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1 823. 


L. S. District Clerk's Office. 

Be it remembered, that on the fourth day of January, A. d. 1823, in the 
forty seventh year of the Independence of the United States of America, Thomas 
C. IJPHAM, A r,i. of the said district has deposited in this office the title of a 
booK the right whereof he claims as Proprietor in the words following, to tvit — 
"Jahn's Biblical Archaeology, translated from the Latin, with additions and 
corrections. By Thomas C. Upham, A. M. Assistant Teacher of Hebrew and 
Greek in the Theol. Sem. Andover."— In conformity to the Act of the Congress 
of the United States, entitled, '' An Act for the encouragement of Learning, by 
securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books, 1o the authors and proprietors 
of such copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and also to an Act enti- 
tled, '' An Act supplementary to an Act, entitled. An Act for the encourage- 
ment of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the au- 
thors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned ; and 
extending the benefits (hereof to the arts of Designing, Engraving and Etching 
historical and other prints." JOHN VV. DAVIS, 

Clerk of the District of Massachusetts. 


The following Translation was undertaken at the suggestion of 
Professor Stuart of the Theological Seminary in this place. His 
feelings on the subject, it was found, were seconded by many theo- 
logical students, with whom it has been the happiness of the Trans- 
lator to be associated. Although he would otherwise have gladly 
declined the attempt, he did not feel himself at hberty to hesitate to 
do all in his power, to gratify those, whom he so highly respected, 
and to subserve, if possible, the general interests of theological 

For the encouragement and aid, which Professor Stuaut has af- 
forded, and for the assistance, which he has received in rarious ways 
from many of the Students above alluded to, he takes this opportu- 
nity to present his sincere and grateful acknowledgments. 

The author of this book is Dr. John Jahn, who was formerly 
Professor of oriental languages in the University of Vienna. It was 
originally written in German, and extended through five octavo vol- 
umes. Being of such extent, and accompanied with numerous plates, 
it was found too expensive for common use, and, after numerous so- 
licitations to that effect, was abridged by the author himself, translat- 
ed into Latin, and printed in a single octavo volume. The Transla- 
tion into English, which is now offered to the public, is made from the 
second edition of the Latin Abridgment, printed at Vienna in 1814. 

The Translator, in fulfilling his task, has constantly had before 
him the original German edition, and it is necessary for him to re- 
mark, that where he noticed an observation in the German, which 
seemed to be important, and which promised to instruct and interest 
the English reader, but which, nevertheless, was not in the Latin, 
he has ventured, in a considerable number of instances, to translate 
and insert it. In doing this, he has considerably increased the la- 
bour and responsibility, which devolved upon him, but it is believ- 
ed, the work has thereby been rendered more valuable, and all, that 
is asked in return, is, that any person, who compares it with the Lat- 


in, in order to ascertain its merits, as a translation, will, at the same 
timp, compare it with the German for the purpose of learning the 
additions and alterations, and the grounds, on which they have been 

The NOTKs, which have been occasionallj^ inserted, and the ex- 
tracts, which, in order to render some Articles more complete, than 
they would otherwise have been, it has been thought proper to 
make, are distinguished from the text of Jahn, as the reader will ob- 
serve, by being enclosed with brackets. Many errors, which had 
crept into the references, have been corrected ; but it is necessary 
for the Translator of this Work to repeat an observation of the 
Translator o{ Commentaries on the Laws o/Moses^ viz. " That the read- 
er must not be surprised, when he recurs to the English version, to 
remark occasionally the difference of an unit in the numeration of 
chapters and verses ; which proceeds from the division adopted in 
the German and Hebrew Bibles being in some places difl'erent from 
ours." When, however, the variation was considerable, it has gen- 
erally been attended to, and altered so as to agree with the division 
of verses in the English version. 

The value of Dr. Jahn's Work, as it exists both in the Latin 
and German, is too well known and too generally admitted, to re- 
quire from the Translator, at the present time, any thing in defence 
of its merits; and he thinks he can say with truth, it is not owing to 
want of care and labour, if, as it is now exhibited to the public, it 
should be found to fall short of its original worth and spirit. 

One of the greatest dithculties in interpreting the Scriptures, 
will be found, it is apprehended, in the want of fjicility in throwing 
one's self back into the age, in which the writers lived, and into the 
situation of those, for whom they wrote. To remove this difficulty 
in some degree, as the reader will observe by consulting the second 
section, is one of the prominent objects of the present Work. It is 
thought, that the object will be found to be, in a good measure, se- 
cured, and that the person, who has carefully studied it, will no lon- 
ger find himself at a loss in forming a conception of the once splen- 
did scenery of Judea, nor in understanding and estimating the nature 
and the worth of the domestick, religious, and civil practices and in- 
stitutions of its inhabitants. 

Andover, Theol, Sem. 

February 5, 1823. 


Sect. 1. Biblical x\rchaeology. 

2. Its importance to a theologian. 

3. The sources of Biblical Archaeology. 


Chap. I. 

Sect. 4. Biblical Geography. 

5. Aramea. 

6. Phenicia. 

7. Media. 

8. Persia, Susiana, Elyraais. 

9. Babylonia, Chaldea. 

10. Arabia. 

11. Egypt. 

12. Gessen or Goshen, and the river of Egypt. 

13. Extent and boundaries of the Hebrew territories. 

14. Face of the country, mountains. 

15. Plains. 

16. Forests. 

17. Deserts. 

18. The Jordan, Lake Merom, and Gennesareth. 

19. The Dead Sea. 

20. Other Rivers. 

21. On the climate of Palestine. 

22. Fertility of the soil. 

93. Calamities to which Palestine is subject. 

24. Division of Palestine among the Israelites. 

25. Division of Palestine in the time of Christ. 

Chap. II. 

Sect. 26. The earliest shelters were shady trees and caves. 

27. The more recent Troglodytes or dwellers in caves. 

28. Tabernacles. 


Sect. 29. On Tents. 

30. Formation of Tents. 

31. Internal structure of Tents. 

32. Houses. 

33. Size of Houses. 

34. Form and roof of Houses. 

35. The Gate, Porch, Area or open court, female apart- 


3G. Chambers and other Apartments. 

37. Doors and methods of securing them. 

38. Windows. 

39. Materials for building. 

40. Household furniture and utensils. 

41. Villages, Towns, Cities. 

Chap. III. 



Antiquity &c. of the Nomades, 


Of PasttH'es. 


Emigrations of the Nomades. 


Fountains and Cisterns. 


Flocks of the Nomades. 


Animals of the Ox-kind. 


Of Asses and mules. 


Of Camels. 






Of Hunting. 

53. Of Robberies committed on Travellers. 

Chap. IV. 


Sect. 54. Its value and importance. 

55. Laws of Moses in regard to Agriculture. 

50. Estimation in which Agriculture was held. 

67. Means of increasing Fertility. 

58. Different kinds of Grain. 

59. Instruments of Agriculture. 

60. Animals used in Agriculture. 

61. Preparation of the Land. 
(52. Harvest. 

63. Threshing Floor. 

64. Threshing. 

65. Ventilation. 

66. Of Vines and Vineyards. 


Sect. 67. Situation and arrangement of Vineyards. 

68. Culture of Vineyards. 

69. Vintage and Winepress. 

70. Gardens. 

71. Of Olive-Trees. 

72. The Fig-Tree. 

73. The Pomegranate. 

74. The Balsam. 

75. The Palm. 

76. Terebinths and Pistacias. 

77. Bees and Honey. 

78. Fishing. 

79. The Fallow Year. 

Chap. V. 

Sect. 80. On the Origin of the Arts. 

81. State of the Arts from the Deluge till Moses. 

82. The Arts among the Hebrews in the time of Moses. 

83. Arts among the Hebrews in Palestine. 

84. State of the Arts after the Captivity. 

85. Antiquity of the Art of writing. 

86. The extension of alphabetical writing. 

87. Materials and Instruments of writing. 

88. Respecting Books. 

89. Of Epistles. 

90. On Poetry. 

91. Character of the Hebrew Poetry. 

92. On Musick. 

93. Uses of Musick among the Hebrews. 

94. Stringed Instruments. 

95. Wind Instruments. 

96. Different sorts of Drums. 

97. On Dancing. 

Chap. VI. 


Sect. 98. The origin of the Sciences. 

99. History, Genealogy, and Chronology. 

100. Arithmetick, Mathematicks, Astronomy, and Astrology. 

101 Division of Day and Night. 

102. Of Weeks. 

103. Of the Months and the Year. 

104. Surveymg, the Mechanick Arts, and Geography. 

105. Of Medicine. 

106. iPhysicks, Natural History, and Philosophy. 

Note. Academical Degree. 


Chap. VII. 

Sect. 107. Antiquity of Commerce. 

108. Commerce of the Pheaicians, Arabians, and Egyptians. 

109. Mercantile Routs. 

1 10. Method of carrying goods by land. 

111. The Commerce of the Hebrews. 

112. Weights and Measures. 

113. Measures of length. 

114. Hollow Measures. 

115. Of Weights and Money. 

116. Of Weights and Money before the Captivity. 

117. Weights and Money after the Captivity. 

Chap. VIII. 

Sect. 118. Materials of which clothes were made. 

119. Colours of Cloths. 

120. The Tunick. 

121. The Girdle. 

122. Of Upper Garments. 

123. Sandals and Shoes. 

124. Of the Beard. 

125. Of the Hair. 

126. Coverings for the Head. 

127. Of the Veil. 

128. Staff, Seal, and Rings. 

129. Ladies' Rings and Pendants. 

130. Necklaces, Bracelets, &c. 

131. Amulets. 

132. Mirrors. 

133. Purse and Napkins. 

134. Painting and Branding or Sealing. 

133. Dress at Festivals and on occasions of Mourning. 

Chap. IX. 

Sect. 136. Of Food in general. 

137. Preparation of Food by Fire. 

138. Of Mills. 

139. Grinding. 

140. Baking bread in an oven. 

141. On the different kinds of Food. 

142. Of Roasting. 


Sect. 143. Interdicted Food. 

144. Beverag'e. 

145. Time and circumstances of taking Refreshment. 
14tj. Table and method of Sitting. 

147. Mode of Eating. 

148. On Feasts. 

149. Hospitality of the Orientals. 

Chap. X. 


Sect. 130. Precautions against Fornication. 

151. Polygamy. 

152. The choice of a Wife. 

153. The Marriage Vow and Dowry. 

154. Celebration of Nuptials. 

155. Concubines. 

156. Fruitfulness in the Marriage state. 

157. Marriage of a Childless Brother's Widow. 

158. Concerning Adultery. 

159. The Suspected Wife. 

160. Bill of Divorce. 

161. Child Birth. 

162. Circumcision. 

163. Antiquity of Circumcision. 

164. On the Naming of Children. 

165. Concerning the First-Born. 

166. The Nurture of Children. 

167. Thepower of the Father. 

168. Of the Testament or Will. 

169. Respecting Slaves. 

170. Ways in which men became Slaves. 

171. Condition of slaves among the Hebrews. 

172. Condition of slaves among other Nations. 

Chap. XI. 


Sect. 173. Character of the Hebrews. 

174. Propriety and refinement of Manners. 

175. Mode of Salutation. 

176. On Visiting. 

177. Of Gifts. 

178. Kinds of presents and methods of bringing them. 

179. Publick Honours. 

180. Conversation and Bathing. 


Sect. 181. Treatment of the Jews to strangers. 

182. The Poor and Beggars. 

183. Levitical Defilements. 

Chap. XII. 

Sect. 184. Of Diseases generally. 

185. Disease of the Philistines mentioned in 1 Sam. 5 — 6. 

186. Disease of King Jehoram. 

187. False Conceptions. 

188. Countries where the Leprosy prevails. 

189. Beginnings and progress of Leprosy. 

JN'oTE. I. On Bohak as distinct from infectious Leprosy. 
II. On the Leprosy of Gaudaloupe. 

190. On the Pestilence. 

191. The disease of Saul and Nebuchadnezzar. 
19'^. Respecting Demoniacks. 

193. Demoniacks were possessed with a Devil. 

194. General view of the opposite Argument. 

196. Symptoms in Demoniacks, the same with those in dis- 
eased persons. 

196. The Apostles, Evangelists, and Christ regarded Demo- 

niacks as diseased persons. 

197. Real possessions inconsistent with the doctrine of Je- 

sus and his Apostles. 

198. The Pool near the Sheep-Market at Jerusalem. 

199. Concerning Paraly ticks. 

200. The death of Judas Iscariot. 

201. Blindness of the Sorcerer Bar-Jesus. 

202. Disease of Herod Agrippa. 

Chap. XIII. 

Sect. 203. On Death. 

204. Treatment of the Corpse, Embalming. 

205. Of Funerals. 

' 206. Situation of Sepulchres. 

207. Sepulchres. 

Note I. Maundrell on the Sepulchres of the Kings. 

II. Harmer on the White-washing of Sepulchres, 

208. Articles, which were buried with the dead. 

206. Sepulchral Monuments. 

210. Burning of the Corpse. 

211. Of Mourning. 

212. Other causes of Mourning. 




Chap. I. 


Sect. 213. Patriarchal Government. 

^, . 214. The Fundamental Law of the Mosaic Institutions. 

J I - 215. Condition of the Hebrews, as respected other Nations. 

, ■"_ 216. Principal Officers in the Hebrew State. 

217. Connection of the Tribes with each other, 

218. The CoMiTiA or Legislative Assemblies. 
219 Form of Government a mixed one. 

220. The Ruler of the Israelitish Community. 

221. The Theocracy. 

222. Historical Tables. 

Chap. II. 


Sect. 223. The Anointing* of Kings. 

224. Royal Robe, Diadem, and Crown. 

225. The Throne. 

226. The Sceptre. 

227. The Royal Table. 

228. Seclusion of Kings, Journeys, etc. 

229. Royal Palace and Gardens. 

230. Veneration paid to Kings, and Titles, which were be- 

stowed upon them. 

231. The duties of the Hebrew Monarcbs. 

232* Extent of the Royal power and prerogatives, 

233. Methods of promulgating Laws, etc. 

234. On the Royal Revenues. 

235. Magistrates under the Monarchy. 

236. Officers of the Palace. 

237. The King's Harem. 

238. The method, in which the Officers and others held in- 

tercourse with the King. 

239. Magistrates during and after the Captivity. 

240. Tetrarchs. 

241. Roman Procurators. 

242. Of the Tribute and Half Shekel of the Temple. 


Chap. III. 

Sect. 243. Of Judges. 

244. The Sanhedrin. 

Note. Ol" the Sanhedrin, instituted by Moses. 

245. Other Tribunals in the time of Christ. 

246. The time of Trials. 

247. The Forum or phice of Trials. 
243. Form of Trial. 

249. Prisons and Tortures. 

250. Regulations, etc. in respect to Debtors* 

251. On'Usury. 

252. The smallest Punishment. 

253. Fines and Indemnifications. 

254. Punishment of Theft. 

255. Corporal punishments. 

256. On Retaliation. 

257. Mosaic Punishments. 

258. Excision from the people. Excommunication. 

259. Of punishments, which consist of Posthumous insults. 
21:0. Punishments, introduced from other Nations. 

261 Crucifixion, as practised among the Romans. 

262 The cruelties of Crucifixion. 

263. The Pubiick Executioner. 

264. 01" the Blood-Avenger, and Cities of Refuge. 

265. Of the unknown Murderer. 

Chap. IV. 

Siv:;t. 266. General view of Military Science. 

267. General Military Enrolment. 

268. Of the Levy for Actual Service. 

269. Divisions etc. introduced into Armies. 

270. Military Reviews and Inspections. 

271. Of Shields. 

272. The Helmet. 

273. Cuirass, Breastplate, or coat of Mail. 

274. Greaves and Military Frock. . 

275. On Fortifications. 

276. Arms, with which the Soldiers fought hand to hand. 

277. Of Javelins. 

278. Of the Bow, Arrow, and Quiver. 

279. Of the Sling. 

280. Of Engines, used in war. 

281. Battering Rams. 

282. Respecting the Cavalry. 


Sect. 283. Of Chariots of war. 

284. Sports and Exercises preparatory to war. 

285. Gymnastick Sports. 

286. Of Encampments. 

287. On Military Marches. 

288. Military Standards. 

289. Respecting war. 

290. Preparations for Battle. 

291. Of the Battle. 

292. On Sieges. 

293. Circumvallation. 

294. The Besieger's mound. 
265. Consequences of victory. 

296. Severities of ancient warfare. 

297. Justice of the war against the Canaanites. 
Note. Right of the Israelites to Palestine. 

298. On the division of the Spoils. 

299. Respecting the Spoils, which the Hebrews took away 

from the Egyptians. 

300. Periods, when there was a cessation from Hostilities. 



Chap. I. 


Sect. SOL Religi-on down to the Deluge. 

302. from the Deluge to Abraham. 

303. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 

304. Respecting the religion of the Patriarchs. 

305. Respecting Moses. 

306. On the question, " Whether Moses taught the exis- 

tence of a merely national God?" 

307. On the question, " Whether the character of Jehovah 

as represented by Moses is merely that of a being 
inexorably just ?" 

308. Respecting the regulations, which were made in order 

to preserve the true Religion. 

309. On the Moral tendency of the instructions and institu- 

tions of Moses. 

310. On the question, "Whether there are Types in the 

Laws of Moses?" 

311. Sketch of Religion from Moses till after the Babylo- 

nish Captivity. 

312. Perseverance of the Hebrews in their Religion after 

the Captivity. 


Sect. 313. Respecting the knowledg-e of God before the time of 
Christ, as developed by Philosophy. 

314. On the condition of man after Death. 

315. Respecting' the propagation of Judaism. 

316. General state of Jewish affairs. 

317. On the antiquity of the Jewish Religious sects. 

318. On the doctrine of the Pharisees. 

319. Defects in the Moral principles and practice of the 


320. On the traditions of the Pharisees. 

321. Galileans and Zealots. 

322. liespecting the Sadducees. 

323. Essenes and Therapeutae. 

324. Concerning the Hellenists. 

325. Concerning Proselytes. 

326. Concerning the Samaritans. 

Chap. II. 

Sect. 327. Of Sacred Places in general. 

328. Of the Tabernacle. 

329. The Altar and Brazen Laver. 

330. The Golden Candlestick. 

331. Of the Table of Shew-Bread. 

332. The Altar of Incense. 

333. Ark of the Covenant in the Holy of Holies. 

334. Respecting the Holy Land. 

335. Of Jerusalem, the Holy City. 

336. Mount Moriah. 

337. Of the Temple of Solomon. 

338. The Sanctuary of Solomon's Temple. 

339. Of the Temple of Zerubbabel. 

340. Of the Temple of Herod. 

341. Of the Gates of Herod's Temple. 

342. Porches in the Temple of Herod. 

343. Of the Sanctuary. 

344. Origin of Synagogues. 

345. Of the Structure etc. of Synagogues. 

Chap. III. 


Sect. 346. On the Antiquity of the Sabbath. 

347. On the design of the Sabbath. 

348. Concerning those things, which were to be omitted on 

the Sabbath. 


Sect. 349. Concemiog those things, which were permitted to be 
done on the Sabbath. 

350. Concerning the Sabbatick Year. 

351. Of the Year of Jubilee. 

352. New Moons and Feast of the New Year. 

353. Of the great Festivals in general. 

354. Concerning the Passover. 

355. Concerning the Pentecost. 
35d. Of the Feast of Tabernacles. 

357. On the Day of Propitiation. 

358. Concerning other Fasts. 

359. Of the Feas< of Purim. 

360. On the Festival Encaenia, otherwise called the Festi- 

val of the purilication of the Temple. 

Chap. IV. 

Sect. 361. Of the Jews, as considered a Holy people. 

362. Of persons officially employed in discharging Religious 


363. Of the servants, who were allotted to the Sanctuary. 

364. Of the consecration of the Levites. 

365. Of the duties of the Levites. 

366. Of the Priests. 

367. The consecration of the Priests and of the High-Priest. 

368. Concerning the dress of the Priests. 

369. Of the duties of the Priests. 

370. Dress of the High-Priest. 

I Some account of Urim and Thummim. 

\ Note. Remarks of Michaelis on Urfm and Thummim. 

371. On the question. Whether Priests and fievites were 

Publick Teachers? 

372. Officers in the Synagogues. 

CiTAP. y. 

Sect. 373. On the question, What is a Sacrifice ? 

374. On the Origin of Sacrifices. 

375. On the division or kinds of Sacrifices. 
37B. The place of Sacrifices. 

377. Of Bloody Sacrifices. 

378. Ceremonies at the offering of Sacrifices. 

379. Concerning Holocausts or whole bTirnt-ofTe rings, 

380. Of Sin-offerings. 

381. Of Trespass-Offerings. 


Sect. 382. Peace and Thank Offerings. 

383. Ol'Covenant-Sacritices. 

384. Of the meaning of Sacrifices. 

385. Of Biooiiless Sacrifices. 

386. Of the Purification of the Unclean. 
Of the Red Heifer. 

3ii7. Purification of Leprous Persons. 

388. Concerning the First-Born. 

389. Of the First-fruits. 

390. Of Tjthes. 

391. Of the Sacred Oil. 
, 39'^. Concerning Oaths. 

393. Concerning Vows. 

394. Of Alfirmative Vows. 

Of the Vow called Cherem. 

395. Of Negative vows, the Nazarite, etc. 

396. Concerning Prayers. 

397. Of the Worship in the Synagogues. 

398. The language in which the service was performed in 

the Synagogues. 

399. Mode of worship practised by the Apostles. 

Chap. VI. 

Sect. 400. Of Idol Deities. 

4U1. Altars, Statues, Temples, Groves. 

402. Sacrifices, prayers, festivals, purifications, mysteries- 

403. Concerning divinations, &c. 

404. State of Idolatry in the time of Christ. 

405. Of images made for sacred purposes. 

406. Of the Host or army of Heaven. 

407. Of the Sun, and the god Baal. 

408. Of other Baals or Baalim. 

409. Of Astarte, Ashtaroth, or the Moon, as an object of 


410. Of Tammuz and Adonis. 

411. Moioc, Molec, Malcom, Milcom. 

412. Concerning Chiun and Remphan. 

413. OfTeraphim. 

414. OfDagon. 

415. Of other deities. 



Archaeology, aQ)[aiokoyia, considered subjectively or in refer- 
ence to the mind, is the knowledge of whatever in antiquity is 
worthy of remembrance, but objectively is that knowledge reduced 
to a system. In its widest sense, therefore, it embraces achieve- 
ments of a historical nature, and every thing else, important to be 
transmitted to subsequent ages ; but, in a limited sense, has special 
reference to religious and civil institutions and ceremonies, to 
opinions, manners and customs, and the like. As there are cir- 
cumstance \ worthy of being noticed and remembered, not only in 
the religious and civil, but also in the domestic concerns of the 
ancients, so Archaeology may be divided into sacred, political, and 

Biblical Archaeology embraces every thing in the Bible wor- 
thy of notice and remembrance, whether it be merely alluded to, 
or treated as something well known. 


I. It enables him to throw himself back more fully into the age, 
the country, and the situation of the sacred writers and their co- 
temporaries, and to understand and estimate the nature and the 
tendencies of the object?, which are there presented to him. II. 


It puts Iiini in a better situation to detect allusions to ceremonies, 
customs, laws, peculiarities in the face ot" the country, &,c, and to 
make himself sure of the precise import of the passages, where 
such allusions occur. III. It proffers him new ability in answer- 
ing the objections of the opposers of Revelation, the greater part 
of which originate in ignorance of antiquity. IV. It presents to 
his view distinctly and impressively the adaptation of the different 
dispensations, the object of which was to preserve and transmit 
religion, to the character and situation of the age. V, It shows 
him, where to separate moral precept and religious truth from 
the drapery of the figurative language, in which they are clothed ; 
since language, considered as the medium of thought, takes its 
character in a measure fiom that of the times. VI. It enables 
him to enter into the nature and spirit of the arguments in favour 
of the authenticity of the sacred books. VII. That an acquaintance 
with Biblical Archaeology is of great importance is evident from 
this also, that all, who have undertaken to explain the Scriptures, 
while ignorant of it, have committed very great and very numer- 
ous mistakes. 


It is necessary, in order that the student may derive real profit 
from a book of sacred antiquities, not only that he should make 
a right use of it by studying it in a proper manner, but that the 
book or system itself should be drawn from genuine and undoubt- 
ed sources. These sources are 

I. The Scriptures ; which are very weighty, because they are 
in fact the testimony of the people themselves in regard to events 
and customs, in which they were the agents. 

II. Ancient Monuments. These are in a manner living testi- 
monies. Such are Ihe triumphal arch of Titus, a representation of 
which has been given by Reland in his De spoliis templi Jerosohj' 
miuini in arcu Titiano Romne conspicuis ; the ruins of Fersepolis ; 
the subterranean vaults or sepulchres in Syria, Palestine, and 
Egypt, countries, where pyramids also, obelisks, and the ruins of 
various edifices bear testimony both to the perfection and the anti- 
quity of the arts ; and the ruins of Baalbec and Palmyra, engravings 
of which In copper have been furnished by Wood. They are of 



a more recent age, but they illustrate what occurs in the Bible, 
relative to the edifices of Herod, and the temple of Jerusalem in 
the ^ime of our Saviour. 

III. Ancient Greek, Phenician, Egyptian, and Roman coins, 
Jewish coins with inscriptions in the old Samaritan character, and 
those of a few other nations. 

IV. The works of Philo the Jew and of Josephus, the former 
of whom resided in Egypt, the latter at first in Judea and subse- 
quently at Rome ; both were cotemporaries with the Apostles. 

V. Ancient Greek and Latin authors, who sometimes give a 
more full account of events and customs, which are merely men- 
tioned or alluded to in the Bible, particularly Herodotus, also 
Xenophon, Arrian, Strabo, Plutarch, Diodorus Siculus, and almost 
all the others. But it is the dictate of soimd criticism, that the 
authority of the biblical writers, who were indigenous, and for the 
raost part coteraporary with the events they relate, should super- 
sede, when there is any disagreement, that of these profane writ- 
ers, who were of another country and a later age, 

VI. The Mishna or the text of the Talmud, which is a 
collection of traditions, made very nearl}^ between the year 
190 and 220, and was accompanied after a time by the ex- 
planations of the two Gemaras ; the one of which, called the Je- 
rusalem, was written about the year 280 ; the other, called the Bab- 
ylonian, was begun in 427 and completed about the year 500. la 
making use of the information, which this work supplies, there is 
need of much caution, as there are many modern interpolations in it. 

VII. Certain ecclesiastical writers, who lived in Syria or other 
oriental countries, particularly Jerome and Ephraem Syrus ; 
also some Syriac and Arabian books, especially the most an- 
cient. Finally, the Journals of modern travellers, who have vis- 
ited the east, marked the appearances of the country, and given 
an account of the manners and customs of the inhabitants. In 
making use of the last mentioned works, there is also need of cau- 
tion, lest we assign to antiquity what belongs to a more recent 
period, although it ought at the same time to be kept in mind, 
that the inhabitants of the east are not fond of innovations, and re- 
tain to this day customs, which throw light on many things men- 
tioned in the Bible. The people who have retained with most 
constancy and exactness their ancient habits, arc the wandering 


Arabs, who live in Uie Arabian desarts ; next to these are the itin- 
erant shepherds of Pale-tine, Syria, ]\Tesopotamia, Babylonia or 
Ef ak, Ei..ypt and the norlh part of Africa. Other nations come 
into the account, on the subject of biblical antiquities, in propor- 
tion to the nearness of their situation to the Hebrews. Further- 
more, we should make a distinction between what these writers 
liave seen and heard, and their conjectures and opinions ; for in 
«4« the one case they are witnesses, and in the other they assume the 
functions of a judge, a part which may be sustained by any 
person, provided he has the facts in the first place upon which 
he may build his judgirient. 







As it seems necessary, that something should be know^i re- 
specting the theatre of the memorable events in the Bible, be- 
fore proceeding further we shall give a concise view of biblical 
or sacred geography. Lest we should delay too long in the thresh- 
old, we shall not now discuss the situation of the countries, men- 
tioned Gen. 10:5 — 10, &,c, shall say nothing respecting the origin 
of the Tigris and Euphrates, and shall omit the geography of 
Asia Minor and Greece. We proceed, therefore, to state in a few 
words the situation of those countries, which occur most frequent- 
ly in the Bible. 

§. 5. Aramea., 

The region, which in the Bible is denominated Aram, is a 
vast tract, extending from mount Taurus south as far as Da- 
tjiascus and Babylonia, and from the Mediterranean sea in an 

6 § 5. AKAMEA. 

eastern direction beyond the Tigris into Assyria. Different parts 
of it are called by different names. 

I. Aram beth Rechob, aini IT'S Q'^N, otherwise called Assyria ; 
in the most limited meaning olthe term, it was a small province 
or peninsula surrounded by the Tigris, and the less and greater 
Zab. Its extent was increased in the progress of time by the ad- 
dition of seven other provinces, and in the age of Isaiah and Ahaz, 
it became, by the accession of other territories still which extend- 
ed into Syria and Palestine, the very large empire of Assyria. Its 
metropolis, Nineveh, was situated on the eastern shore of the Ty- 
gris, nearly opposite the site of Mosul at the present day. It was 
laid waste in the year 877 before Christ by Arbaces and Belysis, 
but was rebuilt; it was laid waste again by Cyasares I. and Na- 
bopolassarin the year 625 before Christ, and ever afterwards re- 
mained desolate. II. Aram Naharaim, Mesopotamia, now called 
by the Arabic name al-Gezira or the island, for it is almost sur- 
rounded by the Tygris and Euphrates. The provinces, into which 
it was divided were 1. the Mesopotamian plains, CnN "J^C, orJi'i"!) 
DIN, and 2. the province ofNesibene, 'n'2V^ 'D~\H. HI. Aram with- 
out any epithet attached to it, is Syria, now called by the Arabick 
name, Al-sham or the country to the left, because, when the 
Arab's face was turned towards the east, Aram or Syria lay upon 
the left, i. e. to the north. Its most celebrated cities, the ruins of 
which still remain, were Baalbec or Baal-Gad, 15 ^^'5, otherwise 
called Heliopolis; Tadmor, '^^73^n, or Palmyra; Aleppo, now 
called Haleb, 'Jla^H, and Antioch. Its minor divisions were 1. the 
kingdom of Damascus, p-L'73"5; 2. the kingdom of Maacha, Hiya ; 
3. the kingdom of Tob, laia ; 4. the kingdom of Hamath, nail ; and 
5. the kingdom of Geshur, 'ni^3, on the Orontes. 

!NoTr;. The orientals, when undertaking to designate the sever- 
al quartei's of the heavens, turn their face to the east. Hence 
Clp., which properlj' means in front or before means also the East ; 

bStt'iT, on the left hand means also the North ; pn^.^?) '^'inN, behind, 
and d"i the sea because it is in that direction, mean likewise the 
Wpst ; and 'j'^a^ the right hand means the South. 

§ 6. phenicia. 7 

§. 6. Phenicia. 

It is that part of Syria and Palestine, which borders on 
the shores of the Mediterranean, extending front the river 
Eleutherus, which empties between Orthosia and Tripoli, lat. 
34° 26', to Achziba or Ecdippa, lat. 32° 50', or, as some say, to 
Acco or Ptolemais at the mouth of the river Belus. It is a coun- 
try small in extent, though once celebrated for its arts and its 

Its principal cities were the celebrated Sidon and Tyre, the last 
of which was the most recent in point of origin, but eventually 
rose to the greatest distinction. It was overthrown by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, and afterwards rebuilt on a neighbouring island. It was 
again overthrown by Alexander the great, and was rebuilt, but 
never recovered its ancient greatness. 

§. 7. Media. 
Media, ^'^'i, between the 32d°and the 40th° of lat. is bound- 

T -~ 

ed on the west by Assyria and Armenia, on the north by the 
Caspian sea, on the east by Hyrcania and Parthia, and on the 
south by Persia. The metropolis was Echatana, Nn?2nN, now called 

^. 8. Persia, Susiana, Elymais. 

Persia is a tract of country, which extends from'Media, lat. 
34°, to the Persian gulf, lat. 27°, and embraces Susiana and Ely- 
mais, In a more restricted sense, it had Susiana on the west and 
Caramania on the east. In the latter sense, Susiana, whose me- 
tropolis was Shushan^ y^^'i^i was situated between Persia and Ba- 
bylonia, and was bounded on the south by the Persian gulf 
It is now called Chuzistan. Elymais, db^^i occurs in ancient books 
for the whole of Persia, but in a more limited signification it is 
that district, which is situated to the north of Susiana and the 
north-east of Babylonia, and is bounded in other directions by Media. 
Its limits, however, cannot be very accurately defined. 


§. 9. Babylonia, Chaldea. 

Babylonia was so denominated from its celebrated capital 
Babylon. In its greatest extent, it was bounded on the north by 
Armenia, and was then anciently called Shinar or Singar ; but 
when the limited meaning was attached to the word, it de- 
signated the tract bounded on the north by Mesopotamia, by 
Arabia Deserta on the west, and by the Persian gulf on the south. 
A section of the southern division of this country, situated on the 
western shore of the Euphrates, was ceded by the kings of As- 
syria to certain tribes of Chaldeans. Their original residence 
was not, as Michaelis supposes, the south eastern shore of the Eu- 
xine, but, as we learn from Xenophon, the southern and eastern 
part of Armenia. 

§ 10. Arabia. 

Arabia was called by the inhabitants of Palestine the eastern, 
and by the Babylonians the western country ; by the former yy^ii 
□"Ip. ai'aroh], and by the latter S'li^ or ^Qa^ta. 

Hence the Arabians were sometimes denominated D"lj?. "'^s or 
orientals, sometimes D'SJ^.i? or the people of the west, 2 Chron. 
ix. 14. Jer. iii. 2. The Arabs anciently denominated themselves, 
and do to this day by either of these names, with this peculiarity, 
however, in regard to the latter word, that they call the Bedouin 
Arabs or the dwellers in tents collectively Il'^y, but the inhabitants 
of cities, n'-i2?, comp. Jer. 35: 24. The division into Arabia the 
happy, the stony, and the deserted, which was made by Megas- 
thenes and Ptolemy, was unknown to the inhabitants of the east, 
and is not observed in the Bible. 

Arabia Felix is the name of that peninsula, which is so bordered 
by the Red Sea, more properly called the Arabian gulf, by the 
southern ocean, which was formerly in this part called the Red 
Sea, and by the Persian gulf, that it would be perfectly surround- 
ed, were a line drawn from the inland extremity of the Persian 
gulf to port Ailan or Aelan, situated near the eastern end of the 
Red Sea. 

That region, which is bounded on the east bv Arabia Deserta. 

§ 11. EGYPT. 9 

on the west by Egj'pt and the Mcrliterranean, on the south by the 
Red Sea, which here divides and rnns north in two branches, and 
on the north by Palestine, is called Arabia Petrea or the stony 
from the city Petrea, y^t?.. Idumea, otherwise called Seir, ^"^rir, 
is the north eastern part of Arabia Petrea. Finally, the tract, 
which has Arabia Felix on the south, Babylonia and the Euphra- 
tes on the east, the Euphrates and Syria on the north, and Gilead 
on the west, is called Arabia Deserta. There are large tracts in 
these regions, especially in Arabia Deserta, covered with rolling 
sands ; barren as they are, thej-^, nevertheless, occasionally supply 
pasturage to the wandering shepherds. J. 

§ 1 1. Egypt. 

Egypt, tS^.'^ii^q, "nili?:, tn y^i.X, extending from lat. 31° 27' 
to 23° 45', is bounded on the east b}^ Arabia Petrea and the Red 
Sea, on the south by Ethiopia or rather Nubia, on the west by the 
deserts of Africa or Lybia, and on the north by the Mediterranean. 
It has been divided into two parts, the lower or northern, 
which is called the Delta, and the upper or southern, which in Ara- 
bick is called <AaXao Zaid^ in Greek 0t]^aig, and in Hebrew 
Di'^riC, unless, which may be the case, by the Hebrew Phathros 
merel}'^ a district or canton is meant to be designated. It is some- 
times divided into three parts, in which case the lower part of 
Upper Egypt receives the name of Heptanomis, because it con- 
sisted of seven districts. The celebrated Nile, which is commonly 
denominated in the Bible, by way of eminence, ^jiT or the River, 
passes through Egypt. Every year in the months of August and Sep- 
tember it inundates the adjacent country, fertilizes it by a deposition 
of black mud, and empties at last into the Mediterranean. For- 
merly it had seven mouths, two of the principal of which remain. 
The most celebrated cities in this country are i«3 or "jv^N 5<: i. e. 
Thebes or Diospolis magna, the metropolis of Upper Egypt, long 
ago celebrated by Homer for its hundred gates, and still memora- 
ble for its ruins ; ;)i; or V\^J2, Memphis, almost on the division line 
between lower and upper Egypt, on the western shore of the 
Nile ; ^yi£ or Tanis, which yet remains in an island of lake Ten- 
nis or Mensale ; and Alexandria, built I'v Alexander on the shore 


of the Mediterranean near the western boundary of Egypt, cele- 
brated for its harbour. 

§ 12. Land of Gessen or Goshen and the river of Euyft. 

The region of Goshen. y^;\, in the Vulgate, Gessen, is called, 
Gen. 47: 6. II, V'nNn St2'?3 ur the land of pasture, and was, there- 
fore, not a cultivated part of Egypt. From 1. Chron. 7: 21, it is 
clear, that the boundary line of this tract w^as not Air from the 
city of G.iza. Hence it must have been the eastern part of lower 
Egypt, which extended along the shore of the Mediterranean, as 
far as Arabia Fetrea. This accounts for the circumstance, that 
the Alexandrine interpreter, who must have been acquainted with 
the geography of this region, renders Gen. 45: 10. Ffaev ^gaj^iag. 

From these particulars it appears, that Goshen was nearly of a tri- 
angular form, being bounded by a line drawn from Heroopolis to the 
river of Egypt, by the Mediterranean, and by the Pelusian branch of 
the Nile. But an inquiry arises here in respect to the position of 
the river of Egypt, which occurs so often in the Bible. Most 
probably it is the torrent, which, when it is swollen during the win- 
ter season, empties into the sea at Rhinocolura, now called al-Arish ; 
for the Septuagint renders t2""5i:73 bn3 by the word PtvoHoXovgu ; 
and Epiphanius, who was not less acquainted with these regions 
than the Alexandrine interpreter, asserts, Haer. 66, p. 703, that 
Rhinocolura was called by the inhabitants, v!:iX, which is evident- 
ly the word ^n:, uttered with different vowels. The traveller 
Helferich also, p. 385, says he came in 1565 to al-Arisch, situated 
in a country called Nechile, which is the word Vni again with a 
little alteration. Compare Brochard's Book of travels, p. 466 ; and 
Wanslpb, in the collection of Travels made by Paulus iii. 164. 
That other travellers have not found the river or torrent in ques- 
tion, is owing to the circumstance that its channel or valley was 
dry ; as might have been expected in the warm season, which was 
the time when they approached it. 

§ 13. Extent and Boundaries of the Hebrew territories. 

Canaan, li'DS, a region occupied in the first instance partly by 
the Canaanites, the posterity of Canaan the son of Ham, partly 


by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and promised by God to the posteri- 
ty of these patriarchs, is enclosed by the river Jordan, the Dead 
Sea, Arabia Petrea, the Mediterranean, and Syria. The divine 
promise, however, had respect at the same time to those territo- 
ries, which the Hebrews, when afterwards provoked to arms, should 
reduce to their authority. As soon as they were in a condition to 
penetrate to the hind, which had been occupied by the Patriarchs 
before them, they conquered the kings of Gilead, who had taken 
up arms by way of resistance, and occupied, by the right ot war, 
the tract which stretches from the river Arnon to the foot of mount 
Hermon or AntiUbanus, Num. 21: 21, et seq. Afterwards they 
subjected the neighbouring territories. The boundaries in refer- 
ence to this increased extent are defined, Gen. 51: 18 — 21. Num. 
34: i, 2. Deut. 11: 24. Josh. 1. 4. 11: 16, 17. 12: 1—7. 15—33. 

On the south, the boundary line ran with some irregularities from 
the end of the Dead Sea along Idumea and Arabia Petrea, as far as 
the river or torrent of Egypt. The pastures of Arabia Petrea, par- 
ticularly of the desert, which extends both through Petrea and De- 
serta as far as the Persian gulph and north along the Euphrates, 
remained free, for it was not possible to fix any definite limits in 
those regions. In the time of David the whole of Idumea as far 
as the bay of Elan submitted to the Hebrews. The furthest city 
in this direction, that belonged to them, is often mentioned by the 
name of Beersheba, i.'5UJ ^N2, which, however, was not situated on 
the boundary line. 

On the west, from the river of Egypt to the city Acco or Ptole- 
mais, or rather as far as Achziba, Josh. 19: 28, 29, the boun- 
dary was the Mediterranean Sea, called in Hebrew, bT^il^^ CJ*!n 
"jinnj^M D'ln, The Philistines, who were conquered by Da- 
vid, dwelt on its southern shore, within the limits just mentioned. 

They often threw off the yoke. From Achziba, the boundary 
received a direction north into the main land, and ran contiguous 
to Phenicia 78 English miles to lat. 34°, terminating at Apheca, 
which is situated between Biblum or Gible and Baal-Gad or Baal- 
bec. Phenicia, therefore, was not included in the territory of 
the Hebrews. Josh. 13:2' — 6. Comp. Numbers 34:6. and Josh- 
ua 19: 24—31. 

The northern boundary extended with many deviations from Aph- 
eca to the east, touched in Coelesyria upon the kingdom of Ha- 
math, and enclosed the city of Baal-gad, lat. 34°, near which ap- 


pears to have been situated the city of Dan, so often mentioned, 
as being: on the northern extremity of the kingdom. There the 
line ran south-east to Arabia Deserta, so as to exclude the king- 
dom of Damascus ; the whole of which, with the cities of Betack 
and Bairuth was at length occupied by the armies of David. It 
recovered, however, its freedom under his successors, and created 
much trouble to the kingdom of Israel. 

On the east, the Euphrates was the boundary assigned, Deut. 
11: 21. It cannot, however, be accurately determined, on account 
of the extensive deserts, which exist in that direction. The 
mountains of Gilead, which were suiijeclcd by ]Moses, approach 
the barren waste, whicli girds the sliore of the Euphrates, and as 
we learn 1 Chron. 5: 9, 16, supplied pasture to the tribes of Gad 
and Reuben. The tribes beyond Jordan, under Saul, subdued a 
large extent of country, 1 Chron. 5: 19. The Ammonites posses- 
sed the territory to the east of the river Arnon, and the Moabites 
inhabited the region to the south of the same river. So that the 
Arnon was the boundary, which separated the Hebrews on the east* 
from the Ammonites, and on the south from the Moabites, until 
they were subdued by David, who extended the lines of his do- 
minion, as far north as 36° 15' of lat. where the city Thip- 
sach or Tapsacus was situated. From these facts it is clear, that 
the kingdom of David and Solomon was very large, extending from 
the 2Sth to the 3oth of lat. and from the 52d to the 59th of longitude. 

§ 14. Face OP THE COUNTRY ; Mountains. 

Palestine is a mountainous country. Two ranges, the one on 
the east, the other on the west side of the Jordan, extend from 
Syria into Arabia, interrupted, however, in various places, by val- 
lics and level tracts of greater or less extent. The principal 
mountains are, 

I. Mount Lebanon. It is formed of two summits, which run 
north almost parallel from lat. 33° 12' to lat. 34° 32', and leave 
a valley in the middle, which is called Coelesyria, v,oiXriGvQia^ 
'5i;nVr| bnn and p":sb nyps, Gen. 10: 23. Jos. ll: 17. These 
mountains bcgm to ascend about three miles north of ancient Tyre, 
where the river Leontes, now called^iKasmie, which flows from 
Coelesyria or the valley between the mountains, empties into the 
sea. The western sum.Tiit is denominated Libanus, by the Greeks, 


and the eastern, Antilibanus ; but the Hebrews do not make this 
distinction of names, denominating both summits by the common 
name of Lebanon or Libanus. Libanus runs north from the mouth 
of the Leontes, bending' a little to the east, it leaves on the bor- 
ders of the sea a plain of different degrees of breadth. Some pro- 
montories, notwithstanding, two at least, project into the sea, the 
one near the mouth of the Lycus, now called Nahr el Khalb, lat. 
33° 16', the other, lat. 34° 50', called &fov ttoooojuoi: Anciently, 
on these mountains there grew cedars, of which there remain to 
this day from twenty to forty, though according to Arj'da only 
fourteen, of great size and antiquity, together with many smaller 
ones. Antilibanus runs from the mouth of the Leontes, at tirst, in 
an eastern direction, but soon alters its course and runs north, pa- 
rallel with Libanus. It is much higher than Libanus, and is crown- 
with perpetual snoms, Jer. xviii. 14. In the summer snow is also 
found on Libanus in the clefts and fissures, which are exposed 
to the north ; it is often brought down into the neighbouring cities, 
and mingled with the drink of the inhabitants, in order to render it 
more cool and refreshing, Prov. 25: 13. The highest peak of An- 
tilibanus was called by the Hebrews, Hermon ; by the Sidonians, 
Sirion ; and by the Amorites, Senir, Deut. 3: 9. In later times 
these three names were given to three separate summits, 1 Chron. 
5: 23. The part towards Damascus was called Amana, ln!:?3N, 
from which flow the two rivers Amana and Pharphar, 2 Kgs. 5: 
12. The pine and the fir flourish on Antilibanus. The height of 
these mountains is about 9000 feet. They exhibit a grand and 
imposing appearance ; many of the images, which occur in the 
Scriptures, are drawn from them. Isa. 10: 34, 29: 17, 25: 2. 

II. Carmel, This is a mountainous ridge, which begins to rise 
about thirteen miles south of Ptolemais, in the vicinity of a large 
bay formed by the sea. It stretches south Hi miles, and is 
40 miles in circumference, according to D'Arvieux nearly 60. 
The northern and eastern summits are higher than the southern 
and western. The northern summit or ridge projects into the sea, 
the southern recedes, and leaves a plain on the shore in the form 
of a half circle. The name itself is an indication of the fruitful- 
ness of these ridges, and of the vallies, which they form ; for ":-73"}5 is 
a contraction for ^N 0*^3.1 which means the garden of God, or a 
very pleasant region. The tops of these mountains are crowded 


with oaks and firs, the vallies with laurels and olives ; nor is there 
any deficiency of fountains and rivulets, so grateful to the inhabit- 
ants of the east. Carmel has been to the Hebrew prophets the 
source of many poetical images, Isa. 29: 17. .32: 15. 35: 2. Mich. 
7: 14. Jerem. 48, 33. Its many caves are worthy of notice, many 
of which existed in ancient times ; also the paths leading through 
continuous clefts in the rocks, where one may easily and eflectual- 
]y hide himself, Amos 9: 3. 2 Kings, 2: 25. 4: 25. There was 
another Mount Carmel, with a city of the same name, in the tribe of 
Judah, 1 Sam. 25: 5. 27: 3. 2 Sam. 3: 3. 

in. Tabor. liSn, ittu^vqiov, a singular mountain of an ob- 
long shape, in the direction from north to south, eleven miles east 
of Carmel, and about nine west of the Jordan, on the northern side 
of the plain of Je^reel or Ezdrelom. It is estimated to be nearly 
a mile high, and a journey of three hours in circumference at the 
bottom. On the top of the mountain is a plain of an oblong figure, 
like the mountain itself, and three thousand paces in circuit. On 
this plain there was formerly a city, probably the same with the 
city Tabor in the tribe of Zebulon, mentioned 1 Chron, 5: 77, and 
which, in Joshua 21: 34, is simply called nrT^p, a city. It is not 
the same with the Tabor, mentioned 1 Sam. iO: 3, which was two 
miles distant from Jerusalem. 

IV. The Mountains of Israel, also called the Mountains of Eph- 
raim, occupied nearly the centre of the whole country. To the 
south of them were the Mountains of Judah. Both ridges are 
fruitful, excepting those parts of the mountains of Israel, which 
approach the district of the Jordan, and those also, which extend 
from the mount of Olives to the plains of Jericho. These tracts 
are rough and uneven, and abound in hiding places for robbers, 
Luke X. 30. The highest peak in the mountains of Israel or E[)h- 
raim, seems to be what was formerly called the Rock Rimmon, 
Jud. XX. 45 — 17, but is now called Quarantania. The mountains 
Ebal and Gerizim are celebrated. They are separated from each 
other merely bj' an intervening valley, the former being to the 
north, the latter to the south of Shechem, Josh. 8. 30 — 35. 
Deuf. xxvii. In the mountains of Judah are numerous and large 
caves, of which Adullam, QVi?', is the most celebrated, I Sam. 
21: 1,2. Comp. also Gen. \'3: 9, 19. Josh. 10: 16. There was 
i\Uo a city of the name of Adullam, Josh. 15: 35. 

§ 15. PLAINS. 16 

V. Tkc Mountains of Gilead^ '^^'kK- They are situated east of 
the Jordan, and extend from Antilibanus or mount Jlermon into 
Arabia Petrea. The northern part is called Bashan. and was cele- 
brated for its oaks and pastures. The middle was denominated Gile- 
ad in the stricter sense. In the southern part were the mountains 
Abarim, Cn^i-", Among these, in the region of Jericho, arose the 
mountain Pheor or Phegor, also Nebo, from the summit of which, 
called Pisgah, the whole land of Canaan is visible. Deut. 3: 27. 
32: 48—50. 34: 1-2. comp. Mat. 4: 8. 

6 15. Plains. MSpa, iiVc*::, na^i>0'l''^"''3. 

The most celebrated are, I. The shore of the Mediterra- 
nean from the river of Egypt to mount Carmel. The tract 
from Gaza to Joppa is simply called !-i5:D"*yn, the plain. In 
this plain were the five principal cities of the Philistines, viz. 
Gaza, Askelon, Azotus, Gath, and Ekron or Accaron. The 
region reaching from Joppa to Carmel, which is somewhat 
hilly, was called Sharon. This is to be distinguished from a 
place, likewise called Sharon, situated between Tabor and lake 
Gennesareth ; and from a third place also of the same name, east 
of the Jordan in the tribe of Gad, celebrated for its pastures. 

II. The plain of Jezreel, bNy'^T'^i E^dQrjkoi^, f^ieya nidiov^ ex- 
tends from west to east, through the middle of Palestine, beginning 
at the Mediterranean and the mountain Carmel, and terminating at 
the egress of the Jordan from lake Gennesareth. Its length is 
from twenty-three to twenty-eight, and its breadth from nine to 
thirteen miles. The eastern part is called Sharon ; the western, 
the plain of Megiddo, ll.\73 ri^p2. See Judges 5: 33. 1 Sam. 
29: 1-: 11. 2 Kings, 2.J: 29. 2'Ciiron. 35: 22. 1 Macab. 4: 49. 

III. The region or district of Jordan. 'J^"^"?! 'l'S'3 or J^S^y ne- 
QiyiMQog Tov Jooduvov or fifya nfdiov, includes the shore on both 
sides of the Jordan, from tne lake Gennesareth to the Dead Sea. 
Its breadth from west to east is thirteen miles, its length from 
north to south, according to the corrected reading of Josephus, 
Bell. Jud. L. IV. c. 8. § 2, is 138 miles, which is too great a length 
to correspond with the distance between lake Gennesareth and 
the Dead Sea. Modern travellers make the length about 56 miles. 
This region may be divided, I. Into the plain of Jericho, irrn". n^"p3, 

16 ^ IG. FORESTS. 

which is watered and fertihzed by a small river, and is eight miles in 
length, and two and a quarter in breadth. II. The Valley of salt, 
reaching to the Dead Sea. 2 Kings 14: 7. 1 Chron. 18: 12. 
2 Chron, 25: II. III. The Plains of Moab beyond Jordan, 
aNl?3 '''lip, also iNl'a m'2'n^", in which the Hebrews pitch- 
ed their tents, Num. xxvi. 3. These plains are called, Num. 
25: 1, and .Tosh. 2: 1, 3: 1, Shittim, d'^D'Oiri Vns, or the val- 
ley of Acacia. A variety of words are applied to level plac- 
es or vallies, whose dilTerent shades of meaning cannot now 
be accurately determined, ^n;, however, is a valley, which has 
a torrent flowing through it in the winter: "a, ia, i<"i.n is a valley 
without any such torrent ; p/pi| is perhaps a deep valley, as ^i'P3 
is a broad valley or plain. Of these vallies, that of Hinnom 
'DtiTi "^a or disn 1!5. "'.?., near the southern wall of Jerusalem, is par- 
ticularly worthy of mention for tivo reasons. The one, that it 
sej)arated Judah from the tribe of Benjamin ; the other, because 
in a certain part of it was n5n Topheth 2 Kings 23: 10, 
where infants were burnt to the idol Moloch, Jer. 7: 31. 

§ 16. Forests. D'^n""'. 

Forests are mentioned in Joshua 17: 15, and in many other 
passages. They are mentioned so frequently as to convince us, that 
the Hebrews anciently were not often compelled, like the modern 
inhabitants of Palestine, to burn the excrements of animals for fuel ; 
although it may have sometimes been the case, as is probable from 
Ezech. iv. 18. The forests which are spoken of with the great- 
est praise in the Bible are, I. The cedar forest on mount Leba- 
non, see § 11. 1. also 1 Kgs. 7: 2. 2 Kgs. 19: 23. Hos. 14: 6 — 8. 
II. The forest of pines and firs on Mntilibanus, which was first re- 
duced into the possession of the Hebrews by David. 2 Sam. 8: 
5, 6. 1 Chron. 18: 4. III. The forest of oaks on mount Bashan. 
Zech. xi. 2. IV. The forest oj Ephraim, which the Ephraimites 
began to cut down so early as tlie time of Joshua, see ch. 17: 
15, but of which there were some remains as late as the time of 
David, 2 Sam. 18: 6, 8, 17. A part of it seems to have been the 
wood near the city of Bethel, mentioned 2 Kgs. 2: 24. 

V. A forest on the boundary line between Judah and Benjamin, 
near the city Baala, which was thence called Kirjath Jcarim, 

§ 17. DESERTS. 17 

^""1^. "-"^R^ or the city of the forest, Jos, 15: 9, 10. GO. Ezra 2: 
25, N:U.'l:29. VI. The forest Chareth rTin, and the forest 
Chorsha rtuj"^n. The latter was very hirge, in the tribe of Judah and 
the wilderness of Ziph, 1 Sam. 22: 5, 23: 14—16. Vll, The shrub 
fields on the shores of lake Merom and the Jordan, called y\i^^ 
ll"'-'^ </te pride, and, sometimes in the English translation, the swell- 
mgofthe Jordan. Zech. 1 1: 3, Jerem. 12: 5. 49: 19. 50: 44. VIII. 
The forest Joardes east of the Jordan, mentioned by Josephus as 
having been cut down by the Romans, see his Jewish War, B. vii. 
chap. 6. § 5. IX. The forests on the top of Carmel, and on the 
sides of mount Tabor, 

If at the present period forests are rarely to be met with in Palestine, we 
must remember,that not onl}' many of them were cut down by the Hebrews them- 
selves, but that they were often destroyed also by the enemies, who at different 
times laid waste Judea. We should not be surprised, therefore, if wood 
should be wanting for fuel, though not much is required in that warm climate, 
and that the dried excrements of quadrupeds should be used in its stead. 

§ 17. Deserts. 

The Deserts D'^'ianW, mentioned in the Bible, are uncultivated 
tracts of earth of two kinds; some mountainous, but not destitute 
of water ; others are plains, covered with sterile sands, in which 
foimtains are very rare, and still fewer are those, which afford 
water tit to drink. • They scarceh'^ make their way out of the 
thirsty earth and are soon absorbed again. These plains produce, 
notwithstanding, a scanty herbage, upon which the sheep, goats, 
and camels feed. The sands, which are scorched by the heat of 
the sun, are very light ; and are borne about by heavy winds, 
like the waves of the sea. One whirlwind piles them up in im- 
mense heaps and leaves them standing ; the succeeding one 
takes them and carries them to another place. In these deserts 
there were formerly villages and towns, Josh, 15: 61, 62. 1 Sam. 
23: 19. They were not standing in the days of Jerome, (Pro- 
log, in Comment. Amos.) 

The mountain deserts are not of so dreary and unproduc- 
tive a character. These deserts obtained names from the 
places, near which they were situated. The most celebrat- 
ed is the Great Desert, which according to Jerome, (Prolog. 


in Comment. Amos,) commences at the city of Tecoa, which 
was six miles south of Bethlehem. It extends through Arabia De- 
serta as far as the Persian gulf, and north along the Euphrates 
beyond the city of Bir. This large tract is called in the Bible the 
Desert ofJudah^ because it commences within the limits of that 
tribe, Josh. 19: 34. Ps. 63: 1. 2 Chron. 20: 20. Mat. 3: 1. Mark 
1: 4. John 10: 40. The Desert of h^ngedi is on the western shore 
of the Dead Sea and connects with the desert of Ziph. Both have 
lofty mountains and many caves. More to the south is the desert 
o? Maon. 11X72, the desert of Carmel with a city of the same name, 
the desert of Tecoa^ yipn. also with a city of the same name ; all 
of which are parts of the desert of Judah. The Desert of Jeri- 
cho is that chain of mountains, which separates the mount of Ol- 
ives from the city of Jericho. The Desert of Beth Aven seems 
to be part of mount Ephraim, which exhibits, as Josephus himself 
observes, in the part towards the Jordan, a bald and rough ap- 
pearance. Josh. 18: 12. 

§ i8. The Jordan, Lake Merom and Gennesareth. 

The only river in Palestine of any considerable size is the Jor- 
dan, which, as was first discovered under the tetrarchate of Philip, 
has its source from lake Phiala, at the foot of Mount Libanus. 
Having first measured from this lake a subterranean journey of 
thirteen miles, and three quarters,it bursts forth from the earth with 
a great noise at Paneas, otherwise called Cesarea Philippi, see 
Josephus' Jewish War, B. I. ch. 21. B. III. ch. 10. It then advances 
about thirteen miles further, and discharges its waters into lake 
Merom or Samochonitis. 

Lake Merom in the spring, when the water is highest, is 7 miles 
long and three and a half broad, but the marshes extend to Daphne, 
where the Jordan issues from it. 'In the summer it is nothing but 
a marsh ; in some parts indeed it is sowed with rice, but commonly 
it is covered with shrubs and rushes, which afford a hiding place 
to wild beasts, Jewish War, B. IV. ch. 1. § 1. 

The Jordan, after it has left Lake Merom, flows on thirteen 
miles, and enters lake Gennesareth, which is also called the sea 
of Galilee or Tiberias. The waters of this lake, which is sixteen 
miles long and five broad, are pure and sweet, and it abounds in 
fish, Strabo, p. 714. It is surrounded with fruitful hills and moun- 
tains, from which many rivulets descend. 

§ 19. THE DEAD SEA. 19 

The breadth of the Jordan, at its egress from the lake Gennesa- 
reth, is from 150 to 200 feet, and it is 7 feet in depth. With many 
windings it runs through the plain, which is denominated, from the 
river itself, the Region of the Jordan. From the west it re- 
ceives five tributaries, which are not much known ; from 
the east it receives the Jabbok, the Jaezer, the Keritli, and 
the Acacia torrent, so called from a valley of the same name. 
The Jordan owes its origin to the perpetual snows of Antili- 
banus ; consequently, in the time of harvest, which commences 
in the latter half of April, when it is swollen by the melted 
snows of that mountain, it dashes on rapidly, and fills the whole 
of its upper channel, Jos. 3: 15, 4: 18. 1 Chron. 12: 15, For 
the channel of the river in the vicinity of Jericho, the place, 
of which we are speakmg, is double. The lower one is ordinari- 
ly from 70 to 80 feet broad, through which the water flows the 
whole year; it is 10 or 12 feet deep, and the distance from the 
upper edge of the channel bank to the surface of the water is 
from 4 to 8 feet. The other channel, called the upper one, is 
broader than the lower, varying from 2 to 600 paces, and is filled 
in the beginning of summer by the swelling of the waters, as just 
observed. Travellers have commonly visited the Jordan either 
before or after this time ; hence they say nothing of its rise. 
Mirike, however, Travels, p. 119, testifies, that he found the up- 
per channel still wet and slippery. Many are inclined to suppose, 
that the river has hollowed the first channel so deep, that it now 
never passes it. 

§ 19. The Dead Sea. nS'lS?.!! Q:- 

The Jordan empties its waters into the Dead Sea, sometimes call- 
ed the Eastern sea, sometimes the seaof Siddim, sometimes the sea 
of the Plain; because it occupies the plain of Siddim, in which the 
cities of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim, and Zoar were situat- 
ed, Deut. 3: 17. Gen. 18: 20. 19: 24. et seq. Joel 2: 20. Zech. 14: 8. 
As the Jordan, before the celebrated destruction of this plain, dis- 
charged itself in the same place, that it now does, the conclusion is a 
necessary one, that the lake, which then existed, was subterranean, 
comp. Gen. 1 4: 3. It was covered with a crust of earth, which was 
sustained by the Asphaltus, a pitchy, bituminous substance, which 
emerged from the bottom of the Lake, and collected during a long 

20 § 20. THE DEAD SEA. 

course of years in large masses. The Asphaltus arises from the 
lake to this day, floats on its surface, and occasionally explodes, 
Isa. 24: 9—10. VVisd. 10: 7. Jude 7. Hence it has ohtameH the 
name of the Lake Asphaltites. This statement is continneu by 
Gen. It: 10, where mention is made of slimepits, through which 
the Asphaltus or bitumen penetrated from the subterranean water. 
This bitumen, being at length set on lire by the lightning, burnt, 
and the earth, by which it was covered, being deprived of its sup- 
port, sunk in the waters, and the lake made its appearance, Gen. 

Tiie lake is said to be G7 miles from north to south, and 17 in its 
greatest breadth from west to east. Its waters are a little im- 
pregnated with alum, and very much so with salt ; hence it is call- 
ed the Salt Sea, Gen. 14: 4, and because it preserves nothing alive 
in it, it is also called the Dead Sea. Wiiatever is immersed in its 
waters and taken out again, is covered with a crust of salt; which 
seems to have been the destiny of Lot's wife, unless indeed the 
discourse be merely of a monument heaped up of incrusted salt, 
Gen. 19: 26. The shores, excepting the north western, are moun- 
tainous. On the north west, is a plain, impregnated with salt, 
barren, scorched, and covered with cinders. This fact explams 
to us the origin of the custom of sprinkling salt upon desert places, 
unless reference be had in the custom to other salt vallies, of 
which there are numbers in the east, Deut. 29: 23. Jud. 9: 46. in 
this plain grows the solanuin melaiigenae, p'Vli ''^^^^ called the 
vine of Sodom, which bears what have been denominated the ap- 
ples and also tiie grapes and clusters of Sodom, otherwise called 
the bitter and poisonous grapes and clusters. They are said to be 
beautiful outside, but within, corruption and ashes. Deut. 32: 32. 
In the spring, wlien the Jordan rises, the lake itself is swollen. 
The inhabitants, therefore, dig pits on the shore, which receive 
the waters of the lake ; the water in the pits stagnates after the 
fall of the hike, goes off gradually in vapour and leaves a bed of 
salt, which sort of salt is used by the whole of that region, Zeph. 
2:9. Ezech. 47: 1). 

The other rivers, which empty into the Dead Sea are, L from 
the west, Kidron, ^fifia^^og rmv nfd^oiv^ John 18: 1, which arises 
in a valley of the same name between Jerusalem and the Mount of 
Olives ; its channel is dry except in the winter. Its direction is 

§ 20. OTHER RIVERS. 21 

tirst south, then east, through the steep cliffs of the desert Enge- 
(li, where it receives some accession by means of the torrents 
from the mountains, and then descends into the Dead Sea. II. 
Near the southern extremity flows in the Saphia or Saphria, a 
considerable stream. III. On the eastern shore, nearly in the cen- 

,{pt, is the mouth of the torrent Zerea and a little north of it, IV. 

^?»'che mouth of the river Arnon, which has its rise in the vallies of 
.rnijnt Gilead, from the torrents of that mountain. It flows first in 
a southern direction and then west, so as to form with the Dead 
Sea, the Jordan, and the Jobbak, a peninsula. The channel of 
this river, as we have already said, separated on the east the Gad- 
ites and the Reuhenites from the Ammonites, and on the south the 
Reubenites from the Moabites. 

§ 20. Other Rivers. 

Of the other rivers and torrents, which are somewhat celebrat- 
ed, may be mentioned, I. the Belus, ■iin"'TlJ ri3nV, a small river, 
according' to Phny only 4 miles in length ; it arises in the mountains 
of the tribe of z\sher and empties into the Mediterranean about two 
furlongs south of Ptolemais. The sand of its banks has been much 
used in the manufacture of glass, and it is said, '• that the making 
of glass first originated from this river." 

II. The Kishon. It arises from the foot of mount Tabor, where 
the Tabor unites with the mountain called little Hermon ; it then di- 
vides into two branches. The smaller share of the waters, that 
descend from these mountains, flows east through the valley of 
Jezreel into lake Gennesareth. The remainder, which forms the 
larger body of the two, runs west through the valley of Jezreel, 
and, after being increased by the accession of many small streams, 
enters the sea near Carmel. The last mentioned branch of the 
river was called Megiddo, and anciently divided the tribe of Issa- 
char from the tribe of Zebulon. 

III. The Brook of Reeds, !i3p i^ns ; it is dry, except in the win- 
ter. In its course from east to west, it formerly separated the 
tribe ofEphraim from that of Manasseh, Jos. 17: 8,9. It enters 
the Mediterranean south of Cesarea. 

IV. The Brook Eshkol ; it rises in the mountains of Judah and 
enters the Mediterranean at Askelon. It seems to be the same 
with the brook Sorek, Num. 13: 24. Jud. 16: 4. 


V. The Brook Besor ; it enters the sea at Gaza. 

Note. — It may be remarked here, that ^n: signifies a river, 
brook, or torrent, which flows in the winter, thoug'h it may be per- 
fectly dry in the summer ; while -)r^3 signifies a large stream, and if 
it have the article prefixed, almost always means the Euphrates. 

§ 21. On THE Climate of Palestine. 

The state of the atmosphere in this climate is different in differ- 
ent places, but it is not so changeable, as in some parts of 
Europe. We shall state its variations during the six divisions of 
the oriental year, mentioned Gen. 8: 22, which have been per- 
petuated to this day among the Arabians, see Golii Lex. Arab, 
p. 934. 

During the first part of the year, which is called ^''Jip or the 
harvest, and which extends from the middle of April to the middle 
of June, the sky is serene, the atmosphere in the latter part of 
April is warm, sometimes oppressively so, excepting in the vallies 
and on the shores of the sea, where it is temperate. The heat 
continues to increase, and to become more unpleasant towards the 
latter part of this division of the seasons. 

During the second part of the year, which is called Vip, the 
time of fruits or summer, extending from the middle of June to 
the middle of August, the heat is so severe, that the effect of it is 
felt through the night, and the inhabitants sleep under the open 

Thc'Iiird season, extending from the middle of August to the 
middl'j of October, is called D'n or the hot season; because in the 
commencement of it the heat continues very severe, although it 
soon begins to abate. 

From the time of harvest or the middle of April to the middle 
of September, there is neither rain nor thunder, Prov. 26: 1, 1 
Sam. 12:17, Jerome on Amos 4:7. Sometimes in the beginning 
of the harvest or the latter half of April, a cloud is perceived in 
the morning, which, as the sun rises, gradually disappears, IIos. 
6: 4. But in the months of May, June, July, and August, not a 
cloud is seen, and the earth is not wet, except by the dew, which 
is, therefore, every where used as a symbol of the divine benevo- 
lence, Gen. 27:28. 49:25. Deut. 32: 2. 33: 13. Job 29: 19. Mic. 


5: 7. The dew, copious as it is, affords no support in the severe 
heat of summer, except lo the stronger kind of herbs ; the small- 
er and less vigorous, unless watered from some rivulet or by hu- 
man art and labour, wither and die, Ps. 32:4. If at this season of 
the year, a spark or brand fall among the dry herbs and grass, a 
wide conflagration commences, especially if brambles, shrubs, or a 
forest be near, Ps. 83: 14. Isa. 9: 18. Jer. 21: 14. comp. Exod. 22: 6. 
Joel 1: 19. Jer. 9: 12. The country generally presents a squalid 
appearance, for the fountains and brooks are dried, and the 
ground is so hard, that it splits open into fissures. These effects 
are accelerated, if the east wind happens to blow a few days, 
Avhich is not only destructive to the vines and harvest fields on land, 
but to the vessels at sea on the Mediterranean, Hos. 13: 15. Job 
14:2. 15:2. Isa. 40:7, Gen. 41:6, 23. Ezech. 17: 10. 19: 12. 27:26. 
Ps. 48: 7. 103: 15. Acts 27: 14. Every wind is called by the ori- 
entals d'lpT an east wiiul^ which blows from an}' point of the com- 
pass between the east and north, and between the east and south, 
see Shaw's Travels, p. 285 and Prosper Alpinus de Medicina Egypti- 
aca, near the beginning. The breeze, which blows a few hours be- 
fore the setting of the sun in that climate, is called among the Per- 
sians to this time, as in Gen. 3: 7, the breeze of the day, i. e. the 
cooling or refreshing breeze of the day, see Chardin Voy. T. 
IV. p. 8. 

During the fourth part of the year, which is called S'^l or seed- 
time, i. e. from the middle of October to the middle of December, 
the appearance of the sky is various, sometimes dark and cloudy, 
but calm, and sometimes rainy. In the latter part of October, be- 
gin the first or autumnal rains, so necessary for the sower. The 
atmosphere still continues warm and at times it is very hot, but 
the weather gradually grows colder, and towards the end of this 
division of the seasons, the snows fall on the mountains. The 
brooks are still dry, and the water in the rivers is shallow. In 
the second half of November, the leaves fall from the trees. 
Some, who are less robust find the need of a fire, which they con- 
tinue almost till April, Jer. 36: 22 ; others do without one the 
whole winter. 

The fifth part of the year, S\'^,n, extending from the middle of 
December to the middle of February, constitutes the winter. 
The snows, which are then not unfrequent, scarcely continue 
through the day, except on the mountains ; the ice is thin and 


melts as soon as the sun ascends to any considerable height. The 
north winds are chill, and the cold, particularly on the mountains, 
which are covered with snow, is intense. The roads are slippe- 
ry, and travelling' is both tedious and dangerous, particularly 
through the declivities ofthe mountains, Jer. 13: 16. 23: 12. Sirach 
43: 22. Mat. 24: 20. When the sky is serene and tranquil and the 
sun is unclouded, the heat in the vallies and plains is sometimes 
great, as Josephus expressly testifies in regard to the plain of 
Cesarea near the sea. Thunder, lightning, and hail are frequent; 
the brooks are filled ; the rivers are swollen ; the fields are cov- 
ered with flowers. As January departs and February enters, the 
grain fields flourish ; the trees put fortli. their foliage ; the amyg- 
dalus, the earliest tree ofthe forest, is in bloom about the middle 
of February. 

Finally, the sixth part ofthe year from the middle of February 
to the middle of April is called ^ip or cold, because in the com- 
mencement of it the weather is still cold, though it soon grows 
warm and even hot. The rains still continue, but are diminished ; 
thunder and lightning and hail are frequent, though they cease to- 
wards the end of this season. The rain during this season is call- 
ed the latter rain. 

The first rain, or autumnal, and the latter, or vernal, are neces- 
sary to the fertility of the earth, and greatly to be desired, Lev. 
26: 4. Deut. 8:7. 1 !: 14, 17. Isa. 30: 23. Jerem. 3: 3. 5: 24. 
Hosea6:3. Joel 2: 3. Zech. 10: 1. Job 29: 23. Frov. 16: 15, 
25: 14. James 5: 7. Rains in those regions are cold, and 
are announced by previous whirlwinds, raising the dust, which 
are expressed, by Arabic words, which mean messengers, and 
good messengers or tidings, Koran, 7: 55. 77: 1 — 3. By the 
Hebrews they are sometimes called the word or the command of 
God, '"'I n-^QN, '•'•' 'nl'l Ps. 147: 15, 18, The north and west wind 
in particular indicate rain. 1 Kings 18: 42 — 45. Prov. 25: 23. 
If the evening be red, the morrow is expected to be serene, if 
the morning be red, rain is expected. Mat. 16: 2. 


The fertility of soil, so celebrated by Moses, is confirmed by the 
testimony of all, who have visited this region. Even the unculti- 


vated and desert tracts are not destitute of rich spots, although 
thej have comparatively but a small claim to the praise of fertili- 
ty. If the untilled and waste places at the present day afford no 
very prepossessing appearance, it ought to be remembered, that 
they were predicted by Moses, Deut. 59: 22. etseq. and that the 
country has been laid waste successively by Assyrians, Chaldeans, 
Syrians, Romans, Saracens, the European crusaders, the Turks, 
and Moguls ; and that it now groans under the dominion of the 
Turks, who neither protect the agriculturalist from the incursions 
of the Arabs, nor afford him any encouragement, but the contra- 
ry. And yet it is the unanimous testimony of travellers in regard to 
this country, that, where it is cultivated, it is extremely fertile. 
It produces all sorts of fruit-trees; and vines are not wanting, al- 
though the Mahometans do not drink wine. There are abund- 
ance of domesticated animals, of wild beasts, and birds. Josephus, 
Jewish War^ B. III. c. 3. § 3. praises Perea^ (which at the present 
time is a desert,) for its vines and its palm trees ; and particular- 
ly celebrates the region near the lake Gennesareth, also the 
plain of Jericho, which are now uninhabited and desolate, B. 
III. c. 10. § 8. B. IV. c. 8. § 3. Indeed, we are informed by Jo- 
sephus, that in Galilee there were 204 cities and towns, that the 
largest of the cities had 1 50,000, and the smallest towns 1 5000 inhab- 
itants. Hence we can account for it, that Josephus himself in this 
small province, short of 40 miles long and 30 broad, collected an 
army of nearly an 100,000 men, J. War. B. II. c. 20. § 6. As so 
many people were collected in such a small extent of countr}', it is 
clear, that the arts and commerce must have been patronized, 
and consequently the sciences ; which leaves us to conclude, that 
the miracles of Jesus were performed in a country, where they 
could be examined and fairly discussed. The reproach, which 
is cast upon Galilee in John 7: 52, has no reference to the char- 
acter of its soil or climate, but only to the fact, that the prophet 
or Messiah was not to be expected from that part of Palestine. 

Note. — There is an intimation in Deut. 8: 9, that there were 
7nines in Palestine, but we do not any where learn, that they were 
wrought by the Hebrews. The author of the book of Job men- 
tions mines., in the commencement of his 28th chapter, but it is 
not certain, that he has reference to Palestine ; and a very general 
mention is made of them in Ps. 05; 4, Isa. 51: 1. It is a well-known 


fact, that mines, at a comparatively recent period, were wrought 
at Sarepta, a city of Phenicia. Scanty as our information is in re- 
gai'd to their mines, there is, nevertheless, reason to believe, that 
the Hebrews understood metallurgy^ or the art of smelting ores; 
for we find mention made of an iron furnace^ ^!'^.2il "S'^'^-, Deut. 
4: 20, 1 Kgs. 8; 51, Jer. 11; 4 ; otherwise called the furnace, of 
silver ore, i. e, a furnace for retining silver-ore, r|D3 t3"'^ip ^^3, 
Ezech. 22: 18 — 22 ; called also the gold furnace, aiTlT ^?i3, i. e, a 
furnace for refining gold, Prov. lY; 3, 27: 21. The word 5:10 or 
5''D, a metallurgical expression, means, (1.) a sort ofunrefined ore, 
which, when melted, is employed in glazing earthen vessels, Prov. 
26: 23; (2.) it means also alloy or metal of a meaner sort, which, 
by melting them together, was artificially combined with gold and 
silver, Ps. 119; 119, Prov. 25:4, Isa. 1:22,25. Ezech. 22: 

" Fuller's soap," n'^'^ia, which was employed not only in wash- 
ing garments, but in cleansing gold and silver from the dross, was 
well known, Mai. 3: 2, Jer. 2: 22. 


I. It is often afflicted with the pestilence, which enters from 
Egypt and other countries, and is frequently spoken of in the Bi- 

II. Earthquakes are common ; see Abdollatif Denkwiird. Ae- 
gypt. p. 335, et seq. The city of Jerusalem rarely received 
any detriment from this source, Ps. 46: 3, et seq. The earth- 
quakes, by which the country, with the exception of Jerusalem, 
was so often shaken and laid waste, were a source of images to the 
prophets, by which any scenes of destruction and overthrow were 
represented, Ps. 60: 2—3. Isa. 29: 6. 54; 10. Jer. 4: 24. Hag. 
2: 6, 22. Mat. 24: 7, 

III. Thunder, lightning, hail, inundations, and severe winds hap- 
pen in the winter, Isa. It: 15. Pliny, Histor. Nat. ii. 49. Shaw's 
Travels p. 289. From these operations of nature, the prophets 
borrowed many figures, Ps. 18:8 — 15. 29:1 — 10. 42:7. Isa. 
6:30. 8: 7, 8. 11: 15. 28: 2". 29: 6. 24: 18. Mat. 7: 25. 

IV. Vast bodies of migrating locusts, rtSl'lN, called by the Orien- 
last the armies of God, lay waste the country. They observe as 


regular order, when they march, as an army. At evenhig- they 
descend from their thght^ and form, as it were, their camps. In the 
morning, when the sun has risen considerably, they ascend again, if 
they do not find food, and lly in the direction of the wind, Prov. 30: 
27. Nah. 3:16, 17. They go in immense numbers, Isa. 46: 23, and 
occupy a space of 10 or 12 miles in length, and 4 or 5 in breadth, and 
are so deep, that the sun cannot penetrate through them ; so that 
they convert the day into night, and bring a temporary darkness on 
the land, Joel 2: 2, 10. Exod. 10: 15. The sound of their wings is 
terrible, Joel 2: 2. When they descend upon the earth, they 
cover a vast tract a foot and a half high, Joel 1:5. 2: 11, Jud. 6: 
6. 7: 12. Exod. 10: 15. If the air is cold and moist, or if they 
be wet with the dew, they remain where the}' happen to be, 
till they are dried and warmed by the sun, Nahum 3: 17. They 
decamp at length in good order and march almost in a direct line 
north. Nothing stops them. They till the ditches which are dug 
to stop them with their bodies, and extinguish by their numbers 
the fires, which are kindled. They pass over walls and enter 
the doors and windows of houses, Joel 2: 7 — 9. They devour 
every thing which is green, strip off the bark of trees, and even 
break them to pieces by their weight, Exod. 10: 12, 16. Joel 1: 
4,7, 10,12, 16, 18,20. 2:3. They make a loud noise when 
eating, Jer. 51: 14. The greatest part of the evil is, that the 
first army of locusts is likely to be succeeded by another, a third, 
and a fourth, which consume all that is left, and leave the ground 
in appearance, as if it had been burnt over with fire. When they 
have consumed every thing, they fly away in the direction of the 
wind, leaving behind them not only their fcetid excrements, but 
their eggs, buried in the ground, from which is produced in the 
following spring a much more numerous progeny of these evil 
invaders. They are borne at length over the sea, an element with 
which they have not formed an acquaintance. They descend up- 
on it, as they do upon the land, and are drowned. They are driv- 
en by the waves upon the shore, where they putrify, and render 
the air so corrupted, as to breed the pestilence, Exod. 10: 13 — 20. 
Joel 2: 20. These locusts are much longer than those among us, 
being 5 or 6 inches long, and an inch and a half thick. The form 
of the head is like that of a horse. Hence they are often com- 
pared to horses. In some instances, it is like the human head, 
Apoc. 9: 7. Their teeth are sharp and are compared to those of 


lions, Joel 1: 6,2: 4. There are different species of them ; eight 
or nine occur in the Bible. 

V. Famine is a consequence of the devastations of the locusts, 
and of the defect of the first and latter rain. Famines have been 
so severe, that, in besieged cities, the inhabitants have been reduc- 
ed to the necessity not only of eating animals, not fit to be eaten, 
but human bodies, Deut. 28: 22—49, 2 Sam. 21 ch. 2 Kgs. 6: 25, 
28, 25: 3, &c. 

VI. The evil of the greatest magnitude is the wind, called by 
the Arabs Samoom, by the Turks Samycl, and by the Helirews 
ns^-^T, Ps. 11:6, n? m-i, Jer. 4: 11, "li^s tlT'^, Isa. 4: 4. npp_ n-;;??^. 
Isa, 27: 8. It blows in Persia, Babylonia, Arabia, and the deserts of 
Egypt, in the months of June, July, and August; in Nubia, in 
March and April, September, October and November. It con- 
tinues not longer than 7 or minutes ; but it destroys in a moment 
every person, whom it passes, who stands erect. They fall dead 
and lie, like one sleeping. If a person takes hold of their hand, 
to arouse them, it falls off. The body soon after turns black. 
This wind does not extend high in the air, nor descend below the 
altitude of two feet from the earth. Hence travellers, when they 
see it approaching, commonly fall prone upon the ground ; place 
their feet in the direction of the wind, and apply their mouths as firm- 
ly as possible to the earth, breathing as little as they can, lest they 
should receive into their lungs any of the passing Samoom. The 
indications of the Samyel's approach are distant clouds, slightly 
tinged with red, in appearance something like the rainbow ; also 
a rushing noise ; of the last circumstance, however, some persons 
do not make mention. 

In houses and cities, its ])ovver is not felt. Animals, though 
exposed to it, do not perish, but they tremble through all their 
limbs, and instinctively thrust down their heads. The Arabians 
sometimes use the word Samoom in a broader sense, to denote 
an}'^ hot wind, which continues for a long time. In a similar wa}^ 
the Hebrews use the word D'^'lp, comp. Ps. 103: 15 — 16, Sz.c. 

§ 24. Division of Palestine among the Israelites. 

The Hebrews, having taken the country by arms, divided it 
among the twelve tribes. The posterity of Joseph, it is true, had 


been divided into two, those of Ephraim and Manasseh, but the 
tribe of Levi received only 48 cities for its portion, which left 
twelve tribes, among whom the main body of the country was to 
be divided. 

The region bej'ond the Jordan was assigned by Moses to the 
tribes of Reuben and Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, Deut. 
3:12 — 21, Jos. 12:1—6, 13:8—33. The southern part of this 
tract ivas allotted to Reuben ; it was bounded on the east and south 
by the river Arnon, on the borders of which river were situated 
the Ammonites to the east, and the Moabites to the south ; the 
western limit was the Dead Sea and the Jordan. The tract of 
country called Gilead, in the more limited sense of the word, ex- 
tending north of Reuben to the lake Gennesareth, became the por- 
tion of the tribe of Gad. The remainder, which was the northern 
portion on the further or eastern side of the Jordan, fell to the 
half tribe of Manasseh. 

The remaining nine and a half tribes took up their abode on 
this, i. e. the western, side of the Jordan. The territory allotted 
to Judah was the tract, which runs from the southern boundary 
of Palestine in a northern direction, as far as the entrance of the 
Jordan into the Dead Sea, the valley of Hinnom, and the northern 
limits of the city Ekron, Jos. 15: 1 — 15. As this portion, in a 
subsequent division of the country, was too large, a tract was set 
off on the western side of it towards the Mediterranean, the sou- 
thern part of which w-as allotted to the tribe of Simeon, and the 
northern to that of Dan. The limits of these two tribes are not 
defined ; the cities merely, which they obtained, are mentioned, 
Jos. 15: 2—12, 19: 1—9, 40 — 47. This part of Palestine 
was divided, according to the face of the country, into a?.5 or 
the southern district, i^Ib^^t^ or the Plain bordering on the Medi- 
terranean sea, the mountain or the hill-country of Judah, and 
the Desert of Judah, Jos. 11: 16. Luke 1: 39. To these the pro- 
phet Jeremiah adds the following geographical divisions, viz. the 
Land of Benjamin, and the Country round about Jerusalem, but he 
has reference to a period after the separation of Israel, Jer. 32: 
44 33: 13. 

[The canton, allotted to the tribe of Benjamin, lay between the 
tribes of Judah and Joseph, contiguous to Samaria on the north, 
to Judah on the south, and to Dan on the west, which last parted 
it from the Mediterranean.] Home's Introduc. vol. iii. p. 12. 


The tribe ofEphraim received the tract, extending to the north 
of Benjamin as far as the Brook of Reeds, Jos. 16: 1 — 4. 0. 17: 
7 — 10. By the same lot, the second half of the tribe of Manasseh 
received its portion, the limits of which cannot, therefore, be ac- 
curately defined, Jos. 16:4. 17:9. It is clear, however, that the 
tribe of Manasseh come north of Ephraim and the Brook of 
Reeds, and, though on the east it fell short of the Jordan, that it 
extended on the west as far as the Mediterranean, Jos. 17: 10. 

The tribe of Issachar, which was situated north of the half tribe 
of Manasseh, obtained for its inheritance the plain of Jezreel. It 
extended south along the Jordan as far as the tribe of Ephraim. 

Its northern limit was mount Tabor, but it does not appear to 
have reached to the Mediterranean, Jos. 17: 10. 19: 17 — 23. 

The canton of Asher extended from Carmel or the boundary 
line, by wrhich the half tribe of Manasseh was limited on the west, 
in the first instance in a northern direction along the shores of the 
Mediterranean, and then along the borders of Phenicia to the 
city Apheca, Jos. 19: 24-31. 

The tribe of Zebulon was situated east of Asher and north of 
Issachar, and extended as far as the egress of the Jordan from 
lake Gennesarcth, Jos. 19: 10—15. Mat. 4: 13. 

The remainder of Palestine was allotted to the tribe of ?Taph- 
tali ; this canton was bounded by the tribes of Asher and Zebulon, 
the lake Gennesareth, the Jordan, and the northern line of the 
whole kingdom, where, however, a colony of Danites took up 
their residence in the city of Lais, afterwards called Dan, Jos. 19: 
32—39, Jud. 13. 

After the death of Solomon a contention arose and the whole 
country was divided into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. The 
boundary line between them was the northern limit of the tribe 
of Benjamin. 

§ 25. Division of Palestine in the time of Christ. 

In the time of Christ the country on the western side of the Jor- 
dan was divided into three principal provinces. 

1. Galilee. By this name, which occurs a number of times in 
Joshua, and at a later period very often, is meant the territory, 
which is surrounded by Phenicia, Syria, Jordan, the lake Gen- 


iiesareth, and the plain ofJczreel. It is in the north of Pales- 
tine, and was divided into lower or southern, and northern or up- 
per Galilee. The latter section was denominated Galilee of the 
Gentiles, FaliXuia tmv edvMv, D'.iafj b"'b-"\, Mat. 4: 15. 

II. Samaria ; it was situated nearly in the centre of Palestine, 
but, though it ran across the country, it did not extend down to 
the Mediterranean, It reached from Ginea and Scythopolis on 
one side, to Acrabatene and Annuath on the other, John 4. 

III. JuDEA, which comprehended Idumea as far as the town of 
.lardan in Arabia Petrea, and also the shore of the Mediterranean 
as far as Ptolemais, was surrounded by Samaria, the Jordan, the 
Dead Sea, Arabia Petrea, and the Mediterranean. 

In Perea or the country beyond the Jordan, that is, on the 
eastern side of it, were eight provinces or cantons. 

I. Perea, in the more limited signification of the word, viz, 
the southern part of the whole district, extending from the river 
Arnon to the river Jabbok. 

II. GiLEAD, situated north of the Jabbok. 

III. Decapolis, or the district often cities, which were inhabit- 
ed chiefly by the heathen or gentiles. Their names were as fol- 
lows ; Scythopolis, which lies west of the Jordan, Hippos and Ga- 
dara, Pella, Philadelphia, Dion, Canath, Gerasa, Raphann, and 
perhaps Damascus; in the enumeration of the ten cities of this 
district, however, ancient historians are not agreed, see Pliny H. 
N. Lib. V. c. 18. Mark 5: 1, Luke 8: 2o, Mat. 8: i'8. 

IV. Gaulonitis, a tract extending on the eastern shore of the 
lake Gennesareth and the Jordan as far as Hermon. 

V. Batanea, the ancient Bashan, through somewhat diminished 
in its limits. It lies to the east of Gaiilonitis and the north 
of Gilead. 

VI. AuRANiTis, formerly Chauran or Chavran. ITlH, Ezech. 
47: 16 — 18, also called Iturea, was situated to the north of Bata- 
nea and to the east of Gaulonitis, Luke 3: 1. 

VII. Trachonitis, to the north of Auranitis and to the east of 
Paneas otherwise called Cesarea Philippi, by which it was sepa- 
rated from Galilee ; it vvas celebrated for its caves, which were 
inhabited in the time of Herod. 

VIII. Abilene, on the northern limits of this territory, situated 
between Baalbec and Damascus from lat. 33" 30' to 33° 40' ; it 


was called also Abilene Ljsaiuas, from the robber Lysanias, who 
purchased it from the Romans. Luke 3: I. 



§ 26. The earliest shelters were shady trees and caves. 

As men in the primitive condition of society were unacquaint- 
ed with the arts, they were not of course in a condition to 
erect houses ; they lived, consequently, under the open sky. In 
unpleasant weather, whether hot or rainy, they sought for a shel- 
ter under shady trees, in the clefts of rocks, and such caves as they 
happened to discover. Nor are we to suppose, that shelters of 
this kind were altogether inadequate. The inhabitants of mount 
Taurus even to this day, in a climate much more severe than that 
of Palestine, live in caves, as also do the wandering shepherds of 
Arabia Petrea, either in caves and the clefts of rocks, or beneath 
the shade of trees. 

^ 27. the more recent troglodytes or dwellers in caves. 

Caves are not only numerous in the east, but many of them are 
both large and dry. They formed convenient dvvelhngs, being 
warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Hence in a com- 
paratively recent age, Avhen dwellings of a different kind were 
commonly resorted to, the caves were still preferred by many, 
especially by those, who had emigrated to distant regions. The 
dwellers in caves whom we find mentioned, at quite a late peri- 
od, were robbers, who had abandoned the restraints of society, 
and were the latest occupants of these abodes. The inhabitants 
of caves and mountains commonly occur in the Old Testament 
under the designation of Horites ; in regard to whom we are in- 
formed more particularly, 

§ 28. TABERNACLES. 33 

I. Of the inhabitants of mount Seir ; they chiefly occupied the 
mountains of Seir, but were found dwelling as far as Paran in 
Arabia Petrea, Gen. 14: 6. 21: 21. Deut. 2: 12, 22. Num. 10: 12. 
Gen. 36: 20—30. 

II. Of the Rephaims, who in addition to their caverns had some 
fortified cities, and were divided into three tribes, as follows ; (1.) 
The Emims, who dwelt in the region, which theMoabites afterwards 
occupied, Deut. 2: U — 12. (2.) The Zamzummims, men of large 
stature, living in the region, which was afterwards possessed b}'- 
the Ammonites. (3.) The Rephaims, or giants strictly so called, 
who lived in the country of Bashan, were also of large stature, 
and were driven out by the Hebrews, Deut. 2: 10 — 23. 3: 3 — 16. 

ill. Of the Troglodytes, or, as the Hebrews denominated them, 
the sons of the caves, aip'y iS2, called in the English version 
Anakims, Deut. 1: 28. 2: 10. 9:' 1 — 2. The three tribes, into 
which they were divided were, (1.) the Nephilim, Num. 13: 33. 
(2.) The clans of Achiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, Num. 13: 22, 23. 
Jos. 14: 15. (3.) The Anakims, inhabiting Debir, Anab, and the 
mountains of Jiidah, Jos. 11: 21,22. (4.) The Anakims around Ga- 
za, Gath, and Ashdod, 1 Sara. 17: 4. 

Note. — The caves, of which we have spoken, when they had 
become less frequently selected for the abodes of the living, were 
employed as sepulchres for the dead. Gen. 23. In times of perse- 
cution and war also,- those, which were not conver^^into ceme- 
teries, nor occupied, as they sometimes were, by^hferdes of robbei"s, 
became a refuge to the oppressed and the vajri.quished, Jos. 10: 
16. Jud. 15: 8. 20:45. 1 Sam. 13:6, 22: I^et seq. In these 
caves, the necromancers sometimes practised their inauspicious 
arts and the beasts of the forest found a/j^welling place, 1 Sam. 
28: 8—24. 

§ 28. Tabern-acles. 

As caves could not always he readily found, and as it was some- 
times great labour to excavate one, men were compelled by the 
exigencies of their situation, to form some other sort of residence. 
The shady trees and tall shrubs, whose tops approached each oth- 
er and were twisted together, suggested the plan of cutting down 

34 § 20. ON TENTS. 

large branches, fixing them into the ground in parallel lines, binding 
them together at the top, and covering them with leaves, herbs, 
reeds, branches, and even broad flat stones, in order to shield 
themselves from the cold, the heat, and the dew. Thus they 
built tabernacles, huts, or lodges, in Heb. nSD, The Romans 
called them Mappalia. They were small and low in the begin- 
ning, so that a person could not stand erect, but was obliged either 
to lie down or to sit, but afterwards were built higher. 

The use of these tabernacles did not cease, even after the 
erection of more stable and convenient dwellings. They were fre- 
quently made, sometimes from necessity,sometimes for convenience, 
and sometimes for pleasure, and are to this day erected in the 
summer among the wandering tribes or Nomades of Mesopotamia. 
A collection of such tabernacles is called in Heb. ni^tl and MT'C . 
The word ri"i'^D is used, however, for uncovered sheep-cotes, 
towers, castles, and turrets. Gen. 33: 17. Ps. 27: 5. Jon. 4: 9. 
Mat. 17: 4. Gen. 25: 16. Ezech. 25: 4. 1 Chron. 6: 64. Num. 31: 
10. Cant. 8: 9. 

§ 29. On Tents. 

As tabernacles, which could not readily be moved from place 
to place, and from a want of materials could not every where be 
built, were made partly of skins^ the design arose of erecting a 
shelter zvholly of skins extended round a long pole, and so light, as 
to be easily moved from one place to another. It was tents of 
this kind, we may suppose, which Jabal invented. Gen. 4: 20. 
In the progress of years they were no longer covered with skins, 
but with various kinds of cloth, particularly linen. The Nomades 
of the east still use them. They pitch them in any place, which 
appears suitable, but they give the preference to a spot near some 
shady tree, Gen. 18: 4. Judg. 4: 5. 


The 6rst tents, which were made, were undou btedly round m 
their construction, and small in size ; afterwards they were made 
larger and oblong. The Nomades of Arabia Petrea have two 
- kinds, the one larger, the other smaller, Gen. 33: 17. 


They call the former kind, in distinction from the smaller 
ones, baiton or houses. The smaller tents are sustained by three 
poles only, and covered with a fabric, woven of wool and camel's 
hair; the large ones are sustained sometimes by seven, and some- 
times by nine poles. The three longest of these poles, whether 
seven or nine in number, are erected in the middle, and on each 
side of the middle row are placed 2 or 3 others parallel, though 
shorter much than those between them ; they are covered with a 
black cloth made of goat's hair. The pole in the middle is taller than 
any of the rest, though it rarely exceeds 8 or 10 feet. The Ara- 
bians take a pleasure in pitching their tents on hills, in such a 
way, as to form a sort of circular encampment. When thus pitch- 
ed, being of a dark J ijie,_ they exhibit a beautiful appearance to 
the distantly approaching travellers, Cant. 1: 5. The flocks and 
cattle during the night are driven into the space in the centre 
of the encampment, called l^cn, and guarded by dogs. Job 30: 1. 
Some one of the shepherds keeps watch also during the night, a 
duty, which is performed alternately, Isa. 56: 9 — 11. The tent 
of the Emir is pitched in the centre of the others, which are about 
30 paces distant, and is both larger and higher. The Emir has 
a number of tents in addition to the one appropriated to himself; 
viz, one for the females of his famih', one for his servants, and 
a third, covered with green cloth for the reception of those, who 
wish to see him on business or come to render him their homage. 
On the same principle are arranged the tents of the subordinate 
Emirs when in the company of a superior Emir or chief, at some 
distance, it is true, but as D'Arvieux testifies, not exceeding 4i 

§ 31. Internal structvre of tents. 

The larger kind of tents are divided by curtains into three parts, 
as was done also in the holy Tabernacle. In the external divi- 
sion or apartment the servants lodge, and during the night the 
young animals also, to prevent their sucking the dam. In the se- 
cond apartment are the males, but if the tent be smaller than usu- 
al, all the males of the tent, together with the animals just men- 
tioned, are lodged together. The third or interiour apartment, 
called M^p.i is allotted to the women, Num. 25: 8. The more 

36 § 30. HOUSES, 

\vealt!iy assigri the external apartment to the servants alone, ex- 
cluding animals ; and the Emirs, as already stated, have separate 
tents both for the servants and the females^ Gen. 24: 67. The 
Nomades, who are less jealous, than the inhabitants of the cities, 
watch the other sex less scrupulously,! Gen. 12:15, 18:6 — 9. 
34: 1— 2. "1 ^ 

The bottom of the tent is either covered with mats or with car- 
pets according to the wealth of the possessor, and upon these they 
are in the habit of sitting. The more wealthy of the Nomades, 
especially the Emirs, possess in addition, coverlets, pillows, &c. 
made of valuable materials; these are piled up in one corner of 
the tent by day, and brought upon the bottom of it at night. The 
utensils of the Nomades are few ; they have vessels of shell 
and brass, viz, pots, kettles, and cups of brass covered ele- 
gantly with tin, also leathern bags. Their hearth is on the 
ground. It consists of three stones, placed so as to form a trian- 
gle. In the middle of them is a sriiall excavation of the earth, 
where the tire is kindled ; the vessels are placed over it upon the 
stones. The table, if so it may be called, from which they eat, is 
nothing more than a round skin spread upon the bottom of the 
tent. Clothing and military arms are hung upon nails in the poles 
of tiie tent. 

§ 32. Houses. 

In the progress of time, as tabernacles became larger and were 
defended agaiiT?t the injuries of the weather by broad stones and 
earth heaped up against them, it was found, that dwellings could 
be made of stones alone and moist earth or clay. A want of stones 
in some places gave occasion for the formation of tiles, which were 
made by reducing a body of clay to shape and hardening it in the sun 
or burning it in the tire. These ancient attempts are mentioned, 
Gen. H: 3, 6: 16. In Deut. 8: 12, mention is made of elegant 
houses, and in 27: 2, 4, the use of limestone is spoken of, as if it 
were common and well known. 

§ 33. Size of Houses. 
Houses at first were small, afterwards larger; especially in 


extensive cities, the capitals of empires. The art of multiplying 
stories in a building is very ancient, as we may gather from the 
construction of Noah's ark and the tower of Babel. The houses 
in Babylon, according to Herod. Lib. 1, § ISO, were 3 and 4 stories 
high, and those in Thebes or Diospolis in Egypt, 4 or 5 stories; 
consult Diod. Sic. Lib. I. c. 45. They appear to have been I 
low in Palestine in the time of Joshua ; an upper story although it ' 
may have existed, is not mentioned, till a more receht age. Jeremiah 
praises houses of good form and architecture, and caUs them niiTD 
Tm, Jer. 22: 14. The houses of the rich and powerful in the time 
of Christ were splendid, and were built according to th<i rules of 
Grecian architecture. 

§ 34. Form and roof of houses. 

Many of the larger houses were tetragonal in form, and enclos- 
ed a square area. They were latterly denominated by a word of 
Persian origin ln'^"'2, §aQvg, a palace^ which according to Jerome, 
in whose time it was still used, signifies enclosed houses, built with 
turrets and walls. The roofs of the houses were flat, such as are 
still seen in the east. They were formed of earth heaped togeth- 
er, or in the houses of the rich, of a firmly constructed flooring, 
made of coals broken up, stones, ashes, chalk and gypsum, reduc- 
ed to a solid substance by the application of blows. The declivi- 
ty of the roof from tire centre to the extremity is very small, hard- 
ly an inch in 10 feet. On those roofs, which are covered with 
earth, herbs sometimes spring up, and spears of wheat and barlej'^, 
but they soon perish with the heat of the sun. The orientals of- 
ten ascend these roofs, to enjoy a purer air, to secure a wider pros- 
pect, or to witness any event which happens in the neighbourhood. 
In the summer they sleep upon thera^ but not without a cover- 
ing. They even erect tents and tabernacles upon them ; they 
also spread their flax and cotton there to be dried by the sun. 
They ascend their roofs, moreover, to talk with a person private- 
ly, to witness a publick solemnity, to mourn publickly, and to an- 
nounce any thing to the multitude, to pray to God, and to perform 
sacrifices. The roofs are surrounded by a breast work or wall, 
to prevent one from falling, which is as high as the breast. 
On the side next a neighbours house, it is lower, in order, that, 

38 § 35. OF THE GATE, PORCH, ETC. 

if the houses are near and of the same altitude, the occupants 
may pass from one to the other. The raihng or wall of the roof, 
!r;py;g, was required by a law of Moses, Deut. 22: 8. It was this 
railing which the men demolished, Mark, 2: 4. Luc. 5: 19, that 
they might let the paralytick down into the court or area of the 

§ 35. The gxte, porch, area or court, female apartments. 

The gate or door, opening to the streets, is in the middle of the 

front side of the house. Hence in Arabick it is called i^AwU or the 
centre. The gates not only of houses, but of cities, were customa- 
rily adorned with the inscription, which according to Deut. 6: 9, 
] 1: 20, was to be extracted from the law of Moses; a practice in 
which may be found the origin of the modern Mezuzaw, or piece 
of parchment, inscribed with Deut. C: 5 — 9, 11: 13 — 20, and fas- 
tened to the door-post. The gates were always shut, and one of 
the servants acted the part of a porter, Acts 12: 13. John, 18:16,17. 

The space immediately inside of the gate is called the 
porch, is square, and on one side of it is erected a seat for the ac- 
commodation of those strangers, who are not to be admitted into 
the interior of the house. In this porch, or contiguous to it, are the 
stairs, which lead to the upper stories and the roof of the house, 
Matt. 24: 16,17. 

From the porch we are introduced, through a second 
door, into the quadrangular area or Court, which is denom- 
inated ^in, "l^n, TO fifoov, the centre, 2 Sam. 17: 18. Luke 
5: 19. The court is commonly paved with marble of various 
kinds. In the centre of it, if the situation of the place admits, there 
is a fountain. The court is generally surrounded on all sides, some- 
times, however, only on one, with a cloister, peristyle or covered 
walk, ^0^?^, over which, if the house have more than one story, is 
a gallery of the same dimensions, supported by columns, Heb. 
tn"'Tl/ay, an<I protected by a balustrade, inSitJ, to prevent one 
from falling, 2 Kings 1: 2. Hence occur so many allusions to col- 
umns, Ps. 75.- 3, Prov. 9:1, Gal. 2: 9, 1 Tim. 3: 15. Large com- 
panies are received into the court, as at nuptials, circumcisions, &c. 
Esther 1: 5, Luke 5: 19. On such occasions, a large veil of thick 
cloth is extended by ropes over the whole of it to exclude the 
heat of the sun: which is practised at the present day, Ps. 104: 2. 


The veil or curtain of the area is called in the New Testament 
CTeyy], fcuKu 5j>. 19", Mark 2: 4. 

The back part of the house is allotted to the women, called in 
Arabick the Harem, and in Hebrew by way of eminence '}i^'n^ or 
'jTH'^ti the palace. The door is almost always kept locked, and 
is opened only to the master of the house, 2 Kings 15: 25, Prov. 
18: 19. White eunuchs guard the door externally, but maids and 
black eunuchs only are permitted to serve within. The latter 
are great favourites with their masters, Isa. 32: 14, Jer. 13 : 23, 
2 Kings 15: 25. The Harem of the more powerful is often 
a separate building, 1 Kings 7: 8, 2 Chron. 8: 11. Behind the Ha- 
rem there is a garden, into which the women enjoy the pleasure 
of looking from their small but lofty apartments. In the smal- 
ler houses, which are not made in a quadrangular form, the fe- 
males occupy the upper story. This is the place assigned them 
also by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey. 

§ 36. Chambers and other apartments. 

The chambers are large and spacious, and so constructed, as to 
extend round the whole of the open court or area. The doors of 
the chambers, D'^nnD, nns, open in the first story into the clois- 
ters, in the second into the gallery. The ceiling is flat ; some say 
arched, but arches do not appear to have been known at a very 
early period. We search in vain for arches among the ruins of 
ancient edifices ; perhaps they have perished with years, but they 
do not remain. We infer therefore, that Si in Ezekiel 16: 24, 31, 
39, cannot with certainty be translated, arch or vault. 

The Hebrews at a very ancient date had not only summer and 
winter rooms, hat palaces, Judges 3; 20, 1 Kings 7 : 2 — 6, Amos 3: 
15, Jeremiah 36:^^ The houses, or palaces so called, express- 
ly made for summer, were very large, and in point of altitude did 
not yield much to our churches. 

The lower stories were frequently under ground. The front 
of these buildings faced the north, so as to secure the advantage 
of the breezes, which in summer blow from that direction. They 
were paved with marble, and when it could be done, had a foun- 
tain in the centre of the court, in order to render them still more 
cool. They were supplied with a current of fresh air by means 


of ventilators, which consisted of perforations made through 
the upper part of the northern wall, of considerable diameter ex- 
ternally, but diminishing-, in size, as they approached the inside of 
the wall. There was another kind of ventilator, which arose from 
the centre of the roof, was 10 cubits broad, and looked like a turret. 
It was hoHow and open to the north, and so constructed as to con- 
vey the cool air into the chambers and rooms below. Summer 
houses and chambers are called in Scripture, D*'Ji^'^>3 t)'V\^_ and 
r7^I?.>3 n^by, Jud. 3: 20, 24, Jer. 22: 14. 

One apartment worthy of notice extends from the interiour of 
the front side into the court, sometimes a considerable distance 
beyond the galleries and cloisters. Its roof is supported by two 
columns onl}^, and the front of it has no wall, in order to leave the 
prospect more free. In this apartment princes receive ambassa- 
dors, transact business, and dispense justice. The temple of Da- 
gon, which was destroyed by Sampson, was similar, as far as con- 
cerned the columns, in its construction. It was here that the Sa- 
viour seems to have had his trial, Jud. 16:26, Matt. 26:69, 
Luke 22: 61, 62. compare also 1 Kings 7: 7, Esther 5: 1. In the 
winter rooms and houses, the windows face the south, in order to 
render them more warm. They are not furnished with stoves and 
fire-places as among us. The coals and wood are heaped into a 
pot, which is placed in a hollow place left for that purpose in the 
centre of the paved floor. The smoke escapes through the win- 
dows. This method of keeping fires is still practised in the East, 
Isa. 44: 16, 47: 14. Sometimes the fire is placed directly in the 
hollow place or hearth in the middle of the floor, Jer. 36: 22. 

All the rooms of the upper story may be called tl^by and vne- 
flofof, but these words apply more appropriately to the chamber 
over the porch. It opens by a door directly upon the roof, being 
commonly a story higher than the rest part of, the house. It is a 
place for retirement, devotion, &c. Strangers are frequently 
lodged in it, 1 Kings 17: 19, 2 Kings 4: 10, 23: 12, Acts 9: 37—39. 

Note. There is no mention made of kitchens, or places for cook- 
ing, Heb. niir^n'J, except in Ezek. 46: 23 — 24. Chimneys, for 
the emission of smoke, were not known to the Hebrews. Those 
of modern construction are the invention of the 14th century. 
The Hebrews, however, like the modern orientals, had openings 


in their houses, by which the smoke might escape. The word 
nznN is rightly explained by Jerome, in Hosea 13: 3, as an open- 
ing m the walls for letting out stn-'ke^ although, in other passages, it 
signifies an opening of any kind whatever, and especially a win- 

§ 37. Doors and methods of securing them. 

The doors were valves, Heb. nri- d';!]!:"}. They were sus- 
pended and moved by means of pivots ot wood, which projected 
from the ends of the two folds both above and below. The upper 
pivots, which were the longest, were inserted in sockets sutHciently 
large to receive them in the lintel, the lower ones were secured, 
in a correspondent manner, in the tlireshold. The pivots or ax- 
les are called niric; the sockets, in which they are inserted, Q-'^J-'S, 
Prov. 26: 14. The doors were fastened by a lock, b^2':72, Sol. 
Song 5: 5, or by a bar, Job 38: 10, Deut. 3:5. Judges 16: 3. The 
bars were commonly of wood. Those made of iron and brass 
were not used, except as a security to the gates of fortified places, 
or of valuable repositories, Isa. 45 : 2. The lock was nothing 
more than a wood slide, attached to one of the folds, which enter- 
ed into a hole in the door-post, and was secured there by teeth cut 
into it, or catches. Two strings passed through an orifice leading 
to the external side of the door. A man going out by the aid of 
one of these strings moved the slide into its place in the post, 
where it was fastened so among the teeth or catches, as not to be 
drawn back. The one coming in, who wished to unlock, had a 
wooden key, sufficiently large, and crooked, like a sickle. It was 
called ririDa, Judges 3: 25. He thrust the key through the ori- 
fice of the door, or key-hole, lifted up the slide so as to extricate 
it from the catches, and taking hold of the other string, drew it 
back, and thus entered. Keys were not made of metal except for 
the rich and powerful, and these were sometimes adorned with an 
ivory handle. A key of this kind, in the days of the Hebrew mon- 
archs, was assigned to the steward of the royal palace, as a mark 
of his office ; he carried it on his shoulder, Isa. 22: 22. The 
key-hole was sometimes so large as to admit a person's finger 
through it and enable him to lift the slide ; in that case he stood 
in no absolute need of a key to enter, Sol. Song 5: 4. 



§38. Wlvdows. D"^2Vn, niDVn.'iiVn. 

They look from the front chambers into the court, from the 
female apartments into the garden behind the house. Occasional- 
ly the traveller sees a window, which looks towards the street, 
but it is guarded by a trellis, and is thrown open only on the pub- 
lic festivities, Judges 5: 28, Prov. 7: 6, 2 Jvings 9: oO, riol. Song 2: 
9. The windows are large, extending almost to the tloor. Persons 
sitting on the floor can lo^k out at them. They are wide, not set 
with glass, but latticed, '^ao. tlDnii:, C^'^n. In the winter they 
are protected by very thin veils, or by valves, through which the 
light is admitted by means of an oritice, 2 Kings 13: 17, 1 Kings 
7: 17, Sol. Song 2: 9. Over the windows are nails fastened into 
the walls. They are adorned with beautiful heads, and not only 
sustain curtains by the aid of a rod extended from one to the oth- 
er, but are of themselves considered a great ornament. Hence 
the propriety of those illustrations drawn from nails, Isa. 22: 23, 
Zech. 10: 4, Eccles. 12: 11. 

§ 39. Materials for building. 

Although the materials for the construction of edifices were 
originally stone and mud, the inhabitants of the east at a very ear- 
ly period made use of tiles, and do to this day. They are called 
in scripture D'csb- J^^^i; ^i'om the white clay, of which they were 
made. They were of different sizes, somewhat larger than those 
among us. Commonly they were hardened by the heat of the 
sun merely, but when intended for splendid edifices, as in Gen. 11: 
3, they were burnt by fire. I??^, a brick-kiln^ occurs 2 Sam. 12: 
31, Nahum 3: 14, Jer. 43: $. ^.The walls of the common dwell- 
ing houses were erected of tiles dried in the sun upon a founda- 
tion of stone, but where the ground was solid, a basement of this 
kind was sometimes omitted, Matt. 7:25. Dwelling houses, made of 
tiles dried in the sun, seldom endure longer than one generation. 
They fill the streets with mud in wet weather, and with dust, 
when it is dry, Isa. 5: 24, 10:6, Zech.9:3. Vehement storms, 
especially, injure them very much, Matt. 7: 25, Ezek. 12: 6 — 7, 
13: 11, 14. 


In Palestine the houses were every where built of stones, of 
which there were gre;it numbers in that region. Hence Moses, 
Lev. 14: 33 — 57, enacted his law in respect to the leprosy of hous- 
es. From the indicitioii*; of it, which are mentioned, and also 
from the name ni.NQ'O .ny"^:£, or the. corrosive leprosy., it would 
seem, that it could oe no otlier, than nitrous acid, which dissolves 
stones, and communicates its corrosive action to those which are 
contiguous. Wherever this disease makes its appearance, its de- 
structive effects are discovered upon the surface of the wall, it 
renders the air of the room corrupt, and is injurious both to the 
dress and the health of the inhabitants. The Hebrews probably 
supposed it to be contagious, and hence in their view the necessity 
of those severe laws, which were enacted in reference to it. 

Palaces were constructed of hewn stones, rT^Ti ■'s^^i 
sometimes with stones sawed, ri^a732 DiT^iiTa Q'^ISN, sometimes 
with polished marble. Tiiey were ail called, rT'U "'ni, 1 Kings 
6: 36, 7: 9, 11, 12. Ezek. 40: 42, 1 Chron. 22:2, Isa. 9: 10, Amos 
5: II, Sol. Song. 5:15. 

The Persians took great delight in marble.- To this not oiijy • 
the ruins of Persepolis testify, but the book of Esther, where 
mention is made of white marble, "^Ui or UJ"'T2J. of red marble, "Tn, 
of black marble, rT^inb. of the party-coloured or veined marble, 
I2tl2. The splendour and magniticence of an edifice seems to have 
been estimated in a measure, by the size of the square stones of 
which it was constructed, 1 Kings 7 : 9 — 12. The foundation 
stone, which was probably placed at the corner and thence called 
the corner stone, was an object of particular regard, and was se- 
lected with great care from among the others, Ps. 118: 22, Isa. 
28: 16, Matt. 21: 42, Acts 4: 11, 2 Tim. 2: 19, 1 Pet. 2: 6, Rev. 
21: 14. 

The square stones in buildings, as far as we can ascertain from 
the ruins, which yet remain, were held together, not by mortar 
or cement of any kind, except indeed a very little might have 
been used, but by cramp-irons. The tiles di'ied in the sun were 
at first united by mud placed between them, ^T^y^, afterwards by 
lime T'ip^ mixed with sand, ^in, to iorm mortar, tO^.Q The last 
sort of cement was used with burnt tiles, Lev. 14: 41 — 42, Jer. 
43; 0. 

The walls even in the time of Moses were commonlv incrust- 


ed with a coat of plaster. Lev. 14 : 41, 42,45, and at the present 
day in the East, the incrustations of this kind are of the tinest ex- 
ecution ; such was that in the palace of the Babylonian king, Dan. 
5; 5. Wood was used in the construction of doors and gates, of 
the folds and lattices of windows, of the Hat roofs, and of the 
wainscoting-, with which the walls were ornamented. Beams were 
inlaid in the walls, to which the wainscoting was fastened by nails 
to render it more secure, Ezra G: 4. Houses finished in this man- 
ner uere called cr-iCp D"^n3. Hagg. 1: 4, Jer. 22; 14, ceiled hou- 
ses and ceiled cliami>t:r3. They were adorned with figures in 
stucco, with gold, silver, gems, and ivorj'. Hence the expressions, 
"ICJ-T "^02, ]■*; "'-^s'^rti *' ivory houses,'" " ivory palaces," and *'cham- 
bcrs ornamented with ivory," 1 Kings 22: 39, 2 Chron. 3: 6, Ps. 
45; 8, Amos 3; 15. 

The wood, which was most commonly used, was the sycamore, 
Q'^TapUJ ; (it will last a thousand years ;) the acacia, Ctsuj ; the 
paim, "i^n, for columns and transverse beams; the fir, D''\iJ'i'^3 ; 
the ojive tree, ■jTS/^i •'lijiS' ; cedars, CT^N, which were peculiarly 
esteemed, 1 Kings G: 18, 7; 3, 7, II. The most precious of all was 
the Almug tree, so called by an Arabian name, though the wood it- 
self seems to have been brought through Arabia from India^ 1 Kings 
10: 11 — 12, 2 Chron. 2; 8,9; 10, 21.V^Trees not well known, per- 
haps a species of the oak, in Heb. '^Jl'in, ^n'JSNn, and nT'^n, oc- 
cur, Isa. 41; 19, 44: 14, GO: lO.N 

§ 40. Household FuiiNrruRE and utensils. 

These in the most ancient periods were both few and simple. 
A hand-mill, and some sort of an oven to bake in, could not of 
course be dispensed with, Levit. 26:26. Deut. 24:6. Subsequent- 
ly domestick utensils were multiplied in the lorm of pots, ket- 
tles, leathern bottles, plates, cups, and pitchers. 

The floors were covered with mats or carpets, and supplied 
also for the purposes of rest with a sort of mattresses of thick, 
coarse materials, called nD'^ttip, Jud. 4: 18. 

The bolsters, ni!ncp73, which were more valuable, were stuff- 
ed with wool or some soft substance, Ezek. 1^ 18, 21. The 
poorer class made use of skins merely, for the purposes to which 
these mattresses and bolsters were applied. The mattresses 


were deposited during the day in a box beside the wall. Beds 
supported by posts are not known in the east, the beds or mattress- 
es being- thrown upon the floor. It is commoni however, in 
■pillages, if we may credit Aryda, to see a gallery in one end of 
the room, three or four feet high, where the beds are placed. 
What is now called the Divan^ and in Scripture, !il2J3, tJ'^y, 
and 33",U^ is an elevation running round three sides of the room, 
three leet broad, and nine inches high. In the bottom of it 
is a stuffed cushion throughout ; on the back against the wall 
are placed bolsters, covered with elegant cloth. Here the peo- 
j)le sit crosslegged, or with their knees bent, on account of the 
small elevation of the Divan. At the corners commonly, at one al- 
waj's, there are placed two or three of the bolsters mentioned, made 
of the richest and softest materials. This is accounted the most 
honourable position, and is occupied by the master of the house, 
except when he yields it to a stranger of distinction. 

The Hebrews appear to have had another sort of beds, which 
occur sometimes under the names, i2;"lij, nt273. iDip^s, and are 
said to have been adorned with ivory, an ornament ol which the 
Divans just described were not susceptible. These beds resembled 
the Persian settees, (sophas so called,) having a back and sides, 
six feet long, three broad, and like the Divans about nine inches 
high. They were furnished also with bolsters. The sophas, as 
will be readily imagined, were susceptible of ornamental ivory on 
the sides and back, and also on the legs by which they were sup- 
ported, and although those who sat in them were under the ne- 
cessity of sitting crosslegged or with their knees bent, they were 
of such a length as to answer all the purposes of beds, Amos, 6: 4. 
Ps.41:3, rJ2:3. Those, who were more delicate, had a veil or caul 
"naDig, noyvoiniiov^ which when disposed to sleep, they spread over 
the face to prevent the gnats from infesting them, 2 Kgs. 8: 15. 
The poor, as is common in Asia at this day, and in the older and 
more simple times, the powerful as well as the poor, when travel- 
ling, slept at night with their heads supported by a rock, and with 
their cloaks folded up and placed under them for a pillow. Gen. 
28: II, 18, 22. 

To prevent as much as possible the mats and carpets from be- 
ing soiled, it was not lawful to wear shoes or sandals into the room. 
They were left at the door. Hence it was not necessary, that the 
room should often be swept. Matt. 12: 44. Lamps, "r^i, Xvxvog, 


were fed with the oil of olives, and were kept burning- all night, 
Job 18: 5—6, 21: 17, Prov. 13: 9, 20: 20, 24: 20, 31: 18. We 
may infer from the golden lamp of the Tabernacle, that those of 
the opulent were rich and splendid. Flambeaus, tl"'T'sb, were 
of two kinds. The one were piece* of old linen twjsted firmly to- 
gether and dipped in oil or bitumen, which were sometimes whol- 
ly consumed by the llame, Jud. 15: 4. The others were small 
bars of iron or brass, inserted into a stick, to which pieces of linen 
dipped in oil were fastened. But, lest the oil should flow down up- 
on the hand of him, who carried them, a small vessel of brass or 
iron surrounded the bottom of the stick, Matt. 26: 3. 

§ 41. Villages, Towns, Cities. 

A number of tents or cottages, collected together, were called 
vili.i^GS. D^ISIS. "153, "T^SS, also towns and cities D''"iy, '12J. n"'y, 
j-;">'-ip. When a number of families saw that their situation was 
not secure, they began to fortify themselves. Cain set the ex- 
ample ; who surrounded with a ditch, or a sort of hedge a few 
cottages situated perhaps on a hill, and raised a sort of scaffold- 
ing within, in order to aid him in reaching his enemies with stones. 
However this may be, undoubtedly something of this kind was 
the origin of fortified cities. In process of time the hedge was 
converted into a wall, the ditch became both wider and deeper, 
and the scaiTold increased into a tower. Great advancement was 
made in the art of fortification even in the time of Moses, Numb. 
13: 25 — 33. But still greater at a subsequent age. It seems that 
the cities in Palestine in the time of Joshua were large, since 
12,000 men were slain in the city of Ai, which is said to have 
been a small city. The Hebrews in the time of David, who 
were exceedingly increased in point of numbers, must have had 
large cities. Jerusalem in particular could not have been other- 
wise than extensive, since such myriads of people assembled there 
on festival days. For, though many dwelt in tents and many met 
with a hospitable reception in the neighbouring villages, yet vast 
multitudes were received into the city. The extent of the cities 
of Galilee in the time of Christ is made known to us by Josephus, 
J. WarB. III. 3, 2 ; and at that period, as we may gather from the 
number of the Paschal lambs, slain at one time, 3,000,000 people 


were wont to assemble at Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover. 
It is clear from this, that the site of Jerusalem, which at this 
lime occupied an extent of 33 stadia, was crowded with houses, 
and those of many stories. It is worthy of remark, that towns 
are called ni")'':^ and D^S:? and fortitied cities, Q'^^'^S in the 
Talmud, answering to the distinctions in the New Test, of 
nolfig and Koj^ionolecg. The streets, Wprp p^Mi., V^n, ni2£^n, in 
the Cities of Asia are merely from three to six feet broad; the ob- 
ject of this is, that the shades, which they cast may counteract in 
some degree the heat of the sun. 

That many of them formerly were much larger, is evident from 
the fact, that chariots were driven through them, which is not 
done at the present day. Josephus also makes a division, both of 
streets and gates, into larger and smaller. The larger streets are 
distinguished by a separate name, an"i and nillTn. A paved 
street is a rare sight in the east at the present day, although for- 
merly, at least in the time of Herod, they were by no means un- 
common. The market places were near the gates of the city, 
sometimes within, sometimes without, where the different kinds 
of goods were exposed to sale, sometimes under the open sky, 
sometimes in tents, 2 Chron. 18: 9. 32: 6. Neh. 8: 1, 3. 2 Kgs. 7: 
18. Job 29: 7. This was the case at a very early period, but 
Josephus teaches us, that later down in the time of Christ, they 
were similar to those, which at the present day are common in 
the east, being large streets, covered with an arch, through 
which the light was admitted by the means of orifices. These 
large streets or Bazars, as they are termed, which are furnished 
with gates, and shut up during the night, are occupied on both 
sides with the storehouses of merchants. In the large cities there 
are many broad streets of this kind, and commonly a separate one 
for each different species of merchandize ; in these streets also 
are the shops ofartificers. 

The houses in oriental cities are rarely contiguous to each oth- 
er, and for the most part have large gardens attached to them. If, 
therefore, Nineveh and Babylon are said to have occupied an al- 
most incredible space, we must not suppose, that it was occupied 
thi'oughout by contiguous houses. Indeed it is the testimony of 
ancient historians, that nearly a third part of Babylon was taken 
up with fields and gardens. 

4§ § 42. OF THE N03IADES. 

/.queducts are verv ancient in oriental cities, Josephus, Aotiq. 
B. IX. 14. § 2. We tind mention made of aqueducts at Jerusa- 
lem, 2Cbron. 32: 30. 2 Kgs. 20: 20. Isa. 7: 3, especially of one 
called Mji'^lryn nD"7.a nbrn, the aqueduct of the upper pool or 
ditch, which imphe*, thai there was another one more known, 
probably the one, whose distinguished ruins are seen to this day 
from Jerusalem to Bethlehem. The one first mentioned, some 
of the ruins of which still remain, conveyed the waters from the 
river Gihon into Jerusalem. These, as well as all the other aque- 
ducts of Asia, were erected above the surface of the earth and 
were carried through rallies, over arches and columns. From 
this circumstance it appears, that the ancients did not know, that 
water enclosed in this manner will of itself gain the elevation from 
which it falls. Aqueducts were not unfrequent, but cisterns were 
found every where. 


§ 42. Of the Nomades. 

The Nomades are a very ancient people, Gen, 3: 18, 21. 4: 2, 
19, 20. 11: 2. They are numerous even at this day and occupy 
large tracts of land. Nor is it wonderful ; for their mode of life 
has many things to recommend it, especially freedom, and facili- 
ties for the acquisition of riches. These shepherds of the des- 
ert wander about without any fixed habitation. They despise 
and neglect all other business, but that of tending their flocks. 
Still they are not mean and uncultivated, but are polite, power- 
ful, and magnanimous. Such were Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and 
their posterity also, till they conquered the land of Canaan. They 
possess vast flocks and a great number of servants. The masters 
always go armed, and spend their time in hunting, in the over- 
sight of their affairs, in wars and predatory excursions. Part of 
the servants are armed, in order to keep from the flocks robbers 
and wild beasts. Part have only a staff f^aa, "?J^.^, and a pouch, 
which were anciently the whole property of travellers, and 

§ 43. PASTURES. 49 

those who were not rich, except that instead of a pouch they 
earned a somewhat larger sack, "Jirpx, 2 Kgs. 4: 42. 1 Sam. 17: 
40 — i3. Ps. 23: 4. iMic. 7: 14. Math. 10: 10, Luke 9: 3. 10: 4. 

Note. It' in the Bible kings are called shepherds^ we are 
not to conclude, that the title is degrading to them ; on the con- 
trary it is sublime and honourable. For the same reason, that it 
was applied to earthly monarchs, it was applied to God, who was 
the king of the Hebrews, and as the shepherd is to his flock, so 
was He the guide and protector to his children Israel, see Ps. 
23: 1—4. Isa. 40; 11. 63.- 11. Jer. 10: 21, 23: 1. 31: 10. 50: 6. 
51:23. Mic. 5: 5. Nahum, 3; 18. Ezech. 34; 2—28. 37:24. Zech. 
11: 15. In the Old Testament this tropical expression, viz. a 
shepherd, constantly indicates kings, but in the New Testament 
the teachers of the Jews, those, who presided in the synagogues, 
were denominated shepherds. The notions of the Jews in this 
instance seem to have coincided with those of the Stoicks, who 
would have it. that wise men alone, those qualided to be teachers, 
were true kings. The appellation of shepherds, however, used 
by the former, is the more modest of the two, though the same in 
significancy. The use of the word to denote religious teachers 
was received and transmitted in the Christian Church, and to this 
day we speak of the pastors or shepherds of a religious society, 
Ephes. 4: 11. Matth. 9; 36. John 10; 12—14. Heb. 13; 20. 1 Pet. 
2: 25. 5; 4. 

§ 43. Pastures. 

The pastures of the JS'oinades were the deserts or wilder- 
nesses, which have already been mentioned, mx:, ~iz, n"'Xnn, 
y^n, '-\z-]->2 sioi. Job 5: 10. Mark 1: 45. These vast tracts of land 
could not be monopolized by any individual, but were open to all 
the shepherds alike, unless some one had by some means acquir- 
ed in them a peculiar right. Such an unappropriated pasture 
was the part of Canaan, where Abraham dwelt, and where Isaac 
and Jacob succeeded him. The Israelites from E^ypt appear al- 
so to have gone there with their flocks, till they were debarred 
by the increased number of the Canaanites. The pastures, which 
were the property of separate nations, came in the progress of 



time occasionally into contention. This was the case in regard to 
Canaan, which the Hebrews were eventually under the necessity 
of reoccupying by arms. After the occupation of Palestine, there 
lay open to the Hebrews not only the vast desert of Judah, but 
many other deserts or uncultivated places of this kind. This ac- 
counts for what we may gather from Scripture, that the Hebrews 
were among the richest of the Nomades, or people, who kept 
flocks in the wilderness, 2 Sam. 17: 27, et seq. 19: 32. 1 Sam. 
25: 1 Chron. 27: 29—31. 

§ 44. Emigrations of the Nomades. 

These shepherds occupy almost the same positions in the de- 
serts every year, nill^n. In the summer they go to the north, or 
on to the mountains^ in the winter to the south, or the vallies. 
When about to emigrate, they pluck up their tents, pile them up- 
on the beasts of burden, and go with them to the place, destined 
for their subsequent erection. The flocks live both night and day 
under the open sky. Hence their wool, being unexposed to the 
exhalations of sheepcotes, but always being in the open air, is finer 
than usual. The flocks become acquainted with the path, which 
they yearly travel, and afford but little trouble to those, who con- 
duct them. Still they are guarded by hired servants, and by the 
sons and daughters of their owners, even by the daughters of the 
Emirs or chie,fs, who to this day perform for strangers those friend- 
ly offices, which are mentioned. Gen. 24: 17 — 20. comp. Gen. 29: 
9. Exod. 2: 16. The servants are subject to the steward, who is 
himself a dependent, though he has the title of D'^a'JJ^T, the senior 
of the house. He numbers the sheep at evening, perhaps also in 
the morning, Gen. 24: 2. Jer. 33: 13. If animals or their young 
are lost, the steward is obligated to make compensation. Some 
limitations, however, are assigned. Gen. 31: 38, Exodus 22: 12, 
comp. Amos 3: 12. The hired servants sometimes received a 
portion of the young of the flock, as their reward, Gen. 30. The 
servants, who, as well as the cattle, are sometimes comprehend- 
ed under the word, m|:jP^i inhabited tents in the winter, but often 
dwelt in tabernacles in the summer. The masters on the contra- 
ry dwelt in tents the whole year, except when occasionally they 
retreated into the neighbouring cities, Gen. 19: 1, 26: 1. 12: 10, 


20. 33: 17. Lev. 23: 43. In the vicinity of the tents, was erected 
a sort of watch tower, irt'T'D, Tii? bl^Ta, from which the approach 
of enemies could be discerned afar off. 

§ 45. Fountains and Cisterns. 

Water, which was very scanty in the deserts, and yet was very 
necessary to large flocks, was very highly vahied and very frugal- 
ly imparted. Job. 22: 7. Num. 20: 17—19. Deut. 2: 6—28. Hence 
the Nomades, in those tracts, through which they yearly travel, 
dig wells and cisterns at certain distances, which the}' have the 
art of concealing in such a manner, that another, who travels the 
same way, will not discover them, nor steal away the waters. In 
this way perhaps they may be said to take possession of certain 
districts and to render them their own property, as was done 
by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in respect to Palestine. Hence 
the contentions respecting wells were of great moment, Gen. 21: 
25. 26: 13 — 22. Different receptacles of water are mentioned. 

I. Fountains, D'^.W "^l.^^^i l"^.?- These are the source of running 
waters, and are common to all. If they flow all the year round, 
they are called by the orientals, D"^^ D^^n^N , or d"*373Nl, never- 
failing or faithful fountains; if they dry upm the summer they are 
denominated, ClnTS or deceitful. Job 6:15 — 22. Isa. 33: 16. Jer. 
15: 18. Welh\ "^NS, ni'nNa, are receptacles of water, from which 
there is no stream issuing. They belong to those persons, 
who found or dug them first. Sometimes they are owned by a 
number of shepherds in common, who come to them on appointed 
days with their flocks, in an order previously settled upon, descend 
a number of steps, which lead to the surface of the water, receive 
the water into small buckets, ••b'^, and pour it into troughs, D'^iN'^lia, 
for the flock. The flocks are admitted to drink in a regular or- 
der. Gen. 29: 3—12. 24: 11—15. Exod. 2: 16. Jud. 5: 11. The 
waters of wells and fountains are called living waters, ti^'^Ti D*?3, 
and are very much esteemed. Lev. 14: 5, 50. Num. 19: 17. Hence 
they are made a symbol of prosperity, and God himself is compar- 
ed to a fountain of living waters. Is. 43: 19, 20. 49: 10. Jer. 2: 13. 
17:13. Ps. 87:7. Joel 3: 18. Ezek. 47: 1. et seq, Zech. 14: 18. 

II. Cisterns^ m'lia, m*ni<2, '^'12 , 'nN2. They were the property 
of those by whom they were made, Num. 21:22. Under this name 


occur large subterranean vaults, often occupying an acre in extent, 
but which open by a small mouth. They are filled with rain wa- 
ter and snow during the winter, and are then closed at the mouth 
by large flat stones, over which sand is spread m such a way, as 
to prevent its being easily discovered. In cities the cisterns were 
works of much labour, for they were either hewn into rocks or 
surrounded with subterranean walls, and covered with a firm in- 
crustation. We gather this from their ruins, and not a few of 
them remain. But if by chance the waters, which the shepherd 
has treasured up in cisterns, are lost by means of an earthquake 
or some other casualty, or are plundered by a thief, both he and 
his llocks are exposed to destruction ; an event, which happens 
not unfrequently to travellers, who hasten to a fountain, but find 
its waters gone. For this reason a failure of water is used in 
Scripture, as an image of any great' calamity, Isa. 41: 17 — 18. 44: 
3. There is a large deposition of mud at the bottom of these cis- 
terns, so that he who fails into them, when they are empty of wa- 
ter, perishes by a miserable death. Gen. 37: 22. ff. Jer. 38: 6. Lam. 
3: 53. Ps. 40: 2, 69: 15. Cisterns, notwithstanding, were used, 
when empty, as prisons ; prisons indeed, which were constructed 
under ground, received the same name, Gen. 39: 20. 40: 15. 

§ 46. The Flocks of the Nomades, 

These are goats and sheep, and they have great numbers of 
them. They are called by the Hebrews, colleclivehj, "ji^ic, but, 
separately^ rtU3, Jer. 49: 29. Ezek. 25: 5. The sheep are horn- 
ed, and commonly white, Ps. 147: 16. Isa. 1: 18. Dan. 7: 9. Black 
ones are very rare, D^n ; some are covered with small spots, 
d'^Tlp:, some with larger ones, CNrt^, others are streaked, d'^T^l'^S, 
and others again, called D'^'l^py, are distinguished by variegated 
hoofs, or, as some say, by circular streaks round the body, like 
rings. Gen. 30: 32 — 34. 31: 10—12. The sheep, mentioned in 
Ezek. 27: 18, whose wool is of a bright brown, inclining to a 
grey, iJii '^^.1?., are found in Caramania. 

Further; there are three different breeds of sheep in the East. 
I. The common, of which we have specimens every day among 
ourselves. II. The deformed breed, with short legs, macerated body, 
and rough wool, called in Arabick nakad, and in Hebrew ^jP^^. 


in. A breed larger than ours ^ and of very fine wool. Of this class of 
sheep, there are two kinds, the one, having- immense tails, about 
four feet long, and live inches thick, ^"'^N, the other, having short 
tails, and large clutnps of fat on the haunches, She'^-p are profi- 
table to their owners for their milk, l'::^, their flesh '^iua, and par- 

' T T T T ' * 

ticularly for the wool, "^7?.::^, which is shorn twice a year. A sheep 
hardly worth a florin will return a thousand to its owner, and 
many thousands of them are owned by a suigle shepherd in the 
vast deserts of the East, Job 1: 3. 1 Sam. 25: 3 — 4. 1 Chron. 5: 
18 — 21. The annual increase of the flock is the greater on this 
account, that the sheep frequently bear twins. Cant. 6: 6. They 
bring forth twice a year, viz. in the spring and autumn, going with 
young only five months, but the spring lambs are esteemed pre- 
ferable to those of the autumn. The lambs of a year old are 
called &''"i!3, "^5, D'^iUis, UJiS. We may infer from what has been 
slated, which indeed is the fact, that their sheep, which are the 
source of so much emolument to the Nomades, are very dear to 
them. They give them titles of endearment, and the ram, that is 
called out by its master, marches before the flock ; hence the rul- 
ers of the people are every where called leaders of the flocks Jer. 
25:34, 35. 50:8, Isa. 14: 9. Zech. 10:3. The Arabians have 
certain terms, bj' which they can call the sheep, either to drink 
or to be milked. The sheep know the voice of the shepherd, and 
go at his bidding, John 10: 3, 14. Sometimes a lamb is taken in- 
to the tent, and tended and brought up like a dog. Such an one 
is called in Heb. Vl^i^N ^5.3.1 and in Arabick by a word which 
means an inmate, 2 Sam. 12: 3. Jer. 11: 19. 

Before the shearing, the sheep are collected into an uncovered 
enclosure, surrounded by a wall, ITi'ia, ri'l."l>, also ^p, flijji «i»- 
Xtj, John 10: 11, 16. The object of this is, that the wool may be 
rendered finer by the sweating and evaporation, which necessarily 
result from the flock's being thus crowded together. These are 
the sheepfoids mentioned in the following as well as in other pla- 
ces, Num. 32: 16. 24: 36, 2 Sam. 7: 8, Zeph. 2: 6. There is no 
other kind than this, used in the East. Sheepshearings were great 
festivals, 1 Sam. 25:2, 4, 18, 36. 2 Sam. 13: 23. 

Goals, as well as sheep, are comprehended under the collective 
noun, ^j<:i, but are properly called a'^TS' from t2>, a she-goat. The 
he-goat is called •w';n, D''T1;m n^i'.ip, and I^Cli. They are of a 


black color, sometimes particoloured. They live under the open 
sky, with this exception only, that the kids are sometimes taken 
into the tent, to keep them from sucking the dam. They com- 
pensate their owners with their milk, more precious than any 
other, Prov. 27: 27 ; with their flesh, which in the East is highly 
esteemed, and with their hair, of which the Arabian women make 
cloth to cover thoir tents with. Of the skins bottles are made, 
nini<, D"'irnD, i::: Ti?;, ri^an. When they are used to hold water 
or other liquids, the hairy side of the skin is external, with the ex- 
ception, that in wine bottles, the hairy side is always turned in and 
the other out. 

From the skins of kids small bottles are made, which answer the 
purpose of flasks. It is uncevtain what that preparation by the 
means of smoke was, which is mentioned, Ps. 119:83. Perhaps 
it was the same with what, the Ambassador from Vienna informs 
us, is practised at this day among the Calmucks, who, by means 
of smoke, prepare very durable and transparent skins, and make 
from them small, but elegant flasks and bottles. The goats of 
Ancyra with hair resembling silk, commonly called Camel's hair, 
appear, to have been known to the ancient Hebrews, and Schultz, ia 
Paulus' Collection of Travels, VII. 108—110, says, that he saw 
flocks of these goats descending from the mountains in the vicinity 
of Acco and Ptolemais, which exemplified the descriptions in Cant. 
4: 1, 2, 6: 5. 

Note. It is not necessary to enumerate the different species of 
wild goats. It is worthy of remark, that geese, hens, and swine 
were not knoivn among the domestick animals of the Nomades. 
At a somewhat recent period hens in some places were raised by 
the Hebrews ; for ^31, a hen, ' that does not hatch its eggs,' is spok- 
en of by Jeremiah, 17: 11, and in the time of Christ, when Peter 
denied his master, the cock crew in Jerusalem. No hearing is to 
be given to those Talmudists, who, though they lived nearly 200 
years after Christ, took it upon themselves to deny the existence 
at any time of fowls of this kind in that city. 

§ 47. Animals of the Ox-kind. 

These animals are called collectively 'nj"?2, but separately PlV?^?, 
"'TilJ, □■'CV?N , D'nr.;:;, those under three years nilra?, C^ba^ 


Jib^!?. and those, over three years, "is, JTJD» l^'^ID, ni'^Q, also 
t2'"n"^2N, which last however, is properly an epithet of strength. 
These aniraals are smaller in oriental countries, than among us, 
and have certain protuberances on the back directly over the fore- 
feet. They are useful chiefly in agriculture, but they are not ex- 
cluded from the possessions of the Nomades, Gen. 24: 25, Job 
1: 3. Herdsmen were held in lower estimation, than the keepers ' 
of flocks, but they possessed the richest pastures in Bashan, Sha- 
ron, and Achior. Hence the oxen and bulls of Bashan, which 
were not only well fed, but strong and ferocious, are used as the 
symbols of ferocious enemies, Ps. 22: 12, 68: 31, Isa 34: 7. 
Deut. 33: 17. Pro v. 14: 14. Heifers were symbolic of matrons, 
Amos 4: 1. Hosea 4: 15, 16, 10: 11, Jer. 46: 20. The horns of 
oxen and bulls, also of goats, are used tropically to express power, 
Ps. 75: 10, 89: 17, 24, 92: 10. Amos 6: 13, Jer. 48: 25, Lam. 2: 3, 
Ezek. 29: 21, Dan. 7: 7, 8, 24. 8: 3—5, Luke 1: 69. If the horns 
are represented as made of brass or iron, they indicate very great, 
as it were, insuperable power, 1 Kings 22: 11. 1 Chron. 18: 10. 
Mic. 4: 13 — i€. Hence the ancient coins represent kings with 
horns, and one of the titles which the Arabians attach to the great, 
especially to the warlike son of Philip, is, horned. 

Oxen not only submitted to the yoke, and were employed ia 
drawing carts and ploughs ; but the Nomades frequently made use 
of them to transport goods on their backs, as they did on camels. 
The milk of the cows- was found a nutritive drink. Gen. 18: 8. 
Of this the people made cheese, ^I^'^pa, D"'';C"^, ni's'O;. 2 Sam. 
17: 29. What is called Sbn ''i*"''}!!, 1 Sam. 17: 18, were slices of 
coagulated milk, which had been strained through a leathern strain- 
er, and, after it had grown hard, cut into pieces, as it was found ne- 
cessary to use them. Anciently butter was not much used, but 
instead of it, oil of olives, which was applied not only to vegeta- 
bles, but also to other kinds of food. In the Bible there is no men- 
tion made of butter. !^^??2^, which in the Vulgate and other trans- 
lations is rendered butter, was used as a drink, Jud. 5: 25, and, 
therefore, must have been milk in some shape or other. Honey 
and milk were accounted great dainties, but a great plenty of 
them was an indication, that a wide destruction of the people had 
preceded. On account of which diminution of the inhabitants,- 
large and rich pastures were every where to be found; so that 

56 § 48. OF ASSES, 

abundance ofmilk was the natural consequence, and swarms of bees, 
more numerous than usual, enjoyed a more free and undisturbed 
opportunity to gather their honey, comp. Isa. 7: \b.*tft. 

Note. fFr'/d animals of the ox-kind are not mentioned in the 
Bible. The animals, which are called ^ivon^ , and ai<"^. d"^, are 
a species of the Gazelle or wild goat, which, because tliey bear 
some resemblance to them, are called by the Arabs, wild oxen. 

§ 48, Of Asses. 

Asses^ tD'^'n'i'jri, ^iXDn. She Asses, nfainJiti p'ni*. The latter are 
considered the most valuable on account of the colts, ^']y, D""^"'?^, 
and in the enumerations of animals, they are mentioned separately. 
The Nomades possess great numbers of these animals, and, in the 
East, if rightly trained up, they are not only patient and diligent, 
but active, beautiful in appearance, and ignoble in no respect. 
They are esteemed very highly, and are used tropically in the 
Scriptures, for active and industrious men. Gen. 49: 14. Their 
colour is red, inclining to a brown, to which the name, TiMn, is 
an allusion. Some are party-coloured, Judg. 5, 10. nimniZ, 
unless, perchance, such are painted^ for the orientals to this clay 
are in the habit of painting their horses and oxen. They are em- 
ployed in ploughing, in drawing carts, and in turning mills, to which 
Mat. 18: 6, is an allusion. Moses, Deut. 22: 10, passed a law, that 
the ass and ox should not be used together in ploughing. Com- 
monly the asses bear their burden, whether men or packages, on 
their backs; a mode of service to which they are peculiarly fitted. 

Anciently princes and great men rode on asses, Gen. 22: 3, 5. 
Num. 22: 21, 30, Jos. 15, 18, Jud. 1: 14, 5: 10, 10: 4, 12: 14. 
1 Sam. 25: 20, 23, 2 Sam. 17:23. 19: 26, 1 Kgs. 2: 40. 13: 13. 2 
Kgs. 4: 22, 24, Zech. 9: 9, Mat. 21: 1—7. Luke 19: 29—36, John 
12: 12 — 16. Horses were destined almost exlusively for war^ and 
all classes, in time of peace^ made use of asses for the purposes 
of conveyance, the great as well as those in obscure life. They 
were guided by a rein placed in the mouth, Heb. uilln '^^^3^!1 ^^" 
so F|N u;^iin, in the Eng. vers, translated a saddle, Gen. 22: 3. 
Num. 22: 21. Jud. 19: 10. 2 Sam. 16: 1. 17: 23. The saddle 
was merely a piece of cloth, thrown over the back of the animal, 

§ 49. OF CAMELS. 67 

on which the rider sat. The servant followed after with a staff, 
when the ass had no rider, and appUed it, when there was necessi- 
ty, to quicken the celerity of his movements, Jud. 19: 3.2 Kgs. 
4: 24. Prov. 2 i: 3. 

Note. I. Mules, d'^n'iB n'lS, are spoken of in the age of David, 
1 Chron. 12: 40. Ps. 32:'y. 2 Sam. 18: 9—10. 13: 29. 1 Kgs. 
1:33. Probably they were known much earlier, even in the time 
of Moses. The word, Q"?:;;, Gen. 36 : 24, is not to be trans- 
lated mules, as is commonly done, but " wctrOT baths.^^ Mules ap- 
pear to have been brought to the Hebrews from other nations, 
and in the recent periods of their historj', we fmd, that the more 
valuable ones came from Thogarma or Armenia, Ezek. 27: 14. The 
a'^D'^nuinN, or great mules of Persia, celebrated for their swiftness, 
the mothers of which were mares, are mentioned, Esth. 8: 10, 

Note. II. There are great numbers of wild asses in the East. 
Two species are worthy of observation, the one called Dsigetai ; 
the other, Kulan, Tho latter are supposed to have sprung from 
domestick asses, who, as occasions had presented, acquired their 
freedom. They are a fearful animal, and swift in flight, but can 
be tamed, if taken when young, Job. 11: 12. 24: 5. 39: 5 — 8. 
Dan. 5: 21. That the Heb. word i<-iD means the Dsigetai, and the 
word, "ITiy, the Kulan class, can neither be reconciled with the 
use of the Arabick, nor with Job 39: 5. They must be consider- 
ed merely as separate names for the same species. These ani- 
mals are of fine figure and rapid in motion ; they frequent desert pla- 
ces and flee far from the abodes of men. The females herd together, 
and are headed by a male. When the latter is slain, the former 
are scattered and wander about separately, Hos. 8: 9. They feed 
on the mountains and in salt vallies. Job 39: 8. Their organs of 
smelling, which are very acute, enable them to scent waters at a 
great distance. Hence travellers, who are destitute of water, are 
accustomed to follow them, Ps. 104: 11. Isa. 32: 14. Jer. 14: 6. 

§ 49. Camels. C^^a, if^^. 

They are of two kinds. The one is the Turkish or Bactrian, dis<- 
tinguished by two protuberances on the back. This kind is 
large and strong, carrying from eight to fifteen hundred pounds, 

53 § 49. CAMELS. 

but is impatient of the heat. The other kind, called the dro- 
medary or Arabian camel, has but one bunch on the back, is more 
rapid in its movement;, and endures the heat better, than the large 
camel. It is denominated in Heb. ^52, iTn^s, and n'i'nD*)3, Isa. 60: 
6. 66: 20. Jer. 2: 23. 

Camels require but little food, and endure thirst from sixteen 
to forty days. They are particularly fitted for those vast de- 
serts, which are destitute of water; are kept in great numbers by 
the Nomades, and the Arab is esteemed of a secondary rank, who 
is not the possessor of them. Gen. 24: 10,64. 31: 17. 1 Chron. 
5: 19—21. Jer. 49: 29. comp. I Sam. 30: 17, 1 Kgs. 10: 2, Isa. 
50: 6, Ezek. 25: 4. They are used for the transportation of 
every description of packages, and burdens of every sort, Gen. 37: 
25- Jud. 6: 5. 1 Chron. 12: 40. 2 Chron. 14: 15. 2 Kgs. 8: 9. Isa. 
30: 6. Men rode upon them very often. 1 Sam. 30: 17. When 
they are loaded, and set out upon a journey, they follow one after 
another, seven together. The second is fastened to the first by a 
woollen string, the fourth to the third, ai>J so on. The servant 
leads the first one, and is informed by the tinkling of a bell, at- 
tached to the neck of the last one, whether they all continue their 
march. The seven camels thus connected together, are called 
D'Voi n2;C"i3, which is badly rendered by the Vulgate, '■^ inunda- 
tio Camelorum,^^ Isa. 60: 6. The riders either ride as on a horse, 
with the feet suspended, the one on one side and the other on 
the other; or, when two go together, sit upo^ baskets, which are 

thrown across the animal, so as to balance each other. Some- 

times they travel in a covered vehicle, ^3, _^^==3, which is se- 
cured on the back of the camel, and answers the purpose of a 
small house. It is often divided into two apartments, and the tra- 
veller, who can sit in either of them, is enabled also to carry 
some little furniture with him. These conveyances are protect- 
ed by veils, which are not rolled up, except in front; so that the 
person within has the privilege of looking out, while he is him- 
self concealed. They are used chiefly by the women, rarely by 
the men. Gen. 31 : 17. If the rider wishes to descend, the cam- 
el does not kneel as on other occasions, but the rider takes hold 
of the servant's staff and by the aid of it alights, Gen. 24: 64. 
The camels, on which the rich are carried, are adorned with 
splendid chains and crescents, fi'SHi^^, Jud. 8: 21, 26. 

§ 50. HORSES. 59 

The Nomades understand how to turn to profitable purpose all 
the parts of animals of this kind. They drink the milk, though it is 
thick. When it has become acid, it inebriates, Jud. 4: 19. 5: 25. 
They feed upon the flesh, a privilege, which was interdicted to the 
Hebrews, Lev. 11:4. The hair, which is shed every year, was 
manufactured into coarse cloth, and constituted the clothing of 
the poorer class of people, Mat. 3: 4. In the Arabick language, 
there are many allusions made to Camels, and tropes drawn tVom 
this source, possess as much dignity, as those drawn from oxen 
do in the Hebrew. Proverbs, founded in the qualities of the camel, 
occur in Matt. 19: 24, 23: 24. 

§ 50. Horses. 

D!)D, '^D'n, ^^o'l., yi'iD or UJ'nQ., sometimes, ri*^., 1 Sam. 8:11, 2 
Sam. 1: 6, 8: 4, 10: 13,"" 1 Chron. 18: 4, Isa. 2l": 7, 28: 28. The 
word D"^'n"'aN, when applied to horses, is merely an epithet of 
strength. It is applied in the same way to oxen also. The Noma- 
des of recent ages place much more value on these animals, than 
those did of an earlier period. We find horses first in Egypt, Gen. 
47: 17. 49: 17. Exod. 9: 3. 14: 6—28. Job 39: 19. That country 
was always celebrated for them, 1 Kgs. 10: 28. Isa. 31: 1. 36: 9. 
Ezek. 17: 15. Joshua encountered chariots and horsemen in the 
north of Palestine, chap. 11: 4 — 9. He rendered the horses use- 
less, which he took, by cutting the hamstrings; since they would 
have been but of little profit in the mountains of Palestine, comp. 
Jud. 4:15. 5 : 22, 28. Not long after, the Philistines conducted 
chariots into battle, Jud. 1:19. 1 Sam. 13: 5. 

Anciently horses were used exclusively for the purposes of war, 
Prov. 21 : 31. Hence they are opposed to asses, which were used 
in times of peace, Zech. 9: 9. The Hebrews first attended to 
the raising of horses, in the reign of Solomon. The hinidred, 
which were reserved, 2 Sam. 8:4, 1 Chron. !8: 4, were destined 
for the use of David himself, whose example was imitated by 
Absalom, 2 Sam. 15: 1. The Psalmist frequently alludes to 
the mode of governing horses and to equestrian armies, Ps. 32: 
9, 66: 12. 33: 17. 76: 6. 147: 10. Solomon carried on a great 
trade in Egyptian horses. They were brought from Egypt and 
from Nlj?, !^^p, perhaps Kua, situated in Africa, 1 Kgs. 10: 28. 

60 § ^1- DOGS. 

2 Chron. 1: 16 — 17. A horse was estimated at about 150, 
and a chariot at 600 shekels. In the tiaie of Ezekiel, the 
Tjrians purchased horses in Thogarma or Armenia. The He- 
brews, after the time of Solomon, were never destitute of cha- 
riots and Cc^val^3^ The rider used neither stirrup nor saddle, 
but sat upon a piece of cloth, thrown over the back of the horse. 
The women rarely rode horses, but whenever they had occa- 
sion to, the\' rode in the same manner with the men. Horses 
were not shod with iron before the ninth century ; hence solid 
hoofs were esteemed of great consequence, Amos 6: 12. Isa. 5; 28. 
The bridle, ^riJ2_, and the cavesson, "jD^., were used both for 
horses and mules, Ps. 32: 9. 

§ 61. Dogs. C-'abs, n!?3. 

The Nomades found use for them in guarding and in driving 
their flocks. Frequent as these animals are in oriental cit- 
ies, they are universally abhorred with the exception of the 
hunting dogs. Hence to be called a dog is a cutting reproach, 
full of bitter contempt, Job. 30: 1. 1 Sam. 17 : 43. 2 Sam. 3: 8. 
2 Kgs. 8: 13. Prov. 26: 11. comp. Luke 16: 21. 2 Peter 2: 22. 
The appellation of dead dog indicates imbecility, 1 Sam. 24; 14. 
2 Sam. 9: 8. 16: 9. The reward of prostitution is called by way 
of contGm|)t, (?o»-"s Aire, :3i.D l^n^J, Deut. 23: 18. The Jews in 
the time of Christ were accustomed to call the Gentiles dogs. 
The Saviour in order to abate the severity of the appellation used 
the diminutive, kvvuqiu^ Mat. 15:22—^28. Impudent and con- 
tontiotis men are sometimes called dogs, Mat. 7: 6. Philip. 3: 2. 
Gal. 5: 16: In the East, dogs, with the exception of those 
employed in hunting, have no masters, wander free in the streets, 
and live upon the offals, which are cast into the gutters. Being 
often at the point of starvation, the}'^ devour corpses, and in the 
night attack even the living men, Ps. 22: 16, 20. 69: 6, 14—15. 
1 Kgs. 14; 11. 16:4. 21:23. 22: 38.2 Kgs. 9; 36. Jer. 16:3. They 
herd together in vast numbers; whenever any tumult arises 
in the night, they commence a terrilick barking, and when the 
people mourn through the streets for the dead, they respond to 
them with their howls. Hence may be explained Exod. 11; 7. 
*y5\Ub n!:.5 y":\n; Nb ; corap. also Jos. 10: 21. 

§ 52. OF HUNTING. 61 

Jackals. The wild or yellow dog, (so called by Hasselquist,) 
is denominated in Persian .V^*^, in Turkish J^=^-. in Hebrew 

^y^'ij or ihefox^ in Syriack, NV^n, in Arab. v^^X^^'i ^v^'i. Jud. 
15: 14. Foxes, however, properly so called the Hebrews distin- 
guish by the name, tr^'^^^ D^-.'^p.' o'' '^^'^^ jackals, Cant. 2: 15. 
The jackals they call also a-^^iN and D'^in, the former of which 
words is commonly translated dragons in the ting, version. These 
animals are three and a half feet long, have yellow hair, a tail al- 
so of yellow, with the tip of brown. They go together in herds, 
lie in caves through the day, and wander about howling through 
the night. They make their way into houses for the purpose of 
stealing food. They have so little cunning, that when thieving in 
a house, if they hear one of the herd howling out in the fields, they 
immediately set up a responsive cry, and thus betray to the mas- 
ter of the house their predatory visitation. 

They are also taken easily in other ways, Jud. 15: 4. They de- 
vour dead bodies, Ps. 63: 10. They are ferocious, but can be 
kept off with a cane. There arc vast numbers of these animals in 
Palestine, particularly in Galilee, near Gaza, Jaffa, and Joppa, 
Jud. 15: 4. They do much injury to the vines, though less than 
the foxes, Cant. 2: 15. 

. § 52. Of Hunting. 

Although the Nomades have many hunting dogs, the dogs are 
not always able to keep off the wild beasts from the flock, unless 
aided by the shepherds themselves. Hence arose hunting or the 
chace, which is practised the more readily from the circumstance, 
that the meat of wild animals is considered a great delicacj'. 
The earliest inhabitants of the world were compelled to hunt in 
order to secure themselves from the attacks of wild beasts, and a 
great hunter, T:£, was accounted a benefactor of mankind. Such 
a benefactor some inaccurately suppose N^imrod to have been, not 
taking into consideration all the circumstances, Gen. 10: 9. 

A different state of things existed in the lime of Moses, who 
enacted two laws on the subject of hunting, the object of which 
was to preserve the wild animals of Palestine, Exod. 23: 11. Lev. 
25: 6, 7. Deut. 22: 6, 7. Hunting in ancient times required both speed 

62 § 52. OF ROBBERIES. 

and bravery. Some have slain lions without any armour, which is 
sometimes done in the east at the present day. The implerapnts of 
hunting- were usually the same with those of war; viz. rTipp., the 
bow ; yn, the arrow ; (hence the hunter Ishmael was called an 
archer, Gen. 21: 20 ;) also, n73hi a spear or lance ; rfSn, a javelin; 
a'nn, a sword. Hunters made use of various arts to secure their 
object. They employed nets, n\a"l. '^^ii^. in which lions 
were taken, Ezek. 19: 8 ; likewise, gins, ■iTj^.'iTO. snares, DTlD: HD, 
and pitfalls, nrp, which were excavated especially for lions, in 
such a way, that there was an elevation of solid ground in the 
centre. In this elevation a pole was fastened, and a lamb was 
confined to the pole. The lion, excited by the prospect of a vic- 
tim, rushed upon the lamb, but plunged headlong through the 
light covering, which concealed the intervening pitfall^ Ezek. 
19: 4. Birds were taken in snares or gins. These instruments and 
modes of warfare are used tropically, to indicate the wiles of an 
adversary, great danger, or impending destruction, Ps.9: 16. 57: 6. 
94: 13. 119: 85. Prov. 26: 27. Isa. 24: 17. 42: 22. Jer. 5: 27. 6: 21. 
18: 22. 48: 44. Luke 21: 35. Rom. 11: 9. Death is represented as 
a hunter, armed with his net, javelin, or sting, with which he takes 
and slajs men, Ps. 91: 3. Hos. 13: 14. 1 Cor- 15: 55. 

Note. — For information respecting other animals, mentioned 
in the Bible, see Bochart's f/ieroroicon, Rosenmiiller's edition, pub- 
lished at Leipsic 1793 — 1796, and Oedmann's Sammbingen aus jV*a- 
iurkande zur Erklarung der heiligen Schrift, 1786 — 96. 

§ 53. Of Robberies, committed on Travellers. 

Probably from the hunting of wild beasts^ the Nomades turn- 
ed their attention to the plundering of travellers; an occupation, 
which they follow to this day in the vast deserts, nearly in the- 
same way that pirates practise a similar vocation on the ocean. 
Their skill at plundering was predicted of Ishmael and his posteri- 
ty, and they have ever remarkably fulfilled the prediction, Gen. 
16: 12. Still they do not surpass many others of the Nomadic 
tribes; who lie hid behind hills of sand, and wait for travellers, 
and then plunder them to the skin, comp. Jer. 3: 2. They do not 
slay any one, unless some one or a number of their own party per- 
ishes first. Having robbed them of all they possess, they common- 


]y return a garment to the persons plundered, in order that they 
ma\' conceal their nakedness. They also permit the countrymen 
or friends of the captives, to redeem them. All the Nomades are 
polite and hospitable. They receive strangers into their tents, 
and, without any expectation of a return, exhibit to them every 
office of kindness. But they are different men, if they meet stran- 
gers in the wilderness. There are now, and there always have 
been Nomades, who have disapproved of the proceedings, of which 
we have spoken. Such were Abraham, Isaac, .Jacob, and the Isra- 
elites; some of whom, however, were at times guilty of plunder*^ 
ing, Jud. 9: 25. Mic. 2: 8. 



§ 54. Its value and importance. 

In the primitive ages of the world, agriculUtre, as well as the 
keeping of flocks, was a principal employment among men, Gen. 2: 
15. 3: 17 — 19. 4: 2. It is an art, which has ever been a prominent 
source, both of the necessaries and the conveniences of life. Those 
nations, which practised it at an early period, learnt its value, not 
only from their own experience, but also from observing the con- 
dition of the neighbouring countries, that were destitute of a 
knowledge of it,'see Xenophon's oohovo/hikco, V. §. 1, 2. p. 299-305. 
(T. IV. ed. Thicme.) Impressed with the importance of agriculture, 
Noah, after he had escaped from the deluge, once more bestow- 
ed upon it his attention ; and there were some of the Nomades, 
who were far from neglecting it. Gen. 26; 12 — 14. 25: 34. 37: 7. 
Job 1:3. 

Those states and nations, especially Babylon and Egypt, which 
made the cultivation of the soil their chief business, arose in a 
short period to wealth and power. To these communities just 


mentioned, which excelled in this particular all the others of an- 
tiquity, may be added that of the Hebrews, who learned the value 
of the art while remaining" in Egypt, and ever after that time 
were famous for their industry in the cultivation of the earth. 

§ 55. Laws of Moses in regap.d to Agriculture. 

I. Moses, following the example of the Egyptians, made agri- 
culture the basis of the state. He, accordingly, apportioned to eve- 
ry citizen a certain quantity of land, and gave him the right of 
tilling it himself and of transmitting it to his heirs. The person, 
who had thus come into possession, could not alienate the proper- 
ty for any longer period than the year of the coming jubilee ; a 
regulation, which prevented the rich from coming into possession 
of large tracts of land, and then leasing them out in small parcels 
to the poor; a practice which anciently prevailed, and does to this 
day, in the East. 11. It was another law of Moses, that the vender 
of a piece of land or his nearest relative, had a right to redeem 
the land sold, whenever they chose, by paying the amount of pro- 
ilts up to the year of jubilee, Ruth 4: 4. Jer. 32: 7. Ill Another 
law enacted by Moses on this subject, was, that the Hebrews, as 
was the case among the Egyptians after the time of Joseph, Gen. 
37: 18, etseq., should pay a tax of two tenths of their income unto 
God, whose servants they were to consider themselves, and whom 
they were to obej' as their king. Lev. 27: 30. Deut. 12: 17 — 19. 
14: 22 — 29, com}). Gen. 28: 22. IV. The custom of marking the 
boundaries of lands by stones, although it prevailed a long time be- 
fore, Job 21: 2, was confirmed and perpetuated, in the time of 
Moses, by an express law ; and a curse was pronounced against 
him, who without authority removed them. 

These regulations having been made in respect to the tenure, 
incumbrances, &c. of landed property, Joshua divided the whole 
country, which he had occupied, ^r5<, among the respective tribes, 
and, then, among individual Hebrews, running it out with the aid of 
a measuring line, Jos. 17: 5, 14. comp. Amos 7: 17, Mic. 2: 5, 
Ps. 78: 55, Ezek. 40: 3. The word ^nn, a line, is accordingly 
used by a figure of speech for the heritage itself, Ps. 16: 6. Jos. 
17: 5, 14. 19: 9. 

Though Moses was the friend of the agriculturist, he by no 
means discouraged the keeper of the flock. 


§, 56. Estimation in which Agriculture was held. 

The occupation of the husbandmim was held in honour, not 
only for the profits which it brought, but from the circumstance, 
that it was supported and protected by the fundamental laws of 
the state. All who were not set apart for religious duties, such 
as the priests and the Levites, whether inhabitants of the country, 
or of towns and cities, were considered by the laws, and were in 
fact agriculturists. The rich and the noble, it is true, in the 
cultivation of the soil, did not always put themselves on a level 
with their servants, but none were so rich or so noble, as to dis- 
dain to put their hand to the plough, 1 Sam. 11: 7. 1 Kgs. 19: 19. 
comp. 2 Chron. 26: 10. The priests and Levites were indeed en- 
gaged in other employments, yet they coiild not withhold their 
honour from an occupation, which supplied them with their in- 

The esteem in which agriculture was held, diminished, as lux- 
ury increased ; but it never wholly came to an end. Even after 
the captivity, when many of the Jews had become merchants and 
mechanics, the esteem and honour attached to this occupation still 
continued, especially under the dynasty of the Persians, who were 
agriculturists from motives of religion. 

§. 57. Means of increasing Fertility. 

The soil of Palestine is very fruitful, if the dews and vernal 
and autumnal rains are not withheld. The country, in opposition 
to Egypt, is eulogized for its rains in Deut. ll: 10. The He- 
brews, notwithstanding the richness of the soil, endeavoured to 
increase its fertility in various ways. They not only divested it of 
stones, but watered it by means of canals, d'^l^lrS, communicating 
with the rivers or brooks ; and thereby imparted to their fields the 
richness of gardens, Ps. 1; 3. 65: 10. Prov. 21: 1. Isa. 30: 25. 32: 
2, 20. Springs, therefore, fountains, and rivulets, were held in as 
much honour and worth by husbandmen as by shepherds, Jos. 15: 
9. Jud. 1: 15 ; and we accordingly find, that the land of Canaan was 
extolled for those fountains of water, of which Egypt was desti- 
tute. The soil was enriched also, in addition to the method just 


mentioned, by moans of ashes; to which the straw, p.ri. the stub- 
ble, -Ijp , the husks, yi70, the brambles and g-rass, that overspread 
the land during the sabbatical year, were reduced by fire. The 
burning over the surface of the land had also another good»effect, 

viz. that of destroying the seeds of the noxious herbs, Isa. 7: 23. 
32: 13. Prov. 24: 31. Finally, the soil was manured with dung, 

Ps. 83: 10. 2 Kgs. 9: 37. Isa. 25: 10. Jer. 8: 2. 9: 22. 16: 4. 25: 33. 

Luke 14: 34—35. 


The Hebrew word, 15'^, which is translated variously by the 
English words, grain, corn, &.c, is of general signification, and com- 
prehends in itself different kinds of grain and pulse, such as wheat, 
^Itari ; millet, "jap? ; spelt, n73S3 ; wall-barley, ^Tn ; barley, 
?Tli>t5; beans, bic , ientils, fi"idl>; meadow-cumin. •'ji725 ; pepper- 
worl, "l^p. ; fiax. ^iri;2;3; cotton, ys>-Sin\z:3 ; to these miiybe add- 
ed various species of the cucumber, and perhaps rice rTniUJ. Rye 
and oats do not grow in the warmer climates, but their place is, 
in a manner, supplied by barle}'. Barley, mixed with broken 
straw affords the fodder for beasts of burden, which is called ^'^^2. 
Wheat, Mun, which by way of eminence is also called pi, .grew 
in Egypt in the time of Joseph, as it now does in Africa, on stalks 
or branches, D^:i"jpVi each one of which produced an ear. Gen. 
41:47. This sori of wheat does not flourish in Palestine; the 
wheat of Palestine is of a much better kind. Cotton, V^^ innUJB, 
grows not only on trees of a large size, which endure for u num- ^, 
ber of years, but also on shrubs, which are annually reproduced. ' 
It is enclosed in the nuts of the tree, if they may so be called from 
iheir resemblance to nuts. The nuts, when they are ripe, fall off; 
they are then gathered and exposed to the sun, which causes them 
to increase to the size of an apple. When opened, they exhibit 
the cotton. There are a few seeds found in each of these nuts, 
which are sown again the following year. The cotton of the 
shrub, called yw, ^vaaog, is celebrated for its whiteness. 

§ 59. instruIents of agriculture. 67 

§ 59> Instruments of Agriculture. 

The culture of the soil was at first very simple, being perform- 
ed by no other instruments than sharp sticks. By these the ground 
was loosened, until spades and shovels, 'in'', and not long after 
ploughs, n^ira, were invented. All these implements were 
well known m liie time of Moses, Deut. 23: 13. Gen. 45: 6, Job 1: 
14. The first plough was doubtless nothing more than a stout 
limb of a tree, from which projected another shortened and point- 
ed limb. This being turned into the ground made the furrows ; 
while at the further end of the longer branch was fastened a trans- 
verse yok'e, to which the oxen were harnessed. At last a handle 
was added, by which the plough might be guided. So that the 
plough was composed of four parts; the beam; the yoke, nt3173, 
^5>, which was attached to the beam ; the handle, and what we 
should call the coulter, nN, D'^nN, ri'ijj'nna, 1 Sam. 13:20,21. 
Micah 4: 3.. (Pliny, N. H. xviii. 47, speaks of ploughs constructed 
with wheels, which in his day were of recent invention.) It was 
necessary for the ploughman constantly and firmly to hold the 
handle of the plough, which had no wheels, and, that no spot 
might remain untouched, to lean forward and fix his eyes steadily 
upon it, Luke 9: 62. Pliny, N. H. xviii. 49, nro. 2. The stafiF by 
which the coulter was cleared served for an ox-goad. In the East 
at the present day, they use a pole about eight feet in length ; at 
the largest end of which is fixed a fiat piece of iron for clearing 
the plough, and at the other end a spike "32'!% Kivrgov, for spur- 
ring the oxen. Hence it appears that a goad might answer the 
purpose of a spear, which indeed, had the same name 'ja'^'ij^ 1 
Sara. 13: 21. Jud. 3:31. Sometimes a scourge t2T2;,was applied to 
the oxen, Isa. 10: 26. Nah. 3: 2. There seems to have been no 
other harrow than a thick clump of wood, borne down by a weight, 
or a man sitting upon it, and drawn over the ploughed field by ox- 
en ; the same which the Egytians use at the present time. In 
this way Ihe turfs were broken in pieces, and the field levelled ; 
an operation which the word 'niii; seems properly to signify, viz, 
to level, since, in Isa. 28: 24, 25, it is interchanged with !^^•ij. At 
a later period wicker-drags came into use, which Pliny mentions 
IN". H. xviii.' 43. 


The modern orientals, except in India, are unacquainted with 
the cart ; but formerly, not only waggons m';:;??, nVa?, Gen. 45: 
19, 27. Num. 7: 3, 6, 7. 1 Sam. 6: 7,8, 10, llVu. Amos 2: 13, 
Isa. 5: 18. 28: 23, and warlike char'ots, D"^nD-\ ^IDT 53-1, but al- 
so pleasure carriages 53"} a , tl53")73, n33-j73 , were used, 
Gen. 41: 43. 45: 19, 21. 2 Kmgs 5: 9'. 2 Sam/ 15: 1. Acts Ap. 
8: 28. All the ancient vehicles were moved upon two wheels on- 
ly. Covered coaches are known to have been used by ladies 
of distinction ; though this circumstance is not mentioned in the 

§ 60. Animals used in agfjcultuhe. 

The beasts of burden, that endured the toils of agriculture, 
were bulls and cows, he-asses and she-asses, Job 1:14. 1 Sam. 
6: 7. Isa. 30: 24. 32: 20. But it was forbidden to yoke an ass with 
an ox, Deut. 22: 10. Those animals which in the scriptures are 
called oxen, were bulls, tor the Hebrews were prohibited from 
castrating, although the law was sometimes violated, Mai. 1: 14. 
Bulls in the warmer climates, especially if they are not greatly 
pampered, are not so ungovernable, but that they may be har- 
nessed to the plough. If indeed any became obstinate by rich pas- 
turage, their nostrils were perforated, and a ring, made of iron or 
twisted cord, was thrust through, to which was fastened a rope; 
which impeded his respiration to such a degree, that the most 
turbulent one might easily be managed, 2 Kings 19. '28.- Isa. 
37: 29. Ezek. 19: 4. Job 40: 24. By this ring also camels, ele- 
phants, and lions, taken alive, were rendered manageable. When 
bulls became old, their flesh was unsuitable for aliment ; for which 
reason they were left to die a natural death. For the old age of 
these animals, who had been their companions in labour, was 
treated by the Hebrews with kindness. Whence it is said, that, 
in the golden age, the slaughter of an ox will be equally criminal 
with the slaughter of a man, Isa. G6: 3. Pliny, N. H. vii. 45, 56. 
Hence too among the Hebrews bulls possessed their appropriate 
dignity, so that tropes were drawn from them, by no means desti- 
tute of elegance. Num. 22: 4. Deut. 33: 17. 


§ 61. Preparation of the Land. 

Sowing commenced in the latter part of October ; at which time, 
as well as in the months of November and December following, the 
wheat was committed to the earth. Barley was sown in January 
and February. The land was ploughed, "^'iH, Plbs, and the quan- 
tity which was ploughed by a yoke of oxen, T?3S, in one day, was 
called ll^X a yoke, or an acre, 1 Sam. 14: 14. The yoke, Ti'oi'D, 
V3>, was laid upon the necks and shoulders of the labouring animals, 
and with ropes, d'^iriani b^H, was made fast to the beam of the 
plough. The ox beneath the yoke afforded metaphors expres- 
sive of subjugation, Hosea 10: 11. Isa. 9: 4. 10: 27. Jer. 5: 5. 
27: 2, 8—12. 30: 8. Nahum 1: 13. Ps. 129: 3,4. Math. 11: 29, 30. 
The Syriins, according to Phny xviii. 3. ploughed shallow. The 
furrows^ d'^'i^'ia, and the ridges between them were harrowed 
and levelled, nVi?^ Jo^ 39: 10. Isa. 28: 24,25. Hosea 10: 11. The 
seed was most probably committed to the soil in the harrowing, 
as Pliny relates. Yet it seems to have been customary in some 
cases formerly, as it is at present, to scatter the seed upon the 
field once ploughed, and cover it by a cross furrow. When it was 
prohibited by law to sow, either in field or vineyard, seed of a 
mixed kind, and crops of this nature became sacred, i.e. were giv- 
en to the priests, without doubt the seed-grain was carefully 
cleansed from all mixture of tares so often spoken of, and which 
we find denominated in the New Testament ^i^uviov^ in Arabick, 

(jUi-' in Syriack Nbrt, in the Talmud D^a^jT, and in Hebrew '(li^il 

and tlii'^. This law by no means referred to a poorer sort of 
grain, as the Talmudic writers suppose, but to what may be called 
the intoxicating tare, from which the bread and the water in 
which it was boiled received an inebriating quality, and became 
very injurious to soundness of mind. The beverage formed by 
boiling tares and water was called ^i<'"i "^^s, water of tares, also 
poison water, Deut. 29: 18, 19. Ps. 69: 21. Jerem. 8: 14. 23: 15. 
Hos. 10: 4. The tares then, such were their injurious qualities, 
are very properly said to have been sown by an enemy, while 
the labourers were indulging sleep at noon, Matt. 13: 25 — 40. 

Consult, in reference to the law mentioned in this section, Lev. 
19: 19, and Deut. 22:9. 

70 § 62. HARVEST. 

§ 62. Harvest. 

In Palestine the crops are as far advanced in the month of 
February, as they are in this country in the month of May. At 
that time, when the grain has reached about a cubit in height, it 
is frequently so injured by cold winds and frost, that it does not 
ear. The effect, thus produced upon the grain, is called "jis'^'ip 


or blasting. The common name for it in Arabick is not (^■^.(■■^t 
as Niebuhr declares, but (^J-AO, Gen. 41: 6. Deut. 28: 22. 2 

Kgs. 19: 26. Somelimes, even in November, the crops are so an- 
noyed by easterly winds, as to turn jellow, and never to come to 
maturity. This calamity is denominated 'J'ip^.', jnildew, Deut. 
28: 22. Amos 4: 9. Hag. 2: 17. 1 Kgs. 8: 37. 2 Chron. 6: 28. But 
whether the opinion of the orientals, that these effects are occa- 
sioned by winds, is founded in truth, cannot, as it seems, be deter- 

The crops, in the southern parts of Palestine and in the plains, 
come to maturity about the middle of April; but in the northern 
and the mountainous sections, they do not become ripe, till three 
weeks after, or even later. 

The cultivated fields are guarded by watchmen, who sit upon a 
seat hung in a tree, or on a watch tower made of planks, and keep 
off birds, quadrupeds, and thieves, Jer. 4: 16, 17. Isa. 24: 20. 
It was lawful for travellers, Deut. 23: 25, to strip ears from anoth- 
er's field and to eat ; but they were not to use a sickle. The sec- 
ond day of the passover, i. e. the sixteenth from the first new 
moon of April, the first handful of ripe barley was carried to the 
altar, and then the harvest ^""i^p, commenced, comp. John 4: 35. 
The barley was first gathered; then the wheat, spelt, millet, &c. 
Exod. 9: 31, 32. Ruth 1: 22. 2: 23. The time of harvest was a 
festival. It continued from the passover until Pentecost, seven 
weeks ; and accordingly went by the name ^"'^p^ ^''^V: ^'^'^r^'^i 
Deut. 16: 9 — 12. Jer. 5: 24. — The reapers were masters, chil- 
dren, men-servants, maidens and mercenaries, Ruth 2: 4, 8, 21, 23. 
John 4: 36. James 5: 4. Merry and cheerful, they were intent 
upon their labour, and the song of joy might be heard on every 


side, Isa. 9: 3. 61: 7. Ps. 126: 6. Travellers congratulated thetn 
oa the rich harvest; which was attributed to the beneticence of De- 
ity and considered a great honour; while on the other hand, steril- 
ity of the soil was supposed to be a divine punishment and a dis- 
grace, Lev. 26: 4. Deut. 11: 14. 28: 12—24. Isa. 4: 2. Hagg. 1: 
5 — 11. Malac. 3: 10, 11. Anciently the ears were plucked oft", or 
the stalks pulled up by the roots, which is still the custom in some 
eastern countries. It was esteemed servile labour by the Phari- 
sees, and a profanation of the sabbath, when done on that day, 
Matt. 12: 1 — 5. The Hebrews used the sickle, u:7;."nn- -^'^i Deut. 
16: 9. Joel 3: 13. Jer. 50: 16 ; so that the stubble u^i?, rt^mained 
in the earth. The crops when reaped were gathered up by the 
arms, and bound in bundles. Gen. 37: 7. Levit. 23: 10 — 15. Job 
24: 10. Ruth 2: 7, 15, 16. Amos 2: 13. Mic, 4: 12. Jer. 9: 21, 
22. At length the bundles were collected into a heap, In!^"}:?,, or 
conveyed away on a waggon, Amos 2: 13. Ps. 126: 6. But the 
corners of the field ;i"it5 nNS, and the gleanings tOJ^b, were re- 
quired to be left lor the poor, Levit. 19: 9. Deut. 24: 19. Ruth 2: 
2, 23. The land in the East generally yields ten fold, rarely, 
twenty or thirty ; but, Matt. 13: 8, the land yielded thirty, sixty and 
an hundred fold, and. Gen. 26: 12, an hundred fold. Herodotus, 
Strabo, and Piiny mention the increase of crops at the rate of 
one hundred and fifty, two hundred, and even three hundred 
fold. This great increase is owing to the circumstance of the 
kernels being put into the soil at a distance from each other, so 
as to send out several stalks, Gen. 41: 5, 47, some of which, 
(according to Pliny, N. H. xviii. 21, 55,) have from three to 
four hundred ears ; and in Africa at the present time, they bear at 
least ten and fifteen. 

§ 63. Threshing Floor, 'j'n.i. 

The bundles were transported into the threshing floor either by 
hand, or beasts of burden, or in waggons, Amos 2: 13, and piled in 
a heap, Exod. 22: 6. Jud. 15: 5. A bundle left in the field, even 
though discovered, was not to be taken up, but left to the poor, 
Deut. 24: 19. The threshing floor was in the field, in some ele- 
vated part of it; it was destitute of walls and covering; and in- 
deed was nothing more than a circular space thirty or forty paces 
in diameter, where the ground had been levelled and beaten down, 

T2 § 64. THRESHING. 

Gen. 50: 10. 2 Sam. 24: 16, 24. Jud. 6: 37. etc. The assemblage 
of bundles in the floor for threshing, was used figuratively to de- 
note reservation for future destruction, Mic. 4: 13. Isa. 21: 10. 
Jer. 61: 33. 

§ 64. Tur.ESHiNG. 

At first the grain was beaten out with cudgels. Afterwards 
this method was retained only in respect to the smaller kinds of 
grain and in threshing small quantities, Ruth 2: 17. Isa. 28: 27. At 
a later period, it was trodden out by the hoofs of oxen, Isa. 28: 
28. Deut. 25: 4, or beaten out with machines of the same kind, 
that are used in the east at the present day. All these modes of 
threshing are called 11:^1. Three kinds of instruments, however, 
are mentioned. The iirst, called t3"'Dp'na, is not well known. Per- 
haps it was a square piece of wood, armed on the lower side with 
sharp stones. The second, called S'lia, was composed of four 
beams joined so as to form a square, between which were set 
three revolving cylinders, each one of which was furnished with 
three iron wheels, having teeth like a saw ; (see Archaeol. Germ. 
P. 1. T. 1. tab. IV. nro. VII.) The third, yn'^H, was formed like 
the preceding, except that the cylinders were not furnished with 
iron wheels, but with sharp pieces of iron six inches long and 
three broad. Possibly this ma}'^ be the same kind with the first. 
These machine?^ upon which the driver sat, were fastened to the 
oxen, and were driven round upon the bundles, which were brok- 
en open and were deposited in the circle of the area six or eight 
feet in height. In this manner the grain was beaten out of the 
ears, and the. straw itself broken in pieces, which in this state was 
called "jin. Another man followed the machine with a wooden 
instrument, and placed the grain in order. Threshing frequently 
stands figuratively for a great slaughter; and if the machine is 
said to be new, when it is usually the sharpest, it denotes a slaugh- 
ter proportionably greater. The victorious people are some- 
times represented, as a huge machine, that threshes and crumbles 
even mountains and hills, like straw. But the conquered are al- 
Wcxys prostrated upon the earth, like the bundles on the threshing 
floor, and ground to powder by the instruments, Jud. 8: 7. 2 Sam. 
12: 31. Amos 1: 3. Micah 4: 12, 13. In Deut. 25: 4, it was foF- 

§ 65. VENTILATION. 73 

bidden to muzzle the ox, that was treading out the corn, comp. 
1 Cor. 9: 9—12. 1 Tim. 5: 18, and the cattle which drew the 
threshing machine, were allowed to eat of it to the full. In 
reference to this circumstance, threshing denoted figuratively a 
splendid manner of life. 

§. 65. VE^T1LATI0N. 

The grain being threshed, was thrown into the middle of the 
threshing floor; it was then exposed with a fork to a gentle wind, 
Jer. 4: II, 12, which separated the broken straw, pn, and chaff, 
yiW ; so that the kernels and clods of earth with grain cleaving 
to them, and the ears not yet thoroughly threshed, fell upon the 
ground. The clods of earth, as is customary in the East at the 
present day, were collected, broken in pieces, and separated from 
the grain by a sieve, In*^i3 • Sifting was accordingly used as a 
symbol of misfortune and overthrows, Amos. 9: 9. Luke 22: 31. 
The heap thus winnowed which still contained many ears, that 
were broken, but not fully threshed out, was again exposed in 
the threshing floor, and several yoke of oxen driven over it for 
the purpose of treading out the remainder of the grain. At length 
the grain, mingled with the chaff, was again exposed to the wind 
by a fan which was called rTnfiq, tttvov ; which bore off the chaff 
yna, so that the pure wheat fell upon the floor, Ruth 3: 2. Is. 30: 
24. This operation was symbolical of the dispersion of a van- 
quished people ; also of the separation between the righteous and 
the wicked. Is. 41: 15, 16. Jer. 13: 24. 15: 7. 51: 2. Job. 21: 18. 
Ps. 1: 4. 35: 5. 83: 13. Matt. 3: 12. Luke 3: 17. The scattered 
straw, as much at least as was required for the manufacturing of 
bricks, and the fodder of cattle, was collected, but the residue, 
with the chaff and stubble, as has been stated above, was reduced 
to ashes by fire ; which afforded a figurative illustration to denote 
the destruction of wicked men, Is. 5: 24. 47: 14. Joel 2: 5. Obad. 
18. Nahum 1: 10. Jer. 15: 7. Malach. 4: 1. Matt. 3: 12. Original- 
ly the gram thus obtained from the earth was kept in subterra- 
nean storehouses, and even caverns, but in progress of time grana- 
ries above the earth were built, both in Egypt and Palestine, see 
Gen. 41: 35. Exod. 1: 11. 1 Chron. 27: 28. 


§ 66. Of Vines and Vineyards. 

Among other objects of agriculture, the vine may justly be 
considered worthy of particular attention. 

Vines^ d^jSa, in some parts of the East, for instance, on the 
southern shore of the Caspian sea, grow spontaneously, produc- 
ing grapes of a pleasant taste, which, m the very first ages of the 
world, could not but have invited the attention of men to their cul- 
tivation. Hence mention is made of wine at an early period. Gen. 
9:21. IJ: 18. 19:32—35. 27:25. 49: 11,12. The Hebrews 
were no less diligent in the culture of vineyards, than of fields for 
grain ; and the soil of Palestine yielded in great quantities the best 
of wine. The mountains of Engedi in particular, the valley of salt- 
pits, and the vallies of Eshkol and Sorek were celebrated for their 
grapes. Sorek indeed, was not only the proper name of a valley, but 
also of a very fruitful vine, which bore small, but uncommonly sweet 
and pleasant grapes. In the kingdom of Morocco at the present 
time, the same vine is called Serki, the name being slightly alter- 
ed, see Pliny xvii. 35, no, 5. In a few instances the wine of 
mount Libanus and Helbon is extolled in the scriptures, Hos. 14: 
7. Ezek. 27: 18. In Palestine even at the present day, the clus- 
ters of the vine grow to the weight of 12 pounds ; they have large 
grapes, and cannot be carried lar by one man, without being injur- 
ed, Num. 13: 24, 25. The grapes of Palestine are mostly red or 
black; whence originated the phrase, '•'• blood of grapeS^'''' U'^I'l^U^ 
Gen. 49: 11. Deut. 32: 14. Isa. 27: 2. Some vines in eastern 
countries, when supported by trees, grow to a great height and 
magnitude; of such are made the staves and sceptres of kings. 

The vine growing spontaneously, of which we have spoken, 
is not that, which in 2 Kings 4: 39, is called the "wild vine," 
Ini'Ji:! "jsa, for that, (as the Vulgate rightly translates,) is the colo- 
cyniis or wild gourd, which in .Terem. 2: 21, is called ^^"IDS "jS-l, 
the degenerate or strange vine. The vine of Sodom Dip ]?.3 is the 
solanem melangenae, the fruit of which, as was said above, is called 
"iJi^n "^S-^i or the poisonous clusters. 


§ 67. Situation and Arrangement of Vineyards. 

Vineyards^ I3'?q"l3. D15, were generally planted on the declivi- 
ty of hills and mountains. They were sometimes planted in pla- 
ces, where the soil had been heaped by art upon the naked 
rocks, and was supported there merely by a wall, Isa. 5: 1. Jerem. 
31: 6. Joel 3: 18. Amos 9: 13. Micah 1: 6. According- to Strabo 
and Pliny, there were also very fine vineyards in moors and wet 
lands, in which the vines grew to a very great height. Of the 
vines, that grew upon such a kind of soil, were fabricated the scep- 
tre, &c. spoken of above, whilst the branches of other vines were 
destined to be fuel for the flames, Ezek. 17.- 1—8, 19: 10, 11. 
15: 1—5. 19: 12. 

Vines were commonly propagated by means of suckers, U^^^'Zp^. 
Pliny, (xvii. 35, no. 6.) says, vines were of four kinds; viz, those that 
ran on the ground; those that grew upright of themselves ; those 
that adhered to a single prop ; and those that covered a square 
frame. It is not my design to treat of all these ; it may suffice 
merely to mention, that Pliny is by no means correct, when he 
saj'S, the custom prevailed in Syria and all Asia, of letting the vines 
run on the ground. This indeed accords with Ezekiel 17: 6, 7; 
but that vines frequently grew to a great height, being supported 
by trees and props, or standing upright of themselves, the prover- 
"bial phrase, which so often occurs, of sitting under one's own vine 
and fig-tree, i. e. enjoying a prosperous and happy life, is sufficient 
proof, Jer. 5: 17. 8: 13. Hos. 2: 12. Mic. 4: 4. Zech. 3: 10. The 
prohibition, Deut. 22: 9, to sow vineyards with divers seeds, and 
the command, that what was thus sown should be given to the 
priests, are not to be understood of the vines, but of herbs, which 
were sown in the intervals between them. Vineyards were defend- 
ed by a hedge or wall, Inrint:?^, "1^3, Num. 22: 24. Ps. 80: 12. 
Prov. 24: 31. Isa. 5: 5. 27: 2, 3. 'Jer."49: 3. Nahum 4: 3 Matt. 
21: 33. In the vineyards were erected towers, Isa. 5: 2. Matt. 21: 
33 ; which, at the present time in eastern countries, are thirty 
feet square, and eighty feet high. These towers were for keep- 
ers, who defended the vineyards from thieves, and from animals, 
especially dogs and foxes. Cant. 1: 6. 2: 15. By the law in Deut. 
23: 25, the keeper was commanded not to prohibit the passing tra- 


veller from plucking' the grapes, which he wished to eat on his 
way, provided he did not carry them off in a vessel. 

§ 68. Culture of Vineyards, 

The manner of trimming the vine, "nJjT. and also the sinocular 
instrument of the vine-dresser, rT^527Q, were well known ev^n in 
the time of Moses, Lev. 26:3,4. comp. Isa. 2:4. 5:0. 18:5. 
Mich. 4: .3. Joel 3: 10. A vintage from new vineyards was for- 
bidden for the first three years, Exod. 31: 2ij. and Num. 18: 11. and 
the grapes also of the fourth year were consecrated to sacred pur- 
poses ; the vines therefore, without dou!)t, during these first years, 
were so pruned, as that few sprouts remaiised. On the fifth year 
when the}' were first profaned, '^"rn i. e. put to common use, they 
had become sturdy and exuberant. Pruning at three several 
times, viz, in iVIarch, April and May, is mentioned not only by IJoc- 
hart, but by Plinj'; and Homer speaks of it as a thing well known, 
Odyss. vii. 120. The Hebrews, dug, pi'j. their vinevards and 
gathered out the stones, bPD. The young vines, unless trees were 
at hand, were wound around stakes; and around those vines which 
ran on the ground were dug narrow trenches in a circular form, to 
prevent the wandering shoots from mmgling with each other. 
These practices in the cultivation of the vine are to be duly con- 
sidered in those allegories, which are drawn from vineyards, Isa. 
5: 1—7. 27: 2—6. Ps. 80: 9—13. Matt. 21: 33— 4G. 

§ 69. Vintage and Wine-press. 

The vintage, T'^cs, in Sijria, commences about the middle of 
September, and continues till the middle of Novemher. P>ut 
grapes in Palestine, we are informed, were ripe sometimes even 
in June and July; which arose perhaps from a tripj»le pruning, in 
which case there was also a third vintage. The first vintage was 
in August, which month in Num. 13: 20, is called D'a:y ""^.^^S 
■^;c'> ; the second in September and the third in October. The 
grapes when not gathered were sometimes found on the vines, 
until November and December. The Hebrews were requir- 
ed to leave gleanings for the poor, Levit. 10; 10. 

The season of vintage was a most joyful one, Jud: 9: 27. 


Isa. 16: 10. Jer. 25: 30. 48: 33. With shoutings on all sides, the 
grnpos were plucked off and carried to the wine-press ni^lS, 
!Tnw\p, hjvt}, which was in the vineyard, Is. 5: 2. Zech. 14: 10. 
liJg'j;. 2: IG. Matt. 21:33. llev. 14: 10, 20. The presses consisted 
of two receptacles, which were either built of stones and covered 
with plaster, or hewn out of a large rock. The upper recepta- 
cle called n.Ti as it is constructed at the present time in Persia, is 
nearly eis^at leet square and four feet high. Into this the grapes 
are thrown and trodden out by live men. The juice, uiilTi, flows 
out into tlic lower receptacle, called '2p2i through a grated aper- 
ture, which is made in the side near the bottom of the upper one. 
The treading of the wine-press was laborious and not very fa- 
vourable to cleanliness; the garments of the persons thus employ- 
ed were stained with the red juice, and yet the employment was 
a joyful one. It was performed with singing, accompanied with 
mus'cal instruments ; and the treaders, as they jumped, exclaimed, 
^Vri, {ho up,) Isa. 16: 9, 10. Jer. 25: 30. 48: 32, 33. Figurative- 
ly, vintage, gleaning, and treadmg the wine- press, signified battles 
and great slaughters. Is. 17: 6. 63: 1 — 3. Jer. 49: 9. Lam. 1:15. 
The must, as is customary in the East at the present day, was pre- 
served in large tirkins, which were buried in the earth. The 
wine-cellars were not subterranean, but built upon the earth. 
When deposited in these, the firkins, as is done at the present time 
in Persia, were sometimes buried in the ground, and sometimes 
left standing upon it. Formerly also new wine or must was pre- 
served in leathern-bottles ; and lest they should be broken by fer- 
mentation, the people were careful that the bottles should be new, 
Job 32: 19. Matt. 9: 17. Mark 2; 22. Sometimes the must was 
boiled and made into syrup, which is comprehended under the 
term "vlJil. although it is commonly rendered honey, Gen. 43: 11. 
2 Chron. 31: 5. Sometimes the grapes vvere dried in the sun and 
preserved in masses, which were called D'^i;2> ■^'^i'^'iJN and d'^j^n^iC, 
1 Sam. 25: 18. 2 Sam. 16: 1. 1 Chron. 12: 40. Hosea 3: 1. From 
these dried grapes, when soaked in wine and pressed a second time, 
■was manufactured sweet wine, which is .nlso called new wine, 
'^ii"^ n, yXevAog, Acts 2: 13. 

78 ^. 70, GARDENS. 

§ 70, Gardens. 

Culinary plants and fruit-trees were among the first objects 
of Agriculture. Gardens, accordingly, were very ancient, and have 
always been numerous. By the Hebrews they were called fi'^iS, 
nisa. "j-l, Mi-H ; afterwards, the Persian name D"?.")!, naQadnoog, 
paradiae, was introduced. The later Hebrews were invited the 
more to the cultivation of Gardens by the example of the Syrians, 
whono Pliny extols for this species of agriculture, above all other 
nations. — Trees were multiplied by seeds and shoots ; they were 
transplanted, dug around, manured, and pruned, Job 8: 16. Is. 17: 
10. Grafting occurs figuratively, Fiom. 11: 17, 24. — The gardens 
in Persia at the present day are disposed in good order ; those in 
the Ottoman empire are very rude, displaying hardly any indica- 
tions of art, except a fountain or receptacle of waters, which is 
never wanting. 

In the scriptures, gardens are denominated from the preval- 
ence of certain trees; as the the garden of nuts, T'l^N ns^, and the 
garden of Carthaginian apples or pomegranates, D"'3'i73'^ '2'7."^2 ; 
Cant. 6: 11. The forest of palms also, in the plain of Jericho, 
was only a large garden, in which other trees were interspersed 
among the palms, Strabo, p. 768. The modern Orientals are no 
less fond of gardens than were the ancient Hebrews ; not only be- 
cause they yield the richest fruits, but because the shade is very 
refreshing, and the air is cooled by the waters, of which their 
gardens are never allowed to be destitute, 1 Kings 21: 2. 2 Kings 
25: 4. Hos. 9: 13. Sol. Song 4: 13, 6: 11. Eccles. 2: 5, John 18: 1. 
19: 41. 20: 15. The Hebrews had an attanchment to gardens as 
a place of burial ; hence the}' frequently built sepulchres in them, 
2 Kgs. 9: 27. 21.- 18. Mark 15: 46. Matt. 26: 36. John 18: 1, 2. 
A pleasant region is called " a garden of God," i. e. a region ex- 
tremely pleasant. The trees which the gardens constantly dis- 
played are often used figuratively for men. Those which are 
flourishing and fruitful denote good men ; the unfruitful and bar- 
ren, xvicked men, and loftj' cedars in particular are the emblems of 
kings, Job. 29; 19. Ps. 1: 3. 92: 12—14. Hos. 14: 6, 7. Jer. 17: 8. 
Dan. 4: 10—16. Luke 23: 31. Matt. 3: 10. 7: 17—20. 12:33. 
Ezek. 17; 3, 4. 31: 3, 13. Indeed an assembh' of men is com- 

§ 71. OLIVE TREES. 79 

pared to r forest^ and a multitude of wicked men to briers, Is. 9: 
10, 10: 19, 33, 34. 11: 1. Several trees, which are often men- 
tioned in the scriptures, but not very well known, we shall now 
describe in a few words. 

^.71. Olive-Trees. 

Olive trees, t3'^r).li M'^L were a very ancient and profitable ob- 
ject of agriculture. Its branches as early as Gen. 8: 11, and since 
that time among all nations, have been a symbol of peace and 
prosperity. Oil is first mentioned, Gen. 28: 18. Job. 24: 11, which 
proves the cultivation of this tree to have been very ancient. 
Olives in Palestine are of the best growth and afford the best oil; 
hence this region is often extolled on account of this tree, and es- 
pecially in opposition to Egypt, which is destitute of good olives, 
Num. 18: 12. Deut. 7: 13. 1 1: 14. 12: 17. 18: 4. Land that is bar- 
ren, sandy, dry and mountainous, is favourable to the production 
of the olive. The mount of Olives derives its name from this 
tree. The olive is pleasant to the view, having widely extended 
branches, and remaining green in winter. Its multiplied branches 
entitled it to become the symbol of a numerous progeny, a bless- 
ing which was attributed to the peculiar favour of God, Ps. 52: 8. 
128: 3. Hos. 14: 6. Jer. 11: 16, 17. It flourishes about two hun- 
dred years, and even while it is living, young olives spring up 
around it which occupy its place when dead ; the young sprouts 
are called n*T ''Ib/r!'',:;, Ps. 128:3. It was customary, notvvithstand- 
ing, to raise the tree from suckers, which were transplanted. It 
requires no other cultivation than digging the ground and pruning 
the branches. The fruit is very pleasant to the palate, but near- 
ly all of it is thrown into the oil press, for the purpose of procur- 
ing the oil, of which there are sometimes one thousand pounds ob- 
tained from one tree. By means of this article, the Hebrews car- 
ried on an extensive commerce with the Tyrians, Ezek. 27: 17. 
comp. 1 Kings 5: 1 1 ; they also sent presents of oil to the kmgs of 
Egypt, Hos. 12: 1. The berries of the olive tree were some- 
times plucked or carefully shaken off by the hand, before they 
were ripe, Isa. 17: 6. 24: 13. Deut. 24: 20. If, while they were 
yet green, instead of being cast into the press, they were only 
beaten and squeezed, they yielded the best kind of oil j it was call- 

80 § 72. FIG TREES. 

eel omphacinum^ or the oil of unripe olives, and also beaten or fresh 
oil, rr^ns 'ra n^l 'Jii^'n ']^."l3, Exod. 27, 20. There were presses 
of a peculiar make for pressing oil, called "^Ty^Ti n^, (from which 
is derived the name Gethsemane, Matt. 26: 36. John 18: 1,) in 
which the oil was trodden out by the feet, Micah 6: 15. The 
first expression of the oil was better than the second, and the 
second than the third. Ripe olives yielded oil of a less valuable 
kind. The best sort of oil was mixed with spices and used for 
ointment ; the inferior sort was used with food. In Sacrifices, ac- 
cordingly, which were in a certain sense the feasts of God, the 
king and ruler of the people, the use of oil was commanded. Lev. 
2: 1; 5, 7, 15. 6: 15. 

Note. — The cotiniis, v.orivoq, and the oleaster^ uyQieXaios, are 
both called wild Olive-trees. They are nevertheless of ditferent 
kinds, though they are sometimes confounded by the Greeks them- 
selves. The fruit of the cotinus is used for no other purpose than 
colouring; but the oleaster, the agrippa elaeagnus of Linnaeus, 
It'ij y^i is that species of wild olive, whose branches, (see Schulz, 
in Fauius' collection of Travels, VI. 290.) are grafted into barren 
olive-trees, that are in a state of cultivation, in order that fruitful- 
ness may be produced, comp. Rom. 1 1: 17, 24. 

§. 72. The Fig-tree. 

Fig-trees, f D5^n, n;J<ri, are very common in Palestine. They 
flourish in a dry and sandy soil. They are not shrubs, as in our 
gardens, but trees, not altogether erect and yet tall and leafy. 
The shade of the fig-tree is very pleasant, and was well known to 
the Hebrews, Micah, 4: 4. Fig-trees begin to sprout at the time 
of the vernal equinox, Luke 21: 29, 30. Matt. 24: 32. The fruit 
makes its appearance before the leaves and flowers; the foliage 
expands about the end of March, Matt. 21: 19. Mark 11:13. The 
figs are of three kinds. L the untimely Jig, which puts forth at the 
vernal equinox, and before it is ripe is called :;5, the green fig, 
but when ripe, the untimelij fig, Cant, 2; 13. Hos. 9: 10. Jer. 24: 2. 
It comes to maturity the latter part of June, comp. Mark 11: 13. 
Matt. 21: 19 ; and in relish surpasses the other kinds, Jer. 24: 2. 
II. The summer or dry fig. It appears about the middle of June 

§ 72. THE FIG TREE. 81 

and comes to maturity in August. III. T/je a'i/i<er /^, which ger- 
minates in August, and does not ripen until the failing of the 
leaves, which is about the end of November. It is longer and of 
a browner colour, than the others. All figs when ripe, but espec- 
ially the untimely, fall spontaneously, Nahura 3: 12. The early 
figs are eaten, but some are dried in the sun and preserved in 
masses, which are called Q'^rl'^. !^'^5li 1 Sam. 25; 18. 30: 12. 
2 Kings, 20; 7. 1 Chron. 12; 40. The parable in Luke 13: 6. et 
seq. is founded in the oriental moile of gardening; and the meth- 
od of improving the palm, whose barrenness may be remedied ia 
the way there mentioned, is transferred to the tig- tree. 

Note. — The sycamore, Q'^^pu:, in size and figure resembles the 
Mulberry-tree, and is very common not only in Egypt, but in Ju- 
dea, especially in the low lands, 1 Chron. 27: 28. 2 Chron. 1: 15. 
9: 27. Ps. 78: 47. Its body is large and its branches numerous, 
gTOwing nearly in a horizontal direction ; by means of its branch- 
es it is easy of ascent, Luke 19: 4, 5. It is ahvays green. Its wood, 
which is of a dark hue, endures a thousand years, and was there- 
fore much used in building, 1 Chron. 27: 28. Isa. 9: 10. Its fruit, 
which does not spring from the branches and among the leaves, 
but from the trunk itself, resembles the fig, though it is destitute 
of seeds. It is very luscious, and hence hurtful to the stomach : 
it is not, therefore eaten, except for the want of something better. 
The fruit does not ripen unless it is opened, oiba, by the nail or a 
piece of iron, so that the juice, which resembles milk, may be 
emitted; then, as the wound grows black, it comes to maturity, 
Amos. 7: 14. The tree is very productive, yielding its fruits sevea 
times a year, and affording a supply of food for the poor, during 
four months of the year ; comp. my Arabick Chrestomathy, p. 114. 

§ 73. The Pomegranate, pa^- * 

The tree, which bears this name, grows in Persia, Arabia, 
Egypt, and Palestine. It is not a tall tree, and at a little distance 
from the ground, shoots out into a multitude of branches ; in con- 
sequence of which, it is considered by some merely a shrub. The 
fruit it bears is very beautiful to the eye, and pleasant to the pal- 
ate ; it is about the size of a large apple, saj', two or three inches 

82 § 74, THE BALSAM. 

in diameter, and is encircled at the upper part with something re- 
sembhng a crown. At first it exhibits a green appearance, but in 
August and September, it appears of a redish colour, approximatmg 
to a brown ; the rind is thick and hard, but easily broken. The inte- 
rior of the pomegranate is of a yellow colour. There seems to 
be a number of internal rinds, which are soft and rich, and afford 
a juice, which from its effect on the palate may be called bitter- 
sweet. The seeds are sometimes white, and sometimes purple, 
Num. 20: 5. Deut. 8: 8. The artificial pomegranates, made to 
resemble the natural ones, were no small ornament, Exod. 28:33, 
34. 1 Kgs. 7: 18, 

NoTK. Citron and orange-trees appear to have been transplanted 
at some recent period from Persia into Palestine. Had they been 
native productions of Palestine, the Hebrews clearly would not 
have wanted a name for them; for the phrase, "nnn yy ""nS the 
fruit of a goodly tree^ Lev. 23: 40, means neither the citron nor the 
orange, but the fruit of any rich tree whatever, for instance the 
pomegranate or date. 

§. 74. The balsam. 

The balsam is both a fruit and a tree. The odoriferous bal- 
sam, so salutary in some cases to health, Heb. '^'^IS, is not gather- 
ed from the tree in Yemen called by the Arabick name Abu Scha- 
em, but is distilled from a fruit, which is indigenous on the moun- 
tains of Mecca and iMedina. 

The fruit, which produces this distillation, was found to be 
cultivated in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Egypt, at 
Matara, not far irom Grand Cairo, in gardens. That it was culti- 
vated in this way at a very ancient period in Gilead, and also in 
the vicinity of Jericho and Engedi, appears from many passages 
of scripture, Gen. 37: 25. 43:11. Jer. 8: 22. 46:11. 51:8; see 
also the History of Tacitus, Bk. 5, c. 6. Josephus in his Jewish 
War, Bk. IV. c. 8. § 3, compared with his Antiquities, Bk. VIII. c. 
6. § 6. Bk. XX. c. 4. § 2.— Pliny's Natural Hist. Bk. XII. 2. Di- 
odorusSiculus, XIX. c. 98. Strabo 763, and Justin Trogus, XXXVI. 
c. 2. So that the conjectures and statements, brought against 
what is here stated, cannot hold. There are three species of the 

§ 75. THE PALM. 83 

balsam, two are shrubs, the other is a tree. They yieUl their sap in 
June, July, and August, which is received into an earthern vessel. 
The fruit also, when pierced by some instrument, emits a juice of 
the same kind, and in more abundance, but less rich. The sap, 
extracted from the body of the tree or shrub, is called the oppo- 
balsam; the juice of the balsam fruit is denominated corpo-balsam, 
and the liquid, extracted from the branches when cut off, the aylo- 

§ 75. The palm. "nQn , qoivil- 

The palmtree is very common in the countries of the East and 
in Africa. It is not very frequently found in Palestine at the pre- 
sent day ; the reason is. a want of cultivators. It requires men, 
who are skilful and experienced, to make a palm grove flourish- 
ing and productive. At a very early period, however, they were 
quite numerous even in Palestine. This we may learn from Lev. 
23: 40. Deut. 34:3. Jud. 1: 16. 3: 13. 4: 6, and from many pro- 
fane writers ; and also from the ancient coins of the Jews and Ro- 
mans, which exhibit the palm, a sheaf of wheat, and a cluster of 
grapes, as the symbols of the Jewish nation. The palm flourishes 
most in a warm climats, and in case there is a sufficiency of wa- 
ter, in clayey, sandy, and nitrous soils. It is, therefore, commonly 
found most flourishing in vallies and plains, Exod. 15:' 27. It ascends 
very straight, and very lofty, being destitute of limbs, except very 
near the top, where it is surmounted with a crown of foliage, that 
is always green. The figure of the palm tree was carved in orna- 
mental work, 1 Kgs. 6: 32; and it is used figuratively, as a symbol 
of a beautiful person, Cant. 7: 8, and also of a religious, upright 
man, Ps. 1:3. 92:12. The dates grow on small stems, which 
germinate at the angles formed by the stock of the tree and the 
branches. Palm trees exhibit what may be termed a sexual dis- 
tinction, and, in order to any fruits being produced, the seed from 
the flowers of the masculine palm must be borne at the proper 
season to the tree of an opposite character. If this is not done, 
or if it happen too early or too late, the female palm, like the 
male, bears no fruit. The productions of the palm are large clus- 
ters of dates, which become ripe in August, September, and Octo- 
ber. Some of the dates are eaten in their crude state ; the rest 


are strained through a press woven of osiers, and after the juice 
is forced out, are reduced into solid masses, and are preserved. 
The juice pressed out is the date wine^ formerly very celebrated ; 
under which name was also comprehended the beverag"e, which 
was procured from clusters of dry dates steeped in warm watfr, 
and then pressed. The Hebrews at the feast of tabernacles bore 
palm branches in their hands ; they also strewed them m the 
way before the kings, as they entered on public occasions into 
their cities, Lev. 23:40. 1 Mace. 13:51. Matt.21:8. The Greeks 
gave a branch of the palm to those, who conquered in the games, 
comp. Rev. 7; 0. This tree is regarded by the orientals, of all 
others as the most excellent and noble. Hence the saymg from 
the branch, i.e. iht palm branch to the rush or ree<L expressions which 
are interchangeable with the liead and tail, i:TT dN~\, and mean 
the same thing, as the phrase " Irom the higaest to the lowest," 
Isa. 9: 14. 19: 15. 

§ 76. Terebinths and PiSTACus. 

Terebinths are called in Heb. D"'i:\^.. 1"^^^., tl-N, &c. which 
words are sometimes confounded and interchanged with "ji^N and 
Sn^N, which mean the oak. The terebinths are a large iree, 
are loaded with branches and foliage, and are green through the 
whole year. They live a thousand years, and when they die, 
leave in their place a scion, which in time spreads a like luxuri- 
ance of foliage, and lives to a like number of years ; so that, 
where they once appear, they may be said to be perpetuated. It 
was for this reason, viz. the comparative perpetuity, which was 
attached to them, that places were denominated from them, as 
from cities, Gen. 13; 18. Judg. 6: 11. 1 Sam. 10: 3. Is. 6: 13. Ezek. 
6: 13. They are used tiguratively as symbols of the good, who in 
Is. 61:3, are called terebinths of righteousness, pn:: '^^,"'N. 

The pislacia is a tree, very much like the tereb.ntii. It bears 
a very rich species of nuts; which hang in clusters, Q'':i3a , Gen. 
43: 11, and which become ripe in October. They somewhat re- 
semble almonds in appearance, but are of a much better flavour; 
and are, therefore, most valued by the orientals. Walnuts, T^HN, 
are common in Palestine ; but hazel nuts are scarce, if indeed 
they are found there at all. The word T^b, which some suppose 
<o mean the hazel nut, is the name of the almond. 

§ 77. BEES AND HONEV. 85 

§ 77. Bees and Honey. 

Palestine has been often called the land flowing with tnilk and 
honey. This is a proverbial expression, and is applied to any 
Truittul land, for instance, Egypt in Num. IG: 1.3. Still it must be 
confessed, that bees were very numerous in Palestine, not only in 
the hives, which were built for them of clay mixed with broken 
straw, but frequently in the woods, in the hollow trees, and the 
tissures of rocks, Deut. 32: 13. Ps. 81:17. They possess a keen 
animosity, and a very efficient sting, and when they have a dispo- 
sition to, attack to good purpose individuals and even large bodies 
of men. They are consequently used by a figure of speech to 
represent violent and ferocious enemies, Deut. 1: 44. Ps. 118: 11, 
12. They could be allured, by any thing that made a tinkling 
sound, to any particular place, Is. 7: 18. The Hebrews took great 
care of these little animals ; as is evident from the abundance of 
honey which they possessed, and were able to exchange in their 
traffic with the Tyrians, Ezek. 27: 17. Hence honey is often men- 
tioned in the Bible, both the comb, QiD^^T riDb, fuhaaoi' ktiqcov^ 
and the liquid honey, fj^i, "ii^'l. It should be remarked, that the 
word 'iiS'n , which me ms liquid honey, may also mean the sirup 
of d:ites and must, Gen. 43: 11. Wild honey, ^{h aygiov , 'Cil^Jl 
^ is likewise spoken of, 1 Sam. 14: 25 — 27. Matt. 3: 4. This 
was not the honey of bees, found in the fissures of rocks; for this 
occurs under the phrase, 2>^&)3 "ilii"}, Deut. 32 : 13. Ps. ai:^- 
Nor was it the liquid manna, called terengabin^ although this man- 
na was formerly comprehended under the common word for hon- 
ey. It is what has been called the honey dew, i, e. the excre- 
ments, which certain little insects, called by Linnaeus, Aphides, 
emit very copiously upon the leaves of trees, so much that it 
flows down upon the ground, 1 Sam. 14: 15 — 27. 

The ancients used honey instead of sugar, and loved it much; 
it is hence used tropically as an image of pleasure and happiness, Ps. 
119:103. Prov. 24: 13, 14. Cant. 4:11. When taken in great 
quantities it catises vomiting, and is consequently used by a figure 
to express fastidiousness, or any nauseating sensation, Prov. 26: 
16, 17. 


§ 78, Fishing. 

Fish were esteemed by the Hebrews, as by all the orientals, 
a great delicacy, Num. 11:5. Inconsequence of being held in 
such estimation, they were taken in great numbers from the river 
Jordan and the lake Gennessareth. Those only, which were des- 
titute of scales or fins, were interdicted, Lev. 11:9. Hence men- 
tion is made of the fish-gate at Jerusalem, so called from the cir- 
cumstance of fish being sold there, 2 Chr. 33: 14. Neh.3:3. 12:39. 
Is. 19:8. Ezek. 26: 5, 14. 47: 10. Fishermen are used tropically 
for enemies, Is. 19: 8. Hab. 1:15. Strabo says, there was a great 
trade carried on in fish at the lake Gennessareth. Some of the 
apostles living near the lake were fishermen, and this class of 
men were in general active, experienced, and apt, Luke 5: 1. et 
seq. comp. Matt. 4: 19. The instruments used in fishing, were a 
hook, nsn Job 41: 1. Is. 19: 8. Hab. 1: 16; an iron spear, n'^^T ^i£b2£. 
Job 41:7. and a net, 1?33^, iniitt, Job 19: 6. Is. 51: 20. 

§ 79. The Fallow Year. 

Agriculture on every seventh year came to an end. Nothing 
was sown and nothing reaped ; the vines and the olives were not 
pruned ; there was no vintage and no gathering of fruits, even of 
what grew wild ; but whatever spontaneous productions there 
were, were left to the poor, the traveller, and the wild beast. 
Lev. 25: 1 — 7. Deut, 15: 1 — 10. The object of this regulation 
seems to have been, to secure the preservation of wild beasts, to 
let the ground recover its strength, and to teach the Hebrews to 
be provident of their income, and to look out for the future. It 
is true, that extraordinary fruitfulness was promised on the sixth 
year, but in such a way as not to exclude care and foresight, Levit. 
25: 20 — 24. We are not to suppose, however, that the Hebrews 
spent the seventh year in absolute idleness. They could fish, 
hunt, take care of their bees and flocks, repair their buildings and 
furniture, manufacture cloths of wool, linen, and of the hair of 
goals and camels, and carry on commerce. Finally, they were 
obliged to remain longer in the tabernacle or temple this year, 
during which (he whole Mosaic law was read, in order to be instruct- 


ed in religious and moral duties and the history of their nation, 
and the wonderful works and blessings of God, Deut. 31: 10 — 13. 
This seventh year's rest, as Moses predicted, Lev. 26: 34, 36, was 
for a long time neglected, 2 Chron. 36: 21 ; after the captivity it 
was more scrupulously observed. 



§. 80. The origin of the Arts. 

They originated, no doubt, partly in necessity, partly in accident. 
At first they must have been very imperfect and very limited, but the 
inquisitive and active mind of man, seconded by his wants, soon secur- 
ed to them a greater extent and fewer imperfections. Accordingly, 
in the fourth generation after the creation of man, we find men- 
tion made of artificers in brass and iron, and also of musical in- 
struments, Gen. 4: 21 — 23. Those communities, which from lo- 
cal or other causes, could not flourish by means of agriculture, of 
course directed their attention to and encouraged the arts. The 
arts, consequently, advanced with great rapidity, and were carri- 
ed to a high pitch as far back as the time of Noah ; as we may 
learn from the very large vessel, which was built under his di- 

§.81. State of the Arts from the Deluge till Moses. 

Noah, together with his sons and servants, who were engaged 
with him in the construction of the ark, must, as above intimated, 
have been well acquainted, at least with certain of the mechanic 
arts. They had also without doubt seen the operations of artific- 
ers in other ways besides that of building, and after the deluge 
imitated their works as well as. they could. Hence not long after 


this period, viz. the deluge, we find mention of many things, such 
as edifices, utensils, and ornaments, which imply a knowledge of 
the arts, Gen. 9: 21. 11: 1—9. 14: 1—16. 12: 7, 8. 15: 10. 17: 10. 
18: 4, 5, 6. 19:32. 21: 14. 22: 10. 23:13—16.21:22. 26: 12, 15, 18. 
27: 3, 4, 11. 31: 19. 27, 34. Traces and intimations of which 
occur continually, as the attentive reader will find, down to the 
time of Moses. 

§. 82. The Arts among the Hebrews in the time of Moses. 

Eg3''pt in the early age of the world excelled all other nations 
in a knowledge of the arts. The Hebrews, in consequence of re- 
maining four handred years with the Egyptians, must have become 
initiated to a considerable degree into that knowledge, which 
their masters possessed. Hence we find among them men, who 
were sufficiently skilful and informed to frame, erect, and orna- 
ment the tabernacle. Moses, it is true, did not enact any special 
laws in favour of the arts, nor did he interdict them or lessen 
them in the estimation of the people ; on the contrary he speaks 
in the praise of artificers, Exod. 35: 30—35. 36: 1. et seq. 38: 22, 
23, &c. The grand object of Moses, I mean in a temporal point 
of view, was to promote agriculture, and he thought it best, as 
was done in other nations, to leave the arts to the ingenuity and 
industry of the people. 

§. 83. Arts among the Hebrews in Palestine. 

Soon after the death of Joshua, a place was expressly allotted 
by Joab of the tribe of Judah to artificers. It was called the val- 
ley of craftsmen, D'^ui'-in ":> 1 Chron. 4: 14. comp. Neh. 11:35. About 
this time mention is made also of artificers in gold and silver, Jud. 
17: 3 — 5. The arts could not, however, be said to flourish much, 
although it was a fact that those utensils and instruments, which 
were absolutely necessary, were to be obtained from the shops of 
craftsmen, except when they were carried away captives in war, 
.Tud. 3:31. 5:8. 1 Sam. 13: 19. Some of the less complicated and 
difficult instruments, used in agriculture, each one made for him- 
self. The women spun, wove, and embroidered ; they made 
clothing not onlv for their families, but for sale, Exod. 35: 25- 


1 Sam. 2: 19. Prov. 31: 18—31. Acts 9: 39. Employment, conse- 
quently, as far as the arts were concerned, was limited chiefly to 
those who engaged in the more difficult performances ; for in- 
stance, those who built chariots, hewed stones, sculptured idols or 
cast them of metal, made instruments of gold, silver, and brass, 
and vessels of clay and the like, Jud. 17: 4. Isa. 29: 16. 30: 14. 
Jer. 28: 13. Artificers among the Hebrews were not, as among 
the Greeks and Romans, servants and slaves, but men of some rank, 
and as luxury and wealth increased they became quite numerous, 
Jer. 24: 1. 29: 2. 2 Kgs. 24: 14. In the time of David and Solo- 
mon, there were Israelites, who understood the construction of 
temples and palaces, but they were inferior to the Tyrians, and 
were willing to take lessons from them, 1 Chron. 14: 1 22: 15. 
From the frequent mention made, in the history of the Hebrews, 
of numerous instruments, and of various operations in metals, we 
may infer as well as from other sources, that quite a number of the 
arts were understood among them. 

§. 84. State of the Arts after the Captivity'. 

During the captivity many Hebrews, (most commonly those, to 
whom a barren tract of the soil had been assigned,) applied them- 
selves to the arts and merchandize. Subsequently, when they 
were scattered abroad ^mong different nations, a knowledge of 
the arts became so popular, that the Talmudists taught, that all I 
parents ought to 4i»tMrn- their children some art or handicral't. They 
indeed mention many learned men of their nation, who practised 
some kind of manual labour, or as we should say, followed some 
trade. Accordingly, we find in the New Testament, that Joseph, 
the husband of Mary, was a carpenter, and that he was assisted 
by no less a personage than our Saviour in his labours, Matt. 
13: 55. Mark 6: 3. Simon is mentioned as a tanner in the city of 
Joppa, Acts 9: 43. 10: 32. Alexander, a learned Jew, was a cop- 
per-smith, 2 Tim. 4: 14; Paul and Aquila were tent-makers, 
(JXTjj/OTTOtot. Not only the Greeks, but the Jews also, esteemed 
certain trades infamous. At any rate the Rabbins reckoned the ^ 
drivers of asses and camels, barbers, sailors.y^hepherds^nd inn- 
keepers in the same class with robbers. Those Ephesians and 
Cretans, who were lovers of gain, aiGiQ0Y.SQdii9f 1 Tim. 3: 8. 


Tit. 1: '7, were men, as we may learn from ancient writers, who 
were determined to get money in however base a manner. The 
more eminent Greek tradesmen were united together in the time 
of the Apostles in a society, Acts 19: 25. comp. Xenophon, Cyrop. 
viii. 2, 4. or some of the arts we must say something separately. 

§ 85. Antiquity of the Art of Writing. 

Whether symbolick representations were first used, afterwards 
hieroglyphicks, then alphabetick writing, is not very clear, nor is 
it a point necessary to be determined in this place. In regard to 
alphabetick writing all the ancient writers attribute the inven- 
tion of it to some very early age, and some country of the East ; 
but they do not pretend to designate precisely either the age or 
the country. They say, further, that Cadmus introduced letters 
from Phenicia into Greece in the year, if we may credit the Par- 
isian chronicle, 1519 before Christ, i. e. forty five years after the 
death of Moses. 

Jlnticlides, (see Pliny's Natural History, vii. 57.) asserts and at- 
tempts to prove, that letters were invented in Egypt fifteen years 
before Phoroneus, the most ancient king of Greece, i. e. four hun- 
dred and nine years after the deluge, and in the one hundred and 
seventeenth year of Abraham. On this I remark, that they might 
have been introduced into Egypt at this time ; but they had been 
previously invented by the Phenicians. Epigenes, who in the estima- 
tion of Pliny, is weighty authority, informs us,' that observations, 
made upon the heavenly bodies for seven hundred and twenty 
years at Babylon, were written down upon baked tiles, but Bero- 
sus and Critodemus, also referred to by Pliny, make the number 
of years, four hundred and eighty. Pliny from these statements 
draws the conclusion, that the use of letters, as he expresses it, 
must have been eternal, i. e. extremely ancient. Simplicius, who 
lived in the fifth century, states on the authority of Porphyry, an 
acute historian, that Calisthenes^the companion of Alexander, found 
at Babylon a record of observations on the heavenly bodies for 
one thousand nine hundred and three years. Of course the re- 
cord must have been begun in the year two thousand two hundred 
and thirty four before Christ, i. e. the eighty ninth year of Abra- 
ham. Thisstuteaient receives some confirmation from the fact, that 



the month of J^/arcA is called ^"lij, j3(Zor, in the Chaldaick dialect; 
and at the time mentioned, viz. the eighty ninth year of Abraham, 
the sun, during the whole month of March, was in the sign of 
the Zodiac, called Aries or the ram. The word, n^tj, Mcifi 
means the same with Aries. But, as letters were un(}uestionabljf 
invented for the purposes of commercial intercourse, they must 
have been known long before they were employed, to transmit 
the motions of the stars. Of this we have an evidence in the 
Bill of Sale^ which as we have reason to suppose from the expres- 
sions used in Gen. 23: 20, was given to Abraham by the sons of 

Hence it is not at all wonderful, that books and writings are 
spoken of in the time of Moses, as if well known, Exod. 17: 14. 
24:4. 28:9—11. 32:32. 34:27,28. Num. 33: 2. Deut. 27: 8. 
Nor is it a matter of surprise, tj^at long before his time, there 
had been public scribes, who kept written genealogies ; they 
were called by the Hebrews, n"*")t:vr, Exod.*l\14. Deut. 20: 5 — 9. 1^' 
Eten in the time of Jacob, seals, upon which names are engraved 
in the East, were in use, see Gen. 38: 18. 41:42 ; which is anoth- 
er probable testimony to the great antiquity of letters. 

Note. I. Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus mention the exist- 
ence in antiquity of two kinds of writing, the one sacred^ the oth- 
er profane. Clemens Alesandrinus and Porphyry mention three 
kinds, viz. the sacred, the profane, and the hieroglyphical. Some 
interpreters suppose, that the phrase \1:t3N ^"^n. a man^s pen^ Isa. 
8: 1. means the mode of writing which is denominated profane. 
Hieroglyphicks were inscribed by the Egyptians, among whom they 
were used, upon stones. The phrase n"'3Tl)^ liN, a pictured or 
engraven stone^ Lev. 2G: 1. Num. 33: 52, means a stone, engraven 
with hieroglyphical figures, which, in that age of idolatry, was lia- 
ble to be worshipped. Those persons, who understood how to 
read hieroglyphicks, D''72t2'^n magicians, were held in high estima- 
tion and much honoured among the Egyptians, Exod. 8:3. Gen. 41:8. 

Note II. Gesenius renders the word Cj'^'ipvj overseers, rulers, 
or officers. In support of his rendering, he collates the Arabick 

word ^liAAw, to preside, and ^i2.AA*MC an overseer. But the 


Arabick word ,jOlim to write, and ^jO-h^jc a scribe, and t'ne Syriack 

"nUilJ. a writing, are nearer as reg'ards form to the Hebrew, than 
those which are collated by Gesenius. 


Letters, which had thus become known at the earhest period, 
were communicated by means of the Phenician merchants and 
colonies, and subsequently by Egyptian emigrants, through all the 
East and the West. A strong evidence of this is to be found in 
the diflferent alphabets themselves, which betray by their resem- 
blance a common origin. The Hebrew patriarchs received their 
alphabet from the Phenicians or, what is the same thing, from 
the Canaanites ; and that their posterity preserved a knowledge 
of alphabetical writing durmg their abode in Egypt, where essen- 
tially the same alphabet was in use, is evident from the fact, that 
the Hebrews while remaining there always had public gene;;!o- 
gists. The Law also was ordered to be inscribed on stones; a fact, 
which implies a knowledge of alphabetical writing. The writing 
thus engraven upon stones is designated by its appropriate name, 
viz. nmn, comp. Exod. 32: 16, 32. Not a few of the Hebrews 
were able to read and write, Judg. 8; 14 ; yet very many were 
very illiterate. Hence those, who were capable of writing, wrote 
for others, when necessary. Such persons were commonly priests, 
who, as they do to this day in the East, bear an inkhorn in their 
girdle, Ezek. 9: 2, 3, 1 1. In the inkhorn were the materials for 
writing, and a knife for sharpening the pen, Jer. 36:23. The 
rich and noble had scribes of their own, and readers also; whence 
there is more frequent mention made of hearing, than of reading, 
1 Kgs. 4: 3. 2 Kgs. 12: 11. Is. 29: 18. Jer. 36: 4. Rom. 2: 13. James 
5: 11. Rev. 1 : 3. The scribes took youth under their care, who 
learnt from them the art of writing. Some of the scribes seem to 
have held public schools for instruction ; some of which under the 
care of Samuel and other prophets became in time quite illustrious, 
and were called the schools of the prophets, 1 Sam. 19:16. et seq. 2 
Kgs. 2:3, 5. 4:38. 6:1. The disciples in these schools were not 
children or boys, but young men, who inhabited separate edifices, 
,as is the case in the Persian Academies. They were' taught rau- 

]>>*;.> I p - 1 

»*■> * / ji 


sic and singing, without doubt writing also, the Mosaic law and 
poetry. They were denominated in reference to their instruct- 
ors the sons of the prophets, teachers and prophets being some- 
times called /a</ier5. After the captivity there were schools for 
instruction either near the synagogues or in them, of which we 
shall speak hereafter. 

§ 87. Materials and Instruments of Writing. 

I. Materials from the vegetable kingdom. 

1. The leaves of trees. 

2. The bark of trees., from which in the process of time a sort 
of paper was manufactured. 

3. A table of wood., niva'i, H^b? Isa. 8: I. Ezek. 37: 16. Luke 1: 
63. In the E;ist, these tables were not covered with wax as 
they were in the West ; or at any rate very rarely so. 

4. Linen. Linen was used for the object in question at Rome. 
Linen books are mentioned by Livy. Cotton cloth also, which was 
used for the bandages of Egyptian mummies, and inscribed with 
hierogiyphicks, was one of the materials for writing upon. 

5. The paper made from the r<ed papyrus, which, as Pliny has 
shown in his Natural History, XUL 21 — 27, was used before the 
Trojan war. 

IL Materials from the animal kingdom. 

The skins of animals. They were but poorly prepared for 
the purpose, until some improved methods of preparation were in 
vented at Pergamus, during the reign of Eumenes, about 200 
years before Christ. Hence the skins of animals, prepared for 
writing, are called in Latin per^awena, in English parchment to this 
day, from the city Pergamus. They are sometimes denominated 
in Greek, fiffi^Quva, 2 Tim. 4: 13. 

in. Materials from the mineral kingdom. 

1. Tables of lead, T)^^$ . Job 19: 24. 

2. Tables of brass, delxov yttlnac. Of all the materials, brass was 


considered among the most durable, and was employed for those in- 
scriptions, which were designed to last the longest, 1 Mace. 8: 22j 
14: 20—27. 

3. Stones or rocks, upon which public laws, &,c. were written. 
Sometimes the letters engraved were filled up with hme, Exod. 
24: 12. 31: 18. 32: 19. 34: 1. et seq. Deut. 27: 1—9. comp. Josh. 
8:32. et. seq. Job 19:24. 

4. Tiles. The inscriptions were made upon the tiles ^rs<, and 
afterwards they were baked in the tire. They are yet to be 
found in the ruins of Babylon ; others of later origin are to be 
found in many countries in the East. 

5. The sand of the earth., in which the children in India to this 
day learn the art of writing, and in which Archimedes himself de- 
lineated his mathematical figures, comp. John 8: 1 — 8. If in 
Ezekiel 3: 1, and in Revelation 10: 9, we are informed that books 
were eaten, we must remember, that the descriptions are figura- 
tive, and that they were eaten in vision; and consequently are not 
at liberty to draw the conclusion from these passages, that any 
substance was used as materials for writing upon, which was at the 
same time used for food. The representations alluded to are sTjm- 
bolic, introduced to denote a communication or revelation from God. 

Instruments used in writing. 

The instrument, commonly used for this purpose, was the style, 
Heb. U'lrt, 13::;. 1. When it was necessary to write upon hard 
materials, as tables of stone and brass, the stj'Ie was made o[ irorh, 
and sometimes tipped with diamond, Jer. 17: 1. 

2. The letters were formed upon tablets of wood, (when they 
were covered with zvax,) with a style sharpened at one end, broad 
and smooth at the other ; by means of which, the letters, when 
badly written, might be rubbed out and the wax smoothed down. 
Wax, however, was but rarely used for the purpose of covering 
writing tables in such warm regions. When this was not the case, 
the letters vvere painted on the wood with a black tincture or ink. 

3. On linen, cotton cloth, paper, skins, and parchment, the let- 
ters were painted with a very small brush, Heb. perhaps I3"\ll, 
afterwards with a reed, which was split. The orientals use this 
elegant instrument to the present day instead of a pen. The knifis, 
with which the reed was split, was called, '^5"iD^ ^^n, Jer. 36:23. 


Ink, called VI, is spoken of in Num. 6: 23, as well known 
and common, comp. Jer. 36: 18, and was prepared in various ways, 
which are related by Pliny, XVI. 6. XXX. 25. The most simple, 
and consequently the most ancient method of preparation, was a 
mixture of water with coals broken to pieces, or with soot, with 
an addition of gum. The ancients used other tinctures also; partic- 
ularly, if we may credit Cicero de Nat.Deor. 11.20. and Persius III. 
1 1 ,the ink extracted from the cuttle fish, n^Dn, ^though their asser- X: 
tion is in opposition to Pliny. The Hebrews went so far as to 
write their sacred books in gold, as we may learn from Josephus, 
Antiq. XII. 2, 11. compared with Pliny XXXIII. 40. 

§ 88. Respecting Books. D'^'^BD 'iBD. 

Books, (which are mentioned as very well known as early as 
Job 19: 23. Num.21: 14. Exod. 17: 14,) were written most an- 
ciently on skins, on linen, on cotton cloth and the reed papyrus ; 
and subsequently on parchment. The leaves were written over 
in small columns, called rrinbjT, Jer. 36 : 23. If the book were 
large, it was of course formed of a number of skins, of a number 
of pieces of linen and cotton cloth, or of papyrus, or parchment, 
connected together. The leaves were rarely written over on 
both sides, Ezek. 2: 9. Zech. 5: 1. Whether the lines were writ- 
ten ^ovoTQoq.i'idovy as in the Sigaean inscription, and in the Etruscan 
inscriptions, might yet be determmed, if the stones mentioned, Jos. 
8: 32, could be found. The question, whether there was any 
space between the words, has been discussed in my Introduction to 
the Old Testament, T. V, p. 1. § 98. 

Books being written upon very flexible materials, were rolled 
round a stick ; and, if they were very long, round two, from the 
two extremities. The reader unrolled the book to the place 
which he wanted, avamv^ag to (3i^hop, and rolled it up again, 
when he had read it, to ^c6hoi>, Luke 4: 17 — 20 ; whence 
the name SiV^^., « volume, or thing roiled up, Ps. 40:7. Isa. 34: 4. 
Ezek. 2: 9. '2kgs. 19: 14. Ezra 6: 2. The leaves thus rolled 
round the stick, which has been mentioned, and bound with a 
string, could be easily sealed, Isa. 29: 11. Dan. 12: 4. Rev. 5:1. 6: 
7. Those books, which were inscribed on tablets of wood, lead. 

96 § 90. ON POETRY. 

brnss, or ivory, were connecterl together by rings at the back, 
through which a rod was passed to carry them by. 

Note. The orientals appear to take a pleasure in giving trop- 
ical or enigmatical titles to their books. The titles, prefixed to 
the fifty sixth, sixtieth, and eightieth psalms appear to be of" this 
description. And there can be no doubt, th;it David's elegy upon 
San! and Jonathan, \,Sam. 1:18. is called D'g\?. or the bow, in con- 
formity with this peculiarity of taste. 

§ 89. Concerning Epistles. 

Epistles, which occur under the same Hebrew word with 
books, viz. 'nCD are mentioned the more rarely, the further you 
go back into antiquity. An epistle is first mentioned, 2 Sam. 11: 14. 
et seq Afterwards there is more frequent mention of them, and 
sometimes an epistle is meant, when literally a messenger is spok- 
en of, as in Ezra 4: 15 — 17. In the East letters are commonly 
sent unsealed. In case, however, they are sent to persons of dis- 
tinction, they are placed in a valuable purse, which is tied, closed 
over with ciay or wax, and then stamped with a signet, see Is. 29: 
11. Neh.6:5. Job38:14. The most ancient epistles begin and 
end without either salutation or farewell, but under the Persian 
monarchy the salutation was very prolix. It is given in an abridg- 
ed form, in Ezra 4: 7 — 10. 5:7. The apostles in their epistles 
used the salutation customary among the Greeks, but they omit- 
ted the usual tarewell at the close, viz. ^aiQitv, and adopted a 
benediction more conformable to the spirit of the christian relig- 
ion. Paul, when he dictated his letters, wrote the benediction at 
the close with, his own hand, 2 Thes. .3: 17. He was more accus- 
tomed to dictate his letters than to write them himself. 

§ 90. On Poetry. 

Poetry had its origin in the first ages of the world, when un- 
disciplined feelings and a lively imagination naturally supplied 
strong expressions, gave an expressive modulation to the voice, 
and motion to the limbs ; hence poetry, music, and dancing were 
cotemporaneous in origin. As far back as the time of Moses, po- 



etry, not only among- the Hebrews, but also among some other na- 
tions, had reached a great degree of perfection, Exod. 16. Deut. 
31. Num. 21: 24, et seq. comp. also the book of Job. It after- 
wards flourished with great honour among the Hebrews for almost 
1000 years. The design of it was not merely to excite to pleas- 
ure, but also to preserve historical narrations, and (hat in such a 
way, that they might be sung on occasions ; but it was more espe- 
cially the object of this art, to declare in the most affecting man- 
ner the praises of the Deity, and to excite the people to good and 
to praiseworthy works; see the books of Psalms, Job, Proverbs, 
and Ecclesiastes ; cffmp. also Gen. 3: 24. 4: 23. 9: 25 — 29. 

§ 91. Character of the Hebrew Poetry. 

Hebrew poetry, like the genuine poetry of all other nations, 
is characterized by ardent feelings, splendid thoughts, a great va- 
riety of beautiful images, strength of expression, condensation, and 
elegance. But it is distinguished in a number of particulars from 
the poetry of occidental nations. 

I. The metaphors, comparisons, &c. are more bold and unusu- 
al ; a point, which is capable of receiving much light from a col- 
lation of Arabick poems. 

II. The ornaments, by which a subject is enriched in Hebrew 
poetry, are derived from the state of things, as they exist in the 
East, especially Palestine ; 

(1,) from the natural objects of that region, from Lebanon and 
its cedars, from Carmel, from the oaks of Bashan, from the gar- 
dens, the vineyards, and forests, which enrich the land, and from 
the animals, viz. the oxen, the lions, and the gazelles, k.c. that tread 
upon its surface ; 

(2,) from the occupations of husbandmen and shepherds; 

(3,) from the history of the nation ; 

(4,) from the manners exhibited in common life, even from its 
vices, as drunkenness, fornication, and adultery ; 

(5,) from oriental mythology, which, in a great degree, though 
not in all respects, corresponds with the Greek and Roman. We 
find, for instance, mention made of the chamber of (he sun, Ps. 19: 
5, 6, but then there is this difference ; the orientals do not con- 
vey him on a chariot, like the Greeks and Romans, but make 



him fly with wings, Ps. 139:9. Mai. 4: 2. The thunders are 
borne on chariots, but these chariots are not drawn by horses, but 
by cherubim, D''S^n3, monsters that are symbolick of the clouds, 
Ezek. 1: t — 23. Fs. 18 : 10. 99: 1. We find mention made of the 
golden age, Isa 2:4. 11:6—9. 24:23. 30:24—28. 60:19,20. 65: 
4 — 25. 66:1 — 5; of the infernal regions also, S/teoa/ and Harfes, 
blNip, udtjg^ into which descend not only soldiers, warlike heroes 
and emperors, even all who die, but also by a tigure of speech, 
conquered nations and states, and even trees, the symbols of states. 
The warriors repose in this wide abode on couches, with their ar- 
mour placed beneath their head, Isa. 14:9-20. Ezek. 26:20. 31: 14 — 
18. 32:7,8. 17:30. Matt. 16: 18. We tind mention likewise of 
the rivers of Hades, Ps. 18: 4 — 6. 2 Sam. 22 : 5; and of a political 
heaven, which can be shaken, and the moon and the stars thereof 
be obscured or cast down with great confusion and overthrow, 
H;ig. 2:6,21. Isa. 24: 21— 23. 34:4. 65: 17. Amos 8:9, 10. Matt. 
24: 29. 

III. The poems in the Hebrew language may have been meas- 
ured by means of a certain number of syllables or words, but we 
have reason to believe, that the rhythm consisted essentially and 
chiefly in the parallelism. The parallelism, which is sometimes 
synonymous and sometimes antithetical, and sometimes shows it- 
self merely in the construction, independent of the sense, consists 
in many cases of only two members, see Ps. 114: 1 — 8; in other 
instances there are thee members, see Hos. 6 : 1,2; in other 
instances again there are four members, the first answering to the 
third, and the second to the fourth, see Deut. 32: 42. Sometimes 
the parallelism displays itself in five verses or members, the two 
^ fir.'t and the two last being parallel, and the middle one unequal, 
Isa. 31:4, or the first being parallel to the third, and the second 
to the fourth, and the fit'th being unequal, see Ps. 19: 8 — 10. In 
some instances the poetry may be called irregular, i. e. incapable 
of being reduced to the more common forms of parallelism, Ps. 
113: 5,6. Micah 1:4. These traits in the Hebrew poetry, when 
well understood, afford very considerable aid in the interpretation 
and criticism of the Bible, as for instance in such passages as Ps. 
77:18,19. 139:20. Isa. 47:11. 49:6,1^ One may find, in the 
parallelisms in various places, a similarity in the cadences, which 
gives 10 (hem a more than ordinary musical effect, and seems to 



be the result of art, see Jud. 14: 18. Prov. 7: 13—15. 20: 17. Isa. 
26:20,21. 40:24. 49:8. 51:1,2—5, 8. 53:6,7. Zech. 11:1. 

§ 92. On Musick. 

Musick is coeval with poetry. Musical instruments were 
the invention of Jubal, Gen. 4: 21, and, as early as Gen. 31: 
27, we are introduced to a whole choir. Afterwards musick and 
poetry went hand in hand, and with equal step. The poet him- 
self sung his ou'n poems and accompanied his voice with instru- 
ments. Both musick and poetry were esteemed of great conse- 
quence, and without doubt as long a? poetry was cultivated, mu- 
sick was none the less so. The musick of the Hebrews may be 
thought to have been too loud and noisy, but a person's opinion on 
a point of that kind will depend very much on his own personal 
habits and experience. 

§ 93. Uses of Musick among the Hebrews. 

The Hebrews insisted on having musick at marriages, on anni- 
versar}' birth days, on the days, which reminded them of victories 
over their enemies, at the inauguration of their kings, in their 
publick worship, and when they were coming from afar to attend 
the great festivals of their nation, Isa. 30 : 29. In the tabernacle 
and the temple^ the Levites were the lawful musicians, but on oth- 
er occasions any one might use musical instruments, who chose. 
There was this exception, however ; the holy silver trumpets 
were to be blown only by the priests, who, by the sounding of 
them, proclaimed the festival days, assembled the leaders of the 
people, and gave the signal for battle, and for the retreat, Num.Vl (0 \ 
— 10. David, in order to give the best effect to the musick of the 
tabernacle, divided the four thousand Levites into twenty four 
classes, who sung psalms, and accompanied them with musick. 
Each of these classes was superintended by a leader, n2373. plac- 
ed over it ; and they performed the duties, which devolved upon 
them, each class a week at a time in succession, 1 Chron 16: 5. 23: 
4,5. 25: 1—31. comp. 2 Chron. 5: 12, 13. The classes collect- 
ively, as a united body, were superintended by three directors. 
This arrangement was subsequently continued by Solomon after 


the erecti,on of the temple, and was transmitted till the time of 
the overthrow of Jerusalem. It was indeed sometimes interrupted 
during the reign of the idolatrous kings, but was restored by their 
successors, 2 Chron. 5: 12 — 14. 29: 27. 36: 15. It was even con- 
tinued after the captivity, Ezra 3: 10. Neh. 12: 45—47. 1 Mace. 4: 
54. 13:51. It should be remarked, however, that neither mu- 
«ck nor poetry attained to the same excellence after the captivi- 
ty, as before that period. 

§ 94. Stringed Instruments. 

I. The harp, 'li^S. This was the most ancient of this class of 
instruments, Gen. 4: 21. It was sometimes called Sheminith^ D^Z'^'ap., 
or eight stringed, Ps. 6: 1. 12: 1. 1 Chron. 15: 21, although as we may 
gather from the coins or medals of the Maccabean age, there were 
some harps, which were furnished with only three strings. The 
harp, therefore, was of two kinds, one only of which is distinguish- 
ed by a separate name, viz. that called Sheminitli, unless per- 
chance separate names should be found for both in the Greek, 
the three-stringed harp being called zi'&agcc, the other nivvvg^a, 
for these two words appear to be used with some distinction of 
this kind in 1 Macc.4: 54. Josephusin his Jewish Antiquities, VII. 
10, 3. assigns ten strings to the harp, an evidence, that in his time 
the number of them had been increased. The strings of this in- 
strument, it is lawful to suppose, were originally swept by the 
hand; but in Josephus' time, it was played with a small bow or 
fret, denominated variously in Hebrew by the words t:2P, "j^a, 
rtN'iJ, nail, N23, and even ^73T. This instrument, viz. the ancient 
harp, seems to have been called by the Babylonians ^ri3DQ and . 
^aiDD, Dan. 3: 5,7, 10, 15. 

II. The Naelum or vsaltery, va^ltov, vccvla, i'53. It is first 
mentioned in the psalms of David. In Psalms 33: 2. and 144: 9, it 
is called "^i^DS?, a ten stringed iHstrument ; but in the 92d psalm 
3d verse, it is distinguished from it. Josephus, Antiq. VII. 10, 3. 
assigns to it twelve strings ; which, taken in connexion with the 
fact above stated, leaves us to conclude, that it sometimes had 
ten and sometimes twelve strings. It was not played with a bow 
or fret, but with the fingers ; the act of playing it is expressed in 
Hebrew by the word "nBT. It resembled in form a right angled 


triangle or the Greek Delta, ^, inverted. The body of it was of 
wood and hollow, and was enclosed with a piece of leather tense- 
ly drawn. The chords were extended on the outside of the leath- 
er, and were tixed at one end into the transverse part of the trian- 
gular body of the instrument. Such is its form at the present day 
in the East, but it has only iive strings in its modern shape, 2 Sam. 
6: 6. 1 Kgs, 10: 12. There was another instrument of this kind us- 
ed in Babylonia ; it was triangular in form, in Greek it is called 
aafApvid]^ in Hebrew, i02D and NSaip ; it had originally only 
four, but subsequently twenty strings, Dan. 3:5,7, 10, 15. 

The chords of stringed instruments are denominated D'^iS), Ps. 
150: 4. At first they were the usual sort of strings twisted from 
flax or some like substance, but subsequently were manufactured 
from the entrails of sheep. Chords of the last kind are mention- 
ed by Homer, as a recent invention. 

§ 95. Wind Instruments. 

I. The organ, [so called in the English version,] Heb. i-ii", m^-- 
gab, Gen. 4: 21. It may be called the ancient shepherd's pipe, 
corresponding most nearly to the ovQiy'^^ or the pipe of Pan among 
the Greeks. It consisted at first of only one or two, but after- 
wards of about seven pipes made of reeds and differing from each 
other in length. The instrument, called maschrockeiha, Nn^JJiTip^, 
used in Babylon, Dan, 3: 5. was of a similar construction. 

II. b'^bn chain, nib'^ps nechibth, and ip.: nekeb are wind instru- 
ments resembling the one just described, made of various materi- 
als, such as wood, reeds, horns, and bones. As far as we may 
be permitted to judge from the three kinds of pipes now used in 
the East, the Hebrew instrument called nechiloih is the one that is 
double in its structure, chalil is perhaps the one of simpler form, 
having a single stem with an orifice through it, while nekeb answers 
to the one without an orifice, Isa. 5: 12. 30: 29. Jer. 48: 36. Ps. 
5: 1. Ezek. 28: 13. 

III. rr'^I'iEtt^D, or according to the marginal reading NiDs-D, Dan. 
3: 5, 10, was a wind instrument made of reeds, by the Syrians 
called Sambonja, hy the Greeks Samponja, and by the Italians 
Zampogna. According to Servius, it was of a crooked shape. 

IV. "j'n.p., The horn or crooked trumpet. This was a very an- 


cient instrument. It was made of the horns of oxen, which were 
cut off at the smaller extremity, and thus presented an orifice, 
which extended through. In progress of time ram's horns were 
hollowed and employed for the same purpose. This instrument 
was called also ^l^rj: shophar, as we may learn both from Jose- 
phus and Jerome. It is probable, that in some instances, it was 
made of brass fashioned so as to resemble a horn. It was greatly 
used in war, and its sound resembled thunder. 

V. Ji^l2ii:n,^THE STRAIGHT TRUMPKT. This instrument was straight, 
a cubit in length, hollow throughout, and at the larger extremity 
shaped so as to resemble the mouth of a small bell. In times of 
peace, when the people or the rulers were to be assembled to- 
gether, this trumpet was blown softly, which was expressed by 
the Hebrew word S>Jiir\. When the camps were to move forward 
or the people to march to war, it was sounded with a deeper 
note ; this was expressed by the Hebrew verb ^"^"i;i and by the 
phrase, n^T-in ypn. 

§ 96. Different sorts of Drums. 

I. ?]h, CBn, [rendered in the English version,] tabret and tim- 
brel, Gen. 31: 27. It consisted of a circular hoop either of wood 
or brass, three inches and six tenths wide, was covered with a 
skin tensely drawn, and hung round with small bells. It was held 
in the left hand, and beaten to notes of musick with the right. 
The ladies through all the East, even to this day, dance to the 
sound of this instrument, Exod. 15: 20. Job. 17: 6. 21: 12. 2 Sam. 
6: 5. 

II. The cymbal cirl^bi?! rii!ri;:53. There were two kinds of 
cymbals formerly, as there are to this day, in the East. The cym- 
bal, called ns^^'in -'^ill^lE, consisted of two flat pieces of metal or 
plates ; the musician held one of them in his right hand, the oth- 
er in his left, and smote them together, as an accompaniment to 
other instruments. This cymbal and the mode of using it may be 
often seen in modern armies and military trainings. The second 
kind of cymbals, "JQ'tp "'b^biZ, Ps. 150: 5, consisted of four small 
plates attached, two to each hand, which the ladies, as they danc- 
ed, smote together. But niVi:'3, Zech. 14: 20. [Eng. vers, bells,] 
are not musical instruments, as some suppose, nor indeed bells. 


but concave pieces or plates of brass, which were sometimes at- 
tached to horses for the sake of ornament. 

111. d'-yiyaa, Menaaneim, 2 Sara. 6: 5 ; the word is derived 
from y?D, to move or to be shaken. We may suppose, therefore, 
it was an instrument corresponding- to the sistrum, by which word 
Jerome in his Latin version has rendered it. If this were the 
case we may suppose also, that like the sw<r«m, (in Greek asiargov, 
from aecb) to shake,) it was a rod of iron bent into an oblong shape, 
or square at two corners and curved at the others, and furnished 
with a number of moveable rings, so that when shaken or struck 
with another rod of iron, it emitted the sound desired. The in- 
strument used by the women, which occurs under the word 
D''3ljyr, 1 Sam. 18: 6, probably differed from the more common 
sistrum only by being of a triangular form. 

Note. — The names of musical instruments which are very lit- 
tle known, are as follows. 

I. p'^-'^M, Higgaio7t, Ps. 9: 16. 92: 4 ; perhaps this word was 
used to designate some sort of song or poem. 

II. nina, Gitlith, Ps. 8: 1. 81: 1. 84: 1, derived from n^, a wine 
press ; an instrument, which was played at the treading out of 
the grapes. Some suppose, it derived its name from Gath, a city 
of the Philistines, 

III. "jsb n^73>y, Almufh Laben, Ps. 9: 1 ; a better reading of the 
Hebrew would be 'j^b m'73b.^, for Ben was the name of a musician 
in the time of David, 1 Chron. 15: 18. What the meaning of the 
word n^Tob?) is, is not very clear; perhaps it was a kind of harp, 
and hence, 1 Chron. 15: 20, is interchanged with n"':"'^\a, a harp 
of eight strings. 

IV. "jTri^l^i Jeduthun^ Ps, 39: 1. 67: 1, an instrument thus de- 
nominated from some musician of that name. 

V. ribnio. Mahalath. Ps. 88: 1. 53: 1, perhaps an instrument like 
the shepherds pipe ; comp. the Ethiopick word maldet, which in 
Gen. 4: 21, answers to the Greek xi&aga. Some other words 
and phrases, such as shushan-eduth, Ps. 60: 1. appear to be enig- 
matical inscriptions of the psalms, to which they are prefixed. 

104 § 97. ON DANCING. 

§ 97. On Dancing. 

The Mohammedans esteem dancing a sport unworthy the dignity 
of a man, and accordingly leave it to the women. It is practised 
in such an indecorous manner among the modern orientals, that 
they would be still nearer the truth, if they should pronounce it 
an art unworthy to be indulged in by either sex. It was different 
anciently. AiTiong the Greeks it was a sort of pantomime^ a mimick 
representation of the common actions of life, and, in some instan- 
ces, of deeds of war. It was accordingly admitted among the 
gymnastick sports. The dancers danced to the notes of the tim- 
brel ; they exhibited many inflexions of the body and many ges- 
ticulations with the hands ; they danced, beating the floor in a 
circle, following the one, they had chosen for a leader, with reg- 
ular and artificial pulsations of the feet, Exod. 15: 20. Jud. 11. 34. 
1 Sam. 18: 6 — 7. Jer. 31: 4, 13. Sometimes men, who were singers 
or musicians, took a part in these dances ; in this case the singers 
went forward, those who played on instruments followed, and the 
dancing women girded them on both sides, Ps. 68: 26. The dance 
was called in Hebrew bin^j; it was practised on the national fes- 
tivals, and made part of the sacred worship. The nobles and the 
princes of the people engaged in this ceremony, but did not min- 
gle in it with the common multitude. This was the ground of the 
reproach, which Michal threw out against David, who danced be- 
fore the ark in company with the rest of the people, 2 Sam. 
6: 16 — 23. In the later periods of the Jewish history, the kings 
and great men appear to have been rather the spectators, than 
the parties in dances, see Matt. 6: 21 — 25. 

Note. — The art of oratory never flourished in the East. Paul, 
accordingly, when he appeared among the Greeks, who estimated 
eloquence very highly, although it was at that time degenerate 
and declining, was not listened to with that interest, with whicK 
he might otherwise have been. Paul, however, displays, in his 
speeches recorded in the Acts of the Apostles, a good arrange- 
ment and no little skill in the art of persuasion. 




§ 98. The Origin of the Sciences. 

Wren the arts had been reduced by long practice and medita- 
tion to fixed and definite rules, they were succeeded by the sci- 
ences ; which in fact are nothing more than the reduction, into a 
more regular and philosophick form, of those rules and theories, 
which have been ascertained and approved by inquiry and prac- 
tice. We are able to discover the beginnings, the indistinct ves- 
tiges of the sciences in very remote periods ; and in some nations 
more strikingly, than in others. The Egyptians and Babylonians 
excelled in scientitick knowledge all others. The Arabians also 
are favourably mentioned in this respect, 1 Kgs. 4: 30 ; also the 
Edoraites, Jer. 49: 7. The Hebrews became renowned for their 
intellectual culture in the time of David, and especially, of Solo- 
mon, who is said to have surpassed all others in wisdom; a cir- 
cumstance, which wa^ the ground of the many visits, which were 
paid to him by distinguished foreigners, 1 Kgs. 5: 9 — 14. His ex- 
ample, which was truly an illustrious one, was beyond question 
imitated by other kings. The literature of the Hebrews was lim- 
ited chiefly to ethicks, religion, the history of their nation, and nat- 
ural history ; on which last subject, Solomon wrote many treatises, 
no longer extant. The Hebrews made but little progress in sci- 
ence and literature after the time of Solomon. During their cap- 
tivity, it is true, they acquired many foreign notions, with which 
they had not been previously acquainted ; and they, subsequent- 
ly, borrowed much both of truth and of falsehood, from the phi- 
losophy of the Greeks. The author of the book of Wisdom, with 
some others of the Jewish writers, has made pretty good use of 
the Greek philosophy. It is clear, notwithstanding this, that the 
Jews after the captivity fell below their ancestors in respect to 
History ; as the published Annals of that period are not of a kin- 
dred character, with those of the primitive ages of their cotmtry. 


§ 99. History, Genealogy, and Chronology. 

That the art of historical writing was anciently much cultivated 
in the East, the Bible itself is an ample testimony; for it not only 
relates the prominent events, from the creation down to the fifth 
century before Christ, but speaks of many historical books, which 
have now perished ; and also of many monuments, erected in com- 
memoration of remarkable achievements and furnished with ap- 
propriate inscriptions. These monuments are denominated by va- 
rious names, as tl3i^, *^"^, '}i"l3T The Babj'lonians also, the As- 
syrians, the Persians, and Tynans had their Historical Annals. 
Among the Egyptians, there was a separate order, viz, the Priests, 
one part of whose duty it was, to write the history of their coun- 
try. In the primitive ages the task of composing annals fell in 
most nations upon the priests, but at a later period, the king had 
his own secretaries, whose special business it was to record the 
royal sayings and achievements. The prophets among the He- 
brews recorded the events of their own times, and, in the earliest 
periods, the genealogists interwove many historical events with 
their accounts of the succession of families. Indeed, it should not 
be forgotten, that ancient history generally partakes more of a 
genealogical, than a chronological character. Hence the Hebrew 
phrase for genealogies, n^^b^n "^?.D( is used also for history. Gen. 
6: 9. 10: 1 ; and hence no Epoch., more ancient than that of Na- 
bonassar, is any where found. In the Bible, however, this defect, 
in regard to a regular chronological system, is in a manner com- 
pensated by the insertion in various places of definite periods of 
time, and by chronological genealogies. In giving a concise ac- 
count of the genealogy of a person, the Hebrews^ as well as the 
Arabs, took the liberty to omit, according to their own pleasure, 
one or more generations, Ruth 18: 22. Ezra 7: 1 — 5. Matt. 1:8. It 
was considered so much of an honour, to have a name and a place 
in these family Annals^ that the Hebrews, from their first exis- 
tence as a nation, had public genealogists, denominated LD''Tt:ittJ, 

Not only the Hebrews, but, if we may credit flerodotus and 
Diodorus Siculus, the Egyptians also, assigned a certain period to 
a generation. According to their estimation, three generations 


made an hundred years. In the time of Abraham, however, when 
men lived to a greater age, an hundred years made a generation. 
This is clear from Gen. 15: 13, 16, and from the circumstance, that 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob dwelt two hundred and tifteen years in 
the land of Canaan, and yet there were only two generations. 

§ 100. Arithmetick, Mathematicks, Astronomy, and Astrology, 

I. Arithmetick. The more simple methods of arithmetical cal- 
culation are spoken of in the Pentateuch, as if they were well 
known. The merchants of that early period must, for their own 
convenience, have been possessed of some method of operating 
by numbers. And that they were able to do it, to some consider- 
able extent, may be argued from the fact, that they had separate 
words, viz. na'^ and "31'^., for so large a number, as 10,000. 

II. Mathematicks. By this we understand Geometry, Mensura- 
tions, Navigation, &,c. As far as a knowledge of them was abso- 
lutely required by the condition and employments of the people, 
we may well suppose, that knowledge actually existed ; although 
no express mention is made of them. 

III. Astronomy. The interests of agriculture and navigation re- 
quired some knowledge of astronomy. An evidence, that an at- 
tempt was made at a very early period, to regulate the year by 
the annual revolution of the sun, may be found in the fact, that 
the Jewish months were divided into thirty days each, see Gen. 
7: 11. 8: 4. In astronomy, the Egyptians, Babylonians, and Phe- 
nicians exhibited great superiority. We are informed, there were 
magicians or enchanters in Egypt, Exod. 7: 11. Lev. 20:27. 19:31, 
Deut. 18: 20, denominated in Hebrew D'^D^S^, because they com- 
puted eclipses of the sun and moon, and pretended to the people, 
that they produced them, by the efficacy of their own enchant- 
ments. Some of the constellations are mentioned by name, Job 
9: 9. 38: 31, 32. Isa. 13: 10. Amos 5: 8. 2 Kgs. 23: 5. 

IV. Astrology. It is by no means a matter of wonder, that the 
Hebrews did not devote greater attention to astronomy, since the 
study o( astrology., which was intimately connected with that of as- 
tronomy, and was very highly estimated among the neighbouring 
nations, Isa. 47: 9. Jer. 27: 9. 50: 35. Dan. 2: 13, 48, was interdict- 
<?d to the Hebrews, Deut. 18: 19. Lev. 20: 27. Daniel, indeed, 


studied the art of astrology at Babylon, but he did not practise it, 
Dan. 1: 20. 2: 2. The astrologers, (and those wise men mention- 
ed in Matt. 2: 1, et seq. appear to have been such,) divided the 
heavens into apartments or habitations, to each one of which 
apartments, they assigned a ruler or president. This fact devel- 
opes the origin of the word, ^al^iSovl, .^^1 bi^.3, or the Lord of 
the {celestial) dwelling, Matt. 10: 25. 12: 24, 27. Mark 3: 22. Luke 
11: 15—19. 

§ 101. Division of the Day and Night. 

The Hebrews, in conformity with the Mosaic law, reckoned 
the day from evening to evening. The natural day, i. e. the por- 
tion of time from sunrise to sunset, was divided by the Hebrews, 
as it is now by the Arabians, into six unequal parts. 

These divisions were, as follows. 

I. 'nriilJ, also y\'^l, the break of day. This portion of time was 
at a recent period divided into two parts, in imitation of the Per- 
sians ; the tirst of which began, when the eastern., the second, 
when the Taestern division of the horizon was illuminated. The 
authors of the Jerusalem Talmud divided it into four parts, the 
first of which was called in Hebrew ^n^ZJH nV'i'.N, which occurs in 
Ps. 22: 1, and corresponds to the phrase, huv nQOit, in the New 
Testament, Mark 16: 2. John 20: 1. 

II. "ip.2i t.h'i morning or sunrise. 

III. D")*?! Dp, the heat of the day. It begins about nine o'clock, 
€en. 18: 1. 1 Sam. 11: 11. 

iV. D'^'^J^SI- or midday. 

V. ai'ri nm, the cool of the day, literally the wind of the daj'. 
These expressions are grounded in the fact, that a wind com- 
mences blowing regularly a few hours before sunset, and contin- 
ues till evening. Gen. 3: 8. 

VI. a"?y« the evening. It was divided into two parts, b'^a'^y ; 
the first of which began according to the Karites and Samaritans 
at sunset, the second, when it began to grow dark. But accord- 
ing to the Rabbins, the first commenced just before sunset, the 
second precisely at sunset. The Arabians agree with the Karites 
and Samaritans ; and in this way the Hebrews appear to have com- 
puted, previous to the Captivity. 


Hours^ nyii;. The mention of them occurs first in Dan. 3: 6, 
15. 5:5. Hour* were first measured by gnomons, which merely 
indicated the Meridian ; afterwards, by the hour-wntch, axiadfQi- 
v,ov ; and subsequently still, by the clepsydra, or instrument for 
measuring: time, by means of water. The hour watch or dial, 
otherwise called the sun-dial, is mentioned in the reign of king 
Hezekiah, 2 Kgs. 20: 9, 10. Isa. 38: 8. Its being called the " sun- 
dial of Ahaz," renders it probable, that Ahaz first introduced it 
from Babylon, whence also Anaximenes, the Milesian, brought the 
first skiathericon into Greece. This instrument was of no use 
during the night, nor indeed, during a cloudy day. In conse- 
quence of this defect, the clepsydra was invented, which was used 
in Persia, as late as the 17th century in its simplest form. 

The clepsydra was a small circular vessel, constructed of thin- 
ly beaten copper or brass, and having a small pertbration through 
the bottom. It was placed in another vessel, filled with water. 
The diameter of the hole, in the bottom of the clepsydra, was 
such, that it filled with water in three hours, and sunk. It was 
necessary, that there should be a servant to tend it ; who should 
take it up, when it had sunk, pour out the water, and place it 
again empty, on the surface of the water in the vase. 

The hours of principal note, in the course of the day, were 
the third, the sixth, and the ninth. These hours, it would seem, 
were consecrated by Daniel to prayer, Dan. 6: 10, comp. Acts 2: 
lb. 3: 1. 10: 9. The day was divided into twelve hours, which of 
course, varied in length, being shorter in the winter and longer in 
the summer, John 11:9. In the winter, therefore, the clepsydras 
were covered internally with wax, that the water might subside 
from them more rapidly. The hours were numbered from the 
rising of the sun, so that at the season of the equinox, the third 
corresponded to the ninth of our reckoning, the sixth to our 
twelfth, and the ninth to 3 o'clock in the afternoon. At other 
seasons of the year, it is necessary to observe the time, when the 
sun rises, and reduce the hours to our time accordingly. We ob- 
serve, therefore, that the sun in Palestine, at the summer solstice, 
rises at five of our time, and sets about seven, ^t the winter sol- 
stice, it rises about seven and sets about five. 

Before the captivity, the night was divided into three watches. 
The FIRST, which continued till midnight, was denominated t5i<"\ 

lllO § 102. OP WEEKS. 

nh/puiN the commencing or first walch, Lam. 2: 1 9. The second 
was denominated ^IT^'^n DHU'ipN, the middle ■watch,) and continu- 
ed from midnight, till the crow»ng of the cock. The third^ called 
■^psn rTn^^^lJN. the morning uutch^ extended from the second to the 
rising of the sun. These divisions and names appear to have 
owed their origin to the watches of the Levites in the tabernacle 
and temple, Exod. 14:24. 1 Sam. II: 11. In the time of Christ 
however, t'he nighty in imitation of the Romans, was divided into 
four watches. According to the English mode of reckoning they 
were as follows. 

I. Oi/zf, the evening,, from twilight to nine o'clock. 

II. MfGovvKziov, the midnight, from nine to twelve. 

HI. yiX(HTO(}ocpo)vi(x, the cock-crowing,, from twelve to three. 
IV. J7(pci>t, from three o'clock till day-break. 
The assertions of the Talmudists in opposition to this state- 
ment are not to be regarded. 

§ 102. Of Weeks. 

A period of seven days, under the usual name of a week, y!ir'>y, 
is mentioned as far back as the time of the deluge, Gen. 7: 4, 10. 
8: 10, 12, also Gen. 29: 27, 28. It must, therefore, be considered 
a very ancient division of time, especially, as the various nations, 
among whom it has been noticed, for instance the Nigri in Africa, 
(see Oldendorp's Gesch* der Mission I. 308.) appear to have re- 
ceived it from the sons of Noah. The enumeration of the days 
of the week commenced at Sunday. Saturday was the last or 
seventh, and was the Hebrew sabbath, or day of rest. The Egyp- 
tians gave to the days of the week the same names, that they 
assigned to the planets. From the circumstance, that the Sabbath 
was the principal day of the week, the whole period of seven 
days was likewise called nzp, Syriack Nna]p, in the New Testa- 
ment, aa^l^uTOv and gu/jj^utu The Jews, accordingly, in desig- 
nating the successive days of the week, were accustomed to say, 
the first day of the sabbath, i.e. of the week, the second day of the 
sabbath, viz. Sunday, Monday, fee. Mark 16 : 2, 9. Luke 24 : 1. 
John 20: 1,19. In addition to the week of days, the Jews had 
three other seasons, denominated weeks, Lev. 2S: 1 — 17. Deut. 
16: 9—10. 


I. The •ayeefc of weeks. It was a period of seven weeks or forty 
■ine days, which was succeeded on the fiftieth day by the feast of 
Pentecost, Greek nifrfHOGrr], fifty, Deut, 16: 9, 10. 

II. The week of years. This was a period of seven years, during- 
the last of which, the land remained untilled, and the people en- 
joyed a sabbath or season of rest. 

III. The week of seven sabbatical years. It was a period of forty nine 
years, and was succeeded by the year of Jubilee, Lev. 25: 1 — 22, 
26: 34. 

§ 103. Of the Months, and the Year. 

The lunar changes without doubt were first employed in the 
measurement of time. Weeks, however, were not, as some sup- 
pose, suggested by these changes, since four weeks make only 
twenty-eight days, while the lunar period is twenty-nine and a 
half. Nor is it rational to suppose, that the changes of the moon 
first suggested the method of computation by years. Years were 
regulated at first by the return of summer or autumn. But when 
in the progress of time, it was discovered, that the ripe fruits, by 
which the year had been previously limited, statedly returned af- 
ter about twelve lunar months, or three hundred and fifty-four 
days, the year was regulated by those months, and restricted to 
that number of days. In -the course of seventeen years, however, 
it was seen, that, on the return of the same month, all the appear- 
ances of nature were reversed. Hence, as is evident from the 
history of the deluge, an attempt was made to regulate the 
months by the motion of the sun, and to assign to each of them 
thirty days; but it was, nevertheless, observed, after ten or twen- 
ty years, that there was still a defect of five days. 

Moses did not make any new arrangement in regard to the lu- 
nar months of the Hebrews, nor the year, which was solar, but in 
order to secure a proper reduction of the lunar to the solar year, 
he obligated the priests, to present at the altar on the second day of 
the Passover, or the sixteenth day after the first new moon in April, 
a ripe sheaf. For if they saw on the last month of the year, that 
the grain would not be ripe, as expected, they were compelled to 
make an intercalation, which common'y happened on the third year. 

After their departure from Egypt, there existed among the 



Hebrews two modes of reckoning the months of the year; the 
one civil, the other sacred. The beginning of the civil year was 
reckoned from the seventh month, or Tishri, i. e. the first new- 
moon in October. The commencement of the sacred year was 
reckoned from the month Nisan, or the first new-moon of April, 
because the Hebrews departed from Egypt on the fifteenth day of 
that month, Exod. 12:2. The prophets use this reckoning. The 
civil ye^r^ which was the more ancient, was used only in civil and 
agricultural concerns. The Jewish Rabbins say, that March and 
September, instead of April and October, were the initial months, 
of these two years. That they were so at a hite period is admit- 
ed, but the change was probably owing to the example of the 
Romans, who began their year with the month of March. The 
Jews, being pleased with their example in this respect, or over- 
ruled by their authority, adopted the same practice. That this 
is the most probable statement, is evident also from the fact, that 
the position of the Rabbins is opposed not only by Josephiis, but 
by the usage of the Syriack and Arabick languages ; from the fact 
also, that the prescribed observances of the three great festival 
days will not agree with the months of March and September, as 
has been shown by Michaelis, see Commentat. de Mensibus Heb- 
raeorum in rioc. Cioett. 17G3 — 17G8, p 10 et seq, 

JV/ovi/As, n"'n"l"', sometimes also called d'^yiH, from the circum- 
stance of their commencing with the new moon, anciently had no 
separate names, with the exception of the Jirst, which was called 
Abib, i. e. ••' the month of the young ears of corn," Exod. 13: 4. 
23: 15. 34: 18. Deut. 16: 1'. During the Captivity, the Hebrews 
adopted the Babylonian names for their months. They were as 

I. 'JD"'3 — NisAN, reckoned from new-moon of April, Neh. 2: 1. 

II. T"; — ZiF or Ziv, also called "^^''i^, — of May, 1 Kgs. 6: 1 

III. "jTp — SiVAN, of June, Est. 8: 9. 

IV. Iv^Ti — Tammuz, of July. 

V. nN — Ab, of August. 

VI. bn>N — Elul, of Sept. Neh. 6: 15. 

VII. ■^i;J:n — Tishri, also a^:n\Xn nn^ of Oct, 1 Kgs. 8: 2. 

VIII. ^ni: — BrL, also ^iu:inn7j" " of Nov. 1 Kgs. 6: 38. 

IX. l^iDlS — KiSLEV, * " of Dec. Neh. 1: 1. 

X. n;id — Tebeth, of Jan. Est. 2: 16. 


XL til'i; — Shebat, of February, Zech. 1: 7. 

- • XII. mJt — Adar, of March, Est. 3:7. 

** The first month here mentioned, Nisan, was originally called 
Abib. The intercalary month is denominated in Hebrew, "^^N. 

Note. The division of the year into six parts has already been 
mentioned, § 19. and need not be repeated here; but we cannot 
avoid saying a few words on a subject, connected with the present 
one, viz. the longevity of the antediluvians. Certain criticks have 
put their skill into requisition to convert the hundreds of their years 
into tens^ or into quarters of years, or into months, or into sum- 
mers and winters. Certainly they forget, that the orientals of the 
earliest period, as well as the modern Arabs, not only had a 
knowledge of the proper solar year, but divided it both into 
months, and into six periods of two months each. Clearly then, 
if the author of the first part of Genesis had meant to say, that 
the antediluvians lived so many months or other less periods of 
time, instead of so many years, he would have said so, in the 
terms commonly used to express those minor divisions. Besides, 
the attempt, to reduce the years of the antediluvians to months 
especially, will make them, in some instances, the fathers of chil- 
dren at five years of age. What some of the ancients say, in regard 
to a year much shorter, than the solar one, is, as Diodorus Sicu- 
lus expressly assures us, nothing more than a mere conjecture, 
originated, to account for the great number of years, which the 
Egyptians and other nations attributed to their ancestry. 

§ 104. Surveying, the Mechanick Arts, and Geography. 

I. Measures of length are mentioned, Gen. 6: 15, 16. A knowl- 
edge of the method of measuring lands is implied in the account 
given. Gen. 47: 20 — 27. Mention is made, in the books of Job and 
Joshua, of a line or rope for the purpose of taking measurements, 
IJ^, ^Sri- It was brought by the Hebrews out of Egypt, where, 
according to the unanimous testimony of antiquity, surveying first 
had its origin, and, in consequence of the inundations of the Nile, 
was carried to the greatest height. It was here, as we may well 
conclude, that the Hebrews acquired so much knowledge of the 
principles of that science, as to enable them, with the aid of the 

114 § 105. OF MEDICINE. 

measuring line abovementioned, to partition and set off geograph- 
ically the whole land of Canaan. The weights used in weighing 
solid bodies, Gen. 23: 15, 16, provided they were similar to each 
other in form, imply a knowledge of the rudiments of stereometry. 

II. The Alechanick arts. No express mention is made of the me- 
chanick arts ; but that a knowledge of them, notwithstanding, ex- 
isted, may be inferred from the erection of Noah's Ark, and the 
tower of Babel ; also from what is said of the Egyptian chariots, 
Gen. 41:43. 45:19.50:9. Exod. 14:6, 7; and from the instruments 
used by the Egyptians in irrigating their lands, Deut. 1 1: 10. It 
is implied in the mention of these, and subsequently of many other 
instruments, that other instruments still, not expressly named, 
but which were of course necessary for the formation of those 
which are named, were in existence. 

III. Geography. Geographical notices occur so frequently in 
the Bible, that it is not necessary to say much on this point, see 
Gen. 10: 1—30. 12: 4—15. 14: 1—16. 28: 2—9. 49: 13, &z.c. Per- 
haps, however, it deserv'es to be repeated, that, in the time of 
Joshua, the whole of Palestine was subjected to a geographical 
division. Josh. 18: 9. It is evident then, from their geographical 
knowledge, as well as from other circumstances already mention- 
ed, that there must have existed among the Hebrews, the rudi- 
ments, if nothing more, of mathematical science. 

§ 105. Of Medicine. 

At Babylon the sick, when they were first attacked with a dis- 
ease, were left in the streets, for the purpose of learning from 
those, who might pass them, what practices, or what medicines 
had been of assistance to i/ie/n, when atflicled with a similar disease. 
This was perhaps done also in other countries. The Egyptians 
carried their sick into the temples of Sera pis ; the Greeks carried 
theirs into those of Esculapius. In both of these temples, there 
were preserved written receipts of the means by which vari- 
ous cures had been effected. With the aid of these recorded 
remedies, the art of healing assumed in the progress of time the 
aspect of a science. It assumed such a form, first, in Egypt, and^ 
at a much more recent period, in Greece ; but it was not long be- 
fore those of the former were surpassed in excelleuce by the phy- 

§ 105. OF MEDICINE. 115 

sicians of the latter country. That the Egyptians, however, had 
no little skill in medicine, may be gathered from what is said in 
the Pentateuch, respecting the marks of leprosy. That some of 
the medical prescriptions should fail of bringing the expected re- 
lief is nothing strange, since Pliny himself mentions some, which 
are far from producing the effects, he ascribes to them. Physicians, 
t3''4<D'n, NSn, are mentioned first in Gen. 50: 2. Exod. 21: 10. Job 
13: 4. Some acquaintance with chirurgical operations is implied in 
the rite of circumcision, Gen. 17: 11 — 14. There is ample evi- 
dence, that the Israelites had some acquaintance with the inter- 
nal structure of the human system, although it does not appear, 
that dissections of the human body for medical purposes, were 
made, till as late as the time of Ptolemy. That physicians some- 
times undertook to exercise their skill, in removing diseases of an 
internal nature, is evident from the circumstance of David's play- 
ing upon the harp, to cure the malady of Saul, 1 Sam. 16: 16. The 
art of healing was committed among the Hebrews, as well as 
among the Egyptians, to the priests ; who, indeed, were obliged, 
by a law of the state, to take cognizance of leprosies. Lev. 
13: 1 — 14, 57. Deut. 24: 8, 9. Reference is made to physicians who 
were not priests, and to instances of sickness, disease, healing, &c. 
in the following passages, 1 Sam. 16: 16. 1 Kgs. 1:2—4. 15:23. 
2Kgs.8:29. 9:15. Is.l:6. Jer. 8: 22. Ezek.30:21. Prov.3:18. 
11: 30. 12: 18. 16: 15. 29: 1. The probable reason of king Asa's 
not seeking help from God, but from the physicians, as mentioned 
2 Chron. 16: 12, was, that they had not at that period recourse to 
the simple medicines, which nature offered, but to certain super- 
stitious rites and incantations ; and this, no doubt, was the ground 
of the reflection, which was cast upon him. The balm or balsam, 
■••^ir, ""^.iS, was particularly celebrated, as a medicine, Jer. 8: 22. 
46: 11. 51:8. That mineral baths were deemed vvorthy of no- 
tice may be inferred from Gen. 36: 24, [see Gesenius on the word 
d'^^^] About the time of Christ, the Hebrew physicians both 
made advancements in science, and increased in numbers, Mark 6: 
26. Luke 4:23. 5:31. 8:43, Josephus, Antiq. XVII. 6. 5. It ap- 
pears from the Talmud, Schabbath p. 110, that the Hebrew phy- 
sicians were accustomed to salute the sick by saying, " Arise from 
your disease.''^ This salutation had an effect in the mouth of Je- 
sus, Mark 5:41. According to the Jerusalem Talmud, a sick man 


was judg-ed to be in a way of recovery, who began to take his 
usual food, comp. Mark 5: 43. 

§ 106. Physicks, Natural History, and Philosophy. 

Physicks^ or natural philosophy, has secured but little attention 
in the East. A knowledge of the animal, vegetable, and min- 
eral kingdoms, or the science of natural history, was always much 
more an object of interest. We are informed in 1 Kgs. 4: 33, that 
Solomon himself had given a description of the animal and vege- 
table kingdoms. 

Traces of philosophy, strictly so called, i. e. the system of pre- 
vailing moral opinions, may be found in the book of Job, in the 
37th, 39th, and 73d Psalms, also in the books of Proverbs and Ec- 
clesiastes, but chiefly in the apocryphal book of Wisdom, and the 
writings of the son of Sirach. During the Captivity, the Jews ac- 
quired many new notions, particularly, from the Mehestani, and 
appropriated them, as occasion offered, to their own purposes. 
They at length became acquainted with the philosophy of the 
Greeks, which makes its appearance abundantly in the book of 
Wisdom. After the captivity^ the language, in which the sacred 
books were written, was no longer vernacular. Hence arose the 
need of an interpreter on the sabbatick year, a time, when the 
whole law was read ; and also on the sabbath in the synagogues, 
which had been recentl}' erected, in order to make the people 
understand what was read. These interpreters learnt the He- 
brew language at the Schools. The teachers of these schools, 
who, for the two generations preceding the time of Christ, had 
maintained some acquaintance with the Greek philosophy, were 
not satisfied with a simple interpretation of the Hebrew idiom, as 
it stood, but shaped the interpretation, so as to render it comform- 
able to their philosophy. Thus arose contentions, which gave 
occasion for the various sects of Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. 
In the time of our Saviour, divisions had arisen among the Phari- 
sees themselves. No less than eighteen nice questions, if we may 
believe the Jewish Rabbins, were contested, at that period, be- 
tween the schools of Hillel and Shammai. One of which quea- 
tions was an inquiry, " What cause was sufficient for a bill of di- 
Torce ?" If the Shammai and Hillel of the Talmud are the same 

§ 106. PHILOSOPHY. 117 

with the learned men, mentioned in Josephus, viz. Sameas and 
Pollio, who flourished thirty four years before Christ, then Sham- 
raai or Sameas is undoubtedly the same with the Simeon, who is 
mentioned, Luke 2: 25 — 35, and his son Gamaliel, so celebrated 
in the Talmud, is the same with the Gamaliel, mentioned Acts 
5: 34. 22: 3. 

Anciently learned men were denominated among' the Hebrews 
D'^Jasrj, as among the Greeks they were called aoqpot, i. e. ■wise 
men. In the time of Christ the common appellative for men of 
that description was yQai^ifxarevg., in the Hebrew IDiD; a scribe. 
They were addressed by the honorary title of Rabbi, i'^, ■'a*^, 
i. e. great or master. The Jews in imitation of the Greeks, had 
their seven wise men, who were called Rabboni, ]a'n. Gamaliel 
was one of the number. They called themselves the children of 
wisdom ; expressions, which correspond very nearly to the Greek 
qdoooqog.1 Matt. 11: 19. Luke 7: 35. The heads of sect^! were 
called fathers, Matt. 12: 27. 23: 1—9. The disciples, D'^'l'^73!:n, 
were denominated sons or children. The Jewish teachers, at 
least some of them, had private lecture rooms, but thej' also taught 
and disputed in synagogues, in temples, and in Axct, wherever they 
could find an audience. The method of these teachers was the 
same with that, which prevailed among the Greeks. Any disci- 
ple, who chose, might propose questions, upon which it was the 
duty of the teachers to remark and give their opinions, Luke 2: 
46. The teachers were not invested with their functions by any 
formal act of the church or of the civil authority ; they were self- 
constituted. They received no other salary than some voluntary 
present from the disciples, which was called an honorary^ ^tfu], 
HONORARIUM, 1 Tim. 5: 17. They acquired a subsistence in the 
main by the exercise of some art or handicraft. That they took 
a higher seat than their auditors, although it was probably the 
case, does not follow, as is sometimes supposed, from Luke 2: 46. 
According to the Talmudists they were bound to hold no conversa- 
tion with women, and to refuse to sit at table with the lower class 
of people, John 4: 27. Matt. 9 : 11. The subjects, on which they 
taught, were numerous, commonly intricate, and of no great con- 
sequence ; of which there are abundant examples in the Talmud. 


Note. — A sort of academical degree was conferred on the pu- 
pils in the Jewish Seminaries, which, after the destruction of Jeru- 
salem, were established at Babylon and Tiberias. The circum- 
stances, attending the conferring of this degree, are described by 
Maimonides, Jad chazaka, Lib. VI. 4, as follows. 

I. The candidate for the degree was examined, both in re- 
spect to his moral character and his literary acquisitions. 

II. Having undergone this examination with approbation, the 
disciple then ascended an elevated seat. Matt. 23: 2. 

III. A writing tablet was presented to him to signify, that he 
should write down his acquisitions, since they might escape from 
his memory, and, without being written down, be lost. 

IV. A key was presented to signify, that he might now open 
to others the treasures of knowledge, Luke 11: 52. 

V. Hands were laid upon him ; a custom derived from Num. 
27: 18. 

VI. A certain power, or authority, was conferred upon him, 
probably to be exercised over his own disciples. 

VII. Finally, he was saluted, in the school of Tiberias, with 
the title of i?a66i, S"!, in the school of Babylon, with that of ./Was- 
her, "-^W. 




§ 107. Antiquity of Commerce. 

Merchandize, in its various branches, was carried on in the 
East, at the earliest period of which we have any account ; and it 
was not long, before the traffick between nations, both by sea and 
land, was very considerable. Accordingly frequent mention is 
made of publick roads, fording places, bridges, and beasts of bur- 
den ; also of ships for the transportation of property, of weights, 
measures, and coin, both in the oldest parts of the Bible, and in 
the most ancient profane histories, Gen. 10: 4 — 5. 12: 5. 23: 16. 
37: 26—26. 42: 1—5. Jud. 5: 17. Exod. 20: 23. 26: 4. Deut. 3: 14. 
19: 3. Jos. 13: 2. 12: 5. 13: 13. 1 Sam. 27: 8—10. 2 Sam. 3: 3. 
13: 37. 15: 8. 

§ 108. Commerce of the Phenicians, Arabians, and Egyptians. 

The Phenicians anciently held the first rank, as a commercial 
nation. They were in the habit, either themselves in person, or 
by their agents, of purchasing goods of various kinds throughout 
all the East. They then carried them in ships on the Mediterra- 
nean, as far as the shores of Africa and Europe, brought back in 
return merchandize and silver, and disposed of these again in the 
more Eastern countries. The first metropolis of the Phenicians 
was Sidon ; afterwards Tyre became the principal city. Tyre 
was built two hundred and forty years before the temple of Solo- 
mon, or twelve hundred and fifty one before Christ. The Phenicians 
had ports of their own in almost every country, the most distin- 
guished of which were Carthage, and Tarshish or Tartessus in 
Spain. The ships from the latter place undertook very distant 
voyages ; hence any vessels, that performed distant voyages, were 
called ships of Tarshish, •::""vlj*in ''|;:N. Something is said of the 
commerce of the Phenicians in llie 27th and 28th chapters of Eze- 
kiel, and the 23d chapter of Isaiah. 


The inhabitants of Arabia Felix carried on a commerce with 
India. They carried some of the articles, which they brought 
from India, through the straits of Babelmandeb into Abyssinia and 
Egypt; some they transported to Babylon through the Persian 
gulf and the Euphrates; and some by the way of the Red Sea to 
the port of Eziongeber. They thus became rich, though it is 
possible, their wealth may have been too much magnified by the 
ancients. The eminence of the Egyptians, as a commercial na- 
tion, commences with the reign of Necho and his successor Psam- 
meticus. Their commerce, nevertheless, was not great, till Alex* 
ander had destroyed Tyre and built Alexandria. 

§ 109. Mercantile Routs. 

The Phenicians sometimes received the goods of India by way 
of the Persian gulf, where they had colonies in the islands of 
Dedan, Arad, and Tyre. Sometimes they received them from 
the Arabians, who either brought them by land through Arabia 
or up the Red Sea to Eziongeber. In the latter case, having 
landed them at the port mentioned, they transported them through 
the country by the way of Gaza to Phenicia. The Phenicians 
increased the amount of their foreign goods by the addition of 
those, which they themselves fabricated, and were thus enabled 
to supply ail parts of the Mediterranean. The Egyptians former- 
ly received their goods from the Pheaicians, Arabians, Africans^ 
and Abyssinians ; in all of which countries, there are still the re- 
mains of large trading towns. But in a subsequent age, they im- 
ported goods from India in their own vessels, and eventually car- 
ried on an export trade with various ports on the Mediterranean. 
Oriental commerce, however, was chiefly carried on by land. Ac- 
cordingly vessels are hardly mentioned in the Bible, except in Ps. 
107: 23 — 30, and in passages, where the discourse turns upon 
the Phenicians, or upon the naval affairs of Solomon and Jehosh- 
aphat. The two principal routs from Palestine into Egypt were 
the one, along the shores of the Mediterranean from Gaza to Pe- 
lusium, and the one from Gaza by the way of mount Sinai and 
the Elanitic branch of the Red Sea. 


§ 1 10. Method of carrying goods by land. 

Chariots were anciently in use among the inhabitants of the 
East. The merchants, notwithstanding, transported their goods 
Tipon camels; animals, which are patient of thirst, and are easily 
supported in the deserts. For the common purpose of security 
against depredations, the oriental merchants travelled in company, 
as is common in the East at the present day. A large travelling 
company of this kind was called a caravan or carvan^ tD'^rrrfN, 
rrimi* . A smaller one was called kajile or fco/Ze, M^'^bln, Greek 
Gvi'odicc, Job 6: 18—20. Gen. 37: 25. Isa. 21: 13. Jer. 9:^2. Jud. 5: C. 
Luke 2: 44. The furniture carried by the individuals of a caravan 
consisted of a mattress, a coverlet, a carpet for sitting upon, a 
round piece of leather, which answered the purpose of a table, a 
few pots and kettles of copper covered with tin, also a tin-plated 
cup, which was suspended before the breast under the outer gar- 
ment, and was used for drinking, 1 Sam. 26: 11, 12, 16 ; leathern 
bags for holding water, tents, lights, and provisions in quality 
and abundance, as each one could afford. Every caravan had a 
leader to conduct it through the desert, who was acquainted with 
the direction of its rout, and with the cisterns and fountains. 
These he was able to ascertain, sometimes from heaps of stones, 
sometimes by the character of the soil, and when other helps fail- 
ed him, by the stars, Num. 10: 29— 32. Jer.31:21. Isa.2l:14. 
When all things are in readiness, the individuals, who compose 
the caravan, assemble at a distance from the city. The command- 
er of the caravan, who is a different person from the conductor or 
leader, and is chosen from the wealthiest of its members, appoints 
the day of their departure. A similar arrangement was adopted 
among the Jews, whenever they travelled in large numbers 
to the city of Jerusalem. The c-'-avans start very early, 
sometimes before day. They endeavour to find a stopping 
place or station to remain at during the night, which shall afford 
them a supply of water. Job 6: 15-20. They arrive at their stopping 
place before the close of the day, and while it is yet light, prepare 
every thing, that is necessary for the recommencement of 
their journey. In order to prevent any one from wandenng away 
from the caravan and getting lost during the night, lamps or torch- 
es are elevated upon poles and carried before it. The pillar of 


fire answered this purpose for the Israelites, when wandering' ia 
the wilderness. Sometimes the caravans lodge in cities ; but 
when they do not, they pitch their tents so as to form an encamp- 
ment, and during the night keep watch alternately for the sake of 
security. In the cities there are publick inns, called Chan and 
Carvanserai, in which the caravans are lodged without expense. 
They are large, square buildings, in the centre of which is an 
area or open court. Carvanserais are denominated in the Greek 
of the New Testament nuudo'/fiov, aaialvatg, and xara^fjua, 
Luke 2: 7. 10: 34. The tirst mention of one in the old Testament 
is in Jer. 41: 17. Dn^3 n^"i.l. It was situated near the city of 

§111. The Commerce of the Hebrews. 

Moses enacted no laws in favour of commerce, although there 
is no question, that he saw the situation of Palestine to be very 
favourable for it. The reason of this was, that the Hebrews who 
were designedly set apart to preserve the true religion, could not 
mingle with foreign idolatrous nations without injury. He, there- 
fore, merely inculcated good faith and honesty in buying and sell- 
ing. Lev. 19:36, 37. Beut. 25: 13—16; and left all the other in- 
terests of commerce to a future age. By the establishment, how- 
ever, of the three great festivals, he gave occasion for some mer- 
cantile intercourse. At these festivals all the adult males of the 
nation were yearly assembled at one place. The consequence 
was, that those, who had any thing to sell, brought it ; while 
those, who wished to buy articles, came with the expectation of 
having an opportunity. As Moses, though he did not encourage, did 
not interdict foreign commerce ; Solomon, at a later period, not 
only carried on a traffick in horses, as already stated, but sent 
ships from the port of Eziongeber through the Red Sea to Ophir, 
{probably (he coast of Africa,) and thence into Spain, 1 Kgs.,9:26. 
2Chron. 9:21. This traffick, although a source of emolument, 
appears to have been neglected, after the death of Solomon. The 
attempt, made by Jehoshaphat to restore it, was frustrated, by his 
ships being dashed upon the rocks and destroyed, ! Kgs. 22: 48, 
49. 2 Chron. 20: 36. Joppa, though not a very convenient one, 
was properly the port of Jerusalem ; and some of the large ves- 


sels, which went to Spain, sailed from it, Jonah 1:3. In the age of 
Ezekiel, the commerce of Jerusalem was so great, that it gave oc- 
casion of envy even to the Tyrians themselves, Ezek. 26: 2. After 
the captivity, a great number of Jews became merchants and trav- 
elled tor the purpose of tratfick mto all countries. About the 
year 150 B. C. prince Simon rendered the port at Joppa more con- 
venient, than it had hitherto been. In the time of Pompey the 
Great, there were so many Jews abroad on the ocean, even in the 
character of pirates, that king Antigonus was accused before him 
of having sent them out on purpose. A new port was built by He.' 
rod at Cesarea. 

§ 1 1 2. Weights and Measures. 

Commerce could not be carried on without coin, nor without a 
system of weights and measures. Weights and measures were 
regulated at a very early period in Asia. Regulations in regard 
to them as far as concerned the Hebrews were made by Moses, 
and measures and weights to serve as models, both for form and 
contents, were deposited in the Tabernacle. All the duties in re- 
gard to this subject devolved, among the Jews as well as among 
the Egyptians, upon the Priests. After the time of Solomon the 
models for weights, t^c. were deposited in the temple ; consequent- 
ly, when the temple was destroyed, they perished with it. The 
Hebrews, while in captivity, used, as might be expected, the 
weights and measures of their masters. The prophet Ezekiel is 
a proof of this, who speaks of cubits and weights, evidently the 
same with those in use after the Captivity. The weights and 
measures of the Jews, therefore, are to be distinguished into those 
before, and those after the Captivity. Whenever they are men- 
tioned by the Alexandrine interpreter, or by Josephus, they belong 
to the latter period. The amount and extent of weights and 
measures before the Captivity cannot be accurately determined. 

§ 1 1 3. Measures of Lensth. 

Almost all nations have taken their measures of length from 
the parts of the human body, and what their extent was among the 
Jews before the Captivity can be learnt only by a reference to 
those parts. 

124 § 1 13. MEASURES OF LENGTH. 

I. J'SiSN, a finger or digit. Its length was about the breadth of 
a finger. [According- to the tables, appended to the third vohime 
of Home's Introduction to the scriptures, which are taken chiefly 
from Dr Arbuthnot, the Jewish digit is 0*912th of an English 

II. hsto, ncp. a palm or four digits, otherwise called a hand- 
breadth, 1 Kgs. 7: 26. comp. 2 Chron. 4: 5. Jer. 52: 21. 

III. n*lT a span, viz. from the end of the thumb to the end of 
the little finger, or three palms, Exod. 28: 16. 39: 9- 1 Sam. 17:4. 

IV. ln73N, a cubit. It extended from the elbow to the wrist, 
Ezek. 41:8. or four palms, about the sixth part of the height of 
the human body, Deut. 3: 1 1. 1 Sam. 17:4. Ezekiel, chap. 40: 5. 
43: 13, mentions a cubit of five palms, i, e. the extent from the 
elbow to the knuckles. This appears to have been the Babylonian 
or new cubit, of which mpntion is made in 2 Chron. 3: 3. comp. 
Herodot. I. 178. and Solinus 56, 2. 

V. T3ii. a measure, which was probably the length of a man's 
arm, Jud. 3: 16. 

VI. Mpp. a measuring reed of six cubits, or the length of the 
human bo ^y. Ezekiel, chap. 40: 5, mentions a Babylonian reed of 
a little more than six cubits in length. 

VII. i^C'l, a Chaldaick word, Greek arccdioi', a stadium or 
furlong. It was a Greek measure adopted by the J ens, and was one 

hundred Iwenty-five geometrical paces in extent, or the six- 
hundreth part of a degree, making one hundred and forty-five 
English paces, four feet, and six tenths, John 6: 19. 11: 18. 14:20. 
21: 16. The Egyptian furlong was sixty seven fathoms and two 

V^III. 'Odog (ja66aTOv, a sabbath day's journey, viz. seven hun- 
dred twentj^-nme English paces and three feet. Acts 1:12. This 
measure is a sort of Jewish invention founded on Exod. 16: 29. 

IX. Mihov. a Roman mile, being eight furlongs, or a thousand 
geometrical paces. Matt. 5: 41. 

X. yiJJ^ ^l^^.i a ^i"^e '^ay, Gen. 35: 1 6. 2 Kgs. 5: 19 ; accord- 
ing to the Septuagmt a ho7-se''s race, 'mnodgoy-og, i- e. as the Arabi- 
ans inform us, a parasang, by which word the phrase is translated 
in the Peshito. It was about four English miles. 

XI. ai-sji ^'n'l, a day^s journey. It is sometimes greater and 


sometimes less, varying from twenty to thirty miles, see Herodot. 
B. V. 53. 

§114. Hollow Measures. 

I. y"?2p, ahandful^ a measure not accurately defined, Lev. 2: 
2. b: 12.' 

II. ^12V. an omer^ used, as appears from Exod. 16: 16, 18, 22, 
32, 33, 36, in the measurement ot dry articles. It contained the por- 
tion, which was assigned to each individual for his daily food. It 
corresponded to the 'j^oivi'i, the choenix of the Greeks, and held five 
pints and one tenth, English corn measure ; [see Home's Introd. 
to the Scriptures, v. iii. Ap. p. 60.] 

III. iTiS'^N, "CN, an ephah^ the Egyptian ouft, a measure for 
dry articles. It contained, as we learn from Exod. 16:36, ten 
omers. The genuineness of that passage is, indeed, somewhat 
doubtful, but at any rate it is very ancient, since it is found in all the 
ancient versions, even the Samaritan itself. It held three pecks 
and three pints. The bath, a measure for liquids, was of the same 
size. Josephus, however, Antiq. VIII. 2. § 9, makes a bath equal 
to seventy-two Sfffrat?, an Attick measure, holding a pint. If this 
be true, it was the same in capacity with the f.isTgt]Tt], a firkin, 
which was an Attick measure, commonly represented equal to 
seventy-two Efaraig. or mne English gallons, John 2: 6. 

IV^ TiU'Oi n seah. It appears to be merely the Hebrew name 
of that measure, which was called, by a word of Egyptian origin, 
Ephn, comp. Gen. 1 8: 6 with Jud. 6:19.2 Kgs. 7: 1 6, 1 8. and 1 Sam. 
25: 18. It is thought by some to be the third part of an Epha. 
This measure occurs in the New Testament, under the word, 
auTOv, derived from the Hebrew D^nNO. Josephus, Aniiq. IX. 2. 
remarks in regard to this measure, that it contained (.lodiov xat 
i^l-itav iTahy.ov an Italian bushel and half, i. e. a peck and a half 

V. "iTon , the homer, used both for liquids and dry articles ; also 
called *^3, kor. It held ten Ephas ; consequently the lethek, ^rb, 
which was half its size, held five Ephas. 

VI. aj? , a cab. It appears to have been used for dry articles 
merely, 2 Kgs. 6: 25. From the passage in Kings, it is clear, that 
it was a measure of small dimensions. 

126 § 115. WEIGHTS AND MONEy. 

VIT. ■jirt, rt hill ; used for liquids. A third, half, and fourth 
part of a Hin are mentioned. It is supposed to be the sixth-part 
of a Bath, which agrees sufficiently well with those places, where 
it occurs. 

VIII. :»>, a lo^, the twelfth part of a Hin. 

IX. n-\^C, p/t«ra. The connexion in Isa. 63: 2, requires this 
word to be rendered winevat^ but in Hag. 2: 16, it appears to be 
the name of an unknown Persian measure. 

X. Afoii]g^ the Roman sextarius^ containing the fortyeighth part 
of an Amphora. 

XI. Modbog^ the Roman bushel, used for dry articles, contain- 
taining a peck in English measure. 

XII. 3IfTQi]Tijg, a Greek measure, a third part larger than 
the Roman Amphora, being a Roman foot and a half in length, 
breadth and height. 

§ 11 5. Of Weights and Money. 

In oriental countries, as far back as the time of Abraham, the 
value of goods was estimated at a certain quantity of silver, the puri- 
ty of which was taken into account by the merchant, Gen. 23: 16. 
But there is no trace of stamped silver or coin, previous to the 
Captivity. Nor indeed was it at that early period divided into 
pieces of a certain size. It was commonly weighed out in bal- 
ances., D^:"i<?0. DTE, though its weight was sometimes ascertain- 
ed by means of an instrument for weighing, answering to the mod- 
ern steel-yards. Merchants were accordingly in the habit of 
carrying about with themselves balances and weights in a sort of 
pouch or bag. The weights were stones ; hence they are called 
"jnN, Q''2^N, words which commonly mean stones, Lev. 19: 36. 
Deut. 2o: 13—18. Prov. 11:1. 16: 1 1. Mic. 6: 1 1. Persons, who 
were disposed to be fraudulent, sometimes carried two sets of 
weights, a heavier and a lighter set, 'I2N"' "J^Jt, using sometimes 
the one and sometimes the other, as best suited their interest. 

Gold, even so late as the time of David, was not used, as a 
standard of value, but was considered merely as a very precious 
article of commerce, and was weighed, like other articles. The 
oldest weight, that is mentioned, is denominated in Hebrew 
^it2''t;p. The same word is applied also to a piece of silver or 


g-old, but the amount or quantity designated by it, is in both cases, 
unknown, Gen. 33: 19. Jos. 24: 32. Job 42: II. In the time of 
Moses, the weight most in use was the shekel, VpU), its half, ypa, 
and its twentieth part, !T^a. An hundred shekels made a Mina, 
ti:?D, jMti/a, 2 Chron. 9: 16. comp, 1 Kg?. 10: 17 ; and thirty Minae 
or three thousand shekels made a talent, "133, Exod. 38: 25, 26. 
The Greek talent varied in different countries ; the Athenian 
was estimated at six thousand drachms. 

§ 1 1 6. Of Weights and Money before the CAPTrviTV. 

The Jewish Rabbins, in their statements in regard to weights, 
estimate them, like the modern Persians, according to the num- 
ber of grains of barley, to which they are equivalent. That is to 
say, they make a grain of barley the smallest weight. This is 
the method of the Rabbins. The ancient Hebrews undoubtedly, 
as well as certain nations of profane antiquity, selected a seed of 
pulse, (siliqua,) as the representative of the smallest weight, with 
which they were acquainted. The Hebrew name for this weight 
is n"ia. Fannius, a coteraporary with Augustus, says that six 
such seeds made a scruple, and three scruples a drachm. Hence, 
a drachm contained eighteen siliquae, or Hebrew gerahs, which Ei- 
senschmid, in his treatise on weights and measures, p. 23, finds 
equal to eighty seven or eight Parisian grains. Consequently 
twenty of them, which are equivalent to a shekel, would be equal 
to ninety six or seven Parisian grains, or about ten pennyweights, 
English valuation. 

Beside the common legal or sacred shekel, there was another 
in the time of the kings, called "the king's shekel." The hair of 
Absalom was weighed with this sort of shekel, and amounted to 
two hundred of them. The heaviest head of hair, that has been 
found in England, weighed five ounces. Absalom's, we may well 
suppose, could not have weighed more than ten. This supposi- 
tion would lead us to the conclusion, that the royal did not amount 
to more than the fourth, perhaps not to more than the fifth or 
sixth part of the /eo-ni shekel. 

Gold was dealt out by the weights, which have been mention- 
ed, but its value, for instance the value of a Gera or Shekel of 
gold, cannot be accurately estimated, because we do not know 

128 § 1'7. WEIGHTS AND MONEY. 

precisely what its worth was, when compared with that of silver. 
The shekel used in weighing gold was the royal one. The diffi- 
culty of ascertaining the true worth of any quantity of gold men- 
tioned in the scriptures is increased hy the circumstance, that the 
gold itself possessed different degrees of purity ; in some instances 
it was adulterated and in other instances more fine than usual. 

§ 117. Weights and Money after the Captivity. 

During the captivity of the Jews and after their return from it, 
they made use of thp weights and the coin of other nations. Eze- 
kiel, accordingly, chap 45: 12, mentions foreign Manehs of different 
weight, viz. of fifteen, of twenty, and of twenty live shekels. The 
coin, which the Jews used at this period, was the Persian, Gre- 
cian, and Roman. It was not till the time of the Maccabean prin- 
ces, that they had a mint of their own, and coined gold and silver 
for themselves. The most ancient coin, of which we have any 
knowledge, is the Persian gold coin, called the Darlck^ docQUxog, 
'jittD-)'!, 'i'733-l'lN, 1 Chron. 29: 7. Ez. 2: 69. 8: 27. Neh. 7: TO, 72. 
The name does not take its origin from Darius the king, but from 

the Persian word [ri'-> or L-^1 rlO a king ; a word, which was ap- 
plied to the coin in question in order to signify, that it was stamp- 
ed by the royal authorit}', and to distinguish it from any coin, that 
might he stamped and put in circulation by private merchants. 
The impression on this coin exhibits on one side of it the repre- 
sentation of a king; on the reverse an archer, holding in his left 
hand a bow and in his right hand an arrow, and having upon his 
head an acuminated tiara. Suidas, the scholiast of Aristophanes, 
cuxXtjq, V. 598, and Harpocration represent the Darick as equal 
in weight to twenty drachms. [" According to Dr. Bernard, the 
Darick weighed two grains more than the English guinea ; but as 
it was very fine and contained little alloy, it may be reckoned 
worth about twenty five shillings English money," Ree's Cyclo- 
paed. Art. Darick.] 

A coin, very much in circulation among the Greeks, was the 
Stater, GTaTi]Q, Matt. 17: 26, equal in weight to the shekel of the 
Hebrews. It was otherwise called Tetradrachraon, T^TQudQayjAOv, 
because it weighed four drachms ; it amounted to two shillings, 
.seven pence English. This coin exhibits on one side the head of 

§ 117. WEIGHTS AND MONEY. 129 

Minerra, and on the reverse, an owl together with a short in- 
scription. It appears, therefore, from the above, that a Drachma, 
dQa)[iAi]^ was the fourth part of the Stater. It was, however, of 
different value in different places ; the Alexandrian, for instance, be- 
ing of double the amount of the Grecian. The drachma, although 
it was in real value about a seventh part more was, nevertheless, 
considered, in common mercantile exchange, as equal to the Ro- 
man denarius, i. e. seven pence two farthings English. This coin 
exhibited on one side the Koman goddess of victory, and on the 
reverse a chariot drawn by four horses. At a recent period the 
reverse exhibited the head of Caesar, Matt. 22: 19. 

The Jewish prince, Simon, 1 Mace. 15: 16, struck off a curren- 
cy under the denomination of shekels, which weighed a stater 
each, or, according to F. Mersenne's estimate, two hundred 
and sixty eight grains. The value of this shekel in English 
money was two shillings, three pence and three farthings. When 
it was coined in gold, its value was£l: 16s. 6d. Of those Shekels 
which remain, those only are considered genuine, which have in- 
scriptions upon them in the Samnritan character. Some, that have 
such inscriptions, may have been struck off at comparatively a 
recent period in imitation of those, that were really ancient. The 
inscriptions on them are various. 

The Roman as, aooaQiov, weighed nine pennyweights and 
three grains ; its value was three farthings and one tenth. It was 
a brass coin and anciently exhibited on one side a figure of Janus, 
but latterly the head of Caesar. The representation on the re- 
verse was the stern of a ship. Matt. 10: 29. Luke 12: 6. A quar- 
ter part of an as was called quadrans, Kodgavrtig. The Greek 
coin, called Aenrov, was of very small value, being the fourth 
part of a quadrans. Matt. 5: 26. Mark 12: 42. 

The weight, denominated Anga, varied in different countries 
Many kinds of Merchandize were sold according to the litra of the 
particular country, from which they were brought. Its amount, 
therefore, cannot be stated, John 12: 3. 19: 39. 

Note. — It ought to be remarked, that silver and gold ancient- 
ly were more scarce than at present, and consequently of greater 
value. Its value in the fourth century before Christ was to its 
value in England in the year 1130, as ten to one. So that 



four huodred and forty grains of silver would purchase as much 
at the [astj nentioned pei'iod, as four thousand four hundred would 
at the first^ 

Note. — [The translator has thought it best, in a number of 
the last sections, to substitute the English modes of reckoning 
weights and measures, &c. instead of the German and Parisian, 
which are so frequently referred to by Dr Jahn. This, which he 
was bound to do in justice to the English reader, will account for 
the peculiar aspect, which the translation wears, in the sections 
mentioned, in comparison with the original. The following ta- 
bles, which are not in the original, are taken from the third 
volume of Home's Introduction to the Scriptures, App. p, 59. 
We are there informed, that they are extracted chiefly from Dr. 
Arbuthnot''s "Tables of ancient Qoins, Weights, and Measures."] 



1. Jewish weights reduced to English troy weight. 

The gerab, one-twentieth of a shekel 
Bekah, half a shekel 

The shekel 

The maneh, 60 shekels 

The talent, 50 manehs or 3000 shekels 










2. Scripture measures of length reduced to English measure. 

Eng. feet. inch. 

A dig it 0-912 

4 I A palm 3'648 

~T2 I 3 I A sp an 10-944 

24 I 6 I 37 A c ubit 1 9-888 

96 I 24 I 6 I 2 I A fathom .7 3-552 

144 I 36 I 12 I 6 I 1^1 Ezeki el's reed .... 10 11-328 

192 I 4H] i6~j W] 2 ! 1-3 i An Arabian pole . . 14 7-104 

1920 I 480 I 160 I aO j 20 j 13-3 | 10 | A schoeous or meas. line 145 11-04 



3. The long Scripture measures. 

A cubit 

400 I A stadium or furlong 
2000 I 5 I A sabbath day's journey 
"4000 I 10 ; ITj An eastern mile 

1-2000 I 30 I 6\ 3 I A parasang 

96000 I 240 I 48 I 24 I 8 I A day's journey 

Eng.tniles. paces, feet 











4. Scripture measures of capacity for liquids.) reduced to English 

wine measure. 


A. caph 

1-3 1 A log 


5-3 1 4 1 A cab 


16 1 12 1 3| A bin 1 

32 1 24 1 6 1 2 1 A seah 2 


96 ! 72 1 18 1 6 1 T 1 A bath or ephah .... 7 


960 1 720 1 180 ! 60 | 20 | 10 | A kor or choros,chomeror homer 75 

5 . 

5. Scripture measures of capacity for things dry, reduced to English 
corn measure. 

k gachal 
20 1 A cab 


An oraer or gomer ..... 


. pints. 

36 1 1-8 


120 1 6 1 

3-3 1 A scab ,1 


360 1 18 
1800 1 90 

10 i 3 1 An ephah .... 3 
50 1 15 1 5 1 A ietech .... 16 


3600 1 180 1 

100 1 30 1 10 1 2 1 A chomer, homer, or kor 32 


A gerah 

6. Jewish money reduced to the English standard. 


~2] A she kel 

1200 I 120 I 50 I A m aneh, or mina Hebraica 
60000 I 6000 I 3000 I 60 I A talent . 

10 I A bekah 

20 I 

A solidus aureus, or sextu'a, was worth . 
A siclus aureus, or gold shekel, was worth 
A talent of gold was worth .... 

In the preceding table, silver is valued at 5.'. and gold at £4 per ounce. 

£ s. 







5 14 


342 3 




1 16 




7* Roman money^ mentioned in the New Testament^ reduced to the 
English standard. 

A mite, {Aitttov ov Aoguqiov) . ... 

A farthing {Aodgavrfjg) about .... 
A penny or denarius {ArivaQiov) 
A pound or mina ...... 













§ 1 1 8. Materials of which clothes were made. 

Our first parents in the first instance protected themselves 
with the leaves of the fig-tree ; afterwards, with the skins of ani- 
mals. Subsequently some method, as we may suppose, was dis- 
covered for matting- together the hair of animals and making a 
sort of felt cloth. Later still the art of weaving was introduced, 
and a web was formed by combining the hair of animals with 
threads drawn from wool, cotton, or flax. At any rate the art of 
manufacturing cloths by spinning and weaving is of very great an- 
tiquity. Gen. 14: 23. 31: 18—19. 37: 3. 38; 28. 41: 42. 45: 22. Job 
7: 6. 31: 20. The Egyptians were very celebrated for such man- 
ufactures. The Israelites, while living among them, learnt the 
art, and even excelled their teachers, 1 Chron. 4: 21. While 
wandering in the Arabian wilderness, they prepared the materi- 
als for covering the tabernacle, and wrought some of them with 
embroidery. Cotton cloth was esteemed most valuable, next to 
that, woollen and linen. That, which was manufactured from the 
hair of animals, was esteemed of least value. Of silk there is no 
mention made at a very early period, unless perchance it be in 
Ezeki^l 16: 10, 13, under the word ""ipa. This, however, is 

§ 119. COLOURS OF CLOTHS. 133 

clear, that Alexander found silks in Persia, and it is more than 
probable, that the Median dress, which we find was adopted by 
the Persians under Cyrus, was silk. Silk was not introduced 
among- the nations of Europe, till a late period. 

§ 119. CoLouKs OF Cloths. 

White was esteemed the most appropriate colour for cotton 
cloth, and purple for the others. On festival days the rich and 
powerful robed themselves in white cotton, which was consider- 
ed the most splendid dress. It ivas denominated in the earlier 
Hebrew by the synonymous words 113*23 and "ir, and after the cap- 
tivity by another synonym, viz. Via, the Greek (3vaaog. The ful- 
lers, B'^DziD, had discovered the art, a singular one, it is true, of 
communicating a very splendid white to cloth by the aid of alkali 
and urine. Hence, lest their shops should communicate a fetid- 
ness to the atmosphere, where it might be of injury, they lived 
out of the city, Isa. 7: 3. Cotton cloth coloured purple was de- 
nominated in Hebrew, 'j?2.>;'lJ< and i-!'2!i'-i and in Chaldaick T'l-'^^N. 
It was coloured by the blood taken from a vein in the throat of a 
certain shell-fish. This colour was very highly esteemed, seem- 
ed to be a medium hue between brown and pure red, and was 
very bright; it was essentially the same with the celebrated 
Tyrian purple. Kings and princes were clothed with this purple, 
Luke 16: 19. Rev. 18: 12. 

The scarlet colour so called, first mentioned in Gen. 38: 28, 
and occurring frequently afterwards was very much admired. It 
was a different colour from the shell-fish purple, and was extract- 
ed from the insects or their egg«, found on a species of oak ; and 
thence in Hebrew it is called nybin, which means a worm or in- 
sect. The cotton cloth was dipped into this colour twice ; hence 
the application of the Hebrew word' ""JUJ and "^y:^ n^'bin, t-wice- 
dyed. This colour is sometimes called ^"iTSlD, 2 Chron. 2: 14. 
3: 14, from the Persian word bN72n3, which is the origin of the 
French word, carinoisin. 

The hyacinth or dark blue colour^ ^^.'^.'^i ^^s extracted from 
the cuttle-fish, which bears in Hebrew the same name with the 
colour itself, and was highly esteemed, especially among the As- 
syrians, Ezek. to: 6. 

134 § 120. THE TUNICK. 

Black colour was used for common wear, and particularly on 
occasions of mourning. 

Party-coloured cloths, D'DS ri:ii3, were highly esteemed, Gen. 
37: 3, 23. 2 Sam. 13: 18. 

As far back as the time of Moses we find, that cloths were em- 
broidered, sometimes with the coloured threads of cotton and linen, 
and sometimes with threads of gold. When the work was em- 
broidered on both sides, the Hebrew word for fabricks of that 
kind appears in the dual form, viz. d'^nT:^'^. Some of the pas- 
sages in relation to embroiderers and eajbroidery are as follows, 
Exod. 25: 36, 35: 35. Jud. 5: 30. Ps. 45: 9. Ezek. 16: 10. 

What the nature of that garment was, which is interdicted to 
the Hebrews in Lev. 19: 19, and Deut. 22: 11, is uncertain. It is 
said to be a mixed garment of wool and linen, but that does not 
decide the point. Josephus says, an opinion prevailed in his time, 
that the garments in question were embroidered ones, which be- 
longed to the priests, but the fact is, the law was universal, and in- 
terdicted them not only to priests, but to all others. Perhaps the 
warp was of wool and the woof of linen, a common mode of man- 
ufacturing in the East even to this day according to the testimony 
of Aryda. The garments may have been interdicted to the He- 
brews on account of their being so common a dress among the 

§ 1 20. The Tunick. 

This was the most simple, and, as we may conjecture from 
that circumstance, the most ancient garment. It is a common ar- 
ticle of dress in the East to this day, and is called in Arabick 
Mihram, CDN^HN. It was a piece of cloth, commonly linen, which 
encircled the whole body, was hour i with a girdle, and descend- 
ed to the knees. It occurs in the Bible first, under the Hebrew 
word np,n3, afterrn'ards, under the word tTni:in, which usually 
means a girdle. Those, who are clothed with a tunick merely, 
are sometimes said to be naked, Job 24: 7, 10. Isa. 20: 2 — 4. Mic. 
1: 8. John 21:7. As the fore-part of the tunick was liable to be 
elevated with the wind, the wearer had on also an under garment 
called in Hebrew ti-;0:3tt, which in the time of Moses reached 
only from the loins to the knees, Exod 28: 42 ; but in progress of 

§ 121. THE GIRDLE. 135 

lime it was extended down to the ankle?. Moses in Exod. 28: 42 
commands the priests to wear under g-arments of this description, 
on account of their convenience in performing- the sacritices. 
Hence it may be inferred, that they were not used by the people 
generally, which is found to be the state of the case at this day in 
various countries of the East. If Strabo in page 734 means to 
say, that the Persians wore three pair of them, he certainly 
speaks of a recent period in their history. Mention is made of 
an upper pair of this garment in Dan. 3: 21, called in Hebrew 
bz'^D, in Persian 'nitVpp, schalvary in Syriack n';:3T*:, in Arabick 
i'"'TNni!3. The orientals, whether clad in the garment in ques- 
tion or not, when they find it necessary to emit urine, seek an ob- 
scure place and in a sitting posture discharge themselves upon 
the earth ; with this exception, that the meanest and lowest of the 
populace defile the walls. Hence the peculiar, proverbial ex- 
pressions, which occur in 1 Sam. 25: 22, 34, &c, are to be consid- 
ered, as denoting the very lowest class of people. The tunick, 
which at first only covered the body, was extended afterwards up 
round the neck, was supplied with short sleeves, and eventually 
with long ones, covering the whole arm. At first it set close" to 
the body, was afterwards made loose and flowing. The Babylo- 
nians, Egyptians, and Persians were clad with another tunick ex- 
ternally to the one described, and commonly more precious, which 
we learn was worn also by the Jews, Matt. 10: 10. Luke 9: 3. 

§ 121. The Girdle, ^i:in. 

The tunick, when it was not girded, impeded the person, who 
wore it in walking. Those, consequently, who perhaps at home 
were ungirded, went forth girded, 2 Kgs. 4:29. 9: 1. Isa.5: 27. Jer. 1; 
17. John 21:7. Acts 12:8. There were formerly and are to this day 
two sorts of girdles in Asia ; the one, a common one of leather, 
six inches broad and furnished with clasps, with which it is fasten- 
ed round the body, Cmpij dtginaTivt], 2 Kgs. 1; 8. Matt. 3: 4. Mark 
1:6; the other, a valuable one of cotton or flax, and sometimes 
indeed of silk or some embroidered fabrick, a hand's breadth broad, 
and supplied likewise with clasps, by which it was fastened over the 
fore-part of the body, Jer. 13: 1. The girdle was bound round 
the loins, whence the expressions, " The girdle of the loins, and 

136 § 122. OF UPPER GARMENTS. 

gird up your loins," 1 Kg-s. 18: 46. Prov. 21: 17. Isa. 11:5. Jer. 1: 
17. The girdle, worn by females, was sometimes ornamented 
with bosses ; they wore stomachers also for ornament, Hebrew, 
^"^■^ns. The Arabians carry a knife or poniard in the girdle. 
This was the custom likewise among the Hebrews, 2 Sam. 20: 8 — 
10 ; a fact, which admits of confirmation from the ruins of Perse- 
polis. The girdle also answered the purpose of a pouch, to car- 
ry money and other necessary things, 1 Sam. 25: 13. 2 Sam. 18:11. 
Matt. 10:9, Mark G: 8. 

§122. Of Upper Garments. 

The garment immediately over the tunick was denominated 
inr^ip, also 1^2, Greek ifiartov; it was very simple, and of course 
we may suppose very ancient. It was a piece of cloth nearly 
square, of different sizes, five or six cubits long and five or six feet 
broad, and was wrapped round the body. When the weather 
was serene, it was more conveniently worn over the shoulders 
than by being wrapped round the body. The two corners, 
which were drawn over the shoulders, were called the skirls, or 
as it is in the Hebrew, the wings of the garment, Hagg. 2:12. 
Zech. 8: 23. Frequently this garment was hung over the left 
shoulder, where it accordingly hung lengthwise, partly over the 
back and partly over the breast, and was fastened by the two 
corners under the right cheek. While it answered the purposes 
of a cloak, it was so large, that burdens, if necessary, might be 
carried in it, Exod. 12: 34. 2 Kgs, 4: 39. The poor wrapped them- 
selves up wholly in this garment at night, spread their leathern 
girdle upon a rock and rested their head upon it, as is customary 
to this day in Asia. Moses, therefore, enacted as a law what had 
before existed as a custom, that the upper garment, when given 
as a pledge, should -not be retained over night, Job 22 : 6. 24:. 
7. Exod. 22 : 25, 28. Deut. 24 : 13. In the time of Christ the 
creditors did not take the upper garment or cloak, which it 
was not lawful for them to retain, but the coat or tunick, which 
agrees with the representation of .Jesus in Matt. 5: 40, There 
having occurred an instance of the violation of the sabbath. Num. 
15: 32— 41, Moses enacted a law, that there should be a fringe 
upon the four corners of this garment together with a blue rib- 
baud, to remind the people of his statutes. Matt. 9: 20. Luke 8: 44, 

§ 122. OF UPPER GARMENTS. 137 

There were other upper garments worn among the Hebrews as 

I. b''i"3, Meil, a garment of cotton, which extended below the 
knees, open at the top so as to be drawn over the head, and hav- 
ing holes for the insertion of the arms, 

II. ^^DN, Ephod. It consisted of two parts, the one of which 
was suspended over the back, the other over the fore part of the 
body, both pieces being united by a clasp or buckle on the should- 
ers. In the time of Josephus the Ephod had sleeves, a circum- 
stance, which is not mentioned by Moses, Exod. 28: 6, 7. Antiq. 
Bk. III. ch. 7. 5. According to the Mosaic law the Ephod and 
Meil were appropriately garments of the high priest^ but we learn 
that they were sometimes worn by other illustrious men, Job 29: 
14. 1 Sam. 18: 4. 2 Sam. 6: 14. Ezek. 26: 16. We mav infer from 
2 Sam. 6: 14. and 1 Chron, 15: 27. that irTiONand y:i3 byTJ, [ren- » 
dered in the English version, a fine linen robe, and a linen Ephod^l 
were convertible expressions for the same thing, still there is 
no doubt, that there were two kinds of Ephods. 

III. "ii'^iss, A HAT OR TURBAN, as may be seen to this day on the 
ruins of Persepolis. Garments of fur appear to have been used in 
the East, although the climate was warm. We undoubtedly hear 
of them under the word, n'l'iN. The phrase, iyii5 n~\T:i<, means 
a garment of hair, worn commonly by poor people and prophets, 
2Kgs. 1:8. 2:8. 13:14. Zech. 13: 4. Heb. 11:37. There were 
certain garments of hair, which were precious and were worn by 
the rich, and princes. Josh. 7: 21, 24. 1 Kgs. 19: 13, 19. Jonah 3: 
6. The words "j'^'iD and aivdwv, though the same, signified differ- 
ent things; y\o was a precious tunick of cotton, Jud. 14: 12, 13, 
19. Prov. 31: 24. Isa. 3: 23, but oivdwv was a sort of coverlet, un- 
der which the people slept at night, Mark 14: 51, 52. 15: 46. Luke 
23: 53. Xlufivg is the name of a robe, common among the Greeks, 
which extended down to the knees, and was fastened over the 
breast, but the jfAaMt? xoxxivrj^ which is mentioned Matt. 27: 28, 
and Mark 15: 17, called in common speech noQqvQa or the pur- 
ple, was a red robe of the Roman military nearly of the same 
length with the Greek robe. The word )[laf.tvq is not to be collat- 
ed in this case with the Heb. ni^a, for the n!:Dr) "''5"'^^ mentioned 
in Ezek. 27: 24, were not Grecian robes, but blue cloths, brought 
from Arabia. The cloak, mentioned 2 Tim. 4 : 13, in Greek qcfAo- 

138 § 123. SANDALS AND SHOES. 

vtjQ or q^civohjg, was a Roman garment, meant for protection 
against the rain, and to be worn on journies. It was closed 
throughout except an open neck, by which it was admitted over 
the head and supported on the shoulders. 

§ 123. Sandals and Shof.s. 

At first in order to prevent the feet from being cut by sharp 
rocks, or burnt by the hot sand, or injured by pinching cold, small 
pieces of wood or leather were bound to the bottom of the feet. 
Sandals of this kind are still seen in the east; afterwards shoes 
were made, and greaves, as may be seen on the ruins of Persepo- 
lis, and as is related by Strabo. Originally no covering of the 
foot was used at all, but sandals, D'^b?3, Gui>da).iu^ VTCodrjfiura; which 
were bound round the feet with leather thongs, 'Tjinip, (fiag, Ifiav- 
Tfs, Gen. 14: 23. Exod. 12: 11. Isa. 5: 27. Judith 10: 4. Matt. 3: 
II. 10:10. Mark 1 : 7. 6:9. .John 1:27. These sandals were 
held at a very low price, Amos 2: 6. 8: 6. Matrons sometimes 
wore elegant ones, Judith 10 : 3. 16: 11. How precious the 
sandal was, mentioned in Ezek. 16: 10, of badger's skin, is not clear. 
The people put off their sandals, when they entered a house, and 
put them on when they left it. Whence the phrases, to loose owe's 
sandals off from his feet ^ &c. Exod. 3: 5. Dent. 25: 9. Isa. 20:4. 
Ruth 4: 7, 8. Ezek. 24: 7. To loose and to bind on sandals was 
the business of the lowest servants. Disciples performed this of- 
fice, however, lor their teachers ; but the Rabbins advised them 
not to d-1 it before strangers, lest they should be mistaken for ser- 
vants. The business of a servant recently purchased was to loose 
and carry about his master's sandals; whence the expressions 
ill Mark 1:7, and Mat. 3: 1 1, to "loose one's shoes, and to bear them" 
are proverbial, .and mean the same thing. As the wearers did not 
have on stockings, their feet became dusty and soiled; according- 
ly when they had laid aside their sandals and entered a house, they 
washed their feet; which also was the office of the lowest servants. 
In some instances where the guests were very distinguished men, 
the master of the family performed this office. The poor some- 
times went barefoot; the more rich and honoured never, except in 
case of mourning, 2 Sara. 15: 30. Jer. 2: 25. In contracts the sel- 
ler gave his sandals to the buyer in confirmation of the bargain. 

§ 125. OF HAIR, 139 

Hence, '•'" Aman whhout sandals^'''' became proverbial expressions, 
implying the reproach of prodigality, Deut. 25: 9. Ruth 4:7. 

§ 124. The Bearp. ^pj. 

The beard was considered a great ornament among the He- 
brews, as it is to this day, among oriental nations. No one was 
allowed to touch it except for the purpose of |:issing it. To 
pluck or to shave the beard, or to mar it any way, was consider- 
ed a great disgrace, 1 Chron. 19: 3 — 5. 2 Sam. 10: 4 — 10. Hence 
the beard is used tropically for the distinguished men of any peo- 
ple, and the shaving of the beard was considered a mark, and us- 
ed tropically, as a representation of servitude, Isa. 7: 20. The 
beard was preserved in different ways by different people, 2 Sam. 
19: 24. The Hebrews alone were forbidden to shave the beard, 
i. e. as the phrase is to be interpreted, to round the corners of 
the beard where it joins the hair of the head. Lev. 19: 27; because 
the Arabian tribes by shaving off or rather rounding the beard, 
where it connects with the hair of the head, devoted themselves 
to a certain deity, who held the place among them^ that Bacchus 
did among the Greeks, Herod. 111. 8. Jer. 9 : 26. 25: 23. 49: 32. 
To pull out or cut off the beard was an indication of great grief, 
and mourning ; every ornament whatever at such a time being laid 
aside. This, however, must be done by the person himself. If a stran- 
ger should undertake to pull out his beard, it would be the greatest 

§ 125. Of Hair. '■^'J^. 

Anciently the Egyptians alone, and some of the Arabians were m 
the habit of shaving their beards ; the Hebrews and other nations 
let them grow. Sometimes indeed they applied the razor, with 
the exception of the Nazariies, to whom shaving was absolutely 
interdicted, Num. 6:5. Jud.l3:7. 16:17. 1 Sam. 1 : 1 1. 2 Sam. 
14:26. Isa. 7: 20. Ezek. 5: 1. Baldness was a source of contempt, 
2 Kgs. 23 ; a heavy head of hair was esteemed a great ornament, 
2 Sam. 14: 26. Cant. 5: 11; the hair was combed and set in order, 
Isa. 3: 24, and anointed, especially on festival occasions, Ps. 23: 5. 
92:10.133:2. 2 Sam. 14: 2. Ruth 3:3. Prov.21:17. The oint- 
ment used, was the very precious oil of olives, mixed with spices, 


particularly spikenard, which was brought from India, but was 
commonly adulterated. The spikenard, mentioned, Mark 14: 3, 
vui)dti :iiarix/?, seems to have been pure. The colour of the hair 
of the people of the East, is commonly black, rarely red, which 
was esteemed a favourite colour. Females, as is commonly the 
case, let the hair grow long, Luke 7. 36. 1 Cor. 11.6 — 12, and 
braided it, Num. 5: 18. Judith 10: 3, 1 Peter 3: 3; which is clear 
also from the Talmud. They interwove into their hair gems 
and gold, 2 Kgs. 9: 30. 

§ 126. Coverings for the Head. 

At first the hair of "the head was its only covering. To pre- 
vent its being dishevelled by the wind, it was at length bound 
round the head by a tillet, as is now customary among the servants 
in the East, and as may be seen on the ruins of Persepolis. Sub- 
sequently a piece of cloth was worn upon the head, which was 
afterwards converted into mitres of different forms. There were 
two kmds of mitres among the ancients ; the one mentioned in 
Esther 8: 13, of fine linen, purple in colour, and enriched with 
gold ; the other resembled a triangle in form, being pointed at 
the top, though not always made in the same way ; it is denomin- 
ated in Dan. 3:21, Nb2"}5 and in the Greek yivQ^aai^g and yiVQ- 
^aaiu. Jose[)hus speaks of a piece of cloth, which was rolled 
round the head exterior to the mitre, Antiq. Bk. III. ch. 7. §3. and 
7; but of this article of head-dress it is not clear, that there is any 
express mention made in Scripture. We must suppose, therefore, 
it was introduced at a late period, certainly after the Captivity. 
The Hebrew word P)"i:ii: was applied to the mitres in common 
use worn by both sexes; t!ie word ^1^2^73 to the mitres of priests, 
which were of greater height, Exod. 2^: -10. 29: 9. 39: 28. The 
mitre of the high priest, called nSDi2X3 was distinguished from that 
of the priests by a plate of gold bound in front of it. The mitres 
worn by princes and illustrious men, were the same with those of 
the priests and the high priests, Exod. 28: 4, 37. 29: 6. 39: 31. Lev. 
8: 9. 16:4. In the progress of time new and more elegant head- 
dresses, called IND, wftr-Q introduced, and were common to both 
sexes. The phrase nnNSn nn";p:£ and the word niy';s:£ mean a 
head dress or turban of much splendour ; the words -\T3 and JT^13? 

§ 127. OF THE VEIL. 141 

mean a diadem, and not a mitre. Both men and women, as is 
now common in the East, remained with their heads covered both 
at prayers and in the temple. 

§ 127. Of the Veil. 

The difference between the dress of the men and the women 
was small. It consisted chiefly in the fineness of the materials 
and in the length of the garment. The dress of the hair in the two 
sexes was different, as already observed, and another mark of 
distinction was, that the women wore a veil. This distinction of 
dress, small as it was, was the ground of the command, pro- 
hibiting the assumption by one sex of the dress, which was appro- 
priate to the other, Deut. 22: 5. All females, excepting maid- 
servants and others in a low condition in life, wore the veil, nor 
did they ever lay it aside, except in the presence of servants and 
those relations, with whom nuptials were interdicted. Lev. 18 ch. 
comp. Koran 24: 34: 33: 54. This custom in regard to the veil 
still prevails in the East. When journeying, the ladies threw the 
veil over the hinder part of the head, but if they saw a man ap- 
proaching they restored it to its original position. Gen. 24: 65. 
When at home they did not speak with a guest, without being 
veiled and in the presence of maids. They never entered the 
guest's chamber, but standing at the door, made known to the ser- 
vant what they wante'd, 2 Kgs. 4: 13. This is observed to be the 
case in Homer. It scarcely needs to be observed, that prostitutes 
went unveiled. Tamar, who was one of that class, assumed a veil 
merely for the purpose of concealing herself from her father in 
law, Judah. The position, which some maintain from Gen. 20: 
16. viz. that virgins did not wear the veil, is not clear from that 
passage and is the less so, when the fact is taken into considera- 
tion, that the custom of modern orientals is an evidence, that they 
did. In Asia there are various kinds of veils in use, which cor- 
respond with those mentioned in the Bible. Like the matrons of 
the East at the present day, those of antiquity used veils of four 

I. T^*!")- It somewhat resembled the hood of the French coun- 
try women, covering the top of the head and extending down be- 
hind the back, Cant. 5: 7. Isa. 3: 23. 

142 § 128. STAFF, SEAL, AND RINGS. 

II. !17=3^. This covered the breast, neck, and chin to the nose, 
Cant. 4: 1^3. 6: 7. Isa. 47:2. 

III. intm. It hung down from the eyes over the fiice, [called 
in the English version mufl^ers.] Isa. 3: 19. 

IV. The fourth kind of veil rf'ceived differpnt names, viz. 
Jl5i2i;0 for the fashion of the winter, and rrrStD'O for that of the 
summer. It covered the whole body fron» the top of the head to 
the sole of the foot, Isa. 3:22. Ruth 3: 15. Gen. 38: 14. 

V. fl'^yii, or the double veil, in as much as it fultilied the otKce 
of two other veils, covering both the top of the head and the 
countenance. It was so large, that in many countries the matrons 
who wore it dispensed with any other. 

VI. D"D"^^"^, a thin gauze-like fabrick, [denominated in the 
English version a caul,] which was used as a veil, comp. the cor- 
responding Arabick. The phrase, D'',:"'^ n^D3, Gen. 20: 16. prob- 
ably does not mean a veil ; perhaps the reading as Michaelis con- 
jectures, should be D'';"'^; mos, that is, the fine or punishment of 
the eyes, viz. of Abimelech. W hat sort of a veil it is, called in the 
Greek of the New Test, i'iaaiu em rijg y.f(fot.hig^ iS uot known. 

§ 123. Staff, Skal, and Ri.vgs. 

The Hebrews bore a staff, rrn^. bjv.'O, he. not only the traveller, 
as a help to him on bis journoj', but others also, who, Lke the Baby- 
lonians, must necessarily have carried one merely for ornament, 
and not lor any positive benefit, Exod. 12:11. Gen. 38: 18, 25. 
The Hebrews wore also in imitation of the Babylonians a seal 
or signet, cnin, which was suspended from the neck over the 
breast, Gen. 38: 18. Cant. 8: 6. Hag. 2 : 23. Sometimes merely 
the name of the owner, and sometimes an additional sentence was 
engraved upon the signet. If a door or box was to be sealed, it 
was first fastened with some ligament, over which was placed 
some clay or wax, which then received an impression from the 
seal or signet. Frequently a ring, with some inscription upon it, 
was used as a seal, by a delivery or transfer of which, from a mon- 
arch, the highest officers of the kingdom were created. Gen. 41: 
42. Est.3:10, 12. 8:2. Jer.22:24. Dan. 6: 10. 13:17. Rings 
from the circumstance of their being employed at the same time 
as seals, were called niyzD, which is derived from a verb, signify- 


ing to imprint, and also to seal ; they were worn commonly as an 
ornament on a tinger of the right hand, Is. 22:24. Exod. 35: 22. 
Luke 15: 22. James 2:2. 

§ 129. Ladies' Rings and Pendants, niysD, Q'^OTo 

The ladies wore a number of rings upon their ting-ers, also 
pendants in the ear and nose, Gen. 24: 22. Exod. 32: 2, 3. 35: 22. 
Isa. 3: 21. Ezek. 16: 12. The rings were made of silver, gold, or 
other metal according to the person's property ; the pendants also, 
which sometimes, however, consisted of pearls merely, suspended 
by a thread. When the pendants were of gold, they were denom- 
inated T»!i3i when of precious stones, niD'a:, Num. 31 : 50. Ezek, 
16: 12. Ear pendants maj' be seen sculptured out on the ruins of 
Persepolis, for they were worn by men as well as women, among 
other nations. But this was not often the case among the He- 
brews, Pliny II. 50. Jud. 8 : 24. The women also wore rings 
of silver and gold and other materials around the ankles, Hebrew 
D"^a35>. The rings of the two ankles were sometimes connected 
Willi each other by a chain, called rmy:i; perhaps the chain was 
comprehended also under the name above given for the rings, 
Isa. 3:13. 

§ 130. Necklaces, Bracelets, etc. 

The dress of the ladies in the East was always expensive. Gen. 
24:22,23,53. Num. 31:50. Isa.3:16— 26. Ezek. 16; 10. et seq. 
They wear at the present day, as formerly, not only rings and 
pendants, but necklaces, bracelets, &c. These ornaments were 
worn also in some cases by distinguished men., as a present from 
the monarch, as may be seen on the Persepolitan figures, Gen. 41: 
42. Prov.3:3,22. 6:21. Cant. 1:11. Dan. 5: 7. Necklaces and 
bracelets were made, sometimes of silver and gold, sometimes of 
a series of jewels, sometimes of coral, a''2"';2, Num. 31: 50. 
Exo.l. 35: 22. Three necklaces were commonly worn, one reach- 
ing lower thnn the other; from the one, that was suspended to 
the waist, there was hung a bottle of perfume, filled with amber 
and musk, called in Isa. 3: 20. •:j'DZ "'nn. Hulf-moons also of silver 
and gold were suspended in this way, as may be inferred from the 

144 ^ 133. ruRSF, and nafkin. 

5 o >* 

word d'';hlriil5 itself, comp. /•• Q **^- With these the Arabians 
ornamented the necks of their cannels, Isa. 3: 18. Jud. 8: 21, 26. 

§ 131. Amulets. m'£t2"iD. 

The orientals from the earliest ages have believed in the in- 
fluence of the stars, in incantations, and other magick arts. To 
defend themselves against them, they wore amulets, which con- 
sisted of precious stones, gems, gold, and sometimes of pieces of 
parchment, written over with some inscription. The small gold 
effigies of serpents, D"'"*jrib, which the Hebrew women carried 
about in their hands were amulets, and like the others, while they 
served to keep off incantations, served none the less for ornament, 
Isa. 3: 20. 

§132. Mirrors, nij^'nw, ■*}<> 

Mirrors were made of molten brass polished ; hence they 
were called i3"'D'i'^!:a or shijiing. In Job 37: 18, the heavens are 
compared to a molten mirror. The ladies carried their mirrors in 
their hands. Their chambers were not ornamented with them, 
but the chamber doors latterly were made of a polished stone, in 
which objects might be obscurely seen, 1 Cor. 13: 12. 

§ 133. Purse and Napkin. 

A man's girdle fultilled for him all the purposes of a purse. 
The purse of a lady, which was made of solid metal, sometimes 
of pure gold, and fashioned like a cone with a border of rich cloth 
at the top, was suspended from the girdle which she wore ; these 
purses were called in Hebrew C'ti'^'n^n, Isa. 3: 22. 2 Kgs. 5: 23. 
Both sexes either wore napkins attached to their girdle, or bore 
them upon the hand or left arm : those of the rich and powerful 
were valuable and ornamented with embroidery. They were 
frequently employed to carry things in, and were wrapped around 
the heads of those, who had departed from life. The aprons so 
called in Acts 19: 12, were a sort of napkin, which were placed 
round the neck for the purpose of receiving the sweat. 


§ 134. Painting and Branding or Sealing. 

Various kinds of painting have been practised by all nations in 
all ages. It is our object, however, at the present time, only to 
speak of that mode of painting, u'hich in the Bible is denominated 
^^D, and in the Arabick bHD kohl. The principal material used 
in this mode of painting, the object of which is to communicate a 
dark tint to the eyebrows, is a sort of black lead, which is found 
to be used throughout all the East as far as India. It is applied to 
the eyebrows by a silver instrument, so as to give them the appear- 
ance of being very long, which is esteemed a great ornament, 
2 Kgs. 9: 30. Jer. 4 : 30. Ezek. 23: 40. The paint, which is pre- 
pared from the ashes of the plant Alkanet, and which is used by 
oriental matrons to communicate a yellow colour to the arms and 
feet, and a tint of redness to the nails, though very ancient, is not 
mentioned in the Bible ; a mere allusion to it occurs in Jer. 2: 22, 
under the word DniaD. The red paint in use among the Roman 
matrons, which was spread upon the idols on festival days, is men- 
tioned in the Book of Wisdom, 13: 14. Acustom, which prevailed 
in the East, ancienth', and which is connected with this subject, 
has been perpetuated in that region even to our day ; viz. that 
whoever visited a temple should either devote himself to some 
god, or brand the image of the temple or the name of the god on 
his right arm. This custom as far as concerned the Hebrews was 
interdicted in Lev. 19: 28, but the words ' branding,' ' marking,' and 
'sealing,' frequently occur with a tropical signification, Gal. 6: 17. 
Ephes. 1: 13. Rev. 7: 4, 8. 14: 1—5. 13: 17, 18. Ezek. 9: 2—12. 

§ 135. Dress at Festivals and on Occasions of Mourning. 

The festival dress was very splendid, it was white, and as of- 
ten as the festival returned, was newly washed and perfumed with 
myrrh, cassia, and aloes. Gen. 27: 27. Ps. 45: 8. Cant 4: 11. It was 
worn on the festivals of the family, of the state and of religion, 
but when the festival was over, it was laid aside. The splendid 
garments of festivals were denominated in Hebrew n^rtin tltS^'O, 
'::'rp "'^."jn, &c. Vast expense was bestowed upon them both as 
respected their quality and number. 2 Kgs. 5: 5. Matt. 10:10. James 


5: 2. The mourning dress, Hebrew pp or sackcloth, is well 
known. It was in truth a sack, which was thrown over the person 
and extended down to the knees, but which, nevertheless, had arm- 
holes for the admission of the arms. It derives its name from the 

Arabick word, L-A^ meaning to tear asunder, because in the mo- 
ment of the person's grief it was torn from the neck down to the 
breast, and sometimes as far as the girdle. The materials were 
a coarse dark cloth of goat's hair, Job 16: 15. Jonah 3: 5. 

Note. In the book of Leviticus, 13: 47 — 59, we are informed 
of the leprosy of garments in the following terms ; '■^ the garment al- 
so, that the plague of leprosy is in, whether it be a woollen garment or 
a linen garment, whether it be in the warp or woof, whether in a skin, 
or any thing made of «A:in," &:c. The marks or indications of the 
existence and nature of this leprosy are also stated with some par- 
ticularity in the verses referred to. What this plague, as it is 
termed, was, it is difficult to state with much certainty, since the 
conjectures, which the learned have hazarded in regard to it, are 
by no means satisfactory. Without doubt the Hebrews had ob- 
served certain destructive effects wrought upon clothing, whether 
made of wool and cotton, or leather, and not understanding their 
origin or their nature, they choose to call them from certain re- 
semblances as much apparent as real, the corroding plague or 
leprosy, rTi^N^q^j ri^""\:i. Altogether the most probable conjec- 
ture in regard to these effects is, that they were merely the dep- 
redations of certain little insects, which could not be seen by the 
naked eye. The Hebrews without doubt, considered the clothes' 
leprosy, as they termed it, contagious, and consequently a serious 
and fearful evil. This opinion was the ground of the rigid laws, 
which are laid down in respect to it in Leviticus 12: 47 — 59. 



§ 136. Of Food in general. 

At first, men lived upon the fruits of trees, upon herbs, roots, 
and seeds, and whatever else they could find in the vegetable king- 
dom, that might conduce to the support of life, all which was ex- 
pressed in Hebrew by the word Dn'?., used in the broadest sense, 
Gen. 1:29. 2:16. Afterwards a method was invented to bruise 
grain, and to reduce it to a mass, to ferment it and bake it, and 
thus to make bread, which is also expressed by DDb. in the more 
limited sense of the word. Still later, not only water, but milk, 
oil, and honey were mingled with the meal, and bread was made 
of a richer and more valuable kind. Even so early as the time of 
Abraham, the art of preparing bread was carried to some degree of 
perfection. Before the deluge the flesh of animals was convert- 
ed into food, as may be inferred from the division of animals into 
clean and unclean. Gen. 7: 2, 8 ; after the deluge animals are ex- 
pressly mentioned, as being slain for food. Gen. 9: 3 — 6. But 
meat is not so palatable and nutritious in warm climates as others, 
and fruits, consequently, bread, olives, and milk are the customary 

§ 137. Preparation of Food by Fire. 

Originally food of every kind was eaten without being cooked, 
because there was no fire. If there had been fire, it would have 
been of no consequence in this case, seeing that its use in the 
preparation of food was unknown. Men were undoubtedly taught 
by chance to roast flesh and eventually to boil it. It was found 
so much more agreeable, when prepared in this ivay, that men 
were careful not to let the fire, which they had now found, be- 
come extinguished. Their method of obtaining fire was, to elicit 
sparks by the collision of stone and flint, or by the friction of piec- 

148 § 138. OF MILLS. 

es of wood, and afterwards to excite a blaze. This method of 
obtaining fire was very ancient, as we may learn from the ety- 
mology of the word rrnj^, Isa. 60: II. 64: 1. 

§ 138. Of Mills. 

Corn was eaten at first without any preparation of it at all ; the 
custom of thus eating it had not gone into total desuetude in the 
time of Christ, Matt. 12: 1. Levit. 2: 12. Deut. 23: 25. After the 
uses of fire were known, it was parched. Parching it became so 
common, that the words ""^p, "^bp and N";bp which properly mean 
parched, mean also corn or meal, 2 Sam. 17: 28. Lev. 2: 12, 14. 
Ruth 2: 14, 18. Some, who found a ditficulty in mastication, broke 
to pieces the kernels of corn with stones or pieces of wood ; this 
suggested the idea of mortars, and eventually of mills. The mor- 
tar !n3T"i73,U;nDa, was used in the time of Moses for bruising corn, 
also the mill, Ina, Num. 1 1: 8. Fine meal, i. e. corn or grain 
ground or beaten fine, is spoken of as far back as the time of Abra- 
ham, Gen. 18: 6 | hence mills and mortars must have been knows 
before his time. The mill, common among the Hebrews, scarce- 
ly differed at all from that, which is used at this day in Egypt and 
the East. It consisted of two circular stones, two feet in diame- 
ter and half a foot thick. The lower one was called Tilnn and 
n'^S, Deut. 24: 6. Job. 41: 16, 16 ; it exhibited a slight rise or ele- 
vation on the centre, and was fixed in the floor. The upper one 
was called Sp."^, Jud. 9: 53 ; was moveable, and in order to make 
it fit precisely to the nether one, was slightly hollowed. In the 
middle of it was a hole, through which the corn to be ground was 
admitted. The upper stone had a handle attached to it, by which 
it was moved upon the lower, and the corn and grain were in 
this way broken. There were sieves attached to the mill, which 
separated the flour from the bran ; the bran was put into the 
mill again and ground over. The sieves were made of reeds; 
those made of horse hair were a later invention, not earlier than 
*.he time of Pliny. 

§ 139. GRINDING. 149 

§ 139. Grinding. 

Since there were neither publick mills nor bakers, except the 
king's, Gen. 40:2. Hos. 7: 4 — 10, each one by consequence owned 
a mill himself; hence it was made an infringement of the law, for 
a person to take another's mill or millstone, as a pledge, Deut. 24: 6, 
for without his mill, there being no publick ones, he would have 
been in a bad situation. At first barley alone was ground, but af- 
terwards wheat more commonly, as the poor alone used barley. 
Barley bread answers better in the warm climate of the East^ than 
among us. On the second day it becomes insipid and rough to the 
palate ; and this is the case also in warm climates with wheat 
bread. Hence the necessity of baking every day, and hence also 
the daily grinding at the mills about evening. The sound of the 
millstones, probably at this time, is spoken of by the Prophet, Jer. 
25: 10. The mill was commonly turned by two persons, the low- 
est maid-servants. They sat opposite to each other, facing, the 
one on one side, the other, on the other side. One took hold of 
the mill handle and impelled it half way round ; the other then 
seized it and completed its revolution, Exod. 11: 5. Job 31: 10, 11. 
Isa. 47: 2. Matt. 24: 41. The labour was severe and menial ; fre- 
quently enemies, taken in war, were condemned to perform it, 
Jud. 16: 21. Lara. 5: 13.. 

§ 140. Baking Bread in an Oven. 

The business of baking was performed anciently by women, 
however high their stations. Gen. 18: 6. Lev. 26: 26. 2 Sam. 13: 
6, 8. Jer. 7: 18, 19. When luxury afterwards prevailed among 
them, the matrons and their daughters gave it up to their maids, 
1 Sam. 8: 13. These maids were so numerous in the palace of 
David, that a portion of bread, &c. was distributed to them, the 
same as to a large multitude of men, 2 Sam. 6: 19. In Egypt 
there were king's bakers very early ; they make their appear- 
ance in Palestine also, but at a much later period, Hos. 7: 4 — 7. 
Jer. 37: 21. 

Knea Jing troughs were a sort of wooden trays, in which the 
flour, being mingled with water was reduced to a solid mass, and 

160 § 140. UAKING BREAD lH AN OVEN. 

after remaining a little time, was kneaded, some leaven being add- 
ed to it, Exod. 12: 34. Deut. 28: 5, 17. In case it was necessary to 
prepare the bread very hastily, the leaven was let^t out, Gen. 18:6. 
19: 3. Jud. 6: 19. 1 Kgs. 17: 12. Exod. 12: 15, 34. 13: 3, 7. Lev. 
2: 11. Deut. 16; 3. Amos i'. 5. The cakes when made were round, 
and nine or ten inches in diameter. The unleavened cakes were 
not thicker than a knife, but the leavened were as thick as a 
man's little finger. The bread was not cut with a knife but brok- 
en, Hebrew 0^^. Isa. 58: 7. Lam. 4: 4. Matt. 14: 19. 15: 36. 26: 26. 
Of ovens or places for baking there are four kinds. 

I. The sand, warmed by the influence of the sun. The raw 
cakes were placed upon it ; in a little while they were turned, and 
afterwards to complete the process were covered with warm ash- 
es and coals. Unless they were turned, they were not thoroughly 
baked. This explains Hos. 7: 8. The ashes or coal-baked cakes 
so called, Hebrew Mi.l?', were prepared in this way, Gen. IS: 6. 
19: 3. 1 Kgs. 19: 6. 

IL The second sort of oven was an excavation in the earth, 
two and a half feel in diameter, of dififerent depths from five to 
six feet, as we may suppose from those, which still exist in Persia. 
This sort of oven occurs under the word Q';'^''3, and in Lev. 11: 
35, is mentioned in connexion with the word "n^in. The bottom 
is paved with stones ; when the oven is sufficiently warmed, the 
fire is taken awa}^, the cakes are placed upon the warm stones, 
and the mouth of the oven is shut. 

in. A moveable oven, called ^^-n, which was besmeared 
within and without with clay, being constructed of brick. A fire 
was kindled within it, and the dough was placed upon the side, 
where it baked, and was called, ^^Sn nsN'Q, Lev. 2: 4. 

IV". A plate of iron, placed upon three stones ; the fire was 
kindled beneath it, and the raw cakes placed on the upper sur- 
face. The cake baked in this way is perhaps the n5n?3> men- 
tioned in Lev. 2: 5. 6: 14. Not only leavened, and unleavened cakes 
were baked in these ovens, but other kinds, which it is not nec- 
essary to mention. We shall have to pass by the rest of the cu- 
linary apparatus. 


§ 141, On the different kinds of Food. 

Cooking, ^'^2, was done by the matron of the family, unless 
when intent on the adorning of her person, she thought proper, 
to commit it to the maid. Vegetables, lentils especially, which 
are greatly esteemed even to this day among the Orientals, were 
the principal food, Gen. 25: 30, 34 ; cakes also mixed with honey, 
Ezek. 16: 13, were frequently used. Flesh was not served up, 
except when a stranger was present, and on the occasion of a 
feast, Gen. 18: 7. Dent. 15: 20. Luke 15: 23. The orientals at 
the present day are very sparing in the use of flesh ; too long an 
abstinence from it, however, produces a great appetite for it, and 
generates a disease also, which is known among the Arabians un- 

5 ,< 

der the word f*r^ 5 Num. 11: 4, 12. As luxury increased, the 

flesh of animals began to be more used for food; venison and the 
meat of the "fatted calf" were peculiarly esteemed, also of fat- 
ted oxen, Gen. 18: 7. 41: 2. 1 Sam 16: 20. 28: 24. 2 Sam. 6: 13. 
The flesh of the sheep and goat kind, particularly of lambs and 
kids, was esteemed the choicest dish of any, and it was for the es- 
timation, in which they were held on this account, that they were 
so much used in sacrifices. In the most ancient ages the animal 
to be slain was taken by 'the master of the family himself, although 
he were a prince, and was slain. The cooking also was done by 
his wife, though she were a princess, Gen. 18: 2 — 6. Jud. 6: 19. 
The process of cooking seems to have been very expeditiously 
performed, Gen. 27: 3, 4, 9, 10. All the flesh of the slain ani- 
mal, owing to the difficulty of preserving it in a warm climate un- 
corrupted, was commonly cooked at once. This is the custom at 
the present day, although the art of drying and preserving it by 
the sun is known among the Nomades. The flesh when cooked, 
was divided into small pieces, and a sauce was prepared for it of 
broth and vegetables, in Hebrew, p^^T:, JuJ. 6: 19, 20. Isa. 65: 4. 

J52 142. OF ROASTINO. 

§ 142. Of Roasting, JiVij; i^SJ*. 

Roasting was the earliest method of preparing the flesh of an- 
imals ; it seems to have been discovered at fir^t by chance, as al- 
ready observed, and became in time a favourite method of cook- 
ing. The Nomades of the present day, following a very ancient 
custom, divide the flesh to be roasted into small pieces, salt it, 
and fix it upon a wooden spit. They turn one part of it to the 
fire, and when this is roasted, turn the other. Fowls are roasted 
whole on a spit, which revolves in two or more crotched sticks, 
placed in the ground on each side of the fire. When sheep and 
lambs are to be roasted whole, they thrust a sharp stick through 
from the tail to the head of the animal, another transversely through 
the forefeet, and roast it in the oven described in section 140, No. 
II ; which mode of roasting is expressed in Arabick by the verb, 

v.^Xao , meaning to crucifj'. In the countries of the East, locusts 
are frequently roasted for the use of the common people. Their 
wings and feet are taken off and their intestines extracted; they 
are salted, fixed upon a sharp piece of wood, placed over the 
fire and at length eaten. They are likewise prepared by boiling 
tliera. In summer they are dried and ground, and bread is made 
of them. Sometimes they are salted and preserved in bottles, 
and, as occasion requires, are cut in pieces and eaten, Lev. 11: 22. 
Matt. 3: 4. Some species of locusts are esteemed noxious and 
are, therefore, reckoned among the unclean animals, Lev. 11: 22. 
The Heb. word, tD^li:U5, [rendered in the English version quails,] 
is not to be regarded as a name for any species of locusts, for T^IJ 
is to this day in the East the name of a migratory bird of the quail 
kind. They come over the waters of the ocean, and being weary 
descend in great numbers on Arabia Petrea, so as to be easily tak- 
en by the hands, Diod. Sic. I. Gl. Niebuhr's Travels, Part I. p; 
1 76. The flesh of these birds is less esteemed on account of their 
living in a measure upon grasshoppers. Num. 11: 32. 

Note. The use of salt is very ancient, see Num. 18: 19, com- 
pared with 2 Chron. 13: 5. In Exod. 30: 35, a kind of salt called 
pure salt is distinguished from common salt. Among the orientals 


Salt is the symbol of inviolable friendship ; a covenant of salt, ac- 
cordingly, means an everlasting or perpetual covenant. It is used 
tropically for wisdom, and for preservation, Mark 9: 49, 50. Coloss. 
4: 6, and salt, that has lost its savour on the contrar}', for folly, 
Matt. 5: 13. 

§ 143. Interdicted Food. 

Some sorts of food were interdicted to the Hebrews; some an- 
imals being unclean according to the Mosaic law, such, for in- 
stance as were actually impure and abominable, or were esteemed 
so ; others being set apart for the altar, certain parts of which it 
was consequently not lawful to eat. The object of interdicting 
so many sorts of food was to prevent the Hebrews from eating 
with the Gentiles, or frequenting their idolatrous feasts, by 
means of which they might and probably would have been se- 
duced to idolatry. There are reckoned unclean, 

I. Quadrupeds, which do not ruminate, or have cloven feet. 

II. Serpents, and creeping insects ; also certain insects which 
sometimes fly and sometimes advance upon their feet. 

III. Certain species of birds, many of the names of which are 

IV. Fishes without scales; also those without fins. 

V. All food, all liquids standing in a vessel, and all wet seed, 
into which the dead body of any unclean insect had fallen. Wa- 
ter in cisterns, wells, and fountains could not be contaminated iu 
this way. Lev. 1 1 : 1 — 38. 

VI. All food and liquids, which stood in the tent or chamber: 
of a dying or dead man, remaining meanwhile in an uncovered 
vessel, Num. 19: 15. 

VII. Every thing, which was consecrated by any one to idols 
or gods, Exod. 34: 15. It was this prohibition which in the primi- 
tive church occasioned certain dissentions, which Paul frequently 
remarks upon, especially in 1 Cor. 8: 10. 

VIII. The kid boiled in the milk of its mother, Exod. 23: 19. 
34:26. Deut. 14:21. The reason of this law is somewhat obscure, 
Whether there was some superstition on the subject, or whether 
it was meant as a lesson on humanity to animais, or whether it is 
to be understood as a tacit commendation of oil in preference to 


154 § 144. BEVERAGE. 

butter and milk, is not clear. The consecrated animal substance 
which it was not lawful to eat, was 

I. Blood, Lev. 3:9, 10, 17. 7:26,27. 17: 10—14. 19:26.,Deut. 
12: 16,23,25. 15:23. 

II. An animal, which died of itself, or was torn to pieces by 
wild beasts, in as much as the blood remained in the bodj', Exod. 
22:31. Deut. 14:21. 

III. The fat covering the intestines, the large lobe of the liver, 
the kidneys and the fat upon them, Exod. 29: 13, 22. Lev. 3: 4. 10: 
15. 4: 9. 9: 10, 19 ; also the fat tail of a certain class of sheep, in 
Heb. n;bN, Exod. 19: 22. Lev. 3: 9. 7: 3. 8: 26. 9: 19 ; all of which 
were devoted and set apart for the altar. The Hebrews abstain- 
ed also from the haunches of animals; the later Jews extended 
this abstinence to the whole hind quarter. The custom origina- 
ted from the account given in Gen. 32: 25, 32. 

§ 144. Bev^erage. 

The commonalty among the Mohammedans drink water ; the 
rich and noble drink a beverage called Sherbet, which was for- 
merly used only in Egypt, Gen. 40 : 11, where ale or beer, fftfo?, 
oivog y.Qi-&i,vog, was also used, though probably not so far back 
as the time of Moses. The orientals frequently used wine to such 
an extent as to occasion ebriety, from which circumstance many 
tropes are drawn, Isa. 5: 1 1-22. 28: 1-11. 49: 26. Jer. 8: 1 4. 9: 1 4. 
16:48. Deut. 32:42. Ps.78:65, &c. Wine, although in Eastern 
climates it is very rich, was at times mixed with spices, espe- 
cially myrrh, and this mixture Vv'as sometimes denominated from a 
Hebrew word, which signifies mixed. But the word in question, 
viz. i^lT- , for the most part, means a wine diluted with water, 
which was given to the buyer instead of good wine, and was con- 
sequently used tropically for any kind of adulteration, Isa. 1: 22. 2 
Cor. 2: 17. Wine in the East was frequently diluted after it was 
bought, as we may infer from the fact, that two Arabick words 
still remain to indicate the beverage, when thus diluted. The 

words are, y^rStM and ^■*2.3, There is a sort ol wine called 
"nlDU:, sikera, or strong drink. It was made of dates, and of vari- 
ous sorts of seeds and roots, and was sufficiently powerful at any 


rate, tb occasion intoxication. It was drunk, mixed with water. 
From the pure wine and silcera^ there was made an artificial drink, 
y53n, which was taken at meals with vegetables and bread, Ruth 
2: 14. It was also a common drink, Num. 6: 3, and was used by 
the Roman soldiers, Matt. 27: 48. Further, there is a wine called 
by the Talmudists vinegar^ whence the passage in Matt. 27: 34, may 
be explained. The vessels used for drinking were at first horns ; 
but the Hebrews used horns only for the purpose of performing 
the ceremony of anointing. The other drinking vessels were, 

I. A cup of brass covered with tin, in form resembling a 
lily, though sometimes circular ; it is used by travellers to this 
day, and may be seen in both shapes on the ruins of Persepolis, 
comp. 1 Kgs. 7: 26, 

II. The bowl, Hebrew i'^i-V It resembled a lily, Exod. 25: 
33 ; although it seems to have varied in form, for it had many 
names, as DT3, ^b3, ny2|5. Those called, ^^2^5, nTTiyp, nViTJ? 
had no cover, and probably were of a circular form, as the names 
seem to indicate. The bowls of this kind, which belonged to the 
rich were, in the time of Moses, made of silver and gold, as appears 
from Num. 7: 12 — 83. comp. 1 Kgs. 10: 21. The larger vessels, 
from which wine was poured out into cups, were called urns, 
m'"!?:?: ; bottles, nan, D/an, 'ni*:, bs; ; small bottles, '^'^y ; and a 
bottle of shell, ns, with a small orifice. 

§ 145. The Time and Circumstances of taking Refreshment. 

Not only the inhabitants of the East generally, but the Greeks 
and Romans also, were in the habit of taking a slight dinner about 
ten or eleven o'clock of our time, which consisted chiefly of fruits, 
milk, cheese, Sic. Their principal meal was about six or seven in 
the afternoon ; their feasts were always appointed at supper-time, 
for the burning heat of noon in Eastern climates diminishes 
the appetite for food, and suppresses the disposition to cheerful- 
ness, Eccles. 5: 16. Matt. 3: 26. Mark 6: 21. Luke 14: 24. John 12: 
2. The hands were washed before meals, as was rendered ne- 
cessary from the method of eating ; prayers also were offered, 1 
Sam. 9: 13. The form of the short prayer, which in the time of 
Christ, was uttered before and after meals, has been preserved by 
the Talmudists. It is as follows, " Blessed be Thou, Lord, our 


God, the king of the world, who hast produced this food, or this 
drink, (as the case m<iy be,) from the earth or the vine," Matt. 
14: 19. 15:36. 2C: 27. Mark 14:22. 1 Cor. 10:30. 1 Tim. 4:4, 5* 
The Hebrews were not very particular about the position, which 
their guests occupied at table, at least not so much so as the 
Egyptians were anciently, Gen. 43 : 32 ; still etiquette was not 
wholly neglected, 1 Sam. 9: 22, In the time of Christ, the arro- 
gant Pharisees, who, imitating the example of the heathen philos- 
ophers, wished to secure the highest marks of distinction, sought 
of course the most honourable seat at the feasts, Luke 14: 8. 

§ 146. Table and Method of Sitting. 

The table in the East, is a piece of round leather, spread up- 
on the tioor, upon which is placed a sort of stool, called 'JP^Tp. 
This supports nothing but a platter. The seat was the tloor, 
spread with a mattress, carpet, or cushion, upon which those, who 
ate, sat with legs bent and crossed. They sat in a circle round 
the piece of leather with the right side towards the table, so that 
one might be said to lean upon the bosom of another. Neither 
knife, fork, nor spoon was used, but a cloth was spread round the 
circular leather, to prevent the mats from being soiled, which is 
the custom in the East to the present day. In the time of Christ 
the Persian custom prevailed of reclining at table. Three sat up- 
on one mat or cushion, which was large enough to hold that 
number merely; hence the origin of the word ag/iTQf/Mvog i.e. 
the master of the feast. The guests reclined upon the left side 
with their faces towards the table, so that the head of the second 
approached the breast of the first, and the head of the third ap- 
proached the breast of the second. In this mode of reclining we 
see the propriety of the expressions, " leaning upon one's bosom," 
Luke 7: 36, 38. 16: 22, 23. John 2: 8. 13: 23. The middle mat or 
cushion, and the centre position on any given mat was the most 
honourable, and was the one coveted by the Pharisees, Luke 1,4: 
3, 10. Anciently females were not admitted to the tables of the 
men, but had a table set in their own appropriate apartment, Esth. 
1: G, 9. Babylon and Persia must, however, be looked upon as ex- 
ceptions, where the ladies were not excluded from the festivals 
of the men, Dan. 5: 2 ; and if we may believe the testimony of 

§ 148. OF FEASTS. 157 

ancient authors, at Babylon they were not remarkable for their 
modesty on such occasions. 

§ 147. Mode of Eating. 

The food was conveyed from the dish to the mouth by the 
right hand ; this custom still prevails in the East. There was no 
need of a knife and fork; the flesh hook or fork, mentioned 1 
Sam. 2: 12, :>"rT^, having three prongs, belonged to the cooking 
apparatus, and not to the table, and was employed to take the flesh 
out of the pot. In ancient times a separate portion seems to have 
been assigned to each guest, and he was considered as much hon- 
oured, who received two or more portions, 1 Sam, 1: 4, 5. 9: 22 — 
24. At a more recent period, all the guests sitting or reclining at 
the table ate from a common dish. Drink was handed to each 
one of the guests, in the cups and bowls already described, and at 
a very ancient period in a separate cup to each one, A cup, 
therefore, is frequently used tropically for a man's lot or destiny, 
Ps. IT: 6. 75: 8. Isa. 51: 22. Jer. 25: 15, 27. 36:5. 49: 12. Ezek. 
23:31— o4. Matt. 26: 39. The Egyptians, like the modern orien- 
tals, drank after supper. The servants standing by observed the 
nod of their master and obej'edit; hence the phrases, "to stand 
before or to walk before the master," are the same as to serve 
him. These phrases are used tropically also in respect to God, 
Gen. 5: 22, 24. 17: 1. 24: 40. 1 Sam. 2: 35. 

§ 148. On feasts. 

When men are prospered, they are disposed to indulge their 
joyful feelings in the company of jovial companions. Hence 
feasts are mentioned at an early period. Gen. 21:8. 29:22, 3J: 
27, 54. 40: 20. In respect to the second tythes, which originated 
from the vow of Jacob, Gen. 28: 22, and which were set apart not 
only as a sacrifice but a feast, Moses was very particular in his 
laws, Deut. 12:4— 18. 14:22—29. 16:10,11. 26:10,11. Heal- 
so enacted, that at the festival of the second sort of flrst fruits, 
[denominated by Michaelis the second first fruits,] servants and wid- 
ows, orphans and Levitcs should be made free partakers, Deut, 16: 
11 — II. 12:12—18, Jesus alludes to this festival, which was de- 

158 § 14S. OF FEASTS. 

signed for the poor, and which received its reward t>om God, in 
Luke 14: 13. The guests were invited by the servants, and were 
requested to come at a particular time, Matt. 22:4. Luke 14:7. 
The guests were anointed with precious oil, Ps. 23: 5.45: 7. Amos 
C: 6. Eccles. 9: 8. Luke 7: 37, 38. Anciently, (and the same is the 
custom now in Asia,) the persons invited, before their departure, 
were perfumed, especially upon the beard, as we may gather from 
Exod. 30: 37, 38. We are hardly at liberty to conclude, as some 
have done, from Isa. 28 : 1, and Wisdom, 2:7, that the Hebrews 
were sometimes crowned with flowers at their festivals in the man- 
ner of the Greeks. They appeared on such occasions in white robes. 
Ecclesiastes, 9: 8. They gratified their taste by the exhibition of 
large quantities of provisions of the same kind. Gen. 18: 6. 27: 9. 
.Job 36: 16 ; and also by a diversit}'^ in the kinds, Amos 6: 4, 5. Est. 
1: 5 — 8. Neh. 5: 18. Flesh and wine were the principal articles; 
hence a feast is sometimes called the season of drinking, nS'li^J, 
Isa. 22: 13. As luxury increased, drinking on festival occasions 
was carried to great excess ; it was continued from evening till 
morning. Such riotous meetings were called more recently in the 
Greek tongue y.(0[.iot, and are deservedly condemned, Rom. 13: 13. 
Gal. 5:21. 1 Pet. 4: 3. As the feasts were always held towards 
evening, the room or rooms, where they were held, were lighted 
up, and the fact, that in the climate of Palestine, the night, at 
least as it approached towards the morning, was cold, will 
afford a clew to the explanation of Matt. 8: 12. 22: 13. 25: 30, &c. 
From feasts, jests, rausick, and riddles were not excluded; feasts, 
therefore, were symbolick of a state of prosperity, and exclusion 
from them was symbolick of sorrow and misery, Prov. 9: 2. et 
seq. Amos 6: 4, 5. Isa. 5: 12. 24:7,9. Hence also the kingdom 
of the Messiah is represented under the image or symbol of a 
feast. This metaphorical representation was so common, and so 
well understood, that the ancient interpreters use the words, joy 
and rejoice, feast and feasting, as interchangeable terms, compare 
Ps. 68: 4. and Esther 9: 18, 19, with the Alexandrine version and 
Vulgate. In the New Testament, the word xaget or joj/, is some- 
times put for a feast, Matt. 25: 21, 23. As many of the Hebrew 
feasts were the remains of sacrifices, the guests were required to 
be pure or clean, to which a reference is made in various allego- 
ries and tropes, Ezek. 39: 16, 20. Isa. 34: 4. Rev. 19: 17, 18. 


§ 149. Hospitality of the Orientals. 

In the primitive ages of the world there were no publick inns, 
or taverns. In those days the voluntary exhibition of hospitality 
to one, who stood in need of it, was highly honourable. The glo- 
ry of an openhearted and generous hospitality continued even af- 
ter publick inns were erected, and continues even to this day 
in the East, Job 22: 7. 31:17. Gen. 18:3—9. 19:2—10. Exod. 2: 
20. Jud. 19:2—10. Acts 16: 15. 17:7. 28:7. Matt. 25:35. Mark 
9:41. Rom. 12: 13. 1 Tim. 3: 2. 5: 10. Heb. 13:2. Hence not on- 
ly the Nomades or wandering shepherds hospitably receive among 
themselves strangers, but there are also persons in cities, who go 
about the streets and offer to each one, whom they mee t. water free- 
ly, which is a great favour in the hot countries of the East; this liber- 
ality customarily meets with some little reward, Matt. 10:42. Mark 
9: 41. The high spirit of honour, that is characteristick of the orien- 
tals, is exhibited in a custom, which prevails to this day. If a man 
receive another,though he be a robber, into his house, if he eat with 
him even a crust of bread, he is bound to treat him as a friend, to 
defend him even at the hazard of his own life, unless he is willing 
to meet with the scorn and contempt of all his countrymen, Gen. 
19t1— 9. Jos. 2: 1—6. 9:19. Judg. 4: 17—22. An allusion is 
made to this custom in Ps. 41: 9. 91: 1. 119: 19. 2 Sam. 12: 3. Luke 
7:34. John 13: 18. comp. Iliad. VI. 210—231. The feet of the 
guests, as before observed, were washed ;- whence washing of feet 
also is used as a symbol of hospitality. Gen. 18: 4. John 13:5. 1 
Tim. 5: 10. 




§ 150. Precautions against Fornication. 

Both polygamy and fornication were condemned by that pri- 
meval institution, which, in order to secure the propagation of 
the species, joined in marriage one man and one woman, Gen. 1: 
27, 28. The old and pious patriarchs religiously observed this 
institution. But before the time of Moses, morals had become 
very much corrupted, and not only the prostitution of females, 
but of boys, was very common among many nations, and even 
made a part of the divine worship ; as indeed may be inferred 
from the words, 'iii'i.p^ a prostitute boy, and irrui'ip, the feminine of 
it, which properly and originally mean a person religiously set 
apart and consecrated to the flagitious vice in question. To pre- 
vent these evils, to which the Greek and Roman philosophers re- 
fused in progress of time to oppose any decided resistance, Moses 
made the following regulations. 

I. That among the Israelites no prostitute, neither male nor 
female, should be tolerated, and that if the daughter of a priest 
especially were guilty of whoredom, she should be stoned and 
her body burnt, Lev. 21: 9 ; because these things, as Moses observes 
in Lev. 19: 29. Deut. 23: 18, 19, were a great abomination in the 
sight of God. Further, for fear, that some priests of low and av- 
aricious minds, should, in imitation of other nations, make crimes 
of this kind a part of the divine worship, he enacted, 

H. That the price of whoredom, though presented in return 
for a vow, should not be received at the sanctuary, Deut. 23: 19. 
This law it seems was sometimes violated in the times of the 
kings, 2 Kgs. 23: 6, 7. To stop the evil at the commencement, 
he enacted likewise, 

III. That the man, who had seduced a female, should marry 
her, and in case the father would not consent, should pay the cus- 
tomarj^ dowry, viz, thirty shekels ; in case violence had been of- 

§ 151. POLYOAMY. 161 

fered, fifty shekels, Exod. 22: 16. Deut. 22: 23—29. This law 
seems to have originated in an ancient custom, alluded to in Gen. 
34.- 1 — 12. Finally, to secure the great object, he enacted, 

IV. That a person, who when married was not found to be a 
virgin, as she professed before marriage, should be stoned before 
her father's house, Deut. 22: 20, 21. These laws, it must be ad- 
mitted, were severe, but prostitutes of both sexes, notwithstanding 
their severity, were set apart in the time of the kings for the ser- 
vice of idols, Prov. 2: 16—19. 5: 3—6. 7: 5—27. Amos 2: 7. 7: 17. 
Jer. 3: 2. 5: 7. 1 Kgs. 14: 24. 15: 12, &c. 

§ 151. Polygamy. 

By the same primeval institution, just now referred to, polyg- 
amy was also forbidden. Lamech is the first mentioned, as having 
two wives, and the example which he set, found no lack of imita- 
tors, see Gen. 4: 19, compared with Matt. 19:4 — 8. After the 
deluge the example of Noah and his sons was a good one, but it 
was not followed. Polygamy very much prevailed among the 
Hebrews in the time of Moses, as we may gather from the fact, 
that the first born of six hundred and three thousand, five hundred 
and fifty men above twenty years of age amounted merely to the 
number of twenty two thousand, three hundred and seventy three, 
Num. 3: 42. That this evil might in progress of time be dimin- 
ished, Moses gave a narration, how the institution originally stood, 
Gen. 1: 27, 28. 2: 23, 24, stated the first transgression of it. Gen. 4: 
29, and the inconveniences, which had subsequently I'esulted from 
having a plurality of wives. Gen. 16: 4 — 10. 30: 1 — 3, 15, evils, 
which travellers in eastern countries assure us are very great. 

II. He interdicted to the kings, whom the Hebrews should 
thereafter elect, a multiplicity of wives. It is true he did not say 
precisely how many they should have, but probably meant the 
number should be limited by the custom of his time. Perhaps, 
therefore, the number was four, which is the exposition, advanc- 
ed by the Rabbins and Mohammedans, and is in a measure support- 
ed by the example of Jacob, Deut. 17: 17. 

III. He obligated the husband to bestow himself at certain 
times upon each one of his wives, Exod. 21: 10, 11, compared 
with Gen. 30: 1 1-— 16, perhaps a week at a time upon each, as is 


162 § 152. THE CHOICE OF A WIFE. 

the custom to tliis day in the East. He excepted, however, the 
season of the menses^ when sexual intercourse was prohibited on 
penalty of punishment with death, either because the olTspring- of 
such intercourse were supposed to be leprous, or for some other 
reason it was deemed injurious. 

iV. The uncleanness, contracted by sexual connection con- 
tinued through a whole day, Lev. 15: 18. Under these circum- 
stances a man could not well have more than four ^vives ; and in 
progress of time polygamy was much diminished. 

§ 152. The choice of a Wife. 

The father of a family selected wives for his sons, and husbands 
for his daughters, Gen. 21: 21. 24: 31. Exod. 21: 9. Deut. 22: 16. 
Jud. 14: 1 — 4. If a son had a preference for any person as his 
wife, he asked his father to obtain her from her father, Geo. 34: 
2 — 5. Jud. 14.- 1, 2. We may, therefore, well conclude, that the 
expressions in Jer. 31: 22, and Isa. 4: 1, 2, are descriptive of a 
very great scarcity of men. But the father could not marry the 
daughter without the consent of the brothers. Gen. 24: 60, 34: 
11—27. 2 Sam. 13:20—29. comp. Gen. 12:11 — 13. 20:2—6. 
26: 7 — 17. The restraints, by which the fathers of families were 
limited in making choice of wives for their children, are mention- 
ed in Lev. 10:7 — 18. 20; 11 — 20. Intermarriages, moreover, 
were prohibited with the Canaanites, for fear that the Hebrews 
should be seduced to idolatry, Exod. 34: 15, 16. Deut. 7: 3. The 
law was extended by Ezra and Nehemiah to intermarriages with 
all foreigners, on the ground that there was as much danger of 
contamination from other nations in their time, as there was from 
the Canaanites anciently, Ezra 9: 2—12. 10: 3. IVeh. 13: 23. It 
was not lawful for a priest to marry a prostitute, a divorced, or a 
profane woman, and in the case of a high priest the interdiction 
was extended to widows, and to women of foreign extraction. Lev. 
21: 7, 13, 14. Daughters, who through a want of brothers were 
heiresses to an estate, were commanded to marrj some one of 
their own tribe, and indeed some kinsman, if possible, of more or 
less remote relationship, lest the estate should go to another tribe 
or family. Num. 27: 1 — 11. 36: 1 — 12. 


§ 153. The Marriage Vow and Dowry. 

The marriage vow, iT'^N, was a covenant between the father 
and the brothers of the bride, and the father of the bridegroom, 
made in the presence of witnesses. At a somewhat recent peri- 
od, the covenant was committed to writing, and was sometimes 
confirmed by the additional precaution of an oath, Prov. 2: 17. 
Ezek. 16: 8. Matt. 2: 14. A reference seems to have been had to 
this oath in the nuptial sacritices, of which mention is made by 
Josephus, Antiq. IV. 8: 23. By the marriage vow or covenant, 
not only the wedlock was confirmed, but the amount of presents 
was determined, which was to be given to the brothers ; and also 
the dowry, "inb, which went to the father, for the bride former- 
ly was estimated at a certain price. Gen. 29-. 18, 27. 34: 11, 12. 
Jos. 13: 16. 1 Sam. 18: 23 — 26, which varied according to circum- 
stances. In the time of Moses the medium estimation was thirty 
shekels, and the highest fifty, Deut. 22: 29, comp. Hos. 3: 1,2. 
Wives, who were thus purchased, were too apt to be regarded as 
mere servants by their husbands, though there are not wanting 
instances, where they obtained the ascendency and reduced their 
husbands to subjection, 1 Sam: 23: 19 — 30. 1 Kgs. 11: 2 — 5. 19: 
1, 2. 21: 7, 8. The honour, which is now rendered to the female 
sex, originates from the instructions of the Apostles, and the only 
fear is, lest it should become too great, Eph. 5: 23 — 33'. 1 Pe- 
ter 3: 7. 

The wile, who was freely given up by her father, without his 
receiving for her any pecuniary compensation, was the more 
highly esteemed, and being herself conscious of her dignity, she 
arrogated not a little in her own behalf, Gen. 16: 3, 6. 21: 9 — 11, 
comp. 31: 15. Some obtained a wife, as the reward of their brave- 
ry, Jos. 15: 15—19. Jud. 1: 15. 1 Sam. 18: 24—27; and it was 
sometimes, though rarely the case, that the bride, instead of being 
purchased by the bridegroom, received a dowry from her father, 
Jos. 13: 18, 19. Jud. 1: 16, 17. 1 Kg?. 9: 16. 


154. Celebration of Nuptials. 

There was commonly an interval often or twelve months be- 
tween the time, when the agreement to marry was made and the 
time when the marriage was celebrated, Gen. 24: 55. Jud. 14: 8. 
From the time of the agreement, till its consummation by mar- 
riage, although there was no intercourse between the bride and 
bridegroom, not even so much as an interchange of conversation, 
they were, nevertheless, considered and spoken of as man and 
wife. If at the close of this probationary period, the bridegroom 
were unwilling for any cause to solemnize his engagements by 
the marriage of the bride, he was bound to give her a bill of di- 
vorce, the same as if she had been his wife. If the bride on the 
contrary could be convicted of having had any illicit intercourse 
with any person between the period of the promise and its con- 
summation, she was condemned to be stoned, the same as if she 
had been married. Matt. 1: 18 — 20. Luke 2: 5. 

When the day of marriage had arrived, the bride, having pre- 
viously visited the bath, adorned herself very richly with the 
choicest of those ornaments, which are considered appropriate to 
the women. Her head was encircled with a crown ; a fact, which 
is a sutlicient reason of itself, why ln^3, which primarily means a 
person that is crowned^ should possess the secondary signification 
of a bride. It was the duty of the bridegroom to see, that a feast 
was made readv on the occasion, and in case he was a person of 
wealth, it was customarily prolonged through the week, Jud. 14: 17. 
About evening, the bridegroom, clothed in the festival robe. Is. 
61: 10, attended with a company of young men of about the same 
age, vioig rov vvf-iqcoiog, and cheered with songs and instrumen- 
tal musick, conducted from her tiither's house the bride, who was 
in like manner surrounded with virgins of her own age, to his 
lather's house, Jud. 14: 11 — IG. 1 Mace. 9: 37—47. John 3: 29, 
comp. Jer. 7: 34. 25: 10, 33: 11. In the time of Christ, whenev- 
er tiie bride was conducted by the bridegroom and his attendants 
to the house of the bridegroom's father, in case it was evening, 
the way before them was lighted by the second sort of ilambeaux, 
that are mentioned in the fortieth section ; as we learn not only 
from the statement in the Talmud, but also from intimations in 

§ 155. CONCUBINES. 165 

JMatt. 25: 1 — 10. Having- arrived at the place, where the nup- 
tials were to be celebrated, the men began to indulge themselves 
in feasting and conviviality ; while the women, who were assem- 
bled in an apartment appropriated to themselves, were equally 
prompt in partaking of the feast, and in the exhibition of their 
gaiety and cheerfulness. At length the nuptial blessing, viz. a nu- 
merous offspring, was implored upon the parties concerned, Gen. 24: 
60. Ruth 4: 11, 12 ; a ceremony, which, simple and concise as it was, 
appears anciently to have been the only one, that was performed 
at the consummation of the marriage. At a later period, there 
were probably some additional ceremonies, for we read in Tobit 
7: 15, that the father took the right hand of his beautiful daugh- 
ter, and placed it in the right hand of the young Tobias, before 
he uttered his solemn and impressive blessing. The spouse, who 
to this time had been veiled from head to foot, was at last led in- 
to the bed chamber, inEW- 

§ 155. CoxccBiNEs, t2''U3ab'^D, uJ{;"!:"'D. 

The ceremonies, mentioned in the preceding section, took 
place only in case of the marriage of a wife properly so called. 
Concubines, (some of whom had previously acted in the humble 
capacit}' of maid servants and others were females, who had pos- 
sessed their freedom,) were sometimes permanently associated by 
mutual consent with individuals of the other sex; but, although 
this connexion was in fact a marriage^ and a legitimate one, it was 
not, nevertheless, celebrated and confirmed by the ceremonies 
above related. The concubine thus associated had a right to 
claim the privileges of a -wife ; and it was no longer in the power 
of her husband to dispose of her by publick sale, even if she had 
previously been his slave, Beut. 20: 10 — 12. In order to pre- 
vent worse consequences, fathers frequently gave concubines to 
their sons ; and, whenever this was the case, they were bound by 
the laws of the state to treat them with the same tenderness, that 
they would a daughter or daughter in law, Exod. 21: 9 — 12. It 
a woman were made captive in war, she was allowed a month, as 
a period in which she v/as at liberty to mourn the loss of her pa- 
rents and friends ; and neither father nor son was permitted to 
take her as a concubine, till the expiration of that time, Deut 20: 

166 § 157. MARRIAGE, EtC. 

§ 156. Fruitfulness in the Marriage State. 

This was greatly desired. A large number of offspring was 
considered an instance of the divine favour of the highest kind. 
Sons were generally more desired than daughters, because they 
transmitted the name of the father in genealogies. Sterility was 
looked upon, not only as a ground of great reproach especially to 
wives, but as a punishment from God, iSam. 1:6, 7. Ps. 127: 
3—5. 128:4. Hos. 8: 14. Prov. 17:6. Eccles.6:3. 

Hardly less reproach was attached to a state of celibacy, and 
no prospect, accordingly, was more unpropitious and forbidding to 
virgins, than that of living and dying unwed and childless. Gen. 16: 
2—14. 13:30—32. 30:13. Isa. 4: 1. 47:9. In such a state of 
things, barren wives thought it expedient to make use of various 
means to produce or to increase fruitfulness, Gen. 30: 15, 16. Cant. 
7: 18. They even offered their maids to their husbands, whose 
offspring they adopted. Gen. 16: 1—3. 30: 1—18. 

§ 157. Marriage of a childless ergther's Widow. 

There was an ancient law, existing prior to the time of Moses,. 
Gen. 38:8-12, to this effect. If in any case the husband died with- 
out issue, leaving a widow, the brother of the deceased or the 
nearest male relation, "^Na, was bound to marry, Qs^, the widow, 
to give to the first-born son the name of the deceased kinsman, 
to insert his name in the genealogical register, and to deliver into 
his possession the estate of the deceased. This peculiar law is 
technically denominated the Levirate law, and had its origin without 
doubt in that strong desire of offspring, which has been mentioned 
in the preceding section. Moses was aware, that the Levirate 
Law was in some respects pernicious, but when he recollected the 
feeling which was at the bottom of it, and the importance of that 
feeling being cherished, he did not think proper to abolish it. 
While, therefore, he did not withhold from it his sanction, and 
thought proper to make it one of the permanent laws of the Jew- 
ish state, he reduced it within certain limits, and thereb}' rendered 
the injurious consequences as small as possible. lie, accordingly, 
enacted, that whoever was unwilling to marry the wife of his deccas- 


ed kinsman, might decline it in the presence of judges, in case he 
would allow the woman the privilege of taking off his shoes, of 
spitting in his face and of addressing him with the discreditable- 
salutation of M/is/ioJ, an appellation, which in effect would be the 
same with stigmatizing him^ as the destroyer of his brother^ house, 
Deut. 25: 5 — 10. The disgrace, which would be the consequence 
of such treatment from (he widow, was not so great, but a person, 
who was determined not to marry, would dare to encounter it, 
Ruth 4: 7, 8. Matt. 22: 23—28. 

§ 158. Concerning Adultert. 

In those countries, where polygamy prevails, the sentiment in 
respect to the perpetration of adultery is this. If a married mai» 
has criminal intercourse with a married woman, or with one prom- 
ised in marriage, or with a widow expecting to be married with a 
brother in law, it is accounted adultery. If he is guilty of such in- 
tercourse with a woman, who is unmarried, it is considered /or- 
nication^ D^3n3T. Adultery, even before the time of Moses, Gen. 
38: 24, was reckoned a crime of a very heinous nature, and was 
accordingly punished. In Egypt the nose of the adulteress, in 
Persia the nose and ears were cut off, Ezek. 23: 25. In the penal 
code of Moses the punishment annexed to this crime was that of 
death, but the mode of being put to death is not particularly men- 
tioned, because it was known from custom, Lev. 20: 10. It was 
not, however, as the Talmudists coniend, strangulation, hut stoning^ 
as we may learn from various parts of scripture, for instance, Ezek. 
IG: 38, 40. John 8:5, and as in fact Moses himself testifies, if we 
compare Exod. 31:14. 35:2, with Numbers 15:35, 36. If the 
adulteress were a slave, the persons guilty were both scourged 
with a leather whip, n'^fps, the number of the blows not exceed- 
ing forty. The adulterer in this instance, in addition to the 
scourging, was subjected to the further penalty of bringing a tres- 
pass offering, viz. a ram, to the door of the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation, to be offered in his behalf by the priest. Lev. 19:20 

168 § 160. BILL OF DIVORCE. 

§ 159. The srspECTED Wife. 

The power was given to the husband, who suspected his wife 
of infidelity, of exacting from her in the temple or tabernacle, 
what may be termed the ordeal oath^ Num. 5: 11 — 31. To this oath 
were attached such dreadful penalties, that a person really guilty 
certainly could not take it without betraying her criminality by 
some indications, unless she possessed the extremity of hardi- 
hood. Moses appears to have substituted this oath and the cere- 
monies attending it, instead of an ancient and pernicious custom, of 
which some traces still remain in Africa ; see Oldendorp's Ges- 
chichte der Mission, S. 266, 267. Dreadful as it was, there were not 
wanting wives, who set it at defiance ; licentiousness increased, and 
adulteries were multiplied, especially in the later periods of the Jew- 
ish state. The Talmudists themselves state, Sota c. 9, that the law 
in regard to the suspected wife was abrogated as much as forty years 
before the destruction of Jerusalem. The reason they assign for it, 
is, that the men themselves were at that period generally adulter- 
ers, and that God would not fulfil the horrid imprecations of the or- 
deal oath upon the wife alone, while the husband was guilty of the 
same crime, comp. John 8; 1 — 8. 

^ 160. Bill of Divorce. 

As the ancient Hebrews paid a stipulated price for the privi- 
lege of marrving, thej' seemed to consider it the natural conse- 
quence of making a payment of that kind, that they should be at 
liberty to exorcise a very arbitrary power over their wives, 
and to renounce or divorce them, whenever they chose. This 
state of things, as Moses himself very clearly saw, was not equita- 
ble as respected the woman, and was very often injurious to both 
parties. Finding himself, however, unable to overrule feelings 
and practices of very ancient standing, he merely annexed to the 
original insJitution of marriage a very serious admonition to this 
etfect, viz. that it would be less criminal for a man to desert his 
father and mother, than without adequate cause to desert his wife, 
Gen. 2:24, compared with Mich. 2: 9. and Malachi 2: 1 1 — 14. He 
also laid a restriction upon the power of the husband as far as this, 

§ 160. BILL OF DIVORCE. 169 

that he would not permit him to repudiate the wife without g'iv- 
ing her a hill of divorce. He further enacted in reference to this 
subject, that the husband might receive the repudiated wife back, 
in case she had not in the meanwhile been married to another 
person; but if she had been thus married, she could never after- 
wards become the wife of her first husband ; a law, which the 
faith due to the second husband clearly required, Deut. 24: 1 — 4. , 
comp. Jer. 3: 1, and Matt. 1: 19. 19: 8. 

The inquiry, " What should be considered an adequate cause of 
divorce," was left by Moses to be determined by the husband him- 
self. He had liberty to divorce her, if he saw in her any thing na- 
ked, *^ST n2'n2>, i. e. any thing displeasing or improper, as may be 
learnt by comparing the same expressions in Deut. 23: 14, 15 ; 
any thing so much at war with propriety, and a source of so much 
dissatisfaction as to be, in the estimation of the husband, sufficient 
ground for separation, These expressions, however, were sharp- 
ly contested as to their meaning in the later times of the Jewish 
nation. The school of Hillel contended, that the husband might 
lawfully put away the wife for any cause, even the smallest. The 
mistake committed by the school of Hillel in taking this ground 
was, that they confounded moral and civil Law. It is true, as far 
as the Mosaic statute or the civil Law was concerned, the hus- 
band had a right thus to do ; but it is equally clear, that, the 
ground of legal separation must have been, not a trivial, but a 
prominent and important one, when it is considered, that he was 
bound to consult the rights of the woman, and was amenable to 
his conscience and his God. The school of Shammai explained 
the phrase, nakedness of a thing, to mean actual adultery. This 
interpretation of the phrase gives to the law a moral aspect, and 
assigns a reason, as the ground of divorce, of the truest moral na- 
ture ; but the truth is, that the phrase, in itself considered, will 
not bear this interpretation, and the law beyond question was de- 
signed to be merely a civil, and not a moral one. 

Jesus, who did not so much explain, as till up the deficiencies 
of the Mosaic institutes, agreed with the school of Shammai as far 
as this, that the ground of divorce should be one of a moral nature, 
but he does not appear to have agreed with them in their opinion 
in respect to the Mosaic statute. On the contrary he denied the 
equity, the moral correctness of that statute, and in justification of 

170 § 161. CHILD-BIRtH. 

Moses maintained, that he suffered it to be sanctioned by his au- 
thority, only inconsequence of the hardness of the people's hearts, 
Matt. 5: 31,32. 18:1—9. Mark 10: 2— 12. Luke 16: 18. Wives, 
who were considered tiie property of their husbands, did not en- 
joy by the Mosaic statutes a reciprocal right, and were not at lib- 
erty to dissolve (he matrimonial alliance by giving a bill of di- 
vorce to that etTect. In the later periods, however, of the Jew- 
ish state, the Jewish matrons, the more powerful of them at least, 
appear to have imbibed the spirit of the ladies of Rome, and to 
have exercised in their own behalf the same power, that was 
granted by the Mosaic law to their husbands, Josephus, Antiq. 
XV. 7, 10. Mark 6: 17—29. 10: 12. In case the wife felt herself in- 
jured and aggrieved, we may infer, from the fact of the concubine's 
possessing that right, who had previously been a maid-servant, 
that the wife also possessed the right of obtaining a bill of divorce 
from a judge, Exod. 21: 10. 

§ 161. Child-Birth. 

In oriental countries child-birth is not an event of much diffi- 
culty, and mothers at such a season were originally the only as- 
sistants of their daughters, as any further aid was deemed unne- 
cessary, Exod. 1: 19. In cases of more than ordinary difficulty, 
those matrons, who had acquired some celebrity for skill and ex- 
pertness on occasions of this kind, were invited in ; and in this 
Vv-ay there eventually rose into notice that class of women denom- 
inated midwives. Tiie child was no sooner born, than it was wash- 
ed in a bath, rubbed vvilh salt, and wrapped in swaddling clothes, 
br.!!?! , Ezek. 16:4. It was the custom at a very ancient period, 
for the father, while musick in the mean while was heard to sound, 
to clasp the new-born child to his bosom, and by this ceremony 
was understood to declare it to be his own, Gen. 60: 23. Job 3: 12. 
Ps. 22: 11. This practice was imitated by those wives, who adopt- 
ed the children of their maids. Gen. 16: 2. 30: 3 — 5. 

The birth day of a son, especially, was made a festival, 
and on each successive year was celebrated with renewed demon- 
strations of festivity and joy. Gen. 40: 20. Job 1: 4, Matt. 14:6. 
Herodot. I. 133. Cyropaed. I. 3. 9. The messenger, who brought 
the news of the birth of a son, was received with pleasure, and 


rewarded with presents, Job 3: 3. Jer. 20:15. This is the case 
at the present day in Persia. 

The MOTHER at^ter the birth of a son was unclean for seven 
days, and during the thirty three days succeeding the seven of un- 
cleanness remained at home. If a daughter were born, the num- 
ber of the days of uncleanness and sechision at home was doubled. 
After the expiration of this period, she went into the tabernacle or 
temple, and offered a lamb of a year old ; or, if she were poor, 
two turtle doves, and two young pigeons, for a sacrifice of purifi- 
cation, Levit. 12: 1—8. Luke 2: 22. 

§ 162. Circumcision. 

The son, on the eighth day after its birth, was circumcised. 
By the fulfilment of this rite, it was consecrated to the service of 
the true God, Gen. 17: 10. comp. Rom. 4: 11. This, no doubt, was 
the principal end of circumcision, but there do not appear to have 
been wanting other subsidiary objects, comp. John 7: 23. 

I. Circumcision was a preventive of the disease called the an- 
thrax or carbuncle. This disease originates from the impurities, 
which collect under the prepuce, and is fatal in its effects. Hero- 
dot. II. 45, Josephus against Apion, U. 13, Philo on Circumcision. 

II. Circumcision may have had the beneficial tendency of in- 
creasing the population, for when the prepuce, in such a climate 
as that of Palestine, is long, it is an obstacle to fruitfulness. The 
pains, resulting from circumcision, if we may believe the Moham- 
medans, are severest on the third day, Gen. 34: 25. 

§ 163. Antiquity of Circumcision. 

The command, given in Gen. 17: 10 — 14, to practise circum- 
cision, is expressed in such terms, as to leave it quite evident, that 
the rite in question was known previous to the time of Abraham. 
We learn from Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Sirabo, and from the 
prophet Jeremiah, 9: 25, 26, that in Egypt all the priests and not 
a few of the laity, were circumcised. No one certainly will un- 
dertake to say, that the Egyptians borrowed the rite from the He- 
brews ; and. if this were not the case, it seems to be a very plain 


and natural conclusion, that Abraham himself first learnt it in 
Egypt, Gen. 12: 10 — 15. 

Hit be objected to this statement, that uncircuimcision is de- 
nominated in Joshua 6: 9, the reproach of Egypt, (expressions, 
which imply that the Egyptians were not circumcised,) the answer 
is, those expressions might be very naturally and very properly 
used, provided only a part of the Egyptians, as above stated, were 
circumcised ; inasmuch as the Hebrews esteemed circumcision an 
honour of such a high and indispensable nature, that it could not 
be withheld from a single individual, without discredit and 
disgrace. Gen. 34: 14. Josh. 5: 9. Jer. 9 : 24, 25. It ought to 
be remarked, however, that notwithstanding the high estima- 
tion in which the Hebrews held this rite, the numbers of 
them, who in the age of the Maccabees, took a part in the Gym- 
nastick exercises of the Greeks and of course appeared naked on 
such occasions, considered circumcision a discredit to them ; and, 
by an operation, described in Celsus Lib. VII. c. 25, and designat- 
ed by the Greek verb enianccGdcci, they contrived to restore the 
prepuce to its original form, 1 Mace. 1: 15. 1 Cor. 7: 18. 

§ 164. On the Naming of Children. 

A Nj\me was given to the male child at the time of its circum- 
cision, but it is probable previous to the introduction of that rite, 
that the name was given immediately after its birth. Among the 
orientals the appellations given as names are always significant. In 
the Old Testament, we find that the child was named in many in- 
stances from the circumstances of its birth, or from some peculi- 
arities in the history of the family, to which it belonged. Gen. 16: 
11. 19:37. 25:25, 26. Exod. 2: 10. 18:3, 4. Frequently the name 
was a compound one, one part being the name of the Deity, and 
among idolatrous nations the name of an idol. The following in- 
stances may be mentioned among others, and may stand as speci- 
mens of the whole, viz. blSJ^JSTiJ, Samuel, hear God ; fll^'ShN, Adoni- 
.lAH, God is lord ; p^iriii';!, Josedech, God is just ; ^y2riN. Ethbaal, 
a Canaanilish name, the latter part of the compound being the 
name of the idol deity, Baal ; "i^N^liba, Belshazzar, Bel, (a Baby- 
lonish deity,) is ruler and ki7ig. Sometimes the name had a pro- 


phetick meaning, Gen. 17: 15. Isa. 7: 14. 8:3. Hos. 1:4, 6,9. Matt. 
1:21. Luke 1: 13,60,63. 

In the later times names were selected from those of the pro- 
genitors of a family ; hence in the New Testament, hardly any 
other than ancient names occur. Matt. 1: 12. Luke 1:61. 3: 23. et 
seq. The inhabitants of the East very frequently change their 
names, and sometimes do it for very slight reasons. This ac- 
counts tor the fact of so many persons having two names in Scrip- 
ture, consult Ruth 1: 20, 21. 1 Sam. 14: 49. 31: 2. 1 Chron. 10: 2. 
Jud. 6: 32. 7: 1. 2 Sam. 23 : 8. Kings and princes very often 
changed the names of those, who held offices under them, partic- 
ularly when they tirst attracted their notice and were taken into 
their employ, and when subsequently they were elevated to some 
new station and crowned with additional honours, Gen. 41: 45. 17: 
5. 32: 28. 35: 10. 2 Kgs. 23: 34, 35. 24: 17. Dan. 1:6. John 1: 42. 
Mark 3: 17. Hence a name, (a new name,') occurs tropically, as a 
token or proof of distinction and honour in the following among 
other passages, Philip. 2: 9. Heb. 1: 4. Rev. 2: 17. Sometimes 
the names of the dead were changed, for instance that of Abel, 
^nlri , a word, which signifies breath, or something transitory as a 
breath, given to him after his death in allusion to the shortness of 
his life. Gen. 2: 8. Sometimes proper names are translated into 
other languages, losing their original form, while the}' preserve 
their signification. This appears to have been the case with the 
proper names, which occur in the eleven first chapters of Gen- 
esis, and which were translated into the Hebrew from a lan- 
guage still more ancient. The orientals in some instances, in or- 
der to distinguish themselves from others of the same name, add- 
ed to their own name, the name of their father, grand-father, and 
even great grand-father. 

§ 165. Concerning the First Born, ^ib2. 

The first born, who was the object of special affection to his 
parents, was denominated by way of eminence, QtV"}. "IpS, the open- 
ing of the. womb, in case a man married with a widow, who by a 
previous marriage had become the mother of children, the first- 
born as respected the second husband was the child, that was eld- 
est by the second marriage. Before the time of Moses, the fath- 


er might, if he chose, transfer the right of primogeniture to a 
younger child, but the practice occasioned much contention, Gen. 
25: 31, 32, and a law was enacted, overruling it, Deut. 21: 15 — 17. 
The first born inherited peculiar rights and privileges. 

I. He received a double portion of the estate. Jacob in the 
case of Reuben, his first-born, bestowed his additional portion up- 
on Joseph, by adopting his two sons. Gen. 48: 5 — 8. Deut. 21: 17. 
This was done as a reprimand, and a punishment of his incestuous 
conduct, Gen. 35: 22; but Reuben, notwithstanding, was enrolled 
as the first-Iinrn in the genealogical registers, 1 Chron. 5: 1. 

II. The first btjrn was the priest of the whole family. The 
honour of exercising the priesthood was transferred, by the com- 
mand of God communicated through Moses, from the tribe of Reu- 
ben, to whom it belonged b}' right of primogeniture, to that of 
Levi, Num. 3: 12 — 18. 8: 18. In consequence of this fact, that 
God had taken the Levites from among the children of Israel in- 
stead of all the first born to serve him as priests, the first born of 
the other tribes were to be redeemed, at a valuation made by the 
priest not exceeding five shekels, from serving God in that capac- 
ity, Num. 18: 15, 16, comp. Luke 2: 22, et seq. 

HI. The first born enjoyed an authority over those, who were 
younger, similar to that possessed by a father, Gen. 25: 23, etseq. 
2 Chron. 21: 3. Gen, 27: 29. Exod. 12: 29, which was transferred 
in the case of Reuben by Jacob their father to Judah, Gen. 49: 
8 — 10. The tribe of Judah, accordingly, even before it gave 
kings to the Hebrews, was every where distinguished from the 
other tribes. In consequence of the authority, which was thus at- 
tached to the first- born, he was also made the successor in the 
kingdom. There was an exception to this in the case of Solomon, 
who, though a younger brother, was made his successor by David 
at the special appointment of God. It is very eas}^ to see in view 
of these facts, how the word, first-born, came to express some- 
times a great, and sometimes the highest dignity. Is. 14: 30. Ps. 
89: 27. Rom. 8; 29. Coloss. 1: 15—18. Heb. 12: 23. Rev. 1: 5, 11. 
Job 18: 13. 


§ 1 66. The Nurture of Childrf.iv. 

Mothers, in the earliest times, suckled, p"";""", their offspring 
themselves, and that from thirty to thirty six months. The day 
when the child was weaned, vvas made a festival, Gen. 21: 8. 
Exod. 2: 7, 9. 1 Sam. 1: 22—24. 2 Chron. 31: 16. 2 Mace. 7: 27, 
28. Matt. 21: 16. Josephus, Antiq. 11: 9. 

JVurses, nip"'3'^'?., were employed, in case the mother died be- 
fore the child was old enough to be weaned, and when from any 
circumstances she was unable to afford a sufficient supply of milk 
for its nourishment. 

In later ages, when matrons had become more delicate and 
thought themselves too infirm to fulfil the duties, which naturally 
devolved upon them, nurses were employed to take their place, 
and were reckoned among the principal members of the family. 
They are, accordingly, in consequence of the respectable station, 
which they sustained, frequently mentioned in sacred history. Gen. 
35: 8. 2 Kgs. II: 2. 2 Chron. 22: 11. 

The sons remained till the fifth year in the care of the women ; 
they then came into the father's hands, and were taught not only 
the arts and duties of life, but were instructed in the Mosaic law, 
and in all parts of their country's religion, Deut. 6: 20 — 25. 7: 19. 
11: 19. Those, who wished to have them further instructed, 
provided they did not deem it preferable to employ private teach- 
ers, sent them away to some priest or Levite, who sometimes had 
a number of other children to instruct. It appears from 1 Sam. 
1: 24 — 28, that there was a school near the holy Tabernacle, ded- 
icated to the instruction of youth. There had been many other 
schools of this kind, which had fallen into discredit, but were re- 
stored again by the prophet Samuel ; after whose time the mem- 
bers of the Seminaries in question, who were denominated by way 
of distinction the sons of the prophets, acquired no little notoriety. 

The daughters rarely departed from the apartments appropri- 
ated to the females, except when they went out with an urn, ^3, 
to draw water, which was the practice with those, who belonged 
to those humbler stations in life, where the ancient simplicity of 
manners had not lost its prevalence, Exod. 2: 16. Gen. 24: 16. 29: 
10. 1 Sam. 9: 11, 12. John 4: 9. They spent their time in learn- 


ing those domestick and other arts, which are befitting a woman's 
situation and character, till they arrived at that period in life, 
when they were to be sold, or by a better fortune given away in 
marriage, Prov. 31: 13. 2 Sam. 13: 7. The daughters of those, 
who by their wealth had been elevated to high stations in life, so 
far from going out to draw water in urns, might be said to spend 
the whole of their time within the walls of their palaces. In im- 
itation of their mothers, they were occupied with dressing, with 
singing, and with dancing ; and, if we may judge from the repre- 
sentations of modern travellers, their apartments were sometimes 
the scenes of vice, Ezek. 23: 18. They went abroad but very 
rarely, as already intimated, and the more rarely the higher they 
were in point of rank, but they received with cordiality female 
visitants. The virtues of a good woman, of one that is determin- 
ed, whatever her station, to discharge each incumbent duty and to 
avoid the frivolities and vices, at which we have briefly hinted, 
are mentioned in terms of approbation and praise in Proverbs 31: 

§ 167. The Power of the Father. 

The authority, to which a father was entitled, extended not only to 
his wife, to his own children, and to his servants of both sexes, but 
to his children's children also. It was the custom anciently for sons 
newly married to remain at their father's house, unless it had been 
their fortune to marry a daughter, who, having no brothers, was 
heiress to an estate ; or unless, by some trade or by commerce, they 
had acquired siithcient property to enable them to support their 
own family. It might of course be expected, while they lived in 
their father's house and were in a manner the pensioners on his 
bount}-, that he would exercise his authority over the children of 
his sons, as well as over the sons themselves. 

If it be asked, " What the power of the father was in such a 
case," the answer is that it had no narrow limits, and, whenever 
he found it necessary to resort to measures of severity, he was at 
liberty to inflict the extremity of punishment, Gen. 21: 14. 38: 24. 
This power was so restricted by Moses, that the father, if he judg- 
ed the son worthy of death, was bound to bring the cause before 
a judge. But he enacted at the same time, that the judge should 
pronounce sentence of death upon the son, if on inquiry it could 


be proved, that he had beaten or cursed his father or mother, or 
that he was a spendthrift, or saucy, or contumacious, and could 
not be reformed, Exod. 21: 15, 17. Lev. 20: 9. Deut. 21: 18—21. 
The authority of the parents, and the'service and love due to 
them, are recognized in the most prominent and fundamental of 
the moral laws of the Jewish polity, viz. the Ten Commandments, 
Exod. 20: 12. 

The son, who had acquired property, was commanded to ex- 
hibit his gratitude to his parents, not only by words and in feel- 
ing, but by gifts. Matt. 15: 5, 6. Mark 7: 11—13. The power of 
the father over his oflspring in the ancient times was not only 
very great for the time being, and while he sojourned with them 
in the land of the living ; but he was allowed also to cast his eye 
into the future^ and his prophetick curse or blessing possessed no 
little efficacy. Gen. 49: 2—28. 

§ 168. Of the Testament or Will. 

I. As respected sons. The property or estate of the father 
fell after his decease into the possession of his sons, who divided 
it among themselves equally ; with this exception, that the eldest 
son received two portions. The father expressed his last wishes 
or Will in the presence of witnesses, and probably in the presence 
of the heirs, 2 Kgs. 20: 1. At a recent period the Will was made 
out in writing. 

II. As respected the sons of Concubines. The portion, that was 
given to the sons of concubines^ depended altogether upon the 
feelings of the father. Abraham gave presents, to what amount 
is not known, both to Ishmael and to the son?, whom he hard by 
Keturah, and sent them away before his death. It does not ap- 
pear, that they had an}^ other portion in the estate. But Jacob 
made the sons, whom he had by his concubines heirs, as well as 
the others. Gen. 21:8—21.29: 1—6. 49: 1 — 27. Moses laid no re- 
strictions upon the choice of fathers in this respect ; and we should 
infer, that the sons of concubines for the most part received- an 
equal share with the other sons Irom the fact, that Jephtha, the 
son of a concubine, complained, that he was excluded without any 
portion from his father's house, Jud. 11: I — 7. 

III. As respected daughters. The daughters not only had no 


173 § 169. nEsi'ECTiNG slaves. 

portioa in the estate, but, if they were unmarried, were consider- 
ed as making a part of it, and were sold by their brothers into 
matrimony. In case there were no brothers, or they all had died, 
they took the estate, JVum. 27: 1 — 8. If any one died intestate, 
and without any oiTspring, the property was disposed of according 
to Num. 27: 8—11. 

IV. Jls respected servants. The servants or the slaves in a fami- 
ly could not claim any share in the estate as a right, but the per- 
son, who made a IVill^ might, if he chose, make them his heirs, 
comp. Gen. 15: 3. Indeed in some instances, those who had /teirs, 
recognized as such by the law, did not deem it unbecoming to be- 
stow the whole or a portion of their estates on faithful and deserv- 
ing servants. Pro v. 17: 2. 

V. As respected widows. The widow of the deceased., like his 
daughters, had no legal right to a share in the estate. The sons, 
however, or other relations were bound to afford her an ade- 
quate maintenance, unless it had been otherwise arranged in the 
Will. She sometimes returned back again to her father's house, 
particularly if the support, which the heirs gave her, was not 
such as had been promised, or was not sutficient, Gen. 38: 11, 
compare also the story of Ruth. The prophets very frequently, 
and undoubtedly not without cause, exclaim against the neglect 
and injustice shown to widows. Is. 1: 17. 10: 2. Jer. 7: 6. 22: 3. 
Ezek. 22: 7. comp. Exod. 22: 22—24. Deut. 10: 18. 24: 17. 

§ 169. Respecting Slaves, D'^niai';, ninsp. 

The number in a family was very much increased by the 
slaves, that were attached to it. It is probable, that some of the 
patriarchs, as was sometimes the case at a later period with indi- 
viduals in Greece and Italy, possessed many thousands of them. 
Slavery existed and prevailed before the deluge. Gen. 9: 25. Mo- 
ses therefore, although he saw the evils of slavery, was not in a 
condition to abolish it, and it would not have been wise for him 
to have made the attempt. He, accordingly, permitted the He- 
brews to possess foreigners both male and female in the charac- 
ter of slaves; but the owners of them were bound by the laws to 
circumcise them, if they had not previously been so, and to in- 
struct them in the worship of the only true God. 


We have said the Hebrews were permitted to hold foreigners 
in slavery, but to this statement there are some exceptions, which 
are to be mentioned. The Canaunites could not be held in slave- 
ry. For them^ under the then existing circumstances, slavery was 
regarded too great a privilege, or rather it would have subjected 
the Jews to too great a hazard. Such was the bad faith of the 
Canaanites, the greatness of their numbers, and their deep rooted 
idolatry, that, had they been introduced under any circumstances 
whatever into the Israelitish community, they would certainly 
have endangered their existence, as a people of God. The Gib- 
eonites, the Kephirites, the Beerothites, and the inhabitants of 
Kirjath-jearim, having surreptitiously obtained a treaty with the 
Israelites, were made exceptions also, and were employed in the 
service of the Tabernacle, Jos. 9: 1 — 27. 

§ 170. Ways in which me\ became Slaves. 

Men lost their freedom in ancient times in so many ways, that 
it is difficult, perhaps impossible, to assert of any one of them, 
that it was the origin or first occasion of slavery. We shall, 
therefore, content ourselves with merely mentioning the various 
ways, in which they plunged into so unfortunate and debasing a 

I. Captivihj in war. Some suppose this to have been the or- 
igin of slavery, Deut. 20: 14. 21': 10, 11. Gen. 14 ch. 

II. Debts. These, as well as captivity in war, became an oc- 
casion of slavery, when they were so large, that the debtor was 
unable to defray them, 2 Kgs. 4: 1. Is. 50: 1. Matt. 18: 25. 

in. Theft. Slavery was the consequence of theft, when the 
thief was not able to repay the amount of the property, which he 
had taken, Exod. 22: 2. Neh. 5: 4, 5. 

IV. Man-stealing. By this is to be understood that act of vi- 
olence, by which an individual in time of peace is unjustly sold 
into slavery, or is retained as a slave in the possession of the 
author of the crime himself. Moses enacted laws of very 
great severity against this crime, but they were restricted in their 
operation to those, who had by violence taken and made a slave, 
or sold for one, a free Hebrew, Exod. 21: 16. Deut. 24: 7. 

V. The children of slaves. Children, who were slaves by birth, 


are mentioaed in the Scriptures under the following Hebrew 

rT'S ■^11^'', those born in one's house; 

nnS'i;^ "^32, il/JNlT! ''Z'Z. the children of viaid-servants ; 

D^i "^32, the sons or children of the house ; 

consult' Gen. 14: 14. 15; 3. 17: 23. 21: 10. Ps. 86: 16. 116: 16. 

VI. Purchase. This happened, when a man oppressed with 
poverty sold himself or when a master sold his slave. Purchas- 
ing slaves of a person, who possessed them, was the most com- 
mon method of obtaining them, Num. 31: 4, 14 — 18, 35. Hence 
slaves are denominated ;]D3 tip.p^O, the properly or the purchase of 
silver^ i. e. those purchased with silver. The price of a slave was 
diiferent at different times, varying with the age, sex, health, 
skill, &,c. of the individual sold. We may inter from Exodus 21:32, 
that the medium price of a slave was thirty shekels ; and, by an 
examination of Lev. 27: 1 — 8, form a probable opinion as to the 
difference of the valuation of a slave in the different periods of his 

§ 171. Condition of Slaves among the Hebrews. 

Both the food and the clothing of those, who, from any cause, 
whatever it might be, had lost their freedom, were of the ])oorest 
description. All their earnings went to their master, and their 
labour was worth to him double that of a merely hired servant, 
Deut. 15: 18. They commonly had the consent of their masters 
to marry, or rather to connect themselves with a woman in that 
way, which is denominated by a Latin law-term coniuhernium. 
The children, that proceeded from this sort of marriages, were 
the i)roperty not of the parents, but of their owners. The child- 
ren, however, never addressed their owners as a father, but al- 
ways as a lord or master, Gal. 4:6. Rom. 8; 15. Although the 
children born in his house were the slaves of the owner, they 
were as devoted and as true to him, as if they had sustained to 
him the actual relationship of children. It was in view of this 
tact, that the patriarchs thought proper to trust them with arms, 
and to train them up to war. Gen. 14:14. 32:6. 33:1. They 
were expected to perform any labour, which their masters deem- 
'^d it expedient to require of them, l)ut their common avocation 


was that of husbandry, and the tending of flocks and herds. The 
maid-servants were employed in domestick concerns, though not 
unfrequenlly they were compelled to engage in those duties, 
which from their nature were more befitting the other sex. 

The servant, who was found to be most faithful and discreet, 
was placed over the others, and was called n'^a'JpT , ocxopo/^iog, or 
the steward^ Gen. 24: 2. 47: 6. 1 Sam. 24: 7. 1 Chron. 27: 29, 30. 
Ruth 2: 5. It was the duty of the ruling servant or steward to al- 
lot to the others their various duties, and likewise to see their 
food prepared, except when, as was sometimes the case, a female 
servant, who had been found especially worthy to be trusted, had 
assumed the charge of the latter, Prov. 31: 15. 1 Cor. 4: 1, 2. 
Gal. 4:2. Eph. .3:2. Tit. 1: 7. 1 Peter 4: 10. 

It was the business of some of the servants to instruct the 
children of their owners, while some waited upon their mistress, 
and others upon their master. The condition of these was in some 
respects less hard than that of the others, although it is natural to 
suppose, that those masters, who had any sense of the duties, 
which every man owes to another, whatever his condition, exhib- 
ited to all of their slaves acts of kindness and humanity. Job 31: 13. 

Moses, in order to render the condition of those, who had lost 
their liberty, as free from misery and as favourable as possible, 
made the following regulations : 

I. That servants or. slaves should be treated with humanity. 
The law, which is given in Leviticus 25: 39 — 53, speaks very ex- 
pressly in relation to the treatment of servants, that were of He- 
brew origin, and in truth of those only ; but as the slaves, that were 
of foreign origin, when once circumcised, were reckoned among 
the Hebrews, it may be considered as applying, in some degree at 
least, to all. 

II. That the master, who slew a servant of whatever origin 
with a rod or by means of blows, should be punished according to 
the will and pleasure of the judge. In case the servant did not 
die till a day or two after being smitten, the master went unpun- 
ished, because the design of murdering the servant could not in 
that case be presumed, and the loss of the servant itself was deem- 
ed a sufficient punishment, Exod. 21: 20, 21. 

in. He further enacted, if the master injured the servant in 
eye or tooth, that is, according to the spirit of the law, in any 


member whatever, the servant in consequence of such treatment, 
should receive his freedom, Exod. 21: 26,27. 

IV. That the servants, on every sabbath and on all festival 
occasions, should enjoy a cessation from their labours, Exod. 20: 
10. Deut. 5: 14. 

V. That they should be invited to those feasts, which were 
made from the second tythes, Deut. 12: 17, 18. 16: 11. comp. 
Matt. 25: 21—23. 

VI. That the servants, in accordance with an ancient law or 
custom, to which there is an allusion in Job 24: 10, 11, were en- 
titled to and should receive an adequate subsistence from those, 
to whom they were subject, Deut: 25: 4. comp. 1 Tim. 5: 18. 1 
Cor. 9: 9. 

VII. The master was bound to provide for the marriage of 
maid-servants, unless he took them to himself as concubines, or 
gave them to his son, Exod. 21: 8. 

VIII. A servant of Hebrew origin was not obliged to serve 
longer than six years, after which time he was to be dismissed 
with presents of considerable amount, and with the wife, whom 
he had married previous to having lost his freedom, Exod. 21: 2 — 
4. Lev. 25: 1 — 17. In case he had become a slave, while unmar- 
ried, and had married with the consent of his master during the 
period of his slavery, the wife could not go out with him to 
the enjoyment of freedom, till she had first completed her seven 
years of servitude, Exod. 21: 4. Lev. 25: 39 — 41. Deut. 15: 12-17. 
Of this privilege, for such it may be considered, the Hebrew maid- 
servants were, at first, for some reason, wholly deprived, Exod. 21: 
7 et seq.: but at a later period, when the face of things had prob- 
ably undergone some changes, the Hebrew legislator thought fit 
to grant it to them, Deut. 15: 12 — 17. The person, who had 
once been a slave, but had afterwards obtained his freedom, was 
denominated in Hebrew, ""IJcn. If the servant, too much attach- 
ed to his master, his wife, and the children of whom he had be- 
come the father in his servitude, refused to accept the freedom^ 
which had been ofl'ered him ; the master in the presence of a 
judge had liberty to receive him, and in sign of perpetual servi- 
tude was to thrust an awl through his ear into the door-post, 
Exod. 21:5, 6. Deut. 15: 16. It v.^as not in the power of their 
masters, however, to sell slaves of this description, notwithstanding 


they had voluntarily subjected themselves to perpetual servitude, 
to any person living out of the Hebrew territories, Exod. 21: 7, 8. 
In regard to those slaves, who had not completed the six years of 
their service, it may be further remarked here, that, if they 
were Hebrews by origin, and had been sold to persons dwelling in 
the Hebrew territory, their relations or any other person might 
redeem them, or they might redeem themselves, if they had prop- 
erty sufficient, by paying a price adequate to the remaining years 
of service, making six in the whole. Lev. 25: 47 — 55. 

IX. On the year of Jubilee, all the servants or slaves of He- 
brew descent were to be emancipated, Lev. 25: 39 — 41. 

X. Slaves, who were Hebrews by birth, were permitted to 
possess some little property of their own, as may be learnt from 
Leviticus, 25: 49, compared with 2 Samuel 9: 10. 

Finally, a slave, who had fled from another nation and sought 
a refuge among the Hebrews, was to be received and treated 
with kindness, and not to be forcibly returned back again, Deut. 23: 
15, 16. 

§ 172. The Condition of Slaves among other Nations. 

Notwithstanding Moses inculcated in many instances hu- 
manity towards slaves, and protected them also by special laws 
enacted in their favour'; they were sometimes the subjects 
of undue severity of treatment, and of sufferings in various ways, 
Jer. 34: 8 — 22. Still it cannot be denied, that their condition was 
better among the Hebrews, than among some other nations; as 
may be learnt from their well known rebellions against the Greeks 
and Romans. Nor is it at all wonderful, that the Hebrews diifer- 
ed from other nations in the treatment of their slaves in a way so 
much to their credit, when we consider the many and weighty 
motives, that were presented to them thus to act. Especially 
when we consider, that in other countries, there was no sabbath 
for the slave, no day of rest, and no laws sanctioned by the Divin- 
ity in their favour. 

Runaway slaves, and those, who were suspected of an intention 
to do it, were branded, for the most part in the forehead, to which 
custom there are allusions in Galatians 6: 17, and Revelation 14: 9. 
22: 4. Slaves in heathen nations were debarred from a participa- 
tioQ both in all the publick festivals, and in all the religious exer- 


cises, which was a very different state of things from that among 
the Hebrews. After Christianit}'^ had penetrated into those na- 
tions, the state of things was in some degree changed ; and 
slaves, in the Christian Church, enjoyed equal privileges with any 
others, as far as the Church was concerned. Gal. 3: 28. Coloss. 3: 
10,11. PhihlO. 1 Cor. 12:13. Eph. 6: 8. 

Slaves in other nations were not supported hy those, with 
whom they laboured; consult Pollux on the word Tiavor/.UTii]. 
They were very rarely permitted to marry, or to enter into that 
state called by a Roman law-term, contubernium ; their private pos- 
sessions were subjected to the will of their master ; and they were 
obliged to make him presents from it. Whenever they were so 
happy as to be manumitted, they were still under the necessity of 
retaining the name of freedmen^ liberti, voOoi^ in allusion to their 
previous condition, and their children, as if the disgrace were de- 
signed to be perpetuated, were denominated libertini, frcedmeii's 
sons. We have not time to dwell upon the occasional, we might 
say, frequent, and excessive cruelty of their masters. 

In a word then, the condition of slaves was miserable, and the 
Jews were not to blame for boasting, that they were the freemen 
of Abraham, John 8:8. Paul himself acknowledges, that the con- 
dition of freedom is worthy of being eagerly embraced, when it 
can be embraced without dishonesty or injustice, but the freedom, 
which he esteemed most worthy in its nature and most important 
in its consequences, was that, which is given through our Lord Je- 
sus Christ, 1 Cor. 7: 21 — 23. Rom. 8: 15. Having this statement 
in regard to the slavery of other nations in view, one is in a con- 
dition to understand the force of that comparison introduced at 
times in the New Testament, which represents the Jews under 
the Mosaic law, as in a state of servitude, and Christians in a state 
of freedom, John 8:32,34. Rom. 16:17. James 1:25. It is a 
comparison, not only lively and impressive, but one, which, under 
the circumstances, that existed in the time of our Saviour and the 
Apostles, was very naturally made. This comparison as far as re- 
spected sinners had already been made by philosophers, and the 
meaning and emphasis attached to it were sufficiently well known 
to the Jews in the time of Christ. They must, therefore, have read- 
ily understood the expressions of Christ in John 8:31 — 34, unless 
they wilfully preferred making a mistake in a case, that was suffi- 
ciently plain. 




§ 173. Character of the Hebrews. 

The character of the Hebrews exhibits the vices common among 
oriental nations, viz, luxury, pomp, effeminacy, and arrogance. The 
arrogance of the Hebrews in later times was very great, see Tal- 
mud Bab. metzia p, 83. John 8: 33. Among the great, there was too 
great a prevalence of extortion, of oppression, and of hypocritical 
friendships, that sought to cover the hoUowness of the heart be- 
neath the external appearance. We find, that vices of this des- 
cription were a ground of complaint among the prophets and the 
subjects of their reprehensions in all parts of their writings ; and 
still it cannot be denied, that there occur in the history of the He- 
brews examples of great magnanimity, Gen. 14: 23. 44:34, Judg. 
8:23. iSam. 12:3, 4, 18:1. 20:4—8,41,42, 23:16--18. 24:7 
—12. 26:9—12. 1 Kgs, 20:31. Of the various traits in the char- 
acter of the Hebrews, which are developed in the course of their 
history, the most striking beyond any question is that of stubborn- 
ness and inflexibility, see Acts, 7th chapter. The disposition for 
idolatry ceased after the Captivity. If it be the fact, that the mad- 
ness of worshipping idols seized upon some of the nobler sort of 
people, so late as the time of the Maccabees, it is sufficiently evi- 
dent, that it did not extend to the great body of the nation. The 
publick or political virtues of the people may perhaps be sum- 
moned up by saying, that they were industrious in the culture of 
their fields, and brave on the field of battle. If we should assume 
the province of mentioning any particular period in their history, 
during which, more than at any other time, they appear to have 


excelled in bravery and in warlike skill, we should point to the 
days of David and the Maccabees. Amono^ the moral virtues, that 
are most celebrated in the Hebrew Scriptures, the following may 
be mentioned ; viz. 

(l.) TiT^'l.'^i justice^ a general term also for moral integrity, and 
purity of life. 

(2.) nQN. ln")3N, truth, fidelity, and sincerity. 

(3.) "IDII, huiaanily^ benevoleuce, or the love of our neighbour. 

(4.) D"'"l32>, the mild or merciful, Vnlg. lauibsimi^ New Te^ta- 
merit, iiQueig, are likewise spoken of with the must decided approba- 

Many other moral virtues and duties are commended and en- 
forced in the Old Testament; so that there is no hesitancy in say- 
ing, that the Hebrews, in a knowledge of the principles of moral 
conduct, far exceeded all other nations. But we must not suppose, 
that the rectitude of the conduct of the Hebrews corresponded 
on all occasions to their knowledge, or that they all of them ful- 
filled those duties, the obligation of which they were too vveil in- 
formed not to admit. On the contrary, very many disregarded 
the light, which God had given, and neglected to fulfil those du- 
ties, which they felt themselves bound to perform. This per- 
versity of conduct exhibited itself more especially in the later pe- 
riods of their existence as a nation ; when many among them per- 
verted the Law of Moses by their traditions and philosophical 
quibbles. Holding to the letter, they wandered sufficiently far 
from its spirit, and acquired among all nations a very disgraceful 
celebrity for their falsehoods, impostures, and perjuries. Tacitus, 
Hist. V. 5. iThess. 2:15. Eph. 2: 14. In the last war of the 
Jews, viz. the contest with the Romans, the vices in their charac- 
ter to which we have alluded, prevailed more, and were check- 
ed by fewer restraints, than at any former period. Josephus 
himself, notwithstanding his origin from the Jewish people, is so 
candid as to confess the existence of such a state of things, as we 
have now stated. Corap. Matt. 12: 43 — 45. 



It cannot be denied, that there prevailed among the Hebrews 
no little propriety and refinement of manners ; although the marks 
of civility, which they exhibited to each other in their social in- 
tercourse, are by no means the same in all respects with those, 
which would be expected in such intercourse from a well bred 
and polite inhabitant of modern Europe. The prevailing taste 
for civility and for refinement of manners was strengthened by con- 
siderations, drawn from the Law of Moses, Lev. 19:32. The 
proofs, that such civility, and such refinement of manners actually 
existed and prevailed, are so numerous in the Bible, that a person 
would be disposed to complain, that they were too numerous, rath- 
er than that they were too (ew. 

But every country and every climate has something peculiar 
in its manners and modes of intercourse, as well as in other things. 
If in any country the common expressions of civility, and the us- 
ual forms of politeness should be thoroughly examined and duly 
estimated, they would be found to be more marked and extrava- 
gant, than was required by the actual state of the feelings. The 
orientals, especially, would be thought by an inhabitant of Europe 
to be excessive in their gestures and expressions of good-will, 
when in truth those ge'stures and expressions mean no more than 
very moderate ones among us. For instance, prostration upon the 
earth scarcely signified more among them, than a nod of the head, 
or an extension of the hand among the less animated and more 
moderate inhabitants of occidental nations. The very ancient 
forms of civility and politeness, mentioned in Genesis 18: 1 — 30. 
19: 1—3. 23: 7, 12. 41: 43. 46: 6, and spoken of likewise by He- 
rodotus and other ancient historians, have been perpetuated to a 
great degree among Eastern nations till the present day. 

In the time of Christ, the ancient mode of addressing those who 
were worthy of being honoured, viz. by saying my lord, or words 
to that effect, was in a measure superseded ; and the honorary 
and more extravagant address of Rabbi, i. e. the great. S"! "Z^i 
which originated in tlie schools, had become common among the 
people ; also the title of H^uTime, or most excellent, Luke 1: 3. 
Acts 23: 26. 24: 3. 26: 25. 


§ 175. Mode of Salutation. 

The expressions used at salutation, and also those, which were 
used at pnrting-, implied in both instances, that the person who em- 
ployed them, interceded for a blessing on the other. Hence the 
word ^"12, which originally means to bless, means also to salute or 
to welcome, and to bid adieu, Gen. 47: 8 — 11. 2 Kgs. 4: 29. 10: 13. 
1 Chron. 18: 10. 

The forms of salutation, that prevailed among the ancient Hebrews^ 
■were as follows ; 

(1.) rjih"; ^nna, !l3^''b ^^^2, nVrr^ ^l'^'?, be thou blessed of 

(2.) '^■'V.^ ITin']' M5'n3> the blessing of Jehovah be upon thee. 
(3.) ?T73y t^Tin"', may trod be with thee. 

(4.) ^'? oib^, I^T^?. ^"^-':^' ^^y /'coce, i. e. every blessing and 
prosperity be yours. This was the most common salutation, see 
Ruth 2: 4. Jud. 19: 20. 1 Sam. 25: 26. 2 Sam. 20: 9. Ps. 129: 8. 

(5.) ''3nN I^T!.! Sir, be your life prospered. This was the com- 
mon salutation among the Phenicians. It was in use also among 
the Hebrews, but was not addressed by them to any person ex- 
cept their kings. 

(6.) XuiQe, answering to the Latin ave or salve, in Hebrew 
n.l.ri., or ril^n, Luke 1: 27, 28. Matt. 26: 49. 28: 0. 

The gestures and inflexions of the body, which were made on 
an occasion of salutation, differed at different times, varj'ing with 
the dignit}' and station of the person, who was saluted ; as is the 
case among the orientals to this day. In pronouncing the forms of 
salutation just given, the orientals place the right hand upon the 
left breast, and with much gravity incline the head. If two Arab 
friends of equal rank in life meet together, they mutuallj' extend to 
each other the right hand, and having clasped, they elevate them, 
as if to kiss them. Having advanced thus far in the ceremony, 
each one draws back his hand and kisses it instead of his friend's, 
and then places it upon his forehead. Jf one of the Arabs be 
more exalted in point of rank than the other, he is at liberty to give 
the other an opportunity of kissing, instead of his oxon, the hand of 
his superiour. The parties then continue the salutation by recip- 
rocally kissing each other's beard, having first placed the hand 



under it, in which case alone it is lawful to touch the beard, 2 Sam. 
20: 9. It is sometimes the case, that persons, instead of this cere- 
mony, merely place their cheeks together. It is the common 
practice among the Persians for persons in saluting to kiss each 
otiier's lips ; if one of the individuals be a person of high rank, 
the salutation is given upon the cheeks instead of the lips, 2 Sam. 
20: 9. Gen. 29:11,13. 33:4. 39:11. 48: 10— 12. Exod. 4: 27. 18: 
7. The Arabians are in the habit of inquiring respecting the 

health, Dibt;, f»^**', of a person^ when they salute him, Gen. 29: 6. 
43:27. 1 Sam, 16:4. They give thanks to God, that they once 
more see their friend, they pray to the Almighty in his behalf, 
and supplicate for him every sort of prosperity. They are some- 
times so animated on such occasions, as to repeat not less than ten 
times the ceremony of grasping hands and kissing, and the interro- ' 
gallons respecting each other's health. It may, therefore, be well 
concluded, that the salutation between friends was an occurrence, 
which consumed some time, and for this reason it was anciently 
inculcated upon messengers, who were sent upon business, that 
required despatch, not to salute an}' one by the way, 2 Kgs. 4:29. 
Luke 10:4. 

When we consider the nature of the oriental salutations, the 
ardour of gesticulation on such an occasion, the professions of 
friendship and good will, which were then made, we should not 
wonder, that the Evangelist John in his second Epistle, eleventh 
verse, thought it necessary to forbid a christian to salute a man of 
another sect, or to welcome him (o his house. For it is very 
clear, that pursuing such a course would have carried an errone- 
ous appearance, and would have possessed the very injurious ef- 
fect of confounding distinctions, and giving encouragement to her- 

In the presence of the great and the noble, the orientals in- 
cline themselves almost to the earth, kiss their knees, or the hem 
of their garment, and place it upon their forehead. When in the 
presence of kings and princes more particularly, they go so far as 
to prostrate themselves at full length upon the ground, sometimes 
with their knees bent, they touch their forehead to the earth, and 
before resuming an erect position either kiss the earth, or, if they 
prefer it, the feet of the king or prince, in whose presence they 
are permitted to appear. 

190 § 176, ON VISITING. 

This is the state of things among the orientals ; and one proof 
among others, that it was the same among the ancient Hebrews, 
is to be found, in some instances in the prevaiUng. and in others in 
the original signification of those words, which are used to express 
the attitudes and the acts of salutation. The words, to which we re- 
fer, are as follows, 

Tip, to incliiie or bend down the head. 

2'"13, to bend down the body very low. 

^"13, to bsnd the knee., also to salute one. 

lr!j:"ii« CON y"\3i n::iiN riinnujn, n:!i'nN i^Q2, to beiid down 

to the earthy to fall prostrate on the earthy to Jail with the face to the 

The word i-iinn"^;!, when standing by itself, does not mean 
prostration upon tlie earth, but merely an inclination of the body, 
as is evident from 1 Kgs. 2: 19. Prostration is expressed in Greek 
by the word ngoGxvvitv, and in Latin by the word adorare. The 
various positions of body, of which we have spoken, were assum- 
ed in the worship of God. The Greeks and Latins maintained, 
that there should be a prostration of the body in the worship of 
God only, and not on an occasion of less importance, Acts 10:25, 
26. Rev. 19:20. 22:9. The Hebrew verb nSD is used only in 
reference to the adoration of idols, and not of the supreme God, 
Is. 44: 15, n, 19. 46:6. The corresponding word in the Arama- 
ean and Arabick dialects is more broad in its signification, Dan. 
2:46. 3:5. 

§ 176. On visiting. 

A person, who went on a visit, found himself under the ne- 
cessity of knocking at the gate, or of calling with a loud voice, 
till the master of the house came out. The visitant was then, if 
it appeared suitable to the master of the house, conducted in ; but 
not till a sign had first been made to the females of the Aimily, to 
retire to their appropriate apartments, 2 Kgs. 5: 9 — :12. Acts 10: 
17. Those, who intended to visit persons, that held a high rank 
in life, were in the habit of sending previous notice of their con- 
templated visit, but they did not fulfil the purpose, they had thus 
announced, without bringing with them such presents, as were 
suitable. The practice of carrying presents, when a person visits 

§ 177. OF GIFTS. 191 

those, who are high in life, is still continued in the East. The 
guest set out upon his visit with a suitable pomp and retinue, and 
was received at the mansion, to which he was going, with equal in- 
dications of magniticence, his head was anointed, and he was per- 
fumed with aromatick substances. Traces of these ceremonies 
occur in Gen. 27: 27. Exod. 30: 37, 38. Prov. 27: 9. Numb. IC: 6, 
17, 18, 37, 38. In the East, the following custom has hitherto 
prevailed and does at present. If it appear convenient or neces- 
sary in the estimation of his host for the visitant to retire, in order 
to relieve him.self from the disagreeable necessit\' of saying so in 
express terms, he gives him a polite hint in respect to his wishes 
by causing him to be regaled with incense or burnt perfume. And 
this is accordingly the concluding ceremony of the visit. 

§ 177. Of Gifts, 

The practice of making presents, !nh:73, t^^*;2. 123, rifii], 
Num. 22: 7, 16, 37. 24: 11 — 13, is very common in oriental coun- 
tries. The custom probably had its origin among those men, who 
first sustained the office of kings or rulers, and who, from the nov- 
elty and perhaps the weakness attached to their situation, chose, 
rather than make the hazardous attempt of exacting taxes, to con- 
tent themselves with receiving those presents, which might be 
freely offered, 1 Sam. 10: 27. Hence it passed into a custom, 
that whoever approached the king, should come with a gift. This 
was the practice and the expectation. The practice of present- 
ing gifts was subsequently extended to other great men, to men, 
who were inferiourto the king, but who were, nevertheless, men 
of influence and rank ; it was also extended to those, who wei'e 
equals, when they were visited, Prov. 18: 16. 

Kings themselves were in the habit of making presents, proba- 
bly in reference to the custom in question and the feelings connect- 
ed with it, to those individuals, their inferiours in point of rank, 
■whom they wished to honour, and also to those, who, like them- 
selves, were clothed with the royal authorit3^ These presents, 
viz. such as were presented by the king as a token of the royal es- 
teem and honour, are almost invariably denominated in the He- 
brew, ^rilO and r53n!g, see 1 Kgs. 15: 19. 2 Kgs. 16: 8. 18: 14. Is. 30: 
2 — 6. The more ancient prophets did not deem it discreditable to 


them to receive presents, nor unbecoming their sacred calling, ex- 
cept when, as was sometimes the case, they refused by way of ex- 
pressing their dissatisfaction or indignation, 2 Kgs. 5: 5. 8: 9. In later 
times, when false prophets, in order to obtain money, prophesied 
without truth and without authority, the true prophets for the 
purpose of keeping the line of distinction as marked and dis- 
tinct as possible, rejected every thing, that looked like pay, 
Amos 7: 14. Gifts of the kind, that have now been described, are 
not to be confounded with those, which are called Ttl'jj, and which 
were presented to judges, not as a mark of esteem and honour, but 
for purposes of bribery and corruption. The former was consid- 
ered an honour to the giver, but a gift of the latter kind has been 
justly reprobated in every age, Exod. 23: 8. Deut. 10: 17. 16: 19. 
27: 23. Ps. 15: 5. 26: 10. Is. 1: 23. 5: 23. 33: 15. 

§ 178. Kinds of Presents and methods of bringing them. 

The giver was not restricted as to the kind of present, which 
he should make. He might present not only silver and gold, but 
clothes and arms, also different kinds of food, in a word, any thing, 
which could be of benefit to the recipient. Gen. 43: 11. 1 Sam. 9: 
7. 16: 20. Job. 42: 11. It was the custom anciently, as it is at the 
present time in the J2ast, for an individual when visiting a person 
of high rank, to make some presents of small value to the servants 
or domosticks of the person visited, 1 Sam. 25: 27. It was the 
usual practice among kings and princes to present to their favour- 
ite oflicers in the government, to ambassadors from foreign courts, 
to foreigners of distinction, and to men eminent for their learning, 
garments of greater or less value, as already observed, Gen. 45: 
22, 23. Esth. 8: 15. The royal wardrobe, in which a large num- 
ber of such garments was kept, is denominated in Hebrew nnnbTS, 
2 Chron. 9: 24. It v^as considered an honour of the highest kind, 
if a king or any person in high authority thought it proper, as a 
manifestation of his favour, to give away to another the garment, 
which he had previously worn liimseli", 1 Sam. 18: 14. In the 
East at the present day, it is expected, that every one, who has 
received a garment from the king will immediately clothe him- 
self in it, and promptly present himself and render his homage to 
the giver: otherwise he runs the hazard of exciting the king's dig- 

§ 179. PUBLICK HONOURS. 193 

pleasure, comp. Matt. 22: 11, 12. It was sometimes the case, that 
the king, when he made a feast presented vestments to all the 
guests, who were invited, with which they clothed themselves, 
before thej sat doun to it, 2 Kgs. 10: 22. Gen. 45: 22. Rev. 3: 5. 
Cyropaed.VllI. 3, 1. Iliad XXIV. 226, 227. In oriental countries, 
the presents, which are made to kings and princes, are to this day 
carried on beasts of burden, are attended with a body of men, and 
are escorted with much pomp. It matters not, how light or how 
small the present may be, it is heavy enough at any rate to be 
carried on the back of a beast of burden, or if carried by a man, 
to be supported by both of his hands, Jud. 3: 18. 2 Kgs. 8: 9. 

§ 179. PuBucK Honours. 

It is the custom in Asia, to exhibit the most distinguished marks 
of attention and honour to kings, to princes, and to national am- 
bassadors, whenever on any publick occasions they enter cities, 
or return from a distance to the palaces of their customary resi- 
dence. On such occasions there is a great concourse of people. 
The small windows, which look towards the street and at other 
times are shut up, are then thrown open. The level roofs are 
crowded and alive with eager spectators. The streets, to prevent 
the rising of the dust, are sprinkled with water. They are also, 
with the exception of a small undecorated path left in the centre 
of them for the procession, strewed with flowers and branches of 
trees, and spread with richly embroidered carpets. The specta- 
tors clap their hands, and shouts of joy reecho on every side. On 
other occasions, when the people are permitted to behold the 
king, they honour and salute him in silence, 2 Sam. 16: 16. 1 Kgs. 
1: 40. 2 Kgs. 9: 13. Is. 62: 11. Zech. 9: 9. Matt. 21: 7, 8. The 
musicians walk first in the procession, 1 Kgs. 18: 46. 1 Chron. 15: 
27 — 29. The persons, who sustain offices in the government, and 
are attached to the palace, are the next in the procession. Then 
follows the king. All of them are carried on nolda coursers. 
Anciently kings, on such occasions, rode in chariots. Gen. 41: 43. 
2 Sam. 15: 1. 1 Kgs. 1: 5. 

IVoTE. Ceremonies similar to those, which have now been de- 
scribed, are exhibited in Asia on two other publick occasions, be- 


side the one in question ; viz. when a person has deserted the 
Christian and embraced the Mohammedan faith, and when a class 
or school ot' boys have finished the study of the Koran. The boys, 
who have thus completed the perusal of the writings of the Eas- 
tern prophet, are seated upon the choicest steeds. Musicians go 
before them, the same as in the procession of kings ; and, surround- 
ed with an escort of shouting feilow-students, they are conducted 
through the city. The prevalence of these customs in the East 
will throw some light upon such passages, as the following, Gen. 
41: 23. Esth. 6: 7—9. 1 Sam. 10: 5—10. 

§ 1 SO. Conversation and Bathikg. 

Conversation, in which the ancient orientals indulged like oth- 
er men, in order to beguile the time, was held in the gate of the 
city. Accordingly, there was an open space near the gate of the 
city, as is the case at the present day in Mauritania, which was 
fitted up with seats for the accommodation of the people. Gen. 
19: 1. Ps. 69: 12, Those, who were at leisure, occupied a position on 
these seats, and either amused themselves with witnessing those 
who carne in and those who went out, and with any trifling occurren- 
ces, that might offer themselves to their notice, or attended to the 
judicial trials, which^vere commonly investigated at publick places 
of this kind, viz. the gate of the city. Gen. 19: 1. 34: 20. Ps. 26: 4, 
5. 69: 12. 127: 5. Ruth 4: 11. Is, 14: 31. 

Intercourse by conversation, though not very freqent, was not 
so rare among the ancient orientals, as among their descendants of 
modern Asia. Nor is this to be wondered at, since the fathers 
drank wine, while the descendants are obliged to abstain from 
it; and we are well assured, that the effect of this exhilarating 
beverage was to communicate no little vivacity to the charac- 
ters of the ancient Asiaticks, at least to that of the Hebrews, see 
Is. 30: 29. Jer. 7: 34. 30: 19. Amos 6: 4, 5. The ancient Asiat- 
icks, among whom we include the Hebrews, were delighted with 
singing, with dancing, and with instruments of musick. Promenad- 
ing, so fashionable and so agreeable in colder latitudes, was wea- 
risome and unpleasant in the warm climates of the East, and this 
is probably one reason, why the inhabitants of those climates pre- 
ferred holding intercourse with one another, while sitting near 


the gate of the city, or beneath the shade of the fig-tree and the 
vine, 1 Sam. 2!2: 6. Micah 4: 4. It is for the same reason also, 
that we so frequently hear in the Hebrew Scriptures of persons 
sitting- down, as in the following passage, "Blessed is the man, 
that standeth not in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the 
scornful, see Ps. 1: 1. 107: 32. 89: 7. Ill: 1. 64: 2. 50: 20. 26: 5. 

The bath was always very agreeable to the inhabitants of the 
East, Ruth 3: 3. 2 Sam. 11: 2. 2 Kgs. 5: 10. And it is not at all 
surprising, that it should have been so, since it is not only cooling 
and refreshing, but is absolutely necessary in order to secure a 
decent degree of cleanliness in a climate, where there is so much 
exposure to dust. The bath is frequently visited by Eastern la- 
dies, and may be reckoned among their principal recreations. 
Those Egyptians, who lived at the earliest period of which we 
have any account, were in the habit of bathing in the waters of 
the Nile, Exod. 2: 5. 7: 13—25. Herodot. 11: 37. It was one of 
the civil laws of the Hebrews, that the bath should be used. The 
object of the law without doubt was to secure a proper degree of 
cleanliness among them, Lev. 14: 2. 15: 1 — 8. 17: 15, 16. 22: 6. 
Num. 19: 6. We may, therefore^ consider it as probable, that 
publick baths, soon after the enactment of this law, were erected 
in Palestine, of a construction similar to that of those, which are 
so frequently seen at the present day in the East. 

The orientals, when engaged in conversation, are very candid 
and mild, and do not feel themselves at liberty directly to contra- 
dict the person, with whom they are conversing, although they 
may at the same time be conscious, that he is telling them false- 
hoods. The ancient Hebrews in particular very rarely used any 
terms of reproach more severe than those of "jtDt) adversary or op- 
poser, 'TTp'^1 RACA, contemptible, and sometimes ^^d fool, an expres- 
sion, which means a wicked man or an atheist. Job. 2: 10. Ps. 14: 
1. Is. 32: 6. Matt. 5. 22. 16: 23. Thanchuma p. 5, 2. p. 8. When 
any thing was said, which was not acceptable, the dissatisfied per- 
son replied, it is enough, T^'^'i, DDb ^n, iKdvovadoi, Deut. 3: 26, 
Luke 22: 38. 

The formula of assent or affirmation was as follows ; gv etnag, 
n^2l ^3, thou hast said, or thou hast rightly said. We are inform- 
ed by the traveller Aryda, that this is the prevailing nrtide of a 
person's expressing his assent or afllrmation to this day, in the yi- 


cinity of mount Lebanon^ especially where he does not wish to 
assert any thing in express terms. This explains the answer of 
the Saviour to the high priest Caiaphas in Matt. 26: 64, when he 
was asked, whether he was the Christ, the Son of God, and repli- 
ed av (inag, thou hast said. 

To spit in company in a room, which was covered with a car- 
pet, was an indication of great rusticity of manners ; but in case 
there was no carpet, it was not accounted a fault in a peri=on, 
provided he spit in the corner of the room. The expressions, 
therefore, in Deuteronomy, 25: 7 — 9, viz. T':cs •^P"*"'! *^^ ^^^^^ 
spit in his face, are to be understood literally, the more so on this 
account, because in other places, where spitting, buffeting, &.c. 
are mentioned, they occur under circumstances, where there ex- 
isted a great excitement of feeling, and because there are not 
wanting instances of even greater rudeness and violence, than that 
of spitting in one's face, Malt. 26: 67. Mark 14: 65. comp. 1 Kgs. 
22: 24. Is, 57: 4. Ezek. 2: 6. 25: 6. 2 Sam. 16: 6, 7. The orien- 
tals, as is very well known, are fond of taking a nap at noon, to 
which they are strongly invited by the oppressive heat of their cli- 
mate, 2 Sam. 4: 5, 11:2. Matt. 13: 25. The phrase, to cover one's 
feet^ is used in certain instances to express the custom of retiring 
to rest or sleeping at this time, Jud, 3: 24. 1 Sam. 24: 4. 

§ 181. Treatment of the Jews to Strangers. 

Moses inculcated and enforced, by numerous and by powerful 
considerations, as well as by various examples of benevolent hos- 
pitality, mentioned in the book of Genesis, the exhibition of kind- 
ness and humanity to strangers. There were two classes of per- 
sons, who in reference to this subject, were denominated strangers, 
Q''Ta. One class were those, who, whether Hebrews or foreign- 
ers, were destitute of a home, in Hebrew D^nil3in. The others 
were persons, who, though not natives, had a home in Palestine ; 
the latter were Q'^'^a strangers or foreigners in the strict sense of 
the word. Both, of these classes, according to ^he civil code of 
Moses, were to be treated with kindness, and were to enjoy the 
same ri^^hts with other citizens. Lev. 19: 33, 34. 24: 16, 22. Num. 
9: 14. 19: 14. Deut. 10: 18. 23: 8. 24: 17. 27: 19. 

In the earlier periods of the Hebrew state, persons, who were 


natives of another country, but who had come, either from choice 
or necessity, to take up their residence among the Hebrews, ap- 
pear to have been placed in favourable circumstances. At a later 
period, viz. in the reigns of David and Solomon, they were com- 
pelled to labour on the religious edifices, which were erected by 
those princes ; as we may learn from such passages as these, 
" And Solomon numbered all the strangers, that were in the land of Is- 
rael^ after the numbering, wherewith David, his father had numbered 
them; and they were found an hundred a^id fifty thousand and three 
thousand and six hundred ; and he set three score and ten thousand of 
them to be bearers of burdens^'''' &.C. see 1 Chron. 22: 2. 2 Chron. 
2: 1, 16, 17. The exaction of such laborious services from for- 
eigners was probably limited to those, who had been taljen pris- 
oners in war; and who, according to the rights of war as they 
were understood at that period, could be justly employed in any 
offices, however low and however laborious, which the conquer- 
er thought proper to impose. In the time of Christ, the degen- 
erate Jews did not find it convenient to render to the strangers 
from a foreign country those deeds of kindness and humanity, 
which were not only their due, but which were demanded in their 
behalf by the laws of Moses. They were in the habit of under- 
standing by the word 5"i neighbour, their friends merely, and ac- 
cordingly restricted the exercise of their benevolence by the same 
narrow limits, that bounded in this case their interpretation ; con- 
trary as both were to the spirit of those passages, which have 
been adduced above, Lev. 19: 18. 

§ 182. The Poor and Beggars. 

Moses, as may be learnt by consulting the references in the 
preceding section, made abundant provision for the poor, but it 
does not appear, that he says any thing in respect to beggars. We 
find the first express mention of mendicants in the Psalms, see 
Ps. 109: 10. In the parts of the Hebrew Scriptures, which were 
written subsequently, the mention of them is quite frequent. In 
the time of Christ, mendicants were found sitting in the streets, 
at the doors of the rich, at the gates of the temple, and likewise, 
as we have reason to believe, at the entrance of Synagogues, 
Mark 10: 46. Luke 16: 20. Acts 3: 2. Sometimes food and some- 


times money was presented to,them, Matt. 26: Q.Luke 16: 21. We 
have no reason to suppose, that there existed in the time of Christ 
that class of persons called vagrant beggars, who present their sup- 
plications for alms tVom door to door, and who are found at the 
present d-aj in the East, although less frequentl}^ than in the coun- 
tries of Europe. That the custom of seeking alms hy sounding a 
trumpet or horn, which prevails among a class of Mohammedan 
Monasticks, called Kalendar or Karendal, prevailed also in the 
time of Christ, may be inferred from Matt. 6: 2 ; where the verb 
GulrnQrig which possesses the shade of signification, that would be 
attached to a corresponding word in the Hiphil form of the He- 
brew verbs, is to be rendered transitively, as is the case with 
many other verbs in the New Testament, 1 Cor. 1: 20. 3: 6. 15: 1. 
etc. There is one thing characteristick of those orientals, who 
are reduced to the disagreeable necessity of following the voca- 
tion of mendicants, which is worthy of being mentioned; they do 
not appeal to the pity or to the alms-giving spirit, but to the 
justice of their benefactors, Job 22: 7. 31: 16. Prov. 3: 27, 28. 
21: 21. Ps. 24: 5. Eccles. 4: 1. 14: 13, 14. Matt. 6: 1. Koran 17: 
28. 30: 37. 70: 24. Lexic. Buxtorf. Chal. Talmud, Rabb. p. 1821. 

§ 183. Levitical Defilements. 

The Defilements, which kept a person back not only from sa- 
cred scenes and duties, but from all intercourse with other per- 
sons, were recognized and had an existence among the Hebrews 
before, as well as after, the time of Moses. They had an exis- 
tence, in truth, at that very early period, not only among the 
Hebrews, but also among many other nations. If a man were de- 
filed or rendered unclean by disease, it so happened, because the 
disease was considered contagious. If he were defiled from any 
other cause, that cause, whatever it might be, was something, 
which was associated with ideas of impurity, with dislike, or ab- 
horrence in the minds of the people. Moses defined more accu- 
rately, than had previously been done, those things to which it 
«vas the custom to attach the opprobrium of communicating un- 
cleanness; and in order to increase and perpetuate the separa- 
tion which existed between the Hebrews and the Gentile nations, 
and to render the former less liable to seduction to idolatry, lie 


appointed and regulated the ceremonies, by which unclean per- 
sons might be purified, and restored back again to the privileges 
of the Tabernacle and to the intercourse of friends. If a person, 
who was defiled or unclean, touched another, he rendered the 
other person as unclean as himself, and both were excluded from 
the Tabernacle and Temple, Lev. 13: 3. 

Those persons, who, according to the Levitical law, were un- 
chan were. 

I. Persons who were afflicted with the leprosy. They were 
not permitted to dwell within the limits of either cities or villages. 
They were clad in a rent and misei'able garment, and were com- 
pelled to cry out to every one, whom they met, "t/nc/eaft, unclean .'" 
Lev. 13: 45. Num. 5: 2, et seq. 

II. The GoNORRHAEA oj" seed-Jlux, whether benigna or virulen- 
TA, was a source of uncleanness to any person, who was the sub- 
ject of it. Lev. 15: 3. 

III. Whoever had an emissio seminis, even in legitimate in- 
tercourse, was to be unclean till the evening. Lev. 15: 16 — 22. 

IV. Women after the birth of a son were unclean for seven, 
and after the birth of a daughter, for fourteen days. And in case 
the infant was a manchild, they were debarred during the thirty 
three following days from the Tabernacle and Temple, and from 
the sacritices ; in case the child was a female, they were thus de- 
barred during the sixty six following days. Lev. 12: 1 — 6. 15: 
16— 2C. 

V. Women, during the period of the Menses, and when la- 
bouring under the disease denominated an issue of blood, vvei'e un- 
clean. Lev. 15: 19—21. Matt. 9: 20. 

VI. He, who had touched the corpse of a man or the carcase 
of an animal, a sepulchre, or the bones of a dead person ; like- 
wise he, vvho had been in the tent, or in the room, or house of 
the dying or the dead, were both of them unclean for seven days. 
Priests were rendered unclean by merely wearing the badges of 
mourning; and for that reason they never assumed them, except 
in case of the death of parents, children, brothers, or unmarried 
sisters residing in their fathers house. For the same reason, 
viz. the circumstance of their communicating uncleanness, the 
habiliments of mourning were altogether interdicted to the high 
priest, Lev. 5: 2. 11: 8—11, 24—31. 21: 1—5, 10, 11. Num. 19: 



§ 184. Of Diseases generally. 

In the primitive ages of the world, diseases, in consequence of 
the great simplicity in the mode of living, were but few in num- 
ber. At a subsequent period the number was increased, by the 
accession of diseases, that had been previously unknown. Epide- 
micks also, diseases somewhat peculiar in their character and still 
more fearful in their consequences, soon made their appearance, 
some infesting one period of life, and some another, some limiting 
their ravages to one country, and some to another. The proprie- 
ty of this statement in regard to the original extent and subse- 
quent increase of diseases in general, and to epidemicks, will re- 
commend itself to every mind, that makes even but small preten- 
sions to attainments in knowledge. 

Prosper Alpinus, in his Book de Medicina Aegyptiaca, Lib. I. c 
13. p. 13, mentions the diseases, which are prevalent in Egypt, 
and in other countries in the same climate. They are opthalmies, 
leprosies, inflammations of the brain, pains in the joints, the her- 
nia, the stone in the reins and bladder, the phthisick, hectick, 
pestilential, and tertian fevers, weakness of the stomach, obstruc- 
tions in the liver, and the spleen. Of these diseases, opthalmies, 
pestilential fevers and inflammations of the brain are epidemicks ; 
the others are of a different character. 

Every region, and every age of the world has been in the hab- 
it of attributing certain diseases to certain causes, and of assigning 
names to those diseases, derived from the supposed origin or cause, 
whether it were a real or only an imaginary one. The names 
thus given have been in many instances retained both by the vul- 
gar and by men of medical science, after different causes had been 
developed and assigned to the diseases in question. In respect to 
this subject, we know, that there are certain words of very an- 
cient standing, which are used to express diseases of some kind or 


other; it will, therefore, be a prominent inquiry with us to learn 
what the diseases are, th it were designed to be expressed by those 
words. And in order to clear the way for this inquiry, the re- 
mark may be made here, the truth of which every one will be 
willing to confess, that the ancients were accustomed to attribute 
the origin of diseases, particularly of those, whose natural cause 
they did not understand, to the immediate interference of the De- 
ity. Hence they were denominated by the ancient Greeks 
fjiuOTcyeg or the scourges of God^ a word, which is employed in the 
New Testament b}'^ the physician Luke himself, chap. 7: 21 ; and 
also in Mark 5: 29, 34. 

§ 185. Disease of the Philistines mentioned in 1 Sam. 5 — 6: 

The disease of the Philistines, which is mentioned in 1 Sam. 
5: 6, 12. 6: 18, is denominated in the Hebrew, D''^Dy. This word 
occurs likewise in Deut. 28: 27, and it is worthy of remark, that it 
is every where explained in the Keri or marginal readings, by 
the Aramaean word D^'^htJ ; an expression, which in the Syriack 
dialect, where it occurs under the forms N"\nu;md N"*>nnL}, means 
the fundament, and likewise the effort, which is made in an evac- 
uation of the system. The authors, therefore, of the reading in 
the Keri appear to have assented to the opinion of Josephus, ex- 
pressed in Antiq. VI. 1', 1 ; and to have understood by this word 

5 ^ ^ 5 ' -* .^ 
the dysentery. The corresponding Arabick words jV^^^ ^.XAC^ 
mean a swelling on the anterior part of the verenda in females, 
answering somewhat in its nature to the hernia in men ; a disease, 
consequently, very different from the hemorrhoids, which some 
persons understand to be meant by the word C^S?;. Among oth- 
er objections, it may also be observed, that the inice, which are 
mentioned not only in the Hebrew text, 1 Sam. 6: 5, 12. 16: 18, 
but also in the Alexandrine and Vulgate versions, 1 Sam. 5: 6. 
6: 5, 11, 18, are an objection to understanding the hemorrhoids 
by the word under consideration, since, if that were in fact the 
disease, we see no reason, why mice should have been presented 
as an offering to avert the anger of the God of Israel. 

Lichtenstein, a writer in Eichhorn's Bibliothek, Band VI. S. 
407 — 466, has given a solution, which is free from the difficulties, 


that attended all preceding ones. The word ta^"isD5>, which is 
rendered mice^ he supposes to mean venomous solpugas, which 
belong to the spider class, and yet are so large, and so similar in 
their form to mice, as to admit of their being denominated by the 
same word. These venomous animals destroy and live upon 
scorpions. They also bite men, whenever they can have an 
opportunity, particularly in the fundament and thevERENDA. Their 
bite causes swellings, w.Mch are fatal in their consequences, call- 
ed in Hebrew Apholim, 'Zi''\z'J, see Pliny, Hist. Nat. Lib, XXIX. 4. 
The probable supposition then is, that solpugas were at this time 
multiplied among the Philistines by the special providence of 
God, and that, being very venomous, they were the means of de- 
stroying maii}'^ individuals. 

§ 186. The Disease of King Jehoram. 

King Jehoram, who was clothed with the double infamy of be- 
ing at once an idolater and the murderer of his brethren, was dis- 
eased internally for two years, as had been predicted by the 
prophet Elijah ; and his bowels are said at last to have fallen out 
by reason of his sickness, 2 Chron. 21: 12 — 15, 18, 19. This dis- 
ease beyond ail doubt was the dysentery, and though its continu- 
ance so long a time was very uncommon, it is by no means a thing 
unheard ot'. The intestines in time become ulcerated by the op- 
eration of this disease. Not only blood is discharged from them, 
but a sort of mucous excrements likewise is thrown off, and some- 
times small pieces of the flesh itself; so that apparently the in- 
testines are emitted or fall out, which is sufficient to account for 
the e.xpressions, that are used in the statement of king Jehorara's 
disease, Mead, Medic. Sacr. c IV. 

§ 187. False Conceptions. Evnvivfiatfaaig. 

False conception or pregnancy, in Greek ivnvfvaariDdig, in 
Latin mola ventosa, does not appear to have been so untVe- 
quent among the Hebrew women, as among those of Europe. If 
it had been so, it probably would not have made its appearance 
on the pages of Hebrew writers in the shape of a figure of speech. 
The fact, to which I allude, is this. The Hebrews were accus- 


tomed to expect after calamities a state of things quite the reverse, 
viz. a season of prosperity and joy. They, accordingly, compar- 
ed a season of misfortune and calamity to the pains of a woman in 
travail, but the better destiny, which followed, they compared to 
the joy, which commonly succeeds child-birth, Is. 13: 8. 2G: 17. 
2Kgs. 13: 3. Jer. 4: 31. 13: 21. 22: 23. 30: 6. Mic. 4: 9, 10. John 
16: 21, 22. But they carried the comparison still further. Those 
days of adversity, which were succeeded by adversity still, those 
scenes of sorrow, which were followed only by additional sorrow, 
were likened to women, who laboured under that disease of the 
system, which caused them to exhibit the appearance and endure 
the pains of a state of pregnancy, when that apparent state of 
pregnancy resulted either in nothing, or in the parturition of a 
monster, Is. 26: 18. Ps. 7: 14. 

§ 188. Countries where the Leprosy prevails. 

The Leprosy prevails in Egypt, in the southern part of Up- 
per Asia, and in fact may be considered a disease endemick in 
warm climates generally. Accordingly, it is not at all surprising, 
if many of the Hebrews, when they left Egypt, were infected 
%vith it; but the assertion of Manetho, that they were all thus in- 
fected, and were in consequence of the infection driven out by 
force, in which he is precipitately and carelessly followed by Stra- 
bo, by Tacitus, by Justin Trogus, and by others more recent, is a 
mere dream, without an}' adequate foundation. The disease, it is 
true, was a very severe and a very repulsive one, and was re- 
garded by the ancients, as a marked exhibition of the justice and 
the wrath of God. It was denominated by the Hebrews the blow 
or wound, 2'^?^, ny^i: 3?i5, i. e. by supplying the ellipsis, the blow 
or wound of the Lord, iNum. 12: 1 — 10. 2 Kgs. 5: 1, et seq. 15: 5. 
2Chron. 26: 16. et seq. Herodot. 1. 138. But certainly the 
kings of Egypt, who, according to the unanimous testimony of the 
ancients, could correctly estimate the value of a numerous popu- 
lation, acted a strange and unaccountable part, if it be a fiict, that 
on account of a disease, which m;ght be called one of the attri- 
butes of the country and chmate, they expelled from the very- 
heart of the nation more than two millions of people. 


§ 189. Beginnings and Progress of Leprosy. 

The leprosy exhibits itself on the exteriour surface of the 
skin, but it infects, at the same time, the marrow and the bones; 
so much so that the furthest joints in the system gradually lose 
their powers, and the members fall tog-ether in such a manner, as 
to give the body a mutilated and dreadful appearance. From 
these circumstances, there can be no doubt, that the disease orig- 
inates, and spreads its ravages internally, before it makes its ap- 
pearance on the external parts of the body. Indeed we have rea- 
son to believe, that it is concealed in the internal parts of the 
system a number of years, for instance, in infants commonly till 
they arrive at the age of puberty, and in adults, as many as three 
or four years, till at last it gives the fearful indications on the 
skin of having already gained a well-rooted and permanent ex- 

Its progress subsequently to its appearance on the external 
surface of the body is Air from being rapid ; in a number of years 
it arrives at its middle, and in a number after to its tinal state. A 
person, who is leprous from his nativity may live fifty years ; one, 
who in after life is infected with it, may live twenty years, but 
they will be such years of dreadful misery, as rarely fall to the 
lot of man in any other situation. 

The appearance of the disease externally, is not alwa^'S the 
same. The spot is common!}' small, resembling in its appearance 
the small red spot that would be the consequence of a puncture 
from a needle, or the pustules of a ringworm. The spots for the 
most part make their appearance very suddenly, especially if the 
infected person, at the period when the disease shows itself ex- 
ternally, happens to be in great tear, or to be intoxicated with 
anger, Num. 12: 10. 2 Chron. 26: 19. They commonly exhibit 
themselves in the first instance, on the face, about the nose and 
eyes; fhey gradually increase in size for a number of years, till 
they become, as respects the extent of surface which they em- 
brace on the skin, as large as a pea or bean. They are then called 
Di*^. The white spot or pustule, rTTj^jS, morphea' alba, and also 
the dark spot, DtifD, morphea nigra, are indications of the exist- 
ence of the real leprosy, Lev. 13: 2, 39. 14: 56. From these it is 


necessary to distinguish the spot, which, whatever resemblance 
there may be in form, is so different in its effects, called Bohak, 
prra, and also the harmless sort of scab, which occurs under the 
word, nnipx;, Lev, 13: 6 — 8, 29. 

Moses, in the thirteenth chapter of Leviticus, laj'S down very 
explicit rules for the purpose of distinn^uishing- between those 
spots, which are proofs of the actual existence of the leprosy, and 
those spots, which are harmless and result from some other cause. 
Those spots, which are the genuine effects and marks of the lep- 
rosy, gradually dilate them-selves, till at length they cover the 
whole body. Not only the skin is subject to a total destruction, 
but the whole-body is affected in every part. The pain, it is true, 
is not very great, but there is a great debility of the system, and 
great uneasiness and grief, so much so, as almost to drive the vic- 
tim of the disease to self-destruction. Job 7: 15. 

There are four kinds of the real leprosy. The first kind is of 
so virulent and powerful a nature, that it separates the joints and 
limbs, and mutilates the body in the most awful manner. The 
second is the white leprosy^ Oi^'^S. The third is the black leprosy 
or Psora,'2'1^, )''n-p, niSJ^^iN nns ]T1U3, D-jn, nc':?;;, Deut. 28: 27, 
35. Lev. 21: 20 — 22. Tiie fourth description ol leprosy is the alo' 
pecia, or red leprosy. 

The person, who is infected with the lepro?}', however long the 
disease may be in passing through its several stages, is at last ta- 
ken away suddenly, andfor the most part unexpected!}'. But the 
evils, which fall upon the living leper, are not terminated by the 
event of his death. The disease is to a certain extent hereditary, 
and is transmitted down to the third and fourth generation ; to 
this fact there seems to be an allus;on in Exod. 20: 4 — 6. 3:7. 
Deut. 5: 9. 24: 8, 9. If any one shouM undertake to say, that in 
the fourth generation it is not the real leprosy, still it will not be 
denied, there is something, which bears no little resemblance to 
it, in the shape of defective teeth, of fetid breath, and a diseased 
hue. Leprous persons, notwithstanding the deformities and mu- 
tilation of their bodies, give no special evidence of a liberation 
from the strength of the sensual passions, and cannot be influenc- 
ed to abstain from the procreation of children, when at the same 
time they clearly foresee the misery, of which their offspring will 
be the inheritors. The disease of leprosy is communicated not 

206 § 189. PROGRESS or leprosy. 

only by transmission from the parents to the children, and not on- 
ly by sexual cohabitation, but also by much intercourse with the 
leprous person in any way whatever. Whence Moses acted the 
part of a wise legislator in making those laws, which have come 
down to us, concerning the inspection and separation of leprous 
persons. The object of these Laws will appear peculiary worthy, 
when it vvas considered, that they were designed, not wantonly to 
fix the charge of being a leper upon an innocent person, and thus 
to impose upon him those restramts and inconveniences, which 
the truth of such a charge naturally implies; but to ascertain in 
the fairest and most satisfactorj' manner, and to separate those, 
and those only, who were truly and really leprous. As this was 
the prominent object of his Laws, that have come down to us on 
this subject, viz. to secure a fair and impartial decision on a ques- 
tion of tills kind, he has not mentioned those signs of leprosj^, 
which admitted of no doubt, but those only, which might be the 
subject of contention ; and left it to the priests, who also fulfilled 
the office of physicians, to distinguish between the really leprous, 
and those who had only the appearance of being such. In the 
opinion of Henslor, expressed in his Geschichte der abendldndischen 
Aussatzes, S. 273, Moses, in the Laws to which we have alluded, 
discovers a great knowledge of the disease. Every species of 
leorosy is not equally malignant ; the most virulent species defies 
the skill and power of physicians. That which is less so, if taken 
at its commencement, can be healed. But in the latter case also, 
if the disease has been of long continuance, there is no remedy. 

Note L On Cohak as distinct from infectious leprosy. 

[We find mention, in the rules laid down by Moses for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the true tokens of leprosy, of a cutaneous dis- 
order, which is denominated by him Bohak, p^3i ^rid of which 
there is a slight mention in the above section. It was thought by 
the translator, that it might be interesting to the reader to have 
some further account of this disorder, and he has accordingly in- 
troduced here the answer of Niebuhr, found at page 135 of his 
Description of Arabia, to the inquiry of Michaelis on this subject. 
The words of Moses, which may be found in Leviticus 13: 38, 39, 
are as follows ; '"'' If <x man or woman have white spots on the skin^ 
and the priest see. that the colour of these spots is faint and pale ; it is, 


t» this case ^ the Bohak, (/ia( has'broken out on the skin, and they are 
clean.'''' A person, according-ly, who was attacked with this dis- 
ease, the Bohak, was not declared unclean, and the reason of it 
was, that it is not onl}' harmless in itself, but is free from that in- 
fe^ctious and hereditary character, which belongs to the true lep- 

Says Mr Niebuhr; "The Bohak is neither infectious nor 
dangerous. A black boy at Alocha, who was attacked with this 
sort of leprosy, had white spots here and there on his body. It 
was said, that the use of sulphur had been for some time of ser- 
vice to this boyv but had not altogether removed the disease." He 
then adds the following extract from the papers of a Dr Foster, 
" May 15th, 1763, I myself saw a case of the Bohak in a Jew at 
Mocha. The spots in this disease are of unequal size. They 
have no shining appearance, nor are they perceptibly elevated 
above the skin ; and they do not change the colour of the hair. 
Their colour is an obscure white or somewhat reddish. The rest 
of the skin of this patient was blacker than that of the people of 
the country in general, but the spots were not so white, as the 
skin of an European when not sunburnt. The spots, in this spe- 
cies of leprosy, do not appear on the hands, nor about the navel, 
but on the neck and face ; not however on that part of the head, 
where ihe hair grows very thick. They gradually spread, and 
continue sometimes only about two months ; but in some cases, in- 
deed, as long as two years, and then disappear, by degrees, of 
themselves. This disorder, is neither infectious nor heredit;iry, 
nor does it occasion any inconvenience." " That all this," re- 
marks Michaelis, "should still be found exactly to hold at the dis- 
tance of three thousand five hundred years from the time of Mo- 
ses, ought certainly to gain some credit to his laws, even with 
those, who will not allow them to be of divine authority," see 
Commentaries on the Laws of Moses, Smith's Translation, Vol. Ill 
p. 283. art. 210.] 

Note II. On the Leprosy of Gaudaloupe. 

[Michaelis, in discussing the subject of leprosies, expresses his 
gratitude to God, that the Lepra Arabum, as it is termed by the 
learned, is known to the physicians of Germany, only from books, 
and by name. But this disease, although it is very unfrequent in 

208 § 189. NOTE n. LEPROSV of GAtrDALOUPE, 

Europe, indeed almost extinct, made its appearance about the 
3'ear 1730 on the Western Continent, and spread its ravag-es among 
the sug^ar islands of the West Indies, particularly Gaudaloupe. 
The inhabitants of this island, alarmed and territied at the intro- 
duction of so pernicious a disorder among them, petitioned the 
Court of France to send to the island, persons qualified to institute 
an inspection of those who laboured under suspicions of being in- 
fected, in order that those, who were in fact lepers, might be re- 
moved into Lazarettoes. 

M. Peyssonel, who was sent to Gaudaloupe on this business, 
writes as follows on the third of February, 1757. " It is now 
about twenty five or thirty years, since a singular disease appear- 
ed on many of the inhabitants of this island. Its commencement 
is imperceptible. There appear only some few white spots on 
the skin, which, in the Whites, are of a blackish red colour, and 
in the Blacks, of a copper red. At first, they are attended neith- 
er with pain, nor any sort of inconvenience ; but no means what- 
ever will remove them. The disease imperceptibly increases, 
and continues for many years to manifest itself more and more. 
The spots become larger, and spread over the skin of the whole 
body indiscriminately; sometimes a little elevated, though flat. 
When the disease advances, the upper part of the nose swells, the 
nostrils become enlarged, and the nose itself soft. Tumours ap- 
pear on the jaws ; the eye-brows swell; the ears become thick ; 
the points of the fingers, as also the feet and toes, swell ; the nails 
become scaly; the joints of the hands and feet separate, and drop 
off. On the palms of the hands, and on the soles of the feet, appear 
deep dry ulcers, which increase rapidly, and then disappear again. 
In short, in the last stage of the disease, the patient becomes a 
hideous spectacle, and falls in pieces. These symptoms supervene 
by very slow and successive ste[)S, requiring often many years be- 
fore they all occur. The patient suffers no violent pain, but feels 
a sort of numbness in his hands and feet. During the whole pe- 
riod of the disorder, those afflicted with it, experience no obstruc- 
tions in what are called the jYaturalia. They eat and drink as 
usual ; and even when their fingers and toes mortify, the loss of 
the mortified part is the only consequence that ensues ; for the 
wound heals of itself without any medical treatment or applica- 
tion. When, however, the unfortunate wretches come to the last 


§ 190. ON THE PESTILENCE. 209 

period of the disease, they are hideously disfigured, and objects 
of the greatest compassion. 

" It has been remarked, that this horrible disorder has, be- 
sides, some very lamentable properties ; as, in the first place, that 
it is hereditary ; and hence some families are more affected with 
it than others : secondly^ that it is infectious^ being propagated by 
coition, and even by long continued intercourse : thirdly^ that it is 
incurable, or at least no means of cure have hitherto been discov- 
ered. Mercurial medicines, and diaphoretics, and all the usual 
prescriptions and plans of regimen for venereal complaints, have 
been tried, from an idea that the infection might be venereal ; but 
in vain : for instead of relieving, they only hastened the destruc- 
tion of the patients. The medicines serviceable in Lues venerea 
had no other effect than to bring the disease to its acme ; induc- 
ing all its most formidable symptoms, and making those thus treat- 
ed, die some years sooner, than other victims to it,"] 

§ 190. On the Pestilence, "li".. 

The Pestilence, in its effects, is equally terrible with the lep- 
rosy, and is much more rapid in its progress ; for it terminates the 
existence of those, who are infected with it almost immediately, 
and at the farthest, within three or four days. The Gentiles 
were in the habit of referring back the pestilence to the agency 
and interference of thatbeing, whatever it might be, whether idol 
or spirit, whom they regarded, as the divinity. The Hebrews al- 
so every where attribute it to the agency either of God himself, 
or of that Legate or angel, whom they denominate ^N^!^- We 
are not, however, to suppose, that the Hebrews, in using these 
expressions, mean to attribute the pestilence to the immediate 
agency of God; nor would they permit us to understand by the 
messenger, who, they assure us, is the agent in business of 
so disastrous a nature, the true and appropriate angel or Legate 
of Jehovah. It is true, they tell us, that God sends forth the pes- 
tilence, and that the Angel goes with it and smites the people with 
its power, but let it not be forgotten, that every angel is the 
creature of God, and that, in a certain sense, God is the author of 
all things, and all events, whether prosperous or afflictive, wheth- 
er good or bad. When they make God the author of the pesti- 


lence, it is clear, they do not mean to say, lie is the hmiiediate 
cause in so fearful a calamity, from the fact, that, in other places, 
they represent Gofl, as the author of moral evil, where they cer- 
tainly do not mean to say, He is tho iminediate author of such evil. 
In a somewhat recent period of their history, it canuot be denied, 
that instead of making- God the author of evil, they attribute it to 
a malignant spint of high origin, viz. Satan ; but still they were 
aware of the origin of this being, that he was the creature of God 
and acted beneath his superintendence. The difliculty then in 
regard to their representations arises from this source. God, in a 
certain sense, is the author of all things. This is true. But the 
ancient Hebrews do not appear to have distinguished sufficiently 
accurately that liberty or permission, which is given us in the 
course of Divine Providence, to do or not to do, to do good or 
evil, from the direct and immediate agency of God himself, Deut. 
4:19. Josh. 11:20. 2Sam.l6:10. 24:1. comp. lChron.21:l. 
2 Kgs. 17:14. Ps. 78:49 — 51. In consequence of this disposition 
to identify the agency of God with the actions of his creatures, 
and to confound the original with second and subsidiary causes, we 
find, by consulting the Scriptures, that they sometimes represent 
men, and sometimes animals or inanimate existences asd'DNb?3, the 
messengers^ or ihe angels of God; and this not only in poetry, but 
likewise in prose, Ps. 34. 7. 104:4. Heb. 2: 2, Acts 7: 53. 12; 
23. Gal. 3: 19. comp. Josephus. Antiq. XV. 5,3. 

This mode of speech was so common, that the Sadducees 
of a more recent age, who, although they received the Scrip- 
tures with veneration, denied the existence of any spirits, 
interpreted ail the passages, (where mention is made of an- 
gels,) of other existences, which were employed by God as 
instruments, and, as they supposed, were, from that circum- 
stance mcrelij, denominated the messengers, or angels of God. 
The Samaritans likewise, as has been shown by Re land dc Samari- 
tanis, 7 — 9, gave the same perverted interpretation to the word, 
which is rendered angel. This mode pf speaking found its way 
also among the Syrians, who were in the habit of calling diseases 
angels^ i.e. messengers, who are sent to inflict punishment upon 
men ; and were accustomed to denominate a sick man, one tempt- 
ed, N'^w^a, or tried of God or of his angel, Assemani Bibl. Orient. 
T.I. p. 215. comp. 2 Cor. 12: 7. It is in this way, that the festi- 

§ 190. ON THE I'ESTtLENCE, 21 1 

tKNCE, (the secondary causes of it being overlooked,) is adributed 
directly to God^ Exod. 1 1: 4—7. 12: 23, 29. comp. Fs. 78: 49, 50 ; 
also to an angel, 2 Sam. 24: 15^ 16, who is represented as slaying 
men with a sword, and, in 1 Chron. 21: IG, is described with the 
additional circumstance of being elevated between heaven and 
earth. But that God, or the angel in these instances, is merely 
the PESTILENCE Itself, the original cause being put for the efTect, 
and being identified with it, in a way, which is not common among 
us, seems to be sufficiently clear from 2 Sam. 24: 12, 15, where a 
pestilence with its ordinary and natural attributes is the promi- 
nent subject of discourse. This view of the subject gives a reason, 
why the Septungint renders the word '^laT or peatilence, in Psalm 
91:6, by duiiiOi/iov f(eGt]i^t(3^ivov, i. e. the demon of noon-day ; and 
why Jonathan renders the same word in the Chaldee Targum, 
Habak. 3: 5, by the Chaldee word mM^TJ, angel or messenger. 

We lay it down then, as a general principle, that wherever 
we are told, an angel scatters abroad a pestilence, the pestilence 
merely is meant by such expressions. Apply it for instance to the 
destruction of Sennacherib's army, 2 Kgs. 19: 35. comp. 2 Kgs. 18: 
23. 19: G — 8. In this destruction, an hundred and eighty five 
thousand men perished. We are told, it was done by an angel, 
but we know, this was a common mode of speech, and that all 
natural events and effects were frequently described, as the mes- 
sengers or angels of God. If we seek then for a natural cause, for 
so wide a destruction,' we fix immediately upon the pestilence, 
which is most violent in its first attack, and might well have de- 
stroyed the hundred and eighty five thousand Assyrians, if the 
spoils of Egypt, infected with its contagious properties, had been 
scattered through the camp. The idea, that Sennacherib's army 
perished by means of the pestilence, communicated in the way 
above alluded to, or some other, agrees better than any other 
hypothesis, with the fact, that the survivors in that army were 
not aware, till the return of the morning light, of the immense num- 
ber, that had died. 

Ifanvone wishes to be informed furtlier concerning the na- 
ture of the pestilence, and the symptoms exhibited by an infected 
person, let him consult the original German edition of this Work, 
T. II. P. I. § 223. pp. 389—397. It will merely be remarked 
here, in reference to those topicks. that no one ever recovered 


from the pestilence, unless the boil of the pestilence came out 
upon him. And even then, he could not always be cured, 2 Kgs. 
20:7. Isa. 38:21. 

§ 191. Thf: Disease of Saul and Nebuchadnezzar. 

The position, which we have endeavoured to defend in the 
preceding section, that diseases and events of rare occurrence, 
and, we may add here, events likewise of daily occurrence, were 
attributed by the ancient Hebrews to God, or to some angel, as 
his messenger, throws light upon many passages of Scripture. 

A person, who understands the extent and the proper bearing 
of that principle, will readily see, that the spirit of God, IriTn^ H^"'? 
which departed from Saul, was no other, than an upright and a 
generous tendency of mind ; and that the evil spirit from the Lord^ 
which beset and filled him with terror, Tt^rT'^ nNTp n>■^,.^^-^ 1 Sam. 
16: 14, 15. 18: 10, 10: 9, was a sort of madness, which had the ef- 
fect of deceiving him into the idea, that he was a prophet ; for it 
seems, that he prophesied, Naiin^^i ^^^i i" ^^^ probability, pre- 
dicted the loss of his own kingdom. The Targum of Jonathan, 
accordingly, renders the -word Na^n^, he xvasmad or insane. This 
EVIL SPIRIT, in a word, was not more a spirit or messenger from 
God, than the evil spirit, which, in Judges 9: 23, is said to have 
been sent by him among the Shechemites; and which, certainly, as 
was evident even to the ancient interpreters, and has been since 
to every body else, was nothing more, than the spirit of strife and 
dissension. In the same vvay, that the spirit of fornication, nn^ 
D'^anit, in Hosea 4: 12, is merely /«5(, compare 1 Sam. 1 1: 6. 16: 14. 
Jud.3:10. 6:34. 11:29.14:6. Ps.51:ll. Ezrall:19. 18:31. 
This representation more than any other is suitable to the fact, 
that Saul was benefitted by rausick ; for the charms of musick, 
however great its efhcacy in any other case, would have been 
very incompetent to the task of subduing the untractable spirit of 
a real demon. 

This mode of speaking did not originate, as some have sup- 
posed, in the time of the captivitj-^, from the doctrine held by the 
Mehestani, although it undoubtedly at that time became more 
common, and was used with greater latitude, than at any previous 
period. For, agreeably to this mode of speech and to the belief 


on which it is founded, viz. the subordinate agency of angels, we 
find mention made in Daniel 4: 10, 14, 20, [consult Michaelis' 
edition of the Hebrew Bible,] of 0"''^,^^ or star-watchers. The de- 
signs or the decrees of these " holy watchers," as they are term- 
ed, which are made known to Nebuchadnezzar in his vision, and 
are stated in the verses above mentioned, are referred by Daniel 
in the 'twenty eighth verse of the same chapter to the immediate 
agency of God himself; a circumstance, which is altogether con- 
formable to what has been already stated, in this, and the preced- 
ing section, on this subject. 

The disease of JVebuchadnezzar^ mentioned in this chapter, was 
that of insanity or madness. His mind was in such a state, his 
reasoning powers were so perverted and deranged, that it ap- 
peared to him, as if he heard a voice from heaven, declaring his 
expulsion from the kingdom ; and he imagined, that he was real- 
ly transformed into a beast. Accordingly he acknowledges, in 
the fourth chapter, 31, 33, that he had again received the use of 
his reason ; which is an evidence, that he understood the disease, 
from which he had recovered, to have been insanity. 

§ 192. Respecting Demoniacks. 

The inquiry respecting the Demoniacks, who are so often in- 
troduced in the New Testament, and likewise in the writings! of 
profane authors of antiquity, is a very intricate and a very difficult 
one. There are some persons, who contend, that the Demoniacks 
were all of them either madmen, epilepticks, or persons subject 
to melancholy ; and they make their appeal in behalf of their 
opinions to physicians. They, accordingly, in their interpretation 
of those expressions, which are emploj'ed in reference to Demo- 
niacks, go on the principle, that the sacred writers meant by them 
the same and nothing more, than would be naturally meant, in 
case the possessed persons were merely the subjects of those dis- 

Other persons, both theologians and physicians," have strong 
objections to this view of the subject. In their estimation, the ex- 
pressions in the New Testament clearly imply, that the Demoni- 
acks were possessed by an evil spirit ; and this state of things, 
they suppose, was permitted in the providence of God, in order 


to give to the Saviour an opportunity to exhibit his miraculous 

We have no disposition at present to exhibit ourselves, as par- 
tisans in this controversy, and shall only endeavour to give an 
impartial statement of the arguments on both sides, so as to leave 
the reader m a condition to form his own opinion. 

§ 193. Demoniacks were possessed with a Devil. 

It will be our object, in the first place, to state the arguments 
in favour of the opinion, that the Demoniacks were really pos- 
sessed with a Devil. They are as follows, 

I. They expressed themselves in a wa}', which is not done 
by epileptick, melancholy, or insane persons, as in Matt. 8: 28. 
Luke 8: 27. Mark 5: 7. They possessed the supernatural power 
of sundering all sorts of chord s and chains. They requested of 
Jesus not to torment them. They answered with propriety ques- 
tions, which were proposed to them. Demons departed from 
them and entered into swine. Certainly it cannot be said in re- 
ference to this last particular, that madness or melancholy, the 
mere phrenzy or wanderings of the brain went out of the possessed 
persons into the herd. The supposition, which some make, that 
the swine were driven into the sea by the Demoniacks, is desti- 
tute of all probability. They would have stood a much better 
chance of being driven in many more directions than one, by per- 
sons of such an undisciplined, and irrational character; especially 
as they were two thousand in number. 

II. No symptoms of disease are mentioned in the case of the 
dumb demoniack, introduced in Matt. 9: 32 and Luke 11: 11, nor 
in that of the dumb and blind dfcmoniack, spoken of in Matt. 12: 
22. The possessed persons, therefore, in both of these instances 
were in a sound state of body and health, with this exception 
merely, that the devil^ (for this certainly could not have been 
done by epilepsy, melancholy, or madness,) obstructed their or- 
gans of speech and vision. 

III. It is admitted, that the circumstances attending the case 
of the lunatick, in Matthew 17: 15, are such, as would be expect- 
ed in the case of a person afflicted v.'ith the epilepsy ; but (hen 


it should be particularly noticed, that the effects in this instance, 
as well as in others, are attributed to the agency of the devil. 

IV. We are informed, that the damsel of Philippi, Acts 16: 16, 
practised divination, wiiich evidently could not have been done 
by a mad or deranged person. We must conclude, therefore, 
that she M'as under the influence of an evil spirit. 

V. The Domoniacks themselves say, that the}^ are possessed 
with a devil. The Jews of the New Testament, who happened 
to be concerned on account of their relationship to the person, or 
in any other way, in a case of demoniacal possession, assert the 
same thing. The Apostles likewise and Evangelists allege, that 
persons possessed with demons, were brought to Jesus, and that 
the Demons departed at his command, Matt. 4: 24. 7: 22. 9: 33. 
12: 28, Mark 1: 32, 39. 9: 25. Luke 4: 41. 8: 2, 30, 38. 9: 49. 11: 14. 
Jesus himself asserts, that he casts out devils, Luke 11: 19. Matt. 
12: 27, 28. 

VI. The sacred writers make an express distinction between De- 
moniacks, and the sick ; and likewise between t'le exorcism of 
demons, and the healing of the sick, Mark 1: 32, Luke 6: 17, 18. 
7: 21. 8: 2. 13: 32. Demoniacks, therefore, were not persons af- 
flicted with diseases, in the way that has been supposed. 

VII. Demoniacks knew, what madmen, insane persons, epilep- 
ticks, and melancholy men could not of themselves know, viz, 
THAT Jesus was the Son of God, the Messiah, the Son of David, 
ETC. Mark 1: 24, 5: 7. Matt. 8: 29. Luke 4: 34. 

Vin. Jesus speaks to the demons and asks them their name ; 
and we find, that they answer Him, He also threatens them, 
commands them to be silent, to depart, and not to return, Mark 1: 
25. 5: 8. 9: 25. Matt. 8: 29—31. Luke 4: 35. 8: 30—32. 

IX. When the seventy disciples returned from their labours, one 
prominent c;iuse of their joy was, that the devils, when the name 
of Christ was pronounced, obeyed them. Jesus answered them, 
as follows, m Luke 10: 18; '•'' I beheld Satan, as lightning fall from 
heaven. Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpi- 
ons, and over ail the power of the enerni/f and nothing shall by any 
ineans hurt you ; notwithstanding^ in this rejoice not, that the spirits 
are subject unto you,, but rather rejoice, because your names are writ- 
ten in heaven.'''' 

X. When the Saviour was accused by the Pharisees of cast- 


ing out devils by the aid of Beelzebub, he replied, that the king- 
dom, the city, or the family, in which were dissensions and dis- 
cords, would of itself perish ; and that, consequently, if there 
were such discords in the kingdom of Satan, as to induce one dev- 
il to exert his power in the expulsion of another, it could not long 
exist. To these things, he immediately adds ; ^'^ If I by Beelzebitb 
cast out devils, by whom do your sons cast them out ? Therefore^ they 
shall be your judges. But if I cast out devils by the spirit of God, {by 
divine power or a miracle.,) then the kingdom of God is come unto 
you. Or else how can one enter into a strong man''s house, and spoil 
his goods, except he first bind the strong man ? and then he will spoil 
his house,"" Matt. 12: 25, 28. Mark 3: 23—25. Luke 11: 17—19. 

XI. Jesus makes the following remarks in respect to demons 
or evil spirits in Mntt. 12: 43 and in Luke 11: 24. " When the un- 
clean spirit is gone out of a man. he walketh through dry places, seek- 
ing rest but finding none. He saith, I will return totny house, whence 
I came out. .ind when he Cometh, he findeth it swept and garnished ; 
then goeth he and takeih seven oilier spirits more wicked than himself; 
and they enter in and dwell there, and the last state of that man is 
worse than the first.'''' It is very clear, that a person would not nat- 
urally understand expressions of this kind in respect to a disease. 

XII. The woman, in Luke 13: 11, who was bowed down with 
the spirit of infirmity is said by the Saviour in the sixteenth verse, 
to have been bound by Satan. The Apostle Peter, in like man- 
ner asserts, in Acts 10: 38, that all, who had been oppressed with 
the devil, yiuTadvvaGxfvof.itvovg vtio tov diapolov, were healed 
by Jesus of Xazarelh, the anointed of God. 

XIII. The wonderful miracles of Jesus will appear of but com- 
paratively little importance and little worth, if it should be admit- 
ted, that he did not actually cast out devils, but merely healed 
diseases. The Church Fathers, accordingly, embraced, without 
any dissenting voice, the opinion, that the persons, of whom we 
have been speaking, were really possessed with demons, and the 
Church itself, in accordance with this opinion, instituted an order 
of persons, called exorcists. 


§ 194. General view of the opposite Argument. 

Those, who maintain, that Demoniacks were epileptick, mel- 
ancholy, insane, or mad persons, commence their arguments, with 
referring back to a very early period. They endeavour to prove 
by induction from various instances, which they conceive to be to 
the point, and by a multitude of quotations from Greek, Roman 
and Jewish writers, that the demons, to whom diseases are attri- 
buted as the agents, are not the 6 dta^oXog of the New Testa- 
ment, {the evil spirit in an emphatick and peculiar sense ;) but 
that they are the spirits of dead 7nen, who had died by a violent 
death, particularly of such, as were known to have sustained bad 
characters while living. Demoniacks, therefore, according to 
the hypothesis of these persons, were men, who were afflicted 
with some disease mental or bodily, but who were generally sup- 
posed by the people to be possessed and agitated by these spirits, 
the same as if they had been haunted by furies ; compare the 
large German edition of this Work, P. I. V. II. § 227—229. p. 
411 — 454. They take the ground, therefore, that Jesus, the 
Apostles, and the writers of the New Testament, if they wished 
to be understood by those, for whom their writings were intended, 
were under the necessity of attaching the same meaning to the 
word demons, which -was attached to it by their cotemporaries. 

Having taken this position, they endeavour to confirm their 
sentiments by saying further, 

I. That the symptoms, exhibited by Demoniacks, as stated 
in the New Testament, are the same with those, which are ex- 
hibited by men in epilepsy, hypochondria, insanity, and madness. 

II. That the sacred writers give intimations in various places, 
that they use the words demon and demons^ solely because they 
were in common circulation at that period ; and are, accordingly, 
to be considered, as merely accommodating themselves to the 
language in common use, and not as professedly teaching or de- 
nying the agency attributed to evil spirits. 

III. That the real operation of departed spirits upon living 
men is inconsistent with the doctrine of Christ and his Apostles ; 
and of course they could not mean, by the phrases and passages 
in question, such operations. 


218 § 195. or demoniacks. 

These three points, they endeavour to illustrate and confirm 
by various arguments, of which we shall proceed to give an enu- 

§ 195. SYMPTOMS IN Demoniacks the same with those in diseased 


The opposerg of the doctrine of the real agency of evil spir- 
its in the case of Demoniacks proceed to state, in the first place, 
that, in the time of Christ, Demoniacks in other countries were 
frequently restored by a resort to medical prescriptions. It is 
not at all rational to suppose, that Demoniacks thus restored were 
actually possessed with the spirits of the dead, in as much as such 
spirits could not have been expelled by mere medical art. They 
were, therefore, merely diseased or sick persons in the ordinary 
sense of the words. The symptoms in these men were the same 
with those of the persons mentioned in the New Testament, viz. 
the ordinary symptoms of epilepsy, insanity, and hypochondria. 
The Demoniacks, consequently, of the New Testament, as we 
have the utmost ground for inferring, were no other than sick 
men, since the symptoms they actually exhibited are such, as they 
would have exhibited, in case they had been afflicted with the dis- 
eases abovementioned, and nothing more. And these diseases, let 
it be remembered, are attributed to spirits or demons so called, 
merely on account of the prevailing opinions and belief of the peo- 


1. The two Gadarenes, Matt. 8: 28, et seq. of whom only the 
more conspicuous and celebrated one, (viz. the one, who after his 
recovery prayed Christ, "that he might be with him," i. e. might be 
his follower or disciple,) is mentioned in Mark 5: 2, and Luke 8: 27, 
were deranged persons or mad-men, who were impressed with the 
idea, that there were within then> innumerable spirits of dead men. 
They, accordingly, dwelt amid the sepulchres of the buried, went 
naked, were ungovernable, cried aloud, beat themselves, and at- 
tacked those, who passed by. Such things are characteristick of 
madmen. The great power which one of them possessed, and 
which enabled him to burst asunder bonds and chains, is not un- 


frequently witnessed in persons, who have lost their reason. Both 
Mark (5: 15,) and Luke (8: 35,) mention that the Gadarenes found 
this demoniack after he had been restored by Jesas, auxf^ovovvrot, 
i. e. in his right mind ; which is a clear intimation, that he was 
previously destitute of reason. 

It is true, these men address Jesus as the Son of God, i. e. the 
Messiah, and ask him not to torment them ; but this circumstance 
can be accounted for on the supposition, that they had heard, as 
they undoubtedly had, in those lucid intervals, which are granted 
to many insane persons, that Jesus, whose fame, (Matt. 4: 24,) had 
already extended as far as Syria, was regarded as the Messiah. 

They evidently betray their insanity by saying, they were dev- 
ils without number, and by beseeching Jesus not to drive them into 
the sea, but to permit them to enter into the swine, which were 
feeding near. Certainly none but the professed advocates of real 
demoniacal possession would suppose, that an actual demon or dev- 
il would select such an habitation, as that. It is admitted, that 
Jesus, (Mark 5: 8,) commands the unclean spirit to depart. But 
does this prove any thing ? The spirit was called unclean, because 
it was supposed to be the spirit of one dead, and was unclean of 
course.. It was commanded to depart, merely that the attention of 
the people present might be excited, and that they might have 
ample opportunity to notice the miracle, wrought in favour of the 
unfortunate maniack. It was not the demons, but, as in Acts 19: 
16, the madmen themselves, who impetuously attacked the herd 
of swine, and drove them down the steep into lake Gennesareth. 
Mark and Luke, in conformity with the common mode of speech, 
represent the demons, as going from the madmen, and entering in- 
to the swine ; for it was the custom to attribute to the agency of the 
supposed demons, whatever was done by the demoniacks them- 
selves ; comp. Matt. 9: 32, Luke 11: 14, 13: 11, see also the large 
German edition of this Work, P. I. Vol. II. § 231. p. 464. That 
the swine, being a fearful animal, and running with great speed, 
as they naturally would, before pursuers of such a peculiar char- 
acter, should have plunged in considerable numbers into the Lake 
and perished, is by no means strange or incredible. We say in 
considerable numbers, because the expressions which are used, 
leave us at liberty to suppose, that some of the herd escaped. 
The meaning is, that the expressions are not to be too literally 
ioterpreted {ad vivvm resecandum.) Nor is it, moreover, any thing 

220 § 195. OF DEMONIACKS, 

very extraordinary, that these men paid a sort of homage and 
reverence to the Redeemer, of whose miracles and greatness, 
they had heard ; since there are not wanting instances of madmen^ 
who both fear;, and exhibit a degree of respect to certain persons. 

II. The dumb man, mentioned in Matt. 9: 32, and in Luke 
11: 14, and the man, who was both damb and blind in Matt. 12: 
22, were hkewise insane, or at least melancholy persons. It is 
proper to remark here, in explanation of our thus coupling to- 
gether these two classes of mental diseases, that insanity, and 
melaucho'y or hypochondria, as the experience of physicians suf- 
ficiently proves, are nearly allied to, and often accompany each 
other. That the first mentioned of these persons was afflicted 
with one of these maladies, which in that age were attributed to 
the agency of demons, appears from the fact, that Luke, (11: 14,) 
calls the devil a dumb one, while the parallel passage in Matt. 9: 
32, represents the man himself as dumb. 

III. The youth, who, in Matt. 17: 15, is called a lunatick 
from his childhood, and who, in Luke 9: 38 — 40, was seized and 
torn, while uttenng cries of woe, by an evil spirit of such perse- 
vering cruelty, as to be unwilling to suspend the exercise of his 
vengeance even after the victim had already severely and cruelly 
suffered, and who, furthermore, is said in Mark 6: 17, to have 
had an unclean spirit, to have fallen with great outcries, sometimes 
upon the earth, sometimes into water, and sometimes into fire, to 
have foamed at the mouth and and to have gnashed his teeth, was 
evidently an epileptick person. It will give us some idea of the 
prevalent notions anciently in respect to the epilepsy, when it is 
remarked, that Hippocrates wrote a book, the object of which 
was to show, that epilepsy was not a sacred malady, i. e. a mala- 
dy sent from some superiour power or Divinity. The epithet, 
nevertheless, which he is in the habit of applying to this disease 
in this book, is that of sacred. 

IV. The maid of Philippi, who in Acts, 16: 16, is said to have 
possessed the spirit of Python^ i. e. the spirit of Apollo, 7iv6Vf.ia 
nvdoyvog, was insane. The ground of the assertion, that was 
made in respect to her, was the fact, that she cherished, as would 
not be unnatural in the case of insanity, a firm persuasion, that 
she was possessed with some spirit from the dead, that was com- 
missioned by Apollo. As the gift of prophecy among the heathen, 

§ 196. OF DEMONIACKS. 221 

(if we may credit the assertion of Cicero in his Treatise on Divi- 
nation, Ernesti's edit. I. 6. p. 661,) was always attributed to the 
agency of Apollo; insane persons, who professed to prophesy un- 
der his auspices, were in a situation to make much money ; which 
was the case in the present instance. It is not by any means to be sup- 
posed, that the predictions of the damsel or any other predictions 
of a like character, were true prophecies, for such were beyond 
the power of Apollo, who was regarded as "■ nothing'''' in the estima- 
tion of Paul, to utter or to communicate. Many other Demoni- 
acks, who are mentioned, but the symptoms or rather operations of 
whose disease are not particularly given, are to be x'eckoned among 
those, who were insane ; for example, Mary Magdalene, from 
whom, (Luke 8: 2,) Jesus cast out seven devils, i. e. restored her 
from a madness of so violent a nature, that it was supposed to be 
caused by the united agency of this large number of the spirits of 
the dead. If the Saviour commanded the demoniacks not to 
make him known, the reason was, that their declaration on the 
subject would do more hurt than good, Mark 1: 24. Luke 4: 34. 
Matt. 8: 29. Mark 5: 7. 

V, Whether the expulsion of actual demons from a person, 
or the healing of epilepticks, madmen, and hypochondriacks be 
the greater and most strikmg miracle, in the present argument it 
is of but little consequence to decide. To those, however, who 
deny in this case the actual agency of demons, the healing of 
these maladies appears a more impressive exhibition of miracu- 
lous power than the ejection of demons, which was likewise done, 
as the advocates of the opposite opinion will themselves admit, 
by exorcists. 

§ 196. The Apostles, Evangelists, and Christ regarded Demo- 
niacks AS diseased Persons. 

The Apostles and Evangelists, it is contended, whether they 
are introduced as speaking, or whether they appear as the au- 
thors of a narration, employ those expressions, which in their 
time were in common use. Hence, as was very natural, they 
make use of such phraseology as the following; ''''Demoniacks 
came to Jesus,''"' ''^Demoniacks were brought to Jesuj," " They were 
possessed with demons,'''' " The demons were cast out,^^ " Theij depart- 

222 § 196, OP DEMONIACKS. 

ed from or entered into a person^''' 4*c. If it be inquired what they 
really understood by such expressions, the answer is this. 

Similar expressions were used m respect to madness or insani- 
ty in that ng-e, even in cases, where there could be no doubt in- 
respect to the natural cause of it ; i. e. a man might lose his rea- 
son in some way or by some accident, which was perfectly well 
understood, and still, as much as in any other case, the loss of his 
reason was attributed to the agency of a demon. That was the 
common mode of speaking. Furthermore, demons were spoken 
of in reference to diseases, in the same way that Bacchus among 
the Greeks was used tropically for wine, and Ceres for corn. It 
cannot be inferred, therefore, that Jesus, the Apostles, and Evan- 
gelists supposed, that those persons, who were represented as pos- 
sessed, were mi reality possessed with demons or the spirits of the 
dead. It cannot be inferred, we contend, the more especially, be- 
cause they often give intimations of a contrary opinion, as will ap- 
pear from the following statements. 

Argument I. The Evangelists often introduce Demoniacks among 
sick men, as a separate class of sick, Matt. 4: 23, 24. 10: 8. Mark 1: 
32. Luke 4: 40, 41. 5: 15. 8: 2. 9: 1. 13: 32 j and, what is worthy of 
notice, all classes of sick persons, many of whom are never de- 
.scribed by the Evangelists, as being- subject to demoniacal posses- 
sions, are represented in Acts 10: 38, without any exception, as be- 
ing oppressed with the devil, KaTadwaaxevofifvoL vno tov dialSolov. 
From this it clearly appears, that, in the view of the sacred wri- 
ters, to be a sick person^ and to be a Demoniack or vexed with the 
devil, (i. e, with the subordinate agents of the devil, the spirits of 
the wicked dead,) were only different expressions for the same 
thing. The Evangelists, it should be remarked in addition, in 
some instances comprehend Demoniacks under the head of sick 
and diseased persons, when, without expressly mentioning them, 
they describe in general terms those, to whom the Saviour gave 
assistance. That is to say ; when enumerating those, who had ex- 
perienced the healing power of the Saviour, they did not deem it 
necessary particularly to mention Demoniacks in distinction from 
the rest, because they did not conceive, there was any thing suf- 
ficiently peculiar in their case to render it necessary alwaj's to 
make this distinction, since they might conveniently and justly be 
considered as comprehended, (even when not expressly mention- 


ed,) in a general catalogue of thoSe maladies, which men were 
subject to, and which the Saviour had healed. Luke 7. 21, 22. Matt. 
11:5. On the contrary, the Evangelists certainly would not have 
omitted the mention of them in such an enumeration, which was 
designed as a statement of what the Saviour had done in relieving 
the bodily woes of men, if they had supposed the demoniacks to 
be sound and in good health with the exception, that they were 
possessed with a devil ; because in this case, their situation and 
recovery would have been so peculiar, as to have demanded a 
distinct specilication. The sacred historians frequently say, that 
the Demoniacks were made whole, or restored, which is an intima- 
tion at least, that they were previously diseased, Matt. 8: 16, 12: 
22. Luke 7: 21, 8:2, 9:42. Luke, especially, (11:14,) when 
speaking of a dumb spirit, and when describing the spirit of infirm- 
ity, (13: 11,) could not certainly mean to be understood, as speak- 
ing of a real spirit, but merely of a disease, or of some defect in 
the bodily organs. If, moreover, Luke, who was a physician, uses 
such expressions as these, viz, to heal, to be healed from spirits, to 
heal those oppressed with a devil ; if he uses such expressions in re- 
ference to demoniacal possessions, it is clear, we are to under- 
stand possessions in his language to mean the same with diseases, 
and nothing more, consult Luke 7: 21, 8: 2, and Acts 10:38. 

Not only the Evangelists themselves, but the Jews also, who 
are introduced as speaking in the Gospels, use the words, datfAwv 
and datfioviov tropically, (the same as profane writers,) wheo- 
they speak of insanity, hypochondria, and natural madness, Matt. 
11: 18. Luke 7: 33. John 7: 19, 20. 10: 20. Furthermore, in Mark 
3: 21, 22, e'^fOTi he is beside himself is interchanged with BsfX^e- 
^ovl e%i.f', he hath a devil. It can be shown also, that the word 
d$ non is interchanged in the same way with the words, which 
signify disease or sickness, as if they were altogether synony- 
mous, comp. Mark 7: 29, and Matt. 15: 22: 28 ; compare also Mark 
9: 17, with Luke 9: 39, also Matt. 17: 15, and Luke 13: 10—12. 

Argument IL John, it is true, introduces the Jews, as speaking 
in the customary way in respect to Demoniacks and demons, (7: 9 
— 20. 10: 20,) but let it be carefully marked, that he himself is al- 
together silent on the subject of demoniacal possessions, notwith- 
standing that he frequently speaks of the sick, who were healed 
by the Saviour, 4: 46. 5: 3. 6: 2. Paul also, in enumerating the 
various kinds of miraculous gifts, (I Cor. 12: 9,) says nothing in re- 


224 § 196. OF DEMONIACKS. 

spect to the exorcism of demons ; a power which, it appears, he 
possessed himself, and which the Saviour had promised, RIark 16: 
17. Matt. 10:8. Luke 10: 17. These two Apostles, therefore, 
considered Demoniacks as no other than persons afflicted with dis- 
ease ; and it was very natural indeed, that it should be so, when 
it is remembered, that, in ^sia Minor, where John composed his 
Gospel, and Paul wrote his first Epistle to the Corinthians, medi- 
cal science was in a very flourishing condition, and it was very 
generally known, that the diseases, attributed to demons, were 
merely natural diseases, comp. the large German edit, of this 
Work, P. I. Vol. II. 232. pp. 477—480. 

If, therefore, it be objected against us, that the Demoniacks in 
the New Testament acknowledge themselves to be possessed with 
demons, we repl}', that nothing else was to be expected from mad- 
men. If it be further objected, that the Jews of the New Testa- 
ment are in the habit of speaking of such possessions, it must be 
admitted by our opponents, either that this was the rsus loquendi 
in respect to diseases, the common language to describe the caus- 
es and effects of certain bodily maladies, without any particular 
belief, that those maladies originated from the agency of spirits, 
or that the Jews actually believed in real possessions. 

If, moreover, we are told, that both the Apostles themselves 
and the Evangelists inform us, that Demoniacks came to Jesus, or 
were brought and were healed ; that Jesus also says, that he casts 
out devils, the answer is, the ground of these expressions was the 
common mode of speaking, prevailing at that period ; and Jesus, 
the Apostles, and Evangelists made use of such expressions, when 
they spoke of hypochondria, insanity, epilepsy, and madness, in 
order to be understood by their hearers and readers. Nearly in 
the same way physicians of the present time denominate a cer- 
tain class of sick persons lunaticks, i. e. persons under the influence of 
the moon^ and tell us of St. Anthony's fire, and the night mare, al- 
though the true causes of these diseases are well known. Some- 
thing in the same way also, it is customary every where to 
speak of the sun's setting and rising, and to designate certain 
of the heavenly bodies as planets or wandering stars, although it 
is not philosophically true, either that the sun sets or rises, or 
that the planets describe that wanderings irregular path in the 
heavens, which thoy appear to, to an uninstructed eye. 


If, finally, it be said, that the diseases of Demoniacks are some- 
times distinguished from those of other persons, the reason of it 
is, that these diseases, viz. melancholy, insanit}', epilepsy, and 
madaess, are in some respects peculiar, and are healed with diffi- 
culty ; and hence the curing of them by a single word of the Sa- 
viour was a matter of ihe greater moment. 

Argument III. It is admitted, that Jesus speaks to the Demo- 
niacks, threatens them, commands them to be silent, orders them 
to depart, and not to return, Mark 1: 24. 5: 8. 9: 25, Matt. 8: 28. 
Luke 4: 35. 8: 30 — 32. But it may be remarked in explanation 
of this, that he has reference partly to the Demoniacks, whom he 
commands to be silent and whom he threatens, and partly to the 
disease, which he orders to depart and not to return. Paul, in the 
same manner, (Acts 16: 16,) addresses the spirit of Apollo, and com- 
mands him in the name of Jesus to depart from the soothsaying 
damsel ; and yet, as we may learn from first Corinthians, 8: 4, he 
had not the least faith in Apollo, nor in any other god beside Jeho- 
vah. Nor are we at liberty to suppose, that Luke, the historian 
of the Acts, who subjoins to the account, of which we have now 
spoken, that the spirit left her, believed at all, that the spirit of 
Apollo was really present. The reason, why Paul and the Saviour 
made use of such expressions on such an occasion, was, that they 
might excite the attention of the bystanders, and give them to un- 
derstand, that the disease had terminated at their command. It 
was for a reason of the same nature, viz. to make an impression 
on the minds of those present, that the Saviour, when the temp- 
est was overruled and laid by his miraculous interference, com- 
manded in an audible manner the winds and the seas to be at 
rest. Let those, who inquire, how Jesus could call the demon 
by name, if he did not believe one to be present, read the Greek 
text of Mark 3:9 and of Luke 8: 30, and they will see, that it is 
not the demon, which is addressed by name, but the demoniack 
himself, (crr/^pojra atroj', i. e. avdoomov^ not avro — Tivfvua.^ 

Jesus, in Luke, 10: 17, does not assert the operations of demons 
in men, for he couples Satan with serpents and scorpions, which 
places us under the necessity of interpreting all of these words 
tropically, and of understanding by them cunning and powerful 
adversaries, who opposed the progress of the Gospel, but with 
all their power were unable to interrupt its advancement. The 

226 § 196. OF DEMONUCKS. 

expressions, which he employs, are as follows. "I see, (Hebrew 
''n''N">,) I see Satan," i. e. all the adversaries of the Gospel, 
who are afterwards called serpents, scorpions, and the en- 
emy's host, " fall like lightning from heaven,"" i. e. from the 
political heaven, from power and authority. Consult Isa. 14 : 
12, 13. Matthew 24th chapter, Luke 10: 15. Revelation 12 : 7—9, 
see also Cicero, where he says to Mark Antony, you have hurled 
your colleagues down from heaven. (The adversaries of the Gos- 
pel also occur in Luke 22: 31. under the name of Sata7i.) "Be- 
hold, (he proceeds,) 1 give unto you power to tread on serpents 
and scorpions, and over all the power of the enem}'," i. e. of over- 
coming and subduing by your miraculous gifts all adversaries, 
"and nothing shall by any means hurt you, i. e. oppress and over- 
come you, (comp. adixijaet with the Hebrew p"^S>.) " Notwith- 
standing, in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you, 
but rather rejoice, because your names are written in heaven," 
i. e. rejoice rather in the favour of God, than in the power of cast- 
ing out devils, or of healing the most difficult diseases. 

Jesus, in Matt. 12: 24—30, Mark 3:22—30, Luke 11: 16—24, 
employs against the Pharisees the argumentum ad hominem, 
which has no bearing in this case any further than the refutation 
of the adversary is concerned. The ground of his employing this 
species of argument in the present instance was this. The Phar- 
isees, if we may believe Josephus, taught, that the demons, by 
which men were possessed, were the spirits of bad men, who 
were dead, and were commissioned on their present business of 
tormenting the children of men by Beelzebub. Jesus, therefore, 
replied, provided this were the true state of the case, that Beel- 
zebub, by lending his assistance in casting out his own devils, was 
overturning his own kingdom. He then adds, that this powerful 
spirit, for such the Pharisees supposed him to be, could not be 
compelled to perform such an unwelcome task, unless a stronger 
one, than Beelzebub himself, should tirst come, should bind him, 
and take away his arms. 

The Parable in Matt. 12:43— 45, and Luke 11:24—28, is to 
be interpreted with a reference to the explanation, at the end, 
v'lT.. '•' so shall it be with this wicked generation.'''' The demons io 
these passages are the vices of the Jews, which had been, in some 
little degree, corrected by the preaclung of John the Baptist and 


the Saviour, but which soon after developed themselves with 
greater virulence, and to a greater extent than ever, as Josephus 
testifies was the case in the time of the War with the Romans ; 
comp. the large German edition of this Work, P. I. Vol. II. § 232. 
p. 490, 491. 

Finally, Jesus liberates the woman, described in Luke 13: 12, 
as bowed down with infirmity, without making any mention of a 
demon; if, therefore, a little after, he asserts, that she was a 
daughter of Abraham, bound by Satan for eighteen years, the 
expressions are to be considered, as figurative, being an allusion 
to the loosing of oxen, which it was lawful to do on the Sabbath in 
order to lead them to drink, and having reference at the same 
time to an opinion among the Jews, that all diseases had their 
ultimate origin, (not indeed from demons,) but from the Devil, 
that overruling spirit of wickedness, who tempted Eve, and to 
whom allusions are made in Acts 10: 38, and in 2 Cor. 12: 7. 

Argument IV. That the Church Fathers unanimously agreed 
in the opinion, that individuals, in the time of Christ, were really 
and truly possessed with demons, those, who maintain, that De- 
moniacks were diseased persons, plainly and expressly deny. 
They produce testimonies to the contrary. They assert, more- 
over, that, in point of policy, the church fathers would not have 
thought it advisable, to have made such assertions, as are repre- 
sented, since they were contending incessantly with philosophers, 
who believed in, and strenuously contended for the agency of de- 
mons. They say further, that nothing is gained or lost, even if 
the fathers were unanimous in one opinion, since this is not a ques- 
tion of faith or doctrine, in which alone, the united sentiment of 
the Fathers can be considered, as possessing a binding authority. 
They deny also, that it can be concluded from the fact, that a 
class or order of persons, called exorcists.^ existed in the primitive 
ages of the Church, that the Church itself believed in the real 
agenc}'^ of demons ; since the popular superstitions on the subject 
might have been, as no doubt they were, the ground of such an 
institution, see Veronius In Regul. Fid. § 4. No. 4. 

223 § 197. POSSESSIONS inconsistent with doctrine. 

§ 197. Real possessions incojvsistent with the Doctrine of Jesus 
AND THE Apostles. 

Those, who oppose the doctrine of real possessions, state, that 
Jesus, the Apostles, and Evangelists are not to be understood lit- 
erally, when they speak of the agency of demons, because such a 
supposition would make them act contrary to the doctrine, which 
they themselves taught. 

The}', accordingly, in support of the point, that the doctrines 
of the Apostles and Jesus are contrary to that of real demoniacal 
possessions, advance the following considerations. 

ArgUxMent i. Jesus and the Apostles teach us, that all things, 
even the most minute, are under the direction of God. They 
could not, therefore, for a moment suppose, that so great miseries 
were inflicted by demons, (whether they were the spirits of dead 
men, or other evil spirits,) or that God would be accessory to such 
evils, by permitting them to exist in such a way. They would 
not countenance such an opinion the more especially, because it 
had its origin among nations, which were given to idolatry. It 
was the common belief among such nations, that the celestial di- 
vinities governed the world hy proxy, entrusting it to inferiour de- 
ities, and to the spirits of the dead. 

Argument 11. Jesus and the Apostles teach us, that the spirits 
of the dead immediately enter upon that state or destiny, which 
from their previous character they deserve ; both the good and 
the bad going to a retribution, from which they can never return, 
Luke 16: 22, et. seq. 23: 43. 2 Cor. 5:1. 1 Philipp. 1: 21. 3:12. 
Heb. 12: 23. Some of the wicked spirits, as we learn from 2 Pe- 
ter 2: 4, and from Jude 6 verse, are reserved in custody, till the 
day of judgment ; a statement, which cannot be reconciled with 
the supposition, that they are straying about the earth, and tor- 
menting its inhabitants. 

Argument III. Let it be admitted, that Jesus does not in direct 
terms, contradict the prevailing notions, and does not expressly 
and explicitly say, that the Demoniacks were not afflicted by the 
agency of demons, but merely by natural diseases, (which was 
the opinion maintained by the Sadducees,) still it must be confes- 
sed, that, on the other hand he no where expressly denies, that 
the effects, produced upon individuals, who were represented as 


possessed with demons, resulted from such diseases merely. The 
fact is, as is contended, the Saviour neither took one part nor the 
other, neither denied nor asserted the reality of demoniacal posses- 
sions. Indeed it was not necessarily nor actually his province. A 
question of that kind, one, which involved the state of the body 
or the mind, belong'ed rather to professed physicians. The Apos- 
tles pursue the same course in respect to this subject, that the 
Saviour does, with the exception of John and Paul, who, having 
resided much in Asia Minor, do not, as has been already observed, 
make use of the customary and prevalent phrases in regard to 
Demoriiacks. It is stated, further, in defence of the conduct 
of the Saviour and his Apostles, that there was no need of their 
refuting the vulgar opinion in respect to Demoniacks, as it was 
evidently inconsistent with their doctrine, concerning the state of 
the dead, and was attacked by the physicians of that age with 
great success. Besides, an attempt at such a refutation, in an 
age, when the opinion to be attacked was yet so prevalent, and 
in a country, where it was so fondly cherished, would have in- 
volved the disciples and the Saviour in prolix disputations, and 
would have withdrawn their attention too much from the preach- 
ing of the Gospel. 

Note. I have thus given the statements, illustrations, and ar- 
guments on both sides' of this question, and will leave each one to 
form his own opinion. 

§ 198. The Pool near the Sheep-Market at Jerusalem. 

The pool, iizc Tf] nQO^amri^ or the receptacle of water, call- 
ed Bethesda, John 5: 2, was a bath. 

I. The first argument in favour of this position is to be found 
in the fact, that the Ptabbins and the Chaldaick Paraphrast on 
Ecclesiastes make the words mVozi'ns and jjiDni-iD, (the Greek 
7ipo/3artK?;,) mean baths ; and make the word NlJ'^I'^s mean the 
servant attending on a bath. The name Bethesda^ in Hebrew n"^2 
N'lpr!, means, the house or place of favour or kindness, and agrees 
very well with a bath, which was both salutary and pleasant. 

II. Another proof, that the pool in question was a bath, is the 
fact, that the blind, maimed, and withered were gathered around 


it ; and that there were likewise five porticos, erected without 
doubt for the reception of those, who were sick and infirm. That 
this was the object of the porticos is the opinion, expressed both 
in the Peshito and by Suidas. 

The An'gel that troubled the Bath. 

It is rehited, (John 5: 2 — 4, 6, 7,) in respect to this bath, that 
an angel of the Lord descended at certain times and troubled the 
water, and that the person, who descended first after this opera- 
tion upon the water, was healed of whatever infirmity he might 
Jabour under. 

This account of the descent of an angel, and of the consequent 
restoration of the first one, who entered the water after his de- 
scent, is omitted in certain Greek and Latin manuscripts, and 
likewise in the Armenian version. It is pointed out to the par- 
ticular notice of the reader in some Greek manuscripts, sometimes 
by an obelus or dagger [t], and sometimes by an asterisk. The 
genuineness of the whole passage, therefore, is justly liable to 

On the supposition, that the whole narration is a genuine one, 
the bath in question might have been an animal bath, which has a 
beneficial influence in certain diseases, and which, in the present 
case, was furnished with blood from the temple, by means of a 
subterranean passage. Accordingly, when the blood flowed into 
it, the water might be said with no impropriety to be disturbed, 
especially on festival days, when it received a greater quantitj', 
than usual. 

Or it might have been, (and most probably was,) a mineral 
bath, which derived its salutary powers from the mineral parti- 
cles, that were intermixed with the mud at the bottom. Accord- 
ingly, when the water was more than usually disturbed or put in 
motion by some external cause, for instance, by showers or by 
subterranean heat, it is natural to suppose, that it was the more 
strongly impregnated with minerals, and of course more than usu- 
ally efficacious. The sick and infirm, therefore, wished to enter 
it at this period, before the mineral particles had subsided, and the 
water had returned to its ordinar}^ state. Eusebius in his Onomas- 
ticon under the word (3{Cf]0a confirms the last hypothesis, for he 
states, that in his time there were, at that place, viz. Bethesda, 

§ 199. ON PARALYTICKS. 231 

two contiguous receptacles of water, Avhich were dry except 
when rains fell. They were then slightly tinged with a red col- 
our, a proof, that the bottom was iojpregnated with mineral parti- 
cles. Consult Richteri Dissertatio Medic, iheol. dc balneo animali^ p. 
107. Goetting, 1775, and Mead ^ Medic, saci: 6. 8. 

The descent of the angel, and the healing of the first one, 
who entered into the water, are statements founded in the preva- 
lent popular opinions. The reason, why the Historian did not 
make a statement of his own on the subject, but chose rather, in 
the fourth and sixth verses, to give the popular belief, was, that 
the reader might understand the reply of the sick man, in the 
seventh verse. 

§ 199. On Paralyticks. 

The palsy of the New Testament is a disease, that is of very 
wide import. Many infirmities, as Richter has demonsti'ated, in the 
seventy third and the following pages of the Treatise referred to 
in the preceding section, were comprehended under the word, 
which is rendered palsy in the New Testament. 

I. The apoplexy, a paralytick shock, which affected the whole 

II. The hemiplegy, which affects and paralyzes only one side of 
the body. 

III. The paraplegy, which paralyzes all the parts of the sys- 
tem below the neck. 

IV. The catalepsy. It is caused by a contraction of the mus- 
cles in the whole or a part of the body, (e, g. in the hands,) and 
is very dangerous. The effects upon the parts seized are very 
violent and deadly. For instance, when a person is struck with 
it, if his hand happens to be extended, he is unable to draw 
it back. If the hand is not extended, when he is struck with the 
disease, he is unable to extend it. It appears diminished in size, 
and dried up in appearance. Hence the Hebrews were in the 
habit of calling it a withered hand, 1 Kgs. 13: 4 — G. Zech. 11: 17. 
Matt. 12: 10—13. John 5: 3. 

V. The cramp. This, in oriental countries, is a fearful malady, and 
by no means unfrequent. It originates from the chills of the night. 
The limbs, when seized with it, remain immoveable, sometimes 


turned in, and sometimes out, in the same position, as when they 
were first seized. The person afflicted resembles a man, undergo- 
ing the torture, /?«cfai'tfoj«fj/fo, and experiences nearly the same 
exquisite sufferings. Death follows this disease in a few days, 
Matt. 8: 9, 10. comp. Luke 7: 2. 1 Mace. 9: 55—58. 

Note. The disease, denominated in Matt. 9 : 20. Mark 5: 25, 
and Luke 8: 43, an issue of bloody is too well known to require any 
particular explanation. It may be well, however, to make this 
sino-le observation, that physicians themselves acknowledge, that 
it is a disorder^ which is diihcult to be cured, Mark 5: 26. 

§ 200. The Death of Judas IscarioT, 

Judas Iscariot, i. e. Judas, the man of Karioth, ni'^'^J^ lU'^N, 
(Jud. 15: 25. Jer. 48: 41. Amos 2: 2,) we are informed in Matt. 27: 
5, {an7]y'taT0,) hung himself. We are further informed in Acts 1: 
18, {TiQi]vriQ yevOf.ievog elaKi]a( /.uaog, ifai ixvdi^ navru ankay- 
vi>a avTOV,) that he fell headlong, burst asunder in the midst, and 
all his bowels gushed out. These two statements, which exhibit 
the appearance of being not altogether harmonious, have occasion- 
ed various opinions among the learned. 

The most easy and natural reconciliation of them is this. Pe- 
ter, in his discourse, (Acts 1: 18,) did not deem it necessary to give 
a full narration, in every respect, of an event, which was perfect- 
ly well known. He, therefore, merely mentions the circumstance, 
(which probably originated from the rope's breaking, or being 
cut off, with which he was suspended, at the time, that he was 
taken down for interment,) of his fall and breaking asunder in 
the midst. This very simple supposition, which gives a solu- 
tion of the whole difficulty, appears to me preferable to any far- 
fetched hypothesis. 


§ 201. Blindness of the Sorcerer Bar Jesus. 

Bar Jesus, the sorcerer, otherwise called Elymas, p^*^, a wise 

or learned 7nan, was struck blind by Paul, Acts 13: 6 — 12. The 
blindness in this instance is properly denominated in Greek a/Ayg, 
and was rather an obscuration, than a total extinction of the sight. 
It was occasioned by a thin coat or tunicle of hard substance, 
which spread itself over a portion of the eye, and interrupted the 
power of vision. Hence the disease is likewise called axorog, or 
darkness. It was easily cured, and sometimes even healed of it- 
self, without resort to any medical prescription. Hence Paul adds, 
'■'•not seeing the, sun for a season.'''' 

§ 202. Disease of Herod Agrippa. 

Josephus, (Antiq. XIX. 8, 2.) and Luke, (Acts 12: 23,) attribute 
the disease, with which Herod died, to the immediate agency of 
God ; because he so readily received the idolatrous acclamations 
of the people, who hailed and honoured him, as a Divinity. Jose- 
phus saj'^s, the disease was in the intestines. But he perverts his 
statement by the intermixture of certain superstitious and incred- 
ible notions. 

Luke, who was a physician, says more definitely and accurate- 
ly, that Herod was consumed with worms, which in Eastern coun- 
tries frequently prey upon the intestines. Josephus observes, that 
he died on the fifth day after the attack. 





§ 203. On Death. 

The Hebrews regarded life, as a journej, as a pilgrimage ou 
the face of the earth. The traveller, as they supposed, when he 
arrived at the end of this journey, which happened when he died, 
was received into the company of his ancestors, who had gone be- 
fore him, Gen. 25: 8. 35: 29. 37:35. Ps. 39: 12; comp. Heb. 11: 
13,15. Eccies. 12:7. Reception into the presence of God at 
death is asserted in only two passages of the Old Testament, viz. 
Plaggai, 2: 23, and Eccies. 12: 7. 

Opinions of this kind, (viz. that life is a journey, that death is 
the end of that journey, and that, when one dies, he mingles with 
the hosts, who have gone before,) are the origin and ground of 
such phrases, as the following ; to be gathered to one^s people^ 
VTSy ^N *105jr|, Num. 20: 24, 26. Deut. 32: 50. Gen. 25: 8, 9. 35: 
29. Ad-.TJ. Jer. 8:2. 25.- 33, and to go to one^ fathers^ "^^ N-ia 
T'ni^N, Gen, 15: 15. 37; 35. This visiting of the fathers has ref- 
erence to the immortal part, and is clearly distinguished, in many 
of the passages above quoted, from the mere burial of the body. 
Examine Gen. 37: 35. 

A person, when dying, was said to go, to depart, or to be dismis- 
sed, TTOfjvfoduo, ^adiCftv^ aTToXvioOui, ^J-^, ^b^, Tob. 3 : 6, 13. 
John 7: 33. 8: 21. i6: 16, 17. 2 Cor. 5: 6— 9."phiiipp. 1: 13. 2 Tim. 
4:6. Luke 2: 29. 22:22, comp. the Septuagint in Gen. 15: 2, 15, 
and Num. 20: 26. In those parts of the Bible, which were writ- 
ten at a comparatively recent period, there occur such expres- 
sions, as the following ; to sleep ai/iong one'' s fathers, T^ni^N D3J SD'iJ, 
2 Sam. 7: 12. 1 Kgs. 11: 21 ; and in all parts of the Bible, sucli as 

§ 203. ON DEATH. 235 

the following, to give up the ghost, and no longer to be or exist, in 
Hebrew y}a, ^23\Nt, Gen. 42: 13. Num. 20: 3, 29. Gen. 31:15. Ps. 
37: 10,36. 39: 13. 103: IG. Mark 15:37. 

Some suppose, tliat the expressions, and descriptions, which 
occur in Gen. 5: 24, Ecclesiastic. 44: 16. Wisdom 4: 10. Hebrews 
11:5, and 2 Kgs. 2: 12, are of a poetical character, which convey, 
when truly interpreted, no other idea, than that of natural death. 

Sometimes the Hebrews regarded death, as a friendly messen- 
ger, but they were more frequently inclined to dread him, as a for- 
midable enemy. Impressed with a sense of the terrors, which 
were the consequence of his visitations, their imaginations impart- 
ed to him a poetical existence in the character of a hunter, armed 
him with a dart or javelin, KevxQOv, with a net, ^!0D'3, and with 
a s/iarc, D'^ns, l^i^p "'Ibiri, ^012 "'bin, T\rtz "'UipV^. Thus equip- 
ped, this fearful invader commenced his artifices against the 
children of men, and when he had taken them captive, slew 
them, 2 Sam. 26:6. Ps.l8:5,6. 116:3. 1 Cor. 15: 55, 56. 

The wild fancy of some of the poets went still further, and 
represented Death, nl.Ja, as the king of the Lower World, and fit- 
ted up for him a subterranean palace, denominated Sheoal and 
Hades, ^IN'!:, 'yidrjg, in which he exercised sovereignty over all 
men, (includmg kmgs and warriours,) who had departed from this 
upper state of existence. This place occurs also under the 
phrases, ni73 ^"l5>)p, and at Trvlatrov ddov, the gates of Death and 
Hades, J oh 3Q:n. Ps.' 9: 13. 49: 15. 107:18. Is.38:10,I8. Matt. 
16: 18. Such are the attributes of this place, its situation, its ru- 
ler, and its subjects, that it might very justly be denominated 
Death''s royal palace, comp. 2 Sam. 15: 2. 

Mention is made of the rivers of Hades in the eighteenth 
Psalm, 4, 5. 

The more recent Hebrews, adhering too strictly to the letter 
of their Scriptures, exercised their ingenuity, and put in requisi- 
tion their faith, to furnish the monarch Death with a subordinate 
agent or angel, nlari '^Nbtt, viz. the prince of bad spirits, o ^ca- 
6olog, otherwise called Sammael, and also Ashmedai, and known 
in the New Testament by the phrases, o ap/wi/ rov KOOfiov, i"! 
Dbi3>;n, TO KQUTog tov Bavarov f/wf, o iiitQaio)v, the prince of 
this world, the tempter, who hath the power of death. The He- 
brews, accordingly, in enumerating the attributes and offices of the 


prime minister of the terrifick king' of Hades, represent him as in 
the habit of making his appearance in the presence of God, and 
demanding at the hand of the Divinity the extinction, in any 
given instance, of human life. Having obtained permission to that 
effect, he does not fail of making a prompt exhibition of himself to 
the sick; he then gives them drops of poison, which they drink 
and die. Comp. John 14 : 30. Hebrews 2: 14. Hence originate 
the phrases, " to taste of death,'''' and " to drink the cup of death,'''' 
which are found also among the Syrians, Arabians, and Persians, 
Matt. 16: 28. Mark 9: 1. Luke 9: 27. John 8: 52. Heb. 2: 9. 

§ 204, Tkeatment of the Corpse. Embalming, 

The friends or sons of the deceased closed his eyes, Gen. 46: 
4. The corpse, '^52, n^i:, m*73^y, Uisa, nTO, was washed with 
water, and, except when buried immediately, was laid out in an 
upper room or chamber, In^V^i vtisqwov, 2 Kgs. 4: 21. Acts 9: 37. 

The treatment of the lifeless " body has not always been the 
same in every age, but has varied both in different ages, and in 
different countries. 

The Egyptians embalmed, Ujn, the body. They had three 
methods of performing this operation, and, in determining which 
of these methods should be followed in any given case, the prom- 
inent inquiry was in respect to the rank and wealth of the deceas- 
ed person. The first method was adopted in the embalming of 
Jacob and Joseph ; it was very costly, and required, in defrayment 
of the expense, more than two thousand florins. Gen. 50: 2, 26. 

Herodotus, (11. 86 — 88.) states, that a priest, (one, who at the 
same time had some knowledge of the medical art,) designated to 
the operator a place below the ribs, on the left side of the deceas- 
ed person, for the incision. The operator, he observes, had no 
sooner made the incision, than he fled with the greatest precipita- 
tion, for he was immediately attacked with stones by the bystand- 
ers, as one, who had violated the dead. The rest of the priests, 
who, like the one, that had designated the place for the incision, 
were in some degree acquainted with medicine, extracted the in- 
testines, washed the body externally with water, and internally 
with the wine of the palm tree, and then anointed it with a com- 
position of myrrh, cassia, salt of nitre, &c. The brain was taken 

§ 205. OP PONERALS. 237 

out by a crooked piece of iron through the nose, and the cranium 
was filled with aromatick substances. 

The whole body was then wrapped round with linen, while 
each member of the body was at the same time bound separate- 
ly with pieces of the same materials. The process of embalm- 
ing occupied thirty or forty days. Gen. 50: 2, 26. The two other 
modes of embalming, which occupied but a short time, it is not es- 
pecially necessary, that we should undertake, at the present time, 
to describe. 

After the body was embalmed, it was placed in a box of syca- 
more wood, which was fashioned externally so as to resemble the 
human form, and was in this way preserved in the house, some- 
times for ages, leaning against the wall, Exod, 13: 19. comp. Gen. 
50: 24, 25. Josh. 24: 32, see also the large German edit, of this 
Work, P. I. Vol. II tab. . This is the account of embalming, as 
far as the Egj'ptians, and those who were immediately connected 
with them, are concerned. 

In respect to this practice or art, as it existed among the He- 
brews, we have authority for saying as far as this, that it was 
their custom, in the more recent periods of their history, to wrap 
the body round with many folds of linen, and to place the head in 
a napkin, John 11:44. (The general term, that is used in the 
New Testament, to include the whole of the grave-clothes, is 
odovia.) It was their custom likewise to expend upon the dead 
aromatick substances, especially myrrh and aloes, which were 
brought from Arabia. This ceremony is expressed by the Greek 
verb evraqiaCiiv, and was performed by the neighbours, and re- 
lations. Matt. 26:6—14. 27:59. John 19: 39, 40. 20: 7. 11:44. 
Mark 14: 8. Acts 9: 37. There is reason to beheve, that the 
more ancient Hebrews, although it cannot be proved by direct and 
decisive testimony, pursued the same course in regard to the dead, 
with their descendants. 

§ 205. Of Funerals. 

The ceremonies at the burial of the dead were different 
in different countries ; but in every country it was consider- 
ed a most ignominious procedure, to deprive the corpse of inter- 

238 § 105. OF FUNERALS* 

ment, and to leave it exposed to the depredations of wild beasts 
and birds. 

Heroes, accordingly, (such was the disgrace attached to non-in- 
terraent,) were in the habit of threatening, as a mark of their in- 
dignation and contempt, this dishonour to their adversaries in bat- 
tle. The prophets, in like manner, when putting in requisition 
the powers of their imagination in order to give an impressive 
picture of any fearful and approaching devastations by war, rep- 
resent such a state of things, as a feast, which God would make 
from human corpses, for the birds of heaven, and for the beasts of 
the forest, 1 Sara. 17: 44—46. 31: 8—13. 2 Sam. 4: 12. 21: 9, 10. 

I Kgs. 14: 11— 14. Jer. 7: 33. 8: 2, 16: 4, 34: 20. Ezek. 29 : 
5.32:4.39:17—20. Ps. 63 : 10. 79 : 2— 3. Is. 14 : 19. The 
patriarchs buried their dead in a few days after death. Gen. 23: 
2 — 4. 25: 9. 35: 29. Their posterity in Egj'pt seem to have de- 
ferred burial. It is probable, that Moses in reference to this prac- 
tice extended the uncleanness, contracted by means of a corpse, to 
seven days, in order to make the people hasten the ceremony of 

In a subsequent age, the Jews imitated the example of the 
Persians, and buried the body very soon after death, Acts 5: 6, 
10. The interment of Tabitha, (Acts 9: 37,) was delayed on ac- 
count of sending for Peter. The children, friends, relations, or 
servants of the deceased took the charge of his burial. Gen. 23: 
19. 25:9. 35:29. 48: 7. Num. 20: 28. 1 Kgs. 13:30. 2 Kgs. 23: 30. 
Mark G: 29. Matt. 27: 59,60. 

A box or coffin for the dead, ']1*^N, was not used, except in 
Babylon and Egypt. The corpse was wrapped in folds of linen, 
and placed upon a bier, in the Hebrew iSUiTD and ^113^, Deut. 3: 

II ; and was then carried by four or six persons to the tomb. 
The bearers appear to have travelled very rapidly in the time 
of Christ, as they do at the present day among the modern Jews, 
Luke 7: 14. 

The mourners, who followed the bier, poured forth the an- 
guish of their hearts in lamentable wails ; and what rendered the 
ceremony still more affecting, there were eulogists and musicians 
in attendance, who deepened the sympathetick feelings of the oc- 
casion, by a rehearsal of the virtues of the departed, and by the 
accompaniment of melancholy sounds, Gen, 50 : 7 — 1 1. 2 Sam. 3: 


31,32. Amos 5: 16. Matt.9 : 23. 11: 17. Men, who were distin- 
guished for their rank, and who at the same time exhibited a 
claim to the love and to the favour of the people, for their virtues, 
and their good deeds, were honoured with an attendance of vast 
multitudes, to witness the solemnities of their interment, Gen. 50: 
7—14. 1 Sam. 25: 1. 2 Chron. 32: 33. 1 Kgs. 14: 13. To bury, 
and to pay due honours to the remains of the dead, was consider- 
ed, in the later periods of the Jewish state, not only an act due 
to decenc)' and the common feelings of humanity, but a religious 
duty, Tob. 1: 12—19. 2:4—8. 4:17, 18. 12: 12, 13. Eccles. 7:31. 
Acts 8:2. 

§ 206. Situation of Sepulchres. 

Sepulchres, otherwise called the everlasting houses, were 
commonly situated beyond the limits of cities and villages, Is. 14; 
18, Eccles. 12:5. Luke 7: 12. Matt. 8 : 28. The Mosaic law re- 
specting defilement by means of dead bodies, seemed to render it 
necessary, that they should not be located within them. And still 
it was as much the custom among other nations, as among the 
Hebrews, (and indeed continues to be the practice to the present 
day in the East,) to bury out of the city ; except in the case of kings 
and very distinguished men, whose ashes are commonly permitted 
to repose within it, comp. 1 Sam. 28: 3. 2 Kgs. 21: 18. 2 Chron. 
16: 14. 24: 16. 

The Sepulchres of the Hebrew kings were upon mount Zion, 
2 Chron. 21:20. 24:25. 28:27. 2 Kgs. 14:20. 

With the exception to be made in respect to the situation of 
the tombs of their kings, the Hebrews generally exhibited a pref- 
erence for burying their dead in gardens:, and beneath shady trees, 
Gen. 23: 17. 35: 8. 1 Sam. 31: 13. 2 Kgs. 21: 18, 26. 23: 16. John 
19: 41. But as such situations, viz. groves and gardens, belonged 
of course to individuals, the inference is, (what indeed we learn 
from other sources,) that sepulchres were the property of a sin- 
gle person, or of a number of families united together, Gen. 23. 4 
—20. 50:13. Jud. 16:31. 2 Sam. 2: 32. There were some bu- 
rial places, however, which were either common, 2 Kgs. 23: 6. 
Jer. 26:23, or allotted to a certain class of people, Matt. 27: 7. 

To be buried in the Sepulchre of one's fathers, was a distin- 

240 § 207. SEPULCHRES. 

guished honour; to be excluded from it, was as signal a disgrace. 
In consequence of this feeling, the bodies of enemies, who had fal- 
len in war, were delivered up to their friends to be buried, though 
in some instances when petitioned for, they were denied, Gen. 49: 
29. 50: 13, 25. Jud. 16: 31. 2 Sam. 19: 37, 38. 2 Kgs. 9: 28. Jer. 
26: 23. This honour was denied to those, who died while infect- 
ed with the leprosy, 2 Chron. 26: 23. Those kings also, who had 
incurred the hatred of the people, were not permitted to be bu- 
ried in the royal tombs, 2 Chron. 21: 20. 24: 25. 28: 27. Hence we 
are commonly informed in respect to kings of an opposite charac- 
ter, that they were buried with funeral honours, m the tombs of 
their ancestors, 1 Kgs. 11:43. 14:31. 15: 8, etc. To be buried 
like an ass, i. e. without mourning, and lamentation, was consider- 
ed a very great disgrace, Jer. 22: 16 — 19. 35:30. 

§ 207. Sepulchres. 

The sepulchres or burying places of the common class of peo- 
ple were, without doubt, mere excavations in the earth, such as 
are commonly made at the present day in the East. Persons, who 
sustained a higher rank, were more rich, or more powerful, own- 
ed subterranean recesses, crypts, or caverns, which are sometimes 
denominated lnny», sometimes rjnr»2J, iin'^UJ, ^12, sometimes n''"3l|:, 
•^Sp, (the usual name for places of interment,) and in the New 
Testament, Ta<fog and fivrjfiiiov, Gen. 23: 6. Matt. 23: 27, 29. 27: 
52,53. (The word i:TJJUJ also in Psalm 141:7. means a burying 
place.) These large subterranean places of interment were, in 
some instances, the work of nature, in some^ were merely artificial 
excavations of the earth, and in others, were cut out from rocks, 
Gen. 23: 2. et seq. Josh. 10:27. Is. 22: 16. 2 Kgs. 13: 21. John 11: 
38. 19:41. Matt. 27: 52, 60. Numerous sepulchres of this kind 
still remain in Syria, in Palestine, and in Egypt. The most beau- 
tiful, called the royal sepulchres, are situated in the north part of 
Jerusalem, and were probably the work of either Helen, queen of 
Assyria, or of the Herods, Josephus^ J. War, V. 4. 2. p. 843. 

The entrance into these sepulchres was by a descent over a 
number of steps. Many of them consisted of two, three, and even 
seven apartments. There were niches in the walls, where tho, 
depid bodies were deposited. The interiour chambers cf sepul- 


chres, those the farthest removed from the first entrance, were 
deeper than the others, and were approached by a tlight of de- 
scending steps, 2 Chron. 32: 33. Ps. 8B: 6. Is, 14: 15. 

The entrance was closed, either b}' stone doors, or by a flat 
stone placed against the mouth of it, Ps. 5: 9. John 11: 38. 20: 5, 
11. Matt. 28:2. Mark IG: 3, 4. 

The doors of sepulchres, indeed the whole external surface, 
unless they were so conspicuous without it, as to be readily dis- 
covered and known, were painted white on the last month of every 
year, i. e. the month of Adar. The object of this practice, was, 
by a timely warnings to prevent those, who came to the feast of 
the Passover, from approaching them, and thus becoming contamin- 
ated, Matt. 23: 27. Luke 11:44. In Egypt there are still found 
the remains of very splendid sepulchres, which, when we consid- 
er their antiquity, their costliness, and the consequent notice, 
which they attracted, account for the expressions in Job 3: 14, 
and 17: 1- 

NoTE I. Maundrell on the Sepulchres of the Kings. 

[" The next place we came to was those famous grots called 
the sepulchres of the kings ; but for what reason they go by that 
name is hard to resolve : for it is certain none of the kiogs either 
of Israel or Judah, were buried here, the holy Scriptures assign- 
ing other places for .their sepultures : unless it may be thought 
perhaps that Hezekiah was here interred, and that these were the 
sepulchres of the sons of David, mentioned 2 Chron. 32: 33. Who- 
ever was buried here, this is certain, that the place itself discov- 
ers so great an expense both of labour and treasure, that we may 
well suppose it to have been the work of kings. You approach 
to it at the east side, through an entrance cut out of the natural 
rock, which admits you into an open court of about forty paces 
square, cut down into the rock with which it is encompassed in- 
stead of walls. On the south side of the court is a portico nine 
paces long and four broad, hewn likewise out of the natural rock. 
This has a kind of architrave running along its front, adorned with 
sculpture, of fruits or tiowers, still discernible, but by time much 
defaced. At the end of the portico on the left hand you descend 
to the passage into the sepulchres. The door is now so obstructed 
with stones and rubbisli, (hat it is a thing of some difticultv to creep 
31 ' 


through it. But within j'ou arrive in a large fair room, about 
seven or eight yards square^ cut out of the natural rock. Its sides 
and ceiling are so exactly square, and its angles so just, that no 
architect with levels and plummets could build a room more reg- 
ular. And the whole is so tirm and entire, that it may be called 
.1 chamber hollowed out of one piece of marble. From this room, 
you pass into, I think, six more, one within another, all of the 
same fibric with the (irst. Of these the two innermost are deep- 
er than the rest, having a second descent of about six or seven 
steps into th'*5n. 

" In every one of these rooms, except the first, were coffins of 
stone placed in niches in the sides of the chamber. They had 
been at first covered with handsome lids, and carved with gar- 
lands : but now most of them were broken to pieces by sacri- 
legious hands. The sides and ceiling of the rooms were al- 
ways dropping with the moist damps condensing upon them. To 
remedy which nuisance, and to preserve these chambers of the 
dead polite and clean, there was in each room a small channel cut 
in the floor, which served to drain the drops that fall constantly 
into it," Maundrell's Travels, p. 76.] 

Note 11. Harmer on the white-washing of Sepulchres. 

[" The general meaning of a comparison used by our Lord is 
obvious, when he said. Wo u7Uo you, Scribes and Pharisees^ hypo- 
crites ! for ye are like unto wliited sepulchres^ -which indeed appear 
beautiful outward^ but are within full of dead inen''s bones, and of all 
uncleanness, Matt. 23: 27 ; but it will appear with greater life, if 
we suppose, that the Sepulchres about Jerusalem were just then 
white washed afresh, which I should suppose is extremely proba- 
ble, as the present Eastern sepulchres are fresh done upon the ap- 
proach of their Ramadan. 

"Such is the account of Niebuhr, in the first volume of his 
Travels. Speaking there of Zebid, a city of Arabia, which had 
been the residence of a Mohammedan prince, and the most com- 
mercial city of all the country of that part of Arabia, but which 
had lost much of its ancient splendour in these respects, he adds, 
"that however, Zebid makes yet, at a distance, the most beauti- 
ful appearance of all the cities of the Tehama, or low country, 
which is owing to their clergy, who have found means, insensibly. 


to appropriate a very larg'C part of the revenues of the city and 
adjoining country, to themselves and the mosques. From thence 
have arisen a multitude of mosques and kubbets, which at that 
time, when Ramadan was near approaching,* had been almost all 
white washed. The kubbets are little buildings, built over the 
tombs of rich Mohammedans, who pass for saints." 

" The Passover was at hand when our Lord made this compari- 
son, as is evident from the context, and therefore, it is likely they 
were just then whited afresh, when the season for such rainy and 
bad weather as is wont to wash off these decorations was just 
over, and the time was at hand when Israel were about to assem- 
ble in Jerusalem at their national solemnities, which were all 
held in the dry part of the year, or nearly so : the rain being at 
least just over at the time of the Passover, by the time of Pente- 
cost it was gone in Judea, and the Feast of Tabernacles was ob- 
served before the rain was wont to return. 

" But whatever was the time of white-washing the Jewish se- 
pulchres anew, we may believe it was often done ; since to this 
day, the people of those countries have not discovered any way 
of so whitening these buildings as to make it durable." Harmer's 
Observations, Vol. III. p. 92. Obs. XXVIII.] 

§ 208. Articles which were buried with the Dead. 

The custom prevailed among many ancient nations of throw- 
ing pieces of gold and silver, also other precious articles, into the 
sepulchres of those, who were buried. The Hebrews did not 
think proper to adopt this custom, but retained those precious 
gifts for the use of the living, which other nations chose to bestow 
upon the dead. There was this exception, however, in the case 
of the Hebrews, that they sometimes buried with their departed 
monarchs the appropriate ensigns of their authority, and some- 
times deposited in the tomb of their lifeless warriours the armour, 
which they had worn while living, Ezek. 32: 27. 

Herod, when he opened and examined the tomb of David, 
found within it the ensigns of royal authority. Josephus, (Antiq. 

* Ramadan is a kind of Mohammedan Lent, followed by a festival, as Lent, 
in the Engliiah Church, is followed by Easter. 


XVI. 1, 11,) states, that John Hyrcanus found a treasure in the 
sepulchre of David. If this were the fact, the treasure in ques- 
tion could have been no other, than that, which was deposited 
there by Antiochus Epiphanes. 

§ 209. Sepulchral Monuments. fli!i;7?, (.ivrifxeiov. 

Mention is made of such monuments in various instances from 
the time of Abraham down to the time of Christ, Gen. 19: 2t;. 35: 
20. 2 Kgs. 23: 16, 17. 1 Mace. 13: 25— SO. Matt. 23: L9 The 
ancient Arabians erected a heap of stones over the body of the 
dead, Job 21: 32. Amonsf the Hebrews, such a heap was an indi- 
cation, that the person was stoned, and was of course a mark of 
ignominy, Jos. 7; 26. 8: 27, 29. 2 Sam. 18: 17. 

In progress of time, one stone only, instead of a heap^ was se- 
lected, and raised up as a monument. It was, as might be expect- 
ed, a large one, and, at a subsequent period still, it was customa- 
ry to hew it, and ornament it with inscriptions. Sepulchral stones 
of this kind are verj' ancient, and are common to this day in the 
East. The Egjptians, like the Arabians, were in the habit of 
throwing together heaps of stones in honour of the dead. After 
the practice had once commenced, they gradually increased the 
heap to a very great size. Till at length they exerted their in- 
genuity and their power, in the erection of those mountains of 
stone, as they may be termed, the pyramids. 

AncientI}' monuments of another kind, resembling small obe- 
lisks or columns a of large size, were likewise erected, and some 
of them are standing at the present day in Syria. 

The inhabitants of the East of the present age are in the habit 
of erecting over the burial places of those Mohammedans, who 
have been distinguished for the sanctity of their life, small houses, 
supported on four columns, and displaying an arched roof. These 
edifices are repaired and ornamented by the great, who desire to 
obtain the popular favour, in much the same way, that those of 
the prophets were in the time of Christ, Matt. 23: 29. 

The monument, erected in honour of the Maccabees at Modin, is 
described in the first Book of Maccabees, 13: 27. It was raised of 
square stones, and was very high. In the front of it were seven 
pyramids, and round about many columns, upon the tops of which 


were placed larg-e stones, extending from one to the other. The 
delineation of some parts of this monument is still seen upon an- 
cient coins. As far as we can judge iVom the representation of 
it, given upon these com>;, one would conclude, that it resembled 
in some degree the monuments of those Mohammedans, who had 
gained a celebrity for their piety. 


The nncitnt Hebrews considered burning the body a matter of 
very great reproach, and rarely did it, except when they wished, 
together with the greatest punishment, to inflict the greatest ig- 
nominy. Gen. j8: 24. The body of Saul, which had been suspend- 
ed by the Philistines on the walls of Bethshan, was burnt by the 
inhabitants of Jabesh Gilead from necessity, not to inflict, but to 
preserve it fromy«r(/ier disgrace, 1 Sam. 31: 12. 

The sentiment in respect to the burning of bodies seems at a 
later period to have been changed. An hundred and forty years 
after Saul, king Asa was burnt with many aromatick substances, not 
as an indication of disgrace, but as an honour. This ceremo- 
ny in the case of Asa is not spoken of, as if it were a new thing, 
and it had probably been introduced, at least some little time pre- 
viously. After the time of Asa, the revolution of sentiment in re- 
gard to burning was So complete, that, while burning was consid- 
ered the most distinguished honour, not to be burnt was regarded 
a most signal disgrace, 2 Chron. 16: 14. 21: 19. Amos, 6: 10. Jer. 
34: 5. 

Another change of sentiment eventually took place. After 
the caplivity, the Jews conceived a great hatred to this rite. The 
Talmudists in consequence of this endeavoured to pervert the 
passages respecting it, and to induce a belief, that the aromatick 
substances alone, and not the body, were burnt. 

§ 211. Of Mourning. 

The grief of the Orientals formerly, on an occasion of death, 
was, as it is to this day in the East, very extreme. As soon as a 
person dies, the females in the family with a loud voice set up a 
sorrowful cr3^ They continue it as long as they can, without 

246 §211. ON MOURNING, 

taking breath, and the first shriek of wailing dies away in a low 
sob. After a short space of tinie, they repeat the same cry, and 
continue it for eight days. Every day, however, it beconfies less 
frequent and less audible. 

Until the corpse is carried away from the house, the women, 
who are related to the deceased, sit on the ground together, in a 
circle, in a separate apartment. The wife, or daughter, or other 
nearest relation of the deceased occupies the centre, and each one 
holds in her hand a napkin. 

At the present day, there are present on such an occasion, as 
there were anciently, eulogists, ni35p?3 who chant in mournful 
strains the virtues of the dead. When the one, who sat in the cen- 
tre gave the sign with her napkin, the persons who recalled, (so 
much to their credit,) the memory of the departed, remained si- 
lent. The rest of the females arose, and, wrapping together their 
napkins, ran, like mad persons. But the nearest relation remain- 
ed in her position, tearing her hair, and wounding her face, arms, 
and breast with her nails, comp. Gen. 50: 3. Num. 20: 29. Deut. 
34: 8. 1 Sam. 31: 13. In addition to the persons, whose appropri- 
ate business it was to eulogize the dead, there were sometimes 
employed, on such occasions, professed musicians and singers, 
''i^D ■*yni'', particularly in ancient times, Amos 5:16. Jer. 9: 20. 
43: 36.' Matt. 9: 23. Luke 7: 32. 

The lamentation", which are denominated in Hebrew ^3, 'flS, 
^^"'InS, !nj"'pi began, for the most part, as follows. '■^ Alas^alas^ my 
brother!''' or '■'' Jllas, alas, my sister!"' Or if the king were dead, 
^'Jllas, alas, the king /" 1 Kgs. 13: 29, 30. 2 Chron. 35: 25. 2 Sam. 
1: 17. 3: 33. Jer. 34: 5. The men at the present day are more 
moderate in their grief, yet there are not wanting instances now, 
nor were there wanting such formerly, in which they indulged in 
deep and overwhelming sorrow, 2 Sam. 1: 11, 12. 19: 4. It was 
customary for the women after the burial to go to the tomb, and 
to pour out their grief and their lamentations there, John 11: 31. 
'l here were many other indications of a person's grief at the death 
of his friends, beside those, which have been mentioned. Among 
the most common was that of rending the garment, (either the 
outer garment or the inner, or both) from the neck in front, down 
to the girdle. Such is the custom at the present day in Persia, 
Gen. 37: 31. Jud. 11: 35. 2 Sam. 1: 2. 3: 31: 2 Kgs. 5: 7, 8. 6: 30. 

§211. ON MOURNING. 247 

We see, in this custom, the origin of the word pt) sack-cloth, from 

the Arabick word <^*£> to tear or rend. 

The Hebrews, when in mourning, sometimes walked with 
their shoes off, and with their heads uncovered. They concealed 
the chin with their outer garment, tore or dishevelled their hair 
and beard, or at least neglected to take proper care of them. 
They were forbidden to shave off their eyebrows on such occa- 
sions, Deut. 14: 1, 2. Oppressed with sensations of grief, they 
refused to anoint their heads, to bathe, or to converse with peo- 
ple ; they scattered dust and ashes into the air, or placed them 
upon their heads, or laid down in them, Job. 1: 20. 2: 12. Lev. 10: 
6. 13: 45. 21: 10. 2 Sam. 1: 2—4. 14: 2. 13: 19. 15: 30. 19: 4. Jer. 
6: 26. They struck together their hands, or tossed them towards 
the sky, smote the thigh and breast, and stamped with the foot, 2 
Sam. 13: 19. Jer. 31: 19. Ezek. G: 11. 21: 12. Est. 4: 1,3. They 
wounded their faces with their nails, although this was expressly 
prohibited in Leviticus 19: 28, and Deuteronomy 14: 1, 2. They 
fasted, abstained from wine, and avoided mingling in festivals, 2 
Sam 1: 11, 12. 3: 35. 12: 16. Jer. 25: 34. Elegies were compos- 
ed on the death of those, who held a distinguished rank in socie- 
ty, 2 Sam. 3: 33. After the burial, the persons, who lived near 
the mourners, prepared food for them, in order to refresh them, 
after such a season of suffering and grief. The refreshment sup- 
plied at such a season was sometimes denominated D'^j'iN Dr!: the 
bread of bitterness^ and sometimes D'^ariDn Dt3 the cup of consolation, 
2 Sam. 3: 35. Jer. 16: 4, 7. Hos. 9: 4. Ezek. 24: 16, 17. 

In the time of Christ, if we may credit Josephus, the mourn- 
ers themselves gave the entfrtainraent subsequent to the burial. 
The mourning, or rather the ceremonies indicative of the grief 
in case of death, continued eight days. When kings, or any per- 
sons, who held a very distinguished rank, died, the mourning was 
general, includmg the whole people-, and commonly continued 
during thirty days, Gen. 50; 4. 1 Sam. 25: 1. 1 Mace. 13: 26. 

Note. The grief, exhibited by the Greeks at the departure 
of their friends from life, which is mentioned b}- Paul m 1 Thess. 
4: 13, agreed in many particulars with that of the Orientals; 
with this exception, however, that it was siiil more excessive. It 


was so very marked and extreme, as to be made the subject of 
ridicule by Lucian de Luctu. For among the other extravag-an- 
cies, which they exhibited, they bestowed reproaches even tipon 
the dead themselves, because they did not remain in life ; uttered 
accusations and curses against the gods, and gave many other ex- 
hibitions of their grief of a kindred character. 

§ 212. Other Causes of Mourning. 

Indications of mourning were not only exhibited on the death 
of friends, but also in the case of many publick calamities, such as 
famines, the incursion of enemies, defeat in war, etc. On such 
occasions the feelings of the prophets mingled with the deep sen- 
sations of the people, and they gave utterance to them by the 
composition of elegies, Ezek. 26: 1 — 18. 27: 1 — 36. 30: 2, et seq. 
32: 2 — 32. Amos 5: 1, et seq. 

Thus David, when a fugitive from his rebellious son, like a 
mourner, who had lost a friend by death, walked barefoot^ ^n**' 
and with head uncovered ; and all the others followed his exam- 
ple, 2 Sam. 15: 30, comp. 1 Sara. 4: 12. Jos. 7: 6. 1 Kgs. 21: 27. 
2 Kgs. 19: 1. Is. 15: 2. 16: 2, 3. 22: 12. 61: 3. Joel, 1: 12, 13. Mic. 
2: 3 — 5. 7: 16. Amos, 5: 1,2, etc. It was customary particularly 
for a person to rend his clothes, when he heard blasphemy. This 
was done by the high priest himself, 1 Mace 11: 71. Matt. 26- 65, 
virho was forbidden by law to indulge in the usual expressions of 
grief, even for the dead^ Lev. 10: 6. 

Fast-days were accounted days of grief, and we find in many 
instances, that fasting and mourning go together, Jonah 3: 5 — 7. 1 
Mace. 3: 47. Whatever was the cause of the grief, it was not the 
case, that all the indications of it were exhibited in the same in- 
stance, but sometimes, so?«e, and at other times, others. 



^(©Mffi(PAa AMMC^WaMl 




§ 213. Patriarchal Government. 

The posterity of Jacob, while remaining in Egypt, maintained, 
notwithstanding the augmentation of their numbers, that patriar- 
chal form of government, which is so prevalent among the No- 
mades. Every father of a family exercised a father's authority 
over those of his own household. Every tribe obeyed its own 
prince, N'^i!33, who was originally the first born of the founder of 
the tribe, but, in progress of time, appears to have been elected. 
As the people increased in numbers, various heads of f.milie? 
united together, and selected some individual from their own body, 
who was somewhat distinguished, for their leader. Perhaps the 
choice was sometimes made merely by tacit consent ; and, with- 
out giving him the title of ruler in form, they were willing, while 
convinced of his virtues, to render submission to his will. Such 
an union of families was denominated in Hebrew ni2N Ti^'S. and 
^N n"^?., and also nnSTpS, Num. 3: 24, 30, 35. In other instances, 
although the number varied, being sometimes more and sometimes 
less than a thousand, it was denominated a"^5bN, P|Vn, a thousand^ 
1 Sam. 10: 19. 23: 23. Jud. 6: 15. Num. 26: 5—50. The heads of 
these united families were designated in Hebrew by the phrases, 
niSN n"! ■'jpN'n, D'^ebN '^m'n, and bN'^y)'^. ''ebN ''IpN'^, Num. 
1: 16. 10: 4. They held themselves in subjection to the princes 
of the tribes^ who were called, by way of distinction from other 
chiefs, a'^i«'^i!53, and bwNf'^U?'; "'tpiip ''N'^toa. Both the princes and 
heads of families are mentioned under the common names of 
&">3pT seniors or senators^ and D'^UTiJ ''^'<^ heads of tribes. Fol- 
lowing the law of reason and the rules, established by custom, 
they governed with a paternal authority the tribes and united 
families, and, while they left the minor concerns to the heads of 
individual families, aimed to superintend and promote the best in- 


terests of the community generally. Originally it fell to the prin- 
ces of the tribes themselves to keep genealogical tables ; subse- 
quently they employed scribes especially for this purpose, who, 
in the progress of time, acquired so great authority, that under 
the name of Q-'^lSriJ, [translated in the English version officers,} 
they were permitted to exercise a share in the government of the 
nation, Exod. 6: 14, 15, 19. It was by magistrates of this de- 
scription, that the Hebrews were governed, while they remained 
in Egypt, and the Egyptian kings made no objection to it, Exod. 
3: 16. 5: 1, 14, 15, 19. 

§ 214. The Fundamental Law of the Mosaic Institutions. 

The posterity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were set apart 
and destined to the great object of preserving and transmitting 
the true religion, Gen. 18: 16--20, comp. Gen. 17: 9—14. 12: 3. 
22: 18.28: 14. Having increased in numbers,?-! appeared very 
evident, that they could not live among nations given to idolatry, 
without running the hazard of becoming infected with the same 
evil. They were, therefore, in the providence of God, assigned 
to a particular country, the extent of which was so small, that 
they were obliged, if they would live independently of other na- 
tions, to give up in a great measure the life of shepherds, and 
devote themselves to agriculture. Further; very many of the 
Hebrews during their residence in Egypt had fallen into idola- 
trous habits. These were to be brought back again to the knowl- 
edge of the true God, and all were to be excited to engage in 
those undertakings, which should be found necessary for the sup- 
port of the true religion. All the Mosaick institutions aim at the 
accomplishment of these objects. The fundamental principle, 
therefore, of those institutions was this, that the true God, the 
creator and governour of the universe, and none other, ought to 
be worshipped. To secure this end the more certainly, God, 
through the instrumentality of Moses, offered himself as king to 
the Hebrews, and was accepted by the united voice of their com- 
munity. Accordingly the land of Canaan, which was destined to 
be occupied by them, was declared to be the land of Jehovah, of 
which He was to be the king, and the Hebrews merely the he- 
reditary occupants. In coasideration of their acknowledgment of 


God, as their ruler, they were bound, like the Egyptian?, to pay a 
twofold tythe, Exod. 19: 4—8. Lev. 27:20—34, Num. IS: 21, 22. 
Deut. 12: 17 — 19. 14:22,29. 26:12—15. In complinnce with 
the duties, which n:ilurally full to the immediate ruler of a people, 
God promulgated, from the clouds of mount Sinai, the prominent 
laws for the government of the people, considered as a religious 
communit}', Exod. 20. These laws were afterwards more fully 
developed and illustrated by Moses. The rewards, which should 
accompany the obedient, and the punishments, which should be 
the lot of the transgressor, were at the same time announced, and 
the Hebrews promised by a solemn oath to obey, Exod. chs. 21 — 
24. Deut. chs. 27—30. 

In order to keep the true nnture of the community fully and 
constantly in view, all the ceremonial institutions had reference to 
God, not only as the sovereign of the universe, but as the king of 
the people. The people were taught to feel, that the tabernacle 
was not only the temple of Jehovah, but the palace of their king ; 
that the table, supplied with wine and shew-bread, was the roijul 
table ; that the altar was the place, where the provisions of the 
monarch were prepared ; that the priests were the royal servants, 
and were bound to attend not oqly to sacred but secular affairs, 
and were to receive, as their salary, the first tythes, which the peo- 
])le, as subjects, were led to consider a part of that revenue, which 
Avas due to God, their immediate sovereign. Other things of a less 
prominent and important nature had reference to the same great 
end. Since, therefore, God was the sovereign, in a civil point of 
view as well as others, of Palestine and its inhabitants, the com- 
mission of idolatry by any inhabitant of that country, even a for- 
eigner, was a defection from the true king. It was in fnct ti-enson, 
•was considered a crime equal in aggravation to that of murder, 
and, was, consequently, attended with the severest punishment. — 
Whoever invited or exhorted to idolatr^'^, was considered seditious, 
and was obnoxious to the same punishment. Incantations also, ne- 
cromancy, and other practices of this nature were looked upon as 
arts of a kindred aspect with idolatry itself, and tlie same punish- 
ment was to be inflicted upon the perpetrators of them, as upon 
idolaters. The same rigour of inquiry after the perpetrators of 
idolatry was enforced, that was exhibited in respect to other 
crimes of the deepest aggravation ; and the person, who knew of 

254 § 215. CONDITION or the Hebrews 

the commission of idolatry in anolher, was bound by the law to 
complain of the person thus guilty before the judge, though the 
criminal sustained the near relationship of a wife or a brother, a 
daughter or a son. 

The law with the penalty attached to it, as may be learnt 
iVom other sources, had reference only to the overt acts of idola- 
try ; it was rather a civil than a religious statute, and the judge, who 
took cognizance of the crime, while he had a right to decide upon 
the deed, the undeniable act in any given instance, evidently went 
beyond his province, if he undertook to decide upon the thoughts 
and feelings of a person implicated, independently oi* an overt com- 
mission of the crime, Deut. 13: 2 — 19. 17: 2 — 5. 

It has been observed, that the law was not so much a religious, 
as a civil one. The distinction is obvious. A religious law has 
reference to the feelings, and those laws, consequently, which 
command us to love Cod, to exercise faith in him, and to render 
him a heartfelt obedience are of this nature, Deut. 6: 4 — 9. 10: 
12. 11: 1, 13. It ought to be remarked, that the severe treat- 
ment of idolatr}^, of which we have given a statement, was de- 
manded by the condition of the times. That was an age, in which 
each nation selected its deity, not from the dictates of con- 
science, but from the hope of temporal aid. It was an age, when 
idolaters were multiplied, and when nothing but the utmost se- 
verity in tb.e laws could keep them from contaminating the soil of 
the Hebrews. 

§ 215. Condition of thf: Heeukws as respected other Nations. 

Tiiat the Hebrews, surrounded on every side by idolatrous 
nations, might not be seduced to a defection from their God and 
king, it was necessary, that lliey should be kept from too great an 
intercourse with those nations. This was the object of those sin- 
gular rites, which, though both pro[)er and useful, were uncom- 
mon among the Gentiles. For the Hebrews, having once been ac- 
customed to them, could not readily mingle with other nations; 
since it was extremely diflicult to desert and condemn those insti- 
tutions, to which they had been accustomed from youth. But 
lest this seclusion from them should be the source of hatred to 
other notions, Moses constantly taught, that they should love their 


neighbour, 5*^, i. e. ever}"^ one, with whom they had any thing- to 
do, including foreigners, Exod. 22: 21. 23: 9. Lev. 19: 34. Deut. 
10: 18, 19. 24: 17. 27: 19. To this end he teaches them, that 
the benefits, which God had conferred upon them in preference 
to other nations, were undeserved, Deut. 7: 6 — 8. 9: 4 — 24. But 
altliough the Hebrews individually were debarred from any close 
intimacy with idolatrous nations, by various rites ; yet as a nation. 
they had liberty to form treaties with gentile states, with the fol- 
lowing exceptions. 

I. The Canaamtes, (including the Philistines, who were not 
of Canaanitish origin,) were excepted. 

They were neither to be admitted to treaty nor to servitude, 
but to be destroyed by war, or driven from the country. This 
was to be done, not only because they unjustly retained the pas- 
turing grounds of the Patriarchs, but because they were esteem- 
ed of despicable faith, both as servants and companions, and were, 
moreover, addicted to idolatry. Being idolaters, they were con- 
sidered no less than traitors in the kingdom of God, and, there- 
fore, were not to be tolerated, since there was a probabilit}^ of their 
leading the Israelites to the commission of the same sin, Exod. 23: .32. 
33.34:12, 16. Deut. 7: 1—11.20: 1—18. The Phenicians were not 
included in this deep hostility, as they dwelt on the northern shore 
of the country, were shut up within their own limits, and had oc- 
cupied none of the pasturing grounds of the patriarchs. We learn 
from Jos. 11: 19, that the Canaanites might have avoided the ex- 
ercise of the hostility of the Hebrews by leaving the country, 
which in truth many of them did. Such as pursued this course 
fled to the Phenicians, and were transported by them into Africa, 
Procopius de Vandal, II. 10. p. 258. . 

II. The Amalekites or Canaanites of Arabia Petkea were 
in like manner to be destroyed with universal slaughter. 

This was to be done, because they had attacked the weak and 
weary Hebrews in their journey through Arabia ; and because the 
robberies, which were committed by them on the southern borders 
of Palestine, could not be restrained in any other way, Exod. 17: 8, 
14. Deut. 25: 17, comp. Judges G: 3 — 5. 1 Sam. 15: 1, et seq. 27: 
8, 9. and the 30th chapter. 

III. The MoABiTES and Aj monites were to be excluded for- 
ever from the right of treaty or citizenship with the Hebrews, 
but were not to be attacked in war, Deut. 2: 9 — 19. 23: 7. 


The reason of taking- this middle course was, that, while they 
had granted to the Hebrews a passage through their country, 
they had refused to supply them with provisions, even if paid, 
Deut. 2: 29. 23: 5. Afterwards in conjunction with certain Mid- 
ianitish tribes, they invited the prophet Balaam to curse the He- 
brews, and finally they allured them to idolatry, i, e. to the crime 
of treason, Deut. 23: 3—8. comp. Deut. 2: 9—19, 37. The He- 
brews, however, did not feel themselves at liberty to carry on 
wars against them, except when provoked by previous hostility, 
Jud. 3: 12—30. 1 Sam. 14: 47. 2 Sam. 8: 2. et seq. 12: 26, et seq. 

They ultimately crushed the Midianites, who had conspired 
with the Moabites in their plans, in a war of dreadful severity, 
Num. 25: 16, 17. 31: 1—24. 

War had not been determined on against the Amorites, who 
had anciently taken away the region beyond Jordan from the 
Moabites and Ammonites by arms, for they were not in possession 
of any of the pasturing lands of the Patriarchs. But as their 
kings, Sihon and Og, not only refused a free passage, but opposed 
the Hebrews with arms, they were attacked and beaten, and their 
country fell into the hands of the Israelites, Num. 21: 21 — 35. 
Deut. 1: 4. 2: 24—37. 3; 1 — 18. 4: 46— 49, comp. Jud. 11: 13—23. 

Treaties were permitted with all other nations. David, ac- 
cordingly, maintained a friendly national intercourse with the 
kings of Tyre and Hamath ; and Solomon with the kings of Tyre 
and Egypt, and with the queen of Sheba. Even the religious 
Maccabees made treaties with the Romans. The Prophets eve- 
ry where condemn the treaties, which were made with the nations, 
not because they were contrary to the laws of Moses ; but be- 
cause they were injurious to the commonwealth, which the event 
proved. Is. 7: Is. 36—37: 2 Kgs. 18—19: Hos. 5: 8. 7: 11. 12: 1, 
et seq. Is. 30: 2—12. 31: 1 — 3. 2 Kgs. 17: 4. 

^ 216. Principal officers or Rulers in the Hebrew State. 

Many things in the administration of the government remained 
the same under the Mosaic economy, as it had been before. The 
authority, which they had previously possessed, was continued, in 
the time of Moses and after his time, to the princes of the tribes, 
to tlie heads of families and combinations of families, and to the 


genealogists, Num. II: 16. Deut. 16: 18. 20: 5. 36: 28, Yet Mo- 
ses by the advice ot Jethro, his father-in-law, increased the num- 
ber nf rulers by the appointment of an additional number of judges^ 
fi'^DD'iui ; some to judge over ten, some over fifty, some over aa 
hundred, and others over a thousand men, Exod. 18: 13 — 26. 
These judges were elected by the suffrages of the people from 
those, who, by their authority and rank, might be reckoned among 
the rulers or princes of the people. The iuferiour judges, i. e. 
those, who superintended the judicial concerns of the smaller num- 
bers, were subordinate to the superiour judges, or those who 
judged a larger number; and cases, accordingly, of a difficult na- 
ture, went up from the inferiour to the superiour judges. Those 
of a very difficult character, so much so as to be perplexing to the 
superiour judges, were appealed to Moses himself, and in some 
cases from Moses to the high priest. The judges, of whom we 
have now spoken, sustained a civil as well as a judicial authority ; 
and were included in the list of those, who are denominated the 
elders and princes of Israel. That is to say ; supposing they 
were chosen from the elders and princes, they did not forfeit their 
seat among them by accepting a judicial office, and, on the contra- 
trary, the respectability attached to their office, (supposing they 
were not chosen from them,) entitled them to be reckoned in their 
number, Deut. 31: 28. comp. Josh. 8: 33. 23: 2. 24: 1. The vari- 
ous civil officers, that have been mentioned in this section, viz. 
judges, heads of fainilies^ genealogists^ elders, princes of the tribes, &.C. 
were dispersed, as a matter of course, in different parts of the 
country. Those of them, accordingly, who dwelt in the same city, 
or the same neighbourhood, formed the Comitia, senate, or legisla- 
tive assembly of their immediate vicinity, Deut. 19: 12. 25:8, 9. 
Jud.8:14. 9:3—46. 11:5. 1 Sam. 8: 4. 16:4. When all, that 
dwelt in any particular tribe, were convened they formed the leg- 
islative assembly of the tribe, and when thej^ were convened ia 
one body from all the tribes, they formed in like manner the leg- 
islative assembly of the nation, and were the representatives of all 
the people, J ud. 1: 1 — II. 11:5. 20:12—24, Josh. 23:1,2, 24: 1. 
The priests, who were the learned class of the community, and 
besides were hereditary officers in the state, being set apart for 
civil as well as religious purposes, had, by the divine command, a 
right to a sittaig in this assembly, Exod. 32: 29. Num. 36: 13. 8: 


6 — 26. Being' thus called upon to sustain very different and yet 
very important offices, they became the subjects of that envy, 
which would naturally be excited by the honour and the advanta- 
ges, attached to their situation. In order to confirm them in the 
duties, which devolved upon them and to throw at the greatest 
distance the mean and lurking principle just mentioned, God, after 
the sedition of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, sanctioned the separa- 
tion of the whole tribe, which had been previously made, to the 
service of religion and the state, by a most evident and striking 
miracle, Num. 16: 1 — 17. 

§ 217. Connexion of the Tuiees with each Other, 

Each tribe was governed by its own rulers, and consequently 
to a certain extent constituted a civil community, independent of 
the other tribes, Jud. 20: 11— 46. 2 Sam. 2: 4. Jud. 1:21, 27: 33. 
If any affair concerned the whole or many of the tribes, it was de- 
termined by them in conjunction, in the legislative assembly of 
the nation, Jud. 11: 1 — 11. I Chron. 5: 10, 18, 19. 2Sara.3:17. 1 
Kgs. 12: 1 — 24. If any one tribe found itself unequal to the exe- 
cution of anj' proposed plan, it might connect itself with another, 
or even a number of the other tribes, Jud. 1: 1 — 3, 2s;. 4: 10. 7: 
23,24. 8: 1 — 3. But, although in many things each tribe existed 
by itself, and acted separately, yet in others, they were united, 
and formed but one community. For all the tribes were bound 
together, so as to torra one church and one civil community, not 
only by their common ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, not 
only by the common promises, which they had received from 
those ancestors, not only by the need, in which they stood of mu- 
tual counsel and assistance ; but also by the circumstance, that 
God was their common king, that they had a common taber- 
nacle for his palace, and a common sacerdotal and Leviti- 
cal order for his ministers. Accordingly every tribe exerted 
a sort of inspection over the others, as respected their observ- 
ance of the Law. If any thing had been neglected or any wrong 
been done, the particular tribe concerned was amenable to the 
others, and, in case justice could not be secured in any other way, 
might be punished with war. Josh. 22: 9 — 34. Jud. 20: 1, et seq. 
It is possible, that a community thus constituted may be prosper- 


ous and tranquil, but it will probably want promptness in securing 
that justice, which is its due, and will also be exposed to external 
and internal wars. We find examples of these evils during the 
time of the Judges. In such a community, it was to be expected 
likewise, that the more powerful tribes would be jealous of each 
other, and rivals. Accordingly we find this rivalship existing be- 
tween the tribe of Judah, to which belonged the right of primo- 
geniture, and the tribe of Joseph, which had a double portion. Gen. 
49: 8 — 10. 4t?:5, 6. The right of possessing a double portion, in 
consequence of which the tribe of Joseph was divided into those 
of Ephraim and Manasseh, and which was equivalent in fact to 
the right of primogeniture, placed these two tribes on nearly the 
same footing, and caused them to look upon each other with the 
captious and unfriendly eye of competitors. From rivalships of 
this kind a sad schism finally arose, which sundered the nation, 
1 Kgs. i2: . 

§ 218. The Comitia or Legislative Assemblies. 

(1.) Persons, who composed the Comitia. 

They have been mentioned in a preceding section, and were as 
follows, viz. judges, i. e. those, who exercised the office in the judi- 
cial sense of the word, heads of families, genealogists, elders, and 
the princes of the tribes. 

(2.) Titles applied to them in their collective capacity. 

irnyin ""ppT, the elders of the assembly or the people. 

brjjvil ^3, STiyn bSi li'O, the whole assembly. At the conven- 
tions designated uy these words, not only the persons mentioned 
at the head of this section were present, but also in some instan- 
ces the whole body of the people. The words, therefore, may 
mean a national legislative Congress, where only the lawfully con- 
stituted members are present, or they may mean an assembly, 
which includ s ihe whole mass of the people. 

In"l3)n ^N"'',^:, the princes of the assembly or congregation. 

IJJ.ITO "'>l'"i)?i ^']t'^i '*^.'"^.p.i ^^^^^ called to the assembly. 

!Tiyn "^tl^p^i ttiose deputed to the assembly. ^ 

260 § 218. POWERS, ETC. OF THE COMfTlA. 

Examine in reference to this point, Exod. 19: 7. 24: 3 — 8. 34: 
31,32. Lev. 4:13. 18:3—5. 9:5. 

(3.) Method Ax\d Place of convening the Comitia. 

They were convened by the judge or ruler, for the time be- 
incf, and in case of his absence, by the h;gh priest. Num. 10:2 — 4. 
Jud. 20: 1, 27, 28. Josh. 23: 1, 2. The place of their assembimg 
appears to have been at the door of the tabernacle, Num 10: 3. 
Jud. 20: 1,27,28. 1 Sam. 10: 17. Sometimes some other place, 
commonly one of some celebritjs was selected as the place of 
meeting, Josh. 24: 1. 1 Sam. 1 1: 14, 15. 1 Kgs. 12: 1 As long as 
the Hebrews resided in camps in the Arabian wilderne««, the 
Comitia were summoned together b}' the blowing of the holy 
trumpets. It appears from Num. 10: 2 — 4, that the blowing of 
one trumpet only was the signal for a somewhat select convention, 
composed merely of the heads of the clans or associated families, 
and of the princes of the tribes. The blowing of two trumpets 
was the signal for convening the great assembly, composed not 
only of the heads of families, and the princes of the tribes, but of 
the elders, judges, and genealogists; and in some in^Jtances includ- 
ing, as has been already remarked, the whole i>ndy of the people. 
When the Hebrews had become fiiirly settleii in Palestine, the 
Comitia were assembled, on account of the members living in pla- 
ces distant from each other, not by the sound of trumpet, but by 
messengers sent to them, see Deut. 29: 9, 10. Judg. 20: 

(4.) Powers, etc. of the Comitia. 

Moses, while he sustained the office of ruler among the He- 
brews, announced to these publick assemblies the commands of 
God. which were at'terwards repeated to the people by the Shote- 
rim. D'^^ar^b, [whom, for want of a better term in English, we 
have denominated genealogists.] In the Comitia^ (those, which 
met where the people were not present,) the rights of sovereign- 
ty were exercised, wars were declared, peace was concluded, 
treaties were ratified, civil rulers and generals, and eventually 
kings were chosen. The oath of office was administered to its mem- 
bers by the judge, or the king of the state j and the latter in turn 


received their oath from the Comitia, acting- in the name of the 
people, Exod. 19: 7. 24: 2—8. Josh. 9: 15—21. Jud. 20: 1, 1 1 — 
14. 2h 13— 20. ISam. 10:24. 11: 14. 2 Sam. 11: 14. 2 Sam. 2: 4. 
3: 17—19. 5: 1—3. 1 Kgs. 12: 

The Comitia acted without instructions from the people, on 
their own authority, and according- to their own views. Nor does 
any instance occur, in which the people exhibited any disposition 
to interfere in their deliberations by way of dictating' what they 
ought, or what they ought not to do. Still the Comitia were in 
the habit of proposing to the people their decisions and resolves 
for their ratification and consent, 1 Sam. 11: 14, 15. comp. Josh. 8: 
33. 23: 2. et seq. 24: 1, et seq. When God was chosen, as the 
special king of the Hebrews, it was not done by the Comitia, inde- 
pendently of those, whom they commonlj'^ represented, but by the 
people themselves, all of whom, as well as their rulers, took the 
oath of obedience, even the women and children, Exod. 24: 3 — 8. 
Deut. 29: 9 — 14. The people commonly approved what was 
done by the senate, but sometimes objected. 

§ 219. Form of Government a mixed One. 

When we remember, that God was expressly chosen the king 
of the people, and that He enacted laws and decided litigated 
points of importance. Num. 17: 1 — 11. 27:1 — 11. 36:1 — 10; 
when we remember also, that He answered and solved questions 
proposed. Num. 15: 32—41. Josh 7:16—22. Jud. 1: 1,2. 20: 18, 
27, 28. 1 Sam. 14:37. 23:9—12. 30:8. 2 Sam. 2: 1 ; that He 
threatened punishment and that, in some instances, He actually in- 
flicted it upon the hardened and impenitent, Num. 11: 33 — 35. 12: 
1 — 15. 16: 1—50. Lev. 26: 3—46. Deut. 26— 30 ; when, final- 
ly, we take into account, that He promised prophets, who were to 
be, as it were, his ambassadors, Deut. 18 :, and afterwards sent 
them according to his promise, and that, in order to preserve the 
true religion, He governed the whole people by a striking and pe- 
culiar providence, we are at liberty to say, that God was i»i fact 
the monarch of the people, and that the government was a theoc- 
racy. And indeed it is worthy of remark, that a form of govern- 
ment, in some degree theocratical in its nature, was well suited 
to the character of that distant age. The countries, that border- 


ed on Palestine, had their tutelar deities; and there existed 
among them nearly the same connexion between religion and the 
civil government, which there ex sted among the Hebrews, There 
was this difference, however, in the two capes. The protection, 
which the false deities were supposed to afford to the nations in 
the vicinity of Palestine, was altogether a deception ; while the 
protection, which the true Cod threw around the children of Is- 
rael, was a reality and a truth. There was likewise this further 
point of difference, that while among the former, religion was 
supposed to be the prop of the state ; it was a fact, that among 
the Hebrews the state was designed to be the supporter and 
preserver of religion. But, although the government of the Jews 
was a Theocracy, it was not destitute of the usual forms, which ex- 
ist in civil governments among men. God, it is true, was the 
king, and the high priest, if we may be allowed so to speak, was 
his minister of state ; but still the political affairs were in a great 
measure under the disposal of the elders, princes, &,c. It was to 
them, that Moses gave the divine commands; determined express- 
ly 'vbeir powers ; and submitted their requests to the decision of 
God, Num: 14 : 5. 16: 4. et seq. 27: 5. 36: 5, 6. It was in refer- 
ence to the great power possessed by these men, who formed the 
legislative assembly of the nation, that Josephus pronounced the 
government to be aristocratical. But from the circumstance, that 
the people possessed so much inSuence, as to render it necessary 
to submit laws to them for their ratification, and that they even 
took it upon themselves sometimes to propose laws or to resist 
those, which were enacted ; from the circumstance also, that the 
legislature of the nation had not the power of laying taxes, and 
that the civil code was regulated and enforced by God himself, in- 
dependently of the legislature, Lowman and John David Michaelis 
are in favour of considering the Hebrew government z. democracy. 
In support of their opinion such passages are examined, as the 
following, Esod. 19: 7, 8. 24 : 3— C. comp. Deut 29:9—14. Josh. 
9:18,19.23:1. et seq. 24: 2. et seq. 1 Sam. 10: 24. 11:14,16. 
Num. 27: 1 — 8. 36: 1 — 9. The truth seems to lie between these 
two opinions. The Hebrew government, putting out of view its 
tbeocratical features, was of a mixed form, in some respects ap» 
proaching to a democracy, in others assuming more of an aristo- 
cratical character. 


§ 220. The Ruler of the Israelitish Community. 

From what has been said, it is clear, that the ruler, the su- 

with the design of promoting the good of his subjects, condescend- 
ed to exhibit his visible presence in the Tabernacle, wherever it 
travelled, and wherever it dwelt. 

Part sustained by Moses. 

If, in reference to the assertion, that God was the ruler of the 
Jewish state, it should be inquired what the part was, sustained by 
Moses, the answer is, that God was the ruler, the people were his 
subjects, and Moses was the mediator or internuncio between 
them. But the title most appropriate to Moses, and most descrip- 
tive of the part he sustained, is that of Legislator of the Israelites 
and their Deliverer from the Egyptians. It is clear, however, that 
a man may originate laws and may be the meritorious leader of 
an emigratory expedition, without being in the proper sense of 
the word, the ruler of a people. Accordingly Moses had no suc- 
cessor in those employments, in which he was himself especially 
occupied, for the Israelites were no longer oppressed with Egyp- 
tian bondage, and those laws were already introduced, which 
were immediately necessary for the well-being of the people. It 
was on this ground, viz. that the employments, in which he was 
especially engaged, were of a peculiar nature, and having been 
accomplished vvhile he was living, ceased when he was dead, that 
the Council of sevent}-^ elders, who were assigned him to assist 
him in the discharge of his oppressive duties, no longer had an 
existence after his decease. 

Part sustained by Joshua. 

If the same question should be put in respect to Joshua, that 
was supposed in regard to Moses, the answer would be, that he 
was not properly the successor of Moses, and that, so far from be- 
ing the ruler of the state, he was designated by the ruler to sus- 
tain the subordinate office of Military leader of the Israelites in their 

264 § 221, THE THEOCRACY. 

conquest of the land of Canaan. Consequently, having been desig- 
nated to a particular object, and having accomplished that object, 
it was not necessary, when he died, that he should have a succes- 
sor, nor was this the case. 

Part sustained by the Judges. 

But, nlthong'h the Hebrew state was so constituted, that beside 
Go I, tlie invisible king, and his visible servant, the high priest, 
there w vs no other general ru;er of the commonwealth, yet it is 
well known, that there were rulers of a high rank, appointed at 
var;ous times, called UDViJ, a word, which not only signifies a 
judge in the usual sense of the term, but any governor, or admin- 
istrator of public affairs, comp. 1 Sam. 8: 20. Is 11: 4. 1 Kgs. 3: 9. 
The power lodged in these rulers, who are commonly caWed judges 
in the scriptures, seems to have been in some respects paramount 
to that of the general Comitia of the nation, and we find, that they 
declared war, led armies, concluded peace, and that this was not 
the whole, if indeed it was the most important part of their du- 
ties. For many of the J,idges, for instance Jair, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, 
Eli, and Samuel, ruled the nation in peace. They might appro- 
priately enough be called the suj)reme Executive, exercising all 
the rights of sovereignty, with the exception of enacting laws, and 
imposing taxes. They were honoured, but they bore no exter- 
nal badges of distinction ; they were distinguished, but they en- 
joyed no special privileges themselves, and communicated none to 
their posterity. They subserved the publick good without emol- 
ument, that the state might be prosperous, that religion might be 
preserved, and that God alone might be king in Israel. It ought 
to be observed, however, that not all of the Judges ruled the 
whole nation. Some of them presided over only a few separate 

§ 221. The Theocracy-. 

God, in the character of king, had governed the Israelites for six- 
teen ages. He ruled them on the terms, which he himself, through 
the agency of Moses, had proposed to them, viz. that if they ob- 
served their allegiance to Him^ they should be prosperous ; if not. 

§ 221. THE THEOCRACY. 265 

adversity and misery would be the consequence, Exod. 19:4,5. 
23: 20—33. Lev. 26: 3—46. Deut. 28 — 30. We may learn from 
the whole book of Judges, and from the tirst eight chapters of 
Samuel, how exactly the result, from the days of Joshua down to 
the time of Samuel, agreed with these conditions. In the time of 
Samuel, the government, in point of form was changed into a 
monarchy. The election of king, however, was committed to 
God, who chose one by lot. So that God was still the ruler, and 
,the king the vicegerent. The terms of the government, as re- 
spected God, were the same as before, and the same duties and 
principles were inculcated on the Israelites, as had been original- 
ly, 1 Sam- 8: 7. 10: 17—23. 12: 14, 15, 20—22,24, 25. In con- 
sequence of the fact, that Saul did not choose at all times to obey 
the commands of God, the kingdom was taken from him and given 
to another, 1 Sam. 13:6—14. 15: 1—31. David, through the 
agency of Samuel, was selected by Jehovah for king, who thus 
gave a proof, that he still retained, and was disposed to exercise 
the right of appointing the ruler under him, 1 Sam. 16: 1 — 3. Da- 
vid was first made king over Judah, but as he received his ap- 
pointment from God, and acted under his authority, the other 
eleven tribes submitted to him, 2 Sam. 5: 1 — 3. comp. 1 Chron. 
28:4 — 6. David expressly acknowledged God, as the sovereign, 
and as having a right to appoint the immediate ruler of the peo- 
ple, 1 Chron. 28: 7 — 10; he religiously obeyed His statutes, the 
people adhered firmly to God, and his reign was prosperous. 
'*rhe paramount authority of God, as the king of the nation, and his 
right to appoint one, who should act in the capacity of his vicege- 
rent, are expressly recognized in the books of Kings and Chronicles, 
but dissensions and tumults, notwithstandiitg, arose upon the death of 
Solomon. The principles, recognized in Kings and Chronicles, are 
repeated in the Psalms and the Prophets. And all these books in- 
culcate faith towards God, and obedience, and the keeping of his 
commandments, and threaten, unless his commands are kept, and 
faith and obedience exercised, the infliction cf those punishments, 
and that captivity, which are mentioned by Moses, Deut. 28: 49, 
63 — 65. 29: 17 — 27. But the'same prophets, who predicted the 
miseries of the Captivity, promised also a return, a greater constan- 
cy in religion, tranquillity and prosperity, a once more independent 
Theocracv, the propagation of the knowledge of the trwe God 



through all nations, and the final overthrow of the Hebrews, and 
their ultimate and effectual expulsion from their native country. 
All which accordingly followed. Thus under the government and 
guardianship of God, the true religion was preserved among the 
Hebrews, and at length propagated to other nations, as was prom* 
ised, Gen. 18: 18. 22: 18. 26:4. 28: 14. 



BOTH IN Palestine, and in those neighbouring nations, whose 



Before 1 


Christ. 1 
































Birth of Abraham. 

Calling of Abraham, being 75 years of age. 

Birth of Isaac. 

Marriage of Isaac. 

Birth of Esau and Jacob. 

Death of Abraham, being 175 years of age. 

Death of Isaac, being 180 years of age. 

Joseph, being 30 years old, made a ruler in Egypt. 

Beginning of the Egyptian famine. 

Jacob, aged 130 years, emigrates into Egypt. 

Jacob dies at the age of 147. 

Joseph dies at the age of 110. 

Birth of Moses. 

Flight of Moses into Arabia. 

Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt. 



This Table gives a chronological view of historical events from the 
Departure from Egypt to the revolt of the ten Tribes ; a period ex- 
tending from the year 1563 to 1015 before Christ. 


After Depar- 
ture fr. Egypt. 



Moses dies at the ag-e of 120 years. 



Joshua dies at the age of 110 years. 

Othniel dies at the age of 40 years. 



Deborah and Barak. 

Gideon judged Israel 40 years. 

Abimelech, king of Shechem. 





Jephthah, Jud. 11:26. 







Eli succeeds as Judge c f Israel. 



Eli dies. 



Samuel sustains the office of Judge. 
Saul chosen king. 



David made king. 
Solomon succeeds him. 




B. C. 






















































Kehoboatti, reigned 11 yrs. 
Abijam, 3 years. 
Asa, 41 years. 



Jelioshapliat 25 years 


Jehoram 8 years 
Abaziah one year. 
Atbaliab seven years 
Jehoash 40 years. 


Atnaziah 27 years 



Uzziah 52 years. 



Jotbam 16 years. 
Isaiah, Micah 
Abaz 16 







Hezekiah 29 years 



Jeroboam 1. 22 years. 
Nadab, 2 years. 
Baasha, 21 years. 
Ela reigns one year. 
Omri eleven years. 
Ahab 21 years. 

Ahaziah one year. 
Jehoram 13 years. 
Jehu 18 years. 

Jehoahaz 17 years. 
Joash or Jehoash 16 years 
Jeroboam II, 41 years. 
Jonah, the prophet. 

Amos, the prophet. 

Hosea, the. prophet. 
Interregnum of 12 years. 

Zechariah 6 months. 
Shallum one month. 
Menahem 10 years. 
Pekahiah two years, 
Pekah 20 years. 


Interregnum 8 or 9 years 
IJosea 9 years 
Ovcrtlirow of" Israel. 



This table gives the royal successions during the hitter pan of the peri- 
ods^ mentioned in the third table, in Assyria^ Media, and Biibylon. 



B. C. 

















Phul 21 years 















Tig-lath-pileser 19 yrs. 









i He conquers Damascus 
( Galilee and Gilead. 






Salmanassar 14 3'ears 




















Arbaces 29yr? 

Interregnum ) 
79 years. ^ 

















IVabonassar 14 

IVadius 2 years. 
^ Chinzirus or 
I Porus 5 yrs. 
Jugfaeus 5 yrs. 



The following is a view of the royal successions in the kingdom of 
Judah after the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel^ and also of 
those in the neighbouring nations of Jissyria, Media^ and Babylon. 

O <u 

'T. O 


4* ^ 










Sennacherib 7 y. 








Sennach. in Jud. 




Esar-haddon 35. 











26 1 11 



Manasseh55 14 




























Chyniladan 22 y. 



Amon 2 yrs. 








Josiah 31 y. 





Saracus 13 yrs. 




First Reform 











2d Reform 

Nineveh over- 






J Merodach Bala- 
\ din 12 years. 



Dejoces 53 y. 






Arkianus 5 yrs. 



Interregn. 2 yrs. 
Belibus 3 yrs. 


Apronadius 6 yrs. 
Rigebelus 1 yr. 


Interregnum 8 y. 
Isjoined to Assyria 



Phraortes 20y. 






Cyaxares 1.40 











JVabopolassar over' 
turns Nineveh and 

reigns 20 rjears. 














Jehoahaz 3 mo. 
Jehoiakim 1 1 yrs. 

Beginning of the Babylo- 
nish Captivity^ Daniel 
carried away captive. 
370 5 

372 7 

376 Jehoiakim 3 mo. 

Ezekiel carried away 

376 Zedekiah 1 1 yrs. 

380 Zedek.goes to Babylon 
Jer. 51: 59. 

381 Ezekiel., proph. 
385 Zedekiah rebels 
387 Jeru. overthrown. 

Jehoiakim freed 
from bondage. 










Nebuchadnezzar 43 y 

As ty ages 34 













Cyaxares II 

32 y 



Evil-merodach 2 yrs. 


Neriglissor 4 yrs. 
Laborasoarchad 9 mo 


lYabonned 17 yrs. 


Baby, tak'n by Cyrus 



This table extends from the time of the return of tJie Jews from 
captivity^ till the death of Alexander the Great, giving in con- 
nexion with the Jewiik chronology, the corresponding succes- 
/ sions in the Persian Dynasty. 








The Hebrews. 


i Return of Hebrews 
( Captivity. 
^fler Return 7 years. 
Temple 16 forbidden to be 

Temple completed. 
Haggai and Zechariah. 
Ezra, 48 Esther. 
104Nehemiah comes to Jerus. 
112 Neh. returns to Persia. 
128 Neh. 2d return to Jerus. 
202 Alexander at Jerusalem. 
207 Conquers Darius. 
214 Alexander dies. 

Persian Monarchs. 

Cyrus reigned seven years. 

Cambyses reigned 7 yrs.&7 mo. 
Pseudo-Smerdis seven months. 

Darius Hystaspes 36 yrs. 

Xerxes reigned 21 years. 

ArtaxerxesLongimanus 40y3m 


Xerxes II 2mo.Sogdianus 7 mo. 
Darius Nothus reigns 19 yrs. 


Artaxerxes Nnemon 46 yrs. 
Darius Ochus 21 yrs. 
Arses two years. 
Darius Codotnanus 4 yrs. 
Overthrow of Persian Mon. 



This table gives the succession of the Syrian and Egyptian kings 
in connexion with the History of the Jews from the year 323 to 27 
before Christ. 


Syrian Kings. 

Egyptian Kings. 



Ptolemy Lagus. 

At this time subject to tlie Syrians. 



vlany carried into Egypt. 


Seleucus I. Nicator. 





At this time subject to Egyptians. 




Simon the Just. High Priest. 




Simon the Just dies. 



Ptolemy Philadel. 

Jesus, the son of Sirach 


Anliochus I. Sidetes. 



Antiochus IF. Theos. 




Ptolemy Evergetes. 


Seleucus 11. Caliinicus 



Seleucus lii.Keraunus 



Antiochus HI. Magnus 




Ptolemy Philopator 



Ptolemy Epiphanes 




SimoD II. the High Priest dies. 


Seleucus IV.Philopat 




Ptolemy Philometor 


Antiochus IV. Epipha. 









Judas Maccabee reigned 7 jrs. 


Antiochus V.Eupator 




Demetrius Soter. 






Jonathan ruled 14 yrs. 


Alexand. Balas. 




Deinetr. Nicator. 

Ptol. Physcon. 





Simon 8 years. 


Antiochus VI. Sidetes 






John Hyrcaaus, prince 29 yrs. 


Oemetrius Nicat. 11. 








Antiochus VII. Grypus 




Ptol. Lathyrus. 




Aristobulus I. 1 year. 



Alexander Jannaeus 27 yrs. 











Ptol. Alexander. 





Alexander 9 yrs. 




Aristobulus 11. 4 yra. 


The Romans 




Ptol. Auletes. 




Pompey at Jeru. HyrcanusII. 9y 



Hyrcanus II. High Priest. 



Hyrcanus 11. again prince. 



Aoti^onus, king. 



Herod king, he takes Jerusalem. 



Hyrcanus II. slain. 


The RomaDsi 

36. Birth of Christ. 




This table gives a view of the Hebrew rulers^ independently of other 
nations and in chronological order, from the time of Christ till 
the destruction of Jerusalem. 
A. C. Hebrews. 

2 Archelaus, ethnarch nine years. 
12 Judea, a Roman Province, Judas of Galilee. 
26 Pontius Pilate, procurator 12 years. 
•34 Jesus Christ is crucified. 
35 Philip, the tetrarch dies. 

38 Herod Agrippa, king of the tetrarchate of Philippi. 
42 Herod Antipas recalled, and his tetrarchate added to that of 
Herod Agrippa. 

44 Herod Agrippa dies. 

45 Fadus, procurator. 

46 Tiberius, procurator. 

47 Cumanus, procurator. 
53 Felix, procurator. 

60 Festus, procurator. 

63 Albinus, procurator. 

65 Florus, procurator. 

66 Beginning of the war between the Jews and Romans. 
71 The destruction of Jerusalem. 




§ 223. The Anointing of Kings. 

When^ we hear of the anointing of the Jewish kings, we are to 
understand by it the same, as their inauguration ; in as much as 
anointing was the principal ceremony on such an occasion, 2 Sam. 
2: 4. 5: 3. 

As far as we are informed, however, Unction^ as a sign of in- 
vestiture with the royal authority, was bestowed only upon the 
two first kings, who ruled the Hebrews, viz. Saul and David ; and, 
subsequently, upon Solomon and Joash, who ascended the throne 
under such circumstances, that there was danger of their right to 
the succession being forcibly disputed, 1 Sam. 10: 24. 2 Sam. 2: 4. 
5: 1—3. 1 Chron. 11: 1,2.2 Kgs. 11: 12—20. 2 Chron. 23: 1—21. 
That the ceremony of regal anointing should be repeated in every 
instance of succession- to the throne, was not to be expected from 
the fact, that the unction, which the first one, who held the scep- 
tre in any particular line of princes, had received, was supposed 
to suffice for the succeeding incumbents in the same descent. 

In the kingdom of Israel, those, who were inducted into the 
royal office, appear to have been inaugurated with some addition- 
al ceremonies, 2 Kgs. 9: 13. The private anointings, which we 
learn to have been performed by the prophets, (2 Kgs. 9: 3, comp. 
1 Sam. 10:1 16: 1-13,) were only prophetick symbols or intimations, 
that the persons, who were thus anointed, should eventually receive 
the kingdom. Without the consent, however, of the rulers of the 
nation, (of the publick, legislative assembly,) they communicated 
no legal right to the crowa; no more than the prophecies of dis- 
sentions and civil wars gave a right to attempt perpetrations of 
that kind, 1 Kgs. 11: 29—40. 12: 20. 2 Kgs. 8: 11—14. 

The ceremonies, mentioned in the Bible, wliich twere customary at 
the inauguration of kings, -were as follows. 


I. The kins;-, surrounded with soldiers, was conducted int© 
some publick place, (latterly into the temple,) and was there 
anointed by the high priest with the sacred oil. The circum- 
stance, that there is no mention made o{ anointings on these occa- 
sions in the history of the kingdom of Israel, as separate from that 
of Judah, is to be accounted for from the fact, that the rulers of 
that kingdom had not the opportunity of obtaining possession of 
the sort of oil, denominated sacred ; as no other was thought to 
answer tlie purpose, 1 Kgs. 1: 32-34. 2 Kgs. 11: 12 — 20. 2 Chron. 
23: 1 — 21. We see in this ceremony the ground of the epithet tl'^xn 
or anointed, which is applied to kings, and a reason also, (when it is 
taken into consideration, that kings were virtually the vicegerents of 
Jehovah, and were appointed by his authority,) why they were de- 
nominated the anointed of, i. e, by the Lord, hTrt"* n'^'«l3'3, 1 Sara. 
24: 6, 10. 26: 9, 11, 16, 23. 2 Sam. 23: 1. Ps. 2: 2. 89: 3Q. Habak. 
3: 13, etc. Whether the king was likewise girded with a sword 
at the time of his succession to the throne, is a point which can- 
not be determined at any rate, as some have imagined, from the 
forty tifth Psalm. 

II. It appears from 2 Sam. 1: 10, Ezek. 21: 26, and Psalm 45: 
6, that a sceptre was presented to the monarch at his inaugura- 
tion, and that a diadem was placed upon his head. 

III.' The Covenant, n'^'na, which defined and fixed the prin- 
ciples, according to which the government was to be conducted, 
ini^b^^n iDC'kli^, and likewise the Laws of Moses were presented 
to him, and he accordingly took an oath, that he would rule ac- 
cording to the principles of that Covenant, and of the Mosaic Law, 
1 Sam. 10: 25. 2 Sam. 5: 3. 1 Chron. 11: 3. 2 Kgs. 11: 12. 2 Chron. 
23: 11, comp. Deul. 17: 18. The principal men of the kingdom, 
princes, elders, &,c. promised obedience on their part, and as a 
pledge and a proof of their determination to do what they had 
pronfiisf^d, they kissed, as it seems, either the feet or the knees of 
the person inaugurated, Ps. 2: 12. 

IV. After the ceremonies were completed, and the individual 
concerned was legally constituted the ruler of the kingdom, he 
was conducted into the city with great pomp, amid the acclama- 
tions and the applauses of the people, and the cries of Long live 
the King P'' ^^Tan '^H^ ! The joy, which was the natural result 
of such an occasion, expressed itself likewise in songs, and on in- 


struments of musick. Sacrifices, which, in the later ages of the 
nation, were converted into feasts, were offered up, and were in- 
tended probably as a confirmation of the oath, which had been 
taken, 1 Kgs. 1: 1, 11, 19, 24,34, 39,40. 2Kgs^ll: 12, 10. 12 Chr. 
23: 11, comp. Matt. 21: 1 — 11. John 12: 3. There are allusions 
in many passages of Scripture to the publick entrance into cities, 
which took place at the time of coronation, and to the rejoicings 
and acclamations on that occasion, Ps, 47: 2 — 9. 83: 1, 2. 97: 1. 
99: 1. 

V. Finally, the king is seated upon the throne, and, as the 
concluding ceremony at his accession, receives the congratulations, 
which are then customarily presented, 1 Kgs. 1: 35, 48, comp. 2 
Kgs. 9: 13. 11: 19. 

It is almost unnecessary to remark, that, at the accession of 
king Saul to the monarchy, when there was neither diadem, throne, 
nor sceptre, many of these ceremonies were not observed. The 
most of them also were omitted in the case of conquest, when the 
conqueror himself, without consulting the people or their princi- 
pal men, designated the king for the nation, whom he had subdu- 
ed, merely gave him another name in token of his new dignity, 
exacted the oath of fidelity, and signalized the event by a feast, 
2 Kgs. 23: 34. 24: 17. 2 Chron. 3G: 4. 

§ 224. Royal Robe, Diadem, and Crown. 

The robe, which was worn by kings, as might be expected 
from their elevated rank, was costly and gorgeous ; and the retin- 
ue, which attended them, was both large in point of number, and 
splendid in respect to appearance, Ezek. 28: 13 — 20, 1 Kgs. 4 ch. 
The materials, of which their robe was made, was fine, white, lin- 
en or cotton ; the usual colour was purple, noQCfiVQa auv dvaaog, 
I^-P^l V^3» Luke 16: 18. Acts 18: 12, 16. The kings of Media 
and Persia appear to have used silk. Est. 6: 8, 10, 11. 8: 15. 

Among the appropriate ornaments of the king's person, there 
was none so rich and valuable anciently, and there is none so cost- 
ly and splendid at the present day in Asia, as the royal diadem ; 
which is irradiated with pearls and gems. This article of their 
dress, also the chain for the neck and the bracelets for the arms, 
were worn by them constantly. In Persia a diadem was worq not 

278 § 225. THE THRONE. 

only by the king himself, but likewise, with a little different shape 
in its construction, by his relations, and others, to whom special 
favours had been conceded, Est. 8: 15. 

As far as respects the form of the diadem, (in Hebrew denom- 
inated "nt^.) v?e have only to observe, that it was a fillet, two 
inches broad, bound round the head, so as to pass the forehead 
and temples, and tied behind. It had its origin from the fillet or 
ribband, which, in the most ancient times, was tied round the hair 
for the purpose of confining it, and which was used, subsequently, 
to secure the head-dress upon the head. 

The colour of the diadem seems to have varied in different 
countries. That of the diadem of the Persian kings, (according to 
Curtius VI. 11,) was purple mingled with white, Ps. 89: 39. 2 Sam. 
1: 10. 2 Kgs. 11: 12. 2Chron. 23: 11. 

Crowns, nT"it32>, !n"\t:2'', were likewise in use, 2 Sam, 12: 30. 
Zech. 6: 11, 14. Ps. 23: 3. These words are also used, in some 
instances, to denote a diadem, and likewise an ornamental head- 
dress for the ladies. It may be, moreover, that they are used to 
signify a sort of mitre, which ascends very high and is made of 
metal ; of which we have given an engraved representation in 
the large German Edition of this Work, Part 1. Vol. II. tab. IX. 
No. 4 and 8. It is possible, that the forms of those crowns, which 
were worn by kings at the earliest period, resembled (hat of the 
mitre in the engraving referred to, but it is a point, which is by 
no means determined. 

§ 225. The Thkone. ND3. 

The Throne was a seat with a back and arms, and of so great 
height, as to render afoutstcol Dinln, necessary. Gen. 41 : 40. Psw 
110: 1. Curtius V. 7. 

The throne of Solomon, which consisted wholly of gold orna- 
mented with ivory, was made in this manner, excepting that the 
back was a little curved, and contiguous to each arm or side, was 
placed the figure of a lion, [the symbol of a king,) 1 Kgs. 10: 18 — 20. 
SChron. 9:17. This throne was placed on a flooring, elevated 
.six steps, on each of which steps, and, on either side, was the fig- 
ijre of a lion, making twelve of them in the whole. 

It was customary for the high priest, previous to the time of 

§ 226. THE SCEPTRE. 279 

the monarchy, if not to sit upon a throne properly so called, at 
least, to take a position on an elevated seat, 1 Sam. 1: 9. 4: 18. 

Both the '■'• throne''' itself, and likewise '■'■ sitting vpon the throne^^' 
are expressions used tropically, to denote power, and government, 
2 Sam. 3: 10. Ps.9:7. 89: 44. Is. 47: 1, etc. That the throne of 
the Hebrew kings is also called the '•'• throne of Jehovah^^'' origina- 
ted from the fact, that those kings were in reality his vicege- 
rents, and exercised in respect to God a vicarious authority, 2 
Chron. 9: 8. 

In some passages, a throne is assigned to God, not only as the 
king of the Hebrews, but also as the ruler of the universe, Job 23: 
3. Exod. 17: 16. Is. 6:1. I Kgs. 22: 19. It is represented, as a 
chariot of thunders, drawn hy cherubim, D"'in'n3, Ezek. 1: 3, et 
seq. 2Kgs. 19: 15. iChron. 13:6. Ps. 18:11. Hence the cheru- 
bim, placed over the ark of the Covenant, represented the throne 
of God, as the ark itself was his footstool, Ps. 99 : 5. 132:7. 
1 Chron. 28: 2. These images are magnified and rendered more 
intense, when it is said of God, "that heaven is his throne and 
earth his footstool," Is. 66: 1. Matt. 5:34. 

§ 226. The Sceptre. 

The sceptre of king Saul was a spear, 1T^3~, 1 Sam. 18: 10. 22: 
6. This agrees with vvhat Justin, (Lib. 43. c. 3,) relates, viz. 
that in ancient times kings bore a spear, instead of a sceptre. 

But generally, as appears from the Iliad itself, the sceptre, 
):2l;4J, (comp. Ezek. 19: 11,) was a wooden rod or staff, which was 
not much short, in point of length, of the ordinary height of the 
human form, and was surmounted with an ornamental ball on the 
upper extremity, as may still be seen in the ruins of Persepolis. 
This sceptre was either overlaid with gold, or, according to the 
representation of Homer, was adorned with golden studs and 

If we endeavour to seek for the origin of this ensign of royal 
authority, we shall find the first suggestion of it either in the pas- 
toral staff, that was borne by shepherds, or in those staves, which, 
at the earliest period, were carried by persons in high rank, mere- 
ly for show and ornament, Gen. 38: 18. Num. 17:7. Ps. 23: 4. 

A sceptre is used tropically for the royal dignity and authority, 

280 § 227. THE ROYAL TABLE. 

and a just sceptre for just government, Gen. 49: 10, Num. 24: 7. 
Amos I: 5, 8. Jer. 43: 17. Ps. 45: 6. 

§ 227. The Royal Table. 

The table of the Hebrew kings, and every thing connected 
with it, exhibited the same marks of exorbitant luxury, as may be 
witnessed at this day under like circumstances in Asia. Vast num- ' 
bers of persons, who acted, in some capacity or other, as the ser- 
vants or the officers of the king, were reckoned among those, 
who drew their sustenance from the palace ; and hence it very 
naturally happened, that immense quantities of provisions were 
consumed, 1 Kgs. 4: 22, 23. 

In the earlier periods of the Hebrew monarchy, the table of 
the kings was set with uumerous articles of gold, especially on 
occasion of feasts, of which there was no deficiency, 1 Kgs. 10: 
21, To impart an eclat and a joy to feasts, that were prepar- 
ed by the king, there were present not only musicians, but also 
ladies, whose business it was to dance; although this latter class of 
personages do not appear to be spoken of among " the singing- 
men, and the singing women," that are mentioned in second Sam- 
uel, (19: 35.) The splendour of preparation, which has been al- 
luded to, and the classes of persons, who were invited in order to 
increase the hilarity of the occasion, we must suppose, found a 
place, (more or less according to circumstances,) in all the royal 
festivals, of which we have an account in the Bible^ Gen. 40: 20. 
Dan. 5: 1. Matt. 22: 1, et seq. Mark G: 21. 

In Persia the queen herself seems to have made one of the par- 
ty at such times, and at Babylon other ladies of distinction ; but they 
were in the habit of retiring, as soon as the men gave indications, 
that they began to feel the effects of the wine, Dan. 5: 2. Est. I: 
9. 5: 4, 8, 7: 1, Curtius V. 5. Herodot. I. 199. 

But among the Hebrews, there was a class of royal festivals of 
a peculiar kind ; such as were not known in other nations. As 
God was their king, they were in the habit, at the season of thegreat 
national festivals, of preparing a feast, either at the Tabernacle or 
in Jerusalem, of the thank-offering sacrifices, and in this way they 
participated in -a season of joy, of which God himself, who was the 
ruler of the nation, might be considered, as the immediate author. 


The blood of the sacrifices, which were thus appropriated, was 
shed at the foot of the altar, and some parts of them burnt upon it. 

§ 228. Seclusion of Kings, Journeys, etc. 

In the East, those, who sustain the office of Jiings, very rarely 
make their appearance in publick, and to obtain access to them in 
any way, is a matter of great difficult}'. Among the Persians, a per- 
son was forbidden to make his appearance, in the presence of a 
monarch, without being expressly invited, under the penalty of 
punishment with death, Est. 4: 11. Herodot. III. 48. In more re- 
mote times, when kings had more to do personally in the manage- 
ment of their affairs, it may well be concluded, that they lived in 
less seclusion, and it is quite certain, that there was a very free 
access to the monarchs of the Jews, 2 Sam. 13: 4. 19: 7. 2 Kgs. 
22: 10. Jer. 38: 7. 

It was esteemed a good and propitious omen, if any one was so 
fortunate, as to behold the face of the king, Prov. 2d: 26. Is. 33: 
17. The tropical expressions, therefore, '' to see Gnd^'''' must be 
understood to signify the same, as to experience his favour. 

When the kings of Asia perform long journeys, they are sur- 
rounded with a great and splendid retinue. When they journey 
into the Provinces, one runs before, who announces the approach 
of the distinguished giiest, in order that the roads may be in readi- 
ness, and every thing else, that is necessary, may be prepared. The 
forerunner^ on such an occasion, is denominated in the Persian "tAe 
joyful messenger^ Comp. "ito^O, ivayyiltaTr]?, and ^J<i;!0, Mai. 3: 
1. Is. 62: 10—12. 

The Talmudists contend, that God himself has such a forerun- 
ner. * They call him, p^nDDIO, and ]i-M:t2^,, Metatron. They 
consult the following passages in respect to his existence and 
character, viz. Zech. 3: 1, 3. 4: 5 et seq. Gen. 16: 10—14. 22: 15. 
Exod. 3:4— 20. 20:2,3. 23:20—23. Is. 40: 16. 43: 14 ; and 
think, that they are at Hberty to conclude from them, that Meta- 
tron is supreme and uncreated, that in his character he approach- 
es nearest to God himself, and is the same being, who anciently ap- 
peared to the patriarchs, and is expressly called God. Consult 
Buxtorf's Chaldaick, Talmudick, and Rabbinick Lexicon, col. 

282 § 230. TITLES OF KINGS, ETC. 

1192, and also the Appendix to my Hermeneuticks, Fasc. I. p. 58 

The Hebrew king?, when they travelled, either rode on asses 
and mules, (2 Sam. 13: 29. 17: 23. 1 Kgs. 1: 33— 38,) or were car- 
ried on chariots, being preceded by the soldiers, who sustained 
the part of body guards, 1 Kgs. 1: 5. 2 Kgs. 9: 17,21. 10: 15. 

§ 229. The Roya7. Palace and Gardens. 

The monarchs of the East were accustomed to seek for glory 
by building magnificent palaces and temples, by hewing sepulchres 
out of stone, by planting gardens, and building fortifications ; in a 
%vord, by doing any thing, which might tend to strengthen and 
ornament their cities, especially the one, which held the distin- 
guished rank of a metropolis. Such were the associations of dig- 
nity, and worth, and elevation, connected with the metropolis, that 
a person was said " to ascend up into it,''"' or "<o descend from it,*' 
even though it were situated, as was the case with Babylon, 
upon a plain, 1 Kgs. 12: 27, 28. 22: 2. Ezra 7: 6, 7. Acts 8: 5, 15. 
15: 2. 18: 22. 21: I, etc. 

Among the edifices, upon which were expended much ingenu- 
ity and wealth, in order to render them suitably splendid, the royal 
palace deserves particular mention. The palace of the kings oc- 
curs, in the most ancient times, as well as at the present day, un- 
der the name o{ " the Gate,'' 2 Sam. 15: 2. Dan. 2: 49. Est. 2: 19, 
21. 3:2, 3. comp. Matt. 16: 18. 

§ 230. Veneration paid to Kings, and Titles which were bestowed 

upon tiiem. 

It was contrary to the law of Moses for a man to speak ill of a 
MAGISTRATE, evcn in a clandestine manner. Although this law was 
not enforced by a penalty, it was religiously observed ; and kings, 
especially, were the objects of the greatest veneration, 1 Sam. 24: 
I — 15. 26: 6 — 20. Those, who from a neglect to render that ven- 
eration, which was due to his character, had given ofteoce to the 
king, were liable to be punished with death. Still there were not 
wanting regicides, especially in the kingdom of Israel, in which 
morals were more corrupted, than in that of Judah. 


Magistrates are sometimes called gorfs, ts'^Ji'^Ni both in poetry, 
Ps. 82: 1, 6, 7. 138: 1, and sometimes in prose likewise, Exod. 4: 16. 
7: 1. The Hebrew word etymologically means ont^ who is to be 
feared or venerated, and this is the ground of its application in the 
present instance. It is worthy of remark, however, that it is nev- 
er appiied to kings, except perhaps in the forty fifth Psalm, (7, 8.) 
In other instances, the word "jinN , the Lord, "^"bT?., the king, 
JT'r!'!' P""i:iJ3, the anointed or inaugurated of Jehovah^ are the usual 
appellations applied to a monarch, and the customary titles of ad- 
dress, 1 Sam. 12:3—5. 24:7—11. 26:9—11, 16, 23. 2 Sam. 19: 21. 
23: 1. Ps. 132: 17. The word n'^lpTa the anointed, is synonymous 
with ^^.X!, kiiig. Accordingly we rind, in Isaiah (45: 1,) the fol- 
lowing expressions in regard to Cyrus, " Thus saith the Lord to his 
anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden,'''' &.c. 

In poetry the king is sometimes denominated the son of God, 
a phraseology, which has its origin from second Samuel (7: 14,) 
and first Chronicles (17: 13.) We see in this an adequate and a 
satisfactory reason, why the inauguration of a king is called in po- 
etry his birth, Ps. 2: 6 — 8, 12 ; and why a king, who, from any cir- 
cumstance, is peculiarly exalted, is denominated the ^r^i 6or«. of 
the kings of the earth, i. e. the most illustrious, Ps. 89: 27. Among 
the appellations of honour, usually bestowed upon monarchs, 
which have been mentioned, the Messiah and the Son of God 
were in a subsequent age particularly applied to Jesus, the mem- 
orable descendant of David, who had been so long predicted, Joha 
1:41, 49. 4:25. Matt. 1: 16—18. 16: 16. Luke 4: 41. 

In many nations, it appears, that there existed a sort of ap- 
pellative for their monarchs, which was applied inuiscriminately 
to every individual, who sat upon the throne. 

Appellatives for monarchs. 
(1.) C^SAR, a general name for king or emperor among the Pio- 

(2.) Ptolemy, an appellative used in the same way among the 
more recent Egyptians. 

(3.) Agag. This was the common name for the kings of the 
Amalekites, 1 Sam. 15:20. comp. Num. 24: 7. 

(4.) Hadad, Adad, or Bex Hadao, the name for the kings of 
Syria. 2 Kgs. 8: 9. 1 Ks;$. 15: 1^. 


(5.) Abimelech, the same among the Philistines, Ps. 34: 1. Gen. 
20: 2. 26: 10, comp. 1 Sam. 21: 12. 

(6.) Candace, the usual appellation of the Ethiopian queens, 
Straho, p. 28 1 . Dio Cassius Lib. IV. p. 525. comp. Acts 8: 27. 

The word Pharaoh, used so often in reference to the mon- 
archs of Egypt, is not, as some might be induced to suppose, an ap- 
pellative of this kind, nor the word Darius, which is applied in a 
similar way to those of Persia. The proper signification of both 
these words is no other than that oiking or monarch, and this signifi- 
cation is of itself sufficient to account for the frequent recurrence of 
these words in connexion with the rulers of those nations. That my 
assertion in respect to Darius is not without foundation, will appear 
by collating the Zendish word ^l"''^'! Darafesch, which is the same 
with the Persian N">N'1 Dara^ king. It is explained, however, in 
Herodotus (VI. 98.) by the word i(j'§tirig conqueror. Compare my 
Introduction to the Old Testament, P. 11. § 57 and § 66. 

We find in poetry, that kings are sometimes denominated 
shepherds ; and sometimes indeed the husbands of the state. The 
state on the contrary is called sometimes the wife of the king, 
sometimes a virgin., and sometimes the inolher of the citizens. It is 
likewise represented, as a widow., and in some instances, as childless. 
Hence God, who was the king of the Hebrews, was the husband 
of the state, and we find that the Hebrew commonwealth, as might 
be expected from the general aspect of this language, is repre- 
sented, as his spouse. Whenever, therefore, she became idolatrous, 
she was denominated, to keep up a consistency of language, an 
adulteress or fornicatress. 

§ 231. The Duties of the Hebrew Monarchs. 

At first, kings fulfilled those offices, which suhsequently 
devolved upon the persons, who acted, as generals, as judges, and 
as high priests. Gen. 14: 18, 19. This accounts for the circum- 
stance, that the word irib signifies both a priest, and the supreme 
civil magistrate, Exod. 2: 16. 3: 1. It occurs with this last signifi- 
cation, as late as the time of David, 2 Sam. 8: 18. comp. 1 Chron. 
18: 19. In respect to the kings of the Hebrews, however, it ap- 
pears, that they were not at liberty to assume, or to exercise the 
sucred functions, which were conferred upon the tribe of Levi, 


and upon the family of Aaron, 2 Sam. 15: 1. et. seq. 2 Chron. 26: 
16. et seq. 

They had the oversight of them, nevertheless, so far as to see, 
that all things were done rightly, a privilege which was well used 
by David, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, and Josiah, but abused by 
many others to the purpose of introducing idolatry. 

The Hebrews were accustomed to expect of their kings, the 
fulfilment of two offices at least, those of judge and chieftain ; both 
of which, they in truth did fulfil, either themselves, or with the 
assistance of other persons, whom they had chosen, 1 Sam. 8: 5. 12: 
12. comp. 20: 21. Is. 16:5. We learn, that kings employed gen- 
erals to conduct their armies, as early as Genesis, (21: 22,) and 
that David, though a warrior, did not always go to battle. The 
Mosaic Institutions themselves recognized the existence of a class 
of inferiour judges, and the only trouble, that was occasioned to 
the kings afterwards on the subject, was that of selecting them 
and seeing, that they fulfilled their duty, 1 Chron. 23: 4. 26: 9. et 
seq. 2 Chron. 19: 5—11. 

It was the duty of the king to try appeals from these judges. 
This, clearly, was a much better course, than if he had underta- 
ken to try all the causes himself, or even the greater part of 
them, 2 Sam. 15: 2. et seq. 1 Sam. 17: 9 — 19. 

§ 232. Extent o-f the Royal Power and Prerogatives. 

It is known, that the kings of Asia at the present day exercise 
the most unlimited and arbitrary power, but this was not the state 
of things anciently in all instances, however it might have been in 
some; for the power of the Phenician and PhiUstine kings was re- 

Moses himself, it seems, (Deut. 17: 14 — 20,) imposed certain 
conditions upon the kings, who shouhl afterwards arise in Pales- 
tine ; and " (he elders of Israel,'''' as they are termed, those, who 
from their rank had the principal management in the civil con- 
cerns of the nation, exacted conditions likewise in writing, respect- 
ing the manner, in which they should exercise the government, 
both from David and Saul, which they received with an oath for 
themselves and their successors, 1 Sam. 10: 26. 2 Sam. 5: 3 comp. 
1 Kgs. 12: 1 — 18. It may be added in confirmation of the fact, 
that the power of the Hebrew kings was restricted, that the heads. 


of tribes, or the princes, possessed of themselves very great pow- 
er, and sofar may be considered, as having a negative on the au- 
thority of the king. It may likewise be remarked, that the pro- 
phets felt themselves at liberty, in the character of divine mes- 
sengers, to reprove those monarchs, who had violated their pre- 
rogatives by doing that, which was wrong. But notwithstanding 
all this, it is a fact, that many kings abused to bad purposes, the 
power, which was committed to them. 

As the king acted the part of vicegerent to Jehovah himself, 
(a point, which is very clearly established in the Mosaic Institutes,) 
it was his duty and his right, as a matter of course, to secure 
obedience to the Laws of the state, and to punish the violation* of 
them. He, accordingly, had the power, not only to issue his com- 
mands, in the manner of the Judges, but also to enact permanent 
laws, 2Chron. 19: 11. Is. 10: 1. When we say, that the Hebrew 
kings had the power of enacting permanent laws, it seems natu- 
ral to observe, that they had not the right of making laws of the 
same character with those of the Persian kings, which, it appears, 
were immutable, and could never be changed, Est. 1: 19. Dan. 6: 
16. It may be interred from the fourteenth chapter of second 
Samuel, that the Hebrew kings, in some instances, dispensed, on 
their own authority, with the infliction of the penalty, which was 
threatened against an inlringement of the Mosaic Laws ; but a lib- 
erty of this kind was certainly very rarely taken by those kings, 
who had a well-founded claim to being called re.iigiotis. 

David, accordingly, (2 Sam. 21: 1 — 14.) delivered up the hom- 
icides to be punished by the avengers of blood, and, in first Kings, 
(2: 1 — 9,) left orders to his successor to punish certain persons, 
whom he himself, on account of his situation, had not been able to 
treat, as they deserved. 

§ 2:33. Methods of promulgating Laws, etc. 

The Laws of Moses, as well as the temporary edicts of Joshua, 
(1:11, 12. 3:2. et seq.) were communicated to the people by 
means of the genealogists, [in the English version, officers.] The 
laws and edicts of those, who subsequently held the ofnce oi' kings, 
were proclaimed publickly by criers, (Jer. 34: 8,9. Jon. 3: 5 — 7.) 
a class of persons, who occur ia Daniel, (2: 4. 5: 29.) under tho 


word Nfi'^3. They were made known in distant provinces, towns, 
and cities by messengers, sent for that purpose, 1 Sam. 1 1 : 7. 
Araos 4: 6. 2 Chron. 36: 22. Ezra 1: 1. 

The message thus to be communicated in any town, or city, 
was publickly announced, when the messenger had arrived, in the 
Gate of" the city, or in some other publick place. At Jerusalem, 
it was announced in the Temple, where there were always a 
great many persons present. It was for the same reason, viz. on 
account of the concourse of people there assembled, that the 
prophets were in the habit of uttering their propheciss in the 
Temple, which were the edicts of God, the supreme King. 

In a more recent age, the learned, the Saviour himself, and the 
Apostles taught in the same place, Jer. 7:2,3. 11:6. 17:19,20. 
36: 9—19. John 10: 3. Luke 2: 46. Matt. 26: 55. Mark 12: 35. 
Acts 3: 11. 5: 12. 

§ 234. On the Royal Revenues. 

The conquerors of a country not only exacted tribute from 
those, whom they had subdued, but were likewise, in the habit of 
compelling them to render certain menial services, [which in Eng- 
lish are denominated soccage^ i. e. services in husbandry and the 
like, rendered to the lord of the fee, as a sort of consideration for 
the tenure of the lands.] Both tribute and soccage are compre- 
hended under the word D^, though they are sometimes expressed 
by the word inn?^.? which usually signifies a gift., Exod. 1:11. 
Josh. 16: 10. 

But whatever they might exact from those, whom the for- 
tunes of war had placed in their power, it does not appear, that 
k:ngs demanded from their own people, or exacted, when they 
chose and of their own arbitrary will, either labour, or burdens of 
any kind whatever, Gen. 47: 19 — 27. Herodot. III. 97. In fact the 
Hebrews were so tenacious of their personal rights in this respect, 
that they went so far, as to define in express term?, by a particu- 
lar agreement or Covenant for that purpose, what services should 
be rendered to the king, and what he could /e^a% require, 1 Sam. 
10:25. 2 Sam. 5:3. 

It is not precisely known to us what the terms of this Cove- 
nant were, but it certainly did not give the king the liberty of ex- 

28'8 § 234. SOURCES of the royal revenue. 

ac(ing from the people all the various services, which are enu- 
merated in the eighth chapter of first Samuel. As there seems 
then to he nothing especially peculiar in respect to this subject 
among the Hebrews, it is very natural to conclude, that the sour- 
ces of REVENUE to their kings, were nearly the same with those in 
other oriental countries. With this general remark in view, and 
with the aid of various hints, which occur in the Scriptures, rela- 
tive to the point in question, we proceed to make the following 

Sources of the royal Revenue. 

I. Presents, which were given voluntarily, 1 Sam. 10:27. 
16: 20. 

II. The produce of the royal flocks, 1 Sam. 21:7, 8. 2 Sam. 13: 
23. 2 Chron. 2(3: 10. 32: 28, 29, comp. Gen. 47: 6. 

III. The royal demesnes, vineyards, and olive gardens, which 
had been taken up from a state of nature by the authority of the 
sovereign, or were tiie confiscated possessions of criminals; they 
were tilled either by slaves or by conquered nations, 1 Kgs. 21: 
9—16. Ezek. 46:16—18. 1 Chron, 27:28. 2 Chron. 26: 10. 

IV. That the Hebrews by agreement promised the payment 
of certain tributes appears from first Samuel 17: 25. [Consult 
Gesenius on the word •'UJon.] Perhaps they were the same with 
the tj^the or tenth part of their income, which, as may be infer- 
red from first Samuel 8: 15, was paid by other nations to their 
kings. The collection and management of imposts and taxes ap- 
pear to have been committed to the officers, who are mentioned, 
iKgs. 4:6— 9. 1 Chron. 27:25. Whatever the amount of the 
customary tax was, it appears to have been increased in the reign 
of Solomon ; and the people after his death expressed a wish to 
have it diminished, 1 Kgs. 12: 13. Something appears also to have 
been paid to the king, as a tribute in ready money, which occurs 
under the word 5in:73 commonly rendered a present, 2 Chron. 17: 
5. comp. Ezek 45: 13 — 18. 

V. One source of revenue to the king was the spoils of con- 
quered nations, to whose share the most precious of them fell. It 
was in this way, that David collected the most of his treasures. 
The nations, which were subdued in war, likewise paid ti-ibute, 
which was also denominated iin2ti. It was paid partly in ready 


money, partly in flocks, grain, etc. 1 Kgs. 4: 21. Ps. 72: 10. 2 
Chron. 27: 5. 

VI. The tribute imposed upon merchants, who passed through 
the Hebrew territories, 1 Kgs. 10: 15. 

In Persia, Darius, the Median, the same with Cyaxares II. was 
the first person, who enforced a system of taxation, sna , N"J^7:, 
Dan. 6:2, 3. Strabo, accordingly, is in an error, when, (p. 735,) 
on the authority of Polycritus, he makes Darius Hystaspes, the au- 
thor of this mode of raising a revenue. It is true, however, that 
the system of taxation, which had been laid aside for three years 
by Pseudo-Smerdis, was renewed by Darius Hystaspes, and that 
the amount, raised in this way, was increased by Xerxes, Est. 10: 1. 

Other sources of revenue to the King, beside those already 
mentioned, were the excise i^2 or tax on articles of consumption, 
and the toll ^bri, Est. 4: 13, 19, 20. 

§ 235. Magistrates under the Monarchy. 

Judges, genealogists, the heads of families or clans, and those, 
who, from the relation they sustained to the common class of peo- 
ple, may be called the princes of the tribes, retained their author- 
ity after, as well as before, the introduction of a monarchical form 
of government, and acted the part of a legislative assembly to the 
respective cities, in or near which they resided, 1 Kgs. 12: 1 — 24. 
1 Chron. 23: 4. 26: 29 et seq. 28: 1-21. 29: 6. The judges and gene- 
alogists were appointed by the king, as were other royal officers, 
the principal of whom were as follows. 

I. The royal counsellors, 1 Kgs. 12: 6— 12. 1 Chron. 27: 32. 
Is. 3:3. 19: 11—13. Jer. 26: 11. 

II. The prophets, who were consulted by pious kings, 2 Sam. 
7:2. 1 Kgs. 22:7,8. 2 Kgs. 19: 2— 20. 22:14—20. Others of a 
different character imitated the example of heathen king*, and 
called in to their aid sooths;iyers and false-prophets, 1 Kgs. 18: 
22. 22: 6. compare Exod.7:ll. 8:18. Dan. 1 : 20. 2:2. 5:8. 
Jer. 27:9. 

[II. Thesecretarv or scRtBE, ^^''stTiJi, who Committed to writ- 
ing not only the edicts and sayings of the king, but every thing of 
a publick nature, that related to the kingdom; and whose busi- 
ness it was likewise to present to t!ie king in writing an account 

290 § 236. OFFiCKRS of the palace. 

of the state of affairs, 2 Sam. 8: 16. 20:24. 1 Kgs. 4: 3. 2 Kgs. 18: 
18, 37. 1 Chron. 19: 5. 2 Chron. 32: 8. Is. 36: 3. Est. 3: 12. 6: 1. 
10: 2. comp. Herodot. VI. 100. VII. 9. VIII. 90. 

IV. The high PRresx is to be reckoned among those, who had 
access to the king in the character of counsellors, 2 Sara. 8:17. 
1 Chron. 18: 16; as one would naturally expect from the preva- 
lent notions in respect to a theocracy. 

§ 236. Officers of the Palace. 

In oriental countries, (he persons, who are immediately attach- 
ed to the palace, and make, as it were, the king's domestick es- 
tablishment, are commonly numerous. The principal among them 
are, as follows, 

I. •ii^D^rj^nil), l Chron. 27:25—31 ; who, (1 Kgs. 4: 5. 7—19.) 
are denomin.ited D^^2I3, and, in first Kings 20 : 15, are called "^yn. 
n'i3""173:n. They merely supplied the king's table, and are not to 
be confounded with those, who exacted the tribute^ tJ2 (1 Kgs. 4: 6.) 

II. Tt'^zn ^y T'^:, otherwise called n"]2n 'by "l^N, the governor 
of the palace, answering, as to his employment and standing, to the 
stewards, who were employed by rich men, to superintend their 
affairs. He had charge of the servants, and indeed of every 
thing, which pertained to the palace, I Kgs. 4: 6. 18: 3. 2 Kgs. 18: 
V'>. 2 Chron. 28:7. Is. 36: 3. 37:2. 22: 15, et seq. He wore, as a 
mark of his office, a robe of a peculiar make, bound with a pre- 
cious girdle, and carried on his shoulder a richly ornamented key, 
Is. 22: 22. 

III. nrnbTatl ^y TliN the keeper of the wardrobe^ the place, in 
which were deposited the garments, destined by the king for 
those, whom he designed particularly to honour, 2 Kgs. 10:22. 

IV. ^' T\vy\ or >~i, the king's friend or intimate. It was 
the person, who sustained this relation to the king, with whom he 
conversed with the greatest familiarity, who sometimes had the 
oversight of the palace, and sometimes even the charge of the 
kingdom^ 1 Kgs. 4: 5. 1 Chron. 27: 33. In the time of the Macca- 
bees, however, the king's friend was a phrase of somewhat broad- 
er signification, and was applied to any one, who was employed 
to exec'.ite the royal commands, or who sustained a higii office in 
the government, I Mace. 10: 65. 11: 28, 27. 


V. The king'^s lifeguard. They were denominated by the 
Egyptians and Babylonians DTlSiO executioners ; and, by the He- 
brews, in the time of David, ^n'^"l3 cherethites, i. e. extirpators, 
Gen. 37: 36. 39: 1. a Kgs. 35: 8. 10: 11—20. 2 Sam. 20: 23. 1 Kgs. 
1: 38. 2: 2b, 34. The commander of this body of men was called 
the prefect or the captain of the guard., a'^n^an '^^D, likewise 
fi'inaan n-j, Gen. 40:3,4. Jer. 39: 9—11. 40: 1—5, 41: 10. 43: 
6. 52: 12 — 20. Dan. 2: 14, 15. They derived their name from the 
fact, that they were the persons, whose business it was to execute 
the sentence of death, when it had been pronounced by the king. 
In the time of David, they were likewise called "lO'^bs 
PELETHiTES, i. 6. the expeditions. In the reign of Saul, and also sub- 
sequently to the time of David, the name commonly applied to them 
was that of runners, D'^ii'^; for although they were soldiers, and it was 
their particular busmess to guard the palace, they were, never- 
theless, employed to transmit the royal laws and edicts to distant 
places, to run before the king's chariot, as a part of his retinue, and 
likewise, as we have no reason to doubt, when the king walked 
out with his wives, to drive the multitude from the way; a cus- 
tom which still prevails in the East^ 2 Sam. 15: 1. 1 Kgs. 14: 27. 
2 Kgs. 10: 14. 

In Persia, the king''s runners were a class of persons, distinct from 
his guards. In order that they might be known, where they went, 
they bore a peculiar sort of poniard, called chamgar, inthePersiau 

f^^X^:^. They had the liberty of compelling any one, whom 
they met, to furnish them with a horse or other animal to ride on, 
or to go himself, and show the way. Hence the origin of the 
exotick Greek word aj/y£i;«pftf, angariare, Matt. 5: 41. 27:32. 
Mark 15:21. 

The lifeguard, (otherwise called the Pretorian band,) of the 
Maccabees, and subsequently of Herod and his sons, were foreign- 
ers. They bore a lance or long spear, and were thence denomin- 
ated in Greek, oniKOvXariogtg, Mark 6: 27. 


§ 237. The King's Harem. 

The women of his Harem are to be considered, as makin* St 
part of the retinue or equipage of the king; since, generally 
speaking, they were merely destined to augment the pomp, that 
was wont to be attached to his character and his situation. The 
multiplication of women in the character of wives and concubines 
was forbidden, it is true, by Moses, (Deut. 17: 17.) but the Hebrew- 
kings, especially Solomon, gave but too little heed to his admoni- 
tions, and too readily and wickedly exposed themselves to the dan- 
gers, which Moses had anticipated, as the result of pursuing the 
course, which he had interdicted, 1 Kgs. 1 1: 1 — 3. 2 Chron. 11: 
21. 13: 21. 

The kings willingly encountered any expense, (whatever it 
might be,) which might be deemed necessary, in ornamenting the 
persons of their women, and of the eunuchs, (the black ones espe- 
cially,) who guarded them. It may be remarked here, that eu- 
nuchs were brought at a great expense from foreign countries, in 
as much as castration was contrary to the Mosaic Law, Lev. 22: 
24. Deut. 23: 1. For proof of the employment of eunuchs at the 
Hebrew court, see the following passages, 1 Kgs. 22:9. 2 Kgs. 8: 
6.9:32,33. 20:18. 23:11. Jer.l3:23. 38:7. 39:16. 41:16. 
The maids of the Harem were considered, (at least, when he wish- 
ed to have them so considered,) in the light of concubines to the 
king. But the successor to the throne, although became into pos- 
session of the Harem, was not at liberty to have any intercourse 
with the members of it. 

Adonijah, accordingly, who, in his zeal to obtain Abishag, a 
concubine of David's, that had been unljuched, let fall certain un- 
advised expressions relative to the kingdom, was punished with 
death ; having given both by the nature of the request, which 
was not customary and unlawful, and by the manner in which it 
was made, too evident indications of a seditious spirit, 1 Kgs. 2: 13 
— 15, etseq. Though the king had unlimited power over the 
Harem, yet the wile who was chiefly in favour, and especially the 
mother of the king, had no little authority and weight in political 
concerns, 1 Kgs. 11:3. 2 Chron. 21 : 6. 22: 3. Hence in the 
Books of Kings and Chronicles the mother of the king is every 


where spoken of ; and in truth, in Jer. 29: 2, is expressly men- 
tioned among the royal counsellors. 

§ 238. The Method in which the Officers and others held in- 


The kings of the East, as has been already observed, are al- 
most inaccessible. Those, who seek any favour, or wish to pre- 
sent any accusation, are under the necessity of giving a paper to 
that etfect to one of the officers, attached to the court, in order 
that it may be handed by him to the king, 2 Kgs. 4: 13. In case 
no one is willing to receive it, they themselves take the opportuni- 
ty, when the king is promenading in publick, to present it to him 
in person. If the inhabitants of a province wish to- accuse their 
governour, many hundreds of them, assembling at the Harem, 
utter loud exclamations, tear their clothes, and scatter dust in the 
air, till a messenger is sent from the king to inquire the cause, 
Exod. 5: 15—19. 

But to the kings of the Hebrews, as has also been stated, 
there was more easy access, 2 Sam. 14: 2, 3. 15: 2, 3. 

Those, who went before the king, even the principal officers 
in the government, appeared in his presence with the customary 
obeisance and ceremony, and stood, like servants before their mas- 
ter. Hence to ^'- stand before the kirtg''^ is a phrase, which means 
the same, as to be occupied in his service and to perform some du- 
ty for him, Gen. 41: 46. 1 Sam. 22: 6, 7. 1 Kgs. 10: 8. 12:6—8. 
Dan. 1: 18. The same expressions are used in respect to the 
priests and Levites, who were the ministers or officers of God, to 
denote the religious services, which it was their part to perform, 
Deut. 10:8. 17: 12. Jer. 15: 1. 18:20. 28:5. Ps. 24:3. Luke 18: 

Those, who sustained the station of servants and officers to the 
king, were entirely dependent on his will, and, on the other hand, 
they exercised a similar arbitrary power, (for instance the gover- 
nours of provinces,) over those, who were immediately subject to 
themselves. Hence it is, that the prophets frequently complain 
of their oppressions, and violence. 

The royal officers of every grade are denominated the ser- 
vants of the king, and, like the Orientals of the present day, they 


took a pride in being thus denominated. To this appellation is 
wont to be attached the glory of prompt obedience, prompt^ 
though the command should be unjust. 

Those, who have the management of the collection of the 
revenues, or are entrusted indeed in any way, are not customari- 
ly called to an account. In case they are called upon to render 
an account of their proceedings, they show themselves prompt at 
the arts of deception ; but the consequence of an attempt at mis- 
representing or defrauding, is almost certain destruction, Luke 
16: 2. It should be observed, however, that the case was some- 
what different in respect to Persia, in as much as the magistrates 
in the Provinces were visited yearly by a legate from the king, 
who, being supported in his duties by the attendance of an army, 
examined into the condition of affairs, and the prevalent manage- 
ment of the governours, Zech. 1: 7 — 12. 

§ 239. Magistrates during and after the Captivity. 

The Hebrews, during the Captivity, and after that period, 
continued among them, that class of officers, denominated heads of 
families^ and perhaps likewise the princes of the tribes ; who, under 
the direction of the royal governours, ruled their respective tribes, 
and family associations, Ezek. 14: 1. 20: 1 — 8. Ezra 1: 5. 4: 3. 5: 
5. 6: 8. Neh. 2: 16. 4: 13 6: 17, 18. But it is most probable, that 
.lehoiachin, and afterwards, Shealtiel, and Zerubbabel held the 
first rank among them, or in other words, were their princes. 

After their return to their native country, the Hebrews obey- 
ed their T'i'np, or president. Such were Zerubbabel, Ezra, and 
Nehemiah, who were invested with ample powers for the pur- 
poses of government, Ezra 7:25. When from any cause, there 
was no person to act as president^ authorized by the civil govern- 
ment, the high priest commonly undertook the government of the 

This state of things continued, while the Hebrews were under 
the Persians and Greeks, til! the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, in 
whose reign, they appealed to arms, shook off the yoke of for- 
eign subjugation, and having obtained their freedom, made their 
high priests princes., and at length kings. 

The Jews likewise, who were scattered abroad, and had taken 

§ 240. TETRARCHS. 295 

up their residence in countries at a distance from Palestine, 
had rulers of their own. The person, who sustained the highest 
office, annong those, who dwelt in Egypt, was denominated Ala- 
BARCHUs ; the magistrate at the head of the Syrian Jews was de- 
nominated Archon. 

While the Jews were under the Roman government, they en- 
joyed the privilege of referring litigated questions to referees, 
whose decisions in reference to them, the Roman pretor was 
bound to see put in execution, Cod. L. I. Tit. 9. /. 8. de Judaeis. 
As Christians, when they first made their appearance, were re- 
garded, as a sect of the Jews, (Acts 23: 24,) they likewise enjoy- 
ed the same privilege. Paul, accordingly, blamed them, (1 Cor. 
6: 1 — 7.) because they were in the habit of bringing their causes 
before the pretor, instead of leaving them out to referees, 

§ 240. Tetrarchs. 

After the subjugation of the Jews by the Romans, certain 
provinces of Judea, were governed by that class of Roman mag- 
istrates, denominated Tetrarchs. The office of Tetrarch had its or- 
igin from the Gauls. Having, at a certain time, made an incur- 
sion into Asia Minor, they succeeded in taking from the king of 
Bythinia that part of it, which is denominated from their own 
name, Galatia. The Gauls, who made this invasion, consisted of 
three tribes ; and each tribe was divided into four parts or Te- 
trarchates, each of which obeyed its own Tetrarch. The Tetrarch 
was of course subordinate to the king. The appellation of Te- 
trarch, which was thus originally applied to the chief magistrate of 
the fourth part of a tribe, subject to the authority of the king, 
was afterwards extended in its application, and applied to any gov- 
ernours, subject to some king or emperor, without reference to the 
fact, whether they ruled, or not, precisely the fourth part of a 
tribe or people. Herod Antipas, accordingl}'^, and Philip, although 
they did not rule so much as a fourth part of Judea, were denom- 
inated Tetrarchs, Malt. 14: 1. Luke 9: 7. Acts 13: 1. Although 
this class of rulers were dependent upon Cajsar, i. e. the Roman 
emperor, they, nevertheless, governed the people, who were 
committed to their immediate jurisdiction, as much according to 
their own choice and discretion, as if they had not been thus de- 


pendent. They were inferiour, hotvever, in point of rank, to the 
Ethnarchs^ who, although they did not publickiy assume the 
name of king, were addressed with that title by their subjects; 
as was the case, for instance, in respect to Archelaus, Matt. 2: 22. 
Josephus, Antiq. XVII, 11. 4. 

§241. Roman Procurators. 

Procurators, (a magistrate well known among the Romans,) 
are denominated in the New Testament rjyff.ioveg^ but it appears, 
that they are called by Josephus fnnQonot. Judea, after the ter- 
mination of the Ethnarchate of Archelaus, was governed by rulers 
of this description, and likewise during the period, which immedi- 
ately succeeded the reign of Herod Agrippa. 

Procurators were sometimes Roman knights, and sometimes 
the freedmen of the emperor. Felix was one of the latter class. 
Acts 23: 24—26. 24: 3, 22—27. This Procurator, if we may cred- 
it some remarks of Suetonius in his life of Claudius, which in 
truth, are confirmed by Tacitus in his History, (V. 9.) was, for 
some particular reason, very dear to the emperor, but was, never- 
theless, a very miserable governour. Festus also, according to 
Herodian, (IV. 8, 11.) was nfreedman, Acts 24: 27. 25: 12. 26: 24, 
25. It may be nscessary to remark here by way of explanation, 
that Procurators were sent by the emperor, independently of the 
vote or concurrence of the Senate into those provinces, which 
had been reserved for his own use, and might be considered, dur- 
ing his reign, as his personal property. They were commonly 
situated in the extremities of the empire. The business of the 
Procurators, who were sent to them, was, to exact tribute, to ad- 
minister justice, and to repress seditions. Some of the procurators 
were dependent on the nearest Proconsul or president; for in- 
stance, those of .Judea were dependent on the Proconsul, gover- 
nour or president of Syria. They enjoyed, however, great au- 
thority, and possessed the power of life and death. The only 
privilege in respect to the officers of government, that was grant- 
ed by the Procurators of Judea to that nation, was the appoint- 
ment from among fhem of persons, to manage and collect the tax- 
es. In all other things, they administered the government them- 


selves, except that they frequently hnd resort to the counsel of 
other persons, Acts 23: 24—36. 24: 1—10. 25: 23. 

The military force, that was g-ranted to the Procurators of Ju« 
dea, consisted of six cohorts, anei^ai, of which five were stationed 
at Cesarea, where they resided, and one at Jerusalem in the tow- 
er of Antonia, which was so situated as to command the Temple, 
Acts 10: 1. 21: 32. It was the duty of the military cohorts to ex- 
ecute the Procurator's commands, and to repress seditions, Matt. 
8: 5. 27: 27., 28: 12. John 19: 2, 23. Mark 15: 16. 

On the return of the great Festivals, when there were vast 
crowds of people at Jerusalem, the Procurators themselves went 
from Cesarea to that city in order to be at hand to suppress any 
commotions, which might arise, Matt. 27 : 2 — 65. John 18:29, 

§ 242. Of the Tribute and Half-shekel of the Temple. 

The management of the provincial revenues was generally 
committed to the Roman knights, who were thence denominated 
aQ/jTikcovat and nXiovaoyiai^ publicans^ while the tax-gatherers or 
exactors, whom they emploj^ed, were termed nloivub. The case, 
however, was somewhat different in Judea, where the manage- 
ment of the revenues, as already observed, was commiited to the 
Jews themselves ; so Ihat those of them, to whom the manage- 
ment of these affairs was entrusted, eventually obtained an equal 
rank with the knights of Rome, Luke 19: 2. Joseph us, J, War. 
n. 14. 9. 

The subordinate agents in collecting the revenues, ziXoivat, 
who are denominated in the Vulgate, though somewhat incorrect- 
ly, publicans, took their position at the gates of cities, and in the 
publick ways, and, at the place for that purpose, called the ^' re- 
ceipt of custom,''^ examined the goods that passed, and received the 
monies that were to be paid, Matt. 9: 9. Mark 2: 14. Luke 5: 27, 
29. These tax-gatherers, if we may credit Cicero, were more in- 
clined to exact too much, than to belie the promise, they had 
made to their masters ; and were, accordingly, in consequence of 
their extortions, everywhere, especially in Judea, objects of hatred, 
and were reckoned in the same class vvith notorious sinners, Luke 
3: 13. Mark 2: 15, 16. comp. Talmud, Baba Kama c. 10, 113. Col. 


1. Nedarim c. 3. The Pharisees would have no communication 
with them, and one ground of their reproaches against the Sa- 
viour, was, that he did not refuse to sit at meat with persons of 
such a character, Mark 5: 46, 47. 9: 10, 11. 11: 19. 18: 7. 21: 
31, 32. 

The half-shekel tax was a tax or tribute to be paid every 
year by every adult Jew at the Temple. It was introduced after 
the Captivity, in consequence of a wrong understanding of certain 
expressions in the Pentateuch, and was a different thing both from 
the revenue, which accrued to the kings, tetrarchs, and ethnarchs, 
and from the general tax, that was assessed for the Roman Cae- 
sars. It was required, that this tax should be paid in Jewish coin, 
a circumstance, to which an allusion is made in Matt. 22: 17 — 19. 
and likewise in Mark 12: 14, 15. It was in consequence of this 
state of thing?, (as the Talmudists assert, Shekalim, I. 1. 3.) that 
money-changers, itoXkvjStaTut, seated themselves in the Temple, 
on the fifteenth of the month Adar, and after, for the purpose of 
exchanging for those, who might wish it, Roman and Greek coins, 
for Jewish half-shekels. The prominent object of the Temple 
money-changers was their own personal emolument, but the ac- 
quisition of property in this way was contrary to the spirit of the 
law in Deut. 23: 20, 21. It was for this reason, that Jesus drove 
them from the Temple, Matt. 21: 12. Mark 11: 15. John 2: 15. 

Messengers were sent abroad into other cities, for the pur- 
pose of collecting this tax, (Matt. 17:25.) according to the Talmu- 
dists, {Skekalim I. 1, 3.) during the month Adar, who add further, 
that, in case payment was not made by the twenty fifth of that 
month, a pledge was taken from the person, who was delinquent. 

The Jews, who collected this tax from their countrymen 
dwelling in foreign nations, transmitted the sums collected every 
year to Jerusalem. It is not surprising then, that the vast amount 
of treasures, of which we are informed, flowed into the Temple, 
Josephus, Antiq. XIV. 7, 2. Cicoro pro Flacco, 28. 




§ 243. Of Judges. 

According to the Mosaic Law, there were to be jutlges in all 
the cities, whose duty it was likewise to exercise judicial author- 
ity in the neighbouring villages ; but weighty causes and appeals 
went up to the supreme judge or ruler of the commonwealth, 
and in case of a failure here, to the high priest, Deut. 17: 8, 9. 

In the time of the monarchy, weighty causes and appeals went 
up of course to the king, who, in very difficult cases, seems to 
have consulted the high priest, as is customary at the present day 
among the Persians and Ottomans. 

The judicial establishment was reorganized after the Captivity, 
and two classes of judge?, the inferiour and superiour, were ap- 
pointed, Ezra 7: 25. ,The more difficult cases, nevertheless, and 
appeals were either brought before the ruler of the state called 
Jins, or before the high priest ; until, in the age of the Macca- 
bees, a supreme, judicial tribunal was instituted, which is first 
mentioned under Hyrcanus II., Josephus, Antiq. XIV. 9. 3. 

This tribunal is not to be confounded with the seventy two 
counsellors, who were appointed to assist Moses in the civil ad- 
ministration of the government, but who never fulfilled the office 
of judges. 

§ 244. The Sanhedrin. 

This Tribunal, which is properly called avvfd^iov^ Synedrium, 
but is denominated by the Talmudists Sanhedrin', was instituted in 
the time of the Maccabees, and was composed of seventy two 
members. The high priest generally sustained the office ofpresi- 

300 § 244. THE SANHEDRIN. 

dent, ■■::ii'-\ or N'^il'itl, in this tribunal. The next in authority, or 
the vice-president, was called in Hebrew rr^i "'nN, likewise ']i'^ ; 
nnd the second vice-president, 'D'STlT^', the former of whom sat on 
the right, and tho latter on the left hand of the president. 

The members, who were admitted to a seat in the Sanhedrin, 
were as follows: 

L Chief priests, aQyuQii^-, who are often mentioned in the 
New Testament and in Josephus, as if they were many in number. 
They consisted partly of priests, who had previously exercised 
the high-priesthood, and partly of the heads of the twenty four 
classes of priests, who were called, in an honorary way, high or 
c^rV/ priests. 

II. Elders, iT^((y(jVTiooi. That is to say, the princes of the 
tribes, and the heads of family associations. 

III. The Scribes, or learned men. 

When we say, that scribes and elders were members of the 
Sanhedrin, we are not to be understood, as saying, that all the 
scribes or learned men of the nation, or that all the elders held a 
seat in that body ; but those only, who had obtained the privilege 
by election, or by a nomination from the ruling executive author- 
ity. For this reason, viz. because they were made members of 
the Sanhedrin in the same way, they are constantly joined togeth- 
er ; nQ^opvifQQi yiai yQafif^iareig, scribes and elders, Matt. 26: 57, 
59. 27: 3, 12, 20, 41. Acts 4: 5. 6: 12. 

The Talmudists assert, that this tribunal had secretaries and 
apparitors, and the very nature of the case forbids us to doubt the 
truth of the assertion. The place of their sitting, however, is a 
question, on which there is more difference of opinion. The 
Talmudists state, that it was in the Temple, but Josephus, in his 
history of the Jewish War, (V, 4, 2. VI. 6, 3.) mentions ^ovXt}v 
the council, ^ovlevreQiov the place of assembling, and also the Ar- 
chives, as being not far from the Temple, on mount Zion. But in 
the trial of Jesus, it appears they were assembled, and that very 
hastily, in the palace of the high priest. Matt. 26: 3, 57. John 
18: 24. 

The Talmudists state, that when met, they took their seats in 
i?uch a way as to form a semicircle, and that the president, and 
two vice-presidents occupied the centre. We learn from other 
source?, that ihev either sat upon the t^oor, a carpet merely be- 


ing spread under them, or upon cushions slightly elevated, with 
their knees bent and crossed ; as is the custom, at the present day, 
in the East. 

Appeals and other weighty matters were brought before this 
tribunal. Among other questions of importance, subject to its de- 
cision, the Talmudists, {Sanhedrin I. 5. X. 89.) include the inquirj'-, 
" Whether a person be a false prophet or not?" Comp. Luke 13: 
33. Its power had been limited, in the time of Christ, by the in- 
terference of the Romans. It was still, however, in the habit of 
sending its legates or messengers to the synagogues in foreign 
countries, (Acts 9: 2,) and retained the right of passing the sen- 
tence of condemnation, or what is the same thing in amount, of 
decreeing punishment in cases, where there was proof of criminal- 
ity ; but the power of executing the sentence when passed was tak- 
en away from it, and lodged with the Roman procurator, John 18: 
31, Sanhedrin p. 24, col. 2. There was one exception, it is true, 
during the procuratorship of Pilate, and only otie ; who permitted 
the Sanhedrin themselves, in the case of Christ, to see the sen- 
tence, of which they had been the authors, put in execution, John 
18; 31. 19: 6. The stoning of Stephen was not done by the au- 
thority of the Sanhedrin, but in a riot, Acts 7 ch. James, the broth- 
er of John, (Acts 12: 2.) was slain, in consequence of a sentence 
to that effect from king Herod Agrippa. The high priest Ananus 
did indeed condemn James, the brother of Jesus, (or relation or 
cousin,) to be stoned, and others likewise, but it was done, when 
the procurator was absent, and was disapproved by the Jews them- 
selves. Consult the large German edition of this Work, P. II. Vol. 
II. § 132. p. 121, 122. 

Note. On the Sanhedrin of Seventy, instituted by Moses 
IN THE Wilderness. [A remark was made at the close of the 243d 
section, as follows. '• This tribunal^ (viz. the Jewish Sanhedrin,) 
is not to be confounded with the seventy two counsellors, -who were ap- 
pointed to assist A^oses, <^c." The following extract from Michae- 
lis, whose opinions on such a subject every scholar will feel an in- 
terest in knowing, will give probably a correct idea of the institu- 
tion, to which an allusion is made in that section. 

['■'• Moses established in the wilderness another institution which 
has been commonly held to be of a judicial nature ; and under the 


name of Sanhedrim or Synedrium, much spoken of both hy Jews 
and Christians, although it probably was not of long continuance. 
We have the account of its establishment in Num. 11.; and if we 
read the passage impartially, and without prejudice, we shall 
probably entertain an opinion of the Synedrium different from that 
generally received, which exalts it into a supreme college of jus- 
tice that was to endure for ever. 

" A rebellion that arose among the Israelites distressed Moses 
exceedingly. In order to alleviate the weight of the burden that 
oppressed him, he chose from the twelve tribes collectively, a 
council of seventy persons to assist him. These, however, could 
hardly have been judges ; for of them, the people already had be- 
tween sixty and seventy thousand.* Besides, of what use could 
seventy new judges, or a supreme coart of appeal, have been in 
crushing a rebellion. It seems much more likely, that this se- 
lection was intended for a supreme senate to take a share with 
Moses in the government ; and as it consisted of persons ot 
respectability, either in point of family or merits, it would 
serve materially to support his power and influence among the 
people in general. By a mixture of aristocracy, it would moder- 
ate the monarchical appearance which the constitution must have 
assumed from Moses giving his laws by command of God, and it 
would unite a number of powerful families together, from their 
being all associated with Moses in the government. 

"It is commonly supposed that this Synedrium continued per- 
manent; but this I doubt. For in the whole period from the 
death of Moses to the Babylonish captivity, we find not the least 
mention of it in the Bible; and this silence, methinks, is decisive; 
for in the time of the judges, but particularly on those occasions 
when, according to the expression of the book of Judges, there-was 
neither king nor judge in Israel; and again, during those great po- 
litical revolutions, when David by degrees became king over all 
the tribes, and when the ten tribes afterwards revolted from his 

* Without iacluding the tribe of Levi, there were. 
Judges of tens, 60,355 

of hundreds, 6,035 
of thousands, 603 

all, 66,993. 


grandson, Rehoboam ; and lastly, under the tyrannical reigns of 
some of the subsequent kings; such a supreme council of seventy 
persons, if it had been in existence, must have made a conspicu- 
ous figure in the history ; and yet ye find not the least trace of it: 
so that it merely appears to have been a temporary council insti- 
tuted by Moses for his personal service and security ; and as he 
did not fill up the vacancies occasioned in it by deaths, it must 
have died out altogether in the vpilderness. 

"■ No doubt the Jews, after their return from the Babylonish 
captivity, did institute a Sanhedrim at Jerusalem, of which fre- 
quent mention is made not only in the New Testament, but also 
in Jewish writings. But this was merely an imitation of the an- 
cient Mosaic Synedrium, with the nature of whose constitution the 
later Jews were no longer acquainted ; for they had indeed be- 
come ignorant of almost all the customs of their ancestors."] 

§ 245. Other Tribunals in the time of Christ. 

Josephus, (Antiq. IV. 8, 14.) states, that in every city there 
was a tribunal of seven Judges, with two Levites as apparitors, 
and that it was a Mosaic institution. That there existed such an in- 
stitution in his time, there is no reason to doubt, but he probably err- 
ed in referring its origin to so early a period, as the days of Moses. 
This tribunal, which decided causes of less moment, is denomi- 
nated, in the New Testament, 'A^iatg or the judgment, Matt. 5: 22. 

The Talmudists mention a tribunal of twenty three judges, 
and another of three judges, but Josephus is silent in respect to 
them. The courts of twenty three judges were the same with 
the synagogue tribunals, mentioned in John IG: 2; which merely 
tried questions of a religious nature, and sentenced to no other 
punishment than " forty stripes save one," 2 Cor. 11: 24. 

The court of three judges was merely a session of referees-, 
which was allowed to the Jews by the Roman laws, for the Tal- 
mudists themselves, in describing this court, go on to observe, that 
one judge was chosen by the accuser, another by the accused, 
and a third by the two parties conjunctly : which shows at once 
the nature of the tribunal. 


§ 246. Tnt Time of Trials. 

The lime, at which courts were held, and causes were brong:ht 
before them (or trial, was in the morning', *^p.i, Jer. 21: 12. Ps. 
101: 8. According to the Talmudists, [Sanhednn IV.) it was not 
lawful to try causes of a capital nature in the night, and it was 
equally unlawful to examine a cause, pass sentence, and put it in 
execution on the same day. The last particular was very strenu- 
otisly insisted on. It is worth}' of remark, that all of these prac- 
tices, which were observed in other trials, were neglected in the 
tumultuous trial of Jesus, Matt. 26: 57. John 18: 13—18. For 
what the modern Jews aHserl, viz. that forty days were allowed to 
Jesus, to make his defence in, is not mentioned by the more an- 
cient writers. 

The trial of causes on the days of the national festivals is for- 
bidden in many passages in the Talmud. Whatever might h;ue 
been the ground of this prohibition, it at any rate contravened 
the spirit of the remark in Deuteronomy 17: 13, viz. '■'•And all 
the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously.'''' 
That is, .shall hear and tremble at the sentence passed upon the 
guilty ; for which they could not in general find so good an op- 
portunity, as on the days of those festivals. Nor was there any 
reason to fear, that the religious festivals of the nation, would be 
profaned in this way, in as much as judicial tribunals, in a theoc- 
racy, were of divine institution. It may be observed further on 
this point, that the reason assigned, why the Jews in Matt. 26: 5, 
avoided the festival day, was the fear of an uproar among the 
people. But it appears, as soon as a person was found treacher- 
ous enough to betray the Saviour, that even the fears from this 
source vanished. 

§ 2 17. Of the Forum or place of Trials. 

The places for judicial trials were in very ancient times the 
gates of cities, which were well adapted to this purpose. They 
were adapted to this purpose, in as much as they were publick, 
and were used not only for entering and departing, but for lairs, 
places of business, and to accommodate those, who were assembled 

§ 248. FORM OF TRIAL, 305 

merely to pass away the time, Gen. 23: 10, et seq. Deut. 21: 
19. 25: 6, 7. Ruth 4: 1, et seq. Ps. 127: 5. Prov. 22: 22. 24: 7. 
The place of trials was the same after the Captivity as before, 
Zech. 8: 16. The Greek Forum, ayo^a, was also a place for fairs. 
The Areopagus itself, uQfiog -nayog, i. e. the hill of Mars, was so 
called, because justice was said to have been pronounced there 
formerly against Mars, Acts 17 : 19. 

The Greeks assembled in the Forum likewise, where the judi- 
cial tribunals had the place of their sitting', in order to examine in- 
to the conduct and qualifications of publick magistrates, and candi- 
dates for office. Inquiries and examinations of this kind were ex- 
pressed by the Greek word doxtfia^eiv, comp. 1 Cor. 11: 28. The 
assembly of the citizens, convened on extraordinary occasions, was 
called in Greek exuKrjOia or avyxhjTog. The convention of the 
citizens, which met on certain stated days, -ijfiegaignvQiaigf which 
were de'^ignated by the law, and which recurred four times with- 
in every period of thirty five days, was called y.vQccc. 

§ 248. Form of Trial. 

Originally trials were every where very summary, excepting 
in Egypt ; where the accuser committed the charge to writing, 
the accused replied in writing, the accuser repeated the charge, 
and the accused ansyvered again, &c. Diodorus Sic. I. p. 75. comp. 
Job. 14: 17. 

It was customary in Egypt for the judge to have the code of 
Laws placed before him, a practice, which still prevails in the 
East, comp. Dan. 7: 10. 

Moses, however, when called upon to decide upon any litigat- 
ed question, pursued that summary course, which was common 
among the Nomadick tribes, and in those laws of a permanent 
character, which he established, he did not lay the ground for any 
more formal, or complicated method of procedure in such cases. 
He was, nevertheless, anxious that justice should be administered 
in a right manner, and, accordingly, frequently inculcated the idea, 
that God was a witness to judicial transactions. He interdicted, 
in the most express and decided manner, gifts or bribes, •^'nv, which 
were intended to corrupt the judges, Exod. 22: 20, 21. 23: 1 — 9. 
Lev. 19: 15. Deut. 24: 14. 15. Moses also, by legal precautions, 

306 § 248. FORM OF TRIAL. 

prevented capital punishments, and corporal punishm'ents, which 
were not capital, from being extended, as was done in other na- 
tions, both to parents and their children, and thus involving the 
innocent and the guilty in that misery, which was justly due only 
to the latter, Exod. 23: 7. Deut. 24: 16. comp. Dan. 6: 24. This 
salutary arrangement seems to have been neglected by the kings, 
2 Kgs. 9: 26 ; although in all other cases, where it was deemed 
expedient to inflict punishment, the form of trial was gone through, 
even in respect to those innocent persons, who had become the 
subjects of the royal displeasure, and were tried only to be con- 
demned, 1 Kgs. 21: 7 — 16. The disregard of justice, which, in 
such instances, was manifested by the kings, exerted a bad influ- 
ence on the minds of the judges, and, as we may learn from the 
repeated complaints of the prophets, they were too often guilty 
of partiality in their decisions. 

The ceremonies, which were observed, in conducting a judicial 
trial, were as follows. 

I. The accuser and the accused both made their appearance 
before the judge or judges, Deut. 25: 1 ; who sat with legs cross- 
ed upon the floor, which was furnished for their accommodation 
with carpet and cushions. A secretary was present, at least in 
more modern times, who wrote down the sentence, and indeed ev- 
ery thing in relation to the trial, for instance, the articles of agree- 
ment, that might be entered into, previous to the commencement 
of the judicial proceedings, Is. 10: 1, 2. Jer. 32: 1 — 14. The 
Jews assert, that there were txvo secretaries, the one being seated 
to the right of the judge, who wrote the sentence of not guilty, 
the other to the left, who wrote the sentence of condemnation. 
Compare Matt. 25: 33 — 46. That an apparitor or beadle was 
present, is apparent from other sources. 

II. The accuser was denominated in Hebrew ^tJ'Ji, satan or 
the adversary, Zech. 3: 1 — 3. Ps. 109: 6. The judge or judges 
were seated, but both of the parties implicated stood up, the ac- 
cuser standing to the right hand of the accused. The latter, at 
least after the Captivity, when the cause was one of great conse- 
quence, appeared with hair dishevelled, and in a garment of 

III. The witnesses were sworn, and in capital cases, the par- 
ties concerned, 1 Sam. 14: 37 — 40. Matt. 26: 63. In order to es- 


tablish the charges alleged, two witnesses were necessary, and, in- 
cluding the accuser, three. The witnesses were examined sepa- 
rately, but the person accused had the liberty to be present, when 
their testimony was given in. Num. 35: 30. Deut. 17: 1 — 15. Matt. 
26: 59. 

Proofs might be brought from other sources, for instance, from 
written contracts, or from papers in evidence of any thing pur- 
chased or sold, of which there were commonly taken two copies, 
the one to be sealed, the other to be left open, as was customary 
in the time of Jerome, Jer. 32: 10 — 13. 

IV. The parties sometimes, as may be inferred from Prov. 
18: 18, made use of the lot in determining the points of difficulty 
between them, but not without a mutual agreement. The sacred 
lot of Urim and Thummim was anciently resorted to, in order to 
detect the guilty, Jos. 7: 14 — 24. 1 Sam. 14 ch, but the determin- 
ation of a case of right or wrong in 'this way was not commanded 
by Moses. 

V. The sentence, very soon after the completion of the ex- 
amination, was pronounced, and the criminal, without any delay, 
even if the offence were a capital one, was hastened away to the 
place of punishment, Jos. 7: 22, et seq. 1 Sam. 22: 18. 1 Kgs. 
2: 23. 

§• 249. Prisons and Tortures. 

As the execution followed so soon after the sentence, there 
was no special need of prisons. Indeed they are not to be found 
in Persia to the present day, and it is customary to confine the 
criminal in an apartment of the house of the judge. Compare 
Gen. 40: 3, 4. 

The instrument of punishment, mentioned in Job. 13: 27. 33: 
11, in Hebrew TO the stocks^ was probably of Egyptian origin. 
Among the Hebrews anciently, criminals were put under a guard 
of persons, employed for that purpose. Lev. 24: 12. Not unfre- 
quently they were confined in empty cisterns. 

The great variety in the names of prisons would lead one to 
suppose, that they were more frequently erected, and more often 
used, in the later, than in the early periods of the Jewish nation. 
They are as follows. 

308 ^ 249, PRISONS and tortures. 

(I.) "li^, *ii<2, which usually signifies a cistern, Gen. 40: 15. 

(2.) Inbrj r\^z. Gen. 39: 20. (The word nrib appears to be 
of Coptick origin.) 

(3.) D'^-j^ori ni-'z, (for n-'^nON;;!,) Eccles. 4: 14. 

(4.) 'l^DijtrT D""?, Jer. 37: 15. 

(5.) N?3n ri^2, 1 Kgs. 22: 27. 2 Kgs. 25: 29. 

(6.) J«:)ir3, N^b3, Jer. 37: 4. 52:31. 

(7.) nD-:n"3- n^s, 2 Chron. 16: 10. 

(8.) -1 a 0^", Is. 42: 7. 24:22. Ps. 142:7. 

If the great variety in the names of prisons is a proof, that in 
the progress of time they were more and more multiplied; it is 
likewise an indirect evidence, that they were employed not only 
for the detention of criminals, but as a means of punishment and 
correction, Jer. 37: 15 — 20. 

Persons, who were committed to prison, were subjected to the 
further evil of being confined with chains, which occur under the 
Hebrew words D''pT, ^23, and ^T"i3; likewise under the word 
Din':;^; made of brass, Jer. 40: 4. 62: 11. Ps. 105: 1J8. 107: 10. 

The Jews, after the Captivity, followed the example of oth- 
er nations, and shut up in prison those, who failed in the payment 
of their debts. They had the liberty likewise to put in requisition 
the aid of tortures, (Suaui'iGTag, and to punish the debtor with 
stripes, Matt. 5: 26. 18: 28—34. 

At a more recent period still, they borrowed from the Greeks 
the custom of applying the torture, (Juaui'Oi, in order to extort a 
confession from the person accused. Wisdom 2: 19. The differ- 
ent kinds of torture are mentioned in the Treatise concerning the 
Maccabees, appended to the Works of Josephus. The Romans in 
some instances fastened their criminals, sometimes by one, some- 
times by both hands to a soldier. Such remained in their own 
house, Acts 28: 16. Seneca Epist. 5. et de Tranquill. c. 20. 

It was not unfrequently the case, that the keepers of prisons, 
when those, who were committed to their charge, had escaped, 
were subjected to the same punishment, which had been intended 
for the prisoners, Acts. 12: 19. 16: 27. 


§ 250. Regulations, etc. in respect to Debtors. 

Those, who had property due to them, might, if they chose, se- 
cure it by means of a mortgage, or by a pledge, or by a bonds- 

The following remarks, in relation to this subject, are worthy 
of attention. 

I. The creditor, when about to receive a pledge for a debt, 
was not allowed to enter the house of the debtor, and take what 
he pleased; but was to wait before the door, till the debtor should 
deliver up that pledge, which he could most easily do without, 
Deut. 24: 10, 1 1. comp. Job 22: 6. 24: 3, 7—9. 

II. When a mill or millstone, or an upper-garment was given, 
as a pledge, it was not to be kept over night ; and these appear 
to stand, as examples for all other things, which the debtor could 
not, without great inconvenience, dispense with. Exod. 22: 25, 26. 
Deut. 24: tj, 12. 

III. The debt, which remained, till the seventh, or sabbatick 
year, (durmg which the soil was to be left without cultivation, 
and a person, consequently, was not supposed to be in a condition 
to make payments,) could not be exacted during said period. 
Hence the sabbatick year was denominated ntj73UJ or deferring^ 
Deut. 15: 1-11. But at other times, in case the debt was not paid, the 
lands or the house of the debtor might be sold. The property 
thus sold appears to have continued in the hands of the purchaser 
only till the year of Jubilee, when it returned again to the origin- 
al possessors, or their heirs, Prov. 31: 16. 

In case the house, or land was not sufficient to cancel the 
debt, or if it so happened, that the debtor had none, the debtor 
himself, together with his wife and children, was sold into slavery, 
Prov. 22: 27. Mic. 2: 9. 

If a person had become bondsman for another, he was liable 
to be called upon for payment in the same way with the original 
debtor. We see in this the ground of the admonitions in the Book 
of Proverbs, (6: 1—4. 11:15. 17: 18. 22: 26,) that a person should 
not too readily give his hands to, or **■ strike hands'''' with the debt- 
or, in the presence of the creditor, i.e. become his surety. 

310 § 251, ON USURY. 

Novae Tabulae. 
This was a phrase apphed by the Romans lo a general can 
celling- of debts. The assertion of Josephus, (Antiq. III. 12, 1.) 
that there was an extinction of debts on every returning Jubi- 
lee among the Hebrews, corresponding to the state of things 
among the Romans at tiie recurrence of the JYovae Tabulaey is ne- 
cessarily applicable only to the age, in which he himself lived. 
It is true, however, (but it was an extraordinary case,) that Ne- 
hemiah, (5: 1 — 12.) in order to relieve the wants and to inij^rove 
the condition of the poor, permitted Novae Tabulae. 

§251. On Usury. 

Moses enacted a law to the effect, (Exod. 22: 25. Lev. 25; 35 
— 37,) that mterest should not be taken from zt. poor person, neith- 
er for borrowed money, ^P?.! nor for articles of consumption, n'^aln, 
rr^antt, for instance grain, which was borrowed with the expecta- 
tion of being returned. A difficulty arose, in determining who was 
to be considered a poor person, in a case of this kind ; and the 
Law was accordingly altered in Deut. 23: 20, 21, and extended in 
its operation to all the Hebrews, whether they had more or less 
property ; so that interest could be lawfully taken only of for- 

The Hebrews were, therefore, exhorted to lend mone}', &c. 
as a deed of mercy and brotherly kindness, Deut. 15:7 — 11. 24: 
13. And hence it happens, that we find encomiums every where 
lavished upon those, who were willing td lend, without insisting 
upon interest for the use of the thing lent, Ps. 15: 15, 37: 21,26. 
112:5. Prov. 19:17. Ezek. 18: 8. 

This regulation in regard to taking interest was very well suit- 
ed to the condition of a state, that had been recently founded, and 
which had but very little mercantile dealings, but it ivould be 
very unwisely introduced into communities, that are much engag- 
ed in commerce. 


§ 252. The Smallest Punishment. 

Excision from the people, of which we shall speak more partic- 
ularly by and by, was the punishment, that was consequent on a 
deliberate transgression of the Ceremonial Law. If transgressions 
of the Ceremonial Law, (or indeed, of certain Natural Laws, sanc- 
tioned by a civil penalty,) were committed, -wilhout deliberate pre- 
meditation, through errour, precipitancy, or ignorance, the offend- 
er could avoid the punishment of excision, if he chose, by volunta- 
rily offering a sacrifice, Num. 15: 27 — 31. In this way transgres- 
sors were invited to return, to render satisfaction to the person in- 
jured, and to pursue in future a less erroneous coui'se. But it 
ought to be remarked, that, in offering a sacrifice, the offender 
merely avoided the penalty of the Civil Law ; the merely taking 
this step could not of itself reconcile him to God, and do away 
the evil he had committed in the sight of Omniscience, Heb. 9: 
13, 14. 

Expiatory sacrifices of this kind could be offered only for 
transgressions of a particular character, viz. those, which are cal- 
led in Hebrew nTN'tsn, niNBJj, riNtSrt sins, and those, which are 
denominated ni^a'^JN, DU:i<, trespasses. 

It is worthy to be observed, that a sin-offering is expressed in 
Hebrew by the same words, viz. rNcn, &c. which mean the sin 
itself, and it is the same in the other case, viz. DIJX, &.c. a trespass, 
Q'liJN, a trespass-offering. 

Both the sin and trespass offerings are expressly defined, (Lev. 
4, 5 ch.) but the exact distinction between the transgressions, to 
which they have reference, is very obscure. From an examina- 
tion, however, of the statements in the Chapters just referred to, 
it would seem, that sins, according to the technical application of 
the term in the Ceremonial Law, are violations o( prohibitory stat- 
utes, i. e. doing something, which the Law commands not to do. 
• Trespasses, on the other hand, are violations of imperative statutes, 
i. e. neglecting to do those things, which are commanded. Con- 
sult the large German edition of this Work, P. 111. § 101. 

The guilty person incurred the expense of the victim. He 
confessed to his confusion and shame the sin or trespass over the 
head of the animal, and, if he had unjustly taken another's proper- 


ty, and had not previously made a restoration of it, he not only 
restored it, but added in the restoration a fifth part, Lev. 6: 1 — 
5, Num. 5: 5, 10. In case the person, to whom restitution was to 
be made, was not Hving, it was made to his heirs ; if this could 
not be done, it was made to the high priest, as the minister of Je- 

The fact that restitution, which, under the Old Dispensations, 
was so frequently mentioned, and so strenuously insisted on, is not 
inculcated in the New Testament, is owing to the circumstance, 
that it was considered a duty so generally known, and so freely 
admitted, as to require no further mention, Eph.4: 28. 

§ 253. Fines and Indemnifications. *c;:3>. 

In some instances, the amount of a fine, or of an indemnifica- 
tion, that was to be made, was determined by the person, who 
had been injured. In other instances^ it was fixed by the estima- 
tion of the judge, and, in others, was defined by the Law. 

For instance, 

(1.) The indemnification, which is termed "ir?; ^2b, and 
UJ23 'li'^ls, the ransom of one'' s life^ i. e. the payment, which might 
be made by a person, who had injured another, as a commutation 
for those corporal punishments, to which, in consequence of the law 
of retaliation,(ji(s talionis,) he had exposed himself, was left to be de- 
termined by the mere pleasure of the person, who had been in- 
jured, Exod. 21: 30. 

(2.) The amount to be paid, in order to secure a commutation 
of the punishment, that was enacted by law, against the owner of 
a bull, which, although the owner had been previously admonished 
of the bulFs character for pushing, had killed a free person, was left 
to be determined by the avenger of blood. This is the only in- 
stance, in which a commutation of the punishment was allowable, 
where death was the penalty of the crime, Exod. 21: 28 — 31. 

(3.) If two men, in contending with each other, injured a wo- 
man with child, so that she came to a premature birth, a fine was 
to be paid, according to the estimation of the husband and the 

(4.) If a servant were slain by a cross ox, when known to be 
such by the owner, the owner was obliged to pay thirty shekels, 
Exod. 21:32. comp. Deut. 22: 19. 


None of these fines were paid to the state, but all of thena to 
the person, who had been injured. 

§ 254. Punishment of Theft. 

The restitution, that was required to be made, in case of theft, 
was double of the amount taken, Exod. 22: 3, 6, 8. If a sheep, 
however, were stolen and had already been slain or sold, so that 
it was evident, that the thief had no design to make restitution, a 
fourfold; and, if this were the case in respect to an ox, a five-fold 
restitution was to be made. The reason of this distinction was, 
that sheep, being kept in the desert, were more exposed, than 
other animals, to be stolen ; and oxen, being so indispensably ne- 
cessary in an agricultural community, could not be taken from 
their owners in this way, without great injury, and peculiar ag- 
gravation, Exod. 22: 1. 

In case the chief iSa, was unable to make the restitution de- 
manded by the law, he was sold with his wife and children into 
servitude, Exod. 22: 2. 2 Kgs. 4: 1. compare Gen. 43: 19. 44: 17. 

In the days of the Kings, the fine for theft seems to have been 
increased, Prov. 6: 30, 31. 

Capital punishment was decreed only against a thief, who had 
taken any thing, that was acctirsed, any thing, to which the epithet 
D"in was applicable, Josh. 7: 25 ; for what David asserts, in sec- 
ond Samuel 12: 5, in respect to the person, who took away the 
lamb, viz. that he was worthy of death, means merely, that he 
WHS guihy, since he immediately adds, " He shall restore four-fold." 
It appears from this parable, however, to which we allude, that 
both thieving, and taking away violently by force came under 
the same law, and were followed by the same punishment. 

Whoever slew a thief, that was attempting to break open a 
house at night, let it be what hour it might before sunrise, was 
left unpunished ; since he did not know, but the thief might have 
a design upon his life, and he was unable also to notice his appear- 
ance, and thereby bring him to justice at a subsequent period. 
Exod. 22: 1. 



§ 255. Corporal Punishments. 

Corporal punishments may be limited to one kind, viz. the 
infliction of blows with a rod or scourging^ Lev. 19: 20. Deut. 22: 
18. 25:2,3. The dignity or high standing of the person, who 
had rendered himself liable to this punishment, could not excuse 
him from its being inflicted. Stripes, the rod, &c. cccur very fre- 
quently for punishment of any kind, Prov. 10: 13. 17: 26. Jer. 37: 
1.J— 20. Ps. 89:32. 

Scourging is very frequently practised at the present day in 
the East, as it was anciently ; with this diiference, however, that 
the stripes were formerly inflicted on the back, but now on the 
soles of the feet. 

The instrument, commonly used to inflict the punishment, was 
a rod. Scorpions, Ci'^j??, i. e. thongs set with sharp iron points 
or nails, called by the Romans horribilia, were applied, as a 
means of torturing, only by those, who had no relentings of 
heart ; especially by cruel masters, in the punishment of their 
slaves, 1 Kgs. 12: 11. The application of such an instrument in 
punishing was not sanctioned by the laws of Moses. 

The person, who was convicted of a crime, and was sentenced 
to scourging, was extended upon the ground, and the blows, not 
exceeding/or^?/, were applied upon his back, in the presence of 
the judge, Deut. 25: 2,3. 

The more recent Jews, from their great fear, lest, from any 
ciictimstance, the stripes might exceed the number prescribed, 
fixed it atthirt}' nine instead of forty, which were inflicted in their 
synagogues, Matt. 10: 17. They employed for the purpose, ac- 
cording to the Talmudists, (Maccoth. 3. 10,) a whip, which 
had three lashes, so as to inflict a triple wound with one 
blow. Thirteen blows, therefore, made out the thirty nine stripes, 
2 Cor. 11: 24. That extreme and cruel scourging, known among 
the Romans, in which there was no limitation of the number of 
the blows, is not to be confounded with that of which we are 
speaking. According to the Porcian Law, such a scourging could 
not be inflicted on a person, who was a Roman citizen. Consult 
Cicero pro Rabirio, ad famil. X. 32, in Verrem. V. 53, and Acts 16: 
22, 25—30, 57. 

§256. ON RETALIATION. 315 

Note. Extinction of the sight, *i-ii?, was not pracUsed among 
the Hebrews, as a punishment. Nor was it in truth thus practised 
among other nations, except in cases, where the persons, whose 
eyes were put out, would otherwise have been in a condition to 
have engaged in plots against the existing government. It was 
from the fear of this, that the eyes of rebellious kings were put 
out, Jer. 52: 11. 2 Kgs. 25: 7. In Persia so late as the seven- 
teenth century, a silver style of that kind, which was used in 
painting the eyebrows, was heated red-hot, and thrust into the 
eye of the son of a king, for the purpose of destroying the sight, 
or at least destroying it so far, as to take away the power of dis- 
tinctly discerning objects. 

§ 25G. On Retaliation. 

If a man, in a personal conflict with another, smote him to such 
a degree, as to cause confinement to his bed, he was bound to 
make him indemnification, Exod. 21: 18, 19. When, in such a con- 
test, injur3' was intentionally done to a particular member of 
the body, or life was taken away ; life was rendered for life, 
eye for eye, tooth for tooth, burning for burning, wound for 
wound, stripe for stripe, hand for hand, foot for foot, Exod. 21: 
23 — 25. Lev. 24: 19 — 22. A false witness, likewise, according to 
the law of retaliation, (jus talionis,) was to be punished with the 
same punishment, which was decreed against the crime, in refer- 
ence to which he had falsely testified, Deut. 19: 16 — 21. 

In the time of Christ, the jus talionis, (Matt. 5: 38 — 40,) was 
confounded with moral principles, i. e. [it was taught, that the 
law of Moses, which was merely civil or penal, rendered it per- 
fectly justifiable, in a moral point of view, for a person to inflict 
on another the same injury, whatever it might be, which he him- 
self had received.] The persons, who expounded the law to 
this effect, do not appear to have recollected [its true character, as 
a civil or penal law, which originated from the circumstances of 
the times,] and seem not to have remembered, that the literal re- 
taliation could not take place, until after the decision of a judge 
on a suit, brought by the person injured, and then was never to 
exceed the original injury. Furthermore, it was by no means 
necessary, that this retaliation should take place at all, since the 


aggrieved party might, either before or after the decision of the 
judge, make an arrangement with the aggressor, and relieve him 
from the infliction of the punishment, to which he had legally ex- 
posed himself, on his rendering that satisfaction, which in the He- 
brew is technically called ^Sb, and p'''lS a ransom. 

The lavs of retaliation was common among all ancient nations, 
and ivas in truth the most efHcacious means of protecting a person 
from injuries. But, in progress of time, when feelings and man- 
ners had assumed a milder tone, causes^ which originated from 
one person's receiving bodily injuries from another, were brought 
into the common civil courts on the footing of other causes, and 
the punishment to be inflicted on the aggressor, or the satisfac- 
tion in any other way to be rendered to the injured part}', was 
left entirely to the person, who sat as judge. 

The arguments, which have been employed against the expe- 
diency and propriety of the jus talionis, are of no great weight. 
For instance, it has been said, that this system of retaliation in- 
creased the number of injured and mutilated persons in the com- 
munity; when on the contrary it probably diminished it, as a per- 
son would naturally be cautious, how he inflicted wounds on the 
body of another, when he was fully aware of what might be the 
consequences to himself. Another objection is, that it would be 
very difficult, or altogether impossible, to requite upon the orig- 
inal aggressor just as much and no more, than had been suffered 
by the injured person. But the answer is, if, from any circum- 
stance, he should suffer more, all he has to do, is to attribute it to 
himself and to consider it, as what he might very naturally have 

§ 237. Mosaic Punishments. 

Criminals, who had committed homicide, were punished, (as 
we may learn, as far back as Gen. 9: 6,) with death. But the 
mode, in which this punishment was inflicted, is not there stated, 

Decapitatioti and the Sword. 
Decapitatiox or beheading was a method of taking away life, 
that was known and practised among the Egyptians, Gen. 40: 17 — 
19, This mode of punishment, therefore, must have been known 


to the Hebrews. And it may further be remarked, that if, in 
truth, there occur no indubitable instances of it in the time of the 
early Hebrew kings, it is clear, that something, which bears much 
relationship to it, may be found in such passages, as the following, 
viz, 2 Sam. 4: 8. 20: 21, 22. 2 Kgs. 10: 6 — 8. It appears, in the 
later periods of the Jewish history, that Herod and his descen- 
dants, in a number of instances, ordered decapitation, Matt. 14: 8 — 
12. Acts. 12: 2. It becomes us to observe, however, lest these 
remarks should carry an erroneous impression, that beheading was 
not sanctioned by the Laws of Moses. The Mosaic punishment 
the most correspondent to it, was that of the sword ; with which 
the criminal was slain in any way, which appeared most conveni- 
ent or agreeable to the executioner. That this statement in re- 
spect to the liberty, exercised by the executioner, is correct may 
indeed be inferred from the phrases, " Rush upon him,'''' and '• He 
rushed upon him,'''' ia ^jSD, T2 i'^D^I, Jud. 8: 21. 1 Sam. 22: 18. 
2 Sara. 1: 15. 1 Kgs. 2: 26,' 29, 31, 34. The probability is, howev- 
er, that the executioner, generally, thrust the sword into the bow- 
els of the criminal. 

Lapidaiion or Stonitig. 

In addition to the use of the sword, stoning was another mode 
of effecting the punishment of death, authorized by the Laws of 
Moses. Stoning was practised likewise among many other ancient 

Moses, (following, probably, some ancient custom) enacted, 
that the witnesses should throw the first stone against the crimi- 
nal, and, after the witnesses, the people, Deut. 13: 10. 17: 7. Jos. 
7: 25. John 8: 7. 

The assertion of the Talmudists, (Sanhedrin, G: 1 — 4.) that 
the criminal was first thrown off from an elevated scaffolding, and 
then stoned, is mere fable. The punishment of stoning is to be 
nnderstood, wherever the mode of putting to death is not express- 
ly mentioned. This mode of punishment is meant, consequently, 
in Leviticus 20: 10, where the discourse is concerning adulterers. 
Accordingly, this is the construction put upon that passage in Eze- 
kiel 16: 38, 40, and in John 8: 5. Compare likewise Exodus 31: 
14, and 35: 2, with Numbers 15: 35, 36. The opinion, therefore, 
of the Talmudists, who maintain, that slrangidation is the punish- 
ment, meant in the passage referred to in Leviticus, is not to be 

518 § 258. EXCISION, kxcommujsications. 

§ 258. Excision from the people. Excommunications. 

When God is introduce*!, as saying in respect to any person, 
as follows, " / will cut him off^ Ti'^3n,/rom the people,'^'' the expres- 
sions mean some event in divine Providence, which shall eventu- 
ally terminate the life of that person's family. Consult 1 Kgs. 14: 
10. 21: 21. 2 Kgs. 9: 8. 

If the following expressions are used, " He shall be cut o^JTnlD^, 
n'nS'', from the people^'''' the punishment of stoning is meant, Lev. 
11: 4. 20: 10—18, comp. Exod. 31: 14. 35: 2. Heh. 10:28. 

The more recent Jewish interpreters have understood, by 
EXCISION from the people, excommunication ; and have, accordingly, 
made three species of it. 

I. Excommunication, in the slightest degree, "'^'i:, was separation 
from the synagogue, and the suspension of intercourse with all 
Jews whatever, even with one's wife and domesticks. A person, 
who had exposed himself to excommunication of this sort, was not 
allowed to approach another, nearer than a distance of four cu- 
bits. This separation was continued for thirty days ; and in case 
the excommunicated person did not repent, the time might be 
doubled or tripled, even when the transgression, by means of 
which it was incurred, was of small consequence, Buxtorf. Lex. 
Chald. Talm. Rabb. col. 1304, et seq. 

II. The second degree of excommunication is denominated 
l3"nn, the curse, and was more severe in its effects, than that just 
mentioned. It was pronounced with imprecations, in the pres- 
ence of ten men, and so thoroughly excluded the guilty person 
from all communion whatever with his countrymen, that they 
were not allowed to sell him any thing, even the necessaries of 
life, Buxtorf. Lex. Chald. Talm. Rabbin, col. 827. comp. John 16: 
1, 2. 1 Cor. 5: 2—9. 

III. The third degree of excommunication, which was more 
severe in its consequences, than either of the preceding, was de- 
nominated Nn72p. It was a solemn, and absolute exclusion from 
all intercourse and communion with any other individuals of the 
nation ; and the criminal was left in the hands, and to the justice 
of God, Buxtorf Lex. Chald. Talm. Rabbin, col. 2463—2470. 

Whether the word, Nn'rp, be the same with NnN ajy, the 


Name, (i. e. Gorf,) comes, and with MnN ']'^'^i ow Lord comes^ is a 
question, on which there is a difference of opinion. It is most 
probable, that, in the time of Christ, the second degree of excom- 
munication was not distinguished from the third, and that both 
were expressed by the phraseology, which is used in first Corin- 
thians (5: 5,) and 1 Timothy (1: 20,) viz. to deliver to Satan for the 
destruction of the flesh. 

§ 259. Of Punishments, which consist of Posthumous insults. 

It enters into the design of the Mosaic Laws to inflict punish- 
ments, but not punishments of such a nature, as shall have a ten- 
dency to communicate a perpetual infamy to the person, who suf- 
fers them. This remark applies to the living. It was sometimes 
the case, that a lasting infamy, by means of posthumous insults, 
was heaped upon the dead. 

The posthumous insults, to which we refer, were, as fol- 

I. The body of the criminal, who had been stoned, was burnt. 
Burning, as a mark of infamy, appears to have been an ancient 
custom, which was, consequently, not originated, although it was 
retained by Moses, Gen. 38: 24. Lev. 20: 14. 21: 9. Jos. 7: 15, 25. 
The Jewish Rabbins suppose, that the burning, which is mention- 
ed in the Scriptures, is the operation of pouring melted lead down 
the throat of the living criminal. Certainly such a supposition is 
a dream. 

II. Another mark of infamy was the suspension of the dead 
body on a tree or gallows. This was customary in Egypt, Gen. 
40: 17—19. Num. 25: 4, 5. Deut. 21: 22, 23. The person sus- 
pended was considered, as a curse, an abomination in the sight of 
God, and as receiving this token of infamy iVom his hand. The 
body, nevertheless, was to be taken down, and buried on the same 
day. The hanging, mentioned in second Samuel 21: 6, was the 
work of the Gibeonites, and not of the Israelites. Posthumous 
suspension of this kind for the purpose of conferring ignominy is a 
very different thing from the crucifixion, that was practised by 
the Romans, notwithstanding that the Jews gave such an extent 
to the law in Deuteronomy 21: 22, 23, as to include the last-nam- 
ed punishment, John 19: 31, et seq. Galat. 3: 13. 


III. Heaps of stones were raised either directly upon the 
dead body, or upon the place, where it was buried, Jos. 7: 25, 26. 
2 Sam. 18: 17. The pile of stones, that was gathered in this way, 
was increased by the contributions of each passing traveller, who 
added one to the heap in testimony of his aversion to the crime. 

Examine in connexion with this the two hundred and nin.h Sec- 

§ 260, Punishments introduced from other Nations. 

There are other punishments, mentioned in the Bible, in ad- 
dition to those, of which we have given some account; but which 
were introduced among the Hebrews at a period later, than the 
days of Moses. 

I. Decapitation. [Something has been said in re?pect to this 
mode of punishment, in the two hundred and fifty seventh section.] 
It was properl}' a fc reign punishment, and was frequently practis- 
ed among the Persians, Greeks, Romans, and other nations. 

II. Strangulation ; to which an allusion is made in first Kings 
20: 31. The more recent Jews attributed the origin of this pun- 
ishment to Moses, but without cause. They suppose strangula- 
tion is meant, when the phrase, " He shall die the death,'''' is used. 
As that phrase, in their estimation, is meant to express the easi- 
est death, by which a person can die, they suppose, the mode of 
death intended is no other, than that of strangulation. A person 
will be surprised at their notions of an easy death, when he un- 
derstands the method, in which it was effected, to have been as 
follows. The criminal, (as the punishment, according to their ac- 
count, was inflicted,) was thrust up to his middle in mud. A hand- 
kerchief was then tied round his neck, which was drawn by the 
two ends in opposite directions by two lictors ; and while the pro- 
cess of strangulation was going on in this way, melted lead was 
poured down his throat, Sanhedr. 10: 3. 

III. Burning. Persons were burnt aliv^e in a furnace, which, 
as has been observed, resembled in its form a well, Dan. 3: comp. 
Chardin's Voyage, Vol. IV. p. 276. This mode of punishment was 
practised among the Chaldeans, Jer. 29: 22. 

IV. The Lion'' s Den. This mode of punishment is still custom- 
ary in Fez and Morocco. See accounts of Fez and Morocco by 
Hoest, c. 2. p. 77, Dan. G. 


V. Dichotomy or cutting asunder. This method of putting 
criminals to death prevailed among the Chaldeans and Persians. 
When this punishment was inflicted, the left hand and right foot, 
or the right hand and left foot, or both feet and hands were cut off 
at the joints, Dan. 2: 5. Luke 12: 46. Matt. 24: 51. A mutilation, 
in this way, of persons, who had been punished with death, is 
mentioned in second Samuel 4: 12. 

VI. Beating to death, rvfinuviGf^iog. This was a punishment 
in use among the Greeks, and was designed for slaves. The crim- 
inal was suspended to a stake, and beaten with rods, till he died, 
2 Mac. 6: 10, 19, 28, 30. Heb. 1 1: 35. 

Vll. Sawing asunder. The criminal was sometimes sawn asunder 
lengthwise. This was more especially the practise in Persia. Isaiah, 
according to the Talmudists, was put to death in this manner, by 
king Manasseh, Sanhedrin p. 103. c, 2, comp. Justin's Dialogue 
with Trypho. David inflicted this mode of punishment upon the 
conquered inhabitants of Rabbath Ammon. Comp. tirst Chronicles 
20: 3. 

VIII. The Romans, for the gratification of the people, com- 
pelled their criminals and also their enemies, taken captive in war, 
to fight with wild beasts in the amphitheatre. They likewise 
compelled them to contend with one another in the manner of 
gladiators, till their life was terminated in this way, 2 Tim. 4: 17. 
comp. 1 Cor. 15: 32. 

IX. The Persians, in some instances, enclosed a place with 
high walls, and filled it with ashes. A piece of timber was made 
to project over the ashes, and criminals of high rank were placed 
upon it. They were liberally supplied with meat and drink, till, 
being overcome with sleep, they fell over into the deceitful heap, 
and died an easy death. The Macedonians in Syria imitated this 
punishment, 2 Mace. 13: 4. 

X. It was the practice among the Greeks and Romans to pre- 
cipitate some of their criminals, especially the sacrilegious., into 
the sea or a river. The persons, who were thus put to death, 
were p aced in a sack, and were thrown in with a stone about 
their neck. Comp. Matthew 18: 6, and Mark 9: 42. 

XL Crucifixion. This was a common mode of punishment 
among the Persians, Carthaginian*, and Romans. The mode of 
crucifixion, adopted by the Maccabean princes, was that of the 

322 § 261. CRUCIFIXION among the Romans. 

Romans. The Romans, although it was done at the urgent and 
riotous solicitations of the Jews, were the executioners in thecru- 
cilixion of Jesus Christ. We shall, therefore, speak more par- 
ticularly of this mode of punishment, as it existed among that 

§261. Crucifixion as practised among the Romans. 

The cross was the punishment, that was intlicted by the Romans, 
on servants, who had perpetrated crimes, on robbers, assassins, and 
rebels ; among which last, Jesus was reckoned, on the ground 
of his making himself /cino- or messiah, Luke 23: 1 — 5, 13 — 15. 

The words, in which the sentence was given, were as follows ; 
" Thou shah go to the cross.'''' The person, who was subjected to 
this punishment, was deprived of all his clothes, excepting some- 
thing around the loins. In this state of nudity, he was beaten, 
sometimes with rods, but more generally with whips. Such was 
the severity of this flagellation, that numbers died under it. Je- 
sus was crowned with thorns and made the subject of mockery, 
but nothing of this kind could be legally done, or in other words, 
insults of this kind were not among the ordinary attendants of cru- 
cifixion. They were owing, in this case, merely to the petulant 
spirit of the Roman soldiers, Matt. 27: 29. Mark 15: 17. John 
19: 2, 5. 

The criminal, having been beaten, was subjected to the fur- 
ther suffering of being obliged to carry the cross himself to the 
place of punishment, which was commonly a hill, near the publick 
way, and out of the city. The place of crucifixion at Jerusalem 
was a hill to the north west of the city. 

The cross, avccvQog., a post, otherwise called the unpropitious or 
in/oArtows tree, consisted of a piece of wood erected perpendicular- 
ly, and intersected by another at right angles near the top, so as to 
resemble the letter T. The crime, for which the person suffer- 
ed, was inscribed on the transverse piece near the top of the per- 
pendicular one. 

There is no mention made in ancient writers of any thing, on 
which the ftet of the person crucified rested. Near the middle, 
however, of the perpendicular beam, there projected a piece of ^ 
wood, on which he sat, and which answered as a support to the 


body, since the weight of the body might, otherwise, have torn 
away the hands from the nails, driven through them. Here we 
see the ground of certain phrases, which occur, such as the fol- 
lowing ; " To ride upon the cross^^'' " to be borne upon the cj-oss," 
" <o rest upon the sharp cross^''"' 4r-c. Compare Irenaeus against Her- 
esies II. 42, Justin's Dialogue with Trypho, and Tertullian against 
Nation, Bk. 11, also agamst Marcion, Bk. 111. c. 18. 

The cross, which vv'as erected at the place of punishment, be- 
ing there firmly iixed in the ground, rarely exceeded ten feet in 
height. The victim, perfectly naked, was elevated to the small 
projection in the middle, the hands were then bound by a rope 
round the transverse beam, and nailed through the palm. We 
see in this statement the ground of such expressions, as the fol- 
lowing ; " To mount upon the crossy'' " To leap upon the cross,'''' 
" To bring one upon the cross,''"' 4'C. Comp. Cicero against Verres, 
V. 66, and Josephus, Jewish War, Vll. 6. 4. 

The position which is taken by some, viz. that the persons, who 
suffered crucifixion, were not in some instances, fastened to the cross 
by nails through the hands and feet, but were merely bound to it 
by ropes, cannot be proved by the testimbny of any ancient writer 
whatever. That the feet, as well as the hands, were fastened to 
the cross by means of nails, is expressly asserted in the play of 
Plautus, entitled Mostellaria, Act. 11. sc. I. 12, comp. Tertullian 
against the Jews c. 1, and against Marcion, Bk. 111. c. 19. In re- 
gard to the nailing of the feet, it may be furthermore observed, 
that Gregory Nazianzen has asserted, that one nail only was driv- 
en through both of them, but Cyprian, (de passione,) who had been 
a personal witness to crucifixions, and is, consequently, in this case, 
the better authority, states on the contrary, that two nails or spikes 
were driven, one through each foot. 

The crucified person remained suspended in this way, till he 
died and the corpse had become putrid. While he exhibited any 
signs of life, he was watched by a guard, but they left him, when 
it appeared, that he was dead. The corpse was not buried, ex- 
cept by express permission, which was sometimes granted by the 
emperor on his birth-day, but only to a very (ew. An exception, 
however, to this general practice was made by the Romans in 
favour of the Jews, on account of Deut. 21 : 22, 23; and in Judea, 
accordingly, crucified persons were buried on the same day. 


When, therefore, there was not a prospect, that they would die 
on the day of the crucifixion, the executioners hastened the ex- 
tinction of life, by kindling a fire under the cross, so as to suffo- 
cate them with the smoke, or by letting loose wild beasts upon 
them, or by breaking their bones upon the cross with a mallet, as 
upon an anvil, or by piercing them with a spear, in order that they 
might bury them on the same day. 

Note, The Jews, in the times of which we are speaking, viz. 
while they were under the jurisdiction of the Romans, were in the 
habit of giving the criminal, before the commencement of his suffer- 
ing', a medicated drink of wine and myrrh, Prov. 31: 6. The object 
of this was to produce intoxication, and thereby render the pains 
of the crucifixion less sensible to the sufferer, Sanhedrin I. p. 250. 
This beverage was refused by the Saviour for the obvious reason, 
that he chose to die, with the faculties of his mind undisturbed and 
unclouded, Matt. 27: 34. Mark 15: 23. It should be remarked, 
that this sort of drink, which was probably offered out of kindness, 
was different from the vinegar, which was subsequently offered to 
the Saviour, by the Roman soldiers. [The latter was a mixture 
of vinegar and water, denominated posca, and was a common drink 
for the soldiers in the Roman army,] Luke 23 : 36. John 19: 29. 

§ 262, The cruelties of Crucifixion. 

Crucifixioji was not only the most ignominious, it was like- 
wise the most cruel mode of punishment. So very much so, that 
Cicero, (in Verrem V. 64, et 66,) is justified in saying in respect 
to crucifixion, '• Jib oculisj aitribusque et omni cogitatione hominum 
removendum esic." The sufferings endured by a person, on whom 
this punishment is inflicted, are narrated by George Gottlieb 
RicHTER, a German physician, in a Dissertation on the Saviour'^s Cru- 
cifixion, at page 36 et seq. 

I. The position of the body is unnatural, the arms being ex- 
tended back and almost immoveable. In case of the hast motion 
an extremely painful sensation is experienced in the hands and 
feet, which are pierced with nails, and in the back, which is lace- 
rated with stripes. 

II. The nails, being driven through the parts of the hands 
and feet, which abound in nerves and tendons, create the most ex- 
quisite anguish. 


III. The exposure of so many wounds to the open air brings 
on an inflammation, which every moment increases the poignancy 
of the suffering. 

IV. In those parts of the body, which are distended or press- 
ed, more blood tiows through the arteries, than can be carried 
back in the veins. The consequence is, that a greater quantity of 
blood finds its way from the aouta into the head and stomach, than 
would be carried there by a natural and undisturbed circulation. 
The blood vessels of the head become pressed and swollen, which 
of course causes pain, and a redness of the face. The circum- 
stance of the blood being impelled in more than ordinary quanti- 
ties into the stomach is an unfavourable one also, because it is that 
part of the system, which not only admits of the blood being sta- 
tionary, but is peculiarly exposed to mortification. The aorta, 
not being at liberty to empty, in the free and undisturbed way as 
formerly, the blood which it receives from the left ventricle of 
the heart, is unable to receive its usual quantity. The blood of the 
lungs, therefore, is unable to find a free circulation. This general 
obstruction extends its effects likewise to the right ventricle, and 
the consequence is an internal excitement, and exertion, and anx- 
iety, which are more intolerable, than the anguish of death itself. 
All the large vessels about the heart, and all the veins and arte- 
ries in that part of the system, on account of the accumulation and 
pressure of blood, are the source of inexpressible misery. 

V. The degree of anguish is gradual in its increase, and the 
person crucified is able to live under it, commonly till the third, 
and sometimes till the seventh day. Pilate, therefore, being sur- 
prised at the speedy termination of the Saviour's life, inquired in 
respect to the truth of it of the centurion himself, who command- 
ed the soldiers, Mark 15: 44. In order to bring their life to a more 
speedy termination, so that they might be buried on the same day, 
the bones of the two thieves were broken with mallets, John 19: 
31 — 37; and in order to ascertain this point in respect to Jesus, 
viz, whether he was really dead, or whether he had merely fallen 
into a swoon, a soldier thrust his lance into his side, (undoubtedly 
his lejl side,) but no signs of life appeared, John 19 : 13 — 37. If 
he had not been previously dead, a wound of this kind in his side 
would have put a period to his life, as has been shown both by 
the physician Eschenbach and by Gruner, the former in his Opus- 

32C § 263. THE ruBLicK executioner. 

eul. Medic, de Servatore non apparenter., sed vcre morti/o, and Ihe 
latter in his Dissert, inaitg. Medic, de Jesu Christi inorte vera, non 
synopiicd, 1800. The part pierced was the pericardium ; hence 
lymph and blood flowed out. 

§ 263. The Publick Executioner. 

When the sentence of death was pronounced bj the king-, it 
was executed by his body guard. Compare § 236. Sometimes it 
was done by some other person, who considered the employment 
an honour, 2 Sam. 1: 15. 4: 12. 

The kings of Persia formerly, as is the case to this day, were 
unable to recall the sentence of death, when once passed. Dan. 
6: 15—25. 

Criminals were every where bound with their own girdle, and 
hurried away to punishment. Comp. Acts 21: 10 — 14. John 21:18. 

Homicides were put to death b}"^ the blood avenger, ^ijia, i.e. 
by the nearest male relation of the person slain, of whom we shall 
speak more particularly in the next section. Where stoning was 
the punishment, the process was commenced by the witnesses 
themselves, whose example was followed, and the punishment 
rendered complete by the people, Dout. 17.- 7. The Roman ma- 
gistrates had their lictors, but the soldiers, in the time of the Cae- 
sars, executed the sentence of the cross. The dress of the cruci- 
fied person was given to the soldiers, Matt. 27 : 35. Mark 15: 24. 
Luke 23: 34. Jolm 19:23,24. 

§ 264. Of the Blood-avenger, and Cities of Refuge. 

The execution of the punishment, which in Gen. 9: 6, was de- 
creed against homicide, devolved on the brother or other nearest 
relation of the person, whose life had been taken away. In case 
he did not slay the guilty person, ho was considered infamous. 
Hence the application of the Hebrew word pN^^i goel, i. e. spot- 
ted or contaminated, which he bore till the murder was revenged. 

A law of this kind, viz, which authorizes the blood-avenger, 
may indeed be necessary, where there is no legally constituted 
tribunal of justice ; but as soon as there is such an one, it ought to 
cease. To change a law, however, or practice of long standing, 


is a matter of no little difficulty. Moses, therefore, left it, as he 
found it, but he endeavoured, nevertheless, to prevent its alnises. 

To this end, he appointed cities of refuge, ti:p_^'r\ ^"p , three 
beyond, and three on this side of the Jordan. He took care also, 
that roads leading to them in straight lines should be laid out, in 
every direction, which were to be distinguished in some way from 
other streets. Any one, who had slain a person unexpectedly and 
without intention so to do, any person who had slain another ia 
consequence of his unjustly attempting his life, or had slain a thief 
before the rising of the sun, tied by one of these roads to the cities, 
which have been mentioned. He was not to depart from the city 
into which he had t!ed, till the death of the High Priest; after 
which the right of revenge, could not be legally exercised. 

All persons, who had been the cause of death to another, might 
flee into one of these cities, which were the property of the priests 
and Levites, and which are named in Deut. 19: 1 — 13. 4:41 — 43. 
Num. 35 : 9—^9. Jos. 20 : 1—9. 21 : 1 1 — 13, 21. 27 : 32, 38 ; but 
they were all examined, and if found, according to the laws, guilty 
of homicide, were delivered up to the avenger of blood. For the 
law of retaliation, (jus talionis,) was most strictly inflicted on 
those, who were known to have been guilty of intentional murder; 
even the altar itself in such a case afforded no refuge, and no com- 
mutation whatever was admissible, Exod. 21: 12. Num. 35: 9 — 35. 
Deut. 19: 1—13. 1 Kgs. 2:28—34. 

The opinion, that the place, where human blood has been shed, 
is watered neither with dew nor with rain, till the murderer has 
suffered punishment, appears to have prevailed at a very ancient 
period, 2 Sam. 1: 21. Ezek. 24: 7, 8. 

§ 265. Of the unknown Murderer. 

[The original of this section is but little more than a literal 
statement in the author's words of the law, that is found in Deu- 
teronomy 21:1 — 9. As far as the law, therefore, is concerned, it 
will be as satisfactory, perhaps more so, to have it stated in the' 
language of the common English version, which is as follows.] 

1. " If one be found slain in the land which the Lord thy God 
giveth thee to possess it, lying in the field, and it be not known who 
hath slain him ; 


2. " Then thy elders and thy judges shall come forth, and they 
shall measure unto the cities which are round about him that i« slain. 

3. " And it shall be, that the city which is next unto the slain 
man, even the elders of that city shall take an heifer which hath 
not been wrought with, and which hath not been drawn in the 
yoke ; 

4. "And the elders of that city shall bring down the heifer un- 
to a rough valley, which is neither eared nor sown, and shall strike 
off the heifer's neck there in the valley. 

5. " And the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near ; (for 
them the Lord thy God hath chosen to minister unto him, and to 
bless in the name of the Lord ;) and by their word shall every con- 
troversy and every stroke be tried ; 

6. " And all the elders of that city, that are next unto the slain 
man, shall wash their hands over the heifer that is beheaded in 
the valley. 

7. " And they shall answer and say. Our hands have not shed 
this blood, neither have our eyes seen It. 

8. " Be merciful, O Lord, unto thy people Israel, whom thou 
hast redeemed, and lay not innocent blood unto thy people of Is- 
rael's charge. And the blood shall be forgiven them. 

9. " So shalt thou put away the guilt of innocent blood from 
among you, when thou shalt do that which is right in the sight of 
the Lord."— Deut. 2L- 1—9. 

The ceremonies, which have now been related, were not only 
a declaration of the innocence of the judges and elders, and of the 
horrid nature of the murder, but an implicit declaration likewise 
of the punishment, which justly pertained to the person who had 
committed it. 




§ 266. General view of Military Science. 

The dissensions of individuals grive occasion, in the progress 
of time, for the strife of families, for contests between tribes, and 
eventually for the wars of nations. Those, who came off con- 
querors in the wars, which had thus been commenced, enriched 
themselves with plunder. This presented an incitement to those 
tribes and nations, which were conscious of their superiority in 
point of power, to engage in war; and prepared the way for that 
ferocity and violence, to resist which the patriarchs after the flood 
found it necessary to arm their servants, and to be always in read- 
iness to repel all attacks by force. The patriarchs, nevertheless, 
made it a point to act on principles of equity ; they made treaties 
where they could, and where they could nof, their resort was, 
(clearly a very nat-ural one,) to extort respect, by striking a 

Families had no sooner increased, in respect to numbers, into 
tribes, than it was no longer deemed necessary to put in requisi- 
tion the aid of servants, and to arm them for war ; since it had 
become customary for every freeborn member of the community 
to accustom himself to arms, and to take the field against the en- 

Various implements of war are mentioned in the Pentateuch. 

At a subsequent period, the Hebrews, in tiieir contests with the 
neighbouring nations, were sometimes beaten, and sometimes vic- 
torious ; till at length, in the reign of David, they acquired such 
skill in the military art, together with such strength, as to give 
them a decided superiority over their competitors on the fiehl of 
battle. David increased the standing army, which Saul had intro- 
duced. Solomon introdr.cod cavalry into the military force of the 


nation, also chariots. Both cavalry and chariots were retained 
in the subsequent ag'e ; an age, in which military arms were im- 
proved in their construction, the science of fortification made ad- 
vances, and large armies were mustered. From this period, till 
the time, when the Hebrews became subject to the Assyrians 
and Chaldeans, but little improvement was made in the arts of 

The Maccabees, after the return of the Hebrews from the 
Captivity, gave a new existence to the military art among them. 
But their descendants were under the necessity of submitting to 
the superiour power of the Romans. 

§267. General MILITARY Enrolmemt. 

In the second year after the Exodus from Egypt, there was a 
general enrolment of alt^ufio were able to bear o ruts , ii'2'^'2 ''^.^'^ 'S» 
viz. of air, who were between the ages of twenty and titty. There 
was an enrolment of the Levites, (whose duty it was to guard the 
Taberu.icle, which was understood to be the palace of God, as the 
political head of the community,) separately from the rest of the 
people, Num. 1: 1 — 54. 

There was a second enrolment, made in the fortieth year af- 
ter the Exodus from Egypt, Num. 26: 2. The enrolment was 
made, as there can be no doubt, by the genealogists, under the di- 
rection of the princes. In case of war, those, who were to be cal- 
led into actual service, were taken from those, who were thus 
enrolled, in as much as the whole body were not expected to 
take the field, except on extraordinary occasions, Jud. 20: 1 Sam. 
11:7. comp. Exod. 17: Num. 31: Josh. 7: 7, 11,12. 

In respect to the enrolment, which was made in the reign of 
David, and which was displeasing to Joab himself, the design of 
it seems to have been 'to reduce the whole people to perpetual 
military servitude. Il was accordingly done, not by the genealo- 
gists^ D"^")t]i"J:;, but by militanj prefects, '^^n^^ ''■^;^, and it is further 
worthy ot remark, that instead of the usual word fi;53, the word 
"ISO was employed in this instance. 

An universal enrolment of the people in this way was in- 
dee'! at this time prevented, l>ut it seems to have taken place un- 
der the subsequent kings ; otherwise, we are unable to account 


for the larg'e armies, which are mentioned in the Books of Kings, 
even when we lay out of the account, the passages, which labour 
under the suspicion of having been altered \>y copyists. 

§ 268. Of the Levy for actual Service. 

Whenever there was an immediate prospect of war, a levy ot 
this kind was made by the genealogists, Deut. 20: 5 — 9. In the 
time of the kings, there was a head or ruler of the persons, that 
made the levy, denominated 'nl3T>yn, who kept an account of the 
number of the soldiers, but who is, nevertheless, to be distinguish- 
ed from the generalissimo, '-\C1Slri, 2 Chron. 26: 11. comp. 2 Sam. 
8: 17. 20:25. 1 Chron. 18: 16. 

After the levy was fully made out, the genealogists gave pub- 
lick notice, that the following persons might be excused, from 
military service, Deut. 20: 5 — 8. 

(1.) Those, who had built a house, and had not yet inhabit- 
ed it. 

(2.) Those, who had planted a D*».3 , i- e. an olive or vine gar- 
den, and had not as yet tasted the fruit of it ; (an exemption, con- 
sequently, which extended through the first live years after such 

(3.) Those, who had bargained for a spouse, but had not cel- 
ebrated the nuptials ; also those, who had not as yet lived with 
their wife for a year. 

(4.) The faint-hearted, who would be likely to discourage oth- 
ers, and who, if they had gone into battle, where, in those early 
times, every thing depended on personal prowess, would only have 
fallen victims. 

§ 269. Respecting the divisions, etc. that were introduced into 


The division of the army intot^ree bands, as mentioned in Gen. 
14:14,15. Jobl: 17. Jud. 7: 16, 20. 1 Sam. 11: 11. 2 Sam. 18:2, 
was probably no other than the division into the centre, and left, 
and right wing. The commanders of these divisions appear to 
have been called n^tb,^, Exod. 14: 7. 15: 4. 2 Kgs. 7: 2, 17, 19. 9: 
25. 15:25. Ezek. 23: 13,23. 


The Hebrews, when ihey departed from Eg-ypt, marched in 
military order, anj^nj: }:'J by their armies or fwsts, Exod. 12: 51 j 
expressions, which, ui Exodus 13: 18, are interchanged with the 
word CtJ^ri, probably better pointed C^to'Tan. We infer from 
these expressions, that they followed each other in ranks of fifty 
deep, and that, at the head of each rank or tile of fifty, was the 
captain of fifty, 1 Sam. 8: 12. 2 Kgs. 1: 9 — 14. comp. Joshua 1: 
14. Jud. 7: 11. The other divisions consisted of an hundred, a 
thousand, and ten thousand men, eacli one of which was headed 
by its appropriate commander, Num. 31: 48. Deut. 1: 15. Jud. 20: 
10. 1. Sam. 8:12. 18:13.29:2. 1 Mace 3: 55. These divisions 
ranked in respect to each other, according to their families, 
and were subject to the authority of the heads of those families, 2 
Chron. 25: 5. 26: 12, 13. The centurions, and chiliarchs or cap- 
tains of thousands, were admitted into the councils of war, 1 Chron. 
13: 1 — 3. 1 Sam. 18: 13; and make their appearance, as it would 
seem, in Joshua 10:24, and Judges 11: 6, 11, under the came of 

The leader of the whole army was denominated Nli2J^ b? '^U), 
the captain of the host. Another officer aniong those of principal 
standing was the one called -isiDr;, [who is said in the original 
German Edition to have had the care of the rwuster-roll^imii^ttttoU 
icjumei^ter,] An officer different from both of these was the one 
called a''?15-3Ji riN "iSb, the numberer of the towers, who appears 
<o have been a sort of engineer, Isa. 33: 18. 1 Chron. 18: 15, 16. 
27: 33. 1 Kgs. 4:4. 2 Chron. 17: 14. 26: II. 

The army of David consisted of two hundred and eighty thou- 
sand men. Every twenty four thousand of them had a separate 
commander. The divisions of twenty four thousand performed 
military duty alternately, viz. a month at a time in succession, 
1 Chron. 27: 1 — 15. 

The army in the reign of Jehoshaphat, was divided into Cive 
unequal divisons, each of which had its separate commander, 2 
Chron. 17: 14 — 17. 

The GENEALOGISTS, [in the English version officers^] according 
to a law in Deut. 20:9, had the right of appointing the persons, 
who were to act as officers in the army, and thej/, undoubtedly, 
made it a point, in their selections, to choose those, who are call- 
ed headi of families. The practice of thus selecting military of- 


ficers ceased under the King's. Some of them were chosen by 
the king-, and in other instances the office became permanent and 
hereditary in the heads of families. 

Both kings and g'enerals had armour bearers^ D''^^ ^^''- They 
were chosen from the bravest of the soldiery, and not only bore 
the arms of their masters, but were employed to give his com- 
mands to the subordinate captains, and were present at his side 
in the hour of peril, 1 Sam. 14: 6. 17: 7. comp. Polybius X. 1. 

The infantry, the cavalry, and the chariots of war were so 
arranged, as to make separate divisions of an army, Exod. 14: 6, 7. 
The infantry were divided likewise into light-armed troops^ D"'Tlia, 
and into spearmen^ Gen. 49: 19. 1 Sam. 30: 8, 15, 23. 2 Sam. 3 : 22. 
4: 2. 22: 30, Ps. 18: 30. 2 Kgs. 5: 2. Hos. 7: I. The light armed 
infantry were furnished with a sling and javelin, with a bow, ar- 
rows, and quiver, and also, at least in latter times, with a buck- 
ler. They fought the enemy at a distance. The spearmen, on 
the contrary, who were armed with spears, swords, and shields, 
fought hand to hand, 1 Chron. 12: 24, 34. 2Chron.l4:8. 17:17. 
The light-armed troops were commonly taken from the tribes 
of Ephraim and Benjamin, 2 Chron. 14: 8. 17: 17. comp. Gen. 49: 
27. Ps. 78: 9. 

The Roman soldiers were divided into legions ; each legion 
was divided into ten cohorts^ onftQas, each cohort into three bands, 
and each band into two centuries or hundreds. So that a legion 
consisted of thirty bands or six thousand men, and a cohort of six 
hundred, though the number was not always the same. 

In Palestine, in the days of Josephus, [Jewish War, III. 4. 2,) 
there were a number of cohorts, some of which consisted of a 
thousand foot, and others of only six hundred foot, and an hundred 
and twenty horse. Compare Matt. 27:27,28. Mark 15: 16, and 
Acts 10: 1. 21: 31. 27: 1. In addition to the cavalry, there were 
certain light troops in the Palestine cohorts called de'S,t,oXa^oi^ 
armed with a javelin and spear, Acts 23: 23. It is necessary to 
distinguish the Roman soldiers, mentioned in the New Testament, 
not only from the soldiers of Herod Agrippa, (Acts 12:4,) who 
kept guard after the Roman manner by quaternions, i. e. four at a 
time ; but also from the bands of Levites, that watched the tem- 
ple, who had a priest of high standing for their captain, Luke 22: 
4,52. Acts 4: 1. 5:24. It is no objection at all, as I conceive, to 

S34 § 271. OF SHIELDS. 

this statement, that the word amifja^ (the Greek for a cohort,) is 
applied to the Levites here mentioned in John, 18: 3, 12. 

§ 270. MiLiTAPvY Reviews and Inspections. 

That the ceremonies of a military review or muster, consist- 
ed chiefly in the division of a body of soldiers into diiferent corps 
according^ to the kinds of arms, with which they were furnished, 
and in a minute inspection of those corps, may be inferred from 
the verb "IpE, which is applied to such review or muster, but 
which, nevertheless, properly means to inspect or to examine nar- 

The arms, in which the soldiers presented themselves for in- 
spection, were either defensive, Hi'l^, 1 Sam. 17: 38, as the 
buckler, helmet, breastplate, and greaves ; or offensive, as the 
sword and spear, with which they fought the enemy hand to hand, 
and the sling, arrows, javelins, catapults, and ballistae, with which 
they fought them at a distance. 

Of these, we shall treat separately, and say something also of 
fortifications, trenches, circumvallation, machines used in war, 
cavalry, and chariots. 

§ 271. Of Shields. 

A shield, "jaw, is first mentioned in Genesis 15: 1. The word 
frequently occurs afterwards, by a figure of speech, for defence or 
protection, 2 Sam. 22: 31, 36. Prov. 30: 5. Ps. 47: 9. 144: 2. There 
is another sort of shield, called msii ; and a third called n'^nb. 
This last occurs for the first time in Psalm 91: 4, in connexion 
with ^i^j. 

The difference of the shields }nS22 and 12^72 consisted in this: 
the latter was smaller in size than the former, which was so 
large as to cover the whole bodj', 1 Kgs. 10: 16, 17. comp. 2 
Chron. 9: 16; hence insit is always joined with a spear, but p73 
with sword and arrows, 1 Chron. 12; 8, 24, 34. 5: 18. 2 Chron. 14: 
7. 26: 14. The word nnt^D, if we may form an opinion from its 
etymology, signifies a round shield, or buckler. The form of a 
fourth sort of shields, called Diubp and "^lobw, is not well known ; 
but that these words are rightly rendered shields will be snflicient- 

§ 271. OF SHIELDS. 335 

!y clear by comparing 2 Kgs. 11: 10, with 2 Chron. 33: 9. 2 Sam. 
8: 7. 1 Chron. 18: 7, 8. Shields were manufactured, sometimes of 
a light sort of wood, sometimes of osiers woven together and cov- 
ered with bull's hide, and sometimes of a bull's hide merely, twice 
or three times folded over. The hide was anointed, to render it 
smooth and slippery, and to prevent its being injured by the wet, 
2 Sam. 1: 21,22. Is. 21:5. Shields made wholly of brass were 
very uncommon ; it was sometimes the case, nevertheless, that 
they were covered with thin plates of brass, and even of silver 
and gold, 1 Kgs. 10: 16, 17. 14:25—28. 2 Chron. 13 : 13— 16. 
There was a boss in the centre of the shield ; and the margin, 
in order to prevent its being injured by the moisture when placed 
upon the earth, was surrounded by a thin plate of Iron. The han- 
dle, with which the shield was furnished, was made in various 
ways. In time of peace, shields were hung up in armouries, 2 
Chron. 26: 14, and were sometimes suspended on the walls of 
towers, as an ornament, 1 Kgs. 10: 16, 17. Cant. 4: 4. Ezek. 27: 
10, 11. Shields were borne by soldiers, when they went to war, 
and were confined to them by a thong, which went round the 
left arm, and the neck, 1 Chron. 5: 18. 13: 8,24. 2 Chron. 9: 15. 
14: 8. 

When about to attack an enemy, they held the shield by the 
handle in the left hand, and where there was a body of them to- 
gether, they were able, by merely joining shield to shield, to op- 
pose, as it were, a wall against the assaults of their foes. When 
about to scale the walls of a cit}', they placed them one against 
another over their heads, and in this waj formed for themselves 
an impenetrable defence against missile weapons, 2 Chron. 25: 5. 
Job 41:7. The phrases, " to seize the shield, &c." are used met- 
aphorically to denote preparation for war, 2 Chron. 25: 5. Ezek. 
38: 4, 5. Jer. 46: 9. 51: 11. To lose a shield in battle was igno- 
minious ; to take one from the enemy, on the contrary, was at- 
tended with honour, 1 Kgs. 14: 26. 2 Sam. 1: 21. corap. Caryophi- 
lus do veierum clypeis. 

336 § 273. COAT of mail. 

§ 272. The Helmet. S'i^S, i-^SIpj nsQixeqaXacov. 

The helmet was a piece of armour, which covered the fore- 
head, and the top, and the hind part of the head, and was sur- 
mounted for ornament with a horsetail and a plume. Anciently, 
the spearmen alone appear to have worn the helmet. To this 
remark, however, the Chaldeans should be made an exception, in 
as much as all the soldiei-s of that people seem to have been fur- 
nished with this piece of armour, Ezek. 23: 24. Jer. 46: 4. com- 
pare the large German Edition of this Work, P. II. Vol. II. Tab. 
XI. no. 5 and 7. 

It appears from second Chronicles 26: 14, that king- Uzziah 
had furnished an armoury with helmets for the use of his sol- 

The materials, from which the helmet was made, was an ox- 
hide ; but it was usually, especially in the more recent age?, cov- 
ered with brass. This piece of armour, in allusion to the purpos- 
es which it answered in war. Is used tropically for defence and pro- 
tection, Eph. 6: 17. 

§ 273. The Cuirass, Breastplate, or Coat of Mail. 

The BREAST-PLATE, ri^^Tp , ']''"']'p -, ]^'")''P ■• V""^.^ 1 [somctlmes 
rendered in the English version a coat of mail, and sometimes ha- 
bergeons,] and which was known to the Grecians under the word 
dojga'i,, consisted of two parts, the one of which covered the 
fore part of the body, the other the back; both pieces being united 
at the sides by clasps or buttons. The breast plate or coat of mail, 
that was worn by Goliah, ( 1 Sam. 1^: 5, 38.) was made of brass. 
And indeed it was not unfrequentiy the case, that other warriours 
likewise wore a breast-plate, made of that metal. 

This piece of armour was very common among the Hebrews 
after the reign of David, and we find, that it had a place among 
other implements of war and pieces of armour in the armoury of 
king Uzziah, 2 Cbron. 26: 14. As it was an efficient means of 
protection to the body, it occurs tropically for defence, Is. 59: 17. 
Eph. 6: 14. 1 Thess. 5: 8. Rev. 9: 17. 


§ 274. Greaves and Military Frock. 

Although there is no mention in the Bible of the piece of ar- 
mour, which was used for the defence of the right arm, {armilla 
militari,) it will be remembered, that the right foot of Goliath was 
defended with greaves of brass, nn2£tt, 1 Sam. 17:6. In other in- 
stances, a sort of half greaves or boots, denominated "jiip, Is. 9: 4, 
was worn. The practice of defending the feet and legs in this 
way, however, does not seem to have been ver}' common among 
the Hebrews. 

As the long robe, which was usually worn, was a hindrance to 
that celerity of movement, expected from men engaged in milita- 
ry life, the soldiers, accordingly, laid it aside, and wore in its 
stead a short frock. 

The girdle^ ^T'^fi*' from which the sword was suspended, is 
frequently mentioned among the articles of military dress, Is. 5: 
27. Eph. 6:14. 

§ 275. On Fortifications. 

Military fortifications were at first nothing more than a 
trench or ditch, dug round a few cottages on a hill or mountain, 
together with the mound, which was formed by the sand dug out 
of it ; except perhaps there might have sometimes been an eleva- 
ted scaffolding for the purpose of throwing stones with the great- 
er effect against the enemy. A city of this kind was built and 
fortified by Cain ; for to build a city and to fortify it, in the Ori- 
ental idom, are the same thing. 

In the age of Moses and Joshua, the walls, which surrounded 
cities, were elevated to no inconsiderable height, and were fur- 
nished with towers; and yet, since the Hebrews, who were unac- 
quainted with the art of besieging cities, took so many of them on 
both sides of the Jordan in so few years, the inference is, that the 
fortifications, which were at the first so terrible to them, (Num. 
13: 28.) were of no great strength. 

The art of fortification was encouraged and patronized by the 
Hebrew kings, and Jerusalem was always well defended, especi- 


ally mount Zion. In later limes the Temple itself was used as a 

The appropriate names for fortifications in Hebrew are as 
follows, viz. m'^^^irs, riSiy, 'ni::i:73, jt^^i^xd and "ni^iaa "'-ly. The 

words, nevertheless, which usually mean cities, \\z. T'y, '^•j. fi"''^2!', 
in some instances mean fortifications. In the time of the Hebrew 
monarch}', armouries, C^psri fT'a, and guards of soldiers made a 
part of the military establishment, 2 Chron. 17: 2, 19. 26: 14, 15. 
32; 5. 33: 14. 

The principal parts of a fortificalion were, as follows. 

I. The wall, In^'in- In some instances the wall, erected 
round cities, was triple and double, 2 Chron. 32: 5. Walls were 
commonly made lofty and broad, so as to be neither readily passed 
over, nor broken through, Jer. 51: 58. The main wall terminat- 
ed at the top in a parapet for the accommodation of the soldiers, 
which opened at intervals in a sort of embrasures, so as to give 
them an opportunity of fighting' with missile weapons. 

II. Towers, D"'b'^a)3, Dib^sJa. b^SJa, Towers, which were 
erected at certain distances from each other on the top of walls, 
and ascended to a great height, terminated at the top in a flat roof, 
and were surrounded with a parapet, which exhibited openings 
similar to those, which have been just mentioned as making their 
appearance in the parapet of the walls. Towers of this kind 
were erected likeivise over the gates of cities. In these towers 
guards were kept constantly stationed. At least this was the 
case in the time of the kings. It was their business to make 
known any thing, that they discovered at a distance, and when- 
ever they noticed an irruption from an enemy, they blew the 
trumpet, 2 Sam. 13: 34. 13: 26,27. 2 Kgs. 9: 17—19. Nahum. 2: 
1. 2 Chron. 17:2. Towers likewise, which were somewhat lar- 
ger in size, were erected in different parts of the country, 
particularly on places, which were elevated ; and were guarded 
by a military force, Jud. 8:9, 17. 9:46,49,51. Is. 21:6. Habak. 
2:1. ?Ios, 5: 8. Jer. 31:6. The Hebrew word for structures of 
this kind, isri^'^i:; and we find oven to this day, that the circu- 
lar edifices of this sort, which are still erected in the solitudes of 
Arabia Felix^ bear their ancient name of castles or towers. The 
match to:i^ers of the shepherds, ni"!"'!::, nTtS, insii^J, arc to be 
distinguished from those, which have now been mentioned, al- 

§ 275. ON FORttFICATIONS. 339 

though it was not unfrequently the case, that they were convert- 
ed into military towers, and eventually into I'ortilied cities, 2 
Chron. 26: 10. 27: 4. This accounts tor the fact, that cities in 
many instances occur under the words, ^^^73 and ?^■:i273 ; and also 
for the following proverbial expressions, which are sometimes 
found, viz, '^ From a watch-tower even to a fortified city.'''' Proph- 
ets are frequently compared to the guards, that were stationed in 
towers, Ezek. 3: 17. 27: 11. 33: 1—9. Hos. 12: 13. 

III. Bastions. [We render the Hebrew word m':53 by the 
modern military terra bastions, not because it conveys precisely 
its meaning, but because it appears to approach more nearly to it, 
than any other technical term. The statement following will 
give an idea of what is meant.] The walls were erected in such 
a way as to curve inward ; the extremities of them, consequently, 
projected out. The object of forming the walls, so as to present 
such projections, was to enable the inhabitants of the besieged 
city, to attack the assailants in flank. We learn from the history 
of Tacitus, V. 11, that the walls of Jerusalem, at the time of its 
being attacked by the Romans, were built in this way. The pro- 
jections above mentioned are meant to be designated by the He- 
brew word nij3. They were introduced by king Uzziah, 810 
years before Christ, and are subsequently mentioned in the proph- 
et Zephaniah 1: 16. 

IV. The Fosse, bTl, ^H. The digging of a /oise put it in the 
power of the inhabitants of a city to increase the elevation of the 
walls, and of itself threw a serious difficulty in the way of an en- 
emy's approach, 2 Sara. 20:15. Is. -26: 1: Neh. 3: 8. Ps, 48: 13. 
The fosse, if the situation of the place admitted it, was filled with 
water. This was the case at Babylon. 

V. The gates, D"^"li'"\i;, '^T:j. They were at first made of wood 
and were small in size. They were constructed in the manner of 
valve doors, D'^ri'pl, and were secured by means of wooden bars. 
Subsequently they were made larger and stronger ; and in order 
to prevent their being burnt, were covered with plates of brass 
or iron, ndn: 'rci. The bars were covered in the same manner, 
in order to prevent their being cut asunder; but it was sometimes 
the case, that they were made wholly of iron, bT'^2 ^n'^'^a. The 
bars were secured by a sort of lock, P?. 107: 16. Is. 45: 2. 

340 § 276. ARMS FOR FtftHTlNG HAND TO HAND. 

§ 276. Arms, with which the Soldiers fought hand to hand. 

The arms, used in fighing hand to hand, were originally a club 
and a battle-hummer, but these weapons were but very rarely made 
use of by the Hebrews. Whether the expressions, bj'ns Ul'^J, 
mean an iroti club, Ps 2: 9, 110: 2, and ycX). Prov. 25 : 18, me ins 
the batlk-mallet or hammer, tliat was used in lighting, is a question, 
which has not yet been determined. 

Other sorts of weapons, used in close combat, were, as follows. 
I. The sword, lain. Among the Hebrews it was fastened 
around the body by a girdle, 2 Sam. 20: 8. 1 Sam, 17:39. Hence 
the phrase, " to gird one'* self'' with a sword, means to commence 
war, and '' to loose the sword,^'' to tinish it, IKgs. 20:11. The 
swords in use among the Hebrews appear to have been short; 
some of them, however, were longer than others, Jud. 3: 16, and 
some were made with two edges, ni'D, nisD^Q, Ps. 149: 6. Is. 41: 
15. Jud. 3: 16. The sword was kept in a sheath; which ac- 
counts for such expressions as S-nn p""")?! to draw the sword, Ps. 
35: 3. It was polished to such a degree, as to render it exceed- 
ingly splendid, and in reference to this circumstance is used trop- 
ically for lightning, Gen. 3: 24: Ps. 7: 12. By a figure of speech, 
also, a sword is attributed to God, which the strong imagination 
of the Hebrew poets represents, as if drunk with blood. This 
representation is carried still further, and every misfortune and 
calamity, and indeed wicked persons are represented, as the sword 
of God, which he wields for the punishment of others, Ps. 17: 13, 
.Jer. 12: 12. 47: 6. Furthermore, the word i'nn signifies, in some 
instances, war itself instead of the weapon, to which it is calcu- 
lated to give employment ; the same as it does among the Ara- 
bians, Lev. 26:6. Jer. 14:12 — 16. Compare fxaxutQu, Matt 10:34. 
II. The spear, ntth, Num. 25: 7. It was a wooden staff, sur- 
mounted with an iron point. Its length differed at different times 
and among different people. It was never shorter than eleven 
cubits, nor longer than twenty four. 


§ 277. Of Javelins. 

Javelins appear to have been of two kinds. In explanation of 
this remark, it may be observed, 

I. That the javelin, which bears in Hebrew the name of rT^irt, 
is almost always mentioned in connexion with the weapons of light- 
armed troops, Ps. 57: 4. 1 Sam. 13: 22. 18: 10. 21: 8. 22: 6. 2 
Sam. 23: 18. In first Chronicles, 12: 34, it is indeed joined with 
Irii^ the larger sort of buckler, but it is evident from (]r=t Samuel 18: 
11. 19:10. 20:33, that this weapon, whatever might have been 
its shape, and although it may have sometimes been used as a 
spear, was, nevertheless, thrown, and is, accordingly, to be ranked 
in the class of missile weapons. That D^ZJJi was a weapon of this 
kind accounts for the fact, that the epithet yO'g is joined to it, as 
follows, ^'Qj2 rT'in. 

II. That the word "JIT'S likewise means a javelin may be 
learnt from Job 39: 23, where it is joined with n"*;n. Compare 
Job 41: 29. Josh. 8 : 18, 26. 1 Sam. 17:6. The difference be- 
tween these two sorts of javelins cannot now be known any fur- 
ther than this, viz. that I'i'l'^S, as may be inferred with some prob- 
ability from Joshua 8: 18, 26, and first Samuel 17:6, was the lar- 
gest in size of the two. 

§ 278. Of the Bow, Arrow, and Quiver. 

The bow, ninuip, nirp., and arrows, C^^rn, yn, are weapons 
of a very ancient origm. Gen. 48: 22. 49-. 24. comp. Gen. 9: 14, 
15. Archers, n'lJJ?. "'ah, nUJp. ""bya, were very numerous among 
the Hebrews, especially in the tribes of Benjamin and Ep hraim, Ps. 
78:9. lChron.8:40. 2Chron. 14:8. 17:17. Weapons of this de- 
scription belonged properly to the light-armed troops, who are 
represented, as having been furnished with the sword, the buck- 
ler, and the bow, 2Chron. 17: 17. The Persian archers, who, in 
other passages, are mentioned with applause, are spoken of like- 
wise with commendation in profane history. Is. 13: 18. Jer. 49:35. 
50:9, 14,29,42. 

The bows were generally made of wood ; in a very few in- 
stances, they were made of brass, Ps. 18: 34. Job 20: 24. Those 

342 § 2*9. OF THE SLING. 

of wood, however, were so stroag, that the soldiers sometimes 
challenged one another to bend their bow. In bending the bow, 
one end of it was pressed upon the ground by the foot, the other 
end was pressed down by the left hand, and the weight of the 
body, and the string was adjusted by the right. This accounts t^or 
the use of the word ^IT, (which literally means to tread npon^) 
in reference to the bending of the how, 1 Chron, 5: 18. 8: 40. 2 
Chron. 14: 8. Is. 5: 28. 21:15. Jer. 46: 9. A bow, which was 
too slack, and which, in consequence of it, injured the person, who 
aimed it, was denominated a deceitful bow, iT'?3-^ ^^'P,- P^- '^^'' ^'^• 
IIos. 7: 16. 

The bow, in order to prevent its being injured, was carried 
in a case, made for that purpose. The strings for bows were 
made of thongs of leather, of horse hair, and of the sinews of ox- 
en, Iliad IV. 116, 124, The soldiers carried the bow on the left 
arm or shoulder. 

Arrows, 0""^.'7' ^^^^e at first made of a reed ; subsequently 
they were made from a light sort of wood, and were surmounted 
with an iron point. Whether they were sometimes dipt in poison or 
not, cannot, at any rate, be determined with much certainty 
from Job 6:4, and Deuteronomy 32: 24. They were more com- 
monly, by means of the shrub called the broom, QriT, discharged 
from the bow, while on fire, Ps. 120: 4. Job 30: 4. It is in reler- 
ence to this fact, that arrows are sometimes used tropically for 
lightnings, Deut. 32: 23, 42. Ps. 7: 13. Zech. 9: 14. 

Quivers, ''rn, were pyramidal in point of form. They were 
suspended upon the back ; so that the soldier, by extending his 
right hand over his shoulders, could draw out the arrows, the 
small part of the quiver being downward. 

§ 279. Of the Sung, JJrj?.. 

The sling, as there is ample reason for believing, may be just- 
ly reckoned among the most ancient instruments of warfare, Job 
41:28. The persons, who used slings, C^y^J?, i-'bip, were en- 
rolled among the light-armed troops. Those stingers were ac- 
counted worthy of espocial credit, who, like the Benjamites, 
were capable in slinging of using equally the right hand or the 
left, Jud 20:6. 1 Chron. 12:2. There was need of almost con- 

§281. BATTERING RAMS. 343 

stant practice, in order to secure to one, any tolerable degree of 
success, in hitting the mark, 1 Sam, 17:49. Slingers were of 
great advantage in an armj^, Diodorus Sic. L. XV. 05. 

§ 2oO. Of Engines used in War. 

Engines of war, i^n D^/jpna nijZ'tpn. Engines for warlike 
operations, which were the '' inventions of cunning men," were 
erected by king Uzziah upon the towers, and the angles of the 
walls. They were, consequently, quite ancient in their origin. 
Of these engines, there were two kinds, viz. caiapults and bal- 


The catapults were immense bows, which were bent b}'^ means 
of a machine, and which threw with great force large arrows, jav- 
elins, and even beams of wood. The ballistae^ on the other hand, 
may be denominated large slings, which were discharged likewise 
by machines, and threw stones and balls of lead. 

§ 281. Battering Rams. d'^'^S, "ibij;? "'n^a- 

Battering rams are first mentioned by Ezekiel, as being an in- 
strument of war, in use among the Chaldeans, Ezek. 4: 1, 2. 21: 
22. 26: 9. But as they were certainly not invented by them, 
they were of a still earlier date. They were long and stout 
beams, commonly of oak, the ends of which were brass, shaped 
like the head of a ram. They were at first carried on the arms 
of the soldiers, and impelled against the wall. But, subsequently, 
they were suspended by means of chains in equilibrium, and in 
that way, by the aid of the soldiers, were driven against it. While 
this operation was going on, for the purpose of breaking through 
the wall, the soldiers, who were immediately interested in it, 
were protected from the missiles of the enemy by a roof erected 
over them, which was covered with raw skins. 

344 § 283. cHAKioTs of war. 

§ 282. Respecting the Cavalry. 

We have spoken of the cavalry elsewhere, but we have a 
few I'emarks more to make here. The Maccabean princes saw, 
that cavalry were not profitable in mountainous places, and be- 
stowed their chief attention upon the inffintry, by means of which 
they achieved their victories. The Caramanians used asses in 
war, which gained some notoriety by terrifying the horses in the 
army of Cyrus, and putting them to flight, Is. 21: 7. comp. Xeno- 
phon's Cyropaedia, VII. 1. 22. 

Elephants are first mentioned, as being used in war, in the 
history of Alexander's expeditions, but afterwards they were so 
frequently and efficiently employed, as to give them much celeb- 
rity. Machines, constructed like a tower, were placed upon the 
backs of these animals, from which sometimes no less than thirty 
two soldiers fought. The foot-soldiers were stationed round, and 
defended the elephant. The one, who guided him, was called 
the Indian, as at this day, 1 Mace. 6: 37. The elephants them- 
selves also fought, at the same time, against the enemy- To ex- 
cite them to use their proboscis the more efficiently, the soldiers 
gave them an intoxicating drink of wine and myrrh, 1 Mace. 6: 34. 

& 283. Of Chariots of War. as'n, nn3'n73. 

The annoyance, which the Hebrews most dreaded, when they 
met an enemy in war, was that of chariots. Mention is made of 
chariots, as far back as any thing is said of cavalrj', Exod. 14: 6. 
14: 23 — 28 ; but they could not be used, except on the plain 
country, Deut. 20: 1. Josh. 17: 16— 18. Jud. 1: 19. 2:7. 4:3,7. 
After the time of Solomon, the Hebrews always kept such- char- 
iots, and placed great reliance upon them, 2 Chron. 1: 14. 1 Kgs. 
10: 26. 22: 32, 35. 2 Kgs. 2: 12. Chariots^, owing to their efficien- 
cy as instruments of war, are used tropically for protection and de- 
fence of the highest kind, 2 Kgs. 2: 12. 13: 14. 

Chariots of war, like all others in the ancient times, of which 
we are speaking, were supported on two wheels only, and were 
generally drawn by two horses, though sometimes by three or 
four, abreast. The coniljutant stood upright, upon the chariot. 


Xenophon mentions chariots, invented by Cyrus, from each one 
of which, twenty men could fight. They resembled towers, Cy- 
ropaed. IV. 1, 16, 17. The end of the pole of the chariot, and 
the end of the axles were armed with iron scythes, which were 
driven with vast force among the enemy, and made great 

§ 284. Sports and Exercises preparatory to War. 

In the earliest periods of the history of our race, every sol- 
dier was indebted to himself, to his own exertions, as a separate 
and independent individual, for whatever skill he might possess in 
the management of weapons of war. For the acquisition of skill, 
nevertheless, even in those early days, in the use of weapons, the 
hunting of wild beasts, which was then practised, aiforded a fa- 
vourable opportunity. But as hunting itself implied some previ- 
ous skill in the use of arms, it was necessary, that there should be 
some preparatory practice. Consult Gen. 14: 14. 32: 6. Job 16: 
12, 14. Jud. 20: 16. 1 Chron. 12: 1. 2 Sam. 2: 19. 1 Sam. 17: 50. 

That such a preparatory exercise obtained among the He- 
brews is evident from a vast number of passages. It is no other, 
than this exercise, which is expressed by the phrase lnttr!^?3 "liob 
to learn war. Those who had been trained up in this way to the 
exercise of arms, were denominated !n!'cnb73 "'I^hV instructed in war, 
1 Sam. 20: 20, 35—40. 2 Sam. 1: 22. 22V35. Is. 2: 4. Mic. 4: 3. 

§ 585. Gymnastick Sports, 

The gymnastick sports were not properly military exercises, 
but since they had a tendency to prepare youth for skill in arms 
and war, and were of a military nature in their commencement, 
we shall treat of them in this place. 

The sports and exercises of the Gymnasia had their origin 

among the Greeks, but were afterwards introduced among other 

nations. In the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, they became fa- 

V vourites with many of the Jews, 1 Mace. 1:14,15. 2 Mace. 4: 

12 — 14, and were finally introduced into Judea by Herod. 

The Gymnasia, yvf-ivaoiu, were large edifices, exhibiting in 
their construction an obioi g square, and surrounded externally 

346 § 285. GVAtNASTlCK SPORTS. 

with a porlico. The eastern part of one of Ihese piles of buildings 
was separated by a wall from the rest, and occupied more than 
half of the area, allotted for the erection, of the whole. A range 
of porticos extended round three sides of the interiour of this part 
of the GvMNASiUxM ; but the /ourt/i side was lined with a flight of 
chambers, some for bathing, some for anointing the body, and 
some to serve as wardrobes. The middle of these chambers 
was denominated iqji]!3eiov, epiiebium, [the place, where the ephebi 
or youth exercised,] by which name the whole edifice was some- 
times called. 

The AREA under the open air or tlie open court, including the 
porticos just mentioned, (one range of which, viz. that on the 
north side, was double) was denominated the palaestra, ttuXuio- 
T«a, in which were witnessed games and exercises, dancing and 
wrestling, throwing the quoit, and the combat with the caestus. 
The whole edifice was sometimes called the palaestra. 

The 'western part of the GyiMNasium was an oblong, and was 
surrounded by a portico, in which the athletae. exercised in un- 
pleasant weather. The porticos for this purpose are called 
^varot^ Xysti, from which the other parts of the building denom- 
inated CfUra, Xysta, differed in these particulars, viz.; they were 
surrounded with rows of trees, were not covered with a roof at 
the top, and were used, as places for promenadmg. 

At the end of the western part of the Gymnasium, was the sta- 
diuin. It was a large semicircle, an hundred and twenty five ge- 
ometrical paces long, and was furnished with seats, which ran 
nround it in a circuitous manner, and ascended gradually one above 
another for the accommodation of the spectators. The games, 
which wore more particularly witnessed in the stadium, were 
races on ibot, on horse back, and with chariots. 

The atjilktae, after the fourth century before Christ, went 
wholly naked, as they found the clothes, which they wore, were 
an impediment to celerity of motion. There was this exception 
merely, that those, who threw the quoit, or rode the chariot, 
wore a sort of very light garment, 1 Mace. 1: 16. lieb. \i: 1. The 
caestus, to which an allusion is made in first Corinthians 9: 26, 
was a leather strap, bound by the Athletae round the right hand 
and fingers. This strap was wide enough to receive a piece of 
iron or lead, which was rolled up in it, and was discharged, nvy- 


fisvsiv, with all the strength of the combatant as^ainst his aclvcr- 
savy. It became the one, against whom it was discharged, to be 
on the look out, and to avoid, if possible, the intended blow. 

The cHAKtoT-RACE, which was run in the stadium, and from 
which Paul, in first Corinthians 9: 24 — 27, second Timothy 4: 

7, 8, and Philippians 3: 11 14, borrows certain illustrations, 

was, as follows. Four chariots started at the same time ior 
the goal, which was at the further extremity of the stadium. 
The one, who reached it first, was the conqueror. Other com- 
petitors presented themselves, and the course was run again by 
four at a time, as in the first instance. The one, who successively 
gained the victory over all, that presented themselves, won the 
crown, which was woven of branches of various trees, and, though 
of small value in itself, was esteemed in the highest degree hon- 
ourable. A crown of this kind, (3ou(hiov, was given not only to 
those, who came off victors in the chariot race, but to those al- 
so, who succeeded in contests, whatever ihey might be, of a dif- 
ferent kind, 1 Cor. 9: 54. Phil. 3: 14. Coloss. 3: 15. 2 Tim. 4: 8. 
Wherever the victor went, he received a branch of palm, Rev. 
7: 9 ; he was robed in a splendid dress, and escorted with the 
highest honours to his city and his home. 

The exercises, in which the athletae engaged, were hj no 
means trivial, or such as could be easily gone through. It was 
necessarj', in order to secure to themselves an adequate degree 
of strength, that they should take a considerable quantity of nour- 
ishment, but their principal meal was in the evening. Their din- 
ner was small, and they were not at liberty to eat of various 
kinds of food, according to their own choice. In addition to some 
coarse bread, they were allowed ten dried figs, nuts, soft cheese, 
and herbs. Indeed it appears, that, in progress of time, they 
were furnished with meat of the ptiost nourishing sort, which was 
roasted, and eaten with coarse, Unleavened bread ; but they ab- 
stained altogether from wine, and were not permitted to have the 
slightest intercourse with the other sex, not even to look upon 

Certain regulations, in regard to the mode of conducting the 
contest, were entered into by them ; and he, who violated them, 
though he was in fact the victor, could not receive the crown. 
Accordingly, as wag indeed very necessary, there were judges of 


the games, wlio saw, that those regulations, which were made in 
respect to them, were observed, and determined, who came off 
conqueror, 2 Tim. 2: 5. 4: 8. 

As the games, in which the athletae exerted their skill and 
physical ability, were extremely popular among the Greeks and 
Romans, it is not at all surprising, that they were objects of ha- 
tred in the sight of the greater part of the Jews. It was the fact, 
nevertheless, that there existed among the Jews themselves a sort 
of game, (difleront it is true, from those of the Gymnasium,) which 
was practised in Palestine, so late as the time of Jerome, and 
of which, a vestige may still be discovered in the Arabick word, 

i<X^f^p . This game consisted in lifting a stone ; the one, who 
could lift it higher than all the rest, was the victor, Zech. 12: 3. 

Note. The theatre, which was introduced by Herod and his 
sons into Palestine, was an edifice, constructed in such a manner, 
as to describe the larger half of a circle. The games were ex- 
hibited in that part of it, where a line would have passed to en- 
close precisely a semicircle. 

J2/rt/j/u-theatres may be described by saj'ing, that they were 
two theatres united ; they were^ of course, oblong in point of form, 
and the games were exhibited in the centre of them. The seats^ 
which extended round the interiour of both Theatre and Amphi- 
theatre, ascended gradually, one above another. These edifices 
were left open at the top, except in the later periods of the Ro- 
man empire, when there \vas some change in the style of their 
architecture. In case of great heat or of rain, the opening above 
was enclose^d by means of a piece of cloth of a close texture, ex- 
tended over it. 

In Theatres of this kind, comedies and tragedies were acted ; 
■assemblies of the people were held, and ambassadours were re- 
ceived, Acts 12: 20, 19:29. Among the Ptomans, sports also of 
various kinds were exhibited. They were mostly gymnastick ex- 
ercises, but some of them in trulh were of a very bloody charac- 
ter. Since criminals, who had been condemned by the laws of 
the country, and enemies, who had been captured in war, were 
compelled to fight, till they lost their life, either with wild beasts, 
or, (in order to gratify the spectators with the mimick representa- 


tion of a battle,) with one another. Compare first Corinthians 4: 
9, and Heb. 10: 33. 

§ 286. Of Encampments, 

The art of laying out an encampment, Q^iritt, n'llll^o, 'TIjIVS, 
appears to have been well understood in Egypt, long before the 
departure of the Hebrews from that country. It was there, that 
Moses became acquainted with that mode of encamping, which, in 
the second chapter of iN^umbers, is prescribed to the Hebrews. 

In the encampment of the Israelites, to which we have alluded, 
it appears, that the Holy Tabernacle occupied the centre. In re- 
ference to this circumstance, it may be remarked, that it is the 
common practice in the East for the prince or leader of a tribe to 
have his tent pitched in the centre of the others, and it ought not 
to be forgotten, that God, whose tent or palace was the Holy Tab- 
ernacle, was the prince, the leader of the Hebrews. The tents, 
nearest to the Tabernacle, were those of the Levites, whose busi- 
ness it was to watch it, in the manner of a Pretorian guard. The 
family of Gershom pitched to the West, that of Kehulh to the 
South, that of Merari to the North. The priests occupied a po- 
sition to the East, opposite to the entrance of the Tabernacle, 
Num. I: 53. 3: 21 — 38. At some distance to the East, were the 
tribes of Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon ; on the South were those 
of Reuben, Simeon, and Gad ; to the West were Ephraim, Manas- 
seh, and Benjamin; to the North, Dan, Asher, and Naphtali. 
The people were thus divided into four divisions, three tribes to 
a division ; each of which divisions had its separate standard, 
^51. Each of the large family associations likewise, of which the 
dirt'erent tribes were composed, had a separate standard, termed, 
in contradistinction from the other, rrii* ; and every Hebrew was 
obliged to number himself with his particular division, and follow 
his appropriate standard. The Israelites, probably, in forming 
their encampment at this time, imitated the method of the Nema- 
des, and formed it in such a way, as to exhibit a circular appear- 
ance. There does not appear to be any proof, that this mode of 
encampment was especially followed, at any subsequent period. 

We learn from 2 Sam. IG: 5, et seq, that there were no senti- 
oels stationed during the night in the encampment of Saul ; which 


was done, as we learn, in other instances, in case there was any 
danger, the sentinels relieving each other at stated intervals, Jud. 
7: 19. 1 Sam. 14: 16. 26: U — 17. In respect to this point, we 
may infer, moreover, from the fact of sentinels being kept per- 
petually upon the walls of the city in subsequent periods of the 
monarchy, that they certainly were not wanting in the camps. 

Fires also were kept burning before encampments during the 
nioht. Fires of this kind were not the same thing, as some under- 
take to sa}-^, with the pillar of tire, which went before the Israel- 
ites in Arabia Petrea. See Numbers 9: 15 — 23. 

Closes gives the following regulations in respect to the en- 
campment in the wilderness, Num. 5: 1 — 4. Deut. 23: 10 — 15. 

I. That every unclean person shall live out of it. 

II. [The second regulation, to which reference is here made, 
stands in the English version, as follows.] " Thou shall have a 
paddle upon thy weapon ; and it shall be, when thou wilt ease 
thyself abroad, thou shalt dig therewith and turn back, and cover 
that, which cometh from thee. For the Lord, thy God, walketh 
in the midst of thy camp to deliver thee and to give up thine ene- 
mies before thee," &.c. y\ practice of this kind is observed to this 
day among the Ottomans. See the third Epistle of Busbeque, p. 

§ 287. Oi\ MiUTARY Marches. 

The same order was observed by the Hebrews in the wilder- 
ness, when on their march, which was practised by them, when 
forming their encampment. As soon as the cloud ascended over 
the Tabernacle, t!ie priests sounded with the silver trumpets 
ni"n::i:in. Num. 9: 15 — 23, a warning which is expressed in He- 
brew by the phrases !-;^'^"in 2:'^"in and ^i^*^-iri "j^n. 

Immediately Judah, Issachar, and Zebulon on the East set for- 
ward. At the second sound of the trumpets, Reuben, Simeon, and 
Gad on the South followed. The march was next commenced by 
the Levites, who bore the parts of the Tabernacle, and the Ark of 
the covenant. They were followed, at the third sound of the trum- 
pets, by Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin from the West, and, at 
the/owrf/(; by iJan, Asher, and Naphtali from the North, who 


broug-ht up the rear, '211. Each one followed the standard of his 
particular corps and laniily. 

When the cloud descended again, the encnnripment was formed 
in the order, mentioned in the preceding section, Num.2: 1,3, 10, 
17,18,25,31. 10:5—8,23—28. That the Hebrews could not, 
at a subsequent period, after they had settled in Palestine, observe 
the same order in their military expeditions, which Was observed 
by them, while marching" in the wilderness, is a matter so evident, 
that it hardly needs to be mentioned. 

§ 238. On Military Standards. 

Of military standards, there were, 

I. The Standard f denominated ??." Degel ; one of which pertain- 
ed to each of the four general divisions. The four standards of 
this name were large, and ornamented with colours in white, 
purple, crimson, and dark blue. The Jewish Rabbins assert, 
(founding their statement on Genesis 49:3,9, 17, 22, which in this 
case is very doubtful authority,) that the first of these standards, 
viz. that of Judah, bore a lion; the second, or that of Reuben, 
bore a man ; that of Ephraim, which was the third, displayed the 
figure of a bull; while that of Dan, which was the fourth, exhib- 
ited the representation of cherubim. They were wrought into the 
standards with embroidered work. 

II. The Standard, called niN 0th. The ensign of this name 
belonged to the separate classes of families. Perhaps it was, orig- 
inally, merely a pole or spear, to the end of which a bunch of 
leaves was fastened, or something of the kind. Subsequently, it 
may have been a shield, suspemied on the elevated point of such 
pole or spear, as was sometimes done among the Greeks and 

III. The Standard, called C3 J\''ess. This standard was not, like 
the others, borne from place to place. It appears from Num. 21: 
8, 9, that it was a long pole, fixed into the earth. A flag was 
fastened to its top, vvhich was agitated by the wind, and seen at a 
great distance, .fer. 4: U, 21. 51:2,12,27. Ezek. 27: 7. In order 
to render it visible, as far as possible, it was erected on lofty moun- 
tains, and was in this way used as a signal, to assemble soldiers. 
It no sooner made its appcaiance on such an elevated position. 

352 § 289. RESPECTING WAR. 

than the war-cry was uttered, and the trumpets were blown, Is. 5: 
26. 13:2. 18:3. 30: 17. 49:22. 62:10—13. 

Note. It has been already remarked, that the priests blew 
alarms and warnings with silver trumpets. It may further be ob- 
served, that, in very many instances, such notices were given by 
means ot horns, which were used in war likewise by many other 
nations, Jos. 6: 4, 5. Jud. 3: 27. 6:34. 7:18. 1 Sam. 13:3. 2 Sam. 
2:28. 18:16.20:1,22. Isa. 18: 3. Jer. 4: 5, 15,21. 6:1,17. 42:14. 
51:27. Hos. 5:8. 8: 1. 

§ 289. Respfxting War. 

Previously to commencing war, the heathen nations consulted 
oracles, soothsayers, necromancers, and also the lot, which was 
ascertained by shooting arrows of different colours, 1 Sam. 28: 1 — 
10. Isa. 41: 21— 24. Ezek. 25:11. The Hebrews, to whom things 
of this kind were interdicted, were in the habit, in the early part 
of their history, of inquiring of God by means of Urim and Thum- 
7ni?n, Jud. 1: 1. 20:27,28. 1 Sam. 23: 2. 28:6. 30:8. 

After the time of David, the kings who reigned in Palestine, 
consulted according to the different characters, which they sustain- 
ed, and the teeliogn, which they exercised, sometimes trtte prophets, 
and sometimes false, in respect to the issue of war, 1 Kgs. 22: 6 — 
13. 2 Kgs. 19: 2, et seq, 20, et seq. Sacrifices were also offered, 
in reference to which the soldiers were said " to consecrate them- 
selves to the TOor," Isa. 13: 3. Jer. 6: 4. 61:27. Joel 3: 9. Obad 1. 
There are instances of formal declarations of war, and, sometimes, 
of previous negotiations, 2 Kgs. 14:8. 2 Chron. 25: 27. Jud. 1 1 : 1 2 
— 28 ; but ceremonies of this kind were by no means always ob- 
served, 2 Sam. 10: 1 — 12. When the enemy made a sudden incur- 
sion, or when the war was unexpectedly commenced, the alarm 
was given to the people by messengers rapidly sent forth, by the 
sound of warlike trumpets, by standards floating on the loftiest 
places, by the clamour of many voices on the mountains, that 
echoed from summit to summit, Jud. 3: 27. 6: 34. 7: 22. 19: 29, 30. 
ISam. 11:7, 8. Isa. 5: 26. 13:2, 18:3. 30:17. 49:2. 62:10. Mil- 
itary expeditions commonly commenced in the spring, 2 Sam. 11:1, 
and were c6ntinued in the summer, but in the winter, the soldiers 


went into quarters. There is no mention made in Scripture of a 
war being settled bj a combat between two individuals. In the 
case of David and Goliath, it is true, there was a challenge and a 
combat, but there was no previous agreement between the two 
armies, which prevented the further effusion of blood. 

War is considered by the Orientals, as a judgment sent from 
heaven. It is God, who grants victory to those, who are in the 
right, but sends defeat upon those, who are in the wrong, 2 Chron. 
20:12. Isa. 66: 15, 16. This idea, viz. that God fights for the good 
against the wicked, very frequently discovers itself in the Old 
Testament, and accounts for the fact, that, not only in the He- 
brew, but also in the Arabiclr, Syriack, and Chaldaick, words, 
which originally signify justice, innocence, or uprightness, signify 
likewise victory ; and that words, whose usual meaning is injus- 
tice or wickedness, also mean defeat or overthrow. The same may 
be said in respect to words, which signify help or aid^ [for instance 
ni'^'i"^,] in as much as the nation, which conquered, received aid 
from God, and God was its helper, Ps. 7: 9. 9:9. 26: 1. 35: 24. 43: 
1. 75: 3. 76: 13. 78: 9. 82: 8. 1 Sam. 14: 45. 2 Kgs. 5: 1. Isa. 59: 17. 
Habak. 3:8. Ps.20:6. 44:5. 

§ 290. Preparations for Batti.e. 

Before battle the various kinds of arms were put in the best 
order ; the shields were anointed, and the soldiers refreshed them- 
selves by taking food, lest they should become weary and faint 
under the pressure of their labours, Jer. 46: 3, 4. Is. 21: 5. The 
soldiers, more especially the generals and kings, except when they 
wished to remain unknown, (1 Kgs. 22: 30 — 34.) were clothed in 
splendid habiliments, which are denominated, (Ps. 110:3,) '''n.^n 
*il;"ip the sacred dress. The Hebrew words for an army in battle 
array are p*;r, ^n?:^, n^'ny^, nrr'ny^. The phrase, which is us- 
ed to express the action of thus setting an army in array, is 
ri?3nb:o, ^•^'^yin; it occurs in Genesis 14: 8, and very frequently 
afterwards, but we are left in some uncertainty in respect to its 
precise import. There is evidence, however, for statmg as far as 
this, viz. that the army was probably divided into the general di- 
visions of centre, and left, and right wing, in as much, as there is 
frequent mention made of Q'^ti^'^btj, i.e. leaders of a third part. Gen. 


14: 14, 15. Jnd. 7: 16—19. Exod. 14: 7. 15: 4. 2 Kgs. 7: 2. 17: 19. 
10: 25. That the army was so arranged, as to form a phalanx of* 
some sort, there can hardly he room for a doubt. Bodies of men 
drawn up in military order, in some instances, especially if danger 
pressed hard upon them, performed very long marches. This 
was the case with the Hebrews, when they departed from Egypt, 
Exod. 1,3: 18. comp. Jos. 1: 14. 4: 12. Jud. 7: 11. While the ap- 
proaching army was at a distance, there was nothing discernible 
but a cloud of dust; as they came nearer the glittering of their 
arms could be discovered, and at length the manner, in which they 
were drawn up, might be distinctly seen, Ezek. 26: 10. Isa. 14: 31. 
Xenophon in Expedit. Cyri I. 8, 5. 

It was the duty of the priests, before the commencement of 
the battle, to exhort the Hebrews to exhibit that courage, which 
was required by the exigency of the occasion. [The words, which 
they used, were, as t'ollows. '" Hear, O Israel ; ye approach this day 
unto battle against your enemies ; let not your hearts faint ; fear not, 
and do not tremble ; neither be ye terrified^ because of them. For the 
Lord, your God, is he, that goeth with you, to fight for you against 
your enemies, to save you,''''] Deut. 20: 2, et seq. In more recent 
times, exhortations to the soldiers of this kind were given by gen- 
erals, and kings, 2 Chron. 13: 4. 20:20. In some cases, sacrifices 
were offered, either by some prophet, or by some other person, 
while he was present, 1 Sam. 13: 8 — 13. 

The last ceremony, previous to an engagement, was the sound- 
ing, ?'''nn, of the sacred trumpets by the priests, Num. 10: 9, 
10. 2 Chron. 13: 12—14. 1 Mace. 3: 54. 


The Greeks, while they were yet three or four furlongs dis- 
tant from the enemy, commenced the song of war ; something, re- 
sembling which, occurs in second Chronicles 20: 21. They then 
raised a shout, uXuXa^eiv, which was also done among the He- 
brews, vy^, >nrt nanb73 rmn, 1 Sam. 17: bi. Jos. 6: 6. Isa. 5: 
29,30. 17:12. Jer. 4:V9. 25:30. The war-shout in Judges 7: 
20, was, as follows; '"'The sword of the Lord and of Gideon,'''' 
yj"}^-,^ mh'^b -~\n. At other tioses perhaps, at least in some in- 
stanccr?, it was a mere yell or inarticulate cry. The mere march 


of armies with their weapons, chariots, and tramphng coursers, 
occasioned a great and confused noise, which is compared by the 
prophets to the roaring of the ocean, and the dashing of the moun- 
tain torrents, Isa. 17: 12, 13. 28: 2. The descriptions of battles in 
the Bible are very brief, but, although there is nothing especial- 
ly said in respect to the order, in which the battle commenced 
and was conducted, there is hardly a doubt, that the light-armed 
troops, as was the case in other nations, were the first in the en- 
gagement. The main body followed them, and, with their spears 
extended, made a rapid and impetuous movement upon the ene- 
my. Hence swiftness of foot in a soldier is mentioned, as a ground 
of great commendation, not only in Homer, but in the Bible, 2 Sam. 
2: 19—24. 1 Chron. 12: 8. Ps. 18: 33. 

It was often the case in battle, that soldier contended person- 
ally with soldier. As, in contests of such a nature, the victory 
depended on personal strength and prowess, the animosit}' of the 
combatants became very much excited, and the slaughter, in pro- 
portion to the whole number, was immense. A common stratagem 
of war among the Hebrews was that of dividing the army, and 
placing one part of it in ambush, Gen. 14: 14 — 16. Jos. 8: 12. Jud. 
20: 39. Notwithstanding it was the sentiment of the early times, 
of which we are speaking, that deception and art of any kind 
whatever, however unjust, might be lawfully employed against aa 
enemy, there is, nevertheless, no instance of such deception re- 
corded in the Bible, except the one in Genesis 34: 25 — 31, and 
which is there far from being approved of. If, in reference to 
this statement, we should be referred to the conduct of Jael, (Jud. 
4: 17 — 22.) we should leel at liberty to say, that her daring deed 
could hardly be considered a stratagem, and at the worst was only 
pursuing a wrong course amid the collision of opposite duties. 

The Hebrews, when about to attack an enemy, deemed it a 
good reason for rejoicing, if they saw a storm arising, from the 
hope, which they indulged in, that God was coming in the clouds 
to their assistance, 1 Sam. 7: 10, Jud. 5: 20,21. Jos. 10: 12 — 15. 
Habak. 3: 11. 

The attack, which is made by the Orientals in battle, always 
has been, and is, to this day, characterized for vehemence and im- 
petuosity. In case the enemy sustain an unaltered front, they re- 
treat, but it is not long before they return again, with renewed ar- 

356 § 292, ON SIEGES. 

dour. It was the practice of the Roman armies, to stand still in 
the order of hattle, and to receive the shock of their opposers. 
To this practice there are allusions in the following passages, viz. 
1 Cor. 16: 13. Gal. 5: 1. Eph. (5: 14. Phil. 1: 27. 1 Thess. 3: 8. 2 
Thess. 2:15. 

§ 292. On Sieges. 

In case an enemy threatened to attack a city, guards of vigi- 
lant and sedulous watchmen were stationed in towers, and on th« 
tops of mountains, who made known, by signs, or by messengers, 
whatever they had observed. At Jerusalem in an extremity of 
this kind, the fountains beyond the walls of the city were filled up, 
Isa. 22. 9 — 11. Cities were sometimes taken bj' sudden and vio- 
lent onsets, sometimes by stratagem, sometimes by treason, and at 
others, were reduced less expeditiously by means of famine. 
When there were no machines to assist in the siege and to break 
down the walls, it was much protracted, and under such circum- 
stances was never undertaken, except as a last resort. When a 
city was threatened, it was in the first place invited to surrender, 
Dib'iJi: ri^^Nt N-jj:, Deut. 20: 10. Isa. 36: 1—20. 37: 8—20. If the 
besieged had concluded to capitulate, the principal men of the 
city went Out to the enemy's camp, in order to effect the object. 
Hence, ''Ho go forth,'''' or '■^come out,'''' in certain connexions, mean the 
same, as to surrender by capitulation, 1 Sam. 11: 3, 10, II. 2 Kgs. 
18: 31. 24: 12. Jer. 21;9. 38: 17, 18. 1 Mace. 6: 49. 

In the most ancient ages, the enemy surrounded the city with 
a band of men, sometimes only one, at most only two or three 
deep, and effected their object by assault; hence the very com- 
mon phrases, " to encamp against a city,'''' or " to pitch against'''' and 
" to straiten it,'''' Josh. 10: 5. Jud. 9: 50. 1 Sam. 11:1. 2 Kgs. 25: 
1. Isa. 29:3. 

§ 293. CiRCUMVALLATION. TleQlTfiXOSi pl'^' 

CiRcuMVAixATioN was knowu in the time of Moses, also the 
MOUND called rtbVb, Deut. 20 : 19, 20 ; although it is not men- 

T t 

tioned again afterwards, till 2 Sam. 20: 15. 

The besiegers, when the siege promised to be of long con- 

§ 294. THE besieger's mound. 357 

tinuance, dug a ditch between themselves and the city, for their 
own security, and another parallel to it outside, so as to enclose 
their camp on both sides, and to prevent being attacked in rear, 
as well as in fi^ont. The earth, thrown out of the ditch, form- 
ed a wall, on which towers were erected. The inhabitants of 
the city shut up in this way perished by degrees, by famine, 
pestilence, and missile weapons, 2 Kgs. 25: 1. Jer. 52:4. Ezek. 4: 
2. 17:17. 2Kg3.6: 28—31. Ezek. 4: 10— 15. 5: 10—15. Jer. 32: 
24. 34: 17, 

§ 294. The Besieger's Mound. ^T^bb. 

The besiegers, in order to succeed against the walls of the city, 
when they were elevated and strong, cast up a mound of earth 
and strengthened it on both sides with beams of timber. It ran 
in an oblique direction from the lines of circumvallation towards 
the less strongly fortified parts of the city, and sometimes equal- 
led in altitude the city wall itself. The erection of this mound or 
wall is expressed by the Hebrew phrase, T^2>lrt V? Jlbbb '^^'p^ 
literally io cast up a bank against the city, 2 Sam. 20:15. 2 Kgs. 
19:32. Jer. 6: 6. 32:24. 33:4. Ezek. 4: 2. 17:17—2.3. 26:8. 
The inhabitants of the city fought against the mound with missile 
weapons ; the besiegers, on the contrary, posting themselves upon 
it, threw their weapons into the city. In the meanwhile the bat- 
tering rams were erected and made to move forward, in order to 
break down the city wall, in which case, the besiegers frequently 
erected another wall inside of the first, in doing which the}' tore 
down the contiguous houses, and employed their timbers in its 
erection, Isa. 22 : 10. Sometimes the besieged, when they had 
captivated any of the more distinguished of the assailants, scourged 
them or slew them on the walls, or sacrificed them, that they might 
intimidate their enemies, and influence them to depart, 2 Kgs. 3: 27. 
When the wall was broken through, n^na ms, Ezek. 21:27, and 
the besiegers had entered, the remainder of it, at least in a great 
degree, was thrown down, as was the case, when the city capitu- 
lated, 2 Kgs. 14:13, 2 Chron, 25 : 23, 24, The expressions, to 
draw a city zvith ropes into a valley or river^ (2 Sara, 17: 13,) is a 
proverbial boast. 


§ 295. On thfj Consequences of Victory. 

Anciently, although humanity was considered praiseworthy, 
the power of the conquerors owned no limitation ; tlocks and cat- 
tle, the fruits of the earth, fields, gardens, and houses, together 
with the idol gods of the conquered, fell into their possession. 
They sold the wives and children also, of those, whom they had 
subdued, for slaves, and razed their cities to the ground, 2 Sam. 
5:21.2Chron.25: 14. Hos. 10:5, 6. Jer. 46: 25. 48:7. The prin- 
cipal men among the conquered, the soldiers, and the artificers, 
who were employed in the construction of arms, and the erection 
of fortifications, were sent away into distant provinces. The 
conquerors, however, were not always destitute of humanity. 
In many instances they permitted the conquered kings to re- 
fain their authority, only requiring of them the promise of good 
faith, and the payment of tribute. In case the kings, who were 
thus used, rebelled, they were treated with the greatest severi- 
ty, Gen. 14 : 4. 2 Kgs. 2.3: 34. 24: 1, 14. Isa. 24: 2. Jer. 20: 5, 6. 
The soldiers, who were taken, were deprived of all their property 
and sold naked into servitude. When the city was taken by assault, 
all the men were slain ; the women and children were carried 
away prisoners, and sold at a very low price, Mich. 1: 11. Isa. 47: 
3. 20:3,4. 2 Chron. 28: 9 — 15. Ps. 44:12. 

We might, therefore, well expect the great lamentation and 
wailing, which were customary among those, who were conquer- 
ed. Those, who were able to, made their escape, Isa. 16: 1 — 6. 
.Ter. 41: 5. 43:6. Those, who could not escape, threw away their 
gold and silver, that they might be the more safe from the cruel- 
ty of the soldiers, Ezek. 7: 19. The fugitives sought for safety in 
the tops of mountains, in caves, and amid rocks ; hence God on 
account of the protection he affords is called a rock^ "l^Ji, Jud.20: 
47,48. Jer. 4:29. 16: 16. 22: 20. Ezek. 7: 7, 17. Isa. 26:4. The 
prophets sometimes represent the calamity of subjection by a 
foreign power, as a great drunkenness, which is an evil every 
where, but peculiarly so in the East. Further; as the fortune or 
destiny of man is sometimes called a cup, so i/m, (one of the most 
afllictivQ events, that could tall to the lot of man,) was denominat- 


ed the cup of reeling or staggering, !nlr>;'^r} 013, Jer. 25: 15 — 31. 
Nah. 3:11. Zech. 12:2. Ps. 75: 8. 

If the conqueror came in the capacity of a revenger of former 
injuries, he frequently cut down trees, obstructed the fountains, 
filled the cultivated fields with stones, and reduced the ground to 
a state of barrenness for many years. This mode of procedure 
was forbidden to the Hebrews by the law in Deut. 20: 19,20; 
but the prohibition was not always regarded, as appears from 1 
Chron. 20: 1. 2 Kgs. 3: 18 — 25. The captivated kings and nobles 
were bound, their eyes were put out, and their bodies mutilated, 
they were thrown upon the ground, and trodden under feet, till 
they died, Jud. 1: 6, 7. 2 Kgs. 25: 7. Josh. 10: 24. The captives 
were sometimes thrown down upon thorns, sawn asunder, or 
beaten to pieces with threshing instruments, 2 Sam. 12: 31. 1 
Chron. 20: 3. Jud. 8:7. 

Frequently old men, women and children were slaughtered, 
and thrown into heaps, 2Kgs. 8: 12. Hos. 10: 14. Isa. 13: 17, 18. 
Even " the women with child were ripped up," Isa. 13: 16 — 18. 
2 Kgs. 8: 12. Amos 1: 13. In defence of these cruelties, the aven- 
gers were unable to plead the precepts or the example of Moses, 
since the excision of the Canaanites, of which we shall hereafter 
speak, was a case of a peculiar kind, as was also the W},T] or irrevo- 
cable curse, by which, in certain cases, every living thing in the con- 
quered country was devoted to death, and property of all kinds 
was consigned to the flames, or preserved merely for the sanctu- 
ary ; by which it was required also, that the city should be level- 
led with the ground, that the site should be sowed with salt, and 
a curse pronounced upon every one, who should afterwards re- 
build it, Lev, 27:21, 28, 29. Num. 18 : 14. Deut. 13: 17. The 
object of this curse or vow, was to make an example of certain 
idolatrous nations, and thereby to deter others from involving 
themselves in the same guilt, and revolting in like manner against 

In some cases the conquered nations were merely made tribu- 
taries, 2 Sam. 8: 6. ^(Kgs. 14 :4, To be a tributary, however, was 
considered a great ignominy, and was a source of reproach to the 
idol deities of the countries, who were thus subjected, 2 Sam. 8:6. 
2 Kgs. 19: 8—13. Isa. 7: 20. Ps. 9: 20. 

The conquerors were iatoxicated with joy ; the shout of victo- 


ry resounded on their tops from mountain to mountain, Isa. 42: 11. 
5'sJ: 7, 8. Jer, 50: 2. Ezek. 7: 7. Nah. 1: 15. The whole of the 
people, not excepting the women, went out to meet the returning 
conquerors with singing and with dancing, Jud. 11:34—37. 1 
Sam. 18:6,7. Triumphal songs were uttered for the living, 
and elegies for the dead, 2 Sam. 1: 17, 18. 2 Chron; 35: 25. Jud. 5: 
1 — 31. Exod. 15: 1 — 21. Monuments in honour oi' the victory 
were erected, 2 Sam. 8: 13. Ps. 60: 1. and the arms of the enemy 
were hung up, as trophies, in the temples, 1 Sam. 31: 10. 2 Kgs. 
11: 10. The soldiers, who conducted meritoriously, were hon- 
oured with presents, and had the opportunity of entering into 
honourable matrimonial connexions, Josh. 14: 1 Sam. 17: 25. 28: 
17. 2 Sam. 18: 11. 

David instituted a separate corps or order of military men, 
viz. those, who were most renowned for their warlike deeds, 2 
Sam. 23: 8—39. 1 Chron. 11: 10—50. 

Many nations were in the habit of leaving the bodies of their 
enemies, as a prey to the wild beasts and birds, (1 Sam, 17:44. 
Jer. 25: 33.) and the feast, which was given to these destroyers, is 
represented, as having been prepared by God himself, the judge 
of nations. Frequently the lifeless bodies of men, who had been 
distinguished, were given up to their relations, 2 Sam. 2: 32. 21: 
14. Ezek. 39: 11 — 14; sometimes they were made the subjects 
of insults, 1 Sam. 31: 8. The liebrews, whether citizens at home 
or soldiers in war, whenever they came in contact with a dead 
bod}', were rendered unclean, and were obliged by the Mosaic 
law lo purify themselves, Num. 31: 19 — 24. 

§ 296. On the Severities of ancient Warfare. 

Anciently war was characterized by deeds of ferocity and cru- 
elty. The Hebrews, therefore, have a claim on our forgiveness, 
if, in some instances, they resorted to those cruel measures, which 
were univernsally prevalent in their day, in order to strike terror 
upon other nations, to deter them from coma-j'lting injuries upon 
themselves, and to secure their own tranquillity. There nre some 
things, however, in their history, which cannot be approved, 2 
Kgs. 15: 16. 2 Chron. 25: 12. Jud. 8:4— 21. 20:1—30. Still, a? 
hinted above, their severity in all instances cannot be condemned. 


for it is permitted, by the natural law of nations, to a pieople, to 
inflict as naany, and as great evils, upon an enemy, as shall be ne- 
cessary to deter others from committing the like offence. The 
prevalent state of feeling- among nations, whether it tend to kind- 
ness or to cruelty, will determine, how much is necessary to se- 
cure such an object. Nations anciently could not exhibit that hu- 
manity and forbearance in war, which are common among modern 
European nations, without running the risk of exposing themselves 
to every sort of injury. Num. 31: 14, 15. 2 Sam. 12: 31. comp. 2 
Sam. 10 : 1—5 11: 1. Amos 1: 13 2 Sam. 8: 2. comp. 2 Kgs. 3: 
27. Amos 2: 1. For the most part, however, the Hebrews were 
comparatively mild and humane, 2 Sam. 8: 2. 1 Kgs. 20: 30 — 43. 2 
Kgs.6:21— 23. 2Chron. 23:8. 

§ 297. Justice of the War against the Canaanites. 

The cause of the expulsion of the Canaanites is stated in Gen- 
esis 15: 16, to have been the corruption of morals, which prevail- 
ed among them. God took it upon himself, in his providence, to 
punish this corruption, and, in the estimation of many persons, 
employed the Hebrews, as the instruments of his justice, and gave 
to them (jus belli,) the right of carrying on the war in question. 
But while this is conceded, viz. that God designed to punish the 
moral delinquencies of the Canaanites and gave to the Hebrews 
JUS BELLI, it is still inquired, why God did not send the Hebrews 
against some other nations not less corrupt, as well as against the 
Canaanites, and why he chose to select the Hebrews, in prefer- 
ence to any other people. Something further, therefore, remains 
to be said. 

Those, who maintain, that the Hebrews attacked the Canaan- 
ites with no other right or justice, than is common to other emi- 
grating nations, who, in pursuit of new habitations, have expel- 
led the people from the land, where their ancestors had anciently 
dwelt, say in effect, that they had no right or justice on their side 
at all. What they state in further defence of their opinions, viz. 
that the sentiment prevailed during the early period in question, 
that the nation, which, with the divine favour, and approbation, 
conquered another, did it justly, proves nothing, because the very 
chapter. (Judges 11: 24,) to which thev appeal, actually anno'.jn- 
'' 46 ' 

362 § 297. JUSTICE or the wak against the canaanites. 

ces, on the p.nrt of the Israelites, a right of possession, in respect 
to the land of Canaan, altogether different, Jud. 11: 12 — 28. So 
that, though it be true, that tney were in the habit of identifying 
success with justice, and of saying, that the nation, which con- 
quered, was favoured of God and in the right, it is evident, in this 
case, they had other and more legitimate grounds for the war. 

Further, if the Hebrews had attacked the Canaanites with the 
same right, that other emigrating nations have attacked those, 
who came in their vvay, i. e. with no right at all, the^^ would not 
have spared the Edomites, Moabites, and Ammonites, nor have 
asked of the Amorites a peaceable passage over the Jordan, Num. 
20:14—22. 21:4,10—31. 22:1—35. 31:3—54. Deut. 2: 4 
— 12. IG— 37. 

The truth is, that Abraham with his servants and his flocks 
had originally occupied the pastures of Canaan, and had virtually 
declared by the welb, which he dug, and the altars he erected, 
his right to the land, and his deternjination to hold it. Gen. 19.: 5, 
6,8,9. 21:25—30. comp. 13:4,14,18. 15:7,13—21. 17:8. 
This PATRiAUCH left the soil, to be occupied after his death, not to 
Ishmael, but to Isaac ; who in turn, transmitted it to Jacobs to the 
exclusion of Esau. The Canaanites, it is true, were at that time in 
the land, (Gen. 12:6.) but they were few in number, and occupied on- 
ly a small part of it. The patriarchs, theretore, had come into a fair 
and undeniable possession of this territory', and furthermore had oc- 
cupied it, in their own persons, for two hundred and tifteen years ; 
and Jacob and his sons, when they emigrated into Egypt, were so 
far from abdicating the country, or giving up their right to it, that 
they evidently went away, with a determination to return, Gen. 
48:4,21,22. 49: 1—26. comp. 1 Chron. 7:21,24. During the 
abode of the Hebrews in Egypt, the Canaanites, who had increas- 
ed in numbers, occupied the whole of the territory, and the He- 
brews, who were thus excluded from their own soil, soon had ev- 
idence, that there was not the least prospect of their recovering 
it, except by an appeal to arms. It belonged to the Hebrews to 
make the tirst advances towards an amicable adjustment, but, as 
jhey declined it, they owed the consequences of the war, disas- 
trous, as they were, to the course vvh'-ch they themselves had pur- 
sued, Josh. 11: 19. 9: 3—26. 

§ 297. right of the israelites to palestine. 363 

Note. General view of the argument, that Palesii?^e hap 
from time immemorial been the property of hebrew herdsmen, and 


[As the propriety of Dr Jahn's conclusions in the above sec- 
tion depends essentially on the proof, which can be exhibited, that 
the Hebrews in fact originally possessed Palestine, and had not done 
anything by way of relinquishing such possession, but on the con- 
trary had in various ways asserted the continuance of their claim 
to said territorjf, it will be proper to give in this place a general 
view of the argument, which is gone into, to show that such was 
the case. The opinions of our author coincide in the main on 
this subject, with those of the ingenious writer of Coinmentaries on 
the Laws of Moses^ and it will probably answer all the purpose for 
those, by whom this translation will be read, if the statement ol 
that writer, which forms the 31st Article of his Work, should be 
here inserted.] 

['• From time immemorial, Palestine had been a land occupied by 
wandering Hebrew herdsmen, in which even Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob, had exercised the right of proprietorship, traversing it 
with herds, without being in subjection to anyone, or acknowledg- 
ing the Canaanites as their masters. The Phoenicians, or Cana- 
anites, were certainly not the original possessors of this land, but 
had at first dwelt on the Red Sea, as Herodotus relates; with 
whom Justin and Abulfeda in so far coincide, as that the former 
says, that they had another country before thny came to dwell on 
the Lake of Gennesareth, or Dead Sea ; and the latter^ that they 
first dwelt in Arabia. JMoses is so far from contradicting Herodo- 
tus here, as has been commonly believed, that he rather express- 
ly confirms his account, by twice saying in the history of Abra- 
ham, The Canaanites were then in the /anc?, Gen. 12: 6. and 13:7. 
The word then,, cannot imply that the contrary was the case in his 
own time ; for then the Canaanites fetill dwelt in Palestine, and their 
expulsion only began under his successor, Joshua : so that he 
gives us clearly to understand, that there had formerly been a 
time when they dwelt not in that land^ but somewhere else. But 
another relation which he gives in Gen.36: 20 — 30. compared with 
Dent. 2: 12,22, is still more decisive. He there describes an an- 
cient people, that before the time of Edom, had dwelt in Seir, or 


as we now call it, Idurnea, and whom, from their living in subter- 
raneous caverns, he denominates Horites, or Troglodites. Of this 
nation, was that one of Esau's wives, mentioned Gen. 36: 2, 24 ; 
*aiid as Moses elsewhere relates that Esau had three wives, two of 
Canaanitish descent, and the third a grand-daughter of Abraham, 
(Gen. 26:34, 33, and 28:8,9.) it evidently follows, that the IIo- 
rites who of old inhabited Idumea, must have been Canaanites. 
Consequent!}' the Canaanites originally dwelt in the region after- 
wards called Idumea, and on the Red Sea ; but when they began 
to carry on the commerce of the world, for which they became so 
renowned in history, they migrated into Palestine, the situation of 
which was peculiarly advantageous lor that purpose. It would 
appear, that at tirst they only established trading marts and facto- 
ries, which could not but be very acceptable to the wandering 
hordes, because they gave them an opportunity of converting 
their superfluous produce into money, and of purchasing foreign 
commodities. By degrees, they spread themselves farther into 
the country, improved the lands, planted vineyards, and at last 
dispossessed the ancient inhabitants ; just exactly as their descen- 
dent-s did at Carthage, who first asked for a hide-breadth of ground 
whereon to sit, and then by an artful explanation, got a bargain 
of as much room as was sufficient to build a city on, and in the end 
made themselves masters of the whole country. As early as 
Abraham's time, complaints were made of the herds not having 
sufficient room, from the Canaanites being then in the land, and 
crowding it. But this alwaj's went on farther and farther; and 
when the Israelites had for a tim.e gone down to Egypt, the Ca- 
naanites at last appropriated to themselves the whole country. 
This land of their forefathers, and their nation, the Israelites had 
never given up to the Canaanites ; and therefore they had a right 
to reclaim it, and to re-conquer it, by force. If they solicited 
from other nations a passage into Palestine, it was merely to come 
at their own property again: and when they passed the Jordan, 
and found the Canaanites in arms against them, the latter had no 
longer a legitimate cause to maintain, for they wanted to keep 
possession of the property of another people by force. 

"It cannot even be here objected, that the Israelites, by their 
descent into Egypt, had abandoned their right, or that they lost it 
by prescription. They went down to Egypt only for a time, on 


account of a famine ; and it was with the hope and determination 
of returning again, as the divine promise given to Jacob, Gen. 4G: 
4, confirms. I do not here inquire into, or draw any conclusion 
from, the divinity of the promise : it is sufficient for me that, 
whether true or false, Jacob gave out, that he had in a vision such 
a promise made him; because it proves the certainty of his hav- 
ing it in view, and making no secret of it, that his posterity should 
one day go back to Palestine. Whether proscription holds among 
nations, the single case excepted, where possession goes back to 
times of which history gives no certain account, and where of 
course, in default of other deductions, prescription does inter- 
fere ; and again, how long a period may be requisite to prescrip- 
tion in the law of natiire and nations, (longer, no doubt, than in 
civil law) I will not here stop to inquire; for prescription cannot 
operate at all where a people avow and maintain their rights 
with sufficient publicity ; and this was done by the Israelites. Ja- 
cob went down into Egypt with a conviction that his descendants 
should, under the divine guidance, return to Palestine; nor would 
he allow himself to be buried any where else than in his own he- 
reditary sepulchre in Palestine, exacting from his son JoFeph an 
oath for that purpose, (Gen. 47: 29 — 31.) And his burial was 
conducted with such solemnity, (Gen. 50:7 — 13.) that the people 
in Palestine could not possibly entertain a doubt of the intention 
of the Israelites to return thither at some future period. But 
were the matter considered still as somewhat doubtful, because 
Moses does not expressly mention this as the reason of Jacob's de- 
sire to be carried thither; on the occasion of the death of Joseph, 
it is placed in the clearest light. For he testities to his brethren, 
his certain hope that God would re-conduct their posterity into 
Palestine ; and therefore he desired not to be buried in Egj'^pt, 
but begged that his body might, after the ancient Egyptian man- 
ner, remain uninterred, while they continued there, and be car- 
ried with the people at their general return into the promised 
land, and laid in the sepulchre of his fivthers. Such was his anx- 
iety on these points, that he made his brethren swear that they 
would carefully attend to them ; and accordingly we find, that 
when he died, thej' did not bury him, but, as was not unusual among 
the Egyptians, let him remain embalmed in his coffin, until their 
descendants, at their departure for Palestine, carried his remains 


along with them, Gen. 50: 24 — 36. Exod. 13: 19. Couhl a people 
have given a stronger proof of their animus reve.rtendi, and that 
they had not forever abandoned their ancient country ? Was it 
necessary (I think not) that they should have sent a notary every 
thirty-threo years, to protest against the forfeiture of their rights? 
Even the Ea:vptians well knew the expectations of the Israelites 
on this head; and that was the principal reason of their oppres- 
sions towards a people that were not to remain forever within 
their country, and in subjection to them. For although from the 
lirst they did not intend to let them go, yet they were afraid, 
from the rapid increase of their numbers, that if a war took place, 
Ihey might side with the enemy, and not perhaps conquer the 
country, but depart from it;* or, as the proper expression is, go 
vp : for we must recollect, that to go from Egypt to Palestine, 
was, in the idiom of the Hebrews, to ascend; and, vice versa^ from 
Palestine to Egypt, was to descend. From the representation we 
have now given of the origin of the war, it will be easy to per- 
ceive (what to a reader of the Mosaic history must otherwise ap- 
pear at first very strange) wh}'^ Moses did not attack the Canaan- 
ites beyond Jordan ; but from Og, king of P)ashan, and Sihon, 
king of the Amorites, requested nothing more than an unmolested 
passago, and only had recourse to arms when, instead of granting 
it, they marched hastily into the wilderness to meet him, and of- 
fered him batlle. The reason was manifestly this, that the Is- 
raelites laid no claim to the country beyond Jordan, but only to the 
pasture-grounds that from time immemorial had belonged to the 
Hebrew herdsmen, and which their ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob, had actually occupied with their cattle. 

" ' But might thpy not at iea^t have left to the Canaanites those 
trading cities which had been built, without opposition from their 
ancestors?' This question is easily answered. If a foreign peo- 
ple, whom we permit to establish factories and trading cities in 
our land, shall so abuse our genero«i(y, as to dispossess us, and 
gradually appropriate to themselves our whole country ; and when 
we wish to return to our ancient abode, shall meet us with arms 
in their hands, in order to prevent it; and shall, finally, have be- 
come so extremely wicked, as to render it impossible for us to 
live with them, without having our morals cornij)ted — we certain- 
ly are under no obligation to leave to them these factories and 
^ See Exodus I : 9, 10, 


trading cities, and thereby expose ourselves anew to the risk of 
such corruption. 

" ' But were not the Israelites in duty bound first to send the 
heralds, and formally demand their lands again from the Canaan- 
ites ?' This question 1 must leave completely unanswered, partly 
because it belongs to the yet controverted point whether certain 
solemnities are or are not necessary at the commencement of a 
war, by way of declaration, and parlicularlj', because we do not 
know whether Moses and Joshua did so or not. 

" By way of conclusion, I must still take notice of two objec- 
tions, which Mr. Oepke has made to my opinion, and on which I 
have not yet touched. But because they are of more weight than 
those before noticed, 1 ought, perhaps, rather to ascribe them to 
Professor Stiebritz himself 

" In the first place, he is of opinion, ' that the Israelites 
ought not to have re-appropriated a land possessed by wandering 
herdsmen, unless all the posterity of suck herdsmen had transfer- 
red their rights to them.' But let it be remembered, that the 
question here is not concerning wandering herdsmen quite uncon- 
nected with each other, but only concerning those of Hebrew 
origin, and of these, more particularly, the ancestors of Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob : and 1 do not see wherefore such a transfer 
could have been necessary, since we must here judge not by civ- 
il, but by natural law only. If several persons have an equal ti- 
tle to a certain possession, and some of them, either from weak- 
ness or cowardice, do not make it good, and relinquish it ; anoth- 
er, who has the courage to act otherwise, does not from their pu- 
sillanimity lose a particle of his right : and if he conquers the land 
which they have abandoned, he holds, yjr*?, his own quota, by the 
right of former proprietorship ; and then, the remaining part, by 
the right of conquest; which, in the case of a legitimate war, is 
equally legitimate. The other claimants who did not support 
him, and had relinquished their rights, can make no pretensions 
to the fruit of his victories ; and the unlawful possessors, who had, 
curried on an unjust war, have it to thank for subjecting them to 
greater loss than they would probably have experienced, if they 
had yielded with a good grace. 

" in the second place, he object?, ' that I ascribe tl.e war 4o a 
cause, to which Moses himself has not referred it ; and that, as 


any people that begin a war, are anxious to convince the world of 
the justice of their cause, a reason never once urged by Moses, 
can hardly be held as the true ground of the war.' But here, I 
may very confidently reply, that Moses only gives laws for the 
war against the Canaanites, without any where mentioning the le- 
gal cause of the war: for Mr. O. himself does not account the di- 
vine commandment and promise, as its cause. Moses writes 
histories, and records laws ; but the war-manifesto against the 
Canaanites, from whence we might deduce its justice, has not 
been furnished us hy him. And as he mentions no reasons for 
the war, we are not entitled from his silence to form conclusions 
against any particular cause to which it may be ascribed. And of 
all causes, that to which I ascribe it, has the best foundation in 
the history recorded by Moses, through which history he general- 
\y paves the way for his laws. 

"I must yet add, that this farther objection has been made to 
my opinion, ' that a wandering people could hardly be consider- 
ed as proprietors of a country, in which no individual could speci- 
fy any particular ground as his own, from his always shifting his 
abode from one place to another.' I had not, indeed, considered 
it necessary to notice this objection, because the fact that a com- 
munity may possess undivided property, is so very notorious ; but 
as a learned person, who, in his writings, often refers to my Mosa- 
ic law, has lately repeated it, it becomes my duty to explain mj- 
self more fully on this point ; and my answer is this: 

" A comniunit}', and even a whole nation, may possess property 
undivided, and in common. What, indeed, is more frequent 
among ourselves, than such common properties ? Many a village 
has a common wood ; of which, not a tree, nor an inch of the 
ground, belongs to any individual villager, and yet the whole is 
their joint property ; and whoever, without full right and leave, 
carries off wood, or even fells a tree, is guilty of theft. Or again ; 
a village or a town has a common meadow, which can never be 
conveniently portioned out into individual properties ; at least no 
part of it belongs to any private person exclusively; and yet tlie 
whole, to the community at large. Did those to whom propert}^ 
in common appears such a strange matter, never hear, that in 
Gerr/iany there are many such commonages, which our modern 
improvers would fain abolish and reclaim, if they durst; where 


green pasture land, for instance, which might be used to much bet- 
ter purpose under tillage, belongs merely as a common to one or 
more villages. The disadvantage of the present system, is uni- 
versally understood ; and the allotment of such lands to par- 
ticular tenants is much to be desired : but then the cry is, 
that communities are not to be deprived of their ancient rights. 
Even the corn fields are in the same situation, in so far as they 
may not be fenced, and must lie fallow at certain times, and after 
harvest be subjected to the servitude of having the herds driven 
to pasture upon them, from perhaps a community of many villa- 
ges, where even those who have not a foot of ground of thoir own, 
can assert a right to this privilege, from the mere circumstance of 
occupying a house. This too is justly considered as extremely 
prejudicial to the public good, not merely by individual cecono- 
mists, but, in some countries, even by the legislative authorities, 
and the wish to alter it is very general ; but it cannot be done, for, 
it is said as before. No man is to be deprived of his right. 

" But even a whole nation may, in like manner, have a common 
undivided property. Thus whole nations, by particular treaties, 
enjoy the right of certain fisheries, such as that of Newfoundland, 
without this property being actually divided, or even possibly di- 
visible among individual fishermen. Thus also the Indians in 
North America, possess their immense forests undivided, as wan- 
dering hunters ; and, have justly made great complaints, when at 
any time the English or French colonists have attempted to clear 
and cultivate those forests, without previously purchasing them, 
which is generally done for a mere trifle. I remember to have 
read a great many years ago, in an English journal, (either the 
London or Gentleman's Magazine,) the speech of an Indian chief, 
which he made in a congress of the Indians with the English, and 
in which he represented the injustice of this, in a very rational and 
affecting manner ; observing, that those forests which the Great 
Spirit had of old given to the Indians, and in which they had al- 
ways lived, were now by some of the English daily more and more 
circumscribed, so that in the end they would have no dwelling 
place left them. I cannot recollect the particular place where I 
found that speech ; but allowing it had been entirely fictitious, 
(which it by no means seemed to be, as it bore all the marks of 
truth,) it is very certain that the English governments in America 


do recognize the rights of the Indians. Indeed, the first colonists, 
who, for conscience-sake and religion, emigrated from England, 
took no land without leave of the Indians, and if afterwards, peo- 
ple less conscientious, snch as transported criminals, whom the 
Americans will now no longer receive, were sent out, and, taking 
forcible possession of the woods, began to clear and improve 
them, (which actually gave rise to wars.) this was absolutely for- 
bidden by the British government ; and those settlers, who wished 
to'penetrate info the woods and form plantations, were, and are 
obliged either to purchase the ground from the Indians, or come 
to terms with them in some other way. 

" By the same common right, have many great peoples always 
possessed their lands, and still possess them ; as for instance, the 
present Mongul tribes, who live by breeding horses. Their soil 
is extremely rich, and susceptible of the highest cultivation : the 
grass grows to an uncommon height in the fields ; but the whole 
country belongs to the people at large as a common pasturage : 
and against strangers who should attempt to seize or pasture it, 
or circumscribe it by cultivation, they would unite to defend their 
right to it with all their might ; just as our Teutonic ancestors 
defended their forests as public property, against the Romans. I 
should, therefore, think, that until a new code of natural and civil 
law shall be devised, and as long as we must, on account of com- 
mon possessions, abide by the old, objections like the present can 
Lave no force." Commentaries on the Laws of Moses, Art. 31.] 

§ 298. On thl; Division of the Spoils. 

I'he spoils of the enemifs army., "^b'ij, f3, were divided among 
the victorious soldiers. They were the reward of the toils, which 
they had endured, and were, consequently, the cause, wherever 
they were won, of the most marked indications of joy. Gen. 49: 
27. Exod. 16:9. Jud. 5: 30. Is. 9: 2, 3. Ezek. 29 : 18— 20. Ps. 
119: 162. There seems to have been a propriety in making such 
a division of the property taken, for the soldiers anciently, with 
the exception of the officers, and the life-guard of the commander, 
did not receive wages. They either paid their own expenses 
themselves, or were supported by their parents, Jud. 20: 10. 2 
•Sam. 17; 17 — 20. The Hebrew kings, however, in a subsequent 


age, laid up provisions for the use of the soldiers ag-ainst a time 
ofwar, inthe cities called store-cities, ni;5D^ '^'~>pt 2Chron. 17: 
17. 32: 28. 

Hired soldiers, (probably in imitation of the Phenicians, Ezek. 
27: 11,) are mentioned in 2 Sara. 10: 6, and also in 2 Chron. 25 : 
6 — 9; but such participated in the spoils, as well as others, for 
the money paid appears not to have been paid to the soldiers 
themselves, but to the king or prince, of whom they were hired. 

The soldiers under the Persian monarchy received a regular 
stipend, but they had a portion also in the spoils, which was an 
additional reward. 

The Maccabees, in imitation of the Greeks, allowed wages to 
their soldiers, 1 Mace. 14:32. Hence, it is not at all surprising, 
that we find the wages of a soldier frequently mentioned in the 
New Testament, and sometimes tropically, Luke 3: 14. Rom. 6; 
23. 1 Cor. 9: 7. 2 Cor. 11:8. 2 Tim. 2: 4. 

The spoils consisted not only of property in goods, but of men, 
women, and children; all of whom, if they had been the inhabi- 
tants of cities, that were taken by assault, were sold into slavery, 
Gen. 14: 11, 12. The Hebrew soldiers were at liberty, (JSTum. 
31: 48 — 54,) to appropriate to themselves whatever spoils they 
might win, with the exception of flocks and men. Articles of 
great value were sometimes claimed by the leader of the expedi- 
tion, Jud. 8: 24, 25; a practice, which David himself imitated, and 
by means of which, "he was enabled to collect the treasures, which 
were subsequently employed in the ei-ection of the Temple, 2 Sam. 
8:11,12. 12:30. 2 Chron. 2{j: 14— 19. When the spoil was di- 
vided, the flocks and the captives were assembled together, and 
when they had been numbered, were divided into two parts, one 
of which was given to the soldiers, who had remained at home, 
and who were obliged to give the fiftieth part of it to the Levites; 
the other half was given to the soldiers, who had been actually 
engaged, and who on their part, were obliged to give only the 
five hundreth part to. the priests. Compare Genesis 14: 20. The 
division of the property taken among the soldiers was equal, 
whether they had been in battle, or merely guarded the encamp- 
ment, and baggage, 1 Sam. 30 : 20 — 25. In order to render 
the distribution equal, the flocks, cattle, and prisoners appear to 
have been publickly sold, and a distribution made of the money. 

372 § 299. SPOILS taken' from the Egyptians. 

In case, however, the city was so unfortunate, as to be sub- 
jected to the D"in or the curse, the soldiers were not at liberty to 
take possession of the spoils, which it offered, and every thing, 
generally speaking-, was destroyed, Deut. 2: 34. 3:7. Num. 21:9. 
Lev. 27:28. Josh. 6: 24— 26. 8:26—28. 10:28—30. 11:11. 

§ 299. Respecting the Spoils, which the Hebf.ews took away from 
THE Egyptians. 

It was a principle among nations anciently, that a people, after 
the commencment of a war, could fairly make plunder of the 
property, which had been dej)0sited or left among them in any 
way whatever, previously to the war's breaking out. In accordance 
with this right, the precious vases and garments, &;c. which were 
I'orrowed by the Hebrews from the Egyptians, as mentioned ia 
Exodus 3: 22. 11:2, became, when Pharaoh commenced war up- 
on them by pursuing with his army, legal spoil. 

An objection to this view of the subject arises from the fact, 
that God him!!elf commanded the Hebrews through Moses, to bor- 
row the articles, and that the Egyptians evidently lent them 
with the expectation of their being returned, and would not other- 
wise have done it. But it is, nevertheless, the fact likewise, that 
the Hebrews had as much expectation of returning said articles, 
as the Egyptians had, that they would ; for it is altogether out of the 
question to suppose, that they had any knowledge of the commu- 
nications, which, in Exodus 3: 22, passed between God and Moses 
on the subject. The transaction was clearly an event in divine 
Providence, for the propriety of which infinite v/isdom is a suffi- 
cient guarantee, which was designed to place those articles in 
the hands of the Hebrews, as a compensation, (and certainly not 
too large a one,) for the houses, which they left. Supposing it, 
then, to be the case, that they were borrowed with the expectation 
of being returned, no blame certainly can be attached to the He- 
brews for the detention of them, since they were driven away by 
such a decided and sudden act of hostility, that it was not in their 
power to do otherwise. 

The word ]:^Z literally to plunder or rob, which in Exodus 3: 
22, is used in reference to this subject, appears to be employed 
tropically^ and out of its usual signification. 


Note. [The above section is rather unskilfully abridged in 
the original, so much so, that it would be difficult for a person, from 
a literal translation of it, as it there stands, to obtain any thing 
like an adequate idea of our author's opinions on the subject 
in question. Something, therefore, has been added to it, from 
the original German, and from Michaelis, who is there refer- 
red to by Dr Jahn, as his authority on this subject. For a full 
and ingenious discussion of it, the reader would do well to consult 
Smith's Translation of the Commentaries on the Laws of Moses, 
Vol. ill. Art. 179.] 

§ 300. Periods, when there was a Cessation from Hostilities. 

It was anciently the practice among the Arabs, who, it may 
be observed, inherited a near relationship to the Hebrews, to con- 
sider four months of the year sacred; during which they made it 
a point of duty to abstain from the exercise of arms. A practice 
of a similar nature appears to have prevailed among the Moab- 
ites. Ammonites, and Edomites, and likewise among other nations. 

Perhaps this practice will enable us to explain, how it happen- 
ed, that the Hebrew territories remained free from invasions, 
while all the adult males three times every year went to the Ta- 
bernacle or the Temple, without leaving in their cities and villa- 
ges any guard to protect them from foreign incursions, and that 
there appears in no instances to have been any hostile attack 
made upon them at such times. It is true, that we find in Exodus 
34: 24, that security from hostile invasions was promised to the 
Hebrews, when they had occasion, on the return of their solemn 
festivals, to appear in the presence of the Lord ; but it is, never- 
theless, clear, that a promise of this kind could not have been ful- 
filled to a people, who thus lived in the heart of unfriendly na- 
tions, except by the intervention of constant miracles ; unless 
there had been a practice of the kind here mentioned, which caus- 
ed among them during certain periods a suspension of the arts of 

The same remark might have been made in respect to the sab' 
6a^/j, if it had been the fact, that the ancient Hebrews reckoned 
the use of arms, among those labours, which were interdicted on 
that day ; but their extreme scrupulosity in this respect, and 


their determination to adhere to the letter of the Law do not ap- 
pear to have existed, till after the Captivity. Indeed even at 
this period, they soon had occasion to perceive, that to defend 
themselves against the insults of their enemies might be justly 
done, even on the sabbath, 1 Mace. 3: 39 — 42 ; but the restric- 
tions, notwithstanding this, which they continued to impose upon 
themselves, occasioned inconveniences, of which we have no ex- 
amples in the earlier periods of their history. 



;A€miB Asr^a^s^wi^i: 




§ 301. Religion down to the Deluge. 

Our first parents, who were infants in point of knowledge, 
although they were introduced into the world, without being such 
in respect to form, were instructed by God himself. They were 
taught in the knowledge of the creator and governour of all things, 
and were likewise subjected to a course of moral discipline by 
the interdiction, which was made in respect to the tree of good 
and evil. The object of this interdiction was to introduce the hu- 
man mind to an acquaintance with what was right, and what was 
wrong, what was good, and what evil. Hence the name of 
the tree, s^^ aitD nS'l, viz. of good and evil, i. e. according to the 
spirit of the Hebrew idiom, of moral distinctions, Gen. 2: 8 — 20. 
Isa, 7: 15. Hence two points were established in the religion of 
our first parents, the one, that God is supreme, and that all things 
arose from, and are dependent upon him ; the other^ that some 
things are right, and others wrong, and that those things are to be 
done, which are agreeable to God, and those things to be avoided, 
which are displeasing to him. 

The punishment, which followed the eating of the interdicted 
fruit, remained a perpetual monitor, that misery is the conse- 
quence of the commission of those things, which are not accepta- 
ble in the divine sight, and that such things, consequentl}', are not 
to be done. Comp. Gen. 5: 29. The example of Cain also, who 
slew his brother, his banishment and his misery, were a standing 
testimony in the eyes of the whole world, that wickedness is hate- 
ful to God, and ought to be and will be punished. In the progress 


of time, when many crimes received no visible punishment, the 
divine commands became neglected, the powerful oppressed the 
weak and the poor, and there was a general prevalence of levity 
and sensuality. The earth was filled with violence and slaughter. 
About the year 235 after the creation, wickedness was carried 
to such an extent^ that the religions thought it necessary to attach 
to themselves, the title of so«5 or vjorshippers of God, in contradis- 
tinction from the sons of men, or those, who had forgotten God, 
and were hurried by the impulse of corrupt passions to every sort 
of wickedness. The prevalent evils were increased from the cir- 
cumstance, that the sons or worshippers of God married the daugh- 
ters of men, or the irreligious. Wives of this description neglected 
the right instruction of their children, and, as this devolved on 
them, rather than on the lathers, the offspring followed the for- 
mer, rather than the latter. Gen. 4: 26. 6: 1. In this way corrup- 
tion increased and prevailed to such a degree, that the warnings 
of God, which were uttered by the spirit of prophecy, were with- 
out any avail, Gen. 6: 3. The Deluge followed, in consequence of 
this state of things. 

§ 302. From the Deluge to Abraham. 

This terrible destruction of every living thing was predicted 
120 years before its consummation. Gen, 6: 3. So that the fami- 
ly of Noah might know, that it was sent from God, and that the 
object of it was, to leave by such a signal event, a long to be re- 
membered impression, that God is the governour of all things, to 
whom the vices of men are abhorrent, and that, however long-suf- 
fering, he will at length punish the wicked. A command was 
given by God, after the Deluge, that every homicide should be 
punished with death, and a promise also, that the deluge should no 
more return. He made the rainbow a visible sign of his promise, 
and a confirmation of it. 

The posterity of Noah laid up in their minds the principles 
and instructions, which have been mentioned; and when they af- 
terwards attempted to build a tower, and were baffled and scatter- 
ed from each other, they easily gathered from the event, that the 
proceeding was displeasing to God. They appear to have re- 
proved Nimrod for making a similar attempt, and, in allusion to 


his conduct, called him*ih;o:, or t1iere6f/, find mnde his momory a 
proverb, saying, '■'■ Even as jViinrod^ the exceedingly tiiighty hunter.''' 
At a later period still, men, being still uncultivated, unable to 
direct themselves, and governed by the promptings of imagina- 
tion, attributed a superiour and sublimer energy to various objects, 
and began to expect assistance from them. Thus rocks, trees, an- 
imals, winds, rivers, the sun, moon, stars, dead men, &c. were con- 
verted into divinities. Then came sculptured images, altars, and 
temples. At first they worshipped God, as the ruler of all things, 
at the same lime, that they worshipped idols ; but soon God was 
forgotten, and they adored the latter alone. These I'alse divini- 
ties demanded no morality in their conduct, and both principles 
and conduct grew worse and worse. The greatest crimes were 
committed, as if of little moment, and were even made apart of 
the worship of their gods. 

§ 303. Adraham, Isaac, and Jacob. 

The corruption, which has been described in the preceding 
section, continued to spread itself wider and wider, till God gave 
a peculiar sailing to Abraham, whose ancestors had from the be- 
ginning sustained during a long period a character for moral in- 
tegrity and religion. Gen. 5: 1 — 32. 11: 10—32 ; but had at length 
become idolatrous, Jos. 24: 3, 

It was designed in the Providence of God, that Abraham, the 
Chaldean, and his posterity should preserve and transmit his relig- 
ion, till that period, when it should be communicated to other na- 
tions. In order to secure these objects, God promised to Abra- 
ham, who was a descendant from Shera of the tenth generation, 
his protection, an ample progeny, possession of the land of Caanan; 
and that all nations should at last be blessed through his seed, 
i. e. should receive the true religion, Gen. 12: 13. 18: 18. 22: 18. 
He coupled these promises with tlie names of Abraham and Sa- 
rah, which were altered with a reference to them, and connected, 
with the rite of circumcision, the obligation to protect religion, 
Gen. 18: 19 ; so that the names and the lite might be perpetua,! 
testimonies both of the promises in its favour, and the obligations 
to defend it. 

God afterwards repeated the same promises to Isaac and Jacob, 


Gen. 26: 4. 28: 14, who faithfully performed their rarious duties, 
taug-ht the true worship of God to their domesticks, and left it to 
their posterity, Gen. 28: 20— 22. 35:2—7.9—13. 39:9. 50:17 

Xbese promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the fulfil- 
ment of the corresponding duties on their part, form the promi- 
nent and fundamental principle, the hinge, as it were, of the ancient 
covenant; and to them, accordingly, every thing, which follows 
after, is to be referred, and with them also the new covenant it- 
self is very intimately connected. 

§ 304. Respecting the Religion of the Patriarchs. 

It appears from what has been hitherto stated, that the knowl- 
edge of the one true God^ which is coeval with the existence of the 
human race, was originally communicated by revelation. The pa- 
triarchs themselves knew God to be the creator, governour, and 
judge of the whole earth, not by reasoning from philosophical 
principles, which were then wholly unknown, but because God 
had revealed himself, as such, to them. The ideas of men in re- 
spect to God, which were at first very limited, became extended, 
in the progress of time, by events both ordinary and extraordina- 
ry, it is worthy of remark, that the figure anthropopathy was. 
very prevalent at the early period, of which we are speaking, 
and that men used the same language in respect to God, which 
they employed when speaking of one another; but there was 
truth, nevertheless, hidden under the garb of such expressions, 
Gen. C: 6, 7. 8:21. 11:5—7. 18:10—21. 

The worship of God was very unconstrained, such as was 
prompted by conscience and approved by reason, and consisted 
chiefly in tythes and vows and prayers, in the erection of altars 
and in sacrifices. Gen. 4: 3, 4. 8:20. 12:7,8. 13:4,18. 14:20.16: 
1 8—20 . etc. 

With respect to the consecration of the sabbalh, it may be ob- 
served, there is no trace of it, any further than this, viz. that a pe- 
riod of seven days occurs a number of times. Gen. 7: 4, 10. 8: 10, 
12; likewise the word i;:i2Ty, the Hebrew for week, Gen. 29:27. 

It may be inferred from these circumstances, that the seventh 
day was distinguished in some way or other from other days, as is 


represented to be the case in Genesis 2: 2. Many traces of mor- 
al discipline occur, Gen. 4: 6— 16. 6:3—8. 11:4—6. 13:8.14: 
14 — 24. 18: 19. We must not suppose, however, that nothing 
more of God, and of moral discipline, was known by these pious 
patriarchs, than is given in the historical fragments of Genesis. 
For those things only appear to have been selected for insertion, 
which, more than any others, had a tendency to prepare the way 
for the introduction of the Mosaic dispensation. 

, § 305. Respecting Moses. 

Very many of the Hebrews were addicted to the worship of 
the Egyptian gods, at the time that Moses was sent in the charac- 
ter of a divine messenger, to break the chains of their servitude, 
Exod. 3: 13. To rescue the Hebrews from their bondage, who 
were destined to be the defenders of the true religion, and to 
bring them back to that worship, which they had lost, while in 
Egypt, gave occasion for the most surprising miracles ; miracles^ 
which not only compelled Pharaoh to dismiss the Hebrews, and 
brought destruction upon his army, when he pursued them ; but 
were also a new and overwhelming proof to the Hebrews them- 
selves, that there is indeed a God^ all powerful and omniscient^ and 
that Moses, by whom these wonderful works had been predicted 
and performed, was, in truth his messenger, Exod. 6: 7. 7:5. 9: 
14—16,29. 10:2. 14: 4,17—18,31. 16:12. 19:4,9. Deut. 4: 
35, 39. It was at the same time shown by the miracles, of which 
we are speaking, that the Egyptian gods, being altogether unable 
to protect their votaries, were destitute of power, and, in a word, 
were nothing, Exod. 12: 12. But the Hebrews, after all, if they 
had not afterwards, when in Arabia, been confirmed by new mira- 
cles in the belief of the divine omniscience and omnipotence, 
would not have persevered in the worship of the true God, and 
would not have received those ceremonies and Laws, without 
which, surrounded as they were by nations, who regarded idola- 
try, as conformable to right reason, they could not have succeed- 
ed in maintaining their religious integrity. This is clear from the 
fact, that, after all the instructions they had received, and after 
all the laws, which were enacted, they went so often back to va- 
rious superstitions. 

382 § 30G. OPINIONS of moses in respect 

Note, Those, who attribute the miracles of Bloses to leger- 
demain, and undertake to rank them in the same class with the 
tricks ofjiig-glers, also those, who contend that the accounts of 
them are fabulous, and are to be placed on the same footing with 
the wonders of profane mjthology, can neither reconcile the 
ground, which they take, with the departure of the Hebrews from 
Egypt, nor with their subsequent history, nor with the origin of the 
notion of a God, as it appears in their early writings. The exodus, 
the subsequent history, and their ideas in respect to God, all bear 
testimony, that the miracles were actually performed. Compare the 
large German Edition of this work, P. III. § 12. notk and § 13. 

§ 306. On the question, " whether Moses taught the existence 
of a merely national god ?'' 

That the God of Moses was something more than the tutelary 
or national God of the Hebrews, is clear from so many passages 
of scripture, it is wonderful, any should have adopted a contrary 
opinion. For he calls him by the name Jehovah, who created 
heaven and earth, Gen. 1: Exod. 20: 8—12. 31: 17. Deut. 4: 23, 
and who sent the deluge, Gen. 6: 17. He is addressed by Abra- 
ham and Melchisedek as the most high, the Lord of heaven and 
earth. Gen. 11:18—20. 17: 1. 18: 16—25. He is acknowledged 
by Joseph to be the all-wise governour of the universe. Gen. 39: 9. 
45:5,8. 50:20. He calls himself Jehovah, who is always the 
same, Exod. 6: 3 ; who both predicted, and performed those won- 
derful works in Egypt and Arabia, which proved him to be omni- 
scient omnipotent, Deut. 4:32 — 36. 10:21. Exod. 6: 7. 7:5. 
10: 1, 2. 16: 12. 29: 46 ; who is the author of every living thing, 
Num. 16: 22. 27: 16 ; who is invisible, (for the descriptions, which 
represent him as appearing at times in a bodily form, are symbolick,) 
Exod. 33: 18—23. Deut. 4: 12—20, 39 ; who is the Lord of heaven 
and earth, and every thing in them, and the friend of strangers, as 
well as of the Hebrews, Deut. 10: 14 — 18. Besides him there is 
no other God, Deut. 4: 39. 6:4. 32: 39. Moses every where ex- 
hibits him, as the omnipotent, the ruler of all men, who cannot be 
corrupted by gifts and sacrifices, but who is kind and merciful to the 
penitent. He teaches, that he is the true God, who is worthy of 
being honoured by the Hebrews, uot only because He alone is 


God, but because he had promised great mercies to the Patriarchs 
and their posterity, and had already bestowed them in part ; be- 
cause He led them out of Egypt, had furnished tliem with laws, 
would soon introduce them into Canaan, and protect them through 
future ages ; finali}', because they had chosen God for their king. 
The whole object of the Mosaic ritual was to preserve the wor- 
ship of God, as the creator and governour of all, till the time when 
the true religion should be made known to the rest of the world, 
for which grand end it had been originally committed to Abra- 
ham and his posterity, Gen. 17:9 — 14. 18: 19. 

§ 307. On the question, " Whether the character of Jehovah, 
as represented by moses, is merely that of a being inexora- 

That God is often represented by Moses, as a just judge, who 
punishes with no little severity those, who are wicked, is not at 
all to be wondered at. The inconstant, stiiT-necked, and intracta- 
ble people, whom he had to deal with, could not be restrained 
from vices, nor be brought in subjection to the Laws, without 
holding up such a representation. Such a representation was the 
more necessary, because Jehovah was not only the God, but in a 
strict sense the king of the Jews; on whom it fell, consequently, 
(in order to render due protection to the good,) to condemn trans- 
gressors, and to make them objects of punishment. Had it been 
oihcrxaise, had he not defended the good from the attacks of the 
bad, or had pardon been given to the guilty, all his laws would 
have been in vain. Still, although what has now been said be 
true, the statement, which some have made, viz. that Moses has 
made God an inexorable Judge, and that only, is utterly false. 

The original promises to the Patriarchs, which were so often 
repeated to their descendants, the liberation from Egyptian servi- 
tude, the laws, enacted in the wilderness, the entrance, that was 
granted to the Hebrews into the land of Canaan, are deeds of 
kindness, which prove the beneficence of God, Deut. 7: 6 — 9. 8: 
2 — 20. 9: 4 — 8: 10: 1 — 11. Hence it is often inculcated upon the 
Hebrews to exhibit gratitude towards God; and the fact also, that 
they are expressly commanded to love God, is at least an implied ad- 
misjrion of his kindness and beneficence, Deut. 6: 4, 5. 11: 12, 15,22. 


Moses calls God the father of his people, the merciful, the clement, 
the benign, the faithful Jehovah, who exhibits throug-h a thousand 
generations the love of a parent to his good and faithful follow- 
ers, who forgives iniquity and transgression, but to whose mercy, 
nevertheless, there are limits, and who visits the sins of the fa- 
thers on the posterity to the third and fourth generation, Deut. 8: 

5. 32:6. Exod.34:6, 7. Num.14: 18. Deut. 7: 9, 10. 

The infliction of punishments even to the fourth generation, 
(i. e. by means of publick calamities, the consequences of which 
would be experienced even by posterity,) a principle, which 
makes its appearance even in the fundamental laws, Exod. 20: 5, 

6, has given offence to many, who are either unable or unwilling 
to perceive, that the prospect of misery falling on their posteri- 
ty, could be a real source of punishment to the parents, who, it 
may observed, were in that age, particularly solicitous about the 
well-being of their descendants. We learn, nevertheless, from 
other places and other considerations, that the punishments, which 
were due to the fathers, were not so much designed to be inflicted 
in truth on their posterit}^, as to remain to them warnings^ that if 
they trod in their fathers' footsteps, they would expose themselves 
to the same evil and fearful consequences, and that, when they 
had done evil, their only course was to repent. That such 
would be the case, the deep and serious evils of the Babylonish 
Captivity gave them so clear a proof, as to preclude all subse- 
quent doubts on the subjects ; they repented of their evil ways, 
and, as Moses himself had predicted, became at length the con- 
stant worshippers of God, Lev. 26: 20—25. Deut. 4: 28—31. 30: 

§ 308. Respecting the Regulations, which were made in order to 


That the Hebrews, who, while in Egypt, had to a great extent 
worshipped idols, and had with much difficulty, and not without 
the aid of striking miracles, been at length restored to the true 
worship, might thereafter remain firm, nor he easily led 
astray by the example of neighbouring nations, God offered him- 
self to them, as their King. (See the two hundred and fourteenth 
section.) As such he was accepted ; and hence it happened, that 


the obedience, which they rendered him as king, became identiti- 
ed in a manner with the reverence, to which he had a right, as 
God, and that while they yielded the former, they would not be 
likely to withhold the latter. 

This theocratical feature in the form of the commonwealth, by 
means of which the people were so often reminded, that the laws 
of their King were no other than the laws of God, of course per- 
petually recalled the true God to their minds. The rigid obser- 
vation also of the sabbath, of the feast of Pentecost after the seven 
weeks of the harvest, of the sevenih or sabbatick year, of the year 
of Jubilee after seven sabbatick years, were all of them symbolick 
acknowledgments of God, as the creator and governour of all 
things. The Passover likewise, and the feast of tabernacles vividly 
recalled to their memory the fact, that the creating God had been 
their deliverer from the Egyptians, and their guide through Ara- 
bia. And when on the feast of tabernacles and of Pentecost, they 
were called upon to render thanks for ihe fruits, they had receiv- 
ed, they were taught, that these also were to be referred to the 
creating power and the goodness of God. 

That their minds might be accustomed to the fact of God's in- 
visibility, that they might have no disposition to attach any effica- 
cy to idols, and that all temptation to believe in a plurality of Gods 
miglit be avoided, any images, which were intended, as a bodily 
or visible representation of the divine Being, were absolutely pro- 
hibited. The erection of a Tabernacle alone was permitted; and 
to this there could clearly be no objection, since it did not admit 
of an APOTHEOSIS. But^ in order to prevent any superstitious rites 
from introducing themselves into this sacred place, all the ceremo- 
nies were prescribed by law. It was commanded, that all the sa- 
crifices should be offered on one altar ; this, with the reciprocal 
inspection, that was exercised over each other by Priests and 
Levites, would have an influence to prevent the introduction of 
any practices, which might have a tendency to pave the way for 
idolatry. It was sedulously inculcated on parents, that, on every 
occasion, especially at the return of the national festivals, and 
when performing the ceremonies prescribed by the Law, they 
should instruct their children, both in the religion, and the history 
of their nation. From the fear, that their instructions might, 
through ignorance or from a failure of memory, be, in some re- 


specls, erroneous, provision was made, that the book of the Law 
should be publickly read once every seven years in the Taberna- 
cle ; on which occasion, not only parents could correct the er- 
rours, which they might have cherished, but the children also 
could determine, whether the instructions they had received, were 
coincident with the truth. 

To sum up what we have further to say in a word; we ob- 
serve that the naines^ which were applied to the supreme Being, 
viz. Jehovah, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; that their 
residence in the land of Canaan, that one sacred tabernacle, one 
high priest, one t'amily of priests, one tribe of Levites ; that even 
the tithes and sacrifices, the redemption of the first born, the sys- 
tem of impurities and purifications, and other things, which were 
prescribed in the Law, perpetually admonished the Hebrews, that 
God was the sole ruler of all things, even that God, who had 
brought them out from Egypt into the land of their present re- 
sidence, and had commanded all these things to be observed. 

Compare particularly Deuteronomy 26: 1 — 11, and Exodus 10: 
1, 2. 12:25—28. 13:4—16. 

The Hebrews were commanded, moreover, to commit to mem- 
ory the song recorded in the 32d of Deuteronomy, that it might 
be a perpetual monitor of their duty, and in case they failed in 
duty, of the consequences, which would follow. 

§ 309. On the moral tendency of the instructions and institu- 
tions OF Moses. 

When we remember, that RIoses prefixed to those instructions, 
and Laws, and the ritual, of which he may be considered espe- 
cially the author, the Book of Genesis, which is. so abundant in 
instances of moral discipline, we shall be justified in expecting to 
find, that what has been termed " the Mosaic religion,'''' will not 
be deficient in respect to its moral tendency. Our expectations 
are by no means disappointed. 

We are every where taught in the Laws of Moses, that God is 
the creator and governonr of the universe, to whom all men owe 
obedience and gratitude. We find, moreover, that he in particu- 
lar teaches his countrymen, the Hebrews, that they were bound 
to devote themselves to God by obligations, which were multipli- 


ed and peculiar ; since they had received from him such distin- 
guished favours, and the promise of others at a future period, 
Exod.20:2. Lev. 11:45. 25:38. Deut. 4: 32— 40. 5: 24— 28. 6: 
12,13,20—25. 7:6—11. 8:1—6,10—18.9:4,5. 10:12. 11:1. 
26: 1 — 10. 32:6. They are. accordingly, commanded to love 
God, with all the heart and mind and strength, not only as the 
governour of the universe, and the benefactor, in numberless 
ways, of all mankind, but to love him also, as their own especial 
deliverer and friend. And, as the result of such gratitude and love, 
they are required to obey his laws, and this in truth for the addi- 
tional reason, that without such obedience, they would not deserve 
the kindness of God, and would not be in a situation to receive any 
further benefits from his hand, Deut. 6: 4, 5. 11:1, 13, 14. 13: 4, 5. 

They are not only admonished to abstain from those kinds of 
food, which were reckoned unclean, but also to keep themselves 
free from moral defilements, and to be pure and holy, even as God 
is holy, Lev. 11:45. 20:26. Deut. 14: 1, 2, 21. Lev. 19: 2. 20: 

They are taught <o love their neighbour ^"^^ as themselves, 
Lev. 19: 18; not only the Hebrew^ but the stranger also, Lev. 19: 
33,34. Exod. 22: 20,21. 23:9,12. Num.15: 14. Deut. 10: 18,19. 
24: 17. 27: 19. 

Hatred and revenge are prohibited, Exod. 23: 4, 5. Lev. 19: 16 
—18. Deut. 23: 7, 8, comp. Job. 31: 29—31. 

Cruelty and inhumanity to servants are guarded against, Exod. 
20: 10, 11. 21: 2—11, 20—26. Lev. 25: 39—53. Deut. 5: 14, 15. 
12:18. 15:12—15. 16:11 — 14. 23:15,16. 25: 4. comp. Job 31: 
13 — 15. The exhibition of kindness to the poor likewise, to 
widows, and orphans is inculcated, Exod: 22: 25, 26. Lev. 19: 9 — 
13. 23:22. 25:5,6. Deut. 12: 5— 7. 14:22—24.15:7—15. 16:10 
—12. 26: 11—15. 27: 19. . 

As an incitement to deeds of kindness of this sort, the people 
are told to remember, that they themselves were of old strangers 
and servants in the land of the Egyptians; an exhortation, which 
implies the knowledge and the admission of the duty of doing to 
others, what we wish done to ourselves, and of not inflicting on 
others, what we should ourselves be unwilling to suffer. It may 
be remarked, furthermore, that the Hebrews were forbidden to 


exercise cruelty to their animals, Exod. 20: 10, 11. 23: 11, 18. 34: 
26. Lev. 22: 28. 25: 7. Deut. 14: 21. 22: 6, 7, 10. 25: 4. 

The people are commanded not to curse the deaf, and not to 
cast an obstacle in the way of the blind, Lev. 19: 14. Deut. 27: 
18. They are fobidden to utter falsehoods, Exod. 23: 1 — 7 ; and 
are admonished not to go about among the people in the charac- 
ter of tale-bearers, as they will have done their duty, by informing 
the guilty persons of their faults in private, and only have made 
Ihemselvers partakers in their guilt, hy giving to those faults an 
unnecessary publicity. Lev. 19: 16. 

They are not left at liberty to utter curses against those magis- 
trates, who, in their estimation, have been unfavourable to them, 
Exod. 22:27, 23. 

The}' are commanded to avoid all fraud, as an abomination in 
the sight of God, Deut. 25: 13 — 16; when they have found any 
property, carefully to inquire out its owner, and restore it, Deut. 
22: I, 3; and to keep themselves guiltless not only of fornication, 
adulter}', incest and bestiality, but of all impure concupiscence, 
which are great crimes in the sight of Jehovah, Lev. 18: 1 — 30. 
Deut. 23: 18, 19. 22:5. Exod. 20: 7. 

The obedience, which was due to the civil Laws, was urged 
on the ground, that they originated from that merciful and holy 
Being, who is the creator and the governour of all things, Lev. 11: 
44. 18:3-5. 19: 10, 12, 14, 18, 25,28, 30-32,34, 37.22:3,8,30— 
33. 23: 22, 43. 25: 17, etc. Moses, accordingly, in reference to 
this subject, viz. obedience to the civil Laws, never fails to re- 
mind the people of their divine origin, and teaches them, that, 
unless those Laws are observed, as religious^ as well as civil insti- 
tutions, it will be of no avail. Consult particularly the passages, 
which follow, and which are worthy of a repeated perusal, Deut. 
4: 1—40. 5: 1—6, 25. 8: 1 — 19. 10: 12. 11: 1. 29: 1. 30: 20. 

Numerous sacrifices were insisted on, not, in truth, for any sup- 
posed worthiness in the sacrifices themselves, but, because they 
were an indication of a grateful mind, because they present- 
ed a sj'mbolick representation of the punishment due to trans- 
gressors, and uttered, as it were, an impressive admonition, 
that all sins were to be avoided. Sacrifices, accordingly, and 
other ceremonies are never esteemed, in themselves considered, 
of much consequence. On the contrar}', it is expressly said, that 


God does not have respect to gifts and offeringa, and that vows ' 
are not necessary, Deut. 10: 17. 23: 22,23. A person, who had 
made a vow, could free himself from the performance of it, by 
paying a certain amount, to be estimated by the priest, and, fur- 
thermore, the power was lodged in the master of a family of 
making void the vows of his wives and daughters, Lev. 27: 1 — 33. 
Num.30: 2—14. 

Particular forms of words, to be used in prayer, are not found 
among the instructions of Moses, [and the probable reason of it, 
as represented in the original German, is, that such forms of words 
would have been too near an approach to the superstitious forms 
employed in charms, and incantations among the neighbouring 
idolatrous nations, and might have led to unpropitious consequen- 
ces.] Still there is what may be considered in some respects aa 
exception to this statement, for we find a form of words prescrib- 
ed for the benediction in Numbers 6: 24 — 26, and also for the re- 
turn of thanks in Bent. 26: 1— 10, 13—15. 

Promises of temporal good, and threats of temporal evil were 
necessary in an age, in which the knowledge of a future life was 
limited and obscure. But they are no more obstacles to moral 
discipline and instruction, than like threats and promises are, at 
the present day, to the moral education of our offspring. Fur- 
thermore, the threats and promises, of which we speak, may be 
considered, as addressed to the Jews, as a people, rather than as 
individuals, and, in this way, as making a part of the civil poUty ; 
and, after all, they are in themselves an evidence that God ap- 
proves what is moral, and condemns what is immoral and corrupt, 
and it is in this way, that he governs the universe. 

The religion of Moses, therefore, had a good moral tendency ; 
it disciplined many men, whose characters, for their moral eleva- 
tion and worth, are fit subjects of admiration. If it had defects, 
let us have the candour to acknowledge, that they are to be at- 
tributed in a measure to the circumstances of the times, and the 
gratitude to confess, that its deficiences have been amply suppUed 
by the gospel of Jesus Christ. 


§ 310. Ok the Question, " Whether there are Types in the Laws 

OF Moses?" 

That there are historical and moral types in the Laws of Mo- 
ses, is evident from the Passover, and from the Feast of taberna- 
cles, Exod. 12: 1 — 13, 16. Lev. 23: 4,8. Deut. 16: 1— 8 ; also 
from the rite of circumcision, and the gold mitre of the high priest, 
for a typical import is expressly assigned to these last by Moses 
himself Consult Exod. 28: 38, and Deut. 10: 16. 30: 6. 

But whether there are to be found in the writings of Moses 
what are termed prophetical types, has been a subject of very great 
contention. We see in the discussions, which have arisen upon 
this subject, the tendency, which there is in men to rush from 
one extreme to another ; and because types of this kind were 
formerly too much muitiplied, the wisdom of these latter days has 
taken upon itself boldly to deny the existence of any such types 
at all. 

One thing, however, seems to be certain, that the whole Mo- 
saic discipline, taken in connexion with the promises made to the 
patriarchs, was not only introduced to preserve and transmit the 
true religion, but implied and intimated something better to come. 
Those better times were not hidden from the sight of the proph- 
ets, and, in age after age, and with much frequency, they pre- 
dicted them in their poetry. But express, and insulated tj'pes of 
Christ, or of the Christian Church, known to be such by the ancient 
Hebrews, do not appear to be found in the Laws of Moses. Still 
it is a question worthy of further investigation, than has hitherto 
been bestowed upon it, Whether God, through the instrumentality 
of Moses, did not so order certain events and ceremonies, that 
they should be discovered to be typical at the coming of Christ, 
and in this way facilitate the conversion of the Jews to the Chris- 
tian system ? Compare my HermeneiUicam gencralem Veteris et J^O' 
vi Foederis, ^ 15, 16. p 43 — 48. 

Note. [As the subject of the types of the Old Testament is 
one, which has not failed to interest, to a considerable degree, the 
feelings of many in this country, I take it for granted, that it will 
not be deemed out of place, to subjoin to this section the opinions 


of the TRANSLATOR of Erncsti's Elements of Interpretation. The re- 
marks, to which I refer, may be found in a note to the twenty- 
fifth section of that publication, and are, as follows. 

"If it be asked, How far are we to consider the Old Testa- 
ment as typicall I should answer without any hesitation ; Just so 
much of it is to be reg-arded as typical, as the New Testament 
aflirms to be so; and no more. The fact, that any thing or event 
under the Old Testament dispensation was designed to prefigure 
something under the New, can be known to us only by revelation; 
and, of course, all that is not designated by divine authority as ty- 
pical, can never be made so by any authority less than that, which 
guided the writers of the Scriptures."] 

§ 311. Sketch of Religion from Moses till after the Babylonish 


The institutions of Moses retained their influence through sub- 
sequent ages. Whenever religion was endangered, by neglect or by 
idolatry, the invariable consequence was, that there were calamities 
and evils, which admonished the people of the necessity of choos- 
ing rulers, who should restore to them both the full operation of 
their religion, and their prosperity, as a nation. In case God did 
not send upon them, in the lirst instance, publick calamities, he 
commissioned his prophets, who severely reproved kings and 
princes, threw great obstacles in the way of their wicked attempts 
to introduce idolatry, and when it was introduced, had the happi- 
ness of seeing, in some cases, pious kings raised up, as the succes- 
sors of the impious, who rescinded what their prSkcessors had 
done, removed idolatry, and restored again the true worship of 

When at length admonitions ceased to be of any great avail, 
and every thing was growing worse and worse, the Israelitish com- 
monwealth was overthrown, 253 years after their separation from 
Judah, and 722 before Christ. The people were carried away 
by the Assyrians into Gozan, Chalacene, the cities of Media, and 
into Assyria. 

The kingdom of Judah was overthrown 387 years after the 
separation, 588 before Christ, by the Chaldeans, and the people 
were carried captive to the banks of the river Chebar in Babylo- 


In these events, were ful/illed the predictions both of Moses 
and the Prophets. 

The difference in the condition of the Hebrews under the 
Judges, who ruled four hundred and fifty years, and under the 
Kings, consisted in this, that under the /ormer, idolatry was not 
commanded, but the people rushed into it of their own accord. 
Wherefore the contamination never extended so far, as to reach 
the Tabernacle. On the contrary, those kings, who were impious, 
either expressly commanded the worship of idols, or promoted it 
in some way by their authority ; so that its pernicious influence 
penetrated even to the Temple itself. 

The most impious, in the kingdom of Judah, were Ahaz and 
Manasseh, who immolated their sons to Moloch ; and the former 
of whom shut up the Temple. In the kingdom of Israel, Ahab with 
his Zidonian wife, Jezkeel, surpassed all others in wickedness. 

During the period immediately preceding their overthrow, 
every kind of superstition, and every moral pollution prevailed in 
both kingdoms, especially in that of Judah. No other means, 
therefore, remained, to correct their vices, but that of extreme 
severity, by which the whole nation, dispersed from their country 
into distant regions, and humbled and afflicted, might learn, that 
they could do nothing without God, and that idols could lend them 
no assistance. 

When at length the Return, predicted by Moses and the proph- 
ets, was unexpectedly secured by the instrumentality of Cyrus, 
and the Temple and city rebuilt, the people being convinced by 
the fulfilment of so many, and such distinguished prophecies, that 
God is the omnipotent and omniscient governoup. of the universe, 
and that all idols are a vanity, continued firm to Jehovah ever af- 
ter. So much so, that they opposed the commands, and set at de- 
fiance the punishments of Antiochus Epiphanes, endured every 
suffering, seized their arms, in vindication of their liberty and re- 
ligion, and brought over other nations also to the worship of their 
fathers. The rest of the Jews, who were widely dispersed both 
in the East and the West, acquired proselytes every where, and it 
became known to the other nations, that there was a people, who 
worshipped o/ie i«i)m6/e God, the creator and governour of the 

The Jews supposed at this time, that the age was approach- 


ing, when the true religion, should be propagated to all nations, 
as had been promised to the patriaixhs aiid predicted by the 

Their condition as a nation, it is true, through the discord of 
the rulers, grew worse, than it had been previously, and every 
thing threatened ruin. That which was promised, nothwithstanding, 
was performed by Jesus and the apostles, and their religion, in 
subsequent ages, has been propagated even to us; a grand fulfil- 
ment of what was predicted to the patriarchs four thousand years 

§ 312. Perseverance of the Hebrevvs i.v their Religion after the 


The perseverance of the Hebrews after the Captivity, in their 
religion, to which we have already alluded, was the result chiefly of 
the fulfilment of the prophecies, respecting the overthrow of the 
kingdoms of Israel, .ludah, Assyria, and Chaldea, and respecting the 
return from Captivity ; as is clear from Zech. 1: 2 — 6. Ezra 9: 7 — 
15. Neh. 9: 32—37. 13: 17, 18. The punishment of a long ex- 
ile, which the foreign gods, they worshipped, could not avert, and 
their Return, which was effected by the providence of God alone, 
without any cooperation on the part of the people, excited their 
minds, already softened by the concurrence of so many afflictions, 
to renewed reflection on these, and on other events, equally strik- 
ing and more ancient, especially on the mercies of God. 

In order to keep the memory of the past fresh and living in 
their minds, they built synagogues, in, which the Law of Moses 
was read every sabbath day. And not long after, other sacred 
books were read likewise, especially the prophets; prayers were 
also offered; sacred hymns were sung; and the people were ex- 
horted to a moral and religious course. 

Schools also were established, in which the rising generation 
were instructed more carefully in the truths of religion, than they 
could be by their parents. 

The similitude, which existed between the system of Moses, 
and that of Zoroaster, which prevailed in Persia and Media, may 
be summed up in a single article, viz. that they both discounte- 
nanced the worship of idols. For, 


[. That orig-inal beginning of all things, called Hazaruam, was 
neitlier the creator nor governour of the world, but the endless 
succession of time^ which was represented by Zoroaster, as the 
supreme existence, ens, or fountain of being. From Hazaruam, 
proceeded Ormuz and Ahrimanes. Ormuz acted the part of crea- 
tor of the world; a circumstance, which caused no little envy ia 
the mind of Ahrimanes, and induced him to mingle with the work- 
manship of Ormuz, the seeds or principles of evil, which exist. 
By the Mehestani, moreover, or followers of Zoroaster, not on- 
ly Ormuz, but six Amschaspandi, also innumerable spirits, dis- 
persed every where, the sun, moon, stars, and other earthly ex- 
istences, were worshipped without distinction. 

II. If the example of the Medas and Persians, who worship- 
ped Ormuz, as the creator and governour of the world, confirm- 
ed the Hebrews in the worship of Jeiiovah, it was equally likely, 
on the other hand, to induce them to adore the stars, and spirits, 
which occupied so conspicuous a place in the system of those na- 
tions ; also the horses and chariot of the sun, which the ancestors 
of king Josiah, influenced by the example of the Mehestani, had 
introduced at Jerusalem, and perhaps, to practise that species of 
Magian worship, witnessed by Ezekiel in the temple of Jerusa- 

III. The Jews, if ihey had been excited, by the example alone of 
their conquerors, to perseverance in their religion, would not cer- 
tainly have continued their adherence to it after the overthrow of 
the Persians, when they were under the dominion of the idolatrous 
Greeks; a period, in which, though exposed to the hostility of 
Antiochus Epiphanes, they gave ample proofs of their integrity. 

The assertion, that the Jews adhered to the religion of their 
ancestors, because they had learnt the knowledge of the true God 
from philosophical principles, is opposed, 

I. By the representations of the books, which remain of that 
period. For it is evident from Haggai, Zechariah, Ezra, Nehemi- 
ah, and Malacbi, also from the apochryphal books of Wisdom and 
Ecclesiasticus, that the prevalent belief was founded on ancient 
history, especially on ancient miracles, and the fulfilment of the 

II. Moreover, the firm persuasion, which existed, would not 
have arisen from any philosophical speculations about the being 


of God, if it had not existed in a previous period, since, in the 
Psalms, and the writings of the Prophets, were many arguments, 
drawn from the nature of things, to show the doctrine of the true 
God, and the vanity of idols. 

III. To overturn at once this unfounded supposition, it is suf- 
ficient to say, that the men, who were best instructed in Grecian 
philosophy, endeavoured to bring back idolatry again. P)at on 
points connected with this subject, something further is to be said. 

§313. Respectixg the Knowledge of God before the time of 
Christ, as developed by Philosofhv. 

Not a single philosopher had any idea of a God of such an 
exalted character, as to be the agent in the construction of the 
Universe, till Anaxagoras, the disciple of Hermotimus. This phi- 
losopher came to Athens in the year 456 before Christ, and tirst 
taught, that the world was organized or constructed by some mind 
or mental being, out of matter, which this philosopher supposed, 
had always existed. Socrates, Plato, and others adopted, illustrat- 
ed, and adorned this opinion. 

Aristotle, on the contrary, supposed the world to have exist- 
ed in its organized form eternally, and that the supreme being, who 
was coexistent, merely put it in motion. 

The Epicureans believed a fortuitous concurrence of atoms to 
have been the origin of all things. Many were atheists; many 
were sceplicks^ who doubted and assailed every system of opinions. 

Those, who maintained the existence of a framer or archi- 
tect of the world, (for no one believed in a creator of it,) held al- 
so to an animating principle in matter^ which originated from the 
supreme architect, and which animated, and regulated the materi- 
al system. 

Things of minor consequence, especially those, which touched 
the destiny of man, were referred by all classes, to the govern- 
ment of the gods^ who were accordingly the objects of worship, 
and not the supreme architect. Paul gives a sufficiently favoura- 
ble representation of this defective knowledge of God, Rom. 1: 
19 — 24. After all, it may be made an inquiry, whether Anaxago- 
ras or Hermotimus had not learnt some things respecting the God 
of the Jews from those Jews, who were f^old as slaves by the 


Phenicians into Greece, Joel 3: G, or from the Phenx'ans them- 
selves, who traded in Ion;i and Greece, and whether these philos- 
ophers did not thus acquire that knowledsfe, which was thought to 
Lave originated with themselves. Perhaps, they derived their 
notions of an eternal architect from the doctrine of the Persians 
respecting Hazaruam, or the endless succession of time, and Ormuz. 
However this may be, we observe on this topick, 

I. That the Hebrews remained firm to their religion before 
their acqaintance with Grecian philosophy', although many re- 
ceded from it, after forming such an acquaintance. 

II. The philosophick doctrine respecting the architect of the 
world, rested on arguments of so subtile a kind, that they could 
not have been estimated by the Jewish populace, and could not 
have been applied by them, to confirm their minds in religious 
truth. For, according to Cicero de Nat. Deorum. Lib. I. 6., such 
was the contention, even among the learned, in respect to the doc- 
trine of the gods, that those, who had the most strength and conti- 
dence on their side, were compelled to doubt. 

The Books of Cicero de Natura Deorum are by all means to 
be read. 

§314. On the Condition of Man after Death. 

That the ancient Hebrews, that the Patriarchs themselves 
had some idea of a future life, although we must acknowledge 
their information on the subject to have been limited and obscure, 
is evident, 

I. From the distinction, which is made between the subterra- 
nean residence denominated Sheoal, biNliJ ;md "Tia, and the grave 
or place of interment for the body, denominated ^3j?., Gen. 25: 8. 
37: 35. 49: 33. 50: 2— 10. Num. 20: 24— 26. Deut. 34: 7. 31:16. 
IKgs. 11:43. 

II. That they believed in the existence of the spirit after the 
death of the body, is evident likewise from the credit, which they 
were disposed to give to the art of necromancy, by means of which 
the Jews believed, that the spirits of the dead, niilN, S1J<, ''3'j'"'^'^, 
were summoned back to the present scene of existence, Lev. 19: 
31. 20: 6, 7, 26, 27. Deut. 18: 1 1. 1 Sam. 28: 3—10. 2 Kgs. 23: 
24. 1 Chron. 10: 13. Is. 19: 3. 29:4. 67: 9. comp. Zech. 13: 2—6, 


The objection, which is sometimes made, yiz. that per- 
sons, whose minds are under the influence of superstition, are very 
inconsistent with themselves and in their opinions, does not avail 
an}' thing in the present case, for it would in truth be a miracle 
of inconsistency, if those persons, who believed, that departed 
spirits were no longer existing, should, nevertheless, give full 
credit to the ability of such non-existent spirits, to reveal the mys- 
teries of the future. 

The belief of the ancient Hebrews, therefore, on this subject, 
was, that the spirits of the dead were received into Sheoal, v.hich 
is represented, as a large subterranean abode, Gen. 37:35. comp. 
Num. 16: 30—33. Deut. 32: 22. Into this abode, we are told, that 
the wicked are driven suddenly, their days being cut short, but 
the good descend into it in tranquillity, and in the fullness of their 

This very spacious dwelling-place for those, who have gone 
hence, is often described as dark, as sorrowful, and inactive, Job 
10:21. Ps.6: 5. 88: 11, 12. 115: 17. Is. 38:18; but in Isaiah 14:9, 
et seq. it is represented, as full of activity ; and in other places, 
as we may learn from Job 26: 5, 6, and 1 Sam. 28: 7, more than 
human knowledge is ascribed to its inhabitants, which is indeed 
implied in the credit, which was given to necromancers. In this 
abode, moreover, the departed spirits rejoice in that rest, so much 
desired by the orientals. Job 3: 13 ; and there the living hope to 
see once more their beloved ancestors and children. Gen. 37: 35. 
comp. Gen 25: 10. 35: 28. 49: 29. Num. 20: 24-26. 1 Kgs. 2: 10, 1 1. 
etc ; and there also the servant is at length freed from his master, 
and enjoys a cessation from his labours. Job 3: 13 — 19. 

That the ancient Hebrews believed, that there was a differ- 
ence, in their situation in Sheoal, between the good and the bad, 
although it might indeed be inferred from their ideas of the jus- 
tice and benignity of God, (Matt. 22:32.) cannot be proved by di- 
rect testimony. The probability, however, that this was the 
case, seems to be increased, when it is remembered, that the au- 
thor of the Book of Ecclesiastes, who, in chapter 3: 18, speaks 
somewhat sceptically of the immortality of the soul, says in chap- 
ter 12: 7, that the ^''spirit shall returri to God, who gave it^'''' [and, 
although he no where in express terms holds up the doctrine of fu- 
ture rewards and punishments, informs us in chap. 12: 14, of some- 


thing- very much like it, viz. " That God shall bring every work into 
judgment^ with every secret thing, whether good or eviV] 

We have not authority, therefore, decidedly to say, that any 
other motives were held out to the ancient Hebrews to pur- 
sue the good and to avoid the evil, than those, which were deriv- 
ed from the rewards and punishments of this life. That these 
were the motives, which were presented to their minds in order 
to influence them to pursue a right course of conduct, is express- 
ly asserted in Isaiah 26: 9, 10, and may be learnt also from the im- 
prec.Ttions, which are met with, in many parts of the Old Testa- 

The Mekestani, who were disciples of Zoroaster, believed in 
the immortality of the soul, in rewards and punishments after 
death, and in the resurrection of the body; at the time of which 
resurrection, all the bad would be purged by fire, and associated 
with the good, Zend Avesta, P. 1. p. 107, 108. P. II. p. 211. 227. 
229. 124, 125. 173. 245, 246. comp. Ezek. 37: 1—14. 

There is some uncertainty respecting the passages in Daniel 
12: 2, 3, 13, but it is possible at any rate, that they ma}' be a con- 
firmation of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, and it 
is very clear, that Haggai (2: 23.) speaks of some state of glory 
alter the termination of this present life. Compare Zechariah 3: 7. 
These sentiments of the later prophets, which are perfectly in 
unison with what is said of the justice and clemency of God, in 
other parts of the Old Testament, were at length adopted by the 
Jews generally, with the exception of the Sadducees, against whom 
they are defended in the following passages of the Apochryphal 
Books, viz. 2 Mace. 7 : 9, 11, 14, 23, 29, 36. 12: 40—45, and Wis- 
dom 3: 1—11. 4: 7—16. 

Thus the Jews were gradually prepared to receive that broad- 
er and fuller light, which Jesus shed upon them, 2 Tim, 1: 10. 

^ 315. Respecting the Propagation of Judaism. 

The Jews, during the four centuries preceding the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem, were very extensively dispersed, and they did 
not fail to make proselytes to Judaism^ in all the places, where it 
was their fortune to reside. The persecutions of Antiochus Epi- 
ph;ines promoted the cause of Proselytism ; for those persecutions, 


under the good providence of God, were the occasion of many 
victories to the Jews, and excited, at the same time, the interest 
and notice of the surrounding nations. In consequence of the stand, 
which the Jews then took, and the victories, which they won, 
whole nations, as the Idumeans, the Itureans, and Moabites, pro- 
fessed the Jewish faith, and underwent the initiatory rite of cir- 
cumcision. The king of Yaman or Yemen, a district of country 
in Arabia Fehx, became a Jew, more than an hundred years be- 
fore Christ, and his successors both defended and propagated 
the Jewish rehgion. 

The Jews in Asia Minor, in Greece, and, in the progress of 
time, at Rome also, were the means of drawing numbers withia 
the pale of their country's religion. In Rome, in particular, they 
eventually became so numerous, as to have a majoritj' at elections; 
and because they were restless and turbulent, they were ordered 
by Tiberius, to depart from Italy, and by Claudius from Rome. 
These orders, however, in respect to them, were not fully put in 
execution, Tacitus, Ann;il. II. 85. Suetonius in Tiberio, § 36. et in 
Claudio. § 26. Dio. Cassius 4. 60. p. 669. 

Ample privileges were in general given to the Jews by the 
Romans, and the obstacles were mostly removed, which might 
have had a tendency to prevent the increase of their numbers 
by the accession of proselytes. In this state of things, proselytes, 
especially from the female sex, who were not subjected to the 
inconveniences of circumcision, were perpetually multiplied, and 
are often mentioned in the New Testament. See Acts 2: 11. 6: 
5. 13: 43. 16:14. 17:4. 18:7,13. 19:29. 13: 50. Josephus, 
Jewish War II. 20, and Antiquities XVIII. 3, 5. 

About the time of Christ, Tzates, the king of Adiabene, hav- 
ing been instructed by some females, was circumcised, and intro- 
duced the Jewish religion into his kingdom. See the Antiquities 
of Josephus, XX. 2, 1 — 5. Providence thus prepared the way for 
the propagation of the Christian religion into all parts of the 
world : for the Apostles, wherever they travelled, found those, 
who had embraced the Jewish religion, and they not only had the 
liberty to preach in their synagogues, but, as we may learn from 
various passages, were very essentially aided by the Jewish Pros- 
elytes, in announcing Jesus Christ to the Heathen, Acts 2: 5 — 11. 
11: 19. 13: 4—6, 13—52. 14: 1—28. 16: 1 — 40. 17: 1—17, etc. 


§ 316. Ge.n'eral State of Jewish Affairs. 

The Jews, wherever they dwelt, lived in a measure separate 
from the rest of the communitj, but they were extremely harmo- 
nious among- themselves. Indeed those, who lived in countries, 
that were separated and distant, still maintained a connexion, with 
each other, by means of the Temple at Jerusalem. For every in- 
dividual was in the habit of sending to it yearly a half shekel in 
money ; those, who were able to, visited it in person, in order to at- 
tend the great festivals, and those, who were not in a condition to 
do this, transmitted gifts, either for the Temple, or to be employ- 
ed in the sacrifices, by the hands of others. 

The Jews of Egypt, who inhabited Leontopolis in the district 
of Heliopolis, from the year 149 before Christ to Anno Domini 73, 
had a Temple of their own, though they still kept up a connexion 
with the Jews at Jerusalem. Nor was this general harmony in 
the least interrupted by the existence of the three prominent sects, 
which, influenced by their philosophical systems, difl'ered so 
much in their interpretation of the Scriptures. When we speak 
of their interpretation, and, consequently, belief being influenced 
by their philosophy, the meaning is obvious; for Josephus, (Antiq. 
XV. 10, 4.) informs us, that the Pharisees approximated very near 
to the Stoicks, the Sadducees to the Epicureans, and the Essenes 
to the Pythagoreans. 

The Pharisees cultivated a very friendly intercourse with 
each other, and, as they were the favourites of the people, and 
generally secured to their party the influence of females of high 
rank, they were very powerful. As is too apt to be the case, 
where there is power, they became audacious, were inclined to 
make disturbances, and were in truth formidable to the high 
priests, and to the kings themselves, Josepiius, Antiquities^ XIII. 
10, 5 — 6. XVII. 2, 4. XVIII. 1. 3. The minor divisions, which 
eventually introduced themselves into this sect, and ranked its 
members, as the followers, some of Shammai, some of Hillel, and 
others at length of Judas of Galilee, did not interrupt the exer- 
cise of general harmony and good feeling. 

The sect of the Sadducees in general consisted of those only, 
who were wealthy, and honourable. When, however, it was 


their fortune to sustain any publick offices, they found themselves 
under the necessity of conforming to the sentiments of the Phari- 
sees, for, otherwise, they would not have been tolerated by the 
people, JosEPHUs, Antiquities^ XIII. 10, 6. XVIII. 1, 3, 4. 

The Essenes were a sect, who were very closely linked 
together, and constituted what may be termed an order of monks. 
The members of this sect not only lived in Egypt, and in other 
countries; but nearly four thousand of ihera resided in Palestine 
itself, particularly on the western shore of the Dead Sea. Con- 
sult Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews, XVIII. 1, 5, and Pliny's Na- 
tural History, Bk. V. ch. 17. 

§ 317. On the Antiquity of these Sects. 

It is remarked by Josephus, {^Antiquities XIII. 10, 5 — 6) that 
John Hyrcanus went over from the Pharisees to the Saddu- 
cees, and thereby created much trouble to his family. This hap- 
pened, when he was young, i. e. about the year 150 before Christ ; 
of course both of these sects were not only in existence, but, it 
may reasonably be inferred, had secured no little notoriety, as 
far back as that period. 

Furthermore ; Josephus expressly says, [Antiquities XIII. 5, 9.) 
that the Pharisees,Sadducees, and Essenes existed, as separate sects, 
at the time, when Jonathan was prince, i.e. between 159 and 144 
before Christ ; that they were flourishing at that period, and were 
even then, as he remarks, fv.TOv ixavov agyuiov. It is true, they 
are not mentioned in the Book of Maccabees, but it is clear from 
the passage in Josephus just referred to, that they existed in the 
time of those princes. Some, however, suppose, that the Phari- 
sees are meant to be designated by the word aoidaioig^ C'lDH, the 
ptoM5, which occurs in first Maccabees 2 : 42. 7: 13, also in second 
Maccabees 14: 6, and that this sect are there called the pious^ from 
the circumstance of their being desirous to do more, than the Law 
required ; while on the contrary, other persons, (among whom 
are to be reckoned the Sadducees^) who were willing to be satisfied 
with adhering to the letter of the Law, and wi(h doing as much 
and no more, than it demanded, were denQminafed tl''p.*'^ii the Just. 
That these sects, the Sadducecs and Pharisees, were nearly simul- 
taneous in their origin, there is hardly room to doubt; but the 


precise time of their orig-in is to be referred, at any rate, to a peri- 
od, anteriour to the days of the Maccabees. 

It is further to be added, that the aaidaiov^ Assideans, men- 
tioned in first Maccabees 2: 42, are said to have been those, inov- 
GUi^Of-iivoi TO) vo/lIO), rrninb ^l^n^. b3» w/«o voluntarily fought 
for their relig;ion; and, furthermore, the Jewish soldiers in general, 
in Second Mace. 14:6, are denominated uRidaioo. Josephus like- 
wise [Antiquities XII. 10, 3.) does not call the ccoidaiot Pharisees, 
but ayudovg nao oGiovg rov i&povg, the good and pious of the peo- 

The circumstance, which is stated in Pirke Aboth, viz. that 
Zaddok and Baithos, disciples of Antigonus Sochaeus, were the 
founders of the sect of the Sadducees, is not of so much weight, in 
as much as nothing of the kind is mentioned in Josephus. It 
seems to be the fact, nevertheless, that both Sadducees and Phari- 
sees had their origin about the time of Antigonus Sochaeus, who 
was the disciple of Simon the Just, i. e. about the beginning or 
middle of the third century before Christ. 

In respect to the Essenes, it appears, both from their mode 
of life, and from the great numbers, who resided in that country, 
that they had their origin in Egypt. Philo likewise, in his trea- 
tise (de vita contempl.) expresses himself in such a way, as to afford 
evidence, that this was the fact. He indeed makes a distinction 
between the Essenes or Esseans, N'^DN, and Therapeutae, ■teQausv- 
rci,, but it is only in some minute particulars of small consequence. 
Both names signify physicians., for the members of this sect pro- 
fessed not only the healing of the body, but of the mind. 

§ 318. On the DocTmNE of the Pharisees. 

The Pharisees boasted, that they were peculiarly acceptable 
to God, on account of their accurate knowledge of the Jewish 
Law and religion, Josephus, Antiquities, XVII. ^, 4. Jewish War, 
II. 8, 14. Luke 11: 52, 18: 11. 

We shall give a short account of their opinions, as far as they 
are mentioned or alluded to in the New Testament. 

I. They agreed with the Stoicks in teaching the doctrine of 
fate., or an immutable order of things, fixed by the decree of God. 
Perhaps it may be more agreeable to some, if we should denomi- 


nate their opinions in this respect the doctrine of divine Providence. 
i.e. that oversight in the Supreme Being', which rules and co-ope- 
rates with all events in such a manner, as to prevent at least their 
being left entirely dependent on the will of man: since the ac- 
tions of man himself are dependent on the eternal purpose of God, 
JosEPHUs, Anti(juities, XIII. 5,9. XVIII. 1, 3, Jennsh War, II. 8, 11. 
Acts 5: 38, 39. 

II. They taught, that the souls of men were immortal, and dwell, 
after the present life, in some subterranean abode, (shi:oal.) — 
They further taught, that the spirits of the wicked were torment- 
ed with everlasting punishments, and that they at times made 
their reappearance upon the earth to vex men with epilep- 
sy, mental derangement, madness, and melancholy ; that the good, 
on the other hand, received rewards, and at length passed into 
other human bodies. Antiquities, XVUI. 1. 3. Jewish War II. 8, 14. 
III. 8, 5. Matt. 14: 2. 16: 14. John 9: 2, ,34. 

It is no where remarked hy Josephus, that they believed in 
the resurrection of the dead, but that they, nevertheless, held to 
such a belief, is clear from the New Testament. Consult Matt. 
22:24—34. Mark 2 : 18—23. Luke 20 : 27—36. John 11: 24. 2 
Maccabees 7: 9— 1 1^ 14, 23, 29, 36. 12: 40—45. 

III. The Pharisees believed in, and taught the existence of 
angels, both good and bad. The angel, that held the highest rank 
among the former class, they believed, to have been uncreated. 
The name of this angel, at least as it occurs in the more recent 
Jewish writings, is that of Mittatron. The highest in rank 
among the latter class, or the prince of bad angels, received vari- 
ous names, and was called the devil, Samael, Ashmedai or the 
tempter, a liar and homicide from the beginning, the old serpent, 
the PRINCE of this world, who accuses men before God and de- 
mands their destruction. Matt. 4: 3: Luke 4: 2. John 8: 44. 14: 30. 
Rev. 12:9. 20:2. Heb. 2: 14. They believed, that angels were 
the ministers or agents of the divine Being on the earth, and that 
some one of them was assigned, not only to every kingdom, but to 
every individual, and at times made his appearance. Matt. 18: 10. 
Luke 4: 10. Heb. 2: 5. Acts 12: 15. 23: 8,9. 

IV. They believed, furthermore, that God was under obliga- 
tion, and bound in justice, to bestow favours upon the Jews, to 
render them partakers of the kingdom of the Messiah, to justify, 


and to render them eternally happy ; and that He could not con- 
demn any of them. The ground of justification in the case of the 
Jews, they alledged to be the merits of Abraham, the knowledge of 
God which existed among them, circumcision, and the offering of 
sacrifices, Josephus, Antiquities^ XVII. 2, 4. Jewish War, II. 8, 4. 
Justin's Dialogue with Trypho, Pirke j36o^/{, Rom. chs. 1 — 11. Heb. 
10: 1—18. 

§ 319. Defects in the Moral Principles and Practice of the 
. Pharisees. 

The Pharisees professed to aim at the strictest moral integrity 
in their conduct ; hut the principles, by which their conduct was 
guided in this respect, were in a great degree, both lax and erro- 
neous. For instance, 

I. They considered many things, which, in order to prevent 
greater evils, had been admitted to hold a place in the civil Laws 
of Moses, to be for that reason, morally right ; for instance, the 
law of retaliation, (jus talionis,) and the divorce of a wife for any 
cause whatever, Matt. 5: 31. et seq. 19: 3. et seq. 

II. In some instances, they adhered too closely to the letter of 
the Mosaic Laws, and further perverted their spirit by accommo- 
dating them to their own philosophy. Thus, according to the 
construction, which they put upon the Law in respect to loving 
one-s neighbour, they were bound to love their neighbour merely, 
and considered themselves at liberty to exercise hatred towards 
their enemies. Matt. 5: 43, Luke 10: 33. They maintained, that 
the oath, in which God was not expressly named, was not binding, 
or, at least, esteemed it but of little consequence. Matt. 5: 33. On 
the Sabbath, they forbade the gathering of a few ears of corn, 
healing the sick, &c. Matt. 12: 1. et seq. Luke 6: G. et seq. 14: 1. 
et seq. 

III. They attached but little importance to those natural Laws, 
which Moses had not enforced by a penalty, and gave a decided 
preference to the ceremonial Laws, as if the latter were great and 
weighty commands. Matt. 5: 19. 22: 34. 15: 4. 

They esteemed anger without any adequate cause, and like- 
wise the oxercise of impure affections, matters of but very little 
moment. Matt. 5: 21, 22, 27 — 30. 


They were anxious to make proselyte?, but they cared more 
about merely enrolling- them in their number, than about making- 
them better men, Matt. 23: 15. Avaricious and devoted to the 
pleasures of the world, they resorted to any measures, whether 
just or luijust to procure riches, Matt. 5: 1 — 12. 23: 4. James 2: 1 
— 8. Luke 16: 14. Josephup, Antiquities^ Xlll. 3: 4, 5. They 
were so desirous of vain glory, and so impressed with the idea of 
their own personal sanctity, that they uttered their prayers pub- 
lickly, in the sight of all men. Matt. 6: 2, 5. Luke 18: 11. They 
took a pride in ornamenting the tombs of the prophets, Matt. 
23: 29. 

§ 320. OiV THE Traditions of the Pharisees. 

The Pharisees observed a multitude of traditions, i. e. un- 
written ordinances, which originated with their ancestors, and 
some of them indeed, as they maintained, with Moses himself. 
They not only placed these traditions on an equalit}-^ with the 
Laws, which were acknowledged to be divine, but even esteemed 
them of still higher importance, Matt. 15: 2, 3,6. M.nTk 7: 3 — 13. 
Talmud, Rosh Haslichana, p. 19, 1. Zebachim, p. 101, 1. Jose- 
phus. Antiquities, XIII. 10, 6. 

The practices, which were founded on tradition, at length 
made their appearance in a collected form in the Talmud, and in 
truth with manj' additions. By the aid of what is there staled, we 
shall endeavour to illustrate some things, which occur in the New 

The washing of hands before meals, (a custom, which originat- 
ed from the practice of convejnng food to the mouth in the fing- 
ers,) was eventually made a religious duty ; on the ground, that, 
if any one, though unconscious of the circumstance at the time, 
had touched any thing, whatever it might be, which was unclean^ 
and remained unwashed, when he ate, he thereby communicated 
the contamination to the food also. The Pharisees judged the 
omission of this ablution to be a crime of equal magnitude with 
fornication, and worthy of death. Consult (he Talmud of Babylon, 
Aboda Zara p. 11, 1. Sota p. 4, 2. Beracholh p. 46, 2. Thaanith p. 
20, 2. compared with Matt. 15: 1. et seq. 

They taught, that, if a person had not departed from the 


house, the hands, without the fingers being distended, should he 
wet with water poured over them, and then elevated, so that the 
water might flow down to the elbows ; furthermore, the water 
was to be poured a second time over the arms, in order that, (the 
hands being held down,) it might How over the fingers. This 
practise is alluded in Mark 7: 3, eav i^ii]} j'ti/zcairat, and is de- 
nominated hy the Rabbins ?tO-. See Buxtori's Chaldaick,Talmu- 
dick, and Rabbinnick Lexicon, col. 1335. On the contrary, those, 
who had departed from the house, washed in a bath, or, at least, 
immersed their bauds in water with the fingers distended. The 
ceremony in this case, (Mark 7: 4.) is denominated euv fiit] ^anri- 
CavTut, and by the Rabbins b^^- See Burtorf's Lexicon, col. 849. 
The water-pots, which are mentioned in John 2: 6, appear to 
have been used in ablutions of the kind, that have now been men- 
tioned. From these ablutions, it is necessary to distinguish the 
symbolick washings, spoken of in Deut. 21: 6, Ps. 26:6. and Matt. 
27: 24. Indeed the Pharisees were so scrupulously cautious, that 
they deemed it necessary to strain the liquids they were to drink, 
from the fear, that they might inadvertently swallow some unclean 
animalcule. Matt. 23: 24. 

They were so fearful of being contaminated, that they would 
not eat with Gentiles, nor indeed with those persons, to whom it 
fell to discharge the unpopular office of tax-gatherer, and, in the 
true spirit of the philosophers of their times, were disposed to 
consider, as sinners, and to spurn from their presence all, who 
were not of their own sect, Talmud, Chagiga 2, 7. Luke 7: 39. 
Matt. 9: 11. 

They fasted twice a week, viz. on Thursday, when, as they 
supposed, Moses ascended mount Sinai, and on Monday, when he 
descended, Taanilh, 11. 9. p. Sliabb. \. 24, compare Luke 18: II. 

They enlarged their phylacteries, and the borders of their 
garments, Matt. 23: 5. Of the border or fringe of the garment, 
xQuoTiidov, *"i"'^''^? Chald. 'jinsD'^S, a slight mention has already 
been made in the hundred and tv/enty second section. The phy- 
lacteries^ which had their origin from Exodus 13: 16, and Deut. 
6: 8. 11: 18, were pieces of parchment, on which were inscribed 
four passages of scripture, to Teit, Exod. 13: 1 — 10, 11 — 16, and 
Deut. 5:4 — 9. 11: 13 — 21 ; and which were then rolled up in the 
form of the letters of ihe word ''JD, and placed in receptacles of 


leather. They were confined upon the back part of the left hand 
by a leather thong', T' "^ry niN, and likewise upon the forehead 
between the e3'es, uii'^y "j^a niDt:b. 

Note. The Pharisees then, as appears from the statements, 
which have now been made, were in g'eneral a corrupt class of 
men. This assertion, nevertheless, will not apply to every indi- 
vidual of them ; for there were not wanting- persons even in that 
sect, who were disting^uished for their moral integrity, Mark 15: 
43. Luke 2: 25. 23: 51. John 19: 38. Acts 5: 31. 

That such was in truth the case, may be inferred both from 
the Jerusalem Talmud, {Berachoth p. 13, 2. Sola p. 20, 3.) and 
from the Talmud of Babylon, [Sota p. 22. 2.) where it is stated, 
that there were seven classes of Pharisees, who were very 
much unlike. 

Of two of these classes we shall briefly make mention, viz, (1) 
the Pharisees, who were called Sichemices, Dw'iJ i;3l~l2, who enter- 
ed into that sect merely for the purposes of temporal emolument, 
Matt. 23: 5, 14; and (2) those, who were anxious to place them- 
selves under strict moral discipline, and were ready to perform 
every duty. It was in reference to the last mentioned persons, 
that the name of Pharisee was given, which means one, who is de- 
sirous of knowing his duty^ in order that he may do it, S-'TN 'i'^13 

Jiiy^w "^niin ma, Luke 18: 18. 

§321. Concerning Galileans and Zealots. 

In the twelfth year of Christ, about the time, that Archelaus 
was sent away from his government, a secession was made from 
the sect of the Pharisees, and a new sect arose, called the Gali- 
leans. Not far from this time, Judea, which was a Pioman prov- 
ince, was added for civil purposes to Syria, over which Quirinus 
was governour. It happened, when the tax was levied by Q,uiri- 
nus, that one Judas of Galilee, otherwise called Gaulonites, in 
company with Zaduk, a Sadducee, publickly taught, that such tax- 
ation was repugnant to the Law of Moses, according to which the 
Jews, they maintained, had no king, but God. The tumu'ts, which 
this fellow excited, were suppressed, (Acts 5: 37,) but his disci- 
ples, who were called Galileans, continued to propagate this doc- 


trine, and, furthermore, required of all proselytes, that they 
should be circumcised. Consult Josephus, Antiquities, XVllI. 1, 6. 
Jewish War 11. 17: 7—9. VII. 8: 1—6. 9, 1, 2. 

It was in reference to this sect, that the captious question was 
proposed in Matthew 22: 17, et seq. viz. " Whether it was lawful 
to give tribute to Csesar ?" The Galileans, whom Pilate slew in 
the Temple^ (Luke 13; 1, 2.) appear to have been of this sect. 

Simon, one of the Apostles of Jesus, is called y.avavnj^g or Cv^o- 
Trig, Zelotes, Luke 6: 15, and, in Acts 21: 20. 22: 3, we find, that 
there were certain Christians at Jerusalem, who are denomina- 
ted Zealots. But these merely insisted on the fulfilment of the 
Mosaic Law, and by no means, went so far as those persons, termed 
Zelotae or Zealots, whom we read of in the history of the Jew- 
his War. 

Note. Calmet respecting Simon the Zealot. 
["Simon, the Canaanite, or Simon Zelotes, an apostle of Jesus 
Christ. It is doubtful whether the name Canaanite were derived 
to him from the city of Cana in Galilee ; or whether it might not 
be written Chananean^ from iri-'ri) Clienani, Chananean or Canaan- 
ite ; or whether it should not be taken according to its significa- 
tion in Hebrew, from the root Kana N:p, from which comes ^rp or 
^:;p Kani or Kanani, to be zealous. St Luke gives him the sir- 
name of Zelotes, the zealot, Luke 6: 15 ; Acts 1:13, which seems 
to be a translation of the sirname Canaanite, given him by the oth- 
er evangelists, Matt. 10: 4. Mark 3: 18. Some fathers say, he was 
of Cana, of the tribe of Zebulon, or of Naphtali. Theodoret, in 
Psalm 67: 18. Hieron. in Matt, 10. The learned are divided 
about the signification of Zelotes ; some take it only to denote his 
zeal in embracing the gospel of Jesus Christ; others think he 
was of a sect called Zealots, mentioned in Josephus, de Bello, lib. 
iv. cap. 2. item lib. vi. cap. 1."] 

§ 322. Respecting the Sadducees. 

The opinions of the Sadducees were peculiar. They believed, 

I. That besides God, there was no other spiritual being, 

whether <rood or bad. They believed, that the soul and the body 


died together, and that there neither was, nor could be any res- 
urrection, Matt. 22: 23. Acts 23: 8. 

II. They rejected the doctrine of fate, or of an overruling 
Providence, and maintained on the contrary, that the events^ 
which happened, depended on the free and unconstrained actions 
of men. 

They held, that the traditions, which were received by the 
Pharisees, were not binding, Josephus, Antiquities XIII. 5, 9. 10, 
6, XVIII. 1, 4. Jewish War II. 8, 14. 

They held other sentiments, it is true, peculiar to them as a 
sect, but they neither disseminated them with much zeal, nor cul- 
tivated a close intercourse and unionvvith each other. It cannot 
be inferred, as some suppose, from what is remarked by Jo- 
sephus, (^Antiquities XIII. 10, 6.) that they merely received the Pen- 
tateuch, and rejected all the other Books of the Old Testament, 
for he does not, in the passage in question, oppose the Law to the 
other Books, but to those un-jarilten traditions, which it was one of 
their principles to reject. Accordingly we find in the disputes of 
the Talmud, that the Sadducees are not only attacked from the 
other Books of the Old Testament, beside the Pentateuch, but 
also draw arguments from them in their own defence, Sanhedrin 
p. 90, 2. Cholin p. 87, 1. 

Note. The Sadducees, in progress of time, appear to have 
admitted the existence of angels, and also to have embraced the 
belief of the immortality of the soul, and in the eighth century, 
were distinguished, as a sect, merely by rejecting the authority 
of traditions. Whence they were at length called Caraites. 

If any are disposed to doubt this statement, it is, nevertheless, 
certain, that the Caraites are comparatively of recent origin, since 
Josephus says not a word concerning them. Dr. Rosenmueller, 
however, contends, {Analectae III. Siiick. S. 163 — 176.) that the 
Scribe, mentioned in Mark 12: 28. et seq. was a Caraite. 



§ 323. EssENES AND Therafeutae. 

The principal ground of difference between the Essenes or Es' 
saei, and Therapeulae consisted in this ; the former were Jews, 
who spoke the Aramaean, the latter were Greek Jews, as the 
names themselves intimate, viz. i<"'Di< and de^aTrivxai. The Esse- 
nes lived chiefly in Palestine, the Therapeutae in Egypt. The 
Therapeutae were more rigid, than the Essenes; since the latter, 
although they made it a practice to keep at a distance from large 
cities, lived, nevertheless, in towns and villages, and practised ag- 
riculture and the arts, with the exception of those arts, which 
were made more directly subservient to the purposes of war. The 
Therapeutae, on the contrarj', fled from all inhabited places, dwelt 
in fields and deserts and gardens, and gave themselves up to con- 

Both the Essenes and the Therapeutae held their property in 
common, and those things, which they stood in need of for the 
support and the comforts of life, were distributed to them from 
the common stock. The candidates for admission among the 
Essenes gave their property to the society, but those, who were 
destined for a membership with the Therapeutae, left theirs to 
their friends ; and both, after a number of years of probation, 
made a profession, which bound them to the exercise of the strict- 
est uprightness?. 

The Essenes offered prayers before sunrise : after which each 
one was sent by the person, who was placed over them, to his re- 
spective trade, or to some agricultural employment. About elev- 
en o'clock, they left their work, and assembled to partake of their 
bread and pottage. In the evening also their supper was in com- 
mon. Before and after meals, the priest offered up prayers. 

On the Sabbath, the Essenes listened to the reading of the Law 
in their Synagogues, which was attended with an allegorical ex- 
planation ; they also read books by themselves in private on that 

They pretended to possess the secret names of angels, which, 
it would have been an act of impiety, to have communicated to 
profane persons. They were upright, kept themselves free from 
crimes, and were particularly celebrated for their veracity. They 


did not approve of oaths, and never took one, except when join- 
ing the order. They asserted, that slavery was repugnant to na- 
ture. Some of them made pretensions to possessing the gift of 
prophecy. The Essenes avoided matrimony, with the exception 
of a particular class of them, who married, but did not cohabit, af- 
ter there was evidence of pregnancy. The rest lived in celibacy, 
not because they had any objection, in itself considered, to the 
marriage state, but because they supposed all women to be adulter- 
esses. If any one of this sect was found to be guilty of any 
crime, he was excluded from their society. 

In point of DOCTRINE, their sentiments were nearly the same 
with those of the Pharisees. 

I. They believed, that God was the author of all good, but 
not of evil, or, in other words, cooperated in good actions, but not 
in evil. 

II. They believed, that the soul was immortal, that the good 
after death received rewards beyond the islands of the sea, and 
that the wicked suffered punishments under the earth. 

III. They objected to sacrifices from slain animals, and, ac- 
cordingly, did not visit the Temple, Josephus, Antiquities, XV. 10, 
5. XVII. IS, 3. XVIII. 1, 5. 10, 5. Jewish AVar II. 8, 2—12. 

The Therapeutae agreed, in most things, with the Essenes, 
but they all lived unmarried. They received females into their 
sect, but such remained virgins, and followed the same mode of 
life with the men. On the Sabbath only, both sexes sat at the 
same table, the men on the right, and the females on the left 
side of it ; their meals consisted of bread and salt alone, sometimes 
with an addition of hyssop. The Therapeutae kept vigils on the 
night of the sabbath, and, in imitation of the Israelites after their 
passage through the Red Sea, sung hymns, and led sacred dances, 
Philo de vita contemplativa. 

§ 324. Concerning the Hellenists. 

Hellenist is the name, which is given to those Jews, who are 
mentioned in Acts 6: 1. 9: 29. 11: 20, and who, not only in Egypt, 
Asia Minor, and Greece, but in all places, spoke the Greek, as 
their vernacular tongue. They do not appear to be the same 
with those, who are mentioned in John 7: 35, James 1; 1, and first 


Peter 1: 1, and are called diaonoQu roiv ilXiivoiv the dispersed 
among the Gentiles ; for it appears, that the Hellenists were found 
at Jerusalem, Acts 6: 1 ; and there were likewise found, among 
the dicconoga or dispersed, Jews, who spoke the Aramcan dialect, 
as, for instance, Paul himself, who was born at Tarsus, 2 Cor. U: 
22. Philipp. 3: 5. Indeed those, who spoke the Araraean dialect, 
were thought to possess the preeminence over those Jews, who 
spoke the Greek merely, and they, therefore, strove, in various 
places, to transmit their vernacular tongue down to their poster- 

Onias, son of Onias III., as has already been mentioned, erect- 
ed a Temple in Leontopolis in Egypt, for the accommodation of 
the Hellemsts, who resided there, about the year 149 before 
Christ ; in which priests of the house of Aaron, and Levites ad- 

In this Temple, the internal arrangements were the same, as 
in that of Jerusalem, except that the golden candlestick, instead of 
being placed on a base, was suspended by means of a gold chain, 
Josephus, Antiquities XIII. 3, 1 — 3. Onias, in engaging in this un- 
dertaking, was supported, as he supposed, by the expressions in 
Isaiah 19: 18, et set}, but the representations, which are there 
given, are not to be so literally interpreted. This Temple, there- 
fore, was erected without any sufficient authority from the Jew- 
ish Scriptures, and was not frequented by any other Jews, than 
the Egyptian and Cyrenian, who, notwithstanding its erection in the 
midst of them, frequently went to the Temple of Jerusalem, Acts 
6:9. Talmud of Jerusalem, megilla, page 73, 4. The Egyptian 
Temple was shut up, in the year 73 before the Christian era, by 
the command of the emperour Vespasian, on account of some tu- 
mults of the Jews, Josephus, Jewish War VII. 10, 4. Antiquities 
XX. 10, 1. 

§ 325. Concerning Proselytes. 

Proselytes, iiQooi^lvdoi, i. e. t/tose, -who have come in, (so 
called uno rov TC(joo{Xtj)^v6fvc(t,) are mentioned at a very an- 
cient period, but scarcely any where, except in connexion with 
the journey through Arabia, and afterwards in the history of the 
reigns of Solomon and David. Persons of this description are de- 


nominated by Moses D"^^^, if they are destitute of a house, and 
ClTlJin, if they have one. 

In the time of Christ and his Apostles, they were found every 
where in great numbers ; some circumcised, and some uncircumcis- 
ed. The former were called p"^.!?.?! "'l-^ i"s( or righteous Proselytes; 
the latter ^?'>2Jri "''n.a proselytes of the gate. In the New Testa- 
ment we find a number of epithets applied to the latter class of 
proselytes, as follows, svXu^tig, fvoi^itg, OfPofievot top 6eov, 
(fo^ovi^ievoi TOP diov, the pious, the devout, the reverential, &c. Acts 
2: 5. 10: 2, 22. 13: 16. 18: 7, comp. 2 Kgs. 5: 17—19. 

The ancient Kenites, also the Rechabites, who were the pos- 
terity of Hobab, the father-in-law of Moses, are to be reckoned 
with this class of proselytes ; for they worshipped the one true 
God, while, at the same time, they altogether refused to observe 
the Laws of Moses, Num. 10: 29. Jud. 1: 16. 4: 11: 1 Sam. 15: 6. 
Jer. 35 ch. 

It is a saying among the Jews, that these proselytes observed 
those precepts, which are called the precepts of Noah, viz. 
(1.) That men should abstain from idolatry. 
(2.) That they should worship the true God alone. 
(3.) That they should hold incest in abhorrence. 
(4.) That they should not commit homicide. 
(6.) That they should not steal nor rob. 
(6.) That they should punish a murderer with death. 
(7.) That they should not eat blood, nor any thing, in which 
blood is, consequently, nothing strangled. 

They frequented the Synagogues in company with the Jews, 
and although they were at liberty to offer sacrifices to God in any 
place, where they chose, they preferred visiting the Temple of 
Jerusalem, and offered sacrifices through the priests. 

The other class of proselytes, called the righteous, p'li?.?! ""l-T? 
were united with the great body of the Jewish people, not only 
by circumcision, but, (after they were restored from the wound, 
that was inflicted in consequence of that rite,) by baptism also. 
Three witnesses, or sponsors were present at the ceremony of 
baptism. Their immersion was not only a symbol of their having 
been purified from the corruption of idolatry, but it signified like- 
wise, that, as they had been buried in the water, they now arose 


ntw mtn^ or regenerated, as it were, the new born sons of Abraham, 
John 3: 3. 

The Jews assert, that the baptism of proselytes, which has 
now been spoken of, is mentioned in Exodus 19: 10, 14. 24: 8, and 
Genesis 35: 2. They not only maintain, that it is a necessary cer- 
emony, but assert, it is so efficacious, that it puts an entire end to 
the connexion of the proselyte with his kindred according to the 
flesh, so much so that he is at liberty, if he chooses, to marry his 
own mother. Comp. 1 Cor. 5: I, et seq. 

Christ speaks of this baptism in such a way, as to imply, that 
it was well known, John 3: 10 ; and the only point, which Nico- 
demus did not understand, was, that the Jews also, who were al- 
ready the children of Abraham, were to be born again by bap- 
tism. The proselyte, after baptism, offered a sacrifice of two tur- 
tle doves, and two young pigeons. 

The fejnale proselytes, who received the Mosaic Law, were 
baptized likewise, and were expected to present a similar offering. 
See Selden de jure nat. et. gent. II. 25. c. 4. p. 158. et seq. 

§ 326. Concerning the Samaritans. 

The people, who were sent by Shalmaneser and Esarhaddon 
from Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim into the tract of 
country, which had formerly belonged to the tribes of Ephraim 
and Manasseh, (2 Kgs. 17: 24. Ezra 4: 2 — 11.) united with one an- 
other, and with the Israelites, who were left there, and formed 
one people. They were called Samaritans from their principle 
city, Samaria. 

At first these people worshipped the respective gods of their 
own nations. But being harassed by lions, which had increased 
in number on account of the country's having been desolated, 
they attributed their sufferings from this source to the circum- 
stance of their having neglected to worship the God of the country. 
They, therefore, received back from the liing of Assyria an exil- 
ed Hebrew priest, who took up his residence in Bethel, where the 
golden ca//" had formerly been. 

This priest taught them in the worship of Jehovah from the 
Books of Moses ; not, however, as we may well suppose, without 
mingling with it the idolatry of the calf, and representing that ani- 


mal, as the embodied form of the Deity; so that the people were 
led in this way to worship idols and Jehovah at the same time, 
2 Kgs. 17: 26—34. comp. 2 Chron. 30: 1—10. 

The Hebrews, after their return from exile, commenced build- 
ing the Temple. The Samaritans obtruded themselves upon them, 
as companions in the undertaking. The Jews, who saw, that 
they merely sought a participation in the benefits conceded by 
Cyrus, that they would not leave their idols, and cared but little 
about the true religion, repelled their proposals for an union. 
This was the source of an implacable hatred in the minds of the 
Samaritans against the Jews. They impeded, as much as possi- 
ble, the building of the Temple, and surreptitiously obtained from 
the false Smerdis a decree, counteracting that of Cyrus. 

The Jews, on the other hand, were in turn greatly embitter- 
ed, and somewhat intimidated, Ezra 4: 4 — 24. Hence, while they 
were pursuing their labours in the reign of Darius Hystaspes, 
they were often exhorted by the prophets Haggai and Zechari- 
ah, to be of good courage. While Nehemiah was engaged in re- 
storing the walls of Jerusalem, the Samaritans tried every art to 
frighten him from his labours, but in vain, Neh. 6: 1 — 14. These 
things increased the hatred of the Jews. When Nehemiah, about 
the year 401! before Christ, took the resolution of removing from 
the people their foreign wives for fear of their being led astray 
by them, Manasses, the son of the high priest Joiada, was unwil- 
ling to part with his. This woman was the daughter of Sanbal- 
lat, the ruler of the Samaritans, and, accordingly, Manasses, her 
husband, went over to them, Neh. 13,28. 

Sanballat obtained leave of Darius Nothus, and built a Temple 
on Mount Gerezim, and placed the Jew, his son-in-law, over the 
sacred observances. While he fulfilled the office of high priest 
among thera, the Samaritans appear to have dismissed their idols. 

After this, very many of the Jews, when they had transgress- 
ed the laws, fled to the Samaritans, that they might escape punish- 
ment, and thus the hatred was increased on both sides. In the year 
167 before Christ, when Antiochus Epiphanes was king, the Sa- 
maritans consecrated their Temple to Jupiter, 1 Mace. 3, 10. An- 
tiq. XII. 5, 5. but they returned afterwards to the religion of 

In the year 129 before Christ, John Hyrcanus destroyed their 


Temple, Josephus, Antiquities,5XIII. 9, 1. On the other hand, the 
Samaritans, whenever they could, harrassed and injured the Jews, 
Antiq. XII. 4, 1. XVIII. 2, 2. Whence the hatred, already strong, 
was mutually increased, and, in the time of Christ, there appears 
to have been no intercourse between them, Luke 17, 16. John 4: 
9. et seq. So that the Jews in going from Galilee to Jerusalem 
could not with safety pass through Samaria, but crossed the Jor- 
dan, and went through Gilead. The Jews, under the influence of 
the hatred they bore to the Samaritans, changed the name of the 
city iD^'lJ Sichem^ into that of I'Sp Sychar, which means drunken, 
John 4: 5. 

Other grounds of controversy and ill-feeling, between the 
Samaritans and Jews, were as follows. 

I. The Samaritans did not receive, as of divine authority, all 
the Books of the Old Testament, but only the Pentateuch, which 
they had received from the Jewish priest, who had been sent to 
them from Assyria. They, nevertheless, expected the advent of 
a Messiah, John 4: 25, et seq. ; grounding their expectations on 
this point probably on Genesis 12: 3. 18: 18. 22: 18. 26: 4. 28: 14. 

II. The Samaritans contended, that the proper place of wor- 
ship was not Jerusalem, but mount Gerezim, John 4: 20. Josephus, 
Antiquities XIII. 3, 4. 

For some remarks, respecting the errours, which Josephus 
has committed in his account of Manasses, mentioned in this sec- 
tion, &c. see the original German edition of this Work, P. II. vol. 
II. § 63. p. 278—280. 




§ 327. Of Sacred Places in general. 

In the earliest ages, God was worshipped, without any distinc- 
tion, at any time and at any place, whenever and wherever, the 
promptings of devotion moved in the hearts of his creatures ; 
more especiall}', however, under the shade of imbowering trees, 
on hills, and mountains, and in places, where they had experienc- 
ed some special manifestations of his favour. 

The earliest altar, of which we have any account, is that of 
Noah, Gen. 8: 20. 

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob erected a number of altars in the 
land of Canaan, particularly in places, where they had been fa- 
voured with communications from God, Gen. 12: 7. 13:4,18. 26: 
25. 33: 20. 35: 1,3, -7. 

Moses, and the author of the Book of Joshua both speak of 
idols, altars, and groves, but are silent respecting Temples. The Jirst 
Temple of which we have any account, was the one at Shechem, 
which was dedicated to the god, Baal-berith, but, as it was furnish- 
ed with a tower, &,c. there had probably been others before it, 
Jud. 9: 4. 

Moses, although he had been acquainted with temples in 
Egypt, was not in a condition to erect one, while marching 
through Arabia, and, constructed in its stead the Tabernacle, 
which could easily be transferred from place to place. This, as 
we may infer from Amos 5: 26, was not the first of its kind, and it 
is, furthermore, worthy of notice, that the Carthaginians are said 
to have borne with them likewise, at least in their warlike expe- 
ditions, a sacred tent. 

With respect to the Temple, which was subsequently erected 

418 § 328. OF THE TABERNACLE. 

in Palestine, it may be observed, that Moses gave no command on 
the subject. The plan appears to have originated with David: 
although it was left to be executed by his successor. 

§ 328. Of the Tabernacle. 

TiiF PLACE, where publick worship was held from the time of 
Moses till Solomon, viz. the Tabernacle, is mentioned in the Old 
Testament by various names, lo wit, VnN a tent^ ^S'JliJJ a habitation, 
■>i;~pa a sductuary, '^'^?^i <* house, "2""^ 1113 1?'"^^ ^'*^ dwelling 
place of Jehovah's glory, Mini' ^tlN Jehovah's tern, 1^153 ^^J< and 
nnyn rri.J* ih^ t^nt^ of the congregation, and sometimes V^''^ the 
palace, it was divided into three parts. 

The first part was the area or court of the Tabernacle, an hun- 
dred cubits, [about an hundred and fifty I'eet,] long, and fifty cu- 
bit-, [about seventy five feet,] broad. 

It was surrounded on all sides, to the height of five cubits, 
;vith curtains D"'"bi5 made of linen. They were suspended from 
rcda of silver, which reached from one column to another, and 
rested on them. The columns, a''")l73^, on the East and West, were 
ten, on the North and South, twenty in number, and were, with- 
out doubt, made of the acacia, {shiitim wood.) The columns, iu or- 
der to prevent their being injured by the moisture of the earth, 
were supported on bases of brass CjIN. Near the top of the col- 
umns, were silver hooks, D''1'i, in which the rods that sustained the 
curtains, were inserted. 

That part of the court of the Tabernacle, which formed the 
entrance, was twenty cubits in extent, and was on the East side of 
it. The entrance was closed by letting fall a sort of tapestry, 
which hung from rods or poles, resting on four columns, and 
which was adorned with figures in blue, purple, and scarlet. When 
the entrance was opened, the tapestry was drawn up. The cur- 
tains of the entrance were called "i^D^J [in distinction from the cur- 
tains, that were suspended around other parts of the court of the 
Tabernacle,] Exod. 27: 9—19. 38: 9—20. 

The TABEUNACLE, (strictly so called,) was situated in the mid- 
dle of the western side of the court. It was covered on every 
part, and, in point of form, was an oblong square, being thirty cu- 
bits long from West to East, and ten broad from North to South. 


The walls were composed of forly eight bonrds or planks, viz. 
twenty on the North side, twenty on the South side, and six on 
the West. The two at the angles were doubled, making the 
forty eight, Exod. 26: 15 — 30. The Eastern side was not 
boarded. The boards, D"'\ii"^P, were o[ acacia or shittim wood, ten 
cubits long, one and a half broad, and overlaid with plates of gold. 
They rested on bases of silver, and were united together by bars 
or poles also of gold. 

The Tabernacle, thus constructed, was shielded by four cov- 
erings. The first, or rather interiour or lower covering, call- 
ed, "jSTlJTS, was made of '•'■Jine twined linen,^'' extended down within 
a cubit of the earth, and displayed pictures of Cherubim, wronL,'lit 
into it with various colours, viz. blue, purple, and scarlet. The 
second, properly called br;j<, was a fabrick, woven of goats' hair, 
and extended verj' nearly to the ground, Exod 26: 7 — 13. The 
third was of ram's skins dyed red, the fourth, of the skins of the 
ujnr], a difficult word, nieaning,according to some, a sky-blue colour, 
according to others, a sea-animal ; both of the last were called 

The eastern side or entrance was closed hj means of a curtain 
made of cotton, which was suspended from silver rods, that were 
sustained by live columns, covered with gold. 

The interiour of the Tabernacle was divided into two parts ; 
the first, twenty cubits long, and ten broad and high, was separated 
from the second, or inner apartment, by a curtain or veil, which 
hung down from four columns overlaid with gold, and was denom- 
inated dfVTffJov KaiuneTuGfia^ or the inner veil, Exod. 26: 36, 37. 
The first apartment was called lli'ip, or the Hohj^ and in Hebrews 
9: 2, om^vt] TiQOiTi] ; the inner apartment was called, D'Ui^p Ui"lp, 
«/'« uyioiv or the most Holy, and sometimes ay,tjvij diVTffjUj or the 
inner Tabernacle. 

§ 329. The Altaii and brazen Laver. 

Nearly in the centre of the outer court was the altar, SjaT^O, 
rir'li'n ri2f73, Exod. 40: 29. It was a kind of coffer, three cuijits 

T T ~ : • 

high, live long and broad, made of Shittim wood. The lower part 
rested on four short columns or t'eet, the sides of which were 
grates of brass, through which the blood of the victim flowed otit. 


The sides of the upper part of the altar were wood covered with 
brass, and the interiour sj)ace was filled with earth, upon which 
the fire was kindled. The four corners of the altar projected 
upward-, so as to resemble horns. At the four corners were 
rings, niyau, through which poles, C'S, were placed, for the pur- 
pose of transporting it from place to place. On the South side 
there was an ascent on to it, made of earth heaped up, Exod. 20: 
24. 24: 4. 27: ]— 8. 38: 1—7. Lev. 9: 22. 

The appurtenances of the altar were the 'JoJ'lb niT^O, or vrns 
for carrying away the ashes ; the CS'i or shovels, for collecting 
them together ; the n^p^iTTD, or skins for receiving and sprinkling 
the blood of the victims ; the DTSbTO, a sort of tongs for turning the 
partsoflhe victim in the fire; the nnnr^o, or censers for burning 
incense, and other instruments of brass, Exod. 27: 3. 38: 3. 

Between the altar and the Tabernacle, a little to the South, 
stood a circular laver, 'ni'^S, which, together with its base, nss "js, 
was made of the brazen ornaments, which the women had present- 
ed for the use of the Tabernacle, and was thence called, '-\'V'3 
nt/h3, Esod. 30: 18. 40: 8. The priests, when about to perform 
their duties, washed their hands in this laver. 

§ 330. The Golden Candlestick. 

The Golden Candlestick, JTni::?3, was placed in the first apart- 
ment of the Tabernacle, on the South side. It stood on a base 
'!]n|', from which the principal stern M:p, arose perpendicularly. 
On both sides of it, there projected upwards, in such a way as to 
describe a curved line, three branches, CjSj?. They arose from 
the main stem, at equal distances from each other, and to the 
same height with it. The height in the whole, according to the 
Jewish Rabbins, was^-je feet, and the breadth, or the distance be- 
tween the ex'teriour branches, three and a haf. The main stem 
together with the branches were adorned with knops, flowers, and 
other ornaments of gold. 

The seven extremities of the main stem and branches were 
emploj'ed, as so many separate lamps, all of which were kept 
burning in the night, but three only in the day, Exod. 30: 8. Lev. 
24: 4. Antiq. III. 8, 3. 

The priest, in the m^ "ning, put the lamps in order with his 


golden snuffers, D'nj^b^, and carried away the filth, that might 
have iratiiered upon them, in golden vessels made for that pur- 
pose, mnri^. The weight of the whole candlestick was a talent 
or one hundred and twenty five pounds, Exod. 25, 31 — 40. 27: 20. 
37: 17—24. Lev. 24: 1—4. Num. 4: 9. 

§ 331. Of the Table of Shew-Bread. 

In the^rsi apartment of the Tabernacle also, on the North 
side, was a Table, llV'Pi fnade of acacia wood ; two cubits long, 
one broad, and one and a half high, and covered over with laminae 
of gold. The top or leaf of this table was encircled with a bor- 
der, or rim of gold. The frame of the table, immediately below 
the leaf, was encircled with a piece of wood, n*7:\D^5 of about four 
inches in breadth, around the edge of which there was a rim or 
border, 'it, the same, as around the leaf A little lower down, but 
at equal distances from the top of the Table, there were four 
rings of gold, fastened to the legs of it, through which staves 
covered with gold, were placed, for the purpose of carrying it, 
Exod. 25:. 23—28. 37: 10—16. 

The rings here mentioned, Snj niS"?^, were not found in the 
table of shew-bread, which was afterwards made for the Tem- 
ple, nor indeed in any of the sacred furniture, where they had 
previously been, except in the Ark of the covenant. 

Twelve unleavened loaves were placed upon this table, which 
were sprinkled over with frankincense, and, it is stated in the 
Alexandrine version, (Lev. 24: 7.) with salt likewise. They were 
placed in two piles, one above another, were changed every sabbath 
day by the priests, and were called D'^;d cnb. the bread of the face, 
becanse it was exhibited before the face or throne of Jehovah, 
lr!3'^i'73rt Dnb the bread arranged in order, and T^Wn Onb the per- 
petual bread. Lev. 24: 6, 7. 1 Chron. 23: 29. 

Wine was placed upon the table in bowls, some larger, nT^nyj?, 
and some smaller^ nTD3, also in a sort of vessels, that were cover- 
ed, DTtyp, and in cups, m'sp.OQ, which were employed in pouring- in 
and taking out the wine from the other vessels, Exodus, 26: 29, 
30. 37: 10—16. 40: 4, 24. Lev. 24: 5—9. Num. 4: 7. 


§ 332. The Altar of Incense. 

The ALTAR OF INCEXSE, n'^bj? "nt^jP^J Ij^I'ti ^^'^s situated be- 
tween the Table of shevv-bread and the goiden candlestick, to- 
xvards the veil, which enclosed the interiour apartment of the 
Tabernacle, or the i-/oZ^ (jfAoZj'e*. It was constructed of Shittim 
or acacia wood, a cubit long and broad, and two high. It was or- 
namented at the four corners, and overlaid throughout with lami- 
nae of gold. Hence it was called the golden altar, S^t fii^ipo, <d- 
so the interiour altar, "'a'^jqri IjSTiq, in contradistinction from the 
altar for the victims, wiiich was in the large court. 

The upper surface of this altar^ 33, was encirled by a border, 'i T, 
and on each of the two sides, were fastened at equal distances, 
two rings for the admission of the rods of gold, by which it was 
carried. Incense was oifered on this altar daily, morning and 
evening, a description of which is given in Exodus 30: 34 — 37. 
comp. Exod. 30: 1—10, 37: 25—29. 40: 5, 26. Josephus, Antiqui- 
ties, III. 6, 8. Jewish War V. 3: 5. 

§ 333. Ark of the Covenant in the Holy of Holies. 

The Ark of the Covenant, t^'^^Zll "ji^iN;., m'li;;! p"l^?.i V hi^cd- 
tog xrjg d'tu6t]-At]g, was deposited in that part of the Tabernacle, 
called the Holy of holies, a place so secluded, that the light of day 
never found an entrance within it. It was a box of an oblong 
shape, made of shittim wood, a cubit and a half broad and high, 
and two cubits long, and covered on all sides with the purest gold. 
It was ornamented on its upper surface with a border or rim of gold, 
and on each of the two sides, at equal distances from the top, were 
two gold rings, in which were placed, (to remain there perpetual- 
ly,) the staves of gold, by which the Ark was carried, and which 
continued with it, after it was deposited in the Temple. It was 
so situated in the Holy of holies, that the ends of the rods touched 
the veil, which separated the two apartments of the Tabernacle, 
Exod. 25: 10—15. 37: 1—9. 1 Kgs. 8: 8. 

The lid or cover of the Ark, ri"\E5, ilaoTtjoiov, fniO^tjfia, 
was of the same length, and breadth, and made of the purest gold. 

Over it, at the two extremities, were two Cherubim, with 


their faces turned towards each other, and inclined a little to the 
lid, [otherwise called the 7nercy-seat.] Their wings, which were 
spread out over the top of the ark, formed the throne of God, 
the king-, while the Ark itself was his footstool. 

There was nothing within the Ark, excepting the two Tables 
of stone, on which were inscribed the ten fundamental laws of 
the Jewish religion and commonwealth. 

A quantity of manna was laid up beside the Ark, in a vase of 
gold^ Dl'ZZ^^ Exod. 16: 32, 36 ; also the rod of Aaron, Num. 17: 
10, and a copy of the Books of Moses, Deut. 31: 26. 

Note. It is stated, in the Epistle to the Hebrews, that the 
altar of incense was placed in the interiour apartment of the Tab- 
ernacle or Holiest of all, and that the rod of Aaron, and the vase 
of manna were deposited within the Ark of the covenant. The 
writer of this Epistle, (even supposing Paul was not the author of 
it,) gives far too decided indications of his erudition, to permit us 
to suppose, that he was ignorant of the statements in Exodus 16: 
33, 34. Numbers 17: 10, and first Kings 8: 9. The assertions, 
therefore, to which we have referred, are to be considered the 
errours of the person, who translated the Epistle from the Hebrew 
into the Greek. 

§334.. Respecting the Holy Land. 

The camps of the Hebrews participated, in some degree, in 
that sacredness, which attached itself to the Tabernacle, Deut. 23: 
13 — 15. Lev. 13: 46. This idea of consecration and holiness be- 
came connected afterwards with the country of the Hebrews itself^ 
which had forraer!}'^ been consecritted to the true God by the patri- 
archs in the erection of altars, and was now the residence of the 
only true religion, Exod. 15: 16. 2 Mace. 1: 7. 

The moTG recent Jews assigned ditlerent degrees of holiness, 
&c. to different regions, the highest to the countries occupied by 
Moses and Joshua, and the least to the regions, subdued by David. 
As to all other lands and districts, they consdered them profane, 
the very dust of which would contaminate a Jew, Matt. 10: 14. 
Acts 13: 51. 18: 6. That place or town was considered peculiar- 
ly hohj^ the most so of any other, in which the Tabernacle was fix- 


ed and the Ark of the covenant. For instance, Gilgal, and after- 
wards iihiloh^ a city situated on a pleasant mountain, twenty three 
miles north of Jerusalem, in the tribe of Ephraim, Josh. 18: 22, 9. 
Judges 20: 1. I Sam. 1: 3—24. 2 : 14. 3 : 3—21. 4 : 3, 4, 13—18. 
7: 5. 10: 17. 

The Tabernacle, during the reign of Saul, was removed to 
Nob, between Arimathaea and Joppa, six and a quarter miles 
north of Jerusalem, 1 Chron. 16: 39—43. 2 Chron. 1: 2—6, 13. 1 
Kgs. 3:o — 9. The Ark of the covenant was taken, in the time of 
Eli, from the Tabernacle, and carried into the army, was captured 
by the Philistines, and afterwards sent back to the city of Kirjath- 
jearim, situated on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin, 
and nine miles west of Jerusalem, 1 Sam 6: 20. 7: 2. it remain- 
ed there, till it was carried back nearly seventy years aiter, to 
mount Zion by David, 2 Sam. 6: 1—20. 1 Chron. 13: 1—14. 15: 1 
— 16. It was at last removed by Solomon into the Temple, 1 Kgs. 
8: 1—9. 2 Chron. 5: 2—20. 

§ 335. Of Jerusalem, the Holy Citv. 

After this time, viz. the erection of the Temple, and the re- 
moval of the Ark into it, Jerusalem was called the city of God, 
D'^n5J<ln T*:;^ ; the holiest dwelling-place of the most High, 
p'-'lry \q2"»i:^ •:Jn,0 ; and the HOLi' city, uinj? "i-'i;, Ps. 46: 3. Is. 48: 
2, Dan. 9: 24.; by which last title, it is mentioned on the coins of 
the Maccabean age ; and it is thus called throughout the East, at 
the present day, by the Mohamedans. 

It was situated on the southern boundary of the tribe of Ben- 
jamin, in latitude 31° 50', Jos. 15: 8. 18: 26—28. Jud. 1: 21. It is 
thirty seven miles distant from the Mediterranean, and twenty 
three from the Jordan. See Reland's Palestine, P. I. B. II. p. 423. 

The holy city was situated on three hills, and was bounded on 
three sides, by vallies, viz. on the East, West, and South, but on 
the North, there was merely a steep declivity. The most lofty of 
these hills was Zion, otherwise called tiie city of David. 

The hill of Moria was situated to the East of Zion, and was 
separated from it by a deep valley intervening. Upon this hill, 
the Temple was built. 

There was a third hill of less elevation, than either of those, 



which have been mentioned, situated to the North, and separated 
from Moria and Zion, by a vaHey. It has been named in modern 
times AcRA. 

In the time of Christ, there was a suburb to the North of the 
city, called /Jfff^o;, Nnnn n-'S, naivonohg^ which was at length 
enclosed with wails by iiing Agrippa, 

Both Zion and Acra had walls of their own, distinct from the 
great city wall, and the hill of Moria was encircled likewise by 
the wall of the Temple. The circumference of the city, in the 
time of Josephus, was about four miles and an eighth, Jewish War, 
V. 4, 3. 

At the bottom of mount Moria, to the South east, flowed the 
fountain Siloani^ or Siloe^ nVJiJ, Is. 8'. 6. Neh, 3: 15. John 9: 7, 11. 
Luke 13: 4; the only fountain, whose waters gladdened the 

On the borders of this stream were the gardens of the Kings, 
and, so late as the time of Jerome, the valley, through which it 
passed, was rendered delightful by shady groves. See his Com- 
mentary on Matt. 10. This commentator observes further, in his 
remarks on Jeremiah 14: and Isaiah 8: 6, that Siloe does not flow 
regularly, but only on certain days and hours, when it bursts forth 
through the crevices of the earth, and from rocky caves, with 
much violence and with surprising noise. The bill Ophel ap- 
pears to have been not far from this stream, Josephusj Jewish 
War, V. 4, 1. 

Both the vallej', which separates the city on the East from 
the much more loftj' mount of Olives, and the winter-torrent, 
which flows through it, were called by the common name of Ce- 
DRON, p'^'lp.i KfdQcov, Josephus, Jewish War, V. 6, 1. 

To the South of the city is the valley of the son of Hinnmn, 
U')j'n ']'2 \^, in which was the place called Tophet, nCh, rendered 
famous on account of the immolation of children, which was wit- 
nessed there. To the West, is the valley of Gihon, "jir''a, which 
is less deep, however, than that of Hinnom, 1 Kgs. 33:38. 2 Chron. 
33: 14. 32: 30. 

The approach of an army to the city, from either of these 
three vallies, was difficult. It was, thereifoj-le, commonly attacked 
on the North. 

Goi.uoTHA or Calvary, in Syriack finb"i:irJi, in Chaldaick 

426 § 336. MOUNT moriah. 

i«nb5b.n and nV'i^-!!? was situated out of the city, Matt, 27:33. Maik 
15: It. John 19: 17. According to Eusebius and Jerome, it wari 
to the North of Zion. Hence the hill, which is now situated in 
tlie middle of the city of Jerusalem, and ou which is shown to the 
pilgrim the pretended tomb of the Saviour, cannot be the place, 
where he was buried. What is said in opposition to this conclu- 
sion, viz. that the city as it now exists, is built in a different place 
from what it was formerly, can be admitted only so far as this, 
that the hill of Zion and Bezetha are excluded from it, but it does 
not prove, that the city has extended North and West, more than 
it did orig-inally, and thereby taken in the hill of Calvary, which 
could not be well done, on account of the rallies. This statement 
in respect to Calvary solves some difficulties in the account of the 
resurrection of Christ, 

Many of the ^a^es of the city are indeed mentioned, but the 
situation of almost ail of them is difficult to be precisely ascer- 

§ 336. Mount Moriah. 

Mount moriaii, on which, agreeably to the last wishes of king 
David, the Temple was erected, about the year 592 after the de- 
parture of the Hebreivs from Egypt, was an abrupt ascent, the 
summit of which was so small, that it did not extend base sufficient 
for the courts and appendages of the sacred editice, Josephus, 
Jetvish War V. 5, 1. it was with the view to remedy the evil, 
which was thus occasioned, by giving a greater extent to this em- 
inence, that Solomon raised a wall of square stones, along the val- 
lies, which encircled it, and filled up the intervening space be- 
tween the wall and the acclivity of the hill with earth, Josephus, 
Antiquities, XV, 11, 2, 

After the Captivity, the Hebrews continued gradually to in- 
crease the extent of this hill for many ages ; they moved back 
the wall on the North, and on the South and West also erected 
walls of immense square stones from the lowest parts of the val- 
lies, so as at last to render the top of the hill a furlong square. 
The smallest altitude of the walls was four hundred and fifty 
feet, the greatest, viz. in the southern direction, six hundred. 

Josephus, who makes these statements, is not always consistent 


with himself; but, en this point, we do not wish at present to 
enter into a discussion. Compare the History of the Jewish War 
V. 5, 1. with the same Work I. 21, 1. V. 5, 6. and Jewish Antiqui- 
ties Viri. 3,9, XV. 11, 3. XX. 9, 7. 

§ 337. Of the Temple of Solomox, 

The summit of Moriah, the extent of which had been increased, 
as has already been seen, by a wall built around, and which was 
encirled on the Eastern, and probably on all sides with a gallerj' 
or portico, was divided into the great or exUriour court, ^^.^o. 
riri^^Tt", and the interlour court, n"'73'':2ln "i::^"- otherwise called 

T T T -••,— •• T V 

the court before the Temple fT^s^ "^pcb '^"w^N 'ni^nn, called also the 
court of the priests, D"';^I3;^ '^^H.i 1 Ji^gs. 6: 36. 7: 12. 2 Kgs. 23: 12. 
2Chron.4:9. 20:5. Ezek. 40:28. 

Whether these two courts were separated from each other 
by a wall, or merely by a sort of latticed fence or trellis, does not 
clearly appear, for the description of the Temple, as it is given in 
1 Kgs. 6: 1—38. 7: 13—51, and 2Chron. 3: 1—4, 22, is a very 
concise one. This, however, is evident in respect to this subject, 
that the new court, so called, JTiiTriri "i^nri, mentioned in second 
Chronicles 20: 5, was not a third court, but the second or interiour 
one, newly repaired. 

There were various buildings, and apartments, mD-b,in which 
provisions were kept, also the vases and other utensils, which be- 
longed to the Temple ; and some of which, were occupied like- 
wise by the priests and Levites, while thej^ were employed there, 
in the fullilment of their sacred duties, 1 Chron. 9: 2G, 33. 23: 28. 
28: 12. 2 Chron. 31: 12. Jer. 35: 2, 4. 36: 10. 

The altar in the interiour court or the court of the priests was 
built of unhewn stones, for Moses expressly forbade an}' others to 
be used ; it was covered, like that in the Tabernacle, with brass, 
although it was not built with the same dimensions, it being twen- 
ty cubits long and broad, and ten high, 2 Chron. 4:. 1,10. 

The vases, and other utensils, belonging to this altar, were 
much more numerous, than in the Tabernacle, 1 Kgs. 7: 40 — 47. 
The very large brazen la ver, called the mollen sea, p^^TO Q^, was 
an hemisphere, ten cubits in diameter, live deep, and thirty in cir- 
cumierence. It could contain three thousand baths, and wa« 


adorned on its upper edg'C with figures, that resembled lilies in 
bloom. But, althoug-h it held the large number ot' baths, which 
have been mentioned, it was commonly supplied with only two 
thousand, 2 Chron. 4: 3—5. 1 Kgs. 7: 26. 

It was enriched with various ornamental figures, and rested on 
the back of twelve oxen, three facing to the North, and three to 
the East, and the others in the opposite directions. 

There were, in addition to the brazen sea, ten smaller, brazen 
lavers rTipn; niT^3, which were also set off with various orna- 
ments, five on the North, and five on the South side of the court. 
They rested on bases and wheels of brass, were each four cubits in 
circumference, and held iorty baths. The flesh of the victims, 
that were sacrificed, was washed in these lavers, 1 Kgs. 7: 27 — 
39. 2 Chron. 4: 6. 

§ 338. The Sanctuary of Solomon''s Templt:. 

The SANCTUARY, n'ja, b3"^ri, n'^2 b^'^n, 6 vuog, was sixty cu- 
bits long, twenty broad, and thirty high, with the exception of the 
part called the sanctissimum or Most Hobj, the height of which was 
only twenty cubits ; so that there remained a room above it of 
ten cubits in height. 

The windows, D''!ODN a"'cp"u ''?.il?n, appear to have been lat- 
ticed, 1 Kgs. 6:2—4. 

In front of the Sanctuary, was the Porch, n^jovaog, sV^Jt, an 
hundred and twenty cubits high, twenty broad from North to 
South, and ten long from East to West, 1 Kgs. 6: 3. 2 Chron. 3: 4. 

Two columns of brass were erected near the entrance of this 
Porch ; each twelve cubits in circumference. The one to the 
North was called "^'^'Z" Jachin; the other, which was to the South, 
was called T^'ia Boaz. The height of the skaf;s of these columns 
was eighteen cubits; of the capitah; Ti')~\'n''3, five cubits; and of 
the base, thirteen cubits, making the whole altitude thirty six. 

If in first Tvings 25: 17, the capitals are said to be only three 
cubits in height, the reason of it probably was, that their altitude 
had been diminished, in the repairing, at some time, of the Tem- 
ple. These pillars were profusely ornamented with carved rep- 
resentations of leaves, pomegranates, S;c, were hollow within, and 


the brass, of which they were made, was a hand's breadth in thick- 
ness, 1 Kgs. 7: 15—20. 2 Chron. 3: 15—17. 

A GALLERY exteodcd along the sides of the Sanctuary, with the 
exception of the Eastern, which was three stories high, was con- 
structed of beams and planks, and to which there was an ascent on 
the South side, by a flight of winding stairs,^ D"'r/i;:. 1 Kgs. 6: 5, C, 8. 
The Sanctuary itself was constructed of square slones^ but was cov- 
ered with boards of cedar, within and without, in which a variety 
of ornamental figures were carved out, and which were over-laid 
with laminae of gold. The passage into the Porch, n^oi'uog, was 
very lofty and broad, but it was merely an open entrance, without 
any door. The entrance into the Sanctnarij, on the contrary, was 
closed by a valve or folding dooi-, made of the oleaster or wild ol- 
ive, which was ornamented with specimens of carved work in the. 
shape of cherubim, palms, and flowers, was covered with gold, 
and turned on golden hinges, 1 Kgs. 6: 33 — 35. 

The door, that opened into the sanctissimum or Holy of Holies, 
which was a pentagon in point of form, was adorned and enrich- 
ed, in the same wa)^, with that of the Sanctuary, 1 Kgs. 6: 31, 32. 
Both doors were covered with a veil of linen, wrought with em- 
broidery, 2 Chron. 3: 14. 

Within the Sanctuary was the Altar of incense, overlaid with 
gold, ten tables, also overlaid with gold, and ten golden candle- 
sticks, five of each 05 the North, and five on the South side. On 
these tables were placed not only twelve loaves, but also an hund- 
red golden cups. The other vessels of the Sanctuary likewise 
were more numerous, than in the Tabernacle, 1 Kgs. 7: 48 — 50. 
2 Chron. 4: 19--22. 

Tke Ark of the covenant was deposited in the Holy of holies. 
Its position was such, that the staves, by which it was carried, and 
which were somewhat long, touched the veil; from which circum- 
stance, it may be inferred, that the door of this apartment stood 
open, 1 Kgs. 8: 8. 2 Chron. 5: 9. 

Near the Ark, were two cherubim, made of the wood of the 
wild-olive, and covered with gold. Each of which was ten cu- 
bits high, and each extended one of its wings over the Ark, to the 
middle of it, and the other to the wall, 1 Kgs. 6: 23—28. 2 Chron, 
3: 10—13. 


Note I. The description of the Temple of Solomon, which is 
given in the Books of Kings and Chronicles, is silent on many 
points, which, in the age, in which those Books were written, 
could be learnt without difiiculty from other spurces. In various 
places also, the account appears to have suffered from the care- 
lessness of transcribers. Hence the statement'^, in tirst Kings, 6 — 
'" 7. chs. and second Chronicles, 3 — 4, chs. do not every where 
agree. It will, therefore, be readily seen, that, it is not possible 
to give, in every respect, a perfect idea of this edifice. When 
viewed, as the work of very early times, and in reference to the 
notions, which then prevailed, Solomon''s Temple may be consid- 
ered magnificent, but it ought not to be compared with more re- 
cent specimens of Architecture. 

Note II. Cherubim, D"':3n^3, were figures of a wonderlul 
form, which sustained the chariot of thunders or throne of God. 
t I They had four faces, and as many wings and hands ; and their 
* « feet, which jjT^ioiected down strait, had hoofs, like an ox, Ezek 1 
ch. Cherubim of such a form couid not be fully represented on 
embroidered work, and it would seem, from the account, which is 
given of them, that the golden cherubim, which spread their 
wings over the Ark of the covenant, were different in shape from 
those, which have now been described. Perhaps, therefore, this 
class of beings existed in different forms. The meaning of these 
symbolick representations, I have explained in my Treatise on 
Hermeneuticks, § 20. p. 59, 60. 

§ 339. Of the Temple of Zerubbaeel. 

This Temple was commenced under the direction of Zerubba- 
bel, after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish Captivity, 
in the year 535 before Christ. The work had no sooner been 
begun, than it experienced an interruption of fifteen years, but 
was resumed again in the year 520 before Christ, and complet- 
ed in the year 515, Ezek. 3: 8, 9. 4:4— 2 i. 5:1—6,21. 

According to the decree, which was given by Cyrus, (Ezra G: 
3, 4,) its height and breadth were sixty cubits each; and we 
may, therefore, suppose the length, which was either never men- 
tioned, or has fallen out from the Text, to have been, (in order 
to maintain the proportion,) 120 or 180 cubits. But the old men, 


who had lived to see the foundations laid, predicted, that it would 
be inferiour to the Temple of Solomon, Ezra 3: 12. Hag. 2: 1 — 9. 
To how great an extent, their anticipations turned out to be true, 
there is nothing stated, which will enable us precisely to deter- 

This, however, is clear, that its treasures, which arose from 
the annual contribution of a halt-shekel by every Jew, wherever 
he might be, and from the presents of proselytes and the heathen, 
became immense, Antiq. XIV. 12, 1. XX. 9. 7. Jewish War I. 6,8. 
It was by the aid of these treasures, that the immense walls, which 
have been mentioned, around the bottom of mount Moriah, were 
erected, Jewish War, V. 5, 1. 

But in this Temple, there was only one candlestick, and one 
golden table. The Ark of the covenant, the sacred oil, the Urim and 
Thummim, and the sacred tire were gone ; also that singular cloud, 
the Shekinah, ii:iD"ii, which anciently was seen over the Taber- 
nacle, and had afterwards tilled the Temple, 2Chron. 7, 1 — 3. 
1 Kgs. 8, 10—12. 2 Chron. 6: 13—14. 6: 1 

The Maccabean princes built a tower, which they called Baris, 
on the North side of this edifice. Herod rebuilt, enlarged, and 
adorned i(, and named it Antoma, in honour of Mark Antony, 
Antiq. XV. 11,4. Alexander Jannaeus separated the court of the 
Priests by a wooden trellis from the court of the Israelites, Antiq. 
XIII. 13, 5. 

§ 340. Of the Temple of Herod. 

Herod, by successively renewing the parts of the Tdmple, 
rendered it extremely magniticent. He began the work in the 
16th year before Christ, and finished it, in a great measure, in 
the eighth year ; but additions continued to be made to the Tem- 
ple, till the year 64 axno Domini, John 2: 20. Josephus, Antiqui- 
ties, XV. 11, 1. 5. 6. XX. 9, 7. Jewish War I. 21, 1. 

The Temple, as it appeared after having been subjected to 
the labours of Herod, had three courts or open areas, each one of 
which was situated above the other. 

The first court was enclosed by that outer wall, which has 
been described, and which was raised from the base of the mount. 
In the middle of this court was an ascent of four steps, which led 


to an enclosure of stone. On the gates, that opened through this 
enclosure, and on the columns contiguous, were inscriptions in 
Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, which interdicted, under penalty of 
death, any further entrance, to the unclean and the Gentiles. Im- 
mediately back of this wall, succeeded an ascent of fourteen steps 
into a level space ten cubits broad, which was succeeded by an- 
other ascent of five steps to the gates of the second wall, which 
was forty cubits high outside, and twenty five within. This wall 
enclosed the court of the Israelites, while the first court, in re- 
ference to the inscriptions, which have been mentioned, was call- 

Between the court of the Israelites, ajid that of the Gentiles, 
on the East side, was the court of the Hebrew women^ which was 
separated from the court of the Israelites by a wall so low, as to 
permit its occupants to see the men, while they themselves re^ 
mained unseen. The entrance into the court of the women was 
through two gates, the one on the North, the other on the South 

The quadrangular area, immediatelj^ around the altar and the 
Sanctuary, was called the court of the Priests : it was surround- 
ed by a low, but elegant enclosure, so that the people had an op- 
portunity of looking into it, while, at the same time, they were 
not permitted to enter, Josephus, Antiquities, XV. 1 1, 5. Jewish 
War V. 5, 2—6. 

§ 34 1 . Of the Gates of Herod's Temple. 

The largest Gate was situated in the outer wall, on the Eas- 
tern side. It was called the Beautiful^ d^v^a ojQaia, (Acts 3: 2,) 
and was splendidly ornamented with Corinthian brass, which was 
reckoned preferable either to silver or gold, Pliny N. II. XXXIV. 

It equalled the Sanctuary in height, which, in the highest 
place, was more than an hundred cubits. The folds of this Gate 
were fifty cubits high and forty broad, and were covered with 
plates of gold and silver. The ascent to it was from the valley 
of Cedron over many steps, Josephus, Jewish War, V^. 5, 3. 

To the South of the Temple, there ivas a valley four hundred 
cubits deep. There was a gate, nevertheless, in that direction, 


leading from the wall into the lower part of the city, which 
stretched along through the valley towards the East, in such a 
way, that the wall of tbe city joined itself to the eastern wall of 
the Temple, Antiquities XV. 11,5. 

On the PVcsl side, two Gates led, by numerous steps, into the 
valley below, which ran in a southern direction, and was tilled 
with houses. There were two other Gates on the Western side 
of the Temple beside these ; one of which connected the Temple, 
by means of a bridge over the valley, with mount Zion, and the 
other conducted into the lower part of the cit}', Josephus, Anti- 
quities, %V. 11, 5. Jewish War, V. 5, 3. 

On the JVorth, there was no Gate, but the tower Antonia was 
connected with the Temple by means of a covered passage. This 
tower was so situated, as to command it, and was accordingly 
made the station for a cohort of Roman soldiers. Compare Acts 
21:31 — 34, Josephus, Antiquities XV. 11, 4. Jewish War, V. 
5, 3. 

On the North and South sides of the inner wall^ there vrere 
six Gates, three on each side, which faced each other. On the 
Western side, there was a Gate, which corresponded to the one 
called the Beautiful in the tirst wall, and two Gate^, already men- 
tioned, led into the court of the women. The Western side of 
the inner wall, which was contiguous to the Sanctuary, had no 
Gate, Josephus, Antiquities, XV. 11, 5. Jewish AV^ar, V. 5, 3. 

Airthese Gates had folds, were thirty cubits high, and fifteen 
broad ; the threshholds and the posts, as well as the Gates, were 
covered with silver and gold. They were all surmounted with a 
sort of turret, which increased the height to forty cubits. There 
was a vacant space left around the Gates of thirty cubits in extent, 
where the people were in the habit of assembling, Jewish War, 
V. 5, 3. 

§ 342. Porches ix the Temple of Herod. 

A TRIPLE porch extended around the southern wall of the 
court of the Gentiles, but the Porches in the other directions, that 
is to say, which were contiguous to the Northern, Eastern, and 
Western sides or walls of this court, were merely double. The 
Porches, in the court of the Israelites, were double likewise. 

434 § 342. TORCHES IN the temple op HEROD. 

Each double Porch rested on a triple^ and Vach triple Porch 
on a quadruple row of columns, the last row being contiguous to 
the wall. 

The columns, (which were Corinthian in respect to architec- 
ture,) were hewn out of white marble, and were twenty live cu- 
bits in height, but the whole altitude, including pedestals, capi- 
tals, cornice, and roof, did not fall short of fifty cubits. 

The columns were so large, that three men could scarcely 
extend their arms around them. The roof, which was flat, was 
constructed of cedar wood. 

Each of these Porches was thirty cubits broad, and fifty high; 
with this exception, viz. that the middle one on the South side 
was forty five broad and an hundred high, from the roof of which, 
one could hardly look down into the valley below, five hundred 
cubits deep, without experienceing dizziness. It is this Porch, 
without doubt, which is called, in Matthew 4: 5, nnQvyiov rov 
hQOv^ the pinnacle of the Temple. Compare Matthew 4: 5. with 
Strabo p. 805. Antiquities XV. 11, 5. A^ish War, V. 5, 2. 

The eastern Porch in the court of tiie Gentiles was called Solo- 
mon^s, John 10: 23. Acts 5: 12. Jewish War, V. 5, 1. 

All the Porches were paved with marble of various colours, 
Josephus, Jewish War, V. 5, 2. The Porches in the court of the 
Gentiles were resorted to by money changers, and those, who 
sold animals, that were d^jstined for the altar, Matt. 21 : 12 — 16. 
John 2: 12 — 22. Jerusalem Talmud, Gemara, Jam tob. p. 61. and 
Chagiga p. 78, 1. In this court, (that of the Gentiles,) appear to 
have been repositories^ of which we are informed by Josephus, 
(Jewish Vv'ar VI. b, 2.) in which the treasures, utensils, and sup- 
plies, &c. of the temple were kept. But these repositories are 
to be distinguished from the treasurj', mentioned in Mark 12:41, 
into which the gifts of the Temi)le were cast. 

The Talmudists state, that there were thirteen such treasu- 
ries, different ones being allotted for the reception of different ar- 
ticles. They further state, that they were situated in the court of 
the wGinen^ and that they were cofl'ers or boxes, which, in point of 
shape resembled a horn, the gifts of the Temple being thrown in- 
to them. 

It may be inferred from the nature of the case, no less than 
from the fact of Josephus incidentally mentioning subterranean 

§ 343. OF THE SANCTUARY. 435 

chambers, that there were probably other apartments in these 
COURTS, of which the knowledge has not come to us. 

The altar for victims was constructed of unhewn stones, fif- 
teen cubits high, and fifty in length and breadth, and the corners of 
it projected upwards, like horns. The ascent to it was on the South 
side, Josephus, Jewish War, V. 6, 6. 

§ 343. Of the Sanctuary. 

The Sanctuary or Temple strictly so called, o' vaog^ vvas con- 
structed of white marble, was higher than the court of the priests, 
and was approached by an ascent of twelve steps. The porch of 
the Sanctuary or pronaos was an hundred cubits high, and as many 
broad. The open space, which served as an entrance into it, and 
which was destitute of folds or door of any sort, because, as Jose- 
phus informs us, it was a symbol of the visible heaven, was 
seventy cubits high and twenty five broad. 

The interiour of the Porch vvas ninety cubits high, fift}"^ from 
North to South, and twenty from East to West ; so that on the 
North and South, there was room for recesses or chambers of al- 
most twenty cubits in extent. 

The entrance, which opened into the Sanctuary, was fifty five 
cubits high and sixteen broad. Over it was the figure of a vine in 
gold of the size of a man, and loaded with golden clusters. This 
entrance was closed by an embroidered veil, Josephus, Jewish 
War, V. 5, 4. Antiquities, XV. 11, 3. It was in the Porch of the 
Temple, that Judas cast down his thirty pieces of silver, Matt. 
27: 5. 

The Sanctuary itself was twenty cubits broad, sixty long, 
and sixty high. It was surrounded on three sides, with a struc- 
ture, three stories high, making an altitude of forty cubits. It 
equalled the Porch or nQOvaog^ pronaos, in breadth, into the two 
chambers of which, there was an entrance from it. On the flat 
roof of the Sanctuary were erected long, sharp rods of iron, 
covered with gold, Josephus, Jewish War, V. 5, 5 — 6. 

From the Sanctuary, which, as has been remarked, was sixty 
cubits high, although only twenty broad, we enter into the sanc- 
TissiMUM or Holij of holies, which was twenty cubits in length, 
twenty broad, and twenty high, «o that thore were two stories 

436 § 344. ORIGIN OF synagogues. 

above, each of twenty cubits. In the Sanctuary, was the golden 
candlestick, the golden table, and the altar of incense, but in the 
most Holy place, there was nothing deposited. The walls within 
and without, we are under the necessity of supposing, were cov- 
ered with gold ; and it was separated from the Sanctuary by an 
embroidered veil, Josephus, Jewish War, V. 5, 5. 

§ 3i4. Origin of Synagogues. 

Although the sacrifices couid not be offered, except in the 
Tabernacle or the Temple, all the other exercises of religion 
were restricted to no particular place. Accordingly we find, that 
the praises of God were sung, at a very ancient period, in the 
Schools of the prophets, and those, who felt an}' particular inter- 
est in religion, were assembled by the Seers, on the Sabbath, and 
the New-moons, for prayers and religious instruction, 1 Sam. 10: 
5—11. 19:18—24. 2 Kgs. 4: 23. 

During the Babylonish Captivit}', the Jews, who were then 
deprived of their customary religious privileges, were w