Wednesday, 23d, his food. Thursday, 24th (Corpus 
Christi), lunches with Bronzino; his food; ill. 

June 2, buys a chair for 16 lire. Saturday, 9th, Marco Moro begins working 
on the walls and scaffolding of San Lorenzo. 

October 16, bottles six barrels of wine. 18th (St. Luke), begins to sleep 
downstairs with a new coverlet. 19th, ill with cold; suffers; the weather; 
his food; fasts. 

Monday, December 17, spends evening at Bronzino 's; Luca Martini; 
Tasso; his food. Tuesday, 18th, his food; he begins to feel and sleep better. 
Wednesday, 19th, fast day; fasts; feels ill. Thursday, 20th (Eve of St. 
Thomas), his food. Friday, 21st, his food. Saturday, 22d, fasts. Sunday, 
23d, fasts; his food. Monday, 24th, sups with Bronzino; passes the evening 
there. Tuesday, 25th, lunches and sups at Bronzino 's. Thursday, 27th 
(St. John's Day), sups at Bronzino 's; his food. Friday, 28th, sups alone; 
his food. Saturday, 29th, sups alone; his food. Sunday, 30th, his food. 
Monday, 31st, idem. 

1555 

Tuesday, January 1, sups at Bronzino 's; his food. Wednesday, 2d, his food. 
Thursday, 3d, idem. Friday, 4th, idem. Saturday, 5th, fasts. Sunday, 6th, 
lunches and sups at Bronzino 's; his food. Monday, 7th, his food. Tuesday, 
8th, idem. Wednesday, 9th, idem. Thursday, 10th, idem. Friday, llth, 

310 



HIS DIARY 

idem. Saturday, 12th, idem; puts his wine into "fiaschi"; notes how much 
wine he has. Sunday, 13th, lunches and sups at Bronzino's. Monday, 14th, 
goes to San Miniato; his food. Tuesday, 15th, his food. Sunday, 20th, sups 
at Danielle's; his food; Ottaviano. Sunday, 27th, lunches and sups at 
Bronzino's; Alessandra; Petrarcha. Wednesday, 30th, San Lorenzo. 
Thursday, 31st, San Lorenzo; ill. 

Friday, February 1, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 2d, his food; his health; 
the weather. Saturday, 16th, San Lorenzo; the weather. Thursday, 21st 
(Berlingaccio), sups at Bronzino's; his food. Wednesday, 27th (Ash 
Wednesday), the weather. Thursday, 28th, San Lorenzo. 

Sunday, March 3, lunches at Bronzino's; his health; fasts. Monday, 4th, 
San Lorenzo. Sunday, 10th, lunches and sups with Bronzino; food; Otta- 
viano; the weather. Monday, llth, San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 12th, San 
Lorenzo. Friday, 15th, San Lorenzo ; his food. Saturday, 16th, San Lorenzo. 
Monday, 18th, San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 19th, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 20th, 
San Lorenzo. Thursday, 21st, remains at home; bad weather. Friday, 22d, 
San Lorenzo. Saturday, 23d, San Lorenzo ; his food. Monday, 25th, lunches 
at Bronzino's; sups at home; his food. Tuesday, 26th, San Lorenzo; his 
food; sonnet of Varchi's. Wednesday, 27th, San Lorenzo; his health. 
Thursday, 28th, his health. Friday, 29th, his health; fasts; San Lorenzo. 
Saturday, 30th, his food. Sunday, 31st, lunches at Daniello's; fasts in the 
evening. 

Monday, April 1, his health; his food; ill. Wednesday, 3d, San Lorenzo; 
difficulties of the work; his food. Thursday, 4th, his food. Friday, 5th, 
San Lorenzo ; his food ; the weather. Saturday, 6th, sups at home. Sunday, 
7th (Palm Sunday), lunches with Bronzino; food. Monday, 8th, his garden. 
Tuesday, 9th, San Lorenzo; his food. Wednesday, 10th, Ceccho fornaio; 
food. Thursday, llth, food. Friday, 12th (Good Friday), his food. 
Saturday, 13th, San Lorenzo ; the Duke comes to mass at San Lorenzo ; fasts 
in the evening. Sunday, 14th (Easter), the weather; lunches at Bronzino's; 
foodr; fasts in the evening. Monday, 15th, the weather; sups at Daniello's; 
his food. Tuesday, 16th, the weather; food. Wednesday, 17th, the weather; 
stays at home; his food. Thursday, 18th, San Lorenzo; food; the weather. 
Friday, 19th, San Lorenzo; food; his health. Saturday, 20th, San Lorenzo; 
his food. Sunday, 21st, his food ; his health ; the weather ; the moon. Monday, 
22d, he feels well; food. Tuesday, 23d, sups at Piero's; food. Wednesday, 
24th, he sups at Piero's; food. Thursday, 25th (St. Mark), sups at home. 
Friday, 26th, sups at Piero's. Saturday, 27th, sups at Piero's; San Lorenzo. 
Sunday, 28th, lunches at Bronzino's; fasts in the evening. Monday, 29th, 
sups at Piero's; food. Tuesday, 30th, his food. 

Wednesday, May 1, food. Thursday, 2d, food. Friday, 3d (Holy Cross), 
sups at Piero's; food. Saturday, 4th, food. Sunday, 5th, food. Monday, 
6th, idem; sells grain and buys a policy in the "Monte." Tuesday, 7th, 
idem; San Lorenzo; Tasso dies. Wednesday, 8th, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 
9th, San Lorenzo; sups at Daniello's; food. Friday, 10th, food. Saturday, 
llth, sups at Piero's; food; he eats too much. Sunday, 12th, lunches at 
Bronzino's; fasts in the evening. Monday, 13th, food. Tuesday, 14th, San 
Lorenzo ; food. Wednesday, 15th, San Lorenzo ; his fatigue ; food. Thursday, 

311 



PONTORMO 

16th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 17th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 18th, San 
Lorenzo. Sunday, 19th, lunches and sups at Bronzino's; his peach-trees. 
Monday, 20th, San Lorenzo ; food. Tuesday, 21st, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 
22d, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 23d (Ascension), lunches at Bronzino's; sups 
at Danielle's. Friday, 24th, San Lorenzo; food. Saturday, 25th, food; he 
writes letters. Sunday, 26th, goes to San Francesco; lunches with Danielle; 
fasts in the evening. Wednesday, 29th, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 30th, San 
Lorenzo. Friday, 31st, San Lorenzo. 

Saturday, June 1, San Lorenzo; his food. Sunday, 2d (Pentecost), 
lunches at Bronzino's. Monday, 3d, spends the morning at Danielle's; the 
evening at home. Tuesday, 4th, spends the evening at Danielle's; food. 
Wednesday, 5th, stays at home; food; San Lorenzo. Thursday, 6th, San 
Lorenzo; food. Friday, 7th, San Lorenzo; food; fatigue. Saturday, 8th, 
ill; sups at Piero's; fever; sleeplessness. Sunday, 9th, sups at Piero's. 
Monday, 10th, ill. Tuesday, llth, ill. Wednesday, 12th, ill. Thursday, 13th 
(Corpus Christi), lunches at Bronzino's; fasts in the evening. Friday, 14th, 
San Lorenzo. Saturday, 15th, sups at Piero's; San Lorenzo. Sunday, 16th, 
lunches at Bronzino 's and sups with him also. Monday, 17th, sups at home ; 
food. Wednesday, 19th, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 20th, San Lorenzo. 
Friday, 21st, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 22d (Jacopo mistakes the day of the 
month), San Lorenzo; food. Tuesday, 25th, San Lorenzo; scaffolding. 
Wednesday, 26th, San Lorenzo; holes made in the walls there. Thursday, 
27th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 29th (St. Peter). Sunday, 30th, lunches at 
Daniello 's ; the weather ; Bronzino ; sups at Piero 's. 

Thursday, July 4, San Lorenzo; ill; Naldini; food. Friday, 5th, San 
Lorenzo. Saturday, 6th, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 7th, lunches at Bronzino's. 
Monday, 8th, letters; ill. Tuesday, 9th, San Lorenzo; ill. Wednesday, 10th, 
ill at home; food; Naldini unkind to him. Thursday, llth, San Lorenzo; 
his health. Friday, 12th, sups at Piero's; his health. Saturday, 13th, sups 
at home; visit from Bronzino; San Lorenzo; his "fattore." Sunday, 14th, 
lunches at Bronzino's; quarrels with the "fattore"; sups at home; food. 
Tuesday, 16th, San Lorenzo ; food ; quarrels with Naldini. Wednesday, 17th, 
food. Thursday, 18th, his health ; sups at San Lorenzo ; work. Friday, 19th, 
food. Saturday, 20th, Naldini; food. Sunday, 21st, sups at Bronzino's; 
Naldini goes to Legnaia. Monday, 22d, lunches at Daniello 's ; sups at Bron- 
zino 's; ill; Naldini; works on a cartoon. Tuesday, 23d, fasts; San Lorenzo; 
ill. Wednesday, 24th, food. Thursday, 25th, lunches at Bronzino's; fasts 
in the evening. Friday, 26th, San Lorenzo; a cartoon. Tuesday, 30th, San 
Lorenzo. Wednesday, 31st, San Lorenzo. 

Thursday, August 1, San Lorenzo ; sups at Piero 's. Friday, 2d, San Lorenzo. 
Saturday, 3d, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 4th, sups at Danielle's; Bronzino. 
Wednesday, 7th, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 8th, San Lorenzo; food. Friday, 
9th (Eve of St. Lawrence), work; fasts. Saturday, 10th, ill. Sunday, llth, 
his garden; drawings shown him by Fuscellino; ill; sups at Bronzino's. 
Monday, 12th, ill; fever; food. Tuesday, 13th, food; San Lorenzo. 
Wednesday, 14th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 16th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 
17th, San Lorenzo. Monday, 19th, San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 20th, San 
Lorenzo. Wednesday, 21st, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 25th, lunches at Bron- 
zino's; goes to Mass. 

312 



HIS DIARY 

Monday, September 2d, San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 3d, San Lorenzo; barrel 
of oil. Wednesday, 4th, San Lorenzo; the weather. Thursday, 5th, San 
Lorenzo. Friday, 6th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 7th, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 
8th (Birth of the Virgin), lunches at Bronzino's; has a toothache in the 
evening. Monday, 9th, ill. Tuesday, 10th, idem; stays at home and draws. 
Wednesday, llth, idem. Thursday, 12th, idem. Friday, 13th, idem. 
Saturday, 14th, idem. Sunday, 15th, lunches at Bronzino's; fasts in the 
evening. Monday, 16th, makes drawings. Tuesday, 17th, San Lorenzo. 
Wednesday, 18th, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 19th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 20th, 
the weather. Sunday, 21st (St. Matthew). 

Sunday, October 6th (Pontormo mistakes the day of the month), Naldini 
goes to Poggio; food; toothache. Monday, 7th, his food; San Lorenzo. 
Tuesday, 8th, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 9th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 12th, 
San Lorenzo. Sunday, 13th, lunches at Bronzino's; food. Monday, 14th, 
San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 15th, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 16th, San Lorenzo; 
fasts in the evening. Thursday, 17th, his food. Friday, 18th (St. Luke), 
his food; San Lorenzo. Saturday, 19th, San Lorenzo; food. Sunday, 20th, 
lunches at Bronzino 's ; sups there too. Monday, 21st, San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 
22d, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 23d, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 24th, San 
Lorenzo. Friday, 25th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 26th, San Lorenzo; a 
cartoon; sups at home; food; toothache. Sunday, 27th, stays at home to 
draw; sups at home. Monday, 28th, stays at home to draw; sups alone. 

Friday, November 1, lunches at Bronzino's; food. Saturday, 2d, the 
weather. Sunday, 3d, idem. Monday, 4th, idem. Tuesday, 5th, his health. 
Saturday, 9th, San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 12th, San Lorenzo; fatigue. Friday, 
15th, the weather. Saturday, 16th, a cartoon; San Lorenzo. Sunday, 17th, 
lunches at Bronzino's; sups at home; Naldini; the monks. Monday, 18th, 
he goes to see the monks. Tuesday, 19th, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 20th, 
the washing. Sunday, 24th, lunches at Bronzino's; Maria's mother. 
Wednesday, 27th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 30th (St. Andrew), sups at 
Piero's. 

Sunday, December 1, lunches at Bronzino's; sups with Daniello; food; 
Luca Martini. Friday, 6th (St. Nicholas), the weather. Sunday, 8th, sups 
at Bronzino's; food. Monday, 9th, food. Tuesday, 10th, sups at Danielle's; 
Martini; Varchi. Wednesday, llth, food. Thursday, 12th, the ' ' Divisione. " 
Friday, 13th, sups at home; he begins to do his own housework; Naldini. 
Saturday, 14th, sups with Bronzino and Martini. Friday, 20th (fast day), 
the weather. Sunday, 22d, lunches with Bronzino. Tuesday, 24th, the death 
of Pagolo; lunches at Bronzino's; Martini; Daniello and his family. 
Wednesday, 25th, lunches and sups with Bronzino. Thursday, 26th, goes 
to San Francesco; lunches with Alessandra; Lucretia. Friday, 27th, goes 
with Bronzino to Monte Oliveto; Strozzi; fasts; sups at home. Saturday, 
28th, goes to San Miniato; lunches at the tavern; fasts in the evening. 
Sunday, 29th, goes to San Domenico; fasts; goes to see Daniello. Monday, 
30th, stays at home. Tuesday, 31st, idem. 

1556 

Wednesday, January 1, lunches at Bronzino's; sups at home with Otta- 
viano. Thursday, 2d, sups at home; food; Naldini. Friday, 3d, sups with 

313 



PONTORMO 

Bronzino ; food. Saturday, 4th, the weather ; buys a cloak ; Naldini ; business. 
Sunday, 5th, lunches at Bronzino 's. Monday, 6th (Epiphany), he takes a 
walk; sups with Daniello. Thursday, 9th, sups with the Prior of the Inno- 
cents ; food. Friday, 10th, an accident ; Naldini. Saturday, llth, two ' ' scudi ' ' 
to Naldini. Sunday, 12th, the weather; he eats at home; food. Tuesday, 
14th, goes to the "bottega." Wednesday, 15th, the weather; a visit from 
Bronzino and Ottaviano. Thursday, 16th, sups with the porter ; food. Friday, 
17th (St. Anthony), food. Saturday, 18th, food. Sunday, 19th, sups with 
Piero; food; at San Piero; in the evening a visit from Bronzino and Otta- 
viano. Monday, 20th (San Sebastiano), the weather; food. Tuesday, 21st, 
the weather; food. Wednesday, 22d, food. Thursday, 23d, food; Naldini. 
Friday, 24th, food. Saturday, 25th, food; Naldini. Sunday, 26th, spends 
the day at Bronzino 's with Ottaviano, Daniello, Alessandra, and others. 
Monday, 27th, sups at home; food. Tuesday, 28th, sups at Bronzino 's. 
Wednesday, 29th, food. Thursday, 30th, food; Naldini. Friday, 31st, food. 

Saturday, February 1, food. Sunday, 2d, lunches at Bronzino 's; sups at 
Daniello 's. Monday, 3d, cooks for himself. Tuesday, 4th, food. Wednesday, 
5th, food. Thursday, 6th, San Lorenzo; food. Friday, 7th, food. Saturday, 
8th, food; charcoal; the porter; San Lorenzo. Sunday, 16th, lunches at 
Bronzino 's; sups at home with Bronzino and Ottaviano. Monday, 17th, 
food; Naldini. Tuesday, 18th, food. Wednesday, 19th, food; Naldini. 
Thursday, 20th, sups at Bronzino 's; San Lorenzo. Friday, 21st, food. 
Saturday, 22d, food; Naldini. Sunday, 23d, lunches and sups at Bronzino 's; 
passes the evening there; Varchi. Monday, 24th, sups with Daniello; goes 
to a comedy in Via Maggio. Tuesday, 25th, the weather; sups at home. 
Thursday, 27th, San Lorenzo; food. Friday, 28th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 
29th, San Lorenzo. 

Tuesday, March 3, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 4th, San Lorenzo; he takes 
cold. Thursday, 5th, ill. Friday, 6th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 7th, San 
Lorenzo. Sunday, 8th, he goes to see a Hercules. Monday, 9th, San Lorenzo. 
Tuesday, 10th, he goes to see a picture of St. Bartholomew by Bronzino. 
Wednesday, llth, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 12th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 13th, 
San Lorenzo; has four "lire" from rent. Saturday, 14th, he goes to see a 
head of Sandrino's; sups with Piero. Sunday, 15th, a visit from Bronzino 
to whom he does not open the door; another from Daniello to whom he does 
not open. Wednesday, 18th, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 19th, lunches at 
Daniello 's with Ottaviano; meets Bronzino who is just sending a picture to 
Pisa. 1 Sunday, 22d, visit from Daniello and Ottaviano; quarrels with 
Bronzino. Monday, 23d, sups with Daniello; food; Bronzino, Sandrino, 
Giulio, Alessandra. Tuesday, 24th, buys a "fiasco" of wine. Wednesday, 
25th, the moon. Thursday, 26th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 27th, San Lorenzo. 
Saturday, 28th, San Lorenzo ; feast 2 of the "Tregua" ; sups at home. Sunday, 
29th (Palm Sunday), lunches with Bronzino. Monday, 30th, San Lorenzo. 
Tuesday, 31st, stays at home. 

Wednesday, April 1, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 2d (Holy Thursday). Friday, 
3d, San Lorenzo. Thursday, 9th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 10th, San Lorenzo; 

i ' ' Christ and Saints ' ' for the Cathedral of Pisa. For the documents, see Centof anti, 
Not. di art. tratto dai doc. pis., Pisa, 1898; also Supino, Arch. stor. dell' arte, VI, 448. 

2 The famous truce between the Emperor and the King of France published in Siena, 
March, 27, 1556. 

314 



HIS DIARY 

sups at Piero's. Saturday, llth, San Lorenzo ; food ; sups at Piero's. Sunday, 
12th, receives a ' ' berlingozo " from Mona Ugenia; sups with Bronzino. 
Monday, 13th, San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 14th, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 15th, 
San Lorenzo; scaffolding; Pier Francesco. Thursday, 16th, San Lorenzo. 
Friday, 17th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 18th, San Lorenzo. Monday, 20th, 
San Lorenzo. 

Sunday, May 3 (Holy Cross), lunches at Bronzino 's. Monday, 4th, San 
Lorenzo. Tuesday, 5th, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 6th, San Lorenzo. 
Thursday, 7th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 8th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 9th, 
San Lorenzo. Sunday, 10th, lunches and sups with Bronzino; they go out 
for a walk. Tuesday, 12th, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 13th (Eve of Ascen- 
sion), San Lorenzo. Thursday, 14th, lunches and sups with Bronzino. 
Friday, 15th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 16th, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 17th, 
lunches at Bronzino 's; fasts in the evening; his health. Monday, 18th, the 
weather. Thursday, 28th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 29th, San Lorenzo. 
Saturday, 30th, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 31st, fasts; sups with Piero; food. 

Monday, June 1, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 7th, lunches and sups with 
Bronzino; ill. Tuesday, 9th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 12th, San Lorenzo. 
Saturday, 13th, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 14th, sups with Piero. Friday, 19th, 
San Lorenzo. Saturday, 20th, San Lorenzo. Sunday, 21st, meets Bronzino 
at Santa Maria del Fiore; goes to see a bull; lunches with Bronzino; wine 
from Piero; Alessandra; his health; fasts. Tuesday, 23d, his food; kills one 
of his chickens. Wednesday, 24th, sups with Danielle; Marignolle; Bron- 
zino. Thursday, 25th, San Lorenzo ; the weather. Friday, 26th, San Lorenzo ; 
the holes in the walls of the choir. Saturday, 27th, San Lorenzo; fasts in 
the evening. Sunday, 28th, lunches with Bronzino; they go to Prato 
Ognissanti and there meet Sandrino and Bernardo. Monday, 29th, prepares 
paints. Tuesday, 30th, prepares paints. 

Saturday, July 4, fasts in the evening; makes a drawing. Sunday, 5th, 
lunches at Bronzino 's, whom he met at Santa Maria; Lorenzo Pucci; Otta- 
viano; sups with Bronzino; wine from Piero. Tuesday, 14th, San Lorenzo. 
Thursday, 16th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 18th, food. Sunday, 19th, lunches 
with Bronzino ; sups with Piero. Monday, 20th, San Lorenzo ; hurts himself ; 
receives a "mogio" of grain; washes his feet. Tuesday, 21st, fasts; San 
Lorenzo; Naldini. Wednesday, 22d, fasts; San Lorenzo; sups with Danielle. 
Thursday, 23d, San Lorenzo. Friday, 24th, San Lorenzo. Saturday, 25th, 
San Lorenzo. Sunday, 26th, lunches with Piero; food; fasts in the evening. 
Monday, 27th, San Lorenzo. Wednesday, 29th, San Lorenzo. Friday, 31st, 
sups with Piero; Naldini quits Lappoli. 

Wednesday, August 26th, sups with Bronzino, Ottaviano and Daniello. 
Thursday, 27th, sups with Bronzino; prepares a cartoon. From the end of 
July to the 20th of August he mentions in an indefinite way that he worked 
on one figure at San Lorenzo. 

Thursday, September 10, Mona Adia makes bread. Friday, llth, he bottles 
three barrels of wine; sups with Piero. Saturday, 12th, San Lorenzo. 
Sunday, 13th, sups with Daniello; Bronzino; food. Monday, 14th, San 
Lorenzo. Wednesday, 16th (fast day), San Lorenzo. Friday, 18th, San 
Lorenzo ; fasts in the evening. Saturday, 19th, San Lorenzo ; food. Monday, 

315 



PONTOKMO 

21st (St. Matthew), food. Tuesday, 22d, takes a holiday. Wednesday, 23d, 
San Lorenzo; food. Saturday, 26th, evening at the tavern; Ottaviano; 
Bronzino; food. Sunday, 27th, lunches with Bronzino; sups with Bronzino 
and Ottaviano. Monday, 28th, stays at home. Tuesday, 29th (St. Michael), 
lunches and sups with Bronzino; Martini. Wednesday, 30th, stays at home. 

Thursday, October 1, sups at Bronzino 's; Varchi; Martini. Friday, 2d, 
Martini goes to Pisa. Saturday, 3d, the weather; lunches with Bronzino; 
a ' ' fiasco ' ' of colour. Sunday, 4th, goes to San Francesco for the day ; food. 
Monday r 5th, San Lorenzo. Tuesday, 6th, San Lorenzo; food; ill. Sunday, 
llth, goes to Certosa ; sups at Piovano with Danielle and Giulio ; food ; small 
expenses. Friday, 16th, he begins to feel the cold; sups with friends at the 
tavern. Sunday, 18th, lunches with Piero; food; sups with Bronzino; food. 



316 



Topical Analysis of Pontormo's Diary 

The days on which Pontormo mentions working at San Lorenzo. 

1554 March 21, 22 ; June 9. 

1555 January 30, 31 ; February 1, 16, 28 ; March 4, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 

20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28; April 3, 5, 9, 13, 18, 19, 20, 27; May 7, 8, 9, 14, 
15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 27, 30, 31 ; June 1, 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 19, 20, 

21, 22, 25, 26, 27 ; July 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18, 23, 26, 30, 31 ; August 1, 
2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21 ; September 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 17, 18, 
19; October 7, 8, 9, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26; 
November 9, 12, 19, 27. 

1556 February 6, 8, 20, 27, 28, 29 ; March 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 13, 18, 26, 27, 
28, 30; April 1, 3, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20; May 4, 5, 6, 7, 
8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 28, 29, 30; June 1, 9, 12, 13, 19, 20, 25, 26, 27; 
July 14, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29; August 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25 ; September 12, 14, 
16, 18, 19, 23 ; October 5, 6. 

The days on which Pontormo mentions that he was ill. 

1554 January 7 to February 6 ; March 11, 15, 27 ; April 1 ; May 24 ; October 
19; December 19. 

1555 January 31 ; February 2 ; March 3, 28 ; April 1, 19 ; May 11, 26 ; June 
8, 10, 11, 12, 13 ; July 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 22, 23 ; August 10, 11, 12 ; 
September 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14; October 6, 26; November 5. 

1556 January 10 ; March 5 ; May 17 ; June 7 ; July 20 ; October 6, 16. 

He mentions Bronzino : 1554, March 11, 25 ; April 1, 8 ; May 24 ; December 
17, 24, 25 ; 1555, January 1, 6, 13, 27 ; February 21 ; March 3, 10, 25 ; April 7, 
14, 28 ; May 12, 19, 23 ; June 2, 13, 16 ; July 7, 14, 21, 25 ; August 11, 25 ; 
September 8 ; October 13, 20 ; November 1, 17, 24 ; December 1, 8, 14, 22, 25 ; 
1556, January 1, 3, 5, 28 ; February 2, 16, 20, 23 ; March 29 ; April 12 ; May 
3, 10, 14, 17 ; June 7, 21, 28 ; July 5, 19 ; August 26, 27 ; September 27, 29 ; 
October 1, 3, 18. Daniello : 1554, December 27 ; 1555, January 20 ; March 31 ; 
April 15 ; May 9, 23, 26 ; June 3, 4, 30 ; July 22 ; August 4 ; December 10, 29 ; 
1556, January 6 ; February 2, 24 ; March 19, 23 ; June 24 ; July 22 ; September 
13. Piero : 1555, April 23, 24, 26, 27, 29 ; May 3, 11 ; June 8, 9, 15, 30 ; July 
12 ; November 30 ; 1556, January 19 ; April 10, 11 ; May 31 ; June 14; July 19, 
26, 31 ; September 11. Naldini : 1555, July 4, 10, 21, 22 ; October 6 ; November 
17; December 13; 1556, January 2, 4, 10, 11, 23, 25, 30; February 17, 19; 
1556, February 22; July 31. Ottaviano: 1555, January 20; March 10; 1556, 
January 2, 15 ; February 16 ; March 22 ; July 5 ; September 27. Varchi : 1554, 
March 26; 1555, December 10, 23; 1556, October 1. Luca Martini: 1554, 
December 17; 1555, December 1, 10, 14; 1556, September 29; October 1, 2. 
Tasso: 1554, December 17; 1555, December 24. Strozzi: 1555, December 27. 

317 



PONTOKMO 

Borghini: 1556, January 9. Sandrino: 1556, March 14; June 28. Giulio: 
1556, March 23; October 11. Lorenzo Pucci: 1556, July 5. Lappoli: 
1556, July 31. Marignolle: 1556, June 24. "II fattore": 1555, July 13, 14; 
1556, January 16; February 8. Pier Francesco: 1556, April 15. Pagolo: 
1555, December 24. Marco Moro : 1554, June 9. Ceccho fornaio : 1555, April 
10. The monks: 1555, November 17, 18. Petrarcha: 1554, January 27. 
Alessandra : 1554, January 27 ; 1555, December 26 ; 1556, January 26, March 
23, June 22. Lucretia: 1555, December 26. Mona Ugenia: 1556, April 12. 
The mother of Maria: 1555, November 24. Fuscellino: 1555, August 11. 
Bernardo: 1556, June 28. Mona Adia: 1556, September 10. The "Monte": 
1555, May 6. Gaddi, March 24, 1556. 



318 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Academy of Florence: ''Assumption 
of the Virgin," Granacci, 224; 
"Beheading of St. John," as- 
cribed to Andrea, 14, 138-139; 
"Holy Trinity," Albertinelli, 8; 
"Hospital of San Matteo," 115; 
"Pieta," ascribed to Pontormo, 
199-200; "Supper at Emmaus," 
41, 114, 115. 

Acciaiuoli, Margherita, 22, 157. 

, Roberto, 157. 

Achiardi, d', 201. 

Adia, Mona, 303. 

"Adoration of the Magi," Pitti, 23, 
25, 72, 81, 135-136; date of, 24, 
135; drawings for, 24, 135-136; 
mentioned by Vasari, 135, 136. 

Agnew, 242. 

"Agony in the Garden," Certosa, 42, 
.,107-108; date of, 108; mentioned 
by Vasari, 107. 

Alamanni, Antonio, 13. 

Albertinelli, 6, 11, 253, 267, 268; 
death of, 268; document con- 
cerning house of, 273-274; "God 
the Father," 8; "Holy Trinity," 
8; Pontormo 's apprenticeship to, 
5, 6, 8, 11, 12, 15, 26, 267, 268; 
"Visitation," 15. 

Aldighieri, Paolo, 141. 

Alessandra, mentioned in Pontormo 's 
diary, 94, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304. 

Alessandra, Pontormo 's mother, 4. 

Alessandro VI, Pope, 181. 

Alexandre K. Collection, 246. 



Alinari. See Photographs. 

Allegrini, 151, 177, 261. 

Allori, Alessandro, 119, 144, 219, 
234; portrait of Pontormo, 81; 
Eicordi, 177, 228; work at Pog- 
gio, 29, 35, 175, 176. 

Alnwick Castle, 193, 211. 

Altamira, Duke of, 261. 

Altissimo, Cristofano dell', 95, 151. 

Alton, Collection d', 144. 

Altoviti, Bindo, 145. 

Ambras Castle, 101, 237. 

American Art Association, 242. 

Ammirato, 3, 28. 

Ancisa, 1. 

Ancona d', 148, 149. 

Anderson. See Photographs. 

Andrea d' Antonio di Bartolommeo, 
284. 

Andrea del Sarto, 8, 10, 14, 33, 55, 
58, 105, 115, 119, 139, 153, 154, 
159, 165, 166, 200, 210, 219, 223, 
224, 229, 231, 234, 236, 253, 254, 
261, 269; "Adoration of the 
Magi, " 270 ; " Assumption, ' ' 
Pitti, 95, 154, 207; "Birth of 
the Virgin," 16; "Caesar Re- 
ceiving Tribute," 29, 175; 
"Deposition," Pitti, 154; "Dis- 
puta, ' ' 154 ; draughtsmanship, 
8; imitation of Diirer, 39; in- 
fluence on Pontormo, 6, 8, 11, 
15, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 37, 
77, 94, 95, 118, 169, 267; "Life of 
Joseph, ' ' 22, 154, 200 ;" Madonna 
and Little St. John," Borghese, 



321 



INDEX 



270; "Madonna and Saints," 
Pitti, 255; "Madonna del 
Saeco," 118; "Madonna di 
Porta Pinti," 29, 129; "Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine," 10, 139, 
269-270; panels for Borgherini, 
22, 157; "Pieta," Vienna, 200; 
Pontormo's drawings compared 
with those of, 33; Pontormo's 
portraits compared with those of, 
87; "Sacrifice of Isaac," 56; 
San Filippo Benizzi frescoes, 16, 
267, 269; "San Gallo Annuncia- 
tion," 253, 269; "San Godenzo 
Annunciation, ' ' 269 ; Scalzo fres- 
coes, 17, 39, 232 ; work at Poggio 
a Cajano, 28, 175, 176; work in 
the Annunziata, 9; work on 
triumphal arches, 14. 

Andros de la Rue Collection, 241. 

Anguillesi, 261, 263. 

"Annunciation" (lost), 253. 

"Annunciation," Santa Felicita, 52, 
122; date of, 122; drawings for, 
48, 122. 

Annunziata, 9, 79, 81, 119, 200; 
"Faith and Charity" at the, 7, 

11, 116; "Visitation" at the, 15, 
117-119. 

, Chapel of San Luca, 7, 79 ; 
"Madonna and Saints" in, 6, 8, 

12, 15, 117, 254; "Holy Trinity" 
in, 200. 

"Anonimo fiorentino," 209. 
Ansoldi, Costantino, 64, 65, 170, 171, 

280-282. 

Antinori, arms of the, 130. 
, lost portrait of Amerigo, 64. 
Antonio da Lucca, 225, 226. 
Appendices, 267-318. 
Arazzieri, 78. 
Archbishop of Capua. See Nicolaus 

von Schomberg. 



Archives of Florence, 1, 3 ; Accademia 
del Disegno, 57, 279; Annun- 
ziata, 9, 16, 116, 119, 269, 270, 
275-276; Carteggio di Cosimo I, 
14; Carteggio mediceo del Prin- 
cipato, 64, 65, 173, 184, 200, 
280-282; Carte Pucci, 20; Carte 
Riccardi, 128; Catasto, 3, 5, 57, 
68, 80, 280, 282; Consorteria, 1, 
271, 272; Decima, 284; Deposi- 
teria Generale, 78, 158, 164, 208, 
264; Depositeria Vecchia, 78, 
283-284; Filza, No. 273, 185; 
Guardaroba, 70, 71, 142, 184, 
185, 186, 261, 286, 287; Indice 
mediceo, 255; Libro dei Battez- 
zati, 102 ; Libro dei Morti, 4, 79, 
284; Libro dei Morti, Serie della 
Grascia, 79, 284; Libro dell' Eta, 
102; Medici e Speziali, 57, 279; 
Pupilli, 274; Rogiti di Giovanni 
Giordani, 80, 184, 284; Santa 
Felicita, 47, 120, 121, 279; San 
Giovanni di Boldrone, 104; San 
Lorenzo al Monte, 39, 41, 44, 78, 
108, 113, 115, 276-279; Santa 
Maria Novella, 5, 125, 273-274; 
Scalzo, 17, 232; Scritture Cap- 
poni, 47; Strumenti Pucci, 128. 

of Hospital of the Innocents, 1, 72, 

106, 132, 249, 263, 273, 283. 

of Pisa, 4, 178. 

of San Lorenzo, 264. 
Archivio storico, 173. 

Archivio storico dell' arte, 155, 181, 

209, 216, 231, 235. 
Ardinghelli, lost portrait of Niccolo, 

86, 258. 

Argenville, Dezallier d', 81. 
Argyropylos, loanne, 148, 149. 
Armand, 148, 173. 
Armann, "Walter, 172. 
Arms of Giovanni Salviati (lost), 256, 



INDEX 



Arms of Leo X, 11, 12, 15. 

of the Lanfredini (lost), 21, 254- 

255. 

Arte e Storia, 264. 
Arte, I', 181, 201, 203, 205, 207, 228, 

244. 

Art Journal, 23, 164. 
Art Prices, 241, 242, 244, 245, 248. 
Art Sales, 159. 
"Ascension of the Blessed," drawing 

for, 263. 

Ashbourne. See Widener Collection. 
Assisi, 193. 

"Assumption," Ammnziata, 119. 
Athenceum, 209. 
Auction Sale Prices, 241, 242, 244, 

245. 

Avignon. See Musee Calvet. 
Azeglio d', 235. 

B 

Bacchiacea, 78, 95, 129, 229, 231; 
designs for tapestries, 184 ; ' ' Life 
of Joseph," 159; work for Ben- 
intendi, 23, 24, 135; work for 
Borgherini, 157. 

Baccio d' Agnolo, 23, 135. 

Baciocchi Collection, 200. 

Badia, Florence, 14, 138. 

Badoer, Federigo, 204. 

"Baker Led out to Execution," 23, 
164-165. 

Baldinucci, 81, 95, 157. 

Collection, 69. 
Balocchi, 47, 122. 

Baltimore. See Walters Collection. 

Bamberg, Collection of the Arch- 
bishop of, 234. 

Bandinelli, Baccio, 13, 14, 74, 84, 102, 
254. 

Bandinius, 148, 149. 

Banzola, Scipione, 282. 



"Baptism of Christ," Carro della 
Zecca, 137, 138. 

' ' Baptist in Wilderness, ' ' Carro della 
Zecca, 35, 137. 

Barbadori, 47, 120. 

Barberini Gallery, Rome, 56, 259. 

Bardi, Luigi, 136, 152, 205. 

Bargello, Florence, 121, 148, 150. 

Bartolommeo, Fra. See Porta. 

Battiferra, Laura, 290-293. 

"Battle of Anghiari," 53, 131, 132, 
269. 

"Battle of the Cascina," 9, 18, 23, 
38, 246. 

Bayersdorfer, 234. 

Beaucousin, Edmond, 213. 

"Beheading of John," Carro della 
Zecca, 138-139. 

Bellini, Giovanni, 175. 

Benedetti, de, 263. 

Benintendi, Giovanmaria, 23, 135. 

Benivieni, Bartolommea, 126. 

' ' Benjamin at the Court of Pharaoh, ' ' 
tapestry, 70, 71, 72, 186-187. 

Berenson, Bernhard, 41, 81, 102, 103, 
105, 106, 107, 115, 119, 122, 123, 
125, 128, 129, 132, 133, 134, 136, 
139, 140, 141, 145, 152, 154, 155, 
156, 159, 160, 162, 165, 166, 168, 
169, 170, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 
183, 188, 189, 198, 200, 203, 205, 
206, 208, 217, 229, 233, 235, 237, 
264; on "Baker Led out to Exe- 
cution," 165; on "Birth-plate," 
Butler Collection, 242; on Bron- 
zino, 97; on "Christ before 
Pilate," 109; on Doetsch "Holy 
Family," 126; on drawing by 
Michelangelo, 144; on drawing 
for Certosa, 42; on drawing for 
"St. Quentin," 106; on drawings 
for Poggio, 31, 34, 49; on "En- 
tombment," National Gallery, 



323 



INDEX 



213; on Giulio Romano, 81; on 
Granacci, 208; on "Holy Fam- 
ily," San Michele Visdomini, 20; 
on "Hospital of San Matteo," 
115 ; on "Judith, ' ' Palermo, 223 ; 
on "Life of Joseph," 21; on 
"Lucretia," Borghese, 179; on 
"Madonna and Little St. John," 
Palazzo Corsini, Florence, 129; 
on "Madonna and Saints," 
Louvre, 51, 168, 169; on "Ma- 
donna Enthroned," 139; on 
Naldini, 97; on "Pieta," Acad- 
emy, 200; on "Portrait of a 
Boy," National Gallery, 213; on 
' ' Portrait of a Lady, ' ' Tarnowski 
Collection, 198; on "Portrait of 
a Lady," Trivulzio Collection, 
216; on "Portrait of a Lady," 
Turin, 235; on "Portrait of a 
Lady," Vienna, No. 45, 236; on 
"Portrait of a Lady," Widener 
Collection, 101; on "Portrait of 
a Man," Bonn, 105; on "Por- 
trait of a Man, ' ' Genoa, 210 ; on 
"Portrait of a Man," Montpel- 
lier, 217; on "Portrait of a 
Man," Platt Collection, 199; on 
"Portrait of a Man," Wilden- 
stein Collection, 223; on "Por- 
trait of Ardinghelli, " Palazzo 
Torrigiani, 258; on "Portrait of 
a Woman," Jarves Collection, 
222; on "Portrait of a Young 
"Woman," Stadel Institute, 153; 
on "Portrait of a Youth," Lo- 
thian Collection, 233; on "Por- 
trait of a Youth," Lucca, 160; 
on "Portrait of a Youth," 
Plymouth Collection, 215; on 
"Portrait of a Youth," Vienna, 
237; on "Portrait of Cosimo I," 
New Haven, 220 ; on "Portrait of 



Cosimo il Vecchio," 205; on 
"Portrait of Gualteretti, " 82, 
227; on "Santa Barbara," St. 
Petersburg, 224, 229; on Santo 
Felicita, 49, 121; on "Tobias and 
the Angel," Borghese, 230; on 
"Venus and Cupid," Uffizi, 63, 
143. 

Bergamo, 57, 64, 84, 102, 171, 194. 

Berlin, 85, 103, 105, 144, 194. 

Bernardino di Giordano, 13. 

Bernardo, mentioned in Pontormo's 
diary, 303. 

Bettini, Bartolomeo, 62, 64, 68, 90, 
142. 

Beurnonville, Collection de, 87-88, 
201, 241. 

Biblioteca Borghese, Rome, 283. 

Corsini, Rome, 149. 

Laurenziana, Florence, 148. 

Magliabecchiana, Florence, 91. 

Marucelliana, Florence, 1, 2, 3, 271, 

272, 273. 

Moreniana, Florence, 254. 

Nazionale, Florence, 1, 2, 91, 127, 

271, 272, 295. 

Riccardiana, Florence, 1, 2, 3. 
Bicchieraio, Becuccio, 25, 255. 
"Birth-plate," Butler Collection, 130, 

141. 

, Palazzo Davanzati, 57, 130, 141. 
, Uffizi, 57, 111, 140-141, 156. 
Biscioni, 131, 262. 
Blanc, Edmond, 144. 
Boccaccio, lost portrait of, 142. 
Bocchi, 10, 11, 15, 17, 55, 75, 79, 94, 

106, 107, 116, 119, 122, 128, 200, 

207, 254, 263, 264. 
Bode, 148, 149, 196, 231, 238. 
Bode und Tschudi, 149. 
Boldrone, Way-side shrine at, 45, 103- 

104; date of, 45, 104; mentioned 



324 



INDEX 



by Vasari, 45, 53, 104; possible 
drawing for, 104. 

Bollettino d' arte, 62, 71, 146, 184, 
185, 186, 260. 

Bologna, 95, 195. 

Bonn, 83, 104, 105. 

Borde, 152. 

Borenius, 23, 200. 

Borgherini, Casa, 157. 

, Niccolo di Giovanni, 157, 163. 

, Pierfrancesco, 22, 23, 55, 56, 157, 
163, 208, 258 ; panels for, 21, 22, 
24, 55-56, 97, 163, 164, 165, 208. 

Borghese Gallery, 69, 85, 86, 209, 
229-231; "Lucretia" in, 85, 179; 
"Portrait of a Magistrate" in, 
154, 229-230; "Portrait of Car- 
dinal Spannocchi Cervini" in, 
69, 86, 180-181; "Tobias and 
Angel' 'in, 230-231. 

Borghini, Raffaello, 63, 75, 79, 80, 
108, 110, 115, 116, 117, 119, 121, 
122, 123, 124, 125, 128, 131, 132, 
136, 139, 145, 147, 159, 164, 169, 
177, 228, 229, 254, 255, 256, 257, 
259, 262, 263, 264, 287, 

, Vincenzo, 94, 131 ; mentioned in 
- Pontormo 's diary, 300. 

Borgia, Francesco, 181. 

, Pietro Ludovico, 181. 

Borgo San Sepolcro, 21, 105-106, 109. 

Boscoli, Andrea, 98. 

Boston, 195, 217-218. 

Bottari, 89, 255, 285. 

Botticelli, Sandro, 149, 175. 

Bracciolini, Poggio, 237. 

Brandus Galleries, 242. 

Braun. See Photographs. 

Bredius und Schmidt-Degener, 162. 

Brett Collection, 242. 

Brigida, Mona, 4. 

Brinton, Selwyn, 118, 119, 143, 145. 

British Institute, 214, 247. 



British Museum, 49, 122, 123, 132, 
144, 153. 

Brogi. See Photographs. 

Broncone, Compagnia del, 13, 253- 
254. 

Bronzino, Angelo, 21, 56, 78, 80, 86, 
87, 95, 96, 97, 101, 144, 145, 
150, 153, 162, 167, 169, 172, 195, 
200, 211, 213, 219, 221, 227, 228, 
233, 234, 235, 254, 259, 287; 
"Adoration of the Divine 
Child, " 66 ; birth, 21 ;" bottega, ' ' 
96; "Cleopatra," 179; copies 
a "Madonna" of Leonardo's, 
53 ; copies of his portraits of the 
Medici, 96; "Descent into Hell," 
81 ; designs for tapestries, 70, 71, 
184, 185, 187; discusses Pon- 
tormo 's life with Vasari, 56; 
drawings, 97; finishes Pontor- 
mo 's San Lorenzo frescoes, 4, 79, 
263; frescoes in San Lorenzo, 
91; helps Pontormo at Certosa, 
43-44, 113; helps Pontormo at 
Santa Felicita, 49, 123; imitates 
Michelangelo, 74; imitates Pon- 
tormo, 66, 96, 97; journey to 
Rome, 185; lost portraits of 
Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio, 
142; mentioned in Pontormo 's 
diary, 90, 92, 93, 295, 296, 297, 
298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 
305, 306; "Pieta," Certosa, 113; 
Pontormo 's portrait of the young, 
25; Pontormo 's portraits com- 
pared with those of, 87; "Por- 
trait of a Lady," Fischhof Col- 
lection, 101; "Portrait of Ales- 
sandro de' Medici," 64, 171, 172; 
' ' Portrait of Anna Strozzi, " 96 ; 
' ' Portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio, ' ' 
150; "Portrait of Eleonora," 
Uffizi, 97; "Portrait of Giannet- 



325 



INDEX 



tino Doria," 225; "Portrait of 
Guidobaldo della Rovere," 59, 
203, 205, 258; "Portrait of Ugo- 
lino Martelli," 96, 225; portraits 
of Cosimo I, 220, 221, 235; 
portraits of Medici children, 96 ; 
portraits of Pontormo, 80; por- 
traits of the Panciatichi, 85, 96, 
225; "San Lorenzo," at Certosa, 
113 ; ' ' San Lorenzo, ' ' in San Lo- 
renzo, Florence, 80 ; sonnets, 288- 
293; work at Careggi, 66, 262; 
work at Castello, 67, 262; work 
at Pesaro, 59, 204 ; work for Bet- 
tini, 142; work for the Medici, 
184. 

Bruckhardt, 231. 

Bruckmann. See Photographs. 

Briiiningk et Somof, 228, 229. 

Brunelleschi, Filippo, 121. 

Brussels, 71, 209. 

Bryan, 105. 

Buchanan, 214. 

Budapest, 61, 195-196. 

Bugiardini, Giuliano, 5, 95, 195, 236, 
237, 261. 

Bullettino della societa filologica ro- 
mana, 16, 91, 268, 295, 296. 

Bulloz. See Photographs. 

Burger, W., 211. 

Burlington House, 164, 166, 224. 

Burlington Magazine, 197. 

Butler Collection, 141, 242-243. 

"Burying of the Bones of Jacob," 
Bronzino, 70. 

Butteri, Giovanmaria, 95. 

Buttery, 241. 



Calvet. See Musee Calvet. 
Cambi, 28, 51. 
Campanari, 201. 



Campi, Giulio, 222. 

Canova, 217. 

Capodimonte, 219, 220. 

Cappella del Papa. See Santa Maria 

Novella. 
Capponi Chapel, Santa Felicita, 46, 

47, 72, 104, 120, 123, 185. 
Capponi, Gino, 52, 269. 
,Lodovico, 47, 52, 120, 128, 176, 

257. 
, lost portrait of the daughter of, 

50. 

, Niccolo, 52. 
Caravaggio, Polidoro da, 81. 
Carderera, Valentin, 197. 
Careggi, lost paintings in the villa of, 

65-66, 67, 73, 262. 
Carlo da Spello, 282. 
Carmignano. See "Visitation," Car- 

mignano. 

Carmine, Florence, 3, 273. 
Carnasecchi, Carlo, 64, 170-171, 173, 

280. 

Caro, Annibal, 65, 69, 259, 282, 283. 
Carocci, Guido, 169, 264. 
Carota, II, 13, 253. 
Carraia, Ponte alia, Florence, 254. 
Carro de' Pazzi, 15. 
Carro della Zecca, 14, 15, 136-139; 

date of, 15, 139 ; drawing for, 15, 

139 ; mentioned by Vasari, 139. 
Cars for the Broncone, 7, 13, 14, 253- 

254. 

for the Diamante, 7, 13, 14, 253. 
Cartoons for tapestries. See Designs. 
Carucci, arms of, 271, 272. 

, Bartolomeo di Jacopo, 3. 

Chapel in the Carmine, 3, 273. 
, Checci, 3, 273. 

da Colle, 3, 271. 

, document concerning a Jacopo, 5, 
267, 273. 

family, 1, 3, 271, 273. 



326 



INDEX 



Carueci, Francesco, 1, 272. 

, Jacopo di Giovanni, 3. 

, Jacopo di Luca, 3, 272. 

, Jacopo. See Pontormo. 

, Lisabetta, 3, 273. 

, Marietta, 3. 

, Pagolo, 3, 273. 

, Ruggieri di Taddeo, 2, 3, 271, 272. 

, Ruggiero, 2, 271. 

, Taddeo di, 2, 272. 

Casa, arms of the della, 140. 

Casa Buonarotti, 201, 222. 

Cassel, 87, 196-197. 

Castellani Collection, 248. 

Castello, lost paintings in the villa of, 

63, 66-67, 68, 71, 73, 146, 262- 

263; date of, 67, 262; drawings 

for, 67-68, 262. 
Castiglione, Francesco da, 85, 133, 

134. 
Catalogue: Academy, Florence, 115, 

200. 

Attributed Pictures, 193-249. 

Authentic Pictures, 101-189. 

Avignon, 194. 

Berlin, 105, 212. 

Bonn, 105. 

r-Borghese Gallery, Rome, 179, 181, 
230, 231. 

Brett Collection, 242. 
Budapest Museum, 196. 

Butler Collection, 242. 

Cassel, 197. 

Castellani Collection, 248. 

Chantilly, 214. 

Citta di Castello, 95, 197. 

Clark Collection, 243. 

Codicum Latinorum, 148. 

Colonna Gallery, Rome, 145. 

Colworth Collection, 243. 

Cook Collection, 213, 218. 

Corsini Gallery, Florence, 129, 203. 

Crozat Collection, 229. 



D' Alton Collection, 212. 

Dawkins Collection, 244. 

De Beurnonville Collection, 241. 

DeH***, 88. 

Dellafaille Collection, 244. 

Dijon, 198. 

Doetsch Collection, 126, 128, 172, 

244. 

Dollfus Collection, 96. 

Erfurt, 199. 

Eszterhazy de Galantha Collection, 

245. 

Exposition "Starye Gody," 244. 

Ferdinand von Tirol Collection, 

261. 

Fischhof Collection, 101. 

Gabburri Collection, 127. 

Galleria d ' Arazzi, 185. 

Grafton Galleries, 23, 164, 165, 

166, 224. 

Guggenheim Collection, 245. 

Hague Portrait Exhibition, 198. 

Hamilton Collection, 159. 

Hampton Court, 145, 211, 212. 

Hermitage, 229. 

Inventaire des richesses d' art de 

la France, 217. 

Jarves Collection, 221, 222. 

Johnson Collection, 173, 227. 

Lamponi Collection, 141. 

Lanfranconi Collection, 246. 

Lanna Collection, 173. 

Lochis Collection, 194. 

Lost Pictures, 253-264. 

Louvre, 169, 170, 226. 

Madrid, 216. 

Mailand Collection, 153. 

Manoscritti Torrigiani, 28. 

Mond Collection, 156. 

Morelli Collection, 102, 173. 

Munich, Alte Pinakothek, 218. 

Musee de Province, 215. 

Museo Nazionale, Florence, 121. 



327 



INDEX 



Catalogue: Museo Nazionale, Naples, 
218, 219, 220. 

National Gallery, London, 159, 213, 

214. 

National Loan Exhibition, 166, 

224. 

Northbrook Collection, 214, 215. 

Oldenburg, 162. 

Palazzo Bianco, Genoa, 155. 

Palazzo Pitti, Florence, 132, 133, 

134, 136, 205. 

Rezzonico Collection, 248. 

Rome, 231. 

Sale and Loan Exhibitions, 241- 

249. 

Schevitch Collection, 248. 

Sedelmeyer Collection, 221, 246. 

Spitzer Collection, 173. 

Stadel Institute, Frankfort, 153- 

154. 

Stuttgart, 234. 

Turin, Regia Pinacoteca, 235, 236. 

Uffizi, Florence, 140, 141, 145, 152, 

206, 208, 209. 

Versailles, 169. 

Vienna, 188, 236, 237. 

Walters Collection, 194. 

Wanamaker Collection, 228. 

Widener Collection, 102. 

Willett Collection, 249. 

Ximenes d'Aragona Collection, 

247. 

Yerkes Collection, 189. 
Catasto, 3, 5, 57, 68, 80, 280, 282. 
"Cattura di Benjamin," tapestry, 70, 

187. 

"Cattura di Simeone, " tapestry, 70. 
Cavaliere Tommaso, 60. 
Ceccho fornaio, mentioned in Pon- 

tormo's diary, 297. 
CeUini, Benvenuto, 53, 68, 78, 173, 

297. 
Cenacolo di Foligno, Florence, 201. 



Cerbone Pucci Collection, 243. 

Certosa, near Florence, 21, 39-44, 45, 
46, 57, 73, 104, 107-114; "Agony 
in the Garden," 40, 107-108; 
"Christ before Pilate," 40, 107, 
108-109 ; ' ' Crucifixion, ' ' pro- 
jected for, 40; date of frescoes 
at, 39; "Deposition," projected 
for, 40; documents for frescoes 
at, 39, 44, 108; drawings for 
frescoes at, 39, 40, 42, 43, 110, 
112, 113; lost "Nativity" at, 41, 
257; lost "Portrait of a Lay 
Brother" at, 41, 257; mentioned 
in Pontormo 's diary, 304 ; ' ' Nail- 
ing to the Cross," projected for, 
40; "Pieta," 40, 111-112; Pon- 
tormo 's relations with monks of, 

39, 44, 277-279; "Risen Christ," 

40, 112-113; "Supper at Em- 
maus" for, 41, 42, 114-115, 277; 
Vasari mentions frescoes at, 39, 
40, 43, 44, 107, 108, 109, 110, 
111, 112, 113; "Way to Gol- 
gotha," 40, 109-110. 

Chantilly, 61, 154, 214. 

Chappel Studio. See Photographs. 

Charles I, Collection of, 236. 

Charles V, 9. 

Chennevieres, de, 228. 

Chiari, Alessandro, 119. 

Chiavacci, 132, 133, 134, 136, 205. 

Chiavistelli, Jacopo, 151. 

Chiazzella, Andrea, 80, 284. 

Chiesa delle Stigmate, Florence, 201- 

202. 
"Christ as Pilgrim," lost fresco of, 

17, 108, 109, 254. 
Christie's, 158, 241, 242, 243, 244, 

245, 249. 

Christina, Collection of Queen, 209. 
"Christ in Glory," drawing for, 75, 

76, 263. 



328 



INDEX 



Chronique des arts, 209. 

Cianfanini, Giovanni, 125. 

Ciangogni, 264. 

Cibo, Innocenzio, 261. 

Cicerone, 195, 208, 209. 

Cicognara, 173. 

Cigoli, 98. 

Cinelli, 17, 207, 254, 256. 

Citta di Castello, 95, 197, 260. 

Clapp, F. M., 64. 

, article on ' ' Portrait of Alessandro 
de' Medici," 64, 173. 

, Dessins, 8, 10, 11, 15, 16, 17, 20, 
21, 23, 24, 29, 30, 38, 39, 40, 42, 
44, 47, 54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 66, 
67, 69, 70, 76, 77, 81, 84, 85, 86, 
96, 97, 98, 104, 106, 107, 108, 
115, 116, 117, 119, 122, 123, 125, 
128, 132, 136, 139, 140, 145, 147, 
154, 159, 164, 165, 166, 169, 177, 
178, 179, 183, 187, 200, 208, 236, 
253, 255, 259, 262, 263, 264, 295. 

, On Certain Drawings, 16, 20, 41, 
62, 106, 115, 116, 117, 119, 122, 
125, 128, 136, 177, 264. 

See Photographs. 
Clark Collection, 243. 

Clement VII, Pope, 58, 61, 64, 175, 

281. 

Clouet, follower of, 196. 
Clough Collection, 260. 
Codice Araldieo, 1, 2, 272. 

Atlantico, 209. 

Colasanti, 16, 91, 268, 270, 295, 296. 
Colle, Vald'Elsa, 1. 
Cologne. See Dellafaille Collection. 
Colonna, Francesco, 175. 

Gallery, Rome, 145, 201, 237. 
, Vittoria, 201, 241. 
Colworth Collection, 151, 243. 
Comando Militare, 254. 
Commonwealth Inventory, 211. 
Como, 151. 



Compagnia del Broncone, 7, 13, 14, 
253-254. 

del Diamante, 7, 13, 14, 253. 

del Disegno, 79. 

della Cecilia, 17, 255. 

di Loreto, 1, 271. 
Company of San Luca, 57. 
Consorteria, 1, 3, 5, 271, 272. 
Constantine, Collection of Grand 

Duke, 243-244. 
Constantini Collection, 196. 
Conti, Cosimo, 71, 142, 151, 152, 184, 

185, 261. 
, G., 151. 
' ' Conversation, ' ' Mond Collection, 

156. 
Cook, 159. 

Collection, 212-213. 

"Coppa di Joseph," tapestry, 70, 187. 
"Coronation of the Virgin," Ridolfo 

Ghirlandaio, 12. 
Correggio, 236. 
Corsini Gallery, Florence, 52, 129, 

231. 
, Rome, 85, 182, 214 ; drawings in, 

17, 32, 33, 42, 43, 48, 112, 121, 

127, 132, 176, 255. 
Costa, 156. 
Council of Trent, 70. 
Cristofano dell' Altissimo. See Al- 

tissimo. 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 23, 81, 119, 

163, 164, 165, 166, 175, 181, 188, 

193, 195, 211, 214, 215, 216, 218, 

219, 224, 229, 231, 232, 234, 237- 

238, 268. 
Crozat, 144. 

Collection, 229. 
"Crucifixion," projected at Certosa, 

40, 111, 113. 

Cruttwell, 108, 119, 122, 129, 130, 
132, 133, 134, 136, 139, 140, 141, 



329 



INDEX 



152, 199, 200, 201, 203, 205, 206, 

208. 

Gust, Lionel, 196, 197. 
Cybo, Alberico, 171. 

D 

Daily Telegraph, 165. 

Dalkeith. See Lothian Collection. 

Daniello, mentioned in Pontormo's 

diary, 90, 92, 93, 283, 296, 297, 

298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304. 
Dante, Bronzino's lost portrait of, 

142. 

Davolo, Alfonso, 56, 60, 62, 259. 
Dawkins Collection, 205, 244. 
Dazzi, Andrea, 13, 253. 
''Dead Christ" (lost), 253. 
"Death of Abel," drawing for, 72. 
"Death of Adonis," Sebastiano del 

Piombo, 145. 
Delaborde, 61. 

Delizie degli eruditi toscani, 2, 125. 
Dellafaille Collection, 244. 
"Deluge," drawing copied from the 

San Lorenzo, 263. 
, drawings for the San Lorenzo, 

263. 
"Deposition," in Santa Felicita, 38, 

43, 45, 46, 47, 72, 120-122; date 

of, 121 ; drawings for, 48-49, 121 ; 

mentioned by Vasari, 120. 
, projected at the Certosa, 43, 111, 

113. 

Desborough, Collection of Lady, 162. 
Designs for tapestries, 70, 71, 183- 

187. 

Dessins. See Clapp. 
Deti, Giovambattista, 229. 
Diamante. See Cars. 
Diary of Pontormo, 90-94, 295-307. 
Dijon, 94, 95, 197-198. 
Dimier, 210. 



Dirksen Collection, 85, 103. 

Disegni delta Galleria degli Uffizi, 53, 
81, 121, 122, 168, 169, 176, 177, 
179, 258, 259, 262, 263, 264. 

Documents: for Albertinelli 's house, 
273; for Andrea's Scalzo 
frescoes, 17; for Borgherini 
panels, 158 ; for Bronzino 's 
birth, 21; for Capponi Chapel, 
120, 279; for Certosa frescoes, 
39, 44, 113, 276-279; for Chiaz- 
zella's house, 284; for "Coppa 
di Joseph," 186-187; for Del 
Gostra, 283-284; for "Deposi- 
tion," Santa Felicita, 121; for 
"Faith and Charity," 9, 116, 
275; for Feltrini, 9; for "Joseph 
and Potiphar's "Wife," 186; for 
"Joseph Discovering Himself to 
His Brethren," 164; for "Lam- 
entation of Jacob, ' ' 185 ; for lost 
Madonnas, 261, 286-287 ; for lost 
"Noli me tangere," 260; for 
"Pieta," Academy, 200; for 
Pontormo's ancestors, 271-273; 
for Pontormo's death, 284; for 
Pontormo's house, 280, 282; for 
Pontormo 's life annuity, 283 ; for 
Pontormo's matriculation in the 
Medici e Speziali, 279; for Pon- 
tormo's membership of the Ac- 
cademia del Disegno, 279; for 
Pontormo's property, 284; for 
Pontormo's relations with the 
Certosa, 44, 277-278; for Pon- 
tormo's relations with the Pu- 
pilli, 274; for "Portrait of Ales- 
sandro," 64, 173, 280-282; for 
"Portrait of Guidiccioni, " 259; 
for "Portrait of Guidobaldo 
della Rovere," 205; for "Supper 
at Emmaus, ' ' 41, 115 ; for tapes- 
tries, 184, 185, 186, 187; for 



330 



INDEX 



"Venus and Cupid," 63, 142, 
287; for "Visitation," Annun- 
ziata, 16, 119, 275-276; possibly 
for Granacci's "Joseph Led 
away to Prison," 208. 

Doetsch Collection, 19, 126, 128, 172, 
209, 244. 

Dollfus Collection, 96. 

Domenicho, 22. 

Domenico di Polo, 172, 173. 

Donatello, 148. 

Dossi, Dosso, 222. 

Drawing, by Michelangelo, 123. 

Drawings, copies: of "Battle of the 
Cascina," 18; of "Deluge," of 
San Lorenzo, 263 ; of Louvre 
"Madonna and Saints," 168; of 
"Venus and Cupid," 144. 

Drawings for: "Adoration of the 
Magi," 24, 135-136; "Annuncia- 
tion," Santa Felicita, 47, 48, 122 ; 
"Baker Led out to Execution," 
23, 165; "Benjamin at the Court 
of Pharaoh," 187; Carro della 
Zecca, 15, 137; Certosa, 42, 110, 
112, 113; "Concerto," projected 
for Poggio, 32, 35; "Cruci- 
> fixion," projected at Certosa, 
113; "Deposition," projected at 
the Certosa, 43, 113; "Deposi- 
tion," Santa Felicita, 48-49, 121; 
Diirer's altar-piece, Ober St. 
Veit, 53; "Faith and Charity," 
10, 11, 116; "Four Evangelists," 
Santa Felicita, 49, 123; frescoes 
at the Certosa, 42, 110, 112, 113 ; 
Granacci's "Joseph Led away to 
Prison," 208; "Holy Family," 
Visdomini, 20, 30, 127; "Joseph 
Discovering Himself to His 
Brethren," 23, 163, 164; "Jo- 
seph Sold to Potiphar," 23, 
119, 166; lost frescoes at San 



Lorenzo, 75, 76, 77, 185, 263; 
lost "Madonna and Child," 20; 
lost paintings at Careggi, 66, 
262; lost paintings at Castello, 
68, 262; lost "Pieta," 16; lost 
"Santa Cecilia," 17, 29, 30, 255; 
lost "Raising of Lazarus," 56, 
259; lunette at Poggio, 30-36, 
176; "Madonna and Saints," 
Ammnziata, 8, 117; "Madonna 
and Saints," Louvre, 52, 168; 
"Madonna Enthroned," Uffizi, 
20, 139; "Magdalen," 50; "Mars 
Hermaphrodite, ' ' Castello, 68 ; 
"Martyrdom of St. Maurice," 
54, 132, 140; Medici arms, 11; 
"Pieta," Certosa, 42; "Portrait 
of Young Cosimo," 147; pro- 
jected "Nailing to the Cross," 
Certosa, 40, 43, 113; Roman an- 
tiquities, 69, 181; "St. Jerome," 
53, 54; "St. John Evangelist," 
Pontormo, 24, 179; "St. Mi- 
chael," Pontormo, 24, 178; "St. 
Quentin," 44, 106; Santa Fe- 
licita, 43, 47, 49, 121, 122, 123; 
"Saturn," Castello, 68, 262; 
second series of frescoes, pro- 
jected at Poggio, 61, 62, 176; 
"Supper at Emmaus," 42, 43, 
114; "Three Graces," 61; "Visi- 
tation," Annunziata, 16, 119; 
' ' Visitation, ' ' Carmignano, 55, 
107; "Way to Golgotha," 42, 
110; woman, 54; "Young Bap- 
tist," 35, 137. 

Drawings possibly for: "Agony in 
the Garden," 42; "Birth-plate," 
Uffizi, 141; "God the Father and 
Patriarchs, ' ' Santa Felicita, 123 ; 
"Joseph in Egypt," 159; lost 
"Noli me tangere," 260; lost 
"Pomona," 258; lost "Portrait 



331 



INDEX 



of Francesco Guardi," 259; lu- 
nette at Poggio, 29 ; " Portrait of 
a Young Woman," Frankfort, 
153. 

Drax Collection, 245. 

Dresden, 8, 24, 56, 117, 135, 139. 

Dreyfus Collection, 148. 

Dudley House, 216. 

Duke of Altamira. See Altamira. 

Duppa, 144, 211. 

Duranty, 81. 

Durazzo Collection, 235. 

Durer, "Auferstehung," 113; "Bad- 
stube, ' ' 109 ; ' ' Beweinung 
Christi," 42, 111; "Christus am 
Kreuz," 111; "Christus am Oel- 
berg," 107; "Christus und die 
Jiinger von Emmaus," 41, 114; 
"Christus vor Hannas," 110; 
engravings, 38, 47; figures bor- 
rowed by Pontormo from, 40, 
107, 109, 110, 111, 113; "Grable- 
gung," 111; his influence on 
Pontormo, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 
45, 46, 47, 52, 55, 106, 107, 109, 
110, 111, 113, 114, 129, 168, 256, 
258; "Kleine Passion," 42, 46; 
' ' Kreuzabnahme, ' ' 43, 111 ; 
' ' Kreuzigung, " 110 ; " Kreuz- 
tragung," 110, 129; "Marias 
Erster Tempelgang," 109; 
"Marter des Evangelisten Jo- 
hannes," 109; "Nemesis," 55, 
106 ; Pietas, Munich and Nurem- 
berg, 112; "Sebastian," from 
the workshop of, 52, 168; "Vier 
Nackten Frauen," 55, 106. 

Dzikow. See Tarnowski Collection. 

E . 

Edelinck, 132. 

Ehrich Galleries, 87, 96. 

See Photographs. 



Eleonora da Toledo, 53, 93, 96, 97, 
235, 306. 

Empoli, 3, 4. 

, Collegiata of, 3, 4. 

, Jacopo da, 98, 108, 109, 112, 115, 
129, 203; influenced by Pon- 
tormo, 98. 

Emporium, 255. 

Engerand, 81, 170. 

Engerth, Erasmus, 188, 236, 237, 238. 

Englewood. See Platt Collection. 

"Entombment," window in Santa 
Felicita, 121. 

Erfurt, 144, 199. 

Espagnac, Collection d', 245. 

Eszterhazy de Galantha Collection, 
245. 

Etruria pittrice, 119. 

"Evangelists," Santa Felicita, 49, 
122-123 ; drawings for, 263 ; men- 
tioned by Vasari, 123. 

"Expulsion from Paradise," draw- 
ing for, 263. 



Fabre, 217. 

Fabriczy, 91, 122, 148, 173, 203, 205, 

207, 238, 295. 
Fagan, 144. 
"Faith and Charity," Annunziata, 

7-8, 10, 12, 25, 116; date of, 116; 

documents for, 116; mentioned 

by Vasari, 7; possible drawings 

for, 10, 116. 
"Fall of the Damned," drawing for, 

263. 

Fantozzi, 207. 

Farinola Collection, 6, 20, 128. 
Farnese, Alessandro, 65, 180, 258. 
"Fattore di San Marco," Panshanger, 

166. 
Febo, 60. 



332 



INDEX 



Feltrini, Andrea di Cosimo, 9, 12, 13, 

23, 28, 116, 175, 253, 255. 
Ferdinand von Tirol Collection, 151, 

237. 

Fesch Collection, 153, 213. 
Fiesole, lost fresco of "Santa Cecilia" 

in, 17, 255. 

Figana, Don Giovanni di, 261, 264. 
Figiovanni, 60, 260. 
Filhol, 170, 226. 
Firenze antica e moderna, 119. 
Firenzuola, Ser Carlo da, 126. 
Fischhof Collection, 101. 
Florence, Signoria of, 52. 
Follini, 122, 152. 
Fontainebleau, 209, 210. 
Fontana, Prospero, 238. 
Forni, Ulisse, 144. 
Fortezza da Basso, Florence, 173. 
Fossart Sale, 145. 
Fragonard, 31. 
Francesco da Toledo, 71. 
Francesco di Goro, 284. 
Franciabigio, 8, 9, 23, 24, 28, 29, 58, 

135, 157, 173, 175, 176, 209. 
Francillon Sale, 145. 
Francis I, 55, 56, 163, 259. 
Franco, Battista, 62, 173, 260. 
Frankfort. See Stadel Institute. 
Frantz Collection, 101. 
Frey, 60, 143, 153, 201, 260. 
Friedlander, J., 148, 149. 
Friedrich der "Weise, 53. 
Frizzoni, 102, 159, 172, 173, 181, 196, 

209, 213, 214, 231. 
Fucecchio, 210. 
Fuscellino, 299. 
Fry and Brockwell, 164, 165. 
Funeral banners for Ginori, 25, 255. 

G 

Gabburri, Cavaliere, 116, 127. 
Gaci, Cosimo, 80. 



Gaddi, mentioned in Pontormo's 
diary, 302. 

Galeotti, Pietro Paulo, 13, 253. 

Galerien Europas, 181. 

Galicia. See Tarnowski Collection. 

Gallerie Nazionali Italiane, 144. 

Galliera Collection, 154. 

Gamba, 62, 68, 143, 146, 147, 166, 
169, 218, 223, 224, 237, 260, 264; 
ascribes ' ' Fattore di San Marco ' ' 
to Puligo, 166; ascribes "Por- 
trait of a Youth," Panshanger, 
to Puligo, 224; believes a draw- 
ing in Louvre for "Visitation," 
in Annunziata, 119; believes 
"Portrait of a Lady," Pans- 
hanger, to be Puligo 's "Barbara 
Cortegiana," 224, 229; his ar- 
ticle on Carmignano "Visita- 
tion," 107; his opinion of draw- 
ing of "St. Michael," 25; his 
opinion of "Madonna and Little 
St. John," Uffizi, 146; his opin- 
ion of "Madonna and Saints," 
Louvre, 53, 168; his opinion of 
the "Venus and Cupid," Uffizi, 
143. 

See Disegni delle Gallerie degli 
Uffizi. 

Gamurrini, 254. 

Gaye, Giovanni, 53, 91, 185, 295. 

Gazette des beaux-arts, 81, 145, 217, 
228, 231. 

Geisenheimer, 71, 184, 185. 

Genoa, Durazzo Collection, 235; 
Palazzo Bianco, 21, 25, 83, 154; 
Palazzo Brignole-Sale, 210. 

Gesuati, Order of, 121. 

Gheri, Goro, 22, 150. 

Ghirlandaio, Domenico, 3, 5, 22, 87. 

,Ridolfo, 9, 11, 12, 124, 125, 231, 
258. 

Giglioli, O. H., 4, 178, 200, 205. 



333 



INDEX 



Ginori, banners for the funeral of 
Bartolomeo, 20, 25, 255. 

Collection, 233. 

, Portrait of Leonardo de ', 233. 
Giordani, Ser Giovanni Battista, 80, 

284. 

Giornale arcadico, 69, 259, 283. 
Giotto, 115. 

Giovanni delle Corniole, 169. 
Giovio, Paolo, 29, 151, 174. 
Girard, Joseph, 194. 
Giraudon. See Photographs. 
Giulio da Pistoia, 282. 
Giulio, mentioned in Pontormo's 

diary, 302, 304. 
Giulio Romano, 81, 231, 261. 
Giustiniani Gallery, 144. 
Glen, 245. 
"God the Father and Patriarchs" 

(lost), Santa Felicita, 123, 257. 
"God the Father" (lost), San 

Ruffillo, 8, 117, 254. 
"God the Father," Pope's Chapel, 

Santa Maria Novella, 8, 12, 124. 
Goethe, 148. 
Goldschmidt, 104, 107, 109, 122, 124, 

126, 132, 141, 168, 176, 183, 208, 

209, 217, 228, 263, 270. 
Gonfalone Bue, 2, 3, 272. 

Chiave, 3, 57. 

Nicchio, 3. 
Gonse, 217. 
Gooden and Fox, 242. 
Gori, Angelo, 151. 

Gostra, Bastiano del, 78, 264. 

Gowan's Art Books, 179. 

Grafton Galleries, 164, 166, 224. 

Graham Collection, 245. 

Granacci, Francesco, "Assumption 
of the Virgin," Academy, Flor- 
ence, 224; "Joseph Led away to 
Prison," 208; "Joseph Pre- 
senting Jacob to Pharaoh," 208; 



"Life of Joseph," Palazzo 
Giraud-Torlonia, Rome, 232 ; 
"Life of Joseph," Uffizi 95, 158, 
163-164; panels for Borgherini, 
22, 157 ; Pontormo 's influence on, 
95; "Portrait of a Woman," 
Panshanger, 229; work on tri- 
umphal arches, 14. 

Grassis, Paris de, 134. 

Graves, 159, 164, 165, 212, 243, 246, 
247, 248. 

Gray. See Photographs. 

Gronau, 81. 

Grotesques, Santa Maria Novella, 124. 

Gruyer, F.-A., 214, 268. 

Gualandi, 65, 170, 173, 280. 

Gualfonda, Florence, 5. 

Gualteretti, Portrait of Bartolommeo, 
82, 227. 

Gualtieri. See Walter of Brienne. 

Guardaroba, Florence, 63, 144, 152. 

Guardi, lost Portrait of Francesco, 
56, 259. 

Guasti, 258. 

Guedy, Theodore, 194. 

Guggenheim Collection, 245. 

Guicciardini, 7, 248. 

Guidiccioni, Giovanni, 69, 259. 

Guidobaldo della Rovere, 203. 

See Portraits. 

Guiffrey, Jean, 228. 

Guiness, 115, 229. 

H 

Hadrian VI, Pope, 29. 

Hague, The, 83. 

Hamburg Museum, 132, 140. 

Hampton Court, 210-212; copies of 
"Venus and Cupid," at, 144, 
211-212; "Madonna and Child," 
at, 210-211. 

Hanfstaengl. See Photographs. 



334 



INDEX 



H***, Collection de, 88. 

Hare, Leman, 213. 

Heidelberg, 64, 144, 171, 211. 

Heiss, A., 148, 205. 

"Hercules and Anteus," projected 
fresco at Poggio, 61, 176. 

Hermitage. See St. Petersburg. 

Hertz Collection, 229. 

Hervey, Mary F. S., 196, 197. 

Hildesheim, 144, 212. 

Hoefle. See Photographs. 

Hofstede de Groot, 198. 

Hogarth, 212. 

Holbein, 85. 

Holford Collection, 216. 

"Holy Family/' Budapest, 195-196. 

, Santa Maria Visdomini, 17, 18-20, 
22, 73, 97, 125-128; copy in 
Doetsch Collection of, 128, 244; 
date of, 20, 126 ; drawing for, 20, 
30, 127; mentioned by Vasari, 
126 ; painted for Francesco Pucci, 
126 ; Pontormo 's original of, 127 ; 
shows influence of Leonardo, 18- 
19, 146. 

Home Collection, 132. 

Hospital, lost fresco in the Women's, 
17, 254. 

' ' Hospital of San Matteo, ' ' Academy, 
Florence, 6, 115. 

Hospital of the Innocents, Florence, 
3, 4, 54, 92, 94. 

Houghton. See Photographs. 

Hutton, 165. 



Ince, near Liverpool, 216. 
Inghirami, 152. 
Ingres, 85. 

Inventories, copies of "Venus and 
Cupid" mentioned in, 144. 



Jackson, S., 242. 

Jacobsen, 128, 155, 158, 159, 169, 177, 
203, 235, 236. 

Jacone, 66, 67, 262. 

Jacopo di Sandro, 14. 

Jacopo da Empoli. See Empoli. 

Jacopo da Ponte. See Ponte. 

Jacquemart- Andre Collection, 87, 101, 
167, 224, 225-226. 

Jahrbuch der koniglich preussischen 
Kunstsammlungen, 59, 148, 197, 
205, 208, 209, 232. 

Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen 
Sammlungen des Allerhochten 
Kaiserhauses, 151, 172, 261. 

Jameson, 211. 

Jarves Collection, 132, 147, 220-222. 

Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur- 
Zeitung, 148. 

Johnson Collection, 64, 65, 82, 85, 96, 
170-173, 209, 227, 260. 

"Joseph and Potiphar's Wife," tap- 
estry, 70, 186 ; date of, 186 ; docu- 
ments for, 186 ; mentioned by 
Vasari, 186; woven by Karcher, 
186. 

"Joseph Discovering Himself to His 
Brethren," Panshanger, 23, 24, 
162-164; date of, 163, 164; draw- 
ings for, 23, 163, 164; painted 
for Borgherini, 163. 

"Joseph in Egypt," 21, 22, 156, 159, 
163; date of, 21, 159; drawing 
supposed for, 159; iconography 
of, 158; mentioned by Vasari, 
157, 159 ; painted for Borgherini, 
157 ; portrait of Bronzino in, 25, 
158; portraits in, 125; significa- 
tion of architecture in, 158. 
"Joseph Sold to Potiphar," Pans- 
hanger, 23, 165-166 ; date of, 166 ; 
drawings for, 23, 119, 166. 



335 



INDEX 



Joubert Sale, 145. 
Justi, 196-197, 204, 205. 



Kaiser-Friedrich Museum, 135, 148, 
149. 

Karcher, Nicholas, 71, 72, 184. 

Keir, Scotland. See Stirling Collec- 
tion. 

Kenner, 151, 172, 261. 

Kensington. See Photographs. 

Kent, 127. 

Keuller, 185. 

Klassischer Bilderschatz, 181. 

Knapp, 105, 268. 

Krafft, Albrecht, 188, 237. 

Kugler, 144, 212. 

Kunstblatt, 144, 212. 

Kunstgeschichte in Bildern, 181. 

Kunstkritische Studien, 209. 



Lafenestre, 51, 115, 117, 179, 181, 183, 
230, 231. 

"Lamentation of Jacob," tapestry, 
70, 183.-185; borrowed motives 
in, 72, 185; date of, 185; docu- 
ment for, 185; mentioned by 
Vasari, 184 ; woven by Host, 184. 

Lami, 122, 258. 

Lamponi Collection, 141. 

Landauer Collection, 234. 

Landon, 169, 170, 226. 

Landucci, 7, 28, 269. 

Lanfranconi Collection, 202, 246. 

Lanfredini, Arms of Bartolomeo, 21, 
254. 

, Lanfredino, 255. 

, letters written by a Bartolomeo, 
255. 

Lange-Tiibingen, 234. 

Lanini, Bernardino, 195. 



Lanna Collection, 172. 

Lanzi, 243, 264. 

Lapini, 78, 264. 

Lappoli, Giovann' Antonio, 25, 95, 
225, 303; paints portrait of An. 
tonio da Lucca, 225-226; Pon- 
tormo 's lost portrait of, 25, 
44, 255; "Visitation," Palazzo 
Spada, perhaps by, 232. 

Lasalle, Collection, 246. 

Lasinio, 209. 

Lateran, 122. 

Law, 144, 145, 211, 212. 

Le Brun Collection, 153. 

"Leda," Museo Correr, Venice, 236. 

Leicester Collection, 246. 

Lensi, 185, 206. 

Leo X, Pope, 175, 256, 258; commis- 
sions decorations at Poggio, 28, 
174; elevation of, 7, 9, 13, 268, 
269 ; his death, 29 ; his entry into 
Florence, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 134. 

Leonardo da Vinci, 90; "Battle of 
Anghiari," 53, 131, 132, 269; 
Bronzino copies a "Madonna" 
of, 53; cartoon of "Battle of 
Anghiari" studied by Pontormo, 
53; copies of his "Leda," 209; 
drawings compared with Pon- 
tormo 's, 33; influence on Pon- 
tormo, 6, 18, 20, 23, 26, 53, 128, 
131, 146, 168, 268-269; "Ma- 
donna and St. Anne," Louvre, 
168; "Mona Lisa," 87; Pon- 
tormo 's drawings compared with 
those of, 94; Pontormo 's por- 
traits compared with those of, 
85; portrait-drawing in Uffizi, 
once ascribed to, 86; "St. Je- 
rome," 53; sketches in London, 
Venice, and Windsor, 132 ; sketch 
f or a " Leda, " 209 ; study for the 



336 



INDEX 



"Leda," 209; visits to Florence, 
267, 268. 

Leslie Collection, 247. 

Libraries. See Biblioteca. 

Lichtenstein Collection, 209. 

"Life of Joseph," Andrea del Sarto, 
154. 

, Bacchiacca, 159. 

, Pontormo. See National Gallery ; 
Panshanger; Quirinal. 

Ligozzi, Jacopo, 223. 

Liphart, 244. 

Litta, 147, 152, 173. 

Loan Exhibitions, 81, 158, 163, 164, 
166, 211, 214, 224, 232, 243, 244, 
247, 248. 

Lochis. See Pinacoteca Lochis. 

Loeser Collection, 202. 

Lomazzo, 209, 238. 

London. See Cook Collection; Mond 
Collection ; National Gallery ; 
Northbrook Collection ; Plymouth 
Collection. 

Lorenzo di Credi, 125. 

Lost Pictures, Catalogue of, 253-264. 

Lothian Collection, 233. 

Louis XIV, Collection of, 83. 

Louvre, copy of "Joseph in Egypt," 
159; copy of "Visitation," An- 
nunziata, 119, 226; drawing by 
Andrea, 16; drawing by Michel- 
angelo, 134; drawings by Pon- 
tormo, 69; "Madonna and 
Saints," 51-53, 54, 55, 167-169; 
date of same, 51-52, 168; draw- 
ing for same, 52, 168-169; "Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine," Fra 
Bartolommeo, 118; "Portrait of 
a Man," Zacchia, 98; "Portrait 
of Precious-Stone Engraver," 83, 
105, 169-170; Rubens' drawing 
of "Battle of Anghiari," 132. 

Lb'wy. See Photographs. 



Lucarini, 146. 

Lucca, 56; "Portrait of a Youth" in, 

57, 84, 159-160. 
"Lucretia," Borghese, 85, 179; date 

of, 179. 
Lucretia, mentioned in Pontormo 's 

diary, 300. 
Lyons, Musee, 215. 

M 

Mclhlenny Collection, 227. 

Macquoid, 243. 

"Madonna": drawing for a, 20; for 
funeral banners of Ginori, 20, 
25, 255; (lost), found in Pon- 
tormo 's house after his death, 
262; (lost), given by Cosimo I 
to a Spaniard, 261; (lost), given 
to Rossino, 260; (lost), men- 
tioned in Inventory of Guarda- 
roba, 264; (lost), once owned 
by Alessandro d'Ottaviano de' 
Medici, 260; (lost), once owned 
by Carlo Panciatichi, 264; (lost), 
painted for Alessandro Neroni, 
256; (lost), painted for Capponi, 

128, 257; (lost), painted for 
certain Spaniards, 257. 

"Madonna and Little St. John," 
Corsini Gallery, No. 141, Flor- 
ence, 52, 129. 

, Corsini Gallery, No. 185, Florence, 

129, 130. 

, Farinola Collection, 20, 128, 146. 

, Uffizi, 53, 145-146 ; date of, 146. 

"Madonna and Saints," Citta di Cas- 
tello, 95. 

, Louvre, 52, 53, 54, 55, 167-169; 
date of, 51, 53, 168 ; drawing for, 
52, 168; meaning of medallion 
in, 51, 168 ; mentioned by Vasari, 
51, 168, 169. 



337 



INDEX 



"Madonna and Saints," San Luca 
Chapel, Annunziata, 6, 7, 8, 12, 
15, 117; date of, 117; drawings 
for, 8, 117; "God the Father," 
once part of, 254; mentioned by 
Vasari, 7, 117. 

"Madonna Enthroned," Uffizi, 20, 
139; date of, 20, 129; drawings 
for, 20, 139. 

Madrid, Prado, "Holy Family," as- 
cribed to Pontormo, 215-216; 
"Madonna," ascribed to Pon- 
tormo, 216. 

"Magdalen," drawing for a, 50. 

Mailand Collection, 153. 

Malespina, Giulia, 171, 281. 

, Ricciarda, 171. 

, Taddea, 64, 65, 171, 280-281. 

Mancciucca Collection, 283. 

Manchester, 163, 211, 222. 

Manni, 263. 

Manuscripts containing miniatures 
of Cosimo il Vecchio, 148. 

Manutius, 175. 

Marcantonio Raimondi, 38, 61. 

Marcellus II, Pope. See "Portrait 
of Spannocchi Cervini." 

Marchese, 268. 

Marchese del Vasto. See Davolo. 

Mareillac, Guglielmo da, 121. 

Maria Maddalena, Archduchess, 19, 
126. 

Maria, mentioned in Pontormo 's 
diary, 94, 300. 

Mariette, 127, 128. 

Marignolle, mentioned in Pontormo 's 
diary, 303. 

"Marriage of St. Catherine," Dres- 
den, 139. 

Martini, Luca, mentioned in Pon- 
tormo 's diary, 93, 297, 300, 304. 

"Martyrdom of St. Maurice," Pitti, 
53, 54, 55, 56, 72, 131-132, 208; 



copy in Jarves Collection, 132, 
221; date of, 54, 132; drawing 
for, 132; drawing for a variant 
of, 54, 140; influenced by Leon- 
ardo, 53, 269; influenced by 
Michelangelo, 53, 55; mentioned 
by Vasari, 54, 131; painted for 
the women of the Innocents, 
131; variant in the Uffizi, 131. 

, Uffizi, 54, 55, 132, 139-140, 141; 
mentioned by Vasari, 54, 140; 
painted for Carlo Neroni, 140, 
141, 259; variant in the Pitti, 
54-55, 140. 

"Martyrdom of San Lorenzo," lost 
drawing for, 263. 

"Martyrdom of the Theban Legion." 
See Martyrdom of St. Maurice. 

Masaccio, 77, 270. 

Mason Perkins, 199, 223. 

Mechel, 237. 

Medals of Alessandro de ' Medici, 172, 
173. 

of Cosimo il Vecchio, 147, 148, 149. 

Medici, 29, 37, 56, 137, 162, 214; 
account-books of, 78; chapel in 
San Lorenzo, 78. 

, Alessandro de', 51, 52, 58, 64, 65, 
66, 172, 173, 258, 262, 280-282; 
portraits of, 64, 65, 68, 82, 85, 96, 
170-173, 203, 258, 260, 280-282. 

, Alessandro d'Ottaviano de', 150, 
260, 261. 

, Cosimo I de', 13, 52, 58, 66, 67, 
74, 146, 147, 170, 220, 255, 261, 
280; Bronzino's portrait of, 96; 
Bronzino's portrait of the chil- 
dren of, 96; fosters tapestry 
weaving in Florence, 70, 71; 
Jarves copy of Pontormo 's por- 
trait of, 147; letter to Bronzino, 
91; mentioned in Pontormo 's 
diary, 93, 297, 306; orders San 



338 



INDEX 



Lorenzo frescoes, 78 ; Pontormo 's , 
portraits of, 146. 

Medici, Cosimo il Vecchio de', 147, ] 
149, 205-206, 260 ; cameo-portrait : 
of, 150; Colworth portrait of, 
243; medals of, 147-148, 149; 
miniatures of, 149 ; Pontormo 's 
portrait of, 25, 82, 83, 147-152; 
portrait-relief by Del Tadda of, 
150; portraits of, 149-151, 152; 
terra-cotta portrait-relief of, 150. 

, Ferdinando I de', 64, 170. 

, Francesco de', 157, 163, 233, 280. 

, Giuliano de', 7, 13, 159, 253. 

, Giulio d'Alessandro de', 170, 171, 
281. 

, Giulio de' (Clement VII), 28, 58, 
61, 64, 65, 171, 174. 

, Ippolito de', 51, 52, 204; Bron- 
zino's "Guidobaldo della Ro- 
vere" confused with Pontormo 's 
portrait of, 203 ; lost portrait of, 
247, 258; Titian's portrait of, 
204. 

, Leopoldo de', 295. 

, Lorenzino de', 13, 22, 28, 148, 150, 
253. 

;0ttaviano de', 28, 58, 145, 171, 
175, 261. 

, Pierode', 149. 

, Tanay de', 185. 

, Tommaso de', 281. 

Medici, Uld., 129, 203. 

Medici e Speziali, 57, 284. 

Meini, Vincenzo, 119. 

Mendoza, Don Diego de, 145. 

Methuen Collection, 81, 247. 

Meyer, Heinrich, 148. 

Michelangelo Buonarotti, 90, 210; 
''Battle of the Cascina," 18, 23, 
38, 246; cartoon for lost "Noli 
me tangere," 60, 62, 259; car- 
toon for "Venus and Cupid," 



62, 142 ; drawings by, 36, 60, 69, 
122, 123, 144, 153, 179, 270; 
"Entombment," 213; "Holy 
Family," 72, 129; influence on: 
Bronzino, 97; Florentine School, 
37, 94; Pontormo, 12, 18, 26, 31, 
32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42, 52, 53-54, 
55, 59, 60, 61, 62, 68, 69, 70, 72, 
73, 74, 77, 78, 88, 131; "Leda," 
236; Naldini's drawings con- 
fused with those of, 97 ; personal 
contact with Pontormo, 60, 142; 
' ' Phgethon, " 60 ; Pontormo 's 
drawings compared with those 
of, 94 ; praises ' ' Faith and Char- 
ity," 116; San Lorenzo Tombs, 
60, 61, 68 ; selects Pontormo to 
paint "Noli me tangere," 259- 
260; selects Pontormo to paint 
"Venus and Cupid," 62; Sixtine 
ceiling, 33, 35, 36, 42, 69; "Tity- 
rus," 60; "Venus and Cupid," 
once ascribed to, 211. 

Michelozzo, 148. 

Migliore, Filippo del, 48, 116, 117, 
119, 122, 126, 128, 258, 264. 

Milan. See Trivulzio Collection. 

Milanesi, 104, 143, 144, 184, 261; 
ascribes "Assumption," Annun- 
ziata, to Pontormo, 119, 200; 
believes Capponi ' ' Deposition ' ' 
has been cleaned, 121; confuses 
Granacci's "Life of Joseph" 
with Pontormo 's, 163; copies of 
"Venus and Cupid" mentioned 
by, 144; identifies Chiazzella 
with Sguazzella, 80; mentions 
stained glass window, Capponi 
Chapel, 121; on Borgherini 
panels, 157, 163; on Bronzino 's 
copy of a "Madonna" by Leon- 
ardo, 53; on Carro della Zecca, 
14, 138; on contest for Pon- 



339 



INDEX 



tormo's property, 80; on date of 
"Supper at Emmaus," 41; on 
' ' Holy Family, ' ' Visdomini, 126 ; 
on inscription in San Lorenzo, 
4; on lost ' ' Sant ' Agostino, " 
256 ; on ' ' Madonna and Saints, ' ' 
Louvre, 51, 168; on "Pieta," 
Academy, 199; on Pontormo's 
journey to Rome, 69; on "Por- 
trait of Guidiccioni, " 259; on 
supposed portrait of Ippolito, in 
Pitti, 204; on "Venus and 
Cupid," 63, 145; on "Visita- 
tion," Annunziata, 16. 

Milizia, II, 264. 

Mini, Antonio, 69. 

Mireur, 145, 241, 245, 246, 248. 

Moise, F., 151, 280. 

Molini, 152, 208, 209. 

Monaco, 218. 

"Mona Lisa," Pontormo's portraits 
compared with, 87. 

Monatshefte fur Kunstwissenschaft, 
134, 201, 218. 

Mond Collection, 156. 

Montanti Chapel, Annunziata, 81. 

Montault, Barbier de, 231. 

Monte Cimino, 65. 

Monte di Pieta, 141; mentioned in 
Pontormo's diary, 302. 

Monte Imperiale, villa of, 59. 

Montelupo, 3. 

, Baccio da, 14, 254. 

Montemurlo, battle of, 66, 98, 261. 

Monte Oliveto, mentioned in Pon- 
tormo's diary, 93, 300. 

Monte Pilli, 1, 2, 271. 

Montorsoli, 79. 

Montpellier, Musee, 216-217. 

Monzies, 153. 

Morelli, 102, 122, 128, 134, 179, 180, 
181, 183, 206, 216, 218 ; ascribes : 
"Holy Family," Vienna, to 



Bugiardini, 236; "Lucretia," 
Borghese, to Bronzino, 179; at- 
tributes to Pontormo: Munich 
"Madonna and Child," 217; 
"Portrait of Cardinal Span- 
nocchi Cervini," 86, 180; "Por- 
trait of Cesare Borgia," 231; 
"Portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio," 
Palazzo Vecchio, 205. 

Collection. See Bergamo. 
Moreni, Domenico, 4, 74, 75, 79, 80, 

108, 113, 119, 134, 257, 262, 263, 
264, 287. 

Moriana, family of the della, 3, 273. 

Moro, Antonio, 87, 196. 

Moscioni. See Photographs. 

"Moses Receiving the Tables of the 
Law," 75, 76, 263. 

Muller-Walde, 209. 

Munich, 112; copy of a lost "Ma- 
donna" at, 217-218, 223. 

See Rohrer Collection. 

Miintz, 81, 132, 134, 141, 148, 149, 
151, 159, 169, 170, 181, 185, 208, 
209, 213. 

Murray, C. Fairfax, 214. 

Musee Calvet, Avignon, 194. 

Museo Nazionale. See Bargello. 

Museum Mazzuchelli, 148. 

Muziano, 201. 

N 

"Nailing to Cross," projected at 
Certosa, 43, 113. 

Naldini, Battista : draughtsmanship, 
23, 97; drawings confused with 
Andrea's, 97; with Michelan- 
gelo's, 97; with Pontormo's, 97; 
helps Vasari, 97; imitates Pon- 
tormo, 97, 98; life with Pon- 
tormo, 92; "Madonna," in Bos- 
ton, 195; mentioned in Pontor- 






340 



INDEX 



mo's diary, 298, 299, 300, 301, 
303 ; pupil of Pontormo, 97. 

Naples, Museo Nazionale, "A Cardi- 
nal," 218; copies of ''Venus and 
Cupid," 143, 144, 219, 220; 
copy of Raphael's "Portrait of 
Leo X," 261; "Madonna and 
Angels," 219; "Portrait of a 
Woman," 219; "Portrait of 
Two Architects," 219; "Tibal- 
deo," 237. 

Napoleon, 168. 

Nardi, Jacopo, 7, 13, 66, 253. 

National Gallery, London, 83, 213- 
214; Bacchiacca's "Life of Jo- 
seph," 159; "Joseph in Egypt," 
21, 156-159; Michelangelo's "En- 
tombment," 213; "Portrait of 
a Boy," 213; "Portrait of a 
Cardinal," 214; "Portrait of a 
Man, "214. 

"Nativity" (lost), painted for Cer- 
tosa, 41, 113, 257. 

Necrologia della Grascia, 3. 

Neoustroieff, 201. 

Nerli, 28, 45. 

Neroni, Alessandro, 256. 

, Carlo, 54, 131, 259. 

Nesius, lohann, 149. 

Nesselrode Collection, 172. 

New Haven. See Jarves Collection. 

New Jersey. See Platt Collection, 
Englewood. 

New York, 151, 222, 223, 231. 

Niccolini Chapel, San Proculo, Flor- 
ence, 207. 

Niceolo da Magna. See Schomberg. 

Nichols Collection, 247. 

Nicolaus Florentinus, 148, 149. 

Nicolle, 228. 

"Noli me tangere" (lost), for Ales- 
sandro Vitelli, 62, 260. 

(lost) for Davolo, 56, 60, 259-260; 



copies of, 260; date of, 260; 
documents for, 260; Michel- 
angelo's cartoon for, 62, 259. 

See Michelangelo. 

Notai Nobili, de, 3. 

Northbrook Collection, 196, 211, 214- 
215. 

Northumberland Collection, 193, 247. 

"Nudes Playing at Calcio, " pro- 
jected for Poggio, 61, 62, 173, 
176. 

Nuremberg, 112. 

O 

Ober St. Veit, near Vienna, 53, 168. 
Oldenburg, 86, 161-162, 235. 
On Certain Drawings. See Clapp. 
Onken. See Photographs. 
Oppler Collection, 209. 
Orlandini Collection, 149. 
Orleans, Collection d', 172, 209. 
Osservanti, Borgo San Sepolcro, 21, 

105, 106. 
Ottaviano, mentioned in Pontormo 's 

diary, 94, 296, 300, 301, 302, 303, 

304. 

Ovid, 29, 175. 

Oxford, Christ Church, 121. 
, University Galleries, 132. 
, Watney Collection, 223. 



Paggi, 151. 

Paghanelli, Antonio, 47, 120. 

, Bernardo, 47, 120. 

Pagni, Cristiano, 71, 184. 

Pagolo, il Rosso, mentioned in Pon- 

tormo's diary, 300. 
Palazzo Albani, Urbino, 205. 

Barberini, Rome, 144, 182-183. 

Bianco, Genoa, 21, 25, 83, 96, 154- 

155. 

Capponi delle Rovinate, 121. 



341 



INDEX 



Palazzo Capponi, Farinola Collection, 
128. 

Corsini, Florence, 129-130, 202- 

203, 246. 

Corsini, Rome, 17, 32, 33, 42, 43, 

48, 85, 112, 121, 127, 132, 176, 
182, 214, 255. 

Davanzati, Florence, 57, 130, 242. 

del Podesta, Florence, 14. 

del Quirinale. See Quirinal. 

Farnese, Rome, 219, 220. 

Giraud-Torlonia, Rome, 231-232. 

Pazzi, Florence, 65, 171. 

Pitti, 22, 23, 25, 53, 59, 81, 95, 97, 

132-136, 180, 207; "Adoration 
of the Magi," 23-24, 135-136; 
Andrea's ' ' Madonna and 
Saints," 255; "Martyrdom of 
St. Maurice," 53, 54, 55, 56, 72, 
131-132, 208; "Portrait of a 
Man," 85, 133-134; "Portrait of 
Cosimo I," ascribed to Bron- 
zino, 221; "Portrait of Guido- 
baldo della Rovere," 203-205, 
258; Rosso 's altar-piece, 94; "St. 
Anthony," 132-133; "The Three 
Fates," Rosso, 203; "Tobias and 
Angel," 232. 

Ricasoli, Florence, 166. 

Rospigliosi, Rome, 233. 

Spada, Rome, 232-233. 

Strozzi, Florence, 202. 

Torrigiani, Florence, 258. 

Vecchio, Florence, 95, 232 ; Camera 

di Cosimo il Vecchio, 151; Cap- 
pella della Signoria, 124, 125; 
Carro della Zecca, 14, 136-139; 
Chapel of Eleonora, 97; Chapel 
of Leo X, 151, 205-206, 221; 
"Portrait of Cosimo I," 206; 
' ' Portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio, ' ' 
205-206; Quartiere di Leone X, 
261; Sala de' Dugento, 70, 71, 



184; Sala di Clemente VII, 172; 
Sala di Cosimo I, 146; Salotto 
della Duchessa, 142 ; Ufficio delle 
BeUe Arti, 41, 108, 109, 112, 115, 
136-139, 206; Vasari's frescoes, 
97, 133, 261. 

Palermo, Museo Nazionale, 223. 

Palla, Giovambattista della, 22, 55- 
56, 163, 258, 259. 

"Pallas Tuning Her Instrument," 
14. 

Panciatichi, Bartolomeo, 257; Bron- 
zino's portrait of, 85. 

, Carlo, 257. 

Panshanger, Collection of Lady Des- 
borough, 21, 24, 223-224; "Baker 
Led out to Execution," 23, 164- 
165; "Fattore di San Marco," 
166; "Joseph Discovering Him- 
self to His Brethren," 23, 162- 
164; "Joseph Sold to Potiphar," 
23, 119, 165-166; "Portrait of a 
Lady," 224, 229; "Portrait of a 
Youth," 223, 224. 

Paolino da Pistoia, Fra, 268. 

Paris. See Jacquemart-Andre Col- 
lection; Louvre. 

Parma, Palazzo del Giardino, 219, 
220. 

Parsons, 244. 

Pasquale di Zenobi, 4. 

Passavant, 81, 181, 217. 

Passerini, 51, 169, 204. 

Pastermo, 69, 259, 283. 

Pelagi, G., 254. 

Perazzi. See Photographs. 

Perfetti, Antonio, 152. 

Perkins. See Mason Perkins. 

Perugino, 210, 238. 

Pesaro, 59. 

Petit, Georges, 248. 

Petrarca, mentioned in Pontormo's 
diary, 304. 



342 



INDEX 



Petrarch, 1, 142. 

Philadelphia. See Johnson Collec- 
tion ; Mclhlenny Collection ; 
Wanamaker Collection; "Widener 
Collection. 

Phillips, Sir Claude, 23, 164, 165. 

Philpots. See Photographs. 

Photographs. Alinari, 95, 107, 115, 
116, 119, 122, 127, 128, 130, 132, 
133, 134, 136, 145, 146, 147, 150, 
151, 152, 160, 172, 176, 177, 181, 
200, 201, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207, 
210, 228, 236, 237, 261, 263. 

Anderson, 152, 161, 181, 219, 229, 

231, 232, 233, 255. 

Braun, 119, 127, 132, 136, 145, 153, 

166, 168, 169, 170, 181, 200, 205, 
206, 208, 213, 216, 224, 226, 229, 
237, 263. 

Brogi, 129, 132, 133, 134, 136, 141, 

145, 152, 155, 179, 201, 205, 206, 
208, 209, 219, 220, 235, 237, 238. 

Bruckmann, 153, 188, 198, 213, 

218, 236. 

Bulloz, 167, 226. 

Chappel Studio, 227. 

Clapp, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 
-, 112, 113, 114, 117, 119, 121, 122, 

123, 127, 132, 136, 137, 138, 139, 
140, 141, 155, 164, 166, 168, 176, 
177, 178, 179, 183, 187, 206, 208, 
255, 258, 259, 262, 263. 

Ehrich Galleries, 222. 

Giraudon, 119. 

Gray, 213, 224. 

Hanfstaengl, 115, 117, 159, 196, 

197. 

Hoefle, 234. 

Houghton, 106, 113, 119, 121, 123, 

127, 136, 165, 176, 177, 178, 259, 
263. 

Istituto d'Arti Grafiche, 102. 

Kensington, 123. 



Lowy, 237. 

Moscioni, 179, 182, 230, 231. 

Onken, 162. 

Perazzi, 124, 146, 147, 178, 179. 

Philpots, 107. 

Pini, 122, 127, 168, 176, 178, 262, 

263. 

Randall, 221, 222. 

Reali, 81, 107, 115, 193, 223. 

Taramelli, 102. 

University Prints, 152. 
Piazza dell' Olio, Florence, 7. 
Pichi, Giovamnaria, 21, 44, 95, 105, 

225. 

Pieraccini, 115, 200. 
Pier di Cosimo, 6, 14, 22, 26, 83, 232, 

267, 269. 

Pierfrancesco di Jacopo, 66, 232, 262. 
Pierin del Vaga, 181. 
Piero, mentioned in Pontormo's 

diary, 93, 297, 298, 300, 301, 302, 

303, 304. 

Pieroni, Alessandro, 150. 
"Pieta," Academy, Florence, as- 
cribed to Pontormo, 199-200. 
, Certosa, Florence, 111-112 ; date 

of, 112; drawings for, 42, 112; 

mentioned by Vasari, 111. 
, drawing for a lost, 16, 29. 

for merchants of Ragusa (lost), 

256. 

for the monks of San Gallo (lost), 

16-17, 256. 

Pietro, Filippo di, 177.' 
Pinacoteca Lochis, 194. 
Pinadori, family of the, 55, 106. 
Pini. See Photographs. 
Piombo, Sebastiano del, 81, 145, 153, 

201, 234. 
Pippo Spano, frescoes of the life of, 

66. 

Pisa, 56, 66, 93. 
Pitti, Andrea, 55. 



343 



INDEX 



Pitti, Buonaccorso, 168. 

See Palazzo Pitti. 
Platt Collection, 198-199. 
Plymouth, Collection of the Earl of, 

215. 

Poccetti, Bernardino, 151. 
Poggiali, Gaetano, 295. 
Poggio a Cajano, frescoes projected 

for, 34, 58-59, 61, 62, 64, 89, 175- 

176, 237. 

, lunette in the villa of, 27, 28-36, 
37, 38, 41, 45, 59, 61, 73, 94, 173- 

177, 228 ; date of, 176 ; drawings 
for, 30-36, 43, 176 ; mentioned by 
Vasari, 28, 29, 177. 

Polydorus, 181. 

"Pomona" (lost), for Filippo del 
Migliore, 48, 258; possible draw- 
ing for, 48, 258. 

"Pomona and Vertumnus." See 
Poggio a Cajano (lunette). 

Ponte alia Carraia, 21. 

Santa Trinita, 21. 
Ponte, Jacopo da, 170. 
Pontormo, Jacopo da: "Adoration 

of the Magi," 72, 81, 135-136, 
185 ; age, 4, 80 ; " Annunciation, ' ' 
Capponi Chapel, 46, 122; ap- 
prenticeship, 5, 6, 8, 267-270; 
"Arms of Leo X," 10, 11; 
"Arms of the Lanfredini," 21, 
254-255 ; "Baker Led out to Exe- 
cution," 23, 164-165; birth, 4; 
' ' Birth-plate, ' ' Palazzo Davan- 
zati, 130; "Birth-plate," Uffizi, 
140-141; Carro della Zecca, 14, 
136-139 ; Certosa frescoes, 39, 41, 
44, 46, 98, 107-114; character, 
6, 38, 89, 91; childhood, 4, 6; 
contribution to portraiture, 87; 
death, 4, 79; decorations of the 
Capponi Chapel, 46, 47, 48, 49, 
120-123; decorative gift, 26; 



' ' Deposition, ' ' Capponi Chapel, 

45, 72, 120-122; designs for tap- 
estries, 71, 183-187; diary, 40, 
91, 92, 268, 295-318; dislike of 
collaborators, 44, 67; drawings, 
23, 33, 34, 61, 63, 81, 85, 97, 169, 
295 ; enrolled in the Company of 
San Luca, 57, 279; enrolled in 
the Medici e Speziali, 57, 279; 
"Evangelists," Santa Felicita, 

46, 122-123; "Faith and Char- 
ity," Annunziata, 10, 116, 269; 
family, 1-2, 267; "Fattore di 
San Marco," 166; food, 93; 
forerunner of the Seicento, 50; 
friends, 93; funeral, 79; German 
manner, 39, 104; "God the 
Father," Santa Maria Novella, 
124, 270; "Holy Family," San 
Michele Visdomini, 17, 18-20, 22, 
73, 97, 125-128; "Hospital of 
San Matteo," 6, 115; house, 57, 
68, 90; illnesses, 93; imitators 
of, 94, 95 ; influence : on Andrea, 
95; on Andrea Boscoli, 98; on 
art, 94; on Bacchiaeca, 95; on 
Bronzino, 96, 97; on Bugiardini, 
95 ; on Cigoli, 98 ; on Empoli, 98 ; 
on Granacci, 95; on Naldini, 97- 
98; on portraiture, 87, 88; on 
Rosso, 94; on Stradano, 98; on 
Vasari, 95, 205; on Zacchia, 98; 
influenced : by Albertinelli, 8, 11, 
12, 15, 26, 268 ; by Andrea, 8, 11, 
15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 
26, 37, 77, 94-95, 118, 169; by 
Diirer, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 
46, 47, 52, 55, 106, 107, 109, 110, 
111, 113, 114, 129, 168, 258; by 
Fra Bartolommeo, 8, 53, 168; 
by Leonardo, 18, 19, 20, 23, 26, 
53, 128, 168, 268-269 ; by Michel- 
angelo, 12, 18, 26, 31, 32, 35, 36, 



344 



INDEX 



37, 38, 42, 52, 53-54, 55, 59, 60, 
61, 62, 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 77, 
78, 131; by Pier di Cosimo, 26, 
83; "Joseph Discovering Him- 
self to His Brethren," 23, 24, 
162-164; "Joseph in Egypt," 21, 
22, 166-169; "Joseph Sold to 
Potiphar," 23, 165-166; journey 
to Rome, 69, 181; letter to 
Varchi, 89, 285-286; lost "An- 
nunciation," 267; lost frescoes 
at Careggi, 65-66, 67, 263; lost 
frescoes at Castello, 67-68, 262- 
263; lost frescoes in San Lo- 
renzo, 70, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 
86, 90, 94, 95, 263-264, 295, 296, 
297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 
304, 306; lost "God the Father," 
San Ruffillo, 117; lost "God the 
Father," Santa Felicita, 46, 123; 
lost "Nativity," 113; lost "Noli 
me tangere," 56, 60, 259-260; 
lost "predella" for "San Gallo 
Annunciation," 270; lost "Rais- 
ing of Lazarus," 55, 56, 258-259; 
"Lucretia," Borghese, 85, 179; 
"Madonna and Saints," Louvre, 
51, 53, 55, 167-169; "Madonna 
and Saints," San Luca, Annun- 
ziata, 117, 268, 270; "Madonna 
Enthroned," Uffizi, 20, 139; 
"Madonna," Farinola Collection, 
20, 128, 146; "Madonna," Pal- 
azzo Corsini, Florence, 129-130, 
145-146; manner of life, 57, 73, 
90, 92, 93, 94; "Martyrdom of 
St. Maurice," 53, 55, 131-132, 
139-140, 269 ; opinions on art, 37, 
43, 59, 77, 89, 90, 285-286; por- 
traits, 25, 41, 44, 57, 64, 68, 69, 
80-81, 82-88, 94, 96, 101, 102, 
103, 104-105, 107, 113, 133-134, 
141, 146-155, 159-162, 167, 169- 



173, 180-181, 182, 188-189, 198, 
205, 229-230; property, 80; 
pupils, 94-95, 225; "Pygmalion 
and Galatea," 56, 182-183; re- 
lations: with Andrea, 269; with 
Certosa, 39, 40, 44 ; with Hospital 
of Innocents, 72; with Michel- 
angelo, 259-260; with Naldini, 
92; with Vasari, 95, 171; "St. 
Anthony," Pitti, 132-133; "St. 
John Evangelist," Pontormo, 24, 
178-179; "St. Michael," Pon- 
tormo, 24, 177-178; "St. Quen- 
tin," 22, 44, 105, 106, 109; 
"Santa Veronica," 6, 12, 123- 
125, 270; sonnets on his death, 
80, 287-293; studies "Battle of 
the Cascina," 18, 23; studies 
Masaccio, 270; studies Pier di 
Cosimo, 269 ; studies Sixtine ceil- 
ing, 35-36; "Supper at Em- 
maus," 41, 98, 114-115; tribute 
to Michelangelo, 286; under- 
standing of Michelangelo's art, 
34, 62, 73; "Venus and Cupid," 
142-145, 286; "Visitation," An- 
nunziata, 15-16, 117-119; "Visi- 
tation," Carmignano, 55, 106- 
107; way-side shrine, Boldrone, 
45, 103-104 ; work at Poggio, 28, 
31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 45, 
58, 173-177; work on cars of 
Broncone, 13, 253-254; work on 
cars of Diamante, 13, 253 ; works 
found in his house at his death, 
80. 

Pontormo, memorial tablet to, 80. 

, portraits of, 81, 247, 248. 

, village of, 3, 6, 11, 177. 

Pope's Chapel. See Santa Maria 
Novella. 

Porcacchi, Tommaso, 290. 

Porta a Faenza, Florence, 10, 116. 



345 



INDEX 



Porta, Fra Bartolommeo della, 6, 8, 

53, 98, 118, 168, 268. 
Porta Prato, Florence, 302. 

Romana, Florence, 107. 

San Frediano, Florence, 51, 168. 

San Gallo, Florence, 16, 256. 
Portrait-drawings, 25-26, 49, 82, 84, 

85, 86, 96, 154. 

Portraits : of a boy, National Gallery, 
ascribed to Pontormo, 213; of 
a boy, Trivulzio Collection, 84, 
160-161; of a lady, Jacquemart- 
Andre Collection, 87, 101, 167; 
of a lady, Oldenburg, 86, 161- 
162; of a lady, Tamowski Col- 
lection, ascribed to Pontormo, 
198; of a lady, Turin, ascribed 
to Pontormo, 235; of a lay 
brother (lost), 113, 257; of 
Alessandro de' Medici, 64, 65, 
68, 82, 85, 96, 170-173, 203, 258, 
260, 280-282; of a man, Palazzo 
Corsini, Rome, 85, 182; of a 
man, Pitti, 133-134; of a man, 
Platt Collection, ascribed to 
Pontormo, 199; of a man, Uffizi, 
57, 84, 141, 259; of Amerigo 
Antinori (lost), 64, 260; of an 
engraver of precious stones, 
Louvre, 82, 105, 169-170; of 
Anna Strozzi, by Bronzino, 96; 
of an old lady, Vienna, 87, 107, 
188; of Ardinghelli (lost), 258; 
of a woman, Panshanger, by 
Granacci, 229; of a young 
woman, Dirksen Collection, 85, 
103; of a young woman, Stadel 
Institute, 85, 103, 152-154; of a 
young woman, Widener Collec- 
tion, 86, 101 ; of a young woman, 
Yerkes Collection, 86, 96, 188- 
189; of a youth, Bergamo, 57, 
84, 102; of a youth, Bonn, 83, 



104-105 ; of a youth, Jacquemart- 
Andre Collection, ascribed to 
Pontormo, 225-226; of a youth, 
Lucca, 57, 84, 159-160; of a 
youth, Palazzo Bianco, Genoa, 
21, 25, 83, 96, 154-155; of Bar- 
bara Cortegiana, St. Petersburg, 
ascribed to Pontormo, 224, 229; 
of Bartolomeo Compagni, 86, 
155; of Becuccio Biccheraio's 
son-in-law (lost), 25, 255; of 
Capponi's daughter (lost), 50, 
257; of Cardinal Spannocchi 
Cervini, 69, 86, 180-181; of Carlo 
Neroni (lost), 259; of Cosimo I, 
68, 180, 220-221; of Cosimo il 
Vecchio, 21-22, 25, 82, 83, 147- 
152, 173, 205; of Francesco 
Guardi (lost), 259; of Giulio de' 
Medici (lost), 261; of Gualte- 
retti ascribed to Pontormo, 227; 
of Guidiccioni (lost), 259; of 
Guidobaldo della Rovere, by 
Bronzino, 203-205; of Ippolito 
de' Medici (lost), 258; of Lap- 
poli (lost), 255; of Maria Sal- 
viati (lost), 68, 261; of the Fat- 
tore di San Marco, Panshanger, 
166; of Vittoria Colonna as- 
cribed to Pontormo, 201; of 
Young Cosimo I, 146-147. 

Pourtales Collection, 153. 

Poynter, 159, 213, 214. 

Pozzo, Cassiano del, 209. 

Prato Ognissanti, mentioned in Pon- 
tormo 's diary, 303. 

' ' Presentation in the Temple, ' ' Dijon, 
95. 

Priorista di Monaldi, 1, 2, 130, 271. 

Provinzial Museum. See Bonn. 

Public Guardians. See Pupilli. 

Pucci, Antonio, 28. 

Pucci family, 126. 



346 



INDEX 



Pucci, Francesco, 19, 126. 

, Giovanni d' Antonio, 126. 

, Lorenzo, mentioned in Pontormo 's 

diary, 94, 303. 
Puligo, Domenico, 166, 207, 215, 224, 

229. 

Pulzone, Scipione, 214, 232. 
Pupilli, 6, 274. 
" Pygmalion and Galatea," Palazzo 

Barberini, Rome, 56, 182-183. 

Q 

Quarto, 104. 

Quattrocento, 87. 

Quirinal, Rome, 70, 72, 183-185, 186- 

187. 

R 

Raffaellino del Garbo, 95. 

Raffaello da Colle, 187. 

''Raising of Lazarus" (lost), 55, 56, 
258-259; date of, 56, 259; men- 
tioned by Vasari, 55; possible 
drawing for, 56, 259. 

Randall. See Photographs. 

Raphael, 5, 61, 81, 86, 132, 180, 181, 
205, 209, 253, 261, 267. 

Rassegna d' arte, 64, 98, 119, 173, 189, 
199, 218, 223, 237. 

Reali. See Photographs. 

Reber, von, 218. 

Regia Pinacoteca. See Turin. 

Registro dei Battezzati, 21. 

Reinach, Salomon, 102, 181, 214, 234, 
244, 248. 

Reiset, 264. 

Collection, 81, 248. 

Renouvier, 217. 

Repertoire. See Reinach. 

Repertorium, 91, 128, 148, 159, 169, 
177, 236, 295. 

"Resurrection," drawings for, 76, 
263. 



Revue de I' art ancien et moderne, 
228. 

Rezzonico Collection, 248. 

Riccardi Collection, 153. 

Ricci, Seymour de, 51, 168, 169, 170, 
226. 

Richa, 8, 10, 15, 19, 51, 75, 79, 116, 
117, 119, 121, 122, 126, 128, 131, 
132, 168, 169, 199, 207, 256, 264. 

Richter, J. P., 21, 126, 156, 158, 159, 
213. 

Rieffel, 234. 

Rigoni, 185. 

Rinaldis, Aldo de, 218, 219, 220, 261. 

Riposo. See Borghini (Raffaello). 

Ris, de, 215. 

"Risen Christ," Certosa, 42, 112-113. 

Ristretto, 119, 122, 128. 

Rivista d'arte, 64, 68, 107, 147, 166, 
171, 173, 176, 178, 179, 205, 206, 
224, 228, 229, 280. 

Rohrer Collection, 218. 

Rome, Pontormo 's drawings of an- 
tiquities of, 69. 

See Borghese Gallery ; Corsini Gal- 
lery; Palazzo Farnese; Palazzo 
Giraud-Torlonia ; Palazzo Ros- 
pigliosi; Palazzo Spada; Quiri- 
nal. 

Romena, chapel of the da, Santa 
Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi, 207. 

Roselli family, 157. 

Rosenberg, 81. 

Rosini, 152, 264. 

Rospigliosi. See Palazzo Rospigliosi. 

Rossellino, 25. 

Rossi, Giovan Gherardo de', 158. 

Rossino, 260. 

Rosso, 9, 14, 94, 129, 139, 238, 253, 
270 ; altar-piece in Pitti, 94, 154- 
155 ; ' ' Assumption, ' ' Annun- 
ziata, 119, 200; "Deposition," 
Volterra, 94, 238; influenced by 



347 



INDEX 



Pontormo, 94; "Marriage of St. 
Catherine," San Lorenzo, Flor- 
ence, 94; "The Three Fates," 
Pitti, 203. 

Host, Giovanni, 71, 72, 184. 

Rothschild Collection, 209. 

Rovere, Portrait of Guidobaldo della, 
59, 203, 205, 258. 

Royal Academy, Loan Exhibitions, 
81, 243, 247, 248. 

Rubens, 132. 

Ruble Collection, 209. 

Rudiger, W., 13. 

Rusconi, 181. 

Rustici, Giovan Francesco, 14, 69. 



"Sacrifice of Cain and Death of 
Abel," drawing of, 75, 263. 

St. Anne, convent of, 51, 168. 

"St. Anthony," Pitti, 132-133; date 
of, 133. 

"St. Bartholomew" for Ginori's 
funeral banners, 25, 255. 

St. Catherine of Siena, convent of, 
254. 

"St. Jerome," drawing of, 53. 

"St. John," Carro della Zecca, 138. 

"St. John Evangelist," Pontormo, 24, 
178-179; date of, 179; drawing 
for, 24, 178; mentioned by Va- 
sari, 178. 

St. Louis, Museum, 87. 

"St. Matthew," Carro della Zecca, 
137. 

"St. Michael," Pontormo, 24, 177- 
178; date of, 178; drawings for, 
24-25, 178 ; mentioned by Vasari, 
178. 

St. Petersburg, Hermitage, "Santa 
Barbara," 228-229; "Holy Fam- 
ily," 228. 



"St. Quentin," Borgo San Sepolcro, 
21, 44, 105, 106, 109; date of, 
21, 106; drawing for, 44, 106; 
mentioned by Vasari, 105-106. 

"St. Zenobius," Carro della Zecca, 
137. 

Sala del Papa, 53. 

Sale X., 145. 

Salviati, Francesco, 75, 78, 144, 145, 
184-185, 213, 218; cartoons for 
tapestries, 70, 184; "Portrait of 
a Boy," Poldi-Pezzoli, 237; 
"Portrait of a Man," Colonna 
Gallery, Rome, 237; "Portrait 
of a Man," Corsini Gallery, 
Florence, 237; "Portrait of a 
Man," Platt Collection, 199; 
"Portrait of a Youth," Uffizi, 
237; "Portrait of a Youth," 
Vienna, 237; "Portrait of Him- 
self," Uffizi, 237; "Tibaldeo," 
Naples, 237. 

, lost Arms of Giovanni, 17, 256. 

, Maria, 67 ; lost portrait of, 68, 261. 

, Piero, 80, 262. 

Salvini, Salvino, 258. 

Salvio, painter to Cavalier Somo, 171, 
281. 

San Domenico, mentioned in Pon- 
tormo 's diary, 93, 300. 

Sandrino, mentioned in Pontormo 's 
diary, 93, 302, 303. 

San Francesco, Borgo San Sepolcro, 
105. 

, Florence, mentioned in Pontor- 
mo 's diary, 298, 304. 

San Gallo, Aristotile da, 14. 

San Giovanni, arms of the, 130. 

San Lorenzo, Florence, Archives of, 
78. 

/'Assumption of the Virgin" in, 
207. 



348 



INDEX 



San Lorenzo, Bronzino finishes Pon- 
tormo's frescoes in, 79, 263. 

, drawing by Bronzino for the 
" Deluge" in, 79. 

, lost frescoes in : 70, 71, 74, 75, 76, 
77, 78, 79, 86, 90, 94, 95, 263-264; 
date of, 78-79, 263 ; drawings for, 
71, 72, 75, 76, 77, 185, 263 ; men- 
tioned by Vasari, 74, 78, 79, 264 ; 
mentioned in Pontormo's diary, 
79, 91, 92, 263, 295, 296, 297, 298, 
299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306 ; 
no documents for, 78, 264; sym- 
bolism of, 77, 94. 

, memorial tablet in, 4, 80 ; Michel- 
angelo 's tombs in, 59 ; Ottaviano 
de' Medici buried in, 94; relief 
of Cosimo il Vecchio in, 150; 
Rosso 's " Marriage of St. Cathe- 
rine" in, 94. 

San Lorenzo a Galuzzo. See Certosa. 

San Lorenzo al Monte. See Certosa. 

San Luca Chapel, Annunziata, in- 
scription on the vault of, 79. 

See ' ' Madonna and Saints. ' ' 

San Marco, Florence, 150. 

, Piazza di, Florence, 254. 

San Michele, Pontormo, 4, 24, 177- 
179. 

San Michele Visdomini, Florence, 
"Holy Family" in, 6, 17, 18-20, 
22, 73, 125-128, 146. 

San Miniato, mentioned in Pontor- 
mo's diary, 93, 300, 304. 

San Pancrazio, Florence, 2, 272. 

San Proeulo, Florence, 207. 

San Remigio, Florence, 2, 272. 

San Ruffillo. See "Madonna and 
Saints," San Luca Chapel, An- 
nunziata. 

Sansovino, Jacopo, 14. 

"Santa Barbara." See St. Peters- 
burg. 



Santa Cecilia, Compagnia di, 255. 

, lost lunette of, 17, 29, 30, 255; 
date of, 255; drawings for, 17, 
255; mentioned by Vasari, 17. 

Santa Croce, Florence, 1, 2, 3, 271; 
' ' Madonna and Saints, ' ' ascribed 
to Pontormo in, 206; Zanchini 
Chapel in, 81. 

Santa Felicita, Capponi Chapel, 46, 
47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 73, 84; 
drawings for decoration of, 43; 
"Annunciation" in, 46, 122; 
drawings for, 47-48; "Deposi- 
tion" in, 38, 45-49, 94, 120-122; 
date of, 47, 121; drawings for, 
47-49, 121 ; mentioned by Vasari, 
47, 120; "Evangelists" in, 46, 
122-123; drawing for, 49, 123; 
lost "God the Father and Pa- 
triarchs" in, 46, 257; possible 
drawings for, 49. 

Santa Maria del Fiore, mentioned in 
Pontormo's diary, 302-303. 

Santa Maria Maddalena de' Pazzi, 
207. 

Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 5, 11, 
124; "Santa Veronica" in, 12, 
123-125; "God the Father" in, 
12, 124. 

Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, 
258. 

Santa Trinita, Florence, 199. 

Santa Trinita. See Ponte. 

"Santa Veronica," Santa Maria 
Novella, Florence, 6, 12, 123- 
125, 270 ; date of, 125 ; mentioned 
by Vasari, 124. 

Santi di Tito, 237. 

SS. Annunziata. See "Madonna and 
Saints"; "Visitation." 

"Sant'Agostino" (lost), 10, 256. 

Sant' Angelo in Vado, Rome, 204. 

Sant' Antonio, Florence, 116. 



349 



INDEX 



Sant' Eusebio, Florence, 168. 

Santo Stefano, Pisa, 4. 

Sardi, Tommaso, 149. 

Sardinia, King of, 235. 

Sarto Agostino, 282. 

, Andrea del. See Andrea del 

Sarto. 

Savoy, House of, 235. 
Scala, Bartolomeo, 147. 
Sealzo, Florence, 17. 
Schaeffer, 115, 133, 134. 
Schevitch Collection, 248. 
Schlegel, A. W. von, 212. 
Schmidt, W., 218. 
Schomberg, Nicolaus von, 260. 
Schubring, 136, 141, 158, 208. 
Schulze, 154, 179, 198, 200, 201, 205, 

228, 234, 235. 
Schweitzer Collection, 209. 
Scotland. See Lothian Collection; 

Stirling Collection. 
Scotti, Luigi, 126. 

Sedelmeyer Collection, 203, 221, 246. 
Servites, 9, 10, 79, 269. 
Sesto, Cesare da, 132. 
Sguazzella, 80. 
Siena, Library of the Cathedral of, 

61. 

Signoria of Florence, 2, 51. 
Siren, Osvald, 221, 222. 
Sixtine Ceiling. See Michelangelo. 
Smith Collection, 248. 
Societa Colombaria, Florence, 151. 
Soderini, 7, 126. 
Solly Collection, 105. 
Somo, Cavalier, 281. 
Somzee Collection, 209. 
Sonnet on "Venus and Cupid," 143. 
Sonnets on the death of Pontormo, 

287-293. 
Spannocchi Cervini. See "Portrait 

of Cardinal Spannocchi Cer- 
vini." 



Spence, Campbell, 214. 

Spinelli, Niccolo di Forzore, 148. 

Spini Filippo, 17. 

Stadel Institute, Frankfort, drawings 
in, 35, 53, 153; "Portrait of a 
Young Woman" in, 85, 103, 152- 
154. 

Steinmann, 201. 

Stephano Romano, 282. 

Stirling Collection, 86, 155. 

Stradano, Giovanni, 98. 

Strozzi, Alessandro, 295. 

, Carlo di Tommaso, 295. 

, Filippo, 56. 

, Giovambattista, mentioned in Pon- 
tormo 's diary, 94, 300. 

, Pontormo 's diary once in the 
library of the, 295. 

See Palazzo Strozzi. 

Sturgis, Russell, 222. 

Stuttgart, Staatsgalerie, 234. 

Suida, 155. 

Supino, 147, 148, 176. 

"Supper at Bmmaus, " Academy, 
Florence, 41, 114-115; date of, 
41, 114; drawing for, 42, 114; 
document for, 41, 115, 277. 



Tadda, Francesco del, 150. 

Tapestries, Pontormo 's designs for, 
70-72, 183, 187. 

Taramelli. See Photographs. 

Tarnowski Collection, 198. 

Tasso, Battista, mentioned in Pon- 
tormo 's diary, 297, 304. 

, Giuliano del, 14. 

, Marco del, 15, 138, 297. 

Terey, Gabriel de, 196. 

Terzano, 1, 271. 

Thaw CoUection, 151. 

Thode, 59, 60, 63, 143, 144, 145, 171, 



350 



INDEX 



179, 201, 205, 211, 213, 220, 236, 

260. 

Thode Collection, 64. 
"Three Graces," drawing for, 61. 
, marble group of, 61. 
"Tilling of the Soil," drawing for, 

76, 263. 

Timbal Collection, 132. 
Tischendorf, 158. 
Titi, 144. 
Titian, 204, 237. 
"Tobias and the Angel," Borghese 

Gallery, 230-231. 
Tomitano, 69. 

Tornaquinci, arms of the, 140. 
, Elisabetta, 141. 
Touaglia, Giuliano del, 264. 
Tour d'Auvergne, Madeleine de la, 

28. 
Trapesnikoff, 148, 149, 150, 152, 160, 

205, 206. 

Tregua, feast of the, 93, 302. 
Tresor de numismatique, 148. 
Treviso, Girolamo da, 237. 
Tribolo, 66, 74. 

Triumphal arch for Leo X, 7, 14, 254. 
Trivulzio Collection, 84, 160-161, 216. 
Tschudi, 149. 
Tucker, von, 181. 
Tureo, family of the del, 157. 
Turin, 154, 234-236. 

U 

Ufficio delle Belle Arti. See Palazzo 
Vecchio. 

Uffizi, 15, 139-152, 169; "Birth- 
plate" in, 57, 140-141; copy of 
Leonardo's "Battle of Anghi- 
ari," 132; "Expulsion from 
Paradise," ascribed to Pontormo, 
207-208; "Leda and the Swan," 



ascribed to Pontormo, 209 ; ' ' Life 
of Joseph," Granacci, 208; "Ma- 
donna and Little St. John," 53, 
145-146 ; ' ' Madonna Enthroned, ' ' 
139; "Martyrdom of St. Mau- 
rice," 54, 139-140; portrait- 
drawing: of an artisan, 85; of 
a bishop, 86, of a boy, 86, of a 
soldier, 85 ; "Portrait of a Man," 
57, 84, 141 ; "Portrait of a Man," 
by Botticelli, 149; "Portrait of 
a Youth," by Salviati, 237; 
' ' Portrait of Cosimo il Vecchio, ' ' 
21-22, 25, 82, 83, 147-152, 173, 
205; "Portrait of Eleonora," by 
Bronzino, 97; "Portrait of Him- 
self," by Andrea, 83; "Portrait 
of Himself," by Salviati, 237; 
"Portrait of Young Cosimo," 
146-147; "Venus and Cupid," 
63, 142-145. 

, drawings in, 10, 11, 16, 17, 20, 23, 
24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 
35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 
49, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 61, 62, 
63, 64, 66, 68, 71, 72, 77, 81, 84, 
85, 86, 91, 96, 97, 98, 104, 106, 
110, 112, 113, 114, 116, 117, 119, 
121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 136, 137, 
139, 144, 147, 153, 159, 160, 164, 
165, 166, 168, 176, 177, 178, 179, 
187, 200, 218, 255, 258, 259, 262, 
263. 

, paintings mentioned in, 15, 20, 21, 
53, 54, 62, 68, 81, 83, 95, 97, 111, 
132, 149, 151, 156, 163, 171-172, 
180, 201, 207-209, 237. 

Ughi, arms of the, 130. 

Ulivelli, Cosimo, 151. 

Ulmann, 208. 

University Prints. See Photographs. 

Urbino, Palazzo Albani, 205. 



351 



INDEX 



Vagnonville, Baron de, 249. 

Val d'Ema. See Certosa. 

Valori, Baccio, 268. 

Varchi, 51, 52, 56, 63, 94, 142, 145, 
262, 285; mentioned in Pon- 
tormo's diary, 300, 304; Pontor- 
mo's letter to, 89, 285-286; son- 
net to Bronzino, 287, 296; son- 
net to Pontormo, 93. 

Vasari, 78, 95, 106, 116, 145, 201; 
"Battle of Val di Chiana," 95; 
copies Pontormo 's "Portrait of 
Cosimo il Vecchio," 150, 151; 
copies Pontormo 's "Portrait of 
Young Cosimo I, " 146 ; " Corona- 
tion of the Virgin," Citta di 
Castello, 95; decorations for the 
reception of Charles V, 9 ; draw- 
ings from Pontormo 's Certosa 
frescoes, 39, 95, 113; frescoes in 
Palazzo Vecehio, 97, 133, 146- 
147, 261; letter to Francesco 
Lioni, 145; letter to Ottaviano 
de' Medici, 171; "Life of Bron- 
zino," 49, 95, 262; "Life of 
Cristofano dell' Altissimo," 95; 
"Life of Feltrini," 9; "Life of 
Lappoli," 225; "Life of Mar- 
cantonio," 38; "Life of Pon- 
tormo," 89; Michelangelo's in- 
fluence on, 74, 144; personal 
appreciation of Pontormo, 37, 
89, 90, 91; Pontormo 's influence 
on, 95, 133, 205; "Portrait of 
Alessandro de' Medici," Uffizi, 
64, 95, 171, 172; "Portrait of 
Cosimo I," Palazzo Vecchio, 95, 
180, 206, 221; "Portrait of 
Cosimo il Vecchio," Palazzo 
Veechio, 95, 180, 205, 206; 
"Portrait of Maria Salviati," 



Palazzo Vecchio, 261; "Ragiona- 
menti," 133, 151; "The Three 
Graces," Budapest, 61; "Venus 
and Cupid," Galleria Colonna, 
145. 

, Lives of : edition of 1760, 81 ; edi- 
tion of 1832-1838, 143 ; first Ger- 
man edition, 143; Milan edition, 
75, 131, 256; Milanesi edition. 
See Milanesi; Roman edition, 
131; translation De Vere, 119, 
122, 132, 136, 159, 170, 206. 

mentions : Albertinelli 's ' ' Holy 

Family," 8; Andrea's "Birth 
of Virgin," 16; Bacchiacca's 
panels for Benintendi, 135; 
Bronzino 's draughtsmanship, 97 ; 
"Pieta," 199; "Portrait of 
Guidobaldo," 204, 205; work at 
Certosa, 113; Bugiardini's ap- 
prenticeship, 5; Dal Prato's 
medallions, 171; Delia Palla, 
56 ; Diirer 's woodcuts, 38 ; Fran- 
ciabigio's panels for Benintendi, 
23; Granacci's "Life of Jo- 
seph," 158; Lappoli 's copies of 
Scalzo frescoes, 232; Leonardo's 
cartoon of the "Battle of An- 
ghiari," 53; Marco del Tasso, 
138; Michelangelo's influence on 
Pontormo, 62 ; Michelangelo 's 
San Lorenzo tombs and Cavalieri 
drawings, 60; Ottaviano de' 
Medici, 94; Puligo's "Barbara 
Cortegiana," 224, 229; Puligo's 
"Madonna and Saints," Santa 
Maria Maddalena de ' Pazzi, 207 ; 
Ridolfo Ghirlandaio 's frescoes in 
the Cappella della Signoria, 125. 

mentions: Pontormo 's "Adoration 

of the Magi," Pitti, 23, 135, 136; 
apprenticeship, 5, 6, 267-268, 270 ; 
birth, 4; Carro della Zecca, 15, 



352 



INDEX 



139; cartoons for tapestries, 70, 
184, 185, 186; Certosa frescoes, 
39, 40, 43, 44, 107, 108, 109, 110, 
111, 112, 113, death, 79; "Depo- 
sition," Santa Felicita, 120, 
122; "Evangelists," 46-47, 123; 
"Faith and Charity," 7, 9, 10, 
116; family, 1, 3, 4, 6; frescoes 
in the Pope's Chapel, 11 ; funeral, 
79 ; " Holy Family, ' ' San Michele 
Visdomini, 19, 126; house, 57, 
68; "Joseph in Egypt," 21, 22, 
157, 159; lost "Annunciation," 
5, 253; lost "Arms of the Lan- 
fredini," 21, 254; lost "Arms 
of Giovanni Salviati," 17, 256; 
lost cars for the Broncone, 13, 
14, 253; lost cars for the Dia- 
mante, 13, 14, 253; lost "Dead 
Christ," 253; lost frescoes at 
Careggi, 65, 66, 262; lost fres- 
coes at Castello, 66, 67, 262 ; lost 
frescoes in San Lorenzo, 74, 75, 
76, 78, 79, 263, 264; lost fresco 
of "Christ as Pilgrim," 17, 254; 
lost funeral banners for Ginori, 
25, 255; lost "God the Father," 
Capponi Chapel, 257; lost "God 
the Father," San Euffillo, 254; 
lost "Madonna" for Capponi, 
128, 257; lost "Madonna" found 
in his house, 262; lost "Ma- 
donna" given to a Spaniard, 
261; lost "Madonna" given to 
Rossino, 260; lost "Madonna," 
in the house of Alessandro 
Neroni, 256; lost "Madonna" 
painted for Spaniards, 257; lost 
"Madonna" sold to Piero Sal- 
viati, 80; lost "Nativity" for 
Certosa, 41, 257; lost "Noli me 
tangere," 260; lost "Pieta" for 
merchants of Ragusa, 256; lost 



"Pieta" for the monks of San 
Gallo, 16, 256; lost "Pomona" 
for Del Migliore, 48, 258; lost 
"Portrait of a Lay Brother," 41, 
257; lost "Portrait of Amerigo 
Antinori," 260; lost "Portrait 
of Ardinghelli," 258; lost "Por- 
trait of Bicchieraio 's Son-in- 
law," 255; lost portrait of Cap- 
poni 's daughter, 257; lost "Por- 
trait of Carlo Neroni," 141, 259; 
lost "Portrait of Cosimo I," 68; 
lost "Portrait of Francesco 
Guardi," 56, 259; lost "Portrait 
of Ippolito de' Medici," 203, 
258; lost "Portrait of Lappoli," 
25, 44, 255; lost "Portrait of 
Maria Salviati," 68, 261; lost 
"Santa Cecilia," 17, 255; lost 
"Sant'Agostino," 256; lost 
"Raising of Lazarus," 55, 258; 
lunette at Poggio, 28, 29, 177; 
"Madonna and Saints," Louvre, 
51, 168, 169; "Madonna and 
Saints," San Luca Chapel, 117; 
"Martyrdom of St. Maurice," 
Pitti, 54, 131, 132; "Martyrdom 
of St. Maurice," Uffizi, 54, 140; 
panels for Borgherini, 22, 56, 
157, 164, 165, 208; "Portrait of 
Alessandro de' Medici," 64, 170, 
171, 173, 258; "Portrait of Co- 
simo il Vecchio," 21, 25, 152; 
"Portrait of Young Cosimo I," 
146, 147; "Pygmalion and Gala- 
tea," 56, 183; "St. John Evan- 
gelist," 178; "St. Michael," 
178; "St. Quentin," 105-106; 
Santa Felicita decorations, 46, 47, 
49; "Santa Veronica," 124; 
"Scenes from the Life of 
Joseph," 21; second series of 
decorations projected at Poggio, 



353 



INDEX 



58-59, 61, 64, 89; shrine at Bol- 
drone, 45, 53, 104; "Supper at 
Emmaus," 114; triumphal arch, 
14, 254; "Venus and Cupid," 

62, 63, 90, 142, 145; "Visita- 
tion," Annunziata, 15, 118. 

Vasi, 144. 

Vatican, 53. 

Vega, Garcilaso de la, 197. 

Venice, Museo Correr, 132, 236. 

Venturi, 179, 180, 181, 230, 233. 

"Venus and Adonis," projected for 
Poggio, 61, 176. 

"Venus and Cupid," 62, 63, 64, 65, 
68, 90, 142-145 ; copies and repli- 
cas of, 63, 144, 199, 220 ; date of, 

63, 144; documents concerning, 
63, 142; mentioned by Vasari, 
62, 63, 142, 145; symbolism of, 
143. 

Venusti, ' ' Annunciation, ' ' Lateran, 
122; "Portrait of Vittoria Co- 
lonna," ascribed to, 201. 

Vere, de, translation of Vasari, 119, 
122, 132, 136, 159, 170, 205, 206. 

Verrocchio, 149. 

Vertumnus and Pomona, Ovid's story 
of, 175. 

See Poggio a Cajano (lunette). 
Vesme, 144. 

Vettori, 51. 

, Bernardo, 267. 

Via Andrea del Sarto, Florence, 104. 

degli Arazzieri, Florence, 254. 

della Colonna, Florence, 57, 284. 

dell ' Osservatorio, Florence, 104. 

del Pelagio, Florence, 7, 14, 254. 

Domenico Cirillo, Florence, 104. 

Larga, Florence, 48, 258. 

Laura, Florence, 57. 

San Gallo, Florence, 254, 256. 
Vienna, Belvedere, 188, 236-238; 

"Holy Family," ascribed to 



Pontormo, 236-237; "Madonna 
and Little St. John," once as- 
cribed to Pontormo, 237-238; 
"Pieta," by Andrea, 200; "Por- 
trait of a Lady," ascribed to 
Pontormo, 236; "Portrait of a 
Man," ascribed to Pontormo, 
238; "Portrait of an Old Lady," 
87, 107, 188; "Portrait of a 
Youth," ascribed to Pontormo, 
237; "Portrait of Cosimo I," 
ascribed to Bronzino, 221. 
Villa Caprarola, 65. 

Imperiale, 204. 

Villano, mentioned in Pontormo 's 
diary, 297. 

Villari, 7. 

Villot, 119, 169, 226. 

Vincenzo, painter to Giulio de' Med- 
ici, 171, 281. 

Vinci, Giuliano da, 13. 

, Pierino da, 297. 

See Leonardo da Vinci. 
Virgil, 147. 

Visconti, P. E., 69, 259, 283. 

Visino, pupil of Albertinelli, 195. 

"Visitation," Annunziata, 15, 16, 18, 
23, 55, 73, 117-119; copy in 
the Louvre of, 119, 226 ; date of, 
119; drawings for, 16, 119; 
documents for, 16, 119; men- 
tioned by Vasari, 118 ; Pontormo 
buried under, 79. 

, Carmignano, 55, 61, 106-107 ; date 
of, 55, 107; drawing for, 107. 

, Carro della Zecca, 15, 137. 

, Palazzo Spada, ascribed to Pon- 
tormo, 232. 

Vita d'arte, 127, 176, 177. 

Vitelli, Alessandro, 62, 260. 

Vittoria Colonna, 222. 

Viviole, Raffaello delle, 13, 253. 

Volpi, 69. 



354 



INDEX 



Volterra, 94, 238. 

Voss, Hermann, 188, 218, 236, 237. 

W 

Waagen, 81, 105, 165, 166, 214, 215, 

224, 229. 

Waetzoldt, 81, 135, 136, 152, 153, 154. 
Walter of Brienne, Duke of Athens, 

51. 

"Walters Collection, 164. 
Wanamaker Collection, 227-228. 
Way-side shrine, Boldrone, 44-45, 

103-104. 
"Way to Golgotha," 40, 109-110; 

date of, 110; drawings for, 42, 

110; mentioned by Vasari, 110. 
Weizsacker, 153. 
Wemyss Collection, 248. 
Wickoff, 237, 238. 
Widener Collection, 86, 101, 154. 
Willett Collection, 249. 
Wilton House, 209. 
Windsor, 132. 
Wolfflin, 118, 119. 



Wood Brown, 125, 150. 
Wornum, 213. 

X 

Ximenes d'Aragona Collection, 247. 



Yale University. See Jarves Collec- 
tion. 

Yerkes Collection, 86, 96, 188-189, 
229. 

Young, 150. 

Yriarte, 231. 



Zacchia, Lorenzo, 132. 

, Paolo, 98. 

Zanchini Chapel, Santa Croce, Flor- 
ence, 81. 

Zecca, 139. 

, Carro della, 14, 136-139. 

Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, 188, 
203, 205, 218, 236, 237. 

Zobi, Antonio, 119. 

Zuccaro, Federigo, 65, 204. 

, Taddeo, 65. 



355 






ND 

623 

P7C58 



Glapp, Frederick Mortimer 
Jacopo Carucci da Pontormo 



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