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JaLines Oglethorpe : The Founder of
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jTHE NEW YORK
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R 1904 L
Copyright, 1904, by
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY
Published, February, 1904
THE CHILDREN OF GEORGIA
Washington is no better entitled to be
called the Father of his Country than Ogle-
thorpe is to the same distinction with refer-
ence to the State which he founded. It is un-
fortunately true that his life, his achieve-
ments, and his character are not as well known
to the people of Georgia as they should be, and
in the hope of familiarizing the youth of the
State with them this book was written.
The influence of a noble life is great and
far-reaching, but extends only to those who
have been made to know it. The office of
biography is to body forth those great person-
alities to the world, and the larger intent of
this work is to extend to the uttermost the in-
spiring effect of the character of General
James Edward Oglethorpe.
I. Ancestry and Early Years .... 1
II. Parliament and Prison Reform ... 8
III. Arrival in Savannah 20
IV. Indians and the Coast Islands ... 29
V. Immigration 37
VI. Return to England 46
VII. Parliament and the Slave Trade ... 53
VIII. Troubles among the Settlers ... 63
IX. Indian Troubles 70
X. Charles Wesley and Other Complications . 78
XI. Affair with the Spaniards . . . .84
XII. With the Spanish Commissioners ... 91
XIII. Commander-in-Chief in Carolina and Georgia 98
XIV. Journeys to the Interior .... 109
XV. Troubles in Florida 118
XVI. Attack on the Florida Forts . . .131
XVII. Peace and the Coming of Whitefield . . 139
XVIII. War with the Spaniards again . . .153
XIX. After the War 177
XX. Return to England — The Pretender . . 186
XXI. Old Age and Death 197
Authorities Consulted 210
LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS
James Oglethorpe • . . . . Frontispiece
Tomo Chichi 24
Jerusalem Church, Ebenezer, Georgia .... 44
Savannah in 1734 58
Charles Wesley 80
George Whitefield 144
Fort San Marcos, now called Fort Marion , , , 182
Samuel Johnson , , 198
ANCESTRY AND EARLY YEARS
The Margravate of Azilia had not been
successful. Notwithstanding the declaration
of Sir Robert Montgomery that it was ^Hhe
most amiable country in the universe," and
that ''paradise with all its virgin beauties is
at most but equal with its native excellencies, ' '
yet Azilia remained unpeopled, and Sir Rob-
ert gave up his Utopian scheme.
That was in the year 1717. The struggling
colony of Carolina had attracted the attention
of this English nobleman ; the hope of adding
to his fortune, while ignorant of the difficulties
to be overcome, had inspired the scheme of
planting a colony which should be at once
lucrative to himself and to the colonists. The-
oretically, Sir Robert's plans were perfect.
He would obtain a grant of lands lying be-
tween the rivers Altamaha and Savannah, and
bring out at his own expense and within three
years a considerable number of families to set-
tle this future Eden.
He further mapped out the 256,000 acres
in symmetrical squares of one mile each, with
a continuous projecting line of defenses, so
secure that no savage dare molest or make
afraid. At the very beginning the colonists
should enjoy safety, liberty, and comparative
wealth. There remained only one step to se-
cure the foundation of the colony of Azilia —
that was, obtaining the colonists. A broad
and deep ocean rolled between England and
America ; contrary winds must be encountered ;
a long voyage of weeks or months ; a parting
for life from all they loved in Old England;
a home to be made among savages — all this
made many shrink back and decline Sir Rob-
ert's fair offer. And so it came to pass that
Georgia was not called ^ ^Azilia,'' nor does it
glory in Sir Robert Montgomery as its founder.
In 1729 Sir Alexander Cuming, one of
the victims of the South Sea Bubble — vision-
ary, of course, and apparently anxious for an-
other catastrophe — proposed to build on the
Bermuda Islands a college to educate Indians.
The scheme fell through for want of Indians
— not one in Bermuda, nor ever had been.
Sir Alexander must needs look farther west,
and turned toward what was called the won-
Ancestry and Early Years
derful Cherokee country, asserting that its
fabulous riches could pay England's debt in
Sir Alexander was finally sent as an em-
bassy to these Cherokees, and succeeded, after
some months, in convincing two head warriors
and a conjurer of his importance and the
power of England. They acknowledged the
King's rule and Sir Alexander as their head.
Warriors, Beloved-men, Conjurers assembled,
and, placing him on a high seat, formed a cir-
cle around him with thirteen eagles' tails,
sang all day their war songs, and fasted. Such
an auspicious beginning should have brought
worthier results, but our record only states
that the following year Sir Alexander returned
to England, taking with him seven chiefs, who
laid the crown of the Cherokees at his
Majesty's feet, and presented to him five
eagles ' tails and four scalps, which did not go
far toward paying England's debt. Yet the
*' Cherokee country" did not lose its reputa-
tion; was destined to be colonized, and what
Sir Robert Montgomery and Sir Alexander
Cuming had attempted, remained for James
Oglethorpe to accomplish.
Oglethorpe came of an ancient family, the
records showing that before the Normans en-
tered England his ancestors held the estate of
Oglethorpe, in the parish of Bramham. Says
Thorsby in his History of Leeds : ' ' Tradition
saith that one of the family of Oglethorpe was
Reeve (High Sheriff) of the county at the time
of the Norman advent, and condemned by the
Conqueror for opposing his designs. The an-
cient seat of Oglethorpe continued in the fam-
ily till the civil wars when it was lost for their
loyalty ; and it is said that several of the name
died at once in the bed of honor, being slain
in a battle near Oxford, of the King 's party. ' '
Sutton of Oglethorpe was, on account of
his loyalty, ^^ mulcted by Parliament in the
sum of £20,000, and his estate eventually fell
to the lot of Fairfax. '^ This Sutton was
grandfather to our hero. Of his two sons,
Theophilus, the younger, entered the army,
became lieutenant-colonel, and at the battle of
Sedgemoor led the Life-Guards, contributing
materially to the victory gained by the royal-
ists. He was honored with knighthood, ^^ at-
tained the rank of major-general and first-
equerry to James II, taking command of the
army assembled to oppose the Prince of Or-
ange. He was, after the Revolution, deprived
of his regiment, but was able to purchase the
manor of Westbrook, and married Eleanor,
daughter of Richard Wall, Esq., and of Kath-
arine de la Roche, of the Lord Roche family of
Ancestry and Early Years
Ireland, connected by marriage with the Scot-
tish house of Argyle." Sir Theophilus, after
serving in two Parliaments, died in his fiftieth
year and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
Thus ends the record of the father of Ogle-
thorpe. His mother. Lady Eleanor, who sur-
vived her husband thirty years, was in the
court of Queen Anne of so much influence,
that Swift spoke of her in his coarse way as ^ * a
cunning devil. ' ' Of her seven children, three
were sons. The two elder, Lewis and The-
ophilus, seem to have made an honorable
record in military service and in Parliament,
but died young. Thus it was that James
Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia, succeeded to
the family estate.
Little is known of his early years. From
the parish register we learn that he was born
June 1, 1689, and was educated in Corpus
Christi College, Oxford. Before entering the
army he served for a few years as * ^ gentleman
volunteer abroad." During that time the in-
cident occurred thus related by Boswell :
When a very young man, only fifteen, serving
under Prince Eugene of Savoy, he was sitting at
table in company with a prince of the House of
Wiirtemberg, who took up a glass of wine, and by a
fillip made some of it fly into Oglethorpe's face.
The young soldier was in a dilemma. He durst not
challenge so distinguished a personage, yet he must
notice the affront. Therefore, keeping his eye fixed
on his Highness, and smiling at the time, as if he
took what had been done in jest, Oglethorpe ex-
claimed : ' ' That 's a good joke, but we do it much
better in England!" whereupon he flung a whole
glass full of wine in the prince's face. An old gen-
eral present observed, " II a bien fait, mon prince,
vous I'avez commence" — and thus the affair ended
in good humor.
Oglethorpe entered the English army as
ensign in 1710, and there remained until peace
was made in 1713. In the year following he
was made captain-lieutenant of the Queen ^s
Life-Guards, but, preferring active life, soon
went to the Continent and enlisted under Prince
Eugene. Peace being concluded between the
Emperor and the Sultan, Oglethorpe returned
to England in 1718, and for some years resided
at Westbrook on the family estate — an estate
then valued at nearly a million dollars.
The old mansion still remains, though
greatly changed. In front, rich meadow-lands
slope gradually to the banks of the River Wey,
while in the rear the land rises to a steep height,
covered with noble trees and commanding a
view of the town of Godalming. A tradition
still holds faith in that region that the Pre-
tender was once secreted at Westbrook by
Ancestry and Early Years
Lady Oglethorpe, that he used to walk in the
twilight and early morning, wrapped in a large
cloak, and some rustics, coming suddenly on
the strange figure, thought he was a ghost,
which notion was encouraged by Lady Ogle-
thorpe, in order to keep people away. To this
day the house is said to be haunted.
PAELIAMENT AND PKISON EEFOBM
In 1722 Oglethorpe, then thirty-three
years old, was elected to Parliament from
Haslerqere, and for thirty years represented
that borough. From the first his career was
consistent and independent. He spoke fre-
quently and always to the point, yet he was
no orator, and was known rather for what he
did than for what he said. It is probable that
he inherited a sympathy for the Stuarts, yet
was ever loyal to the reigning house, and an
ardent supporter of the Protestant succession.
In Parliament his sympathies were chiefly en-
listed in bills which came up for the redress
of grievances, and especially for the relief of
At this day we can hardly understand how
English law punished alike and thrust into
the same dungeon thieves, pirates, murderers,
with the man whose crime was debt — debt in-
curred oftentimes as security for some friend.
Parliament and Prison Reform
The jails of London were a disgrace to human-
ity. Fever, filth, smallpox, were encountered
in common, while inhuman keepers plied
thumbscrews and sneered at the sufferings of
One Mr. Castell, a skilled architect and
author of a costly work. The Villas of the An-
cients, became involved in debt, was arrested,
and taken to a ^ ^ sponging-house ' ' attached to
Fleet Prison. Not being able to compromise
his debts, nor to satisfy the warden's demand
for bribes, he was thrust into a ward in which
smallpox was raging. Terrified with fear of
the disease, he entreated to be sent elsewhere,
even into the jail itself, but in vain. He
caught the disease, and soon died, with his last
breath charging the warden as his murderer.
Castell was well known to Oglethorpe, who at
once determined to do his utmost toward put-
ting an end to such national crimes. At the
earliest opportunity he brought the subject be-
fore Parliament. That body appointed a vis-
iting committee of fourteen members of the
House of Commons, with Oglethorpe as chair-
They promptly inspected the various pris-
ons and presented their reports; ^Hhe details
of some,'' says a historian, ^^were too painful
and loathsome to be repeated." In the Mar-
shalsea's low rooms, not sixteen feet square,
were confined forty, and even fifty, human be-
ings. ^^The floor not being sufficient for the
sleepers, half of them were suspended in ham-
mocks, and so tainted was the atmosphere
that they perished for want of fresh air. The
sick wards were still worse. Along the walls
boards were laid on trestles; under these
boards one tier of sick men lay on the floor,
on the dresser was another tier, and in the
hammocks overhead another tier still. . . .
A day never passed without death, and in
spring from eight to ten prisoners died every
twenty-four hours. Many well-disposed per-
sons left money for the destitute, but it was
confiscated by the jailors. '^ The wardens
grew rich on bribes. Investigation proved
that Bainbridge received in this way an aver-
age of £5,000 yearly. He it was who loaded
Sir William Rich with irons because of a dis-
pute with him. The committee ordered his
release, but on making another visit found him
again in chains. Mr. Oglethorpe, as chairman
of the committee, reported the matter to Par-
liament, and the barbarous warden was him-
Pirates and abandoned ruffians were suf-
fered to mix with the unfortunate debtors.
Their conduct became so insufferable that some
Parliament and Prison Reform
decent prisoners attempted to escape. They
were detected, and the officers made it an ex-
cuse for resorting to the thumbscrew, forcing
blood from finger-ends. Afterward they were
taken to the strong room, a collar fastened on
the neck and screwed until blood gushed from
nose and ears and the eyes almost started
from the head. Savagery could go little far-
ther, but the inhuman Acton added to these
barbarities by chaining the living to the dead,
and keeping prisoners for days in the same
yard with unburied corpses.
Gradually the committee unearthed these
horrors. For several years Oglethorpe's time
was occupied with the painful task, but he then
had the satisfaction of knowing that he had
accomplished much, if not all he desired, for
the relief of the unfortunate prisoners, and for
the punishment of barbarous jailors. A thor-
ough inspection of the prisons and reforms
begun, wiped out to some extent the stain on
England 's governing power.
Meanwhile Oglethorpe had not neglected
other duties, and if in Parliament he was often
in the minority, it was because he was battling
for the right against the interests of party, or
pleading the cause of the oppressed.
While chairman of the committee sent to
investigate the condition of prisons and their
inmates Oglethorpe had conceived a plan for
helping those prisoners confined merely for
debt. Many of them were of respectable con-
nection, and he proposed that the claims of
their creditors be compromised on condition
of their going as colonists to America and
planting a settlement adjoining the Carolinas
on the tract of land which Sir Robert Mont-
gomery had described as ^ 4n the same parallel
as Palestine and pointed out by God's own
choice. ' '
The scheme grew until it embraced not
only the unfortunate of England, but the per-
secuted Protestants of Euroi3e. To obtain the
necessary means, Oglethorpe sought the co-
operation of men of wealth and influence, and
in due time, twenty others uniting with him,
petitioned the throne for a charter, which was
granted June 9, 1732, by King George, for
whom the colony was to be called Georgia.
OglethorjDe then published anonymously some
essays calling attention to the proposed emi-
gration, and pointing out the objects and ad-
vantage of such a movement. In the third
chapter he wrote :
Let us cast our eyes upon the multitude of un-
fortunate people in this kingdom, of reputable fam-
ilies and of liberal education; some undone by
Parliament and Prison Reform
guardians, some by lawsuits, some by accidents in
commerce, some by stocks and bubbles, some by
suretyship ; but all agree in this one circumstance
that they must either be burdensome to their rela-
tions, or betake themselves to little shifts for sus-
tenance which it is ten to one do not answer their
purposes, and to which a well-educated person
descends with the utmost constraint. These are the
persons who may relieve themselves and strengthen
Georgia by resorting thither and Great Britain by
I appeal to the recollection of the reader —
though he be opulent, though he be noble — does not
his own sphere of acquaintance furnish him with
some instances of such persons as have been de-
scribed? Must they starve? What honest heart
can bear to think of it ? Must they be fed by the
contributions of others? Certainly they must,
rather than be suffered to perish. I have heard it
said, and it is easy to say so, ''Let them learn to
work; let them subdue their pride and descend to
mean employments; keep ale-houses or coffee-
houses, even sell fruit or clean shoes for an honest
livelihood." But, alas! these occupations and
many like them are already overstocked by people
who know better how to follow them than do those
of whom we have been talking. As for laboring,
I could almost wish that the gentleman or merchant
who thinks that another gentleman or merchant in
want can thrash or dig to the value of subsistence
for his family or even for himself; I say I could
wish the person who so thinks were obliged to make
trial of it for one week — or, not to be too severe,
for one day only. He would then find himself to be
less than the fourth part of a laborer, and that the
fourth part of a laborer 's wages would not support
him. It must be admitted that before he can learn
he may starve. Men whose wants are importunate
must try such experiments as will give immediate
relief. 'Tis too late for them to begin to learn a
trade, when their pressing needs call for the ex-
ercise of it.
To the suggestion that such persons were
unfitted for the drudgery of agriculture, he re-
plied that in Georgia the land was so fertile as
to yield an hundredfold, and they would have
it for nothing. ^^Give here in England," he
added, ^^ten acres of good land to one of these
helpless persons, and I doubt not his ability
to make it support him ; but the difference be-
tween no rent and rack-rent is the difference
between eating and starving. . . . The un-
fortunate will not be obliged to bind them-
selves to a long service to pay for their passage,
for they may be carried gratis into a land of
liberty and plenty, where they will find them-
selves in possession of competent estates, in a
happier climate then they knew before; and
they are unfortunate indeed if they can not
forget their sorrows. ' '
Parliament and Prison Reform
The trustees fully concurred with Ogle-
thorpe in these views, believing, as they said,
that ''there are many poor unfortunate per-
sons in this country who would willingly labor
for their bread if they could find employment
and get bread by laboring.'^ They gener-
ously had inserted into the charter clauses re-
straining them from receiving any salary, fee,
perquisite — any profit whatever — or from ob-
taining any grant of lands within the district,
either themselves or in trust for them. "No
colony,'' wrote Southey, "was ever estab-
lished on principles more honorable to its
projectors. ' '
They also set the example of contributing
largely of their private means, and so charita-
ble, wise, and unselfish were their plans that
contributions came from people of every rank,
from public institutions, and from Parliament,
which granted them the sum of £10,000. A
letter was received from far-off Pennsylvania
enclosing £100 from William Penn, and very
highly approving their undertaking, promis-
ing all the assistance in his power.
Dr. Hewatt, a Scotch minister from
Charleston, thus expressed the feelings of
many : ' ' The benevolent founders of the colony
of Georgia may challenge the annals of any
nation to produce a design more generous and
praiseworthy. They voluntarily offered their
money, their labor, and time for promoting
what appeared to them the good of others, hav-
ing nothing for reward but the inexpressible
satisfaction arising from virtuous actions.''
Tracts were now distributed describing the
climate and products of the happy land. The
poet Waller pictured it a veritable Eden, de-
claring in his enthusiasm :
Heaven sure hath kept this spot of earth uncurst,
To show how all things were created first.
The funds raised were to feed, clothe,
arm, and transport to Georgia such poor
people as they should select from those who
offered to go. An account was opened with
the Bank of England, where a register was
kept of the benefactors and their donations.
They also bound themselves to make an an-
nual statement of receipts and expenditures
before the Lord Chancellor and chief of the
courts. Arrangements being completed, the
trustees now announced that they were ready
to receive applications from those who wished
to emigrate. A committee was appointed to
visit the jails and obtain the discharge of
such poor prisoners as were worthy, care-
fully investigating character, circumstances ,
and antecedents. Stevens, in his History of
Parliament and Prison Reform
Georgia, referring to the Gentleman's Maga-
zine of London, 1732, and to the manuscript
Journal of the Trustees, concludes that "in
this selection the trustees exhibited peculiar
care and discrimination. They required good
moral characters, and examined into the causes
and conditions of the misfortunes of each.
They confined their charity to such only as
fell into misfortunes of trade, and admitted
none of those who could get a subsistence in
England. They suffered none to go who
would leave wives or families without support,
none who had the character of lazy or immoral
men, and would go without the consent of their
creditors." Colonel Charles Jones, consid-
ered by Bancroft *Hhe best historian America
ever had," says of this painstaking selection
of colonists for Georgia :
Other American colonies were founded and
augmented by individuals coming at will, without
question, for personal gain, and bringing no certifi-
cate of present or past good conduct. Georgia, on
the contrary, exhibits the spectacle, at once unique
and admirable, of permitting no one to enter her
borders who was not deemed, by competent au-
thority, worthy the rights of citizenship.
A common seal was adopted. On one side
was the genius of the colony, a figure repre-
senting Liberty. Spear in one hand, cornu-
copia in the other, she was seated between two
rivers, which formed the northern and south-
ern boundaries, and surrounded by the words
^'Colonia, Georgia, Aug." On the reverse were
silkworms at work and the motto '^Non Sibi,
Sed Aliis, ' ' thus representing the disinterested
motives of the trustees, and also the special
industry they had in view. Having learned
that the mulberry was indigenous to Georgia
and the climate suitable for the silkworm, they
had decided that the silk industry would fur-
nish the most suitable employment for the
women and children, the old and infirm, leav-
ing harder and more necessary work for the
laborers. Experts from Italy were engaged
to teach the best methods of feeding worms and
winding silk from cocoons. Oglethorpe had
before endeavored to encourage silk-weaving
in England, and now proposed to produce in
this new colony the raw material.
As they would be exposed to attacks from
both Spanish and Indian enemies, they should
be soldiers as well as planters. Accordingly
they were provided with arms, and, until their
departure, daily drilled by sergeants of the
Royal Guards. For the same reason it was
thought best to establish such a tenure as would
equalize the number of soldier-planters, and
Parliament and Prison Reform
place the number of land lots within a narrow
compass. Each lot was to be held as a military
fief, and to consist of just sufficient land for a
comfortable support. Fifty acres was consid-
ered enough for a farmer and his family.
It was also determined to prohibit slavery
within the province : first, because they would
not require such heavy labor as to make the
assistance of negroes necessary; second, be-
cause if any were permitted at their own ex-
pense to import slaves, it would discourage,
perhaps ruin, the poor people who were to form
the strength of the colony. Thirty-five fam-
ilies, numbering one hundred and twenty per-
sons, were selected. Among them were men
of various trades, all of whom were supplied
AERIVAL IN SAVANNAH
On the 16th of November, 1732, the emi-
grants embarked at Gravesend on the ship
Anne. Oglethorpe, who had so earnestly
planned and worked for the good of these un-
fortunate people, determined to go with them,
share their dangers and fatigues, and watch
over the establishment of the young colony.
He was then in the prime of life, tall, manly,
and dignified, said to be ^'the beau-ideal of an
English gentleman, and blessed with ample
means for the gratification of every reason-
able desire, yet he resolved for a time to deny
himself those pleasures for which his nature
fitted him, and to become the associate of the
poor and ignorant." Doubtless it required
more real manliness, more moral courage,
than to charge an enemy. Many called him
quixotic, romantic, foolish. The foolishness
was, however, very deliberate and the ro-
Oglethorpe had undertaken the work on the
Arrival in Savannah
condition that he was not to receive any salary
or other recompense, but was authorized by
the trustees to act as Colonial Governor.
They accompanied him to the ship, bade
him good speed, and the day following the
Anne, with its 120 emigrants and their
leader, put out to sea. Oglethorpe had not
only furnished his cabin and supplied pro-
visions for himself and servants, but during
the voyage largely contributed to the comfort
of his fellow passengers. For two months
they sailed toward the west, arriving January
13th in the harbor of Charleston, S. C, where
^ ^ they thanked God and took courage. ' ' Their
last Sabbath in Old England had been spent
together in prayer, so their first in their new
home was devoted to earnest prayer and
The sister colony of South Carolina warmly
welcomed them, and with good cause. They
were to be a protection against her Spanish
enemy to the south. The Governor and his
council promised all the assistance in his
power, and ordered the King's pilot to conduct
the ship into Port Eoyal, some eighty miles
southward, from whence the colonists were to
be conveyed in small vessels to the river Savan-
nah. They set sail the day following, while
Oglethorpe went on to Beaufort, and ascended
the Savannah River to explore the country and
select a site for their town. Yamacraw Bluff
attracted his attention, and there on the rich
delta lands of the Savannah he fixed their place
During his absence the emigrants had ar-
rived at Beaufort, to which place he returned
on the 24th. The Sabbath which followed they
celebrated as a day of special thanksgiving, in
which the kind people of Beaufort joined.
Before their departure Oglethorpe provided
for them and their new-made friends a bounti-
ful feast. Among the items mentioned are
**four fat hogs, eight turkeys, many fowls,
English beef, a hogshead of beer, and a gener-
ous supply of wine.^' We are informed that
no one drank to excess, but that subsequently
Oglethorpe made stringent laws against the
sale of intoxicating drinks.
The feast being over, they set sail for their
new home. Savannah — so called after the river
flowing past — and landed there on the last day
of the month, rejoicing to escape from long
confinement on board the vessel. Four tents
were set up, while the men went to work
to construct with branches of trees addi-
tional bowers for present use. Watch-fires
were lighted and the weary people retired to
rest. Their faithful leader lay upon the
Arrival in Savannah
ground near the central fire, and at his mid-
night round found all except his sentinels in
peaceful slumber. When morning came he
called his little band together, to unite with him
in fervent thanks to God for his mercy in
bringing them safely to the land of their adop-
tion. He gave them also a few words of coun-
sel, warning them most of all against drunk-
enness, from which some of them had already
suffered. In spite of every precaution and
law, rum might be brought among them, and
he urged them to resist temptation on their
own account and for the sake of their Indian
neighbors, to whom ^ ^ fire-water ' ' was invaria-
bly fatal. He reminded them that the seed
sown by themselves would, morally as well as
literally, bring forth fruit for good or for evil
in coming generations. ''But," said he, ''it
is my hope that, through your good example,
the settlement of Georgia may prove a blessing
and not a curse to the native inhabitants. ' '
In a letter to the trustees dated February
10, 1733, Oglethorpe thus describes the situa-
tion of Savannah :
The river here forms a half-moon, around the
south side of which the banks are about forty feet
high, and on the top a flat, which they call a bluff.
The plain, high ground extends into the country
about five or six miles, and along the river for about
a mile. Ships that draw near twelve feet of water
can ride within ten yards of the bank. Upon the
riverside, in the center of the plain, I have laid out
the town, opposite to which is an island of very
rich pasturage, which, I think, should be kept for
the trustees' cattle. The river is pretty wide, the
water fresh, and from the quay of the town you see
its whole course to the sea, with the island of Tybee,
which forms the mouth of the river. For about six
miles up into the country the landscape is very
agreeable, the stream being wide and bordered with
high woods on both sides.
The colonists were charmed with this new
country. Its groves of live-oak, bay, cypress,
sweet-gum, myrtle, and tupelo were vine-cov-
ered or draped in long gray moss, while the
yellow jasmine trailed its odorous clusters
over the shrubs which overhung the hlufP, and
the gayest of birds filled the woods. No love-
lier spot had they ever seen, and no suspicion
of malarial air or lurking foe troubled them as
they set to work. Oglethorpe was wiser, and
while everywhere planning and encouraging,
thought it important to obtain at once the con-
sent of the natural owners of the soil to the
settlement of the colony among them. To this
end he sought an interview with Tomo Chichi,
the chief of the Yamacraws, who lived two or
three miles farther up the river. There Ogle-
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Arrival in Savannah
thorpe went, taking with him an interpreter,
one Mary Musgrove, an Indian woman who
had married a Carolina trader. This woman
proved very useful on account of her influence
with the Indians, and Oglethorpe afterward
gave her £100 yearly for her services. It was
not until after Oglethorpe 's time that she gave
serious trouble to the colony.
The interview with Tomo Chichi was satis-
factory, but he stated that there were larger
and more warlike tribes just beyond his own,
whose consent must be gained to the proposed
compact, and he furthermore agreed to invite
a deputation of these tribes to hold a confer-
ence in Savannah with this people from across
the great sea. In Oglethorpe ^s next letter to
the trustees he wrote as follows :
This province is much larger than we thought,
being one hundred and twenty miles from this
river to the Altamaha. The Savannah has a very
long course, and a great trade is carried on by the
Indians, there having above twelve trading boats
passed since I have been here. There are in Georgia,
on this side the mountains, three considerable na-
tions of Indians — one called the Lower Creek, con-
sisting of nine towns, or rather cantons, making
about one thousand men able to bear arms. One of
these towns is within a short distance of us,
and has concluded a peace with us, giving us
the right of all this part of the country; and I
have marked out the lands which they have reserved
to themselves. Their king comes constantly to
church, is desirous to be instructed in the Christian
religion, and has given me his nephew — a boy who
is his next heir — ^to educate.
The two other nations are the lichees and the
Upper Creek, the first consisting of two hundred,
the latter of eleven hundred men. We agree so
well with the Indians that the Creeks and the
Uchees have referred to me a difference to deter-
mine, which otherwise would have occasioned war.
Our people still lie in tents, there being only two
clapboard houses built, and three sawed houses
framed. Our crane, our battery cannon, and maga-
zine are finished. This is all we have been able to
do by reason of the smallness of our number, of
which many have been sick, and others unused to
labor, though I thank God they are now pretty
well, and we have not lost one since we have arrived
The people of Carolina were, for various
reasons, much interested in the Georgia colony,
and several gentlemen made a canoe voyage
from Charleston to this new settlement at
Savannah. From the South Carolina Gazette
the following extract is taken, which gives
their impressions of the leader of the colony:
Mr. Oglethorpe is indefatigable, and takes a
vast deal of pains. His fare is but indifferent,
having little else at present but salt provisions. He
Arrival in Savannah
is extremely well beloved by the people. The title
they give him is Father. If any of them are sick,
he immediately visits them and takes great care of
them. If any difference arises, he is the person who
decides it. Two happened while I was here and
in my presence, and all the parties went away to
all outward appearance satisfied, and contented
with the determination. He keeps a strict disci-
pline; I neither saw one of his people drunk, nor
heard one swear all the time I have been here. He
does not allow them rum, but in lieu gives them
English beer. It is surprising to see how cheerfully
the men go to work, considering they have not been
bred to it. There are no idlers, even the boys and
girls do their part. There are four houses already
up, but none finished; he hopes that he has got
more sawyers to finish two houses a week. He has
plowed up some land, part of which is sowed with
wheat, which is come up and looks promising.
He has two or three gardens which he has sowed
with divers sorts of seeds and planted thyme with
other pot-herbs, and several sorts of fruit-trees.
He was palisading the town around, including part
of the common. In short, he has done a vast deal
of work for the time, and I think his name deserves
to be immortalized. . . . The Indians who are
thereabouts are very fond of Mr. Oglethorpe and
assist him what they can ; and he, on the other side,
is very civil to them.
The Governor of South Carolina sent Mr.
Bull to assist in laying out the town. One of
the streets still bears his name. Mr. Bull
brought with him four sawyers, who, with the
help of the colonists, felled a large number of
trees for building more houses. Oglethorpe
ordered a few of the finest trees spared, and
under a group of pines placed his own tent,
where he lived for nearly a year, refusing to
take possession of even a hut for his own use.
Amid all the work he found time to lay out
a public garden, designed as a nursery for sup-
plying the colonists with white-mulberry trees,
vines, orange and olive trees, and appointed a
gardener to care for them. Meanwhile, he
superintended the clearing of land, the build-
ing of houses, and constructing of fortifica-
tions. To each he assigned his proper work,
and even women and children were not idle.
Said a writer of that day: "He gave at the
same time his orders and his example. There
was nothing he did not which he directed
others to do." His quick eye detected any
shirking, but so much was he revered that a
gentle reproof recalled them to duty.
INDIANS AND THE COAST ISLANDS
Oglethoepe now deemed it best to go to
Charleston, and there, before the Governor and
General Assembly, he made a formal address.
After thanking them for their assistance, he
Your charitable and generous proceeding, be-
sides the self-satisfaction which always attends
such actions, will be the greatest advantage to this
province. You, gentlemen, are the best judges of
this, since the most of you have been personal wit-
nesses of the dangerous blows this country has
escaped from the French, Spanish, and Indian
arms. You know there was a time when every day
brough fresh advices of murders, ravages, and
burnings ; when no profession or calling was exempt
from arms; when the inhabitants of the province
were obliged to leave their wives, their families,
their usual occupations, and undergo all the
fatigues of war, for the necessary defense of the
country ; and all their endeavors scarcely sufficient
to defend the western and southern frontier from
the Indians. It would be needless for me to tell
you, who are much better judges, how the increas-
ing settlements of the new colony on the southern
frontiers will prevent the like danger in future.
Nor need I tell you how much every plantation will
increase in value, by the safety of the province
being increased, since the lands to the southward
already sell for above double what they did when
the new colonists first arrived. Nor need I mention
the great lessening of the burdens of the people,
by increasing the income of the tax from the many
hundred thousand acres of land either taken or
taking up on the prospect of future security.
On Oglethorpe's return to Savannah he
was pleased to find awaiting him the repre-
sentatives of the Lower Creeks, which con-
sisted of eight tribes, all speaking the same
dialect. These Indians were tall, well-formed
men, had unusual skill in hunting, and were
also well advanced in their ideas of the rights
and duties of man. They had no religious
exercises, yet believed in the existence of a
supreme being, whom they called Sotolycate —
He who sitteth above and said that all nations
were descended from two brothers, one white
and the other red. They respected old age,
and exhibited some tenderness for the sorrow-
ing in that they refrained from speaking of
the dead to one who mourned, or of brothers
Indians and the Coast Islands
to one who had lost a brother. To do so was
an offense justifying revenge. Suicide was
detested as the meanest cowardice. They
seemed, moreover, to realize their ignorance
and desired to be instructed.
Oglethorpe received them with the same
courtesy he would have extended to men of his
own nation, exj^laining that the English de-
sired neither to annoy or dispossess them, but
to live in friendship, to obtain from them some
land, and to make a treaty of friendship and
commerce. Onechachumpa, a giant-like war-
rior, replied, stating the extent of their ter-
ritory and power of the tribe, concluding
We acknowledge the superiority of the white
man to the red; we are persuaded that the Great
Spirit who dwells above and around all has sent
the English here for our good ; and therefore they
are welcome to all the land we do not need.
He then presented eight buckskins — one for
each tribe — the best things, he said, they had
to bestow, thanking Oglethorpe for his kind-
ness to Tomo Chichi, who it seems for some
untold reason had been banished from his
tribe, but on account of his wisdom and bravery
had been chosen chief of the Yamacraws, a
Tomo Chichi entered, attended by his war-
riors. Bowing low, he said :
When these white men came, I feared they
would drive us away, for we were weak, but they
promised not to molest us. We wanted corn, and
other things, and they gave them ; and now of our
small means we make them presents in return.
Here is a buffalo-skin adorned with the head and
feathers of an eagle. The eagle signifies speed, the
buffalo strength. The English are swift as an eagle
and strong as a buffalo. Like the eagle they flew
hither over great waters, and like the buffalo
nothing can withstand them. But the feathers of
an eagle are soft and signify kindness; and the
skin of the buffalo is covering and signifies protec-
tion. Let these, then, remind them to be kind and
The terms of the treaty were soon agreed
upon, and consisted, on the part of the Eng-
lish, of fair and just stipulations concerning
traffic, reparation for injuries, and so forth;
and, on the part of the Indians, a formal ceding
to the trustees all the land south of the Savan-
nah as far as the Ogeechee, with lands on the
coast from the Savannah to the river Alta-
maha, extending westward as far as the tide
flowed, and all the islands except a few which
they reserved for hunting, fishing, and bathing,
besides a tract on the margin of the river for
Indians and the Coast Islands
their encampment when visiting friends in the
A very important part of the conference
came at the conclusion, when Oglethorpe pre-
sented each chief with a laced coat, and hat,
and shirt, each war-captain a gun with am-
munition, to the ^* beloved men" mantles of
coarse cloth, besides smaller presents to the
attendants. The Indians departed highly
pleased, promising ^Ho keep the talk in their
heads so long as the sun should shine or the
waters run into the sea. ' '
Oglethorpe intended making a tour through
the northern colonies. Governor Belcher of
Massachusetts had some time previous ex-
tended an urgent invitation from the Legis-
lature of his Colony, as well as from himself.
"It is with great pleasure," he wrote, "that
I congratulate you on your safe arrival in
America, and I have still greater in the ad-
vantages which these parts will reap from
your noble and generous pursuits of good to
mankind in the settlement of Georgia. May
God Almighty attend you with his blessing
and crown you with success."
But Oglethorpe did not accept the kind
invitation ; the young colony needed his atten-
tion and he gave up the expected pleasure. He
made instead an excursion into the interior,
attended by Captain McPherson with a detach-
ment of rangers. After going forty miles
westward, Oglethorpe selected a site on which
to build a fort to command the passes through
which the Spanish Indians traveled when they
invaded the Carolina colony. This fort was
soon afterward built, and, in honor of his early
patron, named Fort Argyle. His main object
was, of course, to protect his own colony
from invasion by the Spaniards of Florida.
There Captain McPherson was subsequently
Oglethorpe now returned to Savannah,
and upon his arrival called together the in-
habitants. According to his custom, before
beginning any important work, he joined
them in a devotional service, and then pro-
ceeded to divide the town into wards and
assign the lots. In this work he looked to the
future, and although the inhabitants then num-
bered only one hundred and twenty, he laid
out the town as for a populous city, with large
squares for markets and other public needs,
with wide and regular streets crossing each
other at right angles and shaded by fine trees.
Even in his own lifetime he realized the wis-
dom of thus acting according to the motto
chosen for their seal, ^^Not for ourselves, but
others.'' The morning's work being con-
Indians and the Coast Islands
eluded, all were invited to a substantial dinner.
The afternoon Oglethorpe devoted to opening
a court, when, by virtue of his commission, he
nominated a recorder and other magistrates;
a session was held, a jury selected, and cases
tried. Hitherto Oglethorpe had exercised un-
divided authority over his people, but their
increasing numbers made it necessary to dele-
gate to others some of this work.
It was about this time that a colony of
Israelites arrived from London, coming at
their own expense. Some persons in England
were offended at this, refusing any further aid
to the colony if the Hebrews were allowed to
remain. Oglethorpe was appealed to, and,
in reply, praised the good conduct of the
Hebrews, especially commending the skill of
one Dr. Numis, who since his arrival had
rendered valuable aid to the sick among the
colonists, making no discrimination between
Jew and Gentile. Very wisely, therefore,
Oglethorpe refused to remove them; he had
no fancy for persecution, and time proved these
Israelites to be among the most moral and in-
dustrious of Savannah 's citizens.
On January 23, 1734, Oglethorpe with six-
teen attendants started on another exploring
tour, this time among the islands on the south-
ern coast. At St. Simons they stopped to
make an observation of the latitude, and after-
ward discovered an island which Oglethorpe
named Jekyll, in honor of his old friend Sir
Joseph Jekyll, master of the rolls and knighted
by George I. On the return of this exploring
party they ascended the Ogeechee River, and
stopped at Fort Argyle, found it well finished
and mounted with several guns.
This excursion convinced the Governor that
for the sufficient defense of his colony there
must be a military station near the mouth of
the Altamaha, and a strong fort for an outpost
upon the island of St. Simons, and it was upon
a high bluff at the western side of this island
that Frederica was afterward built. Mean-
while the population of the colony had in-
creased by the arrival of new immigrants.
The Tyrolese valleys of Austria had for
many a year sheltered a quiet, God-fearing
people, busy with toy-making, wooden clocks,
and salt-works. Salzburg was the arch-
bishop's city. Far up among the beautiful
mountains it lay, happy and prosperous, until
a new bishop arose burning to trample out all
sign of Protestantism. Those Bible-reading
peasants must choose between the reading and
a prison. To prison they went, Bible in hand.
And yet the ^' Right Reverend Father" was
not satisfied, since the troublesome Salzburgers
asked that they be allowed to get together their
small possessions and leave the country, and
the Emperor had granted their request.
^^Then they must go at once," said the
archbishop. And go they did, in dead of
night, no clothes, no food. Old men, delicate
women, helpless babes, the ^ ' Right Reverend ' '
pushed out into the unknown world, 7,000 the
first year, 10,000 the two following. Southey
wrote of that sad time :
But though Catholics shut their gates against
them, Protestants lodged them in their houses.
The Count of Stolberg dined nine hundred in
his palace as they journeyed by; at Leipsic the
clergy met them at the gates, and with them en-
tered the town, singing Luther's hymns. The Uni-
versity of Wiirtemberg went out to welcome them,
saying afterward: ''We thought it an honor to
receive the poor guests." Thirty-three thousand
pounds were raised in London for the relief of these
Salzburgers, many of whom settled in Georgia —
colonists of the best description.
It was in behalf of this persecuted people
that Oglethorpe had before addressed Parlia-
ment, and he now proposed to the trustees that
some of them be offered a home in Georgia.
They readily agreed, the invitation was given,
by some gladly accepted ; and so the Hermanns
and Dorotheas were widely scattered. A ves-
sel was sent to convey them to America, where,
under the care of Commissary von Eeck and
their pastors Bolzins and Gronan, they arrived
March 7, 1734.
Oglethorpe, who was in Charleston at the
time, gave them hearty welcome, and intro-
duced them to the Governor of South Caro-
lina, who received them cordially. Nor did
Georgians Governor forget the bodily comfort
of his new colonists, but supplied them with
fresh provisions and vegetables brought from
the gardens of Savannah. A messenger was
despatched to that city to announce their com-
ing and direct the magistrates to prepare for
Two days later the vessel conveying the
strangers sailed up the river. They were
filled with delight and wonder at the grand
forests, the verdure of the banks, the singing
birds, and the balmy odor of the pines. The
inhabitants of Savannah flocked to the shore
and received them with shouts of welcome, to
which they heartily responded, and soon
landed to enjoy the welcome and the feast pre-
pared for all.
Temporary lodgings were provided until
the return of Oglethorpe, who had gone to
Charleston intending to embark for England,
^^but for the love of us Salzburgers, ' ^ says
Von Reck, ^4ie put off this voyage, being re-
solved to see us settled before he went.''
He gave them permission to select a home
in any part of the province. With their lead-
ers he went six miles up the river, and from
thence fifteen miles through the forest, where
they came to a green valley, well watered by
clear brooks, and near the margin of a fine
stream eighty feet wide. They were well
pleased with the locality and marked the place
for a settlement, after which they knelt by the
riverside, devoutly thanking God for having
brought them safely through great dangers
into a land of rest, and in memory thereof
naming their new home Ebenezer. Oglethorpe
had his own carpenters come to assist in build-
ing the houses, while he himself directed them
how to lay out the town.
The pastor Bolzins spoke of the Governor
as a man having great reverence for God and
his Holy Word, adding further :
So blest have been his undertakings and his
presence in this land, that more has been accom-
plished by him in one year than others would have
effected in many. For us he hath cared with a most
provident solicitude. We unite in prayers for him,
that God may guide him home, make his voyage
safe and prosperous, and enrich him with many
Later on the good pastor wrote :
Some time ago I wrote to an honored friend in
Europe that the land in this country, if well man-
aged and labored, brings forth by the blessing of
God not only one hundred fold, but one thousand
fold, and I this day was confirmed therein. A
woman having two years ago picked out of Indian
corn no more than three grains of rye, and planting
them at Ebenezer, one of the grains produced an
hundred and seventy stalks and ears, and the three
grains yielded to her a bag of corn as large as a
coat pocket — the grains whereof were good and
full grown, and she desired me to send part of them
to a kind benefactor in Europe.
Again, in his quaint way, Bolzins wrote :
As to the present year, we have not been in
want of necessary provisions. We have a very
hopeful prospect of a good harvest, everything in
the fields and gardens growing so delightful as our
eyes have hardly seen in this country before.
If Isaac, by the blessing of God, received from
what he had sowed an hundredfold, I believe I dare
say to the praise of the great mercy of God over
us, our Salzburgers will get a thousandfold, not-
withstanding that the corn when it came out of the
ground was quite eaten up two or three times by
The land is really fruitful, if the sins of the in-
habitants and the curse of God for such sins doth
not eat it up, which was formerly the unhappy case
of the blessed land of Canaan.
After such glowing accounts, one is sur-
prised to learn that the Salzburgers afterward
became dissatisfied with their location and
bent on removing, though they had much
ground cleared, a fine range for their cattle,
and confessed that they had milk in abundance,
fine poultry, with excellent vegetables. Ogle-
thorpe listened patiently to their complaints,
and soon discovered that they coveted a spot
which the Indians reserved for their own use.
That he would not grant, and counseled them
to remain where they were, yet gave his per-
mission for them to remove to Red Bluff, on
the Savannah Eiver.
This they did, and a quaint old town they
made there, said to be much like the Herrn-
hut of Zinzendorf , thus described by Carlyle :
"An opulent enough, most silent, strictly regu-
lar little town. The women are in uniform
— ^wives, maids, widows, each their form of
dress. Male population, I should think, must
be mainly doing trade elsewhere; nothing
but prayers, preaching, charitable boarding
schooling, and the like appeared to be going
on. Herrnhut is a Sabbath petrified; Cal-
vinistic Sabbath done in stone." But we do
not find Herrnhut quite like the town these
Salzburger brethren established in Georgia,
of which the same famous Scotchman says:
^^ There at Ebenezer, I calculate they might
go ahead after the questionable fashion of that
country, and increase and swell; — but liave
never heard of them since. ' '
Possibly there are some other things in
America of which Carlyle had never heard.
Nevertheless, these Salzburgers were heard
from in much that was good and praiseworthy.
To this day, their county of Effingham owns
the influence of those peace-loving Salzburg-
ers, who for many years had no courts of
justice, but referred all disputed matters to
their pastors and elders, and, if now courts are
held there, we are informed that the busi-
ness, both civil and criminal, is finished in
No vestige of the old town of Ebenezer re-
mains except the church, built of bricks made
by the Salzburgers, using lime which they pro-
cured from shells found on the Atlantic coast.
A stately row of cedars leads from the church
to the cemetery, where one finds a monument
inscribed to the memory of Bolzins and Gro-
nan, faithful pastors of the church which they
had devoutly named * ^ Jerusalem. ' '
This church [says Strobel, in his History of the
Salzburgers] is surmounted by a neat belfry, on
top of which is a swan, said to be Luther's coat of
arms, and frequently placed on the spires of Lu-
theran churches in Europe. There is a curious tradi-
tion that when John Huss was burned he remarked ;
*'You this day burn a goose" (Huss signifies
goose), "but one hundred years hence a swan will
arise whom you will not be able to burn. ' '
There still exists at Bethel a chalice of solid
gold, presented to these Salzburgers by the
will of a young man who lay dying in Austria.
Engraved upon it is this inscription: ^^Such
wishes to the dear Salzburgers in Ebenezer, at
every time they partake of the holy com-
munion ; by George Matthias Kiderlin, a young
man in Nordlingen, who thought of them
shortly before his end. . . . Whoever sits
down to the table of the Lord with us and our
faith, he will be refreshed with the blood of
the Lamb of God, and trust in his salvation."
Sad times befell the old church in the days
of the Revolution. A recent writer says:
^^Even now you may see dark rough places
on the walls where the plaster refuses to stick,
owing to the grease that the bricks absorbed
from royal bacon piled up in it during those
years. But the crowning indignity came
when the soldiers quartered their horses in the
sacred place and used it as a stable until the
close of the war. ' '
The Salzburgers have gradually amal-
gamated with the other inhabitants of Geor-
gia, and have furnished many good and noble
[the NEW YORK I
PUbi ^^-■ ■
^cTOR, LENOX AND |
TILDEN FOUNDA-ilO,^;t. x
citizens to the State. They can be found in
nearly every town and county, and are almost
invariably among the most highly respected
and prosperous. Georgia owes much of her
history and her greatness to the colony estab-
lished at Ebenezer.
EETUEN TO ENGLAND
Oglethorpe's departure to England had
been postponed by the arrival of tlie Salzburg-
ers. After locating them, he returned to
Savannah, placed the colony in charge of Mr.
Thomas Causton, storekeeper and bailiff, and,
after fifteen months spent in labors for the
colony, bade them adieu and started to Eng-
land. Said one who was present and followed
him to the boat : * ^ They could not restrain their
tears when they saw him go, who was their
benefactor and their father, who had carefully
watched over them as a shepherd does over
his sheep, and who had so tender care of them
both day and night. ' '
He was accompanied by Tomo Chichi, with
his wife, his nephew, and his war-captain Hilli-
spilli, besides six chiefs of other tribes, with
attendants and an interpreter. Oglethorpe's
object in inducing these Indians to go with him
was that they might see so much of Great
Return to England
Britain and her institutions as would convince
them of her power and dignity.
On March 7th they embarked on the Aid-
borough, and June 16th arrived at the Isle of
Wight, from whence he wrote to Sir John
Phillips, Bart., announcing their arrival and
telling him of the welfare of the Salzburgers,
of whom he spoke as ''a very sensible, active,
laborious, and pious people,'' adding as he
closed his letter :
I shall leave the Indians at my estate till I go
to the city, where I shall have the happiness to
wait upon you and to relate all things to you more
fully, over which you will rejoice and wonder.
A grand entertainment was given in honor
of the Governor of the Georgia colony, a spe-
cial meeting was called by the trustees, and
a unanimous vote of thanks enthusiastically
given for the zeal and ability with which he
had managed the settlement. Magazines and
papers were full of his praises, a prize poem
was called for, even as at this day, and one
entitled The Christian Hero won the gold
medal, which bore on one side the head of Lady
Hastings, and on the other Oglethorpe's, with
the words ^^ England may challenge the
world. ' ' Unfortunately, as we learn from the
Gentleman's Magazine of London, 1785, only
a few specimens of this medal were struck off,
and the die was destroyed.
The Indians were comfortably entertained
at the Georgia Office. Attired in their native
costmnes with faces painted after the Indian
fashion, they were taken to the royal palace,
and presented to the King.
Oglethorpe earnestly desired that the In-
dians be instructed in secular and religious
knowledge, and seemed already to have in-
spired them with like feelings. To increase
their desire for instruction, he had induced
them to visit England, and now, for their
benefit, urged his friend Bishop Wilson to
prepare a simple manual of religious instruc-
tion, which he could have translated into their
language. From a letter previously written,
we learn his estimate of Indian character after
the fifteen months of intercourse with them.
He wrote :
There seems to be a door opened to our colony
toward the conversion of the Indians. I have had
many conversations with their chief men, the whole
tenor of which shows that there is nothing wanting
to their conversion but one to explain to them the
mysteries of religion; for as to the moral part of
Christianity, they understand it and do assent to
it. They abhor adultery and do not approve a
plurality of wives. Theft is a thing not known
Return to England
among the Creek nation, though frequent and even
honorable among the lichees. Murder they look
upon as an abominable crime, but do not esteem the
killing of an enemy, or one who has injured them,
The passion of revenge, which they call honor,
and drunkenness, which they learn from our
traders, seem to be the two great obstacles to their
becomiing Christians. But upon both these points
they hear reason.
As for revenge, they say they have no executive
power among them, and are forced to kill the man
who has injured them in order to prevent others
doing the like ; but they do not consider any injury,
except adultery or murder, deserves revenge. In
cases of murder, the next in blood must kill the
murderer, or else is looked upon as infamous.
Their kings can only persuade. All the power
they have is no more than to call together their old
men and captains, and propound to them the meas-
ures they think proper. These reason together with
great temper and modesty, then call in the young
men. They seem to me both in action and expression
to be thorough masters of eloquence. In speaking to
young men, they generally address the passions;
in speaking to their old men, they appeal to reason
only. One of the Cherokee nation being come be-
fore the Governor, was told he need fear nothing
but might speak freely. He answered : "I always
speak freely, what should I fear ? I am among my
friends, and I never feared even my enemies ! ' '
The Gentleman's Magazine of a later day
related an incident given by Oglethorpe of an
Indian chief, a man after his own heart.
When asked by some retreating troops to
march with them, he replied : ' ' No ! I will not
stir a foot till I see every man belonging to
me marched off before me; I have always
been the first in advancing toward an enemy,
and the last in retreating. ' '
Oglethorpe now urged the trustees to send
out missionaries. In complying with his de-
sires, they sought eligible men who would go
to Georgia to officiate as ministers in Savan-
nah and to instruct the Indians. Among the
friends who had most heartily welcomed Ogle-
thorpe on his return to England was the
Eev. Samuel Wesley, who addressed him, if
extravagantly, yet sincerely, as ^^ Universal
Benefactor of Mankind," and in a letter of
welcome said :
It is not only your valuable favors to my son
Samuel, late of Westminster, and to myself when
I was a little pressed in the world, nor to your ex-
treme charity to the poor prisoners, that so much
demand my earnest acknowledgments, as your dis-
interested, unmovable attachment to your country
and your raising a new colony — or rather a little
world of your own — in the midst of a wild wood
where men may live free and happy (if they are not
Return to England
hindered by their own stupidity and folly) in spite
of the unkindness of their brother mortals.
John Wesley, a son of this Rev. Sam-
uel, being known to one of the trustees as a
man of ^^ abstemious habits and readiness to
endure hardships,'' was by him proposed for
this office of missionary. Oglethorpe, al-
though acquainted with the father, was not
sufficiently intimate with either of the sons to
judge of their fitness for the position. They
had gained notoriety at the university by liv-
ing according to certain strict rules of their
own, which gave them the name of ^'Method-
ists. ' ' John 's views were, at that time, unset-
tled and peculiar. Said his father, writing to
his eldest son: ^'I sat myself down to try if I
could unravel John's sophisms, and hardly
one of his assertions appeared to me to be uni-
versally true. ' '
The board, however, made him the offer.
He at first hesitated. His father had recently
died, but being encouraged by his mother and
advised by his friends to accept, he at length
consented. It was afterward decided that his
brother Charles should accompany him. Said
their pious mother, writing from her home at
Epworth : ' ' Had I twenty sons, I would rejoice
to see them all thus employed, though I should
never see them more. ' '
In the same consecrated spirit she had be-
fore written to her son John: '^Resolve to
make religion the business of your life. I
heartily wish that you would now enter upon
a strict examination of yourself, that you may
know whether you have a reasonable hope of
salvation by Jesus Christ. If you have the
satisfaction of knowing, it will abundantly re-
ward your pains; if you have not, you will
find a more reasonable occasion for tears than
can be met with in any tragedy. . . . Would
you judge of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of
pleasures, take this rule: whatever weakens
your reason, impairs the tenderness of your
conscience, obscures your sense of God, or
takes off the relish of spiritual things — in
short, whatever increases the strength or
authority of the body over the mind, that thing
is sin to you, however innocent it may be in
PARLIAMENT AND THE SLAVE TRADE
Parliament was at this time in session,
and Oglethorpe was not idle. He spoke on
various questions, but laws for the benefit of
Georgia were nearest to his heart. The first
was a bill to prohibit the importation and sale
of rum, brandy, and other distilled liquors. In
spite of previous efforts, the Carolina traders
supplied the Indians and colonists with smug-
gled spirits, which produced not only dis-
orderly conduct but disease. The bill did not
prohibit the use of wine or English beer. A
century later Oglethorpe might have learned
the danger lurking even in these in that
climate, and his broad, unselfish nature would
have responded by denying himself lest he
^ ^ cause his brother to offend. ' '
Another statute which engaged his atten-
tion was ^ ^ an act for rendering the province of
Georgia more defensible by prohibiting the
importation of black slaves or negroes into the
same.'' The bill was strenuously opposed.
Said the Earl of Dartmouth: ^^We can not
allow the colonies to check or discourage in any
degree a traffic so beneficial to the nation."
A tract entitled The African Slave Trade,
the Pillar and Support of the British Planta-
tion Trade in America, argued thus : ' ' Negro
labor will keep our colonies in due subservi-
ency to the interests of their mother country. ' '
The royal instruction from Queen Anne to the
Governor had been : ' ' Give due encouragement
to merchants, and in particular to the Eoyal
African Company, of England. ' '
It was against this spirit, and against the
fact that the other colonies north and south
were receiving and owning slaves, that Ogle-
thorpe had to contend. *^My friends and I,"
he wrote afterward, ^^ settled the colony of
Georgia, and by charter were established trus-
tees. We determined not to suffer slavery
there, but the slave merchants and their ad-
herents not only occasioned us much trouble,
but at last got the Government to sanction
them." At this period, however, the bill to
prohibit the importation of slaves was passed,
and not until Oglethorpe had severed his con-
nection with the colony were they brought in.
In the discussion before Parliament the
Georgia Governor seemed to stand alone on
Parliament and the Slave Trade
this important question, most of them agreeing
with Burke, who remarked : " These regula-
tions, though well intended and meant to bring
about excellent purposes, were made without
duly considering the nature of the coun-
try or the disposition of the people which they
regarded. ' '
The Governor of Massachusetts, then a
slave-owning colony, was wiser than some of
his constituents. Said he: ^^I insist upon it
that the prohibitory regulations of the trustees
are essential to the healthy and prosperous
condition of the colony. ' '
Two reasons had been given by the trustees
for forbidding the purchase of slaves: the
vicinity of the Spaniards, who constantly in-
stigated them to insurrections, and the injus-
tice to the white laborer, with whom they
would come in conflict. Oglethorpe expressed
a higher motive. ^ ^Slavery,'' said he, ^4s
against the Gospel, as well as the fundamental
law of England. We refused as trustees to
make a law permitting such a horrid crime."
A few years later, when some of the colonists
requested that slaves be allowed to come in,
he sternly refused, declaring that if negroes
were introduced into Georgia, *^he would have
no further concern with the colony. ' *
.While Oglethorpe remained in England a
few discouraging reports were sent from Geor-
gia, but on the whole much that was cheering,
especially that the people had gathered a fine
crop of Indian com, upward of one thousand
bushels, and that Savannah was in a prosper-
ous condition. The trustees received from the
Indians a curious missive expressive of thanks
for the attention bestowed on Tomo Chichi and
his companions. This was the dressed skin of
a young buffalo, covered with figures printed
in black and red. Wlien delivered in Savan-
nah, it was translated in the presence of fifty
chiefs, after which the hieroglyphic skin was
sent to England, there framed and hung in the
Georgia Office, Westminster.
At this time the silk industry promised
well, and from time to time specimens of the
raw silk were sent to the trustees. In May,
1735, some of these were exhibited to Queen
Caroline, who was so well pleased that she
ordered them woven and a dress made, in
which she appeared in court on her birthday.
It is a matter of surprise and regret that this
industry should have been abandoned in the
State, when, one hundred and sixty years ago,
a Queen of England appeared in Georgia
In this Georgia beehive, as in all busy
places, the usual number of drones were found.
Neither gratitude to their benefactors nor their
Parliament and the Slave Trade
own future good were sufficient incentives to
industry and economy. They really impeded
the progress of the more industrious and
worthy colonists. The trustees determined
for the future to be still more careful to secure
only the best class of settlers. More stringent
laws were made. From an official report we
learn that all applicants were informed that
they must undergo great hardships at the first
and exercise much industry afterward; that,
although they should have lands forever, and
free provisions for twelve months, these lands
must be cleared and cultivated before they
could reap a harvest, and in the meantime they
must live chiefly on salt meat, and drink but
little water; that they must keep constant
guard against their enemies; that the climate
was hot in summer and dangerous to those who
indulged in spirituous liquors — in short, that
the most rigid temperance was necessary to
preserve health and substance. With sobriety,
industry, and trust in God they couliestablish
homes for themselves and their children;
otherwise, they were warned not to emigrate
Some were disheartened and gave up, but
their places were filled by a better class.
Especially in Scotland had the proposal of
the trustees been well received, and 130
Highlanders, with fifty women and chil-
dren, embarked for Georgia, arriving in
January, 1736. Lingering a few days in
Savannah, they then traveled southward. On
the left bank of the Altamaha, about sixteen
miles above St. Simons, they selected a town
site, calling it after their Scotch home, New
Inverness — a name afterward changed to
The town council of Inverness, Scotland,
gratefully expressed their appreciation of the
kindness of Oglethorpe to the Highlanders by
conferring upon him the honor of a burgess of
the town. A greater honor and satisfaction
he realized afterward in the services of these
gallant and efficient men, among whom were
the McKays, the Mclntoshes, the McLeods,
and their brave countrymen.
Oglethorpe was still in England, making
preparations for an even larger embarkation.
Two vessels were chartered by the trustees and
a sloop of war placed at his disposal. Besides
220 English emigrants, there were sixty more
Salzburgers, and some independent adventur-
ers, among whom were Sir Thomas Bathurst
and his family.
Besides these Salzburgers, there were, it is
recorded, ''other poor Protestants of Ger-
many." These, we may suppose, were the
Moravians, of whom the Gentleman's Maga-
Parliament and the Slave Trade
zine said: ^^In consequence of the oppression
which they suffered in Bohemia, the United
Brethren, or Moravians, resolved to emigrate
to the new colony of Georgia, whither the Salz-
burgers have already gone.'' They appealed
to Count Zinzendorf, who applied to the trus-
tees and secured for them a free passage and
grant of land. ^^They established them-
selves,'' says Hildreth, ^*on the Ogeechee
River, south of Savannah." Of their prog-
ress we may quote the following from Grantz's
History of the United Brethren: ^^The Breth-
ren began their settlement in the town near
Savannah, and God so blessed their industry
that they were not only soon in the capacity
of maintaining themselves, but were also serv-
iceable to their neighbors. They erected a
schoolhouse for the children of the Indians, on
the river Savannah, four English miles above
the town. There, King Tschatschi came to
see, as he expressed it, *how they might hear
the great Word. ' ' '
This school they rightly named Irene,
for their motto was '^ peace," and with the
savages, as with all the world, they were al-
ways in peace. Ever industrious, they were
especially successful in raising silkworms, pro-
ducing soon 10,000 pounds a year of raw silk,
and also making indigo a staple.
Oglethorpe was sorely tried because of
their peculiar belief, which forbade their bear-
ing arms even in the sorest need of the colony,
yet he never regretted offering them a home
among his people, who could but profit by their
upright example. In later years some of
them removed to Pennsylvania, settling the
towns of Bethlehem and Nazareth, which do
honor to their memory. They had prospered
in Georgia, and on leaving honorably refunded
the money paid for their passage across the sea.
Now we return to those who sailed with
these Moravians on October 20th. On account
of bad weather the vessels were forced to
anchor for some time in the Downs, and again
at St. Helens. The delay, with so many per-
sons in idleness, was expensive to the trustees,
and the emigrants were losing the most useful
season for cultivating their lands. Finally,
on December 10th, they put to sea. Ogle-
thorpe chose to go in one of the ships crowded
with passengers, that he might be able to care
for them on the voyage.
He was well assisted by Mr. Francis Moore,
whom the trustees had appointed keeper of the
stores. The Wesleys also were with him, and
frequently in his cabin. Mr. Wesley said that
on one of these occasions the officers and cer-
tain gentlemen who had been invited in with
Parliament and the Slave Trade
them took some liberties with the clergymen,
not liking their gravity. Oglethorpe was
roused at their conduct and exclaimed: '^What
do you mean, sirs ! Do you take these gentle-
men for tithe-pig parsons ? They are gentle-
men of learning and respectability; they are
my friends, and whoever affronts them insults
me!" The missionaries were treated there-
after with the greatest respect. The voyagers
had prayers twice a day, the missionaries
catechized the children, and on Sundays ad-
ministered the sacrament, while the dissenters
sang psalms and worshiped in their own way.
Oglethorpe had laid in a large supply of
live stock and various dainties, which he
shared not only with his friends, but his table
was always full, the captain, the missionaries,
and others being ever welcome. On February
4th the joyful cry of land was heard, and two
days after they anchored near Tybee Island,
at the mouth of the Savannah River. Landing
on a small island opposite Tybee, Oglethorpe
led them to a rising ground, where they all knelt
to give thanks for their safe arrival. After
showing them how to dig a well and making
some other arrangements for their comfort,
Oglethorpe left them with their ships and took
boat for Savannah, where he was received with
a salute of twenty-one guns from the fort.
He was surprised and gratified at the im-
provements made in the town. Three years
before it was a dense forest; now there were
two hundred dwellings, some of them two and
three stories high. The town was governed
by three bailiffs. Laws were made and cases
tried as in England, with this difference : " no
lawyers were allowed to plead for hire, nor
attorneys to make money; but every man
pleaded his own cause. ' ' The public gardens
were the pride of the town, and the Governor
was especially pleased with their flourishing
condition. The coldest quarter was planted
with apples, pears, plums, while in the south-
ern exposure were growing olives, figs, pome-
granates, and vines. In one sunny spot was
a collection of tropical plants, coffee, cotton,
and palma-Christi, which had been sent from
the West Indies. A large part of the ground
had been planted with white-mulberry trees,
forming a nursery from which the settlers were
to be supplied in their culture of silkworms.
TROUBLES AMONG THE SETTLERS
In the silk industry Oglethorpe was dis-
appointed. The Italians brought from Pied-
mont went on well for a time, then, quarreling
among themselves, one of them destroyed the
machines for winding, spoiled many of the
eggs, stole more, and ran away to Carolina.
No more silk could be wound that year. Ogle-
thorpe ordered the Italian women to teach
English girls their part of the work and the
men to instruct the gardeners in the care of
the mulberry-trees, hoping to start anew the
The view of the river was encouraging.
Besides the smaller boats, there lay at the
wharf two vessels, one a ship crowded with
emigrants ; on a large island opposite numbers
of cattle grazed ; westward, as the river wound
through the forest, it flowed past the young
towns of Westbrook, Purrysburgh, and other
villages ; to the south might be seen Highgate
and Hampstead, and eastward the river broad-
ened to the sea, where lay the English shipping.
With great satisfaction the good Governor
beheld these improvements, but amid it all
did not forget the people lately arrived at
Tybee. Already he had ordered refreshments
sent down to them, and on the 8th himself re-
turned in a boat laden with fresh beef, pork,
venison, wild turkeys, fresh bread, beer, and
During his absence some Carolina sutlers
had visited the ships and smuggled rum on
board, but the officers discovered it and
promptly ordered the kegs to be staved. In
revenge, the traders spread reports among the
immigrants that all who went south would be
massacred by the Spaniards and Indians. The
Germans, becoming alarmed, begged to be sent
to Ebenezer. Captain Hermsdorf, however,
expressed his desire to serve with the English
to the last.
The Scotch Highlanders were undaunted.
'*If the Spaniards use us ill,'' said they, ''we
will drive them out of their fort, and so have
houses ready built to our hands.'' The Gov-
ernor assured them that the reports were false,
that the Spaniards were at peace with them,
and the Indians in alliance. ' ' Still, ' ' said he,
''caution is the mother of safety, and, there-
Troubles Among the Settlers
fore, it is fitting to keep the men to arms and
discipline, and for that reason I shall be glad
of your assistance. ' '
After three hours ^ stay he left them, for
there were other settlers whose interests must
not be neglected. To assist the Highlanders
at Darien he sent fifty rangers and one hun-
dred workmen with Captain McPherson. He
appointed surveyors to inspect the country be-
tween the Savannah and the Altamaha, with
a view to opening a road to Darien ; procured
for them Indian guides, packhorses to carry
provisions, and detailed an officer with a party
of rangers to escort them.
On the 12th he again visited the ships at
Tybee, and there also came Tomo Chichi with
his wife, ^ ^ Scenaukay, ' ' and his nephew,
bringing presents of venison, honey, and milk.
Being introduced to the missionaries, the old
chief said : ' ^ I am glad you are come. When
I was in England I desired that some one
would speak the great Word to me. I will go
up and speak to the wise men of our nation,
and I hope they will hear. But we would not
be made Christians as these Spaniards make
Christians, we would be taught before we are
baptized." Scenaukay then presented the
missionaries with two large jars, one of honey
and one of milk, and invited them to Yama-
craw to teach their children, saying the milk
represented food for their children, the honey
their good wishes. Tomo Chichi informed
Oglethorpe that he had kept for two months
"runners" awaiting his coming, and on his
arrival had sent them to notify the Creeks,
and that he had despatched a party of In-
dians to help the Highlanders at Darien.
He then presented a complaint from the
Uchees that, contrary to agreement, cattle had
been brought into their territory, and that
planters from Carolina had brought negroes
and settled therein. Oglethorpe promptly
sent orders for them to withdraw within three
days both negroes and cattle, or be arrested
for trial in Savannah. At the same time he
issued a proclamation calling attention to the
act for maintaining peace with the Indians.
He had been much troubled by the delay
in transporting the new settlers to their future
home. The mates of the English vessels were
timid, afraid to risk the navigation of Jekyll
Sound. To prove that they exaggerated the
dangers, he bought at a high price the sloop
Midnight with her cargo, on condition that it
should be delivered at a station on the Alta-
maha. He sent on board thirty of the old
colonists, trained soldiers, with arms and am-
munition, and ordered them to proceed to St.
Troubles Among the Settlers
Simons. He himself, with a few Indians, set
out for the same place in a scout boat, and,
being in haste, the crew rowed night and day.
Though they had stormy weather, the men
worked willingly, vying with each other to
please their Governor. Said one of the pas-
sengers: ^'He lightened their fatigue by giv-
ing them refreshments, which he spared from
himself rather than let them want.'^
The Indians, seeing how hard the crew
labored, desired to take the oars, and rowed
well, only differing from the others by making
a short and long stroke alternately, which they
called the " Yamasee stroke." In and out
through the passages between the islands
skirting the coast, the straits varying in width
from two hundred yards to more than a mile,
they rowed steadily, reaching St. Simons after
two days ' travel. There they found the Mid-
night, and Oglethorpe handsomely rewarded
the captain for being the first to enter the
Immediately after landing he set all hands
to work, making a booth to hold the stores.
Digging the ground three feet deep, they threw
up earth to form a bank, on which poles were
raised to support a roof. The whole was well
covered with palmetto-leaves. Similar booths
were made for the temporary abode of the
families, and, after a hard day's work, all en-
joyed a plentiful feast of game and venison
brought in by the Indians. On the three days
following Oglethorpe instructed the men in
building a fort, digging ditches and turfing
the ramparts, and then left them for Darien.
The Highlanders there received him ^4n
martial style, with broadswords, targets, and
firearms." ^^The commanding officer. Cap-
tain Mackay, invited him to sleep in his tent
and enjoy the soft bed with Holland sheets
and plaid curtains, a rare comfort in that part
of the world ; but he chose to lie at the guard
fire, wrapped in his own plaid, for, in com-
pliment to the Scots, he wore a Highland
costume. ' '
Possibly Oglethorpe recalled these volun-
tary hardships when, forty years later, as Bos-
well relates, he discussed with Dr. Johnson the
subject of luxury. ^^ Depend upon it, sir,"
said Dr. Johnson, ^* every state of society is
as luxurious as it can be ; men always take the
best they can get. " '^ But, ' ' said Oglethorpe,
^Hhe best depends much upon ourselves, and if
we can be well satisfied with plain things, we
are in the wrong to accustom ourselves or our
palates to what is high-seasoned and expen-
sive. What says Addison in his Cato, speak-
ing of the Numidian 1
Troubles Among the Settlers
Coarse are his meals, the fortune of the chase ;
Ainid the running stream he slakes his thirst,
Toils all the day, and at the approach of night
On the first friendly bank he throws him down,
Or rests his head upon a rock till morn ;
And if the following day he chance to find
A new repast, or an untasted spring,
Blesses his stars and thinks it luxury.
Let us have that kind of luxury, sir, if you
The Highlanders at Darien had already
built a fort and planted four cannon; also a
guardhouse, a store, and a chapel.
Several Indians who lived near brought
them venison and other game. They were
more than friendly, and Spalding, in his mem-
oir of Mcintosh, tells us: ^^The costume of
the Highland clansman, his cap and plume,
his kilt and plaid, soon became very dear to
the red man of the woods. They mingled in
their sports and hunted buffalo together —
for the woods of Georgia were then as full of
buffaloes as the plains of Missouri are now,
and the writer of this tale was told when a
boy by General Lachlin Mcintosh that when
a youth he had seen ten thousand buffalo
within ten miles.'' After a short visit at
Darien, Oglethorpe returned to Frederica, on
St. Simons Island, and from there to his immi-
grants at Tybee.
The island of St. Simons was about fif-
teen miles long and from two to five broad. A
few acres had been cleared by the Indians, the
rest was covered with beautiful forests. Wild
vines gave promise of future vineyards ; game
abounded, there being no lack of rabbits, squir-
rels, partridges, besides the more-desired wild
turkey and roebuck.
These were the pleasant things, but it
should be added that there were rattlesnakes
in the woods, and in the sound frightful alli-
gators. ^^ These so frightened the settlers,''
says Mr. Francis Moore, *^that Oglethorpe
once had one brought up into the town of
Savannah and encouraged the boys to beat it
with sticks that they might not be afraid of the
monster. ' '
The season was far advanced, yet Ogle-
thorpe hired laborers who knew the nature of
the country to instruct the colonists in plant-
ing, with a view to the next season's work.
The soil was sandy, with a mixture of rich
mold. Good water could be found within ten
feet of the surface of the ground.
The Creek Indians had now confirmed their
grants of territory, and Tomo Chichi came
down with them to point out the boundary-
lines. Oglethorpe was not ready to go, there-
fore the Indians proposed to hunt buffalo on
the mainland while waiting. But the Gov-
ernor feared to trust them, knowing their
hatred to the Spaniards, and he suspected that
they meant to annoy them. He therefore de-
cided to postpone other matters and go at once,
especially as he was growing anxious for the
safety of Mr. Dempsey, who had been sent as
commissioner to confer with the Spanish Gov-
ernor of Florida, and had not been heard from.
In two scout boats, with forty Indian war-
riors and chosen hunters, Oglethorpe set out,
leaving Frederica in charge of Captain Herms-
dorf . They rowed across Jekyll Sound, sleep-
ing the first night in a grove of pines on the
mainland, and the next day reached an island
called by the Indians Wisso or Sassafras.
Tomo Chichi now changed its name to Cum-
berland, in honor of the young prince who had
been so gracious to them in England. The
prince had given to Tooanahowi a gold re-
peater. Holding the watch in his hand, the
Indian said: ''The duke gave us this watch
that we might know how time passes. We will
remember him at all times, and therefore give
this island his name/' Oglethorpe here
marked out a fort, to be called St. Andrews,
and left Captain Mackay with a few High-
landers to superintend the building.
Rowing on through shoals and narrow
passes among the marshes, they came to an
island which, for its exceeding beauty, the
Spaniards had named Santa Maria. Orange-
trees were covered with blossoms, and wild
vines clung in profusion to the odorous
branches. In honor of the princess of Eng-
land, Oglethorpe changed its name to Amelia.
The next island was the San Juan of the Span-
iards, which name they changed to Georgia,
after their King. On this was the old fort
supposed to have been built by Sir Francis
Drake, and Captain Hermsdorf was sent to
repair and occupy it.
Climbing some rocky heights, Tomo Chichi
pointed out to the governor the St. Johns
River, the boundary-line of the Spanish pos-
sessions. A house on the farther side, Tomo
Chichi said, was the Spanish guard-house.
"All on this side the river we hunt," said the
chief; ''it is our ground. All on the other
side they hunt, but they have lately hurt some
of our people, and we shall drive them away.
We will stay until night behind these rocks,
where they can not see us, then we will fall
It was with much difficulty that Oglethorpe
persuaded them not to attack the Spaniards,
but to return to the palmetto grounds near
Amelia Island, where he promised to meet
them. Leaving with them Mr. Horton and
one of the scout boats, he went in the other to
the Spanish guard-house to inquire what had
become of Mr. Dempsey, who had been sent to
St. Augustine to treat with the Spaniards. He
could see no one in either the upper or lower
lookout, and at night returned to the palmetto
grounds, where he found all except Tomo
Chichi, who had gone on.
In the night the sentinel challenged a boat.
An Indian answered, jumped out, and was fol-
lowed by three others. They were in a terri-
ble rage, and said, in reply to Oglethorpe's
questions: ^^Tomo Chichi has seen enemies,
and has sent us to tell you and to help you."
^^Why did not Tomo Chichi come backT'
^ ' Tomo Chichi is an old warrior, and will not
come away from his enemies till he has seen
them so near as to count them. He saw their
fires, and before daylight will be revenged for
the men whom they killed while he was away ;
but we shall have no honor, for we shall not
be there/' And their eyes glared with rage
over this indignity. When asked if there were
many, they said : ^ ' Yes, a great many, for they
had a large fire on high ground, and Indians
never make large fires except when so strong
as to defy all resistance. ' '
Oglethorpe ordered all his men into the
boats, and rowed rapidly to where Tomo Chi-
chi lay, about four miles away. The old man
said he had seen eight white men around a fire,
but he believed the Indians had concealed
themselves in the woods, and he was bent on
attacking them at once. With great difficulty
Oglethorpe obtained a short delay, but soon
the Indians, thinking it looked like cowardice,
determined to go in spite of his commands.
*^Then," said Oglethorpe, ^^you go to kill
your enemies in the night because you are
afraid of them by the day. Now I do not fear
them at any time. Therefore wait until day,
and I will go with you and see who they are. ' '
This speech had the desired effect. Tomo
Chichi sighed, but sat down, saying: ''We do
not fear them by day, but if we do not kill
them to-night they will kill you to-morrow."
At daylight they started toward the enemy. A
white flag was soon discovered flying on the
shore, and, to Oglethorpe's great delight, the
supposed enemy proved to be Major Richards,
with Mr. Dempsey and his crew, returned from
Major Richards reported that they had
been cast away, had lost their baggage, but
men and boat were saved ; that they had walked
many miles along the sands before reaching
St. Augustine, but were finally taken to the
Governor, who received them with courtesy.
They were compelled to remain a long time to
have their boat repaired, but had at last
brought with them letters to Oglethorpe from
Don Francisco del Morale Sanchey, Captain-
General of Florida and Governor of St.
Augustine, who desired an answer in three
The same day all returned to Cumberland
Island, where Oglethorpe was well pleased
with the rapid progress made by Captain
Mackay in the constructions of the fort, espe-
cially as the loose, sandy soil made it difficult
to raise the work. ' ' They used, ' ' said Moore,
^'the same method to support it as Caesar men-
tions in the wars of the Gauls — laying trees
alternately with earth, the trees preventing the
sand from falling and the sand saving the
wood from fire. The Scots who had been aid-
ing in the work were now offered the chance
to return to their settlement, but chose to re-
main and go on with the task so long as there
was any danger.
Oglethorpe, with the Indians, now returned
to Frederica, where he called the people to-
gether to give them the contents of the Spanish
Governor's despatches. These were full of
wily compliments, but there were also com-
plaints that the Creeks had attacked the Span-
iards, and the Governor desired that ''Don
Diego Oglethorpe'' restrain his Indian allies.
Oglethorpe knew further, by private ad-
vices, that, notwithstanding his friendly
speeches, the Governor of St. Augustine had
sent to purchase arms at Charleston, intending
to send his Florida Indians with men from the
Spanish garrison to drive the English out of
Georgia, and that the complaint against the
Creeks was a mere pretext to begin the war.
Oglethorpe determined that there should
be no excuse for beginning hostilities, and
therefore sent a marine boat and a large peri-
agua of twenty oars fitted out with swivel-
guns to patrol the St. Johns and prevent any
Creeks from passing to attack the Spaniards.
Scout boats were ordered to cruise among the
islands to prevent any hostile vessels from
entering Jekyll Sound. Tomo Chichi was re-
quested to send messages to the Creeks, de-
siring them not to molest the Spaniards until
a conference could be held, but to keep upon
the mainland and watch lest any Spanish horse
pass to Darien. Before the Indians left they
had a war-dance. Oglethorpe and his people
attended, and presents were given to the red
men, with thanks for their faithful service.
CHAKLES WESLEY AND OTHEE COMPLICATIONS
To add to his trials, Oglethorpe found
upon his return to Frederica that settlement
in a state of turmoil. Charles Wesley, who
had come out as a missionary, was also acting
as his secretary, and during his absence had,
in his zeal to reform various improprieties
of the people of Frederica, overstepped the
bounds of a minister's privilege. His un-
timely rebukes, though probably deserved,
were quickly resented, for, as Southey re-
marks, ^ ^ Charles Wesley attempted the doubly
difficult task of reforming some of the lady
colonists, and reconciling their petty jealousies
and hatreds of each other; in which he suc-
ceeded no further than to make them cordially
agree in hating him, and caballing to get rid
of him in any way. ' '
Oglethorpe had forbidden any shooting on
the Sabbath, but the first day of his absence a
gun was fired during the sermon. The con-
Wesley and Other Complications
stable ran out and found it was the doctor, who
resisted arrest. Whereupon Captain Herms-
dorf came with two soldiers and took the im-
portant individual to the guard-house. The
doctor's wife, who had her own little grudge
against Wesley, accused him of causing the
arrest, and threatened revenge. Wesley de-
manded an audience with Lawley, his accuser.
He was sent for, and, upon Oglethorpe's close
questioning, dropped all his charges except
that Wesley had forced the people to prayers.
Other troubles, however, came out of the
arrest, again kindling the wrath of the Gov-
ernor. The people were in such a state of con-
fusion that he said it was easier to govern a
thousand than sixty, for in the smaller num-
ber every one's passion was considerable, and
he durst not leave before all was settled. He
still thought that Charles Wesley had, by his
indiscretion, excited the disorder, and no ex-
planation effaced the unfavorable impression
from his mind.
He well knew the piety of the parents of
the missionary, the ability, learning, and self-
denial of the young Wesleys, and it was a bit-
ter disappointment that his hopes for their
efficient aid in the colony were not realized.
His cares were increasing. Amid the build-
ing of houses, constructing batteries, getting
supplies, the threatened invasion of the Span-
iards made it more necessary that a united
people should work together for the good of
the colony. A happy reconciliation came
soon, after both parties had time for calm re-
flection free from outside influences.
In the meantime the Governor was actively
engaged in strengthening the defenses and
providing various things necessary for the
comfort of his people. The works around the
fort were palisaded with cedar posts, plat-
forms for cannon were laid upon the bastions,
a marshy ground below the fort was formed
into a ^ ^ spur ' ' on which guns were placed level
with the water and commanding the entrance
to the sound.
Having noticed that his guard were grow-
ing careless, he one day rowed quietly up-
stream, landed with his crew, and approached
close enough to surprise the sentry, who fled,
shouting that the enemy had landed. His men
fired a volley and raised the Spanish war-cry,
which spread consternation and made every
soul fly into the fort, where they remained
until, with much chagrin, they learned the
truth — that their Governor was testing their
On April 13th Major Richards and Mr.Hor-
ton were sent with his reply to the Governor
Wesley and Other Complications
of St. Augustine, in which he was informed
that armed boats had been sent to patrol the
St. Johns, and thus hinder any lawless persons
from creating disturbance between the Span-
iards and the English.
Oglethorpe had great cause for anxiety,
knowing how helpless he was should the
Spanish boldly attack him. Not one regular
soldier had he in his command to oppose an
enemy who had at St. Augustine a garrison of
three hundred foot and fifty horse, besides
militia and reenf orcements daily expected from
Havana. This he knew by private advices,
and was also informed that a large force had
recently marched out of St. Augustine. At
the same time came a letter from the Spanish
Governor complaining that the Indians had at-
tacked his fort at Picolata and were secretly
upheld by the English. Messengers were at
once despatched to hasten the coming of a
company promised by the Assembly of Caro-
lina, and to the sloop-of-war Hawk, lately ar-
rived at Savannah. At length a small part of
the company arrived and were hurried on by
Oglethorpe to the eastern end of the island,
where he had determined to erect a fort which
would command the entrance to Jekyll Sound.
On the 16th news came from St. Andrews
that strange ships were seen out at sea, and
several guns heard. Oglethorpe at once
called in some parties of Indians, and, order-
ing them to keep near the town, set every white
man to work on the defenses. He bnilt a forge
within the fort, a magazine beneath one of the
bastions, and laid in a stock of provisions. He
then started in an armed boat for St. Andrews,
determined to learn for himself the exact state
From Wesley's journal we learn that he
went with sore misgivings and a heavy heart.
''You will see me no more," said he. ''Take
this ring and carry it for me to Mr. V . If
there is a friend to be depended on, he is one. His
interest is next to Sir Robert's. Whatever you ask
within his power, he will do for you, your brother,
and your family. I have expected death for some
days. These letters show that the Spaniards have
been seducing. our allies, and intend to cut us off at
one blow. I fall by my friends — Gascoigne whom
I have made, the Carolina people upon whom I de-
pended to send their promised succors. But death
is to me nothing ; T will pursue all my designs,
and to him I recommend them and you. ' '
He then gave Wesley his diamond ring.
A reconciliation had been made between the
two, and their parting was full of kindly
Wesley and Other Complications
I attended him to the scout boat, says Wesley,
where he waited some minutes for his sword. They
brought him first, and a second time, a mourning
sword. At last they gave him his own, which had
been his father's. ''With this sword I was never
yet unsuccessful, ' ' he said. ' ' I hope, sir, ' ' said I,
"you carry with you a better, even the sword
of the Lord and of Gideon." "I hope so too," he
added. When the boat put off, I ran before into the
woods to see the last of him. His last word to his
people was : ' * God bless you all ! "
AFFAIR WITH THE SPANIARDS
On their way to St. Andrews Oglethorpe
and his crew encountered a storm which forced
them to seek shelter among the oyster-banks
of Jekyll Island. On reaching the island he
ordered a ravelin to be added to the fort, a
palisade to be made around the base of the hill,
and sent a scout boat with assistance to Cap-
tain Hermsdorf at Fort St. George.
Sails having been seen out at sea, he took
boat again for St. Simons, arriving safely at
Frederica. There he found several boats,
manned by a number of volunteers, had come
from Savannah, having heard that the Span-
iards had taken Frederica, and that Oglethorpe
On Cumberland and Jekyll Islands look-
outs had been set to give notice of the approach
of shipping. One was reported, but proved
to be the sloop-of-war Hawk from Savannah,
which soon anchored below the town. Later
Affair With the Spaniards
the scout boat Carolina returned from Fort
George. A report was received that Major
Richards, who had been sent to the Spanish
Governor, had been imprisoned in St. Augus-
tine. Also that Captain Hermsdorf^s men
had mutinied and compelled him to abandon
On May 2d, leaving the fort in command
of Captain Mcintosh, he started in the scout
boat Georgia, accompanied by Lieutenant
Moore in a yawl. He was relieved to find no
mutiny at Fort St. George, but a panic had
been caused by the lies of one man, whom Ogle-
thorpe promptly sentenced to ^^run the gant-
lope." The other men were put to work
strengthening the old fort, after which he
started for the Spanish side of the St. Johns
Eiver, his boats carrying a white flag. A few
of them landed, and, ascending a hill to the
open plain, there fixed the flag on a pole,
hoping to draw some of the Spaniards to a
That night fires were seen on the Florida
shore, and Oglethorpe suspected the Span-
iards were preparing to attack them. In
order to gain time to get reenforcements, he
had recourse to an ingenious ruse. He had
two carriage-guns and two swivel-guns car-
ried to the woods at different points. The
swivel-guns were to fire seven shots, the car-
riage-guns ^ve, in answer. The smaller guns
from the faintness of their report had the
sound of a distant ship saluting, the larger
that of a battery returning the salute, and
completely deceived the enemy. Not until
some time after did Oglethorpe know from
what danger he had thus escaped. He then
learned that the Governor of St. Augustine
had arrested his messengers, and had sent
picked men with strong boats' crew to attack
the fort on St. Simons Island. They had also
with them some Yamasee Indians and four
guns, hoping, if the settlement was as weak as
reported in advices from South Carolina, to
dislodge the English.
They were, however, fired upon by the bat-
tery at Sea-point, and catching sight of the
Hawk in the sound, ran out to sea in greater
haste than they had run in. Again they at-
tempted entrance at another inlet, and were
in like manner run off by the garrison at St.
Andrews, and in such haste that the same night
they reached their outposts sixty miles distant.
Holding a conference, their commanders
concluded that all the strength of the English
was concentrated at St. Simons, hence St.
George must be weak, and an attack was de-
termined on for the next night. Fortunately,
Affair With the Spaniards
it was not made, for, from the number of guns
they heard, they concluded that reenforce-
ments had arrived. The stratagem had com-
pletely deceived them.
That night Oglethorpe had a number of
fires made in the woods, and again deceived
the Spaniards, who supposed the Creek Indians
had come to the aid of the English, and Don
Pedro with his command retired behind the
walls of St. Augustine. This created con-
sternation in the fort, for the people appre-
hended that if the Indians should cut off their
communication by land, as the sloop of war
might do by sea, they would perish by famine.
It was under such pressure that the Spanish
Governor decided to send back, in the most
honorable manner, the two commissioners, and
with them an officer of rank to treat with Ogle-
thorpe and request him to restrain the Indians
from invading Florida.
Oglethorpe, being ignorant of all this,
started to the Spanish side of the St. Johns
Eiver, hoping to meet the expected messen-
ger. No messenger appeared, but, instead, a
guarda^costa with seventy men on board.
Oglethorpe had with him only twenty- four
men, yet the Spanish fled promptly at sight
of them. Afterward two horsemen appeared,
and one, apparently an officer, approached
near enough to forbid the English landing
on the King of Spain's ground. Oglethorpe
courteously replied that he would forbear
landing since they objected, but that the
Spaniards were welcome to land on the King
of England's ground on the opposite side of
the river, and should also be welcome to a
glass of wine there with himself.
Oglethorpe having received positive infor-
mation that the Spaniards were supplying
themselves with arms and ammunition in
Charleston, wrote a letter to the Lieutenant-
Governor of South Carolina, requesting him
to stop their exportation, and another letter to
Mr. Eveleigh, a public-spirited merchant, say-
ing that if the mayor and council could not
prevent the sale of arms and ammunition to
the Spaniards, then they should buy it all, and
thus defeat their plans. He wrote likewise to
the Grovernor of New York.
Strangely enough, the love of gain made
many indifferent to the dangers of a sister
colony. Spanish gold was filling their treas-
ury ; the sight was pleasant ; they never looked
beyond, where the Spanish soldier, armed with
the guns they had furnished, was marching to
attack their homes.
Oglethorpe now returned to Fort St.
George. He took with him for the relief of
AfFair With the Spaniards
the fort Tomo Chiclii and his Indians in their
canoes, a large periagua, two ten-oared boats
with fifty men, cannon, and two months' pro-
visions. On the way he met a boat in which
was Mr. Horton, who informed him that two
Spanish officers were returning with the com-
missioners, on a friendly mission to St.
Simons. Oglethorpe determined that they
should not enter Frederica and thus gain in-
formation of its strength and situation. He
therefore sent orders for Captain Gascoigne to
entertain them on board the Hawk. He also
sent a messenger desiring them to anchor,
until a safe guard could be sent them, since the
country was full of Indians. Indeed, it was
fortunate for them that Oglethorpe was an
hour ahead of his party, for had the Creeks
been foremost, they would certainly have at-
tacked the Spaniards. He could scarcely pre-
vent it, even with an armed boat to escort them
to Jekyll Sound.
He went on to Fort George, where he not
only gave directions, but worked with the men.
He then returned to St. Simons, where he pre-
pared to receive the Spaniards, sent to Darien
for some of the most martial-looking High-
landers, ordered marquees and handsome
tents to be pitched on Jekyll Island, then an-
nounced to the Spaniards that he would wait
upon them next day. To impress the officers
that he had cavalry, he went down attended
by seven horsemen — all he had. Entering a
boat, he approached the Hawk, ^ ' whose sailors
manned the shrouds, while her marines, with
bayonets fixed, lined one side of the deck, and
the Highlanders, with drawn broadswords,
the other. ' '
WITH THE SPANISH COMMISSIONEES
Of the formal interview on the day fol-
lowing, Oglethorpe gave an accurate account
in a letter to the trustees, as follows :
After dinner we drank the King of Britain's
and the King of Spain's health, under a discharge
of cannon from the ships, which was answered with
fifteen pieces of cannon from Delugal 's fort at Sea-
point. That again was followed by the cannon
from St. Andrews, and that by those of Frederica
and Darien, as I had ordered. The Spaniards
seemed surprised that there should be so many
forts, and all within hearing of each other. Don
Pedro smiled, and said: ''No wonder Don Igna-
tion made more haste home than out." After the
healths were done, a great number of Indians came
on board, naked, painted, and their heads dressed
with feathers. They demanded of me justice
against the Spaniards for killing some of their men
in time of peace. . . . Don Pedro, having asked
several questions, acknowledged himself satisfied
of the facts, excusing it by saying he was then in
Mexico, and that the Governor, being newly come
from Spain and not knowing the customs of the
country, had sent out Indians under the command
of Pehoia, King of the Floridas, who had exceeded
his orders, which were not to molest the Creeks.
But the Indians not being content with that
answer, he promised that on his return to St. Au-
gustine he would have the Pehoia king put to death
if he could be taken ; and if he could not, that the
Spaniards would supply his people with neither
powder nor arms nor anything else, but leave them
to the Creeks.
The Indians answered that he spake well, and
if the Spaniards did what he said, all would be
white between them; but if not, they would have
revenge, from which, at my desire, they would ab-
stain until a final answer came.
The Indian matters being thus settled, we had
a conference with the Spanish commissioners. They
thanked me first for restraining the Indians, who
were in my power, and hoped I would extend that
care to the upper Indians. They then, after having
produced their credentials, presented a paper de-
siring to know by what title I settled upon St.
Simons, being lands belonging to the King of Spain.
I took the paper, promising an answer next day.
The substance was that the lands belonged to
the King of England by undoubted right; that I
had proceeded with the utmost caution, having
taken with me Indians, the natives and possessors
of the lands ; that I had examined every place to see
With the Spanish Commissioners
if there were any Spanish possessions, and went
forward until I found an outguard of theirs, over
against which I settled the English without com-
mitting any hostilities, or dislodging any. There-
fore I did not extend the King's dominions, but
only settled with regular garrisons that part of
them which was before a shelter for the Indians,
pirates, and such sort of disorderly men.
Oglethorpe, after the departure of the
Spaniards, found it necessary to go to Savan-
nah, where all was in commotion. People
were bringing complaints against the magis-
trates, who in turn had their grievances to
relate. Oglethorpe went to the court and
announced his intentions. " If any one here
has been abused or oppressed by any man,''
he said, " he has free and full liberty of com-
plaining. Let him deliver in his complaints
in writing at my house. I will read all over
myself, and do every particular man justice."
Charles Wesley, who was present, reported
the complaints so incredible, childish, trifling,
that he thought them a full vindication of the
magistrates, and was filled with admiration of
Oglethorpe's patience in hearing and wise
No time was ever wasted by this busy Gov-
ernor, and that night at half past twelve he
started for Frederica, but returned to Savan-
nah in ten days to give audience to a party of
Creek Indians. At this date we find the resig-
nation of Charles Wesley as secretary. He
and Oglethorpe parted as good friends, and he
made this record of advice and instruction
given him by Oglethorpe just before he sailed
I would you not to let the trustees know your res-
olution of resigning. There are many hungry fel-
lows ready to catch at the office, and in my absence I
can not put in one of my own choosing. The best I
can hope for is an honest Presbyterian, as many of
the trustees are such. Perhaps they may send me
a bad man, and how such an one may influence
the traders and obstruct the reception of the Gospel
among the heathen you know. I shall be in Eng-
land before you leave it ; then you may either put
in a deputy or resign.
On many accounts I should recommend to you
marriage, rather than celibacy. You are of a social
temper, and would find in the married state the
difficulties of working out your own salvation ex-
ceedingly lessened, and your helps much increased.
During the following October Oglethorpe
concluded a treaty with the Governor of St.
Augustine, much more conciliatory than he
had anticipated ; but his satisfaction at this re-
sult was very soon dispelled by the coming of
a Spanish envoy from Cuba, who in the name
With the Spanish Commissioners
of his master, the King of Spain, peremptorily
demanded that Oglethorpe and his colony-
evacuate all the territory south of St. Helenas
Sound. He would listen to no arguments, but
repeated his demands with threats, and uncere-
Vigorous measures were now necessary;
aid must come from the mother country, or her
colony be abandoned. Oglethorpe determined
to go at once and represent their condition to
the British ministry. The trustees had pre-
viously urged his return.
Making the best provision in his power for
the defense and local government of his prov-
ince during his absence, Oglethorpe then set
sail for England November 29, 1736. On
January 7th Charles Wesley noted in his jour-
nal: ^^The news was brought of Mr. Ogle-
thorpe's arrival. The next day I waited on
him, and received a relation of his wonderful
deliverance in Bristol Channel. He talked
admirably of resignation, and of the impossi-
bility of dying when it is not best. ' '
His reception by the trustees was most cor-
dial, with unanimous vote of thanks for his
services. He then made his report — a verbal
one — of the progress of their colony, showing
the rapid growth of Savannah, of the pros-
perity of other towns, and the founding of new
ones ; of the establishing an important post at
Augusta for Indian traffic opened in the in-
terior. He also stated that the Indian tribes
to a distance of seven hundred miles acknowl-
edged the King's authority. Yet there was a
dark side to this pleasant picture. On the
frontiers the colonists were in constant appre-
hension of invasion from the Spaniards them-
selves, or their Indian allies, whom they incited
to do their utmost against the English. The
insolent demands of the Spanish commissioner
amounted to a declaration of war, and Ogle-
thorpe urged the necessity of applying to his
Majesty for military force sufficient to defend
Georgia and South Carolina.
The court of Spain about this time de-
manded of the English Government the recall
of Oglethorpe, evidently considering him a
dangerous opponent to their unscrupulous de-
signs. The London Daily Post, in an editorial
on the Georgia colony, wrote :
For this reason, it seems, this public-spirited
and valuable man is now become the butt of the
resentment of Spain, because he has acted like a
brave, vigilant, and faithful Englishman, at the
expense of his repose and his purse, and to the ut-
most peril of his life. The Spanish court, we are
told, has the modesty to demand from England that
he be no longer employed. But I hope the ministers
With the Spanish Commissioners
of Philip V do not think we have a James the First
on the throne, or a Gondomar at our court. We
have the most undeniable proof that the Spaniards
dread the abilities of Mr. Oglethorpe ; it is a glorious
testimony to his merit and a certificate of his patri-
otism that ought to endear him to every Briton.
If ever a settlement has been universally ap-
plauded by the people of Great Britain, that of
Georgia has been so. I happened to be in France
when it began, and the uneasiness of the French
gave me my first idea of its value. They said the
Spaniards neither could nor would suffer it to go
on, and from what I both heard and saw, I am
persuaded that this late demand concerning
Georgia did not take its rise in Madrid. Whatever
the Spaniards may pretend, it is France that has
the greatest interest in the destruction of that col-
ony. The Indians who are our friends are not only
so, but enemies of the French and their Indian
Should we then abandon them, such an impol-
itic as well as ungenerous and shameful step might
in time be attended with fatal consequences not
only to the rest of the colonies on the continent of
America, but to all future undertakings of like
nature. . . . Surely the Queen of Spain does not
think we are to be hectored or frightened into
measures for making more infant kings! But let
her views be what they will, I dare venture to say
that our ministers will as soon consent to part with
their eyes, as to part with Georgia.
COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF IN CAROLINA AND GEORGIA
The next vessel bronglit important news
from America. The Governor of St. Augus-
tine had ordered every English merchant to
leave, and was preparing barracks for large
numbers of troops expected from Havana.
The trustees at once brought before the King
a petition asking that a corps be raised for the
defense of Georgia. The request was readily
granted. His Majesty appointed Oglethorpe
general of all his forces in Carolina, as well as
Georgia, and commissioned him to raise a
regiment. It was thought necessary, however,
to send aid to Georgia earlier than the regiment
could be completed. The Government ar-
ranged to send at once a small body of troops
These arrived in Savannah in the spring of
the next year. George Whitefield, whom the
trustees had engaged to succeed Wesley, sailed
with them. About the same time two or three
In Carolina and Georgia
companies of General Oglethorpe's regiment,
under command of Lieutenant-Colonel James
Cochran, reached Charleston, and from thence
The regiment consisted of six companies of
one hundred men each. No commissions were
sold, but Oglethorpe got such officers appointed
as were men of family and character in their
respective counties. Twenty young men of
no fortune he engaged to serve as cadets, whom
he subsequently promoted as vacancies oc-
curred, presenting each with a sum sufficient
to provide for an officer's needs. Besides
these, he carried with him at his own cost forty
supernumeraries. To induce the soldiers to
settle in Georgia, every one was permitted to
take out a wife, for whose support extra pay
and rations were allowed.
At length, all things being ready, Ogle-
thorpe, with six hundred men , women, and
children, besides arms, ammunition, and pro-
visions, sailed from Portsmouth in five trans-
ports, convoyed by the men-of-war Blandford
and Hector. They reached St. Simons Island
in a little more than two months, and were re-
ceived with a salute from the guns of Soldiers
Fort and cheers from the garrison. General
Oglethorpe encamped with them until suitable
arrangements had been made for the comfort
of the troops, then hastened on to Frederica.
There magistrates and people joyfully wel-
comed him. Several Indians also came to
greet him, and informed him that the chiefs of
every trihe of the Upper and Lower Creeks in-
tended coming so soon as they had notice of his
Oglethorpe, perceiving at once that a way
of communication between the town and the
sea forts was a necessity, lost no time in begin-
ning the work. Every male inhabitant was
summoned, and, with him, began to cut a road
through the woods. So well did the people
follow the example of their general that in
three days the road was complete — a distance
of six miles. It was so well planned that the
subsequent safety of the colony was in a large
measure secured by this foresight. From the
town the road led out in an easterly direction,
then, turning south, passed for more than a
mile over a fine prairie, thence through a dense
forest until it reached a marsh. Along the
hard dry margin of the marsh it ran for two
miles, bordered on one side by the creeks and
swamps, on the other by a close, impenetrable
wood matted with vines and palmettos. So
narrow was the road that only two men could
here walk abreast. From the marsh it passed
up to high land, and then in a direct line to the
In Carolina and Georgia
fort. This secured a communicatioii between
fort and town. While the forest served for a
protection, the narrow causeway made it pos-
sible for a few to repel many.
The colonists, especially those of Darien
and Frederica, were greatly encouraged by the
presence of the general and his troops. For
months they had been in constant dread of an
attack by the Spaniards, who, notwithstanding
their treaty, were greatly increasing the gar-
rison at St. Augustine. They had actually at-
tacked some of the Creek settlements nearest to
them, and would have advanced farther had
they not been repulsed with much loss. The
attack, they pretended, was made by the
Florida Indians without their knowledge. The
constant alarms had so interfered with the cul-
tivation of the fields that, unless something
were done before another harvest, the poorer
settlers would suffer. Now, however, all could
return to their labor, leaving the defense of
their home to abler hands.
There was no time for delay. The first
care of the general was to strengthen the fron-
tier posts and distribute his forces for their
various duties. Some remained at their forts,
some were on the alert for ranging the woods,
others made ready for sudden expeditions.
Vessels were provided for scouring the sea-
coast and giving notice of the approach of
strange shipping. From one place to another
the active general passed, not only superintend-
ing, but assisting, demanding no comfort of
which his men were deprived ; indeed, he slept
in tents or by watch-fires, while they lay in huts
with every reasonable comfort. Harris, wri-
ting at the time A Compleat Collection of Voy-
ages and Travels, says : ^ ^ In all these services,
Oglethorpe gave at the same time his orders
and his example ; there was nothing he did not,
that he directed others to do. ' '
Yet even at this early day he had discovered
treachery within his camp. He had suspected
trouble even on board the Blandf ord, and had
written the trustees :
We have discovered that one of our soldiers
has been in the Spanish service, and that he hath
strove to induce several men to desert with him on
their arrival in Georgia. He designed also to mur-
der the officers, or such persons as could have money,
and carry off the plunder. Two of the gang have
confessed and accused him, but we can not discover
the others. The men were found guilty, and were
sentenced to be whipped and drummed out of the
regiment. The sequel proved the punishment un-
wisely lenient, for the ringleader, Shannon, wan-
dered into the Indian districts and endeavored to
turn them against the English. Twice he was cap-
In Carolina and Georgia
tured and twice escaped, but finally, with an asso-
ciate, having murdered two men at Fort Argyle, was
taken, tried, and executed, after confessing his
Up to this time General Oglethorpe had not
visited Savannah. He now set out in an open
boat, and in two days was received in the town
with the firing of cannon, while throngs of peo-
ple crowded around to bid him welcome. Most
of these came because of sincere respect and
gratitude to a devoted leader; but there were
others who had reason to dread an investiga-
tion of their conduct, and would, by loud-
mouthed welcome, conciliate his favor. The
Governor himself sought to reconcile the dis-
contented and win their esteem. With timely,
generous gifts he aided widows and orphans,
the sick and all in need. Said one of the citi-
zens : ^ ' The general, by his great diligence and
at his own expense, has supported things, but
we are apprehensive that can not last long,
for the expenses are too great for any single
man to bear. ' '
It gave Oglethorpe much concern that he
had neither time nor funds to encourage im-
provements. Yet there was some progress.
The culture of silk was very limited, yet an
Italian family had wound a considerable quan-
tity as fine as any made in Piedmont, and
mulberry-trees had increased enough to feed
a large stock of worms. Some vines were
grown; a potter had discovered clay suitable
for making china and had baked some fine
specimens of earthenware. A sawmill at
Ebenezer turned out daily seven hundred feet
of plank. There was cause for encouragement.
Tomo Chichi had been very ill, but on his
recovery came to Savannah to see and welcome
'^the Great Man,'' as he called Oglethorpe.
His joy was unbounded ; the sight of his friend
made him, he declared, ^^molt like an eagle,''
and renewed his health. He asked for an in-
terview for the chiefs of the Creek nations,
who were waiting at Yamacraw to come and
congratulate Oglethorpe on his return and
renew their fidelity to Great Britain. Two
days later these chiefs, with thirty of their
warriors and fifty attendants, came down the
river. They were received with military hon-
ors and conducted to the town hall, where the
general awaited them. They expressed their
satisfaction at once more beholding him, for
the Spaniards had persuaded them that he was
at St. Augustine, and invited them there to
meet him. They went, but finding he was not
there, turned back, though offered valuable
presents. The Spaniards then said Ogle-
In Carolina and Georgia
thorpe was on board a vessel in their harbor
and very ill ; they also advised them to break
with the English. This they resented, and had
now come to assure him of their loyalty and
readiness to serve under the general against
his enemies. One thousand Creeks would
march whenever he commanded.
They reported trouble with Carolina
traders, who used false weights and measures,
and desired that true ones be lodged with the
chiefs of each tribe. This request was at once
attended to, and the general also promised, at
their earnest invitation, to visit during the
next summer their towns, which lay about four
hundred miles west of Savannah. Handsome
presents were made them, a war-dance held
that evening, and in the early morning they
set out for their homes.
Oglethorpe himself soon departed, leaving,
said one of their number, "many sorrowful
countenances and a gloomy prospect of what
might ensue. ' ' He made only a short stay at
Frederica, then proceeded to Cumberland Is-
land and took up his abode at Fort St. Andrews.
The troops from Gibraltar, there stationed,
had been promised provisions from the King's
store for a limited time, and when in November
the rations were discontinued, they became
One day while the general and Captain
Mackay were talking, a soldier came forward
and unceremoniously demanded their former
allowance. Says Stephens in his report:
**The general replied that the terms of their
enlistment had been fulfilled, and that, if they
desired any special favor at his hands, so rude
and disrespectful a manner of application was
not the way to obtain it. The fellow became
outrageously insolent. Captain Mackay drew
his sword, which the desperado, snatched from
his hand, broke in half, and throwing the hilt
at the officer's head, ran off to the barracks.
There, taking a loaded gun, he cried, ^One
and all!' when, followed by five more con-
spirators, he rushed out and fired at the gen-
eral. Being only a few paces distant, the ball
whizzed close by Oglethorpe's ear, while the
powder scorched his face and singed his
clothes. Another soldier presented his piece
and attempted to discharge it, but fortunately
it missed fire. A third then drew his hanger
and endeavored to stab the general, who, hav-
ing by this time unsheathed his sword, parried
the thrust, and an officer coming up ran the
ruffian through the body. The other frus-
trated mutineers now tried to escape by flight,
but the alarm having spread, they were soon
caught and hurried off to jail to await trial.''
In Carolina and Georgia
The culprits were sentenced to death, but only
the ringleader was executed. However, the
spirit of insubordination was quelled, and the
southern colonists relieved from all immediate
Early in the spring of that year General
Oglethorpe went to Charleston, and, in the
presence of the General Assembly of South
Carolina, his commission as commander-in-
chief of his Majesty ^s forces was opened and
read. Various regulations in the military
affairs of that colony were effected, and Ogle-
thorpe returned to his own province. There
he spent a busy week among the plantations
on the Savannah. To encourage care and in-
dustry in the cultivation of their land, he prom-
ised for every bushel of Indian corn a bounty
of two shillings over and above the market
price of the next harvest.
Fearing to give the Spaniards a pretext
for hostilities, the trustees had instructed
Oglethorpe neither to build new forts nor
strengthen the old ones — a needless request,
since he had no funds. But, foreseeing that
a war between England and either France or
Spain (perhaps both) was inevitable, he de-
termined to secure the friendship of the In-
dians, not so much for the forces they could
bring to his aid, but because so long as the
red men were his allies the French would be
careful how they weakened their province to
support the pretended claims of Spain to
Georgia and South Carolina.
JOUKNEYS TO THE INTEEIOB
In regard to the necessity of a visit to
the Indians in the interior Oglethorpe wrote
to the trustees :
I have received frequent and confirmed advices
that the Spaniards are striving to bribe the Indians,
and particularly the Creek nation, to differ with
us ; and the disorder of the traders is such as gives
but too much room to render the Indians discon-
tented, great numbers of vagrants being gone up
without licenses either from Carolina or us. Mala-
chee, the son of the great Brim, called "Emperor
of the Creeks" by the Spaniards; and Chigilly, in-
sist upon my coming up to put all things in order ;
and have acquainted me that all the chiefs of the
nation will come down to Coweta town to meet me,
and hold there the general assembly of the Indian
nations, where they will take such measures as will
be necessary to hinder the Spaniards from corrupt-
ing and raising sedition among their people.
This journey, though a very fatiguing and dan-
gerous one, is quite necessary to be taken; for if
not, the Spaniards, who have sent up great presents
to them, will bribe the corrupt part of the nation;
and if the honester part is not supported, will prob-
ably overcome them and force the whole nation into
a war with England. Tomo Chichi and all the In-
dians advise me to go up. The Coweta town, where
the meeting is to be, is nearly five hundred miles
from hence. All the towns of the Creeks and of the
Cousees and Talapousees, though three hundred
miles from the Cowetas, will come down to the meet-
ing. The Choctaws also and the Chickesaws will
send thither their deputies ; so that seven thousand
men depend upon the event of this assembly. The
Creeks can furnish fifteen hundred warriors, the
Chickesaws five hundred, and the Choctaws five
thousand. I am obliged to buy horses and presents
to carry up to the meeting.
Early in July Oglethorpe learned that the
French had attacked the Lower Creeks and
Choctaws, whose settlements joined theirs,
and that the Indians were preparing a counter-
attack. He determined, therefore, to start at
once on his expedition among them, and, if
possible, prevent further hostilities. He set
out accompanied by Lieutenant Dunbar, En-
sign Leman, Mr. Eyre, and his own servants.
At the Uchee town, twenty-five miles above
Ebenezer, they found saddle and baggage
horses, which the general had previously en-
Journeys to the Interior
gaged from the Indian traders. From thence
the perilous journey is thus described :
Through tangled thickets, along rough ravines,
over dreary swamps in which the horses reared and
plunged, the travelers patiently followed their na-
tive guides. More than once they had to construct
rafts on which to cross the rivers, and many smaller
streams were crossed by wading or swimming. . . .
Wrapped in his cloak, with his portmanteau for a
pillow, their hardy leader lay down to sleep upon
the ground, or if the night were wet he sheltered
himself in a covert of cypress boughs spread upon
poles. For two hundred miles they neither saw a
human habitation, nor met a soul; but as they
neared their journey's end they found here and
there provisions, which the primitive people they
were about to visit had deposited for them in the
woods. . . . When within fifty miles of his destina-
tion, the general was met by a deputation of chiefs
who escorted him to Coweta; and although the
American aborigines are rarely demonstrative,
nothing could exceed the joy manifested by them
on Oglethorpe's arrival. ... By having under-
taken so long and difficult a journey for the pur-
pose of visiting them, by coming with only a few
attendants in fearless reliance on their good faith,
by the readiness with which he accommodated him-
self to their habits, and by the natural dignity of
his deportment, Oglethorpe had won the hearts of
his red brothers, whom he was never known to de-
On August llth the chiefs assembled, and
the great council was opened with solemn rites.
After many ' ^ talks, ' ' terms of intercourse and
stipulations for trading were satisfactorily-
arranged. Then Oglethorpe, as one of their
beloved men, partook with them of the foskey,
or black-medicine drink — a sacred beverage
used only on special occasions, and of which
only chiefs, war captains, and beloved men
could partake. Afterward they smoked to-
gether the calumet, the hallowed pipe of peace.
A formal treaty was concluded, by which the
Creeks renewed their fealty to the King of
Great Britain, and in explicit terms confirmed
their grants of territory. The general, in the
name of the trustees, * * engaged that the Eng-
lish should not encroach upon their reserves,
and that the traders should deal fairly and
honestly with them. ' '
This last point was the most difficult to
settle. ^^If I had not gone up,'' wrote Ogle-
thorpe afterward, '^the misunderstanding
between them and our Carolina traders,
fomented by our neighboring nations, would
probably have occasioned a war, which I be-
lieve might have been the result of this gen-
eral meeting. But, as their complaints were
just and reasonable, I gave them satisfaction
in all of them, and everything is settled in
peace. ' '
Journeys to the Interior
Not only had the Choctaws agreed not to
make war on the French, but the chiefs of all
the tribes had assured Oglethorpe that their
warriors would march to his assistance when-
ever he should summon them. We may imag-
ine that the general set out on his homeward
journey with a lighter heart, and that his sat-
isfaction was further increased by the con-
gratulations of the trustees, who wrote :
The Carolina people, as well as every one else,
must own that no one ever engaged the Indians so
strongly in affection as yourself.
Spalding, a more recent writer, speaking
of the dangerous journey, says :
When we call to remembrance the force of
those tribes, the influence the French had every-
where else obtained over the Indians, the distance he
had to travel through solitary pathways exposed to
the treachery of every Indian, who knew the rich re-
ward that would have awaited him from Spaniards
or French — surely we may ask, What soldier ever
gave higher proof of courage? What gentleman
ever gave greater evidence of magnanimity ? What
English governor ever gave such assurance of deep
devotion to public duty?
The hardships, mental strain, and anxie-
ties of the expedition too severely taxed the
strength of General Oglethorpe. He was
prostrated by fever, and for several weeks was
detained in Fort Augusta. While at this out-
post on the Savannah he was visited by some
chiefs of the Cherokees and Chickasaws, who
complained that some of their people had
been poisoned by rum bought from the
traders, and they threatened revenge. Care-
ful inquiry revealed the facts — unlicensed
traders had brought in not only rum, but small-
pox. The disease had killed some of the In-
dians, and the others attributed their deaths
to some ingredient in the liquor. With diffi-
culty, Oglethorpe convinced them of the real
cause of the sickness, but he assured them that
they need not fear traders from Georgia ; only
licensed ones came, and the strictest precau-
tions were taken before permits were granted.
On his return to Savannah the general met
an express messenger from the Lieutenant-
Governor of South Carolina, informing him
of a serious revolt among the negroes of that
province. They had burned several houses
and murdered a number of the inhabitants.
They had been instigated by a proclamation
from the Spanish Governor of St. Augustine,
when some slaves had taken refuge there in
January. The General Assembly sent a com-
mittee to St. Augustine demanding restoration
of their property, and, at their request, Ogle-
Journeys to the Interior
thorpe wrote a friendly letter to the Captain-
General of Florida to urge their cause in a
friendly way. That officer, however, while
expressing his friendship for Oglethorpe, ex-
hibited orders to protect all runaway slaves.
But after another outbreak in September,
General Oglethorpe ordered a troop of rangers
to patrol through Georgia and intercept any
fugitives ; sent Indian runners in pursuit, and
directed a detachment from Port Royal to aid
the planters of Carolina. He directed the
constables to seize all negroes found within
Georgia, offering rewards for the captured.
At that time it is stated there were forty thou-
sand slaves in South Carolina, and only one-
eighth that number of whites, and but for
Oglethorpe's prompt action, the colony might
have been exterminated.
On October 2d orders were issued that at
the beat of the drum on the day following all
freeholders of Savannah should be under
arms, and at noon the magistrates in their
gowns should be in the courthouse. When
General Oglethorpe arrived and took his seat
the militia, who had been drawn up to receive
him, grounded arms and came within. He
then made a formal announcement that the
English Government had declared war against
Spain. Commending the people for their
hearty cheerfulness, he assured them that he
had taken every precaution to prevent an
enemy coming upon their back from the west
or south, and on the seacoast there were Eng-
lish frigates cruising for their protection, while
he hoped soon to receive additional land forces.
On his return to his lodgings cannon were dis-
charged, and the freeholders with their small
arms fired ^ ^ three handsome volleys. ' '
Nothing escaped the notice of this in-
defatigable Governor, and in the midst of
preparations for war he called a general mus-
ter in the interests of peace and good order.
The command was that every male inhabitant,
including boys, should meet at sunrise to clear
the common, public squares, and other places
of the shrubs and noxious weeds that spring
up so abundantly. They cheerfully re-
sponded, and by nightfall had cleared many
acres. The general spent the day with them,
and every one, without distinction, did what
he could. At breakfast he supplied them with
bread and beer, and at night they had similar
refreshment. He was well pleased with the
improved appearance of the space cleared, but
there was still another day's work, which he
appointed for November 5th, promising a fin-
ishing treat and a bonfire. Not only was he
gratified with their ready willingness to do
Journeys to the Interior
the work, but he had ascertained accurately
what he desired to know — the number of men
able to bear arms — an easy and useful method
While in Savannah Oglethorpe lost his
valued friend Tomo Chichi. The old man
had been ''living in wilful poverty, had given
away all the rich presents bestowed upon him,
always more pleased in giving to others than
in possessing himself.'' He was nearly one
hundred years old, yet sensible to the last,
peaceful and resigned. He only expressed
regret at being called away at this critical time,
when he had hoped to be useful to the English
in their struggle against the Spaniards.
His devotion to Oglethorpe never wavered.
To the last he exhorted his people never to
forget the general's kindness, nor the benefits
they had received through him from the King.
He desired to be buried in Savannah, as he had
assisted in founding it. His remains were
therefore brought from Yamacraw, and at the
landing received by the Governor, magistrates,
and the people. The pall was borne by Ogle-
thorpe, Mr. Stephens, and four more gentle-
men of the town; Indian mourners followed,
and the body was carried to Percival Square,
where it was interred with military honors.
TROUBLES IN FLORIDA
Oglethorpe, being now about to leave
Savannah for the southern frontier, made a
thorough inspection of the place, its maga-
zines, the arms of the militia ; distributed am-
munition, and, most difficult task of all, settled
difficulties which had come between constables
and petty officers, rearranging the whole force
and appointing Mr. Stephens to the command.
He also granted letters of marque to a sea-
faring man named Davis, giving him com-
mand of a privateer of twenty-four guns, just
fitted out at Savannah.
For years the British- American trade had
suffered from Spanish guar da-cost as, which
seized merchant vessels, confiscated them, and
treated the sailors so cruelly that many died
in captivity. The English people demanded
redress; a large party severely censured the
minister. Sir Eobert Walpole, who, as they
declared, ''tamely saw his country exposed to
Troubles in Florida
such indignities." This minister, knowing
the value of peace to a commercial nation, en-
deavored to settle differences by negotiation.
Spain had at last agreed to pay a certain sum
of money to make good the losses, while it was
agreed that the Governors of Georgia and Flor-
ida should refrain from hostilities until bound-
aries be settled by commissioners from each
court. Spain, however, failed to pay the sum
agreed upon, and, as we have seen, war had
been declared. Admiral Haddock was sent
with a powerful fleet to cruise off the Spanish
coast; Vernon, with a squadron, to the West
Indies; and Oglethorpe ordered to annoy the
Spanish settlements in Florida.
In compliance with this order, Oglethorpe
had sent for the Indians. He also raised a
troop of rangers to prevent the landing of
Spanish cavalry, directed the men-of-war to
cover the coast, while his regiment protected
According to the treaty made with the Gov-
ernor of St. Augustine in 1736, General Ogle-
thorpe had withdrawn the outposts of St.
George. Since then the most southern outlook
had been on Amelia Island, where he had sta-
tioned a scout boat with sixteen men and ser-
geant's guard, numbering, with their families,
about forty persons. The little settlement was
protected with palisades and a battery of sev-
eral guns. Early in November a party of
Spaniards landed at night and hid in the
woods. Pistol-shots were heard in the fort;
the guard turned out, and soon found the
bodies of two Highlanders. They had gone
unarmed into the thicket, and had been mur-
dered by the cowardly foe, who escaped to
their boats. This outrage occurred just be-
fore the writing of the following letter by
Oglethorpe to the trustees :
We had not given the least provocation to the
Spaniards as yet; but most manfully they have
surprised two sick men, cut off their heads, mangled
their bodies most barbarously, and as soon as a
party and boat appeared, which together did not
make their number, retired with the utmost precipi-
tation. A number of scout boats are absolutely
necessary. The man-of-war stationed at Charles-
ton can not be here. The launches from St. Au-
gustine can run into almost every inlet in the
province; therefore it is absolutely necessary that
the trustees should apply to Parliament for at least
five ten-oared boats and a troop of rangers. Other-
wise there will be no possibility of the people 's going
out to plant without being murdered as were those
The French have attacked the Carolina Indians,
and the Spaniards have invaded us. I wish it may
not be resolved between them to root the English
Troubles in Florida
out of America. We here are resolved to die hard,
and will not lose one inch of ground without fight-
ing; but we can not do impossibilities. We have
no cannon from the King, nor any other guns ex-
cept some small iron ones bought by the trustees.
We have very little powder, no horse for marching,
very few boats, and no fund for paying the men
but of one boat. The Spaniards have a number of
launches, also horse, and a fine train of artillery
well provided with all stores.
The best expedient I can think of is to strike
first. I am fortifying the town of Frederica, and
I hope I shall be paid the expenses — from whom I
do not know. Yet I could not think of leaving a
number of good houses and merchants' goods, and,
what is much more valuable, the lives of men, wom-
en, and children, in an open town at the mercy of
every party, and the inhabitants either obliged to
fly to a fort and leave their property, or suffer with
With the Highland Eangers and a select
body of Indians, Oglethorpe made an incur-
sion into Florida. At the mouth of the St.
Johns River he took and destroyed all their
boats, then landing, made a day's march
toward St. Augustine. A troop of Spanish
cavalry and infantry came out to attack him,
but when his Indians raised their war-whoop
and advanced, they retreated in most unseemly
baste and took shelter in Fort San Diego.
Oglethorpe then retired to the island of St.
George, the site of his old fort, and sent Lieu-
tenant Dunbar up the river to destroy all the
boats he could find, and thus prevent the Span-
iards from crossing into Georgia.
On his return to Frederica he again wrote
to the trustees, urging them to send more
troops. For want of means he had been
forced to call in his Indian allies. They
willingly assisted him, but since they thus lost
their hunting and corn season, they must be
furnished with food and clothing, besides arms
and ammunition, which they could otherwise
buy with skins they got in hunting. Horse-
men he was obliged to have, and had ordered
I have armed the boats in the cheapest manner
[he wrote] , with only just enough men to navigate
them, and in some saving even this expense. I
hope the trustees will represent the necessity of the
above expenses to Parliament that the House will
grant sufficient to defray them. Or, if Parliament
thinks this expense too much for preserving the
colony, I hope they will withdraw both the colony
and the regiment, since without these necessary
defenses they will be exposed to certain destruc-
When General Oglethorpe received from
England orders to attack Florida he had at
Troubles in Florida
once notified the Governor of South Carolina,
and, having learned that the enemy at St.
Augustine was short of provisions, urged the
naval commander at Charleston to block the
enemy's harbor before supplies could reach
them from Cuba. Prompt action was neces-
sary, red tape apparently more so, for the
Governor laid the general's letter before the
General Assembly ; the General Assembly ap-
pointed a committee to consider and report the
matter ; the committee made their report ; the
report was discussed in both houses; and, at
length, it was decided to require General Ogle-
thorpe to explain minutely the nature and ex-
tent of the assistance he expected of them!
They further ''desired to be informed what
benefit he conceived they might obtain, in case
they should grant their aid. ' '
His reply was sufficiently explicit. His
principal demand was for 800 pioneers,
with tools, provisions, and ammunition. He
also advised that they raise a troop of
rangers and put them in command of that
efficient officer. Captain McPherson, of Darien.
Of his own regiment he would take 400
men, leaving the rest for home protection.
' ' Of the people of this province, ' ' he wrote, ' ' I
can not draft many, because I must not leave
the country naked; and if the poor neglect
their planting season it will be difficult for
them to subsist ; therefore, I would only raise
two hundred, which is equal to the number of
soldiers I leave behind/' He asked also that
Carolina contribute a share of the pay of the
men, and of rice and corn for the support of
their Indian allies.
The St. Johns River had been called by the
Indians ^^Ylacco''; by the Spaniards, ^'San
Matheo o Picolata," or more recently ^'St.
Matthias, '^ and on an expansion of the river
they had built a fort which they called St.
The building of this fort on the north side of
St. Matthias River [wrote Oglethorpe] was an abso-
lute infraction of the treaties, and he added :
But it was of great service to St. Augustine,
giving an easy means to invade the Creek Indians,
or Carolina, and to draw succors from Mexico.
They preferred what was useful to what was just,
and in defiance of treaties went on with the fortifi-
The Creek Indians greatly desired to take this
fort, which was on their lands, and from which the
Spanish Indians could easily harass them. Ogle-
thorpe approved, ordered all the boats made ready,
and with a detachment of his regiment, the High-
land Rangers, and a strong body of Indians and
some pieces of cannon, embarked and went up the
St. Johns, the Indians going on before. At day-
Troubles in Florida
break on the 7th they surprised and burned the
small Fort Picolata, then advanced toward St.
Francis. When within musket-shot they opened
fire ; the Spaniards returned it briskly. While this
was going on all day with little effect, Oglethorpe,
under the shelter of the wood, was constructing two
small batteries. By five o'clock they were ready,
when, cutting away the wood which concealed them,
he opened fire, and sent to offer terms to the garri-
son. They at first refused to treat, but at second
firing of the cannon, surrendered as prisoners of
war. There was in the fort one mortar piece, two
carriage and three swivel guns, ammunition, shells,
gunpowder, with provisions for two months.
The place being an important one, a garrison
was left there under Adjutant Hugh Mackay.
Since this fort had been the asylum of runaway
negroes from South Carolina, it was hoped that
province would do her part in sustaining the place,
as well as in laying siege to St. Augustine, for which
Mackay wrote : ' ' We want everything, but a will-
ingness in the small number the general has in this
colony. If the people of Carolina do their part, or
what their allegiance to the King and their own
interests ought to induce them to do, we will be
masters of St. Augustine before May. But they
have acted such a part hitherto that indeed it is not
to be expected of them. ' '
Prisoners taken at St. Francis confirmed
the reports of scarcity of provisions at St.
Augustine ; also that the half galleys had been
sent to Havana for supplies, thus leaving the
seaboard defenseless. ^ ' Such a favorable op-
portunity must not be lost, ' ' said the general,
and he sent an express to Carolina, again
urging prompt assistance. Again the Assem-
bly deliberated, and requested him to come to
Charleston and settle details.
At once he left Frederica, rowed night and
day, resting only one hour until he reached his
destination, six days after the starting. After
many conferences, some plans were agreed
upon. Captain Laws was sent to Providence
for mortars and powder, letters were de-
spatched to Virginia to have the Hector
brought down to the siege, and Captain War-
ren to block up St. Augustine by sea until the
siege should begin.
The Cherokees were already on the march
with 500 men, the king of the Chickasaws
agreed to come down with all his warriors, and
the Creeks with a large number. The Assem-
bly of Carolina failed to send the 800 men
promised, but passed an act for raising 400,
to be commanded by Colonel Vanderdus-
sen ; also a troop of rangers, presents for the
Indians, and provisions for three months.
General Oglethorpe wrote in regard to Caro-
Troubles in Florida
This province is very much reduced by sick-
ness, revolts of negroes and other accidents ; yet the
danger to them from St. Augustine is so great that
they agree to raise and maintain a troop of horses
and a large body of volunteers for that siege. But
their credit being very low and their taxes very
heavy, they could not find money for this expense,
and I have been obliged to advance them £4,000. I
hope that the zeal of the province for his Majesty's
service and my poor endeavors will meet with his
At length, on May 9th, Oglethorpe, with
400 of his own regiment, the horse and
foot rangers he had raised in Georgia, the
Creek Indians under Malachee, with Raven,
war-chief of the Cherokees, and Tooanahowi,
successor of Tomo Chichi, all assembled at St.
George Island, at the mouth of the St. Johns.
His object being to cut off supplies from St.
Augustine, they crossed the river, marched
toward the forts, and a body of Indians and
light troops attacked San Diego. The fort be-
ing defended by several large guns, the first
attempt failed. The general came up by this
time and, wishing to avoid bloodshed, resorted
to stratagem. He had several drums beaten
in different parts of the woods, where a few
men would appear and suddenly disappear —
the same soldiers coming into view at various
localities — until the garrison were convinced
that the English general had brought against
them overwhelming numbers, and made but
faint resistance. When a prisoner, taken at
the first attack, was sent to inform them of
the kind treatment he and his companions had
received, they capitulated.
The Carolina regiment still delayed. Be-
fore it arrived Oglethorpe learned that two
sloops laden with provisions and ammunition
and six Spanish galleys had got into St.
Augustine ; which might have been prevented
had the vessels he asked for arrived in time.
It was a grievous disappointment to the anx-
On the 18th the Flamborough and the
Phoenix anchored in the harbor, reporting also
that the Hector and the Squirrel had been left
to block the southern entrance to the harbor.
The next day General Oglethorpe went on
board the Flamborough to hold a conference
with Commodore Pearse, and on his return
found Colonel Vanderdussen arrived, but
without the full complement of his regiment.
Orders were issued that all forces advance
at once toward St. Augustine. Of that in-
teresting old town and fort Wright says:
The garrison comprised one hundred cavalry,
one hundred artilleryinen, detachments from four
Troubles in Florida
regiments, three independent companies, besides
local militia, armed negroes, Indians, and convict
laborers — altogether 2,000 fighting men. The de-
fenders of castle and town were therefore quite as
numerous as all the land force Oglethorpe could
bring against them, while their artillery was vastly
superior ; and any attempt to take the place by land
must not only be unsuccessful but cause unneces-
sary bloodshed, unless a simultaneous movement be
made on the water side.
Oglethorpe well understood this, and ar-
ranged to march with his land forces as soon
as the fleet arrived off the bar in the north
channel. A preconcerted signal was to give
notice when he was ready to begin the assault,
and counter-signal inform him that the ships
The general began his march. Within
three miles of St. Augustine he took Fort
Moosa, which had been abandoned by the gar-
rison on his approach. He ordered the gate
to be burned and breaches made in the walls,
*^lest,'' as he said, ''it might one day or other
be a mouse-trap for some of our own people. ' '
Completing his arrangements, he gave the
signal for assault, but, to his surprise, received
no counter-signal from the fleet, because, as he
learned afterward, ''the Spanish galleys were
drawn up between the castle and the island,
and any small vessels sent into the channel
would be exposed to their fire, as well as that
of the batteries, and as no ships of force could
follow in support, the party would be defeated,
if not wholly destroyed."
ATTACK ON THE FLORIDA FORTS
Since it liad been impossible to take St.
Augustine by assault, General Oglethorpe re-
solved to turn the siege into a blockade. With
this intention he returned to Fort Diego and
ordered Colonel Palmer, with 100 Highlanders
and 140 Indians, to advance, show themselves
at Fort Moosa, and scour the woods to cut off
communication between St. Augustine and the
interior. Colonel Palmer was enjoined to
keep strict watch, encamp every night in a
different place, avoid coming into action, and
return to Fort Diego if a larger force were
sent against him. Colonel Vanderdussen with
his regiment was to take possession of Point
Quartell, about one mile from the castle, and
erect a battery commanding the strait, form-
ing the northern entrance to the harbor.
The Spanish battery on Anastasia must be
taken before the commodore could send in any
vessels. General Oglethorpe, with a part of
Ms own regiment, some Indians and seamen,
undertook to capture the battery, and by skil-
ful maneuvers and quick movement took pos-
session of the sandhills, behind which the
enemy had been posted. The Spaniards fled
toward their battery, but being closely pressed,
rushed into the sea and took refuge in their
From this place the general determined to
bombard St. Augustine. Troops were brought
on to the island, all hands employed in con-
structing new works, and when everything
was ready the Spanish Governor was sum-
moned to surrender. To this he replied that
he should be happy to shake hands with Gen-
eral Oglethorpe in the castle of St. Augustine.
Immediately the batteries were opened and a
number of shells thrown into the town, which
were returned with vigor, but the distance was
too great and little execution was done on
Meanwhile a sad misfortune had befallen
the command under Colonel Palmer. That
officer was said to be an old Indian officer of
great bravery and very little judgment, whose
misfortune it was to have a very mean opinion
of his enemies. Contrary to his generaPs or-
ders not to camp more than one night in the
same place, he had shut himself up in the
Attack on the Florida Forts
dilapidated old Fort Moosa, and the Span-
iards, knowing its defenseless condition, as
well as Oglethorpe ^s absence at Anastatia,
sent 600 men to attack the colonel. They made
a desperate resistance, but half of them were
soon slaughtered, few escaped, and the rest
were captured. Colonel Palmer was the first
who fell. '^The Highlanders fought like
lions, ^' said their brave Captain John More
Mcintosh, who was severely wounded, taken
prisoner, and remained long in captivity.
Among the captured was an Indian. The
Spaniards delivered him to their Indian allies
to be tortured and burned alive. Being ap-
prised of this, Oglethorpe sent a drum with
flag of truce and message to the Governor, tell-
ing him that if he permitted the burning of the
Indian, a Spanish horseman whom he held
prisoner should share the same fate. At the
same time he wrote asking that this barbarous
custom be prohibited, adding that he should
be forced to retaliation, and, as they well knew,
had more of their prisoners who would suffer
than the Spaniards had of theirs.
The Spanish Governor agreed that in
future all Indians captured should be treated
as prisoners of war. Very often Oglethorpe
had to curb the barbarous spirit of his Indian
allies. A historian of Florida relates that on
one occasion a Chickasaw having captured a
Spaniard, cut off his head and triumphantly
brought it to the general, who, instead of re-
warding him as he expected, spurned him with
abhorrence and drove him from his presence.
This Indian, who had lately served the French,
indignantly said that a French officer would
have rewarded him, and it is added that
these Chickasaws showed their dislike for
Oglethorpe's humanity by soon deserting
For some unknown reason. Commodore
Pearse had ordered otf the man-of-war sta-
tioned outside Matanzas Sound. Consequent-
ly several sloops from Havana with provisions
and troops entered the channel and reached
St. Augustine. That put an end to all hope
of starving the garrison, which, from posi-
tive information received, was already in
distress for want of provisions, and in time a
bloodless surrender might have been accom-
The general did not yet relinquish his ef-
forts, but decided that while Captain Warren
with the fleet attack the half-galleys he would
attempt an assault by land. He brought from
the island his own regiment, called in the In-
dians, also the garrison left at Fort Diego,
made ready ladders, fascines, etc. — in fact,
Attack on the Florida Forts
provided everything necessary for the assault
— then waited for the promised signal from
the fleet. He waited in vain. That cautious
commander Commodore Pearse, instead of
doing his part, calmly sailed away, sending
word to the general that it had been resolved
to forego the attack, for the hurricane season
being at hand, it was deemed imprudent to
hazard his Majesty's ships any longer upon
the coast !
Never did a commander work against
greater difficulties or more harassing disap-
pointments. From Ramsey, in his history of
South Carolina, we learn that the troops from
that province had proved turbulent and diso-
bedient, that not one was killed by the enemy,
though fourteen died from sickness and acci-
dents. Says Stephens: ^^Most of the gay
volunteers ran away in small parties basely
and cowardly, as they could get boats to carry
them, during the time of greatest need. ' ' The
greater part of the work had, of course, fallen
on the generaPs regiment and the Georgia
companies. These were now so enfeebled by
fatigue and heat of the climate that nothing
remained but retreat.
The failure to take the Spanish stronghold,
like most failures, was not without beneficial
results. The most important was that it gave
the Spaniards a wholesome respect for their
English enemy, and for a long time kept them
on the defensive. The Carolinians were es-
pecially relieved in this; indeed, felt none
of the effects of active warfare, except on
their privateers, until two years later, when
in 1742 Georgia was invaded, and then they
suffered only from their fears.
General Oglethorpe, encamped on the St.
Johns, called on Colonel Vanderdussen for 100
men that he might hold the river and the forts
already taken. Not one man could he get.
This was especially aggravating, because the
general was at that time providing Vander-
dussen 's men with food, one of the captains of
the Carolina regiment having deserted with
his company and sailed away in a vessel con-
taining the supplies of the whole corps.
The rest soon followed, Vanderdussen him-
self passing through Savannah shortly after.
In conversation with Mr. Stephens he ex-
pressed resentment at the ill conduct of his
officers, condemned the cowardly behavior of
the runaway volunteers, yet professed himself
to be on good terms with the general, of whom
he spoke with the greatest deference.
In Charleston Oglethorpe was severely
criticised, the newspapers were filled with bit-
ter invectives against him, his whole conduct
Attack on the Florida Forts
was misrepresented, and Vanderdussen made
the hero, claiming that he remained with Ogle-
thorpe until the last, entirely overlooking the
fact of his failure to make the appointed junc-
tion in time, or his refusal to supply the 100
men, and precipitately going home with his
regiment. Evidently those Carolinians ex-
pected impossibilities, and miles away would
direct the conduct of the expedition.
But these were the sentiments of only a
portion of the people. All fair-minded citizens
of the province condemned not the general,
but his calumniators, and spoke of him as
the deliverer of the southern provinces of
Eamsey excuses the troops of his prov-
ince by saying:
The Carolina troops, enfeebled by the heat, de-
spairing of success, and fatigued by fruitless
efforts, marched away in large bodies. . . . Many
reflections were afterward cast upon General Ogle-
thorpe. He, on the other hand, declared he had no
confidence in the provincials, for they refused
obedience to his orders and at last abandoned his
camp and retreated to Carolina. Grave charges
of cowardice, despotism, cruelty, and bribery, made
against Oglethorpe in The Plain Dealer of South
Carolina, were afterward found to be made by a
man who had to leave Georgia to escape trial.
It was the opinion of military men of that
day that few generals could have done more
than Oglethorpe, and that with only 400 regu-
lar soldiers the wonder was that his small force
was not destroyed by an enemy secure in a
strong castle well garrisoned. The Duke of
Argyle spoke on this subject before the House
of Peers, and with no uncertain sound :
One man there is, my lords, whose natural gen-
erosity, contempt of danger, and regard for the
public prompted him to obviate the designs of the
Spaniards and to attack them in their own terri-
tories; a man whom, by long acquaintance, I can
confidently affirm to have been equal to the under-
taking, and to have learned the art of war by a
regular education, who yet miscarried in the design
only for want of supplies necessary to a possibility
PEACE AND THE COMING OF WHITEFIELD
On the same date Oglethorpe wrote from
Frederica to the Under-Secretary, Andrew
Stone, Esq. :
It is necessary for me to make several expenses
to preserve this province, particularly fortifying.
For this I must draw upon England. You will see
the estimate among my papers. Necessity of pro-
tecting the province will force me to finish entrench-
ments around this place. It would be a sad thing
to have a province abandoned and the people, at
least the improvements, destroyed. If I can com-
plete the Rangers and the Highland Foot again and
man the armed sloops, boats, and schooners, I do not
doubt to keep the province, notwithstanding what
the Governor of St. Augustine says in his inter-
cepted letter. I must beg you in proper season to
drop a word for my reimbursement. I would not
trouble you only I know your good inclination to
favor those who sacrifice their interests for the pub-
lic safety, and do not desire you to speak at any
season but when it will be agreeable.
Peace seems now to have smiled upon the
province for a brief time, a time industriously
used by the Governor for the improvement of
his colony, and especially of Frederica, then
a small town of 1,000 inhabitants. He had
designed the place for a military post; there-
fore, instead of the regular squares, parks,
gardens, broad shade streets, with which he
had beautified Savannah, there was an espla-
nade and parade-ground, and everything for
the defense of a frontier town. South of the
fort the streets were about forty feet wide, and
the houses all built of brick or of tabby, the
best and cheapest material for his purpose.
This tabby is a compound of lime, sand, shells
or pebbles, mixed with water, a most durable
material, resisting for ages the action of the
elements. It is about the same as the coquina
used in the walls and buildings of St. Augus-
tine, and still seen in the ruins. In Spain
walls of the same substance have endured for
On the island of St. Simons, besides the
town of Frederica, was a small village called
Little St. Simons, also Soldiers Fort, both at
the southern end of the island. A road had
been built connecting Frederica with the fort.
For a mile it led through a beautiful prairie,
then entered the forest, and just here Ogle-
Peace and Whitefield
thorpe had established his unpretending home
— a simple cottage, with garden and orchard
of oranges, figs, grapes, and other fruits. The
house was shaded by evergreen oaks and com-
manded a view of the town and fortifications,
as well as the sound. Here he could enjoy a
quiet retreat, watch the progress of the de-
fenses, and at a moment's warning be ready
Many of his officers lived near, some in far
more pretentious dwellings. Captain Ray-
mond Demere, a Huguenot of fortune, spent
large sums upon his country-seat, which was
built after the French style and enclosed with
hedges of orange and cassina plants. Thomas
Spalding, when describing the home of Ogle-
thorpe, states that, after the general went to
England, it became the property of the Spal-
ding family; that during the Revolutionary
War the buildings were destroyed, and that
his father afterward sold the property. The
fine oaks remained standing until within a
That Oglethorpe did not acquire or claim
any land in Georgia beyond this small home,
or receive any in return for his services, is
proved by a letter from General Washington,
written five years after Oglethorpe 's death, in
reply to one from a French nobleman claiming
to be his descendant. After saying that care-
ful inquiry had been made and that there were
no lands in Georgia belonging to Oglethorpe,
Washington adds :
If there had been property of that gentleman
in Georgia, in the time of the late war with Great
Britain, so far from it having been confiscated, it
would have met with singular protection in conse-
quence of the high estimation in which the char-
acter of General Oglethorpe stood in that State.
Frederica stood on a high blntf on the west
side of the island. Its streets were named
after the officers in Oglethorpe's regiment ; on
its north side was their camp, on the east their
l^arade-ground, and on the south a small forest,
which concealed them from an enemy coming
up on the water side. On Jekyll Island were
defensive works ; on Cumberland Island a bat-
tery; another at Fort William. '^ Seldom, '*
says Wright, ^^has one with such limited means
more forcibly evinced his power. Not only
Georgia, but Carolina owed their preservation
to the ability shown in the disposition of these
works, for, as it has been observed, St. Simons
was destined to become the Thermopylae of the
southern Anglo-American provinces."
It was during this interval of peace from
Spanish depredations that the Rev. George
Peace and Whitefield
Whitefield visited Georgia, remained a few
months, then returned to England to be or-
dained, and to collect funds to found in Geor-
gia an orphanage. He had come to the Geor-
gia colony as their missionary, had been pre-
sented by the trustees with the living of Savan-
nah, and had obtained from them a grant of
five hundred acres for the support of the desti-
tute orphan children of the province.
Mr. Whitefield made himself famous in
England, not only by the fervor of his piety,
but by his fearless, if sometimes unwise, re-
bukes, especially of the clergy. On his return
to America all classes flocked to hear him
preach. He spoke with great severity of the
ministers of that day, calling them ^^durnb
dogs, ' ' ^ ^ slothful shepherds, ' ' and avowed his
firm belief that few of the doctors of an age
or more past could ever enter heaven. An
Episcopal clergyman, the Rev. Alexander
Gordon, retorted with equal bitterness, point-
ing out the pernicious tendency of Whitefield's
words and doctrines, called him a religious
quack, and, preaching against him, used the
text: '^ Those that have turned the world up-
side down, are come hither also. ' ^ Whitefield
replied from the words of Paul : ^ ^ Alexander
the coppersmith did me much evil, the Lord
reward him according to his works. ' '
Other ministers suffered his rebukes, and
their friends stirred up to their defense. That
was not all, for, like his predecessor, he made
the mistake of considering the pulpit a sphere
too limited, and went into the court-room to
harangue the jury. Even in Frederica, Ogle-
thorpe 's peace was disturbed by reports of the
commotion in Savannah.
Whitefield had begun the building of the
orphanage on a sandy bluff near Savannah.
Disputes soon arose between him and those
who had or]3hans in charge. Mr. Parker, one
of the magistrates, had with him two boys
whom Whitefield claimed. The elder boy was
sixteen, and Parker refused to give him up,
saying he had maintained him in childhood
and it was unfair to take him, now that he
could be of some service. To which the
preacher said : ^ ^ The boy is so much fitter for
my purpose; he can be employed for the
benefit of the orphans. * ^
The result was that Parker lost his temper,
and Whitefield gained his point, carrying off
both boys. Oglethorpe was appealed to, and
thought that WTiitefield had gone beyond the
intention of the trustees in taking strong boys,
old enough to be serviceable to the colony, par-
ticularly during the planting season; and he
finally had to interfere with the dictatorial
NT 1^ W
Peace and Whitefield
ways of the determined minister. Three or-
phan children by the name of MeUidge had
shown themselves so intelligent and industri-
ous that Oglethorpe had encouraged the eldest,
John, to do what he could in the way of plant-
ing, while the sister kept the house and took
care of the younger brother. The latter
Whitefield removed to the orphanage in spite
of the protests of their brother John.
The boy complained to Oglethorpe, then at
Frederica, and an answer was received by Mr.
Noble Jones to this effect :
As for the Mellidge brothers, I think your rep-
resentation is very just; that taking them away to
the Orphan-house will break up a family which is in
a likely way of living comfortably. Mr. Whitefield 's
design is for the good of the people and the glory
of God; and I dare say when he considers this,
he will be very well satisfied with the return of the
two younger children to their brother, John Mel-
lidge, since they can assist him. Upon this head I
am to acquaint you that I have inspected the grant
relating to the Orphan-house. Mr. Seward said that
the Trustees had granted the orphans to Mr. White-
field, but I showed him it could not be in the sense he
seemed to understand it. It is most certain that the
orphans are human creatures, and neither cattle
nor any other kind of chattels; therefore can not
But the Trustees have granted the care of the
helpless orphans to Mr. Whitefield, and have given
him five hundred acres of land, and a power of col-
lecting charities, as a consideration for maintaining
all the orphans who are in ne(^essity in this Province ;
and thereby the Trustees think themselves dis-
charged from maintaining any. But at the same
time, the trustees have not given, as I see, any power
to Mr. Whitefield to receive the effects of orphans,
much less to take by force any orphans who can
maintain themselves, or whom any substantial per-
son will maintain. The Trustees, in this, act accord-
ing to the law of England : In case orphans are left
destitute they become the charge of the parish, and
the parish may put them out to be taken care of;
but if any person will maintain them, so that they
are not chargeable to the parish, then the parish
does not meddle with them.
On receipt of this letter John Mellidge was
advised to inform Mr. Whitefield of General
Oglethorpe's opinion, and ask permission to
take his brother and sister home. Whitefield 's
answer was : ' ^ Your brother and sister are at
their proper home already; I know no other
home they have to go to. Give my service to
the general, and tell him so. ' ' Keceiving this
message, Oglethorpe promptly ordered Mr.
Jones to take the children away from the
orphan-house. Mr. Whitefield complained
that he had been badly treated, and threatened
Peace and Whitefield
to appeal to the Trustees, but there the matter
ended. John Mellidge showed himself worthy
of the charge of his brother and sister, and be-
came afterward Representative from Savan-
nah in the first General Assembly of Georgia.
Whitefield 's ideas about the management
of the orphans were peculiar, and the orphan-
age, according to his own description, a dismal
place. The mornings were spent in school,
the afternoons in something useful; no time
was set apart for play, because he considered
all such time as ^^ Satan's darling hours to
tempt children to all manner of wickedness."
So that, although there came to be seventy chil-
dren in his orphan family, he boasted that
*^ there was no more noise than if it were a
private house. ' '
However mistaken Whitefield may have
been in regard to the needs of child-life, he in-
tended and believed that he was bringing up
those children to the glory of God. Un-
doubtedly his work was a great blessing, and
as such was acknowledged by General Ogle-
thorpe. Apparently he was in advance of his
day. A letter printed in the London Maga-
zine in 1745 says :
It gave me much satisfaction to have an oppor-
tunity to see this Orphan-house, as the design has
made such a noise in Europe ; and the very being
of such a place was so much doubted everywhere,
that even no farther from it than New England,
affidavits were made to the contrary.
Wliitefield being much of the time absent,
the management of the orphanage was en-
trusted to his friend, James Habersham,
who complained of the arbitrary conduct of
the magistrates. Having become prejudiced
against the founder of the institution, they did
injustice to the institution itself by withdraw-
ing from it students who promised to become
ornaments to society and binding them out as
servants. Habersham's remonstrances were
treated with contempt. General Oglethorpe
at first refused to interfere ; but that he did on
some occasions is seen from the following let-
ter to him by Whitefield ;
August 18, 1742.
Honored Sir: I most heartily thank you for
being so kind to my family in Georgia and for
espousing my friends ' cause when I think they were
wronged. In a letter I yesterday laid the case be-
fore the Honorable Trustees, not doubting but they
will preserve us from oppression and from persecu-
tion in all shapes. I think we have only the glory
of God and the good of the colony at heart.
Prejudices may be raised against us by evil reports
and misrepresentations, but your Excellency is
more noble than to hearken to insinuations which
Peace and Whitefield
are not supported by evident matter of fact. I am
sure God will bless you for defending the cause of
the fatherless, and espousing the cause of injured
innocence. My friends will, I trust, at all times
readily acknowledge anything they may either say
or do wrong; and if I know anything of my own
heart, I would not offend any one causelessly or
willfully for the world. In a few months I hope
to see Georgia. In the meanwhile I beg your Ex-
cellency to accept these few lines of thanks from,
honored sir, your Excellency's
Most obliged and humble servant,
Whitefield returned to Georgia, and his life
and work there became more peaceful. Ogle-
thorpe esteemed him highly, and when, on
September 30, 1770, he died, there was pro-
found sorrow in Savannah. Church and State-
house were draped in black, and the Governor
vand his council put on mourning. By his will
Whitefield left the orphan-house to ^ ' that elect
lady, that mother in Israel, the Right Honora-
ble Selina, Countess Dowager of Huntingdon. ' '
In the spring of 1740 the British ministry
resolved to ^^ annoy Spain in her American
possessions. ' ' In November the King assured
Parliament that he meant to prosecute the war
vigorously, even though France espoused the
Spanish cause. But, before war was declared,
the French, in violation of treaties, had sailed
in conjunction with the Spanish to the West
Indies and threatened Jamaica. Admiral
Vernon, with a powerful fleet, was sent in
January to oppose them, but, instead of go-
ing to Havana, turned toward Hispaniola in
order to watch the French fleet, thus losing
time and an opportunity to attack Havana
under favorable circumstances. A letter
from Oglethorpe, written at the time to the
Duke of Newcastle, gives a formal account of
the condition of affairs. It is dated in May,
My Lord: Since my last I have sent out a
party of Creek Indians under command of one of
their war captains, Accouclauh. Two of our scout
boats landed them in the night in Florida; they
marched up to Augustine and took one of their
horsemen prisoner, and beat a party of their horse.
I send the prisoner by Captain Thompson to your
Grace, that his Majesty may have an exact account
of the condition of St. Augustine. What he says is
confirmed by other advices; that they have eight
hundred men newly arrived, six hundred of them
regular troops. Besides what he says, my intelli-
gence mentions that Admiral Vernon and the troops
from England are employed in the West Indies,
and can not come up to attack the Havannah, and
that as soon as the Governor of Havannah sees the
effect of the expedition, they will send up more
Peace and Whitefield
troops and half-galleys for the attacking this
province and South Carolina. My private intelli-
gence further adds that Spanish emissaries have
been employed to fire the English towns and maga-
zines of North America, and to take other measures
to hinder the supplying this great English expedi-
tion with provisions.
I send your Grace enclosed our present strength.
If our numbers were but equal, and the men-of-war
would but stop their communication, we might still
take the place, for our Indians keep them blocked
up. But if our men-of-war will not keep them from
coming in by sea, and we have no succor, but de-
crease daily by different accidents, all we can do
will be to die bravely in his Majesty's service.
I must therefore entreat your Grace to move his
Majesty that there be a train of artillery, arms, and
ammunition sent over; also orders for completing
our two troops of Rangers to sixty men each, the
Highlanders to one hundred, and one hundred
boatmen ; with orders to buy or build and man two
I have often desired assistance of the men-of-
war, and continue to do so. I go on fortifying this
town, making magazines, and doing everything
I can to defend the Province vigorously. I hope
my endeavors will be approved of by his Majesty,
since the whole end of my life is to do the duty of a
faithful servant and grateful subject.
I have thirty Spanish prisoners in this place,
and we continue so masters of Florida that the
Spaniards have not been able to rebuild any one of
the seven forts which we destroyed in the last ex-
Permit me with the greatest humility to return
my most grateful thanks to his Majesty and to
your Grace for the company and officers added to
this regiment, and at the same time desire your
Grace to move his Majesty in the matters above
mentioned, which, in my opinion, are absolutely
necessary for the preservation of this Province.
WAE WITH THE SPANIARDS AGAIN
General Oglethorpe's letter was laid be-
fore the ^^ lords justices,'' who approved all
save the application for artillery and military
stores, which they referred to the master-gen-
eral of ordnance. The master-general of ord-
nance referred it to his principal officers to
report upon. The officers summoned Mr.
Verelst for details ; Mr. Verelst could not fur-
nish the details, did not know whether the 600
swords called for were wanted for regiment,
militia, or Indians. The laws of red tape re-
quired just that particular piece of informa-
tion; hence, delay number one.
The second delay came from the very
natural conceit of the officers, who firmly be-
lieved that they knew more of Georgia than
Oglethorpe did, and decided that the ordnance
he asked for was too heavy. ^'We are very
well informed," said they in their report,
"that all the Continent for one hundred miles
and upward is a sheer sand, and that they have
no materials to support the works, so that we
can not think of sending any ordnance heavier
than a twelve-pounder for the use of the
There was still a third and longer delay,
when the demand for half-galleys was referred
to the Admiralty. Half a dozen meetings,
with due intervals between for ponderous re-
flection, were given to the subject before any
decision was reached.
Meantime, Oglethorpe was again forced to
appeal to the Home Government. He was
supplied with flour either from England or
the northern colonies. Of late Spanish priva-
teers had been making prizes of these mer-
chant vessels, having taken one off Charleston
with 1,500 pounds of goods on board. Only
two men-of-war being stationed on the coast,
they were not able to defend both Charleston
and Frederica. After hearing of the last
capture, Oglethorpe ordered out the guard-
sloop with a detachment from his regiment,
and hired a schooner belonging to Captain
Davis. These two vessels met with three
Spanish half-galleys, and having forced them
to fly, then overtook and attacked one of their
privateers, which they drove ashore and dis-
abled. This, however, was not only expensive,
War with the Spaniards Again
but dangerous ; Oglethorpe therefore bought a
suitable vessel and fitted it out for service.
He excused the purchase by saying the loss to
English shipping, with their cargoes, etc.,
would be far greater than the cost of the vessel,
not to speak of the distress of the colony for
want of provisions.
On August 16th a large Spanish ship was
seen off the bar of Jekyll Sound. General
Oglethorpe being notified, took the guard-
sloop, also the sloop Falcon and the schooner
Norfolk, with some of his own regiment, and
started in pursuit. A violent storm arose, and
when it was over the ship had disappeared.
The Falcon had been disabled by the storm,
and had to put back, but with the other two
Oglethorpe sailed direct for Florida, and on
the 21st descried, five leagues distant, the
Spanish vessel at anchor. There was a dead
calm, but he ordered out the boats, which
towed them along until they came up to the
enemy, a Spanish man-of-war and the Black
Sloop, a notorious privateer. Oglethorpe,
whose courage seemed equal to any occasion,
gave orders for boarding. His vessels bore
down upon the Spaniards, who opened fire,
which was so vigorously returned that they
weighed anchor, and a light breeze having
sprung up, speedily ran over the bar. The
English followed and, thongh they did not
succeed in boarding, engaged them for an
hour, when the Spaniards sailed for the town,
so disabled that six half -galleys came out to
cover their retreat, keeping, however, at a
safe distance. Three or four Spanish ships
were lying in the harbor, but none ventured
to attack the plucky little Georgia vessels, and
that night Oglethorpe lay at anchor within
sight of St. Augustine. For some days he
cruised off the bar, and then, having
alarmed the whole Spanish coast, returned to
With a spirit like this, Oglethorpe and his
brave, enduring men, had they been supplied
with what he had asked, could soon have in-
timidated the Spaniards and put an end to the
war. The expenses gave him much uneasi-
ness, though he had freely used his private
fortune in the cause so dear to his heart.
For some years Oglethorpe had been
corresponding with Governor Clark, of New
York, and with him laboring to accomplish a
noble object. In writing to the trustees, Ogle-
thorpe speaks of that object as:
Most advantageous to all the British settle-
ments in America — ^which is, to make peace between
all Indians under the British crown, and thereby
prevent their destroying each other as they do now.
War with the Spaniards Again
Besides the saving of so many lives and making the
western parts safe, it would enable the English In-
dians to act with more vigor and greater numbers
against the Spanish or any nation at war with us.
The men who would be otherwise forced to stay at
home for their own defense will be enabled to leave
their towns by the peace.
I have with much difficulty made a peace be-
tween the Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Creeks ; but
the great work of making a peace between them and
the Six Nations remains with Governor Clark to
do. If the Chickasaws can obtain a peace with the
Six Nations, which are called the Black Enemy,
they will be secured against the French. The Black
Enemy did prevent their coming down this year
to war against the Spaniards, whereas last year
they sent down forty men, and if peace is made
with the Six Nations, they will send down every
year two hundred. The Cherokees have acquainted
me that if they are secured from the Black Enemy,
who lately killed their emperor, Moy Toy, they will
be able to furnish me two thousand men. ... As
the treaty is of greater consequence to Georgia than
to any other colony, I drew for £100 sterling on
Mr. Verelst toward defraying the charges, which I
hope you will reimburse. ' '
The trustees approved the course. AVhether
the funds were furnished is another question
to be settled later. Not one of all the colonial
leaders had ever exercised so good an influence
over the native tribes as Oglethorpe, nor had
any other been so well able to control them.
The humane, unselfish motives which governed
all his movements in the founding of his col-
ony seemed to have impressed the savage and
secured his friendship. Lord Baltimore and
William Penn had been successful in obtaining
from the Indians large grants of land; they
had wisely adopted the best methods of get-
ting peaceable possessions and retaining large
estates. Penn's were securely flanked on
either side by Virginia and Maryland. With
Oglethorpe the case was different. He in-
duced the savages to cede to him a large prov-
ince, but not one acre for himself; his work
was wholly for others, and with trying embar-
rassments. The weak and factious Carolini-
ans failed to do even their simple duty in self-
defense; the long-established colonies of
France and Spain were bitter enemies, and it
was largely due to the fidelity of his Indian
allies that he was able to preserve the colony
he had founded. '^If we had no other evi-
dence of the great abilities of Oglethorpe,"
says Spalding, ^^but what is offered by the
devotion of the Indian tribes to him and to his
memory afterward for fifty years, it is all
sufficient, for only master minds acquire this
deep and lasting influence over other men. ' '
War with the Spaniards Again
Oglethorpe complained often of his want
of sure and direct correspondence with Eng-
land. ''Seven out of eight letters miscarry,"
said he, and from December to April he had
no safe opportunity of sending letters. In
that year, 1742, he reported no vessels taken
by the Spanish privateers. His spirited attack
on their man-of-war and privateer had made
them more than cautious. With two guard-
vessels he again started for St. Augustine, but
a storm came up so violent that with great
difficulty he saved his ships. Several English
vessels were lost; another would have gone
down but for his timely aid. Just at this time
a privateer arrived off the bar at St. Augus-
tine, with flour, clothing, and supplies for that
garrison. A pilot had been sent with two
half-galleys and 200 men to convoy her in.
The Governor had received the announcement
of her arrival with great satisfaction, had
ordered the guns fired, and sent a party of
Indians to cut wood and make a bonfire.
Oglethorpe's Indians attacked them and
took ^ve prisoners, while Captain Dunbar with
his guard-ship came up with the Spanish ves-
sel before it was high water, captured her, and
took her to Frederica. This prize Oglethorpe
detained some months for the service of the
colony. A Charleston merchant wrote: "Our
wrongheads now begin to own that the security
of our Southern settlements and trade is owing
to the vigilance and unwearied endeavors of
his Excellency in annoying the enemy. ' ' Ogle-
thorpe had sent to St. Augustine a number of
prisoners in exchange for some Carolina ma-
rines. These had brought the same reports as
had the Indian spies, to which the general re-
fers in his letter to the Duke of Newcastle, June
The Indian spies bring me word that the
Spaniards have received powerful succor; that all
their houses are filled with new soldiers, and that
their common talk is bragging that they intend to
attack us and overrun all North America. They are
some of the troops which were raised for the de-
fense of Cuba. I hope your Grace will remember
that I long ago acquainted you that I anticipated
an invasion as soon as the affair with Cuba was
ended, and prayed for succors, which are not yet
arrived. The Spaniards have, as I then believed,
sent more troops, and expect a general revolt of the
negroes. It is too late now to ask your Grace to
represent this to his Majesty and ask succors. Be-
fore they arrive the matter will be over. I hope I
shall behave as well as one with as few men and
as little artillery can. I have great advantage from
my knowledge of the country, and the soldiers and
inhabitants are in good heart and used to fatigue
and arms. We have often seen and drove the
War with the Spaniards Again
Spaniards, and I believe that one of us is as good
as ten of them. I hope your Grace will represent
the situation, for though the present affair will be
over before any succor can come, yet, if we defeat
the enemy, it will facilitate our taking St. Augus-
tine if troops arrive ; and if none come, our succors
will only secure our own.
In another letter of the same date, Ogle-
thorpe says of the Spanish efforts to excite a
revolt among the negroes of Carolina :
They won't pass by us into Carolina, so must
take us in their way, and I believe they will
meet with a morsel not easy to be digested. Yet
we are not in the situation we would wish, being
very weak in cannon and shot, never having had
any from England, nor indeed anjrthing else since
my last arrival in this country, but one store ship of
powder and small arms from his Grace the Duke of
Argyle just before he was out of ordnance. From
the time he quitted the service until now I have been
left to shift for myself. I have sent northward to
raise men and to buy guns and ammunition of all
kinds, and have, according to standing orders,
drawn bills for his Majesty's service with orders
to Mr. Verelst to apply thereupon to the Treasury.
A few days previous to the writing of this
letter Oglethorpe had sent Captain Hamer of
the Flamborough against some vessels going
from Havana to St. Augustine with reenf orce-
ments. A storm had separated ten of those
vessels from the rest of the fleet ; these Captain
Hamer attacked and drove some ashore, but
in so doing lost a score of his men and one boat.
He returned to notify the general ; then, instead
of remaining to guard the coast, sailed back to
Charleston. A despatch was sent to the Lieu-
tenant-Governor of South Carolina informing
him of the arrival of several vessels at St.
Augustine, but Governor Bull 's only reply was
that he was well assured that it was only the
annual relief sent from Havana, that the same
vessels carried back a like number of men.
Further advices of fifteen more strange vessels
in sight failed to convince him, nor could the
general purchase from him the various mili-
tary stores needed. He ^^ seemed to take no
notice,'' nor was the naval commander. Max-
well, more successful. Captain Frankland
promised, it is true, to send two vessels, but
failed to keep the promise. This indifference
of the Lieutenant-Governor brought forth a
plain letter from the general. Among other
advice, he said :
You would be right to have the militia imme-
diately reviewed and ready for service. I expect
the Spaniards to attack us, and if they do, doubt not
to give them a warm reception and make them sick
of it ; but if they should get the better of us, they
War with the Spaniards Again
will immediately follow their advantage, and you
may expect a visit, and it is possible that they may
incite an insurrection among the negroes. I expect
you to send to Fort Frederic what is necessary for
the defense of that place, of which I send you an
estimate and one to the Assembly to be laid before
them. If there is any trifling in this, and an acci-
dent thereupon should happen, you are answerable
for it. I have often given notice how the place was
neglected. Some of the men in the garrison were
countenanced in their desertion, and harbored by
some ill-designed people. I therefore desire you
should publish a proclamation for the apprehend-
ing of them, setting forth the consequences to those
who receive them. These men have been four years
in the regiment and never attempted to desert till
in garrison in the province of Carolina.
The letter had no effect. Governor Bull
paid no attention to the advice of the "Com-
mander-in-Chief of his Majesty's forces in
Georgia and Carolina." The ruling faction
of Charleston, with Bull at their head, resolved
to defend themselves on their own ground,
refused to send to Georgia any further assist-
ance, and planters in the exposed districts fled
to Charleston with their families. From the
Gentleman's Magazine, of London, this de-
served criticism is taken :
The Lieutenant-Governor therefore prepared
for war by appointing a long train of aides-de-camp.
He at the same time nominated Mr. Vanderdussen
captain-general and commander-in-chief by land
and sea, and created numberless officers of rank
from general down to captain. The militia were
mustered and reviewed, dilapidated batteries were
repaired, rusty guns were remounted, and the
Spaniards being still two hundred miles off, a most
martial spirit was displayed by these men, who left
the true defender of their province, as well as
his own, to stand or fall, as the case might be, before
a vastly superior force.
General Oglethorpe had at no time taken
counsel of his fears, and in this case his appre-
hensions were but too well found-ed. Before
the month had passed a Spanish fleet of above
fifty vessels, with between 5,000 and 6,000
soldiers on board, were ordered to attack the
colonies. Fourteen vessels attempted to run
in at Fort William, but were driven off by
guns from the fort, aided by the guard-schooner
under Captain Dunbar, and they then entered
Cumberland Sound. General Oglethorpe im-
mediately ordered out a detachment and some
Indians under Captain Horton, while he fol-
lowed with a part of his regiment in three
boats. ^^He was at once attacked by the
enemy^ but with two boats fought his way
through the whole fleet. The third boat, under
Lieutenant Tolson, ran into a creek, lay con-
War with the Spaniards Again
cealed until next day, then returned to St.
Simons and reported the general overpowered
and killed. But Oglethorpe, by keeping to
the leeward and thus taking advantage of the
smoke, escaped in safety, while the Spaniards
had suffered so much in the engagement that
four of their vessels foundered on their way
back to St. Augustine for repairs. The officer
in command at Frederica had watched the en-
gagement from the masthead, and seeing the
general surrounded by the enemy, concluded
he was lost, and at once sent despatches to
Charleston for immediate assistance. Their
joy was unbounded when, on the following day,
their commander returned unhurt."
He now withdrew the garrison from St.
Andrews, on the north end of the island, to re-
enforce Fort William, laid an embargo on all
vessels in the harbor, took into service the
merchant ship Success, and called in from
Darien the Highland companies, of whom he
said : ^ ^ They are, next to the Indians, the most
useful in those grounds where regular troops
can not form. ' ' He also withdrew from vari-
ous outposts the Rangers, gave presents to the
Indians, rewarded those who did extraordinary
duty, and promised promotion to all who
should distinguish themselves.
His undaunted active spirit inspired his
soldiers. * ^ We were ready for twice our num-
ber of Spaniards," said the crew of the Suc-
cess, which had twenty guns and 100 men.
Besides the Success, there were in this harbor
*Hhe general's schooner of fourteen guns, St.
Philip's sloop of fourteen guns, and eight
York sloops close inshore, with one man on
board each to sink or run them on shore in case
of being overpowered. ' '
The conflict soon came. On July 5th
thirty-six Spanish vessels ran into St. Simons
harbor in line of battle. They were received
with a brisk fire from the forts and from the
shipping. Three times they attempted to
board the Success, but each time failed,
and after an engagement of four hours gave
it up and sailed up the river toward Fred-
Oglethorpe ordered his own men ashore,
and, thanking the seamen for their brave re-
sistance, directed the vessels to make their
way out of the harbor as best they could.
This they did, and soon reached Charleston
in safety. During this engagement General
Oglethorpe had been not only on shipboard
and at the batteries, but acted as engineer,
since Colonel Cook, whose duty it was, had,
on hearing of the invasion, retired to Charles-
ton; and, as if that were too near the scene
War with the Spaniards Again
of action, hastened to England, followed by
the subengineer, his son-in-law.
A council of war was called. It was de-
cided to destroy batteries, provisions, etc., at
St. Simons, and retire to Frederica. This
was speedily accomj)lished, and that evening
the invaders landed and took possession of
the abandoned camp. From several prison-
ers taken by the Indians the general learned
that the enemy had land forces of 5,000 men
who had orders to give no quarter. Mr. Rut-
ledge, of Charleston, wrote afterward to the
The Spaniards were resolved to put all to the
sword, not to spare a life, so as to terrify the Eng-
lish from any future thought of resettling. Said
a prisoner from on board : ' ' During the time they
lay off this bar, the Spaniards whetted their swords
and held their knives to this deponent's and other
English prisoners' throats, saying they would
cut the throats of all those they should take in
Georgia. ' '
Never had the young colony been in such
danger, and never had the general so much
need of help, which was still withheld. Yet
he calmly faced the multiplying dangers, hap-
pily increasing the confidence of his people,
and stirring up his soldiers with a like de-
termination to resist the invaders to the last.
Detachments of Spaniards sought to invest
the fort, attempting to pass through the wood,
but were driven back by the watchful Indians.
The only avenue to Frederica was by the road
so wisely planned some time previous — the
forest on one side, marsh on the other, and so
narrow that only three men could walk abreast.
Neither artillery nor baggage could be taken
over it, and the Spanish troops who ventured
were so harassed by the Highlanders and In-
dians who lay in ambush that their attempts
ended in serious loss. They, however, suc-
ceeded, after many trials, in approaching
within two miles of the town.
Wishing to encounter the enemy before they
reached the open ground, Oglethorpe led a
body of Highlanders, Rangers, and Indians
and charged so fiercely that all but a few were
either killed or taken prisoners. He captured
two with his own hands, and the Spanish com-
mander was taken by a ranger. Another
Spanish officer shot the Indian Tooanahowi in
his right arm, but the savage drew his pistol
with his left hand and killed the officer on the
spot. For more than a mile they pursued
them, and then halted to await the regulars.
These Oglethorpe posted to guard the pass,
and returned to the town to prepare the com-
pany of marines and encourage the people.
War with the Spaniards Again
Meanwhile the Spanish again advanced,
halting where, unsuspected, the English lay in
ambush. They had built their fires and were
making ready their kettles for cooking when
a horse took fright and startled them. They
ran for their arms, but were shot down by the
invisible enemy. Their principal officers were
killed, and the men fled in confusion, throwing
away their muskets and leaving their equipage
on the field. Don Antonio Barba was mortally
wounded. The Spaniards regarded the loss
of this commander as worse than a thousand
men. A Spanish sergeant declared, "The
woods were so full of Indians that the devil
himself could not get through them." So
great was the slaughter that the place was long
known as ^^ Bloody Marsh." The general
with his men marched over the causeway to
within two miles of the Spanish encampment,
intercepting all who had been dispersed in the
late fight, and there he passed the night.
The invaders retired within the ruins of
St. Simons Fort, and began entrenching them-
selves where they would be under the protection
of their ships. Finding it unwise to attack
them, Oglethorpe went back to Frederica to
refresh his wearied soldiers, and to send out
parties of rangers and Indians to harass the
enemy and watch their motions. He now ap-
pointed his staff: Lieutenants Maxwell and
Mackay as aides-de-camp, Lieutenant Suther-
land brigade-major, and at the same time pro-
moted Sergeant Stuart to be ensign, in reward
for bravery in the late engagement.
No help still from Carolina nor the men-of-
war. Their stock of provisions was neither
good nor abundant, for some had been burned
rather than leave them for the enemy, and,
with their vessels blocking the sound, no more
could be brought in. All this gave the general
the greatest anxiety, yet it must be carefully
concealed from his brave little army, which, all
told, numbered only 800 men.
The people who remained in Frederica were
assured that, if the worst came, they had a safe
retreat through Alligators Creek and the canal
cut through Generals Island, whence they could
go to Savannah. The soldiers were encour-
aged to patient endurance by seeing their gen-
eral undergoing every privation to which they
were exposed. Changing their tactics, the
Spaniards now proceeded up the river with
their galleys, but were again prevented from
landing by the Indians concealed among the
tall grass and shrubs. Going on toward the
town, the galleys were received with so deter-
mined a fire from the batteries that they re-
treated in haste to the shelter of their ships.
War with the Spaniards Again
Thus was defeated the villainous plot of a
Spanish officer, who had surrendered and been
taken prisoner but refused to be exchanged,
pretending that his countrymen looked upon
him as a traitor. Permission had been given
him to go to some northern colony, and a boat
furnished to convey him to Darien; but in a
few days he returned, saying he could not risk
being captured. The general was still unsus-
pecting, but just at this time an English pris-
oner escaped from the Spanish commodore's
shijD, declared that he had seen the man, and
heard him planning to return to Frederica, and
when the galleys attacked the town, he would
fire the arsenal, and in the confusion the as-
sault would be a success. The man 's conduct
since his return had been suspicious, and he
was now closely confined; so his plot was a
Several more escaped prisoners came in,
and all agreed in the report that the Spaniards,
not expecting such desperate resistance, were
much dispirited. There were numbers of
wounded and sick in distressing conditions.
There was much dissension, and the Cuban
forces had separated from those of Florida.
Oglethorpe meditated a surprise, had marched
to within a mile of the Spaniards, and was
about to make the attack when a Frenchman,
who without his knowledge had come down
with the volunteers, being a spy, fired his gun
and deserted, and was not overtaken.
Knowing that the spy would expose his
weakness, Oglethorpe determined by a little
stratagem to make him appear a double spy
and thus frustrate his schemes. He therefore
hired a prisoner to carry a letter to the deserter.
^ ^ The letter was in French, ' ' said Oglethorpe,
when relating the affair, ' ^ as if from a friend,
telling him that he had received the money, and
would strive to make the Spaniards believe the
English were very weak ; that he should under-
take to pilot their boats and galleys, and then
bring them into the woods where the hidden
batteries were. That if he could bring about
all this, he should have double the reward, and
that the French deserters should have all that
had been promised them.
^^The Spanish prisoner got into their
camp,'' continued Oglethorpe, ^^and was im-
mediately carried before the general. He was
asked how he escaped and whether he had any
letters ; but denying this, was searched and the
letter found. And he, upon being pardoned,
confessed that he had received money to carry
it to the Frenchman, for the letter was not
directed. The Frenchman, of course, denied
knowing anything of the contents of the letter,
War with the Spaniards Again
or having received any money or had any
correspondence with me. Notwithstanding
which, a council of war was held and they de-
cided the Frenchman a double spy, but the gen-
eral would not suffer him to be executed, hav-
ing been employed by himself. ^ '
The Spaniards were sadly perplexed, and,
while deliberating, some English vessels ap-
peared off the coast, thus apparently confirm-
ing a statement of the letter, that ^ ^ six or seven
men-of-war" were coming to their assistance.
They decided to leave at once, and their fears
increasing as the moments passed, they burned
the barracks at St. Simons, and so hastily re-
embarked that they left behind their great can-
non, a quantity of ammunition and provisions,
and those dead of their wounds unburied. In
the meantime three or four large vessels had
been seen off the north end of the island, and
Oglethorpe, certainly expecting they were
coming to his aid, sent Lieutenant Maxwell
in a boat with a letter to the commanding
The lieutenant found no vessels in sight.
It was afterward learned that one was the
Flamborough, and that when Captain Hamer
was asked why he sailed away at so critical a
time, replied that his orders were ^'to come and
see if the Spanish fleet had possession of the
fort, and, if they had, to return immediately to
Carolina!" Fortunately the safety of Fred-
erica did not depend on the assistance rendered
by a sister colony whose officers seemed afraid
to look a Spaniard in the face.
By this time some of the invaders had put
out to sea; others, landing at St. Andrews,
camped for the night. Two days after
twenty-eight vessels entered the harbor of Fort
William and demanded the surrender of the
garrison. But Ensign Stuart, having received
promise of aid from General Oglethorpe, re-
plied that he would not yield the fort, nor could
they take it. Those who attempted to land
were suddenly fired upon by rangers, who had^
by forced marches, just arrived, and were con-
cealed behind the sand hills. The galleys tried
to batter the fort with their cannon, but were
soon disabled by the few eighteen-pounders of
the fort. After an assault of three hours,
the Spaniards gave up and retired to St.
Again several English vessels were seen off
St. Simons, and again they sailed away, reply-
ing to the commander-in-chief 's summons that
the orders from the Lieutenant-Governor of
South Carolina were to return with the vessels
in case the Spaniards were gone ; and Captain
Hardy added that for his part he should go in
War with the Spaniards Again
search of a prize with the rest of the King's
Thus with two ships and 800 men had
Oglethorpe defeated an enemy having fifty-
six ships and above 5fi00 men. Says Wright:
Not only was the infant colony delivered from
a formidable foe, but the people of South Carolina
were saved from the horrors of a servile war such
as that from which they had previously suffered,
and that by a man whom they had persecuted and
calumniated because he would not permit their
traders to cheat the Indians and poison them with
''The deliverance of Georgia from the Span-
iards," wrote Whitefield, "is such as can not be
paralleled but by some instances out of the Old
Testament. The Spaniards had intended to attack
Carolina, but wanting water, they put into Georgia,
and so would take that colony on their way. They
were wonderfully repelled, and sent away before
our ships were seen."
The Governors of New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North
Carolina wrote to Oglethorpe thanking him for
his invaluable services to the Carolinas, and ex-
pressing their gratitude to God that he had
placed the destinies of the southern colonies
under the direction of one so well qualified for
the important trust.
It was the misfortune of South Carolina to
be at that time under the rule of Governor Bull
and his faction. The majority of their honor-
able people heartily condemned his policy, and
united with the people of Port Eoyal in their
letter to General Oglethorpe, saying: ''If the
Spaniards had succeeded in their attempts,
they would have destroyed us, laid our prov-
ince waste and desolate, and filled our habita-
tions with blood and slaughter. . . . We are
very sensible of the great protection and safety
we have long enjoyed by having your Excel-
lency to the southward of us; had you been
cut off, we must, of course, have fallen. ' '
APTER THE WAR
General Oglethorpe did not share the
belief that the Spanish war was over. In his
report, while rejoicing over the present deliv-
erance, he wrote :
I have sent all hands to work on the fortifica-
tions, have sent northward to raise men for another
battalion, have sent for cannon, shot, etc., for pro-
visions and all kinds of stores, since I expect the
enemy, who (though greatly terrified) lost but few
men in comparison to their numbers, as soon as they
have recovered from their fright, will attack us
again with more caution and better discipline.
I hope his Majesty will approve the measures
I have taken, and that he will be graciously pleased
to order troops, artillery, and other necessaries suffi-
cient for the defense of this frontier and the neigh-
boring provinces ; and I do not doubt with a mod-
erate support, not only to be able to defend these
provinces, but also to dislodge the enemy from St.
After the War
The following months brought new anxi-
eties and new disappointments to General Ogle-
thorpe. Captain Frankland, with a fleet of
twelve vessels, arrived in August, and Ogle-
thorpe joined him with ardent hopes of en-
gaging the enemy and putting them to flight.
But, with strange weakness, the captain re-
fused to allow his vessels to venture over the
bar of St. Augustine, and his ships returned to
their various stations.
Again, a detachment of 500 men from Ja-
maica arrived in Charleston with orders to
return if the Spaniards no longer threatened
British territory. Their colonel was informed
by Governor Bull that the southern colonies
were perfectly safe and there was no necessity
for him to proceed with his men to Georgia.
In reference to this affair a gentleman of South
Carolina wrote indignantly :
This self-sufficiency of ours is well known to
General Oglethorpe, who no doubt has been before-
hand with me in animadverting upon it. . . . The
general, in answer to a letter received, with that of
the colonel, expressed himself with a good deal of
warmth upon our not thinking ourselves in imme-
diate danger, and to the colonel he answered that
in his opinion the King's service required that the
detachment should come to Frederica; but that
since the people of this province did not apprehend
immediate danger, he could not take it upon himself
to give positive orders ; the colonel should do what
appeared most agreeable to his instructions from
In reality the colonies were far from
safety, as will be seen from a letter of
Oglethorpe to the secretary, in which he in-
forms him of the killing of a party of Ran-
gers by Spanish troops, and of the burning
of Mount Venture by the Yamasee Spanish
Indians. Authentic information had also
been received of large reenforcements ar-
rived at St. Augustine; that the Spanish
were determined to have revenge for their
late defeat and losses, and their plan was to
have the French make an attack along the
Savannah River, while they would capture
Oglethorpe again appealed to the home
Government. "I shall do all I can," he wrote,
"to balk their expectations. It was with
much difficulty, and not without the apparent
hand of God, that we made head this last
time against a vastly superior force, and
that with a very few cannon. Doubtless they
are stronger now, and will take better meas-
ures ; but we have no addition, and the men-
of-war have refused to stay in the port."
After the War
On the same day the general wrote to the
secretary complaining of the "stupidity, not
to say worse/' of the Carolinians in prevent-
ing the men-of-war from coming to his aid;
for, said he, "the Spaniards intend, if they
succeed in taking Georgia, to push their con-
quests as far as Virginia; all North and
South Carolina are full of provisions, and
a very busy Spanish faction is stirring at
Reading this, and much more showing the
lethargy and indifference toward the fate of
their colony across the sea, we are not sur-
prised when a biographer of Oglethorpe re-
calls the remark of Oxenstiem: "See, my
son, with how little wisdom nations are gov-
erned." The English Government was as
slow in rewarding its soldiers as it was their
general. The prize sloop captured by Cap-
tain Dunbar, and now sent over to be valued
and the amount given to captain and crew
for gallant service, was for "many months"
unnoticed, though Captain Dunbar "begged
for an answer, as she was badly wanted in
the colony." The long delay damaged the
cargo, so that very little remained for the
In the spring of this year, 1743, we find
General Oglethorpe again in camp on the St.
Johns. The Spaniards, having been largely
reenforced, had repulsed successfully all In-
dians sent against them, and a strong force
was marching toward the St. Johns. The
general resolved to attack them before they
were joined by troops from Cuba, already on
His first attempt was successful. His
Indians advanced undiscovered, and before
daylight killed forty men, with the loss of
only one on their side, and forced the enemy
to retire within their walls. No efforts would
induce them to make another advance at that
time. "I did all I could to draw them into
action," wrote Oglethorpe, "and having posted
troops in ambuscade, advanced myself, with
very few men, in sight of the town, intend-
ing to skirmish and retire in order to draw
them into the ambuscade; but they were so
meek that there was no provoking them."
"The Spaniards bearing all these insults
gives our Indians a very contemptible no-
tion of them," wrote an officer from the
camp. "The general encourages this con-
tempt, though he at the same time believes
it no want of courage in the Spaniards, but
that they wait to provoke him to some rash
action, or to engage on disadvantageous
ground, which, notwithstanding the generaPs
After the War
vivacity, he seems always cautious to beware
of. It is also probable that they may have
orders not to hazard anything in small ac-
tions, but to keep their troops entire until
the arrival of the armament from Cuba.''
Oglethorpe's schooner and the Success
were cruising off the Florida coast. The
general sometimes joined them. While sail-
ing up the channel to reconnoiter St. Augus-
tine he came near being killed by the bursting
of a gun on board. He was so severely hurt
that the blood gushed from his nose and ears,
but he soon recovered to reassure his horri-
Failing to draw out the Spanish, Ogle-
thorpe returned to Frederica with his Indians,
whose devotion and prompt response to his
summons were a great satisfaction, and in
unhappy contrast to the attitude of some
Carolinians, who still withheld their support.
Andrew E-utledge, Esq., of Charleston, and
Chief Justice of South Carolina, was not
among that class. He wrote of those In-
dians: "They are much charmed with his Ex-
cellency's noble conduct, and their adherence
to the English is now too well established for
even the nonsense of this place to remove
or weaken. This late motion of his has done
an inconceivable service to our quiet here for
the present, though we murmur because he
was the actor; for the majority of this town
like nothing more than to lay hold on all oc-
casions to villify the man to whom they owe
Human nature was the same then as now,
and we have no doubt Captain Dunbar was
correct when he concluded "that what were
thought to be the sentiments of that province
was no more than the voice of Charleston
factors, who for their commissions bartered
the effects of British merchants with planters
for their crops, and who would never put the
welfare of their country in competition with
their profit in trade."
That the conduct of the Governor of South
Carolina proceeded from ignorance, as Ogle-
thorpe suggested, is more than doubtful. He
could scarcely have pursued a course more
deliberately dangerous than that recounted
in the next letter from Oglethorpe himself,
The Spaniards are now preparing for an expedi-
tion from Havannah. In their late invasion of this
province, one of our chief advantages lay in their
want of pilots and guides. The Governor of St!
Augustine has sent to Charleston a Spanish vessel
to exchange prisoners, many of whom are pilots by
water or guides by land. Lieutenant-Governor
After the War
Bull suffered this vessel, which was commanded by
one of the Spaniards' best pilots, to go over, and
consequently learn the bar of that town, and ven-
tured to receive a message from his Majesty's ene-
mies, without acquainting the general who com-
mands in chief his Majesty's forces in that province.
He also received Alexander Paris, who piloted the
Spaniards into St. Simons harbor, and who now
walks about Charleston in full liberty. . . .
These pilots may be of the greatest advantage to
the Spaniards in the ensuing expedition, if designed
against us, since it lays our harbors open and makes
the fastnesses of our woods less advantageous. . . .
Very soon Oglethorpe forwarded to Eng-
land documents, sworn and proved, which re-
vealed the fact that not only provisions, but
ammu/nition, were delivered in St. Augustine
by vessels from Charleston!
The Spaniards made every effort to se-
duce the Indians from their allegiance to the
English, but in vain. Similli, a Creek chief,
went into St. Augustine, as he said, "to know
what they were doing." The Spaniards there
offered him large sums of money for every
English prisoner he would bring in; showed
him fine scarlet clothes and a sword which
they had presented to the captain of the
Yamasees, saying of Oglethorpe: "He is
poor, he can give you nothing; it is foolish
for you to go back to him."
The Creek answered: "We love him. It
is true he does not give ns silver, but he
gives us everything we want that he has. He
has given me the coat off his back and the
blanket from under him." Then they quar-
reled with him, struck him with a sword,
leaving a scar which he showed after his
EETURN TO ENGLAND — THE PRETENDER
Among the colonial records of this date
is a letter from Captain George Dunbar to
the Duke of Newcastle. In this letter Cap-
tain Dunbar says that he had been instructed
by General Oglethorpe to ask leave for him
to come home "at such a time as he should
find it necessary for the king's service to lay
before his Majesty the situation of that coun-
try." There was then imperative necessity
for Oglethorpe's going to England. "His
pecuniary resources were dried up, and bills
which he had drawn for his Majesty's service
to the amount of £12,000 had been returned
dishonored !" He put the frontier in the best
possible state of defense, appointed Mr. Ste-
phens Deputy Governor of Savannah, and
that efficient officer Major Horton military
commander of Frederica. On July 23, 1743,
he embarked in the Success for England.
In the memoir of General Lachlin Mcln-
Return to England
tosh, of Revolutionary fame, is related an
incident occurring just before General Ogle-
thorpe left Georgia. It will be remembered
that in 1740 that gallant captain John Moore
Mcintosh had been taken captive. He was
for four months confined in St. Augustine,
then in Havana for three months, when he
was taken to St. Sebastian, in old Spain, and
confined in the common jail, with no allow-
ance but bread and water. The year follow-
ing he was released, but died soon after,
leaving two sons, William and Lachlin.
Oglethorpe attached the two young men to
his regiment, and in due time obtained for
them commissions. They heard of an upri-
sing in their native Highlands, and determined
to return to Scotland and enlist under the
Pretender. They concealed themselves in the
hold of the vessel, but were discovered, and
before the vessel sailed were brought before
Oglethorpe, who was on board.
He reminded them of his esteem for their
father, and sought to persuade them of their
folly and the hopelessness of every attempt
of the Stuarts. The boys appeared to be un-
convinced. He then informed them that it
would be his duty to put them under arrest,
but added: "Assure me you will think no
more of your wild project; keep your own
secret, and I shall forget all tliat has passed
between us." The boys were now subdued,
promised to follow his advice, and were sent
on shore, never again to see the face of their
benefactor. One of them became in after-
years brigadier-general of the Revolutionary
army, and related to his biographer this
story of his last interview with General Ogle-
We might now expect to find a record of
thanks from Parliament to the man who had
rendered his country such unselfish, able
service. No such record appears, although
Admiral Vernon, who had perhaps taken bet-
ter care of himself than of his country on
this occasion, received a vote of thanks from
that discriminating body. Nor could Ogle-
thorpe retire to his country-seat, at Godal-
ming, a laurel-crowned hero. His estates
were encumbered by liabilities incurred in the
public service, which a tardy Parliament
failed to acknowledge, though the Lords Jus-
tices not only passed the accounts, but sanc-
tioned an additional outlay of £8,000 a year.
Yet nothing was done during that session
of Parliament. For fifteen months it went
on, until, to the great relief of his faithful
agents, Oglethorpe reached England, Septem-
ber 28, 1743. Enemies from Charleston had
Return to England
arrived before him. He had long ago been
informed of the intrigues which Colonel
Cooke, chief engineer of his own regiment,
and Vanderdussen, hero of the Carolina fac-
tion, were carrying on against him. He had
wasted neither time nor thought on their
venomous attacks — the defense of two colo-
nies he had ever placed before his own in-
terests — but having discharged those higher
duties, he was now ready to refute their
Alexander Vanderdussen was a disrepu-
table Dutchman, driven from his own country
for criminal conduct ; afterward employed by
the Spaniards in the Philippine Islands, from
whence he carried off a wealthy lady for her
effects and settled in South Carolina. This
man the General Assembly of that colony had
selected to lead a regiment to Oglethorpe's
assistance. He failed to render the general
any efficient aid, but was wily enough to make
it appear so, and became the hero of the day,
while all failures were attributed to Ogle-
thorpe. Notwithstanding his protests of
fidelity to his commander, he joined in the
accusations of Colonel Cooke — the invalid
colonel, who scented danger from afar and
retired under pretense of illness, first to
Charleston, then to England, to recruit his
health. He owed all his promotion to Gen-
eral Oglethorpe, but gratitude was not among
his virtues, and he presented nineteen articles
against the moral and military character of
A board of officers sat for two days ex-
amining the charges, article after article, and
the witnesses on both sides. At the conclu-
sion the officers unanimously pronounced the
whole accusation, " in each cmd all of its
articles, false, malicious, and groundless, ^^
The board made a report of the same to his
Majesty, also adding several facts proved
against Colonel Cooke, and the King ordered
that officer dismissed from the service.
Meantime, amid his embarrassments, Ogle-
thorpe remembered his colony across the seas
and continued to make urgent appeals in
their behalf. Reports from Major Horton
were gratifying to the anxious general. While
they were daily expecting an invasion from
the Spaniards, they were of good courage, in
good health, the men all at their posts and
determined not to give up the colony but with
their lives. The young province was learn-
ing the lesson of self-reliance and self-sup-
port. The mother country seemed to have
thrown them off; neither do we find any in-
timation that Oglethorpe was ever repaid the
Return to England
large amounts expended from his private
means in this public service.
The year 1744 was an eventful one to
Oglethorpe. In March he had been selected
as one of the general officers appointed to
oppose the threatened invasion of France ; in
May he was on the committee of the Found-
ling Hospital; in September his marriage
occurred — an event only surprising because
so long delayed. He was fifty-five when
united to Elizabeth, only child and heiress of
Sir Nathan Wright, Bart., of Cranham Hall,
Essex. It is with satisfaction that we learn,
in regard to this union, "the evening of their
lives was tranquil and pleasant after a stormy
The manor in the village of Cranham was
henceforth their home. Here for forty years
the general retired when not in service, and
enjoyed the rural occupations in which he took
delight. The old mansion no longer exists;
the only structures that yet remain of that
old home are the walls of the extensive gar-
dens. "These walls, beyond which was a
fosse, being about twelve feet high and two
feet thick, are strongly built of red brick, and
loopholed; while the gates, likewise unim-
paired except by time, are fine specimens of
workmanship in wrought iron."
Mrs. Oglethorpe's fortune greatly relieved
the financial embarrassment of her husband,
for it was many years before his own estates
were free from the heavy burdens his services
in Georgia had left upon them. In 1745 Ogle-
thorpe was promoted to the rank of major-
general, and owing to home troubles in the
rebellion of the ^' Young Pretender," was de-
tained in England by order of the Govern-
ment. From his colony he heard that the
Indians still continued faithful, and were
looking for his return; that the Spaniards
had made no further advances, but were
abundantly supplied with provisions from
New York and South Carolina. Oglethorpe
raised some recruits for the Georgia Rangers,
but when the Success, with the men and sup-
plies on board, was ready for sea, she was
ordered to Hull instead.
Oglethorpe, with other troops, was sent to
join the Duke of Cumberland, and in three
days the newly raised forces marched over
snow and ice more than one hundred miles.
The duke gave orders for immediate pursuit
of the rebels. For four days they continued
this, with hot skirmishing on both sides.
The weather was fearful, the troops ex-
hausted, but surely gaining on the retreating
enemy, until at last the Young Pretender
Return to England
realized his case was hopeless, and with his
deluded followers departed for Scotland.
The Duke of Cumberland returned to
London with flying colors and as much ap-
plause as if the rebellion had been completely
quelled. During the short struggle General
Oglethorpe had several times remonstrated
with the royal duke for allowing cruelties on
the adherents of the Pretender. Though
willing and anxious to crush the rebellion, he
refused to be a party to any barbarity, or
even injustice, and thus incurred the dis-
pleasure of the duke, who had him arraigned
before a military tribunal for having "lin-
gered on the road."
Oglethorpe was duly tried and "honorably
acquitted" by a court-martial of eight gen-
erals and brigadiers and seven colonels. The
Gazette of the day announced this, adding:
"His Majesty was pleased to confirm the
verdict." Oglethorpe had now attained the
rank of lieutenant-general. He regularly at-
tended the sessions of Parliament, speaking
occasionally upon some bill to relieve distress
or correct abuses. In behalf of the Mora-
vians, or United Brethren, he made a long
and impressive argument, tracing their origin
and history and giving the constitution of
their Church, bearing testimony to their pious
and useful labors in the colonies. "A bill to
the desired effect having passed the Com-
mons, was carried by sixteen members to the
House of Lords, where Oglethorpe, as their
spokesman, delivered it to Lord Chancellor
Hardwicke. The bill was approved by their
lordships, and received the royal assent."
In this, as in other measures for the good
of the soldiers, Oglethorpe was in the minor-
ity. He was often in advance of his time.
His high sense of justice and honor did not
always meet with a happy or heartfelt re-
sponse. His plain talk of the duty of Parlia-
ment grew monotonous, and perhaps more
than one member echoed the sentiments of
Walpole, who said of him: ^'It was very cer-
tain that he was a troublesome and tiresome
speaker, though even that was now and then
tempered with sense."
It was fortunate for the colony of Georgia,
and a source of great satisfaction to Ogle-
thorpe, that he could leave at the head of
affairs brave and true men — ^men who not only
governed their own province with discretion,
but afterward rendered essential service dur-
ing the war of the Revolution. They may
even be said to have taken part in the battle
of Bunker Hill, for it is related that "Joseph
Habersham, Noble Jones, and a few others
Return to England
broke open the king's magazine at Savannah,
took from it 500 pounds of powder and sent
it to Boston, where it was used in the battle
of Bunker Hill."
When, a little later, two British men-of-
war appeared at Tybee, near Savannah, the
"Council of Safety" met and, without a dis-
senting voice, resolved to burn their homes
rather than allow them to fall into the hands
of the British. So long as Oglethorpe had
continued with the colony he opposed and
prevented the introduction of negro slaves.
After his departure various influences united
to favor their coming. England had always
urged it; the climate, the English thought,
called for the negro laborer.
Bancroft tells us that so good and up-
right a man as Whitefield "believed that God's
providence would certainly make slavery ter-
minate to the good of the Africans, and he
pleaded before the trustees in its favor, as
essential to the good of Georgia." The oppo-
sition of the Moravians was quieted by this
message from Germany: "If you take slaves
in faith, and with the intent of conducting
them to Christ, the action will not be a sin,
and may prove a benediction."
The Hon. James Habersham, friend of
Whitefield, provincial secretary, and acknowl-
edged to be ''one of the sweetest, purest, most
useful, and noblest characters in the long line
of colonial worthies," counseled the introduc-
tion of slaves. Oglethorpe and the trustees
had often received petitions to have slaves
brought in, but had always refused to listen
to such requests, pointing to the neighboring
colony, where slaves had brought the people
to the brink of ruin. The Salzburgers and
Highlanders had refused to sign such peti-
tions, and drew up a counter one, giving good
reasons against the bringing in of slaves, espe-
cially the nearness of the Spaniards (who pro-
claimed freedom to all slaves who ran from
their masters) and the wrong to the negro.
''For our own sakes, our wives, our children,
and our posterity,'' they concluded, "we pro-
test against it." The majority prevailed.
The negroes were at first hired from their
owners in South Carolina, and finally pur-
chased from them and the northern colonies.
OLD AGE AND DEATH
Oglethorpe's public career ended in 1754,
when he and his colleague failed to be re-
turned from Haslemere, the borough they had
so long represented in Parliament. Hence-
forth his life was retired, and not much is
known concerning him. Occasionally we hear
of him in the literary circles of that day.
The sympathies which attracted him to Oliver
Goldsmith are easily recognized in the fol-
How just, sir, were your observations that the
poorest objects were by extreme poverty deprived
of the benefit of hospitals erected for the relief of
the poorest ! Extreme poverty, which should be the
strongest recommendation to charity, is here the
insurmountable objection, which leaves the dis-
tressed to perish. The qualifying such persons to
receive the benefits of hospitals answers the inten-
tions of the intended society. The design is the im-
mediate relief from perishing, thereby giving time
and protection to get proper destinations, and the
being admitted into a hospital is the proper des-
tination. You were so good as to offer to distribute
such sums as should be sent you. At the same time
that I am to return you thanks for your charitable
offer, I am to send you five pounds to distribute for
that purpose, in the time and manner you think
proper. Which I accordingly herewith send. . . .
If a farm and a mere country scene will be a
little refreshment from the smoke of London, we
shall be glad of the happiness of seeing you at
Cranham Hall. It is sixteen miles from the Three
Nuns at Whitechapel, where Prior, our stage-coach,
inns. He sets out at two in the afternoon. I am, sir,
Your obedient humble servant,
On April 13, 1773, Dr. Samuel Johnson,
Goldsmith, and Boswell dined with Ogle-
thorpe at his town house, and while the lat-
ter did not join in a discussion between the
two doctors, he much enjoyed at the close a
song from Goldsmith, "to a pretty Irish tune,
The Humors of Bellamagairy."
Just one year later they met again with
Oglethorpe. Goldsmith had died, but there
joined them Mr. Langston and the Irish Dr.
Campbell. It was on this occasion that Dr.
Johnson urged Oglethorpe to give the world
his Life. Dr. Campbell states that Ogle-
THE NEW YORK
old Age and Death
thorpe "excused himself, saying that the life
of a private man was not worthy of public
notice," and seemed also to excuse himself on
the score of incapacity. Yet he asked Bos-
well to bring him some good almanac that he
might recollect dates; whereupon Boswell
said he need only furnish the skeleton, and
that Dr. Johnson would supply bones and
sinews. "He would be a good doctor who
could do that," retorted Oglethorpe. "Well,"
said Campbell, "he is a good doctor," at which
Johnson laughed very heartily.
The American Revolution had now begun,
and one of our historians, Mr. Hugh McCall,
states that the British offered to General
Oglethorpe command of the forces sent to
subdue the colonists, but that he refused to
accept the position unless the ministry would
authorize him to assure the colonists that
justice should be done them; apparently a
reasonable request, yet Oglethorpe remained
There appears to be some doubt about the
authenticity of this story ; especially is it im-
probable when one remembers that Ogle-
thorpe was then in his eighty-eighth year.
But we have no reason to doubt his declara-
tion, "that he knew the people of America
well; that they could never be subdued by
arms, but their obedience could ever be se-
cured by treating them justly.'^
Holmes, in his Annals of America, gives
an incident occurring at the close of the war :
A day or two after John Adams arrived in
London as ambassador from the United
States he was waited upon by Oglethorpe,
who politely introduced himself and said:
"I am come to pay my respects to the
first American ambassador and his family,
whom I am very glad to see in England."
He then wrote Mr. Adams, expressed his
great regard for America, much regret at the
misunderstanding between the two countries,
and added that he was happy to have lived to
see the termination of it. Mr. Adams re-
turned the visit and had another interview
of an hour or two, but failed to report any-
In the year 1783 Horace Walpole wrote to
the Countess of Ossary that he had just made
the acquaintance of one a little his senior;
that they were to be intimate a long time, for
his new friend was but ninety-four! The
new friend was Oglethorpe, whom he had not
seen for twenty years, yet knew him in-
stantly. "As he did not recollect me,'^ says
Walpole, "I told him it was a proof how lit-
tle he was altered, and I how much. I said
old Age and Death
I would visit him ; he replied, * No, no ; I can
walk better than yon. I will come to you.' "
Later on, the same writer spoke of Ogle-
thorpe as having the activity of youth com-
pared with himself, who was twenty years
younger, and declared that "Oglethorpe's
eyes, ears, articulation, limbs, and memory
would suit a boy, if a boy could recollect a
century backward. His teeth are gone, he is
a shadow, and a wrinkled one ; but his spirits
and his spirit are in full bloom." This was
from the man who never admired him, and
who, after Oglethorpe's death, wrote again
to the countess :
I make no commentary on General Oglethorpe 's
death, madam, because his very long life was the
curiosity, and the moment he is dead the rarity is
over ; and as he was but ninety-seven he will not be a
prodigy compared to those who reached to a century
and a half. He is like many who make a noise in
their own time from some singularity which is for-
gotten when it comes to be registered with others of
the same genius, but more extraordinary of their
kind. How little will Dr. Johnson be remembered
when confounded with the mass of authors of his
own caliber !
We need not be surprised at these remark-
able sentiments coming from one who, if he
always spoke of Oglethorpe as a "bully," de-
nominated George Washington "an excellent
fanfaron," and seemed, as Macaulay ob-
served, "never to have formed a single
friendship." Very different was the estimate
placed upon him by Burke, who once re-
marked that he looked upon Oglethorpe as a
more extraordinary person than any he had
ever read of, for he founded a province and
lived to see it severed from the empire which
created it, and become an independent state.
Hannah More, describing him when he was
above ninety, writes to her sister:
I have got a new admirer, and we flirt together
prodigiously ; it is the famous General Oglethorpe,
perhaps the most remarkable man of his time. He
is above ninety years old, and the finest figure of a
man I ever saw. He perfectly realizes my ideas of
Nestor. His literature is great, his knowledge of the
world extensive, and his faculties as bright as ever.
He is one of the three persons still living who were
mentioned by Pope. Lord Mansfield and Lord
Marchmont are the other two. He was the intimate
friend of Southern, the tragic poet, and all the wits
of his time. I went to see him the other day and he
would have entertained me by repeating passages
from Sir Eldred (her first work). He is quite a
preux chevalier, heroic, romantic, and full of the
old Age and Death
The poets Thompson and Pope sang his
praises, and Dr. Wharton, who knew him
well, quoting Pope's famous couplet.
One driven by strong benevolence of soul,
Shall fly like Oglethorpe from pole to pole,
said: ''Here are lines that will justly confer
immortality on a man who well deserved so
magnificent an eulogium. He was at once a
great hero and a great legislator; . . . the
variety of his advantages and the different
scenes in which he has been engaged make
me regret that his life has never been written.
His settlement of Georgia gave a greater
luster to his character than even his military
exploits." Time has not changed this esti-
mate of his character, if we may trust the
judgment of Bancroft, who thus describes
The gentleness of Oglethorpe's nature appeared
in all his actions. He was merciful to the prisoner ;
a father to the emigrant ; the unwavering friend of
Wesley ; the constant benefactor of the Moravians ;
honestly zealous for the conversion of the Indians ;
invoking for the negro the panoply of the Gospel.
He was, for a commercial age, the representative
of that chivalry which knew neither fear nor re-
proach, and felt a stain on honor like a wound.
Loyal and brave ; choleric yet merciful ; versed
in elegant letters; affable even to talkativeness,
slightly boastful and tinged with vanity — he was
ever ready to shed blood rather than brook an in-
sult, but more ready to expose life for those who
looked to him for defense. A monarchist in the
state, friendly to the Church, he seemed like one
who had survived his times — like the relic of a
former century and a more chivalrous age — illus-
trating to the modern world of business what a
crowd of virtues and of charities could cluster
around the heart of a cavalier.
Still healthy and vigorous, Oglethorpe
could at ninety-five outwalk men not half his
age, and to the end his hearing was acute and
his eyes undimmed — all of which he attrib-
uted as much to his remarkably abstemious
life as to his active employments.
He was at last attacked by a violent fever
and died at Cranham Hall on the morning of
July 1, 1785. His body was laid in the family
vault of the Wrights within Cranham Church.
Mrs. Oglethorpe placed in the northern wall
of the chapel a monumental tablet. The in-
scription on this tablet, like those found on
old tombstones of that day, was lengthy. It
sets forth the disposition, affections, virtues,
public employments, private charities, even
extending to his marriage and giving a hint
of his wife's connections and prospects as
old Age and Death
heiress of a baronet — in fact, a short biog-
raphy done in marble. Two years later Mrs.
Oglethorpe died and was placed beside her
adored husband. Her obituary in the Gen-
tlemen's Magazine contained this testimony
to her worth :
Very many and continual were her acts of
charity and benevolence, but as she would herself
been hurt by any display of them in her lifetime,
we shall say no more. Not to have mentioned them
at all would have been unjust to her memory, and
not less so to the world, in which such an example
may operate as an incitement to others to go and
Few relics of Oglethorpe have been pre-
served. "His house at St. Simons was de-
stroyed by fire; so also was Cranham Hall,
and with it every private record of his life."
In the library of Corpus Christi College,
Oxford, is a manuscript French version of
the Bible, finely illuminated, presented by
him to the college; and in Savannah, Ga.,
was a Bible given by him to the Masonic
lodge. He once sat to Reynolds for his por-
trait by request of the Duke of Rutland, but
that picture, with many others of Sir Josh-
ua's, was destroyed by a fire at Belvoir.
There is an engraved likeness of Ogle-
thorpe, taken a few montlis before his death,
when reading without spectacles at the sale
of Dr. Johnson's library. One other likeness
of the general, with his Indian pupil by his
side, was presented by himself to Mr. Noble
Jones, of Georgia, but was lost in the capture
of Savannah by the British in 1778 — a sad
loss to the State whose earliest settlers called
him ^'Father." They long hoped for his re-
turn, rejoiced in his prosperity, were proud
to know that the King had promoted to a
generalship their commander-in-chief, and
that for many years he was senior general
of the British army. The record of his life,
so full of benevolence and patriotism pure
and unselfish, will ever be a rich legacy to the
children of Georgia.
old Age and Death
INSOKIPTION ON MONUMENTAL TABLET
IN CRANHAM CHURCH
Near this place lie the remains of
James Edward Oglethorpe, Esq.,
who served under Prince Eugene, and in
1714 was Captain-Lieutenant in the
1st troop of Queen's Guards.
In 1740 he was appointed Colonel of a regiment
to be raised in Georgia.
In 1745 he was appointed Major-General;
In 1747 Lieutenant- General ; and
In 1765 General of His Majesty's forces.
In his civil station he was very early conspicuous.
He was chosen M.P. for Halsmere in Surrey in
1722, and continued to represent it until 1754.
In the Committee of Parliament for enquiring into
the state of the Gaols, formed Feb. 25th, 1728
and of which he was chairman,
the active and preserving zeal of his benevolence
found a truly suitable employment,
by visiting with his colleagues of that generous body,
the dark and pestilential dungeons of the prisons
which at that time dishonored the Metropolis,
detecting the most enormous oppressions ;
obtaining exemplary punishment on those
who had been guilty of such outrages against humanity and
Jitetice, and restoring multitudes from extreme misery
to light and freedom.
Of these, about 700, rendered,
by long confinement for debt,
strangers and helpless in the country of their birth, and
desirous of seeking an asylum in the wilds of America,
were by him conducted thither in 1732.
He willingly encountered in their behalf a variety of
fatigue and danger, and thus became the
Founder of the Colony of Georgia ; which
(Founded on the ardent wish for liberty)
Set the noble example of prohibiting the importation of slaves.
This new establishment he strenuously and successfully defended
against a powerful invasion of Spaniards.
In the year in which he quitted England to found this settlement,
he^nobly strove to restore our true national defenses by
Sea and Land,
A free navy without impressing ; a constitutional militia.
But his sole affections were more enlarged than
even the term Patriotism can express.
He was the friend of the oppressed negro ;
No part of the world was too remote,
No interest too unconnected or too opposed to his own.
To prevent his immediate succor of suffering humanity.
For such qualities he received from the ever
memorable John, Duke of Argyle,
a full testimony in the British Senate to
his military character, his natural generosity,
his contempt of danger, and his regard for the Publick.
A similar encomium is perpetuated in a foreign language ;
and, by one of our most celebrated Poets, his remembrance
Old Age and Death
is transmitted to Posterity in lines justly expressive
of the purity, the ardor, the extent of his benevolence.
He lived till the 1st of July 1785,
a venerable instance to what a fulness of duration
and of continued usefulness
a life of temperance and virtuous labor
is capable of being protracted.
His widow, Elizabeth,
Daughter of Sir Nathan Wrighte, Cranham Hall Essex, Bart.,
and only sister and heiress of Sir Samuel Wrighte Bart, of the
same place, surviving with regret
(though with due submission to Divine Providence)
an affectionate husband, after a union of more than 40 years,
hath inscribed to his memory
These faint traces of his excellent character.
Ba_ncroft: History of the United States.
Biographical Memoirs of Oglethorpe.
Carlylh: Frederick the Great.
Grantz : History of the Moravians.
Gentleman's Magazine, London.
Harris : Rise and Progress of the Colony of Georgia.
Hannah More's Letters.
Holmes : Annals of America.
HiLDRETH : History of the United States.
He WATT: History of Georgia and South Carolina.
Jones : History of Georgia.
Lawson: Voyage to Carolina.
Moore : Journal.
Moore : Life of the Wesleys.
Oglethorpe: Account of the Provinces South Carolina
Rogers : Table Talk. '
Ray : A Compleat History of the Rebellion.
Stephens : Journal of the Proceedings of Georgia.
Spalding : Collections of Georgia Historical Society.
Salmon : Universal History.
Scott's Magazine, London.
Strobel : History of the Salzburgers.
Thorsby : History of Leeds.
Wright: Memoir of Oglethorpe.
Von Reck: Journal.
A DAMS, JOHN, 200.
African slave trade, 53; importa-
tion of slaves prohibited, 54.
Amelia Island, attacked by Span-
American Revolution, 199.
Annals of America, 200.
Argyle, Dvike of, 138.
Authorities consulted, 210.
TDANCROFT, GEORGE, de-
-^—^ scription of Oglethorpe, 203.
Bathurst, Sir Thomas, 58.
Belcher, Governor of Massachu-
setts, congratulations from, 33;
ideas of slavery, 55.
Bull, Governor, 162, 163, 176, 178.
CAMPAIGN against the Span-
ish, 168 et seq.
Carolina Indians, 120.
Carolina traders, 105.
Carolinians, 158, 180.
Castell, Mr., his imprisonment for
Causton, Thomas, deputy-gov-
ernor of Georgia, 46.
Cherokee Indians, 3, 114, 126, 159.
Chickasaws, allies of Oglethorpe,
110; desert Oglethorpe, 134,
Choctaws, allies of Oglethorpe,
Cochran, Lieutenant - Colonel
Colonies attacked by Spanish
Colonists of Darien and Frederica,
Colony of Carolina, 1.
Colony of Georgia, 15; character
Colony of South Carolina, 21.
Compleat Collection of Voyages
and Travels, 102.
Cooke, Colonel, 189.
Corpus Christi College, 5.
Council of Safety, 195.
Cranham Church, memorial tablet
Cranham Hall, residence of Ogle-
Creek Indians, 71, 87, 124, 157;
furnish warriors, 110; treaty
Cuming, Sir Alexander, 2; sent as
an embassy to the Cherokees, 3.
ARIEN, town of, 58.
Demerd, Captain Raymond, 141.
Dempsey, Mr., commissioner to
Spanish Governor of Florida,
Don Francisco del Morale Sanchey ,
Governor of St. Augustine, 75,
76, 86, 98, 114, 119.
Drake, Sir Francis, 71, 73.
Duke of Cumberland, 192, 193.
Dunbar, Captain George, 183,
ARL OF DARTMOUTH, 54.
Emigration to Georgia, 1732, 13,
14; from Austria, 37, 58.
English Government declares war
against Spain, 115; vigorous
prosecution of war against
Spain, 149, 180.
English Parliament, 53.
LORIDA Indians, 101.
Fort Argyle, 34, 36.
Fort George, 88.
Fort Moosa, 129.
Fort Picolata, 125.
Fort San Diego, 121, 131, 134.
Fort St. Andrews, residence of
Fort St. Francis, 124; surrenders
to Oglethorpe, 125.
Fort William, attack upon, re-
Frederica, 36, 78, 84, 140, 142,
GENERAL ASSEMBLY of
South Carolina, 114, 123;
fails to give succor, 126, 189.
Georgia, history of , by Stevens, 16;
deliverance from Spanish, 175.
Georgia colony in great danger,
Georgia orphanage, 143, 144, 145,
Georgia Rangers, 192.
Goldsmith, Oliver, 197.
Gordon, Rev. Alexander, 143.
Governor Bull, refuses assistance
to Oglethorpe, 162, 163, 176.
Governor of South Carolina, gives
assistance, 27, 183.
Governor of St. Augustine, 75, 76,
86; orders English merchants to
leave, 98; instigates revolt
among negroes, 114; treaty
Guarda-costas of the Spanish, 118.
HABERSHAM, HON. JAMES,
Habersham, Joseph, 194.
Haddock, Admiral, 119.
Hamer Captain, 161, 173.
Hewatt, Dr., Scotch minister, 15.
Highlanders, 58, 89, 121, 168, 196.
Highland Rangers, 124, 131.
History of Georgia, by Stevens,
Horton, Major, 190.
Huss, John, 43.
TMPRISONMENT for debt, 8.
Indian chiefs pledge loyalty to
Indians, 66, 67; troubles with, 70;
hatred toward the Spaniards,
71; treaty with, 32, 112, 192.
Indians, Lower Creek, 30; treaty
Inscription on monumental tab-
let in Cranham Church, 207.
Israelites, colony of, 35.
JAILS of London, 9, 10, 11.
Jekyll Island, 142.
Jekyll, Joseph, 36.
Johnson, Samuel, 198.
Jones, Colonel Charles, 17.
Jones, Noble, 145, 194.
Journal of the Trustees, 17.
TZ"ING OF SPAIN, 95.
T IQUORS, prohibited, 53.
London Daily Post, editorial on
Georgia colony, 96.
London jails, horrors of, 9, 10, 11.
Lord Baltimore, 158.
Lower Creek Indians, 30, 100.
Malachee, "Emperor of the
McCall, Hugh, 199.
McPherson, Captain, 34, 123.
Margravate of Azilia, 1.
Mcintosh, General Lachlin, 69,
Mcintosh, Captain John More 85,
MeUidge, John, 144, 145, 146, 147.
Missionaries to the Indians, 50, 61.
Montgomery, Sir Robert, 1, 2, 12.
Monumental tablet to Oglethorpe,
Moore, Francis, ;60.
Moravians, 59, 60, 193.
More Hannah, describes Ogle-
Mount Venture, burning of, by
Spanish Indians, 179.
Musgrove, Mary, 25.
Mutiny among soldiers, 106.
EGRO slaves, 53.
Negroes, revolt among, in South
OBITUARY of Oglethorpe's
Oglethorpe, James, founder of
Georgia, ancestry and early
years, 1, 3; succeeds to family
estate, 5; birth, 5; education, 5;
incident in his young soldier
life, 5; enters English army as
ensign, 6; goes to the Continent
and enlists, 6; elected to Parlia-
ment, 8; chairman of committee
on prisons, 9; petitions throne
for charter, 12 ; publishes essays,
12; leaves England with colony,
20; authorized to act as Colonial
Governor, 2 1 ; arrival at Charles-
ton, 21; explores Savannah
River, 22; makes stringent
laws against sale of intoxicating
liquors, 22; letter to trustees,
23; interview with Tomo Chi-
chi, 25; describes Georgia
province, 25; makes address to
General Assembly of South
Carolina, 29; excursion to in-
terior, 33; explores southern
coast, 35; offers home to Salz-
burgers, 38; returns to Eng-
land, 1734, 47; enthusiasticaUy
welcomed, 47; The Christian
Hero, 47; estimate of Indian
character, 48; advocates laws
for Georgia, 53; his ideas of^
slavery, 55 ; returns to Georgia,
61; issues proclamation to
maintain peace with Indians,
66; builds fort at St. Simons, 68;
returns to Tybee, 69; instructs
colonists in planting, 70 ;
troubles with the Indians, 73;
returns to Frederica, 76; sus-
pects Spaniards of treachery, 76;
increasing cares, 79; strength-
ens his defenses, 80; prepares
for an attack by Spaniards, 81 ;
goes to St. Andrews, 82; pre-
vents attack by Spanish by a
ruse, 85; letter to Lieutenant-
Governor of South Carolina and
to Governor of New York, 88;
interview with Spanish com-
missioners, 91; letter to trus-
tees, 91; goes to Savannah, 93;
concludes a treaty with Gov-
ernor of St. Augustine, 94; sails
for England, November, 1736,
95 ; cordial reception, 95 ; asks for
military force, 96; appointed
general, 98; returns to Georgia,
99; further plans for defense,
100; discovers treachery in
camp, 102; makes residence at
Fort St. Andrews, 105 ; attacked
by mutinous soldiers, 106;
goes to Charleston, 107; fore-
sees war between England and
Spain and with France, 107;
journey to the interior, 109;
description of journey. 109; con-
cludes treaty with Indians, 112;
gratifying success of his mission,
113; prostrated with fever at
Fort Augusta, 114; protects
South Carolina colonists from
negroes, 115; announces decla-
ration of war by England
against Spain, 115; musters his
military force, 117; inspects
southern frontier, 118; fortifies
Frederica, 121; lacks war sup-
plies, 121; invades Florida, 121;
asks for more troops, 122; plans
to assault St. Augustine, 128;
abandons the siege, 135; criti-
cised by Charleston newspapers,
136; praised by citizens, 137;
letter to Under-Secretary, 139;
his home at Frederica, 141;
letter to Duke of Newcastle,
May, 1741, 150: delay in getting
supplies, 153; appeals to Home
Government, 154; attacks Span-
ish privateers, 155; influence
over native tribes, 157; his
great abilities, 158; letter to
Duke of Newcastle, June, 1742,
160; escapes from Spanish fleet,
165; his successful stratagem,
172; great victory over Spanish
fleet, 175; praised by people of
Port Royal, 176; doubts that
the war is over, 177; again ap-
peals to Home Government,
179; attacks Spaniards at St.
Johns, 181; meets with a nearly
fatal accident, 182; returns to
England, July, 1743, 186; ven-
omously attacked by Vander-
dussen, 189; appointed general
oflScer, 191; his marriage, 191;
promoted to rank of major-
general, 192; joins Duke of
Cumberland's forces, 192; made
lieutenant-general, 193; remon-
strates against cruelties on
prisoners, 193; court-martialed
and acquitted, 193; his high
sense of justice, 194; end of
public career, 1754, 197; letter
to Oliver Goldsmith, 197; re-
fuses command of forces to
subdue colonists, 199 ; expresses
regard for America, 200; his
death, 1785, 204; likeness of,
Oglethorpe, Mrs., wife of James
Oglethorpe, death of, 205.
Onechachumpa, Indian warrior,
PALMER, COLONEL, com-
manding Highlanders, 132;
killed at Fort Moosa, 133.
Parliament, English, 8, 188.
Pease, Commodore, 134, 135.
Penn, WUliam, 15, 158.
Pretender, the, 6, 187, 193.
Prison reform, 8.
RAMSEY'S History of South
Carolina, 135, 137.
Richards, Major, 75, 80, 85.
Royal African Company, 54,
Rutledge, Andrew, Chief Justice
of South Carolina, 182.
T. ANDREWS, Fort, 72.
St. Augustine, consternation at
Fort, 87, 125; attacked by
St. Johns River, 72.
St. Matthias River, 124.
St. Simons, 35, 58, 66, 70, 142,
166; batteries destroyed, 167.
Salzburgers, 38, 39, 41 ; described
by Carlyle, 42, 43, 44, 58, 196.
San Diego, attack upon, 127;
surrender of, 128.
Savannah, described by Ogle-
thorpe, 23; population in 1733,
34; rapid improvement of, 62;
arrival of troops in, 98.
Scotch Highlanders, 64, 65, 68;
buUd fort at Darien, 69.
Seal of colony of Georgia, 17.
Selina, Countess Dowager of
Settlers, laws regarding, 57, 63.
Silk industry, 18, 56, 59, 62, 63,
Similli, Creek chief, 184.
Sir Francis Drake, 71, 73.
Six Nations, 157.
Slavery discouraged, 19, 55.
Sotolycate, Indian deity, 30.
South Carolina General Assembly,
South Carolina Gazette, impres-
sions of Oglethorpe, 26.
South Sea Bubble, 2.
Spain, court of, demands recall of
Spalding, Ihomas, 141.
Spaniards of Florida, 34.
Spaniards, threatened invasion
by, 80; attempt to bribe the
Indians, 109; barbarous con-
duct of, 120; surrender to
Oglethorpe, 125; endeavor to
excite revolt among negroes,
Spanish privateers, 155, 159.
Stone, Under-Secretary Andrew,
Sutton, Lady Eleanor, mother of
Sutton of Oglethorpe, grandfather
to Oglethorpe, 4.
Sutton, Sir Theophilus, father of
rpOMO CHICHI, chief of the
-*- Yamacraws and faithful
friend of Oglethorpe, 24, 31, 32;
goes to England, 46, 56, 65, 66,
71, 73; his illness, 104, 110;
death and funeral honors, 117.
Tooanahowi, successor of Tomo
Chichi, 127, 168.
Traitors, punished, 102.
Treaty with Indians, 32,
Troubles in Florida, 118.
Tschatschi, King, 59.
Tybee Island, 61.
United Brethren, 69; history of,
ALEXANDER, 131, 136,
Vernon, Admiral, 150, 188.
WALPOLE, HORACE, im-
pressions of Oglethorpe,
War with Spain, 153.
Washington, George, 141, 202.
Wesley, Charles, missionary to
Georgia, his overofficiousness,
68, 93 ; resigns as secretary and
returns to England, 94, 95.
Wesley, John, missionary to
Wesley, Rev. Samuel, 50.
Wesley's journal, 82, 83.
Westbrook mansion, 6; traditions
Whitefield, Rev. George, 98, 142,
143, 147; letter to Oglethorpe
148; death of, 149, 175.
"Y^AMACRAW BLUFF, 22.
"Young Pretender," 192.
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The History of the Louisiana Purchase.
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Admiral Fawagot - - - - By Captain A. T. Mahan, U. S. N.
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By EDGAR STANTON MACLAY, A^ KL
A History of the United States Navy. (1775
to 1902.) — New and revised edition.
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The Private Journal of William Maclay,
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The Life and Times of Thomas Jefferson.
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'^THE MOST UNFORTUNATE WOMAN IN
Lucretia Borgia : According to Original Documents
and Correspondence of Her Day.
By Ferdinand Gregorovius, Author of "A History
of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages." Translated
from the Third German Edition by John Leslie Garner.
Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $2.25 net; postage, 17 cents
Lucretia Borgia is the most unfortunate woman in modern history.
Is this because she was guilty of the most hideous crimes, or is it simply
because she has been unjustly condemned by the world to bear its curse ?
The question has never been answered. Mankind is ever ready to
discover the personification of human virtues and human vices in certain
typical characters found in history and fable. The Borgias will never
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on a great form or phase of religion, debasing and destroying it. They
stand on high pedestals, and from their presence radiates the light of
the Christian ideal. In this form we behold and recognize them. We
view their acts through a medium which is permeated with religious
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woman about whose nature a conflict of opinions has raged for centuries.
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as to her private life the most hideous stories gained circulation, making
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In this translation English readers are offered the best known account
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A TIMELY BOOK.
Travels and Investigations in the ** Middle Kingdom " — A Study
of its Civilization and Possibilities. Together with an Account
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late Major-General United States Volunteers, and Brevet Major-
General United States Army. Third edition, revised throughout,
enlarged, and reset. 1 2mo. Cloth, ^1.75.
General Wilson's second visit to China and his recent active
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book, which is therefore in many respects new, puts the reader
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practical and discriminating character of the author's study of
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other matters of the first importance, are engaging so much
attention. This new edition is indispensable for any one who
wishes a compact, authoritative presentation of the China of
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