Skip to main content

Full text of "James Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia"

See other formats


3 3433 08237132 3 












m '^^1 


P m^M 















Father Marquette. 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites, Editor of "The 
Jesuit Relations." Third Edition. 

Daniel Boone. 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites. Third Edition, 

Horace Greeley. 

By William A. Linn, for many years Man- 
aging Editor of the " New York Evening 

Sir William Johnson. 

By Augustus C. Buell, Author of "Paul 
Jones, Founder of the American Navy." 

Anthony Wa.yne. 

By John R. Spears, Author of " History of the 
American Slave Trade," etc. 

Champlain : The Founder of New FraLi\ce. 

By Edwin Asa Dix, M. A., LL. B., Formerly 
Fellow in History of Princeton University, Author 
of "Deacon Bradbury," "A Midsummer Drive 
Through the Pyrenees," etc. 

JaLines Oglethorpe : The Founder of 
Georgia. By Miss Harriet C. Cooper. 

George Rogers Clark. 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites. [In preparation. "l 

Each 12mo. Illustrated. $1.00 net. 
Postage, 10 cents additional. 



[public library. 



3(ame0 ©gletjjorpe 




New York 

2D* Stppleton anti Companp 






R 1904 L 


Copyright, 1904, by 

Published, February, 1904 



Washington is no better entitled to be 
called the Father of his Country than Ogle- 
thorpe is to the same distinction with refer- 
ence to the State which he founded. It is un- 
fortunately true that his life, his achieve- 
ments, and his character are not as well known 
to the people of Georgia as they should be, and 
in the hope of familiarizing the youth of the 
State with them this book was written. 

The influence of a noble life is great and 
far-reaching, but extends only to those who 
have been made to know it. The office of 
biography is to body forth those great person- 
alities to the world, and the larger intent of 
this work is to extend to the uttermost the in- 
spiring effect of the character of General 
James Edward Oglethorpe. 




Preface vii 

I. Ancestry and Early Years .... 1 

II. Parliament and Prison Reform ... 8 

III. Arrival in Savannah 20 

IV. Indians and the Coast Islands ... 29 
V. Immigration 37 

VI. Return to England 46 

VII. Parliament and the Slave Trade ... 53 

VIII. Troubles among the Settlers ... 63 

IX. Indian Troubles 70 

X. Charles Wesley and Other Complications . 78 

XI. Affair with the Spaniards . . . .84 

XII. With the Spanish Commissioners ... 91 

XIII. Commander-in-Chief in Carolina and Georgia 98 

XIV. Journeys to the Interior .... 109 
XV. Troubles in Florida 118 

XVI. Attack on the Florida Forts . . .131 

XVII. Peace and the Coming of Whitefield . . 139 

XVIII. War with the Spaniards again . . .153 

XIX. After the War 177 

XX. Return to England — The Pretender . . 186 

XXI. Old Age and Death 197 

Authorities Consulted 210 

Index 213 



James Oglethorpe • . . . . Frontispiece 

Tomo Chichi 24 

Jerusalem Church, Ebenezer, Georgia .... 44 

Savannah in 1734 58 

Charles Wesley 80 

George Whitefield 144 

Fort San Marcos, now called Fort Marion , , , 182 

Samuel Johnson , , 198 






The Margravate of Azilia had not been 
successful. Notwithstanding the declaration 
of Sir Robert Montgomery that it was ^Hhe 
most amiable country in the universe," and 
that ''paradise with all its virgin beauties is 
at most but equal with its native excellencies, ' ' 
yet Azilia remained unpeopled, and Sir Rob- 
ert gave up his Utopian scheme. 

That was in the year 1717. The struggling 
colony of Carolina had attracted the attention 
of this English nobleman ; the hope of adding 
to his fortune, while ignorant of the difficulties 
to be overcome, had inspired the scheme of 
planting a colony which should be at once 
lucrative to himself and to the colonists. The- 
oretically, Sir Robert's plans were perfect. 
He would obtain a grant of lands lying be- 
tween the rivers Altamaha and Savannah, and 
bring out at his own expense and within three 


James Oglethorpe 

years a considerable number of families to set- 
tle this future Eden. 

He further mapped out the 256,000 acres 
in symmetrical squares of one mile each, with 
a continuous projecting line of defenses, so 
secure that no savage dare molest or make 
afraid. At the very beginning the colonists 
should enjoy safety, liberty, and comparative 
wealth. There remained only one step to se- 
cure the foundation of the colony of Azilia — 
that was, obtaining the colonists. A broad 
and deep ocean rolled between England and 
America ; contrary winds must be encountered ; 
a long voyage of weeks or months ; a parting 
for life from all they loved in Old England; 
a home to be made among savages — all this 
made many shrink back and decline Sir Rob- 
ert's fair offer. And so it came to pass that 
Georgia was not called ^ ^Azilia,'' nor does it 
glory in Sir Robert Montgomery as its founder. 

In 1729 Sir Alexander Cuming, one of 
the victims of the South Sea Bubble — vision- 
ary, of course, and apparently anxious for an- 
other catastrophe — proposed to build on the 
Bermuda Islands a college to educate Indians. 
The scheme fell through for want of Indians 
— not one in Bermuda, nor ever had been. 
Sir Alexander must needs look farther west, 
and turned toward what was called the won- 

Ancestry and Early Years 

derful Cherokee country, asserting that its 
fabulous riches could pay England's debt in 
twenty years. 

Sir Alexander was finally sent as an em- 
bassy to these Cherokees, and succeeded, after 
some months, in convincing two head warriors 
and a conjurer of his importance and the 
power of England. They acknowledged the 
King's rule and Sir Alexander as their head. 
Warriors, Beloved-men, Conjurers assembled, 
and, placing him on a high seat, formed a cir- 
cle around him with thirteen eagles' tails, 
sang all day their war songs, and fasted. Such 
an auspicious beginning should have brought 
worthier results, but our record only states 
that the following year Sir Alexander returned 
to England, taking with him seven chiefs, who 
laid the crown of the Cherokees at his 
Majesty's feet, and presented to him five 
eagles ' tails and four scalps, which did not go 
far toward paying England's debt. Yet the 
*' Cherokee country" did not lose its reputa- 
tion; was destined to be colonized, and what 
Sir Robert Montgomery and Sir Alexander 
Cuming had attempted, remained for James 
Oglethorpe to accomplish. 

Oglethorpe came of an ancient family, the 
records showing that before the Normans en- 
tered England his ancestors held the estate of 


James Oglethorpe 

Oglethorpe, in the parish of Bramham. Says 
Thorsby in his History of Leeds : ' ' Tradition 
saith that one of the family of Oglethorpe was 
Reeve (High Sheriff) of the county at the time 
of the Norman advent, and condemned by the 
Conqueror for opposing his designs. The an- 
cient seat of Oglethorpe continued in the fam- 
ily till the civil wars when it was lost for their 
loyalty ; and it is said that several of the name 
died at once in the bed of honor, being slain 
in a battle near Oxford, of the King 's party. ' ' 
Sutton of Oglethorpe was, on account of 
his loyalty, ^^ mulcted by Parliament in the 
sum of £20,000, and his estate eventually fell 
to the lot of Fairfax. '^ This Sutton was 
grandfather to our hero. Of his two sons, 
Theophilus, the younger, entered the army, 
became lieutenant-colonel, and at the battle of 
Sedgemoor led the Life-Guards, contributing 
materially to the victory gained by the royal- 
ists. He was honored with knighthood, ^^ at- 
tained the rank of major-general and first- 
equerry to James II, taking command of the 
army assembled to oppose the Prince of Or- 
ange. He was, after the Revolution, deprived 
of his regiment, but was able to purchase the 
manor of Westbrook, and married Eleanor, 
daughter of Richard Wall, Esq., and of Kath- 
arine de la Roche, of the Lord Roche family of 


Ancestry and Early Years 

Ireland, connected by marriage with the Scot- 
tish house of Argyle." Sir Theophilus, after 
serving in two Parliaments, died in his fiftieth 
year and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Thus ends the record of the father of Ogle- 
thorpe. His mother. Lady Eleanor, who sur- 
vived her husband thirty years, was in the 
court of Queen Anne of so much influence, 
that Swift spoke of her in his coarse way as ^ * a 
cunning devil. ' ' Of her seven children, three 
were sons. The two elder, Lewis and The- 
ophilus, seem to have made an honorable 
record in military service and in Parliament, 
but died young. Thus it was that James 
Oglethorpe, founder of Georgia, succeeded to 
the family estate. 

Little is known of his early years. From 
the parish register we learn that he was born 
June 1, 1689, and was educated in Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford. Before entering the 
army he served for a few years as * ^ gentleman 
volunteer abroad." During that time the in- 
cident occurred thus related by Boswell : 

When a very young man, only fifteen, serving 
under Prince Eugene of Savoy, he was sitting at 
table in company with a prince of the House of 
Wiirtemberg, who took up a glass of wine, and by a 
fillip made some of it fly into Oglethorpe's face. 
The young soldier was in a dilemma. He durst not 
3 5 

James Oglethorpe 

challenge so distinguished a personage, yet he must 
notice the affront. Therefore, keeping his eye fixed 
on his Highness, and smiling at the time, as if he 
took what had been done in jest, Oglethorpe ex- 
claimed : ' ' That 's a good joke, but we do it much 
better in England!" whereupon he flung a whole 
glass full of wine in the prince's face. An old gen- 
eral present observed, " II a bien fait, mon prince, 
vous I'avez commence" — and thus the affair ended 
in good humor. 

Oglethorpe entered the English army as 
ensign in 1710, and there remained until peace 
was made in 1713. In the year following he 
was made captain-lieutenant of the Queen ^s 
Life-Guards, but, preferring active life, soon 
went to the Continent and enlisted under Prince 
Eugene. Peace being concluded between the 
Emperor and the Sultan, Oglethorpe returned 
to England in 1718, and for some years resided 
at Westbrook on the family estate — an estate 
then valued at nearly a million dollars. 

The old mansion still remains, though 
greatly changed. In front, rich meadow-lands 
slope gradually to the banks of the River Wey, 
while in the rear the land rises to a steep height, 
covered with noble trees and commanding a 
view of the town of Godalming. A tradition 
still holds faith in that region that the Pre- 
tender was once secreted at Westbrook by 


Ancestry and Early Years 

Lady Oglethorpe, that he used to walk in the 
twilight and early morning, wrapped in a large 
cloak, and some rustics, coming suddenly on 
the strange figure, thought he was a ghost, 
which notion was encouraged by Lady Ogle- 
thorpe, in order to keep people away. To this 
day the house is said to be haunted. 



In 1722 Oglethorpe, then thirty-three 
years old, was elected to Parliament from 
Haslerqere, and for thirty years represented 
that borough. From the first his career was 
consistent and independent. He spoke fre- 
quently and always to the point, yet he was 
no orator, and was known rather for what he 
did than for what he said. It is probable that 
he inherited a sympathy for the Stuarts, yet 
was ever loyal to the reigning house, and an 
ardent supporter of the Protestant succession. 
In Parliament his sympathies were chiefly en- 
listed in bills which came up for the redress 
of grievances, and especially for the relief of 
unfortunate debtors. 

At this day we can hardly understand how 
English law punished alike and thrust into 
the same dungeon thieves, pirates, murderers, 
with the man whose crime was debt — debt in- 
curred oftentimes as security for some friend. 


Parliament and Prison Reform 

The jails of London were a disgrace to human- 
ity. Fever, filth, smallpox, were encountered 
in common, while inhuman keepers plied 
thumbscrews and sneered at the sufferings of 
their prisoners. 

One Mr. Castell, a skilled architect and 
author of a costly work. The Villas of the An- 
cients, became involved in debt, was arrested, 
and taken to a ^ ^ sponging-house ' ' attached to 
Fleet Prison. Not being able to compromise 
his debts, nor to satisfy the warden's demand 
for bribes, he was thrust into a ward in which 
smallpox was raging. Terrified with fear of 
the disease, he entreated to be sent elsewhere, 
even into the jail itself, but in vain. He 
caught the disease, and soon died, with his last 
breath charging the warden as his murderer. 
Castell was well known to Oglethorpe, who at 
once determined to do his utmost toward put- 
ting an end to such national crimes. At the 
earliest opportunity he brought the subject be- 
fore Parliament. That body appointed a vis- 
iting committee of fourteen members of the 
House of Commons, with Oglethorpe as chair- 

They promptly inspected the various pris- 
ons and presented their reports; ^Hhe details 
of some,'' says a historian, ^^were too painful 
and loathsome to be repeated." In the Mar- 


James Oglethorpe 

shalsea's low rooms, not sixteen feet square, 
were confined forty, and even fifty, human be- 
ings. ^^The floor not being sufficient for the 
sleepers, half of them were suspended in ham- 
mocks, and so tainted was the atmosphere 
that they perished for want of fresh air. The 
sick wards were still worse. Along the walls 
boards were laid on trestles; under these 
boards one tier of sick men lay on the floor, 
on the dresser was another tier, and in the 
hammocks overhead another tier still. . . . 
A day never passed without death, and in 
spring from eight to ten prisoners died every 
twenty-four hours. Many well-disposed per- 
sons left money for the destitute, but it was 
confiscated by the jailors. '^ The wardens 
grew rich on bribes. Investigation proved 
that Bainbridge received in this way an aver- 
age of £5,000 yearly. He it was who loaded 
Sir William Rich with irons because of a dis- 
pute with him. The committee ordered his 
release, but on making another visit found him 
again in chains. Mr. Oglethorpe, as chairman 
of the committee, reported the matter to Par- 
liament, and the barbarous warden was him- 
self imprisoned. 

Pirates and abandoned ruffians were suf- 
fered to mix with the unfortunate debtors. 
Their conduct became so insufferable that some 

Parliament and Prison Reform 

decent prisoners attempted to escape. They 
were detected, and the officers made it an ex- 
cuse for resorting to the thumbscrew, forcing 
blood from finger-ends. Afterward they were 
taken to the strong room, a collar fastened on 
the neck and screwed until blood gushed from 
nose and ears and the eyes almost started 
from the head. Savagery could go little far- 
ther, but the inhuman Acton added to these 
barbarities by chaining the living to the dead, 
and keeping prisoners for days in the same 
yard with unburied corpses. 

Gradually the committee unearthed these 
horrors. For several years Oglethorpe's time 
was occupied with the painful task, but he then 
had the satisfaction of knowing that he had 
accomplished much, if not all he desired, for 
the relief of the unfortunate prisoners, and for 
the punishment of barbarous jailors. A thor- 
ough inspection of the prisons and reforms 
begun, wiped out to some extent the stain on 
England 's governing power. 

Meanwhile Oglethorpe had not neglected 
other duties, and if in Parliament he was often 
in the minority, it was because he was battling 
for the right against the interests of party, or 
pleading the cause of the oppressed. 

While chairman of the committee sent to 
investigate the condition of prisons and their 

James Oglethorpe 

inmates Oglethorpe had conceived a plan for 
helping those prisoners confined merely for 
debt. Many of them were of respectable con- 
nection, and he proposed that the claims of 
their creditors be compromised on condition 
of their going as colonists to America and 
planting a settlement adjoining the Carolinas 
on the tract of land which Sir Robert Mont- 
gomery had described as ^ 4n the same parallel 
as Palestine and pointed out by God's own 
choice. ' ' 

The scheme grew until it embraced not 
only the unfortunate of England, but the per- 
secuted Protestants of Euroi3e. To obtain the 
necessary means, Oglethorpe sought the co- 
operation of men of wealth and influence, and 
in due time, twenty others uniting with him, 
petitioned the throne for a charter, which was 
granted June 9, 1732, by King George, for 
whom the colony was to be called Georgia. 
OglethorjDe then published anonymously some 
essays calling attention to the proposed emi- 
gration, and pointing out the objects and ad- 
vantage of such a movement. In the third 
chapter he wrote : 

Let us cast our eyes upon the multitude of un- 
fortunate people in this kingdom, of reputable fam- 
ilies and of liberal education; some undone by 

Parliament and Prison Reform 

guardians, some by lawsuits, some by accidents in 
commerce, some by stocks and bubbles, some by 
suretyship ; but all agree in this one circumstance 
that they must either be burdensome to their rela- 
tions, or betake themselves to little shifts for sus- 
tenance which it is ten to one do not answer their 
purposes, and to which a well-educated person 
descends with the utmost constraint. These are the 
persons who may relieve themselves and strengthen 
Georgia by resorting thither and Great Britain by 
their departure. 

I appeal to the recollection of the reader — 
though he be opulent, though he be noble — does not 
his own sphere of acquaintance furnish him with 
some instances of such persons as have been de- 
scribed? Must they starve? What honest heart 
can bear to think of it ? Must they be fed by the 
contributions of others? Certainly they must, 
rather than be suffered to perish. I have heard it 
said, and it is easy to say so, ''Let them learn to 
work; let them subdue their pride and descend to 
mean employments; keep ale-houses or coffee- 
houses, even sell fruit or clean shoes for an honest 
livelihood." But, alas! these occupations and 
many like them are already overstocked by people 
who know better how to follow them than do those 
of whom we have been talking. As for laboring, 
I could almost wish that the gentleman or merchant 
who thinks that another gentleman or merchant in 
want can thrash or dig to the value of subsistence 
for his family or even for himself; I say I could 

James Oglethorpe 

wish the person who so thinks were obliged to make 
trial of it for one week — or, not to be too severe, 
for one day only. He would then find himself to be 
less than the fourth part of a laborer, and that the 
fourth part of a laborer 's wages would not support 
him. It must be admitted that before he can learn 
he may starve. Men whose wants are importunate 
must try such experiments as will give immediate 
relief. 'Tis too late for them to begin to learn a 
trade, when their pressing needs call for the ex- 
ercise of it. 

To the suggestion that such persons were 
unfitted for the drudgery of agriculture, he re- 
plied that in Georgia the land was so fertile as 
to yield an hundredfold, and they would have 
it for nothing. ^^Give here in England," he 
added, ^^ten acres of good land to one of these 
helpless persons, and I doubt not his ability 
to make it support him ; but the difference be- 
tween no rent and rack-rent is the difference 
between eating and starving. . . . The un- 
fortunate will not be obliged to bind them- 
selves to a long service to pay for their passage, 
for they may be carried gratis into a land of 
liberty and plenty, where they will find them- 
selves in possession of competent estates, in a 
happier climate then they knew before; and 
they are unfortunate indeed if they can not 
forget their sorrows. ' ' 

Parliament and Prison Reform 

The trustees fully concurred with Ogle- 
thorpe in these views, believing, as they said, 
that ''there are many poor unfortunate per- 
sons in this country who would willingly labor 
for their bread if they could find employment 
and get bread by laboring.'^ They gener- 
ously had inserted into the charter clauses re- 
straining them from receiving any salary, fee, 
perquisite — any profit whatever — or from ob- 
taining any grant of lands within the district, 
either themselves or in trust for them. "No 
colony,'' wrote Southey, "was ever estab- 
lished on principles more honorable to its 
projectors. ' ' 

They also set the example of contributing 
largely of their private means, and so charita- 
ble, wise, and unselfish were their plans that 
contributions came from people of every rank, 
from public institutions, and from Parliament, 
which granted them the sum of £10,000. A 
letter was received from far-off Pennsylvania 
enclosing £100 from William Penn, and very 
highly approving their undertaking, promis- 
ing all the assistance in his power. 

Dr. Hewatt, a Scotch minister from 
Charleston, thus expressed the feelings of 
many : ' ' The benevolent founders of the colony 
of Georgia may challenge the annals of any 
nation to produce a design more generous and 

James Oglethorpe 

praiseworthy. They voluntarily offered their 
money, their labor, and time for promoting 
what appeared to them the good of others, hav- 
ing nothing for reward but the inexpressible 
satisfaction arising from virtuous actions.'' 
Tracts were now distributed describing the 
climate and products of the happy land. The 
poet Waller pictured it a veritable Eden, de- 
claring in his enthusiasm : 

Heaven sure hath kept this spot of earth uncurst, 
To show how all things were created first. 

The funds raised were to feed, clothe, 
arm, and transport to Georgia such poor 
people as they should select from those who 
offered to go. An account was opened with 
the Bank of England, where a register was 
kept of the benefactors and their donations. 
They also bound themselves to make an an- 
nual statement of receipts and expenditures 
before the Lord Chancellor and chief of the 
courts. Arrangements being completed, the 
trustees now announced that they were ready 
to receive applications from those who wished 
to emigrate. A committee was appointed to 
visit the jails and obtain the discharge of 
such poor prisoners as were worthy, care- 
fully investigating character, circumstances , 
and antecedents. Stevens, in his History of 

Parliament and Prison Reform 

Georgia, referring to the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine of London, 1732, and to the manuscript 
Journal of the Trustees, concludes that "in 
this selection the trustees exhibited peculiar 
care and discrimination. They required good 
moral characters, and examined into the causes 
and conditions of the misfortunes of each. 
They confined their charity to such only as 
fell into misfortunes of trade, and admitted 
none of those who could get a subsistence in 
England. They suffered none to go who 
would leave wives or families without support, 
none who had the character of lazy or immoral 
men, and would go without the consent of their 
creditors." Colonel Charles Jones, consid- 
ered by Bancroft *Hhe best historian America 
ever had," says of this painstaking selection 
of colonists for Georgia : 

Other American colonies were founded and 
augmented by individuals coming at will, without 
question, for personal gain, and bringing no certifi- 
cate of present or past good conduct. Georgia, on 
the contrary, exhibits the spectacle, at once unique 
and admirable, of permitting no one to enter her 
borders who was not deemed, by competent au- 
thority, worthy the rights of citizenship. 

A common seal was adopted. On one side 
was the genius of the colony, a figure repre- 

James Oglethorpe 

senting Liberty. Spear in one hand, cornu- 
copia in the other, she was seated between two 
rivers, which formed the northern and south- 
ern boundaries, and surrounded by the words 
^'Colonia, Georgia, Aug." On the reverse were 
silkworms at work and the motto '^Non Sibi, 
Sed Aliis, ' ' thus representing the disinterested 
motives of the trustees, and also the special 
industry they had in view. Having learned 
that the mulberry was indigenous to Georgia 
and the climate suitable for the silkworm, they 
had decided that the silk industry would fur- 
nish the most suitable employment for the 
women and children, the old and infirm, leav- 
ing harder and more necessary work for the 
laborers. Experts from Italy were engaged 
to teach the best methods of feeding worms and 
winding silk from cocoons. Oglethorpe had 
before endeavored to encourage silk-weaving 
in England, and now proposed to produce in 
this new colony the raw material. 

As they would be exposed to attacks from 
both Spanish and Indian enemies, they should 
be soldiers as well as planters. Accordingly 
they were provided with arms, and, until their 
departure, daily drilled by sergeants of the 
Royal Guards. For the same reason it was 
thought best to establish such a tenure as would 
equalize the number of soldier-planters, and 

Parliament and Prison Reform 

place the number of land lots within a narrow 
compass. Each lot was to be held as a military 
fief, and to consist of just sufficient land for a 
comfortable support. Fifty acres was consid- 
ered enough for a farmer and his family. 

It was also determined to prohibit slavery 
within the province : first, because they would 
not require such heavy labor as to make the 
assistance of negroes necessary; second, be- 
cause if any were permitted at their own ex- 
pense to import slaves, it would discourage, 
perhaps ruin, the poor people who were to form 
the strength of the colony. Thirty-five fam- 
ilies, numbering one hundred and twenty per- 
sons, were selected. Among them were men 
of various trades, all of whom were supplied 
with implements. 




On the 16th of November, 1732, the emi- 
grants embarked at Gravesend on the ship 
Anne. Oglethorpe, who had so earnestly 
planned and worked for the good of these un- 
fortunate people, determined to go with them, 
share their dangers and fatigues, and watch 
over the establishment of the young colony. 
He was then in the prime of life, tall, manly, 
and dignified, said to be ^'the beau-ideal of an 
English gentleman, and blessed with ample 
means for the gratification of every reason- 
able desire, yet he resolved for a time to deny 
himself those pleasures for which his nature 
fitted him, and to become the associate of the 
poor and ignorant." Doubtless it required 
more real manliness, more moral courage, 
than to charge an enemy. Many called him 
quixotic, romantic, foolish. The foolishness 
was, however, very deliberate and the ro- 
mance noble. 

Oglethorpe had undertaken the work on the 

Arrival in Savannah 

condition that he was not to receive any salary 
or other recompense, but was authorized by 
the trustees to act as Colonial Governor. 
They accompanied him to the ship, bade 
him good speed, and the day following the 
Anne, with its 120 emigrants and their 
leader, put out to sea. Oglethorpe had not 
only furnished his cabin and supplied pro- 
visions for himself and servants, but during 
the voyage largely contributed to the comfort 
of his fellow passengers. For two months 
they sailed toward the west, arriving January 
13th in the harbor of Charleston, S. C, where 
^ ^ they thanked God and took courage. ' ' Their 
last Sabbath in Old England had been spent 
together in prayer, so their first in their new 
home was devoted to earnest prayer and 

The sister colony of South Carolina warmly 
welcomed them, and with good cause. They 
were to be a protection against her Spanish 
enemy to the south. The Governor and his 
council promised all the assistance in his 
power, and ordered the King's pilot to conduct 
the ship into Port Eoyal, some eighty miles 
southward, from whence the colonists were to 
be conveyed in small vessels to the river Savan- 
nah. They set sail the day following, while 
Oglethorpe went on to Beaufort, and ascended 
3 21 

James Oglethorpe 

the Savannah River to explore the country and 
select a site for their town. Yamacraw Bluff 
attracted his attention, and there on the rich 
delta lands of the Savannah he fixed their place 
of abode. 

During his absence the emigrants had ar- 
rived at Beaufort, to which place he returned 
on the 24th. The Sabbath which followed they 
celebrated as a day of special thanksgiving, in 
which the kind people of Beaufort joined. 
Before their departure Oglethorpe provided 
for them and their new-made friends a bounti- 
ful feast. Among the items mentioned are 
**four fat hogs, eight turkeys, many fowls, 
English beef, a hogshead of beer, and a gener- 
ous supply of wine.^' We are informed that 
no one drank to excess, but that subsequently 
Oglethorpe made stringent laws against the 
sale of intoxicating drinks. 

The feast being over, they set sail for their 
new home. Savannah — so called after the river 
flowing past — and landed there on the last day 
of the month, rejoicing to escape from long 
confinement on board the vessel. Four tents 
were set up, while the men went to work 
to construct with branches of trees addi- 
tional bowers for present use. Watch-fires 
were lighted and the weary people retired to 
rest. Their faithful leader lay upon the 

Arrival in Savannah 

ground near the central fire, and at his mid- 
night round found all except his sentinels in 
peaceful slumber. When morning came he 
called his little band together, to unite with him 
in fervent thanks to God for his mercy in 
bringing them safely to the land of their adop- 
tion. He gave them also a few words of coun- 
sel, warning them most of all against drunk- 
enness, from which some of them had already 
suffered. In spite of every precaution and 
law, rum might be brought among them, and 
he urged them to resist temptation on their 
own account and for the sake of their Indian 
neighbors, to whom ^ ^ fire-water ' ' was invaria- 
bly fatal. He reminded them that the seed 
sown by themselves would, morally as well as 
literally, bring forth fruit for good or for evil 
in coming generations. ''But," said he, ''it 
is my hope that, through your good example, 
the settlement of Georgia may prove a blessing 
and not a curse to the native inhabitants. ' ' 

In a letter to the trustees dated February 
10, 1733, Oglethorpe thus describes the situa- 
tion of Savannah : 

The river here forms a half-moon, around the 
south side of which the banks are about forty feet 
high, and on the top a flat, which they call a bluff. 
The plain, high ground extends into the country 
about five or six miles, and along the river for about 

James Oglethorpe 

a mile. Ships that draw near twelve feet of water 
can ride within ten yards of the bank. Upon the 
riverside, in the center of the plain, I have laid out 
the town, opposite to which is an island of very 
rich pasturage, which, I think, should be kept for 
the trustees' cattle. The river is pretty wide, the 
water fresh, and from the quay of the town you see 
its whole course to the sea, with the island of Tybee, 
which forms the mouth of the river. For about six 
miles up into the country the landscape is very 
agreeable, the stream being wide and bordered with 
high woods on both sides. 

The colonists were charmed with this new 
country. Its groves of live-oak, bay, cypress, 
sweet-gum, myrtle, and tupelo were vine-cov- 
ered or draped in long gray moss, while the 
yellow jasmine trailed its odorous clusters 
over the shrubs which overhung the hlufP, and 
the gayest of birds filled the woods. No love- 
lier spot had they ever seen, and no suspicion 
of malarial air or lurking foe troubled them as 
they set to work. Oglethorpe was wiser, and 
while everywhere planning and encouraging, 
thought it important to obtain at once the con- 
sent of the natural owners of the soil to the 
settlement of the colony among them. To this 
end he sought an interview with Tomo Chichi, 
the chief of the Yamacraws, who lived two or 
three miles farther up the river. There Ogle- 

TU3I(J ClIKlli, eJllKF ur THE Y AM At K AW 

.\ \1) 




Arrival in Savannah 

thorpe went, taking with him an interpreter, 
one Mary Musgrove, an Indian woman who 
had married a Carolina trader. This woman 
proved very useful on account of her influence 
with the Indians, and Oglethorpe afterward 
gave her £100 yearly for her services. It was 
not until after Oglethorpe 's time that she gave 
serious trouble to the colony. 

The interview with Tomo Chichi was satis- 
factory, but he stated that there were larger 
and more warlike tribes just beyond his own, 
whose consent must be gained to the proposed 
compact, and he furthermore agreed to invite 
a deputation of these tribes to hold a confer- 
ence in Savannah with this people from across 
the great sea. In Oglethorpe ^s next letter to 
the trustees he wrote as follows : 

This province is much larger than we thought, 
being one hundred and twenty miles from this 
river to the Altamaha. The Savannah has a very 
long course, and a great trade is carried on by the 
Indians, there having above twelve trading boats 
passed since I have been here. There are in Georgia, 
on this side the mountains, three considerable na- 
tions of Indians — one called the Lower Creek, con- 
sisting of nine towns, or rather cantons, making 
about one thousand men able to bear arms. One of 
these towns is within a short distance of us, 
and has concluded a peace with us, giving us 

James Oglethorpe 

the right of all this part of the country; and I 
have marked out the lands which they have reserved 
to themselves. Their king comes constantly to 
church, is desirous to be instructed in the Christian 
religion, and has given me his nephew — a boy who 
is his next heir — ^to educate. 

The two other nations are the lichees and the 
Upper Creek, the first consisting of two hundred, 
the latter of eleven hundred men. We agree so 
well with the Indians that the Creeks and the 
Uchees have referred to me a difference to deter- 
mine, which otherwise would have occasioned war. 

Our people still lie in tents, there being only two 
clapboard houses built, and three sawed houses 
framed. Our crane, our battery cannon, and maga- 
zine are finished. This is all we have been able to 
do by reason of the smallness of our number, of 
which many have been sick, and others unused to 
labor, though I thank God they are now pretty 
well, and we have not lost one since we have arrived 

The people of Carolina were, for various 
reasons, much interested in the Georgia colony, 
and several gentlemen made a canoe voyage 
from Charleston to this new settlement at 
Savannah. From the South Carolina Gazette 
the following extract is taken, which gives 
their impressions of the leader of the colony: 

Mr. Oglethorpe is indefatigable, and takes a 
vast deal of pains. His fare is but indifferent, 
having little else at present but salt provisions. He 

Arrival in Savannah 

is extremely well beloved by the people. The title 
they give him is Father. If any of them are sick, 
he immediately visits them and takes great care of 
them. If any difference arises, he is the person who 
decides it. Two happened while I was here and 
in my presence, and all the parties went away to 
all outward appearance satisfied, and contented 
with the determination. He keeps a strict disci- 
pline; I neither saw one of his people drunk, nor 
heard one swear all the time I have been here. He 
does not allow them rum, but in lieu gives them 
English beer. It is surprising to see how cheerfully 
the men go to work, considering they have not been 
bred to it. There are no idlers, even the boys and 
girls do their part. There are four houses already 
up, but none finished; he hopes that he has got 
more sawyers to finish two houses a week. He has 
plowed up some land, part of which is sowed with 
wheat, which is come up and looks promising. 
He has two or three gardens which he has sowed 
with divers sorts of seeds and planted thyme with 
other pot-herbs, and several sorts of fruit-trees. 
He was palisading the town around, including part 
of the common. In short, he has done a vast deal 
of work for the time, and I think his name deserves 
to be immortalized. . . . The Indians who are 
thereabouts are very fond of Mr. Oglethorpe and 
assist him what they can ; and he, on the other side, 
is very civil to them. 

The Governor of South Carolina sent Mr. 
Bull to assist in laying out the town. One of 
the streets still bears his name. Mr. Bull 


James Oglethorpe 

brought with him four sawyers, who, with the 
help of the colonists, felled a large number of 
trees for building more houses. Oglethorpe 
ordered a few of the finest trees spared, and 
under a group of pines placed his own tent, 
where he lived for nearly a year, refusing to 
take possession of even a hut for his own use. 
Amid all the work he found time to lay out 
a public garden, designed as a nursery for sup- 
plying the colonists with white-mulberry trees, 
vines, orange and olive trees, and appointed a 
gardener to care for them. Meanwhile, he 
superintended the clearing of land, the build- 
ing of houses, and constructing of fortifica- 
tions. To each he assigned his proper work, 
and even women and children were not idle. 
Said a writer of that day: "He gave at the 
same time his orders and his example. There 
was nothing he did not which he directed 
others to do." His quick eye detected any 
shirking, but so much was he revered that a 
gentle reproof recalled them to duty. 




Oglethoepe now deemed it best to go to 
Charleston, and there, before the Governor and 
General Assembly, he made a formal address. 
After thanking them for their assistance, he 

Your charitable and generous proceeding, be- 
sides the self-satisfaction which always attends 
such actions, will be the greatest advantage to this 
province. You, gentlemen, are the best judges of 
this, since the most of you have been personal wit- 
nesses of the dangerous blows this country has 
escaped from the French, Spanish, and Indian 
arms. You know there was a time when every day 
brough fresh advices of murders, ravages, and 
burnings ; when no profession or calling was exempt 
from arms; when the inhabitants of the province 
were obliged to leave their wives, their families, 
their usual occupations, and undergo all the 
fatigues of war, for the necessary defense of the 
country ; and all their endeavors scarcely sufficient 
to defend the western and southern frontier from 

James Oglethorpe 

the Indians. It would be needless for me to tell 
you, who are much better judges, how the increas- 
ing settlements of the new colony on the southern 
frontiers will prevent the like danger in future. 
Nor need I tell you how much every plantation will 
increase in value, by the safety of the province 
being increased, since the lands to the southward 
already sell for above double what they did when 
the new colonists first arrived. Nor need I mention 
the great lessening of the burdens of the people, 
by increasing the income of the tax from the many 
hundred thousand acres of land either taken or 
taking up on the prospect of future security. 

On Oglethorpe's return to Savannah he 
was pleased to find awaiting him the repre- 
sentatives of the Lower Creeks, which con- 
sisted of eight tribes, all speaking the same 
dialect. These Indians were tall, well-formed 
men, had unusual skill in hunting, and were 
also well advanced in their ideas of the rights 
and duties of man. They had no religious 
exercises, yet believed in the existence of a 
supreme being, whom they called Sotolycate — 
He who sitteth above and said that all nations 
were descended from two brothers, one white 
and the other red. They respected old age, 
and exhibited some tenderness for the sorrow- 
ing in that they refrained from speaking of 
the dead to one who mourned, or of brothers 

Indians and the Coast Islands 

to one who had lost a brother. To do so was 
an offense justifying revenge. Suicide was 
detested as the meanest cowardice. They 
seemed, moreover, to realize their ignorance 
and desired to be instructed. 

Oglethorpe received them with the same 
courtesy he would have extended to men of his 
own nation, exj^laining that the English de- 
sired neither to annoy or dispossess them, but 
to live in friendship, to obtain from them some 
land, and to make a treaty of friendship and 
commerce. Onechachumpa, a giant-like war- 
rior, replied, stating the extent of their ter- 
ritory and power of the tribe, concluding 

We acknowledge the superiority of the white 
man to the red; we are persuaded that the Great 
Spirit who dwells above and around all has sent 
the English here for our good ; and therefore they 
are welcome to all the land we do not need. 

He then presented eight buckskins — one for 
each tribe — the best things, he said, they had 
to bestow, thanking Oglethorpe for his kind- 
ness to Tomo Chichi, who it seems for some 
untold reason had been banished from his 
tribe, but on account of his wisdom and bravery 
had been chosen chief of the Yamacraws, a 
kindred tribe. 


James Oglethorpe 

Tomo Chichi entered, attended by his war- 
riors. Bowing low, he said : 

When these white men came, I feared they 
would drive us away, for we were weak, but they 
promised not to molest us. We wanted corn, and 
other things, and they gave them ; and now of our 
small means we make them presents in return. 
Here is a buffalo-skin adorned with the head and 
feathers of an eagle. The eagle signifies speed, the 
buffalo strength. The English are swift as an eagle 
and strong as a buffalo. Like the eagle they flew 
hither over great waters, and like the buffalo 
nothing can withstand them. But the feathers of 
an eagle are soft and signify kindness; and the 
skin of the buffalo is covering and signifies protec- 
tion. Let these, then, remind them to be kind and 
protect us. 

The terms of the treaty were soon agreed 
upon, and consisted, on the part of the Eng- 
lish, of fair and just stipulations concerning 
traffic, reparation for injuries, and so forth; 
and, on the part of the Indians, a formal ceding 
to the trustees all the land south of the Savan- 
nah as far as the Ogeechee, with lands on the 
coast from the Savannah to the river Alta- 
maha, extending westward as far as the tide 
flowed, and all the islands except a few which 
they reserved for hunting, fishing, and bathing, 
besides a tract on the margin of the river for 

Indians and the Coast Islands 

their encampment when visiting friends in the 

A very important part of the conference 
came at the conclusion, when Oglethorpe pre- 
sented each chief with a laced coat, and hat, 
and shirt, each war-captain a gun with am- 
munition, to the ^* beloved men" mantles of 
coarse cloth, besides smaller presents to the 
attendants. The Indians departed highly 
pleased, promising ^Ho keep the talk in their 
heads so long as the sun should shine or the 
waters run into the sea. ' ' 

Oglethorpe intended making a tour through 
the northern colonies. Governor Belcher of 
Massachusetts had some time previous ex- 
tended an urgent invitation from the Legis- 
lature of his Colony, as well as from himself. 
"It is with great pleasure," he wrote, "that 
I congratulate you on your safe arrival in 
America, and I have still greater in the ad- 
vantages which these parts will reap from 
your noble and generous pursuits of good to 
mankind in the settlement of Georgia. May 
God Almighty attend you with his blessing 
and crown you with success." 

But Oglethorpe did not accept the kind 
invitation ; the young colony needed his atten- 
tion and he gave up the expected pleasure. He 
made instead an excursion into the interior, 

James Oglethorpe 

attended by Captain McPherson with a detach- 
ment of rangers. After going forty miles 
westward, Oglethorpe selected a site on which 
to build a fort to command the passes through 
which the Spanish Indians traveled when they 
invaded the Carolina colony. This fort was 
soon afterward built, and, in honor of his early 
patron, named Fort Argyle. His main object 
was, of course, to protect his own colony 
from invasion by the Spaniards of Florida. 
There Captain McPherson was subsequently 

Oglethorpe now returned to Savannah, 
and upon his arrival called together the in- 
habitants. According to his custom, before 
beginning any important work, he joined 
them in a devotional service, and then pro- 
ceeded to divide the town into wards and 
assign the lots. In this work he looked to the 
future, and although the inhabitants then num- 
bered only one hundred and twenty, he laid 
out the town as for a populous city, with large 
squares for markets and other public needs, 
with wide and regular streets crossing each 
other at right angles and shaded by fine trees. 
Even in his own lifetime he realized the wis- 
dom of thus acting according to the motto 
chosen for their seal, ^^Not for ourselves, but 
others.'' The morning's work being con- 

Indians and the Coast Islands 

eluded, all were invited to a substantial dinner. 
The afternoon Oglethorpe devoted to opening 
a court, when, by virtue of his commission, he 
nominated a recorder and other magistrates; 
a session was held, a jury selected, and cases 
tried. Hitherto Oglethorpe had exercised un- 
divided authority over his people, but their 
increasing numbers made it necessary to dele- 
gate to others some of this work. 

It was about this time that a colony of 
Israelites arrived from London, coming at 
their own expense. Some persons in England 
were offended at this, refusing any further aid 
to the colony if the Hebrews were allowed to 
remain. Oglethorpe was appealed to, and, 
in reply, praised the good conduct of the 
Hebrews, especially commending the skill of 
one Dr. Numis, who since his arrival had 
rendered valuable aid to the sick among the 
colonists, making no discrimination between 
Jew and Gentile. Very wisely, therefore, 
Oglethorpe refused to remove them; he had 
no fancy for persecution, and time proved these 
Israelites to be among the most moral and in- 
dustrious of Savannah 's citizens. 

On January 23, 1734, Oglethorpe with six- 
teen attendants started on another exploring 
tour, this time among the islands on the south- 
ern coast. At St. Simons they stopped to 

James Oglethorpe 

make an observation of the latitude, and after- 
ward discovered an island which Oglethorpe 
named Jekyll, in honor of his old friend Sir 
Joseph Jekyll, master of the rolls and knighted 
by George I. On the return of this exploring 
party they ascended the Ogeechee River, and 
stopped at Fort Argyle, found it well finished 
and mounted with several guns. 

This excursion convinced the Governor that 
for the sufficient defense of his colony there 
must be a military station near the mouth of 
the Altamaha, and a strong fort for an outpost 
upon the island of St. Simons, and it was upon 
a high bluff at the western side of this island 
that Frederica was afterward built. Mean- 
while the population of the colony had in- 
creased by the arrival of new immigrants. 





The Tyrolese valleys of Austria had for 
many a year sheltered a quiet, God-fearing 
people, busy with toy-making, wooden clocks, 
and salt-works. Salzburg was the arch- 
bishop's city. Far up among the beautiful 
mountains it lay, happy and prosperous, until 
a new bishop arose burning to trample out all 
sign of Protestantism. Those Bible-reading 
peasants must choose between the reading and 
a prison. To prison they went, Bible in hand. 
And yet the ^' Right Reverend Father" was 
not satisfied, since the troublesome Salzburgers 
asked that they be allowed to get together their 
small possessions and leave the country, and 
the Emperor had granted their request. 

^^Then they must go at once," said the 

archbishop. And go they did, in dead of 

night, no clothes, no food. Old men, delicate 

women, helpless babes, the ^ ' Right Reverend ' ' 

4 37 

James Oglethorpe 

pushed out into the unknown world, 7,000 the 
first year, 10,000 the two following. Southey 
wrote of that sad time : 

But though Catholics shut their gates against 
them, Protestants lodged them in their houses. 
The Count of Stolberg dined nine hundred in 
his palace as they journeyed by; at Leipsic the 
clergy met them at the gates, and with them en- 
tered the town, singing Luther's hymns. The Uni- 
versity of Wiirtemberg went out to welcome them, 
saying afterward: ''We thought it an honor to 
receive the poor guests." Thirty-three thousand 
pounds were raised in London for the relief of these 
Salzburgers, many of whom settled in Georgia — 
colonists of the best description. 

It was in behalf of this persecuted people 
that Oglethorpe had before addressed Parlia- 
ment, and he now proposed to the trustees that 
some of them be offered a home in Georgia. 
They readily agreed, the invitation was given, 
by some gladly accepted ; and so the Hermanns 
and Dorotheas were widely scattered. A ves- 
sel was sent to convey them to America, where, 
under the care of Commissary von Eeck and 
their pastors Bolzins and Gronan, they arrived 
March 7, 1734. 

Oglethorpe, who was in Charleston at the 
time, gave them hearty welcome, and intro- 


duced them to the Governor of South Caro- 
lina, who received them cordially. Nor did 
Georgians Governor forget the bodily comfort 
of his new colonists, but supplied them with 
fresh provisions and vegetables brought from 
the gardens of Savannah. A messenger was 
despatched to that city to announce their com- 
ing and direct the magistrates to prepare for 
their reception. 

Two days later the vessel conveying the 
strangers sailed up the river. They were 
filled with delight and wonder at the grand 
forests, the verdure of the banks, the singing 
birds, and the balmy odor of the pines. The 
inhabitants of Savannah flocked to the shore 
and received them with shouts of welcome, to 
which they heartily responded, and soon 
landed to enjoy the welcome and the feast pre- 
pared for all. 

Temporary lodgings were provided until 
the return of Oglethorpe, who had gone to 
Charleston intending to embark for England, 
^^but for the love of us Salzburgers, ' ^ says 
Von Reck, ^4ie put off this voyage, being re- 
solved to see us settled before he went.'' 

He gave them permission to select a home 
in any part of the province. With their lead- 
ers he went six miles up the river, and from 
thence fifteen miles through the forest, where 

James Oglethorpe 

they came to a green valley, well watered by 
clear brooks, and near the margin of a fine 
stream eighty feet wide. They were well 
pleased with the locality and marked the place 
for a settlement, after which they knelt by the 
riverside, devoutly thanking God for having 
brought them safely through great dangers 
into a land of rest, and in memory thereof 
naming their new home Ebenezer. Oglethorpe 
had his own carpenters come to assist in build- 
ing the houses, while he himself directed them 
how to lay out the town. 

The pastor Bolzins spoke of the Governor 
as a man having great reverence for God and 
his Holy Word, adding further : 

So blest have been his undertakings and his 
presence in this land, that more has been accom- 
plished by him in one year than others would have 
effected in many. For us he hath cared with a most 
provident solicitude. We unite in prayers for him, 
that God may guide him home, make his voyage 
safe and prosperous, and enrich him with many 

Later on the good pastor wrote : 

Some time ago I wrote to an honored friend in 
Europe that the land in this country, if well man- 
aged and labored, brings forth by the blessing of 
God not only one hundred fold, but one thousand 


fold, and I this day was confirmed therein. A 
woman having two years ago picked out of Indian 
corn no more than three grains of rye, and planting 
them at Ebenezer, one of the grains produced an 
hundred and seventy stalks and ears, and the three 
grains yielded to her a bag of corn as large as a 
coat pocket — the grains whereof were good and 
full grown, and she desired me to send part of them 
to a kind benefactor in Europe. 

Again, in his quaint way, Bolzins wrote : 

As to the present year, we have not been in 
want of necessary provisions. We have a very 
hopeful prospect of a good harvest, everything in 
the fields and gardens growing so delightful as our 
eyes have hardly seen in this country before. 

If Isaac, by the blessing of God, received from 
what he had sowed an hundredfold, I believe I dare 
say to the praise of the great mercy of God over 
us, our Salzburgers will get a thousandfold, not- 
withstanding that the corn when it came out of the 
ground was quite eaten up two or three times by 
the worms. 

The land is really fruitful, if the sins of the in- 
habitants and the curse of God for such sins doth 
not eat it up, which was formerly the unhappy case 
of the blessed land of Canaan. 

After such glowing accounts, one is sur- 
prised to learn that the Salzburgers afterward 

James Oglethorpe 

became dissatisfied with their location and 
bent on removing, though they had much 
ground cleared, a fine range for their cattle, 
and confessed that they had milk in abundance, 
fine poultry, with excellent vegetables. Ogle- 
thorpe listened patiently to their complaints, 
and soon discovered that they coveted a spot 
which the Indians reserved for their own use. 
That he would not grant, and counseled them 
to remain where they were, yet gave his per- 
mission for them to remove to Red Bluff, on 
the Savannah Eiver. 

This they did, and a quaint old town they 
made there, said to be much like the Herrn- 
hut of Zinzendorf , thus described by Carlyle : 
"An opulent enough, most silent, strictly regu- 
lar little town. The women are in uniform 
— ^wives, maids, widows, each their form of 
dress. Male population, I should think, must 
be mainly doing trade elsewhere; nothing 
but prayers, preaching, charitable boarding 
schooling, and the like appeared to be going 
on. Herrnhut is a Sabbath petrified; Cal- 
vinistic Sabbath done in stone." But we do 
not find Herrnhut quite like the town these 
Salzburger brethren established in Georgia, 
of which the same famous Scotchman says: 
^^ There at Ebenezer, I calculate they might 
go ahead after the questionable fashion of that 


country, and increase and swell; — but liave 
never heard of them since. ' ' 

Possibly there are some other things in 
America of which Carlyle had never heard. 
Nevertheless, these Salzburgers were heard 
from in much that was good and praiseworthy. 
To this day, their county of Effingham owns 
the influence of those peace-loving Salzburg- 
ers, who for many years had no courts of 
justice, but referred all disputed matters to 
their pastors and elders, and, if now courts are 
held there, we are informed that the busi- 
ness, both civil and criminal, is finished in 
one day! 

No vestige of the old town of Ebenezer re- 
mains except the church, built of bricks made 
by the Salzburgers, using lime which they pro- 
cured from shells found on the Atlantic coast. 
A stately row of cedars leads from the church 
to the cemetery, where one finds a monument 
inscribed to the memory of Bolzins and Gro- 
nan, faithful pastors of the church which they 
had devoutly named * ^ Jerusalem. ' ' 

This church [says Strobel, in his History of the 
Salzburgers] is surmounted by a neat belfry, on 
top of which is a swan, said to be Luther's coat of 
arms, and frequently placed on the spires of Lu- 
theran churches in Europe. There is a curious tradi- 
tion that when John Huss was burned he remarked ; 

James Oglethorpe 

*'You this day burn a goose" (Huss signifies 
goose), "but one hundred years hence a swan will 
arise whom you will not be able to burn. ' ' 

There still exists at Bethel a chalice of solid 
gold, presented to these Salzburgers by the 
will of a young man who lay dying in Austria. 
Engraved upon it is this inscription: ^^Such 
wishes to the dear Salzburgers in Ebenezer, at 
every time they partake of the holy com- 
munion ; by George Matthias Kiderlin, a young 
man in Nordlingen, who thought of them 
shortly before his end. . . . Whoever sits 
down to the table of the Lord with us and our 
faith, he will be refreshed with the blood of 
the Lamb of God, and trust in his salvation." 

Sad times befell the old church in the days 
of the Revolution. A recent writer says: 
^^Even now you may see dark rough places 
on the walls where the plaster refuses to stick, 
owing to the grease that the bricks absorbed 
from royal bacon piled up in it during those 
years. But the crowning indignity came 
when the soldiers quartered their horses in the 
sacred place and used it as a stable until the 
close of the war. ' ' 

The Salzburgers have gradually amal- 
gamated with the other inhabitants of Geor- 
gia, and have furnished many good and noble 

[the NEW YORK I 

PUbi ^^-■ ■ 




citizens to the State. They can be found in 
nearly every town and county, and are almost 
invariably among the most highly respected 
and prosperous. Georgia owes much of her 
history and her greatness to the colony estab- 
lished at Ebenezer. 




Oglethorpe's departure to England had 
been postponed by the arrival of tlie Salzburg- 
ers. After locating them, he returned to 
Savannah, placed the colony in charge of Mr. 
Thomas Causton, storekeeper and bailiff, and, 
after fifteen months spent in labors for the 
colony, bade them adieu and started to Eng- 
land. Said one who was present and followed 
him to the boat : * ^ They could not restrain their 
tears when they saw him go, who was their 
benefactor and their father, who had carefully 
watched over them as a shepherd does over 
his sheep, and who had so tender care of them 
both day and night. ' ' 

He was accompanied by Tomo Chichi, with 
his wife, his nephew, and his war-captain Hilli- 
spilli, besides six chiefs of other tribes, with 
attendants and an interpreter. Oglethorpe's 
object in inducing these Indians to go with him 
was that they might see so much of Great 

Return to England 

Britain and her institutions as would convince 
them of her power and dignity. 

On March 7th they embarked on the Aid- 
borough, and June 16th arrived at the Isle of 
Wight, from whence he wrote to Sir John 
Phillips, Bart., announcing their arrival and 
telling him of the welfare of the Salzburgers, 
of whom he spoke as ''a very sensible, active, 
laborious, and pious people,'' adding as he 
closed his letter : 

I shall leave the Indians at my estate till I go 
to the city, where I shall have the happiness to 
wait upon you and to relate all things to you more 
fully, over which you will rejoice and wonder. 

A grand entertainment was given in honor 
of the Governor of the Georgia colony, a spe- 
cial meeting was called by the trustees, and 
a unanimous vote of thanks enthusiastically 
given for the zeal and ability with which he 
had managed the settlement. Magazines and 
papers were full of his praises, a prize poem 
was called for, even as at this day, and one 
entitled The Christian Hero won the gold 
medal, which bore on one side the head of Lady 
Hastings, and on the other Oglethorpe's, with 
the words ^^ England may challenge the 
world. ' ' Unfortunately, as we learn from the 
Gentleman's Magazine of London, 1785, only 

James Oglethorpe 

a few specimens of this medal were struck off, 
and the die was destroyed. 

The Indians were comfortably entertained 
at the Georgia Office. Attired in their native 
costmnes with faces painted after the Indian 
fashion, they were taken to the royal palace, 
and presented to the King. 

Oglethorpe earnestly desired that the In- 
dians be instructed in secular and religious 
knowledge, and seemed already to have in- 
spired them with like feelings. To increase 
their desire for instruction, he had induced 
them to visit England, and now, for their 
benefit, urged his friend Bishop Wilson to 
prepare a simple manual of religious instruc- 
tion, which he could have translated into their 
language. From a letter previously written, 
we learn his estimate of Indian character after 
the fifteen months of intercourse with them. 
He wrote : 

There seems to be a door opened to our colony 
toward the conversion of the Indians. I have had 
many conversations with their chief men, the whole 
tenor of which shows that there is nothing wanting 
to their conversion but one to explain to them the 
mysteries of religion; for as to the moral part of 
Christianity, they understand it and do assent to 
it. They abhor adultery and do not approve a 
plurality of wives. Theft is a thing not known 

Return to England 

among the Creek nation, though frequent and even 
honorable among the lichees. Murder they look 
upon as an abominable crime, but do not esteem the 
killing of an enemy, or one who has injured them, 
as murder. 

The passion of revenge, which they call honor, 
and drunkenness, which they learn from our 
traders, seem to be the two great obstacles to their 
becomiing Christians. But upon both these points 
they hear reason. 

As for revenge, they say they have no executive 
power among them, and are forced to kill the man 
who has injured them in order to prevent others 
doing the like ; but they do not consider any injury, 
except adultery or murder, deserves revenge. In 
cases of murder, the next in blood must kill the 
murderer, or else is looked upon as infamous. 

Their kings can only persuade. All the power 
they have is no more than to call together their old 
men and captains, and propound to them the meas- 
ures they think proper. These reason together with 
great temper and modesty, then call in the young 
men. They seem to me both in action and expression 
to be thorough masters of eloquence. In speaking to 
young men, they generally address the passions; 
in speaking to their old men, they appeal to reason 
only. One of the Cherokee nation being come be- 
fore the Governor, was told he need fear nothing 
but might speak freely. He answered : "I always 
speak freely, what should I fear ? I am among my 
friends, and I never feared even my enemies ! ' ' 

James Oglethorpe 

The Gentleman's Magazine of a later day 
related an incident given by Oglethorpe of an 
Indian chief, a man after his own heart. 
When asked by some retreating troops to 
march with them, he replied : ' ' No ! I will not 
stir a foot till I see every man belonging to 
me marched off before me; I have always 
been the first in advancing toward an enemy, 
and the last in retreating. ' ' 

Oglethorpe now urged the trustees to send 
out missionaries. In complying with his de- 
sires, they sought eligible men who would go 
to Georgia to officiate as ministers in Savan- 
nah and to instruct the Indians. Among the 
friends who had most heartily welcomed Ogle- 
thorpe on his return to England was the 
Eev. Samuel Wesley, who addressed him, if 
extravagantly, yet sincerely, as ^^ Universal 
Benefactor of Mankind," and in a letter of 
welcome said : 

It is not only your valuable favors to my son 
Samuel, late of Westminster, and to myself when 
I was a little pressed in the world, nor to your ex- 
treme charity to the poor prisoners, that so much 
demand my earnest acknowledgments, as your dis- 
interested, unmovable attachment to your country 
and your raising a new colony — or rather a little 
world of your own — in the midst of a wild wood 
where men may live free and happy (if they are not 

Return to England 

hindered by their own stupidity and folly) in spite 
of the unkindness of their brother mortals. 

John Wesley, a son of this Rev. Sam- 
uel, being known to one of the trustees as a 
man of ^^ abstemious habits and readiness to 
endure hardships,'' was by him proposed for 
this office of missionary. Oglethorpe, al- 
though acquainted with the father, was not 
sufficiently intimate with either of the sons to 
judge of their fitness for the position. They 
had gained notoriety at the university by liv- 
ing according to certain strict rules of their 
own, which gave them the name of ^'Method- 
ists. ' ' John 's views were, at that time, unset- 
tled and peculiar. Said his father, writing to 
his eldest son: ^'I sat myself down to try if I 
could unravel John's sophisms, and hardly 
one of his assertions appeared to me to be uni- 
versally true. ' ' 

The board, however, made him the offer. 
He at first hesitated. His father had recently 
died, but being encouraged by his mother and 
advised by his friends to accept, he at length 
consented. It was afterward decided that his 
brother Charles should accompany him. Said 
their pious mother, writing from her home at 
Epworth : ' ' Had I twenty sons, I would rejoice 
to see them all thus employed, though I should 
never see them more. ' ' 

James Oglethorpe 

In the same consecrated spirit she had be- 
fore written to her son John: '^Resolve to 
make religion the business of your life. I 
heartily wish that you would now enter upon 
a strict examination of yourself, that you may 
know whether you have a reasonable hope of 
salvation by Jesus Christ. If you have the 
satisfaction of knowing, it will abundantly re- 
ward your pains; if you have not, you will 
find a more reasonable occasion for tears than 
can be met with in any tragedy. . . . Would 
you judge of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of 
pleasures, take this rule: whatever weakens 
your reason, impairs the tenderness of your 
conscience, obscures your sense of God, or 
takes off the relish of spiritual things — in 
short, whatever increases the strength or 
authority of the body over the mind, that thing 
is sin to you, however innocent it may be in 




Parliament was at this time in session, 
and Oglethorpe was not idle. He spoke on 
various questions, but laws for the benefit of 
Georgia were nearest to his heart. The first 
was a bill to prohibit the importation and sale 
of rum, brandy, and other distilled liquors. In 
spite of previous efforts, the Carolina traders 
supplied the Indians and colonists with smug- 
gled spirits, which produced not only dis- 
orderly conduct but disease. The bill did not 
prohibit the use of wine or English beer. A 
century later Oglethorpe might have learned 
the danger lurking even in these in that 
climate, and his broad, unselfish nature would 
have responded by denying himself lest he 
^ ^ cause his brother to offend. ' ' 

Another statute which engaged his atten- 
tion was ^ ^ an act for rendering the province of 
Georgia more defensible by prohibiting the 
importation of black slaves or negroes into the 
5 53 

James Oglethorpe 

same.'' The bill was strenuously opposed. 
Said the Earl of Dartmouth: ^^We can not 
allow the colonies to check or discourage in any 
degree a traffic so beneficial to the nation." 

A tract entitled The African Slave Trade, 
the Pillar and Support of the British Planta- 
tion Trade in America, argued thus : ' ' Negro 
labor will keep our colonies in due subservi- 
ency to the interests of their mother country. ' ' 
The royal instruction from Queen Anne to the 
Governor had been : ' ' Give due encouragement 
to merchants, and in particular to the Eoyal 
African Company, of England. ' ' 

It was against this spirit, and against the 
fact that the other colonies north and south 
were receiving and owning slaves, that Ogle- 
thorpe had to contend. *^My friends and I," 
he wrote afterward, ^^ settled the colony of 
Georgia, and by charter were established trus- 
tees. We determined not to suffer slavery 
there, but the slave merchants and their ad- 
herents not only occasioned us much trouble, 
but at last got the Government to sanction 
them." At this period, however, the bill to 
prohibit the importation of slaves was passed, 
and not until Oglethorpe had severed his con- 
nection with the colony were they brought in. 

In the discussion before Parliament the 
Georgia Governor seemed to stand alone on 

Parliament and the Slave Trade 

this important question, most of them agreeing 
with Burke, who remarked : " These regula- 
tions, though well intended and meant to bring 
about excellent purposes, were made without 
duly considering the nature of the coun- 
try or the disposition of the people which they 
regarded. ' ' 

The Governor of Massachusetts, then a 
slave-owning colony, was wiser than some of 
his constituents. Said he: ^^I insist upon it 
that the prohibitory regulations of the trustees 
are essential to the healthy and prosperous 
condition of the colony. ' ' 

Two reasons had been given by the trustees 
for forbidding the purchase of slaves: the 
vicinity of the Spaniards, who constantly in- 
stigated them to insurrections, and the injus- 
tice to the white laborer, with whom they 
would come in conflict. Oglethorpe expressed 
a higher motive. ^ ^Slavery,'' said he, ^4s 
against the Gospel, as well as the fundamental 
law of England. We refused as trustees to 
make a law permitting such a horrid crime." 
A few years later, when some of the colonists 
requested that slaves be allowed to come in, 
he sternly refused, declaring that if negroes 
were introduced into Georgia, *^he would have 
no further concern with the colony. ' * 

.While Oglethorpe remained in England a 

James Oglethorpe 

few discouraging reports were sent from Geor- 
gia, but on the whole much that was cheering, 
especially that the people had gathered a fine 
crop of Indian com, upward of one thousand 
bushels, and that Savannah was in a prosper- 
ous condition. The trustees received from the 
Indians a curious missive expressive of thanks 
for the attention bestowed on Tomo Chichi and 
his companions. This was the dressed skin of 
a young buffalo, covered with figures printed 
in black and red. Wlien delivered in Savan- 
nah, it was translated in the presence of fifty 
chiefs, after which the hieroglyphic skin was 
sent to England, there framed and hung in the 
Georgia Office, Westminster. 

At this time the silk industry promised 
well, and from time to time specimens of the 
raw silk were sent to the trustees. In May, 
1735, some of these were exhibited to Queen 
Caroline, who was so well pleased that she 
ordered them woven and a dress made, in 
which she appeared in court on her birthday. 
It is a matter of surprise and regret that this 
industry should have been abandoned in the 
State, when, one hundred and sixty years ago, 
a Queen of England appeared in Georgia 

In this Georgia beehive, as in all busy 
places, the usual number of drones were found. 
Neither gratitude to their benefactors nor their 

Parliament and the Slave Trade 

own future good were sufficient incentives to 
industry and economy. They really impeded 
the progress of the more industrious and 
worthy colonists. The trustees determined 
for the future to be still more careful to secure 
only the best class of settlers. More stringent 
laws were made. From an official report we 
learn that all applicants were informed that 
they must undergo great hardships at the first 
and exercise much industry afterward; that, 
although they should have lands forever, and 
free provisions for twelve months, these lands 
must be cleared and cultivated before they 
could reap a harvest, and in the meantime they 
must live chiefly on salt meat, and drink but 
little water; that they must keep constant 
guard against their enemies; that the climate 
was hot in summer and dangerous to those who 
indulged in spirituous liquors — in short, that 
the most rigid temperance was necessary to 
preserve health and substance. With sobriety, 
industry, and trust in God they couliestablish 
homes for themselves and their children; 
otherwise, they were warned not to emigrate 
to Georgia. 

Some were disheartened and gave up, but 
their places were filled by a better class. 
Especially in Scotland had the proposal of 
the trustees been well received, and 130 
Highlanders, with fifty women and chil- 

James Oglethorpe 

dren, embarked for Georgia, arriving in 
January, 1736. Lingering a few days in 
Savannah, they then traveled southward. On 
the left bank of the Altamaha, about sixteen 
miles above St. Simons, they selected a town 
site, calling it after their Scotch home, New 
Inverness — a name afterward changed to 

The town council of Inverness, Scotland, 
gratefully expressed their appreciation of the 
kindness of Oglethorpe to the Highlanders by 
conferring upon him the honor of a burgess of 
the town. A greater honor and satisfaction 
he realized afterward in the services of these 
gallant and efficient men, among whom were 
the McKays, the Mclntoshes, the McLeods, 
and their brave countrymen. 

Oglethorpe was still in England, making 
preparations for an even larger embarkation. 
Two vessels were chartered by the trustees and 
a sloop of war placed at his disposal. Besides 
220 English emigrants, there were sixty more 
Salzburgers, and some independent adventur- 
ers, among whom were Sir Thomas Bathurst 
and his family. 

Besides these Salzburgers, there were, it is 
recorded, ''other poor Protestants of Ger- 
many." These, we may suppose, were the 
Moravians, of whom the Gentleman's Maga- 

/ YORK! 


jfox a;*i> 


Tiur^is poui*o«Tia»*&^ 

Parliament and the Slave Trade 

zine said: ^^In consequence of the oppression 
which they suffered in Bohemia, the United 
Brethren, or Moravians, resolved to emigrate 
to the new colony of Georgia, whither the Salz- 
burgers have already gone.'' They appealed 
to Count Zinzendorf, who applied to the trus- 
tees and secured for them a free passage and 
grant of land. ^^They established them- 
selves,'' says Hildreth, ^*on the Ogeechee 
River, south of Savannah." Of their prog- 
ress we may quote the following from Grantz's 
History of the United Brethren: ^^The Breth- 
ren began their settlement in the town near 
Savannah, and God so blessed their industry 
that they were not only soon in the capacity 
of maintaining themselves, but were also serv- 
iceable to their neighbors. They erected a 
schoolhouse for the children of the Indians, on 
the river Savannah, four English miles above 
the town. There, King Tschatschi came to 
see, as he expressed it, *how they might hear 
the great Word. ' ' ' 

This school they rightly named Irene, 
for their motto was '^ peace," and with the 
savages, as with all the world, they were al- 
ways in peace. Ever industrious, they were 
especially successful in raising silkworms, pro- 
ducing soon 10,000 pounds a year of raw silk, 
and also making indigo a staple. 

James Oglethorpe 

Oglethorpe was sorely tried because of 
their peculiar belief, which forbade their bear- 
ing arms even in the sorest need of the colony, 
yet he never regretted offering them a home 
among his people, who could but profit by their 
upright example. In later years some of 
them removed to Pennsylvania, settling the 
towns of Bethlehem and Nazareth, which do 
honor to their memory. They had prospered 
in Georgia, and on leaving honorably refunded 
the money paid for their passage across the sea. 

Now we return to those who sailed with 
these Moravians on October 20th. On account 
of bad weather the vessels were forced to 
anchor for some time in the Downs, and again 
at St. Helens. The delay, with so many per- 
sons in idleness, was expensive to the trustees, 
and the emigrants were losing the most useful 
season for cultivating their lands. Finally, 
on December 10th, they put to sea. Ogle- 
thorpe chose to go in one of the ships crowded 
with passengers, that he might be able to care 
for them on the voyage. 

He was well assisted by Mr. Francis Moore, 
whom the trustees had appointed keeper of the 
stores. The Wesleys also were with him, and 
frequently in his cabin. Mr. Wesley said that 
on one of these occasions the officers and cer- 
tain gentlemen who had been invited in with 

Parliament and the Slave Trade 

them took some liberties with the clergymen, 
not liking their gravity. Oglethorpe was 
roused at their conduct and exclaimed: '^What 
do you mean, sirs ! Do you take these gentle- 
men for tithe-pig parsons ? They are gentle- 
men of learning and respectability; they are 
my friends, and whoever affronts them insults 
me!" The missionaries were treated there- 
after with the greatest respect. The voyagers 
had prayers twice a day, the missionaries 
catechized the children, and on Sundays ad- 
ministered the sacrament, while the dissenters 
sang psalms and worshiped in their own way. 
Oglethorpe had laid in a large supply of 
live stock and various dainties, which he 
shared not only with his friends, but his table 
was always full, the captain, the missionaries, 
and others being ever welcome. On February 
4th the joyful cry of land was heard, and two 
days after they anchored near Tybee Island, 
at the mouth of the Savannah River. Landing 
on a small island opposite Tybee, Oglethorpe 
led them to a rising ground, where they all knelt 
to give thanks for their safe arrival. After 
showing them how to dig a well and making 
some other arrangements for their comfort, 
Oglethorpe left them with their ships and took 
boat for Savannah, where he was received with 
a salute of twenty-one guns from the fort. 

James Oglethorpe 

He was surprised and gratified at the im- 
provements made in the town. Three years 
before it was a dense forest; now there were 
two hundred dwellings, some of them two and 
three stories high. The town was governed 
by three bailiffs. Laws were made and cases 
tried as in England, with this difference : " no 
lawyers were allowed to plead for hire, nor 
attorneys to make money; but every man 
pleaded his own cause. ' ' The public gardens 
were the pride of the town, and the Governor 
was especially pleased with their flourishing 
condition. The coldest quarter was planted 
with apples, pears, plums, while in the south- 
ern exposure were growing olives, figs, pome- 
granates, and vines. In one sunny spot was 
a collection of tropical plants, coffee, cotton, 
and palma-Christi, which had been sent from 
the West Indies. A large part of the ground 
had been planted with white-mulberry trees, 
forming a nursery from which the settlers were 
to be supplied in their culture of silkworms. 




In the silk industry Oglethorpe was dis- 
appointed. The Italians brought from Pied- 
mont went on well for a time, then, quarreling 
among themselves, one of them destroyed the 
machines for winding, spoiled many of the 
eggs, stole more, and ran away to Carolina. 
No more silk could be wound that year. Ogle- 
thorpe ordered the Italian women to teach 
English girls their part of the work and the 
men to instruct the gardeners in the care of 
the mulberry-trees, hoping to start anew the 
next year. 

The view of the river was encouraging. 
Besides the smaller boats, there lay at the 
wharf two vessels, one a ship crowded with 
emigrants ; on a large island opposite numbers 
of cattle grazed ; westward, as the river wound 
through the forest, it flowed past the young 
towns of Westbrook, Purrysburgh, and other 
villages ; to the south might be seen Highgate 

James Oglethorpe 

and Hampstead, and eastward the river broad- 
ened to the sea, where lay the English shipping. 

With great satisfaction the good Governor 
beheld these improvements, but amid it all 
did not forget the people lately arrived at 
Tybee. Already he had ordered refreshments 
sent down to them, and on the 8th himself re- 
turned in a boat laden with fresh beef, pork, 
venison, wild turkeys, fresh bread, beer, and 

During his absence some Carolina sutlers 
had visited the ships and smuggled rum on 
board, but the officers discovered it and 
promptly ordered the kegs to be staved. In 
revenge, the traders spread reports among the 
immigrants that all who went south would be 
massacred by the Spaniards and Indians. The 
Germans, becoming alarmed, begged to be sent 
to Ebenezer. Captain Hermsdorf, however, 
expressed his desire to serve with the English 
to the last. 

The Scotch Highlanders were undaunted. 
'*If the Spaniards use us ill,'' said they, ''we 
will drive them out of their fort, and so have 
houses ready built to our hands.'' The Gov- 
ernor assured them that the reports were false, 
that the Spaniards were at peace with them, 
and the Indians in alliance. ' ' Still, ' ' said he, 
''caution is the mother of safety, and, there- 

Troubles Among the Settlers 

fore, it is fitting to keep the men to arms and 
discipline, and for that reason I shall be glad 
of your assistance. ' ' 

After three hours ^ stay he left them, for 
there were other settlers whose interests must 
not be neglected. To assist the Highlanders 
at Darien he sent fifty rangers and one hun- 
dred workmen with Captain McPherson. He 
appointed surveyors to inspect the country be- 
tween the Savannah and the Altamaha, with 
a view to opening a road to Darien ; procured 
for them Indian guides, packhorses to carry 
provisions, and detailed an officer with a party 
of rangers to escort them. 

On the 12th he again visited the ships at 
Tybee, and there also came Tomo Chichi with 
his wife, ^ ^ Scenaukay, ' ' and his nephew, 
bringing presents of venison, honey, and milk. 
Being introduced to the missionaries, the old 
chief said : ' ^ I am glad you are come. When 
I was in England I desired that some one 
would speak the great Word to me. I will go 
up and speak to the wise men of our nation, 
and I hope they will hear. But we would not 
be made Christians as these Spaniards make 
Christians, we would be taught before we are 
baptized." Scenaukay then presented the 
missionaries with two large jars, one of honey 
and one of milk, and invited them to Yama- 

James Oglethorpe 

craw to teach their children, saying the milk 
represented food for their children, the honey 
their good wishes. Tomo Chichi informed 
Oglethorpe that he had kept for two months 
"runners" awaiting his coming, and on his 
arrival had sent them to notify the Creeks, 
and that he had despatched a party of In- 
dians to help the Highlanders at Darien. 

He then presented a complaint from the 
Uchees that, contrary to agreement, cattle had 
been brought into their territory, and that 
planters from Carolina had brought negroes 
and settled therein. Oglethorpe promptly 
sent orders for them to withdraw within three 
days both negroes and cattle, or be arrested 
for trial in Savannah. At the same time he 
issued a proclamation calling attention to the 
act for maintaining peace with the Indians. 

He had been much troubled by the delay 
in transporting the new settlers to their future 
home. The mates of the English vessels were 
timid, afraid to risk the navigation of Jekyll 
Sound. To prove that they exaggerated the 
dangers, he bought at a high price the sloop 
Midnight with her cargo, on condition that it 
should be delivered at a station on the Alta- 
maha. He sent on board thirty of the old 
colonists, trained soldiers, with arms and am- 
munition, and ordered them to proceed to St. 

Troubles Among the Settlers 

Simons. He himself, with a few Indians, set 
out for the same place in a scout boat, and, 
being in haste, the crew rowed night and day. 
Though they had stormy weather, the men 
worked willingly, vying with each other to 
please their Governor. Said one of the pas- 
sengers: ^'He lightened their fatigue by giv- 
ing them refreshments, which he spared from 
himself rather than let them want.'^ 

The Indians, seeing how hard the crew 
labored, desired to take the oars, and rowed 
well, only differing from the others by making 
a short and long stroke alternately, which they 
called the " Yamasee stroke." In and out 
through the passages between the islands 
skirting the coast, the straits varying in width 
from two hundred yards to more than a mile, 
they rowed steadily, reaching St. Simons after 
two days ' travel. There they found the Mid- 
night, and Oglethorpe handsomely rewarded 
the captain for being the first to enter the 

Immediately after landing he set all hands 
to work, making a booth to hold the stores. 
Digging the ground three feet deep, they threw 
up earth to form a bank, on which poles were 
raised to support a roof. The whole was well 
covered with palmetto-leaves. Similar booths 
were made for the temporary abode of the 

James Oglethorpe 

families, and, after a hard day's work, all en- 
joyed a plentiful feast of game and venison 
brought in by the Indians. On the three days 
following Oglethorpe instructed the men in 
building a fort, digging ditches and turfing 
the ramparts, and then left them for Darien. 

The Highlanders there received him ^4n 
martial style, with broadswords, targets, and 
firearms." ^^The commanding officer. Cap- 
tain Mackay, invited him to sleep in his tent 
and enjoy the soft bed with Holland sheets 
and plaid curtains, a rare comfort in that part 
of the world ; but he chose to lie at the guard 
fire, wrapped in his own plaid, for, in com- 
pliment to the Scots, he wore a Highland 
costume. ' ' 

Possibly Oglethorpe recalled these volun- 
tary hardships when, forty years later, as Bos- 
well relates, he discussed with Dr. Johnson the 
subject of luxury. ^^ Depend upon it, sir," 
said Dr. Johnson, ^* every state of society is 
as luxurious as it can be ; men always take the 
best they can get. " '^ But, ' ' said Oglethorpe, 
^Hhe best depends much upon ourselves, and if 
we can be well satisfied with plain things, we 
are in the wrong to accustom ourselves or our 
palates to what is high-seasoned and expen- 
sive. What says Addison in his Cato, speak- 
ing of the Numidian 1 


Troubles Among the Settlers 

Coarse are his meals, the fortune of the chase ; 
Ainid the running stream he slakes his thirst, 
Toils all the day, and at the approach of night 
On the first friendly bank he throws him down, 
Or rests his head upon a rock till morn ; 
And if the following day he chance to find 
A new repast, or an untasted spring, 
Blesses his stars and thinks it luxury. 

Let us have that kind of luxury, sir, if you 

The Highlanders at Darien had already 
built a fort and planted four cannon; also a 
guardhouse, a store, and a chapel. 

Several Indians who lived near brought 
them venison and other game. They were 
more than friendly, and Spalding, in his mem- 
oir of Mcintosh, tells us: ^^The costume of 
the Highland clansman, his cap and plume, 
his kilt and plaid, soon became very dear to 
the red man of the woods. They mingled in 
their sports and hunted buffalo together — 
for the woods of Georgia were then as full of 
buffaloes as the plains of Missouri are now, 
and the writer of this tale was told when a 
boy by General Lachlin Mcintosh that when 
a youth he had seen ten thousand buffalo 
within ten miles.'' After a short visit at 
Darien, Oglethorpe returned to Frederica, on 
St. Simons Island, and from there to his immi- 
grants at Tybee. 

6 69 



The island of St. Simons was about fif- 
teen miles long and from two to five broad. A 
few acres had been cleared by the Indians, the 
rest was covered with beautiful forests. Wild 
vines gave promise of future vineyards ; game 
abounded, there being no lack of rabbits, squir- 
rels, partridges, besides the more-desired wild 
turkey and roebuck. 

These were the pleasant things, but it 
should be added that there were rattlesnakes 
in the woods, and in the sound frightful alli- 
gators. ^^ These so frightened the settlers,'' 
says Mr. Francis Moore, *^that Oglethorpe 
once had one brought up into the town of 
Savannah and encouraged the boys to beat it 
with sticks that they might not be afraid of the 
monster. ' ' 

The season was far advanced, yet Ogle- 
thorpe hired laborers who knew the nature of 
the country to instruct the colonists in plant- 

Indian Troubles 

ing, with a view to the next season's work. 
The soil was sandy, with a mixture of rich 
mold. Good water could be found within ten 
feet of the surface of the ground. 

The Creek Indians had now confirmed their 
grants of territory, and Tomo Chichi came 
down with them to point out the boundary- 
lines. Oglethorpe was not ready to go, there- 
fore the Indians proposed to hunt buffalo on 
the mainland while waiting. But the Gov- 
ernor feared to trust them, knowing their 
hatred to the Spaniards, and he suspected that 
they meant to annoy them. He therefore de- 
cided to postpone other matters and go at once, 
especially as he was growing anxious for the 
safety of Mr. Dempsey, who had been sent as 
commissioner to confer with the Spanish Gov- 
ernor of Florida, and had not been heard from. 

In two scout boats, with forty Indian war- 
riors and chosen hunters, Oglethorpe set out, 
leaving Frederica in charge of Captain Herms- 
dorf . They rowed across Jekyll Sound, sleep- 
ing the first night in a grove of pines on the 
mainland, and the next day reached an island 
called by the Indians Wisso or Sassafras. 
Tomo Chichi now changed its name to Cum- 
berland, in honor of the young prince who had 
been so gracious to them in England. The 
prince had given to Tooanahowi a gold re- 

James Oglethorpe 

peater. Holding the watch in his hand, the 
Indian said: ''The duke gave us this watch 
that we might know how time passes. We will 
remember him at all times, and therefore give 
this island his name/' Oglethorpe here 
marked out a fort, to be called St. Andrews, 
and left Captain Mackay with a few High- 
landers to superintend the building. 

Rowing on through shoals and narrow 
passes among the marshes, they came to an 
island which, for its exceeding beauty, the 
Spaniards had named Santa Maria. Orange- 
trees were covered with blossoms, and wild 
vines clung in profusion to the odorous 
branches. In honor of the princess of Eng- 
land, Oglethorpe changed its name to Amelia. 
The next island was the San Juan of the Span- 
iards, which name they changed to Georgia, 
after their King. On this was the old fort 
supposed to have been built by Sir Francis 
Drake, and Captain Hermsdorf was sent to 
repair and occupy it. 

Climbing some rocky heights, Tomo Chichi 
pointed out to the governor the St. Johns 
River, the boundary-line of the Spanish pos- 
sessions. A house on the farther side, Tomo 
Chichi said, was the Spanish guard-house. 
"All on this side the river we hunt," said the 
chief; ''it is our ground. All on the other 

Indian Troubles 

side they hunt, but they have lately hurt some 
of our people, and we shall drive them away. 
We will stay until night behind these rocks, 
where they can not see us, then we will fall 
upon them." 

It was with much difficulty that Oglethorpe 
persuaded them not to attack the Spaniards, 
but to return to the palmetto grounds near 
Amelia Island, where he promised to meet 
them. Leaving with them Mr. Horton and 
one of the scout boats, he went in the other to 
the Spanish guard-house to inquire what had 
become of Mr. Dempsey, who had been sent to 
St. Augustine to treat with the Spaniards. He 
could see no one in either the upper or lower 
lookout, and at night returned to the palmetto 
grounds, where he found all except Tomo 
Chichi, who had gone on. 

In the night the sentinel challenged a boat. 
An Indian answered, jumped out, and was fol- 
lowed by three others. They were in a terri- 
ble rage, and said, in reply to Oglethorpe's 
questions: ^^Tomo Chichi has seen enemies, 
and has sent us to tell you and to help you." 
^^Why did not Tomo Chichi come backT' 
^ ' Tomo Chichi is an old warrior, and will not 
come away from his enemies till he has seen 
them so near as to count them. He saw their 
fires, and before daylight will be revenged for 

James Oglethorpe 

the men whom they killed while he was away ; 
but we shall have no honor, for we shall not 
be there/' And their eyes glared with rage 
over this indignity. When asked if there were 
many, they said : ^ ' Yes, a great many, for they 
had a large fire on high ground, and Indians 
never make large fires except when so strong 
as to defy all resistance. ' ' 

Oglethorpe ordered all his men into the 
boats, and rowed rapidly to where Tomo Chi- 
chi lay, about four miles away. The old man 
said he had seen eight white men around a fire, 
but he believed the Indians had concealed 
themselves in the woods, and he was bent on 
attacking them at once. With great difficulty 
Oglethorpe obtained a short delay, but soon 
the Indians, thinking it looked like cowardice, 
determined to go in spite of his commands. 
*^Then," said Oglethorpe, ^^you go to kill 
your enemies in the night because you are 
afraid of them by the day. Now I do not fear 
them at any time. Therefore wait until day, 
and I will go with you and see who they are. ' ' 

This speech had the desired effect. Tomo 
Chichi sighed, but sat down, saying: ''We do 
not fear them by day, but if we do not kill 
them to-night they will kill you to-morrow." 
At daylight they started toward the enemy. A 
white flag was soon discovered flying on the 

Indian Troubles 

shore, and, to Oglethorpe's great delight, the 
supposed enemy proved to be Major Richards, 
with Mr. Dempsey and his crew, returned from 

Major Richards reported that they had 
been cast away, had lost their baggage, but 
men and boat were saved ; that they had walked 
many miles along the sands before reaching 
St. Augustine, but were finally taken to the 
Governor, who received them with courtesy. 
They were compelled to remain a long time to 
have their boat repaired, but had at last 
brought with them letters to Oglethorpe from 
Don Francisco del Morale Sanchey, Captain- 
General of Florida and Governor of St. 
Augustine, who desired an answer in three 

The same day all returned to Cumberland 
Island, where Oglethorpe was well pleased 
with the rapid progress made by Captain 
Mackay in the constructions of the fort, espe- 
cially as the loose, sandy soil made it difficult 
to raise the work. ' ' They used, ' ' said Moore, 
^'the same method to support it as Caesar men- 
tions in the wars of the Gauls — laying trees 
alternately with earth, the trees preventing the 
sand from falling and the sand saving the 
wood from fire. The Scots who had been aid- 
ing in the work were now offered the chance 

James Oglethorpe 

to return to their settlement, but chose to re- 
main and go on with the task so long as there 
was any danger. 

Oglethorpe, with the Indians, now returned 
to Frederica, where he called the people to- 
gether to give them the contents of the Spanish 
Governor's despatches. These were full of 
wily compliments, but there were also com- 
plaints that the Creeks had attacked the Span- 
iards, and the Governor desired that ''Don 
Diego Oglethorpe'' restrain his Indian allies. 

Oglethorpe knew further, by private ad- 
vices, that, notwithstanding his friendly 
speeches, the Governor of St. Augustine had 
sent to purchase arms at Charleston, intending 
to send his Florida Indians with men from the 
Spanish garrison to drive the English out of 
Georgia, and that the complaint against the 
Creeks was a mere pretext to begin the war. 

Oglethorpe determined that there should 
be no excuse for beginning hostilities, and 
therefore sent a marine boat and a large peri- 
agua of twenty oars fitted out with swivel- 
guns to patrol the St. Johns and prevent any 
Creeks from passing to attack the Spaniards. 
Scout boats were ordered to cruise among the 
islands to prevent any hostile vessels from 
entering Jekyll Sound. Tomo Chichi was re- 
quested to send messages to the Creeks, de- 

Indian Troubles 

siring them not to molest the Spaniards until 
a conference could be held, but to keep upon 
the mainland and watch lest any Spanish horse 
pass to Darien. Before the Indians left they 
had a war-dance. Oglethorpe and his people 
attended, and presents were given to the red 
men, with thanks for their faithful service. 





To add to his trials, Oglethorpe found 
upon his return to Frederica that settlement 
in a state of turmoil. Charles Wesley, who 
had come out as a missionary, was also acting 
as his secretary, and during his absence had, 
in his zeal to reform various improprieties 
of the people of Frederica, overstepped the 
bounds of a minister's privilege. His un- 
timely rebukes, though probably deserved, 
were quickly resented, for, as Southey re- 
marks, ^ ^ Charles Wesley attempted the doubly 
difficult task of reforming some of the lady 
colonists, and reconciling their petty jealousies 
and hatreds of each other; in which he suc- 
ceeded no further than to make them cordially 
agree in hating him, and caballing to get rid 
of him in any way. ' ' 

Oglethorpe had forbidden any shooting on 
the Sabbath, but the first day of his absence a 
gun was fired during the sermon. The con- 

Wesley and Other Complications 

stable ran out and found it was the doctor, who 
resisted arrest. Whereupon Captain Herms- 
dorf came with two soldiers and took the im- 
portant individual to the guard-house. The 
doctor's wife, who had her own little grudge 
against Wesley, accused him of causing the 
arrest, and threatened revenge. Wesley de- 
manded an audience with Lawley, his accuser. 
He was sent for, and, upon Oglethorpe's close 
questioning, dropped all his charges except 
that Wesley had forced the people to prayers. 

Other troubles, however, came out of the 
arrest, again kindling the wrath of the Gov- 
ernor. The people were in such a state of con- 
fusion that he said it was easier to govern a 
thousand than sixty, for in the smaller num- 
ber every one's passion was considerable, and 
he durst not leave before all was settled. He 
still thought that Charles Wesley had, by his 
indiscretion, excited the disorder, and no ex- 
planation effaced the unfavorable impression 
from his mind. 

He well knew the piety of the parents of 
the missionary, the ability, learning, and self- 
denial of the young Wesleys, and it was a bit- 
ter disappointment that his hopes for their 
efficient aid in the colony were not realized. 
His cares were increasing. Amid the build- 
ing of houses, constructing batteries, getting 

James Oglethorpe 

supplies, the threatened invasion of the Span- 
iards made it more necessary that a united 
people should work together for the good of 
the colony. A happy reconciliation came 
soon, after both parties had time for calm re- 
flection free from outside influences. 

In the meantime the Governor was actively 
engaged in strengthening the defenses and 
providing various things necessary for the 
comfort of his people. The works around the 
fort were palisaded with cedar posts, plat- 
forms for cannon were laid upon the bastions, 
a marshy ground below the fort was formed 
into a ^ ^ spur ' ' on which guns were placed level 
with the water and commanding the entrance 
to the sound. 

Having noticed that his guard were grow- 
ing careless, he one day rowed quietly up- 
stream, landed with his crew, and approached 
close enough to surprise the sentry, who fled, 
shouting that the enemy had landed. His men 
fired a volley and raised the Spanish war-cry, 
which spread consternation and made every 
soul fly into the fort, where they remained 
until, with much chagrin, they learned the 
truth — that their Governor was testing their 

On April 13th Major Richards and Mr.Hor- 
ton were sent with his reply to the Governor 





Wesley and Other Complications 

of St. Augustine, in which he was informed 
that armed boats had been sent to patrol the 
St. Johns, and thus hinder any lawless persons 
from creating disturbance between the Span- 
iards and the English. 

Oglethorpe had great cause for anxiety, 
knowing how helpless he was should the 
Spanish boldly attack him. Not one regular 
soldier had he in his command to oppose an 
enemy who had at St. Augustine a garrison of 
three hundred foot and fifty horse, besides 
militia and reenf orcements daily expected from 
Havana. This he knew by private advices, 
and was also informed that a large force had 
recently marched out of St. Augustine. At 
the same time came a letter from the Spanish 
Governor complaining that the Indians had at- 
tacked his fort at Picolata and were secretly 
upheld by the English. Messengers were at 
once despatched to hasten the coming of a 
company promised by the Assembly of Caro- 
lina, and to the sloop-of-war Hawk, lately ar- 
rived at Savannah. At length a small part of 
the company arrived and were hurried on by 
Oglethorpe to the eastern end of the island, 
where he had determined to erect a fort which 
would command the entrance to Jekyll Sound. 

On the 16th news came from St. Andrews 
that strange ships were seen out at sea, and 

James Oglethorpe 

several guns heard. Oglethorpe at once 
called in some parties of Indians, and, order- 
ing them to keep near the town, set every white 
man to work on the defenses. He bnilt a forge 
within the fort, a magazine beneath one of the 
bastions, and laid in a stock of provisions. He 
then started in an armed boat for St. Andrews, 
determined to learn for himself the exact state 
of affairs. 

From Wesley's journal we learn that he 
went with sore misgivings and a heavy heart. 

''You will see me no more," said he. ''Take 

this ring and carry it for me to Mr. V . If 

there is a friend to be depended on, he is one. His 
interest is next to Sir Robert's. Whatever you ask 
within his power, he will do for you, your brother, 
and your family. I have expected death for some 
days. These letters show that the Spaniards have 
been seducing. our allies, and intend to cut us off at 
one blow. I fall by my friends — Gascoigne whom 
I have made, the Carolina people upon whom I de- 
pended to send their promised succors. But death 

is to me nothing ; T will pursue all my designs, 

and to him I recommend them and you. ' ' 

He then gave Wesley his diamond ring. 
A reconciliation had been made between the 
two, and their parting was full of kindly 


Wesley and Other Complications 

I attended him to the scout boat, says Wesley, 
where he waited some minutes for his sword. They 
brought him first, and a second time, a mourning 
sword. At last they gave him his own, which had 
been his father's. ''With this sword I was never 
yet unsuccessful, ' ' he said. ' ' I hope, sir, ' ' said I, 
"you carry with you a better, even the sword 
of the Lord and of Gideon." "I hope so too," he 
added. When the boat put off, I ran before into the 
woods to see the last of him. His last word to his 
people was : ' * God bless you all ! " 




On their way to St. Andrews Oglethorpe 
and his crew encountered a storm which forced 
them to seek shelter among the oyster-banks 
of Jekyll Island. On reaching the island he 
ordered a ravelin to be added to the fort, a 
palisade to be made around the base of the hill, 
and sent a scout boat with assistance to Cap- 
tain Hermsdorf at Fort St. George. 

Sails having been seen out at sea, he took 
boat again for St. Simons, arriving safely at 
Frederica. There he found several boats, 
manned by a number of volunteers, had come 
from Savannah, having heard that the Span- 
iards had taken Frederica, and that Oglethorpe 
was killed. 

On Cumberland and Jekyll Islands look- 
outs had been set to give notice of the approach 
of shipping. One was reported, but proved 
to be the sloop-of-war Hawk from Savannah, 
which soon anchored below the town. Later 

Affair With the Spaniards 

the scout boat Carolina returned from Fort 
George. A report was received that Major 
Richards, who had been sent to the Spanish 
Governor, had been imprisoned in St. Augus- 
tine. Also that Captain Hermsdorf^s men 
had mutinied and compelled him to abandon 
Fort George. 

On May 2d, leaving the fort in command 
of Captain Mcintosh, he started in the scout 
boat Georgia, accompanied by Lieutenant 
Moore in a yawl. He was relieved to find no 
mutiny at Fort St. George, but a panic had 
been caused by the lies of one man, whom Ogle- 
thorpe promptly sentenced to ^^run the gant- 
lope." The other men were put to work 
strengthening the old fort, after which he 
started for the Spanish side of the St. Johns 
Eiver, his boats carrying a white flag. A few 
of them landed, and, ascending a hill to the 
open plain, there fixed the flag on a pole, 
hoping to draw some of the Spaniards to a 

That night fires were seen on the Florida 
shore, and Oglethorpe suspected the Span- 
iards were preparing to attack them. In 
order to gain time to get reenforcements, he 
had recourse to an ingenious ruse. He had 
two carriage-guns and two swivel-guns car- 
ried to the woods at different points. The 
7 85 

James Oglethorpe 

swivel-guns were to fire seven shots, the car- 
riage-guns ^ve, in answer. The smaller guns 
from the faintness of their report had the 
sound of a distant ship saluting, the larger 
that of a battery returning the salute, and 
completely deceived the enemy. Not until 
some time after did Oglethorpe know from 
what danger he had thus escaped. He then 
learned that the Governor of St. Augustine 
had arrested his messengers, and had sent 
picked men with strong boats' crew to attack 
the fort on St. Simons Island. They had also 
with them some Yamasee Indians and four 
guns, hoping, if the settlement was as weak as 
reported in advices from South Carolina, to 
dislodge the English. 

They were, however, fired upon by the bat- 
tery at Sea-point, and catching sight of the 
Hawk in the sound, ran out to sea in greater 
haste than they had run in. Again they at- 
tempted entrance at another inlet, and were 
in like manner run off by the garrison at St. 
Andrews, and in such haste that the same night 
they reached their outposts sixty miles distant. 

Holding a conference, their commanders 
concluded that all the strength of the English 
was concentrated at St. Simons, hence St. 
George must be weak, and an attack was de- 
termined on for the next night. Fortunately, 

Affair With the Spaniards 

it was not made, for, from the number of guns 
they heard, they concluded that reenforce- 
ments had arrived. The stratagem had com- 
pletely deceived them. 

That night Oglethorpe had a number of 
fires made in the woods, and again deceived 
the Spaniards, who supposed the Creek Indians 
had come to the aid of the English, and Don 
Pedro with his command retired behind the 
walls of St. Augustine. This created con- 
sternation in the fort, for the people appre- 
hended that if the Indians should cut off their 
communication by land, as the sloop of war 
might do by sea, they would perish by famine. 
It was under such pressure that the Spanish 
Governor decided to send back, in the most 
honorable manner, the two commissioners, and 
with them an officer of rank to treat with Ogle- 
thorpe and request him to restrain the Indians 
from invading Florida. 

Oglethorpe, being ignorant of all this, 
started to the Spanish side of the St. Johns 
Eiver, hoping to meet the expected messen- 
ger. No messenger appeared, but, instead, a 
guarda^costa with seventy men on board. 
Oglethorpe had with him only twenty- four 
men, yet the Spanish fled promptly at sight 
of them. Afterward two horsemen appeared, 
and one, apparently an officer, approached 

James Oglethorpe 

near enough to forbid the English landing 
on the King of Spain's ground. Oglethorpe 
courteously replied that he would forbear 
landing since they objected, but that the 
Spaniards were welcome to land on the King 
of England's ground on the opposite side of 
the river, and should also be welcome to a 
glass of wine there with himself. 

Oglethorpe having received positive infor- 
mation that the Spaniards were supplying 
themselves with arms and ammunition in 
Charleston, wrote a letter to the Lieutenant- 
Governor of South Carolina, requesting him 
to stop their exportation, and another letter to 
Mr. Eveleigh, a public-spirited merchant, say- 
ing that if the mayor and council could not 
prevent the sale of arms and ammunition to 
the Spaniards, then they should buy it all, and 
thus defeat their plans. He wrote likewise to 
the Grovernor of New York. 

Strangely enough, the love of gain made 
many indifferent to the dangers of a sister 
colony. Spanish gold was filling their treas- 
ury ; the sight was pleasant ; they never looked 
beyond, where the Spanish soldier, armed with 
the guns they had furnished, was marching to 
attack their homes. 

Oglethorpe now returned to Fort St. 
George. He took with him for the relief of 

AfFair With the Spaniards 

the fort Tomo Chiclii and his Indians in their 
canoes, a large periagua, two ten-oared boats 
with fifty men, cannon, and two months' pro- 
visions. On the way he met a boat in which 
was Mr. Horton, who informed him that two 
Spanish officers were returning with the com- 
missioners, on a friendly mission to St. 
Simons. Oglethorpe determined that they 
should not enter Frederica and thus gain in- 
formation of its strength and situation. He 
therefore sent orders for Captain Gascoigne to 
entertain them on board the Hawk. He also 
sent a messenger desiring them to anchor, 
until a safe guard could be sent them, since the 
country was full of Indians. Indeed, it was 
fortunate for them that Oglethorpe was an 
hour ahead of his party, for had the Creeks 
been foremost, they would certainly have at- 
tacked the Spaniards. He could scarcely pre- 
vent it, even with an armed boat to escort them 
to Jekyll Sound. 

He went on to Fort George, where he not 
only gave directions, but worked with the men. 
He then returned to St. Simons, where he pre- 
pared to receive the Spaniards, sent to Darien 
for some of the most martial-looking High- 
landers, ordered marquees and handsome 
tents to be pitched on Jekyll Island, then an- 
nounced to the Spaniards that he would wait 

James Oglethorpe 

upon them next day. To impress the officers 
that he had cavalry, he went down attended 
by seven horsemen — all he had. Entering a 
boat, he approached the Hawk, ^ ' whose sailors 
manned the shrouds, while her marines, with 
bayonets fixed, lined one side of the deck, and 
the Highlanders, with drawn broadswords, 
the other. ' ' 




Of the formal interview on the day fol- 
lowing, Oglethorpe gave an accurate account 
in a letter to the trustees, as follows : 

After dinner we drank the King of Britain's 
and the King of Spain's health, under a discharge 
of cannon from the ships, which was answered with 
fifteen pieces of cannon from Delugal 's fort at Sea- 
point. That again was followed by the cannon 
from St. Andrews, and that by those of Frederica 
and Darien, as I had ordered. The Spaniards 
seemed surprised that there should be so many 
forts, and all within hearing of each other. Don 
Pedro smiled, and said: ''No wonder Don Igna- 
tion made more haste home than out." After the 
healths were done, a great number of Indians came 
on board, naked, painted, and their heads dressed 
with feathers. They demanded of me justice 
against the Spaniards for killing some of their men 
in time of peace. . . . Don Pedro, having asked 
several questions, acknowledged himself satisfied 
of the facts, excusing it by saying he was then in 

James Oglethorpe 

Mexico, and that the Governor, being newly come 
from Spain and not knowing the customs of the 
country, had sent out Indians under the command 
of Pehoia, King of the Floridas, who had exceeded 
his orders, which were not to molest the Creeks. 

But the Indians not being content with that 
answer, he promised that on his return to St. Au- 
gustine he would have the Pehoia king put to death 
if he could be taken ; and if he could not, that the 
Spaniards would supply his people with neither 
powder nor arms nor anything else, but leave them 
to the Creeks. 

The Indians answered that he spake well, and 
if the Spaniards did what he said, all would be 
white between them; but if not, they would have 
revenge, from which, at my desire, they would ab- 
stain until a final answer came. 

The Indian matters being thus settled, we had 
a conference with the Spanish commissioners. They 
thanked me first for restraining the Indians, who 
were in my power, and hoped I would extend that 
care to the upper Indians. They then, after having 
produced their credentials, presented a paper de- 
siring to know by what title I settled upon St. 
Simons, being lands belonging to the King of Spain. 
I took the paper, promising an answer next day. 

The substance was that the lands belonged to 
the King of England by undoubted right; that I 
had proceeded with the utmost caution, having 
taken with me Indians, the natives and possessors 
of the lands ; that I had examined every place to see 

With the Spanish Commissioners 

if there were any Spanish possessions, and went 
forward until I found an outguard of theirs, over 
against which I settled the English without com- 
mitting any hostilities, or dislodging any. There- 
fore I did not extend the King's dominions, but 
only settled with regular garrisons that part of 
them which was before a shelter for the Indians, 
pirates, and such sort of disorderly men. 

Oglethorpe, after the departure of the 
Spaniards, found it necessary to go to Savan- 
nah, where all was in commotion. People 
were bringing complaints against the magis- 
trates, who in turn had their grievances to 
relate. Oglethorpe went to the court and 
announced his intentions. " If any one here 
has been abused or oppressed by any man,'' 
he said, " he has free and full liberty of com- 
plaining. Let him deliver in his complaints 
in writing at my house. I will read all over 
myself, and do every particular man justice." 
Charles Wesley, who was present, reported 
the complaints so incredible, childish, trifling, 
that he thought them a full vindication of the 
magistrates, and was filled with admiration of 
Oglethorpe's patience in hearing and wise 

No time was ever wasted by this busy Gov- 
ernor, and that night at half past twelve he 
started for Frederica, but returned to Savan- 

James Oglethorpe 

nah in ten days to give audience to a party of 
Creek Indians. At this date we find the resig- 
nation of Charles Wesley as secretary. He 
and Oglethorpe parted as good friends, and he 
made this record of advice and instruction 
given him by Oglethorpe just before he sailed 
for England: 

I would you not to let the trustees know your res- 
olution of resigning. There are many hungry fel- 
lows ready to catch at the office, and in my absence I 
can not put in one of my own choosing. The best I 
can hope for is an honest Presbyterian, as many of 
the trustees are such. Perhaps they may send me 
a bad man, and how such an one may influence 
the traders and obstruct the reception of the Gospel 
among the heathen you know. I shall be in Eng- 
land before you leave it ; then you may either put 
in a deputy or resign. 

On many accounts I should recommend to you 
marriage, rather than celibacy. You are of a social 
temper, and would find in the married state the 
difficulties of working out your own salvation ex- 
ceedingly lessened, and your helps much increased. 

During the following October Oglethorpe 
concluded a treaty with the Governor of St. 
Augustine, much more conciliatory than he 
had anticipated ; but his satisfaction at this re- 
sult was very soon dispelled by the coming of 
a Spanish envoy from Cuba, who in the name 

With the Spanish Commissioners 

of his master, the King of Spain, peremptorily 
demanded that Oglethorpe and his colony- 
evacuate all the territory south of St. Helenas 
Sound. He would listen to no arguments, but 
repeated his demands with threats, and uncere- 
moniously departed. 

Vigorous measures were now necessary; 
aid must come from the mother country, or her 
colony be abandoned. Oglethorpe determined 
to go at once and represent their condition to 
the British ministry. The trustees had pre- 
viously urged his return. 

Making the best provision in his power for 
the defense and local government of his prov- 
ince during his absence, Oglethorpe then set 
sail for England November 29, 1736. On 
January 7th Charles Wesley noted in his jour- 
nal: ^^The news was brought of Mr. Ogle- 
thorpe's arrival. The next day I waited on 
him, and received a relation of his wonderful 
deliverance in Bristol Channel. He talked 
admirably of resignation, and of the impossi- 
bility of dying when it is not best. ' ' 

His reception by the trustees was most cor- 
dial, with unanimous vote of thanks for his 
services. He then made his report — a verbal 
one — of the progress of their colony, showing 
the rapid growth of Savannah, of the pros- 
perity of other towns, and the founding of new 

James Oglethorpe 

ones ; of the establishing an important post at 
Augusta for Indian traffic opened in the in- 
terior. He also stated that the Indian tribes 
to a distance of seven hundred miles acknowl- 
edged the King's authority. Yet there was a 
dark side to this pleasant picture. On the 
frontiers the colonists were in constant appre- 
hension of invasion from the Spaniards them- 
selves, or their Indian allies, whom they incited 
to do their utmost against the English. The 
insolent demands of the Spanish commissioner 
amounted to a declaration of war, and Ogle- 
thorpe urged the necessity of applying to his 
Majesty for military force sufficient to defend 
Georgia and South Carolina. 

The court of Spain about this time de- 
manded of the English Government the recall 
of Oglethorpe, evidently considering him a 
dangerous opponent to their unscrupulous de- 
signs. The London Daily Post, in an editorial 
on the Georgia colony, wrote : 

For this reason, it seems, this public-spirited 
and valuable man is now become the butt of the 
resentment of Spain, because he has acted like a 
brave, vigilant, and faithful Englishman, at the 
expense of his repose and his purse, and to the ut- 
most peril of his life. The Spanish court, we are 
told, has the modesty to demand from England that 
he be no longer employed. But I hope the ministers 

With the Spanish Commissioners 

of Philip V do not think we have a James the First 
on the throne, or a Gondomar at our court. We 
have the most undeniable proof that the Spaniards 
dread the abilities of Mr. Oglethorpe ; it is a glorious 
testimony to his merit and a certificate of his patri- 
otism that ought to endear him to every Briton. 

If ever a settlement has been universally ap- 
plauded by the people of Great Britain, that of 
Georgia has been so. I happened to be in France 
when it began, and the uneasiness of the French 
gave me my first idea of its value. They said the 
Spaniards neither could nor would suffer it to go 
on, and from what I both heard and saw, I am 
persuaded that this late demand concerning 
Georgia did not take its rise in Madrid. Whatever 
the Spaniards may pretend, it is France that has 
the greatest interest in the destruction of that col- 
ony. The Indians who are our friends are not only 
so, but enemies of the French and their Indian 

Should we then abandon them, such an impol- 
itic as well as ungenerous and shameful step might 
in time be attended with fatal consequences not 
only to the rest of the colonies on the continent of 
America, but to all future undertakings of like 
nature. . . . Surely the Queen of Spain does not 
think we are to be hectored or frightened into 
measures for making more infant kings! But let 
her views be what they will, I dare venture to say 
that our ministers will as soon consent to part with 
their eyes, as to part with Georgia. 




The next vessel bronglit important news 
from America. The Governor of St. Augus- 
tine had ordered every English merchant to 
leave, and was preparing barracks for large 
numbers of troops expected from Havana. 
The trustees at once brought before the King 
a petition asking that a corps be raised for the 
defense of Georgia. The request was readily 
granted. His Majesty appointed Oglethorpe 
general of all his forces in Carolina, as well as 
Georgia, and commissioned him to raise a 
regiment. It was thought necessary, however, 
to send aid to Georgia earlier than the regiment 
could be completed. The Government ar- 
ranged to send at once a small body of troops 
from Gibraltar. 

These arrived in Savannah in the spring of 

the next year. George Whitefield, whom the 

trustees had engaged to succeed Wesley, sailed 

with them. About the same time two or three 


In Carolina and Georgia 

companies of General Oglethorpe's regiment, 
under command of Lieutenant-Colonel James 
Cochran, reached Charleston, and from thence 
marched southward. 

The regiment consisted of six companies of 
one hundred men each. No commissions were 
sold, but Oglethorpe got such officers appointed 
as were men of family and character in their 
respective counties. Twenty young men of 
no fortune he engaged to serve as cadets, whom 
he subsequently promoted as vacancies oc- 
curred, presenting each with a sum sufficient 
to provide for an officer's needs. Besides 
these, he carried with him at his own cost forty 
supernumeraries. To induce the soldiers to 
settle in Georgia, every one was permitted to 
take out a wife, for whose support extra pay 
and rations were allowed. 

At length, all things being ready, Ogle- 
thorpe, with six hundred men , women, and 
children, besides arms, ammunition, and pro- 
visions, sailed from Portsmouth in five trans- 
ports, convoyed by the men-of-war Blandford 
and Hector. They reached St. Simons Island 
in a little more than two months, and were re- 
ceived with a salute from the guns of Soldiers 
Fort and cheers from the garrison. General 
Oglethorpe encamped with them until suitable 
arrangements had been made for the comfort 


James Oglethorpe 

of the troops, then hastened on to Frederica. 
There magistrates and people joyfully wel- 
comed him. Several Indians also came to 
greet him, and informed him that the chiefs of 
every trihe of the Upper and Lower Creeks in- 
tended coming so soon as they had notice of his 

Oglethorpe, perceiving at once that a way 
of communication between the town and the 
sea forts was a necessity, lost no time in begin- 
ning the work. Every male inhabitant was 
summoned, and, with him, began to cut a road 
through the woods. So well did the people 
follow the example of their general that in 
three days the road was complete — a distance 
of six miles. It was so well planned that the 
subsequent safety of the colony was in a large 
measure secured by this foresight. From the 
town the road led out in an easterly direction, 
then, turning south, passed for more than a 
mile over a fine prairie, thence through a dense 
forest until it reached a marsh. Along the 
hard dry margin of the marsh it ran for two 
miles, bordered on one side by the creeks and 
swamps, on the other by a close, impenetrable 
wood matted with vines and palmettos. So 
narrow was the road that only two men could 
here walk abreast. From the marsh it passed 
up to high land, and then in a direct line to the 

In Carolina and Georgia 

fort. This secured a communicatioii between 
fort and town. While the forest served for a 
protection, the narrow causeway made it pos- 
sible for a few to repel many. 

The colonists, especially those of Darien 
and Frederica, were greatly encouraged by the 
presence of the general and his troops. For 
months they had been in constant dread of an 
attack by the Spaniards, who, notwithstanding 
their treaty, were greatly increasing the gar- 
rison at St. Augustine. They had actually at- 
tacked some of the Creek settlements nearest to 
them, and would have advanced farther had 
they not been repulsed with much loss. The 
attack, they pretended, was made by the 
Florida Indians without their knowledge. The 
constant alarms had so interfered with the cul- 
tivation of the fields that, unless something 
were done before another harvest, the poorer 
settlers would suffer. Now, however, all could 
return to their labor, leaving the defense of 
their home to abler hands. 

There was no time for delay. The first 
care of the general was to strengthen the fron- 
tier posts and distribute his forces for their 
various duties. Some remained at their forts, 
some were on the alert for ranging the woods, 
others made ready for sudden expeditions. 
Vessels were provided for scouring the sea- 
8 101 

James Oglethorpe 

coast and giving notice of the approach of 
strange shipping. From one place to another 
the active general passed, not only superintend- 
ing, but assisting, demanding no comfort of 
which his men were deprived ; indeed, he slept 
in tents or by watch-fires, while they lay in huts 
with every reasonable comfort. Harris, wri- 
ting at the time A Compleat Collection of Voy- 
ages and Travels, says : ^ ^ In all these services, 
Oglethorpe gave at the same time his orders 
and his example ; there was nothing he did not, 
that he directed others to do. ' ' 

Yet even at this early day he had discovered 
treachery within his camp. He had suspected 
trouble even on board the Blandf ord, and had 
written the trustees : 

We have discovered that one of our soldiers 
has been in the Spanish service, and that he hath 
strove to induce several men to desert with him on 
their arrival in Georgia. He designed also to mur- 
der the officers, or such persons as could have money, 
and carry off the plunder. Two of the gang have 
confessed and accused him, but we can not discover 
the others. The men were found guilty, and were 
sentenced to be whipped and drummed out of the 
regiment. The sequel proved the punishment un- 
wisely lenient, for the ringleader, Shannon, wan- 
dered into the Indian districts and endeavored to 
turn them against the English. Twice he was cap- 

In Carolina and Georgia 

tured and twice escaped, but finally, with an asso- 
ciate, having murdered two men at Fort Argyle, was 
taken, tried, and executed, after confessing his 

Up to this time General Oglethorpe had not 
visited Savannah. He now set out in an open 
boat, and in two days was received in the town 
with the firing of cannon, while throngs of peo- 
ple crowded around to bid him welcome. Most 
of these came because of sincere respect and 
gratitude to a devoted leader; but there were 
others who had reason to dread an investiga- 
tion of their conduct, and would, by loud- 
mouthed welcome, conciliate his favor. The 
Governor himself sought to reconcile the dis- 
contented and win their esteem. With timely, 
generous gifts he aided widows and orphans, 
the sick and all in need. Said one of the citi- 
zens : ^ ' The general, by his great diligence and 
at his own expense, has supported things, but 
we are apprehensive that can not last long, 
for the expenses are too great for any single 
man to bear. ' ' 

It gave Oglethorpe much concern that he 
had neither time nor funds to encourage im- 
provements. Yet there was some progress. 
The culture of silk was very limited, yet an 
Italian family had wound a considerable quan- 

James Oglethorpe 

tity as fine as any made in Piedmont, and 
mulberry-trees had increased enough to feed 
a large stock of worms. Some vines were 
grown; a potter had discovered clay suitable 
for making china and had baked some fine 
specimens of earthenware. A sawmill at 
Ebenezer turned out daily seven hundred feet 
of plank. There was cause for encouragement. 
Tomo Chichi had been very ill, but on his 
recovery came to Savannah to see and welcome 
'^the Great Man,'' as he called Oglethorpe. 
His joy was unbounded ; the sight of his friend 
made him, he declared, ^^molt like an eagle,'' 
and renewed his health. He asked for an in- 
terview for the chiefs of the Creek nations, 
who were waiting at Yamacraw to come and 
congratulate Oglethorpe on his return and 
renew their fidelity to Great Britain. Two 
days later these chiefs, with thirty of their 
warriors and fifty attendants, came down the 
river. They were received with military hon- 
ors and conducted to the town hall, where the 
general awaited them. They expressed their 
satisfaction at once more beholding him, for 
the Spaniards had persuaded them that he was 
at St. Augustine, and invited them there to 
meet him. They went, but finding he was not 
there, turned back, though offered valuable 
presents. The Spaniards then said Ogle- 

In Carolina and Georgia 

thorpe was on board a vessel in their harbor 
and very ill ; they also advised them to break 
with the English. This they resented, and had 
now come to assure him of their loyalty and 
readiness to serve under the general against 
his enemies. One thousand Creeks would 
march whenever he commanded. 

They reported trouble with Carolina 
traders, who used false weights and measures, 
and desired that true ones be lodged with the 
chiefs of each tribe. This request was at once 
attended to, and the general also promised, at 
their earnest invitation, to visit during the 
next summer their towns, which lay about four 
hundred miles west of Savannah. Handsome 
presents were made them, a war-dance held 
that evening, and in the early morning they 
set out for their homes. 

Oglethorpe himself soon departed, leaving, 
said one of their number, "many sorrowful 
countenances and a gloomy prospect of what 
might ensue. ' ' He made only a short stay at 
Frederica, then proceeded to Cumberland Is- 
land and took up his abode at Fort St. Andrews. 
The troops from Gibraltar, there stationed, 
had been promised provisions from the King's 
store for a limited time, and when in November 
the rations were discontinued, they became 


James Oglethorpe 

One day while the general and Captain 
Mackay were talking, a soldier came forward 
and unceremoniously demanded their former 
allowance. Says Stephens in his report: 
**The general replied that the terms of their 
enlistment had been fulfilled, and that, if they 
desired any special favor at his hands, so rude 
and disrespectful a manner of application was 
not the way to obtain it. The fellow became 
outrageously insolent. Captain Mackay drew 
his sword, which the desperado, snatched from 
his hand, broke in half, and throwing the hilt 
at the officer's head, ran off to the barracks. 
There, taking a loaded gun, he cried, ^One 
and all!' when, followed by five more con- 
spirators, he rushed out and fired at the gen- 
eral. Being only a few paces distant, the ball 
whizzed close by Oglethorpe's ear, while the 
powder scorched his face and singed his 
clothes. Another soldier presented his piece 
and attempted to discharge it, but fortunately 
it missed fire. A third then drew his hanger 
and endeavored to stab the general, who, hav- 
ing by this time unsheathed his sword, parried 
the thrust, and an officer coming up ran the 
ruffian through the body. The other frus- 
trated mutineers now tried to escape by flight, 
but the alarm having spread, they were soon 
caught and hurried off to jail to await trial.'' 

In Carolina and Georgia 

The culprits were sentenced to death, but only 
the ringleader was executed. However, the 
spirit of insubordination was quelled, and the 
southern colonists relieved from all immediate 

Early in the spring of that year General 
Oglethorpe went to Charleston, and, in the 
presence of the General Assembly of South 
Carolina, his commission as commander-in- 
chief of his Majesty ^s forces was opened and 
read. Various regulations in the military 
affairs of that colony were effected, and Ogle- 
thorpe returned to his own province. There 
he spent a busy week among the plantations 
on the Savannah. To encourage care and in- 
dustry in the cultivation of their land, he prom- 
ised for every bushel of Indian corn a bounty 
of two shillings over and above the market 
price of the next harvest. 

Fearing to give the Spaniards a pretext 
for hostilities, the trustees had instructed 
Oglethorpe neither to build new forts nor 
strengthen the old ones — a needless request, 
since he had no funds. But, foreseeing that 
a war between England and either France or 
Spain (perhaps both) was inevitable, he de- 
termined to secure the friendship of the In- 
dians, not so much for the forces they could 
bring to his aid, but because so long as the 

James Oglethorpe 

red men were his allies the French would be 
careful how they weakened their province to 
support the pretended claims of Spain to 
Georgia and South Carolina. 




In regard to the necessity of a visit to 
the Indians in the interior Oglethorpe wrote 
to the trustees : 

I have received frequent and confirmed advices 
that the Spaniards are striving to bribe the Indians, 
and particularly the Creek nation, to differ with 
us ; and the disorder of the traders is such as gives 
but too much room to render the Indians discon- 
tented, great numbers of vagrants being gone up 
without licenses either from Carolina or us. Mala- 
chee, the son of the great Brim, called "Emperor 
of the Creeks" by the Spaniards; and Chigilly, in- 
sist upon my coming up to put all things in order ; 
and have acquainted me that all the chiefs of the 
nation will come down to Coweta town to meet me, 
and hold there the general assembly of the Indian 
nations, where they will take such measures as will 
be necessary to hinder the Spaniards from corrupt- 
ing and raising sedition among their people. 

This journey, though a very fatiguing and dan- 
gerous one, is quite necessary to be taken; for if 

James Oglethorpe 

not, the Spaniards, who have sent up great presents 
to them, will bribe the corrupt part of the nation; 
and if the honester part is not supported, will prob- 
ably overcome them and force the whole nation into 
a war with England. Tomo Chichi and all the In- 
dians advise me to go up. The Coweta town, where 
the meeting is to be, is nearly five hundred miles 
from hence. All the towns of the Creeks and of the 
Cousees and Talapousees, though three hundred 
miles from the Cowetas, will come down to the meet- 
ing. The Choctaws also and the Chickesaws will 
send thither their deputies ; so that seven thousand 
men depend upon the event of this assembly. The 
Creeks can furnish fifteen hundred warriors, the 
Chickesaws five hundred, and the Choctaws five 
thousand. I am obliged to buy horses and presents 
to carry up to the meeting. 

Early in July Oglethorpe learned that the 
French had attacked the Lower Creeks and 
Choctaws, whose settlements joined theirs, 
and that the Indians were preparing a counter- 
attack. He determined, therefore, to start at 
once on his expedition among them, and, if 
possible, prevent further hostilities. He set 
out accompanied by Lieutenant Dunbar, En- 
sign Leman, Mr. Eyre, and his own servants. 
At the Uchee town, twenty-five miles above 
Ebenezer, they found saddle and baggage 
horses, which the general had previously en- 

Journeys to the Interior 

gaged from the Indian traders. From thence 
the perilous journey is thus described : 

Through tangled thickets, along rough ravines, 
over dreary swamps in which the horses reared and 
plunged, the travelers patiently followed their na- 
tive guides. More than once they had to construct 
rafts on which to cross the rivers, and many smaller 
streams were crossed by wading or swimming. . . . 
Wrapped in his cloak, with his portmanteau for a 
pillow, their hardy leader lay down to sleep upon 
the ground, or if the night were wet he sheltered 
himself in a covert of cypress boughs spread upon 
poles. For two hundred miles they neither saw a 
human habitation, nor met a soul; but as they 
neared their journey's end they found here and 
there provisions, which the primitive people they 
were about to visit had deposited for them in the 
woods. . . . When within fifty miles of his destina- 
tion, the general was met by a deputation of chiefs 
who escorted him to Coweta; and although the 
American aborigines are rarely demonstrative, 
nothing could exceed the joy manifested by them 
on Oglethorpe's arrival. ... By having under- 
taken so long and difficult a journey for the pur- 
pose of visiting them, by coming with only a few 
attendants in fearless reliance on their good faith, 
by the readiness with which he accommodated him- 
self to their habits, and by the natural dignity of 
his deportment, Oglethorpe had won the hearts of 
his red brothers, whom he was never known to de- 


James Oglethorpe 

On August llth the chiefs assembled, and 
the great council was opened with solemn rites. 
After many ' ^ talks, ' ' terms of intercourse and 
stipulations for trading were satisfactorily- 
arranged. Then Oglethorpe, as one of their 
beloved men, partook with them of the foskey, 
or black-medicine drink — a sacred beverage 
used only on special occasions, and of which 
only chiefs, war captains, and beloved men 
could partake. Afterward they smoked to- 
gether the calumet, the hallowed pipe of peace. 
A formal treaty was concluded, by which the 
Creeks renewed their fealty to the King of 
Great Britain, and in explicit terms confirmed 
their grants of territory. The general, in the 
name of the trustees, * * engaged that the Eng- 
lish should not encroach upon their reserves, 
and that the traders should deal fairly and 
honestly with them. ' ' 

This last point was the most difficult to 
settle. ^^If I had not gone up,'' wrote Ogle- 
thorpe afterward, '^the misunderstanding 
between them and our Carolina traders, 
fomented by our neighboring nations, would 
probably have occasioned a war, which I be- 
lieve might have been the result of this gen- 
eral meeting. But, as their complaints were 
just and reasonable, I gave them satisfaction 
in all of them, and everything is settled in 
peace. ' ' 


Journeys to the Interior 

Not only had the Choctaws agreed not to 
make war on the French, but the chiefs of all 
the tribes had assured Oglethorpe that their 
warriors would march to his assistance when- 
ever he should summon them. We may imag- 
ine that the general set out on his homeward 
journey with a lighter heart, and that his sat- 
isfaction was further increased by the con- 
gratulations of the trustees, who wrote : 

The Carolina people, as well as every one else, 
must own that no one ever engaged the Indians so 
strongly in affection as yourself. 

Spalding, a more recent writer, speaking 
of the dangerous journey, says : 

When we call to remembrance the force of 
those tribes, the influence the French had every- 
where else obtained over the Indians, the distance he 
had to travel through solitary pathways exposed to 
the treachery of every Indian, who knew the rich re- 
ward that would have awaited him from Spaniards 
or French — surely we may ask, What soldier ever 
gave higher proof of courage? What gentleman 
ever gave greater evidence of magnanimity ? What 
English governor ever gave such assurance of deep 
devotion to public duty? 

The hardships, mental strain, and anxie- 
ties of the expedition too severely taxed the 
strength of General Oglethorpe. He was 

James Oglethorpe 

prostrated by fever, and for several weeks was 
detained in Fort Augusta. While at this out- 
post on the Savannah he was visited by some 
chiefs of the Cherokees and Chickasaws, who 
complained that some of their people had 
been poisoned by rum bought from the 
traders, and they threatened revenge. Care- 
ful inquiry revealed the facts — unlicensed 
traders had brought in not only rum, but small- 
pox. The disease had killed some of the In- 
dians, and the others attributed their deaths 
to some ingredient in the liquor. With diffi- 
culty, Oglethorpe convinced them of the real 
cause of the sickness, but he assured them that 
they need not fear traders from Georgia ; only 
licensed ones came, and the strictest precau- 
tions were taken before permits were granted. 
On his return to Savannah the general met 
an express messenger from the Lieutenant- 
Governor of South Carolina, informing him 
of a serious revolt among the negroes of that 
province. They had burned several houses 
and murdered a number of the inhabitants. 
They had been instigated by a proclamation 
from the Spanish Governor of St. Augustine, 
when some slaves had taken refuge there in 
January. The General Assembly sent a com- 
mittee to St. Augustine demanding restoration 
of their property, and, at their request, Ogle- 

Journeys to the Interior 

thorpe wrote a friendly letter to the Captain- 
General of Florida to urge their cause in a 
friendly way. That officer, however, while 
expressing his friendship for Oglethorpe, ex- 
hibited orders to protect all runaway slaves. 
But after another outbreak in September, 
General Oglethorpe ordered a troop of rangers 
to patrol through Georgia and intercept any 
fugitives ; sent Indian runners in pursuit, and 
directed a detachment from Port Royal to aid 
the planters of Carolina. He directed the 
constables to seize all negroes found within 
Georgia, offering rewards for the captured. 
At that time it is stated there were forty thou- 
sand slaves in South Carolina, and only one- 
eighth that number of whites, and but for 
Oglethorpe's prompt action, the colony might 
have been exterminated. 

On October 2d orders were issued that at 
the beat of the drum on the day following all 
freeholders of Savannah should be under 
arms, and at noon the magistrates in their 
gowns should be in the courthouse. When 
General Oglethorpe arrived and took his seat 
the militia, who had been drawn up to receive 
him, grounded arms and came within. He 
then made a formal announcement that the 
English Government had declared war against 
Spain. Commending the people for their 

James Oglethorpe 

hearty cheerfulness, he assured them that he 
had taken every precaution to prevent an 
enemy coming upon their back from the west 
or south, and on the seacoast there were Eng- 
lish frigates cruising for their protection, while 
he hoped soon to receive additional land forces. 
On his return to his lodgings cannon were dis- 
charged, and the freeholders with their small 
arms fired ^ ^ three handsome volleys. ' ' 

Nothing escaped the notice of this in- 
defatigable Governor, and in the midst of 
preparations for war he called a general mus- 
ter in the interests of peace and good order. 
The command was that every male inhabitant, 
including boys, should meet at sunrise to clear 
the common, public squares, and other places 
of the shrubs and noxious weeds that spring 
up so abundantly. They cheerfully re- 
sponded, and by nightfall had cleared many 
acres. The general spent the day with them, 
and every one, without distinction, did what 
he could. At breakfast he supplied them with 
bread and beer, and at night they had similar 
refreshment. He was well pleased with the 
improved appearance of the space cleared, but 
there was still another day's work, which he 
appointed for November 5th, promising a fin- 
ishing treat and a bonfire. Not only was he 
gratified with their ready willingness to do 

Journeys to the Interior 

the work, but he had ascertained accurately 
what he desired to know — the number of men 
able to bear arms — an easy and useful method 
of census-taking. 

While in Savannah Oglethorpe lost his 
valued friend Tomo Chichi. The old man 
had been ''living in wilful poverty, had given 
away all the rich presents bestowed upon him, 
always more pleased in giving to others than 
in possessing himself.'' He was nearly one 
hundred years old, yet sensible to the last, 
peaceful and resigned. He only expressed 
regret at being called away at this critical time, 
when he had hoped to be useful to the English 
in their struggle against the Spaniards. 

His devotion to Oglethorpe never wavered. 
To the last he exhorted his people never to 
forget the general's kindness, nor the benefits 
they had received through him from the King. 
He desired to be buried in Savannah, as he had 
assisted in founding it. His remains were 
therefore brought from Yamacraw, and at the 
landing received by the Governor, magistrates, 
and the people. The pall was borne by Ogle- 
thorpe, Mr. Stephens, and four more gentle- 
men of the town; Indian mourners followed, 
and the body was carried to Percival Square, 
where it was interred with military honors. 




Oglethorpe, being now about to leave 
Savannah for the southern frontier, made a 
thorough inspection of the place, its maga- 
zines, the arms of the militia ; distributed am- 
munition, and, most difficult task of all, settled 
difficulties which had come between constables 
and petty officers, rearranging the whole force 
and appointing Mr. Stephens to the command. 
He also granted letters of marque to a sea- 
faring man named Davis, giving him com- 
mand of a privateer of twenty-four guns, just 
fitted out at Savannah. 

For years the British- American trade had 
suffered from Spanish guar da-cost as, which 
seized merchant vessels, confiscated them, and 
treated the sailors so cruelly that many died 
in captivity. The English people demanded 
redress; a large party severely censured the 
minister. Sir Eobert Walpole, who, as they 
declared, ''tamely saw his country exposed to 

Troubles in Florida 

such indignities." This minister, knowing 
the value of peace to a commercial nation, en- 
deavored to settle differences by negotiation. 
Spain had at last agreed to pay a certain sum 
of money to make good the losses, while it was 
agreed that the Governors of Georgia and Flor- 
ida should refrain from hostilities until bound- 
aries be settled by commissioners from each 
court. Spain, however, failed to pay the sum 
agreed upon, and, as we have seen, war had 
been declared. Admiral Haddock was sent 
with a powerful fleet to cruise off the Spanish 
coast; Vernon, with a squadron, to the West 
Indies; and Oglethorpe ordered to annoy the 
Spanish settlements in Florida. 

In compliance with this order, Oglethorpe 
had sent for the Indians. He also raised a 
troop of rangers to prevent the landing of 
Spanish cavalry, directed the men-of-war to 
cover the coast, while his regiment protected 
the islands. 

According to the treaty made with the Gov- 
ernor of St. Augustine in 1736, General Ogle- 
thorpe had withdrawn the outposts of St. 
George. Since then the most southern outlook 
had been on Amelia Island, where he had sta- 
tioned a scout boat with sixteen men and ser- 
geant's guard, numbering, with their families, 
about forty persons. The little settlement was 

James Oglethorpe 

protected with palisades and a battery of sev- 
eral guns. Early in November a party of 
Spaniards landed at night and hid in the 
woods. Pistol-shots were heard in the fort; 
the guard turned out, and soon found the 
bodies of two Highlanders. They had gone 
unarmed into the thicket, and had been mur- 
dered by the cowardly foe, who escaped to 
their boats. This outrage occurred just be- 
fore the writing of the following letter by 
Oglethorpe to the trustees : 

We had not given the least provocation to the 
Spaniards as yet; but most manfully they have 
surprised two sick men, cut off their heads, mangled 
their bodies most barbarously, and as soon as a 
party and boat appeared, which together did not 
make their number, retired with the utmost precipi- 
tation. A number of scout boats are absolutely 
necessary. The man-of-war stationed at Charles- 
ton can not be here. The launches from St. Au- 
gustine can run into almost every inlet in the 
province; therefore it is absolutely necessary that 
the trustees should apply to Parliament for at least 
five ten-oared boats and a troop of rangers. Other- 
wise there will be no possibility of the people 's going 
out to plant without being murdered as were those 

The French have attacked the Carolina Indians, 
and the Spaniards have invaded us. I wish it may 
not be resolved between them to root the English 

Troubles in Florida 

out of America. We here are resolved to die hard, 
and will not lose one inch of ground without fight- 
ing; but we can not do impossibilities. We have 
no cannon from the King, nor any other guns ex- 
cept some small iron ones bought by the trustees. 
We have very little powder, no horse for marching, 
very few boats, and no fund for paying the men 
but of one boat. The Spaniards have a number of 
launches, also horse, and a fine train of artillery 
well provided with all stores. 

The best expedient I can think of is to strike 
first. I am fortifying the town of Frederica, and 
I hope I shall be paid the expenses — from whom I 
do not know. Yet I could not think of leaving a 
number of good houses and merchants' goods, and, 
what is much more valuable, the lives of men, wom- 
en, and children, in an open town at the mercy of 
every party, and the inhabitants either obliged to 
fly to a fort and leave their property, or suffer with 

With the Highland Eangers and a select 
body of Indians, Oglethorpe made an incur- 
sion into Florida. At the mouth of the St. 
Johns River he took and destroyed all their 
boats, then landing, made a day's march 
toward St. Augustine. A troop of Spanish 
cavalry and infantry came out to attack him, 
but when his Indians raised their war-whoop 
and advanced, they retreated in most unseemly 
baste and took shelter in Fort San Diego. 

James Oglethorpe 

Oglethorpe then retired to the island of St. 
George, the site of his old fort, and sent Lieu- 
tenant Dunbar up the river to destroy all the 
boats he could find, and thus prevent the Span- 
iards from crossing into Georgia. 

On his return to Frederica he again wrote 
to the trustees, urging them to send more 
troops. For want of means he had been 
forced to call in his Indian allies. They 
willingly assisted him, but since they thus lost 
their hunting and corn season, they must be 
furnished with food and clothing, besides arms 
and ammunition, which they could otherwise 
buy with skins they got in hunting. Horse- 
men he was obliged to have, and had ordered 
sixty rangers. 

I have armed the boats in the cheapest manner 
[he wrote] , with only just enough men to navigate 
them, and in some saving even this expense. I 
hope the trustees will represent the necessity of the 
above expenses to Parliament that the House will 
grant sufficient to defray them. Or, if Parliament 
thinks this expense too much for preserving the 
colony, I hope they will withdraw both the colony 
and the regiment, since without these necessary 
defenses they will be exposed to certain destruc- 

When General Oglethorpe received from 
England orders to attack Florida he had at 

Troubles in Florida 

once notified the Governor of South Carolina, 
and, having learned that the enemy at St. 
Augustine was short of provisions, urged the 
naval commander at Charleston to block the 
enemy's harbor before supplies could reach 
them from Cuba. Prompt action was neces- 
sary, red tape apparently more so, for the 
Governor laid the general's letter before the 
General Assembly ; the General Assembly ap- 
pointed a committee to consider and report the 
matter ; the committee made their report ; the 
report was discussed in both houses; and, at 
length, it was decided to require General Ogle- 
thorpe to explain minutely the nature and ex- 
tent of the assistance he expected of them! 
They further ''desired to be informed what 
benefit he conceived they might obtain, in case 
they should grant their aid. ' ' 

His reply was sufficiently explicit. His 
principal demand was for 800 pioneers, 
with tools, provisions, and ammunition. He 
also advised that they raise a troop of 
rangers and put them in command of that 
efficient officer. Captain McPherson, of Darien. 
Of his own regiment he would take 400 
men, leaving the rest for home protection. 
' ' Of the people of this province, ' ' he wrote, ' ' I 
can not draft many, because I must not leave 
the country naked; and if the poor neglect 

James Oglethorpe 

their planting season it will be difficult for 
them to subsist ; therefore, I would only raise 
two hundred, which is equal to the number of 
soldiers I leave behind/' He asked also that 
Carolina contribute a share of the pay of the 
men, and of rice and corn for the support of 
their Indian allies. 

The St. Johns River had been called by the 
Indians ^^Ylacco''; by the Spaniards, ^'San 
Matheo o Picolata," or more recently ^'St. 
Matthias, '^ and on an expansion of the river 
they had built a fort which they called St. 

The building of this fort on the north side of 
St. Matthias River [wrote Oglethorpe] was an abso- 
lute infraction of the treaties, and he added : 

But it was of great service to St. Augustine, 
giving an easy means to invade the Creek Indians, 
or Carolina, and to draw succors from Mexico. 
They preferred what was useful to what was just, 
and in defiance of treaties went on with the fortifi- 

The Creek Indians greatly desired to take this 
fort, which was on their lands, and from which the 
Spanish Indians could easily harass them. Ogle- 
thorpe approved, ordered all the boats made ready, 
and with a detachment of his regiment, the High- 
land Rangers, and a strong body of Indians and 
some pieces of cannon, embarked and went up the 
St. Johns, the Indians going on before. At day- 

Troubles in Florida 

break on the 7th they surprised and burned the 
small Fort Picolata, then advanced toward St. 
Francis. When within musket-shot they opened 
fire ; the Spaniards returned it briskly. While this 
was going on all day with little effect, Oglethorpe, 
under the shelter of the wood, was constructing two 
small batteries. By five o'clock they were ready, 
when, cutting away the wood which concealed them, 
he opened fire, and sent to offer terms to the garri- 
son. They at first refused to treat, but at second 
firing of the cannon, surrendered as prisoners of 
war. There was in the fort one mortar piece, two 
carriage and three swivel guns, ammunition, shells, 
gunpowder, with provisions for two months. 

The place being an important one, a garrison 
was left there under Adjutant Hugh Mackay. 
Since this fort had been the asylum of runaway 
negroes from South Carolina, it was hoped that 
province would do her part in sustaining the place, 
as well as in laying siege to St. Augustine, for which 
Mackay wrote : ' ' We want everything, but a will- 
ingness in the small number the general has in this 
colony. If the people of Carolina do their part, or 
what their allegiance to the King and their own 
interests ought to induce them to do, we will be 
masters of St. Augustine before May. But they 
have acted such a part hitherto that indeed it is not 
to be expected of them. ' ' 

Prisoners taken at St. Francis confirmed 
the reports of scarcity of provisions at St. 

James Oglethorpe 

Augustine ; also that the half galleys had been 
sent to Havana for supplies, thus leaving the 
seaboard defenseless. ^ ' Such a favorable op- 
portunity must not be lost, ' ' said the general, 
and he sent an express to Carolina, again 
urging prompt assistance. Again the Assem- 
bly deliberated, and requested him to come to 
Charleston and settle details. 

At once he left Frederica, rowed night and 
day, resting only one hour until he reached his 
destination, six days after the starting. After 
many conferences, some plans were agreed 
upon. Captain Laws was sent to Providence 
for mortars and powder, letters were de- 
spatched to Virginia to have the Hector 
brought down to the siege, and Captain War- 
ren to block up St. Augustine by sea until the 
siege should begin. 

The Cherokees were already on the march 
with 500 men, the king of the Chickasaws 
agreed to come down with all his warriors, and 
the Creeks with a large number. The Assem- 
bly of Carolina failed to send the 800 men 
promised, but passed an act for raising 400, 
to be commanded by Colonel Vanderdus- 
sen ; also a troop of rangers, presents for the 
Indians, and provisions for three months. 
General Oglethorpe wrote in regard to Caro- 


Troubles in Florida 

This province is very much reduced by sick- 
ness, revolts of negroes and other accidents ; yet the 
danger to them from St. Augustine is so great that 
they agree to raise and maintain a troop of horses 
and a large body of volunteers for that siege. But 
their credit being very low and their taxes very 
heavy, they could not find money for this expense, 
and I have been obliged to advance them £4,000. I 
hope that the zeal of the province for his Majesty's 
service and my poor endeavors will meet with his 
Majesty's approval. 

At length, on May 9th, Oglethorpe, with 
400 of his own regiment, the horse and 
foot rangers he had raised in Georgia, the 
Creek Indians under Malachee, with Raven, 
war-chief of the Cherokees, and Tooanahowi, 
successor of Tomo Chichi, all assembled at St. 
George Island, at the mouth of the St. Johns. 
His object being to cut off supplies from St. 
Augustine, they crossed the river, marched 
toward the forts, and a body of Indians and 
light troops attacked San Diego. The fort be- 
ing defended by several large guns, the first 
attempt failed. The general came up by this 
time and, wishing to avoid bloodshed, resorted 
to stratagem. He had several drums beaten 
in different parts of the woods, where a few 
men would appear and suddenly disappear — 
the same soldiers coming into view at various 

James Oglethorpe 

localities — until the garrison were convinced 
that the English general had brought against 
them overwhelming numbers, and made but 
faint resistance. When a prisoner, taken at 
the first attack, was sent to inform them of 
the kind treatment he and his companions had 
received, they capitulated. 

The Carolina regiment still delayed. Be- 
fore it arrived Oglethorpe learned that two 
sloops laden with provisions and ammunition 
and six Spanish galleys had got into St. 
Augustine ; which might have been prevented 
had the vessels he asked for arrived in time. 
It was a grievous disappointment to the anx- 
ious general. 

On the 18th the Flamborough and the 
Phoenix anchored in the harbor, reporting also 
that the Hector and the Squirrel had been left 
to block the southern entrance to the harbor. 
The next day General Oglethorpe went on 
board the Flamborough to hold a conference 
with Commodore Pearse, and on his return 
found Colonel Vanderdussen arrived, but 
without the full complement of his regiment. 
Orders were issued that all forces advance 
at once toward St. Augustine. Of that in- 
teresting old town and fort Wright says: 

The garrison comprised one hundred cavalry, 
one hundred artilleryinen, detachments from four 

Troubles in Florida 

regiments, three independent companies, besides 
local militia, armed negroes, Indians, and convict 
laborers — altogether 2,000 fighting men. The de- 
fenders of castle and town were therefore quite as 
numerous as all the land force Oglethorpe could 
bring against them, while their artillery was vastly 
superior ; and any attempt to take the place by land 
must not only be unsuccessful but cause unneces- 
sary bloodshed, unless a simultaneous movement be 
made on the water side. 

Oglethorpe well understood this, and ar- 
ranged to march with his land forces as soon 
as the fleet arrived off the bar in the north 
channel. A preconcerted signal was to give 
notice when he was ready to begin the assault, 
and counter-signal inform him that the ships 
were ready. 

The general began his march. Within 
three miles of St. Augustine he took Fort 
Moosa, which had been abandoned by the gar- 
rison on his approach. He ordered the gate 
to be burned and breaches made in the walls, 
*^lest,'' as he said, ''it might one day or other 
be a mouse-trap for some of our own people. ' ' 
Completing his arrangements, he gave the 
signal for assault, but, to his surprise, received 
no counter-signal from the fleet, because, as he 
learned afterward, ''the Spanish galleys were 
drawn up between the castle and the island, 

James Oglethorpe 

and any small vessels sent into the channel 
would be exposed to their fire, as well as that 
of the batteries, and as no ships of force could 
follow in support, the party would be defeated, 
if not wholly destroyed." 




Since it liad been impossible to take St. 
Augustine by assault, General Oglethorpe re- 
solved to turn the siege into a blockade. With 
this intention he returned to Fort Diego and 
ordered Colonel Palmer, with 100 Highlanders 
and 140 Indians, to advance, show themselves 
at Fort Moosa, and scour the woods to cut off 
communication between St. Augustine and the 
interior. Colonel Palmer was enjoined to 
keep strict watch, encamp every night in a 
different place, avoid coming into action, and 
return to Fort Diego if a larger force were 
sent against him. Colonel Vanderdussen with 
his regiment was to take possession of Point 
Quartell, about one mile from the castle, and 
erect a battery commanding the strait, form- 
ing the northern entrance to the harbor. 

The Spanish battery on Anastasia must be 
taken before the commodore could send in any 
vessels. General Oglethorpe, with a part of 

James Oglethorpe 

Ms own regiment, some Indians and seamen, 
undertook to capture the battery, and by skil- 
ful maneuvers and quick movement took pos- 
session of the sandhills, behind which the 
enemy had been posted. The Spaniards fled 
toward their battery, but being closely pressed, 
rushed into the sea and took refuge in their 

From this place the general determined to 
bombard St. Augustine. Troops were brought 
on to the island, all hands employed in con- 
structing new works, and when everything 
was ready the Spanish Governor was sum- 
moned to surrender. To this he replied that 
he should be happy to shake hands with Gen- 
eral Oglethorpe in the castle of St. Augustine. 
Immediately the batteries were opened and a 
number of shells thrown into the town, which 
were returned with vigor, but the distance was 
too great and little execution was done on 
either side. 

Meanwhile a sad misfortune had befallen 
the command under Colonel Palmer. That 
officer was said to be an old Indian officer of 
great bravery and very little judgment, whose 
misfortune it was to have a very mean opinion 
of his enemies. Contrary to his generaPs or- 
ders not to camp more than one night in the 
same place, he had shut himself up in the 

Attack on the Florida Forts 

dilapidated old Fort Moosa, and the Span- 
iards, knowing its defenseless condition, as 
well as Oglethorpe ^s absence at Anastatia, 
sent 600 men to attack the colonel. They made 
a desperate resistance, but half of them were 
soon slaughtered, few escaped, and the rest 
were captured. Colonel Palmer was the first 
who fell. '^The Highlanders fought like 
lions, ^' said their brave Captain John More 
Mcintosh, who was severely wounded, taken 
prisoner, and remained long in captivity. 

Among the captured was an Indian. The 
Spaniards delivered him to their Indian allies 
to be tortured and burned alive. Being ap- 
prised of this, Oglethorpe sent a drum with 
flag of truce and message to the Governor, tell- 
ing him that if he permitted the burning of the 
Indian, a Spanish horseman whom he held 
prisoner should share the same fate. At the 
same time he wrote asking that this barbarous 
custom be prohibited, adding that he should 
be forced to retaliation, and, as they well knew, 
had more of their prisoners who would suffer 
than the Spaniards had of theirs. 

The Spanish Governor agreed that in 
future all Indians captured should be treated 
as prisoners of war. Very often Oglethorpe 
had to curb the barbarous spirit of his Indian 
allies. A historian of Florida relates that on 
10 133 

James Oglethorpe 

one occasion a Chickasaw having captured a 
Spaniard, cut off his head and triumphantly 
brought it to the general, who, instead of re- 
warding him as he expected, spurned him with 
abhorrence and drove him from his presence. 
This Indian, who had lately served the French, 
indignantly said that a French officer would 
have rewarded him, and it is added that 
these Chickasaws showed their dislike for 
Oglethorpe's humanity by soon deserting 

For some unknown reason. Commodore 
Pearse had ordered otf the man-of-war sta- 
tioned outside Matanzas Sound. Consequent- 
ly several sloops from Havana with provisions 
and troops entered the channel and reached 
St. Augustine. That put an end to all hope 
of starving the garrison, which, from posi- 
tive information received, was already in 
distress for want of provisions, and in time a 
bloodless surrender might have been accom- 

The general did not yet relinquish his ef- 
forts, but decided that while Captain Warren 
with the fleet attack the half-galleys he would 
attempt an assault by land. He brought from 
the island his own regiment, called in the In- 
dians, also the garrison left at Fort Diego, 
made ready ladders, fascines, etc. — in fact, 

Attack on the Florida Forts 

provided everything necessary for the assault 
— then waited for the promised signal from 
the fleet. He waited in vain. That cautious 
commander Commodore Pearse, instead of 
doing his part, calmly sailed away, sending 
word to the general that it had been resolved 
to forego the attack, for the hurricane season 
being at hand, it was deemed imprudent to 
hazard his Majesty's ships any longer upon 
the coast ! 

Never did a commander work against 
greater difficulties or more harassing disap- 
pointments. From Ramsey, in his history of 
South Carolina, we learn that the troops from 
that province had proved turbulent and diso- 
bedient, that not one was killed by the enemy, 
though fourteen died from sickness and acci- 
dents. Says Stephens: ^^Most of the gay 
volunteers ran away in small parties basely 
and cowardly, as they could get boats to carry 
them, during the time of greatest need. ' ' The 
greater part of the work had, of course, fallen 
on the generaPs regiment and the Georgia 
companies. These were now so enfeebled by 
fatigue and heat of the climate that nothing 
remained but retreat. 

The failure to take the Spanish stronghold, 
like most failures, was not without beneficial 
results. The most important was that it gave 

James Oglethorpe 

the Spaniards a wholesome respect for their 
English enemy, and for a long time kept them 
on the defensive. The Carolinians were es- 
pecially relieved in this; indeed, felt none 
of the effects of active warfare, except on 
their privateers, until two years later, when 
in 1742 Georgia was invaded, and then they 
suffered only from their fears. 

General Oglethorpe, encamped on the St. 
Johns, called on Colonel Vanderdussen for 100 
men that he might hold the river and the forts 
already taken. Not one man could he get. 
This was especially aggravating, because the 
general was at that time providing Vander- 
dussen 's men with food, one of the captains of 
the Carolina regiment having deserted with 
his company and sailed away in a vessel con- 
taining the supplies of the whole corps. 

The rest soon followed, Vanderdussen him- 
self passing through Savannah shortly after. 
In conversation with Mr. Stephens he ex- 
pressed resentment at the ill conduct of his 
officers, condemned the cowardly behavior of 
the runaway volunteers, yet professed himself 
to be on good terms with the general, of whom 
he spoke with the greatest deference. 

In Charleston Oglethorpe was severely 
criticised, the newspapers were filled with bit- 
ter invectives against him, his whole conduct 

Attack on the Florida Forts 

was misrepresented, and Vanderdussen made 
the hero, claiming that he remained with Ogle- 
thorpe until the last, entirely overlooking the 
fact of his failure to make the appointed junc- 
tion in time, or his refusal to supply the 100 
men, and precipitately going home with his 
regiment. Evidently those Carolinians ex- 
pected impossibilities, and miles away would 
direct the conduct of the expedition. 

But these were the sentiments of only a 
portion of the people. All fair-minded citizens 
of the province condemned not the general, 
but his calumniators, and spoke of him as 
the deliverer of the southern provinces of 

Eamsey excuses the troops of his prov- 
ince by saying: 

The Carolina troops, enfeebled by the heat, de- 
spairing of success, and fatigued by fruitless 
efforts, marched away in large bodies. . . . Many 
reflections were afterward cast upon General Ogle- 
thorpe. He, on the other hand, declared he had no 
confidence in the provincials, for they refused 
obedience to his orders and at last abandoned his 
camp and retreated to Carolina. Grave charges 
of cowardice, despotism, cruelty, and bribery, made 
against Oglethorpe in The Plain Dealer of South 
Carolina, were afterward found to be made by a 
man who had to leave Georgia to escape trial. 

James Oglethorpe 

It was the opinion of military men of that 
day that few generals could have done more 
than Oglethorpe, and that with only 400 regu- 
lar soldiers the wonder was that his small force 
was not destroyed by an enemy secure in a 
strong castle well garrisoned. The Duke of 
Argyle spoke on this subject before the House 
of Peers, and with no uncertain sound : 

One man there is, my lords, whose natural gen- 
erosity, contempt of danger, and regard for the 
public prompted him to obviate the designs of the 
Spaniards and to attack them in their own terri- 
tories; a man whom, by long acquaintance, I can 
confidently affirm to have been equal to the under- 
taking, and to have learned the art of war by a 
regular education, who yet miscarried in the design 
only for want of supplies necessary to a possibility 
of success. 




On the same date Oglethorpe wrote from 
Frederica to the Under-Secretary, Andrew 
Stone, Esq. : 

It is necessary for me to make several expenses 
to preserve this province, particularly fortifying. 
For this I must draw upon England. You will see 
the estimate among my papers. Necessity of pro- 
tecting the province will force me to finish entrench- 
ments around this place. It would be a sad thing 
to have a province abandoned and the people, at 
least the improvements, destroyed. If I can com- 
plete the Rangers and the Highland Foot again and 
man the armed sloops, boats, and schooners, I do not 
doubt to keep the province, notwithstanding what 
the Governor of St. Augustine says in his inter- 
cepted letter. I must beg you in proper season to 
drop a word for my reimbursement. I would not 
trouble you only I know your good inclination to 
favor those who sacrifice their interests for the pub- 
lic safety, and do not desire you to speak at any 
season but when it will be agreeable. 

James Oglethorpe 

Peace seems now to have smiled upon the 
province for a brief time, a time industriously 
used by the Governor for the improvement of 
his colony, and especially of Frederica, then 
a small town of 1,000 inhabitants. He had 
designed the place for a military post; there- 
fore, instead of the regular squares, parks, 
gardens, broad shade streets, with which he 
had beautified Savannah, there was an espla- 
nade and parade-ground, and everything for 
the defense of a frontier town. South of the 
fort the streets were about forty feet wide, and 
the houses all built of brick or of tabby, the 
best and cheapest material for his purpose. 
This tabby is a compound of lime, sand, shells 
or pebbles, mixed with water, a most durable 
material, resisting for ages the action of the 
elements. It is about the same as the coquina 
used in the walls and buildings of St. Augus- 
tine, and still seen in the ruins. In Spain 
walls of the same substance have endured for 

On the island of St. Simons, besides the 
town of Frederica, was a small village called 
Little St. Simons, also Soldiers Fort, both at 
the southern end of the island. A road had 
been built connecting Frederica with the fort. 
For a mile it led through a beautiful prairie, 
then entered the forest, and just here Ogle- 

Peace and Whitefield 

thorpe had established his unpretending home 
— a simple cottage, with garden and orchard 
of oranges, figs, grapes, and other fruits. The 
house was shaded by evergreen oaks and com- 
manded a view of the town and fortifications, 
as well as the sound. Here he could enjoy a 
quiet retreat, watch the progress of the de- 
fenses, and at a moment's warning be ready 
for service. 

Many of his officers lived near, some in far 
more pretentious dwellings. Captain Ray- 
mond Demere, a Huguenot of fortune, spent 
large sums upon his country-seat, which was 
built after the French style and enclosed with 
hedges of orange and cassina plants. Thomas 
Spalding, when describing the home of Ogle- 
thorpe, states that, after the general went to 
England, it became the property of the Spal- 
ding family; that during the Revolutionary 
War the buildings were destroyed, and that 
his father afterward sold the property. The 
fine oaks remained standing until within a 
few years. 

That Oglethorpe did not acquire or claim 
any land in Georgia beyond this small home, 
or receive any in return for his services, is 
proved by a letter from General Washington, 
written five years after Oglethorpe 's death, in 
reply to one from a French nobleman claiming 

James Oglethorpe 

to be his descendant. After saying that care- 
ful inquiry had been made and that there were 
no lands in Georgia belonging to Oglethorpe, 
Washington adds : 

If there had been property of that gentleman 
in Georgia, in the time of the late war with Great 
Britain, so far from it having been confiscated, it 
would have met with singular protection in conse- 
quence of the high estimation in which the char- 
acter of General Oglethorpe stood in that State. 

Frederica stood on a high blntf on the west 
side of the island. Its streets were named 
after the officers in Oglethorpe's regiment ; on 
its north side was their camp, on the east their 
l^arade-ground, and on the south a small forest, 
which concealed them from an enemy coming 
up on the water side. On Jekyll Island were 
defensive works ; on Cumberland Island a bat- 
tery; another at Fort William. '^ Seldom, '* 
says Wright, ^^has one with such limited means 
more forcibly evinced his power. Not only 
Georgia, but Carolina owed their preservation 
to the ability shown in the disposition of these 
works, for, as it has been observed, St. Simons 
was destined to become the Thermopylae of the 
southern Anglo-American provinces." 

It was during this interval of peace from 
Spanish depredations that the Rev. George 

Peace and Whitefield 

Whitefield visited Georgia, remained a few 
months, then returned to England to be or- 
dained, and to collect funds to found in Geor- 
gia an orphanage. He had come to the Geor- 
gia colony as their missionary, had been pre- 
sented by the trustees with the living of Savan- 
nah, and had obtained from them a grant of 
five hundred acres for the support of the desti- 
tute orphan children of the province. 

Mr. Whitefield made himself famous in 
England, not only by the fervor of his piety, 
but by his fearless, if sometimes unwise, re- 
bukes, especially of the clergy. On his return 
to America all classes flocked to hear him 
preach. He spoke with great severity of the 
ministers of that day, calling them ^^durnb 
dogs, ' ' ^ ^ slothful shepherds, ' ' and avowed his 
firm belief that few of the doctors of an age 
or more past could ever enter heaven. An 
Episcopal clergyman, the Rev. Alexander 
Gordon, retorted with equal bitterness, point- 
ing out the pernicious tendency of Whitefield's 
words and doctrines, called him a religious 
quack, and, preaching against him, used the 
text: '^ Those that have turned the world up- 
side down, are come hither also. ' ^ Whitefield 
replied from the words of Paul : ^ ^ Alexander 
the coppersmith did me much evil, the Lord 
reward him according to his works. ' ' 

James Oglethorpe 

Other ministers suffered his rebukes, and 
their friends stirred up to their defense. That 
was not all, for, like his predecessor, he made 
the mistake of considering the pulpit a sphere 
too limited, and went into the court-room to 
harangue the jury. Even in Frederica, Ogle- 
thorpe 's peace was disturbed by reports of the 
commotion in Savannah. 

Whitefield had begun the building of the 
orphanage on a sandy bluff near Savannah. 
Disputes soon arose between him and those 
who had or]3hans in charge. Mr. Parker, one 
of the magistrates, had with him two boys 
whom Whitefield claimed. The elder boy was 
sixteen, and Parker refused to give him up, 
saying he had maintained him in childhood 
and it was unfair to take him, now that he 
could be of some service. To which the 
preacher said : ^ ^ The boy is so much fitter for 
my purpose; he can be employed for the 
benefit of the orphans. * ^ 

The result was that Parker lost his temper, 
and Whitefield gained his point, carrying off 
both boys. Oglethorpe was appealed to, and 
thought that WTiitefield had gone beyond the 
intention of the trustees in taking strong boys, 
old enough to be serviceable to the colony, par- 
ticularly during the planting season; and he 
finally had to interfere with the dictatorial 



NT 1^ W 








^TIONS. 1 

Peace and Whitefield 

ways of the determined minister. Three or- 
phan children by the name of MeUidge had 
shown themselves so intelligent and industri- 
ous that Oglethorpe had encouraged the eldest, 
John, to do what he could in the way of plant- 
ing, while the sister kept the house and took 
care of the younger brother. The latter 
Whitefield removed to the orphanage in spite 
of the protests of their brother John. 

The boy complained to Oglethorpe, then at 
Frederica, and an answer was received by Mr. 
Noble Jones to this effect : 

As for the Mellidge brothers, I think your rep- 
resentation is very just; that taking them away to 
the Orphan-house will break up a family which is in 
a likely way of living comfortably. Mr. Whitefield 's 
design is for the good of the people and the glory 
of God; and I dare say when he considers this, 
he will be very well satisfied with the return of the 
two younger children to their brother, John Mel- 
lidge, since they can assist him. Upon this head I 
am to acquaint you that I have inspected the grant 
relating to the Orphan-house. Mr. Seward said that 
the Trustees had granted the orphans to Mr. White- 
field, but I showed him it could not be in the sense he 
seemed to understand it. It is most certain that the 
orphans are human creatures, and neither cattle 
nor any other kind of chattels; therefore can not 
be granted. 

But the Trustees have granted the care of the 

James Oglethorpe 

helpless orphans to Mr. Whitefield, and have given 
him five hundred acres of land, and a power of col- 
lecting charities, as a consideration for maintaining 
all the orphans who are in ne(^essity in this Province ; 
and thereby the Trustees think themselves dis- 
charged from maintaining any. But at the same 
time, the trustees have not given, as I see, any power 
to Mr. Whitefield to receive the effects of orphans, 
much less to take by force any orphans who can 
maintain themselves, or whom any substantial per- 
son will maintain. The Trustees, in this, act accord- 
ing to the law of England : In case orphans are left 
destitute they become the charge of the parish, and 
the parish may put them out to be taken care of; 
but if any person will maintain them, so that they 
are not chargeable to the parish, then the parish 
does not meddle with them. 

On receipt of this letter John Mellidge was 
advised to inform Mr. Whitefield of General 
Oglethorpe's opinion, and ask permission to 
take his brother and sister home. Whitefield 's 
answer was : ' ^ Your brother and sister are at 
their proper home already; I know no other 
home they have to go to. Give my service to 
the general, and tell him so. ' ' Keceiving this 
message, Oglethorpe promptly ordered Mr. 
Jones to take the children away from the 
orphan-house. Mr. Whitefield complained 
that he had been badly treated, and threatened 

Peace and Whitefield 

to appeal to the Trustees, but there the matter 
ended. John Mellidge showed himself worthy 
of the charge of his brother and sister, and be- 
came afterward Representative from Savan- 
nah in the first General Assembly of Georgia. 

Whitefield 's ideas about the management 
of the orphans were peculiar, and the orphan- 
age, according to his own description, a dismal 
place. The mornings were spent in school, 
the afternoons in something useful; no time 
was set apart for play, because he considered 
all such time as ^^ Satan's darling hours to 
tempt children to all manner of wickedness." 
So that, although there came to be seventy chil- 
dren in his orphan family, he boasted that 
*^ there was no more noise than if it were a 
private house. ' ' 

However mistaken Whitefield may have 
been in regard to the needs of child-life, he in- 
tended and believed that he was bringing up 
those children to the glory of God. Un- 
doubtedly his work was a great blessing, and 
as such was acknowledged by General Ogle- 
thorpe. Apparently he was in advance of his 
day. A letter printed in the London Maga- 
zine in 1745 says : 

It gave me much satisfaction to have an oppor- 
tunity to see this Orphan-house, as the design has 
made such a noise in Europe ; and the very being 

James Oglethorpe 

of such a place was so much doubted everywhere, 
that even no farther from it than New England, 
affidavits were made to the contrary. 

Wliitefield being much of the time absent, 
the management of the orphanage was en- 
trusted to his friend, James Habersham, 
who complained of the arbitrary conduct of 
the magistrates. Having become prejudiced 
against the founder of the institution, they did 
injustice to the institution itself by withdraw- 
ing from it students who promised to become 
ornaments to society and binding them out as 
servants. Habersham's remonstrances were 
treated with contempt. General Oglethorpe 
at first refused to interfere ; but that he did on 
some occasions is seen from the following let- 
ter to him by Whitefield ; 

August 18, 1742. 
Honored Sir: I most heartily thank you for 
being so kind to my family in Georgia and for 
espousing my friends ' cause when I think they were 
wronged. In a letter I yesterday laid the case be- 
fore the Honorable Trustees, not doubting but they 
will preserve us from oppression and from persecu- 
tion in all shapes. I think we have only the glory 
of God and the good of the colony at heart. 
Prejudices may be raised against us by evil reports 
and misrepresentations, but your Excellency is 
more noble than to hearken to insinuations which 

Peace and Whitefield 

are not supported by evident matter of fact. I am 
sure God will bless you for defending the cause of 
the fatherless, and espousing the cause of injured 
innocence. My friends will, I trust, at all times 
readily acknowledge anything they may either say 
or do wrong; and if I know anything of my own 
heart, I would not offend any one causelessly or 
willfully for the world. In a few months I hope 
to see Georgia. In the meanwhile I beg your Ex- 
cellency to accept these few lines of thanks from, 
honored sir, your Excellency's 

Most obliged and humble servant, 

George Whitefield. 

Whitefield returned to Georgia, and his life 
and work there became more peaceful. Ogle- 
thorpe esteemed him highly, and when, on 
September 30, 1770, he died, there was pro- 
found sorrow in Savannah. Church and State- 
house were draped in black, and the Governor 
vand his council put on mourning. By his will 
Whitefield left the orphan-house to ^ ' that elect 
lady, that mother in Israel, the Right Honora- 
ble Selina, Countess Dowager of Huntingdon. ' ' 

In the spring of 1740 the British ministry 
resolved to ^^ annoy Spain in her American 
possessions. ' ' In November the King assured 
Parliament that he meant to prosecute the war 
vigorously, even though France espoused the 
Spanish cause. But, before war was declared, 
11 149 

James Oglethorpe 

the French, in violation of treaties, had sailed 
in conjunction with the Spanish to the West 
Indies and threatened Jamaica. Admiral 
Vernon, with a powerful fleet, was sent in 
January to oppose them, but, instead of go- 
ing to Havana, turned toward Hispaniola in 
order to watch the French fleet, thus losing 
time and an opportunity to attack Havana 
under favorable circumstances. A letter 
from Oglethorpe, written at the time to the 
Duke of Newcastle, gives a formal account of 
the condition of affairs. It is dated in May, 

My Lord: Since my last I have sent out a 
party of Creek Indians under command of one of 
their war captains, Accouclauh. Two of our scout 
boats landed them in the night in Florida; they 
marched up to Augustine and took one of their 
horsemen prisoner, and beat a party of their horse. 
I send the prisoner by Captain Thompson to your 
Grace, that his Majesty may have an exact account 
of the condition of St. Augustine. What he says is 
confirmed by other advices; that they have eight 
hundred men newly arrived, six hundred of them 
regular troops. Besides what he says, my intelli- 
gence mentions that Admiral Vernon and the troops 
from England are employed in the West Indies, 
and can not come up to attack the Havannah, and 
that as soon as the Governor of Havannah sees the 
effect of the expedition, they will send up more 

Peace and Whitefield 

troops and half-galleys for the attacking this 
province and South Carolina. My private intelli- 
gence further adds that Spanish emissaries have 
been employed to fire the English towns and maga- 
zines of North America, and to take other measures 
to hinder the supplying this great English expedi- 
tion with provisions. 

I send your Grace enclosed our present strength. 
If our numbers were but equal, and the men-of-war 
would but stop their communication, we might still 
take the place, for our Indians keep them blocked 
up. But if our men-of-war will not keep them from 
coming in by sea, and we have no succor, but de- 
crease daily by different accidents, all we can do 
will be to die bravely in his Majesty's service. 

I must therefore entreat your Grace to move his 
Majesty that there be a train of artillery, arms, and 
ammunition sent over; also orders for completing 
our two troops of Rangers to sixty men each, the 
Highlanders to one hundred, and one hundred 
boatmen ; with orders to buy or build and man two 
half -galleys. 

I have often desired assistance of the men-of- 
war, and continue to do so. I go on fortifying this 
town, making magazines, and doing everything 
I can to defend the Province vigorously. I hope 
my endeavors will be approved of by his Majesty, 
since the whole end of my life is to do the duty of a 
faithful servant and grateful subject. 

I have thirty Spanish prisoners in this place, 
and we continue so masters of Florida that the 

James Oglethorpe 

Spaniards have not been able to rebuild any one of 
the seven forts which we destroyed in the last ex- 

Permit me with the greatest humility to return 
my most grateful thanks to his Majesty and to 
your Grace for the company and officers added to 
this regiment, and at the same time desire your 
Grace to move his Majesty in the matters above 
mentioned, which, in my opinion, are absolutely 
necessary for the preservation of this Province. 




General Oglethorpe's letter was laid be- 
fore the ^^ lords justices,'' who approved all 
save the application for artillery and military 
stores, which they referred to the master-gen- 
eral of ordnance. The master-general of ord- 
nance referred it to his principal officers to 
report upon. The officers summoned Mr. 
Verelst for details ; Mr. Verelst could not fur- 
nish the details, did not know whether the 600 
swords called for were wanted for regiment, 
militia, or Indians. The laws of red tape re- 
quired just that particular piece of informa- 
tion; hence, delay number one. 

The second delay came from the very 
natural conceit of the officers, who firmly be- 
lieved that they knew more of Georgia than 
Oglethorpe did, and decided that the ordnance 
he asked for was too heavy. ^'We are very 
well informed," said they in their report, 
"that all the Continent for one hundred miles 

James Oglethorpe 

and upward is a sheer sand, and that they have 
no materials to support the works, so that we 
can not think of sending any ordnance heavier 
than a twelve-pounder for the use of the 
forts. '^ 

There was still a third and longer delay, 
when the demand for half-galleys was referred 
to the Admiralty. Half a dozen meetings, 
with due intervals between for ponderous re- 
flection, were given to the subject before any 
decision was reached. 

Meantime, Oglethorpe was again forced to 
appeal to the Home Government. He was 
supplied with flour either from England or 
the northern colonies. Of late Spanish priva- 
teers had been making prizes of these mer- 
chant vessels, having taken one off Charleston 
with 1,500 pounds of goods on board. Only 
two men-of-war being stationed on the coast, 
they were not able to defend both Charleston 
and Frederica. After hearing of the last 
capture, Oglethorpe ordered out the guard- 
sloop with a detachment from his regiment, 
and hired a schooner belonging to Captain 
Davis. These two vessels met with three 
Spanish half-galleys, and having forced them 
to fly, then overtook and attacked one of their 
privateers, which they drove ashore and dis- 
abled. This, however, was not only expensive, 

War with the Spaniards Again 

but dangerous ; Oglethorpe therefore bought a 
suitable vessel and fitted it out for service. 
He excused the purchase by saying the loss to 
English shipping, with their cargoes, etc., 
would be far greater than the cost of the vessel, 
not to speak of the distress of the colony for 
want of provisions. 

On August 16th a large Spanish ship was 
seen off the bar of Jekyll Sound. General 
Oglethorpe being notified, took the guard- 
sloop, also the sloop Falcon and the schooner 
Norfolk, with some of his own regiment, and 
started in pursuit. A violent storm arose, and 
when it was over the ship had disappeared. 
The Falcon had been disabled by the storm, 
and had to put back, but with the other two 
Oglethorpe sailed direct for Florida, and on 
the 21st descried, five leagues distant, the 
Spanish vessel at anchor. There was a dead 
calm, but he ordered out the boats, which 
towed them along until they came up to the 
enemy, a Spanish man-of-war and the Black 
Sloop, a notorious privateer. Oglethorpe, 
whose courage seemed equal to any occasion, 
gave orders for boarding. His vessels bore 
down upon the Spaniards, who opened fire, 
which was so vigorously returned that they 
weighed anchor, and a light breeze having 
sprung up, speedily ran over the bar. The 

James Oglethorpe 

English followed and, thongh they did not 
succeed in boarding, engaged them for an 
hour, when the Spaniards sailed for the town, 
so disabled that six half -galleys came out to 
cover their retreat, keeping, however, at a 
safe distance. Three or four Spanish ships 
were lying in the harbor, but none ventured 
to attack the plucky little Georgia vessels, and 
that night Oglethorpe lay at anchor within 
sight of St. Augustine. For some days he 
cruised off the bar, and then, having 
alarmed the whole Spanish coast, returned to 

With a spirit like this, Oglethorpe and his 
brave, enduring men, had they been supplied 
with what he had asked, could soon have in- 
timidated the Spaniards and put an end to the 
war. The expenses gave him much uneasi- 
ness, though he had freely used his private 
fortune in the cause so dear to his heart. 

For some years Oglethorpe had been 
corresponding with Governor Clark, of New 
York, and with him laboring to accomplish a 
noble object. In writing to the trustees, Ogle- 
thorpe speaks of that object as: 

Most advantageous to all the British settle- 
ments in America — ^which is, to make peace between 
all Indians under the British crown, and thereby 
prevent their destroying each other as they do now. 

War with the Spaniards Again 

Besides the saving of so many lives and making the 
western parts safe, it would enable the English In- 
dians to act with more vigor and greater numbers 
against the Spanish or any nation at war with us. 
The men who would be otherwise forced to stay at 
home for their own defense will be enabled to leave 
their towns by the peace. 

I have with much difficulty made a peace be- 
tween the Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Creeks ; but 
the great work of making a peace between them and 
the Six Nations remains with Governor Clark to 
do. If the Chickasaws can obtain a peace with the 
Six Nations, which are called the Black Enemy, 
they will be secured against the French. The Black 
Enemy did prevent their coming down this year 
to war against the Spaniards, whereas last year 
they sent down forty men, and if peace is made 
with the Six Nations, they will send down every 
year two hundred. The Cherokees have acquainted 
me that if they are secured from the Black Enemy, 
who lately killed their emperor, Moy Toy, they will 
be able to furnish me two thousand men. ... As 
the treaty is of greater consequence to Georgia than 
to any other colony, I drew for £100 sterling on 
Mr. Verelst toward defraying the charges, which I 
hope you will reimburse. ' ' 

The trustees approved the course. AVhether 

the funds were furnished is another question 

to be settled later. Not one of all the colonial 

leaders had ever exercised so good an influence 


James Oglethorpe 

over the native tribes as Oglethorpe, nor had 
any other been so well able to control them. 
The humane, unselfish motives which governed 
all his movements in the founding of his col- 
ony seemed to have impressed the savage and 
secured his friendship. Lord Baltimore and 
William Penn had been successful in obtaining 
from the Indians large grants of land; they 
had wisely adopted the best methods of get- 
ting peaceable possessions and retaining large 
estates. Penn's were securely flanked on 
either side by Virginia and Maryland. With 
Oglethorpe the case was different. He in- 
duced the savages to cede to him a large prov- 
ince, but not one acre for himself; his work 
was wholly for others, and with trying embar- 
rassments. The weak and factious Carolini- 
ans failed to do even their simple duty in self- 
defense; the long-established colonies of 
France and Spain were bitter enemies, and it 
was largely due to the fidelity of his Indian 
allies that he was able to preserve the colony 
he had founded. '^If we had no other evi- 
dence of the great abilities of Oglethorpe," 
says Spalding, ^^but what is offered by the 
devotion of the Indian tribes to him and to his 
memory afterward for fifty years, it is all 
sufficient, for only master minds acquire this 
deep and lasting influence over other men. ' ' 

War with the Spaniards Again 

Oglethorpe complained often of his want 
of sure and direct correspondence with Eng- 
land. ''Seven out of eight letters miscarry," 
said he, and from December to April he had 
no safe opportunity of sending letters. In 
that year, 1742, he reported no vessels taken 
by the Spanish privateers. His spirited attack 
on their man-of-war and privateer had made 
them more than cautious. With two guard- 
vessels he again started for St. Augustine, but 
a storm came up so violent that with great 
difficulty he saved his ships. Several English 
vessels were lost; another would have gone 
down but for his timely aid. Just at this time 
a privateer arrived off the bar at St. Augus- 
tine, with flour, clothing, and supplies for that 
garrison. A pilot had been sent with two 
half-galleys and 200 men to convoy her in. 
The Governor had received the announcement 
of her arrival with great satisfaction, had 
ordered the guns fired, and sent a party of 
Indians to cut wood and make a bonfire. 

Oglethorpe's Indians attacked them and 
took ^ve prisoners, while Captain Dunbar with 
his guard-ship came up with the Spanish ves- 
sel before it was high water, captured her, and 
took her to Frederica. This prize Oglethorpe 
detained some months for the service of the 
colony. A Charleston merchant wrote: "Our 

James Oglethorpe 

wrongheads now begin to own that the security 
of our Southern settlements and trade is owing 
to the vigilance and unwearied endeavors of 
his Excellency in annoying the enemy. ' ' Ogle- 
thorpe had sent to St. Augustine a number of 
prisoners in exchange for some Carolina ma- 
rines. These had brought the same reports as 
had the Indian spies, to which the general re- 
fers in his letter to the Duke of Newcastle, June 

The Indian spies bring me word that the 
Spaniards have received powerful succor; that all 
their houses are filled with new soldiers, and that 
their common talk is bragging that they intend to 
attack us and overrun all North America. They are 
some of the troops which were raised for the de- 
fense of Cuba. I hope your Grace will remember 
that I long ago acquainted you that I anticipated 
an invasion as soon as the affair with Cuba was 
ended, and prayed for succors, which are not yet 
arrived. The Spaniards have, as I then believed, 
sent more troops, and expect a general revolt of the 
negroes. It is too late now to ask your Grace to 
represent this to his Majesty and ask succors. Be- 
fore they arrive the matter will be over. I hope I 
shall behave as well as one with as few men and 
as little artillery can. I have great advantage from 
my knowledge of the country, and the soldiers and 
inhabitants are in good heart and used to fatigue 
and arms. We have often seen and drove the 

War with the Spaniards Again 

Spaniards, and I believe that one of us is as good 
as ten of them. I hope your Grace will represent 
the situation, for though the present affair will be 
over before any succor can come, yet, if we defeat 
the enemy, it will facilitate our taking St. Augus- 
tine if troops arrive ; and if none come, our succors 
will only secure our own. 

In another letter of the same date, Ogle- 
thorpe says of the Spanish efforts to excite a 
revolt among the negroes of Carolina : 

They won't pass by us into Carolina, so must 
take us in their way, and I believe they will 
meet with a morsel not easy to be digested. Yet 
we are not in the situation we would wish, being 
very weak in cannon and shot, never having had 
any from England, nor indeed anjrthing else since 
my last arrival in this country, but one store ship of 
powder and small arms from his Grace the Duke of 
Argyle just before he was out of ordnance. From 
the time he quitted the service until now I have been 
left to shift for myself. I have sent northward to 
raise men and to buy guns and ammunition of all 
kinds, and have, according to standing orders, 
drawn bills for his Majesty's service with orders 
to Mr. Verelst to apply thereupon to the Treasury. 

A few days previous to the writing of this 

letter Oglethorpe had sent Captain Hamer of 

the Flamborough against some vessels going 

from Havana to St. Augustine with reenf orce- 


James Oglethorpe 

ments. A storm had separated ten of those 
vessels from the rest of the fleet ; these Captain 
Hamer attacked and drove some ashore, but 
in so doing lost a score of his men and one boat. 
He returned to notify the general ; then, instead 
of remaining to guard the coast, sailed back to 
Charleston. A despatch was sent to the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of South Carolina informing 
him of the arrival of several vessels at St. 
Augustine, but Governor Bull 's only reply was 
that he was well assured that it was only the 
annual relief sent from Havana, that the same 
vessels carried back a like number of men. 
Further advices of fifteen more strange vessels 
in sight failed to convince him, nor could the 
general purchase from him the various mili- 
tary stores needed. He ^^ seemed to take no 
notice,'' nor was the naval commander. Max- 
well, more successful. Captain Frankland 
promised, it is true, to send two vessels, but 
failed to keep the promise. This indifference 
of the Lieutenant-Governor brought forth a 
plain letter from the general. Among other 
advice, he said : 

You would be right to have the militia imme- 
diately reviewed and ready for service. I expect 
the Spaniards to attack us, and if they do, doubt not 
to give them a warm reception and make them sick 
of it ; but if they should get the better of us, they 

War with the Spaniards Again 

will immediately follow their advantage, and you 
may expect a visit, and it is possible that they may 
incite an insurrection among the negroes. I expect 
you to send to Fort Frederic what is necessary for 
the defense of that place, of which I send you an 
estimate and one to the Assembly to be laid before 
them. If there is any trifling in this, and an acci- 
dent thereupon should happen, you are answerable 
for it. I have often given notice how the place was 
neglected. Some of the men in the garrison were 
countenanced in their desertion, and harbored by 
some ill-designed people. I therefore desire you 
should publish a proclamation for the apprehend- 
ing of them, setting forth the consequences to those 
who receive them. These men have been four years 
in the regiment and never attempted to desert till 
in garrison in the province of Carolina. 

The letter had no effect. Governor Bull 
paid no attention to the advice of the "Com- 
mander-in-Chief of his Majesty's forces in 
Georgia and Carolina." The ruling faction 
of Charleston, with Bull at their head, resolved 
to defend themselves on their own ground, 
refused to send to Georgia any further assist- 
ance, and planters in the exposed districts fled 
to Charleston with their families. From the 
Gentleman's Magazine, of London, this de- 
served criticism is taken : 

The Lieutenant-Governor therefore prepared 
for war by appointing a long train of aides-de-camp. 

James Oglethorpe 

He at the same time nominated Mr. Vanderdussen 
captain-general and commander-in-chief by land 
and sea, and created numberless officers of rank 
from general down to captain. The militia were 
mustered and reviewed, dilapidated batteries were 
repaired, rusty guns were remounted, and the 
Spaniards being still two hundred miles off, a most 
martial spirit was displayed by these men, who left 
the true defender of their province, as well as 
his own, to stand or fall, as the case might be, before 
a vastly superior force. 

General Oglethorpe had at no time taken 
counsel of his fears, and in this case his appre- 
hensions were but too well found-ed. Before 
the month had passed a Spanish fleet of above 
fifty vessels, with between 5,000 and 6,000 
soldiers on board, were ordered to attack the 
colonies. Fourteen vessels attempted to run 
in at Fort William, but were driven off by 
guns from the fort, aided by the guard-schooner 
under Captain Dunbar, and they then entered 
Cumberland Sound. General Oglethorpe im- 
mediately ordered out a detachment and some 
Indians under Captain Horton, while he fol- 
lowed with a part of his regiment in three 
boats. ^^He was at once attacked by the 
enemy^ but with two boats fought his way 
through the whole fleet. The third boat, under 
Lieutenant Tolson, ran into a creek, lay con- 

War with the Spaniards Again 

cealed until next day, then returned to St. 
Simons and reported the general overpowered 
and killed. But Oglethorpe, by keeping to 
the leeward and thus taking advantage of the 
smoke, escaped in safety, while the Spaniards 
had suffered so much in the engagement that 
four of their vessels foundered on their way 
back to St. Augustine for repairs. The officer 
in command at Frederica had watched the en- 
gagement from the masthead, and seeing the 
general surrounded by the enemy, concluded 
he was lost, and at once sent despatches to 
Charleston for immediate assistance. Their 
joy was unbounded when, on the following day, 
their commander returned unhurt." 

He now withdrew the garrison from St. 
Andrews, on the north end of the island, to re- 
enforce Fort William, laid an embargo on all 
vessels in the harbor, took into service the 
merchant ship Success, and called in from 
Darien the Highland companies, of whom he 
said : ^ ^ They are, next to the Indians, the most 
useful in those grounds where regular troops 
can not form. ' ' He also withdrew from vari- 
ous outposts the Rangers, gave presents to the 
Indians, rewarded those who did extraordinary 
duty, and promised promotion to all who 
should distinguish themselves. 

His undaunted active spirit inspired his 
13 165 

James Oglethorpe 

soldiers. * ^ We were ready for twice our num- 
ber of Spaniards," said the crew of the Suc- 
cess, which had twenty guns and 100 men. 
Besides the Success, there were in this harbor 
*Hhe general's schooner of fourteen guns, St. 
Philip's sloop of fourteen guns, and eight 
York sloops close inshore, with one man on 
board each to sink or run them on shore in case 
of being overpowered. ' ' 

The conflict soon came. On July 5th 
thirty-six Spanish vessels ran into St. Simons 
harbor in line of battle. They were received 
with a brisk fire from the forts and from the 
shipping. Three times they attempted to 
board the Success, but each time failed, 
and after an engagement of four hours gave 
it up and sailed up the river toward Fred- 

Oglethorpe ordered his own men ashore, 
and, thanking the seamen for their brave re- 
sistance, directed the vessels to make their 
way out of the harbor as best they could. 
This they did, and soon reached Charleston 
in safety. During this engagement General 
Oglethorpe had been not only on shipboard 
and at the batteries, but acted as engineer, 
since Colonel Cook, whose duty it was, had, 
on hearing of the invasion, retired to Charles- 
ton; and, as if that were too near the scene 

War with the Spaniards Again 

of action, hastened to England, followed by 
the subengineer, his son-in-law. 

A council of war was called. It was de- 
cided to destroy batteries, provisions, etc., at 
St. Simons, and retire to Frederica. This 
was speedily accomj)lished, and that evening 
the invaders landed and took possession of 
the abandoned camp. From several prison- 
ers taken by the Indians the general learned 
that the enemy had land forces of 5,000 men 
who had orders to give no quarter. Mr. Rut- 
ledge, of Charleston, wrote afterward to the 
Under-Secretary : 

The Spaniards were resolved to put all to the 
sword, not to spare a life, so as to terrify the Eng- 
lish from any future thought of resettling. Said 
a prisoner from on board : ' ' During the time they 
lay off this bar, the Spaniards whetted their swords 
and held their knives to this deponent's and other 
English prisoners' throats, saying they would 
cut the throats of all those they should take in 
Georgia. ' ' 

Never had the young colony been in such 
danger, and never had the general so much 
need of help, which was still withheld. Yet 
he calmly faced the multiplying dangers, hap- 
pily increasing the confidence of his people, 
and stirring up his soldiers with a like de- 
termination to resist the invaders to the last. 

James Oglethorpe 

Detachments of Spaniards sought to invest 
the fort, attempting to pass through the wood, 
but were driven back by the watchful Indians. 
The only avenue to Frederica was by the road 
so wisely planned some time previous — the 
forest on one side, marsh on the other, and so 
narrow that only three men could walk abreast. 
Neither artillery nor baggage could be taken 
over it, and the Spanish troops who ventured 
were so harassed by the Highlanders and In- 
dians who lay in ambush that their attempts 
ended in serious loss. They, however, suc- 
ceeded, after many trials, in approaching 
within two miles of the town. 

Wishing to encounter the enemy before they 
reached the open ground, Oglethorpe led a 
body of Highlanders, Rangers, and Indians 
and charged so fiercely that all but a few were 
either killed or taken prisoners. He captured 
two with his own hands, and the Spanish com- 
mander was taken by a ranger. Another 
Spanish officer shot the Indian Tooanahowi in 
his right arm, but the savage drew his pistol 
with his left hand and killed the officer on the 
spot. For more than a mile they pursued 
them, and then halted to await the regulars. 
These Oglethorpe posted to guard the pass, 
and returned to the town to prepare the com- 
pany of marines and encourage the people. 

War with the Spaniards Again 

Meanwhile the Spanish again advanced, 
halting where, unsuspected, the English lay in 
ambush. They had built their fires and were 
making ready their kettles for cooking when 
a horse took fright and startled them. They 
ran for their arms, but were shot down by the 
invisible enemy. Their principal officers were 
killed, and the men fled in confusion, throwing 
away their muskets and leaving their equipage 
on the field. Don Antonio Barba was mortally 
wounded. The Spaniards regarded the loss 
of this commander as worse than a thousand 
men. A Spanish sergeant declared, "The 
woods were so full of Indians that the devil 
himself could not get through them." So 
great was the slaughter that the place was long 
known as ^^ Bloody Marsh." The general 
with his men marched over the causeway to 
within two miles of the Spanish encampment, 
intercepting all who had been dispersed in the 
late fight, and there he passed the night. 

The invaders retired within the ruins of 
St. Simons Fort, and began entrenching them- 
selves where they would be under the protection 
of their ships. Finding it unwise to attack 
them, Oglethorpe went back to Frederica to 
refresh his wearied soldiers, and to send out 
parties of rangers and Indians to harass the 
enemy and watch their motions. He now ap- 

James Oglethorpe 

pointed his staff: Lieutenants Maxwell and 
Mackay as aides-de-camp, Lieutenant Suther- 
land brigade-major, and at the same time pro- 
moted Sergeant Stuart to be ensign, in reward 
for bravery in the late engagement. 

No help still from Carolina nor the men-of- 
war. Their stock of provisions was neither 
good nor abundant, for some had been burned 
rather than leave them for the enemy, and, 
with their vessels blocking the sound, no more 
could be brought in. All this gave the general 
the greatest anxiety, yet it must be carefully 
concealed from his brave little army, which, all 
told, numbered only 800 men. 

The people who remained in Frederica were 
assured that, if the worst came, they had a safe 
retreat through Alligators Creek and the canal 
cut through Generals Island, whence they could 
go to Savannah. The soldiers were encour- 
aged to patient endurance by seeing their gen- 
eral undergoing every privation to which they 
were exposed. Changing their tactics, the 
Spaniards now proceeded up the river with 
their galleys, but were again prevented from 
landing by the Indians concealed among the 
tall grass and shrubs. Going on toward the 
town, the galleys were received with so deter- 
mined a fire from the batteries that they re- 
treated in haste to the shelter of their ships. 

War with the Spaniards Again 

Thus was defeated the villainous plot of a 
Spanish officer, who had surrendered and been 
taken prisoner but refused to be exchanged, 
pretending that his countrymen looked upon 
him as a traitor. Permission had been given 
him to go to some northern colony, and a boat 
furnished to convey him to Darien; but in a 
few days he returned, saying he could not risk 
being captured. The general was still unsus- 
pecting, but just at this time an English pris- 
oner escaped from the Spanish commodore's 
shijD, declared that he had seen the man, and 
heard him planning to return to Frederica, and 
when the galleys attacked the town, he would 
fire the arsenal, and in the confusion the as- 
sault would be a success. The man 's conduct 
since his return had been suspicious, and he 
was now closely confined; so his plot was a 

Several more escaped prisoners came in, 
and all agreed in the report that the Spaniards, 
not expecting such desperate resistance, were 
much dispirited. There were numbers of 
wounded and sick in distressing conditions. 
There was much dissension, and the Cuban 
forces had separated from those of Florida. 
Oglethorpe meditated a surprise, had marched 
to within a mile of the Spaniards, and was 
about to make the attack when a Frenchman, 

James Oglethorpe 

who without his knowledge had come down 
with the volunteers, being a spy, fired his gun 
and deserted, and was not overtaken. 

Knowing that the spy would expose his 
weakness, Oglethorpe determined by a little 
stratagem to make him appear a double spy 
and thus frustrate his schemes. He therefore 
hired a prisoner to carry a letter to the deserter. 
^ ^ The letter was in French, ' ' said Oglethorpe, 
when relating the affair, ' ^ as if from a friend, 
telling him that he had received the money, and 
would strive to make the Spaniards believe the 
English were very weak ; that he should under- 
take to pilot their boats and galleys, and then 
bring them into the woods where the hidden 
batteries were. That if he could bring about 
all this, he should have double the reward, and 
that the French deserters should have all that 
had been promised them. 

^^The Spanish prisoner got into their 
camp,'' continued Oglethorpe, ^^and was im- 
mediately carried before the general. He was 
asked how he escaped and whether he had any 
letters ; but denying this, was searched and the 
letter found. And he, upon being pardoned, 
confessed that he had received money to carry 
it to the Frenchman, for the letter was not 
directed. The Frenchman, of course, denied 
knowing anything of the contents of the letter, 

War with the Spaniards Again 

or having received any money or had any 
correspondence with me. Notwithstanding 
which, a council of war was held and they de- 
cided the Frenchman a double spy, but the gen- 
eral would not suffer him to be executed, hav- 
ing been employed by himself. ^ ' 

The Spaniards were sadly perplexed, and, 
while deliberating, some English vessels ap- 
peared off the coast, thus apparently confirm- 
ing a statement of the letter, that ^ ^ six or seven 
men-of-war" were coming to their assistance. 
They decided to leave at once, and their fears 
increasing as the moments passed, they burned 
the barracks at St. Simons, and so hastily re- 
embarked that they left behind their great can- 
non, a quantity of ammunition and provisions, 
and those dead of their wounds unburied. In 
the meantime three or four large vessels had 
been seen off the north end of the island, and 
Oglethorpe, certainly expecting they were 
coming to his aid, sent Lieutenant Maxwell 
in a boat with a letter to the commanding 

The lieutenant found no vessels in sight. 
It was afterward learned that one was the 
Flamborough, and that when Captain Hamer 
was asked why he sailed away at so critical a 
time, replied that his orders were ^'to come and 
see if the Spanish fleet had possession of the 

James Oglethorpe 

fort, and, if they had, to return immediately to 
Carolina!" Fortunately the safety of Fred- 
erica did not depend on the assistance rendered 
by a sister colony whose officers seemed afraid 
to look a Spaniard in the face. 

By this time some of the invaders had put 
out to sea; others, landing at St. Andrews, 
camped for the night. Two days after 
twenty-eight vessels entered the harbor of Fort 
William and demanded the surrender of the 
garrison. But Ensign Stuart, having received 
promise of aid from General Oglethorpe, re- 
plied that he would not yield the fort, nor could 
they take it. Those who attempted to land 
were suddenly fired upon by rangers, who had^ 
by forced marches, just arrived, and were con- 
cealed behind the sand hills. The galleys tried 
to batter the fort with their cannon, but were 
soon disabled by the few eighteen-pounders of 
the fort. After an assault of three hours, 
the Spaniards gave up and retired to St. 

Again several English vessels were seen off 
St. Simons, and again they sailed away, reply- 
ing to the commander-in-chief 's summons that 
the orders from the Lieutenant-Governor of 
South Carolina were to return with the vessels 
in case the Spaniards were gone ; and Captain 
Hardy added that for his part he should go in 

War with the Spaniards Again 

search of a prize with the rest of the King's 

Thus with two ships and 800 men had 
Oglethorpe defeated an enemy having fifty- 
six ships and above 5fi00 men. Says Wright: 

Not only was the infant colony delivered from 
a formidable foe, but the people of South Carolina 
were saved from the horrors of a servile war such 
as that from which they had previously suffered, 
and that by a man whom they had persecuted and 
calumniated because he would not permit their 
traders to cheat the Indians and poison them with 

''The deliverance of Georgia from the Span- 
iards," wrote Whitefield, "is such as can not be 
paralleled but by some instances out of the Old 
Testament. The Spaniards had intended to attack 
Carolina, but wanting water, they put into Georgia, 
and so would take that colony on their way. They 
were wonderfully repelled, and sent away before 
our ships were seen." 

The Governors of New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North 
Carolina wrote to Oglethorpe thanking him for 
his invaluable services to the Carolinas, and ex- 
pressing their gratitude to God that he had 
placed the destinies of the southern colonies 
under the direction of one so well qualified for 
the important trust. 

It was the misfortune of South Carolina to 

James Oglethorpe 

be at that time under the rule of Governor Bull 
and his faction. The majority of their honor- 
able people heartily condemned his policy, and 
united with the people of Port Eoyal in their 
letter to General Oglethorpe, saying: ''If the 
Spaniards had succeeded in their attempts, 
they would have destroyed us, laid our prov- 
ince waste and desolate, and filled our habita- 
tions with blood and slaughter. . . . We are 
very sensible of the great protection and safety 
we have long enjoyed by having your Excel- 
lency to the southward of us; had you been 
cut off, we must, of course, have fallen. ' ' 




General Oglethorpe did not share the 
belief that the Spanish war was over. In his 
report, while rejoicing over the present deliv- 
erance, he wrote : 

I have sent all hands to work on the fortifica- 
tions, have sent northward to raise men for another 
battalion, have sent for cannon, shot, etc., for pro- 
visions and all kinds of stores, since I expect the 
enemy, who (though greatly terrified) lost but few 
men in comparison to their numbers, as soon as they 
have recovered from their fright, will attack us 
again with more caution and better discipline. 

I hope his Majesty will approve the measures 
I have taken, and that he will be graciously pleased 
to order troops, artillery, and other necessaries suffi- 
cient for the defense of this frontier and the neigh- 
boring provinces ; and I do not doubt with a mod- 
erate support, not only to be able to defend these 
provinces, but also to dislodge the enemy from St. 


After the War 

The following months brought new anxi- 
eties and new disappointments to General Ogle- 
thorpe. Captain Frankland, with a fleet of 
twelve vessels, arrived in August, and Ogle- 
thorpe joined him with ardent hopes of en- 
gaging the enemy and putting them to flight. 
But, with strange weakness, the captain re- 
fused to allow his vessels to venture over the 
bar of St. Augustine, and his ships returned to 
their various stations. 

Again, a detachment of 500 men from Ja- 
maica arrived in Charleston with orders to 
return if the Spaniards no longer threatened 
British territory. Their colonel was informed 
by Governor Bull that the southern colonies 
were perfectly safe and there was no necessity 
for him to proceed with his men to Georgia. 
In reference to this affair a gentleman of South 
Carolina wrote indignantly : 

This self-sufficiency of ours is well known to 
General Oglethorpe, who no doubt has been before- 
hand with me in animadverting upon it. . . . The 
general, in answer to a letter received, with that of 
the colonel, expressed himself with a good deal of 
warmth upon our not thinking ourselves in imme- 
diate danger, and to the colonel he answered that 
in his opinion the King's service required that the 
detachment should come to Frederica; but that 
since the people of this province did not apprehend 

James Oglethorpe 

immediate danger, he could not take it upon himself 
to give positive orders ; the colonel should do what 
appeared most agreeable to his instructions from 
General Wentworth. 

In reality the colonies were far from 
safety, as will be seen from a letter of 
Oglethorpe to the secretary, in which he in- 
forms him of the killing of a party of Ran- 
gers by Spanish troops, and of the burning 
of Mount Venture by the Yamasee Spanish 
Indians. Authentic information had also 
been received of large reenforcements ar- 
rived at St. Augustine; that the Spanish 
were determined to have revenge for their 
late defeat and losses, and their plan was to 
have the French make an attack along the 
Savannah River, while they would capture 

Oglethorpe again appealed to the home 
Government. "I shall do all I can," he wrote, 
"to balk their expectations. It was with 
much difficulty, and not without the apparent 
hand of God, that we made head this last 
time against a vastly superior force, and 
that with a very few cannon. Doubtless they 
are stronger now, and will take better meas- 
ures ; but we have no addition, and the men- 
of-war have refused to stay in the port." 

After the War 

On the same day the general wrote to the 
secretary complaining of the "stupidity, not 
to say worse/' of the Carolinians in prevent- 
ing the men-of-war from coming to his aid; 
for, said he, "the Spaniards intend, if they 
succeed in taking Georgia, to push their con- 
quests as far as Virginia; all North and 
South Carolina are full of provisions, and 
a very busy Spanish faction is stirring at 

Reading this, and much more showing the 
lethargy and indifference toward the fate of 
their colony across the sea, we are not sur- 
prised when a biographer of Oglethorpe re- 
calls the remark of Oxenstiem: "See, my 
son, with how little wisdom nations are gov- 
erned." The English Government was as 
slow in rewarding its soldiers as it was their 
general. The prize sloop captured by Cap- 
tain Dunbar, and now sent over to be valued 
and the amount given to captain and crew 
for gallant service, was for "many months" 
unnoticed, though Captain Dunbar "begged 
for an answer, as she was badly wanted in 
the colony." The long delay damaged the 
cargo, so that very little remained for the 

In the spring of this year, 1743, we find 
General Oglethorpe again in camp on the St. 

James Oglethorpe 

Johns. The Spaniards, having been largely 
reenforced, had repulsed successfully all In- 
dians sent against them, and a strong force 
was marching toward the St. Johns. The 
general resolved to attack them before they 
were joined by troops from Cuba, already on 
the way. 

His first attempt was successful. His 
Indians advanced undiscovered, and before 
daylight killed forty men, with the loss of 
only one on their side, and forced the enemy 
to retire within their walls. No efforts would 
induce them to make another advance at that 
time. "I did all I could to draw them into 
action," wrote Oglethorpe, "and having posted 
troops in ambuscade, advanced myself, with 
very few men, in sight of the town, intend- 
ing to skirmish and retire in order to draw 
them into the ambuscade; but they were so 
meek that there was no provoking them." 

"The Spaniards bearing all these insults 
gives our Indians a very contemptible no- 
tion of them," wrote an officer from the 
camp. "The general encourages this con- 
tempt, though he at the same time believes 
it no want of courage in the Spaniards, but 
that they wait to provoke him to some rash 
action, or to engage on disadvantageous 
ground, which, notwithstanding the generaPs 
13 181 

After the War 

vivacity, he seems always cautious to beware 
of. It is also probable that they may have 
orders not to hazard anything in small ac- 
tions, but to keep their troops entire until 
the arrival of the armament from Cuba.'' 

Oglethorpe's schooner and the Success 
were cruising off the Florida coast. The 
general sometimes joined them. While sail- 
ing up the channel to reconnoiter St. Augus- 
tine he came near being killed by the bursting 
of a gun on board. He was so severely hurt 
that the blood gushed from his nose and ears, 
but he soon recovered to reassure his horri- 
fied men. 

Failing to draw out the Spanish, Ogle- 
thorpe returned to Frederica with his Indians, 
whose devotion and prompt response to his 
summons were a great satisfaction, and in 
unhappy contrast to the attitude of some 
Carolinians, who still withheld their support. 
Andrew E-utledge, Esq., of Charleston, and 
Chief Justice of South Carolina, was not 
among that class. He wrote of those In- 
dians: "They are much charmed with his Ex- 
cellency's noble conduct, and their adherence 
to the English is now too well established for 
even the nonsense of this place to remove 
or weaken. This late motion of his has done 
an inconceivable service to our quiet here for 

James Oglethorpe 

the present, though we murmur because he 
was the actor; for the majority of this town 
like nothing more than to lay hold on all oc- 
casions to villify the man to whom they owe 
their protection." 

Human nature was the same then as now, 
and we have no doubt Captain Dunbar was 
correct when he concluded "that what were 
thought to be the sentiments of that province 
was no more than the voice of Charleston 
factors, who for their commissions bartered 
the effects of British merchants with planters 
for their crops, and who would never put the 
welfare of their country in competition with 
their profit in trade." 

That the conduct of the Governor of South 
Carolina proceeded from ignorance, as Ogle- 
thorpe suggested, is more than doubtful. He 
could scarcely have pursued a course more 
deliberately dangerous than that recounted 
in the next letter from Oglethorpe himself, 
who says: 

The Spaniards are now preparing for an expedi- 
tion from Havannah. In their late invasion of this 
province, one of our chief advantages lay in their 
want of pilots and guides. The Governor of St! 
Augustine has sent to Charleston a Spanish vessel 
to exchange prisoners, many of whom are pilots by 
water or guides by land. Lieutenant-Governor 

After the War 

Bull suffered this vessel, which was commanded by 
one of the Spaniards' best pilots, to go over, and 
consequently learn the bar of that town, and ven- 
tured to receive a message from his Majesty's ene- 
mies, without acquainting the general who com- 
mands in chief his Majesty's forces in that province. 
He also received Alexander Paris, who piloted the 
Spaniards into St. Simons harbor, and who now 
walks about Charleston in full liberty. . . . 

These pilots may be of the greatest advantage to 
the Spaniards in the ensuing expedition, if designed 
against us, since it lays our harbors open and makes 
the fastnesses of our woods less advantageous. . . . 

Very soon Oglethorpe forwarded to Eng- 
land documents, sworn and proved, which re- 
vealed the fact that not only provisions, but 
ammu/nition, were delivered in St. Augustine 
by vessels from Charleston! 

The Spaniards made every effort to se- 
duce the Indians from their allegiance to the 
English, but in vain. Similli, a Creek chief, 
went into St. Augustine, as he said, "to know 
what they were doing." The Spaniards there 
offered him large sums of money for every 
English prisoner he would bring in; showed 
him fine scarlet clothes and a sword which 
they had presented to the captain of the 
Yamasees, saying of Oglethorpe: "He is 
poor, he can give you nothing; it is foolish 
for you to go back to him." 

James Oglethorpe 

The Creek answered: "We love him. It 
is true he does not give ns silver, but he 
gives us everything we want that he has. He 
has given me the coat off his back and the 
blanket from under him." Then they quar- 
reled with him, struck him with a sword, 
leaving a scar which he showed after his 




Among the colonial records of this date 
is a letter from Captain George Dunbar to 
the Duke of Newcastle. In this letter Cap- 
tain Dunbar says that he had been instructed 
by General Oglethorpe to ask leave for him 
to come home "at such a time as he should 
find it necessary for the king's service to lay 
before his Majesty the situation of that coun- 
try." There was then imperative necessity 
for Oglethorpe's going to England. "His 
pecuniary resources were dried up, and bills 
which he had drawn for his Majesty's service 
to the amount of £12,000 had been returned 
dishonored !" He put the frontier in the best 
possible state of defense, appointed Mr. Ste- 
phens Deputy Governor of Savannah, and 
that efficient officer Major Horton military 
commander of Frederica. On July 23, 1743, 
he embarked in the Success for England. 

In the memoir of General Lachlin Mcln- 

Return to England 

tosh, of Revolutionary fame, is related an 
incident occurring just before General Ogle- 
thorpe left Georgia. It will be remembered 
that in 1740 that gallant captain John Moore 
Mcintosh had been taken captive. He was 
for four months confined in St. Augustine, 
then in Havana for three months, when he 
was taken to St. Sebastian, in old Spain, and 
confined in the common jail, with no allow- 
ance but bread and water. The year follow- 
ing he was released, but died soon after, 
leaving two sons, William and Lachlin. 
Oglethorpe attached the two young men to 
his regiment, and in due time obtained for 
them commissions. They heard of an upri- 
sing in their native Highlands, and determined 
to return to Scotland and enlist under the 
Pretender. They concealed themselves in the 
hold of the vessel, but were discovered, and 
before the vessel sailed were brought before 
Oglethorpe, who was on board. 

He reminded them of his esteem for their 
father, and sought to persuade them of their 
folly and the hopelessness of every attempt 
of the Stuarts. The boys appeared to be un- 
convinced. He then informed them that it 
would be his duty to put them under arrest, 
but added: "Assure me you will think no 
more of your wild project; keep your own 

James Oglethorpe 

secret, and I shall forget all tliat has passed 
between us." The boys were now subdued, 
promised to follow his advice, and were sent 
on shore, never again to see the face of their 
benefactor. One of them became in after- 
years brigadier-general of the Revolutionary 
army, and related to his biographer this 
story of his last interview with General Ogle- 

We might now expect to find a record of 
thanks from Parliament to the man who had 
rendered his country such unselfish, able 
service. No such record appears, although 
Admiral Vernon, who had perhaps taken bet- 
ter care of himself than of his country on 
this occasion, received a vote of thanks from 
that discriminating body. Nor could Ogle- 
thorpe retire to his country-seat, at Godal- 
ming, a laurel-crowned hero. His estates 
were encumbered by liabilities incurred in the 
public service, which a tardy Parliament 
failed to acknowledge, though the Lords Jus- 
tices not only passed the accounts, but sanc- 
tioned an additional outlay of £8,000 a year. 

Yet nothing was done during that session 
of Parliament. For fifteen months it went 
on, until, to the great relief of his faithful 
agents, Oglethorpe reached England, Septem- 
ber 28, 1743. Enemies from Charleston had 

Return to England 

arrived before him. He had long ago been 
informed of the intrigues which Colonel 
Cooke, chief engineer of his own regiment, 
and Vanderdussen, hero of the Carolina fac- 
tion, were carrying on against him. He had 
wasted neither time nor thought on their 
venomous attacks — the defense of two colo- 
nies he had ever placed before his own in- 
terests — but having discharged those higher 
duties, he was now ready to refute their 

Alexander Vanderdussen was a disrepu- 
table Dutchman, driven from his own country 
for criminal conduct ; afterward employed by 
the Spaniards in the Philippine Islands, from 
whence he carried off a wealthy lady for her 
effects and settled in South Carolina. This 
man the General Assembly of that colony had 
selected to lead a regiment to Oglethorpe's 
assistance. He failed to render the general 
any efficient aid, but was wily enough to make 
it appear so, and became the hero of the day, 
while all failures were attributed to Ogle- 
thorpe. Notwithstanding his protests of 
fidelity to his commander, he joined in the 
accusations of Colonel Cooke — the invalid 
colonel, who scented danger from afar and 
retired under pretense of illness, first to 
Charleston, then to England, to recruit his 

James Oglethorpe 

health. He owed all his promotion to Gen- 
eral Oglethorpe, but gratitude was not among 
his virtues, and he presented nineteen articles 
against the moral and military character of 
his patron. 

A board of officers sat for two days ex- 
amining the charges, article after article, and 
the witnesses on both sides. At the conclu- 
sion the officers unanimously pronounced the 
whole accusation, " in each cmd all of its 
articles, false, malicious, and groundless, ^^ 
The board made a report of the same to his 
Majesty, also adding several facts proved 
against Colonel Cooke, and the King ordered 
that officer dismissed from the service. 

Meantime, amid his embarrassments, Ogle- 
thorpe remembered his colony across the seas 
and continued to make urgent appeals in 
their behalf. Reports from Major Horton 
were gratifying to the anxious general. While 
they were daily expecting an invasion from 
the Spaniards, they were of good courage, in 
good health, the men all at their posts and 
determined not to give up the colony but with 
their lives. The young province was learn- 
ing the lesson of self-reliance and self-sup- 
port. The mother country seemed to have 
thrown them off; neither do we find any in- 
timation that Oglethorpe was ever repaid the 

Return to England 

large amounts expended from his private 
means in this public service. 

The year 1744 was an eventful one to 
Oglethorpe. In March he had been selected 
as one of the general officers appointed to 
oppose the threatened invasion of France ; in 
May he was on the committee of the Found- 
ling Hospital; in September his marriage 
occurred — an event only surprising because 
so long delayed. He was fifty-five when 
united to Elizabeth, only child and heiress of 
Sir Nathan Wright, Bart., of Cranham Hall, 
Essex. It is with satisfaction that we learn, 
in regard to this union, "the evening of their 
lives was tranquil and pleasant after a stormy 

The manor in the village of Cranham was 
henceforth their home. Here for forty years 
the general retired when not in service, and 
enjoyed the rural occupations in which he took 
delight. The old mansion no longer exists; 
the only structures that yet remain of that 
old home are the walls of the extensive gar- 
dens. "These walls, beyond which was a 
fosse, being about twelve feet high and two 
feet thick, are strongly built of red brick, and 
loopholed; while the gates, likewise unim- 
paired except by time, are fine specimens of 
workmanship in wrought iron." 

James Oglethorpe 

Mrs. Oglethorpe's fortune greatly relieved 
the financial embarrassment of her husband, 
for it was many years before his own estates 
were free from the heavy burdens his services 
in Georgia had left upon them. In 1745 Ogle- 
thorpe was promoted to the rank of major- 
general, and owing to home troubles in the 
rebellion of the ^' Young Pretender," was de- 
tained in England by order of the Govern- 
ment. From his colony he heard that the 
Indians still continued faithful, and were 
looking for his return; that the Spaniards 
had made no further advances, but were 
abundantly supplied with provisions from 
New York and South Carolina. Oglethorpe 
raised some recruits for the Georgia Rangers, 
but when the Success, with the men and sup- 
plies on board, was ready for sea, she was 
ordered to Hull instead. 

Oglethorpe, with other troops, was sent to 
join the Duke of Cumberland, and in three 
days the newly raised forces marched over 
snow and ice more than one hundred miles. 
The duke gave orders for immediate pursuit 
of the rebels. For four days they continued 
this, with hot skirmishing on both sides. 
The weather was fearful, the troops ex- 
hausted, but surely gaining on the retreating 
enemy, until at last the Young Pretender 

Return to England 

realized his case was hopeless, and with his 
deluded followers departed for Scotland. 

The Duke of Cumberland returned to 
London with flying colors and as much ap- 
plause as if the rebellion had been completely 
quelled. During the short struggle General 
Oglethorpe had several times remonstrated 
with the royal duke for allowing cruelties on 
the adherents of the Pretender. Though 
willing and anxious to crush the rebellion, he 
refused to be a party to any barbarity, or 
even injustice, and thus incurred the dis- 
pleasure of the duke, who had him arraigned 
before a military tribunal for having "lin- 
gered on the road." 

Oglethorpe was duly tried and "honorably 
acquitted" by a court-martial of eight gen- 
erals and brigadiers and seven colonels. The 
Gazette of the day announced this, adding: 
"His Majesty was pleased to confirm the 
verdict." Oglethorpe had now attained the 
rank of lieutenant-general. He regularly at- 
tended the sessions of Parliament, speaking 
occasionally upon some bill to relieve distress 
or correct abuses. In behalf of the Mora- 
vians, or United Brethren, he made a long 
and impressive argument, tracing their origin 
and history and giving the constitution of 
their Church, bearing testimony to their pious 

James Oglethorpe 

and useful labors in the colonies. "A bill to 
the desired effect having passed the Com- 
mons, was carried by sixteen members to the 
House of Lords, where Oglethorpe, as their 
spokesman, delivered it to Lord Chancellor 
Hardwicke. The bill was approved by their 
lordships, and received the royal assent." 

In this, as in other measures for the good 
of the soldiers, Oglethorpe was in the minor- 
ity. He was often in advance of his time. 
His high sense of justice and honor did not 
always meet with a happy or heartfelt re- 
sponse. His plain talk of the duty of Parlia- 
ment grew monotonous, and perhaps more 
than one member echoed the sentiments of 
Walpole, who said of him: ^'It was very cer- 
tain that he was a troublesome and tiresome 
speaker, though even that was now and then 
tempered with sense." 

It was fortunate for the colony of Georgia, 
and a source of great satisfaction to Ogle- 
thorpe, that he could leave at the head of 
affairs brave and true men — ^men who not only 
governed their own province with discretion, 
but afterward rendered essential service dur- 
ing the war of the Revolution. They may 
even be said to have taken part in the battle 
of Bunker Hill, for it is related that "Joseph 
Habersham, Noble Jones, and a few others 

Return to England 

broke open the king's magazine at Savannah, 
took from it 500 pounds of powder and sent 
it to Boston, where it was used in the battle 
of Bunker Hill." 

When, a little later, two British men-of- 
war appeared at Tybee, near Savannah, the 
"Council of Safety" met and, without a dis- 
senting voice, resolved to burn their homes 
rather than allow them to fall into the hands 
of the British. So long as Oglethorpe had 
continued with the colony he opposed and 
prevented the introduction of negro slaves. 
After his departure various influences united 
to favor their coming. England had always 
urged it; the climate, the English thought, 
called for the negro laborer. 

Bancroft tells us that so good and up- 
right a man as Whitefield "believed that God's 
providence would certainly make slavery ter- 
minate to the good of the Africans, and he 
pleaded before the trustees in its favor, as 
essential to the good of Georgia." The oppo- 
sition of the Moravians was quieted by this 
message from Germany: "If you take slaves 
in faith, and with the intent of conducting 
them to Christ, the action will not be a sin, 
and may prove a benediction." 

The Hon. James Habersham, friend of 
Whitefield, provincial secretary, and acknowl- 

James Oglethorpe 

edged to be ''one of the sweetest, purest, most 
useful, and noblest characters in the long line 
of colonial worthies," counseled the introduc- 
tion of slaves. Oglethorpe and the trustees 
had often received petitions to have slaves 
brought in, but had always refused to listen 
to such requests, pointing to the neighboring 
colony, where slaves had brought the people 
to the brink of ruin. The Salzburgers and 
Highlanders had refused to sign such peti- 
tions, and drew up a counter one, giving good 
reasons against the bringing in of slaves, espe- 
cially the nearness of the Spaniards (who pro- 
claimed freedom to all slaves who ran from 
their masters) and the wrong to the negro. 
''For our own sakes, our wives, our children, 
and our posterity,'' they concluded, "we pro- 
test against it." The majority prevailed. 
The negroes were at first hired from their 
owners in South Carolina, and finally pur- 
chased from them and the northern colonies. 




Oglethorpe's public career ended in 1754, 
when he and his colleague failed to be re- 
turned from Haslemere, the borough they had 
so long represented in Parliament. Hence- 
forth his life was retired, and not much is 
known concerning him. Occasionally we hear 
of him in the literary circles of that day. 
The sympathies which attracted him to Oliver 
Goldsmith are easily recognized in the fol- 
lowing letter: 

How just, sir, were your observations that the 
poorest objects were by extreme poverty deprived 
of the benefit of hospitals erected for the relief of 
the poorest ! Extreme poverty, which should be the 
strongest recommendation to charity, is here the 
insurmountable objection, which leaves the dis- 
tressed to perish. The qualifying such persons to 
receive the benefits of hospitals answers the inten- 
tions of the intended society. The design is the im- 
mediate relief from perishing, thereby giving time 
and protection to get proper destinations, and the 
14 197 

James Oglethorpe 

being admitted into a hospital is the proper des- 
tination. You were so good as to offer to distribute 
such sums as should be sent you. At the same time 
that I am to return you thanks for your charitable 
offer, I am to send you five pounds to distribute for 
that purpose, in the time and manner you think 
proper. Which I accordingly herewith send. . . . 
If a farm and a mere country scene will be a 
little refreshment from the smoke of London, we 
shall be glad of the happiness of seeing you at 
Cranham Hall. It is sixteen miles from the Three 
Nuns at Whitechapel, where Prior, our stage-coach, 
inns. He sets out at two in the afternoon. I am, sir, 
Your obedient humble servant, 

J. Oglethorpe. 
Cranham Hall. 

On April 13, 1773, Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
Goldsmith, and Boswell dined with Ogle- 
thorpe at his town house, and while the lat- 
ter did not join in a discussion between the 
two doctors, he much enjoyed at the close a 
song from Goldsmith, "to a pretty Irish tune, 
The Humors of Bellamagairy." 

Just one year later they met again with 
Oglethorpe. Goldsmith had died, but there 
joined them Mr. Langston and the Irish Dr. 
Campbell. It was on this occasion that Dr. 
Johnson urged Oglethorpe to give the world 
his Life. Dr. Campbell states that Ogle- 



POBLir I.^nRA.RY. 


old Age and Death 

thorpe "excused himself, saying that the life 
of a private man was not worthy of public 
notice," and seemed also to excuse himself on 
the score of incapacity. Yet he asked Bos- 
well to bring him some good almanac that he 
might recollect dates; whereupon Boswell 
said he need only furnish the skeleton, and 
that Dr. Johnson would supply bones and 
sinews. "He would be a good doctor who 
could do that," retorted Oglethorpe. "Well," 
said Campbell, "he is a good doctor," at which 
Johnson laughed very heartily. 

The American Revolution had now begun, 
and one of our historians, Mr. Hugh McCall, 
states that the British offered to General 
Oglethorpe command of the forces sent to 
subdue the colonists, but that he refused to 
accept the position unless the ministry would 
authorize him to assure the colonists that 
justice should be done them; apparently a 
reasonable request, yet Oglethorpe remained 
in England. 

There appears to be some doubt about the 
authenticity of this story ; especially is it im- 
probable when one remembers that Ogle- 
thorpe was then in his eighty-eighth year. 
But we have no reason to doubt his declara- 
tion, "that he knew the people of America 
well; that they could never be subdued by 

James Oglethorpe 

arms, but their obedience could ever be se- 
cured by treating them justly.'^ 

Holmes, in his Annals of America, gives 
an incident occurring at the close of the war : 
A day or two after John Adams arrived in 
London as ambassador from the United 
States he was waited upon by Oglethorpe, 
who politely introduced himself and said: 

"I am come to pay my respects to the 
first American ambassador and his family, 
whom I am very glad to see in England." 
He then wrote Mr. Adams, expressed his 
great regard for America, much regret at the 
misunderstanding between the two countries, 
and added that he was happy to have lived to 
see the termination of it. Mr. Adams re- 
turned the visit and had another interview 
of an hour or two, but failed to report any- 
thing further. 

In the year 1783 Horace Walpole wrote to 
the Countess of Ossary that he had just made 
the acquaintance of one a little his senior; 
that they were to be intimate a long time, for 
his new friend was but ninety-four! The 
new friend was Oglethorpe, whom he had not 
seen for twenty years, yet knew him in- 
stantly. "As he did not recollect me,'^ says 
Walpole, "I told him it was a proof how lit- 
tle he was altered, and I how much. I said 

old Age and Death 

I would visit him ; he replied, * No, no ; I can 
walk better than yon. I will come to you.' " 
Later on, the same writer spoke of Ogle- 
thorpe as having the activity of youth com- 
pared with himself, who was twenty years 
younger, and declared that "Oglethorpe's 
eyes, ears, articulation, limbs, and memory 
would suit a boy, if a boy could recollect a 
century backward. His teeth are gone, he is 
a shadow, and a wrinkled one ; but his spirits 
and his spirit are in full bloom." This was 
from the man who never admired him, and 
who, after Oglethorpe's death, wrote again 
to the countess : 

I make no commentary on General Oglethorpe 's 
death, madam, because his very long life was the 
curiosity, and the moment he is dead the rarity is 
over ; and as he was but ninety-seven he will not be a 
prodigy compared to those who reached to a century 
and a half. He is like many who make a noise in 
their own time from some singularity which is for- 
gotten when it comes to be registered with others of 
the same genius, but more extraordinary of their 
kind. How little will Dr. Johnson be remembered 
when confounded with the mass of authors of his 
own caliber ! 

We need not be surprised at these remark- 
able sentiments coming from one who, if he 

James Oglethorpe 

always spoke of Oglethorpe as a "bully," de- 
nominated George Washington "an excellent 
fanfaron," and seemed, as Macaulay ob- 
served, "never to have formed a single 
friendship." Very different was the estimate 
placed upon him by Burke, who once re- 
marked that he looked upon Oglethorpe as a 
more extraordinary person than any he had 
ever read of, for he founded a province and 
lived to see it severed from the empire which 
created it, and become an independent state. 
Hannah More, describing him when he was 
above ninety, writes to her sister: 

I have got a new admirer, and we flirt together 
prodigiously ; it is the famous General Oglethorpe, 
perhaps the most remarkable man of his time. He 
is above ninety years old, and the finest figure of a 
man I ever saw. He perfectly realizes my ideas of 
Nestor. His literature is great, his knowledge of the 
world extensive, and his faculties as bright as ever. 
He is one of the three persons still living who were 
mentioned by Pope. Lord Mansfield and Lord 
Marchmont are the other two. He was the intimate 
friend of Southern, the tragic poet, and all the wits 
of his time. I went to see him the other day and he 
would have entertained me by repeating passages 
from Sir Eldred (her first work). He is quite a 
preux chevalier, heroic, romantic, and full of the 
old gallantry. 


old Age and Death 

The poets Thompson and Pope sang his 
praises, and Dr. Wharton, who knew him 
well, quoting Pope's famous couplet. 

One driven by strong benevolence of soul, 
Shall fly like Oglethorpe from pole to pole, 

said: ''Here are lines that will justly confer 
immortality on a man who well deserved so 
magnificent an eulogium. He was at once a 
great hero and a great legislator; . . . the 
variety of his advantages and the different 
scenes in which he has been engaged make 
me regret that his life has never been written. 
His settlement of Georgia gave a greater 
luster to his character than even his military 
exploits." Time has not changed this esti- 
mate of his character, if we may trust the 
judgment of Bancroft, who thus describes 

The gentleness of Oglethorpe's nature appeared 
in all his actions. He was merciful to the prisoner ; 
a father to the emigrant ; the unwavering friend of 
Wesley ; the constant benefactor of the Moravians ; 
honestly zealous for the conversion of the Indians ; 
invoking for the negro the panoply of the Gospel. 
He was, for a commercial age, the representative 
of that chivalry which knew neither fear nor re- 
proach, and felt a stain on honor like a wound. 

Loyal and brave ; choleric yet merciful ; versed 

James Oglethorpe 

in elegant letters; affable even to talkativeness, 
slightly boastful and tinged with vanity — he was 
ever ready to shed blood rather than brook an in- 
sult, but more ready to expose life for those who 
looked to him for defense. A monarchist in the 
state, friendly to the Church, he seemed like one 
who had survived his times — like the relic of a 
former century and a more chivalrous age — illus- 
trating to the modern world of business what a 
crowd of virtues and of charities could cluster 
around the heart of a cavalier. 

Still healthy and vigorous, Oglethorpe 
could at ninety-five outwalk men not half his 
age, and to the end his hearing was acute and 
his eyes undimmed — all of which he attrib- 
uted as much to his remarkably abstemious 
life as to his active employments. 

He was at last attacked by a violent fever 
and died at Cranham Hall on the morning of 
July 1, 1785. His body was laid in the family 
vault of the Wrights within Cranham Church. 
Mrs. Oglethorpe placed in the northern wall 
of the chapel a monumental tablet. The in- 
scription on this tablet, like those found on 
old tombstones of that day, was lengthy. It 
sets forth the disposition, affections, virtues, 
public employments, private charities, even 
extending to his marriage and giving a hint 
of his wife's connections and prospects as 

old Age and Death 

heiress of a baronet — in fact, a short biog- 
raphy done in marble. Two years later Mrs. 
Oglethorpe died and was placed beside her 
adored husband. Her obituary in the Gen- 
tlemen's Magazine contained this testimony 
to her worth : 

Very many and continual were her acts of 
charity and benevolence, but as she would herself 
been hurt by any display of them in her lifetime, 
we shall say no more. Not to have mentioned them 
at all would have been unjust to her memory, and 
not less so to the world, in which such an example 
may operate as an incitement to others to go and 
do likewise. 

Few relics of Oglethorpe have been pre- 
served. "His house at St. Simons was de- 
stroyed by fire; so also was Cranham Hall, 
and with it every private record of his life." 
In the library of Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, is a manuscript French version of 
the Bible, finely illuminated, presented by 
him to the college; and in Savannah, Ga., 
was a Bible given by him to the Masonic 
lodge. He once sat to Reynolds for his por- 
trait by request of the Duke of Rutland, but 
that picture, with many others of Sir Josh- 
ua's, was destroyed by a fire at Belvoir. 

There is an engraved likeness of Ogle- 

James Oglethorpe 

thorpe, taken a few montlis before his death, 
when reading without spectacles at the sale 
of Dr. Johnson's library. One other likeness 
of the general, with his Indian pupil by his 
side, was presented by himself to Mr. Noble 
Jones, of Georgia, but was lost in the capture 
of Savannah by the British in 1778 — a sad 
loss to the State whose earliest settlers called 
him ^'Father." They long hoped for his re- 
turn, rejoiced in his prosperity, were proud 
to know that the King had promoted to a 
generalship their commander-in-chief, and 
that for many years he was senior general 
of the British army. The record of his life, 
so full of benevolence and patriotism pure 
and unselfish, will ever be a rich legacy to the 
children of Georgia. 


old Age and Death 


Near this place lie the remains of 

James Edward Oglethorpe, Esq., 

who served under Prince Eugene, and in 

1714 was Captain-Lieutenant in the 

1st troop of Queen's Guards. 
In 1740 he was appointed Colonel of a regiment 

to be raised in Georgia. 

In 1745 he was appointed Major-General; 

In 1747 Lieutenant- General ; and 

In 1765 General of His Majesty's forces. 
In his civil station he was very early conspicuous. 

He was chosen M.P. for Halsmere in Surrey in 

1722, and continued to represent it until 1754. 
In the Committee of Parliament for enquiring into 

the state of the Gaols, formed Feb. 25th, 1728 
and of which he was chairman, 
the active and preserving zeal of his benevolence 

found a truly suitable employment, 
by visiting with his colleagues of that generous body, 

the dark and pestilential dungeons of the prisons 

which at that time dishonored the Metropolis, 
detecting the most enormous oppressions ; 
obtaining exemplary punishment on those 
who had been guilty of such outrages against humanity and 


James Oglethorpe 

Jitetice, and restoring multitudes from extreme misery 
to light and freedom. 
Of these, about 700, rendered, 
by long confinement for debt, 
strangers and helpless in the country of their birth, and 
desirous of seeking an asylum in the wilds of America, 

were by him conducted thither in 1732. 
He willingly encountered in their behalf a variety of 
fatigue and danger, and thus became the 
Founder of the Colony of Georgia ; which 
(Founded on the ardent wish for liberty) 
Set the noble example of prohibiting the importation of slaves. 
This new establishment he strenuously and successfully defended 

against a powerful invasion of Spaniards. 
In the year in which he quitted England to found this settlement, 
he^nobly strove to restore our true national defenses by 
Sea and Land, 
A free navy without impressing ; a constitutional militia. 
But his sole affections were more enlarged than 
even the term Patriotism can express. 
He was the friend of the oppressed negro ; 
No part of the world was too remote, 
No interest too unconnected or too opposed to his own. 
To prevent his immediate succor of suffering humanity. 
For such qualities he received from the ever 

memorable John, Duke of Argyle, 
a full testimony in the British Senate to 
his military character, his natural generosity, 
his contempt of danger, and his regard for the Publick. 
A similar encomium is perpetuated in a foreign language ; 
and, by one of our most celebrated Poets, his remembrance 


Old Age and Death 

is transmitted to Posterity in lines justly expressive 
of the purity, the ardor, the extent of his benevolence. 

He lived till the 1st of July 1785, 
a venerable instance to what a fulness of duration 
and of continued usefulness 
a life of temperance and virtuous labor 
is capable of being protracted. 
His widow, Elizabeth, 
Daughter of Sir Nathan Wrighte, Cranham Hall Essex, Bart., 
and only sister and heiress of Sir Samuel Wrighte Bart, of the 
same place, surviving with regret 
(though with due submission to Divine Providence) 
an affectionate husband, after a union of more than 40 years, 
hath inscribed to his memory 
These faint traces of his excellent character. 



Ba_ncroft: History of the United States. 

Biographical Memoirs of Oglethorpe. 

Carlylh: Frederick the Great. 

Grantz : History of the Moravians. 

Gentleman's Magazine, London. 

Harris : Rise and Progress of the Colony of Georgia. 

Hannah More's Letters. 

Holmes : Annals of America. 

HiLDRETH : History of the United States. 

He WATT: History of Georgia and South Carolina. 

Jones : History of Georgia. 

Lawson: Voyage to Carolina. 

Moore : Journal. 

Moore : Life of the Wesleys. 

Oglethorpe: Account of the Provinces South Carolina 

and Georgia. 
Rogers : Table Talk. ' 

Ray : A Compleat History of the Rebellion. 
Stephens : Journal of the Proceedings of Georgia. 
Spalding : Collections of Georgia Historical Society. 
Salmon : Universal History. 
Scott's Magazine, London. 
Strobel : History of the Salzburgers. 

Authorities Consulted 

Thorsby : History of Leeds. 
Wright: Memoir of Oglethorpe. 
Wesley: Journal. 
Whitefield: Letters. 
Von Reck: Journal. 



A DAMS, JOHN, 200. 

African slave trade, 53; importa- 
tion of slaves prohibited, 54. 

Alligators, 70. 

Amelia Island, attacked by Span- 
iards, 120. 

American Revolution, 199. 

Annals of America, 200. 

Argyle, Dvike of, 138. 

Authorities consulted, 210. 


-^—^ scription of Oglethorpe, 203. 

Bathurst, Sir Thomas, 58. 

Belcher, Governor of Massachu- 
setts, congratulations from, 33; 
ideas of slavery, 55. 

Bull, Governor, 162, 163, 176, 178. 

CAMPAIGN against the Span- 
ish, 168 et seq. 

Carolina Indians, 120. 

Carolina traders, 105. 

Carolinians, 158, 180. 

Castell, Mr., his imprisonment for 
debt, 9. 

Causton, Thomas, deputy-gov- 
ernor of Georgia, 46. 

Cherokee Indians, 3, 114, 126, 159. 

Chickasaws, allies of Oglethorpe, 
110; desert Oglethorpe, 134, 

Choctaws, allies of Oglethorpe, 
110, 113. 

Cochran, Lieutenant - Colonel 

James, 99. 
Colonies attacked by Spanish 

fleet, 164. 
Colonists of Darien and Frederica, 

Colony of Carolina, 1. 
Colony of Georgia, 15; character 

of, 17. 
Colony of South Carolina, 21. 
Compleat Collection of Voyages 

and Travels, 102. 
Cooke, Colonel, 189. 
Coquina, 140. 
Corpus Christi College, 5. 
Council of Safety, 195. 
Cranham Church, memorial tablet 

in, 207. 
Cranham Hall, residence of Ogle- 
thorpe, 191. 
Creek Indians, 71, 87, 124, 157; 

furnish warriors, 110; treaty 

with, 112. 
Cuming, Sir Alexander, 2; sent as 

an embassy to the Cherokees, 3. 


ARIEN, town of, 58. 

Demerd, Captain Raymond, 141. 
Dempsey, Mr., commissioner to 

Spanish Governor of Florida, 

71, 72. 
Don Francisco del Morale Sanchey , 

Governor of St. Augustine, 75, 

76, 86, 98, 114, 119. 



James Oglethorpe 

Drake, Sir Francis, 71, 73. 
Duke of Cumberland, 192, 193. 
Dunbar, Captain George, 183, 



Emigration to Georgia, 1732, 13, 
14; from Austria, 37, 58. 

English Government declares war 
against Spain, 115; vigorous 
prosecution of war against 
Spain, 149, 180. 

English Parliament, 53. 


LORIDA Indians, 101. 

Fort Argyle, 34, 36. 

Fort George, 88. 

Fort Moosa, 129. 

Fort Picolata, 125. 

Fort San Diego, 121, 131, 134. 

Fort St. Andrews, residence of 
Oglethorpe, 105. 

Fort St. Francis, 124; surrenders 
to Oglethorpe, 125. 

Fort William, attack upon, re- 
pulsed, 174. 

Frederica, 36, 78, 84, 140, 142, 

South Carolina, 114, 123; 

fails to give succor, 126, 189. 
Georgia, history of , by Stevens, 16; 

deliverance from Spanish, 175. 
Georgia colony in great danger, 

Georgia orphanage, 143, 144, 145, 

Georgia Rangers, 192. 
Goldsmith, Oliver, 197. 
Gordon, Rev. Alexander, 143. 
Governor Bull, refuses assistance 

to Oglethorpe, 162, 163, 176. 
Governor of South Carolina, gives 

assistance, 27, 183. 

Governor of St. Augustine, 75, 76, 
86; orders English merchants to 
leave, 98; instigates revolt 
among negroes, 114; treaty 
with, 119. 

Guarda-costas of the Spanish, 118. 

148, 195. 
Habersham, Joseph, 194. 
Haddock, Admiral, 119. 
Hamer Captain, 161, 173. 
Hewatt, Dr., Scotch minister, 15. 
Highlanders, 58, 89, 121, 168, 196. 
Highland Rangers, 124, 131. 
History of Georgia, by Stevens, 

Horton, Major, 190. 
Huss, John, 43. 

TMPRISONMENT for debt, 8. 

Indian chiefs pledge loyalty to 
Oglethorpe, 105. 

Indians, 66, 67; troubles with, 70; 
hatred toward the Spaniards, 
71; treaty with, 32, 112, 192. 

Indians, Lower Creek, 30; treaty 
with, 32. 

Inscription on monumental tab- 
let in Cranham Church, 207. 

Israelites, colony of, 35. 

JAILS of London, 9, 10, 11. 

Jekyll Island, 142. 
Jekyll, Joseph, 36. 
Johnson, Samuel, 198. 
Jones, Colonel Charles, 17. 
Jones, Noble, 145, 194. 
Journal of the Trustees, 17. 


T IQUORS, prohibited, 53. 

London Daily Post, editorial on 
Georgia colony, 96. 



London jails, horrors of, 9, 10, 11. 

Lord Baltimore, 158. 

Lower Creek Indians, 30, 100. 

HUGH, 125. 

Malachee, "Emperor of the 
Creeks," 109. 

McCall, Hugh, 199. 

McPherson, Captain, 34, 123. 

Margravate of Azilia, 1. 

Mcintosh, General Lachlin, 69, 

Mcintosh, Captain John More 85, 
133, 197. 

MeUidge, John, 144, 145, 146, 147. 

Missionaries to the Indians, 50, 61. 

Montgomery, Sir Robert, 1, 2, 12. 

Monumental tablet to Oglethorpe, 

Moore, Francis, ;60. 

Moravians, 59, 60, 193. 

More Hannah, describes Ogle- 
thorpe 202. 

Mount Venture, burning of, by 
Spanish Indians, 179. 

Musgrove, Mary, 25. 

Mutiny among soldiers, 106. 


EGRO slaves, 53. 

Negroes, revolt among, in South 
Carolina, 114. 

OBITUARY of Oglethorpe's 
wife, 205. 
Oglethorpe, James, founder of 
Georgia, ancestry and early 
years, 1, 3; succeeds to family 
estate, 5; birth, 5; education, 5; 
incident in his young soldier 
life, 5; enters English army as 
ensign, 6; goes to the Continent 
and enlists, 6; elected to Parlia- 
ment, 8; chairman of committee 
on prisons, 9; petitions throne 
for charter, 12 ; publishes essays, 


12; leaves England with colony, 
20; authorized to act as Colonial 
Governor, 2 1 ; arrival at Charles- 
ton, 21; explores Savannah 
River, 22; makes stringent 
laws against sale of intoxicating 
liquors, 22; letter to trustees, 
23; interview with Tomo Chi- 
chi, 25; describes Georgia 
province, 25; makes address to 
General Assembly of South 
Carolina, 29; excursion to in- 
terior, 33; explores southern 
coast, 35; offers home to Salz- 
burgers, 38; returns to Eng- 
land, 1734, 47; enthusiasticaUy 
welcomed, 47; The Christian 
Hero, 47; estimate of Indian 
character, 48; advocates laws 
for Georgia, 53; his ideas of^ 
slavery, 55 ; returns to Georgia, 
61; issues proclamation to 
maintain peace with Indians, 
66; builds fort at St. Simons, 68; 
returns to Tybee, 69; instructs 
colonists in planting, 70 ; 
troubles with the Indians, 73; 
returns to Frederica, 76; sus- 
pects Spaniards of treachery, 76; 
increasing cares, 79; strength- 
ens his defenses, 80; prepares 
for an attack by Spaniards, 81 ; 
goes to St. Andrews, 82; pre- 
vents attack by Spanish by a 
ruse, 85; letter to Lieutenant- 
Governor of South Carolina and 
to Governor of New York, 88; 
interview with Spanish com- 
missioners, 91; letter to trus- 
tees, 91; goes to Savannah, 93; 
concludes a treaty with Gov- 
ernor of St. Augustine, 94; sails 
for England, November, 1736, 
95 ; cordial reception, 95 ; asks for 
military force, 96; appointed 
general, 98; returns to Georgia, 
99; further plans for defense, 

James Oglethorpe 

100; discovers treachery in 
camp, 102; makes residence at 
Fort St. Andrews, 105 ; attacked 
by mutinous soldiers, 106; 
goes to Charleston, 107; fore- 
sees war between England and 
Spain and with France, 107; 
journey to the interior, 109; 
description of journey. 109; con- 
cludes treaty with Indians, 112; 
gratifying success of his mission, 
113; prostrated with fever at 
Fort Augusta, 114; protects 
South Carolina colonists from 
negroes, 115; announces decla- 
ration of war by England 
against Spain, 115; musters his 
military force, 117; inspects 
southern frontier, 118; fortifies 
Frederica, 121; lacks war sup- 
plies, 121; invades Florida, 121; 
asks for more troops, 122; plans 
to assault St. Augustine, 128; 
abandons the siege, 135; criti- 
cised by Charleston newspapers, 
136; praised by citizens, 137; 
letter to Under-Secretary, 139; 
his home at Frederica, 141; 
letter to Duke of Newcastle, 
May, 1741, 150: delay in getting 
supplies, 153; appeals to Home 
Government, 154; attacks Span- 
ish privateers, 155; influence 
over native tribes, 157; his 
great abilities, 158; letter to 
Duke of Newcastle, June, 1742, 
160; escapes from Spanish fleet, 
165; his successful stratagem, 
172; great victory over Spanish 
fleet, 175; praised by people of 
Port Royal, 176; doubts that 
the war is over, 177; again ap- 
peals to Home Government, 
179; attacks Spaniards at St. 
Johns, 181; meets with a nearly 
fatal accident, 182; returns to 
England, July, 1743, 186; ven- 

omously attacked by Vander- 
dussen, 189; appointed general 
oflScer, 191; his marriage, 191; 
promoted to rank of major- 
general, 192; joins Duke of 
Cumberland's forces, 192; made 
lieutenant-general, 193; remon- 
strates against cruelties on 
prisoners, 193; court-martialed 
and acquitted, 193; his high 
sense of justice, 194; end of 
public career, 1754, 197; letter 
to Oliver Goldsmith, 197; re- 
fuses command of forces to 
subdue colonists, 199 ; expresses 
regard for America, 200; his 
death, 1785, 204; likeness of, 

Oglethorpe, Mrs., wife of James 
Oglethorpe, death of, 205. 

Onechachumpa, Indian warrior, 

manding Highlanders, 132; 
killed at Fort Moosa, 133. 
Parliament, English, 8, 188. 
Pease, Commodore, 134, 135. 
Penn, WUliam, 15, 158. 
Pretender, the, 6, 187, 193. 
Prison reform, 8. 

RAMSEY'S History of South 
Carolina, 135, 137. 
Richards, Major, 75, 80, 85. 
Royal African Company, 54, 
Rutledge, Andrew, Chief Justice 
of South Carolina, 182. 


T. ANDREWS, Fort, 72. 

St. Augustine, consternation at 

Fort, 87, 125; attacked by 

Oglethorpe, 128. 
St. Johns River, 72. 
St. Matthias River, 124. 
St. Simons, 35, 58, 66, 70, 142, 

166; batteries destroyed, 167. 





Salzburg, 37. 

Salzburgers, 38, 39, 41 ; described 
by Carlyle, 42, 43, 44, 58, 196. 

San Diego, attack upon, 127; 
surrender of, 128. 

Savannah, described by Ogle- 
thorpe, 23; population in 1733, 
34; rapid improvement of, 62; 
arrival of troops in, 98. 

Scotch Highlanders, 64, 65, 68; 
buUd fort at Darien, 69. 

Seal of colony of Georgia, 17. 

Selina, Countess Dowager of 
Huntingdon, 149. 

Settlers, laws regarding, 57, 63. 

Silk industry, 18, 56, 59, 62, 63, 

Similli, Creek chief, 184. 

Sir Francis Drake, 71, 73. 

Six Nations, 157. 

Slavery discouraged, 19, 55. 

Sotolycate, Indian deity, 30. 

South Carolina General Assembly, 
107, 114. 

South Carolina Gazette, impres- 
sions of Oglethorpe, 26. 

South Sea Bubble, 2. 

Spain, court of, demands recall of 
Oglethorpe, 96. 

Spalding, Ihomas, 141. 

Spaniards of Florida, 34. 

Spaniards, threatened invasion 
by, 80; attempt to bribe the 
Indians, 109; barbarous con- 
duct of, 120; surrender to 
Oglethorpe, 125; endeavor to 
excite revolt among negroes, 

Spanish privateers, 155, 159. 

Stone, Under-Secretary Andrew, 

Sutton, Lady Eleanor, mother of 
Oglethorpe, 4. 

Sutton of Oglethorpe, grandfather 
to Oglethorpe, 4. 

Sutton, Sir Theophilus, father of 
Oglethorpe, 4. 

rpOMO CHICHI, chief of the 
-*- Yamacraws and faithful 

friend of Oglethorpe, 24, 31, 32; 

goes to England, 46, 56, 65, 66, 

71, 73; his illness, 104, 110; 

death and funeral honors, 117. 
Tooanahowi, successor of Tomo 

Chichi, 127, 168. 
Traitors, punished, 102. 
Treaty with Indians, 32, 
Troubles in Florida, 118. 
Tschatschi, King, 59. 
Tybee Island, 61. 


CHEES, 66. 

United Brethren, 69; history of, 
59, 193. 

ALEXANDER, 131, 136, 
164, 189. 
Vernon, Admiral, 150, 188. 

pressions of Oglethorpe, 
200, 201. 

War with Spain, 153. 

War-dance, 105. 

Washington, George, 141, 202. 

Wesley, Charles, missionary to 
Georgia, his overofficiousness, 
68, 93 ; resigns as secretary and 
returns to England, 94, 95. 

Wesley, John, missionary to 
Georgia, 51. 

Wesley, Rev. Samuel, 50. 

Wesley's journal, 82, 83. 

Westbrook mansion, 6; traditions 
of. 7. 

Whitefield, Rev. George, 98, 142, 
143, 147; letter to Oglethorpe 
148; death of, 149, 175. 

"Young Pretender," 192. 



A series of popular biographies dealing with famous men 
of all times and countries, written in brief form and repre- 
senting the latest knowledge on the subjects, each illus- 
trated with appropriate full-page pictures, the authors being 
chosen for their special knowledge of the subjects. 

Each i2mo, Illustrated, Cloth, $i.oo net. 

Postage, lo cents additional. 

Father Marquette, the Explorer of the Mississippi. 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites, Editor of " The Jesuit 
Relations," etc. 

Daniel Boone. 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites, Editor of " The Jesuit 
Relations," " Father Marquette," etc. 

Horace Greeley. 

By William A. Linn, Author of "The Story of the 

Sir William Johnson. 

By Augustus C. Buell, Author of " Paul Jones, 
Founder of the American Navy." 

Anthony Wayne. 

By John R. Spears. 

Champlain : The Founder of New France. 

By Edwin Asa Dix, M.A., LL.D., Formerly Fellow in 
History in Princeton University ; Author of " Deacon Brad- 
bury," "A Midsummer Drive through the Pyrenees," etc. 


The Beginners of a Nation. 

A History of the Source and Rise of the Earliest English 
Settlements in America, with Special Reference to the Life and 
Character of the People. The first volume in A History of Life 
in the United States. Small 8vo. Gilt top, uncut, with Maps. 
Cloth, $1.50. 

" The delightful style, the clear flow of the narrative, the philosophical tone, and 
the able analysis of men and events will commend Mr. Eggleston's work to earnest 
students. " — Philadelphia Public Ledger. 

"The work is worthy of careful reading, not only because of the author's ability 
as a literary artist, but because of his conspicuous proficiency, in interpreting the 
causes of and changes in American life and character." — Boston Journal. 

" Few works on the period which It covers can compare with this in point of 
mere literary attractiveness, and we fancy that many to whom its scholarly value 
will not appeal will read the volume with interest and delight." — New York Even- 
ing Post. 

"Written with a firm grasp of the theme, inspired by ample knowledge, and 
made attractive by a vigorous and resonant style, the book will receive much atten- 
tion. It is a great theme the author has taken up, and he grasps it with the confi- 
dence of a master." — New York Times. 

The Transit of Civilization, 

From England to America in the Seventeenth Century. Uni- 
form with " The Beginners of a Nation." Small 8vo. Gilt top, 
uncut. Cloth, $1.50. 

" Every subject is treated with tolerance and yet with a comprehensive grasp." — 
Boston Globe. 

" It places the whole history of colonial life in an entirely new and fascinating 
light."— iVi?w York Commercial Advertiser. 

" No such account has ever been given of the colonists, and no such view exists 
of England in the seventeenth c&xiXMxy :' —Brooklyn Eagle. 

"This is beyond question one of the most Important examples of culture history 
ever published in this country. Many of the themes which are treated have never 
been presented before In anything like an adequate miinnQT.''— Philadelphia Press. 



In this series the purpose is to show what have been the great devel- 
oping forces in the making of the United States as we now know them. 
Not only will territorial subjects be dealt with, but political, racial, and 
industrial. It is an important series, and the reception already accorded 
to it gives promise of real distinction for the entire set. 

Each volume i2mo, Illustrated, $1.25 net. 
Postage, 12 cents additional. 


The History of the Louisiana Purchase. 

By James K. Hosmer, Ph.D., LL.D. 

Ohio and her Western Reserve. 

By Alfred Mathews. 

The History of Puerto Rico. 

By R. A. Van Middeldyk. With an Introduction, etc., by 
Prof. Martin G. Brumbaugh. 

Steps in the Expansion of our Territory. 

By Oscar Phelps Austin, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 
Treasury Department. 

Rocky Mountain Exploration. 

By Reuben Gold Thwaites, Superintendent of the State His- 
torical Society of Wisconsin. 


The Conquest of the Southwest. 

By Cyrus Townsend Brady, Author of "Paul Jones," in the 
Great Commanders Series. 
The Purchase of Alaska. 

By Oscar Phelps Austin, Chief of the Bureau of Statistics, 
Treasury Department. 


The Settlement of the Pacific Coast. 

The Founding of Chicago and the Development of the Middle 

John Brown and the Troubles in Kansas. 


Edited by General JAMES GRANT WILSON. 

This series forms one of the most notable collections of books that ha.«? 
been published for many years. The success it has met with since the first 
volume was issued, and the widespread attention it has attracted, indicate 
that it has satisfactorily fulfilled its purpose, viz., to provide in a popular 
form and moderate compass the records of the lives of men who have been 
conspicuously eminent in the gjeat conflicts that established American in- 
dependence and maintained our national integrity and unity. Each biog- 
raphy has been written by an author especially well qualified for the task, 
and the result is not only a series of fascinating stories of the lives and deeds 
of great men, but a rich mine of valuable information for the student of 
American history and biography. 

Each, J2mo, cloth, gilt top, $t*50 net* 

Postage, n cents additional. 


Admiral Fawagot - - - - By Captain A. T. Mahan, U. S. N. 

General Taylor By General O. O. Howard, U. S. A. 

General Jackson - - - - By James Parton. 

General Greene By General Francis V. Greene. 

General J. E. Johnston - - By Robert M. Hughes, of Virginia. 

General Thomas By Henry Coppee, LL. D. 

General Scott By General Marcus J. Wright. 

General Washington - - - By General Bradley T. Johnson. 

General Lee By General Fitzhugh Lee. 

General Hancock By General Francis A. Walker. 

General Sheridan By General Henry E. Davies. 

General Grant By General James Grant Wilson. 

General Sherman By General Manning F. Force. 

Commodore Paul Jones - - - - By Cyrus Townsend Brady. 

General Meade By Isaac R. Pennypacker. 

General McCIellan By General Peter S. Michie. 

General Forrest By Captain J. Harvey Mathes. 

Admiral Porter - By James R. Soley, late Assistant Secretary 
U.S. Navy. 



A History of the United States Navy. (1775 
to 1902.) — New and revised edition. 

In three volumes, the new volume containing an Account of the Navy 
since the Civil War, with a history of the Spanish- American War 
revised to the date of this edition, and an Account of naval operations 
in the Philippines, etc. Technical Revision of the first two volumes 
by Lieutenant Roy C. Smith, U. S. N. Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, 
$3.00 net per volume ; postage, 26 cents per volume additional. 

In the new edition of Vol. Ill, which is now ready for pubh'cation, the author brings 
his History of the Navy down to the present time. In the prefaces of the volumes of 
this history the author has expressed and emphasized his desire for suggestions, new 
information, and corrections which might be utilized in perfecting his work. He has, 
therefore, carefully studied the evidence brought out at the recent Schley Court of 
Inquiry, and while the findings of that Court were for the most part in accordance with 
the results of his own historical investigations, he has modified certain portions of his 
narrative. Whatever opinions may be held regarding any phases of our recent naval 
history, the fact remains that the industry, care, and thoroughness, which were unani- 
mously praised by newspaper reviewers and experts in the case of the first two volumes, 
have been sedulously applied to the preparation of this new edition of the third volume. 

A History of American Privateers. 

Uniform with " A History of the United States Navy." One volume. 
Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $3.00 net ; postage, 24 cents additional. 

After several years of research the distinguished historian of American sea power 
presents the first comprehensive account of one of the most picturesque and absorbing 
phases of our maritime warfare. The importance of the theme is indicated by the fact 
that the value of prizes and cargoes taken by privateers in the Revolution was three 
times that of the prizes and cargoes taken by naval vessels, while in the War of 1812 
we had 517 privateers and only 23 vessels in our navy. Mr. Maclay's romantic tale is 
accompanied by reproductions of contemporary pictures, portraits, and documents, and 
also by illustrations by Mr. George Gibbs. 

The Private Journal of William Maclay, 

United States Senator from Pennsylvania, 1789-1791. With Portrait 
from Original Miniature. Edited by Edgar Stanton Maclay, A. M. 
Large 8vo. Cloth, $2.25. 

During his two years in the Senate William Maclay kept a journal of his own in 
which he minutely recorded the transactions of each day. This record throws a flood 
of light on the doings of our first legislators. 




The Story of the Trapper. 

By A. C. Laut, Author of "Heralds of Empire." Illustrated by 
Heming. i2mo. Cloth, $1.25 net; postage, 12 cents additional. 

"A delightfully spirited hook/'— Brooklyu Eagle. 

"A rarely instructive and entertaining book." — New York World. 

"Unexpectedly good." — Boston Herald. 

" Instructive and carefully prepared." — Chicago News. 

"Excellent reading wherever one dips into it." — Cleveland Leader. 


Illustrated. i2mo. Cloth, each, $1.50. 

The Story of the Soldier. 

By General G. A. Forsyth, U. S. Army (retired). Illustrated by R. F. 

The Story of the Railroad. 

By Cy Warman, Author of "The Express Messenger," etc. With 
Maps and many Illustrations by B. West Clinedinst and from photographs. 

The Story of the Cowboy. 

By E. Hough, Author of " The Singing Mouse Stories," etc. Illustrated 
by WiUiam L. Wells and C. M. Russell. 

"Mr. Hough is to be thanked for having written so excellent a book. The cow- 
boy story, as this author has told it, will be the cowboy's fitting eulogy. This vol- 
ume will be consulted in years to come as an authority on past conditions of the far 
West. For fine literary work the author is to be highly complimented. Here, cer- 
tainly, we have a choice piece of writing." — New York Times, 

The Story of the Mine. 

As illustrated by the Great Comstock Lode of Nevada. By Charles 
Howard Shinn. 

" The author has written a book not alone full of information, but replete with 
the true romance of the American mine." — New York Times. 

The Story of the Indian. 

By George Bird Grinnell, Author of "Pawnee Hero Stories," 
" Blackfoot Lodge Tales," etc. 

" Only an author qualified by personal experience could offer us a profitable study 
of a race so alien from our own as is the Indian in thought, feeling, and culture. 
Only long association with Indians can enable a white man measurably to compre- 
hend their thoughts and enter into their feelings. Such association has been Mr. 
Grinnell's."— iV>w York Sun. 



Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of a Great 

By William H. Herndon and Jesse W. Weik. With 
numerous Illustrations. New and revised edition, with 
an Introduction by Horace White. In two volumes. 
i2mo. Cloth, $3.00. 

This is probably the most intimate life of Lincoln ever written. The 
book, by Lincoln's law-partner, William H, Herndon, and his friend Jesse 
W. Weik, shows us Lincoln the man. It is a true picture of his surround- 
ings and influences and acts. It is not an attempt to construct a political 
history, with Lincoln often in the background, nor is it an effort to apotheo- 
size the American who stands first in our history next to Washington. The 
writers knew Lincoln intimately. Their book is the result of unreserved 
association ; hence, it has taken rank as the best and most illuminating study 
of Lincoln's character and personality. 

"Truly, they who wish to know Lincoln as he really was must read the biog- 
raphy by his friend and law-partner, W. H. Herndon. This book was imperatively 
needed to brush aside the rank growth of myth and legend which was threatening 
to hide the real lineaments of Lincoln from the eyes of posterity. . . . There is no 
doubt about the faithfulness of Mr. Herndon's delineation. The marks of unflinch- 
ing veracity are patent in every line." — New York Sun. 

"The three portraits of Lincoln are the best that exist; and not the least char- 
acteristic of these, the Lincoln of the Douglas debates, has never before been 
engraved. . . . Herndon's narrative gives, as nothing else is likely to give, the 
material from which we may form a true picture of the man from infancy to matu- 
rity." — The Nation. 

"Mr. Herndon is naturally a very direct writer, and he has been industrious in 
gathering material. Whether an incident happened before or behind the scenes, is 
all the same to him. He gives it without artifice or apology. He describes the life 
of his friend Lincoln just as he saw it." — Cincinnati Commercial Gazette. 

"A remarkable piece of literary achievement — remarkable alike for its fidelity 
to facts, its fulness of details, its constructive skill, and its literary charm." — New 
York Times. 

" It will always remain the authentic life of Abraham Lincoln." — Chicago Herald. 

Lincoln in Story. 

The Life of the Martyr President told in Authenticated 
Anecdotes. Edited by Silas G. Pratt. Illustrated. 
i2mo. Cloth, 75 cents net ; postage, 9 cents additional. 

" An excellent compilation on a subject of which the American people never 
grow tired." — Boston Transcript. 

"A valuable and exceedingly interesting addition to Lincoln literature."— 
Brooklyn Standard-Union. 



— The Ne<ws, Providence, 

The Life and Times of Thomas Jefferson. 

By Thomas E. Watson, Author of "The Story of 
France," " Napoleon," etc. Illustrated with many Portraits 
and Views. 8vo. Attractively bound, $2.50 net ; postage, 
17 cents additional. 

Mr. Watson long since acquired a national reputation in connection 
with his political activities in Georgia. He startled the public soon 
afterward by the publication of a history of France, which at once 
attracted attention quite as marked, though different in kind. His book 
became interesting not alone as the production of a Southern man 
interested in politics, but as an entirely original conception of a great 
theme. There was no question that a life of Jefferson from the hands of 
such a writer would command very general attention, and the publishers 
had no sooner announced the work as in preparation than negotiations 
were begun with the author by two of the best-known newspapers in 
America for its publication in serial form. During the past summer the 
appearance of the story in this way has created widespread comment 
which has now been drawn to the book just published. 

Opinions by some of the Leading Papers. 

" A vastly entertaining polemic. It directs attention to many undoubtedly 
neglected facts which writers of the North have ignored or minimized." 

— The New York Times Saturday Review of Books. 

"A noble work. It may well stand on the shelf beside Morley's 
'Gladstone' and other epochal biographical works that have come into 
prominence. It is deeply interesting and thoroughly fair and just." 

— The Globe-Democrat ^ St. Louis. 

'• The book shows great research and is as complete as it could possibly be, 
and every American should read it."— 7^^^ News, Providence. 

"A unique historical work."— T'-^^ Commercial Advertiser, New York. 

" Valuable as an historical document and as a witness to certain great facts 
in the past life of the South which have seldom been acknowledged by 
historians."— r-^^ Post, Louisville. 



Lucretia Borgia : According to Original Documents 
and Correspondence of Her Day. 

By Ferdinand Gregorovius, Author of "A History 
of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages." Translated 
from the Third German Edition by John Leslie Garner. 
Illustrated. 8vo. Cloth, $2.25 net; postage, 17 cents 

Lucretia Borgia is the most unfortunate woman in modern history. 
Is this because she was guilty of the most hideous crimes, or is it simply 
because she has been unjustly condemned by the world to bear its curse ? 
The question has never been answered. Mankind is ever ready to 
discover the personification of human virtues and human vices in certain 
typical characters found in history and fable. The Borgias will never 
cease to fascinate the historian and the psychologist. They are a satire 
on a great form or phase of religion, debasing and destroying it. They 
stand on high pedestals, and from their presence radiates the light of 
the Christian ideal. In this form we behold and recognize them. We 
view their acts through a medium which is permeated with religious 
ideas. Without this, and placed on a purely secular stage, the Borgias 
would have fallen into a position much less conspicuous than that of 
many other men, and would soon have ceased to be anything more than 
representatives of a large species. This is the first translation from the 
German of this important work of Gregor ovius, in which a vast supply of 
information is furnished about the family of this famous and interesting 
woman and about herself. The book is illustrated with portraits and 
views, and offers valuable knowledge upon the times and character of a 
woman about whose nature a conflict of opinions has raged for centuries. 
About her beauty and talents there are no two voices ; on the question 
of her vices the world has become divided. A patron of art and letters, 
as to her private life the most hideous stories gained circulation, making 
her name the most notorious of her renowned house, not excepting that 
of her brother, the infamous Cesare Borgia. 

In this translation English readers are offered the best known account 
of this celebrated woman, written by the author of that monumental 
and illuminating work, " The History of Rome in the Middle Ages." 

" The story is far more exciting than most romances, and treats of Italian 
history and life about which comparatively little that is authoritative can be 
found in English." — The Sun, New York. 




Travels and Investigations in the ** Middle Kingdom " — A Study 
of its Civilization and Possibilities. Together with an Account 
of the Boxer War, the Relief of the Legations, and the Re-estab- 
lishment of Peace. By James Harrison Wilson, A. M., LL. D., 
late Major-General United States Volunteers, and Brevet Major- 
General United States Army. Third edition, revised throughout, 
enlarged, and reset. 1 2mo. Cloth, ^1.75. 

General Wilson's second visit to China and his recent active 
service in that country have afforded exceptional chances for a 
knowledge of present conditions and the possibilities of the future. 
In the light of the information thus obtained at first hand in the 
country itself. General Wilson is enabled to write with a peculiar 
authoritativeness in this edition, which brings his study of China 
down to the present day. In addition to the new chapters which 
have been added explaining the origin and development of the 
Boxer insurrection, the relief of the legations, and the outlook for 
the future, the author has revised his book throughout, and has 
added much valuable matter in the course of his narrative. This 
book, which is therefore in many respects new, puts the reader 
in possession of a broad and comprehensive knowledge of Chinese 
affairs, and this includes the latest phases of the subject. The 
practical and discriminating character of the author's study of 
China will be appreciated more than ever at this time when prac- 
tical questions relating to Chinese administration, commerce, and 
other matters of the first importance, are engaging so much 
attention. This new edition is indispensable for any one who 
wishes a compact, authoritative presentation of the China of